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1 I B R.AFLY 

OF THE 

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no. 3-4 



BIOLOGY 



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FIELDIANA: BOTANY 

A Continuation of the 
BOTANICAL SERIES 

of 
FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY 



VOLUME 28 
NUMBERS 3 AND 4 




CHICAGO NATURAL HISTORY MUSEUM 

CHICAGO, U.S.A. 

1953-1957 



CONTENTS 

BOTANICAL EXPLORATION IN VENEZUELA III, IV 
By Julian A. Steyermark and Collaborators. 

PAGES 

Number 3. From Ericaceae through Compositae 449-678 

Number 4. From Algae through Spermatophyta: Families Listed in 

Systematic Order 679-1190 



in 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS 

TEXT FIGURES 
NUMBER 3 

PAGE 

95. Ardisia meridensis 455 

96. Conomorpha densipapillata 458 

97. Conomorpha frigidicola 460 

98. Conomorpha hieronymoides 461 

99. Conomorpha jajiensis 463 

100. Conomorpha larensis 464 

101. Conomorpha liriensis 467 

102. Conomorpha ptariensis 469 

103. Conomorpha roraimae 470 

104. Conomorpha sessilanthera 472 

105. Conomorpha sulcata 473 

106. Conomorpha tamana 474 

107. Grammadenia ptariensis 475 

108. Rapanea minima 478 

109. Stylogyne turumiquirensis 480 

110. Styrax duidae 493 

111. Utricularia aureomaculala 537 

112. Utricularia congesta 541 

113. Utricularia cuspidata 543 

114. Utricularia heterochroma 545 

115. Utricularia Oliverana 547 

116. Utricularia subpeltata 549 

117. Utricularia tepuiana 551 

118. Alseis microcarpa 565 

119. Alseis trichocarpa 567 

120. Borreria macrocephala 569 

121. Chimarrhis venezuelensis 573 

122. Chiococca lucens 575 

123. Elaeagia laxiflora 577 

124. Faramea Cardonae 579 

125. Gueltarda Steyermarkii 580 

126. Guettarda Steyermarkii f. latior 581 



PAGE 

127. Malanea microphylla 583 

128. Pagamea anisophylla 585 

129. Pagamea auyantepuiensis 58? 

130. Pagamea Standleyana 59 

131. Pagamea Steyermarkii 592 

132. Psychotria arenaria 595 

133. Psychotria Blakei 597 

134. Remijia stenosepala 

135. Remijia Steyermarkii 613 

136. Anguria simplicifolia 621 

137. Baccharis ptariensis 625 

138. Hymenostephium viride 643 

139. Jungia reliculata 645 

140. Lurilia venezuelensis 646, 647 

141. Oyedaea Blakeana 665 

142. Pectis venezuelensis 667 

143. Polymnia meridensis 669 

144. Quelchia Cardonae 671 



NUMBER 4 

1. Podocarpus Harmsianus 762 

2. Podocarpus Pittieri, P. Steyermarkii 764 

3. Podocarpus magnifolius 766 

4. Podocarpus pendulifolius 767 

5. Podocarpus oleifolius var. trujillensis 768 

6. Podocarpus oleifolius var. macrostachyus 770 

7. Podocarpus tepuiensis 7 ' ^ 



VI 



CONTRIBUTIONS TO 

THE FLORA OF VENEZUELA 



\ v 



JULIAN A. STEYERMARK 
AND COLLABORATORS 



From Ericaceae through Compositae 



FIELDIANA: BOTANY 
VOLUME 28, NUMBER 3 

Published by 

CHICAGO NATURAL HISTORY MUSEUM 
DECEMBER 16, 1958 



CONTRIBUTIONS TO 

THE FLORA OF VENEZUELA 



JULIAN A. STEYERMARK 

AND COLLABORATORS 



From Ericaceae through Compositae 



t7 -' .;.;'" - 



FIELDIANA: BOTANY 
VOLUME 28, NUMBER 3 

Published by 

CHICAGO NATURAL HISTORY MUSEUM 
DECEMBER 16, 1953 



PRINTED IN THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA 
BY CHICAGO NATURAL HISTORY MUSEUM PRESS 



u 

8 



BOTANICAL EXPLORATION IN VENEZUELA -III 



ERICACEAE 26 

Befaria Steyermarkii A. C. Smith, sp. nov. 

Frutex ad 2 m. altus, ramis teretibus validis cinereis glabris, 
ramulis gracilibus apicera versus pilis cinereis vel pallide castaneis 
eglandulosis 1-2 mm. longis debiliter hispidis demum glabrescenti- 
bus; foliis valde congestis ubique glabris, petiolis 1-2 mm. longis, 
laminis in sicco coriaceis supra olivaceo-viridibus subtus pallidiori- 
bus, lanceolatis vel lanceolato-linearibus, (10 -) 15-20 mm. longis, 
(2 -) 3-6 (- 7) mm. latis, basi angustatis, apice calloso-apiculatis, 
margine valde revolutis, costa supra paullo impressa subtus elevata, 
nervis lateralibus immersis; inflorescentia terminali vel subterminali 
congesta breviter racemosa 5-20-flora, bracteis foliaceis ad 6 mm. 
longis; pedicellis sub anthesi 10-16 mm. longis gracilibus rectis, ut 
ramulis novellis copiose hispidis, inferne bibracteolatis, bracteolis 
linearibus circiter 3 rnm. longis caducis; floribus (calycis basi inter- 
dura hispida et filamentis inferne obscure puberulis exceptis) ubique 
glabris; calyce circiter 4 mm. longo profunde 7-lobato, lobis ovatis 
circiter 3 mm. latis valde imbricatis obtusis; petalis 6 vel 7 anguste 
obovatis sub anthesi 15-20 mm. longis et 6-8 mm. latis, basi gradatim 
angustatis, apice rotundatis; staminibus maturitate corollam sub- 
aequantibus, filamentis gracilibus, antheris oblongis circiter 1.5 mm. 
longis; ovario depresso-globoso, stylo quam corolla ut videtur paullo 
longiore, stigmate capitate; capsula 6-7 ram. lata. 

Type in herb. Chi. Nat. Hist. Mus., isotype in Arn. Arb., collected 
in valley between base of Cerro de Diablo (western extension of 
southern peak of Cerro Turumiquire) and Cerro de Neverf, along head- 
waters of Rib de Amana, state of Sucre, alt. 2000 m., May 11, 1945, 
Julian A. Steyermark 62711, "shrub 3-5 feet tall; leaves coriaceous, 
subrevolute, deep green above, silvery beneath; calyx dull lavender 
with green; petals deep rose; style rose; filaments orchid-rose." 

Other collections from Sucre are: Cerro Turumiquire, rocky sand- 
stone summit of eastern peak, alt. 2500 m., Steyermark 62614 (A,Ch), 
"shrub 1-4 feet tall, with sometimes prostrate or spreading branches; 
leaves subcoriaceous, deep green above, dull silvery green beneath; 
calyx dull purple-red; petals deep rose-orchid to pink-rose, some- 
times with white at base;" Cerro Turumiquire, sub-paramo, alt. 
about 2950 m., Tate 199 (US), 200 (US), 201 (US). 

The new species is characterized by its compact small-leaved 
ericoid habit and the eglandular hispid pubescence of its young 
branchlets and pedicels. It may be compared with B. Imthurnii N.E. 
Br., but its pedicellary hairs are weaker and less copious, while its 
leaf-blades are narrower and lack the marginal setae characteristic 



26 By A. C. Smith 



449 



450 FIELDIANA: BOTANY, VOLUME 28 

of that species. A possibly closer ally is B. tachirensis, also 
described as new in this report, from which B. Steyermarkii differs in 
its longer and proportionately narrower leaf-blades, more copious 
inflorescence-pubescence, and larger flowers. Although floral and 
foliar dimensions are not very reliable characters in Befaria, the 
specimens described above can hardly be considered conspecific 
with those from the Paramo de Tama described as B. tachirensis. 
Befaria tachirensis A. C. Smith, sp. nov. 

Frutex compactus haud 1 m. alms, ramis ramulisque teretibus 
gracilibus, juventute pilis castaneis 0.3-1 mm. longis eglandulosis 
hispidis praeditis, mox glabrescentibus, novellis interdum evanide 
tomentellis; foliis apicem ramulorum versus confertis ubique glabris, 
breviter (1.5-3 mm. longe) petiolatis, laminis in sicco coriaceis supra 
fusco-viridibus subtus pallidioribus, lanceolatis, (7 -) 10-15 mm. 
longis, 3-6 mm. latis, basi in petiolum angustatis, apice breviter 
calloso-apiculatis, margine anguste revolutis vel valde recurvatis, 
nervo medio supra impresso subtus valde elevate, nervis lateralibus 
omnino immersis obscurisque; inflorescentia terminali valde congesta 
5-15-flora, floribus inferioribus in axillis foliorum dispositis; pedi- 
cellis sub anthesi 5-8 mm. longis curvatis ut ramulis novellis vel 
sparsius hispidis saepe subglabris, medium versus bracteolas 2 
lineares circiter 2 mm. Ion gas mox deciduas gerentibus; floribus 
praeter filamentas glabris; calyce profunde 7-fido circiter 3 mm. 
longo, lobis deltoideo-ovatis circiter 2 mm. latis apice obtusis; 
petalis plerumque 6 oblongo-obovatis sub anthesi 9-10 mm. longis et 
4-5 rom. latis, basi valde contractis, apice rotundatis; staminibus 
quam corolla ut videtur brevioribus, filamentis validis inferne densis- 
sime albido-sericeis superne glabris, antheris oblongis circiter 1.2 
mm. longis; ovario in centre depresso, stylo tereti circiter 6 mm. 
longo apice incrassato; capsula depresso-globosa circiter 6 mm. lata 
plerumque 6-valvata. 

Type in herb. Chi. Nat. Hist. Mus., isotype in Arn. Arb., collected 
on limestone outcrops of Paramo de Tama, near Colombian-Vene- 
zuelan boundary, state of Tachira, alt. 3045-3475 m., July 15, 1944, 
Julian A. Steyermark 57412, "shrub 1-2.5 feet tall, leaves rich green 
above, white-silvery beneath with green midrib; petals deep rose- 
pink within, deeper rose without." 

Another collection, also from the Paramo de Taraa, at 3100-3300 
m. alt., is F. Cardona 317 (U.S. Nat. Herb.), July 1939. 

Befaria tachirensis is characterized by its compact habit, its very 
small, glabrous leaves, its congested inflorescences, the sparse 
setose eglandular hairs of its branchlets and pedicels, and its very 
small flowers, with petals at full anthesis only about 1 cm. long. 
Although its relationship appears to be with the widespread and 
variable B. glauca Humb. & Bonpl., that species can hardly be in- 
terpreted to include a form with such compact habit and small leaves 
and flowers. 

Gaultheria lepida A. C. Smith, sp. nov. 

Frutex, ramulis gracilibus prime pilis glandulosis circiter 1 



BOTANICAL EXPLORATION IN VENEZUELA - III 451 

mm. longis copiose hispidulis mox glabrescentibus; petiolis rugu- 
losis 3-4 mm. longis mox glabris; laminis subcoriaceis in sicco 
viridi-olivaceis ovato-oblongis, (2 -) 3-4.5 cm. longis, (1.5-) 2-3 cm. 
latis, basi rotundatis vel leviter cordatis, apice obtuse calloso- 
apiculatis, margine inconspicue calloso-serrulatis (dentibus 7-10 per 
centimetrum), supra glabris, subtus copiose glanduloso-punctatis ac 
etiam interdum rubro-hispidulis (pilis mox caducis), costa supra 
leviter impressa subtus elevata, nervis secundariis utroque 2-4 
adscendentibus curvatis inconspicuis cum rete venularum intricate 
supra subplanis subtus prominulis; inflorescentiis apices ramulorum 
versus axillaribus racemosis 8-12-floris, rhachi gracili 3-4.5 cm. 
longa pilis gracilibus glanduliferis circiter 1 mm. longis copiose 
hispidula ac etiam obscure albido-puberula; bracteis floriferis pa- 
pyraceis anguste obovato-ellipticis, 8-12 mm. longis, 2-4 mm. latis, 
acutis, praeter marginem glanduloso-ciliolatum glabris; pedicellis 
gracilibus ut rhachi pilosis sub anthesi 6-8 mm. longis paullo infra 
medium bibracteolatis, bracteolis lanceolatis 4-5 mm. longis textura 
bracteis similibus; calyce profunde 5-lobato, lobis lanceolatis, 
5.5-6.5 mm. longis, 1.5*2 mm. latis, apice longe acuminatis, praeter 
marginem pilis rigidis obscure glandulosis circiter 0.5 ram. longis 
ciliatum glabris vel dorso obscure hispidulis; corolla cylindrico- 
urceolata sub anthesi circiter 7 mm. longa et 3 mm. diametro pilis 
glanduliferis 0.5-0.8 mm. longis extus copiose hispidula, lobis 5 
deltoideis acutis circiter 1 mm. longis; staminibus 3.5-4 mm. longis, 
filamentis gracilibus obscure puberulis 2.5-3 mm. longis, antheris 
aristis brevibus inclusis 1-1.2 mm. longis; ovario obscure puberulo, 
stylo circiter 3 ram. longo. 

Type in herb. Chi. Nat. Hist. Mus., isotype in Arn Arb., collected 
on Sororopan-tepui', on rocky hematite exposures on open slopes on 
summit at west end, state of Bolivar, alt. 2225-2255 ra., November 
13, 1944, Julian A. Steyermark 60051, "shrub 3 feet tall; leaves 
chartaceous-subcoriaceous, rich green above, pale green beneath; 
pedicels and calyx lavender; corolla deep rose-lavender." 

The new species is of the general relationship of G. odorata Willd., 
differing from the typical form of that species in its smaller and less 
apparently cordate leaf-blades, glabrous inflorescence-bracts, es- 
sentially glabrous calyx with conspicuously elongate and narrow 
lobes, and densely glandular-hispidulous corolla. While the species 
of this alliance are difficult to analyze without extensive study, I 
believe that the combination of characters mentioned above and 
especially the glabrous elongate calyx-lobes exclude G. lepida from 
a reasonable concept of G. odorata. 

Ledothamnus Steyermarkii A. C. Smith, sp. nov. 

Frutex nanus ut videtur ad 50 cm. altus; ramulis teretibus juven- 
tute copiose albido-puberulis et dense foliatis, demum glabrescenti- 
bus cinereis defoliatis, internodiis circiter 1.5 mm. longis; foliis 
ubique copiose puberulis demum subglabrescentibus, petiolis com- 
planatis circiter 1 mm. longis, laminis crassis elliptico-oblongis, 
5-6 mm. longis, 1.5-2.5 ram. latis, basi in petiolum decurrentibus, 
apice obtusis, margine non setosis, subtus sulcatis; floribus termi- 



452 FIELDIANA: BOTANY, VOLUME 28 

nalibus solitariis vel binis; pedicellis gracilibus (4 -) 9-16 mm. 
longis, dense albido-puberulis ac etiam pilis rigidis conicis 0.3-0.5 
mm. longis brevissime plumosis setosis; sepalis 6 lanceolatis, 7-8 
mm. longis, circiter 1.5 mm. latis, apice breviter aristatis, margine 
pilis plumosis inconspicuis eis pedicellorum similibus ornatis, 
utrinque arete puberulis; petalis 6 obovatis, sub anthesi ad 13 x 8 
mm. apice rotundatis et eroso-crenulatis; staminibus 12 ubique 
glabris quam sepalis paullo brevioribus, filamentis ligulatis pallidis 
superne angustatis, antheris anguste oblongis circiter 3 mm. longis; 
ovario ruguloso valde sulcato, stylo crasso circiter 2 mm. longo 
apice incrassato; capsula ellipsoidea verrucosa 6-7 mm. longa 
plerumque 5-valvata. 

Type in herb. Chi. Nat. Hist. Mus., isotype in Arn. Arb., collected 
on forested south-facing slopes overlying sandstone, on "Cave 
Rock" above "Cave Camp," Ptari-tepui, state of Bolivar, alt. 1810 
m., October 29, 1944, Julian A. Steyermark 59484, "suffruticose; 
leaves coriaceous, dull green above, gray-silvery beneath; flowers 
nodding." 

From L. guyanensis Meissn. and L. Tatei A. C. Sm., its only close 
allies, the new species is most readily distinguished by the type of 
setae of its pedicels and sepals. Ledothamnus guyanensis has these 
setae obviously glandular-tipped, whereas in L. Tatei they are long, 
slender, and simple. The pedicellary and calycine setae of L. 
Steyermarkii are short, stout, stiff, and themselves bear short white 
lateral hairs. The leaf-margins of the new species are free of setae, 
while both its relatives have foliar setae of the respective types 
mentioned above. 

Orthaea crinita A. C. Smith, sp. nov. 

Frutex epiphyticus, ramulis subrectis juventute pilis purpureis ad 
1.5 mm. longis obscure glandulosis densissime indutis demum gla- 
brescentibus; petiolis validis rugulosis 3-6 mm. longis mox glabris; 
laminis coriaceis siccitate viridi-olivaceis ellipticis, (3 -) 4-6 cm. 
longis, 2-4 cm. latis, basi obtusis, apice obtusis vel obtuse et 
breviter cuspidatis, margine paullo incrassatis et recurvatis, ut 
ramulis utrinque primo glanduloso-hispidulis mox glabrescentibus, 
pinnatinerviis, costa supra impressa subtus elevata, nervis laterali- 
bus utroque 4-6 erecto-patentibus utrinque leviter elevatis vel sub- 
planis, rete venularum subimmerso; inflorescentia axillari fasciculata 
2-6-flora bracteis numerosis imbricatis papyraceis ovato-oblongis 
1-3 mm. longis apice rotundatis margine fimbriatis circumdata; 
pedicellis rectis striatis sub anthesi 14-17 mm. longis, pilis pallidis 
glandulosis 0.5-1.2 mm. longis copiose hispidis, medium versus vel 
distaliter bracteolis bracteis similibus sed dorso glanduloso- 
hispidulis bibracteolatis; calyce cupuliformi sub anthesi 5-6 mm. 
longo et apice 4-5 mm. diametro pilis 0.7-1.5 mm. longis copiose 
glanduloso-hispidulo, tubo basi truncate, limbo erecto circiter 3 mm. 
longo intus glabro obscure 5-dentato, dentibus minute apiculatis, 
sinibus complanatis; corolla tenuiter carnosa subcylindrica sub 
anthesi 15-18 mm. longa et medium versus 4-6 mm. diametro, utrinque 
leviter angustata, ut calyce hispidula, pilis purpureis, lobis oblongis 



BOTANICAL EXPLORATION IN VENEZUELA -III 453 

obtusis 1-1.5 mm. longis; starainibus 10 alternating circiter 6 ram. et 
8 mm. longis, filaraentis liberis ligulatis superne margine hispidulis 
alternatim circiter 3 mm. et 5 mm. longis, antheris subaequalibus 
4-4.5 mm. longis, tubulis thecas subaequantibus per poros conspicu- 
os ovales introrsos 1-2 mm. longos dehiscentibus; disco annulari- 
pulvinato glabro; stylo filiformi sub anthesi leviter exserto, stigmate 
obscure capitato. 

Type in herb. Chi. Nat. Hist. Mus., isotype in Arn. Arb., collected 
on southeast-facing slopes, Ptari-tepui, state of Bolivar, alt. 1585- 
1600 m., November 10-11, 1944, Julian A. Steyermark 59990, "epi- 
phytic vining shrubby plant on small tree; leaves coriaceous, dark 
green above, dull green beneath; pedicel and calyx pale green; 
corolla scarlet." 

Local name: "mari-mari-yek." 

Another specimen, also from Bolivar, is: Gran Sabana, between 
Mission of Santa Teresita de Kavanayen northwest to Rio Karuai, on 
large mesa, alt. 1220 m., Steyermark 59373 (A, Ch), "on margin of 
steep woods bordering savanna, shrubby epiphyte; leaves coriaceous, 
deep green above, pale dull green beneath; calyx dull green; corolla 
blood-red." 

This new and extraordinarily distinct species at first glance 
suggests Thibaudia and especially T. glandulifera A. C. Sm., of 
Mt. Duida, a species with leaves, of the same shape and texture and 
with the same type of pedicellary and calycine pubescence. However, 
T. glandulifera has glabrous corollas, and other characters indicate 
that the two species are only superficially similar. The staminal 
characters of the new species indicate that it is better referred to 
Orthaea, although in that genus.it is quite isolated; its anther- 
tubules open by pores which are unusually long for Orthaea. From 
O. hispida A. C. Sm., of British Guiana, probably its closest ally, 
the new species differs in its leaf-shape, more densely aggregated 
flowers, longer pedicels, shorter but glandular calyx-pubescence, 
and hispidulous corollas. The hairs of the inflorescence of O. crinita 
are of a remarkable type, being multicellular with the cells in several 
rows proximally, thin-walled, very stout at base, tapering distally, 
and minutely gland-tipped at apex. Hairs of this sort are otherwise 
known to me, in Orthaea, only in a species from the Western Cordi- 
llera of Colombia, which in other characters is entirely distinct 
from O. crinita. 

Vaccinium euryanthum A. C. Smith, sp. nov. 

Frutex ad 1 m. altus, ramis dependentibus teretibus ramulisque 
gracilibus glabris fusco-cinereis; foliis glabris, petiolis validis 2-4 
mm. longis, laminis coriaceis suborbiculari-ellipticis, (2.5 ) 3-5.5 
cm. longis, (1.5 -) 2-4.2 cm. latis, basi et apice rotundatis vel late 
obtusis et basi in petiolum subito decurrentibus, margine integris, 
costa supra subplana vel leviter impressa subtus elevata, nervis 
lateralibus 5-7 patentibus supra immersis subtus et rete venularum 
haud distinctis; inflorescentiis e gemmis efoliatis enascentibus vel 
interdum supra-axillaribus, subfasciculatis vel brevissime racemosis, 



454 FIELDIANA: BOTANY, VOLUME 28 

ubique praeter filamentas glabris, rhachi ad 4 mm. longis; floribus 
2-8 per inflorescentiam, in axillis bractearum deltoidearum circiter 
1 mm. longarum dispositis; pedicellis gracilibus 8-12 mm. longis, 
apice vel fere ad apicem bracteolas 2 bracteis similes gerentibus; 
calycis tubo cupuliformi sub anthesi circiter 2 mm. longo et lato, 
limbo brevi suberecto ad 1 mm. longo, lobis 5 late deltoideis apicu- 
latis; corolla subcarnosa late campanulata sub anthesi 9-10 mm. 
longa et apice 7-8 mm. diametro, lobis 5 triangulari-ovatis acutis 
circiter 3 x 3.5 mm.; staminibus 10 quam corolla multo brevioribus, 
filamentis ligulatis 3-3.5 nun. longis superne sparse puberulis, 
antheris erectis 3-3-5 mm. longis, thecis granulatis basi in appen- 
diculam ad 0.5 mm. longam obvie angustatis, tubulis latis quam 
thecis paullo brevioribus per poros subterminales dehiscentibus; 
disco pulvinato glabro; stylo tereti corollam subaequante. 

Type in herb. Chi. Nat. Hist. Mus., isotype in Arn. Arb., collected 
on forested south-facing slopes overlying sandstone, on "Cave 
Rock" above "Cave Camp," Ptari-tepui, state of Bolivar, alt. 1810 
m., October 29, 1944, Julian A. Steyermark 59486, "shrubby, with 
sprawling hanging branches, 2-3 feet tall; leaves coriaceous, deep 
green above, pale green beneath; pedicels silvery-blue-gray-green; 
corolla open-campanulate, pale brick-salmon, nodding." 

This very distinct species of Vaccinium appears to have no close 
allies in the region of the table-mountains of southern Venezuela; 
its resemblance to V. tepuiense Camp & A. C. Sm. in foliage is only 
superficial. The new species suggests the section for which Sleumer 
(in Notizbl. Bot. Gart. Berlin 13: 114. 1936, in Bot. Jahrb. 71: 417. 
1941) proposes the name Brachyceratium. The two species which 
make up this section, V. sphyrospermoides Sleumer and V. dependens 
(Don) Sleumer, both of Peru, have corollas and stamens fundamentally 
like those of V . euryanthum, but their foliar and floral dimensions are 
much smaller and differences of detail are numerous. A superficial 
floral resemblance between V. euryanthum and the Central American 
V. poasanum Donn. Sm. is apparent, but that species has elongate 
anther-tubules and very different leaves. The apical pedicellary 
bracteoles of the new species are also noteworthy. 

MYRSINACEAE 
Ardisia meridensis Steyermark, sp. nov. 

Frutex 3-3-5-metralis; ramulis novellis dense adpresseque 
ferrugineo-tomentulosis; petiolis 7-8 mm. longis glabris; laminis 
subcoriaceis supra nitidis subtus pallido-viridibus ovato-elllpticis 
vel ovatis apice obtuse acutis basi acutis 5.5-15 cm. longis 2.2-7 
cm. latis, marginibus integerrimis utrinque glabris prominulo- 
reticulatis obscure punctulatis, nervis lateralibus utroque 10-16 
tenuibus anastomosantibus; inflorescentiis bipinnatim paniculatis 
terminalibus vel axillaribus sub anthesi 2 cm. longis sub fructu ad 
5 cm. longis 14-38-floris, rhachi ferrugineo-lepidotis; pedicellis sub 
anthesi 2.8-3.5 mm. longis parce lepidotis fructiferis auctis ad 7 mm. 
longis; calycis tubo 1.2 mm. longo, lobis sub anthesi late oblongis 
apice late rotundatis 1.6-1.7 mm. longis 0.7-1.2 mm. latis, marginibus 



BOTANICAL EXPLORATION IN VENEZUELA -III 455 




FIGURE 95 

A rdis ia meride ns is 

A, Anther (X 25); B, Calyx lobe (X 6); C, Portion of calyx (X 16); 
portion of corolla with stamens (X 16); D, Summit of corolla lobe 
(highly magnified); E, Pistil (X 13). 



456 FIELDIANA: BOTANY, VOLUME 28 

glandulari-ciliolatis, extus lepidoto-puberulis, punctato-maculatis; 
corollae tubo 1.5 mm. longo, lobis albidis patentibus late oblongis 
apice rotundatis 1.5 mm. longis 0.9-1 mm. latis, marginibus 
glandulari-ciliolatis, extus minute lepidoto-puberulentibus, punctato- 
maculatis; staminibus petala bene superantibus; filamentis basin 
versus in tubum coalitis 2.5-2.8 mm. longis; antheris late triangulari- 
oblongis vel deltoideis subapiculatis 0.8-0.9 mm. longis; ovario 2 mm. 
longo paullo nigro-punctato 4-ovulato; stylo 2 mm. longo (Fig. 95). 

Type in herb. Chi. Nat. Hist. Mus., collected between Mucuchachf 
and Canagua, state of Merida, alt. 1065-1820 ra., May 6, 1944, Julian 
A. Steyermark 56325, "shrub 10-15 feet tall; leaves subcoriaceous, 
deep green and shining above, dull paler green below; pedicel pale 
greenish white; calyx pale greenish with brick-salmon on lobes; 
petals whitish, spreading; filaments whitish; anthers golden." 

With its exserted stamens this species is placed in subgenus 
Walleniopsis Mez, and is related to the Venezuelan A. Robins onii 
Mez, from which it differs in the corolla lobes which are broadly 
rounded instead of acute in anthesis, and conspicuously black- 
punctate, and in the larger leaves. In the details of calyx and corolla 
lobes and black-punctate corolla lobes it resembles more closely 
A. breviflora A. DC. of Peru, but that has narrower and smaller, more 
acutely pointed leaves, more curreately narrowed at the base, and at 
least the calyx is punctate with smaller and more numerous 
punctations. 

Conomorpha apiculata Steyermark, sp. nov. 

Arbor parva vel frutex 7-metralis; ramulis novellis ferrugineo- 
lepidotis; petiolis 10-20 mm. longis supra canaliculatis ferrugineo- 
lepidotis; laminis firme membranaceis subtus pallido-viridibus 
oblanceolatis vel elliptico-oblanceolatis apice subito longe 
acuminatis, acumine acuta 1.2-2 cm. longa, basi acuminatis in 
petiolum anguste decurrentibus, 10-20 cm. longis 3-5.5 cm. latis, 
supra glabris subtus parce ferrugineo-lepidotis, marginibus inte- 
gerrimis, costa media subtus prominente, nervis secundariis utroque 
12-15 bene distantibus ante marginem 5-7 mm. anastomosantibus 
prominentibus; inflorescentiis racemosis axillaribus 2-5.5 cm. longis 
5-7-floris; rhachi ferrugineo-lepidotis; bracteis subulatis 1 mm. 
longis extus lepidotis; pedicellis 1-1.5 mm. longis glabris; floribus 
plerumque 4-meris; calyce cupuliformi, lobis 4-5 late ovatis vel 
suborbiculari-ovatis rotundatis vel subacutis 0.8-0.9 mm. longis 0.7-1 
mm. latis, marginibus glandulari-ciliatis, valde nigro-punctatis; 
ovario mature pyriformi lepidoto; fructu suborbiculari-ovoideo subito 
apiculato 5.5-6.5 mm. longo, 5 mm. diametro, apicula conica 1.5 
mm. longa. 

Type in herb. Chi. Nat. Hist. Mus., collected on Cerro Duida, 
southeastern-facing slopes along Cano Negro (tributary of Canb 
Iguapo), Territorio Federal Amazonas, alt. 305-1095 m., August 
25-26, 1944, Julian A. Steyermark 57986, "shrub 20 feet tall; leaves 
firmly membranaceous, deep rich green above, paler green below; 
fruiting calyx buff with salmon on lobes." 



BOTANICAL EXPLORATION IN VENEZUELA -III 457 

Cotype in herb. N.Y. Bot. Card., small tree at Aguita, slopes of 
Mount Duida, alt. 1000 m., August, 1928 to April, 1929, G.H.H. Tate 
901. 

This species is unusual in having the fruit conspicuously apicu- 
late instead of broadly rounded above. This condition prevails from 
an early stage of maturity of the ovary until the mature stage of the 
fruit. The long acuminate membranaceous leaves with rather distant- 
ly separated lateral nerves are also characteristic. 

Conomorpha densipapillata Steyermark, sp. nov. 

Frutex 3.3-6.8-metralis; ramulis gracilibus vetustioribus cinereis 
junioribus brunneis vetustioribus subteretibus junioribus angulatis 
glabris; petiolis supra canaliculatis superne anguste alatis 4-8 mm. 
longis glabris; laminis subcoriaceis subtus pallido-viridibus oblance- 
olatis utrinque angustatis apice acuminatis in petiolum decurrentibus 
2.5-6 cm. longis 0.8-2 cm. latis, marginibus integerrimis vel remote 
et irregulariter dentatis, utrinque glabris, utrinque punctulis obtectis, 
nervis lateral! bus principalibus utroque 8-13 adscendentibus ante 
marginem 0.5-1.5 mm. anastomosantibus praesertim subtus nervis 
tertiariis venulisque bene reticulatis; inflorescentiis racemosis 
axillaribus cum foliis apices ramulorum versus congestis 15-33 mm. 
longis 10-16-floris, rhachi glabra vel parce glandulosa angulata; 
bracteis lanceolatis acutis 1.5-2 mm. longis glandulari-ciliolatis; 
pedicellis 2-3 mm. longis glabris vel parce glandulosis; floribus 
5-meris; calycis tubo 0.5 mm. longo, lobis 5 ovatis acutiusculis 
1.25-1.5 mm. longis 1 mm. latis, marginibus integris glanduloso- 
ciliatis, intus glabris punctatis; corollae tubo 0.6-0.8 mm. longo, 
lobis 5 luteo-albidis elliptico-oblongis obtusis vel rotundatis 2.75 
mm. longis 1.5 mm. latis intus dense papilloso-puberulentibus extus 
glabris marginibus glanduloso-papillatis, multipunctatis; staminibus 
5 basi corollae loborum insertis; filamentis complanatis 0.3 mm. 
longis; antheris oblongo-deltoideis 0.9 mm. longis apice obtusis 
paullo recurvatis; pistillo 1.75 mm. longo; ovario pallido-lepidoto 
sub anthesi 1 mm. longo; fructu demum vinaceo-purpureo subgloboso 
nitido 5 mm. diam. (Fig. 96). 

Type in herb. Chi. Nat. Hist. Mus., collected on Paramo de Los 
Colorados, between El Molino and San Isidro Alto, state of Merida, 
alt. 2745-2955 m., May 14, 1944, Julian A. Steyermark 56539, "shrub 
10-20 feet tall; flowers fragrant; calyx pale green; petals buff-whitish; 
filaments buff-salmon; pedicels brick; fruit round, at first wine red, 
turning wine-purple and shining; leaves subcoriaceous, dull green 
above, pale green below." 

Among many other species of the genus, this is at once recognized 
by the narrowly oblanceolate acuminate leaf blades, comparatively 
large flowers in densely flowered racemes, and the conspicuously 
papillose-puberulent inner surface of the corolla lobes. 

It is related to C. laurifolia Mez of Venezuela, in which the petals 
are lepidote or papillose within, but among other differences has 
much narrower leaves than that species. 



458 



FIELDIANA: BOTANY, VOLUME 28 





B 





D 



FIGURE 96 

Conomorpha densipapillata 

A, Corolla, opened, from within (X 11); B, Stamen (X 34); C, Calyx 
(X 17); D, Pistil (X 17). 



Conomorpha depressa Steyermark, sp. nov. 

Frutex humilis 1-2-metralis; caulibus simplicibus vel parce ramosis 
crassiusculis 0.9-1.2 cm. diametro glabris; cicatricibus magnis con- 
spicuis suborbicularibus 3-4 mm. longis 4-5 mm. latis; petiolis 
crassiusculis plerumque valde ampliatis 7-13 mm. longis 2.5-5 mm. 
latis glabris; laminis valde coriaceis rigidis erectis vel adscendenti- 
bus supra atroviridibus obovatis apice obtusis vel rotundatis vel 
subacutis basi sensim attenuatis acutis in petiolum valde decurrenti- 
bus 5-13.5 cm. longis 2-5 cm. latis, utrinque glabris subtus paullo 
atropunctatis, marginibus integris revolutis vel subrevolutis, costa 
media subtus prominente, nervis secundariis utroque 9-14 prope 



BOTANICAL EXPLORATION IN VENEZUELA - III 459 

marginem anastomosantibus utrinque prominulis vel supra paullo 
impressis; inflorescentiis racemosis 1.5-4 cm. longis, rhachi bado- 
fusca angulata crassiuscula 2-3 mm. diametro atropunctata; pedicellis 
crassiusculis 1.5-2.5 mm. longis 1.5 mm. latis; bracteis lineari- 
oblongis 2.5-3 nun. longis atropunctatis; calyce cupuliformi, lobis 4 
suborbicularibus apice rotundatis circa 1 mm. longis in fructu 
squarrosis vel reflexis; corolla non visa; fructibus nigro-vinaceis 
subglobosis 7-9 mm. diametro atropunctatis. 

Type in herb. Chi. Nat. Hist. Mus., collected in woods on summit 
of Carrao-tepui', state of Bolivar, alt. 2470-2500 m., December 7, 
1944, Julian A. Steyermark 60898, "shrub 4-6 feet tall; leaves erect, 
coriaceous, dark green above, pale green below; fruit pale green 
turning black-purple." 

The following cotypes in herb. Chi. Nat. Hist. Mus., all from the 
state of Bolivar; on soil bordering Brocchinia-Stegolepis-Heliamphora 
swamp on southwest-facing shoulder, Ptari-tepui, alt. 2200 m., 
November 2, 1944, Steyermark 59789; Bonnetia roraimae forest on 
southwest-facing shoulder, Ptari-tepuf, alt. 2000-2200 m., November 
2, 1944, Steyermark 59797, "shrub 3-4 feet tall; leaves coriaceous, 
dark green above, dull paler green below; peduncle spreading, 
thickened, pale green; fruit dark purple-black, 8 mm. in diameter;" 
vicinity of "Misia Kathy Camp," on mesa between Ptari-tepui and 
Sororopan-tepui, alt. 1615 m., November 15-17, 1944, Steyermark 
60240, "shrub, simple-stemmed, 4-6 feet tall; leaves coriaceous, 
deep green above, dull pale green below." 

This is a very distinct species related to C. rigida Mez, from 
which it differs chiefly in the glabrous young branches and glabrous 
fruits. It is further characterized by the dwarf habit, the greatly 
thickened, somewhat fleshy glabrous stems, relatively thickened, 
short fruiting rachis, and glabrous fruit. 

Conomorpha frigidicola Steyermark, sp. nov. 

Arbor 10-13-metralis; ramulis novellis dense adpresseque lepidotis 
obtectis; petiolis 6-19 mm. longis supra canaliculatis lepidibus 
adpressis dense conferteque obtectis; laminis coriaceis supra atro- 
viridibus subtus cinereo- vel argenteo-viridibus obovatis apice 
rotundatis basi cuneatim acutis vel acuminatis 4-7.5 cm. longis 2-4 
cm. latis, supra glabris subtus dense ferrugineo-lepidotis novellis 
densissime ferrugineo-lepidotis, marginibus subrevolutis, costa 
media subtus prominente, nervis secundariis utroque 9-11 adscen- 
dentibus supra obsoletis subtus paullo impressis prope marginem 
anastomosantibus; inflorescentiis racemosis 2.5 cm. longis densissi- 
me lepidibus obtectis; rhachi angulata; pedicellis 1.5 mm. longis 
dense ferrugineo-glandulari-lepidotis; bracteis oblongo-oblanceolatis 
subacutis 2-2.5 mm. latis 0.8-1 mm. latis dense ferrugineo glandulari- 
lepidotis; floribus 5-meris; calyce cupuliformi, tubo 1 mm. longo 
punctato densissime ferrugineo glandulari-lepidoto, lobis ovatis sub- 
acutis vel subobtusis 1-1.2 mm. iongis 0.8-0.9 mm. latis parce lineo- 
latis densissime ferrugineo glandulari-lepidotis; corolla lobis ad 1/5 
connatis, lobis oblongis vel ovato-oblongis apice rotundatis 2 mm. 



460 



FIELDIANA: BOTANY, VOLUME 28 



longis 1.2 mm. latis, intus lepidotis brunneo-punctatis extus brunneo 
glanduiari-lepidotis; antheris N oblongis 1.5 mm. longis; filamentis 
0.3-0.4 mm. longis; pistillo conico 2 mm. longo; ovario parce lepidoto 
1 mm. longo; stylo 1 mm. longo (Figure 97). 





FIGURE 97 

Conomorpha frigidicola 

A, Portion of corolla with 
stamens (X 16). 

B, Calyx (X 16); 

C, Bract (X 11); 

D, Stamen (X 12.5); 

E, Pistil (X 14). 





B 



Type in herb. Chi. Nat. Hist. Mus., collected in dwarf cool forest 
between El Molino and ridge above San Isidro Alto, state of Merida, 
alt. 2430-2895 m., May 14, 1944, Julian A. Steyermark 56516, "tree 
30-40 feet tall; leaves coriaceous, dark green above, gray green or 
silvery dull green below; flower buds pale green; pedicels and young 
stems ferruginous as is lower side of young leaves." 

This species is related to C. panniculata Mez of Brazil, but the 
inflorescences are racemose, not paniculate, the calyx lobes are 
acutely tipped, and the filaments of the almost sessile anthers are 
much shorter. 

Conomorpha hieronymoides Steyermark, sp. nov. 

Frutex 6.8-metralis; ramulis dense adpresseque fusco-lepidotis; 
petiolis 7-15 mm. Icngis supra valde canaliculatis dense adpresseque 



BOTANICAL EXPLORATION IN VENEZUELA -III 



461 




FIGURE 98 
Conomorpha hieronymoides 

A, Pistil (X 14); 

B, Calyx (X 14); 

C, Bract (X 11); 

D, Portion of corolla with 
stamens (X 15). 



D 



lepidibus obtectis; laminis subcoriaceis supra atroviridibus nitidis 
late ellipticis apice obtuse acutis vel obtusis basi cuneatira acumi- 
natis 3.5-9.5 cm. longis 1.7-5 cm. latis, supra glabris subtus dense 
conferteque ferrugineo- vel badofusco-lepidotis, marginibus inte- 
gerrimis valde revolutis; inflorescentiis racemosis 3.5*5.5 cm. longis, 
rhachi angulata fusco- vel ferrugineo-lepidota; pedicellis 2-2.5 mm. 
longis dense fusco-lepidotis; bracteis lanceolatis obtusis 2-2.5 mm. 
longis 0.5-0.8 mm. latis dense ferrugineo-lepidotis ciliolatis; floribus 
5-meris; calyce cupuliformi, lobis ultra medium connatis, tubo 1 mm. 
longo, lobis triangulari-ovatis obtusis vel subacutis 0.8-1 mm. longis 
0.7-1.1 mm. latis dense punctulis obtectis; corollae lobis ad 1/3 
connatis, tubo 0.8-1 mm. longo, lobis late oblongis apice rotundatis 
2.3 ram. longis 1.2-1.3 ram. latis, intus marginesque dense lepidotis, 
extus paullo superne ad lineolato-punctatis; antheris oblongo-ovatis 
apiculatis 1 mm. longis 0.5 mm. latis lepidotis; filamentis 0.7-0.8 
mm. longis; pistillo conico-subulato 2 mm. longo; ovario conico 1.5 
mm. longo lepidoto; stylo 0.5 mm. longo (Figure 98). 

Type in herb. Chi. Nat. Hist. Mus., collected in wet meadow at 
Las Sabanetas, above Los Aposentos, west of Humocaro Bajo, state 
of Lara, alt. 2530 m., February 5, 1944, Julian A. Steyermark 55295, 



462 FIELDIANA: BOTANY, VOLUME 28 

"shrub 20 feet tall; leaves subcoriaceous, dark green and shining 
above, dull green below; bracts and young inflorescence tawny or 
yellow brown; flowers pale yellow green." 

Local name: "manteca Colorado." 

The thick leaves of this species are used to clean iron pots, pans, 
and other vessels. 

This species is similar to C. crotonoides Mez, but has 5-merous 
flowers, a somewhat more deeply divided, less lepidote calyx, corol- 
la lobes not conspicuously black-punctate, much longer inflorescence, 
conic-subulate pistil, less lepidote ovary, more obovate less brown- 
lepidote leaf blades with more ascending lateral nerves, and the 
lepidote scales are smaller and less crowded on all vegetative 
portions. 

It is also related perhaps to C. grandiflora Mez and C. magnolii- 
folia Mez, but the former has much larger flowers and the latter much 
larger and practically glabrate leaves. 

Conomorpha jajiensis Steyermark, sp. nov. 

Frutex 3-6.5-metralis; ramulis juvenilibus parce lepidibus obtectis 
vetustioribus glabrescentibus; petiolis 5-25 mm. longis supra cana- 
liculatis dense lepidotis; laminis firme membranaceis vel subcori- 
aceis subtus cinereo-viridibus anguste vel late oblongo-ellipticis 
utrinque acuminatis 7.5-20 cm. longis 2-5 cm. latis, supra glabris 
subtus punctulis lepidotis rufescentibus praeditis, marginibus inte- 
gris, costa media subtus prominente, nervis secundariis utroque 9-10 
patentibus ante marginem 3-10 mm. anastomosantibus valde promi- 
nentibus; inflorescentiis racemosis 2 cm. longis (foemineis) ad 4.5-6 
cm. longis (masculis) ferrugineo-lepidotis, rhachi angulata densius- 
cule brunneo-lepidota; pedicellis masculis 1.5-2 mm. longis, foemineis 
2-2.1 mm. longis glandulari-lepidotis; bracteis foemineis elliptico- 
obovatis acutiusculis 2 mm. longis 1 mm. latis utrinque glandulari- 
lepidotis; floribus 4-meris; calyce cupuliformi, tubo 1 mm. longo, 
lobis late ovato-oblongis vel suborbiculari-oblongis apice rotundatis 
1 mm. longis 1 mm. latis ferrugineo-punctatis; corollae lobis haud 
ultra 1/3 connatis, tubo 0.5-1 mm. longo, lobis foemineis late oblon- 
gis apice rotundatis 1.6 mm. longis 1.2 mm. latis, masculis 2-2.2 mm. 
longis 1.6-2 mm. latis, brunneo-punctatis, intus lepidotis, marginibus 
integerrimis; antheris late oblongis obtusis 0.5-0.8 mm. longis, fila- 
mentis 0.2-0.4 mm. longis; ovario globoso glabro 0.8 mm. longo; 
stylo crasso 0.5 mm. longo subtruncato (Fig. 99). 

Type (pistillate plant) in herb. Chi. Nat. Hist. Mus., collected in 
rich moist woods, Los Quebraditos, above Jaji', state of Me'rida, alt. 
2590 m., April 21, 1944, Julian A. Steyermark 55980, "shrub 20 feet 
tall; leaves gray green below, dull green above." 

Cotype (staminate) in herb. Chi. Nat. Hist. Mus., collected in rich 
forest on slopes near summit of Cerro San Isidro, above La Carbon- 
era, state of Me'rida, alt. 2430-2745 m., April 22, 1944, Steyermark 
56033, "shrub 10 feet tall; flowers greenish; anthers buff and laven- 
der; rachis pale green; leaves gray green below." 



BOTANICAL EXPLORATION IN VENEZUELA -III 463 






FIGURE 99 

Conomorpha jajiensis 

A, Bract (X 16); B, Pistil (X 31); C, Portion of calyx with attached 
pedicel (X 19); D, Portion of corolla with stamens (X 23). 

This species is related to C. meridensis Mez, but the anthers are 
definitely provided with filaments and the lateral nerves of the leaf 
blades are less numerous, while the rounded calyx lobes differentiate 
it from C. laxiflora (Mart.) A. DC. 

Conomorpha larensis Steyermark, sp. nov. 

Frutex 2.8-3.3-metraljs; ramulis novellis parce fusco-lepidotis 
vetustioribus glabris; petiolis 7-20 mm. longis supra canaliculatis 
valde lepidibus obtectis; laminis firme membranaceis vel subcori- 



464 



FIELDIANA: BOTANY, VOLUME 28 



aceis oblpngo-ellipticis apice acutis vel acurainatis basi acutis 5-11 
cm. longis 1.5-4.5 cm. latis, supra glabris subtus parce fusco- 
lepidotis marginibus integerrimis, costa media subtus subprominente, 
nervis secundariis utroque 7-9 ante marginem 2.5-5 mm. anastomo- 
santibus cum rete venularum utrinque valde prominulis; inflorescentiis 
racemosis 1.5-4.5 cm. longis, rhachi angulata fusco-glandulari- 
lepidota; pedicellis 4-5 mm. longis glandulari-lepidotis; floribus 4- 
meris; calyce cupuliformi, lobis ad 1/3-5/8 coalitis, late ovatis 
obtusis vel rotundatis 1.3-1.5 mm. longis 1-1.1 mm. latis; corollae 
lobis ad 1/4 connatis, tubo 0.7-0.8 mm. longo, lobis suborbiculari- 
oblongis apice late obtusis vel rotundatis 2 mm. longis 2-2.5 mm. 
latis atrppunctatis intus lepidotis; antheris triangulari-oblongis 1 
mm. longis dorso atropunctatis; filaraentis 0.4-0.5 mm. longis; ovario 
subgloboso lepidoto 0.8 mm. longo; stylo crasso breve; fructu sub- 
globoso 6-8 mm. diametro (Figure 100). 




FIGURE 100 

Conomorpha larensis 

A, Portion of corolla with stamens (X 20); B, Pistil (X 28.5); 
C, Portion of calyx (X 14). 



Type in herb. Chi. Nat. Hist. Mus., collected on slopes of mountain 
between Santo Domingo and LosQuebraditos, south of Las Sabanetas, 
above Humocaro Bajo, state of Lara, alt. 2430-2745 m., February 8, 
1944, Julian A. Steyermark 55392, "shrub 10 feet tall; corolla brick 
color, spreading." 

Cotype in herb. Chi. Nat. Hist. Mus., collected in moist cloud 
forest, on southwest-facing slopes at Los Aposentos, above Las 



BOTANICAL EXPLORATION IN VENEZUELA -III 465 

Sabanetas, above Humocaro Bajo, state of Lara, alt. 2500-2530 m., 
February 3, 1944, Steyermark 55219, "shrub 8-10 feet tall; corolla 
brick color; anther ere am- colored. " 

Local name: "pajarita." 

This species is similar to C. laurifolia Mez, but the sepals are 
suborbicular-ovate, rounded or broadly obtuse at the apex, the pedi- 
cels are longer, and the lateral nerve's of the leaf blades are more 
numerous and ascending and more conspicuous on the lower surface. 

Conomorpha lepidota Gleason, forma acutata Steyermark, f. nov. 

A typo differt foliorum laminis apice acute acuminatis basi acutis 
vel subacutis vel acuminatis. 

Type in herb. Chi. Nat. Hist. Mus., collected on summit of Cerro 
Duida, Savana Hills, Territorio Federal Amazonas, alt. 1025-1200 m., 
September 2, 1944, Julian A. Steyermark 58265, "shrub 8-10 feet tall; 
leaves subcoriaceous, deep dull green above, gray brown below on 
older leaves, rufous brown on younger leaves below; rachis rufous 
brown." 

This form, encountered at the type locality, differs from the origi- 
nal description in having the acuminate apex of the leaf blades 
definitely acute and sharp-pointed instead of obtuse, and in the base 
of the blades acute to acuminate instead of obtuse. 

Conomorpha leprosa Steyermark, sp. nov. 

Frutex 3-3'5-metralis; ramulis omnino densissime ferrugineo- 
griseo-lepidotis leprosisque; petiolis sulcatis 10-20 mm. longis 
novellis saltern ferrugineo-lepidotis; laminis coriaceis vetustioribus 
subtus brunneis novellis ferrugineis elliptico-oblongis apice rotun- 
datis basi obtusis vel acutis in petiolum subito angustatis 3~7.5 cm. 
longis 1.5-3.5 cm. latis, supra glabris vel novellis brunneo-lepidotis 
vel leprosis, marginibus integerrimis revolutis, costa media subtus 
prominente ferrugineo- vel cinereo-leproso-puberulentibus, nervis 
secundariis utroque 15-21 patento-adscendentibus prope marginem 
obsolete vel parce anastomosantibus, supra impressis subtus promi- 
nulis; inflorescentiis racemosis 3.5-5 cm. longis, rhachi angulata 
ferrugineo-leprosis vel lepidotis; pedicellis 1-1.5 mm. longis glabris 
vel parce lepidotis; bracteis non visis; calyce cupuliformi, lobis 4 
late ovatis apice rotundatis vel obtusis 1.5 mm. longis 1.3-1.4 mm. 
latis nigro-punctatis, marginibus gland ulari-ciliolatis; fructibus atro- 
lazulino-nigris subglobosis 4.5-5 mm. diam. glabris. 

Type in herb. Chi. Nat. Hist. .Mus., collected on Gran Sabana, 
between Kun and waterfall at Rue'-meru (tributary of Rfo Kukenan) 
south of Mount Roraima, state of Bolivar, alt. 1065 m., October 2,- 
1944, Julian A. Steyermark 59136, "shrub 4-15 feet tall; leaves 
coriaceous, deep green above, dull brown below; young leaves 
ferruginous -below; fruit dark blue-black." 

This species is related to C. spicata (H.B.K.) Mez, but differs in 
having glabrous fruit, more densely lepidote-puberulous petioles, 
smaller leaf blades with the entire lower surface more or less densely 



466 FIELDIANA: BOTANY, VOLUME 28 

brown-leprose, and in the midrib of the lower leaf surface densely 
brown-leprose-puberulent. 

Cunomorpha liriensis Steyermark, sp. nov. 

Frutex 3.6-metralis; ramulis vetustioribus glabrescentibus; petio- 
lis 7-8 mm. longis dense ferrugineo-lepidotis; laminis firme membra- 
naceis supra atroviridibus elliptico-oblanceolatis vel obovatis apice 
subito acuminatis basi acuminatis 10-13.5 cm. longis 3-5 cm. latis 
supra glabris subtus brunneo-lepidotis, marginibus integerrimis vel 
paullo repandis, costa media subtus prominente dense lepidotis 
ferrugineis obtecta, nervis secundariis utroque 12-13 adscendentibus 
prominentibus ante marginem 3-6 mm. anastomosantibus cum rete 
venularum laxe valde areolatis; inflorescentiis bipinnatim paniculatis 
5-7 cm. longis dense ferrugineo-lepidotis, rhachi angulata dense 
ferrugineo-lepidota; inflorescentiae ramis primariis 4-9 mm. longis; 
pedicellis 1.6-1.8 mm. longis dense ferrugineo-lepidotis; bracteis 
spatulato-oblanceolatis apice rotundatis 1.5-1.7 mm. longis supra 
medium 0.7-0.8 mm. latis, supra medium et apicem versus crenulatis 
glandulari-ciliolatis; floribus 4-meris; calyce cupuliformi, tubo 0.5 
mm. longo, lobis suborbicularibus rotundatis 1 mm. longis 1 mm. 
latis crenulatis glandulari-ciliolatis, parce vel obsolete punctatis, 
extus ferrugineo-lepidotis; corollae lobis ad 1/6 connatis, tubo 0.2 
mm. longo, lobis suborbicularibus rotundatis 1.5 mm. longis 1.3-1.4 
mm. latis, parce vel obsolete punctatis, marginibus crenulatis cilio- 
latisque, extus ferrugineo-lepidotis; antheris late deltoid eo-sub- 
globosis 0.5 mm. longis 0.5-0.6 mm. latis, filamentis 0.3 mm. longis; 
ovario subgloboso lepidoto 0.9-1 mm. longo; stylo 0.2-0.3 mm. longo 
parce lepidoto (Figure 101). 

Type in herb. Chi. Nat. Hist. Mus., collected on rich steep wooded 
slopes, Alto de Lirio, between Bramo'n and Las Delicias, state of 
Tachira, alt. 1890-2285 m., July 18, 1944, Julian A. Steyermark 
57456, "shrub 8 feet tall; leaves firmly membranaceous, dark green 
above, dull green below with areolation upraised; rachis and pedicel 
dull lavender; calyx dull lavender below, dull green above," 

With apparently pseudoverticillate leaves, this species is a member 
of subgenus Microconomorpha Mez. It is related to C. perseoides Mez 
and C. pas tens is Mez, both of Colombia. From the former it differs in 
the shorter filaments, longer pedicels, thinner leaves, and sparsely 
or obsoletely punctate calyx lobes, while from C. pas tens is it differs 
in the shorter pedicels, sparsely and obsoletely punctate calyx lobes, 
more densely furfuraceous leaves, young stems, pedicels, calyx, and 
corolla. 

Conomorpha ptariensis Steyermark, sp. nov. 

Frutex 3-3-5-metralis; ramulis cinereis novellis ferrugineo-lepidotis 
obtectis vetustioribus glabris; petiolis crassiusculis 10-15 mm. 
longis glabris punctatis in sicco saltern paullo ruguldsis; laminis 
coriaceis rigidis erectis vel suberectis supra atroviridibus subtus 
pallido-viridibus vel brunneis spatulatis vel oblanceolato-spatulatis 
apice rotundatis vel obtusis interdum emarginatis vel obcordatis basi 



BOTANICAL EXPLORATION IN VENEZUELA -III 467 




FIGURE 101 

Conomorpha liriensis 

A, Portion of calyx (X 28); B, Bract (X 29); C, Portion of corolla 
with stamens (X 27); D, Stamen (X 33); E, Pistil (X 12). 



cuneatim angustatis acuminatis 3-7 cm. longis 1.1-3 cm. latis, 
utrinque glabris subtus minutissime pallido-punctatis, marginibus 
integerrimis revolutis, costa media subtus prominente, nervis secun- 
dariis utroque 10-11 prope marginem anastomosantibus utrinque 



468 FIELDIANA: BOTANY, VOLUME 28 

subimpressis vel subobsoletis; inflorescentiis racemosis 1-3.3 cm. 
longis, rhachi ferrugineo-lepidota vel glabrata; pedicellis 0.8-2 mm. 
longis ferrugineo-glandulari-lepidotis; bracteis lineari-ligulatis apice 
rotundatis 2.3 ram. longis 0.5 mm. latis extus dense ferrugineo- 
glandulari-leprosis; floribus 4-meris; calyce cupuliformi, tube 0.5 
mm. longo, lobis basi breviter coalitis ovatis obtusis 2-2.2 mm. 
longis 1.5 mm. latis marginibus dense glandularibus extus glandulari- 
lepidotis; corollae tubo 0.3-0.4 mm. longo, lobis prope basin ad 1/7 
connatis ovato-oblongis obtusis 1.5 mm. longis 0.9-1 mm. latis intus 
et ad margines dense papillato-lepidotis; antheris subsessilibus 
ovato-oblongis obtusis 1.2 mm. longis; filamentis 0.3 mm. longis; 
ovario late conico 0.9 mm. longo dense lepidoto; stylo lepidoto 0.5 
mm. longo (Figure 102). 

Type in herb. Chi. Nat. Hist. Mus., collected in scrubby forest on 
rocky open portion of plateau on southeast-facing slopes, Ptari-tepuf, 
state of Bolivar, alt. 1600 m., November 1, 1944, Julian A. Steyer- 
mark 59632, "shrub 15 feet tall; leaves coriaceous, dark green above, 
pale green below; sepals dull green; pedicels gray-lavender; bracts 
and young stems ferruginous." 

Cotype in herb. Chi. Nat. Hist. Mus., collected in savanna and 
shrubby growth bordering forest of Rfo Karuai, between Santa Tere- 
sita de Kavanayen and base of Ptari-tepui, state of Bolivar, alt. 1220 
m., November 18, 1944, Steyermark 60309, "shrub 10 feet tall; leaves 
erect, coriaceous, deep green above, dull green below; rachis dull 
brown-green; fruit and calyx deep green; apex of shoot ferruginous." 

Also collected in scrubby forest bordering woods by waterfall, 
swampy savanna between Rio Karuai and Salto de Iraba-naima along 
Rio Karuai, at southwestern base of Ptari-tepui', state of Bolivar, 
alt. 1220 m., November 28, 1944, Steyermark 60697, "shrub 8 feet 
tall; leaves coriaceous, deep green above, dull paler green below; 
rachis dull lavender." 

Local name: "wonday-yek." 

This species is related to C. Candolleana Mez of British Guiana, 
but differs in the smaller thicker leaf blades rounded at the apex, 
with immersed and not prominent secondary lateral nerves, shorter 
inflorescences, and different floral details. 

Conomorpha roraimae Steyermark, sp. nov. 

Frutex 1.8-3.3-metralis; ramulis juvenilibus densissime ferrugineo- 
lepidotis vetustioribus dense lepidotis; foliis petiolatis, petiolis 
11-15 mm. longis juvenilibus densissime ferrugineo-lepidotis supra 
canaliculatis; laminis coriaceis novellis subtus densissime fulvo- vel 
ferrugineo-lepidotis vetustioribus subtus aereo- vel bubalino-viridibus 
ellipticis utrinque manifeste angustatis apice plerumque obtuse 
acuminatis vel subobtusis basi acutis vel acuminatis vel interdum 
subobtusis 4-8.7 cm. longis 1.6-4 cm. latis, marginibus integerrimis 
valde revolutis, supra glabris vel parce et remote lepidotis punctulis 
innumeris nigris obtectis, subtus densissime ferrugineo- vel fulvo- 
lepidotis, costa media supra canaliculata subtus prominente, nervis 



BOTANICAL EXPLORATION IN VENEZUELA - HI 



469 





FIGURE 102 

Conomorpha ptariensis 

A, Portion of corolla with stamen (X 27); B, Portion of calyx (X 18); 
C, Bract (X 23). 



secundariis numerosis utroque 19-32 patento-subadscendentibus 
supra obscuris subtus prominulis; inflorescentiis racemosis vel sub- 
paniculatis axillaribus cum foliis apices ramulorum versus congestis 
2-7 cm. longis 12-23-floris, rhachi densissime ferrugineo-lepidota; 
bracteis lineari-oblongis vel anguste lanceolatis 1.5-1.8 mm. longis 
densissime ferrugineo-lepidotis; pedicellis sub anthesi 1.5-2 mm. 
longis sub fructu 2.25-2.5 mm. longis densissime ferrugineo-lepidotis; 
floribus 4-meris; calycis tubo 0.5 mm. longo, lobis 4 inaequalibus 
deltoideo-ovatis apice subacutis 1-1.2 mm. longis 0.6-1.2 mm. lads 
extus densissime ferrugineo-lepidotis intus glabris; corolla 2-2.3 mm. 
longa, tubo 0.5-0.6 mm. longo, lobis 4 late ovatis apice obtusis vel 
rotundatis 1.5-1.8 mm. longis 1-1.2 mm. latis utrinque glabris brunneo- 
maculatis; staminibus 4 basi corollae loborum insertis, filamentis 
glabris 0.4-0.5 mm. longis; antheris late deltoideo- vel ovato-oblongis 
0.8-1 mm. longis; pistillo sub anthesi 1.3 mm. longo, ovario 0.4-0.6 
mm. longo dense lepidoto; stylo crasso subtruncato 0.5-0.8 mm. 
longo; fructibus depresso-globosis nitidis vinaceo-atropurpureis 4 
mm. aids 5 mm. latis lepidotis (Figure 103). 

Type (flowering plant) in herb. Chi. Nat. Hist. Mus., collected on 
Mount Roraima, ascent of ledge along southwest-facing side, from 
beginning of sandstone bluffs to summit, state of Bolivar, alt. 2255- 
2620 m., September 27, 1944, Julian A. Steyermark 58759, "shrub 10 
feet tall; leaves coriaceous, dull green above, buff-green below on 
older leaves, buff-ferruginous below on young leaves, rachis, calyx, 
pedicels, and young petioles." 



470 



FIELDIANA: BOTANY, VOLUME 28 



Cotype (fruiting plant) in herb. Chi. Nat. Hist. Mus., collected at 
same locality, Steyermark 58765, "shrub 5-8 feet tall; leaves cori- 
aceous, dull green above, bronze green below on older leaves, tawny 
below on young leaves and petioles; fruit depressed globose, shiny, 
5 mm. broad by 4 mm. high, deep wine-purple." 

This species is related to C. lepidota Gleason from the summit of 
Mount Duida in having a. densely lepidote covering on the stems, 
petioles, rachis, pedicels, and calyx, and in the 4-merous flowers. It 
differs principally in the pedicellate flowers, prominulous lateral 
nerves on the lower leaf surface and less flexuous rachis. 

From C. punctata Mez (C. sessilis A. C. Smith) of the Roraima 




FIGURE 103 

Conomorpha roraimae 

A, Pistil (X 30); B, Scale from young branch (highly magnified); 
C, Calyx, opened out (X 18); D, Portion of corolla with stamens 
(X 28). 



BOTANICAL EXPLORATION IN VENEZUELA -III 471 

region it differs especially in the 4-merous flowers, glabrous inner 
surface of the corolla lobes, closely lepidote instead of tomentellous 
type of vestiture, and shorter racemose or weakly paniculate instead 
of longer subpyramidal paniculate inflorescence. 

Conomorpha sessilanthera Steyermark, sp. nov. 

Frutex 3-3'6.8-metralis; ramulis glabris; petiolis 4-12 mm. longis 
supra canaliculatis glabris; laminis coriaceis vel subcoriaceis supra 
atroviridibus subtus pallido- vel argenteo-viridibus obovato- vel 
oblanceolato-ellipticis apice subito breviter obtuse acuminatis vel 
subacutis basi acuminatis in petiolum decurrentibus 6-12 cm. longis 
2.2-4.5 cm. latis, utrinque glabris marginibus integerrimis, costa 
media subtus prominente, nervis secundariis utroque 15-22 patento- 
adscendentibus ante marginem 1-2 mm. anastomosantibus cum rete 
venularum utrinque prominulo-reticulatis; inflorescentiis racemosis 
2.5-4.5 cm. longis, rhachi angulata glabra; pedicellis gracilibus 1-2.5 
mm. longis subglabratis vel parce glandularibus; floribus 4-5-meris; 
calyce cupuliformi, tubo 0.6-1 mm. longo, lobis ad 1/4 connatis ovatis 
vel ovato-lanceolatis acutis vel subacutis vel obtusis 1.3-1.6 mm. 
longis 0.7-1 mm. latis, marginibus glandulari-ciliatis, paullo crenu- 
latis, extus paullo brunneo-lineolato-punctatis vel lepidotis; corolla 
3 mm. longa, tubo 1.5-1.6 mm. longo, lobis medium usque connatis 
late oblongis vel suborbiculari-oblongis vel late ovatis apice rotun- 
datis vel obtusis 1.5-2 mm. longis 1.2-1.5 mm. latis, 8-9 punctulis 
brunneis praeditis, extus glabris, intus lepidotis vel glandulari- 
papillatis; antheris sessilibus triangulari-oblongis vel ovato-oblongis 
vel panduriformi-ovatis minute apiculatis vel subito acuminatis 0.8-1 
mm. longis; tubo staminali apice truncate; ovario late oblongo- 
subgloboso vel ovoideo lepidoto 1 mm. longo; stylo 1 mm. longo 
glabro (Figure 104). 

Type in herb. Chi. Nat. Hist. Mus., collected in rich woods near 
and bordering Quebrada de Palmar, at foot of Paramo de Tama, 2 kms. 
above Betania and 7 kms. above Villapaez, state of Tachira, alt. 
2500 m., July 14, 1944, Julian A. Steyermark 57253, "shrub 20 feet 
tall; leaves coriaceous, dark green above, pale green below; rachis 
stramineous tinged pale brick; pedicels same; calyx pale brick to 
salmon or rose; corolla buff- greenish." 

Cotype in herb. Chi. Nat. Hist. Mus., with same locality and data, 
Steyermark 57270, "shrub 10 feet tall; leaves subcoriaceous, deep 
green above, silvery green below; rachis pale green; calyx greenish- 
white; corolla stramineous-pale greenish." 

The second collection cited (57270) differs in slight particulars of 
corolla and calyx and in length of pedicels, but is apparently other- 
wise conspecific. 

This species is related to C. citrifolia Mez and C. ampla Mez in 
having sessile anthers. It differs from C. citrifolia in the glandular- 
ciliate calyx lobes, rounded or obtuse corolla lobes, and shorter 
decurrent petioles, while from C. ampla it differs in the smaller 
leaves and racemose inflorescences. From C. glabra Mez it may be 
distinguished by the lepidote ovary. 



472 



FIELDIANA: BOTANY, VOLUME 28 








H 



I 



FIGURE 104 

Conomorpha sessilanthera 
A-F (Steyermark 57270) - G-I (Steyermark 57253) 

A, Calyx (X 8.5); B, Calyx lobe (X 18.5); C, Pistil (X 10); D, Anther 
(X 36); E, Portion of corolla, opened, with stamen (X 8); F, Corolla 
(X 8); G, Portion of corolla and calyx (X 9.5); H, Pistil (X 10); 
I, Portion of corolla, opened, with stamen (X 11). 



BOTANICAL EXPLORATION IN VENEZUELA -III 473 





B 





FIGURE 105 

Conomorpha sulcata 

A, Portion of corolla with stamens (X 11); B, Pistil (X 11); C, Bract 
(X 8.5); D, Portion of calyx (X 12.5). 

Conomorpha sulcata Steyermark, sp. nov. 

Frutex 6.8-8.2-metralis; ramulis juvenilibus parce brunneo-lepidotis 
vetustioribus glabrescentibus; petiolis 14-17 mm.longis basi dilatatis 
supra canaliculatis lepidotis; laminis firme membranaceis late ellip- 
ticis vel obovato-ellipticis 10-18 cm. longis 3.3-7.2 cm. latis utrinque 
acuminatis, supra glabris subtus parce lepidotis, marginibus inte- 
gerrimis, costa media supra sulcata subtus prominente, nervis secun- 
dariis utroque 9-10 adscendentibus supra valde sulcatis subtus 



474 



FIELDIANA: BOTANY, VOLUME 28 



prominentibus ante raarginem 3-8 mm. anastomosantibus, utrinque cum 
rete venularum areolatis; inflorescentiis bipinnatim paniculatis 4-5.5 
cm. longis, rhachi angulata ferrugineo-lepidota; inflorescentiae ramis 
primariis inferioribus 5-7 mm. longis; pedicellis 2.5-3.5 mm. longis; 
bracteis spatulato-oblanceolatis acutis 4 mm. longis 1 mm. latis 
punctatis glandulari-lepidotis; floribus 4-meris; calyce cupuliformi, 
tubo 0.7-0.8 mm. longo, lobis 4 vel 5 ovatis obtusis 1.7-1.8 mm. 
longis 0.9-1 mm. latis, irregulariter glandulari-crenulatis ciliolatis, 
punctatis; corollae lobis ad 1/5 connatis, lobis late oblongis rotun- 
datis 2 mm. longis 1.5 mm. latis, punctatis, superne crenulatis, intus 
lepidotis; antheris 4 subglobosis 0.5-0.6 mm. longis 0.5-0.6 mm. latis; 
filamentis 0.5-0.6 mm. longis; ovario subgloboso 1-1.5 mm. longo 
parce punctate parcissime lepidoto; stylo 0.6-0.7 mm. longo parcis- 
sime lepidoto; ovulis 4; fructu atro-purpureo globoso 6 mm. diametro 
(Figure 105). 





B 

FIGURE 106 

Ccnomorpha tamana 

A, Portion of calyx (X 15); B, Pistil (X 15). 



Type in herb. Chi. Nat. Hist. Mus., collected in woods above 
Betania below Paramo de Tama, state of Tachira, alt. 2530 m., July 
17, 1944, Julian A. Steyermark 57435, "shrub; fruit black purple; 
flowers green; leaves deeply sulcate above." 

Cotype in herb. Chi. Nat. Hist. Mus., collected in rich woods near 
and bordering Quebrada de Palmar, at foot of Paramo de Tama', 2 kms. 
above Betania and 7 kms. above Villapaez, state of Ta'chira, alt. 
2500 m., July 14, 1944, Steyermark 57256, "shrub 20-25 feet tall; 
leaves firmly membranaceous, dull green above with deeply sulcate 
nerves and areolation, dull paler green below with raised nerves and 
areolation; rachis dull green as are pedicels; perianth pale dull 
greenish-white. ' ' 



BOTANICAL EXPLORATION IN VENEZUELA -HI 475 

This species, related to C. pas tens is Mez, is exceptional in having 
mostly 4-merous flowers throughout, but differs from that species in 
having larger flowers, entire broader leaf-blades, and more densely 
and more abundantly flowered inflorescence. 

Conomorpha tamana Steyermark, sp. nov. 

Frutex 3-3-5-metralis; ramulis novellis peradpresse lepidotis vel 
glabris vetustioribus glabris; petiolis 4-12 mm. longis supra canalicu- 
latis glabris vel lepidotis; laminis subcoriaceis vel coriaceis rigidis 
elliptico-oblanceolatis vel obovatis apice obtuse acutis vel subacutis 
basi cuneatim acuminatis 5.5-9.5 cm. longis 1.7-4.2 cm. latis, supra 
glabris atropunctatis subtus densiuscule punctulis lepidotis fusco- 
badiis obtectis, marginibus revolutis integerrimis vel subintegerrimis, 
costa media supra sulcata subtus prominente, nervis secundariis 
utroque 15-17 supra paullo sulcato-impressis vel subobsoletis subtus 




FIGURE 107 

Grammadenia ptariensis 
13); B, Attached stamen (X 55); C, Portion of 



A, Calyx lobe (X 13); B, j&u.a.u^u oii,.^i, 
corolla with stamens (X 17); D, Pistil (X 14). 



476 FIELDIANA: BOTANY, VOLUME 28 

prominulis prope marginem anastomosantibus; inflorescentiis race- 
raosis 1.7-4 cm. longis, rhachi angulata parce atro- vel fusco-lepidota; 
pedicellis 2-2.5 mm. longis parce vel prominente atro- vel fusco- 
lepidotis; calyce cupuliformi, tubo 1 mm. longo, lobis 5 ultra 1/3 
coalita late oyatis obtusis vel subobtusis 1.5 mm. longis 1 mm. latis 
atro-punctatis, marginibus valde ciliatis; corolla non visa; ovario 
subgloboso verruculoso-lepidoto 1.3-1.4 mm. longo; stylo 0.9-1 mm. 
longo; fructu subgloboso 5-10 mm. diametro (Figure 106). 

Type in herb. Chi. Nat. Hist. Mus., collected in rich moist woods 
at base of Paramo de Tama', 4-10 kilometers above Betania, state of 
Tachira, alt. 2500-2895 m., July 15, 1944, Julian A. Steyermark 
57359, "shrub 15 feet tall; leaves subcoriaceous, dark green above, 
dull green below; fruit dull red, 5 mm. in diameter, subglobose." 

Another collection of what is apparently the same species in a 
later fruiting stage was collected in the same locality as the type. 
It is: with same locality and d^te, Steyermark 57354, "shrub 10 feet 
tall; fruit globose, shining, purple black, 1 cm. in diameter; leaves 
stiffly coriaceous, deep green above, pale green below." This 
second collection is more densely lepidote on the young stems, 
petioles, inflorescence, and leaves. 

The new species is related to C. Caracas ana Mez, but the pedicels 
are longer, the lateral nerves on the lower leaf surface much more 
prominent, the leaf blades are smaller, the calyx lobes are more 
densely black-punctate, and more prominently glandular-ciliate 
on the margins. 

Grammadenia ptariensis Steyermark, sp. nov. 

Frutex 0.8-1.2-metralis; ramulis crassis glaberrimis saltern in sicco 
angulatis; foliis dense confertis coriaceis sessilibus subtus pallido- 
viridibus oblanceolatis vel anguste oblongo-oblanceolatis apice 
obtusis vel rotundatis mucronulatisque basi paullo angustatis, 3-5.2 
cm. longis 8-16 mm. latis, marginibus integerrimis subrevolutis, costa 
media subtus prominente, supra nitidis subtus manifeste atro-punctato 
lineatoque; inflorescentiis 8-10-floris erectis densiuscule racemosis 
3-2-3.8 cm. longis, foliis paullo brevioribus, rhachi glabra; pedicellis 
1-2.5 mm. longis minute glanduloso-puberulentibus; bracteis late 
ovatis rotundatis 1.5 mm. longis extus parce minute glandulosis 
glandulari-ciliolatis pallido- vel brunneo-punctatis; floribus 2-2.5 
mm. longis 3-4.5 mm. diam.; sepalis 1/4-1/3 connatis, calycis tubo 
0.6 mm. alto glabro, lobis late ovatis obtusis vel rotundatis 1.5 mm. 
longis 1.5 mm. latis, extus parce minute glandulosis glandulari- 
ciliolatis haud vel pallido-punctatis; petalis basi breviter coalitis, 
corollae tubo 1 mm. alto, lobis suborbiculari-ovalibus apice late 
rotundatis 2-2.2 mm. longis 1.9-2 mm. latis supra medium minute 
crenulato-fimbriatis pallido- vel brunneo-maculatis; antheris sessili- 
bus dorso haud maculatis; filamentis in tubum 1 mm. altum plus 
minusve subtruncatum cum petalis connatis; ovario glabro globoso- 
obovoideo 1.25-1.4 mm. longo; stylo 0.5 mm. longo; stigmate obtuso; 
fructu non viso (Figure 107). 



BOTANICAL EXPLORATION IN VENEZUELA -III 477 

Type in herb. Chi. Nat. Hist. Mus., collected on forested south- 
facing slopes overlying sandstone, on "Cave Rock" above "Cave 
Camp," Ptari-tepuf, state of Bolfvar, alt. 1810 m., October 29, 1944, 
Julian A. Steyermark 59497, "shrub 2-4 feet tall; leaves coriaceous, 
subrevolute, the sides above convex, deep green above, pale green 
below; corolla pale greenish white; stamens golden; stems lavender- 
brown." 

The dwarf habit, oblong-oblanceolate obtuse leaves, scarcely or 
slightly narrowed below the middle, with the lower surface dark 
punctate, the pale or only light brown, instead of black, punctate 
calyx and corolla lobes, the anther not punctate dorsally, the sub- 
truncate or only faintly lobulate margin of the staminal tube, glabrous 
rachis of the inflorescence, and relatively short pedicels distinguish 
this species from previously described ones. It appears most closely 
related to some Andean species, such as G. Lehmanii Mez. 

Rapanea minima Steyermark, sp. nov. 

Frutex 1.8-2.8-metralis; ramulis glabris; petiolis vinaceo-purpureis 
3-6 mm. longis glabris supra canaliculatis; laminis coriaceis supra 
atroviridibus subtus pallido-viridibus obovato-oblongis vel oblongo- 
spatulatis rotundatis plerumque emarginatis basi cuneatim angustatis 
in petiolum valde decurrentibus 10-23 mm. longis 5-12 mm. latis 
utrinque glabris marginibus valde revolutis, subtus punctulis promi- 
nulis obscuris obtectis, costa media supra canaliculata subtus 
prominente, nervis secundariis utroque obsoletis; inflorescentiis 
umbellulatis paucifloris; pedicellis 1-2 mm. longis glabris; floribus 
5-meris; sepalis ad 1/3 connatis, lobis ovato-triangularibus acutius- 
culis 1-1.2 mm. longis 0.7-0.8 mm. latis, marginibus glabris subinte- 
gerrimis vel obsolete subcrenulatis, extus utrinque glabris, lineis 2-4 
perlongis atque punctulis praeditis; petalis rosaceis ad 0.5 mm. 
connatis, lobis linearibus vel lineari-oblongis rotundatis 2.5-3 mm. 
longis 1-1.2 mm. latis, marginibus dense papillosis, lineis atque 
punctulis badiis perconspicuis praeditis; antheris petalis brevioribus 
late oblongis 1.3-1.5 mm. longis 0.8 mm. latis; ovario floris masculi 
valde reducto conico crasso (Figure 108). 

Type in herb. Chi. Nat. Hist. Mus., collected in shrubby growth 
among morros on summit of Mount Roraima, on northwest portion north 
and northwest of Summit Camp, state of Bolivar, alt. 2620-2740 m., 
September 27, 1944, Julian A. Steyermark 58848, "shrub 5-8 feet tall; 
leaves revolute, coriaceous, dark green above, pale green below; 
petioles wine-purple; calyx dull rose-brown; petals rose." 

This species resembles R. dependens (R. & P.) Mez in having 
small leaves, but is easily distinguished from that species by the 
5-merous flowers and glabrous branches and leaves. It is distin- 
guished from the other new species of Roraima described below in its 
smaller non-reticulate leaves, glabrous young stems, and entire or 
subentire calyx lobes. 

Rapanea reticulata Steyermark, sp. nov. 

Frutex 2.8-3.3-metralis; ramulis teretibus, vetustioribus glabris, 



478 



FIELDIANA: BOTANY, VOLUME 28 





e.sf. 



FIGURE 108 

Rapanea minima 
A, Calyx (X 27); B, Corolla, opened, from within (X 18). 



novellis saltern apice ferrugineo-tomentellis; petiolis 4-5 mm. longis 
supra subcanaliculatis superne anguste alatis glabris vel novellis 
tomentellis; laminis coriaceis supra atroviridibus elliptico- vel 
oblongo-obovatis vel obovatis apice rotundatis vel obtusis basi 
acutis vel subacutis 1.5-4.2 cm. longis 0.8-1.6 cm. latis, marginibus 
conspicue revolutis, subtus conspicue punctatis, costa media supra 
sulcata glabra vel interdum parce adpresso-pilosis subtus prominente 



BOTANICAL EXPLORATION IN VENEZUELA -III 479 

glabra, nervis lateralibus utroque 10-14 adscendentibus utrinque 
prominulis venulis utrinque conspicue nitidulo-reticulatis, faciebus 
utrinque glabris; inflorescentiis fasciculatis 2-3-floris; bracteis late 
ovatis subobtusis 1.25-1.5 mm. longis minute ciliolatis; florum foemi- 
neorum pedicellis sub fructu 1.25-1.5 mm. longis glabris; calycis 
lobis 5 ad 1/5-1/4 longitudinem connatis late ovatis obtusis 1 mm. 
longis 1 mm. latis ciliolatis paucipunctatis vel lineolatis; corolla 
non visa; fructibus subglobosis atrocyaneo-nigris 3-3.5 mm. diametro. 

Type in herb. Chi. Nat. Hist. Mus., collected in open thickets on 
southwest-facing forested slopes, Mount Roraima, between Rondo'n 
Camp and base of sandstone bluffs, state of Bolivar, alt. 2040-2255 
m., September 30, 1944, Julian A. Steyermark 58983, "shrub 8-10 feet 
tall; leaves revolute, coriaceous, dark green above, dull paler green 
below; fruit becoming blue-black." 

The relatively small leaf-blades of this species are reminiscent of 
the group of species which include R. dependens (R. & P.) Mez and 
R. myrtoides (Hook.) Mez, from which it may be distinguished by the 
5 instead of 4 calyx lobes. It resembles in some respects R. parvi- 
folia (A. DC.) Mez of southern Brazil, from which it differs in the 
prominently reticulate-veined leaf-blades and ferruginous-tomentel- 
lose young twigs, while from R. emarginella (Miq.) Mez of Brazil it 
may be distinguished by the tomentum of the young twigs and lower 
midrib. From R. nit Ida Mez of Mount Roraima it may be separated by 
the smaller leaf-blades, which are rounded or obtuse at apex, obtuse 
calyx lobes, and tomentum of the young branchlets. 

Stylogyne turumiquirensis Steyermark, sp. nov. 

Arbor 7-12-metralis; ramulis glabris; petiolis 5-10 mm. longis glab- 
ris; laminis coriaceis late ellipticis utrinque acutis interdum apice 
obtuse acutis in petiolum prominente decurrentibus 12-19 cm. longis 
5.5-7.5 cm. latis, marginibus integerrimis utrinque glabris utrinque 
obscure punctulis obtectis, nervis lateralibus utroque 17-23 anasto- 
mosantibus praesertim subtus nervis tertiariis venulisque prominulo- 
reticulatis; inflorescentiis multifloris compacte paniculatis terminali- 
bus sub anthesi 5.5 cm. longis sub fructu ad 13 cm. longis, rhachi 
glabra; pedicellis robustis sub anthesi 3 mm. longis sub fructu 5-8 
mm. longis, glabris; floribus 5-meris; calycis tubo brevissimo 0.5-0.7 
mm. longo, lobis 5 fere omnino liberis late ovatis rotundatis 1.8 mm. 
longis 1.3-1.5 mm. latis, marginibus irregulariter minute crenulatis, 
glabris, secundum margines punctatis; corollae tubo 1.1-1.3 mm. 
longo, lobis 5 squarrosis ovalibus vel late ovato-oblongis rotundatis 
3 mm. longis 2-2.3 mm. latis, apicem versus paullo crenulatis, 
glabris, prope apicem marginesque parce punctatis; staminibus 5 
lobis corollae brevioribus; filamentis basi corollae loborum insertis 
1.5 mm. longis antheris subaequantibus glabris; antheris late ovatis 
acutis apiculatis 1.5 mm. longis; ovario pyriformi-ovoideo 3-ovulato; 
fructu nitido vinaceo-rubro vel nigro subgloboso 8 mm. diametro 
(Figure 109). 

Type in herb. Chi. Nat. Hist. Mus., collected on Cerro Turumiquire, 
north-facing slopes above La Trinidad in cloud forest zone, south- 



480 



FIELDIANA: BOTANY, VOLUME 28 






FIGURE 109 

Stylogyne turumiquirensis 

A, Calyx (X 8); B, Ovary (highly magnified); C, Portion of corolla 
with stamen (X 6). 



west of Cocollar, state of Sucre, alt. 2100-2200 m., May 5, 1945, 
Julian A. Steyermark 62539, "common understory, small tree 20-35 
feet tall; leaves coriaceous, deep green above, dull paler green 
below; fruit edible, turning wine-red to black and shining; flowers 
buff white with recurved lobes." 

This species is similar to S. reticulata Mez of Colombia in having 
acute anthers and in the filaments inserted near the base of the 
corolla tube. It differs from that species in the shorter pedicels, 
broader and differently shaped corolla lobes, and in the broader 
leaves. 



SAPOTACEAE 



27 



Chrysophyllum Steyermarkii Monachino, sp. nov. 

Arbor 7-8-metralis; petiolis 5-9 mm. longis; laminis chartaceis vel 
membranaceis supra lucidis subtus pallido brunneis nerviis fulvis, 
subellipticis basi obtusis vel subcuneatis apice acuminato-caudatis 
5-15 cm. longis 2-4.4 cm. latis, novellis rufo-sericeis saltern gla- 
brescentibus, nervis lateralibus ca. 16 jugis; inflorescentiis axillari- 
bus fasciculatis, plerumque 6-12-floris; floribus foemineis; pedicellis 
gracilibus 4-5 mm. longis rufo-sericeis; calyce ca. 2 mm. lato extus 
sericeo intus parce strigoso, lobis late ovatis 1.3-1.7 mm. longis 
apice plerumque obtusis interioribus ciliatis; corolla glabra cylin- 
drica ca. 3 mm. longa, lobis tubo fere aequantibus; pistillo conico 
ca. 2-3 mm. longo, ovario hirsute, cellulis 5 (vel 4), ovulis basali- 
axillaribus; fructibus ellipsoideis 2.5-3-3 cm. longis 1.3-1.7 cm. 
crassis parce pubescentibus, semine solitario ca. 14 mm. longo 11 



Joseph Monachino 



BOTANICAL EXPLORATION IN VENEZUELA -HI 481 

mm. crasso, cicatrice late elliptica 13 mm. longa 8 mm. lata, albu- 
mine tenue, cotyledonibus crassis ca. 8 mm. longis 7 mm. latis, 
radicula ca. 2 mm. longa. 

Tree; branchlets ' slender, rufous-brown-strigose when young, 
petioles 5-9 mm. long; blades chartaceous or membranaceous, shin- 
ing above, drying light brown beneath with principal nerves usually 
tending to orange, subelliptic, obtuse or subcuneate at base, 
acuminate-caudate at apex, 5-12 cm. long, 2-4.4 cm. broad, rufous- 
sericeous when young, hairs appressed, the longer ones up to 0.6- 
0.8 mm. long, glabrescent at maturity, the principal lateral nerves 
ca. 16 pairs, 5-10 mm. apart near middle of blade, distinct from the 
veinlets, arcuate near margins; inflorescences axile, fasciculate, 
usually 6-12-flowered; only pistillate flowers seen; pedicels slender, 
4-5 mm. long, rufous-sericeous; calyx ca. 2 mm. broad, sericeous 
outside, the lobes broadly ovate, 1.3-1.7 mm. long, mostly obtuse at 
apex, sparsely strigose within, the inner lobes ciliate; corolla gla- 
brous, cylindric, ca. 3 mm. long, the lobes about equalling the tube; 
pistil conic, ca. 2.3 mm. long, ovary hirsute, cells 5 (or 4), ovules 
basal-axile; fruits ellipsoid, 2.5-3-3 cm. long, 1.3-1.7 cm. thick, 
sparsely hairy, seed solitary, ca. 14 mm. long, 11 mm. thick, scar 
broadly elliptic, 13 mm. long, 8 mm. broad, endosperm rather thin, 
cotyledons thick, ca. 8 mm. long, 7 mm. broad, radicle ca. 2 mm. long. 

Type in herb. N.Y. Bot. Card., isotypes in herb. Chi. Nat. Hist. 
Mus. and Herb. Nac. de Venezuela, collected in woods 1-10 kms. 
northwest of Upata, on road to San Felix, between Upata and Alta- 
gracia, state of Bolivar, alt. 700 m., July 31-August 1, 1944, Julian 
A. Steyermark 57717, "tree 20-25 feet tall; leaves deep dark green 
above, pale green below; calyx pale green; petals pale greenish." 

Paratypes (fruiting specimens) in herb. Chi. Nat. Hist. Mus., 
collected on wooded ridge, Ouebrada Bonita, tributary of Rio Ouere- 
cual, northeast of Bergantin, state of Anzoategui, alt. 1200 m., 
February 17, 1945, Julian A. Steyermark 60975, "vining shrub 20 
feet tall; leaves dull green above and below; fruit greenish, turning 
yellow, eaten by birds, also used as remedy for mal de hojo, es- 
pecially for small children;" in herb. Nac. de Venezuela, collected 
at place called Alaska, vicinity of Upata, state of Bolivar, January 
25, 1939, E. Delgado 212, "pascualito." 

This species differs from Chrysophyllum parvulum Pittier in its 
much smaller flowers, in which the corolla lobes and tube are almost 
equal in length. The leaves have lateral nerves which stand out 
distinctly and are arcuate near the margins. The blades usually dry 
paler beneath than in the type of C. parvulum, and the indumentum is 
of longer hairs. 

The Delgado collection is cited by Cronquist (Bull. Torr. Bot. 
Club 73: 299. 1946) under C. parvulum. The local name cited by 
Cronquist for C. parvulum was probably obtained from the Delgado 
plant, and fruit characters described were also derived from the same. 

Micropholis Steyermarkii Monachino, sp. nov. 

Arbor 25-metralis; ramulis novellis badio-strigoso-tomentosis; 



482 FIELDIANA: BOTANY, VOLUME 28 

foliis saepe oppositis; petiolis 6-15 mm. longis; laminis subcori- 
aceis subtus pallido-glaucis mox glabris oblongo-ellipticis basi late 
cuneatis vel subrotundatis apice breviter caudatis vel rotundatis 
6-12 cm. longis 2.5-5 cm. latis, nervis lateralibus principalibus 
numerosis saltern 30 jugis rectis patentibus subtus paullo promi- 
nentibus, obscure reticulatis; inflorescentiis axillaribus fascicu- 
latis multifloris; pedicellis 3.5-4 mm. longis strigosis; sepalis 5 
fere ad basin distinctis basi paullo imbricatis deltoideis ca. 1 mm. 
longis et latis apice acutis extus dense badio-strigoso-tomentosis; 
corolla extus dense strigoso-tomentosis, tubo fere 1 mm. longo, lobis 
5 ca. 2 mm. longis lanceolatis apice acutis valde incurvatis; stami- 
nodiis crassis lanceolatis carinatis ca. 1 mm. longis apice acutis 
incurvatis; filamentis brevibus fauce tubi corollae insertis, antheris 
ca. 0.8 mm. longis extrorsis; pistillo 2 mm. longo, ovario hirsute, 
tuberculis apice styli obscuris; cellulis 4, ovulis axillari-basalibus. 

Tree; young branches chocolate-brown strigose-tomentose; leaves 
frequently opposite; petioles 6-15 mm. long; blades subcoriaceous, 
glaucous-pale beneath (microscopically papillose), soon almost gla- 
brous, oblong-elliptic, broadly cuneate or sub-rounded at base, 
short-caudate or rounded at apex, 6-12 cm. long, 2.5-5 cm. broad, 
principal lateral nerves numerous, over 30 pairs in matured leaves, 
with fainter parallel nerves in between, almost straight and at right 
angle to the midrib, slightly raised beneath, reticulation obscure; 
inflorescence axile in the new growth, fasciculate, many-flowered; 
pedicels 3.5-4 mm. long, strigose; sepals 5, free almost to base, 
slightly imbricate at base, deltoid, ca. 1 mm. long and about as 
broad, acute at apex, densely chocolate-brown strigose-tomentose 
outside, strigose within; corolla densely strigose-tomentose outside 
like the sepals and pedicels, the tube almost 1 mm. long, the lobes 
5, about 2 mm. long, lanceolate, the apex acute, strongly incurved; 
staminodes thick, lanceolate, keeled, ca. 1 mm. long, the apex 
acute, incurved; filaments short, inserted at mouth of corolla-tube, 
anthers ca. 0.8 mm. long, extrorse; pistil 2 mm. long, ovary hirsute, 
stigmatic points on tip of style obscure, cells 4, ovules axile-basal. 

Type in herb. N.Y. Bot. Card., isotype in herb. Chi. Nat. Hist. 
Mus., collected in dense forest at base of cerro along Rio Karuai, 
Ptari-tepui' state of Bolivar, alt. 1220 m., November 27, 1944, Julian 
A. Steyermark 60650, "tree 80 feet tall; leaves deep green above, 
silvery gray below with dull brown midrib, 'cuipa-yek.' " 

In the glaucous appearance of the underside of its leaves, this 
species suggests Oxythece. Micropholis is treated as a section 
under Pouteria by Baehni (in Candollea, 1942). In a very broad 
sense, the present species is Pouteria Steyermarkii Monachino. 

Only the descriptions of Micropholis eugeniaefolia Pierre were 
available. The leaves are described as acuminate at apex, the pedi- 
cels 5-7 mm. long, the staminodes puberulent, the anthers exserted. 
No mention is made of incurvature of the corolla lobes, a character 
so striking in our species. The specimen "Melinon (1863)" which 
has been distributed as Micropholis eugeniaefolia by Herb. Mus. 



BOTANICAL EXPLORATION IN VENEZUELA - III 483 

Paris is probably Chrysophyllum nitidum G.F.W. Mey. 

Oxythece rigidopsis Monachino, sp. nov. 

Arbor 8-l6-metralis; inflorescentiis axillaribus fasciculatis a ligno 
vetustiori oriundis; floribus multis minute adpresso-pubescentibus; 
pedicellis 7-9 mm. longis minute strigosis; sepalis 5 (vel 6) ovatis 
apice obtusis extus strigosis, tubo 1-1.3 mm. longo, lobis 5 (vel 6) 
ovatis apice rotundatis vel obtusis ca. 2.3 mm. longis; staminodiis 2 
deltoideis squamosis parvis vel obsoletis vel nullis; filamentis basi 
loborum corollae insertis ca. 0.5-0.7 mm. longis; antheris introrsis 
ca. 1 mm. longis; pistillo ovoideo-conico 2.5 mm. longo, ovario 
hirsute, cellulis 2, ovulis axillari-basalibus. 

Leaves almost identical with those of O. rigida; inflorescence 
axile on old wood, fasciculate, flowers numerous, minutely appressed 
pubescent; pedicels 7-9 mm. long, minutely strigose; sepals 5 (or 6) 
ovate, obtuse at apex, strigose outside, the tube 1-1.3 mm. long> the 
lobes 5 (or 6), ovate, rounded or obtuse at apex, ca. 2.3 mm. long; 
staminodes 2, deltoid, scale-like, small, or vestigial, or lacking; 
filaments attached at base of corolla-lobes, ca. 0.5-0.7 mm. long, 
anthers introrse, ca. 1 mm. long; pistil ovoid-conic, 2.5 mm. long, 
the ovary hirsute, cells 2, ovules axile-basal. 

Type in herb. N.Y. Bot. Card., isotype in herb. Chi. Nat. Hist. 
Mus., cloud forest of Fila Grande, headwaters of Quebrada La Tigra, 
Cerro San Jose, between Bergantfn and Cerro Peonia (Cerro Los 
Pajaritos), state of Anzoategui, alt. 1800-1850 m., March 19, 1945, 
Julian A. Steyermark 61539, "tree 50 feet tall, leaves deep green 
above, paler green below, pedicels and calyx pale green, corolla 
creamy white." 

Additional specimens examined (flowers very immature), in herb. 
N.Y. Bot. Card, and in herb. Chi. Nat. Hist. MUS., south-facing steep 
slopes, on rocky exposed shrubby portion of knife-edge ridge above 
tree zone, Cerro Peonfa, above Santa Cruz, headwaters of Rib 
Manantiales, east of Bergantin, state of Anzoategui, alt. 1800-2000 
m., March 20, 1945, Julian A. Steyermark 61618, "tree 25-30 feet 
tall, leaves deep green and shining above, gray-green below, young 
leaves and stems fulvous green, flowers in bud fulvous green;" 
El Paramo, northeast of Las Delicias, northeast of Caripe, state of 
Monagas, alt. 1200-1450 m., April 13, 1945, Julian A. Steyermark 
62043, "tree 50 feet tall, leaves erectj deep green and shining 
above, bronze or paler green below with pale brownish color, flower 
buds and pedicels brownish green, sap milky." 

This novelty is vegetatively hardly distinguishable from Oxythece 
rigida (Mart. & Eichl.) Monachino, comb. nov. (-Lucuma rigida Mart. 
& Eichl. in Mart. Fl. Bras. 7: 73. 1863). However, the flowers are 
quite different; the pedicels are over twice as long (they are less 
than 3 mm. long in O. rigida) and the indumentum of the pedicels and 
sepals is of closely appressed hairs, while that of O. rigida consists 
of a much looser tomentum. 

Species of Oxythece have vacillated between Chrysophyllum and 



484 FIELDIANA: BOTANY, VOLUME 28 

Pouteria, both nomenclaturally and in natural flower characters. In 
the broad sense entertained by Baehni and Eyma, our plant is Pou- 
teria rigidopsis Monachino. 

Oxythece scrobiculata Monachino, sp. nov. 

Arbor 10-l6-metralis; ramulis novellis minute fulvo-strigosis; 
petiolis 6-11 mm. longis supra complanatis; laminis tenuiter cori- 
aceis scrobiculatis subtus pallido-glaucis parce strigosis plerumque 
elliptico-oblanceolatis basi cuneatis apice rotundatis vel obtusis vel 
emarginatis 3-7 cm. longis 1.5-2.5 cm. latis, costa media supra 
prominente, nervis lateralibus ca. 12-15 jugis obscuris subtus paullo 
prominulis, venis transversis plerumque obscuris; inflorescentiis 
axillaribus fasciculatis a ligno vetustiori; floribus immaturis; pedi- 
cellis ca. 5 mm. longis fulvo-sericeis pilis minute adpressis; sepalis 
5 ovatis apice subacutis ca. 1.5 mm. longis extus sericeis intus 
strigosis; corolla glabra, tubo brevissimo, lobis ovatis 1.3 mm. 
longis; staminodiis non visis; antheris ca. 8 mm. longis; ovario 
hirsute, cellulis 2. 

Tree; young branches minutely fulvous strigose; petiole 6-11 mm. 
long, flattened above; blades thinly coriaceous, scrobiculate, 
glaucous-pale beneath, sparsely strigose, in the type elliptic- 
oblanceolate, cuneate at base, rounded or obtuse or emarginate at 
apex, 3-7 cm. long, 1.5-2.5 cm. broad, midrib slightly raised above, 
lateral nerves about 12-15 pairs, faint, slightly raised beneath, 
connecting veins mostly obscure; inflorescence axile on last year's 
growth, fasciculate; flowers immature; pedicels ca. 5 mm. long, 
fulvous sericeous with minute appressed hairs; sepals 5, ovate, sub- 
acute at apex, ca. 1.5 mm. long, sericeous outside and also strigose 
within; corolla glabrous, the tube very short (undeveloped), the lobes 
ovate, 1.3 mm. long; staminodes not seen; anther ca. 8 mm. long; 
ovary hirsute, cells 2. 

Type in herb. N.Y. Bot. Card., isotype in herb. Chi. Nat. Hist. 
Mus., collected on upper drier portion of forest below mesa, wooded 
slopes of Quebrada O-paru-ma', between Santa Teresita de Kavanaye'n 
and Rib Pacairao (tributary of Rib Mauak), state of Bolivar, alt. 1065- 
1220 m., November 20-21, 1944, Julian A. Steyermark 60355, "small 
tree 30 feet tall, deep green above and shining, silvery green below, 
pedicels and calyx yellow green, 'pora-to-rai-yek. ' ' 

Additional specimens examined in herb. N.Y. Bot. Card, and herb. 
Chi. Nat. Hist. Mus., with very immature flower buds collected on 
steep wooded slopes just below dry ridge and shrubby growth, Ptari- 
tepuf, southeast-facing slopes, state of Bolivar, alt. 1585-1600 m., 
November 10-11, 1944, Julian A. Steyermark 60007, "tree 50 feet 
tall, leaves deep green and shining above, silvery green below, 
midnerve below, petioles, and young stems ferruginous, sepals and 
pedicels yellow-brown tomentose, 'tec-u-len-yek' "; sterile collected 
same locality and date as preceding, Julian A. Steyermark 60009, 
"tree 25-30 feet tall." 

In 60007 and 60009 the blades are obovate to elliptic and short 
caudate at apex, 4-12 cm. long, 2-4.5 cm. broad. 



BOTANICAL EXPLORATION IN VENEZUELA -III 485 

The scrobiculate or blistered leaves and closely sericeous pedi- 
cels and calices of this species suggest the West Indian Oxythece. 
pallida (Gaertn. f.) Cronquist, but the latter is easily distinguished 
by the manifest impressed reticulation on the upperside of its leaves. 
In a greatly extended concept of Pouteria, our plant should be called 
Pouteria scrobiculata Monachino. 

Oxythece Steyermarkiana Monachino, sp. nov. 

Frutex 3-5-metralis; ramulis novellis glabrescentibus; petiolis 
brevissimis ad 5 mm. longis; laminis coriaceis supra lucidis subtus 
pallidis glabrescentibus obovatis basi cuneatis apice rotundatis vel 
paullo emarginatis, marginibus involutis 3-6 cm. longis 1.5"3-5 cm. 
latis, costa media supra plerumque prominente, nervis lateralibus 
supra paullo prominentibus, subtus obscuris, ca. 12 jugis; inflores- 
centiis axillaribus fasciculatis a ligno vetustiori, floribus numerosis 
plerumque glabris; pedicellis 3-5 mm. longis; sepalis 5 orbiculari- 
ovatis ca. 2.3 mm. longis et latis, apice rotundatis parce ciliatis, 
corolla rotata glabra, tubo brevissimo ca. 0.7 mm. longo, lobis 5 late 
oblongo-ovatis 2-2.5 mm. longis apice rotundatis; staminodiis ple- 
rumque 2 squamosis deltoideis; filamentis fauce tubi corollae inser- 
tis ca. 1 mm. longis, in alabastro sub insertione antherae geniculatis, 
filamentis dorso insertis sed antheris a latere extrorse dehiscentibus 
ca. 1.3 mm. longis; pistillo ovoideo-conico ca. 1.7 mm. longo; ovario 
parcissime hirsute, cellulis 3> ovulis axillari-basalibus. 

Shrub; young branches glabrescent; petioles very short, less than 
5 mm. long; blades coriaceous, shining above, pale beneath gla- 
brescent, obovate, cuneate at base, rounded or ^slightly emarginate 
at apex, margins involute, 3-6 cm. long, 1.5-3.5 cm. broad, midrib 
mostly raised above, lateral nerves slightly raised above, faint 
beneath, ca. 12 pairs; inflorescence axile in mostly the old growth, 
fasciculate, flowers numerous, essentially glabrous; pedicel 3-5 mm. 
long; sepals 5, orbicular-ovate, ca. 2.3 mm. long and broad, rounded 
at apex, sparsely ciliate; corolla rotate, glabrous, the tube very 
short, ca. 0.7 mm. long, the lobes 5, broadly oblong-ovate, 2-2.5 mm. 
long, rounded at apex; staminodes not at each sinus, mostly 2 only, 
small, scale-like, deltoid; filaments inserted at mouth of corolla- 
tube, ca. 1 mm. long, bent at attachment to anther in young flower, 
filament attached introrsely but anther dehiscence lateral-extrorse, 
ca. 1.3 mm. long; pistil ovoid-conic, ca. 1.7 mm. long, ovary very 
sparsely hirsute, cells 3, ovules axile-basal. 

Type in herb. N.Y. Bot. Card., isotype in Chi. Nat. Hist. Mus., 
collected on savanna and shrubby growth bordering forest of Rio 
Karuai, between Santa Teresita de Kavanayen and base of Ptari- 
tepiu', state of Bolivar, alt. 1220 m., November 18, 1944, Julian A. 
Steyermark 60321, "shrub 10-15 feet tall, leaves suberect, deep dark 
green and shining above, pale green below, calyx pale green, corolla 
greenish-white, pedicels nodding, pale green, anthers buff." 

This species belongs in the section of Oxythece typified by 
Gymnoluma Baillon and Elaeoluma Baillon. It holds a systematic 



486 FIELDIANA: BOTANY, VOLUME 28 

position close to Oxythece glabrescens (Mart. & Eichl.) Monachino, 
comb. nov. (- Lucuma glabrescens Mart. & Eichl. in Mart. Fl. Bras. 
7: 72. 1863; Gymnoluma glabrescens Baillon; prob. Oxythece ferreirii 
Cronquist) and Oxythece schomburgkianum (Miq.) Cronquist. 

Gymnoluma is placed in the synonymy of Pouteria, sect. Oligo- 
theca, by Baehni, whilst Elaeoluma is omitted altogether from his 
monograph. In a very broad sense, our plant is Pouteria Steyermarki- 
ana Monachino. 

Oxythece robusta (Mart. & Eichl.) Pierre, var. brevipetiolata 
Monachino, var. nov. 

A typo differt petiolis brevioribus 10-15 mm. longis; laminis 
foliorum 7.5-11 cm. longis 3-5.5 cm. latis; lobis calycis ca. 1-4 
mm. longis. 

Differs from the typical variety in its shorter petioles, 10-15 mm. 
long (14-25 in typical variety); blades 7.5-11 cm. .long, 3-5.5 cm. 
broad; calyx-lobes ca. 1-4 mm. long. 

Type in herb. N.Y. Bot. Card., isotype in herb. Chi. Nat. Hist. 
Mus., collected on Cerro Duida, forest at base of south-eastern 
slopes along Cano Negro (tributary of Cano Iguapo), Territorio Fede- 
ral Amazonas, alt. 260 m., August 28-29, 1944, Julian A. Steyermark 
58078, "tree with milky latex, 80 feet tall, trunk 1 foot in diameter, 
bark brown, wood hard, leaves coriaceous, dark green above, silvery 
green below with dull green punctae below, petals whitish, sepals 
and pedicels buff." 

F. Cardona 1070 and 7072 (in Herb. Nac. Venez.) from the Guai- 
quinima, Alto Paragua, 300 m., represent the typical variety. The 
first collection is cited as Pouteria rugosa in the Cat. Flora 
Venezolana (1947). 

The calyx-lobes are much smaller than in B.W. 6613 (in herb. N.Y. 
Bot. Card.) from Surinam, determined by Eyma as var. longifolia Eyma. 

Pouteria Baehniana Monachino, sp. nov. 

Arbor 10-metralis; ramulis glabris; petiolis canal iculatis 1.5-3 cm. 
longis; laminis coriaceis praecipue glabris oblanceolatis basi late 
cuneatis apice obtuse breviter caudatis 11.5-16 cm. longis 5.5-7.5 
cm. latis; nervis lateralibus 14-17 jugis, eis et costa media supra 
paullo prominentibus, red supra prominulo et subtus prominenti; 
floribus axillaribus solitariis magnis sessilibus; sepalis 5 valde 
amplexicauli-imbricatis late oblongis vel orbiculari-quadratis ad 7 
mm. longis et 9 mm. latis apice rotundatis extus strigosis intus 
glabris, sepalis interioribus ciliatis; corolla exserta carnosa glabra, 
tubo cylindrico ca. 7.5 mm. longo, lobis 5, late oblongis. ca. 3.3 mm. 
longis apice rotundatis; staminodiis foliaceis canaliculatis oblongis 
2.3 mm. longis 0.7 mm. latis; staminibus fauce tubi insertis, anthera 
extrorsa 1.8 mm. longa; pistillo ca. 1 cm. longo, ovario hirsute, 
cellulis 5, ovulis axillari-basalibus; fructu ovoideo-pyramido ca. 
3.5 cm. longo 3 cm. diam. apice acuto. 



BOTANICAL EXPLORATION IN VENEZUELA- III 487 

Tree; branches glabrous, the leaf-bud brown-strigose; petioles 
channeled, 1.5*3 cm. long, darkened at base; blades coriaceous, 
glabrous or nearly so, oblanceolate, broadly cuneate at base, obtuse- 
ly short-caudate at apex, 11.5-16 cm. long, 5.5*7.5 cm. broad; midrib 
and lateral ribs (ca. 14-17 pairs) slightly raised above, the reticula- 
tion prominulous above and prominent beneath; flower axile, solitary, 
large, sessile; sepals 5, strongly clasping-imbricate, broadly oblong 
or orbicular-quadrate, up to 7 mm. long and 9 mm. broad, rounded at 
apex, strigose outside, glabrous within, inner sepals ciliate; corolla 
exserted, carnose, glabrous, the tube' cylindric, ca. 7.5 mm. long, the 
lobes 5, broadly oblong, ca. 3.3 mm. long, rounded at apex; stami- 
nodes foliaceous, canaliculate, oblong, 2.3 mm. long, 0.7 mm. broad; 
stamens inserted at mouth of tube, the anther extrorse, 1.8 mm. long; 
pistil ca. 1 cm. long, the ovary hirsute, the cells 5, ovules axile- 
basal; fruit ovoid-pyramidal, ca. 3-5 cm. long, 3 cm. diam., acute 
at apex. 

Type in herb. N.Y. Bot. Gard., isotype in herb. Chi. Nat. Hist. 
Mus., collected along stream, between Betania and woods at base of 
Paramo de Tama', state of Tachira, alt. 2300-2430 m., July 12, 1944, 
Julian A. Steyermark 57167, "tree 30 feet tall, leaves dark green 
above, dull paler green below, fruit brown, 'cacho.' " 

This species belongs in the section Rivicoa as defined by Baehni. 

Pouteria caimito (Ruiz & Pavon) Radlk., var. strigosa Monachino, 
var. nov. 

A typo differt sepalis extus dense strigosis et petiolis longioribus 
15-20 mm. longis. 

Differs from the typical variety in the sepals densely strigose 
without and in the longer petioles (15-20 mm. long). 

Type in herb. N.Y. Bot. Gard., isotype in herb. Chi. Nat. Hist. 
Mus., collected on south-facing steep slopes of Cerro Peonfa (Cerro 
Los Pajaritos), above Santa Cruz, along headwaters of Rio Mananti- 
ales, east of Bergantfn, state of Anzoategui, alt. 1600-1800 m., 
March 20, 1945, Julian A. Steyermark 61583, "tree 40-80 feet tall, 
leaves subcoriaceous-chartaceous, deep green above, paler dull 
green below, one of the dominants at this elevation, 'purvio 
amarillo. ' " 

Additional specimens examined (sterile) in herb. Chi. Nat. Hist. 
Mus., collected on ridge top along Rio Zumbador and tributary, near 
base of Piedra Blanca, northeast of Bergantin, state of Anzoategui, 
alt. 1100-1450 m., March 1-2, 1945, Julian A. Steyermark 61340, 
"tree 80 feet tall with hard wood, milky sap, tawny brown bark, 
lightly furrowed, leaves rich green above, grass green below, fruit 
smaller than 'pingo amarillo,' edible, round, 'mamurillo* or 
'bayastillo,' "; El Paramo, northeast of Las Delicias, northeast of 
Caripe, state of Monagas, alt. 1200-1450 m., April 13, 1945, Julian A. 
Steyermark 62025, "tree 40-50 feet tall, leaves subcoriaceous, rich 
green above and shining, dull paler green below with prominent midrib 
and lateral nerves, erect, sap milky, bark pale gray." 



488 FIELDIANA: BOTANY, VOLUME 28 

Pouteria simulans Monachino, sp. nov 

Arbor 16-20-metralis; ramulis novellis fulvo-tomentosis; foliis 
saepe oppositis; petiolis 1-1.5 cm. longis; laminis chartaceo- 
subcoriaceis supra lucidis subtus glaucis juvenilibus pubescentibus 
(pilis axi brevi ramisque longis patentibus) oblanceolatis basi late 
cuneatis vel angustatis apice plerumque acuminatis acutisque 10-28 
cm. longis 4-ll cm. latis;costa media supra plerumque paullo promi- 
nente, nervis lateralibus 11-18 jugis, reti supra paullo prominuli 
subtus prominente; inflorescentia axillare 1-6-flora; pedicellis graci- 
libus 9-12 mm. longis strigoso-tomentosis; sepalis 5 (vel 6) orbiculari- 
oblongis vel orbiculari-ovatis ca. 3.3 mm. longis et 3 mm. latis apice 
rotundatis extus fulvo-strigoso-tomentosis intus glabris; corolla 
parce exserta glabra, tubo ca. 2-3 mm., longo, lobis 5 ca. 2-3 mm. 
longis, apice rotundatis; staminodiis lanceolatis ad basim foliaceis 
valde carinatis apice acuminatis acutisque ca. 2-3 mm. longis 0.8 
mm. latis; filamentis ca. 1 mm. longis parce infra faucem tubi corol- 
lae insertis; antheris 1.8 mm. longis; ovario hirsute, cellulis ellip- 
soideis apice apiculatis 2 cm. longis 1.5 cm. diam. tenuiter 
tomentosis. 

Tree; young branches fulvous-tomentose; leaves frequently oppo- 
site; petioles 1-1.5 cm. long; blades chartaceous-subcoriaceous, 
shining above, glaucous beneath, pubescent when young (hairs with 
long spreading branches and short stalk), oblanceolate, broadly 
cuneate to tapering at base, mostly acuminate and acute at apex, 
10-28 cm. long, 4-11 cm. broad; midrib mostly slightly raised above, 
lateral ribs 11-18 pairs, reticulation faintly prominulous or not raised 
above, prominent beneath; inflorescence axile in the new growth, 1-6 
flowered; pedicels slender, 9-12 mm. long, strigose-tomentose, sepals 
5 (or 6), orbicular-oblong or orbicular-ovate, ca. 3-3 mm. long and 3 
mm. broad, rounded at apex, fulvous strigose-tomentose without, 
glabrous within; corolla hardly exserted, glabrous, the tube ca. 2-3 
mm. long, the lobes 5> about as long, rounded at apex; staminodes 
lanceolate, foliaceous toward base, strongly keeled, acuminate and 
acute at apex, about as long as corolla-lobes, 0.8 mm. broad; fila- 
ments ca. 1 mm. long, inserted slightly below mouth of corolla-tube, 
anthers 1.8 mm. long; ovary hirsute, cells 2, ovules axile-basal; 
fruits ellipsoid, apiculate at apex, 2 cm. long, 1.5 cm. diam., 
thinly tomentose. 

Type in herb. N.Y. Bot. Card., isotype in herb. Chi. Nat. Hist. 
Mus., collected in headwaters of Ri*o Maravilla, slopes of Fila 
Grande, between Los Chorros and Cherro Negro, east of Bergantin, 
state of Anzoa'tegui, alt. 900-1400 m., March 23, 1945, Julian A. 
Steyermark 61723, "tree 60 feet tall, leaves deep green and shining 
above, blue-green or gray-blue green below with raised yellow-green 
nerves, 'purgo macho.' " 

Paratypes (fruiting specimen) in herb. N.Y. Bot. Card, and Chi. 
Nat. Hist. Mus., collected on dryish forested slopes, Cerrp La Danta, 
bordering tributary of Rio Leon, northeast of Bergantfn, state of 
Anzoategui, alt. 800-1100 m., in bamboo woods, February 22, 1949, 



BOTANICAL EXPLORATION IN VENEZUELA -HI 489 

Julian A. Steyermark 61100, "wood useful for beams and rafters, 
fruit edible, yellowish within, 'purga macho.' : 

Additional specimens examined (leaves very young, flowers in bud 
only), in herb. N.Y. Bot. Card, and Chi. Nat. Hist. Mus., collected on 
Montana de Aguacate, along Quebrada de Pajarral, tributary to Rib 
Caripe, northeast of Alto de Aguacate, between Caripe and Caripito, 
state of Monagas, alt. 600-900 m., April 19, 1945, Julian A. Steyer- 
mark 62203, "sap milky, young leaves bronze-brown, as are the 
flowers;" collected in state of Monagas, vicinity of La Cuchilla, 
between Guanaguana and Guacharo, alt. 1200-1480 m., April 21, 
1945, Julian A. Steyermark 62284, "tree 50 feet tall, leaves mem- 
branaceous when young, dull rich green above, gray-green below, 
'trompillo.' " 

The leaves of this species bear a remarkable resemblance to those 
of Krukoff 6632, from the basin of Rio Madeira, Brazil, which has 
been identified as Pouteria glomerata var. glabrescens Hub. by 
Baehni, and even more so to Froes 11750, from Maranhao, Brazil. 
The nervature of the Krukoff and Froes collections and the leaf 
shape and indumentum of the latter are almost identical with those 
of our plant. However, the leaves are not glaucous beneath. The 
flowers of P. glomerata are described as subsessile, tetramerous, 
the stamens subhypogenous, and the ovary 4-locular. 

EBENACEAE 
Diospyros anzoateguiensis Steyermark, sp. nov. 

Frutex 5-metralis; ramulis teretibus cinereis glabris vel novellis 
minute hispidulis; petiolis crassis 3-5 mm. longis supra minute 
hirtellis vel hispidulis; laminis subcoriaceis subtus pallido-viridibus 
anguste obovatis vel oblanceolatis apice obtusis vel obtuse acumi- 
natis basi cuneatis vel subcuneatis 5.2-9 cm. longis 2-3.7 cm. latis, 
marginibus integerrimis subplanis, supra glabris subtus glabris 
praeter costam et nervos secundarios parce strigillosis atque subtus 
interdum superfacie parce strigillosa, nervis secundariis utroque 6-7 
valde adscendentibus prope marginem anastomosantibus supra leviter 
impressis subtus prominentibus; floribus masculis non visis; floribus 
foemineis solitariis axillaribus; pedicellis sub fructu 6-8 mm. longis 
densissime cinereo-strigosis vel hirtellis; calyce sub fructu viso, 
lobis 3 valde reflexis ovato-lanceolatis vel oblongo-lanceolatis 
subobtusis vel subacutis 10-11 mm. longis infra medium 6-6.5 mm. 
latis intus parce strigillosis, tubo strigilloso 4-5 mm. longo; fructi- 
bus subglobosis ad 2.5-2.75 cm. diametro 4-locularibus tetraspermis, 
pericarpio chartaceo-subcoriaceo leviter pilosulo; seminibus fuscis 
paullo striatulis 10 mm. longis 5.5-6 mm. latis. 

Type in herb. Chi. Nat. Hist. Mus., collected between Bergantin 
and San Jose, state of Anzoategui, alt. 300-400 m., March 16, 1945, 
Julian A. Steyermark 61513, "shrub 15 feet tall; leaves 
subcoriaceous, olive green above, pale green below; calyx lobes 
reflexed; fruit subglobose, 1.5 cm. in diameter, 1.3 cm. high, 
russet-greenish. ' ' 



490 FIELDIANA: BOTANY, VOLUME 28 

This species shows an affinity to D. tetrasperma Sw. of the West 
Indies. It differs, however, from that species especially in the much 
larger fruit with strongly reflexed fruiting calyx lobes. 



STYRACACEAE 

Styrax costanus Steyermark, sp. nov. 

Arbor 23-metralis, ramulis novellis cinereis squamulis lepidotis; 
foliis alternis petiolatis, petiolis 8-11 mm. longis dense griseo- 
stellato-lepidotis; laminis firme membranaceo-subcoriaceis ellipticis 
apice abrupte acuminatis basi cuneatim angustatis acutis 5.5-10 cm. 
longis 1.5-3.5 cm. latis, supra nitidis glabris subtus densissime 
argenteo-stellato-lepidotis, integris, nervis lateralibus utroque 3-5 
arcuato-adscendentibus supra impressis subtus prominulis, cum venis 
praesertim subtus bene reticulatis; inflorescentia subracemosa 3-4- 
flora 4.5 cm. longa axillari, rhachi densissime argenteo-stellato- 
lepidota; pedicellis 11-12 mm. longis densissime argenteo-stellato- 
lepidotis; calyce cinereo cupuliformi 4 mm. alto 4 mm. lato, apice 
paullo 5-repando subtruncato extus argenteo-stellato-lepidoto; corolla 
15 mm. longa, lobis ligulatis 12 mm. longis 1.5-1.75 mm. latis extus 
densissime adpresse argenteo-stellato-lepidotis; antheris 6-7 mm. 
longis basi dense villosis; fructu oblongo 1.3 cm. longo, 0.9 cm. lato. 

Type in herb. Chi. Nat. Hist. Mus., collected on south-facing 
steep slopes of Cerro Peonfa (Cerro Los Pajaritos), above Santa 
Cruz, along headwaters of Rio Manantiales, east of Berganti'n, state 
of Anzoategui, alt. 1600-1800 m., March 20, 1945, Julian A. Steyer- 
mark 61575, "tree 70 feet tall; leaves firmly membranaceous- 
subcoriaceous, deep green and shining above, silvery-buff below; 
fruit oblong, gray green, 1.3 cm. high, 9 mm. broad; sapwood 
rose-red." 

Local name: "olivo montanero." 

This is one of the tall trees of the forests of this section of the 
coastal range of the Oriente. 

This species is characterized by the few-flowered subracemose 
inflorescences, the small number of lateral nerves of the relatively 
small leaves which are pointed at each end, and by the dense cover- 
ing of very small appressed gray stellate lepidote hairs on the lower 
leaf surface, instead of the velvety fine tomentum of longer finer 
stellate hairs possessed by some other species. The leaf blades on 
their upper surface do not possess the fine reticulation of such 
species as S. microphyllus Perk, and S. hypargyreus Perk. It is 
apparently most closely related to S. glaber Sw. of the West Indies 
and to S. micrasterus Pittier of Venezuela. From the former species 
it differs in the shorter flowers, narrower corolla lobes, smaller 
narrower leaves which are more acuminate at the apex and more 
cuneately tapering at the base, smaller fruits, somewhat shorter 
inflorescences, and longer and more slender pedicels, while from the 



BOTANICAL EXPLORATION IN VENEZUELA -III 491 

latter species it differs in the smaller, firmly membranaceous instead 
of coriaceous leaves, with fewer lateral nerves, fewer-flowered 
racemes, narrower corolla lobes, and in the large tree instead of 
shrub habit. 
Styrax duidae Steyermark, sp. nov. 

Frutex 3-metralis, ramulis novellis dense fusco-stellatis; foliis 
alternis petiolatis, petiolis 8-10 mm. longis crassis dense fusco- 
stellatis supra valde canaliculatis; laminis coriaceis supra atro- 
viridibus subtus brunneis oblongo-ellipticfs apice obtusis basi 
obtusis vel subobtusis 7-12 cm. longis 2.5-4.5 cm. lads supra glabris 
subtus densissime atque molliter, brunneo-stellatis, marginibus 
valdissime revolutis, nervis lateralibus utroque 7-9 arcuato-ad- 
scendentibus supra subobsoletis subtus prominentibus; inflores- 
centia racemosa 5-7-flora 2.2-2.5 cm. longa, axillari terminalique, 
rhachi densissime brunneo-stellata; pedicellis 3*3.5 mm. longis 
brunneo-stellatis; pedicellis 3-3.5 mm. longis brunneo-stellatis; 
calyce campanulato apice 5-sinuato-denticulato 5 mm. longo 5 mm. 
lato extus pallido brunneo- et fulvo-stellato-tomenjtello, lobis late 
triangularibus 0.8 mm. longis 1.5 mm. latis; corolla cernua' albida 12 
mm. longa profunde partita, lobis valvatis lineari-oblongis obtusis 
8.5 mm. longis 1.5 mm. latis extus tenuiter tomentellis; staminibus 
10; antheris linearibus 5.5-6 mm. longis intus stellato-pubescentibus; 
filamentis basi barbatis; ovario depresso-hemispherico superne 
conico 1.5 mm. longo 2 mm. lato dense tomentoso; stylo filiformi 9.5 
mm. longo glabro; stigmate capitato; ovulis 18 (Fig. 110). 

Type in herb. Chi. Nat. Hist. Mus., collected on summit of Cerro 
Duida, Savanna Hills, Territorio Federal Amazonas, alt. 1025-1200 
m., September 2, 1944, Julian A. Steyermark 58242, "shrub 10 feet 
tall; leaves coriaceous, deep green above, brown-green below; 
calyx brown; corolla pendent, white; pubescence dark brown on 
petiole, young stems, and pedicels." 

Idrobo and Schultes (Bot. Mus. Leaflets Harvard Univ. 13, no. 10: 
325-331. 1949) recently described Styrax rigidifolius from one of the 
isolated sandstone mountains of eastern Colombia. It and its forma 
yapobodensis are closely related to S. duidae, yet differ from one 
another in several respects. From S. rigidifolius the new species 
may be separated as follows: l. the corolla lobes are much shorter 
and narrower (8.5 mm. X 1.5 mm. as compared with 13 mm. X 2.5 
mm.), 2. shorter anther, 3. leaf apex obtuse or subobtuse instead of 
long acuminate, 4. leaf margin much more strongly revolute, 
5. thicker and more coriaceous leaves, 6. lateral nerves on upper 
surface mostly obscure with secondary venation absent, whereas in 
S. rigidifolius it is evident, 7. calyx summit distinctly denticulate, 
whereas in S. rigidifolius it is truncate, 8. outer surface of calyx 
densely stellate-tomentose instead of only roughened as in S. rigidi- 
folius, 9. lower leaf surface densely and softly tomentose and 
brownish beneath, whereas in S. rigidifolius the lower leaf surface 
is only fuscous-puberulent and cinnamon-brown beneath, and 
10. the leaves are larger and are broadest around the middle instead 
of in the lower half as in S. rigidifolius. 



492 FIELDIANA: BOTANY, VOLUME 28 

In view of the differences existing in the color and density of the 
tomentum on the lower leaf surface, petiole, rachis, pedicels, and 
calyx, as well as the more sinuate-denticulate calyx margin, and the 
differences in leaf shape and apex, it would appear that S. rigidi- 
folius f. yapobodensis Idrobo & R.E. Schultes should be treated as 
a distinct species. 

Styrax yapobodensis (Idrobo & R.E. Schultes) Steyermark, comb. nov. 

S. rigidifolius f. yapobodensis Idrobo & R.E. Schultes, Bot. Mus. 
Harvard Univ. Leaflets 13, no. 10: 330-332. 1949. 

The new species described above (S. duidae) becomes another of 
the numerous endemics of Mount Duida. From another table mountain, 
Mount Roraima, has been described Styrax Roraimae Perk.., but the 
latter is not even closely related to the Duida species. The Duida 
species is most closely related to the Colombian 5. rigidifolius and 
S. yapobodensis above referred to. 

SYMPLOCACEAE 
Symplocos Lasseri Steyermark, sp. nov. 

Arbor 10-metralis; ramulis novellis glabris vel parce leviter pilo- 
sis; foliis petiolatis, petiolis 9-10 mm. longis glabris supra canalicu- 
latis, laminis supra atroviridibus nitidis firme membranaceis ovato- 
vel oblongo-ellipticis utrinque acutis 6-9.5 cm. longis 2.7-3.7 cm. 
latis, supra glabris subtus paullo adpresso-pilosis, marginibus 
denticulatis basin versus integerrimis subrevolutis in petiolum 
decurrentibus, nervis lateralibus adscendentibus utroque 7-10 ante 
marginem 3-8 mm. anastomosantibus; bracteis floralibus suborbicu- 
laribus rotundatis 2 mm. longis 2 mm. latis extus sericeis; floribus 
non visis; calycis lobis suborbicularibus rotundatis glabrescentibus 
vel parce pilosulis marginibus ciliolatis; fructibus elliptico-oblongis 
1.7-2.1 cm. longis 0.9-1.1 cm. diametro glabris. 

Type in herb. Chi. Nat. Hist. Mus., isotype in herb. Mus. Servicio 
Botanico, Caracas, Venezuela, collected on south- and southwest- 
facing densely wooded slopes of Cordillera del Avila, above Caracas, 
between Los Venados and Papelo'n, Distrito Federal, alt. 1585-1820 
m., December 30, 1943, Lasser & Steyermark 55103, "tree 30 feet 
tall; leaves dark green above, dull green below, shining above; 
fruit oblong, deep green." 

This species is characterized by its thin minutely denticulate 
leaves and comparatively large fruits. It is named in honor of Dr. 
Tobias Lasser of the Servicio Botanico of the Ministerio de Agri- 
cultura y Cria of Caracas, Venezuela. I had the pleasure of 
accompanying him on a field excursion to the Cordillera del Avila, 
during which time this species was collected. 

Symplocos Pittieriana Steyermark, sp. nov. 

Frutex 5-metralis; ramulis ferrugineo-hirsutis; foliis confertis 
erectis rigidis petiolatis, petiolis 2 mm. longis ferrugineo-hirsutis; 
laminis coriaceis ovalibus vel late oblongis utrinque rotundatis 2-3.5 
cm. longis 1.5-2.5 cm. latis, supra glabris vel glabrescentibus subtus 



BOTANICAL EXPLORATION IN VENEZUELA - III 493 




FIGURE no 

Sty rax duidae 

A, Portion of flowering branch (X 0.45); B, Corolla, opened from 
within (X 4); C, Pistil (X 4.5). 



494 FIELDIANA: BOTANY, VOLUME 28 

praesertim ad nervos et venulas brunneo-hispidulis, marginibus 
subintegerrimis paullo obsolete repando-crenulatis subrevolutis, 
nervis lateralibus adscendentibus utroque 4-6 ante marginem .2-4.5 
mm. anastomosantibus supra tenuibus subtus cum venulis bene 
reticulatis; racemis subumbellatim paniculatis axillaribus vel sub- 
terminalibus ramulorum apicem versus confertis 1-1.5 cm. longis, 
rhachi crassa 2 mm. diam. ferrugineo-hirsuta; .bracteis late ovatis 
rotundatis 2.5'3 mm. longis extus hirsutulis marginibus ciliatis; 
calycis tubo 2-2.5 mm. longo, lobis suborbicularibus rotundatis 2-2.5 
mm. longis 3 mm. latis marginibus ciliatis ceterum glabris; corolla 
albida calyce paullo longiori 6-partita glabra, tubo 1.25 mm. longo, 
lobis late oblongis rotundatis 4.25 mm. longis; staminibus triseriali- 
bus supra liberis; ovario 3-4-loculari; stylo 1 mm. longo; stigmate 
capitate; fructibus non visis. 

Type in herb. Chi. Nat. Hist. Mus., collected in rich moist woods 
at base of Paramo de Tama, 4-10 kms. above Betania, state of 
Tachira, alt. 2500-2895 m., July 15, 1944, Jutian A. Steyermarh 
57335, "shrub 15 feet tall; flowers fragrant; corolla white; calyx 
dull green with brick red lobes; leaves coriaceous-stiff, deep green 
above, dull green below, erect." 

This species is related to S. umbellata Brand, from which it differs 
in the 6- instead of 5-parted corolla, corolla only slightly exceeding 
calyx instead of twice longer than it, much shorter style, hispidulous 
lower midrib and lower leaf surface with longer hairs, upper leaf 
surface not finely reticulate as in S. umbellata, shorter and more 
hirsute petiole, more rounded leaf-base, smaller leaves, more promi- 
nent reticulation of lower leaf surface, and subtuberculate- 
based hairs. 

Symplocos roraimensis Steyermark, sp. nov. 

Frutex 2.8-5-metralis; ramulis purpureo-fuscis striatis glabris; 
foliis erectis vel erecto-adscendentibus petiolatis, petiolis 3-4 mm. 
longis glabris supra canaliculatis; laminis coriaceis supra atro- 
viridibus ovato- vel obovato-ellipticis apice cuspidato-acuminatis 
vel obtusis basi cuneatim angustatis acuminatis vel subobtusis in 
petiolum decurrentibus 2.5'6 cm. longis 1.3-2.5 cm. latis, utrinque 
glabris, marginibus integerrimis vel apicem versus 2-4 minutis 
remotis dentibus praeditis, paullo revolutis, nervis lateralibus 
utroque 3-4 supra fere obsoletis subtus inconspicuis; floribus race- 
mosis, racemis 1.5-2.5 cm. longis, rhachi glabra; pedicellis 1-1.5 
mm. longis glabris; bracteis ovatis obtusis 1.5 mm. longis ciliolatis; 
calycis tubo 1.5 mm. longo, lobis 5 suborbicularibus rotundatis 1.5 
mm. longis 1.5 mm. latis ciliolatis, quinto paullo minori; corolla 
pallido-viridi 5-partita, lobis obovatis obtusis vel rotundatis inferne 
angustatis 3.2 mm. longis 1.75 mm. latis ciliolatis; staminibus 26 
uniserialibus subliberis basi solum coalitis, filamentis 1.5-2 mm. 
longis glabris; antheris reniformibus 0.3 mm. longis 0.4 mm. latis 
glabris; stylo glabro 1.5-2 mm. longo; fructibus non visis. 

Type in herb. Chi. Nat. Hist. Mus., collected on Mount ^oraima, 
ascent of ledge along southwest-facing sjde, from beginning of 



BOTANICAL EXPLORATION IN VENEZUELA -III 495 

sandstone bluffs to summit, state of Bolivar, alt. 2255-2620 m., 
September 27, 1944, Julian A. Steyermark 58761, "shrub 10-15 feet 
tall; leaves erect-ascending, coriaceous, dark green above, dull 
green below; calyx olive green; petals pale green." 

Also collected among woody growth among boulders bordering 
Central Swamp, on southern half of summit of Mount Roraima, alt. 
2700-2740 m., September 28, 1944, Steyermark 58899. This last 
collection has less pointed leaves but is probably conspecific 
with S. roraimensis. 

This species is closely related to S. bogotensis Brand, from which 
it differs in the greater number of stamens, more elongated inflo- 
rescences and apiculate prolongation at the apex of the leaf. It is 
also related to S. tetrandra Mart., differing from that species in the 
more numerous stamens and subentire instead of repand-dentate 
leaves. From S. rhamnifolia A. DC. it may be separated by the 
glabrous filaments, shorter petioles, and smaller more apiculate 
leaves. It also approaches S. pycnophylla Sleumer of the vicinity of 
Roraima, but that has much larger leaves which are broadly rounded 
at the apex. 

Symplocos taniana Steyermark, sp. nov. 

Frutex 0.8-1-metralis; ramulis novellis hirsutis; foliis petiolatis, 
petiolis 3-4 mm. longis glabris; laminis coriaceo-chartaceis subtus 
pallido-viridibus elliptico-oblongis vel obovato-oblongis apice rotun- 
datis interdum subemarginatis basi cuneatim angustatis in petiolum 
decurrentibus 10-17 mm. longis 5-10 mm. latis, utrinque plerumque 
glabris praeter costam mediam subtus parce hirsutulam, marginibus 
subrevolutis crenulato-denticulatis dentibus minutis nigris, nervis 
lateralibus utroque 3-4 cum venis laxe reticulatis, costa media sub- 
tus prominente; floribus solitariis subsessilibus; calyce 3.5 mm. 
longo pallido-viridi, tubo 1.3 mm. longo glabro, lobis suborbiculari- 
bus* rotundatis 2.2 mm. longis 2.5 mm. latis marginibus ciliolatis 
ceterum glabris; corolla rosacea 6-8-partita, 6-8 mm. longa, tubo 1.5 
mm. longo, lobis late oblongis rotundatis 5-6.5 mm. longis 3 mm. 
latis ciliolatis; staminibus quadriserialibus, superne liberis, fila- 
mentis rosaceis; ovario 3-loculari glabro; stylo glabro 5 mm. longo; 
stigmate capitate; fructibus non visis. 

Type in herb. Chi. Nat. Hist. Mus., collected in rich moist woods 
at base of Paramo de Tama, 4-10 kms. above Betania, state of 
Tachira, alt. 2500-2895 m., July 15, 1944, Julian A. Steyermark 
57340, "shrub 2-3 feet tall; petals deep rose-red; filaments pink to 
rose; calyx pale green; leaves coriaceous-chartaceous, deep green 
above, pale green below." 

This dwarf species is related to S. lutescens Brand of Colombia 
and to S. parvifolia Benth. of Ecuador, but differs in the 6-8-parted 
corolla, glabrous (except for ciliate) calyx lobes, and shape and size 
of the leaves. 



496 FIELDIANA: BOTANY, VOLUME 28 



Lisianthus scabridulus Steyermark, sp. nov. 

Herba annua 8.5 dm. alta; caulibus simplicibus vel supra medium 
parce ramosis subtiliter 4-angulatis minute scabridulis; internodiis 
3-9 cm. longis; foliis petiolatis triplinerviis, petiolis paullo anguste 
decurrentibus plerumque 10-30 mm. longis supremis 3 mm. longis, 
laminis membranaceis subtus pallido-viridibus elliptico-ovatis vel 
ovato-lanceolatis, supremis late ovatis apice cuspidato-acuminatis 
basi in petiolum subito cuneatis vel acuminatis vel supremis basi 
subcordatis vel rotundatis 4-8 cm. longis 1.5-3.5 cm. latis, nervis 
principalibus utroque prominentibus, eis subtus minute scabridulis, 
marginibus minute scabridulis, ceterum glabris; pedunculis elongatis 
3-6 cm. longis angulatis scabridulis; cymis bifidis racemiformibus 
4-10-floris 2-4.5 cm. longis, pedicellis tenuibus 4-8 mm. longis 
scabridulis; bracteis anguste oblongis obtusis 1.5-2.2 mm. longis; 
calyce pallido-viridi campanulato 3.5"4.5 mm. longo 5'partito, 
lobis late ovatis vel suborbiculari-ovatis abrupte acutis 2.5"3 mm. 
longis scariosis marginibus minute ciliolato-scabridulis; corolla 
infundibuliformi 11-13 mm. longa, tubo lilacino-albido 6.5-7 mm. 
longo, lobis lavendulis ovatis abrupte cuspidatis 4.5-6 mm. longis 
3-3.5 mm. latis, marginibus minute ciliolatis; staminibus 5 corollae 
tubo superne insertis; filamentis exsertis; antheris e tubo corolla 
exsertis immutatis oblongis apice rotundatis 2 mm. longis; stylo 
distincto persistente, stigmate bilamellato, lamellis obovoideis 
rotundatis; capsulis nutantibus 8.5-11 mm. longis (cum stylo). 

Type in herb. Chi. Nat. Hist. Mus., collected on edge of bluff, 
Cerro Duida, southeastern-facing slopes along Cano Negro (tributary 
of Cano Iguapo), Territorio Federal Amazonas, alt. 1200 m., August 
25-26, 1944, Julian A. Steyermark 57979 (2 sheets), "corolla lobes 
rich lavender; corolla tube dull lilac-whitish; calyx pale green with 
dull green along margins; leaves membranaceous, dull green above, 
pale green below." 

There appear to be no fundamental constant morphological charac- 
ters to keep Pagaea as a genus separate from Lisianthus and its re- 
lated segregates (Calolisianthus, Chelonanthus, Irlbachia, etc.). 
Too many intergradations and exceptions occur in this complex to 
continue to maintain them as genera. As Bentham originally noted 
(Hook. Journ. Bot. 6: 200. 1854) in a discussion of Irlbachia, "Lisi- 
anthus therefore, to which Grisebach has himself correctly reunited 
Leiothamnus and Symbolanthus , becomes a numerous South American 
genus, with species very different indeed from each other in the size 
and color of the flowers, but connected together by a series of inter- 
mediates, and united by good common characters." 

I am therefore referring the new species, on conservative grounds, 
to Lisianthus. It is related to Pagaea recurva (Benth.) Benth. 
& Hook. = Lisianthus recurvus Benth., Pagaea subcordata (Benth.) 
Benth. & Hook. = Lisianthus subcordatus Benth., and Pagaea Poep- 
pigii Griseb. - Lisianthus ramosissimus Benth., from all of which it 
differs in the lavender corolla, minutely scabridulous pedicels, 






BOTANICAL EXPLORATION IN VENEZUELA -III 497 

peduncles, and stems, and ciliolate-scabridulous margins of the 
calyx lobes. The pedicels are longer and more slender and the in- 
florescence surpasses the upper leaves more conspicuously than in 
Lisianthus recurvus and L. subcordatus. The uppermost leaves are 
distinctive subcordate and quite different in shape from the other 
cauline leaves, whereas in L. recurvus and L. ramosissimus they are 
all conspicuously narrowed and cuneate at the base, and in L. sub- 
cordatus* none of the leaves are as definitely subcordate as the 
uppermost ones of L. scabridulus. 

Gilg's attempt to split up the genus Lisianthus into such separate 
genera as Chelonanthus, Calolisianthus, and Irlbachia, based upon 
differences in the character of the pollen grain, has produced, in this 
author's opinion, an artificial and unnecessary segregation of other- 
wise congeneric elements. There do not appear to be any constant 
combinations of gross morphological characters in support of Gilg's 
generic divisions. In the field the various entities appear as numer- 
ous species, belonging to a diversified genus, there being encoun- 
tered color and size differences in corolla, acute to rounded corolla 
lobes, size of plants, shape of leaves, shape and exsertion of an- 
thers, and other characters, but none of them seem to hold in com- 
bination constantly with other characters. It appears much more in 
keeping with sound taxonomy to retain Lisianthus, as did Bentham 
and Grisebach, as a comprehensive genus, including Calolisianthus, 
Chelonanthus, and Irlbachia as sections, rather than distinct genera. 
I cannot agree to delimit Lisianthus to certain species of Mexico, 
Central America, the West Indies, and Colombia, as did Dr. Perkins 
in her treatment of the genus in 1902 (Monographische Uebersicht 
der Arten der Gattung Lisianthus. Bot. Jahrb. 31: 489-494. 1902). 
Ewan (Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 29, part 5: 212-213. 1948) also points 
out that by treating the genera of Gentianaceae solely on the basis 
of pollen grain characters, Gilg placed unrelated genera together 
like Symbolanthus and Chelonanthus. Gilg thus places Symbolanthus 
in the Gentianoideae-Helieae instead of in the Gentianoideae- 
Gentianeae-Tachiinae, where it should go, according to Ewan, along 
with Macrocarpaea. Ewan states "Here pollen characters were re- 
lied upon exclusively in the recognition of natural groups within the 
Gentianaceae, with the consequent obscuring of other alliances 
within the family." 

Until more evidence is at hand for demonstrating that Chelonan- 
thus, Calolisianthus, Irlbachia, and Pagaea, have other constant 
taxonomic characters, I prefer to retain them as sections within 
Li's ianthus , 

It becomes necessary, therefore, in view of the above considera- 
tions, to publish the following new combinations: 



*Photographs of Spruce 2524 (type of Lisianthus recurvus) and 
Spruce 3055 (type of Lisianthus subcordatus) taken in the Berlin 
herbarium and now at the Chicago Natural History Museum do not 
show significant differences in the leaf bases. It is possible that 
the two species are conspecific. 



498 FIELDIANA: BOTANY, VOLUME 28 

Lisianthus Cardonae (Gleason) Steyermark, comb. nov. 

Chelonanthus Cardonae Gleason, Brittonia 3: 189. 1939. 

Gleason describes the calyx as "10-11 mm. long", but measure- 
ments on the type specimen (Tate 1359) show the calyx to be much 
shorter (5-6 mm. long) and the calyx lobes to vary from 3.5-4 instead 
of 5.5*6 mm. long. 

In Steyermark 60498 and 59393, from the region of Santa Teresita 
de Kavanayen, collected somewhat to the east of the type collection, 
the measurements of the calyx and calyx lobes are 5-6 and 3.5-4 ram. 
long respectively. The leaves in the Steyermark collections vary 
from 8-14 mm. wide rather than 18-25 mm., as in the type collection, 
and the inflorescence occupies from 1/4-1/9 the length of the plant, 
instead of from half or more as in the type collection. The corolla 
tube varies in the Steyermark collections from 7 mm. long to 8-10 mm. 
in the type collection. The description of Chelonanthus Cardonae = 
Lisianthus Cardonae should be emended to "foliis 8-25 mm. latis; 
inflorescentiis 1/9-1/2 longitudine caulis; calyce 5-6 mm. longo, 
lobis 3.5-4 mm. longis; corollae tubo 7-10 mm. longo." 

Lisianthus pyriformis (Gleason) Steyermark, comb. nov. 

Chelonanthus pyriformis Gleason, Bull. Torr. Bot. Club 58: 450. 
1931. 

Gleason describes the leaves as linear-lanceolate and "8-12 mm. 
wide." Actually, some of them on the type specimen (Tate 747) are 
elliptic-lanceolate and up to 14 mm. wide, while Steyermark 58268 
from the type locality has leaves up to 20 mm. wide and some which 
vary from ovate-elliptic to broadly elliptic. .The corolla in the 
Steyermark 58268 specimen is green, rather than yellow. 

Lisianthus Tatei (Gleason) Steyermark, comb. nov. 

Calolisianthus Tatei Gleason, Bull. Torr. Bot. Club 58: 449-450. 
1931. 

A second collection of this species, Steyermark 58297, is from 
the type locality in the Savanna Hills, Mount Duida. In this collec- 
tion the corolla measures 24-25 mm. long instead of "nearly 2 cm. 
long" as described for the type collection (Tate 743) and the per- 
sistent style measures as much as 18 mm. long. Gleason described 
the style measurement in the Tate specimen as "the body [of the 
capsule J nearly 10 mm. long, tipped by the persistent style of the 
same length", but an examination of the type specimen reveals that 
some of the styles may measure 15 mm. long. 

Therefore, the description should be emended to "corolla 20-25 
mm. longa; stylo 10-18 mm. longo." 

Macrocarpaea tepuiensis (Gleason) Steyermark, comb. nov. 

Calolisianthus tepuiensis Gleason, Brittonia 3: 188-189. 1939; 
Macrocarpaea cerronis Ewan, Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 29, part 5: 
223-224. 1948; Macrocarpaea salicifolia Ewan, loc. cit. p. 224. 

In preparing his revision of Macrocarpaea (Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 



BOTANICAL EXPLORATION IN VENEZUELA -III 499 

29, part 5: 209-249- 1948), Ewan apparently had not examined the 
type of Calolisianthus tepuiensis Gleason. An examination of that 
specimen (Tate 1361 from Mount Auyan-tepui', Venezuela) by the 
present writer shows, without doubt, that it is congeneric with the 
genus Macrocarpaea and conspecific with M. salicifolia Ewan and 
M. cerronis Ewan, both recently described. While the type specimen 
of Calolisianthus tepuiensis agrees more precisely with the shape of 
the leaves, elongated petioles, and length of internodes found in 
Macrocarpaea salicifolia, nevertheless, it is more or less intermed- 
iate between M. salicifolia and M. cerronis and grades into them. 

The congested panicle, flowering branches leafy to the tip, and 
the more ovate crowded leaves of M. cerronis is to be correlated with 
its occurrence at a higher altitude associated with the ecological 
conditions of cold and more pronounced exposure to sun and (or) 
wind, effecting shortened internodes, more congested inflorescences, 
shortening of the petioles, and crowding and reduction of leaves 
(with consequent modification of leaf shape). The shape and size 
and color of the corolla is identical in M. salicifolia, M. cerronis, 
and Calolisianthus tepuiensis. All of them possess in common the 
same type of coriaceous leaves with the veins obscure except for 
the prominent midrib, all have the leaves acute or prominently apic- 
ulate at apex, and in all of them the stems are conspicuously 4- 
angled. Having collected and seen M. salicifolia and M. cerronis in 
the field, I consider M. cerronis nothing more than an ecological 
form of M. salicifolia growing at a higher elevation than the latter 
entity and exhibiting, by its crowded somewhat reduced leaves with 
shorter petioles and more congested inflorescence, the effects of 
colder, more windswept, and sunnier conditions incident to its occur- 
rence at higher altitudes. 

APOCYNACEAE 28 
Macropharynx strigillosa Woodson, sp. nov. 

Frutex volubilis alte scandens ramulis validis fistulosis bifariam 
pubescentibus dense minuteque canescentibus praeterea sparsius 
aspere hirsutis internodis elongatis. Folia opposita breviter petio- 
lata late ovata basi rotundato-cordata sinu angusto apice latissime 
obtusa deinde abruptissime breviterque caudata 12-20 cm. longa 9-14 
cm. lata subcoriacea margine revoluta supra glabra subtus minute 
aspere canescentia nervo medio venisque sparse hirsuta petiolo 
0.8-1.2 cm. longo more nervo medio pubescente. Inflorescentiae 
axillares oppositae 1-5-florae fasciculate congestae corolla excepto 
bifariam pubescentes pedunculis petiolos subaequantibus. Flores 
pallide galbini petiolo ca. 1 cm. longo; calycis laciniis 5 ovato- 
lanceolatis acuminatis ca. 1 cm. longis intus basi plurisquamelligeris 
extus apicem versus hirsutis bracteis similibus nonnullis proxime 
subtendentibus; corollae infundibuliformis tubo proprio ca. 1 cm. 
longo dextrorse contorto basi ca. 0.3 cm. diam. apice angustato 
ibique staminigero faucibus 5 - gone subconicis sinistrorse contortis 



28 By R. E. Woodson, Jr. 



500 FIELDIANA: BOTANY, VOLUME 28 

prope basim ca. 0.7 cm. diam. apice ca. 0,4 cm. diam. lobis 3'gno- 
dolabriformibus ca. 1.3 cm. longis 1.2 cm. latis patulis; antheris 
subsessilibus lanceolatis anguste acuminatis.basi anguste sagittatis 
0.8-0.9 cm. longis dorso minute hirsutulis; carpellis 2 ovoideis ca. 
0.15 cm. longis nectariis 5 ca. 0.1 cm. longis compresse ovoideis 
stylo filiforme ca. 1 cm. longo stigmate mitriforme ca. 0.2 cm. longo. 
Folliculi 2 crassi cylindrici ca. 25 cm. longi 0.7 cm. diam. extus 
dense puberuli sparsissimeque strigosi seminibus ca. 0.7 cm. longis 
coma pallide lutea ca. 1.7 cm. longa. 

Type in Mo. Bot. Card, herb., isotype in herb. U. S. Nat. Arb., 
collected in northeast woods of the Institute Agronomico do Norte, 
Belem, Para, Brazil, October 30, 1942, W. A. Archer 7770. An addi- 
tional collection from Brazil, in U. S. Nat. Herb, is prope lacum 
Catu, Belem, January 1, 1926, Ducke 21586. 

Additional collections are: VENEZUELA: in herb. Chi. Nat. 
Hist. Mus. and Mo. Bot. Card., between Montana de Aguacate and 
Colorado, along Rib Caripe, east of Caripe, state of Monagas, alt. 
700-800 m., April 19, 1945, Steyermark 62239, "vining in thickets 
over herbs; leaves coriaceous, subrevolute, deep green above, pale 
silvery green below; calyx rich green; corolla tube creamy yellow, 
constricted about half-way up, lobes creamy-white;" along Rio 
Karuai, at base of Sororopa'n-tepuf, west of La Laja, state of Bolivar, 
alt. 1220 m., November 29, 1944, Steyermark 60771, "liana with 
milky latex; leaves coriaceous, deep green and shining above, dull 
paler green below; peduncle ferruginous; calyx olive green." 
BRITISH GUIANA: in Mo. Bot. Card, herb., sandhills, Demerara 
River, February 21, 1943, Forest Department 3932. 

The general habits of M. spectabilis and M. strigillosa are practi- 
cally the same, apparently, but the stems and leaves of the former 
are without the long, coarse hairs of the latter. The corollas of the 
two species, however, are quite different, that of the former with a 
throat nearly twice the length of the latter, as well as inflating, 
rather than constricting toward the orifice, and quite without the pen- 
tagonal basal inflation of M. strigillosa. It is very interesting to 
discover this very distinct, lower Amazon species as a counterpart 
of the upper Amazon M. spectabilis. 

Mandevilla duidae Woodson, comb. nov. 

Salpinctes (?) duidae Woodson, apud Gleason, in Bull. Torrey Bot. 
Club 54: 454. 1931. 

The proper systematic position of this species, originally des- 
cribed in fruit from the Savana Hills by Tyler fortunately is decided 
by Dr. Steyermark *s flowering specimens. The species proves to be 
another member of the shrubby Exothostemons with infundibuliform 
corollas, which are so characteristic of the Roraima region. 

Mandevilla lancibracteata Woodson, sp. nov. 

Frutex volubilis ramulis tenuibus purpureo-brunneis glabris. 
Folia opposita petiolo 1.5 cm. longo inconspicue pilosulo lamina 
elliptico-lanceolata apice anguste acuminata basi obscure cordata 



BOTANICAL EXPLORATION IN VENEZUELA -III 501 

6.5-9.0 cm. longa 2.5"35 cm. lata firmiter membranacea supra glabra 
nervo medio sparse glanduloso subtus pallida inconspicue pilosula- 
Inflorescentiae racemosae axillares pluriflorae pedunculo 6-8 cm. 
longo glabro pedicellis 0.5-0.8 cm. longis bracteis anguste elliptico- 
lanceolatis foliaceis 2.0-2.5 cm. longis. Calycis laciniae ovatae 
longe acuminatae 0.3 cm. longae glabrae. Corolla infundibuliformis 
versicolor extus glabra tubo proprio 1 cm. longo basi ca. 0.25 cm. 
diam. rubro faucibus anguste conicis 2.5 cm. longis pallide viridibus 
ostio ca. 1 cm. diam. lobis oblique obovatis 1.5 cm. longis albidis 
patulis. Antherae elliptico-sagittatae anguste obscureque cordatae 
4.5 mm. longae glabrae. Ovaria oblongoidea 1.5 mm. alta glabra nec- 
tariis 5 plus minusve concrescentibus ca. 1 mm. altis stigmate um- 
braculiforme breviter apiculato ca. 1.5 mm. alto. 

Type in herb. Mo. Bot. Card., isotype in herb. Chi. Nat. Hist. Mus., 
collected between Las Delicias and Paraguita, bordering Rio Ta'chira, 
along Colombian-Venezuelan boundary, state of Tachira, alt. 1675- 
1980 m., July 12, 1944, Julian A. Steyermark 57144. 

Cotype in herb. Mo. Bot. Card, and Chi. Nat. Hist. Mus., collected 
between Mucuchachi and Canagua', state of Merida, alt. 1065 m., May 
6, 1944, Steyermark 56354. 

Also collected in Ecuador: wooded slopes along Rib Valladolid, 
between Quebrada Honda and Tambo Valladolid, prov. Santiago- 
Zamora, alt. 2000-3000 m., October 12, 1943, Steyermark 54622. 

Closely related to M. Moritziana (Muell.-Arg.) Donn. Sm., also of 
Venezuela, which differs abundantly in its clawed, spatulate bracts 
and smaller, greenish corollas with proportionally longer proper tubes. 
The Ecuadorian specimen is only provisionally assigned to M. lanci- 
bracteata since it is rather inadequately preserved. 

Mandevilla pachyphylla Woodson, sp. nov. 

Frutex volubilis ramulis teretibus tenuiusculis minute puberulis. 
Folia opposita petiolo 0.1 cm. longo appresse puberulo lamina late 
elliptico-sagittata apice longe acuminata basi obscure cordata 5-8 
cm. longa 2.5-4.5 cm. lata coriacea supra saturate viridi glabra nervo 
medio sparse glandulosa subtus pallidiori minute puberula. Inflores- 
centiae axillares racemosae pluriflorae pedunculo longissimo usque 
25 cm. longo pedicellis ca. 0.5 cm. longis bracteis minimis. Calycis 
laciniae ovato-lanceolatae acuminatae 0.4 cm. longae extus sparse 
pilosulae. Corolla infundibuliformis aurantiaca extus pilosula tubo 
proprio 0.8 cm. longo basi ca. 0.2 cm. diam. faucibus anguste cam- 
panulatis 2 cm. longis ostio ca. 1 cm. diam. lobis oblique obovatis 
2 cm. longis patulis. Antherae oblongo-sagittatae obscure cordatae 
0.4 cm. longae glabrae. Ovaria oblongoidea 1.5 mm. alta glabra nec- 
tariis 5 compresse subquadratis subaequantia stigmate umbraculi- 
formi breviter apiculato ca. 1.5 mm. alto. Folliculi distincte articu- 
lati ca. 15 cm. longi. 

Type in herb. Mo. Bot. Card., isotype in herb. Chi. Nat. Hist. Mus., 
collected on densely forested steep south-facing slopes overlying 
sandstone, between "Cave Rock" and base of high sandstone bluffs, 



502 FIELDIANA: BOTANY, VOLUME 28 

Ptari-tepin', state of Bolivar, alt. 2285-2405, October 30, 1944, 
Julian A. Steyermark 59579. 

Cotypes in herb. Mo. Bot. Card, and Chi. Nat. Hist. Mus., col- 
lected on upper slopes of Carrao-tepui', state of Boli'var, alt. 2130- 
2430 m., December 7, 1944, Steyermark 60874; Sororopan-tepui', state 
of Bolfvar, alt. 2225-2255 m., November 13, 1944, Steyermark 60093. 

Clearly a relative of the rather confusing M. Fendleri complex, but 
unusually well defined by reason of the coriaceous leaves and ex- 
tremely elongate inflorescences. 

Mandevilla Steyermarkii Woodson, sp. nov. 

Frutex volubilis ramulis crassiusculis teretibus glabris. Folia 
opposita petiolo 2.5 cm. longo lamina ovato-elliptica apice abrupte 
acuminata basi late cordata 6-8 cm. longa 4-5 cm. lata membranacea 
glabra nervo medio supra sparse glanduloso. Jnflorescentiae race- 
mosae subspiciformes pluriflorae pedunculo crasso 10-12 cm. longo 
pedicellis ca. 0.2 cm. longis crassis bracteis speciosis albis an- 
guste elliptico-lanceolata subcaudato-acuminatis sessibilibus 
3.5-4.0 cm. longis. Calycis laciniae ovatae breviter acuminatae 2 
mm. longae minute puberulae. Corolla infundibuliformis extus 
glabra tubo proprio ca. 3.5 cm. longo basi ca. 2 mm. diam. galbino 
faucibus conicis 2.5 cm. longis galbinis ostio ca. 1.7 cm. diam. 
lobis oblique obovatis acuminatis 1.5 cm. longis aurantiacis patulis. 
Antherae anguste oblongo-sagittatae basi profunde angusteque cor- 
datae 0.8 cm. longae glabrae. Ovaria 1 mm. longa glabra nectariis 
concrescentibus aequantia stigmate urabraculiformi breviter apicu- 
lato ca. 3.5 mm. longo. Folliculi tenues laeves 15 cm. longi. 

Type in herb. Mo. Bot. Card., isotype in Chi. Nat. Hist. Mus., 
collected in vicinity of Sanariapo, near Rio Sanariapo, tributary of 
Orinoco River, Territorio Federal Amazonas, alt. 100 m., September 
8, 1944, Julian A. Steyermark 58504. 

Closely related to both M. Moritziana and M. lancibracteata, but 
with much broader, shorter leaves, subspicate inflorescence, and 
very much larger and showier bracts and corollas. 

Also collected more recently in Colombia along the Rio Vaupes, 
P. H.. Allen 3313 and 3398 in herb. Mo. Bot. Card., where it is said 
to be frequent. 

Rauwolfia Steyermarkii Woodson, sp. nov. 

Frutex ca. 6 m. altus omnino glaber ramulis crassiusculis brunneis 
bene lenticellatis. Folia 3"5"ternata petiolo 1 cm. longo eglanduloso 
lamina obovato-elliptica apice breviter acuminata basi obtusa 6.5-9.0 
cm. longa 3"4 cm. lata subcoriacea glabra. Inflorescentiae pleio- 
chasiales 8-9 cm. longae multiflorae pedicellis ca. 0.5 cm. longae. 
Calycis laciniae oblongo-ovatae obtusae ca. 1.5 mm. longae glabrae. 
Corolla extus glabra hypocrateriformis tubo 6 mm. longo basi ca. 1 
mm. diam. viride albo lobis oblique ovalibus 2 mm. longis viridis. 
Antherae 1 mm. longae. Ovaria apocarpa 1 mm. longa glabra nec- 
tario annulari ca. bis aequantia. 



BOTANICAL EXPLORATION IN VENEZUELA -III 503 

Type in herb. Chi. Nat. Hist. Mus., holotype in herb. Mo. Bot. 
Card., collected between Tabor and Villapaez. along Rio Tachira, 
by Colombian-Venezuelan boundary, state of Tachira, alt. 1820-2130 
m., July 17, 1944, Julian A. Steyermark 57428. 

Very closely related to R. Mattfeldiana Mgf., from the state of 
Bahia, Brazil, which is described as bearing ovate-elliptic leaves, 
pedicels about twice as long, longer corolla lobes, etc. 

ASCLEPIADACEAE 2 ? 
Blepharodon Steyermarkii R. Holm, sp. nov. 

Suffrutex volubilis, ramis glabris. Folia lanceolata-elliptica 
acuminata vel mucronata cuneata vel obtusa 4-8 cm. longa 1.5-2.0 
cm. lata firme membranacea revoluta utrinque glabra, petiolis 0.5*0.8 
cm. longis glabris. Inflorescentiae cincinnatae 4-7-florae, pe- 
dunculo 1-2 cm. longo glabro, pedicellis 1.5-2.0 cm. longis glabris. 
Calycis lobi ovati 2 mm. longi utrinque glabri margine scarioso. 
Corolla rotato-campanulata 8 mm. longa lobis viridulis ovatis acutis 
5 mm. longis extus glabris intus minute puberulo-papillatis. Gyno- 
stegium 3 mm. altum columna obsoleta, antheris 3 mm. longis apici- 
bus membranaceis semiorbicularibus, polliniis cylindratis 0.5 ram. 
longis caudiculis brevissimis, corpusculo sacco pillinii aequalis, 
corona saccata hiulca lobis interioribus anguste lanceolatis 3.5 mm. 
longis. acutis vel obtusis dorsis staminum in parte inferiore adnatis 
exterioribus anguste lanceolatis 3 ram. longis acutis vel obtusis 
basin patelliformis gynostegii in parte inferiore adnati. Ovaria 
glabra; capite stigmatis umbonato margine cristato. Folliculi et 
semina non visi. 

Possibly only a variant of one of the several species clustered 
about Blepharodon reflexus, but differing in the structure of the 
corona. 

Type in herb. Chi. Nat. Hist. Mus., isotypes in Dudley herb, and 
herb. Mo. Bot. Card., collected in woods bordering savanna on ridge 
above La Laja, at base of Sororopan-tepui, state of Bolivar, alt. 
1375-1460 m., November 30, 1944, Julian A. Steyermark 60813. 

Blepharodon viscidum R. Holm, sp. nov. 

Suffrutex erectus, caulibus basin ramosus minute viscido- 
glandulosis. Folia erecta linearia 2-4 cm. longa 0.2 cm. lata firme 
membranacea revoluta supra glabra subtus minute viscido- 
glandulosa praeter costa glabra, petiolis ca. 1 mm. longis glabris. 
Inflorescentiae umbelliformes 1-3-florae, pedunculo 2-3 mm. longo 
valde deflexo minute pubescenti, pedicellis 4-5 ram. longis, minute 
puberulis. Calycis lobi ovati 1 mm. longi utrinque glabri. Corolla 
subrotato-campanulata 5 mm. longa, lobis ovatis acutis 4.5 mm. 
longis extus fulvo-viridis nitidis glabris intus purpurellis parte 
dimidia superiore glaucis papillatis margine subscarioso. Gyno- 
stegium 2 mm. altum columna obsoleta; antheris 2 mm. longis apici- 
bus membranaceis semiorbicularibus, polliniis ovoidiis 0.25 mm. 



29 By Richard W. Holm, except Matelea by R. E. Woodson, Jr. 



504 FIELDIANA: BOTANY, VOLUME 28 

longis, caudiculis brevissimis, corpusculo sacco pollinii aequalis, 
corona ut videtur semivesiculosa 1 mm. longa margine exteriore 
bicarinato basis patelliformis gynostegio in parte inferiore adnati. 
Ovaria glabra capite stigmatis umbonato margine scarioso. Folli- 
culi et semina non visi. 

A distinctive species, characteristic of a small group of usually 
erect species with semivesicular corona segments. 

Type in herb. Chi. Nat. Hist. Mus., isotypes in Dudley herb, and 
herb. Mo. Bot. Card., collected on dry sandy and rocky sandstone 
exposures on level ground adjacent to swamp on plateau portion of 
southeast-facing slopes, Ptari-tepui, state of Bolivar, alt. 1600 m., 
November 1, 1944, Julian A. Steyermark 59657. 

Cotype collected Territorio Federal Amazonas, Steyermark 57843. 

Cynanchum albonervum R. Holm, sp. nov. 

Suffrutex volubilis, ramis minute hirtellis. Folia obovata retuso- 
mucronata cuneata 1.6-2.5 cm. longa 0.5-1.0 cm. lata subcoriacea 
utrinque glabra supra vernicosa costa inferiore alba, petiolis 1-2 mm. 
longis glabris. Inflorescentiae umbelliformes pluriflorae, pedunculo 
obsolete, pedicellis 1.5 mm. longis. Calycis lobi ovati 1 mm. longi 
utrinque glabri. Corolla campanulata (?) lobis albis ovatis acutis 
2 mm. longis extus glabris intus papTllatis. Gynostegium 1.5 mm. 
altum columna obsoleta, antheris 1.5 mm. longis apicibus membra- 
naceis deltoideis, polliniis oblongo-cylindratis, caudiculis brevis- 
simis, corpusculo sacco pollinii aequalis, corona squamis exteriori- 
bus lanceolatis breve connatis interioribus minutis acicularibus. 
Ovaria glabra, capite stigmatis piano. Folliculi fusiformes 1.8 cm. 
longi 0.3 cm. crassi minute puberuli; semina non visi. 

Type in herb. Chi. Nat. Hist. Mus., collected in dry scrubby woods, 
between Humocaro Bajo and Los Aposentos, state of Lara, alt. 1090- 
1980 m., February 1, 1944, Julian A. Steyermark 55203. 

Cynanchum bolivarense R. Holm, sp. nov. 

Suffrutex volubilis, ramis minute hirtellis. Folia anguste obovato- 
elliptica abrupte mucronata cuneata 1.5-2.0 cm. longa 4-7 mm. lata 
firme membranacea revoluta utrinque glabra, petiolis 3~4 mm. longis 
supra minute hirtellis. Inflorescentiae umbelliformes 1-4-florae, 
pedunculo 3 mm. longo glabro, pedicellis 4 mm. longis glabris. 
Calycis lobi ovati 1.0 mm. longi utrinque glabri. Corolla rotato- 
subcampanulata lobis albis anguste ovatis acutis 2 mm. longi extus 
glabris intus minute papillatis. Gynostegium 2 mm. altum columna 
obsoleta, antheris 2 mm. longis apicibus membranaceis deltoideis, 
polliniis cylindratis 0.5 mm. longis, caudiculis brevissimis, corpus- 
culo sacco pollinii subaequalis, corona squamis exterioribus 
lanceolatis obscure trilobis lobis lateralis incurvatis, interioribus 
anguste lanceolatis fere 1/2 brevioribus. Ovaria glabra capite stig- 
matis convexo. Folliculi et semina non visi. 

Type in herb. Chi. Nat. Hist. Mus., isotypes in Dudley herb, and 
herb. Mo. Bot. Gard., collected in Gran Sabana, in woods bordering 
streams tributary to Rio Kukena'n, at base of Mount Roraima, state 



'f BOTANICAL EXPLORATION IN VENEZUELA -III 505 

of Bolivar, alt. 1185-1280 m., September 24, 1944, Julian A. Steyer- 
mark 58555. 

Cotype collected in Gran Sabana, between Kun and Uaduara-paru 
in valley of Rib Kukenan, south of Mount Roraima, state of Boh'var, 
alt. 1065-1220 m., Steyermark 59106. 

Cynanchum caespitulosum R. Holm, sp. nov. 

Suffrutex erectus caespitulosus, caulibus basin ramosus dense 
hirtellis pilis decurvis. Folia anguste linearia acuta vel mucronu- 
lata 8-9 mm. longa 0.5 mm. lata firme membranacea revoluta 
utrinque glabra praeter margine ciliata, petiolis obsoletis. Inflores- 
centiae umbelliformes 1-3-florae, pedunculo 0.1 mm. longo, pedi- 
cellis 0.5-1.0 mm. longis. Calycis lobi 1.0 mm. longi utrinque 
glabri. Corolla rotato-subcampanulata 2.0 mm. longa, lobis albis 
anguste ovatis 1.5 mm. longis extus glabris intus puberulo-papillatis 
margine glabro. Gynostegium 1.0 mm. altum columna obsoleta, 
antheris 1.0 mm. longis apicibus membranaceis reniformibus, polli- 
niis ovoideo-cylindratis, caudiculis brevis, corpusculo sacco 
pollinii fere 1/2 breviore, corona gynostegium aequanti squamis 
breve connatis acutis squamis interioribus ovatis exterioribus aequi- 
longis trilobulatis, lobis lateralibus linearibus mediis ovatis. Ovaria 
glabra capite stigmatis umbonata. Folliculi fusiformes 3.1-3.2 cm. 
longi 0.3 cm. lati, striati; semina 3 mm. longa, 1.5 mm. lata, utrinque 
papillata; coma ca. 2.5 mm. longa. 

Type in herb. Chi. Nat. Hist. Mus., isotypes in Dudley herb, and 
herb. Mo. Bot. Gard., collected in Gran Sabana, between waterfall 
at Ruemeru (tributary of Rio Kukenan) and Divina Pastora on Rib 
Kukena'n north of Santa Elena, south of Mount Roraima, state of 
Bolivar, alt 1065 m., October 3, 1944, Julian A. Steyermark 59210. 

Cynanchum caudigerum R. Holm, sp. nov. 

Suffrutex volubilis vel prostratis ramis dense hirtellis. Folia 
lanceolata longe acuminata vel caudata 2.8-8.3 cm. longa 1.0-2.9 cm. 
lata firme membranacea utrinque dense velutino-pilosa margine revo- 
luta petiolis 1-3 cm. longis dense hirtellis. Inflorescentiae umbelli- 
formes 1-6-florae pedunculo obsoleto pedicellis 4-5 mm. longis 
hirtellis. Calycis lobi ovati 1 mm. longi extus dense hirtelli intus 
glabri. Corolla rotato-campanulata lobis viridulo- vel flavido-albis 
lanceolatis acutis revolutis 3 mm. longis extus sparse pilosus intus 
hirtellis. Gynostegium 1 mm. altum columna obscura antheris 0.5 mm. 
longis apicibus membranaceis ovatis, pollinii cylindratis, caudiculus 
brevissimis, corpusculo sacco pollinii subaequalis corona gyno- 
stegium subaequanti cyathiformis lobata squamis ovatis revolutis. 
Ovaria hirtella capite stigmatis piano. Folliculi et semina non visi. 

Type in herb. Chi. Nat. Hist. Mus., isotypes in Dudley herb, and 
herb. Mo. Bot. Gard., collected on north-facing slopes of Cerro 
Turumiquire, between La Trinidad and Quebrada El Boqueron, south- 
west of Cocollar, state of Sucre, alt. 1700-1840 m., May 3, 1945, 
Julian A. Steyermark 62443. 

Cotype collected on Cerro Negro, above La Sabana de las Piedras, 



506 FIELDIANA: BOTANY, VOLUME 28 

northwest of Caripe, state of Monagas, alt. 1500-2180 m., April 15, 
1945, Steyermark 62127. 

Cynanchum confusum R. Holm, sp. nov. 

Suffrutex volubilis, ramis bifariam hirsutis. Folia lanceolata 
acuminata vel caudata cordata vel truncata 2.5-3.6 cm. longa 1.3-1.7 
cm. lata firme membranacea revoluta utrinque glabrata, petiolis 
0.9-1.0 cm. longis hirtellis. Inflorescentiae umbelliformes 1- 5- 
florae, pedunculo obsolete, pedicellis 4-5 mm. longis puberulis. 
Calycis lobi ovati 1.5 mm. longi extus puberuli intus glabri. Corolla 
subcampanulata lobis albis anguste ovatis acutis 3 mm. longis extus 
glabris intus minute puberulis. Gynostegium 2 mm. altum columna 
subobsoleta, antheris 1.5 mm. longis apicibus membranaceis deltoi- 
deis, polliniis oblongo-cylindratis, caudiculis brevissimis, corpusculo 
sacco pollinii aequalis, corona gynostegium subaequanti squamis 
breve connatis late lanceolatis revolutis bifidis. Ovaria glabra 
capite stigmatis obscure umbonato. Folliculi et semina non visi. 

A small-flowered species of Cynanchum belonging to the 
Metastelma-alliance. It should be understood that the specific name, 
while particularly applicable to this species (reminiscent of several 
others) expresses the general frustration forthcoming from even a 
detailed study of this complex of small-flowered forms. 

Type in herb. Chi. Nat. Hist. Mus., isotypes in Dudley herb, and 
herb. Mo. Bot. Card., collected on rich steep northwest- and 
northeast-facing forested slopes above "La Isla," above Tabay, 
state of Me'rida, alt. 2285-2745 m., May 18, 1944, Julian A. Steyer- 
mark 56586. 

Cynanchum Decaisneanum R. Holm, nom. nov. Ditassa lanceolata 
Decne. in DC. Prodr. &: 576. 1844, nee Cynanchum lanceolatum 
H.B.K., nee Poir. 

Cynanchum duidae R. Holm, sp. nov. 

Suffrutex volubilis, ramis minute hirtellis. Folia anguste elliptica 
acuminata vel mucronulata cuneata 2-4 cm. longa 0.5-1.0 cm. lata 
subcoriacea revoluta utrinque glabra costa superiore impresso, 
petiolis 3-5 mm. longis glabris. Inflorescentiae umbelliformes 2- 
3-florae, pedunculo 10 mm. longo, pedicellis 10 mm. longis glabris. 
Calycis lobi ovati 1.5 mm. longi utrinque glabri. Corolla rotato- 
campanulata lobis albis ovatis acutis vel acuminatis 6 mm. longis 
extus glabris intus minute papillatis. Gynostegium 4 mm. altum 
columna obsoleta, antheris 4 mm. longis apicibus membranaceis orbi- 
cularis, polliniis oblongo-cylindratis, caudiculis brevissimis, cor- 
pusculo caudiculis aequalis, corona squamis exterioribus anguste 
lanceolatis acutis, interioribus subacicularibus fere 1/4 brevioribus. 
Ovaria glabra capite stigmatis umbonato. Folliculi et semina 
non visi. 

Type in herb. Chi. Nat. Hist. Mus., isotypes in Dudley herb, and 
herb. Mo. Bot. Card., collected on summit of Cerro Duida, Savanna 
Hills, alt. 1025-1200 m., September 2, 1944, Julian A. Steyermark 
58255. 



BOTANICAL EXPLORATION IN VENEZUELA -III 507 

Cynanchum exasperatum R. Holm, sp. nov. 

Suffrutex volubilis, ramis glabris. Folia ovato-deltoidea acuminata 
truncata vel obtusa 1.0-1.3 cm. longa 0.5-1.2 cm. lata subcoriacea 
revoluta utrinque glabra vernicosa, petiolis 2-3 mm. longis glabris. 
Inflorescentiae umbelliformes 1-3'florae, pedunculo obsolete, pedi- 
cellis 1-2 mm. longis glabris. Calycis lobi ovati 1 mm. longi 
utrinque glabri. Corolla subcampanulata lobis purpurinis lanceolatis 
acutis 2 mm. longis extus glabris intiis papillatis. Gynostegium -0.5 
mm. altum columna subobsoleta, antheris 0.5 mm. longis apicibus 
membranaceis deltoideis, polliniis oblongo-cylindratis, caudiculis 
brevissimis, corpusculo sacco pollinii aequalis, corona squamis 
anguste lanceolatis involutis breve connatis obtusis. Ovaria glabra, 
capite stigmatis piano. Folliculi et semina non visi. 

This species of the Metastelma-complex, like many of its conge- 
ners, shows a remarkable similarity in vegetative characters to 
several other species from which it differs markedly in floral struc- 
ture. Only a thorough re-evaluation of the taxonomic characters of 
this group can hope to bring order out of the present chaos. 

Type in herb. Chi. Nat. Hist. Mus., isotypes in Dudley herb, and 
herb. Mo. Bot. Card., collected in rich wooded slopes along quebrada 
of Cuesta del Barro and Mesa del Trapiche, tributary to Rib Capuri, 
between Canagua' and El Molino, state of Merida, alt. 2530-2715 m., 
May 11, 1944, Julian A. Steyermark 56474. 

Cynanchum guianense (Decne.) R. Holm, comb. nov. Tassadia guia- 
nensis Decne. in DC. Prodr. 8: 579. 1844. Distrito Federal: rich 
woods, east of El Junquito, alt. 1980-2130 m., Steyermark 56996. 

Cynanchum mirifolium (Gleason & Moldenke) R. Holm, comb. nov. 
Metastelma mirifolium Gleason & Moldenke, in Bull. Torr. Bbt. 
Club 58: 460. 1931. Territorio Federal Amazonafe: summit of Cerro 
Duida, Savana Hills, alt. 1025-1200 m., September 2, 1944, Steyer- 
mark 58305. 

Cynanchum obovatum R. Holm, sp. nov. 

Suffrutex volubilis, ramis bifariam puberulis. Folia obovata 
mucronata cuneata 0.8-1.6 cm. longa 0.4-0.8 cm. lata subcoriacea 
revoluta utrinque glabra, petiolis 2-4 mm. longis glabris. Inflores- 
centiae cincinnatae 2-7-florae, pedunculo 2-5 mm. longo, pedi- 
cellis 4-7 mm. longis glabris. Calycis lobi ovati 1.5 mm. longi 
extus glabri intus plus minusve puberuli. Corolla rotato-campanulata 
4 mm. longa, lobis albis ovatis acutis 2 mm. longis extus glabris 
intus puberulo-papillatis margine glabro. Gynostegium 1.5 mm. 
altum columna obsoleta, antheris 1.5 mm. longis apicibus membra- 
naceis reniformibus, polliniis ovato-cylindratis, caudiculis brevis- 
simis, corpusculo sacco pollinii subaequalis, corona gynostegium 
subaequanti squamis breve connatis lanceolatis acutis incurvatis, 
squamis interioribus aciculari-lamellatis exterioribus fere 1/2 
brevioribus. Ovaria glabra, capite stigmatis umbonato. Folliculi 
et semina non visi. 

A Cynanchum of the group of species formerly assigned to the 
genus Ditassa. Inasmuch as the systematics of the Latin American 



508 FIELDIANA: BOTANY, VOLUME 28 

Asclepiadaceae is in a thoroughly confused state, and since I am 
making a general study of them at the present time, I am unable to 
make any statements as to the presumed relationships, morphological 
or otherwise, of the species described here. Until an overall picture 
of the genera has been developed, any discussion of affinities will 
be excessively speculative. 

Type in herb. Chi. Nat. Hist. Mus., isotypes in Dudley herb, and 
herb. Mo. Bot. Card., collected on upper slopes of Carrao-tepui, 
state of Bolivar, alt. 2130-2430 m., December 7, 1944, Julian A. 
Steyermark 60884. 

Cotypes collected on Ptari-tepui, on forested south-facing slopes 
overlying sandstone, on "Cave Rock" above "Cave Camp", state 
of Bolivar, alt. 1810 m., October 29, 1944, Steyermark 59478; Ptari- 
tepui', Bonne tia roraimae forest on southwest-facing shoulder, alt. 
2000-2200 m., November 2, 1944, Steyermark 59746. 

Cynanchur.i revolutum R. Holm, sp. nov. 

Suffrutex volubilis, ramis dense hirtellis. Folia elliptica vel 
obovato-elliptica mucronata cuneata 1-3 cm. longa 0.5-1.0 cm. lata 
subcoriacea valde revoluta utrinque puberula, petiolis 1-3 mm. 
longis hirtellis. Inflorescentiae umbelliformes 2-7-florae, pedunculo 
obsolete, pedicellis 2 mm. longis minute puberulis. Calycis lobi 
ovati 1.5 mm. longi extus puberuli intus glabri. Corolla rotato- 
campanulata lobis squarrulosis viridulo-albis anguste ovatis acutis 
3 mm. longis extus glabris intus puberulis. Gynostegium 2 mm. al- 
tum columna obsoleta, antheris 2 mm. longis apicibus membranaceis 
suborbicularibus, polliniis brevibus cylindratis, caudiculis brevis- 
simis, corpusculo sacco pollinii subaequalis, corona gynostegio 
aliquantum breviori, squamis anguste ovatis incurvatis. Ovaria 
glabra; capite stigmatis subgloboso. Folliculi et semina non visi. 

A species of the group formerly assigned to Metastelma, now in- 
cluded within Cynanchum. 

Type in herb. Chi. Nat. Hist. Mus., isotypes in Dudley herb, and 
herb. Mo. Bot. Card., collected in vicinity of "Misia Kathy Camp", 
on mesa between Ptari-tepui and Sororopan-tepui', state of Bolivar, 
alt. 1615 m., November 15-17, 1944, Julian A. Steyermark 60236. 

Cotype collected on Mount Roraima, state of Bolivar, Steyer- 
mark 58593. 

Cynanchum strictum (Gleason & Moldenke) R. Holm, comb. nov. 
Metastelma strictum Gleason & Moldenke, in Bull. Torr. Bot. Club 
58: 457. 1931* Territorio Federal Amazonas: between Esmeralda 
Savana and southeastern base of Cerro Duida, alt. 200 m., August 
22, 1944, Steyermark 57811. 

Cynanchum sucrense R. Holm, sp. nov. 

Suffrutex volubilis vel subprostratus ramis hirtellis. Folia ellip- 
tica vel obovato-elliptica abrupte mucronata cuneata vel obtusa 1.7- 
2.0 cm. longa 0.5-1.0 cm. lata subcoriacea vernicosa utrinque glabra 
margine obscure ciliata petiolis 0.2-0.3 cm. longis glabris. Inflor- 



BOTANICAL EXPLORATION IN VENEZUELA -III 509 

escentiae umbelliformes 2-5'florae pedunculo 2-3 mm. longo pube- 
rulo pedicellis 4 mm. longis glabris. Calycis lobi ovati 1.0 mm. 
longi utrinque glabri. Corolla rotato-subcampanulata lobis albis 
ovatis acutis 2.5 mm. longis extus glabris intus papillatis. Gyno- 
stegium 1.5 mm. altum columna obsoleta antheris 1.0 mm. longis 
apicibus membranaceis deltoideis polliniis cylindratis caudiculis 
brevissimis corpusculo sacco pollinii subaequalis corona squamis 
exterioribus late lanceolatis trilobulatis interioribus subaequalis 
anguste lanceolatis. Ovaria glabra capite stigmatis convexo. 
Folliculi fusiformes 3.8-4.3 cm. longi 0.5 cm. lati glabri striati; 
semina 5-5 mm. longa 2.0 mm. lata utrinque papillata coma ca. 1.5 
cm. longa. 

Type in herb. Chi. Nat. Hist. Mus., isotypes in Dudley herb, and 
herb. Mo. Bot. Card., collected on moist savana-like portion of broad 
ridge connecting base of eastern peak of Cerro Turumiquire with base 
of southern peak, state of Sucre, alt. 2200 m., May 6, 1945, Julian 
A. Steyermark 62625. 

Cynanchutn Tatei (Gleason & Moldenke) R. Holm, comb. nov. Ditassa 
Tatei Gleason & Moldenke, in Bull. Torr. Bot. Club 58: 456. 1931. 
Territorio Federal Amazonas: Esmeralda Ridge, between Esme- 
ralda and base of Cerro Duida, alt. 150 m., August 21, 1944, 
Steyermark 57743. 

Cynanchum taxifolium (Decne.) R. Holm, comb. nov. Ditassa taxi- 
folia Decne. in DC. Prodr. 8-' 578. 1944. BOLIVAR: vicinity of 
Salto de Pacairao, about 3 km. east to northeast of Santa Teresita 
de Kavanayen, alt. 1220 m., November 24, 1944, Steyermark 60486. 

Cynanchum varians R. Holm, nom. nov. 

Metastelma tomentosum Decne. in DC. Prodr. 8: 514. 1844, nee 
Lam. nee Royle. 

ME RID A: dwarf cool forest between El Molino and ridge above San 
Isidro Alto, alt. 2430-2895 m., February 12, 1944, Steyermark 56527. 
Cynanchum violator R. Holm, sp. nov. 

Suffrutex volubilis, ramis hirtellis. Folia ovata vel suborbiculata 
acuminata vel mucronata cordata vel truncata 0.8-1.5 cm. longa 0.8- 
1.1 cm. lata firme membranacea obscure revoluta utrinque glabrata, 
petiolis 0.1-0.3 cm. longis hirtellis. Inflorescentiae dichasiformes 
pluriflorae, pedicellis 4-7 mm. longis puberulis. Calycis lobi ovati 
0.75 mm. longi extus papillati intus glabri ciliati. Corolla subrotato- 
campanulata lobis viridulis lineari-lanceolatis acutis 2 mm. longis 
utrinque glabris. Gynostegium 1 mm. altum columna obsoleta, an- 
theris 1 mm. longis apicibus membranaceis deltoideis, polliniis 
obclavatis, caudiculis tenuis, corpusculo minuto, corona cyathiformis 
10-lobulata. Ovaria glabra capite stigmatis umbonato. Folliculi et 
semina non visi. 

Another of the minute-flowered species of Cynanchum which in its 
inflorescence illustrates the impossibility of rationally distinguish- 
ing Cynanchum from Tassadia. Apparently in these forms with mi- 
nute flowers the inflorescence becomes an important variable in the 



510 FIELDIANA: BOTANY, VOLUME 28 

evolutionary process. 

Type in herb. Chi. Nat. Hist. Mus., isotypes in Dudley herb^ and 
herb. Mo. Bot. Card., collected in wooded quebrada in Montana of 
Rio Tachira at base of Paramo de Tama, between Betania and Tama, 
by Colombian-Venezuelan boundary, state of Tachira, alt. 2430 m., 
July 13, 1944, Julian A. Steyermark 57190. 

Matelea fucata Woodson, sp. nov. 

Frutex volubilis fere omnino pilis duplicibus roseo-fuscis vestitus 
internodiis elongatis. Folia ovalia vel late elliptica apice late ob- 
tusa vulga mucronulata basi obscure cordata 7-9 cm. longa 4-6 cm. 
lata subcoriacea utrinque pilosa; petiolo ca. 1 cm. longo. Inflores- 
centiae pauciflorae pedunculo perbrevi ca. 0.5 cm. longo pedicellis 
elongatis ca. 4 cm. longis omnino pilosis. Calycis laciniae obovato- 
ellipticae late acutae membranaceae ca. 1 cm. longae extus pilosae. 
Corollae reticulate viridae rotato-campanulatae tubo 5 mm. profundo 
ca. 7 mm. diam. ostio lobis late ovatis obtusis 8-9 mm. longis mar- 
gine sinistro albido caeterumque reticulate viridis. Coronae segmen- 
tia 5 pro parte dimidio inferiore corollae tubum et gynostegii stipiti 
adnata ca. 3 mm. longa carnosa albo-rosea oblonga anguste carinata 
apice bifida. Gynostegium 3 mm. altum pro parte majore coronam et 
corollae tubum adnatum stigmate depresso 5~gono; polliniis hori- 
zontalibus triangulo-pyriformibus ca. 1 mm. longis dorso convexis 
ventro profunde excavatis caudiculis late alatis ca. 0.2 mm. longis 
corpusculo obovato-sagittato caudiculas aequante. 

Type in herb. Chi. Nat. Hist. Mus., holotype in Mo. Bot. Card., 
collected on south-facing densely forested slopes overlying sand- 
stone, vicinity of "Cave Rock", Ptari-tepui', state of Bolfvar, alt. 
1800 m., November 8, 1944, Julian A. Steyermark 59963. 

This species appears to belong to the Central American subgenus 
Pachystelma,and is the only South American species of this complex 
known to me at present. 

Matelea mediocris Woodson, sp. nov. 

Suffrutex volubilis omnino glabris. Ramuli graciles internodiis 
ca. 4~5 cm. longis. Folia oblongo-elliptica apice anguste acuminata 
basi late obtusa 3'5 cm. longa 1.0-2.5 cm. lata firme membranacea 
supra saturate viridia nervo medio basi glanduloso subtus glauca; 
petiolis ca. 0.5-1.0 cm. longis. Inflorescentiae petiolis subaequantes 
pauciflqres pedunculo perbrevi pedicellis ca. 0.2 cm. longis. Caly- 
cis laciniae ovato-ellipticae anguste acutae ca. 1.5 mm. longis ex- 
tus sparsissime pilosulae squamellis alternatis solitariis. Corollae 
rotato-campanulatae luteo-viridae ca. 6 mm. diam. lobi ovati acuti 
ca. 3 mm. longi patuli apice reflexi. Corona disciformis ca. 2 mm. 
diam. gilva margine minute crenulata intus anteridibus 5 ca. 0.5 mm. 
longis stipiti gynostegii adnatis et antheras sustinentibus. Gyno- 
stegium breviter stipitatum stigmate rotundato vel latissime 5'gono 
piano vel paulo convexo ca. 2 mm. diam. 

Type in herb. Chi. Nat. Hist. Mus., holotype in herb. Mo. Bot. 
Card., collected in vicinity of Tumeremo, between south of town and 



BOTANICAL EXPLORATION IN VENEZUELA - III 511 

airport, state of Bolivar, alt. 305 m., December 18, 1944, Julian A. 
Steyermark 60690. 

Closely allied to M. stenopetala Sandwith, but with notably smaller 
leaves and flowers. 

BORRAGINACEAE 30 
Cordia roraimae Johnston, sp. nov. 

Frutex 1-1.5 ra. altus; ramulis 2-4 mm. crassis, juventate pilis 
ad 1 mm. longis mollibus gracilibus ascendentibus abundante vesti- 
tis; foliis lanceolatis chartaceo-coriaceis 6-9 cm. longis 1.5*3 cm. 
latis, supra medium vel paulo infra medium apicem saepe acuminatim 
versus gradatim attenuatis, basi saepe cuneatis, margine praesertim 
supra medium minute crenato-dentatis, supra subnitidis secus venas 
impressas sparse minuteque pubescentibus alibi glabris, subtus se- 
cus costam et venas prominulas pilos ad 1 mm. longos ascendentis 
gerentibus, venis utrinque latere costae 4-6 sub angulo 40 abeunti- 
bus arcuatis; petiolis 5-10 mm. longis supra basim geniculatis, parte 
infima foliis delapsis persistent! patenti et plus minusve hamata; 
inflorescentia terminali et axillari; pedunculo 2.5-5 cm. longo efo- 
liato basim versus basi petioli connate; spica 1-2 cm. longa, statu 
floriferi cylindrica vel subclavata 5-7 mm. crassa, fructiferi anguste 
obovata ad 15 mm. crassa; calyce hispidulo pilis 0.1-0.6 mm. longis 
fulvis vestito, sub anthesi ad 5 mm. longo, maturitate ad 7 mm. 
longo, lobis triangularibus 1.5-2 mm. longis acutis apice in alabas- 
tro nullo modo libe.ris; corolla ad anthesin ignota, in statu valde im- 
mature breviter cylindrico vix lobata, margine limbi eroro-dentata. 

Type in herb. Chi. Nat. Hist. Mus., isotype in Gray Herb., col- 
lected on southwest forested slope between Rondon Camp and base 
of sandstone bluffs, Mount Roraima, state of Bolivar, alt. 2040-2255 
m., September 30, 1944, Julian A. Steyermark 59003, "shrub 5 feet 
tall in thickets." 

A well-marked member of the section Varronia having spicate 
flower-clusters produced singly from the leaf-axils as well as termi- 
nal on the shoot. The petioles are decurrent on peduncles they may 
subtend and form a woody recurving spur that persists on old stems. 
In this habit it resembles C. spinescens L. (C. ferruginea R. & S.), 
from which it differs in having very thick spikes and lanceolate 
leaves. A collection, Steyermark 60079, from the summit of 
Sororopan-tepui, northwest of Roraima, differs from the type in hav- 
ing the indument on the twigs and calyx shorter and closely ap- 
pressed, but in other respects it is very similar to the plant above 
described. 

Tournefortia gracilipes Johnston, sp. nov. 

Frutex ad 1.5 m. altus, partibus juvenilibus pilis brevibus brunneis 
donatis maturitate plus minusve glabratis; caulibus fistulosis 3-8 
mm. crassis glabratis; fojiis obovatis vel obovato-lanceolatis subtus 



30 



By I. M. Johnston 



512 FIELDIANA: BOTANY, VOLUME 28 

inconspicue hispidulis vel utrinque glabratis; lamina 15-25 cm. 
longa, 7-13 cm. lata, medium versus vel paulo supra medium latiori 
deinde basim acutam versus in petiolum 1-3 cm. longum gradatim 
attenuata, apice acuta vel subacuminata, facie inferior! costa etnervis 
et reticulo nervulorum prominulo donatis; nervis primariis validis 
leviter arcuatis utrinque latere costae 8-11 sub angulo 40 abeunti- 
bus; inflorescentia terminali vel extra-axillari sparse lateque dicho- 
toma 5-12 cm. lata, pedunculo gracili cernuo 6-15 cm. longo; calyce 
sub anthesi 5-7 mm. longo 5-partito, sessili vel breviter pedicellate, 
lobis lineari-subulatis; corolla 8-12 mm. longa, tubo subcylindrico 
elongate 1.5-2 mm. crasso brunneo-hispidulo, limbo 5*7 mm. diametro; 
ovario glabro ca. 1 mm. longo, stylo 3*6 mm. longo; fructu maturis 
ignoto, immature ovoideo ca. 5 mm. longo. 

Type in herb. Chi. Nat. Hist. Mus., isotype in Gray Herb., col- 
lected on forested southwest-facing slope of Cerro Negro, above La 
Sabana de las Piedras, northwest of Caripe, state of Monagas, alt. 
1500 m., April 5, 1945, Julian A. Steyermark 61863, "shrub 5 feet 
tall." 

The following collections in herb. Chi. Nat. Hist. Mus., collected 
on steep forested slopes above headwaters of Quebrada La Tigra, 
Cerro San Jose, between Bergantin and Cerro Peonia, state of Anzoa- 
tegui, Steyermark 61560, "shrub 8 feet tall;" and, on north-facing 
slopes above La Trinidad in cloudforest, southwest of Cocollar, 
Cerro Turumiquire, state of Sucre, May 8, 1945, Steyermark 62541, 
"shrub with arching stems, 10 feet tall." 

A well-marked species native to northeastern Venezuela. Among 
its notable features are its large, moderately thin leaves prominently 
and reticulately veined beneath, its sparingly branched inflorescence 
borne on a slender elongate nodding peduncle, its large tubular flow- 
ers, and its slender elongate calyx-lobes. 

VERBENACEAE31 
Aegiphila Steyermarkii Moldenke, sp. nov. 

Frutex; ramis acutiuscule tetragonis, in statu juventute densissime 
adpresso-villosis; nodis non annulatis; internodiis valde abbreviatis; 
petiolis crassiusculis ca. 5 nun. longis, in statu juventute dense 
villosis, dein strigilloso-puberula; foliis oppositis, laminis firme 
chartaceis ellipticis 4.5"8 cm. longis, 2-3 cm. latis, breviter acumi- 
natis integris, in siccitate subrevolutis, supra glabris nitidisque, 
subtus strigillosis; inflorescentiis axillaribus cymosis paucifloris; 
calyce 5-lobato. 

Shrub, about 5 m. tall; branches rather acutely tetragonal, the 
younger ones very densely appressed-villous with ochraceous or 
buff-brown antrorse hairs, the older ones more obscurely grayish 
strigose or glabrate, slightly sulcate between the angles; nodes not 
annulate; principal internodes greatly abbreviated, 1-2 cm. long; 
leaves decussate-opposite; petioles stoutish, about 5 mm. long, 



31 By H. N. Moldenke 



BOTANICAL EXPLORATION IN VENEZUELA - III 513 

densely villous when young, merely strigillose-puberulent when old'; 
blades firmly chartaceous, deep dark-green above, dull-green beneath, 
elliptic, mostly widest at about the middle, 4.5-8 cm. long, 2-3 cm. 
wide, mostly short-acuminate, the apex itself obtuse, entire, slightly 
revolute in drying, glabrous and shiny above, very sparsely and 
obscurely scattered-strigillose beneath (more densely so and even 
slightly so above when immature); midrib plane above, prominulous 
beneath; secondaries slender, 4-6 per side, arcuate-ascending, anas- 
tomosing near the margins, subimpressed above subprominulent be- 
neath; tertiaries slender, rather conspicuous and subimpressed above, 
slightly subprominulous beneath; veinlet reticulation not discernible 
on either surface; inflorescence cymose, axillary, 2 per node in the 
upper axils, shorter than the subtending leaves, few-flowered; pedun- 
cles slender, 1.5-2 cm. long, densely appressed-villous, with ochra- 
cheous or buff antrorse hairs, usually only once bifurcate, about 7- 
flowered; bractlets lanceolate, 1-2 mm. long, densely villosulous; 
pedicels obsolete or to 1 mm. long and villosulous; calyx campanu- 
late, about 5 mm. long a "d 3.2 mm. wide, densely villous like the 
peduncles, its limb 4-Iobed, the lobes broadly triangular, about 1 mm. 
long, rounded and apiculate at the apex; corolla hypocrateriform, 
whitish, its tube about 4 mm. long, about 2 mm. wide, glabrous, its 
limb 4-parted, the lobes about 2 mm. long and 1 mm. wide, acute, 
glabrous, spreading; stamens 4, inserted about 2 mm. from the base 
of the corolla-tube; included or long-exserted; filaments filiform, 
glabrous; anthers oblong, about 0.7 mm. long; style capillary, to 7 
mm. or more long, glabrous; stigma bifid, its branches to 3 mm. 
long; ovary subglobose, about 1 mm. long and wide, glabrous, 
4-celled. 

Type in Britton herb, at the N. Y. Bot. Card., isotype in herb. Chi. 
Nat. Hist. Mus., collected along the base of west-facing high sand- 
stone bluffs, Ptari-tepui', state of Bolivar, alt. 2410-2450 m., Novem- 
ber 7, 1944, Julian A. Steyermark 59960. 

The species seems to be closely related to A. roraimensis Mol- 
denke, known only from Mount Roraima. 

Aegiphila Steyermarkii var. obtusifolia Moldenke, var. nov. 

Haec varietas a forma typica speciei foliis oblanceolatis obtusis 
pubescentibus ramulorum brevioribus, calicibus late infundibulari- 
formibus lobis obtusis recedit. 

This variety differs from the typical form of the species in having 
oblanceolate leaves, decidedly widest above the middle and bluntly 
obtuse (not acuminate) at the apex. The pubescence on the young 
branchlets and inflorescence is shorter, and the calyxes are broadly 
infundibular, about 8 mm. long and 5 mm. wide, rather deeply 4-lobed, 
the lobes 2-3 mm. long, obtuse (not mucronate). The cymes, also, 
are somewhat more densely flowered. 

Type in Britton herb, at the N. Y. Bot. Card., isotype in herb. Chi. 
Nat. Hist. Mus., collected on the crest of the cerro between the east 
and west ends, Sororopa'n-tepui, state of Bolivar, alt. 2255 m., No- 
vember 14, 1944, Julian A. Steyermark 60113. 



514 FIELDIANA: BOTANY, VOLUME 28 

Aegiphila venezuelensis Moldenke, sp. nov. 

Frutex vel arbor parva; ramis ramulisque obtuse tetragonis medul- 
losis saepe acute tetragonis submarginatisque, dense adpresso- 
villosis, in statu senectute subglabrescentibus; nodis obscure vel 
non annulatis; internodiis plerumque abbreviatis; foliis oppositis; 
petiolis crassiusculis 5-15 mm. longis adpresso-villosulis; laminis 
leviter membranaceis ellipticis vel obovato-ellipticis 8-23 cm. longis, 
2.5-7.5 cm. latis, acuminatis integris, ad basin attenuato-acuminatis, 
supra sparse puberulis, subtus breviter pubescentibus; inflorescen- 
tiis axillaribus vel supra axillaribus cymosis paucis; calyce 4-lobato 
dense villosulo. 

Shrub or small tree; to 8 m. tall; branches and branchlets obtusely 
tetragonal, medullose, sometimes acutely tetragonal and almost mar- 
gined, densely appressed-villous with grayish or yellowish-gray an- 
trorse hairs on the younger parts, less so or subglabrate in age; 
nodes obscurely or not at all annulate; principal internodes 1-4 cm. 
long, mostly abbreviated; leaves decussate-opposite; petioles rather 
stoutish, 5-15 mm. long, appressed-villosulous; blades thin- 
membranous, dark- or deep-green above, dull pale-green beneath, 
elliptic or obovate-elliptic, 8-23 cm. long, 2.5-7.5 cm. wide, acumi- 
nate at the apex, entire, attenuate-acuminate at the base, sparsely 
puberulent above, sparsely or rather densely short-pubescent beneath, 
villosulous along the midrib, with appressed grayish or yellowish- 
gray antrorse hairs; midrib plane above, prominent and rather stout 
beneath, densely villosulous beneath like the petioles and young 
twigs; secondaries slender, 7-9 per side, arcuate-ascending, not 
extending to the margins anastomosing in many loops several mm. 
from the margins, plane on both surfaces or slightly subprominulent 
beneath; vein and veinlet reticulation sparse; inflorescence axillary 
and supra-axillary, cymose, two per node toward the apex of the 
branchlets, apparently not numerous; peduncles slender, 3-6.5 cm. 
long, densely appressed-pubescent with grayish antrorse hairs, 
usually bifurcate and each branch again once or at most twice di- 
chotomous, few-flowered, usually about 11-14 flowered, but apparent- 
ly only a few of the flowers producing fruit, the branches appressed- 
pubescent like the peduncles; pedicels slender, 1-3 mm. long, 
elongating in fruit to 7 mm., densely appressed-pubescent or villos- 
ulous, with yellowish-gray antrorse hairs; bractlets and prophylla 
linear, 1-5 mm. long, densely appressed-villosulous; calyx infun- 
dibular, 6-8 mm. long, about 3 mm. wide at the apex, the lobes 4, 
2-2.5 mm. long, triangular-ovate, acute, the entire calyx very densely 
villosulous with grayish or yellowish-gray appressed hairs like the 
twigs; only fragmentary corollas seen, the tube slender, about 5 mm. 
long, 1 mm. wide throughout, glabrous; stamens 4, inserted about 3 
mm. from the base of the tube, at one level, included; filaments about 
0.2 mm. long, glabrous; anthers oblong, about 0.7 mm. long; style not 
seen; ovary obconic, about 1 mm. long and wide, slightly 4-lobed at 
the apex, glabrous, 4-celled; fruiting-calyx greatly enlarged, cupuli- 
form, about 12 mm. long and wide, more or less appressed-pubescent, 
deeply 4-lobed or -split; fruit ovoid, dull-yellow, about 15 mm. long 



BOTANICAL EXPLORATION IN VENEZUELA -III 515 

and 11 mm. wide, smooth and shiny. 

Type in Britton herb, at the N. Y. Bot. Card., isotype in herb. Chi. 
Nat. Hist. Mus., collected in rich woods bordering quebradas at the 
base of slopes, southeast-facing slopes, Ptari-tepm, state of Bolivar, 
alt. 1585-1600 m., November 10 or 11, 1944, Julian A. Steyermark 
60036. 

The species is obviously closely related to A. Duckei Moldenke 
and A. intermedia Moldenke, the former known only from Amazonas, 
Brazil, and the latter known from Amazonas, Venezuela, and Ama- 
zonas, Maranhao, and Para, Brazil. 

Duranta Steyermarkii Moldenke, sp. nov. 

Frutex; ramis rigidis acutiuscule tetragonis divaricatis spinosis 
dense puberulis, in statu senectute glabrescentibus; spinis brevibus 
crassis decussatis obtusis 3"4 mm. longis; internodiis abbreviatis; 
petiolis crassis 1.5-5 mm. longis dense puberulis dein glabratis; 
laminis coriaceis rugosis ovatis 2-5-3 cm. longis, 1.3-3.3 cm. latis, 
acutis argute serratis, ad basin rotundatis vel subtruncatis, supra 
minute puberulis dein glabratis bullatisque, subtus puberulis dein 
punctulatis; inflorescentiis axillaribus racemiformibus rectis vel 
adscendentibus dense adpresso-puberulis vel strigillosis. 

Shrub 3-4 feet tall; branches stiff, rather acutely tetragonal, divari- 
cate, spinose, densely puberulent with buff closely appressed hairs 
when young, less so and even glabrate in age, the spines on the 
upper part of the branches (at least) short, stout, decussate, blunt, 
3-4 mm. long; principal internodes 1-3 cm. long, mostly abbreviated; 
petioles stout, 1.5-5 mm. long, densely puberulent when young, 
glabrous in age; blades coriaceous, dark-green and rugose above, 
dull-green beneath, ovate, 2-5.3 cm. long, 1.3-3.3 cm. wide, typically 
acute (rounded on abnormal? leaves), sharply serrate from almost the 
base to the apex, rounded or subtruncate at base, minutely puberu- 
lent with buff hairs above when young, glabrous and bullate in age, 
puberulent beneath when young, merely punctulate in age; midrib 
slender, deeply impressed above, very sharply prominent beneath; 
secondaries slender, deeply impressed above, sharply prominent 
beneath, 4-6 per side, arcuate-ascending, extending almost to the 
margins; inflorescence axillary, racemiform, 2.5-6 cm. long, appar- 
ently erect or ascending during anthesis, widely divaricate in fruit, 
the very abbreviated peduncle and rachis densely appressed- 
puberulent or strigillose, or, after anthesis marked with more or less 
scattered coarse but very short erect hairs; flowers not seen; fruiting- 
calyx cucullate, 7-9 mm. long, minutely puberulent, closely appressed 
to the fruit; fruit yellow-green. 

Type in Britton herb, at the N. Y. Bot. Card., isotype in herb. Chi. 
Nat. Hist. Mus., collected at Cerro Negro, above La Sabana de las 
Piedras, northwest of Caripe, state of Monagas, alt. 1500-2180 m., 
April 15, 1945, Julian A. Steyermark 62102. 

It gives me great pleasure to dedicate this species and the several 
others in the Eriocaulaceae on pages 114-129 of this work to my 



516 FIELDIANA: BOTANY, VOLUME 28 

friend and colleague, Dr. Julian A. Steyermark, who has done such 
remarkably fine and intensive collecting in North, Central, and 
South America and to whose labors we owe so much of our present 
knowledge of the flora of these areas. 

SCROPHULARIACEAE32 
Bacopa (Mella) punctata Pennell, sp. nov. 

Planta annua, 1-1.5 dm. alta, villosa; folia lanceolato-attenuata, 
supra dense pubescentia, infra glabra et dense glandulari-punctata; 
sepala irregularia, duobus ovatis, tribus lanceolatis; corolla 2.5 mm. 
longa, albescens, zygomorpha; capsula ellipsoidalis 2.5 mm. longa. 

Plants annual, erect, simple, 1-1.5 dm. tall, the stems and inflores- 
cence villose'with white hairs. Leaves lanceolate-attenuate, 9-19 
mm. long, proximally rounded, distally dentate, above densely pubes- 
cent, beneath glabrous (pubescent on midrib) and densely glandular- 
punctate. Sepals 5> irregular, the wider two ovate, acute, the nar- 
rower three lanceolate, attenuate, 3 mm. long. Corolla 2.5 mm. long, 
white or pale lavender, zygomorphic, narrowly two-lipped, lower lip 
slightly decurved, upper lip slightly longer and overspreading the 
lower. Stamens didynamous; anthers small, white. Capsule ellip- 
soid, 2.5 mm. long. Seeds brown, cylindric, oblong, 0.3 mm. long. 

Type in herb. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., isotype in herb. Chi. Nat. 
Hist. Mus., collected in swampy meadow, south of Divina Pastora, 
Gran Sabana, south of Mount Roraima, state of Bolivar, alt. 915-1005 
m., October 3, 1944, Julian A.. Steyermark 59263. 

Bartsia spissifolia Pennell, sp. nov. 

Ramosissima; caulis 1.5 dm. altus; folia spissa, 20 mm. longa, 
ca. 12-bullata, involuta, glandulari-pubescentia. 

Ascending, much branched, the stem 1.5 dm. tall. Leaves over- 
lapping, 20 mm. long, about 12-bullate, involute, glandular-pubescent. 

Type in herb. Chi. Nat. Hist. Mus., collected on Paramo de Pozo 
Negro, between San Jose and Beguilla, state of Me'rida, alt. 2590- 
3220 m., May 3, 1944, Julian A. Steyermark 56286. 

Bartsia tachirensis Pennell, sp. nov. 

Caulis erectus 3 dm. altus; folia 11-12 mm. longa, 7-9-bullata, 
supra pubescentia, infra glabra; calyx 6 mm. longus, glandulari- 
pubescens, lobis aequalibus, 1-1.5 mm. longis, acutis; corolla 9 mm. 
longa, purpurea, labio superiore 6 mm. longo hirsute, labio inferiore 
3.5 mm. longo glabro; capsula 4.5 mm. longa. 

Erect, little branched stem 3 dm. tall. Leaves not overlapping, 
11-12 mm. long, 7-9-bullate, above pubescent, beneath glabrous. 
Bracts shorter and wider than leaves, above glandular-hirsute, be- 
neath glandular-pilose. Calyx 6 mm. long, glandular-pubescent (more 
so ciliolately on margins, less so on sides), the four lobes about 
even, 1-1.5 mm. long, acute. Corolla 9 mm. long, purple, upper lip 

32 By F. W. Pennell 



BOTANICAL EXPLORATION IN VENEZUELA - III 517 

6 mm. long, hirsute with dark-jointed hairs, lower lip 3.5 mm. long, 
glabrous, appressed. Capsule 4.5 mm. long, finely pubescent, but 
not glandular. 

Type in herb. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., isotype in herb. Chi. Nat. 
Hist. Mus., collected on limestone outcrops of Paramo de Tama, 
state of Tachira, alt. 3045-3475 m., July 15, 1944, Julian A. Steyer- 
mark 57409. 

The Venezuelan species of Bartsia at present known may be keyed 
as follows: 

A. Cauline leaves not over 1.2 cm. long, hardly overlapping, 

the bullae on each leaf less than 10. 
B. Lips both tomentose, violet-purple, of equal length; 
leaves oblanceolate, finely ciliate with short 

glandless hairs; stems 1-2.5 dm. tall B. parvifolia 

BB. Lips, the upper purple, glandular-tomentose, the 
lower shorter, glabrous; stem 3 dm. tall 
B. tachirensis 

AA. Cauline leaves 2 cm. long, densely overlapping, the 
bullae 10-12, narrowly cylindric and glandular- 
pubescent B. spissifolia 

Castillo ja meridensis Pennell, sp. nov. 

Caules tenaces, 1-2 cm. alti, glandulari-pubescentes; folia divari- 
cate brevi-lobata, 1-1.5 cm. longa; bracteae flavorubrae; calyx 15 mm. 
longus; corolla 15-20 (-25) mm. longa, galea 7-8 mm. longa et labio 
inferiore 2 mm. longo; capsula 11-13 mm. longa. 

Stem wiry, 1-2 dm. tall or more, glandular-pubescent. Leaves 
glandular-pubescent, divaricately short-lobed, 1-1.5 cm. long. Pedi- 
cels 3-5 mm. long, ascending.. Bracts (and galea) yellowish red, with 
darker red (as contrasting pattern). Calyx 15 mm. long, glandular- 
pubescent, dorsally entire, ventrally cleft. Corolla 15-20 (-25) mm. 
long, galea yellowish red, 7-8 mm. long, lower lip knob-like, green, 
incurved, 2 mm. long. Capsule 11-13 nim. l n g 

Type in herb. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., collected on paramo, Pico 
de Bolivar, Sierra Nevada de Me'rida, above Paso del Toro, state of 
Me'rida, alt. 4120-4420 m., Joseph A. Ewan 16971. 

Also collected at La Mucuy, state of Me'rida, alt. 2000 m. T. Las- 
ser 527 (V. S. Nat. Heib.). 

Castilleja Steyermarkii Pennell, sp. nov. 

Fruticosa, ramosa, 6-9 dm. alta, albo-hirsuta; folia 2-3 cm. longa, 
divaricato-lobata; pedicella 10 mm. longa; bracteae citroflavae; 
calyx 20-25 mm. longus; corolla 25*40 mm. longa, flavescens, 
labio superiore elongato-attenuato (20 mm.), labio inferiore incurvo 
viride (1.5 mm.); capsula 15 mm. longa. 

Stem shruby, 6-9 dm. tall, distally white-hirsute with glandless 
hairs. Leaves dull green, divaricately lobed about 2-3 cm. long, the 
lobes distal and short. Pedicel 10 mm. long, spreading-ascending. 
Bracts yellow (pale dull yellow proximally, lemon-yellow distally to 



518 FIELDIANA: BOTANY, VOLUME 28 

scarlet). Calyx 20-25 mm. long, greenish yellow distally, dorsally 
entire and prolonged, ventrally deeply -cleft. Corolla 25-40 mm. long, 
pale yellow-green; upper lip elongate-attenuate, 20 mm. long, dor- 
sally glandular-pubescent; lower lip knob-like, incurved, deep green, 
1.5 mm. long. Capsule 15 mm. long. 

Type in herb. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., isotype in herb. Chi. Nat. 
Hist. Mus., collected between Las Delicias and Paraguita, along 
Rio Ta'chira, state of Ta'chira, alt. 1675-1890 m., July 12, 1944, 
Julian A. Steyermark 57137, "bracts pale dull green in lower half, 
lemon-yellow in upper half; calyx grass-green in lower half, greenish 
yellow in upper half; corolla pale yellow green. This 'is the common 
widespread type found here, yellow-flowered; rarely a plant with 
reddish bracts is found." 

Also collected on rocky gneissic-granitic slopes, between Timotes 
and Paramito, state of Merida, alt. 2285-3500 m., March 24, 1944, 
Steyermark 55694, "bracts scarlet; upper half of calyx-tube yellow 
with orange stripes, pale green in lower half; corolla pale green with 
yellow green margins." 

Castilleja trujillensis Pennell,.sp. nov. 

Caulis fruticosus, 4 dm. altus vel altior, dense tomentosus; folia 
1-1.3 cm. longa, distaliter divaricato-lobato; calyx 16 mm. longus, 
coccineus; corolla 30 mm. longa, galea 15 mm. longa, labio inferiore 
1 mm. longo; capsula 10-11 mm. longa. 

Stem shrubby, at least 4 dm. tall, densely tomentose. Leaf-blades 
1-1.3 cm. long, distally with 1 or 2 pairs of divaricate lobes. Calyx 
16 mm. long, scarlet. Corolla 30 mm. long, distally much exceeding 
and decurved from calyx; lower lip knob-like, 1 mm. long. Capsule 
10-11 mm. long. 

Type in herb. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., isotype in herb. Chi. Nat. 
Hist. Mus., collected on paramo, near Las Sabanetas, state of Tru- 
jillo, alt. 2600-2800 m., February 6, 1944, Julian A. Steyermark 
55376, "calyx scarlet; corolla and filaments pale green, anthers and 
tip of calyx yellow." 

The Venezuelan species of Castilleja at present known may be 
keyed as follows: 

A. Plant perennial, clumped or tufted; leaves linear or with 
linear segments, blackening in drying; flowers pedi- 
celled; calyx spathaceous, sepals united posteriorly 
nearly to apex by anteriorly deeply cleft; corolla 20- 
35 mm. long, decurved. (Eucastilleja). Plants of 
Tierra Fria. 

B. Stems divaricately much branched, pubescent to hir- 
sute; leaf-blades divaricately pinnatifid. 
C. Indumentum of glandless hairs. 

D. Corolla 25 mm. long; stem hirsute with white 
hairs; leaves 2.5-3 cm. long; stems tall, 
stout ._ ...C. Steyermarkii 



BOTANICAL EXPLORATION IN VENEZUELA -III 519 

DD. Corolla 15-20 ram. long; stem asperous; 
leaves 0.5*2 cm. long; stems low, 
slender C. divaricata 

CC. Indumentum of close and partially glandular hairs; 
corolla 20-30 mm. long; stems roughish- 
pubescent. 
D.- Plant low, with many stems; leaf-blades finely 

divided C. meridensis 

DD. Plants taller; stems thicker, widely branched; 

leaf-blades divaricate... ...C* trujillensis 

BB. Stems simple or virgately branched, glabrous; leaf- 
blades entire to somewjiat lobed C. integrifolia 

AA. Plant annual, solitary from root; leaves lanceolate or 
linear-lanceolate, remaining green in drying; 
flowers sessile; calyx thin, entire, dorsally rup- 
tured by maturing capsule; corolla green or green- 
ish, 9*10 mm. long, falling unopened. Plant of 
Tierra Templada C. arvensis 

Castilleja arvensis S. & C. 

This widespread species of lower mountain-slopes, so long known 
as C. communis Benth. (1846), is clearly the plant earlier (1830) de- 
scribed as C, arvensis S. & C., as shown by the type-collection of 
that plant. This transfer leaves without a name the plant of eastern 
Mexico, which Bentham had supposed to be C. arvensis; I suggest 
that it become C. agrestis Pennell, nom. nov., with type 
C. G. Pr ingle 3349 from corn fields near Patzcuaro, Michoacan, col- 
lected November 18, 1890 (planta annua, 5"9 dm. alta, foliis integris 
spathulato- vel oblongo-dilatatis corollam superantibus, spicis quam 
C. arvense majoribus). 

Lindernia brachyphylla Pennell, sp. nov. 

Planta 2 dm. longa, glabra; folia ovata acuta, integra, 0.5 cm. 
longa, sessilia; pedicella 10-13 mm. longa; sepala 3 mm. lnga, 
oblongo-lanceolata corolla 9-10 mm. longa, labio superiore minore; 
filamenta superiora breviora fertilia, antheris anterioribus sterilibus; 
capsula 4 mm. longa, ut Lindernia typice dehiscente. 

Plant herbaceous, semi-fleshy, ascending, 2 dm. long, glabrous. 
Leaves (bracts) ovate, acute, 3-vejned, obscurely denticulate or 
entire, 0.5 cm. long, 3.5 mm. wide, sessile, much exceeded by the 
spreading, then deflexed, pedicels which become 10-13 mm. long. 
Sepals 3 mm. long, oblong-lanceolate, distinct, acute to obtuse. 
Corolla 9-10 mm. long, the upper lip lavender, relatively short and 
narrow, the lower lip widely spreading, white with lilac on margin 
and lavender within orifice on lateral lobes, the middle lobe with vio- 
let spot between two yellow anthers. Posterior stamens short and 
fertile, anterior anthers abortive spread along (and detaching from) 
anterior side of corolla. Capsule 4 mm. long, typically Lindernioid 
(dehiscing so as to leave median septum entire). 

Type in herb. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., isotype in herb. Chi. Nat. 
Hist. Mus., collected on margin of pool in rock, open swamps and 



520 FIELDIANA: BOTANY, VOLUME 28 

igneous rock-outcrops, Puerto Ayacucho, Territorio Federal Ama- 
zonas, alt. 200 m., September 11, 1944, Julian A. Steyermark 58522. 

GESNERIACEAE 33 



ALLOPLECTUS 



34 



Key to the Venezuelan species: 

Flowers umbellate, the common peduncle elongate or at least 
obvious. 
Calyx lobes ovate-deltoid, broadest near base; common 

peduncle as long" as petioles A. capitatus Hook. 

Calyx lobes oblong-ovate, narrowed- at base; common 

peduncle shorter than petioles A. congestus Linden 

Flowers solitary or aggregate in the leaf axils, or if um- 
bellate, the common peduncle obsolete, not more than 
2 mm. long. 
Leaf blades glabrous on the upper surface, almost 

glabrous beneath. A. glabrescens Morton 

Leaf blades hairy on both surfaces. 

Calyx lobes linear or nearly so, green, entire, 7-8 mm. 
long, 1.5'3 mm. wide; corolla yellow, very slender 

A. microsepalus Morton 

Calyx lobes much larger and broader, often colored, 
often toothed. 
Corolla white, red-spotted within throat 

A. tigrinus (Karst.) Hanst. 
Corolla yellow or red, not spotted. 

Corolla not contracted in throat. Leaves ovate, 
small, subcordate at base; stems densely hir- 
sute; corolla yellow A. aquatilis Morton 
Corolla contracted in throat. 

Pedicels elongate, 3~55 cm. long 

A . deltoideus Morton 
Pedicels shorter. 

Stems densely hirsute. 

Corolla pale yellow; calyx lobes lanceo- 
late, narrowed at base A. ornatus Morton 

Corolla with 2 upper lobes vermilion, the 3 
lower yellow, the tube rose-red; calyx 
lobes deeply cordate, broadest at base 

A. meridensis Klotzsch 



C. V. Morton. Published by permission of the Secretary of the 
Smithsonian Institution. 



^Several additional species, some of them very dissimilar to those 
keyed here, are represented from Venezuela by material inadequate 
for diagnosis. 



BOTANICAL EXPLORATION IN VENEZUELA -III 521 

Stems densely yellowish-sericeous. Corolla 
yellow; calyx lobes narrowed at base 

A . ichthyoderma Hanst. 

Alloplectus aquatilis Morton, sp. nov. 

Suffrutex; caules apice ca. 1 ram. diam., deorsum 5 mm. diam., 
apice dense hirsuti, pilis fulvis, acutis, patulis, pluricellularibus, 
demum glabrati; folia opposita paullo inaequalia, conformia, petiolo 
majore ca. 2 cm. longo, minore 1 cm. longo, densissime hirsuto; 
laminae foliorum majorum ovatae, 6x3 cm. usque ad 7 x 3-8 cm., 
gradatim acuminatae, basi rotundatae et subcordatae, tenuiter mem- 
branaceae, perspicue crenatae, supra hirsutae, subtus praecipue in 
costa et venis hirsutae, venis lateralibus 5-7-jugis; flores axillares, 
solitarii, pedunculo florifero ca. 3 cm. longo, dense hirsuto; calyx 
viridis, 2.3'2.5 cm. longus, lobis liberis, erectis, lanceolatis, 6-7 
mm. latis, acuminatis, basi paullo angustatis, marginibus non re- 
curvatis, dentatis (dentibus 5-7 utrinque latere), utrinque hirsutis; 
corolla lutea, in calyce obliqua, ca. 3 cm. longa, externe parce hir- 
suta, in fauce ampliata, limbo patulo, paullo oblique, lobis paullo 
inaequalibus, non ciliatis. 

Type in U. S. Nat. Herb., no. 2028756, collected near waterfall in 
cool forest between El Molino and the ridge above San Isidro Alto, 
state of Me'rida, alt. 2430-2895 m., May 14, 1944, Julian A. Steyer- 
mark 56528. 

The material is inadequate for a complete diagnosis of the floral 
parts. However, it is recognizable as an obviously distinct species 
of the section Gloss oloma, related most closely, apparently, to A. 
panamensis Morton. 

Alloplectus deltoideus Morton, sp. nov. 

Suffrutex 0.6-0.9 m. altus; caules non ramosi, apice 3 mm. diam., 
basi 5 mm. diam., teretes, apicem versus dense velutino-pubescentes, 
pilis rubescentibus, multicellularibus; folia opposita aequalia, longe 
petiolata, petiolo 4-5 cm. longo, dense sericeo-velutino; laminae 
foliorum ellipticae, 13 x 5.5 cm. usque ad 18 x 7.3 cm., acuminatae, 
basi cuneatae, non decurrentes, membranaceae, margine fere ubique 
crenulatae vel subserrulatae, supra virides, dense scabridulae, pilis 
brevibus, paucicellularibus, subtus virides vel purpurascentes, in 
venis dense et in mesophyllo parce strigosae, venis lateralibus 7-10- 
jugis; inflorescentia axillaris, umbellata, 2- vel 3-flora, pedunculo 
communi subnullo (1-2 mm. longo), basi bibracteato, bracteis folia- 
ceis, parvis, lanceolatis, 1-1.2 cm. longis, deciduis, pedicellis 
elongatis, 3~55 cm. longis, subsericeo-velutinis, apice parce in- 
cras satis; calyx ruber, lobis liberis, subaequalibus, late deltoideus, 
1.7-1.9 cm. longis, 11-13 mm. latis, longe acuminatis, basi late cor- 
datis, utrinque dense strigulosis marginibus recurvatis, integris; 
corolla ignota; ovarium pilosulum; discus in glandulam posticam del- 
toideam glabram acutam et glandulam anticam multo minorem reductus. 

Type in U. S. Nat. Herb., no. 2028780, collected on Sororopan- 
tepui, state of Bolivar, on a densely wooded slope of a narrow ridge 



522 FIELDIANA: BOTANY, VOLUME 28 

between the quebrada and the summit, alt. 2130-2250 m., November 
15, 1944, Julian A. Steyermark 60170. 

Related to Alloplectus capitatus Hook. (Bot. Mag. Curtis 75: pi. 
4452. 1849), which was described from a cultivated plant of unknown 
origin and which has not been identified with recent collections. It 
may have been from Venezuela, but more likely came from Colombia. 

Alloplectus glabrescens Morton, sp. nov. 

Suffrutex 0.9-1.2 m. altus; caules sursum non ramosi, apice ca. 2 
mm. crassi, deorsum ca. 8 mm. diam., apicem versus minute strigil- 
losi, mox glabri, straminei, internodiis inferioribus ca. 8 cm. longis, 
nodis incrassatis; folia per paria leviter inaequalia, petiolata, petio- 
lis foliorum inferiorum usque ad ca. 3 cm. longis, ca. 1.2 mm. diam., 
minute strigillosis vel glabris; lamina foliorum elliptica, obliqua, 
6 x 2.5 cm. ad 14 x 6 cm., herbacea, fragilis, apice abrupte et acriter 
acuminata, basi late cuneata, obliqua, integra, supra glabra, subtus 
pallidior, minutissime strigillosa vel fere glabra, venis 6- vel 7- 
jugis, supra impressis, subtus prominentibus; pedunculus communis 
subnullus, pedicellis 2 vel 3 axillaribus, basi bracteatis, in anthesin 
ca. 15 mm. longis, crassis, viridibus et aurantiaco-tinctis, strigil- 
losis, apicem versus incrassatis; calyx pallide viridis (Steyermark), 
ca. 7 mm. longus, lobis paullo inaequalibus, postico breviore, fere 
libero, ca. 6 mm. longo et 2.5 mm. lato, alteris ca. 3 mm. latis, basi 
2-2.5 mm. connatis, omnibus ovatis, acutis, perspicue crenatis, 
herbaceis, intus dense sericeo-pilosis, externe parce substrigillosis; 
corolla coccinea (Steyermark), in calyce obliqua, ca. 2 cm. longa, 
basi saccata, tubo supra basin ca. 4 mm. lato, sursum gradatim am- 
pliato, fauce 7-7.5 mm. lato, externe longe sed subsparse piloso, 
pilis albis, septatis, ca. 1 mm. longis, intus basi parce piloso, limbo 
subregulari, ca. 8 mm. lato, lobis ca. 3 mm. longis et latis, rotunda- 
tis; stamina inclusa, filamentis rectis, basi cum corollam ca. 3 mm. 
adnatis, parte libera ca. 11 mm. longa, glabra, antheris latioribus 
quam longioribus, ca. 1 mm. longis et 2 mm. latis, liberis vel leviter 
cohaerentibus, connective crasso, loculis discretis; ovarium sericeo- 
pilosum; stylus glaber, ca. 1 cm. longus; stigma stomatomorphum; dis- 
cus in glandulam posticam glabram bilobam reductus; fructus albidus 
(Steyermark), ca. 9 mm. longus, parce pilosus, acutus. 

Type in U.S. Nat. Herb., no. 2028742, collected along stream, in 
woods above Las Cuadras, along Quebrada Molino, north of Torondoy, 
state of Merida, alt. 1820-2255 m., March 27, 1944, Julian A. Steyer- 
mark 55818. Steyermark gives the common name as "corallito." 

Obviously related to Alloplectus pycnosuzygius (Donn. Smith) 
Morton, comb. nov. (Besleria pycnosuzygia Donn. Smith, Bot. Gaz. 
52: 53- 1911), of Costa Rica and Panama, which differs in having 
entire calyx lobes, and narrower leaves, gradually attenuate to apex 
and cuneate at base. In my revision of Besleria, I allowed B. pycno- 
suzygia to remain in the genus, pointing out, however, that the dis- 
crete anther-cells contradicted the generic character of Besleria. I 
now believe that these species find their closest allies in the genus 
A lloplectus. 



BOTANICAL EXPLORATION IN VENEZUELA -III 523 

Alloplectus tnicrosepalus Morton, sp. nov. 

Suffrutex epiphyticus, ca. 50 cm. longus; caules crassi, apice ca. 
5 mm. diam., deorsum ca. 1.5 cm. diam., apicem versus albo-pilosi; 
folia opposita subaequalia, breviter petiolata, petiolo 0.5*1.5 cm. 
longo, pallide hirsuto; laminae foliorum anguste ellipticae, 9 x 2.5 
cm. usque ad 13 x 4.5 cm., apice vix acutae, basi vix angustatae, 
late cuneatae, obliquae, subcoriaceae, leviter denticulatae vel sub- 
integrae, utrinque dense subappresso-villosae, venis lateralibus 5- 
vel 6-jugis, valde arcuatis; flores axillares, plures, pedunculo com- 
muni nullo, pedicellis brevissimis, 3-5 mm. longis, albo-pilosis, basi 
bracteatis, bracteis viridibus, ovatis,vel ovato-lanceolatis, 8-10 mm. 
longis, 3*4 mm. latis, acutis, basi angustatis, integris, utrinque albo- 
pilosis; calyx viridis 7-8 mm. longus, lobis liberis, erectis, paullo 
inaequalibus, 4 linearibus ca. 1.5 mm. latis, postico ca. 3 rom. lato, 
omnibus acuminatis, basi paullo angustatis, integris, utrinque albo- 
pilosis; corolla flava, in calyce suberecta, ca. 15 mm. longa, basi 
vix saccata, tubo cylindrico, basi ca. 2 mm. lato, sursum paullo am- 
pliato et 3.5 mm. lato, in fauce contracto et 3 mm. lato, externe pilo- 
so, intus glabro, limbo terminali, parvo, subregulari, 4 mm. lato, 
lobis vix 0.5 mm. longis,. 2 mm. latis, non maculatis; filamenta basi 
ca. 2 mm. connata et cum corolla adnata, glabra; antherae minutae, 
inclusae, quadratae, ca. 1 mm. longae et latae, loculis discretis; 
ovarium pilosum; stylus gracilis, glaber; discus in glandulas quinque 
parvas glabras oblongas divisus. 

Type in herb. Chi. Nat. Hist. Mus., no. 1205122, isotype in U. S. 
Nat. Herb. (no. 2028794), collected on Cerro de la Cueva de Dona 
Anita, south of valley of Caripe, state of Monagas, alt. 1100-1200 m., 
April 7, 1945, Julian A. Steyermark 61905. 

Related only to the rare Alloplectus congestiflorus (Donn. Smith) 
Morton, of Costa Rica, which differs in having obviously serrulate 
leaves, larger, colored calyx segments, a reddish corolla, narrower 
bracts, and a solitary disk gland. The flowers are the smallest of 
any described species of Alloplectus. 

Alloplectus ornatus Morton, sp. nov. 

Suffrutex epiphyticus; caules crassi, apice 4-5 mm. diam., deorsum 
7 mm. diam., subquadrangulares, densissime fulvo-hirsuti, pilis 3*4 
mm. longis, multicellularibus; folia opposita subaequalia, breviter 
petiolata, petiolo 1.5-2 cm. longo, crasso, densissime hirsuto; lami- 
nae, foliorum ellipticae, usque ad 11 cm. longae et 5 cm* latae, 
acuminatae, basi angustatae, late cuneatae, obliquae, membranaceae, 
perspicue crenatae fere usque ad basim, utrinque dense hirsutae, 
subtus purpurascentes, venis lateralibus 5-7-jugis, valde arcuatis; 
flores fasciculati, axillares, breviter pedunculati, pedunculo 0.5-1 
cm. longo, crasso, dense hirsuto; calyx viridis, ca. 2 cm. longus, 
lobis liberis, lanceolatis, fere aequalibus, ca. 5 mm. latis, acutis, 
basi paullo angustatis, marginibus non recurvatis, apicem versus 
parce denticulatis, utrinque hirsutis; corolla flava, in calyce sub- 
erecta, ca. 2 cm. longa, basi vix saccata, tubo cylindrico, crasso, 
basi ca. 7 mm. lato, sursum paullo ampliato et 1 cm. lato, in fauce 



524 FIELDIANA: BOTANY, VOLUME 28 

paullo contracto et 7 mm. lato, externe dense hirsute, intus glabro, 
limbo terminali, parvo, quam fauce vix latiore, lobis minutis, imbri- 
catis, incurvatis, vix 2 mm. longis et latis, intus glabris; filamenta 
glabra; antherae quadratae, 2 mm. longae et latae, glabrae; ovarium 
villosum; stylus glaber; discus in glandulam crassam posticam 
reductus. 

Type in U. S. Nat. Herb., no. 2028736, collected in dense woods 
below pa'ramo, above Humocaro Bajo, La Quebrada Cortijo, state of 
Trujillo, alt. 2600-2800 m., February 6, 1944, Julian A. Steyermark 
55355. 

The relationships of the present species are uncertain. It perhaps 
belongs to the subgenus Heintzia. 

BESLERIA33 
Key to the Venezuelan species: 

Common peduncle obsolete (0-2 mm. long), the pedicels seem- 
ingly aggregate in the leaf axils. 

Calyx tube much longer than the lobes. Corolla yellow; 
calyx lobes mucronate below the apex; leaves glabrate 
or strigillose. 
Calyx tube glabrous; leaf blades spinulose-serrate; 

lateral veins 10-13 pairs B. spinulosa Morton 

Calyx tube hirsutulous; leaf blades merely serrulate; 

lateral veins 8 or 9 pairs B. conformis Morton 

Calyx tube much shorter than the lobes or absent. 

Stems and leaf veins beneath hirsute; calyx lobes lan- 
ceolate to linear-lanceolate, 14-21 mm. long. 
Corolla white, 1.5-1.8 cm. long; pedicels about 0.7 
cm. long; calyx lobes hirsute on both sides 

B. disgrega Morton 
Corolla yellow, 2.5~3 cm. long; pedicels 4-5.5 cm. long; 

calyx lobes glabrous within B. ornata Morton 

Stems and leaf veins beneath strigillose or glabrate; calyx 
lobes oblong to suborbicular. 

Corolla 1.3*1.5 cm. long, orange, subregular; leaf blades 
inconspicuously denticulate, not pellucid-punctate. 
Calyx lobes oblong, 3*4 mm. long, obtuse, not mu- 
cronate B. solanoides H.B.K. 

Corolla 2-4 cm. long, yellow, strongly bilabiate; leaf 
blades deeply serrate, pellucid-punctate. 
Calyx lobes suborbicular, 8-9 mm. long 

B. labiosa Hanst. 

Calyx lobes oblong-lanceolate, 15-18 mm. long 

B. longipes Urban 

Common peduncle present, usually elongate (sometimes only 
5 mm. long), the pedicels umbellate or subcorymbose. 



'^Several additional species are represented from Venezuela by mate- 
rial inadequate for diagnosis. 



BOTANICAL EXPLORATION IN VENEZUELA -III 525 

Stems and leaf veins beneath hirsute. Calyx lobes linear- 
lanceolate, subulate-attenuate... ...B. concinna Morton 

Stems and leaf veins beneath tomentose, puberulous, stri- 
'L se, or glabrous. 
Ovary and style pilosulous. Corollas yellow. 

Leaf blades at maturity entirely glabrous; common 
peduncles very short, only 5-7 mm. long. C r H a 

not spurred at base B. kalbreyeri Fritsch 

Leaf blades persistently pubescent beneath; common 
peduncles at least 1 cm. long, up to 10 cm. long. 
Calyx lobes lanceolate, acuminate, 7 mm. long. 
Corolla spurred at base, 3.5-4 cm. long 

B. penduliflora Fritsch 

Calyx lobes ovate, obtuse, not over 5 mm. long. 
Leaf blades glabrous on the upper surface. Co- 
rolla spurred at base B. pendula Hanst. 

Leaf blades persistently hispidulous on the upper 

surface B. ovoide a Morton 

Ovary and style glabrous. 
Calyx 4-5 mm. long. 

Stems lanate-tomentose. Calyx lobes not mucronate; 

corolla red-orange B. reticulata Fritsch 

Stems strigose or glabrate. 

Corolla yellow, 10-12 mm. long; calyx lobes ovate, not 
mucronate, evenly strigillose externally. Leaf blades 

entire B. clivorum Morton 

Corolla red or yellow, 13-16 mm. long; calyx lobes mucro- 
nate below apex. 

Peduncles up to 21 cm. long; lateral veins 11-15 pairs; 
leaf blades large, up to 28 cm. long and 13 cm. wide; 

calyx glabrous, the lobes ciliolate B. affinis Morton 

Peduncles 5-6 cm. long; lateral veins 5-7 pairs; leaf 
blades smaller, up to 12.5 cm. long and 4.5 cm. wide; 

calyx sparingly puberulous B. mucronata Hanst. 

Calyx 7.5-14 mm. long. 

Calyx 7.5-8 mm. long, the lobes orbicular. 

Corolla yellow, about 2 cm. long; peduncles up to 15 mm. 
long; calyx lobes connate about to middle 

B. connata Morton 

Corolla purplish- or brownish-orange, 12-15 mm. long; 
peduncles up to 7.5 cm. long; calyx lobes connate 
only at base ...B. rhytidophyllum Hanst. 

Calyx up to 14 mm. long, the lobes ovate to lanceolate, 
acuminate. Corolla about 2 cm. long, orange 

B. laxiflora Benth. 

Besleria concinna Morton, sp. nov. 

Suffrutex ca. 0.6 m. altus; caules non ramosi, apice ca. 2 mm. 
diam., deorsum 4 mm. diam,, apicem versus dense hirsuti, demum 
glabrati, internodiis inferioribus ca. 5.5 cm. longis; folia per paria 
paullo inaequalia, petiolata, petiolis usque ad 2 cm. longis, hirsutis; 



526 FIELDIANA: BOTANY, VOLUME 28 

lamina foliorum elliptica, 11x4 cm. usque ad 15 x 5 cm., apice longe 
et acriter acuminata, basi longa cuneata, obliqua, membranacea, per- 
spicue sed minute serrulata, dentibus ca. 30 utrinque latere, vix 0.5 
mm. longis, supra parce pilosa, subtus praecipue in venis longe hir- 
suta, pilis hyalinis septatis ca. 1.2 mm. longis, venis lateralibus 
13- vel14-jugis, ex angulo acuto excurrentibus, arcuatis; pedunculus 
communis 2.5~3.5 cm. longus, pilosus, pedicellis umbellatis, 7-8 mm. 
longis; calyx 1 cm. longus, tubo brevissimo, vix 1 mm. longo, lobis 
subaequalibus, lineari-lanceolatis, 1.5-1.8 mm. latis, non imbricatis, 
subulato-attenuatis, integris, ciliatis, membranaceis, externe parce 
hirsutis, intus glabris; corolla aurantiaco-rubra, in calyce erecta, ca. 
15 mm. longa, tubo basi ca. 4 mm. lato, sursum paullo ventricoso et 
5 mm. lato, in fauce paullo contracto, externe glabro, limbo terminali, 
angusto, ca. 6 mm. lato, lobis subaequalibus, ca. 2 .mm. longis et 
latis, eciliatis; f ilamenta glabra; antherae cohaerentes, subquadratae, 
ca. 1 mm. longae et latae, glabrae; ovarium et stylus glabri. 

Type in herb. Chi. Nat. Hist. Mus., no. 1205118, collected on dry, 
brushy slopes between Rio Leon and "Carmelita," northeast of Ber- 
gafltfn, state of Anzoategui, alt. 600 m., March 9, 1945, Julian A. 
Steyermark 61465. 

A member of Eubesleria, subsect. Elongatae, not closely allied to 
any known species. In the key in my revision of the genus it will 
run directly to B. trichiata Morton, of Peru, which is different in 
many respects, notably in the coriaceous, imbricate, oblong, rounded 
and mucronate calyx lobes. 

Besleria conformis Morton, sp. nov. 

Herba 0.9-2.1 m. alta; caules irregulariter compressi, non ramosi, 
apice ca. 2 mm. diam., deorsum 5 mm. diam., apicem versus sericeo- 
strigosi, demum glabrati, internodiis inferioribus usque ad 8 cm. 
longis; folia opposita, per paria parum inaequalia, vel omnia alterna, 
petiolata, petiolis usque ad 6 cm. longis, strigosis; lamina foliorum 
elliptica vel elliptico-oblonga, 11.5 x 4 cm. usque ad 18 x 8.5 vel 
23 * 5.5 cm., longe acuminata, basi cuneata vel longe attenuata, 
serrulata (basi excepta), membranacea, supra pilos paucos rectos 
appressos in superficie ferens, subtus in costa, venis, et super- 
ficiebus strigillosa, venis lateralibus 8- vel 9-jugis, angulo acuto ad- 
scendentibus; pedunculus communis subnullus, pedicellis paucis, 
floriferis ca. 1.1 cm. longis, hirsutulis, pilis rectis, sursum directis; 
calyx urceolatus, luteus (Steyermark), ca. 11 mm. longus, 7 mm. 
latus, externe hirsutulus, pilis rectis, adscendentibus, lobis ovato- 
triangularibus, 4-4.5 mm. longis, 2-3 mm. latis, reticulato-venosi, 
integri (margine hyalina), rotundatis, sub apice mucronulatis; corolla 
lutea (Steyermark), 15 mm. longa, tubo cylindrico, ca. 4.5 mm. lato, 
in fauce non contracto, utrinque glabro, limbo subregulari, ca. 5.5 
mm. lato, lobis ca. 2 mm. longis, rotundatis; stamina inclusa, fila- 
mentis glabris, anther,is cohaerentibus, glabris, 1.2 mm. longis, 2.3 
mm. latis, loculis confluentibus; ovarium glabrum; discus annularis, 
integer, glaber; bacca globosa, aurantiaco-rubra (Steyermark), ca. 10 
mm. diam. 



BOTANICAL EXPLORATION IN VENEZUELA -III 527 

Type in herb. Chi. Nat. Hist. Mus., nos. 1205121 and 1205134, iso- 
type in U. S. Nat. Herb. (no. 2028802), collected on Cerro Turumi- 
quire, on north-facing slopes between La Trinidad and Quebrada El 
Boquero'n, southwest of Cocollar, state of Sucre, alt. 1700-1840 m., 
May 3, 1945, Julian A. Steyermark 62440. A second specimen was 
collected at Quebrada Seca, between Fila Grande of Cerro Negro and 
Rio Maravilla above Cerro Vaquero, northeast of Los Chorros and El 
Cielo, east of Bergantin, state of Anzoategui, alt. 1000-1100 m., 
March 18, 1945, Steyermark 61526. 

This species, the fourth known belonging to the subsection Typi- 
cae, is related to 6. insolita Morton, of the Guianas, which has a 
tubular, rather than urceolate calyx, and narrower calyx lobes. The 
second specimen cited above is remarkable in having the leaves all 
alternate, a condition unique in the genus. This is possibly just a 
casual abnormality. 

Besleria ornata Morton, sp. nov. 

Herba; caules teretes, deorsum ca. 4 mm. diam., parce ramosi, 
ramis erectis, apicem versus dense hirsuti, pilis albis, septatis, 2-3 
mm. longis, patulis; folia per paria paullo inaequalia, longe petio- 
lata, petiolis usque ad 5.5 cm. longis, gracilibus, dense hirsutis; 
lamina foliorum anguste elliptica vel oblanceolata, 10 x 3.5 cm. 
usque ad 18 x 6.5 cm., apice longe et anguste attenuata, basi an- 
guste cuneata, tenuiter membranacea, argute serrulata, dentibus 
remotis, 8-12 utrinque latere, supra parce hirsuta, obscure viridis, 
subtus pallidior, satis dense hirsuta in venis et superficiebus, venis 
lateralibus 8-10-jugis, angulo 60 excurrentibus, valde arcuatis, 
subtus prominulis; pedunculus communis obsoletus, pedicellis 2 vel 
3 axillaribus, elongatis, 4-5.5 cm. longis, dense hirsutis; calycis 
lobi fere liberi, basi ca. 1 mm. connati, anguste lanceolati, paullo 
inaequales, posticus ca. 18 mm. longus et 6.5 ram. latus, laterales 
20 mm. longi et 5 mm. lati, anteriores 21 mm. longi et 4 mm. lati, 
omnes subulato-attenuati, integri, externe hirsuti, eciliati, intus 
glabri; corolla lutea, 2.5~3 cm. longa, in calyce erecta, tubo basi ca. 
6 mm. lato, cylindrico, vix ventricoso, in fauce non contracto, ca. 8 
mm. lato, externe basi glabro, apicem versus piloso, intus annulum 
pilosum basin versus gerente, fauce glanduloso-pilosulo, limbo pa- 
tente, ca. 1.5 cm. lato, lobis suborbicularibus, subaequalibus; sta- 
mina inclusa, filamentis basi ad corollam ca. 7 mm. adnatis, glabris, 
antheris cohaerentibus, subquadratis, ca. 1.6 mm. longis et latis, 
glabris; ovarium conicum in stylum attenuatum, apice pilosulum; sty- 
lus glanduloso-pilosulus; discus annularis, tenuis, ca. 1 mm. altus, 
glaber. 

Type in herb. Chi. Nat. Hist. Mus., no. 1222019, isotype in U. S. 
Nat. Herb. (no. 2928759), collected on rich, forested slopes along 
Rio Onia, near Bolero, north of Mesa Bolivar, state of Merida, alt. 
545-915 m., May 23, 1944, Julian A. Steyermark 56716. 

A member of subsection Confertae, related to B. immitis Morton, of 
Amazonian Colombia and Peru, which has much shorter pedicels (5.7 
mm. long), shorter and narrower calyx lobes (up to 15 mm. long and 



528' FIELDIANA: BOTANY, VOLUME 28 

1.5 mm. broad), and smaller and much more conspicuously hirsute co- 
rollas with a small narrow limb. 

Beslerja ovoidea Morton, sp. nov. 

Frutex terrestris vel epiphyticus, 1.5-3 m. altus; ramuli teretes, 
dense sericeo-strigosi, internodiis brevibus; folia per paria paullo 
inaequalia," petiolata, petiolis elongatis, usque ad 2.5 cm. longis, 
dense strigosis; lamina foliorum anguste elliptica, parva^ 7x2 cm. 
usque ad 10 x 3 cm., acriter acurainata, basi cuneata, membranacea, 
integra, supra hispidula, subtus dense sericeo-strigosa, venis late- 
ralibus 6-8-jugis, ex angulo lato excurrentibus; pedunculus communis 
1-3 cm. longus, dense strigosus, pedicellis solitariis (vel paucis?), 
fructiferis 2-2.5 cm. longis, dense strigosis, tenuibus, apice non in- 
crassatis; calyx 4-5 mm. longus, tubo brevi, ca. 1 mm. longo, lobis 
ovatis, 3-3.5 mm. longis, ca. 2 mm. latis, vix inbricatis, obtusis, 
mucronulatis, integris, externe strigosis, intus glabris; fructus viri- 
descens, pendens, ovoideus, 8-9 mm. longus, acutus, styli basi coro- 
natus, minute hirsutulus, verrucosus. 

Type in U. S. Nat. Herb. no. 2028770, collected on rich, steep, 
wooded slopes, Alto de Lirio, between Bramon and Las Delicias, 
state of Tachira, alt. 1890-2285 m., July 18, 1944, Julian A. Steyer- 
mark 57442. 

Related to B. tri flora (Oerst.) Hanst., especially to the Colombian 
var. aus trails Morton, but hardly referable to that species, which has 
much larger, broader imbricate calyx lobes, and pedicels becoming 
conspicuously clavately-thickened at apex. The leaf blades also are 
only sparsely strigose beneath in B. tri flora, rather than densely seri- 
ceous as in the present species. 

Besleria spinulosa Morton, sp. nov. 

Herba 0.9-1.5 m. alta; caules non ramosi, apice ca. 1.5 mm. diam., 
deorsum ca. 4 mm. diam., subquadrangulares, apicem versus dense 
sericeo-strigillosi, pilis minutissimis, fulvis, mox glabri, internodiis 
inferioribus 4.5-5 cm. longis; folia per paria subaequalia, petiolata, 
petiolis usque ad 1.4 cm. longis, 2 mm. diam., parce strigillosis, 
levissime canaliculatis; lamina foliorum elliptico-oblonga, 18.5 x 6.5 
cm. usque ad 32 x 11 cm., chartacea, fragilis, acuminata, basi longe 
cuneata, perspicue subspinuloso-serrata, dentibus 2-2.5 mm. longis, 
rectis vel curvatis, basi integra, supra in venis glabra, in superficie 
pilos paucos minutos appressos ferens, subtus pallidior, minute stri- 
gillosa, venis 10-13-jugis, subtus prominentibus, angulo subacuto 'ex- 
currentibus; pedunculus communis obsoletus (1-2 mm. longus), pedi- 
cellis paucis, in. anthesin ca. 15 mm. longis, strigillosis; calyx 
viridis, floriferus urceolatus, glaber, 13 mm. longus, basin versus ca. 
8 mm. latus, tubulosus, lobis aequalibus, parvis, ca. 3 mm. longis, 
ovatis, rotundatis, infra apicem mucronatis (mucrone fere 1 mm. 
longo), integris; corolla lutea, in calyce erecta, ca. 2 cm. longa, non 
saccata vel calcarata, tubo basi ca. 5 mm. lato, sursura paullo ven- 
tricoso et 7 mm. lato, fauce 6 mm. lato, externe et intus glabro, limbo 
subbilabiato, ca. 8 mm. lato; stamina inclusa,. filamentis rectis, 
glabris, antheris cohaerentibus, ca. 1 mm. longis et 2 mm. latis, locu- 



BOTANICAL EXPLORATION IN VENEZUELA -III 529 

lis confluentibus; ovarium glabrum; stylus crassus, ca. 8 mm. longus, 
glaber; stigma subbilobatum; discus annularis, ca. 1 mm. altus, 
tenuis, glaber; fructus ruber (Steyermark), baccatus, globosus, in 
calyce inclusus. 

Type in U. S. Nat. Herb., no. 2028795, collected along stream of 
Quebrada Colorado Grande, southwest of Caripe, state of Monagas, 
alt. 850-1350 m., April 9, 1945, Julian A. Steyermark 61966. A 
fruiting specimen referable to this species is: Montana de Aguacate, 
along Quebrada de Pajarral, between Caripe and Caripito, state of 
Monagas, alt. 600-900 m., April 19, 1945, Steyermark 62208. 

The present species belongs to Eubesleria, subsect. Typicae, and 
is very closely allied indeed to B. lutea L., the type of the genus 
Besleria. That West Indian species has leaf blades serrate or mere- 
ly serrulate, but never saliently spinulose-serrate as in the present 
species. 

COLUMNEA 
Key to the Venezuelan species: 

Corolla strongly bilabiate; leaves of a pair equal or subequal. 
Corolla orange, the tube broad, curved; leaf blades more 

than 6 cm. long C. aurantiaca Dene. 

Corolla red, the tube straight; leaf blades less than 6 cm. 
long. 
Calyx lobes long-subulate at apex, the lateral teeth 

subulate ; C. fendleri Sprague 

Calyx lobes acuminate only, the teeth not subulate 

C. scandens L. var. australis Morton 
Corolla regular or nearly so; leaves of a pair strongly 
unequal. 
Peduncles 3-5'5 cm. long; corolla 3.5 cm. long or more 

C. erythrophylla Hanst. 
Peduncles much shorter; corollas smaller. 

Leaves with a conspicuous red area beneath medially 

C. sanguinea var. trinitensis Morton 

J Leaves green beneath. 
Bracts and calyx lobes red C. affinis Morton 

Bracts and calyx lobes green, coarsely golden-pilose 
C. aureonitens Hook. 

Columnea affinis Morton, sp. nov. 

Herba saepe epiphytica, usque ad 2.4 m. longa; caules crassi, 
apice ca. 5 mm. diam., deorsum ca. 1 cm. diam., densissime 
subappresso-pilosi, pilis aureis, 2-3 mm. longis, septatis; internodia 
brevia, 2.5-4 cni. longa; folia per paria valde inaequalia, majora 
breviter petiolata, petiolis ca. 1 cm. longis, crassis, hirsutis; lamina 
foliorum majorum herbacea, oblanceolata, usque ad 23 cm. longa et 6 
cni. lata, apice acriter acuminata, basi angustata valde inaequalis, 
glanduloso-denticulata, supra pilosa, subtus dense subappresso- 
pilosa, pilis aureis, tenuibus, venis lateralibus 9-11-jugis, valde 
arcuatis; lamina foliorum minorum parva, 2-3 cm. longa, sessilis, 



530 FIELDIANA: BOTANY, VOLUME 28 

longa attenuata, basi valde inaequalis; inflorescentia axillaris, ses- 
siles, 2-vel-3-flora, bracteata, bracteis rubris, ellipticis, 2.5*3.3 cm. 
longis, 7-10 mm. latis, basi angustatis, apice subulato-acuminatis, 
serratis, dentibus utrinque 2 vel 3> subulatis, utrinque subappresso- 
pilosis; pedicelli ca. 6 mm. longi, crassi, dense roseo-hirsuti; calyx 
ruber, 2~3 cm. longus, lobis subaequalibus, liberis, erectis, lineari- 
lanceolatis, 4-5 mm. latis, basi paullo angustatis, apice subulatis, 
utrinque latere dentibus 2 vel 3 subulatis gerentibus, externe dense 
roseo-subappresso-pilosis, intus parce, substrigosis; corolla flava, 
ca. 2.7 cm. longa, in calyce erecta, basi postice saccata, tubo ca. 
2.4 cm. longo, supra basim ca. 4 mm. diam. sursum ampliato et 6.5 
mm. diam., in fauce paullo contracto et 5.5 mm. diam., externe dense 
roseo-hirsuto, intus glabro, limbo brevi, ca. 7 mm. lato, lobis parvis, 
ca. 3 mm. longis et 2 mm. latis, rotundatis, subaequalibus, intus 
glabris; stamina inclusa, filamentis basi ca. 6 mm. connatis, glabris, 
rectis, antherae quadratim cohaerentibus, ca. 2 mm. longis et 1.5 mm. 
latis, glabris; ovarium pilosum; stylus inclusus, glaber; stigma bi- 
lobum; discus in glandulam posticam glabram crassam apice 3- 
dentatam reductus. 

Type in U. S. Nat. Herb., no. 1187029, collected at El Portachuelo, 
between Ocumare de la Costa and Maracay, state of Aragua, January 
29, 1922, H. Pittier 10130. 

Additional specimens examined (U. S. Nat. Herb.): 

VENEZUELA: Cloud forests of Ocumare Valley, state of Aragua, 
1100 m., April 3, 1926, Pittier 12173. La Cumbre, state of Aragua, 
1775 m., June 14, 1942, Fernandez 99. Parque Nacional, state of 
Aragua, 500 m., May 19-20, 1943, Killip & Lasser 37773. Colonia 
Tovar, state of Aragua, December, 1924, A Hart 478. 

The above specimens have been identified as Columnea aureonitens 
Hook, (in Bot. Mag. Curtis 73: pi. 4294. 1847), which was described 
from cultivated material of unknown origin. Hooker indicated that he 
had seen wild specimens of the same species from Colombia, but no 
collections are cited. 

Only three or four species of the section Collandra have been de- 
scribed or reported from Colombia, but there are specimens of recent 
collection in the National Herbarium of about 30 species. The speci- 
men agreeing most closely with the original description and figure 
is Haught 2574, collected in forest near Villavicencio, Meta, 500 m., 
January 29, 1939. I would refer the following collections of Steyer- 
mark to the same species: 

VENEZUELA: South-facing forested slopes above limestone 
bluffs, northeast of Gua'charo, state of Monagas, alt. 1300-1400 m., 
April 11, 1945, 61995. Montana de Aguacate, along Quebrada de 
Pajarral, between Caripe and Caripito, state of Monagas, alt. 600-900 
m., April 19, 1945, 62199. Woods along Rib Leon, by Quebrada 
Danta, northeast of Bergantin, state of Anzoategui, alt. 500 m., Feb- 
ruary 20, 1945 V 61008. Between Hacienda Agua Blanca, above La 
Azulita, and Rio Capaz, state of Merida, alt. 975 m., April 26, 1944, 






BOTANICAL EXPLORATION IN VENEZUELA -III 531 

56142. Cerro Duida, along Cano Negro, Territorio Federal Amazonas, 
August 25-26, 1944, 57965. 

The new species described above, C. af finis, is closely allied to 
C. aureonitens, but may be distinguished by the larger, red, rather 
than green, calyx lobes, and the larger, red (not green) bracts of the 
inflorescence. A third species of this alliance is represented by 
Steyermark 56679 (from Merida) and 57447 (from Tachira), but the 
material is scarcely suitable for determining the differential char- 
acters accurately. 

Colutnnea scandens L. var. australis Morton, var. nov. 

Frutex scandens, epiphyticus; caules apice 1 mm. diam., deorsum 
3.5 mm. diam., apicem versus fulvo-pubescentes, pilis densis, ant- 
rorsis, ca. 1 mm. longis, demum glabrati, internodiis brevibus, usque 
ad 1.5 cm. longis; folia opposita aequalia, breviter petiolata, petiolis 
usque ad 5 mm. longis, antrorse appresso-pilosis; laminae foliorum 
ellipticae, rat. long.: lat. = 2.4: 1, 2-2.7 cm. longae, 9-11 mm. 
latae, apice obtusae, basi anguste cuneatae, crassae, integrae, mar- 
ginibus (siccis) revolutis, utrinque subappresso-pilosae, venis 3* 
jugis, obscuris; flores axillares, solitarii, pedunculo 7-9 mm. longo, 
piloso, pilis adscendentibus, multiseptatis, septis rubescentibus, 
basi bibracteato, bracteis parvis, anguste oblongis, intus glabris; 
calyx pallide viridis, 1-1.2 cm. longus, lobis liberis, aequalibus, ob- 
longis, medio ca. 3 mm. latis, acuminatis sed non apice subulatis, 
basi angustatis, marginibus unidentatis, dentibus 0.5-1 mm. longis, 
externe ubique et perspicue pilosis, intus apicem verus pilosulis; 
corolla rubra, ca. 4.3 cm. longa, in calyce erecta, tubo basi ca. 2 mm. 
lato, sursum gradatim ampliato, 2.7 cm. longo, apice ca. 5.5 mm. 
lato, externe rubro-piloso, intus basi glabro, sursum pilosulo, limbo 
valde bilabiate, galea ca. 1.5 cm. longa, apice obtusa, integra, lobis 
lateralibus cum galea alte connatis, partibus liberis ca. 5 mm. longis, 
lobo antico lanceolate, ca. 8 mm. longo et 2 mm. lato, acuto, patulo; 
filamenta glabra; antherae inclusae, cohaerentes, ca. 1.5 mm. longae 
et 1 mm. latae, loculis discretis, oblongis; ovarium apice appresso- 
pilosum; stylus exsertus, basi glaber, sursum dense glanduloso- 
pilosus; discus in glandulam posticam glabram crassam bilobatam 
reductus. 

Type in herb. Chi. Nat. Hist. Mus., no. 1205116, isotype in U. S. 
Nat. Herb. (no. 2028801), collected in the Montana de Aguacate, 
along Quebrada de Pajarral, tributary to Rio Caripe, between Caripe 
and Caripito, state of Monagas, alt. 600-900 m., April 19, 1945, 
Julian A. Steyermark 62229. 

This is the first authentic record of C. scandens in South America. 
The var. australis is near var. vincentina Morton (Contr. U. S. Nat. 
Herb. 29: 13. 1944) of St. Vincent and Grenada, differing chiefly in 
the smaller, more slender corolla and shorter anterior corolla lobe. 
The leaves are more narrowly long-cuneate at base. 

Drymonia crassa Morton, sp. nov. 

Frutex epiphyticus scandens; caules apice 2.5 mm. diam., deorsum 



532 FIELDIANA: BOTANY, VOLUME 28 

9 mm. diam., parce ramosi, apice dense hirtelli, demum glabrati, in- 
ternodiis brevibus, 1-1.5 cm. longis; folia opposita aequalia, petio- 
lata, petiolo 1-1.5 cm. longo, dense hirtello; laminae foliorum 
oblanceolatae, 5 x 1.5 cm. usque ad 8 x 3 cm., apice abrupte breviter 
acuminatae, basi angustatae, cuneatae, coriaceae, subintegrae, in 
marginibus minute glanduloso-denticulatae, supra parce substrigil- 
losae, subtus pallidiores, dense hirtello-puberulae, venis lateralibus 
4-jugis, valde arcuatis; flores axillares, solitarii, pedunculo ca. 1.5 
cm. longo, a 1 bo-pub erulo, apice incrassato, basi bibracteato, bracteis 
lineari-oblongis, ca. 2 cm. longis et 5 mm. latis, acuminatis, basi 
paullo angustatis, integris, utrinque pilosulis; calyx viridis, lobis 
lilacino-marginatis (Steyermark) ca. 2.5 cm. longus, lobis liberis, 
paullo inaequalibus (postico breviore, angustiore, 6-7 mm. lato), 9-12 
mm. latis, acutis, basi paullo angustatis, apicem versus inconspicue 
dentatis, externe pilosulis, intus strigillosis; corolla alba, crassa, 
ca. 5.5 cm. longa, in calyce obliqua, basi postice calcarata (calcare 
ca. 5 mm. longo et lato), tubo campanulato, supra basim 1.2 cm. lato, 
sursum 2.3 cm. lato, in fauce non contracto, externe parce pilosulo, 
intus glabro, limbo magno, patente, ca. 3 cm. lato, lobis subaequali- 
bus, suborbicularibus, ca. 13 mm. longis et latis, subintegris; fila- 
menta basi dilatata, glabra; antherae inclusae, oblongae, ca. 7 mm. 
longae et 2.5 mm. latae, supra basim affixae, basi calcaratae, gla- 
brae; ovarium conicum, dense velutinum; stylus crassus, pilosulus, 
ca. 15 mm. longus; stigma bilobum; discus in glandulam posticam 
magnam glabram reductus. 

Type in U. S. Nat. Herb., no. 2028765, collected in wooded que- 
brada in Montana of Rio Ta'chira, at the base of the Paramo de Tama, 
between Betania and Tama", Tachira, alt. 2430 m., July 13, 1944, 
Julian A. Steyermark 57178. 

The relationship of the species is uncertain. The thick, oblanceo- 
late, subentire, few-nerved leaves and the white, fleshy corolla are 
distinctive. 

Pterobesleria Morton, gen. nov. 

Herba perennis parva, caulibus parce ramosis, internodiis paucis; 
folia opposita, per paria conformia sed inaequalia, satis longe petio- 
lata, laminis membranaceis; inflorescentiae solitariae, axillares, 
umbellatae, ebracteatae, pedunculo communi elongate, pedicellis 
paucis; calyx coloratus, membranaceus, bilabiatus, campanulatus, 
basi tubulosus, lobis valde inaequalibus, dorso perspicue alatis, 
alis apice in mucronibus terminantibus, lobo postico patente, acuto, 
angusto, lobis 2 lateralibus latioribus, rotundatis, lobis 2 anteriori- 
bus omnino in labio connatis, labio obdeltoideo, truncate, dorso bi- 
alato, bimucronato; corolla tubulosa, in calyce erecta, non saccata 
vel calcarata, sub apice perspicue postice ventricosa, in fauce paullo 
contracta, limbo terminali, subregulari, lobis minutis, erectis, sub- 
aequalibus; stamina inclusa, filamentis basi cum corollae tubo ca. 3 
mm. adnatis, antheris cohaerentibus, loculis confluentibus; ovarium 
superum; stigma leviter bilobatum; placentae lamellae intus solum 
ovuliferae; discus annularis, integer, crassus, glaber. 



: BOTANICAL EXPLORATION IN VENEZUELA -III 533 

Pterobesleria rosea Morton, sp. nov. 

Herba usque ad 25 cm. alta; caules apice ca. 1 mm. diam., deorsum 
3 mm. diam., apicem versus densissime tomentoso-hirsuti, pilis albis, 
septatis, 2-2.5 rani, longis, internodiis 4 vel 5> inferioribus usque ad 
5 cm. longis; folia petiolata, petiolis usque ad 3.5 cm. longis, dense 
tomentoso-hirsutis; lamina foliorum ovata, usque ad 10 cm. longa et 
5 cm. lata, apice breviter acuta, basi obliqua, late cuneata, merabra- 
nacea, serrulata, dentibus apice glandulosis, supra juventute strigil- 
losa,mox glabra, subtus in costa,venis venulisque tomentoso-hirsuta, 
in superficiebus glabra, venis lateralibus 8-10-jugis, angulo lato 
excurrentibus; inflorescentiae paucae, pedunculis communibus 2-3 cm. 
longis, tomentoso-hirsutis, pedicellis 3, 8-10 mm. longis, pilosis, 
apice incrassatis; calyx roseus, 11-12 mm. longus, lobo postico basi 
cum lobis lateralibus 5 mm. connato, pars libera lineari-oblongo, 8 
mm. longo et 2.5 mm. lato, acuto, dorso perspicue et oblique alato- 
carinato, ala ca. 0.5 mm. lata, apice in mucrone 1.5 mm. longo ex- 
currente, lobis lateralibus basi ca. 4 mm. cum lobis anterioribus 
connatis, partibus liberis late oblongis, ca. 7.5 mm. longis et 4 mm. 
latis, rotundatis, ala dorsalis ca. 6 mm. lata apice in mucrone 1 mm. 
longo excurrente praeditis, lobis anterioribus in labio omnino con- 
natis, labio sub apice 9.5 mm. lato, mucronibus duobus 1 mm. longis, 
lobis omnibus utrinque glabris (tubo basi parcissime piloso), integris; 
corolla alba, 15-16 mm. longa, tubo basi 4.5 ram. lato, sub apice 
ventricoso et 6 mm. lato, in fauce 4 mm. lato, externe glabro, intus 
basin versus annulo piloso praedito, limbo ca. 4 mm. lato, lobis 1 mm. 
longis et 2 mm. latis, rotundatis, marginibus minute pilosulis; fila- 
menta partibus liberis glabra, incurvata, antheris ca. 0.8 mm. longis, 
1 mm. latis, glabris, connective purpureo, subquadrato; ovarium el- 
lipsoideum, acutum, ca.3 mm. longum, 1.5 mm. latum, laeve, glabrum; 
stylus rectus, 6 mm. longus, glaber; discus vix 0.5 mm. altus; 
fructus ignotus. 

Type in U. S. Nat. Herb., no. 703588, collected in the Paramo de 
Pinango, state of Me'rida, March 17, 1915, Alfredo John 417. Col- 
lected also between Los Corales and Las Cuadras, state of Me'rida 
alt. 1490-3210 m., March 25, 1944, Steyermark 55764. 

Pterobesleria is closely allied to Besleria, which agrees in the 
characters of the androecium and gynoecium. However, the calyx is 
so different that this segregate genus may conveniently be recog- 
nized. In Besleria the calyx is regular or nearly so, and the lobes 
are not winged. In Pterobesleria the calyx is conspicuously bilabiate, 
the two anterior lobes being completely united into a truncate label- 
lum, the posterior lobes erect and rounded, and the posterior lobe 
narrow, acute and spreading or perhaps sometimes reflexed. All the 
lobes are crested on the back by a membranous wing which ends at 
the apex in a mucro exceeding the sepal in length. When fresh the 
calyx would therefore be 5-angled. The general aspect of the calyx 
is very like Tussacia, which has, however, different anthers. 

The genus, which is monotypic, so far as known, probably origi- 
nated from Besleria, section Gasteranthus, from some such species 



534 FIELDIANA: BOTANY, VOLUME 28 

as B. quitensis (Benth.) Hanst., the type species of Gasteranthus 
Benth., which might possibly be recognized itself as a genus dis- 
tinct from Besleria. The corolla of Pterobesleria is in some respects 
intermediate between Gasteranthus and Eubesleria. 

LENTIBULARIACEAE 
Genlisea esmeraldae Steyermark, sp. nov. 

Herba 6 cm. alta; foliis basalibus spatulatis in petiolum abrupte 
angustatis longe decurrentibus; petiolis 3'3-5 mm. longis; laminis 
spatulato-obovatis rotundatis 2.5 mm. longis 1.2-1.5 mm. latis; sea- 
pis erectis solitariis pilis patentibus pilosis praeditis superne pilis 
glandularibus obtectis; squamis 8 ovatis acutis 0.6-1.5 mm. longis 
pilosulis; pedicellis 1.2 mm. longis glandulari-pilosis; calyce 1 mm. 
longo glandulari-pilosulis, lobis inaequalibus ovatis vel lanceolatis 
acutis vel obtusis 1 mm. longis; corolla lutea, labio superiore 2.5 
mm. longo 2 mm. lato, labio inferiore 3 mm. longo; calcari 4 mm. 
longo. 

Type in herb. Chi. Nat. Hist. Mus., collected between Esmeralda 
Savana and southeastern base of Cerro Duida, Territorio Federal 
Amazonas, alt. 200 m., August 22, 1944, Julian A. Steyermark 57835a. 

Although the type material is scanty, it is obvious that it differs 
from G. roraimensis N. E. Brown and other related species in the 
smaller size of the stems, corolla, cauline scales and bracts, pubes- 
cent cauline scales, and in the more densely glandular-pubescent 
scapes and calyx. In G. roraimensis the scapes are subglabrate or 
only sparsely puberulent in the lower half. The blades in the new 
species are conspicuously and suddenly narrowed into a long pet- 
iole, whereas in G. roraimensis the blades are gradually narrowed 
into a petiole. From G. pygmaea A. St. Hil. it differs in having the 
leaves present at flowering time. 

Genlisea sanariapoana Steyermark, sp. nov. 

Herba 21-28 cm. alta; foliis basalibus spatulatis in petiolum grad- 
uatim decurrentibus; laminis anguste vel lanceolato-spatulatis obtu- 
sis 1.3-2 cm. longis 2-3 mm. latis glabris; scapis simplicibus erectis 
glandulari-pilosulis basin versus parce pilosulis vel glabrescentibus; 
squamis 6-7 basifixis ovatis acutis 1.5-2 mm. longis dense pilosulis; 
floribus plerumque 11-16, racemosis; pedicellis 5-10 mm. longis 
dense glanduli-pilosulis; bracteolis lateralibus distinctis lanceolatis 
acutis 1-1.7 mm. longis dense pilosulis; calyce 1.8-2 mm. longo 5- 
partito, lobis ovato-lanceolatis acutis dense glandulari-pilosulis; 
corolla dimidia parte superiore violacea dimidia parte inferiore laven- 
dula 15-16 mm. longa, labio superiore 5-5.5 mm. longo, labio infe- 
riore 7-8 mm. longo 9-10 mm. lato; calcari late oblongo obtuso 11 mm. 
longo parce glandulari-piloso; capsula 3 mm. diam. 

Type in herb. Chi. Nat. Hist. Mus., collected among rock outcrops 
below mouth of Rio Sanariapo, along Orinoco River, Territorio Federal 
Amazonas, alt. 100 m., September 8, 1944, Julian A. Steyermark 58445. 

This species is related to G. guianensis N. E. Brown, from which 
it differs in the larger corolla, less pointed spur, which is broader 






BOTANICAL EXPLORATION IN VENEZUELA - III 535 

in the upper half, and the more densely glandular-pubescent pedicels, 
bracts, calyx, and scapes. 

Utricularia amazonasana Steyermark, sp. nov. 

Planta aquatica; foliis omnibus submersis capillaceo-multipartitis 
vesiculiferis; 'scapis nudis 3-6-floris; floribus distantibus; pedicellis 
3-5 mm. longis glabris basi unibracteatis; bracteis basifixis amplec- 
tentibus apice truncatis 1.5-2 mm. longis; lobis calycis inaequalibus 
glabris, lobo superiore ovato obtuso 1.5 mm. longo 1 mm. lato, lobo 
inferiore late ovato obtuso subemarginato 1.7 mm. longo 1.5 mm. lato; 
corolla pallido-lavendula, labio superiore 2 mm. longo, labio inferiore 
3 mm. longo calcarem aequante vel excedente. 

Type in herb. Chi. Nat. Hist. Mus., collected in pool of water, 
vicinity of Sanariapo, near Ri'o Sanariapo, tributary of Orinoco River, 
Territorio Federal Amazonas, alt. 100 m., September 8, 1944, Julian 
A. Steyermark 58505, "corolla pale lavender." 

Although the material is rather poor, it cannot be matched by any 
of the lavender-flowered aquatic species. It is characterized by the 
small flowers and several-flowered scape. It is related to V. Fock- 
eana Miq. which has smaller flowers. 

Utricularia -arenicola Tutin, var. kavanayena Steyermark, var. nov. 

Planta 1-2 cm. alta; caule purpureo; squamis ovatis obtusis T.5 
mm. longis 0.75 mm. latis; bracteis 3"4 distinctis ovatis obtusis 
1-1.2 mm. longis; floribus solitariis; pedicellis 2.5-3 mm. longis; 
lobis calycis majoribus, lobo superiore ovato obtuso integerrimo 3.2 
mm. longo 2 mm. lato; lobo inferiore late ovato rotundato paullo emar- 
ginato 3 mm. longo 2.5 mm. lato; corolla aureo-lutea, labio superiore 
lingulato-oblongo apice rotundato-truncato 2-2.5 mm. longo, labio 
inferiore cristate integerrimo medio barbato aliter utrinque puberu- 
lente suborbiculari rotundato 6 mm. longo 7.5 mm. lato; calcari de- 
scendente 4.5 mm. longo. 

Type in herb. Chi. Nat. Hist. Mus., collected in swampy ground 
following streamlet, Gran Sabana, on large mesa between Mission of 
Santa Teresita de Kavanayen northwest to Rib Karuai, state of Boli- 
var, alt. 1220 m., October 26, 1944, Julian A. Steyermark 59335, 
"corolla deep golden yellow; stems purple; plants only 1-2 cm. tall." 

From typical U. arenicola this differs in the much larger sepals, 
and longer spurs, these being almost twice as long as they are in 
typical V. arenicola. The dwarf habit, solitary flowers, and entire 
lower lobe of the corolla are characteristics of this variety. 
Utricularia aureolimba Steyerraark, sp. nov. 

Herba terrestris annua 10-12 cm. alta, radice fibrosa; scapo pler- 
umque simplice gracillimo 2-8-floro glabro; foliis nullis; bracteis 
ovatis obtusis 1.2 mm. longis 0.75 mm. latis integris; floribus brevi- 
pedicellatis, pedicellis 2-3 mm. longis; bracteolis 2 distinctis lanceo- 
latis acutis 1 mm. longis 0.3 mm. latis; calycis lobo superiore ovato 
subacuto 3.8 mm. longo 1.5 mm. lato integro; lobo inferiore elliptico- 
oblongo obtuso 2.2 mm. longo 0.75 mm. lato; corolla lutea; labio su- 
periore suborbiculari 2-2.5 mm. longo 2.5 mm. lato apicem versus 



536 FIELDIANA: BOTANY, VOLUME 28 

undulato; labio inferiore 3-4 mm. longo 4-5 mm. lato apice rotundato 
crista conspicua basin versus barbate; calcari conico 3-5 mm. longo 
apicem versus gradatim angustato. 

Type in herb. Chi. Nat. Hist. Mus., collected in sandy wet meadow, 
on large mesa, Gran Sabana, between Mission of Santa Teresita de 
Kavanaye'n northwest to Rio Karuai, state of Bolivar, alt. 1220 m., 
October 26, 1944, Julian A. Steyermark 59351, "corolla deep yellow." 

This species is related to V. Peckii Blake, from which it differs 
in the longer pedicels and much longer spur. From U. rubricaulis 
Tutin it differs in its longer pedicels and calyx lobes, from U. laxa 
A. St. Hil. in the broad upper corolla lobe, from V. Selloi G. Weber 
in the larger lower corolla lobe, and from U. spicata Sylve'n and U. 
Meyeri' Pilger in the smaller spur, smaller upper corolla lobe, and 
smaller calyx lobes. 

I trie ul aria aureomaculata Steyermark, sp. nov. 

Herba 10-15 cm. alta; foliis basalibus petiolatis, pedolis 3 - 5 mm. 
longis; laminis suborbicularibus vel orbicularibus 2.25-2.5 mm. longis 
2-2.5 mm. latis; scapis erectis glabris; squamis 1-2 solitariis inte- 
gris oblongis medio fixis obtusis 1mm. longis; floribus 3"5 racemosis; 
pedicellis 1.5-3 cm. longis glabris; calycis lobo superiore suborbicu- 
lari 2 mm. longo 2.5 mm. lato 9-nervato mergine incurvato; lobo infe- 
riore minore late rhomboideo-oblongo rotundato 1 mm. longo et 1 mm. 
lato 5-nervato; corolla lutea crista aureolineata, labio superiore 
oblongo-ovoideo integro obtuso vel paullo bilobo plurinervio 3.5-4 
mm. longo 2.5-3 mm. lato; labio inferiore majore trilobo 7-8 mm. longo 
13-15 mm. lato, lobis oblongis rotundatis; calcari late oblongo labio 
inferiore breviore (Fig. 111). 

Type in herb. Chi. Nat. Hist. Mus., collected on moist dripping face 
of sandstone bluff, at base of first line of sandstone bluffs, on south- 
facing part, east of "Cave Rock", Ptari-tepuf, state of Bolivar, alt. 
2130 m., November 4, 1944, Julian A. Steyermark 59852, "corolla 
bright yellow, the inflated part of lower lip with a patch of orange." 

Cotype in herb. Chi. Nat. Hist. Mus., collected at base of and on 
main south-facing, high, sandstone, moist mossy bluff, Ptari-tepuf, 
alt. 2400-2410 m., October 30, 1944, Steyermark 59603, "corolla deep 
rich yellow except for orange line on crest." 

This new species can be placed in the group of Setiscapella 
in which the bracts are peltate. Belonging to this group are U. sub- 
ulata L., U. pus ilia Vahl, U. nervosa G. Web., and U. triloba Benj. 

In the new species the basal leaves are often abundant and evi- 
dent at flowering time, but in the other species mentioned the basal 
leaves are rarely seen, being delicate and evanescent. From V. ner- 
vosa it differs in the shorter spur, longer pedicels, and presence of 
leaves, from U. triloba in the obtuse or rounded tips of the bracts 
and scales, rounded summit of the upper calyx lobe, small rounded 
lower calyx lobe, rounded tip of spur, longer pedicels, spur shorter 
than lower lobe, and presence of leaves at flowering time (this would 
exclude it from section Aphyllae in which V. triloba was placed by 



BOTANICAL EXPLORATION IN VENEZUELA -III 537 




FIGURE ill 

U.tricularia aureomaculata 

A, Habit (X 1); Q, Leaf (X 5); C, Bract (X 10); D, Calyx (X 5); E, 
Corolla, frontal view (X 5); F, Corolla, lateral view (X 5). 



538 FIELD1ANA: BOTANY, VOLUME 28 

Benjamin in Martius' Flora Brasiliensis), from V. subulata in the 
broader lower lip and longer upper lip of the corolla, and the longer, 
very unequal calyx lobes. 

The distinguishing features of U. aureolimba are the large corolla 
and calyx, very unequal calyx lobes, spur much shorter than lower 
lip, elongated pedicels, and orbicular leaf blades. 

I tricularia ayacuchae Steyermark, sp. nov. 

Planta aquatica, caulibus filiformibus; foliis omnibus fluitantibus 
multipartitis verticillatis valde ampulliferis, ampullis globoso- 
ovoideis 1.5-2 mm. longis apice piliferis; scapis nudis unifloris 1.5-2 
cm. longis glandulis sessilibus vel subsessilibus parce obtectis; 
bractea solitaria basifixa late ovata rotundata 0.9-1 mm. longa glan- 
dulis sessilibus vel subsessilibus parce obtectis; pedicellis 2.5-3 
mm. longis glandulis sessilibus vel subsessilibus parce obtectis; 
calycis lobis inaequalibus suborbicularibus rotundatis 1.1 mm. longis 
1 mm. lads; corolla 6.5 mm. longa apice labii superioris 2 maculis 
flavidis notata praedita aliter purpurea, labio superiore rhomboideo- 
ovato apice rotundato 1.5 rnm. longo 1.3 mm. lato; labio inferiore 
3.75 rnrn. longo; calcari 3 mm. longo; ovario glandulis sessilibus 
parce obtecto. 

Type in herb. Chi. Nat. Hist. Mus., collected around pools of water 
in rocks, open savanna and igneous rock outcrops, Puerto Ayacucho, 
Territorio Federal Amazonas, alt. 200 m., September 11, 1944, 
Julian A. Steyermark 58520, "corolla rich purple with 2 dull yellow 
cream spots near summit of lower lip; bladders enlarged, in scarcely 
any water." 

This species most closely resembles U. Malmeana Sylve'n of Bra- 
zil, but differs in the smaller corolla with the upper lobe rounded and 
not bidentate, a shorter spur which is directed downwards instead of 
horizontally, and in the broader, not linear, lower lobe of the corolla. 

t tricularia bolivarana Steyermark, sp. nov. 

Herba terrestris radiculis parvis fibrosis, scapo simplice erecto 
5-7 cm. alto glabro squamoso; foliis basalibus spatulatis rotundatis 
basi angustatis 2 mm. longis; squamis ovatis subacutis integris 0.8 
mm. longis; bracteis et bracteolis lateralibus 2 distinctis basifixis 
ovato-lanceolatis acutis 0.5 mm. longis integris; floribus 1-2, pedi- 
cellis 3"6 mm. longis; calycis lobo superiore suborbiculari subacuto 
1.5 mm. longo 1 mm. lato extus dense glandulari-puberulente, lobo 
inferiore rhomboideo late rotundato 1 mm. longo 0.8 mm. lato extus 
dense glandulari-puberulenti; corolla alba, labio superiore 
rhomboideo-suborbiculari 2 mm. longo 1.5-2 mm. lato, labio inferiore 
integro vel obscure lobo 2-3 mm. longo; calcari late conico 3"3.5 mm. 
longo basi 2 mm. lato paullo glandulari-puberulente. 

Type in herb. Chi. Nat. Hist. Mus., collected on dry, sandy upland, 
Gran Sabana, between waterfall at Rue-meru' (tributary of Rio Kuke- 
nan) and Divina Pastora on Rio Kukenan north of Santa Elena, south 
of Mount Roraima, state of Boh'var, alt. 1065 m., October 3, 1944, 
Julian A. Steyermark 59191, "corolla white." 



BOTANICAL EXPLORATION IN VENEZUELA -HI 539 

This species is related to U. hirtella St. Hil. of Brazil. It does 
not have the 3"lobed lower lip of that species and has a much shorter 
spur. Also the bracts are not 3-parted as in V. hirtella. From V. 
Spruceana (Benth.) Oliver and V. viscosa (Spruce) Oliver the new 
species differs in the glandular-puberulent calyx. 

Utricularia Campbelliana Oliver, var. minor Steyermark, var. nov. 

A typo differt lobis calycis paullo minoribus, calcari minore, et 
labello minore; calycis lobis in anthesi 4.5-6 mm. longis 4-6 mm. 
latis; calcari 15-17 mm. longo; corollae labii inferioris labello 9-10 
mm. longo 15-17 mm. lato. 

Type in herb. Chi. Nat. Hist. Mus., collected in Bonne tia roraimae 
forest on southwest-facing shoulder, Ptari-tepui, state of Bolivar, 
alt. 2000-2200 m., November 2, 1944, Julian A. Steyermark 59753, 
"sepals dull rose-salmon or orchid-salmon-brick; corolla scarlet as 
is spur; spur upwardly curved or arched." 

This differs from 0. Campbelliana of Mount Roraima and Duida in 
having a smaller spur, smaller lip of the lower lobe of the corolla, 
and slightly smaller calyx lobes. 

Utricularia congesta Steyermark, sp. nov. 

Herba terrestris, radiculis parvis fibrosis, ampullis destitutis; 
scapo simplice erecto 6-15 cm. alto glabro squamoso; squamis 14-50 
stramineis suborbicularibus vel late oblongis undique valde setoso- 
ciliatis 1.5-2 mm. longis (setis inclusis); bracteis oblongo-lanceolatis 
valde setoso-ciliatis, parte principali 1.5 mm. longa 0.5 mm. lata, 
ciliis 2 mm. longis; bracteis 2 ovatis valde setoso-ciliatis, parte 
principali 1.8 mm. longa 1 mm. lata, ciliis 1 mm. longis; floribus 
capitato-congestis; calycis lobis flavidis ovatis vel obovatis acuti- 
usculis vel rotundatis parte principali 2.2-2.5 mm. longa 2 mm. lata 
ciliis 1-1.5 mm. longis; corolla lutea et aurantiaca, labio superiore 3 
mm. longo 1.5 mm. lato; labio inferiore 3-4 mm. longo; calcari conico- 
oblongo 2.5-4 mm. longo labium superiore aequante vel superante 
(Fig. 112). 

Type in herb. Chi. Nat. Hist. Mus., collected in border of woods in 
savanna, Gran Sabana, near Rio Karuaij northwest of Mission of Santa 
Teresita de Kavanaye'n, state of Bolivar, alt. 1220 m., October 26, 
1944, Julian A. Steyermark 59404, "calyx pale yellow; corolla yellow 
and orange." 

The following specimens in herb. Chi. Nat. Hist. Mus. may also be 
referred to this species: BRAZIL: on damp carnauba flat near ocean, 
4 km. north of Caucaia (Soure), Ceara, alt. 2 m., June 10, 1945> Hugh 
Cutler 8366. BRITISH GUIANA: savanna, basin of Rupununi River: 
Wichabai, lat. about 2 52* N.; October 25-26, 1937, A. C. Smith 
2298. 

The congested flowers arranged in a single capitate mass, and the 
smaller corolla and calyx lobes are distinguishing features of this 
species. 



540 FIELDIANA: BOTANY, VOLUME 28 

Utricularia congesta, forma deminu^iva Steyermark, f. nov. 

A typo differt scapo minore 1.5-4 cm. alto, bracteolis minoribus 2 
mm. longis (ciliis inclusis), calycis lobis minoribus 2.5 mm. longis 
(ciliis inclusis), floribus approximates sed non congestis; foliis 3 mm. 
longis; squamis 10-11, 1.5 mm. longis (ciliis inclusis). 

Type in herb. Chi. Nat. Hist. Mus., collected on dry sandy upland, 
Gran Sabana, between waterfall at Rue-meru (tributary of Rio Kuke- 
nan) and Divina Pastora on Ri'o Kukenan north of Santa Elena, south 
of Mount Roraima, state of Bolivar, alt. 1065 m., October 3, 1944, 
Julian A. Steyermark 59195. 

The following collection in herb. Chi. Nat. Hist. Mus. may also be 
referred here: BRAZIL: Colares, Poeppig. 

A great amount of confusion has existed in the Aranella group to 
which V. congesta and related species belong. Barnhart conceived 
of Aranella as a monotypic genus consisting of a single species, U. 
fimbriata, variable in size and number of flowers, and in the number 
and relative incision of the cauline scales. Examination of available 
material collected reveals at least four species and one variety in- 
volved, all previously passing as V. fimbriata. 

The type of V. fimbriata was collected by Humboldt and Bonpland 
along the Orinoco River by the rapids of Ature, near the present site 
of Puerto Ayacucho. Three modern collections (Llewelyn Williams 
13804 and 13814 from Puerto Ayacucho, and Steyermark 58434 from 
the Orinoco River below the mouth of the Rib Sanariapo) were obtained 
at or near the type locality and can be referred to this species, char- 
acterized by having much shorter cilia of the calyx lobes than any of 
the other taxa previously confounded with this species. 

The other taxa are distinguished by the type of cauline scales, 
which are generally ciliate on all sides and below the base (but in 
U. longeciliata not ciliate below the base), and in the size and shape 
of corolla and calyx lobes and numbers of flowers. 

Oliver (Journ. Linn. Soc. Bot. 4: 171-172. I860) did not distinguish 
the entities from one another, nor did he differentiate U. fimbriata, 
upon which the genus Aranella was based, from U. longeciliata DC. 
He presumed that the latter taxon and U. fimbriata were the same. 
He stated that "if an examination of the specimens of Humboldt and 
Bonpland confirm this presumed identity, their name must necessarily 
take precedence" (loc. cit.) But the two species are well marked 
by differences in their cauline scales alone, those of U. longeciliata 
not being ciliate all around as in V. fimbriata. Moreover, in U. longe- 
ciliata the cilia of the calyx lobes are much longer and the corolla 
and calyx are larger. Nils Sylven (Ark. Bot. 8, no. 6: 6-9. 1909) ex- 
presses his opinion that V. fimbriata H.B.K. and V. longeciliata DC. 
are the same species. He did show that Utricularia laciniata Mart, 
(not U. laciniata St. Hil.) and V. longeciliata DC. were conspecific, 
a view which the present author accepts. To the synonymy of V. 
longeciliata I would add U. laciniata Mart., not St. Hil. and U. 
simulans Pilger, the last two having the large corolla and calyx 
characteristic of U. longeciliata. 



BOTANICAL EXPLORATION IN VENEZUELA -III 541 







FIGURE 112 

Utricularia conge sta 

A, Habit (X 2.2); B, Bract (X 8); C, One of calyx lobes (X 11); 
D, Corolla, frontal view (X 5.5). 



542 FIELD IANA: BOTANY, VOLUME 28 

The group of species pertaining to the group Aranella may be keyed 
as follows: 

Scales, at least in the upper half of the stem, not ciliate below 

the base, brown-purplish V. longeciliata 

Scales throughout ciliate on all sides and below the base, buff 
or stramineous. 

Inflorescence of usually 1 solitary flower (rarely 2); upper 
corolla lobe 4.5*5.5 mm. long; lower corolla lobe 6-9 mm. 

long; spur 5-7 mm. long t/. orinocensis 

Inflorescence of 2-several flowers; upper corolla lobe 2.5-3 
mm. long; lower corolla lobe 3*5 mm. long; spur 2.5*4 mm. 
long. 
Cilia of calyx lobes 0.5-0.75 mm. long; lower corolla lobe 

4-5 mm. long U. fimbriata 

Cilia of calyx lobes 1-1.5 mm. long; lower corolla lobe 3-4 
mm. long. 
Flowers congested in a head-like semi-globular mass; 

stems 6-15 cm. tall V. conges ta 

Flowers scattered, racemosely arranged; stems 1.5-4 cm. 
tall . LI. congesta f. deminutiva 

Utricularia cuspidata Steyermark, sp. nov. 

Herba 5.5'18 cm. alta, radiculis fibris parce ampulliferis; scapo 
simplice erecto glabro squamoso; squamis ca. 3 ovato-lanceolatis 
cuspidato-acuminatis 3.5-4 mm. longis glabris; foliis basalibus ab- 
rupte petiolatis, petiolis 7-15 mm. longis; laminis firme membranaceis 
subtus pallido-viridibus suborbiculari-obovatis vel late obovatis ro- 
tundatis basi in petiolum cuneatim decurrentibus 10-17 mm. longis 
6-15 mra.latis utrinque glabris; inflorescentia simplice, floribus race- 
mosis 5-ll> pedicellis 2.5-6 mm. longis glabris; bracteis lanceolatis 
longe acuminatis 3 mm. longis 0.5 mm. latis; bracteolis 2 angustiori- 
bus lineari-lanceolatis longe acuminatis 2.5 mm. longis; calycis lobis 
papilloso-ciliolatis, lobo superiore late ovato apice subcuspidato- 
acuminato basi subcordato 4.5 mm. longo 3.5 mm. lato valde nervate, 
lobo inferiore late ovato apice bidentato 4.2 mm. longo 3 mm. lato, 
dentibus 0.75 mm. longis; corollae medio labii inferioris lutea aliter 
corolla lilacea vel lavendula extus glandulari-puberulenti, labio supe- 
riore anguste oblongo rotundato 5 mm. longo 2-3 mm. lato; labio in- 
feriore late obovato apice rotundato integro paullo emarginato 8 mm. 
longo 7 mm. lato; calcari 8 mm. longo (Fig. 113) 

Type in herb. Chi. Nat. Hist. Mus., collected by stream bank on 
open hematite slope, on Sororopan-tepm^ crest of cerro between east 
and west end, state of Bolivar, alt. 2255 m., November 14, 1944, 
Julian A. Steyermark 60119, "spur lavender, curving under lower lip; 
lower lip orchid, deeper orchid down center and around inflated part, 
the center of which is yellow; upper lip pale orchid; leaves firmly 
membranaceous, rich green above, paler green below." 

Steyermark 60488, from vicinity of Salto de Pacairao bordering Rio 
Pacairao, about 3 kilometers east to northeast of Santa Teresita de 
Kavanaye'n, state of Bolivar, alt. 1220 m., November 24, 1944, is 



BOTANICAL EXPLORATION IN VENEZUELA -in 543 






FIGURE 113 

Utricularia cuspidata 

A, Habit (X 0.85); B, Lower calyx lobe (X 2.6); C, Upper calyx lobe 
(X 2.6); D, Corolla (X 2.6); E, Corolla, frontal view (X 2.6). 



544 FIELDIANA: BOTANY, VOLUME 28 

probably to be referred to the new species. It differs in the larger 
leaves with more elongated obovate blades. 

This is a member of the section Orchioides, and is most closely 
related to the recently described V. Maguirei Steyerm. of British 
Guiana. It differs from that species in the more approximate flowers 
with a yellow spot on the lower corolla lip, more pronounced 
cuspidate-acuminate upper calyx lobe, ovate lower calyx lobe, and 
longer corolla lobes and spur. It is somewhat intermediate between 
the Calpidisca group of U. amethystina St. Hil. and the Orchioides 
group. 

Utricularia heterochroma Steyermark, sp. nov. 

Planta repens, radicibus fibrosis valde ampulliferis foliiferis; 
foliis integris longe petiolatis 6 mm. longis; laminis reniformibus 
vel ovatis 2-2.5 mm. longis 1.5 mm. latis; scapo nudiusculo vel fere 
nudo gracillimo 1.5-3.5 cm. longo glabro; squamis bracteisque soli- 
tariis late oblongis rotundatis medio affixis extremis solutis 1 mm. 
longis; floribus 1-2 pedicellatis, pedicellis 5-8 mm. longis; calycis 
lobo superiore majore suborbiculari rotundato 2 mm. longo 1.5 mm. 
lato, lobo inferiore rectangulari subtruncato 0.75 mm. longo 0.75 mm. 
lato; corollae labio superiore albo lateribus lilacea-lineatis notatis 
late ovato rotundato 3~4 mm. longo 2.5-4 mm. lato, labio inferiore 
albo dimidia parte inferiore lilacea-lineata palato aureo-maculato 
notato dimidia parte superiore alba trilobate 6-7 mm. longo 7-8 mm. 
lato, lobo medio 3 mm. lato lobis lateralibus 2 mm. latis; calcari 
aureo-luteo recto descendente oblongo obtuso 3 mm. longo 1 mm. 
lato (Fig. 114). 

Type in herb. Chi. Nat. Hist. Mus., collected along base of drip- 
ping, vertical, east-facing, high sandstone bluffs, Ptari-tepui, state 
of Bolivar, alt. 2410-2450 m., November 7, 1944, Julian A. Steyer- 
mark 59930, "spur golden yellow, vertically depressed, upper corolla 
lobe white with rich orchid vertical lines on sides; lower lip white 
with rich orchid lines in lower half up to throat of swelling where 
golden spotted, below this in upper half white." 

The reniform leaves mixed with abundant bladders and the vari- 
colored corolla are noteworthy features of this species. It is related 
to U. Dusenii Sylven of Brazil, but has smaller leaves, smaller 
flowers, shorter scapes, yellow spur, and a differently shaped lower 
lobe of the corolla. From V. picta Warm, it differs in the type of 
leaves and the numerous bladders, the vertically depressed spur, 
smaller corolla, and differently colored corolla. 

Utricularia Humboldtii Schomb., forma cuneata Steyerm., f. nov. 

A typo differt foliorum laminis cuneato-obovatis apice rotundatis 
basi cuneatim angustatis acutis 5-6 cm. longis 2.3-2.5 cm. latis. 

Type in herb. Chi. Nat. Hist. Mus., collected in water at base of 
leaves of large terrestrial Brocchinia, Savana Hills, summit of Cerro 
Duida, Territorio Federal Amazonas, alt. 1025-1200 m., September 2, 
1944, Julian A. Steyermark 58229, "leaves sub coriaceous, pale green; 
corolla lavender with yellow patch on lower lip in center." 



BOTANICAL EXPLORATION IN VENEZUELA -III 545 








FIGURE 114 

Utricularia heterochroma 

A, Habit (X 2); B, Bract on part of scape (X 11); C, Calyx (X 14); 
D, Corolla, lateral view (X 2); E, Corolla, frontal view (X 2). 



546 FIELDIANA: BOTANY, VOLUME 28 

Typical Utricularia (Orchyllium) Humboldtii has suborbicular- 
reniform or orbicular blades. Although it varies somewhat in the tex- 
ture and size of the leaves, no correlation can be found in the dif- 
ferent collections diat have been made of this species from Mount 
Roraima, Ptari-tepui, Auyan-tepuT, and Mount Duida. The form de- 
scribed above with much narrower, more cuneate-based, obovate 
blades is occasionally found occurring with the typical plant. 

Utricularia Oliverana Steyermark, sp. nov. 

Herba terrestris, caulibus pluribus erectis paucifloris 2-5 cm. altis 
glabris squamosis ampulliferis et foliiferis, foliis petiolatis; petiolis 
2.8-3 mm. longis, laminis anguste spatulatis rotundatis 1.5 mm. longis 
0.5 mm. latis; squamis late ovatis obtusis semiamplexicaulibus 0.5 
mm. longis; floribus laxe racemosis pedicellatis, pedicellis adscen- 
dentibus 3'4 mm. longis clavatis apice dilatatis; bracteis oblongis 
extremis solutis; calycis lobis inaequalibus, lobo superiore majore 
suborbiculari rotundato 1 mm. longo 1 mm. lato, lobo inferiore 
lingulato-oblongo obtuso 0.7 mm. longo 0.3 mm. lato; corolla alba, 
labio superiore suborbiculari 1.5 mm. longo 1.5 mm. lato, labio infe- 
riore trilobate 4 mm. longo 5 mm. lato, labiis 2.5'3 mm. longis 1.5 mm. 
latis; calcari brevissimo vel nullo; capsula 6-7-seminibus (Fig. 115). 

Type in herb. Chi. Nat. Hist. Mus., collected among rock outcrops 
below mouth of Rib Sanariapo, along Orinoco River, Territorio Fede- 
ral Amazonas, alt. 100 m., September 8, 1944, Julian A. Steyermark 
58446, "corolla alba." 

This species is related to V. neottioides St. Hil., from which it 
differs in the absence of filiform dissected leaves, abundance of both 
bladders and leaves, fewer-flowered, less elongated inflorescence, 
much longer pedicels, larger corollas, and absence of cauline 
branches. 

The present species is named in honor of Mr. D. Oliver, who first 
called attention to die elongated pedicels of the Spruce 3011 collec- 
tion from San Carlos as being different from the type of pedicel found 
in typical U. neottioides and assigned to the collection the name U. 
neottioides P pedicellata. He stated (Joum. Linn. Soc. Bot. 4: 173* 
I860) that "although differing much from U. neottioides in habit, I 
do not discover technical characters sufficiently marked to warrant 

its publication as a new species In Spruce's plant the few 

flowers are not racemose, but with ascending or divergent pedicels 
2-3 lines in length." Oliver observed that bladders and leaves were 
both present in Spruce's plant, the latter being entire. Later on 
Oliver states (ibid.) of Spruce's plant, "it is not improbable that they 
may be correctly considered as distinct species." Although I have 
only the description before me, and have not seen the Spruce collec- 
tion, it is probable that Spruce's collection is to be referred to the 
smaller-flowered form described below. 

Utricularia Oliverana, forma parva Steyermark, f. nov. 

A typo differt corollis minoribus; squamis suborbicularibus 0.6 mm. 
longis extremis solutis; calycis lobo superiore 1 mm. longo, lobo in- 



BOTANICAL EXPLORATION IN VENEZUELA -III 547 




FIGURE 115 

Utricularia Oliverana 
A, Habit (X 2.2); B, Bract on part of scape (X 15.5). 



548 FIELDIANA: BOTANY, VOLUME 28 

feriore 0.75 mm. longo; corollae labio superiore 1 mm. longo, labio 
inferiore trilobate 2.5 mm. longo 3 mm. lato, lobis 1.5 mm. longis 0.8 
mm. latis. 

Type in herb. Chi. Nat. Hist. Mus., collected in swampy ground fol- 
lowing streamlet, on large mesa, Gran Sabana, between Mission of 
Santa Teresita de Kavanayen northwest to Rio Karuai, state of Boli'- 
var, alt. 1220 m., October 26, 1944, Julian A. Steyermark 59333. 

Utricularia orinocensis Steyermark, sp. nov. 

Herba terrestris, radiculis parvis fibrosis, ampullis destitutis, 
foliis basalibus linearibus 5-6.5 mm. longis; scapo simplice erecto 
5~10 cm. longo glabro squamoso; squamis 8-16 stramineis suborbicu- 
laribus undique valde setoso-ciliatis 1.5 mm. longis (setis inclusis); 
floribus plerumque 1 solitariis, vel 2; bractea late lanceolata valde 
ciliata parte principali 1 mm. longa, ciliis 1.2 mm. longis 0.4 mm. 
latis; bracteolis 2 supra bracteam 0.5-1 mm. insertis late oblongis 
valde ciliatis, parte principali 1.75 mm. longa 1 mm. lata, ciliis 1 mm. 
longis; calycis lobis late obovatis rotundatis valde ciliatis, parte 
principali 3 mm. longa 2.5 mm. lata, ciliis 1-1.5 mm. longis; corolla 
aurea, labio superiore rhomboideo-oblongo rotundato-subtruncato 
4.5-5.5 mm. longo 3-5 mm. lato, labio inferiore late suborbiculari- 
ovato rotundato 6-9 mm. longo 6 mm. lato prope basin ore paullo 
minute glandular!; calcari late conico obtuso 5-7 mm. longo 2-2.5 
mm. lato. 

Type in herb^ Chi. Nat. Hist. Mus., collected in vicinity of Sana- 
riapo, near Rio Sanariapo, tributary of Orinoco River, Territorio 
Federal Amazonas, alt. 100 m., September 8, 1944, Julian A. Steyer- 
mark 58488, "corolla golden." 

There may also be referred to this species the following collection 
from Brazil: on damp sands, near Rio Caponga, Municipio of Casca- 
vel, Ceara, alt. 4 m., May 27, 1945, Hugh C. Cutler 8358a, "flowers 
deep yellow, bracts and markings red." 

This species, a member of the Aranella group, is distinguished 
principally by the large solitary, rarely 2, flowers. 

Utricularia subpeltata Steyermark, sp. nov. 

Folia basales petiolata, petiolis 7-11 mm. longis, laminis orbicu- 
laribus asymmetrice subpeltatis 4 mm. latis integris; scapo 5-13 cm. 
alto 1-5-floro supeme parce puberulo aliter glabro squamoso; squamis 
lanceolatis acutis 0.75-1 mm. longis ciliatis; pedicellis 1.5-3 mm. 
longis parce puberulis; bracteis bracteolisque basifixis lanceolatis 
acutis 1 mm. longis ciliatis; calycis lobo superiore ovato acuto, 
apice ipso inflexo, 3 mm. longo 1.5 mm. lato carinato, carina paullo 
puberula; lobo inferiore oblongo obtuso vel rotundato emarginato vel 
sub-bilobato 3 mm. longo 1.3-1.5 mm. lato, lobis prominente nervatis; 
corollae labio superiore anguste oblongo 2.5-3 mm. longo; labio in- 
feriore plerumque albido-lilaceo medio maculam flavidam purpureo 
amplectente notato excepto suborbiculari subintegro 6 mm. longo 7.5- 
8 mm. lato marginibus apicem versus paullo repandis glabris, palato 



BOTANICAL EXPLORATION IN VENEZUELA -III 549 




FIGURE 116 

Utricularia subpeltata 

A, Habit, (X 2.2); B, Leaf (X 17); C, Bract (X 22); D, Calyx opened 
to show pistil (X 6). 



550 FIELDIANA: BOTANY, VOLUME 28 

plus minusve glabro; calcari anguste lanceolato-oblongo 8 mm. longo 
(Fig. 116). 

Type in herb. Chi. Nat. Hist. Mus., collected on moist bluffs of 
wooded ravine below edge of mesa, along mesa escarpment between 
Santa Teresita de Kavanayen and wooded quebrada about 8 kms. 
northwest of Kavanaye'n, state of Bolivar, alt. 1220 m., November 23> 
1944, Julian A. Steyermark 60477, "corolla lilac-white with circular 
pale yellow spot in center of lower lip surrounded by purple; leaves 
disk-shaped green." 

Cotype in herb. Chi. Nat. Hist. Mus., collected on rock slide below 
waterfall, Salto de Iwaracaru-meru, at western end of Sororopan-tepui, 
state of Bolivar, alt. 1615 m., November 15, 1944, Steyermark 60217, 
"corolla pale lilac." 

This species is related to V. venezuelana Steyerm., described be- 
low, in the acute upper lobe of the calyx which is more prominently 
ciliate, the longer spur, more prominently bidentate lower lobe of the 
calyx, the broader lower lobe of the corolla, and the more or less 
glabrous crest of the corolla. From V. peltata (Spruce) Oliver it dif- 
fers in the larger corolla with the margin of die lower lobe glabrous, 
the calyx lobes only ciliate on margin and keel, the conspicuously 
bilobed or bidentate lower lobe of the calyx, the less conspicuous 
bracts, the less pubescent pedicels and upper part of the scape, and 
the subpeltate leaves attached to one side of the center instead of 
at the center. 

Utricularia tepuiana Steyermark, sp. nov. 

Herba terrestris, radiculis parvis fibrosis, foliis basalibus petio- 
latis, petiolis 5-11 mm. longis, laminis spatulato-obovatis vel obo- 
vatis rotundatis 2.5*5 mm. longis 3.5-4 mm. lads; scapo erecto 10-15 
era. longo glabro vix squamoso 1-3-floro; squamis distantibus paucis 
minutis ovatis acutis 0.75-0. 8 mm. longis glabris; pedicellis 6-8 mm. 
longis; bracteis bracteolisque connatis trilobatis 0.75-0.8 mm. longis 
1 mm. lads glabris, lobis obtusis; calycis lobis inaequalibus glabris, 
lobo superiore majore suborbiculari rotundato 1.5-2 mm. longo 1.5- 
1.75 mm. lato, lobo inferiore suborbiculari rotundato 1 mm. longo 1 
mm. lato; corollae labio superiore lilacea late obovato-oblongo ob- 
tuso vel rotundato 2.5-3-5 mm. longo 2-2.5 mm. lato; labio inferiore 
lilaceo palato flavido inferne purpureo-marginato notato excepto tri- 
lobate 4 mm. longo 6 mm. lato, lobis suborbicularibus rotundatis, 
lobis 1.5-2 mm. longis 2-2.5 mm. lads; calcari oblongo rotundato 4 
mm. longo (Fig. 117). 

Type in herb. Chi. Nat. Hist. Mus., collected on Ptari-tepuf, on 
forested south-facing slopes overlying sandstone, on "Cave Rock" 
above "Cave Camp," state of Boh'var, alt. 1810 m., October 29, 1944, 
Julian A. Steyermark 59517, "upper lobe lilac; lower lip 3-lobed, 
lilac; crest creamy yellow bordered below by purple band." 

This species differs from V. tridentata Sylven, which also has 3" 
lobed bracts, in die obtuse lobes of die bracts, the shorter spur and 
corolla lobes, and shorter calyx lobes. From V. spatulifolia Pilger 



BOTANICAL EXPLORATION IN VENEZUELA -HI 551 








B 



FIGURE 11? 

Utricularia tepuiana 

A, Habit (X 2.3); B, Leaf (X 3); C, Bract (X 18); D, Calyx (X 6); 
E, Corolla, frontal view (X 6); F, Flower, lateral view (X 6). 



552 FIELDIANA: BOTANY, VOLUME 28 

it differs in the glabrous calyx lobes, entire lower lobe of the calyx, 
and the $-lobed lower lobe of the corolja, while from U. roraimensis 
N. E. Br. it may be distinguished by the broader, more obtuse lateral 
teeth of the bracts, longer pedicels, larger calyx and corolla, and 3- 
lobed lower lobe of the corolla. 

Utricularia turumiquirensis Steyermark, sp. nov. 

Herba terrestris, radiculis parvis fibrosis, ampullis foliisque 
destitutis; scapo filiformi 6-8.5 cm. alto glabro vix squamoso; squa- 
mis 1 vel 2 ovatis obtusis 0.6 mm. longis; floribus 1 vel 2, pedicel- 
lis 3*5 mm. longis; bracteis profunde 3-lobatis, lobis ovatis obtusis 
0.6-1 mm. longis lateralibus minoribus, basi connatis; calycis lobo 
superiore ovato obtuso apice inflexo 2 mm. longo 1.3*1.5 mm. lato 
glabro, lobo inferiore minore suborbiculari rotundato 1.2 mm. longo; 
corolla alba, labio superiore late ovato obtuso cucullato 1.5 mm. 
longo 0.75 mm. lato, labio inferiore suborbiculari late rotundato 1.5 
mm. longo cristato integro glabro; calcari 1.8-1.9 mm. longo. 

Type in herb. Chi. Nat. Hist. Mus., collected in valley between 
base of Cerro de Diablo (western extension of southern peak of 
Cerro Turumiquire) and Cerro de Neven', along headwaters of Rio de 
Amana, state of Sucre, alt. 2000 m., May 11, 1945 Julian A. Steyer- 
mark 62752. 

This species is distinguished by the combination of small white 
corolla, trilobate bracts, small stature, and apparently leafless con- 
dition at flowering time. It differs from V. hirtella St. Hil. in the 
glabrous calyx, entire instead of 3"lobed lower lip of the corolla, 
and apparently leafless condition at flowering time. 

Utricularia venezuelana Steyermark, sp. nov. 

Herba terrestris, radiculis parvis fibrosis ampulliferis; foliis 
basalibus orbicularibus parvis peltatis; scapo 4-9 cm. alto glabro 
vix squamoso 1-4-floro; squamis 0.75 mm. longis puberulis; pedicellis 
2.5-3 mm. longis; bracteis distinctis ovatis acutis 0.8-1 mm. longis; 
bracteolis angustioribus lanceolatis acutis; calycis lobis subaequali- 
bus integris glabris vel paullo cilidlatis nervatis, lobo superiore 
late ovato obtuso 2.5 mm. longo 2 mm. lato, lobo inferiore late 
oblongo-ovato obtuso subemarginato 2 mm. longo 1.75 mm. lato; 
corollae labio superiore pallido-lilaceo erecto spatulato-rhomboideo 
late rotundato vel subtruncato 3 mm. longo supra medium 1.5 mm. 
lato, labio inferiore porrecto horizontali basi 2 maculas flavidas 
purpureo amplectente notato aliter lilaceo, palato pubescente; cal- 
cari lilaceo porrecto horizontali 5 mm. longo. 

Type in herb. Chi. Nat. Hist. Mus., Ptari-tepuf, scrubby forest on 
rocky open portion of plateau on southeast-facing slopes, state of 
Bolivar, alt. 1600 m., November 1,1944, Julian A. Steyermark 59625a, 
"corolla pale lilac; spur horizontally protruding forward as is lower 
lip; upper lip erect; 2 circles of pale yellow at base of lower lip 
surrounded by lavender circle; leaves disk-shaped with depression 
in center." 

This species differs from V. peltata (Spruce) Oliver in die subgla- 



BOTANICAL EXPLORATION IN VENEZUELA -III 553 

brous instead of pubescent calyx, glabrous scape, much longer pedi- 
cels, erect upper corolla lobe, pubescent crest of the lower corolla 
lobe, the smaller number of leaves present, and the smaller, differ- 
ently shaped bracts. 

ACANTHACEAE 36 

Aphelandra megaphylla Leonard, sp. nov. 

F rut ex usque ad 3 m. altus vel ultra, caulibus usque ad ca. 9 mm - 
diam., glabris vel sursum adpresse pilosis; lamina foliorum oblongo- 
ovata, usque ad 35 cm. Ipnga et 20 cm. lata, breviter acuminata vel 
subacuta (apice ipso obtuso), basi angustata, chartaceo-membranacea, 
integra vel undulata, subtus minute albo-lepidota, supra sub lente 
minute papillosa, utrinque subnitida, glabra vel parce pilosa, pilis 
0.75 mm. longis, subadpressis, costa et venis (18 vel 19 paribus) 
prominent! bus, venulis crasse reticulatis; petioli eras si, usque ad 3 
cm. longi, glabri vel parce pilosi; spicae plures, solitariae vel 
fasciculatae, pedunculatae, paniculam terminalem usque ad 15 cm. 
longam et 12 cm. latam formantes, usque ad 6 cm. longae et 3*5 mm. 
latae, rhachi flocculoso-tomentosa, pilis pallide brunneis, pedunculis 
usque ad 3 cm. longis, adpresse pilosis vel subtomentosis, infimis 
laminas parvas subtendentibus, ultimis bracteas triangulares 1 cm. 
longas, basi 6 mm. latas, adpresso-pilosas subtendentibus; bracteae 
dense imbricatae, rhombico-ovatae, (vivae) stramineo-aureae, margini- 
bus subbrunneo-lilacinae, 5 mm. longae, 3 mm. latae, acutae, cori- 
aceae, carinatae, costa prominente, ciliolatae, extus minute 
papilloso-puberulae, intus glabrae; ocelli 1 vel 2, 0.25 mm. diam., 
brunnei; bracteolae anguste lanceolatae, 5 mm. longae, 1 mm. latae, 
acutae, carinatae, extus dense brunneo-flocculosae, intus glabrae et 
striatae; calycis segmenta lanceolata, 6 mm. longa, striata, glabra, 
apice puberula, segmento posteriore basi 2.5 mm. lato, obtuso, 
segmentis anterioribus 1.25 mm. latis, acutis, segmentis lateralibus 
0.75 mm. latis, acutis; corolla coccinea, papilloso-puberula, 5.5 cm. 
longa, tubo basi 2 mm. lato, usque ad 6 mm. supra basim 1.5 mm. 
lato, prope orem 6.5 mm. lato, bilobata, labio superiore erecto, 1.5 
mm. longo, 4 mm. lato, apice bilobato, lobis triangularibus, 3.5 mm. 
longis, basi 1.5 mm. latis, labio inferiore trilobato, lobo medio 
recurvato, lanceolate, 5 mm. supra basim usque ad 5 mm. lato, apice 
acuminate, curvato, lobis lateralibus parvis, cum labio superiore basi 
connatis, partibus liberis triangularibus, 0.5 mm. longis et latis, 
acutis; stamina vix exserta (ca. 5 mm. super orem tubi corollae), 
glabra, antheris 4 mm. longis, 1 mm. latis, curvatis, extremis acutis; 
ovarium glabrum; capsulae ignotae. 

Type in herb. Chi. Nat. Hist. Mus., no. 1205079, isotypes in U.S. 
Nat. Herb., nos. 1997542 and 1997543, collected between Hacienda 
Agua Blanca above La Azulita and Rio Capaz, state of Me'rida, alt* 
975 m., April 26, 1944, Julian A. Steyermark 56152, "shrub 10 feet 
tall; corolla scarlet; leaves firmly membranaceous, dark green above 



36 



By E. C. Leonard 



554 FIELDIANA: BOTANY, VOLUME 28 

with conspicuous areolation of sunken nerves as in Cinchona 
pubescens, pale green below; bracts firm, stramineous golden, 
margined brownish-lavender." 

Together with the next species, Aphelandra megaphylla belongs to 
the A. pulcherrima-tetragona group. It can be recognized by its large 
leaf blades, small peduncled spikes, small rhombic-ovate bracts 
bearing solitary or paired ocelli, and by the brown woolly rachis. 
The specific epithet is derived from megas, large and phyllon, leaf. 

Aphelandra pedunculata Leonard, sp. nov. 

Frutex usque ad 3 mm. alms, caulibus teretibus, glabris; lamina 
foliorum oblongo-lanceolata, usque ad 15 cm. longa et 4 cm. lata, 
apice acuminata, plus minusve curvata (apice ipso obtuso), basi 
angustata, Integra vel undulata, subcoriacea, supra nitida, utrinque 
glabra vel parce hirtella, pilis circa 0.25 mm. longis, ascendentibus, 
costa et venis lateralibus (praecipue subtus) prominentibus, venulis 
crasse reticulatis; petioli usque ad 1 cm. longi, glabri vel parce 
hirtelli; spicae terminales et axillares, paniculam terminalem for- 
mantes, 2-3 cm. longae, 5 mm. latae, pedunculis ascendentibus, 
minute hirtellis, usque ad 4 cm. longis, rhachi angulata, flocculoso- 
tomentosa, pilis albidis; bracteae dense imbricatae, ovatae, 6 mm. 
longae, basi 4 mm. latae, acutae, integrae, ciliolatae, glabrae, basi 
flocculoso-tomentosae; ocelli 3-5, parvi, usque ad 0.25 mm. diam., 
nigri vel atrobrunnei; bracteolae lanceolatae, 5 mm. longae, 1.25 mm. 
latae, acuminatae, carinatae, carina flocculoso-tomentosa; calycis 
segmenta 6 mm. longa, glabra vel apice ciliolata, striata, (viva) 
salmonaceo-punecia, (sicca) brunnea, segmentum posterius anguste 
ovatum, basi 2.25 mm. latum, segmenta anteriora lanceolata, basi 1.5 
mm. lata, segmenta lateralia anguste lanceolata, medio 1 mm. lata; 
corolla 3 cm. longa, papilloso-hirtella, (viva) coccinea, tubo basi 
3 mm. lato, 5 mm. supra basim usque ad 2 mm. lato, prope orem 5 mm. 
lato, bilabiato, labiis pallide salmonaceis, labio superiore oblongo 
basi lobarum 4 mm. lato, lobis triangularibus, apice acuminatis, basi 
2 mm. latis, labio anteriore recurvato, trilobato, lobo medio, anguste 
lanceolate, 4 mm. lato, acuminate, marginibus crispatis, lobis 
lateralibus triangularibus, 2 mm. longis, 0.5 mm. latis, subobtusis, 
cum labio superiore basi connatis; stamina vix exserta, antheris 3.5 
mm. longis, apice subobtusis, filamentis planis, glabratis, 
salmonaceo-gilvis; capsulae clavatae, 2 cm. longae, 5 mm. latae, 
circa 3 mm. crassae, obtusae, basi angustatae, glabrae, nitidae, 
puncticulatae; retinacula recta, 3 mm. longa, ca. 0.75 mm. crassa, 
apice acuto-cucullata; semina matura ignota. 

Type in U.S. Nat. Herb. no. 1997540, isotype in herb. Chi. Nat. 
Hist. Mus., collected in rich forest above Hacienda Agua Blanca, 
above La Azulita, state of Me'rida, alt. 1375-1920 m., April 25, 1944, 
Julian A. Steyermark 56095, "shrub 8-10 feet tall; corolla scarlet; 
leaves firmly membranaceous, rich green above, pale green below; 
bracts salmon-pink; lobes of corolla pale salmon; filaments pale 
salmon-cream." 

Aphelandra pedunculata belongs to the A. pulcherrima-tetragona 



BOTANICAL EXPLORATION IN VENEZUELA -IE 555 

complex, being characterized by flocculose-tomentose rachises and 
by slender spikes with small ovate quadrifarious bracts bearing on 
either side of the midrib a group of small dark colored ocelli. The 
specific epithet alludes to the rather numerous small peduncled 
spikes. 

Beloperone Steyermarkii Leonard, sp. nov. 

Herba usque ad 18 cm. alta, caulibus decumbentibus, hirtellis, 
pilis retrorse ascendentibus, ca. 0.25 mm. longis, nodis infimis 
radicantibus; lamina foliorum elliptica, usque ad 9 cm. longa et 5 
cm. lata, apice rotundata, subapiculata, basi obtusa vel cuneata, 
membranacea, integra vel undulata, supra griseo-viridis, costa et 
venis lateralibus (8 paribus) gracilibus sed prominentibus, atro- 
viridibus, subtus pallide viridibus, costa et venis hirtellis, pilis 
sursum curvatis, subappressis, venulis reticulatis, cystolithis mul- 
tis, gracilibus, usque ad 125 M longis; petioli usque ad 1 cm. longi, 
dense hirtelli; spicae terminates, pedunculis usque ad 4 cm. supra 
basim furcatis, laxae (supra furcam usque ad 10 cm. longae), pe- 
dunculo (3 cm. longo) et rhachi (7 cm. longa) quadrangularibus, 
aliquanto puberulis, pilis retrorse curvatis; bracteae furcam sub- 
tendentes anguste lanceolatae, 2.5 mm. longae, basi ca. I mm. latae, 
carinatae, puberulae; bracteae flores subtendentes triangulares, 
usque ad 1.5 mm. longae, base 0.75 mm. latae, acutae, puberulae, 
carinatae; bracteolae triangulares 1 mm. longae, 0.75 mm. latae, 
acutae, 1-nervatae, puberulae; calyx 4 mm. longus, hirtellus, pilis 
usque ad 125 H longis, ascendentibus, segmentis triangularibus, in- 
aequalibus, 2.5*3 mm. longis, basi 0.75 mm. latis; corolla lilacina, 
1 cm. longa, puberula, labiis subaequalibus, 1.5 mm. longis, labio 
superiore rotunda to, labio inferiore trilobate, lobis rotundatis; stamina 
inclusa, loculo infero antherarum calcarato, calcare 0.5 mm. longo, 
apice rotundato; capsulae clavatae, 1 cm. longae, 3 mm. latae, 1.5 
mm. crassae, puberulae, pilis sursum ascendentibus; retinacula 
linearia, 1.5 mm. longa, apice obtusa; semina orbicularia, plana, 2 
mm. diam., glabra. 

Type in herb. Chi. Nat. Hist. Mus., no. 1222718, isotype in U.S. 
Nat. Herb., no. 199755 1 collected in level rain forest near Taria, 
state of Yaracuy, alt. 75 m., May 29, 1944, Julian A. Steyermark 
56869, "herb; terrestrial; leaves flattened-spreading, membranaceous, 
dull gray green above with deeper green nerves, pale green below; 
flowers lilac." 

Closely related to Lindau's Beloperone variegata of Costa Rica 
and Panama, B. Steyermarkii can be separated readily by its rounded 
apiculate leaves. The leaves of B. variegata are acute or shorts- 
acuminate at apex. 

Dicliptera porphyrocoma Leonard, sp. nov. 

Herba 1 m. alta, caulibus ramosis, erectis vel ascendentibus, sub- 
hexagonis, hirtellis (pilis recurvatis, 0.25-0.5 mm. longis), angulis 
anguste alatis; lamina foliorum oblongo-ovata, usque ad 6 cm. longa 
et 3/1 cm. lata, apice acuta vel subobtusa, basi angustata, membra- 
nacea, ciliata, utrinque parce hirtella, pilis curvatis, ca. 0.25 mm. 



556 FIELDIANA: BOTANY, VOLUME 28 

longis, subtus pills praecipue in costa et venis positis, venulis 
reticulatis; petioli graciles, usque % ad 1 cm. longi, subtus glabri, 
canali dense hirtelli; capitula axillaria et terminalia, sursum aggre- 
gata, racemum densum angustum usque ad 4 cm. longum et 2.5 cm. 
latum formantia, pedunculis brevibus (ca. 1 mm. longis) vel infimis 
usque ad 2 cm. longis, hexagonis, hirteilis pilis rectis, 1 mm. longis, 
pilis brevioribus curvatis acutis et pilis brevibus glandulosis inter* 
mixtis, pedunculis cymularum 1.5 mm. longis, dense retrorse hirteilis; 
bracteae cymas subtendentes subulatae, 6 mm. longae, basi 1 mm. 
latae, 1-nervatae, carinatae, costa et marginibus parce ciliatis; brae- 
tea major exterior cymulam subtendens obovata, 9 mm. longa, 4 mm. 
lata, cuspidata (cuspide 0.5 mm. longa), basi angustata et expalles- 
cens, marginibus plus minusve pallide purpureis, utrinque hirtella, 
intus pilis acutis et glandulosis intermixtis praedita; bractea minor 
cymulam subtendens oblongo-obovata, 8 mm. longa, apicem versus 3 
mm. lata, cuspidata, aliter bracteae superiori similis; bracteae in- 
timae albidae, apice subvirides, anguste lanceolatae, 7 mm. longae, 
prope basim 1 mm. latae, 1-nervatae, subcarinatae, puberulae, pilis 
usque ad 150 M longis, obtusis, ciliatae, pilis usque ad 0.75 ram. 
longis, pallide purpureis, acutis; calycis segmenta anguste triangu- 
laria, 2.5 mm. longa, basi 0.5 mm. lata, hirtella, albida; corolla 12 
mm. longa, sursum hirtella, deorsum glabra, tubo albo, prope basim 
1.5 mm. lato, prope apicem 1 mm. lato, labiis lilacinis (medio albis), 
subaequalibus, lanceolatis, 6-7 mm. longis, 2-2.5 mm. latis, labio 
superiore obtuso, inferiore minute trilobate, lobis 0.25 mm. longis 
et latis; capsulae ovatae, planae, 4 mm. longae, 1.5 mm. latae, 0.5 
mm. crassae, dense hirtellae, pilis 0.25 mm. longis, sursum patulis, 
deorsum retrorsis; retinacula triangularia, 0.75 mm. longa; semina 
palide brunnea, plana, 1.5 mm. diam., papilloso-puberula, pilis re- 
trorse barbatis. 

Type in U.S. Nat. Herb., no. 1997566, isotype in herb. Chi. Nat. 
Hist. Mus., collected at edge of cafetal, below limestone bluffs, 
Cerro de la Cueva de DoKa Anita, south of and bordering valley of 
Caripe, state of Monagas, alt. 1000 m., April 7, 1945 Julian A. Stey- 
ermark 61875, "branching herb 2-3 feet tall; leaves membranaceous, 
dull green above, pale green below with prominent nerves; anthers 
orchid; filaments lilac; corolla orchid with white at base and in the 
middle of lobes." 

The specific epithet is derived from porphyreos, purple, and kome, 
hairs. 

Dicliptera pyrrantha Leonard, sp. nov. 

Herba, caulibus ramosis, subhexagonis (angulis obtusis), pube- 
rulis, pilis 125 M longis, retrorse appressis; lamina foliorum ovata, 
usque ad 10 cm. longa et 5 cm. lata, acuminata (apice ipso obtuso), 
basi angustata, in petiolum breviter angustata, supra parce puberula, 
costa et venis lateralibus (6 paribus) prominentibus, appresse hir- 
teilis, pilis (siccis) subflavo-brunneis, subtus puberula, pilis sub- 
erectis, usque ad 0.25 mm. longis; petioli usque ad 1 cm. longi, 
puberuli; capitula axillaria et terminalia sursum aggregata, racemum 



; BOTANICAL EXPLORATION IN VENEZUELA -III 557 

densum angustum 3~5 cm. longum et 3 cm. latum -forraantia, pedun- 
culis brevibus, usque ad 5 mm. longis vel infimis usque ad 7 cm. 
longis, hexagonis (angulis subacutis), dense retrorse hirtellis, pi-lis 
usque ad 375 H longis, retrorse curvatis; cymata foliis parvis suf- 
fulta; bractea major exterior cymulam subtendens oblanceolata, 1 
cm. longa, 3 mm. infra apicem 3.5 mm. lata, illinc ad basim sensim 
angustata, apice acuta, apiculata (apiculo 0.5 mm. longo), submem- 
branacea, viridis (vel basi marginibus albida), ciliata, pilis patulis, 
usque ad 1.25 mm. longis, utrinque puberula, costa et nervis promi- 
nentibus; bractea minor cymulam subtendens linearis, 2.25 mm. lata, 
aliter bracteae superior! similis; bracteae intimae anguste lanceo- 
latae, 6-8 mm. longae, 1.25 mm. latae, albidae vel apice virides, 
ciliolatae vel apice ciliatae (pilis usque ad 1.25 mm. longis), utrin- 
que puberulae, pilis usque 0.15 mm. longis, truncatis vel subacutis; 
calycis segmenta anguste triangularia, 3.5 mm. longa, basi 0.5 mm. 
lata, acuta, graciliter striata, puberula (pilis 75 M longis, obtusis) 
vel apice piles paucos usque ad 1 mm. longos ferentia; corolla ob- 
scure rutila, 2.5 cm. longa, parce pubescens, pilis 0.25 mm. longis, 
tubo subentricoso, angusto-hypocrateriformi, basi 2 mm. lato, usque 
ad 3 mm. supra basim 1 mm. lata, prope orem 4.25 mm. lata, labiis 
subaequalibus, ovatis, 9 mm. longis, basi ca. 4 mm. latis, labio 
superiore apice obtuso, inferiore trilobato, lobis parvis rotundatis, 
ca. 0.5 mm. diam.; stamina supra labiam superiorem vix exserta, fili- 
mentis glabris vel deorsum parce retrorse pilosis; ovarium hirtellum; 
capsulae ignotae. 

Type in U.S. Nat. Herb., no. 1997561, isotype in herb. Chi. Nat. 
Hist. Mus., collected in bamboo woods on ridge top of dryish forested 
slopes, Cerro La Danta, bordering tributary of Rio Leon, northeast 
of Bergantfn, state of Anzoategui, alt. 800-1100 m., February 22, 
1945, Julian A. Steyermark 61107, "flowers dull orange red; leaves 
membranaceous." Local name: "sangrinaria." 

The specific epithet is derived from pyrros, orange red, and anthos, 
flower. 

Habracanthus enarthrocoma Leonard, sp. nov. 

Herba scandens vel porrecta, caulibus subteretibus, sulcatis, 
pilosis, pilis patulis septatis, usque ad 1.5 mm. longis; lamina folio- 
rum oblongo-elliptica vel oblongo-ovata, usque ad 14 cm. longa et 6 
cm. lata, acuminata, basi obtusa vel acuta, in petiolum breviter de- 
currens, membranacea, integra vel undulata, utrinque pflosa, pilis 
rectis vel ascendentibus, usque ad 1.5 mm. longis, costa et venis ac 
venulis gracilibus sed prominentibus, cystolithis minutis sed sub 
lente prominentibus, usque ad 0.25 mm. longis; petioli usqXie ad 3 cm. 
longi, aliquanto vel dense pilosi, pilis patulis, septatis, usque ad 
1.5 mm. longis; paniculae terminales et axillares, usque ad 30 cm. 
longae et 8 cm. latae, foliiferae, ramulis ultimis dichasia formanti- 
bus, pedunculis (usque ad 1.5 mm. longis) et pedicellis (usque ad 1 
cm. longis) gracillibus, dense pilosis, pilis patulis, pulchre septatis, 
septis saepe purpureis; bracteae lineares, usque ad 4 mm. longae et 
0.5 mm. latae, pilosae; Calyx usque ad 14 mm. longus, pilosus (pilis 



558 FIELDIANA: BOTANY, VOLUME 28 

pulchre purpureo-septatis), lobis linearibus, usque ad 12 mm. longis, 
basi 1 mm. latis, apice caudatis; corolla ca. 1.5 cm. longa, glabra, 
lilacino-rosea, tubo 1 cm. longo, basi 1.5 mm. lato, prope orem 5 mm. 
lato, bilabiata, labio superiore 15 mm. longo, basi 5 mm. lato, sursum 
caudaco, cauda 1 mm. lata, apice subobtusa, labio inferiore oblongo, 
ca. 15 mm. longo et 5 mm. lato, apice trilobate, lobis triangularibus, 
0.75 ram. longis, subobtusis, lobo medio basi 1 mm. lato, lobis 
lateralibus 1 mm. latis; stamina valde exserta, ca. 25 mm. longa, 
filamentis planis, glabris, antheris 3 ram. longis, 0.5 mm. latis, basi 
apiculatis; stylus ca. 25 mm. longus, glaber, gracilis; capsulae 
clavatae, ca. 12 mm. longae, 2.5 mm. latae, 0.5 mm. crassae, apice 
obtusae, apice et marginibus purpureae; retinacula 1.5 mm. longa, 
apice obtusa; semina plana, albida, ovata, 2.25 mm. longa, basi 2 
mm. lata, utrinque verrucosa. 

Type in U.S. Nat. Herb., no. 1997555, isotype in herb. Chi. Nat. 
Hist. Mus., no. 1222722, collected in wooded quebrada in Montana of 
Rio Ta'chira at base of Pa'ramo de Tama, between Betania and Tama, 
by Colombian-Venezuelan boundary, state of Ta'chira, alt. 2430 m., 
July 15, 1944, Julian A. Steyermark 57187, "sprangling herb; calyx 
pale green with lavender or rose; corolla orchid-rose as are the fila- 
ments and larger than in 57185 and 57786." Other collections are 
same locality, Steyermark 57186, "sprangling herb; calyx dull green 
tinged brick-red; corolla dull rose or brick-red as are the filaments"; 
same locality, Steyermark 57185, "sprangling herb; calyx pale green; 
corolla red; filaments red"; in damp woods of ravine of Los Quebra- 
ditos, south of Las Sabanetas, above Humocaro Bajo, state of Lara, 
alt. 2430-2745 m., Steyermark 55406, "climbing and sprawling with 
weak stems and swollen internodes; corolla dull rose; calyx dull 
maroon; leaves thin, dull blue green above, pale green below." 

Local name: "gran judito. " 

Habracanthus enarthrocoma is well marked by its copious clothing 
of beautiful segmented hairs, hence the specific epithet is derived 
from enarthros, jointed, and kome, hairs. 

Justicia hylobia Leonard, sp. nov. 

Herba vel suffrutex porrectus, caulibus subteretibus, ascendenti- 
bus, aliquando ramosis, deorsum glabris, sursum hirtellis, pilis 
sursum curvatis, subappressis, usque ad 0.5 mm. longis; lamina 
foliorum oblongo-elliptica vel lanceolata, usque ad 18 cm. longa et 
3.5 cm. lata, acuminata (apice ipso obtuso), basi angustata, sub- 
coriacea, integra vel undulata, supra glabra vel parce hirtella, costa 
et venis lateralibus (5 paribus) vix prominentibus, subtus hirtella, 
pilis praecipue in costa et venis (aliquando prominentibus) positis, 
sursum curvatis, ca. 0.5 mm. longis, venulis obscure reticulatis, 
cystolithis obscuris, subnigris; petioli usque ad 5 mm. longi, dense 
hirtelli, pilis sursum curvatis; spicae axillares, 12 mm. longae, 
pedunculo 5 ram. longo, hirtello, pilis sursum curvatis, subappressis; 
bracteae spicas subtendentes triangulares, 2.5 mm. longae, basi ca. 
1 ram. latae, acutae; rhachis puberula; bracteae flores subtendentes 
anguste ovatae, 2.5 mm. longae, 0.75 ram. latae, puberulae vel infima 



BOTANICAL EXPLORATION IN VENEZUELA -III 559 

hirtella, pilis sursum curvatis et subappressis, subobtusae, cari- 
natae, costa et venis lateralibus prominentibus; bracteolae anguste 
lanceolatae, 4 mm. longae, basi 1 mm. latae, acuminatae, puberulae, 
pilis patulis, subbrunneis, usque ad 75 \> longis; calycis segmenta 
anguste lanceolata, 7-8 mm. longa, basim versus 1.25 mm. lata, 
acuminata, puberula, apice pilis acutis et pilis glandulosis paucis 
intermixtis praedita, costa prominente; corolla purpureo-lilacina, 
hirtella (pilis patulis, vel deorsum retrorse ascendentibus), tubo 
basim versus 1.25 mm. la to, ad orem 3.5 mm. lato, labio superiore 
triangulari, 5 mm. longo, basi 5 mm. lato, acuto, labio inferiore 
lineari-oblongo, 7 mm. longo, ca. 2 mm. lato, apice trilobate (?), 
lobis obovatis, 1.5 mm. longis, 1.25 mm. lads, emarginatis; stamina 
supra orem tubi corollae ca. 4 mm. exserta, filamentis glabris, lobis 
antherarum obliquis, connectivo basi 0.75 mm. lato; ovarium glabrum; 
stylus sursum glaber, deorsum puberulus; capsulae ignotae. 

Type in herb. Chi. Nat. Hist. Mus., no. 1222768, isotype in U.S. 
Nat. Herb., no. 1997545, collected in rich damp forest along 
northwest- and west-facing slopes of Quebrada de Montana, in La 
Montana de Los Torritos, tributary to Rio Canagua, above Finca La 
Montana, 8 kms. southwest of Canagua, state of Merida, alt. 1925- 
2075 m., May 8, 1944, Julian A. Steyermark 56380, "sprangling 
herb; corolla orchid-lavender." Also collected on rocks and bluffs 
in shaded moist canyon between Mucuchachi' and Canagua, state of 
Merida, alt. 1065-1820 m., Steyermark 56353, "sprangling herb; 
corolla or calyx dull purple." 

The bracts subtending the flowers in no. 56353 are somewhat 
larger (about 3 mm. long and 1.5 mm. wide near base) than those of 
the type. The specific epithet is derived from hylobios, a dweller 
in the woods. 

Justicia lamprophylla Leonard, sp. nov. 

Herba porrecta, usque ad 3 m. longa, caulibus ascendentibus, 
deorsum subteretibus, subglabris, sursum subquadrangularibus, hir- 
tellis, pilis usque ad 0.75 mm. longis, rectis et patulis vel sursum 
curvatis vel deorsum curvatis; lamina foliorum oblongo-elliptica vel 
oblongo-lanceolata, usque ad 13 cm. longa et 4 cm. lata, acuminata 
(apice ipso obtuso), basi angustate, in petiolum breviter decurrens, 
supra (viva) saturate viridis, nitida, parce hirtella, pilis ascendenti- 
bus, usque ad 0.75 mm. longis, subbrunneis, costa et venis obscuris, 
subtus (viva) pallide viridis, aliquanto dense hirtella, pilis ascen- 
dentibus vel patulis, usque ad 0.75 mm. longis/ brunneis, costa et 
venis lateralibus (7 vel 8 paribus) prominentibus; petioli usque ad 
3 cm. longi, hirtelli; spicae terminales vel subterminales, usque ad 
11 cm. longae, laxae, pedunculis usque ad 4 cm. longis, hirtellis 
(pilis patulis, usque ad 0.5 mm. longis), etiam dense bifariam pube- 
rulis, pilis brevioribus, curvatis, subappressis, intemodio infimo 
15 mm. longo, aliis sursum brevioribus, rhachi hirtella, pilis rectis, 
patulis, ca. 0.5 mm. longis; bracteae triangulares, 6 mm. longae, 
basi 2 mm. latae, apice aristatae (arista ca. 3 mm. longa), carinatae, 
hirtellae, pilis 0.5 mm. longis, subflavis; bracteolae anguste tri- 



560 FIELDIANA: BOTANY, VOLUME 28 

angulares,4.5 mm. longae, basi 1.25 mm. latae, acuminatae, aliquanto 
hirtellae, subfalcatae; calycis segmenta 4, lanceolata, 6 mm. longa, 
basi 1 mm. lata, acuminata, 3' n ervata, ciliolata, parce hirtella, pilis 
125 M longis; corolla saturate purpurea, 3.4 cm. longa, glabra vel in 
labiis parce et minute hirtella, tubo basi 2.5 mm. lato, ad orem 5 mm. 
lato, labio superiore ovato, 15 mm. longo, basi ca. 8 mm. lato, apice 
rotundato, eroso, labio inferiore ca. 16 mm. longo, ca. 6 mm. lato, 
apice trilobate, lobis ovatis, 5 mm. longis, basi 3 mm. latis, apice 
rotundatis; stamina supra orem tubae ca. 12 mm. exserta, antheris 1.5 
mm. longis et latis, connectivo 0.75 mm. lato, filamentis glabris, 
apice aliquanto curvatis; ovarium glabrum; capsulae ignotae. 

Type in U.S. Nat. Herb., no. 1997539, isotype in herb. Chi. Nat. 
Hist. Mus., collected in woods above Las Cuadras, along Quebrada 
Molino, north of Torondoy, state of Merida, alt. 1820-2255 m., 
March 27, 1944, Julian A. Steyermark 55810, "sprawling branching 
herb 4-8 feet tall; leaves pale green below, rich green and shining 
above; corolla deep orchid purple; calyx pale green." 

Pittier's No. 7676 collected at the Hacienda Taborda, near El Pa- 
lito, on the road from Valencia to Puerto Cabello, Carabobo, Vene- 
zuela, alt. 0-200 m., December 31, 1917, is also of this species. 
The specific epithet is derived from lampros, shiny, and phyllon, 
leaf. 

Justicia leptophylla Leonard, sp. nov. 

Herba 40 cm. alta vel ultra, caulibus ramosis, subteretibus, gla- 
bris vel plus minusve bifariam puberulis, pilis sursum curvatis, ca. 
0.25 mm. longis; lamina foliorum lanceolata, usque ad 12 cm. longa 
et 3 cm. lata, acuta vel acuminata, basi angustata, in petiolum brevi- 
ter cuneata, membranacea, undulata, utrinque glabra vel costa parce 
et minute puberula, pilis curvatis, subappressis, costa et venis 
lateralibus (4 vel 5 paribus) vix prominent! bus; petioli usque ad 1.5 
cm. longi, glabri vel canali puberuli, pilis minutis, curvatis; spicae 
terminales, laxae, gracillimae, usque ad 5 cm. longae, pedunculo ca. 
1.5 cm. longo, puberulo, pilis sursum curvatis, ca. 0.25 mm. longis, 
ascendentibus, rhachi plana, plus minusve bifariam puberula, pilis 
sursum curvatis, ca. 0.25 mm. longis, internodio infimo ca. 1 cm. 
longo; bracteae anguste triangulares, 3-5 mm. longae, basi 0.75 mm. 
latae, carinatae, 1-nervatae, membranaceae, glabrae; bracteolae an- 
guste lanceolatae, 2.5 mm. longae, basi 0.5 mm. latae, acuminatae, 
planae, glabrae, enervatae; calycis segmenta 4, anguste triangularia, 
4.5 mm. longa, basi 0.5 mm. lata, apice acuminata, parce et minute 
ciliolata, glabra vel sursum minute puberula; corolla lilacina, glabra, 
11 mm. longa, tubo prope basim 2.25 mm. lato, usque ad 6 mm. supra 
basim 1.5 mm. lato, ad orem 2.25 mm. lato, labiis aequalibus, labio 
superiore ovato, 4 mm. longo, ca. 2 mm. lato, apice minute bilobato, 
labio inferiore trilobate, lobis obovatis, ca. 2 mm. latis, rotundatis; 
stamina supra orem tubae vix exserta, antherarum lobis parallelis, 
connectivo 0.5 mm. lato, filamentis glabris, apice curvatis; ovarium 
glabrum; capsulae ignotae. 

Type in U.S. Nat. Herb., no. 1997552, isotype in herb. Chi. Nat. 



BOTANICAL EXPLORATION IN VENEZUELA -III 561 

Hist. Mus., collected in level rainforest near Taria, state of Yaracuy, 
alt. 75 m., May 29, 1944, Julian A. Steyermark 56876, "stems sprang- 
ly; terrestrial; corolla lavender." 

Egger's No. 13490, collected at La Moca, vicinity of Caracas, 
Venezuela, is also of this species. 

In general appearance Justicia leptophylla strongly suggests the 
West Indian /. androsaemifolia Sieber ex Nees, but in that species 
the leaf blades are usually much smaller and more obtuse and the 
flowers, calyces, and rachises much stouter and larger. The spe- 
cific epithet is derived from the Greek leptos, thin, and phyllon, 
leaf. 

Justicia lindaviana Leonard, nom. nov. 

Rhytiglossa speciosa Nees in DC. Prodr. 11: 351. 1847; Dianthera 
speciosa Benth. & Hook. Gen. PI. 2: 1113. 1876; Justicia speciosa 
Lindau, Pflanzenf. 4 Abt. 3b: 350. 1895, not Roxb. 1814. 

DlSTRITO FEDERAL: Quebrada San Julian, near Carabelleda, 
alt. 15'75 m., herb; flowers rose-red, Steyermark 62940 (U.S.). 

The type was collected "Ad rivulos prope la Guayna in Colombia" 
by Mo'ritz (No. 425). This citation is undoubtedly erroneous and 
should be La Guaira, Venezuela, the coastal port of Caracas. A 
photograph of Moritz 425, taken in the Vienna Herbarium, is in the 
U.S. Nat. Herb. (No. 32729). A specimen collected at La Guaira, 
May 7, 1874, by O. Kuntze is also in the U.S. Nat. Herb. No. 700789. 

Justicia pleurolarynx (Blake) Leonard, comb. nov. 

Dianthera pleurolarynx Blake Contr. Gray Herb. n. ser. 53: 51. 
1918. 

Characterized by subglabrous leaf blades and a pair of striate 
plaits on the lower lip and in the throat of the corolla. Colombia and 
Venezuela. 

Justicia pleurolarynx var. hirtella Leonard, var. nov. 

A forma typica lamina praecipue subtus dense hirtella, pilis rec- 
tis, usque ad 0.5 mm. longis, subflavis recedit. 

Type: DlSTRITO FEDERAL: Dry slopes of the Cerro de la Cule- 
bra at Tacagua, collected in May, 1946, by Leon Croizat (U.S. Nat. 
Herb. 1956036). MERIDA: Rocky dry slopes along Rio Chama, be- 
tween Lagunillas and Estanques, alt. 855 m., July 7, 1944, Steyer- 
mark 57060 (F., U.S.) (leaves membranaceous, dull rich green above, 
pale green below; flowers lavender). 

Mendoncia albiflora Leonard, sp. nov. 

Herba vel suffrutex volubilis, caulibus subteretibus, adpresso- 
hirtellis, pilis fere circa 0.5 mm. longis, flavidis; lamina foliorum 
_pvata, 9-11 cm. longa, 4-6 cm. lata, graciliter acuminata, basi angu- 
stata, in petiolura decurrens, integra vel undulata, supra (sicca) satu- 
rate brunnea, leviter scabra, pilis usque ad 0.5 mm. longis, plus mi- 
nusve patulis, praecipue in costa et venis (3 vel 4 paribus) positis e 
basi stellata inconspicua orientibus instructa, subtus (sicca) pallide 



562 FIELDIANA: BOTANY, VOLUME 28 

brunnea, minute albolepidota, aliquanto dense pubescens, pilis cur- 
vatis, circa 0.5 mm. longis, utrinque costa et venis gracilibus sed 
aliquanto prominentibus; petioli 1.5-4 cm. longi, adpressi- 
pubescentes, basi curvati; flores solitarii vel pauci, axillares; pedi- 
celli circa 3 cm. longi, hirtelli, pilis 0.5-0.75 mm. longis, adpressis 
vel apice patulis; bracteae oblongo-ellipticae, 20-21 mm. longae, 8-9 
mm. latae, apice subacutae, apiculatae (apiculo 1 mm. longo), intus 
glabrae, extus parce pubescentes, pilis praecipue minutis, 0.25 mm. 
longis vel marginalibus rectioribus, 0.75 mm. longis, costa promi- 
nente, venis obscuris; corolla alba, in fauce aurantiaco-flava striata, 
3.5 cm. longa, glabra, tubo angusto hypocrateriformi, basi 5 mm. lato, 
usque ad 5 mm. supra basim 4 mm. lato, prope orem 8 mm. lato, labio 
superiore circa 1 cm. longo, 3-lobato, lobis obovatis, 6-7 mm. latis, 
rotundatis vel leviter emarginatis, labio inferiore circa 7 mm. longo, 
bilobato, lobis basi 6 mm. latis, emarginatis; stamina inclusa; 
ovarium minute et dense lepidotum; drupa non visa. 

Type in U.S. Nat. Herb., no. 1997583, isotype in herb. Chi. Nat. 
Hist. Mus., collected on Montana de Aguacate, along Quebrada de 
Pajarral, tributary to Rio Caripe, northeast of Alto de Aguacate, be- 
tween Caripe and Caripito, state of Monagas, alt. 600-900 m., April 
19, 1945, Julian A. Steyermark 62186, "vine; leaves membranaceous, 
dark green above, dull paler green below; corolla white with orange 
streaks in center." 

Mendoncia albiflora is closely related to M. leucantha, differing in 
few essential characters except in the size of the bracts and corollas 
and in the color of the flowers. The corollas of M. albiflora are 
white, marked with orange yellow streaks at center and are 3.5 cm. 
long, whereas those of M. leucantha are pure white and as much as 
4.5 cm. long. The bracts of the latter species, although very similar 
in texture and nature of the pubescence, are more obtuse at the tip 
and fully 2.5 cm. long and 13 mm. wide, as compared with the acutish 
bracts of M. albiflora, these at the most only 2.1 cm. long and 9 mm. 
wide. 

Mendoncia leucantha Leonard, sp. nov. 

Herba vel suffrutex volubilis, caulibus subteretibus,hirtellis, pilis 
adpressis vel ascendentibus, circa 1 mm. longis, subbrunnescentibus; 
lamina foliorum ovata, 7-11.5 cm. longa, 3"7 cm. lata, acuminata, 
basi angustata, in petiolum decurrens, supra (sicca) brunnea, leviter 
scabra, parce hirtella, pilis usque ad 1 mm. longis e basi stellata 
parva orientibus instructa, subtus aliquanto dense et molliter pubes- 
cens, pilis brunneis, curvatis, ascendentibus, circa 0.75 mm. longis, 
costa et venis (4 vel 5 paribus) utrinque aliquanto prominentibus; 
petioli 1.5 usque ad 2 cm. longi, adpresso-hirtelli, plus minusve cur- 
vati; flores pauci, axillares ;pedicelli usque ad 3 cm. longi, adpresso- 
hirtelli, pilis usque ad 0.5 mm. longis; bracteae ellipticae, 2.5 cm. 
longae, 13 mm. latae, apice obtusae vel rotundatae, apiculatae (api- 
culo 0.5 usque ad 1 mm. longo), basi rotundatae, extus minute hir- 
tellae, pilis usque ad 0.25 mm. longis vel apicem versus longioribus 
et rectioribus, usque ad 0.5 mm. longis, costa prorainente, venis 



BOTANICAL EXPLORATION IN VENEZUELA -III 563 

obscuris, intus glabrae; corolla alba, 4.5 cm. longa, tubo subcylindri- 
co, basi 6.5 mm. lato, usque ad 5 mm. supra basim 3 mm. lato, prope 
orem 8 mm. lato, limbo bilabiate, labio superiore cuneato, 2.5 cm. 
lato, trilobate, lobis leviter imbricatis, lobo medio orbicular!, 1 cm. 
lato, leviter emarginato, lobis lateralibus ovalibus, circa 1 cm. longis 
et 8 mm. latis, leviter emarginatis, labio inferiore bilobato, lobis 
circa 1 cm. longis et 8 mm. latis, rotundatis vel leviter emarginatis; 
stamina inclusa; ovarium glabrum, ut videtur non lepidotum; fructus 
non visus. 

Type in U.S. Nat. Herb., no. 1997581, isotype in herb. Chi. Nat. 
Hist. Mus., collected at El Paramo, northeast of Las Delicias and 
Caripe, state of Monagas, alt. 1200-1450 m., April 13, 1945, Julian 
A. Steyermark 62030, "vining; corolla white; leaves firmly membrana- 
ceous, rich dull green above, paler dull green below; calyx green." 

Further differences between Mendoncia leucantha and M. albiflora 
are apparent. The leaf blades of M. leucantha (up to 11.5 cm. long 
and 7 cm. wide) are noticeably larger than those of M. albiflora (up to 
11 cm. long and 6 cm. wide) but the reverse is true if the petioles are 
examined. Those of M' albiflora are as much as 4 cm. long whereas 
those of M. leucantha do not exceed 2 cm. in length. Moreover, the 
stem hairs of M. leucantha are at least twice as long as those of M. 
albiflora, and the hairs on the lower surface of the leaf blades are 
likewise longer, 0.75 mm. in M. leucantha and 0.5 mm. in M. albiflora. 
In addition it is interesting to note that M. leucantha was collected at 
about 600 meters higher than M. albiflora. The specific epithet 
leukos, white, and anthos, flower, alludes to the white corollas. 

Mendoncia tovarensis (Kl. & Karst. ex Nees) Leonard, comb. nov. 

Engelia tovarensis Kl. & Karst. ex Nees in DC. Prodr. 11: 721. 
1847. 

MERIDA: Rich woods between La Azulita and La Carbonera, 
alt. 1280-2378 m., Steyermark 56074, "vine; corolla white; leaves 
deep rich green above, dull green below; bracts grass green." 

The type was collected at Colonia Tovar, Aragua, Venezuela 
(not Colombia), by Karsten. 

Neriacanthus nitidus Leonard, sp. nov. 

Suffrutex volubilis, caulibus teretibus, glabris vel sursum ad- 
presse pilosis, basi 9 mm. diam. vel ultra, lamina foliorum elliptica, 
usque ad 8 cm. longa, 3 cm. lata, apice acuminata (apice ipso ob- 
tuso), basi angustata, in petiolum breviter decurrens, integra vel 
undulata, subcoriacea, supra nitida, basi costae adpresse pilosa, 
pilis pallide brunneis, adpressis, 0.5 mm. longis, alibi glabra, sub- 
tus glabra vel parce pilosa, pilis usque ad 0.75 mm. longis, ad- 
pressis vel adscendentibus, praecipue in costa et venis (eis ali- 
quanto obscuris) positis; spicae terminales, usque ad 8 cm. longae, 
2.5 cm. latae, sublaxae, rhachi angulata, parce et minute puberula, 
pilis sursum adpressis; bracteae decussatae, ovatae, plerumque 1.5 
cm. longae et 8 mm. latae, (siccae) saturate brunneae, (vivae) atro- 
virides et interdum lilacino-tinctae, glabrae, integrae vel marginibus 



564 FIELDIANA: BOTANY, VOLUME 28 

dentes paucos minutos (circa 0.25 mm. longos) ascendentes ferentes; 
bracteae floras subtendentes parvae, lanceolatae, 3 mm. longae, 8 
mm. latae, obscure nervatae, ciliatae, pilis ascendentibus, usque ad 
0.5 mm. longis; calycis segmenta circa 1 cm. longa, striato-nervata, 
coriacea, integra, acuta, minute ciliolata (pilis ascendentibus), alibi, 
glabrae vel apice, puberulae, segmentum posterius ovatum, 5 mm. 
latum, segmenta anteriora 3 mm. lata, segmenta lateralia 2.5 mm. 
lata; flores ignoti; capsulae clavatae, atrovirides vel lilacino-tinctae, 
18 mm. longae, 5 mm. latae, 4 mm. crassae, apice obtusae, apicu- 
latae, glabrae, nitidae, minute punctatae; retinacula curvata, circa 3 
mm. longa, 0.5 mm. crassa, apice cucullata; semina plana, ovata, 6 
mm. longa, 3.5 mm. lata, 0.5-1 mm. crassa, brunnea, verrucosa. 

Type in herb. Chi. Nat. Hist. Mus., no. 1205072, isotype in U.S. 
Nat. Herb., no. 1997546, collected in moist rich forest, Quebrada de 
los Salichales, tributary of Rio Canagua, southwest of Canagua, 
state of Merida, alt. 1950-2135 m., May 9, 1944, Julian A. Steyermark 
56424, "woody vining epiphyte; leaves subcoriaceous, dark green 
above, dull green -below with raised nerves; bracts decussate, 4- 
ranked, firmly membranaceous, dull green or suffused, as is the 
fruit, with lavender." The specific epithet alludes to the shining 
leaves and capsules. 

Ruellia pterocaulon Leonard, sp. nov. 

Suffrutex, caulibus simplicibus, erectis vel ascendentibus, usque 
ad 1 m. altis, glabris, acute alatis; lamina foliorum oblongo-elliptica, 
usque ad 18 cm. longa et 7.5 cm. lata, apice acuminata (apice ipso 
obtuso), basi angustata, in petiolum decurrens, integra vel undulata, 
utrinque glabra, nitida, costa et venis lateralibus (7 vel 8 .paribus) 
aliquanto prominentibus; petioli usque ad 3 cm. longi, glabri, anguste 
alati; inflorescentia axillaria e dichasiis laxis composita, pedunculo 
gracili, curvato, subquandrangulari, usque ad 11 cm. longo, minute 
glanduloso-puberulo, pilis patulis, pedunculis secundariis infimis 3 
cm. longis, superioribus 1 cm. longis, glanduloso-pilosis, pilis 
patulis, usque ad 0.5 mm. longis; bracteae oblongo-lineares, 6 usque 
ad 2 mm. longae, 1 usque ad 0.5 mm. latae, subobtusae, carinatae, 
glanduloso-pilosae; calycis segmenta inaequalia, anguste linearia, 
8-14 mm. longa, dense glanduloso-pilosa, pilis patulis, 0.5-2 mm. 
longis; corolla lilacina, 2.5 cm. longa, tubo basi usque ad 15 mm. 
supra basim 1 mm. lato, prope orem 1 cm. lato, limbo suberecto, 
lobis obovatis, circa 6 mm. longis et latis, rotundatis; stamina in- 
clusa, circa 7 mm. longa; capsulae clavatae, 1 cm. longae, 3 mm. 
latae et crassae, basi angu&tatae, solidae, circa 4 mm. longae, 
apice obtusae, minute et parce puberulae, sursum pilis paucis glan- 
dulosis intermixtis; semina 8, brunnea, plana (sicca), glabra, margine 
pilosa, vel madefacta subtiliter mucoso-pilosa; retinacula gracilia, 
linearia, 2.25 mm. longa, recta vel leviter curvata, apice bidentata. 

Type in herb. Chi. Nat. Hist. Mus., no. 1205064, isotype in U.S. 
Nat. Herb., no. 1997558, collected on wooded ridge, Quebrada Bonita, 
tributary of Rfo Querecual, northeast of Bergantin, state of Anzoa- 
tegui, alt. 1200 m., February 17, 1945, Julian A. Steyermark 60976, 
"corolla pale lavender." 



BOTANICAL EXPLORATION IN VENEZUELA - III 565 

Ruellia pterocaulon is a well marked species easily recognized 
by its sharply angled or winged stems, nitid leaf blades, and glandu- 
lar inflorescence. The hairs of the narrowly linear calyx lobes are 
strikingly long (as much as 2 mm.). The species belongs to a group 
characterized by dichasial inflorescences. 

The specific epithet is derived from pteron, wing, and kaulos, 
stem. 

RUBIACEAE 

Alseis microcarpa Standl. & Steyerm., sp. nov. 

Arbor, ramulis juvenilibus tetragonis glabris, internodiis 3-6 cm. 
loneis;foliis subcoriaceis vel firme membranaceis supra atroviridibus 
petiolatis, petiolis 1.2-2.3 cm. longis glabris; laminis elliptico- 
obovatis 14-22 cm. longis 6-9.7 cm. latis subacutis vel subobtusis, 
basin versus acutis, costa nervisque supra prommuhs, subtus promi- 
nentibus, supra glabris subtus per costam mediam et nervos laterale 
parce patento-pilosis, aliter utrinque glabris, nervis laterahbus 
utroque latere 20-22 adscendentibus ad marginem ipsem exeuntibus, 
venulis subtus laxe reticulatis; spicis terminalibus basi ramosis 
dense multifloris usque 18 cm. longis dense puberulentibus pihs 





A 



B 



FIGURE 118 

Alseis microcarpa 

A, Capsule, immature (X 12); B, Capsule, mature, opening (X 12). 



566 FIELDIANA: BOTANY, VOLUME 28 

crispis brevibus subadpressis obtectis; bracteis ovatis vel late 
lanceolatis longe setaceo-acurainatis 2-4 mm. longis; lobis calycis 
plerumque 5 ovatis subito acuminatis ca. 1 mm. longis glabris; 
corollis non visis; capsulis clavatis 5.5*7 mm. longis basin versus 
attenuatis apice 2-2.5 mm. latis dense adpresso-puberulentibus 
(Fig. 118). 

Type in herb. Chi. Nat. Hist. Mus., collected on Montana de Agua- 
cate, along Quebrada de Pajarral, tributary to Rib Caripe, northeast 
of Alto de Aguacate, between Caripe and Caripito, state of Monagas, 
alt. 600-900 m., April 19, 1945, Julian A. Steyermark 62232, "tree 
with very hard wood, the trunk is divided at base into several trunks 
with pale brown ridged bark; leaves subcoriaceous to firmly mem- 
branaceous, deep green above, pale green below; fruiting rachis and 
fruit pale green." 

Local name: "guarataro." 

This species is distinguished by the relatively small densely 
appressed-puberulent capsules and branches of the inflorescence, 
the numerous lateral nerves of the leaves, and the sparse spreading 
hairs along the midrib and nerves of the lower le'af surface. 

Alseis trichocarpa Standl. & Steyerm., sp. nov. 

Arbor 8-10-metralis, ramulis juvenilibus glabris; foliis subcori- 
aceis petiolatis, petiolis ca. 1.5 cm. longis glabris; laminis obovatis 
28-31 cm. longis 9.5-11.5 cm. latis obtusis, apice rotundatis, basin 
versus acutis, supra glabris subtus in axillis barbatis et per costam 
mediam minute puberulentibus, nervis lateralibus utroque latere 
17-18, costa nervisque subtus prominulis, venulis subtus prominulis; 
spicis axillaribus simplicibus usque 22 cm. longis dense villosulis; 
corollis non visis; capsulis cylindrico-clavatis 13*14 mm. longis 
hirsutulis pilis patentibus 0.75-1 mm. longis praeditis (Fig. 119). 

Type in herb. Chi. Nat. Hist. Mus., collected in woods 1-10 kms. 
northwest of Upata, on road to San Felix, between Upata and Alta- 
gracia, state of Bolfvar, alt. 700 m., July 31-August 1, 1944, Julian 
A. Steyermark 57713, "tree 25-30 feet tall; leaves subcoriaceous, 
deep green above, dull green below; fruit green." 

This species is easily recognized by the relatively long hirsutu- 
lous capsules arranged in a simple axillary spike. 

Borreria macrocephala Standl. & Steyerm., sp. nov. 

Fruticulosa, 0.7-1-metralis, caulibus strictis simplicibus glabris 
basi lignosis denudatis; internodiis inferioribus 2.5-3 cm. longis; 
vaginis stipularum glabris; stipulis triangulari-lanceolatis sensim 
acuminatis non setosis; foliis oppositis erectis rigidis subcoriaceis 
anguste lanceolatis attenuato-acuminatis sessilibus basi angustatis 
3.5-6 cm. longis 2-6 cm. latis glabris uninerviis; inflorescentiis 
terminalibus multifloris capitatis 3-4 cm. diam. involucro multiphyllo 
suffultis, foliis involucralibus late vel anguste lanceolatis 1.8-4.2 
cm. longis 3~9 mm. latis; floribus sessilibus; hypanthio oblongo- 
turbinato extus dimidio superiori villoso; sepalis 4 lineari-setaceis 
8-10 mm. longis supra medium 0.4-0.5 mm. latis plerumque glabris 



BOTANICAL EXPLORATION IN VENEZUELA -III 



567 



marginibus parce ciliolatis; corollis albis 
hypocrateriformibus ca. 2 cm. longis extus 
griseo-villosis, tubo 15.5-16 mm. longo, lobis 
4 ligulato-oblongis 4-4.5 mm. longis 1-1.5 mm. 
lads; staminibus 4 bene exsertis lobis corol- 
lae longioribus; filamentis glabris 5 mm. 
longis in sinu loborum corollae insertis; 
antheris oblongis 1.7-1.8 mm. longis; stigmate 
capitate; capsulis oblongo-turbinatis 5-5.5 
mm. longis extus supra medium villosis; 
seminibus atrofuscis reticulato-rugosis 
2.5 mm. longis (Fig. 120). 

Type in herb. Chi. Nat. Hist. Mus., col- 
lected in sandy soil, banks of Canb Rana, 
Rio Atabapo, Territorio Federal Amazonas, 
alt. 280 m., January 19, 1942, Llewelyn 
Williams 13853, "slender frutice, 2'6"-3' tall; 
flowers white; common." 

This species is at once distinguished from 
other members of the genus by the non-setose 
triangular-lanceolate sepals, and corollas 
attaining 2 cm. in length. Because of its 
capitate stigma, it may be placed near B. 
W arming ii Schumann of Brazil. 

Cephaelis bolivarensis Standl. & Steyerm., 
sp. nov. 

Frutex 1.8-2.8-metralis, ramulis gracilibus 
teretibus, novellis hirsutulis, vetustioribus 
parce pilosis vel glabrescentibus, inter- 
nodiis elongatis; stipulis erectis 7-8 mm. 
longis profunde bifidis, lobis triangulari- 
lanceolatis acuminatis, basi intus et margini- 
bus, strigosis, lobis demum deciduis; foliis 
oppositis breviter petiolatis, petiolis vinaceis 
3-4 mm. longis puberulis; laminis firme mem- 
branaceis, subtus pallido- viridibus costa 

media vinaceo-purpurea, anguste ellipticis vel oblongo-ellipticis acu- 
minatis basin versus sensim angustatis 5.5-9 cm. longis 1.5-2.5 cm. 
latis, supra moderation adpressipilosis, subtus parce adpressi pilosis 
pilis brevioribus, costa media pilis longioribus dense pubescentibus 
praeditis, marginibus pilis 0.7-0.8 mm. longis prominenter ciliatis, 
nervis lateralibus subtus prominulis utroque latere 8-9 adscendenti- 
bus, nervulis prominulis; inflorescentiis terminalibus 7-8 mm. longe 
pedunculatis, floribus in capitulis congestis; pedunculis dense hirsu- 
tis; capitulis parvis 5-7 mm. longis 8-11 mm. latis, basi bracteis 2 
pallido viridibus lance olatis acuminatis 11-12 mm. longis 2-4 mm. 
latis ubique dense strigosis fulcratis; bracteis interioribus lineari- 
lanceolatis 5.5 mm. longis dense ciliatis; floribus sessilibus, hypan- 
thio 2.5 mm. longo dense hirsute; calyce pallido viride 3.5-4 mm. lon- 




FIGURE 119 

A Is e is trichocarpa 

Capsule (X 7). 



568 FIELDIANA: BOTANY, VOLUME 28 

go extus hirsutulo lobis late triangular! bus acutis ad 1 mm. longis; 
corollis non visis. 

Type in herb. Chi. Nat. Hist. Mus., collected on densely wooded 
slopes of narrow ridge between quebrada and summit, Sororopan- 
tepuf, state of Bolivar, alt. 2130-2250 m., November 15, 1944, 
Julian A. Steyermark 60185, "shrub 5-8 feet tall; leaves firmly mem- 
branaceous, dull green above, pale green below with wine purple mid- 
rib; petiole wine purple; bracts pale green; calyx pale green." 

This species is distinguished by its small terminal heads with two 
conspicuous densely pubescent pale green outer bracts and pubes- 
cent leaves, which are prominently ciliate on the margins and 
appressed-pilose on the upper surface. 

Cephaelis tinctoria Standl. & Steyerm., sp. nov. 

Subherbacea, ramis colonicis adscendentibus omnino glaberrimis, 
internodiis elongatis; stipulis erectis 6-9 mm. longis profunde bifi- 
dis, lobis late lanceolatis subacutis glabris; foliis oppositis petio- 
latis, petiolis 3-4 mm. longis glabris vel subglabris; laminis firmis 
subcoriaceis supra lucidis atroviridibus subtus pallido viridibus 
elliptico-lanceolatis vel late ellipticis utrinque acutis 3~5 cm. longis 
1-1.7 cm. lads, supra, costa media hirtella aliter glabris, subtus 
costa media hirtella nervis lateralibus parce puberulis aliter glabris 
ceterum glabris, nervis lateralibus subtus paullo prominulis utroque 
latere 7-9 cum venulis prominente con junctis; inflorescentiis axillari- 
bus in capitulis congestis, capitulis 1.2-1.3 cm. longis 1.5 cm. latis; 
bracteis exterioribus vinaceo-purpureis suborbiculari-obovatis apice 
abrupte cuspidatis 1.2 cm. longis; bracteis interioribus subaequalibus 
subcucullatis obovatis rotundatis supra medium crenulatis 7-9 mm. 
longis 3~5 mm. latis; fructibus ovalibus lazulinis vel atrocyaneis 
sulcatis 5-6 mm. longis 4 mm. diam. 

Type in herb. Chi. Nat. Hist. Mus., collected in moist cloud forest 
on south- and southwes^facing slopes of Palojosco above Los 
Aposentos, above Humocaro Bajo, state of Lara, alt. 2530-2375 m., 
February 4, 1944, Julian A. Steyermark 55256, "stems in colonies, 
ascending; leaves subcoriaceous, firm, dark green and shining above, 
pale green below; bracts wine-purple; corolla white; fruit ultramarine 
blue, 3-sided." 

Local name: "cafecito." 

This plant is used by the local inhabitants to add color to a 
tobacco product chewed by the mountain people and known as 
"chimo." 

This species is characterized by its colonial habit, axillary 
flower cluster surrounded by wine-purple bracts, glabrous stems, hir- 
tellous midnerve, and small leaves. 

Chalepophyllum pungens Standl. & Steyerm., sp. nov. 

Frutex 1-1.3-metralis, ramulis gracilibus pallido griseis teretibus 
glabris; internodiis congestis brevissimis; stipulis in vaginara brevem 
glabram connatis, lobis acicularibus 1.5-2.5 mm. longis glabris 
persistentibus, ad apices ramulorum prominentibus; foliis ad apices 



BOTANICAL EXPLORATION IN VENEZUELA -in 569 




IHLE 



FIGURE 120 

Borreria macrocephala 
Habit (X 0.7). 



570 FIELDIANA: BOTANY, VOLUME 28 

ramulorum confertis subsessilibus, petiolis 1.5-2 mm. longis glabris; 
laminis firme membranaceis supra lucidis subtus pallido viridibus 
parvis oblanceolatis vel ovato-ellipticis aristatis, arista 1-1.5 mm. 
longa, basi subacutis, 0.9-2.5 cm. longis 0.4-0.8 cm. latis, glabris, 
costa prominence nervis aliis obsoletis vel nervis lateralibus utroque 
latere 1, venulis obscuris vel obsoletis; floribus apices ramulorum 
brevium terminantibus; corollis non visis; capsulis obovoideis 10-13 
mm. longis 9*10 mm. latis glabris; seminibus suborbicularibus vel 
late oblongis alatis brunneis 4-4.5 mm. longis 2.5~2.75 mm. latis. 

Type in herb. Chi. Nat. Hist. Mus., collected on open granitic 
rocks at Puerto Ayacucho, Territorio Federal Amazonas, alt. 100 m., 
May 18, 1940, Llewelyn Williams 12970, "low shrub (up to 75 cm. or 
1 m.); fruit is dehiscent, brownish." 

Cotypes in herb. Chi. Nat. Hist. Mus., collected among rocks on 
the savana of Esmeralda, Upper Orinoco, Territorio Federal 
Amazonas, alt. 130 m., May 16, 1942, Williams 15419, "arbusto acha- 
parrado raras veces mas de 75 cm. de alto, usualmente con corona 
aplanada y el fruto morenizco es dehiscente; el tronco es torcido y 
la corteza gris claro a morenizca, algo lisa y el liber Colorado 
fuerte; la albura es de color claro y el duramen bien definido por ser 
poco mas obscurojcomun"; vicinity of Sanariapo, near Rio Sanariapo, 
tributary of Orinoco River, Territorio Federal Amazonas, alt. 100 m., 
September 8, 1944, Steyermark 58453, "shrub 3-4 feet tall; leaves 
firmly membranaceous, rich deep green above and shining, paler 
green below." 

Local name: "guayabito." 

A very distinct member of the genus, recognized at once by the 
acicular persistent stipules, small pungent aristate-tipped leaves 
and slender branches. It is unfortunate that no flowering material 
is available in the three collections cited. 

Chimarrhis venezuelensis Standl. & Steyerra., sp. nov. 

Arbor 10-13-metralis, cortice griseo calvo, ramulis subtetragonis 
superne pilis patentibus vel adscendentibus hirsutulis praeditis; 
stipulis subfoliaribus late obovatis apice late rotundatis 10-18 mm. 
longis extus dense pubescentibus; foliis oppositis petiolatis, petiolis 
8-13 mm - longis dense pubescentibus supra late sulcatis; laminis 
divaricatis firme membranaceis supra atroviridibus lucidis subtus 
pallido viridibus late oblongo- vel ovato-ellipticis apice acuminatis 
basi acutis decurrentibus 5.5-16 cm. longis 2-8 cm. latis, supra 
parce strigillosis subtus pilis longioribus praesertim ad costam 
mediam praeditis, nervis lateralibus utroque latere 6-8 arcuato- 
adscendentibus 3-5 mm. ante marginem anastomosantibus supra 
sulcatis subtus prominentibus; inflorescentiis terminalibus vel ex 
axillis supremis nascentibus paniculatis multifloris 10-17 cm. longis; 
rhachi pedunculi atque pedicellis ubique dense hirsutulis pilis 
patentibus praeditis; calyce 1.6 mm. longo, lobis 4 lanceolatis acutis 
0.9 mm. longis glabris, hypanthio 0.7 mm. longo extus moderatim hir- 
sutulo; corolla viridi-albida 4 mm. longa, omnino glabra, tubo 1 mm. 
longo, lobis 4 ovato-oblongis subacutis 3 mm. longis 1.5 mm. latis; 



BOTANICAL EXPLORATION IN VENEZUELA -in 571 

stamlnibus 4; filamentis albidls 2.5 mm. longis glabris; antheris 
oblongis 1.2 mm. longis glabris; stylo ca. 2 mm. longo; capsulis late 
obovoideis vel turbinatis 5*5.5 mm. longis 3'35 mm. latis basi 
acutiusculis ca. 10-costatis parce pubescenribus basin versus prae- 
sertim calyce persistente coronatis; seminibus suborbicularibus vel 
obovoideis 0.8-0.9 mm. longis brunneis vel nigris valde rugoso- 
reticulatis (Fig. 121). 

Type in herb.. Chi. Nat. Hist. Mus., collected on slopes of mountain 
between Santo Domingo and Los Quebraditos, south of Las Sabanetas, 
above Humocaro Bajo, state of Lara, alt. 2430-2475 m., February 8, 
1944, Julian A. Steyermark 55408, "tree 35 feet tall; corolla fragrant, 
greenish-white; filaments white; anthers buff; leaves dark shining 
green above with sulcate nerves, pale green below." 

Cotype (fruiting specimen) in herb. Chi. Nat. Hist. Mus., collected 
in moist cloud forest on southwest-facing slopes at Los Aposentos, 
above Las Sabanetas, above Humocaro Bajo, state of Lara, alt. 
2500-2530 m., February 3, 1944, Steyermark 55220, "bark slightly 
bitter, smooth and cream-colored when stripped from wood, but not 
discoloring; tree 30-40 feet tall, 4-8 inches in diam., with smooch 
gray bark; plentiful; leaves horizontally spreading, dark green and 
slightly shining above, dull green below; young fruit deep shining 
green." 

Local name: "quina blanca." 

This species is most closely related to C. dioica K. Schum. & K. 
Krause of Peru, Ecuador, and Colombia. It differs from that species 
in the hirsutulous pubescence of spreading longer hairs of the 
branches, peduncles, and pedicels, pubescent hypanthium, larger 
capsules, and shorter stamens which only equal the corolla lobes in 
length. 

It is questionable whether this species is dioecious, as is de- 
scribed for C. dioica. The bitter bark is employed as a substitute 
for quinine. 

Chiococca lucens Standl. & Steyerm., sp. nov. 

Frutex 3-3-4-metralis, ramulis teretibus glabris; stipulis erectis 
late ovato-triangularibus apice obtusiusculis 2-3 mm. longis glabris; 
foliis oppositis petiolatis, petiolis 3-7 mm. longis glabris; laminis 
subcoriaceis supra nitidis atroviridibus subtus pallido viridibus 
oblongo-ellipticis breviter et obtuse acuminatis basi subacutis 
3.5-8 cm. longis 1.5-4 cm. latis marginibus subrevolutis glabris, costa 
media prominente, nervis lateralibus supra obsoletis subtus utroque 
latere 4-5 obscuris; inflorescentiis axillaribus binis, racemis simpli- 
cibus 2-floris vel floribus solitariis; pedunculis 1-3 cm. longis gla- 
bris, pedicellis 6-8 mm. longis glabris; calyce 4-4.5 mm. longo 4-fido, 
hypanthio 25 mm. longo campanulato in speciem glabro, sed sub lente 
minutissime puberulenti, lobis late lanceolatis obtusis 25-27 mm. 
longis 1.2 mm. latis marginibus minute puberulentibus ceterum in 
speciem glabris sed ubique minutissime remote vix puberulentibus; 
corolla purpurea, lobis intus albidis, 11 mm. longa, tubo 9 mm. longo 
extus praesertim basin versus minute puberulo infra medium dense 



572 FIELDIANA: BOTANY, VOLUME 28 

pilosulo, lobis 4 imbricatis ovatis obtusis 2 mm. longis 1.5 mm. latis 
marginibus incrassatis; staminibus 4 basi corollae insertis, antheris 
dorsifixis lineari-oblongis 5 mm. longis glabris, filamentis 5 mm. 
longis dimidia parte inferiore pilosulis; stylo 9 mm. longo apice 2- 
lobo; ovario 2-loculari, ovulis solitariis ab apice pendulis; drupis 
(immaturis) 10 mm. longis (Fig. 122). 

Type in herb. Chi. Nat. Hist. Mus., collected on densely wooded 
slopes of narrow ridge between quebrada and summit, Sororopan-tepui, 
state of Bolivar, alt. 2130-2250 m., November 15, 1944, Julian A. 
Steyermark 60184, "shrubby, 10-12 feet tall; leaves subcoriaceous, 
dark green above, pale green below; corolla dull purpl-e, lobes whitish 
within." 

This species is remarkable in possessing a dull purple corolla with 
the lobes whitish within, flowers solitary or in 2-flowered racemes, 
and elongated calyx lobes, the latter much larger than in any other 
species of the genus. In the color of the flowers it resembles the 
genus Faramea, but the ovules are solitary and pendulous from the 
apex of the cells. 

Elaeagia Karstenii Standl. 

This species ranges from Venezuela, where it occurs in the Cor- 
dillera de la Costa as well as in the Andes, to eastern cordillera of 
Colombia. There is considerable variation in leaf-shape, pubescence 
of the lower surface of the leaf, length and pubescence of the petiole, 
and base of leaf blade. The original description was based upon 
Fendler 594, "prope coloniam Tovar," a- locality near Caracas. In 
this collection the leaf-blade becomes gradually narrowed to a sub- 
acute base and the pubescence on the lower leaf surface is confined 
to the midrib and lateral nerves. 

In some recent collections from Venezuela, specimens are on hand 
which show marked dense pubescence over the entire lower surface 
of the leaf and the base of the leaf blade is rounded to subtruncate. 
The rounded to subtruncate character of the base of the leaf-blade 
may be found, however, in otherwise typical E. Karstenii. 

The extreme pubescent-leaved type may be considered a form of 
variation, which may be expected to occur throughout the range of 
this species and may be designated as follows: Elaeagia Karstenii 
Standley, forma hispidula Standl. & Steyerm., forma nova. 

A typo differt laminis foliorum subtus dense atque molliter breviter 
pilosulis; laminis basi saepe late rotundatis vel subtruncatis. 

Type in herb. Chi. Nat. Hist. Mus., isotype in U.S. Nat. Herb., 
collected in forest, between Agua Negra and El Junquito, Distrito 
Federal, alt. about 1850 m., March 26, 1943, E. P. Killip & E. Rohl 
37160, "tree, 3.5-9 m. high, branched above; panicle 3 ni. wide; buds 
green." 

Cotypes in herb. Chi. Nat. Hist. Mus., collected in rich woods, 
east of El Junquito, Distrito Federal, alt. 1980-2130 m., June 25, 
1944, Steyermark 56994, "tall tree 80 feet tall; leaves subcoriaceous, 
deep green above, buff green below; stipules buff"; rich steep wooded 



BOTANICAL EXPLORATION IN VENEZUELA - III 573 






FIGURE 121 

Chimarrhis venezuelensis 

A, Habit of flowering branch (X 0.45); B, Fruit (X 4.5); C, Flower 
(X 7); D, Corolla, opened (X 7). 



574 FIELDIANA: BOTANY, VOLUME 28 

slopes, Alto de Lirio, between Bramon and Las Delicias, state of 
Tachira, alt. 1890-2285 m., July 18, 1944, Steyermark 57461, "tree 
50 feet tall; leaves chartaceous-subcoriaceous, deep green above, 
buff green below with raised nerves; peduncle yellow green; pedicels 
and calyx yellow green." 

Elaeagia laxiflora Standl. & Steyerm., sp. nov. 

Frutex 7-metralis, ramulis novellis glabratis; stipulis oblongo- 
obovatis rotundatis ca. 2 cm. longis 9 nun. lads ubique glabris; foliis 
oppositis brevissime petiolatis vel subsessilibus, petiolis ca. 3 nun. 
longis glabris; laminis firme membranaceis supra atroviridibus sub- 
tus pallidioribus obovatis apice abrupte acuminatis basi sensim acute 
attenuatis 15-25 cm. longis 7. 5~10.5 cm. latis supra glabris subtus 
secus costam mediam atque nervos minutissime puberulentibus cete- 
rum minutissime papillato-asperioribus, nervis lateral! bus utroque 
latere 18-21 arcuato-adscendentibus subtus paullo prominulis; in- 
florescentiis terminalibus late paniculatis laxe multifloris 11-21 cm. 
longis 10-20 cm. latis, ramis basalibus adscendentibus ceteris divari- 
catis minutissime densiuscule puberulentibus; floribus laxe pedicel- 
latis, pedicellis gracilibus 3*4 mm. longis minutissime puberulenti- 
bus; bracteis subulatis ca. 1 mm. longis; hypanthio late turbinato 
velsubcampanulatol.5-1.8 mm. longo extus minute adpresso-puberulis 
5-mucronatis, dentibus late triangularibus apiculatis 0.2 mm. longis; 
corolla alba 5 nun. longa 5-lobata, lobis recurvatis oblongis rotunda- 
tis 3.5-4 mm. longis 1.2-1.5 mm. latis infra medium vel fauce intus 
dense albido-hirsutis, tubo 1 mm. longo; staminibus 5, filamentis 
exsertis 2.5-2.8 mm. longis prope medium cum appendicibus crassi- 
usculis dense hirsutulis, ceterum glabris, antheris oblongis 1 mm. 
longis; stylo bifido 2.5 nun. longo glabro, styli ramis divaricatis 2 
mm. longis; capsulis depresso-globosis 2 mm. longis 2-3 nun. latis 
parce adpresso-pubescentibus (Fig. 123). 

Type in herb. Chi. Nat. Hist. Mus., collected along forested slopes 
of headwaters of tributaries of Rio Neverf, between Rib Leo'n and 
"Carmelita," northeast of Bergantfn, state of Anzoategui, alt. 800- 
1200 m., March 5, 1945, Julian A. Steyermark 61373, "shrub 20 feet 
tall; leaves firmly membranaceous, dark green above, dull pale green 
below; flowers fragrant; filaments and style white; corolla lobes 
recurved-re volute, white; calyx and peduncle and pedicels pale 
green." 

This species is distinguished by the relatively thin subsessile or 
very shortly petiolate leaves, the small depressed-globose capsules, 
the flowers on slender pedicels, and the densely barbate interior of 
the corolla lobes with densely hirsutulous enlarged appendages of 
the filaments. 

Faramea Cardonae Standl. & Steyerm., sp. nov. 

Frutex (?) vel arbor (?), ramulis glabris, internodiis 3.5-4.5 cm. 
longis; foliis oppositis petiolatis, petiolis 8-10 mm. longis glabris; 
laminis subcoriaceis supra lucidis atroviridibus subtus pallido viridi- 
bus late oblongo-ellipticis subacuminatis, acumine obtuso, basi sub- 
acutis 9.5-15 cm. longis 3.4-6.8 cm. latis utrinque glabris, costa 



BOTANICAL EXPLORATION IN VENEZUELA -III 575 





D 



FIGURE 122 

Chiococca lucens 

A, Habit of flowering branch (X 0.6); B, Corolla opened, from within 
(X 4); C, Calyx and hypanthium (X 8); D, Longidutinal section 
through hypanthium (X 8); E and F, Stamen (X 4); G, Style and 
stigma (X 3); H, Immature fruit (X 3). 



576 FIELDIANA: BOTANY, VOLUME 28 

media et nervis lateralibus subtus utroque latere 8-9 divaricate 
adscendentibus 9~H mm. ante marginera anastomosantibus cum 
venulis prominenter reticulatis late ovato-triangularibus cuspidatis 
5 mm. longis; cymis terminalibus sessilibus ca. 6-rameis, ramis 
plerumque $-floris 1.5-2 cm. longis erectis; bracteis exiguis subu- 
latis 1.25-1.5 mm. longis; pedicellis 3'5 mm. longis; hypanthio 
clavato-turbinato 2.7 mm. longo 2.7-3 mm. lato e calyce vel pedi- 
cello vix distincto, calyce inaequaliter 4-lobato, 4.5-5.5 mm. longo, 
tubo 1.5-2 mm. longo 4 mm. diam., lobis 4 inaequalibus uno brevissimo 
late triangulari-suborbiculari rotundato 0.5 mm. longo 0.5 mm. lato 
ceteris oblongo-lanceolatis obtusis 3~35 mm. longis 1.5 mm. latis; 
corolla 15 mm. longa, tubo 8 mm. longo 3 mm. lato, lobis 4 oblongo- 
lanceolatis obtusis vel obtusiusculis 7-7.5 mm. longis 3~3.5 mm. 
latis intus minute papillatis; staminibus 4 infra medium tubi altitudi- 
nibus alternis insertis; antheris linearibus 4.8-5 mm. longis 0.8-1 
mm. latis; filamentis brevissimis; fructibus ignotis (Fig. 124). 

Type in herb. Chi. Nat. Hist. Mus., isotype in U.S. Nat. Herb., 
collected on Cerro Guaiquinima, Alto Rio Paragua, state of Bolivar, 
alt. 1200 m., July 10, 1944, Felix Cardona P. 11 15. 

This species is somewhat anomalous in Faramea in having an un- 
equally lobed calyx in which 3 of the lobes are equal and elongated 
and in the alternate levels of insertion of the stamens. Other char- 
acteristics possessed are the branches of the cymes arising directly 
from the tip of the branch without a common peduncle, the insertion 
of the stamens well below the middle of the corolla tube, and the 
lobes of the corolla tube about equalling the tube. This species 
does not appear to have any close relatives in the genus. 

Guettarda Steyermarkii Stand!., sp. nov. 

Arbor 20-30-raetralis, ramulis teretibus novellis minute tomentellis 
vel subhirtellis; stipulis ovatis acuminatis 11 mm. longis 3.5 mm. 
latis extus parte media solum strigosis; foliis oppositis petiolatis, 
petiolis 10-22 mm. longis strigilloso-hirtellis; laminis firme membra- 
naceis supra atroviridibus subtus griseo-viridibus, anguste oblongo- 
ellipticis acuminatis basi sensim acutate angustatis 8-15 mm. longis 
2.5-5 cm. latis, supra plerumque omnino glabris vel foliis juvenilibus 
per costam mediam atque nervos laterales strigillosis nervis sul- 
catis, subtus ad nervos atque costam mediam strigillosis inter nervos 
valde graciliter reticulatis reti per se sericeo pilis albidis minutis 
brevibus obtectis nervis principalibus atque secundariis venisque 
prominenter elevatis, nervis lateralibus utroque latere 8-10 valde 
ascendentibus juxta marginem conjunctis; inflorescentiis axillaribus 
furcatis, pedunculis 16-35 mm. longis substrigilloso-subhirtellis, 
ramis cymae ca. 4, 12-20 mm. longis multifloris, floribus secundis 
sessilibus; hypanthio 2-3 mm. longo tetragono minute griseo- 
tomentello atque subhirtello; calyce breviter 5-dentato, dentibus late 
triangularibus obtusiusculis 0.5-0.75 mm. longis 0.75-1 mm. latis; 
corollis in anthesi 11-13 mm. longis, tubo 11.5 mm. longo 3 mm. lato 
pilis brevibus reflexis dense obtectis, lobis subbilobatis 
suborbiculari-oblongis rotundatis 3 mm. longis 2.5 mm. latis; stamini- 
bus supra medium insertis; antheris 4 mm. longis; stylo 11 mm. longo; 



BOTANICAL EXPLORATION IN VENEZUELA -III 577 




FIGURE 123 

Elaeagia laxi flora 

A, Habit of flowering branch (X 0.3); B, Fruit (X 5); C, Calyx and 
hypanthium (X 4.5); D, Corolla, opened from within (X 6); E, Corolla 
in position (X 6). 



578 FIELDIANA: BOTANY, VOLUME 28 

drupa ovali vel late oblonga 5-6 mm. longa 4 mm. diam. minute tomen- 
tella, putamine 4-loculari (Fig. 125). 

Type in herb. Chi. Nat. Hist. Mus., collected on rich steep 
northwest- and northeast-facing forested slopes above "La Isla," 
above Tabay, state of Me'rida, alt. 2285-2745 m., May 18, 1944, Julian 
A. Steyermark 56601, "tree 60-90 feet tall; leaves firmly membranous, 
dark green above with subsulcate nerves, gray pale green below with 
conspicuous pale green nerves and areolate nervation; calyx pale 
gray green as is fruit; corolla tube buff-yellow-green suffused with 
brick-lavender, especially colored in upper part; corolla lobes with- 
out suffused brick-lavender, within greenish white with ruffled white 
margins (almost bilobate at apex as in Joosia)." 

Local name: "salvio quino. " 

This species appears to be well-marked by having the lower sur- 
face of the leaves conspicuously reticulate, this reticulum well- 
defined by a gray tomentum of dense short hairs. It is more promi- 
nently reticulate than either G. argentea Lam., G. sabiceoides 
Standl., or G. discolor Rusby, and has shorter and less conspicuous 
hairs on the lower leaf surface than in G. argentea, but more nume- 
rous and paler gray hairs than in either G. sabiceoides or G. discolor. 
The 4-celled ovary also distinguishes it from G. sabiceoides. 

Guettarda Steyermarkii, forma latior Standl. & Steyerm., forma nova 

A typo differt stipulis ad 22 mm. longis, petiolis 2.5-5 cm. longis, 
laminis late ovatis vel elliptico-ovatis 15-20 cm. longis 7-11 cm. 
lads cuspidato-acuminatis basi obtusis vel subtruncatis, costa media 
et nervis lateralibus densiuscule hirtellis pilis longioribus obtectis 
(Fig. 126). 

Type in herb. Chi. Nat. Hist. Mus., collected in thickets around 
Hacienda El Joque of Dr. Ricardo Sergent, above Jaji', state of 
Me'rida, alt. 2195 m., April 20, 1944, Julian A. Steyermark 55965, 
"tree 60 feet tall; leaves dark green above, gray green below; corolla 
dull rose; calyx green." 

The longer more pubescent petioles, much broader more ovate leaf 
blades obtuse to subtruncate at base, and the longer, more numerous 
hairs on the lower midrib and lateral nerves serve to distinguish this 
from typical G. Steyermarkii. In details of flower structure and in the 
gray, strongly reticulate lower surface of the leaf it shows its rela- 
tionship with G. Steyermarkii. 

Huff in annia costensis Standl. & Steyerm., sp. nov. 

Frutex gracilis ad 2.8 m. altus vel subherbacea, ramulis gracilibus 
teretibus vetustioribus griseis junioribus brunneis, novellis villo- 
sulis, internodiis 1.5-7 cm. longis; stipulis late triangularibus 
villosulis ca. 1 mm. longis; foliis oppositis petiolatis, petiolis 0.7-3 
cm. longis villosulis; laminis membranaceis subtus pallido viridibus 
oblanceolatis vel elliptico-obovatis acutis vel subacuminatis, acu- 
mine subobtuso, basin versus sensim attenuatis, 4-15 cm. longis 
1.1-5 cm. latis, undique densiuscule strigilloso-puberulis sub- 
tus ad nervos dense villosulis, subtus costa media paullo ele- 



BOTANICAL EXPLORATION IN VENEZUELA -HI 



579 




FIGURE 124 

Faramea Cardonae 

A, Habit of flowering branch (X 0.4); B, Corolla, unopened (X 2); 
C, Calyx and hypanthium (X 4.5); D, Corolla opened, from within 
(X 2). 



vata nervis ceteris lateralibus obscuris utroque latere ca. 8 arcuato- 
adscendentibus; cymis axillaribus solitariis vel fasciculatis 4-5- 
floris 2-4 mm. longe pedunculatis, petiolis brevioribus, pedicellis 
0.5-2 mm. longis parce puberulis; hypanthio oblongo-turbinato 2.5 mm. 
longo densiuscule puberulo vel villosulo; calyce 5-lobato 1.5 mm. 
longo, lobis lanceolatis acutis 1.1-1.5 mm. longis 0.5 mm. latis ex- 
tus villosulis; corolla albida vel pallido-viride 5.5-6 mm.longa extus 
densiuscule puberula, tubo 1.5 mm. longo, lobis ovato-oblongis 
acutiusculis 4-4.5 mm. longis 1.5-2.75 mm. latis; antheris exsertis 
lineari-oblongis 2.5 mm. longis; filamentis 1 mm. longis; bacca rubra 
9"10 mm. longa parce puberula. 

Type in herb. Chi. Nat. Hist. Mus., collected on north-facing 



580 



FIELDIANA: BOTANY, VOLUME 28 





B 



FIGURE 125 

Guettarda Steyermarkii 
A, Leaf, lower side (X 1); B, Leaf, upper side (X 1). 



BOTANICAL EXPLORATION IN VENEZUELA -HI 581 




FIGURE 126 

Guettarda Steyermarkii f. latior 
Leaf, upper side (X 1). 



582 FIELDIANA: BOTANY, VOLUME 28 

slopes above La Trinidad in cloud forest zone, southwest of Cocol- 
lar, state of Sucre, alt. 2100-2200 m., May 5, 1945, Julian A. Steyer- 
mark 62542, "shrub 5~8 feet tall; fruit deep red; corolla pale greenish; 
leaves membranaceous, dull green above, pale green below." 

Cotype in herb. Chi. Nat. Hist. Mus., collected on forested 
southwest-facing slopes of Cerro Negro, above La Sabana de las 
Piedras, northwest of Caripe, state of Monagas, alt. 1500 m., April 
5, 1945, Julian A. Steyermark 61861, "herbaceous, 2 1/2-3 feet tall; 
leaves membranaceous, dark green with sulcate nerves above, pale 
dull green below; calyx pale green; corolla whitish; fruit red." 

The cotype collection cited has longer petioles and broader and 
larger leaves than the type, but in all other details of inflorescence, 
floral morphology, and pubescence it is conspecific. 

This species shows some similarity to H. pallida Rusby of Bolivia 
and to H. Williams ii of Peru. From the latter it may be distinguished 
by the shorter pubescence on the stems and lower leaf surface, and 
short pedunculate flowering and fruiting clusters, while from the for- 
mer it differs in the much shorter pedicels and more densely flowered 
cymes. 

Malanea microphylla Standl. & Steyerm., sp. nov. 

Frutex subscandens, ramulis elongatis teretibus novellis 
ferrugineo-hirtellis, internodiis brevibus 0.5*2.5 cm. longis; stipulis 
triangulari-subulatis longe acuminatis 3 mm. longis extus canescenti- 
bus; foliis oppositis brevipetiolatis, petiolis 3*4 mm. longis supra 
valde sulcatis paullo strigillosis subtus plerumque dense cano- 
strigosis, laminis subcoriaceo-chartaceis supra lucidis subtus 
pallido-viridibus, suborbicularibus vel ovatis rotundatis vel acutius- 
culis basi subcordatis vel obtusis 1.7-3.3 cm. longis 1-2.5 cm. latis 
marginibus, valde revolutis, costa media atque nervis lateralibus 
supra sulcatis subtus elevatis prominentibus, supra secus costam 
mediam strigillosis ceterum glabris subtus parce vel densiuscule 
strigillosis, nervis lateralibus utroque latere 4-5 arcuato- 
adscendentibus; inflorescentiis axillaribus brevipedunculatis foliis 
brevioribus; pedunculis 4-7 mm. longis strigillosis; floribus sessili- 
bus vel subsessilibus ad apices pedunculorum 3'4-gloraeratis; brac- 
teolis ovatis acutis vel acuminatis 2-2.5 mm. longis glabris; hypan- 
thio subcylindrico-campanulato 1.1-1.6 mm. longo glabro; calyce 
1.9-2-2 mm. longo glabro, lobis inaequalibus ovatis vel oblongo- 
lanceolatis obtusis 1.1-1.4 mm. longis 0.7-0.8 mm. latis; corolla in 
alabastro 3.8-3.9 mm. longa extus glabra, lobis oblongis rotundatis 
intus dimidia parte inferiore dense villosulis, tubo 2 mm. longo intus 
dimidia parte superiore dense villosulis; staminibus 4 in parte supe- 
riore tubi corollae insertis; antheris oblongis utrinque rotundatis in 
alabastro 1 mm. longo; filamentis in alabastro 0.5 mm. longo; fructu 
atro-purpurascente oblongo-elliptico 9-10 mm. longo 4.5-5 mm. lato 
glabro, apice calyce persistente coronato (Fig. 127). 

Type in herb. Chi. Nat. Hist. Mus., collected on upper slopes of 
Carrao-tepui, state of Bolivar, alt. 2130-2430 m., December 7, 1944, 
Julian A. Steyermark 60875, "sprawling shrub or semi-climbing with 



BOTANICAL EXPLORATION IN VENEZUELA -III 583 




FIGURE 127 
Malanea microphylla 

A, Habit of fruiting branch (X 1); B, Leaf, lower side (X 1); C, Leaf, 
upper side (X 1). 



584 FIELDIANA: BOTANY, VOLUME 28 

elongated branches; leaves subcoriaceous-chartaceous, rich deep 
green and shining above, pale rich green below; corolla greenish- 
white; fruit turning black-purple, elliptic." 

This newly described member of the genus Ma lane a at once may be 
distinguished from other known species of the genus by its much 
smaller leaves and few-flowered cymes on short peduncles. It is 
apparently most closely related to M. obovata Hochr. of British 
Guiana, from which it differs in the glabrous calyx lobes, short pe- 
duncles, few-flowered cymes, and much smaller differently shaped 
leaves with fewer lateral nerves. 

Pagamea anisophylla Standl. & Steyerm., sp. nov. 

Frutex 1.8-2.8-metralis, ramulis teretibus glabris, stipulis deciduis; 
foliis petiolatis, petiolis 1-2 cm. longis glabris; laminis subcoriaceis 
ovali- vel oblongo-ellipticis obtusis vel obtuse apiculatis basi cu- 
neatim angustatis in petiolum subdecurrentibus 6-9.5 cm. longis 2-5.3 
cm. lads glabris, costa media et nervis lateralibus subtus vix promi- 
nulis, nervis lateralibus utroque latere 5*6; inflorescentiis 6-10.5 
cm. longis; pedunculis term in ali bus vel ex axillis superioribus na- 
scentibus 2-5.2 cm. longis glabris compressis supra vel infra medium 
ramosis, florum glomerulis secus ramos paniculae interrupte spicatis, 
ramis 0.7-2.7 cm. longis eis et rhachidibus superioribus minute 
puberulentibus; hypanthio obpyramidali extus glabro; calyce intus 
adpresso-hispidulo breviter sed obsolete denticulato, dentibus late 
triangulari-fotundatis obtusis; bacca atro-cyanea vel atro-purpurea 
disperma obovoidea vel subglobosa 6 mm. longa 6-8 mm. lata 
(Fig. 128). 

Type in herb. Chi. Nat. Hist. Mus., collected in vicinity of Sana- 
riapo, near Rio Sanariapo, tributary of Orinoco River, Territorio 
Federal Amazonas, alt. 100 m., September 8, 1944, Julian A. Steyer- 
mark 58461, "shrub 5-8 feet tall; leaves subcoriaceous, deep green 
above, dull green below; calyx dull rose; fruit black-blue or black- 
purple; ovary almost superior; corolla whitish; calyx green." 

This species approaches P. coriacea Spruce and P. guianensis 
Aubl. From the former it differs in the thinner leaf blades with less 
prominent nerves, shorter more slender peduncles, smaller, scarcely 
lobed calyx and smaller hypanthium, and densely appressed- 
hispidulous inner surface of the calyx. From P. guianensis it differs 
in the well-branched inflorescence, differently shaped leaves with 
obtuse or obtusely apiculate apex, and smaller, less lobed calyx 
which is appressed-hispidulous on the inner surface. 

Pagamea auyantepuiensis Steyermark, sp. nov. 

Frutex humilis, ramo ligneo erecto simplice parte superiore foliis 
dense congestis coronato inferne denudato; internodiis brevissimis 
juvenilibus pilosis; stipulis dense albo-pilosis; foliis sessilibus 
dense confertis patentibus, laminis lineari-lanceolatis utrinque angu- 
statis apice obtusiusculis basi sensim angustatis 16-17 mm. longis 
2.8-3.1 mm. .latis supra lucidis glabris subtus per costam mediam 
parce pilis longis patentibus pilosis marginibus prominenter pilis 
longis patentibus ciliatis ceterum glabris apice dense pilosis, costa 



BOTANICAL EXPLORATION IN VENEZUELA -III 585 

media et nervis lateralibus supra nullis subtus costa media profunde 
sulcata nervis lateralibus nullis; floribus dense capita to-congestis, 
capitulis terminalibus 1 cm. diam., pedunculo simp lice elongate 17 
cm. longo parce subadpresse albo-piloso; hypanthio obpyramidali basi 
dense piloso; calyce et hypanthio 5.5-6 mm. longo, eo hypanthioque 
extus hispidulo intus glabro, lobis 4-5 oblongo-lanceolatis acutiuscu- 
lis 2.8-3*5 mm. longis extus hispidulis intus glabris; corolla 4-fida, 
5.7 mm. longa, tubo 2 mm. longo basi attenuate intus dense papilloso- 
piloso extus glabro, lobis 4 oblongo-lanceolatis rotundatis 3.2 mm. 
longis 1.2 mm. latis extus secus lineam mediam parce hispidulis 
intus in feme dense papilloso-pilosis; staminibus 4 in faucem 
corollae insertis; antheris oblongis 1 mm. longis glabris; filamentis 
1 mm. longis glabris (Fig. 129). 




FIGURE 128 

Pagamea anisophylla 
Habit of branch (X 0.5). 



586 FIELDIANA: BOTANY, VOLUME 28 

Type in herb. Chi. Nat. Hist. Mus., collected on Mount Auyan-tepuf, 
state of Bolivar, alt. 2200 m., December 1937-January 1938, G. H. H. 
Tate 1365. 

This unusual species is most closely related to P. Steyermarkii 
of Mount Ptari-tepui, described below. Both species possess short, 
narrow, crowded leaves with very shortened internodes arranged in a 
rosette or cushion habit surmounting a short, woody, mostly 
unbranched, erect stem. From P. Steyermarkii this species is at once 
distinguished by the entirely different type of pubescence of the much 
shorter leaves, elongated peduncle, and marked differences in floral 
details. 

Pagamea duidana Standl. & Steyerm., sp. nov. 

Frutex 1.3-1.8-metralis, ramulis teretibus gracilibus novellis dense 
hirtellis vetustioribus hirtellis vel subglabrescentibus; internodiis 
abbreviatis; stipulis 5"6 mm. longe connatis, vagina dense puberu- 
lenti truncata apice dentibus subulatis- 0.5*4 mm. longis hispidulis 
onustis; foliis firme membranaceis vel subcoriaceis subtus pallide 
viridibus petiolatis, petiolis 4-6 mm. longis supra canaliculatis un- 
dique dense minuteque hirtellis; laminis ellipticis apice subacutis 
basi sensim attenuatis acutis 1.8-3 cm. longis 0.6-1.7 cm. latis, 
marginibus leviter subrevolutis dense minuteque ciliolatis, costa 
media supra minute puberulente ceterum plerumque glabris, subtus 
axillis nervorum lateralium plerumque prominente barbatis ceterum 
plerumque glabris costa media glabra vel interdum remote parce 
adpresso-puberulis, costa media supra paullo prominulo nervis 
lateralibus obsoletis, costa media subtus prominente nervis laterali- 
bus utroque latere 3~4 paullo prominulis; pedunculis terminalibus et 
ex axillis superioribus nascentibus compressis 11-13 mm. longis, 
floribus in capitulum simplicem parvum 7-8 mm. diam. congestis 
sessilibus; hypanthio et calyce campanulato vel subgloboso 3 mm. 
longo extus plerumque glabro, calycis laciniis late triangulari-ovatis 
obtuse mucronatis 1.1-1.2 mm. longis marginibus ciliolatis extus 
glabris sinibus in anthesi rotunda tis (u-formi); corolla 5 mm. longa, 
tubo 2 mm. longo extus parce puberulo intus parte superiore villoso 
inferne glabro, lobis 5 oblongo-lanceolatis obtusis vel rotundatis 3 
mm. longis 1.2 mm. latis extus glabris intus dense villosulis; stamini- 
bus 5 exsertis in faucem insertis; antheris 1.4 mm. longis, filamentis 
1.3 mm. longis glabris; bacca subglobosa vel globosa 6 mm. longa 
6-8 mm. diam. (stato sicco). 

Type in herb. Chi. Nat. Hist. Mus., isotype in herb. N.Y. Bot. 
Card., collected on slopes at Central Camp, summit of Mount Duida, 
Territorio Federal Amazonas, alt. 1600 m., December 28, 1928- 
January 1, 1929, G. H. H. Tate 567, "low bushy tree; calyx green, 
persistent; flowers apparently white." 

Cotype in herb. Chi. Nat. Hist. Mus., summit of Cerro Duida, along 
valley forest between Central Camp and Brocchinia Hills, Territorio 
Federal Amazonas, alt. 1675 m., August 31, 1944, Steyermark 58116, 
"shrub 4-5 feet tall; leaves firmly membranaceous to subcoriaceous, 
dull green above, pale green below; fruit pendent, olive green, glo- 
bose, 8 mm. in diam. 



BOTANICAL EXPLORATION IN VENEZUELA -III 587 






f 



FIGURE 129 
Pagamea auyantepuiensis 

A, Habit (X 0.8); B, Calyx (X 5.5); C, Corolla, unopened (X 5.5); 
D, Corolla, opened from within (X 5.5). 



588 FIELDIANA: BOTANY, VOLUME 28 

From P. Standleyana Steyerm. of Pfari-tepui, described below, this 
species differs in the thinner leaves, more densely pubescent stipules 
with longer teeth, glabrous to sparsely pilose midrib of the lower leaf 
surface, densely puberulent leaf margins, shorter subcampanulate 
hypanthium, and oblong-lanceolate rather than ovate corolla lobes. 

From P. montana Gleason & Standley, also of Mount Duida, P. 
duidana differs in the barbate axils of the lower leaf surface, thinner 
leaves with more prominent lateral nerves on the lower leaf surface, 
densely pubescent stipules, peduncles, branches, and margins of 
leaves. 

Pagamea pauciflora Standl. & Steyerm., sp. nov. 

Frutex 1.3-2.8-metralis, ramulis novellis roseo-purpureis. minute 
sed densiuscule puberulentibus vetustioribus griseis glabris; inter- 
nodiis abbreviatis; stipulis 6.5~9 mm. longe connatis, vagina puberu- 
lenti truncata apice vel sub apicem dentibus subulatis 0.3~1.5 mm. 
longis puberulis onustis; foliis coriaceis supra lucidis subtus 
pallide viridibus petiolatis, petiolis 4-5 mm - longis supra canal icu- 
latis undique puberulentibus; laminis ellipticis apice acutis vel 
obtusiusculis basi sensim attenuatis acutis 2-3.5 cm. longis 0.8-1.7 
cm. latis, marginibus valde revolutis costa media utrinque minute 
puberula vel glabrescenti nervis lateralibus supra obsoletis subtus 
plerumque 4 paullo prominulis; pedunculis terminalibus vel axillari- 
bus compressis 10-18 mm. longis puberulentibus, floribus solitariis 
vel subsolitariis sessilibus; hypanthio et calyce subcampanulato 
3-3.5 mm. longo extus minute puberulo, calycis laciniis triangulari- 
ovatis mucronatis 0.2-1.2 mm. longis marginibus ciliolatis; corolla 
(immatura) extus glabra, lobis subovatis intus dense albo-villosis 
extus glabris; bacca nigra globosa vel subglobosa 8 mm. longa 6 mm. 
diam. (stato sicco). 

Tyjpe in herb. Chi. Nat. Hist. Mus., collected on summit of Carrao- 
tepui, state of Bolivar, alt. 2470-2500 m., December 7, 1944, Julian 
A. Steyermark 60888, "shrub 6-8 feet tall; leaves coriaceous, revo- 
lute, dark green and shining above, pale green below; corolla lobes 
white and hairy within, pale greenish white without; calyx pale dull 
green, the lobes rich green; fruiting calyx dull red; fruit shining, 
black, subtruncate at tip." 

Cotype in herb. Chi. Nat. Hist. Mus., collected in Bonne tia rorai- 
mae forest on southwest-facing shoulder, Ptari-tepui, state of Bohvar, 
alt. 2000-2200 m., November 2, 1944, Steyermark 59769, "shrub 4 
feet tall; leaves coriaceous, subrevolute, rich green above, silvery 
green below; corolla greenish with whitish lobes within; rachis and 
calyx and young stems dull rose." 

Together with P. montana Gleason & Standley, and the presently 
described P. duidana Standl. & Steyerm. and P. Standleyana Steyerm., 
this species forms a group of closely related species. Apparently, 
it is most closely related to P. Standleyana of Ptari-tepui', but differs 
from it as well as the other species mentioned in the solitary or 
nearly solitary flowers. In the non-barbate axils of the lower leaf 
surface it resembles P. montana. 



BOTANICAL EXPLORATION IN VENEZUELA -III 589 

Pagar.iea Standleyana Steyermark, sp. nov. 

Frutex 3. 3-metralis, ramulis teretibus novellis densiuscule 
adpresso-hirtellis vetustioribus glabris; internodiis abbreviatis ad 
1.5 cm. longis; stipulis 6-10 mm. longe connatis, vagina glabra vel 
parce puberulenti truncata apice dentibus subulatis 0.2-0.8 mm. 
longis onustis; foliis subcoriaceis supra atroviridibus subtus pallide 
viridibus petiolatis, petiolis 2.5-8 mm. longis supra canaliculatis 
undique densiuscule adpresso-hirtellis; laminis elliptico-oblongis 
apice obtuse acutis basi sensim attenuatis acutis 1.8-5.2 cm. longis 
0.7-1.9 cm. latis, marginibus subrevolutis, costa media supra plerum- 
que minutissime puberulente ceterum glabris, costa media subtus 
densiuscule adpresso-hirtella axillis nervorum lateralium plerumque 
prominente barbatis ceterum glabris, costa media supra vix prominula 
subsulcata subtus prominente, nervis lateralibus supra obsoletis 
subtus utroque latere 4 paullo prominulis; pedunculis terminalibus et 
ex axillis superioribus nascentibus compressis 1.5-3.8 cm. longis, 
floribus in capitulum simplicem parvum usque 11 mm. diam. congestis 
sessilibus; hypanthio turbinato vel obpyramidali 3-5 mm. longo minute 
paullo puberulenti; calyce 4-dentato, eo hypanthioque usque 6 mm. 
longo, lobis late triangulari-ovatis 1.8 mm. longis obtuse mucronatis 
ciliolatis extus minute puberulentibus sinibus in anthesi subacutis 
(v-formi) in fructu rotundatis (u-formi); corolla pallide viride 5.5 mm. 
longa, tubo 2.2-2.5 mm. longo intus glabro extus parce puberulente, 
lobis 4 ovatis obtusiusculis intus sub apieem crassis incurvatis 
extus glabratis intus dense albo-villosis; staminibus 4 exsertis in 
faucem insertis, antheris oblongis 1.75 mm. longis, filamentis 1.5 
mm. longis glabris; bacca ovoidea vinaceo-rubra 6 mm. longa 4 mm. 
diam. (Fig. 130). 

Type in herb. Chi. Nat. Hist. Mus., collected on Ptari-tepuf, 
scrubby forest on rocky open portion of plateau on southeast-facing 
slopes, state of Bolivar, alt. 1600 m., November 1, 1944, Julian A. 
Steyermark 59634, "shrub 8 feet tall; leaves subcoriaceous, dark 
green above, pale green below; corolla pale green; calyx rich green; 
young stems dull lavender to purplish-brown; fruit green to wine-red." 

From P. montana Gleason & Standley of Mount Duida, the species 
which it most closely resembles, P. Standleyana differs especially 
in the ovate corolla lobes, densely puberulent peduncles, younger 
stems, and midrib of the leaf blades, and the barbate axils of the 
lower surface of the leaf blades. 

Pagamea Steyermarkii Standley, sp. nov. 

Frutex humilis, ramo ligneo erecto simplice vel superne ramoso 
0.8-l-metralis,parte superiore foliis dense congestis coronato inferne 
denudato; internodiis brevissimis; stipulis dense argenteo-sericeis in 
vaginam truncatam connatis; foliis sessilibus apice caulis dense 
rosulatis juvenilibus erectis vetustioribus reflexis, argenteo-griseis 
subcoriaceis lineari-spathulatis vel anguste lineari-oblanceolatis 
acuminatis basi paullo angustatis 23-45 mm. longis 3-7 mm. latis 
marginibus subrevolutis, utrinque dense sericeo-pubescentibus subtus 
prominenter sericeis, costa media subtus fere obsoleta supra nulla 



590 



FIELDIANA: BOTANY, VOLUME 28 





FIGURE 130 

Pagamea Standleyana 

A, Leaf, lower side (X 1.5); B, Hypanthium and calyx (X 11); C, 
Corolla, opened from within (X 11). 

nervis lateralibus utrinque nullis; floribus dense capitato-congestis, 
capitulis terminalibus et ex axillis superioribus nascentibus ca. 1 
cm. diara. , pedunculis simplicibus 1.3-2.3 cm. longis compressis 
dense sericeis; hypanthio obpyramidali extus dense sericeo- 
pubescente; calyce et hypanthio 3.5 mm. longo, eo hypanthioque 
extus dense sericeo intus glabro, lobis 5 vinaceo-purpureis oblongo- 
vel triangulari-lanceolatis subacutis 1.5 mm. longis extus dense 
griseo-sericeis intus sericeo-pubescentibus; corollis 5-fidis, 3.5 mm. 
longis, tubo vinaceo-purpureo vel lavendulis 2 mm. longo intus 
glabro extus inferne glabro superne sericeo-pubescenti, lobis 5 lila- 
cinis patentibus oblongo-lanceolatis subobtusis 1.5 mm. longis extus 
sericeis intus dense albo-villosulis; staminibus 5 fere sessilibus ad 
1/2 longitudinem tubi Corollae insertis, antheris oblongis 0.75 mm. 
longis, filamentis glabris 0.2 mm. longis (Fig. 131)- 

Type in herb. Chi. Nat. Hist. Mus., collected on big boulders, 
Bonne tia roraimae forest on southwest-facing shoulder, Ptari-teput, 
state of Bolivar, alt. 2000-2200 m., November 2, 1944, Julian A. 
Steyermark 59744, "stems solitary, erect, 2-3 feet tall; leaves erect, 
bunched at tip, silvery green or gray green; corolla lobes spreading, 
pale lilac; corolla tube brick-lavender or wine-purple; bracts wine- 
purple as are calyx lobes." 

Cotypes in herb. Chi. Nat. Hist. Mus., collected in Brocchinia- 
Stegolepis-Heliamphora swamp on southwest-facing shoulder, Ptari- 
repui, alt. 2200 m., November 2, 1944, Steyermark 59770; and open 
places on summit of Carrao-tepui, state of Bolivar, alt. 2470-2500 m., 
December 7, 1944, Steyermark 60899, "leaves gray-silvery, erect; 
very common." 



BOTANICAL EXPLORATION IN VENEZUELA -III 591 

This remarkable species differs from all others in the genus by 
the densely gray-silvery sericeous linear-spatulate leaves arranged 
in a rosette at the summit of the usually simple woody stem. The 
species is most closely related to the above-described P. auyan- 
tepuiensis and in turn to P. garryoides Standl. of Mount Duida. 
Besides the remarkable habital aspect of the plant, it differs in floral 
details from both P. auyantepuiensis and P. garryoides. 

Palicourea Chimo Standl. & Steyerm., sp. nov. 

Arbor vel frutex 3-13~metralis, ramulis novellis obtuse subtetra- 
gonis vel teretibus glaberrimis; stipulis in vaginam glabram persis- 
tentem 5 mm. Ion gam et 4-6 mm. la tarn connatis, vagina truncata in 
lobos 4 remotos oblongo-lineares acutiusculos vel acutos 4-5 mm. 
longos desinentibus; foliis oppositis petiolatis, petiolis 10-18 mm. 
longis glabris supra sulcatis; laminis firme membranaceis vel char- 
taceis late ellipticis vel oblongo-ellipticis 7-13 cm. longis 2.5-5.3 
cm. latis apice breviterque acuminatis, acumine subobtuso vel 
acutiusculo, basi acutis, supra glabris subtus tantum costa media 
et nervis lateralibus pilosis pilis patentibus praeditis ceterum 
glabris, nervis lateralibus eis et costa media subtus prominulis 
utroque latere 10-13 arcuato-patentibus vel adscendentibus juxta 
marginem laxe conjunctis, venulis paullo prominulis; inflorescentia 
usque ad 3 cm. longe pedunculata laxe multiflora 9 cm. longa 10 cm. 
lata, rhachi rubra glabra, ramulis primariis 2-4.5 cm. longis divari- 
catis vel adscendentibus; bracteis late ovatis vel suborbiculari- 
ovatis 1.5-3 mm. longis acutis vel acuminatis ciliolatis; pedicellis 
citrinis 5-12 mm. longis gracilibus glabris; hypanthio turbinato 
1.5-2.5 mm. longo glabro; calyce citrino 2.5-2.6 mm. longo 5-lobo, 
lobis inaequalibus late triangulari-ovatis acutis 1.2-1.6 mm. longis 
1.8-2 mm. latis plerumque omnino glabris; corolla citrina tubulosa 
20 mm. longa extus glabra, tubo 17 mm. longo ad 4.5 mm. lato, lobis 
ovato-oblongis 3 mm. longis 2.2 mm. latis apice subobtusis infra 
apicem inflexis cucullatis incrassatis extus glabris intus minute 
papillosis; antheris lineari-oblongis 5 mm. longis; fructibus 
non visis. 

Type in herb. Chi. Nat. Hist. Mus., collected in upper limit of 
dwarf woods between Las Sabanetas and ridge top by boundary line 
Lara-Trujillo, above Humocaro Bajo, state of Lara, alt. 2600-2800 
m., February 6, 1944, Julian A. Steyermark 55371, "shrub 10-15 feet 
tall; rachis dull red; pedicels, calyx, and corolla lemon yellow; 
leaves dark green above, dull green below." 

This species is related to P. crocea (Sw.) R. & S., but is distin- 
guished by the larger corolla and by the leaves, which are spreading- 
pilose beneath on the nerves and midrib. 

Steyermark 56016 from the state of Me'rida and Steyermark 55385 
from the state of Lara may belong here, but are not in good flowering 
condition. The rachis and branches of the inflorescence in 56016 are 
villous, and the flowers are more crowded with less slender and less 
elongated pedicels. 



592 



FIELDIANA: BOTANY, VOLUME 28 




FIGURE 131 

Pagamea Steyermarkii 
A, Habit of plant (X 0.8). 



BOTANICAL EXPLORATION IN VENEZUELA -HI 593 

The specific name "Chimo" refers to the use of this and other 
similar species by the local inhabitants with reference to the leaves 
being boiled with those of the tobacco plant to make tobacco juice, 
known in this area as chimo. 

Palicourea tachirensis Standl. & Steyerm., sp. nov. 

Frutex 3-5-metralis, ramulis gracilibus glabris; stipulis in vaginam 
apice paullo ciliolatam ceterum glabram persistentem 1.5-1.75 mm. 
longam et 1.5-2 mm. latam connatis, vagina truncata in lobos 4 remo- 
tos lanceolato-aristatos longe acuminates basi induratos 0.75-1.5 




D 



FIGURE 131 

Pagamea Steyermarkii 

B, Flower (X 9); C, Corolla opened, from within (X 7); D, Calyx open- 
ed to show attachment to pistil, and vertical section through ovary 

(x 19). 



594 FIELDIANA: BOTANY, VOLUME 28 

mm. longos desinentibus; foliis oppositis petiolatis, petiolis tenuibus 
5-8 mm. longis glabris supra sulcatis; laminis firme membranaceis 
subtus pallido-viridibus lanceolato-ellipticis 6.3-9 cm. longis 1.9*2.5 
cm. latis apice longe sensimque acuminatis, acumine 0.7-1.5 cm. 
longo acuto, basi cuneatim angustatis, utrinque minute remoteque 
strigillosis ceterum glabris, nervis lateralibus utroque latere 11-12 
arcuato-patentibus juxta marginem laxe conjunctis utrinque eis et 
costa media paullo prominulis; inflorescentia usque ad 3 cm. longe 
pedunculata trichotoma cymoso-paniculata laxe pauciflora 1.3-1.7 cm. 
longa, pedunculo glabro tenue; floribus sessilibus; bracteis ovatis 
acuminatis vel cuspidatis 1.5-2 mm. longis glabris; hypanthio 
pallido-viride oblongo-turbinato 0.8-1.5 mm. longo glabro; calyce 
pallido-viride ca. 1 mm. longo 5'lobo, lobis inaequalibus late 
triangulari- vel suborbiculari-ovatis acutiusculis 0.7-0.8 mm. longis 
0.8-1 mm. latis glabris; corolla alba interdum basi lilacina anguste 
tubulosa 16.5 mm. longa extus glabra fauce et supra medium villosulo, 
tubo 14 mm. longo 1-1.5 mm. lato, lobis late oblongis obtusis vel 
rotundatis 3.5 mm. longis 2 mm. latis; staminibus in faucem corollae 
affixis, antheris 1.8-2.2 mm. longis; stylo 16-17 mm. longo; fructu 
ignoto. 

Type in herb. Chi. Nat. Hist. Mus., collected on rich steep wooded 
slopes, Alto de Lirio, between Bramo'n and Las Delicias, state of 
Tachira, alt. 1890-2285 m., July 18, 1944, Julian A. Steyermark 
57441, "shrub 10-15 feet tall; leaves firmly membranous, deep green 
above, pale green below; flowers white, sometimes with pale lilac at 
base; calyx pale green." 

This species is distinguished by the white-lilac corollas villous 
within, few-flowered cymose-paniculate inflorescence with sessile 
flowers, and narrow, thin, long, acuminate leaves. 

Psychotria arenaria Standl. & Steyerm., sp. nov. 

Frutex 2-3.3'metralis, ramulis novellis viridibus teretibus glabris 
nodis constrictis, internodiis plerumque elongatis; stipulis erectis 
persistentibus 2-4 mm. longis in vaginam brevem glabram truncatam 
connatis, vagina in lobos 4 triangulari-ovatis acutis 1-1.5 mm. longos 
desinente intus et marginibus pilis erectis adpresso-pubescentibus; 
foliis oppositis petiolatis, petiolis 0.9-1.5 cm. longis glabris, laminis 
firme membranaceo-chartaceis supra atroviridibus oblongo- vel 
lanceolato-ellipticis apice cuspidato-acuminatis, acumine anguste 
1-2 mm. longe cuspidate, basi cuneatim angustatis acutis et breviter 
decurrentibus, 10.5-12 cm. longis 3.2-4.5 cm. latis utrinque glabris, 
nervis lateralibus utroque latere 8-9 arcuato-patentibus prope mar- 
ginem nervura connectivum efformantibus utrinque prominentibus 
subtus praesertim, venulis paucis prominulis laxe reticulatis; in- 
florescentia terminali cymoso-paniculata 3~4 cm. longe pedunculata 
4.5-6 cm. longo 7-9 cm. lata multiflora, pedunculo glabro, ramis 
patento-adscendentibus glabris infimis 2.5"3 cm. longis basi bractea- 
tis, floribus subsessilibus vel ad 2 mm. longe pedicellatis; bracteis 
evolutis lanceolato-subulatis vel ovato-lanceolatis longe acuminatis 
1-5 mm. longis glabris; hypanthio late oblongo-cylindrico 1 mm. longo 
glabro; calyce campanulato 1-1.2 mm. alto glabro intus ima basi ante 



BOTANICAL EXPLORATION IN VENEZUELA -HI 595 

sinus fasciculatim 3'4-glanduligero, 5-lobo, lobis inaequalibus 
triangulari-subulatis 0.5"1.2 mm. longis remote serrulatis; corolla 
alba cylindrico-tubulosa supra medium paullo dilatata 9.5 mm. longa, 
tubo 6 mm. longo inferne 2.5 mm. lato supra medium 3.5 mm. lato 
extus verruculoso-papillato intus medio paullo villosulo, lobis 5 
ovato-oblongis obtusis 3'3.25 mm. longis 1.2-1.5 mm. latis intus sub 
apicem acutate cornutis; staminibus 5 medio tubi insertis, antheris 
lineari-oblongis 3.2-3.5 mm. longis, filamentis 3 mm. longis 0.5 mm. 
latis; fructibus atropurpureis vel coeruleis depresso-globosis 5 mm. 
longis (10 mm. longis in sicco) 7-10 mm. latis (Fig. 132). 

Type in herb. Chi. Nat. Hist. Mus., collected along base of south- 
facing high sandstone bluffs, Ptari-tepui x , state of Bolivar, alt. 2410 
m., November 6, 1944, Julian A. Steyermark 59869, "common shrub 
6 feet tall; leaves firmly membranaceous-chartaceous, dark green 
above, dull green below; corolla white, upper part of calyx white, 
lower part pale green; fruit dark purple to bluish." 

Cotype in herb. Chi. Nat. Hist. Mus., collected in densely wooded 
slopes of narrow ridge between quebrada and summit, Sororopan-tepui, 
state of Bohvar, alt. 2130-2250 m., November 15, 1944, Steyermark 
60164, "shrub 10 feet tall; leaves subcoriaceous, dark green above, 
paler dull green below; rachis pale green; calyx and pedicels pale 
green; corolla dull white; fruit depressed-globose, dull to dark blue, 
the mature fruit 1 cm. in diam. and purplish-blue." 




FIGURE 132 

Psychotria arenaria 
Calyx, opened, from within (X 30). 



596 FIELDIANA: BOTANY, VOLUME 28 

Other collections which may be referred to this new species are 
from Ptari-tepuf, alt. 2285-2405 m., October 30, 1944, Steyermark 
59524; Mount Roraima, southwest-facing forested slopes between 
Rondo'n Camp and base of sandstone bluffs, state of Bolivar, alt. 
2040-2255 m., September 30, 1944, Steyermark 58999. 

Psychotria avia Standl. & Steyerm., sp. nov. 

Frutex 6.8-metralis omnino glaber, ramulis teretibus internodiis 
elongatis; stipulis supremis ad 16 mm. longis tantum basibus reli- 
quorum persistentibus; foliis oppositis petiolatis, petiolis 1.5*3 cm. 
longis; laminis coriaceis subtus pallido-viridibus oblongo- vel 
obovato-ellipticis apice abrupte acuminatis, acumine 8-10 mm. longo 
subacuto vel obtusiusculo, basi sensim angustatis acutis 18.5*25.5 
cm. longis 7.5*11.5 cm. latis, nervis lateralibus utroque latere 10*12 
arcuato-adscendentibus prope marginem anastomosantibus subtus 
prominentibus, nervulis utrinque subtus praesertim prominente laxe 
reticulatis; inflorescentia axillari 20 cm. longe pedunculata cymoso- 
paniculata trichotoma 5.5 cm. alta 8 cm. lata, ramis infimis divaricate 
paten tibus 2.7*3.2 cm. longis, pedunculo ramisque minutissime pube- 
rulentibus, floribus subaggregatis sessilibus; bracteis minutis 
ovatis acutis 0.7-0.8 mm. longis minute puberulentibus; hypanthio 
cylindrico-campanulato 1.5 mm. longo minute hirtello-puberulente; 
calyce campanulato inaequaliter 5*6*~epando-denticulato, dentibus 
late triangulari-ovatis rotundatis vel obtusis 0.2-0.5 mm. longis extus 
et marginibus minute hirtello-puberulentibus; corolla viridescenti 
tubulosa 4.5 mm. longa, tubo 4 mm. longo extus minute hirtello- 
puberulente intus glabro, lobis 5 late oblongo-ovatis intus sub 
apicem obtuse cornutis extus minute hirtello-puberulentibus; stamini- 
bus 5 medio insertis, antheris lineari-oblongis 2.3*2.5 mm. longis; 
filamentis 0.2 mm. longis; stylo 1 mm. longo; fructu ignoto. 

Type in herb. Chi. Nat. Hist. Mus., collected on Cerro Duida, 
southeastern-facing sandstone bluffs near Cano Negro (tributary of 
Cano Iguapo), Territorio Federal Amazonas, alt. 1095*1520 m., 
August 26, 1944, Julian A. Steyermark 58056, "shrub 20 feet tall; 
leaves coriaceous, dull deep green above, pale green below; flowers 
dull green." 

This species may be related to P. mombachensis Standl. of Central 
America and Colombia. It is easily distinguished by the elongate 
axillary peduncle, small hirtellous-puberulent corolla, repand- 
denticulate hirtellous-puberulent calyx, and glabrous coriaceous 
conspicuously reticulate leaves. 

Psychotria Blakei Standl. & Steyerm., sp. nov. 

Ramuli ad 5 mm. diam. ad nodos constricti glabri, internodiis 4.5*5 
cm. longis; stipulis in vaginam 2 mm. longam glabram breviconnatis 
vagina in 4 laciniis setaceo-subulatis aristatis 4 mm. longis glabris; 
foliis oppositis breviter petiolatis vel subsessilibus, petiolis 2 mm. 
longis glabris; laminis coriaceis oblongis apice abrupte cuspidato- 
acuminatis basi rotundatis vel subcordatis 15 cm. longis 5*5.7 cm. 
latis utrinque glabris, nervis lateralibus utroque latere ca. 13 fere 
angulo recto divaricate patentibus juxta marginem nervum connecti- 



BOTANICAL EXPLORATION IN VENEZUELA -III 597 




FIGURE 133 

Psychotria Blakei 
Calyx, opened, 
from within (X 33 ) 

vum efforraantibus, nervulis utrinque valde laxiterque reticulatis; in- 
florescentia terminali 2.5 cm. longe pedunculata, pedunculo dense 
puberulente, capitato-subcymosa compacta 1.7 cm. alta 3 cm. lata, 
valde bracteosa, bracteis lanceolatis vel lineari-spatulatis 
cuspidato-acuminatis 9"! 5 mm. longis 1.5-4 mm. latis valde nervatis 
glabris; floribus sessilibus; hypanthio urceolari-campanulato 1 mm. 
longo glabro; calyce breviter 5-denticulato, dentibus late triangu- 
laribus acutis margin! bus medio ciliatis intus media sub apicem 
glanduligeris; corolla tubulosa 9~10 mm. longa, tubo 7 mm. longo 
extus minute papillato-puberulente intus supra basin dense villosulo 
aliter glabro, lobis 5 ovato-oblongis obtusis; staminibus 5 supra 
medium insertis, antheris lineari-oblongis 3 mm- longis; filamentis 
0.5 mm. longis; stylo 9 mm. longo papillato-puberulente; fructu 
ignoto (Fig. 133). 

Type in herb. Chi. Nat. Hist. Mus., collected on Cerro Yapacana, 
upper Rio Orinoco, Territorio Federal Amazonas, alt. about 100 m., 
April, 1931, E. G. Holt & E. R. Blake 743. 

This species, named in honor of Mr. E. R. Blake, Associate Cura- 
tor of Birds at the Chicago Natural History Museum, is a member of 
the section Bracteosae of Mueller's subgenus Eupsychotria, and is 
related to P. paradoxa M. Arg. and P. Langs dor ffiana M. Arg. of 
Brazil. It approaches P. paradoxa in the rounded or subcordate bases 
of the leaf blades, but at once differs from that species in the coria- 
ceous shortly petiolate, prominently reticulate leaves and capitate- 
subcymose inflorescence, while from P. Langs dor ffiana and related 
species of the Bracteosae it differs in the subcordate or rounded 
leaf bases. 

Psychotria canaguensis Standl. & Steyerm., sp. nov. 

Frutex 3.3'5-metralis, ramulis teretibus sordide brunneis crispo- 
puberulis; stipulis ca. 3 mm. longis erectis persistentibus in vaginam 
brevem crispo-puberulentem connatis, vagina in lobos 4 lanceolatos 
acutos 1-1.3 mm. longos desinente; foliis oppositis petiolatis, 
petiolis 3-9 mm. longis pilis sordide brunneis dense crispo- 
puberulentibus; laminis firme membranaceis subtus pallide viridibus 



598 FIELDIANA: BOTANY, VOLUME 28 

lanceolato-ellipticis vel anguste ellipticis apice longe acuminatis 
basin versus cuneatim angustatis 5.5-11 cm. longis 1.5~3 cm. latis, 
supra glabris subtus ad costam et nervos laterales pilosis aliter 
glabris, nervis lateralibus utroque latere 7-8 arcqato-adscendentibus 
juxta marginem conjunctis supra sulcatls subtus prominulis; inflores- 
centia terminal! sessile vel 1.1 cm. longe pedunculata cymoso- 
paniculata 3~5 cm. longa 2.2-2.7 cm. lata, ramis 1.5-2.3 cm. longis 
pilis sordide brunneis dense crispo-puberulentibus; floribus sessili- 
bus subcapitatis vel cymoso-congestis; bracteis lanceolato-subulatis 
3-6 mm. longis 0.5-0.7 mm. latis dense crispo-puberulentibus; hypan- 
thio urceolato-ovoideo 1.3-1.5 mm. longo ca. 1 mm. lato crispo- 
puberulo; calyce campanulato 1.3-1.5 ram. longo, 5~lobo extus pube- 
rulo, lobis inaequalibus ovatis acutis vel subacutis 0.75*1 mm. 
longis; corollis ignotis; fructibus globosis vel subglobosis aurantiacis 
6-6.5 mm. longis 5.5-6.5 mm. latis sulcatis. 

Type in herb. Chi. Nat. Hist. Mus., collected in moist rich forest, 
Quebrada de Los Salichales, tributary of Rio Canagua', southwest of 
Canagua, state of Me'rida, alt. 1950-2135 m., May 9, 1944, Julian A. 
Steyermark 56441, "shrub 10-15 feet tall; leaves firmly membrana- 
ceous, deep green with sulcate nerves above, paler green below; 
fruit globose, dull green turning dull orange." 

This species may be related to P. Ottonis Standley of Bolivia, but 
differs especially in the pubescent, more prominently lobed calyx, 
longer, narrower bracts of the inflorescence, densely crisp-puberulous 
stems, and narrower leaves. 

Psychotria cubitalis Standl. & Steyerm., sp. nov. 

Planta herbacea vel subherbacea 0.3-1-metralis, caulibus adscen- 
dentibus viridibus teretibus glabris, internodiis elongatis; stipulis 
erectis persistentibus in vaginam 2 ram. longam glabram in lobos 4 
triangulari-subulatos 1.5-2 mm. longos glabros desinente; foliis 
oppositis petiolatis, petiolis 4-10 mm. longis glabris; iaminis firme 
membranaceis vel chartaceis oblongo- vel lanceolato-ellipticis apice 
abrupte acutis vel acuminatis, acumine acutiusculo vel subobtuso, 
basi abrupte acutis sensim angustatis 5.5-9 cm. longis 1.8-3.3 cm. 
latis utrinque glabris, nervis lateralibus utroque latere ca. 8 arcuato- 
adscendentibus in marginem desinentibus supra impressis subtus eis 
et costa media prominulis; inflorescentia terminal! 2.3-4 cm. longe 
pedunculata depresso-thyrsoideo-paniculata 2-2.5 cm. longa 3.5-4.5 
cm. lata, ramis gracillimis purpureis glabris infimis patentibus 11-12 
mm. longis apice paucifloris, valde bracteosis, bracteis omnibus 
evolutis subconsimilibus purpureis lineari-lanceolatis vel subulatis 
acutis vel obtusis 6-9 mm. longis 0.8-1.1 mm. latis glabris; corollis 
ignotis; fructibus sessilibus subglobosis vel depresso-ellipsoidalibus 
viridescentibus vel albidis 3~3.5 mm. longis 3-4 mm. diara. longi- 
trorsum profunde 8-sulcatis, costis subobtusis. 

Type in herb. Chi. Nat. Hist. Mus., collected on wooded slopes of 
Quebrada O-paru-ma, between Santa Teresita de Kavanayen and Rio 
Pacairao (tributary of Rio Mouak), state of Bolivar, alt. 1065-1220 
m., November 20-21, 1944, Julian A. Steyermark 60380, "herbaceous, 



BOTANICAL EXPLORATION IN VENEZUELA -III 599 

2 feet tall; stems ascending; leaves chartaceous, deep green above, 
with impressed nerves, dull green below; rachis and pedicels dull 
lavender as are bracts; fruit from dull green to white, globose, 4 mm. 
in diameter." 

Cotype in herb. Chi. Nat. Hist. Mus., collected on Ptari-tepui, 
south-facing densely forested slopes between Rio Karuai and ridge 
below "Misia Kathy Camp," state of Bolivar, alt. 1250-1520 m., 
October 27, 1944, Steyermark 59426, "herbaceous, 1-3 feet tall; stems 
and petioles dull green; leaves firmly membranaceous, deep green 
above, dull green below; rachis deep lavender as are bracts." 

Local name: "sereu-ka-yek." 

This species pertains to section Inundatag of Mueller's subgenus 
Eupsychotria, and is related to P. capitata R. & P. It differs from 
that species in the herbaceous or subherbaceous, smaller habit, 
shortly lobed stipules, shorter and lavender bracts and rachis, and 
color of fruits. 

Psychotria duricoria Standl. & Steyerm., sp. nov. 

Frutex 33-metralis, ramulis subteretibus novellis minutissime 
puberulentibus; stipulis persistentibus in vaginam ca. 2 mm. longam 
minutissime puberulentem connatis, vagina in lobos 2 suborbiculari- 
ovatos rotundatos ca. 2 mm. longos; foliis oppositis .petiolatis, 
petiolis 5"11 mm. longis minutissime puberulentibus; laminis 
chartaceo-subcoriaceis supra atroviridibus costa media alba ovato- 
lanceolatis vel lanceolato-ellipticis acutis vel breviter acuminatis 
basi acutis 5-9.3 cm. longis 1.7-4 cm. latis, utrinque glabris, nervis 
lateralibus utroque latere ca. 8 arcuato-adscendentibus juxta margi- 
nem conjunctis eis et costa media subtus prominulis; inflorescentia 
terminal! 3-5.5 cm. longe pedunculata cymoso-corymbiforme ad 5-6 
cm. longa 5*8 cm. lata, inflorescentiae ramis subsecundifloris dicho- 
tomis basi bracteatis, floribus in dichotomis sitis arete sessilibus, 
ramis patentibus infimis 1.3-1.5 cm. longis glabris; bracteis lanceo- 
latis vel ovatis acutis vel acuminatis 1.3-1.5 mm. longis extus mar- 
ginibusque minute hirtellis; hypanthio urceolato-globoso 1 mm. longo 
minutissime hirtellis; calyce 1.5-2 mm. longo 4-fido, laciniis lanceo- 
latis acutis 1.2-1.6 mm. longis 0.5-0.6 mm. latis ad apicem et mar- 
ginibus hirtellis intus inferne ante sinus minute adpresso- 
glanduligeris; corolla viridi-alba tubulosa 3.8-4 mm. longa 1.1-1.2 
mm. lata, tubo 3'3.2 mm. longo extus minutissime hirtello* 
puberulenti medio- villoso, lobis 4 inapteris ovato-oblongis intus sub 
apicem obtuse cornutis 1.2-1.3 mm. longis 0.6-0.7 mm. latis extus 
minutissime hirtello-puberulentibus; staminibus 4 infra medium tubi 
corollae insertis; antheris 1.3-1.4 mm. longis, filamentis 0.5 mm. 
longis; stylo 2-2.5 mm. longo; fructibus compresso-subglobosis 3 
mm. longis 4.5 mm. latis profunde sulcatis. 

Type in herb. Chi. Nat. Hist. Mus., collected at edge of woods by 
bluffs, Cerro Duida, southeastern-facing slopes along Cano Negro 
(tributary of Cano Iguapo), Territorio Federal Amazonas, alt. 1665 
m., August 25-26, 1944, Julian A. Steyermark 58048, "shrub 10 feet 
tall; leaves chartaceous-subcoriaceous,deep green above with whitish 



600 FIELDIANA: BOTANY, VOLUME 28 

midrib, dull green below; rachis ancl peduncle pale green; corolla 
greenish-white; fruit dull green." 

This species is a member of the group Nitidulae of Mueller's sub- 
genus Eupsychotria, section Brachythyrsae, distinguished by the 
dichotomous branches of the inflorescence with the flowers sessile 
and subsecund in the dichotomous forks. The species is most 
closely related to P . brachyceras M. Arg. of Brazil, on account of 
the gland-bearing calyx, but is amply distinct in the much smaller 
corolla, deeply 4-fid calyx, thicker leaves, and broatf lobes of the 
stipules. 

Psychotria heterocarpa Standl. & Steyerm., sp. nov. 

Frutex 2.8-3.3'nietralis, ramulis nov.ellis viridibus subteretibus 
glabris, internodiis 2.5~3-5 cm. longis; stipuiis erectis persistentibus, 
in v agin am 4-4.5 mm. Ion gam glabram connatis vagina in lobos 4 
triangulari-ovatos acuminates vel aristatos 1.5 mm. longos desinente, 
intus et marginibus pilis rectis adpresso-pubescentibus; foliis oppo- 
sitis petiolatis, petiolis 5~12 mm. longis glabris; laminis chartaceis 
supra atroviridibus oblongo- vel lanceolato-ellipticis apice acutis, 
apice ipso breviter cuspidato, basi abrupte cuneatim angustatis acu- 
tis et breviter decurrentibus 9.5*15 cm. longis 2.8-5.2 cm. latis, 
utrinque glabris, nervis lateralibus utroque latere 8-13 fere angulo 
recto horizontaliter patentibus 2-4 mm. ante marginem anastomosanti- 
bus utrinque eis et costa media subtus praesertim prorainentibus; 
inflorescentia terminali 6.5 cm. longe pedunculata minute hirtello- 
puberulenti vel supra medium glabrescenti paniculata subumbelli- 
forme 4-4.5 cm. longa 5*5.5 cm. lata, rhachi et ramis purpureis, ramis 
oppositis divaricate patentibus, infimis 6-7 mm. longis divaricate 
patentibus, minute hirtello-puberulentibus, apice confertim pauci- 
floris valde bracteosis; bracteis omnibus evolutis sub consimilibus 
purpureis lineari-lanceolatis vel lanceolato-subulatis acuminatis 8-9 
mm. longis 0.5*2 mm. latis pilosulis apicem versus et supra medium 
pilis purpureis piloso-ciliatis; floribus ignotis; fructibus sessilibus 
vel pedicellis fructuum ad 6 mm. longis minute hirtello-puberulenti- 
bus; fructibus eburneis ovato-oblongis 1 cm. longo (in sicco 8-9 mm.) 
6 mm. lato (in sicco 4-5 mm.). 

Type in herb. Chi. Nat. Hist. Mus., collected on Sororopan-tepul, 
wooded ridge between quebrada and waterfall (Salto de Iwaracaru- 
meru), state of Bolivar, alt. 1615-1980 m., November 15, 1944, 
Julian A. Steyermark 60191, "shrub 8-10 feet tall; leaves charta- 
ceous, dark green above, dull green below; rachis dull purple; fruit 
ivory-white, quadroid, 6 mm. broad, 1 cm. high." 

Local name: "sereuku-yek." 

It is reported by the inhabitants of this region that tapirs eat the 
fruit of this plant. This species is a member of the section Inundatae 
of Mueller's subgenus Eupsychotria, and is related to P. capitata 
R. & P., P. pseudinundata Wernh., and P. violacea (Aubl.) Willd. 
From P. violacea it differs in the short 4-lobed stipules, fewer- 
nerved leaves, and hirtellous-puberulent branches of the inflores- 
cence, from P. pseudinundata in the horizontally spreading nerves of 



BOTANICAL EXPLORATION IN VENEZUELA -III 601 

the leaves with shorter apices and hirtellous-puberulent branches and 
bracts of the inflorescence, and from P. capitata it differs in the 
ivory-white ovate-oblong instead of blue or black globose fruits and 
different stipules. 

Psychotria kukenanensis Steyermark, sp. nov. 

Frutex 1.8-2.8-metralis, ramulis teretibus glabris, internodiis elon- 
gatis; stipulis erectis basi induratis persistentibus, in vaginara 3 mm. 
longarn extus glabram connatis, vagina in 4 lobos setosos rigidos ca. 
1 mm. longos desinente, marginibus et intus dense adpresso- 
pubescentibus; foliis oppositis petiolatis, petiolis 5'12 mm. longis 
glabris supra canaliculatis; laminis firme membranaceis oblongo- 
ellipticis apice abrupte et longe acuminatis, acumine 1.5-2 cm. longo 
anguste acuto, basin versus longe angustatis et breviter decurrenti- 
bus, 11.5-17 cm. longis 4-7 cm. latis, utrinque glabris, nervis late- 
ralibus utroque latere ca. 9 adscendentibus 3"4 mm. ante marginem 
anastomosantibus subtus eis et nervulis laxe reticulatis prominenti- 
bus, costa media prominente; inflorescentia terminali 2-2.5 cm. longe 
pedunculata, pedunculo et rhachi minute puberulente,ramis 3*5 pedun- 
culi patentibus oppositis 3-8 mm. longis minute puberulentibus, 
cymoso-paniculata 2-2.8 cm. longa 2-2.5 cm. lata multiflora; floribus 
ad apices ramorum capitato-congestis; pedunculo ipso basi 2 bracteis 
lanceolatis 6 mm. longis 1.5 mm. latis ad apicem rami glabri 2-10 
mm. longi articulate; bracteis minutis ovatis acuminatis ca. 1 mm. 
longis; hypanthio late turbinato basi rotundato 1.2 mm. longo 1.5 mm. 
lato extus glabro; calyce late campanulato truncate 1.1-1.3 mm. longo 
2.3 mm. lato glabro; corolla cremeo-albida in alabastro apice rotun- 
dato 2.5 mm. longo, tubo campanulato 0.8-1 mm. longo extus glabro 
intus in fauce et ad 1/2 longitudinis villosulo aliter glabro, lobis 5 
ovato-oblongis 2 mm. longis 1 mm. latis intus apice inflexis in- 
crassatis papilloso-puberulentibus; staminibus 5; fructu ignoto. 

Type in herb. Chi. Nat. Hist. Mus., collected in wooded quebrada, 
Gran Sabana, between waterfall at Rue'-meru (tributary of Rio Kuke- 
na'n) and Divina Pastora on Rio Kukena'n north of Santa Elena, south 
of Mount Roraima, state of Bolivar, alt. 1065 m., October 3, 1944, 
Julian A. Steyermark 59227, "shrub 5-8 feet tall; leaves firmly mem- 
branaceous, deep green above, dull green below; flowers creamy 
white." 

This is related to P. boliviano Standl. of Bolivia, from which it 
differs in the more congested inflorescence with only 3-5 branches, 
the 4-setose apices of the stipules, and 9 instead of 11-12 pairs of 
lateral nerves of the leaves. 

Psychotria patria Standl. & Steyerm., sp. nov. 

Herba vel interdum fnitex plerumque 0.3-1.3(-3.1)-metralis, 
caulibus simplicibus basi decumbentibus plerumque glabris superne 
interdum parce pruinoso-puberulentibus; internodiis elongatis 4.5*13 
cm. longis; stipulis persistentibus in vaginam 2-3 mm. longam gla- 
bram connatis apice truncatis integris; foliis oppositis petiolatis, 
petiolis 2-4 mm. longis glabris vel parce pruinoso-puberulentibus; 
laminis firme membranaceis vel subcoriaceis supra atroviridibus 



602 FIELDIANA: BOTANY, VOLUME 28 

lucidis subtus plerumque pallido- vel argenteo-viridibus, elliptico- 
oblongis vel oblongo-obovatis apice acuminatis basi obtusis vel 
acutis sensim attenuatis 13-22 cm. longis 5.5-10 cm. latis utrinque 
glabris vel subtus praesertim ad nervos et costam mediam moderatim 
pruinoso-puberulentibus ceterum glabris vel paullo pruinoso-puberu- 
lentibus, nervis lateralibus utroque latere 12-17 divaricate arcuato- 
patentibus prope marginem conjunctis subtus eis et costa media 
prominentibus; inflorescentia axillari et terminali 2.5-4 cm. longe 
pedunculata trichotoma cymoso-paniculata plus minusve dense vel 
parce pruinoso-puberulentibus, floribus dense aggregates 2-5 cm. 
longis 2.5-5 cm. latis, ramis basilaribus patentibus 5-20 mm. longis, 
floribus sessilibus ad apices ramulorum glomeratis; bracteis primariis 
ovato-lanceolatis acuminatis 5 mm. longis 3 mm. latis extus pruinoso- 
puberulentibus, bracteolis lanceolatis 4-5 mm. longis 1-1.75 mm. 
latis; hypanthio turbinato 1.5 mm. longo glabro; calyce profunde 
4-fido, lobis inaequalibus ovato- vel oblongo-lanceolatis obtusiuscu- 
lis vel acutis vel acuminatis 1.25-2.5 mm. longis 1 mm. latis extus 
et marginibus puberulentibus; corolla alba vel lobis pallido-rosaceis 
tubulosa basin versus dilatata 6.5-8 mm. longa, tubo 5 mm. longo 
2-2.5 mm. lato extus glabro intus dimidia parte superiore puberulo- 
hirtello, lobis 4 ovatis acutis vel abrupte longe acuminatis apice 
inflexo-cucullatis 2-3 mm. longis 1.5 mm. latis; staminibus 4 parte 
superiore tubi affixis, antheris lineari-oblongis 1.4-1.5 mm. longis, 
filamentis 2-2.1 mm. longis glabris; stylo 5.75 mm. longo; fructu 
rubro oblongo-ovoideo 8 mm. longo 6.5 mm. lato sulcato. 

Type in herb. Chi. Nat. Hist. Mus., collected in moist rich forest, 
Quebrada de Los Salichales, tributary of Rio Canagua, southwest of 
Canagua, state of Merfda, alt. 1950-2135 m., May 9, 1944, Julian A. 
Steyermark 56411, "common ground plant, herbaceous, 3*4 feet tall; 
stem decumbent at base; fruit fleshy, oblong-ovoid, dull red; 
corolla white." 

Other collections in herb. Chi. Nat. Hist. Mus. from Venezuela 
which are conspecific are: MERIDA: rich damp forest along north- 
west- and west-facing slopes "of Quebrada de Montana, in La 
Montana de Los Torritos, tributary to Rio Canagua, above Finca 
La Montana, 8 kms. southwest of Canagua, alt. 1925-2075 m., May 8, 
1944, Steyermark 56374, "common dominant herb 1-3 feet tall; leaves 
subcoriaceous, deep green above, dull pale green below; calyx and 
bracts pale green; corolla lobes and tube white, lobes acuminate- 
attenuate; styles white;" woods above Las Cuadras, along Quebrada 
Molino, north of Torondoy, ait. 1820-2285 m., March 27, 1944, Steyer- 
mark 55796, "shrub 5-10 feet tall; leaves subcoriaceous, dark green 
above, silvery green below; corolla white; calyx and rachis pale 
green;" rich forest above Hacienda Agua Blanca, above La Azulita, 
alt. 1375-1920 m., April 25, 1944, Steyermark 56111, "herbaceous, 
3 feet tall; leaves dark green and shining above, silvery below, 
firmly membranaceous; corolla white; peduncle and bracts pale green; 
tip of bracts with lavender." DlSTRITO FEDERAL: rich woods, 
east of El Junquito, alt. 1980-2130 m., June 25, 1944, Steyermark 
57004, "herbaceous, 2-3 feet tall; leaves membranaceous, dark green 



BOTANICAL EXPLORATION IN VENEZUELA -III 603 

and shining above, pale green below; rachis green; calyx pale green; 
corolla white, the lobes pale rose." 

This species is related to P. macrophylla R. & P. and P. uliginosa 
Sw. Like them P. patria has herbaceous stems and axillary inflo- 
rescences. In the red fruits it most closely approaches P. uliginosa, 
but differs from it and P. macrophylla in tetramerous instead of 
pentamerous flowers with a deeply lobed calyx and in the puberulent 
prominent acuminate bracts and bracteoles. 

Psychotria paupertina Standl. & Steyerm., sp. nov. 

Frutex 3.3"4-metralis, ramulis novellis minute puberulentibus, 
vetustioribus glabris, internodiis elongatis; stipulis basi breviter 
connatis late triangulari- vel suborbiculari-ovatis abrupte 1-1.5 mm. 
cuspidatis 4.5*6 mm. longis 2.5-6 mm. latis marginibus et intus dense 
breviter adpresso-pubescentibus; foliis oppositis breviter petiolatis, 
petiolis 1-4 mm. longis adpresso-puberulentibus supra sulcatis; 
laminis firme membranaceis ovato-ellipticis vel ellipticis apice 
plerumque abrupte longe acuminatis, acumine 1.3-2.4 cm. longo 
obtusiusculo vel acutiusculo, basi abrupte cuneatim angustatis acutis 
vel acuminatis et breviter decurrentibus 10.5-19.5 cm. longis 4-9 cm. 
latis utrinque glabris, nervis lateralibus utroque latere 8-10 arcuato- 
adscendentibus 3-6 mm. ante marginem anastomosantibus subtus eis 
et nervulis laxe reticulatis prorainentibus, costa media subtus promi- 
nente; inflorescentia terminali 5-12 mm. longe pedunculata, peduncu- 
lis minute puberulentibus, umbellulato-cymosa ca. 1 cm. longa 
1.5-2.5 cm. lata, ramis inflorescentiae 3-4 mm. longis glabris vel vix 
puberulentibus; florib us sessilibus dense aggregatis; bracteis minutis 
ovatis 0.3-0.5 mm. longis; hypanthio et calyce stramineo-cremeo 
infundibuliformi vel late obconico-urceolato basi rotundato vel obtuso 
3.5 ram. longo supra medium 2.5 ram. lato, hypanthio ipso ca. 1.5 mm. 
longo calyce 2 mm. longo, extus minute papillato-puberulente, 
inaequaliter 5-7-lobo, lobis late suborbiculari- vel triangulari- ovatis 
apice subrotundatis vel abrupte obtuseque apiculatis 0.5-1 ram. 
longis 1-1.5 ram. latis; corolla cremeo-alba late cylindrica, tubo 3.5 
mm. longo extus glabro intus fauce et supra medium dense villosulo, 
lobis reflexis 5-6 oblongis rotundatis intus sub apicem 0.2-0.5 mm. 
acuminate cornutis 2.5 mm. longis 1 mm. latis intus papillatis; 
staminibus 5-6 oblongis 1.3 mm. longis glabris ad 4/5 altitudinis 
tubi affixis; stylo 5-6 mm. longo papillose; fructu ignoto. 

Type in herb. Chi. Nat. Hist. Mus., collected in forest near Base 
River (Cano Negro), at southeastern base of Cerro Duida, Territorio 
Federal Amazonas, alt. 215 ra., August 23, 1944, Julian A. Steyer- 
mark 57919, "shrub 10-12 feet tall; leaves firmly membranaceous, 
deep green above, dull green below; corolla creamy-white, lobes 
reflexed; peduncles pale green; calyx buff-creamy." 

This species somewhat approaches P. astrellantha Wernh. of 
British and Dutch Guiana, but has longer, more prominently lobed 
calyces, longer corollas, and larger leaves with more numerous 
lateral nerves. 



604 FIELDIANA: BOTANY, VOLUME 28 

Psychotria phaneroloma Standl. & Steyerm., sp. nov. 

Frutex 1.8-2-metralis, ramulis teretibus glabris, internodiis elon- 
gatis 5-8.5 cm. longis; stipulis persistentibus basi in vaginam 2 mm. 
longam glabram connatis ad medium bifidis, lobis semiovatis acutis 
glabris 2 mm. longis; foliis oppositis petiolatis, petiolis crassis 4-6 
mm. longis glabris supra sulcatis; laminis chartaceis vel firme mem- 
branaceis ellipticis vel lanceolato-ellipticis 5-11 cm. longis 1.5- 
3.8 cm. latis apice acutis vel acutiusculis basi acutis sensim 
attenuatis in petiolum decurrentibus utrinque glaberrimis, marginibus 
valde incrassatis revolutis pallidis, nervis lateralibus utroque 
latere 10-11 patento-adscendentibus marginem attingentibus subtus 
eis et costa media prominentibus; inflorescentia terminali 3-5-6 cm. 
longe pedunculata densa e capitulis 6-12 composita 1.5-1.7 cm. 
longa 1-1.2 cm. lata, capitulis subhemisphericis 6-8 mm. diam. dense 
multifloris; pedunculo glabro subrecto; bracteis extimis in sicco 
cyaneo-purpureis suborbiculari-ovatis rotundatis 4-5 mm. longis 
3*3.25 mm. latis minute ciliolatis; bracteis interioribus in sicco 
cyaneo-purpureis ovato-oblongis vel oblongo-obovatis vel spatulato- 
oblongis apice rotundatis 2.5-4 mm. longis 1.1-1.3 mm. latis minute 
ciliolatis; floribus sessilibus; hypanthio late turbinato 0.5-0.75 mm. 
longo; calyce profunde 5-fido, laciniis paullo inaequalibus triangulari- 
vel ovato-lanceolatis acuminatis 0.75-1 mm. longis 0.6-0.8 mm. latis 
extus marginibusque puberulis; fructu atrocyaneo subgloboso-ovoideo 
3.5 mm. longo ca. 3 mm. lato. 

Type in herb. Chi. Nat. Hist. Mus., collected in Gran Sabana, 
along wooded portion of quebrada tributary to R/o Kukenan, south of 
Mount Roraima, state of Boh'var, alt. 1005-1065 m., October 2, 1944, 
Julian A. Steyermark 58117, "shrub 5-6 feet tall; leaves chartaceous- 
firmly membranaceous, dark green above, dull below; fruit 
dark blue." 

Cotype in herb. Chi. Nat. Hist. Mus., collected in vicinity of 
"Misia Kathy Camp," on mesa between Ptari-tepui' and Sororopan- 
tepui, state of Boh'var, alt. 1615 m., November 15-17, 1944, 
Steyermark 60226a. 

This well-marked species partakes of characteristics found both in 
Cephaelis and Psychotria, but is intermediate between the two 
genera, and illustrates the difficulty of maintaining Cephaelis for 
convenience alone. 

Psychotria ptariensis Standl. & Steyerm., sp. nov. 

Planta herbacea 0.8-1-metralis omnino glabra, ramulis gracillimis 
teretibus viridibus, vetustioribus ochraceis, internodiis 4-9 cm. 
longis; stipulis persistentibus in vaginam ca. 1.5 mm. longam indu- 
ratam connatis, vagina in lacinias 4 lanceolato-subulatas acuminatas 
1.5 mm. longas desinente; foliis oppositis breviter petiolatis, petiolis 
1-2 mm. longis; laminis firme membranaceis supra atroviridibus 
subtus pallidioribus anguste lanceolatis vel lineari-lanceolatis 
longissime anguste acuminato-attenuatis basi rotundatis 6.3-9 cm. 
longis 0.7-1.5 cm. latis, nervis lateralibus principalibus utroque 
latere 12-14 supra obsoletis subtus paullo prominulis arcuato- 



BOTANICAL EXPLORATION IN VENEZUELA -III 605 

adscendentibus juxta marginem nervum collectivum efformantibus, 
nervulis secundariis prominulis laxe reticulatis, costa media supra 
elevata prominente subtus paullo prominula; inflorescentia terminal! 
cernua vinaceo-purpurea gracillime 1.5-3 mm. longe pedunculata 
cymoso-paniculata laxe pauciflora 1-2 cm. longa 1-2 cm. lata, ramis 
patentibus infimis alternis gracilimis 4-10 -mm. longis, floribus 
omnibus pedicellatis in cymulas vel umbellulas ca. trifloras dispo- 
sitis, pedicellis gracillimis 1-4.5 mm. longis; bracteis minutis 
subulatis acutis 0.5-0.7 mm. longis; hypanthio urceolato-ovoideo 
0.5-0.7 mm. longo; calyce persistence hypanthio paullo breviore 4- 
denticulato, dentibus late triangulari-ovatis mucronatis intus ante 
sinus adpresso-glanduligeris; fructibus ovoideis 3.5-4.5 mm. longis 
2.5-3 mm. latis. 

Type in herb. Chi. Nat. Hist. Mus., collected on Ptari-tepui, 
south-facing densely forested slopes between Rio Karuai and ridge 
below "Misia Kathy Camp," state of Bolivar, alt. 1250-1520 m., 
October 27, 1944, Julian A. Steyermark 59440, "herbaceous stems 
2-3 feet tall; leaves firmly membranaceous, dark green above, dull 
pale green below; stem and nodding peduncle dull wine- lavender. " 

This is a member of the group Pedicellatae of Mueller's subgenus 
Eupsychotria, section Brachythyrsae. It is related to P. Roberta 
Standl., but is distinguished by its very narrow linear-lanceolate, 
shortly petiolate leaves broadly rounded at the base, by the numerous 
primary and secondary lateral nerves, and by the 4-denticulate calyx. 
The leaves somewhat resemble those of P. Duckei Standl., but are 
broadly rounded at the base and the inflorescence is quite different. 
Psychotria sororopanensis Standl. & Steyerm., sp. nov. 

Frutex 3.3-5-metralis ut videtur valde ramosis, ramis gracillimis 
teretibus glaberrimis, internodiis brevibus; stipulis persistentibus in 
vaginam 2-2.5 mm. longam strigillosam apice 4-aristatis, laciniis 
setosis 2-2.5 mm. longis; foliis oppositis petiolatis, petiolis gra- 
cillimis 2-4 mm. longis glabris vel supra adpresso-pilosulis supra 
sulcatis; laminis chartaceis supra atroviridibus anguste lanceolatis 
vel anguste elliptico-lanceolatis longissime acuminato-attenuatis 
basi acutis 3.5-8 cm. longis 0.6-1.4 cm. latis supra secus costam 
media paullo pilosula subtus utrinque pilis patentibus instructis 
dense ciliolatis ceterum utrinque glabris, nervis lateralibus prin- 
cipalibus utroque latere creberrime 30-50 fere horizontaliter 
penninerviis cum minoribus et aliis brevibus subparallelis alternanti- 
bus; inflorescentia axillari et terminali 7-11 mm. longe pedunculata 
capitata ca. 3 mm. longa, pedunculo declinato subcompresso secus 
lineas hirtello-puberulenti, floribus ad apices pedunculorum sessili- 
bus paucibus; bracteis florum et bracteolis evolutis, bracteis 
exterioribus basi liberis non vaginatim confluentibus lanceolatis vel 
triangulari-lanceolatis acutis 1.5 mm. longis praesertim margines 
minute hirtellis, bracteolis saepius ovatis; hypanthio et calyce in 
alabastro ad 1.5 ram. longo, calyce 5-dentato, dentibus inaequalibus 
late breviterque triangulari-ovatis acutis marginibus minute hirtello- 
ciliatis; corolla alba in ala'bastro 1.5-2 mm. longo; stigmatibus 
linearibus; fructibus globoso-ovoideis 4-4.5 mm. longis 3-3.5 mm. 
latis sulcatis. 



606 FIELDIANA: BOTANY, VOLUME 28 

Type in herb. Chi. Nat. Hist. Mus., collected on densely wooded 
slopes of narrow ridge between quebrada and summit, Sororopan-tepui, 
state of Bolfvar, alt. 2130-2250 m., November 15, 1944, Julian A. 
Steyermark 60175, "one of dominant shrubs, 10-15 feet tall; leaves 
in vegetative state in two planes, chartaceous, dark green above, dull 
green below; corolla white." 

This is a member of the section Panic ulastreae of Mueller's sub- 
genus Cephaelis. It is most closely related to the Brazilian species 
P. hancorniae folia Benth., especially var. angustifolia M. Arg., P. 
interjecta M. Arg., and P. sessilis Veil. (-P. Velloziana Benth.). 
From the latter it differs in its smaller narrower leaves, mostly gla- 
brous stems, glabrous lower leaf surfaces, and the peduncles with 
shorter pubescence occurring in lines. From P. interjecta it differs 
in the sessile fewer flowers on mostly shorter, less pubescent pedun- 
cles, more prominently lobed calyx, and shorter outer bracts. From 
P. hancorniae folia var. angustifolia and var. longifolia it differs in 
the sessile fewer flowers, shorter outer bracts, and mostly glabrous 
stems. 

Psychotria speluncae Standl. & Steyerm., sp. nov. 

Herba suffruticosa 0.8-2.8-metralis dense ramosa, ramulis gracili- 
bus viridescentibus glabris, internodiis brevibus vel elongatis versus 
apicem congestis; stipulis pefsistentibus 4-7 mm. longis in vaginam 
3-6 mm. longam glabram ad medium profunde bifidis, lobis lineari- 
lanceolatis vel lanceolato-subulatis aristatis 2-4.5 mm. longis gla- 
bris erectis; foliis pppositis breviter petiolatis, petiolis 2-4 mm. 
longis glabris; laminis firme membranaceis vel subcoriaceis supra 
lucidis subtus pallido-viridibus lanceolatis vel elliptico-lanceolatis 
acute acuminatis basi acutis 3'6 cm. longis 0.9"! .7 cm. latis supra 
glabris subtus ad costam sparse pilosulis ceterum glabris, nervis 
lateralibus utroque latere numerosis crebris gracilibus divaricate 
patentibus juxta marginem conjunctis 25~36 subtus prominulis, costa 
media subtus valde prominente; inflorescentia axillari vel terminali 
1.3-2.7 cm. longe pedunculata basi saepe trichotoma 1-1.2 cm. longa, 
ramis primariis 3'6.5 mm. longis eis pedunculoque glabris, floribus 
paucibus sessilibus ad apices ramorum; bracteis lineari-subulatis 
aristatis 5-6 mm. longis glabris; calyce 3.5-4 mm. longo glabro pro- 
funde 5-fido, laciniis lanceolato-subulatis attenuatis 2-2.1 mm. longis 
0.3 mm. latis glabris; corolla alba tubulosa 10 mm. longa, tubo 6.5 
mm. longo 2 mm. lato extus glabro intus fauce et supra medium vil- 
loso, lobis 4 angustate vel lanceolato-oblongis cornutis intus infra 
apicem cucullato-inflexis 4 mm. longis 1.2-1.8 mm. latis; staminibus 
4 medio tubi corollae insertis, antheris 1.5 mm. longis, filamentis 
1.5 mm. longis infra medium villosis; stylo 14 mm. longo papillato- 
puberulente; fructibus lucidis purpureis subglobosis 6-6.5 mm. longis 
6.5-7 mm. latis sulcatis, costis acutis. 

Type in herb. Chi. Nat. Hist. Mus., collected on Ptari-tepuf, on 
forested south-facing slopes overlying sandstone, on "Cave Rock" 
above "Cave Camp," state of Bolivar, alt. 1810 m., October 29, 
1944, Julian A. Steyermark 59521, "shrubby or branching suffruticose 



BOTANICAL EXPLORATION IN VENEZUELA -III 607 

herb 5~8 feet tall; corolla white; leaves firmly membranaceous, rich 
green and shining above, pale green below; fruit shining, purple." 

This species somewhat resembles P. Hazenii of Colombia. It is 
easily distinguished from that species by the smaller, narrower, 
shortly petiolate, nearly glabrous leaves and petioles, more numerous 
and closer lateral nerves of the leaf blades, glabrous stems, axillary 
as well as terminal, fewer-flowered inflorescences, and narrower 
bracts and calyx lobes. 

Psychotria Standleyana Steyermark, sp. nov. 

Planta herbacea 1.3-1.8-metralis, caule simplice crassiusculo 
usque ad 2 cm. diam. glabro, internodiis inferioribus elongatis; stipu- 
lis in vaginam connatis apice truncatis; foliis oppositis petiolatis, 
petiolis 2-2.5 cm. longis pruinoso-puberulis vel glabrescentibus; 
laminis firme membranaceis supra atroviridibus subtus pallido- 
viridibus oblongo-ellipticis apice abrupte acutis vel apiculatis basi 
abrupte angustatis et breviter decurrentibus 16-24 cm. longis 8.5-11.5 
cm. latis, supra minutissime scabridulo-puberulentibus subtus ad 
costam mediam et nervos laterales densiuscule tomentellis aliter 
remote puberulentibus vel glabrescentibus, nervis lateralibus utroque 
latere 16-18 adscendentibus 1.5-3 mm. ante marginem anastomosanti- 
bus supra impressis subtus elevatis prominulis; inflorescentiis axil- 
laribus capitatis crasse 1.5-3.2 cm. longe pedunculatis, e capitulis 
2-1 umbellatis compositis, basi bracteis 2 vel pluribus stramineo- 
albis extimis late ovatis abrupte acutis vel mucronatis 1-1.4 cm. 
longis 0.8-1 cm. latis glabris fulcratis, interioribus compressis cari- 
natis obovato-spatulatis vel oblanceolatis rotundatis vel mucronatis 
8-11 mm. longis flores amplectentibus, pedunculis glabris, ramis 5~12 
mm. longis, capitulis dense multifloris 1.2-1.5 cm. longis 1.2-1.3 cm. 
diam., floribus sessilibus dense congestis; hypanthio turbinato ca. 2 
mm. longo glabro; calyce irregulariter 4-lobo, lobis ovato-oblongis 
vel lanceolatis acutis vel subtruncatis 1.5-2.5 mm. longis marginibus 
irregulariter eroso-denticulatis; corolla alba tubulosa 7 mm. longa, 
tubo intus villoso; staminibus medio insertis; antheris 1.3-1.5 mm. 
longis; fructibus maturis non visis. 

Type in herb. Chi. Nat. Hist. Mus., collected in Montana de San 
Jacinto, on north side of Rio Chama, opposite Merida, state of Merida, 
alt. 1675-2195 m., May 19, 1944, Julian A. Steyermark 56681, "herb 
4-5 feet tall; stem thick-fleshy, 2 cm. diam.; leaves firmly membrana- 
ceous, dark green with impressed nerves above, pale green below with 
raised nerves; peduncle pale green; bracts buff-white, keeled in cen- 
ter; corolla white." 

This is closely related to P. uberta Standl. & Steyerm. described 
below. It differs from that species in the branched inflorescences, 
color of outer bracts, and 4-lobed calyx with irregularly erose- 
denticulate margin. Like P. uberta it may be considered equally suit- 
able for consideration as congeneric with Cephaelis. 

Psycliotria tamaensis Standl. & Steyerm., sp. nov. 

Suffrutex ad 30 cm. altus, caule simplice subglabrescente, inter- 
nodiis 1-3 cm. longis; stipulis persistentibus in vaginam 7-8 mm. 



608 FIELDIANA: BOTANY, VOLUME 28 

longam parce hirsutulam connatis, vagina in lobos 4 lanceolatos vel 
ovatos acuminates 11-14 mm. longos 3~7 mm. latos desinence, lobis 
densiuscule setuloso-ciliatis extus parce strigillosis; foliis oppositis 
petiolatis, petiolis vinaceo-lavendulis 1.7-4.5 cm. longis strigillosis; 
laminis firme membranaceis supra atroviridibus subtus purpureis 
oblongo-ellipticis vel late lanceolatis apice sensim acutis vel acumi- 
natis basi abrupte acutis vel subobtusis 8-12.5 cm. longis 3*5 cm. 
latis, supra asperulo-strigosis subtus ad costam mediam et nervos 
hispidulis aliter parce puberulis nervis lateralibus utroque latere 
18-19 fere angulo recto divaricate patentibus juxta marginem conjunc- 
tis supra sulcatis subtus prominentibus; inflorescentiis axillaribus 
et terminalibus densifloris, pedunculis et ramis pedunculorum hispi- 
dulis; bracteis vinaceo-purpureis lanceolatis acuminatis 1-1.5 cm. 
longis 2.5-3 mm. latis plerumque glabris; floribus non visis; pedicel- 
lis fructiferis ad 4 mm. longis; fructibus ovoideo-ellipsoideis 8-9 
mm. longis 4-5.5 mm. latis valde sulcatis. 

Type in herb. Chi. Nat. Hist. Mus., collected in rich moist woods 
at base of Pa'ramo de Tama', 4-10 kms. above Betania, state of 
Tachira, alt. 2500-2895 m., July 15, 1944, Julian A. Steyermarh 
57309, "one foot tall; leaves firmly membranaceous, dark green above 
with sulcate nerves, deep lavender on either surface; petioles wine- 
lavender; bracts wine-purple." 

This species is noteworthy for the purple bracts and purple lower 
surfaces of the leaves. It approaches some species of Cephas Us as 
well as Psychotria in appearance. 

Psychotria uberta Standl. & Steyerm., sp. nov. 

Planta herbacea 1-1.3-metralis, caule simplice crassiusculo glabro, 
internodiis superioribus 3'4 cm. longis; stipulis in vaginam connatis 
apice truncatis; foliis oppositis petiolatis, petiolis 3'3-2 cm. longis 
subglabris; laminis subcoriaceis supra atroviridibus subtus pallido- 
viridibus elliptico-blongis apice abrupte acutis vel apiculatis basi 
abrupte angustatis et breviter decurrentibus 24-25 cm. longis 12-13 
cm. latis, supra minutissime scabridulo-puberulentibus subtus ad 
costam mediam et nervos laterales densiuscule puberulis aliter re- 
mote et inconspicue puberulis vel glabrescentibus, nervis lateralibus 
utroque latere 16-18 adscendentibus juxta marginem nervum collecti- 
vum efformantibus supra profunde sulcatis subtus elevatis prominen- 
tibus; inflorescentiis axillaribus capitatis crasse ad 1.7-2 cm. longe 
pedunculatis demum patentibus, e capitulis raultifloris 1.5-2 cm. 
longis 3-3.3 cm. diam., basi bracteis 6 vel pluribus aurantiacis vel 
aurantiaco-luteis extimis late ovatis acutis vel rotundatis 11-15 mm. 
longis 6-11 mm. latis glabris fulcratis, interioribus compressis cari- 
natis oblanceolato-spatulatis acutis 13-15 mm. longis supra medium 
ad 5 mm. latis flores amplectentibus, intimis oblanceolatis acutis 
9-10 mm. longis supra medium ad 3 mm. latis; floribus sessilibus 
dense congestis; hypanthio obconico 2-3.5 mm. longo glabro; calyce 
fere ad basin 5"fido, laciniis inaequalibus lanceolatis acutis vel 
acuminatis 2.5'3.6 mm. longis marginibus parce setuloso-ciliatis 
inter sinus glanduligeris vel dentibus subulatis 0.5 mm. longis; 



BOTANICAL EXPLORATION IN VENEZUELA -III 609 

corolla cremeo-alba tubulosa 5-fida, tubo ca. 6 mm. longo 2 mm. lato 
extus glabro intus medio et infra medium villoso, lobis erectis 
oblongo-ovatis obtusis ca. 2 mm. longis; staminibus medio insertis, 
antheris 3 mm - longis, filamentis 1 mm. longis; stylo 3 m m. longo; 
fructibus ovoideis 7 mm. longis 5 mm. latis glabris leviter 2-Sulcatis. 

Type in herb. Chi. Nat. Hist. Mus., collected in rich woods near 
and bordering Quebrada de Palmar, at foot of Pa'ramo de Tama', 2 kms. 
above Betania and 7 kms. above Villapaez, state of Ta'chira, alt. 
2500 m., July 14, 1944, Julian A. Steyermark 57255, "single-stemmed 
herb 3'4 feet tall; leaves subcoriaceous, dark green above with deep- 
ly sulcate nerves, pale green below with raised pale green nerves; 
peduncle dull green; bracts pale orange or orange-yellow; corolla 
creamy-white." 

Like a number of other species which are intermediate between 
Psychotria and Cephaelis, this one is difficult to place genetically. 
It simulates Cephaelis pebasensis Standl. of Peru, but the axillary 
compact inflorescences with simple peduncles and details of floral 
differences immediately distinguish it. The orange or orange-yellow 
outer bracts are noteworthy. 

Psychotria ventuariana Standl. & Steyerm., sp. nov. 

Arbor 8-10-metralis, ramulis glabris; stipulis persistentibus basi 
induratis in vaginam 3 mm. longam glabram apice rotundatam connatis; 
foliis oppositis petiolatis, petiolis 6-10 mm. Jongis glabris; laminis 
subcoriaceis ovato-ellipticis vel ovato-lanceolatis apice abrupte 
longe acuminatis, acumine 1-2 cm. longo apice ipso obtusiusculo, 
basi abrupte angustatis subacutis vel acutis 11-16.5 cm. longis 3*7 
cm. latis, utrinque glaberrimis, nervis lateralibus utroque latere 
8-9 arcuato-adscendentibus juxta marginem conjunctis subtus promi- 
nentibus utrinque nervulis laxe reticulatis; inflorescentia terminali 
3 cm. longe pedunculata thyrsoideo-paniculata multiflora 4-5.5 cm. 
longa 3"3-5 cm. lata, pedunculo glabro ramis pedunculi minutissime 
puberulentibus infimis saepe trichotomis 9~13 mm ' longis; bracteis 
ovatis acutis 0.5-0.8 mm. longis; hypanthio campanulato 1 mm. longo 
glabro; calyce 0.3*0.4 mm. longo apice subtruncato minute 5~repando- 
apiculato glabro; corolla in alabastro 2.7-3 mm. longa extus glabra 
vel minute parce papilloso-puberulente infra medium villosula; 
staminibus 5; fructibus non visis. 

Type in herb. Chi. Nat. Hist. Mus., collected en selva tupida de 
rebalsa, raudal Trapichote, Delta del Ventuari, Territorio Federal 
Amazonas, alt. 124 m., April 20, 1942, Llewelyn Williams 14983, 
"arbol de tamano mediano, de 8 a 10 cm., con flores pequenas, 
blancas y fruto globoso, pequenb; la corona extendida y el tronco 
15 cm. de diametro, algo redondo y torcido, sin ramas por 2 o 3 m > 
la corteza es grisacea, algo lisa y delgada; la madera de color 
claro." 

This is probably related to P. vasivensis (M. Arg.) Standl., but dif- 
fers from this and related species in the fewer lateral nerves of the 
more reticulate leaf blades, the smaller subtruncate minutely repand- 
apiculate calyx, and the small ovate bracts of the inflorescence. 



610 FIELDIANA: BOTANY, VOLUME 28 

Remijia stenopetala Standl. & Steyerm., sp. nov. 

Frutex 3.3-6.8-metralis, truncis pluribus gracilibus 2.5-5 cm. diam., 
ramis novellis villosis striatis vetustioribus subteretibus glabris; 
internodiis 2-5 cm. longis; stipulis ovatis vel ovato-oblongis subacu- 
tis 13-22 mm. longis 6-7.5 mm. latis extus adpresso-pilosis vel 
strigosis; foliis oppositis petiolatis, petiolis rubellis 7-11 mm. 
longis crassis glabris supra canaliculatis; foliis planis coriaceis vel 
subcoriaceis subtus pallido-viridibus anguste elliptico-oblongis vel 
lanceolato-oblongis apice subito acutis vel acuminatis, acumine 
usque 13 mm. longo, basi acutis sensim attenuatis in petiolum de- 
currentibus 7-18 cm. longis 2-5.2 cm. latis, supra glaberrimis subtus 
minute strigillosis vel adpresso-pilosulis vel fere glabrescentibus 
costa media subtus rubella prominente, nervis lateralibus utroque 
latere 13-15 divaricate patentibus prope marginem obscure conjunctis 
supra subprominulis subtus obscuris; inflorescentii^ axillaribus 
foliis brevioribus vel ea superantibus cymoso-corymbosis 5*15 cm. 
longe pedunculatis 2.5-5 cm. latis, cymis trichotomis dense conges- 
tis primo congestis multifloris, pedunculis dense strigosis; bracteis 
rubellis anguste lanceolatis vel lineari-lanceolatis longe acuminatis 
8-19 ram. longis 1-2 mm. latis strigosis vel adpresso-pilosis; hypan- 
thio anguste oblongo vel cylindrico 2-3 ram. longo extus dense seri- 
ceo, calyce profunde lobato, laciniis inaequalibus lineari-lanceolatis 
vel lanceolato-subulatis longe acuminatis in anthesi 3~5 ram. longis 
0.5-1 mm. latis in fructu ad 8 mm. longis extus strigillosis; corollis 
(immaturis) albidis, tubo anguste cylindrico immature 8 mm. longo 
extus dense strigilloso intus glabro, lobis lanceolatis acutis im- 
maturis 4-4.5 mm. longis 1 mm. latis extus dense strigillosis intus 
densissime papillato-villosulis; staminibus infra medium tubum 
affixis, antheris lineari-oblongis utrinque rotundatis 3 ram. longis, 
filamentis 1 mm. longis; capsulis anguste elliptic- vel lineari- 
oblongis deorsum dehiscentibus 15-16 mm. longis 4-4.5 ram. latis 
extus dense strigosis vel adpresso-pilosis; seminibus lineari- 
fusiformibus 7.5 ram. longis, parte centrali 3 ram. longa 1.5 mm. 
lata (Fig. 134). 

Type in herb. Chi. Nat. Hist. Mus., collected in upper drier por- 
tion of forest below mesa, wooded slopes of Quebrada O-paru-ma', 
between Santa Teresita de Kavanayen and Rio Pacairao (tributary 
of Rio Mouak), state of Bolivar, alt. 1065-1220 m., November 20-21, 
1944, Julian A. Steyermark 60359, "shrub with several branches and 
slender stems, 1-2 inches in diameter; leaves coriaceous, deep green 
above, pale green below; corolla white, fragrant, some of petioles 
and lower midrib dull rose as are bracts; calyx pale greenish-white." 

Cotypes in herb. Chi. Nat. Hist. Mus., collected in low scrubby 
growth on flat portion of south-facing shoulder, vicinity of 
"Misia Kathy Camp," Ptari-tepuf, state of Boli'var, alt. 1585 m., 
October 28, 1944, Steyermark' 59476, "very common shrub with 
several stems, 10-20 feet tall; leaves subcoriaceous, plane, not 
folded as in R. laevifolia; Calyx pale greenish-white; peduncle slen- 
der, erect, dull brick; leaves deep green above, pale green below; 
petiole and upper midrib at base dull red"; scrubby forest on rocky 



BOTANICAL EXPLORATION IN VENEZUELA - III 611 




FIGURE 134 

Remijia stenosepala 

A, Habit of flowering branch (X 0.4); B, Immature flower bud (X 2); 
C, Mature fruit, opening (x 1.5); D, Seed (X 4). 



612 FIELDIANA: BOTANY, VOLUME 28 

open portion of plateau on southeast-facing slopes, Ptari-tepuf, 
state of Bolivar, alt. 1600 m. , November 1, 1944, Steyermark 59639, 
"common." 

This species is well-marked by its plane, not folded, narrow, elon- 
gate leaves which are glabrous above and minutely strigillose below, 
elongated, narrow calyx lobes and slender, narrow capsules. From 
R. laevifolia Standl. of Mount Duida it differs in the shape of the 
leaves, the divaricately spreading, more numerous lateral nerves of 
the leaves, the plane rather than folded leaves minutely strigillose 
below, and the much longer calyx lobes. 

Remijia Steyermarkii Standley, sp. nov. 

Arbor ad 8-metralis, trunco 7.5 cm. diam., cortice exfoliate 2 mm. 
crasso amaro; ramis novellis subteretibus brunneo- vel subferrugineo- 
strigosis vel subsericeis, vetustioribus glabrescentibus; internodiis 
2.5-11 cm. longis; stipulis lineari-lanceolatis vel lanceolatis obtusis 
vel acutis 10-28 mm. longis 3*5 mm. latis extus leviter vel valde 
sericeis caducis; foliis oppositis brevipetio latis, petiolis 1.5~3 
mm. longis sericeis, laminis firme chartaceis vel subcoriaceis subtus 
pallide viridibus late oblongis apice subito acuminatis, acumine 4-12 
mm. longo, basi rotundatis vel subcordatis, 6.5-18.5 cm. longis 3*9.5 
cm. latis, supra tantum ad costam mediam strigillosis ceterum gla- 
bris, subtus pagina minute parce pilosula vel glabrescenti costa 
media atque nervis lateralibus dense strigosis vel molliter hirtellis, 
nervis lateralibus utroque latere 9*13 adscendentibus eis et costa 
media valde sulcatis subtus prominente elevatis; inflorescentiis 
axillaribus folia aequantibus vel superantibus cymoso-corymbosis 
6-17 cm. longe pedunculatis ca. 4.5 cm. latis, cymis trichotomis con- 
gestis, pedunculis dense fulvo-strigosis vel adpresse fulvo-pilosis; 
bracteis ovato-oblongis obtusis 4-5 mm. longis extus dense adpresso- 
pilosulis; pedicellis ad 3 mm. longis eis rhachique dense fulvo- 
hirtellis vel adpresse fulvo-pilosis; hypanthio turbinato-oblongo 
3-7 mm. longo 2.5"3 mm. lato extus dense sordide fulvo- vel 
ochraceo-sericeis vel adpresso-hirtellis, calyce 1.5*2 mm. longo 
3-3.5 mm. lato apice truncate vel subtruncato dentibus obsoletis 
extus dense sericeo intus glabro; corollis 24 mm. longis, tubo an- 
guste cylindrico extus dense adpresse piloso intus parte inferiore 
pilosulo parte superiore glabro griseo-lavendulo 20 mm. longo, lobis 
intus albidis anguste lanceolatis acutiusculis 6 mm. longis 1.5-1.6 
mm. latis extus dense adpresse pilosis intus papillatis; staminibus 
inclusis infra medium tubum affixis; antheris lineari-oblongis apicu- 
latis 4.5 mm. longis; filamentis 3-3.5 mm. longis; capsulis anguste 
oblongo-pyriformibus sursum dehiscentibus, valvis apice cohaerenti- 
bus ca. 20 mm. longis 6-8 mm. latis extus fulvo adpresso-pilosis 
vel strigosis; seminibus 5.5-6 mm. longis ca. 2 mm. latis (Fig. 135). 

Type in herb. Chi. Nat. Hist. Mus., collected on steep slopes bor- 
dering precipice in mixed forest between Agiiita and summit of Cerro 
Duida, Territorio Federal Amazonas, alt. 1165 m., September 5, 
1944, Julian A. Steyermark 58392, "tree 25 feet tall, trunk 3 in. in 
diameter, bark peeling off, bark 2 mm. thick, bitter; leaves firmly 
chartaceous to subcoriaceous, dull green above, paler green below, 



BOTANICAL EXPLORATION IN VENEZUELA -III 613 




FIGURE 135 
Remijia Steyermarkii 

A, Habit of flowering branch (X 0.4); B, Leaf, lower side (X 0.4); 
C, Corolla (X 1.3); D, Anther (X 6.5); E, Hypanthium opening (X 0.8); 
F, Seed (X 4.5); G, Mature fruit, opening (X 0.9). 



614 FIELDIANA: BOTANY, VOLUME 28 

deeply sulcate above, upraised nerves below; corolla with dull gray- 
lavender on tube without, whitish on lobes within." 

This species is distinguished by the very shortly petiolate leaves, 
the broadly rounded or subcordate leaf base, the numerous close 
nerves of the leaf blades, truncate calyx with obsolete lobes, densely 
sericeous or appressed-pilose pubescence of peduncles, pedicels, 
corolla tube, and strigose midrib and nerves of the lower leaf sur- 
face. It resembles Cinchona in the manner of dehiscence of its cap- 
sules, i.e., from below upward, but in its axillary, elongated pedun- 
cles, type of inflorescence, and narrow corolla tube and lobes, it 
possesses characters shared by other species of Remijia. 

Rudgea Carolina Stand!. & Steyerm., sp. nov. 

Arbor 10-12-raetralis, trunco 1.5 dm. diam., ramis novellis minute 
tomentulosis, vetustioribus glabris; stipulis magnis ambitu obovatis 
vel late ovatis 11-23 nun. longis 10-12 mm. latis ultra medium flabel- 
latim subulato-fissis dorso longitrorsum multisulcatis dense tomen- 
tulosis; foliis magnis oppositis petiolatis, petiolis crassis 9*10 
mm. longis 4-6 mm. latis supra canaliculatis undique dense tomentu- 
losis; laminis coriaceis vel subcoriaceis supra atroviridibus subtus 
fusco-viridibus late ovatis apice subito acuminatis, acumine obtuso 
vel acuto, basi obtusis vel rotundatis 20-23 cm. longis 10-15 cm. 
latis supra glabris subtus densiuscule fusco-tomentulosis velpube- 
rulis, costa media supra sulcata subtus valde elevata, nervis lateral i- 
bus utroque latere 9-10 supra paullo prominulis subtus prominentibus 
prope marginem anastomosantibus cum venis transversis laxe arete 
reticulatis; inflorescentiis terminalibus 2.5"3.5 cm. longe peduncu- 
latis trichotomis dense multifloris 1.5 cm. longis atque latis, ramis 
primariis crassis 1-1.3 cm. longis eis pedunculisque dense fusco- 
tomentulosis, floribus sessilibus ad apices ramorum dense congestis; 
bracteis late ovatis acuminatis 5"6 cm. longis 4-6 mm. latis dense 
tomentulosis; hypanthio late oblongo-obturbinato 5 mm. longo 4-4.5 
mm. lato dense hirtellis; calyce campanulato 3 mm. longo extus 
dense hirtellis intus glabro, calycis lobis 4-5 ovato-triangularibus 
subacutis 1.5 mm. longis 2 mm. latis; corollis albido-virescentibus 
8-8.5 mm. longis, tubo cylindrico 4.5 mm. longo 4-4.5 ram. lato extus 
dense hirtello intus glabro, lobis 5 lanceolatis acutiusculis infra 
apicem cucullato-inflexis 4.5*5 mm. longis 1.5 mm. latis extus et 
apice inflexa dense hirtellis; staminibus 5 anguste oblongis 3.2-3.3 
mm. longis; stylo incluso 4 mm. longo glabro, stigmatibus 1.5 mm. 
longis; fructibus luteis ovoideis 20-22 mm. longis 12-17 mm. latis 
utrinque subrotundatis. 

Type in herb. Chi. Nat. Hist. Mus., collected en la margen de la 
selva en tierra firme, San Carlos de Rio Negro, Territorio Federal 
Amazonas, alt. 100 m., July 3, 1942, Llewelyn Williams 14674, 
"arbol delgado de 10 a 12 cm. con copa abierta, algo pequena, tronco 
derecho, redondo, 15 cm. de diam., sin ramas por las 3/4 de alt., la 
corteza algo lisa, morenisca; el liber verde palido; la madera dura, 
de color castano; el fruto amarillo quemado, ovoideo, solitario termi- 
nal; las flores blanquecinas con tono medio verde." 



BOTANICAL EXPLORATION IN VENEZUELA -III 615 

This is closely related to R. fissistipula M. Arg., the type of which 
(Spruce 3683) was collected from the same general locality as the 
present new species. Rudgea Carolina differs from R. fissistipula in 
the much shorter flowers, which are densely hirtellous on the outside 
of the hypanthium, calyx, and corolla, and in the densely tomentulose- 
puberulous lower surface of the leaves. 

Rudgea hospes Standl. & Steyerm., sp. nov. 

Frutex 5-6.5-metralis, ramis gracilibus subteretibus glabris vel 
subglabris; stipulis 1.5-2 mm. longis apice aculeolis subulatis brevi- 
bus onustis, aculeolis deciduis, parte persistente indurata subtrun- 
cata vel late rotundata; foliis oppositis breviter petiolatis, petiolis 
4-5 mm. longis supra canaliculatis undique minute adpresso- 
puberulentibus vel subglabrescentibus; laminis firme chartaceis 
supra sublucidis late ellipticis vel elliptico-oblongis apice obtusis 
basi subacutis, 4-6 cm. longis 1.5-3.6 cm. latis, supra glabris sub- 
tus tantum costa media et nervis principalibus minute adpresso- 
strigillosis ceterum glabris, nervis lateralibus utroque latere 7-9 
subarcuato-adscendentibus prope marginem 2-4 mm. anastomosantibus 
supra prominulis subtus prominentibus, nervulis prominulis utrinque 
graciliter reticulatis; inflorescentiis parvis terminalibus foliis 
multo brevioribus 15-17 mm. longe pedunculatis trichotomis 2-2.5 
cm. longis 1.5 cm. latis, ramo centrali trifloro, ramis lateralibus 
vulgo unifloris, floribus 1-2.5 mm. longe pedicellatis vel subsessili- 
bus, pedunculis pedicellisque dense minutissime adpresso- 
strigillosis, bracteis late ovato-triangularibus subito cuspidatis 
2.5-4 mm. longis extus dense adpresso-strigillosis, bracteolis lanceo- 
latis acuminatis 2-2.5 mm. longis; hypanthio campanulato ca. 2 mm. 
longo 2.5-3 mm. lato extus dense adpresso-puberulo vel strigilloso; 
calyce campanulato 2 mm. longo 4 mm. lato, lobis late ovato- 
triangularibus acutis 1 mm. longis 1.5 mm. latis, extus dense minu- 
tissime strigillosis; corollis sordido-albidis 13 mm. longis, tubo 
cylindrico 7 mm. longo 4.5 mm. lato extus dense strigilloso, lobis 5 
late lanceolatis acutis 5.5 mm. longis extus dense strigillosis; 
staminibus 5 ad medium tubum affixis, antheris lineari-oblongis 5 
mm. longis; filamentis 2.8-3 mm. longis; stylo 5 mm. longo minute 
strigilloso, stigmatibus 2 mm. longis; fructibus late ovoideis vel 
suborbiculari-ovoideis apice rotundatis basi anguste attenuatis 8 
mm. longis (immaturis) 7.5 mm. latis extus minute puberulentibus 
vel substrigillosis vel subglabrescentibus. 

Type in herb. Chi. Nat. Hist. Mus., collected between Buenos 
Aires to Canyon of El Callado, above Humocaro Alto, state of Lara, 
alt. 2285-2740 m., February 12, 1944, Julian A. Steyermark 55509, 
"shrub 15-20 feet tall with arching tips; leaves firmly chartaceous, 
dark green above, dull green below; calyx dull pale green; corolla 
creamy." 

Only a few species of Rudgea have been collected in the Vene- 
zuelan Andes. This one is quite distinct from any of the species 
described thus far in the genus. It is perhaps most closely related 
to R. Karstenii Standl. of Venezuela, from which it at once may be 
separated by the pubescent peduncles, pedicels, hypanthium, and 



616 FIELDIANA: BOTANY, VOLUME 28 

calyx, fruit narrowed and attenuate at the base, and more conspicu- 
ously nerved and differently shaped leaves. 

Rudgea lucentifolia Standl. & Steyerrru, sp. nov. 

Frutex scandens, ramulis glabris; stipulis 2-2.5 mm. longis apice 
aculeolis subulatis brevibus onustis, aculeolis deciduis, parte per- 
sistente indurata subtruncata vel late rotunda ta; foliis oppositis 
petiolatis, petiolis 5*7 mm. longis glabris supra leviter sulcatis; 
laminis chartaceo-subcoriaceis supra atroviridibus lucidis subtus 
pallidioribus elliptico-oblongis apice subobtusis vel subacutis basi 
obtusis, 5-12 cm. longis 2-6 cm. latis, margin ibus paullo revolutis, 
supra glaberrimis subtus praecipue ad costam mediam atque nervos 
laterales minutissime strigillosis ceterum remote minutissime 
strigilloso-puberulentibus vel subglabrescentibus, nervis lateralibus 
utroque latere ca. 8 paten to-adscendentibus supra obsoletis subtus 
prominulis ante marginem 2-4 mm. conjunctis, nervulis subtus laxe 
subreticulatis; inflorescentiis terminalibus foliis multo brevioribus 
12-15 mm. longe pedunculatis trichotomis 2.2-3 cm. longis 1.2-1.5 
cm. latis, ramis trifloris, floribus sessilibus, pedunculis et ramis 
pedunculorum minutissime puberulentibus sulcatis, ramis 3.5-8 mm. 
longis; bracteis late ovatis acuminatis 3.5-4 mm. longis; hypanthio 
carapanulato 1.5-2 mm. longo 1.5-2 mm. lato glabro; calyce campanu- 
lato 1.5 mm. longo 3*3.5 mm. lato extus minutissime puberulenti 
apice ciliolato, apice 5-dentato, dentibus mucronatis vel subulatis 
0.5 mm. longis; corollis non visis. 

Type in herb. Chi. Nat. Hist. Mus., collected in rich forest between 
Mesa del Trapiche and El Molino, state of Merida, alt. 2530-2590 m., 
May 14, 1944, Julian A. Steyermark 56502, "ligneous vine; leaves 
chartaceous-subcoriaceous, dark green and shining above, dull paler 
green below." 

This species is especially distinguished by the markedly lustrous, 
glabrous upper leaf surfaces and the minutely strigillose, rather 
prominent nerves of the lower surface. 

Rustia venezuelensis Standl. & Steyerm., sp. nov. 

Arbor 10-12-metralis, omnino glabra, internodiis superioribus ab- 
breviatis; stipulis caducis, non visis; foliis magnis petiolatis, petio- 
lis 2-3.5 cm. longis basi incrassatis; laminis subcoriaceis subtus 
pallido-viridibus late obovatis apice subito obtusis vel obtuse acuta- 
tis, acumine 5*7 mm. longo 5*5.5 mm. lato apice ipso rotundato, ad 
basin sensim cuneato-angustatis, 20-34 cm. longis 7.5-14.5 cm. 
latis, nervis lateralibus utroque latere ca. 14 adscendentibus prope 
marginem arcuato-conjunctis, costa media atque nervis lateralibus 
subtus prominentibus, venulis undique transversis laxe reticulatis 
paullo prominulis; inflorescentia terminali trichotoma cymoso- 
paniculata 7 cm. longe pedunculata, paniculis ipsis 12-13-fl r is 5 
cm. longis 3*3.5 cm. latis, ramis primariis 2.5-4.5 cm. longis; pedi- 
cellis in fructu crassiusculis 10-14 mm. longis; corollis non visis; 
capsulis subgloboso-obovoideis vel late obovoideis 6-9 mm. longis 
6-6.5 mm. latis; seminibus pallido-brunneis 1-2 mm. longis rugoso- 
areolatis. 



[ BOTANICAL EXPLORATION IN VENEZUELA -III 617 

Type in herb. Chi. Nat. Hist. Mus., collected along dry canyon 
slopes below El Bao, between Mucuchachi and Canagua, state of 
Me'rida, alt. 1065-1820 m., May 6, 1944, Julian A. Steyermark 56333, 
"tree 30-35 feet tall; leaves subcoriaceous, olive rich green above, 
pale green below." 

This is the first representative of the genus Rustia to be recorded 
from Venezuela. It differs from R. occidentalis (Benth.) Herasl. in 
the obtuse or rounded tips of the leaf blades, leaves less promi- 
nently reticulate beneath, smaller capsules, smaller seeds, and long- 
er peduncles with more contracted fruiting inflorescences on longer 
branches. 



Tocoyena orinocensis Standl. & Steyerm., sp. nov. 

Frutex 1-1.8-metralis, ramulis subteretibus glabris; stipulis cadu- 
cis; foliis oppositis breviter petiolatis, petiolis 2-8 mm. longis 
glabris; laminis firme membranaceis in sicco fere nigris late obovatis 
apice subito acuminatis, acumine acuto, basin versus cuneatim an- 
gustatis, basi ipsa subacuta, 8-13 cm. longis 3-8 cm. latis, nervis 
lateralibus utroque latere 9-1 1 adscendentibus prope marginem con- 
junctis, supra glabris subtus praeter axillas barbatas glabris, costa 
media et nervis lateralibus subtus prominulis supra paullo prominulis; 
inflorescentia terminali subcapitata ca. 6-flora, floribus sessilibus; 
hypanthio anguste turbinato 8.5 mm. longo 3.5 mm. lato glabro; calyce 
apice subtruncato breviter 5'dentato, dentibus triangulari-subulatis 
0.5 mm. longis glabris; corolla sordido-albida infundibuliformi 11 cm. 
longa, extus glabra, tubo 9 cm. longo medio 3 mm. lato apicem versus 
in faucem abrupte dilatato ore 1.1 cm. lato, fauce intus minute densi- 
terque papillato-puberulenti, lobis late ovatis acutis, 23 mm. longis 
12 mm. latis, alabastro acuto; staminibus ad faucem insertis, antheris 
lineari-oblongis 6.5-7 mm. longis; stigmatibus 7 mm. longis; stylo 
8.5 cm. longo. 

Type in herb. Chi. Nat. Hist. Mus., collected among rock outcrops 
below mouth of Rio Sanariapo, along Orinoco River, Territorio Fede- 
ral Amazonas, alt. 100 m., September 8, 1944, Julian A. Steyermark 
58442, "shrub 3'5 feet tall; corolla creamy white; leaves firmly mem- 
branaceous, rich green above, dull green below; flowers fragrant." 

Another collection, originally labeled T. Sellowiana in herb. Paris, 
apparently is the same species. It was collected on the banks of the 
Orinoco, in Venezuela, Chaffanjon 184, (fragment in herb. Chi. Nat. 
Hist. Mus.). 

This species is distinguished by its combination of ovate, acute, 
or acuminate corolla lobes, mostly glabrous corolla, glabrous ovary 
and hypanthium, and glabrous leaves except for the minute pubes- 
cence in the lower axils of the leaves. In its acute to acuminate 
corolla buds it apparently is most closely related to T. guianensis 
Poepp. & Endl. From T. Sellowiana (Ch. & Schl.) Schum. it differs 
in the acute to acuminate corolla lobes, details of corolla measure- 
ments, and differently shaped leaf blades. 



618 FIELDIANA: BOTANY, VOLUME 28 

CAPRIFOLIACEAE 

A comparative study of material collected by the present author 
from Mount Roraima and Mount Ptari-tepui referable to Viburnum 
roraimense Killip & Smith, and of several collections made in the 
Venezuelan Andes and Cordillera de la Costa referable to V. tinoides 
f. venezuelense Killip & Smith, reveals that the characters employed 
by them to maintain those entities break down and are better consid- 
ered as geographical variants. Size of corolla, acuteness or obtuse- 
ness of the leaf apex, and relative glabrity or pubescence of the pe- 
duncles and rays the characters relied upon to separate V. tinoides 
from V. roraimense were considered carefully in a critical study of 
the entities and found to vary considerably. 

So far as size of corolla is concerned, V. roraimense was found 
to have corollas measuring as much as 4 mm. or more wide when 
expanded, so that this character cannot be used in separating V. 
tinoides from V. roraimense. Although typical V. tinoides L.f., of 
Colombia and extreme western Venezuela in the state of Tachira 
(Steyermark 57225), has the peduncles and rays sparingly pubescent 
and thickish obtuse to obtusely acuminate leaves, a thinner and 
shorter-leaved form (f. venezuelense) was described from Venezuela. 
It has the peduncles and rays only sparingly pubescent. Viburnum 
roraimense, described from Mount Roraima, is supposed to have 
caudate-acuminate leaves with an acumen at least 1 cm. long and the 
peduncles and rays glabrous. However, topotypic material of V. 
roraimense (Steyermark 58663 and 58711) shows many leaves only 
obtusely acuminate as in f. venezuelense and with an acumen varying 
from 3*7 mm. long. Some of the rays in Steyermark 58663 and 59544 
(from Ptari-tepui') exhibit a sparse type of pubescence, such as to be 
found in a number of Venezuelan specimens referred to V. tinoides f. 
venezuelense, such as Gehriger 333, Williams 10018, and others. 
There is a complete gradation series between almost glabrous pe- 
duncles and rays in V. roraimense to various degrees of sparse 
pubescence in V. tinoides f. venezuelense, the more pubescent ex- 
tremes being found in V. tinoides. A collection of V. roraimense 
from the type locality by Pinkus (no. 138) shows sparingly pubescent 
rays and peduncles. This collection likewise shows variation in 
degree of acuteness of the leaf apex and in the length of the acumen. 

A collection from Cerro Turumiquire (Steyermark 62691) has most 
of the leaves long-acuminate or subcaudate-acuminate as in V. 
roraimense, but the leaves average much smaller than those of the 
Roraima or Ptari-tepui' specimens. Likewise, a collection from the 
Andean Cordillera of the state of Me'rida (Steyermark 55978), has 
leaves much broader than in forma venezuelense. These extremes 
may be recognized as distinct forms. 

Viburnum roraimense appears, therefore, to be a variation of V. 
tinoides characterized by mostly acutely acuminate or caudate- 
acuminate leaves and often glabrate or sparingly pubescent rays and 
peduncles. As such, but not as a distinct species, it may be treated 
as a geographical variety as follows: 



BOTANICAL EXPLORATION IN VENEZUELA -IH 619 

Viburnum tinoides L.f., var. roraimense (Killip & Smith) Steyermark, 
comb. nov. 

Viburnum roraimense Killip & Smith, Bull. Torr. Bot. Club 56: 
406. 1929. 

A collection from Cerro Turumiquire (Steyermark 62691) has most 
of the leaves long-acuminate as in V. tinoides var. roraimense, but 
the leaves average much smaller and narrower than those of the 
Roraima or Ptari-tepui specimens. This may be called: 

Viburnum tinoides var. roraimense, f. turumiquirense Steyermark, 
f. nov. 

A var. roraimense differt foliis parvioribus et angustioribus 2.5*6 
cm. longis 7-20 mm. latis, apice longe acuminatis, acumine 4-9 mm. 
longo; fructibus maturis 8 mm. longis. 

Type in herb. Chi. Nat. Hist. Mus., collected on Cerro Turumiquire, 
between La Trinidad and headwaters of Rib de Amana, state of 
Sucre, alt. 1300-1800 m., May 10, 1945, Julian A. Steyermark 62691, 
"shrub 10-20 feet tall; leaves firmly membranaceous, rich green 
above, dull paler green below; flowers white; fruit black-blue." 

Most of the Venezuelan material with thinner shorter obtuse to 
obtusely acuminate and sparingly pubescent rays and peduncles may 
be considered as a geographical variant instead of as a form: 

Viburnum tinoides var. venezuelense (Killip & Smith) Steyermark, 
comb. nov. 

Viburnum leptophyllum f. venezuelense Killip & Smith, Bull. Torr. 
Bot. Club 56: 271. 1929; V. tinoides f. venezuelense Killip & Smith, 
Bull. Torr. Bot. Club 57: 254. 1930. 

A collection from the Andean Cordillera of the state of Merida 
(Steyermark 55978) with very broad leaves up to 7.5 cm. wide repre- 
sents an extreme form of var. tinoides, but is approached by inter- 
gradations in width of leaves found in several other collections. 

A key to the varieties and forms of V. tinoides as here understood 
is presented as follows: 

A. Leaves usually obtuse or obtusely acuminate at apex 

B. Leaves rather firm, mostly obtuse at apex; peduncles 
and rays obviously and rather densely pubescent 

V. tinoides, var. tinoides 

BB. Leaves thinner, mostly obtusely acuminate at 
apex; peduncles and rays sparingly to slightly 

pubescent V. tinoides, var. venezuelense 

AA. Leaves acutely acuminate to caudate-acuminate at 
apex 

C. Leaves 1.5-4 cm. wide, 4-12 cm. long 

V. tinoides, var. roraimense 
CC. Leaves 0.7-2 cm. wide, 2.5-6 cm. long 

V. tinoides, var. roraimense, f. turumiquirense 



620 FIELD IANA: BOTANY, VOLUME 28 

CUCURB1TACEAE 

Anguria simplicifolia Steyermark, sp. nov. 

Herbacea scandens, caulibus profunde sulcatis dense villoso- 
pilosis, internodiis elongatis; foliis omnibus simpllcibus, petiolis 
2-3 cm. longis dense longi-villosis; laminis membranaceis subtus 
pallido-viridibus oblongo-lanceolatis vel late lanceolatis apice 
cuspidato-acuminatis basi late truncatis vel subtruncatis 11-13 
era. longis 35"5 cm. latis repando-denticulatis, dentibus utrinque 
10-11, 0. 75-1. 5 mm. longis, basi palmatim trinerviis utrinque valde 
laxe areolato-venosis, utrinque pilis laxis albidis sparse villosis 
dense ciliatis; cirrhis gracilibus leviter pubescentibus; pedunculo 
commune masculo 6 cm. longo pubescente, apice subcapitato-14-flora; 
floribus subsessilibus vel sessilibus; calyce cinnabarino 7.5-8 mm. 
longo, tubo tubuloso 3.5-4 mm. longo extus pilis brevibus densiuscule 
puberulis, sepalis lanceolatis acuminatis 3.5-4 mm. longis 0.6-0.75 
mm. latis extus pubescentibus; petalis lineari-oblongis apice 
cucullato-obtusis 1.25-1.5 mm. longis 0.4-0.5 mm. latis extus pilis 
erecto-adscendentibus dense hirtellis; antheris muticis oblongis rec- 
tis 2.5-3 mm. longis glabris; floribus foemineis et fructibus ignotis 
(Fig. 136). 

Type in herb. Chi. Nat. Hist. Mus., collected on densely wooded 
slopes of narrow ridge between quebrada and summit, Sororopa'n-tepui, 
state of Bolivar, alt. 2130-2250 m., November 15, 1944, Julian A. 
Steyermark 60161, "perianth vermilion; leaves membranaceous, dark 
green above, paler green below." 

This species is a very distinct one in its simple oblong-lanceolate 
or broadly lanceolate pubescent leaves with subtruncate to truncate 
base, pubescent stems, petioles, and peduncles, short lanceolate 
sepals which are much longer than the minute petals, and short 
oblong muticous anthers. The relationship of this species is with 
Gurania Martiana Cogn., but the shape of the leaves is quite different 
from the cordate ovate-oblong ones of that species. 

I agree with Macbride's concept of combining the genus Gurania 
with Anguria (See Field Mus. Nat. Hist. Bot. Publ. 13, part 6, num- 
ber 2, p. 341. 1937). The present described species would, because 
of the color of the calyx tube, fall into Gurania, but this does not 
seem to be a substantial character for separating the two genera. 

COMPOSITAE 
Baccharis erectifolia Steyermark, sp. nov. 

Frutex 1-3.3-metralis, ramosis; ramulis glaberrimis angulatis 
apicem versus dense foliatis; foliis confertis erectis breviter petio- 
latis, petiolis 2-4 mm. longis; laminis subcoriaceis subtus pallido- 
viridibus oblanceolatis vel obovato-spatulatis apice plerumque ob- 
tusis vel rotundatis vel obtusiusculis basi cuneatim angustatis in 
petiolum subito decurrentibus 1.4-2.7 cm. longis 0.6-1.8 cm. latis 
utrinque glabris supra resinosis subtus valde punctatis integerrimis, 
penninerviis costa media subtus prominente, nervis lateralibus 
utroque 6-7 subtus prominulis patento-adscendentibus ante marginem 



BOTANICAL EXPLORATION IN VENEZUELA -III 621 



1-2 mm. anastomosantibus; inflorescentiis foemineis late corymbosis, 
pedunculis glabris; pedicellis 2.75-5 mm. longis glabris; capitulis 
foemineis dense confertis 21-26-floris campanulato-hemisphericis 
8-10 mm. altis 4-7 mm. latis; involucri foeminei squamis 3'4-seriatis 
ca. 19, exterioribus ovatis obtusis 2.8-3.2 mm. longis 1.5 mm. latis 
fimbriato-ciliatis dorso plerumque glabris, medianis ovato- vel 
oblongo-lanceolatis obtusis vel obtusiusculis 4.5-5.2 mm. longis 
1.5-1.6 mm. latis fimbriato-ciliatis dorso glabris, intimis lanceolatis 
vel lineari-lanceolatis acutiusculis 5.5"5.8 mm. longis 0.8-1.2 mm. 
latis fimbriato-ciliatis dorso plerumque glabris; corollis tubuloso- 
capillaribus ca. 4 mm. longis, laciniis erectis 0.4 mm. longis; pappi 
setis 5.5-6.5 mm. longis bubalino-albidis remote serrulatis; achaeniis 
fulvis vel ochraceis 1.8-2 mm. longis glabris; planta mascula ignota. 

Type in herb. Chi. Nat. Hist. Mus., collected on north-facing steep 
sandstone slopes, Cerro Turumiquire, from beginning of sandstone to 
summit of cerro, state of Sucre, alt. 2360-2500 m., May 6, 1945, 





B 



FIGURE 136 

Anguria simplicifolia 

A, Flower, from within (X 11); B, Portion of stem with leaf and 
inflorescence (X 0.6). 



622 FIELDIANA: BOTANY, VOLUME 28 

Julian A. Steyermark 62583, "shrub 3-4 feet tall; leaves erect, sub- 
coriaceous, dull green above, gray green below; involucre pale green 
with purple-brown tips." 

Cotype in herb. Chi. Nat. Hist. Mus., collected on south-facing 
steep slopes, on rocky exposed shrubby portion of knife-edge ridge 
above tree zone, Cerro Peoni'a (Cerro Los Pajaritos), above Santa 
Cruz, headwaters of Rib Manantiales, east of Bergantin, state of 
Anzoategui, alt. 1800-2000 m., March 20, 1945, Steyermark 61630, 
"shrub 10 feet tall; leaves erect, crowded, subcoriaceous, dull green 
above, pale green below; involucre lavender; pappus buff-whitish." 

This species strongly resembles B. loxensis Benth. of Ecuador. 
It differs from that species in having relatively narrower oblanceolate 
or spatulate-obovate leaf blades which are more gradually narrowed 
and apiculate at apex while longer petiolate at base, and in the 6-7, 
instead of 3-5, pairs of lateral nerves on the lower leaf surface. The 
nerves of the lower leaf surface are apparently more prominent than 
in B. loxensis. Furthermore, the middle and inner involucral bracts 
of the pistillate heads in B. erectifolia are narrower, more attenuate 
at apex, and lanceolate to linear-lanceolate, and its outer bracts are 
narrower and less rounded at the apex. 

Baccharis meridensis Steyermark, sp. nov. 

Frutex 1-1.3-metralis; ramis glaberrimis; foliis alternis ad apices 
ramorum dense confertis sessilibus coriaceis supra atroviridibus 
nitidis subtus pallidioribus spatulato-obovatis vel oblanceolatis 
apice rotundatis vel acutiusculis apiculatis basi cuneatim angustatis 
2.5-4.5 cm. longis 1-2 cm. latis paullo subrevolutis utrinque glabris 
subtus punctulatis integerrimis, penninerviis costa media subtus 
prominente, nervis lateralibus utroque 5-6 adscendentibus subtus 
paullo perspicuis; inflorescentiis apice ramulorum corymbosis, capi- 
tulis pedunculatis, pedunculis parce puberulis vel glabrescentibus; 
inflorescentiis masculis late corymbosis multifloris 6-7 cm. longis 
7-11 cm. latis; capitulis masculis 6l-66-floris subhemisphaericis,4-5 
mm. altis 5-9 mm. latis; pedunculis 2-6 cm. longis; pedicellis 2-7 
mm. longis densiuscule puberulis; bracteis pedunculorum lanceolatis 
2-3.5 mm. longis puberulis; involucri masculi squamis 3-seriatis ca. 
20, exterioribus triangulari-ovatis vel ovato-oblongis vel rotundatis 
2-3 mm. longis 1-1.8 mm. latis fimbriato-ciliolatis dorso puberulis, 
interioribus oblongis obtusis vel obtusiusculis 3-3.3 mm. longis 
1.2-1.5 mm. latis fimbriato-ciliolatis dorso pilosulis intimis oblanceo- 
latis acutis 3-3.3 mm. longis 1 mm. latis; corollis masculis 3 mm. 
longis, tubo cylindrico 1.75 mm. longo dimidia parte superiori pube- 
rulis pilis multicellularibus praeditis, lobis oblongo-lanceolatis 
obtusis 1.5 mm. longis 0.3-0.4 mm. latis; pappi setis 2.75-3 mm. 
longis valde setulosis; inflorescentiis foemineis conferte corymbosis 
6 cm. altis 7.5 cm. latis; capitulis foemineis confertis 31-floris 
subhemisphericis 4-6 mm. altis 3-5 mm. latis; pedunculis foemineis 
3-4 cm. longis glabrescentibus; pedicellis foemineis 3-4 mm. longis 
glabrescentibus vel parce pilosis; involucri foeminei squamis 3- 
seriatis ca. 31, exterioribus ovatis vel ovato-oblongis obtusis 1.8- 
2.2 mm. longis 1.1-1.3 mm. latis paullo fimbriato-ciliolatis dorso 



BOTANICAL EXPLORATION IN VENEZUELA- III 623 

puberulis, medianis oblongis vel oblongo-lanceolatis obtusis vel 
obtusiusculis 3.2-3.5 mm. longis 1-1.1 mm. latis fimbriato-erosis 
ciliolatis dorso puberulis, intimis lanceolatis vel oblanceolatis 
acutis vel acuminatis 4.2-4.3 mm. longis 0.7-0.8 mm. latis supra 
medium eroso-fimbriatis; corollis foemineis anguste cylindricis 2.1- 

2.5 mm. longis superne parce puberulis; pappi setis 3-3.5 mm. 
longis setulosis; achaeniis anguste lineari-oblongis 1.75 mm. 
longis glabris. 

Type in herb. Chi. Nat. Hist. Mus., collected on Paramo de Los 
Colorados, between El Molino and San Isidro Alto, state of Me'rida, 
alt. 2745-2955 m., May 14, 1944, Julian A. Steyermark 56537, "shrub 
3-4 feet tall; leaves coriaceous, dark green and shining above, paler 
green below; involucre green tinged lavender; flowers white with 
lavender in center." 

Cotype in herb. Chi. Nat. Hist. Mus., collected in dwarf woods 
below Paramo above San Isidro Alto, state of Me'rida, alt. 1820 m., 
May 14, 1944, Steyermark 56556, "shrub 3 feet tall; leaves cori- 
aceous, dark green above, dull green below; flowers white; involucre 
green as is rachis." 

This species is related to B. venulosa DC., from which it differs 
in the shorter more crowded differently shaped leaves, which are 
rounded or acutish at apex and crowded to the base of the inflo- 
rescence, more congested contracted inflorescences which are not 
as elongated as those of B. venulosa, but stand out prominently 
above the uppermost leaves, the smaller heads, and subobtuse outer 
and middle involucral bracts. 

Baccharis ptariensis Steyermark, sp. nov. 

Frutex 0.8-2.8-metralis ramosis; ramulis teretibus ferrugineo- vel 
fusco-pubescentibus; foliis alternis subsessilibus subcoriaceis vel 
firme membranaceis supra atroviridibus oblanceolatis vel spatulatis 
apice rotundatis vel obtusis mucronatis basi cuneatim angustatis 
2.5-6.5 cm. longis 0.8-1.6 cm. latis, subrevolutis supra nitidis subtus 
atropunctulatis glabris vel parce puberulis praesertim ad costam 
mediam pilis ferrugineis praeditis integerrimis penninerviis, costa 
media subtus paullo prominulo, nervis lateralibus utroque 3-4 supra 
vix perspicuis subtus p"rominulis atque inter nervos reticulato- 
venosis; inflorescentiis apice ramulorum corymbosis, capitulis pe- 
dunculatis; pedunculis dense ferrugineo-hirsutulis; inflorescentiis 
masculis late corymbosis multifloris 4.5"9 cm. longis 7.5-12.5 cm. 
latis; capitulis masculis 18-23-ft r i s subhemisphaericis 5 mm. altis 
6 mm. latis, pedunculis 2-7 cm. longis; involucri masculi squamis 
2-3-seriatis ca. 10, exterioribus ovatis vel ovato-oblongis obtusis 
2-2.5 mm. longis 1.2-1.3 latis supra medium marginibus fimbriato- 
erosis pilosulis dorso pilosulis, interioribus oblanceolato-oblongis 
acutiusculis vel obtusiusculis 3.5 mm. longis 1.2 mm. latis, scario- 
sis, supra medium marginibus erosis ciliolatis superne rosaceis; 
corollis masculis 2.5-2.75 mm. longis, tubo anguste cylindrico 1.5- 

1.6 mm. longo 0.4 mm. lato superne puberulis, lobis oblongo-lanceo- 
latis acutis recurvatis 1 mm. longis 0.3-0.4 mm. latis; antheris 0.6 



624 FIELDIANA: BOTANY, VOLUME 28 

mm. longis; pappi setis 2.2-2.3 mm. longis; inflorescentiis foemineis 
conferte corymbosis 4 cm. longis 5-6 cm. latis; capitulis foemineis 
dense aggregatis subsessilibus 12-17-floris subhemisphaericis 5-6.5 
mm. altis 3-5 mm. latis; pedunculis 1.5-2.5 cm. longis; pedicellis 
1-3 mm. longis dense brunneo-pilosis; involucri foeminei squamis 
2-3-seriatis ca. 20, exterioribus ovatis obtusis 3 mm. longis 1.5 mm. 
latis scariosis marginibus fimbriato-ciliolatis dorso carinatis pilo- 
sulis, interioribus oblanceolatis acutis 4.5 mm. longis 0.7-0.8 mm. 
latis marginibus fimbriato-erosis ciliolatis dorso puberulis; corollis 
foemineis anguste lineari-cylindricis 2.5-2.75 mm. longis 0.9"! mm. 
latis; pappi setis albidis 3*3.5 mm. longis; achaeniis anguste 
oblongo-linearibus basin versus angustatis 2 mm. longis 0.5 mm. 
latis, praesertim superne parce puberulis (Fig. 137). 

Type (pistillate plant) in herb. Chi. Nat. Hist. Mus., collected 
along base of east-facing high sandstone bluffs, Ptari-tepuf, state 
of Bolivar, alt. 2410-2450 m., November 7, 1944, Julian A. Steyer- 
mark 59928, "shrub 3 feet tall; leaves subcoriaceous, dark green 
above, dull paler green below with dull green nerves; bracts pale 
green; pappus and pistillate flowers white; pubescence on stem dull 
ferruginous." 

Cotype (staminate plant) in herb. Chi. Nat. Hist. Mus., collected 
on face of exposed bluff, at base of and on main south-facing sand- 
stone bluffs, Ptari-tepui", alt. 2400-2410 m., October 30, 1944, 
Steyermark 59609, "shrubby 2-3 feet tall; flowers white; leaves 
firmly membranaceous, dark green above, dull paler green below." 

Also collected by wooded streamlet, Sororopa'n-tepur, crest of 
cerro between east and west end, state of Bolivar, alt. 2255 m., 
November 14, 1944, Steyermark 60123, "shrub 8 feet tall; flowers 
whitish; leaves dark green above, dull green below." 

This species is closely related to B. Vitis-Idaea Oliver of Mount 
Roraima, but differs from that species in the densely ferruginous 
twigs, branches of the inflorescence and pedicels, more congested 
pistillate inflorescences on subsessile heads with pedicels only 1-3 
mm. long, oblanceolate inner involucral bracts of the pistillate heads, 
narrower inner bracts of the staminate heads, achenes with more 
numerous hairs, stouter and longer peduncles of the staminate inflo- 
rescences, and larger and less congested staminate inflorescences. 



Baccharis venulosa DC., var. cuspidibracteata Steyermark, var. nov. 

A typo differt pedunculis pedicellisque dense hirtellis pilis fulvis 
subrigidis patentibus et involucri foeminei bracteis intimis anguste 
linearibus vel subulatis apice filiformi-attenuatis cuspidatis 0.2-0.3 
mm. latis, exterioribus et medianis lanceolatis vel anguste lanceo- 
latis apice longe acuminatis vel cuspidatis 0.7-1 mm. latis, omnibus 
valde scariosis apice brunneo-lavendulis. 

Type in herb. Chi. Nat. Hist. Mus., collected in rich moist woods 
at base of Paramo de Tama, 4-10 kms. above Betania, state of 
Ta'chira, alt. 2500-2895 m., July 15, 1944, Julian A. Steyermark 



BOTANICAL EXPLORATION IN VENEZUELA - III 625 




I 






FIGURE 137 

Baccharis ptariensis 

A, Leaf, from above (X 0.7); B, Staminate flower (X 25); C, Portion of 
stamen (X 28); D and E, Inner involucral bracts from staminate head 
(X 7); F, Pistillate flower (X 12); G, Portion of pappus awn (highly 
magnified); H, Outer involucral bract from pistillate head (X 8); 
I, Inner involucral bract from pistillate head (X 8). 



626 FIELDIANA: BOTANY, VOLUME 28 

57298, "shrub 10 feet tall; leaves subcoriaceous-firmly membrana- 
ceous, deep green above, dull paler green below; bracts buff with 
brown-lavender tips; flowers creamy white." 

Typical B. venulosa DC., under which may be included as a syno- 
nym B. oblanceolata Rusby (Mem. Torr. Bot. Club 6: 61. 1896), has 
the branches of the inflorescence and the pedicels varying from 
glabrate or sparsely puberulous to densely brown-purplish pubescent. 
In the latter condition the multicellular hairs are variously curving, 
appressed, descending, ascending, or half-spreading, and crinkly. 
They are not definitely horizontally spreading or stiffish, as in var. 
cuspidibracteata. Furthermore, in typical B. venulosa (including 
B. oblanceolata) the innermost involucral bracts of the pistillate 
heads are mainly broader and shorter-tipped, varying from oblong- 
lanceolate to lanceolate with acute to acuminate tips and from 0.5- 
1.2 mm. broad. The outer and middle involucral bracts of the pistil- 
late heads are also broader, varying from ovate to oblong-lanceolate, 
acutish to acuminate at apex, and from 0.8-1.5 mm. wide. The 
bracts in var. cuspidibracteata are more conspicuously pale-margined 
scarious than in typical B. venulosa. 

There is considerable variation within B. venulosa DC. Described 
originally as having a loosely branched inflorescence, a photograph 
of the type, deposited in the Chi. Nat. Hist. Mus. herb., preserved 
in the Berlin Bot. Mus. and in the De Candolle herb, of the Conserv. 
Bot. of Geneva, shows elongated loosely branched axes of the inflo- 
rescence. Other collections from Peru, Colombia, and Venezuela, 
which can be referred to B. venulosa, show inflorescences ranging 
from loosely branched and more or less elongated to more densely 
corymbose types with crowded heads on shortened branches or axes 
of the inflorescence. 

Although B. oblanceolata Rusby (originally collected at Mapiri, 
Bolivia) was described as having a "puberulent inflorescence," and 
this is proved by examination of the isotype ( Rusby 1490) preserved 
in the Chi. Nat. Hist. Mus. herb., nevertheless gradation occurs 
between sparsely puberulous branches of the inflorescence (such as 
Rusby 1490, Woytkowski 34065, Klug 3144, Llewelyn Williams 7317 
and 7662) to densely ferruginous or brown-purple pubescent types, 
exemplified by Lawrance 138 from Colombia, Macbride 4515, 4905, 
and 5186 from Peru, Cuatrecasas & Jaramillo 12031 and Cuatrecasas 
11592 from Colombia, and Gehriger 461 and Steyermark 55746 from 
Venezuela. 

Baccharis venulosa was described by De Candolle as possessing 
15-20 florets in the staminate heads. In the type collection (Rusby 
1490) of B. lanceolata Rusby the staminate heads were found to 
possess 26 and 28 flowers. A count taken from staminate heads of 
the other collections which I would refer to B. venulosa reveal the 
following variation in number. Venezuela: 24 in Pittier 12790, 28 
in Steyermark 55746, 23 and 26 in Gehriger 461; Colombia: 31 in 
Cuatrecasas & Jaramillo 12031; Peru: 33 in Llewelyn Williams 7662. 
Thus, variation in staminate heads was found to vary in number of 
florets from 23-33- 



BOTANICAL EXPLORATION IN VENEZUELA -III 627 

Examination of pistillate heads from collections ranging from Peru 
to Venezuela revealed variation in number from 15 to 26. Leaf varia- 
tion ranged from narrowly oblanceolate to broadly oblanceolate, from 
9~33 mm. wide, and from glabrous on the lower surface to sparsely 
appressed-pubescent or rather densely puberulous. The branches 
are densely foliose with short close internodes or they are less 
foliose with longer internodes. In the var. cuspidibracteata the 
internodes are short, the leaves narrowly oblanceolate and closely 
crowded, and glabrate on the lower surface. 



Calea clematidifolia Steyermark, sp. nov. 

Scandens, caulibus junioribus manifeste hirsutulo-villosis vetusti- 
oribus parce villosis glabrescentibus; foliis oppositis petiolatis, 
petiolis 4-11 mm. longis hirsuto-villosis, laminis ovatis rugosis 
apice acuminatis basi truncatis vel paullo subcordatis 3.5-6 cm. 
longis 1.5-3.2 cm. latis, subtus pallido-viridibus chartaceis plerum- 
que 3-pli nerv ii s utroque 5"7 crenato-dentatis supra scabris pilis 
tuberculato-hispidis praeditis, subtus villosis praecipue ad nervos 
venasque glandulis sessilibus obtectis, junioribus valde villosis; 
umbellis simplicibus terminalibus et axillaribus 6-10-capitulis; 
capitulis discoideis subsessilibus vel brevipedicellatis; pedicellis 
0.5*7 mm. longis hirsutulo-villosis; involucri squamis valde 4-5" 
seriatis, extimis ovatis obtusis 2.3"2.5 mm. longis 1.4-1.5 mm. 
latis, interioribus ligulato-oblongis vel lineari-oblongis obtusis vel 
rotundatis 5.5-6.5 mm. longis 1.5-1.7 mm. latis supra medium cilio- 
latis extus parce puberulis; receptaculo subconico; squamis compli- 
catis ovato-lanceolatis acuminatis vel obtusis apice productis 
scariosis 5"6 mm. longis 2-2.2 mm. latis, marginibus ad et infra 
medium irregulariter eroso-serratis glabris; floribus omnibus her- 
maphroditis tubulosis circiter 10, flavis glabris 4.5-5 mm. longis, 
infundibuliformibus, tubo 2.3-2.5 mm. longo superne ampliato quinque- 
fido; laciniis lineari-lanceolatis 1.8-1.9 mm. longis 0.4-0.5 mm. 
latis; pappi paleis lineari-subulatis longiacuminatis 19"22 sub- 
aequalibus corolla paullo brevioribus 4.5 mm. longis serrulatis; 
achaeniis nigris 2-2.1 mm. longis ad apicem et supra medium parce 
hirtellis pilis adscendentibus praeditis. 

Type in herb. Chi. Nat. Hist. Mus., collected along stream in 
Gran Sabana, between Kun and Uaduara-paru, in valley of Rio Kuke- 
na'n, south of Mount Roraima, state of Bolivar, alt. 1065-1220 m., 
October 1, 1944, Julian A. Steyermark 59072, "vining or sprawling; 
involucre stramineous; corolla dull yellow; leaves rugose, dull 
green above, paler below." 

This species somewhat resembles C. Berteriana DC. and C. pruni- 
folia H.B.K. From C. Berteriana it differs in the climbing habit, 
narrower more manifestly graduated involucre, hairs of the lower leaf 
surface longer and sparser, and hairs of the upper leaf surface 
longer. From C. prunifolia it may be distinguished by the non- 
punctate lower surface of the leaf-blades, which are more truncate 
or subcordate at base, shorter pedicels, and fewer heads. 



628 FIELDIANA: BOTANY, VOLUME 28 

Calea lucidivenia Gleason & Blake, forma lanceolata Steyermark, 
f. nov. 

A typo differt foliis angustioribus, lanceolatis vel elliptico- 
lanceolatis petiolatis, petiolis 3*4 mm. longis, laminis 1.7-4 cm. 
longis 0.4-1.2 cm. latis plerumque 3'P^ nerv iis utrinque glaberrimis; 
capitulis (radiis exclusis) 7-9 mm. aids 9~13 mm. latis. 

Type in herb. Chi. Nat. Hist. Mus., collected on grassy banks 
along streamlet, Gran Sabana, bordering forest near Rio Karuai, 
northwest of Mission of Santa Teresita de Kavanaye'n, state of 
Bolivar, alt. 1220 m., October 26, 1944, Julian A. Steyermark 59408, 
"rays yellow; leaves deep green both sides, subcoriaceous," 

This form may be distinguished by the narrower lanceolate or 
elliptic-lanceolate triplinerved glabrous leaf blades, but grades by 
degrees of variation into typical Calea lucidivenia. In Steyermark 
60299, collected from the same area approximately as was the type 
collection of the new form, some of the leaves on a few branches 
are markedly narrower and mostly triplinerved, while those on other 
stems are broader, ovate, and mostly 5-plinerved. With the narrowing 
of the leaf blade, the marginal pair of nerves disappear. 

The original description of the species (Brittonia 3, part 2: 195- 
196. 1939) refers to the plant as "probably a shrub...; stems.... 
usually simple." In the collections of Steyermark 60299 from the 
base of Ptari-tepuf and Steyermark 59307 from south of Mount 
Roraima, both referable to Calea lucidivenia, the plants are noted 
as "shrubby, 6-8 feet tall" (Steyermark 59307) and as "herb, erect 
with several stems, 3 feet tall" (Steyermark 60299). Moreover, the 
leaf blades in these collections vary from 1.7-5.2 cm. long and 0.6- 
2.5 cm. wide. They are erect or suberect. The pappus consists of 
15-18 pales which are 4.5~5.5 mm. long. The original description 
may be emended thus: "herbacea vel suffruticosa, caulibus pluribus 
1-2.2 m. altis; foliis 1.7-5.2 cm. longis 0.6-2.5 cm. latis, erectis 
vel suberectis; pappi paleis 15-18, 4.5-5.5 mm. longis." In Steyer- 
mark 60299, some of the leaves vary from narrowly lanceolate and 
triplinerved (forma lanceolata) to ovate and elliptic-ovate and 5" 
plinerved (typical C. lucidivenia). The minute sparsely strigillose 
pubescence, viewed only under high magnification in typical C. 
lucidivenia is not even apparent in the type of forma lanceolata, 
but, on the other hand, some of the leaves in typical C. lucidivenia 
are practically glabrous, some are glabrescent, and some are sparse- 
ly and more or less strigillose. 

Calea Oliverii Robinson & Greenman, var. taeniotricha Steyermark, 
f. nov. 

A typo differt pilis caulium petiolorumque foliorumque et pedicel- 
lorum longioribus elongatis multicellularibus. 

Type in herb. Chi. Nat. Hist. Mus., collected in savanna, border 
of woods, bordering forest near Rio Karuai, northwest of Mission of 
Santa Teresita de Kavanaye'n, state of Bolivar, alt. 1220 m., October 
26, 1944, Julian A. Steyermark 59403, "rays yellow; leaves dull 
green." 



BOTANICAL EXPLORATION IN VENEZUELA -III 629 

Typical Calea Oliverii, originally collected from the region at 
the base of Mount Roraima ("Arapoo River"), and subsequently 
collected in the vicinity of Arabupu (Mount Roraima district) by 
Pinkus (no. 76), and on the forested southwest-facing slopes of 
Mount Roraima by Steyermark (no. 58651), has short scabrous pubes- 
cence on the stems and petioles, and scabrous scattered pubescence 
on the foliage, especially on the midrib and nerves of the lower leaf 
surface. In variety taeniotricha the hairs, especially in the upper 
part of the stem, on the pedicels, and on the midrib and nerves of 
the lower leaf surface are quite evident, due to their more elongated 
and several-celled condition. 

Although C. Oliverii was described originally as having the leaves 
occurring in 3's, they may be opposite in pairs, or even in 4's 
(Steyermark 58560, in part on one branch). 
Clibadium surinamense L., var. macrophyllum Steyermark, var. nov. 

Folia magna, petiolata, petiolis 2.4-4.2 cm. longis dense pubero- 
hirsutulis, laminis elliptico-ovatis vel late ovatis apice acuminatis 
basi cuneatis vel acutis 15*20 cm. longis 4.5*12 cm. latis supra 
scabridis subtus molliter cano-pubescentibus crebre serrulatis; 
inflorescentiis corymbosis trichotome ramosis 13*15 cm. latis; 
involucri squamis late ovatis vel suborbiculari-ovatis acutis vel 
mucronatis superne parce hirtellis inferne glabrescentibus margini- 
bus hirsutulis; floribus exterioribus foemineis 4-6; floribus interiori- 
bus sterilibus plerumque 8. 

Type in herb. Chi. Nat. Hist. Mus., collected on Cerro Turumi- 
quire, north-facing slopes between La Trinidad and Quebrada El 
Boqueron, southwest of Cocollar, state of Sucre, alt. 1700-1840 m., 
May 3, 1945, Julian A. Steyermark 62437, "shrub 6-8 feet tall; 
leaves membranaceous, dull green above, gray green below; flowers 
white; anthers blackish." 

This variety differs from most of the material of Clibadium suri- 
namense in the much larger, longer, and broader leaves, and more 
sparsely pubescent and generally narrower involucral bracts. 

Erigeron venezuelensis Steyermark, nom. nov. 

Erigeron affinis Badillo, Bol. Soc. Venez. Cienc. Nat. 10: 308. 
1946, not Erigeron affinis DC. Prodr. 5: 289. 1836. 

The mature achenes in this species are glabrous, 3 mm. lng and 
costate. The margins of the leaf-blades are ciliate-glandular. The 
bracts of the scape, the scape itself, and the bracts of the involucre 
all are glandular-puberulent. 

Eupatorium crassicaule Steyermark, sp.nov. 

Perenne herbaceum superne ramosum, caulibus glaberrimis crassi- 
usculis viridibus ramis oppositis; internodiis 2-2.5 cm. longis; foliis 
oppositis petiolatis, petiolis 2.7-4 cm. longis; laminis membranaceis 
subcrassiusculis pallido viridibus elliptico-ovatis apice subacutis 
basi subito cuneatim acutis 6-10.5 cm. longis 2.7-4.5 cm. latis, mar- 
ginibus argute dentatis, dentibus utroque 26-30 acute calloso- 
appendiculatis, utrinque glabris, penninerviis, nervis lateralibus 



630 FIELDIANA: BOTANY, VOLUME 28 

utroque 4-5 > corymbis ramos terminantibus laxifloris; inflorescentiae 
ramis elongatis plerumque trichotomis 6-11 cm. longis subnudis 
inferne glabris vel glabriusculis superne puberulentibus, folia ex- 
cedentibus; pedicellis 2-5 mm. longis dense puberulis pilis incurvis 
praeditis; capitulis 22-26-floris 4.5-5.5 mm. longis; involucri squa- 
mis valde inaequalibus ca. 4-seriatim imbricatis ca. 27 pallido viri- 
dibus, extimis brevissimis suborbicularibus vel late ovatis rotundatis 
vel obtusis 1.5-1.6 mm. longis 1.1-1.3 mm. latis, intermediis late 
oblongis rotundatis 2.5-3 mm. longis 1.1-1.2 mm. latis, intimis 
ligulato-oblongis vel oblanceolato-oblongis obtusis vel subobtusis 
3.6-4.2 mm. longis 0.7-0.8 mm. latis plerumque valde 1-nervatis, 
exterioribus et intermediis 3~nervatis, dorso puberulis apicem versus 
ciliolatis; corollis albis 2.7-2.8 mm. longis, tubo cylindrico glabro, 
lobis dorso villosis; achaeniis nigris 1.3-1.4 mm. longis angulis 
scabratis; pappi setis 22-23 delicatulis albis 2.8-3 mm. longis. 

Type in herb. Chi. Nat. Hist. Mus., collected on Esmeralda Ridge, 
between Esmeralda and base of Cerro Duida, Territorio Federal 
Amazonas, alt. 150 m., August 21, 1944, Julian A. Steyermark 
57749, "herb with somewhat succulent stem, forking or branching 
above from the main stem into slender green stems; leaves 
subfleshy-membranaceous, pale rich green above and below; flowers 
white; bracts pale green." 

This species belongs to the section Subimbricata as treated by 
Robinson, and is closely related to E. cerasifolium (Sch. Bip.) 
Baker of the Upper Amazon region in Brazil. It differs from that 
species mainly in the scabrous achenes, the rounded or obtuse pube- 
rulent involucral bracts, the longer and pubescent pedicels, and more 
laxly-flowered inflorescence. 

Eupatorium duidense Badillo 

The affinities of this species are indicated by Badillo to be with 
E. Tatei Rob. of Mount Duida. However, a critical study of E. dui- 
dense indicates that it is much more closely related to E. fuscum 
and E. kavanayense than to E. Tatei. The bracts of the involucre 
of E. duidense are narrowly linear-oblong and acutish as in E. 
fuscum and E. kavanayense, whereas in E. Tatei they are broadly 
oblong and mostly obtuse or rounded. The shape and pubescence 
of the leaves, moreover, in E. duidense is much more like that ex- 
isting in E. fuscum and E. kavanayense, but the apex of 'the leaves 
in E. duidense is acute to acuminate, whereas that of E. fuscum 
and E. kavanayense is obtuse to rounded. The leaves of E. dui- 
dense are more densely pubescent on both sides than in E. fuscum 
and closely approach the condition found in E. kavanayense. How- 
ever, in E. duidense, the leaves are 3-nerved from the base itself, 
whereas in E. fuscum and E. kavanayense the leaves are 3"5" 
plinerved above the base. 

The differences may be summarized in the following key: 

Leaves obovate or elliptic, broadest at or above the middle, 
cuneate or narrowed toward the base; leaves glabrous on 
both surfaces; middle and inner involucral bracts broadly 



BOTANICAL EXPLORATION IN VENEZUELA -III 631 

oblong, rounded or obtuse at apex E. Tatei 

Leaves broadly ovate, broadest at the base; leaves pubes- 
cent on one or both surfaces; middle and inner involucral 
bracts narrowly linear-oblong, acute or acutish. 
Leaves acute to acuminate, 3-nerved at the base 

E. duidense 

Leaves obtuse or rounded, 3 - 5"plinerved above the base. 
Involucral bracts 5-7 mm. long; heads 8-9 mm. long, 
11-19-f lowered; achenes sparsely puberulous; upper 
leaf surface remotely puberulent except along tomen- 
tulose nerves; lower leaf surface tomentulose but 
the tomentum not hiding the dark punctations 

E. fuscum 

Involucral bracts 3.5-4 mm. long; heads 6-7 mm. long, 
6-9-flowered; achenes densely puberulous; upper 
leaf surface prominently puberulous; lower leaf 
surface densely tomentulose, masking the punctations 

...E. kavanayense 

Eupatorium ibaguense Sch. Bip. 

E. articulatum Sch. Bip. Engl. Bot. Jahrb. 40: 385. 1908; E. 
ptaretepuiense Badillo, Bol. Soc. Venez. Cienc. Nat. 68: 291*292. 
1946. 

The type of E. ptaretepuiense (Steyermark 59916) was described 
by Badillo as having glabrous corollas. However, an examination 
of the type collection by the present author reveals the corollas to 
be definitely villous. The villous character of the corolla is shared 
with E. ibaguense and E. articulatum. The description for E. ptare- 
tepuiense should be emended thus: "corollis villosis." 

A study of these three species does not disclose any differences 
by which they can be separated from one another. There is great 
variability in the abundance of pubescence of the stem, leaves, and 
involucral bracts. The differences in the number of teeth on the 
leaf-margins, a character Robinson uses to separate E. ibaguense 
and E. articulatum, breaks down. For example, Steyermark 61830, 
from the state of Monagas, has 7-12 teeth on each margin. The upper 
leaf surface may be glandular or glabrescent, while the corollas 
vary in color from white to lilac. While the tips of the involucral 
bracts are mostly acute in all three species, they are often more 
erose at the summit in specimens labelled E. ibaguense by Robinson. 
In other respects, I can find no constant differences for separating 
these entities from one another. 

Eupatorium kavanayense Badillo 

In his description of this species, the heads are stated by Badillo 
to be "6-7-flora." A dissection of several heads of the type collec- 
tion reveals a variation from 6-9 flowers in different heads. Although 
no mention was made by Badillo at the time of the description as to 
the nearest affinity of this new species, it may be stated, after 
careful study, that it is closely related to E. fuscum N. E. Brown 
of Mount Roraima. It differs from the Roraima species principally 



632 FIELDIANA: BOTANY, VOLUME 28 

in the smaller fewer-flowered heads , s shorter involucral bracts, more 
densely glandular-puberulous achenes, and leaves more abundantly 
puberulous on upper surface. Both species have in common a similar 
type of leaf-nervation, in which 3"5 main nerves arise above, rather 
than at the base, are obtuse or rounded at the apex, and on the 
lower surface are prominently reticulate with upraised nerves and 
secondary veins. 

Eupatorium pharcidodes Robinson, var. sororopanensis Steyermark, 
var. nov. 

Perenne herbaceum ramosum 1-1.3-metralis; ramis teretibus dense 
breviterque vinaceo-brunneo-tomentellis, internodis 4-7.5 cm. longis; 
foliis oppositis petiolatis, petiolis 6-15 nim. longis vinaceo-brunneo- 
tomentellis; laminis firme membranaceis ovatis vel elliptico-ovatis 
apice acutis basi cuneatis 4-10.5 cm. longis 1.5-4 cm. latis supra 
scabridulo-puberulis ad costam mediam et nervos dense tomentellis 
rugosis, subtus fulvo-virescentibus breviter velutinis, punctatis, 
supra basin 3'5-nervis aliter penninerviis, nervis lateralibus utroque 
4-7 subtus praesertim valde prominulis anastomosantibus cum rete 
venularum marginibus crenato-dentatis, dentibus 0.5-1 mm. altis 
utroque 9-27', paniculis terminalibus; capitulis cylindricis 6-9-floris 
9~10 mm. longis breviter pedicellatis in glomerulos subsphaericos 
aggregatis, pedicellis 2-3 mra - longis dense puberulis; involucri 
bracteis 6-7-seriatim imbricatis arete adpressis apice rotundatis 
dense ciliatis dorso pallido-viridibus tenuiter 3"5-nervatis glabris 
vel glabriusculis; achaeniis brunneis 3"3.2 mm. longis angulis 
scabridis; pappi setis plerumque 30-35 albidis. 

Type in herb. Chi. Nat. Hist. Mus., collected on rocky hematite 
exposures at west end, on summit, Sororopan-tepuf, state of Bolivar, 
alt. 2225-2255 m., November 13, 1944, Julian A. Steyermark 60090, 
"herb 3'4 feet tall; flowers white; bracts pale green." 

Cotype in herb. Chi. Nat. Hist. Mus., collected along base of 
south-facing high sandstone bluffs, Ptari-tepui, state of Bolivar, 
alt. 2410 m., November 6, 1944, Steyermark 59868, "branched herb; 
leaves rugose, membranaceous, dull green above, duller paler green 
below." 

This differs from E. pharcidodes Rob. of Mount Roraima in the 
larger leaf blades with larger, more numerous, and more conspicuous 
teeth, longer petioles, and lower surface of leaf blades more con- 
spicuously punctate due to the less abundant pubescence. From E. 
pharcidodes var. pentantha Blake of Mount Auyan-tepui it differs 
in the 6-9" instead of 5-flowered heads. From E. Tyleri Rob. of 
Mount Duida this differs in the harsher more conspicuously rugose 
leaves much less narrowed toward the base, the margins more promi- 
nently and more acutely toothed, and the lower surface of the leaf 
blades less pubescent and, therefore, more obviously punctate. 

This is treated as a variety of E. pharcidodes, as it appears to 
differ from that species mainly in relative vegetative differences of 
leaf tomentum, size, and margin. 



BOTANICAL EXPLORATION IN VENEZUELA- III 633 

Eupatorium pycnocephalum Less. 

Eupatorium monagasense Badillo, Bol. Soc. Venez. Cienc. Nat. 
68: 293-294. 1946. 

In describing E. monagasense, Badillo assigns the species to the 
section Eximbricata. However, an examination of the type collection 
(Steyermark 61839) and of the other collections cited by Badillo 
(Steyermark 61834 and 62476) shows an involucre distinctly gradu- 
ated into a series of at least 3 successively shorter bracts, the 
outermost being much shorter than the innermost, and intermediate 
ones shorter than the innermost and longer than the outermost series. 
The species described by Badillo is obviously a member of section 
Subimbricata. Moreover, the characters of obtuse to rounded inter- 
mediate and innermost involucral bracts, the number of florets in a 
head (14-22), the herbaceous perennial habit, color of florets, 
arrangement of heads in the inflorescence, shape and venation of 
leaves, and pubescence all merge in conspecific characters with 
those of E. pycnocephalum Less. This species varies in pubescence 
of stems and leaves, and in color of involucral bracts, but E. mona- 
gasense in no sense can be differentiated from it. Although the 
achenes in E. monagasense are glabrous, those in E. pycnocephalum 
vary from glabrous to minutely scabridulous on the angles. 

Eupatorium roraimense N. E. Brown 

This species differs from E. ibaguense (including E. ptaretepui- 
ense and E. articulatum) chiefly in the glabrous corollas. The in- 
volucral bracts are also mainly glabrous. 

Originally described from Mount Roraima, it was characterized as 
having a rose-purplish pappus. The color of the pappus is variable, 
however, as recent collections from the type locality show. Steyer- 
mark 58781, collected just below the summit of the southwest-facing 
portion of the sandstone ledge, at nearly 2620 meters elevation, 
shows the pappus with a rose-red color, and it was so noted in the 
field. 

Steyermark 58692, collected near Rondo'n Camp, lower down on 
the same mountain, at an elevation of 2040-2130 meters, has a 
white pappus, but in all other respects is the same. This latter 
form may be designated Eupatorium roraimense N. E. Brown, forma 
albisetum Steyermark, f. nov. 

A typo differt pappi setis albidis. 

Type in herb. Chi. Nat. Hist. Mus., collected on forested 
southwest-facing quebrada near Rondon Camp, Mount Roraima, state 
of Bolivar, alt. 2040-2130 m., September 26, 1944, Julian A. Steyer- 
mark 58692, "branching herb 2-3 feet tall; leaves membranaceous, 
dull green with sulcate nerves above, paler green below; flowers 
white; involucre dull pale green." 

Eupatorium roupalifolium Robinson, forma latifolium Steyermark, 
f. nov. 

A typo differt laminis latioribus 12-16 cm. longis 5-7 cm. latis 
grosse serratis, dentibus 1.5-2.5 mm. altis; corymbi ramulis dense 



634 FIELDIANA: BOTANY, VOLUME 28 

pilosis pilis multicellularibus patentibus instructis. 

Type in herb. Chi. Nat. Hist. Mus., collected on Ptari-tepui, on 
forested south-facing slopes overlying sandstone, on "Cave Rock" 
above "Cave Camp," state of Bolivar, alt. 1810 m., October 28, 
1944, Julian A. Steyermark 59505. 

Typical E. roupalifolium Rob. is known from Mount Roraima, where 
it was originally collected by Im Thurn and again in 1884 by Jenman. 
In typical E. roupalifolium the leaf blades are much narrower with 
smaller teeth and the branches of the inflorescence and pedicels 
are shortly or inconspicuously appressed-pubescent or pilosulous, 
whereas in f. latifolium the pubescence is longer, more spreading, 
and conspicuous. 

When Dr. Robinson described E. roupalifolium (Proc. Am. Acad. 
55: 30. 1919), he stated that the species was "very different from 
any species known" and "has somewhat the habit of a Symphyo- 
pappus, but the pappus-bristles are capillary and distinct to the 
base, showing no tendency to become firm or to be connate into a 
ring. It may here be mentioned that recent examination of Symphyo- 
pappus leads to the belief that it is an exceedingly weak genus of 
very doubtful distinctness and little taxonomic value. Its distinc- 
tions from Eupatorium, both technical and habital, break down 
completely." 

It is to be noted that the specimens used by Dr. Robinson in 
drawing up his description of this species were in poor condition, 
where insect damage to immature achenes had taken place. Appar- 
ently, the damage suffered by the achenes had been so destructive 
that they were in no condition to describe, as no mention of them 
appears in the specific description. It is unfortunate that these 
achenes were immature and damaged, as Dr. Robinson could not, 
therefore, form a fair opinion as to the true nature of the pappus- 
bristles. 

A recent collection of a topotype specimen of this species from 
Mount Roraima by the present author (Steyermark 58724) has mature 
achenes and pappus, and the specimen is in good flowering and 
fruiting condition. This collection shows that most of the heads are 
6-flowered instead of 5~flowered, as was stated by Dr. Robinson in 
his original description. Contrary to Dr. Robinson's statement, this 
topotype shows the bristles of the pappus to be firm and definitely 
connate into a ring at the base, as is the condition in Symphyo- 
pappus. As a matter of fact, it closely simulates in habit a species 
of Symphyopappus, S. reticulatus Baker, of Brazil, which shows a 
similar type of pappus having the bristles firm and connate at the 
base. In other words, the technical characters of the pappus place 
the plant of Roraima in Symphyopappus, and it should be so con- 
sidered generically, if that genus is maintained. However, Dr. 
Robinson, on several different occasions, expressed lack of confi- 
dence in this genus as being distinct from Eupatorium, and con- 
tended that the differences separating it from Eupatorium broke down 
and failed to hold. Nevertheless, he maintained Symphyopappus as 



BOTANICAL EXPLORATION IN VENEZUELA -III 635 

a distinct genus up to the time of his death in 1935, the last species 
published, S. Casarettoi Rob. and S. tetrastichus Rob., appearing in 
1934. 

The present author believes, in view of Dr. Robinson's long ex- 
perience with the genus Eupatorium and his own contentions that 
the genus Symphyopappus is a weak one and cannot be well sepa- 
rated from Eupatorium on the basis of the connate firm base of the 
pappus bristles, that the two genera should be united under Eupa- 
torium, the older generic name. Numerous species of Eupatorium, 
such as E. acuminatum H.B.K., exhibit a similar type of pappus con- 
dition as is encountered in Symphyopappus. Moreover, species, such 
as E. roupalifolium and E. acuminatum, have either the habital or 
technical characters or both of Symphyopappus, and break down the 
differences separating the two genera. 

It is proposed, therefore, that the genus Symphyopappus be merged 
with Eupatorium, with the following recognized species: 

Eupatorium Benjamin-Lincolnii Steyermark, nom. nov. 

Symphyopappus reticulatus Baker, in Mart. Fl. Bras. 6, pt. 2' 367. 
1876. 

Eupatorium Benjamin-Lincolnii, var. itacaluminense (Sch. Bip. ex 
Baker) Steyerntiark, comb. nov. 

Symphyopappus reticulatus var. itacaluminensis Sch. Bip. ex 
Baker in Mart., Fl. Bras. 6, pt. 2: 368. 1876. 

Eupatorium Benjamin-Lincolnii, var. vernicosum (Baker) Steyermark, 
comb. nov. 

Symphyopappus reticulatus var. vernicosus Baker, in Mart. Fl. 
Bras. 6, pt. 2: 368. 1876. 
Eupatorium Casarettoi (Rob.) Steyermark, tomb. nov. 

Symphyopappus Casarettoi Rob., Candollea 5: 170. 1934. 

Eupatorium compressum Gardn. in Hook. Lond. Jour. Bot. 5: 473- 
1846. 

Symphyopappus compressus (Gardn.) Rob. Contrib. Gray Herb. 
80: 12. 1928; Symphyopappus polystachyus Baker, in Mart. Fl. Bras. 
6, pt. 2: 368. 1876, as to plant described and figured, not as to name- 
bringing synonym. 

Eupatorium crenulatum Spreng. 

Eupatorium polystachyum DC. Prodr. 5: 149. 1836; Eupatorium 
dendroides Spreng. 

Eupatorium cuneatum DC. Prodr. 5: 149. 1836. 

Symphyopappus cuneatus Sch. Bip. ex Baker, in Mart. Fl. Bras. 
6, pt. 2: 367. 1876. 

Eupatorium cuneatum, forma intermedium (Dusen) Steyermark, comb, 
nov. 

Symphyopappus cuneatus f. intermedius Dusen ex Malme Kgl. Sv. 
Vet. Akad. Handl. ser. 3, 12, no. 2: 31. 1933- 



636 FIELDIANA: BOTANY, VOLUME 28 

Eupatorium harvardianum Steyermark^ nom. nov. 

Symphyopappus viscosus Sch. Bip. ex Baker in Mart. Fl. Bras. 6, 
pt. 2' 366. 1876, not Sch. Bip. in herb.; Mikania viscosa Spreng. 
Neue Entdeck. i: 277. 1820. 

Eupatorium leptophlebium (Rob.) Steyermark, comb. nov. 

Symphyopappus leptophlebius Rob. Contrib. Gray Herb. 96: 18. 

1931. 

Eupatorium Lymansmithii (Rob.) Steyermark, comb. nov. 

Symphyopappus Lymansmithii Rob. Contrib. Gray Herb. 96: 19 
1931. 
Eupatorium myricifolium (Rob.) Steyermark, comb. nov. 

Symphyopappus myricifolius Rob. Contrib. Gray Herb. n. s. 68: 

6. 1923. 

Eupatorium pennivenium (Rob.) Steyermark, comb. nov. 

Symphyopappus pennivenius Rob. Contrib. Gray Herb. n. s. 68: 

7. 1923- 

Eupatorium Symphyopappus Steyermark, nom. nov. 

Symphyopappus decussatus Turcz. in Bull. Soc. Nat. Mosc. 21, I: 
584. 1848. 

Eupatorium Symphyopappus, var. Pohlianum (Baker) Steyermark, 
comb. nov. 

Symphyopappus decussatus var. P ohlianus Baker, in Mart. Fl. 
Bras. 6, pt. 2: 367. 1876. 

Eupatorium tetrastichum (Baker) Steyermark, comb. nov. 

Symphyopappus tetrastichus Rob. Contrib. Gray Herb. 104: 8. 1934. 

Eupatorium roupalifolium Rob., var. subintegrifolium Steyermark, 
var. nov. 

A typo differt internodiis elongatis 3~9.5 cm. longis et foliis oppo- 
sitis vel ternatis, laminis elliptico-lanceolatis apice subacutis vel 
obtuse acutis basi cuneatis 6-9.5 cm. longis 1.3-2.5 cm. lads sub- 
integrifoliis vel parce et remote denticulatis, dentibus utroque 5-8, 
0.5 mm. longis 0.5 mm. latis; floribus purpureis; involucri bracteis 
apicem versus minute ciliolatis dorso plerumque glabris; achaeniis 
glabris 1.7-1.8 mm. longis; pappi setis 2.8-3 mm. longis. 

Type in herb. Chi. Nat. Hist. Mus., collected on Ptari-tepm, at 
base of steep forested slopes of first line of sandstone bluffs, on 
south-facing part, east of "Cave Rock," state of Bolivar, alt. 2130 
m., November 4, 1944, Julian A. Steyermark 59865, "stems elongated; 
leaves subentire and narrower than typical form; flowers lavender." 

This unusual variation may be a response to more shade and mois- 
ture, where it was growing in the protection afforded by its habitat 
at the base of the bluffs. This is indicated by the more elongated 
stems. The occasional occurrence of leaves in 3's also differs from 
the usual opposite condition, although leaves occurring in pairs were 



BOTANICAL EXPLORATION IN VENEZUELA -III 637 

also collected. The variety is placed under E. roupalifolium because 
of the fewer 5'6-flowered lavender heads, whereas in E. tepuianum, 
described below, the heads are 6-8-flowered and the flowers are 
white. The glabrous achenes of var. subintegrifolium are more char- 
acteristic, however, of E. tepuianum. 

Eupatorium stevioides Steyermark, sp. nov. 

Frutex 1.8-metralis; caulibus novellis teretibus 4-6 mm. diam. 
fusco-atropurpureis subglabris junioribus apicem versus vernicosis, 
internodiis 1-3 cm. longis; foliis oppositis breviter petiolatis, petio- 
lis 4-6 mm. longis 2-4 mm. latis basi paullo dilatatis supra canalicu- 
latis, laminis subcoriaceis supra atroviridibus vernicosis, oblongo- 
ovatis vel subelliptico-ovatis apice acutis vel subobtusis basi 
subito cuneatim angustatis, caulinis superioribus principalibus 
5-10.8 cm. longis 3-6 cm. latis, penninerviis, nervis lateralibus 
principalibus utroque latere 9~11 patenti-adscendentibus venis ante 
marginem 3-7 mm. anastomosantibus utrinque tenuissime reticulatis 
supra glabris subtus glabris vel glabrescentibus, marginibus crebre 
crenato-dentatis, dentibus 0.5 mm. altis 2-5 mm. latis; corymbis 
terminalibus sessilibus trichotomis multicapitulatis planiusculis 
9-5-12 cm. diam.; capitulis 5-floris 7-8 mm. altis 3"4 mm. diam.; 
involucri squamis 9 inaequalibus 3-seriatim imbricatis viscidis 
extimis oblongo-lanceolatis obtusis 2.5"3 mm. longis ceteris oblongo- 
oblanceolatis obtusis 4.5~5.5 mm. longis 1.25-1.75 mm. latis; corol- 
lis 4-4.8 mm. longis, tubo 1.8-2 mm. longo, lobis ca. 1 mm. longis 
ovato-lanceolatis acutis; achaeniis nigris 2.2-2.5 mm. longis ad 
atque inter costas glandulis sessilibus dense obtectis; pappi setis 
inaequalibus 33"35 albidis. 

Type in herb. Chi. Nat. Hist. Mus., collected along narrow que- 
brada where wooded with dwarf shrubs. Paramo de la Negra, between 
Bailadores and La Grita, state of Tachira, alt. 2745-3045 m., July 
7, 1944, Julian A. Steyermark 57084, "shrub 5 feet tall; leaves sub- 
coriaceous, dark green above, dull green below, glutinous." 

This is distinguished from E. Jahnii Rob., the type of which I 
have examined, by the glabrous or glabrescent crenate-dentate 
leaves abruptly narrowed at the base with lower more rounded crena- 
tions, smaller heads of flowers with each head consisting of only 5 
disk florets of much smaller size than in E. Jahnii, only 9 involucral 
bracts, and the achenes densely glandular with sessile glands on 
and between the angles. Although Robinson described the achenes 
in E. Jahnii as "in costis sursum hispidulis" and fails to mention 
the occurrence of glands on the achenes, an examination of the type 
specimen (John 80) shows numerous such glands scattered along 
the angles of the achenes and fewer between the angles. In E. 
stevioides the glands are much more conspicuous and numerous, 
but the hairs present on the angles of the achenes of E. Jahnii are 
not evident. A fungus hyphal growth on the flowers of the type 
specimen of E. stevioides creates the impression of the occurrence 
of pubescence, but is, of course, an extraneous growth. 



638 FIELDIANA: BOTANY, VOLUME 28 

Eupatorium tepuianum Steyermark, sp. nov. 

Perenne herbaceum vel fruticosum 1-1.3-metralis; caulibus sub- 
teretibus crassiusculis glaberrirnis, internodiis 1.5-2 cm. longis; 
foliis oppositis petiolatis, petiolis 4-13 mm longis; laminis sub- 
coriaceis lucidulis elliptico-lanceolatis vel oblongo-ellipticis 
utroque angustatis apice obtuse acutis basi cuneatis in petiolum 
decurrentibus 5-11.5 cm. longis 1.2-5 cm. latis, penninerviis, nervis 
lateralibus principalibus utroque 4-6 valde adscendentibus venis 
secundariis numerosis longitudinaliter adscendentibus anastomosan- 
tibus subparallelibus subtus prominulis, glabris, grosse serratis 
basi integris exceptis, dentibus utroque 6-18, 1-2.5 mm. longis; 
corymbis terminalibus trichotomis aggregatis dense multicapitulatis 
pedunculis pilosis vel inferne glabrescentibus; capitulis 6-8-floris 
subsessilibus 5'7 mm. longis 2.5-3.5 mm. crassis; involucre gradua- 
tim 3' s eriatis 5~6 mm. longis, bracteis oblongis late- obtusis vel 
rotundatis superne purpureis ad apicem prominenter ciliatis pilis 
multicellularibus purpureis praeditis dorso papillosis vel glabres- 
centibus; corollis albidis 3.1-3.5 ram. longis, *tubo glabris, lobis 
extus et ad apicem pilis glandularibus obtectis; achaeniis brunneis 
vel nigrescentibus 1.8-2 mm. longis plerumque omnino glabris vel 
angulis hirtellis; pappi setis basi distincte connatis plerumque 
24-27 albidis barbellatis corolla paullo brevioribus vel corollam 
subaequantibus 2.8-3 mm. longis. 

Type in herb. Chi. Nat. Hist. Mus., collected on Ptari-tepuf, on 
forested south-facing slopes overlying sandstone, on "Cave Rock" 
above "Cave Camp," state of Bolivar, alt. 1810 m., October 29, 
1944, Julian A. Steyermark 59504, "herb or suffruticose plant with 
several stems 3'4 feet tall; leaves subcoriaceous, rich green above, 
dull grass green below; rachis pale green; stem in upper part dull 
lavender; bracts greenish below, lavender above; corolla and styles 
whitish." 

This species has the base of the pappus bristles firm and connate 
into a ring, and, like E. roupalifolium Rob., could truly be placed in 
the genus Symphyopappus. But, like E. roupalifolium (see discus- 
sion above under that species), it is believed that the genus Sym- 
phyopappus is better treated congenerically with Eupatorium. 

This is very similar to E. roupalifolium, and was thought at first 
to represent that species, but differs in the white instead of laven- 
der flowers of 6-8-flowered, instead of 5-6-flowered heads, generally 
glabrous instead of pubescent-angled achenes, and in the more 
prominently ciliate tips of the involucral bracts, while from the re- 
cently described E. yaviensis Lasser & Maguire (E. angulicaulis 
Lasser & Maguire) E. tepuianum differs in the 6-8- instead of 8-10- 
f lowered heads, much more strongly ciliate-tipped involucral bracts 
with longer hairs, pubescent instead of glabrous pedicels, shorter 
pappus and corolla, and petiolate leaves with differently shaped 
blades with more numerous and larger teeth and more prominent 
secondary veins on the lower surface. 



BOTANICAL EXPLORATION IN VENEZUELA -III 639 

Eupatorium tovarense Robinson 

E. cuadrasense Badillo, Bol. Soc. Venez. Cienc. Nat. 10, no. 68: 
288-289. 1946. 

Steyermark 55800, the type of E. cuadrasense, is conspecific with 
E. tovarense Rob., as definitely shown by a study of the type of the 
latter borrowed from the Gray Herbarium. 

Eupatorium venezuelense Badillo 

E. pinnangense Badillo, Bol. Soc. Venez. Cienc. Nat. 10, no. 
68: 290. 1946. 

Eupatorium pinnangense agrees in all respects with E. venezue- 
lense Badillo, and must be considered conspecific with that species. 
In the Catalogo de la Flora Venezolana, vol. 2: 488. 1947, Badillo 
has taken the same viewpoint, since he cites Steyermark 56514 
(cotype of E. pinnangense) under E. venezuelense. The heads in 
the Steyermark collection examined by the writer are 9" 11-f lowered. 

Gnaphalium caeruleocanum Steyermark, sp. nov. 

Herba; caulibus erectis vel adscendentibus dichotome ramosis 
dense foliatis densissime caeruleo-griseo-argenteo-lanatis 3.5-4.5 
dm. altis; foliis alternis sessilibus confertis internodiis raulto longi- 
oribus integerrimis, omnibus utrinque densissime caeruleo-griseo- 
argenteo-lanatis, juvenilibus ad apices ramulorum folios orum ob- 
lanceolatis v.el ellipticis utrinque acutis triplinerviis, caulinis et 
vetustioribus oblanceolatis vel superioribus lanceolatis apice acutis 
basin versus angustatis vel superioribus subamplexicaulibus, prin- 
cipalibus 3'4 cm. longis 6-15 mm. latis, novellis usque ad 8 cm. 
longis et 18 mm. latis; inflorescentiis subcorymbosis terminalibus; 
ramulis inflorescentiae alternis robustis 0.5-4 cm. longis; capitulis 
apice ramulorum capitato-conglomeratis; involucris campanulatis 
ca. 5 mm. longis; squamis 18-21 imbricatis scariosis argenteo- 
bubalinis, exterioribus late ovatis ca. 3 mm. longis 2.5 mm. latis 
obtusis vel subacutis medianis oblongo-spathulatis intimis lineari- 
bus vel oblanceolato-spathulatis obtusis 5-5.5 mm. longis 1 mm. 
latis, omnibus parte inferiore dimidia brunneis; floribus ca. 56; 
hermaphroditis disci ca. 8, corollis 3.6-3.7 mm. longis quinquefidis, 
lobis 0.4-0.5 mm. longis; floribus foemineis ca. 48, corollis 3.5 mm. 
longis; pappi setis tenuibus albidis 3.7-3.8 mm. longis remote bar- 
bellatis; achaeniis fulvis oblongis 0.7-0.8 mm. longis glabris. 

Type in herb. Chi. Nat. Hist. Mus., collected on Cerro Turumi- 
quire, north-facing slopes near summit of eastern peak, state of 
Sucre, alt. 2200-2500 m., May 6, 194', Julian A. Steyermark 62573, 
"herb; leaves and stems blue-silvery-gray." 

Cotype in herb. Chi. Nat. Hist. Mus., collected among ledges and 
rocky exposures, Cerro Negro, above La Sabana de las Piedras, 
northwest of Caripe, state of Monagas, alt. 1500-2180 m., April 
15, 1945, Steyermark 62099, "leaves gray-silvery-blue as are stems; 
peduncles silvery-gray; involucre silvery buff; flowers yellowish." 

This species is remarkable for the thick, dense, blue-silvery gray 
tomentura of the leaves and stems, and the very crowded thickish 



640 FIELDIANA: BOTANY, VOLUME 28 

leaves which overlap one another. The leaves are somewhat reminis- 
cent of Achyrocline crassipes Blake of Colombia, a species with 
few-flowered heads, while the corymbose inflorescence with stout 
ascending branches suggests that encountered in Gnaphalium ele- 
gans H.B.K. 

Since the two collections were obtained in the Venezuelan Oriente 
not far from the type locality of Gnaphalium dichotomum Willd., an 
attempt was made to identify the present material with that species. 
However, in that species the description reads (Willd. ex Sprengel 
Syst. Veg. 3: 473. 1826) "foliis lanceolatis utrinque attenuatis 
sessilibus subtus ramisque albo-lanatis," whereas in our collec- 
tions both sides of the leaves are densely "albo-lanatis" and only 
the upper leaves are lanceolate. There does not, in fact, appear to 
be any described species which matches the present material. 

Gongylolepis Martiana (Baker) Steyermark & Cuatrecasas, comb. nov. 

Stifftia Martiana Baker, in Mart. Fl. Bras. 6, part 3: 354. 1884; 
Gongylolepis maroana Badillo, Bol. Soc. Venez. Cienc. Nat. 8: 237, 
fig. 1943. 

From an examination of the photograph of the type of Stifftia 
Martiana Baker, and a fragment of the type collection, both preserved 
in the herb. Chi. Nat. Hist. Mus., it is at once evident that this 
species is congeneric with Gongylolepis maroana Badillo. The type 
of the latter (Llewelyn Williams 14394) was collected from Maroa, 
Rio Guainia, in Venezuela, which is near the type locality (Prov. 

Alto Amazonas, in mentis Araracoara, 500 pedes supra fluvius 

Japura') in Brazil where Martius collected Stifftia Martiana. 

Hieracium Avilae H.B.K. 

H. tovarense Fries, Epicris. Hierac. 152. n. 34. 1862; Pilosella 
tovarensis Sch. Bip. in Flora 45: 437. 1862. 

Although the involucral bracts are described by Humboldt, Bon- 
pland and Kunth as glabrous, an examination of a fragment of the 
type, together with a photograph of same, preserved in the Chicago 
Natural History Museum Herbarium reveals the outer involucral 
bracts, at least, as being definitely pubescent. Other specimens 
which agree with the pubescence described for the stems and leaves 
of H. Avilae and whose involucral bracts match in details of pubes- 
cence those of the fragment of the type preserved are Steyermark 
61692 from the state of Anzoategui, Steyermark 62565 from the state 
of Sucre, and Vogl 528 collected near the type locality. 

It is apparent that the original description of Humboldt, Bonpland, 
and Kunth should have stated the bracts as being pubescent instead 
of glabrous. 

An examination of the photograph of the type of Hieracium tova* 
rense Fries shows that it cannot be separated from H. Avilae. By 
Zahn the involucre is described as "vix vel disperse minutissime 
glandulosa vix vel sparsim breviter pilos'a basi subfloccosa" 
(Pflanzenreich IV. 280, Abt. 1: 1102. 1921). Although Zahn cites 
the distribution of H. Avilae as from Venezuela and Colombia, he 



I BOTANICAL EXPLORATION IN VENEZUELA -III 641 

assigns it to section Intybiformia, which he has reserved in his key 
(loc. cit. p. 1077) for species from Central America. Similarly, one 
gets a geographical jolt by attempting to follow Zahn's assignment 
of such South American species as H. tovarense Fries of Venezuela 
and H. leucanthum Wedd. of Colombia to the section Pulmonarei- 
formia, a section he has reserved in his key (Ibid. p. 1077) for 
species from boreal America. The involucral bracts in H. tovarense 
are pubescent as they are in H. Avilae, and I cannot find any other 
characters by which it can be separated from H. Avilae. 

Hieracium frigidum Wedd., forma tamaense Steyermark, f. nov. 

A typo differt caulibus pilis remote usque ad 6 mm. longis parce 
praeditis; foliis subtus purpureis remote pilosis pilis elongatis parce 
praeditis; capitulis 2-3 > involucro 11-12 mm. longo, bracteis glandu- 
losis atque sparsim brevipilosis. 

Type in herb. Chi. Nat. Hist. Mus., collected in swampy meadow 
in Paramito between Quebrada de Palmar and Quebrada de Paramito, 
at base of Paramo de Tama', 2 kms. above Betania and 7 kms. above 
Villapaez, state of Ta'chira, alt. 2500 m., July 14, 1944, Julian A. 
Steyermark 57215, "flowers yellow; leaves with dull lavender below 
on midrib and surface." 

Except for its paucity of pubescence and shorter hairs of the 
stems, leaves, and involucre, this agrees in most other respects 
with H. frigidum Wedd. 

Ilymenostephium viride Steyermark, sp. nov. 

Herba suffruticosa, caulibus basi lignosis ramosis, ramis inferne 
tenuiter cinereo-strigillosis supra parce canescentibus, 4-4.5 dm. 
altis; foliis plerumque oppositis infra inflorescentiam exceptis, 
petiolatis, petiolis 5"25 mm. longis parce canescentibus; laminis 
firme chartaceo-membranaceis ovato- vel lanceolato-ellipticis vel 
lanceolatis, utrinque angustatis, apice acutis vel subacutis basi 
cuneatis, 5"8.5 cm. longis 0.5"3 cm. lads, triplinerviis, utrinque 
viridibus parce tenuiter strigilloso-hispidulis, supra densiusculis 
tuberculato-hispidulis, marginibus remote denticulatis; corymbis 
longe pedunculatis trichotome dispositis foliis 2-3"pl longioribus 
parce strigillosis; capitulis 2-5 in quoque ramo paniculae; bracteis 
subulatis 3~5 mm. longis dense canescentibus; involucri bracteis 
2-seriatis 2.8-3 mm. altis, exterioribus ovato-deltoideis vel late 
ovatis acutis 2 mm. longis 1 mm. latis extus minute strigilloso- 
pubescentibus, interioribus oblongo-lanceolatis vel ovato-oblongis 
acutis 2.8-3 mm. longis 1.1-1.2 mm. latis, extus minute strigilloso- 
pubescentibus; radiis luteis 5-7, laminis late elliptico-oblongis 
apice obtusis vel rotundatis 5.5-6 mm. longis 2.8-3.1 mm. latis; 
disco 6-7 mm. alto 6-8 mm. lato, disci floribus 36, corollis luteis 
extus minute puberulentibus 3-5-4 mm. longis, lobis ovatis sub- 
obtusis 0.6-0.7 mm. longis, limbo cylindrico 2.5 mm. longo, tubo 
brevissimo 0.5 mm. longo; paleis complicatis flores disci amplec- 
tentibus ovato-oblongis apice rotundatis 5.5 mm. longis 2 mm. latis 
extus praesertim per partem mediam puberulis; achaeniis radii neu- 
tris, disci fertilibus nigris obovato-oblongis basi cuneatim angustatis 



642 FIELDIANA: BOTANY, VOLUME 28 

2.5 mm. longis dense strigillosis pilis erectis obsitis; disci pappi 
squamellis 4 inaequalibus ovatis vel late oblongis 1-1.3 mm. longis 
0.4-0.5 mm. latis supra medium inaequaliter fimbriatis (Fig. 138). 

Type in herb. Chi. Nat. Hist. Mus., collected on rocky slopes 
above Tovar, state of Merida, alt. 2975 m. , July 7, 1944, Julian A. 
Steyermark 57063, "rays and disk yellow." 

This species is closely related to H. angustifolium Benth. of the 
Venezuelan Andes. Like that species it possesses pappose achenes, 
thereby differentiating it from two other Venezuelan species, H. men- 
dense Blake and H. Goebelii (Klatt) Blake. Future extensive col- 
lections may reveal the new species to be no more than varietally 
distinct from H. angustifolium, but for the present it is obviously 
separated by the broader ovate- or lance-elliptic green instead of 
gray-green leaves, less densely pubescent on each side, and by the 
larger achenes more cuneately narrowed at the base. In H. angusti- 
folium the achenes are only 1.8-2 mm. long and more rounded at the 
base. 

Jungia reticulata Steyermark, sp. nov. 

Frutex scandens; caulibus hirsutis pilis usque ad 3 mm. longis 
praeditis; foliis alternis petiolatis, petiolis 3'4.5 cm. longis dense 
hirsutis pilis patentibus usque ad 3 mm. longis praeditis; laminis 
firme membranaceo-subchartaceis subtus pallide viridibus ambitu 
rotundato-cordatis cordato-5 - 7-lobatis vel paullo angulatis, 6.5~9.5 
cm. longis 7.5*9.5 cm. latis, lobis late deltoideis apice obtusis vel 
rotundatis subintegerrimis, terminali maximo usque ad 3 cm. longo 
5 cm. lato, marginibus ceterum subintegerrimis, supra hirsutulis 
pilis usque ad 2 mm. longis praeditis, subtus conspicue reticulatis 
reticulato albido impresso praeditis hirsutis praesertim ad nervos 
principales pilis usque ad 3 mm. longis praeditis, quintupli- vel 
septupli-nerviis; floribus fructibusque non visis (Fig. 139)- 

Type in herb. Chi. Nat. Hist. Mus., collected in rich moist woods 
at base of Pa'ramo de Tama, 4-10 kms. above Betania, state of 
Tachira, alt. 2500-2895 m., July 15, 1944, Julian A. Steyermark 
57310, "leaves firmly membranaceous-subchartaceous, deep green 
above, pale green below." 

Unfortunately, the type collection is sterile. However, the vege- 
tative appearance differs so much from all other known species of 
Jungia that it is obvious that the new entity is a most distinct one. 
It is well characterized vegetatively by the relatively long spreading 
hairs of the stems, petioles, and leaf-blades, the shallowly lobed 
subentire leaf margins, and the prominently whitish reticulum of the 
lower surface of the leaf blade. In its shallowly lobed leaf-blades 
it somewhat resembles /. coarctata Hier. of Ecuador, but that spe- 
cies has the leaves densely pubescent on the lower surface, the 
stems densely velutinous-tomentose, and the leaf-margins minutely 
denticulate. 

Lucilia radians (Benth.) Steyermark, comb. nov. 

Gnaphalium radians Benth. Plant. Hartweg. p. 207. 1839; G. 



BOTANICAL EXPLORATION IN VENEZUELA -III 643 












FIGURE 138 

Hymenostephium viride 

A, Leaf, from above (X 0.5); B, Disk corolla (X 15); C, Disk achene 
(X 13); D, Pale enveloping disk flower (X 16); E, Ray floret (X 7); 
F, Involucre (X 5); G, Outer involucral bract (X 11); H, Inner in- 
volucral bract (X 9). 



644 FIELDIANA: BOTANY, VOLUME 28 

evacoides Sch. Bip. Bonplandia 4: 54. 1856. 

This species, described originally in the genus Gnaphalium by 
Bentham from a plant collected by Hartweg (no. 1146) "prope Laguna 
de Guanacas, Prov. Popayan," Colombia, has been confused with 
the very distinct Lucilia pusilla (H.B.K.) Hier. The latter, based 
upon a plant collected in Ecuador, was described originally by Hum- 
boldt, Bonpland, and Kunth as a species of the genus Conyza. 
De Candolle in 1836 renamed the plant of Ecuador Conyza Kunthiana, 
as there already was an earlier Conyza pusilla Houtt. Weddell in 
1855 (Chlor. And. l: 161) misinterpreted the plant of Colombia de- 
scribed by Bentham (his Gnaphalium radiatum) and that of Ecuador 
described by Humboldt, Bonpland, and Kunth (their Conyza pusilla), 
combining them under the one name, Merope Kunthiana (DC.) Wedd., 
based upon De Candolle's Conyza Kunthiana. This same fallacy was 
perpetrated by Hieronymus in Engl. Bot. Jahrb. 29: 29. 1900, who 
combines all these under one name, Lucilia pusilla. 

Sch. Bip. created the new name in 1856 (Bonplandia 4: 54 of Gra- 
phalium evacoides, based upon a plant collected from the Paramo de 
Mucuchies in Venezuela by Moritz (no. 1407). The latter was treated 
as a nomen nudum and therefore has no nomenclatorial status. How- 
ever, an examination of a photograph of the type of Gnaphalium eva- 
coides and study of material (Steyermark 55870) collected near the 
type locality, together with a comparative study of the photograph 
of the type of Gnaphalium radians Benth., shows that Gnaphalium 
radians Benth. and G. evacoides are conspecific. 

That Gnaphalium radians Benth. (=Lucilia radians) and Conyza 
pusilla H.B.K., not Houtt. (=Lucilia pusilla) are entirely different 
species is at once recognized upon a comparative study of them. 
The achenes of Gnaphalium radians are glabrous, those of Conyza 
pusilla densely pubescent, the leaves of Gnaphalium radians are 
obovate or oblong and 3"4 mm. wide, those of Conyza pusilla nar- 
rowly linear or linear-spatulate and at most 2 mm. wide, and finally, 
whereas the involucral bracts of Gnaphalium radians are linear- or 
narrowly oblong and obtuse to (the innermost) acute or acutish, 
those of Conyza pusilla are much broader and of a different shape 
and are all obtuse to rounded. Although the glabrous achenes are 
at variance with the densely pubescent ones usually associated 
with Lucilia, the possession of other characters, namely, the connate 
base of the pappus bristles and the dwarf cespitose matted habit 
with solitary sessile heads, would indicate that the species should 
be placed in the genus Lucilia, if that genus can be maintained as 
distinct from Gnaphalium. 

Lucilia venezuelensis Steyermark, sp. nov. 

Herba perennis caespitosa, rhizomate sublignoso ramosissimo, 
caulibus valde abbreviatis densissime foliosis; foliis alternis valde 
approximatis sessilibus linearibus vel lineari-spathulatis obtusis 
basibus paullo dilatatis imbricatis 4-6.5 mm. longis 0.8-1.1 mm. 
latis novellis utrinque dense albido-tomentosis, vetustioribus per- 
sistentibus glabrescentibus; capitulis solitariis sessilibus late 



BOTANICAL EXPLORATION IN VENEZUELA -III 645 




FIGURE 139 

Jungia reticulata 

A, Upper surface of leaf with petiole (X 0.6); B, Lower surface of 
leaf with petiole (X 0.6); C, Detail of lower surface of leaf (highly 
magnified). 



646 



FIELDIANA: BOTANY, VOLUME 28 



oblongo-cylindricis vel cylindraceo-campanulatis ca. 8 mm. longis; 
involucri squamis exterioribus oblongo-lanceolatis subacutis vel 
obtusis 4 mm. longis 1 mm. latis, mediis oblongo-lanceolatis obtusis 
5.5 mm. longis 1 mm. latis interioribus lineari-lanceolatis vel lineari- 
oblongis apice angiistatis obtusis vel subacutis 6-6.5 mm. longis 
0.3-0.7 mm. latis scariosis plerumque glabris; floribus hermaphrodi- 
tis 3"5 corollis tubulosis 5 mm. longis lobis ovato-oblongis obtusis 
0.25 mm. longis, pappi setis albidis capillaceis basi connatis; flori- 
bus foemineis multis, corollis filiformibus 5.5 mm. longis, lobis 
subulato-attenuatis inter lobos laceratis, pappi setis albidis capilla- 
ceis parce longisetosis corollas excedentibus; achaeniis 1.1 mm. 
longis dense pilosis pilis erecto-adscendentibus (Fig. 140). 

Type in herb. Chi. Nat. Hist. Mus., collected in dry paramo along 
upper headwaters of Rib Tormero, below El Aguila and above Cha- 
chopo, state of Merida, alt. 3650-3965 m., March 13, 1944, Julian A. 
Steyermark 55657, "in dense clumps." 

If the characters usually judged to distinguish Lucilia from Gna- 
phalium arc considered as sufficiently distinctive, namely, the con- 
nate base of the pappus-bristles, sericeous-pilose or villous achenes, 
cylindrical-campanulate heads, then this new species from the Vene- 
zuelan Andes must be placed within the limits of Lucilia. It is the 




FIGURE 140-A 

Lucilia venezuelensis 

Habit of plant (X 15). 



BOTANICAL EXPLORATION IN VENEZUELA -III 647 




M 



N 



FIGURE 140-B, N 

Luc ilia venezuelensis 

B, Involucre (X 5); C, Outermost involucral bract (X 19); D, Middle 
involucral bract (X 5); E, Inner involucral bract (X 6); F, Leaf (X 7); 
G, Pistillate flower (X 13); H, Style branches of pistillate flower 
(highly magnified); I, Apex of corolla of pistillate flower (highly 
magnified); J, Base of pappus of pistillate flower (highly magnified); 
K, Perfect tubular flower (X 11); L, Portion of anthers from perfect 
flower (highly magnified); M, Style branches and upper part of style 
of perfect flower (highly magnified); N, Achene (X 14). 



648 FIELDIANA: BOTANY, VOLUME 28 

first recorded collection of the genus from this country, most of the 
species in the genus occurring farther south in South America. It is 
most closely related to Lucilia pusilla (H.B.K.) Hier.* of Peru, 
Ecuador, and Colombia, but is distinguished from that species by 
the narrower involucral bracts, which are oblong- to linear-lanceolate 
and narrowed to an obtuse to subacute apex, the much shorter and 
narrower leaves, and the long subulate-acuminate or elongated tips 
of the corolla lobes of the pistillate flowers. 

Mikania auyantepuensis, var. brevipedicellata Steyermark, var. nov. 

A typo differt foliis elliptico-obovatis, petiolis 4-10 mm. longis, 
laminis 3.5-7 cm. longis 1.5-3.5 cm. latis; capitulis sessflibus vel 
subsessilibus, pedicellis usque ad 2 mm. longis. 

Type in herb. Chi. Nat. Hist. Mus., collected on summit of Cerro 
Duida, along valley forest between Central Camp and Brocchinia 
Hills, Territorio Federal Amazonas, alt. 1675 m., August 31, 1944, 
Julian A. Steyermark 58125, "climbing; flowers white; bracts pale 
green; leaves subcoriaceous, dull green above, paler below; stems 
lavender-dull purple." 

Cotype in herb. Chi. Nat. Hist. Mus., collected on moist exposed 
cliff face with large bromeliads (Brocchinia Tatei) growing on verti- 
cal bluffs, Cerro Duida, southeastern-facing sandstone bluffs near 
Cano Negro (tributary of Cano Iguapo), alt. 1520 m., August 26, 
1944, Steyermark 58036. 

This differs from typical M. auyantepuensis of Mount Auyan-tepuf 
chiefly in having sessile or subsessile heads, the pedicels varying 
from none to at most 2 mm. long. 

Mikania Banisteriae DC. 

In an attempt to evaluate critically the various new species of 
Mikania published by Victor M. Badillo (Bol. Soc. Venez. Cienc. 
Nat. 9, no. 58: 132-135. 1944; loc. cit. 10, no. 68: 296-304. 1946), 
and based largely on the collections made in Venezuela by the 
present writer, I have found it necessary, after prolonged study, to 
reduce a considerable portion of that author's species to syn- 
onymy. In the present instance, while trying to decide upon the 
real status of M. canaguensis Badillo, M. kavanayensis Badillo, 
M. molinensis Badillo, M. oniaensis Badillo, M. monagasensis 
Badillo, M. bergantinensis Badillo, M. meridana Badillo, and M. 
ptaretepuiensis Badillo, it became increasingly obvious that the 
relationships of all the aforementioned species were involved in a 

*A comparative study, based upon photographs of the types, of 
Lucilia pusilla (H.B.K.) Hier. and L. Lehmannii Hier., together 
with examination of topotype material of L. Lehmannii (Steyermark 
53211) from the province of Azuay in southern Ecuador, would indi- 
cate that these two entities are conspecific, the older name being 
L. pusilla. In both species the outer involucral bracts are broad 
(ovate or obovate-rounded) and obtuse or rounded at the apex, and 
the shape and size of the leaves are the same. There do not appear 
to be any characters by which they can be separated. 



BOTANICAL EXPLORATION IN VENEZUELA -HI 649 

much greater complex of species, represented by Mikania Banisteriae 
DC., M. Ruiziana Poepp., M. lanuginosa DC., M. antioquiensis 
Hieron., and M. Almagroi Cuatr. 

Fortunately, the present writer has had access to the study, so 
far as most of the above mentioned species are concerned, of the 
type collections or fragments and photographs of the type collec- 
tions. This study has led to the inescapable conclusion that we are 
dealing with a wide-ranging single species, M. Banisteriae, which 
varies considerably in tomentum of stems, petioles, rachis, and 
leaf shape. 

In his admirable florist ic treatments of Mikania in various South 
American countries, Dr. Robinson maintained M. Ruiziana Poepp. 
and M. lanuginosa DC. as distinct species (Contr. Gray Herb. N.S. 3, 
no. 64: 34-36, 56, 65, 80, 101. 1922), separating them in his key to 
the Colombian species (loc. cit. p. 32) as follows: 

"e. Leaves 16-20 cm. long, scarcely half as wide, con- 
spicuously caudate-acuminate, rufous-tomentose be- 
neath 9. M. Ruiziana 

"e. Leaves 8-12 cm. long, about two-thirds as wide, 

merely acute or shortly acuminate 10. M. lanuginosa" 

and in his key to the Peruvian species (loc. cit. p. 78), thus: 

"f. Pubescence whitish, dense, velvety, persistent; 
leaves about three-fourths as broad as long 

12. M. lanuginosa 

"f. Pubescence dark or tawny, villous or tomentose, 
tending to be deciduous; leaves rarely more than 
i half as wide" (under this category are included 

M. Ruiziana and M. bullata). At this time he in- 
cluded (loc. cit. p. 35) in the synonymy of M. lanu- 
ginosa the following species: M. Banisteriae Klatt, 
not DC., M. antioquiensis Hieron., and M. Karsten- 
iana Kl. 

Subsequently, in 1928 (Contr. Gray Herb. N.S. 4, no. 80: 33'34) 
he changed his mind about the inclusion of M. antioquiensis in M. 
lanuginosa, and decided that the two were distinct species. It is 
significant to quote the following from Dr. Robinson's publication 
(Ibid.): "When revising the Mikanias of Colombia some years ago, 

the author reduced this species to the nearly related Brazilian 

M. lanuginosa DC., interpreting that species widely both as to range 
and variability. Material subsequently available and a re-examination 
of the type of M. lanuginosa make it seem probable* that the Cor- 
dilleran plant of Venezuela, Colombia, Peru and Bolivia, though in 
many respects similar, may be separated with fair definiteness from 
the Brazilian plant, which appears to have thinner more flexible and 
distinctly toothed leaves with more deeply cordate base and more 
rounded sinus. Its leaves are more strongly bicolorous and the 
pubescence is less closely matted than in the Cordilleran plant. 
The latter has thicker firmer subentire leaves less deeply cordate, 
with less developed basal lobes and closer pubescence. Unless 



650 FIELDIANA: BOTANY, VOLUME 28 

further collecting should disclose tendencies toward intergradation 
not evident at present, these plants would seem best treated as 
separate species. M. antioquiensis may be regarded as covering 
also the plant passing under the herbarium name M. Karsteniana 
Klotzsch, a nomen subnudum mentioned but without adequate diag- 
nosis by Hieronymus, 1. c. 581. The slight distinctions of petiole, 
pubescence and pappus, upon which Hieronymus relied in attempting 
a specific distinction between his M. antioquiensis and the unde- 
scribed M. Karsteniana do not hold satisfactorily " 

Robinson, therefore, showed his uncertainty regarding the disposi- 
tion of maintaining M. lanuginosa and M. antioquiensis as distinct 
species, first by including one in the synonymy of the other, and 
then six years later separating them with the proviso that further 
collecting might disclose that they should not be kept apart. 

In the meantime, since Robinson's last publications on this 
genus, much more material of Mikania has accumulated in herbaria. 
A study of the material identified as M. Ruiziana, M. Ruiziana var. 
Lehmanniana, M. antioquiensis, M. antioquiensis var. subcuneata, 
M. Almagroi, M. lanuginosa, and M. Banisteriae, makes it evident 
that all may be referred to the same variable species. In describing 
his M. antioquiensis var. subcuneata, Robinson writes (Contr. Gray 
Herb. N.S. 6, no. 104: 32. 1934), "The original material of this 
silky-stemmed Cordilleran liana had ovate leaves with cordate or 
rounded base. The following plant of recent collection seems cer- 
tainly conspecific but has leaves sufficiently different in contour to 
justify recognition as a new variety." He based his description on 
a single specimen collected by Mexia (no. 6492) from Peru (between 
Iquitos and San Juan, alt. 105 m.). 

Unfortunately, it has been found that this difference in leaf shape, 
or narrowing of the leaf-blade at its base, is not a constant one, and 
varies even on the same stem of the plant. The narrower-based 
leaves are often associated with the upper leaves or those collected 
from the upper part or terminal part of the stem bearing the terminal 
inflorescences, whereas the broader more cordate-based leaf is fre- 
quently taken from lower or middle portions of the stem in which 
axillary inflorescences arise at the base of the leaves. 

To this cordate-leaved group with the pubescence of the stem more 
or less dense and closely felted or velvety belong M. Karsteniana 
Kl., M. oniaensis Badillo, and M. canaguensis Badillo, while to the 
group with a narrower leaf-base, which Robinson had treated as M. 
antioquiensis var. subcuneata, belongs M. Almagroi Cuatr., M. moli- 
nensis Badillo, M. kavanayensis Badillo, and M. ptaretepuiensis 
Badillo. 

To complicate the problem, M. Ruiziana, described by Poeppig in 
1845 enters the picture. I have before me an actual isotype of this 
species, as well as a photograph of the type, both preserved in the 
Chicago Natural History Museum Herbarium. They were collected by 



*The italicized words in this quotation are those of the present 
author. 



BOTANICAL EXPLORATION IN VENEZUELA -HI 651 

Poeppig from Cuchero, Peru, and show a terminal portion of a stem 
with its inflorescence and subtending leaves. The leaves are 
rounded but narrowed at the base as in M. antioquiensis var. sub- 
cuneata, but the pubescence of the stem consists of numerous tawny 
rather loose, but not closely matted hairs. At first, such a pubes- 
cence might appear distinct from the closely felted variety occurring 
in the type collection of M. antioquiensis. Most of the specimens 
in the Chicago Natural History Museum Herbarium, which, on the 
basis of their loose pubescence, can be referred to M. Ruiziana, in- 
cluding some so named by Robinson, which have leaves rounded or 
somewhat narrowed at the base, as in M. antioquiensis var. sub- 
cuneata, whereas others, such as Lehmann 5211 from Colombia, and 
identified by Robinson as M. Ruiziana, also have cordate-based 
leaves shaped as in M. antioquiensis but occurring on the same 
stem with narrower leaves. Moreover, the type of M. lanuginosa DC. 
has the looser type of pubescence, as in M. Ruiziana, rather than the 
closely felted matted type of M. antioquiensis and M. Banisteriae DC. 

In 1894 Hieronymus (in Engl. Bot. Jahrb. 19: 45) described a 
variety of M. Ruiziana, which he called Lehmanniana, and by Robin- 
son later was differentiated from typical M. Ruiziana by the less 
densely villous stems, more slender loosely hairy petioles, and 
bracteoles surpassing the involucre. 

If these various assumed differences were constant and proved to 
have any real significance, the group of specimens identified as 
M. Ruiziana (-M. lanuginosa DC.) and var. Lehmanniana could be 
conceivably separated from the other group classified as M. antio- 
quiensis and var. subcuneata. Unfortunately, all degrees of inter- 
gradation in pubescence and leaf shape often occur on the same stem 
or plant, and there do not appear to be any constant criteria present 
by which the various divergences of variations can be isolated. 
Some Bolivian collections made by Dr. Otto Buchtien illustrate the 
amount of variability in stem pubescence. His numbers 1586, 1587, 
and 1588 from the Mapiri region, San Carlos, at an elevation of 850 
m., have densely lanate or closely felted pubescent stems which 
were identified as M. antioquiensis. However, from the same locali- 
ty and same elevation come his numbers 7593 and 1594, showing a 
loose tawny villous type of pubescence and leaf shape characteristic 
of M. Ruiziana var. Lehmanniana and M. ferruginea Rusby, and 
identified as M. ferruginea Rusby, a species described from Bolivia, 
whereas his 7576 from the same region has practically glabrous 
leaves and glabrate stems and by Robinson was treated as the type 
of M. ferruginea var. subglabra. 

That not only the leaf shape, but type of pubescence can vary on 
the same plant is shown by other examples. In Persaud 73, from 
British Guiana the pubescence of the lower part of the young stem 
is loose as in M. Ruiziana, but at the tip it is closely matted as in 
M. antioquiensis. In Steyermark 56459 from Venezuela the pubes- 
cence of the young flowering stem is tawny and somewhat spread- 
ing as in M. Ruiziana, whereas on most of the stem bearing the 
leaves the pubescence is of a pale buff velvety tomentum and the 



652 FIELDIANA: BOTANY, VOLUME 28 

leaf-blades are shaped as in M. antioquiensis var. subcuneata. In 
view of the extreme variability of pubescence, it is not at all cer- 
tain whether forms can be maintained to differentiate between those 
with close-felted densely tomentose stems and those with tawny long 
villous pubescence. Certainly, there does not appear to be any 
geographic segregation of the entities. 

The question concerning the earliest correct name to apply to the 
above complex is an intriguing one. An examination and critical 
study of the isotype of M. Banisteriae DC., preserved in the Chi- 
cago Natural History Museum Herbarium, has led me to identify it 
positively as conspecific in tomentum, leaf shape, and floral details 
with M. antioquiensis Hieron. The type collection of M. Banisteriae 
from Amazonian Brazil (Ega, Amazon, collected by Poeppig) shows 

the "ramis pube sericea molli canis, foliis ovatis basi obtusis.... 

integerrimis penninerviis, superne junioribus setosis, adultis nervis 
exceptis glabris, subtus dense sericeis, paniculae terminalis ramis 

sericeo-lanatis , invol. squamis et bracteola ovalibus obtusis 

glabris pappus rutilans" described by De Candolle. In fact, one 

of the leaves is cordate at the base as in M. antioquiensis, while 
the. others have a leaf shape matched by M. antioquiensis var. sub- 
cuneata. The velvety or sericeous close tomentum of the stem is 
characteristic of the same type found in M. antioquiensis. In this 
isotype collection of M. Banisteriae the corolla tube is glabrate 
and the young achenes are densely long-pilose. 

In a study of other material referred to M. Ruiziana, M. lanuginosa, 
M. antioquiensis, M. Almagroi, and in the several species of Badillo 
mentioned in the beginning, the corolla tube was found to vary from 
glabrous to sparsely or moderately pilose, and the achenes from gla- 
brous or glabrate to sparsely .pilose. The throat of the corolla is 
campanulate in all these species, as wide as high, and spreads 
abruptly from the summit of the slender tube. The involucral bracts 
throughout the material referred to the above species are uniformly 
obtuse to obtusish or rounded at the tip, and are usually glabrous 
without, or at most dorsally villosulous near the apex. All these 
characters, are evident, likewise, in M. Banisteriae. So far as the 
pappus being rufescent in M. Banisteriae, this character cannot be 
accepted as either trustworthy or real. The reddish or rufescent 
color of the pappus may be due to aging of the specimen or drying 
in a particular manner. Specimens collected by Klug (878 and 3427) 
from Peru and Williams (14746) from Venezuela show a rufescent 
pappus, even though the collectors only mention in their notes that 
the flowers are "white." If some reddish tinge had been present 
at the time of the collection, these collectors would surely have 
noted the color as significant, or recorded it as an obvious feature 
of the plant at the time of collection. The reddish color of the pap- 
pus cannot, therefore, be used as a distinguishing feature of M. 
Banisteriae, as it was by Baker (in Mart. Fl. Bras. 6, pt. 2: 230. 
1876) in keying out this species. Rather it must be considered as 
a variable feature associated with the aging of the plant or in some 
way with the drying of the pappus, somewhat as in the manner of 



BOTANICAL EXPLORATION IN VENEZUELA -III 653 

some North American species of the genus V ernonia. 

While M. oniaensis Badillo and M. canaguensis Badillo have the 
involucral bracts glabrate or sparsely pilose without towards the 
apex (although Badillo described the bracts in M. oniaensis as pube- 
rulous), and can be obviously matched by similar cordate-leaved 
specimens referred to M. antioquiensis, on the other hand M. mona- 
gasensis, M. bergantinensis Badillo, and M. meridana Badillo have 
markedly different involucral bracts which are definitely puberulous 
or pilosulous without and can thus be distinguished from the usual 
glabrous or glabrate type of bracts, which at most are only sparsely 
puberulous near or at the apex. It would seem best to treat these 
plants with pubescent bracts as distinct from the usual glabrate or 
sparsely puberulous type. 

From the above discussion, it is apparent that the earliest name 
clearly applicable to this complex is M. Banisteriae DC., to which 
M. antioquiensis and var. subcuneata must be referred as direct 
synonyms, and from which M. lanuginosa DC., M. Ruiziana, and its 
variety Lehmanniana, may be distinguished only as forms differing 
in more spreading pubescence. 

While the name M. Banisteriae DC. does have page priority (p. 193) 
over M. lanuginosa DC. (p. 201) and M. hirsutissima (p. 200), that is 
not the principal compelling reason for adopting it as the earliest 
one to be used in this case. The real reason is that the isotype 
available for study (Poeppig from Ega, Amazon) before me clearly 
shows the close felt-like sericeous tomentum of the stems and peti- 
oles along with the other features clearly described by De Candolle, 
and it is at once definite and clear cut. As the first author to unite 
the various elements discussed above and specified below, the 
present writer's selection of whichever name seems best to him is 
the course followed, and his choice must thereafter be followed 
(See Robinson's discussion in Contr. Gray Herb. N.S. 6, no. 104: 
51. 1934, and Art. 56 of the International Rules of Botanical Nomen- 
clature adopted and revised at Amsterdam in 1935> nor has this been 
changed since the Stockholm congress in 1950). It is admitted that 
such species as M. rufa Benth., M. Lasiandrae DC. (M. strigosa 
Gardn.), M. trichophylla DC., and M. hirsutissima DC. are uncom- 
fortably close to the M. Banisteriae complex, and might possibly be 
referred to the large complex of M. Banisteriae- M. antioquiensis- 
M. Ruiziana- M. lanuginosa. However, these species, with the ex- 
ception of M. hirsutissima, have the throat of the corolla turbinate 
or subcylindric instead of campanulate, and the throat is higher 
than wide and not sharply differentiated from the tube as in the 
M. Banisteriae group. Moreover, in M. hirsutissima the involucral 
bracts are usually decidedly acute or acuminate, or definitely nar- 
rowed at the apex, and this character alone would appear to justify 
separating it from the M. Banisteriae group in which the involucral 
bracts are mostly rounded or broadly obtuse to obtusish. 

An analysis of the A/. Banisteriae group may be summed up in the 
following key: 



654 FIELDIANA: BOTANY, VOLUME 28 

1. Involucral bracts densely pubescent on the outer surf ace 

1 d. M. Banisteriae var. monagasensis 

1. Involucral bracts glabrous or glabrate, or at most sparse- 
ly puberulous at or near the apex. 

2. Stems glabrate 1 c. M. Banisteriae f. subglabra 

2. Stems more or less conspicuously pubescent. 

3. Pubescence of stems and petioles densely velvety 
or sericeous-tomentose; lower leaf surface closely 

sericeous-pubescent or canescent 1. M. Banisteriae 

3. Pubescence of stems and petioles loosely villous 
or lanate; lower leaf surface woolly pubescent or 
loosely villous. 
4. Stems and petioles abundantly villous 

1 a. M. Banisteriae f. lanuginosa 

4. Stems and petioles sparingly villous with fewer 

hairs 1 b. M. Banisteriae f. Lehmanniana 

1. Mikania Banisteriae DC. Prodr. 5: 193. 1836. 

Mikania antioquiensis Hieron. in Engl. Bot. Jahrb. 28: 580. 1901; 
M. Karsteniana Klotzsch ex Hieron. loc. cit. 581, nomen subnudum; 
M. antioquiensis var. subcuneata Rob., Contr. Gray Herb. N.S. 6, 
no. 104: 32. 1934; M. Almagroi Cuatr., Anal. Univ. Madrid 4, fasc. 
2: 233 (reprint 30). 1935; M. molinensis Badillo, Bol. Soc. Venez. 
Cienc. Nat. 10: 296. 1946; M. ptaretepuiensis Badillo, loc. cit. 302; 
M. kavanayensis Badillo, loc. cit. 300. 

Stems mostly closely tomentose with dense felt-like pale to dark 
brown or buff tomentum; leaves broadly ovate to ovate-oblong, cor- 
date or the upper often becoming more or less cuneately narrowed 
or rounded at base; involucral bracts glabrous to glabrate without 
or at most dorsally puberulous near or at apex; corolla tube glabrous 
or glabrate to sparsely puberulous (rarely more densely puberulous); 
achenes glabrate to sparsely puberulous or rarely more densely 
puberulous. 

Specimens examined: 

BRAZIL: Ega, Amazon, Poeppig (isotype of M. Banisteriae DC.); 
Para: South woods of I. A. N., Bele'm, February 8, 1943, Archer 
8223; Bele'm, March-May, 1929, Dahlgren & Sella 467 and 721. 

BRITISH GUIANA: Covenden, Demarara River, February 14, 1923, 
Persaud 73; upper Rupununi River, near Dadanawa, Lat. 2 45* N., 
July 24-29, 1922, De La Cruz 1705; Barima River, Northwest Dis- 
trict, Lat. 8 20' N., Long. 59 50' W., March 19-22, 1923, De La 
Cruz 3378 and 3386; Upper Mazaruni River, Long, about 60 10* W., 
September 22-October 6, 1922, De La Cruz 2133 and 2206. 

VENEZUELA: Territorio Federal Amazonas: Solano, Lower 
Casiquiare, alt. 102 m., November 3, 1942, Williams 14746; Distrito 
Federal: Caracas, January- April, 1842, Linden 212; Yaracuy: ^Puerto 
Cabello, Karsten; Merida: cerca de El Molino, entre Canagua y Sta. 
Cruz de Mora, alt. 1500 m., November 16, 1943, Badillo 610 (isotype 
of M. molinensis Badillo); Cuesta de Rincon and Cuesta del Barro, 
between Canagua' and La Quebrada, on road to El Molino, alt. 1925- 



BOTANICAL EXPLORATION IN VENEZUELA -III 655 

2175 m., May 10, 1944, Steyermark 56459; Boh'var: Ptari-tepuf, alt. 
2410-2450 m., November 7, 1944, Steyermark 59936 (isotype of M. 
ptaretepuiensis Badillo); Gran Sabana, between Mission of Santa 
Teresita de Kavanaye'n northwest to Ri'o Karuai, alt. 1220 m., Octo- 
ber 26, 1944, Steyermark 59374 (isotype of M. kavanayensis Badillo); 
on summit at west end of Sororopa'n-tepiu, alt. 2225-2255 m., Novem- 
ber 13, 1944, Steyermark 60071; Ptari-tepui', between "Cave Rock" 
and base of high bluffs, alt. 2100-2285 m., October 30, 1944, Steyer- 
mark 59543; Ptari-tepui, southeast-facing slopes, alt. 1585-1600 m., 
November 10-11, 1944, Steyermark 60018. 

COLOMBIA: Comisaria del Caqueta': Cordillera Oriental, ver- 
tiente oriental, entre Sucre y La Portada, alt. 1200-1350 m., April 
5, 1940, Cuatrecasas 9133; Cordillere Occident., versant oriental, 
alt. 1200 m., November 11, 1899, Langlasse 62; Antioquia: Amalfi, 
alt. 1500-2000 m., Lehmann 7971 (isotype and photo of type of M. 
antioquiensis Hieron.); Karsten (isotype and photo of type of M. 
Karsteniana Kl.); Santander: Mesa de los Santos, Apolinar-Mana 
363; Dept. Valle: Cordillera Occidental, vertiente occidental: Hoya 
del Rio Digua, Piedra de Moler, alt. 900-1180 m., August 19-28, 
1943, Cuatrecasas 15108; Cordillera Occidental, vertiente occiden- 
tal: Hoya del Rib Anchicaya, El Prado, alt. 250-350 m., August 4, 
1943, Cuatrecasas 14844; Cordillera Occidental, vertiente occiden- 
tal: Hoya del Rio Digua, lado izquierdo del Rib San Juan en la re- 
gion de Queremal, alt. 1540-1650 m., Quebradita del km. 51, February 
25, 1947, Cuatrecasas 23714; Dept. Cauca: Quebrada de Bermejal, 
alt. 1600-1650 m., March 10, 1947, Cuatrecasas 23761. 

ECUADOR: San Jose', June, 1865, Isern 368 (isotype of M. Alma- 
groi Cuatr.). 

PERU: Loreto: Distrito Iquitos, Iquitos; trail to San Juan, alt. 
105 m., February 7, 1932, Mexia 6492 (isotype of M. antioquiensis 
var. subcuneata Rob.); Iquitos, alt. 120 m., March- April, 1930, 
Williams 8094; Iquitos, alt. 120 m., October, 1929, Williams 3632; 
Iquitos, alt. 100 m., August 3-11, 1929, Kit lip & Smith 27478; Mishu- 
yacu, near Iquitos, alt. 100 m., February-March, 1930, Klug 878; 
lower Rib Nanay, May-June, 1929, Williams 438; San Martin: Alto 
Rib Huallaga, alt. 360-900 m., December, 1929, Williams 6602; Zepe- 
lacio, near Moyobamba, alt. 1200-1600 m., December, 1933, Klug 
3427; La Merced, alt. 700 m., August 10-24, 1923, Macbride 5512; 
Junm: Pichis trail, Enenas, alt. 1600-1900 m., June 30-July 2, 1929, 
Killip & Smith 25626. 

BOLIVIA: region of Mapiri: San Carlos, alt. 900 m., March 2, 
1927, Buchtien 1586; same locality, alt. 850 m., January 12, 1927, 
Buchtien 1587; same locality, alt. 850 m., January 19, 1927, 
Buchtien 1588. 

At first, the type of M. ptaretepuiensis, with the conspicuously 
scabrous upper leaf surface and thickish leaf blades, appears to be 
distinct from the rest of the M. Banisteriae group, but it intergrades 
in all respects with the narrow-leaved leaf type of M. Banisteriae 
(M. antioquiensis var. subcuneata}. 



656 FIELDIANA: BOTANY, VOLUME 28 

Likewise, M. kavanayensis Badillo, based upon several collec- 
tions obtained by the writer from the Gran Sabana, appears rather 
distinct in having a shorter sparser type of pubescence on the lower 
leaf surface and a short scabrous pubescence on the upper surface. 
It also has a rather more densely pubescent corolla tube and achene, 
and the corolla limb is slightly more elongated than in most of the 
material of M. Banisteriae. But these characters are likewise vari- 
able in degree. The corolla lobes vary from nearly half the length of 
the limb to only 3/8 its length, while in most of M. Banisteriae the 
corolla lobes are usually equal to half the length of the limb. 
Mikania kavanayensis, thus, intergrades in too many respects to be 
maintained apart from M. Banisteriae. 

la. M. Banisteriae DC., forma lanuginosa (DC.) Steyermark, comb, 
nov. 

M. lanuginosa DC. Prodr. 5: 201. 1836; Baker in Mart. Fl. Bras. 
6, pt. 2: 261. 1876; M. Ruiziana Poepp. in Poepp. & Endl. Nov. Gen. 
& Sp. 3: 53- previous to July, 1845; Klatt in Engl. Bot. Jahrb. 3: 36. 
1887; M. caudata Benth. Pi. Hartw. 201. October, 1845; M. oniaensis 
Badillo, Bol. Soc. Venez. Cienc. Nat. 10: 297-298. 1946; M. cana- 
guensis Badillo, Bol. Soc. Venez. Cienc. Nat. 9: 132. 1944. 

Stems with tawny or brownish villous pubescence of mostly loose 
or spreading hairs; upper leaves ovate-oblong, merely rounded at 
base, the lower cordate, or all the leaves prevailingly cordate; invo- 
lucral bracts glabrous to glabrate without, or at most dorsally pube- 
rulous near or at apex. 

Specimens examined: 

BRAZIL: Parana: Serra do Mar, Ypiranja, September, 1908, Dusen 
6534; same locality, alt. 840 m., August 23, 1914, Dusen 15447; Rio 
Grande do Sul, August, 1941, Eugenia 78. 

VENEZUELA: Merida: along Rib Onia, near Bolero, north of 
Mesa Bolivar, alt. 545-915 m., May 23, 1944, Steyermark 56736 (type 
of M. oniaensis Badillo); Montanas de los alrededores de Canagua", 
alt. 1600 m., November 8, 1943, Badillo 562 (type of M. canaguensis 
Badillo). 

COLOMBIA: Distr. Cauca, ad pag. El Tambo, 1930, Elsa Hulten 
SO; highlands of Popayan, alt. 1500-2000 m., March, 1886, Lehmann 
B.T. 604; forest of Buenos Aires in Upper Qauca, alt. 1000-1500 m., 
Lehmann 5211; Norte de Santander: region del Sarare, Hoya del 
Rio Cubugo'n entre El Carano y El Indio, alt. 470-600 m., November 
12, 1941, Cuatrecasas 13016; Dept. Valle: Cordillera Occidental; 
filo de la Cordillera sobre Las Brisas, Monte El Tabor, alt. 1970- 
2100 m., October 19-22, 1946, Cuatrecasas 22310 (transitional to f. 
Lehmanniana); Cordillera Occidental: La Cumbre, February 24-26, 
1945, Cuatrecasas 19553; Dept. Cauca: Popayan, en La Capilla, 
alt. 1760 m., July 13, 1939, Cuatrecasas 6063; La Capilla, 25 km. 
north of Popayan, alt. 1740 m., May 24, 1944, Killip 38438; Dept. 
Antioquia: cerca de Santa Helena, camino entre Medelliin y Rio 
Negro, alt. 2500 m., October 2, 1947, Barkley, Gutierrez & Pueda 2; 
cerca de Boqueroncito, camino entre Medellin y Palmitas, alt. 2800 



BOTANICAL EXPLORATION IN VENEZUELA- III 657 

m., October 30, 1947, Gutierrez, Barkley & Fernandez 29; bosque de 
La Sierra, alt. 2800 m., September 18, 1947, Alviar, Ramirez & San- 
chez 11. 

PERU: Cuchero, 1829, Poeppig 1475 (isotype of M. Ruiziana 
Poepp.); prope Tarapoto, 1855-6, Spruce 4079; San Martin: San 
Roque, alt. 1350-1500 m., January-February, 1930, Williams 7497; 
Loreto: near Iquitos, July, 1929, Williams 1455. 

BOLIVIA: region of Mapiri: San Carlos, alt. 850 m., May 12, 
1927, Buchtien 1584. 

Ib. M. Banisteriae DC., forma Lehmanniana (Hieron.) Steyermarlc, 
comb. nov. 

M. Ruiziana Poepp. var. Lehmanniana Hieron. in Engl. Bot. Jahrb. 
19: 45. 1894; Willoughbya ferruginea Rusby, Mem. Torr. Bot. Club 
6: 58. 1896; Mikania ferruginea Rusby ex Buchtien, Contrib. Fl. 
Boliv. i: 190. 1910, where mentioned without char, or synon. but 
intended to apply to the same plant as Willoughbya ferruginea; 
Willoughbya hirsutissima Rusby, 1. c. and Bull. N.Y. Bot. Card. 4: 
381. 1907, not Ktze. 

Stems with usually spreading tawny-villous to subsetose pubes- 
cence; leaves mostly narrowly ovate, acute to caudate-acuminate, 
entire to sometimes coarsely dentate or occasionally with a single 
angle or lobe on one or both sides, appressed tawny-villous or 
setulose-pube scent on both surfaces, or becoming glabrate above; 
involucral bracts glabrous or glabrate without, or at most dorsally 
puberulous near or at apex. 

Specimens examined: 

BRITISH GUIANA: north of Tinanur Fall, Cuyuni River, Esse- 
quibo, March 10, 1931, Martyn 314. 

COLOMBIA: Villavicencio, December, 1928, Apolinar-Mana 429; 
Ocana: Teorama, alt. 1300 m., October 1846-52, Schlim 229; Tolima: 
Dolores, alt. 1000-1800 m., Lehmann 7483 (isotype of M. Ruiziana 
var. Lehmanniana); Dept. Valle: Cordillera Occidental, vertiente 
occidental: monte La Guarida, filo de la cordillera sobre La Car- 
bonera (entre Las Brisas y Alban), alt. 1950-2000 m., October 16-24, 
1946, Cuatrecasas 22219 (transitional to f. lanuginosa); Dept. Villa- 
vicencio: Int. El Meta: Villavicencio, alt. 500 m., October 12, 
1938, Cuatrecasas 3503. 

PERU: Junin: San Ramon, alt. 900-1300 m., June 9-12, 1929, 
Killip & Smith 24894. 

BOLIVIA: Guanai-Tipuani, April-June, 1892, Bang 1419 (isotype 
of M. ferruginea Rusby); Mapiri region: San Carlos, alt. 850 m., 
May 24, 1927, Buchtien 1594; same locality, alt. 900 m., May 4, 1927, 
Buchtien 1593; Calapampa, Yungas, July 3, 1894, Bang 2326. 

lc. M. Banisteriae DC., forma subglabra (Rob.) Steyermark, comb, 
nov. 

M. ferruginea Rusby var. subglabra Rob., Contr. Gray Herb. N.S. 
6, 104: 36. 1934. 



658 FIELDIANA: BOTANY, VOLUME 28 

Stems and petioles glabrous or obsoletely hirtellous; leaf blades 
ovate-oblong, usually rounded at the base, mostly entire, nearly 
glabrous or glabrescent. 

BOLIVIA: Mapiri Region: San Carlos, alt. 850 m., May 24, 1927, 
Buchtien 1576 (isotype of M. ferruginea var. subglabra Rob.). 

Id. M. Banisteriae DC., var. monagasensis (Badillo) Steyermark, 
comb. nov. 

M. monagasensis Badillo, Bol. Soc. Venez. Cienc. Nat. 10: 300. 
1946; M. bergantinensis Badillo, 1. c. 303- 1946; M. meridana Badillo, 
1. c. 303. 1946. 

Stem's and petioles mostly loosely and densely villous; leaf blades 
broadly ovate, mostly cordate at base, or the leaves mostly rounded 
at base, usually both sides softly appressed-pubescent; or villous; 
involucral bracts more or less conspicuously pubescent without. 

Specimens examined: 

VENEZUELA: Monagas: south-facing forested slopes above lime- 
stone bluffs, northeast of Gua'charo, alt. 1300-1400 m., April 11, 
1945, Steyermark 61990 (isotype of M. monagasensis); Anzoa'tegui: 
headwaters of Quebrada La Tigra, Cerro San Jose', between Bergan- 
tfn and Cerro Peonfa (Cerro Los Pajaritos), cloud forest of Fila 
Grande, alt. 1800-1850 m., March 19, 1945, Steyermark 61540 (iso- 
type of M. bergantinensis); Me'rida: above "La Isla," above Tabay, 
alt. 2285-2745 m., May 18, 1944, Steyermark 56631; rich woods be- 
tween Azulita and La Carbonera, alt. 1280-2378 m., April 24, 1944, 
Steyermark 56059; Montana de San Jacinto, on north side of Rio 
Chama, opposite Merida, alt. 2195-2375 m., May 19, 1944, Steyer- 
mark 56667. 

Mikania Hookeriana DC., var. crassicaulis Steyermark, var. nov. 

A typo differt foliorum laminis late ovatis vel suborbiculari-ovatis 
apice cuspidato-acuminatis vel acuminatis basi subrotundatis vel 
subtruncatis 5.5-15.5 cm. longis 4-12.5 cm. latis valde 5-nervatis, 
utrinque prominente reticulato-venulosis, subtus nervis principalibus 
valde prominentibus, subtus papilloso-resinosis vel pustulatis, supra 
glabris, integerrimis; caulibus lignescentibus prominente crassius- 
culis ad 12 mm. diam.; petiolis robustis crassiusculis 2-5 cm. longis 
3-4 mm. diam. inter se annulo tumido connexis, supra prominente 
canaliculatis, granulis sessilibus conspersis; inflorescentiae rhachi 
valde crassiuscula 2-4 mm. crassa striato-sulcata crispo-puberulis 
atque glandulis sessilibus ornatis; inflorescentia valde elongata ad 
4.5 dm. longa; capitulis ad apices ramorum paniculae dense spicatis; 
involucri squamis oblongis obtusis 4.5*5.5 mm. longis, dorso apicem 
versus puberulis; corollis ca.4 mm. longis extus glandulis sessilibus 
parce conspersis; achaeniis ca. 2.5 mm. longis glandulis sessilibus 
paucibus conspersis. 

Type in herb. Chi. Nat. Hist. Mus., collected on Ptari-tepui, steep 
wooded slopes just below dry ridge and shrubby growth, southeast- 
facing slopes, state of Boh'var, alt. 1585-1600 m., November 10-11, 
1944, Julian A. Steyermark 60015, "vine with thickened fleshy 



BOTANICAL EXPLORATION IN VENEZUELA -III 659 

flowering axis; leaves coriaceous, deep green above, pale green 
below." 

At first, it was believed that this collection represented an unde- 
scribed species. However, taking into consideration the amount of 
variability present in M. Hookeriana DC., as revealed by Dr. Robin- 
son (Contrib. Gray Herb. 104: 49'53- 1934), it was thought best to 
treat the present collection as a variety of M. Hookeriana, apparently 
related to var. platyphylla (DC.) Rob. 

This new variety resembles M. Hookeriana var. platyphylla in the 
shape of the leaf blades, but differs from it and other varieties of 
M. Hookeriana in having the lower leaf surface covered with nume- 
rous resinous glands or pustules, thicker, more coriaceous leaf 
blades, more prominently nerved on the lower surface, and on both 
surfaces more prominently reticulate-veined, strongly canaliculate 
upper surface of the petioles, which are covered with minute sessile 
glandular or papillose excrescences, and especially by the greatly 
thickened stems and flowering axes. The glands on the achenes and 
corollas found in var. crassicaulis are also encountered in various 
collections of M. Hookeriana var. platyphylla, and are noted by 
Robinson in his original description of M. vitrea ( = M. Hookeriana 
var. platyphylla) as "corollis ....limbo. ...paullo granulato." They 
are also found in the type collection of M. sanjacintensis Badillo 
( [Steyermark 56665 J - M. Hookeriana var. platyphylla) and in Steyer- 
mark 61369 (M. Hookeriana var. platyphylla). 

Mikania Hookeriana DC., var. platyphylla (DC.) Rob. 

Mikania sanjacintensis Badillo, Bol. Soc. Venez. Cienc. Nat. 10: 
298-299. 1946. 

A study of type and cotype material (Steyermark 56665 and 56171) 
of M. sanjacintensis leaves no doubt that it is conspecific with M. 
Hookeriana var. platyphylla. Robinson (Contrib. Gray Herb. 104: 
52. 1934) showed that M. platyphylla DC. and M. vitrea Rob. must 
be treated as varieties under M. Hookeriana DC., and that these 
were in turn related to other entities which he regarded as variations 
of M. Hookeriana, namely var. Badieri (DC.) Rob., var. Kittsiana 
(Urb.) Rob., and var. cardiophylla Rob. The plant described by 
Badillo has all the characters of var. platyphylla, i.e., robust stems 
with broadly ovate firmly membranaceous or subcoriaceous thickish 
leaves which are cuspidate-acuminate at the apex and obtuse or sub- 
truncate at base, and heads of flowers densely spicate at the tips 
of the panicle branches. 

Mikania lucida Blake, in Brittonia 3, 2: 199. 1939- 

Mikania Phelpsii Maguire & Steyermark, Brittonia 7: 89. 1950. 

A comparative study of the type specimens of M. lucida and M. 
Phelpsii leaves no doubt but that the two are conspecific. 

Mikania lucida Blake, f. hirticaulis Steyermark, f. nov. 

A typo differt caulibus petiolisque densiuscule puberulis; laminis 
subtus nervis principalibus puberulis; inflorescentiae ramulis pedi- 
cellisque valde puberulis; involucri bracteis extus puberulis; corol- 



660 FIELDIANA: BOTANY, VOLUME 28 

li's 4-4.5 mm. longis, tubo glandulis sessilibus obtectis; achaeniis 
3.5-4. 2 mm. longis glandulis sessilibus obtectis atque puberulis. 

Type in herb. Chi. Nat. Hist. Mus., collected in dense forest along 
Rio Karuai bordering savanna between base of Ptari-tepuf and 
Sororopa'n-tepuf, state of Bolivar, alt. 1220 m., November 28, 1944, 
Julian A. Steyermark 60735, "liana; leaves firmly membranaceous, 
rich deep green both sides; involucre pale green." 

This form differs from typical M. lucida in having densely pube- 
rulous stems, petioles, pedicels, and branches of the inflorescence, 
principal nerves of the lower leaf surface puberulous, and more pube- 
rulous achenes. 

Mikania Robinsoniana Steyermark, nom. nov. 

Mikania racemulosa Klatt, Abh. Naturf. Gesellsch. Halle 15: 
325. 1882 (in advance reprint p. 5. 1881), not M. racemulosa Benth. 
in Hook. Journ. Bot 2: 41. 1840. 

Mikania racemulosa Klatt, based on a plant collected by Fendler 
(62 5) from Colonia Tovar, is a rare species belonging to the section 
Thyrsigerae. The earlier homonym, M. racemulosa Benth., is syn- 
onymous with M. scabra DC., a species pertaining to the section 
Racemosae. 

Mikania stictophora Steyermark, sp. nov. 

Planta volubilis; caulibus purpureis, juvenilibus sulcato-striatis 
moderatim hirsutulis pilis multicellularibus patentibus praeditis, 
vetustioribus paullo hirsutulis vel glabrescentibus ad 4 mm. diam.; 
internodiis superioribus 6-10 cm. longis; foliis oppositis petiolatis, 
petiolis 3-8 mm. longis supra subcanaliculatis, laminis coriaceis 
supra atroviridibus obovatis vel ellipticis apice breviter acuminatis 
vel acutis acumine obtusa basi cuneatis 4-8.7 cm. longis parte 
media 1.5-3.8 cm. lads, subtus valde atropunctatis glandulis sessili- 
bus numerosis praeditis, supra glabris vel glabrescentibus, margini- 
bus integerrimis pilis paucibus remotis brevissimis praeditis, pinna- 
tim plerumque 7-nervatis, nervis lateralibus utroque plerumque 3" 
arcuato-adscendentibus ante marginem 2-4 mm. anastomosantibus, 
nervis lateralibus infimis supra basin 7-14 mm. nascentibus; inflo- 
rescentiis spicatis simplicibus vel parte inferiore ramosis lateralibus 
vel terminalibus 5-13 cm. longis; rhachi sulcata 1-1.5 mm. diam. 
glandulis sessilibus numerosis obtectis; capitulis sessilibus, inter- 
nodiis inter capitula 3*11 mm. longis; involucri squamis oblongis 
apice rotundatis vel late obtusis 4.6-5 mm. longis '1.1-1.3 mm. latis 
dorso valde glandulis sessilibus conspersis; corollis 4-4.2 mm. 
longis pallide viridibus, parce glandulis sessilibus luteis consper- 
sis, tubulo 2-2.3 mm. longo; pappi setis 36-42 albidis, 3.7-4.2 mm. 
longis setuloso-serrulatis; achaeniis maturis fuscis 3.8-4.2 mm. 
longis sparse glandulis sessilibus conspersis. 

Type in herb. Chi. Nat. Hist. Mus., collected on Ptari-tepui, steep 
forested slopes at base of first line of sandstone bluffs, on south- 
facing part, east of "Cave Rock," state of Bolivar, alt. 2130 m., 
November 4, 1944, Julian A. Steyermark 59860, "vine, scrambling at 



BOTANICAL EXPLORATION IN VENEZUELA -III 661 

base of bluffs; leaves coriaceous, dark green above, dull green 
below; rachis and bracts pale green; corolla pale greenish; style 
recurved, yellow- green; pappus white; stems dull purple." 

This species is a member of the section Spiciformes as defined by 
Robinson. It is closely related to M. manaosensis Hieron., de- 
scribed from Manaos, state of Amazonas, Brazil, and like that 
species has the involucral bracts, corollas, and achenes covered 
with sessile glands. It differs from manaosensis, however, in the 
thicker coriaceous leaves, glandular rachis, hirsutulous stems, 
lowest pair of lateral nerves arising higher from the base, and the 
numerous punctate glands covering the lower leaf surface. From 
M. Sprucei Baker it may be distinguished by the presence of sessile 
glands on the parts above mentioned and by the hirsutulous stems. 
Superficially, it resembles M. roraimensis Rob. in habit, but that 
species is glabrous throughout, even to the achenes, rachis, and 
involucral bracts, and has pedicellate heads. 

Mikania Stuebelii Hieron., var. larensis (Badillo) Steyermark, comb, 
nov. 

Mikania larensis Badillo, Bol. Soc. Venez. Cienc. Nat. 10: 
298. 1946. 

Mikania Stuebelii Hieron. of Colombia belongs to a group of 
species, to which pertain such others as M. laurifolia (L. f.) Willd. 
and M. clematidiflora Rusby of Colombia, and M. baccharoides 
Rusby and M. eucosma Rob. of Bolivia. All these species possess a 
similar habit of growth, the leaves being small, ovate, coriaceous to 
subcoriaceous, entire or sparsely denticulate, usually prominently 
3-5-plinerved above base, and glabrous. 

Of this group M. laurifolia is clearly differentiated from the others 
in having the achenes covered with sessile glands and in the punc- 
tate lower surface of the leaf blades. The differences separating the 
other species rest mainly on the sessile or pedicellate florets, 
pubescence or glabrity of the inflorescence, leaf margin, and pu- 
bescence or glabrity of involucral bracts. 

Mikania larensis, recently described by Badillo from Venezuela 
and based upon a collection made by the present author (Steyermark 
55386), cannot be clearly separated from M. Stuebelii. The two fully 
match each other in such details as size of heads, which are usually 
subsessile and in 3 >s ciliate involucral bracts, mostly glabrous 
dorsally, slightly puberulent achenes, and remotely denticulate 
triplinerved leaves. They differ as follows: the inflorescence of 
typical Af. Stuebelii is rusty-puberulent or tomentulose, whereas in 
M. larensis it is glabrous or glabrate; the achenes in M. Stuebelii are 
4-5 mm. l n g a d in M. larensis are usually about 6 mm. long; the 
leaf blades in M. larensis are elliptic-ovate and somewhat approach 
those of M. Stuebelii var. latifolia Hieron. in shape, but are less 
pointed and less denticulate, as well as shorter-petiolate. In all 
other respects I find it difficult to distinguish M. larensis from M. 
Stuebelii var. typica (-var. Stuebelii) and var. latifolia, and it, 
therefore, appears feasible to merge M. larensis as a variety with 



662 FIELDIANA: BOTANY, VOLUME 28 

the M. Stuebelii group. 

Mikania vitifolia, forma cryptodonta (Rob.) Rob. 

Mikania anzoatiguensis Badillo, Bol. Soc. Venez. Cienc. Nat. 
10: 301. 1946. 

Study of type material of Mikania anzoatiguensis and M. crypto- 
donta Robinson, and of specimens of M. cryptodonta cited by Robin- 
son, leaves little doubt that the two are conspecific. Robinson 
later (Contrib. Gray Herb. 104: 55. 1934) reduced his M. cryptodonta 
to a form of M. vitifolia, a procedure which is consistent with the 
degree of variation found between M. vitifolia and M. cryptodonta. 

The two Venezuelan collections (Steyermark 61376 and 61335), 
upon which Badillo based his description, have the subentire to 
minutely denticulate ovate cuspidate leaves, which are not lobed or 
angled, characteristic of the forma cryptodonta. 

Oliganthes roraimensis Steyermark, sp. nov. 

Frutex 1-1.3-metralis; ramulis angulatis striatis sordido-tomentel- 
lis, tomento adpresso obsitis; foliis oppositis vel alternates petio- 
latis, petiolis 6-13 mm. longis supra canaliculatis adpresso-tomentel- 
lis; laminis firmiter membranaceis supra atroviridibus rugulosis 
glabris, subtus pallido brunneis tomento adpresso obsitis, oblongo- 
ellipticis vel elliptico-lanceolatis apice obtusis basi subcuneatim 
angustatis subtus revolutis 3-5-7 cm. longis 1-3.2 cm. latis, inte- 
gerrimis, nervis lateralibus utroque 10-14 subtus prominulis; in- 
florescentia corymbiformi polycephala 1.5-1.7 cm. alta 3.2-3.5 cm. 
lata; capitulis umbellatim decompositis plerumque trifloris 
cylindricis 6-7 mm. longis 2-2.5 mm. latis pedicellatis, pedicellis 
3-4 mm. longis adpresso tomentello pallido brunneo obsitis; invo- 
lucro 4-5 mm longo, bracteis 4-5 seriatis, extimis infimisque dorso 
tomentellis, ceteris apicem versus et marginibus parce pubescentibus 
ceterum glabris, ovatis obtusis; achaeniis brunneis subturbinatis 
costatis 2-2.2 mm. longis ca. 15 mm. latis, superne valde glandu- 
losis ceterum glandulis remotis sessilibus obsitis; pappo duplo 
aristis interioribus 8-12 elongatis linearibus setuloso-serratis ca. 4 
mm. longis 0.3*0.4 mm. latis, aristis exterioribus inaequalibus 
minoribus plerumque 0.6-1 mm. longis irregulariter laceratis. 

Type in herb. Chi. Nat. Hist. Mus., collected on Mount Roraima, 
forested southwest-facing quebrada near Rondon Camp, state of 
Bolivar, alt. 2040 m., September 25, 1944, Julian A. Steyermark 
58678, "shrub 3*4 feet tall; leaves firmly membranaceous, dark dull 
green above, buff brown below; involucre buff-brown; pappus 
likewise." 

This species is found on the upper slopes of Mount Roraima at an 
elevation of 2040 meters, and is related to O. Schomburgkii Sch. Bip. 
of the same region, but usually found at lower elevations at the base 
of this mountain between 975-1065 meters. It differs from O. Schom- 
burgkii in having smaller obtuse leaf blades which are buff brown 
instead of silvery gray or silvery white below and which are not as 
conspicuously reticulate-veined below. The upper surface of the 



BOTANICAL EXPLORATION IN VENEZUELA -III 663 

leaf blades in O. roraimensis is more finely rugulose and almost 
bullate. The fruiting heads and involucres are smaller than in O. 
Schomburgkii, and the achenes are more conspicuously glandular 
above. Finally, the lowermost involucral bracts are more densely 
tomentose as contrasted with the other bracts, which are sparsely 
pubescent at the tip and otherwise glabrous, whereas in O. Schom- 
burgkii they are more pubescent dorsally and the marginal hairs 
are longer. 

From O. Spruceana Benth. of the Rio Atabapo region of the vicinity 
of Maypures in Venezuela, Ot roraimensis may be distinguished by 
its pedicellate heads with the involucral bracts much less pubescent, 
the inner ones obtuse, instead of acute, and with a different shape. 
Oliganthes Spruceana also possesses fewer elongated inner awns of 
the pappus and a more glabrous achene. 

Oyedaea Blakeana Steyermark, sp. nov. 

Suffrutex scandens 1.8-2.8-metralis; caulibus fusco-purpureis pilis 
adscendentibus densissime tuberculato-hispidulis 3.5*4 mm. diam.; 
internodiis 2.2-3.5 cm. longis; foliis oppositis petiolatis; petiolis 
5-8 mm. longis densissime tuberculato-hispidulis; laminis firme 
membranaceis supra atroviridibus lanceolato-ellipticis utrinque 
acutis vel acuminatis 4.5-8.5 cm. longis 1.5-2.8 cm. latis penni- 
nerviis, nervis lateralibus utroque 9*12 subtus prominentibus supra 
pilis brevibus leviter scabris subtus densiuscule strigilloso-hispidu- 
lis, manifeste serratis, dentibus utroque 7-9 ca. 1 mm. longis in 
basin integram cuneatam angustatis; capitulis 10-15 cymoso-panicu- 
latis ad apices ramosum terminalibus; disco in anthesi 0.9-1 cm. 
alto 0.9-1 cm. lato; pedicellis 0.7-1.6 cm. longis densissime his- 
pidulis; involucre 3-seriato bracteis exterioribus ovato-lanceolatis 
acuminatis 5.5 mm. longis valde squarrosis strigilloso-hispidulis; 
radiis luteis 10 oblongo-ellipticis 16.5 mm. longis 5 mm. latis; 
corollis disci luteis 5.5-6 mm. longis (tubulo 1.3 mm. longo, fauce 
cylindrico 3.2 mm. longo, dentibus 0.9 mm. longis) glabris dentibus 
extus minutissime pilosulis exceptis; paleis lanceolatis acutis 
7.5-8 mm. longis carinatis supra praesertim ad carinam scabris; 
achaeniis radii trigonis angulis pubescentibus 3-5-aristatis; achae- 
niis disci compressis obverse cuneatis angustate alatis subtrigonis 
angulis pubescentibus 2-aristatis, aristis inaequalibus 2-4 mm. 
longis hispidulis, basi cum squamellis intermediis in cyathum ir- 
regulariter erosum 1-1.3 mm. altum connatis (Fig. 141). 

Type in herb. Chi. Nat. Hist. Mus., collected in edge of woods by 
bluffs, Cerro Duida, southeastern-facing sandstone bluffs near Cano 
Negro (tributary of Canb Iguapo), Territorio Federal Amazonas, alt. 
1095-1520 m., August 16, 1944, Julian A. Steyermark 58047, "sprawl- 
ing or vining stems, 5-8 feet tall; rays and disk yellow; anthers 
brown-purple; bracts green, the tips squarrose; leaves firmly mem- 
branaceous, deep green above, dull green below with raised nerves; 
stems dull purple." 

This well-marked species is dedicated with great pleasure to Dr. 
S. F. Blake, Senior Botanist of the U.S.D.A., who has made out- 



664 FIELDIANA: BOTANY, VOLUME 28 

standing and fundamental contributions to the better understanding 
of Oyedaea and other members of the Heliantheae, in particular, and 
of the Compositae in general. 

Oyedaea Blakeana is especially distinctive in its combination of 
prominently nerved membranaceous conspicuously serrulate leaves, 
cuneately narrowed at the base, and by the small heads. It probably 
is related to O. scaberrima (Benth.) Blake of Roraima, which has 
only obscurely serrulate leaves and much less prominent nerves on 
the lower leaf surface. 

Oyedaea verbesinoides DC., var. glabrior Steyermark, var. nov. 

A typo differt caulibus foliis, pedicellis, et bracteis involucri 
inconspicue hispidulis vel glabrescentibus; caulibus et pedicellis 
adpresso-hispidulis pilis basi tuberculatis; foliis triplinervis 
lanceolato-ellipticis utrinque acutis 4.5-15 cm. longis 1.2-4.5 cm. 
latis, supra vix tuberculato-hispidulis vel glabrescentibus subtus 
paullo hispidulo-pilosulis vel glabriusculis, marginibus subrevolutis 
subintegerrimis vel remote adpresso-serrulatis dentibus utroque 9*12; 
disco 1-1.3 cm. alto 0.8-1.3 cm. lato; bracteis involucri valde squar- 
rosis ciliolato-hispidulis cetenim parce hispidulis vel glabrescenti- 
bus achaeniis fuscis 6.5 mm. longis 2 mm. latis paullo strigillosis. 

Type in herb. Chi. Nat. Hist. Mus., collected on south-facing 
steep slopes, on rocky exposed shrubby portion of knife-edge ridge 
above tree zone, Cerro Peonfa (Cerro Los Pajaritos), above Santa 
Cruz, headwaters of Rio Manantiales, east of Bergantin, state of 
Anzoategui, alt. 1800-2000 m., March 20, 1945, Julian A. Steyer- 
mark 61612, "shrub 3*4 feet tall; rays yellow; disk dull yellow, 
bracts squarrose; leaves subcoriaceous-chartaceous, dull green 
above, gray green below." 

This variety may be distinguished from typical O. verbesinoides 
by the relative paucity of pubescence on all vegetative parts. The 
stems and pedicels are appressed-hispidulous, and the leaves and 
outer surface of the involucral bracts sparsely or minutely hispidu- 
lous or glabrescent in part. 
Oyedaea verbesinoides DC., var. hypomalaca Steyermark, var. nov. 

A typo differt foliis minoribus, laminis subtus dense molliter 
pubescentibus; foliis subcoriaceis valde rugosis 3*6 cm. longis 1.5- 
3.2 cm. latis grosse crenato-serratis dentibus utroque 7-15, supra 
atroviridibus dense tuberculato-hispidulis subtus cinereis dense 
molliter tomentosis; bracteis involucri dense hispidulo-pilosulis. 

Type in herb. Chi. Nat. Hist. Mus., collected on Cerro Negro, 
above La Sabana de las Piedras, northwest of Caripe, state of 
Monagas, alt. 1500-2180 m., April 15, 1945, Julian A. Steyermark 
62095, "rays and disk yellow; leaves subcoriaceous, dark green 
above, gray green below, rugose, subrevolute on margins." 

At first it was believed that this plant represented a distinct 
and undescribed species of Oyedaea. The small rugose closely 
crenulate-serrate leaves which are densely and softly tomentose on 
the lower surface, and the densely hispidulous outer surface of the 



BOTANICAL EXPLORATION IN VENEZUELA -II I 665 





FIGURE 141 

Oyedaea Blakeana 

A, Leaf, from below (X 1); B, Ray achene and pappus (X 9); C, 
Disk flower (X 14); D, Detail of pappus in disk flower (highly 
magnified). 



666 FIELDIANA: BOTANY, VOLUME 28 

involucral bracts stamp the plant at once as different from typical 
O. verbesinoides. However, it does not appear to be more than an 
extreme small-leaved pubescent variation of that species, and may 
be shown to intergrade into that species by such collections as 
Steyermark 62130 and Bro. Elias 51 in which a similar type of 
tomentum occurs on the lower surface of mostly larger leaves, and 
in Steyermark 61818, in which the youngest leaves of vegetative 
shoots exhibit the same type of tomentum. 

Pectis venezuelensis Steyermark, sp. nov. 

Herba annua, valde ramosa, 1.5-3 dm. alta, ramis divaricatis gla- 
bris angulatis; foliis lanceolato-linearibus vel linearibus apice acu- 
tis, 7-15 mm. longis 1.5*2.5 mm. latis ad basin paribus 1-3 setarum 
ciliatis, subtus inordinate glandulosis; capitulis ex angulis dicho- 
tomiarum prodeuntibus et terminalibus, 10-20 mm. longe peduncula- 
tis, 4-5 mm. longis 3*3.5 mm. crassis, pedunculis glabris, bracteas 
2-4 lanceolato-subulatis gerentibus; involucri bracteis 8, oblanceo- 
lato-oblongis acutato obtusis vel obtusiusculis 3*3.1 mm. longis 
1.2-1.3 mm. latis, marginibus supra medium et apice paullo ciliolatis, 
valde concavis, dorso inferne obtuse carinatis, infra apicem 0.6-0.7 
mm. 1-2 glandulis obsitis; floribus 23 in quoque capitulo, 8 radii, 
15 disci; ligulis 2.1-2.5 mm. longis, lamina obovata apice rotundata 
3-crenulata; corollis florum disci 1.5-1.7 mm. longis, lobis 0.6-0.7 
mm. longis; pappo florum radii et florum disci consimile inaequaliter 
laciniatis in setas numerosas ferrugineas 0.3*0.5 mm. longas basi 
connatis; achaeniis nigrescentibus 2.2-2.3 mm. longis moderatim 
vel dense adpresso-pilosis (Fig. 142). 

Type in herb. Chi. Nat. Hist. Mus., collected in upland savana 
with Curatella, 5 kms. west of Upata, state of Bolivar, alt. 500 m., 
July 31, 1944, Julian A. Steyermark 57528, "stems bushy-branching, 
1/2-1 foot tall; flowers yellow; leaves lemon-scented." 

It is reported that a drink ("te") is prepared from the plant. After 
immersing the plant in boiling water, the infusion is drunk like a 
lemonade, and used in the treatment of fevers. 

This species is related to P. Swartziana Less, of the West Indies, 
Central America, and northern South America. It is distinguished 
from that species by the smaller heads of shorter involucral bracts, 
the latter with only 1-2 glands below the apex, and otherwise gland- 
less, the shorter pappus, and the moderately to densely appressed- 
pilose achenes. From P. brachycephala Urb. it may be distinguished 
by the longer, more pubescent achenes, broader leaves, fewer flowers 
per head, and 8 oblanceolate-oblong involucral bracts. 

Piptocarpha polycephala Baker, Mart. Fl. Bras. 6, pt. 2: 125. 1873. 

Piptocarpha kavanayensis Badillo, in Bol. Soc. Venez. Cienc. 
Nat. 10, no. 68: 280. 1946. 

Piptocarpha kavanayensis Badillo, based on Steyermark 60410 
from the region of Santa Teresita de Kavanayen in the state of 
Bolivar, Venezuela, appears to be conspecific with P. polycephala 
Baker, a species originally collected in the Mount Roraima region. 



BOTANICAL EXPLORATION IN VENEZUELA - III 667 



The specimens of the type collection of 
P. polycephala (Schomburgk 575} have 
been examined by me in the Chicago 
Natural History Museum Herbarium. 
They show the same type of leaf nerva- 
tion, leaf shape, and tomentum color on 
the lower leaf surface, and identical 
pappus, achene, and involucral charac- 
ters as exhibited in P. kavanayensis. 
Although the type collection of P. poly- 
cephala has the lower surface of the 
leaves more softly tomentose with some- 
what longer tomentum than in P. kavana- 
yensis, a topotype of P. polycephala 
(Pinkus 45 from vicinity of Arabupu, 
Mount Roraima district) has leaves with 
the shorter tomentum found in P. kavana- 
yensis. 

The heads in P. polycephala are de- 
scribed as 6-8-flowered. Although Badil- 
lo described the heads of P. kavanayen- 
sis as "4-5'flora," a careful examination 
of isotype material of this species dis- 
closes the heads to be mostly 6-7-flower- 
ed, rarely 5"flowered. Badillo further 
described the petioles as 12-15 mm. in 
length. Again, isotype material reveals 
the petioles to reach a length of 22 mm. 

While the leaves average somewhat 
larger in P. kavanayensis than those 
found in the type collection of P. poly- 
cephala, this variation is so slight as to 
suggest only a normal type of variation. 
Apparently as the plant matures, the 
lower surface of the leaves becomes less 
softly tomentose, since both Pinkus 45 
and Steyermark 60410 are more mature 
specimens with shedding heads of 
achenes than those of Schomburgk 575. 
Polymnia meridensis Steyermark, sp. nov. 

Herba ramosissima 1.3-1.7-metralis; 
caulibus supeme glandulari-hispidulis; 
ramulis junioribus pedunculisque dense 
glandulari-hispidulis; foliis membrana- 
ceis oppositis permagnis subhastato- 
deltoideis apice acutis vel acuminatis, 

sinuate angulosis, angulis acutis, remote denticulatis triplinerviis, 
praesertim infra, supra densissime asperulo- 
brevibus valde strumulosis 0.5-0.75 mm. longis 
densissime molliter pilosis, caulinis superioribus 



FIGURE 142 

P ectis 
venezuelens is 

Achene with 
pappus (X 50). 



reticulato-venosis 
scabridis pilis 
obtectis, infra 



668 FIELDIANA: BOTANY, VOLUME 28 

principalibus 15-25 cm. longis 15-20 cm. latis, laminis in petiolum 
alatum 6.5-8 cm. longum 2-2.5 cm. latum subito decurrentibus basi 
in auriculam subrotundatam semiamplexicaulem ampliatis; inflo- 
rescentiis corymboso-trichotomis terminalibus; pedunculis dense 
glandulari-hispidulis; floribus luteis; capitulis hemisphaericis; 
involucri squamis exterioribus 5 late suborbiculari-ovatis vel 
rhombeo-ovatis apice obtusis vel rotundatis 12-13 mm. longis 10-12 
mm. latis, extus pilis glandulosis brevibus densissime obtectis, 
marginibus glandularibus, intus praesertim parte superiore pilis 
glandulosis praeditis ceterum glabris, squamis interioribus breviori- 
bus oblongo-lanceolatis acutis 6.5-7 mm. longis 2.5*3.5 mm. latis 
subcucullatis extus pilis glandulosis longioribus adscendentibus 
prope medium paullo confertis intus glabris; floribus radiis involucre 
longioribus 12-15 tubo extus pilis glandularibus obtectis basi pilis 
villosis, ligulis 9-nervatis obovatis 10-12 mm. longis 4.5-5 mm. 
latis, apice rotundatis extus pilosis tridenticujatis dentibus 0.8-0.9 
mm. longis extus et apicem versus pilosis, styli parte exserta 1.75-2 
mm. longa, 1/4- 1/5 longitudinem ligulae aequanta; floribus disci 
masculis numerosis, corollis tubulosis infra medium angustatis 
7.5-8 mm. longis, lobis tuboque dorso pilosis pilis adscendentibus 
praeditis; receptaculi paleis oblongo-lanceolatis subobtusis 7 mm. 
longis 1.8-2 mm. latis, marginibus supra medium minute glandulari- 
bus, cetenim glabris; achaeniis radii nigris subobovatis apice 
oblique rotundatis 4.5 mm. longis 3 mm. latis (Fig. 143)' 

Type in herb. Chi. Nat. Hist. Mus., collected in rocky thickets 
on slopes below Chachopo, state of Me'rida, alt. 3045 m., July 22, 
1944, Julian A. Steyermark 57519, "branching herb, 4-5 feet tall; 
rays yellow; disk dull yellow; leaves membranaceous. " 

This species superficially resembles P. edulis Wedd. (P. sonchi- 
folia Poepp.), but differs in numerous respects. The style of the 
ray florets is only 1/4-1/5 the length of the ligule, whereas it be- 
comes 1/2 the length of the ligule in P. edulis; the tube of the 
fertile ray florets in P. edulis is densely white-villous throughout 
with non-glandular hairs, whereas in P. meridensis the tube is 
covered with glandular hairs in the upper half and only sparsely 
pilose with non-glandular hairs near the base; the outer involucral 
bracts are shorter than the ligules, are twice as broad as in P. edu- 
lis, are of a different shape, rounded or obtuse instead of acute to 
acuminate, and densely glandular on the outside, whereas in P. 
edulis the outer bracts are sparsely villous in the upper half and 
only sparsely glandular in the lower half; the inner involucral 
bracts in P. meridensis are covered with glandular hairs on the out- 
side, whereas in P. edulis they are hirsute without and conspicuous- 
ly ciliate; the disk florets in P. meridensis are conspicuously pubes- 
cent on the outside, both on the tube and the lobes, whereas in P. 
edulis they are glabrous on the tube and only sparsely ciliate on the 
lobes; the receptacular pales in P. edulis are hispid with long hairs 
on the outer surface and 1-1.5 mm. wide, whereas in P. meridensis 
they are glabrous except for the minutely glandular margins, and are 
1.8-2 mm. wide; in P. meridensis the peduncles and upper parts of 



BOTANICAL EXPLORATION IN VENEZUELA -III 669 








D 



FIGURE 143 

Polymnia meridensis 

A, Pistillate ray floret (X 5); B, Staminate disk floret (X 7.5); 
C, Palea (X 7.5); D, Outer involucral bract, dorsal surface (X 4.5); 
E, Inner involucral bract, dorsal surface (X 4.5). 



670 FIELDIANA: BOTANY, VOLUME 28 

the stems are densely rough-glandular-hispidulous, whereas in P. 
edulis the peduncles are densely white-villous and the upper parts 
of the stems are pilose, becoming glabrescent, but the hairs are not 
glandular as in P. meridensis. Finally, the upper surface of the 
leaves in P. meridensis is covered with a dense rough strumulose 
pubescence of short hairs having an enlarged subpersistent base, 
whereas in P. edulis the upper surface is covered with longer softer 
rather appressed hairs. 

Polymnia sonchifolia, described by Poeppig from Peru, agrees in 
all respects with P. edulis Wedd., and is here considered 
con specific. 

Qnelchia Cardonae Steyermark, sp. nov. 

Arbor 6-metralis, ramulis teretibus striatis in sicco nigro- 
fuscentibiis, apice tomentosis; foliis longe petiolatis, laminis sub- 
coriaceis late obovatis apice rotundatis retusis apiculatis, basi 
subcuneato-obtusis, 7.5*11.5 cm. longis 3.5*5 cm. latis, nervis 
lateralibus utroque latere 10-11 integris, supra reticulato-venosis 
glabris vel subglabris, subtus praesertim novellis plus minusve 
laxe tomentellis; petiolis basi dilatatis 1.5-2.5 cm. longis dense 
brunneo-tomentellis vel glabrescentibus; capitulomm glomerulis 
pedunculatis, pedunculis ad 8-9 cm. longis dense tomentellis; 
corymbis subhemisphaericis multi-capitulis; capitulis cum bracteis 
foliosis late ovatis vel suborbicularibus apice rotundatis 1.3-2.2 
cm. longis 1.2-1.8 cm. latis subtendentibus; capitulis congestis 
sessilibus, 1-floris 12-13 mm. altis; involucre fusiformi-cylindrico 
irregulariter 4-5-seriatis, bracteis 11-12, omnibus dense brunneo- 
tomentellis interdum apice glabratis exceptis, extimis ovatis apice 
rotundatis 3 mm. longis 3 mm. latis, medianis oblongis apice rotun- 
datis vel obtusis 9 mm. longis, 3 mm. latis, intimis oblongo- 
lanceolatis, apice obtusis 10-11 mm. longis 2.5 mm. latis; corollis 
regularibus glabris 7.5-8.5 mm. longis anguste cylindricis, profunde 
5-lobis, tubo brevissimi 1- 2 mm. longo, lobis linearibus 5*6 mm. 
longis apice rotundatis vel obtusis crassiusculis; antheris 7-7.5 mm. 
longis basi caudato-sagittatis, appendice lanceolato subobtuso 0.5* 
0.7 mm. longo, tubo 5 mm. longo, caudicibus lanceolatis acutis 
1.5*1.6 mm. longis hispidulo-barbulatis; stylo glabro ramis brevibus 
truncatis 1 mm. longis; achaeniis subapplanatis nigro-brunneis 
leviter paucicostatis 4.5*5 mm. longis 0.7-0.8 mm. latis glabris; 
pappo luteo-albido ad 8 mm. longo, setis scabridis. 

Stamens with free filaments; anthers syngenesious, the tails of 
adjacent anthers connate for about half their length; achene not 
narrowed at summit, lightly several-co state (sometimes 6-costate); 
pappus bristles subequal, finely and closely scabridulous (Fig. 144). 

Type in U.S. Nat. Herb % (no. 1932227), collected on " cumbre del 
Cerro Acopan," Rfo Caroni, Guayana, state of Bolivar, alt. 2200 m., 
Octubre, 1947, F. Cardona 2288, ' 'arbusto 6 m., fls. blancas." 

It is noteworthy to encounter a second species in this previously 
known monotypic genus, represented heretofore by Q. conferta N. E. 
Brown from the summit of Mount Roraima. This new species, named 



BOTANICAL EXPLORATION IN VENEZUELA -III 671 









H 



FIGURE 144 

Quelchia Cardonae 

A, Involucre (X 3); B, Outer involucral bract (X 3); C, Middle in- 
volucral bract (X 3); D, Inner involucral bract (X 3); E, Portion of 
anther (X 8); F, Detail of tails of anther (highly magnified); G, Style 
branches (highly magnified); H, Portion of corolla with lobes (highly 
magnified). 



672 FIELDIANA: BOTANY, VOLUME 28 

in honor of its collector, Captain Felix Cardona Puig, was found on 
the summit of Acopan-tepui, another of the large isolated mesas of 
the Venezuelan Guyana. It lies far to the southwest of Mount 
Roraima. 

Quelchia Cardonae differs in several respects from Q. conferta. 
It is much taller in habit of growth, the leaves are larger with a 
denser brownish tomentum on the lower surface, especially of young- 
er leaves, the peduncles are more elongated, the heads are larger 
and subtended by larger more suborbicular leaf-like bracts, the invo- 
lucral bracts are larger and obtuse or rounded at the apex, the inner 
and middle ones densely brown-tomentulose, whereas in Q. conferta 
these are glabrous or glabrescent, and the corolla is longer in Q. 
Cardonae. 

It is possible that the achenes examined in Q. Cardonae are some- 
what immature, but they are not subterete as described in Q. conferta; 
rather they are flattened, 2-angled, grooved, and lightly co state. 

Sabazia urticaefolia (H.B.K.) DC., var. venezuelensis Steyermark, 
var. nov. 

A typo differt foliis minoribus et achaeniis per omnes partes 
dense hispidulis. 

Type in herb. Chi. Nat. Hist. Mus., collected on pastured open 
slopes of mountain between Santo Domingo and Los Quebraditos, 
south of Las Sabanetas, above Humocaro Bajo, state of Lara, alt. 
2430-2475 m., February 8, 1944, Julian A. Steyermark 55379, "rays 
lavender; disk golden." 

Local name: ' ' pira georgen." 

The inhabitants of this region locally use the plant as a pot herb 
when cooked. 

Typical S. urticaefolia was described originally from Ecuador. The 
achenes in the original description (Humb., Bonpl., & Kunth, Nov. 
Gen. & Sp. PI. 4: 257. pi. 389. 1820) are stated to be "laevia, mar- 
gine hispidula," while the plate shows them to be hispid over the 
entire surface. An examination of a specimen from Peru (Towns end 
A 177) preserved in the herb. Chi. Nat. Hist. Mus. shows the achenes 
to be nearly glabrous with a slight hispidulous pubescence developed 
near the apex. In var. venezuelensis the achenes are densely hispi- 
dulous throughout and the leaves are smaller with shorter dentations. 

Soliva anthemidifolia R. Dr., var. lanuginosa Steyermark, var. nov. 

A specie differt foliis brevioribus angustioribus 1.5-2 cm. longis 
5-9 mm. latis, pinnis bipinnatis vel bipinnatifidis ca. 3-jugis, seg- 
mentis anguste linearibus 1.5-3 mm. longis 0.2-1 mm. latis manifeste 
lanuginosis, petiolis 5*8 mm. longis eis et rhachibusque valde lanu- 
ginosis; capitulis sessilibus dense lanuginosis; achaeniis late ob- 
longis apice truncatis 2.2-2.5 mm. longis 1-1.5 mm. latis. 

Type in herb. Chi. Nat. Hist. Mus., collected in sunny open dry 
ground, between Buenos Aires to Canyon of El Callado, above 
Humocaro Alto, state of Lara, alt. 2285-2740 m., February 12, 1944, 



BOTANICAL EXPLORATION IN VENEZUELA -HI 673 

Julian A. Steyermark 55506- 

Cotype in herb. Chi. Nat. Hist. Mus., collected in waste places 
and in cultivation, San Rafael de Mucuchies, state of Merida, 
January 17, 1929, Pittier 13194. 

This new variety is distinguished by its more densely lanuginose 
leaves, affecting the leaf segments as well as the petioles and 
rachis, relatively shorter and narrower leaves, more densely lanugi- 
nose involucres of the flowering heads, and somewhat shorter 
achenes. "In typical S. anthemidifolia (with which I would include 
S. Mutisii H.B.K.) the achenes are comparatively longer in propor- 
tion to their width, measuring 2.5"3.5 mm. l n g> whereas in var. 
lanuginosa they are 2.2-2.5 mm. long. As more collections become 
available, it is possible that this variety of the higher altitudes of 
the Venezuelan Andes may prove to be a distinct species. 

Stenopadus talaumifolius Blake, var. magnifolius Steyermark, 
var. nov. 

A specie recedit foliis majoribus, laminis 10-21 cm. longis, 3.5-8 
cm. latis, laxe reticulato-venosis, nerviis lateralibus 9-13-jugis; 
petiolis 1-3 cm. longis glabris vel glabratis; internodiis 0.5-3 cm. 
longis; pedunculis breviter pedunculatis 1-2 cm. longis dense 
strigillosis; capitulis 17-floris; involucris 4 cm. altis subcylindrico- 
ellipticis basi angustatis valde graduatis ca. 11-12-seriatis; phylla- 
riis adpressis coriaceis extus strigillosis 5-23 mm. longis 3-8 mm. 
latis; corollis 30 mm. longis, tubo 18 mm. longis, lobis 12 mm. 
longis; antheris 11 mm. longis, caudicibus 2 mm. longis. 

Tree 10-15 m. tall; older branches pale brown, 1 cm. in diameter, 
those of the season darker brown; leaf blades subcoriaceous, obo- 
vate, obtuse or rounded, shining above, 10-21 cm. long, 3.5- 8 cm. 
wide, loosely reticulate on both sides, glabrous; petioles stout, 
1-3 cm. long, glabrous; disk 4 cm. high, about 2 cm. thick; phylla- 
ries dull brown, coriaceous with thinner margin, the outermost broadly 
ovate, 5 mm. long, 4 mm. wide, the next ones ovate, 10-12 mm. long, 
6-8 mm. wide, the middle ones oblong-lanceolate, acute to obtuse, 
18 mm. long, 6-7 mm. wide, the innermost linear-lanceolate or lanceo- 
late, acute, 23 mm. long, 3-4 mm. wide, all densely strigillose with- 
out; receptacle flattish, glabrous, up to 8 mm. in diameter, the pales 
one or few, narrowly linear, 28-29 mm. l n g> 0.4 mm. wide, hirsutu- 
lous without; corollas fleshy, the tube 18 mm. long, cylindric to the 
middle, then funnelform, 3.5-4 mm. wide at apex, the segments 
linear-lanceolate, acuminate, strongly revolute, 2-nerved, 12 mm. 
long; anthers 11 mm. long, the terminal appendages broadly lanceo- 
late, acute, 2 mm. long, the sacs 7 mm. long, the tails narrowly lan- 
ceolate, acuminate, 2 mm. long, backward-serrulate; style finely 
asperulous, the branches oblong-lanceolate, subsquarrose, acutish, 
glabrous; achenes black, 4-angled, about 5-ribbed, 9-13 mm. long; 
pappus buff or sordid- whitish, 1.5-2 cm. long. 

Type in U.S. Nat. Herb. (no. ^1932175), collected on Cerro Are- 
puchi, Rib Carom', state of Bolivar, alt. 600 m., September, 1947, 
F. Cardona 2190. 



674 FIELDIANA: BOTANY, VOLUME 28 

Additional collections, both in U.S. Nat. Herb., are: same local- 
ity, alt. 600-800 m., April, 1945, F. Cardona 1181; and en el Rio 
Surukun, afluente Rio Carom, alrededor del campamento Perai-tepui, 
state of Bolfvar, alt. 900 m., March 17, 1947, F. Cardona 2095. 

At first, the three collections cited above were believed to consti- 
tute a distinct new species closely related to S. talaumifolius 
Blake. Vegetative differences are in the larger and more elongated 
leaf blades with the upper surface more loosely reticulate-veined 
with larger areoles, less coriaceous blades, longer petioles and 
internodes, and taller trees. Dissection of the flower revealed 
these differences: the anther and corolla lobes are slightly shorter 
in S. talaumifolius var. magnifolius, and the middle and inner phyl- 
laries are somewhat longer. However, all other measurements were 
so close to those taken by Blake for S. talaumifolius, including 
size of disk and involucre, pappus, and achene, that it was deemed 
wiser to indicate a relationship with S. talaumifolius as varietal in 
nature. Future collections will probably reveal more overlapping in 
floral measurements than are apparent at present. In general, the 
specimens of Cardona have more mature achenes and show less rib- 
bing than noted by Blake. The achenes which I have examined in 
the Tate type collections of S. talaumifolius appear less mature. 

Verbesina Blakeana Steyermark, sp. nov. 

Frutex 1.8-3.3-metralis, ramis glabris striatis 2.5-7 mm. diam.; 
internodiis 0.9*1.2 cm. longis; foliis alternis sessilibus subcoriaceo- 
chartaceis subtus albidis oblanceolatis apice acuminatis basi angu- 
statis 5.5-9.5 cm. longis 0.8-2.1 cm. latis, marginibus integerrimis 
revolutis supra glabris costa media substrigillosa excepta subtus 
dense albido-tomentosis, nervis lateralibus utroque ca. 10 ante mar- 
ginem anastomosantibus supra valde sulcatis cum venis reticulatis, 
subtus prominentibtis; paniculis terminalibus polycephalis; pedicel- 
lis 6-15 mnu longis dense pilosulis; capitulis radiatis ca. 1.2-1.3 
cm. latis; disco 5-7 mm. alto 5-6 mm. lato; involucre ca. 2-seriato 
5 mm. alto, bracteis anguste oblongis vel oblongo-lanceolatis apice 
obtusis vel rotundatis extus parce pilosulis: radiis 4-6 albidis 
elliptico-obovatis apice rotundatis inaequaliter trilobatis, lamina 
4 mm. longa 2.5 mm. lata dorso parce puberula, tubo 2 mm. longo 
piloso; corollis disci ca. 14 albidis 4 mm. longis extus parce pube- 
rulis (tubo 1.25-1.5 mm. longo, fauce 1.5-1.7 mm. longo, lobis ovatis 
1.25-1.5 mm. longis); paleis oblanceolato-oblongis breviter mucro- 
natis 5-5.75 mm. longis ciliolatis; achaeniis (immaturis) compressis 
5.25 mm. longis angulis dense pilosis angustissime alatis; aristis 
2, setulosis 2.5-2.75 mm. longis. 

Type in herb. Chi. Nat. Hist. Mus., collected between Mucutuy and 
Mucuchachf, state of Me'rida, alt. 1065-2430 m., May 4, 1944, Julian 
A. Steyermark 56300, "shrub 5-10 feet tall; rays white; disk florets 
white, with anthers gray- lavender; leaves white below." 

This is apparently a member of section Ochractinia and is out- 
standing in its combination of glabrous stems, narrow sessile leaves 
whitened beneath and mostly glabrous above, and relatively small 



BOTANICAL EXPLORATION IN VENEZUELA -III 675 

heads of white flowers. It is a pleasure to dedicate this species to 
Dr. S. F. Blake, Senior Botanist of the U. S. D. A., who has con- 
tributed so much to the better understanding of this genus. 

Verbesina exalata Steyermark, sp. nov. 

Perennis herbacea 2.3"2.8-metralis, caulibus dense sordideque 
pilosis superne et ramis floriferis lanulosis pilis elongatis onustis; 
foliis alternis elliptico-ovatis vel ovali-ovatis apice acuminatis 
basi in petiolum cuneate margin atum contractis 13" 24 cm. longis 
5-8 cm. latis irregulariter leviterque repando-denticulatis, dentibus 
utroque 30-40 ad mucrones callosos reductis, supra dense scabro- 
hispidulis pilis basi tuberculatis subtus dense subtomentosis, 
nervis lateralibus principalibus utroque 9-15 adscendentibus subtus 
prominulis; petiolis immarginatis supra basin 1 cm. cum lamina de- 
currentibus; paniculis terminalibus polycephalis 2-4 dm. diam.; 
ramulis vel pedunculis 3.5-15 cm. longis laxe sordideque lanuloso- 
pilosis pilis elongatis onustis; pedicellis ultimis 3*9 mm. longis 
laxe lanuloso-pilosis, pilis elongatis; bracteis ultimis linearibus 
1.5-2 mm. longis; capitulis 0.8-0.9 cm * latis; disco 4-7 mm. alto 
2.5*4 mm. diametro; involucre 2-seriato 3.5-4 mm. alto, bracteis 
lanceolatis late oblanceolatis vel oblanceolato-spathulatis abrupte 
acuminatis mucronatis pilosis; radiis 4-7 albidis ovalibus vel late 
oblongis apice rotundatis trilobulatis, lamina 2.75*3 mm. longa 
1.75-1.9 mm. lata, tubo 1.3-1.5 mm. longo piloso; corollis disci 
19-21 albidis 2.5*3 mm. longis (tubo 0.5-0.75 mm. longo piloso, 
fauce infundibuliformi 1.5 mm. longo extus puberulo, dentibus ovatis 
0.7-0.8 mm. longis); paleis spathulato-obovatis acutis mucronatis 
4.25-4.5 mm. longis dorso pilosis dense longeciliatis; achaeniis 
(immaturis) cuneato-obovatis substipitatis 2.25-2.5 mm. longis parce 
pilosis angustissime alatis; aristis 2, inaequalibus 2.25-2.5 mm. 
longis setulosis. 

Type in herb. Chi. Nat. Hist. Mus., collected on dry south-facing 
slopes above Caracas, Cordillera del Avila, between Colegio Nacio- 
nal de Enfermera and Los Venados, Distrito Federal, alt. 1065-1520 
m., January 5, 1944, Julian A. Steyermark 55176, ''ray flowers white; 
disk dull white with blackish anthers; herb 5"7 feet tall with several 
stems at base." 

This species of section Ochractinia strikingly resembles the 
Guatemalan V. scabriuscula Blake, but differs in the shorter rays, 
fewer disk corollas, larger and less compact inflorescences, longer 
awns of the achenes, and looser longer pubescence of stems, flower- 
ing branches, peduncles, and pedicels. 

Verbesina negrensis Steyermark, sp. nov. 

Frutex 1.8-5-metralis, ramis glabris purpureis superne 0.8-1.3 cm. 
diam.; internodiis 1-2 cm. longis; foliis alternis petiolatis firme 
membranaceis atroviridibus costa media subtus purpureo-1 an ceo latis 
vel anguste ellipticis utrinque acuminatis 10-20 cm. longis 2.3-4.5 
cm. latis crebre dentatis, dentibus utroque 30-40, 1-2 mm. altis, fere 
omnino glabris costa media parce puberula excepta, penninerviis, 
nervis lateralibus utroque 25-30 divaricate patentibus ante marginem 



676 FIELDIANA: BOTANY, VOLUME 28 

anastomosantibus subtus prominulis; paniculis terminalibus poly- 
cephalis; pedicellis 1.2-1.5 cm. longis dense puberulis; capitulis 
discoideis, disco in anthesi 7-12 mm. alto 4-6 mm. lato, in fructu 
ad 13 mm. lato; involucre 1-seriato 4.5-6 mm. longis, bracteis 
oblongo-lanceolatis acutiusculis extus parce puberulis, marginibus 
ciliolatis; corollis 10-16 sordido-albidis 5*5.25 mm. longis (tubo 
1.5-1.8 mm. longo extus pilosis, fauce infundibuliformi 1.2-1.75 mm. 
longo extus dense hispido-pilosis, lobis lineari-oblongis 2-2.75 mm. 
longis marginibus ciliatis ceterum fere glabris; paleis oblongo- 
lanceolatis vel oblongo-oblanceolatis subito acutis vel acuminatis 
7.5-8 mm. longis 2.5*3.5 mm. latis extus plerumque glabris margini- 
bus ciliolatis; achaeniis obovatis compressis breviter hispidulis 
6.5*7 mm. longis 4-5 mm. latis prominenter alatis, alis 0.6-1 mm. 
latis parce ciliolatis, aristis 2 setulosis 1.5-3.5 mm. longis. 

Type in herb. Chi. Nat. Hist. Mus., collected between Bailadores 
and Paramo de la Negra, state of Me'rida, alt. 2285-2430 m., July 7, 
1944, Julian A. Steyermark 57066, ' 'shrub 15 feet tall; leaves firmly 
mem bran ace ous, deep green above, dull green below with dull laven- 
der midnerve below; stem purple as is base of petiole; peduncles 
pale green; corollas dull white; stamens black; stigmas white." 

Cotype in herb. Chi. Nat. Hist. Mus., collected in thickets be- 
tween La Grita and Paramo de la Negra, alt. 2130-2510 m., July 19, 
1944, Steyermark 57470, "common; shrub 5-8 feet tall; flowers 
whitish and dull brown; leaves coriaceous, deep green and shin- 
ing above, dull green below." 

This belongs to section Lipactinia and is related to V. laevifolia 
Blake of Venezuela, from which it differs in the narrower, more 
slender pointed, more closely dentate leaves with more numerous 
divaricately spreading lateral nerves, more numerous disk corollas, 
and broader- winged achenes. It also resembles V. simulans Blake, 
likewise of Venezuela, but that species, among other characters, 
has radiate heads, more numerous disk flowers, and fewer lateral 
nerves of the leaf blades. 

Verbesina Schomburgkii Sch. Bip. 

Verbesina guianensis Baker, in Mart. Fl. Bras. 6, part 3>: 211. 
1884. 

Verbesina guianensis Baker apparently cannot be maintained as 
distinct from V. Schomburgkii Sch. Bip. in Schomb. Versuch. Faun. 
Fl. Brit. Guiana, 1078. 1848, nomen subnudum; Klatt, Leopoldina 
20: 94. May, 1884. In their treatment of the genus Verbesina, 
Robinson & Greenman (Proc. Am. Acad. 34: 56>564. 1899) attempt- 
ed to separate V. Schomburgkii and V. guianensis as follows: 
''leaves 'sessile': heads numerous" for V. guianensis as con- 
trasted with "leaves narrowed below to distinct petioles; corymbs 
few-headed." These authors themselves regarded V. Schomburgkii 
as a species of doubtful value with the questionable status of ' 'a 
form of the preceding?" 

In his review of the section Lipactinia of Verbesina, Blake (Am. 
Journ. Bot. 12: 625*640. 1925) likewise maintained both species as 



BOTANICAL EXPLORATION IN VENEZUELA -III 677 

distinct, but used the number of florets in a head as his criterion 
for separating the two, V. guianensis being keyed out under ' 'heads 
4-24-flowered," V. Schomburgkii under ' 'heads 40-90-flowered." 
Blake further notes that in V. guianensis the heads are "about 20- 
flowered" and in V. Schomburgkii "40-flowered." In both species 
the pales are pubescent above (loc. cit. pp. 638 and 639)- Blake, 
who had not seen the type of V. guianensis, followed Baker in 
calling the leaves " sessile," as contrasted with their being peti- 
olate in V. Schomburgkii, but my own examination of a photograph 
of part of the type of V. guianensis (Schomburgk 654) and of a leaf 
fragment of the same collection preserved in the Herbarium of the 
Chicago Natural History Museum shows the leaves of V. guianensis 
to be as petiolate as they are in V. Schomburgkii. Two recent col- 
lections, one from Mount Roraima, the type locality of V. Schom- 
burgkii (Steyermark 58670), and another in the same general region 
(Steyermark 60070) show heads with 36 and 44 flowers respectively. 

Since I believe that V. Schomburgkii and V. guianensis were col- 
lected from the same or practically the same region, and that the 
differences between a 20-flowered and 36- or 44-flowered plant, 
when not combined with other differences, is not sufficient to main- 
tain these two as distinct species, it would seem proper to unite 
them as one. 

While both species were validly published in May, 1884, it is here 
proposed to use the name V. Schomburgkii, since it was first pro- 
posed as early as 1848, and 36 years prior to Baker's V. guianensis, 
although only as a nomen. Then, later in May, 1884, it was validly 
published by Klatt. 

Verbesina tachirensis Steyermark, sp. nov. 

Frutex 3.3"5-metralis, ramis juvenilibus ochraceo-griseis striatis 
dense substrigoso-pilosis; foliis alternis petiolatis membranaceis 
utrinque graciliter rugosis subtus cinereo-viridibus elliptico-ovatis 
vel late ellipticis utrinque acuminatis 8-20 cm. longis 2.7-8.3 cm. 
latis subintegris vel obscure crenulatis, dentibus utroque ca. 20 
minutis inconspicuis, supra graciliter scabris pilis tenuibus basi 
tuberculatis subtus dense hispido-pilosis pilis incurvatis substri- 
gosis, nervis lateralibus utroque 7-9 eis atque reti venanim promi- 
nulis; petiolis 1.5*3.5 cm. longis densissime sordido-pilosis 1.5-2 
cm. basi immarginatis; paniculis terminalibus polycephalis; pedi- 
cellis dense hispido-pilosis 7-13 mm. longis; capitulis radiatis ca. 
1.3-1.5 cm. latis; disco 5-10 mm. alto 5*9 mm. lato; involucre 2- 
seriato 3-5-5 mm. alto, bracteis ovato-lanceolatis apice calloso- 
mucronatis subsquarrosis extus hispido-pilosis; radiis 3*4 albidis 
late elliptico-oblongis apice trilobatis, lamina 4.5 mm. longa 2.5-2.8 
mm. lata, tubo 2 mm. longo hispido-piloso; corollis disci 14-19 
cinereo-albidis vel -nigris 3.5*4 mm. longis extus hispido-pilosis 
(tubulo 1 mm. longo dense hispido-piloso, fauce 1.2-1.5 mm. longo 
anguste infundibuliformi, dentibus lanceolatis 1.5 mm. longis); paleis 
late oblongo-lanceolatis compressis acutiusculis 5.1*5.5 mm. longis 
parte superiore extus hispido-pilosis; achaeniis compressis nigris 



678 FIELDIANA: BOTANY, VOLUME 28 

5~5.5 mm. longis 2.5 mm. latis sparse strigillosis angustissime ala- 
tis, alls ciliolatis basibus aristarum 2 inaequalium setulosarum 2-3 
mm. long arum adnatis. 

Type in herb. Chi. Nat. Hist. Mus., collected between Las Deli- 
cias and Paraguita, bordering Rio Ta'chira, along Colombian- 
Venezuelan boundary, state of Tachira, alt. 1675-1890 m., July 
12, 1944, Julian A. Steyermark 57149, ''shrub 10-15 feet tall; 
leaves membranaceous, finely rugose both sides, deep dull green 
above, gray green below; rays white; disk grayish-black; the corolla 
tube greenish; lobes grayish-black with white margins; anthers 
blackish; stigma white." 

This is a member of the section Ochractinia and related to the 
Colombian V. synethes Blake and V. nudipes Blake, and V. oli- 
gactis Blake. From V. synethes it differs in the smaller heads with 
3-4 instead of 8 rays, different type of leaf pubescence, and more 
petiolate leaf blades. It has more numerous rays, more numerous 
disk flowers, and less pairs of lateral nerves of the leaf blades 
than V. oligactis, and from V. nudipes it may be distinguished by 
the smaller number of lateral nerves of the leaf blades, fewer flow- 
ers per head, and sparsely strigillose achenes. 



Publication 724 



c/ 



UNIVERSITY OF ILLINOIS-URBAN*