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Full text of "Contributions to North American ethnology. Vol. I-VII, IX"

CONTRIBUTIONS TO NORTH AMERICAN ETHNOLOOY 



VOL. II PART I FRONTISPIECE 



121" 







joke 



121° 



Scale: 15 miles to 1 inch. 

MAP OF THE HEADWATERS OF THE KLAMATH RIVER. 
By Albert S. Gatschet. 



1 01 






c 



^f\ 



DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR 

U. S. GEOGRAPHICAL AND GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OF THE ROCKY MOUNTAIN REGION 

J. W. POWELL IN Charge 



THE 



KLAMATH INDIANS 



OF 



SOUTHWESTERN OREGON 



BUREAU OF ETHNOLOGY 

1912 

1891 
LIBRARY. 



BY 



ALBERT SAMUEL GATSCHET 




WASHINGTON 

GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE 
1800 



A^ 



CONTENTS. 

PAET I. 

Page. 
Letter of transmittal vii 

Ethnographic sketch ix 

Texts 1 

Grammar 199 

PART ii; 

Dictionary — Klamath-English „ 1 

Dictionary — English-Klaraath 493 

ILLUSTRATION. 

Map of the headwaters of the Klamath River Frontispiece. 



LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL. 



Smithsonian Institution, 

Bureau of Ethnology, 
Washington, D. C, June 25, 1890. 

Sir: I have the honor to transmit to you my repoit upon the Klamath 
Indians of Southwestern Oregon, the result of long and patient study. It 
deals with their beliefs, legends, and traditions, their government and social 
life, their racial and somatic peculiarities, and, more extensively, with their 
language. To this the reader is introduced by numerous ethnographic 
"Texts," suggested or dictated by the Indians themselves, and accompanied 
by an interlinear translation and by "Notes," a method which I regard as 
the most efficient means of becoming acquainted with any language. In 
this report I have given prominence to the exposition of the language, 
because I consider language to be the most important monument of the 
American Indian. Archaeology and ethnography are more apt to acquaint 
us with facts concerning the aborigines, but language, when properly inves- 
tigated, gives us the ideas that were moving the Indian's mind, not only 
recently but long before the historic period. 

Repeated and prolonged visits to the people of the northern as well as 
of the southern chieftaincy have yielded sufficient material to enable me to 
classify the language of both united tribes as belonging to a distinct family. 
In their territorial seclusion from the nearer Indian tribes they show anthro- 
pologic differences considerable enough to justify us in regarding them as 
a separate nationality. 

There is probably no language spoken in North America possessed 
of a nominal inflection more developed than the Klamath, although in 
this particular, in the phonetic elements and in the syllabic reduplication 
pervading all parts of speech, it shows many analogies with the Sahaptin 



VII 



Vlll 

dialects. The analytic character of the langiiag'e and its synthetic character 
balance each other pretty evenly, much as they do in the two classic lan- 
guages of antiquity. 

Concerning the ethnography of both chieftaincies and the mythology 
of the Modoc Indians, I have gathered more material than could be utilized 
for the report, and I hope to publish it at a later day as a necessary sup- 
plement to what is now embodied in the two parts of the present volume. 
Very respectfully, yours, 

Albert S. Gatschet. 
Hon. J. W. Powell, 

Director of the Bureau of Ethnology. 



ETHNOGKAPHIC SKETCH 



OF THE 



KLAMATH PEOPLE. 



THE KLAMATH INDIANS OF SOUTHWESTERN OREGON. 



By Albert S. Gatschet. 



ETHNOGRAPHIC SKETCH OF THE PEOPLE. 

INTEODUGTIOK 

The Klamath people of North Aniei-ican Indians, the subject of this 
descriptive sketch, have inhabited from time immemorial a country upon 
the eastern slope of the Cascade Rang-e, in the southwestern part of the 
territory now forming the State of Oregon. Tliat territory is surrounded 
by mountain ridges and by elevations of moderate height, and watered by 
streams, lakes, marshes, and pond-sources issuing from the volcanic sands 
covering the soil. The secluded position of these Indians within their 
mountain fastnesses has at all times sheltered them against the inroads of 
alien tribes, but it has also withlield from them some of the benefits which 
only a lively intercourse and trade with other tribes are able to confer. 
Tlie climate of that upland country is rough and well known for its sudden 
changes of temperature, which in many places render it unfavorable to 
agriculture. But the soil is productive in edible roots, bulbs, berries, and 
timber, the limpid waters are full of fish and fowl, and game was plentiful 
before the white man's rifle made havoc with it. Thus the country was 
capable of supplying a considerable number of Indians with food, and they 
never manifested a desire to migrate or "be removed to a better country." 
The topography of these highlands, wliich contain the headwaters of the 
Klamath River of California, will be discussed at length after a mention of 
tlie scanty literature existing upon this comparatively little explored tract of 
land. 

XI 



Xll ETHNOGRAPHIC SKETCH. 



BIBLIOGEAPHY. 

The list below contains titles of books and articles upon the two tribes 
of the Klamath people, which are of scientific interest, whereas others, also 
mentioned in this list, are of popular interest only. Several of the latter I 
have never been able to inspect personally. Dui-ing the Modoc war a large 
number of articles appeared in the periodical press, expatiating upon the 
conduct of that war, the innate bravery of the Indian, the cruelty of the 
white against the red race, and other commonplace topics of this sort. As 
the majority of these were merely repetitions of facts with which ever}^ 
reader of the political press was then familiar, I did not secure the titles of 
all of these articles. 

Army and Navy Journal: 

A weekly periodical publislied in New York from 1863 to 1880. 4°. Duriug the 
Modoc war of 1872-1873 many strategic articles appeared iu it upoa the con- 
duct of that war, composed by a specialist. 

At WELL, William: 

War correspondent of the periodical "Sacramento Record" at the time of the 
Modoc war. Mentioned iu Note to Texts (p. 48). 

Bancroft, Hubert Howe: 

(1) In section: "The Northern Califoruians" (Vol. I, pp. ;32G-3G1) of "Native 

Races," where tlie Klamath Lake aiid Modoc tribes are referred to iu connec- 
tion with other tribes. Notes and literature, pp. 443, 444. 

(2) Remark on the Klamath lautruage; list of numerals. In "Native Races," 

Vol. Ill, p. 640. (San Francisco, Gal., 1882. 8°.) 

Bland, T. A. : 

Life of Alfred B. Meachain, together with his lecture, "The tragedy of the lava 
beds," delivered in I'ark Street Church, Boston, Mass. Illustrated by seven 
portraits. Washington, 1883. 8°. 48 pp. (Published by the author.) 

Clark, W. C: 

Vocabulary of the Modoc of Southern Oregon. Manuscript, 12 i)p. 4°. Collected 
iu 1878 at Yaneks. Iu the Library of the Bureau of Ethnology. 

Clarke, Wllliam J.: 

Rock piles and ancient dams in the Klamath Valley. American Antiquarian, 
1885, pp. 40, 41. (Refers to the obstructions in the river at Linkville, etc.) 

Drake, Samuel G. : 

The Aboriginal Races of North America, etc. Fifteenth edition. By Professor 
Williams. New York, 1880. 8°. Appendix: The Modocs and the Modoc 
War, pp. 707-714. 



BIBLIOGRAPHY. xiii 

Fields, Captain, U. S. Army: 

The Modoc War. The causes which led to it and the results. Correspoudeuce 
of the Constitution, Atlanta, Ga., Sundays, October 13 aud 20, 1S89. 

Fkemont, Col. J. C. : 

The Exploring Expedition to the Eocky Mountains, Oregon and California, etc. 
New York and Auburn, 18uC. Small 8°. 450 pp. aud map. (May, 184:2, to 
August, 1844.) Klamath Country of Oregon, pp. 283-204. Snake Indians, 
p. 297. Summer Lake, p. 290. Abert Lake, p. 292. (Passed only through 
the eastern part of the countrj- and from Klamath Marsh northward.) 

Gabb, Dr. William M. : 

Vocabulary of the Klamath of Southern Oregon. MS. 10 leaves. 4°. 150 words. 
Collected by 7neaus of the Chinook Jargon in 18C4. In the Library of the 
Bureau of Ethnology. 

Gatschet, Albert S.: 

(1) Adjectives of color in Indian Languages. In American Naturalist, XIII, pp. 
475-485. Philadelphia, 1879. 

(2) The same was, with few changes only, published in German under the head- 

ing: "Farbenbenennungen in nordamerikanischen Spracheu." In Zeitschrift 
fiir Ethnologic, Vol. XI, Berlin, 1879. The first of che seven languages spoken 
of is the Klamath of Oregou. 

(3) Sketch of the Klamath language of Southern Oregon. In Amer. Antiquarian, 

I, pp. 81-84. (1878-1879.) 

(4j Mythologic text in the Klamath language of Southern Oregon, with transla- 
tion and comments. Ibid., I, pp. 161-166. 

(5) The numeial adjective in the Klamath language of Southern Oregon. Ibid., 

II, pp. 210-217. (1879-1880.) 

(6) Volk und Spracheder Maklaks im siidwestlichen Oregou. In Globus, illustr. 

Zeitschrift f. Lauder- und Viilkerkuude, Vol. 35, No. 11, pp. 167-171 und 
187-189. 4°. Braunschweig, 1879. 

(7) Three short texts were published in the First Annual lieport of the Bureau of 

Ethnology, Washington, 18:il. Imp. 8°. pp. 583-587, with commentaries: 
Details of a conjurer's practice; TheEelapse; Sweat Lodges. (They are also 
embodied in the author's Eeport, under "Texts." 

Hadley, Lewis F.: 

Vocabulary of the Modoc. Manuscript in three blank books, ou 34 unpaged 
leaves. 4°. In the Library of the Bureau of Ethnology. 

Hale, Horatio: 

Ethnography and Philology of the United States Exploring Expedition during 
the years 1838-1842, under the command of Charles Wilkes, U. S. Navy. 
This work forms Vol. VI of the report of that expedition, and was published 
Philadelphia, 1840. 4°. It contains about 190 words of the "Lutuami"or 
Klamath language, pp. 570-029. The words which Mr. Hale obtained for 
father, nine, yes, dead show that his informant was a Klamath Lake and not 
a Modoc Indian. 



xiv liTILNOGKArillC SKETGU. 

Jackson, William Henry: 

Pliotofxraphs of Klamath Lake and Modoc, Indians were taken by liini, and tlie 
subjeeis described in hi.s Descriptive Catalogue of the I'liotoKraphs of the 
U. S. Geological Survey of the Territories, from 1869 to 1873, inclusive; F. V. 
Ilaydeii in charge. 8°. 
Latuam, Roueet G. : 

Comparative vocabulary of the Lutuami, Shasti, Palaik, and Yakon. In "Ele- 
ments of Comparative Philology," London, 1S()2, ])[). 407-408. Compare with 
it the list he gives in "Transactions of Philological Society ol Loudon," 18riG, 
pp. 74-76. 
Mattiiews, Dr. Washington: 

Notes and Vocabulary of tiie Modoc. Obtained from Slulks or George Denny, 
lirisoner at A-lcatraz Fort, in the harbor of Sau Fraucisco, Gal. Manuscript, 
pp. 50, fol. 
Meacham, a. B.: 

(1) Wigwam and Wari)ath, or the Royal Chief in Chains, with portraits, etc. 

Boston, John P. Dale & Co.; second edition, 1875, 8°. 700 pp. 
(J) Winema and her People. Hartford, Conn., Bliss & Co., 1870. 12°. 160 pp. 
Miller, Joaquin : 

Life amongst the Modocs: Unwritten History. London, Bentley, 1873. 8°. 400 
pp. Also with the title transposed: Unwritten History: Life atnongst the 
Modocs. Illustrated from new designs. Hartford, Couu,, Amer. Publishing 
Co., 1874. 80. 445 pp. 
Modocs, the, and Death of General Canby : 

In the "Republic," of Washiugtou, D. C, Vol. I, 118. (1873.) 
Modoc Massacre, the: 

In Harper's Monthly, Vol. 47, p. 139. (1873.) 
MtJLi.EK, Dr. Friedrich: 

Grundriss der Sprachwissenschaft, Vol. II. (Wien, 1883.) P. 431, the numerals 
of the "Lutuami." 
Newberry, J. S., M. D. : 

Geology of Pit River and Klamath Basins. Iii "Report upon Explorations for a 
Railroad Route from the Sacrauiento Valley to the Columbia River; made by 
* Lieut. R. S. Williamson." Wasliington, 1855, Vol. VI, Part II, pp. 34-39. 
New York Herald, the : 

J. G. Bennett, the proprietor of tills daily jjaper, hail dispatched a special corre- 
spondent to the seat of the Modo(! war, who sent home many long and graphic 
accounts, which were published in the Herald, accompanied by maps. 
I'owERS, Stephen: 

(1) Vocabulary of the Jlodoc Language. Manuscript, 1 fol. sheet, 31 words. In 

Library of Bureau of Ethnology. 

(2) The Modok. Forms Chapter XXVII ot his "Tribes of California," printed in 
J. W. Powell's Contributions to North American Ethnology. Washington, 
1877. Quarto. Vol. Ill, pp. 252-200; numerals also on p. 45. 



TUE HOME OF THE KLAMATH PEOPLE. XV 

(3) The Modocs. Forms No. 8 of a serial of Powers's articles; "The Galiforiiian 
Indiaus" (1872-187:1), and is contained in tbe Overland Monthly, San Fran- 
cisco, Cariuany & Co., 1873, June number, pp. 535-545. With a myth, "The 
woman of stone" (at Nilakshi mountain). 

EussELL, Israel C. : 

A Geological Eecouuaissauce in Southern Oregon. In Powell's Fourth Annual 
Eeport of U. S. Geological Survey, Washington, 1884. Imper. octavo; pi). 
4.33 to 464, with maps and illustrations. This article has furnished several 
data to nij- "Ethnographic Sketch." 

SnASTAS, THE, AND THEIK NEIGHBORS. 1874: 

A manuscript in the possession of Mr. H. H. Bancroft, Saa Francisco. 
Turner, W. M. : 

Scraps of Modoc History. In Overland Monthly of San Francisco, Vol. XI, 
21-25. (1873.) 

ViCToi;, Mrs. Frances Fuller (of Salem, Oregon): 

(1) History of the Modoc War. In manuscript. 

(2) Indians of Oregon. In Overland Monthly of San Francisco, Vol. VII, 344-352, 

especially p. 348. (1871.) 

(3) All over Washington and Oregon. San Francisco, 1872. 

Williamson, Lieut. R. S., and Crook, Lieut. George II.: 

Vocabulary of the Klamath Language. In Reports of Explorations, Vol. VI, 
Part 1, pp. 71-72, Washington, 1857. 4°. 

GEOGRAPHY OF THE KLAMATH HIGHLANDS. 

The first part in the historical and social study of a tribe or nation 
must be a thorough examination of the country and of the climate (in the 
widest sense of this term) in which it has grown up, for these two agen- 
cies give character to peoples, races, languages, institutions, and laws. 
This principle applies equally to the cultured and to the ruder or less 
developed populations of the globe, for none of them can possibly liold 
itself aloof from the agencies of nature, whether acting in a sudden man- 
ner or gradually, like the influences of climate. The races inhabiting coasts, 
islands, peninsulas, jungles, plains, prairies, woodlands, foot-hills, mountains, 
and vallevs differ one from anotlier in having distinguishing characteristic 
types indelibly impressed upon tlieir countenances by their different envi- 
ronments. That upland and mountaineer tribes have made very different 
records from those of nations raised in plains, lowlands, on coasts and i.slands 
is a fact of which history gives us many well-authenticated instances. 



XVI ETllNO(iKAI'lJJ(l SKETCU. 

THE HOME OV THE TEOI'LE. 

The home of tlie Klamath tribe of southwestern Oregon lies upon the 
eastern slope of the southern extremity of the Cascade Range, and very 
neai-l}' coinoides with what Ave may call the headwaters of the Kliiniath 
River, the main course of which lies in Northern California. Its limits 
are outlined in a general manner in the first paragraph of the treaty con- 
cluded between the Federal Government and the Indians, dated October 
14, 18G4, which runs as follows: "The Indians cede all the country included 
between the water-shed of the Cascade Mountains to the mountains dividing 
Pit and McCloud Rivers from the waters on the north; thence along this 
water-shed eastwards to the southern end of Goose Lake; thence northeast 
to the southern end of Harney Lake;* thence due north to the forty-fourth 
degree of latitude; thence west along this same degree to Cascade Range." 
It must be remarked that the homes and hunting-grounds of two "bands" 
of the Snake Indians were included within these limits, for these people 
were also made participants to the treaty. 

Here, as with all other Indian tribes, the territory claimed must be 
divided into two parts, the districts inclosing their habitual dwelling-places 
and those embodying their hunting and fishing grounds, the latter being 
of course much larger than the former and inclosing them. The habitual 
haunts and dwelling-places of the tribes were on the two Klamath Lakes, 
on Klamath Marsh, on Tule Lake, and on Lost River. Some of these 
localities are inclosed within the Klamath Reservation, of which we will 
speak below. 

The Cascade Range is a high mountain ridge following a general 
direction from north to south, with some deflections of its main axis. The 
line of perpetual snow is at least 10,000 feet above the sea-level, and the 
altitude of the highest peaks about 12,000 to 14,000 feet. On the west side 
the sloping is more gradual than on the east side, where abrupt precipices 
and steep slopes border the Klamath highlands and the valley of Des 
Chutes River. The range is the result of upheaval and enormous volcanic 

* Harney Fjakc; is tlie westeru portion of Malheur Lake, and now united with it 
into a single sheet of water. 



THE HOME OF THE KLAMATH PEOPLE. xvii 

eruption, the series of the principal peaks, as the Three Sisters, Mount 
Jefferson, and Mount Hood, marking tlie general direction of the ridge. 

The formation consists of a dark and hard basaltic and andesitic lava, 
which also forms numerous extinct volcanic cones and basins lying on the 
east side of the range (Mount Scott, Crater Lake, craters in Sprague River 
valley, etc.). Tiiis formation underlies the whole of the Klamath River 
headwaters, but sti'atified deposits cover it at many places, consisting of 
.sandstone, infusorial marls, volcanic ashes, pumice-stone, etc. Prof. J. S. 
Newberry* describes this volcanic rock as "a dark vesicular trap". 

East of the basin of the Klamath Lakes and south of the Columbia 
River water-shed lies an extensive territory extending to the east towards 
Owyhee River, and having its largest area in Nevada and Utah. It has 
been called the Great Basin of the Interior, and has an average altitude of 
5,000 feet. The numerous fault-fissures intersecting it from north to south 
form its principal geologic feature. In the Quaternary period long and 
narrow lakes marked those faults on the obverse side of their dip; and 
even now, when evaporation has left these depressions almost dry, small 
bodies of water mark the site of the fissures even where erosion has oblit- 
erated most traces of a fracture of the earth's crust. The most conspicuous 
of these fissures in the basaltic formations are in Oregon, northern Cali- 
fornia and Nevada: the valley of Quinn River, Alvord Valley with Pueblo 
Valley, (ruano Valley, Warner Lake with Long and Surprise Valley, Abert, 
Summer, and Silver Lake Valley. A geologic reconnaissance of the country 
west of this northwestern portion of the Great Basin, the central parts of 
which were once filled by the Quaternary Lake Lahontan, with its enormous 
drainage basin, would probably prove a similar origin for the two Klamath 
Lakes with Klamath Marsh, and for Goose Lake Valley. 

These two secondary basins lie nearest the base of the great mountain 
wall of the Cascade Range, and therefore receive a larger share of the 
rain precipitated upon it than the more distant ones. The supply of water 
I'eceived during the year being thus larger than the annual evaporation, 
the excess flows off" in the streams which drain the basin. There is much 
analogy between the basin of the Klamath Lakes and that of Pit River; 

• Pacific Railroad Eeports, 1854-'55j vol. 6, part 2, pp. 34-ii9. 
ii 



Xviii ETHNOGKAPniC SKETCH. 

both form elongated troughs, uiul the waters escaping from thorn reach the 
lowlands through deep cuts in tlie resistant material. Tlie difiference lies 
only in this, that the drainage of the Klamath headwater basin has been 
less complete than that of the Sacramento and upper Pit River; and large 
])ortions of its surface are still occupied by bodies of water. 

riie lakes which show the location of longitudinal faults are the more 
shallow the more distant the)' are from the Cascade Range, and those which 
Ijossess no visible outlet necessarily contain brackish water, as the alkaline 
materials in them are not removed by evaporation. It is a noticeable fact 
that those lakes 'vhich were nearest the seats and haunts of the Klamath 
Indians are all disposed in one large circle: Klamath Marsh, Upper and 
Lower Klamath Lakes, Rhett or Tule Lake, Clear or Wright Lake, Goose 
Lake, Abert Lake, Summer Lake, Silver Lake with Pauline Marsh. Be- 
sides this sevei'al other depressions now filled with marshes and alkali flats 

show the existence of former water-basins. 

J* 

TOPOGRAPHIC NOTES. 

The most prominent object of nature visible from the level parts of the 
Klamath Reservation is the Cascade Range with its lofty peaks. Seen from 
the east shore of Upper Klamath Lake, it occupies nearly one hundred and 
fifty degrees of the horizon. Though Shasta Butte, visible on the far south, 
does not properly belong to it, the ridge rises to high altitudes not very far 
from there, reaching its maximum height in the regular pyramid forming- 
Mount Pitt. This pyramid is wooded on its slopes, and hides several mount- 
ain lakes — Lake of the Woods, Buck Lake, and Aspen Lake — on its south- 
eastern base. Following in a northern direction ax'e Union Peak, Mount 
Scott, and Mount Thielsen, with many elevations of minor size. At the 
southwestern foot of Mount Scott lies a considerable lake basin about twenty 
miles in circumference, and at some places two thousand feet below its rim. 
The water being of the same depth, this ''Crater Lake" has been pointed 
out as probably the deepest lake basin in the world (1,996 feet by one sound- 
ing), and it also fills the largest volcanic crater known. At its southwestern 
end a conical island emerges from its brackish waters, which is foi-med of 
scorijip — proof that it was once an eruption crater. The altitude of the 



TOPOGRAPHIC NOTES. xix 

water's surface was found to be 6,300 feet; and this remarkable lake is but 
a short distance south of the forty-third degree of latitude. Capt. C. E. 
Dutton, of the U. S. Geological Survey, has made an examination of the 
lake and its surroundings, and gave a short sketch of it in the weekly 
"Science" of New York, February 26, 1886, from which an extract was 
published in the "Ausland" of Stuttgart, 1887, pp. 174, 175. 

On the west side of Mount Scott and Crater Lake rise tlie headwaters 
of the North Fork of Rogue River, which run down the western slope, and 
a narrow trail crosses the ridge south of the elevation. Northeast of it and 
west of Walker's Range lies a vast level plain strewed with pulverized 
pumice-stone, and forming the water-shed between the affluents of the 
Klamath and those of Des Chutes River, a large tributar}^ of the Columbia. 

Upper Klamath Lake, witli its beautiful and varied Alpine scener}^, 
verdant slopes, blue waters, and winding shores, is one of the most attractive 
sights upon the reservation. Its principal feeder is Williamson River, a 
water-course rising about thirty miles northeast of its mouth. After passing 
through Klamath Marsh it pursues its winding course south through a canon 
of precipitous hills, six miles in length; then reaches a wide, fertile valley, 
joins Sprague River coming from Yaneks and the east, and after a course 
of about sixty miles empties its volume of water into Upper Klamath Lake 
near its northern end. The elevation of this lake was found to be about 
eighty feet higher than that of Little Klamath Lake, which is 4,175 feet. 
Wood River, with its affluent, Crooked River, is another noteworthy feeder 
of the lake, whose shores are partly marsh}', partly bordered by prairies and 
mountains. The lake is embellished by a number of pretty little islands, 
is twenty-five miles long in an air-line, and varies between three and seven 
miles in width. On the eastern shores the waters are more shallow than on 
the western. 

The waters of the lake first empty themselves through Link River 
(I-ulal6na), and after a mile's course fall over a rocky ledge at the town of 
Linkville. From there onward the stream takes the name of Klamath 
River. Passing through a marsh, it receives the waters of Little Klamath 
Lake, then winds its circuitous way towards the Pacific Ocean through a 
hilly and wooded country, canons, and rapids, innavigable for craft of any 



XX ETHNOGKAPniC SKETCH. 

considerable size.* Hot springs of sulphuric taste flow westward east of 
Linkville, one of them showing a temperature of 190° Fahr. 

The Klamath Reservation is studded with a large number of isolated 
and short volcanic hill ridges, witii a general direction from northwest to 
southeast. South of Klamath Marsh there are elevations culminating at 
5,650 and G,000 feet, and in Fuego Mountain 7,020 feet are attained. 
Yamsi Peak, between Klamath Marsh and Sykan Marsh (5,170 feet) reaches 
an altitude of not less than 8,242 feet, thus rivaling many peaks of the 
Cascade Range. The Black Hills, south of Sykan (Saikeni) Marsh, rise to 
6,410 feet, but are surpassed by several elevatjons south of Sprague River, 
near the middle course of which the Yaneks Agency (4,450 feet) is situated. 
Sprague River (P'laikni k6ke), the most considerable tributary of William- 
son River, drains a valley rich in productive bottoms and in timber. 

The basaltic ridge, which forms a spur of the Cascade Range and passes 
east of Fort Klamath (I-ukak), slopes down very abruptly toward the Qua- 
ternary lake basin, now forming a low marshy prairie and watered by Wood 
River (E-ukalkshini koke), which enters upper Klamath Lake near Kohashti 
and by Seven Mile Creek, nearer the Cascade Range. This basaltic spur, 
called Yanalti by the Indians, represents the eastern side of a huge fault- 
fissure. Its altitude constantly decreases until it is crossed by a rivulet one- 
eighth of a mile long, called Beetle's Rest (Tgiilutcham Kshute'lsh), which 
issues from a pond, drives a. mill, and then joins Crooked River (Yanalti 
koke, or Tutashtaliksini koke). This beautiful spring and stream were 
selected by the Government as the site for the Klamath Agency buildings. 
The old agency at Kohashti (Guhuaslikshi or "Starting-place") on the 
lake, three miles south, was abandoned, and a subagency established at 
Yaneks. The agency buildings are hidden in a grove of lofty pine trees. 
South of these the ridge rises again and culminates in an elevation, called 
Pi'tsua (4,680 feet). The junction of Sprague and Williamson Rivers is 
marked by a rock called Ktai-Tupakshi, and described in Dictionary, page 
149, as of mythic fame. South of Sprague River the ledge rises again, 
and, approaching close to the lake shore, forms Modoc Point, a bold head- 

* I have uot been able to vi^it per.Hoaally other i)arts of the Khuuath highlands 
than the eastern shore of Upper Klamath Lakf, from Fort Klamath to Linkville. 



TOPOGRAPHIC NOTES. xxi 

land, wliich culminates in an elevation east of it, measuring 6,650 feet, in 
Nilaks Mountain (Nilakshi, "Daybreak"), on the lake shore, and in Swan 
Lake Point (7,200 feet), about eight miles from Klamath Lake. A deep 
depression south of this height is Swan Lake Valley (4,270 feet), and a 
high hill north of the two, near Sprague River, is called Saddle Mountain 
(6,976 feet). Yaneks Butte, with a summit of 7,277 feet, lies midway 
between the lieadwaters of Sprague River and the Lost River Valley. A 
long and steep ridge, called the Plum Hills, rises between Nilaks and the 
town of Linkville. 

We now arrive at what is called the "Old Modoc Country." The main 
seat of the Modoc people was the valley of Lost River, the shores of Tule 
and of Little Klamath Lake. Lost River follows a winding course about as 
long as that of Williamson River, but lies in a more genial climate. The soil 
is formed of sandstone interstratified with infusorial marls. Nushaltk;iga is 
.one of its northern side valleys. At the Natural Bridge (Tilhuantko) these 
strata have been upheaved by a fault, so that Lost River passes underneath. 
The sandstone is of volcanic origin, and contains pumice and black scoria 
in rounded masses, often of the size of an egg. The largest part of Tule 
Lake, also called Rhett Lake and Modoc Lake (M6atak, Moatokni ^-usli), 
lies within the boundaries of California. It is drained by evaporation only, 
has extinct craters on its shores, and the celebrated Lava Beds, long inhab- 
ited by the K6mbatwash Indians, lie on its southern end. 

Clear Lake, also called Wright Lake (by the Modocs, Tchaps;{o), is a 
crater basin, with the water surface lying considerably below the surround- 
ing country. Its outlet is a tributary of Lost River, but is filled with water 
in the cooler season only. Little or Lower Klamath Lake (Aka-ushkni 
e-ush) is fed by Cottonwood Creek, and on its southern side had several 
Indian settlements, like Agawesh. It has an altitude of 4,175 feet, and 
belong's to the drainage basin of Klamath River. South of these lakes 
there are considerable volcanic formations, wliich, however, lie beyOnd the 
pale of our descriptive sketch. 

Peculiar to this volcanic tract is the frequent phenomenon of the pond 
sources (welwash, nushaltkaga). These sources are voluminous springs of 
limpid water, which issue from the ground at the border of the ponds with 



XXll ETHNOGRAPHIC SKETCH. 

a strong- bubbling motion, without any indication of other springs in tlic 
vicinity. They are riiet witli in soil formed of volcanic sands and detritus, 
have a rounded shape with steep borders, and form the principal feeders 
of the streams into which they empty. Ponds like these mainly occur in 
wooded spots. Some of them have a diameter of one hundred feet and 
more, and are populated by fish and ampliibians of all kinds. 

The lake region east of the Reservation was often visited in the hunting 
and fishing season by the Klamath Lake, Modoc, and especially by the 
Snake Indians. Goose Lake was one of the principal resorts of the Snake 
and the Pit River Indians; and even now the numerous rivulets flowing 
into it make its shores desirable to American stockmen and settlers. Warner 
(or Christmas) Lake, fully thirty-five miles in length, was once enlivened 
by the ti'oops camping at Fort Warner, on its eastern side.* Chewaukan 
Marsh (Tchua/e'ni) has its name from the tchua or "^ater potato", the 
fruit of Sagittaria, and is by its outlet connected with Abert Lake. 

The Indians of the Reservation annually repair about the month of June 
to Klamath Marsh (Ill-ukshi) to fish, hunt, and gather berries and w6kash 
or pond-lily seed, which is one of their staple foods. Its surface is some- 
what less than that of Upper Kla-nath L ike. Its shores are high on the 
southeastern, low and marshy on the northwestern side. Water appears at 
single places only, insufficient to warrant the marsh being called, as it often 
is, a lake. 

The Oregonian portions of the country described belong politically to 
Klamath and to Lake Counties, the county seats of which are Linkville 
and Lakeview, on the northern end of Goose Lake. The latter place also 
contains a United States land office. 

FLORA AND FAUNA. 

Vegetation usually gives a characteristic stamp to a country, but in 
arid districts, as those of the Klamath highlands, it is rather the geological 
features which leave an impress on our minds The further we recede from 

♦ Goose ami Warinr Lakes are described in Lieutenant Wheeler's Report, Annual 
Report of Ciiief of Enjiineers, 1878 8°. Apiieiidix N N, pp. ILVfJO. Goose Lake, 
by Stephen Powers, in "A Pou.v Riilc on Pit River," Overland Monthly of San Fran- 
cisco, October, lt74, pp. 342-35L 



FLORA AND FAUNA. xxiil 

the Cascade Range and its more humid atmosphere the less vegetation is 
developed. The lake shores and river banks, when not marshy, produce 
the Cottonwood tree and several species of willows, and tlie hills are covered 
with the yellow or pitch pine and the less frequent western cedar. In the 
western parts of the Reservation large tracts are timbered with pitch pine, 
which seems to thrive exceedingly well upon the volcanic sands and de- 
tritus of the hilly region. These pines (ko'sh) are about one hundred feet 
in height, have a brownish-yellow, very coarse bark, and branch out into 
limbs at a considerable height above the ground. They stand at intervals 
of twenty to fifty feet from each other, and are free from manzanita bushes 
and other undergrowth except at the border of the forest, leaving plenty of 
space for the passage of wagons almost ever)- where. A smaller pine species, 
Pinus contorta (kapka, in Modoc kuga), which forms denser thickets near the 
water, is peeled b}^ the Indians to a height of twenty feet when the sap is 
ascending, in the spring of the year, to use the fiber-bark for food. Up high 
in the Cascade Range, in the midst of yellow pines, grows a conifera of taller 
dimensions, the sugar-pine (kt^leam ko'sh). The hemlock or white pine 
(wa'ko), the juniper (ktii'lo), and the mountain mahogany (yukmalam) are 
found in. and south of Sprague River Valley. 

The lake shores and river banks produce more edible fruits and berries 
tlian the marshy tracts; and it is the shores of Klamath and Tule Lakes 
which mainly supply the Indian with the tule reed and scirpus, from which 
the women manufacture mats, lodge-roofs, and basketry. The largest tule 
species (ma-i) grows in the water to a height of ten feet and over, and in 
tlie lower end of its cane furnishes a juicy and delicate bit of food. Woods, 
river sides, and such marshes as Klamath Marsh, are skirted b}^ various 
kinds of bushes, supplying berries in large quantities. The edible bulbs, 
as camass, ko'l, I'ba, ipo, and others, are found in the prairies adjacent. 
Pond-lilies grow in profusion on lake shores and in the larger marshes, 
especially on the Wokash Marsh west of Linkville, and on Klamath Marsh, 
as previously mentioned. The Lost River Valley is more productive in 
many of these spontaneous growths than the tracts within the Reservation. 

It is claimed by the Klamath Lake Indians that they employ no drugs 
of vegetal origin for the cure of diseases, because their country' is too cold 



Xxiv ETHNOGRAPHIC SKETCH. 

to produce them. This is true to a certain extent; but as there are so many 
phuits growing there that narcotize the fish, how is it that the country 
produces no medical pUints for the cure of men's diseases! Of the plant 
shie'dsh, at least, they prepare a drink as a sort of tea. 

The fauna of the Klamath uplands appears to be richer in species than 
the vegetal growth. What first strikes the traveler's attention on the eastern 
shore of the Upper Lake is the prodigious number of burrows along the 
sandy road, especially in the timber, varying in size from a few inches to a 
foot in diameter. Tliey are made by chipnumks of two species, and others 
are the dens of badgers, or of the blue and the more common brown squirrel. 
The coyote or prairie-wolf makes burrows also, but this animal has lately 
become scarce. No game is so frequent as the deer. This is either the 
black-tail deer, (shua-i, Cervus columhianus), or the white tail deer (miishmush, 
Cariacus virglnianiis macrurus), or the mule-deer (pakolesh, Cervus macrotis). 
Less frequent is the antelope (tch(i-u, Antilocapra americana), and most other 
four-legged game must be sought for now upon distant heights or in the 
deeper canons, as the elk (vun), the bear in his three varieties (black, cin- 
namon, and grizzly; witil'm, n/ika, liVk), the lynx (shloa), the gray wolf 
(ka'-utchish), the silver or red fox (wan), the little gray fox (ketchkatch), 
the cougar (taslatch), and the mountain sheep (k6-il). Beavers, otters, 
minks, and woodchucks are trapped by expert Indians on tlie rivers, ponds, 
and brooklets of the interior. 

The shores of the water-basins are enlivened by innumerable swarms 
of water-fowls, (mii'makli), as ducks, geese, herons, and cranes. Some can 
be seen day by day swimming about gracefully or fishing at Modoc Point 
(Nilakshi) and other promontories, while others ventui-e up the river courses 
and fly over swampy tracts extending far inland. Among the ducks the 
more comnion are the mallard (we'ks), the long-necked kilidshiks; among 
the geese, the brant (lAlak) and the white goose (waiwash). Other water- 
birds are the white swan (kush), the coot or raudhen (tuhush), the loon 
(taplal), the pelican (yamal or kumal), and the jjinguin (kuftsiji). Fish- 
hawks and bald-headed eagles (^ai'ixal) are circling about in the air to 
catch the fish which are appi'oaching the watei''s surface unaware of danger. 
Marsh-hawks and other raptores infest the marshes and are lurking there 



THE ASPECTS OF THE COUNTRY. XXV 

for small game, as field-mice, or for sedge-hens and smaller birds. The 
largest bird of the country, the golden eagle, or Californian condor (p'lal- 
Avash), has become scarce. Blackbirds exist in large numbers, and are very 
destructive to the crops throughout Oregon. Other birds existing in several 
species are the owl, lark, woodpecker, and the pigeon. Migratory birds, as 
the humming-birds and mocking-birds", visit the Klamath uplands, especially 
the Lost River Valley, and stop there till winter. 

The species of fish found in the country are the mountain trout, the 
salmon, and several species of suckers. Of the snake family the more fre- 
quent species are the garter-snake (wishink), the black-snake (wamenigsh), 
and the rattlesnake (k(i-ish, ki'sh). Crickets and grasshoppers are roasted 
and eaten by the Indians, also the chrysalis of a moth (pulxuantch). 

THE ASPECTS OF THE COUNTRY. 

EUe est riante ainsi que I'ltalie, 
Terrible ainsi que les rives dn Nord. 

The Klamath plateau presents very different aspects and produces very 
different impressions, according to the observer's condition and the character 
of the localities he enters or beholds. Travelers coming over the monoto- 
nous rocky or alkaline plains extending between Malheur Lake and the 
Reservation are gladdened at the sight of rivulets and springs, imparting a 
fresher verdure to the unproductive soil, and greet with welcome the pine- 
ries which they behold at a distance. Feelings of the same kind penetrate 
the hearts of those who enter the highlands from the Pit River country of 
California vvlien they come to the well-watered plains of Lost River after 
crossing the desolate lava formations lying between. The scenery can be 
called grand only there, where the towering ridge of the Cascade Mountains 
and the shining mirrors of the lakes at their feet confront the visitor, sur- 
prised to see in both a reproduction of Alpine landscapes in the extreme 
West of America.* The alternation of jagged and angular outlines with long 
level ridges on the horizon suggests, and the peculiar lava color retained by 



• The large pyramidal cone of Mount Pitt is a rather accurate dui)licate of the 
celebrated Niesen Peak in the Bernese Oberland, Switzerland, as seen from its north- 
*ern and eastern side. 



XXvi ETUNOGRAPHIC SKETOe. 

the hig'hest peaks confirm the eruptive orij^in of these mountains. The pure 
azure sky and the perpetual silence of nature reigning- in these uplands add 
impressions of grandeur which it is impossible to describe. The sense of 
the beautiful has no gratification in the austere forms of these mountains, 
but the blue and limpid waters of the lakes, their numerous islands, and 
the lovely green of the shores, delight it in the highest degree. 

The other eminences perceptible on the horizon lack the boldness of 
outline seen upon the main ridge, and with their dusky timbers deeply 
contrast with it. They seem monotonous and commonplace, and people, 
easily impressed by colors will call them somber. The open country, whether 
marshes, plains, clearings, meadows, or bare hills, presents an extremely 
bleak aspect, especially when under the influence of a hot summer sun. 
Its unvarying yellowish hue, produced by the faded condition of the coarse 
grasses, renders it monotonous. 

Tlie solitude and serenity of these places exercise a quieting influence 
upon the visitor accustomed to the noisy scenes of our towns and cities. 
Noiselessly the brooks and streams pursue their way through the purifying 
volcanic sands; the murmur of the waves and the play of the water-birds, 
interrupted at times by the cry of a solitary bird, are the only noises to 
break the silence. Bej^ond the few settlements of the Indian and away 
from the post-road, scarcely any ti'ace of the hand of man i-eminds us of the 
existence of human beings. There Nature alone speaks to us, and those 
who are able to read history in the formations disclosed before him in the 
steeper ledges of this solitary corner of the globe will find ample satisfaction 
in their study. 

The Klamath plateau, though productive in game, fish, and sundry 
kinds of vegetable food, could never become such a great central resort of 
Indian populations as the banks of Columbia River. The causes for this 
lie in its secluded position and chiefly in its climate, which is one of abrupt 
changes. The dryness of the atmosphere maintains a clear sky, which ren- 
ders the summer days intensely hot; the sun's rays become intolerable in the 
middle of the day at places where they are reflected by a sand}', alkaline, 
or rocky soil and not moderated by passing breezes. Rains and hailstorms 
are of rare occurrence, and gathering thunder clouds often dissolve or "blo»v 



LIST OF CAMPING PLACES. xxvii 

over," so that the running waters never swell, but show the same water level 
throughout the year. Nights are chilly and really cold, for the soil reflects 
against the clear sky all the heat received from the sun during the day, and 
the dry night air pervading the highlands absorbs all the moisture it can. 
Winters are severe; snow begins to fall early in November, and in the later 
months it often covers the ground four feet high, so that the willow lodges 
(not the winter houses) completely disappear, and the inmates are thus shel- 
tered from the cold outside. The lakes never freeze over entirely, but ice 
forms to a great thickness. The cold nights produce frosts Avhich are very 
destructive to crops in the vicinity of the Cascade Range, but are less harm- 
ful to gardening or cereals at places more distant ; and in Lost River Valley, 
at Yiineks — even at Linkville — melons, turnips, potatoes, and other vegeta- 
bles rarely fail. The mean annual temperature as observed some years ago 
at Fort Klamath was 40.47° Fahr. 

There are several instances in America where highlands have become 
centers of an aboriginal culture. Such instances are the plateaus of Ana- 
huac, Guatemala, Bogota, and of Titicaca Lake. They contained a dense 
population, more cultured than their barbaric neighbors, whom they suc- 
ceeded in subjugating one aftei* the other through a greater centralization 
and unity of power. Tlie Klamath highlands can be compared to the pla- 
teaus above named in regard to their configuration, but they never nour- 
ished a population so dense that it could exercise any power analogous to 
that above mentioned. Moreover, there was no intellectual and centralizing 
element among these Lidians that could render them superior to their neigh- 
bors, all of whom maintained about the same level of culture and intelligence 

TOPOGRAPHIC LIST OF CAMPING PLACES. 

To form a correct idea ot the dissemination of Indians in this sparsely 
inhabited countrj', the following lists of camping places will furnish service- 
able data. The grounds selected by the ]\Iaklaks for camping places are 
of two kinds: either localities adapted for establishing a fishing or hunting 
camp of a few days' or weeks' duration or for a whole summer season, or 
they are places selected for permanent settlement. Winter lodges (lulda- 
nial/iksh) or slab houses are often built at the latter places: whereas the 



XXVlll 



ETHNOGRAPHIC SKETCH. 



transitory camps are marked by frail willow lodges (Idtchash, stina'sh) or 
other liglit structures. Indian camps are as a rule located near rivers, 
brooks, marshes, springs, or lakes. Hunters generally erect tlieir lodges in 
convenient places to overlook a considerable extent of territory. 

In the lists below the order in which the localities are mentioned indi- 
cates tlie direction in which they follow each other. I obtained them from 
the two interpreters of the reservation, Dave Hill and Charles Preston; 
and as regards the old Modoc country, from Jennie Lovwer, a Modoc girl 
living in the Indian Territory, who remembered these places from her youth. 
The gramniatic analysis of the local names will in many instances be found 
in the Dictionary. 

CAMPING PLAOBS ON KLAMATH MARSH. 

The permanent dwellings upon this marsh have all been abandoned; 
but the Modocs and Klamath Lakes, together with some Snake Indians from 
Sprague River, resort there annually, when the pond-lily seed and the ber- 
ries ripen, for a period of about six weeks. Its shores were permanently 
inhabited in 1853, when visited by the United States exploration party under 
Lieutenants Williamson and Abbott, and even later. Dave Hill's list below 
follows the localities in their topographic order from northeast to southwest 
and along the southeastern elevated shore of the marsh, which at some places 
can be crossed on foot. A few rocky elevations exist also on the northeast 
end of the marsh. 



Kata'gsi "stumpy bushes." 

TilktaklisbUslii ''reddish spot." 

Yauke.Iam Laslii "eagle wiug." 

Ya.sh=Laina'ds "projecting willow." 

Spi'iklish Lawish "sweat lodge on promon- 
tory." 

MbAknalsi "at the withered tree." 

Knuit(!hiiyiiksi "at the old man's rock;" 
a man-shaped rock formation near the 
open waters of the niar.sh and visible at 
some distance. 

Lalawas^e'ni ".«laty rock." 

Takt^isii "cricket noise." 

T.«4.sam Pewas "skunk's dive." 

Ktai=Wasi "rocky hollow." 



Su41sxeni "at the rock-pile." 
Liilpakat "chalk quarry." 
Kajiga'k.si "dwarf-pine thicket." 
Wdptas^jini "water moving through ponds 

perceptibly." 
Tchokeam Psisb " pumice-stone uose." 
Kaksi "raven's nest." 
Iwal " land's end." 
Luyiinsti "within the circle." 
Yaiikelam Stiolash "eagle nest." 
Tchikas=\Val:ikish "bird- watch;" secreted 

spot where hunters watch their feathered 

game, 
Tnilkat "at the small rail pyramid." 
Awaluash^'e'ni "at the island." 



LIST OF CAMPING PLACES. 



XXIX 



T^alamgiplis "back away from the west;" 
probably referriug to a turn of the shore- 
line. 
Wiik=Taliksi " white pine on water-line." 
Wfsiiinkaiu Tiniiash "drowned snake;" 
place where a garter snake was found 
drowned in the open waters of the 
marsh. 



Lgu'm=A-ushi " coal lake," with waters 
looking as black as coal. 
{ Sumde "at the mouth or outlet." 
Nusksi "•skull-place;" a human skull was 
once found there. This is one of the spots 
where the natives submerge their dug-out 
I canoes in the mud or sand at the bottom 
of the lake for the wintry season. 



Some of the above places near the outlet are also mentioned in Pete's 
Text on the "Seasons of the Year," and the following additional may be 
inserted here from it (74, 15-17): 



Lem6-isham Nute'ks "impression of thun- 
derbolt." 
Lal'laks "steep little eminence." 



St6palsh=tama'ds "peeled pine standing 

alone." 
Kdk=Kshdwaliaksh "raven on the pole." 



CAMPS ALONG WILLIAMSON RIVER. 



In this list Dave Hill enumerated old camps and present locations of 
lodges (1877) on both sides of Williamson River, from the lower end of 
Klamath Marsh {4,^4:1 feet) to Upper Klamath Lake. The river runs for 
six miles or more through a ravine about two hundred feet deep, and the 
road follows it on the east side, leading over the hills. The wigwams are 
built in proximity to the river course. At its outlet Williamson River forms 
a delta, projecting far out into the lake, and filled with bulrushes.* 



Kakago'si "at the ford." 

Samka-ushjii'ni "cliffs in the river;" a 
fishing place. 

Yalealant "clear waters." 

T4nua=Lutilsh "flat rocks under the water." 

Ka'k=Taliksh, or Kii'k=Talish "twin rocky 
pillars." 

Awalokdksaksi "at the little island." 

Mbushaksham Wa'sh "where obsidian is 
found." 

Tjdlmakstant (supply: Ktdi-Tupdksi) "on 
the west side of (Standing Rock)." 

Tchpinoksaksi "at the graveyard;" ceme- 
tery aad ancient cremation ground of 
the fi-ukshikui. 

Ktd-iti "place of rocks." 

Tchikesi "at the submerged spot." 



Kiiltam Wa'sh "otter's home." 
Stilakgish "place to watch fish." 
Yd aga "little willows." Here the road 
from Linkville to Fort Klamath crosses 
Williamson River on a wooden bridge 
built by the United States Government; 
liere is also the center of the Indian set- 
tlements on Williamson River. 
Kiils=Tge-ush, or Kiilsam=Tge-us "badger 

standing in the water." 
Witii'mamtsi "where the black bear was." 
Kuyiim=Ska-iks "crawfish trail." 
Slaukoshksoksi, or Shlankoshkshu'kshi 

"where the bridge was." 
Kokaksi "at the brooklet." 
Kuydga, a former cremation place in the 
vicniity of Ya aga. 



" Compare Professor Newberry's description, pp. 38, 39, aud Lieutenant Williamson's report (part I), p. 68. 



XXX 



ETHNOGRAPHIC SKETCH. 



CAMPING PLACES AND OTHER LOCALITIES AROUND UPPER KLAMATH LAKE. 



Places situated on the lake are as 

SkohnAslikj, commonly called Kobasbti, 
KubuAsbti by Americans and Indians, 
"starting place of canoes, boats." For- 
merly location of tbe United States 
Agency; now numbering four or five 
Indian lodges. 

Tulisb, fishing place near tbe outlet of 
Williamson River: "spawning place." 

T6kna or Tukua, near the outlet of Will- 
iamson River. From this the neighbor- 
ing i)art of tbe lake is sometimes called 
Tukua Lake. 

Nilaksbi: lit. "dawn of day;" is now used 
to designate Modoc Point also, though it 
properly refers to the Nilaks mountain 
ridge only. 

A-ushme, an island in the lake near Modoc 
Point. 



follows: 

Shuyake'ksi or "jumping place." 

I-uialc'nia, or Yidaloiian, Link River above 
the falls at Linkville; lit. "rubbing, mov- 
ing to and fro." Tbe name was after- 
wards transferred to the town of Link- 
ville, which is also called Tiwishje/ni 
"where the cascade noise is." 

U^otuash, name of an island near Link- 
ville. 

Wtlkaksi Spi'iklisb, a ceremonial sweat- 
lodge on west side of tbe lake. 

Kumbat " in the rock»." Locality on west- 
ern side of lake, c.dled Rocky Point. 

Liikuashti "at the hot water." Name for 
the hot sulphuric springs about half a 
mile east and northeast of the town of 
Linkville, and of some others west of 
that town. 



EMINENCES AROUND UPPER KLAMATH LAKE. 



Of" the majority of these names of hills and mountains I could not 
obtain the English name, the usual excuse being that they had only Indian 
names. 



Iv Cascade Range: 

Giwash, or Gewash, Mount Scott; Giwash 
6 usb, Grater LaKe, in a depression west 
of ]\Iount Scott. 

Kukume'kshi "at the caves or hollows;'' 
northwest of the Agency. 

KakAsam Yaina "mountain of the great 
blue heron;" northwest of Agency. 

Mo'dshi Yaina or Long Pine; lit. "on the 
large mountain;" mo'dshi or mu'nptcbi 
is a compound of the adjective miiui, 
great, large. 

Mbd-usb Shnekash "bosom burnt through,'' 
legendary name of a mountain located 
west southwest of the Agency; mb4-usb 

* here refers to a piece of buckskin serv- 
ing to rover tbe bosom. 



Ke'sh yaiuatat, Mount Pitt, a high mount- 
ain lying southwest of the Agency. The 
ModocscallitMelaiksi "steepness;" the 
Klamath Lake term signifies "snow on 
tbe mountain," snow-capped peak. Only 
in the warmest month.s Mount Pitt is free 
of snow. 

Tiljo-it, an eminence south of Mount Pitt; 
lit. "drip water." 

Wi'ikaksbi, Kii'kashti, Tchiutcbiwasamtch, 
mountains bordering the southwestern 
portion of Upper Klamath Lake. 
On the east shore of the lake: 

Wdtanks, a hill on southeastern side of the 
lake. 

Kalalks, hill near Captain Ferree's house, 
south of the Nilaks ridge. A ceremonial 
Rweatlodge stands in the vicinity. 



LIST OF CAMPING PLACES. 



XXXI 



Mlaksi, lit. "daybreak;" a point of the: 
steep ridge of the same name extending 
from Modoc Point, on east side of lake, 
along the shore, and thence in thedirec- j 
tion of Lost Kiver Valley. 

Walpi, JVliiyant, Toplameni, L^jit: other 
elevations of the Nilaksi hill ridge. 

Pitsua, hill ridge extending north of Will- 
iamson Eiver. 



Y^nalti or Ydnaldi, a steep volcanic range 
stretching due north from the Agency to 
Fort Klamath and beyond it. It is the 
continuation of the Pitsua ridge. 

E-ukalksiui Spu'klish is an ancient cere- 
monial sweat-lodge near Wood River, 
and not very distant from Fort Klamath 
(I-ukak). 



CAMPING PLACES IN SPRAGUE RIVER VALLEY. 

Of this portion of the reservation I submit two separate Hsts of local 
nomenclature. The more extensive one I obtained from Charles Preston, 
who remembered more place names because he then was employed at the 
Yaneks subagency, which lies near the center of the Sprague River settle- 
ments. Both lists follow the course of the river from east to west. Both 
Sprague River and the settlements above Yaneks are frequently called 
P'lai, "above". 



Charles Prestori's list: 

Tsuitiakshi "dog-rose patch," near head- 
waters. 

UlAlkshi "Cottonwood." 

Pdlau Eush "dry lake;" a large fiat rock 
is near the river. 

W'el6kag-Knuklekshakshi "at the stoop- 
ing old woman," called so from a rock 
suggesting this name. 

Aish Tkaliks "column rock." 

Tsd^eak Tkawals "staiding boy," from a 
rock of a boy like shape. 

Snitstis. 

Wuksi " fire-place;" at same place as Snit- 
stis. 

Tchii'kele Tsiwish "running with blood;" 
a little spring with reddish water; a set- 
tlement of Snake Indians. 

Kos Tuets "standing pine;" settled by 
Snake Indians. 

Kawamkshi'ksh "eel fishery." 

Suawati "ford, crossing-place." 

Liildam Tcbl'ksh "winter village." 

Spawaviksh, on bank of Sprague River. 



Yainaga "Little Butte," a hill at the sub- 
agency. 

Tainakshi, Yaneks, "at the Little Butte;" 
location of subagency buildings, two 
miles from Sprague River, on left-hand 
side. 

Tatatiiii, a butte or hillock in the vicinity. 

Ldmkosh "willows;" name of a creek, 
called by Americans "Whiskey Creek." 

Skilwashkshi, or Skii'wash, "projecting 
rocks " 

Ka'tsi, name of a little water spring. 

Lnlukuashti "at the warm sjiriiig." 

Tch4kawetch. 

Kjiwa "eel spring;" inhabited by Modocs. 

Yetkash. 

tJ;j-iishksh "in the coomb." 

Kaktsamkshi, name of a spring and creek 
at the subagency. 

T^-uiiolsh "spring running down from a 
hill." 

U^ade ush "planting a willow." (?) 

Shlok6pashkshi "at the house cavity." 



xxxu 



ETHNOGKAPniC SKETCH, 



Awalokat "at Little Island," iu Sprague 

River. 
Ne-ukish "confluence." 

Dave HilVs list: 

Hishtish Luelks "Little Sucker Fishery," 
on bead waters. 

KaiUuTtiiaiii, lor Ktii'lu Tkalamnish "ju- 
niper tree standing on an einineuce." 

Hopats "passage" to tbe timber. 

Luldaui Tcbi'ksb "winter bouses." 

Tsiinodanksb "continence." 

Yainaksbi "at tbe Small Butte." 



StAktaks "end of bill." 

KiMni'itcbam Liitsaskshi "at tbe old man's 

bouse," name of a bill; kiMnutcbam is 

said to stand liere for K'mukamtsam. 
KAwamjilni "eel spiing." 
Kokajiini, or Kokiiksi "at the creek." 
Kuma'ksi "at tbe cave." 
K4tsu;its "rocks sloping into the river." 
Nakosksiks "river dam, river barrage," 

established for tbe capture of fish. 
Ktai=Tupaksi, or Ktii i=T6i)ok8, "standing 

rock," situated near junction of Sprague 

with Williamson River. 



CAMPING PLACES OF TSE MODOC COUNTRY. 

On Lost River, close to Tule Lake, were the following camping places: 
Wa-islia, where Lost River was crossed, three or four miles northwest of 
the lake, and near the hills which culminate in Laki Peak ; Watchamsh- 
wash, a village upon the river, close to the lake; Nakosh^e'ni "at the 
dam," at the mouth of Tule Lake. 

On Tule Lake, also called Modoc Lake, Rhett Lake: Pash;(a, or Pasxa, 
name of a creek and a little Modoc village on the northwest shore, whose 
inhabitants were called Pash^anuash ; Kalelk, camp near Pas;^a, on north- 
ern shore; Le-ush, on northern shore; Welwash;{e'ni " at the large spring," 
east side of the lake, where Miller's house is; Wuka^e'ni "at the coomb," 
one mile and a half east of Weiwash^e'ni ; Ke'sh-Laktchuish "where ipo 
grows (on rocks)," on the southeastern side of the lake; Kiimbat "in the 
caves," on the rocky southern side of the lake, once inhabited by about 
one hundred Kumbatvvash, who were mainly Modocs, with admixture of 
Pit River, Shasti, and Klamatli Lake Lidians. 

On Little or Lower Klamath Lake: Agawesh, a permanent Modoc 
settlement upon what is now called "Fairchild's farm," southwestern shore; 
Ke-utchish;te'ni "where the wolf-rock stands," upon Hot Creek; Sputuish- 
xe'n'i "at the diving place," lying close to Ke-utchishxe ni, where young men 
were plunging in cold water for initiation: 8hapash;{e'ni "where sun and 
moon live," camj)ing place on the southeastern shore, where a crescent- 
.shaped rock is standing; Stuikish^e'ni "at the canoe bay," on north side 
of the lake. 



TRIBAL SUBDIVISIONS. XXXiii 

TRIBAL NAMES AND SUBDIVISIONS. 

The two bodies of Indians forming the subject of the present report 
are people of the same stock and lineage through race, language, institutions, 
customs, and habitat. In language they radically differ from the neighbor- 
ing peoples called Snake, Rogue River, Shasti, and Pit River Indians, as 
well as from the other inhabitants of Oregon, California, and Nevada. 

For the Klamath people of Southwestern Oregon there exists no general 
tribal name comprehending the two principal bodies, except Maklaks, Indian. 
This term when pronounced hy themselves with a lingual k has a reflective 
meaning, and points to individuals speaking their language, Modocs as well 
as Klamath Lake Indians; when pronounced with our common k it means 
Indian of any tribe whatsoever, and man, person of any nationality. The 
derivation of maklaks will be found in the Dictionary. I have refrained 
from using it in the title and body of my work to designate these Oregon 
Indians because it would be invariably mispronounced as ma'klaks by the 
white people, and the peculiar sound of the k would be mispronounced also. 
To call them simply Klamath Indians or Klamaths would lead to confusion, 
for the white people upon the Pacific coast call the Shasti, the Karok or Ara, 
the Hupa, the Yurok or Ali'kwa Indians on Klamath River of California, the 
Shasti upon the Siletz Reservation, Oregon, and our Maklaks all Klamaths. 
It was therefore necessary to select the compound appellation, "the Klamath 
Indians of Southwestern Oregon." The Waim Spring and other Sahaptin 
Indians possess a generic name for all the Indians living upon this reserva- 
tion and its vicinity: Aigspaluma, abbr. Aigspalo, Aikspalu, people of the 
chipmunks, from the innumerable rodents peopling that pine-covered dis- 
trict. This term comprises Snake, Payute, and Modoc Indians, as well as 
the Klamath Lake people. The name of Klamath or Tlamat, Tlamet River, 
probably originated at its mouth, in the Alikwa language. 

The two main bodies forming the Klamath people are (1) the Klamath 
Lake Indians; (2) the Modoc Indians, 
iii 



XXXiv ETHlN'OGHAPUiU SKETCH. 

THE KLAMATH LAKE INDIANS. 

The Kliinuitli Lake Indians number more than twice as many as the 
Modoc Indians. They speak the northern dialect and form the northern 
chieftaincy, the head chief residing now at Y;i-aga, on WilHamson River. 
Their dvveUings are scattered along the eastern shore of Upper Klamath 
Lake (£-ush) and upon the lower course of Williamson (KcSketat) and 
Sprague Rivers (P'lai). They call themselves E-ukshikni maklaks, abbre- 
viated into E-ukshikni, E-ukskni, A-uksni people at the lake. The Shasti 
near Yreka, Cal., call them Aiiksiwash, some western Shasti: Makaitserk ; 
by the Pit River Indians they are called Alammiraakt ish, from Alammig, 
their name for Upper Klamath Lake; by the Kalapuya Indians, Athla- 
meth; by the Snake Indians, Sayi. 

According to locality the Klamath Lake people may be subdivided into 
the following groups: The people at the agency; the people at Kohashti, at 
Ya-aga, at Modoc Point and upon Sprague River. Their settlements at 
Klamath Marsh, at Nilaks and at Linkville are now abandoned; the last 
named (Yulal6na) was held by them and the Modocs in common. 

THE MODOC INDIANS. 

The Modoc Indians speak the southern dialect, and before the war of 
1872-1873 formed the southern division or chieftaincy, extending over Lost 
River Valley (Koketat) and the shores of Little Klamath and Tnle Lake. 
Of their number one hundred and fifty or more live on middle course of 
Sprague River; some have taken up lands in their old homes, which they 
cultivate in their quality of American citizens, and the rest are exiles uj)on 
the Quapaw Reservation, Indian Territory. They call themselves Moatokni 
maklaks, abbreviated Moatokni, Mo'dokni, Mo'dokisli, liciiin <(t Moatak, this 
being the name of Modoc or Tule Lake: "in the extreme south." A portion 
of the Pit River Indians calls them Lutunmi, "/«/,-r,"l)y which Tule Lake is 
meant; another, through a difference of dialect, Lutnuiwi. The Shasti 
Indians of Yreka call them P^anai, the Saliaptins upon and near Coliunbia 
River call them Mowatak, the Snake Indians, Saidoka. 

The more important local divisions of this people were the giDups at 
Little Klamath Lake (Agaweshkni), the Kumbatwash and the Pas;(aimash 



TKIBAL SUBDIVISIONS. XXXV 

at Tule Lake, the Nushalt/agakni or "Spring-people" near Bonanza, and 
the Plalkni or "Uplanders" on Sprague River, at and above Yaneks. For- 
merly the Modocs ranged as far west as Butte Lake (Na-uki) and Butte 
Creek, in Siskiyou County, California, about sixteen miles west of Little 
Klamath Lake, where they fished and dug the camass root. 

THE SNAKE INDIANS. 

A body of Snake Indians, numbering one hundred and forty -five indi- 
viduals in 1888, is the only important fraction of native population foreign 
to the Maklaks which now exists upon the reservation. They belong to 
the extensive racial and linguistic family of the Shoshoni, and in 1864, when 
the treaty was made, belonged to two chieftaincies, called, respectively, the 
Yahooshkin and the Walpapi, intermingled with a few Payute Lidians. 
They have been in some manner associated with the Maklaks for ages, though 
a real friendship never existed, and they are always referred to by these with 
a sort of contempt, and regarded as cruel, heartless, and filthy. This aver- 
sion probably results from the difi'erence of language and the conflicting 
interests resulting from both bodies having recourse to the same hunting- 
grounds. (Cf. Sa't, sha't, Sha'tptchi.) They are at present settled in the 
upper part of Sprague River Valley (P'lai) above Yaneks. They cultivate 
the ground, live in willow lodges or log houses, and are gradually abandon- 
ing their roaming proclivities. Before 1864 they were haunting the shores 
of Goose Lake (Newapkshi), Silver Lake (Kalpshi), Warner Lake, Lake 
Harney, and temporarily stayed in Surprise Valley, on Chewaukan and 
Saikan Marshes, and gathered w6kash on Klamath Marsh. They now 
intermarry with the Klamath Lidians. As to their customs, they do not 
flatten their infants' heads,* do not pierce their noses; they wear the hair 
long, and prefer the use of English to that of Chinook jargon. Before 
settling on the reservation they did not subsist on roots and bulbs, but 
lived almost entirely from the products of the chase. 

Among other allophylic Ifidians, once settled outside the present limits 
of the Klamath Reservation, were a few Pit River and Shasti Indians, 



• By the Modocs they are called conical headed (wakwilklish nu'sh gi'tko). 



XXXVi ETUNOGRAl'UIC SKETCH. 

staying l)efore the Modoc war among the Knmhatwash-Modocs (q. v.) in tlie 
lava beds south of Tule Lake. 

A few faniihe.s of Inmting Molnlc Indians, congeners of the "Okl 
Kavu.se ", Indians near Vuniatilla River, were formerly settled at Flounce 
Rock, on tlie iieadwaters of Rogue River, and farther north in the Cascade 
range. 'Die Klamath Indians were filled with hatred against them; they 
were by them called Tchakil'nkni, inhabitants of l^chak/e'ni, or the "service 
berry tract," and x'idiculed on account of their peculiar, incorrect use of the 
Klamath lanffuaji'e. In former times Molale Indians held all the northeastern 
slopes of the Willamet Valley, claiming possession of the hunting grounds; 
the bottom lands they left in the hands of the peaceably disposed, autoch- 
thonic race of the Kalapuya tribes, whom they call M6kai or M6ke. 

CHARACTERISTICS OF RACE. 

These are either bodily or mental. To ascertain the former no meas- 
urements were made by me by means of instruments when I was among 
the Klamath Lake Indians, and hence all that follows rests upon ocular 
inspection. For Modoc skulls some accurate data are on hand, published 
by the United States Surgeon-General's Office, Washington, D. C. 

The Mongolian features of prognathism and of high cheek bones are 
not very marked in this upland race, though more among the Modocs than 
in the northern branch. If it was not for a somewhat darker complexion 
and a strange expression of the eye, it would be almost impossible to dis- 
tinguish many of the fi-ukshikni men from Americans. The forehead is 
compressed in the tender age of childhood and looks rather low, but does not 
recede so acutely as might be expected from this treatment. Prognathism, 
where it exists, does not seem to be a consequence of head flattening. The 
cheek bones are more prominent than with us, but le.ss than with the Central 
Californians. The fact that the head-man, Tatapkash, who was among the 
signers of the treaty of 18(34, was called after this peculiarity show-s that 
high cheek bones are rather uncommon. The nasal ridge is not aquiline, 
but verv strong and forms an almost continnniis line with the forehead. 
Convergence of the eyes is perceptible in a few individuals only, and anat- 
omists have shown that it is nowhere produced by the structure of the skull 



RACE CHARACTERISTICS. XXXvii 

itself, but it is the result of the mother's manipulation on the baby's eyes, 
and causes them to look sleepy, the opening of the eyelids becoming' nar- 
rower. (Cf. Texts 91, 5-8.) 

These Indians have a piercing look and their eyeballs are of the deepest 
black, a circumstance which accounts for their gi-eat power of vision. In 
many Indians, namely in children, the white of the eye shows a blue tinge, 
perhaps the result of head flattening. The mouth is small and the teeth 
good; but with many Indians the thyroid cartilage, or Adam's apple, is very 
prominent. The hair upon the head is straight and dark. I did not find 
it very coarse, but with many Modoc women it is said to be so and to 
grow to an extreme length. On other portions of the body the hair is short 
and scarce, the natives doing their best to weed it out, the beard especially, 
with metallic pincers or tweezers (hushmoklo'tkish), which they always 
carry with them. As among most American aborigines, the beard is of 
scanty growth. The late chief Lelekash wore a beard, liut I never saw any 
Indian wearing one except Charles Preston, the Yaneks interpreter. The 
contents of the song 185; 44 should also be noticed in this connection. 
Baldness is rare, and in fact it appears that the dearth of hairy covering of 
the skin is full}" compensated in the Indian race by a more exuberant 
growth of hair upon the head, to protect them against excessive colds and 
the heat of the sun. 

Among the Lake people the complexion is decidedly lighter than among 
the cinnamon-hued Modocs, and a difference between the sexes is hardly 
perceptible in this respect. Blushing is easily perceptible, though the 
change in color is not great. Those most approaching a white complexion 
like ours are numerous, but their skin is always of a yellowish lurid white. 
Owing to their outdoor life in the free and healthy mountain air, these 
Indians are well proportioned as to their bodily fivime, and apparently 
robust; but their extremities, hands and feet, are rather small, as the 
extremities ai'e of the majority of the North American Indians. 

The average of Modoc men appear to be of a smaller stature than 
that of the Klamath Lake men, but in both tribes a notable difference 
exists between the length of body in the two sexes, most men being lank. 



XXXVIU ETHNOGRAPHIC SKETCH. 

tall, and wiry, while the women are short and often incline to embon- 
point. Nevertheless obesity is not more frequent there than it is with ns. 
No better illustration of their bodily characteristics can be had than a col- 
lection of their personal names. These sketch tlie Indian in a striliing and 
often an unenviable light, l^ecause they generally depict the extremes ob- 
served on certain individuals. Tiie sex. can not, or in a few instances only, 
be inferred from the name of a ])ei-son. We frequently meet with designa- 
tions like "Large Stomach," "Big Belly," "Round Belly," "Sharp Nose," 
"Grizzly's Nose," "Spare-Built," "Grease," "Crooked Neck," "Conical 
Head," "Wide-Mouth," "Small-Eyes," "Squinter," "Large Eyes," "Half- 
blind," or with names referring to gait, to the carriage of the body, to 
habitual acts performed witli hands or feet, to dress, and other accidental 
matters. 

With all tliese deformities, and many others more difficult to detect, 
these Lidians have bodies as well formed as those of the Anglo-American 
race, and in spite of their j)rivations and exposure they live about as long 
as we do, tliough no Indian knows his or her age with any degree of accu- 
racy. A very common defect is the blindness of one eye, produced by the 
smudge of the lodge-fire, around which they pass the long winter evenings. 
With the majority of the Indians the septum of the nose liangs down at 
adult age, for the nose of every Indian is pierced in early years, whether 
they afterwards wear tlie dentalium-shell in it or not. 

Stephen Powers, who had good opportunities for comparing tlie Modocs 

with the tribes of Northern California, says of them: 

They present a finer physique than the lowland tribes of the Sacramento, taller 
and less pudgy, partly, no doubt, because they engage in the chase more than the 
latter. There is more rugged and stolid strength of leatnre than in the Sha.stika 
now living; cheek bones pioiniiient; lips generally thick and sen.snai; noses straight 
as the Grecian, but depressed at the root and thick walled; a dullish, heavy cast of 
feature; eyes frequently yellow where they should be white. They are true Indians 
in their stern immobility of countenance.* 

Passing over to the psychic and mental qualities of these Oregonian 
natives, only a few characteristics can be pointed out by which they differ 
from the other Indians of North America. The Indian is more dependent 

•Contributions to North Amer. Ethnology, m, 252, 253. By Shastika he means 
the Shasti Indians of middle Klamath River, California. 



KAOE CHARACTEftlSTlCS. XXxix 

on nature, physically an<l mentally, than we are. What distinguishes th ■ 
civilized man tVom the primitive man of our days and of prehistoric ages is 
his greater faculty of turning to account the patent and the hidden powers 
of nature, or the invention of handicrafts, arts, and sciences. In this the 
savaofe man lags far behind the man of culture, and although we often have 
to admire the ingenuity and shrewdness displayed by the American native 
in his hunting and fi.shing implements and invictices, the art of agriculture, 
without which there can be no real human culture, has never been pursued 
to any considerable extent by the Indians living north of the thirtieth par- 
allel of latitude. 

The climate of their home compels the Maklaks Indians to lead an 
active and laborious life. Except in the coldest days of winter they are 
almost always engaged in some outdoor work, either hunting, fishing, or 
cutting wood, gathering vegetal food, or traveling on horseback. Pursuits 
like these and the pure, bracing air of the highlands render their constitu- 
tions hardy and healthy, their minds active, wide awake, and intelligent. 
They are quick-sighted and quick in their acts, but slow in expressing de- 
light, wonder, astonishment, or disgust at anything they se6. Often the}' 
do not grasp the meaning of what they observe being done by the white 
))eople, and thus appear to us indifferent to many of the highest attainments 
of modern culture. Children and adults are prone to reject or slow to adopt 
the blessings of civilization, because many 'of these are of no practical use 
to a hunting and fishing people, and others are past their understanding. 

The first things they generally adopt from the white people are the 
citizen's dress and handy articles of manufacture, as beads, tobacco, knives, 
guns, steel traps; also wagons and other vehicles; for when in po.ssession 
of these last the horses, which they had obtained long before, can be put to 
better account They are also quick in adopting English baptismal names, 
sometimes discarding but oftener retaining their descriptive or burlesque 
nomenclature from the Klamath language. Gradually they adopt also with 
the money of the white man tlie elements of arithmetic, and learn to compute 
days and months according to his calendar. After another lapse of time 
they introduce some of the white man's laws, discard polygamy and slavery, 



xl ETHNOGRAPHIC SKETCH. 

bury their dead instead of cremating them, and commence to acquire a 
.smattering- of English. Indian .superstitions, conjurens' practices are not 
abandoned before the white man's ways have wrought a thorough change 
in their minds; and n reguhir school attendance by children can not be 
expected before this stage of jirogress has been reached. 

In his moral aspects the Klamath Indian is more coarse and outspoken 
than the white man, but in fact he is not better and not worse. He has 
attacked and enslaved by annual raids the defenseless California Indian 
simply because he was more aggressive, strong, and cunning than his vic- 
tim; his family relations would be a disgrace to any cultured people, as 
would also be the method by which the chiefs rule the community. But 
the passions are not restrained among savages as they are or ought to be 
among us, and the force of example exhibited by Indians of other tribes is 
too strong for them to resist. 

The character of men in the hunter stage depicts itself admirably well 
in the mythic and legendary stories of both chieftaincies. Low cunning 
and treacherous disposition manifest themselves side by side with a few 
traits of magnanimity hardly to be expected of a people formerly merged 
in a sort of zoolatric fetichism. There is, however, a considerable power 
of imagination and invention exhibited in these simple stories, and many of 
the ferocious beasts are 'sketched in a truly humorous vein. 

Man's morals are the product of circumstances, and the white man who 
judges Indian morals from the Christian standard knows nothing of human 
nature or of etiinologic science. The moral ideas of every nation differ 
from those of neigliljoring peoples, and among us the moral system of every 
century differs from that of the preceding one. The fact that the Modocs 
showed themselves more aggressive and murderous towards the white ele- 
ment than the Klamath Lake Indians may thus be explained by the different 
position of their homes. The latter being more secluded have not molested 
Americans sensibly, whereas the annals of the Modocs, who lived in an open 
country, are filled with bloody deeds. They are of a more secretive and 
churlish disposition, and what Stephen Powers, who saw them shortly after 
the Modoc war, says of them is, in some respects, true: "On the whole, 



TRADITIONAL FOLK LORE. xli 

they are rather a cloddisli, indolent, ordinarily good-natured race, but 
treacherous at bottom, sullen when angered, notorious for keeping Punic 
faith. But their bravery nobody can deny."* 

THE PREHISTORIC PERIOD. 

Before the middle of the nineteenth century the Maklaks people was 
unknown to mankind except to the nearest neighbors in Oregon and Cali- 
fornia. We are thei'efore justified in beginning its period of documentary 
history at that time, and in relegating to the domain of prehistorics all that 
is known of their previous condition. The information upon these points 
is furnished by thi'ee factors: tradition, archseologic remains, and language. 

A. TRADITION BEARING UPON HISTORY. 

Traditional folk-lore, when of the mythic order, generally dates from 
an earlier epoch of fixation than historic traditions. The remote origin of 
genuine mythic folk-lore is sufficiently evidenced by the archaic terms em- 
bodied with it, by the repetition of the same phraseology for ages, and by 
the circumstance that all nations tend to preserve their religious ideas in an 
unchanged form. I am laying peculiar stress upon the term genuine, for 
Indians have often mixed recent ideas and fictions with archaic, original 
folk-lore and with ancient mythic ideas, the whole forming now one inextri- 
cable conglomerate which has the appearance of aboriginal poetic prose. 

The Klamath people possess no historic traditions going further back 
in time than a century, for the simple reason that there was a strict law 
prohibiting the mention of the person or acts of a deceased individual by 
using his name. This law was rigidly observed among the Californians m» 
less than among- the Oregonians, and on its transgression the death penalty 
could be inflicted. This is certainly enough to suppress all historic knowl- 
edge within a people. How can history be written without names'? 

Many times I attempted to obtain a list of the former head chiefs of 
the two chieftaincies. I succeeded only in learning the names of two chiefs 
recently deceased, and no biographic details were obtainable. 

This people belongs to the autochthonic nations of America, called so 
because they have lost all remembrances of earlier habitats or of migrations. 

* Coutributious to Amer. Ethnology, III, p. 253. 



xlii ETHNOGRAPniC SKETCH. 

As a result of their seclusion, all their ^eogonic and creation myths are 
acting around the headwaters of Klamath River and in Lost River Val- 
ley, and the first man is said to have been created V)y their national deity, 
K'mukamtchiksh, at the base of the lofty Cascade Range, upon the prairie 
drained bv Wood River. T have obtained no myth dis(dosing an}' knowl- 
edge of the ocean, Avhich is scarcely one hundred and fifty miles distant in 
an air line from their seats. They have no flood or iimiidation myths that 
are not imported from abroad: and what is of special importance here, their 
terms for salt (a'dak, slio'lt) are not tJmr own, but are derived from foreign 
lanoruages. 

There is an animal story embodied in the Texts, page 131, forming 
No. II of the "Spell of the Laughing Raven," containing the sentence: 
"Hereupon the Klamath Lake people began fighting the Northerners." I 
believed at first that this contained a historic reminiscence of some inter- 
tribal war, but now am rather doubtful about it. The song 192:1 was 
supposed by some Indians to be a, very old reminiscence, while others 
referred it to the presence of the Warm Spring scouts in the Modoc war. 

I conclude from the foregoing facts that historic traditions do not exist 
among these mountaineer Indians. If there are any, I was unable to obtain 
them. The racial qualities of the Modocs, and still more those of the 
E-ukshikni, indicate a closer resemblance with Oregonians and Columbia 
River tribes than with Shoshonians and Californians. 

B. ARCH^OLOGIO REMAINS. 

The Klamath people have not evinced any more propensity for erect- 
ing monuments of any kind than they have for perpetuating the memory 
of their ancestors in song or tradition. In fact, structures the probable 
age of which exceeds one hundred years are very few. Among these may 
be particularized the three ceremonial sweat-lodges and perhaps some of 
the river-barrages, intended to facilitate the catch of fish, if they should 
turn out to be of artificial and not of natural origin. In the Lost River 
Valley is a well, claimed by Modocs to be Aishish's gift — probably one of 
the large natural springs or welwash which are seen bubbling up in .so 
many places upon the reservation Stephen Powers reports that near the 



LINGUISTIC AFFINITIES. xliii 

shores of" Goose Lake, chiefly at Uavis Creek, a number of stone mortars 
are found, fashioned witli a sliai-p point to be inserted into the g-roiind, 
and that in former times Modoc, Payute, and Pit River Indians contended 
in many bloody battles for the possession of tliis thickly inhabited country, 
though none of them could obtain aiiv permanent advantage.* Since the 
manufacture of this kind of mortars can not be ascribed with certainty to 
the Modocs, we are not entitled to consider them as antiquarian relics of 
this special people. The three sudatories and the river barrages are regarded 
as the gifts of Kmukamtch, a fact which testifies to their remote antiquity. 
Excavations (wash) forming groups are found on many of the more level 
spots on the Reservation, near springs or brooks. They prove the existence 
of former dug-out lodges and camps. 

C. LINGUISTIC AFFINITIES. 

Anthropologic researches upon the origin of a people do not always 
lead to decisive results as to the qualities of the primitive race of that 
people, for the majority of all known peoples are compounds from different 
races, and thus the characteristics of them must be those of a medley race. 
As to antiquity, language is second to race only, and much more ancient 
than anything we know of a people's religion, laws, customs, dress, imple- 
ments, or style of art. Medley languages are not by any means so frequent 
as medley races, and less frequent still in America than in the eastern hemi- 
sphere; for in this western world the nations have remained longer in a state 
t)f isolation than in Asia and Europe, owing to the hunting and fishing pur- 
suits to which the natives were addicted — pursuits which favor isolation and 
are antagonistic to the formation of large communities and states. This 
explains why we possess in America a relatively larger number of linguistic 
families than the Old World when compared to the areas of the respective 
continents. It also ex))lains why races coincide here more closely with lin- 
guistic families than anywhere else on the surface of the globe. Instances 
when conquering races have prevailed upon other nations to abandon their 

* Contributions to Xortb Amer. Btbnology, III, p. 252. Davis Creek enters Goose 
Lake fiom the southea.-jt. Tlie IT. 8. Geological Survey map marks "Old ludiau Vil- 
lages" in latitude 41° .37' and longitude 120° 36', to the southwest of that basin. 



xliv ETHNOGRAPHIC SKETCH. 

own languages are scarcely heard of on this hemisphere, but the annals of 
the eastern parts of the globe make mention of such. 

Whenever it is shown that the language of some American people is 
akin to the language of another, so that both are dialects of a common 
linguistic famil}^, a more cogent proof of their common genealogic origin 
is furnished than lies in a similarity of laws, customs, myths, or religion. 
To decide the question of affinity between two languages is generally an 
easy, but sometimes a very difficult task. When a relatively large number 
of roots and affixes having the same function coincide in both, this argues 
in favor of affinity. The coincidence of single terras in them is never for- 
tuitous, but we have to find out whether such terms are loan words or 
belong to the stock of words of the languages under process of investigation. 
Other terms show an external resemblance which is not based on real iden- 
tity of their radicals, but only on a deceptive likeness of signification. 

From all this the reader will percei\'e that we can not ex2)eet to steer 
clear of shoals and breakers in determining by the aid of language the 
affinities of our Klamath Indians. But the inquiries below, whether suc- 
cessful or not, will at least aid future somatologists in solving the problem 
whether linguistic areas coincide or not with racial areas upon the Pacific 
coast between the Columbia River and the Bay of San Francisco. In 
making these investigations we must constantly bear in mind that the track 
of the migrations was from north to south, parallel to the Pacific coast, 
which is sufficiently evidenced by the progress of some Selish, Tinne, 
Sahaptin, and Shoshoni tribes in a direction that.deviates but inconsiderably 
from a meridional one. 

To establish a solid basis for these researches, a list of the Pacific coast 
linguistic families is submitted, which will assist any reader to judge of the 
distances over which certain loan words have traveled to reach their present 
abodes. The country from which a loan word has spread over a number 
of other family areas is often difficult to determine, because these languages 
have not all been sufficiently exploited. The families below are enumerated 
according to the latest results of investigation. Some of them may in the 
future be found to be dialects of other stocks. The Californian tribes have 
l)een mapped and descril)ed in Stephen Powers's "Tribes of California"; 
Contributions to North American Ethimlouv, Vol. III. 



ILNGUISTIG FAMILIES ON THE I'ACIFIC SLOPE. xlv 

The Shoshoni family extends through eastern Oregon, Nevada, southern 
Idaho, Utah, parts of Wyoming and California, and embodies the tribes of 
the Snake Indians, the Shoshoni, from whom the Comanches separated 
centuries ago, the Paviotso and Bannok (Panaiti), the Pai-uta, Uta, Moki, 
and the Kawuya branch of California. This family occupies an area almost 
as large as the Selish stock, but the population is very thinly scattered over 
the vast territory of the inland basin. 

Washo Indians, near Carson, Nevada, inclosed on all sides except on 
the west by Shoshoni tribes. 

Selish Indians occupy Washington, portions of the Oregon coast and of 
Vancouver Island, northern Idaho (from which they extend into Montana), 
the Fraser River Valley, and the adjoining coast of British Columbia. Some 
dialects of this family are remarkable through a profusion of consonantic 
clusters. Chinook dialects show many Selish affinities. 

Sahaptin family, dwelling around middle Columbia and Lower Snake 
Kiver. An offshoot of it — the Warm Spring Indians — settled in Des Chutes 
Valley, Oregon. 

Wayih'tpu is a Sahaptin name given to the Kayuse people on the 
Yumatilla Reservation, which has abandoned its former tongue, called the 
"Old Kayuse," to adopt the Yumatilla dialect of Sahaptin. Molale is 
related to old Kayuse; its former area was east of Oregon City. 

Tinne or Athapashcm tribes, wherever they ap})ear near the Pacific coast, 
are intruders from the northern plains around Mackenzie River and the head- 
waters of the upper Yukon. Those still existing on the Pacific coast are the 
Umpqua and Rogue River, the Hupa and Wailaki Indians, whei'eas the 
Tlatskanai and Kwalhioqua have disappeared. 

The following three families on and near the Oregon coast were explored 
by Rev. Owen J. Dorsey in 1884 (Amer. Antiquarian, 1885, pp. 41, 42): 

Ydktvina, subdivided into Als!', Yakwina on the bay of the same name, 
Ki'i-itch on the Lower Umpqua River, and Sayusla. 

Kits, Coos Indians on Coos Bay and Mulluk on Lower Coquille 
River. 

Taktlmu or Takelma Indians, south of the Kus, on middle course of 
Rogue River. 



Xlvi ErH-NOGilAi'MlC iSKJi'KJU. 

The Kalupnyu Indians once occupied the eutiie Wilh'unet Kiver \'alley 
save its southeastern portions. Its best studied dialect is Atfahiti, also 
called Tualati and Wapatu Lake. 

On the lower Klamath River, California, and in its vicinity, there are 
four tribes of small areas speaking languages which require further inves- 
tigations to decide upon their affinities. At present their languages are 
regarded as representing distinct families, as follows: 

Ara, Ara-ara or Karok, on both sides of Klamath River. 

Alikivu or Yurok, at the mouth of Klamath River. 

Wisliosk or Wlyot, on Humboldt Ba}-. 

Chimariko or Chimalakwe, on Trinity River and environs. 

The I^onio dialects are spoken along the California coast and along its 
•water-courses from 39° 30' to 38° 15' latitude. 

Ytiki dialects were spoken in tlie mountains of the Californian Coast 
Range upon two distinct areas. 

Wintiin (from witi'i, winti'i iikdi, hidian) is spoken in man}' dialects upon 
a wide area west of Sacramento River from its mouth up to Shasta Butte. 

Noja, spoken near Round Mountain, Sacramento Valley. 

Maklu (from nmi'dii iiuai, Ii/diun) dialects are heard upon the east side 
of Sacramento River from Fort Redding to the G(3sumnes River and up to 
the water-shed of tlie Sierra Nevada. 

Shasti dialects jjroperly belong to the middle course of Klamatli River 
and to the adjoining parts of Oregon; the language of Fit River or Acho- 
mawi, southeast of the Shasti area, is cognate with it. 

Mutsan dialects, north and south of San Francisco Bay, are cognate 
with the Miwok dialects, wliich are heard fiom the San Joaquin River up 
to the heights of the Sierra Nevada. The littoral family of the Essden is 
inclosed upon all sides by the Mutsun dialects. We have vocabularies 
from the eighteenth century, Ijut its existence as A.sepurate family has been 
put in evidence but lately by H. W. Henshaw in American Anthropologist, 
1890, pp. 45-50. 



KADICALS HELD IN COMMON. xlvii 



RADICALS WHICH KLAMATH HOLDS IN COMMON WITH OTHER 

FAMILIES. 

A number of radical syllables occur in the same or in cognate signi- 
fications in several linguistic families of the Northwest, and some of. them 
extend even to the stocks east of the Rock}- Mountains and of the Missis- 
sippi River. This fact is of great significance, as it proves certain early 
connections between these Indians, either loose or intimate. If the number 
of such common radices should be increased considerably by further re- ' 
search, the present attempt of classifying Pacific languages into stocks 
would become subject to serious doubts. From the quotations below I have 
carefully excluded all roots (and other terms) of onomatopoetic origin. 1 
have made no distinction between pronominal and predicative roots, for a 
radical syllable used i)redicatively in one stock may have a pronominal 
function in another famil}- 

-illl, -f'lii, -<(i», -m frequently occurs as a suffix for the possessive case 
in the Pacific coast languages. Thus in Klamath -am is the usual suftix of 
that case, -lam being found after some vowels only; cf Grammar, pages 
.■517 et se(i., and suffix -m, page 355; also pages 474-47fi. On page 475 I 
have called attention to the fact that -am occurs as marking the possessive 
case in the Pit River language; itoshexf^m yanim deer' s foot-prhds ; -am, -im 
in Molale: pshkainshim, possessive of pshkainsh heard. The Sahaptin dia- 
lects use -nmi, -mi, etc., to designate tins case. 

ka occurs in many languages as a demonstrative radix, though it often 
assumes an interrogative and relative signification and changes its vocaliza- 
tion. In Apache-Tinne dialects it is interrogative: yjiie ivhof in Navajo; 
in the Creek ka is the relative particle, a substitute for our relative pronoun 
who. In Yuki kau is this and tJiere; in Yokat (Califoi'nia) ka- occurs in 
kahama fJiis, kawio here, 3?okau flicrr. East of Mississippi River we have it 
in Iroquois dialects: ke'" in kf''"t'ho here (t'lio plare); in Tuskarora: kyii' 
that or this one (pointing at it), kyii' nii" this one ; t'lio i-kiin that one is* In 
the Klamath of Oregon this root composes kank so much, kani somebody, 



• My authoiity for quotations from Iroquois dialects is Mr. J. N. B. Hewitt, of tie 
Tuskarora tribe. 



Xlviii ETHNOGRAPHIC SKETCH. 

kaui ? who? rtiid kat who, pron. rel. As a suffix -ka, -ga is t'onuing factitive 
verbs and is of great frequency (cf Part I, pp. 341, 342); ka-a, ka-a, ka 
is adverb: f/reatly, strongly, very. 

kli-i and similar forms are serving to deny statements and to form 
negative and privative compounds. In Shoshoni dialects g'ai, k;i, kats, 
karn-u, etc., stand for no! in Zuni kwa is the real negative particle, like 
akai! )io.' in Tonkawe. In Kwakiutl no! is kets and kie; in Paul kaki; it 
also occurs in some northern dialects of Algonkin as ka, kavvine etc. In 
Klamath ka-i is no! and not; it composes kiya to lie and such words as are 
mentioned in Grammar, p. 633; cf. also p. 644. In some of the Maskoki 
dialects -ko, -go, -ku is the privative particle in adjectives and verbs. 

mi is a pronominal demonstrative radix, like nu, ni, and also serves to 
express personal and possessive pronouns. In Creek ma that points to dis- 
tant objects and also forms ista'mat who (interrogative). In many western 
families it expresses the second person: in Mutsun dialects men is thou, in 
Miwok mi; in Wintiin mi, me is thou, met thine, thy: in Maidu mi is thou, 
mimem ye, mo'm, mi'i-um that one ; in Yuki meh, mi is thou and in Pomo ma 
is ye (me this); in Ara and Sahaptin mi is transposed into im, thou. Shasti 
has mayi and Pit River mill, mi for thou; Sahaptin im, imk thou, ima, imak 
ye. In Klamath mi stands for thy, thine, mish for thee, to thee, but i for thou ; 
-ma is a verbal suffix, q. v. There are languages where mi, ma makes up 
'the radix for the first person and not for the second, as Sioux and Hidatsa 
of the Dakotan family; while in the Shoshoni dialects thou is omi, umi, um, 
era, etc., and in Yuma ma-a, ma. In the Nez Percd of Sahaptin ma is the 
interrogative pronoun whof and tvhichf and also forms plurals when suf- 
fixed to nouns. 

liakR, the Kl. term for cinnamon bear, prol>ably related to nakish sole, 
as the bears are Plantiyradce, has many parallels in American languages. 
The Yuma dialects have nagoa hear in HuaLipai, nakatya, nogudia in Tonto; 
Y6kat has noh6ho hear, Alikwa nikwi;^ yyi'^^ly hear. If the yaka of Sahaptin 
is from nyaka, it belongs here also. East of Mississippi River there is only 
one species of the bear, the tdaek bear. The radix nak-, iiok- occurs in the 
Tonica language nnkushi, and in tlie Maskoki dialects: n(')k'husi in (Jreek, 
H6;(usi in Hitchiti, but nikta in Alibainu. 



RADICALS HELD IN COMMON. xlix 

llkol, nku'l, nxol in Klamath designates the gray white-tailed rabbit, and 
the same radix appears in ko'lta, kolta^s/* otter and in kuish badger. In the 
San Antonio language of Southern California the radix is represented by 
kol hare (^rabbit is map), in Kasud (Sa. Barbara dialect) by kii'n, in Tonto 
by akola, kula, in Hualapai by gula. Even in the luuit dialects we find 
for rabbit: ukalik (Hudson Bay), kwdlluk (Kotzebue Sound). 

1111 or lli. A pronominal demonstrative radix n- followed by almost 
any vowel (na, nu, ni, etc.) is of great frequency in America as well as in 
the eastern hemisphere, where it often becomes nasalized : nga, ngi, etc 
In American languages it forms personal possessive and demonstrative pro- 
nouns, prefixes and suffixes of nouns and verbs. In South America nu, nu 
designates the pronoun / or me so frequently that the explorer K. von der 
Steinen was prompted to call Nii-languagcs a large group of languages north 
and south of Amazon River, including Carib dialects. In America nu, ni 
designates more frequently ihQ first person of the singular and plural (J, we) 
than the second thou, ye. It stands for the first person in Quichhua, Moxo, 
Tsoneka, in Nahuatl, the " Sonora" and Slioshoni languages, in Otomi, 
Yuma, the Tehua and Kera {no in hi-wo-me /) dialects of New Mexico; in 
Winttin, Maidu, Wayiletpu, Sahaptin, and the numerous Algonkin dialects. 
For the second person it stands in Yakwina, Tonkawe, Atakapa, and in 
Dakota and Tinne dialects. As a demonstrative pronoun we find it used in 
many languages, e.g., in the Onondaga of Iroquois, where na'ye' means that, 
that it is, and na'" (a long') this. In Klamath nil, ni is /, niitoks myself, 
nish me, to me; nat, na we, nalam ours; -na is case suffix and transitional 
verbal suffix; n- prefix refers to objects level, flat, sheet- or string-like, or 
extending towards the horizon. 

sllUIll, SlVlll is the Klamath term for mouth of persons, of animals, 
and of rivers. Forms parallel to this are disseminated through many of the 
Pacific coast languages. In Kayuse it is siimxaksh, in Molale shimilk, in 
Nishinam and other Maidu dialects sim, in Yokat sama, shemah.* Inti- 
mately connected with mouth are the terms for beard: shu, slio, shwo in 
Sahaptin dialects, shimkdmush in Kayuse, and for tooth: si, shi in the 

*It occurs even ia South America: 'simi in Kecbua is mouth and word; shdm in 
tUe Patagon of Brazil, lip; Martins, Beitrage, II, lill. 
iv 



1 ETHNOGRAPHIC SKETCH. 

Wintun dialects, sii^ in Yuki, sit, si-it in Mutsun (coast dialects), sa in 
Santa Barbara, tchawa in some dialects of Maidu. It is justifiable to regard 
Kl. shum as an ancient possessive case of the si, sa tooth of Central Califor- 
nian languages; cf. what is said concerning the suffix -ini. 

tut tooth appears related to tu^t tooth of Sayusla, a dialect of Yakwina 
and also to tit of the Sahaptin dialects; ititi "his tooth" in Walawala. 

tclll-, tsi- is a radical often used on the Pacific coast referring to 
water or liquids, their motions, and the acts performed with or within the 
watery element. While in Klamath it figures as a prefix only, q. v., other 
tongues make use of it as a radical. Tchi is water in Y'iikwina, in Takflma, 
and in tlie Yuchi of the Savannah River; in Zuni 'tchawe is water ('t alve- 
olar) in Noja tchi'idshe. The Sahaptin dialects show it in Warm Spring 
tchii'sh water, ata=tchash ocean; in Klikatat tchawas tvater, atii=tchis ocean, 
tchawat to drini; ; while in Nez- Perce tchii'sh changes to ki'ish. Chinook 
has 'Itchukwa ivater, Ch. J. salt-tchuk ocean, but the Selish languages employ 
a I'adix se-n'l, si-u'l, sh;'i-u instead to designate any liquid. 

wa to exist, live, to he within, and to grow or generate is a radix to be 
traced in many of the Western tongues. In Klamath we refer to wa and 
its numerous derivatives, as waw/ipka to sit or he on the ground, wa-ish pro- 
ductive, wa-ishi, wewanuish, Ave'k arm and limh of tree, lit. "what is growing 
upon," we'ka offspring, wekala, wash hole to live in, wa'shla (a) to dig a hur- 
row, (b) ground-squirrel, and many othei's. In Kwakiutl wats, wiitsa is dog, 
but originally "living being, animal," and is represented in Klamath by 
w^^h prairie-wolf , watch horse, watchaga dog, lit. "little animal," the idea of 
"domesticated" or "belonging to man" to be supplied. In Chinook tlu; 
suffix -uks (for -waks) points to living beings also. The Sahaptin languages 
show this root in wash to he, exist, in Nez Perc^ wa^osh alive, watash ^j^ace, 
field, earth, in Yakima wak^ash living, and in other terms. 

AFFINITIES IN WESTERN LANGrAGES. 

Many of the Western families exhibit but little or no affinity in their 
lexicon with the Klamath language, the reason being undoubtedly that they 
are but little explored. Thus in Mutsun a single term only was found to 
correspond: tchiiya shallow hasM in the dialect of Soledad; cf tcln'da and 



LINGUISTIC AFFINITIES. U 

tchAkfila, by which two kinds of root baskets are specified in Klamath. 
The Sayusla tsdokwa leg answers to tchil'ks, Mod. tchokasli leg and to 
sho'ksh, Mod. tche-o'ksh crane, this bird being called after its long legs. 
The ShosJioni stock, with its extensive array of diak'"ts, spoken in the closest 
vicinity of the Klamath people, is almost devoid of any resemblances; cf. 
ka-i not, and napal egg, compared with nobave in Payute, nobavh Cheme- 
huevi; nopavh Shoshoiii. This probably rests on no real affinity. In the 
Noja language, spoken near Redding, California, putsi Jnimming-hird corre- 
sponds to Kl. pi'shash, and tchashina, tchashi, a small shink species, to Kl. 
tchashish. For Wintun may be compared Kl. pan to eat with ba, bah; kalo 
sky (from kjilkali, round, globiform) with k'altse sky. 

From Selish saiga field the Kl. saiga, saika prairie, field, meadoiv was 
certainly borrowed, and t'tjize grasshopper of Kalispelm reappears here in 
ta'hta-ash and in Mod. kamtata. Kaukawak yellow of Chinook is kauka-uli, 
kevk^vH brown of Kl. ; and tenas young, recent reappears in Kl. te'-ini new, 
young, te-iniwA-ash young tvoman; c£ tdnase infant in Aht dialect of Van- 
couver Island. The long array of words which Klamath has borrowed from 
Chinook jargon are enumerated in Grrammar, pages 220-222. 

Maidu. — An uncommon number of affinities are found to exist between 
Klamath and the Maidu dialects east of the Sacramento River. Of these 
terms some are not loan words, but appear to be derived from some common 
stock. 

ha la slope of mountain; Kl. lala, lilala to slope downwards. 

kAla hot-water basket; Maidu, k611o cup-basket. 

k4we eel; Maidu, kow6. 

ngulu, kiilu, kiilo female animal; Maidu dialects: kii'le, kii'lle, kiila, 
woman, wife, and female animal. This word also composes the terms father 
and child, and hence means "to generate" 

p4n to eat: Maidu, d. pen, pap, pa, pepe to eat; pan to smoke in Maidu, 
corresponds to Kl. paka; pdni, pan is tobacco in Maidu. 

pen, pa'n again, a second time ; Maidu, pene ttvo. 

viilal, vilal Cottonwood tree; Maidu, wilili. 

From the Shasti language Modoc has borrowed more than Klamath 
l.ake, and the terms as far as known are all mentioned in the Dictionary. 



lii ETUNOGRAPUIC SKETCH. 

They are fpo, ipshiina, etchmu'nna, a dak, hapush (cf. also hapa kangaroo 
rat and striped squirrel in Noja) and probably also kala hot-wafer basket, 
madna sunjioiver. 

Its southeastern or Fit Biver dialect shows a number of terms probably 
not loaned, but resting upon some indefinite common affinity. Thus ddshash 
milk, breast, udder is in Pit River fdshit female breast (cf. Ara: litchis milk), 
wan silver fox, dim. wanaga, in Pit River kwAn silver fox and wan- in 
wanekpi'isha fox; kaila earth is in Pit River kc^la, taktilkli red is ta%ta;^e, 
tidshi ffood is tussi, tiishi, ko'sh j/me tree is kashii. 

The only families in which a considerable number of terms possibly 
rests upon a real and not fancied kinship are those of Wayiletpu and 
Sahaptin. 

WAYILETPU DIALECTS. 

Wayiletpu, of which two dialects only are known or accessible to us, 
Kayuse and Molale, shows the following affinities: 

Kl. gi to be, to exist, Molale, gisht he is, gishlai he will be. Compare to 
this in Mafdu: bishi alive and dwellinf/ place; Wintun: bim to be (present 
tense). 

Kl. ke, kek this; Kayuse, ka, k6, ke, kai this, this one. 

Kl. gu, ku, kune that; Kayuse, ku, ka, ku yiiwant that man, kappik 
the)/. 

Kl. I'ua, d. yana downward, yaina mountain; Molale, yangint elevation. 

Kl. Vdk forehead ; Molale, lakunuiyace. 

Kl. la'pi, lap two; Molale, lapka two, lapitka seven; Kayuse, lipu} i, 
liplint two; liplil twins. 

Kl. lukua to be hot, warm, l(')kuash warm, hot, and heat, luluks fre; 
Kayuse lokoyai warm, hot. 

Kl. mukmiikli cinnamon-complexioned (originally "downy"), tch'muka 
to be dark (as night); Molale, moka dark, mukimuki dark complexioned ; 
nuikinmk'=wai "black mfii\," negro. 

Kl. mpato, pato cheek, cf. patpatli; Molale, paktit cheek. 

Kl. na'dsh one; Kayuse, na one; Molale, nanga one, composes ntipitka 
six. 



LINGUISTIC AFFINITIES. • Ijii 

Kl. iifinuk all, nanka some, a part of; Kayuse, nang, nangina-a all; 
Molale, iitingkai all. 

Kl. n4pal egg ; Kayuse, lupil, laupen egg. 

Kl. pdn to eat; Kayuse, pitanga; Molale, pa-ast "to eat. 

Kl. pa watch tongue ; Kayuse, push; Molale, apa-us. 

Kl. pa'^tgi to dawn, the daivn ; Molale, pakast morning. 

Kl. pila on one's body, on the hare skin; Kayuse, pi'li meat; Molale pf'l 
body. 

Kl. shuai black-tailed deer; Molale, suai deer and ivhite-tailed deer. 

Kl. tiinii many, much; Molale, tarn many. 

Kl. wai'ta to pass a day and night, or a day, waitash day ; Kayuse, 
ewe-iu or uwaya, wdya day, u-awish, huewish sun ; Molale, wash day and 
sun, wasam summer-time. 

Kl. w/iko ivhitepine; Molale, wakant, wtikint, wakuiit log. 

Kl. wek limb of tree; Kayuse, pasiwii'ku Umh of tree. 

Kl. wek^tash green frog ; Molale, wakatinsh frog. 

In the morphologic part we also detect a number of close analogies 
between the two families: 

hash-, hish-, is a prefix forming a sort of causative verbs by anathesis 
in Molale, like h-sh of Klamath; e. g., ishi he said, hishashi he replied. 

-gAla, kala, a Molale case-suffix to, toward, corresponds to -t;ila toward 
of Klamath. 

-im, -am forms the possessive case in Wayileptu; am in Klamath. 

p- is prefix in terms of relationship in both families, and -p also occurs 
as suffix in these and other terms; cf. Sahaptin. 

Distributive forms are made by syllabic reduplication in Kayuse exactly 
in the same manner as in Klamath : yamua great, d. yiyimu ; lahtiyis old, 
d. Ialh4yis ; luastu bad, d. laluastu ; suayu good, d. sasu4yu. 

SAHAPTIN DIALECTS. 

The Sahaptin dialects coincide with Klamath just as strikingly in some 
of the words and grammatic forms as do those of Wayiletpu, and it is sin- 
gular that in a number of these all three mutually agree, as in lukua, muk- 
mukli, and two numerals. 



liv • BTHNOGRAPHIC SKBTCU. 

Kl. ka-ukii-uli, kevkcvli, ke-uke-uli hrnivn : Nez-Perce, kn-uykA-u-/ 
drab, lUjlit yelloiv, dark cream. 

Kl ke, kek (Ills : Nez-Pei'ce, ki, pi. kima this ; adv. kiiia liere, kimtam 
near. 

Kl. kitchkaiii Utth, adv. kitclia, ketcha; kuskus, Nez Perce, small, little; 
ikkes, Yakima ; kiskis, Warm Spring. 

Kl. kta-i rock, stone ; ktii't hard, Yakima. ^ 

Kl. la'pi, lap two; Mpit, IdpTt two, Nez Perc^ ; napit, VValawala; na'pt, 
Warm Spring-. 

Kl. lukua to he warm, hot, ItSkuasli and lusliliishli ivarm; luluks fire; 
lu6%iits warm, Nez Perce; ilukslia j^re in Nez Perce and Walawala ; ilksh, 
Warm Spring; eliisha to hum, lokautch cinders, Yakima; l;i;;jni;(;, lalioi/ 
warm, Yakima; la;^wai, Warm Spring. 

Kl. mukmukli, makmakli cinnamon-colored ; ma;^sma;^s, Nez Perce, 
yellow; ma;^sh, Yakima and Warm Spring (also as miiksh blonde, auburn, 
Warm Spring). 

KL mu'lk worm, maggot, va&nk, fly ; mu;{limuzli^/y, Warm Spring. 

Kl. mushmush cattle, cow, originally meant "lowing like cattle," from 
the Sahaptin mil cattle; _cf. Texts, Note to 13, 13. 

Kl. ua'dsh one ; na';^s, la';jvS, Yakima ; nii'^sh. Warm Spring. 

Kl. nanka some, a portion of; liaaka some in several Sahaptin dialects. 

Kl. pawatch tongue ; pawish, Nez Perce. 

Kl. pe-ip daughter ; pap, Nez Perce, Warm Spring, daughter (not one's 
own). 

Kl. pi he, she, p'na, m'na him, her ; pina self, oneself himself, etc., Nez 
Perce ; pini he, this one, Warm Spring. 

Kl. taktakli level, even, flat ; ti\i?d flat, Yakima; cf. tii-i'h bottom land. 

Kl. tatdksni children; (na)titait man, Yakima; tit^kan people, Nez 
Percd. 

Kl. tchemuka, tsiniika to be dark, cf. mukmukli ; tsemi'i;Kts6mu;( dark 
brown\prieto), of dark complexion, black, Nez Perce; shmuk, Yakima; tchnm'k, 
Warm Spring, dark ; shmukakusha to blacken, Yakimn. 

Kl. vu'nsh, u-unsh boat, canoe, dug-out; wassas boat, Yakima, Warm 
Spring. 



THE KLAMATH A SEPARATE FAMILY., Iv 

Of agreements in the morphologic part of grammar we notice consid- 
erable analogy in the inflection of the Sahaptin substantive with its numer- 
ous case forms : 

Reduplication for inflectional purposes is syllabic also, but not so gen- 
erally in use as in Klamath; Nez Perce tayits good, abbr. ta'hs; plur. tita'hs. 

Kl. -kni, ending of adj. "coming from;" -pkinih, subst. case, /row* / 
init house, initpkinih /row a house, in Nez Perce. 

p- prefix forms most names of relationship : pika mother, piap elder 
brother, pet sister ; -p as suffix appears in Nez Perce as^ap younger brother, 
asip sister (I'sip Walawala). The prefix pi- forms reciprocal verbs ; hak-, 
hah-, radix of verb to see, forms pihaksih to see each other. 

Kl. -na is transitional case-suffix; cf Nez Perc^ kina here, from pron. 

ki this. 

CONCLUSIONS. 

The conclusions which can be drawn with some degree of safety from 
the above linguistic data and some mythologic facts, concerning the pre- 
historic condition of the people which occupies our attention, are not unim- 
portant, and may be expressed as follows: 

Although it is often a difficult matter to distinguish the loan words in 
the above lists from the words resting upon ancient affinity, the table shows 
that the real loan-words of the Maklaks were borrowed from vicinal tribes 
only, as the Shasti, and that those which they hold in common with other 
tribes more probably rest on a stock of words common to both, as the pro- 
nominal roots. The affinity with Maidu appears more considerable than 
that with other Californian tribes only because the Maidu dialects have 
been studied more thoroughly. Scarcely any affinity is traceable with the 
coast dialects of Oregon and California, and none with the Tinue dialects, 
though the Umpkwa and Rogue River Indians lived in settlements almost 
conterminous with those of the Maklaks. The latter were acquainted with 
the Pacific Ocean only by hearsay, for they have no original word for salt 
or tide, nor for any of the larger salt-water fish or mammals, and their term 
for sea is a compound and not a simple word: muni e'-ush ''great water-sheet," 
just as the Peruvians of the mountains call the ocean "mother-lake," mama= 
cocha. The scanty knowledge of the sea, which was scarcely one hundred 



Ivi ETUNOGRAPniG SKETCU. 

and fifty miles distant from the mountain homes of the Klamath peoj)k', 
proves more than anything- else their protracted isolation from other tribes 
and cdso their absence from the sea-coast during their stay about the head- 
waters of the Klamath River. 

No connection is traceable between tlie languages of the Klamath and 
the Shoshoni Indians, both immediate neighbors, nor with the Kalapuya, 
Chinook, and Selish dialects north of them. They must have remained 
strangers to each other as far back as language can give any clue to pre- 
historic conditions. The Sahaptin and Wayiletpu families are the only 
ones with whom a distant kinshijj is not altogether out of the question. 
Some of the terms common to these languages could have been acquired 
by the Maklaks through their frequent visits at the Dalles, the great ren- 
dezvous and market-place of the Oregonian and of many Selish tribes. 
Friendly intercourse with the Warm Spring Indians (Lokuashtkni) existed 
long ago and exists now; friendly connections of this kind are frequently 
brought about by racial and linguistic affinity, just as inveterate enmity is 
often founded upon disparity of race and language.* 

The resemblances in the lexical part of the three families are not unim- 
portant, but in view of the small knowledge we have of either and of the 
large number of words in these languages showing neither affinity nor 
resemblance, we have to maintain the classification prevailing at present and 
to regard their dialects as pertaining to three linguistic families. Sahaptin 
shows more likeness in phonetics and in morphology with Wayiletpu than 
with Klamath. 

Nowhere is syllabic reduplication so well developed in Oregon and 
about Columbia River as in the three families above mentioned and in 
Selish, the distributive as well as the iterative. The latter exists in every 
language, but of the former no traces could be detected in the Kalapuya 
and Northern Californian languages, and but few in Shoshoni dialects, 
though in Mexico it is frequent. This point will prove very important in 
tracing ancient migrations. 

* We may compare the long-lasting friendly relations once existing between the 
Lendpo and SliAwano, the SiiDshoni and Bainiock (Panaiti), the Chicasa and the 
Kasf'hta (a Creek tribe), the Illinois and the Miami Indians. 



EARLY HISTORY. \vn 

The numeration system of a people is a relic of a remote age, and 
therefore of importance for tracing the ancient connections of tribes. The 
quinary system is the most frequent counting method in America, and often 
combines with the vigesimal. The pure quinary S3^stem prevails in Ara, in 
the Chimariko, Yuki, and in the Shasti-Pit River family, in Sahaptin and 
Wayiletpu, and it is also the S3'stem found in Klamath. Curiously enough, 
the Maidu Indians count by fifteens, and the decimal system forms the basis 
of the Wintiin, Mutsun, and Selish dialects. The mvstic or "sacred" 
number occurring hundreds of times in mythologic stories is five among all 
the Oregonian tribes. 

To sum up the result of the above linguistic inquiry, it may be stated 
that our present knowledge does not allow us to connect the Klamath lan- 
guage genealogically with any of the other languages compared, but that 
if stands as a lincjiiistic family for itself. It has adopted elements from the 
tongues spoken in its neighborhood; and a common element, chiefl}' pro- 
nominal, underlies several of these and the American languages in general. 

THE HISTORIC PERIOD. 

'Ex Se mil xa) TriQrn navTa MaTtiFXitra ytyvsrai. 

On account of the superstition previously alluaed to, the traditional 
historic lore which forms so attractive a feature in the unwritten literature of 
the nations east of the Rocky Mountains and of Mexico is wanting entirely 
among the Maklaks, and we have to rely upon the meager reports of trav- 
elers and Government agents for accounts of the condition of the tribes in the 
earlier part of this century. Such notices of historic events are as follows: 

According to a tradition recorded by Stephen Powers, an epidemic of 
small-pox broke out among the Modoc Indians in 1847, by which one hun- 
dred and fifty individuals perished. 

The earliest historic conflict which can be ascertained with some chro- 
nological accuracy is the massacre of eighteen immigrants to Oregon by 
individuals of the Modoc tribe, and Ben Wright's massacre, consequent upon 
that bloody deed. The massacre of the immigrants occurred at a place on 
Tule or Rhett Lake, since called Bloody Point. Undoubtedly this was only 



iviii ETUNOGRAPUIU yivETCtl. 

one in a series of similar butcheries. Apparently it occurred in 1852, and 
the particuhirs are all given in Texts, pages 13 and 14. 

One of the earliest I'eports upon the.se tribes made to the Bureau of 
Indian Aftairs at Washington is that of Joel Palmer, Superintendent of 
Indian Affairs for Oregon, dated Dayton, Oregon, September 11, 1854. 
Palmer states that the lands of the Klamath Indians extend upon the east- 
ern base of the Cascade range for about thirty miles east, and that east of 
them live the "Mo-docks," who speak the same language as the Klamaths; 
and east of these again, extending farther south, are the "Mo-e-twas" (Pit 
Kiver Indians). These two last-named tribes have always evinced a deadly 
hostility to the whites, and tlie Modocs boasted of having within the last 
four years murdered thirty- six whites. Palmer entered into an agreement 
with the Klamath Indians to keep the peace with the white people, and also 
sent messengers to the Modocs and Pit Rivers, believing that henceforth 
the immigrants would be spared from their attacks. The Klamath Lakes 
were then enfeebled by wars witli the surrounding tribes and by conflicts 
among themselves, and were said to number but four hundred and fifteen 
souls. He counted seven villages on Upper Klamath Lake, two on Pliock 
Creek (P'laikni or Sprague River), three on Toqua Lake (Tukua), and one 
on Coasto (Koliashti) Lake.* Tlie Indians had some guns, horses, camp 
equipage, and the aboriginal war-club and "elk-skin shield" (kakno'lsh). 
Little Klamath Lake he calls An-coose, a corruption of Agawesli. 

Neither Klamath Lake nor Modoc Indians have taken any part in the 
great Oregon war of 1854-56, although their sympatliies were of course 
strongly in favor of the aboriginal cause. 

For the year 1854 Powers records a battle fought bj' Captain Judy 
against Modoc and Shasti Indians on the Klamath River, north of Yreka, 
in which some women of the Shasti were killed. 

The Report of 1859 speaks of continued hostilities on the side of the 
Modocs against passing immigrants and of the murdering of a partA' of five 
white men in Jackson County, Oregon. Two of the murderers belonged 
to the tribe of Chief Lek'kash, and three of the perpetrators were seized and 
killed by the Klamath Indians (page 392). 

* This would mako only six, not .seven, villages. 



EARLY HISTORY. lix 

Alexander S. Taylur has the following passage in his "California 
Farmer" of June 22, 1860: "Cunitukus, Lalacks, Schonches, and Tertup- 
kark are names of chiefs among Klamath Lake Indians of the Oukskenah 
tribe. The big Klamatli Lake is called Toakwa." Except the first, the 
above head-men were all identified in the Dictionary with the well-known 
names of Lelekasli, Skontchish (a Modoc chief) and Tatapkaksh. Cum- 
tukni, who died about 1866, is mentioned by Stephen Powers as a great 
orator, prophet, and rain-maker.f 

Whether the two incursions made upon the Klamath Lake people by 
the Rogue River Indians of Tinne lineage, across the Cascade range, of 
which detailed accounts were furnished in our Texts by Dave Hill, took 
place about 1855 or earlier I have not the means of ascertaining. The 
Lake tribe were not slow in inflicting vengeance upon the attacking party, 
for tliey crossed the mountain pass and fell upon the camps of their enemies, 
making sad havoc among th'nn. 

Frequent disputes and encounters occui-red between the two chieftain- 
cies and the Shasii Indiana around Yreka, California ; but the warlike quali- 
ties of the latter were often too strong for the aggressors, and the conflicts 
were not very bloody.f With the Pit River or M6atwash tribe the matter 
was different. They were not, like the Shasti, possessed of the warrior 
spirit, and therefore had to suffer terribly from the annual raids perpetrated 
npon them. In April and Ma}- the Klamath Lakes and Modocs would 
surround the camps, kill the men, and abduct the women and children to 
their homes, or sell them into slavery at the international bartering place 
at The Dalles. Some of these raids were provoked by horse-stealing, 
others by greed for gain and plunder, and the aggre.«sors never sufifered 
heavily thereby. When they began is not known, but the treaty of 1864 
put an end to them. The recitals in the Texts, pages 13-27 and 54, 55, 

• Overland Monthly, 1873, June number, page 540. His appearance had some- 
thing fascinating for the Indians, and some are said to have traveled two hundred miles 
to consult him. His name appears to be Kumetakni = " coming from a cave," or " liv- 
ing in a cave."' 

t One of these fights took place between the Shasti, Modoc, and Trinity River 
Indians for the possession o an obsidian quarry north of Shasta Butte, mentioned by 
B. B. Redding in American Naturalist, XIII, p. 668, et seq., and Archiv f. Anthropol- 
ogic, XIV, p. 425. 



Ix ETHNOGIiAPHIC SKETCH. 

give us graphic sketches of these intertribal broils. Some of the eastern 
Pit Rivers seem to have lived on friendly terms with the Modocs ; but the 
bands farther south, especially the Hot Spring and Big Valley Indians, 
were the principal suti'erers by these incursions. In a raid of 1857 iifty-six 
of their women and children were enslaved and sold on the Columbia River 
for Cayuse ponies, one squaw being rated at five or six horses and a boy 
one horse.* 

The Pit River Indians were a predatory tribe also, and very dangerous 
to the immigrants passing through their country to northwestern Oregon. 
Their continued depredations made it a duty of the Government to inflict 
upon them a heavy chastisement, and Maj. Gen. George Crook, command- 
ing the Colorado Department of the United States Army, was intrusted 
with its execution. This campaign of ISfiT is described by him as fol- 
lows :t 

I continued the campaign into the Pit- River country witli Company H, First 
Cavalry, Lieutenant Parnelle; Company D, Twenty-third Infantry, Lieutenant Madi- 
gan. First Cavalry, commamling; aud Archie Mcintosh, with his twenty Fort Boise 
ludian scouts. We found ou Pit Eiver a party of warriors in camp. They fled. 
The next day we discovered a large party of warriors in the bluffs oh the river. We 
had a severe fight, lasting two days and niglits. They eftected their escape by means 
of holes aud crevices in the grouud. A great many were liilled, among whom were 
some of note; how many could not be ascertained. Our loss was Lieutenant Madigan 
and three men killed, ami eight soldiers and one citizen wounded. 

The more unruly portion of these Indians were subsequently removed 
to the Round Valley Reservation, California, and about two hundred are 
still in their old homes. 

Between the Klamaths and the neighboring Snake tribes there was 
always a sort of disaffection, based upon difference of race, language, and 
habits; but whether their earlier relations were always those of open hostility 
or not is past finding out.f The woiding of the treat}- makes it probable that 
the hunting grounds north and east of their present seats on Sprague River 
were shared in common by both, and that the Snake Indians frequently 

•Alex. S. Taylor, "California Farmer," May, 1859. 

t Rei)ort of the Secretary of War, ISflS-'OO. Part 1, p. CO, dated August 22, 1867. 
St'jphen Powers refers to this fight iu Contributions HI, p. 2G8. 

I One of the Texts, p. 28, shows that the Snakes in one instance attacked and 
massacred in a very cowardly way some women near the outlet of Williamson River. 



THE TKEATY OF ISOl. ixi 

clianged their settlements, as hunting' nations are in the habit of doing. 
Thus Pauline Marsh, near Silver Lake, and Pauline Lake, on one of the 
head springs of Des Chutes River, were both named after the Snake chief 
Panaina of our Texts. The bands established upon the Reservation since 
the treaty was concluded are called Walpapi and Yahushkin. At first they 
ran oft' and committed depredations in the vicinity, whereupon the Gov- 
ernment was compelled to force them back. General Crook made several 
expeditions in the execution of the task. These campaigns were short and 
decisive, and the Klamath Lake scouts engaged in them did good service, 
as evidenced by General Crook's reports * and Dave Hill's Text, pages 
28-33. Upon the defeat and killing of Panaina, the Walpapi chief, the 
tribe finally quieted down and remained neutral in the commotion caused 
by the Modoc war of 1872-73. 

No indications are at hand of the number of Lidians formerly inhabit- 
ing the headwaters of the Klamath River. Before the first census was 
taken estimates deserving no credence were made, varying from one thou- 
sand to two thousand Indians. In those times the scourges of small-pox, 
syphilis, and whisky did not intiict such terrible ravages as they do now 
among the Indians ; but instead of these the continual tribal quarrels, 
family vengeance, the ordeals of witchcraft, dearth of food, and the inhu- 
man treatment of the females must have claimed many more victims than at 
present. Emigration and intermarriages with other tribes were rather the 
exception than the rule, and are so even now. 

THE TREATY OF 1864. 

During the ten years following Wright's massacre the country began 
to assume a somewhat difterent aspect through the agricultural and stock- 
raising settlements of white people that sprung up in Lost River Valley, 
around Little Klamath Lake and in other places. The cession of lands to 
the "Oregon Central Military Road Company" from Eugene City, in Wil- 
lamet Valley, through the Cascade range, across the Klamath Marsh, to 

•Contained in the Report of the Secretary of War, 1868-'69, Part I, pp 69, 70, 
dated September 2, 1867, and March 19, 1868. The troops killed twenty-four Snakft 
Indians in the expedition of 1867. See also Texts, Note to 28, 11. 



Ixii ETHNOGRAPHIC SKETCH. 

Wf.ruer Lake, and thence to the boundaiy of Idaho, witli it.s "six miles 
limit" grants on botli sides, took place before the conclusion of the treaty. 

In order to subject the ti'oublesome Snake and Modoc tribes to a 
stricter control, and to secure more protection to settlers and the immi- 
grants traveling through Oregon, Fort Klamath was established north of 
Upper Klamath Lake, in Lake County, and garrisoned with several com- 
panies, who were of great service in preserving order in these sparsely 
inhabited tracts. The Klamath Lake Indians were more inclined to keep 
up friendship with the white people than the other tribes, nevertheless 
some turbulent characters among them necessitated militar}* restraint. 

The Superintendent of Indian Affiiirs of the Northern District of Cali- 
fornia, Judge E. Steele, adjusted some grave difficulties between the Shasti 
and the Maklaks Indians, which threatened to break out into a terrible war 
of devastation against the Shasti and the white settlers alike. Some of the 
Maklaks " braves" had been killed upon the lands of white settlers, and the 
injured Indians had begun retaliation already. Colonel Drew, stationed at 
Fort Klamath (who fought marauding bands of Shoshoni and Bannocks 
during the summer of 1864), had arrested and executed "Captain" George, 
a Klamath Lake chief, for criminal acts, and killed an Indian conmionly 
known as Skukuui John. The chiefs and some representative Indians of 
the contending tribes met Judge Steele near Yreka, California, on Febru- 
ary 14, 1S64, and for some trifling consideration agreed to forego all further 
hostilities among themselves, to allow free passage to anybody traveling 
through their territories, and to maintain terms of friendship with all whites, 
negroes, and Chinese. The Modoes also made the special jjromise to 
harass no longer the Pit River Indians b}- annual i-aids. It also appears 
from Mr. Steele's allocution to the Indians that thev had been sellinsr to 
whites and others Indian children of their own and of other tribes, and also 
squaws, the latter mainly for the purpose of prostitution.* 

The establishment of Fort Klamath, the increase of white men's settle- 
ments, the possibility of Indian outbreaks on account of the greater vicinity 
of the farms to the Indian villages, and the desire of the Indians themselves 
to obtain rations, supplies, and annuities brought the opportunity of a 

» Report of the Commissioner of ludiau Aliairs for 18G4, pp. 84, 85 and 108-110, 



THE TREATY OF 1864. Ixiii 

treaty with these Indians more forcibly before the Government than ever 
before. In compHance with instructions from Indian Commissioner Will- 
iam P. Dole, Superintendent J. W. Perit Huntington, accompanied by 
Agent Logan, went through the Des Chutes Valley to Fort Klamath, and 
found there a large number of Indians of both sexes assembled, seven hun- 
"dred and ten of whom were Klamath Lake, three hundred and thirty-nine 
Modoc people, and twenty-two of the Yahuskin band of Snake Indians. 
They unanimously concurred in the desire that Lindsey Applegate, a settler 
of Jackson County Oregon, be appointed as their agent. The treaty was 
concluded on the 14th of October, LS64, and duly signed by the contract- 
ing parties, including twenty-six chiefs and principal men of the tribes. 
Huntington's estimate of funds necessary for fulfilling treaty stipulations 
and subsisting the Indians the first year amounted to a total of $69,400. 
The text of the treaty being too long for insertion entire, I restrict myself 
here to the contents of the principal paragraphs : 

Article 1 stipulates the cession of the territory described above (p. xvi), 
and sets apart as a reservation for the tribes referred to the tract included 
within the limits following : Beginning upon the Point of Rocks, about 
twelve miles south of the mouth of Williamson River,* the boundary follows 
the eastern shore north to the mouth of Wood River; thence up Wood 
River to a point one mile north of the bridge at Fort Klamath ; thence du3 
east to the summit of the ridge wiiich divides the upper and middle Klamath 
Lakes (now called Klamath Marsh and Upper Klamath Lake); thence 
along said ridge to a point due east of the north end of the upper lake; thence 
due east, passing the said noi-th end of the upper lake to the summit of the 
mountains on the east side of the lake; thence along said mountain to the 
point where Sprague's River is intersected by the Ish-tisli-ea-wax Creek 
(probably Meryl Creek); then in a southerly direction to the summit of the 
mountain, the extremity of which forms the Point of Rocks ; thence along 
said mountain to the place of beginning. The tribes will remove to this 
reservation immediately after the ratification of the treaty and remain 
thereon. No whites, except employes and officers of the United States 
Government, are allowed to reside upon this tract, and the Indians have 

*At the foot of Nilakshi Mountain. 



Ixiv ETHNOGKAi'UlC SKETCU. 

the exclusive right ut' taking lish and gathering edible roots, seeds, and 
berries within the reservation. Provision is made by which the right of 
way for public roads and railroads across said reservation is reserved to 
citizens of the United States. 

Article 2. As a payment for the ceded lands the Indians shall receive 
$8,000 per annum for a period of live years, $5,000 per annum for the next 
five years, and the sum of $,'5,000 per annum for the five years next suc- 
ceeding. 

Article 3 provides for the payment of $35,000 for removing the In- 
dians to the reservation, subsisting them during the first year, and provid- 
ing them with clothing, teams, tools, seeds, etc. 

Articles 4 and 5 provide for the establishment of a saw-mill, a flouring- 
miU, a manual-labor school, and hospital buildings, all to be maintained 
and supplied witli working material at the expense of the United States for 
the period of twenty }-ears. Employe's for running these establishments 
shall be paid and housed by the Grovernment also. 

Article 6 reserves the right to the Grovenmient to provide each Indian 
family with lands in severalty to the extent of forty to one hundred and 
twenty acres, and to guarantee possession to them. Indians ai'e not allowed 
to alienate these lands. 

Article 9. The Indians acknowledge their dependence upon the Gov- 
ernment of the United States, and pledge themselves to be friendly with 
all citizens thereof, to commit no depredations upon the persons or property 
of said citizens, and to refrain from carrying on any war upon other Indian 
tribes. 

Article 10 prohibits the sale and use of liquors upon the Reservation, 
and Article 1 1 permits the Government to locate other Indian tribes thereon, 
the parties to this treaty not losing any rights thereby. 

The treaty was proclaimed February 17, 1870. 

Like most of the treaties concluded between the United States Gov- 
ernment and the Indian tribes, this compact was made much more to the 
advantage of the white man than of his red brother. Not only were the 
stipulated annuities rather small for a body of Indians, which was then 
considered to number about two thousand i^eople, but these annuities were 



THE TREATY UF 1864. Ixv 

to be paid ouly after the ratification of the treaty by the President and the 
Senate, which did not take place till five years after the conclusion, viz, 
February 17, 1870. Meanwhile the Indians were always subject to the 
possibility of being removed tVom the homes of their ancestors by the stroke 
of a pen. The bungling composition of the document appears from the fact 
that a grave mistake was committed by inserting the term "east" instead 
of west (italicized in our text above), and by not mentioning the land 
grant made to the Oregon Central Military Wagon Road Company before 
1864, which, when insisted upon, would, with its twelve-mile limits, take 
away the best parts of the Reserve, the Sprague River Valle}^, for instance. 
At the time when I visited the country, in the autumn of 1877," the Klamath 
Lake Indians showed much animosity against the settlers establishing them- 
selves within their domain. The company having left many portions of 
their projected wagon road unfinished, Congress, by act approved March 2, 
1889, directed the Attorney-General to cause suits to be brought within six 
months from that date, in the name of the United States, in the United 
States Circuit Court for Oregon, to try the questions, among others, of the 
seasonable and proper completion of said road, and to obtain judgments, 
which the court was authorized to render, declaring forfeited to the United 
States all lands lying conterminous with those parts of the road which were 
not constructed in accordance with the requirements of tlie granting act. 
(Cf on this subject Ex. Doc. 131, House of Representatives, Forty -ninth 
Congress, first session, and Ex. Doc. 124, Senate, Fiftieth Congress.) 

The first representative of the Government, Subagent Lindsey Apple- 
gate, erected some buildings at the northwest point of Upper Klamath 
Lake, called Skohuashki (abbr. Kohashti); but as early as 18GG he called 
attention to the tact that the place Iiad no suitable water-power, but that 
three miles above the little creek at Beetle's Rest was a most excellent 
motor for driving a saw-mill and a grist-mill, and, being on the edge of the 
pine woods, was a well-fitted and shady place for the agency buildings. 
This advice was followed in 1868, two years before the ratification of the 
treaty. In tlie same vear the old practice of cremating- dead bodies was 
abandoned and inluuiiation introduced. The o-rave-vard was established 
around the ash-pile of cremation, still vi.sible in 1877, and in 1878 a second 

V 



Ixvi ETONOGRAPHIC SKETCH. 

cemetery was iiiaugui-uted between the Williamson River and Modoc Point, 
one mile and a half" south of the bridge. 

President U. S. Grant's peace policy in regard to the Indians was 
inangnrated by act of" Congress dated April 10, 18Gi). The supervision of 
the Indian agencies was placed in the liands of the authorities of religious 
denominations, a board of commissioners appointed,* and tlie spiritual in- 
terests of that reservation turned over to the Methodist Church. 

SCIENTIFIC RESEARCHES ON THESE INDIANS. 

The study of the ethnography of a tribe usually precedes that of its 
language; sometimes both are pursued simultaneously, and this is undoubt- 
edly the correct method. In the case of the Maklaks, Horatio Hale,t the 
hnguist of Ch. Wilkes's United States Exploring Expedition (1 838-1 842), 
and .still holding forth as a pioneer in his lines of research, took down a 
vocabulary from a Klamath Lake Indian whom he inet on the Columbia 
River in 1841. No ethnographic remarks upon the tribe accompany this 
vocabulary, probably because information obtained from interpreters, who 
speak the Chuiook jargon only, is notoriously unreliable. 

Next in time follow the extensive explorations of John Charles FrtmontJ 
of the interior basin west of the Rocky Mountains and of the Pacific coast 
from 1843 to 1844, and again from 1845 to 1846, during which the 
Klamath Lakes and Klamath Marsh were visited and explored. His re- 
ports contain graphic sketches of all that was seen and observed by his 
parties ; but scientific accuracy is often wanting, and many countries are 
described without giving the Indian local names, which are indispensable 
to identification. 

The acquisition of the Pacific coast by the United States (California 
in 1846, Oregon in 1848) naturally suggested projects of connecting the 
two oceans by a transcontinental railroad, starting from the Mississippi 
River and reaching to the Bay of San Francisco. The Central Govern- 



*Cf. Revised Statutes of the United States, second edition, 1S78, p. 359. 
tBorn in Newport, New Haiiipsbire, in 1817. 

J Born at Savannali, Georgia, .January 21, 1813; candidate for the Pre.sidency of 
tlie United States in 18.")r.; died in New York City, July 1.3, 1890. 



SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH. Ixvii 

ment sent out in different directions army officers and engineers to survey 
the proposed routes, and to publish tlie results in a series of volumes.* For 
this purpose the Thirty-second Congress appropriated, by an act passed 
May 3, 1853, the sum of Si 50,000, which was by two later appropriations 
in 1854 increased to a total of $340,000. A branch of this railroad was to 
run up the Sacramento Valley to the Columbia River. In this portion the 
Klamath headwaters were jjrincipally concerned, and it is that which was 
surveyed by Lieut. Robert Stockton Williamson,! assisted by Lieut. Henry 
Larcom Abbot, both of the Corps of Topographical Engineers. Their joint 
report, together with the reports of specialists on zoology, botany, geology, 
etc., is contained in Vol. VI (1855) J These reports are valuable and on a 
level with the condition of science as it was in those days ; but the use of 
the volumes is inconvenient when reference has to be made to the bulky 
maps, all of which are contained in other volumes than the reports them- 
selves. Lieutenant Williamson, assisted by Lieutenant Crook, when on the 
boi'der of Klamath Marsh (August 22, 1855), obtained one hundred and 
two terms of the Klamath Lake dialect, which are published in Vol. VI, 
Part I, pp. 71, 72. This vocabulaiy is brimful of mistakes, not through any 
want of attention of these officers, but because they questioned their inter- 
preter through the imperfect mediums of gestures and the Chinook jargon. 

The vocabulary taken in 1864 by Dr. William M. Gabb at Kohashti 
shows the same defects, and was obtained through the "jargon" also; 
other collections were made by Dr. Washington Matthews, W. C. Clark, 
and Lewis F. Hadlev. The words of Modoc as quoted in the publications 
of A. B. Meacham are misspelt almost without exception. From Stephen 
Powers we possess a short Modoc vocabulary, as yet unpublished. 

Whosoever inspects these word collections will see at once that the 
study of the Klamath language had never gone beyond the vocabulary 

* Reports of explorati-ms ami surveys to ascertain the most practicable and eco- 
nomical route for a railroad from t!?e Mississippi River to the Pacitte Ocean, made in 
1853 and years followin<j. Washington, 1855-1860. Quarto; illustr. with plates and 
maps. Thirteen volumes. 

t Williamson was boru 1824 in New York, and died 18S2 in San Francisco. 
Abbot, a native of Beverly, Massachusetts, was born in 1831. 

J: The first part of Vol. VI contains Abbot's report, and is chiefly tO[)ographical. 



Ixviii ETHNOGKAPHIO SKETCH. 

stage before the publication of thu present volume. Even the author expe- 
rienced considerable difficulties before he could pass beyond that limit. 
When he reached the reservation ag-ency he found not over three or four 
individuals who were able to speak a tolerable English, and the knowledge 
of this tongue is absolutely necessary to any one who aspires to the posi- 
tion of an interpreter of his own language in those parts. The Indians 
were nearly all pure bloods, and most of them knew scarcely more than a 
dozen Englisli terms. Many could converse in Chinook jargon, but the 
majority, especially the females, were not acquainted even with this preca- 
rious means of intercourse. Indeed, these people must be slow in accpiir- 
ing an Arvan language like English, for it presents so many character- 
istics entirel}' opposite to those of Klamath. English is not provided with 
reduplication, prefixes of form, nor with the multiple suffixes of Klamath ; 
it differs from it also by its more complex syntactic structure, its imperfect 
nominal intlectioii, by its distinctive form for the nominal plural, the grada- 
tion of the adjective and adverb effected by suffixation, its personal inflec- 
tion of the verb, and a long array of irregular and auxiliary verbs. 

• Thus it will be easily perceived that the obtaining of correct and reli- 
able ethnographic and linguistic information in such a tribe is fraught with 
many difficulties. Sometimes it is practicable to get the terms for visible 
objects by making gesture signs or by pointing at the objects, but it just as 
often misleads ; and if the investigator has to do with people who know no 
other language than their own, he must revise his notes with many of them 
before he can place any trust in what he has written down from dictation. 
The Indians and mixed bloods who have made some progress in the acquisi- 
tion of English pronounce /as p, v as b, r as I — are modeling Enghsh after 
their own language, using lie for our he, she, it, they, him, her, them ; all this 
being hu'k, hu't, InVnk for them. They do not know how to use our conjiuic- 
tions, a defect which makes all the tales, myths, and other textual informa- 
tion unintelligible. The only means of obtaining results is to pick out the 
best people from the crowd and to train them for awhile for the pui-pose 
wanted, initil they are brought so far as to feel or understand the scope of 
the investiiiator. Women will I)e found more useful than men to inform 
him about in\ths, animal stories, the iiathei'inj'' of ve^etabh' food, house- 



SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH. Ixix 

liold affairs, and terms referring to colors; men more appropiiatc than 
AvonuMi in instructing liim about their hunts, fishing, travels, their legal 
customs, wars and raids, house-building, and simikr work. Omit asking 
them about the deceased, for it makes them angry and sullen. They do not 
as a rule willfully lead the investigator into error when they see that ht is 
in earnest. Errors often originate in preconceived notions or theories and 
inappropriate questions of the investigator, sometimes also in the want of 
abstract terms in the interpreter's language. To insure correctness in an 
Indian myth, animal story, or any relation whatever, it should first be 
taken down in Indian, and of this a verbatim translation secured. 

Ethnographic sketches of both tribes, but chiefly of the Modocs, were 
published in the newspapers of the Pacific coast at the time of Ben 
Wright's massacre, but they were not accessible to me; more circumstantial 
were those M'ritten at the time of the Modoc war (1872-73), and specimens 
of these may be seen in A. B. Meacham's publications, in the " Overland 
Monthly " of San Francisco, and in Stephen Powers's " The Modok," in 
Contributions III, pp. 252-262. 

Ethnographic objects manufactured by and in actual use among both 
tribes were purchased at different periods by collectors. The National 
Museum in Washington owns several of them ; but the most complete col- 
lection is probably the one made in 1882 by the Swiss naturalist, Alphons 
Forrer, a native of St. Gall, which was partly sold to the Ethnographic 
Museum of St. Gall, partly (eighty-five articles) to that of Berne, the capi- 
tal of Switzerland. Forrer lived several months among the Klamaths, 
and thus was enabled to secure the best specimens. There are two haniisish 
or " magic arrows," an implement which has probably become ver}^ scarce 
now. The majority of these objects are manufactured from wood, fur- 
skin, and basket material. There is no suitable clay found in the Klamath 
River Highlands, hence these Indians never made any pottery. 

The report of Lieutenants WiUiamson alid Abbot contains a large 
array of astronomic positions and of meteorologic observations made during 
the expedition, which will prove useful to later observers. The zoologic, 
botanic, and geologic reports made by different scientists were considered 
of high value at the time they were first published. It will be remembered 



Ixx ETHNOGEAPHIC SKETCU. 

that these explorations were the starting'-point of all further researches upon 
the Pacific coast, and as such they are creditable to the men with whom 
and the epoch at which they originated. 

The tojiograpliic map of the Klamath headwaters is now being pre- 
pared by the U. S. Geological Survey. It is laid out upon a scale of 1 to 
250,000, with contour intervals of 200 feet, the rivers and water sheets in 
blue. The sheets are named as follows : Aslilind, Klamath,* Shasta, 
Modoc Lava Bed, Alturas — the last three belonging to California. The 
surveys were made from 1883 to 1887 by Henry Gannett, chief geographer, 
A. H. Thompson, geographer in charge ; triangulation by the George M. 
Wheeler survey, by Mark B. Kerr ; and topography, by Eugene Ricksecker 
and partly by JIark B. Kerr. 

THE MODOC WAR OF 1872-1873. 

The well-known maxim, " it is cheaper to feed the Indians than to 
fight them," has forced itself upon the governments of all American coun- 
tries in such indelible characters that it has become a rule for them to con- 
clude treaties with the diff"erent " nations" to keep them at peace, feed them 
by rations or annuities, and confine them within the limits of certain terri- 
tories. The treaty of 1864 was not attended by all the favorable results 
expected. The Snake Indians ran off from the Reservation during April, 
1866, the Modocs in 1865. The latter tribe were not con)pelled to leave 
their old domain, now ceded to the United States, till 1869. Moreover, it 
always takes several years to gather straying Indians upon a reservation 
after a treaty has become an accomplished fact. The Superintendent of 
Indian Affairs in Oregon, Mr. Meacham, on December 30, 1869, after a 
long and excited " talk," succeeded in bringing two hundred and fifty-eight 
Modocs to Modoc Point, upon the reservation allotted to them. On April 
26, 1870, the supply of rations was exhausted, and the more obstinate half 
of the tribe left the Reservation again for the old domain upon Lost River 
and the lakes, whereas the other half, under Sk(Sntchish, went to Yaneks, 
on Sprague River, where the Superintendent located them. All Modocs 

• The name for the sheet east of Klamath has not yet been determined. 



THE MODOC WAE. Ixxi 

had become disgusted at the close neighborhood and secret enmity of the 
Klamath Lake Indians, their congeners. 

The presence of the Modocs in their "old country," though contrary 
to the letter of the treaty, was tolerated by the Government until the 
autumn of 1872, when the complaints of the white settlers against the 
Indians became too frequent and serious to be further disregarded. A 
struggle to secure the enforcement of the treaty could no longer be post- 
poned. The Modocs' open defiance to the authorities could no longer be 
endured, and this brought on the Modoc war. 

Space does not permit me to give more than an outline sketch of this 
bloody contest of a small, sturdy people of mountaineers against the regu- 
lar army and a large body of volunteers ; but many references in detail 
have been made to it in the Texts and Notes, to which the x'eader may 
refer. A monograph of the Modoc war doing full justice to the importance 
of this event and to its ethnographic features would alone fill a volume of 
considerable size. Here, as well as hi all other Indian wars, the result was 
that the strong conquered the weak, which is always the case in the end, 
especially when the former has the law on his side. 

According to the war chronicle obtained by me in the Modoc dialect 
from the Riddle famil}- the war oiiginated in a petition sent by the settlers 
to the President to have the Indians removed from their old homes to the 
Reservation, in fulfillment of the treaty stipulations. The President agreed 
to this, and sent an order to the commander at Fort Klamath to have them 
removed — "peaceably if you can; forcibly if you must!" In the morn- 
ing of November 29, 1872, Major Jackson surrounded the Modoc camp 
upon Lost River, near its mouth. When he tried to disarm and capture the 
men they escaped to the hills. The soldiers and the settlers of the neigh- 
borhood then fired upon the unprotected women and children of another 
Modoc camp farther north, for which brutal act the Modoc men retaliated 
in the afternoon by killing fourteen settlers upon their farms. Hereupon 
the Modocs retreated with their families to the Lava Beds, south of Tule 
Lake, the home of the Kumbatwash, and there they strengthened some 
select positions, already strong by nature, through the erection of stone 
walls and earth-works. Kintpuash or Captain Jack, who no^^- was not the 



IXXII ETHNOGRAPHIC SKETCH. 

chief only but also the military leader of the Modocs, selected for his head- 
quarters the spacious cavern called Ben Wright's Cave, and there the tribe 
remained, unattacked and unharmed, until the 17th of January of the vear 
ensuing. 

The wintry season and the difficult condition of the roads, or rather 
trails, in these mountainous tracts delayed the concentration of the troojis 
a:id provisions to the Lava Beds for nearly two months. On the day 
above mentioned Colonel Frank Wheaton, then in command, resolved to 
attack from two sides the seventy* sturdy warriors in their stronghold. 
Many of the troops were fresh from Arizona, and had fought against 
Apaches armed with bows and lances only. The Modocs carried the old 
octagonal small-bore Kentucky rifle with the greased patch and small ball, 
which within its limited range had a very flat trajectory, and consequently 
a large dangerous space.f The fog was so thick that men could not see 
their right or left hand comrades, but in spite of this the commander ordered 
the attack. Scarface Charley, a leader possessed of the best military and 
engineering capacity in this war, claimed that he held his station, with three 
squaws to load, against a platoon of cavalry. The troops counted in all 
aliout four hundred men. One corps had to attack from the north, viz, 
the shore of Tule Lake, tlie other from the west, and witJiout connecting 
both by a field telegraph the commander ordered them to unite upon the 
top of the hills after storming the Lidian positions. Tiie fog annihilated 
these plans entirely, and the decimated troops were in the evening with- 
drawn to Van Bremer's farm, west of the Lava Beds. 

After this signal discomfiture another officer, General Alvin C. Gillem, 
was assigned to the command, and the troops were reinforced by four com- 
panies of the Fourth Artillery from San Francisco. Instead of attacking 
the Modocs again on a clear day and bombarding their positions, it was 
deemed proper to negotiate with them for })eace. There was a party of 
extremists for war in the Modoc camp and another inclined to listen to 
peace overtures, and upon the latter the body of the Peace Commissionersf 

*For the later period of tbe war, beginning April 16, Frank Kiddle states the 
nniuher of tbe Modoc waniors to have been fifty one; 42, 20. 

t Captain Fields, "The Modoe War." 

|Api)ointeil by the Secretary of the Interior, C. Delano. The particulars in 
Texts ; note to 38, 1, page 48. 



THE MODOC WAR. ]xxiii 

principally relied. Several attenipt« at parlej'iiig were urisnccessful, but 
tiiially the parties were appointed to convene on April 11, 1873. The 
capture of Kintpuash's ponies by the troops, in spite of General Canby's 
jn-omise of a total suspension of hostilities, had exasperated the chief to 
sucli a degree that he and his aids resolved upon murder by treachery. 
The dark deed was successfully perpetrated upon two members of the 
Peace Commission. The others fled, and henceforth, after the dastardlv 
murder of General Canby, a new plan was adopted for a speedy termina- 
tion of the war. 

Wright's Cave and surroundings were bombarded with heavy shells 
on Ajiril 16, 17, and 18, and attacks made b}' the troops simultaneously. 
By this time about ninety Indian scouts had joined the Army, two-thirds of 
whom were Warm Spring, one-third Wasco Indians, all under the com- 
mand of Donald McKay. The Modocs vacated the cave on April 19, and 
were met by a detachment of regulars and thirty scouts at Sand Hill, four 
miles from the cave, on April 26. This engagement was more disastrous 
to the troops than to the Modocs; but at the Dry Lake fight, Mav 10, the 
hitter were forced to retreat. This was the beginning of the dissolution of 
the Modoc forces ; their provisions commenced to give out, and one portion 
of the warriors became dissatisfied with Kintpuash's leadership. This party 
surrendered May 25 to the commander-in-chief. General Jefferson C. Davis, 
who had on May 2 relieved Colonel Gillem, the intermediate commander. 
Soon after this, on June 1, Kintpuash, with the few men who had remained 
true to him, gave himself up to a scouting part}- of cavalry, led to his Jiid- 
ing place by the treacherous Steamboat Frank,* who, it must be acknowl- 
edged notwithstanding, had been one of the most valiant defenders of the 
Modoc cause. 

The captured Modocs, numbering Avith their women and children 
about one hundred and forty-five persons, were for awhile fed at the ex- 
pense of the Government, and then brought to the northeastern corner of 
the Indian Territory, where their remnants live at the present time. Before 
their dejiarture a number of them, while being conveyed in a wagon to 
some place near Tule Lake, Avere fired upon and some females killed bv 
the revengeful settlers. The murderers of General Canby and Dr. Thonifis 

• Cf. Texts 55 ; 14, 15, and Note. 



Ixxiv HTHNOURAPHIC SKETCH. 

could not remain unpunished. Brought before a jury at Fort Klamath, 
Kintpuash, Chief Skontchish, Black or Huka Jim, and Boston Charley 
were condemned to the gallows and hung- at the Fort October 3, 1873, 
while two accessories to the deed — Bantcho and Slu'lks (now George 
Denny) — were condemned to incarceration at Fort Alcatraz, San Fran- 
cisco Ba}'.* 

Thus ended the long-contested struggle of the little Modoc band 
against the Oregon and California volunteers and the regular troops of the 
United States Army. Certainly the heroism and ingenuity displayed by 
the Modocs would have been worthy of a better cause, and would have 
passed down to posterity in the brightest colors of patriotism had not the 
murderous "entreacte" and Canb3''s death deprived the struggle of its 
heroic luster. The unworthy termination of this war is well typified by 
the fact that the skeleton of the Modoc captain is now dangling as an ana- 
tomical specimen in the museum of the Surgeon-General's Office, at AVash- 
ington, District of Columbia. 

STATISTICS. 

From the end of the Modoc war to the present year the condition of 
affairs has not changed much in the Klamath Highlands. The reports of 
the United States agent repeat the same story of progress towards civiliza- 
tion every year; but in view of the difficulty of bringing a hunter tribe 
into the high road of Christian culture and industrial progress we can not 
attach much credence to such reports so long as they are couched in gener- 
alities and do not contain special facts attesting mental improvement by 
schooling. 

In agriculture success is possible only in the Sprague River Valley, 
but pasturing will succeed almost on every spot of the Reservation. The 
report of 1888, compared with that of 1880, shows a considerable improve- 
ment in this direction. The 2,600 horses and mules counted in 1880 had 
increased to 4,.532 in 1888 ; the 200 head of cattle to 2,201. In the latter 
year the niunber of swine figured 208, of domestic fowl, 1,000. Of the 
20,000 tillable acres of land 1,400 were cultivated by the Indians in 



* Slu'lks was released, aud stays now at the Modoc Reservation, Indian Territory, 
with Scarface Charley and some other wairinrs of that war. 



TRIBAL STATISTICS. Ixxv 

1888 and 500 l)roken by them; 10,000 acres were inclosed by fences. 
The crops of 1888 amounted to 8,000 bushels of wheat, 4,000 of oats and 
barley, 1,000 bushels of vegetables, 3,000 tons of hay; and 500 pounds of 
butter were manufactured. Of himber 100,000 feet were sawed. The 
Indians transported with their own teams 500 tons of freight, and thereby 
earned Si, 500. The two boarding-schools, one at the Klamath Agency 
and the other at Yaneks, in the same year boarded 215 pupils at a cost to 
the Government of Sl8,764 — about S10.40 a month per capita. 

The number of acres contained within the Klamath Reservation is 
1,056,000, and of these only about 20,000 acres are considered to be tilla- 
ble land. The rest is occupied by woods, mai-shes, rocks, and other hin- 
drances to cultivation. 

The school and church interests are in the hands of the Methodist 
Episcopal Church, which also has a vote in the appointment of the United 
States agent. 

The statistics of pojnilation have furnished reliable data onl}- from the 
time when annuities were first distributed among these Indians. This ne- 
cessitated an annual count of each family, giving the number of the indi- 
viduals lielonging to each. One of these was made during my presence on 
the reserve on October 30, 1877, before the winter supplies were dealt out 
to the tribe. The summary is as follows : 

David Hill, chief, at Agency and on Williamson River 225 

P'li'i, head chief, at the bridge, Williamson River 122 

Long Joliu. chief 1W3 

Jack, chief •. . . 92 

Lilo, chief '^3 

Total 565 

The census taken in the Sprague River Valley, Yaneks subagency, 

furnished the following figures, Klamath Lake Indians and Modocs being 

indiscriminately included : 

Littlejohu, chief . . 14 

Skoutchish, chief - • ■ 18 

Modoc Johnson, head chief '^1 

Ben, chief 61 

Brown, chief 30 

Total 194 



XXVI 



KTHNOGIIAPIIIC SKETCH. 



The Snake Indians were not. counted at tliat time, hut were assumed 
to have the same population as in 1876 : 137. This g-ives a total of Indians 
for the Reservation of 896. This count included about eight mixed bloods 
and seven Warm Spring Indians from the Des Chutes River. The board- 
ing-school at the Klamath Agency then had eighteen pupils of both sexes. 

The reports of tiie Indian Commissioner for 1880, 1881, 1882, 1883, 
and 1884 can not be fully relied on, since they give the same figures for 
each of these years with an unvarying total of 1,023 Indians — Klamaths, 
707; Modoes, 151; Snake Indians, 165. 

The report of 1888, Jose})h Emery agent, gives 788 Klamath Lake and 
Modoc Indians and 145 Snake Indians, a total of 933 individuals. 

Probably the most reliable data were furnished by the Indian census 
made in 1881 for the United States Census Bureau, from March to August: 



Total of tribes on Roservation 

Number of males 

Number of females 

Unmarried at fonrteeu years and upwards 

Number married 

Number of full bloods 

Number of mixed bloods 

Number below twenty-one years 

Number above twenty-one years 

Supported ooe lialf or more by civilized indus- 
tries 

Supported one-half or more by Government 

Number wearins; citizens' dress 

Acres under cultivation 

Number attending school 



aths. 


Modoes. 


676 


122 


286 


58 


:!90 


64 


109 


6 


286 


55 


664 


122 


12 




291 


58 


385 


64 


36 


6 


38 


3 


630 


112 


2,249 


140 


36 


1 



Molale. 



55 
30 
25 

9 
14 
53 

2 
35 
20 



Snakes. 



36 



165 
80 
85 
11 
65 

165 



89 
76 



2 
165 



Totals. 



1,018 
454 
564 
135 
420 

1,004 

14 

473 

545 

49 

43 

962 

2, 425 

40 



This enumeration is remarkable on account of the large number of 
Molale Indians mentioned in it, an element of the population which is no- 
where else designated as such in the periodical reports made by the agents. 



NATURAL PHILOSOPHY. Ixxvii 



NATURAL PHILOSOPHY. 



^In the manner of considering the transcendental world and in view- 
ing the problems of the supernatural we perceive enormous differences 
among the various races of mankind. These differences mainly arise from 
the degree of animism and anthropomorphism applied to the deities sup- 
posed to represent the powers of nature and to rule the world. The primi- 
tive man regards everything showing life or spontaneous motion as ani- 
mated by a spirit and endowed with cei'tain human faculties ; whereas 
among the more advanced nations these same gods and genii appear more 
fully anthropomorphized, and their moral and intellectual attributes more 
accurately defined. In monotheism all the physical and moral powers sup- 
posed to rule the universe become unified into one "Supreme Being." 

A people's religion always rests upon a basis laid down in remote 
ages, and faithfully depicts the intellectual and moral qualities of its spirit- 
ual leaders at that period. Were they ferocious and cruel, the gods whom 
they imposed upon the people are barbaric also ; were they kind and mild- 
mannered, then their deities show these same mental qualities. Deities act 
by miracles, and are miracles themselves; for a miracle or act contraven- 
ing Jhe laws of nature is the only causality which the mind of primitive 
man is able to imagine to solve the difficult problems of physics, meteorol- 
ogy and other processes of nature As thei'e is no connected system in 
any of tlie savage religions, it is by no means difficult to overthrow the 
beliefs of a primitive people and to substitute others for it, provided the 
new ones are resting upon the same fundamental principle of spirits, dei- 
ties and miracles. Dreams are to the savage man what the Bible is to us — 
the source of divine revelation, with the important difference that he can 
produce revelation through dreams at will. The more thoughtful religions 
of Asia establish a thorough distinction between spirit and matter, and thus 
dualistically establish idealism as opposite to materialism; but in America 
no religion goes any further than to atteinjjf such a distinction. Tlie higher 
Asiatic religions establish priesthoods, idols, ceremonial worship, divine 
oracles, prayer and sacrifice, and attempt to elevate man's character by 
moral teachings; here in the western hemispliere ceremony is magic and 



Ixxviii ETHNOGRAPHIC SKETCH. 

witchcraft only, religious feasts are orgies, divine revelation is human hal- 
lucination, and the moral element, when present in religion, is not urged 
upon the conununit}'. While in the religions of the white man the gods 
originally representing nature's powers gradually become teachers or 
examples of morality and mental jmprovement, those of the other races 
remain the stern and remorseless deities of the sky, the atmosphere, and 
the earth, whose good will has to be proi)itiated by sacrifice. 

As zoodemonism is the most appropriate form of religion for man in 
the animistic stage, the majority of the mythic characters in American relig- 
ions are animals, especially quadrupeds ; and even the fully anthropomor- 
phized deities sometimes assume, in Oregon and elsewhere, the masks of 
animals. The earlier Indians firmly believed that such animals as were 
the prototypes of their own species had human faculties, and talked and 
thought as men do ; in whatever tribe there are totemic gentes or clans 
the members of these are supposed to have descended from that prototype 
of a bear, deer, alligator, eagle, or whatever animal a gens is called after. 
Certain qualities of man, physical and intellectual, found their closest analo- 
o-ies in those of animals, and the animal world is much nearer akin to man 
in the mind of the Indian than in the white man's mind Scurrilous and 
grotesque acts ascribed to so many Indian deities were not intended for 
derision, as with us, but for faithful portrayings of the habits of typical 
animals; and zoodemonism — not exactly zoolatry, as in Egypt — is the form 
of religion existing among the wild Indians of America. 

The large amount of mythologic and transcendental material obtained 
among the Indians requires subdivision into several chapters. I present it 
under the following subdivisions: a. Elementary deities ; b. Spirit deities ; 
c. Animal deities. 

Of the mythologic data embodied in the present article the larger part 
were obtained by myself, but not all. The others were gathered by 
Messrs. Stephen Powers and Jeremiah Curtin, mainly by the latter, who 
obtained over one hundred Modoc myths in 1883 and 1884, now forming 
part of the unpublished collection of the Bureau of Ethnology. 



K'MCKAMTGH. IxKix 

THE ELEMENTARY DEITIES. 

In the Klamath tlieology the deities of" the elements have preserved 
almost intact their character as representatives of the powers of nature. 
Imperfectly anthropomorphized as they are, they appear rather as spirits 
than as gods ; all of them, the Earth perhaps excepted, are of the male sex. 
Like the animal genii they assume the adjectival suffix =amtchiksh, abbr. 
-amtch bygone, ancient, belonging to the past* though less among the Modocs 
than in the northern chieftaincy. The splendor, power, and awe-inspiring- 
qualities of these superhuman beings is not diminished in the least by the 
grotesque exterior and acts ascribed to some of them. The sky gods were 
more plastically defined by popular imagination than the subterranean 
deities, and hence we begin our sketch with the former. 

k'mukamtch. 

Ille mihi par esse deo videtiir, 
Ille, si fas est, superare divos. 

The chief deity of the Klamath people, the creator of the world and 
of mankind, is K'mukamtch, or the "Old Man of the Ancients," the "Pri- 
meval Old Man." The full form of the name is K'muk'=amtchiksh, and 
Modocs frequently use the shorter form Kemush, K'miish, an abbreviation 
of k'mutcha, he has grown old, he is old, or of its participle k'mutchatko, 
old. He is also named P'tish=amtch nalam, our old father. He was also 
designated P'laitalkni, the one on high, though the term is now used for the 
God of the Christians. In every way he is analogous to the "old man 
above" or the "chief in the skies" of the Indians of Central California. 

What the Indians say and think of their chief deity I have outlined 
in the Dictionary, pages 138-140, and jvhat follows here will substantiate 
the data given there. Though K'mukamtch is reputed to have created 
the earth, what is really meant is only the small portion of the globe 
known to and inhabited by this mountaineer tribe, and not the inmiense 
terrestrial globe, with its seas and continents. Neither have these Indians 
an idea of what the universe really is when they call him the creator and 

* In Nahnatl we may compare the reverential sufiSx -tzin, and in Shosboni dialects 
tbe parallel one of piich, bits; e. g., mubu owl in Bannock is mu'mbits oicl in the 
Shosboni of Idaho. 



IXXX ETHNOGKAPHIC SKKTGH. 

iiuiiutaiuer of the universe. The Indians do not chiini that lie created 
the world with all in it by one single and simultaneous act, but when he is 
creating, metamorphosing, or destroying, his acts are always special, directed 
towards certain objects only. After making the earth, the lakes, islands, 
prairies, and mountains he gave a name to each locality (p. 142, 1 sqq.). 
Some of these mimes must be regarded as giving indications as ft» the ear- 
liest places inhabited by these Indians, especially when they designate fish- 
traps and ceremonial sudatories. Thus on Upper Klamath Lake we find 
Ku'mbat, Tukwa, Tulish, Kohashti as fishing places, Kta-i-Tupaksi and 
Yulalona as fish-traps, the special gifts of the deity to the people. Other 
places of this kind are Shuyake'kish and Kta-i=Tupaksi. In the old Modoc 
country, on Lower Klamath Lake, there is a rock shaped like a crescent 
and called Shapasli/e'ni, because "sun and moon once lived there." On 
Sprague River there is a hill called "at K'mukamtch's Lodge" — K'mutcham 
Latsashkshi. Other legendary residences of the deity were at Yfimsi, 
" Northwind's residence," a high mountain east of Klamath Marsh ; others 
on Tule Lake, at Nilakshi Mountain; and finall\' K'mukamtch was changed 
into the rock Kta-iti, which stands in the Williamson River (q. v.). The 
old people of both chieftaincies remember many localities alleged to have 
been the theater of his miraculous deeds. 

K'mukamtch creates the Indians from the j)urplish berry of the service- 
tree or shad-ljush {Amclanchier canadensis, in Kl. tchak), and the. color of 
both has evidently suggested this idea. He also provides for man's suste- 
nance by supplying him with game and fish and the means to capture them; 
also with the necessar\' vegetal products. Olijects noticeable through their 
peculiar shape are called after him, e. g., the thistle, the piercer of K'mii- 
kamtch, K'mukamtcham ka'k. A peculiar haze sometimes perceptible in 
the west or northwest, shnuish, is regarded as his ))recursor or that of his 
son Aishish. 

Although but a passing mention is mad(^ of a wife or wives of his, 
K'mukamtch has a family. The myths s})eak* of a father, of a daughter, 
and of Aisinsh, his son "by adoption," as members of it. The name of his 

• Cf. Te.\t.s, pg'. 100, i.': skiiki'sli ])'tf.s Inlsliaiii. Mention is made of one-eyed wives 
of Ske'l and of Tcluisl.kai. 



K'MtTKAMTCH. Ixxxi 

daughter is not given, but she represents the clouded or mottled evening 
sky. When she leads him to the under-world they meet there a vast crowd 
of spirits, who for five nights dance in a large circle around a fire, and on 
each of the intervening days are changed into dry bones. K'mukamtch 
takes with him some of these in a bag, and when reaching the horizon at 
daybreak throws the bones around the world in pans and creates tribes 
from them, the Modoc tribe being the last of these. Then he travels in the 
path of the sun till he reaches the zenith, builds his lodge, and lives there 
now with his daughter. 

K'mukamtch also figui-es as the culture-hero of his people ; but since 
he does so only in one of the myths wliich came to our knowledge, this 
myth may be borrowed from some neighboring tribe. In that myth the 
primitive arts and practices, as hunting and bow-and-arrow making, are 
taught by him to men, as was done also by Quetzalcoatl, by Botchika, and 
in Oregon by the Flint-Boy of the Kalapuyas, in whom the sun's rays were 
personified. 

What the national myths relate of him is not of a nature to make 
him an object of divine veneration. He resembles men in every particular, 
is born and dies, acts like other Indians, travels about with companions, 
starts on gambling jaunts, is indigent and often in want, and experiences 
more misery throughout his eventful career than Zeus ever did on account 
of his illicit love-making. Like the chief gods of other Indian nations, he 
is the great deceiver and trickster for all those that have dealings with him, 
is attacked and drubbed repeatedly for his meanness and crimes ; but after 
coming out "second best" or being killed over and over he recuperates 
and comes to life again just as if nothing had occurred to disturb him. 
Compared with other fictions representing powers of nature, he is fully the 
equal of such characters as Nanabozho and Gluskap, or of the Kayowe 
demiurge Sinti, "the Deceiver." Some of the most attractive fictions de- 
scribe the various tricks and sti^atagems by which K'mukamtch allures his 
son Aishish into perilous situations, from which rescue seems impossible. 
Prompted by him to climb a tall pine-tree, he would have perished on it 
by hunger had not his charitable wives, the butterflies, succored him in 
time. The general conflagration by which the earth and its inhabitants 
vi 



Ixxxii ETH^SOGKAPHIC SKETCH, 

were consumed through a rain of burning' pitch was also brought aljout 
by K'miikamtch's hatred for his son. Aisliish escapes from this inhuman 
persecution, and subsequently seeks to revenge himself upon his father. 
Aisliish's son jerks off the glowing tobacco-pipe from his grandfather's neck 
and throws it into the fire; Aishish pushes it farther into the flames until 
burnt, and thereby K'miikamtch's death is brought about. 

It is singular that when he and his son Aishisli are expected to join 
social or gambling parties the other participants always experience some 
difficulty in recognizing the one from tlie other. The camp-fire which 
K'mnkamtch made on approaching the meeting-place was burning badly, 
the smoke seeming almost to stifle the flames; but that of his son, purple- 
blue in color, sent the smoke straight up, while the fire of Silver Fox, the 
companion of K'mnkamtch, was 3'ellow. When shooting at the mark, Aisli- 
ish's arrow hit it every time, but the arrow of K'miikamtch struck the ground 
short of the mark. While gambling, Aishish became the winner of all his 
companion's stakes. 

Assuming the mask of the Marten (Ske'l, Ske'lamtch), K'miikamtch 
sends out his younger brother. Weasel (Tcluishkai), to look out for one- 
eyed women and to bring them home as wives (Texts, p[). 107-118). 
Both try to stop the Northwind and the Southwind at the very orifice 
whence they are blowing. Weasel loses his life in the attempt, but Marten 
kills both winds. After Weasel has come to life again, both proceed to the 
lodge of the five brothers, the Thunders. When inside of the lodge Marten 
puts on the head-cover of the dead Northwind, and the Thunders feel his 
gigantic power. At night an internecine fight takes place between the 
brothers, and while their lodge is on fire their hearts explode in succession. 

From the almost infinite wealth of Klamath folklore many more par- 
ticulars about this chief deity could be adduced, but what stands above is 
amply sufficient to indicate the powers of nature which he represents. 
The facts that Wtin or Wanaka, the sun-halo, is his constant companion* 
and that the seat in the sky which he constantly holds is that of the sun at 

*The sun-halo is au importaut factor in some Indian mythologies. The Zufii 
Indians say tliat when a sti>rin is brewing the sun retreats into his house, wliieli he 
hiiilt for his safety, and after the storm he leaves it again. Among th'' Zunis the sun 
IS the principal deity also. 



K'mCkamtcjh. Ixxxiii 

noontime, would alone suffice to show that he represents the sun, the most 
potent, we may say unique factor in giving life, nourishment, and health 
to living organisms, the most important of the sky-gods, and the great 
center of myth production among all nations of the world. In one of the 
Modoc myths it is stated that "at the call of the morning star K'mush 
sprang from the ashes (of the fiery sky or aurora) as hale and as bright as 
ever, and so will he continue to live as long as the (solar) disk and the 
morning star shall last, for the morning star is the 'medicine' (muluash?) 
of the disk." In other myths he appears in tlie form of the golden or 
bright Disk, inhabiting the higher mountain ridges and becoming the suitor 
of females afterwards deified. Thus, like Hor, Ra, and Atum, he appears 
sometimes as the morning sun, at other times as the noonday and evening 
sun, and in the myths referring to weather he is either the summer or the 
winter sun. The burning pipe which Aishish's son takes from his grand- 
father and destroys in the camp-fire represents the sun setting in a glowing 
red evening sky. As the summer sun with his gigantic power he brings 
on a conflagration of the world and as a cloud-gatherer he causes an inun- 
dation. In the warm season he appears wrapt up in haze and fogs, which 
the myth in its imagery represents as "a smoky camp-fire," almost impen- 
etrable to the sun-rays: "his arrows fall to the ground before they reach 
the mark."* To typify his sagacity and omniscience, K'mukamtch appears 
under the symbolic mask of a quadruped, the pine-marten or Ske'l, in Modoc 
Tchke'l, which changes its black winter fur to a brown coating in the hot 
months of the year, and thereby became a sort of portent to the Indian. 
Similar changes occur with all the fur animals, but with the marten the 
difference in the color appears to be greater than with others. Skel sends 
his brother Tchashgai, or Weasel, to obtain one-eyed women for both, these 
being^sun and moon, which the Eskimos also represent as one-eyed, deified 
persons.f The North wind, which is blowing in alternation with the South 
wind, is attacked and killed by Ske'l. Here Ske'l represents the sun of the 
summer months, for the summer's heat defeats the cold blasts of the wintry 

* Texts, pp. 99, 4 (shlayaks ak), and 5. 

tCf. the Maidu nijtli of KodoYampe iu StepLeii Powers's " California Tribes ; " 
Contributions to North American Ethnology, III, 293, 



Ixxxiv ETHNOGRAPHIC SKETCH. 

and equinoctial seasons; wlien he places the North wind's hat upon his head 
he puts an end to the noise of the Thunder brothers and then represents 
the wintry sun. 

The attitude which K'mukamtch observes toward his son Ai'shish will 
be spoken of under the next headin<:^. It is necessary to add that the former's 
position is by no means restricted to that of a solar deity; several of his 
attributes make him also a god of the sky, or at least of the clouds, for 
clouds and the weather's changes are due to the sun's agency. When the 
sun is environed by lamb-clouds, or a mottled sk}^, this is figuratively ex- 
pressed by: "K'mukamtch has taken the beaded garments of Aishish and 
dressed himself in them." A peculiar red smoke or haze appearing in the 
northwestern or western sky, shnuish, announces his arrival ; he is also 
recognizable by his bulky posteriors, or, as the Modocs say of him: "K'mu- 
kamtch munish kutulish gitko." By this they evidently refer to the white 
and heavy, mountain-shaped summer clouds. 

Greek mythology depicts the fecundation of the earth by rain showers 
and thunder storms as the illicit amours of the sky-god Zeus with the wives 
and daughters of mortal men. Exactly in the same manner K'mukamtch, 
as sky-god, seeks to approach illicitly the numerous wives of Aishish, of 
whom the majority refuse him, though he has by some stratagem previously 
removed their husband from the scene. 

In the aboriginal mind the creation of organisms, vegetal and animal, 
seems to be in connection with the fecundation of the earth, whereas the 
creation of the earth, world, or universe implies an act entirely different. 
All the names of Klamath localities are said to come from K'mukamtch. 
The manner in which he created plants and animals was, as we are told in 
one Modoc myth, by thinkimj and by ivishinf/, this probably implying that 
after forming an idea of some creature he made that idea a reality by the 
strong energy of his will. Many creatures, especially birds and quadru- 
peds — even men — the myths tell us, were brought forth by him in this 
manner. The moral qualities ascribed to this deity are in keeping with 
what is known of his physical and intellectual powers. He provides for 
mankind, which he has created, but does not tolerate any contravention of 
his will ; for he piiiiislics l)Hd characters ]>y changing them into rocks or l)y 



AlSHISH. IXXXV 

burning- them. Our ideas of justice, equity, protection, or love towards men 
do not and can not enter into the spiritual range of a god whose prototype 
is constituted of physical powers only. 

AfSHISH. 

iaivirai ).ioi xrjvoi i'do? OsoTdiv. 

Aishish, or Aishishamtch, the second in importance among the Klamath 
deities, and certainly the most popular of all, is the son of the wui'ld-creator, 
K'mukamtch, and also his companion and rival. He is beautiful in appear- 
ance, beloved and admired by men, and is the husband of many wives, 
selected by him among the birds, butterflies, and the smaller quadrupeds. 
His name signifies the one secreted or concealed, and was given him at the 
time of his birth; and since "The Birth of Aishish" myth explains the 
nature and position of this deity better than any other myth, I translate it 
in full from the Indian text obtained from a Modoc woman at the Modoc 
Reservation, Indian Territory.* The name of Aishish's mythic mother, as 
other natives informed me, is Le=tkaktiwash. This is an Oregonian bird of 
the size of the tcho'kshash, or blackbird, with a brilliant red or yellow 
plumage, colors rarely found in birds of that westei^Vi State. Ornithologists 
identify it with the Louisiana tanager: Pyranga liidoviciana. Thus the bird 
is an appropriate symbol of the bright sky at moonrise or sunrise, which 
phenomenon Aishish's mother is representing. The myth runs as follows: 

In order to cremate the body of an old sorceress, Le4kaka\vash gath- 
ered wood while carrying her baby son on tlie back, piled up the wood and 
set up the ceremonial mourning wail. Proposing to leap into the fire her- 
self, she was uncertain what to do with her son. She fastened him tightly 
to her back, and when she had applied the fire K'mukamtch perceived that 
she was in tears and ready to leap into the burning pile. " What on earth 
is this pretty woman going to do?" said he to himself; and when he saw 
her retreat more than once before accomplishing the dangerous leap he ap- 
proached, intending to reach her in time to restrain hei- ; but she rushed 

* The myth of Aishish's birth forms a portion of a loug cyclus of related myths, 
with the title: Aishisham shapkalii'ash wiulamuiilasliti. I obtained them from Lucy 
Faithful, wife of Stutilatko, or " Faithful William ;" cf. Dictionary, p. 412. 



Ixxxvi ETHNOGRAPHIC SKETCH. 

into the fire, and K'mukamtch, regretting to have arrived too late, man- 
aged, however, to withdraw from her back the baby, and to rescue it. He 
wept as he carried the cliihl off in his arms. But where should he jjlace it! 
It" he j)laced it on his forehead it would look quite ugly, thought he; there- 
fore he placed it on his knee and went home. He complained that he had 
an ulcer upon his knee, and asked his daughter to open it, for it pained him 
excrucialingly. She spread a sheet under the knee and another over it, to 
squeeze the ulcer open He exclaimed: "It hurts me terribly! Go easy! 
Be careful!" Then she replied: "What is the matter with you? Some- 
thing like hair comes out in a hunch from the core. Why does it look like 
hair!" And when the baby appeai'ed on the surface and began to cry she 
said: "What have you been doing! I have suspected you for quite a 
while before!" And the babe cried and cried, until the "father" proposed to 
give a name to him. None was found to answei", for the child cried on and 
on. Then he proposed to call it Aishilam'nash ("the one secreted about the 
body"). This stopped its cries somewhat, but not entirely; so he proposed 
the name Aishish, and then it became restful and quiet. So the child grew 
up with this name, then lived in the company of K'mukamtch, became an 
expert in making shirts, and when gambling won all the stakes, even from 
his father, who became jealous on account of his superiority.* 

This is the extent of the myth so far as needed for our purpose. The 
jealousy of the grim and demoniac K'mukamtch against his moi'e popular 
son forms the subject of a considerable number of Aishish myths, which 
are highly imaginative and interesting. By various stratagems ba.sed on 
low cunning he brings his son into perilous positions, from which he is res- 
cued only with the utmost difficulty by others, or is perishing in the attempt 
to save himself. Meantime he is robbed of his garments by liis "father." 
These constant persecutions finally force Aishish to revenge himself upon 
his father, who is killed by him repeatedly, but not by any means so often 
as he is killed himself 

•The connection of the mythic pyre of self sacrifice with the daicn is not only 
based on similarity of nature, but also on etymological grounds; for the verb ni'lka, 
it dawm, with slight vocalic change turns into nelka, ncl/a, fo be on fire. Cf. the 
Latin avrora, which is a derivative of nrere, to burn, and Appendix VI to Grammar, 
pp. TOO. 707. 



AlSHISH A LUNAR DEITY. Ixxxvii 

Ai'sliish's carap fire is of a clear, bright purplish-blue color (yamnash- 
ptchi); he makes his shirts with his own hands and ornaments these and 
his legg-ings with all sorts of beads As a marksman he excels all his 
companions, whose arrows do not even strike the target (Texts, pag. 99, 
4-6). According to the Modoc story his wives are Mole, Badger, Porcu- 
pine, Bitch, Crane, Mallard, two Maidiktak-birds, Wren, Tchektiti=bird, 
Yauliliks or Snowbird, Butterfly, and a host of others; the Klamath Lake 
myth (Texts, p. 99, 9. 10) names five: Coot, Long-tailed Squirrel, Crane, 
Mallard, Chatfinch. Tchashkai or Weasel, the younger brother of Ske'l, 
scmetimes plays the part of Aishish, but he is not found in this quality so 
constantly as his brother Ske'l is in that of K'nu'ikamtch. 

The various attributes ascribed to this deity by the myths show Aishish 
to be in many respects similar to Quetzalcoatl of Nahuatl mythology, who 
has been made alternately the genius of the morning star, of the calendar 
and of the atmospheric changes. As to Aishish and the personal beauty 
invariably ascribed to him, it may appear doubtful, in view of so many 
other complex attributes, which idea was the starting-point that created this 
mythic figure, and subsequently gathered other but less material attributes 
about this son of the sun. He could represent originally the morning star, 
or the rainbow or the moon, but after mature reflection upon his complex 
attitudes I now believe him to be a lunar deity. The splendor of the full 
moon is of a yellow hue, like Aishi.sh's camp fire (kakii'kli) and the shadow 
of the famished Aishish, as seen from below through the pine-trees of the 
forest, is the narrow crescent of the waxing moon following its disappear- 
ance at the new moon period. At the new or "dead" moon Aishish is fam- 
ished or dead, to revive again on the days following, and this, like other 
phases of the moon, which result from her changeable position in regard to 
the sun, are represented to be the result of the jealousy and enmity of 
K'mukamtch against Aishish — and whenever Aishish succeeds in killing his 
father, this implies the decrease of sun-heat during the winter season. No 
myth shows a more striking analogy to the "Birth of Aishish" than that of 
the birth of Bacchus from the thigh of Zeus after the destruction of his 
mother Semele by a thunder-stroke caused by Zeus, the Sky-god. 

The moon is the originator of the months, and the progress of the 



IxXXviii ETHNOGRAPHIC SKETCH. 

months brings on the seasons with the new life seen sprouting up every- 
where during spring and summer. So the quadrupeds and birds wliich are 
the first to appear after the h>ng winter months are considered as the wives 
of Aishish, and the flowers of summer vegetation are the beads of his gai-- 
ments. He enjoys more popularity than his father, for the moon's light is 
mild, not burning nor offensive, nor does it dry up vegetation and make 
men and beasts drowsy like the rays of the midday sun. Many nations 
also believe that the changes of weather are partly due to the phases of the 
moon. Although the "Birth of Aishish" myth obtained by me represents 
Aishish rather as the adopted than as the real son of K'mukamtch, other 
myths state him to be his son resulting from the union of the sun-disk to 
the red sky of the morning or evening, symbolized by the woman Le=tka- 
kawash. We must recall to mind that the term for father, p'tishap, in 
Modoc t'shishap, is really the nourisJicr, feeder, and not the progenitor, for 
it is a derivative from t'shin to grow* Most other mythologies consider the 
relation of sun to moon as that of man to wife, or of wife to man (cf. Deus 
Lunus), but here the thing is different. There are no female characters of 
importance in Klamath mythology, nor does the language distinguish 
grammatically between the sexes. 

The difficulty which we experience to distinguish solar r.nd lunar dei- 
ties from each other in some of the American religions is caused by the 
circumstance that in many languages of this western hemisphere the term 
for sun and for moon is the same. In such lanoruag-es both orbs are distin- 
guished from each other b}' being called day-luminary, or night-sun, night- 
luminary, and with some tribes the belief has been found, that both are 
actually the same celestial body, one being merely the image or shadow of 
the other. In the Maskoki languages hasi answers for both, but the moon 
is commonly called ni'li h;isi or "night sun." In the Tonica language ta^- 
tchiksh, abbrev. ta^tchi stands for sun, moon, and star, but the moon is 
usually named la-u tAp^tchi "night luminary," the stars ta^tchi tipula, 
wliile the sun is either a^shukun ta^tchi, "day luminary" or simply ta;^- 
tclii. Of the Tinne languages many have tsa, sa, of the Algonkin languages 
kisis or parallel forms for both celestial bodies, separate distinctions being 

• Cf. the Grammar, in Appeudix VI, p. 710. 



TERMS FOR SUN AND MOON. Ixxxix 

added for "day" and "night." In the Tsinisian ;uul in some of the Selisli 
dialects the terms for both also agree, bnt in the Shoshonian and Pueblo 
languages they diflFer entirely. In Utah and other Shoshonian dialects the 
term for moon shows the archaic or reverential suffix -pits, -piits previousl3' 
noticed (ma-atawa-p!ts in Utah), which closely corresponds to TtaXaiqiaToZ 
as used in tlie Homeric poems. 

While the sun divides time into days, seasons, and years, our sections 
of time called weeks (quarters of the moon) and months (lunations, moons) 
are due to the revolutions of the moon. This is what caused the Klamath 
Indians to call both orbs by the same name : shapash the one, ivho tells, 
which signifies: "which tells the time," or "time measurer." For the moon 
a parallel form exists in the Timucua, once spoken in Florida : acu=hiba star 
which tells, viz: "star measuring the time" and in the name of the Egyptian 
moon-god Tehuti, called Tlioth by the Greeks,* also in our Germanic man, 
English: moon, Germ. Mond, "the measurer." 

Here as elsewhere the moon appears under different names, for in 
Klamath she is also called ukaii;josh " the one broken to pieces." This 
term never applies to the sun, but only to the moon in the four phases, as a 
changeable body.f Originally this was only an epithet of the moon, but in 
course of time it gave origin to a separate deity, for Ukaii;^osh distinctly 
appears as moon-god in a myth, which relates his marriage to Wek^tash, a 
frog-woman living with ten beautiful sisters on the west side of Upper Kla- 
math Lake. Ukau;^osh now carries her, the frog, in his heart, and this is 
what we are wont to call " the man in the moon." Should only a little bit 
be left of him when in the bear's moutli (referring to eclipse), she would be 
able to bring him to life again. 

LfiME-ISH OR THUNDER. 

All elementary deities in the Klamath religion, except K'mukamtch 
and Aishish, are mysterious, shadowy beings, not sufficiently anthropomor- 

* Various fuuctioiis are as.sigued to Telmti ; his symbol is tlie ibincrane, whose 
long, pacing steps t'vi(U'iitly suggested to the myth makers ol Egypt the idea, that 
he was measuring the earth. The name Tehuti is derived from tlie Egyptian verb 
teju to be full, for the measuring of liciuiils, grains, etc., i.s effected by filling vases 
possessed of certain cubic dimensions. 

t Derived from uka ukua to knock to piires. 



XC ETHNOGRAPHIC SKETCH. 

])hized and too dimly delined to deserve the name "gods." Those among 
them that are most frequently mentioned in myths and pojnilar stories are 
tlie "-enii of the Thunder and of the Winds. 

Tlie irenius of tlie Thunder, Lemc'-isli, is sometimes mentioned as a 
single person, or abstract mythic being, but more frequently as a company 
of five brothers, the Thunders or Lemeleme-ish. At times they make them- 
selves formidable, for their terrible weapon is the liglitniug or thunderbolt; 
they cleave the mountains, rocks, and trees, kill, roast, and devour huinnn 
beings, in which character they are called maklaks papfsh. The interior 
of their lodge is dark, for a sky obscured by a thunderstorm is lacking the 
full daylight. K'mukamtch entering the lodge, disguised as the " strong 
man" under tlie mask of Ske'l or pine-marten, annihilates them, for the 
winter sky with its cold blasts is antagonistic to the display of celestial elec- 
tricity. The eldest of the Thunders is married to Ski'de, the meadow lark, 
who is the sister of pine marten. After having made themselves thoroughly 
odious upon the earth, they were, as the myth tells us, relegated to the far- 
off skies, where they can frighten the people by their noise only and do no 
further harm 

The parents of the Thunders are supposed to live in a small hut or 
kaytita, and in their stead two dogs are often mentioned as accompanying 
the Thunders. Of these there are five, because the thunder rolling along 
the mountains is heard in repeated peals, and these peals are in the myths 
likened to repeated explosions of the Thunders' Iiearts. The shooting up 
of lightnings from the earth to the skies gave rise to the idea that their 
home is undergi'ound, and that the lightnings coming down from the skies 
are simply the Thunders returning to their homes. As the spirit of the 
Thunder Yayaysi-ash is mentioned in a mythic tale. 

The Thunder-hird, which plaj-s so prominent a part in the myths of the 
Eastern and Northwestern tribes, does not appear here under this name, 
but is represented in some stories by the Raven or Kak.* 

• The belief in the Tliimder-bird is found more frequently among Northern than 
among Soutliern Indians. Cf. "The Tlinnder bird amongst the Algonkins," by A. 
F. Chambeilain, Amer. Anthropologist, Jan., 1890, pp. 51-54; and my "Migration 
Legend of the Creek Indians," vol. 2, 49. 



THE WINDS AND THE EARTH. xci 

yImASH and MtJASH. 

North wind (YAmash) and South wind (Mi'iash) are more important to 
the inhabitants of the Klamath highlands than any of the other winds, and 
therefore are mentioned more frequently. Winds always appear in con- 
nection with K'nu'ikamtch or his representative among the animals, Ske'l. 
Thus when Ske'l visits his sister, Meadow Lark, who is married to the 
oldest of the Thunders, he is accompanied by Kak (the Raven, or storm- 
bird), Yamash, Tchakinksh, Yewash, ^luash, Tkalamash, and Gu'})ashtish. 
The Thunder receives and feeds them with the blood of the people slain by 
him. 

The conflict between Ske'l and Tchashkai on one side and the Winds 
on the other is related on page 111 of the Texts and is purely meteorolog- 
ical. The South Wind obscures by clouds the face of the moon, and thus 
kills him temporarily; but when the summer sun appears in the form of 
Ske'l both winds disappear at once to make room to an unclouded sky. 
The hat of the dead Yamash afterwards serves to frighten the Thunders, as 
related on the same page. Which was the southern home of Miiash is not 
pointed out in the myths, but that of Yamash was Yamsi Mountain, which 
is called after him. Yamash corresponds to some extent to the Kabibo- 
nokka or Northwind of the Ojibwe Indians, and is as much an object of 
folklore as he is. In other mythologies of America the winds ai-e the 
blasts of monsters or big beasts; for the animism prevailing in all the 
ancient myths requires them to be the manifestation of some living being. 

KAILA OR THE EARTH. 

The Earth is regarded by these Indians as a mysterious, shadowy 
power of incalculable energies and influences, rather mischievous and 
wicked than beneficial to mankind. The Indians ascribe anger and other 
passions to it, but never personify it in clearer outlines than the ancients 
did their ^'Epa and Tellus; and it never appears as an active deity in the 
numerous mythic tales gathered by Mr. Curtin for the collection of the 
Bureau of Ethnology. I know of it only through the song-lines gathered 
by myself from individuals of both tribes. 

Among all nations of the world we find the idea, whicii is real as well 



Xcil ETHNOGRAPHIC SKETCH. 

;is poetical, that the P]arth is our common inotlier. "She is dealing outlier 
bountiful "cifts to her children, the human beings, without env}^ or restraint, 
in the shape of corn, fruits, and esculent roots. Her eyes are the lakes and 
ponds disseminated over the green surface of the plains, her breasts are the 
hills and hillocks; and the rivulets and brooks irrigating the valleys are the 
milk flowing from her breasts." This is the poetical imagery in use among 
the Eastern Indians when the Earth is mentioned to them.* The idea that 
earthquakes and unaccountable tremors or noises within the body of the 
earth, also the malarial fevers, are the utterances of threat or displeasure 
at the misdoings of mankind, is as general among Indians as among other 
nations, and a consequence of the animistic tendency of primitive nations. 
The Indian prophet Smu^ale at Priest Kapids, on Middle Columbia River, 
and his numerous followers, called the "Dreamers," from the implicit faith 
these Sahaptin sectarians place in dreams, dissuade their adherents from 
tilling the ground, as the white man does; "for it is a sin to wound or cut, 
tear up or scratch our common mother by agricultural pursuits; she will 
revenge herself on the whites and on the Indians following their example 
by opening her bosom and engulfing such malefactors for their misdeeds." 
This advice was probably caused by the common observation that ground 
recently broken up exhales miasmas deleterious to all people dwelling near. 

That the Earth was regarded as an animate if not personified being is 
shown by the foi'm kiiilash of the objective case (125, 1), this case being 
formed in -ash onh* in terms applied to man and quadrupeds. Their myth 
of the earth's creation of course does not refer to the whole globe, but only 
to the small part of North America known to these Indians. The earth's 
interior is also the home of the Thunders, because lightnings are often 
observed to shoot up from the earth into the skies. 

Special songs referring to the Earth are contained in 175; 16: kili'la 
ml shuinalla; 176; 3 kiii'la ai nu walta; 158; 48 kiiilanti nu shilshila — 



* After Tecumseb bad delivered a speech to Governor Harrison at Vincenues, in 
1811, he was offered a diair by the interpreter, who said to bini: " Yonr father 
requests you to take a chair." To tliis Tecuniseh ina<le, with great dignity of expres- 
sion, an answer wliicli has since become <;lassi<!al : " The sun is my father, and the 
earth is my mother ; and on her hosom will T repose," and immediately seated himself, 
in the Indian maimer, upon tlie ground. 



munatAlkni. xciii 

the two latter alluding to rumblings below the earth's surface. lu the song 
192; 3 the term luimula should be changed to t'liiimola, temula, ivas covered 
with haze or mist, a phenomenon often producing malarial and other fevers, 
and therefore regarded by these Indians as of bad augury. Other passages 
mentioning the Earth, personified or not, are quoted in Dictionary, p. 123; 
in one of these, K'mukamtch is threatening to " whirl the earth around" in 
a dance, and probably this song forms part of some mythic story. (Texts, 
pg. 192; 9.) 

munatIlkni. 

Besides the Earth there is another chthonic deity known to the Kla- 
math people, Munatalkni or the Genius of the Underworld. I have met his 
name in one story only, which is that of the creation and first sojourn 
of the people around Wood River, l)etween Fort Klamath and the Upper 
Klamath Lake. English-speaking Indians readily identify him with our 
devil; Init no wicked or immoral qualities are ascribed to him, as morals 
enter into the religious ideas of the hunter tribes but sporadically. There 
is something of the aboriginal in him, and he is also called Lemunakni, the 
signification of both names being analogous. 

He appears in the following tale: When K'mukamtch created this 
world, he made one man, and one woman intended to be the man's sister. 
The creator placed them in a garden (hashuash) studded with trees produc- 
ing sweet fruits and built a house for them. The adjoining stable con- 
tained domestic animals for tlieir use. All this was upon the prairie 
Avatered by Wood River. Man and woman were both blind, and had to 
remain so until the fruits would be ripe. K'mukamtch told them he would 
visit them on a Sunday and would knock at the top of their house. Should 
anybody knock at the door, the knocks would be those of Munatalkni and 
they nuist not open, ilunatalkni came and knocked at the door, informing 
them that the fruits were ripe and that he brought them all kinds of berries. 
The woman said to the man: "Open the door, K'mukamtch is here!" but 
the man said: "Don't open; it is not K'mukamtch who stands at the door!" 
The woman opened; Munatalkni put one sweet berry in her mouth and she 
tasted it. He was wearing a long lieail-dress of feathers tied to the top of 
his hair, his eiTiblem as conjurer, and this string of feathers was so long as 



xciv ETHNOGKAIMIIC SKETCH. 

to touch the ground. He then stole all the fruits in the garden and went 
with them to his underground abode. 

Then K'nn'ikanitch, who had observed all this from a distance, arrived 
and knocked at the top of the house. This time it was the man who opened. 
When asked what had become of the fruits he excused himself by stating 
that Munatalkni had taken all of them. This put K'mukamtch into such a 
rage that he threw the woman out of the house and whipped lier to death. 
Then he cut open the eyelids of both, which previously had been fastened 
together, and the man said; "I can see the sun." K'mukamtch then 
instructed the man how to make his livelihood by using the bow and arrow, 
and how to manufacture sinew- strings and obsidian arrow-heads. Upon 
this he brought the man's sister into life again and both went into the 
mountains to hunt, for they had nothing to eat. Ever after this K'mu- 
kamtch remained angry with them. 

This is but the commencement of a long tale designed to show the 
miraculous growth of the family which sprang from the first man and 
woman, and their progress in the life-sustaining arts and manufactures. 
There is no doubt that the above is a singular distortion of the Bible tale 
concerning Adam and Eve in paradise. The question which remains to be 
solved is this, whether or not Munatalkni himself is borrowed also from the 
Jewish story. If he is, then in connection with him we may recall Aishish, 
who, according to some Modocs, is nobody else but Jesus Christ, who two 
thousand years ago passed through Lost River Valley and dug a deep well 
there which he presented to the Modocs — all this on account of a phonetic 
similarity between the names Aishish and Jesus. 

The renuiinder of the story is exactly like what other Oregonian myths 
relate concerning the origin of mankind and is incontestably of Indian 
origin. No further mention is made in it of Munatalkni. 

SHtJ'KASH OE WHIELWIND. 

Another of the numerous elementary deities is the Whirlwind or 
Shu'kash. An interesting mythic tale about it, which I have obtained 
among the Modocs in the Indian Territory, makes of the .Shu'kash an 
engine brought into play from time to time with tremendous effect by the 



SPIRIT DEITIES. XCV 

g'enius presiding- over it. This genius is called Tchitcliats%a''-ash or "Big- 
Belly;" he is represented to be an old man whose vigor of life is on the 
decrease. When he leaves his lodge, his appearance embodies the rain- 
laden, dark-hued, thick nimbus clouds overhanging the earth. When his 
engine* comes into action, he attracts by it all the objects within reach, he 
oppresses the earth with his weight, and forces wayfarers to walk in other 
paths than they intended to travel lest they may incur danger to life. 
When he has spent his force by this wanton display, he is rent by a stroke 
of lightning or a strong gust of wind; he is dissolved into atoms, and the 
bones filling his big paunch, which had produced the rattling noise attend- 
ing the course of whirlwinds, fall down to the ground. Tsiiskai, the Wea- 
sel, the brother of Marten, wrestling with the old man and conquering him 
after a hard struggle, is the mythic agent who brings about his final dis- 
comfiture. 

SPIKIT DEITIES. 

' EnTtTa/iai. ipojSipav (ppiva, ieifiari a-oi^Auii. 

No people has ever been discovered that did not believe in the return 
of human souls after death to their former homes in the form of ffhosts. 
Ghosts or spirits hovering through space are invisible and may inflict dam- 
age to anybody without danger of being recognized; therefore they usually 
inspire awe and terror, and wherever the existence of these fanciful beings is 
recognized imagination fills the earth, the atmosphere, and the waters with 
such spooks. Not all of these are necessarily supposed to be the souls of 
the deceased, but they may also represent the souls of animals, the spirits 
of mountains, winds, the celestial bodies, and so forth, for animism has its 
widest sway in this sort of superstition. Very diff"erent qualities are 
ascribed to each of these hobgoblins or spooks. They are either gigantic 
or dwarfish in size, powerful or weak in body, attractive or repulsive, of 
beneficial or wicked influence. They chiefly appear at night or in stormy 
weather; some are seen single, others in crowds, and a few of their number 



* Shu'kash is the substantive of sh'hii'ka to whirl about, this being the medial 
distributive form of hiika to run about: .sh'hubfjka, sh'hiioka, sh'hu'ka "to run about 
by itself in various directions." 



XCvi ETITNOGRAPniC SKETCH. 

can be perceived only by the trained eye of sucli as are initiated into the 
conjurer's profession. 

The chisses of specters mentioned more frecjuently than otliers in 
mytliology are the spirits of the dead, and giants, dwarfs, and fairies. 

The Sko'ks, or spirits of the deceased, occupy an important place in the 
psychologic marvels of the Klamath Indian, and are objects of dread and 
abomination, feelings which are increased by a belief in their omnipresence 
and invisibility. The popular idea of a ghost is suggested in all climates 
and historic epochs by that of a shadow of somebody's former self, and in 
several Indian languages the same word is used for shadow, soul, and ghost* 
The proper signification of sko'ks, shkfx'ksh is "what comes out of;" like 
sk(3'hs, sk() spriM) of the year; it is derived from skoa to come out of, to 
emerge from, sproid up. 

In the mind of the Indian the appearance of a sko'ks comes pretty near 
the popular idea of a witch or spook as held by the uneducated classes of 
our population. The soul of ii man becomes a skuks as soon as the corpse 
has been buried or consumed by fire. It hovers in the air around its former 
home or the wigwams of the neighbors and at night-time only. Its legs 
hang down and produce a rattling noise, and the whole a|)pears in a white 
or a black shade of coloi-. Usually nobody sees them, they do not harm 
anybody, nor do they produce any dreams; they appear to the senses and 
sight of the living only when they come to presage death to them. They 
undergo no metempsychosis into animals or plants; after hovering awhile 
around their former homes they retire to the spirit-land in the sky, "some- 
where near K'nn'ikamtch." Their arrival there is afterwards revealed by 
dreams to the surviving relatives, who express in songs what they have 
seen during their slumbers. 

♦ In the ToiiiUa or Tt'uii;^ka laugiiage of Louisiaua telia or tt'lia'Utch signify 
shadoic, soul, anil reflection in the icater; in the Clia'hta, State of Mississippi, shihimbish 
is shadow and soul, while a ghost is shilup. The Egyptian ka and the Greek afdwXuy, 
the soul after deatli, really signify image, and to this we may compare the use made of 
the Latin imago. Tlie CheroUees, as Mr. James Mooney informs me, distinguish 
between adanta soul in the living being, u"dali' secondary soul of an animal killed once 
before, and asgina an ordinaiy specter, ghost of iiiah^voloiit disposition, which last term 
served the missionaries for transcribing the word "de\il." 



SPIRIT DEITIES. XCvii 

The common belief of the Oregonians is that after death the soul 
travels the patli traveled by the sun, which is the westward path; there it 
joins in the spirit-land (e'ni) the innumerable souls which have gone the 
same way before.* If tlie deceased was a chief, commander, or man of 
note, his "heart" can l>e seen going west in the form of a shooting star. 
The Egyptian belief was that the soul of the dead was following Atum, 
the sinking sun, to the west; and since then innumerable nations and tribes 
have adhered to the same belief. 

From the Texts obtained from Dave Hill, pp. 129, 130, we learn that 
other abodes of dead men's spirits are the bodies of living fish. Perhaps 
Hill learned of this belief among the maritime and river Indians with whom 
he lived on the Columbia River, where the idea of fish eating corpses could 
suggest itself more readily than upon the lakes of the Klamath highlands. 
The Notes which I added to these curious texts give all the explanations which 
it is at present possible to give. It appears from them that such spirits can 
enter the bodies of "spirit-fish," that one ski'iks can see another, and that 
Indians, not white men, sometimes see the skuks, but at the peril of their 
lives. A distinction is also made between good and bad skuks, the latter 
being probably those who render the Indian's sleep uncomfortable by 
unpleasant dreams. 

Some natural phenomena often appear to these Indians in the form of 
specters or hobgoblins, as clouds, water-spouts, snow-storms, columns of 
dust, etc Noisily and rapidly they pursue tlieir lonely path, and their 
gigantic, terrific frames reach up to the skies; whoever meets tliem una- 
wares is knocked down senseless or killed outright, or must exchange his 
body for another. Some of these specters look dark on one side and light 
on the other. 

In northern latitudes, where polar lights are frequently visible, they 
are supposed by the Indians to represent the dance of the dead, and when- 
ever Christianity is introduced among them they identify this beautiful 
spectacle with the last judgment, when the spirits of the deceased move 
about in the expectation of the coming Christ. 



• Cf. Dictionary, sab voce e'ni and Grammar, Ajjpendix Vf, p. 702. The Warm 
Spring Indians call the spirit land: ayayAni. See also Texts, p. 174; 11. 
vii 



XCviii ETHNOGRArHlC SKETCH. 

From a Klamath myth we gather the information tliat there is a 
guardian over the spirits wafting through the sky, called Wash k'miish, or 
the gray fox. This name is evidently borrowed from the coloring of the 
sky, as it appears before or during a polar light, and must be compared with 
another beast name, the wan or wanaka, the red fox, which is the symbol 
of the sun-halo. 

Another class of spirits embodies the spirits of those animals which 
have to be consulted by the kiuks or conjurer when he is called to treat a 
case of disease. Such persons only who have been trained during five 
years for the profession of conjurers can see these spirits, but by them they 
are seen as clearly as we see the objects, around us. To see them they have 
to go to the home of a deceased conjurer, and at night only. He is then 
led by a spirit called YayayA-ash appearing in the form of a one-legged man 
towards the spot where the animal-spirits live; this specter presides over 
them; there the conjurer notices that each appears different from the other, 
and is at liberty to consult them about the patient's case. Yayay4-ash 
means "the frightener," and by the myth-tellers is regarded as the Thunder 
or its spirit. 

Giants. — The imagination of every primitive people has been busy in 
producing monsters of all qualities and shapes, human and animal, even 
walking mountains and trees. What we call giants are generally personifi- 
cations of irresistible powers of nature, which are sujiposed to perform feats 
impossible for man's utmost strength; by dwarfs are symbolized powers of 
nature which achieve great and wonderful things by steady and gradual 
work unnoticed by the generality of human beings. 

Giants are often the originators of geological revolutions of the earth's 
crust. Thus the giant Lewa represents the circular, lofty island lying 
within the waters of Crater Lake or Gi'wash. He went by an underground 
passage (fissure?) from his seat over to Yamsi Mountain to wrestle with 
Ske'l, the all-powerful pine-marten, whose home is at Yamsi. After con- 
quering him, he carried him through the same passage again to Crater Lake 
for the })urpose of feeding him to his children, and his daughter, Lewanx 
p('-ip, struck him with a heavy flint-stone. 

J^ike the walls of tliat lake and the whole Cascade range, the island in 



SPIRIT DEITIES. xclx 

question is of volcanic origin. The natives avoid going near the lake ctr 
even ascending the surrounding heiglits.* Earthquakes are often ascribed 
by foreign nations to giants stretched out below, who are shifting their 
underground position. Giants often appear also as ravishers, ogres, and 
man-eaters, like the Scandinavian Yiittur, and two giant-women of the 
Elip tilikum or "Primeval People," were changed into two columns of 
sandstone, near the Yakima country, on Middle Columbia River, for having 
preyed upon the human race.f 

Dwarfs. — A miraculous dwarf is mentioned under the name of na'hnias, 
whose foot-prints, as small as those of a child, are sometimes seen upon the 
snow-clad slopes of the Cascade Range by the natives. But the dwarfish 
creatures who make them can be seen only by those initiated into the mys- 
teries of witchcraft, who by such spirit-like beings are inspired with a 
superior kind of knowledge, especially in their treatment of disease. The 
name is derived either from ndna to swim/ the body from one to the other side, 
or from nainAya to shiver, tremble 

Another dwarf genius, about four feet high, Givinwin, lived on Will- 
iamson River, where he habitually sat on the top of his winter lodge and 
killed many people with his black flint hat. He is now a bird. 

The Klamaths appear to know about certain spirits having bodies of a 
diminutive size, but the characteristics of such are not distinct enough to 
permit identification with the fairies, Erdmannchen or Kabeiroi of Euro- 
])ean mythologies. 

ANIMAL DEITIES. 

The deification of animals in the primitive forms of religion is highly 
instructive, and instances are so numerous that it would take a series of 
volumes to comprehend its details. Animal stories and shamanism are 

• Among tbe summits of the Sau Juan Mountains, New Mexico, there is to-day a 
lake bounded by precipitous walls, and there is a little island in the center of the lake 
with a hole in it, and something sticks out of the hole that looks like the top of a 
ladder, and " this is the place through which our ancestors emerged from the fourth 
into the fifth or present world." The Ndvajos never approach near to it, but they 
stand on high summits around, and view from afar thei. natal waters. (From Navajo 
Creation Myth, Am. Antiquarian, V^, 1883, p. 213.) 

to. Gibbs in Pacific Railroad Reports, I, 411. 



C ETHNOGRArmC SKETCH. 

chapters of ethnology whicli afford us the (lee])est insight into tlie thoughts 
which guide the untutored reasoning of the so-called savage^. 

Wherever we find deities in tlie stage of imperfect antln-opomorphisni 
we are likely to find also deified animals in the stage of zoodenionism and 
not in that of zootheism or zoolatry. Where gods and goddesses have 
reached a fully anthropomorphic shape, wliich occurred in a few American 
nations only, there we also find priests, temples, ceremonies, oracles, saci'i- 
fices, and prayers; but where deities remain in the undeveloped condition 
of spirits and demons, propitious or malevolent to mankind, we may expect 
to see the natives deifying quadrupeds, birds, or snakes, instead of giving 
their gods the human form, which is the most perfect form of this world's 
creatures. For in many physical qualities animals surpass the human being. 
Tliis excites the admiration of man in his ruder stages; he wonders at their 
cunning and shrewdness, and thinks them his equals in more than one 
respect. Why should he not express such feelings as these by reverencing 
them and including them in his unpolished and naive, but pictorial and 
candid folklore stories? 

It would be a mistake to assume that the animals which the folklore 
of the Indian in the hunter stage chiefly celebrates are game animals or 
such as are of material advantage to him. Folklore selects for its purpose 
such beasts which the hunting and fisliing Indian, with his great practical 
knowledge of animate creation, admires above others for such qualities as 
their surprising sagacity, their wonderful agility, the love for their offspring, 
the help afforded by them by discovering the hidden causes of disease, the 
beauty of their skin or other covering, and the change in the coloring of 
their fur-skins wrought by the alternation of the seasons — or such animals 
as he dreads on account of their ferocity, their nightly habits, their power 
of bringing about storms, thunder, or rain-fall, and last, but not least, for 
their demoniac power of presaging future events, especially war, disease, 
and death. The great scarcity of certain animals is also a sufficient cause 
for introducing them into the popular stories. 

The animals which form the subject of mythic stories and beast tales 
are pretty much the same as those mentioned in the magic songs of the 
medical practitioners, of wliicli I have brought together a considerable col- 
lection in Texts, pp. 153-181. The birds get an unusuall}' large .share in 



DEIFIED ANIMALS. ci 

these curious song lines; the loou (tApUil) is noticed there for l^eing the 
best diving bird of these upland waters; the yellow-hammer, or tchd-ush, a 
woodpecker, for its beautiful red plumage ; the kiliwash, another woodpecker, 
for its precious scalp. The ducks are well remembered in these songs on 
account of their ubiquity, their numerous species, the elegance of their 
exterior. Birds renowned for their influence upon the weather are the 
wi'huash and the tsiutsiwiish, who can produce snow-fall; the ka'ls or 
kal^alsh, who possesses the power of making fogs (166; 22. 23). 

The amphibians, insects and the organisms standing below these in the 
zoogenetic scale, are also reputed to possess magic powers; the songs of the 
toad and of the spider are supposed to be especially effective. That the 
plants did not impress the mental capacity of these Indians to such a point 
as to make them objects of reverence can not be wondered at, as the mind of 
the Indian in cold climates is not turned in this direction Plants in which 
the Klamaths were interested are all mentioned, p. 180; 19, and the pond-lil}-, 
with its seeds, stands at the head of them. Even among the totem naiTies 
of Eastern tribes only a few plant names are represented, maize being the 
most frequent among these; but in tropical countries, with their luxuriant 
vegetal growth, many trees, bushes, and stalks become objects of worship, 
like the copal and the ceiba tree of Central America. 

The deified animals of Klamath mythology are all capable of assum- 
ing the predicate amtchiksh, abbr. -amtch, -amts primeval, of which mention 
has been made previously, and many also appear collectively, as Jirc (or fen) 
brothers or Jire sisters, sometimes with their old parents (titchka-aga). 
This is the case onlv with gregarious animals, and also applies to the Thim- 
ders. Many of the larger quadrupeds appear constantly with tivo young 
only. 

The personified animals which I'eceive the most frequent attention in 
Klamath Lake and Modoc myths are the marten, the weasel and the prairie- 
wolf or coyote. 

Marten or Ske'l, Ske'lamtch always appears in connection with Weasel 
or Tchashkai. Weasel is reputed to be the young-er brother (tapiap) 
of Ske'l and acts as his servant and errand-bov. In the execution of the 
dangerous errands he is intrusted with, Weasel is often killed, and Ske'l 



Cil ETHNOGKArUlC sKpyroH. 

sometimes also, but they manage to revive again and to revenge themselves 
on their enemies. Wliat hrought these two beasts into mutual connection 
in the popular mind has been already pointed out: both change their furs, 
more than other animals, from a darker hue in suuuiier to a lighter one 
in winter, when the weasel's fur l)ecomes white. They are l)otli supposed 
to live at Yamsi, "Northwind's Home," a high peak east of Klamath Marsh. 
To act like Ske'lamtch is to do something not meaning to do it apparently. 
Ske'l is a great wrestler, and like K'mukamtch has the faculty of changing 
himself into a bird, beast, dog, old woman, etc., at will. To a certain 
extent he is the counterpart of K'mukamtch and performs the same deeds 
as he does, it appearing as if K'mukamtch acted under the mask of Marten 
and Tchaskai under that of Ai'shish, in whom we recognize a lunar deity. 
But there are other acts by which the two pairs differ considerably, and 
where Marten and hi.s brother appear to represent the wintry season only 
and the rough weather attendino- it. 

Another deity of the same type, and far-famed over all the Pacific 
coast, is the prairie-tmlf, little wolf, or coyote. This quadruped belongs 
rather to the genus jackal than to the wolves, looks as smart as a fox, carries 
a beautiful fur, and does not attack people unless united in packs of a dozen 
or more. His habit of living in earth holes, and his doleful, human-Hke, 
whining ululation, heard especially during moonlit nights were probably 
what set him up in the esteem of certain Indians, like the fCastern Selish 
and the Centi-al Californians, so high as to make of him the creator of the 
world and of man. In Modoc stories he appears more frequently than in 
Klamath Lake folklore, and at present there are but few of these animals 
left on the headwaters of Klamath River. Wash, or Washamtch as the 
Klamaths call him, always appears in sun and moon stories, and is, like 
Ske'l and Tchashgai, a substitute for the sun-and-moon deities. When he 
ran a i-ace with the clouds he thought at first that there were two of him, 
for he always saw another person, his shadow, going by his side. When 
he stayed in the lodge of the Firedrill lirothers he took the fire-sticks of 
these in his hands and they all blazed uj). In the lodge of the ten Hot- 
Water Basket brothers he was burnt terribly by the inmates, and when 
repairing to the Ants' lodge the inmates punished him fearfullv l)v their 



DEIFIED ANIMALS. ciu 

savage bites. Once wlien caught in the act of "steaHng" a woman, he was 
captured by the two husbands of the same, who skinned him and hung up 
the skin to dry, after which the woman was abducted by the five Bear 
brothers. The female prairie-wolf also appears in folklore with her progeny, 
e. g., in the tale of the "Creation of the Moons," page 105, which exists in 
several variations. Such stories and others represent the coyote-wolf as a 
being which has many points of contact with K'nuikauitch, but is distinct 
from him. Both are regarded simultaneovisly as sky-gods and as funny 
clowns. As traits distinguishing the one from the other, we notice that the 
wolf's body is believed to harbor wicked spirits (Texts, page 128, 4) and 
that his lugubrious voice is the presager of war, misfoi'tune, and death (133, 
12). A distinction has to be made throughout between the coyote as an 
animal and the coyote as representing powers of nature in a deified, abstract 
form 

Of the three varieties of the hear species, the grizzly hear is the most 
popular, but also more dreaded than the others on account of his enormous 
physical force. What makes him popular is a peculiar bonhomie which he 
exhibits in his behavior, and which forms a peculiar contrast to his bodily 
strength. In the myths he, or rather the female bear, is called Li'ik, Li'ik- 
amtch, Shashapamtch, Shashapsh, and her two young Shashapka, the 
latter name probably referring to the fact that this beast was at one time 
more than other quadrupeds made the subject of mythic and folk-lore tales 
(shapk(^a, shapke-ia, shashapkalra to narrate a story, shapkaleash, distr. 
shashapkeleash legend, tale). The tale of the "Bear and the Antelope" is 
perhaps the most attractive of our collection of Texts. Generally the bear 
is the aggressive party in these stories, and he also gets generall}' worsted 
whenever a fight occurs or a stratagem is played on him. Sometimes there 
are five bear brothers acting in unison. In the "old yarn," narrated p. 131, 
this bear is killed by Gray Wolf near Modoc Point, and in his magic song 
(157; 46) he is made to say that he has five springs which are all dried up. 
He is often mentioned in the song-lines, but always under the name Luk, 
not as Shashapamtch. 

Gray Wolf or K('-utchish, Ke-utchiamtch is another of the carnivores 
which sometimes appear prominently in folklore stories. Gray Wolf is 



CIV ETHNOdRAPHIG SKIiTC.1. 

rei)uted to be a relative (sha-amoksli) of Marten, and consequently of 
K'mukamtch ; he stayed at the lodg'e of the five Thunders at the time when 
it was burnt down, pp. 112. 113. One of liis residences is at Mount Shasta. 

Other quadrupeds frequently mentioned in these stories are tlie skunk 
(tclu'ishash), the three different kinds of deer, tlie antdope (tchi'-u), the elk 
(vu'n), the mole (nuVnk, Mod. mu-ue). Men or Indians appear but inci- 
dentally in beast stories, as pshe-utiwash, a plural noun, and are engaged 
only as a passive element in every occurrence where they are mentioned. 

Among the birch the most prominent p;ut is assigned to the raven (Kak, 
Kakaratch), for he is Fate jjersonified, and his office is to punish by death 
all those who act antagonistically to liis or his allies' interests. This is done 
by changing them into rocks. In all nations the croaking, doleful cries 
of the raven leav^e a deep impression on the human mind, and hence in 
mythology the raven fulfills the function of a soothsayer and messenger of 
woe. In British Columbia and farther to the northwest he is (as Yehl) 
considered the creator of all organisms, and almost all the folklore centers 
around him as the main figure. 

Tiie golden earjle or the one "floating in the skies" (P'laiwash) is in the 
Klamath lore mentioned as often as the raven, either alone or as a family 
of five brothers, but does not command so much respect as the raven does. 

The tcater birds, as cranes, ducks, geese, coots, form the light infantry 
of the mythologic make-up, and mostly figure in crowds of five or ten, 
the coot representing the Ojibwe Shingibis so well known through Long- 
fellow's Hiawatha. Some of the lower organisms rise to an unexpected 
dignity, like the woodtick or slikd'ks, which becomes the wife of the tricky 
Marten, and a caterpillar of beautiful colors, whose exterior makes him the 
rival or "master of the sun" (shapsam ptchiwip). Aishish counts among 
his plural wives two butterflies of the gayest colors. 

PRINCIPLES OF MYTHIFICATION. 

The idea that every phenomenon and every change observed in nature 
and mind is caused by some spirit, ghost, genius, god, or other mysterious, 
generally invisible agent, embodies what we call animism, and forms the 
foundation ot all rc^ligioiis of tli(^ world, however al)straet they may have 



PRINCIPLES OF MTTHIFICATION. cv 

become in course of time. The working of animism can best be traced in 
polytheism and polydemonism, in the shamanistic ideas as well as in the 
religious. The principles traceable in the myth-making of the Klamath 
Indians, which differs in some points from those of other Indians, may be 
summed up as follows: 

The sky-gods, as sun, moon, winds, thunder, etc., here as elsewhere 
surpass in importance and strength the other deified powers of nature, for 
"theology is meteorology." Some of these chief gods assume the mask 
of animate beings and inanimate things when they appear among men. 

Creation myths do not generally mention the material from which or 
the mode by which objects were created, but simply state that K'mukamtch 
produced them by his thinking and will power. 

The spirit, life, or heart of a deity is made distinct from the deity itself 
and can live at a distance from it. Of the pipe of K'mukamtch burnt in 
the fire, which in another myth figures as a small ball (k^-iks) and is his 
spirit or life. 

The burlesque element, which the religions of Asia and Europe have 
banished almost entirely, appears here as an almost integral attribute of a 
god or genius. This appears to form an offset for the dire cruelties ascribed 
to the same demons, and is also characteristic of the religions studied east 
of Mississippi River. 

The element of obscenity is only incidental to the burlesque element, 
but is sometimes very pronounced, especially in the beast stories. It was 
added to cause merriment only, and not for such immoral purposes as we 
see it applied to in the Decameron of Boccaccio and other products of a 
corrupt age. 

The deified beings of a lower order, as animals, etc., appear sometimes 
as one person, but just as often in the mystic number of five, if not of ten. 
Fire, waters, springs, and plants are not deified, but lakes are sometimes. 
Clouds do not appear here deified as witches, as they do among the Eastern 
Indians. 

Certain miracles are here achieved by bodily contact and symbolic 
acts; so dead animals are brought to life again by jumping three or five 



Cvi ETHNOGKAPHIG SKETuH. 

times over them or by blowing at tliem, an act wliich is supposed to impai't 
life. 

CONCLUDING WORDS. 

The limited space allowed for this ethnographic sketch forces me to 
suppress the larger part of the matter for the present and to relegate it to a 
future volume. A few points characteristic of the two tribes may, however, 
be added on the last page of this Report. 

The Klamath Indians are absolutely ignorant of the gentile or clan 
system as prevalent among the Haida, Tlingit, and the Eastern Indians of 
North America. Matriarchate is also unknown among them; every one is 
free to marry within or without the tribe, and the children inherit from the 
father. Although polygamy is now abolished, the marriage tie is a rather 
loose one. This tribe is the southernmost one of those that flatten their 
infants' skulls, this practice continuing about one year only after birth. 

Cremation of the dead has been abolished since 1868, though during 
tlie Modoc war tliese Indians burned several of their dead. The custom of 
suppressing the personal names of the dead is rigidly kept up at the present 
time. Art never had any encouragement or votaries among the Klamaths, 
and the only objects seen that could be regarded as art products were a 
lew rock paintings and a head-board on a grave near the Agency build- 
ings, which was painted in the Haida style and represented a human face 
flattened out to the right and left. Some baskets are artistically formed. 
As there is no clay to be found on or near the reservation, pottery could 
never become an art among these Indians. Their songs and poetry are also 
artless, but nevertheless instructive, and several songs have beautiful tunes 
that should be preserved. The musical and sonorous character of the lan- 
guage fits it well for poetic composition; but a national poetry, to be of 
success, would not have to adopt the rhyme as a metrical factor. Allitera- 
tion, assonance, or the prosody of the ancients would be more suitable to 
this upland language, with its arsis and thesis, than the artificial schemes 
which poets are devising for the modern European tongues. Who will be 
the first to teach the Muses the Klamath language? 



TEXTS OF THE KLAMATH LANGUAGE, 



WITH EXPLANATORY NOTES. 



THE KLAMATH INDIANS OF OREGON. 



By Albert S. Gatschet, 



INTEODUCTION TO THE TEXTS. 

The most important and valuable monument of itself which a people 
can transmit to posterity is a national literature. But to answer the require- 
ments fully, the literature of a people must possess a certain degree of 
completeness in portraying the national peculiarities. It should embrace 
not only sketches of contemporaneous history, of national habits, customs, 
and laws laid down in the native idiom, but we expect from it also a truth- 
ful rendering of the spiritual side of national life, of its physical and meta- 
physical speculations as we find them embodied in its myths, beliefs, 
superstitions and conjurers' practices, and of speeches and discourses of 
its representative men held on solemn occasions. The most fragrant flow- 
ers in any national literature are certainly the poetic productions, if a 
full account of their origin and purport is added to make them easily 
comprehensible. 

While cultured nations are constantly engaged in perpetuating the 
memory of their thoughts ai^d achievements by means of some alphabetic 
or syllabic system of writing, the uncivilized hunting or fishing tribes pos- 
sess none, or only the most imperfect means of recording their affairs. 
All of them possess mythic tales, traditional history, and songs for various 
incidents of life; not a few are even originators of didactic folklore, of 
proverbs, and of versified rhythmic poetry. Many of these mental })ro- 
ductions are remarkable for artistic beauty, others for a most interesting 
variety of detail; but all of them will, if collected with accuracy and sound 



2 INTRODUCTION TO THE TEXTS. 

judgment, throw a profusion of light upon the i)hysical and mental cliarac- 
teristics of the natives and on their past and present condition. 

The task and care of fixing the unwritten mental productions of un- 
cultured races and tribes thus devolves upon the white man. It is by no 
moans an easy undertaking, and success can be attained only when the 
investigator is favored by circumstances. Ethnologic texts taken from an 
uncivilized people are of much intrinsic value only when the scientific 
collector is lucky enough to secure the services of intelligent and well- 
informed individuals whose veracity is above suspicion, and who have 
constantly resided among their own people. 

Considerations of this nature guided me when I endeavored to commit 
to writing the strange mythology of Oregonian tribes, replete with the most 
fantastic stories of their elementary deities and tricksy animal daimons; 
and when the weird and unearthly strains of their war-whoops and dance- 
yells first struck my ear, I considered even these worthy of notation. I 
have not hesitated to assign the first and foremost place in this linguistic 
volume on the Klamath language to the "Texts" obtained from trustworthy 
Indians of the Klamath Lake and Modoc tribes, for I know that they fjxith- 
fully portray the characteristic features and idiosyncrasies of these dusky 
denizens of a secluded upland region. These literary specimens are the 
foundation and basis upon which I have rested my investigations. 

Tlie language of these specimens, as the organ of transmission of the 
national ideas, had to be carefull}^ sifted and overhauled before it could 
become the basis of linguistic and ethnologic investigation. Numerous 
revisals and comparisons were needed to eliminate involuntary mistakes of 
Indian informants, who never elevate themselves above a purely empiric 
mastery of their native idiom. That an accurate grammar can be composed 
upon the solid foundation of faultless texts only, nobody will contest. Nei- 
ther will it be doubted that the more copious the specimens are the safer 
the conclusions of the linguist will be concemiing the principles governing 
the forms of speech. 

Literary productions enlarging upon national and ethnologic matters 
are of iijuch greater importance for the scientific study of the language in 
\\ liicli tUcv jmay be composed than any otiicr texts. How poor and fi-ag- 



IMPORTANCE OF RECORDESTG UJSTWEITTEN LITERATURES. 3 

mentaiy would our knowledge of Latin and Greek be, if the poets, orators, 
and historians who wrote their compositions in these sonorous idioms were 
lost, and if nothing in them had come down to our age but versions of 
foreign books and reproductions of foreign speculations and ideas! A 
writer or informant is most capable of acquainting us with matters concern- 
hig his own people, country, and epoch, because he feels more interested in 
these topics than in any others, and he will select from the national stock 
of words the proper term for each object or idea he desires to express. 
Investigators will therefore, when they address themselves to intelligent 
natives for national, tangible and concrete topics of every-day life, gener- 
ally obtain correct and trustworthy information on their objects of research, 
but will meet with disappointment when inquiring for equivalents of terms 
or ideas totally foreign to the simple understanding of the native pop- 
ulation. 

An expeiience of short duration will convince any linguistic investi- 
gator that a multitude of characteristic, quaint, and unfrequent expressions, 
idioms, phrases, and inflectional forms can never be obtained by mere ques- 
tioning. The natives must be allowed to speak out their own free minds, 
without bias or trammelling; after a short acquaintance they can easily be 
induced to recount popular stories, myths, incidents of history, or intertribal 
wars, to reproduce speeches and national songs from their OAvn reminis- 
cences, and thus they will spontaneously use peculiar forms of language 
which often yield a deeper insight into the genius of their vernacular idiom 
than pages of information gathered after the usual method of the scholarly 
lexicographer or the pedantic verbal translator. 

Legends, myths, and lyric productions, when obtained in their original 
shape from unsophisticated relators, furnish us with the best material for 
inquiries into a far remote antiquit}^, even when the historic horizon of the 
informant's tribe does not exceed the limit of two generations. If facts and 
dates do not, words and radical syllables will tell us a tale, and may enable us 
to trace ancient migrations or intertribal connections, teach us the origin of 
certain customs, habits, or national ideas, and inform lis of the shaping, the 
material, or uses of old implements. In some instances they will guide us 
iuto remoter periods than prehistoric archseology can, and supply us with 



4 INTRODUCTION TO THE TEXTS. 

more useful dates and facts. Such results as these may be confidently 
looked for when several dialects of one linguistic family can be compared; 
and a careful comparison of one language with others spoken in the 
vicinity, belonging to the same or a different family, will always be at- 
tended with beneficial results for the inci'ease of our scientific knowledge. 

The aboriginal literary monuments printed below are authentic national 
records of a brave and industrious mountain tribe of Indians. Ethnologic 
notices have at a comparatively early period been gathered concerning the 
Modocs and Klamath Lake Indians, but most of them were of doubtful 
scientific value, because the information was gathered from them in the 
English language, which they understood but very imperfectly. P^ven now, 
the dates and facts recounted by them, as well as by Indians of many other 
tribes, in English, are so extremely confused, that only texts written in 
their own language can give us a clear insight into their traditions, myths, 
and mode of thinking. 

No Indian tribe possesses a history of itself reaching back further than 
two or three generations, unless it has been recorded by whites at an early 
date, and what goes beyond this limit is tradition, on which we must be 
careful not to place any implicit reliance. But mythology records in a 
certain sense the intellectual history as well as the metaphysical ideas of a 
people, and thus by the gathei"ing of the numerous mythic tales and legends 
of the Mi'iklaks a start at least is made for the investigation of their intellec- 
tual development. A very moderate estimate puts at several hundred the 
more generally circulated myths of the Klamath Lake or E-ukshikni alone, 
and the number of their popular song-lines, so interesting and unique in 
many respects, may be called infinite, for their number is increased every 
day by new ones. The bulk of their mythic folklore is of great poetic 
beauty, freshness, and originality, and, like that of other tribes, full of 
cliildlike "naivete." This latter characteristic forms one of their greatest 
attractions, and the animal mj'ths of every uncultured people Avill prove 
attractive, because they were invented for religious or poetic and not for 
didactic purposes. To some of the myths given below we may confi- 
dently ascribe an antiquity of over three centuries, for their archaic terms 



LIST OF CONTRIBUTORS. 5 

and locutions, repeated from generation to generation, are not always under- 
stood at the present day by the young people, who most attentively listen to 
the aged rhapsodists, when they expound these miraculous stories in the lurid 
glare of the nocturnal campfire. Nothing in them indicates a migration of 
these upland tribes from any part of the country into their present homes, 
and hence the Maklaks must have had undisturbed possession of the head- 
waters of Klamath River for some centuries prior to the advent of the 
white population. 

The various texts obtained clearly exhibit the character of the lan- 
guage actually spoken and the diffei'ence existing between the two dia- 
lects, but they do not all possess the same linguistic value. The texts of 
Dave Hill and others are worded in the conversational language of the 
tribe, which in many particulars differs from the more elaborate and cir- 
cumstantial mode of speech which appears in the mythic tales given by 
Minnie Froben. The "Modoc War" and some of the shorter pieces could be 
obtained only by putting down the English first and then getting sentence 
for sentence in the dialect, whereas the best worded stories and specimens 
were written in continuous dictation. All texts obtained were carefully 
revised first with the informants, then with other natives, and all the neces- 
saiy explanations added at the time. 

From a purely linguistic view the popular songs or song-lines are the 
most valuable contributions. The melodies of some of their number deserve 
to be called pretty, according to our musical taste. To the natives all of 
them appear harmonious; but when the Western Indian calls some melody 
"pretty," guided by his musical principles, he very frequently does so in 
opposition to what our ear tells us to call by this predicate. 

The Klamath Lake dialect was spoken by the majority of the con- 
tributors to my linguistic anthology. I obtained these specimens, with the 
exclusion of the Modoc texts, in the autumn of 1877, at the Klamath 
Reservation, Lake County, Oregon. Though many of these natives speak 
the Chinook jargon more fluently than English, I never availed myself, for 
obtaining any information whatever, of that imperfect and hybrid medium, 
through which the Indians of the Northwest carry on so much of their 
intercourse. 



6 INTEODUCTION TO THE TEXTS. 

The following is a list of the most important contributors : 
1. The Riddle family, consisting of Frank Tazewell Riddle, a native of 
Kentucky, born about 1836; his wife Toby, a pure-blood Modoc woman, 
who was, as stated in her biographic notice, bora in 1842, and their son 
Jeff. C. Davis Riddle, born about 18C2. Among several texts of linguistic 
importance I obtained from them a circumstantial chronistic account of the 
Modoc war of 1873, in which Mr. and Mrs. Riddle had served as interpre- 
ters of the Peace Commission. Having been introduced to them in Decem- 
ber, 187.'>, in New York City, by Mr. A. B. Meacham, late Superintendent of 
Indian Affaii's in Oregon, w^hen they travelled with him in the eastern States 
in connection with the Meacham Lecturing Company, I took down the 
contents first in English from Mr. Frank Riddle, then added the transla- 
tion from the other members of the ftimily. Mr. Riddle had no intention 
of giving a full and authentic account of that desperate struggle, but merely 
wished to render his own impressions, and to relate in the plainest words 
the events witnessed by himself. Here we have the opportunity of hearing 
also the Modoc side of the contest. 

The wording of the other Modoc texts was the almost exclusive work of 
the boy Riddle, who speaks the language perfectly well, and only in the more 
difficult portions was he assisted by his mother. From the Riddles I obtained 
also several hundred sentences, over sixty songs, and about two thousand 
three hundred vocables, which we're twice revised with their assistance in 
New York City, and twice again with the efficient help of such natives at the 
Klamath Lake Agency as were conversant with the Modoc dialect. 

2. Bave Hill, a dusky, pure-blood Indian, subchief of the Klamath Lake 
tribe and interpreter, born about 1840. Having been a prominent war- 
rior of Ills tribe up to the treaty of 1 864 and a scout in subsequent expedi- 
tions against hostile Indians, he has also seen much of the white man's waj-s 
by staying for years in Northwestern Oregon and by traveling East with Mr. 
A B. Meacham on his lecturing tour in 1875. How he was then kidnapped 
in New York City, confined in a cellar, restored to liberty, and how he 
worked his way home, is related with full particulars in Meacham's Wincma, 
pages 95-102. In the Modoc war (1872-73) he was put in command of 
the auxiliary forces oi his chieftaincy, which were detailed to observe the 



LIIST OP CONTRIBDTOES. 7 

belligerent Modocs and to check any dangerous movements which they 
might have undertaken against the settlers or the Indian Reservation. 
Hill's father, Skaititko, or the "Left-Handed", was for some time a guide 
to General Frdmont on one of his expeditions through Oregon, Nevada, 
and California. 

Readers of Hill's texts will notice that his diction is very concise, preg- 
nant and to the point, and so is the speech of these Indians generally. 
But since that conversational language, or popular jargon, as we may not 
improperly call it, moves along in contractions, elisions, metatheses and 
ellipses, I have had to revise his texts many times with him and other Indians 
before I could make them practically available. In the myths, Dave Hill 
is not so pictorial and graphic as Minnie Froben, but in narrating his feats 
of war he readily furnished all the points that could be expected. Con- 
cerning the conjurers' practices and national beliefs, he was more communi- 
cative than the majority of the Klamath Indians, whom superstitious awe 
still deters from revealing all that the investigator desires to know. Hill's 
list of topographic names is a very important addition to abonginal topog- 
raphy, since he has added the correct etymology to the majority of these 
local designations. 

3. Minnie Froben, born about 1860, the daughter of a pure-blood Kla- 
math woman, who lives on the Williamson River, and of a (deceased) French 
settler Froben or Frobine, was, at the time of my visit, the assistant of Mrs. 
Nickerson, the matron of the boarding-school for native children at the 
Agency. She and the subchief Hill were the most important contributors 
to my mythic and other ethnologic anthology, and the pieces dictated by 
her excel all the others in completeness and perspicuity. Moreover, I 
obtained from her a multitude of popular songs, the names and uses of 
esculent roots and plants, the Klamath degrees of relationship, a large num- 
ber of words and sentences, a good deal of grammatic information, and 
revised, with her assistance, the whole of the Modoc contributions, as well 
as the majority of Klamath Lake texts. 

If any further books should be composed in or about the Klamath Lake 
dialect, her assistance would perhaps be preferable to any other native help 
to be found at present in the tribe; for during her stay with white people 



8 INTliODUCTIOISr TO THE TEXTS. 

she has succeeded in jicquinng' more mental training than Indians usuall}' 
acquire on reservations. 

4. Cliarlcs Preston, a pure-blood Klamath Lake Indian, born about 1840, 
is now stationed as interpreter at the subagency of Yaineks. Preston had 
previously sojourned five years at Oregon City on the Wilhimet River and 
vicinity, and there he learned to converse in English quite fluently, acquir- 
ing also the idiom of the Wasco Indians, of ■which he has furnished me over 
three hundred of the most usual terms. During a stay of three weeks 
which he made at the Klamath Lake Agency, 1 obtained from him valuable 
grammatic and lexical information, texts, popular songs, and proper names, 
and revised with him the Modoc dictionary. 

5. Sergeant Morgan, a pure-blood Indian, living at Kohdshti, born about 
1830, and jocosely called ^'' SergeanV on account of his wearing an old 
sergeant's uniform which he had obtained from soldiers at Fort Klamath. 
From this good-natured, intelligent old Indian I obtained a few short texts 
and some ethnologic information especially relating to m)^thologic and 
shamanic subjects. 

6. " The Captain'''' or "Captain Jim", a pure-blood Indian, living at the 
junction of Sprague and Williamson Rivers, about five miles from the Agency 
buildings. When I saw him he was about fifty years old, and as he spoke 
but Klamath and Chinook jargon, all the mythology which he remembered 
was obtained through Minnie Froben. He received his nickname "Cap- 
tain" from having been a help on a steamboat plying on the Willdmet 
River, Oregon. 

7-11. Other informants of whose assistance I have availed myself are 
mentioned at the head of the texts. They were Johnson, the head chief of 
the Modocs at Yafneks; the conjurer Kdkash ov Doctor John ; and several 
young Indians then scarcely over twenty -five years of age : Pete, Frank, 
and Long John's Ben. All of them are pure-blood Indians. 

To facilitate the study of the Klamath language, and to increase the 
popular interest in the acquisition of Indian languages in general, I have 
inserted with the texts an interlinear translation, and subjoined to them a 
variety of commenting notes of linguistic, ethnographic, and historic im- 
port. The large majority of the Indian words could be rendered in their 
literal meaning; but in some instances, where literal translation was nearly 



HINTS FOR TOE STUDY OF THE TEXTS. 9 

impossible, the sense of the word or phrase was reproduced as faithfully as 
could be done within the narrow space allotted. Words in brackets were 
inserted only to render the sentence complete. 

But to the student striving after a thorough understanding of the texts 
all these helps will prove of partial assistance only. A thorough study of 
the Grammar ought in fact to precede their perusal, and reference to all 
the three portions of the work will frequently be necessary. 

The material portion of a language can be faithfully conveyed to our 
understanding only by the correct pronunciation of its words, sentences 
or texts. Hence all that is said of Klamath phonetics must be studied first, 
and more especially the alternating processes, the proclisis and enclisis, the 
sounds not occurring in English (as the linguals, the aspirate %, the vowel 
u), and first of all the pronouncing list of alphabetic sounds, which is sub- 
joined. To initiate readers into the distinction, empirically obtained from 
the mouths of the natives, between the clear vowels a, e, i, u, and the 
dumb or deep-sounding a, e, i, 4, the earlier pages of the texts contain 
more indications than are given in the later. In certain terms long vowels 
can turn into short, and short into long ones. Special attention must be 
paid also to the study of elisions, apocopes, metatheses, etc. 

In the morphologic, part of the Grammai', the verbal and nominal 
paradigms are particularly recommended to the student's attention, and a 
previous knowledge of the mode of forming the distributive reduplication 
from the absolute form is indispensable to the reader of my Texts, not only 
for their full comprehension, but even for the use of the Dictionary. The 
suflSx of the future tense is written -uapka, to distinguish it from a homony- 
mous form -wapka, of different signification. The apocopes occurring in the 
conversational style of language will soon be recognized as such by the 
reader ; for example, -th for -tho, -hs for -kshi, dropping of -a, -ash, etc. 

To make the study of the Texts too easy by a flood of notes would be 
as obnoxious to the true interests of science, as to present unsolved too 
heavy grammatic difticulties to intellects yet untrained in the modes of 
Indian speech. Scholars may decide to what degree I have succeeded in 
avoiding- both extremes. 



10 mTRODtrCTION TO THE TEXTS. 

LIST OF SOUNDS OCCURRING IN TOE KLAMATH LANGUAGE. 

a as in alarm, wash; German, Mann, hat; French, pas, gras, flanc. 

a longer sound of a, as in far, father, smart, tart; German, schaden, 

lahm, Fahne. 

S. as in law, all, fall, tall, taught. 

a as in hat, man, fat, ass, slash. 

b as in hlah, hold; German, beben; French, barbe. 

d as in dread, did; Gennan, das, durfeu; French, de, darder. 

dsh as in judge, julep, George, dudgeon. 

e as in then, swell, met; German, schwebt; French, belle, selle. 

6 as in last syllable of preacher, butler, tippler; German, Biicher; 

French, le, je, me. 

e as in they, fade, jade, shade; German, stehlen; French, chaire, maire. 

g as in gig, gull; German, gross; French, gros, grand, orgiieil. 

g lingual guttural produced by bending the tip of the tongue back- 

ward, resting it against the palate, and when in this position 
trying to pronounce g in gag, gamble, again. 

h as in hag, haul, hoot; German, haben, Hals 

i us in marine; German, richten ; French, ici, patrie. 

I longer sound of i, as in bee, glee, reef; German, spiegeln, Stiefel. 

i as in still, rim, whim., split; Gei-man, finster, schlimm, Wille; when 

long, it is i in German iJm, schielen. 

J as in year, yolk; German, Jahr; French, yeux; not used as a vowel. 

k as in kick, kernel; German, Kamm, Kork; French, soc, coque, quand; 

Spanish, quedar, quizd. 

k lingual guttural produced like g by bending the tip of the tongue 

backward, holding it against the palate, and then trying to 
pronounce k, c, in kindness, killing, cool, craft. The tongue must 
be placed more firmly against the fore portion of the palate 
than in the g, in order to allow less breath to escape. 

X the aspirate guttural in lachen, trachten, Bachen, Sache, as pronounced 

in Southern Germany; not occurring in EngUsh, French, or 
Italian; Spanish, mujer, dejar ; Scotch, loch. It has nothing in 
common with the English x. 



ALPHABETIC NOTATION. 1 1 

I as in lull, loon, lot; Geiinan, Lilie ; French, lance. 
m as in madam, mill, mimic, mum; German, Memme. 
mb as in ramble, gamble, nimble. 

mp as in sample, thumping. 

n as in nun, net, noose; Gennan, nein; French, nuire. 

ng as in ring, bang, singing; German, singen, Jiangen. 

nk as in pranli, rinh, spunk; German, Schwank; French, cinquante. 

nk a combination of n with k. 

n/ a combination of n with %. 

o as in home, lonely, most; German, Molken; French, sotte. 

o longer sound of o, as in note, rope; German, Floh, Boot, roth; 

French, sauter. 
6 as in bird, burn, surd; German, Node, Bonier; French, deuil, cosur. 

p as in pipe, papa ; German, Pttppe; French, pied. 

s as in sad, sale, soul, smell; German, Seele, Sichel; French, sauce, 

seul. 
sh as in shaft, shingle; German, Schale, schon; French, chercher. 
t as in trot, tell, tiptop; German, Tafel; French, tour. 

tch as in church, chaff, choice; German, hdtschehi; Italian, cicerone; 

Spanish, chaparral, chicha. 
u as in smooth, truth; German, Fuss; French, loup, poutre, outrage. 

u longer sound of u, as in crude, flume, fool; German, Stuhl, Buhr, 

Blume; French, lourd, sourd. 

II as in full, pull; German, Flucht, Kluft, Bussland; Italian, lungo. 
ii not in English; German, Iciihl, Gefiihl; French, lune, puce. 

V as in valve, veer, vestige; German, Wolke, Wasser, tveben; French, 

vautour, veut. 
w the u before vowels; water, waste, wolf, wish, wayward; in GeiTDan 

it corresponds nearest to short ti, not to w; nearly as French 
ou in oui, ouate. 
z as in zeal, zone, frozen; German, Hase; French, zele, rose. 

The English x is rendered by gs or ks, the German ^ by ds or ts, all 
being compound articulations. The two points on a, o, u (a, o, ii) are 
not signs of diaeresis ; they mark softened vowels. 



ai 




au 




ei 




yu 


or iu 


oi 




wa or iia 


wi 


or ui 



12 INTEODUCTION TO TUE TEXTS. 

The pronunciation of tlie diplitliovfjs may be easily inferred from their 
component vowels; it is as follows: 

as in life, mine, sly, die, dye. 

as in mouse, loud, arouse. 

a combination of e and i resembling the vowel sounds in 

the word greyish, united into a diphthong. 
as in pure, few, union. 
as in loin, groin, alloy. 
as in watch, wash; French, hi, roi. 
as iu squid, win, switch. 
All the diphthongs being of an adulterine character, they can generally 
be separated into two vowels, and then are hyphenized, as in i-u, o-i, d-i, a-u. 

GRAPHIC SIGNS. 

- arrested sound : sk6-hs, spring time ; tchu-ka, to swim up stream. 

' apostrophe marking elision of a vowel, of e or any other sound: 

heshudmp'li for hesliudmpeli, to recover one^s health. 
hiatus, separating two vowels as belonging to two different 
syllables: p41a-ash, ^owr; lemd-ish, thunder; or two consonants: 
tsials-ha'mi, at salmon-time. 
separates the parts of compound terms: skiikskiii'm, spirit-fish or 

letiferous fish. 
acute; the only accent used tVtr marking- emphasized syllables. 
~ vowel pronounced long: mu'ni, large, great. 

vowel pronounced short, except 6, to which a distinct sound ia 
given: yiimaltka, to return from berry-harvest. 



EARLY TRADITIONAL HISTORY OF MODOCS AND CAPTAIN 

WRIGHT'S MASSACRE. 



Given in the Modoc Dialect by Toby Riddle. 



E-ukshikui Modoki'sliasli slieggdi^a lapgshaptdnkni taiinap illo'la at; 

The Klamath Lakes from the Modocs separated seven times ten years dow; 

tanktchlkni kd-i pen nadsha'shak tchia. Gumpatuash E-ukshikni'shash 

<they) since then not again together livetl. The K6mbatuash from the Klaniaths 

shegg4t/a vun^pni taunap illo'la at. 3 

separated forty years now. 

K4-iu iu4klakshash sh^lhialsht, tu'mi B6slitiii Ya'matala m^dshantko 

Before the (Modoc) people had fought, a uumber of Americans to Oregon emigrating 

k6-idsha welekapkash Modoklshash slmuka, y6wish kt^ktaknan tuntish 

an njiiy old woman Modoc caught, (both) heels having cut through a rope 

ehtunka, to pi tan wiig'n shlitchta, shpuku'gatchnan shiiika, Shdtash B6shti- 6 

passed behind a wagon tied (her), by dragging killed (her), Snakes Anieri- 

nasli shuenkslit pallo'tan hu'nkglara B6slitinam sha-dmakshash. B6shtiu 

cans having murdered (and) robbed of this of Americans party. Americans 

tdnkt lupiddna hun wel^kstim tchekeli kititchna. 

at that firstly of this old woman the blood spilled. 

time 

Shalam 1 852, nash Boshtin Capt'n Wright sheshatko shu'ldshash 9 

(In the) fall (of) 16.V2 one American, Captain Wright named, soldiers 

1-amnatko Mo'doka kaila gdtpa, mdklakshash shana-iili6ka sbish6kash. 

baTing with him (to the) Modoc country came to the (Modoc) people because he desired to make war. 

Kd-i mdklakshash shl^a. Modokishash snaw^dshash lutatkdtki pish 

Not (any) Modocs he saw, A Modoc woman going to interpret for him 

found. 

sha'tela; sha'tela hunk snaw(^dshash: mdklaks gatpdntki, slm-utdnktgi pi'sh 12 

he hired; he instructed this woman (to say) : that the should come to meet in council with 

Modocs him 

giiiga maklaks; shapiya, mdklakshash nash mu'nish wiishmush shiukit'stka. 

the Modocs; he announced (for) the Modocs one large ox he would kill. 

Maklakshash shapiyulan Ta-uni shpaiitish shnidktcha. At tiVm MoMokni 

The Modocs having notified, to Troka poison he sent ft»r. Then many Modocs 

town 

gdtpa; at tchek hunk wushmush shiukulan shpautish itd. Na'sh tche'k 15 

arrived; then forthwith the ox having butchered the poison he put on. One then 

hunk Ydraakni B6shtinash tchawinatko Mo'dokishash shapiya ka-i 

Warm Spring Indian the Americans having lived among the Modocs notified not 

tchu'leksh pdtki, shpautish itdmpkash gfsht. At tankt kd-i tidsli liem- 

(any) meat they should poison paton it having been. Nuw at that not well it was 

eat, time 

kdnka, Mo'dokni at ga'nipole, 18 

talked, the Modocs then left for home. 

13 



14 UISTORIOAL TEXTS. 

Pen snaw^dsliasli hii'iik shguyue : "at nii k'lewi sbisliii'kash, slili'- 

Again wumnn this he sent: "now I quit fighting, m<;et 

fitanksli sliana-iili p'kxiki'rtham palpdlisli sliil k'-lirule%au/' Vundpni taunap 

in cnmicil I <k' ft ire God's white flag raising. Forty 

3 pen nadttligslidpta m4klaks sliu-utauktpa. Laki p'na hunk shii'ldshasli 

and eii Indians nuit (him) in council. The com- hia eoldiern 

maudt^r 

liiliaslnuilxan shu'ldshrish sliapiya: **stalakislitak a nilsli paksli, mdklak- 

placinji in anibuMh, to I ho soldiers Siiid : "having 61Ied when I iho jtipe, thfi Mo- 

sliasli tashuitak ! " Maklaks hunk ndniik wawapkan shu-1itanko'tkish= 

docs jou attjick!"' Tho Mod. <s all seated of gi-ncral coiinciI= 

6 paksh paka, shlishlidii'kiu i-Jil;^a nanuk nte'sh. Buslitin laki pdkshtga 

the pipe smoked having unslrung bad laid all bows. The com- with (his) pipe 

down American mander 

Mkpeks shuy^ga; pakshtga shuyeg6tan shikenitki'shtka shiddshash yute- 

ashes lifted up; with the pipe wbiie lifting rip with piftols tlie sfildiera coni- 

tampka, at nanuk niAkkiks nge'slia. Boshtin nanuk m4klakshash shuenka; 

meuced to then all ilodocH (ihev) were The Americans all Modocs killed ; 

fire, wounded. 

9 tiinep toks kshi'ta. 

five however escaped. 

NOTES. 

13, I. There is no pretense that the nuiuher of years given hero is accurate, and 
the .slight ditlerence existing between the two dialects proves that the separation of 
the tribes is of recent date. The separation never was a thorough one, for even the 
latest raids made on the Pit Eiver Indians were made by Modocs joined to Klamath 
Lake Indians under the same war-chief. The Kumbatuash lived on southeastern end 
of Tule (or Ehett) Lake, California. 

13, 1 and 3. For iUola at, "years elapsed now", Klamath Lakes would say: illolfila, 
or illololatko. 

13, 4. KA-iu m. sheUualsht refers not only to a period anterior to the Modoc war of 
1873, but to the massacre of a party of eighteen white settlers, emigrants to Northwest- 
ern Oregon, by Modoc warriors, who had watched them, lying in ambush, on the eastern 
beach of Ehett Lake. This terrible wholesale butchery of defenceless whites was the 
immediate cause of Captain Wright's massacre in the ensuing year. 

13,6. Sh4tash, etc. The informant intends to say : Americans, immigrating to the 
Eogue Elver or WilWmet Eiver VaUey, di^agged to death an old Modoc squaw behind 
theii- wagon, thinking her to be a Snake squaw; they did so in retaliation for a robbery 
committed by Snake Indians on their party, and for murders peri)eti-ated on immigrants 
by the same Indian tribe. 

13, 9. An article in the " Overland Monthly''^ of San Francisco, July, 1873, i)age 21, 
signed Wm. M. Turner, gives the following particulars concerning Wright's massacre : 

In 1852 a train of eighteen emigrants attempted to reach Oregon by the Ehett 
Lake route. They had encamped for dinner at the eastern shore of Ehett Lake, under 
a blutf since called "Bloody Point". Suddenly the sage-brash around them stood in 
a blaze of fire; they started up In terror, and were at once surrounded by swarthy 
and painted savages, who greatly outnumbered them, and dealt out the deadly blows, 
which destroyed their whole numbers In inconceivably short time. One man aloiio 



TRADITIONS, ETC. 15 

escaped on borscback to Yrcka, which is over eighty miles distant, to tell of the dis- 
aster. The general indignation aroused by his recital prompted Capt. Ben. Wright to 
organize a force of fifty-one volunteers at Yreka into an independent company in the 
ensuing spring, and to make the tribe atone for the bloody deed. The spot selected 
by Wright for the council was on the north bank of Lost Eiver, a few hundred yards 
from the Natural Bridge (Tilhuiintko), and this was also the scene of the massacre. 

Concerning the time of Wright's massacre, Turner differs from our informant 
about one year.* 

13, 13. For the Modoc wushraush, u'shmush, the Klamath Lake dialect has the 
original Sahaptin term, miishmush, the primary signification of which is, "lowing liK"> 
cattle." The Lower Chinook has emusmus, the Kalapuya, ami'tsmus. The Nez PercvV 
dialect of Sahaptin has mu for ox^ cow, cattle. 

13, 13. shiuki(5stka is the verbal desiderative of shiukia, to kUl for somebody, to 
batcher for somebody's benefit. 

13,14. tu'm MO'dokni instead of: tii'mi Mo'dokni. This language favors elisions 
of short and single vowels standing between two consonants pronounced with the same 
vocal organ. 

13, 16. Ytlmakni is "Northern Oregonian, Northern man", in general. But this 
informant was, in fact, a Warm Spring Indian from Des Chutes Eiver. 

13, 17 and 18. tidsh hemk^uka means: to discuss an arrangement resulting in 
good to both parties ; this is, in most cases, equivalent to "conclude peace". 

14, 4. shtalalashtak is a contraction of shtalAlasht tak, both particles tak being 
correlative to each other, and referring here to the ftitirre. — shtalalasht is verbal con- 
ditional of stalt'ila, to fin, derived from st^ni,/«?/, through assimilation of consonants: 
shtaMla for stanala. 

14, C. i-^l;^a, tlistributive form of the verb il;fa, 61;fa : every one had unstrung and 
laid down his own bow. 

14, 7. The lifting-up of ashes from the council-fire by Wright was the signal for 
the soldiers to fire at the forty-six Modocs. Forty-one were killed on the spot. 

14, 9. kshita not in use among the Klamath Lakes. 

* Captain Wright was shortly afterward killed by the bullet of an Indian, who saw him standing 
under the door of his house, near the outlet of Rogue River, Oregon. 



16 HISTOBICAL TEXTS. 



lil-UKSUKNI SHIOLLUAL "WALAMSKl'snASH. 

FIGHTS BETWEEN KLAMATH LAKE AND ROGUE RIVER 

INDIANS. 



Given by WawXuks, or Dave Hill, Subchief, in the Klamath Lake Dialect. 



Lap'ni' slia shdllual Walamski'sas Ill-ushkni. Tin4 sha luludgsla 

Twice tbey fought the Ro<;ue Rivors the Lake tribe. One time they enalavod 

tu'm, tinatoks a k4-i lulu^gsla, puedsa'mpgli sa hu'nk. 

many, but the atM-imd not they made 8lav<*s, put to flight they. 

tilUH 

3 Titua Ill-ukskni ktakli'sh g^na Walamsi ; tsiii slaa tu'ma tchi'pksh. 

The first time the Lake tribe arrayed for war went to Rogue River and found many encamped. 

Valley 

Tsiii gakianina tchi'sh (ni'shtak gdkiamna), tsiii ni'lka, tsui W^lamskni 

Then they surrounded the lodges (the same night they surrounded) tht^n it dawned, and the Rogue Rivois 

papatkal sliiishii'dshapelish. Tchiii E-ukskni shui'lpka, tsiii ti'ntkal sa, 

rose from sleep (and) built their fires again. Then the Lake men laid themselves then started up they 

on tUe ground, 

6 yo'ta sha, tchui nga'-isa tu'm Walamski'shash, lakiash a si'uga; *'Takt4kli" 

shot they, and wounded many Rogue River Indians (and) the killed "The R<id " 

chief 

tchi'liuk sa'satk Wdlamsknl laki. Tsui sa nelfria lAkias hu'nk, ndn;(atcli 

80 was cjilled the Rogue River chief. Then they scalped chief the some others 

sha neh'na; tu'm tdnkt hushtch6ka sa, luluagsla tu'm w^wanuish ndend- 

they ecftlpod a good many killed tbey, made slaves of many women chil- 

9 gan's tchf sh. Tsiii g^pgap'l L-ukskni, tsiii gatpampeli sa; tsiii suku'lki 

dren also. Then withdrew the Lake men and home went they, after- they assem- 

wards bled 

y^kanuapkuk 14k hu'nk, tsiii sa } ii'ka, tsiii sa w41as tsi's taw4 lak ipma'- 

for dancing over the and they saug and and they a pole also setup the sticking en 

scalps danced scalps 

tsank, t4t%elam tAlaag tu'shtoks gaki'ma sd-atchuk. Tiinej)ni sa-atsa 

its top, in the midst jnst of the place where they moved scalp-dancing. Five (nights) scalp- 

in a circle ■ danced 

12 sa ni'shta, ga'tak hu'nk sa lii'luags wa'k shnu'shn6%ank shnikshii'l^a 

they all night finally them they slaves by the seizing forced to dance 

arms 

161oks wiggata 

fire close by. 

Titnd lii'ks t'shi'u spu'iitpisham; tsiiyuk giiikakji gii'nipelo. Tsiiyuk 

Some a slave grew np in the power of " " 
(other) time abductors, 



Some a slave grew np in the power of bis then escaped (and) returned. Then he 

bducti 



15 sapiya gatpampalauk, tsiii sas hu'k a'pka sayuaktant hu'k kiiihi giug. 

made d is- after getting home, and (his that man brought well acquainted this with being, 

closures tribe) country 

Tsiii gdtpa tumi' maklaks MbU'saks ^sawals tsiiils-ha'mi, tsiii gakua K6ke, 

And arrived many Rogue Rivers to the "Obsidian-Place" at salmon-time and they crossed Will am- 

i>i u River, 

tsiii giikiamna latchas. Ka'gi lifhassiiaks tiinkt ; g^na sa, uaniik A'-uksi 

:md siiiiiMiiideil the lodges. 'J'her** warrJotN (there) liad gone all of tht^ni to Klamath 

woru un that time Miu ^L 



EOGUE RIVER RAIDS. 17 

ggl^danktsiilc Ydmakisas. Tapi'ta sha gdtpa Wdlaniskni tchi'shtat. Tsui 

to bid welcome to Dea Climes Afterwards (they) came the Eogne Rivers to the camps. Then 

Eiverlndiuns. 

ne'lka: tsui sa gii'lki, at sa sen6tank. Tankt hushts6ka; tu'nipni bak 

it dawned, then they attacked, now they fonght. That time they killed (some) ; five only 

mdkleka Ni'lakskni tdnkt, tsui hii'k sa sen6tank kpu'tsampgli sas kiklo's 3 

were encamped men from Nllakshi that time, and these they fought, pnt to flight them in their 

war-fury 

hu'k tu'nepni. Kd-i hu'nk vu'sa tumd mdklaks kakakn61atk giug. 

these five men. Not they feared many Indian (foes) elkskin-cuirassed being. 

Tsiii gdtpampgli ndnuk E-ukskni' liiik, at sa baitsna Walamski'sas. 

After this returned the whole Lake tribe, now they pursued the Rogue Kivers. 

Tsui sa sliid hu'nk tu'nipnis lu'hassuaksas, tsiii sa wii'la hii'nkiast tu'nipans, 6 

And they met those five men, and they asked those five men, 

kdt liuk tdnkt Ynak'\&/,a: "tatdtuk mdklaks gdtpa?" Tsiii huk sa'gsa nu 

who ihore that time had encamped whereto the Rngne had gone? And replied I: 

Rivers 

"kd-i ni vCi'ssa; shawigank gjikd ni mu'msh tumi'." Tchui nt nd-ash gi sa- 

*'not I am afraid; in my fury start out I (oven against) a large Then I so spoke to 

number." 

walinii asli gd-u: "giikdn a na't! u'tch na'lsh bushtcho'ktgi ! gekudnapka 9 

fcUon -lighters miue: "will start out we! never us they ma.y kill. Iwillprcceecl 

mind ! 

kani!" A na't gii'ka, at na'lsh sha ngd-isha, tsiii ndt shawi'ga kd-a, 

outsiflo And wo proceeded, now us they wounded, and we became furioas very, 

(our camp).'* 

tsui ndt kpu'dsa hu'nkiash Walamskf sbash. 

and WB diuve back those Knguo liivers. 

Tsui vussd na'lsbj koka'tat gewd sa, udoddmkua sa ; tsui sa sa'ksa 12 

There- they took at us, into i he river leaped they, swam over they; and they reported 

upon fright 

nd-ast hu'ksa tu'nepni. Tsiii £-ukskni nd-asht gi: '*baitsnat sas pa'n, 

ihu (time) these five men. Then the Lake men thus said: " pursue yo them once more, 

liuslitclioktat haitsnank." Tsui sa peno'dsa, tsui ndnka gaggidha peno'- 

kiliye(ihem) pursaii;g.'* And they pursued, and some hid themselves before the 

dsasam, tiii'mishtka tsiii ndnka hdtkak ts6ka, ndnka toks ga'mpele. Ngeisatk 15 

pursiiers, by siarvaiinn ihen some light there perished, some however returned home. "Wounded 

hu'nk sa shlcshla tsokapks tcha. 

(t'U 8) thiy Ibuud dead ones also. 

Tchissa Walamskfsh st^llual titnd a. Kd-i sa tud siuka E-ukski'sas, 

In this man- the Rogue Rivera made war- atone Not they any killed Lake men, 

uer (they) fare time. 

tdiikakak siuka wewalji'ksas k'mutchdpkas tchi'sh. At gii'tak ni sdyuakta, 18 

only a low (they) old women old men too. That is all I "^ know 

kilKd 

bii'masht sii'llual A'-ukskni Walamski'sbasb ; kd-i tatd lu'luagsla A'-ukski'- 

h'lw fought the Lake tribi' against the Rogue Rivers; novpr they made slaves of the Lake 

sbasb wuini'^iank sell61ok ndnukash=kailakni, fi-ukskni pi'la lu'luagsla 

tribe conqueiing by war those from tribes all-around; the Lake men alone enslaved 

ndnukash=ki'sas gii'nta kailatat, kd-i tatd yuydlks=sitk su'ta mdklaks 21 

all siiiTuuudiug Indians in this country, never sorry=alike rendered the Indians 

A-ukski'sas. 

the Lake tribe. 

2 



18 HISTORICAL TEXTS. 

Sd-adas tsi's Moatnasas tsi's udiiyua, SastiAsh tsis Walaniski'sh tsis 

Tho Snakca too, the Pit Rivera too (they) whipped the Shnstis too, the Kogue Rivers too, 

M6keash tsi's iiduyua A'-ukskni. Waitangi'shani tsfs ti'tatna tgmeska 

tbeKolapuyas too whipped the Lake tribe. From the Warm Spriug also atvarioas took away 

luduLZis timed 

wdts E-iishkni. 

horses the Lake men. 

NOTES, 

16. Dave Hill took part himself in one of these skirmishes. His historical accounts 
are all given in tho fonvcrsational style, which almost throughout substitutes the 
simple s for sh. I ha\ c not been able to determine the exact dates of these Eogue 
River raids ; but they must have occurred before the cud of 1855, when the Oregon war 
broke out, for after its termination most of the Rogue River Indians were removed from 
their old homes to the coast reservations of Northwestern Oregon. The raids occurred 
in the early youth of Dave Hill, who was born about lS4fl; so they may be placed be- 
tween the years 1S4S and 1855. 

16, 2. tinatoks forms antithesis to tina of the preceding clause. The literal 
meaning of botli is: ''one time the other time." 

16, 3. Walamsi. The suffix -i. -i, is the adverbial particle hi, and forms a locative 
case, mainly found in local and topographical terms, as in Yamsi, Kakagosi, Ktaiwashi; 
also in a few generic nouns designating localities, encamimients, mountains, etc. 

16, 5. shflshfi'dshapelish. The suffixed -sh is the pronoun sha, they, and in this 
suffixed form also appears as -tch, -s. This verb stands in the distributive form ; 
shiidshapgli, to rebuild a tire, being the absolute form. 

16, 7. n^u;ifatcli, for uiiu/a tchisli, "others also". 

16, 10. y.'ikaiiuapkuk, verbal causative of the future of yAkna. The forms ya'kna, 
ya'ka, y^kna, y<?ka, are i)referable to yAkna, yAka. 

16, 11. sA-atsa. It is a common custom among western, and some eastern, wild 
tribes to force their captives to dance in honor of the victory gained over theii- own 
tribe. This is done especially during the scalp-dances. 

16, 11. TitnA lu'ks, etc. Here begins the account of a raid juade by the Rogue 
River Indians upon the Klamath Lake settlements. It may have occiu-red one year 
after the laid previously narrated. 

16, 15. sai>iya, etc. After escaping, he informed his own countrymen of aU the 
local conditions of the Klamath Lake people and their country, and used all his topo- 
graphical knowledge in guiding their warriors to the attack. 

17, 1 and 2. Tsui ne'lka. Indians and uncivilized races in all portions of the world 
begin their raids upon the enemy before dawn, or at the earliest appearance of daylight. 

17, 9. giikAn and gekuAnapka, inflectional metathesis for giikna and gekAuuapka. 

17, 14. liushtcho'ktat for hushtcho'kat at, at (ye) being repeated twice. 

17, 16. tsokapks tcha is a contraction from tsokApkash tchi'sh a. 

17, 17. Tchissa, for tchi sha: thus they. 

17, 20. sellolok: synizesis of the longer form shellualuk, shellualiiga : through 
fighting. 

17, 21. yuyAlk8=sitk, abbreviated from yuyAlkish = shitko, looking like persons 
mourning over their lost companions, or made sorrowful by bondage to Indians of a 
foreign tribe. 



PIT EIVEE EAIDS. 19 

£-UKSKNI SELLUAL MOATUASHASH. 

PIT RIVER INDIANS RAIDED BY KLAMATH LAKE WARRIORS. 



GiVBN BY Dave Hiix in the Klamath Lake Dialect. 



E-ukskni tftatna s^Uual Siistias ; tsiissak toks sdllual, tu'm hu'shtcho^ 

The Lake men not often warred against the continnally bow- fonght, (and) killed 

Sliaati ; ever many 

M6atuasliasli. A'-ukskni Iii'luagslats tu'm ndnuk sko'-hs. KA-i hu'k 

Pit River men. The Lake men enelav. ii also many every spring-time. Not they 

(are) 

ki'llitk, k4-a wo'sgs shliio'tak A-ukski'sas ti'nsna, ka-itat sa nelli'nat 3 

bellicose, very despondent at the mere sight of Lake men they ran away, never they scalped 

hu'stchok-huya liak sa; tu'm tdt sa husts6ka M6atuash. Kd-itata si'ukat 

killed only they: many then they killed Pit River men. Never massacred 

A-ukskisas M6atuash. 

the Lake men the Pit Rivers. 

"WAWAlIKS LUPf SH^LLXJAL MOATUlSHASH. 
DAVE HILL'S FIRST FIGHT WITH THE PIT EIVEE INDIANS. 

Kitchkdnin t^nkt nii g^na sikenitgi'k pi'la liyamnatk. Tsui nad 6 

Being a boy I that time I went asmnllpittol only eairying. And we 

fi-ukskni gelo'la p4-uk Kokdksakshi, na'sh na'ds B6shtin tu'la. Tsiii 

Lake men disraountcrt lor repast at Litile River, one with ns Aiueiican (coming). Then 

hishtclidkta hdtakt ; v/Ats mh4-uta na-a'nam ; sawfka hlshuaksh hunkdnti 

they had a contest there; (one man's) was by another became angry the man thereat 

horse woouded " (man) ; 

wdtch m'na mbf4-iitisht, tsui husht(5pakta sha I61oksgish : tchi sha hdtokt 9 

horse his having been shot, and pulled out tbey (their) gona: so they there 

geld'lank shewtitp^astka. Tsui gena, tu' pe'n mdkle^a sha, tsui sa mbu'- 

dismounted about noou-tinie. Then traveled, far again camped they, then they in the 

sant gena pa'n, tsui sa mdk'ie^a Wu'ksalks, tsiii sa pa'n gdna mbu'sant, 

mom. trav- again, and they camped at W6kas-Place, then they again went on nest morning. 

ing elled 

tsiii pti'n sa mdk'le;^a Tiuno'lsh ; gitaks p'lalkishtka sappasli. Tsui sa 12 

and again they encamped at Tiunnlsb ; then (was) near culmination thesnn. And they 

point 

kdkta, tsiii sa mu'lua li't^i, tsiii sa psfn g^na, nl'shta sha g^na 

heldEiiesta, then they made ready in the and they at night travelled, all night they wenton 

evening, 

tuklAktsnank. 

stopping at intervals. 

Tsiii mbu'sant shlad M6atuashash tchl'pksh, tsiii gu'lki nad, tchiii 15 

And next luorniug -wo saw tho Pii Kivors encaiDped, and attacked we, and 

ti'nsua M6atuash, vusso'k sas tilli'ndsa wewanuish ; tsui sa lu'luagsla. 

ran away tho Pit RiverH, frightened them thcj abandoned (their) womtn; then they (them) made 



20 JIJSTOKIOAL TEXTS. 

Na'sh ni lu'gsla snawii'ds. ShUrpopkan luitakt shan6tankslit ncl.4iuii 

One I captured femiih'. NnlicMl I tlicre piiHnged in flghtinp; llirco 

liiliassuaksh M6atuasli ; E-ukskni toks lapik. Tsui wig'db5ni sheii6tank- 

. lueu PitEiversj Lnkinidi but Iwonciu And a aliort wliile ekirisished 

■3 lii'iya shash, tsiii kii'ktsna slia, tsi'ii lio'pelitsnank /imbutat g^na; kii-idsi 

with tlu'in, tlicii fled tlM-y, and ilo(it;infi ini^silos into tlio water went; impracti- 

cable 

j'imbu lij'itakt hiuhiiiatk. "^rj^ui nisli ka-a ka'dsliika, tsui nl kaki'dsapgle, at 

llic water tlicr(» {;iviu;; way. Am\ nic ;;rcally ir Catif^ed, and I went i)y turns, 

tchui keldwi ; tii' gc^na M6atuasli k'lawfsham at. Tsiii El-ukskni gii'pgapgli 

then 1 iiiad<' ii.ilt ; away went tbe Pit Kivere wben (t-bootiu;i) Tben tbeLalvcmen returned 

bad ceased. 

(J Icalihiank tchfpkasli ■\vewanuisli, tsui sa slilaa yastat li'ukaipksh. 'J^siii sa 

looking out for tbo af-sem- women, and tbey Jbund '(tbem) in crowded. And tbey 

bled tbe willows 

shnu'shn;(;a, nii'ts nasii shnii'ka, tsiii gepgdpgli fi-ukskni M-i shash tuA 

eeized tbetu, I also one took, tben wiibdrew tbe LaUe men and of them none 

slih't, M(Satuashasli pi'la sa sfuga t4nkak. 

was sbot I'it Kivers only tbey killed u few. 

9 Nash se'gsa ti'mkt E-iikskni suko'lkipahdc. Tsiii Tiuno'leshtat mdk'lak- 

All of orduied tben tbo Lake men 1o reassemble. Then at Tiunolsh tbey camped 

us 

])ele, . tsiii sa pa'n shniksho'l;^a lu'luags hdtakt niaklaksksaksi. Tsiii 

a^^ain, and they also maiie dance eacb slave there before tbe Indians. And 

gdpgapeli sha nibiisaut, tsiii sha M6atak mAklakpele, tsiii hdtokt maklaks- 

w*iii away tbey next day. atul they at Modoc encamped, and jnat there Indians 

Lake 

12 ksaksi giiki'kak hihiags. Kd-i sa hii'iik haftchant; luiAk ta'ds mu'luapele 

<away IVoTii) lai. aw.ay captives. Not tbey tbem pursued; early however got ready j.g;.in. 

Tsiii sa guhudshktcha, tsiii sa geloia Koka'ksaks; tsiii sa sakatpampgle- 

And tboy started out. and tbey dismounted at Little River ; Iben tbey wanted to perform 

astka gi : "Kdhim malam tidsi' wdts gi, hu'k at lupi' gdtpampeh-uapk ! 

a race: "To whom of ye fleet horses are, those ye first shall return home I 

15 ksi'utakiank at genuapk!" 

taster (than we) ye travel I " 

Tsiii sa geiia, tsiii hidlual% iiAnka wdtch, ndn%atoks gdtpampgle 

Tben tbey went and pave out some horses, some others retained 

ahe:i<i, 

E-uksi li't%]. Tsiii sa tchia gdtpampgUxnk, tsiii gi-u giiikak hu'k lu'gs 

to Klamath at uiLilit- Then tbey stayed after return, then by me r.an away the slave 

Marsh fall (there) 

18 spuni'sh; na-ens ln.ssuiiksas spuni'n hu'nk. • Tsiiyuk hunkgldmskni giiikak, 

the transferred to another man I bad given her. And she irom bis lodge ran away, 

one ; 

ndn^atoks sa ^na Anipxa'ni sdsatui tdm'k wdtchat; tsiii sa i'tpa tu'm 

hut others tbey brought to tbo Dalles, traded there for horses ; and tbey brought many 

(tbem) 

wdtch hu'nk lu'gs sesatui'tkuk. 

horses those tlaves having stdd. 

21 Tsiu sdyuakta ti'na Moatiiashash selkialst E-ukskiii. 

Thus 1 kimw (bow) cuice with the l*it Rivers fought the Lake meu. 



PIT EIVEE EAIDS. 21 

WAwIlIKS TAtI' SH^LLUALSHA MOATUiSHASH. 
DAVE HILL'S SECOKD FIGHT WITH THE PIT EIVER IKDIAl^S. 
NA-antka sko'shtka nu g^na ; tilnkt nt^-ish nt I'-amnatk g^na 161oks- 

Next spring-time I set oat; then bow and I carrying started a ri- 

arrows 

gish tchish. Tu' nad mdkl6%a; tsui nAd hAtokt mu'shmusli luela, B6shtm 

fle also. Far off wo camped; and we there an ox butchered, an Ameri- 

can 

tpa-6k na'lsh hishtchaktnuk Moatiuishash. Tsiii nat shenotankakska batak. 3 

inviting ns, for he had become anpry at the Pit Rivers. Then we almost fought then'. 

N4nka tchilluk Nushalt;iagaki'shash kakno'ls tem^shka; nat hunkanti 

Some men sidius with the Headwater-Modoc.s cairasses abstracted; we thereat 

sawikank la'p nat kakno'lsh slil^t^i^. Tsui nat k4-i hii'nk sle-ipele 

getting anixry two we cuirasses took away. Anrl we not them returned 

ne-ux^lp'lish gi'ntak Mkiani E-ukski'sham ; tsui nat ma'ns=gitk sla'-ipele. 6 

the repeated orders in spite of of thu chief of the Lak*? men ; but we at last returned them. 

Hii'masht nat hdtokt makle/ank ; tchiii nat g^na mbu'sant, tchui nat 

Thus (did, acted) we there whiJe camping; then we traveled next day, and we 

tu' mdkleka Mu'atak. Tsui nat mbu'sant g^na, tsiii nat tu' m4klek' 

over camped on Modoc Lake. And we iu the morning started out, and wo over camped 

there there 

Tiuno'lsh. M6atokni ndnka sa-ulantchna, tsiii sa ksi\ile% ki'uks suawinuk 9 

at Tiunolsh. ilodocs some went with. <«s), and they danced a conjurer when exaniined 

sas kants sliudpkst: "hii sliuiipkst, tcha ma'lsh ngAtuapk na'hlis"; tsui 

them who might be shot: " if ye will be shot, ihen to ynu will snap the bowntring"; ami 

la'p ngata nd'hlis. Tsui nat mbu'sant g^na, tu' nat ati' gdna lupl' n41am 

two snapped bowstrings. Thru wo next morning siarleii far we off travelled fir^t our 

out, 

hu'nk s^llaluish guni'ta. Tsui nat waita yainatat t^lbapkank knidkok 12 

war-expedition further. Then we passed from a mountain overluoking to spy 

the day 

Moatudshash ; tcbiii nat shlaa tchi'pksh ; kiiitsant tchia ktdyat. 

the Pit Rivera; and we saw encamped; inaccessible they in rocks. 

(them) stayed 

Tsui ndd pa'ktgist gdkiamna, tsiii gii'lki; tsiii na'ts shlaA M6atuasb, 

And we at dawn surrounded, then attacked and ns discovered the Pit Rivers, 

(them); 

tsui weto'Ii lali'sbtat; kokdlam hidi palkuisb miinatfl. Hdtokt gakdyapguk 15 

and slid down the slope; of a river there tho dry bt^d deepidown. At that place enterinj; the woods 

(was) 

ndn%a M6atiiasb li'wank i-o'ta; tii'm shasb nga'-isha Moatoki'shasb, Lank= 

some Pit River men gathering shot (at ns) ; many (them) they wounded Modoc men, Long= 

Tsdnash tchish sli'ksga n%ak-ksaksi'na ; nga'-ish hu'k ngak-ksaksh 

■Tohn also they came near on head-top right there; bullet that on the head-top 

wounding 

ntl'kshtcha. Nd-ends tchish nii'sh shlin M6atokish, Tsui nat 1^ wak kd-a: 18 

grazed. Another loo in the was shot (a) Modoc man. And we (were) un- very: 

« head decided 

li'wa hu'k tu mii'na sha Igm^waliekshtat i-utlla; ndnuk w^wansni hdtokt 

were those down-bf>Iow they driftwood-henp under; all women and all there 

crowded 



22 HISTORICAL TEXTS. 

ll'-npka tii' iim'na. Tchiii ui tu' hdtokt p'li^ntant tchi'wishksaksi gi; tcliiii 

wero lumped deep below. Then I jnat there above their camping* place was ; and 

together 

iKitoktni'sh agishi': *'La'anat wdk ka-a; la' nat wAk galdsawia-a!" tsf sa, 

there I whllo stayed: "Not we know whatto not we (know) to approach cl<>6ol> !" so they 

do, how (i^aid), 

3 hdtokt ni'sh gi'shi. I'sui ni bu't^i, tsiii Idp nish ritd-isalta hu'tzipsh. Tsui 

there I wliilo was. There* I leaped then two at shot arrows as I leaped. Then 

upon down, lueu me 

ni hu'tsna tu', tsiii ni hu'tpa hihassuaksas hdtokt li-ukd-isi hdtakt tchuyunk 

I ran over and 1 reached the (Lake) men ihere collected there then 

there, running 

sen6tankasli. Tsiii ni'sh sa lawa'-ula hiVkuapksht kfi'kalam palkui'sliam; 

fighting. But mo they noi allowed to run across the river's dryboitoni; 

6 hatakt guni'gshtant nanka £-ukskni le-uptcha; sen6tank ktayat li'uptsank. 

that spot opposite some Lake men had gathered they were hght- rocks hiding behind. 

bohiiul ; ing 

Tsui nlsh ndnka: "kd-i gi; kd-i hu'tsa, shliudpka m'sh ! " tsf n's sa 

And to me a few: " I)on't do it; don't run, they will shoot you !" eo tome they 

Mtaktk. Tsiii ni: *'hu'tchanuapk" tclu ni ki', *'wik4 an' gcildsuish s4na- 

there said. Then I : "I shall rush over" eo I said, "closely I to approach I 

9 lioli" tchin lidtaktk "KA-i ki'lank pi'la 1-u'ta, til' in at ngji'-islia; u'ts 

want" thus 1 there said. "Not in quick they shoot, many are wounded ; neTor 



succession 



gint, shli'tki nush!" tsin at gi. A ni ho'tsnan at, tsiii nish kdki'ha, tsui 

mind, let them ine I" so 1 now said. Then I ran towards (them), and me they missed, and 

shoot 

hutapgno'lshi n's ndygns M6atokni slili'n pii'n niish; tsiii kdhaha shli'sham 

alter I had reached atioiher Modoc was shot also in the and ho ached tlirouj:h his 

there running head ; wtmndiug. 

12 Tsiii nat iewak na'-ul6ka, tsiii ni nd-astg: "hdggi! i'sh ktiyuiaki'at!'* 

Then we wore at a fnr arranging, and I so spoke: "lookhecel me liti up there ye ! '' 

loss 

tsf nt gi. Tsui ni'sh sha ktlwi';fi, tsiii nl ktsi'tsa, tcbui ni gfta Moatuashash 

so I Maid. And rao they placed on lop, and I crept forward, tbeu I there the Pit Rivers 

ni t^lshapka wikd li'wapksh; n4nuk nl tids shla'popka shash. Tsui ni 

I perceived clone by crowded in one all I perfectly saw (of) them. And I 

body ; well 

15 ktchigi'dsapgli tu' stildsamp6l6k sas ; tsiii ni : "ktfwal^at na-^ntch 

crept back over to report to them ; and I: "post ye op another man 

yonder 

tchkash" tchi' ni gi. Ktchi'tpamptllank shapfya sas, tchiii sa: '^w/ik 

besides" so I said. Having crept back I reported to them, and they: "how 

liaitch i gi?" tchi n'sh sa gi. Tchiii "ni ndnukash shla'shki" tchi' ni gi ; 

there is it J" so to me they said. Upon this "I nil of them can see" so I said; 

18 shapiya shash, tsiii sa ktiwi'^i na-a'nds tchkash. Tsiii nat la'p k'Ig'ka, tsiii 

I told thotn, and they lifted up another (man) too. Then we two were there, and 

nat ktsi'ktsa, tsiii nat sas tii' shlii'popk, a ni n4-asht gi: '*h4gga shla'k!" 

wo crept along, and wo them down perceived, and I so said: "let me Bhootl" 

there 

Tsiii hu'k na-as h4tokt, tu'shtuk M6atuash li'wa, ndnuk sa hu'nk nga'-is 

And to one man there, where the Pit Ilivera were all (others) to him (their) 

gal iJfered, arrows 

21 siiwdna, nd-adsiak hti'nk i-fi'ta satsl^Aniitk lu'paks. Tsiii tchiu a ni 

handed, none but he was s<<ratch-paint<Ml with chalk. And thus I now I 

Bhootin|£ 



PIT EIVER RAIDS. 23 

shl^wal 161oksgish, tsiii ni shlin hu'nk, kdt huk yu'ta, tsiii nd^wanga ; tsi 

cocked (my) gan, and I shot him, the one who was shoot- and hufell; thus 

ins, 

taiikt at nat siuga hti'nkst. 

at last we killed that fellow. 

At hu'ksa Ifwatk tu'm wdltka tdnkt. Tsui Muatokui D4n;(a tu'menatk 3 

Now they, crowded macb talked thea. And Modocs some underatood 

together, 

Moatuasam hemkanks ; tsiii bu'k tti'mena at Moatuasam waltoks. Hu'k 

of ibe Pit Rivera the language; and they understood of the Pit Rivers the discourse. They 

shapiya na'tch : ^'dtenen gakdyoluapka, nen sa skuyokayo'la wewAni- 

Qotificd ns: "presently they will get away, they send out of the bush the fe- 

shash ; na-asht nen wdltka." Tsui gakayuluk E-ukskni shishat^a 6 

maloa ; so they say " Then leaviiig the woods the Lake men picked out 

wewanuish, tsiii hu'k ki'nualk sa; nan^a liuhashtlina kaitua shnu'kuk. 

women, then went on the they; some quairelled none having obtained. 

hill 

'J'siii nuts Imm&jce: "shnu'kshtkan na'sh siwdk hu'nk ati'nsh huk lak gitk!"; 

And I too said : * ' want to get I ono girl this long hair ^ earing ! " ; 

tsiii ni'sli sha ka-i wa'-ula. Tsiii ni ka-i sam wa'walsh sblin, tsiii huk 9 

but to me they not allowed (her). Then I not they conceding shot, and sbe 

nde-ukua'lap'l ; hu'nk n'link shh'n siwdga. 

rolled down (the hillj ; tbat I killed girl. 

Tsiii tankt at hihassuaks at tinkayiila, tsiii nl shlin pa'n n^s hatakt, 

TheriMipou the (Pit River) ran out of the and I shot another <man) there, 

meu bush, 

tsiii at nd.n;fa tmiyj. Shta tok sa fi-ukskni hashdmpka; tsiii sas gawi'na 12 

when some went ui» Compactlv they the Lake men encircled (them); then thi-in rejoined 

hill. 

hu'ksa, kak at tini';{i tsa, ndanni hfhassuaks, na'sh gitsgdnits hissutikga. 

those, who just had gone (viz:) three men, one young also boy. 

up the hill, 

Tsiiyunk vu'ssa E-ukskni, tsiii hu'k Moatuash ti'n;^ansha; tu' ati yainatat 

Then were fright- the Lake men. as the Pit Rivers ran out of the cir- over-yon- to the moiin- 

ened cle ; der taina 

tushtampkank a-6ho-udtchnaj tsiii shnushn4ta. Tchiii ni nu hu'lipgli, tsiii 1.5 

coming near they halloed while run- and built fires. Thereupon I I entered again and 

iug, (the canon), 

ni hopgMusa, tsiii ni hupdkle;^a Idp-a hihassuaksas. Tsiii ni'sh hu'k 

I followed up (the and I encountered two men. And at me they 

dry creek), 

lapukantka shlatdmpk, tsiii na's tdwi, Mhhia n's ; wigga n's hu'nk kdihha, 

both at a time drew the bow, and one shot, (but) missed me; by a hair- me he missed, 

breadth 

na-aus tsi'ii shim nepni'ni nguldsh6taii, nt^-ish tchisli n;ta'wa. Tsui 18 

the other then I hit, aboatthehand latrnck (him), the how also broke. And 

man 

gutal^a huk nga'-ish t6kstala ; tsiii ndd-ul^. Nashtoks hukayapk, tsiii 

entered tho bullet in the navel ; and he fell. The other rnahed into the and 

thicket 

ti'ntpa sa E-ukskni tdnkt, tsiii sa hu'nk sfuga kdndan hu'nk shhn. Tsiii 

arrived (they) the Lake men at last, and they him killed whom I had shot. Then 

hu'k na's hukdyapk ma'ns hu'k tchakayank 1-u'ta; tsiii sa shlin tu'kni 21 

the one who went into the for some (he) sitting down was shoot- then they shot (him) from 

woods time ing ; 



24 HISTORICAL TEXTS. 

p'la'ntankni kfnshakpkank. Tsni'pal sa shlin ; n.^-iiiis slilfn, hii'k tcbakd- 

the hill-top poiniiDg guus downward. lu tho they Bliot (hioi) ; aiiotlit-r be bad be wfao eiititig Id 

eboulder (Lake) man ubut, was tbu 

yan, wa'k E-iikski'shas. 

wouds, ill the a Lake man. 

arm 

3 Tsui Tiat at gii'tak, a n4t sukii'lkipT tii'shtok spukd shli'tk K-ukskni. 

After this we ceased (fi:;htiiis), and wo reasttciubled where lay a wouuded L.ike man. 

Natak hii'nk hi'shlan M6atnasliash ksdpok ; hiki nofii'mslika ngii'-isli luVk. 

Our.selve? him wp shot at aPitKiverman thiukiuj: (bitii (bin) bad tiaituied' bullet the. 

each titbcr, to bi) ; foitbcad 

Tsiii nat watsat shuta'la md-i sku'lliash pet; tsui nat ksa'lapk liii'nk Klilipks; 

Then we npon a prepared a tule-mut auibulauce-bed; and wo lined inlf (it) that wnm.did 

horbO in., ii; 

6 kayuds huk klii'kat. Tsiii nat giihashktcha she\vat;ju'lsi; tsui nat gii'-una 

iioyet he bad died. And we started out in the alteruMon ; and we t-lowly 

gena Im'nk nga'-iKsapksh ii'nok ndanna : nas nu'sh .slili'tk Moatokni 

went on th •se woiiudi^d carrying three (ineu): oue in the bo. id wounded a A1«mIo.; 

nga'-ishtka, hdslitoks wa'k slili'tk hu'mtsantkak, ndshtoks hu'k Iiiluksgii/- 

by an arrow, another in the shot in the same luanuer another one tbia wiib a 

arm was, 

9 ishtka, k/inda nat hu'nk wdtsat shutii'lank ji'na. Tchiii nat mak'lakp'l' 

t!;uu, whom we upon a horse imbedding brouj^ht. Ahd we cauijied on ».ur 

ruiurn trip 

lii'uliiush t;{iilamta. 

of Ibe marsh westward. 

Tsiiyuk pa'ktgish lu'pia wdnga; tchui nat mbu'sant at ksi'utakiank 

Thcii ibey daylight before died ; and we in the eaily now faet-gting 

hours 

12 gepgapele, Idp'ni hak gdtpampele E-uksi. Na'sh nat luitaktak k6kelam 

reinrnnl, in two from we returned to Klamath Ooe we right there of ti\i r 

days there Marsh. 

ntu'ldsanuisli wig4ta gawal hissuaks; tsu'tskam snu'lash sakalal5'nank 

the dry bottom close by foand a man ; sqnirrel's a hole having covered up 

ksliu'sha taludl%an. Kabat%o'le sa, tclnii wtJtta lilssuaks kabat;{o'lshain; 

h"' layinsido lying on back. Uncovered they then laughed the niaa while tbt-y untaitbed 

(hinii), him J 

15 tsui sa shpi'tkal, tsiii sa spu'nshna wikahak; tsiii sa ndnka A'-ukskni 

and they raised (bim) and they took (him) toaehortdis- then some Lake men 

np, tance; 

lugsalsbtkak, nAn^a siukstkak (la'witchta slia mu'ns lu'gsalsh), ni:in;<a 

make a slave wanted, some wanted tokill (not wanted tboy an adult toensla\e). alew(wtre) 

man 

nia'sa n;it stainas hishla-uk. Tchi nan;^a gi'ank siukslitka; tchui sa siuka, 

f'or.owful (of) at heart to have shot at Thus some saying wanted to kill and they killed, 

us companions. (bim); 

18 at kl^ka hiik. Wak tchihuk pa'tcb gitk! stikshui-shitk hu'k tuti'la stdkelins- 

and died ho. How so (curious) he feet badl boot^hke they projected al the 

ksaksi. Tsissa hii'nk hatokt tdnktg n4t hii'nk tatatgnat suko'lkip'l spu'ks- 

beel. Thus thej' at that when wo that time we formed a crowd where the 

place 

ksaksi, tankt sa hu'nk giiwal kikaskankatk. 

ni.-in lay, then they that (Pit River man) while walking about. 

found 

21 Tsi ni tamSno'tka tin/i tapi' a ni tchui tdnkskni kd-itata ge'nt 

Thas I was ont there once for the I from that time never went 

iMt time, 



PIT RIVER RAIDS. 25 

selludlshuk. Nddnnitaksni tamgno'tka; tind nat kdyak shen6tankatk, 

fighting. Three timea I was there; once we not at nil were fightinp, 

kinkdk i nat liiluagsla. Tchfn at nat at ga'tak nddni tdmgnotk. 

few only there wo enslaved. So I, when we qnit {fighting), three times had been there, 

NOTES. 

19. The long and fertile valley of the Pit River, an eastern affluent of the Sacra- 
mento River, is inhabited by several tribes of Indians who speak dialects of the same 
language family. Of llie peculiarities of these tribes, Stephen Powers has given the 
first comprehensive sketch in the Overland Monthly, 1874, pp. 412-416, and in Contribu- 
tions to North American Ethnology, vol. Ill, pji. 207-274. The various tribes greatly 
difler in their physical and mental qualities. The Pacamallies, on Hat Creek, at the 
lower end of the valley, were much dreaded by peaceable travellers on account of theii- 
sudden attacks from an ambush. The Indians in Big Valley are a fleshy, stout, and 
physically well-made people, while the Hot Spring Valley people has become deterio- 
rated through jirolonged national misfortune. Against both of these the slaving raids 
of the Klamaths and Modocs were mainly directed. 

19, 2. The raids were undertaken by the Klamaths and Modocs just before wokash- 
time; that is, in April and May. They had no other purpose than to make slaves of 
the females and children of the unwarlike, poor, and sufliering Pit River Indians, and 
to keep them either at their homes o:' sell them for ponies, provisions, beads, etc., at the 
Dalles to the Columbia River tribes. Adult men were not enslaved, but killed outright 
if captm-ed. Similar instances of suppression of weaker tribes of the West by war- 
like Indians who were theii- neighbors are those of the Kayuses on Middle Columbia 
River, of the Yuki between Sacramento River and the Pacific Ocean, of the Hupa on 
Trinity River, Cal., all of whom were, at the advent of the whites, the terror of the 
districts surrounding their homes. 

19, 3. shliiotak for shlaiita ak ; the Pit Rivers ran away at the mere sight of the 
Klamath men ; kd-i tata siukat, the Pit Rivers never killed any Klamath men. Both 
statements are exaggerations; Hill's ovm account and Toby Riddle's biographic notice 
tend to i^rove the contrary. 

19, 3. nellinat, or iieli'nat. When they had killed an enemy, they did not follow 
the custom of the Oregonians of taking the scalij. This custom is not found among 
any of the Central Califoriiiau tribes. 

19, 4. hu'stchok-huya ; by the sufQx huya, -uya, the action of the verb is shown to 
take place at intervals, or in a small degree. "They did only little damage by killing 
or massacring." Of. shenotank-huya, 20, 2, and -uya in the "List of SufiQxes". 

19, 4. tu'm tat sa. Change of the subjects iuti'oduced by the pronoun sha, sa, in 
consecutive sentences, is sometimes observed, as here and in 19, 16 ; 20, 3. Hill often 
uses sha when speaking of the Klamath Lake men, where nat, we, woidd be more 
appropriate. 

19, 6. Kitclikanin nu for kitchkiini nft (or ni) nu. Pronouns and particles are 
repeated quite frequently. 

19, 11. Wuksalks is a camping-place distant about six miles from LinkviUe. It 
was not possible for me to obtain definite information about the trail followed most 
generally in those rai(Ls, but Dave Hill said that from there they went due south. He 



2(j niSToincAL tioxts. 

was boru about the year 1840, and since lie was a boy then, carrying only a i)istol, this 
raid may have taken place abont the year 185S. His second raid, which was nnder- 
taken the yeai' afterward, was made when he was nearly twenty years old. After this 
he stayed live years in Oregon City, on the Lower M^ilKimet River. 

19, 1(>, and 20, 1. What is said here up to the word snawii'ds is evidently au anti- 
cipation of what follows in 20, 6. 7. 

19, 16. sas tilllndsa, or shash tilindsha: shash is api)ositiou to w6waimish, which 
stands here, as frequently, for wewauuishash; 23, 5, we find : wewAnlshash. 

20, 2. lapik for hipi gi: " two are, two were." 

20, !). Tiuno'lcshtat. The distance between Klamath Marsh and the Pit Eiver 
country was estimated at three days' Indian travel; but it often took four days to I'each 
there on liorseback. 

20, 10 and 11. maklaksksaksi refers to the encampment and immediate surround- 
ings of the Indian captors, the KJamath Lake men and the Modocs, wlio had gone with 
thenj. 

20, 13. guhuashktcha. They seem to have; returned home over the sauu' trail 
which they had followed in going south. They pas.sed between Little Klamath and 
Ilhett Lake, which latter is also called Tule and Modoc Lake. 

20, 17. tsiii ge-u, etc. This sentence has to Ije construed as follows: tsiii gi'nkaka 
lu'i'k lii'gs spunish ge-u: "hereupon that slave, transfeired by me, ran away." 

21, 2 and 3. Boshtin tpaok. This man was an American settler on Lost Eiver, 
w ho, with other settlers, had lu'eviously attacked otu' of the Pit Eiver triVies, in punish- 
ment for depredations eomniitted. In the light which took place, sonic whites were 
killed by the Pit Elvers, and this prompted the abovementioned settler to slaughter an 
ox for the Lake men, in order to raise their .spirits for deadly revenge on the common 
enemy. The beef was slaughtered and eaten at his farm. 

21, 5. Tsiii uat, etc. This incident was explained to me by Dave Hill, as follows: 
The famous Captain George was at that time war-chief both of the Klainaths and the 
Modocs. He had ordered Kiukamtch, the head-man of the Nuslialtkaga=Modocs, to 
Join the expedition against the Pit Elvers. His refusal to go prompted Dave Hill 
and others to deprive him of his elk-skin euiras.ses; but finally, to secure success to 
the expedition, the parfleshes were returned to their owners. 

21, 7. Humasht nat. A verb like gi or .slu'ita has to be supplied. 

21, 12. sellaluish, translated here by "war-expedition", still retains its verbal 
nature ; for it is connected with two temporal adverbs : lupi' and hunk. More circiun- 
•stantially the sentence can be rendered: "we rode far beyond the terminal point of 
our previous raiding campaign." 

21. 18. lewak, a verb composed of two particles. G6tak and kduktak, formed 
almost in the same manner, are also used as verbs. Below, 16wak is separated into 
its two components by a pronoun : lii nat w<4k kaYi ; lii' nat w^dc galdsawi^-a. 

21. 19. w6wansni. The terminal -ni turns the w^wauuish into a kind of adjectival 
phrase. See the peculiar use made of this ending in the Dictionary and in the Grammar. 

22,8. h^itaktk. The final k is the verb gi, Id, "said"; tchin hdtaktk is: tchi nu 
hiitakt gi. 

22, 21. shatchl;fdmia is one of the various modes of painting face and body in use 
among the western Indians. White paint was put on in this manner (see Dictionary) 
only when the Indians were on the "war-path. From the same verbal base is deiived 



PIT RTVBR RAIDS. 27 

shatcholgi, to contiact the half-opened hand or fingers. Compare also: shat;^a'dsha, 
sliatuap^a, shatfilakish. 

23, 6. gakayfiluk refers to the women, not to the Klamath men. These latter 
retired with the captured females to the top of a hill, to secure themselves better against 
further hostile attacks. shishat;^a, distributive form of shiat;fa. 

23, 11. tinkayula. The Pit River meu ran out of the timber to flee from further 
attacks, and some ran up the steep bank from the dryri v er bed. While they did so, the 
Lake men surrounded them and i;oni)>leteIy closed the circle (shtA hashdmpka). Never- 
theless, some of them managed to break through the intervals ; this frightened the 
Klamath men, and then the other Pit Rivers also escaped towai'ds the hills. 

23, 12-14. The tliree men and the boy who went up the hill belonged to the Pit 
Rivers. The Klamath Lake warriors were so surprised at their sudden return to their 
surrounded companions, that tlie Pit Riveis had an opportunity to escape during the 
confusion. 

24, 4. N6tak. The sentence has to be construed : ndtak hishlan Im'uk, Moatua- 
shash hu'nk ksdpok. "None others but ourselves shot at him; though he was one of 
our men, we thought him to be a Pit River man ". 

24, 4. Mki. He had been shot in the eye-bone. 

24, 6. kla'kat stands for klii'ka at ; cf. 28, 12. gatpant for gatpna at. 

24, 6. shewat;^u'lsi : for shewatp^o'lash i, or shewat;ifO'lish i; the i appearing here 
not as a local, but as a temporal case-suffix. shewat;^a, )won; lit.: the day divides 
itself in two; shewat/o'la, affernoon, the day has divided itself iu two a while ago. 

24, 8. luluksgii'-ish, uncommon form for hiluksgish. loloksgish, rifl/?, gun, lit. "fire- 
maker". 

24, 17. siukshtka stands for the full form siukshtka gi. 

24, 18. tuti'la. By inadvertence the distributive form is used here instead of the 
absolute form tuila, for the Pit River man spoken of liad an aljnormal fleshy excres- 
cence on one foot only. 

25, 1. sh6Ilualshuk : he means fighting with the Pit River Indians. 
25, 1. ndannitaksni, incomplete grammatic form for ndannitankshni. 
25, 2. kinka-ak i, only a few; meaning females of the Pit River tribes. 



BUREAU OF ETHNOLOGY 

1891 . 

LIBRARY. 



28 HISTORICAL TEXTS. 

£-UKSNI SilLLUAL SAtaS. 

HOW THE LAKE MEN F0UGH1' THE SNAKE INDIANS. 



Given by Dave Hill in tui-; Klamath I.aivk Dialect. 



Lupf s^LLUAL. THE FIRST FIGHT. 
Sa't gdtpa tind tii fi-uksl; K6ketat sUi4 wewauuish E-ukski'sas 

Snake went once over to Klamath on William- t bey saw females of tbe Lake tribe 

Indians Marsb ; sou River 

vu'nshatk g^pkapsh. Tcliui sdkatlank ge^pka wewaniifshash niAk'lakuapkst; 

in canoes approaching. Then going along they came {waiting till) the had gone to their e.imp; 

tbe trail up women 

3 tsui mcik'leka w^wanuish, tsiii hdtakt gdtpa Sa't, tsiii ngii'-isa w^waliiks 

then went to camp the women, ;ind near (them) <-:ime the and wounded the old women 

Snakes, 

pl'la. Tdnkt A'-ukskni, hiiktoks hfssuaks g^pka, k'lewidshdpka luela giug 

only. That lime the Lake tribe, (wiien) these (hostile) men arrived, had gone away for kilHog 

kia'm. 

fish. 

g Tsui at hushts6z hiVnk wewala'ksas Sa't, tcluu gampgle ; tdnktak 

And massacred thoae aged femalea the Snake then returned ; pretty soon 

men. 

tchui A'-ukskni hiliassuaks gasdktsna. Tsui mdk'lex Mk Sa't lakf N%itsa= 

after this the Lake tbe men pursued. And encamped that Snake chief Dried- 

Tsu'ks (na'sht liu'k sesatk Sa't laki kilu's); tsiii Ill-ukskni sla4 mAk'le^apks. 

Leg (so be was Snake (the) cbief-bero) ; then the Lake men espied him to be encMuiped. 

called 

9 Tsui gu'lgi sha, tsiii tl'nsna Sa't, tsiii siuka hu'nk N;^its4-Tsu'ksas Sa'tas 

Then charged they, and r.in away the and they killed him Dried-Leg the Snake 

Snakes, 

lAkias. Tcbiii nanka Sa't gampele, nduX'^^toks hii'shtchok. 

leader. Upon this soni« Snake went home, but others were killed. 

men 

Tchl s^Uual tltnd Sha'tasb. Kpudsdmpeli slia hu'nk Sa'tas, tchiii 

Thus they fought one time tbe Snakes. Drove back they those Snakes, and 

12 ka-itata gdtpant Sha't; at vushd E-ukskl'shash. 

never again came tbe Snakes; (for) they the Lake tribe. 

feared 

LfJ'LDATKtSH B6SHTINASH t6'LA SHEN6tANKA ShItASH. 

DAVE HILL FIGHTS THE SNAKE IKDIANS ON THE SIDE OF THE 

AMERICANS. 

Shiiilka na'lsh k4-ag Mr. Huntington; Sd-atas i'tpa Moadoki'sh tchish 

Collected ns long ago Mr. Huntiniiton : the Snakes bo the Mo^loc.•^ alho, 

hrongbt, 

na'lsh tchl'sb I'tpa gl'ta, tchiii tchiA nat na'dsag Tchiii ti'na ill61olatk 

us likuwi^e he here, thou lived we in one opot. Then one yftar-«lap»ed 

brought 



FIGHT8 ^v^^H snake i>a)UNS. 29 

Sha't guikak. Hu'k lapi lalaki : Sa't na-as Tchatchdktchaksh na-asht 

the went away There two chiefs: Snnke one TcbatchAktchaksh 80 

Snakes ' (were) lurtu 

sesatk, na'sh tchtg: Panama tchi' s^satk. Tchiii so'ldshas shawiga, tsiii 

ii»iDe(l, one (man) besides: PaDolna so named. Upon this the military was aroused, and 

gena; tu' Spa-ish Valley gatpa sho'lsash hu'k, tsiii sakem4wank hdtokt 3 

set out; far off to Surprise Valley luarcbod tbe sfliliors. and rendez-vouaing there 

mii'lua ; la'p m^poks gdna sbu'ldshash ; ua'sh Lieutenant Oatman nd-asht 

;:i>t ready; two companies went {of ) soldiers; one Lient. Oatiuan thus 

sliL'sliatk laki sliu'ldshash, na'sh tcliik Lieutenant Small na-asht sh^shatk 

named (was) chief of soldiers, one besides Lieut. Small thus named (was) 

laki shuldshasli. Tu' nat talaaks yamtltal geua. 6 

chief of soldiers. (From) we ^traijrht northwards proceeded, 

there 

Tsiii nat ^-ushtat gdluandsa, tsiii nats shla'pka Sha't; ki'lilks shla4; 

Then we a lake went around. and us noticed tbe^'nftke8; the dust they per- 

ceive<l ; 

tchiii yainatal kakolakpka, nan/a e-ushtat ga'-upkapk (Warner Lake, tchi 

then Warner Ridge we climbed, some ihroagb the waded (Warner Lake, so 

liike 

huk na'sh hii'k sesatk ^-us). Tchiii Camp Warner mak'lgk tina nat waita; 9 

ib;ir one named lake). Then nt Camp "Warner camped one we day and 

on*' (wns) night ; 

tsiii nat guhashktcha talaat t^alamtftal. Tchiii nat telo'll *'Tchdwam 

thtn we started out directly towards west. And we looked down " Antilope's 

Stu'"j tchihuk s^satk kaila; tsiii nat lapl gulfndsa (skuyii'i natch hu'k 

Trail", so this named (is) locality; then two of us went d rwn (detached us the 

(into it) (two) 

lalaki), tsiii shna'-uldsha nat. Tchiii nat talo'li; galo'la nat k'makudpkuk 12 

ciiiiim.ind- and galloped off we And we scouted ; dismonnted we to reconnaitre 

ere), 

Satas m4klaksas, tsiii nat wawapk k'makka nat, tsiii nia/ntsag gi'tk la'pi 

I he Snake Indians, and we sat down (and) spied we, then shortly afterwards two 

Sa't tu'kni gepgapele : kokagtalkni g^pgapT. Tsiii tilo'dshipk nat, tsiii 

Snake from a returned: over a rivulet they came hack. And saw them coming we. then 

men distance 

talaak guti'lapkap'li nats; tsiii nat wal'hha kawalia'kuapk sa'-ug. Tchiii 1,5 

towa'ds they descended wnile us; and we watched they would ascend believing. But 

(us) rounding a bill (them) 

ka-i gawalia'ga, hi'tok tu' gatpampgle tchi'-ishtat m'na; nat ma'nts-gi'tk 

not they came up, but from away they returned to rarop theirs: we after a while 

there 

ga'lapgapgle shtilshampeli-uapkuk. Tsiii nat ga'mpeli, tsiii na'ts gaya- 

rode back to report again. When we came back. (in frouti ' bad 

of ue 

itsampk shu'ldshash huk, liipiak nats gal^algi'pka. 18 

advanced the military, bet'oie we bad fully descended 

from the hill. 

Tsiii tu'=hak nAts a g^pksi at shla'pka, tsiii tassuipk, tsiii ktaftal 

Then a long way when we came down they saw (♦hi- ami ch>iri:ed (tbeml, and to the rocks 

behind (the Snakes), 

soldiers) 

ti'nshampk Sa-at huk. San6tanksi nat sash gatpa, tsiii tu' shlikshgan's 

scampered off the Snakes At the moment of we them reached, and nearly shot me 

fighting (the soldiers) 

a Sa't. Tu'taks huk sho'ldshash nannk ga-61eka kpu'l;^nk Sa'tas; li-mfl= 21 

the Far up th*j soldiers .-ill climbed np to dislodge the Snakes; the packer 

Snakes. 



oO . JITSTORICAT, TEXTS. 

mjin pi'la ydna shlAka watch hu'nk. Tsui sa sen6tank; w^tch na'sli liatakt 

of nnny alouc below gnnrilcd horses {theiia). Now tbey fought; horso a sin(;lo over ilictt. 

bnggnpo 

tkc'ilamna, tsiii na'sh £-ukskni shnuktsdstkak hu'nk wdtch. Tyi'ii iii 

stood oil a hill, when one Lake man started to catch that hi rse. And I 

3 lev.'t'-ula: " shh-uapkdm'sh sha, liukAyank a 1-u'ta!" tchfn gi ; "hui'ya!" 

tried tu dissuade "will shoot yon they, lying in ambnsh they are sol said; "don'tVol" 

(lilui): " tiring!" 

iia'st 111 hemkaiik : " huiya ! " Tsiii oc'ua ki'llikankank, tsiii Sa't huk tdwi 

s" I spoke: "don't }jo!" And he went spredinj; oft; and the at him fired 

Snakes 

gatpaiikshkslii liu'iik \v;its. Tsui kadsukb;aksina lii'kshktsa ga -ish hii'k. 

when ho had almost the horfc And right on the clnii took (his) skin off bullet that, 

reached 

6 Tsui nat ka-i hii'nk snvi'kat watch liunk ; tsi'ii lulk Sa't ti'nsna kdt hii'k 

And we not eaiij^ht horse that; and the Snakes ran away who him 

shli'kshgii. T.si'ii nat kpu'laktsa tu' ati ga-u'l^a; luiiiuk hiik Sa't gdktsui 

bad almost slol. 'llien we piiisued (Ibem hi:rli iiji we ascended ; all the Snakes went into 

and) (ill the hills) 

wali'shtat, kii'mets hiitakt guli' tu'nii lifhassuaks. Tsiii hatokt gi'ank 

the rock-elifts, the caves also theie entered many men. And in there staying 

9 sawi'kn liiik Sa't, suashuiila sa hiViik kta-i, tsdi vu'ssa shu'ldshash. At 

became the Snakes, (and) piled iiji ilie> rock.s, and became the troops. Then 

angry afraid 

yaiia ti'l%a shdppash, tsui nat gc'iupcle. 

down- inclined the sun, and we returned 

wards (to caDiii). 

Kayaktsna shuklsliasli wt'wanuish; u-i'tsna sha, tsiii nu shlaa 

I'ursued the soldiers women; tlie\ iiiarehed in front file, then I perceived 

12 liissuiikshas ktayat tsiiti'la. Mii'ni kii'lo ]i;itakt tiiya; hiinkant tsig 

a man theiocks iiiiderue.Tt li. A tall juniiier tree there stood below ; againstit then 

ts'hdlamnank layijik hl'luksgislitka. Tsiii iide-ul;fan shlii-dnk hfi'nkt layi- 

sitting close he poirted with liis ^ini. And 1 lid. me fall seeing him point- 

tat nie) 

pakst, tsui ni si'ktsaslan wikii ; tsui lii slili'wal nanuyank t/;a'l;^a; tclu'ii 

mg, and I crawled aside aljtile: and 1 cocked making ready (and) stood up; and 

15 iii'sh les'ma ge'tal ta'ds, lavipk tiVshtal lupi' shla-o'lan's. Tsiii ni shli'n ; 

me he did not at that he where at first he had seen nie. Then T fired; 

see spot. pnillled 

patu 11 slili'n, tsiii ndewaiika ; tsiii ni ho'txo, tsiii ni pii'n shlin nu'sh 

in the 1 hit (him), ami lie fell ; then I sprang to- and I again shot (him) in the 

cheek wards (bim), head 

sikeni'tkstka. Tsiii so'ldshash ti'utpa, tsiii neli'na iiii, tsiii kui;^au Sa'tas 

with a pistol- Then the -soldiers arrived, and scalped I and recognized Snake 

(him), I man 

18 hii'iik, Ivandan hu'nk shi'iiga. Gitakni hii'k P'laikni ; E-ukskishash 

that, whoiii 1 had kilUd. Hailing he from Spragne to a Klamath Lake 

Kiver; (woman) 

mbushcahk ; na-aslit hu'k shesatk Ldpa=Kiu=gi'tk ; tchihuk shc'satk. At 

he was married : so he (was) Two-Rumps- having; thus he (was) Now 

eaWed named. 

nat neli'nulank at gempchi mak'hiktsuk, at ti'nnaga. Tsiii nat niak'lex; 

we having done scalp- returned for encanipiug, and (the sun) was Tliea wo c;iiiipi'd: 

ing (him) setting. 

21 k6kag luitakt tii'nsna, safgataks lidtokt kl ; hii'nkant tchi'k hu'k kokdg 

a brook then- ffoe runuin;; ii prairk- ii;;lit tbr-ro was; tlironEjhlt then tbft(. sireiim 

i)y. 



riGEITS WITH SNAKE INDIANS. 31 

tu'ns%ant.sii yashaltk. Tchixi kissa'mi slul'dsha Sa't; tii' wali'sh i-utlla 

was rimniiig aHuided wiih Then at nightfall made a fire thx thern (he cliffs below 

wiUowa. Snakos; 

tu'shtuk ku'mme. Mii' ska t4nkt sla'wi ; tsui psiii gatpa Sa't i-uta. 

there (was) a cavo. Very cold that time (the wind) and in the came the (and) fired. 

lilew ; night Snakea 

Tsui sliuldshash vu'ssa, tsiii iiat nui'lua, a ivat guhuayhktsa, psinak 3 

And 1 he soldiers took fright, and wo got ready, and we marched, the same 

night 

mu'atau nat g^na ; nislitd nat g^na Tu' nat yaiuatat pa'ktgi, tsu'i nat 

aouthward.s wo went; the whole we marched. Yax we on the moun- were at then we 

ni ght away tains dawn, 

ni'lka. 

Stopped ihere 

in the early hours. 

Lii'luagslash tankt lapksapt w^wauuish; ana nat hu'nk, tsiii nat pan 6 

They enslaved that time seven women ; brouj;ht we those, then we again 

iTi4k'lex Nii'wapksli yamakstan ga'dsa t;tdlamna. Tsui kok4g h4takt 

encamped from Goose La ko rorthsidenf a little to the west. And a hrook there 

tu'nsna; tsui psin gatpa Sa't, tsui k4-i nat k^ktant ; nfshta nat k4-i 

isiuuuing; and at nitjlit came the and not we plept; all night we not 

Snakes, 

kdktant. Tsui mbusant pan g4tpa Sa't; yaina-ag kuita nats huk tu pka, 9 

slept. And next morning again carao the a hillock back of iis stood, 

Snakes; 

tsui hatakt li'wal Sa't, tsui kaki"hha sho'ldshash ; ati hu'nk kaki"hha. 

ai]d there gathered the and missed (them) the soldiers; by a them they missed. 

Snakes, long way 

Tsui nat watsatka taluak-huya; tsui gdya-a na'ts hu'k Sa't. Mbusant 

Then we on horseback rode after them ; and were hiding before us the Snakes. Inthemorung 

nat gepgap'li ; at gii'tak Satas slaa, tsui nat gdtpampele. Tsui shu'ldsbasli 12 

we returned; no longer any found and we went back home. And the military 

Snakes we, 

liu'k shiiwana wewan'sh na'ls hu'lik, Sa'tas wats tchisb la'p. A nat gat- 
gave women to us those, of the Snake horses also two. Then we re- 
tribe 

])anip<5le gi'ta E-ukdk; hiVktoks Lieutenant Small tu' sbipi'tk Na wapksh 

turnetl here to Fort Kla- but he Lieut. Small over separated Goose Lake 

math; there 

guni'gstant ge'mpaluk Spa-isb Valleytdla. La'p Sdtas w(iwanuish a/na. 15 

opposite for returning to Surprise Valley. Two Snake females betook 

with him. 

NOTES. 

28. The various bands of Snake Indians inhabiting Oregon east of the Cascade 
Mountains are gaining their sustenance chiefly by the chase. This accounts for their 
constant ■wanderings and ubiquitous presence sometimes at Cami) Harney, or the 
Owyhee and Snake Eiver, at othei- times near Warner Lalie, or the Klamath Marsh. 

The date of this raid could not be determined ; it may have preceded the fight 
related below by ten or twenty years. 

28, 1. fi-uksi, "to Klamath Marsh"; on Williamson Itiver (Koke), which forms 
the outlet of the Marsh, the Snakes saw women of the Lake tribe crossing or passing 
<lowii the livtT in theii' dug out canoes, which they use for gathering wokash (the seed 
of th(^ pond-lily) on the Mai'sh. 



32 HISTORICAL TEXTS. 

28, 2. g^pkapsb, formed by syllabic elision from gepk^pkash ; cf. 29, 19. 

28, 2. sdkatla, to come up, to arrive by the frail. 

28, 3 and 1. T\(5\v;:liiks pi'hi, the old v. oiuen only ; the younger ones, on whom priu- 
ciixilly devolves the work of wokash-gathering, found time to escajx- in their canoes 
from the raiders. 

28, 4. k'lewidsh.''ipka. The men had gone fishing to distant places, leaving their 
females in tlie camp, not apprehensixc of any hostile attack. 

28, 8. kilo's, or kilii's, is the epithet given to "Dry-Leg", the Snake chief; it means 
a bold lighter, leader of a fighting band; literally: "irate, wrathful", and may be here 
taken as an equivalenf (o "war-chief" (sessalolish laki). 

28, 1. '5. Moadoki'sh, apocopated for IMoadokisliash ; also 28, 1: wcwanuish {\\6- 
wau'sh) for wewanuishash (shliiA gi^pkapsb). Na'lsh tchi'sh, its also; that is, we of the 
Klamath Lake tribe, were gatliered by Mr. Perit Huntington into one district, the newly 
established Klamath Reservation. A large nundjyer of the Lake People were then .>;cat- 
tered about Klamath Marsh, which is visited by them now in snumier only for lishing, 
gathei-ing wokash and berries, and for hunting. 

28, 14. Dave Hill, now interpreter (luldatkish) at the Klamath Lake Agency, took 
a part in this short but interesting expedition, in the capacity of an Indian scout. He 
fixes himself tlie date of it by the words "tina illololatko", or a full year after the 
Indians had been gathered on tlie Reservation by ]\Ir. Perit Huntington. The treaty 
was concluded on October 14, 1S64, and (he campaign was undertaken in 180G by a small 
body of American troops for the purpose of bringing back to the Reservation a band 
of Snake Indiaiis who had run away from it. This unruly tribe, jealous of its former 
independence, has left the Reservation even since then, and could only after much 
exertion be induced to return. The fights took iilace west of Warner Lake, and north 
of the border-line between California; and Nevada, within the former haunts of these 
westei-n Shoshouis. 

The Report of the Acting Commissioner of Indian Affairs for 1807, page !)!) sq., 
mentions this expedition in the following laconic terms: "October 27, 1800, troops 
consisting of 21 men. First Oregon infantry, and five Indian Klamath s(;outs, luider 
Lieutenant Oatman, and 27 men, First Oregon cavaby, under Lieutenant Small, had a 
fight with a band of hostile Snake Indians near Lake Abbott [should read: Abert], in 
the Klamath country. Southern Oregon. The Indians had so chosen their position 
that the troops were obliged to dismount to attack them. The fight lasted one and a 
half hour, and 14 Indians were killed and many wounded." 

On page 100 of the same Report, another fight against Snake Indians is spoken of: 
"Late in November, 1800, in a confiict between the troojis and Snake Indians near 
Fort Klamath, 10 Snake Indians were killed by the troops, and three more by the 
friendly Klamath and Moadocs who accompanied them." This may have been the same 
fight as the one above, reported with much less accuracy of detail. 

29, 3. Spaish Valley, name corrujjted from Surprise Valley. This ^'alley is situated 
in the northeastern angle of (Jalifornia, and on the shore of its two alkali lakes several 
American settlements have sprung uj). A few Snake Indians live peaceably around 
Fort l>idwell, which is located at the northein extremity of the valley. 

29, 10. talaat t/alamti'tal,consonantic assimilation for talaak t;^alamti'tal, dui' west.. 
29, 17 and lit. mVts, natch, for na'ls, na'lsh, na'lasb, us; n^.ts a gepksi, for ua'lash 
a g6pkash i. 



THE MODOC WAR. 33 

29, 17 and 18. gay^-itsampk. The advance of the troops was ordered in conse- 
quence of Hill's report that Snake Indians had been seen by him and his fellow-scout. 

29, 19. tu'=hak; hak means: on this side of something or somebody, referring to an 
object located between the speaker and something more distant. 

29, 19 and 20. shla'pka (for shla'apka) and tiissuipk (for tassui-apk) "they saw and 
attacked them in Hill's absence"; tinshampk " they scampered off unseen by Hill". If 
the simplex verbal forms shlii'a, tdssui (or t^shui), tinshna were used, they would imply 
that HUl then saw the Snake Indians himself, that he was among the troops charging 
them, and that he had seen them in person scampering off. 

30, 3. lewd-ula really means : not to permit, not to allow, to forbid. 
30, .3. tchin gi, short for tchi ni gi: "so I said." 

30, 5. Instead of gatpAnkshkshi coidd also stand in the text : gatpauuapkshi ; the 
final -i being used in a temporal sense in both terms. 

30, 8. ku'mets, contr. from ku'mme tchish, or from ku'metat tchlsh. 

30, 9. suashuala, etc. They piled up rocks to serve them as barricades to shoot 
from behind. 

30, 11. u-i'tsna, distributive form of 6-itchna ; see Dictionary. 

31, 7. Na'wapksh, etc. Transcribed into the fidler and more explicit granimatic 
forms, this phrase would read: Na'wapkash yamakishtana k^tcha t;f^lanina, "to the 
northwest of Goose Lake." For Na'wapksh, N^-uapksh, see Dictionary. 

31, 13. This campaign terminated in a decided ^^ctory over the runaway Snake 
warriors, but failed to accomplish its real purjjose of bringing them back to the 
Reserve. Nevertheless, these Indians had been severely chastised by losing quite 
a number of men killed and wounded, and seveu women of their tribe captured by the 
military. 



Mo'dokni Maklaks shellual. 
THE MODOC WAR. 



Obtained from the Riddle Family in the Modoc Dialect. 



Sli41am 1869 A. B. Meacbam shuashuldliampkish ndnuk mdklakshash 

In the aa- of 1869 A. B. Meacham the enperintendont over all Indians 

tumn 

shualaliampka T;(alamtala; Modoki'shash hushtanka ne-ul^ksbgishi Koke- 

kept watch in Oregon ; the Modocs he met at the conncil-gronnd on Lost 

tat wigatan tchussni'nish sl4nkosh; nush suawedshash g^-u tiila shatgla 3 

River near the Natural Bridge; me wife mine together he hired 

lutatkAtkl. 

to be interpreters. 

At nli nanuk ne-ulakgish%e'ni gatpa ; nanuk maklaksh waw4pka, 

Then we all to council gronnd went; the wbole tribe was sitting there, 

viint'pni hundred pen nda'ni ta-unep pen viinip p^-ula hihashudtch;ta8h, 6 

fonr hanilrert besides three tens besides four men, 

3 



34 HISTOKIOAL THXTS. 

Avc'-ulekasli tiita'ksni tchi'sh. Meacham shapl'ya tua gat[)amiiuka : "at 

old womou cliildreu also. Meacham told (thuiii) what lie bad couiu for : "uow 

ina'lash nu sliiillkislixeni itchanudpka fi-ukshitala." 

je I t4) the reservation I filiall remove to Klamalh Lake."' 

3 Capt'n .Jack, luaklaksaui laki, liem^^c : "Ka-i m'l lata gc-ii kaila 

Captain Jack. of the Indians tlie chief, aaid : "Not I ever my rxmntry 

slicsliii'tiii ; lic'iiikaiika nu B6slitinasli, ha tsliana-uli incdsliapkasli, tchfa. 

did .sell; liHve Haid I to Ameri(;an.s, if wished to emigrate (there), th<iy could 

live (there). 

Ka-itoks nu gen ttUa kaila shesha'tut, hu'toks Skontcliisli sliosha'tui." 

Not I tliia ever country did sell, \nit lie Sk^otchiah sold (it)." 

6 Meacliani kai hii ])ipa Itpa sluV-iitank.sh hamCniuga, lieslil'a liii pcna 

(Then) Meactiatn himself thi' pa- brouKht an arrnn^iement wisliing, showed (tliat) )iiso\vn 

per he 

she'shasli shuinaluash ; pen naimkasli tu sliana-uli itchampelish sljiuikisli- 

name had written on it ; again all peojile over he wanted to take back to the reaerv.a- 

Ihere 

kiiila. Ki'-nks ka-i sliana-uli genipelisli ; hii gc-u levvitclita tpewash. At 

ti'in. The conjurer not wanted to go b,ack ; ho (to) mine ohjeeted talk. Then 

11 inaklaks Itiwitchta k^-ish shiu'lkish=kaila. Meacham killetana nalash centire: 

the Iriho rofuHed to go to the reservation. Mpacbani loicibly told na to go ; 

at tineJi'ga mdkloks i-ainn4ii 161oksgish. Buslitin tchi'sh. Toby hotkmsxa 

then spninp op the Indians seizing (their) gnna. The Ameri- also. Toby Rid- nmhrd hv- 

cans die twrt^n 

henikaiika kfe: *' Hi-it(Skat ! k^-Ti hemkaiiksh matchatkat, k4-i a huii j)i- 

(and) .spoke thiiM: " Yo be ipiiet I to my speech listen ye, not ye this vu 

thing 

12 ])elaiig!shta sauitchatka. Meacham ma'lain hii shi'tchlip, heinkiinka tidsh, 

both sides understand well. Meacham yours he is the friend. he spoke to your 

benefit, 

mal tidsh tcliitki giuga. Kdnktak gi'n wawalkaii inatchatkat; kA-i kiluat, 

ye comfort- to live for the Qnietly here Hitting down listen (to liini) ; not be wnitb- 

ably purpose. ful, 

IWshtin, at nu taUiak shiVta! Nduuk wawdl^an I'lkat ma'laiu loloksgisii! 

ye Americans, then I straight will make All (of ye) sitting down lay ye your gnual 

<it) ! down 

16 at toks ina'l pe'n shana-uli maklaks hassasuakish." 

now with ye again deeire the Indians to debate." 

(whites) 

K^dsha pen hemkaukatko tino'li ; at nanidv lienikanka, lubfi'shaii 

For some time again after talking the son then all agreed, next day 

went down : 



genuapkiiga shiulkish;^ eni-kaihi. 

to remove to the reservation. 

18 Mbii'shan nanuk shivilkish;^eni gena Mo'dokni; Meacham tula g^na. 

Kext morning all to th<i resfcrvation went the Modocs ; Keaoham with traveled. 

(them) 

Shiulkish;^eni **Mo'dok Point" sheshash gishi gatpa; at Meacham Mo'doki- 

Within the reaerva- to "Modoc Point" (itfl) name they went ; then Meacham to the 

tion 

shash shulo'tish nanukcnash sht*\vana .sliapiya, tfdsli p'uj'dasli shualaliampa- 

Modooa the clothing to every (Uie distrilnited (and) said. well for them be would 

21 kuapgasht. At Mr/dokni K-iikshilvishasli tiVla wawaltka; at hatak hisli- 

provide. Tlieu tbo Moditc-i tin- Kliinalh Lakes togollui i-onfrrred ; now lierti lUi-y 



THE MODOC WAR. 35 

t^lta at kayak hishtchaktnau nadsha'sbak tchi-uapkiiga, B6sbtiuasli sliitrli- 

proiiiised at no getting iDceDsed in a common home they would live, (and) to tbe Ameri- (hp\ w.mM 

time cans 

laluapkuga. At lapi lAlaki shatashi hishtaltniiga. Meacham Capt'n Knap- 
keep friendship. Then the chiefs shook hands for promise. Meacham to Captain KnApp 

two 

pash shenuidslia maklakshash shualaliampatki giuga. 3 

turned ovor the Indians to be their ajrent. 

At Mo'dokni ktcliinksh ntchayetampka slitishtnao'tan ; ndaiikshap- 

Upon the Modocs rails to split-commenced to build houses; eight 

this 

tankni tousand ktcliinksh shiishata. At humaslitgiulan E-ukshikni k6-i 

times thousarid rails they made. Now after achieving this i he Klamalh Lakes wick- 

edly 

n^-ul%a, nanuk ktchinksli Mo'dokishash temeshka, henikankota : "kaila 6 

acted, all the rails from the Modocs 'hey took away, declaring : "the land 

p'nalam", ksliapa; ''Modokishash loloaksh", kshapa; *'136shtin kleksht", 

to them (be- so tliey said; "the Modocs (are) bondsmen ', mo they said ; " white people they will be- 

longs) ", ' come", 

kshcipa. Mo'dokni laki ka-i yamtkin Meachahim hemkanksli, B6shtinash 

Botheysaid. The Modoc chief not forgetful of Meacham's word, (that) the Ameri- 

(was) can government 

(hunk hu Meacha shapiya), tidsh slilepakuapkasht Modokishash, Boshtiii 9 

(that he Meacham said). well would protect the Modocs, the Ameri- 

thing can 

lakiash shlea shapiya, E-ukshikisham ktchinksh temdshkash ka-i Mo'- 

agent visited (and) told the Klamath Lakes the rails had taken away (;indj to the 

(him), not 

dokishasli shewanapeHsh sliana-uli. E-ukshikni hemkank: '*na/hlni a hun 

Modocs (them) to return wanterl. Ttie Klamath Lakes said: "our ye 

kiiilati ktchinksh vulo'dsha." Buslitin Uxki ka-i tpewa E-ukshikishfish Mo- 12 

from the the rails (ye) have cut. " Tlie Anieri- j^gent not orden-d the Klamath L.ikes to the 

land can 

dokishash ktchinksh sliewanapeh'tki, ka-i Pj-ukshikishash tpewa tala gin 

Modocs the rails tu ruturu, not the Klama.h Lakes ordered money 

(he) 

M(")dokishash shewanatki. Pen B6shtin laki Mddokishash wenni shiashla ; 

to the Modocs to pay (fur ihem). Again the Ameri- agent the Modocs elsewhere removed; 

can 

pen MO'dokni ktchinksh tunepni t(jusand shiVta, pen E-iilcshikni gatpam- 15 

again the Modocs i^ails tive thousand made, once the Klamnth Lakes coming to 

more their lodges 

nan Modokishash n4nuk ktchinksh papdlla. 

the Modocs of all rails robbed. 

Mi^'dokni hiki pen gdna Agency liildam, pen liesh^gsha E-ukshikisham 

The Modoc chief again went t^ the agency in winter, once complained the Klamath Lakes 

n)ore 

ktchinksh pen pallash, ka-i shana-ull E-ukshiki'shash pelpehash hunaslsak; 18 

the rails again to have not (did be-) want for tbe Klamath Lakes to work *;ratuitortnly ; 

stolen, 

shana-uli kitchakglan pi'sh ktchinksh shnu'ktgi. At agent pen nddshash 

he wauteil to be paid to himself rails for having taken. Then the agent again in one batch 

shiashla Modoki'shash, at Mo'dokni nda'nash pen pelpeltAmpka. Pen 

removed the Modocs, uow the Modocs at a third place again t*> work-cummenced. Once 

more 

Iviiksliikni ktchinksli Mo'dokishash nanuk papalhi, Capt'n Jack pen 21 

the Kl.titialli L;ibi -i the mils from the Modor.^ all stole. (and) Captain Jack again 



36 HISTOEICAL TEXTS. 

Boslitin lakiash shapfya E-ukshikfshash pi'sh tain sliewanatki ktchfiikslitat. 

llic Aineri- agent told the Klamath Lakes to him money shoald pay for (his) rails. 

IWshtin laki at kil-huan heme;{e: "Ha i un pen gepktak, tchti'i mish ml 

TheAmeri- agent now gettingen- spoke: "If you aj;ain come here, then yon 1 

can raged ^ 

3 ini txish shpulaktak ka-i mish E-ukshiki'shasli slinuniatclikatgi." At Mo'- 

there will lock np (where) yon the Klamath Lakes Killbnther (any longer)." Here- the 

Dot upon 

dokni laki gempelan p'na shne-ip4kshtat, njinuk p'na m.4kloksh shiiVlagian, 

Modoo chief returning to his hearth, all his people (he) coll. cted. 

K<5ketat {'imtch tchishtat g^mpele lapkshaptAnkni taiinepnl miles m6at. At 

to Lost River, (to the) old settlement he returned seventy miles south. Tlien 

a tzalampanki makloks sheggdt%ari lakiash tchu'i lupitala mcidsha Yafnakshi 

the half tribe separ.iting from the snbse- eastward migrated to Tilm-ks 

chief quently 

sheshapkash gaptch^tka tp^alampdni 1870, hataktok tclii'a Modokfshash 

so-called in May the middle 1870, al that place stayed the Modocs 

sh(illualsht. 

while Ibught. 

9 Capt'n Al'pa Yafnakshi=gtshl' Modoki'sliash milklakshash K6ketat 

Captain Applegate at Ylineks the Modoo Indians on Lo.st Kivcr 

.'^hk'dslia itchampellsh shana-uliiiga. Mo'dokni laki heme'^e : "Ha nisli lin 

visited to take (thorn) back wishing. The Modoc chief said; "If me 

Bo.shtiii laid tfdsh shualaliampdktak, g^ntak uu un Agency ; hii tchi.sh lin 

the Ameri- .agent well will protect, would go I to the agency ; if also 

can 

12 TchmiVtch laki gitak." Shayuakta hu'nk, Tclmiu'tcham talaak slilepa- 

Frank Riddle agent would be." H« knew, (that) Frank Riddle with justice would ad. 

kuilpkash. B6shtin laki lewitchta humdslitgish, Mo'dokni laki Idwitchta 

minister. The American agent refused to assent, the Modoc chief declined 

ge'sh, ndAni B6shtin Ukiam kiyan ne-ulkiash; shan4-uli kanash ddlaak 

to p,o, three the Ameri- Government detieiv- liaviuj; compacted ; he wanted anniehorly riehtlv 

times can i»ffly 

15 piisli shlepaktgi; hii shayu4kta Tchmil'tciiam dalaak shlepakudpkash. 

for him to care ; ho knew Frank Riddle rightly would protect him. 

Fndtak kailatat tchi'sh hdmene sluxldshasli pi'sh shiukatki ; kd-i pii'sh 

llisown in country to stay he preferred the military him in order to kill j not bim 

shpil'nshnan shiiilkish%dni, hashtdwan shiukdtki pi'sh. 

taking forcibly away to the reservation, by starvation in order to kill him. 

18 Kaitua shuta tchi'sh pani shalam 1872. B6shtiu hatak=tchi'tko 

Kothing was done further till autumn 1873. The white settlers 

shandhuli m4klaksham kaila, mdklakshash shana-uli kaila tpuliuash tu'm 

desired the Indians' land, the Indians they wanted from the to drive off wide 

land 

kshunAlpash kaila shana-uli6ga. M4klaksam Avewanishasli ko-i shii'ta 

pasture.lands coveting. Of Indians the females bad outraged 

21 B6shtin. K6ketat=tchitko B6shtin pipa sliuim'iluan mfi'ni hikiash shnigtjta, 

the whites. Un Lost Rlvar.settled Americans a poti mtting np to ihe President Hint (by mail), 

tion 



THE MODOC WAE. 37 

kd-i shana-uli6ga mdklakshash hi tchl'tki. MH'ni laki wdl^a: '*Idshd 

not wanting the Indians there to remain. The President replied : " Remove 

miiklakshash Agency kdyak hishtchdktnan ; kd-i g^-isht, tpudshdntak." 

the Indiana to the agency not boiateroasly; not (they) going, drive (them there)." 

Vun^pni taiinep shu'ldshash, Capt'n Jackson lakf, lApgni taixnep B6shtin 3 

Forty fioldiere. Captain Jackson com- twenty white 

manding, 

hatak-tchltchish tula una'k gakidmna. B6slitin lakf hem^%e : **i lakf gepki ! " 

settlers with early enrronnded (the The Ameri- com- cried: "you, chief, coraehere!" 

(them) camp). can niander 

Scaiface Charley gdknan hem^%e : ''Jackkd-iu pdtkal!" B6shtin lakf Bar- 

Scarfaco Charley coming out aaid : " Jack not yet has got up ! " Lieutenant Bai- 

tell hemd^e : "1 pushpushll watchdg^lam w&sh, 161oksgish ml hun ^Ik!" 6 

tell said: "you black of a bitch the eon, rifle yours this lay 

down ! " 

Scaiface Charley hem^%e : *'nu'toks kd-i watchdga gi; hishudkshash=shitko 

Scarface Charley said: "I not a dog am ; to a man-alike 

Ish hdmkank!" Bartell hemd^e: *'i pushpushli watchdkalam w^ash, 16- 

to me speak!" Bartell said: '*you black of a bitch the eon, ri- 

lokshgish ml dl%!" Jackson hem^;{e : "161oksgish hunkish u't%i." Ldpok 9 

fle yours lay Jackson said: " the gan from him take away." Both 

down!" 

nadshdshak shikenftkish shushpdshkan shdtui ; Idpok shakl'ha. Tdnk hun 

at the same mo- revolver drawing fired ; both missed. Hence 

ment 

shellualtdmpka. 

the war commenced. 

Tdnktak B6shtin tu'gshta K6ke yutetdmpka; at nanuk shellualtdmpka. 12 

Just then the whites on opposite of Lost to shoot-commenced ; then all to flght-commenced. 

shore Kiver 

Tdnkt 1dpi taunep mdklaks tchfa, tun^pni taunep shu'ldshash B6shtin tchi'sh 

That time twenty Modoc wai- stayed fifty soldiers American settlers 

riors (in camp). 

shukdltko. Lapgshdpta shu'ldshash luela, kdnktak nge'she-uiya. Mdklak- 

mixed with. Seven soldiers were as many were wounded. Of the In- 

killed, 

sam wewdnuish tdtoksnl na'sh taunep kshfkla shu^nka nge'she-uiya. Ki- 15 

dian women (and) children eleven were killed (and) wounded. Oftbe 

uks^m mdklaksh K6ke gunigshta ydmat tamgnuo'ta hdtakt=tchitclushash 

conjurer the band Lost River across northwards while running the settlers there 

shut^nka, kd-i na'sh gin snaw^dshash tatdkiash kd-i liiela. Mdklaks lakf 

massacred, (but) not one there woman children not they killed. The Modoc chief 

ktayalshtdla gdna, pen ndnka gapt6ga g^na tula; hdtaktok tchfa 17th Jan- 18 

to the lava-beds went, then others joined (him and) went with there they January 

(him) ; stayed 

uary 1873 tche'k. 

17th 1873 nntil. 

Tilnkt \'Tandpni hundred pen vunip shu'ldshash, B6shtin shuk41tko, 

That day four hundred and four soldiers, with settlers mixed, 

gutdmpka. Waita shdllual, kelidnta ke-ishtat, tinolo'lish tchek kgl^wi; 21 

attacked (them). All day they fought, without snow (oo the at sundown finally theycejised; 

ground), 

shii'ldshash g^mpglin at \'uni'pni taunep st^wa luel6tan ngesh6tan 

the military retreating, then forty they missed (in) killed wounded 



38 HISTORICAL TEXTS. 

tchisli. Tunej) tulina kcshguga Idshi'sli kayak Avenggdpkash ; tankt 

also. Hvo they left hcinff unable Intake not yet dead; after 

behind, (them) 

slnVldshiim g(^nuish nuiklaks slnK*nka hiVnk. 

lliesobUers* retreat tbe IndiaDR killed thooi. 

3 At mu'ni laki ne-iilxa: M5dokisliash shutankuapkuga, A. B. Meacham- 

Tben tbe Prt5.si(l«nt pnbli.slitMi a wHb the Modocs to conclude peace, A. B. Meaeb^m 

decree: 

ash tpdwa maklakshash shutAnktgi; General Edward Canby tiila shusliu- 

he ap- with tbe tribe to confer; General Edw. R. S. ('auby' aloDg the Peace 

poiDted witU 

tauki'shash gena, tiila Meachash Toby, Tclimu'tchani snawc'dshasli, lu- 

Coininisaioueis went, with Meachani Toby Kiddle, Frank Jti(ldle">» wife, in- 

fi tatka. Shiishutdnkish iianuk John P^airchildtiuikslii g^tpa Viilalkshi 

terpreted. The Peace Conimisaioners all (to) -lohu Faircbikis' farm came at C It-imwootl 

gislii', na'lam kiiilatat, Febr. 20, 1878. At maklaks Boshtinash hemkauk- 

Creek. in our country, on Febr. 20, 1873. Then the Indians to the AraericaDS to talk-corn* 

tampka, Tchmu'tch Toby tchi'sh lutatka. B6shtin luaklakshash nG-ul^ia, 

menced, Frank Toby Rid- al&o inti-rpreted. The Anieri- with the Modocs convened. 

die cans 

9 ka-i B6shtin sheriualuapkuga inaklakshash shii'-utanksli ne-ulaksh pani'. 

not the whites aboiibl make war with the Modoc8 the peace-contract was being made \7hile. 

]\[ak]aks;1m laki sliewe-ula hemkankota Boshtinash ne-ul%ia ka-i pi lupf 

The Modoc chief agreed (and) declare i, (while) the Anieri- were making not he fir.st 

cans peace 

loloksgish tewiuapkiiga. At ndnka maklaks gdtpa Fairchildanikshi ; at 

a gun would tire off. Tlien some XniiianH arrived at Fairchilds' farm .- then 

12 hassasuakitampka. 

iiegotiatioii.H began. 

I'dnkt Skuii' Stll, Atwell, nu tc.hish Toby tchisli gina Mo'dokisham 

Then Squire Steele, Wm. Atwell, I also Toby alao went of the Modoc 

lakiam tchi'shtat shashotanki'sham ne-ulaksli slitiltchniYka ; niakl'^a tohui. 

ciiief to the camp, of the Peace CommiaaioutTs a nieaaage to carry ; (we) paased then. 

tbe night 

If) Maklaksh niil tidshewan tilotpa, liemkanka,: *'])alpal=tchoIeks=gitko lupi kiV-i 

The Indians ua friendly rec.t-ivcd, (.and) said : " tbe palefaces at firat outrage 

shushata, B6shtin tchushak gi'yan maklakshash shti'lshga, shil'ldshash liunk 

eoiiimirted, the whites continually lying on the Indiana reported, troops 

niaklakshash hunashak gutanipka, maklaksh ka-i k6pa tii'sh p^ialam kiV-i 

the Indiana for no reaaon (had) attacked. the Indiana (did) not ihink over there their folks wrongly 

18 giwish; liushtin maklakshash ktayat tpilli' yutetampka ktayat gipkash." 

had acted ; The Ameri tln^ Indiana into the drove (nnd> tiriug-cnm- in the them staying." 

cans rocks meiiced at rocks 

Maklaksh Iwimkanka : 'Miii a tidsh shutankuapka na'lash, k'lewiuApka na 

The Indians declared: if ye will negotiate peace with us. atop will we 

shc'llualsh ; ha pen na shellualuapka, Boshtin lupi shellualtanipkuapka; 

tigbting; if again we j^bould light. theAnieii- tirat war-atart-would ; 



cans 



21 maklaks k4-i lupi' tewiiiApka." 

tin- Indiana not at first wW} lire." 

Stll at lieme;^e : '^Ma'lam nenap Boshtinam tchekeli nAnukash ginta- 

Steelo then said : '* Your bauds of th« wbitea' blood all over Hiuiued 



THE MODOO WAR. 39 

natk6 gi Canby uia'lash killetanuapka g^klsh tchek k'lewiuapka ; Canby 

are. Canby on ye willinsist to him nntil ye will give it np ; Canby 

ma'lash tchui tidshantala kaila idshaauapka gen weli'tan, tu'sh mal ku'- 

ye then to a good land will remove from distant, where ye the 

here 

idsha Yamaki'shash ka-i shu^nktgi. Ha a gita tchiudpka, shu^nktak mal 3 

wicked Oregoniana not will murder. If ye here would remain, tbey would kill ye 

iln nanukii'iiash." 

every one." 

Md'dokni lakl hem^%e: "K4-i nu shana-uli g^-u kaila kelewidshash, 

The Modoc chief said: "Not I w.ant my country to leave, 

k4-i kun pen kaila shayuaktnu'ga tclu'sh. G^-u t-slii'shap, pgishap, 6 

not any besides country as I do know to live in. My fatlier, mother. 

t%e-unap tchish gita vumi', shanahuli p'natak kailatat tchian keleksh. 

brother also here are buried, I desire in my own country living to die. 

Nu'toks kaitua ko-i gita shu'ta, kd-i tchik lish kani' tat shpunshanuapka ; 

Myself nothing wrong here have done, not so that any one hence .should take away <uie) ; 

g^tak mish nu vu'la wAkaktoks liu nanuk tchia." 9 

this only of you I request, in the same manner as all to live." 

Hemkankvil(')tak Capt. J. Biddle nanuk watch Modokisham Idkiam palla. 

Just after that talk Captain James Biddle all horses uf the Mocloc chief <:aptured. 

Nad CAmbiamgshi gtjna sbana-uliu'ga w4tch Modokisham shewanapelitki 

We to General Canby -went (and) requested the horses Modoc to retnni 

lakiam tubakshash. Canby It'witchta shewanapelish hemkank6ta: "tidsli 12 

the chiefs' to the sister. Canby refused to return (them) declaring: "very 

toks ml un hfin watch shualaliampaktak, shu-utankii'lash tchek Modoki- 

well I those horses will care for, (and) after making peace then to the Mo- 

shash w4tch shtjwanap'lishtka gl." At Meacham hem^/e: "tp^-ii i she- 
docs the horses (I) intend to return." Here- Meacham said: "give to re- 

upon orders 

wanap'litki shash maklaksam watch! ni'a 1 hemkanka kditua k6-i ne-ul- 15 

turn to them of the Indians the horses ! just you promised nettling ontra- to 

now (to them) geous 

kuapkuga, kaitua k6-i shute-uapkiiga." 

order, nothing outra- to perform." 

geona 

Canby shidshna shu'ldshash tiinepni hundred tinolish^dni, tinexish- 

Gen. Canby moved soldiers live hundred on west side, on east 

X^ni pen tunepni hundred lap miles pipelangshta Modokishash lAkiash ; 18 

side .again five hundred two miles on both sides of ihe Modoc chief; 

gita pen hemkanktam^jka. 

there again negotiating-commenced. 

TobyMkiash shtiltchna, tumena tu shushutankfshash shuenkuapkasht; 

(While) to the chief reported, she learned there the Peace Commissioners were to be assassinated ; 

Toby Riddle 

tchiii lakiash shapiya: "hii i lin f^hu'tanktak, ti'dsh mish un shualaliampak- 21 

then to the chief said: "if you makepeace, well of you will take care 

tak Canby." Laki hem(^;(e p'nana p'na: "tat gd-u mdklaksham kop^pash 

Canby." The chief said to cousin his: "where of my people the he.art 



40 HISTORICAL TEXTS. 

genudpka, n<i tula genudpka." At mdkloks nd-ul%a ; nda'n pd-ula shu'- 

goes, I with it shall go." Then the trilje took a vote; thirteen to inalie 

tanksh h4m6ne, nda'ni taiinep sh^Uualsh hdmgne. Lakf hemd/e hu'nkish: 

peace wished, thirty warfare wished. The chief said tohei-; 

3 "SMpi ml Idkiasb: Gita nlsh shle-udpka ktdyat, kaltoks ni'sh tu'-una 

"Tell your geueral; Here me he will llnd in the rocks, (and) not forme around 

Leraaikshlna kdyaktgi, kd-i Yainakshfna ktiyaktgi. Gita hak nl'sh lin 

Sha.'tta Bntte he must hunt, not about Ydnek.s he must hunt. Here only ine 

slil(^tak ; ndinldksht nl'sh un tu'mi shu'ldshash ginti'ltak." 

lie will find; after having I many soldiers under (me) will 

fallen lie." 

6 At shushotankishdmgshl gatpampglan shaplya mAklaksham hemkdnk- 

Then to the Peace Coramission having returned she related of the Indians the ntter- 

iilsh. Toby pen hem^x^: "tud nu mlsh nen shapiySsh hdmgne." Meacham 

Huces. Toby then said : " some- I to you to tell wish." Meacham 

thing 

hem^xe: "nu un kd-i kdnash shapitak", Dya tchish n^-asht gl kd-i kdnash 

said: "I not to anybody will divulge ", Dyar also agreed, not to auybody 

9 shapi-uapkiiga. Doctor Thomas hem^p^e: "mu'ni Idkiash, na'lam t-shisha 

to divulge (it) . Doctor Thomas said: "the great Euler, our Father 

shand-uH nu nedsht gl ; ua'ldm t-shisha nu hushtankudpka ; kd-i nu un 

desire I to agree with; our Father I have to meet; not I 

kdnash shapitak tud mi shapiyash." At Toby tumgnash p'na shapiya shash. 

tounybody will relate the you will tell (me now)." Then Toby, what she bad beard, told them. 

thing 

12 Kd-itua shu'tan mbu'shan tchek. Bogus Charley shuldshdmkshl 

Nothing was done next morning until. Bogus Charley to the soldiers* camp 

gdtpa; Doctor Thomas vunl'pni taiinepni yards hushtdnkan ht^mkanka: 

came ; Doctor Thomas forty yards (away) meeting (him) said ; 

"Wdk lish a nal shushotankishash shu^nksh hdmene? Na'lam mfi'ni 

"Why ye us Peace Commissioners to kill want? Our 

15 t'shfshap nal shgiiyuen mal shutanktgl tidshdntala kaila ma'lash idshdntki, 

President us sent with ye to make peace (and) to a good country ye to bring, 

B6shtinash shitko mal tchi'tki. Gdtpa na tchdkgli vudshoxalkitki ma'lam 

to the whites alike ye to live (in). Come wo the blood to wash out on your 

ndptat gintandpkash, Oreginknl B6shtinash mal kd-i shu^nktgi." Bogus 

hands sticking, (.Tnd) tbeOrego- settlers ye no to kill." Bogus 

nian (more) 

18 Charley vii'la: "kanl' shapiya, ma'lash na'lam shuenkudpkash ? " Thomas 

Ch..rley asked: "who says, ye (that) we are going to murder)" Thomas 

h^mkanka: "Toby, Riddlam snawedshash, shapiya." Bogus Charley 

said: "Toby, of Eiddle the wife, says (so)." Bogus Charley 

hdmkanka: "hu lish snawedshash kiya" Kgmutchdtko kl-uks hdmkanka: 

said: "this woman lies." The old doctor said: 

21 "ki' sh(^\va nu hu'nkesh." 

"t<itell thought I her." 

lies 

At B6gush p<ilak maklakshdmkshl ga'mp6l6, p^lakag pan mdkloks 

Then Bogus quickly to the Indian camp returned, in a short again an Indian 

while 

shtiltpa shuldshdmkshl, Tobidsh shana-uliiiga maklakshdmkshl gatpdntki: 

bruugbt a into the soldiers' camp, Toby bidding to the Indian camp to come: 

lUtilUUg* 



THE MODOC WAR. 41 

"kdnam, mi hu'uk shapfyash laldkiasli, shapiya?" At gAtplsht vula: "kani' 

"who, yoa what (yon) reported to the officers, told!" Then after arrival they asked "who 

(her) : 

mish shapiya?" Toby hem^ze: "Kd-i nH un ma'lash shapltak!" At 

toyou told (of tliis)!" Toby said: "Not I to ye will tell!" Then 

gakidmna shlishlol6Ian : "he i nal un k4-i shapi'tak, shluktak mish na 3 

t bey snT rounded cocking gnns: "if you tone not will tell, will kill you wel" 

(her) 

un!" Toby vuld: "Nu tchish Mo'doknl gi; i, nu shapiya shushotanki- 

Toby replied: "I also a Modoc am; yes, I told (it) to the Peace Commis- 

shash; k4-i nu lin mal tatd shapi'tak. Shli'sh hameniiiga, i'sh shla't!" 

sioners; not I to ye whence will tell. To shoot if yoa want, me shoot ye!" 

Lakl k4-i shan4-uli ki-ukshash snaw^dshash shiukdtgi : " snaw^dshash hiV-ii 6 

The not wanted (that) the conjurer (this) woman should kill: "awonian she 

chief 

gi, kaitua shdyuaksh." 

is, nothing she knows." 

At lit%i g^mpgle, shuldshdmkshi gatpdmpgli; piin lalakiash shapfya, 

Then in the she returned, to the soldiers' camp she came back; again the Commis- she told, 
evening aionera 

ka-i mdklakshash hushtanktgi. 9 

not the Indians to meet in council. 

Mbu'shan Meachash k^lianta m^klaksh gdtpa. Doctor Thomas Canby 

On the next day Meacbam beiug absent eome Modoca came. Dr. Thomas (and) Gen. Canby 

mdklakshasli sheuo'l%a mbu'shan hushtankuapkuga. Tun^pni m4klaks 

with the Indians arranged the next day to meet. Five Indians 

hushtankudpka mbu'shan, nanuk k^liak 161oksgish. Psbin hu at gatp4m- 12 

were to meet the Lext day, all withont rifles. That even- when had re- 

pgle Meacham, Doctor Thomas shapiya p'n4 shen61aktiish. Meacham 

turned Meacham, Doctor Thomas mentioned his promise. Meacbam 

hem^%e: ** Doctor, ha 1 iin nen hak nd-ulaktak, k4-i i un pen t4ta nd- 

eaid : " Doctor, if you (ever) this compact-keep, not you again ever will 

ulaktak. T6biash nu 161a, mdklaksh nal shuenkudpka; kd-i kanl mish un 15 

compact-keep. Toby I believe, the Indians iia intend to kill; nobody to you ever 

shapltak, T6biash ki'-lsht." Doctor Thomas ham^%e: *'hu mish mdklaks 

will tell, Toby to have told Doctor Thomas said: "this you Indian 

lies." 

snaw^dshash hushpdtchta ; ka-i 1 p'laikishash 161a tidsh." 

woman has frightened; not you in God trust enough." 

Mbu'shan la' pi mdklaksh shushotankishdmkshi gdtpa vula: ^'tamu' lish 18 

Next morning iwv Indians to the Peace Commissioners' tent came (and) in- "(are) 

quired: 

a mulo'la mdklakshash hushtankuapkuga?" Hu'dsha heme'^e: "i-i." N4- 

ye ready the Indians to meet in council?" They replied: "yes." All 

nuk lald%i shugu'laggi at, Tchmu'tch ham^;{e: "shand-uli nii nen shdpiySsh 

the Peace Com- jjathered then, Frank Kiddle said: "want I to tell 

mission er 3 

mal, kd-i genat, shu^nktak mal tin mdkMks, kd-i nu shandhiill nush sha- 21 

ye, do not f^o, will kill ye the Modocs, not I wish me to have 

akaktdntgi." Doctor Thomas vul4: "nu'toks p'laiki'-ishash loMtko gi"; 

a blame cast upon. '^ Doctor Thomas said: "as for me, in God I am trusting"; 

gAhudshktcha. 

ho BtttTtoU. 



42 HISTOEIOAL TEXTS. 

At na'lasli gdtpisht nda'nksliai)taHi nii'iklriks waw^ipka. Meacliani liipi 

"When wo had conio, oiglit liifliaiis wero .sitting? McjiclKitn (Irst 

tlipro. 

hdmkanka: *'Mu'ria geii shti'taukbh hemkaiikelgi'." Laki at iR-iiikaiika: 

Bpoke: "Important tliifi i>pace-trpaty we will talk over." ('apt'n thou said: 

J lick 

3 *'at nil kc^dshika hemkanksh; mVslitoks nia'lash nu tidsh slilt'[)aktgi wakak- 

"now I (am) tired of talking; myself yo 1 well to care for fliiioo 

toks a hull nanukenasli Boshtinash; shana-uli nu Canby slikuyuepelitki 

:)8 yo these all AmericaDH; want I Gen. Canby to movftaway 

shu'ldshasb, tankt nvi un shutanksh liemkanktak." Gen. Canby hem(^;^e : 

the troopa, after- I the peaee-treaty will talk over." Gen. Canhy said: 

wards 

6 *'kdshga nu hun huniAsht kish." 

" canunt 1 to tliia aaaent." 

Makloks laki henK^^e: ''ka-i nu sbanahuli pen henikanksh!" tgo-ul/an 

Thelndiau chief said: "not I want further to talk!'' risiug up 

at Canbyasb shlin; skotish li^'lp shlin. Tankt nanuk liubit'gan maklTiksIi 

then at Canby be fired ; uu the left t-jo he shot Siuiulta- :ill spriuginj^ uj) Modm-M 

(him). ucously 

9 yutetampka. Canby wiga liu'tchnaj pen niisli tapi'tan hlilin; iide-ul/ap- 

to fire-conimeuce<l. Canby ' not far ran, then in head haek-side was shot ; attei' ho 

kasli idshi'pa shulo'tish laktcha. Boston Charley sketigshta vusIk'* Dr. 

fell they strippi-d coat (and) cut bia Iloaton Charley in the left breast I>r. 

throat. 

Thomasash shlin; hu'tchna Aviga, maklaks shnukan vuto'l/a, lu'nikaiika: 

Thomas ehot ; be ran a short the Indians aeizinjL; (him) threw (him) (and) said : 

distauce, down, 

12 "ko-idshi ue i Sunday ki-uks gi!" Sk6ntchish Meacliasli Inpi kaiha; 

" not good now you a Sunday doctor are!" Skoutcbish ^leacliani at tirst niis.si'd ; 

Toby hutams;{an shAsh kteleshkdpka Meachash Sk6ntcln*sli, l)ishtrliish 

Toby rushing between tlu-in, pushed away fr(tni Meacbani Skrint<-bi.sb, to .save 

liameiiiuga Meachash. Pen lapautka Meadiasli yuta, la[)ksliaptankni sldin. 

intciulinj; Meacbani. Ac;aiu twice at Meacbani they shot, at seven i)lucrs be \vas 

slK.t. 

15 Meachash ndi-ule^Apkash mdklaks shanA-uli nelinash, TobA' toks luVtchnan 

Meacham when fallen the Indiana attonipteil to scalji, Toby but runuint;' 

nk(5na: '* Shu'ldshash g^pka ! " Afc mdklaks lul'tchna. TchmiVtch Dya 

halloed: "Theaoldiera are coming!" Upon the Indians ran away. Frank Kiddle (and) Dyar. 

this 

shuasliuali4mpklsh kshita nki'Uan huho'tchna. 

tbo agent escaped quick-mov- ran awav. 

ins 

18 Shnktainpkan ndiini waita slicllual; ])ipolantan lakiam tehi'sli shu'ld- 

To lisbt'-t^ommencint; for three days they battled; on both aides of the chiefs' (luartors the 

shash wlwiWx^, pipelAntan ku'mme lalaiishaltko. Shana-uli kakiauuiash 

tioops took position, on both sides of the cave rocky. They tried (o surround 

tun(?pni taunep4nta nash kshikUipkash, amputala kaydhia. Wewanuish ta- 

the tifty one, the waterfrom cutting otl'. The women (and) the 

21 tcVksni ku'metat tchia; huk wewanuish tata'ksni ku'meti kektchanuapka. 

children in the cave were; the women (and) children from the will be withdrawn. 



THE MODOC WAR. 43 

Mo'dokni nda'ni waita shelludltko la'p hashxe'gi hishudtch^ash ; mii'ne 

Modoo for three days waging war two were killed men ; a Wg 

shdwalsh mbAwan shu^nka. 

shell bursting killed (them). 

Ke'kga mbu'shan ku'metat; ke'ktgal u'nash, wigd ktaitala g^na, wigd 3 

They went next morning from the cave; vacated (it) early they, not far into the lava they not far 
gilt beds went, 

gin pen tchia. Pen tdnkni waitd'Ian 1dpi Idlaki mdklaksash kdyaktcha 

from again they Again (in) a few days two officers the Indians hunted 

there stayed. 

nadshaptdnkni taunap shu'ldshash i-amnatko. Nda'ni taunap Yamakni 

sixty soldiers having with them. Thirty Warm Spring 

Indians 

shu'ldshash tiila gdna. B6shtin Ydmakni Modokishash shUii wigdtan 6 

the troops-with went. The Ameri- (and) the Warm the Modocs found a short dis- 

caus Springs tance 

ku'metat. Scarface Charley lapeui taiinep pan la'p pci-ula Modokishash 

from the cave. Scarface Charley twenty and two Modocs 

iyamnatko, taktakldnta hushtdnka Wrightrisli shenotdnka. Mantch sheno- 

having nnder him, in an open field encountered Lient. Th. F. (and) fought. Longtime they 

Wright 

tdnka. Charley na'sli mdklaks stdnodshna; ndnka B6shtinash luela, ndnka 9 

fought. Charley ' one man lost ; some Americans they some 

killed, 

ng^-ishe-uya ; Idpeni taunep pen nda'n p(^-ala shiildshash nashkshdptani 

they wounded ; twenty and three soldiers six 

Idlaki tchi'sh kd-i shuenka. Mdklaks Avdllih'kan yaina-dga=gislii B6shtiniish 

officers also not were killed. The Modocs standing on a little mountain near the Americans 

watch 

wawapkdpkash giTlki. Gitd hu shc'Uual K'laushdlpkash Yaina-dga-gishi. 12 

seated on ground charged. Here they fought Sand-covered Hill at. 

Ldpeni sunde kaitua shu'ta. Capt'n Hasbrouck mdklakshash haitchiia. 

For two weeks nothing was done. Captain Hasbrouck (then) the Indians followed. 

Shliia indklaksliash Pahdpkrish E-ush=gi'shi. Hddokt shen(')tanka, Bosh- 
He found the Indians Dried-up L.ike at. There they fought, Ameri- 

tinash lapkshdpta mdklaks shiuka, nda'n Yamaki'shash ; tunep pe-ula 15 

cans seven the Modocs killed, three Warm Springs ■, fifteen 

ngeshe-uya. Modokishash hiitchdmpkash nash stanotchna. 

they wounded. The Modocs on their flight of one they deprived. 

At Mo'dokni sheggdtka tdnkt. Ldpeni waitolan Pahdtko L-nsh 

The Modocs separated then. Two days after Driedup Lake 

shelliilo'lasli, Capt'n Hasbrouck taunepdnta tiinep pe-uldpkash M(")dokishrish 18 

fight. Captain Hasbrouck fifteen Modocs 

shl^a wigdtan Fairchildam (Padshdyam) shtina'sh; ma'ntch shisho'ka tak- 

found near Fairchilds' farm-house; a long time fought on 

takldnta kailatat la'p'ni taundpni taunep shu'ldshash pen nadshksaptdnkni 

level ground two hundred soldiers and six- 

taunep Ydmakni. Kd-i kdnash na'sh snawedshash shiuka, Ydmakni neli'na. 21 

ty Warm Springs. JTot anybody (bnt) one woman lliey killed, the Warm scalped 

Springs (her). 

HO. snawedshash stiltchna shu'tanksh hdmenisht Modokishash. 

That woman had reported, to surrender that desired the Modoca. 



44 HISTORICAL TEXTS. 

Ldpgni wait61an nadshgshtipta taiinep pd-ula Mo'dokni Gen. Davis 

Two days after sixtonn Modoos to Gen. Jeff. C. DavU 

gawina; lu'uikiash tunepii'nash sha't'la kdyaktcha mAklaks5m lakl. At tina 

surrendered; ul' them tivo ho liired to hunt of the Modoca the chief. One 

3 sundc kiulaii shnu'ka Nushaltkdga p'ld-itan; shnepii'mpema : "ba k;i-i 

week over they caught the Iiead (of Willow above; they entrapped (him) : "if not 

(liira) Creek) (longer) 

shishiika kd-i mish kshaggayuapka." 

you fight, not you they will hang." 

Ndnuk mdklaks at Fort Klamath fdsha. At haslmdtko Idkirim shti- 

AU Indians then to Fort Klamath wore A talk was held judge's in 

brought. 

6 na'sh; lui laldki h(imkank tcheks, nadsliksdptanni: laki, Sk6utchisli, Blaok 

house; the judges decKared after a while, six: Captain Sk(3ntrhi8li, lljnek 

Jack, 

Jim, Boshtindga, Slu'lks, Ba'ntcho mdklaks kshaggdya. La'p ishka ati 

Jim, Boston Charley, SItllks, B&ntcho Indiana to hang. Two they took Ju a 

distant 

kaila illiuapkuga tcliushni ; vuni'pa at Fort Klamath Yamatdla I'ggaya. 

land to imprison forever; four then at Fort Klamath in Oregon they hung. 

9 At atf kafla ndnka dna mdklaks tu Mdklaksam Kaila, Quapaw mdk- 

Tbeu to a land a portion they of Modocs far off to the Indian Territory, (to) Quapaw In- 

distant brought there 

laksam shiu'lklshgishi ; ndnka Ydneks Ydmak tchia wigatan ma'ntchnish 

diane' reservation ; some at Ydneks in Oregon live close by the former 

Modokisham kaila. Kdnk she'sha ndnuk mdkldksham shellualsh vunepni 

Hodoc country. So much did cost the whole Modoc war four 

12 millions tdla. 

millioDs of dollars. 

NOTES. 

33, 1. Shdlam, etc. The return of the Modocs to the Klamath Eeserve was not 
accomplished by Meacham before winter (liildam) ; but he had located about 300 Snake 
Indians on Sprague Elver in the latter part of IS'ovember, 1809. Ind. Afi'. Rep. 1S70, 
p. 68. 

33, 2. shualaUiimpka means, in official jiarlance, to administer or superintend a 
district ; to be agent for. 

33, 2. Koketat. This appears to be the same locality where Ben Wright had met. 
the Modocs in council (1852) and where his volunteers, placed in ambush, massacred 
over forty of their number. The Natural Bridge, or, as the Modoc has it, the "Perpet- 
ual Bridge", is a low and flat natural arch overflowed dui'ing a part of the year by the 
swelling waters of Lost River. Mr. A. B. Meacham, then superintendent of the Indian 
reservations of Oregon, met the Modocs on that spot to induce them to settle again 
within the limits of the Klamath Reservation, a large tract of land assigned to the 
tribes of this section by treaty of October 14, 1864. They had left the reservation in 
1865, and in April 1806 the Walp4pi band of Snake Indians, under their chief Panlini, 
followed their example. 

34, 4. The treaty of October 14, 1864 shows the names of twenty Klamath chiefs 
and headmen, of four Modoc, and of two Snake chiefs and subchiefs as signers. The 
Modoc names are: Schonchin, Stakitut, Keintpoos, Chucke-i-ox. Keintpoos is Captain 



THE MODOO WAE. 45 

Jack, and the original forms of the other three names are Skontchish, Shlakci'tatko, 
Ndsakiaks. (See Dictionary.) Captain Jack denied having put his name to the treaty 
of sale, his refusal being from repugnance to quitting the ancient home of his tribe on 
Lost Kiver and on the lakes, where the remains of so many of his ancestors had been 
buiied. Moreover, the Modocs abhorred the vicinity of the Klamath Indians at IModoc 
Point. That Jack should have himself signed his name to the treaty is simply an im- 
possibility, for none of the Modocs was able to write. The treaty preserved in the 
agent's ofiBce at Klamath Agency does not even show crosses, other marks, or toteniic 
signs, as substitutes for signatures ; but the proper names are written by the same 
clerical hand which engrossed the text of the treaty. 

34, 6. The words kai hu, itpa and hu pe'na would in the Klamath Lake dialect be 
substituted by : a hu't, <5pka, hu'k jj'na. 

34, 8. The conjurer (ki-uks), who objected to the presence of Eiddle (gen) iu the 
capacity of an interpreter, was Skontchish, called John Schonchiu by the whites. He 
was the brother of the present Modoc subchief at T4neks, seems to have exercised 
more influence over his tribe than Jack himself, and through his unrelenting fanaticism 
was considered the leader of the faction of extremists in the Modoc camp. 

34, 9. g^ntge stands for the more commonly used g^ntki. 

34, 10. i-amna, iyamna, to seize, gTasp, refers to a plurality of objects of long 
shape, as guns, poles ; speaking of one long-shaped object, uyamna is used. 

34, 11. kie, so, thus, stands for kek or ke' of the Klamath Lake dialect. 

34, 16. k^dsha, kitcha, the adverb of kitchkAni, little, small, refers to hemkank- 
atko, and not to tino'li. 

34, 18. Mbu'shan, etc. The return of the Modocs is referred to in Agent Knapp's 
report in the foUowing terms (Ind. Aff. Eep. 1870, p. 68) : "On Dec. 18, 1869, the super- 
intendent (Mr. Meacham) and myself, accompanied by Dr. McKay, J. D. Applegate 
and others, visited the Modocs off the reservation at their camji on Lost River, for the 
purpose of inducing them to return to the reserve. After talking for ten days they 
consented to return, and on Dec. 30 we returned to the reserve with -58 Indians. 
Blankets, &c., were issued to them, the same as to the other Indians, on Dec. 31. They 
remained quietly on the reserve until April 26, when I stopped issuing rations ; then 
they left without cause or provocation ; since that time they have been roaming around 

the country between Lost Eiver and Yreka The old Modoc chief, Schowschow 

[should read : Skontchish], is still on the reserve, and has succeeded in getting 67 of 

his people to return and I have located them at Camp Yia-nax The Kla- 

maths have made a large number of rails for their own use, also 5,000 for fences re- 
quired at agency." The old Modoc chief alluded to is the brother of John Skontchish. 

34, 19. The locality assigned as the permanent home of the Modocs was near the 
base of a steep promontory on the eastern .shore of Upper Klamath Lake, since called 
after them "Modoc Point". It is an excellent spot for hunting water fowls and for 
fishing in the lake, but the compulsory presence of the rival Klamath tribe made it 
hateful to the Modocs. Many excavations made for the Modoc lodges are visible there 
at present. Here they lived first in the lodges of the Klamath Indians, after Meacham 
moved them to this spot in 1869. After the first complaint made by Kintpuash or Capt. 
Jack, Agent Knapp removed them about 400 yards from there, away from the lake ; 
and the third locality assigned to them was about one mile fmther north. Then, after 



46 HISTOKICAL TEXTS. 

Jack'.s hand liad run off, the remainder went to Yiiueks, over tliiity miles inland, to 
settle tlieic. 

34, 1!>. slieshasb is here placed between Mo'dok Point and the adessive ease-post- 
iwsition -;;islii, which corresponds to -ksaksi in the northern dial(M;t. We have here 
an instance of incorporation of a whole word into a phrase, and the whole stands for: 
Mo'dok Point gislii sheshiipkash j;at])a. 

34, L'O. slmlo'tisli. Articles of clothing-, blankets, etc., form a portion of the an- 
)iuitics distrihntcd to treaty Indians before the connnencement of the cold season. 

35, 2. lajn instead of lai)eni, hip'ni; also 41, 18. 

35, .'i. shciiuidsha, etc. Captain O. C Knapp, U. S. A., had assnmed charge of the 
Klamath Agency, under the title of siibagent, on Oct. 1, lS(i9, relieving Mr. Lindsay 
Applcgate. 

35, 5. ktchinksh. The timb(!r-la.nd lies north of Modoc Point on Williamson Eiver, 
and hence was regarded by the Lake People or Klamath Lake Indians as their ex- 
chisive doiriain. This served them as an excuse or justification for taking to them- 
selves the rails which the Modocs had split. In addition to this, they taunted them 
with the remark that they were in the power of the Amei'icans as their bondsmen, and 
would soon ado])t all the customs of the white ])opnlation. 

35, 8. Mo'dokni laki. My Modoc informants constantly avoided giving the name 
of t!aptain Jack by which his tribe called him. Western Indians regard it as a crime 
to nu'ntion a dead person's name lieforc a certain number of years has elai)scd. The 
Kalai)uya Indians, who never crematetl their dead, are allowed to speak out their names 
fifteen years after their decease, for then " the flesh has rotted away from the bones", as 
they say. The real name of Captain Jack was Kintpnash, which is interpreted as " one 
who has the waterbrash ". 

35, 15. giitpamnan, coming to their camps, stands for the Klamath gAtpgnank. 

36, 18. pcli)eli (first syllable short) means: to work; pe'lpeli (first syllable long): 
to work in somebody's intei'est. 

35, 19. kitcbakla, to pay a sum owed, to repay a debt, ef. s;fu'kta, to pay cash. — 
])i'sh : to himself, as the chief of the Modoc tribe. 

35, 21. papalla. The subchief Dave Hill positively denies tliat such an amount of 
i-ails was ever abstracted by his people from the Modocs, and declares it to be a gToss 
exaggeration. 

36, i. shne-i])aksh and shn6-ilaksh are two terms for " tire-place, hearth", differing 
only little in their meaning. 

36, .5. iimtcli, former, previous, is not often placed in this manner before the substan- 
tive which it (pialifles. 

36, o. gempele, etc. The former Modoc encampments on the lower course of Lost 
Iiiver were distant from Modoc Point about 25 to .30 miles, those on its headwaters 
about 50 miles, and those on Modoc Lake and Little Klamath Lake about the same 
distance. 

36, a. t/iilanipanki, or -kni, Blodoc for tat/alampani in Kiamatli. 

36, !>. Vainakshi gishi' im])lies that Applcgate was living at Yiineks at that time; 
tlie Klamath l>akcs would say instead: Yainaksaksi, or Vainakshi, Yainak.sh. Snper- 
int('ndent Meaeliani had tlien temjjorarily dixided the reservation, leaving the Klamath 
Lakes under (he control of the acting agent al KJamatli Agency, Captain O. C. lvnai)p. 



THE ]\rODOC WAE. 47 

iiiid pliiciii^;- flic ^Moilocs and Walpapi under the managemeut of Commissary J. D. 
Ai)iiU'gate at Yaneks. This was done to pi'eveut further broils and stampedes of the 
tribes. On account of his tall stature, which exceeds six feet, the Modocs called Ap- 
plcgate " Grey Eagle" (p'laiwash), this being the largest bird in the country. 

36, 11. gentalv nu I'ln Agency; Capt. Jack meant to say: "I would go on the re- 
servation again with all my Modocs to settle there, if I had the certainty of being pro- 
tected." 

36, 14. A verb like shayuaktan, "knowing", has to be inserted between ge'sh and 
udi'ini, from wliich ne-ulkiash is made to depend : "he declined to go, knowing that the 
government had compacted with the Modocs deceivingly", etc. 

36, 15. shlepaktgi could be connected here with pi'sh just as well as with pu'sh. 

36, 17. Subject of shpu'nshnan and of shiukiitki is shiildshash. 

36, 19 and 20. tu'm kshuiuilpash kiiila, "land i)roducing jdenty of grasses (kshun)" 
for the cattle. The Lost l\iver country contains the best grazing lands in aU Lake 
County; this explains the unrelenting efforts of the American settlers to get rid of the 
roaming and sometimes turbulent band of Captain Jack. Could also read: kiiila tii'm 
kshunalpkash gi'sht shaua-uliiiga. 

36, 20. wewauishash syncopated for wewanuishash. 

37, 1. hi implies the idea of \icinity to their settlements; "on this ground here". 
37, 2. kiiyak h. : not through arousing their anger. 

37, 3. Major John Green, First Cavalry, was then commander of the troops garri- 
soned at Fort Klamath, which consisted of < 'om])any I>, First Cavalry, and Company 
F, Twenty-first Infantry; aggregate present, 4 commissioned otiicers, 99 enlisted men. 
Major Jackson, of Company B, left Fort Klamath on Nov. 28 for the Modoc camps, 
near mouth of Lost Eiver. In the attack on the Modocs, Lieutenant Boutelle, who 
tried to disarm Scarface Charley, had his coat-sleeves i)ierced by four balls. 

37, 7. The Klamath Lake form hishuakshash=shitko is here used instead of the 
Modoc form hishuatch;^ash=shitko. 

37, 10. All the verbs in this line are reflective verbs, shakiha for Klamath shash- 
kihan; tdnk for Klamath tankt. 

37, 12. tiVgshta Koke. The Modocs had a camp on each side of Lost River, one 
of them quite a distance below the other. On Xov. 29, the soldiers and settlers fired 
across the river at the unprotected lodges of the northern Modoc camp, thus killing 
about 15 squaws and children, while the j\Iodoc men first retreated to the hills, but 
I'etm-ned in the afternoon and recommenced the fight. The "doctor's" baud (37, 16), 
also called Black Jim's band, visited the farms of the vicinity and killed 14 settlers, 
but did not molest women and children. On the Tule Lake settlement three men were 
kiUed. 

37, 15. Eleven may be expressed also by Uiish kshikla taunepanta. 

37, 17. hiela can only be used when a plurality of objects is spoken of, and therefore 
in a better wording this sentence would run thus: ka-i ua'sh gin snawedshash shiuga 
sha, tatakiash kai hiela. 

37, 18. ktayalshtala. Captain Jack with his warriors and their families retreated 
to the lava beds. They quartered themselves in the spacious subterranean retreat 
called Ben Wright's cave, oi-, since the war, "Capt. .Tack's cave", and began to fortify 
their stronghold. 



48 HISTOKrCAL TEXTS. 

37,21, gdta means : camo near (thorn) ; hence gutdmpka : attacked (them). 

37, 21. shellual. The battle of Jan. 17, 1873 was the result of a combined attack 
of the troops on the lava beds from two sides. Owing to a thick fog, which prevailed 
through the whole day, the troops had to retreat with heavy losses and without gain- 
ing any advantages. 

38, 1. tiinkt, although adverb, has here the force of a pre- or postposition in con- 
nection with g^nuish. 

38, 4. shutdnktgi. The Peace Commission, as appointed by the Secretary of the 
Interior, Hon. C. Delano, consisted of A. B. Meacham, Superintendent of Indian Affairs 
in Oregon; of Jesse Applegate and Samuel Case. They met in Linkville on Feb. 15, 
and were rejoined there by Brigadier-Gen. Edward R. S. Canby, commanding the De- 
partment of the Columbia, as the representative of the army in this commission. O. 
P. Applegate was appointed clerk of the commission. 

38, 6. Vulalkshi. The Klamath Lake Indians call that rivulet Kaw6-utchaltko 
kok^ga, or : Eel Creek. 

38, 7. na'iam kaiiatat : on Califoruian territory ; the place being a few miles south 
of the Oregon State border. 

38. 12. hassasuakitampka. This interview had not the desired result, and no other 
authority mentions the conclusion of an armistice. From the second peace-meeting 
Steele, Fairchikl, and the Piddles returned on March 1 ; they had been in Jack's head- 
quarters in the cave and found the chief sick. No result could be obtained then nor 
by any of the subsequent negotiations. 

38. 13. Squire, or Judge Elijah Steele, a pioneer, and citizen of Treka, Siskiyou Co., 
Cal., in 1864 Superintending Indian Agent for the Northern Disti'ict of California, a 
steady protector of the interests of the Indians, and therefore most popular among the 
Klamath Lakes, Modocs, Pit Eivers, Shastis and Wintoons. — Mr. William AtweU, of 
Sacramento, Cal., correspondent of the ^^ Sacramento Becord" at the time of the Modoc 
war. 

38, 15. The term palpal=tcholcks=gitko is very little in use among the Klamath 
Lakes and Modocs, for the Americans are most generally named by them B6shtin, 
Boshtm miiklaks. 

38, 17. kopa for the Klamath Lake term hushkdnka. 

38, 18. Other forms for ktayat are: ktii-itat, distributive: ktaktiyat, ktaktiyatat; 
in the Klamath Lake dialect: ktaiksiiksi, distributive: ktaktiksdksi. 

39, 1. g6kish or g^kiash k'lewiudpka : until you will yield to his entreaties; until 
you will give yourself up to him. 

39,3. Yauiakishash : "The wicked Oregonians " are the white settlers on Lost 
River. 40, 17, they are called Oreginkni Boshtin. Yamakishash, being the subject of 
shu^nktgi, has to stand in the objective case. 

39, 10. i).'^illa. The location of the possessive case after the governing substantive 
(here : wiitch, liorses) is rather unfrequent. The horses, 34 in number, were captured 
diuing a raid or reconnaissance, which Capt. Biddle, of Camp Halleck (Nevada), made 
with fifty men of Troop K, First Cavalry, on March 13, 1873. His men met four Indians 
herding the horses. While bringing the horses to Van Bremer's ranch, on Willow 
Creek, the troojjs were not attacked. 

39, 11. shewanapglitki. The language likes to form inverted sentences like this, 



THE MODOC WAR. 49 

where a more regular position of the words would be : shewauapglitki wdtch Modoki- 
sham Idkiam tubakshSsh. 

39, 15. nia : quite recently, a short while ago. 

39, 15. shash refers to tp6-u and is at the same time the grammatic subject of 
shewanap'Utki, though standing in the objective case : " give orders to them (viz. to 
your soldiers), that they return the horses of the Modocs ! " 

39, 17. shidshna. The troops located on west side were only half a mile distant 
from Jack's camp. The army took up these positions on April 1st and 2d, 1873 
(Meacham, Winema, p. 45). 

39, 17 and 18. The numbers of men stated here are not quite correct, since there 
were at no time more than GOO soldiers on duty around the lava beds in the Modoc 
war, exclusive of the Warm Spring scouts. 

39, 22. p'ndna p'na, to his cousin. Toby was the cousin of Captain Jack, as both 
descended from brothers. 

40, 1. nda'n p^-ula. td-unep is sometimes through neglect omitted in numbers run- 
uiug from eleven to nineteen, p6-ula, or any other of the " classifiers", supplying its place. 

40, 3 and 4. Kotice the local sufiBx -na in these names and in tii-una. 

40, 4. kaydktgi is not here verbal intentional, but exhortative form of kd-ika, kd-iha, 
kaiha, to hunt, pursue. 

40, 5. ni'sh ought to stand after ginti'ltak also : " wOl lie under me." 

40, 6. A new Peace Commission had been formed, composed of the following gen- 
tlemen : A. B. Meacham ; Eev. Elder Eleazar Thomas, D. D., of Petaluma, Sonoma 
Co., California; Leroy Sunderland Dyar, acting Indian Agent at Klamath Agency 
(assumed charge of agency May 1, 1872); and Gen. Edw. R. S. Canby. 

40, 6. h6rakankuish, the spoken words ; -u- infixed gives the form of the preterit. 

40, 8 and 11. shapitak stands for shapiya tak. 

40,9, 10. n6-ashtgi for the Klamath n^-asht gi, na'sht gi, "to agree with"; na'lam 
t-shisha shanahuli nu ne-dsht gi : I desire to go with God, to act in harmony with his 
will, to agree with him. 

40, 12. The participle shu'tan answers to our EngUsh : "Nothing doing that day", 
since both stand for the passive form. 

40, 12 etc. To bring on the desired opportunity for the murder of the Peace Com- 
missioners, Bogus Charley was shrewd enough to a^ail himself of Meacham's absence, 
for he knew him to be opposed to a meeting with Indians when unarmed and unattended 
by troops. He succeeded in capturing the mind of the good " Sunday -Doctor " or min- 
ister, who was unacquainted with the wily and astute character of the savage, by de- 
claring that: "God had come into the Modoc heart and put a new fire into it ; they 
are ashamed for having attempted intrigue, were ready to surrender, and only wanted 
assurance of good faith." (Meacham, Winema, pp. 52, 53.) Upon this, Dr. Thomas 
promised that another council of x^eace should be held, and thus, unconsciously, signed 
his and General Canby's death-wariant. 

40, 13. 19. 20 etc. A quotation of spoken words in oratio recta is more correctly 
introduced by hem6;fe than by hemkanka, as it is done here. 

40, 15. idsha, idshna, is in Modoc used only when manj' objects are spoken of. 

40, 20. kiya, ki'a, gia. This verb is pronounced in many ways widely differing 
from each other ; cf ki, 40, 21. 
4 



50 HISTOEICAL TEXTS. 

41,3. shliwalu: to cock a gun; shliwaWlan, after having cocked his gun; flistr. 
shli.shloal61au, contracted : shlishlol6lan, each man after having cocked his gun. 
Shiiuiola means to take the string ofl'the bow; to uncock the gun. 

41, 4. B. According to Meacham (Winema, p. 50), Toby delivered these plucky 
words, pistol in hand, from the top of a rock, which raised her above the heads of the 
angry mob. 

41, 5. tatd, "whence, fi'om whom", is composed of t4ta"i where? and the interro- 
gative particle hii. The sentence is incomplete, though intelligible to the Indians; the 
full wording would be : tatA nfl tfi'mgna, or : tat hA nft tumgndtko gi : " from whom I 
have heard it". 

41, 7. kaitua sh^yuaksh: "she has not the ability or intellectual disposition to do 
us any harm." 

41, 14. hak, short for hiik; although rendered here by "this", it has to be taken in 
an adverbial sense : " this time". The adverb corresponding to the hak of the incident 
clause is the t^ta in the principal one. 

41, 18. tamd' lish etc. : "have ye made yourselves ready?" 

41, 20. shugulaggi. See Dictionary, s. v. shukfi'lki. 

41, 21. After nush kiinash may be supplied: "I do not want that anybody cast a 
blame upon me." 

42, 1 etc. The party, on arriving, were greeted by the Indians with extreme cor- 
diality, and General Canby gave to each a cigar. Eight men were there, instead of 
the live unarmed leaders, as ]>roniised by Boston Charley. The parts for the bloody 
work had been allotted as follows: Skoutchish had to kill Meacham ; Boston Charley, 
Dr. Thomas; Black Jiin, tlic agent Dyar; Bantcho, Eiddle; and if Gen. Gillein had 
been pi-esent, Iluka Jim would have fired on him. Chief Jack had undertaken the 
assassination of Gen. Canby. Tlie two other jNIodocs present, completing the number 
eight, were Shacknasty Jim and Ellen's man. Scarface Charley also appeared on the 
scene, but not with hostile intentions. The date of the assassination of the Peace Com- 
missioners is the lltli day of April. 

See full account of the massacre in Meacham's Wigwam and Warpath, and (much 
shorter) in his Winema, pp. 57-62. 

42,2. hemkankelgi' is probably: hemkanko'la gi: "has to be talked over to the 
end." 

42, .3. After slil6paktgi there is ellipse of shan^huli, "T desired", or "desii'e". 
The rights alluded to were such as would be equivalent to American citizenshiyi. The 
sentence has to be construed as follows: nu shan4-uli ma'lash tidsh ni'ish(-toks) 
shl6paktgi, w4kaktoIvS, etc. 

42, 4. shkuyuepelitki. Capt. Jack's condition for further peace-negotiations was 
the removal of the troops from the Modoc country by General Canby. 

42, 7. Modoc tgo iil;^a for Klamath tg(^l;^a. 

42, 9. When Gen. Canby had been killed and stripped of his uniform, he was 
turned with his face downwards and his scalp taken. The scalp was raised on a pole 
in the lava beds and dances performed around it, which lasted several days. 

42, 11. Dr. Thomas was killed by a second bullet, which passed through his head ; 
he was stripped of his garments and tiu'ned upon his face, after his murderers had 
taunted him with not l)eli('ving Toby's statement. 



THE MODOG WAR. 51 

42, 12. A "Sunday ki-uks", or Simday Doctor, stands for preacher, and the mean- 
ing of the sentence is a mockery, contrasting Dr. Thomas' vocation of preacher and 
mediator betvreen the two contending powers with his ignoble death brought on by 
cowardly miirderers. 

42, 12-16. Skontchish's ballet passed through Meacham's coat- and vest-collar; he 
retreated forty yards, while walking backwards ; Toby in the mean time tried to save 
him by grasping the arms of his pursuers. He fell from exhaustion on a rock, and 
there was shot between the eyes by Skontchish and over the right ear by Shacknasty 
Jim.* Tliis Indian despoiled the unconscious man of his garments, and prevented an- 
other from shooting him in the head, declaring that he was a corpse. These two left, and 
Toby stayed alone with him. Then Boston Charley came up, holding up a knife to 
scalp him. Toby prevented him by force from doing so, and in the struggle which ensued 
she received a heavy blow on the head from the end of his pistol. Boston Charley had 
completed one-half of the scalping operation, when Toby, though stunned by the blow, 
shouted "Shtildshash g^pka!" Though no soldiers were in sight, this caused the des- 
perado to take to his heels immediately and Meacham's life was saved. Eiddle escaped 
the Indian bullets, being covered by Scarftice Charley's rifle, and agent Dyar was res- 
cued by running fast, though hotly pursued by Hiika Jim. 

42, 18. After the massacre of the Peace Commissioners, the services of the Kiddles 
as interpreters were no longer required. From this date, the report given by them 
becomes meagre in details, because they withdrew from the immediate vicinity of the 
battle-fields. 

42, 18. One of the two divisions was commanded by Colonel Mason, the other by 
General Green, and the three days' fight took place on the 16th, 17th, and 18th of 
A])ril. A heavy bombardment of Capt. Jack's headquarters in the cave (ku'mme 
lalaiishaltko) went on at the same time. 

42, 19. ku'mme lalaiishaltko, the rocky cave, forms epexegesis to Idkiam tchi'sh, 
42, 18 : the refuge, or stopping place of the Modoc chief. 

42, 20. ^mputala. The troops cut the Modocs off from the waters of Tule Lake, the 
only water they could obtain to quench their thirst. 

42, 20 and 21. Wewdnuish, etc. The meaning which the author wanted to convey 
by this sentence is : "the women and children remained in Ben Wright's cave, though 
a portion of them were to be moved out from it." See kii'ktsna (in Dictionary). 

43, 1. Mo'dokni is here an adjective, qualifying the substantive hishuatch;fash, and 
shelludltko is participial phrase determining the verb temporally : " two Modoc men, 
after the fight had lasted three days, were killed." 

43, 1. hash;/e'gi is a "plural" verb used only in the Modoc dialect; Klamath : liush- 
tuho/Sb. To kill one, the singular form, is shiuga in both dialects. The two Indians 
killed by the explosion were boys, who were playing with an unexiiloded shell which 
they had discovered on the ground. One of them was named Watchnatati. 

43, 3. ke'ktgal, etc. The Modocs vacated theii' cave in the lava beds on April l(t 
on account of the terrible losses experienced by the three days' bombardment, and 
retreated, unseen by the troops, to the vicinity of Sand Hill, about foiu- miles SSE. 
of Ben Wright's cave. The two oflBcers who followed them with about 75 regulars and 
30 Warm Spring scouts were Capt. Evan Thomas, Battery A, Fourth Artillery, and 

*Thi8 is indicated in tie text by the inBtrumental case of Kp'ui: Kpantka, by two shots, which 
were fired by two men. Thii five other wounds he had received before. 



52 HISTORICAL TEXTS. 

First Lieut. Thomas F. Wright, Twelfth Infantry. The Sand Hill figiit took place on 
April 26, and la.sted about three hours; the troops were surrounded by the enemy and 
lost 21 men killed, 18 wounded, and 6 missing. The Modoe loss amounted to four 
meu, as supi)osed. 

43, .'). wigA gin for wik4 gen: not far from there they made? another stand. 

43, 4. tdukni waitolan can also mean : "the next day" in tlie Klamath dialect. 

43, 5. Yamakui. Q'he Warm Spring Indians occuj^y, in common m ith Wasco In- 
dians, a reservation on Lower Des Chutes River, Oregon, and are congeners of the Nez 
Perc6s, botli being of Sahajitin race. Being the inveterate enemies of the Shoshoni or 
Snake Indians, the TJ. S. Government formed a corps of scouts from able-bodied men 
of -that tribe, which did good service in the numerous hard-contested fights with the 
Snake Indians. At the outbreak of the Modoc war, these useful allies naturally sug- 
gested themselves as the best auxiliaries against the revolted tribe. Donald McKay 
organized a corps of 72 scouts and rejoined with them Col. Mason's camp April 10, 1873. 
A few later accessions carried them up to an effective force of about ninety men. 

43, 8. To taktakldnta supply kiiflatat. 

43, 10. ItipCni taunep, etc. Instead of giving the numbers of killed and wounded, 
our informant simply gives the number of the survivors. The Warm Spring sconts 
are not included. 

43, 13. Capt. Hasbrouck, of the Fourth Artillery, was then in command of a 
mounted battery, and accompanied by Capt. Jackson, in command of B troop, First 
(Cavalry, and by sixty Warm Spring scouts. 

43, 14. The fight at Dry Lake or Grass Lake occurred on May 10. Thirty -four 
Modocs attacked the troops at dawn, but were forced to retreat. The troops sustained 
a comparatively trifling loss. 

43, 15. tunep p6-ula stands for taunep^nta tunep p6-ula: fitteeu. Cf. 40, 1 and 
Note. 

43, 10. Changes of giammatic subjects, and even their omission, are not unheard 
of in incoherent Indian speech. Thus Boshtui has to be supplied here between nash 
and stan6tchna, and the meaning is : " the troops killed one of the retreating Modoc 
warriors." 

43,17. Pahatko E-ush stands for the more explicit form Pahapkash jG-ush^gi'shi ; 
cf. 43, 13. 

43, 22. shi'itanka properly means : "to negotiate", but stands here euphemistically 
for "to surrender". The same is true of gawina, 44, 2, the proper signification of 
which is "to meet again". 

44, 1. General Jefferson C. Davis was the officer whom the President had, after 
Gen. Canby's assassination, entrusted with the conduct of the Modoc war. He assumed 
command on May 2, relieving the intermediate commander. Col. Alvin C. Gillem, of 
Benicia Barracks, California. 

44, 2. shdt'la kdyaktcha stands for shAtSla kaytiktchtki and was preferred to this 
form to avoid accumulation of consonants. 

44, 2. laki for Mkiash. When speaking fast, Klamaths and Modocs sometimes sub- 
stitute the subjective for the objective case in substantives which are in frequent use, 
u« mdklaks for mdklaksash, 44, 9. 56, 4. ; w^wanuish for wewannishash, etc. 

44, ;>. suude=ginlan, ovei- a week: lit. "a week elapsed". On .Tiiuc 1, 187.'-t Ca[»(. 



THE MODOC WAK. 53 

Jack and his last warriors surrendered to a scouting party of cavalry, not to the five 
Modocs sent after him. 

44, 5. Fort Klamath idsha, or better : Fort Klamathp^e'ui idsha. The national 
name for this locality is I-uk4ka, luk/ik, E-ukdk. 

44, 5. hashu^tko, uncommon Modoc form, contracted from hashashuakitko, by 
elision of two syllables. 

44, 6. stina'sh for shtina'shtat. Generic nouns of places, dwellings, etc., easily 
drop their locative case-sufi&xes and case-postpositions ; cf. kaila for kiiilatat, 44, 8 and 
9. Ydmak, 44, 10, is an abbreviation of Ydmatkshi or Ydmat=gishi. 

44, 7. kshaggaya is incorrectly used here instead of igg^ya, which is said when a 
plurality of long-shaped objects (including persons) is referred to. 

44, 8. iggaya. The execution of the four malefactors took place at Fort Klamath 
on the 3d of October, 1873, under an immense concourse of Indians and whites living 
in the vicinity. It is estimated that the whole Klamath Lake ti'ibe was present, men, 
women, and children. The gibbet constructed for this purpose, of enormous magnitude, 
stands there at the present day. Bantcho and Slulks were sentenced to imprisonment 
for hfe. Bantcho died some time in 1875 in the fortress and prison of Alcatraz Island 
in the harbor of San Francisco, California, and Slulks is serving his term there at the 
present time. 

44, 9. ati kaila. The approximate number of Modocs brought to the Indian Ter- 
ritory for having participated in the revolt, was 145, women and children included ; 
they were first placed on the Eastern Shawnee reserve, and afterwards removed to 
that of the Quapaw Indians. Owing to the moist and sultry southern climate of their 
new home, many of their children died during the first years after their arrival, and 
the Report of the Indian Commissioner for 1878 states 103 as the whole number of 
the Modocs remaining in the Territory. 



To facilitate a prompt reference to the historical events described in this long 
article, I present the following division of its contents : 

33, 1. Negotiations terminating in the return of Capt. Jack's Modocs to the Kla- 
math Reservation. 

34, 18. Difl&culties causing a split in the Modoc tribe. Capt. Jack returns to the 
Lost Eiver country with one half of the Modocs. 

36, 9. The Government of the United States called to the rescue by the Lost Eiver 
settlers. 

37, 3. The massacre on Lost River, and the attack on the lava beds. 

38, 3. President Grant appoints a Peace Commission. Negotiations progressing. 
39, 10. The capture of Modoc horses makes further negotiations impossible. 

39, '20. Toby Riddle reveals her terrible secret. 

40, 12. A Doctor of Divinity among the Modocs. 

40, 22. Toby Riddle tried by her countrymen. Last warnings given to the Peace 
Commissioners. 

42, 1. Assassination of the Peace Commissioners. 

42, 18. Bombardment of the lava beds and the Sand Hill fight ; the fights at Dry 
Lake and near Fairchild's farm. 

44, 1. The closing scenes of the tragedy. 



54 HISTORICAL TEXTS. 



BIOGRAPHIC NOTICES OF MODOC CHARACTERS. 



GrvKN BT J. C. D. Riddle in the Modoc Diaibot. 



I. TOBY RIDDLE. 



Toby ketchkdne mdklaksh gdtpa Ya-dga k6ke Yamatkni'shlim kafla 

Toby a little Indian becaiuo on William- Rivtr of tLo On-gonians in conn- 

• son try 

pa'dshit sko' 1842. HunkgLlm t'shi'shap T-shikka; hunkglam p'ki'shap 

iusi then in sprinj; 1843. Hei father (is) X'sblkka; her moiher 

3 k'leka hu nda'ne ill61atko. Hu p'nd t'.shisha td-unapni ill61ash tula tchfa, 

(licil sho three years-old. She (with) father ten year.s toj;ether lived, 

(hoins) her 

at tu g^nan T4-uni wigdtan p'^adsha p'lia tula tchia. 

Iheu far soi'J? Yreka close by con&in her own with she lived, 

off 

Ndankshaptdnkni t^-unip M6atuash m^klaks Modokishash watch 1857 

Eifihty Pit River Indians from the Modncs the hordes 1857 

6 illoiash palla. Mo'dokni w^tcli haitchna, at pshi'n m/ikleka ; mbu'slian 

in the year .stole. The Modocs the horses pursned, and at night they camped out ; next day 

pii'ktgisht M6atuash gu'lkl. Mo'dokni tchdmptakian luibiitchna; Toby 

ill the dawn the Pit Kivers attacked The Modocs frightened started to flight ; Toby 

(them). 

lieiiikauka: "kd-i huhdtcbantgi ", nda'ni t(i-unepni Mo'dokni sliellual- 

cried; "not they must rnu ", (and) thirty Modocs to fight- 

9 tdmpka. Ma'ntchtoksb shisho'ka, at M6atuash tpudshd, lu'luagshla vu'nipni 

recommenced. For a long time they fought, then the Pit Rivers they lepulsed, (and) captu ed for 

t^-unep Moatudshash i'pkan lu'luagsblan. Pan pshi'n M6atuash gu'lki, 

ty Pit Rivers keeping (and) enslaving (them). Again at night the Pit Rivers attacked, 

tii'mi tchiii M6atuash. lll-ukshikni at ModokishSsh shidshla, pen vui^e 

many (more) Pit Rivers. Klaiuath Lakes then the Modocs helped, again they con- 

qnered 

12 yimeshgapalan p'nAlam wdtch, M6atuasham tchi'sh watch idsha. Ldpgni 

taking hack their own horses, of the Pit Rivers also the horses they drove Twen- 

away. 

te-niiep pan tiinep M6atuash shuenka, tu'm kd-i shl^a; lap Mddokishash 

ty .and five Pit Rivera were killed, many not found ; two Modocs 

shuenka, ndan shlfuiya, tunep E-ukshikishash uge'she-uiya. At maklaks 

they killed, three they wounded, five Klamath Lakes they wounded. Then the Indians 

15 T6biash sheshaloli'shash sh4yuakta. 

Toby a fighter knew her to be. 

ShAlam ill61ash 18'i9 at hu hishuatchkashla Tchmu'tchash. I1161ash 

In the autumn in year 1859 then she married Fiaiik Riddle. In the year 

1862 at sha'hmu'lgi SlidshtiSsh E-ukshikishas ]\Iodoki'shash tchi'sh, at 

I860 she called together the Sh.istis the Klamath Lakes the Modocs also, when 

18 lApeni waito'lan hemkdnka ndnnk mdklsks : " at ndnnk tchdkfili vfhni' 

alter two days declared all the tribes: "now all bUwd is buried 



BIOGEAPHIO NOTI(3BS. 55 

p'ndlam shellualuish". At shu.-ut4nka Ta-uni Skuii' Stl'lamgslii, Skuii' 

of their hostilities ". Then they made the treaty atYreka in Sijitilre Steele's office, Squire 

Stil na'lSm lakl. 

Steele onr manager 
(being). 

T4-uni hunk hushtdnkan mdklaksh Oregon Dick shdshatko hu'tnan 3 

Near Yreka encountering an Indian Oregon Dick by name attackiug 

shish6ka palpal=tchu'leks=gftkash J. Hendi-icks shdsliapksh; hvl mdklaks 

fought a white-skinned (inaD) Hendricka byname; lio the Indian 

vuto'l^a. Mdklaksani snaw^dshftsli shikgni'tkisli uyamn4tko hutchipke 

threw down. The Indian's wife a pistol holding ran towards 

Hendricks shliuapkixga. Toby shnuka shik^nitkish u't%a, hunk ku4ta 6 

Hendricks to shoot (him). Toby seized the pistol (and) wrenched her firmly 

(it from her), 

shnukpdpka mdklakshSsh shiuk61asht, tchek t^shka. 

she held the Indian until was killed then let (her) go. 

(or beaten), 

n. STEAMBOAT FRANK. 

Tchima'ntko shellualshe'mi lapgni ta-unepdnta lap p^-ula illo'latko gi. 

steamboat Frank at the time of the war twenty two years-old was. 

Hu'nkelam t-shishap Shaslitl maklaks gi, hunkelam p'gi'shap Mo'dokni gi. 9 

His father a Shasti Indian was, bis mother a Modoc was- 

Mu litchlitch shish6ka shellualshe'mi ; huk nda'ni kek6-uya shiu'lkishzeni 

Very br.avely he fought during the war ; he thrice tried into the reservation 

geshtga giu'ga Fairchildam kafla gishi'kni, ta-unepAnta tiinep kshiklApkash 

to enter Fairchild's from farm (coming), ten (and) five 

mdklaksh hishu4tch;{ash i'-amnatko ; tchu'i hunk tpugidshapelitdmna. 1 2 

Indian men having with him ; (but) him they drove back every time. 

KA-i huk lalakiash shuenksh hameni, sh^llualsh tads hi shana-uli. At 

Not he the Commis- to kill wanted, to make war however he wnnteil. Then 

sioners 

hu'kshin shdyuakta hunk laldkiam shtiltish k4-i kshaggayu4pkash huk 

surrendering he was informed of thi« of the otficerH' promise not they would by hanging him 

shiu'ga, Mo'dokni lAkiash kaigiuga shu'ldshash. Kdiliaktoks hu tupAks 16 

execute, the Modoc chief if he hunted for the soldiers. "Without ho sistor 

gi t';{aunap tchish, weweshdltko pi'la ; Idpeni hH snawedshdla. Lupi'ni 

is brother .ilso, having children only; twice he married. First 

hiinkglam snawddshash shdshatko Steamboat, mu'=stutxAmpkasli gisht. 

his wife was called Steamboat, of strong voice possessed being. 

Lupi' hunk kuihdgshash shitko shpunkdnka, tchu'i lakiald. 18 

Firstly him orphan-alike she kept, afterwards married (him). 

in. SCAEFACE CHAELEY. 

TchigtchTggam=Lupatkuelatko Modoki'shash shishukshe'mi Mp'ni ta 

" Wagon-Scarfaced " Modoc at the war-time (was) twon- 

unepanta lap pd-ula ill61atko. Hunkelam p'gi'shap t'shi'shap ketchkani- 

ty and two years-old. His mother (and) father in- 

^nash 6' gisht w^ngga. Hu'nkelam t'shi'sha B6shtin kshaggaya. Ketch- 21 

fant he being died. His father the Ameri- hung. When a 



56 HrSTOKICAL TEXTS. 

g-anidnash 6 wiig'n lupatkuela. Shellualshe'mi huk kad shdllual ; hukt 

Hinall l)oy he a wagon pasaeil over the face. In tlio war he bravijly fnuiilit- he 

(was) • ' 

nanukdnash lahlkiasli Avi'niazian shdllual. Modoki'shash shudnksht lahl- 

al'the chitl'a surpassing he fi)ugbt. (When) the Modoca munlered therenco 

3 kiash Tchigtchi'ggam=Lupatkudlatko k<i-i shana-uli tiila .slmdiiksh. Hii 

Coinmis- " Wagon-Scaifaced " uot wanted alonj; to assassinate. He 

"'""«■'! (with lh(;m) 

la'p B6shtiii laMkiash vii'l^in Kela-ushAlpkash=Yaindkishi, lapgni tA-unep 

two AmoriCiiu officers defeated Sand coviTcd llillai, twenty 

piin la'p pd-ula mdklaks i-amnatko; Idpuk B6shtin lalAkiash shudnka. Pen 

"'"' two Indiana havini; with him ; both American commanders ho killed. Again 

6 na'dsliash sbelluAlshgishi pnk mdklakshash bi'ushga k4-i ndnuk slui'ld- 

(OD) one (of the) ballle-fields his Indian men he ordered not all the sol- 

sliash na'sh waitak shudnktgi. 

diers on one day to kill. 

]S"OTES. 

54, 1. ketchkdne or kltclikdni m. g. is a queer way of expression for the more 
common gii'ilj^a: "was born". 

54, 1. Yii aga koke is the present name of the locality on Williamson Eiver where 
the Government bridge was built since her infancy, about one mile from tlie mouth of 
the river. Williamson River is simply called Koke, "river", and on its lower coui-se 
resides the largest portion of the i^-ukshikni or Lake People. 

54, 1. Yamatkni'sham, E-ukshiknisham, etc., are forms often mot with, though 
luigrammatic; the correct forms are Yamatkisham, E-ukshikisham, Modt)ki.sham, etc. 

54, 2. T'.shikka means simply "old man". He was still living in 1870. 

54, 5 etc. The event described in these lines took place on one of the raids which the 
Klamaths and Modocs undertook every year before the gathering of the pond-lily seed 
against the California tribes on Pit River, for the pui-pose of making slaves of tlieir 
females. If the numbers of Indians enslaved, wounded, and killed are correct, the raid 
of 1857 must have been of unusual magnitude, as will be seen by comi)aring the state- 
ments of Dave Hill in another portion of our texts. Among the horses stolen was a 
tine saddle-horse belonging to Toby, and this theft may have stirred her personal feel- 
ings of revenge to the utmost degree. After her successful charge at the head of her 
l>raves, she did not allow the fallen Pit Eiver Indians to be scalped. 

54, 9. ti)udsh^. The accent rests on the last syllable because the particle hti has 
coalesced with the terminal -a: tpu'dsha M. HA is equivalent to "with their own 
hands"; hi'i li'iyamna, I hold in my hand. Many other verbs are occasionally accented 
in the same manner, as itd, shnukd, lakial4. 

54, 12. yimeshg4palan ; through a difference in the prefix, the Klamath Lake 
dialect would say t'meshgdpalank. 

54, r.i. See Meacham, Winema, p. 32 sq., who speaks of three dead enemies only. 

55, 1. 2. Mr. Elijah Steele, Superintending Agent of Indian Aflairs for the Northern 
District of California, met in council the Klamath Lakes, the jModocs, and three tribes 
of Shasti Indians, ^^ith tlieir chiefs, near Yreka, on April 14, 18(54 (not 18(i2), and to his 
mediation was due the peace-treaty between these tribes, including also the Pit River 
Indians (who had not sent any deputies), published in Ind. Afl'. Report for 1864, pp. 
100, no. Toby does nol figure among the interpreters at this council; but there are 



BIOGKAPHIG ^JOTlCES. 57 

two other names of "interpreter for the Modocs": H. K. White and T. S. Ball. The 
raids on the Shasti Indians were mainly undertaken for horse-stealing, and the hostile 
feeling between them and the Klamaths and Modocs was never very intense, since 
frequent intermarriages took ijlace. Cf. Steamboat Frank's biographic notice : 55, 9. 

55, 1 and 3. Tii-uni. Every town is termed so, as Linkville, Ashland, Yreka; San 
Francisco or Portland would be mu'ni td-uni. In this connection, Treka, Siskiyou Co., 
California, is meant. Cf. also 54, 4. Ta-uni has the inessive postposition -i sufiixed, 
and means in a toivn, near a town, or : the country around a toicn. 

55, 4. =gitkash is an ungrammatic form standing for =gipkash. 

55, 3-7. Meacham, Winema, p. 34, speaks of an affray in which Toby interfered in 
a perfectly similar manner, though the names of the combatants differ, and the end of 
the fight was not extei-mination, but personal friendship. 

55, 8. Tchima'ntko means "widower". 

55, 10. Had Steamboat Frank, with his fifteen warriors, succeeded in entering from 
the south across Lost Eiver into Klamath reservation, near Ydneks, and in surrender- 
ing there, this would have saved him from further prosecution, as he thought. 

55, 12. For uyamnatko and iyamnatko, see Notes to Modoc war, 34, 10. 

55, 13. The sentence sh^llualsh tads etc., refers to the vote taken by the tribe a 
few days before the ominous eleventh day of April. Thirty warriors voted for continu- 
ation of the war, thirteen voted for peace; cf. 40, 1. 2. 

55, 13. hi means in the interest of the tribe and its independence. See Notes to 
Modoc war, 37, 1. 

55, 14. He went with the American troops in the quality of a scout. Nothing illus- 
trates the real character of some Indian wars as well as this instance : an Indian who 
has fought with the most decided bravery against the enemy of his tribe, is ready, as 
soon as the chances of war run against his chief, to sell himself for a few coins to the 
enemy, body and soul, and then to commit iipou his own chief the blackest kind of 
treason. Cf. Modoc war, 44, 2. 

55, 14 etc. From the verbal stiltish depends the sentence : kd-i kshaggayu4pkash 
huk shiu'ga (or: shiugAtki), and from ka-i shiu'ga depends kaigiuga. This is the 
verbal causative of kaihia, to hunt for or in the interest of somebody, and the indirect 
object of it is shu'ldshilsh : " for the troops". Hidv in huk shiu'ga refers to Steamboat 
Frank, not to Captain Jack ; were it so, hunk would be the correct form, pointing to 
somebody distant. 

55, 17. stut;^dmpkash, to be derived from stii, sto : way, road, passage ; meaning- 
passage-way of the ^'oice through the throat. 

55, 21. 56, 1. The pronoun hn', he, appears here imder the form of o'. 

56, 1. Scarface Charley was run over by a mail- stage, and obtained his name from 
the scar resulting from that casualty. For sheUualshe'mi there is a form shelluashe'mi 
just as common. 

56, 1. 2. Scarface Charley surpassed all the other Modoc chiefs in skiD, strategy 
and boldness ; he was the engineer and strategist of the Modoc warriors, and furnished 
the brains to the leaders of the long-contested struggle. 

56, 3 etc. Hu la'p etc. The two commandex's referred to were Capt. Thomas and 
Lieut. Wright. Cf. Modoc war, 43, 7-12 and Notes. 

56, 7. nS'sh waitak for : na'sh waita ak : on one day only, on a single day. 



58 MANNEKS AND CUSTOMS. 

E-UKSHIKfSHAM MAKLAKSAM n6-ULAKS. 

LEGAL CUSTOMS OF THE KLAMATH LAKP: PEOPLE. 



Given by SuBCHiEir Dave Hill in the Klamath Lake Dialect. 



E-ukskni na'd tchi tchfa gitd: P'lii lakf tutas;{enini, nli'ds Dave 

Lake-people we thus live here: Blow i« chief general, and I Dave 

Hill lakf P'liiash tapi'tan, LAiik-Tchan DAvish tapi'tan, tche'k tchlsh Link 

Hill am chief to Blow second, Long John Dave after, then too Link 

3 River Jack Ldnk=Tcli/uuisli tapi'tan, Lllu ts. 

Kiver Jack Long John aficr, and Lilu. 

Pit River Charley Moatiiasham laki E-ukshf. 

Pit Kiver Charley * of Pit River people is the at the Lake. 

chief 

Ben Littlejohn lalaki, Sk6ntchiesh laki Yainakskfsham mdklaksam. 

Ben (and) Litilejohn are the Skdntchish in (anb) oftheYAneks neonle 

chiefs, chief 

fi Johnson laki Moadoknisham Yainakslii. George Kuati'lak ts M6dokni 

Johnson is chief of Modoca at Tineks. George Knatilak also is Modoc 

laki tapi'tan J6hnsonash. 

chief after Jolinaon. 



Tch4ktot S4tam laki. 

Tchdktot of Snake is chief. 

Indi.ans 



II. 



9 Ndnuk laMki A'-uksi na'dsant shiu'lgishtat tsi sa htimkank : 

All the chiefs on Klamath on one and resei-vation thus they speak: 

Lake same 

Kd-i 1 shli-uapk shash : ksaggayuapka m's ni ; kd-i 1 palludpk sas 

Not you shall shoot each other ; w ould hang you T ; not you seduce each 

other's 

sndwedsh: spulhi-uapkd m's ni, hii' 1 sas palluapk. K4-i 1 wdtsam tchl'k- 

wives: would imprison you I, if you them seduce. Not you ahorse shall 

12 luapk wanniki'sham; hii'doks i tchikluapk, spulhi-uapkA m's nl. Kd-i 1 

ride of another man ; but if you should ride, would imprison you I. Not yoa 

pdlluapk sas nanuktua, ha'doks 1 pdlluapk sas spulhi-udpka m's nl. 

shall steal from anything, for if you should steal from would iraprison yon I. 

each other each other 

(Ndnuktua kd-i i pdlluapk; ha'doks i yekii'-uapk na'-ulaks, hunkanti' 

(Nothing you must steal ; for if you ' shiiuhl bn-ak the laws, thereat 

15 m's ni shetdidktanuapk.) Ha'doks i snawii'dsh B6shtinash shii'tolakuapk, 

at you I would got angry.) If you, as a female, with a white man should sleep, 

kt6tchkuapka m's ni. Ha'doks 1 ha's^alp'luapk ndnuktua shdshatuish m'na, 

will sut olf hair to you 1. If you should haye returned the whole marriage fe« his. 

to yourself 



LEGAL CUSTOMS OF THE KLA.AIATH LAKE PEOPLE. 59 

s%6ktnank i has%iilp'luapk, hunkantchii' mlsli ni kA-i nd-ulakuapk : wake- 
paying you shoald renbtain it, on account of that you I not shall try; per- 

anhua spu'lhi-uapk. Ha 1 hfshuaksh pAUuapk snawa'dshash, ha'doks 

hapt* (1) will imprison. If yon, as a married man, sednce a married woman, if 

1 n4-ant snawa'dshash sheto'lakuapk, na-ulakuapkd m's nl. Ha t kl'- 3 

yoa another with wife cohabit, shall pnnish yoa I. If yon should 

uapka ts, na'-ulakuapka m's nl. 

lie also, would punlph yon I. 

Ha'toks 1 na's luluksaluapk k'la'kapksh, mu' mlsh nt na'-ulakuapk. 

And if you a per- should cremate, who is dead, heavily you I shall puniah. 

son 

Ha' 1 kiiiks tsls t4wi-uapk, mu' mlsh nl na'-ulakuapk. Ha 1 shish6kuapk 6 

If you as a should bewitch, hard you I shall chastise. If you have a fight 

coDjurer 

illi-uapka m's ndnukans ; ha i snawa'dsh ml siss6kuapk, ilhl'-xiapka m's 

I willlock up all of ye; if you (and) wife your should fight, will look uji you 

ni Mpiik siimsedlgmamks. Ha 1 shuh4nk=sitk siss6kuapk, lApuk mish ni 

I both married folks. If you evenly whip each other, both of ye I 

na'-ulakuapk ; ha'toks sna'wedsh 1 mi ud6pkuapk, tchiii mlsh k4-i sekdk- 9 

will punish ; but if wife you your beat, and to you uot returns 

tsuapk huk snawadsh, ka-i ni na'-ulakuapk snawa'dshash, mi'sh ni hissudk- 

blows the wife, not I will punish the wife, you I, the hns- 

shash spu'lhi-uapk. Ha 1 tudnksl wudsh4yuapk hu'nkst, mi'sh ni mu'ak 

band, will imprison. If you anywhere bruise her, you I more 

heavily 

na'-ulakuapk; ha'toks laki u'dopkuapk snawa'dsh m'na, snakeluapka ni. 12 

shall i)uuish ; but if a chief bruises wife hia, shall remove (him) I. 

Ha'toks i hi'hashuaksh shish6kuapk, lapuk mish ni ilhi-uapk. Ha'toks 

If you with men should fight, both of ye I will lock up. If 

1 shna'l;{uapk Idtchash mu' mish ni na'-ulakuapk. 

you set on fire a lodge hard you I will chastise. 

Ha laki shish6kuapk humdshtak nl shnakelui-uapka ; ha' tchik laki 15 

If a chief starts a fight, in the same man- I shall remove (him) ; if a chief 

ner 

hiintsak a maklaksas shishokuapk, lapeni, nd4nni, tankni shish6kuapk, 

for no reason people should beat, twice, thrice, many times should beat, 

tAnkt ni sna'kglui-uapka ni. Ha' tchik I'-alhish tchish kiii gi'uapkj shna- 

Ihen I shall remove (him) I. If a guardian wrong does, shall 

kelui-uapka ni ; hii nauuktua kiii gi'uapka, tdnkt ni shnakelui-uapkan 18 

remove (him) I; if in everything wrong does (he), then I will remove (I) 

i'-alhishash ; ha'toks I'alhish tids, nauuktuanta tidsh gl'uapk, k4-i ni shna- 

the watchman; but if wntchniau well, all throni;h well shall act. not I will 

kelui-uapk. Lakiash tchish tidsh gisht ka-i ni shnakgliii-uapk ; ha B6shtin 

remove (him). A chief also doing his duty not I will remove; if white-man- 

ydlank na'-ulapkuapk, ti'dsh hunk gi'uapk, M-i ni hunk wutodshanuapk. 21 

alike he deals, right he shall net, not I him will cast away. 

K4-i i hussl'nuapk; ha'toks i hussl'nuapk nti hu'nk i'-amnuapk l'%aks 

Not you must ran horse- but if you run horse-races I the will take away gain 

races ; 

mi. TchI laki na'-ul%a. 

your. 5io the orders, 

ohiftf 



»J0 MANNERS AND CUSTOMS. 

Hji' i kii'liak hfshuaksh nd-iiiids siitolakuapk, Im'k tchish hfssuaks 

If you, not having a hasband, with another abould cohabit, tbia also man 

kii'liak snAwadsh, spuihi-uapka nil ka'lish sndwedsli. Hii hu'ksa heslit6- 

(is) without a wife, shall inipi-iaou I thi' iinmaniod (man). If they should live 

3 lakuapk, hu'nk iii tiim6rmk nii'-ulakuapk spulhi-uapka nu hishuaks hu'nk. 

in concubi- of it I hearing will punish (and) will imprison I man that, 

nage, 

Tchi' A'-ukskni lalaki na'-uleka tchl' huk kailatat m'liAlam ; tsui ki'llitk 

So the Klamath chiefs order so thev in district their; and severe (is) 

Lake 

na'-ulaks lalakiam. 

the law of the chiefs. 

6 Ha'toks i siVmsealstka gi'uapk si-1'huapk 1 Idpuk, snawii'dshash 

And if you on the point of mar- should be and should agree you both, female 

riage 

hissuaksh tchi'sh, tsiii i gdpkuapk lakidmksi ; tsui mi'sh laki snu'mpsa- 

male also, then yon must come to chief 's house; and you the will unite in 

chief 

aluapk, tu'nep 1 n's tdla skil'ktaniiapk luVnk pil mu'yans pl'la Idkiash; 

wedlock, five you to me dollars shall pay only to the principal only chief; 

9 ha'toks i yiialks, tsi huk i nddu tala, wakiAnhua la'p tdla sku'ktanuapk. 

but if you (are) poor, then y<m three dollars, may be two dollars have to pay. 

Ha 1 yualks tsi gi'uapk sunisa-aluapk, ga't i n's sku'ktanuapk. Hats i 

If you poor should be (and) intend to marry, that you to have to pay. And if you 

much me 

sku'ktish hdmeniuk tu'ma wAtch gitk, tiinip i sku'ktanuapk snawa'dshash ; 

to p;iy want of many horses pos- five you can give in payment for the wife; 

sessed, (horses) 

12 ha'toks yualks tsi i lapi w4tch sku'ktanuapk, wakiAnhua nddn wAtch, 

and if poor you two horses can pay, or perhaps three horses, 

tu'ma=kans wdtch gi'tkiug. 

many horses when having. 

Ha' tchi m's snawa'dsh gu'skuapk, ka-i i wdtch shnu'kp'li-uapk 

And if you (yonr) wife shonlU leave, not you the horses can take back 

15 k4-i tch snawa'dsh liuk w^tch spuni'-uapka m'sh; 1 pi'l 1 hissuaksh pil 

and not (yonr) wife a horso need transfer to yon; you alone, you fansband only 

slia'wanuapk snawa'dshash gu'shkank. 

c:ast give (them) (your) wife when leavinc;. 

K4-i 1 Idp snawa'dsaluapk; na'sak i snawa'dslank giuapk; ha'toks 1 

Not you two wives shall many ; one only you marrying mast five ; but if you 

18 I4p snawa'dsaluapk, na'-ulakuapka m'sli. Ha' tchik w^wanuish la'pi giiig 

two wives marry. shall puniah (I) you. If the wives double for being 

hishtchaktanuapk, t4nkt mi'sh ni skuyu'shkuapk sndwadsh na'sh; tsushni' 

sboold quarrel, then from you I shall divorce wife one; forever 

m'sh ni skuyu'shkuapk, kd-i i tat4 mbushiidlp'luapk. Ha'toks i mbusedl- 

from you I snail sever her, not you ever can marry her again. And if yon Aasooiateagaiu 

21 p'luapk spulhi-uapkd m'sh ni. Hats na'dsiak mi snawa'ds tsu'ssak 1 

(with hei) shall imprison yon I. And if raonogaraic your with wilt* conetantly you 

hishtchaktanuapk, tankt mish ni skuyu'shkuapk, ampkdak i hishu'kat; 

sbonld quarr«l, tinaMy from you 1 shall separate (her), or elne ye may kill eitob 

other; 



LEGAL CUSTOMS OF THE KLAMATH LAKE PEOPLE. 61 

liu'niasht mish ni giug skuyu'shkuapk. Ha ni skuyu'shkuapka m'sli, 

therefore ye I will separate. If I sbonld separate (her) from yon, 

tsu'shni m'sh ni skuyu'shkuapk. 

forever from yon I shall divorce (her). 

Kd-i misli ni hu'nk kl'tgik; uanuktuauta kaktak pila m's u hu'nk h.4n\- 3 

Not voa I that to tell lies ahout overythin;; to tell the alone to you I that to 

told ; truth 

kanktgik; nii'-ulakt gi'tki i snawa'dshash tclii'sh kaktak pil. Kd-i u 

tell said ; to observe the laws vou wife also to tell the only. Not I 

truth 

hu'nk gi'tkik m's pila, hihashuakshash tchish iidnukansh. 

this to do tell to yoo only» (bnt) to meu too all (others.) 

III. 

Sndwe(3sh tchik shil'ldshasli shet61;{a, tsui nat ktoktatska; at hunk 6 

A female (if) with a soldier copulates, then we cat her hair off ; she 

yaka'wa na'-ulaks, kd-i hil'nk tu'mena shunu'kanksh ndlam lalakiam. 

broke the law, not she listens to the behests of oor chiefs. 

Tchui tchik titdtna heshs^dlpeli s^satuish m'ndlam, tsiii s^o'ktnank tcha'k 

Also sometimes she reubtains the price paid to them. and by paying 

Through barter (for her) 

h^shs;^alp6h*. Tsiii snawa'dsh tchish ndsh hishuaksh wut6dshish m'na pa'n 9 

she reobtains it. And wife one hn.Hband who repudiated his again 

hil'nk snukp'la, tsiii na'-ulekau titatnan hii'masht=gisht shnu'kp'Hsht la p 

her takes up, then chastise I (him) sometimes I because he took her back for two 

shdppash spii'lhi, titatnatoks ni ndan shappash, titatna tchfn ndsh shappash 

months imprison, but sometimes I for three months, at times and I for one month 

spii'lhi. Tsiii tch' hishtchdkta hii'k kat laldpa wii'wans gitk; tsiii tsin na'- 12 

imprison And quarrel they who two wives have; and thus I or- 

(him). 

ulka skuyii'shkan. Kd-i ni na'-ule;ja, sguyushkuyd ni ; ga'tak. Titatna 

der (and) separate (them) I. No more I try (them) in separate jQst I; that's the Sometimes 

court, end of it. 

tch pdlla shash nd-ants hihassudksas sndwadsh, tchiii ni na'-ulkan nddn 

also seduces (them) other married men a female, then I try (her) I (and) for 

three 

sdppash spii'lhi. 15 

months imprison. 

Tchiii shish6ka titatna, tchiii ndyans wudsdya; hu'nkst ni ndsh siVnde 

And they fight sometimes, ,and others they injure ; him I one week 

spii'lhi, kdt sas hii'k wudshdya. Titatna tch shishoka shipapglankstant hak, 

imprison, who them has whipped. At tinie.s also they have among each othei only, 

fights 

kd-i shii'tka, sissukiiya hak; tsiii ni ne-uleka hii'nkiasht kdkat liiik siss6ka. 18 

not injare, but scuffle merely; then I try those who had the row. 

Lap sii'ndin lapukdyans ilhi'. Titatna udti'pka hissudksh snawa'dsh m'na; 

For two weeks I both parties lockup. Sometimes whips a husband wife his; 

hii'nks ni hissudksas spii'lhi nddn sii'nde ; hti kaa ud6pkpakuapk sudwedsh 

that I husband lockup for three weeks; if roughly he should whip wife 

m'na, hii'masht n'unk giug nddn siinde spii'lhi. Titatna tch sndwadsh -1 

bis. on that account 1 him for three weeks imprison. Sometimes also a wife 

(Other)) 



(i2 MANNERS ANT) CUSTOMS. 

hislnuiksli iii'iia wud6pka, tsiii nl snawJi'dshash hii'nk na'-ul;^, kd-i hiVnk 

Imsbnuil licrs whips, then I wife that pnnish, not the 

hishuakshasli, lap sLiudu. 

husband, for two weekR. 

3 Tsiii tchik kiiiks tchi'sh tltatna tawl shash, tsiii Inlk k'lekii tawi'sh. 

Then aeon- also nt times hewitches thera, and dies the'newitehed 

jiircr one. 

Tsiii 111 iia'-iil;fa, tsui tu'iiip shdppasli spii'llii sinkst ; tsiii tchik watch nish 

Then I try (him), and for five months imprison for man- and (if) horses tome 

ftlanghter : 

s%6kta tiVnip, tsui ni kA-i spii'lhit s^okti'sht iilsh. Tsiii tcli laki ts ktu'pka 

lie pav8 five, then 1 not may iiupriaon he having paul me. And (it) a chief beats 

(luui), 

6 m'na snawadsh, tsxii nt sua'kglua; ga'tak lakl gi huk. 

his wife, thi-n I remove {him); no longer chief re- he. 

mniiis 

NOTES. 

58-62. Tlic lejiiil practices, regulations, anil ordinances j^iven here by a subcliief of 
the Klamath liake tiibe are observed by all the chiefs, and are apparently fashioned 
after American models. The principle which seems to guide most of the judicial de- 
cisions of the chiefs, is given in one (59, 20. 21) of these regulations: "If a chief makes 
law like white people, that will be right.'"* This article is comjwsed of three parts: 

Part I. List of the chiefs acting as judges on the reservation in 1877. 

Fort II. Legal customs governing the Klamath Lake people. 

Fart III. Instances of application of these legal customs ; amount of fines, terms 
of imprisonment, etc. These are the '■'■novella:'''' of Klamath legislation. 

58, 1-3. P'lu, Lilu, and some other headmen mentioned here have signed the treaty 
of Oct. 14, 1864. 

58, 4. Moatuash. There are only two Pit Eiver families living on the whole 
reservation. 

58, 8. Tchaktot belongs to the Yahuskin tribe of Snake Indians. Of. Ind. Aif. 
Report 1873, p. 324. 

58, 10 etc. The future tense employed iu these behests, regulations and defenses 
recalls the French future used in an impressive manner instead of the imperative : tu 
ne tiieras 2)oint, tu we deroberas jioint. 

58, 10. shli-uapk shash. The pronoun shash has here almost the force of a reci- 
procal pronoun, for the meaning of the sentence is : "do pot shoot at people of your own 
tribe." The same is true of sas in palluapk sas, 58, 10; 58, 13 (twice); jidlla shash, 
61, 14. 

58, 10. ksaggayuapkdmsui is pronounced as one word, as the remoA^al of the accent 
from the syllable -uai)k demonstrates; and so in many of the following verbs standing 
in the future tense. Foi- the sake of clearness, I have j)referred to i-esolve these forms 
gTai>hically into their component elements. 

58, 11. wiltsam, etc. The possessive watsani stands here instead of the instru- 
mental case watsi'itka through attraction from wiinnikisham. Tchikla here means to 
ride away on another's horse, the horse being missed by his owner. 

"Dave Hill inlrodiiceB himself in the first person as chief; but many of these decisions can be 
given by the heailchief only, not by any of the suhchii-ft), to whose nnmber Dave Hill belonged. The 
Modocs .at Yfineks claim to observe these regnl.ations ; the Snake Indians do not. 



LEGAL CUSTOMS OF TUK KLAiMATH LAKl-: PEOPLT-L 03 

58. 15. shetchdktanuapk stands for tbe more common form : sliitchaktanuapk 

58.16. n^nuktua sMshatuish m'na: "all what your husband has transferred to 
your parents to obtain your hand"; m'na stands for hisbudksham. Cf. 61, 8. 

59, 7. mish, you, to you, is often used in this article for mAIash, mdlsh, ye, to ye, in 
allocutions to two or more persons. This is a way of eN])ressing what may be called the 
'•inclusive plural of the second person". This mode of speaking is observed in ni's 
lapuk, 59, 7; Wpuk mish, 59, 7. In the same manner i stands for at, 59, 8: i siss6k- 
uapk, if ye whip each other; also 60, 22. 

59, 9. i mi stands for mish mi. 

59, 17. hii kiii gi'uapk : if he should fail to do his duty ; 59, lit. hii tidsh gi'uapk : 
if he does his duty well ; nanuktuanta : in every respect. 

59, 22. i';^aks mi : what you may win by betting on the horses engaged in the race. 

60, 2. ka'lish is the objective case of ka'liak, keliak, "not having", the simple 
form of which, without -ak, would be kJi'li or ka'liu (kii'li hii). 

60, 11. tuma w4tch gitk. The horses have, of course, to be transferred to the 
parents of the bride and not to any of the chiefs. 

60, 12. wdtch. The horses owned by the ELlamath Lake and Modoc people are 
valued from 20 to 25 dollars each ; they descend from the hardy, enduring race of 
Cayuse ponies, and were originally obtained by bartering commodities with the Colum- 
bia Eiver Indians at the DaUes, Oregon. 

60, 15. wdtch spuni'-uapka ; watch refers to one horse only, for the verb spuni', to 
transfer, is used of one (living) object only; shawiina is : to give maiiy objects. " Not 
even one horse your wife has to give to you, if she leaves you ; but if you leave her, 
you must give her several." 

60, 17. Idp snawii'dshla. Polygamy was abolished by the headmen of the tribe 
shortly after the establishment of the reservation, and this ruling was one of the great- 
est benefits ever conferred upon that tribe by the progress of civilization. But those 
who had several wives then were not compelled to dismiss all but one, and so in 1877 
two or three men were still polygamists. The irascible and excitable disposition of the 
Modoc and Klamath females must have produced many chin-music intermezzos with 
their husbands at the time when polygaiuy was predominant. 

61, 3. K4-i mi'sh etc. In this paragraph, in : ki'tgik, kAktak, hemkanktgik, gitkik, 
the terminal k contains the abbreviated gi, which joined to the foregoing nu, u means 
I said. The construction runs as follows : Hii'nk ni gi ka-i mishki'tgi; nanuktuanta 
kdktak gi pila m's n hu'nk h^mkanktki gi; na'-ulakt gi'tki i snawa'dshash tchi'sh 
kAktak gi pU. Ka-i etc. 

61, 6. tchik. This particle does not mean if, but cannot be rendered here (and 
below) with a more aj) j)ropriate word. It is identical with tchek, then. A subordinate 
clause is here expressed by a co-ordinate one. Cf. 61, 9. 10. 12. 62, 4. 

61, 6. ktoktatska: "we clip theu" hair in every instance", is the distiibutive form 
of kt6tchka, ktotska, occurring in 58, 16. 

61, 9. Tsui etc. This inverted sentence has to be construed as follows : Tsiii tchisL 
nash hishuaksh wut<3dshish snawa'dsh m'na pji'n hii'nk snukp'la, tsui na'-ul6kan eU: 



64 MANNERS AND CUSTOMS. 

HuMASHT lalIki ne-ulakta Kakashash. 
DOCTOR JOHN TRIED BY THE CHIEFS. 



Obtained in the Ki-amath Lake Dialect. 



I. ACCOUNT OF DAVE HILL, SUBCHIEF. 

Shillalsh hu't gu'ta. Tchiii sa tchu'ta nanka kukiaks, Tatematchf sh 

a disease bim invaded. Then they treated several conjarers, (and) Aant Snsie 

(him) 

tchuta ; tchiii samtsal;(a Doctor John a geii tawi ; tu' tiiwipk, tata Doctor 

trented then (she) discovered (that) Dr. John him bewitched; over he bewitched ^vhen Doctor 

(biin) ; there (bim), 

3 Jolmam snawedsh shi'la. T/mkt tawi'pk; tcbi hunk s^mtsal^ Tetgraatsis, 

John's wife was sick. That time he had be- so it found out Aunt Susie, 

witched (him) ; 

nd-ast s^mtsal;^. Tsui Doctor John: "ki-t-A a nen Tdtematsis ", na-ast 

thus she discovered And Doctor John (said): "this lies Aunt Susie", so 

(it to he). 

Doctor John hemkank. Sdkamka: " hu'nk kd-i mat pfsh siiikat; ki'ya 

Dr. John spoke. He denied it: "that man not him I killed; lies 

6 mat hu'nk Tetematsis!" na-ashtak Doctor John hemkank. 

this Aunt Susie!" so again Dr. John said. 

Tsiii sa spu'lhi lap'ni ilWlash ; nanuk hu'nk maklaks l(31a Tetematsi- 

Then they locked (him) for two years; about all the Indians believed Aunt 

up 

shash Tsui vuKi laUki, tsui hemkank Doctor John, tu'm hemkank na-asht: 

Susie. Then inquired the chiefs, and said Dr. John, at length bespoke thus: 

of (him) 

y '* Tua ni wdk giug shiukuapkf Tfdshi a hu't hfshuaksh, ka-ituAlash shish- 

"I wherefore should have killed Honest cer- that man (was), with nobody quar- 

(bim)? tainly 

tchakt'nish; wdk lish fk \6\i a nen Tetematchishash? At hihiki hu'ntsak 

relliui; ; how is it ye all believe Aunt Susie? Now (ye) chiefs without rea- 

HODS 

i nen 161a, keMmtsank si'tk lu'dshna ; ka-i nu hu'nk siiigat. Katak ni nen 

ye believe, closing your eyes-alike walk along; not I bim killed. With vera- T 

city 

12 hemkank, plaitalkni nu'sh shla'popk hii'mkankst. Tua ni shuta-uapk 

speak, the Mnst High me sees, as I speak. What 1 would have profited 

shiugok? nil ya k4-i ni a kukamtchish gi'-uapk shiugok; tua ni tdla i'shka? 

by murdering 1 cer- never I an old man would become, had I killed what I money made? 

(him)? tainly (him); 

tua ni a tdla ya i'shka shlugokf Tidsii'wank tchfa, kA-i ni kants shiuksh 

what I money ever made by killing (him) I I am •; lad to be liv- not 1 anybody to kill 

i"g. 
15 sanaho'li ; ha' ni klii'kuapk, humashtak i ts6kuaj)k klakui'sh gint nu'sh. 

desire; it I shall perish, equally ye will perish as I have died. 

Kd-i na'd tehussui'ni mAklaks n4nuk kaila-ndkant. Uu'ndsak tchi insh 

Sot vre (are) immortal men till world all over. For no cause thus mv 



DOCTOR JOHN TRIED BY TELE CHIEFS. 65 

spu'lhi : kd-i tchin wak o'skank. Undsa' ni n^-ulakuapk : la'iiwak na'- 

(ye) im- Dot 1 abont it am angry. Sometime I shall arraign (her) ; not I know tohaTe 

prison ; hence how 

ul6;^a T^tmatchishash wdk hu'nk nen sdmtsalka; la ni w4k na'-ulaktanuapk 

tried Aunt Snsie for the manner by she found out; not I know how to proceed against 

which (her) 

sheshamtsal;^ishash hu'nk. TAnkt uialsh ni sha'gsuapk mdlash lalakiash. 3 

for discovering all about it. That time to ye I will speak out ray to yo chiefs. 

mind 

K4-i nu shayuaktant Tet6matsi'sas ; hu'nk p'liiitelkni shayuakta Tetgmat- 

Not I know about Susie; it the Most High knows, Aunt So- 

sisas wdk gisht sii'rastsalkst, w4k ta nu'sh tchish katak sha'gshasht 

sie in which manner di.scovered (it), (but) how me also the truth to have told 

sla'popka n'sh hii'iik. Sak.imkst pi tsi n'sh hu'nk ne'-ulakuapk, ha ni 6 

has seen me (he). For having she thus me must punish, if I 

denied it 

siki'tnank sa'gsuapk. Katok ni ge-u sagsa'wa ; tchi ni hu'skank." 

falsely repotting should speak. Truth I my tbinklsay; thus I think." 

T^tgmadshish hu'nk nA-asht k'l^kuish at gi: " K;itak am'sh nt s^mt- 

Aunt Susie so after the death had said: "Truly you I have 

(of PlSkish) 

sal%a, suis mi'sh g^-u sliia; i' hun siuga, na'nsak toks i nen sakdmka. 9 

found out, bimduo- you my has seen ; yon that murdered, in vain yon give a denial. 

a^U song man 

Na-asht kukiaks tsu'ssak siukuk; kiya hii'nk na-asht giug; tids taks mi'sh 

Thus CO jurers always after killing; lie when so saying; pretty well you 

(say) (they) 

ni kui^A m's ni. Gdhak hu'k na'-ulaks K'uiukAmtsam : nd-asht hu'nk 

I know yon I. Long years thi.s (was) the law of K'milkamtch: in this manner 



since 



ha'mkanktgi siukuk mdklaksas. Hiimasht tchi nen h^mkanka 1', Doctor 12 

to speak after mur- a person. That way so talk you, Dr. 

dering 

John!" Tsi ha'mkank T^tematsis shapiik. 

John!" So spoke Susie when speak- 

ing (about it). 

Tsui laMki wdltka. " Sfuga i'", tchi n4nka waltk laMki; nan^a ts 

Then the chiefs deliberated. "Killed yon", so some uttered chiefs; others 

(him) 

"kA-i shluk i'" sa'wa; tsui tchi'k sa waltakuapk. ' 15 

"not killed yea" thought; and afterward they were to deliberate 
(him) again. 

n. ACCOUNT OF MESrsriE FROBEN. 
T^tgmadshish hu'nk shiunu'tnuk sh^mtchal^a tawi'sht Doctor Johnash 

Aant Susie by singiug tam^unash- discovered that had bo- Dr. John 

songs witched 

fi-ush guni'gshta mdklakshash tchi'pksh. T^kmal g(ina Doctor J6hnamksh 

Upper Kla- on opposite an Indian liviug. T^kmal had gone to Dr. John's lodge 

m.atb Lake shore 

shuAkidshuk tchu'tantki giug hunk shillalpksh, kdnt sha Doctor J6hn- 18 

cailiug (him) to treat that (man) who fell sick, whom they Dr. John 

ash tdwiank shi'uks gishapa. Tchiii hu'nk Doctor John tchutanhuya; 

to have be- (and) killed said. And him Dr. John treated a while; 

wiiched 

kdyak tfdsh w^mpelank k'Iek4, tchui sa shiiina k'l^knish tuti'ks m'ndlam. 

never recovering he died, then they sang after his death dreams their. 



66 MANNERS AND CITS'inMS. 

Tsiii Tetenuidsliish hu'nk shemtcluil;^a tawi'slit l)octc»r Joliiiash k'lekap- 

Thcn Aunt Su»ie dist^overcti that hiid he T>r. Jobn Iho (fc- 

witcUtil 

kash; tsiii mbu'sliant wait61ank ii4-ent waitashtka i'lktclia; Doctor Johuash 

ccise.; autl next day bciu^uver un otber day biiiird (Iiirii) ; Dr. Johu 

3 tchl'sli sha shpunslma, at klewiank slia Doctor Johuash shpiinshampelank 

also tbey conveyed, now alter their return Dr. Ji-bu tukiDj; alonj; 

shpulhi, tchui sha ka-ishnank skukum-housc mpainpatkia tchikeminatka. 

inipi iHonfd, aud tli- y locking the atioiis-boust' iiaili'd (itj down with (iiou-) nails. 

Tchikeskui Shkehxksh tCi'Li shpulhi D<»ctor Johnash. Tchui tcliiwi'/ja 

TcIiiUoskni Skol.n^ with imprisoned Dr. Jobn. Aud bo sal iu 

6 hatokt, tchui lul'ksha ga'mpgle spulhi'tkiik. Pan nda'ni tchek wait61ank 

then-ill, and these men went home alter imprisonment. Again three at last days past 

Sh;^elag gatpa ktu'tp'nuk pash; tchiii S;iclag ga'mpele k4yak hassasiu'ikiank 

Sk61af; came to bring (bim) fooci ; and Sk61ag returned not at all having spoken 

Doctor Johnash. Pan gena IS;^ elag nddni wait61ank p4sh iiniyuk ; shu'hj)- 

t'l Dr. Johu. Again went Sk61ag three days elapsed victuals tobringj hand- 

9 kank p'laikni hak shewana Doctor Johnash, P'hi toks lap6ni shewana 

jng from above there he gave (them) to Dr. Jobn, lllow however twice gave 

nayant waitashtat. Hu'kt pil na'dshek; hii'ksha toks, nanka k4-i hu'masht 

au<ither on day. Tliis one (was) the only one ; those (men) (did), other (men) not like (him) 

sh^wanat shi\ikshtka giug Doctor Johnash. Tchushak lapi sha sliikenitksh 

gave (any lood) kill in order Dr. John. Con.stantly two they a pistol 

to (men) 

12 shishi'tilatk shliutuapkug liu'nk. Agency tchiii gepksht tapi' ti'ta shasli, 

were carrying in to hre ou bim. To the Agency (they) had after a while they, 

their dress " gone 

ktiugiulank kd-ishtish, tchiii watch hdtokt tku'tkapksh shlaank ge^hlap- 

he kicked open the door-cover, and ahorse there standing linding (he) mounted 

tchapka, ro'na linakam gatpcnotash. Tchiii gt'ta hushotpa agency, tchiii 

it, his sou having come (with Then here he rode up to the agency, and 

ilie horse). 

J5 yd-uks-menamksh gatpenank gull'. Tchui agenci'nish 1/tkiasli liashashu- 

in the physician's house coming entered. Autl to the agent he ap- 

akia, Mfnniash shahamiiyank shnii'ntatka lakiash hashashuakitki giug. 

pi cd, for Minnie sending to interpret the agt nt for convei'sing witb. 

IfOTES. 

64, 1. Ill September 1611 Fi'ikisli, an elderly Iiuliaii, died alter a very tsbort illness 
on the western side of Upper Klamath Lake. Tlie rumor that lie had been l^ewiteheil 
and thereby feloniously killed by Kakash, one of the eonjnrers who treated him, soon 
gained credence, aud the excitement in the tribe ran high. The first account oi the 
occnrrence was obtained by one of the snbchiefs, who, with his colleagues, passed 
sentence over the unfortunate KAkash. 

64, 1. hu't, "this one", forms one of the substitutes for names of deceased persons, 
which no Indian dares to pronounce. Hu't refers to a person standing visibly before 
the sjjeaker, iind it is remarkable that the dead are referred to by this pronoun, anil not 
by a pronoun marking distance out of sight, like hukt, hu'kt;i etc. Of. hu't hishuaksh, 
84, 9., g6n, 64, 2., hu'nk pi'sh, 64, 5., 68, 11. etc The subject nanka kukiakvS does not 
exclude the use of the sid>j('(t pronoun shn, llin/, the nccount being wcwlcil in (lie con 
versational stvlc. 



DOCTOR JOHN TRIED BY THE CHIEFS. 67 

64, 1. TetgrnAdshish or Aunt Susie is one of the numerous female "doctors", who 
eke out a scanty living from some patients of the Klamath Lake tribe. She received 
the above name for having been a washerwoman to the soldiers stationed at Fort Kla- 
math, and the nickname Wiiya-ak was bestowed on her on account of her predilection 
for small sucker fish. 

64, 2. samts41;/a. The means employed by her to discover that Dr. John had 
cast upon the patient a spell of a deadly character, were the singing or recital of taman- 
nash songs, and the dreams which she had on that subject. Her taraanuash songs had 
see)i those of the accused conjurer. See 65, 9. The great majority of the tribe still 
believes in the possibility of witchcraft. 

64, 7. The two sentences contained in this line anticipate the result of the whole 
ti'ial, and the popular verdict. The proper place for them would be after 65, 15. 

64, 9. Tuii ni etc. The defense made by Dr. John in his o\vn case is not an unable 
one, nor is it devoid of oratorical powers. But if the arguments were delivered in the 
order as given by Dave Hill, they ought to have followed ea<5h other in a more logical 
order to attain their full eftect. 

64, 10. w4k lish etc. The logical connection existuig between this sentence and 
the foregoing has to be supplied by : " why should he have been my personal enemy?" 

64, 10, 11, 15 etc. i, ik stands here for at {ye); because, when the headchief is ad- 
dressed in council, all the others are addressed also. Loli stands for 161a i. The trial 
took place on Williamson River. 

64, 13. kukamtchish. The distributive form is used here instead of the absolute 
verbal k'mii'tchish, because old age comes on gradually, by degrees. 

64, 16. tchi insh instead of tchi nish; the language likes juxtaposition of two short 
equal vowels, even when a metathesis is required. 

65, 8. K4tak etc. Aunt Susie's opinion, given just after Piikish's death and some 
time before the trial, did not fail to have a striking effect on the superstitious judges 
and tribe, for her arguments perfectly agree with the national ideas. But to us the 
arguments seem so weak, that no conviction .seems justified, if not based on other 
evidence. 

65, 9. nji'nsak etc. " Your defense does not disprove any of the points advanced 
against you." 

65, 11. K'mukaintsam nti'-ulaks : " the old customs of the i^eople." 

65, 16. The second account of this tam4uuash-case was obtained a few weeks after 
the trial ; Dr. John was present at the agency buildings at the time of the dictation, 
furnishing the facts to my informant. 

66, 4. k^.-ishnauk etc. This underground jail was in such an unhealthy condition 
that Dr. John could not have lived in it through the tenth part of his long term of 
imprisonment. 

66, 5. Tchikeskni and Skelag, names of two watchmen (i-41hish) ; the chiefs appoint 
watchmen from time to time. Sk61ag is "the young weasel" and Tchikeskni "man 
living at Tchikesi camping-place". They were armed with pistols to foil any attempt 
at escape. 

66,10. na'dshek for na'dsh ak : "the only one". Compare nMshiak, 60, 21 ; waitak, 
56, 7. and Notes. 

66, 12. shishi'tilatk. The past participle often stands for forms of periphrastic 
conjugation: shishitilatko gi, they were carrying in their dress. Cf. illolatko, 55, 20. 



68 MANNERS AND CUSTOMS. 

66, 13. g<5'hlaptchapka. The verb geldpka means to step on, to mount, ascend ; 
with 'h infixed, to mount upon something by using one's hands ; ge'hl^ptcha is to per- 
form this while on the way, while going or travelling; ge'hlaptchapka, to perform this 
at a distance from other people and unseen by them. Doctor John escaped, aided by 
his son, in the midnight hour. 

66, 14. ra'na linakam gatp6n6tash. Gatpgnota is a derivative of giltp'na with a 
diirative signiiication, the suffix -6ta pointing to an action performed while another is 
going on. " Ilis son having arrived close by, while he was imprisoned." 

66, IG. shnii'ntatka, verbal intentional of shnu'nta, the suffix -tka being sometimes 
substituted for the usual -tki, -tki giug. 



PUNISHMENT OF MANSLAUGHTER THROUGH WITCHCRAFT. 



Obtained fkom "Sergeant" Morgan in the Kla.matu Lake Dialect. 



Tina mdklaks ma'ntch=gi'tk n4-asht gi: "tu salpji'ta suawedsh gd-u 

Once man long ago thus spoke : "over is bewitched wife luy 

there 

shfllalsht! i a-i tawi!" Tsui tchikash skuyui sudkitsatki glug; tsiii g^na 

bavins fallen yon bewitched Then an ol'l man besentont to call a coujurer; and he 

sick; (ber)l" started 

3 tchfka PuAkitsuk, tsiii shudkiuk nd^na, tsiiyuk tiiniena shuishuk, kiuksam 

the old to fetch the con- and to call him out halloed, and he heard the magic aongs. conjurers' 

man jnrer, 

yafnatat shui'sh; Ati ha shufshuk. Tsui g^na kluks tsutdnsuk, tu'shtaks a 

on the moan- songs; far (are) songs Then goes the con- to treat (her), to the spot 

tain away these- juror where 

sal^ita. At shu'ta hu'nk, tchui hantsna. G^tpa mii'ns siimmatka, shui'shuk 

she lies Now be works on her, and 8ncks. ('onie.sout a biglhing thronph (his) toeing 

bewitched. mouth, 

6 tp^wa, summdtka hdntsantkiug. Tsiii hdntchipka, tsiii put4, tsiii husatchip- 

he orders with (bis) month while be would suck Then he sacks out, and feels and throws up 

(those present), on. choked, 

gapgle hdnshish m'na; s^u'd^a lutatkisli. At Im'k s;{6tka, kii-i huki' tsutisli 

again sncked-ont his; swallows (it) (his) exponndcr. Now he has swal- worse that being 

article (after) hiwtd (it), (patient) treated 

gi'ntak, kii-i gl, w'lgk tels4mpka k'la'ksh. Kiuks M'k tch^-ul;{a shu'kpal- 

in spite of, worse is, almost she looks towards the Conjurer the starts to leave wanting to 

(she) spu-it laud. 

9 takiug ku-i gl'sht k4-i gi'l^isht pdsh ; tchui hCi'k nti-asht gi kdlaratak 

retire worse because (and) passing through the food ; hereupon be thus speaks whose own 

she turned not (bowels) 

sndwedsh shi'la shal^i'tnuk, klukshash: "i a-i tAwi hunksh." Tchuyuk 

wife is sick for being bewitched, to the conjurer ; "you have ber." But 

bewitched 

sakAmka ki'uks: "kd-i a nil tdwit! shiiaka hfit!" kiuks tchui na'sht 

opposes denial the con- "not T did bewitch had become ."^ho!" conjurer then so 

jurer: (her)l sick (before) 

12 h^mkank. At k'ldka .snaw^dsh. 

flftld. N"ow diftfl the woninn. 



PUNISHMENT OP MANSLAUGHTEE. 69 

Wudokd hushtsoxa sha, kluksas sdl^itnuk kl^ksht hunk snaw^dshash. 

Strnck (and) killed they the conjurer for being be- having died this 'Woman. 

witched (and) 

Tsui sa liiluksla snaw^dsh kiuksam siuks ; M'nk sa kiuksas a'mpgle 

And cremated the woman by the conjurer killed; him they the conjurer brought ba«k 

tchi'shtal, tsui sa liiluksla mAklaks. 3 

to (hiR) lodge, and cremated the people, 

(him) 

NOTES. 

68, 1 etc. This is a pretty good illustration of the method of doctoring by suction 
adopted in similar tami'muash cases. Persons sent out to call for the conjurer do not 
enter his cabin, but loudly halloo outside till he appears ; in this instance he is sup- 
posed to sing his medicine songs amidst the solitary wilds of the mountain sloi^es. 

68, 1. ma'utch=gi'tk. This temporal adverb places the mode of punishment de- 
scribed by the informant among the ancient customs of the people. Compared to what 
is stated here, the trial of Doctor John shows a material modification in the dealings 
with suspected conjurers, attributable to the influence of the white poi)ulation. 

68, 1. 10. sal;fita is always used in a passive signification, " to be afflicted with the 
tamanuash spell or bewitching power", which conjurers can send out at will. 

68, 1. 2. The word.s inclosed ia quotation marks anticipate all that follows up to 
68, 10. 

68, 2. 8. a-i. This particle has the signification: "undeniably, evidently". 

68, 5. shu'ta hii'nk. The "working" of a conjurer on a patient's body consists in 
rubbing, pressing, magnetizing, in blowing on it, and in pouring water over the face or 
other parts. Sucking out the object which caused the disease is of course the principal 
operation called for to effect a cure. 

68, 5. mu'ns; it is not stated whether this hdnshish was a frog, a worm, a small 
stick, or any such thing; this is immaterial, for the Indian strictly believes that the 
article was removed from the patient's body and that it caused the disease. 

68, 6. hantsantkiug and 68, 8 : shukpaltakiug stand for hdntchantki giug and 
shukpalitki giug ; cf shu'kpeli. 

68, 6. hautchipka properly means : " he sucks towards himself" ; husatchipgajjgle 
" he throws up again to himself" ; viz. into his mouth, so as to be able to take it out 
with his hands. 

68, 7. liitatkish is the conjurer's assistant. His ofBce is to repeat his tunes or 
speeches before those present in the lodge, to expound or explain his sayings, to start 
songs and tunes in his stead, and to perform such manipulations as mentioned here. 

68, 8. k'lii'ksh, contracted from k'liikapkash, the dead, the deceased ; k'lekdpkash 
telsh4mpka, to be on the point of death. 

68, 8. tch6-ul;fa : he rises from his seat on the ground, or on a blanket near the 
patient's couch, for the purpose of leaving. 

69, 1. hushts6;^a. The killing of a doctor or doctress by the relatives of the pa- 
tient who died under his or her treatment was nothing unusual in the Columbia Basin 
until quite recently. In some tribes the third failiu'e in curing brought certain death 
on the conjurer, especially when he had received his reward in advance. 



70 MANNERS AJ!^D CUSTOMS. 



SHAMANIC DANCE-DIRECTIONS. 



OlVBN BY DaVB HiIX in THE KlAMATH LaKE DIALBCT. 



" Wdlok mat tu'uepni wait61at nAt g^nuapka ksliiulaktsudpkuk we- 

" For sweating during five days we sbaU go to have a dance the 

wala'ksh tchlsh. At g^ntak I'lksat p/m a. Wu'sa ni luskuapkug. Kilank 

old women also. Ye shall go on a feast to eat. 1 fear I may get too warm. Loud 

(men) 

3 at tsufnuapk; tunepni at nuti'sh tsui'uuapk. At tchish hfhashuaksh kslu- 

yo mast sing; at five ye fires ye have to sing. Ye too (women and) fellows begin 

laktampka litstakiank; untsa'g na'tnag pd-uapk tu'm mbu'shant. "Silalsh 

to dance with exertion ; l)y and by then ye shall eat plenty tomorrow. " Dist-ase 

mat na'bakuapk" kiuks nA-asht shapa, ya.yay4-as mat nd-asht sapa; "ku't- 

willcomeon" the sha- thns say.', some tam&nnash- (tofaim) "it is so" says; "of small, 

man medicine 

6 kaks mat sfssalaluapk" yayaya-as mat nd-ast sh4pa. Sudssuaktch mdk- 

pox it says will suffer (the peo- the tam&nuasb jnst so says. Ate weeping peo- 

ple) " 

laks luinuk wuss6ga ku't%aks. N4-ast kiuks wdlok sapa: "Tilnui llksh 

pie all afraid of smallpox. So the sha- before speaks: "How many food- 

man sweating buckets 

sha' til at? tankgni at I'lksh? Ldpni td-unepanta pa'n tunep pc^-ula; 

do ye count? bow many already baoketst Twice ten and five; 

9 kdnk a ni sii'tu." 

so ni.nny I count." 

NOTES. 

70, 1 etc. This is a fair specimen of the careless, jargou-like conversational style 
in vogue among the E-ukshikni, and without commentaries and glosses it would be 
impossible to get at the true meaning. 

These dii-ections are intended to gather the people at the communal dance- 
house for a dance lasting five nights. The dance is performed around the fires with 
almost superhuman exertions, in order to produce profuse perspiration and to prevent 
thereby any infection by disea.se. The coujuier or shaman is charged with the inaugu- 
ration of all dances, most of which are of a religious character. This kind of sweating 
is called " w41a", while sweating in a temazcalli or sweat-house is "spiikli". The kiuks 
is introduced as speaking all these words. The i>article mat indicates that the words 
given are those of another than of the narrator. 

70,1. waitolat; in common parlance: tunepni waitash gi'ulank, or : tiinepiii giu- 
lank, or in Modoc tunepni waitolan. 

70, 1. kshiulaktcha difl'erent from ksiul6;^a; see Grammar (List of suffixes). These 
dances take place in winter time and are held from two to four times every season. 

70, 2. wewala'ksh. This is one of the festivities from which old women are not 
excluded ; they often take part in the dance themselves. 



DETAILS OF A CONJURER'S PRACTICE. 71 

70, 2. i'lks (from el;ifa, %a, to lay down) is the full dish, basket, or bucket (kala), on 
which the victuals are brought in ; but it means also the food itself, and the dance-feast 
on whicli they are eaten. Locative case : i'lksat. 

70, 3. shuina is often incorrectly ijronounced tsuina. 

70, o. nuti'sh ; verbally ; while burning fivefold ; while five fires are blazing. 

70, '.). At tchi'sh : the joung men, who strip themselves naked down to the hips 
during the performance, begin theii- dance after the women have had one turn. 

70, 5. na'bakuapk : see nepka, in Dictionary. 

70, 5. yayay^-as means a certain tam4nuash witchcraft which inspires the conjurer : 
the conjurer tells the people just what (na-ast) the yayaya-as said to him. 

70, 6. 7. s, sh is here in three words doubled to ss : shishalaluapka, shuashudktcha, 
and wusoga ; ku't/^aks forms the indirect object of the first of these verbs. 

70, 7. wiilok sdpa. The kinks gets the inspiration from the yayayd-as only after 
sweating ; then he can tell (s^pa) the i)eople, when the disease will come. 

70, 8. t^nkeni: after tankgni at i'lksh supply itpa? (did ye bring in 1). 

70, 8. 9. shii'tu, sa'tu for the more usual form sha'tua ; pii'n alter t4-unepanta is 
incorrect and unnecessary ; this conjunction should stand there only after ta-un6pni or 
td-unep. 



DETAILS OF A CONJURER'S PRACTICE. 



Given in the Klasiath Lake Dialect by Minnie Frobbn. 



M4klaks shudkiuk kiuksasli ka-i gii'l'hi hiinkelam ladshashtat, nd^na 

iDdiana in callina: the coDJnrer not enter his into lodge, they 

halloo 

sha'hm6knok; kiuksli toks wan kiukayank mii'luash m'na kanita pi'sh. 

to call (him) out; the conjurer red fox hanging oat on a assign his outside "of him". 

pole. 

Kukiaks tchii'tanish gatp'nank wigdta tch^l;{a ma'shipksli. Lutatkish 3 

CoDJureM when treating approaching clo^e by ait down the patient. The expounder 

w'lg&ta kiukshesh tcha'liMnshna. Shuy^ga kiuks, wevi^auuish tchik win6ta 

close to the conjuror sits down. Starts choruses the con- females then join in 

jurer, singing 

liukiAmnank nadsha'sliak tchutchtnishash. HAnshna ma'shisli hu'nk 

crowdiog around him siraultaneou.sly while he treats {the sick). He sucks diseased that 

hishuaksliasb, tatktish i'shkuk, liantchipka tchi'k kukuaga, wishinkaga, 6 

man, the disease to extract, lie sucks out then a small frog, small snake, 

mu'Ikaga, kako gi'ntak, kdhaktok nanuktua nshendshkane. Ts'u'ks toks 

small insect, boue afterwards, whatsoever anythiug small. A leg 

kd-uslit tch^kgle itkal; liilp toks ma'shisht tch^kelitat Igu'm shil'kelauk 

being frac- the (bad) he ex- eyes but being sore into blood coal mixing 

tured blood tracts ; 

ki'tua luipat, kil'tash tchisli ksh^wa liilpat pu'klash tui;;^ampgatk 9 

he pours into the eyes, a louse too introduces into the the white of protruding 

eye eye 

Itiiipjaktgi glug. 

fur eating out. 



72 MANNERS AND CUSTOMS. 



NOTES. 



71, 1. sliuilkia does not mean "to call on somebody^ generally, but only "?o call on 
the conjurer or medicine man". 

71, 2. wan stands for wAnam ni'l : the fur or skin of a red or silver fox ; kanita 
pi'sh stands for kanitana liitchash m'u41am: "outside of Ids lodge or cabin". The 
meaning of the sentence is: they raise their voices to call him out. Conjurers are in the 
habit of fastening a fox-skin outside of their lodges, as a business sign, and to let it 
dangle from a rod stuck out in an oblique direction. 

71, ;5. tcliel;fa. During the treatment of a patient who stays in a winter-house, the 
lodge is often shut up at the top, and the people sit in a circle inside in utter darkness. 

71, .'>. liukiiimnank. The women and all who take a part in the chorus usually sit 
in a circle around the conjurer and his assistant; the suffix -mna indicates close 
proximity. Nadsha'shak qualities the verb wimHa. 

71, 5. tchutchtnishash. The distributive form of tchii't'na refers to each of the 
various manipulations performed by the conjurer on the patient. 

71, 5. ma'shish, shortened from mashipkash, ma'shipksh, like k'lii'ksh from k'liik- 
ripkash, 68, 8. 

71, G. 7. There is a stylistic incongruity in using the distributive form only in 
kukut'iga (kue, frog), kahaktok, and in nshendshkdne (nsheki'uii, ndsht^kaid, ts6kaiii 
tch^kgni, small), while inserting the absolute form in wishinkdga (wishink, garter-snake) 
and in ki'iko; mu'lkaga is more of a generic term and its distributive form is therefore 
not in use. 

71, 7. kdhaktok for ka-akt ak ; ka-akt being the transposed distributive form kiikat, 
of kdt, which, what (pron. relat.). 

71, 8. Igu'm. The ai>plicatiou of remedial drugs is very unfrequent in this tribe; 
and this is one of the reasons why the term "conjurer" or "shaman" will prove to be 
a better name for the medicine man than that of " Indian doctor". 

71, 9. Icfi'fash etc. The conjurer introduces a louse into the eye to make it eat up 
the protruding white portion of the sore eye. 



Kalak. 
THE RELAPSE. 

Given in the Klamath Lake Dialect by Dave Hill. 



Ha ndyans hissudksas ma'shitk kAlak, tsiii kfuks na'-ulakta tchutiin- 

Wbon another man fell sick asarclapsc, then the conjurer concludes to treat 

iiapkuk. Tchiii tchuta ; tcliui y4-uks huk shlad kAlak a gek. Tchf huk 

(liim). And ho treats; and remedy this finds out (i hat) relapsed ho. Thus the 

shui'sli sApa. Tsiii na'sh sliui'sli Sciyuaks hu'mtcha kdlak, tcliui minuk huk 

sone-rem- indicates. And one son^-rem- having found (that) of the bind of re- then all those 

edy tidy out lapsed (he is), 

shufsh tpa'wa hu'nksht kaltchitchlksliash heshuamp^lftki gfug'. Tcliui 

remedii'H indicate (thai) him the spider (-remedy) would cure. Then 



THE RELAPSE. 



73 



hd'k kdltchitchiks ya-uka; uba-us hlik kdltchitchiksaui tchuteno'tkish. 

the spider _ treats him ; a piece of of the spider (i8) the caring-tool. 

(leer-akin 

Tsiii hiinkantka ubd-ustka tchutd ; tataktak huk k41ak ma'sha, ga'tak 

Then by oneaos of that deer-skin ho treats jnat the size that relapse is infected, so much 

(him); of the spot 

ub4-ush ktu'shka ta'tak huk ma'sha. Tsui huk kaltchitchiks siun6ta 3 

of deer-skin lie outs out as where he is suffering. Then the "spider" song is started 

na'dskank hu'nk ubd-ush. Tchu'yuk p'laita n^tatka skutash, tsiii sha hu'nk 

while applying that skin-pieco. And he over it ho stretches a blanket, and they it 

udu'pka hiina'shishtka, tsiii hu'k ^uta'ga fsula'kshtat ; ga'tsa lupi kiatdga, 

strike with conjurer's arrows, then it enters into ihe body; a particle firstly enters, 

tsiii tsule'ks k'lakd, tchui at pushpiishuk shle'sh huk ubd-ush. Tsiii ma'ns 6 

then (it) body becomes, and now dark it to look at that skin-piece. Then after a 

while 

tankeni ak waitash hu'k pushpiishli at ma'ns-gitk tsula'ks-sitk shla'sh. Tsi 

after so and days that black (thing) at last (is) flesh-like to look at. Thus 

so many 

ni sayuakta ; tiinii hu'nk sh^yuakta hu'masht=gisht tchutf'sht ; tsiiyuk 

I am informed ; many luen know, (that) in this manner were effected and he then 

cures ; 

tsiishni wa'mpele. 

always was well again. 

NOTES. 



72, 1. n%ans hissudksas: another luau than the conjurers of the tribe. The ob- 
jective case shows that ma'shitk has to be regarded here as the participle of an imper- 
sonal verb : ina'sha nush, and ma'sha nu, it ails me, I am sick. 

72, 1. kdlak, relapse. Eelapse is not substantive, but adjective in the sense of a 
person having fallen back into the same disease by which he was afflicted before ; 
kalkeia, to fall sick. 

72, 2. ya-uks is remedy in general, spiritual as well as material. Here a tamau- 
uash song is meant by it, which, when sung by the conjurer, will furnish him the cer- 
tainty if his patient is a relapse or not. There ai-e several of these medicine-songs, but 
all of them (ninuk hu'k shul'sh) when consulted point out the spider-medicine as the 
one to apply in this case. The spider's curiug-mstrument is that small piece of buck- 
skin (uba-ush) which has to be inserted under the patient's skin. It is called the 
spider's medicine because the spider-song is sung during its application. A spider- 
song in use among the Modocs is given below. 

73, 5. hii'nashish appeal's as the subject of an incantation song in the song-list of 
Sergeant Morgan. 

73, 5. gutii'ga. The whole operation is concealed from the eyes of spectators by a 
skin or blanket stretched over the patient and the hands of the operator. 

73, 5. kiat^ga. The buckskin piece has an oblong or longitudinal shape in most 
instances, and it is passed under the skin sideways and very gradually. 

73, 7. taukfini ak waitash. Dave Hill gave as an approximate limit five days' 
time. 



74 MANNEBS AND CUSTOMS. 



THE MONTHS OF THP: YEAR. 



Obtained rnoM "Pete" in the Klamath Lake Dialect. 



Giiptsatka E-aksliikni mdklaks pdha udsaks; liiela kapto Yii-ag; 

In the month of tlir L!il;i' Indians dry the hirge kill gudgeons at the 

the snmll flncer " sncker; Bridge; 

Ktaf=Tupakshi tMlmakstant oti'lks Mela ho'ank. At sa k(')-i;{aktcluiapka, 

ol'SlandmK-Eock to the westward flsh-dam kill when jump- >7ow they will leave home (soon), 

in;;. 

3 at kiimals pah4 ; k6-i%aga, kii'shla sa, kolalsuapk mat sa, tawiksalsuapk 

and dry fish thfy pre- they leave, go after ipoa thev, will gather kol thev. will gather tawika 

pare ; 

mat s at, p5'ksalsuapk mat sa, at sa p6pakuapk satnalluiapka sa, suaitlal- 

they, will dig camas.-. they, they will bake (it), roast it (:i ilays) they, roast it 

uapk ; sakA a po'ks. 

(I day) ; cat raw cnraass. 

6 T;j6powatka pah4 at po'ks iwidshat, at E-uksi gdnuapka woksalsuap- 

In the thumb-month dried then camass theypntun- now for Kla- they will start to gather 

der ground, math Marsh 

katki g'mg; kayudsh nii'ka wokash. At nu'ka w6kash, w6ksalslia at tunepni 

lily-seed; not yet is ripe pond-lily seed. Xow has lily-seed, they gather (it) for five 

ripened 

waitash, kanktak w6kslat Eukshikni. Snikanua nadshgshaptAnkni waitash; 

days, 80 long may t^ather the Lake people. They let it ripen during six days; 

'(it) 

9 nadshgshaptdnkni waitash w6kash shutii'shlat, awo'lat, p^ksat, shlulfna, 

during six flays the niipbar- tliey grind, cook, nib fiue, winnow, 

seed 

lulina. Na'sh willishik palasham-wa^oksh lap tala, l%al;^amnishti lulinash 

make fliiur. One aack of the flour-bags two dollars, iu a lung, heavy eack ihf-pronnd-up 

■w6ka8h 

tiinep tdla. Nu'^atk \v6kash iwi%re ka-itua nu kaila. "Tank a iwi;fa i? 

five dollars. Roasted lily-aeed filled in none in the "How many did fill youl 

sacks coQutry. 

12 lapkshapta kan iwt'yj\ willishikr' "nu te-unip willi'sliik iwi'^a!" W^- 

seven who did fill sacks?" "I ten onck.s have flll-d Wo- 

up!" 

wan'sh pi'la wo'kshla, hi'hassuaks gdnkanka paxo'\es, tcha'-u. At sa hewi- 

men only gather w6kash, the men hunt mult-deers, antelopes. Now th* y will haul 

uapk, skiiya w6kash. At a sha i hi'wi-uapk ; awalues skdna, maktsina 

(il) home, crunh lily. seed. Just they home will bring it; to the island thiy row, camp thire 

1 5 Nu'shkshi, wo'ns i'lktsat Lem^-isham Nute'ks, Vushi'nkam Tinuash, Lal'laks, 

at skull. place, canoes thev imt away at Thunderhoit, at "Snake-Drowned", at -Shipe- 

in lake bottom steim" 

Lk5'm A'-ush; kdkokish 161oksgish ktdlza, St<5palsli=Tama'dsh, T6-ilkat 

BtBlackLake; at the ford the rifle ilrop, at I'eeleil-Pine, at Rail-Pyra- 

mid 

pi'la wi'hla; tchia ndnuk Kdk=Kshawaliaksh ; njinka tchi'a Tchikass= 

stops everyone at Raven's Place; some (will) stop at Bud's 

18 Walakgishtat. 

Lookout. 



THE MONTHS OF THE YEAR. 75 

SptJluishtka at hdwi, iwi-idsha wt3kasli. Nat a gdiianuapk! naniik 

In theindex-moDtli they linul, take home the lily-seed. We will go there! all 

nat ^na! ndtoks waituapk, wewAlha wdtch, hu'masht nat gi waita w^wal- 

ofu3 carry it! but we will wait one are sore (our) horses, therefore we wait one because 

day, day 

hasht w^tcb ka'mat. Nad gita pi^nuapk p6l6kuantch, ktalowalshu^pka 3 

are sore horses on back. We there will scrape np moth-chrysalids, gather pine-nnts 

nad. Tchatchapglu, li611aksli, tutdnksham, hahaslikem61sham, lol61oisam, 

we. Sweet resin, wiuj^ed pine- blackberri', black cherry, wild gooseberry, 

nuts, 

tsin^;^ain, kla-ads, wdshlalam iwam na'd sta-ila. K6-idsej sht^altk kta'lo. 

sort of w6ka8h, pmnea, squirrels' hnckle- we gather. Of bad taste, foil of resin pine-nats. 

berries (are) 

T%6powatka i-umami wdtch lala-a; gepgapele maklaks kela'wiank, 6 

In the thumb-month at berry-time mares foal; return the ludians having done 

(galheiing), 

at wt^wanuish o-olal6na, at sa i'-unialtka. Bu'nuapka tcha'kele i'wam, 

the f'^'niales dry beniea by fbey ictnrn from beiTy- They will dtiuk red juice of huckle- 

the lire, gathtring. berries, 

tchilalat huu iSvam. Anshat anika sliash i'wam; wi'dsika iianka fwaui. 

boil the berries. You may go and ask them for hackle- retentive some (are) of berries. 

berries; 

Tupeluish aui'k telii'ks, tchakela ii's skai tak; tsakglatka ii's skaitki sta. 9 

To next U)dge I send tule-basket, willow-basket to me to gire in; in the basket tome togiveit filled. 

Pahdpk tchish iwam liiitki ii's lewitchta a, KA-i slieshatui'slitka. 

Dried too buckle- to give to me they did not want. is^ot I intend to sell them, 

berries 

Speluishtka spu'klislitat ksliiwalxa, papia'iia Inldamakikstat. At hu'k 

lu the index-month in the sweat-bouse they dance, inaugurate by the winler-honsc. Now snch a 

feabt man 

kshu'n hiwidshuapk, at hu't hi'wi ; tiinepni na'd sh6pelakuapk. '^Tu'sh 12 

bay will haul home, and that hauls (it) in live (stacks) we will stack (it) up. *' Where 

man in ; 

nil sli6pelakuapk"? ''lapash i'l;^at, ati'sh shui'nshnank i'l;^at; i' tchkash i 

I shall stack it" ? *'in two heap it in a long- (stack) stacking heap it you also yon 

stacks ye, stretching ye! 

nu'sli shatudyuapk mbusant. TJuipni waitash i n's shatudyuapka." 

me must help to-morrow. Four days you mo must help." 

Tat;^6lam hehdt^e tapak. 15 

In the midtiiiger- fall the loaves, 

month 

Gaptchelam shindktishtka ka'na. 

In the ring-finger month it is snow- 

ing. 

G^ptsatka mu ka'na. 

In the mouth of heavily it snows. 
the small finger 

T%6powatka w^tko^-ush; k^na. 18 

In the thumb-month is frozen the lake; it is snow- 
ing. 

Speluishtka kto'tsa mu; wdla kshiulgishtat. 

In the index-month it rains much; they in the dance-honse. 

dance 

Tdt;(elam tsu4m liiela Nilaksi Tsuyake'ksni. 

In thn m ritlDger- large kill at Nilaks the Linkville Indians, 

month suckers 

Gdptsglam shiudktishtka uds4ksalsha Kokgtat, ka'shla sa. 21 

In the ring-finger month they take large in Lont Rivi r, (and) get ipos. 

suckers 



76 MANNERS AND (JISTO.MS. 



NOTKH. 



This text intends to give a sketch of the various occupations of the uortheru tribe 
or 15-ukshikni in every month of the year, and is partially worded in a form which 
may be called dramatic. These statements are not always arranged iu logical order, 
but a profusion of ethnologic details gives intrinsic value to them. 

The months of the Mi'iklaks year do not coincide with the months of our calendar, 
for they extend from one new moon to the next one, and therefore should be more 
properly called moons or lunations. Twelve and a half of them make up the year, and 
they are counted on the fingers of both hands. The first moon of their year begins 
on the first new moon after their return from the wokash-harvcst at Klamath Marsh, 
which is the time when all the provisions and needful articles have been gathered in 
for the winter. Work is then stopi)ed and the communal dances begin, the doctor- 
dances as well as those conducted by the chiefs, and everybody participates in them 
excei)t those who are out hunting in the mountains during the latter part of the year. 
This mode of counting the moons on the digits was once popular, but on account of its 
imperfections it is now forgotten by the majority of the tribe. Instead of it they reckon 
time by the seasons in whicli natural products are harvested, as: udsaksii'mi, "m the 
big sucker time"; i-umii'mi, "iu the berry season", or they use our calendar mouths. 

The first moon mentioned in our text, g^ptche, answers generally to our May. 
The two next moons are counted on the thumb and forefinger of tlic liand not used 
immediately before; with this last moon their year has come to an end. The next 
five moons are counted again on the digits of the first hand, and so forth. The half 
moon making up their full year is not accounted for in this text. 

74, 2. Ktai=Tupakshi is a locality of renown in the folklore of the Klamath tribe. 
It lies near the confluence of Sprague and Williamson Eivers, on the property of an 
Indian named Tchelo;^ins. The otilks is the fish dam (from utila), where the Indians 
wade in the water with their dip-nets and catch the fish while it ascends the river iu 
springtime in enormous quantities. This fish-dam does not reach the water's surface. 

74, 2. The direct object of liiela is k;ii)to, its subject maklaks ho'ank. 

74, 3. kiimalsh paha means: they dry the fish which they have just caught by 
exjwsing it to the sun on limbs of trees, and, then make kamalsh by pounding it. 
Kftmalsh is a derivative from giima, to pound. 

74, 3. k6-i;/aga is identical with giiikaka; derived from kiii, "away, far off" ; gui- 
;fAtchka is: to start out annually to the imiiries where roots etc. are harvested. 

74, 5. sak4 a po'ks : they eat sometimes the camass raw, but only at the time when 
digging it. Bulbs, roots, pods, chrysalids and berries are gathered by women only. 

74, G. palu'i at p. ; this is equivalent to pahAtko po'ks iwidshat. They bake the 
camass and i)ut it in their caches at tlie place where they intend to stay next winter. 

74, 8. shnikanua. During the time when a pause is made in the gathering process, 
the ('oiijurer carefully watches the ripening of the i)ods not yet harvested and arjanges 
public dances. When the sun has done its work, he solemnly announces it to the 
women, and tuey go to work again iu their canoes. 

74, 1). shiulina. From the preceding we should expect shiulinat, lulinat. 

74, 10. willislilk is the generic term for larger kinds of provision-sacks; it means 
here a sack of fifty pounds seed or grain, while the wd;foks holds hundred pounds. In 
pdla8ham-w4;fOksh, however, the latter word is taken in its generic sense of sack, bag. 



A SKETCH OF BALL'S MAKRIED LIFE. 77 

^yi these diftereut kinds of sacks or bags were originally made of bulrush-stalks (tule) 
and the tayash was made of straw. 

74,11. kaitua nil ka'ila. The sense is iucomidete. Probably shayuakta is left out : 
"I do not know of any in tlie whole country", kiiila often standing for kailatat. 

74, 14. awalues. There are several islands in the .shallow watiM-s of the vast 
extent of Klamath Marsh, but only one is meant here. 

74, 15. wo'ns llktsat. They submerge theii' dug-outs at several places on the beach, 
where they are certain to find them in the next wokash-season. 

74, 17. pi'la wi'hla (or pila willash) contains perhaps a proper name of a locality, 
or stands in connection with Toilkat, "at the Eail-Pyramid"; wilhaslash means top, 
apex. The stations from the "Ford" to "Bird's Lookout" are passed by the tribe when 
they return home with the lily-seed harvest-ci'op. "TJiey drop the rifle" is: they take 
a rest. All these localities are either on the open waters of Klamath Marsh or on 
Williamson River, which forms its outlet. 

76, 1. iwi-idsha wokash. The distance between Klamath Marsh and the William- 
son River is from 20 to 25 miles, and horses carrying wokash can make it in one day. 
The next day they return to carry another load. 

75, 2. natoks waituapk : we will lie over one day to let our horses rest, or recover 
from the swellings on their backs. Ndtoks stands for nat toks. 

75, 5. klil-ads is probably a kind of wild i)runes. See Dictionary : kglMch. 

75, 8. widsika iwam. " Some are economical with their own berries, and prefer not 
to scatter them in the hands of others"; iwam, huckleberry, has become the generic 
term for all berries, and i-umii'mi is " berri/season". 

75, 11. spu'klish here means the large communal sweat-house; it is used frequently 
for dances and kshiuwiil;^ishtat, contr. kshiu'l;fishtat might stand instead of spiiklishtat. 

75, 11. i)ai)ia'na, vocalic dissimilation for papa-6na; derived from pAn, to eat. 

75, 13. ati'sh etc. "Heap ye up that hay in two stacks, which must have a lengthy, 
long-stretching, and not a high, cone-shaped form!" For heaping up long stacks 
one verb is here used, and another for making the high, round ones. 



Pu'lam shumshe-elshtat shashapkeleash. 
A SKETCH OF BALL'S MARRIED LIFE. 



Given by Dave Hill, Subchief, in the Klamath Lake Dialect. 



P61uk ka'liak snawads t'shln. Tsui snawii'dshla Pampiara pa'-ia lupi' ; 

Ball he wlthont .a wife grew up. Then he m.arried P.impi'H daughter at first; 

tsui wa'kala, tsui tatA mdntsak rabusa'lau gi. Tsui kii'tsa, tsiii mbusa'- 

.inrt she bad ii babe, and then quito a while he lived with (her). Then he left (her), and lived with 

alpgli pan, tsui pan k^tsa sissu'kuk tsu'ssak. N^sh wa'ka sham klak4, na'sh S 

(her) .tgain, and again left (her) quarreling coutinually. One babu tothent died, another 

tchia; at .sa sipi't/a, tsui na's shnawa'd.shla piiu Ldtsam pa'-ia; wats siiwtina 

lived; 8tiH they separated, then one he married after I.6irhnph's (langhtor; boreefl be gave 

(woman) (this) 



78 MANNERS AND CUSTOMS. 

sas taiikak. Tsui wij^gatak tchia, tsiii wil'kala, tsiii link inuliak k1;ik;i, 

to them not niuuy. Thon to^oiher thoy lived, and shn lipcamo and tlit^ l);il)i! died. 

mother, 

Tsui hiVnk pan wuttidsnaj tsui piin mbus^-alp6le. Kii-idslii hu'k snawdds; 

Then lier a;;ain ho gave up, and again lived with (her). MischiuvoaH (is) that woiunu ; 

3 tsu'ssak siVla sha, Inssuaks liu'k wiVlantana : '^tam nii'sh setu'l^a kanif 

cunstantty liapplod they, huKband the imed to ank (her) : "(did) with you consort anybody? 

sii'g's' isli, ka-i sa-i'sliiank." Tsi sa liiVn ki iianuk spunii/ks; tsui si'ssiika 

tLlI rao, not concealing.'' So they said cvei'y ni;j;ht; then they I' n ht 

lul-asht giug". Tsiii sa ku-i su'ta pipekiug'shtaii stainas, tsui sa kii-i tcliia. 

for saying 80. And they embitterod nnitnuHv hearts, and they wretch- lived. 

tdly 

6 Hu'uiashtgfug tu'meni lakiki nii'-ul;{a, tumgni huskiu'tankpele. Tina 

On this subject often the chiel'a ruled, many times made them live together Ouco 

agaio. 

smiwads hilk palla hisliuaks nTiui shu'ldsisas sliat6'l% ; vu'nsatka hunk 

woman that deceived husband her (and) with a soldier copulated; in cauoo (Rhe) 

ska'na jnillank sas siddsAmkshi. Tsi huk shu'ta titnd huk snavva'ds; tsiii 

rowed abstraelin;; frnm to the troops. Thns noted at a time that woman ; and 

away (it) them 

9 lakiki lui'-iil/a hu'nksht Pu'lam snawa'dsas; ktu'tsga sa Iiuk lakiki sato- 

the chiefrt tried th;it Ball's wife; cut hair oil" they the chiefs for ha v- 

lakst su'ldsisas. Tchiii pan kedsa Paiil ; Waitangi'shash tsi's seto'l^ tankt. 

io^slept with soldier. Then again left (her) Ball; with a Warm Spring man too ho lodged thtn. 

Tsiii pan mbus(i-alpla, tsiii sas wats sk6kta pan, tsiii slia j^in ak sisso'ka ; 

And again he lived with (her), anil to horses he paid once and they again quarreled; 

them over moi'c, 

12 at sa kii-i hak tsia tsiissak, tsiii lalaki panak hu'skiutka. Tsiii pan 

they wretchedly lived always, nnd the chitfs once more made them live And again 

together. 

mbu'se-alp'l, tii'sh spungatgapele E-ustat tchi'pkshi hiink snawa'dsas. Pu'l 

he lived with (her). ova* he brought back on Lake. shore home the wife. Jlall 

there 

toks lii'wi himboks t/mkt, tcliiii lii'-i lelktcha tchi'ktcliik spu'nktchapaluk, 

hauled logs then, and there abandoued the wagon to bring (her) back. 

15 Tsiii spil'ntpampele, tsiii na'-ul;fa sha pa'n, spu'lhi sa Pu'lash, tsiii sa 

And be brought (her) back, and tried they again, impriaoned they Ball, and beaud 

she 

s^okta sas pii'n watch, tsiii sa spunkampele pan, tsiii sa pan hu'nk 

paid them once horaea, and they st^t (him) free again, and they again 

more 

surasii'-alank tsia. 

marrying lived. 

18 Wakiik tsik sa tchia, ka-i ni tiVmenat. 

How since they have not I learnt, 

lived, 

NOTES. 

Matrimonial reverses like tLe one given in this narrative are by no means un- 
common among the Klamaths of the present day. They are one of the unavoidnhlc 
consequences of the gradual emancipation of the females from the former rule of tlieir 
brutal husbands through tlic advent of the whites, and also of tlie obnoxious and 
corrupting neighborhood of the soldiers at Fort Klamath. 



GAMES OF THE KLAMATH LAKE PEOPLE. 79 

77, 1. The name Piil is ]H()iioiuice<l in very different ways, and most people think 
it is the English name Ball; Polnk is PO'l hu'k; tchia, "lived", would be preferable to 
t'shin in this connection. 

77, 2. 3. kii'tsa, ketsa properly means to cast away ; here : to abandon, leave ; 
almost identical with wutodsna occurring below, 78, 2. 

77, 4. saw4na sas : he did not give many horses for her to her parents. 

78, 8. piillank sas. This shash properly refers to PAmpi and his family, for Pul's 
wife took the dug-out canoe of Pampi and rowed with it to tlie soldiers. This was in 
the northeastern part of Upper KHamath Lake, and occurred in the winter of 187G-'77. 

78, 1.3. fi-ustat is the location of tlie old agency buildings at Kohdsliti, in northeast 
corner of Upper Klamath Lake. 

78, 14. hi'-i. On that occasion Ball left his wagon in the midst of the woods ; hi, 
hi-i means "on the ground". 

78, 15. na'ul;^a sha pii'n. About the middle of September 1877 a strong escort of 
Indians bi'ought Ball and his wife to the "law-house" at the Klamath agency to be 
tried by the chiefs. A delay of several days occurred before he was confronted with 
the judges, and during the time he was imprisoned at the " skukum-house", a strong log- 
cabin at the agency serving as jail. He is still a very young man, and on being- 
brought there he was allowed to ride on horseback with a rifle on his shoulders. His 
father is an Indian from the Spokane tribe, and Spiikan is his name. 

78, 16. s;f6kta, to pay a fine; to be fined (by the chiefs). See: "Legal Customs", 
62, 5. 



GAMES OF THE KLAMATH LAKE PEOPLE. 



Obtained in the Klamath Lake Dialect prom Minnie Froben. 



I. 

E-vikshikni sh4keluk shi-i'xaga yamnash, watch, skutasih tcMsh. 

Tlie Lake people in gambling win frora eacii beads, horses, blankets also. 

other 

Vu'iiip shulsheshlank ; 14p mu'meni, s%ii'tash tchish 1dpi udshekdne. 

With four they play the stick-game ; (there thick (sticks), skincovered also two slender. 

(sticks) - are) two sticks 

Ndsh^kansh sha s/^tchashtka shlin, mu'menish toksh a yiVshakgnank 3 

At the slender they with index and mid- guess, at the thick (ones) however (they) with index finger 

(slicks) die linger 

shlin; vti'ish slia kMtchnank shlin, t%opow4tka tch It^nank shlin. Wu'ishtka 

guess; at the they moving hand side- guess, with the thumb also making a they guess By the vdish 
viiish - ways side move at. 

toks sha na'shak kshe'sh wi-uka; s^etchashtka sha lap -vvi-uka kshe'sh, 

they only one counting- (can) win ; with index and mid- they two win counting- 

stick die finger sticks, 

3^u'sh;fish spelshisht. Tcluii sa kele'wi iiduiwishaui i'^aguk n4nuk. fi 

the index having put for- Then they stop, from the losers when ihey all (stakes), 

ward. - have won 



80 MANNEES AND CUSTOMS. 

II. 

fi-ukshikni wcwauuisli skii'sha pii'mam tiitatka leiiiatcliat ke'ltaniank. 

The Kl.imath Lako females play a K't'"^ bi'avera' wiih tceili, on a rubbing leltine (iheni) 

ytoiio drop. 

Shuslimalua=kipksh p'laftala tut ndniik ni'kualksht la'p kslie'sh ydnkua. 

Where tboy are marked npslilo teeth all having fallen, two checks they win. 

3 Kiikaluak taksli takani'lkuk g(^l%a, tsiii sha na'sh kshe'sh wi ii;^a. 

Koth tein:il>' (teeth) (if) fallinj; right siile come down, then thoy one check win. 

oiilj" op 

LAlakiak tchisli takani'lkuk g^lyjh hii'iikant tchish a na'sh wi-uka kshe'sh. 

Both male (if) falling right aide come on that account also one (they) gnin chuck, 

(teeth) only _ up down, 

Kshawiuasht tuksh kaftua wi-u;{ant; tchui sha n^muk hc^shkiish shi-i'^aguk 

Falling iineqn.illy however nothing they win ; and they all the stakes having wou from 

each other 

G k6l(^wi. W^wanuish pila sku'sha, hihashuaksh pil shakalsh. 

quit. Women only play (this men only play i he stick- 

game), ' game. 

III. 

E-ukskni w^wanuish tchi'mma-uk tinkanka naiiuk shudkiish sh^sham- 

The Klamath women in playi-ig tfhim- run forth and everyone (willow-) poU-s hold- 

Luke ma-ash back, 

tchautk. Pipglangshtant yu'ashlank tat;(6him whal^u^tgish t^wa Anku, 

ing. On either side for fixing b.ises in the middle of the starting-pluces (they) sticks, 

plant 

9 tchiii sha wutu'wal^a shueko'shtka tcliimtna-ash. Kawu'tank sha vu- 

ihen they tlirow up with (theii) poles the gaE:e-8triiig. Having caught (it) they throw 

tiVdshna, tclu'ii sha tiushna hatoktala, shu'dshnuk tchimma-ash shiitualsha. 

(itto others), then thoy run over there, while chasing each the game-string they throw. 

other 

Tukni wa'hlklsh \vutu-ip6le shiwakuash m'na ; tchui sha kiudshna It^ua, 

One party the poles throwback to the girls (on) their and they ran off run 

(side) ; aside, 

12 shu'dshna yu'ashtala sha tchiii. 

chase each other to the bases they then. 

NOTES. 

I. The game described in this paragraph is played with four shulshesh-sticks. From 
this term is formed a denominative verb, shnlsheshla : to play the stick-game. It is a 
guessing game, and the guesses ai'e made known by putting fingers forward, a gesture 
which is called sp61shna. Hence sp61shna, sometimes corrupted into sp61dshna, is used 
as a term equivalent to shidsh6shla, to play the stick-game; and a third verb for this pas- 
time is sliakalsha. More minute descriptions of the three games will follow elsewhere. 

79, 1. shi i'p^aga is the reciprocal tbrm of i';faga to win, gain, occurring below. 
These terms mamly refer to gains made in gambling. 

79, 2. shulslit'shlank stands here for the periphrastic shulsh6shlank gi, or the 
simple shnlsheshla. Derived from shulshesh, and this from shvila, to hand over, to pass 
to another. 

79, 2. s;fu'tash, not to be confounded with skutash, blanket, forms apposition to 
1dpi ndshekdue. The two slender gani(> sticks are wrapped in narrow strips of buck 
skin leather (ski'ita, to wrap in). 



GAMES OF THE KLAJVIATH LAKE PEOPLE. 81 

79, 3. s;^6tcha, to extend two fingers, viz. the index and the middle finger; the insti'u- 
mental case of the verbal substantive, S;f^tchashtka : by extending these two fingers. 

79, 3. shlin, to shoot, to shoot forward, to hit ; figuratively used for the rapid 
motion of the hand in guessing at the location of the sticks lying under the tray or 
piVhla. yu'shakna, yiishkgna, or yii's/^, to put forward, to use the index finger. In 
this game that finger is called yii'sh;^ish, and not by its usual name, sp^luish. 

79, 4. vu'ish is the location of the thicker sticks coupled on one side, and of the 
thinner ones on the other; the gesture for guessing at it is to make a side motion with 
the hand, thumb included. In the text,' the sense would become clearer by wording 
it thus : via'ish sha n^patka t;fopowMka tch l^nank shlin, " they guess at the vuish, 
whirling around with the hand, thumb included." L^na is to perform a circular 
motion; kliltchna, a side motion. 

79, 5. s;f6tchashtka sha Idp wi-uka. S;f6tchashtka collides here apparently with 
yu'sh/ish spdlshisht ; it seems to stand for : " they win two checks, if they have guessed 
light at the slender sticks". 

79, 5. wi-uka. They win one (na'shak) of the six checks or counting-sticks, if the 
party ojiposite did not guess correctly. 

II. To i)lay at dropjiing beavers' teeth (shku'sha) is the subject of this paragraph; 
the game itself is skushash. The foiu- teeth of the beaver are marked for this game 
by the incision of parallel lines or crosses on one side, and a small piece of woolen or 
other cloth is inserted into the hollow to prevent breaks in falling. The two longer or 
ni)])er teeth of the beaver are called the male (laki), the pair ot lower and shorter the fe- 
male teeth (giilo, kiilu; distributive form: kiikalu). The teeth are dropped on a hard, 
k'xel substance, as a metate or grinding stone, to make them Ue flat. The marked 
side of the teeth wins, if it is turned up after dropping. The teeth of the woodchuck 
(miii, radi) serve for the same puii)ose. 

80, 3. Shxishmalua^kipksh stands for shiishraaluash=gipshtka or =gipkashtka, the 
instrumental case of the participle gitko, possessed of : "(if they fall down) on that 
side, where each is possessed of marks" (shumaluash). 

80, 2-4. kshe'sh. In this game of beavers' teeth (piimam tiit), or woodchucks' teeth 
(nu'iyam tut) they use twelve check-sticks to count their gains with. The game is 
played by two persons, or by two partners on each side. 

80, 5. Kshawiuasht tuksh. Kshawina means several teeth to fall down, but, as the 
prefix ksh- indicates, only one tooth with the marked or winning side up. 

III. The tchimm^-ash game is jilayed almost exclusively by females. The tchim- 
md-ash is a string about 2-3 feet long, to the ends of which sticks or pieces of cloth are 
tied ; it is taken up and thrown forward by two flexible willow rods (shu^kush, wA'hl- 
kish) to i)laymates, who di\ide themselves into two parties. Before the commence- 
ment of the game, two limits (yiiash) are meted out on the ground, which serve as 
bases. Both of them are located between the Unes of starting (shal^u^tgish). 

80, 7. shu6kush : two poles ; players hold one of them in each hand. 
80, 9. Kawu'tank refers to the playmates of the opposite party, who are bound to 
catch the flying tchimmd-ash. 

80, 11. shiwdkuash seems to be a dissimilation of shiwd^ka-ash. 
80, 11. kiudshna 16na, or better : Idudshuank 16na. 



82 MANNERS AND CUSTOMS. 



SWEAT-LODGES. 



Given in the Klamath Lake Dialect by Minnie Fkoben. 



£-ukslikni Mpa spu'klish gitko. Kiikiuk kelekApkash spu'klishla y^- 

Tbe Lftke people two swcat-loclgea have. To weep ovor the deceased they build sweat- "ilij;- 

(kinda of) lodges 

pank kaila ; stutflantko spu'klish, kiiila waltchatko. Spu'klish a sha shu'ta 

King up the ground; are rocifed (tlicse) sweat- with covered. (Another) sweat- they build 

lodges, earth lodge 

3 ku(^-utch, ki'tchikan'sh stintlg'a=shitko ; sku'tash a waldsha spu'klishtat tata- 

of willows, a little cabin looking like; blankets they spread over the sweating- when 

lodge 

tak s6 spukliti Tiitataks a hu'nk w^as liila, tatataks a hishuaksh tchimena, 

ill it the.v sweat. Whenever children died, or when a husband became wid- 

ower, 

suawedsh wt^nuitk, ku'ki kelekatko, spu'klitcha tiimi shashamoks=161atko ; 

(or) the wife (is) widowed, tho.y for canse of death, go sweating many relatives who have 

weep ■ lo.st ; 

6 tunepni Avaitash tchik sa hil'nk spu'klia. Shiiilakiank a sha ktdi hiiyuka 

five days then they sweat. Gathering they stones, (they) heat 

(them) 

skoilakiuipkuk; hutoks ktai ka-i tata spukliu't'huish. Spuklish liipia 

to heap them up (after those stones never having been used for Sweat-lodge in trout 

use) ; sweating. of 

hiiyuka; k^lpka a at, ilhiat atui, kidshua ai i ambu, kliulala. Spu'kli a 

they heat heated (being) when, they bring at once, pour on water, sprinkle. Sweat then 

(them) ; (them) inside thera 

9 sha tumeni "hours"; k(ilpkuk gdka shualkoltchuk peniak ko'ks pepe-udshak 

they several hours: being quite they (and) to cool them- without dress only to go bathing 

warmed up leave selves otf 

^wagatat, k6ketat, e-ush wigata. Spukli-uapka uia'utch. Shpotuok 

in a spring, river. lake close by. They will sweat for long hours. To make them- 

selves strong 

i-ak(jwa kdpka, sku'tawia sha w(3vvakag knu'kstga. Ndshietchatka knu'ks 

they bend young pine- (they) tie together they small brush- with ropes. Of (wi]l(iw-)b.irk the ropes 

down trees, wood 

12 a sha shushata. Gratpampelank shkoshki'l^a ktaktiag hu'shkankok kele- 

they make. ()u going home they heap up into small stones in remembrance of tho 

cairns 

kdpkash, kti,-i shush uaukaptcha i'hiank. 

deadi stones of equal size selecting. 

NOTES. 

No Klamath or Modoc sweat-lodge cau be properly called a sweat-/toM«e, as is tlie 
custom throughout the West. One kind of these lodges, intended for tlie use oi' niourn- 
ers only, are solid structures, almost underground; three of them are now in existence, 
all believed to be the gift of the principal national deity. Sudatories of flic other 
Uiud are found near every Indian lodge, and consist of a few wiliow rods .stuck into 



LAMENT OYER A WIFE'S LOSS. 83 

the ground, both ends being bent over. The process gone through while sweating is 
the same in both kinds of lodges, with the only difference as to time. The ceremonies 
mentioned 82, 4-13., all refer to sweating in the mourners' sweat-lodges. The suda- 
tories of the Oregonians have no analogy with the esttifas of the Pueblo ludians of 
New Mexico, as far as their construction is concerned. Cf. N'otes to 70, 1. 75, 11. 

82, 1. lapa spiVklish, two sweat-lodges, stands for two Idncis of sweat-lodges. 

82, 5. shash^moks=161atko forms one compound word : one who, or : those who 
have lost relatives by death ; cf. ptishJulsh, pgish=lfdsh; hishu4kga ptish=lulatk, male 
orphan whose father has died. In the same manner, kelekiitko stands here as a par- 
ticiple leferriug simultaneously to hishuaksh and to snawedsh w6nuitk, and can be 
rendered by '^bereaved". Sliashiimoks, distr. form of sh4-amoks, is often pronounced 
shesb^maks. Tumi etc. means, that many others accompany to the sweat-lodge, into 
which about six persons can crowd themselves, bereaved husbands, wives or parents, 
because the deceased were related to them. Cf. le'pk'le;fa, le'pk'lekatko. 

82, 6. Shiulakiank etc. For developing steam the natives collect only such stones 
for heating as are neither too large nor too small ; a medium size seeming most appro- 
priate for concentrating the largest amount of heat. The old SMcat-lodges are sur- 
rouuded with large accumulations of stones which, to judge from their blackened 
exterior, have served the purpose of generating steam ; they weigh not over 3 to 5 
pounds in the average, and in the vicinity travelers discover many small cairns, not 
over four feet high, and others lying in ruins. The shrubbery around the sudatory 
is in many localities tied up with willow wisps and ropes. 

82, 10. Spukli-udpha nia'ntch means that the sweating-process is repeated many 
times during the live days of observance ; they sweat at least twice a day. 



LUATPISHLA SNEWEDSH m'nA. 

LAMENT OVER A WIFE'S LOSS. 



Obtained fkom Davk Hill in the Klamath Lake Dialect. 



Snaweds k'lek^. Tsui tsik slip6tu hissuaksuk, pa'wa tsiii, pa'nS 

A wife dies. Upon this stiebgiheDs (ber) busband alone, plunges then, again 

himself 

mAkiial, sta-6taiik kaltua pAt; tsiii tuti';^ yainatat tu'tshna. Tsui shlaa 

camps out, furnished nothing eats'; tuen (be) dreams, on the mount- he dozes. Then he sees 

(and) ains 

maklaks, tuti'% hunk nd-asht ; tsui ga'mpgle Udsashtat, tsiii psin hushli'k- 3 

ptople, dreams (he) thus; then be returns to (hie) lodge. and ^t night he frequently 

tamna, tsui shla'popk, tsiii at shla'popk siunoti'sh tchkash. Tsiii at shufsh 

dreams, and has visions, and then be has balluci- of (female) also. And magic songs 

nations cliortiees 

hti'k na'slrt ki: ^'tcha'kgli g^kanuapka, siimat tsuk at g^ka tchdkgle"! tsiii 

iheee thus say: "blood will come up, t-Mho in time come» np blood"! then 

throat 



84 MANNERS AND CUSTOi^lS. 

huk tch^kcr a gupka. Tsui wewan'sh guli' wino'tuish; shashuaki'sli tclii'sh, 

the blood comes Dp. Then women enter who form choras; people who call the too, 

conjurer 

lutatki'sh tchlsh, shuashuAktchlsh matchatgi'sh tchish gull' Idtchashtat 

the soDg-repeater too, bewailers, listeners also enter lodge 

3 m'na. 

his. 

NOTES. 

The ascetic performances and ceremonies here described are going into disuse at 
the present time. When they were fully observed, the bereaved husband wandered 
alone through the woods and wilds (spotu) for live days, but to the widow these ob- 
servances extended over a shorter time. For this puipose both sexes wore warm 
clothing, but took to worn-out blankets or old articles of raiment, and used wisps of 
the serviceberry-bush as belts. 

83,1. shp6tu: strong and unusual bodily exercise, running up hill, plungiug etc. 
was and is still considered beneficial to the body, and is much in favor with the 
Indians. Cf. 82, 10. 11. 

83, 1. hissudksuk for hishuaksh ak ; the husband alone, not in company of others ; 
pii'ug for pii'u a, pen a, cf. 4t6nen for iit a nen ; and se lor sha, they, 82, 4. 

83, 2. ka-itua p;it or p'M: he eats nothing at the time while wandering; pauk, 
p'Ank might stand here instead of pdt; tu'tshna : for dozing they did not lie down, but 
tried to catch a little sleep while walking and wandering. 

83, li. shlati, and tchdkfele 83, 5, forms sometimes used in conversation instead of 
shla4, shle4 ; tchii'kele, tch^keli. Cf. yika for ya'ka, y^ka : iVbte to 16, 10. 

83, 3. hushti'ktamna; the suffix -tamna shows that pshin stands for u4nuk pshl'u 
gi'sh: "nightly, eveiy night." 

83, 4. siuno'tish and shul'sh are both tamdnuash-songs, but of a different character. 
See Dictionary. Shlil'popka : he sees in his dreams what he has heard mentioned in 
the songs. To sing or repeat songs started by the conjurer devolves almost exclusively 
on the women present at the ceremony. 

83, 5. sumat : into the mouth ; their blood, disturbed by the constant excitement 
produced by the night rambles, ascends to the throat, and is sometimes spit out by 
them. 

84, 2. shuashudktchish. By their loud and noisy lamentations (shuiiktcha, to cry, 
to weep) they expect to avert from the bereaved husband the eft'ects of the tam^nuash- 
speU (shul'sh) which he has seen in his dreams. 

84, 2. matchiitgish : those listening to the words uttered by the conjurer and his 
repeater or expounder ; they are of both sexes and also act as bewailers. 



CREMATION OF THE DEAD. 85 



CREMATION OF THE DEAD. 



Obtatnbd from J. C. D. Riddlk in the Modoc Diai-ect. 



fi-ukshikni Mo'dokni tutentipni wait6Ian kgl^ksht vumi'. At Idshi'sht 

The Klamath (and) Modocs on the fifth dav after decease bury. When brineing ont 

Lakes (the bodies) 

la'pi g^na tidsh shutedshnoka. At gdtpamnan kailatat wawAl^a wawaiha 

two go (ahead), well to make (all) ready. Then having arrived on the ground they sit down (and) wait 
(men) 

kglekApkasli itpano'pkasht. Skentanapkash at itpano'pkasht kshet'liip^ip- 3 

the dead person to be brought. Sewed up for transportation (and) tied trans- 

kash wdtcLtat at tchpinu'tat itpa. Hekshatlekitko k'lez^pkash lupi' watch 

versely on a horse to the burying- tliey Carrying transversely the deceased ahead the horse 

ground bring- 

g^na; k'le;{apkani ndnuk sha-amoksh tapi' galampaga. 

marches; of the deceased all relations behind follow in a file. 

TAnkni maklaks ksli(il;^a k'lekapkash, watch shiuka, ksh^wal at hunk 6 

The ancient Indians labl down the corpse, the horse they killed, deposited then the 

k'lek4pkash anko kedshlakstat, watch hunk tchiii kted^ga, watchSm 

deceased of wood on a pile, the horse then cut up, the horse's 

tchu'leks nanukash k'lekapkash i'dsh^a. Lakiam tpewash vunl'pi hihas- 

flesh all over the corpse .strewed. Chief's by orders fonr 

sudtch^ash loloksh shnuitdmpka. Pipehintan hTelual6yan shnuitdmpka 9 

men the fire were keeping up. On both sides standing by they kept (it) up 

tchu'shak pftchash tchek, tchiii sha k'l(ewi. Lu'luksh shpftcht tchiii t%alam 

constantly, it wont out until, then they quit. The fire being ont then in the midst 

hlkslakshtat hib^na, lukshlksli n^wisht tchi'sh sheke'lke, kaila ke'la-unan 

of the ashes (a hole) they the ashes, the remains also they raked into earth throwing over 

dug. (it), 

tchiii ktd-i Ikappa. Viuni-u'lan n4nuk tchi'shtahx kikantchampele. Ge- 12 

then .stones (they) piled After burial all towards home they marched back single Hav- 

up. file. 

kiipgdp'lin p'na'lam tchi'-ishtat k'lekdpkam tchi'sh shnd^an tchiii nauuk 

ing returned to their settlement, of deceased the lodge burning down then all 

maklaks shemdshla. K'lekdpkam tchfwishtat ktai l^lktcha; k'le;jApkam 

Indi.'ins removed elsewhere. Of deceased on the late dwell- stones they left; of deceased 

ing-place 

shd-amoksh hadaktna geno'ga ktd-i hddSkt nutola'ktcha. 15 

(any) relative by this spot passing a stone on it threw. 

Ha kani tu'ma weweshdltko k'l^%a, pen hiinkglam w^-ash k'l^ka 

If somebody much offspring-having died, again his children after death 

hat6ktok hunk vUmf ; ndnka ati' idshnan hata ktok pen vumi'. 

right there them thev bnried ; some from liringing at this very again they bnried. 

afar (them) ^pot 



86 MANNERS AND CUSTOMS. 

NOTES. 

Cremating the dead is a practice which was abolished by the chiefs on the terri- 
tory of the reservation in or about 1808. ^Vt the Indian graveyard north of the Wil- 
liamson lliver a hill of 12 feet altitude, where the corjjses of Indians of the Klamath 
Lake (not ISIodoc) cliieftaincy were burnt, is still visible and untouched since then. 
^^'ith the exception of the sentence from Skentaniipkasli to itpa, the first ]>aragrai>h 
refers to the ]»resent as well as to the former mode of funeral, while the second describes 
the ancient mode of cremation. Cremation pnnaiied also among the Snake and I'aiUta 
Indians, living in the vicinity of the Maklaks ; cf. Dr. W. T. lloft'man, Pahute Crema- 
tion ; Cremation among the Digger Indians, in Proceedings of the Am. Philosophical 
Soc, Philadelphia; vol. XIV, p. 297 sq., 414 sq., (lS7(i). According to Stephen Powers, 
cremation prevailed among the Pomos of Northern California, west of the Sacramento 
River, and the Erio, a tribe living at the mouth of Russian River, believe that all 
ileceased Indians will become grizzly bears if not disposed of in this manner. The 
Indians inhabiting the shores of Middle and Lower Columbia River placed their dead 
on i)latforms erected on hills, or into the canoes of which they had been the owners; the 
Kalapnyas on both sides of the Willamet River buried their dead by inhumation. 

Our notice makes no mention of the mourning ceremony among the Modocs, by 
which widows had their long hair cut off' at the funeral of their husbands, then drii)ped 
the resin from the pyre, liquefied by the heat, n])on their bared heads, vowing not to 
marry again before this ghastly head-cover had worn off by length of time. The 
IModocs cremated their dead on any d;iy from the first to the fifth day after decease, 
according to choice. 

85, 1. tutenepui. Here we have again the sacred number five occurring so often 
in the traditions, myths and customs of the Oregonian tribes. Cf. 70, 1. 3. 82, (i. 88, 4. 

85, 1. Instead of idsha may be used Klamath Lake il;;fa (or ena) lulukshaldshuk, 
to bring out for cremation. The northern dialect uses vumi cmly in the sense of putting- 
dried provisions into the ground. A funeral is ilktcha in the JNIodoc dialect. 

85, 2. shutedshna : they remo\(i obstacles upon the road or trail, such as fallen 
trees or logs ; they clear the passage, kailatat means here the same as tchpinu'tat, 
85,4. 

85, 2. wawaiha. Another form of the verb waiha is said to exist in the INlodoc 
dialect : wawaiha ; its distributive form : wawawaiha. 

86, 3. itpano'pkasht is the synizesis of itpanuapkasht. 
85, (J. Tankni ; the term ma.'atchni is often used instead. 
85, 7. anko for ankuam kedshlakstat. 

85, 10. pitehash for Klamath Lake pitchkash, " until it has gone out". 

85, 11. Modoc hibena or ipena for the Klamath Lake yepa, yepona: to dig a hole. 

85, 11. newisht. Of this term the original meaning seems to be '• thrown by hand 
into the air", a manipulation resorted to by some Indians, though not here, with the 
burnt ashes of the deceased. 

85, 12. Ikappa. These piles of stones e\id('ntly were, as well as the piles erected 
on the spot of tlie burnt lodge, intended as monuments df the deceased. These cairns 
are of considerable size, and can be seen in the old ^lodoc country at the present time. 

85, 10. pen hiinkelani etc. Pen introduces the verb vumi', and k'leka is a verb co- 
ordinate to vumi' : " his children die, right there again they bury them." 



PRESENT MODE OF INHUMATION. 87 



PRESENT MODE OF INHUMATION. 



Given by Minnie Fkoben in the Klamath Lake Dialect. 



Hishuakshash snaw^dshasli gintak k'le'ksht tchi'ii sha hu'nk b6xtka 

Male or female npon liavingdied then they ihimorher) in a coffin 

fsha himkantka waitashtka tlmpka waitolank tchisli. Papkasliti shu'tank 

bury on the same day or one day past also. Of Inmber they are mak- 

ing; 

box, sbnutchlu'ktagiank kayak tadsh talakank B6sbtiuam=sbitko. Pii- 3 

acoffin, planing (it*. not however they are paint- in the American shape. Small 

ing (it) 

pakuak gi'ntak a sba nanuktua il^ota, sbul6tish gintak, kma' tcbi'sb, 

itrinkingcupa thereupon the.y of every kind liury with clothing hereupon, akullcaps too, 

(him). 

yamnasli tclilsb, tAlatoks k4-i. Ha' nen wa'g'n kii'git, watcbatka sba bu'nk 

heads too, but money not. If a wagon is not on on borses they them 

hand, 

enank i'l^tcba. Til'mi sbasba'moks ilks;{e'ni shasb, tumi wdwanuisb 6 

carrying bury. Many relatives to Ibe grave them. many women 

out 

tcbi'sb, bibassiuiksh tcbi'.sb, ka-i tataksni, gasbaktsina sbasb ilks;je'ni. 

too, men also, (but) nu children. follow them to grave. 

Ilksgisb y^pontk tii'nep nadsbgabafit pe'tcb ati gintcigatk. 

The graves are dug five (or) Bix feet deep into the ground 

going. 

Wa'g'n a hi'pi gena ilks;^eni, sbashamoks tcbl'k ki'nsbaksna; bil'd- 9 

The wagon first goes to the grave, relatives herenpoo walk in file; those 

sbatoks atikni gatpa, w4tcbatka gatpa. Ilksbp^e'ni a sba sbnuka ne'p 

who from afar come, on horses come. At the grave they seize by the 

hand 

k'lakapkasb, a tcbiks bu'nk unegank kt^lua kaila il/uk, tanktak tcbiksb 

the deceased, then him lowering fill up the earth to bury simultaneoH»)y also 

(him), 

a bu'nk luatpishbik sbuina. Grakitimnank til'k sba txabimtana gu"bliank 12 

over him for mourning they sing. Forming a circle from it they through the middle passing 

sbnu'ka st^lapksb ne'p, bipi'tal tcbik sba gekampSle; teUsbtoks wudAmatko 

shake (his) right hand, to the first then they return; (his) face is covered 

place 

handkercbipatka : "Tcba sbekug mi'sb nu sbnuka ne'p; tcba at tcbi' m'sb 

by a handkerchief : Now to bid good to yon I shake (seize) hand; now thus to you 

bye 

nu sbdka gen waitasb ; gena mi at buki'sb ! " 15 

I bid fare- this day; gone is your spirit!" 

well 

Titatnatoks flags maklaks ki'utcbna ilkszeni wa'ginat; sbasbAmoksb 

Sometimes flags an Indian sticks up at the grave on the wagon ; the relatives 

Mp ki'mbaks gasbAktcbna, wewanuisb n4sb ki'mbaks, bibasbuaksh tcbi'sb 

in two filet* follow, the women in one tilt-, the males too 



88 MANNERS AND CUSTOMS. 

nAsh tunslnsh. Na'sh kiiflatoks nadshiislifik tchpi'nualank, nAnuk titads- 

In ono row. On one Kmuiid hU ta;>oilier tbo\ nro barying, cvury provided 

%^itko i)il ilktch spuslipaktchc^nipka, shushtedshpjc'itko wdshash wuwatu^p- 

wiili boardn gravo they rmiki' njound-shoiieri, fenced iij pralrie-wolvea lo keep 

3 kasht k(^-utchishash tchi'sh. KA-i ma'ntch gitko sha hu'nk spu'klitcha 

"ff pey wolves also. Not long after this they go to sweat 

tiiteniipni waftash. Wdtch a luluagsh tchi'sh k4-i tat4 ma'ntch gfnkanka 

for flvo (lays. Horses s aves also no longer they bi ing 

th- re 

hi(ilkish, m'ntUoks sha w/itch shiishatui shkutashtat i'l;i:utchhlk. 

to kill, but bis own tbey horses tradeoff for blankets to bury him in. 

NOTES. 

This abort uotice describes a funeral (islia) of the Klamath Lake tribe in the morlc^ 
as adopted from the Americans not long after the treaty of 1804, when cremation of 
bodies was abolished. Whatsoever of the ancient customs in disposing of tlie dead is 
still observed, the render will easily gather from the present sketch. 

87, 3. tiilaka means to go forth and back with the hand ; hence to rub with the 
l)alm of the hand, to rub paint on, to paint. 

87, 5. Ha' nen wii'g'n. In this connection they can also say: ha' nem wa'g'n; and 
for wdtchatka: watchetka. 

87, 11. tanktak, in tliis connection, is a compound of t/iukt and ak, not of tAnk and 
tak : "just at that time." 

87, 17. lilp kimbaks gashaktchna: they follow the corpse, which is placed on the 
wagon, in two files on horsehaclc ; kimbaks is apposition to shashdmoks. 

88, I. Na'sh etc. The appearance of their graveyard (tchpinu) near the William- 
son Eiver does not dlfier much from that of our cemeteries ; it lies in the midst of the 
woods. Epr titads;^6tko see Dictionary. 



FUNERAL OF WARRIORS. 



Given ix the Klamath Lake Dialect by "Sergeant" Morgan, an Indian from KonisHTi. 



6 Ni'shta ha'ma mu'kash t^u't^uk: "miiklaks k'la'k!" Tsiii gatpa 

AU night screeches the hig owl presaging: "people die!" Then com© 

long 

mAklaks ktaklfshj tsiii shnesbual%o'ta hushts6;tok. Na's wipka hu dmbotat, 

men i)arfle8h- and while hnrning down munter they. One escaped into the water, 

cuirassed, lodges (man) 

tsui shti'ldshna tu' sa-amoksanikshi m'na ; gen4 shtl'ldshnuk. Tsiii g^pka 

and leported ovtT at relative's house hia; he went to announce. Then came 

there (there) 

9 tumi' m4klaks wa-u'htakiug-; tsui shen6tank ge'kshta tiinlp hushts^;^ shen6- 

many people to disperse (tin-nil : and while flghtin^:: on ono side live were killed in 

tankok. Ge'kshta Uhkash luishts6;{a turn, ndnka g6ia ka'ktsnnk vft'shuk; 

battle. On oih*'r side also wero killed many. some Mtarted to rnii away Irtmi tear; 



Pms^EKAL OF WAKKIOES. 89 

tsiii sha shiu'lghyi ts6;^apksh, tsui sa dnkuala tu'm, tsiii sa kshu iwal Ixi'- 

then Ihey collecten thefdllen, and they cutUmbs many, and they laid on the pyre to 

(of trees) 

lukshaluapkug. Tsui sa nutd hii'k, ndnuktua niita ; pualdla sha hu'nkglam 

LTeniate (him). Then they firod it, the whole they cast into they his 

fired ; 

til'kanksh. Stut;{ishla sha yutAtkug ; k'ldksht shtut;tishla. At hu'k ndnuk 3 

quiver. SoiTowfolly wept they inmonrniDg; at his death they wept. Now that whole 

natspka tchula'ks, at sa nanuk gii' mbele 161okshaltkuk. GAtpampgle 

was burnt np body, then they all returned from cremating. They came back 

tchf shtat shish^shka sha Mk hu'k sn4wedsh hu'nkelam wen6ya; hissudksh 

to homes (and) cut off they hnir to wife his, who was husband 

widowed ; 

m'na k'l^ksht weii6ya. Shtfe shupel6ka nii'ss wen6yuk, tsiii spukhtch. G 

her havingdied she became Eesin she laid on (h^r) because widowed, then went swcatiug. 

widow. bead 

Tunipni spiikeli, k'la'wi at ; at gii'mbfile, kia^m piin. At ga'tak. 

Five (days) she sweated, stopped then; and returned home, (and)fish ate. That's the end. 

i!fOTES. 

The style of this little piece is far from what we would call accomplished, and of 
incongruencies and unnecessary repetitions there are a score. The fight in which the 
five warriors were killed is imputed to the presaging, night-long cry of an ear-owl, and 
in ancient times Indians seem to have been justified by universal custom in attacking 
and killing their neighbors if an owl or raven was vociferating at night in close prox- 
imity to the lodge or lodges of these unfortunate people. 

88, 7. hushts6;ifOk for hushts6;fa hiik. 

88, 9. 10. hushts6/a is used here in an acti\e sense, but is better translated by the 
passive form. 

89, 1. kshuiwala has for direct object tso/^apksh, the dead body. For the same 
operation the verb ksh^wala, ksh^wal is also frequently used : 85, 6. From here the 
informant begins to speak of o«f body only, as if only one warrior, not many, had been 
killed in this battle. Cf. Note to 80, .5. 

89,2. hiinkelam stands in this line for hunkeiiimsham orp'ni'ilam: "their, theirs". 

89, 5. Mk. After their retui-u they cut off the hair of the widow and then she 
put pitch or resin on the head. In most tribes tlicy did it at the time of cremation, 
while they witnessed the action of the flames upon the body. 

89, 5. huk snawedsh : one widowed wife only is mentioned here instead of many : 
^^pars pro toto "-construction. This sentence, if built regularly, would run as follows : 
shishtishka sha lak hu'nkglam snawMshash, kat huk wenoya; hissui^kshash m'na 
k'l^ksht wen6ya. 

89, 7. spii'keli, to sweat in the sweat-lodge, viz. in one of the three sweat-lodges 
given by K'mukamtch to the Klamath Lake people: spu'klitcha, spu'klidsha, to start 
out for sweating there. Cf. Iumk6ka and w^la. To eat fish only, and no meat, means 
to fast on fivsh. 



90 MANNERS AND CITSTOMS. 

VARIOUS ETHNOGRAPHIC NOTICES. 

I. 

E-ukshikni vuiK^pni laklki gitko. I'ina hundred ndanksbaptdnkni 

The Lake people four djiefs bave. Once Imndred (flnd) eight times 

tt?-unip hihashuatch;^ash p(i-ulatko p]-ushtat, tunepni ta-unep m;iklaks 

ten men (are) at. tlie I^ake, tive times ten persons 

3 E-ukshikni Yainakslii. Tina hundred pen hi]) pe-ula latoliash. Tunuuitka 

oftho Lake people at YAneka. Once hundreil and two (are) lodges. Ity the crowd 

shute-Ucipka laki. 

will be elected a chief. 

E-ukshikni hushmo'khi huslimoklo'tkishtka ; kinkan' sm5'k gi'tk, 

The Lake men remove the beard with hair-pincers; spare beard they 

have, 

6 atinsli hik gi'tko. Shiashgatko hlk; snawedshasli kailish pan hik gitk. Ha 

long hair having. Is cut (their) a woniau belt ilowu hair wears. If 

hair : to 

snawedshash hishuatchj^ash mbii'shni, hunk ktu'tthka ; hishuakshash w4tch 

a female with a man consorts, they crn]i (ler) hair; the man for horses 

s;j6kta : tu'm wAtch wux<'>-we. 

they fine: many horses he has to give up. 

9 Shu'd.sha loloks slikuishtka; tsiissak m'nalamtana hltchash shu'dsha. 

They kindle the fire by tire drill : constantly chtse to their lodges they have a 

lire. 

Laki kshiulakgish^eni gena nanuka'nash nddna : " tids ul wdwal- 

A chief to the dance house goes (and) to iill cries out: "straight stand 

%at! tchiii^et nanuk! wawal^at ! shvxinat ! hishuaksh pil shuinat ! Nu 

up! sit down veall! stand up! sing! the men only mustsing! My- 

self 

12 tchuinuapk ! i tchui'n ! tiila shuin ! Tia'mantk shui'sh. Atenish ew4 

1 will sing! you sing! with (iuo)8iug! (I am) hungry for songs. Xow I have 

enough 

shui'sh; 4teni kgldwi shui'sh." — "Shimuapk i ndnuk! shu4ktchuapk i nAnuk! 

of songs; now I qait singing." " Stop singing ye all! cry and weep ye every one ! 

Ka-i i shhimuapk, shuinuapk i nanuk. Nfinuk tids wawal;^at ! shlii-udpkat 

Not ye cease to sing, but sing all of ye. All straight stand up! (and) look at 

15 k'lekapksh!" 

the corpse !" 

II. 

Ka-iu B6shtinash gatpish, Mo'dokni mba-ush shulo'tantko, pupuit- 

Bcfore the Americans arrived, the Modocs in buckskins (were) dressed, with 

hmtchainpkash ka-ilahlpsh=kitko, viinam mba-ush tchutchi-eshaltko. 

fringes on in leggings dressed, (of) elk's skin dressed in caps. 

18 Sheloluka shtdtniashtka nge'shtka shenotanka; tchiktchikashtka sna- 

(Wh'n) fighting with poisoned arrows they fought; for hatchets a wo. 

w^dshash shkda. Ha' tchilloydga lo'k shiuka amka tdslatch, &t hilk 

man they bcjught. If a young man a killed or a cougar, then 

grizzly 

sheshal61esh kgl^p^a. 

a warrior ho became. 



VAKIOTJS ETHNOGRAPHKJ NOTICES. 91 

Nka'kgiiiga t'slu'sha]) p'ki'shap taunapni waita k&-\ tchii'leks pAn, 

After a childbirth the fatlier (innl) the mothni ten Aay-^ nn meat oat, 

shdpgle mdklaksani tclii'sh p^sh p4n; tiinepni waita lomk6ka, nadshksap- 

bread, the Indians also food eat; five days they sweat, Bixth 

tdnkni at wait61aii shulutlsh p'ntllam nAnuk puedsha. 3 

then day over, garmeuts ihrir own :ill cast away. 

TishiwApkash wa'k gltko shueutchaga p'gl'shap hu'nk^lam wa'k tkuyA; 

Crooked limbs having a babe mother its the rubs ; 

limbs 

ha lish kad kalMlisli lu'lp gitko hiVnkelam p'gi'shap lu'lp tkuyd nepatka, 

if too rounded eyes having its mother the eyes rubs with hand, 

kikaniK^ga lu'lput nepatka, tchui shishatchelo'tka; at tidsh tchek shutu'lan G 

applies to the eyes the hands, then spreads (thein) apart : then well finally after arranaing 

kel^wi. Hiiniasht taks Jul Mo'dokni giuga ktaktanapatko shitko shk'-ish 

bhe stops. Therefore the Modoes sleepy- alike to look at 

iiAnuki. Ha lish k6-idshi wawakish gi suentcham, p'ki'sliap taks tidsh 

all are. If misshaped the ears are of the babe, the mother aright 

shu'ta, patadsha suentcham wawakash, nenpaga, peptchaga. Naishlashlak- 9 

shapes she stretches the babe's botli ears, little hands. little feet. Toads- 

(tbem). 

gish-gitko ktchayash tchi'sh wektat ita ni'sh tchi'sh. 

horned beetles with fangs also on the slie on the also. 

arms lays, neck 

NOTES. 

With the excei)tion of the first, these ethnographic notices concern the people com- 
posing the southern chieftaincy as much as those of the northern. 

I. The four items of section I are worded in the Klamath Lake dialect, and were 
obtained from Frank, a young Indian settled at Kuyamska'-iksi, "the Crab's Eiver- 
Trail," on the Williamson River. 

90, 1 etc. The census figures given in the first paragraph refer to one of the latest 
counts made of the individuals in the tril)c, probably to that of 1870. 

90, 1. \-rinepni lah^ki gitko. Correctly worded, this plirase would lead vunepa'nash 
lal4kiasli, or vunepnisli, or at least vnn^pni laWkiash gitko. 

90, -'. p6-ulatko ought to be used only wiien units are mentioned after the decads 
of figures. If the relator wanted to say, 180 men were counted, the verb shii'tui, 
sh^tui would be the proper term. Cf. Wote to 70, 8. 9. 

90, 3. Tuiiii'mtka, "by the many", by the crowd: by the majority of the men in 
the tribe. 

90, 7. hisliuiitch;/ash is a form for the word man., male, common to Klamath Lakes 
and JNIodocs, but more frequently used among the latter. The reverse is true of the 
form hishuaksli. 

90, 10-13. Part first of the fourth notice refers to dances at the communal dance- 
lodge, organized and directed by chiefs. The chief starts the songs ; sometimes the 
men, sometimes the women sing in chorus ; or a song may be sung by all present. 
When the chief sees one, who does not sing, he cries out : "i tchuin; tiila shuin i!" 
All dances are accomj>anied by songs or other music. 

90, 10 ul probably stands for iin, ii'n, ii'na, a conjunction more frequently used in 
the Modoc than in the Klamath Lake dialect. 



92 MA^NKKS AND CUSTOMS. 

90, 11. tchii'l^et for tclia'l;fatl ait ye dowu! 

90, 11. 14. w6wal;fat, wawdl;^at. WAl/a means: to look out for, to be expectant; the 
dancers ai'e commanded to make ready for the next song, which implies that they have 
to rise upon their feet. 

90, 12. tchiiinuapk. See Note to 70, 3. 

90, 13-15. The words from SldmuaiJk to k'lek^pksh are commands of the chiefs or 
subehiefs heard at the solemn ceremonies held in or around the lodge of a deceased 
person the day before the funeral. Chiefs arc entrusted with the leadership of choruses 
sung by those who mourn over the defunct, and in presence of the corpse. 

90, 13. 14. shl4muapk for shl.^mi-uai^kat, or shl^miuapk' i! See Dictionary. 

II. The items contained in section II were obtained from J. C. D. Riddle, and are 
worded in the Modtc dialect. 

90, 17. The Klamath Lakes wore a kind of elk-skin hat, wide brimmed, high and 
painted in colors, which they called pilkalsh tchuyesh. Leggings were called kaild- 
lapsh, because they reached to the ground (kaila). 

90, 18. 19. Sliel61uka and sheshalolish; both derived from the verb sh611ual, to 
make war, to fight. 

90, 18. sht6tmashtka. All Indian tribes of the border region between California 
and Oregon ai-e rejiorted to have fought with i)oisoned arrows in early times. 

91, 1. Nka'kgiuga, literally: on account of a childbirth. That the father denies 
to himself the use of meat during ten days is a custom not unlike the world-renowned 
couvade; the sweating has the effect of keeping him at home in such a time when his 
family stands most iu need of his protection. 

91, 2. shdpele is flour of any kind of grains and the bread made from such ; radk- 
laksam piish, Indian food: edible roots, berries, wokash etc.; lomk6ka for the Kla- 
math Lake: spiikli: to sweat in a sweat-house. Cf Note to 89, 7. 

91, 3. p'nalam shulotish, the dress which they wore at the time of the childbirth. 

91, 4. Tishiwapkash. The Modoc tishiwatko, crooked, stands for Klamath Lake 
tishilatko, to which compare tikiwatko and tis;/antko. 

91, 5. kalkdlish. This adjective is variously pronounced ki'ilkali and kolkoli. 

91, 6. In its signification lulput approaches very near to lulpat, as the Klamaths 
would say; liilput, however, involves the idea: she raines her hand up to the eyes. 
This mani])ulation probably contributes to some extent to the oblique convergeucy of 
both eyes towards the nose or mouth and approaches the Oregonians to the Mongolian 
type of mankind. All the manipulations described are frequently repeated by mothers 
and other females inhabiting a lodge, and they often do it without any necessity. 

91,8. nAnuki stands for nanuk gi. suentchJlm: in the Modoc dialect su6ntch 
means a baby, infant, while carried on the baby-board ; the Klamath Lakes, however, 
use this word in its original sense of baby-board, cradle-board, to which the infant is 
strapped or tied. 

91, 10. ktchiiyash. The application of insects etc., is certainly done for the pur- 
pose of rendering children fearless against danger and unmoved by sudden fright in 
after-lile. 



AN OPINION ABOUT THE WASCO INDIANS. 93 

Amp^ankni maklaks. 
AN OPINION ABOUT THE WASCO INDIANS. 



Obtained in the Klamath Lake Dialect from Chaules 1'keston. 



Aiup;tankni gdtpa mu shanaholiuk suawedsb, kii-i spuiu vushuk; 

One Wasco came rery desiring a wife, (but) not gave from fear; 

mnch 

Amp^iiukni shawigatk; kiya Amp;(ankui. G(^uuapk tuuii E-ukskni 

the Wascoes are irritable ; liars are the Wascoes. Would go many Lake men 

Ampxani sheshatuikuapk lu'ksh ma'ntch=gftko ; skiitasli shan41ioliuk 3 

to the Dalles, would trade off slaves formerly ; blankets (they) wanted 

pa'niak, skutash I'ktsa Amp;(ani ydmuash tchisli. Nash s4pash g^pgapg- 

being un- blankets they at the D.illes beads also. In one month they wonld 

clothed, fetched 

liuapk, tsialsh ^pkviapk, kawi tchish dpkuapk. Tanni sha g^na? t^-unipni 

return, salmon they wonld lamprey- too bring. How many of did go! ten men 

bring, eels" them 

a-i sha g^na, snawedsh tchish g^na, kd-i sha i-a vu'sha Amp%anknishash. 6 

they went, (a) woman also went, not they of feared the Wascoes. 

course 

Amp^ankni ak sas hushts6;(iiapk; sass%ank i gi! ,K4-i uu shtinta 

The Wascoes them might kill; imperilled ye are! Not I like 

Amp;{anknishash, k4-i tidshi, kd-i tidsh hiVshkank. Hii' tidshi gitk 

the Wasco people, not good (they not well iutentioued. If good-hearted were 

are), 

maklaks Anipxankni, tankt ni ge'nt, sassaguk k4-i g^na. Tidshi ha'k 9 

people the Wascoes, then I may go being in peril I will not go. Good if to be 

there, 

tiimgnank gdnuapka nu. 

1 bear (tbem) shall go I 

(there). 

NOTES. 

The Wasco Indians form a portion of the Upper Chinook Indians of Columbia 
River. Their ancient homes were around and at the Dalles, and a few of them still 
live there, while others now inhabit a section of the Warm Sprins;- Indian reservation 
on Des Chutes River, Oregon. The Dalles formerly were, and arc still to a certain 
extent, the locality, where all tlic tribes of the Columbia River Basin sold and bartered 
their products and commodities. The Warm Spring Indians call the Wascoes: Was- 
kopam, " men of the grass region " ; the Klakamas-Chiiiooks caU them Guithlasko. The 
Klamath Lake and Modoc Indians also were among the frequenters of the intertribal 
market, exchanging there the slaves caught ou their raids for ponies, provisions etc., 
when they went down to the Dalles ou their annual trips. My Indian informant, 
Charles Preston, had lived long at the Dalles, and also gave nie a list vt Wasco 
words and sentences. 



94 MTTHOLOGIC TEXTS. 

93, 1. k.l-i spuni viishuk : the subject of Rpiini, l5-ukskni nidklaks, is left out by 
iuadverteuce. Some Wascoes wanted to many iuto auother tribe; for "one Wasco 
man" stands here for "some men of the Wasco people." 

93, ;>. 4. Aini)/;i'ni, contraction of a7nbu;fe'ui "thither, where the water is", where 
the waters rush down in a cataract, or in rapids. Tiie rapids of the Cohimbia River at 
the Dalles impede navigation. 

93, 7. sassagauk i gi! ye are in peril, when going to the Dalles and being Indians, 
therefore take care of yourselves ! i stands for at; cf. 64, 10 and Note; 90, 13. 14. 

93, 7. 9. Instead of kii-i nu shtinta may be said also, in this connection, kd-i ju'i 
shauahole; instead of tankt ni gent: ge'nteni, ge'nt a ni; instead of TidsM ha'k: 
tidshiik, tidshi hJi gi. 



K'mUKAMTCHAM AiSHISHAM TCHISH SHASHAPKELEASH. 

K'MtJKAMTCH ATTEMPTS THE DESTRUCTION OF HIS SON 

AlSHISH. 



Obtained in the Klamath Lake .Dialect from Minnie Froben. 



Liipf na'lsh hunk K'miikamtch shutay^ga; iia-asht iia'lsh hunk ga-ag 

At first us K'oiukamtch began to create ; so to us long ago 

kemutchdtk shashapkelt-i'a genta kailatat Tchia hu'k la'pi sh4-ungaltk 

an old man told the myth vhia world about. Lived the two related as eon and 

lather, 

3 Aishish K'mvi'kaintchish; ne-ul;{a hunk ge'n, iianuktua kd-akt hu'k gag, 

Alshish (and) K'miikamtch; resolved this one, (that) all things, whichever (are) here, (and) 

ndnuktua kia'm 4mbutat \va, gitki giug. Tchuyunk pa'n I-ulal6uan 

all kinda of fish, in the water (which) should come into Then again at the outlet at 

live, existence. Linkville 

tchkash \\i-v\%'<\ paphshash gi'tki giug, mu' gint nki'lHpsh ti'wish ndu'l- 

also he caused a dam to come into exist- very there rapidly the rushing running 

once, waters 

6 shampksh paltki, mil'ash shl^-uyuk, tchuyunk maklaksash kia'm I'tklauk 

down to leave the south when bfowa, and hereupon the Indians the fish scooping up 

dry, wind 

pAlshtat patki gl. 

on the bottom t4ioiild feed 
left dry upon. 

Tchiii pan huiuasht giulank K'mukAmtch linaka tchkash m'na Aishi- 

Hereupon having performed this K'mtikamtch son then his Aishish 

9 shash shtilta p'laiwasham shnu'lash, shl^ank kenAwatat shkulelani wewdka 

sent after an eagle's oyrie, perceiving up on a kSndwat- of a lark the young 

, stalk ones 

liil'nk shu'kayauk, shnepe'nipemuk vunakA ni'na. Snawedsh spil'ut;tashtka 

hanging (on it), in order to ontraj) son htn. A wife lo abduct (from him) 



K'MUKAMTCH attempts the UESTRUOTIOX OF AtSUISH. Uo 
giug- tcliiiyiink K'mu'kamtcli spu'nshna. K'lnu'kamtcli heme^e shi'ash- 

then K'miikamtch took (bim) along. K'tuukamteh told (Uiiu) to take 

kank liii'n tchulisli, kailisli tchish shukatoiiolo'tch. Tchiii Aishish gu'ka 

off (bisj sLirt, belt also (and) bair-i ibimn. Then Aisbisli climbed 

kapkagatat; tchriyunk kii'ga, ati kedsha. Aishish shataldi'ldainna guke- 3 

on the low tree; and(wbili') bocliiubed, high it grew, Aisbisb steadily looked down wbile 

nu'ta, ati at kddshisht; at hu'nk tchui shliia tchitchili'leka pii'-uhipksh 

climbing, high until it had grown ; and then be saw little birda lying 

shnu'lashtat shkiVlelani. T(;hui Aisliish g^'hhipka shnil'lashtat ka'shgug 

in the nest ot the lark. Tiien Al^bisb «'ent into the ne.st being nnable 

gu'tgapglish; hi'-itak tchui tchi'-uapk. 6 

to climb back; there then he was going to 

stay. 

K'mu'kamtcli toksh hu'nk nanuk Aishisham shul6tish shnuka; shu'- 

K'miikamtcb however the whole of Aisbisb's clothing tookawa\-; dressing 

luatchnauk gii'mbele k'lt^widshnank m'na I'maka. Sn^wedsh p/ildshapehik 

himself in it he returned relinqnishing his eon. (His) wife to abduct 

hdtokt gatpampcle Aishisham tchi'slitat; tchiii Aishisham wewamiish 9 

over there he went back of ,\lshish to the dwelling; then Ai.shish'.s wires 

kai^ema K'mukaiutchish; "k4-i a hvi'k geg iialam hishuaksh" tchi' hunk 

suspected K'iuuk;'iaitch; "not (is) this here our husband" thus 

hu'ksha gi. Na'dsliak huk hishuakshlank K'niiikamtchash, nanka toks 

they said One only consorted with K'mdkamtcb, but the others 

ka-i shanaho'H. 12 

Dot wanted (him). 

At toks huk Aishish shu'isha, ntinuk kako pil k'lgka tia'muk kaitua 

But now Aishish became lean, all over bones nothing he became for starving (and) 

but nothing 

p4-uk. Tchui lapi wa'kwak=wewauuish gepkatk shlea Aishishash shnii'- 

eating. Then two butterfly-females soaring by saw Aishish in the 

lashtat kshi'klapksh. Na-iti m'nalam sha skayamtch pash ambutch 15 

nest lying. In basket their they carried on back food water also 

i'kugank, tchiii sha Aishishash shewana pash, ambu tchi'sh sha tchiya. 

putting into, hereupon they to Aishish gave food, water also they gave. 

Kii'shga tcha, p'lii' i'tchuank shulotish sha pa'n Ig'vuta. Aishish lieme;fe: 

They combed oil putting on him in clothes they again dressed (him). Aishish inquired: 

(him) 

"wak haitch at nush gi'-uapk a?" tchui liu'ksha ua-asht gi: "genta a-i 18 

"what ye with me intend todo?" then they thus said: "into this 

mi'sh na'd hishtcha^u'gank skat%ipeH-uapka." Aishish toksh shasli hu'nk 

you we placing into (we) shall carry down." Aishish but to them 

ndnuk she'gsha: "pi' nii'sh gen gtjntch ne-ulakta p'ti'shap ge-u K'mukam- 

all about it explained: "ho me in this n;anner treated badly father my K'miik- 

tchiksh! " hu'nk na-a'sht gi Aishish. 21 

amtch ! " thus said ALshish. 

Tchiii yapalpiileash mii'lua skat^ipeH-uapkuk Aishishash kailant ; 

Hereupon the butterflies got ready to take down again Aishish to the ground; 

wewanuish toks hii'k Aishisham m^ya la'pi, Kl^tiamtch tchi'sh Tclii'ggash 

(ind) wires of Aishish dug roots two. (called) ohl also Tchika 

Elitith 



96 MYTHOLOGIC TEXTS. 

tu'la. Wa'kaltk h<i'kt ki. Tchiii Aishish g^na me-ishx^ni, tapi'tankni 

withal. ChildhaviDg this was. Then Aisbish wont to the digging- keeping behind 

prairie, 

gdldshui Tchfkash; Tchfkalam wii'ka shh'a mdhiash Afshisham, tchui 

he walked np toTchlkaj of Tcliika the child peireiveil the sb.idow of Aishish, and 

;5 p'ti'shalpka. Ktu'pka Tchi'ka m'na w^ka slilaraiuk; tchui Aishish hamdxe: 

rricd; •■ father! " Shipped T(*lka her child in wrath; whereupon AishiBh said: 

"wak 1' un giug' ktu'pkal" Shatalki^mria Tchi'ka, shlaa Aishishasli 

"why you (it) elapj" Looked around Tcbika, saw she Aishish 

huyegank, hit tan ku-ishevvank shla'pele; tchui Aishish spunshdmpgle 

eittmg down, ran she rejoicing to meet (him) again; then Aishish took home again 

() Tchi'kash stiya pi'l nu'sh gi'pksli Kletishasli pe'ii galdshuyank shatoiii- 

Tehika pitch on her head having. KI6tish also approaching be called Tlier) 

p6le; tchiii shash 14pok ti'mpele tchi'shtal' m'na. Tchiii shash tchi'sh;{eni 

homo; then them both bo brought towards home his. to them to his home 

i'tpampglank j'dmnash sli^wana, tchelish hu'nk liielank yamnashla; udan- 

having brought back neck-wear he gave, porcupines killing he made necklaces ; to 

1) ne'ntch hu'nk w(iwanshish ydmnash shewana. 

three (of his) wives neck-wear he gave. 

'J'chiiyuk K'mii'kamtch tiimena m'na linaka tchi'sht, mii'lua g^nuapkug 

TTpon this K'milkamtch heard (that) his eon was (still) (and) pre- to proceed 

alive, pared 

hdtaktala. Tchui Aishish unakdka m'na shtuh' pa'ks uutolalolatkiuk lu'- 

thore. Aishish to little son his enjoined the pipe to swing off into 

1 2 lukshtat K'mukamtcharn. Tchui K'mukAmtch gdtpanank tch^l;{a; Aishisham 

the fire of K'mtikamtcb. Then K'miikauitch arriving sat down ; Aishi,sh's 

hii'k wdka ku-ishe-uk hulladshuitdmna p'hiksha m'na. Tchiii hu'nk pa'ksh 

son rejoicing ran forth to and back from his grandfather. Then the pipe 

pakak61eshtka K'miikdmtcham ; p^n hiilMdshui K'miiktimtchash. Hu'nk- 

he tried to jerk ofl' of K'miikamtth; again he ran up to K'niiikanitch. For 

15 anti K'mukdmtch kii-ashtdm6na: "tchitchiks a hu't gi." Pii'n hu'ktag 

that K'mtikamtch reprimanded; ''stop thatmatterl" Again that child 

hu'llatchuyank pakak6Iank pa'ksli imtoldla lii'lukshtat; tchiii Aishish 

running up to him jerking off the pipe threw it into the fire; then Alshi.sh 

ke-ulAlapka nddshpaksht, tche'k kglewi. K'miikamtchash shi'uga tchiii 

pushed (it) fuither until burnt, then be quit. E'milkamtch be killed 

18 hii'masht gink, tchiii medsh4. 

by so doing, then be moved away. 

Ma'ntchgitk pdn K'mii'kamtch wdmpgle; pt' tchkash nd-ulakta m'na 

Long after again K'miikamtch became alive ; be then proceeded against hie 

linaka. Gen hunk n4nuk shti'ya pith'ga kdluat; tcliiii shnatgalka kdlo 

son. There (he) all over pitch daubed ontboeky; then he set on fire the sky 

21 hii'masht giiilank. Hii'nkanti Aishish tia kiuyiiga; hamt';{e: "ka-i nu'sh 

80 after doing. For this reason Aishish a tray held extended ; be said: "not me 

shiugat tdta," wc^wanuish m'na shi'namshtisht Sti'ya a'-usheltkal hfi'k 

bo m.iy kill ever," wives his being afraid. The pitch turned into a lake 

udnukash ktiila, Aishishamksh pl'l pahd Tcliiii Tfl'hush talpatk61a, sti'ya 

nil over the world. Alshlali's home only remained Theti Mud Hen put Its head out, the pitch 

dry. 



k'mUkamtch attempts the destkuctiox of aIshish. 97 

tchik hii'nk n;{i'-uliga laki; kat hiik hu't tchui lali'ga Tuhu'shash. Hu'n 

then to it dripped on t'oro- which thing since stooK OD Und Ben. This one 



bead ; 



gdtak hu'nk shkalkgla. 

only was hart. 



NOTES. 



This is one of the most popular myths current- among the fi-ukisbikni, and we 
shall find it partially repeated in another myth, recounted by Dave Hill. AIshish and 
his father K'muki'imtchiksli represent powers of nature engaged in everlasting strife 
for mutual extermination. In this myth K'mukamtch resorts to the following trick to 
destroy his offspring. Seeing young larks in a nest on the top of a sorrel-stalk, he 
informs him, that if he climbs up there, he can obtain a nest of eagles with all its 
inmates. Gladdened with the prospect of this capture, Aishish climbs up, but the 
insidious father causes the plant to grow miraculously fast under him, so that descent 
bee mes impossible, and Aishish comes near perishing by hunger and exposure. 

In the recollection and wording of some portions of the myth my informant was 
assisted by "Captain Jim." 

94, 1-7. The short fragment of a creation myth preceding the Aishish tale stands 
in no causal connection with it, and could as well be inserted elsewhere. Myths enter- 
ing upon the detaiii of the creation of the world by K'muk4mtchiksh do not, as far as 
ascertained, exist among this people, but in their stead we have many myths for 
special creations (of man, animals, islands, mountains etc.). A grammatic analysis of 
the terms occuning in this fragment (from Liipi na'lsh to jiatki gi) was inserted by 
me in the American Antiquarian, Yo\. I, No. 3, pages 161-1 GO, under the heading: 
" Mythologic Text in the Klamath Language of Southern Oregon." 

94, 1. Lupi shutiiy^ga is not to be considered as a repetition, for it means: when 
K'miikamtch began to create the woild he made us before he made the fish, other 
animals, and the dam at Liiik^ille. This is, of course, only a small fragment of all the 
creation myths of this people. 

94, 2. shashapkf lia : to tell or count stories, myths or fables in the interest or for 
the pleasure of somebody ; the i is here doubled to obtain a rhetorical effect. 

94, 3. K'mu'kamtchish is a contraction of K'mu'kamtch tchish ; Aishish, K'muk- 
amtch also. The longer form of the name of the deity occurs 95, 20. 

94, 3. k^-akt, metathetically for k^kat; k^t is pron. relat. which, what, the thing 
which, nauuktua k^-akt giig comprehends all animate and inanimate creation. 

94, 4. wa, ud, to stay, exist, live in ; is always connected with an indirect object 
indicating the place, spot, locality or medium where the subject lives or exists. 

94, 4-0. The construction of the sentence runs as follows: Tchiiyunk (K'mukdmtch) 
ne-ul/a gi'tki giug paplishash lulalonan, p^ltki ti'wish gint ndiilshiimpkash mu' nkil- 
lipkash, mii'ash shleuyuk; "when a south wind blows, it will stop the waters from 
rushiug down rapidly over the cataract.-' The outlet of Upper Klamath Lake, called 
Link River, runs from north to south, over the falls at Linkville; hence a powerful 
south wind will stem the current of Link River above the falls, leave its bottom dry or 
almost dry, and enable the Indians to catch the fish swimming in the shallow water 
or wriggling in the mud. The rocky ledge under the cataract is supposed to be the 
gift of K'mukamtch. 
7 



98 MYTHOLOGIC TEXTS. 

04, 4. T-u1al(hitin or Yulnlona is the Indian name of the cascade of Link River 
above the town of Linkville, and for that town itself. The origin of this name is ex- 
plained in 94, 5. C, for the verb i nhihina means to move forth and back, referring here 
to the waters of the liver receding niider the pressure of tin; south wind. 

94, 0. itkld.nk, ])artic. pres. of itkal, means liere: obtaining by basketfuls. 

94, 9. The kenawat is a jdant growing high in the warm climate of Northern Cali- 
i'ornia, especially in the ancient habitat of the ShasTi Indians, and in this myth it sug- 
gested itself to the Indians on account of its property of growing verj^ fast. 

95, 5. g^'hlapka: he swuug himself Into the nest by climbiu'g over the rim. t'f. 
N^ofe to 66, 13. 

95, 10. kai;^ema K'inuk;imtchish for the regular form K'mukiimtchash. Cf. 91, S. 

95, 15. skayamtch etc. More plaiiily ex])ressed this sentence runs as follows : sha 
.skayamna pash tchish ambu tchish: the first tchish being placed before pAsh and 
appended to the a])ocopated skayanina. 

95, IG. sh(^'waua here used differently from tchiya, which applies to liquids only. 

95, 17. p'lu' itchuank seems to be a quite modern interpolation, for it smells of 
])omade and hair-oil; but it is as ancient as the myth itself. 

95, 2.3. 96, 2. 3. 4. Tchika. I have rendered this bird-name elsewhere by "Chaf- 
linch," and KMtish by "Sandhill Crane". 

96, -i. shli'unia, to feel iusulted. She resented it as an insult that the child called 
her deceased husband by name; for it was a capital crime among the ancestors of the 
]>rcsent Klamaths to call a dead person's name for uiauy years after his demise. 

96, a. hii'tna is changed to hu'tan on account of being followed by a word eoni- 
mencing with k. 

96, G. stiya. The custom of widows to put i)itch or resin on their heads at the 
death of their husbands was abolished only at the time when cremation became a thing 
of the i)ast. 

96, G. galdsha-uyank is a more explicit form of the participle; the verb g^ldshni 
being the contracted form of galdsh4wi. 

96, 8. Vfimnashla. He used the bristles of poicu])ines to make necklaces of. 

96, 11. unakaka m'na was the son of Aishish and of the above mentioned Tchika. 

96, 11. 12. K'mukAmtcham qualities pa'ks, not lulukshtat. 

96, 14. pakakolcshtka, verbal desiderative of pakakola, to Jerk away from. The 
sutlix -61a indi(;ates that K'mukamtch wore his tobacco-pipe tied to his body; he wore 
it on his neck. 

96, 15. tchitchiks is used when, speaking to children. It signifies so, so! an<l 
means: be quiet, shut up, stop! 

96, 17. tche'k kelewi. In similar connections this phrase very frequently ends a 
whole narrative iu Modoc an<l Klamath. Here it means that Aishish ceased to poke 
the pipe into the tire. Cf. 85, 10. 89, 7. 

96, IS. niedsha: he removed from that spot with all his wives and children. An- 
cient customs forbid the offspring to stay where the father had breathed his last. 

96, 20. G6n hunk nanuk etc. This portion of the myth describes the destniction 
of all the living organi.smson earth by a general conflagration caused by K'mukamtch. 
Myths of this kind are suggested by intense heat experienced in summei-. This mode 
of destroying life on earth is less fi-equeutly met with in myths than the drowning in a 
general Hood. 



A Tin-TniC TALE ABOUT AfSHISH. 99 



I 



96, 21. kinyiifja. AisliisL held the tray over Limself, Lis TvLole family, and his 
lodge. The same prelix ki- reai)pears iu a nasalized lorm iu n;^i'-uliga: 07, 1. It is 
nasalized there on account of the preceding k iu hii'uk. 

OG, 23. kiiila. Where I have rendered this term by "world", as here and elsewhere 
in creation myths and myths of a similar character, it does not signify the whole sur- 
face ot the earth as known to us, but only that section of country which is known to 
that tribe of Indians. Thus ancient creation myths only describe the creation of that 
part of country where these myths originated ; the creation myths of coast tribes will 
iuclude the ocean in their term for "world". 

96, 23. Tiilmsh talpatkola. Mud Hen, one of Aishish's five wives, looked out from 
under the roof of Aishish's lodge or shed to see what was going on. This fiction ex- 
plains the round dark spot visible on the mud-hen's head; its round form is indicated 
by the prefix la- in laliga. 



AiSHISHAM SHASHAPKELEASH. 

A MYTHIC TALE ABOUT AlSHISH. 



Given by Dave Hill in the Klamath Lake Dialect. 



Sliashapkele-iidpkan Aishishash : 

I am pomj; to tell a htury aboat Alahish : 

Aisliish mat sdkla tii'ma muklaks fyamnatko ; shuddshnuk mat sha 

Aisbibb, they say, gambled many people having with him -, wben gambling on so they they 

IbeiF way, say, 

slincnalu'loks. Yumiiasliptcbi mat lu'loks Aishisliam, Wanukalam kakli'kli 3 

biiiU fires. Purple-blue (waa), a.s re- iho fire of AUbish, of Silver Fox yellow 

parted, 

lu'loks, K'mukamtcham sliluyaksak. Tsiii sa slo'kla; Aishish slilin talaak, 

IIh' fire of K miikiimtch (il wa) smoke only. Tlieu Ibty sbntattho Aisbisb hit (it) stra'gbt, 

(was), mark ; 

Wanaka yu'tlansna. K'mukamts tu' hak yiVl'ka, nanka toks tii' Iiak a-dti 

LiiilSilver misstd ihe mark. Kmtlkamtch tbisaidoof struck, tbootbeisbut far th s side of 

Fox mark ibo m-irk 

liakyuTka; tuf sa liumaslit giulank sakaliiiga. Tum sa lidsliku, tsiii sas 6 

tli UL-k ; I i-rbt ibey after so di<iiig commcticed gam- M:tny tbej bet on, then ovit 

Ibeu bli:^ tbiugs them 

Airtliish i'kak; scwatkaslitka nanuk watclipka, tsui sa gli'mpele. At tu' 

Al.sliisb Won ; about iiuun all men had lost all ibey then they went borne. Ever 

had, 

tsiissak \'xnk nanuk sas. 

8in<-e bi- wi>u them all. 

'^ru'iiipnisli WL'wan's gitk Aisliisli : Tiiliu'sli nash sndweds Afsliisham, 9 

Fivo wives hud Aishisb: Mud Urn (was) oue wife (f Aishish, 

Srukua nasli snawudsh, Kli'tish nasli, Wa ks ndsh, Tsfka nash sndwedsh. 

Long-tail one wile, S.<ud-b.ll one. Mallard one, Chaffinch one wife. 

Squirrel Crone 



100 MYTHOLOGIC TEXTS. 



Tsui K'niiikamts na'-ulakta ; at un4k uji'-ulakta Aisisas. Tsui 

Then K'mi&kanitch plotted aeoretly ; after day- ho plott^ agaiuat Atsbieh. Then 

break 

K'uiiikanits suAktsa, skiiki'sh m'na hu'shuk p'lalwash p'ti's=lulsham m'na 

K'niiikaintch wept, inherited his r«'raeni!)oi-ing oagleR dead fatliiT hi« 

place 

3 luniks. At sapl'ya Afshishash K'muk^mts : "at tu' lu^lkisli p'laiwash 

Avtier© had Now declared to Alshisli K'mlikanitch : "faraway the killing- of (yonng) 

killed. place eaples ' 

yaydkia nu' ; kd-i liiela ydyakiuk", sndwedsas ku'ktakiuk K'lnukamts 

afraid nf I (ant); not I killed being afraid", a wife coveting K'niiikamtch 

(them) 

Alsisam, Stokua'ks hu'nk. At g^na Idpuk : Aisis K'mukamts tchish g^na. 

of Alsbisb, Little Squirrel. Then eet out both; Alshish K'mi^kamteh also went 

(there). 

6 Tchui sla4 p'laiwash, tsui alAliia K'mukamts kokdntki giug ; tsui 

Then .saw the eagles, and pointed out K'niiikanitcli (the pine) to climb up ; then 

p'laiwash hunkdya kdpkatat. Aisis kokantsa tu' ; tsui kedsa hiik ; atii 

the eagles flew on the pine. Ai^hish climbed up; then grew it; far up 

kalo kapAta at kdpka. Tsi'ii hunk gu'knank slaa tchilihks sku'lelam, 

the sky touched now the pine. And (it) h.aving climbed lu' saw the young ones of a lark, 

9 shmilas toks hu'k p'laiwasham. Atunk at suaktcha Alshish shnuhistat 

the eyrie though it (was) oftboe.agle. Theie now wept Aisbisb in the eyrie 

tchl'klank ; K'mu'kamts gil'mpgle at, sulu'tantsa Alshish=shitk sla's. Gdt- 

sitting; K'mtikanitcli went aw.ay. dressed himself to Aisbisb alike to appear. He 

pampgle tu' tchi'shtat ; tchui slip6nak, tchui sha'tiipk Stu'kuaksh ; tchiii 

cameliack far to dwelling; thtn it was late, and be slept with Little Sqoirrel; then 

12 kafkema StukuAg. Tsui nAnuk w^wan's k4-ik6ma, tsiii sa k6-ika. 

suspected (bim) Little Squirrel. There- all Ihe wives beianio suspicious. and they found out. 

upon 

"K'mnkAmts a ho't ki !" tsi sa hu'n ki hu'ksa Alsisam wdwanuish. 

•'K'rauk.imt8 this one is!" thus they said those Alshisb's wives. 

Tsui shash at shua'tsna mbu'sant, tsiii sa nauuk g^na tula, kat 

Then from them departed for next morning, and they ;ill went with those 

gambling (him) who 

15 Alshish tiila shuetsantamgna. At sha shnena lu'loks su^tsuuk sas. Tsui 

with Aishish were in the habit of And they built tires while on their And 

gambling. gambling toar. 

K'mukjimtsam sldyaksak lu'yaga, at sa kdyek'ma, at sa: "ka-i a ke'k 

to K'mdkivmtch smoke only cnrled up, now they suspected, .and they "not (is) this 

(said) ; 

Aisis!" hu'ksa n4-ast sa-ulankdnkatk. "K'mukamts a ke'k gi!"; ua'sht sa 

Alshish!" those (in the thus (bis) followers. " K'mlikamtch this is!'; so they 

nistanue) (said) 

18 hu'ksa tu'kni; "kd-i a Aisis gil'pkat, ka-i hu't lu'loks Alshisham nu'ta". 

(said) those far off; "not Aishish came, not (here) the fire of Aisbisb is burning" 

Hu'ksa tu' na'shtk tali'tankpkuk : "a't gen .sl6kalsht hi shla'papakuapk; 

Those afar thus said seeing him coming: "ye this after be has shot at will Hnd out then ; 

man the mark 

Alshish toks shli'tam'na t41aakl" At gdtpa at shlo'kla, tti' hak yfi'l'ka 

Alshish however always hits straight!" Then they at- ;ind they shot, (but) far this siile struck 

rived 

21 K'mukamts; Wan4k tads yiVtlansuii- Tsui sha sakaliag, tsui sa K'lTuikam- 

K'ratlkamtab Silver Fox missed n little. Then tln-v eonimencod and they over Kni<i. 

gaming. 



A MYTHIC TALE ABOUT aISHISH. 101 

tsas i'kak ; waitash a tii'm i'kak, tsiii sa ga'mbgle, tsiii sa gdtpampgle 

kamtch won ; fill day long many they won, then they returned, and they went back 

stakes 

Idtsastat. At sa tsui ga'tak sdkla saMkiuk Alsisas. 

to the lodges. Then they qnit gambling, for tbey Alshish. 

missed 

Tsui Afsisam w^wanuish sudsuaktsa tsu'ssak, k'lewfdsha m'ndlam 3 

And Alshiah's wives wept constantly, (and) left their 

Idtchash sta-lldshuk. Shti'a sa nu'shtat shi'dsho wen^pi wdwanuish; ndsh 

lodges to dig roots. Pitch tbey on heads put four wives ; one 

toks Wa'-aks kd-i hli'la Aisisas. Tsui ludtpislals Kliti'sam Aisis tu'mgna, 

but Mallard not monrned Alshish. Then the weeping cries of Sandhill Alshish heard, 

Crane 

tsiii Aishish shuAktsa tii'mgnank. At Aisis tu' Mlo wika't, at k'l(iknapk G 

and Aisbish wept hearing (them). Now Alshish (was) sky close to, then be was mori- 

far away bund 

kak6 b6la ; at shl'tsa 1dpi w(^kwak tu' kalo wikdta ; at shlad Aisisas. Tsiii 

bones nothing then soared ^ip two butterflies far the sky close to; and (they) Aisbish. Then 

but; up aaw 

shitsliatx^pSle shla-61ank, tsiii gatpampglissa, tsiii sdpa, p'tis4 m'na sapiya : 

tbey flew back having seen (him), and returned home tbey, and told, to father their saying: 

"tidsi k'lji'kuapk hi'ssuaks; tu' ni kal6 wigdta shlaa hu'nk hissudksas kak6 9 

" a good will (soon) perish man ; far off I sky close to saw that man bones 

belat; ti'dsi hu'k k'lJi'kuapk ! " Tchissa shapiya p'tfsa m'ndlam. 

nothing good tbi^ will j)eri8h I" So tbey said to father their, 

but; (man) 

Hu'k p'tfssap sam shkiiyui shash mbu'sant at undk gd-ulakuapk ydkl 

The father Ibeir ordered them on next morning early to soar up a basket 

shldyamgnank. Tsiii slia gdna saptdlaltk, tsiii sa tii' gdtpa pds a I'yamnatk 12 

strung around (them). And went the sisters, and they up arrived food carrying 

' there 

ambuts I'yamnatk. Tsiii Aisisas liwatkal shnu'lashtat hu'nkant, tsiii wu'la 

water also carrying. Then Aisbish tbey raised in eyrie that. then inquired 

up 

hu'ksa wdkwak: "wdk i gdn gitk?" nd-asht sha wii'la. Tchiii Afsis 

these botterflies: "what are here doing?" bo they inquired. Then Aiehish 

you 

ham^%e: *'K'miik^mts an'sh p'laiwasli shtflta; tsiii ni k6ka kapka-dgatat, 15 

said: "K'miikanitch me after the eagles sent; and I climbed on the small pine, 

tsiii kedsnu'tan's ; k^dsha kapka koki'sh g^-u Tsiii nii hll'ak shlaa 

then it grew np under me ; grew up the pine daring climb* my. Then I (those) i^aw 

ing 

p'laiwashj sku'lalarn ta'ds n'u'nk shlaA tsl'liliks." Tsihunk Afsis ha'mkank 

eagles, of the lark only I found the young." So Alshish said, 

sa'gsuk hu'nkies. 18 

giving ex- to them, 
planations 

At sa M'nk sldnkok shl6a tchakgldtat ks^oga sha Afshishas shewan6- 

Now they spreading a wild- in the willow- placed into they Aishisb after giving 

cat's skin basket 

lank pa's ambuts, tsiii sa sk^t^idsa, kailatat at gatpdmpgle. Tsiii f pka 

<hlm) food water also, then they took bim down on the ground he returned. And hol*iy 

in the basket sick 

ma'nts, at wa'mpele. • 21 

a longtime, then he recovered. 



102 MYTUOLOGIO TEXTS. 



NOTES. 



Portions of tlio same inytli, tlioufjb difleiently connected, will be found in the 
mythic talc: K'lnukauitch attempts the destruction ot his son Ai:.liisli. Ihitli nan;) 
lives are comiiiemeutaiy to each other in some, iniimrtant details. 

90, 3. slin6na. It is the custom of jjamhlers to build lires at every )>l;:ce where 
they stop on their road or trail. Any party of tra^•ellin,l;■ Iniliaus will do so v. hen stop- 
l)ing on their way. Of. 23, 15. 

99, 3. Y<'imnashi)tchi. Several adjectives desipiating colors are taken from arti- 
cles of dress in both dialects: tohdi'iptchi, green; tch;f6-utch/e-nslii>tchi, a shade of 
blue; and spi'ilptchi, lijiht-yellow, is called after a face-i)aint nuule of a kind of clay. 

99, 3. Wanfikalam lu'loks. The tire of Young Sdver Fox was yellow or yellowish, 
not oidy because the fur of this fox-species turns from silvery white into yellowish by 
the change of seasons, but also, because this animal rei)resents in mythic stories the 
halo around the sun. Cf. shakatchalish in Dictionary. Waniika always ligures as 
the companion of the principal national deity, K'miikamtch. 

99,7. watchpka: to stake everything in one's ])ossessiou and then lose it all; 
■wi-uka, to win all the stakes lost by the others. 

99, 10. ICO, 5. Stokua or Stiikuaga was, according to another of my informants, a 
fish of this name, and not a squirrel. The other wives of Aishish all have names of 
birds. 

100, 3. Iu61ks: K'miikamtch had inherited a locality where his father was in the 
habit of hunting and killing the giant-eagle (p'laiwash). Thinking of this i)lace, 
K'mukamtch went there with his son Aishish, after scheming a stratagem to let him 
perish there. To kill the eagles, it was necessary to climb a pine-tree; this K'mu- 
kamtch ^as afraid of doing, and wanted to send up there his son instead. 

100, 9. shniilas toks etc. The lark had her young in the nest of an eagle. 

100, 10. siihi'tantsa. He dressed himself in Aishish's garments, as appears from 
the foregoing mythic tale. 

100, 15. sas. Dave Hill often uses shash, sas in an almost reciprocal sense: while 
(or: for) going to gamble among themselves. This pronoun does not depend here on 
shn(5ua, as we might assume. Cf. l^otc to 58, 10. It refers to the playmates of Aishish, 
who set out with K'miikamtch, whom they thought to be their beloved Aishish on ac- 
count of the dress he had abstracted from him. In ICO, 14 shash was explained to me 
by "from them", viz. from the wives of Aishish, in whose lodge K'miikamtch had 
passed the night. 

100, 18. gii'pkat for gepka at : did not come now, or : has not come yet. 

101, 2. gii'tak. This adverb gives to understand, that they were loth or too tired 
to play any longer for stakes, because their beloved Aishish was not present. " To cease 
or stop gambling" simply, would be expressed by saklola. 

101, 4. .shti'a etc. Cf. Notes to 89, 5; 90, G; and general Note, on page C6. 

101, 4. shi'dsho wen6pi, rather unusual forms for shi'dsha hu vum^^pni. Hii, "up, 
above, on head," has coalesced with shi'dsha into one word. 

101, 5. Kliti'sam. Aishish heard the cries of Kletish only, because of all the birds 
which are believed to be his wives, the long-necked sandhill crane is the loudest and 
noisiest. 

101, 8. gatpampglissa for gatpdmpgli sba, as tchissa for tclii sa. 



OEIGIN OF HUMAN EACES. DURATION OF HUMAN LIFE. 103 

101, 8. p'tisA m'ua for p'tisha m'nalam. 

101, 10. kaUo belat for : kako pil at. 

101, 11. p'tissap sam. Sham, sam "tbeir", is found standing instead of m'ndlam, 
p'ndlam, or bi'mkelamsliam in tbe conversational form of language. Cf. 107, 13. 108,4. 

101, 13. liwatkal. Tliey lifted up tbe famisbed Aisliisb, almost reduced to a 
skeleton, and seated bim uprigbt in tbe nest; tbey imparted new strengtb and life 
to bim by feeding Lim. 

101, 10. keklsba, to grow, forms k^dsbna, kedsbntita; n's is : nu'sb, to me, with me, 
under me ; a sort of dativus commodi. 



ORIGIN OF HUMAN RACES. DURATION OF HUMAN LIFE. 



Given by "Captain Jim" in the Klajiath Lake Dialect. 



K'mu'kamtch hii'nk at ne-i;]xa n4-asht gen: Hu'nk E-iikshikishash 

K'miikamlch ruled as follows: Tbe Klamath Lake 

tcMk maklaks shu'ta; tchui pdn Ka'kakilsh tcluigsli maklaks sliii'ta ; 

from a service- people he made ; hereupon ihe Kahakilsh from skuuks people m.-ide; 

berry bubh 

Y^matala gdnuta sluislitddshua. E-ukslikishash ktclial^ishtat i'l^a, B6sh- 3 

noithwards > hilo ho ho created (thorn) ou Tbe Klamath Lakes io tbu suu-heat ho laid the white 

had sono liis way. down, 

tinash toks shut61ank miiliieshtat i'lp^a; humasht giug na'd mdklaks mu'- 

people however after cr. at iug in the shade laid down; therefore we luoians (are) 

(Ihcm) 

makmukli, Boshtin toksh papdlpali. ]il-ush guni'gshta kiiilali'a. 

dark, the white race but liphtcom- The sea beyond he made a 

plexioned. world lor Ihcm. 

At sha pii'n ne-ulakiega, K'mukamtcli niii'nk tchi'sh slikishki'sh tchish 6 

Then they bi-gau to lecislute, K'miikaiutcb, mole also. fly-bug .also, 

wishi'nk tclush. Mu'nk bamd^e : "Nu a gu'ggamtcbisbash m<4klaksbash 

gartor-snake also. Mole said: "I of old ago th.- human beiugs 

gi'tki gi!" Hunkanti wisbink nti-asbt bam^%e: "nu'toks gdmptcba 

to become w:mt!" Ou that sulject garter-snake thus spoke: "audi thu.s.made 

mdklaksbasb gi'tki gi!" Tcbibunk wi'.sbink sbkintcbisb;^ag6ta : "ga-ash 9 

the men to become order ! " Thus garter-snake while shedding its skin : "this way 

nu bii'nk mdkUiksbasb k'ldktgi : ti'dsbok ndtnak git k'mu'tcbatk gi'ntak 

I the men to bi-come having grown then to be of old age though 

(want) : 

tchiltgipeletdm'nuk." Hunkanti mu'nk na-asbt bem^;^e: "nu a g(imptcba 

always to grow young again." On that subject mole thus said: "but I thus-made 

pshe-utiwasbash gi'tki gi : gii'ggamtcbisbasb ! " Pi muimii'yuk: "ga-asbt 12 

the human beings to become want: decrepit by age!" CAnd) it ebivering (said) : "thus 

nu pse-utiwasbasb gi'tki gi!" Ski'shkisb tcbish na-asbt tok na'-ul%a 

I the human beings to become -want 1" Fly-bug :ilso thus voted 



104 



MYTHOLOGIC TEXTS. 



mu'nkasli tiilak. Pi ski'shkish n4-asht: "kiii tddsh ak hii'k tiimi pshe- 

mole along with. It the fly-bag thus (said): "very cruelty many baman 

utlwash giug ki'shtclikank lii^talt niish". 

beings acting, when ett-pping (will) crush oio". 

(on uie) 

Tclii'hunk pil't hdshtaltal n^-ul^ug. Tchiii sha palpeli^ga; mu'nk 

Thus they mntually dispated for action. Then thoy began working; the niola 

yaina shuteydga; shtu'ya yalnaluk. At pi'pil biinta ne-ul;(a K'mukam- 

luountains began to make ; it made to throw up Now alone thus (it) made after K'uii^kamtch 

gang-waya monutaius. 

tcham shut61ash. 

had finished creating. 

NOTES. 

103, 3. tchdk. There is evideutly ajeu de mots intended between tch^k and tcliAksli. 
Which northern tribe the Kakakilsh were, my informant and other Indians were unable 
to say ; it is a nickname, derived from kii'k, of some Oresonian tribe held in contempt 
by the ISIaklaks, and any reference to it causes great merriment to the Klamath Lake 
Indians. Mdklaks is in both places separated from the tribal name by inversion ; 
tchiik and tchiigsh form apposition to these tribal Tiames and to maklaks, and for 
tcliagsh we would expect tchdshish, which is the usual form of the word. 

103, 5. fi-ush. The sea or ocean, which is meant here, is muni 6-ush, while e-ush 
iiieaus a lake, lagoon or large pond. 

103, (i. neulakiega. Three of the lower animals are here brought together to confer 
with K'mukamtch to determine the duration of man's life, and every one voted according 
to its own experience. Stephen Powers mentions a mythic story comparable to tliis, 
heard by him among the Pit Eiver Indians (Contrib. to North Amer. Ethnology, vol. 
Ill, p. 273): "The coyote and the fox participated in the creation cf men and animals, 
the first being an e^^l sjiirit, the other good. They quarreled as to whether they should 
let men live always or not. The coyote said: "if they want to die, let them die"; but 
the fox said : " if they want to come back, let them come back." But nobody ever 
(!ame back, for the coyote prevailed." 

103, 9. 10. After shkintchish;^ agota supply heme;^ e, aud after k'l^ktgi : gi. 

103, 10. ti'dsok, or tit'shok, distributive form of t'shok, of the verb t'shin to grow. 
Of. tit'sha, 107, 12. 

103, 12. pshe-utiwash, abbreviated psh^-utuash, an archaic word used onlj in the 
collective sense of people, human beings. It occurs only in mythic stories. Cf 105, 8. 

104, 4. shtu'ya. This fiction was suggested by the manner in which moles throw 
up mole-hills and shows that the ancient myth-makers were not without a humoristi(; 
vein. 

104, 4. pi'pil. Every mountain was thrown up by tlie mole alone, each one sepa- 
rately. The special creation of K'miikamtch was man, and Avhatsoever stands in duect 
connection with his existence, welfare and customs, as fishing-places, islands, funereal 
sweat-lodges etc. 

104, 4. hunta, abbreviation of hiiutala : by proceeding in this manner, in the same 
manner. 



CREATION OF THE MOONS. 105 



HdlASHT SHIpASH Lt>'PI SHUTEY^GATK. 

CREATION OF THE MOONS. 



Given ix the Klamath Lake Dialect by Minnie Froben, 



W^sh hunk 16p6ni td-unepant wu'nip p(5-ula shdpash shii'ta. Ldlap 

The (fetnalf) twenty- fonr moons madfi. Two at n 

cnyote ' time 

ge-upkatki giug sha shipat;(ukank; tchiii at vu'nauk iggd-idshnank g^kaii- 

when coming; up they covered each other; then finishing suspending (them) she went 

sha. K'mu'kamtch gu'hli' ka'liaiit washash, wew^ga pil tchi'shi; vu'hi 3 

ont. K'mdkamtch entered, being absent the coyote, (her) children only in the lodge; he asked 

shas: "tat' ne gtimpka?" "Ge't a genu la!'' K'mu'kamtch hemdze: "tush 

them: "where didshegotoJ" "There shu went !" K'niAkamtch said: "where 

haltch mdlam p'gi'shap tchia!" "Hit4tchia!" Tchui K'mu'kamtch hdtakt 

(does) your mother sit?" '• Heio she sits! " Then K'miikamtch there 

tchel^ank shu'shamka: "ha ha! ha hal" wakash tdtal;(ok haha'tamna. 6 

Bitting down bummed: 'ha ha! ha ha?" boue-awls sticking (into he went ou granting, 

the ground) 

Pa'n shash vu'la: '' wakaitch hu'n giug na'g tu'm haktch shdpesh shushdta? 

Again of them he inquired : " why then the absent too mai-y altogether moons did make? 

(mother) 

w^kak hunk ps^-utiwash tchi-uapk lu'ldani? tchoka^ ak huk lu'ldam hak; 

how then the people could live iu winter ? they would In such (ii long) winter; 

perish 

ati huk lu'ldam gi't tu'mi shapash giug." Washa^w^ka t;ja'wag hamd/e: 9 

too long this winter would too many moons existing." Coyote-child the oldest said : 

he, 

'*wakai Idlap a hun shueku pkashtkak i?" Tchui K'mukamtch heme^^: 

"whynot twoatatime shining np there do yoti need?" Hereupon K'ratikamtch said; 

'*k4-i nu shanaho'le tu'ma shdpash gi'tki giug." 

"not I want too many moons to exist." 

Tg4\x3i i't^e t4t%6lampani sh4pash, tchui pekewa K'mukdmtchiksh, 12 

Started up, took dowu one-half (of the) moons, ihen smashed (them) K'miikaratch. 

to pieces 

tchui g^mbgle. Ma'ntch-gitk wash gdtpampgle; t^aVag shapiya p'gi'sha 

then left again. Long after this the (mother-) returned home; the oldest told mother 

coyote (child) 

m'na: "K^nu'kamtch a gatpanu'la gi'ta." WAsh vu'la: "tu'sh haitch 

its: "K'mukam ch has been here." The coyote asked: "where (did he) 

tcha'l^a?" "Hrt a tcha'lza", shapiya m'na p'gi'sha. Tchiii h4tokt tchdl- 15 

sit dowu?" " Hero he sat down", said (it) to its mother. Then right there sitting 

%ank ti'lankanka tdlke-ug K'mtikdmtchiksh. Kltl'ta pitAk nkdsh. 

down she rolled forth and jnkinu about K'mdkamtch. (Then) burst her own bowels. 

back 



106 MYTHOLOGIC TEXTS. 

NOTES. 

In preference to any other bea.st, the prairie-wolf, small wolf, or coyote (as he is 
called in the West after an Aztec term meaninj^ ''digger, burrower") became con- 
nected in the mind of the Indian with the creation of the moon and the origin of the 
months or moons, bccanse in moonlit nights he is henrd howling from nightfall to 
dawn; sometimes alone, sometimes in packs of several dozen at a time. His queiMilous, 
whining howl is likened by the Indians with a "speaking to the moon". Our tale 
above is based npon the double sense o( moon und month, in which the term shapash (the 
"indicator," from shapa to tell, indicate) is used. The idea of the creation of twice 
twelve moons originated in the delusion that in every jjeriod called 7iew moon, moons 
were really made or nmnufactured new by the creator. The number twenty-foiii- was 
perhaps suggested by the observation of lunar eclipses, or mock moons ajipearing in 
hazy weather. The coyote as the creator of the moons (and tiie creator of the universe 
among the Central Californians) naturally desired to have as many moons as possible, 
while K'mukamtch, as the wolf's antagonist, thought it better for the benefit of his own 
creation, the human beings, not to make tlie year too long. If the winter had to last 
twelve months instead of six, how could they collect roots, bulbs, seed, fish, and game 
enough to live througli such a length of time? 

105, 2. shipat/iikanka. Two moons being on the sky simultaneously would neces- 
sarily often cover and thereby eclipse or hurt each other. 

105, 2. igg^-idshnank. The mother-coyote had hung up the twenty-four moons 
made by herself around the walls and ceiling of her winter-lodge, which in this myth 
signifies the sky. The suffix -idshua points to her walking trom one spot of the 
lodge to another while busy in suspending the moons. 

105, ■'!. gfi'hli'. A great deal of shrewdness is ascribed to the principal deity of 
the Klamath Lake people as well as to those of other hunting tribes. He manifests 
his astuteness in entering. the coyote's lodge in her absence only, and to prepare a trick 
for her there. 

105, 4. tiit' n6 for tdta uen. 

105, 5. Hitii tchia! is pronounced as if it was one word only: IiitAtchia. 

105, G. shu'shamka, distributive form of sh'u'mka, to hum, grunt, to make hii ha. 
He grunted every time ho iJlanted another awl, sometimes in an interrogative tone 
of voice, and did it to disguise their secret planting into the ground-. 

105, 7. wakaitch composed of wak haitch ; wAsha^weka composed of washam weaga ; 
t;^6wag or t;f^waga, diminuti\e of t;^6 u first, first in order, eldest; cf. hfi'Utag. 

105, 7. tu'm haktch. This language has a term corresponding to our too much 
(tu'm tchatchui), but none which renders our too with accuracy. Adjectives or adverbs 
qualified by too are therefore pronounced with a higher pitch of voice and the quantity 
of tiieir main vowel is increased wheu the Indian intends to express this adverb. 

105, 10. wakai, "why not," a combination of wak and ka i. 

105, 14. gati)anu'la gi'ta: ho has come here and has left again. 

105, 10. Kiti'ta. The coyote-wolf, while rolling forth and back on the ground, as 
these animals are in the habit of doing, ran her belly into the bone-awls insidiously 
planted there by K'mukamtch, so that the eutrails shed their contents on the lodge- 
tloor. 



MYTH OF THE MAETEN AND THE WEASLET. 107 

Sk^LAMTCHAM TcHASHGAYAKALAM SHASrAPKf.L^ASn. 

MYTH OF THE MARTEN AND THE WEASLET 



Given in the Klamath Lake Dialect by Dave Hill. 



K'mukcimtch Ydmsi tchia. S4tapealtk Tclidshgay aks ; Idpiak tchfa 

K'lniikamtch iu thn North lived. His youuitei- brolher Weaslet; only two they 

m'ln (was) lived 

kailiak wiiVans. Tsui sa saikan g^na wdwansh i'ktcha; tu'mi saikan tchia 

without wiveB. Aud they to the went wives tobrinj;in; many on the field were 

prairie 

mftklaks tdnkt. Tchui sgiiyue Skiiiaints Tsdsgayaks i'ktchatki snaweds: 3 

Indians then. And dispatched oM Marten Little Weasel to fetch a woman : 

"kd-i 1 labe=lu'lp=gipksh shpunshipk, shtchokApsh 1 a'pka!" Tsui g(ina 

"not yon a two-eyed one brin^ along, a one-eyed one yon bring!" Then went he 

nAdshiak i'ktchuk w^wans, tsui tu' md-ipks gAldsui. Saigatat tu'mi 

alone to letch women, and far off digging (roots) he met (them). On the prairie many 

wdwanuish mijn; shtd saika; hihashuaksh ka'gi, gdnkanka sha. At 6 

females were digging; fnll the prairie the men were away, hunted they. Xow 

was (ofthew); 

w^wanuish iMyula ti'tatsa pi'la, ka-i hu'shkank K'mukamtsam stu'leols: 

women he picked out pretiy ones only, not minding tf K'luilkamtch the order: 

shtchu'shtszapksh K'mu'kamts ^pkatki gi'ulatki; at i'tpa tvi Mdsastat 

oneexedoues to K'mtSkamteh to bring enjoining; then brought over to the lodge 

(them) 

Tsdskai: "g^n m's ni spunshipkfa." At hamt^xe K'mukAmts: "kani u4-asht? 9 

Weasel: " this one for yon I brought." Aud said K'mtlkaraich; "who (said) so! 

kani nd-asht tidsa ii'pkatkif shtchu'shtskapksh mi'sh nil a'pkolatkik; kaftoks 

who so (said) pretty to bring 3 one-eyed (ones) yon I to bring told ; and not 

ones 

mi'sh ui ti'dsa ii'pkatki gi!" 

you I pretty ones to bring told!" 

Tchiii at wii'wanslank shash, tsui pdlakak n^Akgi lapuk; tchui tit'sha 12 

And took as wives them, and pretty soon became both ; and grew up 

mothers 

wewdas, at mat sa washila. Tchui si'ssok hvl'k wewdas sham; tsui stuli' 

the children, and, it is they hunted And quarreled boys their; and advised 

said, chipmunks. 

Tsasgdyak: "shli't i lui'nks!" taltsidgatat sa-uli'a. At sla'popk hii'nitak 

Weaalet: 'shoot you him!" (and) on the little he put stone And was aware by himself, 

arrows heads. 

K'mukdrats stuli'sht pi'ts. K'mukdmts stuli' wa'ka m'nd: "shli'sht m'ndlsh 15 

K'miikamtch that had ad- him. K'mtikanitch ordered son his: "in case ho him 

vised shoots, 

! shlin!" At la'-udsha htl'k tdtaksni, tsui shli'n Tsasgaydkalam vu'nakag; 

yotiobootl" rben went t« play the children. and shot Little Wea.sel'9 Httleson; 



108 MYTHO LOGIC TEXTS. 

shli'n K'mukjimtsam hu'nk unakag; tchui sa hfshlan. Tsaskaj'akalam 

shot of K'lurtkamtch Iho littleson; then they shot nt ouch oihtr. Little Weasel's 

vunak hi1nk slili'ii lii'pi K'muk/imtcliam vundka; tcliiii hu'nk hu'tkalpalank 

''O.v shot first nt K'mtikaintch's son; then (that one) jampiog up again 

3 shlfn Tchashgdyam linaka, tchui ts6ka Idpuk. 

shot Weasel's son, then peiisheil hoth. 

At sAleki ptissisap sham. TsashgAi at kdyaktsa, K'mukamts kd-i 

Then missed fathers their. Weasel went searching, (biil) K'mi^kamtch not 

(them) ^ 

kdyaktcha, sku'l;ija ta'dsh s;i-utamank; sla'bopk hu'nitak tiV sas hisho'kst. 

searched (for them), laid himself but, wrapped up ; he knew by himself, out them to have killed 

on bed there each other. 

NOTES. 

Compare with this myth the fli'st part of the "Mythic Tale of Old Marten" 
(Sk61amtcham shashapkCl^ash), which contains the same subject-matter. 

107, 1. Yilm.si, contraction of Ydmashi. Tliis is the name given at present to a 
mountain North of Klamath Marsh; from this direction the cold wiuds (ytimash) blow 
over the highlands on Upper Klamatli Lake. 

107, 1. 3. 9. Tcbiishgai sometimes occurs in the diminutive form TcJiashgAyak, 
because the Weasel is regarded as the yovnger brother of the Marten. 

107, 2. sailviin, a contraction of saiga;^e'ni: they went to the prairie, where the 
women were digging the edible roots. 

107, 3. Skji'laints. 1 have given this mytl> elsewhere in a longer relation, where 
the part played here by K'lin'ikamtch is played by Sktilamtch. Even in Dave Hill's 
relation the Marten is called, but once only, by its real name Skelamtch; K'mukamtch 
and Skelamtch are mentioned here as identical. The term ske'l, when not employed 
in its mythologic sense, means a long piece oi' strip of tanned otter or marten skin, 
used for tying the liair, or for other purposes. 

107, 3. 4. i'ktchatki snaweds etc. One woman only is mentioned here, instead of 
the two, whom Weasiet was ordered to bring home as wives for his brother K'mu- 
kamtch and himself. 

107, 5. w^wans a very common elision for wewanuish. 

107, 9. kani na-asht°? ellipse for kani Uii-asht gi? 

107, 10. nil ii'pkolatkik. Instead of this may be said also, a'pkatki giula nii; "I 
strictly told (you) to bring in." 

107, 13. sa waslalA. The two boys went together hunting chipmunks. 

107, 14. sliawala to adjust stone-heads; shawalia, sauliii to adjust stone-heads for 
or in the interest of somebody. Flint-, obsidian- or iron heads are placed only on war- 
arrows or on arrows used in killing large game (ng6-ish, ngii'i.sb); but the t^ldshi or 
lighter arrow, used in hunting birds, and the taldshiaga, arrow used as boy's playtliing, 
are usually pro\'ided with wooden points only. 

107,15. K'undcamts stidi slit pits stands for K'raukamtchash stuli'sht pi'sh, the 
pronoun referring to the little son of K'mukamtch. 

107, 15. shli'sht. In this sentence m'ualsh is the subject of shli'sht, and the direct 
object of shliu is not expressed. 

107, 10. 1ft -udsha: they went out to play, from l^wa, la'wa to ptey. 



MYTDIO TALE OF OLD MARTEN. 109 

Skelamtcuam shashapkeleash. 
MYTHIC TALE OF OLD MARTEN. 



Obtained in thu Klamath Lake Dialect from Minnie 1'koben. 



W^wauuisli mat tu'mi meya ka'sli sbaigatat yaki shka'shkatgaltk. 

Women, they say, many were dig- ipo on prairie, baskets carrying ou back. 

gins 

Shka'lamtch mat. tchia shet^^-nnalt;: TchasligAyaks. Shka'lamtoli shtuH 

Olil Marten, so thoy lived as the older hrntlur of Little Weasel. Old Marten sent 

say, 

ta'pia m'na Tcli4sgayaks i'ktchatki giug kma' shtchu'shtch^apkam. Tchui 3 

younger his Weaalet to obtain the sknll- of the onc-ej'ed ones. And 

brother '^"'P" 

Tch4shgayag gdna; g4tpnank i't^a sliash nanuk kma' k4-i shtchu'shtch- 

Weasfet went; comin<; there, he took from them all sknll-caps. (bnt) oftheone- 

away not 

yapksham tclii'sh, itpampgli Tcliashgdyak, sh^wana Sk^lamtchash kma'. 

eyed (women) .ilso, brought Little Wea«cl (and) gave to Old Marten the caps. 

Sk^lamtch ham(i;fe: " t4ta mi'sh ml tpewa k4-i shtchushzapkam epkatki 6 

Old Marten said: "when you I ordered not of tbe one-eyed to bring? 

giug? Icipuk mish nu (jpkatki gi'ula shtchu'shtchxapkam pi'l." W(iwanuish 

of both yon I tohrin^' had told of the onc.eyed only" Females 

nanuk gdtpa Sk^lamtchamkshi shkashkAtkaltk ka'sh. Sk^lamtch shewana- 

all came to Old Marten's boms carrying on back ipo. Old Miii-ten re- 

pftle kma' w^wan'shash, puakampgle ladslieshtat, ha'meta Tchashgdyaksh: 9 

turned the caps to the wi>men, threw (them) back ont of his lodge, (and) s.iid to Weaslet: 

"tdta mish nu tpa'wa tum kma' ii'pkatkl giugf lapok drash m a'pkatki!" 

'when von I ordered many caps to bring! ofboth yon I to bring (told) I" 

(only) 

W^wanuish tchik tchiii gi^mpele, Idpuk shtchu'shtchxatk tchi'dsha. 

The women after this returned, (but) both one-eyed ones remained. 

Tchui huk shtchu'shtchzatk w<^vvanuish wewa'kala. Shu'hankshitk 12 

Xlien the o:jeeycd women bore children. At the same timi- when 

mu'mkak gi'ulza Sk^lamtch nteyakaliya, m'na u'nakag mu'ak t'shi'sht. 

thi) inf.ants were born Old Marten made a little bow, for his little son, taller when he would 

grow. 

Tchashg4yak tchi'sh nteyakali'ya m'natak unakag. Tchiii tchatchtikiag 

Li tie Weasel also maile a little bow for bis own little boy. And the little boys 

Id-utcha ; hi'shla ntc^-ishtka tatAldshiak. L^watkuk tatakshni gatpampgli ; 1.5 

went to play; tboy shot with their bows little arrow.s. From the play the boys returned; 

,lt tlie mark 

Tchdshkayagalam unakag hemeze : "hilt dn'sh tti' shli'kshga." Tchash- 

Little Weasel's boy remarked; "he me oat well nigh shot." Little 

there 

gdyag wfi'la m'na unakag: " tdm hai tchi' m'sh Wnk Uyank tewi f" 

fi-pnsol a-iked his young son: "really thus at you tftking aim he shot)" 



] 10 MTTnOLOGIC TEXTS. 

Tchdkiak hcmc^ze : " hushutiinkapksh piVsli nfish hiVn gi" (msliashaltcliatk 

Tho boy said: ■•appriiacliint; im tliu nIj' mo ilwan" («(|iMrmiu;; «ero 

sha hu'nk, slileaiik nisliasli hislilakshka). Tchiii Tchasliira}-ak slituli' 

they, (liscovering a aiiui rel they almn.~t »liot Then Linlc Wiuool ailviscU 

each other). 

o I'makag m'na shli'tki Shkdlamtcliam linakag, "liii liiVt mish piin slili'wiitka 

little sou his to shoot of OW ilarteu the sun, "if he at ynu at;ain Hhoutii>)x 

gi'uapk." Shkc'laintcli sliuyuakta liunk iiamik Tchasligayakalam hc'm- 

sbouldhe." Old Marten liecanie aware (of the) whole of Lime Weaael's (lis. 

kanksli; tcluii pi' tcliisli shtuli' m'na li'nakag slilitki giug Tchashgayam 

course; and lie al o ordereil his little son to shoot Wean. Is 

(j linaka: "ha mish .shli-uapk, klii' pjatk gi'ntak i hu'tkalpalank shh'-uapk 

'""^' "■' yon he kills, dead though, von rising np again must kill 

hiViiksh." 

Iiiiii." 

Tehui mbu'shan pa'n gdna washlaltchuk; shbia sha Wc4shla, gJinta sha 

Then ne.xt day again they to hunt chipmnuka ; saw they a chipmunk, crept they 

went ' (atil) 

D at. Sk^lam iinakag t^wi, kd'hhian washla; wiggata i-ul^a Tchashgayam 

then. Martens little son shot, missing the chip ch.se to he struck Weasel's 

mtuik ; the groniid 

ii'naka. Tchashgayam uuak hiime^e : "vvak ta i giug shli'kshga nush?" 

to the .son. Weasel's little son said: "wheref.Te yon almost shot me?" 

Sk^him linak hemtchna: " shni'ulatchgankan hu'n gi." Guliashktcha pen 

Martens child replied: "glanciugoff it was." They st.arted (and) 

again 

12 gena sha, shlaa sha washla. Lilpuk pi'pglantana ganta shawaltankank 

travelled they, saw they a ehipiunnk. Both from ( pposiie sides crept np moving along the gronnd 

ta'wi; Skc^hxm unak shli'kshga Tchashgdyam unaka. TchashgAyam vi'inak 

shot; Marten's litilesou almost hit Weasel's little son. Weasel's little son 

slih'nk shiuga Shkelam vi'inaka; tchiii shp6ka mantchak Tchashgayam 

(then) killed Marten's child ; then lav on ground for seme lime Weaoel's 

shooiiiig 

15 linakag. Tgi'ts;)^ank shl^papka, ktikalmash wewatkuela lu'lp, k'maka tgii't- 

litlle sun. Standin,,' near ho i. oked (at tears flowed from (his) he looked while 

hiin), eyes, around 

gank liiitkok. Skdlam li'nak hii'tkal, shlfn at Tchashgayam viinaka 

niauding there. M..rtBu's son jumped up, shot then Weasel's child 

u'shutal ; Mpuk tchui k'l^kl;fatk i'pka 

in the hpast; both then dead lay the'-e. 

18 Tchashgai h^m'ta Skelash: "wak ta ma'nshaktch tAtaksni kji'gi wafta? 

Weasel said to Marten: "Why for .so long the children aieah. the whole 

sent da. ? 

tu'sh ak nen hu'k wdk ka'la?" Sk(ilamtch ka-i k^ktchank hu'nksh, shko'l- 

w ere (are! they some. doing?" Old Marten not answering him, recum- 

what 

pkank ktana Tch.ishgai gena kayaktchuk tatakiash, ka-i shleank gatpAm- 

bent slept We .sel went to look out for the children, (and) finding relumed 

not 

21 p6le Mantch=gitk Skelamtch guhashktcha tii gawtilpgli. Tch6;{apksh 

home. After a while old Mai ten started out far to And (tbem). Muideied 

out 

tatakiash gawalpalank itpampelg ; shuashnaktch6ta luinkshalshok miiiua, 

the children diocuvering he earned them with raournlug cries to oremate (them) they got 

borne ; ready, 



MYTHIC TALE OF OLD MAETEN. Ill 

tiinip wuillishik i'-amnash Ske'l ^na, Tchdshgai tchi'sh tunepauti wuilishik 

Ave bags of neckwear Marten took, Weasel too five bags 

1-dmnash ^na. Tchi'ii sha lii'luksla, tu'tgnipni' sha Idpuk Iwalpgle. Skaiam 

of beads bronght. Ami thi-v burnt (them), each five (bags) they both eroptitd on To Marten 

them. 

tcbi'k i'amnasli wewilina. Tchiii sha g(impele tohlshxe'ui k'ldwiank. 3 

finally beads were kft over. Then they returned to their lodge after perform- 

ance. 

Skelamtch h^Qi'ta Tchashgayash gentki giug Mu'shamkshi, pi g^- 

Old Marten said to Weasel. he should go to the Sonth Wind's him- pro- 

honae, self 

nuapkug YAm'shamkshi. Tchashgai ka-i shand-ul' Yamshamkshi g^-ishtka 

posing to go to the North Wind's Weasel not liked to North Wind's lodge to travel, 

home. 

giug. Ske'l heme'xe : "ka-i i g(inuapk Ydmshamkshi, niVtak g^sh shand- fi 

Mai ten said: "not you shall go to the North Wind, myself to go want 

uli Yamshamksli'; mi'sh nu gentki Musliamkshi." "Ka-i an Mu'shamkshi 

to the North Wind ; you I (want) to go to South Winds ' Not I to Sonth Wind 

house." 

ge'sh shana-ul' ", at pi h^m'ta na-asht. Tchiii geiia Tchashgai Yam- 

to go desire", now he said so. And went Weasel to the 

shamksh; gatpa hatokt ei^a Miiash; ei^ishtok Mii'shash k'liika Tchdsh- 9 

North Wind's became there, put the the Sonth while had put the South Wind, died Little 

lodge; (when) head out Wind; the head out 

gayak. Tchui Skelamtch Mu'sham nu'sh lalkddsha; pii'n Yamshamkshi 

Weasel And Old Marten of the South the he.id cot nflfi again, to the North Wind's 

Wind lodge 

gdna. Skelamtch, lalkAdsha Ydmshamtcham nu'sh. 

went Old Marten, (and) cut ofl' the Nurtb Wind's head. 

K'l(iwiank guhuashktcha Lem^-ishash g^luiptchuk Tchashgayaksli 12 

Hereupon he set out the Thunders to visit. Little Weasel 

hakshaktchuitk. Lemd-ish liushtanka Sk^lamtchash, sn^wedsh tu'tash 

carrying in his dress. One Thunder fell in with Old Marten, a woman longshelli 

hahaslitamnipksh .shu'litanka. Snawedsh hem'ta Skelamtchish : "-wak ish 

having as ear-oin.inicnts be pnisued. The woman cried to Old Marten : "somehow me 

shii'ta, g'd-u sha-amoksh ! " Tchui Sk(;lamtch heme;(e : "wdk hai tchi' m's 15 

prnt.'Ct, my friend!" And Old Martin replied: "how then yon 

nil shute-uapk?" pniudaktan tcha kAtchannat, tchiii guhuashktcha. Tapitak 

I shall protect!" blew (her) iuijtantly into a pitch-pine and continued his way. Right after 

log, (him) 

Leme-ish petegank hi'mboks kshatgatnu'lank shiuga snii-wedsh. 

the fhuuder teaiing up the log (.and) extiacting (bei) killed the wi.m.an. 

Skelamtch til' at gatpa Lem^-isham ladshashtat. Lc4pi titsga-ak Leme- 18 

Old Marten tben" arrived of iho Tbuuders at lodge. Two decrepit old Thun- 

ish tchia shuki'kash hu'nkimsham. Sk(ilamtch wa'shi guli' tchuy^tk Y4m- 

ders Itved the parents of them. Old Marten into the stepped ha\ingashat of North 

(there), room on 

sham niish ; 'wayalpa nanuk -w^a'shin, wakish tchish lAkglaka. Ka'-utchish 

Wind the head; froze to icicles overythiug in the lodge the inside too became slippery Gray Wolf 

room, ladder with ice. 

gankanktka, Ska'lam sha-amoksh, wawa'kalam pi'l hu'k tchi'sh M-i w^tk. 21 

returned from the Marten's kinsman, of his children alone the place in not froze up. 

hunt, the lodge 

Leme-ish gatpampgle, radklaks tu m i'tpa. Titsk4-a,k L6m^-ish sti'llidanka 

The Thunders returned home, Indians many they The Old Thunders reported 

brought. 



9 gekaushSniVnk tiV ga-ulapg4p6le p^patchle; tat%elam-pani gu't;jitkt lu'lula 



112 MYTHOLOGIO TEXTS. 

shapiya m'na wanuuga: ^'wennini a tu4 gatpa wa'shi ati' ndlsh wini^itk!" 

(aud)aaid to Ihoir hoiis: "stranger some has come into the largely to us fluperiorl'* 

room, 

T%^-u L6me-ish hem^xe : "g4 tudta shkainihaktch g^tpa, nu' ak ya huri 

The oldest Thunder Raid: "whosoever stronger (man) liaa como. I (can) cer- 

tainly, 

3 shkdyent gi'ntak gu'hli'plit." Gdkansha at, ga-ulapg^p6le patcho'le na'shak 

strong tboui^h outer (where ho He went out then, cHmbtd np, stepped on one step only 

(hois), is)." 

w4kish, ki'shtchnank lmi'%ip6le. "Tiitutu !" hutcliampgluta Lem^-ish 

cd'iuside steppiug <m lu^ Imrried ont (Crying:) "tututn!" .ifter running homewards (tbi»») Thnnder 

laddrr, again. 

n4-asbt giuta, pdn iia'sh hem^;je: "tuatal shkafuiaks tchez<3ga'" G^kan- 

so reported, and another said: " some kind stronger one is sitting inside." Gt>ing 

one oi a 

(J shanank fcu' ga-ulapgap6le ]>a'patchle lapok wakfsh; p^tchtnank hui;{ip6le. 

out over bo went on op (of pnt his feet on two of inside ladder ; stepping on b<.* ran out again. 

there winter lodge), steps only 

'* Tiitiitu " ! hui^ipeluta, giilipeldnk shasli kAtiii shapiya : '* wenniai tiia 

"Tiitntu"! he6kipi)ed away, entering again, those being in he told: "stranger some 

the bAyata 

gatpa." Tatxelamni' tchkasli heme^e : "ka tuak shkaiueaksh tchiwi;^a?" 

has coiiio. " The one intermediatti too said : " what sort of a ntronger (man) is inside?" 

in ag-* 

U „,' 

G^ _ -_ 

(and) running out be went on lodge-top g and stepped down ; half-ways having climbed be rattled 

down np 

lnVkantchamp6lok. Sti'lhipgli shash katni ; na'sh tchkasli gekansha tu', 

to run out again. He reported to those in the (another) also went oat out 

kdyata ; one there, 

ga-ulapgap6li, guli'pele, g^l;^algitk hil'kansharapele tiitiitii-u'ta. *'Ya! ati' 

mounted up Ibo laddiT, wont in, having climbed be hurried out again while ttitutu-erying. "To hn hy far 

down sure 1 

1 2 a ua'lsh winni'^itk tua' ki." Tapi'ni tchkasli gekansha : " ka tuata 

than we stronger ( ne) some it is." The last one also rushed out: " what kind of 

shkainiaktchT' giilhi'pglank sh4hiashtal4 m'na tche'lkpgle hu''tkalshnank 

a stronger oneT' entering (the lodge) on couch his ho sat down, (then) starting np 

hu'kampSle. 

ran out again. 

15 Tchui ma'ntch=gitk tche'k K^-udshiamtch gatpampgle ; li'lhankshti 

Then some lime alter finally Old Wolf came home; some venison 

I'tpa. Lem^-ish h^m'ta Ka-utcbishash: "ati' a na'lsh tuA winni'^itk gdtpa". 

he The Thundera said toGrayWolf: "byfar than wo some stronger (one) has come", 

brought. 

Ka'-udshiamtcli ga-ulapgapgle, tchui hii'mele Skdlamtchish : *'shanatch- 

Old Wolf climbed the lodge, then shouted to Old Marten: "take 

18 vu'U tchuyesh !" Tchui Sk^lamtch shanatchvu lank ndl%a m'na tchiiyesh; 

off (year) hat!" And OU Marten, uubat.ting bim«elf, laid down his hat; 

nanuk hu'k wayAlapsh ka'gipgle. Ka'-udshiamtch gulhipgle tchiii, L6mc- 

j,ll the icicles disappeared Old Wolf entered (the upon this, Thnn- 

a^ain. lodge) 

ish tchish hu'k ndnuk gulhi'bSle, tchui sha shu'tchapglank pashota. 

ders too thoy all entered again, and they rebuilding a Are bad a moal. 

21 Hu'yuka sha hu'nk kta-i at, tchui sha mAklaks piielhi', md'nish sha kdla 

Heated Ibpy atones now, and they people threw in, a large they flat 

bucU«t 



MTTmC TALE OF OLD MARTEN. 113 

shlaltpa tdluodsh maklaks. Tchui slia ktdi k^lpokshtak i'kagank I'wa 

eave for use, to stew the people. And tbev the stones as soon as heated took oat (and) dipped 

(them) 

kAlati dmbo tclii'pgank ; i'wa sha tchui N6kshtak sha ktdi i'%akp6le, 

iiitoakflla water coutaining: put in they then. As soon as stewed Ihey the stones took cat again , 

Lemd-ish hashpa shash Sk^lamtcliash, gaptchdtka Lem^-ish tchi'l^ia Sk^- 3 

the Thunders handed them to Old Marten, with the small the Thunders placed on the for 

as food finger tioor (the kAla) 

lash. Sk^lamtch gaptchatka shitchALshue maklaks ktilati. Tchui Skdlamtch 

Marten. Old Marten with the little moved (more) Indians towards Then Old Marten 

finger the kdla. 

pAtampka; Tchdshgayag tchligdtchktcha Skdlamtchash shako' tkug mak- 

began to eat ; "Weaslet pinched Old Mart«n insisting for human 

laksti tchuldksh. Tchiii Shlc^lamtch kd-i sh^wana; "kuidsha gisht", leklek- 6 

flesh. (But) Old Marten not ga'^e(aDy); " it being bad ", he 

tchampka TchatchgAyash ; " undshe'k mish ni tchule'ksh li'lhankshti tche'k 

whispered to Little Weasel; "by and by to you I meat of venison at list 

sh^wanuapk." Tchui nanuk wu'ta kayak hu'nksht sh^wanank. Shl^-ip6le 

will give." Then all he ate up not any to him giving. Keturned 

shash kdla, Kd-udshiamtchkash nukaltampka tchule'ks. Tchui nu'kst 9 

to them the bucket, Old "Wolf also began roasting meat. When it was done, 

tl'atat i'kglank shdwana Skt^lamtchash, tchiii pi hu'nkanti tche'k shdwana 

on a pad' patting it he gave (it) to Old Marten, and he of it then gave 

die 

tchule'ksh Tchashgayaksh. Tchiii sha lu'lal;^ a pA-ulank ; Skdlamtch ktan- 

meat to Little Weasel. And they went to bed having done eat. Old Marten fell 

ing; 

shan ndnui sh;^ol%6tak. 12 

asleep as soon as lying down. 

L6md-ish sheshnu'l^a shiiikuapkuk Skdlamtchash; ka-uloktantk- 

Xhe (5) Thunders plotted (how) to kill Old Marten; walking up and down 

tdm'na sha. Tchtjkag pi'l ttilshampka Lgmd-ishash kdyak ktaushna. Pdn 

continued thej'. Blackbird only looked towards the Thunders (and) not was asleep. And 

Lemd-ish gakua shle'dshuk Skelamtchash, tamu'dsh ktanshisht, shi'uguap- 15 

the Thunders approached to look at Old Marten, whether he was asleep, proposing to 

kug hu'nk. Tchekaksh Leme-ish mbu'shaksh yi'yu^oga lu'lpat; tchiii 

kill him. To Blackbird the Thnnder.s arrow-heads pushed into the eyes; then 

hu'nk ka-i ktdnuapkug ktdmpsh=shitk shldash gi'-uapk. Pshi'n tdt^elam 

he not going to sleep, asleep-alike appearing would be. At midnii;ht 

L6md-ish kaktansha; Skdlamtch skishksho'lank pi' tchkash kako'dsha 18 

the Thunders went to sleep; Old Marten awakening he then went over 

Lgmd-ishamksh, hihashlutchtAuka lak Lemd-isham, tg'kish shash huhashli'- 

to Thunders' place, tied together the hair of the Thnnders, swords to them handed over 

amna; heshamkanko'ta: "Skdlam tdpia gen liielat". Tchiii Skdlamtch 

to each; they ordered each other ; ''Marten's younger him kill ye". Then Old Marten 

brother, 

gdkantgi Kii-utchi'shash tpji'^wa ; tchiii Ka'-utchish gika, wewdka m'na 21 

to go out Gray Wolf onlered; and Wolf went out, children his 

i'ka. Skdianitch shndl;ja L6md-isham Mtchash, tgd-ulank wdl;^a hil'kgn- 

took out. Old MartoB set on flre of the Thunders the lodge, (and) standing on he waited to msh 

its top 

8 



1 14 MYTHOLOGIC TEXTS 

iiksht Lgmc-ishash; shtdyakglakpa tgati'dnank; mil tcha'k niitisbt sp^i'sli- 

out the Thuiulvrs; bu hoarkeued standing oatsiilo ; atrougly at lunt when (the awuku 

fire) blazed, 

kslidla Lemd-ish. Huhashtdpka tgki'shtka; "Skelam t6pia gen luelat"! 

the Thundors. Tboy stabbed each with the loDg "Marten's younger him killye"! 

etber bladea; uiother, 

3 jjatak huhashtApkuak. 

tboy stabbed each othei" only. 

Tchiii ndnuk nii'natank tchu'ka; mbAwa steiuasli uu'dshiiuk. Skd- 

Then all by blazing up perished ; exploded (one) heart whilu flying off. Old 

lamtch wd'hl^ank wi-ulaUp6le steinash lu'lukshtat ; pa'n na'sli mbdwa. 

Marten looking on strnok (one) heart in the fire ; again one exploded. 

C 8ka'Iamtcli wi-ulal4p6le ; pa'n na'sh inbAwa, pii'n wi-ulal4p6)e Skdiamtcli. 

Old Marten struck again ; and another burst, .•ii;aiu (when) struck Old Marten. 

one 

Tchashgdyak ham(^xe : "Skdlamtch! nu' tchkasli na'sh wi-ulalek!" tchiii 

Little Weasel said: "OldMartenl I also one will strike!" then 

pa'n mbdwa na'sh. Tchiii Tchashgdyak kd'hhian, tchui steinash hu'k nu- 

again burst one. (l!ut) Weaslet missed, and heart that went 

9 wal^a; Wdkweks shu'waltktcha Tcha'kaksh tu'la, shhl'shlakshga shual;{6ta. 

to the sky ; Magpie flew after it Blackbird with, and picked (it) to pieces, while it flow. 

Slikdlamtch hame%e: "kd-i 1 tua shayuaksh kiuapka, hu'nshak 1 pshe- 

Old Marten said : " nothing you good for will be, in vain you the 

utuashash shnulu'kuapkak." 

people will frighten only." 

12 Tchiii Skdlamtch shndl^a L6md-ish titskd-aksh. 

Then Old Marten burnt Thunders the Old. \ 

NOTES. 

This relation of the myths is more circumstantial than the corresponding one 
obtained from Dave Hill, which omits some of their characteristic features. We have 
here an interesting and probably the most popular jjart of the whole cycle of marten- 
myths known to the Klamath Lake people; the above is not a single myth, but a series 
of myths, some of them thrown together in a rather loose connection. What connects 
them all is the fact that Weaslet i.s the constant companion of his older and more saga- 
cious brother Old Marten, who combines the qualities of Reineke Fox with that of an 
elementary power of irresistible force (shkaini). The Skelamtch myths present them- 
selves in the following order: 

1. Selection of the one-eyed females as wives. 

2. The children of the two brothers destroy each other. 

3. The fathers cremate their children's bodies, 
d. The Winds are exterminated by Skelamtch. 

5. Skelamtch hides a woman before one of the five Thunders. 

6. Skelamtch enters the lodge of the Thunders; the hat on his head acts as a spell 
and prevents them from entering it. 

7. Old Gray Wolf, Marten, Weasel and the five Thunders are feasting on Jiuman 
flesh iu the lodge of the Thunders. 

8. Skelamtch sets the lodges of the five Thunders aiul of the two Old Thunders 
on fire and kills the inmates. 



MYTHIC TALE OF OLD MAETEN. Il5 

109, 1. shka'sbgatkaltk. A verbal adjective of shkdtkgla, to carry on back ; ka, 
ka is the radical syllable, fouud also iu ka'mat, hack. This distributive form is appar- 
ently due to vocalic dissimilation. Women carry conical baskets (ydki) on their backs 
when digging roots or bulbs, and throw them over their shoulders into these recep- 
tacles. 

109, 2. 6. 8. Sk^lamtch. See Dave Hill's relation of the same myth ; Note to 107, 3. 
In speaking of somebody who acts on the sly, and differently from what he professes 
and means to do, the Klamath Lake people wiU say: "He acts like Sk^lamtch." This 
is one of the few proverbial locutions, or at least figurative modes of speech that can 
be traced in this tribe. 

109, 3. kma' is the rounded light cap usually worn by females, fitting tight to the 
skull. It is made of the stalks of aquatic plants, several species of them entering into 
the manufacture of each cap. The taking away of the skull-caps was intended as a 
signal for the women to go to their now homes. 

109, 6. tata. The words of reprehension addressed by Old Marten to Weaslet are : 
" Did I ever order you to bring the caps of any otlier than of both the one-eyed women ? 
I told you to get the caps of both one-eyed women only." Lapuk belongs to shtchush- 
;fdpkam, though separated from it by the inversion of the sentence ; kmft' is left out. 

109, 6. shtchush;{4pkam. The distributive form of shtchu';fa is so difficult to 
articulate, that abbre\iations of it like the above and others, have resulted. Shtchu;fa 
is evidently the medial form of tcho^fa, and its meaning is therefore "to suffer destruc- 
tion on oneself." Of. shtchuyampka. 

109, 10. ni a'pkatki. After ii'pkatki supply gi: "said, told." 

109, 11. The text forgets to mention the calling in of the two one-eyed women. 

109, 12. Shu'hank=shitk. In many mythic stories the newly-born children are 
made to grow miraculously fast, so that when a few days old they handle bow and 
arrows, and after a mouth or two they are adult people. 

109, 13. nt^yala, to make a bow or bows (nte-ish), nteydkaia, to make little bows 
(nteydga), nteyakalia or nteyakaliya, to make little bows /or somebody. 

109, 13. iinak, son, is variously pronounced u'nak, viinaka, wiinak; and so is its 
diminutive unakag, uuakaga, viinakak, little son, '•^ sonny". 

109, 15. hishla has two meanings, both reciprocal : to shoot at each other, and to 
shoot at the mark, rivalling to outdo each other in markmanship. Cf. 24, 17. 

109, 15. L6watkuk for lewatko huk: they, after having played; participle of lewa 
to play. 

110, 1. hixshutdnkapksh etc. "This was an approaching himself on the sly towards 
me" is the literal renderiug of this sentence, in which the first term is a nomen 
actionis, a verbal indefinite. The two pronouns are governed by it. 

110, 3. mish shli'shtka gi'uapk, if he should want to shoot you; if he should shoot 
at you purposely. 

110, 4. Shdyuakta, "he knew." Omniscience and prescience are among the cha- 
racteristic features of Old Marten, who is the personification of K'miikamtch. Of. 107, 
1. 3. 14. 108, 5. and Note to 107, 3. 

110, G. hutkalpeli, to rise up suddenly, to jump up again (though kiUed before- 
hand). Cf. 108, 2. 

110,11. "shni'iilatchgaukan hft'n gi." Marten's sou said, that his arrow, when 



116 MYTHOLOGIC TEXT8. 

dispatched after a chipmunk, struck a log oi- tree, glanced oflt" from it and came very 
near killing Weasel's little son. 

110, 11. 21. gubAsbktclia instead of guluLlshlctcha, cf. Dictionary. 

110, 17. vu'sbo, breast, chest, is also pronounced wu'shu, fi'shu; fi'shutala, in the 
chest, k'lekljfdtko is the distributive plural of k'lokdtko ; k'leka, to die. 

110, 18. ma'nshaktch, so long ; stands for ma'ntcbak tchi. The terminal -ak has 
to be taken here and in 110, 14. in the sense of the diiuiuutive suffix: "a little long". 

110, 19. kii'la to do or act in the sense of amusing oneself, playing, gesticulating, 
or acting in a loud, noisy, or grotesque manner. 

111, 1. tiinepanti. The partitive case in -ti, if it stands for tiinepanta, is used 
here, because the bags of neckwear brought by Sk^lamtch were counted on the digits 
of one hand, while those of Weasel were counted on the fingers of the other. 

Ill, 3. wewilina. Beads were left over to Old Marten, because he had brought 
more than five sacks full to the tchpinu or family burj ing ground, emptying only five 
sacks on the child's pjTe. This was a fabulously extravagant expenditure, the beads 
standing high in price and the sacks or wiUishik being rated at more than one bushel 
each. 

Ill, 4. Mu'sh and Y4msh, syncopated from Mu'ash and Y^mash. 

111,9. ei;^ishtok Mu'shash. The South Wind had put his head out; that is, a 
south wind had been blowing when Little Weasel died and hence was supposed to be 
the real cause of his death. 

Ill, 12. Lem^-ishash. From the following it appears, that the five Thunders re- 
])resent more the flash of the lightning (luepalsh) than the roll of the thunder. There 
are many of them, because the thunder, when rolling over mountains and valleys, often 
increases again in loudness after having almost died out, and five is the often recur- 
ring "sacred" number of the Oregonian and other Xorth western Indians. The radix 
of lfim6-ish is lam, which indicates a circular, whirling motion. The five Thunders are 
brothers, living in a wniter-lodge or earth-house: Lemeisham tchl'sh, thought to be 
a dark cave ; their parents, the two Old Thunders, live in a kayata or low, small hut 
covered with buUush mats. The short episode 111, 12-17 does not reier to all the 
five Thunders, but only to one of their number. 

Ill, I'.i. tii'tash is the long white marine shell, known as dentalium ; it is one ot 
the most common Indian body-ornaments. The white resin flowing out of pine-trees 
seems to be symbolized in this myth by the dentalium-shell. 

Ill, 14. wak ish shii'tii, for wak shiita i nish : ''somehow do (something) for me." 

Ill, 20. In wa'shin are combined two locative particles: i and n (for ua). 

111, 22. maklaks tii'm (fin- tii'ma). The Thunders brought home as food many 
human beings struck by lightning. 

112, 1. wanunga, the distributive pluial of iVnak ; explained in the Dictionary. 
112, 1. wennini a tua gatpa etc. Here and throughout this paragraph tuii means 

" some kind of." 

112, 2. 3. shkaini combines the meaning of strong with that of bad or mischievous, 
and answers to onr demoniac ^ shkainiak or shkainihak stands for our comparative: 
stronger. The -tcli, -s, -.sh appended is an abltrevintion of fclia, noir, and shkayent 
stands for shkaini at. 

112,3. G^kansha. <-)ld MarUn had f-iitfivd tln' solid •■cartli house" ol' rlio Tlinn- 



MYTHIC TALE OF OLD MARTEN. 117 

ders, while the Thunders stoi)ped in the small kay^ta which was the abode of their 
parents. To enter snch an earth-lodge a high ladder called ga-ululkish must be climbed 
on the outside, and another ladder, as long or longer than the other (wakish) leads into 
the interior Piitcho'le ua'shak, p6patchle (for p^piitchole) lApok wakish: "he had 
stepped once", "twice" down on the inside ladder; that is, he had made one step, 
two steps on it commencing ijom the top. Each one of the Thunders, when trying to 
penetrate into their own lodge, gets a little further down than the previous one, but 
all are driven out by the chilling, powerful spell of Skelamtch's headdress. 

112, 7. gulip61ank. The second of the Thunders, frightened at the ill-success of 
his experiment, retired again to the low hut or kay^ta, where the other Thunders were 
and where their parents dwelt. This word has two accents on account of shash being 
enclitic; cf. Ill, 2. 112, 13. 113, 9. 

112, 8. Tdt/61amni refers in this connection to the relative age of the brothers : 
"the third in age of the five Thunders." 

112,9. gekanshCnii'nk: for gekanshna hu'nk. Cf. 113, 12. kt^nshan ndnui s;^ol- 
;f6tak, for : ktdnshna nanui sh;^oljf6ta ak. 

112, 9. gu't;^itkt, a contraction of gu tkitko at. 

112, 11. 12. "Ya! ati' a ua'lsh winni'p^itk tua'ki." This was said by aU the five 
Thunders simultaneously and unisono. In tua' ki, a is altered into a', almost 6. The 
inserted particle hu, ii "in the distance, out there, over there" seems to have pro- 
duced this change. 

112, 15. li'lhankshti i'tpa "he brought some venison," a phrase corresponding 
exactly to the French: "il apporta du gibier'"; both nouns standing in the partitive 
case. These partitives are governed by another noun in 113, G (maklaksti) and 113, 7. 

112, 21. puelhi' : they threw the dead Indians down into the lodge from its roof. 
The sufiflx -1- indicates a downward direction, like -ila, -kuela etc., and occurs also in 
112, 17, hii'mgle, to speak in a downward direction, to shout to somebody standing 
below. The suffix -hi meaus down to the ground, or on the ground, earth, soil, 
and since the lodge-floor is the soil itself, it also means "into, or in the lodge or 
wigwam". 

113, 2. iwa sha tchiii. They put into the bucket the bodies of the dead Indians to 
stew or boil them up. 

113, 2. Nokshtak etc. The gray wolf, the marten and the weasel all being carni- 
vores, there is nothing extraordinary in the fact that mythic fiction lets them partici- 
pate in a meal consisting of human flesh. 

113, 3. h^shpa shash. Shash stands for maklaksash, the dead Indians. 

113, 8. nanuk wu'ta. Marten ate up all the human flesh which he had taken out 
of the kdla. 

113, 8. sh6wanank. The verb sh6wana refers to a plurality of objects, the objects 
being sometimes expressed by a collective noun, as here (tchule'ksh). 

113, 9. K^-udshi^mtchkash stands for K6-udshiamtch tchkash ; nu'kla is to roast 
on coals ; tchule'ks is here venison meat. 

113, 13. ka-uloktantktiim'na. The verbal sufiix -tdm'na, which marks an action 
often repeated, or continued for a long time, is not here, as usually, appended to the 
simple form of the verb, but to its derivative in -tka. 

113, 14. Tch^kag. The blackbird has yellow eyes shining bright in the darkness, 



118 MYTHOLOGIC TEXTS. 

and on that account the myth makes it watchful at nijrht. This is another bird- 
species than the Merula, known in Great Britain as blackbird. 

114, 3. huhashtiipkuak. They suspected each other of the trick, by which they 
had been tied together by the hair when in danger of being consumed by the raging 
flames, and in revenge stabbed each other. Huhashtapkuak is vocali(; dissimilation for 
huhashfcipka ak; cf. shiw^kuash, 80, 11. 

114, 8. ka'hhian. Weaslet missed the heart in the fire when striking at it. 

114, 10. shiiyuaksh: "You will not be able, or not be powerful enough, to <lo mis- 
chief." The last heart that flew up is a meteor going through the skies, while the four 
other hearts indicate successive thunder claps. When a meteor is seen flying west, 
the tribes of the Columbia River will say: "That's a deceased big man's heart going 
to the Great Sea." Cf. NoU to 41, 7. 



ShASHAPAMTCHAM TcHEWAMTCHAM TCHfSH shashapkel]6ash. 

THE MYTH OF THE BEAR AND THE ANTELOPE. 



GrvEN BY Minnie Fkoben in the Klamath Lake Dialect. 



Shilshapamtcli Tcht^wamtch tu'la tchfa. Slidshapamtch 14pa wevv^ash 

01(1 Grizzly Old Antelope with lived. Old She-Grizzly two children 

gitko, Tchewamtch tchish 14pa wew^ash gftko. MbiVshant un4k sha gena 

had, She- Antelope also two children had. One morning early they w. nt 

3 m^-idshuk ka'sh, kl^widshnank m'nalam wew^asli tclii'shzeni. Tchui Tchd- 

to dig iporoots, leaving their children at home. And Old 

wamtch shtagi m'na ya'ki lu'piak Shdshapamtchash kayutch tua ka'sh 

Antelope filled her seed-basket sooner than She-Grizzly (not) yet any ipo 

me-isht. ShAshapamtch hii'uk shp^-ukitchna; tchui sha ge'mbgle tchi'slital. 

bad dag. Old Grizzly (them) kept on eating tip ; then they returned bomiwards. 

G Pa'n sha mbu'shant g^na md-idshuk ka'sh; tchiii pa'n lii'piak Tchd- 

Again they next day went nut to dig ipo; and again sooner Old 

wamtch ya'ki sht4gi, Lu'kamtch gi'nka mtjya; pa'n sha gii'mpele. Gat- 

Antelope (her) basket filled, Old Grizzly little dug; again they returned (homo). After 

pampelank sha ka'sh sh(ishiian' a m'ndlam weweka. Tchui sha lu'lal^ank 

return thev the ipo each gave to their children. And they when going to 

bed 

9 shtull' m'n41am weweka; Shashapamtch na-asht shtuli' m'na weweka: "ka-i 

left orders to their children ; Old Grizzly thus enjoined to her cnlis : " not 

a't shuhu'lule-uapk hitchashtat: stemasli ma'Ish ndi'-ushkuapk! kd-i a't 

yo sh.all skip down from the lodge: the hearts to ye -would get loose ! not yo 

shampatia^i^-uapk : bu'walakuapk a't ankutat; kd-i a't shiki'kiuapk 

shalljnmp over the logs: would nin against ye (some) sticks; not ye shall dive 

12 4mbutat: pu'tank a't k'la'kuapk." 

under the smotherlo^ ye might die.'' 

water: 



MYTH OF THE BEAR AND THE ANTELOPE. ] 1 9 

Tchiii pa'n ShAshapamtch mbu'shant Tch^wamtchash tU'la g4na m4- 

Then again Old Grizzly next momiug Old Antelupe with went to 

idshuk. Tch^wamtch lu'piak shtdgi, Shashapamtchash gi'nk md-ishi ka'sh ; 

dig roots. Old Antelope aooner filled Old Grizzly a little haviog dug ipo-roots; 

(the basket), 

tchiii SMshapamtch gdldshui Tch^wash. Vu'la: "gu'tash nu'sh ku'pga 3 

then Old Grizzly went to meet Antelope. She begged: "lice me bite 

nii'sh; kuatchdki we ish!" Tchdwamtch hem^xe: "untchek nu ml'sh 

on the bite in the hair for me!" Old Antelope said: "awhilefrom I you 

head ; awhile now 

gu'tchaluapk tchi'shxen tche'k gatpampelank." Pen Shashapamtch sMt6la: 

will bite, homeward when (we) have retnrned " Again Old Grizzly declared: 

"killauk I'sh gii'tash kuatchaki!" Tchiii mautch=gitk Tchdwamtch kua- 6 

"very hard me the lice bite in the hair!" And after a while Old Antelope bit into 

tchaga Shdshapamtchash. Pa'n pi tchkash kuatchagash hamgni Tchd- 

the fur Old She-Grizzly. Then she also to bite the hair wanted to Old 

wamtchash. Tchdwamtch hem(i;^e: "ka'gi niisli gutash." Tchiii Shashap- 

Antelope. Old Antelope said: *' none are tome lice." And Old Grizzly 

amtch ka'sh tchdkiank kuatchaguk pti'kpuka, tchiii kowaktcha ni'sh, Tchd- 9 

ipo.roots putting in mouth biting cracked, then bit through (her) ucck, the 

wash shiuga humasht=gi'nk, tchiii ktetdga nanuk. Tchiii hunk nanuk 

Antelope killed in this manner, then cut (her) up wholly. And all the 

ka'sh Tchdwamtcham i'kuga m'ndtant ya'kitat, tchiileksh p'le'ntant ipgne';^!. 

ipos of Old Antelope placed into her basket, the meat on the top she placed. 

Hu'nk toksh n4nuk igg^-idsha, tchil'Ieksh gi'llt tchi'sh laggd-idsha, kliikag 1 2 

Those but all she stuck on a pole, the meat the anna ton phe hung on a stick, a email 

portion 

tchu'leks dmpgle tchi'shtal, tchiiyiink m'na wewekash shewana. Tchdwam 

of the meat she took home, and it to her children pave. Antelope's 

tchish wewekash tchildya tchu'leks. Tapinkani hemd;je: "pgi'sham=shitko 

also to the children she gave meat. The younger s.Tid : "to mother alike 

toksh ndlam ma'sha"; tx^wag huk kti-udshna: "tchi'tchiks! ka-i nd-asht 15 

but our it tastes " : the elder (it) pushed: "be silent! not so 

gt!" Tchila'l^a sha tchiileks mbu'shant tche'k pd-uapkuk. Shashapamtch 

say!" Saved they the meat next day until to eat. Old Grizzly 

ham^Xe: "tu'hak toks neg nidkle%a, tu'm ne'gsh p'gi'sha mdlam maklaks 

said: "where (she) passed the night, much absent to mother yours the Indians 

tchu'leks shdwana, nu'sh toks sha gi'nkak shdwana. Mbii'shant pe'n nu 18 

meat gave, to me but they a little only gave. To-morrow again I 

gdnuapk ne'gsh malam p'gi'sha haitchnuk." Hu'nk tchi'sh shash shaplya 

shall go absent for your mother to look out. ' Also to them she said 

na-asht: "hu'tmdlam p'gi'shap maklg^uk shu'dsha, killi't hunk laggayapksh, 

thus: "there your mother for passing the built a fire, the anns suspending, 

night 

shu'dshash hunkidmsham, p'gi'sha;" gishdpa, pan u'nak guhudshktcha 21 

while had a oamp- these (Indians), mother i" said so, (and) again early she started out 

fire 

i'ktchuk tchu'leks. 

to fetch the meat.. 

Tchiii wlwalag viJ'la shash dshapkash: "shuhululena nat?" Shasha- 

Nott the young asked the grizzly-cubs: " shall skip down from we?" The bear- 

ftstelope* the honae 



120 MYTHO LOGIC TEXTS. 

shapka hemdp^e: "p'gi'shap ndlam ka-i shan/ihule udlsh shuhiiluk'atki giug, 

oiibs said: "mother our not wants us to pn and Bkip down, 

ptila ndlsh tchishkuapsht." Wi'lag pe'n vuld shash: "haggdt nat shanipa- 

llie livor us to have hint." " A. yiuing again asked them: "look here! we willjamp 

antelope 

3 tiaxic^na!" Shasliasliapka hemdxe: "ndlani p'gi'shap k;'i-i shanahole ndlsh 

overlogal" The cubs said: "our mother not wants us 

sliampatiazie'atgi, hualakuapksht ndlsh dnkutat." Pe'n wi'l'ag vu'la: "hdg- 

tojurop over logs, torun against us tree limbs." Again a young asked: "look 

antelope 

gat ndt shiki'ziena!" Lu'kag ham(^;^e: "nalam p'gi'shap kd-i shanaho'le 

hero! us let dive!" A cub said: "our mother not wants 

6 nalsh shiki;):iedtki dmbutat; pu'tank ndlsh k'lekudpksht." Wil'hdg vu'la 

"" to plunge in the water; smothering us to expire." The young asked 

antelopes 

pe'nak: "hdggat ndd lepleputii'na." Lukdg henK^jje: "nen ndlam p'gfsliap 

only once "look here! us let play "smoke out." Tho cub said: "our mother 



more; 



ka-i ndlsh shapiya; tchd-u hdtak ndd la'una hii'masht!" 

not us told presently heio we will play thus!" 

(about this) ; 

9 Tchui wiwaldg mu'lu wi^tli Idtchashtat, tsiii lii'pi gnU', tchiii shashd- 

And the young rotten threw into the lodge, and first went into, and tho bear- 

antelopes wood 

shapka vutatclikia. Wiwalag nd-asht gi: "pdlakag a't hutdtchkiuluapk!" 

cub.s put the cover on. The young so said: "pretty soon you must open again ! " 

antelopes 

"I"', a lu'l^ag; tchui wfwalag "lepleput^a, lepleputea, lepleput^a 

"yes," (said) the cubs; then the young cried: "two smoke in, two smoke out, two smoke in 

.antelopes 

12 puta', puta', a', a'." Tchui lu'l^ag kaishn61a, wiwalag tu'shkanipgle; pdn 

smother, smother, 5, 6!" Then the cubs opened up, the young went out; then 

antelopes 

lu'l^ag tchkash guli': "pdlakag a't kaishnu'Iuapk." Tchui lu'l^ag "lep- 

thecubs also went down; "pretty soon ye must uncover. ' An I the cubs cried: 

leput^a: pudshd, puta'-a." Pdn wiwalag vu'l(iliank: "lepleputd lepleput^ 

"smokoin: smother, smother." Again the young went into: "two smoke out, two smoke in 

antelopes 

15 puta', puta'a'"; lul;ijagkaishn61a, tchui wiwalag tu'shkampgle, Iul%ag 

.smoke, smoke"; the ciib« uncovered, and theantelopea came < nit, 1hi> cuba 

tchkash vu'le'li: "leplepute, leplepute puta', puta'." Wiwa'hldg kd-i 

also ran into: " two 8moke in, two smoke in bmother, smother." The yoinig ante- not 

lopes 

kaishnuli'at lu'l^agsh; tchupjasht tche'k kaishnu'la. Tchui i'kampglank 

woulil unrovor for llie cubs; :ifter their death then they uncovered. Then taking out 

18 lillkagsh k'la'pki i'p;^a tclishtat; t^^waksh dnkutka shu'm takuank shndt- 

the cubs red pain" Ibey lined in (their) faces; to the elder with a gag i he snout gagging they raised 

kual Idtchashtat, tapinikdyentch tchish dnkutka tdkuank shu'm ga-ulu'l- 

(it) up on the lodgetop, the younger too with a prop gagging the mouth on lodge- 

kishtala shndtkual. Tchui sha shnd-ilakshtala gutdktcha, nanuktudlash 

ladder they fastened. And they to the flro-pl ce went in, to every article 

21 sha shtuli'dsha kd-i shdptki giug Lukash gatj)ampglisht; wdkash pi'l sha 

they cn.joined not to report (to) the Grizzly having returned; the boneawl alone they 

ydmtki dggaipksh. 

forgot as it stuck in the 
ceiling. 



MYTH OF THE BEAK AND THE ANTELOPE. 121 

Tchui ma'ntch=gitk Slidshapamtch gAtpampglank shatalidyapkuga; 

Then after a while Old Grizzly returned, looking ahead of herself; 

shawigank k'lepgi' kekew^laksht shash hem(^ze: "hun ak sha gd-u k'l^pgi 

angried vert paint at their having wasted she said: "they my red paini 

kekiiwel^a, pshe-uti'washash gc'-u anuli'pkutch"! Tchui wikdtant galtchd- 3 

have wasted', from the Indians I which filched "I Then nearer approach- 

wiank shltia lu'lzag tchu'kapksh l(igguta ham<^ze: "at ni'sh tdtaksni Tch^- 

ing she S.1W the culis to be dead (andl sobbing she said : "now me the children of Old 

wamtcham ne-ulaktampka!" Tchui wiwal'aaksh liam6asha: "t4t a't 

Antelope have punished!' And the young antelopes she called : 'where ye 

tatakshni gi?" -tsui tataksni vu41;ta Shashapamtchash: "gi'n at a uad 6 

children are!" and Ihechildren replied to Old Grizzlj ; "righthere we 

wawatawa ktchdl^ishtat." Shashapamtch hok4nsha tu'sh hai at tataksni 

are sitting in the sunshine." Old Grizzly ran ont to where now the children 

wawatawa. Piiu tdtakshni wiishital ham^^e vudl^uk Shtlshapamtchash; 

were sitting. Again the children towards the spoke in reply to Cfld Grizzly ; 

mad-house 

pa'n Shdshapamtch hulhi'pgle: "tdtatataksni!" Pdn wiwalag kani giank 9 

ao^ain Old Grizzly ran into it: "children!" Again the yonng outdoors being 

" antelopes 

wal;ra Shasha])amtchash: "gi'n at a nat kdtni l^wa; If^shma ai f ndlsh." 

replied to Old Grizzly: "here we out-doors play; not find yon as." 

Pen Shashapamtch h6kan,sha. 

Again Old Grizzly ran out (of the 

house). 

Tchui hu'k mantch-gitk m'natak sh^kta shapiya: "genii'l a hu'k un4 12 

Then sonic time iillci her boneawl said; "went away long 

ago 

tatakshni, kakiash h"'sh i ka-iga." Tchiii Shashapamtcli vu'la: "tu'shtal 

the children, whom you look out for." And Old Grizzly asked: "which way 

haitch sha gt^naf Tchui shakta shapiya Shashapdmtchash: "gi'tal a 

then they tiaveUed?" And the awl told Old Grizzly: " through hero 

sha gut(iktcha, gen Igu'm sha shalgidsha gutekui'shtala. Tchui Shasha- 15 

they crawled, here coals they placed opening against. Then Old 

pamtch hdtaktal kiit^guk tchukt%ak4nka; k^shguk gut^ksh. Tchiii gute- 

Grizzly through it to crawl in attempted; could not she crawl in Finally getting 

gank gena dmnadsha: "mu'lii mu'lu te-utewa, nm'hl mii'lu te-utdwa," 

in she went crying on her way: " rotten wood rotten wood breaks easy, rotten wood rotten wood breaks through," 

genuta shudktcha na-asht hu'k Shdshapamtch; p(in hem^ze: "tush gint 18 

walkiug wept so Old Grizzly; then she said: "where 

m41ash nu gdntak shl^ta tatakiash?" hemkankatchna genuk. 

ye I am going to find the children ! " she said repeatedly while walking. 

Tchiii wiwalaksh pinu'dsha mdklezapksh ku'mgtat; mu' shiidshank 

Then the young antelopes she overtook while they camped in a cave; building a large fire 

sku'l^a. At tataksni sh^mtchal^a Shdshapamtchash pin6dshasht m'nalsh; 21 

she lay down. Xow the children became aware, (that) Old Grizzly had overt.aken them; 

tx^wag tapi'nkayentch wil'hdgsh skishu'la; "at a na'lsh hii'ktakag pinu'dsha; 

the elder the younger antelope woke up; "now us she' caught up with; 

skishuli!" h^mta m'na t^pia. Tchiii s^fshCda hfi'ktag. Shashapamtch 

wake up!" it said to its younger. And woke up this little one. Old Grizzly 



122 MYTHOLOGKJ Ti:XTS. 

kt4na ksheluyank hVlukshtat. " Mbu'shant tchek mdlsh nil tatdkiash sh4ke- 

weiitto lying near the Arc. '■Tomorrow at last with ye I childmu will nliiv 

Bleep "^ •' 

luiyuapk pshepslia Id'lpatka tchek"; tchiii n4-asht gfulank sku']j;ank 

»««'"<* in daytime, seeing sharp then"; and so speaking (and) lying down 

3 ktdndslia. Tclu'ii wl'warhag ktdnhuish sliiltuyakitia dnkutka; tamil'dsh 

she got asleep. Then the joung antelopes thesleeping one bombarded with sticks; whether 

ktAndslii shcwuk shutuyakiea. Tcbui slia ka-i shi'ktgislit tu'shkansha 

she was asleep trying, they throw (them). And they not she moving about ran out of 

ku'metat, tii'shtchna sha palakmdlank ; vu'shnk Shtishapamtchash m'nalsh 

the cave, ran away they at a quick pace : afraid (that) Old Srizzly them 

6 pin6dslmapksht Shu'kamtcliash sha hamekiipka, kiVtagsh stil'kapksh galaH- 

miglit overtake Old Craue they hallooed at, minnow-fish gigging skirting the 

n6ta: "nki'llank n41sh, kukui, sko'tki, hu'ktakag nalsh kpu'dshapka pi'nod- 

water: "very fast us, uncle, crossover, 'she' ns is chasing (and) will 

shuapk ricilsh at" Tchiii Shu'kamtch sku't^a shash; wiwalag luish^gsha 

overtake us now."' And Old Crane crossed over them; the young explained 

antelopes 

9 Shu'kshash. Tchiii Shu'kamtch pniutakta shash shl6kishtat, ka-ukawd 

to Old Crane. Then Old Crane blew them into a whistle stick, (and) rattled 

sha latchashtat aggdyank shi'namshtnuk. Wiulagalam shapiyash Tchd- 

they inthelodge being hang up for fear. Of theyouugante- upon the message (that)Old 

lopes 

washash shiiigsht ShAshapamtchash, Shu'kamtch ndshenshkdni tchish 

Antelope was killed by Old Grizzly, Old Crane the young ones too 

12 shuaslmaktcha. Shu'kamtch shuaktcha: "(i-ush tchiwd, ^-ush tchiwd!" 

"■^P'- Old Crane wept (crying) : "lake water, lake water!" 

Ndshenshkani tchish shuashuaktch: "c-ush tchi'tchu tchi'tchil." 

The young (cranes) also wept: "lake wa- w.v water" 

At hu'k tchiii Shashapamtch mantch=gitk s;{ishu'lank te'lhi ku'mgtat: 

Now then Old Grizzly after a time awakening looked in the cave: 

15 "ga tuti niuk tatakiash shakemiyuapk i)shL']isha lii'lpatka; u'nagin shash 

"rather hard mjsell' with the children I shall play a game iu the <lay time when able to see; long ago, after they 

genuish tu'toks hu'ksha gatpa Shu'kamtchamksh." Tchiii pen guhud- 

left (the cave), ont there they reached to Old Crane's home." Then started 

shktcha Shdshapamtch haitchnuk wiwalagsh; kueish sham haftchna. 

<>"' Old Grizzly to follow the young antelopes; the tracks of them she followed. 

18 GAt^apshank k6k6tat vu'la Shu'kamtchash : "t;im tatdkiash shle'sht?" 

Reaching to the river she asked Old Crane: "if the children ho had seen t" 

Shu'kamtch \mm6ze: "ka-i nu shla4 tatakiash." G^ a kuent^apsha tdtakiam 

Old Crane said: "not I saw the children." Here (were) the outgoing of the children 

tracks 

gclt^apshuish; hii'mtchna na-asht Shdshapamtch: "aishuig ta'dsh i shdsh 

having reached (there); hallooed so Old Grizzly: " to conceal then yon them 

21 nen; ki'llank ish s;^u'tkl!" Shu'kamtch hiim^ze: "kagi ge-u vii'nsh"; pan 

(want); quickly me set over!" Old Crane said: " None is tome canoe"; again 

ShAshapamtch: "kfUank skil'tgi ish! kiHank i'sh sku'tki!" Tchiii mdntch-gitk 

(said) Old Grizzly : "quickly cross me! fast me set over!" And after a while 

Shfi'kamtch sp<i'kua m'na tchCi'ksh, mdksha ndklank (ka'liak hii'nk vd'nsb 

Old Crane spread ont his legs. a skull-cap carrying (on leg) (withont (he) canoe 



MYTH OF THE BEAR AND THE ANTELOPE. 123 

giug) tchu'kshtka sh%u'tka. Sh^shapamtch g^lapka tcM'kshtat; tdt^S- 

beiiig) on the leg he crossed (her). Old Grizzly stepped on the leg; to the 

lampani gdggutk Ampu pil'nua m4kshatka. Tchiii wudu'pka mdkshatka 

midst (of river) coming water she draok from the skull-cap. And she struck with the sknllcap 

Shii'ksliam tchu'ksh punuiank u'hlitchug. Shu'kamtch shawiguk Shasha- 3 

Crane's leg after drinking, to shake out (the Old Crane angried Old 

water). 

pamtchash shnindu'wa ambutat; tchui nt^-ish i'ktchapgli Shu'kamtch, 

Grizzly doused into the water; then a bow fetched at home Old Crane, 

nge-ishan Sh4shapamtchash. Wiwalaga tchuk geknank shlu'lushtat, Sho'k- 

Bhot Old Grizzly, The yonng then came out of the whistle, Crane's 

antelope.^ 

sham wew^kalam sha hu'nk tdldshitko nge-ishan Shashapamtchash ; tchui 6 

of the children they .irmed with the shot Old Grizzly; then 

arrows. 

sha shiiiga. 

they killed (her). 

NOTES. 

The myth of the Bear and the Antelope is one of the most attractive and best 
stylicized of this collection. It forms a whole mythic story by itself, and not a series 
of myths like the jjieceding article. The Grizzly Bear's figiu'e is drawn in very 
natural and characteristic outlines, and the same may be said of the other animals of 
the story. Some archaic words seem to prove that the myth has been handed down 
for many centuries to the present generation, which repeats it to the offspring' with the 
same expressions as used by the parents. Tlie archaic terms alluded to are Shashap- 
amtch, ps6psha, p.slie-utfwash, kiikui, tchitchii; probably also lepleputea. 

118, 1. 7. Shiishapamtch alternates in this tale with LiVkamtch, the "Grizzly Bear 
of the Ancients," and so does Iii'kaga with shasli4pka. -4mtch, -Amtchiksh is the 
usual attribute "old'" appended to mythologic characters. In the mythologic stories of 
the Indians bearcubs always appear two in number, the older and the younger one. 
The same may be said of the ma.jority of the other quadrupeds; cf. the two young of 
Old Anteloije, in tliis story, and t/6wag, 105, 9, as well as of many of the personified 
powers of nature. Cf. the term lepleputiia. 

118, 7. 119, 2. gi'nk or kinka: a little, not mucli; m6-ishi contains the particle! or 
hi: "on the ground". 

119, 9. pu'kpuka: she craclced hard ipo-roots, feigning to crack lice which she pre- 
tended to have found on the antelope's body. Picking lice from each others' heads 
(gutash kshikla) and eating them is a disgusting practice which travellers have 
observed among all Indians of North and South America. 

119, 10. n^nuk: the whole of her body. 

119, 11. ipene'pfi: to place something into a basket or receptacle which is already 
filled to the brim. 

119,20. 21. hu t m^lametc. The construction is as follows: " mdlam p'gi'shap hu't 
mdkle;^uk shu'dsha, p'gi'.sba laggay^pkash hu'nk killi't, liunkiamsham shu'dshash": 
your mother made a fire out there because she must have passed the night there, and 
because she hung up this anus on a stick, while the Indians (who gave meat to both 
of us) had a camp-fire. 



124 MYTHOLOGIO TEXTS. 

120, 2. tcbislikiiiipslit iastead of tchisblaiapkasht. 

120, 10. vutatcbkia is also prouounced ntatchkia, liutatclikia. Eartli-lod^i's which 
open ou the top cau be (•los(!d by means of a large cover placed over the snioke-liole. 

120, 11. lepleput(5a or properly : Icplep^puttni, "to play the smoke out f;anie Mith 
two on each side,'" is a coinijound of lapCni tiro in the siiorter form lap, and pi'ita (o be 
smothering-. Lap has elianged its vowel into a shorter \owel, c, on account of remo\al 
of accent, and is hero redoubled by iterative, not by distributive reduplication. Cf. 
lcp;fleks from lap and k'16ka. A series of points after lepleputea indicates that the 
animals repeated this word an indefinite number of times, wliile the others were inside 
the lodge, and while pronouncing puta', they opened again to let them out. 

120, 17. tchu;fasht tche'k kaishnii'la. Literally rendered, this means: liaving 
perished finally, they uucovered. The subject of tchi'ip^asht, lu'1/agsh, has to be su])- 
plied from what precedes. The smoke of the burning rotten wood killed the cubs. 

120, 10. ga-uhVlkish, from gu-ulola to go out, is the cmtside ladder of the In- 
dian "mud-house" or winter-lodge, averaging in length from 10 to 15 feet; the inside 
ladder, wdkish, is somewhat longer to reach the excavated floor. 

120, 21. The complete wording of this sentence, in which shaptki stands for 
siiajjatki, would be: k;l i shaptki giug Li'ikasb, gatpampelisht hiVnksh (hiVnkiash). 

120, 22. slggaipksh, contraction of aggayapkash : aggi'iya to be hung up, or to be 
stuck into : said of long-shaped articles only. 

121, 3. auulipka to take away something from another's lodge or house without 
asking for it; the sufHx -ipka expressing the idea of "towards oneself." Auulipkuish, 
"what was once abstracted from others" appears here in tlie contracted form anuli'])- 
kutch; g(5-u "by me, through me." 

121, 9. tatatataksni shows repetition of the two first syllables of tat^ksni children, 
but at the same time means "where are the children?" 

121, 15. shalgidsha; the antelopes placed the coals there to secure their flight from 
the Eear ; had the coals been put there by somebody else, hlkidsha would be used. 

121, 2li. 122, 7. hu'ktakag: familiar diminutive name given to the Grizzly Bear; 
hu'ktag, 121, 2'3., stands for one of the young antelopes. 

122, 1. 2. Mbiishant tche'k etc. The sense of this exclamatory sentence is as follows : 
"To-morrow at last I will pla-y a sharp game with ye children, when in the day-time 
I can use my eyes to advantage." Lulpatka is: lulpatko a; "i>osscssing eyes" is the 
primary signification of lulpatko, but here it means " enabled to make use of the eyes". 
Cf. raukasham nil lulpatko: I see as sharp as a horned owl. The distributive form 
pshd'psha, of pshd, "during day-time" means "any time when the sun shines bright." 
Cf. psh(5ksh, noontime. 

122, 9. This blowing of personified objects of nature into sticks etc., is a fiction of 
which we have another instance in 111, IG. 

122, 11. iidshenshkAui. Sec Wote to 71, 6. 7. 

122, 12. 13. tchiw;^, tchi'tchu: tchi is a syllable found in many words referring to 
water and liquids, as tchiya to give water; tchi6ga to overflow. This radical is no 
doubt an obsolete Klamath word for water and recalls the term tchiVk "water" in 
Chinook jargon: tltsuk in Lower Chinook, tl'tchuku in Clatsop; tchaiik in ]S'utka. 
It also occurs under various forms in the Sahaptin dialects. By this lake undoubtedly 
Upper Kiamath Lake is meant. Cf. tchiwa in Dictionary. 



K'MtJKAMTCH, THE FIVE LYNXES AND THE ANTELOPE. 1 25 

122, 15. ga tuii uiuk for kA-a tuii ni giank ; kd-a means here " vehemently, ci-uelly, 
sharply", tud: "in some way or other". 

122, 16. shash geuuisli : after they had left the cave. 

122, 2U. "aishiug ta'dsh i shiish nen". Here uen stands for some tinite verb; 
either shana-uli i: you want to conceal them; or for na-asht i shapiya: "you speak so, 
in order to conceal them". 

122, 23. spii'kua. The spread out legs of the Crane liad to serve as a bridge to 
the Grizzly Bear, for there was no dug-ont canoe at their disposal to cross the river. 

122, 23. miiksha n(5klank. Old Crane carried on his leg a vase or skullcap that 
belonged to a dug-out canoe, but did not possess a canoe himself. 

123, 3. u'hlitcha. Grizzly shook (jut the remainder of the water to let the skull-cap 
become dry. Skull-caps are used throughout as drinking vases. 

123,6. taldshitko. This sentence has to be construed : wiwalag, sho'ksham wewt'i- 
kalam taldshitko, nge-ishan, and tiUdshitko stands for taldshi gitko: "the young- 
antelopes, ai-med with the arrows of the Crane's children, shot" etc. 



K'mukamtchiksham shashapkeleash. 



THE MYTH OF K'MTJKAMTCH, THE FIVE LYNXES AND THE 

ANTELOPE. 



Obtainkd from J. C. D. Riddlk in the Modoc Dialkct. 



K'nuikaiutchiktch hunk gentko kailatat, kiiilasli shutulaii, tuuep shl^a 

K'miitaratch w.ilking eartb upon, the world having created, five be saw 

shloa ankotat wawakayapkash. Kailio skutatko K'miik6mtcliigsh shpakdgra 

lynxfS on trees sitting. In a rabbit-blank.-t clad K'nuikamtcli tore to pieci'S 

p'nd kailioskiitash, hem(i%c*u : "tidshi' Cm ge-u sku'tash gitak shlii'a lue- 3 

his rabbit-skin robe, (and) said : " a good tome robe will be the lynxes when 

16ka." Ktai pe-uyegau shlua kai'hho'ta; nash shloa hnt;(idshiian hudshna. 

I kill." Stones picking nj) the be missed; one lynx janipingdown ran away. 

lynxes 

Heme;{en : " e, ka-i tidshi skutash gi-viapka ! " Pen kai'hh5'ta ktayAtka, 

Hesaid: "oh! not a good niar,tle it will become!" Again he missed with a stone, 

pe'n nash shloa hut/idshuan hu'dshna. K'mukointchigsh hem^;^en : "pe'n 6 

another lynx jumping down ran off. K'miikamtch said: "again 

nash hutxidsha ; at ge-n ketchgdne skutash gi-uapka." Ndani shl6a wawag- 

one skipped away : now my small mantle will become." The three lynxes sitting on 

g'dyan K'mukamtchash shushaluakta ; p^n ktayatka shl6a kai'hha. Na'sh 

{t,rees) at K'raAkamtch scofied ; again with a stone the he missed. Another 

lynxes 

pen hvLt/idshna hudshna. K'miikouitchiksh h'Amiyj^ : "k^mat ptia nisli 9 

one Jumped down (and) ran away. ICmiikamtab iiiUd: "the back only tome 



126 MYTHOLOGIO TEXTS. 

un wfildshtiik." Pen ktai luyegan shl6a kai'hha, 14puk hiihatxfdshnan 

it will cover." (vVuother) stouo picking up tbe lynxes he niiased, both skipping down 

huhiltchna. K'muk6mtcliiksh sliuaktchtdmpka : 

rau away. K'intikamtch crying-comiuenced ; 

3 "16-i loyan 16yak, 16-i 16yau 16yak," 

pen kaflio iidandkalkAnkan hahashtatchmayun ankutka kaflio p'na, pen 

a^aiii (of liis) ;iatbeiiii(; the pieces be pinned together with spUntors blanket hie, then 

blanket 

skii'tan kuluishgdsha. 

puttin;; it atiirteil (iff, 

around himt)elt' 

6 Wiga hak g(5nau tche-u kimAdsham pdtko klddshat gshi'kla. Kailio 

Not far having; an antelope tooth-aching cm a clearint; lay. Mamie 

walked, 

p'nA tch^-u waldshan tchewash hllnk Idu'pka tch^keli tilktgi. Mbushaksh 

hia over Ibe spreading, the antelope he kicked to make it bloodshot. For a stone-knife 

anielopo 

kayaktampka nashgiil'tna ; tchd-u tapitdnna hu'dshna; le'ltki hunk tchiii 

be begun to si-arcli tn skiu (it) with; the antelope beliind (him) ran off; looking at it forib- 

with 

!i hein^^en : "gd-u tchi'sli bumtchi ki." Tch^-u K'n2u'kamtchS.sh buyd- 

hc H;nd : "mine also like this is." The antelope of K'luiikamtch ran in 

edsba. K'muk6nitcbiksb kaflio tch^wat sbleklapkasb shlea, bem^%e: '*tg^l%, 

front. K'miikaratch (his) on ihe ante- lying perceived, (and) said: "stop, 

blanket lope 

tgfilx ! Psbe-utiwash mlsh un sbushaluaktantak, ko-idsba mish kafliu 

stop! The people yon will deride, the miserable you rabbit 

12 Amptchiksh g^-u skutasb skutdpkash." 

old my garment wrapped in." 



NOTES. 

125, 1. kailash is one of the few instances where inanimate nouns assume the 
ending" -sh in the objective case. This is, however, no instance of personification. Cf. 
pdplishash 94, 5. Concerning the signification of kaila, cf. Note to 96, 23. 

125, 2. kailio, kailiu, rabbit skins sewed together to form a garment, mantle or 
blanket. As the name indicates, it was originally made from the fur of the kai-rabbit. 
Skutash may be rendered here by different terms, since many Indians used their skin 
robes, in which they slept at night, as garments or cloaks during the day. 

125, 3. lu('l()ka. The plurality of the lynxes is indicated by the verb liiela, which 
can be used only when many are killed; its singular form is shiiiga. A similar remark 
applies to pe-uy^gan and to wawaggdya. Lynxes are usually spoken of in the West 
as wild cats. 

126, 3. 16-i loyan 16yak is probably an interjectioual and satiric variation of the 
verb lualui;i^a: "they make fun of me", the distributive form of luai^a. 

126, G. Wig4 hak: only a little way. Subject of g^nan is K'miikanitchiksh. 

126, 11, 12. Pshe-utiwash etc. This sentence shows the following structure : The 
human beings will laugh at you, dressed (as you are) in my miserable, good-for-nothing 
rabbit-fur robe, iimtchiksh here means worn out, old, good for nothing. This word is 
l>honetically transposed from dmtch gish: "old being", "long existing". As such it 
appears also in K'mlikamtchiksh, a Modoc form for K'uiiikamtch. 



THK BAT, THE SKUNK, TUE UOG AND TUE i'llAllilE WOLF. 127 



Ktchidshuam, Tchasham, GrusHUAM, Washam SHASHAPKELEASH. 

THE STORIES OF THE BAT, THE SKUNK, THE HOG AND THE 

PRAIRIE-WOLF. 



Obtainkd fuom J. C. D. Riddle m the Modoc Dialect, 



Ktchl'dshd uuak skAlaps sMlti'latko tcliawal ktayat Mo-6\ve hunk 

A bat early a hat holding onder its sat onamck. A mole 

arm 

hut4p6nan ; mo-6\ve hunk hem^^e: "hdgga mi skdlaps shM-i-ek"- 

ran past; the mole (to it) said: "well, your hat let see". 

Ktchi'dsho vul4: ''ka-i nu shand-uli s^alaps shl^-etki." — *^ Hagga ta 3 

The bat replied : " not I want the hat to show (yon)." "Well, 

shl^-ek". Ktchidsho hemd;(e: "kd-i tche nu mish nen." — Mo-6we ktchi- 

fchow it". The bat said: "not I yon as you The mole on the 

say." 

dshuash hu'tnan skdlapsh lu't%a; lu't^an kawakaga, tchiii wa'shtat hu'lhe. 

bat leaping the bat took away ; having ripped (it) with then into a den ran. 

taken (it) its teeth, 

Ktchi'dsho hunk Anko turn shiu'lagian, tchiii wa'shtat yankdpshtian wi-uka. 6 

The bat wood much gathered, thereupon the den putting (it) before blew on the 

«moke. 

Mii'-ue pu'tan hukdnsha, pen nayanta wa'shtat hu'lhe. Ktchi'dsho tchiii 

The molo smothering ran out, and another into a hole ran. The bat then 

k^shga hushdkish. 

conld not drive it out. 

II. 

Tchashash tu'ma watchAltko na'sh wafta ndnuk watch ktchinkshtat 9 

A skank many horses-owniDS one day all horses into an incloniire 

ni-ule. Nash tcha'shash tch6kash nkewatko gatpa. Tchdshash=laki nanuk 

drove. ADOther skunk (with) a leg cut olf arrived. The skunk-owner all 

p'na watch ni'-uknan shtiitka ni-udshna kuke yulahna, kuketat tchiii ni'wa. 

bis own horses driving out on the road drove (them) a river alongside, into the river then drove 

(them). 

Ndnuk wdtch tchla'l;(a, pitakmani. 12 

All horses were drowned, itself too, 

III. 

E-uksliikni Mo'dokni 161a k6-idsha sku'ksh gu'shutat washtat tchish 

The Klamath (and) Modocs believe a wicked spirit in the hog, in the coyote also 

Lakes 

w^nkogsht. Tatatakti gii'shu uauuk uiu'ni e-ushtat ge-upgan wt^ngga, 

luivside. That time, when hogs all into the sea rnnnin*; perished, 



128 MYTHOLOGIC TEXTS. 

na'shak piislipii'shli gil'shu kshl'ta, tdnktchik hunk gu'shuash k<S-idshi 

ono only black hog escaped, that time into hops a wicked 

shkii'ksli gutkta. Ka-i tAdshitoksh hii maklaksh pupashpu'shlish gil'shu 

spirit entered. Not therefore the Indians black hogs 

o liiela. 

kill. 

IV. 

Tfna mdklaks wash shldan shiukash shanahull, shku'ks w/ishash yu- 

Once a Modoc man a coyote finding to kill (it) wanted, a demon the coyote in- 

hit-na gi'sht 161au ; wash padshayamat gakayapkan ka'kin. Pelakag mu'ni 

side to 1)0 thinking; the Co; oto into a mauzaDita- entering dinappeared. Suddenly 8 large 

thicket 

(i wj'tam ktchikayfi'la. Kt'shga kani hunk wita'ni shiukash, shtu'ishtat gat- 

hrownliear eiinio out iiC i(. t'ould not .'inylindy (this) brown lieai- kill, a (gopher's) den en- 

paiuiuni at ka'kin Nt'mkn gnkankankish shfshahi. 

terinj he disappeared. Sever.il hunters became sick. 

TinA maklaksh tu'ma wash shl^a kshiul^Apkash wigatan tchlsh ; tchd- 

Onco an Indian many coyotes siiw dancing near (his) camp; ho be- 

9 wika ma'ntch shle-iiga. Tanktchi'kni M-i w.ish lu^lsh hamgni. Hii'k 

cnme IVir some time for seeing Since then not coyotes to kill they tried. These 

insane <them). 

Ava.sh iiiaklaks=shitko shk^sh gi, tapi'tni tchu'kasli nush pa'ni. 

coyotes men-alike to look at are. from behind the hip the head up to. 

NOTES. 

I. lu mythology the bat is sometimes regarded as a symbol of watchfulness at 
night, and this is expressed here by the adverb unak. 

127, 2. 3. 4. shlei-ek for: .shl<;a i gi, "you cause to .see;" shl6-etki for shl6atki in a 
passive signification : " to be seen, in order to be .seen"; -shl^-ek for shl^a gi: "make 
it to be seen, let it see." 

127, 2. .skiilaps, a Modoc term for a hat of .some kiml. The verb Int/a, used in 
coiiiicction with it, indicates its rounded shape. 

127, 4. ka-i tche uii iiiisli iicii. Tche is abbreviated from tchek, particle i)ointing 
to the future, or to the termination of an action or state ; the verb gi to do or shl6a to 
see or to be seen is omitted : " I will not af all show (it), as you say." 

127, G. yankiijishtia, to place into the entrance in order to impede or ])revent 
egiess. The radical in this lorm is tkip, stalk, straw, little stick; yiina, "down, down 
into", serves as a prefix. 

II. This story of the skunk is manifestly a mere fragment of a longer one, for the 
omission of motives renders it as silly as can be. 1 have inserted it here to show the 
various verbs formed from niwa, "to drive into the water, or upon a level ground". 
This is a verb applying to man;/ objects only; speaking of one object, shuwa is in use. 
For all the derivatives of botii verbs, see Dictionary. 

127, 12. pitakmani stands for pi tak m'na hi'. 

III. This hog story is evidently tlu^ result of the consolidation of aboriginal super- 
stitions witli the evangelisfs ivlatioii of the Gergesene swine throwing tliemselves into 
the Lake of Galilee from the hea*llands of Gadaia. In Chapter X VII of his " Winemu '\ 



HUMAN SOULS METBMPSTCHOSED ESTTO FISH. 129 

Meachain has given several of these concretionary products of the uncultivated Modoc 
mind. In making a study of aboriginal mythology and folklore such fictions must be 
disregarded, though they may be of interest to psychologists. 

IV. Eaces in an undeveloped, primitive state of mind are prone to regard living 
animals as the abodes of spirits, and most frequently the wild and carnivorous quad- 
rui>eds are believed to harbor wicked spirits. These are either elementary spirits, or 
the ghosts of deceased persons. To see a spirit means death, and in their terrified 
state they often behold, as here, the spirit in a half human, half beastly appearance, 
when coyote-wolves, gray wolves, bears, cougars etc. come in sight. Such a sight can 
cause the instant death of the hunter, or deprive him of his reason, or make him sick 
for months. In Greek and Eoman mythology. Pan, the Satyrs and the Fauns retain 
something of these primitive notions (in the panic terror etc.), though these genii were 
largely idealized in the later periods of national development. In every nation a rela- 
tively large amount of superstitions refers to hunting and the chase of wild beasts. 

128, 9. Tanktchi'kni is in fact an adjective, not an adverb; literally, it means "those 
who existed, or hunted since that time", and is composed of tdnk, a while or time ago, 
tchek, finaUy, and the suflQx -ni. Of. 13, 2. 128, 1. 



Sku'ks=kia'm. 
HUMAN SOULS METEMPSYCHOSED INTO FISH. 



Given in the Klamath Lake Dialect by Dave Hill. 



Kd-i hfl'nk shla' at kanf kia'mat sku'ksliash. Hu'k pll link shla't 

Not can see anybody in a fish .t dead man's spirit. Dead men only can see 

shku'ks; pll mAklaks hu'k shla't sku'ks. Hushtr;{ak tsa'taks nl'sh, sfuks 

spirits; only dtiiid Indians can see spirits. Ho makes dream but if me, to kill 

only (about deceased) (me) 

tche'k sanaho'li huk, wakianua shuishaltki tchii bants' giugnush. Ha'toks 3 

then be wants, or perhaps to keep the song- because ho wants me. If 

medicine 

nf shla4t k'lakdtak nl; ha n' lYnk shladt sku'ks=kiam, ha n' fi'nk shla4t 

I should see might die I; if I it fiboaldsee, the spirit-fish, if I him should see 

(the dead), 

mdklaks hii'nk sko'ks tchi'sh, k'lakdt n' u'nk shla-6k; wakidnua hissiinuk 

the dead person the spirit also, may die I, him for havinjj: seen ; or perhaps if song-medicine 

is applied, 

tchatch ni'sh ka-i siu'gat. HH'masht hu'nkash shla-ukit na'd mdklaks, 6 

then me not he may kill. Therefore him if should see we Indians, 

hu'k tchish kia'm, kat gek wA; ka-i hu'nk shla^t hii'nkesh kia'mat 

the dead also (would appear which there lives; not I can see it in the fish 

as) a fish, 

sk6kshash. 

the dead man's 
spirit. 

9 



130 



MYTHOLOGIG TEXTS. 



II. 

Kiii'm k'lekA tchu'shni; tsiiyuak hu'ksa ts6;iatk pi' I kiii'm, nanuktaa 

Fisli remain forever; therefore those dead (exist) as liBh, as all kiuilH of 

(lead (people) ouly 

kia'm, ndnuktua maklaksni ts6katk. Ha' n' hii'nk hu'nkiash shladt sku'k- 

tish, all kinds ofludiaus dead. If T (of a deceased) should behold the 

o sliash, k'lakAt iil hii'nk sla6k; ha'toks ui shuishaltk, tchek giug kd-i 

spirit, would die I it through bat if Z recur to magic then not 

aeeinc ; aoogs, 

siugat nis. 

be may me. 
kill 

jSrOTES. 



My eflforts towards obtaiuiug- exhaustive texts from the natives coucerning their 
belief in the transinigTation of huTnan souls were not crowned with entire success. 
Of the two items obtained, No. II is intended as a eomineutary of Xo. I, both treating 
of the i)rosence of human souls in lish. The cause why so many Indian tribes shun 
the flesh of certain fish lies in the fact that these species were seen feeding upon the 
bodies of drowned men and swimming nroiind tliciii. This iiuluced the belief that 
man's soul will pass into the oi-ganisms of these tinny inhabitants of the wave, even 
when death has resulted from other causes than from drowning. According to Uill, 
the M4klaks believe that the sonls or spirits of the deceased pass into the bodies of 
living fish; they become inseparably connected with the lish's body and therefore 
cannot be perceived by Indians under usual circumstances. But iu otui status only 
they become visible to them; when Indians are bewitched by the irresistible, magic 
spell of a conjurer or of a wicked genius. Then they enter into a tamti-nuash-dream, 
and when they see a dead person's spirit in such a dream, they are almost certain to 
die from it. Only the interventiou of the conjurer and of his soug-medicinc can save 
them from perishing; rigorous fasting and ascetic performances cannot be then dis- 
pensed with, and with all that no certitude of his final rescue is to be had. 

Here as elsewhere the pronouns huk, hiinkiash etc., are inserted instead of the 
Hiiprouounceable name of the deceased, and mean: dead person, spirit. 

129,2. pil maklaks; only dead Indians, not dead white men, because during 
their life-time these did not believe in the skii'ks; this belief is a privilege of tlie 
Indians. 

129, 2. Hushti';/ak etc. This sentence runs as follows : Tche'ktoks hushti'/a ak 
nish, huk tche'k nisli siuksh shanaho'li, wakiauhua tchek i>'nash (or pu'sh) nu'sh shui- 
shaltki giug shanaluVli: "if he (the bad genius) makes me only dream iu tliat luaiinei-, 
then he intends either to kill me, or perhaps he wants me to keep the song-medicine 
for myself." To keej) the song-medicine, sluiishla, is to undergo fasts and iiscelic |)er- 
formauces under the suj)ervision of souus conjurer for an almost unlimited time, li\e 
years at least. 

129, 3. 4. Uii'toks 111' shliiat etc.: if J should see (tin; dead) while 1 am uicake. 

129, 1. Sku'ks kiiim, a com])ouud word, may be rendered by spirit-fisli, letiferou.s 
ii.ili. 

130, I. Jviii'iii k'leUa. (!tc. 'J'lie lallicr obscuit- sense nl lliis sl;ileiiic,iit iiiiiy bi" in;id»« 
compreliensJble by the following: "\Vheii lish are deuil, llic^ ;iic dciid turexer; Iicimk 



THE SPELL OF THE LAUGHING EAVEN. 131 

the souls of all dead Indians continue to exist in the living fish, in all kinds of living 
fish only." 

130, 2, ts6;fatk. This refers to Indians who have perished by a violent death, as 
well as to those who died in the natural way. 



THE SPELL OF THE LAUGHING RAVEN. 



OivxN BT "Captain Jim" in the Eiamath Lakb Dialect. 



L 

Shuyu^alkshi tchuyunk fi-ukshikni mdklaks hdtokt shuyu%ela, tunii 

At "dauce-place " when the Klamath Lake people there pilpil-danced, nianv 

huk hdtokt maklaks gi. K'mukamtch hatokt a gena. Tchiii Kd-akamtcli 

there people were. K'raiikamtch there went. Then Old Raven 

shash h4tokt w^tanta shuy^alpksh, tchui hil ktd-i k'la'ka ndnuk mdklaks 3 

at them there laughed whou they danced, and rocks became all people 

shiiyukaltk hdtokt. 

dancing there. 

II. 

Ydmakni hu'k Kdyutchish gatpa Ki'uti ktiitit; tchuyunk i'-uag 

lYom the North Gray Wolf arrived Kluti above; then he stopped 

shku'l;^a kdyak tchi'sh g^tpeiiuuk, niinuk shulu'tamantk hdtkok ydmnasli 6 

(and) lay down not yet home having reached, in full dresH at that spot beads 

(to sleep), 

wdwakshnatk tchish; tiila tchish hu'k gdkatpantk i'uag sha hu'nk tu'kel;Ka. 

with moccasins on too; together with (him) those coming stopped they (and) rested. 

Tchiii Sh4shapamtch hu'nk gdldsha-uyank Kci-utchiaratchash sku'lpkank 

Then Old GriZ7,l\- approached Old Giay Wolf lying (and) 

ktdmpsh. Tchiii ShAshapamtch pdlla Ke-utchishash wakshna y4mnash 9 

asleep. And Old Grizzly stole from Gray Wolf the moccasins beads 

tchish shulu'dshuank wu'ksh^en g(^nuapkug. Tchui Ke-utchiamtch 

also, (and) ]tat them on, to the fishing-pl.aco forgoing. Upon this Old Gray AVolC 

s^ishu'lank kti'ukuela Shdshapamtchash; vud'hitakuc^Ia ktdyat pAUapkah 

waking np throw down hill the Old Grizzly j he rolled (him) down over the for having 

rock.s robbe'l 

pdsh wdkshua yamnash tchish. Tchui hii'nk shiuga pi Shashapamtchash, 12 

him n£ mocc.i.siTi.s ncckwe.ir also. Then killed ho the Old Grizzly, 

tchui fi-ukshikni maklaks shelhudtampka Yamakishasli, .Shtishapamtchash 

where- the Klamath Lake people commenced fighting tlio Northnriier,"*, (brcanse) Old Grizzly 

npon 

hflnk Ka'-utchishash shiiig.sht. Tchui Ka-akanitc]i wc^tauta shash sh^J- 

by Gray Wolf Ii;mI liocn killed. Then Old Kavon laughed at theui when 

lualpksh, ktA-i sha k'l(^k;i. 15 

flghting, uiid i'«fck» llioy buvniiio. 



132 MTTHOLOGIO TEXTS. 

III. 

K'mukamtch hfi'nk ndkosh hu'nk tdplalash nd-ul%a shno-uyaldtki 

K*m6kanitch a dam the loon ordered to destroy 

shaah. K'mukamtch hu'nk pi tpii'wa t4plalash shnewi'tki giug, pi kii-i 

to them. K'ratikamtch ho ordered the loon to destroy (it), (bat) no 

3 tud kia'tti liieluak. Hu'ksha hu'nk nakushksh4kshni ku-idsha kia'm 

flsh to kill. Those who dwelt at tho dam lotten flsh 

nutuyakia nakosh ga'tant, K'mukdmtchish shiuguk, kii-idsha kia'm pAtki 

threw over tho dam to the other (for) K'miikamtch to kill, rotten fish (be) go- 

side of, 

gfug. Tchui K'mukamtch shdwiguk ku-i sham ndkush shu'ta; tchui 

ing to eat. Then K'mdkamtch in wrath their dam spoiled; npon this 

6 ndkush^enkni shMmiuk shti'ya shishi'dsha shu'ktaldshank lAk. Tchiii 

the dam-neighbors in niourninp pitch put on head, cutting off (their) hair. Then 

Kd-ag wdtanta shash, ktd-i sha k'l^ka. Tchuyunk K'mukamtch lupaksh 

the Raven laughed at them, rocks they became. Hereupon K'mAkamtoh obalk 

shna-ulAmna tapMlash. 

spit over the loon. 

NOTES. 

I. This myth intends to explain the existence of the large number of rocks found 
at the locality called Shuyu;i^alkshi. 

131, 2. Kd-akamtch. The adjectives -amtch, -dmtchiksh appended to animal 
names designate mythologic characters. Adjectives of an equal meaning occur in all 
the western languages, as far as these have been studied. Of. Note to 126, 11. 12. 

II. In this myth, as well as in other grizzly bear stories recorded in this volume, 
this bear is always killed, conquered or cheated by his quicker and more cunning 
adversaries. Nevertheless his clumsy form and narrow, ferocious intellect .are very 
popular among the tribes, who have invented and still invent numerous stories to 
illustrate his habits and disposition. 

131, 5. Kiuti is the name of an Indian camping-place situated a short distance 
north of Modoc Point, on eastern shore of Upper Klamath Lake. 

131, 6. h4tkok qualifies shkii'lp^a and ydmnash is the indirect object of shftlu'tam- 
antk. Shku'l/a, udnuk y4mnash shulu'tamautko, wawakshniitko tchish: "he lay 
down to sleep, keeping all his neckwear on himself, and not taking off his moccasins." 
Shulu'tamna can in other connections refer to the clothing, but here it has special 
reference to the beads. 

131, 11. kti'ukuela. Tradition reports, that Old Grizzly was pushed over some of 
the high rocks at Modoc Point. 

131, 13. Yimakishash etc. In these words may be recorded the reminiscence of an 
ancient fight between the Klamath people and some Northern tribe which had come 
South on a hunting expedition. A Klamath song-line given in this volume also recalls 
an ancient inroad made by the "Northerners". The grizzly bear represented the 
Klamath tribe, tho wolf the Northern Oregonians, perhaps as ancient totem signs; the 
bear ha%nng been killed by an intruder, the Klamaths had to take revenge for the insult. 

III. The object of this myth is to explain, among other things, the origin of the 
white spots on the head and back of the loon (t^plal). But the myth as given in the 



BELIEFS AND SUPERSTITIONS. 133 

text is far from beiug complete. It refers to a locality above the confluence of Sprague 
and Williamson Rivers, called Ktaltini, or "Standing Rock". A high rock stands 
there at the edge of a steep hill, and, according to the legend, the Indians who put 
pitch on their head were changed into that rock. Near by, a lumber-dam looking 
like a beaver-dam, across the Williamson River, partly resting on rocks projecting 
from the bottom of the river. K'miikamtch longed for the destruction of this dam, 
muddied the water to prevent the Indians from fishing and hired the loon to destroy 
the objectionable structure. The loon dived into the waters and forced its way through 
the dam by main strength. The Indians dwelling on the shore depended for their 
living on the fisheries, and seeing their existence at stake tried to gig the loon, but 
succeeded only in hitting its tail-feathers. When the loon had accomplished his task 
K'mukamtch oflered to reward him in any manner wished for. The loon then wished 
to have white spots on its back, and K'mukamtch satisfied the request by spitting 
chalk upon the downy surface of its body. 

132, 3. lueluak; formed by vocalic dissimilation; cf. N'ote to 114, 3. 



BELIEFS AND SUPERSTITIONS. 



Wdsh t%ii'tzatkish; tsui sa lu'la wdsham t^u't^ash. 

Prairie-wolf is sootbeayer ; and they believe in wolf 8 prophecy. 

Mdklaks hu'nk lu'la vi^asliam pdkluipkash k'ldkuapksht tche'k; t%u'- 

Indians believe, prairie-wolf when howls, they will die after a while; pre- 

t%uk pdkluipka. 3 

saging he howls. 

Mdklaks hu'nk lu'la piishish ha'masht i-unegshtka, t;(u't;fuk h^ma; 

Indians believe, the cat when cries just after sanset, for presaging it mews; 

death 

tchiki'n tchish ha'masht 1-un^gshtka gli'lu, t^u't^uk tchek hii'ma. Wdtchag 

tho chicken also when crows jnst after sunset the female, for presaging then it crows. The dog 

death 

tchi'sh wawa-a l-undgshtka, kii-i tchamluk. 6 

also (when) whines right after sunset, the signs are bad. 

Watsdg tchi'shtat tx6t%a 1-una'gshtka; tsui gdtpa mdklaks, gli'lki ngd- 

A dog at a lodge howls just after sunset; then comes an Indl.iD, attacks, wounds 

prophetically 

isha at hustso'^a. Sa-dmoks h4tokt tchia tu'sht hushtcho'pja, k4-i hunk 

and kills (the owner). A relative, (who) there lived right where the murder was, did not him 

shiuga; tsui tu'tuk spu'nshna lu'gshla vii'nsh s^^na witsii'ls dna tu'tuk 9 

kill; then seizing (him) they arrest, enslave him, the canoe row away, fishing-net carry taking 

with them 

ktsl'k, sndwedsh spii'nshna hissuaks shiukaluk. Kilu'sh at k^tak a 

oars, bis wife they abdnct, (her) bnsband being the murderer. Furions he quits and 

tsa'wik. 

is demented 



134 MYTHOLOGIC TEXTS. 

Kdk t%u't%at.kish; tsui sa luluk sa kt'ikam txu't;t^tkasb, tsiii sa 

A raven is aflonthsaycr; and they beliovlnp the raven's repeated prepheoy, tliey 

shen6tanka; pits hfi'nk pdu kdk m4klaks. 

light ciobotber! it also eats, the (dead) men. 

raven, 

3 Tutlksh ruAklaks shulna tchu';ijapkam m'ndlam sbasluimoksham; 

Dreams thonativoa siu^ about dead their rolalivea; 

hiimasht sli4hunk giug kfukayunk flags. 

tor this same reason they stick ont flags. 

Tm^lhak gftko shaklo'tkish tfdsh tinxn; tii'm Izaga. Tuielbak ta'dsli 

A tmfilhnk. h.ivin*;, the gambler well succeeds; ranch he wiiiH. 'riuWmflhak (is) 

aquim^l certainty 

<« alii'iyuaks; shakalshtat laki, ti'ds sualaliAmpkatko. 

of niuoli account; iu the g:ime (it is) well raan.aging (it). 

chief, 

TchAsliash mu'iia lushdntsnanlc mbawa ski's; tsiii iiuiklaks njiiiulc 

The skunk dcei) down while scratching a hole omitted a blast; njion this ]HH)pIp ;tll 

busbtsoga tsAsbasb=kinks. Sn4wedsb sbanab6buk spii'iisbna p'biiwcisbam 

killed the ekunk-conjnri'r. A wife seeking he carried oif the eaglo's 

y tu'paks ktan4pkasb. Shl^auk tcbawika p'laiwasb, wi-iidsna unkntka 

sister when asleep. Seein;j (this) became furious eagle, beat with a cltili 

tch^ises, wf-udsisb k'lakA, tsiii k6-i pilui. Ndop6g ktso'l bjimetslpka: 

the skunk, the beaten one died, then badly stunk. Smelling (it) tlio star.s said ; 

"ptitkal!" at p'biivvasb patkalp'le, stopatcbka, tsiii gempele tiipaksbasb 

•'get up!" and eagle rose up again, washed the face, then went home sister 

12 m'na ^nank. 



taking wi til 
him. 



II. 



Ha sbaklo'tkisb pi'sbam sbnu'lasb ntdggal, sbaklo'tkisb tidsb vmiii', 

If a gaml>ler (pf humming- the nest finds, (and) the gambler well hidtvs (i() 

bird away, 

kaitoks kani vuini'^i. Ha k<5-e sbl^a pabdpkasb, pe'tcb ktdkta ska'tisb 

not anyone conquers (him). If a frog ho finds dried-np, the leg he cuts off left 

1.5 tapi'dsbnisb vumi'; biiinasbtak sbu'ta sbaklo'tkisb, kaitoks kani vuini'^i. 

hind (leg), hides away; (if)thus acta the gambler, (then) not anyone beats (him). 

Hii kani tcbatcblalptcha sbla'-a (kinkAni tiit wa), tidsb ti'ii^a. Ha kani 

If anyone a kind of flre-l)ug finds (scarce there they are), good luck it If anyone 

brings. 

ma'ntcbnisb maklaksara alit4p sbualka, pabapkasb kiiila-sbusbati'sbasb 

oldfiishioned Indian arrow-head saves, dried-up a mole 

18 tcbi'sb, bu'kt bum^sbtak tidsb ti'ii/a tchi'sb. 

also, ho in the same way well succeeds also. 



3- 

le- 



£-uksbikni Mo'dokni 161a p'laiki'sbasb bikiasb, sbtinta tcbisb wengar 

TheKlauiath I.akis (and) Modocs believe in the heavenly rnler, revere also ofthedi; 

kani sbko'ksbasb. 

ceased the Hi)iiits. 

21 Mo'dokni sbtupuyiika tiinapni waita tiinapni psbiii gsbiiilaka kayak 

The Modocn at first menstru.ition flxe days (.and) five nights dance never 

kttikt'nan ; wew4nuisb ta-unii'pni wiiita ka-i tcbtl'leks p4u. 

sleeping; tte females for ton d.ays no meat eat. 



BELIEFS AJ^D SUPERSTITIONS. 135 

Ha' 1 shma-htchdktak yainatat, kd-i 1 un k^sh sbld-etak; ha'-atoks 

If yoa let your shadow fall on the hill, not you ipo will find ; hnt If 

1 kd-i shma-htch4ktak, tu'm 1 un k^sh shl^-etak. 

yon not let yonr shadow fall, much you ipo will find. 

M6atuash, k'le-ugtkiudpkasht tchlalash M6atuasham k6ketat, kd-i mliu' 3 

The Pit River (leat) wonM cease to come the salmon np the Pit Kiver, not gronses 

Indians, 

luela sk6 ; Mo'dokni tchi'sh 161a shudtasli kfam tchflkd shdtma, humdsht= 

they kill in spring the Modocs also assnme, nnge-hens the fish to swim np invite, there- 

time ; etreiun 

gisht kd-i luela. 

lore not they kill 

(them). 

IJI^OTES. 

I. What is contained in these short items refers equally to the Klamath Lake and 
to the Modoc people, although those contained under I. were obtained from various 
informants belonging to the former chieftaincy. 

133, 2. p4ka to howl, bark; pAk'la to howl repeatedly, to howl for a while; pAk- 
Inipka to howl for a while in the distance towards somebody. 

133, 4. 5. The cat and the chicken being but recently introduced among these tribes, 
this superstition must have been trnusferred to them from other animals. By inver- 
sion, the words tchikiu gu'lu, the hen, appear here widely sepai'ated from each other. 

133, 6. Kii-i tchiimlftk has to be resolved into : ku-i tche m^l (for m41ash) hu'k : 
"bad then for you this is!" Gruel tights will follow. 

133, 7-11. This story is not clearly worded, but we are taught by it how these 
ludians are couversiug among each other with laconic breviloquence. An Indian living 
in the vicinity has heard the w billing of the dog which means death to his owner. He 
goes there, shoots the man and takes tu his heels. A relative of the murdered man 
comes up and is mistaken by others for the murderer. They deprive him of his wife, 
his property and his liberty; he becomes a madman on account of the injustice done 
to him. 

134, 1. 2. The raveu (kiik) is supposed to1)e a bird of fatal augury, because he was 
seen devouring the flesh of dead Indians. Compare : General Hote on page 130. 

134, 4. kiukayunk. Tliey adjust a rag or j)iece of skin to a pole and stick out 
that improvised ^rtr/ on the top of the lodge to notify neighbors that they had a dream 
last night and desire an interpreter for it. 

134, 5. One of the legs of a dead black tmelhak-squirrel is cut off and laid under 
the gaming-disk or the pii'lila to insure luck to the player. 

134, 7-12. Tchashasli etc. This is a fragmentary extract of a scurrilous skunk- 
myth, which I have not been able to obtain in full from my informant, the Modoc chief 
Johnson, who speaks the Klamath dialect. This myth is well known through the 
whole of Oregon, for parts of it are embodied in a popular and melodious song of the 
Molale tribe, whose ancient home is the country east and southeast of Oregon City 
and Portland. 

134, 7. 8. mdklaks nanuk is the direct object of hushtsdga ; the skunk kiUed them 
by his stench. 

134, 9. tii'paks stands for tii'pakshash ; tupakship, abbreviated tupaksh, is pro- 
perly the younger sister, as called by or with reference to an elder brother, while pa-^nip 



136 MOJSOLOGUES AiJD DIALOGUES. 

is the elder sister, called so by or with reference to a .vouuger brother. Two other 
terms exist for the relative age of sisters among themselves. 

134, 11. pAtkalp'Ie. The niytli adds, that the eagle got up again at dinner-time and 
that after washing the face he took a nap before taking his sister home. 

II. These items were all obtained in the Modoc dialect from J. 0. D. Riddle. 
Many of the articles mentioned as gamblers' amnlets are supposed to bring good 
luck to the gambler on account of their scarcit;/, which must have made them more 
interesting to the aboriginal mind than other objects of a brighter exterior. 

134, 13. ntiiggal, ud4kal: to find accidentally; shl^a: to find, generally, after a 
search, vumi' is to hide away either on one's own person or in the ground. 

134, IG. IS. tidsh tin;/a is to succeed, to be lucky; without tidsh in: hiitoks tin- 
;^antko gi, that man is lucky. 

134, 17. sht^]> is a black arrow-head made of obsidian, a volcanic rock found in 
several places in these highlands. 

135, 1. hii'-atoks is formed from ha toks with intercalation of the declarative 
particle a. 

135, 3. k'le-ugtki-uapkasht is a periphrastic conjugational form composed of gi- 
uApkasht, of the verb gi, and of k'leutka, the usitative of k'16wi, to cease, stop, termi- 
nate; -utka has turned into -ugt- by metathesis. Literally: "would habitually cease 
to be in the Pit River." mhCi', the grouse, is called by the Klamath Lakes tmfi'. 



REFLECTIONS OF EVERY-DAY LIFE 



Monologues in the Klamath Lake Dlaxect by Johnson, Chief op the Modocs 



K4-i misb nu 6-it nil tidsa'wa ntd-ish, sliliutuk ma'makla pA-uk shlink 

Not you I to let I like (my) bow, for shooting ducks to oat killing 

liave (thboi) 

ndekti'shtka. Tidsa'wa kA-i mish iiya, tu g^nuapka viyaninank nt^-ish 

witli arrows. I like noi to yoa to give over I will go taking along bow and 

(it), there arrows 

3 g^-u, hishlAtsanuapka. Y6-ishi ! tatdla ka'gi, k4-i shlaa tatdkni yn']x ; 

my, (and) will amuae mywelf Are lost I right they are not I found where they went 

by shooting. (ahead) not, (theni) down; 

y6-ishin, ma'ns k4-ika. tJnds mbiisant pen kdyakuapk. 

tbey are lost, for a long Itjearched. Some- to-morrow again I will lookout (for 

time time them). 

Shikutcliipk tchikA kgmutsatk ; undse'ks s^wanuapk pdtki giiiga 

Walks on stick an old decrepit (man); sometime I will give (him) to eat 

6 mdhiess; yuyjilks tsi ptl-uk hun tche'k tidsh ki'-uapk. Ki'shtchipk liuk 

trout; being poor thiia through of it then at ease he will feel. Comes to nui this 

eating 

snewedsh; oni'sh kiam slitiwant i; tu'm niVsh shewantamnudpka sdwalktko 

woman; to her fish you may give ; plenty m me she will continue to give having received 

presents. 

Kdmp'kuk k^liak piish tia'ma, Undse't kdtchkal pa-udpk gd-utala stefnash. 

Tlie indigent without food is hungry. By and by tobacco I will chew to my heart's coutent. 



EEFLECTIONS OP BVERY-DAT LIFE. 137 

Sandhole kdtchkal titch^wank; li'nds pen mbusant pa-uapk kdtchgal 

I like tobacco well eoongh; by and by again tomorrow I will chew tobacco 

p4tk6lank. Kani shld-uapka u'ns stoyudpka ; t61a pdkuapka u'ntch ; pen 

while getting np. Outdoor should I see, then I'll cut utt' with (me) he will smoke then ; again 

(anybody) (some for him) ; (it) 

wutudpka kinkdni katchgal; kinkani, k4-i tuini, tche'k pen tiimi pdkuapka, 3 

I shall spend a little tobacco; (bat) little, not much, afterwards again much I will smoke, 

pak61ank s^^lakuapka. 

(and) after smok- go to bed. 

'"" NOTES. 

Of the two paragraphs of ''Eeflections" submitted, the first refers to the loss of 
some hunter's arrows, which had been loaned to somebody together with the bow. 
The second speaks in a rather egotistical sense of the pleasure which is afforded by 
succoring helpless and indigent people. 

136, 3. ka'gi. This refers to some arrows, which cannot be found at the spot, to 
which they seemed to fly. 

136, 4. 5. Uutchek, abbreviated undse, u'ntch, unds, fins, points to some undeter- 
mined epoch in the future: by and by, after a lapse of time, some time from now; 
uudse't, 136, 8., througli apocope and synizesis, stands for untse'k at ; undse'ks for 
untchek tchish. 

136, 5. Shikutchipk tchikii kemutsdtk, gTammatlcaUy incomplete forms standing 
for skikutchipka t'shika kfemutsc^tko. The word stick is not expressed in the text, but 
the sufiBx ipka, united to shikutcha, expresses the idea of "walking while leaning 
oneself upon something or somebody". Cf. layipka, to point the gun at the one 
speaking ; tilo'dshipka, to see somebody coming towards oneself. 

136, 6. ki'shtchipka, to step towards the one speaking; cf. Note to 136, 5. 

136, 7. oni'sh for hunish, cf. o'skank for hu'shkauka, 65, 1. Hiinish is the objective 
case of hu'n; but this pronoun is not regularly used when speaking of animate beings; 
hu'nkiash would be grammatically correct. 

136, 7. sh^want i. The words oni'sh kiam shewant i are supposed to be directed 
to one belonging to the speaker's household. 

136, 8. The term katchkal, tobacco, expresses the idea of an intermixture of several 
kinds of weeds or leaves for the purpose of smoking them. 

136, 8. pa-udpk. A more appropriate term tban this for masticating tobacco is : 
katchkal kpu'yumna. 

137, 1. titch6wank. This is in fact the participle of a verb : "I like tobacco, being . 
fond of it." 

137, 2. stoyuapka : 1 shall cut off a piece from a stick of pressed tobacco and give 
it to him. Cf. stnyAkishka, to clip the hair. 

137, 3. kinkani katchgal. If this and the following were not worded in the con- 
versational slang, it would read: kinkAnish kdtchgal; kinkanish, kd-i tuma, tche'k pen 
tiima (or tu'm) etc. 

137, 3. kAi tumi. Indians are not often seen to smoke continuously as we do; those 
inhabiting the Klamath Eeserve take a few whiffs from their small, often home-made 
pipe, then pass it to the neighbor and emit the smoke through the nose. Sometimes 
they swallow the smoke for the purpose of intoxication, and the elder women smoke just 
like the men. Cigars offered to them are cut small and serve to fill up their tobacco-pipe. 



1:1S MONOLOGUES AND I ) I ALOO 1 1 I5B. 



WATLINOS AT THE APPROACH OF THE FATAL HOUR. 



OiVKX iiY DocTOu John, ou KXkash, ix the Ki.amath I^akk Diai.f.ct. 



"Ngli'-ish a ni tii'l%apksli, ge-n ta'lak, shlin antsa; shk(ik antsa nu'sh, 

"Aiiarrow nio striking, my arrow, shotthoy: thfiy broko (iiiyi lieftil, 

shlfn nisli. Kan tsli slili'n? Tsuyii'sli ni shlfn, g6n isli tsuya'sli nipata, 

tln<y allot inr. Wlui ini' shol ( Throngli the rap I was si nick, tliis nm cap kills, 

,'5 inasha n'sli, .shliii isli iiu's^li, ka-a n's ma'sh', guliua iiisli, a iiish k.'i-a ma'slia! 

it niiiiis iiH\ thfv shot inn in the intnnwi'lv nio it pains, am swollen I, now mo hard itpaine! 

head, 

Piish isli sliewau i; k'lekiiapkau panuk; palak shewaii i, a iiish ka-a mil'slia, 

Food mo pive yon; I will die after eatinj;; (luicUly give j'ou, mo very it paiii,'^, 

hard 

tiii'iiiatk ka-a, pdlak shii'wau i." At sliewana nii, at pan; shnuk' at mi'dsu. 

(I am) hungry very, ([nieUly ilive yon." Anil ;iive (him) I, and lie eats; ho takes now the spoon. 

6 "At k'leka, ateiii k'leka; tsia at, k'leka taks nu; slilin nish nu'shtat. 

"Now 1 expire, now I die; I live yet, dyin;i but (am) I: they shot mo in llie he;ul. 

A ni k'leka, a'tgni k'lekala." xVt k'leka. Sliu'dsha luluksla sa hl'lokslitat 

Now I die, now! am sinking Then bodies. Kindle a tirp (and) cremate tbey intbefire 



fast," 

lui'nk k'l(^kapksh. 



the decensed nian. 



NOTES. 



This short incident of war is full of the most dramatic interest, and gives some 
idea of the oratorial powois of the average Indian. It was obtained from a man who 
uii(h>uhtedly had witne.s.sed more than one similar .scene during tlie numerous raiding 
e\|»Mlitions made by bis tribe before the conclu.sion of the treaty in 18(54. 

138, 1. ngii'-ish a ni tii'l/apksli shiiii antsa, forms of the conversational language 
,st;iii(liiig for ngii'-ish a nish talp^ajikasli .shlin a .sha. ge-u tii/Iak "my arrow," a ])oetic 
syinbolism for tlie arrow that causes my death. 

138, 1. slikelc antsa for shk(^ka a sha, but nasalized like shlin antsa. Shkt^ka 
proixuly moans to pierce, but is u.sed in a medial sense. 

138, 2. iiii)ata i)roporly n^eans to dry u]) by heat. The <'a]) or hat is said here to 
kill the man by exciting an intolerable fever heat within him. 

138, 3. ma'slia n'.sh. Some im])ersonal verbs can also assume the personal form of 
iutransitive verbs: ma'sha nu and ma'slia nish: "it i)ains me"; k^dshika nii and nish: 
" 1 feel tired". The Modoc dialect prefers the per.sonal form. 

138, 6. 7. ateni for at a ni. Of. s6, 82, 4. tcha'l;fet 90, 11. atgnish, ateni 90, 12. 
13. ge'uteni, Note to 93, 7. 9. 



THE LORD'S PRAYER. 1 39 



THE LORD'S PRAYER. 
I. 

N41am p'tishap, kat p'lai tclila: Nanvxk na'd hu'nk mi sh(^sliasli katak 

Our father, wlii.li on high livi-a: All of iis thy name truly 

sliti'nta. Ml lu'ishkaiiksli gii'ta iia'lsli. • 1 hu'nk vu'iiliuapk genta kailatat, 

worbhip. Thy miml come U> iih. Thou wiTt acbievo ou thia earth, 

wakaktak p'laftalkni gi. Sh^wan i m'll.sh ge'n waitasb iiAlam pala-asli 3 

eijually aa (tliou) on hi^li cl.ist. Give thou ua this (lay our breaii 

nauuk waitaslitat. Hii ualsli tua k6-idslii giiitanuapk, kci-i hun, p'laftalkni, 

©very on day. If on us any- wicked should stick ou, not it, thou ou high. 

« thing 

liu'shkank i ! hiimaslitak na'd ka-i Im'shkankuapk, ha kani n41sh kii-i 

mind thoul Just as we not would mind it, if somebody us wrong 

gi'uapk. Ka-i n41sh i tua shut^tki kii-idsha, i Inuhuashkpak hak niilsh 6 

should do. Not to us thou any- let do wicked, (hut) keep away only from na 

thing tliou 

tuA ku-idsha. Hiimasht giug mi n(i-ulaks, nki'Uitk tchi'sh, ktchalshka.sh 

any- wicked. For thine (is) the rule. force also, glory 

thing 

tchlsh tchushniak. Humashtak an hun gitk gi ! 

also forever. Thus I it to be say ! 

II. 

NAlam t'shi'shap, p'lai tchia: Mi sh^shash ndnuk stfnta; mi k6%pash 9 

Our father, on high (who) Thy name all revere; thy uiiiul 

livest: 

gAltchui nanuka'nash na'l. Grit4 tchi'sh kaila humashtAk gi, wakaktoksli 

come to every one (of) ns. Here too on earth in the same be .just as 

manner done, 

])'lal ki. Nalash gen waitash shapgle shewan i. K4-i n^lash k6-i shiVtii, 

on high is To us thia day bread give thou. Not us wicked render 

done. ' thou 

In'imasht nalam maklaks^shitko stfnta. I huashgi n41amtant k6-id.'5lui 1'2 

iqu.llly as our nipn-kiudred (we) love. Thou keep oB' from our bad 

stefnashtat ko/pash ; tfdsh nalam stefnash sliiita. Mi tala litchlftchli, mi 

(from) heart thoughts; good our heart make thi>u. Thine .llone (is the) power, liiy 

stefnash litchlftchli tchussak, mii'ni lakiam stefnash. Humasht toks tfdsh. 

heart strong (is) perpetually, great of the Lord the heart. Thus (it will well. 

be) 

NOTES. 

These versions of the Lord's Prayer are good instances of what can be attained, 
without using- too many circumlocutions, in rendering religious, moral and other 
abstract ideas in a language deficient in many of them. 

For reign and kingdom no words exist, and they had to be rendered by hu'sh- 
Icanksh, or in Modoc kop-'pash, "mind", ne-ulaks, "rule, law"; sin and I'orgive \v(-rc 



140 MONOLOGIJKS AND DIALOGUES. 

rendered by "souiething wicked" and "not to mind"; for "thy will be done" stands 
"achieve thou". Power and glory become "force, impetuosity" and "radiance", and 
daily bread: "flour on every day". In the Modoc version, the wording of which is 
inferior to that of version I, the use of similar expedients will be observed. 

I. In the Klamath Lake dialect; by Minnie Froben. 

139, 6. inuhua.shkpak, i)lionetic inversion for inuhuashk^pk' i; see Dictionary. 
139, 7. ktchiilshkash, from tlie word ktch.'il;fa, to shine, to be radiant, resplendent. 
139, 8. gitk, in an hun gitk gi, is the verbal intentional gitki. 

II. In the Modoc dialect; by the Riddle family. 

139, 10. Gita kaila is equivalent to ge'nta kailatat ; in humashtAk gi the verb gi has 
to be taken in the panniee sense. 

139, 11. k6-i shu'tii: "do not render us wicked." For shuta compare 111, 15. and 
Note. 

139, 12. humasht nalaui. Between these words and the preceding ones there is a 
lacime in the text. miiklaks=shitko, "our kindred": those who look like ourselves. 

139, 13. 14. In mi tdla litchlitchli the adjective strong stands for "strength, 
power", while in mi steinash litchlitchli it is used in its adjective signification. In this 
language abstract ideas are sometimes rendered by adjectives and by verbal adjectives 
in -tko. 



DIALOaUES 
I. 

TsEMATK. Tat4 lish sha ksiulakuapk? 

When they will dance? 

Ska'lag. Pd-ak ka-i an shdyuakta! un4 a sha nd-asht slie-^dshtat mat 

Not I know! ouce they «o (flaid), ou Saturday 

3 -sha n4nuk shuku'lki-uapk kshi'ul;tish. 

they all will aasemblo for the dauco. 

Kapuak. T4tai tchi'k sha ksbiulakuapk? Ple'nkamkshi A? tdm bak 

Where after all they are goiuj; to dancn? At Frank's house ? perhaps 

haitch 1 hii'nk shladtk? kui a sha nen hunk mashish gish shapa. 

(did) you bim see? seriously they him diseased to be eay. 

6 Ska'lag. KAyak an h4tokt gatpantk, na-asht ta'dsh toks nu tu'ragna gin 

Not I there was goiug, thus however I heard this 

mbu'shant pil, mat pa-ula: gat t6ks nu wdtch kayaktgiik, kiiinag 

moFDiug only, (that) he was eating: oat I of my while returning awny from 

there borsea from the search, any bouse 

gepgapgle. 

I returued. 

9 Kapuak. Tarn haitch i na'gsh shiwaksh shlad giinl, g^mpktch Kiiy- 

(Did) yoa absent the girl see over there, who went to 

from home 

amts^eksh, Ellen Debidam mu'kag shdtaltchapksh ma'shisht? 

Kii. am Ska'ikshi, of Allen David a baby to visit having fallen siukf 

Ska'lag. K4-i an tu'sh slileA push. Kapuak. 1 

Not 1 anywhere saw her. la that 



DIALOGUES. 



141 



Ska'lao- ffuhuashktclia; Kaptindmkshi tchkash sha vulankia: "T4t 1 

St«ak° left- at the Captain's lodge alto they inqnireil "where yon 

■=" " ' (of him): 

tamnutka?" 

come from?" 

Ska'lag. Ge't an w4tch kdyaktka, ksiulakshzen genu'tuapkuk. 

Tbrongh I of (my) returned from towards the dance- while iDtending to go. 
there noriso tnesearuii, honse 

Captain. T4ta had tchi'k sha kshi'ulaktchuapk? 

Where finally they are going to dance ! 

Ska'lag. Mbu'shant a sha she-ddshtat kshiulaktchuapk Mbu'shak=Shi- 

Tomorrow they on Saturday will dance the dwellers at Mbii- 

w^shkni, kk tchish nanuk g^pkuapk. 

shak-Shiwash, prob- too all will come, 

ably 

Tchiii guhudshktcha g^mbaluk. 

Then he started off to go home. 

II. 

Hlekosh. Tat lish mi u'nak? 

Where (i.i) yonr son? 

Pepakli. Le-utch61an kanf una gekno'la; le-utch61an tunepa'nish 9 

For playing outdoors awhile he went out; for playing five 

tatdkiash tula. 

children with. 

Hlekosh. Wakaitch g^-uga kai gdpgaple? 

, Why not returns he ? 

Pepakll Tiitaks ati l^wa; hotaks tatdksni wafta Uwapka; Ktki gat- 12 

Awav far they play; those chUdreu the whole will play; in the they 

■^ J F .1 • jjj^ evening 

pampeli-udpka. 

will return home. 

NOTES. 
I. Dialogue about a dance to be held on the Williamson Eiver; in the Klamath 

Lake dialect, by Minnie Froben. 

140, 2. P4-ak k^-i an sh^yuakta ! is interpreted by " what do I know ! " 

140, 9. na'gsh shiwaksh gempktch stands for negsh shiwaka.sh genapkash. It is 

very rare that diminutive nouns, like shiwak, shlwaga, assume the ending -ash in the 

objective case; cf. 23, 10. Bui shiwak means not only a little girl; it means an adult 

girl also, and is therefore inflected like sndwedsb. 

140, 9. Kuyamts/eksh. For this local name cf. Page 91, first JVbte. Frank and 
Allen David live both at that place, close to the steep western bank of the WQliamson 
River, while the communal dance-house, a spacious, soMd earth-lodge, Ues further to 

the northeast. 

141, 5. Mbu'shafcShiwAshkni, term corrupted from Mbii'shaks=Shawalshkni : "the 
one who lives, or those who live at the locaUty of the obsidian arrowheads." Jlbu'- 
shaks=Shdwalsh lies on the eastern shore of the WUliamson River. Cf. Note to 134, 17. 

U. Dialogue in the Modoc dialect ; by Toby Riddle. 

141, 9. L6wa, to play, forms the derivates 16-utcha to go to play; 16-utchna to 
play while going, to play on the way, cf. shu^dshna 99, 2.; le-utchola to go to play in 
the distance. 



142 TOI'OGKAI'IIY AND XATUIiAL PlfODUCTS. 

141, 11. p'-iiga for tlie more common giuga, giug. 

141, 12. lewaplca to play in the distaiice, out of sif^lit, or unseen by us; but liere 
this term is more probably a synizesis of le\vuai)ka, the future tense of lewa. 



NAMES BESTOWED ON UPPER KLAMATH LAKE LOCALITIES. 



Given by Dave Hiix in the Klamath Lake Dialect. 



K'muk4mtch mat kaila shii'ta. Tsiiyiinks Jl'-alk kaila shut61an: 

K'mdkamtch, so they the made. The following; r.aroes gsve the .after crealins: 

say, comitiy he, • country 

Tuli'sli kaila E-itkski'shasli slu'ita K'nuikamts kiam luelksli'a; Tnli'sli tsi- 

"Tiiliah" place lor tlic L.lk6 people iii;ul.' ICmukanitch to lie thi-ir fish-killing Tiili»li, 

phice; 

3 liunk ii'lxfi. "At hu'nk kaila ojt ktaiksi Shtiyakeksli tchin ;i'l;^ii; giti 

thus henamed "And that .spot lljere where the " JumpiiifrRocks " po I iiaii'c; lierr 

it. rocks arc, 

shuyeakeks gi-uapka". E-ukskisas K'mukanits iie-ul;^aiik lieiut'^e: 

a leaping pUace shall he". To the Lake people KmAkamtch ordering s.iid ; ' 

"TiVkua na-cisnl ka'la ua'sni el;^a gi'ta Tu'kua; Gu'mbat na'sni git v\xn; 

"Tlikna a» I o spot, sol Dame here Tiikua ; Kiinibat sM there give 

name; 

G gita Kii/Jalksi na'sni el/a gi'ta. Wakaksi spiVklislitat gi't i spu'kle-uapk; 

there Dirthaaling sol give Ibc-re. At Waka. iji tin- swiat house tbeie you shall sweal; 

place, uame 

ha' me w^ash k'la'kuapk gi't i spH'kle-uapk, ha' mi snawedsh kglakuapk 

if your child should die, there yon shall sweat, if your wife should die, 

git i spu'kle-uapk ttuiepui gita; tunepni spu'kle-uapk snawedsh, ha' mi 

there you jhallswe.-it five (days) there i ' five (days) shall sweat (you) wife, if youi 

9 hishuaktcli kela'kuapk. Ti'iuepni spil'kle-uapk, tsi'ii killitk tsula'ks gi'- 

hiisliand hhould die. Fiv,i(days) you shall sweat. then stroug (your) body will 

iiapk, ka-i palak i kemut('liua))k." 

hec»Miie, not fast you will htrouii- old." 

"Nasht ni iie-u'l%a A-usmi sheshuapk; iiii'sni (^.l/a gen kiiila. 

Thus 1 ordain Ausbmi to be called; (bus I give lo this spot. 

name 

12 Kohashti na-ast ui ^Ika gi'ta. J*^-ukalkshi na'sni r\yj\ gi'ta; gi'tats spu'klc;- 

■Sel, oul'' lliua I cilll that K-ilkalk.^lii m.i 1 nanii- this here ;ilso vou shall 

plaCO. p:;„.H; 

iiapk, tiiui'pni i spukle-u;i|)ka, w cas k'lekaluk, tiViilpiii .-^iiawt'tlsliesli kele- 

■■w.'nl, live (days) you shall s\ve;il a ebild alter losing, five (days) a wife after 

kaliik liishuaksh Icliisli; ka-itoks mi sa-amoks kt^h'kst ka-i i spu'kle-uapk, 

b'ung, a husband al.s.i; but not, your ribuives li:iving died nol von shall sweai, 

(Ih^n)' 

15 ha' rai sa-amoks nauuktiials<')kuapk. Kd-i i gita spn'kle-uapk ndannantnk: 

if your kiusinen of .all degr<'es shall have died. No( \cmi (bore willawoat but for llirue; 

snawf^flshlat, liisliii:ikslita(, wt'aslita.t." 

b>r wi(e, toi htisbauil, foi child." 



I^AMES OF UPPEE KLAMATH LAKE LOCALITIES. 143 

"Nak6tk Wi'tlas koketat hi tcbi'sh ludlks-kiam gi'-uapk; na-dst she- 

" By (its) dam WltlasL in 'William- there also a fl8h-kiUii,g place shall be; thus 

•on Kiper 

sbasli ^l^a ni: Kta-i=Tupaksi. Mbu'saks na'st sli^shatk maklaks gi'-uapk; 

name give I: Eockewheresland. "Obsidian" ao called a people shall exist; 

Sma'k na'st s^satk gi'-uapk rndklaks gi'ta. Kii'katils na'st sdsatk gi-uapk 3 

"Hairy" so named shall exist a people there. "Armpit-hairy" so called shall exist 

gi'ta maklaks." 

there a people-" 

NOTES. 

All Mdklaks admit that K'lniikamtch created their country, the earth and the 
universe, but as to the special process by which he created them they seem to have no 
definite idea, though they jiossess a nuiltitade of myths for special creations. 

Most of the phices mentioned in this item are situated around Upper KUimath 
Lake. That they are localities inhabited ibr centuries past, and identified with the 
history of the tribe is proved by tlie fact that their naming is ascribed to K'niiiliamtch. 
The most noticeable of them are no doubt the three sweat-houses, all of ^\'hich are of 
remote antiquity, and were put to use only when families were mourning- the loss of one 
of their members. Two of them are quoted here: Waktiksi or Kailalkshini spiiklish 
on west side of Lake and E-ukalksi, a short distance south of Fort Klamath. The 
third lies about three miles south of Modoc Point; it is called K4-ashkshi spiiklish. 

142, 1. kaila. About the meaning of this term in creation myths, cf. Note 96, 23. 
In other connections, in the present text, kiiila or kii'la means spot, locality. 

142, 2. 3. Tuhsh. To enable the Indians to catch fish at that place, K'uuikamtch 
built for them, as tradition has it, an obstruction resembling a beaver-dam. Cf. 
nakotk, 143, 1. ; giti for gifa hi. 

142, 3. 5. Tiikua and Koh^shti aie camping- and fishing-places on the eastern shore 
of the Lake. At Shuyake'kish the Indians leap over rocks for amusement. 

142, 5. nft-asni, na'sni stands for na-asht ui: "thns I". 

142, 5. 11. Giimbat is called Rocky Point by the white population, and lies on the 
western shore of Ui>per Klamath Lake. A-usmi is an island of the Lake. 

142, 6. Wakaksi or Waka is named after the tu^kish-fowl whose cry is waka waka. 

142, 6-10. 12-10. These mourning customs are gradually dif ajipearing at the pre- 
sent time. One reason for this is the progressive assimilation of the tribes to Americair 
customs, another is the circumstance, that all of the three ancient sweat-houses are 
situated outside of the reservation limits. 

142, 1.5. ndanuantak is composed of ndaunanti or ndannantat ak : " onl.>- for three 
(kinds of relatives)". 

143, ]. Nakotk is the instrumental case of nakosh, lumber-dam: "on account i)f 
its dam Witlas will be a fish-killiiig locality." A loon destroyed that dam by forcing 
its way under it; one of our texts gives this myth. Cf. 132, 1-S and Noic to 74, 2. 

143, 2. 3. MbiVsaks, Sma'k and Ka'kafils are names given in contempt or derision 
of the respective tribes; the latter to Indians living at the Dalles of Coliiiiibia Kivei-, 
Sma'k to a tribe bving south of that locality. Cf. 103, 2. 3. Mbu'saks is a name for 
the Snake Indians. 



144 TOPOGRAPHY AND NATURAL PRODUCTS. 



MISCELLANEOUS NOTES ON ANIMALS. 



Given iiy Johnson, Chief at YiNi-:KS, in the Klamath Lake Dialect. 



Ni'l w^ksa piiThka m^klaks shu'lhashluk s^o'lhok ; kt/inuapkuk 

Thd of DjaUard- pull ont the ludiauR to make pillows to lie od ; for eleepiuf; 

<lowu duck 

s;(jo'lhank ni'l ikiigank willishi'kat. 

(and) reHting tbe they are put- pillow-caseR. 
down ting into 

Mbil'shant nilaksht wfs;{ak ha'ma. 

In the inoruing at dawn the wisxak- Rings. 

bird 

Wdtsak wAwa a gulindshisham ; le g^niig wdwa. 

Dogs howl because left behind ; for not going they howl. 

(with them) 

Y^-ukal tchagg4ya 4nkutat a'-unank ; untsa'g a-un61ank hiindshan- 

BaJd eagle aits on tree replete with after a while after depleting he will 

food; himself 



6 uapk, t6-ugshtant hundsanuapk A'-ushtat. 

fly off, to the opposite he will fly of Upper Kla- 

ehore matb Lake. 



Tchci-ii gaiikAnkatchuapk ; ti'tnak mAklakuapk, waki^nua lApgni ; 

Antelopes (people) are going to hunt; once only they will camp out, or perhaps twice ; 

shlfuk gt^pgapluapka pAlak. tjndsh mbushant pa'-uapk s;(61akok. 

after ehootr they will return at once. Some time next day they will take to induce sleep, 

ing (antelopes) a cold bath 

9 K6-i shu'ta w4sh, p411a n'sh w4sh ; k6-idshi wAsh. Miiatch kpe'l 

Wickedly acts prairie- steals from prairie- mischievous prairie- A long tail 

wolf, me wolf; (is) wolf. 

gi'tko, tidsA ne'l gitko wdsh. KinkAni wdsh fi-ushtat. 

(he) hOM, delicate fur has prairie- Scarce prairie- at Upper Kla- 

wolf. (are) wolves math Lake. 

Kai-udshish nish k6pka; kilos kd-udsis; shld-a nish tslatskdgantko 

Gray wolf me bites; iiupfinous is gray wolf; (when) mo, jumps on my throat 

sees 

12 k^-udshish. 

gray wolf. 

NOTES. 

144, 1. nl'l w^ksa stands for ni'l M-^ksam ; pu'l'hka for piil;^a or piilka: -'h-, "by 
hand." 

144, 9. 10. These characteristics of the prairie- or coyote-wolf, which is so highly 
reverenced by the California tribes, place him between the wolf and the fox. i!fe'l 
stands for ni'l and miiatch for munish. Tids4 is tidsha a. 

144, 11. tslatskdgautko; the verbal adjective of tchlak^ga stands here in the dis- 
tributive form: "each time when he sees me, he jumps on my throat." The I of the 
second syllable is suppressed. 



CLASSES OF ANIMALS AND PLANTS. 145 



CLASSES OF ANIMALS AND PLANTS. 



Given in the Klamath Lake Dialect by Dave Hill. 



Quadrupeds: holiankankatk lilhanks; ndnuktua hohdnkankatk; wunfpa 
tso'ks gi'tk kailatat tchia ndnuktua lilhanks wikts ndkanti. 

Birds: Msaltk n^nuktua. 3 

Forest birds of small size: tchfkass. 

Forest birds of smallest size: tchlliliks, tchflilika. 

Ducks and geese: ma'makli. 6 

Night birds: psfn huntchna. 

Water birds: nanuktua huliAnkankatk ^-ushtat, dmbutat tchla. 

Swimming animals: ndnuktua ududamkanksh sdyuaks; ndnuktua ud6- 9 
damkankatk. 

Fish: kia'm. 

Jumping amphibians, toads and frogs: skdskatkankatk. 12 

Snakes: wishink; wdmgnigsh. 

Lizards; lit. '■'■ walking straight out": uli-uldtchkankatk. 

Reptiles and worms: skiskankankatk. 16 

Flying insects: mank. 

Creeping insects, snails, some mollusks etc.: mu'lk, mu'lkaga. 

Grass, seed-grass: kshiin. 18 

Berries: iwam. 

Edible roots, bulbs and seeds: mAklaksam pdsh; lutfsh. 

Trees: anku; ko'sh. 21 

NOTES. 

These generic terms are quite characteristic, but by no means systematic. These 
Indians classify animals otherwise than we do, for they regard the mode of loco- 
motion as a criterion for their subdivisions of the animal kingdom, thus sometimes 
placing in the same class animals which widely differ in their bodily structure. The 
Indian mind likes to specify and is averse to generalizations; there are a few Indian 
languages only that contain comprehensive generic terms for " animal," " carnivore," 
10 ' 



14r> TOPOGRAPHY AND NATURAL PRODCTCTS. 

"reptile," " aiiipliibian" or "plant." Even the English language had to borrow these 
tonus from Latin. The Klamath Lakes often use ko'sh (pine) generically for "tree," 
and wisliiidv, "garter snake" for "snake," the Modocs wdmenigsh (black snake) for the 
same order of reptiles, these species being the most frequent of their kind in their 
rt'specti\ e countries. Birds are hohAnkankatk as vrell as quadrupeds, because they 
liy " iu a straight line". 



ALIMENTARY SUBSTANCES. 



TjIst obtainkd in the Klamath Lake Dialect from "Sergeant" Morgan axd Minnie Froben. 



Ydntch kalkali, tz6po=p4tpan, paki'sh; kak t^n: 18"; kailatat lil'sha, 

cvhmliic, thumb 80 large as, eatable; so long: 18"; on groand itUes, 

ktaiyatat lush^. Shl4ps pushpushli, la'pi shl4psh. 

on lookR it lies. The flowers (are) dark, two flowers (to it). 

3 Kdpiunksam k^dsha saigatat; lu'k pvipashpush4kani, liiizitk tchl'pshash. 

grows in the pra'rie: the seeds (arc) blackisli, larger than tchlpash. 

W^wanuish htink shtii'ila w^kank ydkitka p4ta=giulsheini. P^k- 

The women gather (it) by beating (it) ' into seed- .it sumn-.er's end. By 

baskets 

shank sha hu'nk g^piunks shiita; tchildla sha tftatna. Wti'kash= 

grinding they kipiunkn prepare; boil (it) they sometimes. Wtfkash- 

6 shitk ni4shetk k4piunks. 

like tastes k^piauks. 

Kdshma k^dsa walidsat, kailatat usha; p41pal shldpsh, tsmo'k pi'luitk. 

grows on rock cliffs, onthogronnd lies; white (is) flower, after fish smelling. 

K^ldtch k^dsha wi-ukayant kel4dshamat; kelMsh ntchekani mamatch- 

grnwa on the low keliidsh-bushes ; kelildsh-berry small bine 

9 ma'tchli kVlkaya. Wewanuisli kgMdshla waksl61ank; shpahA slia 

grow on The females collect (it) after w6ka3b. dry (it) 

bashes. season; they 

tchui ishkii'lank, i'l%a sha shp4hank i'lkshluk luldam, tchildlaiik 

then afti'r g.itliering, keep they (it) by drying to preserve (it) for winter, boiling (it) 

tchek sha ptin. 

then they eat (it). 

12 Kendwat k(idslia saigatat, tsdlas ka tanni 1', paki'sh; p'ldi shl4ps pushpiishli, 

grows on prairie, stalk so long r, eat.ible; on top the flower is dark, 

tidsh piluitko. 

good smelling. 

Kldna pdlpaHsh shldpshaltk p'lai, ktidsha k6ketat, p4kish, tids m/isitk; md- 

a white flower having on top, grows in rivers, is eatable, well tasting; the 

16 klaks pan. 

Indians eat (it). 



ALIMENTARY SUBSTANCES. 147 

Kldpa IcAlkali, paki'sh; ka tanni 3"; taktdkli pu'dshak, tapa% kitcbkani. 

is cyUodric, eatable; so long: throe inches; red (id) tbeptidshak- (its) leaves small. 

graifl. 

Klu' kc^lkali luti'sh; kedsha M6atok; pakish. 

is a roQDded rout; grows in Modoc country; (it is) eatable. 

Ktu'ks w6kash=slutko, kedsha taletat; ktu'ksam slilapsh pu'pash, palpali, 3 

nuphar-alite, grows on straight stalk ; of the ktitka the bud (is) (its) top, is white, 

paki'sh. 

is eatable. 

Ku'ktu li'sha kiii'latat, paki'sh; g^mtchi ts^las: 0. 

lies on the gronnd, eatable; so shaped (its) stalk: 

Ka'ls kalkali, paki'sh; mu'na lu'sha 4mbutat; kitchkani shldpsh witch- 6 

globular, eatable; deep down it lies in the water; small is (the) flower of the 

pay am. 

wiichpai. 

Kd's w^-uxalks ts^lash gi'tk, shMpsh gitk; paki'sh. 

a torked stem having, flower having; palatable. 

Ko'l. Taktakli tch^lash gu'lam nu'kuk. I-ukak maklaks hu'mtcha gu'l 9 

Ked (is) the stalk of the kol when ripe. Around Fort the Indians this kind of kol 

Klamath 

shta'-ila turn, gi'tatoks kd-i tud kol. Amtatka sha meya pu'kgu- 

gather in qaan- but here not there is kol. With a stick tbcy 'lig (it) to their 

tity, (at agency) any 

ishamtat shiu'lagiank, tchiii sha pii'ka; i'kagank pa'n shtdpka 

roastingplace bringing it, then they roast (it) ; taking it ont again they pound 

(it) 

ktdyatka. K6-i pi'luitk, tfdshi tadsh pa'sh; ha kani ko'l e'nt, 12 

with stones. £adly flavored, good however afood; if anybody kol carries 

on him, 

lii'k hu'nksh shti'kok vu'shat. 

a ^zzly him smelling will flee, 

bear 

Vhd. Lupi' sha'hlmalxo'tchtat sbapashtat I'ba n6ka; w^wanuish sta'-ila 

At the first autumn-commenoemeDt in (tbnt) nionih I'bA ripens; t be females gather (it) 

ydkitka w^kank tiatka. Tsiii sha itpampalank shpdha, shute'shluk 15 

in baskets, beating (it) with a And they bringing it home dry (it) for cookine 

padule. 

sha gdma; skatka gdma ga'mkishtat. Willishikat sha iku'ga 

they pound (it); with a pestle (they) in a mortar. Into .sacks thev fill (it) in 

pound 

pa'sht, tchui sa vumi vumi'shtat willishikat ikugank. 

after drying, and they bury (it) in caches, in sacks after putting it. 

LehiasJi kedsha M6atok; gi'tatoks fi-ukshi kd-i Idyash kddshant. Tdnapsh= 18 

grows in Modoc land ; bnt right here In Lake not llyash is growing. Turnip 

(at agency) country 

shitko shle'shl(iyash; wi-uka le'ntkl^yash; tchdlash toks 1^-isham 

alike to look at (is) I6yash; not very lies iVash; stalk of I6yanh 

deep 

na'sh pdtch ati taktdkli shldpsh gi'tk. M6atokni shnitchi';(a 

(is) one foot tall, red flower having. The Hodocs fry (it) 

Mpuinatk pdlash shu'tank l^hiash. Ku-i ma'shetk. 21 

in frying pans into bread making 16y.i«h. Badly t.-isting (it is). 



148 TOPOGRAPHY AND NATUKAL PRODUCTS. 

Md-i. E-ukshikiii muyalsliuk vu'nsluitka s;^dna shl(jank e-ushtat. Tche- 

The Lako people for tule-gatUeriutr in canoeH row out liiniiiif; (it) in lakes. The 

lash sha shnii'kank islika, y/inaubli pil p-dnk puedsha. Ydnakaniii 

stalks tbey seizing pull ap their lower only eating throw away Each at the lower 

endfl (the rent)'. end 

3 pdlpali gl n^p pdnani. Sta-ila sha kshune'mi, k4-i ma'nsh i'pka 

white ia hand-long. Gather (it) they at grasA-time, not long (can) lie 

m4-i; pa'shtak sha puedsha ki'i-i kldksht. 

tnle; as ftnon an ilried they east (it) bad having be- 

away, conn-. 

Nu'tak kedsha ntchekayant kshu'nat shaigatat; hi'k tcWpashptchi gi. 

grows on 8 mall grass-stalka in prairies; seeds tcblpash-alike are. 

6 KApiunksshftko sta'-ila mVtak w^wanuish wekank y^kitka. 

KApinnkM just like gather iiiUak the women, by beating (it) into baskets. 

FdwasJi a kedsha uit%am6iiash ko'l, kd-i ku-i pi'hiitk ku'lam-shftk, luiluyatk 

grows smaller than kol. not stinking k6Mike, sweet 

toks kpApshash. Yainakslii pil sha timi shl^a. Tch^lash p4-usham 

bat to taste. At YAneks only thcv niucli finrl. Stalk of pjlwasli 

(of it) 

9 wf-ukani, mu'kmukapsh pAlpalsh shldpsh gi'tk. Pu'ka sha hu'nk 

is low, feathered (and) white flowers having. Bake they 

pawash, tchiii sha gama, shpahauk sha i'l^a lu'ldam pdshluk. 

pdwash, then they pound (it), after drying (it) they preserve for winter gathering in. 

Fu'ks lulniikash-kilila kedsha tiVm, tftatna kd-i tu'mi. Pu'ks k(^dsha 

everywhere grows in quanti- sometinifs not in profu- Camass groww 

ties, sion. 

i2 Oregon safgatat, tch^kgnish metsmetslisli lel^-usam gf tk tchdlash; 

on Orego- prairies, minate blue flowers having (its) stalk; 

nian 

piVks tchdk'ni 6nions-shltko slileash palpali s]i;inkitk giug, pukatk 

camass small onions-similarly looking, is whitish raw being, when baked 

tchek luiluyatk ma'sha n6;{uk. Pah/itko ma'ntch gi'ntak i'pakt 

then Mweetly tastes when it is AVhen dried, a long time afterwards it may 

done. remain, 

15 tumgni ill61ash ka-i k6-i k'ldkant. Shlaps tsmo'k piluitk. 

for many years not spoiled nmy become. The flower fisb-etink smells after. 

Pu'l'/juantch. Plena maklaks piVl;^uautchluk pienu'tkishtka; pu'ka a sha 

Scrape up the Indians for gathering the chry- with a paddle ; roast (them) they 

the giound salids 

ktdyatat kelpokshtut kshu'n puetilank, wAldslia tchlk sha kshiiu, 

witirBtonort hi'uted, grass putting under, lay on top then they grass, 

18 kne-udshi lokaptch^a, tchiii sha kafla ka'lua piVkug pulxuantch. 

rough bark pile up on top. then thL\v with till up for ioa.'»ting the chrysalids. 

earth 

tStopalsh, Maklaks kiama'mi gui;jaksha'migshta stupalsha pilkshami' tch. Ka- 

The people in flsbing-season, at homedeaving time peel trees, in camass-seaeon also. 

kowatka sha kiulo'la st6palsh; kapka sha st6pela. Luiluyatk st6p- 

"With bones they peel off the inm^r bark ; Rmalt pint'- tbey i)pel. Of sweet taste (is' 

trecH 

21 alsh; shanks hak sha pan. Kant i liun slila/i shtopalhui'sh kiVsh 

the bark; .lust raw they eat it. So many you (of them) find peeled ofT pintstrees 

t t/unenug. K4-i ku'sh nanuk tchii'ka st6paluisli: nauka tchuka. 

vou when traveling. Not pine-tr^^en all iiori>*Ii which were peeli-<i ; somr dry up. 



ATilMET^TARY SUBSTAXOBS. 149 

Tdksifth kdlkali, paki'sli ; Idwal ka tdnian sldpshtat ; ka'ilatat M'slia, kd-i 

cylindric, palatable; i.s wirie that mach atthebnd; on the grotiud it lies, not 

pi'luitko. 

hau smelL 

Tok pa'lpali kshu'n, kddsha d-ushtat. 3 

is a whitish ^ass, grows in Lake. 

Tsi'kal atini kshu'n, k^dsha (i-ushtat. 

(is a) high grass, trrows in Lalse. 

Tchi'psam k^dsha kshu'n=ptclii pata tchi'k n6ka Tchi'ii mdklaks tchipasli 

grows grass-like (.intl) in summer-time ripens. Then Indians tchipash 

shta'ila, wdwaniiish w(5ka ula'^uga ydkitat. Liilukshtka tii'ksh a 6 

gather, the women beat (it) haul (it) in seed-basVets. In the hot coals in a fire 

into 

tchipash shnu';{a, tchui tchi'k sha humashtgiulank peksha lem- 

the tchipash they parch, and after they having thus done grind (it) on the 

atch4tka shilaklgi'shtka yi-ulal6nank; a tchi'ksh h^l'nk peksh61ank 

metate with tho nibbing-stone robbing; now then having done 

grinding 

pan dwa palatka ambu kituinankj tchvii sha humasht-gf ulank 9 

again they upon a water pouring into (it), then they after thus doing 

empty (it) malted dieh 

pat4mpka waw41%ank n^patka hl6pa. Gi'ta tchipash ka-i tu'm 

begin to eat (it) sitting around with hands sop it np. Kight here tcbipaf»h not in quan- 

tities 

kddshantj Moatok pl'la toksh tu'm wawawisli gi. 

(is) growing, the Modoc only however much productive is 

country (of it) 

Tchud kAlkaH: t%op6=shitko, get pi tchud; k^dsha Ambutat; ntcheudshk^ni 12 

cylindric: tbuuiblike, so it (is) wApatu; grows in waters; rather email 

tchu4, tchuyunk mdklaks ishka tchiii tchilalank pan; kukanka sha 

(is) wApatu, ;md it the Indians pulling and boiling eat; masticate they 

out 

tiitatka. Takta'kli tchualam shlapsh ; kinkani tchud. 

with (their) Purple (ia) of wild-potato the flower; scarce wilpatu 

teeth (is) (here). 

Tsudk kailatat lu'sha, paki'sh; ka t4nni ts^las: lap pe'tch; kakalkalish shldps 15 

on ground extends, (is) eatable ; so long is the two feet; ronnd flowers 

stalk : 

p'Idi gl'tko. 

on top having. 

Tsuni'ka k^dsha kailant, e-ushtat, wali'dshat ; paki'sh. Shl4psh 2'' lawa- 

grows on ground, on Lake, on cliffs ; eatable. The flowers 2" are 

latk, tidsh piluitko, mu Ibu'ka gitk ; ka'latat lu'sha. 18 

wide, nicely smelUng, a large bulb having; on ground it lies. 

Wdtksdm mu'na u'sha ka'latat, paki'sh ; k^dsa walidsat, pa'lpali shldpsh. 

deep lies in ground, eatable; grows among clifTs, whito (is) flower. 

Wi'wi atini, k^dsha t41etat ; paki'sh shlapsh ; k^tsa pdlpali. 

is tall, grows on straight eatable (is) the bud ; grows white. 

stalks; 

To THE ABOVE ARE ADDED A FEW NON-ALIMENTARY SUBSTANCES: 

Ku'lxamsh tu'sh a tti'pka kailatat, kA-i paki'sh, ptchi'nk: kia'mJuelo'tksh 21 

upwards stands from ground, not eatAble, thus looking: as a fish-killing-artiole 

wits61slank \'1i'nsat tamddsank t^was ; kitchkdni shldps. 

while net-flfihiu}{. in the canoe they lastbU (it^ the forked small (is) the flower. 

on Im)W net ; 



150 TOPOGKAPHY AED NATURAL PKODUCTS. 

Skdwanks pusbpii'shlish shlapshdltko, klji'kots, kddsha tdletat; kii-idslii, kd-i 

has a dark nower, (is) a poisoner, grows on trraigbt (tastes) bad, Dot 

stalls; 

pdkish Pu'sh%ara kdpkalam skdwanks k6-idse k'la'kotk'sh. 

eatable. Tho limbs of the youn<; (and) wild pars- (are) bad poisoners. 

pine nips 

3 Sle'ds kd-i paki'sh, mukmukli shldps, kia'm=luel6'tksli; wits61slank d-ushtat 

not eatable, downy floirers, aflsh-killinganicle; while not-Sshing in Lake 

shti'l;{a. 

tbey put it 
into (the net). 

Ti'lihash k'lutsu5'tch=dnku vii'nshtat shtdkla. 

as a "swiioming-sucker"- on canoe they stick up. 

wood 

6 Wdkinsh a kddsha pAnut. Mdklaks Ishka pAnut lultdmpkash shutelomd- 

grows on the pan- Tho Indians pick it on pan-tree sticking to smear themselves 

tree. 

shluk, liishnank sha shne'lakshtat. Tchui tchlk sha niiksht wd- 

with, roast (ir) they on fire-place. Then they after baking with 

(it), 

titka vukutank shushatel6ma tdlish, p'na'sh ktcMl;{isl)tka shkuk- 

knives scraping (it), smear it on faces, tht-msclves from sau-bnrns to pre- 

9 luapkasht; p'lu' tak sha Iwinank shtdwa.. 

serve; grease they putting into mix op. 



NOTES. 

Several i>lants in this list appear, according to grauiniatic rule, in the possessive 
case -am, while their fruits or edible portion are introduced in the subjective case. To 
the former the substantive 4uku or ts^lash has to be supplied. Small grasses are 
alimentary plants on account of their seeds only, while the larger aquatic grasses con- 
tain nutritive matter iu their stalks. Of these notices the shortest and most laconic 
were obtained from Morgan, who did not enter into ]>articulars concerning the prepa- 
ration of aliments. By this list the articles on which these Indians feed are by no means 
exhausted; they eat almost everything found in nature which is not i)ositively obnox- 
ious to health and which contains a particle of nutritive matter, and hence a full list of 
their kitchen repertoire would be at least three times as long as the one obtained. 

146, 1. kak t^u for k^ ak t4nui "so long only"; the length being shown by gesture 
of hand. Also expressed by ka taniAni, 149, 1. and Note. The yant(;h-plant grows to 
a length of 18 to 20 inches, tho height of the camass- or pu'ks-plant. 

146, 3. K4piunksani. The k4piunks-seed grows on a prairie-gfrass, like the tchi- 
pash- and uu'tak-seed. 

146, 7. 14. p41pal stands for pAlpali (originally p^lpal-li), having lost its terminal 
-1 by apocope; i>alpalish shlapshiiltko incorporates the adjective wJiite into the verbal 
adjective "liaviiig flowers". This phrase may be circumscribed by pdlpalish shldpsh 
gitko. (Jf. 123, tJ. and Note, and 150, 1. 

146, 8. wi-ukayant keladshamat. Here the adjective in its locative case, used 
attributivelj', is united with the partitive case of the substantive, the original form of 
both being wi-ukdyautat keliVdshamti; the subjective case: wi-ukdui keliidsham. 

146, 12. KfinAwat or horse sorrel is mentioned in an Aishish-myth and does not 



ALIMENTARY SUBSTANCES. 151 

grow so tall in the cold Klamath highlands as ia the CaUforniau and Oregonian valleys 
adjoining them to the southwest and west, where its height attains sometimes three 
feet. Cf. Note to 94, 9. 

146, 14. K14na, an aquatic or tule-grass, of which they eat a portion of the young 
stalk. The term "tule," from Aztec tolin, serves in the West to designate all kinds of 
rushes, stalks, and grass-like plants growing in the water and wet grounds. By 
kokgtat are meant the Williamson and the Sprague Eivers. 

147, 1. Kldpa is the name of the eatable bulb or root growing on the pudshak- 
plant. The pudshak-grass becomes red in the autumn, when dry. 

147, 3. Ktu'ks is the eatable root of a species of the cat-tail plant; tAletat, loca- 
tive case of tdlish (or tdleshl), straight stem, from t^ltali "forming a straight, unbroken 
line." The ktu'ks grows in the water, like the wild parsnip (sk4wanks) ; the natives 
dry the tender roots of the ktu'ks and bake them into a sort of bread. The epithet: 
"like wokash" probably refers to the taste of this kind of food. 

147, 5. Ku'ktu. This plant attains a length of about 6 inches. 

147, 6. 7. Kdls is the globular bulb of the witchpai water-plant. 

147, 8. Ka's, kii'sh. This plant produces a hard, whitish, farinaceous bulb, which 
is commonly spoken of as ipo, a Shasti term, and is one of the most important food- 
articles of the Oregonian Indians. To dig or collect kii'sh : kii'shala, ka'shla. 

147, 9-13. Ko'l, also pronounced ku'l, gCi'l, gul, is a kind of Araha. The root is eaten 
only when roasted, and is then very nutritious, though spreading an abominable smell. 
This odor is so penetrating that, as alleged, the grizzly bear will attack nobody who 
smells after roasted kol; to this we may add the restriction : "if he is not very hungry." 
John D. Hunter mentions in his "Manners and Customs of Indians," etc. (Phila. 1823, 
page 370) that the Osages ascribe to the plant washoba-pesba the power of scaring 
away the black bear. This plant is an annual growth possessing sudorific and cathartic 
properties. Washobe is the black bear, mitchu the grizzly bear in that Southern 
Dakota dialect. 

147. 9. hu'mtcha gu'l: "the kol in this condition," viz: in the ripe state. The 
kol-plant is ripe when the stalk becomes red or reddish. 

147, 10. m^ya. Speaking of many women digging bulbs or roots, st4-ila, sta'-ila is 
the regular form; its proper signification is: "to fill up" "to fill" (the conical root- 
basket worn on back, y^ki). 

147, 10. 11. pu'kguishamtat: "to their old roasting place"; pukuishamat might 
stand instead. The locative sufiix -tat, -at is here appended to a verbal substantive 
of puka, to roast, standing in the possessive case -am, and -u- is the infix marking past 
tense. The guttural k has become distended into kg. 

147, 12. e'nt or e'nd for dnat, conditional of (5na. Instead of e'nt, Idshant (for 
idshnat) may stand in the Klamath Lake dialect. 

147, 14. Lupi' etc. The import of this sentence is: "L'bA ripens in the month 
when autumn begins." 

148, 1. MA-i is the common reed or tule-grass growing sometimes to the height of 
8 to 10 feet. The shallow borders of the lakes in the headlands of Klamath River are 
full of this growth, which is one of the most important economical plants for the 
Indian. Women manufacture from it mats, dishes, baskets, lodge covers, nets, sacks, 
bags, and the young stalk yields in its lower part a palatable marrow. 



152 TOPOGRAPHY AND NATUEAL PliODUCTS. 

148, li-4. Ydnakiinin for yanakiinini ; cf. suffix -ui, -nini in Dictionary, ma'nsli for 
ma'utcb. pa'shtak for jidhasht ak, cf. pa'sht, 147, 17. for p.lbaslit. 

148, f). XiVtak. This grass belongs to tbe genus Glyceriuin, as identified by Dr. 
E. Foreman, and i)roduces a tiny, grayish bright seed of tchipash size. The flowers 
are of a light red color. The grass is found around the agency buildings and grows 
about one foot high. 

148, 7. PAwash properly means tongue. 

148, 11. Pfi'ks or camass. Its bulb is one of the princi[)al food-articles of all the 
northwestern Indians, but does not grow in i)rofusion in the warmer portions of Cali- 
fornia. It is of the magnitude of the walnut, very saccharine and nutritious, ripens 
in May and Juno, and by the roasting or baking process described in the text becomes 
as hard as stone. The MAklaks call it after pCi'ka to roafit^ the Shasti name is sok, the 
Pit Eiver name ahual6, while the name kamas, "sweet," is of Nutka origin. The 
botanists call the plant Scilla or (;amassia esculenta. Cf Ifote to 146, 1. 

148, 14. ipakt, metathesis of ipkat, tne conditional of ipka to lie there, to remain. 

148, 16. pul/uantch. The gathering of this pupa or chrysalid and of its caterpillar, 
the s;feshl'sh, is chiefly done by the women of the tribes, who find them imbedded at 
no great depth in the sandy ground around pine trees. Another chrysalid, the kidl'gs, 
is collected and roasted by them in the same way and tastes like eggs, kshu'n pueti- 
lank: putting grass under the chrysalids, not under the heated stones. The stones are 
replaced by other heated ones, as soon as they have cooled oft"; the larva assumes a 
black color after roasting and tastes like eggs. See pul;^uantch in Dictionary. 

148, 19. guijifakshii'migshta. The season of the year, when the exodus of the whole 
tribe to Klamath Marsh takes place, where pond-lily seed is collected for the winter, 
is about the middle of June. The ending ta is an abbreviation of the case suffix -tat. 
Three seasons are stated in the text, when the peeling of the inner or fibre bark of 
small pine trees is performed; of these the camass season precedes the exodus to 
Klamath JMarsh by a few weeks only, and the fishing season lasts from February to 
the end of the summer. Of course, the peeling of the k^pkapine coincides with the 
season when the sap ascends through the young tree. The bark is removed from 
about five feet to fifteen or twenty feet above the ground, and most of the beautiful 
pines treated in this manner are doomed to premature decay, though many survive 
the oijeration. The aspect of a forest with some of the pine trees peeled is rather 
singular. 

148, 21. shanks hak, contraction of shankish hak or ak. 

149, i . ka ti'mian for ka tanidni " so much in width or extent." The bud of the 
tdksish has a width of about half an inch. Cf. Note to 146, 1. 

149, 3. 4. tok. This aquatic grass grows about two feet high ; by 6-ushtat is meant, 
here and in tsi'kal : Upper lOamath Lake. 

149, .'!. pii'lpali, vocalic dissimilation of pAlpali or pti'lpali; cf. taktii'kli 149, 14. 

149, 5. T(;lii'psam is a i>rairic grass on which the brown tchii)ash-seed gTows. 
This seed is extremely small, and it takes a long time before a sufficient quantity of it is 
gathered to aftord a meal for a family. Still smaller is the niitak-seed, and both are 
strildng instances of the persistence of the Indians in keeping up their old mode of 
living, when by agriculture and stock-raising they could procure provisions with 
infinitely less trouble and in much .shorter time. 



INCANTATIONS OF THE KLAMATH LAKE PEOPLE. 153 

149, 6. tii'ksli is probably the adessive case of t6ke (5) fire-place, hearth: t6k-kslii. 

149, 12. Tchuit is the long, cylindric root of the Sagittaria sagittifolia, an aquatic 
plant couiinon iu the West and East of the United States. In Oregon the term potato 
or w4patu (Chinook jargou) is most commonly heard for it. The name of Chewaukau 
Marsh, a sink and low ground situated east of Upper Klamath Lake, is a corruption 
of Tchua/e'ni: "where the arrow-leaf is found." The flower of the wapatu varies 
between red, reddish and whitish. 

149, 17. Tsuni'ka. The flower has a diameter fi'om two to three inches. 

149, 21. Ku'l;^amsh is put on strings by the women and thus serves to atti-act the fish. 

149, 21. ptchi'nk: after this word ought to be seen the picture of a tiny vegetal 
cylinder, about one inch long and slightly curved. 

150, 1. Skdwanks or wild parsnip, a poisonous plant growing in wet places to the 
height of three feet. 

150, S. p'na'sh, contracted from p'nalash, is the direct object (reflective) of shkuk- 
lu^pkasht: to guard themselves against becoming chapped by sun -burns. The wakinsh 
seems to be a kind of resin and furnishes a red paint, as does also the k'16pki. 



E-UKSHIKISHAM KIUKSHAM SHDl'SH SHUINo'tKISH TCHiSH. 

INCANTATION SONGS OF THP: KLAMATH LAKE PEOPLE. 



1. Introductory song: 

Ya'ka ni, yji'ka ni, ya'ka ni etc. ^ | - 

I sing, I sing, I sing (in chorus). 

2. Song, reference unknown: 

Wiwiwa ! ni shdv^'alsh witnauk ! ~ _;. | _ _ _ -i | 

Blo\vn oflf! the plume-crest has disappeared from me ! 

3. Song of the ivind: 

Kanitala m'sh u shlewitaknu'la ? „ ^ | _ _ -l | -. 
n^paksh a-i ni'sh shlewitaknu'la. - - 1 — | - 

Who, I wonder, is blowing out of my mouth ? 
The disease is emanating from my mouth. 

4. The conjurer's song: 

. Tu4 ki nu shatashtaknu'la? ^ ^ | _ _ | - ^ [ - ^ 

na'paks nu shatashtaknil'la. -^^ | — I - — I - - 

ink ki' nu shatashtatp^i'sh? ~ - I ^ — I ~ - I 

na'paks nil shatashtatxi'sh. - — I - - 1 

What do I remove from my mouth * 
The disease I extract from my moutli. 
What is the thing I take out? 
It is the disease I am taking out. 



154 POETIC TEXTS. 

6. Song of the woodchuck: 

Kafla ml gutt'la nH -i_|^,|j.^|- 

I am descending into the giound. 

6. Little girVs song: 

ShmashmAyalti, shuiashmdyalti l>|-_^^- 

In quill-fringed buckskin dressed, 

In porcupine-fringed buckskin dressed. 

7. Song of the tvashpdlaks-fox: 

A'kala'kela nii, Ji'kala'kgla nu ^^|_^|_i.||2.|^_|^„ 

Long and slim I am, long and slim I am. 

8. Song of the fire-mantle: 

Lfi'luksash nu shkutiya -^^ |- j. - | ^ 

111 iire-flames I am enveloped. 

9. Song of the tudkish-crane: 

Nfi shnu'lashtat nu tgeli'wa i|-j,|-_!._ 

I stand upon the rim of my nest. 

10. Song of the blind medicine-girl: 

Tchatchglushkcinka nu tchiutchiush shne;{i'tko 

I search the ground with my hands, find there the feathers of the yellow 
hammer and devour them. 

11. Another song of the same: 

Paldk ! isJi hu lillpalpalf at ! -^|-_^|^^^|_ 

Quick! make ye eyes for mo ! 

12. Bird^s song: 

Nu'sh pi'hiii tilaluauslia -l~\~i ^\± — - 

As a he.ad only, I roll around. 

13. Song, reference unknown: 

Tud pash ml? tua pash a nu? ^ ^ | - ^ || _ ^ | _ ,, ^ 

What am I? Avhat am I? 

14. Song, reference unknown: 

H4 luyam'na, nil liiyam'na ^ -i | - ^ j |_i ^ ^ 

This round thing I hold in my haml. 

15. Song of the long-tailed black marten: 

A wAl^atchaka nil gatdml'^a j. .\j.^ ~\j.^\s ^ 

I the black iiiarten, I travel ai-iiuud tlii« land. 



INCANTATIOifS OF THE KLAMATH LAKE PEOPLE. 155 

16. Song of the skunk: 

Ydmashtka nu tuituigldslia -i~jj._|-i-|-i~ 

In the north wind I dance around, tail spread, festive and gay. 

17. Chorus song: 

Tu4kinuk6ga? -1^^_|^^ 
na'paks ai nu k6ga. -i _ - ~ | _!. - 

What do I snck out t The diseaae I .am sucking out. 

18. Song of the hoards: 

PApkash hudlta j. - ^ | ^ _ 

Lumber-boards are rattling. 

19. Song of the lizard: 

Kl! kl'ya nu aikana -i_l-t~|-i-_ 

Lo! thus I the lizard stick my head out. 

20. Song, reference unknown: 

Ydmash ai nu'sh wilamnapka _L~|j.~|-L-|>iv^ 

The north wind has followed mo. 

21. Song of the black mouse: 

Tud ki nu tashul61a? _^1-^|_,^|^ 

na'poks ai nu tashulu'la. ~.-i|-^|__-!^|- 

Through what do I pass with my paws t 
My paws glide over the hair of the disease. 

22. Song of the tvashpdlaks-fox : 

L'dklsh, I'dkish gend -l^\j.^\^-l 

Crazed I am wandering. 

23. Song of the weasel: 

Sha'ka nu, sh^ka nii -l — | ^ - - 

I am squealing, I am squalling. 

24. Song of the dog: 

Wdtchag ai nu nu'kanka, -i ^ | ^ - 1 j. — 
ydmashtka nu nu'kanka. .;. - 1 j. - 1 -i — 

I the dog am straying, 

In the north wind I am straying. 

25. Song, reference unknown: 

Shla'wish 4-i nlsh wilhua --|- --|--- 

The storm gust dashes right on mi;. 



150 POETIC TEXTS. 

26. Song, reference unknown: 

Mil'm6ni gd-xi stii'kish gi ^ ^ _ | .i _ ( ■ _ | ^ . 

Heavy hailstones I possess. 

27. Song, reference unknown: 

Nalnay a ! ni'sb shle wish witnank ! ^ | - - 1 - 

I am Bhivciing! tho wind blows down on me! 

28. Song of the bug: 

Shai'zish a-i nl k6ga j. _ | _l _ _ | _l _ 

I the bug, I bite and suck. 

29. Song of the mink: 

MiVaslitka nfi udumulfpka -' ~|-j-~|^_|_l_ 

I .am swimiiiiiig out while the south wind blows. 

30. Song of the young silver-fox: 

WAnam w^ash nu wilamnapku -;._|-i^^j^_|_ 

The young red fox I follow up. 

31. The incantation sings: 

Shul'sh luitak nu gena nil 

I tho song 1 am walking here. 

32. Fox^s song: 

LaMlashtala wik4 nu ~ j-\ I-l^ 

I am blowing air from my flanks. 

33. Song of the tudkish-crane: 

Tudn^i, tuc'uizi, tuAn;^!, tuan;^i nu. -l_|- 

34. Songs, forming refrains to song No. 33. 

a-ahahfy a, a-aha-a-ahiya -i^~|-l_|_l |__l 

a nil hd-e-i, a nu hd-e-i ~ j-\±-^ -\\^ j.\j. ^ ^ 

35. Song of the disease: 

Tuil nu shlewflam'na? - -C | i | 

ndpaks an shlewilam'na. j. | — ^ - - | 

What thing do I blow around ? 

The disease I am blowing around in the air. 

36. Song of the grizzly bear's cub: 

Yalnatat nil eitaktnula, -l |j._|j._ 

lil'kam nH wdash gi. j. _ ^ |^ - ^ 

On the mountain top I am peeping ont, 
Of the grizzly bear I am the child. 



INCiOTATIONS OF THE KLAMATH LAKE PEOPLE. 157 

'dl. Song of the female wolf: 

Ka'-utchish gii'lil h'lllantana ^^-|^-,|^_|j _ 

I, the she-wolf, am rolling against (a tree?) 

38. Spoken hy the conjurer while manipulating: 

Net^, netd hahayi-ia 

\ Nenii', nenii' hahayf-fa 

39. Song of the tchiwititikaga-hird: 

Ki'i-i witi'la, kii-i witila j-__|-l_||_!.^_|_l_ 

Fearfully the wind blows underneath here. 

40. Song of the blind girl: 

Liiashtka ml Wtchipka, j. _ - _ | _i _ -^ 
kaila ndkant ni luyapka. --|- — |-i--_ 

In the fog I am straying blind. 
All over the earth I am wandering. 

41. Song of the water -hug: 

Adshi adslii tchdya, Adshi adshi tch/iya -i~|-i-|._||^ -|_i_|-i_ 

42. Song of the grizzly hear: 

Kalla nu hii shlu'tila j. \j. ^ ^ 

I am scratching up the ground. 

43. Song of the little gray tchikass-bird: 

Yaf nasli a-i nu shlul61a --|- \-^- 

I am wafted "if IVoui the mountain. 

44. Song of the skd'ks or spirit: 

Kak6 pila nil la-uMwa 

Kfdueed to mere boucs, I rattle through the air. 

45. Sung hy the disease, found to live in water: 

Shlc'wishash nu tilutaknu'la 

Breath I am emitting. 

4(j. Song of the grizzly bear: 

Tunepni ge-u wdlwash gi, --i|^j.[-j.|__i 
piiltko gi-n welwash gi. _i | _ j. | ^ _l | ^ _i 



1 have five water springs and (all) my wpriugs are dr 

47. So)ig of the black snake: 

\V:iuinaksli ai i' ml tilnulula _ _ | - j. | - _ ^ | . 

1 the black-spotted snake am b.anj;iiig ln'ie. 



y- 



/ 



158 POETIC TEXTS. 

48. Conjurer's own song: 

Kailanti nii shi'lshila J.^ — - | -i - _ 

I, the earth, am resowndmg like the roll of thunder. 

49. Bird's song: 

Nen4 nvi, nen^ nil - j. ^ | - j. - 

I flutter along the ground (while walking). 

50. Song of the grizzly bear: 

Yafnalam sliuliiyualsh -l -^ ■ — | - - - 

51. Woman's song: 

Shutpashuitk gun snew^dshash gi, ^~-|-i^|-i-|-!-- 
shutpashuitk a nt snew^dshash gi. -i--|-!._|-!-_|-!-_ 

Painted I am ou the body, 

I, a woman, am painted black. 

52. Song of the weasel; 

Gaikash, gaikash nuyanina j-~\j.~\j.~^~ 

Fooling, fooling I run around. 

53. Song of tlie gray fox : 

Ndnnktua nu papi'sh gi ~j.\ :.|---i_ 

Everything I can devour. 

54. The conjurer speaks as follows: 

Hu'masht huk gek lupi' kalkgla, hut hunk tchi'ka-ag tuti%61atk 

Therefore this (patient) tirst was hurt, that (his) mother after dreaming 

undk p4pka. At tchik hunk ke'k k'lc^kshashtala t^lshampka. 

early .lie. Then this (patient) ti> the spirit-land tnrned his face. 

55. Conjurer speaks: 

Kagga waktala i nush;(e'ni iiia h^mkanksh wash! liwAtchamp- 

Wliat (and) wliy then .^ nu towards me a while were speaking indoors to bold np (the 

ago 

kish? 

patient) ! 

56. Conjurer's song: 

Tudtala nish hu l^etknula ? -j:|-_^|__j.|- 
gu'pal a-i nish l;^etkni'ila. _L|-_j.|_-i|-i_ 

What is coming out of my mouth ? 

Black substance is hanging down from my mouth. 

57. Song, reference unknown: 

Liiash ai nd'sh a hl'lamnapka -i-_|-i_|-i 

Fog foUowod drifting after me. 



INCANTATIONS OF THE KLAMATH LAKE PEOPLE. 169 

58. Song of the turtle: 

Tudklnlshl^-ula? -^| -\^ 

Which game did you play with me? 

NOTES. 

This loug series of shamauic songs in use on the Williauisou Elver was obtained 
from Mary, a young pupil of the boarding school of Indian children at the Klataath 
agency. When living among the Indians on the Williamson Eiver she had heard all 
these songs very frequently, and in an interesting evening entertainment she faithfully 
reproduced the manipulations of the male and female conjurers upon a little rag baby 
lying on the floor on a bed made up of old blankets, the figure representing some poor 
suffering Indian patient. The other Indian girls of the school joined in a lively chorus 
every time when she had fairly started any of these incantations, and given the signal 
by clapping hands. 

On the day following these incantations were dictated, translated and explained 
to me by Minnie Froben, assisted by Mary, and though both persisted in the statement 
that the order in which the songs are sung was quite immaterial, I present them here 
in the order in which I obtained them. 

Each of these song-lines is sung many times by the conjurer, then repeated by the 
chorus a dozen times or more. The chorus varies the melody somewhat ea«h time, but 
this musical variation is so slight nnd insignificant that the general impression of 
monotony is not dispelled by it. Quite a number of these songs have very pretty 
melodies, but by long repetition even these must of course produce tediousncss and 
disgust: other songs have weird and strange tunes, others are quaint, but almost 
repulsive by their shrill accents; these may be said to form the transition to the mere 
howls and imitations of animal voices, which are frequent also in doctoring ceremonies, 
but more frequent in the war-shouts and funereal cries and wailings. 

The animal i>r object of nature to which the conjurer attributes each of the song- 
lines was not remembered in every instance. Where this reference was obtained, it 
was added at the head of tlic song or song-line. The animals mentioned in these songs 
are all supposed to have been sent out by the conjurer to look out for the whereabouts 
of the personified disease, from which the patient is suffering, and whatever the con- 
jurer sings about the animals refers to what he sees them doing while on their errand. 
On the distinction made between shui'sh and shuino'tkish cf. Note to song 0. 

Kiiiksam shui'sh is not merely a conjurer's song, but a mysterious agency con- 
nected with a spell of preternatural power. This spell is not exclusively attached to 
a song sung by a conjurer, but it may be borne also by a dream, disease, by some 
drug, or by that kind of witchcraft which is called elsewhere the evil eye. Kiuksam 
shui'sh is therefore a beneficial or destnictive taminnash agency, which when applied 
to a patient can cure liim or make him worse; when appearing under the shape of a 
dream, it is a dream of good or one of bad augury. 

The conjurer sometimes diversifies his songs, all of which are sung in the minor 
keys, by inserting spoken words relating to the condition of the patient and the effects 
of his treatments; specimens of this are given in 38. 54. .55. Parts of them are also 
repeated by the chorus. 



160 POETIC TEXTS. 

Many Indians do not understand all these songs, which contain many archaic forms 
and words, and the conjurers themselves are generally loth to give their meaning, even 
if they should understand them. Some songs are of a stereotypic application in the 
treatment of all or the majority of the maladies. A close familiarity with the habits 
of animals of the forest manifests itself throughout, as well as in the mythic tales. 

The translations added by me are not literal ; they render the meaning of the 
songs in a free and i>arapurastic manner. In the metrics the accentuated syllables 
designate a higher pitch of the singing voice. 

153; 2. Literally: " I blew off the feather-crest." 

153; 3. To read: shlewi wit/ufi'lank, seems preferable in this connection. Cf. 35. 

154 ; G. On gi-and occasions young women were in the habit of dressing in buck- 
skin robes, fringed with porcupine quills (shmdyalsh). In a myth the bull-frog was 
reported to wear constantly this kind of dress, and hence originated a sort of pro- 
vei'bial locution: ko-e slimashmayalti: "the bull-frog in the shm^yalsh-dress." Cf. 
shmAyam. Zoologists call this frog : Eana jupiens. 

154 ; 7. This is called washpal4ksam shui'sh, the medicine-song of the washpalaks- 
fox specsies, Vulpes velox. The exterior of this fox may be sketched by the words: 
a'kela'kela w^tchag liii'tchuuk, a long-bodied dog is running or trotting. Cf. song 22. 

154; 0. This is called llic luiiksham shuino'tkish or incantation sung by the crane 
itself through the mouth of tiie conjurer. Nobody could hear the bird's voice if the 
conjurer did not sing its song. A song, which the conjurer sings for himself and by 
which he does not interpret any animal or other object of nature, is called kiuksam 
sluii'sh and is endowed with magic powers. In the West of the United States the 
tiii'ikish is popularly known as shitepoke, in the East as tly-up-the-creek. 

154; 10. The feathers of the yellow hammer are worn on neck as an ornament. 

154; in. This refers to a certain large bud not specified, which contracts its body, 
so that the head seems to be its largest part. When walking, the bird seems to roll 
around on the prairie. Pilan for pila nii. 

154; 14. The object to which song 14 refers is not known. 

154 ; 15. VYal;^atchaga is very probably, though not certainly, a kind of marten. 
Mantles were made of its fur. This rimed incantation is called wal;f4tchkalam 
shuino'tkish. 

155; 10. Called: tchashisham shuino'tkish; melody very pretty. The diphthong 
ui is pronounced here as one syllable. Skunks, while running around, are in the habit 
(»f holding straight up their bushy tails, which are almost as long as their bodies. 

155 ; 1 7. This pretty song is chanted by the choristers while the kiuks feigns to 
suck out of the body the tiny object which is supposed to have caused the disease, 
and belbrc he gets it out. koga, koka means originally to bite; bite first, then suck 
tiie disease out. 

155; 18. P^pkash is pronounced almost like pAvkash ; 144, 11. kopka like kovka. 

155; H). Alludes to a peculiar nodding observed in lizards when lunning out of 
their holes and stopping at the issue. 

155; 20. The animal to which this song refers is not known. Compare No. 10. 24. 
The literal meaning is: "The north wind blows around me from the distance." 

155 ; 21. This song, with a beautiful melody, is the shuino'tkish of a mouse species 
Willi pig-like proboscis. 



INCANTATIONS OF THE KLAMATH LAKE PEOPLE. 161 

155; 22. l'6ksh, 16ksh, distr. l^laksh crazy, maddened, intoxicated. This song is 
sung also : le-e'ksli, l?e'ksb gend : __i.|^_l|^j. Of. 154; 7. 

155 ; 23. Tbe weasel is squealing, because hunters have caught or trajjped it. 

156 ; 20. Probably refers to one of those birds to whom the power is attributed to 
bring about storms, fog, snow, or any change of the weather. 

15G ; 27. Coiiii>are songs 2 and 3. 

156 ; 28. This bug, perhaps a scarabee, bites the skin to suck out the disease from 
the woinid. 

156 ; .'50. This is probably a song of the wind, not of the young silver-fox (as I was 
told), and I have translated it as such. The song No. 20 is analogous to it in every 
resi)ect; the winds, which the Indians constantly comiiarc with tlxe spread of the 
disease, are frequently mentioned in these songs as blowing upon some animal or other 
object sent out by the conjurer to discover the whereabouts of the disease. Cf. No. 16. 
20. 24. 25. 29. 39. 43. and 57. 

156 ; 32. This song is said to allude to the circumstance that one fox's howl seems 
to sound like the cries of many foxes howling together. Laldlash are both sides of one 
and the same beast. 

156 ; 33. With these monotonous sounds the tudkash or tuiikish calls itself by its 
own cry: tiiiik, wdk, tudk. Tn&uyi is: tudk ni gi "tudk I am crying." Cf. 154; 9. 
Two refrains to this line are formed by the two lines of No. 34. 

156 ; 35. The personified disease spreads the germs of sickness through the atmos- 
phere. This song is <!oniparable to songs 3 and 45. 

157; 37. The signification of h'b'Iantana could not be disclosed, but it seems to be 
similar to that of tilantana. 

157 ; 39. This small bird is dark, and has a red or yellow neck. 

157 ; 43. Speaks of a fog drifting away from the mountains and turning iuto a 
cloud, which is drifting also. 

157 ; 44. The bones of a dead person's skeleton are supposed to rattle against each 
other, the spirit being here identified with the skeleton. 

157; 40. Often sung w^lwashi g1 ; epenthf tic syllables are frequent in these songs, 
e. g. walj^dtchika in song 15. 

157 ; 47. The wdmgnigsh or wdmn'aks, a species of Pityophis, has large black spots 
and frequently occurs in the Klamath country. TunuMla means to hang down over 
something as over a rock. 

158; 48. This is sung when water is poured over the patient. A more literal 
translation would be: "I am resounding within the ground." 

158 ; 50. Yainalam shuluyualsh means round, cylindric or globiform objects stand- 
ing in a row on a mountain. The den of the grizzly bear is supposed to be in the 
mountains or on a mountain top. Cf. song 30. My informants did not know what the 
objects were which stood in a series, but if any religious notions were connected with 
them, we may compare the three sacred rocks standing on a mountain top in Peruvian 
mythology. These rocks were fetishes indicative of stone worship, representing a 
mother with two sons. Another myth mentions four of them, representing Catequil 
(the god of thunder), Viracocha, a sun god and a fire god. The song No. 50 is sung by 
the chorus while the kiuks is dancing. 
11 



162 POETIC TEXTS. 

168; 51. Tlio paiut was put ou expressly for the dance and smeared across her 
breast or anywliere on body; gun for ko nfl, go uii, vowel u iu verted. 

158; 54. Tliese S])oken words are also repeated by the choristers. The repetition 
is very long and noisy and winds up in a howling. tuti;y61atko, after having ceased to 
dream. This would inii)ly, that after dreams fasting must be observed as a religious 
custom, k'l^kshashtala for the correct form k'lekApkashtala. This phrase occurs in 
68, 8., and is explained in i\7b<e. 

158; 55. The meaning is rather obscure, probably owing to omissions. 



KitJksham SHUi'sH. 

» 

CONJURER'S INCANTATIONS. 



Obtained fkom Chief Johnsox and SuB-CHiEif Davk Hiix. 



1. Song of the disease: 

Na'pakshtka hinui nil; kaludshtat iiu 

By sickness I am prostrate; I am (now) up in tlio clear sky. 

2. Song of the woodpecker: 

K6shash k4-a nu piupiutdnna j.~.\-l - ~\j. ~\. 

I am picking hard at the bark of a pine tree. 

3'. Song of the tuktukuash-hawk: 

KuAta ml tchilikd nu _-i.|^-i|~--i|- 

I am i)inchiug hard. 

4. Song of the tvhite-headed eagle: 

Kaludshtat nu tchutchiia --!.|_j.j u^ 

I am croaking high up in the skies. 

5. Song of the weasel: 

Kail ash nu shufna a tii y4na --^|^^] '-\^ 

From under the* ground I am singing. 

6. Song of the mink: 

Atin tclieliiSvash gena ^ j.\~ -\ ~ -j. 

Ripples ;n ♦he vrater-sheet I am spreading far and wide. 

7. Song of the skunk: 

T(^-i, t(H kaidlza ^.|^-|-^^ 

With slioili'iiod steps I aiii claming. 



CONJURER'S INCANTATIONS. 163 

8. Song of the quiver: 

Yahiash ml tadsi tadsf j.~ ^\j.~^\ |^ 

9. Song hy a companion of the old frog: 

Kii-e weldkasli nu w^lwash tchalekfya -j.|--i|_^ :\^j.^^ 

An old frog-woman I sit down at the spring. 

1 0. Song of the gdwi-hird: 

Shdwalish lial nu shlataniya -i.~^|-!. |_l_ 

A flint-headed arrow I am ready to dispatch. 

11. Song of the eagle feather: 

Mu'kash a gi nu, gend nil, ho j. ^|- _ -!.|_ j.|- j. 

I am the eagle-feather, I am going down, ho ! 

12. Song, reference unknown: 

Ku-i hai nen kslul'ka 

I feel too bad for dancing. 

13. Song of the dwarf: 

Na'hnias nani nanf nanl-a a a nania nani, nani-l-a 

14. Song, reference unknown: 

Kaila nu spi'amna j. - ^ | -i - ^ 

I am dragging out dirt. 

15. Song, reference unknown: 

Slidppashti nu lakf gi 

I am the lord of the snn. 

16. Song of the shai%ish-hird: 

Shai^i'sh giiluaga lulamn61a -^ ±\^ ~ s\^ j.\^ j.^^ 

I the little black female bird am lost and strayed. 

NOTES. 

162; 1. By others this song was given as follows: Na'paks kinuina kalowiit nii: 
" I the disease am meandering through the skies." This variant is evidently prefer- 
able to the one above. 

162 ; 2. In the Sahaptin language of the Yakima, Washington Territory, a certain 
bii'd is called piu|)in ; the Klamath Lakes call a spotted kind of woodpecker shpiu'bpush. 
Both terms are derived from an onomatopoetic radix piu, imitating the picking at the 
bark by the woodpecker. 

162; 3. The tiiktukuash or lish-hawk, Pandiou carolinensis, occurs in large Jium- 
bers on the lakes of the Klamath highlands. Like that of many other birds, its Indian 
name is derived onomatopoetically from its cry. 



164 POETIC TEXTS. 

162 ; 4. Of the yati;^al, white-headed or bald eagle, Haliaetns leucocephaliis, another 
conjurei-'s song was obtained. Cf. 165 ; 5. 

162; 5. The wording of this song could not be obtained with certainty. 

162; (J. Stands for: ati tchelii'wash nu g6na. 

162; 7. t6-i, t6-i has no meaning, but simply .serves fo beat the measure when 
dancing with short steps. 

163; 8. This song is said to be that of the quiver (tokanksh) and its purport the 
same as that of No. 7. Yiihiash is a kind of aquatic bird. 

163 ; 9. A similarly worded .song is in the Modoc collection, given by Toby Riddle. 

163; 10. Sh^walsh iw hei'o lengthened into sht'iwalisli for metrical reasons. 

163 ; 11. This is a favorite song of a kiuks on the Williamson Eiver, called Skiikum 
Doctor (stout doctor). Given by Dave Hill, also 12 and 13. 

163; 1.3. Foot prints not larger than those of a baby are sometimes discovered in 
the higher mountains of the Cascade Uauge. The Indians refer them to a dwarf" called 
na'hnias, whose body can be seen by the conjurers of the tribe only. The dwarf gives 
them his advice for curing the sicknesses of others and inspires them with a superior 
kind of knowledge. 

163 ; 14-16 were dictated by an Indian whom I found at Linkville. 

163 ; 15. The name of the animal, probably a bird, to which this conjurer's song 
refers was not obtained. Cf. .shApsam ptchiwip in Dictionary. 



E-UKSHIKiSHAM KIUKSAM SUUl'sH. 

INCANTATIONS OF THE KLAMATH LAKE CONJURERS. 



Obtained from " Seegeant" Morgan. 



1. Song of the Lake: 

KtsAlui g^-u ^-ush 

My lake is glittering in azure colors. 

2. Song of the rain-storm: 

G^-u a-i iKipaks n^pka, 
gfllkdsh gd-u hu shulsh. 

Tlio disease produced by me has arrived, 

I am the storm and wind and this is my song. 

3. Song of the conjurer^s arrow: 

G^-u a liu't hanji'sish 

This here is my long inagi<^ ;iir(>\v. 

4. Song of the North wind: 

Yi'inisam gd-u ge'-ish kapa -i__-|-i^ 

I :iiii the North wind. ;iii(l in my p:itli 1 am irresiRtil)lo. 



INCANTATIONS OF THE KLAMATH LAKE CONJURERS. 165 

5. Song of the yaukal-eagle: 

Flafna nii kshaki'dsha ^ - | j. - | -l ^ 

High up in the skies I describe my magic circles. 

6. Song of the little sucker: 

Y^nash ai nish sldwish wita j. ~\-l ~\j. ~\j. . 

Now the wind-gust sings about me, the yen-fish. 

7. Words sung by the East wind: 

Ydwa, y^wa, y^wa, y^wa _i ^ | -i ^ | j. - | .-' _ 

Easter, easter, eastern, eastern. 

8. Song of a black snake: 

KAmtilagam gd-u gdnhuish _l-|j.-|j..-|-i_ 

This is mine, the black snake's, gait. 

9. Conjurer^s kat'hidwasJi-incantation: 

G6-\i hut kd-ish kat'hidwasam 

Thus I walk when I tie up the hair. 

10. Song of the black ground-mouse or keldyua: 

Mundna nvL shuind 

Down in the dark ground I am singing my strain. • 

11. Conjurer's song of the rope: 

Kgniiks a-i nu stii'n;{i-uapk ~-L|_-i|^-c| 

I will pull a rope from my entrails. 

12. Gray wolf's song: 

K^-utchish ai nu shui'sh gi j-~_|-l jj.^ 

I am the gray wolf magic song. 

13. Song of the female lizard, ki'a kulu: 

Sku'lala g^-u ka'Ia kialam k^-ish 

The land on which I, the female Uzard, am treading, belongs to the lark. 

14. Song of the male lizard, ki'a laki: 

KtsAlui ki'alam g^-u k^-ish 

When I the lizard am walking, my body is resplendent with colore. 

16. Song of the kilidshiksh-duck: 

Tsel^wa g^-u ^-us ^ -l\- -l\^ j.~ 

In my lake ripples I am spreading. 

16. Song of the yellow jacket or ki'nsh: 
Nii' ai nen ntitii'yamna 

Here I am buzzing around. 



166 POETIC TEXTS. 

1 7. Song of the young deer's claws: 

Kodsi'ngs a g(i-u wtilta 

My deer-claws are rattling. 

18. Song of the kshi'kshnish-hawh: 

Wdash 4-i nu kshukatkal l|^_l|_^^ 

I carry my offspring with me. 

19. Song of the pelican or kumal: 

H4 wishtkak nu nuyamna - ^ j-\^j. — 

Noisily I am blowing around. 

20. Song of the swan: 

Ku'sham gd-u witclitaks 

By me, by the swan, this storm has been produced. 

21. Woman's song: 

Kutchi'ngshka hii' mu'luesh 

The feet of a young deer are my medicine-tools. 

22. Song of the male Mis or kdlxalsh-hird: 

Ka'lsam gd-u lumalaks 

This is ray song, the kalsh-bird's, who made the fog. 

23. Song of the female kdls-bird: 

Kdlsam ku'lo gd-u lu'nialaks 

Like my consort, the kalsh-bird, I produce fog at will. 

24. Song of the otter or kolta: 

Conjurer: Gutkaks gd-u ndpk 

The small-pox brought by me, the otter, is upon ye. 

Chorus: Killi'lga k61tam genuish 

The otter's tread has whirled up the dust. 

25. Conjurer's song: 

K6-idsi ai nu shui'sh gl 

I am a conjurer's fatal song. 

26. Funeral song: 

Lu'luksam nu sk<i'tchaltko 

I am now wrapped in the garments of fire-fiame. 

27. Song of the mdmaktsu-duck: 

Gutitgulash gd-u ndpka -..i|^-i|^ :\~ 

Belly-ache is the disease which I carry along with me. 



INCANTATIONS OF THE KLAMATH LAKE CONJURERS. 167 

28. Song of mjjdmpaktish-duck: 

Gutftkuls gd-u nii'paks 

Belly-ache is the disease I am hringing on. 

29. Song of the South wind: 

Mu'asb ai nu' shui'sh gi, j. ^ ^ | -i. ^ | j. ^ 
kalla nu wikdnsha. j. ~ ^ | _ j. - 

I am the South wind's magic song and sweep over the earth. 

30. Song of the conjurer^ s implements: 

Tchi hu tchd-us mu'luash ; 
k6Itam gd-u hil mu'lnash, 
syl'l gd-u hvl mu'luash. 

So looks the medicine-tool taken trom the yellow hammer ; 

This is my curing-tool, that of the otter; 

This is my curing-tool, that of the otter-skin belt. 

31. Song of the black ndta-duck: 

Nu ai n4ta shui'sh 

The nilta-dnck is now singing about itself. 

32. Song of the nu' sh=tilansneash-hird: 

Lfi'paksh gd-u mii'luash -l - 1 -i „ | j. _ „ 

White chalk la my medicine-tool. 

33. Song of the pipe: 

Kdtchkalam mii'luash, 
pa'ks gd-u mu'luash. 

The smoking pipe is my medicine-tool, the implement for the tobacco. 

34. Song of the scoop: 

E-usam mu'luash, 

pdla hu gd-u mu'luash hu. 

This scooping-paddle is my curing-instrument, that tool used on the lake. 

35. Song of the pop-tchikas bird: 

P6p=tsikas nu' shui'sh gi ^ ._ | _i ^ | j. „ 

I am the incantation of the little piip-tsikas bird. 

36. Song of the shkd'-bird: 

Nu ai nen nu shui'sh gi, ^_|j._^j_l._ 
p'lafna nA kaki'dsa. j.~\j..-\j.^ 

I am a magic song and circle high above the earth. 



168 POETIC TEXTS. 

37. Song of Old Marten or SMlamtch: 

Nd' ai nen aggi'dsha -l~\-l ~\j.^ 

1 go up and stick fast to the tree. 

38. Song of spirits^ walking-stick, or sku'ksam hd'kskish: 

Sku'ks ai nu si'kamba I 

Leaniug on a staff, I the dead man's spirit am traveling. 

39. Song of the large black woodpecker: 

Sku'kashak nu na'pka 

I the young woodpecker have brought on sickness. 

40. Song of the strap made of otter skin (sxi'l) : 

S^l'l ai nil mu'luash, -l^^\j. — 
s;fi'l ai nu shui'sh gi. j. - - 1 - _l _ 

I the skin-strap am a conjurer's tool, I am a^agic song. 

41. Song of the sxi'b-bird: 

Szi'pu nil shui'sh 

Of the s;^b-l)ird I am the song. 
Or, iit oilier words : 

I the s;i;fb-bird am singing about myself. 

42. Song of the storm-blast: 

Sl^wish ai nu wuydmna 

I the storm-wind I wind around. 

43. Song of the lark: 

Ndnukash g^-u na'paksh, 
Sk61iilam g6-u na'paksh. 

The disease brought on by me, the lark, spreads everywhere. 

44. Song of the spu'm or female shkd'-bird: 

Kaflash nu shnol6ka 

I am snapping at the ground. 

45. Song of the sweat-lodge stick-hole: 

Stsaiisawalks gd- u shui'sh gi -l-_|^-^|j._ 

This is my song, that of tie stick-hole. 

46. Song of the loon or tdplal: 

Tseldwash nish shidlamnu tapMlas 

I am the loon and my waves follow me. 

47. Song of the bodily pains: 

Tatkti'sh ai nH na'pka 

I the painfulness have come upon ye. 



INCANTATIONS OF THE KLAMATH LAKE OONJUltEES. 169 

48. Song of famine or hunger: 

Tia'mish ai g^-u na'pka 

The pangs of hunger I carry about. 

49. Song of the West wind: 

Tzalamtdlkni kii-idsi nu 
sl^wish hii widsdpka. 

I the West wind, high above the earth I blow as a pernicious wind-gust. 

50. Song of the tuktukuash fish-hawk: 

P'laina nii kshak^dsha, 
kal6 nl kshdkansha. 

High up iu the skies I soar and turn my circles. 
Through the clear skies I anj carrying my prey. 

51. Song of the tsdkenush, an aquatic bird: 

Ka'lash ak nu wuya ts4k6nush 

I the tsilkCuush would like to fly over the country. 

52. Song of a gray aquatic fowl, called tchdkiuks; 

Shaikish ai nu yu'ta -l~.\j.~\-l^ 

I the shaikish I walk with ponderous steps, 

63. The little bog's song: 

Tsdkiag a-i nu shui'sh gi, 
l6md-ish a-i nu shui'sh gi. 

This is my own, the little boy's, song ; 
About the thunder I am singing now. 

54. Song of the tsdntsan-hawk or kingfisher: 

Tsala-esh nu k6ka tsdntsan l ^\^^\j._ 

I the tsdntsan-bird am eating up the salmon. 

55. Song of the weasel or tsdsgai: 

Ktsdlui nu g^nhuish 

WhUe walking I shine in my multiple colors. 

56. WeaseVs magic song: 

Tsaskdyam gd-u ka'la, 
guyuma kd-u ka'la. 

Mine is this ground, the weasel's, 
Muddy is my ground, the weasel's. 

57. Song of the tchdwash-fish: 

Tsdwas ai nil shui'sh gi 

I the tsSwas-fish am singing my own song. 



170 POETIC TEXTS. 

58. Song of the tstktu-hawk: 

Ydmash a nu shul'sh; 
ydmash a g^-u shui'sli. 

About the uorth wind I aui Hinging, 
About the cold winds I am singing. 

59. Tsisxixi-Urd's song: 

Nil ai nen nu shui'sh gi 

I am singing about myself. 

60. Song of the tsiutsiwdsh-hird: 

Tsiutsiwa'sain ke'sh mulua 

The snow made by me, the tsiutsiwiiBh-bird, is ready to arrive. 

61. Song of the blue jay, or tsxd-iitsxa' -mh: 

SankAwaltk ai nu shui'sh 

High-crested I sing my song. 

62. Song of the large black vulture: 

Tchuafsh ai nu nasffl'dsa 

I the vulture describe my circles in the air. 

63. Song of the tvdkash-crane: 

WAkas ni tchekl^Ia 

I the wiikash-crane crouch on the water's edge. 

64. Song of the young wdkash-crane: 

Wakdshak nu nii'pka 

The disease brought on comes li-om me, the youug wakiish-l)ird. 

65. Woodpecker's song: 

Wtikwakins winta walashtat 

I, the woodpecker, am holding I'asst the tree-stem. 

66. Song of the wd^hlas-tree: 

Waldsh ai nu wawikanka ~_i|-^j.|^_i|_^ 

I the pole-tree am shaking my crown. 

67. Song of the wd-ulituash-duck: 

Wa-u'htti'ssam gd-u na'pka ij ^i-- 

A sickness has come, and I the w^-n'htnash-duck have produced it. 

68. Song of the mallard-duck: 

Wii'-aks ai nt tcMwa -i ^ | -i ,_ | _l _ 

1 the mallard float on the water's bosom. 

69. Song of the weiwash-goose: 

Gd-u ai hu't wftchtaks 

This tempest is my work. 



INCANTATIONS OF THE KLAMATH LAKE CONJUKERS. 171 

70. iSong of the little wipelifwasJi forest-bird: 

WipSli'wash nu shui'sh gi, • 
wuipldwgsh nu shui'sh. 

My owu song I sing, I the wipeli wash-bird. 
I the wuipMwash am singing about myself. 

71. Song of the witkatkish-hawh 

G^-u al hu tu' s4wals, _l _ | _i _ ^ | j. ^ 

witkatkisara g^-u sdwals. _l-|-l^|-!-~|^_ 

My head-crest this is, it is that of the witkatkish-hawk. 
NOTES. 

The incantations obtained from Morgan are mostly of the kind called shuino'tkisb, 
and a large number of them are attributed to birds. Some of them probably exist in 
a more explicit form, which was not remembered, and the rhythmic or musical form 
was obtained of a part of them only. A literal translation of these song-lines is an 
impossibility in most instances, if their sense has to be rendered in full; I have there- 
fore furnished only parapkrastic interpretations. The list is alphabetic, and was 
arranged after the names of the animals, or other personified objects, to which the 
incantations are attributed. Many of these songs are referred to in the " Subject List 
of Incantations" given by Morgan. 

164 ; 1. Ktsiilui, to be resplendent with colors, is mainly said of objects showing a 
blue or purple tinge: pii'ksam shlaps ktsaluitko, the camass-plant has a bluish color. 
This vevb is also used when speaking of the rainbow; of the lizard: 165 ; 14., also of 
the weasel's fur-skin : 169 ; 55. 

164 ; 3. The use of these conjurer's arrows is mentioned 73, 5. 

164; 4. Yiimsam for Yamasham; cf. Note to 111, 4. Of the personified North 
wind the Indians say "he lives up in the mountains". On the north side the basin of 
the Williamson River is closed up by high mountains. G6-ish and genuish, genhuish 
means the action of going and that of liaving gone, or the present and the past going; 
both were translated by '■^gaiV\ ^Hread", a term which does not diii'er much from the 
real meaning. Both terms also occur in the songs obtained from "Doctor" John, and 
are mainly used of quadx'upeds, amphibians, and reptiles. 

164; 4. kapa probably for gatpa (nu), " I have come". 

165; 6. The ye'n sucker-fisli is quite abundant in the lakes of the Klamath high- 
lands and has been identified by Prof. E. D. Cope as the Catostomus labiatus. 

165 ; 7. y6wa. In Morgan's series of incantations there are song-lines on wind- 
gusts, tempests, rain-storms and on the winds blowing from each of the four cardinal 
points of the compass. These latter are not positively stated to be producers of dis- 
ease, though they are dreaded on account of their force and violence. The East wind 
(y6wash) blowing over the alkaline or volcanic, arid lands of Southern Oregon sings: 
yewa, y6wa (nu) which does not only signify "I blow from the East", but also "I am 
howUng". 

165 ; 11. Feigning to draw a rope or string from their owu posteriors is a trick 
sometimes resorted to by doctoring practitioners to make a disease disappear. 



172 POETIC TEXTS. 

165 ; 13. It is by no means certain whether the above is the full wording of this 
song or not. 

165; 16. neu involves the idea : *'you hear it yourselves." Cf. 167 ; 36. 170 ; 59. 

166; 17. kddsinksh was in this connection explained by lilhanksam ste'ksh. Con- 
jurers' rattles are made of deer's claws. 

166 ; 18. This hawk is a kind of sparrow-hawk, Falco sparverius. 

166; 20. Compare the song of the weiwash-goosc : 170; (lit. 

166; 21. This song of a female conjurer or "doctioss" is quite analogous to 
the song 166 ; 17. 

166 ; 22. The k^ls flies around in cold nights followed often by foggy mornings, 
hence the belief that it makes the fog. 

166; 25. Compare the gray wolf's song, 165; 12., which forms alliteration to this. 

166 ; 26. Eefers very probably to the cremation of the dead. 

167 ; 30. In line 2 the same object is alluded to as in line 3, koltam s/Vl. This is 
a broad strip of dressed otter skiu, ornamented in various ways with shells, feathers, 
bird-scalps, etc. To all these objects a magic power is attributed severally, and as they 
are now all united on one strip of skin, this strip must unite the magic powers of them 
all. The conjurer suspends the sp^i'l on his neck and lets it dangle over his chest or 
back, according to the manipulations in which he is engaged at the time. It is con- 
sidered as one of the most powerful of all the curiae tools or niuluash. 

167 ; 32. Alludes to the grayish-whitecolorof this bird, which burrows underground. 
This bii'd is also mentioned in 154; 12. and Note; cf. also 132, 7. 8. 

168 ; 41. S^i'pa is the abbreviated form of the possessive case in -am, as in wdsha 
w(5ka 105, 9. and Note to 105, 7.; in: ni'l weksa, 144, 1. cf. 165; 13. 

168; 44. Interpreted by others: "I am scolding and threatening the earth". 

169; 50. Another tiiktukuash song is contained in 162 ; 3. cf. Note. 

169 ; 52. Shaikish is another name given to the tchAkiuks. 

169 ; 54. The kingfisher or Ceryle alcyon is called in Klamath Lake tchdntchan, 
tsAntsan, tchdnshan after its ciy: tchStchatcha, and chiefly feeds on salmon. 

169; 56. The second line was referred by "Sergeant" Morgan to the otter. Cf. 
177; 13. 

170 ; 58. This alludes to the name of the bird, which imitates its twittering. 

170 ; 62. This bird circles in the air to discover fish on the lake's surface and to 
pounce upon them. The tchuaish is the red headed a ult ure or black buzzard : Cathartes 
aura. The Indian name is an imitation of the bird's cry. 

170 ; 63. 64. The w4kash-crane is identical with the tudkish, the name being derived 
from its ciy. These birds creep along the edge of thp water in search of small fish. 
Compare the tuakish-songs 154 ; 9. 156; 33.34. 

170; 65. This song is much better expressed in the series of Modoc incantations: 
174; 13. Here as well as there alliteration is perceptible. 

170; 67. After g6-u, the subject of the sentence, nii'paks or the disease, is omitted. 
In the name of the duck the final -s, -sh is geminated here in the possessive case, to 
stand for wa-u'htft'asam. 

170; 68. In the onomatopoetic word wii'ks the dissimilation of the vowel into 
wa'-aks is frequently observed. Also pronounced w6kash. 

170; 69. The weiwash- or waiwashgoose is a long-necked white bird, commonly 
kBown as anow-goose : Anser hyperboreus. 



INOANTATIOJSIS OF MODOG OONJUREES. 173 



MoDOKISHAM KIUKSAM SHUl'SH. 

INCANTATIONS OF MODOC CONJURERS. 

Obtained from Toby Riddle in the Modoc Diai^ect. 

1. ShJco'ks or spirifs incantation: 

FlaitaL4ntnish nii shufna lj_jl|-^^ 

I am singing to the heavens above. 

2. Another of the same: 

Nulidsba nulidshii nulidshd ^--!.| i| l 

ko-idshdntala kiiildtala kailpAkshtala, — tchi4. 

I am sliding, slipping, sliding. 

Towards that wretched land, towards that burning region, to remain there. 

3., Another of the same: 

Tu4 hak t41a? tua hak tdla? 
hu'-utak t41a, hu'-mtak tdla! 

What was itt what was it. It was he, it was himself t 

4. Song of the dry water-spring: 

W^lwash kal nlsh paMUa -i~-|-i-|-:L_|^_ 

Indeed my spring has dried up. 

6. Song of the old frog: 

K6-e welji'kash nu tchaleklya, ^|-_l| l^ 

welwdshtat nu tchalfka. _ .i | - j. | ~. _i. - 

I, the decrepit she-frog, sit down here by the water spring. 

6. Song of the wind: 

Shl^wish nu vuydmna, _l - | .x _ ] j. - 

ndnukash ml vuydmna, -l — | j. ^ | ^ _ 

p'lafna nii vuyt'imna. _i _ | -l _ | j. - 

I the wind am blowing, 
Everywhere I am blowing, 
In tiie skies I am blowing. 



174 POETIC TEXTS. 

7. Song of the five female elks: 

Wiiti leliwa, leliwa; wAti leliwa, lelfwa 



Tho knife lying at the end of the knife range. 

8. Song of the fisher , a species of otter: 

Tudtala nlsh 1 shudshi'pka? niniti, ninid 



tudtaJa nlsh 1 shudshi'pk 1? neineyA, nened 

Why then do you pursue me so ? You flutter and beat your wings. 

9. Young otter^s song: 

K61talam nu w^ash g^na amputka; 
at kd-u gui^ish kiiila niliwa, 
at kai leml(^ma kalla. 

- The otter's offspring, I plunged into tlie water, 

When I emerged from it, the ^jround blazed up. 
The earth was shaken to its foundations. 

10. Weasel's song: 

Tchdshgai nil g(ina, j. _ ^ | _;. _ 

kalla nu gakdla, -i | -i - 

tchdshgai nu gakala. - — - | j. - 

I the weasel am starting; 
On the soil I draw my circles; 
I the weasel I travel in circles. 

1 1. Song of the weasel- 

£-eni nii witka shko'ksam steinash J- |-l.,|j.,,|j. 

In the spirit-l.ind 1 lilcw out from mo tlie heart of the sko'ksh. 

12. MinMs song: 

Kli'pa nu gendlla ± ^\-l ~\± ^ 

I the mink am starting off. 

13. Song of the tvooclpecker: 

Wdkwakinsh nil winta, _i ^ | -£. _ | j. _ 

p'lai telslman wapdlatat; j.~\±~\j---\- 

wdkwakiusli nil winta, jl ^\j. ^\j. ^ 

nil ydua tdlshnan winta. j. - | J. _ | -i _ | _ 

The woodpecker, I am sticking fast, 
Upwards looking I stick to the trec-.stuiu|i : 

The woodpecker, I am sticking fast, 
Downwards I look, and hold mysell. 



INCANTATIONS OF MODOC CONJURERS. 175 

14. Horned owVs sony: 

Mu'kisham nvi lu'lpatko, | j. _ ^ 

ude-udd,lkatko k^-u waki'sh gi. -i^-j_L__|_L |_!.^ 

I possess the homed owl's sharp vision ; my roof-ladder is of speckled wood. 

15. Spider^s incantation: 

Kdltchitchiks nu luydmna, - — ] _l ^ | j. - 
p'laina nii luydmna. -l ^ | j. ^ | .i. ^ 

I the spider am going up ; upwards I traveL 

16. Patient^ s song: 

Kafla nfl shuindlla _i - | - ^ -i - 

I am singing my Earth song. 

17. Another of the same: 

At g^-u steiuash wakidsha! 

Now my heart has returned. 

18. Another of the same: 

Atutu huggi'dsha! 

Now it has turned 1 

19. Another of the same: 

G^-u hii g^pkash kaila shuaktcha 

After I had arrived (in the spirit land) the Earth wept and cried. 

NOTES. 

The Modoc series of conjurer's songs obtained fioin Mrs. Riddle is one of the most 
valuable of the collection of songs, because it gives them all in their full length and 
original shape. The majority are in use among the Klamath Lake conjurers also. 

The songs 3. 0. 17. 18. 19. are delivered rather in a speaking than in a singing 
modulation of the voice. 

173; 1. Sung by a "doctress" who has sent out into the air :i deceased person's 
spirit to search after the disease of her patient. 

173; 2. Rime, alliteration and assonance are combined in this interesting song, 
which is said to be sung by female conjurers. A spirit is sent undergTound to prospect 
for the disease. A tripai'tite division of the song-line is found in none of the other 
incantations obtained. Kailpiikshtala is a dialectic form for kelpokshtala ; after this 
word a short pause is made in singing. 

173; 3. The conjurer asks the returning spiiit: ''what did you find to be the cause 
of the disease, when going below the ground?" The answer is: "he was the cause of 
it"; he is some subterranean deity, or genius, probably Munatalkiii. 

173; 4. Probably attributed to a grizzly bear; cf. 157; 40. 

173; ."». The frog is )U()s])ectiny; for the disease around and wiihin llir wiiter. Cf. 
163; It. 



176 POETIC TEXTS. 

173; 6. The wind, while entrusted with the search for the disease, is blowing 
through the skies and sweeping over the earth. 

174; 7. The mythic elks who .sang this were said to be endowed with human 
faculties. Allusions not traceable. 

174; 8. This is an incantation which would seem to proceed rather from a duck or 
goose beating its wings wliile clia.sing another, than from a fisher. First line Modoc, 
second, Klamath Lake. 

174; 9. The animal had found the disease iu the water and chased it out to the 
shore; when there it set the shore on fire and the ground was shaken up under its 
destructive, ravaging steps. 

174; 11. The weasel, returning from its errand, reports to the conjurer, that having 
found the cause of the patient's disease to, be a wicked sku'ks's heart, this was brought 
by the weasel to the spirit land and breathed out, to be left there. This is the most 
probable interpretation of all those suggested, for song 11. is said to form a sequel to 
the weasel's song 10. 

174; 13. The kiuks had sent tbe red headed woodpecker to jirospect for his 
patient's disease in the atmosphere. Alliteration and assonance iu profusion. 

175; 14. Meaning: My eyes are well fitted for the discovery of the patient's disease, 
hovering in the air, for they are acute, being those of the owl ; I am just stepping up 
my lodge-ladder, the speckled bark of a tree, ou the search for the disease. Allitera- 
tion is a prominent feature in this incantation. Of Note to 122, 1. 2. 

175; 1.5. Sent by the conjurer, the spider goes up iu the web to prospect for the 
disease. The verb shows the prefix 1-, because the body of the spider is round-shaped. 

175; 16. On falling sick, a spirit orders the patient to sing and repeat this Earth- 
song line foi' hours. 

175; 17. "1 have recovered the use of my senses." 



KAkasdam kiuksam shuish. 
INCANTATIONS. 



GrvEN BY KXkash or "Doctor John" in the Klamath Lake Dialect. 



Kdlo. Kdlo nil na sha'shatk, slii'wish nu na sha'shatk, iiu kdlo p'ldi ml 
wftsa. 
3 Kdila. Kaila ai n<i shui'sh gl; kaila ai ni w41ta, kaila nn ai shawalta. 
Lu'Tc. SMshapsh na sha'shatk; shdshapsham g^nuish, g^-u g^nhuish rui 
g^na. 
6 Witd'm. Nii ai wita'm gi, nil ai shuina wita'm; nu ai na sha'shatk an, at an 
g^na: g^na an atf, g^mpSle an. 



mCANTATIONS. 177 

Witd'm Mlo. Wita'm ai nl g^na; nil a M'luak, kii'luak ai n g^na. 
Witdmdga. Nil a wi'tamak, h6tchna n wi'tiimak; witamdk a n; 1dpi ai nii 

wita'mak. 3 

Wdtsag. Nii ai hil wdtsag; shui'shank, nil ai shuind u wAtsag. 
Wilildg. Nii ai wil'hdg, h6tchna n wi'l'hag; gtina an wi'l'hag, ati' ni g^na 

nil ; nd-asht shli'shatk wilhdga n. 6 

Walxdtchka. Nu ai wal;t;Atchka, wal^dtchka n gdna ; kaila ni g^na, nil wal- 

kdtchka. 
Ku'lta. NU a ku'lt gi; kil'lta i ni g^na, ku'ltam at huk g^nuish. 9 

Fe'p. Pa'p a nil gi; pa'p an a nil shdshatk; nil a gAtpa pa'p, ati ni M'dshna, 

nil a hii'dshna. 
TcMsltgai. Tchdshgai nil k4-ika, tchAshgai nil g^na. 12 

Kli'pa. Klipa nil ai shui'sh; koy6ma kli'pam g^nuish. 
Gi'wash. Nil ai gi'wash, p'laina nil ai ho'tsna; la'pi ai ni gi'wash, sh^shatk 

nil giwash. 15 

Kdk. Nil ai ka'k gi; sAwals gd-u y4-uya. 
Wekwekash. Wdkwekash ai ni shahudltampk; nil wdkwekash slu'ka, shd- 

waltchnish slii'ka wekwekash. IS 

Tsdntsan Nil ai tsdntsan shui'sh gi; nil na sha'shatk tsantsana-ag, nil ai 

tsdntsan sha'wa n. 
Shke. Nil ai shg^ gi, hii'ntsna a nil, tia'muk a hil'ntsna, nil a hil'ntsna, mil'- 21 
makla nil shnil'kuapk, huntsdmpeluapk a nd; nil a kgla'wi, 
tchaggaya nil. 
Nani'lash. Kdlowat shidshi'yamna nanilash. 24 

Pi'shash Nil ai pi'shash, pishash nd-asht sha'shatk: hilt na'sht sha'shatk 

pi'sliash; guyantsa pi'shash, nil guydntsa. 
SJme-ish. Shnd-ish an na'sht sha'shatk. 27 

Tdplal. Nil a-i tapldl gi, nil'sh a-i shlawi'ta, ka'mat a-i shliiwita. 
Mpdmpaktish. Mpdmpaktish an shiun6ta nil, k'lekdtk an shnaya'na. 
Kdwiaga. Nil a-i kdwiag, ski'utsn an kdwiag. 30 

Tsidlsh. Tsialsh nil a hil'tsna; g^-u nil kdluish. 
Tseleyash. Nil a tsel^yash shui'sh gi; tselti'yash mish k6ka. 
Tchupksh. Nd-aslit tchkdsh tsu'pkish, nil a na sha'shatk, nil ai mil'ni kia'm gi. 33 
Nxdka. Nu kitchkdn nil an n^dka g^na. 
12 



] 78 POETIC TEXTS. 

Kii' tcha-aga. Winua nil a ku'tsag, sli^shatk kA'tsag; pakisb wak ktVtsag. 

WeMtash. Nu ai weket4sh gi; wdketa nil shahualtdmpka, nfi shahualtdmpka, 

3 11 li wek(jtash shdwa. 

Mdnhiya. Ncl-aslit shil'sliatk, mankag sbil'shatk. 

Kahnolsli. Ga' a ge-u kdkniilsh, g^-u hilt kakniilsli; ml shla-ip6le kdknulsh, 

p'laiwash kdkiiulsb. 

Pdphash. Piipkasli walta g^-u a g(i-isb; walta ge-u g^-isb papksham lu'lp; 

ka'gi g^-u papkasb gti-ish. 

9 Spu'klish. Nil ai spu'klisb, n4-asbt shii'shatk. 

Shidkdfkisli. Ge-u a shlako'tksh, ga' ki hu sblako'tkisb ; wudsi'tsi aiiku, tiim 

udsi'tsi; tiini i'l^i, tiimi anku, tiimi ge-u anku gi. 

12 Pd'Jcsh. Sbui'sbam ge-u pa'ksh; katcbgal g^-u shui'sb. 

WeUkag. Nil ai wela'kag; nil a tchia wela'^atkank; ge'k a bVlp, ge'k a mu- 

miaatch. 

NOTES. 

The majority of these songs are destitute of auy interesting and characteristic 
features, and being of easy interpretation I gave them without translation, adding, 
however, the necessary remarlcs iu the Dictionary. These pluases are common-place 
repetitions of some sharaanie ideas current in the tribe, and are given in a low jargon 
or technical slang redundant in elisions and contractions. Only a few of their number 
are rhythmical. The prououu nil, I, is often repeated tliree times in one sentence, in 
the form of ni, nu, an (a nu), ank (a uu gi), ua (uCi a). 

Of the thirty-seven objects which have given origin to these songs sixteen do not 
occur in the sliamanic songs given by other informants and two are given here under 
other headings: thes%, paishash (under kdlo), and the marten, Skdlamtch (under pe'p). 
I have arranged all the songs in categories of natural objects. 

Kakash also fiu-nished a series of limbs and organs of certain animals which were 
supposed to exercise supernatural powers, and therefore were made the subject of a 
shui'sh, shuiuotkish, or incantation. They are as follows: of the hlacl- hear, the head, 
snout, paws, far and heart; of the dog, the head, hair, fur, ears, tail and paws; of the 
weasel (tchashgal), the head, eyes, snout, nose, chin, long haii-, paws and tail; of the 
minJc, the paws, snout, fur, tail and heart; of the shuvishflwlc, the head and legs; of 
the salmon, the head and fins; of the fly, tiie wings (las, black or white) and legs. 
About the young antelope and old woman's spirit (wil'liag and weMkaga) see below. 

176; 2. witsa. When the clear sky is said to blow with a shrill sound (witsa), and 
thus "to sing its own song", this means that the winds are blowing fiercely tlirough 
the air, high above the ground. 

176; 3. This song on the grumbling or rattling earth (walta, Imalta) was made by 
Doctor John on the subject of liisown imprisonment, tlie cause of wliich I have rolat<Ml 
elsewhere. 

176; 1. ShAshapsli, SiiAsliapamtcli is tliemytliologic name of (he grizzly hear: 118, 1. 



SUBJECT LIST OF INCANTATIONS. 179 

177; 2. "There are two of ns black bear cubs" refers to the circumstance that in 
m.vtliologic tales two cubs only are found to belong to one bear family. Compare what 
is said of the giwash, 177; 14. and Note to 118, 1. 7. 

177; 5. The name of the young antelope is very differently pronounced. Its ears 
(mumu'atch wil'h^gam) form the subject of a shui'sh. 

177; 13. Koyoma. The same idea is met with in 169; 56. 166; 24. 

177; 14. giwash (the i pronounced short) is the long, gray-colored squirrel. 

178; 7. Piipkash. This song of the lumber-boards was more completely remem- 
bered than the one quoted 155; 18. 

170; 12. Pa'ksh. A similar tobacco-pipe song is to be found 167; 33. 

178; 13. wel^kag. Here as well as in all other portions of the globe the idea of 
sorcery and witchery is associated with that of old women (wel^kash, old woman; 
welekdga old woman's spirit). Welii';^atka, to travel around or appear as an old 
woman's spirit. 



NaNUKTUA KlUKSAM SHUi'sH. 



SUBJECT LIST OF VARIOUS KINDS OF INCANTATIONS IN 
USE AMONG THE KLAMATH LAKE PEOPLE. 



Obtained from "Sergeant" Morgan. 



Ydmash kiuksam shui'sh, mia'ash, t^dlamash, y^wash, sla'wish, 

North wind haa an incantation-son;;, south wind, west wind, ea«t wind, gnat of w.nd, 

pafshash, Igmd-ish, luepalsh, kt6dshash, gulk^sh. 

cloud, thunder, lightning, rain, rain mixed with 

snow. 

Sdppas kiuksam shufsh, shdp'sam stuti'sh; yaina, wAlidsh, ktd-i su'- 3 

San has a taminunsh-soiig, tnocksun; mouutain. rock-cliff, rocks 

smaluatk, ha'nuash, yati'sh, sam%a-ush, d-ush, welwash, kawam, wayd- 

opotted, upright rooks, upright rocks, rocks in river, lake, water-spring, eel-spring, floating 

smaller, 

lapsh. 

ice. 

Sndwedsh kiuksam shui'sh, wel^kag, tsdkiag, tsdkiaga tsu'^at^ant; 6 

"Woman has a tara^nnash-soDg, old woman's liitle boy, little boy restless; 

spirit, 

k'mutcha'witk : k6-idshi shui'sh g^nti ka'ilati. 

the old man: (is) an nnto- song in this conntry- ' 

ward 

Gil'tkaks kiuksam shui'sh, gudltguls, shillals, tdtktish, lululish, til6- 

Small-pox is an incantaiion, bellyache, cUr. nic pain, cramps, cause 

sickness, 

takna, tia'mish. 9 

of sickness, hunger. 

Mundna tatdmnish kiuksam shui'sh, kgldyua, raiikukag, washlaag, 

Mole has n tam^nnash-fionp, ^onnd-mon-s*.-. rt^ 1 -innnse, chipmnnk. 



180 T'OETIC TEXTS. 

gi'wash, ts^sgai, ts4skaya wdash, k61ta W(^as, Skdlamtcli, wal;{atska, kiitcb- 

Bqnirrel, wenael, weasel's young. otter's yonng, Old Marten, black marten, deer'a 

ingsh, w&B, kd-utchisb, witJi'm, lii'k. 

claw, silver. gray wolf, black bear, grizzlv. 

foi, 

3 Yaiikal kiuksam shul'sh, tchuafsh, tsas;^!^^, sk61os, p'laiwasli. 

Bald eagle li:is arae(lioine.song, black vulture, ' a black night- turkey- gray eagle. 

bird, buzzard, 

Nduki'sh kiuksam shui'sh, witkatkish, tsiktu, tsantsan, tuktukuash, 

Pigeon hawk Iims an incantiition, sruuU Ijawk. iniiwliawk, little fisbing- fish hawk. 

hawk, 

slikii', spH'm. 

gr.'iy liawk species. 

(J Wdkwakinsh kiuksam shui'sh, shpiu'bpusb, skaiikush. 

lled-headed wood- has an incantation, spotted woodpecker, large black 

pecker woodpecker. 

Kakan kiuksam .sliui'sli, ts6ks, tchiutchiwash, na'-ulinsli, shua't. 

Crow is a medicine-song, blackbird. "snow-producer," black forest bird, sedge-cock. 

Wihuash kii'-ishalsh sh^yuaksh kiuksam shui'sh, ka'kak=tkani tsiklia. 

Snowbird in snow making expert is a conjurer's medicine, yellowish bird, 

9 kal;(als (k41s), tchlkass kshikshnlsh, wuipld-ush, skiila, tsisxizi, tchii'-ush, 

a spotted night-bird, a monntain forest bird, tittle forest bird, lark, tilsxixi, yellow-hammer, 

uush=tilansndash, ts;ija-uts;{a'-ush, p6p=tsikas. 

"roUhead", bine jay, pup-tsikas. 

Ku'lla kiuksam shui'sh, wdaks, ndta, mpampaktish, tsaolaks, mamak- 

Eed-headed has an incantation, roalLard, little small duck, red-eyed dack, black and 

dnck black duck, 

12 tsu, kiHdshiksh, wa-u'htush, tiiiti, mulalak, p6p=waks. 

white large dnck, long legged dnck, young shoveler-ducfc, p6p-wiik8. 

duck, duck, 

Wefwash kiuksam shuish, ku'sh, kiimal, tsdkenush, tchakiuks, taplal. 

White goose is a doctor's medicine, swan, pelican, tsllk^ODsh, » gray fowl, loon. 



Trent is a conjurer's medicine- small large sucker, tsfUpash- a little sucker, minnow-fiah, 

sucker, fish. 



M^hias kiuksam shui'sli, ya'n, tsudm, tsii'lpas, tch4wash, ku'tagsh, 

Trent • ' ' " ' " ' - - - 

15 ts41ayash. 

salmon. 

W4m6uags kiuksam shui'sh, k^mtilag, wfssink, kd-ish. 

Black snake is a song-medicine, a black snake, garter snake, rattlesn.ike. 

La^a-4mbotkish kiuksam shufsh, wii'katas, k6a, kia, sku'tigs ; lakl 

''Never-Thirsty" is a conjurer" .s song, green frog, toad, lizard. lizard; chief 

1 8 shuisham k6-a. Klnsh kiuksam shufsh, cimpuam l.ik. 

(is) of songs toad. Yellow- is a conjurer's medicine, horae-hair. 

jacket 

Wu'kash kiuksam shui'sh, w^ssuass, kts^amii, sa'l, waktii'lash, wa'hlas. 

Pond-lily eeed is a medicine-song, lacustrine grass, aqu.'xtic grass, arrow sliaft-wood, pole-tree. 

reed. 

Wu'ns kiuksam shui'sh, ktslk, s4kuas, ki'sh ; s^i'l, k'nii'ks, ndu'ks, 

Dug-ont is an incantation, oar, fish-spear, harpoon; otter-skin rope, pestle, 

canoe strings, 

21 pdia, kAtchgal, siivvals. 

scoop, Indian tobacco, arrow-he.ad. 

Taut waki'sh kiuksam shui'sh, shashtanii'lols, wasli, shauhish, papkas, 

Of sweat- inside ladder i.s a coi^Jorer's song, onteideKidder of sweat- excavation, rafter, lumber, 

house floor house, 

sts«4-usa wi'ilks, lu'loks, slu'kops, slti'mdamd=wash. 

stick-hole, fire, cavity, remains of old sweat-houte. 



SUBJECT LIST OF mCANTATIONS. 181 

Lti'baks, kldpki kiuksam sliui'sh, ts^-usam skii'tatk, tsd-usam tsuyatk, 

white chalk, red paint are doctors' songs, t«h6-n8h-dre8»ed, tchS-nsh-head-covered. 

tsd-usam la'sh, witkakisham la's. 

tch6-ash-feather, hawk's feather. 

Kat'sitsutsu^as kiuksam shufsh, kat'hidwash, lu'luks^sku'tchaltk, 3 

Snow flake witchcraft is a doctor's song, hair-tying, in flre-robed, 

sku'ksam ha'kskish, ha'nasish. 

spirit's walking-staff, conjurer's arrow. 

NOTES. 

All these subjects of tamdnuash songs were obtained pell-meU and jotted down in 
a confusion. A clear insight into the quality of the songs known to this Indian could 
be attained only by classifying them into categories, as those of natural agencies, 
the winds, rocks, genera of animals, plants, tools and articles of native dress. Morgan 
had heard aU these songs'sung in former years, but when I met him he could remember 
the texts of those 71 songs only, which are to be fouud from page 164 to page 171. 
Many songs of this subject list are suug by the Modoc conjui'ers also. 

Certain names of uncommon species of animals could not be rendered in English 
for want of information ; to others the Dictionary will afford the best clue. 

179; 4. kdwam or kdwam is a possessive case, requiring as its complement ampii 
or koke, kokeaga. To bathe in eel-springs is deemed to be of great influence on 
character and personal courage, for the constant j)eril of being bitten by crabs, snakes 
and other reptiles must necessarily make the bathers scornful against sudden pains. 

179; 6. tsu';^at7ant, or in its full form: tsu;/at/fdntko, has to be connected attribu- 
tively with the foregoing word: tsakiag tsu'/at;fantko "a restless boy, a little boy 
unable to keep quiet on his seat." 

180; 1. tsaskaya w<?ash, kolta w^as show the apocopated form of the possessive 
before a vocalic sound. This is another exami^le of the rule that Klamath seeks rather 
than avoids hiatuK. Cf stsa-usa=w,11ks 168; 45; 180; 23, and Note to 168; 41. 

180; 5. spii'in; said to be the female of the fat shka'-bird. There exist conjurer.s' 
songs about both, which I have given in this volume, page 167; 36. 168; 44. 

180; 10. p6p=tcliikash seems to mean the " drinking or sipping bird" (cf. p6po-i). 

180; 17. La=a-iimbotkish, "the one which refuses to drink" seems to be a newt, 
Amblystoma, according to the description given of it by the Indians. 

180; 17. koa. The toad or bull-frog tamAnuash song is reputed to be the mo.st 
efficient of all these incantations. 

180 ; 18. Ampuam Mk is a film-like organism moving rapidly in spirals or meanders 
through the water, and supposed by rustics to originate from the long hair of horses. 
The primary signification of 4mbutka, to be thirsty, is "to return to the water", and 
the distributive form a-ambutka here indicates repetition. 

180; 19. The list of plants is very small when compared to that of the animals, and 
embodies economical plants onlj'. 

180; 22. wdsh means place of residence in general ; but since all the objects in this 
category refer to the sweat-house, it may be referred to a removal of earth in the floor 
of this structure ; liiloks is the fire burning in the centre of it. 

181; 1. tse-usam sku'tatk: "dressexl with feathers of the yellow hammer or red 
shafted flicker." 



182 POETIC TEXTS. 



COOLNG AND WOOING. 
I. 

1. Yuyulinne, yuyulinne, yuyulinne 

1 have passed into womaubood. 

2. I-uiieks%e'm a yulina j.-_|^-|^-|j._ 

After sunset I get unwell. 

3. Gii' llsh kani hudsh6tcbipka? -_i|_-l|~-l|_w 

Who comes there riding towards met 

4. Gc^nu i git', o-61ka, kinhia'na! L|.j.[__i|_ 

My little pigeon, fly right inlo llic dovecot ! 

5. Gindla h61akank; dtutu pa';^tgi ~._|__:|w_|_-i 

This way follow me, before it is fuU daylight ! 

6. At mlsh mbusha'aluapka lakiam wdashash gi'sht 



I want to wed you, for you are the chief's sou. 

7. Kd-a mfsh nil kd-a ni mbushdaluapka, ^| — 

hiimAmasht tuma tud gi'tkuapka. - _l | - ^ 

Very much I covet you for a husband, 

For in times to come you will live in affluence. 

8. She: Tatd 1 n'sh tud wo^f^we, woz6we, wox^wel 
He: Jil-ukik pl'la dwank, dwank, dwank! 



Ske: And when will you pay for me a wedding gift? 
He : A canoe I'll give for j-ou half filled with water. 

9. Wdwanuish kahidwuk tdla kdkekanka .:. |_j.._|-!._~|-!. 

He spends much money on women thinking to obtain them easily. 

10. Miishmush shii'dshipka kdwantk tchilloydga -i_|-i~_|-i_| 

The i)oor youngster, he is driving one cow only. 

11. Gdntala kd-i gafkanka piishpushlisli hisbudkshash ! 

It is not that black fellow that I am striving to secure! 



COOING AND WOOESTG. 183 

12. 1-u ne'nak yan'wdn i, j.^|-l-|-l — 
1-u ndnak 161alz' i. ^-|^^|^__ 

They say, that you are abandoned, 
They say, that you are homeless. 

13. NAnuk kali'napka wdwan'sh, na'dshek 'mutchdwatk tut'hidna 

All ■women are dead; only an old man is tottering about. 

14. Kd-a tidshi snawddshash nl'sh shu'-uashipk ! 

That is a pretty female that follows mo up! 

15. Wdk 1 niish gftk vuMlat inotlla? ^-.i|--^|---i|~- 

Why do you send me to sleep under the shadow of the cottonwood-treef 

16. Nu'sh ak gi'ntak 1 witchnoka -l^\^^ -\j.^- 
lulula witchnoka j. - - j j. -, _ 

That 's because you love me that you rattle around the lodgo. 

1 7. Tchdki mish gunl'ta, _l ^ , | j: _ -, 

tchdki mish gunl'ta, - — | - — 

huwalidga lulu-uash skiitatk, j.__|j.^]j.--|j._ 
lulii-uash skiitatk huwali^ga. _:._w|_!.-|_Lww| — 

A youngster beyond your home, a young man beyond your lodge 

Ran up the hill, wTapped in fogs, ran up the mount while robed in mists. 

18. Kayata hu'lhe, hu'lhekanka tchaki, (bis) '-\~- -\ -|- 

kaydta lu'li, lu likanka tchdki. (bis) -|--| =•!- 

Into many of the little houses ran the boy, 

Roughly he touched many of the little houses, the boy. 

19 Gd-u laki wayo'sham stu't;jantk hu't 

My husband has the voice of the white goose. 

20. Gd-u laki y6kikam shkutdntki 

My husband is dressed in the feathers of the jay-bird. 

21. Yiikikam stu't%antk g^-u laki j._-|^_|-i^^|j. 

Jly husband has the voice of the mocking-bird. 

22. Pdlpali watsdtka hu.sh6Ial%a 

He is bouncing around ou .-i white horse. 

23. Tatsa'lka wdts snukatkank _ -i | - j. | - -i. - 

Ho pets the horse before he grasps him. 

24. Taplal w6-a hu'nuank mu stu't%antko 

Loudly cries the spotted loon while skimming the waters. 

25. Wf-uka huli'l;^ank sku'le huntchlpka |^^_|^_-|j.^ 

The lark flies towards me grazing the ground and stopping every little while. 



184 POETIC TEXTS. 

26. Wdk i nflsh gfug wetfi', wetd', ~.~j.\ -|-- 

i-d-uka hfi'lhiank wetu', wetti'. '-[ ^|^ — 

Why did you become estranged, cstrauyed. 

By rumiiiig in neighbors' houses estranged, estranged t 

27. Wdk wennfluta nush gl'tk? 
wdk 1 niish gi'tk wennflota? 

Why have you become so estranged to met 

28. K6-idsi mdklaks bo'lalk tchawl'k sandholiug 

A wicked man approaches fast, desirous of .1 fight. 

29. Sheniiyatko ni wdti luya'nitki 

I flee before the man who tramps around in the lodge, knife in hand. 

30. K6-idshi wdtsag slikandkapka k6kiiapkug, 

kd-i nl shandhual nii k6ktkinslikiuk. _^^|-j.I_^. 



That vicious dog assails me and will bite, 
But I prefer not to scold him for it. 

31. Ka'-udshisli topinkan w6kanka, _l_~|-_l-|-i-- 
ydmat t^luitgank w6kaDka. --|- — |--- 

The younger brother of the gray wolf is howling, 
After having gone North life is howling. 

32. Wdsh a Idka gi'tk gii' n'sh hiiyaha j. ^\s ^\.l^\j.^\^ 

The prairie-wolf full of anger runs away from me. 

33. Wdsh lekd gitk wash61al;{ tchikglank watsat 

The maddened prairie-wolf gets away riding on his horse. 

34. Wdsh l^ggat;^ ni'sh hiiyaha, 

wdsh i l^ggatk' ku iiish hiiyaha ! hu-l-ydha! 

Crazy-minded the praiiie-wolf flees mo ; 

Maddened in his senses he runs away to a far-off distance. 

35. K6-idshi wdtch genudla, -i-^|-i-~|jL- 
hai y6shinko, y 6-osink ! _ j_ ^ _ | -l — 

A vicious steed has gone out: he is lost, he is strayed! 

36. Tatd mish kani Idpukni ggndlla ? 

Who has touched you at both places t 

37. A nil toks shiwdga sh^wa, j._^|j._-|j.w 
kdyutch mlsh pdtchnam palaldant. -L_|-i_|-i — 1^_ 

I hold you to be an innocent girl, though I have not lived with you yet. 



COOING AND WOOING. 185 



38. TAmiidsli pdsh nvl tiimgna, 



wAtchaaralam w^ash sha'walsh tiimgna. 



Over aud over they tell me, 

Tbat this scoundrel has insulted me. 



39. G^tala stU' newdl^a! 
tudtala tsdyalal;^' i? 



Eight ahead I follow the uphill path ! 
Why then do you swing the body aronndt 



40. Waiwash gandila shiwdksliasli, 
shlwamptchasli waiwash gandila. 



White geeso saw a woman hiding, 
Saw an old maid hiding in the grass. 



41. Tuhiish willasllna, 

wilhaslasna, willasllna. 
tuhush o willasla, 
wilhaslasna, willasla. 



The mud-hen sprawls on the top ; 

On the top it rests, it slides from the top. 

42. Wi-iltf nil shotelo'la, ^„|^.-|^_|^_ 
pi'imam nu u-dsh goy^na. j._|j._|j._|J.- 

I am rolling up the ■wi'l, and shall walk around in the beavers' den. 

43. Ku'lsh kule6tank ki' nak en gi', _!--~|-!--|-l 

mune kule6tank kf nak 6n gi'. -l |_!._|jl^-_ 

The badger entering his deu makes uak, nak, nak, 
Tho fat (badger) entering makes uak. uak, iiak. 

44. Kd-i weli'sht i mish shmdkalpsh gi'sh shapa; -!-_~|-i~„|^ — .[. 
wti wanuish gintak shcwal, sh^wal. j. - - 1 j. - 1 -l ^ | . 

Just uow you affirmed that hairless you were, 
Bnt the women say, that hairy you are. 



45. NApal ai na'd shunt6wa-udsha ~-i|_-l|_. 

Wo are throwing eggs at each other. 

46. E antldya mdyas a 

II 



47. Yuyuline'pka, yuyuline'pka 

48. Ynnigshxe'ni yulina 



186 POETIC TEXTS. 

49. W^nni tafna, wdnni teina, --^-| 1^ 

wdnni taina Ihi'-n- i- J- T- il! 

A different young woman 1 am uuw ; ih£-u ! 

50. Tdt 1 Avaktch buk a tilak shayantildsha? ~ j.\^-l\^1\^s\^j.^ 

Wlience have you carried off tliiit (man's) waiHtcont? 

51. Und mish sha luel61a tchaggdgatat netilapkash 

Long ago tlioy killed you when you lay cinder the serviceberry bush. 

52. Tchf tchaluisli kintAla, z ^ - 1 ^ _ | ^ _ 
w^wanuish ka-ig6ga. -^- _|j._w|^„ 

Young chaijs tramp around ; 

They are on the lookout for women. 

53. Hinawdla ! hinaw^la ! i_|| — j. ^ 

wAtcliagani w('ash, wiltchagam weash, -i.-_|-i-||-i^-|-i^ 
mu'at geno'ga, mti'at gen5'ga. -i — j-i-.||j:-. ^|j.^ 

Shake ynnr lioad! you son of a bitch, and go South. 

54. Girls to hoys: 

Kd-i mish ml witchta tchilluydgash 
hu'kank kaileak skutash ; 
M-i nu shanAhuli hu'mtcha liishu4tch;{asli. 
Boys to girls: 

K4-i nu shanahuli k6-eptcha snavv^dshasli, 
k6kuapkash lu'lp gipkash. 

Girls: Young man, I will not love you, for you run around with no blanket on ; 

I do not desire such a husband. 
Boys: And I do not like a frog-shaped woman with swollen eyes. 

55. K4nl laki! giuga slil6a shlanfya! ^-i|_j.j l|_-l|^_l|- 

You say you are rich! and you don't even spread a wild-cat's skin ! 

56. Ko'pe bunu'tchatko stu'pat wintila; 

nu'sh shana-ulitko nti'toks nilsh M-i shana-uli. 

Lying near the stove you are going to drink coffee ; although you wanted me for 
a wife, I do not want you for a husband. 

57. Shinuitko huyaha, jl _ | j. _ | j. ^ | _ 
wdnuitko hiiyalia. jl _ | j. _ | j. ^ | _ 

After c — she wont to hide ; the widow, she hid herself. 

58. Mu'ni wenuitko gdlash shipalkanka j-_1-l^_|jl^|_l^|j._ 

Tlis itout widow is stalking around intent upon the business. 



OOOING AND WOOING. 187 



NOTES. 



I. Erotic songs obtaiued from Chief Johnsou, Miunie Frobeu, and others, in the 
Klamath Lake dialect. The twelve songs obtained from Minnie Froben are among the 
l>rettiest and most melodious, as for instance 9. 16. 17. 18. 25. 26., and the eighteen songs 
dictated by Johnson are of importance for the study of manners and customs,. viz: 6. 
7. 8. 10. 11. 19. 20. 28. 29. 41. 42. 43 etc. 

With the Indians all of these and many other erotic songs pass under the name of 
pilpil or puberty songs. They include lines on signs of womanhood, courting, love 
sentiments, disappointments in love, marriage fees paid to parents, on marrying and on 
conjugal life. Some love songs have quite pretty melodies. A few songs of the present 
interesting series of song- lines seem to treat of commonplace subjects only, as 22. to 24. ; 
28. to 31., while others apparently contain nothing but heartless mockeries and satiric 
strictures, like 9. 28. 40. 44. But they all refer in fact to love-making and kindred 
sentiments, the satiric lines confirming the proverbial inclination of lovers to fight 
among themselves. I have deemed appropriate to gather all these songs under a 
heading which unmistakably expresses their real purport. 

182; 1. The accent is laid sometimes on first, sometimes on second syllable. This 
word is abbreviated from yiiyuline'pka, as it occurs in the Modoc pilpil song. The 
event mentioned here is followed by a dance-feast ; cf. shuyu;ifalsh, and 134, 21. 

182; 4. ginhi«3na "inside" means into a secluded spot, lodge or enclosure. O-olka, 
o'laka is the diminutive of o'lsh, the grayish jjigeon with the plaintive voice. 

182; 7. gitkuapka, a contraction of gitko gi-uapka i. 

182; 8. Pay a wedding gift is equivalent to purchasing a girl from her parents for 
a handsome consideration. 

182; 11. Sung by women. The original as given to me does not contain the 
negative particle: G^ntala nCi haikanka piishpnshlish hishudkshash. 

183; 12. yau'wdn i stands for yanhutini i. 

183; 13. kali'napka: they are not only "dead but out of sight", as the suffix -apka 
indicates. This being an erotic song-line, kalinapka simply means that the females 
looked for are either asleep or absent, and not deceased, as kalina would seem to 
indicate. 'mutch6watk for kemutchewatko ; cf. 136, 5. 

183; 14. 15. These two songs follow a purely anapaestic metre. No. 15 adding two 
acatalectic syllables to its three anapaests. Compare also the first line of 182; 7. with 
one supernumerary syllable. As for the contents of 183; 15. compare the analogous 
Modoc song 186; 51. 

183; 17. Melody very engaging. In luluash the second n is redoubled for metrical 
reasons. Dactylic rhythm prevails here, in 16, and in 182; 11. 

183; 18. That is, while he was seeking young girls inside the kayatas. Melody 
very beautiful. 

183; 19. wayosham, possessive case of waiwash, q. v. 

183; 20. shkut^ntki stands for skutatko gi or shkutandtko gi: "he is wrapped in." 

183; 21. The much more so, because he is in his festive garb, the potash and Ids 
stuck on his headdress. 

184 ; 26. Melody very pretty. A young woman addresses these words to a lover, 

184; 27. Sung by young women who have fallen out with their beaux. 



188 POETIC TEXTS. 

184 ; 28. Said to bo an erotic song. 

184; 29. luyii'nitki contracted from luyii'uitko gl. Of. Note to 183; 20. 

184; 30. k6ktkiu8hkiuk. Tlie proper nicanin^Ef of this verb is ''to set upon like a 
dragon-fly". Sliandhual is an uucominon form for shanaho'li, the long o being resolved 
into its component sounds. Cf. ndwal, and 184; 35. : genudla for geno'la. 

184 ; 31. Why did the wolf howl ? The reason given is that he could not meet any- 
body. This wolf is a loving young man who was lookiug out for women, 

184 ; 32. Sung by one woman and repeated by a female chorus. This song-line 
treats of the abandonment of a female by her husband or lover for some reason. 

184; 33. Pretty melody. The song refers to a lover disappointed in his aft'ectious. 

184 ; 33. tchikla wAtsatka is i)referable to and more frequent than wAtsat, wAtchtat, 
cf. 183 ; 22. Alliteration is perceiJtible in tliis song-line. 

184; 34. The wiish is the lover of the girl who sings this song; the lover is com- 
pared to a prairie-wolf on account of his importunity and lack of moderation. Com- 
parisons of lovers with quadrupeds and birds ar<! frequently met with. 

184; 35. yoshinko for yo ishiank o, yo-ishink hii: he is running astray. 

184 ; 37. shiwAga. In the objective case sometimes inflected like sn^wedsh woman 
80, 11. sometimes as a diminutive noun, as here, and 33, 10. In 185; 40. shiw4kshash 
st.ands incorrectly for shiwAgash, through phonetic analogy with shiwamptchash in the 
same song 

185 ; 39 to 44, perhaps including 45, have a literal and direct meaning, and besides 
this are intended to convey an indii'cct meaning, which is of an obscene character. 
The same may be said of songs 15 and 51. 

185; 41. This melodious song alludes to the habit of mud-hens to rest and si)r;iwl 
on the top of the waves ; wilhaslasna depicts their motions while on the wave-top, 
willaslina the sprawling observed wliile they sail down from it. With slight i)honetic 
variations, this same melody is also sung as follows : Tohosh o willaslm ; willaslasna, 
willaslina; willasll In. 

185; 42. wi'l seems connected with the diminutive word wil'haga, young deer. 

185; 43. ki' nak 6n gi', stands for gi' nak, nen gi : "he cries nak, so he cries"; 
assuming that en is abbreviated from nen. 

185 ; 45. This is a "dream" song. 

185 ; 40. Piljiil song worded in another than the Mslklaks language. 

II. Erotic songs obtained from Toby Eiddle and J. C. D. I'iddle in the Modoc 
dialect. The Modoc pilj^il songs obtained are all of a satiric charai'tor. 

186; 47. See Klamath Lake pilpil songs 182; 1. 

185; 48. See Klamath Lake collection of i>ilpil songs 182; 2. 

186; 49. Pilpil tune sung by girls. Taina is equivalent to t'eua, tcuiiwi'i-ash etc. 

186; 50. A song repeated for hours by young Modocs; it is of the true pilpil kmd. 

186 ; 51. Originally a inlpil song, but sung now by children playing hide and seek. 

186; 52. This is a very popular and prettily tuned lAlodoc song. 

186; 53. Sung by Modoc girls who feel themselves nnporluned by their lovers. 
Often the boys join them by singing it in chorus. This well-meant advice of sending 
the boys to the South, no doubt to the Pit River country, is to keep them at a distance, 
for the song refers to tlie appearance of the first signs of puberty. Watch^galam is 
full form of watchdgam, for which wAtchara is sometimes incorrectly substituted. 



SONGS OF SATJRE. 1^9 

186; 5J. This satiric carmen amoebwum is one of the longest pieces in the collec^- 
tion and contains words of reprobation addressed by disappointed girls to their ad- 
mirers. Sung in chorus by both sexes, with frequent dacapos after different tunes. 
The suffix -ash repeats itself at the end of every line aud in kokuapkash. 

186 ; 55. This little iambic impro\isation is very aphoristically and indistinctly 
worded, but is endowed with perhaps the prettiest tune of all songs in this collection. 
It is an apostrophe of a newly married wife to her husband, seeing herself deprived 
even of the most common comfort, a small tauued fur-skin, to repose on and to avoid 
the dampness of the bare soil. 

186 ; 56. A lover is taunted on account of his predilection for the white man's 
habits. The Modocs say this is a song of the Klamath Lakes. 

186; 58. Admits of no literal translation. 



SONGS OF SATIRE. 
I. 

1. Kdtchkal ii'yank ammyamna -!-^|^^j^^i-L^ 

He goes around giving away sticks of tobacco, and is very noisy about it. 

2. Get geno'la tsidlash patso'k Yamaki'shamkshi 

This man has started out to feed on salmon among the northern Indians. 

3. Tu'sh hu wikd ndnu sh^sha wafwash tchilamnii ? 

Where is it, that close by on a hill waiwash-geese are crowding together? 

4. G^-u kdni vu'lkashti wAtch hushdtchipkal -_^|_-^|^^|,^| 

Who rides up to me on my horse, borrowed of lue ? 

5. Tidshd k6katk i sb^wa, hashudtan' J! ^--i|-_^|_^_L|_^ 

You think yon are finely dressed; thru mlud your own dress! 

a. Vu'lkashti kili'wash shkiitatk ii'hlutuina 

He dresses in a borrowed woodpecker-blankr t ami trails it along on the gronnd. 

7. K4 tal hH'k mil sh^taluatk? .i _ | _l _ | ^ _ _ 
Ke' lish tok wal;^dtchkatko gtlli -!.^|-^~|-'~_|-^ 

Who is he, the alleged wealthy man ? 

She has entered the house of a poorly dressed hnsband. 

8. Lelah()witko watch \vu;^6yi -i -l-i |-!._|_!.^ 

Slow-nmniug horses he paid for his wife. 



190 POETIC TEXTS. 

9. Amgta tciwank vu'ya teiniwash ii--.|-i-|-i_[j.__ 

The young girl shakes her body -whuii nUintiiij,' the criiiiiiss-stiok into the ground. 

10. Am6ta ya'kuank viiyamna -l |-i^_|_l^ ^ 

Sliiikiiig her body she broke the camass-spade. 

11. Ldkiam pc-ia mat sha kafla kiwakipata 

The chief's daughter, they say, was dragged along the ground. 

12. I haktchauipesh wenni tchik61al;ta, -L-p^[j.-_|_L__ 
klitisham weash wdnni tchikokilx' i. ^|-l.-|j._|_l__|_l__ 

You always strangely stride on on your long legs. 
The crane's progeny, you walk strangely long-legged 

1 3. £-iikshivvash tenuydga ha'la-a hala -L--|-i__|-i_|_L__|__ 

A young woman from Klamath Marsh is swallowing, swallowing. 

14. Wika^t(^lantko tcha'li.sh pdwa hu ^^|--i|_-i|-^|„_ 

Short-faced like a porcupine that fellow is eating. 

15. Liielat hu'nksh lii't; yanta, vAnta jl_,|_!._|_l_|_l_ 

Kill yo that fellow on the spot! down with him, down, down ! 

1 6. Kii'utcliish gu'lo sAmgnaki' wo'n laki 1\ i| _l|__ 

When the female wolf has devoured the elk-buck she cries for more. 

17. Shunui-uya shuaktcha ■~.--.s\~ ■ l|_ 

I feel unwell and hence am sobbing. 
II. 

18. Ledsh4ntak wiwakni'ka; galgaikanka ^j.\^-l\j.^\^^±\^^ 

They whipped a telltale ; he is now sobbing. 

19. Bl'nash miit liii hlfvash tilankdnsha! -i_|-!._|-i^^|j.^_ 

The root-basket, they say, ia swinging to ami fm on Bi'ns back. 

20. L6-i 16yan 16yak, 16-i 16yan ]6yak 

21. £-ukshikni tenuy^ash hald, hald-a l( l ^\^ ±\^ ± ^ 

A maiden of the Klamath Lakes is swnlldwing, dcvoMrinj;. 

22. Nigg-a heu6 li<^yo, ui'gga Wyo h^we _^|-i_ ||-_|_i 

tumi niggS, tiimi nfgga j.~\.. - || ^ - |_ _ 

NOTES. 

The feelings which dictated these sarcastic song-lines are those of derision, satire 
and criticism. The majority are of a drastic, some even of a crude and voiy offensive 
clinractev, scourging mercilessly the infirmities observed on iellow-men. Many of thoui 



SOXGS OF SATIRE. 191' 

also pass as puberty sougs, lint I have preferred to class these uuder the heading of 
sougs of satire. Some are sung with melodies, others are spoken and recited only. 

I. Satiric songs obtained in the Klamath Lake dialect from Chief Johnson, Minnie 
Frobeu and others. 

189; 1. ft'yank. In this term the prefix ii- gives the shape in which the tobacco 
was given away. 

189; 2. Refers to somebody going to the Dalles or other place along the Columbia 
River. Of. page 93, Note. 

189 ; 3. In this verse there are four particles pointing either to distance or to eleva- 
tion (altitude): tu'sh, hu, the -u sufiQxed to nen (nen hn) and to tchflamna. This song 
is sung by a woman, who hears (nen) for the iirst time of this assembling of geese; 
sh^slia waiwash stands for sh^shash waiwash, or sh^shatko waiwash: birds called 
waiwash:geese. 

189; 5. A young woman is the object of this song-line. 

189; 6. Woodpecker-scalps of shining colors are still in use for ornamenting vari- 
ous articles of dress, implements, &c. u'hlutuina : he flaunts it and parades in it. 

189; 7. Kii tal? who then? who after aU? abbreviated from kani tala. Dresses 
made of wal;^;'itchka-skins passed for the poorest and meanest of all garments. 

190; 9. This is sung by men only. 

190; 13. A satire on feminine voracity. Sung by Klamath women from Klamath 
Marsh. Cf below, 190 ; 21. 

190; 12. haktchdmpesh ; -pesh is the suffix ptchi phonetically altered, the word 
introducing a comparison of the " striding one " with the young klitish=crane in the 
same song. A sarcasm on a long-legged person with swinging gait. 

190; 16. Regularly worded, this proverb-like verse would read as foUows: Ka'- 
utchish gu'lu wo'n^MJiiash shamenakia. 

II. Satiric songs obtained in the Modoc dialect from Toby Riddle and J. C. D. 
Riddle. 

190; 18. A tatler has received the deserved bodily punishment for his gossip-tales. 
Of the first word no grammatic analysis could be obtained in either tribe. 

190; l!i. The business of gathering edible roots devolves exclusively on women, 
but here an old man, Bin, who still lives among the Modoc at Yaneks, is indulging in 
this useful pastime. That 's where the point of the satire lies. Hlivash is a word 
unknown to the Klamath Lake people in the signification of "basket". 

190; 20. Sung by the national deity when foiled in the attempt of killing five 
lynxes by throwing stones at thoni; repeated from the shashapk616ash, page 126, 3. 
Cf Note. 

190; 21. To be fouiul in another version among the Klamath Lake songs; there it 
refers to a female living on Klamath Marsh, not on Klamath Lake. 

190; 22. This tune was with many similar ones improvised by the Modocs, who 
visited the East a short time aftei' the Modoc war, on seeing crowds of blacks filling 
the streets. All Indians feel at first a peculiar verj- strong aversion against the Ethio- 
pian race, though subsequently they often become friends and intermarry. 



192 POETIC TEXTS, 



MISCELLANEOUS SONGS 



Obtatmzd in the Klamath Lake and Modoc Dialects. 



1. K6-i ak a na'pka Ydmatkni gatpam'n6ka 



Disastrous times we had when the Northern Indians arrived. 

2. Na'nu wfka^shitko miikash ha'ma ±~-^\j-~-~\s 

I hear the owl's cry and very near it seems to be. 

3. MbiVshant kaila hamo'la, _i -^ | j. - 1 j. - „ 
shitchAkta ua'ts kafla, - _l _ | _l - 
shiukuapkuka na'ts ka'la. ;. | ^ | - 

In the morning the Earth resounded, 
Incensed at us was the Earth, 
For to kill us wanted the Earth. 

4. Wakaptch nen hl'tksh E-ukshi ne'pka, 
nvi' kam hi'tksh telu'lit. 

To see how Klamath Marsh appeals from there, 
I wish to look down on it from that height. 

r>. Ku-idshi nil kl'paf^h nu lulina 

Dressed in poor garments I stray around. 

fi. Tutf^ash nu lulina ~ -l | _ ^ | ^ _l | ^ 

I am going astray while dreaming. 

7. Kapkdblandaks ! o'kst a tkal^a nddwa --i| '-\ 

Be silent ! her body arises from the dead to scream ! 

8. Mu'ni nu laki gi, M-i kanam shlekisli ; ^ _ | .i _ | 
k6-id8ha ne-ulz6ga kafla tilangddsha. j. . _ | j^ _ | 



I am a potent chief, nobody controls nie ; 
The mischief-doing world I iipset. 

9. " Kalla nil shulgmoke'dsha", j.-_|-i-_|-l-_ 
ke'nta kaflatat tgi'kglan shuina. '-] '-\ ^|- 

"1 take the Earth up in my arms and with it whirl aroinul in a dance" ; 
On this soil I am standing and singing [the above words]. 



MISCELLANEOUS SONGS. 193 

10. Aishish kai nil sha-illo'la, ^-|^ 1^- 

yuhan^ash kaf nu sha-filo'la. --|-!.~|-f-- — |-i.- 

I Afshish I shall brandish, I shall brandish my huge sword. 

11. Afshishash hun gdldshui, -l — | - - ~ 
M' mish hfi' shnekshitudpka. j.__|___-i|_ 

Go to meet Aishish ; he will save you. 

12. Tfdsh hun liulekdn tchidlash shakatch6ala ! 

Halloo! let us form a circle and screen the salmon against sun-heatt 

13. Kilidshi'ga sh^polamna ^- \j.^-^ 

They carry long-necked ducks on their back^. 

14. Kaukdtsi Yaf na wo'n a shu-u'dshant i! -l — |-l-.|_l-|^-|^_ 

Follow up the elk and chase him upon Eauk^tsi Mountain ! 

NOTES. 

The first eight songs are worded in the Klamath Lake dialect, the third is of a 
mythic character. Songs 7-12 are worded in Modoc; 8 and 9 are K'mukdmtchiksh 
songs. A few songs or fragments of such, which would come nearest to what we 
call nursery or Mother Goose's songs, will be fouTid in the Myth of the Bear and the 
Antelope: 120, 11. 12. 13. 121, 9. 17. 122, 12. 13. 

192; 1. This song is sung by women only, and seems to point to an ancient inva- 
sion of the country bj- tribes from the North or from Columbia River. 

192 ; 2. The owl's cry is of fatal augury. 

192; 3. Girls' song. When at sunrise a haze or fog extends over the country, this 
is supi)osed to be a sign of the Earth's wrath against men. 

192; 5. ki'pash is no word at all, but seems to stand for gitko=ptchi. 

192; 7. The Indians were reticent about the meaning of this song, and hence I 
presumed that o'k was intended to mean some deceased person, since these are spoken 
of as hu'k, lie, she. Then the sense would be: "Be silent! that dead squaw is arising 
to sing a loud song." One Indian informed me that o'ksta meant a squaw, and pro- 
nounced it o'ksht (hunkisht?). Cf. Note to 35, 8 and page 130, second Note. 

192; 8. These trochaic verses are called the K'mukamtchiksh-song, and a variant, 
tu^lam, exists for kdnam. The alliteration of the Ic's and n's is very conspicuous. 
The meaning was given as follows: "I the omnipotent and unseen ruler of the uni- 
verse will chastise and turn it over for the manifold crimes committed in it by Indians 
and men of otlier races." 

192; 9. This is another K'uuikamtch-song, in which he menaces to destroy the 
world for its misdoings. I have put the first line in quotation marks, because it forms 
the words or text of the song. The first line is sung about a dozen times before the 
second is sung once. 

193; 10. Christian song, referring to the day of last judgment. Aishish, who is 
a deity representing the powers of nature with animal attributes, has been in the 
mind of some Modocs identified with Jesus. 
13 



194 POETIC TEXTS. 

103; 11. Song of Christian origin, in wliicli Aisliisli is also identified with Jesus 
for no other reason than a fancied similarity of names. 

193; 12. Wlien of a party of fislung girls one catches a salmon or other large fish, 
all the others quit their lines, arrive on the spot, roast the fish while singing these 
words and eat it uj). 

193 ; VS. This song is common to Modocs and Klamath Lakes and is descriptive 
of children amusing themselves with ducks. Pretty melody. 



TUNES AND SONGS WITHOUT WORDS. 
WAR WHOOPS. 

wdaha wea wdyaha, kawe'ha kaweiha, kawe'ha 
kji' kji' ka', wdha w^ea wdyaha 

3 n6ke n6ke n6ke ' 

howiena' how^iena', tchdlam tchalam wi^na wiend 
hovviena' howiena', tcMlam etc. 
6 hi ellovA hi ellovd hi ellova 

nkeiha n^eiha n^eiya, nkeiya n^^-u. 

ii'-oho ji'-oho e-oh6 i-ihi, i-ihi-I, i-uhu 

HUMMING TUNES. 

9 diainaini dianandna, diatainia diatandna 

tananani nannanani, taninanani tanni naninanani 

taindnni tanindnna, tainaina taninaini, tdnanana 
12 tiini tayanani tani nil' nenani 

nanat^ tdainiana nanatd nanat^ana nateana 

kanenat^na nenankane^na tenane^nate 
15 nianaindn kianaindn, kianainfa nainan iiainian 

kalena tend, kalena tena, kalena tena 

nawetana nawetiya, nawetana nawetia 
18 liggaiha Ifggaiha, ha'hai liggaiha, 
e bi tchuima, liggaiha liggaiha. 

widshiggaya hi'a, widshiggaya hl'a 
21 ha' h5 widshiggaya ho; hii' ho ha' ho, widshiggaya ho. 

Yuliili' ynhali' gdya, ynhill' yuhali' g4ya 



TU2IES AND SOKGS WITHOUT WORDS. 195 

ta'-iminnan na'-inndnnan, ta'-inndnnSn na'-inndnnan 

td nanidnai ndniana, td nanidnai ndniana 

walwil^ga palpil^ga, walwildga palpildga 3 

pdlpilega pdlpilega, pdlpilega etc. 

DANCING TUNES. 

A. Tunes heard daring Puberty-Dances 

ho'-wina we'na tchdlam tchdlam wdna 

uha u-ai hai hai h^vglali, 6 

hdhai u-ai hehai hdvgldlt. 
witcha kenna, wftcha kdna keno', wftcha kenna ken6 
nil k6no keno k^no, n'o kgno n'o keno k^no - 9 

B. Tunes adopted from Shasti Indians. 

hui'no h5 hotino hil-ii huino hu'tnino ku'ino ho-o 

wfnna hddina hdwina, hd-ina a-a, hdwina nd-ina 

t6yo winno hoyo winna n6, weyawinna n6, hejowinnd 12 

ho owiuno heya'nlia kina ho-owfnna heya'nlia kena 

he-annovvinnd, innatd lowinna, he-eanno winna 

hewii' iwinnand o wi'nna 6h6 hana winna 6ho 15 

hannandwiya nd-uya ndyua hannand-uya o-uya 

hdwa enna h^-au wennda h^-aunn^ heyawenn^ 

ha wenno hahiy6 wenn6 wean6 ha wenna, awen6 hewo 18 

h6 ninu henu hen6 inil' ho-inu h6nino-u henii' 

C. Dance and war tunes adopted from Snake Indians. 

hdwinna hau-inna no', t'nna hawinna hdwinna no' 

h^-a wenne, a h^a, heahe, hda wenne 21 

hawea' wenna, hau-d, hawennd e'nna, hawd 

D. Dancing tune heard from Warm Spring Indians. 
kanf luya uya tasf wene nasi 



196 POETIC TEXTS. 

E. Modoc dancing tunes. 

ht'o l)i'o h(Jo lu;o, h^o heo h^o lieo 
haudidusii haudidusLi haudldusii haiididusa 
3 Stan stdn stdni assi st<4ni assi 
lioy6-inna hoy6-inna, 

hoy6 winna hoy6 winna, hoy6 winna'-a'. 
6 liAw6nen-i' hawgnneiiiiha, hawenngnaha h/iweiigii-i' 
iwop tcharle kumtuho' 

TUNES HEARD AT FUNERALS. 

k^lakennu ke^lakeniiu kclakennu kelakenu kelaya-a 

9 liihalia l^haha 14haha lahaha 

liihihi ynyaya yiiyaya liiliihi 

htiya heiia h^ya heua h^ya heua 

NOTES. 

194; 1-8. These whoops aud tunes were sung by Modoc warriors wheu ou the 
Avar path, or after their return in renieinbrance of their exploits. The whoops were 
chanted aud howled while j;oing loiind in a circle for one to two hours; even now 
they are heard on solemn occasions. Tliis uniform performance was, however, inter- 
rupted sometimes by feigned attnclcs on ;i supposed hostile force lying in ambush or 
inarching past. A scalp-dance tune, beginning with nkeiha, is added, also battle cries. 

194; 2. The kii' kii' kii' retrain serves as au incidental interruption of the weaha- 
and other whoops. They iiroiiounce it almost voicelessly by tapping their hands upon 
the blowuuj) month or cheeks in a quick measure. 

194; 3. The noke noke is sung either as an introduction to the howiena'-whoop, or 
as a conclusion to it. It is ])ronounce<l in a similar manner as the ka' kii', and often 
accentuatetl nolve/. 

194 ; 7. Tills jscalp-dance tune is one of the many heard at these dances during the 
earlier Modoc wars. A jjceled tree, sometimes twenty feet high, was planted into the 
ground, otter and rabbit skins fastened on or near the top, and below them the scalps 
of the enemies killed in battl(>. Forming a wide ring around this pole (walash) the 
tribe danced, stood or sat on tlie ground, looking sometimes at solitary dancers, moving 
and yelling (yil'ka) around the pole, or at others, who tried to shake it, or at fleet 
horses introduced to run inside of the ring. Circular dances are of course performed 
by joining hands. 

194; 8. The.se are the wai--whoops alluded to in 23, !.">. <'t. ;i olio u'tclina in 
Dictionary. 

194; 9 etc. 1 include under the heading ''Immming tunes" lively tunes of sliort, 
ever returning periods of words whose signification is generally obliterated. Some 
of them mav include archaic; words and forms no longer niidcrstood by tlie prcsi'iit 



TUNES AND SONGS WITHOUT WORDS. 197 

generation, while otbers contain words of the language actually in use but ground down 
or defaced in such a manner as to make them unintelligible. The variations in which 
these songs are simg are infinite in number, since they are fancifully produced at the will 
of the singer. I thought it sufficient to give a few of these variations only, and took 
care to mark the higher pitch of the voice, a sort of musical arsis, by the accentuation. 
The majority of them form an accompaniment to the motions made while gambling. 

184; 9-17 were obtained from a young Indian, Frank, living on the Williamson 
River. Cf. page 91, second Rote. 

194 ; IG. kalena tenA is rendered by : " ye are all dead at once"; which means: all 
of you have lost in the game. 

194 ; 18-195 ; 4. Playing tunes sung by Modoc and Klamath Lake Indians when 
sitting at a spelshna or other game, also while musing, travelling or working; given by 
Jeff. C D. Riddle. The person who deals the sticks in the spelshna-game is the one 
who sings the tune. 

194 ; 18 and 19. I'O and 131. 22. Melodious tunes snug by Modocs and recently 
introduced among these Indians. 

195 ; 2. 3. These are among the most frequent tunes hummed while playing the 
spelshna-game. Like 3 and 4, 1 and 2 are often sung alternately. 

195; 3. 4. These words are made up from the terms by which butterflies are called: 
walwilegash, yapalpul^ash. 

A. These dance-tunes, 195; 5-9, are in use among the Klamath Lake i^eople and 
were obtained from Minnie Froben. The first of them sounds almost like 194 ; 4. 5. 
Little bells are often rung while dances are performed and dance-tunes are sung. 
Women and girls of the Modoc tribe end their songs with a protracted TO, while the 
men habitually conclude them with a loud u-o'hu. 

B and D. Obtained from Dave Hill; sung among the Klamath Lake people. 

C. Given by Long John's Ben. They begin with the sound h , like the majority 
of the Shasti tunes. 

E. All obtained from Jeff. 0. D. Riddle. 

196; 1. Repeated indefinitely, as soon as dancing assumes a quicker measui'e. 
Compare with it the song of the skunk 162 ; 7, that of the quiver, 163 ; 8, and Notes. 

196; 3. stAvi, full, seems to allude to the formation of a ring for dancing. Cf. st(i 
hashdmpka 23, 12. and what is said of 196 ; 7. 

196 ; 4. ."). The last gioup in this tune, hoyo winna'-a', serves sometimes as a refrain, 
sometimes as a stop. 

196 ; 7. Of foreign introduction, as shown by the sound r. Sung in alternation 
with Stan, stan 196 ; 3 and said to come from Warm Spring Indians. 196 ; 2 sounds 
very much like: "how do you do, sii'?" 

196; 8. Probably contains the words: k'lekA a hu, "he, she is dead"; kelayd-a 
serves as a refrain, sometimes as a stoj). 

196; 9. The day before the funeral of Pukish, mentioned in Doctor John's trial, 1 
heard his aged mother sing this tune. Other mourners in the funeral tent sang what 
is contained in 196 ; 8. 10. 

196 ; 10. Funeral tune heard from Snake Indians at YAneks, on Klamath reserva- 
tion. They join hands and sing this melancholy tune for hours ; the higher the deceased 
stood in his tribe, the longer lasts the wailing. 



GRAMMAR OF THE KLAMATH LANGUAGE. 



199 



GRAMMAR OF THE KLAMATH LANGUAGE. 



INTRODUGTION. 

A few remarks on the structure of American languages, and on the 
difficulties encountered in their study, will, I presume, be acceptable to the 
studious at a time when the first grammar of the Klamath language ever 
composed is presented to them. 

Students entering into the vast domain of American languages find 
themselves puzzled and bewildered by many facts and peculiarities which 
never occurred to them during their study of the classic tongues in which 
Demosthenes and Cicero delivered their orations. Like other illiterate 
languages, those of America bear within themselves phenomena which 
appear to us as strange peculiarities and mysterious fancies, but also pre- 
sent a grand and ttiscinating aspect like any product of nature undefiled 
and unaltered by the artifice of man. 

Supei-ficial minds are easily repelled by the oddities of Indian sounds, 
some of which are croaking or strongly nasalizing, partly faucal or other- 
wise unpronounceable, and disagreeing in their phonetic rules and pecu- 
liarities from all their former notions of language. But the educated, who 
at once perceive that they have to deal with a problem of natural science, 
readily comprehend that these freaks of human speech are worth a pene- 
trating study. The phonetic side of an Indian language, in fact of any 
language whatever, can be but very imperfectly acquired from books, and 
what I offer below under "Pronunciation", "Mode of utterance", in the 
phonologic section of the Grammar, should be considered as only an 
attempt to do justice to the real utterance of this upland language. 

301 



202 GKAMMAK OF THE KLAMATH LANGUAGE. 

More diversity may be discovered in the morphologic stnicture than 
in the phonetics of the languages of America. This variety is so bewilder- 
ing, so disagreeing with our old-time notions of language, that the classify- 
ing tendency of our age has endeavored to simplify this apparent chaos by 
imagining a general category under which all American languages could 
be classed. Fr. Lieber styled them holophrastic; Du Ponceau called them 
incorporating, but applied this characteristic only to those languages of 
America the verbal inflection of which he was able to investigate. The 
truth is, that no general characteristic can be applied to them that would 
clearly distinguish them from many other tongues spoken in both hemi- 
spheres; like these, they are all agglutinative, many of them polysynthetic, 
though in very different degrees; their transitive verb is governed by its 
object, the intransitive by its subject; the distinction between noun and 
verb is morphologically but an imperfect one, though this imperfect dis- 
tinction varies in degrees between the various linguistic families. Many 
American tongues do not possess any form for the plural in nouns, while 
others liave one regular plural ending or a variety of such, or a distributive 
form answering to some extent to a plural. Some languages have no ad- 
jectives, strictly considered, but use participial forms instead; others possess 
real adjectives, and to form their plural reduplicate the latter part of the 
term. Synthesis is carried to an extreme wherever the verbal inflection 
is no longer the vehicle of purely relational categories, but associates with 
them material ideas as those of beginning, continuation, distance and prox- 
imit}' of the object spoken of, negation, desire, approximation, and others 
which do not properly belong to the sphere of verbal inflection. The verb 
with its incorporated subject- and object-pronoun then becomes a whole 
sentence, and its derivational affixes often accumulate in a degree which is 
quite perplexing. Other languages run exactly in the opposite direction, 
that of analytic development. They separate the pronouns from the verb 
governing them, possess only two tenses, but very few modes and voices, 
express by separate terms what other languages indicate by derivation, and 
reject the apparent luxury of nominal cases, of the dual and of the various 
forms for the plural. 

The diversity of American languages shows itself in their syntax not 



INTRODUCTION. 203 

less than in their morphology. Generally the structure of a sentence is 
simple, being based only on the coordinative and adversative principle. But 
where there is a lack of the relative pronoun, or an inadequate supply of 
conjunctions, as in the dialects of the Mask6ki family, verbals are necessary 
to supplant them. This produces encapsulated sentences, which, by the 
frequent repetition of the verbal, soon become tiresome through monotony, 
and diminish the perspicuity and compreheusibility of the spoken word. 

A continued study of the Klamath language has convinced me that it 
occupies a middle position between the extremes of synthetic and analytic 
structure just referred to, but that, nevertheless, it shows very plainly all 
the characteristics of agglutinative tongues. The distinction between the 
noun and the verb is made pretty clear, although most substantives can be 
considered as nomina verhalia; the verb is not overloaded with forms point- 
ing to material ideas, neither with tenses, modes, nor voices, and possesses no 
real personal conjugation. As to derivation, Klamath is undoubtedly poly- 
synthetic in its affixes, the suffixes preponderating largely over the prefixes, 
and differing from them in their functions. Outside of Klamath and the 
dialects of the Dakota stock, but few languages have been discovered in 
which the prefix indicates the exterior form of the verbal subject or object, 
or even the quality of the verbal action. Reduplication for inflectional 
purposes is as well developed hei-e as it is in Pima and Selish and forms 
one of the characteristic features of the language. As to its syntax, Kla- 
math may be called analytic; a profusion of conjunctions relieve it of the 
too frequent use of participial and similar constructions, as does also the 
relative pronoun kat, and the use of the substantive verb gi simplifies the 
verbal inflection to a great extent. 

These and other characteristics impart to the language of the Md- 
klaks a well-defined type, and approach it to some of the tongues of 
modern Europe, in which analysis has not preponderated over synthesis. 
An attentive study of the numerous texts obtained from the Indians, paired 
with constant comparison of Klamath structure with the structure of many 
foreign and American languages, could alone furnish a solid basis for 
establishing the grammatic rules of this upland tongue. The rhythmic, 
stately, and energetic tenor of its periods, especially those of the larger 



204 GEAMMAK OF THE KLAMATH LANGUAGE. 

mythologic i)ieces, will please every student who has ever lent his attentive 
ear to the well-jxtised periods of Roman historians, and will even evoke 
comparison with them, not as to their contents, but as to the flow of the 
well-constructed sentences, which appear in these narratives. 



Oral language is formed of voiced and audible units of thought, called 
words, which consist of sounds grouped together and possess definite and 
conventional meanings. To be understood by the tribe, people, or race 
which converses in it, a language must necessarily follow certain laws, 
which are partly of a logical, partly of a conventional nature. 

The scope of a scientific grammar therefore consists in presenting these 
laws: (1) as they manifest themselves in the present status, or some given 
historic stage of the language, in a S5'stematic form; (2) to deduce these 
laws from the previous historic status of that language, and from its cog- 
nate dialects, as well as from the comparative study of other tongues, viz., 
from the science of linguistics. 

Not only does every language possess a stock of words and idioms 
peculiar to itself, but also a jieculiar character in its phonetic rules, pro- 
nunciation, and mode of thought, which impresses itself upon the senses 
and memory even of persons who have never become familiar with the 
language, and prompts them to distinguish it readily from other tongues. 
The causes to which every language owes its peculiar stamp are the om- 
nipotent climatic influences of the country which the forefathers of the 
people have inhaljited, and also, wherever migrations have occurred, of 
the country presently occupied by it. 

Grammars are usually made up of a large number of laws or rules, 
restrained by an equally large array of exceptions. Manj- of the latter 
are only apparent and not real exceptions; when they are real, they gen- 
erally show that conflicting phonetic laws have been at work, or that the 
principle of grammatic analogy or some other conventional element has 
prevailed over the logical formative principle of language. Had all lan- 
guages been evolved through the logical principle alone, grammar would 
contain rules only and no exceptions. More real and perspicuous regu- 



INTRODUCTION. 205 

larity can however be claimed for the large majority of American languages 
than for those of the Indo-European family, for the simple reason that the 
former are of the agglutinative type, while the latter are built up after the 
principles of the inflective tongues. This distinction is founded upon the 
diiference in degree, by which the fusion of the affixes to the radix has 
taken place in the earlier stages of linguistic evolution; a fusion which has 
been much less energetic in agglutinative languages, as the name itself of 
these latter purports. 

A "Grammar of the Klamath or M4klaks language of Southwestern 
Oregon" must hence be defined as a scientific or systematic exposition of 
the natural laws which have been active in forming and evolving the abov(! 
Western American language, in its whole as well as in its two dialects, that 
of the Klamath Lake and that of the Modoc people. 

The subject matter I divide as follows: 

The first and fundamental part treats of the Phonology; it enumerates 
the sounds composing its phonetic material and expounds the laws presiding 
over the composition and alteration of the sounds. 

The second part treats of the Morphology; it enters into a statement of 
the laws, logical and conventional, observed in the inflection and deriva- 
tion of words, and of the application of the phonetic laws to these elements 
of speech. 

The third part deals with the Sgntax; it defines the laws according to 
which words are arrayed into sentences or units of speech; it also explains 
the relations of words among themselves and to the sentence, and of one 
sentence to another. 

The abbreviations of the Grammar are those indicated on the first 
pages of both dictionaries. 



2UG GRAMMAR OF THE KLAMATH LANGUAGE. 



PHONOLOGY. 

The sounds or ])honetic elements of language are either vowels or 
consonants or clicks. The former two are uttered by expiration of air 
through the vocal tube. The vowels or voiced breaths are either simple or 
compound. Compound vowels may either combine by passing into diph- 
thongs or triphthongs, or when coalescing into one vocalic sound, become 
softened vowels, "Umhiute." Consonants are sounds uttered without voice; 
they are either checks, momentaneous sounds, or breaths, sounds of dura- 
tion. Glides^ or sounds produced by inspiration of air, do not occur in the 
Klamath language as parts of words, though they are occasionally intro- 
duced in the form of interjections. Cf. o, o' in Dictionary and Note to 
194; 2. 

VOWELS. 

The five simple vowels of the Klamath language given in the order as 
they increase in pitch of voice, are : u, o, a, e, i ; each of them can be pro- 
nounced short and long, and this makes up in all ten vowels. Only three 
of them, however, are primary vowels when pronounced short: the guttural 
vowel a, the palatal vowel i, and the labial vowel u. They are called 
primary vowels because the large majority of the radical syllables in Kla- 
math contain one of them, which may also be said of a large number of 
affixes. When pronounced long, the five simple vowels are often the 
product of synizesis or other sort of vocalic coalescence. In pitch, o 
stands between a and u, e between a and i; a rapid pronunciation of au 
and ai has produced o and e, as we observe it also in French. 

The softened vowels or '^Umlaute" are ii, 6, a, as in German, and can 
be pronounced short and long. They originated through a coalescence of 
different vocalic components into one sound, as can be shown in many, 
though not in all, instances. Only one of them, a, is of frequent occur- 
lence, and is observed to alternate constantly with e, both being a product 



PHOXOLOGY. 207 

of a-j-i: ii-i, {li, ii or e. Concerning the occurrence of o and ii, cf. below: 
Frequency of Sounds. 

Nasalizing of the vowels, as in the French an, in, un, is unknown in 
pure Klamath speech, although consonants are frequently nasalized. At 
times it occurs, however, in the conversational form of Klamath speech. 
Where words from other Indian languages are quoted for comparison in 
this volume, the nasal utterance of their vowels is indicated by n superior, 
as: u"ii" o" o" a" it" e" i". 

The deep, obscure, hollow pronunciation of the simple and softened 
vowels should be sharply distinguished in this and in other languages from 
the dear, high-pitched, or ringing utterance of the same sounds. It is pro- 
duced by opening the glottis to a wider passage of the voice than for the 
clear pronunciation, and is as common in Klamath as it is in English unac- 
cented syllables, or in syllables closing in consonants; compare: a in father 
(clear pi'on.) and in water (deep), i in marine and in fill, u in shoe and in 
lung. To call these deep vowels short will do for English only, where 
these sounds usually are met with in syllables brief in quantity. But it 
would be a misnomer in the terminology of other languages, for they can 
be protracted to any length as well as the clear-sounded vowels. With a 
and o this distinction cannot be made; a deep utterance of the other vowels 
was marked in this volume by circuniflexing them. The vowel a (in fall, 
talF) coincides with 6, and 6 was hence omitted. The spontaneous or primi- 
tive vowel, "Urvocal", was given the letter 6 instead of e (the deep e). 
Thus I use the circumflex only on a, i, u (a, i, ti); it may be used also 
on the softened vowel ii. Examples: 

tapini second to, subsequent. 
shtl'lta to announce, report. 
bu'nua, pu'nna to drinlc. 

To obtain a full insight into the phonetic character of Indian lan- 
guages, the difference between the clear and the deep pi-onunciation must 
never be lo.st sight of; i and u are generally sounded deep in final syl- 
lables followed by one or more consonants. Cf Alternation of Sounds, 
Quantity, and Introduction to Texts, ]). y. 



208 GRAMMAR OF THE KLAMATH LAN(^tUAGE. 

The genesis and mutual relations of the vowels are set forth in the 
following table: 

a a i 1 u u 

a a it u H 

e e a ui:=u 



o o 

oizzo 

DIPHTHONGS. 

The vowels i and n placed before or after a vowel and pronounced in 
one and the same effort of the vocal organs, form diphthongs. In a true 
diphthong the position of the organ necessarily changes when passing from 
one component to the other, and Avhen it stands at the commencement or 
in the midst of a word, the i- and u- component assumes the consonantic 
nature of y and w. The word-accent may rest either on the first or second 
vocalic component, and when the two are pronounced separately the com- 
bination changes from a true to an adulterine diphthong. 

Thus, Khimath possesses a series of diphthongs which can be uttei-ed 
ill two different wavs: 

(a) as dissyllables or aduherine diphthongs, with hiatus intervening. 
This pronunciation bears an archaic type and can be best observed in the 
Spanish language. Ex. : spa-utish poison 

(h) as monosyllables or true diplithoiigs. Ex.: spaiitish. 

In a limited number of terms diphtliongs always remain adulterine, 
and sometimes insert even an h between the two components: kne-udshi 
outside bark of tree; shana-iili, shana-oli, and shan^holi to desire; muimiiya 
and muhimuya to shiver. A few other terms are constantly pronounced 
with the genuine or tiue diphthong, as stainaksh heel, while the large 
majority may be j)roiinnnced in both ways: kta-i, ktai stone, kii-idshi, 
kuidshi mischievous. Tlie simiile hyphen, e-i, a.-u, etc., was used instead of 
the usual mark of dia-resis (ei, aii) to mark the hiatus in adulterine diph- 
thongs. In some grammatic forms of the language the two parts of a diph- 
thong become separated from each other, a fact which will lie observed 
especially in the study of distributive rednplication. 



PHONOLOGY. 209 

The series of diphthongs is as follows: 
ui, oi, ai, ei ; in writing they often appear as uy, oy, ay, ey. 
iu, io, ia, ie ; appear more frequently as yu, yo, ya, ye. 
au or aw, eu or ew; ou coincides with au, aw. 
uo, ui, ua, ue; appear more fi'equently as wo, wi, wa, we. 
ai (in stai'la, sta'-ila to collect). 
iii (in tchiiitchuili sorrel). 

Triphthongs are not frequent, since Klamath has a greater tendency to 
accumulate consonants than vowels. Ex.: shuiu;^a to drive out of, shuc ush 
angling line, weweshaltko having offspring, g^wa, t;f^waga, tchuyunk, aggaya, 
tchuaish, waita, etc. Some of these terms contain adulterine groups which 
cr.nnot properly be called triphthongs. 

CONSONANTS. 

Consonants are divided in two classes: checks, or mute, explosive 
consonants ; and breaths, semivowels or fricative consonants. 

MUTE CONSONANTS. 

Their full list is as follows: 

Gutturals: k, g, % Dentals: t, d 

Palatals: tch, dsh Labials: p, b 

Linguals: k, g 

Here the surd sounds are placed first; follow tlie sonant checks or 
^^medice" mutes, then the aspirate class, represented by one sound only (/). 
The surd checks or ''tenues" are equal in number, though more used than 
the sonant checks. As for the series of the aspirates, the two dental aspi- 
rates of English (Anglo-Saxon |j and d) and the labial aspirate f are want- 
ing here, and are rather scarce also in the other American languages.* 

The two lingual sounds are k and g. The former is produced by 
resting the tip of the tongue against the middle or fore palate, by bending 
it either back or forward when in that position and then trying to pronounce 
k; g is brought forth in the same maimer, though the tongue has to be placed 
less firmly against the palate in order to let pass more breath. Both sounds 

" Tit surd occurs in Shawano, in some western dialects of Yuma (Mohave, etc.), and iu Tehna 
dialects, New Mexico. 
14 



210 GUAMMAli OF THE KLAMATH LANGUA'iE. 

are uttered with ditficulty, the hitter eispeciiill y, l)y strangers, aiul when first 
heard, seem to proceed fiom the lower throat. A short stop of the voice 
always follows them, and "they usually stand before vowels or the "Urvo- 
cal" e. Modocs use them more frequentl}- and pronounce them, like the 
Warm Spring Indians on Des Chutes River, more forcibly than Klamath 
Lake Indians. These sounds may be called just as well palatalized gut- 
turals. 

Nasalized mutes ; see Semivowels. 

Of mute palatals there ai-e two only, tch (Eng. and Span, ch) and its 
sonant, dsh (Eug. j). They alternate in every instance with ts and ds. In 
some terms they have originated from s, sh, and at times alternate with 
these spirant seunds. 

SEMIVOWELS. 

The semivowels, breaths, or consonants of duration are, but for a few 
exceptions, identical to those found in English. While the trills are repre- 
sented by one sound only, the nasal series is fully developed. 

Spirants. Nasals and nasalized Tiills. 

mutes. 

Guttui'als h ng, nk, u^ 

Palatals y udsb, ntcli 

Liiiguals sh nk 1 

Dentals s, z n, iid, nt 

Labials v, w in, mb, mp 

Among the spirants the laryngeal class is represented by h, which is 
often pronounced with great emphasis, like hh. Scientific alphabets, like 
the one used bj^ me, employ no silent letters, and hence I have placed an 
aposti'ophe before each li, when closing a syllable, to remind readers that 
it has to be sounded. V often passes by alternation into the consonautic 
w (in wire) and the more vocalic w (in tvafer, ivall); it sounds like our v, 
but has evidently a different origin, for Klamath Indians pronounce David 
as Di'bid, and v is found only in the combination vu Y is used by me 
as a consonant only; zh, the sonant of sh, does not occur. Ts and ds, 
whicii are compound sounds, may be classified with the dentals. 



PHONOLOGY. 



211 



Nasah. In many of the nasalized mutes mentioned in the table above, 
the nasalization is often scarcely audible; cf. Alternation of Sounds. The 
ny or Spanish fl is so seldom heard, and only resulting from alternation 
with other sounds, that I have preferred not to burden the alphabet with a 
separate type fi. With initial mutes nasalizing is observed extensively, but 
in certain words only; piika to roast may be pronounced mbuka, tulshna to 
rnn through, ntulshna, tchc'tch harl\ ndshcdsh; pdta clieeh is also pronounced 
mpata, but p4ta summer is always pronounced in the same manner, and 
ndani three is never pronounced ddni, tanni. Vu- and the vowel u- can be 
supplanted in a few terms by a nasal, if standing before a mute: uba-ush 
skin: mbd-ush; uduyua, vudiiyua to heat, nduyua. 

An instance of a medial mute becoming nasalized is sankd-a for saka-a 
to he raw. 

PHONETIC TABLE. 

The following classification of the vocalic and consonantic sounds 
occurring in Klamath, tabulated after the quality of their tone and the 
organs producing them, will largely facilitate the comprehension of the 
numerous phonetic figures, contractions, and alternating processes to be 
described hereafter. For the classification of the vocalic sounds, see: 
Vowels and Diphthongs. 





CONSONANTS. 








Momentaneons or mnte sounds. 


Breaths or sounds of duration. 






Not asxii rated. 


Aspirated. 


Spirants. 


Nasals. 


Trills. 


VOWEL.S. 




Surd. 


Sonant. 


Surd. 


Sonant. 


Surd. 


Sonant. 


Sonant. 


Sonant. 




fjiittiirals . . 


k 
toll 

k 

t 

p 


g 
dsb 

g 
d 
b 


;i: 






h 

y 


ntch, ndsh 

uk 

11, nd, nt 
m, mb, mp 






Talatals . .. 








1 i 5 


e a 








sh 

8 


1 


. 


Dentals 






Labials.. .. 






V w 























212 GRAMMAR OF 1111, liLAMATH LANGUAGE. 



PRONUNCIATION OF THE SOUNDS. 

My scientific alphabet is basicd on the orif/inal pronuuciatidii of the 
letters, which is still in use in some countries of the Kuropean continent. 
The English pronunciation of the letters is entirely unfitted for transcrib- 
ing unwiitten languages, and readers of this volume will have to discard it 
and adopt the value of the alpliabetic signs as given below. The conso- 
nant \ had to be placed after the vowel i, its usual position in the conti- 
nental alphabets. 

a as in (ihuiii, ivasli ; German Schwanioi, Tatze; French _//a//c, saiaj. 

a, longer sound of a, as in smart, tart; German Krahn, Schvan; 

French saae. 
t as in fall, tall, taught. 

a as in chat, fat, slash; French pin, saint. 

b as in blab, bulk; German bald ; French beau. 

d as in did, do ; German dass ; French dieu. 

dsh as in jealous, jtinJc, George. 

e as in met, sell, tell ; German erst, es; French selle. 

6 as in last S3'llable of lodger, bungler ; of German dieser, Manner; 

French ce, que. 
e longer sound of e, as in fade, main, trail; German Specr, Wehr ; 

French frcle, maire. 
g as in gig, gore; Germ-Aii gelb ; French ^'roi- ; never has tiie palatal 

.sound of dsh. 
g pionnnciation given on p. 209. 

h as in house, hul ; German hoffen ; never used as a silent letter. 

i as in marine; French abri, ici; Italian lido; Spanish gridar. 

I longer sound of e, as in fee, stream, sleep; German hiechen, siech. 

i deep, as in Jit, grit, mitten; German rinnen, Sinn; when long, it is 

i in German ihn, Siegel. 
Y as in yoke, begond ; German Jahr, jucbn : French geux; Spanish 

ayudar, gerno. Used as a coiisoiiant oiilv. 



PHONOLOGY. 213 

k ;is in kick, kettle, core; German kennen, Koter ; French coque, soc; 

Spanish cavar, quedar, querir. 
k pronunciation given on p. 209. 

X not occurring ill English, French, or Itahan; German ch after a, 

in Bach, lacheit, flach, Nacht; Scotch loch; Spanish brujo, dejar. 

This sound has nothing in common with the Enghsh x. 
1 same in all languages. 

m same in all langnasres 

mb as in nimble, stumble; German Stammbaum. 

mp as in imp, thnmping ; German Bmnpf; Italian stampa. 

n same in all languages. 

nd as in stand, asunder, squander ; German Runde; French amende. 

ndsh the palatal dsh nasalized. 
ng as in cling, rang, singing, not as ng in finger; German hangen, 

springen. 
nk as m. prank, spunk; German trdnken ; French cinquante. 

nk the lingual k nasalized. 

r\% the aspirated guttuial nasalized. 

nt as in rent, want; German druntcn, Lunte ; French crainte, ereinter. 

o short and clear, as in oracle, proxy ; German Hopfen, Stoppel; French 

folle, sotfe ; Spanish pelofa, rodilla. 
o longer sound of o, as in note, roast, rope; German Koth, Moor, roth; 

French eau, Ster, sauter. 
o as in bird, burn, surd; German losen, stromen; French _^eMr, seid. 

p same in all languages. 

p' explosive p, described on p. 216. 

s as in seek, sore. ; German Sack; French salle. 

sh as in shell, shingle; German schicken, Schutz ; Fi'ench chercher, echoir. 

t same in all languages. 

t' alveolar and explosive t; explained on p. 216. 

tch as in charred, chicken, catch; Gei-man hdtscheln, Klatsch; Italian 

. cicerone, cielo; Spanish hacha. 
u as \n forsooth, truth; German Gruss, muss; French hup, sous, ecrou; 

Spanish luna, una. 



214 GRAMMAB OF THE KLAMATO LANGUAGE. 

u longer sound of u, as in nude, bloom, loom; German Uhr ; French 

cour, sourd. 
u deep, as in pun, ruff, slum; German krumm, ScJiuft, Stunde; Italian 

lunffo. 
ii not in English, Spanisli, or Italian; German Diine, suhrieu; French 

lime, nu, sucre. 
V as in velvet, vivid; German Wesen, wirJcen; French veau, vont. 

w is the u before the vowel a, as in water, walk, watch; in German it 

corresponds to short u before vowels; nearly ou in French out, 

ouate. 
z as in sine, frozen; German Hase; French zero, ziffzafj. 

The Englisli x is rendered by gs or ks, the Germ;in z 1)}- ds or ts; 
according to the nature of their components 

More examples for the pronunciation of the above sounds will be found 
in Dictionary, pp. 6-8. 

For the pronunciation of diphthongs see the statements made on p. 208, 
and the examples given in Dictionary, p. 8. The difference between ai 
and ei can be shown to best advantage by quoting Gei'man words: 

ai as in Kaiser, Bain, Haiduck. 

ei as in heiser, leise, reiten, schleichen. 

The pronunciation of the other diphthongs not mentioned in Diction- 
ary, p. 8, can be easily inferred from that of the vowels which compose 
them. Adulterine diphthongs are hyphenized, as in a-i, f-a, i-a, i-u, u-i. 

GRAPHIC SIGNS. 

- arrested sound, a pause brought about by the altered position of the 

vocal organs; t-dpa species offish, k-lewidsha to quit, depart. 

' apostrophe marking elision of a vowel, of 6, or any other sound : 

k'ldwi to cease, for kgldwi; 'mpetlal6na to float down stream, for 
ampetlal6na ; met'tAms^a to excavate between or near, etc. The 
apostrophe also stands before h, when not beginning- a syllable. 
hiatus, separating two vowels as belonging to two different sylla- 
bles : me-utkish digging tool, sha-apd-a to provoke. 



PHONOLOGY. 215 

separates compound words into their components : wika=te'lantko 
short-featured, 161oks=wa'genam=stu railroad, lit. "fire-wagon's 
road." 
' acute accent; tlie only sign used for emphasizing syllables: t^lish 

face, tila and tila to roll, to flood. 
— vowel pronounced long: ta'^tki to blush, tchla'l;(a to be drowned, 

wo'ksla, etc. 
vowel pronounced short : ma'sh species of plant, sAlkSkish necktie. 

LARYNGEAL MODE OF UTTERANCE. 

The phonetics of the majority of American languages cannot be fully 
understood without taking in consideration their mode of pronunciation 
from the throat. It may be defined as an utterance produced by a power- 
ful gush of breath emitted from the lungs and forming its sounds, through 
the glottis widely opened, in tlie rear portion of the mouth rather than in its 
fore parts. The war-whoops and dance-songs of the Dakota and other 
Mississippian tribes are but a series of vocal strains due alone to the action 
of the lungs and windpipe, and ejected through tlie open glottis. This gives 
a peculiar, weird character to their vocal music. Of the Gayap6 Indians, 
who inhabit the Brazilian province of Goyaz, travelers report that their 
language sounds "as coming from the upper throat, and that they speak 
with the mouth closed."* The real cause of these peculiarities has to be 
souglit for in the Indian mode of living, and may also in part be attributed 
to assumed habits of pronunciation. 

The pectoral or laryngeal pronunciation of tlie Klamath Indian is 
attendeil by the following phonologic consequences: 

1. Guttural and laryngeal (h, arrested sound) sounds preponderate in 
frequency over dentals and labials, being formed in the rear part of the 
vocal tube. The palatal and alveolar sounds, which by the lifting of the 
tongue to the roof of the mouth tend to confine the sound to the rear, are 
not unfrequent in this and other languages, while in most of them f, th, 
r, and others, which are produced in its fore parts only, do not exist. The 

*Dr. Pliil. von Martius, "Beitrage zur Etlinographie Amerikas"; Vol. II, p. 134. 



21() GRAMMAR OF THE KLAMATH LANGUAGE. 

Shasti, Snake, and Modoc tunes printed in Texts, pp. 195. 196, are fair 
specimens of" a thoroughly hu yngeal substratum to Indian song-music. 

2. Interchangeability or alternation of the sounds pronounced with the 
same vocal organ is naturally favored by the pectoral-laryngeal pronunci- 
ation, and is observed as well among vowels as among consonants. (Jf. 
Alternation of Sounds. 

3. Diaeresis of vocalic sounds into two vowels forming or being parts 
of different syllables; the frequent insertion of the laryngeal h, aud of the 
"arrested sound," between these two vowels, and between a consonant 
and a vowel;* the prothetic h- figuring as initial in certain terms; the 
existence of the "explosive" mute consonants, as p', t'. A curious parallel 
to this inserted h is found in Pit River and Northern California generally; 
the natives often interrupt their speech by inserting, often in the midst of 
words, a sigh or melancholic-sounding breathing, seemingly produced by 
inspiration of air. In Tuscarora I heard the inserted h distinctly accom- 
panied by the same noise. Examples from Klamath: j ain Aga and yaina- 
Aga; Sa't «HfZ Sha-at; gua, gu-ua, guhua; sh^lam, sha'hlam; sko'sh, sko"hsh; 
kl41a, khilha; l^yash, l^hiash; wdlta, huulta; lA-a, hla-a; ibena, hipdna. 

4. The arrested sound, or "sound-cat(;hing," consists in a sudden inter- 
ruption of the voice while speaking, and leaves the impression of a mo- 
mentaneous deficiency in breath. It is heard in the commencement, 
midst, and end of words, and after mute consonants only. It is always 
heard after the Unguals (which in the Modoc dialect sometimes disappear 
before it), and frequently after t and p; it always follows the explosive 
t' and p', well known through gi-ammars of Central American languages. 
Dr. Wash. Matthews describes in his manuscript Modoc vocabulary his 
"marked t" as being uttered like English t with an extra pressure of the 
tip of the tongue against the gums or teeth, and mentions the following 
terms in which he distinguished it after the initial t : tdpak, t61alui, tulish, 
t'si'n, tsuleks. This t is therefore an alveolar sound. The Indians of many 
western tribes often apply the arrested sound when vocabularies are taken, 
and Aztec grammars describe it as the saltillo accent, marking the syllables, 
where it is heard, with the gravis accent : ^. This curious peculiarity 

' This epenthetic use made of h shoiili) not be confounded with the aflSx 'h by hand. Cf. below. 



PHONOLOGY. 217 

has been noticed by travelers among the mde and hunting tribes of otber 
parts of the globe; it seems to have a physiological cause, and not to be 
intended for rhetorical effect. 

FEEQUENOY OP SOUNDS. 

The frequency of each alphabetic sound or class of sounds in a given 
language largely depends on their mutual phonetic relations with neigh- 
boring sounds within the body of the word, and will be treated of elsewhere. 
A few hints on this subject are as follows: 

The three primary vowels, short u, a, i, are the most frequent of all 
vocalic sounds; then follow a and e (both interchangeable), e, o; the 
softened vowels 6 and ii are rather scarce: to'dshitodshi, and Modoc po'sh, 
stel6pg6sh; utiissusd-ash, tii'ksha. 

Of all vowels, u commences most words, and a terminates a much 
larger number of them: it is the most frequent of all \ocalic soiuids in this 
upland tongue. Of the diphthongs ai, au, ua (wa), ui (wi), ia (ya) occur 
much oftener than ei, yi, yu, or wo, and oi may be called a rarity. 

The most ubiquitous of all consonants is probably s, sir then follow the 
gutturals, g, k, k, x, the laryngeal h, the palatals tch, dsh, y, the surd mutes 
p, t, the nasals m, n, and the trilling sound 1. Unfrequent are g, b, d, z; 
also v in the midst of words. None of the Klamath words end in g, y, ng, 
nk, V, mb, mp, z, and a very restricted number in b, d, 'h; cf sjji'b, e'nd 
(for ^nat), nad (or nat). Every sound of the alphabet can begin words, 
but initial dsh, %, and z are rather exceptional. Over one fourth of the 
terms in our Dictionary begin with s, sh. 

On the phonetic structure of the syllable, see below. 

GROUPING OF SOUNDS. 

We are prompted to call a language harmonious when the quality and 
intonation of the sounds strikes our ear agreeably, and, when the grouping 
of the several sounds in the word-unit appears to be even, rhythmical, and 
musical. In due time high-pitched vowels have to follow those of a lower 
pitch, consonants produced with one vocal organ should A'ary at short 



218 GRAMMAR OF THE KLAMATH LAN(5UA(iE. 

intervals with ('(iiisoiKiiits pronounced with anotlier. Wo also expect that 
consonants (Id not crowd upon each other in dense clusters, but that they 
be supjxtrted, upheld, and separated by the true vocal element of the 
human voice, the simple and compound vowels, and we deprecati' the 
presence of croaking, clicking, or whining sounds or sound-clusters. 

Americans may be prejudiced in calling such vocalic languages as 
Italian, Odshibwe, Tarasco, Arawak harmonious in preference to conso- 
nantic ones. For if a tongue replete with consonantic clusters groups its 
component sounds in such a manner as not to offend the ear by too abrupt 
transitions and freaks, and subordinates them closely to the vowels or diph- 
thongs as is done in Russian, Creek, Aztec, Kechhua, and in numei'ous 
other languages, Ave have no palpable reason to deny to these the predi- 
cate harmonious. A large portion of the Indian languages spoken within 
the United States answers to this description, and one of their number is 
the Klamath of Southwestern Oregon. 

Considering all the various elisions, diaereses, syncopes, and apocopes 
subsequently occurring, the syllables of this language were originally built 
up on the following fundamental types: 

1. Vocalic sound onl}" (vowel or diphthong). 

2. Vocalic sound preceded by one or several consonants. 

'i. Vocalic sound preceded or not preceded by one or several conso- 
nants, but followed by one consonant only. 

These items typifj^ only the present state of the language, and refer 
in no manner to the structure of its radical syllables. Phonetic processes 
have altered the primitive aspect of this and all other tongues considerably, 
and many sound-groups now make up one syllable which previously formed 
two or three of them. In some words vowels largely preponderate, as in 
lewe-uola, le-u-e-u-61a to cease to prohibit, yayaya-as bewitching power; 
while in most others consonants exceed in luimber the vocalic elements, 
excessive groups occurring in ldigl;ja to kneel down, shleshltcha to go visiting, 
shtchushtch%apksh, d. obj. case of shtchu'katko one-cged. 

Gemination of simple vocalic or consonantic sounds frequently occurs, 
and with vowels it is produced through a sort of emphasis or the distributive 
reduplication (anku tree, d. d-anku), with consonants through the prece- 



PHONOLOGY. 219 

dence of a short vowel, as in genS'lla to start, kma'kka to look about, udi'tta 
to whip. More about this under: Phonetic Figures. 

The colhsion of sounds of a different character, produced by two 
different parts of the vocal tube, is a fruitful source of phonetic alterations, 
whenever tlie natives find it difficult or impossible to pronounce tliem in 
succession. No language, we may safely say, is exempt from phonetic 
changes produced by immediate collisions of this kind. Thus the Klamath 
suffixes -tka, -tki will frequently appear as -tga, -tgi, but never as -dga, -dgi 
or -dka, -dki. 

In the following table I have disposed various clusters of sounds after 
their initial sounds, without taking notice of the fact whether the components 
belonged to one or more syllables; y and w being counted as vowels. Many 
of these cluster.s form parts of distributive reduplicated forms. 

CLUSTERS COMPOSED OF VOWEL SOUNDS. 

u clusters : wawakogsh, wawawaiha, tchuaish, luelualoj^a, wu-utchdwa, 

shu^-usham, wiiita, w^waleks, vuivui. 
o clusters : kuloya'na, 6ya, o-uakgi. 

a clusters : nxai-i%itko, skdwanksh, kAwantko, ka-uk4-uli. 
a clusters : a-ii;il%a. 

e clusters : wewilina, shewana, Idyash. 
i clusters : yukiaka, shitiaika, tsliuyag6tkish. 

CLUSTERS COMPOSED OF CONSONANTS. 

k clusters: shlepdktgi {or shlepdktki), shaktiikt^a, kma'kka, kpakpa, 
tsa'ktsika, ktchidshu, tchligiiktchktchka, ktchAktchak, 
ntikshktcha, b6xtka {for b6kstka), pniuksla, utchiklji^a, 
shektlal6na, hishtchAktna. 

X clusters: mpetlaxsh. 

g clusters : i)ip6langshta, lu'gshla. 

t clusters : tl6zo, t;{6po, tk4p,tgaki4mna, Tm6kila, tdtktish, l^shuat/sh. 

tell and dsh clusters: litchlitchli, vulakAtchktcha, tchvii'ntka, kititchna, 
tslats[l]kagantko 144, 11, tsxe-uts;^e-ush ; ndsh^ndsh^a, 
shudshna, vuggidshlin. 

p clusters: k'k'kapksh, g^pktak, tap.szoya, lapkshapta, nshlptchpa. 



220 GRAMMAi; OF THE KLAINIATH LANOUAGB. 

s and sh clusters : liiiiii;islilL;i, I;iikaslitk;i, ga-islitiii'ila, slitchia%i;{a, shtchi- 

,slitcbak'I%a, wliiiu'shii;{a, sliushpAslika, tgasliii'shgisli. 
li clusters : sha'hin6ka, hlalila, tsu'liltsu'liH. 
n clusters: shutankt,i>i, iiu'dsliantko, nd'hultxaga, ntt^ntiag, ndshfndslialo, 

m clusters: slummpsdla, wauda, liut;inis;fa, udumtclina, Amtcliiksh. 
1 clusters: s^ulpka, tni(^lhak, t;ils;^a, yashaltko. ndult.;^aj,ra, lkap])a, Ishikl^a, 
Itchania'shka. 
'I'he inspection of this list, wJiich is by no means exhaustive, shows 
the great adaptability of sounds in this language, and the limit foi- the 
clustering of consonants is a very wide one. Some of the terms arc; real 
"jawbreakers", but none of the group is unpronounceable for us, for they 
are all subordinated to one vowel or diphthong and are not discordant among 
themselves, so as to offend our ear. Some sounds appear more apt to 
begin clusters as initials, while others prefer to stmid second or third in 
order The language shuns initial clusters of more than two consonants, 
three being a rarity ; but it favors their clustering after the vowel to any 
pronounceable extent. 

FUREIGN TERMS AND THEIR PRONUNCTATIOK 

The pronunciation of words by the natives, from the investigator's 
own tongue, or from other foreign languages, gives a valuable clue to the 
physiology of their sounds. j\Iany Klamath Lake and Modoc individuals 
converse with tolei-able fluency in English, and a difference may be per- 
ceived between the English pronunciation of the pure-blood and that of 
the mixed-blood Indians. 

The Maklaks learned a few French and English terms through the 
Chinook Jargon, a medley speech from the Northwest, in which these 
Indians are far better versed than in English They obtained the know- 
ledge of this jargon from the Indian population on the Lower Columbia 
:ind Wilhimet Rivers and on the Pacific coast, where it had been in vogue 
for the last hundred years. According to G. Gibbs, who wrote a mono- 
graph of it*, two-fifths of its vocabulary was taken by the Indians from 



* G. Gililis ; a Dictionary <>f the Chinook .laiyou, or Trade I.an•;lla(;(^ of Oii-f;oii. New York, 1863. 



PHONOLOGY. 221 

Lower Chinook, one-fifth from English, less than one-fifth from the Cana- 
dian traders' French and the Missouri patois, and the rest from Chehali, 
Kalapuya, and other tongues. The sounds % and the palatalized 1 in 
Lower Chinook terms were the only ones niateriall)- altered by the Kla- 
niaths. Li every section of territory where Chinook Jargon is spoken 
dialectic differences can be distinguished. Thus the French sauvage be- 
came .saiivash on Columbia River, but changed to saivash in the soutiiern 
parts of Oregon. 

Distinction must be made between the European terms introduced at 
an earlier date into Klamath, through the use ()f the Chinook Jargon, and 
the more reccuth- (chiefly since 1864) adopted English terms, for they differ 
slightly in tlicir phonetics. Of EngUsh and French words the language 
forms intlectious, derivatives, and reduplications almost as easily as from 
its own words, as will be seen from the lists foUowing: 

FRENCH TEKMS OBTAINED THROUGH CHINOOK .JAllGON. 

kapo coat, dress; F. capot overcoat; kapopele lo dress oneself, and other 

derivatives, 
lilapai ribbon; F. le rubau; Ch. J. lilobe (G. Gribbs). 
liml'l mule; F. le mulct or la mule; liml'lman mnle-driver, packer. 
mitash, mitas legging, d. uu'mdash; F. mitasse. 
shuggai suyar; F. le sucre; Cli. J. lisi'ik, shi'iga, slu'dvwa. 

ENGLISH TERMS OBTAINED THROUGH CHINOOK JARGON. 

Bushtiu (d. Bol><>shtin, rarely used) American, white person ; E. Boston. Cf 

Dictionary, p. 26. 
Kino- Dshudsh, Mod. Sking Dshudsh, Englishman ; E. King George. 
k6pe, E. coffee. 

pot boat, vessel, ship; E. boat. 

slil'l cloth, especiall\- coflo)/ cloth, calico; G. Gibbs derives it from sail. 
scYlt, sho'lt, shiil, E. salt. 

stick stick, wood, pole, tree; E. stick; sti'ckshui hoot, stickmiin carpenter. 
sunde n-cch; Sunday ; E. Sunday. 
ik\-<\ dollar, cash, coin; E. dollar; talaltko having moncg, rich, wealthy 



222 GRAMMAR OF THE KLAMATH LANGUAGE. 

KNGLISH TERMS OBTAINED DIRECTLY FROM AMERICANS. 

a'plgsh, a'piils, poss. a'pulsham apple, bi 6ee, bl'sam wax beeswax. 
box, iustr. b6xtka box, coffin. Debid, E. David. Do'tchman, Mod. Dotch- 
nial, German; from vuloar E. "Dutchman". Dshiep, nom. pr., Jefferson; 
E.Jeff. hii'iikCrtchip, instr. Iiankgrchipdtka 87, 14., hanclkercJdef; cf. kitch- 
kam. huit tvheat, grain, cereals; E. wheat, y auksmiin jjhi/.fician; a hybrid 
term. k4pa eirp, teacup, saucer, dim kap^g-a; E. cup. kitti domestic cat; E. 
kitten, kitty; Mod. for pusliish Kl. kuata quarter of a dollar, 25 cents; E. 
quarter, lakish in liikish shushatish locksmith may be as well the E. lock as 
the Kl. U'lkish knob on door — doubtful, li'pin, E. ribbon; lilapai is also used. 
Lanktchan, noni pr., Lo7ig John, our hour (of the day), pi'u.sli, E. heans 
pipa tobacco pipe; from E. p'lpa, not from Ch. J. lapi'p. ple'k, jjlii'g- ./%, 
banner; E. flag. Pleidc, nom. pr., Frank. Pot Khimat, nom. pr., Fori 
Klamath; for Kl. I-ukak. jn'ishish domestic cat, Kl ; E. puss, not from Ch. 
J. piisspuss. shawel, E. shovel shflba, E. silver, sho'p, sop, E. soap. 
Spaiiio'lkui Mexican, obtained probably from California, stcgiush, E. 
sfockinfi ; steg-inshala to knit stockings. slul}), instr. shiipatka, E. soup 
shuldshash, poss. shuldsham, E. soldier, sliusliap, E. jewsharp. tanapsh, 
E. turnip, ta-uni, E. town, taiisen, E. thousand, tebul, loc. ttibullat, E. 
table; not from Ch. J. lata'b. tu=pitch quarter of a dollar; E. "two bits", 
tchiken, obj. tchikinash, E. chicken. 

It appears from this list that Klamath drops the final r of foreign 
words, converts f into p, v into b, r into 1, and sonant mutes generally into 
surd mutes. 

ALTERNATING OF SOUNDS. 

Permutation of sounds of the same phonetic class has been observed 
to exist in the two classic languages, which belong to the same linguistic 
family, several centuries ago. It was pl^iinly seen that a connection ex- 
isted, with mutation of certain sounds, between (>va) and, duo, TtTrape? awA 
quatuor, ioSr}? and vestis, ixvpo? and socer, and some suspected even affinity 
with the corresponding terms in the Germanic and Slavic languages. After 
J. Grimm had formulated his law of sound-shunting, the process of permu- 
tation became a matter of evidence for the Germanic and Indo-European. 



PHONOLOGY. 223 

lungiuiges, but only as far as the transition of words from one dialect to 
another is concerned. But in illiterate languages the same interchange, often 
a more extensive one, talces place within one and the same dialect. 

So much did this fact contradict the time-honored, ancient ideas of 
grammar lodged in the heads of missionaries and school-teachers, and so 
little did it conform to Latin, Greek, and Hebrew models, that the puzzled 
grannnatical writers on American, African, or (Iceanic languages bluntly 
denied the existence of certain sounds wliirh tliey knew to be in the lan- 
guage, but found to alternate with others for no apparent causes. This 
relieved them from the necessity of accounting for this puzzling phonetic 
fact. The existence of the sonant unites \\;\a flatly denied to many Amer- 
ican Indian tongues, and the Mohawk-Irocpiois* alphabet was proclaimed 
to possess sixteen sounds (or "letters", as they were called) only, while in 
reality it has over twenty-four, all of which are easily expressed by the 
Roman alphabet. 

I have observed alternation of sounds in all tlie North American 
languages which I have studied personally with the aid of natives, and 
have also hinted at one of its hidden causes, viz. the laryngeal or pectoral 
pronunciation of the red man. Even those Indians whose languages have 
been reduced to waiting for fifty or one hundred years back, and in whose 
books all traces of this interchangeability were suppressed by the mission- 
aries, etc., as the Creeks, Cha'hta, and Iroquois, permute their consonants and 
vowels with the same libei-ty as if these books had never appeared in print. 
It would be exactly so with us if our ancestors had not had a literary 
training foi' the last thousand years at least. 

I have recorded the alternations observed by me in the Kdyowe (or 
Kiowa) language in a monograph published in the American Antiquarian, 
IV, pp. 280-285, under the title: "Phonetics of the Kayowe Language", 
the results obtained there being almost identical to those to be given below 

This permutability of cognate sounds forms one of the prominent jilio- 
netic features of Klamath, and occuis in initial as well as in medial or final 
sounds. Still there are words in which certain sounds do not interchano-e 
with others. This is especialh^ observed in homonyms, where jiermutation 

* This dialect of Iroquois lacks 1>, p, and f. 



224 GRAMMAR OF THE KLAMATH LANGUAGE. 

would c.iuise confusion; slikoks yhod is never pronounced shkoks, which 
means tick; giwash is kept distinct from giwash, usha from viisha, shi- 
kantcla from shikantila. Cf Homonymy. 

Vowels alternating: 
u with wu, vn, hu : udiimtchna, vudiimtcima; u-iin, vim, wun ; ututchkia, 

vutatchkia, hutatchkia. 
u with o: liik, 16k; Idpuk, lapok; hvxtchna, ho'dshna; pul^uantcli, poloku- 

antcli; liiloks, loloks; tumenu, t;'im'no, but not liuye%a with 

n with a: jjntputli, patpatli; ku'lkuli, kiilkali. 

u with a: uiukash, ma'kash; cf. iiat. nut. 

n witli ii : ndi'ivua, udii'yua (by dissimilation); shuyu;^alsh, sii'yii^alsh. 

ua with o, u: genuala, geno'la, genu'la. 

a with 6: maklaks, niakloks (Modoc); kalkali, kolkoli ami kCi'lkuli; skan- 

shna, sk6ntchna; hishpMmna, hishpl6mna ; sufhx -uiipka, 

-u6pka. 
a with a : takt4kli, taktJi'kli, and in many other adjectives of color (^by dis- 
similation); yaka for yii'ka, is considered vulgar slang; cf 

shlaank for shl^ank 6(i, 1 3. 
e with a: nep, niip; pdn, pe'na, pa'n; tchel%a, tsa'l^a; heme;je, liam(ixe; 

.shhlyaks, shl4-ika, shla'yaksh, shla'-ika. 
e with i and ii : cl;(a, il%a, a'lza; kdtcha, kidsha, ga'dsa; shetchakta, shi- 

tchakta; A-ushme, A-ushmi. Cf also: mukasham, mukisham 

17.^); 14. 
e with i: ne'l, nl'l; e-e, I-I. 
i with iy, y before vowels: shlanfa, shlaniya; i-amnash, yamnash. 

The circumstance that many of these alternations occur in accented syl- 
lables proves that they constitute a fundamental law of Indian articulation. 
In diphthongs very few, if any, changes of this kind are noticed, neither do 
lono* vowels alternate often. The most frequent alternating processes are 
observed between a and o, e and ;i, n and wu, vu, u, and o. In many 
words vowels can be attenuated into (•. 



PHONOLOGY. 225 

Consonants alternating: 
k with g, gg : kd-u, ge-ii; kitclikaiii, kitchgdni, gitcligAiii; wakdya, waggaya; 

lutatkdtki, lutatgatki; ke'k, ge'g. 
k with k: kai'tua, kai'tua; maklaks, makloks. This permutation is usually 

attended with a change in signification. Cf. Pronouns, 
k with X : hushkalka, huslikfil^a; hishkaliilxa, hish^glul^a. 
k with X '• kemkem, ;^cnixeni, cf. Dictionary, p. 176 ; IkAn, l^dn. Initial k, 

omitted by aphseresis, is replaced in Modoc by the arrested 

sound: k6ke, -oke. A similar process is observed in some 

Polynesian languages when k is elided, 
k, g with h, hh: gaikanka, haikanka; takt4-ash, ta'hti,-ash. 
k with g: ko'l, gu'l; kulu, gulu. 
k, k witli nk, nk, n^ and other nasals: kila, nki'la, nkfla, n;(illa; k(^wa, 

nk^wa, n;(a'wa; kata, ngata. 
tch with dsh, when not initial, and with ts, ds: titchi, tidshi, tidsi; tchd- 

shish, tsAsis; nutch (for nu tchui), ni'its. niids; geluantcha, 

geluandsha, ge'luandsa. 
tch, dsh with sh : ntiiltchna, ntuldshna with ntulshna; tiidshui, tAshui; 

na'dsh, na'gh; willatslina, willashlma. Wdlidsh for wAlish, 

and pawatch for pAwash are considered vulgarisms. Ta- 

pinikAyentch for tapinikay^nash 120, 19. 121, 22 ; kiishga 

tcha for kiishga sha 9", 17. Changes from one dialect to the 

other: skA, Mod. tchgA; shgumla, Mod. tchgiimla; sho'ksh, 

Mod. ts6o'ksh; spAl, Mod. tchpAl. 
tch with ntch, ndsh: tchc'kani, ndsht'kani; tchdtch, ndshg'dsh; tchishl^a, 

ntcWshl;{a, ndshishlka. 
ts witli ds, in every instance except when beginning words: kdtsa, k^dsa. 
t with t', d: tdlish, t'eHsh, dt'lish; e'nt (for enat), e'nd; shataltiltamna, sha- 

taldildamna; tAnkatch, dankatch. 
t with nt, nd: tiinshna, ntiinshna; ntd-ish from t^wi; t^ga, cf nddga, but 

not nd^wa and tewa ; nd6pa, cf tiipesh. 
23 with p', b: pAhalka, p'Ahhalka, bahAlka; pupannish, biibanuish. 
p with mp, mb: pAkuish, mpAkuish, mbakuish. 
15 



226 GEAMMAK OF Tiii: KLA.MATU LANUUAGI'L 

J) with 111 : suffix -ptc-lii, -iiitclii, -tciii ; hiiOix -[x-iki, -miui; pronouns p'n^, 

p'nj'ilnin, Kl. in'n;'!, m'luilani 
p with w : imklkish, w;iklkish. 

s with sh, in firn/ instance : steinns, sht;u'n;ish; str'ks, shtd'ksli; na's, iia'sh. 
s witli z, chiefly initial : safga, zaif>-a. 

s, sh with ss : sh;iahaplaintcli, sassaplanitcli ; sliisli(Jka, sissuka. 
Ill with u, before labials: niba-ush, uba-ush. 
n with u, before a dental or ]»alatal : ndi'ipka, udujika; nduka, vudi'ika, 

uduka; ntchaya, utcha\a. 
ndsli with ntcli : ndshoka, ntchoka. 

n with t : iiatiia])enapsh for nan'napf'iiapsh: nrtiK'il/isli foi- ii(irn('>l;jisli. 
1 with n: nti'ilshna, tunshna; kildshna, kintchiia, ki'nslnia, .Mod. kiislnia; 

Itchania'shka, ntchaiua'shka; liesheli('ita, slR-nii'it;! ; tslipal, 

tchni'pal; tchikeniiin, ]\fod. tchfkr'nial ; pni'ukshla, pni'uksna; 

but not tiuncda and tiulola. 
1 with hi : la-a, hla-a ; laklakli, hlakhlakli. 

A few more of these alternating- processes will be found iiientioiied, 
with examples, in the Dictionary, jip. 'J-ll. 

As to their frequency^ coiisonantic alternations differ very largely. 8 
interchanges with sh in every instance, and the permutation of k with other 
gutturals, especially g, gg, y_, and of tch with ts, ds, dsh is extremely fre- 
quent. The substitution of k, g for other gutturals, though frequent, is not 
exactl)- the rule, for these sounds are Unguals while the rest of the k-series 
are pure gutturals. About the difference in signification produced by this 
change, cf. Pronouns. II becomes frequently disconnected phonetically 
from vowels or consonants preceding it, by the arrested sound -, and when 
pronounce<l with emphasis, undergoes gemination: -hli ; cf hlilantana, 
sha-hm6ka, kai'ha (uid kai'ldia. 8 and ts are heard much oftener than sh, 
tell in the conversational form of language, and before % the assibilated sh 
scarcely e\ er occurs : s/eiia to row, hutamsp^a to rush between. Words with 
initial t and p that can j)ass into d and b, may also change these initials 
into (ixplosixc sounds: p", 1-. The whole series of consonants tlii'ough 
which a term as tchi'ilamna can j)ass is: tch, ts, I'sli; a word like patadsha 



PHONOLOGY. 227 

may also be pronounced patatclia, patatsa, patadsa, but padatcha or ba- 
datsa is scarcely ever heard from natives. Some terms, as pipa paper, 
ndaui three, undergo no vocalic or other changes whatever, while others 
cannot assume ceitain alternations without a change of signification. Cf. 
Homonymy. 

All these conversions of cognate sounds often impart to certain words 
a quite different appearance, which renders them unrecognizable to the 
unexperienced. Still the interchange of sounds is more extensively devel- 
oped in some dialects of the Caril) oi- Galibi, as well as in Kayowe, Hi- 
datsa, and other languages spoken on the Mississippi plains. 

, Like all phenomena in nature, this interchangeability is not produced 
Ijy the fancy or ()[)tion of the natives, Init is based on natural laws, and as 
language is one of the efiects of nature, we must look to physiology and 
not to psychology to discover its latent causes. One of these is the tend- 
ency of rendering pronunciation easier; this we perceive, e. g., in the 
dropping of the laryngeal sound h in: nji-ut for mi hilt, atunk for (\i hunk, 
n'unk for ni {or nn) luuik, and also in a/ut for a hu't. It will be remem- 
bered that h can be drop}jed even when belonging to the body of the word. 
In U7, 1, hunk kiuliga has probably been nasalized into hunk n^iuliga to 
avoid the collision of two identical sounds. Another cause of these permu- 
tations is the laryngeal utterance of the Indians, which I have discussed 
under that heading (pp. 215-21 7); it also accounts for the circumstance that 
permutation among sounds originating in the rear mouth aie much more 
frecpient than those produced by the action of the lips and the fore part of 
the vocal tube. 

PHONETIC FIGURES. 

Besides the phonetic changes spoken of in the foregoing section, there 
are other alterations in the sounds of words which generally affect the 
body of the words more thoroughh , and occur in all tlie languages ex- 
plored. These alterations are produced by various causes, as the shifting 
of the accent from one syllable or word to another, the attenuation or 
increase in quantity, the habit of fast speaking, etc., and chief of all, the 
desire of .saving vocal exertion. The tendency for retrenchment is more 



228 GEAMMAK OF Till': KLAMATH LANGUAGE. 

energetic in this ujjland languiige tlum that lor tlic increase of sounds, and 
thus the chapters on elisions and coiitriictions will })0 more extended than 
that on phonetic additions. 

I have classed the phonetic fiyiires into the l'()lk(\viiio- distinct groups: 

A. — Addition of phonetic elements other than affixes, to the word. 

1. Prothesis, or the addition ot" vo^^ els or consonants at the commencement 

of the word : v in vuhnpiega, vudiika, etc., for u-upi^ga, udiika ; 
Sking Dshu'dsh, Mod. for King Dshii'dsh. Yfkashla for ikashla 
may be considered simply as alternation of soiiiid. 

2. Epithesis, or the addition of vowels or eonsdiiants at the end of the term: 

ta-nni, from English town. 

3. Epenthesis, or the insertion of vowels or consonants in the midst of a 

word. Some of the inflection;il affixes are epenthetic, and will be 
considered under the heading of affixes. The insertion of n in 
tuiinkshi for tuakshi, kailantala for kailatala, tia'mantko (a verb 
tia'mna does not exist) for tiii'matko had better be considered 
a nasalizing than an epenthetic process. Epenthetic v is ob- 
served in leviita for le-iita, I'lita. Epenthetic h has to Ije care- 
fully distinguished iVdUi the -h- of the verbal snffix -ha, as in 
skulha to lie on something, compai'ed to sknl;;^a to lie, to sleep, 
and from the 'li which indicates an act done hy hand (see below). 
We find the e])enthetic li in : 

tsials'hii'mi in the sulmon season, for tsialsii'mi, tsialse'mi. 

gAhipa to eateh air with a fjrunt, for ga-ipa. 

shawalhinii'a to accompany somebody, for shawalina'a. 

inuliimuva to shiver, tremble, for muimuya. 

4. Nasalizing or nasal pronunciation takes place in regard to certain con- 

sonants only, when initial or, medial. Nasalization of vowels in 
the manner as observed in French and Dakota does not belong 
to the features of the Klamath language. The deep pronuncia- 
tion of fv, i, li has nothing to do with nasalizing. The gutturals 
g, k, k, y^ are thereby transformed into ng, nk, nk, n%; the dentals 
d, t into nd, nt; the palatals dsh, tch into ndsh, ntch; the labials 



PHONOLOGY. 229 

b, p into mb, mp. This process was discussed uuder the heading: 
"Alternation of Sounds," and examples from the Dictionary will 
be found there to illustrate it more fully. Instances where no 
alternation takes place are sliempeta to atyue, for shep^ta; shik^mba 
to walk on a stick, for shikapa (radix: kap in tk4p). 

B. — Dropping of phonetic elements from the word. 

All the causes that are productive of decay will also operate in favor 
of sound-removals, ns : fast and indistinct pronunciation, shifting of the 
accent, etc. Elisions of all sorts are especially frequent. 

Elision, or removal of a phonetic element within the word, is frequent 
in all languages. In Klamath it is chiefly brouglit about by the tendency 
to bring vowels into close contact with vowels, even identical ones, and 
consonants with consonants, whether identical or not; a tendency which 
causes elimination of intervening sounds. Cf Assimilation. The various 
kinds of elision make a subdivision desirable into syncope, ekthlipsis, and 
elision of a whole syllable. 

5. Syncope, or elision of a vowel before a consonant. Ex.: 

itkla to collect, gather up, for itkala. 

lulpaltko provided with eyes, for lulpAlatko. 

hunsak, nensak to no purpose, for hundshak, n^nashak. 

tdlshna to look out, for telishna. 

tchkdsh also, too, for tclie'kash. 

k'lekapksh dead, for k'lekapkash ; k'le'ksht for k'ldkasht. 

E-ukshkni Klamath Lake Indian, for E-ukshikni. 

tatamnish traveler, for tatamnuish. 

6. Ekthlipsis, or dropping of a consonant from the midst of a word. 

(a) When standing before one or more consonants. Ex.: 
shelluashe'mi in the tvar time, for shellualshe'mi, cf 56, 1 and Note. 
puekampgle to throw out again, for puel;^ampele. 
ktchiik avlone shell, for ktcha'.k; basis, ktch41;fa. 
shlatpampeli to return, bring hack, for shlaltpamp6li. 
shtchuslixapkani; cf Note to 109, (J. 



230 GRAMMAR OF THE KLAMATH LANGUAGE. 

(b) Before vowels consonants are elided in the following terms: 
nte-isli hoiv tvifJi arrows, for ntewish. 
husliutanka to approach on the sly, for liusli'lu'itanka. 
samenakia to wish for oneself, for sli'liamCnakia. 
sakuasli fish-gig, spear, for slitchakuasli. 
miultch large, tall (obj. case), for miinlsli. 

7. Elision of a syUaUe, accented or unaccented. Ex.: 

pii'patchle to step down from, 112, 6. 'J, for i)epatcli61e. 
kshulo'tcli mowing scythe, for kshnlotkish. 
slialallisli Fan^s flute, jewsharp, for slialalalisli. 
liiinkimsliani theirs, abbr. from hunkelamsliaui. 
wcwansliasli, wcwansli ivomen, for wewanuisliasli. 
nK'ssiini in the season of trout, for meliiasliii'nii. 
nakanti everywhere, for nAnukanti. 
vulkiishti horroived 189; 4, for vu];^;'ipkasliti ur -tat. 
Cf. also puksla, wo'ksla with tlieir longer forms, and stclapk.sh 87, 13, 
for stela})kishash. 

8. Aphaeresis, or the retrenchment of an initial sound. Ex.: 

kdp. Mod. for tkap stalk of plant; dim. kapka, Kl. for tka[)aga. 

ndii'i, j\Iod. for tmii Kl., grouse. 

'mutchaga little old man, 'nuitchcwatko old, for k'mutchaga, k'mutche- 

watko. 
'mbute'^e, for liindjute';^e to jump over something. 
'-6ke, -olkoli, -o'sh, Mod. forms for koke river, kolkoli roin/d, ko'sli 2>i>'<^- 

free This apha^-esis before the lingual k, which substitutes -, is 

heard in the Modoc dialect only, 
uk, unk, pron. that, and adv., for Inlk, hunk; cf hii'ksht and o'ksht. 

9. Apocope of somids. — Nothing is more frequent than the retrenchment of 

single sounds at the end of words; the quality of the initial syl- 
lable of the word following is sometimes the cause of this, though 
more fretpiently it is brought about by the location of tlie accent 
upon a distant syllable : 

shitk, sitk alike to, for shitko, sitko. 

tchi'shtal towards home, for tchl'shtala. 



THONOLOGY. 231 

iiA-ash, nash, thus, so, for lui-asht, na'sht. 

na we; a ye, Mod. for na't, na'd; at. 

kalo dear sky, for kalo-u, as seen by the inflection. 

Of ini for i mi, 59, 9; turn before consonants, 13, 14. 19, 1. 20, 19. 

10. Apocope of syllahles. — In the conversational form of language these 

apocopes are frequent and often very -puzzling, as l%al;fam luli- 
nasli instead of l7al;iamnishti lulinash in 74, 10. Ex.: 

nakant cominy from everywhere, for ndkantkni. 

gunigshta on opposite side of, for gunigshtana, with many other pre- 
and postpositions, as wiga't, etc. 

paha, n/itsa dried, partic. pass, for pahatko, n^itsatko. 

maklaks laki tribal chief, for maklaksam laki. 

yiiyalks=shitk -wretched-lookiny, for yuyalkishasli=shitko. 

C. — Contractioit and dilatation of phonetic elements. 

Here, as well as in other tongues, contraction i.'< chiefly limited to vo- 
calic sounds, and although Klamath seeks rather than avoids hiatus, there 
are instances enough of two vowels becoming contracted into one. A special 
sort of vocalic contraction is the weakening of a vowel into the primitive 
vowel e, generally when unaccented. Instances of consonantic synseresis 
are M(')atokish for M6atok=gish, tatAtli for tat-tatli, kii'kiikli for kak-kii'kli, 
shuluaktcha for shuluakt-tcha, etc. 

Dilatation or expansion of the vowels of a word is called diaeresis; that 
of consonants is usually gemination or redoubling. 

1 1. Synaercsis, or "gathering up," as the name has it, is a figure drawing to- 

gether vowels inio one sound (eventually into a diphthong) to avoid 
hiatus. This coalescence of distinct vocalic sounds is quite fre- 
quent and usually produces long vowels, whether accented or not. 

ga'shtish door of lodyc, for kii-ishtish. 

talak, d. tatalak straiyltt otd, for tdlaak etc. 

ke'sh rattlcs)/ake, for ke-ish, ^e-ish. 

nge'sh arrow, shengil'sha to shoot at inieself for ng^-ish, shenge-isha. 

shenotatko confluence, for shenuiitatko, shenewatatko. 

pan(')pka, to desire to cat, for panuapka. 



232 GEAMMAK OF THE KLAMATH LANGUAGE. 

n;'ikosh stoi)page of waters, for nAkuash. 

shu'dshna to chase each other, for shii-udshna, slmhudsbna. 

we-iilta to permit, for wewalta. 

gilggutko, 123, 2, crossed over, for gAkuatko. 

liukianma to gather around, for livvakiamna. 

12. Krasis or "intermixture" is the union of vowels forming part of differ- 

ent syllables into one vowel sound (or diphthong) to avoid hiatus. 

The sound h is easily dropped if it stands between the vowels, 
shda they of course, for sha i-a, sha ya, 93, 6. 
tidshak good if to he, for tfdshi ak, tidshi ha gi, 93, 9. and Note, 
miut yours that, for mi hut. 

13. Vocalic attenuation or shortening, weakening of unaccented syllables 

into the primitive vowel 6 forms the transitory stage to tlie figure 

called syncope. We find it in : 
skdtkela to carry on hack, for skdtkala. 
shulemokcdsha to swing around, for shulamok^dsha. 
shiikpeli to withdraw, for shukpali, cf 68, H and Dictionary. 

Weakening of an accented syllable: te'kish sword, for tekish. 

Attenuation taking place between words is observed in : ge'ntgni / 
would fain go, for ge'nt a ni; atenen for at a nen ; tatdtenat ivherever we, for 
tat4t a nat; tatatdks6 spukliA when they sweat in it, S2, 3. 4., for tatatak sha 
spuklia. To this may be added the weak pronunciation of -am, -lam, the 
suffix of the possessive case, especially frequent in the Modoc dialect, and 
almost equivalent to -6m: muklaksam, su^ntcham, etc. 

14. Diaeresis or vocalic diremption takes place when a vowel, which is gener- 

all}' a long one, is redoubled or even ti-ipled, and when a diphthong 
is pronounced with hiatus, that is, as an adulterine diphthong. 
a. Diaeresis of a vowel: 

kf-intch wasp, for ki'ntch, ki'nsh. 

mo-6we woodchucJc, for m6we, muwe. 

nd-as one, a single one, for na's, na'dsh. 

shle-eta to discover, find, for shldta. 

ki-i-fa to tell lies, for kia, kfya 64, 4. 



PHONOLOGY. 233 

These examples involve simply rhetorical emphasis, but there are 
instances implying a change of signiiication as a consequence of the 
digeresis: sha-apa-a to dare, provoke, from shapa to tell, count; i-iulina, yi- 
ulina to send over the edge, compared to yulina to menstruate. 

h. Diphthongic diaeresis, as in i-uta for yuta, n^-i for ndya, 
E-ukshi for Eiiksi, has been fully discussed in the article 
on Diphthongs, p. 208. 

15. Gemination or doubling of consonants occurs only after vowels short 

in quantity : 
sessal61ish warrior, for sheshalolish; vussa to fear, for viisha ; genalla 
to start, for genala; nellina to scalp, for nelina; we'tta to laugh, for 
weta, cf. w^tanta; uditta to whip, for udi'ta; limh'nuna to he darJc, 
for limlima; tchfmma-ash string-game, for tchima-ash ; ku'mme 
cave, for ku'me; sunmiatka with the moidh, hill, for shumatka; 
tchaggaya to sit upon, for tchakaya. 

D. — Phonetic changes through contiguity. 

These changes mainly occur in unaccented syllables, and are produced 
by the influence of sounds either preceding or following inniiediately, or 
forming a part of the syllable preceding or following. It is generally the 
subsequent sound which tries to weaken and then to assimilate or dissimi- 
late its predecessor. The altered position of the accent sometimes produces 
a similar i-esult. In Latin we find similar changes accomplished in meridies 
for medidies, medius fdius for me Dius filius, occupare for obcapare, occiput for 
obcaput, exultare for exsaltare, appono for adpono, doceor, audior for doceo-se, 
audio-se. 

16. Assimilation — Vowels and consonants of the same vocal class, either 

standing beside each other or belonging to adjoining syllables, 
assimilate moie closely or become identical. This process forms 
just the opposite of the dissimilation to be described below, both 
of them being the result of pronounced tendencies of the language 

waydlapsh icicle, piece of ice, for wealapsh. 

Waita'ngish Warm Spring Indian, for Waitii'nglsh. 

yfyu^oga to shove into, for iyaxoga, i-u^oga. 



234 GKAM.MAi; (Ji' XilE KLAMATH LAN(iUA(iK. 

sliukatoiiol(')tkis]i ski it-strap tied into the hair, for sluikatanolotkisli. 

talaat t;jalamtitala due west, 29, 10, fur talaak etc. 

tsui'tsani liiwisli uritir-hladder, for sliuidsliiiiu lawalsh. 

tilliiidsha to abandon, for tinlmdslia. 

iitulsliampkasli flowituj down (obj. case), for ntiilsliantkasli, iitulshan- 
pkasli; cf. gc'uii)tclii for gx'n=ptclii. 

hii neui (for iieii) wii'g-'n kii'git, 87, 5. and Note. 
17. Dissimilation. — This phonetic law, wliicli is directly opposite to that of 
assimilation, consists in avoiding tlie repetition of a vowel or con- 
sonant standing in contignous syllables, and converts one of the 
two, generally the first one, into a cognate sound pronounced 
with the same organ of the vocal tube. Dissimilation is more 
frequent than assimilation, but ap})lies only when the sounds 
referred to do not stand in tlie same s^•llable. It opei'ates also from 
one word to the next one, as in: 

huhashtapkuak they stabbed each other onlij, for hnhashtapka ak, 114, i). 
Vocalic dissimilation is frequently observed in terms formed 
by iterative reduplication : 

14mlemsh dizziness, inehriatioii, for landamsh. 

heihai red fox, silver fox, Mod. for heihei. 

ketchkatch lifffe f/rai/ fox, derived from kctcliketchli ro»f/h-furred. 

ka'lkali ri>und, for kalkali, k(')lkoli. 

kJi'kakli, kakii'kli i/ellotc, for kiikii'kli, an<l all oilier adjectives of color, 
in the absolute as well as in the distributive form. 

Instances of vocalic dissimilation in distributive reduplication: 

wewii'kala, for wewekala, d. of wckahi lo </ire birth. 

pepnelxa, for pupuel;^a, d. of })nel;;^a to throw dotvn. 

shkii'shkatkala, for shkiishkatkala, d. of skatknla to carry on back. 

kakaka'kli yrllow, for kiikiikii'kli, d. of kakii'kli ; also all the other adjec- 
tives of color, and many of those descrii>tive of surfa(!e-(piality. 
Othei" instances, where vowels become dissimilated, are as 
follows : 
- wa'-aks, wc-aks mallard duck, for wc-eks; cf. wekash. 

yanakiinini heinff at the lower end, for yanakain'ni, 148, 2. 

kianiii'nii in the /isliiiiy srasoi/, for kiiimii'nii. 



PHONOLOGY. 235 

shiwdkuasli to the girls, for sliiwaga-ash, 80, 11. 

udii'yua to heat, whip, for udiiyua. 

Consonaniic dissimilation is observed in the following terms 
formed by iterative reduplication: 

kedsliamkedshalkea to wheel around on one's feet. 

palaknii'ilauk ivith rapid gait, for palakpalak ; cf. palak. 

tchiptcliima, Mod. to drizzle down, for tchi'mtcliinia or tchiptcbipma. 
18. Metathesis is an inversion or transposition by which a vowel or conso- 
nant mutually exchange the position which they normally occupy 
in the word. This may take place in one and the same, or in con- 
tiguous syllables, and is a figure of euphony, since it renders the 
pronunciation easier in that connection where the word is applied. 
Vowels can exchange their location with other vowels or with 
consonants, and consonants with consonants. 

shiunota to sing in chorus, for shuinota. 

shuila, shuilla to shake oneself, for shiiila. 

msh, insh ine, to me, for vie, for nish, nish. 

slmew4dshka little girl, for slniawedshka. 

kmokumka to growl (dogs), for kmokmuka, d. of kmuka. 

samtchakta to comprehend, for samtchatka. 

wal'lika to look out for, for wa'hlka. 

amtchiksh old, former, for <initch=gisli, tliis probabl}- for ma'ntch=gish. 

sluiipuklash small cushion, for shuipkulash ifod. 

shakptaksha to cluck with the tongue, for shakapshtaka; from kapiita. 

t^u't^a to presage death or mischief, for tu'ktp^a, from tiika to frighten. 

lesluiat%asli/w«, sport, joking, for l^washtxash. 

ne-uxiilpeli to order agtdn, for ne-ul/apeli. 

lushgapeli to go and take off, for luktcha[)eli. 

There is another form of phonetic inversions taking place through the 
agency of verbal or nominal inflection and derivation ; examples of it are 
as follows: 

ka-akt for k;ikat, d. of kat who, which, pron. relat. 

shayuaksh for shayukash knowing, slirewd. 



230 (JliAMMAi; OF THE KLAMATH LANGUAGE. 

wdltaksli promiscuous talking, for vvaltkash Mod. 

hdslitaksli perforation of carlobe, for lulshtkash . 

fpakt it may stay, remain, for I'pkat, 148, 14. 

wiuliilek! strike it! for wiuldl^' i ! 

In'itan, nge-i«han they ran, they shot, for In'itna, nge-ishna. 

shuliitaniantk being dressed in, for sluiliitanmatko. 

These inverted forms nia)' be explained by metathesis, but it is prob- 
ably more correct to derive them from supposed forms as kii-akat, shdyua- 
kash or -kish, wAltakash, hdshtakash, fpakat, wiuli'ilak i ! hi'itana, ngd-ishana, 
etc., which, under the weight of the receding accentuation or other influ- 
ences, lost their second vowel (a). This explanation is sustained by forms 
like ne-ulakuapka, fut. of nd-ul^a to order, which, compared to genuApka, 
fut. of g^na to go, pekshuapka, fut. of |)c'ksl!a to grind, shows that the end- 
ing -a of the "infinitive" does not ;ipi)ear in the future, but that the first -a- 
in n(^-ulakuapka existed there previously, and induces us to presuppose an 
ancient form ne-ulaka, n^-ula^a. 

19. Anafhesls is a new grammatic term, by which I call a sort of vocalic 
metathesis, almost entirely confined to derivative verbs and inflec- 
tional verbal forms with their derivatives. Numerous instances of 
it are found among the verbs beginning with tlie prefixes sh- and 
h-sh-. This subject will be developed in full in Morphology, 
Section: Radical Syllable. 

ACCENTUATION. 

I. LOCATION OF THE ACCENT. 

The accented syllable of a word is uttered with a stronger eff'ort of the 
voice, and frequently with a higher pitch than the syllables surrounding it. 

Long words have a principal accent and a secondary accent. The 
only sign used in this volume for accenting syllables is the acute accent, ', 
as in ibdna, tiipka. 

A curious difference is observed in American languages as we proceed 
from the South to the North. For in many parts of South America, espe- 
cially the eastern and northern, the accent is placed towards the end of the 



PHONOLOGY. 237 

word and accentuation of the penult and final syllable must be considered 
as the rule. In Central America the emphasized syllable begins to shift 
towards the radix, and in most North American languages, which are rather 
suffix- than prefix-languages, the accent has a tendency to rest on the root 
or at least on the first syllables of the word. 

In Klamath the emphasizing of the radix is the natural and funda- 
mental law of accentuation, but it is so often interfered with by other 
agencies that it seems rather to be the exception Many short particles 
have no accent of their own, and in terms formed b}' iterative reduplication 
each of the doubled radicals has an equal right to the accent; so the accent- 
uation is here decided by rhetoric convenience. 

To obtain an insight into the mutual conflict of the accenting princi- 
ples and the variability of accentuation, distinction must be made between: 

(1) accenting the radical syllable. 

(2) accenting by means of the secondary accent. 

(3) accenting through quantity. 

(4) accenting through syntactic emphasis. 

In polysyllabic terms the root or radical syllable alone is invested 
with an intrinsic notative signification, while the other syllables or sounds 
of the word, verb or noun, express only its relations to other parts of the 
sentence. Hence the root is the most appropriate place for the word- 
accent; nevertheless we find it constantly shifting in American and other 
illiterate languages under the guidance of certain phonetic, logical, and 
rhetoric considerations. This establishes a great contrast with the accent- 
uation of English, German, and the classic languages, but in French we 
see the accent shift to and fro with almost the same liberty as here Thus 
we find in Klamath, e. g. : tula, tul4 in company of; tdwipka, tawipka to 
bewitch; shnuka, shnuka to grasp; viinepni, vune'pni four times; ht'mkanka, 
liemk4nka to speak; itpampgli, itpampgli to carry home; ktdyalshtala, kta- 
yalshtala, ktayalshtala into the rocks; shewanap'litki, shewanap'litki in order 
to restore. In the readings placed first, the accent rests on the radix, and 
in the second readings shifts toward one of the formative syllables of rela- 
tion. Very often a prefix is invested with the accent, as in lu'sluiaksh 
husband, d. hihashuaksh. 



238 GKAMMAR OF THE KLAMATH LAN(JUAGE. 

Ill words of four syllubles or more, our ear is not satisfied by the subordi- 
nating' of so many unaccented syllables under one syllable, but seeks relief 
by accentuating- iinother of their number by what is called the secondary 
accent. In the same vva}' as the spoken sentence hurries towards its end, 
the main accent of long wo/ds will also follow this forward rush; thus the 
secondary accent increases in strength and tends to bring down the main 
accent to the level of the other unaccented parts, unless its quantity offers 
resistance to this leveling ])rocess. Thus shliutuapkuga in order to shoot 
with, with the secondary accent on -ug-, ni;iy under the influence of the 
following words become sliliutuapkuga, the vowel i of the radix being short. 
The same holds g-ood oi' terms like shniulatchganka to (/lance off from, 
lulukshaluapkuga for the purpose of crciiiatinij. Shifting' of the accent can 
also take place when proclitic and enclitic words crowd around accentu- 
ated words, especially verbs. 

Long vowels are not always accented; that is, quantity exercises no 
decisive influence on accentuation. Cf. viiksh^eni toirard the anyliny place, 
where -u- is a contraction of -uya-; but in saiga;{eni to the prairie, the suffix 
has the accent. Nishtak during the same niyht (from nishta ak) is just as 
possible as nishtfi'k. 

The syntactic accent, as determined by the sense of the clause or sen- 
tence, constantly interferes with the other principles of accentuation and 
imposes its own laws There are two sorts of syntactic accentuation; one 
lavs the stress of the voice on that term of the sentence which seems of 
paramount weight to the speaker, while the other lets it fall on certai)i syl- 
lables of one, two, or several words of one sentence. This latter accent is 
the one to be studied more carefully, the other needing no commentary. 

In using the terms friendly, plurality, selfishness we think of them as 
tvholc words only, and do not concern ourselves about the real meaning of 
their roots or suffixes. Indeed, very few of us know, that in friendly the 
radix fii- means to love, cherish, that -end- represents the old Saxon form of 
the present participle, nnd tlmt -ly is (»ur like, alike to, originally lie l)ody, 
flesh, form. But in Klamath this is different, for these and many other 
Indians possess an intuitive if not a real knowledge of the functions of their 
aihxes A verb like gutil;ipk;i))r'li to make turns ivhlle deseendiny suggests at 



PHONOLOGY. 23i) 

once many ideas to the native. Gu- recalls the ratlix ga-, ge- to yo, -tila a 
motion doivnward, -apka an occurrence takin(/ place in the distance, -p6li return, 
repetition, redoiibliiiff. Shnahualpakta to cause echo is composed of the me- 
dial sh- "for somebody, or for oneself, or by itself", -n- iii shn- forms 
cansati%'es, -a- is a vowel repeated from the syllable following-, -hual- is the 
radical syllable to sound, resound, he noisy (liu;ilta, walta to sound, rattle) -pka, 
the simplex of -pakta, is a suffix of verbs indicating repetition, iteration. 

Still better is the Indian ac(piainted with the meanings of inflectional 
endings, and though unable to give abstract names to the grammatic 
categories as we do, the correct use of innumerable simple and compound 
prefixes and suffixes is constantly present to liis mind and guides him 
through this lab^■rintll of forms which can be joined to every radical syI- 
lable of his agglutinative language. Now he has it in his power to accent- 
uate ever}^ svllable or affix, which, as he thinks, exceeds in importance the 
other components of the word for expressing his idea. If in the first ex- 
ample given he lays stress on the distance from himself, then he accent- 
uates gutilApkapeli ; if descent is more important to him, gutilapkapeli ; in 
the second example shuiihualpakta would express strength, of the efibrt to 
cause echo. Cf heshs^alpeli Gl, 8 with ht'shsxalpeli 61,9: kiuyaga 96, 21 
with kiuyega; sku)'u'i 2[), 11 with the usual skuyui. 

Even monosyllabic particles can be lengthened into two syllables by 
diaeresis, and either of them may receive the accent with a sliade of differ- 
ence on the meaning: ha-ji, ha-a; hi-i, hi-i'; or pronouns: i, i-i, i'-i. 

This feature adds largely to the natural expressiveness of the tongue, 
and saves many circumlocutions which the less pliant languages of modern 
Europe would have to specify by words. It is the idea of actuality, of being 
done right then and there, that distinguishes shk'a, shla-a, and shla-a to see, 
find, ge'wa and gewa to go into water, gi'ika and guka to climb up, guhua, guha, 
guha to swell up, etc. Verbs in which the last syllable usually bears tlie 
accent are: slii('> to Let, stub' to report, vunii to hnrg, vula to inquire; guli to 
go into, is always oxytonized, but its d. form kilhi is not. 

In terms where no sj'ntactic or i-hetoric influences affect the location 
of tlu- word-emphasis, a shifting of the accent is often cans('<l by the in- 
n-case of the word through inflectional or derivative affixes. In short 



240 GKAMMAR OP THE KLAMATH LANGUAGE. 

words the accent may then settle upon a prefix; when the term becomes 
lengtliened by suffixation, the accent may shift towards its final syllables. 
Examples: 

hcshla to show itself, from slik-a to see. 

hishlan to shoot at each other, from shlin to sJwot. 

lakiAmkshi at the chief's house, from laki chief. 

shuktampka to begin f(/hting, from shuka to fight. 

yamatala eastward, from yamat east. 

tataksnfptchi childlike, from tataksni children. 

skukliuipkasht from possible chapping, from ski'ikla to be chapped. 

In the four last examples the secondary accent has entirely eclipsed 
the accent originally laid on the radical syllable. 

Oxytonized terms, as gulf and others given above, will not shift their 
accent unless increased by two or more sjdiables. 

When a word of more than one syllable is increased by distributive 
reduplication, the accent will usually shift away from the initial syllable 
by the length of this increase: 

hiklxa to shatter, split, d. hilu'iklxa. 

ngumshka to breal:, fracture, d. ngumgamshka. 

l6mewfl;i^a to drift away, d. l6melemewil%a. 

ulAksha to lap, lick, d. ula-ulaksha. 

Instances where the accent gravitates back upon the beginning of the 
word, respectively upon the radical syllable through apocope, contraction, 
or elision : 

m^ssam in the trout-season, for mehiashii'mi. 

pallapksh the stolen one, for palUpkash. 

k'la ksh telshdmpka to be moribund, for k'lekapkashtala telshampka. 

The appending of enclitic pronouns and particles, which form a pho- 
netic whole with the term governing them, sometimes effects a shifting of the 
accent, but at other times has no effect whatever. Examples of shifting: 

na-ulapkuapka, m's ni I shall punish you, 59, ?>. 

stildsamp6l6k sas in order to (Diiiniincc to them, 22, 15. 



PHONOLOGY. 241 

t;{op6=shitko, t;fop6=sitk like a thumb, 149, 12. 
shliuapkA m'sh sha iJiey will shoot you, 30, 3. 
gepgapelissa they returned home, for gepgdpgli sha. 
Cf. ki-uks gi, 42, 12; kak6 b6la, 101, 7; humtclil ki, 126, 9; siunotisli 
tchkash, 83, 4. 

Instances where enclitic terms have not affected the position of the 
accent are as follows : 

shna'-uldsha nat we ^a/%jec? (#, 29, 12. 

tchi'-ishtat m'na to their camp, 2;), 16. 

tsu'shni m'sh nl I forever from yoti, 61, 2; but: tsushni m'sh ni, 69, 20. 

In ha ni skuyu'shkuapka m'sh if I should separate (her) from you, 61, 1, 
the proclitic ha ni may have retained the verbal accent in its iisual place. 

II. PROCLISIS AND ENCLISIS. 

A number of particles, mostly conjunctions, some pronouns and adjec- 
tives, or rather adjectival suffixes, are liable to lose their accent if placed in 
certain positions, while others among them always appear unaccented. 
These are monosyllabic ; those composed of two syllables are capable at 
any time of reassuming accentuation, and hence can be classed here only 
under restrictions. 

These unaccented terms may be said to lean either forward on the 
coming accented word — to he proclitic ; or to lean backward on the accented 
word just spoken — to be enclitic. Their influence on the accentuation of the 
main word is onl}^ a casual one; cf Accentuation, pp. 237, 240. 

Proclisis is less frequent than enclisis; all proclitic words are capable 
of assuming the accent, A list of them reads as follows: 

at now, then; mu, mu greatly, largely (not when apocopated from muni 
large); ha if, when; tam, interrogative particle; wak? howf how so f A few 
personal pronouns in their subjective cases, as nil, ni, i, pi, huk, hu, etc., 
and the possessive pronoun mi thy, thine. 

Enclisis is frequently observed and generally appears when a personal 
object-pronoun is connected with a transitive verb. Two enclitic monosyl- 
16 



242 GRAMMAR OF THE KLAMATH LANGUAGE. 

lables can be placed after an accented word, and one of them frequently 
elides its vowel. Enclitic terms may be classed as follows : 

Suffixed adjectives are unaccented terms of an adjectival function quali- 
fying a noun attributively, not predicatively ; two of them, gitko and shitko, 
possess a non-enclitic distributive form and are inflected through all cases. 

dmtchiksh ancient, old, used up, in its abbreviation: -amtch. 

=gitko, =gitk, d. =giggatko possessed of. 

=kani some one, any one; cf (!0, 13, and the Dictionary. 

-ptchi, -mtchi, -tchi, -tch alike to, appearing like. 

=shitko, =sitk, d. =shish4tko alike to, resemhling. 

=tkani a little, somewhat. 

More will be found concerning these fovrr.s under "Adjective," below. 

Pronouns All the monosyllabic p::.-<onal pronouns, subjective and 
objective, are appended enclitically to the verb which they govern or upon 
which they depend. Subjective personal pronouns: ni, nvl /; i, ik thou; 
huk, hun, hu, pi he, she, it; nad, nat, na we; at, a ye; sha, pat they. Ob- 
jective personal pronouns: nish, nush, n'sh, n's me, to me; mish, m'sh, m's 
thee, to thee; hun, hu, pish, push him, her, it; to him, to her, to it; nalash in 
the form nash, nats, n's us, to us; malash in the form malsh ije, to ye; shash, 
sas them, to them; sham, sam of them Enclitic possessive pronouns are mi 
thine, thy ; p'na, Kl. m'na his, hers, its; sham, sam theirs. Demonstrative 
and relative pronouns generally preserve their accent, but among the in- 
definite pronouns, tu4 some kind of, loses it in compounding words: nAnuktua 
every kind of; cf. =kani any one. 

Particles, when monosyllabic, are enclitic unless some particular em- 
phasis is laid on them in connection with the whole sentence. The more 
frequent of them are: a; aka, ak, ka; at;' ha; hak; ya, yu; -la, -le; lish; 
mat; nen; pil; tak, tok, taksh, toks; tcha, tche, tsi; tchish, abbr. -tch, -ts; 
tchkash; un, un. Their signification and use will be indicated below. 

The verb gi, to le, do, say, has several monosyllabic inflected forms which 
may become enclitic, as gi, gfnk, gish, gisht, and the participle gitko, which 
will then usually cast off the ending -o. The simple gi often abbreviates 
into -k, -g: nastg so he said; E-uksni toks hipik hut of the Klamath Lake 
men there were two. 



PHONOLOGY. 243 

Instances of enclisis of various descriptions are as follows: 

shneksluapka m'sli ni / tvill remove you from your position. 

tumi huk liatokt maklaks gi many persons are there. 

iinaka tclikash m'na slitilta he also informed his son. 

p411ank misli robbing thee: vussok sas afraid of them. 

wew(iga pil tchishi the children only were in the lodge. 

ka'ktsnasli; liiluagslash they fled; they enslaved (-sh for sha they). 

pi tchish he also ; ndn%atch some also, 16,7. 

K'muk-amtch the Old Man of the Ancients;. Shu'k-amtch Old Crane. 

ka'kak=tkani a little yelloiv, yelloivish. 

A term may become accented on two syllables, as in Greek, by en- 
clisis; the first being the natural accent, the second the accent thrown upon 
the word by the existence of the enclitic term: tu'tenipni' sha, 111, 2; 
shdhiashtal4 m'na, 112, 13. 

QUANTITY. 

The language clearly distinguishes between long and short syllables or 
vowels. Two stages may be distinguished in short syllables: very short and 
short; two also in long ones: long and very long. The usual sign of 
brevity, -, and of length, ~, was added to the vowels only when they were 
uttered very short or very long Thus monosyllabic nouns ending in a 
vowel pronounce this vowel very short in KL: kma' skullcap, tmu', mhu' 
grouse, Iba' seed species, kpe'l tail, kpa' poker, ska' pestle, ska' to blow cold or 
strong; and also in ya'ki seed-basket, kti'itsia duck species, ndshe'dsh shell, 
pod, ga't sage brush. Many of these are pronounced longer by Modocs. 
The vowel is still short, though longer than in the terms above, in l%ash 
billow, shim to shoot, niish head. As to long sjdlables, a diflPerence may 
be observed between mdntch long ago, miini great, large (radix long in both 
terms), and their emphatic pronunciation: ma'ntch quite long ago, mu'ni, 
mu-iini very large, enormous. A difference exists also between tank, tiinkni, 
and ta'nk, ta'nkni, and between washla and wa'shla. Cf Homonymy. The 
quantity of words is often added in parenthesis: yutetampka (- ~- ^ ~), 
tchmviksh (~), ka'mat i-^-). 

Almost any short syllable may be made long when a strong rhetoric 
emphasis is laid upon it: pa's and pa'sh/oo(?, cf. 101, 20; ga'ma and ga'ma 



244 GRAMMAR OF THE KLAMATH LANGUAGE. 

to crush tvith a stone. Words witli long vowels are ni'l, ne'l fur, feathers, 
ni'lka to dawn, nia'sha to he side, na'dsh, iia'dshak oue, at one time. 

For the quantity of each word the Dictionary may be consulted. 

The character of the language proni])ts the Indian to distinguish be- 
tween long and short syllables, and no other phonetic figin-e is so produc- 
tive of long vowels than vocalic contraction (synjieresis, etc.). In nakosh dam, 
the synseresis of ua into o is remembered, and though the accent rests on 
the first syllable, the second is pronounced long. Many syllables with e, 
o, and other long vowels are not pronounced short, because the people use 
the uncontracted form besides the contracted one: geno'la and geniiala, 
hlekosh and hk'kuish, no'kla (from nokalu), shukatonolo'tch, tchi'sh and 
tchi-ish. 

A vowel does not, as a general rule, alter its quantity through position, 
viz., through a cluster of consonants gathering after it. The short a in 
ktnpka remains short even in ktupkantko and in ktupktipksh. But before 
-dsh a vowel generally sounds longer than before -tch: tama'dsha and 
tamAtcha, laka'dsha and lakfitcha. 

Nor does a vowel, generally speaking, alter its quantity through be- 
coming emphasized by accentuation : in hemkanka to speah, e is pronounced 
as short as in hemkanka, i in hfta as short as in hita at this spot; but becomes 
long through apocope: hi'd, lift. 

Syntactic or rhetoric emphasis sometimes modifies syllabic quantity: 
gen him, 1 14, 2 ; na-a'sht gi so said, 95, 21 ; sii'gs' ish! fell me! (ii lonf/), '8, 4; 
lala'ki chiefs, Go, 14. 

Neither quantity nor emphasis by accent is necessarily associated with 
a higher pitch of the voice. 

HOMONYMY. 

Homonyms are terms sounding exactly alike, but having a diff"erent 
signification; paronyms are terras which seem to sound alike to inexpe- 
rienced ears, but in reality diff'er in accentuation, quantity, or pitch of 
voice when uttered by natives, and also differ in their meaning. 
Some Klamath homonyms are the following: 

kish fish-spear, ki'sh sundown. 

tia'sh, na's species of bulrush, also: one, single; also: thus, so. 



PHOXOLOGY. 245 

skJl' pestle, ska' to blow cold or strong. 

tchi'sh settlement, lodge, tchi'sh inhabitant. 

vf Ash prairie-wolf, wash hole, den, excavation. 

wika iiear, wika to blow. 

liuna to stand, croivd inside, li'una to produce a noise. 

Paronyms differing in quantity only: 
kfsli fish-spear, kl'sli, kl'sh a lie. 
slu'iina to rim a race, sliui'na to sing. 
tcliisli a/60, too, tchi'sh lodge, inhabitant. 
ni, ni /, mijself, nl' snoivshoe. 

Paronyms differing in one or more sounds of the alphabet : 
giwash bluish squirrel, Giwash, nom. pr., Crater Mountain. 
laki chief, hiki to be stolen, gone, \{\W foreltead. 
lii'k seed, lernel, h'lk, \6k grizzly bear. 
p'hushka to tear off by hand, piishka to cut. 

shikantehi to pile upon each other, shikantila to show something on feet. 
yulina to menstruate, yiulma to send over the edge. 
skutash mantle, skutash, s^utash bunch, string. 
shul^a to tie together, shul6;^a to roar, growl. 
shko'ks ghost, spirit, shkoks sheep-tick 
ka'sh ipo-root, ke'sh rattlesnake, ka'sh excrement. 
k6ka, koke river, stream, k6ka to bite. 
n^wa to extend, v. intr., n^wa to drive into the water. 
gena to go away, walk, k^na it is snowing. 
vuduka to strike tvith a stick, vut6ka to swing around, v. trans. 

Some of the above terms (yulina etc., skutash etc.) are etymologically 
identical, but, because differentiated in their meanings, they now differ in 
their pronunciation. This we observe also in English : to pat and to pet, 
secure and sure, loyal and legal, leal; disk, dish, desk; warrantee and guarantee; 
as well as in the French: naif and natif, Noel and natal, entier and integre. 



246 GEAMMAE OF THE KLAMATH LANGUAGE. 



MORPHOLOGY. 

Morphology is a part of grammar wliich gives a systematic account of 
the changes experienced by its material units or words through becoming 
parts of a sentence. Morphology in its descriptive portion has to present 
the word in its forms altered by inflection, as they occur in the language; 
in its systematic part it has to explain the origin and function of these forms. 
The phonetic changes considered under "Phonology" are largely brought 
about by the changes which the words are undergoing through being placed 
into mutual relations to each other in forming parts of a sentence. Deri- 
vation, a process analogous to inflection in many respects, is another import- 
ant part of linguistics to be dealt with systematically by morphology. 

Languages greatly dift'er among themselves in the degree of the energy 
which unites or binds together its elementary parts. Where the parts do 
not unite, the position of the words in the sentence alone points out their 
mutual relation, and few or no phonetic changes occur. These are the 
monosyllabic languages. In the agglutinative tongues, certain syllables 
which indicate relation cluster around other syllables which retain the 
accent. After gathering up the other syllables to be their affixes, and 
uniting them into one body, the accented syllables gradually become 
radical syllables, and phonetic laws begin to manifest themselves in the 
alteration of colliding sounds, in the abbreviation of the affixes, etc. Here 
the original function of the relational or affix-syllables is still recognizable 
in the majority of instances, but in languages reaching a third stage, the 
inflective languages, the afiixes become so intimately fused with the radix, 
that they serve as mere relational signs and may be considered as integral 
parts of the whole word. Through this accretion, or by other causes, the 
root itself becomes modified, chiefly in its vocalic pai't, for inflectional 
purposes. 



THE EADICAL SYLLABLE. 247 

The structure of Klamath is decidedly agglutinutive; nevertheless, in 
some particulars, to be considered later, it approaches the tongues of the 
inflectional order. An important characteristic of it, syllabic duplication, 
is observed in the prefix- and radical syllables. Two other features pei- 
vading every part of Klamath speech are the pronominal syllables used as 
radicals and as affixes, and the figure called anathcsis. Compound words 
are in fact the result of a syntactic process and will be discussed in the 
Syntax. 

In subdividing the affixes into prefixes and suffixes according to their 
location before or after the radix, and into inflectional and derivational 
affixes according to their functions, we obtain the following general scheme 
for our morphology : 

I. — Radical syllable. 

1. Its structure. 2. Its origin and classification. 3. Its phonetic alter- 
ations. 4. Its increase by the reduplicative process. 5. Anathesis. 

II. — Radical syllable connected with affixes. 

1. Inflectional affixes; suffixation. 2. Derivational affixes: A. Prefix- 
ation; B. Suffixation. 3. List of prefixes. 4. List of infixes. 5. I^ist of 
suffixes. 

III. — Inflection and derivation. 

1. Verbal inflection; verbal derivation. 2. Nominal inflection; nomi- 
nal derivation: «, of substantives; &, of adjectives and participles; c, of 
numerals; d, of pronouns; e, of postpositions. 

IV. — Particles or words without inflection. 

I.— THE EADICAL SYLLABLE. 

A root, radix, or radical syllable is a sound or group of sounds pos- 
sessed of an inherent signification. By the processes of inflection and 
derivation affixes cluster around the radix, which may undergo phonetic 
changes; the meaning of the radix then remains either unchanged or passes 
into another signification cognate and closely related to the original mean- 
ing. Languages have been studied in which the radix is composed of two 



248 GRAMMAR OF THE KLAMATH LANGUAGE. 

syllables; in Klamath monosyllabism is the only form in which radicals 
exist, just as in the literary languages of Europe, although some Klamath 
tern^s seemingly attest a dissyllabic origin. 

With a few onomatopoetic exceptions, the roots are no longer trace- 
able to their origin ; hence we do not know why such or such sound-groups 
have been conventionally assigned certain functions in the different lan- 
guages of the world. Grammatic affixes are roots also, whether they be 
still recognizable as such or be ground down from syllables to single sounds, 
mostly consonantic, and mere fragments of what they had been once. 
When used as signs of relation, they belong to the class of pronominal 
roots and are recognized as such with less difficulty in agglutinative than 
in inflectional languajjes. 

The roots are the microcosmic cells from which the macrocosmos of 
language is built up; for it results from the above that all elements in lan- 
guage are either radical syllables or fragments of such. Formation and 
quality of sounds are no secrets to us, but how and why they came to be 
selected for their present functions in each linguistic family is beyond our 
conception. The cause why linguistic families differ among themselves in 
grammar and dictionary is the disagreeing of their pronominal and notative 
roots. 

Root-inflection or regular alteration of the root- vowel to indicate change 
of relation is most prominent in the Semitic languages and also in the 
Germanic branch of the Indo-European family. In America only traces 
of this "Ablaut" are discovered in a few languages, and what could be 
considered analogous to, or resembling it, will be discussed under "Phonetic 
alteration of the root." See pp. 253 et sqq. 

1. PHONETIC STRUCTURE OF THE ROOT. 

Three fundamental forms are traceable in the elementary composition 
of the Klamath radix; it consists — 

Of one vowel : 

a in dna to carry off. 

i in fka to extract, ita to put on, I'wa to he full. 

u in uya to give, w<i to he seated, we'k arm, limh, litish long-shaped fruit 
(of. lutish round-shaped fruit). 



PHONETIC STRUCTURE OF THE ROOT. 249 

Of a single or 'double consonant followed hy a vowel: 

ha-, he- in ha' ma to emit voice; ka- in k4ta, ngAta to break, v. intr.; ku- 
in kuka to bite; kta- in kt4-i stone, rock; mu- in muni great, niiina 
deep down. A diphthong appears in tchuitchuili sorrel, kaukauli 
brown. 

Of a vowel preceded by a consonant and folloived by a consonant: 

kal- in kalo sky, kdlkali round; tak- in taktdkli red, scarlet, ta'^tgi to 
blush; tip- in tipti'pli dark-colored ; yal- in ytilyali limpid. 

It is appropriate to call this third category of roots ending in conso- 
nants thematic roots. The terminal consonants bear great analogy to some 
nominal and verbal affixes, and a number of words formed in a similar 
manner can be actually reduced to roots of the second class: vowel pre- 
ceded by consonant, as laklakli slippery, not to lak-, but to la- in Idla to be 
steep, to slope doivnivards, cf hld-a to foal, lel^dshi brood; lushliishli ivarm, hot, 
not to lush-, but to lu- in luloks fire, lukua to be ivarm, hot; pushpushli black, 
not to push-, but to pu-, po-, in po'ksh mud In the terminal consonant of 
pal- in pdlla to steal, ila to lay down, the analogy with the suffix -la, -ala is 
obvious. It is therefore highly probable that all these roots of the third 
class are formed by accretion, and those containing diphthongs seem to 
have been formed by a similar process. 

Some radical syllables commencing with mute consonants are nasalized 
occasionally, as kata: ngata to break, pdtasli: mpatash milt, spleen. 

There are radicals found in certain letters of the alphabet, as k, t, u, 
which reduplicate the two initial syllables when placed in their distributive 
form, and thus may be suspected of being originally dissyllabic. Bvit 
neither of the two kinds of reduplication proves anything for the condition 
of the radix, for all the prefixes invariably reduplicate with the root, al- 
though they do in no manner belong to it. Compare, for instance : 

Prefix k- in kmel^a to lay down, d. k^kmel/a and kmekmal^a, rad. e-. 

Prefix 1- in law41a to place upon, d. lalawala. 

Prefix sh- in sk4 to blow strongly, d. shktlska, rad. ka. 

Prefix u- in ulagsha to lap up, d. ula-ulAgsha. 

Some radical syllables, chiefly pronominal, are found to figure in two 



250 GKAMMAE OF THE KLAMATH LANGUAGE. 

capacities: as roots of predicative signification, and as roots of relation 
forming affixes. This is true, for instance, of i, hi on the ground, in ita to 
put on, i\x^ to lay down into; of u, hu he, sJie, it and above, far, in huta to 
run at, hiiwa to jump up in the water, liya to give a long object. 

2. ORIGIN AND CLASSIFICATION OF ROOTS. 

Although we are precluded from unraveling the origin of the majority 
of radices it is preposterous in our present state of linguistic knowledge 
to derive all the radicals of a language from ononiatopoetic attempts to 
imitate the sounds and noises heard in outdoor life, like the note of birds, 
the rustling or blowing of the wind, or the roll of thunder. To ascribe a 
pronominal origin to all the roots which do not represent, or do not seem 
to represent, natural sounds has been a favorite theor}- of some scientists 
who have studied languages of the so-called savages. As to the Klamath 
language, the most appropriate classification of roots will distinguish four 
sources for their possible origin : ononiatopoetic, interjectional, pronominal, 
predicative. 

RADICES OF ONOMATOPOETIC ORIGIN. 

They have formed a large number of bird names, a few names of 
other animals and objects of nature. They also occur in verbs denoting 
sounds and disturbances. 

Birds: aliA-ash, Mk, tuktukuash, tuakash or wjikash, o'lash, takAga, 
ud^kash. 

Other objects: heihai, mbaubAwash, bdmbam, tfntan, cf udintgna. 

Verbs: ka-ukdwa, kiishkusha, tushtusha, todshito'dshi, udi'ntgna. 

RADICES OF INTERJECTIONAL ORIGIN. 

a'-oho, i-uhu, a-ohiitchna, i-uhdash ; ha', ha' ma ; kapkablantaks, 
k^mkem, kapkapagink l! 

- RADICES OF PRONOMINAL ORIGIN. 

Pronominal roots originally indicate location in space, proximity, dis- 
tance or motion in space and subsequently in time, then relative location, 
and, finally, relation in general. They appear, tlierefore, as well in pre- 



ORIGIN OF ROOTS. 251 

fixes and suffixes, pronouns and pronominal particles, as in predicative 
significations, which have gradually evolved from the pronominal ones and 
make up a large portion of the vocabulary. These roots, which are in fact 
demonstrative pronouns and demonstrative adverbs, have in the present 
stage of the language become devoid of any special significations, and this 
quality eminently fits them for expressing relations between the different 
jiarts of speech. Whenever they form derivatives, the meaning of these 
radices becomes more specialized; thus Jm- forms a large number of verbs 
with the signification of running, tu-, ti- verbs and nouns referring to mo- 
tions of liquids, water, as spreading, dripping, soaking, ti-, tin- to motions 
performed by a plurality of subjects. All roots consisting of one vowel 
only belong here, and a number of lengthy words are entirely composed 
of pronominal roots. 

On account of the importance of this class of radicals, I subjoin speci- 
mens of them and their derivatives, but do not claim any completeness for 
the list: 

a, Jia, hd appears in particles a, at, atui; in suffix -ha; in 4na, dnsha. 

li- connected with all the vowels forms reciprocal, reflective, causative 
verbs and their derivatives. 

hu, hu, u, in prefix u-, suffixes -u, -ui (-uya), -wa, -uish; in pron. and 
adv. hu, hut, livm, hunk, in pron. hunksht, hukag ; in w4, 
we'k, utish or otisli; lina, una'k, huta, hlidshna, huntchna, 
liiiwa. 

i, hi, hi in suffixes -i, -la; in iwa, iwi^a, fta, idsha, i-a (ya), ydna, yaina, 

i-u (y")> yita. 

k- appears in three forms: ka, ke, ku; ke being originally ki. 

ka, ga in suffixes -ka, -ga, -\%a, -tampka, etc., in demonst.-relat. 
pron kat who; interr. kani whof in gat, k4-a, kA-ag, shkd, 
kdtak, gayue. 

ke, ge, ge, yonder, redupligated in kek, geg, k^ku, forms prefix ki-, 
k-, and tlie verb gi; g^na to go away, and its numerous deriv- 
atives, as gekansha, gdmpele, seem to point to the radix ga, 
for some of them begin with ga-, ka- : gdyaha, gake'mi, ga- 
lila, ka-ul6ktana ; in kdka, tkdka. 

ku, gu in ku and ki'ii far off, kuinag, k6-i, ku-idshi, skuyui. 



252 GRAMMAR OF THE KLAMATH LANGUAGE. 

la, I- in suffixes -l6, -lam, -la, -ala, -l^a, -14mna. 
ma in prefix ni-, suffix -ma. 
na, n- in the locative suffix -na; in nu, ni, nat. 
p- appears in several forms: p, pa, pi, etc. 

pa, in prefix p- and suffixes -p, -pa, -ap; pron. pash; particles pa, 
pash, pAni, -peli, shep41ua, p'lai, liishplamna, p4na, pe'ntch, 
p'n4na. 
pi, demonstr. and reflect, pron.; in the prefixes pe-, p'-, sp-; in tlie 
suffixes -p6na, -tpna; in p'na, Kl. m'na. 
sha, sh-, s- in pron. sha thep; also of reflective function; in medial pre- 
fix sh- (sha-, she-, etc.); in suffixes -sha, -asha, -ansha, etc., 
-sh, -ash, -tch; in shApa. 
t- appears in three forms: ta, ti, tu. 

ta in prefix ta-, t-; in suffixes -ta, -tala, -tana; in tawi, stawa, sta, 

stAni; stu, stena, stA-ila, tapka, tapak. 
ti in prefixes ti-, te-, t'- and suffix -ti; in tina, tfla, tilaludnsha, til^a, 

shtilta. 
tu in prefixes tu-, tush-, suffix -tu; in particles tu, tiila; in ntiiltpa. 

RADICES OF PREDICATIVE SIGNIFICATION. 

This class comprehends all roots which cannot, from our present knowl- 
edge of the language, be referred to one of the three categories preceding. 
Their signification is more concrete and specific than that of the pronom- 
inal roots, and points to some action or quality. We include here, also, 
the thematic or secondary roots, as lak in laklAkli, etc. Cf. p. 249. 
Instances of predicative roots are as follows: 
pat in patpAtli, mpata. kta in kt4-i. 

shu in shum. le in shl^a, Idltki, etc. 

litch in litchlftchli, litchtakia. . mets in metsmetsli. 

The adjectives formed by iterative reduplication and by the suffix -li 
probably all contain thematic roots, ultimately reducible to shorter forms; 
cf "Phonetic structure", pp. 248 sqq , "Phonetic alteration of the root", 
pp. 253 sqq. 



ALTERATION OF THE ROOT. 253 

A remark upon the alleged priority of the verbal over the nominal 
roots may be appropriately inserted here. In many languages, especially 
the monosyllabic, noun and verb do not distinguish themselves from each 
other in their exterior form, and even in Klamath we iind words like pata, 
petila, ndshishl;^a, which are verbs and nouns at the same time, and verbal 
suffixes which are nominal suffixes also. In many other languages the dis- 
tinction between the two categories is at least an imperfect one, and must 
have been more so in their earlier stages of development. When the sen- 
tence had reached a stage in which the predicative idea in the verb began 
to distinguish clearly between subject, object, and verb, noun and verb 
commenced to assume distinctive affixes, and the position of these parts in 
the sentence became more free. Noun and verb therefore originated simul- 
taneously, not successively. 

A single instance taken from the present status of tlie Klamath lan- 
guage may give us an idea how in its earlier stages the two categories 
could have diffi3red. Ktchal%a means to shine and to emit heat, ktchAk (for 
ktchalka) motlier-of-pearl shell, ktchalui to he resplendent and to he hot, 
ktchalta to reverberate, ktchalua to shine and to reflect sunrays, ktchal^ish 
sunshine and heat of sunrays, sunburn, ktchiilshkash radiance, ktcho'l star, 
etc. Evidently the root, either simple or thematic, is ktchal {a short), and 
the idea of heat is secondary to that of light, radiance; but nobody is able 
to decide whether its original meaning was the nominal one of ray, radiance, 
or the verbal one of to radiate, or of both at the same time, for both the 
derivatives are equally long or short in their affixes. If in the minds of 
the earliest people who formed this language a distinction has existed be- 
tween the two as a vague feeling, we can no longer follow its traces. Even 
nouns, to be considered as having been substantives from a very early 
epoch, as sun, moon, water, fire, were in some languages shown to be deriva- 
tives of radicals, but not of radicals of a distinct nominal or verbal signifi- 
cation. 

3. PHONETIC ALTERATION OF THE ROOT. 

Of some languages it has been said that their consonants were com- 
parable to the skeleton and bones of the animal organism, while their 



254 GEAMMAE OF THE KLAMATH LANGUAGE. 

vowels, as the fluid and variable element, were likened to its soul. This 
furnishes a graphic picture of the structure observed in the Semitic family 
of languages, and in a less degree applies also to the languages of the Iiido- 
iMu-opean family. The permutability of consonants and xowels among 
themselves in unwritten languages has been described above ("Alternating 
of Sounds"), and does not, generally speaking, alter the signification of the 
terms in which it is observed. But the case is different with the radical 
vowels of Klamath under certain conditions, for here we observe somethiner 
analngoiis to Semitic vocalization, when vocalic changes occur. 

A few similar instances from other American languages are as follows: 
In the Nipissing-Algonkin, I love Mm is rendered by ni sakiha ; in four 
"modes" of the verb the long vowel a changes into -aya-, -aia- : sayaki- 
hak / ivho love Mm, sayahakiban I tvho did love Mm, sayakihak the one loved 
by me, sayakihakin tvhen I just happen to love Mm. In the same manner 
verbs with the radical vowels a, e, i, T will alter them respectively into e, 
aye, e, a. In Cha'hta we meet with vocalic changes in radical syllables 
like the following : tcheto to he large, tchito to be quite large, tchieto to be de- 
cidedly large. In other instances of the kind the vowel becomes nasalized. 
In Creek some verbs lengthen their radical vowels almost imperceptibly 
to form a preterit from the ])resent tense. 

The study of alterations observed in the Klamath roots is highly 
important for illustrating the formation of the language, and also throws 
light upon the radical changes occurring in the inflectional languages of the 
eastern hemisphere. The vocalic changes are of greater importance than 
the consonantic, and are brought about in various ways. 

VOCALIC ALTERATION OP THE RADIX. 

Vocalic changes occur only in certain words of the language and with- 
out any apparent regularity. They are produced either by the intrusion of 
another sound into the radix, or by an independent, as it were spontaneous 
change. Some of these changes appear only from one dialect to the other, 
whih; the majority occurs in words belonging to the same dialect, and then 
they are always attended by a change in the signification of the term. 



ALTERATION OF THE ROOT. 255 

1. Change hy substitution. 

The primitive vowels a, i, u are sometimes substituted to each other to 
indicate a change in the local or temporal relation of the words of which 
they form a component part. They represent tlie pronominal roots: 

a, hA here, on hand, by hand; temj^orally: now, just now. 

i, hi on the ground, at home, for somebody; temporally: at the time of. 

u, hii up, above, far off, on the person, in the water; temporally: in the 
past, previously. 

Thus the personal pronouns ni, nish, pash change to nu, nush, pish, 
push and in particles and suffixes the change through all the three vowels 
is sometimes observed: 

-ksdksi, -kshakshi, a locative nominal suffix of the northern dialect, is 
altered to -ksi'ksi in Nak(5sksiks(i), nom. pr., "right where the pile- 
dam is"; to -ksu'ksi in Slankoshksu'ksi, nom. pr., "where the old 
bridge once wasT 
tchd now, presently, tchl'k (or tche'k) at last, finally, until; tchiik at last 
out there. 

We may also compare the changes observed in the pronominal roots 
ka, ki (ke), ku ; ta, ti, tu. 

Vocalic changes in predicative and pronominal roots are the following: 
kpddsha to extinguish hy hand, kpitchtchna, Mod. to spit, kpiitcha Kl. 

to squirt from' the mouth. 
spatcha to tear asunder, spitcha to pull to the ground, extinguish the fire, 

spiitchta to cause somebody to part or lift the legs : to frighten. Cf. 

pddsha, pitcha, puedsha. 
spatAdsha to stretch out, spitAdsha to stretch out a piart of the body. Cf. 

put6ga, put6va, sputuya. 
pAha to be and to make dry ; puka to roast, bake. 
sma'k hair on belly, smo'k hair of heard, mukash down, dotvny feather. 
litki evening, viz. "decline;" liitxi to come down to the ground. 
ska cold, adv., sgu'mla hoar frost forms ; cf. skukla. 
tchak- in tchaktchakli sharp, pointed ; tchi%tchi;^a to tickle; cf tchAkela, 

shtchiyakeka, shtchi'kt^ish. 



250 GRAMMAR OF THE KLAMATH LANGUAGE. 

wAl^a to he sitting, wfl^a to squat down. 

tdtkta to feel pain, tfka to cause pain; cf. t(ikteka. 

ika to remove, trans.; ef%a (for u-ika) to put out the head, spiika to put out 

the feet; sliniika to take away. Cf. nika. 
ki'dsha to dive, kidshash fin, kiidsha gudgeon. 
shlin to shoot, shlo'kla to shoot at the mark. 
kAlkali round, kfl^a to become humpbacked. 

Cf also Ilia with lula, ptchciklxa with Kl. ptchikl;(a, shlatchka with 
slilitchka. Of vocalic changes observed in suffixes the following may be 
added for comparison: 

hfnua to fall on, upon, hinui to fall to the ground. 

tch41amna to sit on, or against, tchdlamnu to sit high up, above, or at a 

distance. 
tutash stump of tree; tuti'sh stump of tail or limb. 

sha kiukaj'unk the;/ are sticking out, sha kiukdyunk theg are sticking out 
above, 134, 4. 

2. Change through addition of a vowel. 

When the vowel of tlie radical syllable is joined by another vowel 
suffixed to it, the result of the combination may be either (I) vocalic synsere- 
sis or lengthening of the vowel, when both are coalescing; or (2) a softened 
vowel, Umlaut. 

The intruding vowels, which become suffixed to the radical vowel, 
seem to be no other but a, i, u mentioned in the preceding article; i added 
to a produces e. 

Vocalic syna3resis : 
hitcha to build a lodge, viz., "to intertwine", Ic'tcha io knit. 
ana to abstract, ena to bring, carry; cf ansha, amilipka. 
lAma to be dizzy, lemlema to whirl about. 
sh;'itma to call to oneself, Mod. shetma 
nawal and n^wal to lie upon. 

Lengthening of the vowel : 
pc'lpelii to ivork, pe'lpela to ivorkfor (oneself or another). 
ktel(ishka to push away, kteleshkapka to push away forcibly. 



ALTERATION OF THE EOOT. 257 

Softening of the vowel : 
ya-a to howl, ya'ka, y^ka to howl while dancing. 
stA to be full, stdni full, sta'-ila to fill down into, to gather (roots, etc.). 

3. Change through accretion. 

Accretion takes place when the radix or basic syllable is increased by 
prefixes, suffixes, through syllabic reduplication or through the formation 
of a compound word. The usual consequence of accretion is the removal 
of the emphasis from the radix to another syllable, the secondary accent 
becoming often preponderant over the primary one; another consequence is 
the weakening or shortening of the radical vowel. The frequent change of 
M (o) to a in the radical syllable has to be ascribed to this cause. 

shnuka to seize, shn4kptiga to seize with pincers. 

tchuka to expire, tch4kle;fa to lose children by death. 

k6ka to bite, ka-iildsha to erode, gnaw. 

mita to burn, trans, and intr.; shnuitampka to keep up the fire, niliwa to 

blaze up, ndtkolua. Mod , to burn in the distance, shnatk41ka to set on 

fire, ndtspka to be charred, shndka to burn, to shine. 
nuka, n6ka to be, become ripe, shni'kanua to let ripen. 
shim to shoot, shlataniya to make ready for shooting. 
tchia to remain, sit, tche];;^a to sit, tcheklela to sit on the side of, tcliAwal, 

tchaggaya to be seated upon, tchawdya (from tchia and waiha), to 

wait, expect. 
hema, ha'ma to emit voice, ham6asha to call to oneself. 
t^dsha to wash, shatashpapkfa to make the gesture of washing (the face), 
pdlpela to work, lulpalpalia to make eyes for somebody. 

This shortening or weakening also occurs in prefixes; cf shalakla, Mod. 
shelakla ; shnap^mpema, Mod. shnep^mpema ; and in suffixes : yutetampka 
for yutatdmpka. 

4. Elision of the radical vowel 

Is brought about by the same causes as the change through accretion, 
and hence is but another form of No. 3 : 

nuka to roast, bake, n;ijuta, n;futagia to burn at the bottom of the cooking 

utensil (for nukiita, nukutagia). 
17 



258 GEAMMAK OF THE KLAMATH LANGUAGE. 

lama to reel, viz, "to move in a (nrcnlnr line"; l6m^na, I'mdna, Imc^na 
it thunders, Igmatch, lm4tcli mealing stone, the motion made on it 
being" circular. 

ha'ma to emit voice, sha'lmiiilgi to call tofjcthrr. 

kill- in kalkali round, hislizelul;ja, liislikli'ilxa, ''to measure all around,^' 
to make of the same length, tvidth. Ct'. skilulxotkisli. 

5. The change of a radical vowel into a cognate vowel has been fully 
treated in the chapter on "Alternation of Sounds," and requires no further 
discussion. Examples: y^ka, yii'ka ; c-una, ii'-una; o'lash, u'lsh ; steinash, 
stainas. 

CONSONANTIC ALTERATION OF THE RADIX. 

Changes occurring in the consonantic components of the radix are 
caused hv the interchangeabilit}- of cognate consonants, cf "Alternation of 
Sounds," and do not usually imply any change in the signification of the 
radix. Examples : bunua and punua, delish and t(^lish. 

Instances of a radical consonant becoming nasalized are pata, mpata ; 
sakA-a, sankA-a 

A change in the signification is, however, produced by the changing 
of a. guttural k, g into k: kil^sintko humpbacked person, kil^fintko humphaeked 
person, when imitated by children, etc. (i-adix kal- in kdlkali round). 

4. REDUPLICATION. 

The repetition of syllables in immediate succession within one and the 
same word is technically called reduplication, and forms one of the most 
effective means for emphasizing or otherwise individualizing ideas expressed 
in words, in the same manner as the orator repeats twice or three times in 
succession certain words to be emphasized above all others. Reduplication 
has been recognized as an efficient grammatic figure from the earliest times; 
in rude and illiterate tongues we see it more frequently applied than in the 
refined speech of cultured nations, and in the earlier periods of European 
languages much more than in their present stages of development — facts 
wliich point with certainty to a high antiquity of this special mode of gram- 
matic synthesis. If we except the monosyllabic languages, reduplication is 



REDUPLICATION. 259 

a feature common to all languages of the globe, although they may greatly 
differ in the mode of applying it. 

Thus, in the English terms gewgaw, riffraff, tiptop, syllables were doubled 
for some augmentative purpose; the Sahaptin family reduplicates for form- 
ing diminutives, as mu%]imu%li flg, kussikussi dog. English and German 
show traces of syllabic duplication to designate a preterit tense, a feature 
once common to all the dialects of the Indo-European family: fell, held, 
slept, are forms of an imperfect tense which are the remnants of ancient forms 
parallel to the Gothic faifal, haihald, saislep. 

Some languages reduplicate their radical syllables for the purpose of 
forming onomatopoetic, iterative, frequentative, or usitative verbs and nouns, 
indicating gradation in the adjective and adverb, or of forming certain 
derivatives ; other tongues, again, indicate in this manner the ideas of sev- 
eralty, plurality, totality, or collectivity, and purposely modify the redupli- 
cated terms phonetically for each of the several morphologic functions to 
whicli they may be applied. 

Syllabic duplication has exercised a thorough-going influence on the 
development of the Klamath language of Oregon, giving origin to delicate 
and ingenious grammatic and lexical distinctions. Its workings can be 
studied to more advantage in a few languages only, although linguistic 
development has taken a similar turn in the Malay-Polynesian family and 
in the forms of speech disseminated along the western coast of North Amer- 
ica, especially in the Nahuatl and Selish stocks of languages. 

The reduplicative process has originated in the idea of repetition or 
iteration, applied to space, surface, intensity, time, and other categories. 
The stage immediately preceding syllabic reduplication was that of repeat- 
ing the entire word, as we see it in the Hebrew t6b t6b, '■'■ gi. A good^'' for 
very good, and in Mohave, where the adverb accompanying the adjective 
is repeated to indicate gradation : valtaye great, large; valtai tahana larger ; 
valtai tahan tahdn tahdiia the largest one. Although the latter is a triplica- 
tion, a twofold mention of the adverb is just as frequent in Mohave, where 
the elements have not yet coalesced into a single word. All the different 
and most varied shapes of reduplication of the radix can be brought in two 
classes: iterative reduplication, when used for the derivation of words; dis- 
tributive reduplication, when used for inflectional purposes. 



260 GKAMMAK OF THE KLAMATH LANGUAGE. 

A. — ITERATIVE REDUPLICATION. 

In Klanuitli iterative reduplication redoubles the entire radical syllable 
without any consonantic alterations, and serves in forming from simple or 
tiieraatic roots various sorts of derivative terms, as onomatopoetic, iterative, 
and frequentative verbs and substantives, also adjectives descriptive of exte- 
rior form, surface-quality, color, intensity. 

This sort of reduplication differs from the distributive (a) by being 
derivational and not inflectional ; {b) by duplicating the radix in its totality 
and not partially ; (c) by duplicating always the radix and not the first 
syllable only, although the radix may become reduplicated with its prefix, 
when this prefix consists of a vowel or single consonant only. No word 
reduplicates more than two of its initial syllables ; words which do so 
usually begin with the initials k, 1, n, t, and u (or vu, w), and some contain 
an adulterine diphthong : te-ukte-uksh, kaukauli. 

Western languages offer sundry parallels to this sort of reduplication. 
It prevails in the adjectives of color in Porno, Cal., in Olamentke and Chi'i- 
m6to, dialects of Mutsun, Cal., in Cayuse and several Oregonian languages. 
When applied to coloi-, surface-quality, exterior shape, etc , this mode of 
synthesis is evidently equivalent to: "red here and red there," "prickly 
here and prickly there, and prickly all over." 

Examples of derivatives formed in this manner could be gathered in 
large numbers and from every language spoken by the Indians of the Union. 
We confine ourselves to the mention of a few terms of the Tonto dialect, 
Yuma family (Arizona), most of which show a dissyllabic radix or base: 
toltol guitar, toltolia flute tibitivi ^wegnant 

solsoli to scratch midimidi straigUways 

ogi-ogi to yawn dubbidubbi button 

topitope circle, circuit yudiyudi blanket 

wiliwiHva pulse yudiediedui checkered 

In Klamath several terms are met with which are compounded from 
two words, word-stems, or roots, and of which only the second is undergoing 
iterative reduplication. The first component is very freqvently a prefix, as 
sh-, U-, etc., and vocalic dissimilation is often observed here This class of 



EEDUPLICATION. 261 

terms will be more properly spoken of under "Composition of Words"; it 
embraces terms like yapalpul^ash, kdltchitchiks, ulaplpa, etc. 

Words formed by iterative reduplication possess, just like other terms, 
a distributive form to mark severalty ; they form it by undergoing another 
kind of reduplication to be described below. Thus, Mlkali round, becomes 
kak^lkali, tiptipli dusky: titaptipli. 

Many terms formed by this means of synthesis have the power of dis- 
similating the vowel of one from that of the other syllable, as kii'kakli green, 
yellow, which may be also pronounced ka'kakli and kakiikli, while the dis- 
tributive form would be kakii'kakli or kakakiikli. The change from the 
normal vowel, which is a in this example, is more frequently heard in the 
second part than in the first: taktakli red: taktil'kli; ke'tchkatch little gray 
fox, from ketchke'tchli rough. Dissimilation is a figure which was spoken of 
at length on pages 234 and 235. 

The following list of terms is classified after catesrories of origin, and 
exhibits all the various forms of iterative reduplication : 

1. Onomatopoetic terms produced by imitating peculiar noises perceived on ob- 

jects of nature, or the cry of some bird or other animal: kaikaya 
to sob, snore, Mlak brant, tiiktukuash fish-hawk, wawd-ush little bell, 
wekw^kash magpie, yauydwa to be noisy. 

2. Iterative, frequentative, usitative terms, mostly verbs: 

leml^ma to reel, to be dizzy, drunk; dissimilated in la'mlemsh. 

muimuya, muhimuya to tremble, shiver. 

p(^lpela to work, to busy oneself at. 

p6po-i to drink, said of babies. 

shidkshiaga to shake up, v. trans. 

tuektueka to stare at, from tudka to pierce. 

tushtiishla to shiver from cold; cf. Lat. titubare. 

litk'utka and wankwanka to nod. 

witwita to writhe, struggle. 

Dissyllabic reduplication occurs in : 
kokalkok/iltko weak in the joints. 
lotel6tash greenish excretion of snakes. 
nidshoni'dshua to make faces, to grimace. 
ulagshuMgsha to lap up, as water. 



262 GllAMMAE OF THE KLAMATH LANGUAGE. 

3. Adjectives of color. The original color adjectives terminating in -li are, 

for the largest part, formed by the reduplication of a radix termi- 
nating in a consonant (an exception is ka-ukA-uli, Mod. ke-uke-uli 
hrown). Thus we have kiikil'kli (for kak-ka'kli) green, yellow, 
puslipushli black, metsmetsli sky-blue, purple. 

4. Adjectives descriptive of surface-quality, with their adverbs: 

kitchkitchli rough to the touch, from kdtcha a little. 
lAklakli, hlakhlakli smooth, polished, even. 
putpiitli of level but coarse surface; adv. putput. 
tatatli (for tdt-tatli) flat, level, planed off. 

5. Adjectives describing external shape, form: 

kdlkali spherical, circular, cylindric. 

mukmukli downy ; cf miikash down, plume. 

wakwAkli conical, high-pointed; cf wakalwak41sh, w^kwak 

witch witchli rigid, stiff. 

B. DISTRIBUTIVE REDUPLICATION. 

Characteristics and function. 

The phonetic characteristics of the distributive reduplication are the 
following : 

It redoubles the first or the two first syllables of a term. The vowel 
and all the sounds preceding it become reduplicated, but the reduplication 
does not extend beyond the vowel. In monosyllabic distributive redupli- 
cation the initial syllable only is redoubled, whether it represents or includes 
a prefix or not. In regular monosyllabic duplication the vowel of the sec- 
ond syllable is a, if the vowel of the initial syllable is a short one. 

This grammatic form pervades all parts of the language, for it exists 
not in nouns and verbs only, but also in a large number of particles. Sub- 
stantives not possessing this form are either collective terms or are prevented 
by jjhonetic laws from duplicating. This feature, so characteristic of the 
language of which we treat, expi'esses the idea of severalty or distribution, 
and not primarily that of plurality or collectivity; this accounts for its exist- 
ence in all the abstract nouns. Wherever this form is indicating plurality 



EEDUPLIOATION. 263 

it does so only because the idea of severalty happens to coincide with that 
of plurality in the peculiar instances which will be specialized below. 

Thus ndp means hands as well as hand, the hand, a hand, but its distrib- 
utive form n^nap means each of the two hands or tlie hands of each person 
when considered as a separate individual. Ktcho'l signifies star, the star, a 
star, the stars, constellation or constellations, but d. ktchoktchol means each 
star or every star or constellation considered separately. Shenolakuish is 
engagement, compact, or compacts in general, d. sheshn61akuish the compacts 
made ivith each party. Ktekna means to cut a hole into one object and to cut 
holes into many articles by one cut or turn of the instrument; d. ktektakna points 
to cutting holes into different or separate objects by cuts repeated at different times 
or for every object separately. Padsha i: you became blind of one eye ; d. papa- 
dsha i: you are totally blind, you lost the use of each of your eyes. Lutatka 
means to interpret one sentence or to serve as interpreter at one council or sitting ; 
but d. lultatka to interpret repeatedly at councils or interviews, to serve as a 
regular interpreter. This also applies to the nomen verbale: lutatkish, d. hilta- 
tkish. A regular interpreter, lultatkish, can be spoken of as hitatkish also, 
when lie is referred to as having interpreted just at a certain day, or some 
special meeting. The sentence: kani ge-u watch palla*? means either who 
stole my horse f or who stole my horses f and when used in the latter accepta- 
tion would iniply that they were all stolen at once by one person ; but kani 
g(i-u watch papalla? implies that some person stole my horses severally or 
that thefts had been committed on single horses at different times, or that 
the one and single horse which I possess was repeatedl}' abstracted. She- 
ktiikta is to cut in two, d. sheshaktdkta to cut the two pieces in two again, or 
into smaller portions. 

Inflectional reduplication. 

• 

In order to give a full illustration of that kind of reduplication which 
serves for inflectional and not for derivational purposes we mention a few 
instances from other American languages. Phonetically they are parallel 
to the distributive form observed in Klamath, for the radical does not re- 
double beyond its vowel, but the grammars of these languages declare this 
form to be a plural and not a distributive form, as we have it here. 



264 GRAMMAR OF THE KLAMATH LANGUAGE. 

In the extensive Nahua family, which embraces Aztec, Tarahumara, 
Tepeguana, Cora, Cahita, Cpata, Eudeve, and Pima, we can trace it through 
the nominal and verbal portions of every language, although other plural 
forms occur there also. When we meet Aztec vocables like the following, 
we remark that the idea of severalty is the ruling idea in at least some of the 
Aztec reduplicated verbs: 

intchan oyake they went into their house (all having one house only); 
intchatchan oyayak^ they went into their several houses (every man entering 
his own). 

kotona to cut, kokotona to cut in many pieces, ko'-kotona to cut many 
articles in pieces* 

The dialect of Pima spoken on the Yaqui River, State of Sonora 
(Pima bajo), reduplicates in the same manner, as does also the Pima alto 
spoken on the Gila River, Arizona. The Nevome, a dialect of the Pima 
bajo, inflects, e. g, maina: mamaina palmleaf mat, bava: bavpa cliff, high 
rock, tucurhu: tutcurhu owl, stoa: stostoa white.f 

Plurals of nouns and verbs are formed by duplication of the radix in 
some, perhaps in all, the dialects of the Shoshoni or Numa family. 

This holds good also for the dialects of the Santa Barbara family, whose 
tribes reside on the coast of the southern part of California. On Santa Cruz, 
e. g., substantives were forming their plurals as follows: pu: pupu arm, hand, 
alapami: alalapami body, tupau: tutupau bow. Duplication of the consonant 
after the vowel also occurs: ulam: ululam river, wutchu: wutchwutcho do(/.X 

In one of the dialects of the wide-stretching Selish family, that of the 
Flatheads of Idaho and Montana, we find that the reduplicated verb indicates 
severalty and not plurality. If our knowledge of the other numerous Selish 
dialects was more thorough, we would probably discover there the same 
fact. Rev. Gregory Mengarini gives the following instances in his "Gram- 
matica Linguae Selicse:" 

iesk5m I receive many things at once, ieskmkbm / receive many things at 
different times. 



" Quoted from H. Steinthal, Characteristik, page 212. 

t Arte del idioma Pima 6 Nevome, in Shea's Linguistic Series. 

t Contributions to North American Ethnology, yol. iii, pp. 560-565. 



EEDUPLICATION. 265 

ifes' h azgam I look at all (of them) at once, ifes' az'azgam I look at each 
(of them) separately. 

That Selish dialect is able to reduplicate its nouns and verbs in two 
different ways, thereby conveying different meanings.* 

Similar forms appear in dialects of the Dakota family. In Omaha 
s4b6 is black, said of an object near by and seen distinctly, sh4be of a dis- 
tant object; sasabe, shashabe when the black objects differ among themselves 
in size or other qualities; so also dshide: dshidshide red, dshinga: dshi''dshii3ga 
small, little, g(fezd striped, g(j;ezdza striped here and there or all over, gcfezhe 
spotted, g^ehaha spotted all over. 

There are examples of another sort of reduplication observed in the 
languages of North America, that of duplicating the last syllable of the 
word or its basis, either in part or in its whole length. In this manner are 
made distributive forms of the adjectives in the various dialects of the Sahap- 
tin and Maskoki families. As this feature does not occur in the Klamath 
language, a simple mention of it will suffice. 

Judging from the facts enumerated, it becomes quite probable that 
inflectional radical reduplication is in many other languages of the West a 
mark to indicate distribution or severalty, not plurality. Closer investiga- 
tion alone can give an ultimate decision concerning this obscure point in 
Indian linguistics. 



'»' 



Terms with twofold reduplication. 

A closer study of the reduplicative process in Klamath reveals the fact 
that several terms, especially verbs, can reduplicate in a twofold manner. 
They have to be divided in two classes; the first embracing the terms of 
which the reduplicated forms are identical in their origin, and phonetically 
reducible upon each other; the second class embodying the terms of which 
the reduplicated forms differ in their function and point to a different pho- 
netic origin. 



*Mengarini, Gramm. p. 84 : Unica res pliiribns pertinens, rednplicatnr tantnm vocalis snbstantivi, 
uon aliter ac in tertia persona iilarali verbonim dictum est. Vel agitur de rebus pluribus ad singulos 
pertinentibus, tunctantuui radix etiam uominis duplical>itiir juxtauaturam substantivorum in plurali. 



266 GRAMMAK OP THE KLAMATH LANGUAGE. 

Of the first class we give the foHowing' instances: 
kmdka to look out, d. kak'nika and kniak'mka. 
kiudl^a to lay down, cl. kukinelxa and kinckinal%a. 
ktana to sleep, d. kakta and ktakta. 
piiedsha to throiv away, d. pepudsha and pue'piidsha. 
tmeshka to abstract, d. tetniashka and tmetmashka. 
tchlika to pinch with nails, d. tchitclil%a, Kl., and tchitclilaka, Mod. 
wd-ish productive, d. wawA-ish, Kl., and wawawish, Mod. 

No difference in signification is stated between the two reduplicated 
forms of the terms above given, except for kniaka and knit^l^a; here kak'mka 
and kukmel^a refers to a few objects only, from two to four, but the second, 
more complete forms refer to many objects. The same is stated of the verbs: 

Idktcha to cut, sever, d. lahiktcha and lalkatcha. 

tekua to break, d. tetakua and tetkewa. 

Here the second form is evidently derived from lakAtcha and tekc'wa, 
verbs which through the shifting of the accent gradually became laktcha, 
tdkua. Hence the difference in the functions of the two reduplicated forms 
is a purely conventional one and not founded on etymology. Kekmel;(a 
has originated from kmekmelxa, kmc'kmal/a by the ekthlipsis of the sound 
m from the first syllable. 

Other verbal forms are as follows: 

kawakdga to rip up tvith the teeth, d. kakaukaga and kawakaukdga. 

ulAgsha to lap, d. ula-ulaksha and ulakshulaksha. 

utchaya to split (as wood, etc.), d. u-utcha)a and utcha-utchdya. 

With these and others formed in the same manner it is evident that 
the first form alone is a distributive and the second an iterative verb, and 
therefore a derivative of the radix or stem and not an inflectional form of it. 
Numerous terms beginning with u-, vu-, exhibit both modes of duplication 

The second class of terms showing a twofold reduplication are those 
which possess two distributive forms, of which the second is formed from 
the first one. 

sluuklsh fiylder, d. shishokish, "-d d. shish'shokish. 

sh41gia to put or 2}lace against, d. shashalgia, 2d d. shash'shalgia to quarrel, 
viz., to lay to the charge of 



REDUPLICATION, 267 

hid; d. hlAlila, Idla to slojpe downwards, ^d d. lala'la. The original mean- 
ing of hid (see Dictionary) must have been that of putting or 
placing on the flank of, to the side of, or intr. to be on the slope, flank 
Cf. hla-a, Idl'Iaks. 

tfna once, d. titna some time, 2d d. titatna a few times. 

sh^talkash one who stands on his head, d. shdshtalkash; 2d d. sheshdshtal- 
hash funny fellow, wag. 

dl^a to lay down, e-al;{a, a'-al;ja to read, d. a-a'-al;fa. 

upi^ga to stveep, vuhupi^ga to stir up, said of winds; d. vuhuhapidga 

shina, d. shishna to enter the flesh, 2d d. shishdshna. 

The difference between the two distributive forms as to signification 
follows from the nature itself of these forms; shiukish is one who is or has 
been a fighter on one occasion, shish6kish, on several occasions, or a habitual 
fighter, shish'sh6kish one who fought many times or habitually on many occa- 
sions. Instances like these show that the language has the power of form- 
ing two (or perhaps more) distributive forms, one from the other, for every 
tei'm in the language, as it is done in Flathead-Selish. But experience 
shows that the second form occurs but in a few instances in the spoken 
language, and that wherever it could be formed it often becomes phoneti- 
cally unwieldy, and is therefore replaced by some adjective, numeral, or 
jjronoun; cf. shesh^lkosh spectacles, pi. tumi sheshdlkosh. This is not a dis- 
tributive but simply a plural form Cf also shushatish, shushutdnkish. 

There is a limited number of terms which reduplicate distributively 
only after the prefix, and therefore have to be considered as compound 
terms: 

hiapat^oksh stocking, d. hiapaipat;{oksh. 

humasht thus, so, d. humdmasht, Kl. 

naishlakgish beetle-species, d. naishlashldkgish. 

shekdktcha to return blotvs ; a term which is a d. form by itself, and 
assumed the above form instead of sheshkdtcha to avoid being 
confounded with sheshkdtcha, d. of shekatcha to become divorced. 

u'hlutua to let reach the feet, d. ii'hlulatua. 



268 GEAMMAR OF THE KLAMATH LANGUAGE. 

Different modes of reduplication. 

Of all words of the language not debarred from distributive reduplica- 
tion through phonetic or other causes perhaps not one-third shows this fea- 
ture in its regular form. Phonologic causes will account for the fact that 
so many terms have deviated from the regular standard form through 
elision, contraction, accent-shifting, and the like. As to the accent, it 
usually remains in the distributive form as many syllables remote from the 
word's end as it was in the absolute form. 

There are but a limited number of terms in which the two dialects of 
Klamath diii'er as to their distributive form. But many terms of both dia- 
lects, owing to the fluctuating phonetics of the language, use an uncontracted 
and a contracted or apocopated form for it simultaneously and without any 
difference in their meaning or functions. Examples : 

guka to climb, d. gu'kaka and giig'ka. 

kfdsha to dive, crawl, d. kikadsha and kfktcha. 

ndta to fix on, d. nengta and n^nta. 

shulotish garment, d. shushalotish and shushMtish. 

t'shln to groiv, d. t'shit'shan and tit'shan, tit'sha. 

tu there, yonder, d. tuta and tu't. 

Compare also atini long, tall, d. a-atini and a-itfni, and its abbreviated 
form ati (in Dictionary). 

It will be seen that many of these are formed from terms which even 
in their absolute forms are not always pronounced in the same manner. In 
the examples given below we will make it a rule to mention only the most 
frequently used distributive forms. 

There are many terms of which the distributive form is but rarely used, 
being generally replaced by the absolute, accompanied by some term indi- 
cating plurality. Instances are the distributive forms of gtena, lalago, 
miiklaks, ndnka, tk4p, etc. 

Two different modes of reduplication have to be distinguished through- 
out, the monosyllabic and the dissyllabic. The latter is less frequent than 
the former 

Monosyllabic reduplication, on account of the intricate jihonology 



REDUPLICATION. 269 

manifested by its forms, necessitates a careful and minute classification into 
several categories. Terms with prefixes almost invariably belong to the 
classes No. 1 and No. 2 below. 

MONOSYLLABIC DISTRIBUTIVE REDUPLICATION. 

1. Beduplieation in a. 

The regular and most frequent form of monosyllabic distributive dupli- 
cation takes place when the vowel of the first syllable is short (or was so 
originally), and is marked by a short in the second syllable of the redupli- 
cated form. The vowel of the first syllable, provided it is short, is of no 
influence; the accent usually remains on the same syllable. In case the 
vowel is a diphthong, cf Diphthongic reduplication. 

hasht%a to pierce the nose, d. hahasht%a. 
h^shla to appear, d. liehashla. 
il^a to lay down, d. i-dl%a, yM;^a. 
kp6k gooseberry, d. kp6kpak. 
kiipkash torcJiUght, d. kukapkash. 
ldigl;^a to kneel doivn, d. Idilddgl^a. 
nep, ne'p hand, d. n^nap. 
piinua to drink, d. pupdnua. 
tiptipli dusky, d titaptipli. 
tchunua to vomit, d. tchutchanua. 

2. Reduplication with syncope of a,. 

When the short a of the duplicated or second syllable, as described 
under No. 1 above, remains unaccented, and is left standing between two 
consonants, it becomes easily elided. No syllabic increase taking place, 
the accent keeps the place it occupied in the absolute form. 

heahemesh jewsharp, d. heh'sh^mesh, instead of hehashemesh. 

hoyeka to leap, d. h6hie;{a, instead of h6haye%a. 

ktitak truly, d. kdktak, instead of k;ikatak. 

lalugo pine-yum, d. lal'l^go, instead of lalalago. 

mbu'ka to raise dust, d. mbii'mb^a, instead of mbu'mbaxa. 



270 GRAMMAR OF THE KLAMATH LAN(JUAGE. 

nfto to sup2)ose, d. nfnto, Instead of nfnato. 
shnik6a to hurl, d. shnislink6a, instead of shnislinakua. 
st4wa to starve, d. shtdslitua, instead of slitiislitawa. 
t6'ke fire-place, d. to't^e, instead of t()'ta;^e. 

Shl^a to see, find, forms shk'shla and not shldshla-a, because the suffix 
-a, as a particle, does not really form a part of the verb. In shk'shla the -a 
is therefore the product of the reduplicating pi-ocess and not the final -a of 
shl^a. It must be observed, however, that many verbs in a-a keep this 
suffix in their distributive forms, it being secured there by the accent x-est- 
ing on it. 

3. Reduplication without vocalic change. 

The vowel of the first syllable is long through synizesis or other causes, 
though it is not pronounced long in every instance. The vowel of the sec- 
ond or reduplicated syllable becomes long also, for it is the repetition of the 
preceding vowel. Many terms beginning with a vowel reduplicate in this 
manner, and I know of no instance of this sort of reduplication in which 
the first syllable is not the radical syllable. 

ilina to take down, d. i-ilfna. 

ita to put on (long obj.), d. f-ita. 

k^dshna to sprinkle (for kd-idshna), d. kek^dshna. 

klipa mink, d. kliklipa. 

ku'shka (for ku-ishka) to brush, d. kuku'shka. 

kfwash whippoorwill, d. kikfwash. 

16kanka to go astray, d lolo'kanka. 

lu'sh (for luash, cf lushlushli) wild goose, d. lulosli. 

mhu'. Kl. tmii' grouse, d. mhii'mhu, Kl. tmu'tmu. 

ni'sh (from niwa) neck, d. ninlsh. 

no'kla to roast on coals, d. n6nukla. 

sho'dshna (for shu-idshna") to carry in hand, d. shosho'dshna. 

shu'dsha to build afire, d. shushu'dsha. 

shiitanka (for sh'hutanka) to come together, d. shushutanka. 

t'^pa sunfish, d. t'ett'pa. 

tiidshna to carry on head (for tu-idshna), d. tutudshna. 

w6a, vu-iia to howl, as wolves, d. wow<5a, vu-u-ua. 



EEUUPLICATION. 271 

4. Reduplication of diphthongic syllahles. 

Several modes are observed in the reduplication of diphthongs wliicli 
are very instructive for the study of the real nature and origin of diphthongs 
in this language. Diphthongs do not occur in prefixes, but when redupli- 
cated they are so only because they stand in radical syllables. 

a. The whole diphthong reappears in the second syllable, but the sec- 
ond component undergoes a change into a, as follows : 

luel6ya to stand around, d. luelualoya. 

shuipkiilish liead-flattempg cushion, d. shuishuapkulish. 

Compare: kuanka to limp, d. kuakuanka. 

h. The whole diphthong reappears in the second syllable, but in an 
unchanged form: 

hiuhiwa to he elastic, d. hiuhiuhiwa, abbr. liiliiuhiwa 

tuektueka to stare at, d. tuetut'ktueka. 

Cf. shui to give in a cup, d. shiishui for shiiishui. 

c. The whole diphthong reappears in tlie second syUable, but in a con- 
tracted form: 

shuikina to drive away from water, d. shuishukina. 
tudgga to evaporate, d. tucituga, instead of tuatuaga. 
tiieka to perforate, d. tueto^a, instead of tue'tua%a. 

d. In the distributive form the di})hthong of the absolute form is sepa- 
rated into its two component parts, of which the first stands in the initial, 
the second in the following syllable : 

yaiiyawa to he noisy, d. yayoyawa, yayuyawa, 

k4-], kai wliite rahhit, d. kAki. 

ktfukish latch, bolt, d. ktiktukish. 

mewa to miaul, d. meuuiwa. 

p'lalwash gray eagle, d. p'lap'liwash. 

p'tewip niece, aunt, d. p'tep'tuip. 

te-ini, tei'ni recent, d. teti'ni. 

tchuyesh hat, cap, d. tch6tchiesh. 

tchuy6mash idler, d tchutchi-6mash. 

wafwash snoiv-goose, d. wawiwash (and waweiwash). 

wiulala to strike, d. wiwuldla. 



272 GRAMMAR OF THE KLAMATH LANGUAGE. 

e,. A similar process is observed also in some distributive forms, in 
which a diphthong beginning with a semi-vowel (y, w) is reduplicated: 
yahi heads, d. yayahi, contr. into ya-ihi. 
yaki seed-basket, d. yayaki, contr. into ya-iki. 
wakish inside ladder, d. wdwakish, contr. into wa-ukish. 
wikani sJiort, d. wiwakani, contr. into wi-ukani. 
This sort of reduplication properly belongs to No. 2 above. 

5. Reduplication tvith vowel inverted. 

This mode of reduplication is not frequent; it mainly occurs in terms 
containing a combination of vowels which are not real diphthongs, 
kuatchaki to bite, itch, d. kakutchaki; cf. kudtcha 
mbute'xe to jump over, d. mbambute'^e, for nibunibate'^e. 
piiedsha to cast away, d. pepudsha and puepudsha. 
pu(il%a to throiv down, d pepuel;{a, for puepn^l^a. 
shewoktiga to wag, d. shashewok^ga, for sheshawokdga. 
tia'ma to be hungry, d. tetia'ma, for tiatiJi'ma. 
tchuaish buzzard, d tchdtchuish, for tchntcha-ish. 
Cf. shashuakfsh, 84, 1, and Dictionary. 

It will be seen that this class is made up of several different modes of 
forming the distributive, and that piiedsha, pu^l;(a, tia'ma properly belong 
to No. 4 h. 

6. Beduplication with elision of consonant. 

Terms reduplicating in this manner do not change the position of their 
accent from the absolute to the distributive form ; it remains at the same 
distance from the end of the word. They drop in the first syllable their 
second initial consonant; in several of them the first consonant does not 
belong to the radix of the word, but is a prefix after which a vowel or e 
has once been standing. 

I have found this sort of reduplication only in terms beginning with 
k-, p-, t-, and tch- (ts-), followed by consonants like g, 1, m. Many terms 



EEDUPLICATION. 273 

beginning with the same groups of consonants reduphcate in other ways. 
Cf. List of Prefixes. 

kmutchcitko old, decrepit, d. kuk'mtchdtko. 

ktdna to sleep, d. kdkta and ktdkta. 

p'l^ntant on the top of, d. pepl^ntant. 

tl6%o, tel6%o brain, d. t6tl%o. 

tmoyiiga to begin, d. tot'mydga. 

tm6kil green lizard, d. t6t'mkil. 

tm61o, temolo, tom61o wild plum, d. tot'mlo. 

tchgu'mla, shgu'mla to form \oarfrost, d. tchutchgamla, shgushgdmla. 

tchm6ya to taste sour, d. tchotchm6ya. 

tchl6;(atko smooth, d. tchutchl6;{atko. 

7. Reduplication with apocope of suffix. 

In a Hmited number of terms the suffixes -na and -a after vowels are 
dropped in their distributive forms. The cause of this is the tendency of 
pronouncing words as short as possible and hence of dropping unaccented 
-final vowels and syllables. 

a. Verbs in -na, when this suffix is not abbreviated from -6na, -ina, as 
in gasaktchna to follow, usually drop the -na; the suffixes -mna, -pna, being 
contractions from -m6na, -p6na, do not lose the -na in the duplicating 
process. 

g^na to go away, d. g/ika, for g^ka, g^gga. 

ksh^na to carry on the arms, d. ksh^ksha, for kshdkshana. 

kt4na to sleep, d. ktAkta atid k4kta. 

l^na to move in a circle, d. l^la. 

pdna to dive, plunge, d. pdpa. 

To these may be added the verbs in -n, which drop the -n (originally 
-na) even in the absolute form: pdn to eat, pdt, pdtko; shlfn to shoot, shla't, 
shli'tko, etc. Cf. Verbal inflection. 

h. Verbs in -a preceded by a vowel. 

m^wa to camp out, d. m^mu, me'mii; cf mdwa to mew, d. memuwa. 

ndya, n^-i to hand over, d. nc^ni. 

shlda to see, find, d. shldshla. 
18 



274 GRAMMAll OP THE KLAMATH LANGUAGE. 

DISSYLLABIC DISTKIBUTIVK REDUPLICATION. 

The terms vviiicli duplicate two initial syllables to form a distributive 
are composed with prefixes, as i- (yi-), and chiefly with ii- (vu-). These 
prefixes have coalesced with the radix so firmly as to become inseparable, 
and are now reduplicated with it without any alteration in sound. 

There are as many phonetic modes of reduplicating dissyllabically as 
there are of monosyllabic reduplication; to be brief, we will treat of them 
as belonging to two classes only, as follows : 

1. Reduplication in a. 

Instances of it are : 
ud(?lgatko checkered, d. ude-udalgatko. 
udita to chastise, d. udi-udAta. 

udslifkl^a to fall tvhile stimibling, d ndshi-ndshdkl;fa. 
udiipka, vudiipka to ivhip, heat, ndfidapka. 
udi'imtchna to swim on surface, ududamtchna. 
lilal, vulal Cottonwood tree, d. ula-ulal. 
ul4plpa to flicker about, d. ula-uldplpa. 
utchin to fish with net, d. utchi-utchdn. 

2. All other modes of reduplication. 

Gathered under one head, this list contains instances of the jdioneti- 
cally altered modes of distributive reduplication described under "Mono- 
syllabic distributive reduplication." 

Reduplication with syncope of a: 
ndAma to cover a vase, d. udA-udma. 
udo;j6tkish whip, d. ndo-ud^otkish. 

Reduplication without vocalic change: 
hiliidshna, yil6dshna to push aivay, d. hilu-hiludshna. 
yime'shka to abstract, d. yime-ime'shka. 
uyo;jatko striped, streaked, d. uyo uyo^Atkcv 



EEDUPLICATION. 275 

Reduplication of diphthongic syllables: 
ulAyue to scatter, d. ula-uliwe. 
ulawa to spear through a hole, d. vxla-iilhiia. 
utawa to shake off, d. uta-utua. 

Reduplication with apocope of suffix: 
ibena to dig, d. ib^pa, hipdpa (for ib^-ipa). 

Distributive forms in -ishap. 

Contrary to the linguistic principle of reduplicating the initial syllable, 
or part of it, to indicate severalty, a class of nouns comprehending terms of 
relationship by consanguinity or marriage appends the terminal -ishap. 
These forms, which in many instances seem to have also the function of 
plurals, are formed in this manner: To the terminals -ap, -ip, of the absolute 
form is substituted the uniform ending -ishap. There are even a few terms in 
-sh, which through the law of analogy have adopted the above ending in 
the distributive, simply because they belong to the terms of relationship, as 
pa'ktish brother's child, d. pa'ktishap. 

The suffix -shap is evidently a compound of the nominal ending -sh and 
the suffix -p; the intervening vowel -a- seems duplicated from -i- in -ishap 
and altered to -a- by dissimilation. The suffix -p points to intransferable 
ownership; cf List of Suffixes. 

Instances of these forms are: 
miilgap brother- and sister-in-latc, d. nuilgishap. 
pa-Anip elder brother or sister, d. pa-anishap. 
p'ki'shap mother, d. p'kishishap. 
pkulip grandmother etc , d. pkulishap. 
plugship grandfather and grandchild, d. plugshishap. 
pshaship stepmother, stepchild, d. pshashishap. 
t%^-unap elder brother, d. t%e-unishap. 

Other terms possess two distributive forms; one in -ishap, the other 
being formed in the regular manner: 

makokap aunt, niece etc., d. makokishap, mamkokap. 
pt^wip grandmother etc., d. pt^wishap, pteptdwip. 



27() GltAMMAK OF THE KLAMATH LANGUAGE. 

pi\»\niY> father, d. pti'sliishap, ptipttisliap. 

ptcliii'kap hrother-in-law etc., d. ptch6ptchashap, ptchiiptchkap, and 
others, like 2)tutap, etc. Ptclioptcliashap is the result of a combi- 
nation of both forms of reduplication. 

The ending -ni is another instance where the language reduplicates the 
end and not the initial parts of a term to form distributive reduplication, as 
in nepnini, yanakaiiini. Cf. Suffix -ni. 

Nomina verbalia formed by distributive reduplication. 

By appending -ish to the stem or basis of a verb generally of the tran- 
sitive voice, verbal nouns are formed indicative of animate beings, persons, 
animals, or personified things performing the action enunciated in the verb. 
When -uish is appended, the substantive noun thus formed indicates that 
the subject in question has been performing the action in time past. The 
forms in -ish and in -uish may undergo the process of distributive redupli- 
cation, like the verb itself, and then indicate an animate being that is or 
was performing the action at different times or occasions repeatedly, habit- 
ually, or graduall}'. A few intransitive verbs like tdmgnu form similar 
derivatives, but with transitive verbs this feature is much more common. 

Examples: 

lut^tkish one who interprets or expounds. 

lutatkuish former interpreter^ one who was expounding. 

lultatkish habitual interpreter or expounder. 

lultatkuish former habitual interpreter or one who employed himself regu- 
larly in expounding. 

tAmnuish one traveling (here -u- belongs to the verb itself). 

tatdnmuisli constant, habitual traveler ; tramp; kaila=tatAmnuish mole, lit. 
'■^walker in the ground." 

Many nouns of this class, called nomina agcntis, or "performer's nouns," 
are found to occur in the absolute form, as shnantatchlxish trapper; but 
tliey are used more frequently in the distributive form, and then should be 



REDUPLICATION. 277 

called nomina adoris. Indeed, the larger portion occurs only in the" redu- 
plicated shape; thus we have: 

Mldsish house-builder, architect, from Idtcha to build. 
p4pish devourer, from pdn to eat; cf. mdklaks=papish. 
papatalish parasite, cf. patddsha to stretch the hand out. 
pdpalish thief, from palla to steal. 

p^puadshnish prodigal, spendthrift, from puedsha to throw away. 
sliashapkel(^-ish rhapsodist, narrator, from shApa to narrate. 
shushatish (and shutesh) worker, maker, from shuta to make. 
tetddshish launderer, laundress, from t^dsha to wash. 
tetgmAshkish pilferer, from temdshka to abstract. 

Exactly in the same manner are formed a number of substantives desig- 
nating inanimate objects (or abstractions), which are the result of reiterated 
acts and appear in the distributive form. They are formed by means of the 
suffix -ash, and are nomina acti: 

papkash lumber, club, from p4ka to break. 
k6;(pash mind, from k6pa to think (Mod.), 
shashapkgldash narrative, story, from shdpa to narrate. 

The form of the preterit in -uish also occurs: 
shutddshanuish plow's furrow ; from shut^dshna to perform on one^s way. 

Like this word, the largest number of the nomina acti do not show the 
reduplicated form of the first syllable. 

Distributive reduplication also occurs in the absolute form of a few 
verbs, which are suggestive of collectivity, severalty, or distribution. Some 
of them show phonetic irregularity in their formation. 

a'-al%a, d. aa'-al%a to read, from ^l%a to lay down. 
leliwa to stand at the end of, from Mwa to project. 
papia'na to have a picnic, from pdn to eat. 
shesh;(e'la to act extravagantly, from ka'la to disport oneself. 
sh^shatui to barter, sell, from shdtua to count. 



278 GRAMMER OF THE KLAMATH LANGUAGE. 

ANATHESIS. 

Another change affecting the vocalic element of the radix in verbs and 
their nominal derivations occurs when the verbs pass over into their reilect- 
ive and reciprocal forms, and it may be sometimes observed also in their 
causative and medial derivatives. These forms are produced by prefixing 
either s-, sh-, shn-, the medial prefix, or h-s-, h-sh-, Ji-shn-, which is the 
medial prefix increased by the pronominal demonstrative particle hu abbre- 
viated to h-, and pointing to an object in close vicinity or contiguity. 

The process of vocalic anathesis consists in the following: Whenever 
a verb forms derivatives by means of the above compound prefix h-sh-, these 
derivatives are vocalized like the distributive form of that verb; the first 
syllable assumes the vocalic sound of the radix (diphthongs have their own 
rules), the radical syllable assumes the vocalic sound of the second syllable 
of the verb's distributive form. Many derivatives formed simply by the 
medial prefix s-, sh-, shn- do not show this anathesis, but merely exhibit 
the vocalization of the simple verb, as sh.'ilgia from lakia, spitcha from 
pitcha, shtalaka from talaka, shtchu/atko from tchiika. 

I. — Anathesis in terms formed by the medial prefix s-, sh-, shn- : 

kek'wi to stop, d. kekelui, cans, shnt^kelui to remove from position. 

kilua to he angrij, d. ki'kalua, cans, shnikalua to irritate. 

ksliii'il^a to dance, d. kshikshiilxa, cans. shnikshul;^a to make dance. 

kc'lpka to he hot, d. kekalpka, caus. shnek.ilpka to heat. 

koka to bite, d. kokoka, refl. shuk6ka to bite oneself. 

ndshama-a to took on, d. ndshandshama-a, caus. shnandsh(a)ma-a to 

amuse by tricks, lit.: "to cause to look on." 
nge'sha to shoot arrows, d. ngenge'sha, refl. shenge'sha. 
pniwa to blow, d. pni'pnu, refl. shlpnu to he full of air, cf. shipnush. 
ptchikap sister-in-latv, d. ptchik'shap, refl. shiptch^alaltko related as 

brother-in-law or sister-in-latv. 
t(^dsha to ivash, d. tetadsha, refl. shetatcha to ivash one^s head. 
tupakship younger sister, d. tiitpakship, refl. shutpaksaltko related as 

brother and sister. 



KADICAL SYLLABLE CONNECTED WITH AFFIXES. 279 

II. — Anathesis in terms formed hy the compound prefix h-s-, h-sh-, Ji-shn-: 
hiniii to fall doivn, d. hiluinui, caus. hishanui to fell. 
kintclma to travel in file, d. kik;intclina, recipr. hishkantclina. 
nuta to hum, d. niinata, nunta, refl. hushii^ta to burn oneself. 
shfuga to kill, d. sliishuka, recipr. and refl. hishu'ka. 
shim to shoot, hit, d. slilishlan, recipr. and refl. hishlan. 
shmo'k beard, refl. hushmo'kla to shave oneself, from an obsolete shmo'kla. 
shmika to seize, d. shnushn^a, recipr. hushn^a to shake hands. 
spull to lock up, d. spiishpali, refl. hiishpali to lock oneself in. 
stinta to love, cherish, d. stistan-ta, recipr. and refl. Iiisht4nta. 

II.— EADICAL SYLLABLE CONNECTED WITH AFFIXES. 

In polysyllabic languages we do not often meet with radical syllables 
in their original and nude shape, and forming words for themselves. When 
the process of word-formation increases in energy and extent, the radix is 
beset and preyed upon more and more by its affixes through shifting of 
accent, vocalic and consonantic alterations, elision of sounds, and other 
necessary concomitants of advanced agglutination. In languages where 
the phonetic laws have great sway it often becomes difficult, as to certain 
terms, to recognize the elements belonging to the radical syllable. 

Affixes are the links of relation connecting the radical syllables of the 
words wliich compose a sentence. They are real or altered radicals them- 
selves, and when they no longer appear as roots it is because they were 
phonetically disintegrated into fragments by the continual wear and tear of 
the process of word-formation. Their function is to point out the various 
relations of the radix to the words it is bro"ught in contact with; thus being 
exponents of relation they derive, for the largest part at least, their origin 
from pronominal roots or roots of relational signification. In Klamath soxiie 
of them exist also as independent radicals, and figure as pronouns, pronom- 
inal particles or conjunctions (hi, hu, ka, ka-A, etc.). 

Affixes do not always express pure and simple relation, or strictly 
formal connection between the various parts of the sentence, as, e. g., the 
idea of possession, of subject and object, of person, number, and tense; but 



280 GRAMMAR OF THE KLAMATH LANGUAGE. 

many of them, in American languages especially, express categories, as that 
of exterior shape, dimension, and proportion of the object or subject spoken 
of, of Its distance from the speaker, or of the special mode by wliich an act 
is performed. Such particular notions qualifying the function of the radix 
are of a material or concrete import, and frequently result in polysynthesis 
or triple, quadruple, etc., compounding of the affixes. These combinations 
of several affixes may contain only relational affixes of a purely grammatic 
character, but in Klamath moi'e frequently contain affixes of both classes — 
the relational and the material. A few examples will illustrate this. 

A word composed of a radical and of purely formal or relational affixes 
only is, e. g., shilalsht ivlien having fallen sick Here i- in I'la to lay down 
represents the radix, sh- is the medial prefix wlilcli makes out of Ua : shi'hi 
to lay oneself down, though used only in tlie sense of to ^('.(chronically) sick. 
The suffix -al-, -ala, implies the "becoming", "f;illlng into a state or con- 
dition", and is here of an inchoative signification; -sh is a suffix forming- 
nouns and verbals, -t the suffix of the conditional mode. 

Terms composed of a radix and of material and relational affixes are as 
follows : 

Lupatku(^la may be translated by to prodme a scar, but the term has 
Its special use. The radix pat appears In mp ita to beat, strike upon with a 
tool, upata to wound, u'hlopatana, patpatli, etc., and tlie prefix lu- shows that 
the blow is inflicted with a round article. The suffix -ka (here -k-) is tliat 
of factitive verbs, -uula adds tlxe Idaa of d)v:i.hill, djivnwaril to verbs of 
motion, and thus the full import of the above verb is that of prodaciiiy a 
ivound, or more frequently a scar, being forced downward or to the ground by 
a round article, as a wheel. 

Nd-upka to empty into is said only of the influx of a watercourse into an 
extended sheet of water, as a lake, not of the confluence of two rivers un- 
less very wide. The radix of ni'-upka or ni'wapka is ewa to he full, as of 
water, the prefix n- is Indicative of something spread out, level, or extend- 
ing to tlie liorizon, and the suffix -pka usually refers to distance. 

Shield tchanulatko hfl hehiiul while walking. Tlie radical is here e, of 
pronominal origin, which we also find in ila (t'la), d. i-ala to lay down. Witii 
the suffix -l;ia, which generally points to a downward motion, e- forms vlyji 



ROOT WITU AFFIXES. 281 

to deposit, to lay down. The compound pi-efix shl-, si- referring to garments 
or other flexible articles for personal use, and the derivation-suffix -tchna 
(here inverted as tchan ) pointing to an act performed while marching, 
moving, are joined to shh'lxn, and make shlel/tchna of it. To this is added 
-ula, the completive suffix, which can be fitly rendered here by "altogether", 
and the participial suffix of the passive -tko, so that the whole term, for 
accurate rendering, necessitates a circumscriptive phrase like the following: 
dropped and left behind altogether something ganaent-like ivliile ivallcing. 

Talualp^ank lying on ground face turned upivurd. Radix ta-, thematic root 
tal -, occurring with change of vowel in tt'lish face, te'lshna (for telishna) to 
behold; basis talu-, u meaning upward; -alpja, compound word-formative 
suffix of a factitive nature (-ka); -ank, inflectional termination of the parti- 
ciple, usually referring to the present tense. 

In the examples given the affixes pointing to round articles, sheet-like 
objects, distance, and downward direction are of the material order; all 
others I call relational affixes. The perusal of tlie words in the Dictionary 
aff'ords the best method of distino^uishino^ the two. 

An affix is called a prefix when placed before the radical syllable, an 
infix when inserted into it, and a suffix when appended to it. Affixes fulfill 
two purposes of grammar: that of inflection, nominal and verbal; that of 
derivation or formation of derivative words. Not always can a strict line 
be drawn between these two processes of forming the units of speech, and 
in Klamath there are affixes which are in use in both categories. Some 
pronominal roots figure at times as prefixes, at other times as suffixes, as 
hi (i), hu (u), ma, p, and others, while nominal affixes like -tana are verbal 
affixes also, a fact which is partly due to the imperfect distinction between 
verb and noun. 

But a thorough distinction between the prefixes and the suffixes of this 
language lies in the circumstance that the former are used for derivation 
only, while the suffixes possess either derivational or inflectional functions, 
or both simultaneously. I therefore present the affixes of Klamath in two 
alphabetic lists, that of the x)refixes and that of the suffixes. More facts con- 
cerning them will be considered under the caption of "Verbal Inflection." 



282 (JEAMMAlt OF THE KLAMATH LANGUAGE. 

LIST OF PREFIXES. 

The function of Klamatli prefixes is to form derivatives, not inflectional 
forms, from radicals. Prefixes are not so numerous as suffixes, nor do they 
combine into compound prefixes so extensively as suffixes. There is no safe 
instance on hand where a combination of more than three prefixes occurs. 
A triple-compound is, e. g., ktcliiutchatchka (o trample upon, said of one sub- 
ject; it stands for ksliiutchatchka (ksh-, ya-, u-), cf yushtchka to put the 
foot on something. Another is shu-ishtchaktchka to turn the head for a bite, 
from hishtchakta to be angnj. The prefix ino-, inu- may be considered as 
triple also; liut such combinations are rare. Suffixes, however, are found 
to combine into groups of four or five. 

The remarkable fact is presented by the vocalic prefixes, preceded or 
not by a consonant, that they often become the radical syllable of the word 
(verb or noun). Tims in luta to he suspended, said of a round subject only, 
In- is as well the prefix (not 1- only) as the root. This may be oljserved 
in words beginning with a-, e-, i-, ksh-, t-, and with other prefixes. 

A large nunil)er of intransitive verbs change their initial syllable or syl- 
lables to indicate a change in the number of the subject, as hiidshna to hurry, 
run, speaking of one; tushtclma, speaking of two or three, tinshna of many 
subjects. The syllables undergoing the change should rather be considered 
as radical syllables than as prefixes, as may be shown by the analogy of 
many transitive verbs which undergo similar or still more tliorougli changes 
when passing from one number to another. 

All the prefixes will be found classified below under the caption "Re- 
capitulation of the Prefixes." The function of each prefix found in verbs 
extends also to the nomlna vcrhaUa formed from these verbs. The catearo- 
ries of grammar which are chiefly indicated by prefixation are the genus 
verbi; number, form or shape, attitude and mode of motion of the verbal subject 
or object.' 

a-, verbal and nominal prefix referring to long and tall articles (as 
poles, sticks), also to persons when considered as objects of elongated shaj^e 

'A short stay in the ludiau Territory, Modoo Reservation, has supplied me with .a new stock of 
Modoc terms. Many of these have beeu inserted asosamplos in the Grammar/roHi </usj)ajeo iward, and, 
thongh oU'ained from Modocs, the majority of thuin farm part of the Klamath Lake dialect as well. 



LIST OP PEEFIXES. 283 

Like II-, the prefix a- originally referred to one object only, plurality of 
objects being expressed by i-; but this now holds good for a few terms only. 
It differs from tg-, tk-, now occurring only as part of a radical syllable des- 
ignating immobility of one subject standing upright, by pointing to long 
things wliich need not necessarily be in an erect position. 

aggaya to he suspended and to hang up, pi. of long obj. iggaya ; cf. its 

derivatives agga-idsha etc. 
ao-credsha to describe a circle, as the hand of a watch, 
akatcliga to break, as sticks, poles, 
atnniamna, Amnadsha to speak, cri/ aloud on. one's tvay. 
alaliia to show, point out, as a tree. 
Atpa, pi. of obj. itpa to carnj away. 
atchiga to wring out, ttvist. 

Prefix a- occurs in the following substantives : 
dmda digging-tool, from mea, meya to dig. 
adshagotkish violin, fiddle. 
awalesh thigh of a quadruped^s hind leg. 

The prefix a- also appears in at- or ei-, a-i-, e-i-, the initial syllable of 
verbs referring to a motion performed with the head. In ai-, ei-, the vowels 
a-, e-, point by themselves to a long or tall object. 

aika, ef/a, and aikana to stick the head out, from ika. 

ait^amna to he ov grow smaller than, said of plants only, the tops of which 

are considered as heads; from it/amna. 
eilaka to lay the head down upon; from ila, cf. il^a. 
eitakta to hide the head under, to place it between two things, as blankets etc. 

e-, prefix pointing to long-shaped objects, sometimes when single, but 
moi'e frequently when in quantities. Cf also ei-, ai-, under prefix a-. 

(ilktcha to leave behind, as a rope. 

^%3i to lay down, deposit, as a rifle. 

^mtchna to carry, as an infant tied to its board. 

^pka to fetch, to bring, as arrows. 

etle'xi to lay crosswise, as logs; })1. of obj. itlf';^!, ]\[od. 



284 GRAMMAR OF THE KLAMATH LANGUAGE. 

There is difference in signification between ddsha to suck and fdsha to 
cause to go, c'pkii fo bring and ipka to lie upon, to kerj), ewa and fwa etc. 
Snbstantives witli prefix e- are: dlhuish backbone, dpat a tall grass 

ll- is a prothetic sound found in many words beginning in vowels and 
consonants, wliicli is decidmus and without any distinct grammatic functions, 
except tluit of emphasizing. Cf hh'i-a and lA-a, hiwidsha and iwidsha, 
hutAtchkia and utatchkia. Therefore h- cannot be considered as a pl-efix, 
unless connected with the medial prefix sh- in the form of h-sh, q. v. Cf. 
-h-, under "Infixes." 

ll-sll-, h-s-, h-slm-, compound prefix serving for the derivation of 
reflective, reciprocal, and causative verbs and their nominal derivatives. 
The intransitive verbs formed by means of this prefix are but few in number. 
The derivation is performed by means of the vocalic anathesis described, pp. 
278, 279. As stated there, the prefix hsh- is composed of the demonstrative 
radix h in hu, pointing to contiguity, and of the medial prefix sh-, q. v. 
The vowel standing after h- is that of the radical sylhible, and no instance 
occurs where a diphthong occupies this place. In the majority of instances 
the medial form in sh , from which the other originated, is still preserved in 
the language; but there are a few where the stem without prefix has sur- 
vived alone. These few verbs are all of a causative signification: 



o 



hashpa to feed, hashpkish ^ofMer, der. pan to eat. Cf. spalala. 

heshtcha to suckle, der. (jdsha to suck. 

heshuampgli to restore to health, der. we'mpeli to recover. 

hishauui to fell, cut down, der. hfnui to fall. 

hushpjinua to give to drink, der. piinua fo drink. 

The following verbs and nouns, classified according to the genus verbi to 
which they belong, form an addition to the examples given above, p. 278 sq.: 

CAUSATIVE VERBS: 

hashla-i%a to smoke (meat), der. shla-ika it smokes. 
hash'ka to perforate the nose, ear, der. stuka to stab, ptierce. 
hashpankua to ford a river on horseback, der. paukna to ivade through. 



LIST OF PREFIXES. 285 

hdshla to shotv, exhibit, der. shlea to see. 
heslie'gsha to complain, der. she'gsha to report. 
hishtadsha to bring up, educate, der. t'shin to grow 
hishunua to apply song-medicine, der. slmiua to sing 
hushno/a to bake, cook, der. shnii^a to parch, dry. 
husbpatchta to scare, frighten, der. sputclita to scare. 
hushtiza to make dream, der. tiii%a io dream. 
hushaka to drive out of a, den etc., der. sliuka to drive out. 

RECIPROCAL VERBS: 

ht^shku to make mutual bets, der. shio to bet. 
heshto'l^a to live as man and wife, der. sheto'l^a to ivltabit. 
Lishamkanka to tell each other, der. henikanka to speak. 
hushtchoka to kill each other, der. tchoka to perish. 
hushtiwa to prick each other, der. tewa to drive into. 
liushpantchna to walk arm in arm. der. sounshna to take along. 

REFLECTIVE VERBS: 

haksbgaya to hang oneself, der. kshaggaya to hang up; presupposes a 

lono^er form liashkshofaya. 
hushkaknega to besmear oneself, der. kaknt^ga to soil. 
hu'shtka to stab oneself, der. stuka to stab ; cf. haslitka. 
hushtapka to prick oneself, der. stupka to prick, puncture. 
liushpali to lock oneself up or in, der. spulf to lock up. 

i-, iy-, y- (No. 1), prefix of transitive verbs and tbeir derivatives, re- 
ferring to an act performed with or upon a pkirabty of persons or elon 
gated objects, or on objects referred to collectively, wlien not in a stand- 
ing, immovably erect position; when the object stands in the singular, the 
prefi.xes corresponding to i- are a-, e-, k.sh-, u-, q. v. In the distributive 
form this prefix often appears as i-i-, instead of showing the regular form 
i-a-, as in i-iggaya, i-idshna. 

idsha to make go, carry off; one obj., ena. 

itpa to carry, convey, take along with; one obj., atpa. 

iggaya to suspend, hang up; one obj., aggaya, kshaggaya. 



286 GRAMMAR OF THE KLAMATH LANGUAGE. 

idi'ika, idrij)ka to strike, as with a club; one obj., udi'ika, udupka. 
lyaniiia, I'-amna to take along tvith; one obj., liyamna. 
i-ani, yjuii to r/ive long articles; one obj., I'lya, 6-i. 
itle'xi to lay crosswise; one obj., etle'^i (Mod.). 

Terms in which this pi-efix rehites indiscriminately to one or many ))('r- 
sons or long articles are the derivatives of ika and itpa; cf. the Dictionnry. 

?-, y- (No. 2), locative ])refix referring to the ground, soil, is identical 
with the locative adverb i, hi, and tlm suffix -i. It composes the suffixes 
yan-, yu-, and appears as i-, y-, only in a liniitud number of terms as the 
radical syllable. 

ibcna, Kl. ye'pa to dig in, the ground, to mine. 
I'na, d. yaua downward, down; yaina, etc. 

This prefix refers to the individual or "self" in iha to hide, secrete, con- 
ceal, and to the lodge or home in I'wi, hi'wi, iwidsha to , fetch, bring home. 

iuo-, inn-, triple prefix composed of the adverb ina (i o)i the ground, 
-na demonstrative particle) and the prefix u-, wliicli in one of the two terms 
below points to singular number, in the other to distance. Cf. the prefixes 
i- and yan-, which latter is the distril)utive form of ina-. 

inotila to put or send below, underneath ; cf utila. 
inuhuashka to keep off, prevent; cf huashka. 

yan-, ya-, compound prefix indicating an act performed with the feet, 
or ixpon the ground, underground or underneath, below some object. This 
prefix is nothing else but the adverb yana doivnward, down below, which 
represents the distributive form of fna, q. v., (composed of i on the ground, 
and the demonstrative radix and case-suffix -na. Etymologicallv related 
to ina, yana are : yai'na mountain (from yayana), yi'pa to dig, scratch up, 
ye-ush den of burrowing animal. The prefix yan-, ya-, often becomes the 
radical syllable of the verb. 

yadshapka to mash, mangle; cf ndshapka, tatchtipka. 
yatashl;^a to press down; cf ye'ts;{aka. 



LIST OF riiEFIXES. 2B7 

yana to hand or hr'mg from below. 

yanhua to he quite sick, lit. "to be down": yana, wa. 

yankapsliti to bar an entrance, den. 

yantana to put down into; from yana, itana, or itna. 

yaka'sha to press down tvith the foot. 

yashtchka to step on something. 

The prefi.x ya-, y-, conil)ine.s also with initial e-, i-, into one diphthong, 
as in yewa to burrow, yitchi%ua to squeeze down from with the foot, as some 
fatty matter. 

yu-, a prefix analogous in its functions to yan-, ya-, pointing to an act 
performed in a downward direction, or upon the ground, or 1 elow some 
object upon or by means of a long article, as the foot. It is a combination of 
i-, y-, with the prefix u-, q. v. The prefix yu- generally becomes the rad- 
cal syllable. 

yiia (for yuwa) to strike the ground or water. 

yudslilaktkal to slip with the feet. 

yulalina to fall over an edge, rim. 

i-unega, yunega to be below the horizon, as sun etc. 

yumadsha to he at the lower end. 

i-iita, yuta to he heavy, ponderous. 

yutalpeli to twist, as paper, cloth. 

ja'ishtchka to put the foot on. 

yuwet'huta to kick tvith both feet. 

k-, gi-, prefix formed from the adverb ke, ki. Mod. kie thus, so, in this 
manner. 

kish^wa, gishewa to think so, to he of the opinion, der. she'wa, hewa to 

believe. 
kshapa, gishapa to say so, to state, to suppose, der. shapa to declare. 

ki-, ke-, ge-, abbreviated k- , g-, is a prefix occurring- in transitive and in- 
transitive verbs and their derivatives, pointing to an act performed obliquely, 



288 GKAMMAlt OF THE KLAMATH LANGUAGE. 

laterally, or a motion directed side wise toward an object.- Forms several 
compound suffixes; not to be confounded with ki- appearing' in radical syl- 
lables as gi-, gin-, kin-, etc. 

ki;ipka to recline sidewise; cf. fpka to lie. 

kiuliga, nasalized n^iuliga to fall down upon sidewise, to drizzle; cf. 

lalfga. 
kiatt'ga to go in laterally. 

kiu}-ega to raise, hoist up ohliquclij, sidewise, to lift above oneself 
kiukaya to hang out sidewise; kiuks conjurer, cf. Dictionary, p. 135. 
kiutchna to hold up while moving, traveling, 
kiakuga, kiandga to move, rub lateralhj. 
kfdsha to creep, crawl, swhn; cf. idsha, kidshash. 
kima'dsh ant, viz., "moving, traveling laterally." 
klatcha, gelatsa to move the hand sidewise. 
kncwa to put out obliquelg the fish-line; der. newa. 
kpdl tail, tail-fin; der. p'lai. 
kldna, glina to hop, walk on one leg. 
knanilash small bat species; viz., "fluttering down obliquely." 

kin-, a prefix resulting from the combination of the prefix k- (abbre- 
viated from ki-) and ma- (abbreviated m-), the latter indicating a curvi- 
linear motion or object; km- therefore refers to a lateral and curvilinear 
motion or to the winding shape of an object, such as a rope, thread, 
wrinkle, etc. 

kmapat'hienatko ivrinkled, furrowed. 

kmul;fa to lay down, said of thread, ropes, etc. 

kmiiyulatko shaggy. 

kniuk(')ltgi to become wrinkled by wetting. 

kmiiltkaga and kmutcho'sha to bubble up in water. 

ksll-, ks- is the verbal gish, kish of the verb gi to be, in the significa- 
tion oi being there, and as a suifix it appears, augmented with -i, as the loca- 
tive suffix -gishi, KI. -kshi, redupl. -ksaksi. The prefix kshi- is found only 
in terms conveying the idea of placing, laying upon, holding, or giving. 



LIST OF PREFIXES. 289 

also in a few intransitive verbs of a locative import. Originally it referred 
to one animate being only, and still does in the majority of terms, though 
kshe'na, kshawina, and others apply to inanimate objects of long shape also. 
The vowel following the prefix generally points to the exterior form of 
the object or subject referred to, although in many cases it is no longer a 
prefix, but has become a radical vowel, and undergoes a change whenever 
plurality of the verbal object or subject has to be indicated. Many of the 
transitive verbs refer to one or a collective object carried upon the arm or 
arms. Not to be confounded with kish-, which forms verbs of "going" in 
the singular number. 

kshaggaya to hang somebody; cf. aggaya, iggaya, shuggaya. 

kshawala to fix, tie, or deposit above ; cf. iwala. 

kshdlktcha to leave behind, quit; cf. lelktcha, shlelktcha. 

kshel;^a to lay down; cf. ^l%a, lelka, n^l^a, etc. 

kshikla to lay down and to lie on, in; der. ikla. 

kshiulgxa (■(> dance; der. yiil;ta. 

kshuya to give, transfer; cf liya, luya, neya, shixi. 

kshutila to lie below; cf. utila, i-utila, gintila. 

kt-, prefix combining k- (cf supra) with t-, which is indicative of 
length or tallness, upright attitude, and usually refers to one person or ob- 
ject only. The combination kt- therefore refers to a lateral motion observed 
on one standing, long subject or object, but in some instances is so intimately 
fused with tlie verbal radix that it becomes difficult to distinguish it from this. 

ktashl^a to press down by hand. 

ktawal to strike upon the head laterally. 

kt^l;ca to let down, drop a long object, der. ilx'A. 

ktiudshna to push aside, der. hudshna or yudshna. 

ktiuyega to push open, der. uydga; cf. luyega, shuy^ga. 

ktiule;fa to make descend, der. yul^fi- 

ktiwala, ktiwal^a to lift or to post upon, der. iwala. 

ktuka, ktuyua to hit unth the hand. 

klli-, gui-, ku-, gu-, prefix representing the adverb kui away from, far, 
distant, on the other side, ku-, gu-, being its apocopated forms. It is prefixed 
19 



290 GRAMMAR OF THE KLAMATH LANGUAGE. 

to the verbs of traveling, leaving, departing, and sometimes becomes the 
radical syllable. The terms derived from gena to go present themselves for 
comparison. 

guhuashka and guhiuishktcha to depart, to set out from; cf inuhuAshka. 

guikaka to leave home, to run off. 

gnikinsha to start out from. 

gui^i, guikidsha to cross over, to pass. 

kuyAntcha to fly at a great distance. 

kiishka, gu'shka to leave, abandon; der. ishka. 

1-, prefix occurring in verbs and nouns descriptive of or referring to 
a round or rounded (globular, cylindric, disk- or bulb-shaped, annular) or 
bulky exterior of an object, to an act performed with such an object, and 
to circular, semicircular, or swinging motions of the person, arms, hands, or 
other parts of the body. Thus this prefix is found to refer to the clouds, 
the celestial bodies, I'ounded declivities (especially of the earth's surface), 
to fruits, berries, and bulbs, stones and dwellings (these being mostly of a 
round shape); also to multitudes of animals, rings, and crowds of. people, 
for a crowd generally assumes a round shape. It originally referred to 
one object or subject only, and does so still in many instances; it occurs in 
transitive as well as in intransitive verbs witli their derivatives, often forms 
part of the radical syllable and composes other prefixes, as l;ta-, lu-, shl-. 
The manifold applications of this prefix necessitate subdivision. 

(a) 1-, when referring to one round object and forming part of a trans- 
itive verb, frequently occurs accompanied by the vowel u- (referring to long 
articles) in the form lu-, lo-. When a plurality of round objects is spoken 
of, pe- often takes the place of lu-: 

ludshfpa to take off from; udshipa a long object; cf idshipa, shulslu'pa. 

luyega to lift or pick up; pe-uyega many round objects. 

luyamna to hold in hand; cf pe^-ukanka. 

luya to give; to pay in coin; cf pdwi, uya, neya. 

lushantchna to scratch a round hole. 

liitza to take away, to wrench from ; u't%a a long object; cf lutkish. 



LIST OF PREFIXES. 291 

(6) ?-. occurs in intransitive verbs and their nominal derivatives, and 
then points to several, but more frequently to one subject of rounded or 
bulky shape. 

laggaya to he hung tq), to stand on the sky ; cf aggaya, iggaya. 

Iaw41a to he on, to spread over the top of; cf luwalash, nawalash, iwal. 

Ibena to dig a round hole ; Iba seed or grain. 

Ibiika hulh or round fruit growing on the ground. 

Idukala to pick up a round object; cf ndakal, itkal. 

lena to move in a round line, to ride on wheels; cf. t'na. 

lua it is foggy, misty; luash/o^r; luldam season of fogs. 

liidshna to drift, as clouds, fog; from hudshna to speed off. 

luta to stick or hang on; liitish round fruit; utish ear-shaped fruit. 

lutila to he underneath, to stand helow ; cf. utila, i-utila. 

(c) /- sometimes refers to slopes, declivities of the ground, or motions 
observed, acts performed along such. The original form of the prefix ap- 
pears to be in this case la-; it is the uneven or rounded irregular configura- 
tion of the slope which is indicated by 1-. 

lawa to project, as a cape, promontory; lalawash slate-rock. 

lala to slope downward; \-A\a,s\\ flank of animal. 

hlaa to foal, hreed, viz., "to come down the flank"; cf lala-ish. 

Idpka to protrude, as cheekbones. 

lemuna bottom, depth in the earth or water; cf. mu'na. 

(d) lu-, lui-, lue-, le-, U-. Terms beginning with these syllables form 
a distinct class of intransitive verbs. They refer to a crowding together into 
a bulk, ring, crowd, or multitude, all of which when viewed from a distance 
look like a circular or round body, a form which is pointed at by the prefix 
1-. The above syllables embody the radicals of the terms in question as 
well as the prefix. The verbs thus formed will be mentioned below as in- 
volving the idea of plurality, the singular being formed in various ways. 
To them belong luilamna, lukantatka, liuti'ta, liupka, lulua, le-uptcha; only 
one of these has a transitive signification, luela to kill, massacre. 



292 GRAMMAR OF TUE KLAMATU LANGUAGE. 

(e) Ixti-, ^xc-i ^k^- is a radix with the prefixed 1- occurring in words 
whicli indicate wave motion or articles of a wavy, striped, undulating ex- 
terior. The radix ^a-, xe-, ke- is a reflective form of ka-, ga-, ke-, ge- oc- 
curring in gakua, ganta, gena, gewa; it points to a moving, proceeding, going 
of the subject. In this connection the function of the prefix 1- approaches 
closely to that of (c) above mentioned. 

l;^an to undulate; l^ash hilJmv, wave. 

Ikakimi'tko striped horizontally ; Ikelkatkitko striped vertically. 

lxal;(iimnish long hag or sack, grain-hag. 

Ixet'kniila to hang doivn from month in wavy lines. 

l^awaltko provided with antlers. 

IkApata to form surf; from l^Jin, q. v. 

u-le^atko flexible and long, pliant. 

le-. Le is the putative negative particle not, and answers to Latin 
haud and Greek jufj, e. g. in the compound word /^fJTruTe "lest at any time." 
Thus it forms not only privative nouns, but also prohibitive verbs. Under 
the heading "Particles" will be given examples where le is used as a separate 
word for itself, and in some of the terms below it could be written separate 
also. 

lew^ ula to forbid, not to allow. 
lehowitko slow-going ; i. e. "not racing." 
l(^shma not to discover or find, to miss. 
letalani stupid, foolish ; i.e. "not straight." 
letelina to annoy, meddle ivith. 
letumena to be excited, half-crazed. 

m-, prefix referring to a motion going on in curvilinear form or zigzag 
lines along the ground. It appears chiefly before a- and e- in radical sylla- 
bles of intransitive verbs and their derivatives, which refer to the unsteady, 
varying directions followed by travelers, root-diggers, to the roamings of 
Indian tribes on the prairie etc. Cf. Sufiix -ma. 

maktchna to encamp ivhile traveling. 

mak'lexa to encamp, to pass the night; cf. maklaks. 



LIST OF PKEFIXES. 293 

mtikuala to encamp in or upon the mountains. 
niakuna to encamp at the foot of a mountain. 
UK'dsha to revioce, to migrate; cf. I'dslia. 
ni(iwa to encamp away from home, to live on the prairie. 
meya to dig edible roots etc., said of one person; cf me-ish digging ground, 
md-idsha etc. 

n-, prefix frequently occurring in transitive and intransitive verbs and 
their nominal derivatives, and referring to sheet-like, thin, smooth, pliant, 
and thread-like articles, or to objects having a level, horizontal surface, or 
to acts and motions referring to the above or to some distant spot on the 
line of the horizon. It composes the prefixes nu- and shn-, the latter hav- 
ing causative functions. 

In its various uses this prefix may be classified as follows: 

(a) It is prefixed to terms descriptive of or relating to thin, sheet-like, 
string-like articles, as cloth, mats, hats, ropes, handkerchiefs, paper, paper 
money, soles, skins, and especially the wings and flight of birds. 

nAkia to patch, mend, as garments. 

nii, ne'\ fur -skin ; tiny feather of bird; from ne'l: nelina to scalp. 

n^ya, ne-i to give, hand over, pay in paper money. 

nep palm of hand, hand; napenapsh temple-hone. 

ne'ds^a to lay on top a thin article; cf ndtatka. 

nel;{a to lay down, deposit; cf l^lka, ^l%a, shl^lktcha. 

ni long snow-shoe ; buckskin sole. 

ndshakw^ta to hang, drop down,, as curtains. 

nd'hlish bowstring. 

n^na, ninia, nainaya to flap, move the ivings, to flutter. 

naggidsha to float, circle in the air ; cf aggddsha. 

n^ta to fix, paste, or put on. 

(b) n- occurs in terms referring to places of wide and level extent, as 
prairies, water-sheets; to phenomena observed above the ground, as weather, 



294 GRAMMAR OP THE KLAMATH LANGUAGE. 

or invisible, as sickness wafted tlirough the air; to words, songs, and noises 
traveling through the air. 

na'g, Kl. ne'g, pi. ne'gsha who is absent^ departed. 

nen, particle referring to spoken words, sounds, noises. 

ne'pka ku-i it is bad iveather ; ne'pka (shilalsh) to bring sickness. 

ndshakweta to hang, drop doivn, as curtains. 

ne-iipka to run into a lake, said of rivers. ~ 

nt^wa to form an extension, sheet. 

niwa to drive on level ground or into tvater. 

(c) nil- is prefixed to terms relating to motion in sky or air, as the flight 
of meteors, the throwing of stones, the swinging of round and bulky objects, 
the humming noise made by bulky insects. 

nuyamna to hum, to make noise all about. 
nulakiiila to cut out a hole in the ice to spear fish, 
nulidsha to be wafted downward. 
nut6dshna to hurl, throw away. 
nutuyamna to fly around. 
nuwal^a to take an aerial flight. 

• P~' pi'oprietary prefix indicating inalienable, intransferable ownership 
of an object. In the same function, but more frequently, p occurs as a 
suffix, q. V , and is identical with the p in the personal pronoun of the third 
person : pi, pish, pash, push, p'na, pat, etc. The prefix p- is found, accom- 
panied with the suffix -p, chiefly in terms of relationship derived from con- 
sanguinity as well as from marriage, and occurs as such also in Sahaptin 
and Wayiletpu dialects. In Klamath there are but feiv terms of relation- 
ship which do not exhibit this prefix : makokap, tupakship, t'shishap (Mod.), 
viinak. 

ptishap father, Kl., from t'shin to grow up. 

pgishap mother, from gi in the sense of to make, produce. 

p(i-ip daughter; ptutap daughter-in-law. 

pa-alamip husband's sister and brother's wife. 

pshaship step-mother ; step-children. 

pkatchip yewaZe cousin and her daughter. 



LIST OF PKEFIXES. 295 

There are also a few terms designating classes of human beings who 
are not relations: 

pshe-iitiwash, archaic term for jieople. 
ptchiwip master, mistress of slave. 

A prefix p- of a similar import, referring to the personality of the sub- 
ject, is embodied in the following terms : 

Nouns. 
pshish nose, snout; pish bile; pitiu deiv-daw. 
pe'tchyoo^; pilhap sinew. 

Verbs. 
p^wa to bathe, plunge, ivash oneself ; of. dwa, tch^wa, pdna, pdnkua. 
plena to scrape sidewise; from dna. 
putuya to remove sod; c£ vutoya to dig tvith a spade. 
ptchikl/a, Mod. ptcha'hlka to stroke, 2)at; cf shatdlaka. 
pni'wa to blow, to fill tvith air; cf. p'ni, shipnu. 
puedsha to reject, scatter, expend; cf. idsha. 

Cf the compound prefix sp-, shp-. 

pe-, a prefix occurring only in transitive verbs with plural or collective 
object, which is either of a round, rounded, or of a heavy, bulky form ; 
sometimes the prefix also refers to sheet-like objects and to animate beings. 

pt^-ula to lay dotvn, deposit; one obj., likla. 
pewi, pii'wi to give, hand over, pay ; one obj., luya, lui. 
pe-uyega to lift, gather up ; one obj., luy^ga. 
pe-ukanka to hold in hand; one obj., luyamna 
petega to tear to pieces, as cloth ; from nd^ga. 
pek^wa to break to pieces, smash up ; from kdwa. 

Sll-, S-. This prefix, the most frequent of all, is used in forming medial 
verbs, as they may be appropriately termed after their correlatives in the 
Greek language. The medial prefix sh-, s- is the remnant of a personal 
pronoun of the third person, now extant only in its plural fomn : sha they, 



296 GRAMMAR OF THE KLAMATH LANGUAGE. 

shash them, to them, hIkuu of them.. Its original meaning seems to have been 
reflective, oneself, like that of Latin sui, sibi, se, because sh-, s-, places the 
verb into relation with its logical or grammatical subject ; the idea expressed 
by the verb may be said to revert or to be turned upon the subject of the 
verb and centering in it. This medial function will appear more clearly 
in the following examples, made up of transitive as well as of intransitive 
verbs : 

shd-ishi to keep as a secret; from afshi to hide. 

s^iina to row a boat; from g^na to proceed. 

sheka to squeal, whine; from y^ka to howl, cry. 

skintchna to crawl, creep ; from kintchna to ivalk in single file. 

shuina to sing solo ; from wina to sing. 

ska to blow strong, said of winds; from ka-a strongly. 

spi'tcha to go out (fire) ; from pitcha to extinguish. 

shipapelankshtant against each other ; from pipel4ngsta on two slde^ 

Some of the medial verbs now extant make us presuppose a vevbal 
base from which they are derived, but which exists no longer in the lan- 
guage as a verb ; cf ska'. Others have changed their prefix sh-, s- into 
tch-, ts-, especially in the Modoc dialect. 

In the majority of medial verbs the mode of derivation observed is that 
of vocalic anathesis, a phonetic process spoken of previously. 

The medial function does not always remain such in all the verbs 
formed by the medial prefix, but easily turns into («) a reflective one when 
the subject of the verb is also its object : she-al;{a to name, call oneself; or 
(b) wlien the object is a person or other animate being, a reciprocal verb 
may result: samtchatka to understand each other; or (c) the medial verb 
turns into a causative verb when the verbal act passes over entirely to the 
verbal object: shkalkgla to hurt, injure, viz., "to make fall sick." A few of 
these verbs are reciprocal and reflective simultaneously : sliakual (from 
radix gawal) to find oneself and to find each other. 

More exanijjles are given under "Anathesis", pp. 278, 279, from which 
becomes apparent also the general coufoi inity of the uses of this prefix with 
that of its compound h-sh. Other prefixes compounded with sh- are shl-, 
shn-, sp-, st-, shu-, q. v. 



LIST OF PREFIXES. 297 

sill-, si-, composed of the medial prefix sli- and the prefix 1-, refers in 
nouns as well as in verbs (which are almost exclusively transitive) to objects 
of a thin, flexible, or sheet-like form, as cloth, blankets, hats, and other gar- 
ments or other articles serving to tvrap oneself in; also to objects which 
can be spread out flat, and to baskets, because flexible. Sometimes the 
Modoc dialect changes shl- into tchl-. 

shldl^a to leave hehmd, deposit; from ^l^a. 

shle'mpgli to take home; from e'mpeli. 

shldkla to lay down, to dress in; from I'kla. 

shlanfya to spread out for, as a skin; shhl-ish mat. 

shlankua to spread over, across; shlAnkosh bridge. 

shlauki to close the door ; the door of the lodge being a flap. 

shlftchka to pass through a sieve; cf. hitcha. 

shletana to be loose, not tight-fitting ; from ita. 

shlapa to open out, to blossom; shlapsh bud. 

tchleyamna to hold in hand something soft, flexible, Mod. 

tchle'kna to take out of, Mod. ; from ikna. 

tchle'wi^a to place into a basket etc.. Mod.; from iwl^a. 

slin-, sn-, a compound prefix formed of sli- and n-, which forms a 
class of causative verbs and their derivatives. Cf. prefix n-, nu- There 
are, however, several terms not belonging here, in which the n- of the initial 
shn- forms a part of the radix : shnikanua from n6ka, shnaydna from n^na, 
shnApka from ne'pka. Shn- is causative in : 

shnambua to make explode; fi-om mbawa to explode. 
shnahualta to make sound, to . ring ; from walta to resound. 
shnekelui to remove from position ; from kglti wi to cease. 
shnikshulxa to force to dance; from kshiulexa to dance. 
shnumpsheala to unite in marriage; from mbushdla to consort. 
shnuntchx*')la to curl; from the verb of ndshokolatko curly. 
shnawedsh wife, viz., "one made to bear offspring"; from waishi to 
generate. 



298 GEAMMAR OF THE KLAMATH LANGUAGE. 

sp-, shp-, a combination of the two prefixes sh-, s-, and p-, pointing to 
an act or motion, especially of drawing or pulling, performed upon an animate 
or inanimate object of long form. The original function of this prefix is 
causative, but some intransitive verbs also show it. I do not refer here to 
such verbs as are formed by prefixing sh- to verbs beginning with p-, as 
shp;iha to dry something, from paha to he dry. 

spelaktchna to cut, said of sharp blades of grass; from laktcha. 
sp^j^ka to pull the bowstriny ; from epka. 
spidsha to dray behind; from idsha. 
spidga to assist in yettiny up; cf. ktiuy(iga. 
spfka to draw, pull out, as a rope ; from ika. 
spfkanash, Kl. spekanotkish sewiny needle; from spfka. 
spftkala to raise, make stand up ; from itkal. 
spi'dhi to place inside, to loch up ; cf ilhi. 

spi'mka to let out of, to let yo ; lit.: "to cause to move the legs." 
spuloka to nth something yliUinous upon oneself ; cf. uloka to rub toyether 
long objects. 

St-, sht-, compound prefix made up of the medial sh-, s-, and ta-, ab- 
breviated t-, and hence referring to one object (sometimes several) placed 
in an upright or stiff, immovable position upon or within something. The 
medial sh- suggests that the act is done by or for the logical or grammatic 
subject of the sentence, or in its own or somebody else's interest, the verbs 
showing this prefix being almost exclusively transitive. 

stewa to mix tvith, mash up; from ewa to put upon. 

stit^a to cheat, defraud of; from it;{a to take away from. 

stiwini to stir up, as dough ; from iwina to place inside. 

stiwi%6tkish baby-board; from iwi%a to place on, within. 

st6p6la to peel the fiber-bark : from upala to dry up above. 

stutfla to cover ivlth a roof on pillars ; from utfla to place underneath. 

Shll-, SU-, represents the medial prefix sh-, s- united to the prefix u-, 
and is found in transitive and reciprocal verbs and their nominal derivatives 
as referring to an act performed on tlie body of persons or animals, and in 



LIST OF PEEFIXES. 299 

a few intransitive verbs; cf. the simple prefix u-, vu-, wn-. Some of the 
terms are directly derived from verbs having the u- prefixed, as shui to 
transfer, from liya, u-i, 6-i; shutila to hold under the arm, from utila; shuyuka 
to shave etc. In many other words with initial shu-, u- belongs to the radix; 
in others, as in shuyuxala, shiiktakla, u- is the result of vocalic anathesis. 

shuitela to gird, as a horse ; from ita. 

shulota to dress oneself ; shul6tish garment; from I'lita. 

shuena to carry u^mn a board etc. ; shu^ntch haby-hoard ; from dna. 

shukoka to bite oneself ; from koka. 

shu-vl'ta to throw at each other ; from vuta. 

shu'pka to lie in a heap ; from ipka. 

shukli^ida to compete in hopping ; from kl^na. 

t-, ta-, te-, prefix referring to long objects standing erect, as trees, posts, 
and to standing persons. When occurring in transitive verbs, this prefix 
points to acts performed with elongated objects not included under the uses 
of the prefixes a-, i-, u-; for instance, to what is performed with the arms or 
hands outstretched or put forward, with a knife, etc. In intransitive verbs 
t- refers to one person or animate being in an upright position, and when 
combined with the radix -ka-, -ga- points to one person, etc., standing or 
moving. T- is abbreviated from ta-, te-, te-, the pronominal particle and 
radix ta. 

taki'ma to stand out as a circle, rim; cf gaki'ma. 

tamadsha to stand at the end of a row etc.; cf lamadsha. 

tgmt'shka to abstract, take away; cf yimeshka. 

tkap tall grass, reed, or stalk. 

tkana to stuff, as an animal; cf shn^itkuala. 

tkeka to make a hole with knife or clasped hand; cf kdka. 

tka-ukua to knock with the hand, fist; cf uk4-ukua. 

tgii-ule^a to arise, get up; from ga-u'l/a. 

tgak;iya to stand, remain on, upon; from gakaya. 

tk^wa to break a long article in two. 



300 GRAMMAR OP THE KLAMATH LANGUAGE. 

tu-. This prefix is either (1) the preposition tu out there, out at a dis- 
tance, ill whicli case it expresses horizontjil and vertical distance or remote- 
ness of tlio verbal act from home or from the one speaking-, or m- is (2) a 
compound of t-, the prefix spoken of above pointing to what is erect, and 
U-, a prefix indicative of long- articles or articles placed above, on the top 
of (see below), on one's back. This compound prefix is in some respect 
comparable to shu-, q. v. 

Examples of (1): 
tiikgl^a to halt, stop on the way. 
tiiklaktchna to stop at times on one^s way. 
tuitchewa to hollow out by pressure. 
tuyamna to move about with knees bent. 

Examples of (2) : 
tudsho'sha to smear on, line upon; cf. ludsho'sha, shudsho'sha. 
tuila to converge at the top; to stand out. 
tiidshna to carry on the back; from tu=idshna. 
tuitch;^ash choke-cherry ; cf. yets^aka to choke. 
tuinega to cave in; cf. fna, d. yana downward. 
tiii^a to swell up, protrude; from ika to extract. 
tulamna to carry across one's back. 
tuliiga to smear on, line upon. 

tch-, ts-, prefix occurring in terms which refer exclusively to the mo- 
tions observed in water and other liquids, the moving or floating of objects 
on or in the water, and the flow or motion of the liquids themselves. In 
sound it presents some analogy with the suffixes -tcha, -dsha, -tchna, which 
refer to motion in general. It should not be confounded with tch-, ts-, when 
this is merely an alternation of the medial prefix sh-, as in tchga' for ska', 
q. V. Words like tchuk occur in several northwestern languages in the sense 
oi water; cf Chin. Jargon salt tchuk salt tvater. 

tchewa to float, said of water-birds etc.; from ewa. 
tchiwa to form a body of water; from I'wa. 
tchla'lpja to sink to the yround; from t'l^a. 
tchipka to contain a liquid; from ipka. 



LIST OF PREFIXES. 301 

tchdkpa, tchotcha to drip down from; cf. tch(^tchapkatko. 
tchiya to give, present a liquid; cf n^ya, I'lya, luya, sliiii. 
tchilala to boil water or in the water; from ilala. 
tchikamna to have the ivater-hrash ; from ika. 
tchuyamna to stcim below tJie water's surface. 

tchl- ; see shl-. 

II-, VU-, tvu-, prefix originating from the pronominal particle hu, u, 
marking extent and distance, horizontal as well as vertical, and forming 
transitive as well as intransitive verbs, with their derivatives. 

The terms in which this frequent suffix is found may be subdivided into 
two classes, as follows: 

(rt) Prefix u- pointing to horizontal distance, removal, separation from. 
These terms generally undergo dissyllabic reduplication when assuming the 
distributive form. 

unt^ga to lower, let down; cf ina downward. 
uhaktchna to gallop off; cf hudshna, huka. 
ulayue to scatter, disperse; cf gdyue. 
ulak'kanka to skate over a surface ; cf. laklakli. 
ut'hAwa to shake off, as dust, 
utila to place, be, or lie underneath ; from ita. 
ut^wa to shoot up perpendicularly ; from tt^wi. 

(b) Prefix u- referring to one or many animate and inanimate objects 
of length or tallness, as poles, pieces of wood, implements, parts of the 
animal body, etc., and to acts performed by or with them; also to persons, 
because considered as objects of tallness. They reduplicate distributively 
in u-u-, or as above, by means of the dissyllabic reduplication. Some of 
the transitive verbs with prefix u-, vu-, refer to one object only, and take the 
prefix i-, iy-, when a plurality of objects is alluded to. Identical with u- 
are wa-, we-, wi-, q. v. 

udupka, vudupka to wnip, beat with a stick; pi. of obj. idiipka. 
udshipa to strip, pull out ; pi. of obj. idshipa; cf ludshipa. 
liyamna to hold in hand; pi. of obj. I'yamna. 



302 GRAMMAR OF THE KLAMATH LANGUAGE. 

lit^a to ivrench off from ; pi. of obj. itxa; cf. liit^a. 
uyega to lift a log, beam, etc.; cf. liiyc'ga, sliuyt'ga. 
ulaplpa to flicker about; to shake the ears, as dogs, 
uka-ukua to knock with a stick; cf. tka-ukua. 
iipatiiotkish hammer, mallet; cf mpAta. 
ul('%uga to gather into a long basket; from ikuga. 
udi'ntena to beat, as with a drumstick; from ti'ntan. 
iil(?;{atko flexible and long, pliant 

wa-, we-, wi-. These prefixes are reducible to the prefix u-, and pro- 
duced by it through assimilation (1) to the vowel of the syllable following 
in the terms given below: 

wapalash dead tree, for upalash dried on the tup; cf. upala, stupela, 

st<5palsh. 
wekishtchna to totter, reel; for ukishtchna. 
wishibam a reed with woolly substance ; from udshipa. 
widshikl^a to stumble and fall ; other form of udshikl^a. 

(2) In other words wa- is the result of the I'eduplication of the prefix 
U-, hu-: 

washolal%a for huhashohilxa ; cf husholal/a. 

wal^a for vuval^a, vual;^a; cf viil;^a. 

wali;(ish slanderer, Mod. for u'lkish; d. u-i*i'lkish, uwalkish. 

RECAPITULATION OF THE PREFIXES. 

The following synoptic table endeavors to give a lucid classification of 
tlie various functions in which prefixes are employed in verbs and nouns. 
The majority of them are found tabulated under more than one heading; 
only a few occur in one function only. 

A. — Prefixes referring to the genus verhi — 

Medial verbs: sh- and h-sh-; the prefixes composed with sli-, as shl-, 

slm-, sp-, st-, shu-. 
Reflective verbs: sh-, h-sh-, shu-. 
Reciprocal verbs: sh-, h-sh-. 
Causative veri)s: sh-, h-sh-, shn- 



INFIXES. 303 

Verbs that are transitive only: i- (No. 1), kt-, 1- (No. a), pe-, shn-, shu-; 

the object usually an animate being: i-, pe-, shu-, u-. 
Verbs that are intransitive only: 1- (No. b). 
Proprietary verbs: p-. 

B. — Prefixes referring to number — 

Singular number of the verbal object or subject: a-, e-, ksh-, 1-, t-, u-. 
Plural number of the same: e-, i- (No. 1), pe-. 

C. — Prefixes referring io form or shape of the verbal object or subject — 
Round, rounded, or bulky forms: 1-, nu-, pe-. 
Thin, flat, level, pliant, thread-like forms: n-, pe-. 
In the shape of sheets, garments enveloping the body : shl-. 
Long, elongated, tall forms: a-, e-, i-, u-. 

D. — Prefixes referring to attitude, position — 

Upright, erect, or immovable attitude: kt-, st-, t-, tu-. 

E. — Prefixes referring to motion — 

Motion through the air: n-, nu-, u-. 

Motion downward: yan-, yu-, 1- (No. c). 

Motion of, in, or upon the water or liquids: tch-. 

Motion performed obliquely, laterally: ki-, km-, kt-. 

Motion performed in zigzag upon the ground: ni-. 

Motion performed in wave form: l^a-. 

Motion performed with the head: a- (in ai-, ei-). 

Motion performed with arms, hands: shu-, t- (tk-). 

Motion performed with the back: tu-; with the feet: yan-, yu-. . 

F. — Prefixes embodying relations expressed by adverbs — 

Locative prefixes: i- (No. 2), ino-, yan-, yu-, kui-, 1- (No. c), tu-, u- 

(No. a). 
Modal prefixes: k- thus ; le- not (some being negative verbs). 

INFIXES. 

Infixation of sounds into the radical syllable, producing a change in 
the signification of words, is not so frequent in American as in some Cau- 
casian and other Asiatic languages; although inflection of the radix may 



304 GRAMMAR OF THE KLAMATH LANGUAGE. 

have been effected by infixes, all traces of this fact have afterward dis- 
appeared. In the preterit of Creek verbs an infixed 7* produces a shorten- 
ing of the radical vowel preceding it. 

Of infixes of the Klamath language we cannot speak as a class of 
affixes, as we can of its prefixes and suffixes. Thus the -u- appearing in the 
dual and the -i- of the plural form in the verbs for running, e. g. hudslma 
to run (one subject), tiishtchna (two to four), tinshna (many subjects), which 
form the radical vowel, are rather the result of a substitution for each other 
than of infixation, and may find parallels in the chapter on "Vocalic Alter- 
ation of the Root," pp. 254-257, and "Epenthesis," p. 228. The only sound 
which could be regarded at times as an infix in the radix, though it is 
mostly a prefix or a suffix, is 'h, when it stands for ha by hand, ivith hands 
or extremities. 

*h, an affix which emphatically refers to the use of one's hands, and 
gives a peculiar stress to the verbs in which it occurs We find it in: 

ge'hUipka to step on, ascend by using hands; srehipka to tread upon, 

mount. 
gu'hli to help oneself into; gull to enter, go into. 
p'hushka to tear off by hand; pushka to cut off with a sharp tool, 
pul'hka to tear out by hand, and shupA'hlka to tear out from one^s body; 

pulka to tear, pluck out. 
wa'htakia to disperse, put to flight bv using weapons etc.: watakia to 

scare off, scatter. 

• We may also compare k'hiule^a with kiulfX'i> I'hutkala with lo'tkala, 
and many other verbs. In muhimiiya to shii^er, h stands infixed in the radix, 
though not referring to the use of hands. Cf "Dijeresis," p. 216, and "Epen- 
thesis," p. 228. 

LIST or SUFFIXES. 

In the language of the Mdklaks we observe a large numeric prepon- 
derance of suffixes over prefixes. Not only is the whole system of verbal 
and nominal inflection carried on by suffixation, but also in derivation this 
element is more powerful than prefixation. A combination of more than 



LIST OF SUFFiXES. 305 

two prefixes is rarely seen, but one of four suffixes is not uncommon, and 
the manifold ways in which they combine into novel functions are quite 
surprising. The list of suffixes, simple and compound, which we give 
below, is already more than triple the full list of simple and compound 
prefixes, although the suffixes of the language are not fully enumerated 
in the list, for the good reason that they are practically inexhaustible in 
their combinations. Thus in regard to suffixation this upland language can 
be called poli/synthefic in an eminent degree. 

Suffixation prevails in the large majority of all the languages explored 
and some languages are known to possess no prefixes at all. On the other 
side, the Ba'ntu languages of South Africa inflect by prefixes only. The 
same cause has prompted the dark races of the Ba'ntu to prefix their pro- 
nominal roots to the radical syllables, which has prompted most Europeans 
to place the articles the and a before and not after tlie noun. The power 
of largely multiplying pronominal roots under the form of suffixes, which 
appears in many Asiatic and American tongues and also in the Basque 
(Pyrenees), seems extraordinary to us, because we are accustomed to the 
analytic process in thought and speech. The Klamath Indian has no special 
words corresponding to our about, concerning, to, on, at, in, upon, through, but 
expresses all these relations just as clearly as we do by means of case suffixes 
or case-postpositions; he has not our conjunctions while, because, but, as, than, 
when, that, since, until, before, after,^ but all the relational ideas suggested by 
these are expressed by him just as distinctly by conjugational suffixes. 

The Klamath Indian employs derivation-suffixes to express the fol- 
lowing material ideas, which English can express by separate words only: 
commencing, continuing, quitting, returning from, doing habitually, fre- 
quently, or repeatedly, changing into, moving at a long or short distance, 
moving in a zigzag or in a straight direction, going upward, along the 
ground or downward, circling in the air, coming toward or going away from, 
seen or unseen, moving within or outside of the lodge, on or below the 
water's surface ; also an infinity of other circumstantial facts, some of which 
we would not observe or express at all, but which strike the mind of the 
Indian more powerfully than ours. 

' Before, luiJitana, atfd after, tapitana, are known to him only as prepositions or rather postposi- 
tions, not as conjunctions. 

20 



306 GRAMMAR OF THE KLAMATH LANGUAGE. 

For tlie study of the mechanical part of suffixation the following rules 
will prove useful: 

There are two classes of suffixes, inflectional and derivational. Most 
suffixes belong either to one or the other of the two classes, but a few be- 
long to both: -uga, -(')ta. 

Inflectional suffixes always stand after the suffixes of derivation, in the 
absolute as well as in the distributive form. The former are identical in 
both dialects with very few exceptions (Kl. -ank. Mod. -an), but among the 
latter small dialectic diff'erences are perceptible. 

There are pronominal roots which figure as prefixes as well as inflectional 
and derivational suffixes; while others occiu' only as suffixes or component 
syllables of such, or belong to one class of suffixes only. Some verbal suffixes 
also figure as nominal suffixes: -aga, -tana, -tka, etc. 

A few suffixes show a wide i-ange in their signification and use, for their 
meaning varies according to the basis to which they are appended; cf -ala, 
-tka, -nga. In this respect compound suffixes vary less than simple ones. 
The purport of such compound suffixes as we observe in hulladshuitanma 
to run cont'mualhj hack and forth can be inquired into by looking up severally 
in the list below all the suffixes following the radix hu-: -rda (-la), -tcha, -ui, 
-t4mna, and then combining their significations into a whole. 

Most suffixes originally wei'e of a locative import, and the few temporal 
suffixes in the language trace their origin to some locative affix. The con- 
crete categories of location, position, and distance are of such paramount 
importance to the conception of rude nations as are to us those of time and 
causality. 

The accumulation of suffixes in one word is sometimes considerable, 
but never exceeds the limits of considerate measure (five suffixes), so that 
the mind always remains capable of grasping the totality of some polysyn- 
thetic form. Cf in the Dictionary such vocables as: liopelitchna, ka- 
uloktantktamna, klutsuutkish, shuntoyakea-otkish, spungatgapele, sputi- 
dshanuish, tpugidshapelitiimna, tcln'ltgipele. The best method of studying 
the workings of suffixation is to compare with one another the derivatives of 
such roots as are most productive in derivational forms by transcribing them 
from the pages of the Dictionary. 



LIST OF SUFFIXES. 307 

There are some suffixes whicli in fact are verbs of the language closely 
agglutinated to the basis of the preceding term, and thus form a transition 
between suffixes, auxiliary verbs, and verbs forming compound verbs: 
-kakua, -kakiamna, -kedsha, -ttimna, -vi^Jipka. In southern languages, as 
Atcikapa, KAyowe, etc , this sort of grammatic combination is much more 
frequent than in Klamath. 

There are a large number of other compound suffixes which were not 
mentioned in the following list on account of the small number of terms 
known in which they occur. Such are -ini, -kieni, -mla, -tchla, etc.; but 
the majority of these may be understood by analyzing them into their com- 
ponents and comparing them with suffixes formed in a similar way, as -ina, 
-pfit^a, -m'na, tchna. 

-a, the most frequent of all suffixes, is appended to consonantal as well 
as to vocalic stems or bases, occurs in almost every part of speech, and forms 
compound suffixes. The different uses made of this ubiquitous suffix neces- 
sitate subdivision. 

1. Verbs in -a. A large majority of verbs shows this suffix or a suffix 
composed with -a. It is in fact the particle a of the declarative mode, which 
sometimes appears as a word for itself Being usually unaccented when 
appended to the word, it becomes so closely connected with it as to turn 
into a true suffix, and in inflectional foi-ms is often replaced bv other end- 
ings. With other vocalic suffixes it forms a contrast of a locative import: 
hinua to fall on something; In'nui to fall on the ground; tchfilamna to sit on, 
against something; tchalamnu to sit on an eminence or at a distance. The 
great frequency of the suffix -a is accounted for by its general, wide, and 
indistinct signification. We find it in transitive and intransitive verbs, and 
among the latter in impersonal and attributive verbs. In most of the verbal 
suffixes it occurs as the final sound, alternates at times with the suffix -ha, as 
in tela, ti^lha to look upon, to resemble; sometimes assumes the accent (guka, 
etc.), and in the verb hla' seems even to form a part of the radix. This is 
done, however, to distinguish it from hla-a, q. v. Free from all connection 
with other suffixes, -a does not occur frequently except in verbs with itera- 
tive reduplication. We find it in: 

kfla to be in a Jiurri/, to be excited. 
It6ka to make a round dot; subst. Itok. 



308 GKAMMAK OF THE KLAMATH LANGUAGE. 

rnuka to menstruate ; cf. miiksh bahc. 

p^ta. pdt'a to di'srtipt something; cf. lepeta to indent. 

skia to fizzle; cf. kiu anus. 

sk6a it is springtime ; also subst. 

tila to make a noise, as by stamping with the feet; cf ti'ltila. 

Examples of verbs formed by iterative reduplication: 

hiulu'wa to be elastic, soft. pi'ikpuka to crack icitJi the teeth. 

yalyala to he limpid, clear. shiakshiaga to balance on the arms. 

ka-ukawa to rattle. shukshuka to shake one^s head. 

mulmula to loicer the eyebrows. tiltila to make a noise, as by rapping. 

2. Nouns in -a. Substantive nouns in -a exist in considerable numbers. 
Some of them are abbreviations from -ap, -ash, q. v., wliile others, and the 
larger part of them, have been verbs in -a or are still so, having without 
any phonetic change assumed the function of a noun, the distinction be- 
tween verb and noun being less marked in most Indian languages than in 
our own. The examples below contain substantives partly formed with 
compound suffixes: 

kia lizard, and kudsha field-rat ; cf. ki'dsha to creep, crawl. 

nllka cinnamon bear. 

pala, pji'hla wicker plate or j)addle, from pala to dry. 

pAta summer season; cf paha to be dry. 

klipa mink; kelayua, species of long-tailed mouse. 

pa'ka grandfather'' s brother, for pa'kap. 

sk6a ond sko spring season. 

shtfa pitch, resin, and tia sccd-paddle. 

saiga grassy 2}lain, jirairie. 

haptchii fifth finger, and to go or hide behind. 

nkfka dust, atoms, and to be full of dust. 

wipka overshoe made of straw. 

weketa and wekdtash green frog. 

ktiishka slice, clipping, and to cut off, slice off. 

mbi'ika and mbukash earth crumbling into dust. 



LIST OF SUFFIXES. 309 

Also .1 large numbei- of botanic terms, especially food-plants, as: 
kashma, klana, klapa, I'ba, tchua, tsunika, etc. 

3. Participles with -a oxytonized (-a') are abbreviations from -atko, -atko. 
Examples to be found in the Texts and Dictionary are n%itsd(tko) atrophied, 
pahii dried up, kewa broken, fractured. 

4. A number of adverbs also end in -a, most of which are or have been 
formerly verbs: 

ka-a very, very much; of. skd. 

ke-una (and ke-uni) slowly, loosely, lightly. 

kuata tightly ; also adj. hard, tight. 

nishta all night through. 

ska, shka coldly; strongly, and to blow cold, strong. 

st4, sht4 to repletion; entirely, and to be full. 

wafta all day long, and to pass one day. 

Of jiostpositions ending in -ta the majority are abbreviations from -tana 
or -tala. 

An inflectional suffix -a occurs in the oblique cases of nouns in -a, as 
p'gishap mother, p'gisha (obj. case). Of. " Nominal Inflection." 

-a', see -a No. 3, -tko. 

-a'-a, a suffix which is the combination of the last vowel of the base 
with the suffix -a preceding, analogous to -ea, -fa, -ua. The accent always 
rests on the penultima, a rule from wliich the verb ndsh4ma-a and its medial 
form shn4ndslima-a form perhaps the only exceptions Sha-ap4-a to dare, 
provoke, is formed by vocalic diaeresis from shdpa to speak, tell. The word 
sluikek;i-ash parents, in Kl. shukikash, presupposes an obsolete verb shuke- 
ka-a. Examples: 

hlii-a to lay eggs, to bear young. 

kupkupa-a to knock at something hollow ; cf. kupkupli concave. 

ya-a to scream, vociferate; Mod. kaya-a to cry aloud. 

shalkia-a to put on airs, to swagger. 

shapku^i-a, Kl. shapkua to strut about. 



310 GRAMMAR OF THE KLAMATH LANGUAGE. 

stina-a to build a house, or willow-lodge. 
sakd-a to he raw; to eat raw. 

-^g,'a, -"A-, -ga, -ay, -ka, -k. This nominal suffix is formed by the par- 
ticle ak ^'onlg,just only, but," and in the form -aga by the particles ak a, 
of the same signification. Words showing this suffix are diminutives, and, 
although the majority are substantives, a few adjectives and pronouns form 
diminutives by means of the same suffix. 

1. Substantives in -aga. Substantives form their diminutives either by 
appending -aga in full or by syncope of the short a of -aga into: -ga, -ka, -g, 
-k. Nouns composed of two or more syllables and ending in -sh in the 
subjective case, drop that terminal to assume -aga instead, which then under- 
goes all the phonetic changes produced by the collision of vocalic and con- 
sonantal sounds. The diminutive function results from the signification 
^^just only'''' of the particle ak: pe'tch foot, petchaga ^^just afoot oidif\ little 
foot. The language forms no augmentative nouns like Italian, only dimin- 
utives. In many languages the diminutives assume the signification ot 
endearment or praise, especially in the terms of relationship; in Klamath 
nothing of the kind is perceptible, except in the pronouns mentioned below 
and perhaps in the terms with double diminutive ending. 

ankuaga little stick or tree, from anku stick, tree. 

Idlpaga, h'llpag little eye, from lulp eye. 

kapka small pine tree, from tkap stalk. 

wA'ihiXvia.ga young female (animal), from ndshilo. 

tiildshiag little reed-arrow, from taldshi reed-arrow. 

nt^yaga little bow, from nte-ish, nte'sh how. 

we-aga, we'ka Utile child, from weash offspring. 

awaloka little island, from awaluash island. 

sh;i[)lka sm(dl seed-paddle, from shaplash paddle. 

ru'itak glyccria grass seed, from nut (verb: nuta to crack in the fire). 

kilidshiga little duck, from kilidslu'wasli long-necked duck. 

shikenitgika little pistol, from shikenitgish pistol. 

spukliga little sweat-lodge, from spuklish sudatory. 



LIST OF SUFFIXES. 311 

kitfhka, kitchga small fin, from kidsliash fin. 
shupluga little play-hall, from shupluasli ball. 

A few diminutives accentuate the penultima, though they may empha- 
size one of the sylhxbles preceding it as well : 

leledshiaga and leledshiak ver// young cub, pupj^y. 
nepaga and nepaga, nepag little hand, paw. 

nushaltkaga and nushaltkaga headwaters of river, from nushtlltko spring- 
ing from. 

The diminutive Shastiaga, Shastika, Sastiak, signifies a little person 
of the Shasti tribe or a half-Shasti, one of the parents being a non-Shasti. 

Diminutives in which the ending -figa occurs twice are the pronouns 
hiiktakaga (from lu'iktak) and viinakaga, iinakak little son or offspring, from 
vunak. 

2. Among the pronouns and pronominal adjectives susceptible of this 
ending we mention : 

huktag and hiiktakaga this little one. 
ntikag the little absent one, from n^g absent. 
tankak a few only, from tAnk so many, so much. 
tumiaga ye^t', not many, from tumi many. 

Adverbs often assume this syllable, but then ak is no longer to be con- 
sidered as a suffix, exce|)t perhaps in ma'ntchaga a ivhile ago; it is the par- 
ticle ak, ak a, just only, and the transitory stage from this signification to 
that of a diminutive is often plainly perceptible. Examples: kiutak, lapiak, 
n^nak, panak, nishta'k, palak (Mod. pdlak), palakak, psinak, tina'k, tchussak, 
wiga-ak. 

The adjectives k^liak deprived of, p^niak undressed, also contain this 
suffixed particle. 

-ilg'a. The verbal suffixes -aga and -aga, although of similar origin, 
have to be distinguished from each other. The first contains the factitive 
suffix -ka, -ga appended to verbal stems ending in short, unaccented -a, 
while in the latter suffix, -aga, this same factitive terminal is appended to 



312 GKAMMAR OF THE KLAMATH LANGUAGE. 

verbal stems accented upon the ultima. The signification of both suffixes 
is factitive ; cf. ka, -ga. In the same manner we observe verbs formed by 
the suffixes -ala and -;'ila, -iga and -I'ga, -uga and -I'lga. 

The verbs in -tiga are intransitives, those in -i'lga transitives, as will 
appear from the lists below. Sr ->e of them show the compound suffix 
-t^aga, -tkaga, the -t^- of which marks repetition or return ; and -Sga seems 
to occur only as the final p;>rt of compound suffixes. 

gdlampaga to ivalk behind, to folloiv in a file. 
kmult;(aga to hublde up in ivater. 
kc't^aga to hef/iu to grow again ; cf ktidsha. 
ntiiltxaga to run down from its spring. 
ntiiptchmaga to form hubbies in ivater. 

-a'g'a. For the origin of this verbal factitive suffix, see -aga. It occurs 
in transitive verbs only and always forms a compound with other suffixes, 
as -tch-, -tX", etc. Alternates at times with -aka; cf. -iga, -ka, -uga. 

hakshki'iga to carry about an infant on the breast; cf hakshtiktchui, kshdna. 

kuatchaga and kuatchaka to bite into; from ku/itcha. 

sh^uluaga to punch with a pole, to run a stick into. 

shkintcliish^aga to shed the skin, said of amphibians. 

shma'htchi'iga to project one's shadow while moving. 

shvuyusliaga to remember, study at. 

tchukt^aga to try, attempt repeatedly. 

-a'i, see 4ya. 

-a'ya, -di, verbal suffix composed of the particle i (hi) on the ground, 
joined to -a (emphasized), which here stands in the sense of on, upon some- 
thing. From this combination results the function of -f'lya as that of doing 
or being upon, on something, and the secondary function of doing or being 
in the woods, thickets, recesses, in the timber, or in marshes, upon cliffs. The 
locahty is generally added to the verb in the locative case in -tat, -at: 
tchikass ankutat tchaggaya the bird sits upon the tree. The majority of the 
verbs in -aya are intransitive and the few transitives seem to have originated 
from intransitives. When the terminal -aya becomes abbreviated into -ai 



LIST OF SUFFIXES. 313 

the accent sometimes recedes upon a preceding syllable, as in gelkaya, 
gelkcii, gelkai to erect a platform upon a scaffold. Substantives like tchatchlai 
fire-fly, tchashkai weasel^ seem to embody the same suffix, -ay a. Examples: 

kshaggaya, iggaya, laggaya to hang doivn from something, and to hang 

up, suspend on something, 
ktchikaya to climb, creep, crawl on, upon, ana to creep upon a tree, or 

through the timber. 
huk4ya, gakaya to run, to go into the ivoods. 
tgakdya, liukaya to stand or remain on ; to stag in the ivoods. 
shualaya to he idle ; cf. wal^a to sit ivaiting. 

-ak, see -aga. 

-akia, see -gien, -tki. 

-akie'a, see -%i(^a. 

-akla, see -kla. 

-akta, see -ta. 

-azia, see -/ie'a. 

-azie'a, see -%i^a. 

-al, see -ala. 

-ala, verbal suffix related to -ala and composed of the same elements, 
but differing from it by the location of the emphasized syllable. The verbs 
composed with both terminals are almost exclusively of a transitive nature, 
and the verbs in -ala and in -ala are in part verba denominativa, but more 
generally derivatives of other verbs. The suffix -ala composes many other 
suffixes, as -al^a, -alsha, -alshna, -alsh, etc. The origin of this suffix seems 
to have been the same as that of the prefix /- No. 2, pointing to a doivnivard 
motion along something, which is also embodied in the words lash, hla', hlala, 
q. v., the roots of which are made up by the sound /. Some of their num- 
ber can geminate the I of the suffix, and they do so especially in song lines: 
shuinalla, genalla. Cf -altko, -cla, -I'la. 

Derivatives from other verbs: 
spalala to feed the young ; for spanala; cf pan to eat. 



314 GRAMMAR OF THE KLAMATH LANGUAGE. 

stalala to JiU^ fill up; for stanala; cf. s,iam full. 

slminala to accompany in singing ; cf. shuina to sing. 

iidokala to he Jdnkg, curly. 

genala to start o^and to approach; from gdna to walk. 

washlala (and washlala) to hunt ground-squirrels^ from subst. wiishla. 

yaa;i^alala (and yan^alala) to hunt bald eagles, from subst. yau^al. 

shne-uyAla to destroy almost. 

shle;lla to perceive, look at; from shlcia to see. 

-ilia, -ela, -al, -la. This verbal suffix is of great frequency and various 
import. It also forms quite a number of compound suffixes. The similarity 
of origin with -ala and other analogies were pointed out when speaking of 
that suffix. The circumstance that the accent rests upon the base of the 
word, and not on the suffix, causes a weakening and falling off of vocalic 
parts of the suffix; thus -ala changes into -6la, -'la, -al, and into -la, which 
is more frequent than the other forms. Many of these are denominative 
verbs. It will })e best to divide these verbs into intransitives and transit! ves 
and to subdivide the latter into verbs formed (a) from substantives in -sh, 
(b) from substantives having other endings, (c) from verbs. 

1. Intransitive verbs in -Tda etc., formed from other verbs apparently. 

sluikatla to come up the road or trail. 
tchikla to sit on, u])on, within. 
skutchala to dress in a mantle, blanket. 
pakla to bark at. 
muluala to rot, to become rotten. 
spune'kla it is getting late at night. 

2. Transitive verbs in -ala etc. 

(a) Formed from substantives having the usual suffix of substantives, 
-sh (-ash, -isli, etc.); therefore these verbs all end in -shla or -shala. They 
indicate that the object represented in the noun, of which they are deriva- 
tives, is collected, manufactured, made into something or turned to account. 



LIST OF SUFFIXES. 315 

A special class of these is formed by the verbs referring to the harvesting 
of food-articles and crops. 

itishla to use for embroidering ; from itish, ita. 
lu'gshla to capture in war, to enslave; from li'igsh. 
shilkshla to dig a well; wa'shla to di// a hole. 
spuklishla to erect a sweat-lodge; from spuklish. 
luldemashla to build a winter-lodge ; cf. luldamalaksh. 
shlaukoshla to construct a bridge, bridges; from shlankosh. 
witchiilashla to make a witcholash-net. 
tchulishla to make a shirt, and to wear one. 
wokashla, wo'ksla to collect pond-lily seed ; from wokash 
keladshla to collect the kelddsh-berry crop. 

(b) Formed from substantives ending in another suffix than -sh ; some 
of their number are diminutives in -aga, -ak. 

unakala and unakakala to give birth to a son; from viinak, linakak. 

peyala to give birth to a daughter; from pe-ip. 

we'kala to bear offspring ; from w^ka, dim. of w^ash. 

nteyakala to make a little bow; from nteyaga. 

na-ila for na I'ala to make a ndi-basket. 

hikiala to take as a husband ; from laki. 

shnawedshala, snaw^dshla to take as a wife; from shnawedsh. 

(c) Formed from verbs or verbal bases. 

shdllual to make war, to fight. 

ndakal, itkal to pick up, find something long; cf. Idukala. 

patkal to rise from sleep. 

she'wala to aver, state; cf. sh^wa to be of opinion. 

shukela to mix into, said of liquids. 

sh^lakla to cut or slash oneself; cf Mktcha. 

shaktakla to wound by a single cut. 

w^^pla to tie with straps etc. 

pakla to eat upon, on something; from paka to feed on. 

-a'lainiia, see -lamna. 



316 GRAMMAR OF THE KLAMATH LANGUAGE. 

-alpka, the combination of the suffixes -ula and the iterative -pka. 
This suffix appears in connection with the terms of relationship, and then 
signifies to call somebody /«//«er, sister, etc., or to call the father, sister, etc., hy 
his or her name: p'tfshal'pka, ti'ipakslinlpka. Usually -al- in -alpka is not 
emphasized, and the verbs are all transitives. 

p'tfshalpka, Mod. t'shishalpka, to call somebody father. 

pdyalpka to call somebody daughter ; cf. peyala to hear a daughter. 

pshdyalpka, to call somebody uncle. 

pshakalpka to call a person maternal aunt. 

pkumalpka to call a person paternal grandmother. 

vunakalpka to call somebody son, child; cf. viinakala to hear a son. 

-alpkasll, see -altko. 

-alslia, -altcha, verbal suffix produced by combination of the suffixes 
-ala, -sh and -a, q. v. Like the verbs in -sha the large majority of the 
verbs in -alsha are transitive ; they are formed from the verbal in -sh, which 
I call the verbal indefinite, by the addition of the declarative and verbifying 
suffix -a. The derivation is as follows: wokash jwnd lily seed ; woksrda to 
gather pond-lily seed ; wokaslialsh, contr. wuksalsh, the act of gathering pond- 
lily seed ; woksalsha to he in the act of gathering pMd-lily seed, to gather that 
seed /or a time. The verbal in -sh represents the act or state expressed by 
its verb as a lasting one, and therefore easily assumes the function of a sub- 
stantive. Several of the verbs in -alsha possess another form in -altcha, 
which I regard as a phonetic corruption. The verbs in -alsha have the 
accent upon the word-stem or at least before the ending, and many of them 
refer to the hunts of game or to the annual gathering of crops, without 
being real usitative verbs for all that. Hiitkalsha to rise up suddenly, is an 
example of an intransitive verb having this suffix ; another is : tchala'lsha 
(for tchiala-rilsha) to stay at home. 

slu'itualsha to throw at each repeatedly ; from shu-uta. 
shakalsha to play the four-stick game ; from shak'la. 
plaiwashalsha and plai'washaltcha to he on a hald-eagle hunt. 
washlalsha to he on a cliipmunh hunt; from washlala. 
stupalsha to peel off the fiher-hark or stopalsh. 



LIST OF SUFFIXES. 317 

ktelualaha to gather pine-nuts for a time. 
k61alsha to he in the act of gathering the kp'l-bulb. 
niilyalsha to gather tule-stalks in season ; cf. nia-i, nia yala. 

-alshlltl- This suffix, not of frequent occurrence, is -alslia increased 
b}- the suffix -na, q. v. 

hutkalshna to get up precipitately. 

-alta, see -ta. 

-altko, in the oblique cases -alpkash, -dlpkam, etc., is the form of the 
past participle of verbs in -ala, transitive as well as intransitive. When 
derived from transitive verbs, the form in -altko, which in the northern dialect 
is rarely accentuated on the penult in the subjective case, has as well an 
active as a passive function, though of these two generally one prevails. 

No special mention would be made of these participles as regular 
inflectional forms if they did not at times pass into the condition of verbal 
adjectives. This is the case when the parent verb is no longer in use or 
when the signification of the form in -altko shows an alteration from the 
form of the verb. Many of the "comprehensive" terms of relationship 
through blood and marriage belong here. Cf -tko, -antko. 

shtit%e-unaltko related as brothers ; cf t/t^^-unap elder brother. 
shaptalaltko related as sisters or female cousins; cf p'talip. 
lulpaltko provided ivith eyes ; from a supposed liilpala to obtain eyes. 
shunuishaltko possessed of ; cf shunuish property. 
o'lshaltko gray-haired ; from olshala to resemble the olash-dove. 
petchakaltko having little feet; from a supposed petchakala. 
shmokaltko tvearing a heard ; from a supposed shm6kala. 
tchuyeshaltko tvearing a hat, cap; cf tchuyesh hat, cap. 

-altcha, see -alsha. 

-am, -lam, the suffix of the possessive case in the absolute and distrib- 
utive form; -lam is placed after the vowels -a and -e of the nominal base, 
-am after consonants and the vowels -i, -o, -u, which in that case are con- 
sidered as consonants (y, w). B6th suffixes are pronounced very short, 



318 GRAMMAR OF THE KLAMATH LANGUAGE. 

almost like -gm, -'m, -lem, -I'm. The origin of this suffix will be shown 
under the heading of "Substantive." 

This possessive case form becomes in many nouns a subjective case, 
undergoing an inflection similar to that of the real subjective case. We 
subdivide these as follows: 

I. — Names of plants, especially fruit-hearing trees, shrubs, or herbs. The 
possessive suffix composes the majority of veget.ils furnishing berries, nuts, 
and soft fruits to the list of Indian provisions, and a few only, like the serv- 
iceberry bush, tchak;iga, have other endings. The pine-tree, ko'sh, fur- 
nishes only the resinous, ill-tasting pine-nut, and does not show tlie possessive 
form, but some of the seed-grasses, as tchipsham, exhibit it. Many of the 
plant names in -am exist in the distributive form. Besides the form in -am 
exists the otlier form in the subjective case, to designate the fruit, nut, or 
berry of tlie plant. The plant-name is the frviit-name placed in the pos- 
sessive case, and the term anku tree, stem, or tchelash stalk, has to be supplied: 
kp6k gooseberry, kp6kam (anku) gooseberry bush. Bulb plants, weeds, and 
low stalks with flowers often have the same name as their fruits, standing in 
the subjective case, like ko'l, w6kash, li^hiash, though even in moss-names 
the possessive case occurs, presumably through the law of linguistic analogy. 
The generic terms fwam berry, le-usham, d lel^-usham flower, and some terms 
referring to animal food: kawam eel spring, niiksam dried fish, also take this 
suffix. 

hi'itchnam white-oak tree; hiidsha acorn. 

ilplsam apple tree; a'pulsh, ii'pul apple. 

luluihiisham gooseberry bush ; luiluish, species of gooseberry. 

tuitch^sam choke-cherry tree; tuitchp^ash choke-cherry. 

ipshunalam swamp dogberry bush; ipshuna blue swamp dogherry. 

pii'sh^am bough of coniferm; pii'shak little whorl. 

kapiunksham the grass producing the kdpiunks-seed. 

Add to these padshAyam, p;inam (and pan), patchnam, skdwanksham, 
shl^shlaptcham, shud-usham, tutankshara. 

II. — A few nouns indicating seasons of the year and phenomena of nature 
also show the terminal -am, -lam, T;;^;ilam west wind is an abbreviation of 
t;ralamni (shldwisli) and does not belong here. 



LIST OF SUFFIXES. 319 

luldani winter-time; cf. \nash fog, mist. 
shahlam, shalam autumn. 
yal^ani tempest ^ storm.- 

III. — Of manufactured articles showing this suffix I have met the fol- 
lowing: 

kitchkam handkerchief, tchil'ksham or tchii'kslium coffee-pot, lani^punu- 
isham glass bottle. 

-amiia, -dmna. This verbal suffix, the final portion of wliich, -m'na, 
is a phonetic alteration of -mana, -amana, which is composed of -a, the com- 
mon ending of verbs, -ma and -na, two suffixes marking direction and dis- 
tance, q V. The idea conveyed by -amna, -am'na is {hutoi being or coming 
around, upon, on or above, near somebody or something, and that of surround- 
ing, of covering. It forms transitive and intransitive verbs from other verbs, 
not from nouns, and has to be kept distinct from the suffix -lamna, -alamna. 
Cf the suffixes -ma and -na. 

tchilamna to be crowded together, around; cf tchilla. 

gatpanma to approach near, to come to the lodge. 

tchuyamna to swim about. 

tiiyamna to swim around below the water's surface. 

nutiiyamna to hum, buzz, tvhirl around buzzing. 

nuyamna to whirl around, to skip about. 

skayanma to hold, carry about oneself in a basket. 

liukiamna to go around, to surround; cf. liuka-a to collect. 

stunkiamna to go around, v. intr ; to encompass, v. trans. 

shle'yamna, luyanma to hold, carry in the arms, hands. 

Cf also i-amna, kshiiyamna, shiamna, tchiamna, uyamna. In the verbs 
ending in -kiamna the syllable -ki- belongs to the stem of the word: shulia- 
kiamna to dodge around (stem: huka or hukia), shatalkianuia to look around 
(cf tela, t^li.sh); compare also shashknakiamnish mitten, Mod. 

-anipka is the suffix -pka appended to verbs of motion terminating 
in -na, -ana, -6na, by the same phonetic assimilation as observed in ge'nipele, 
as formed from gi^napele, gen'pele. The forms in -ampka imply remoteness 
from the one who speaks or is supposed to speak or relate, and they often 



320 GRAMMAR OF THE KLAMATU LANGUAGE. 

combine therewith the idea of being unseen by him. They are transitive 
as well as intransitive verbs. Not to be confounded with the suffix -tampka. 
Cf. -apka. 

hutauipka (for hutanapka) to run into distance; der. huta to rush upon. 
ne-ulakt;'inipka to punish tvithout heimf present ; ne-ulakta to punish. 
tinshampka to run awny unseen by the speaker; tinshna to run away. 
ga_ya-idshanipka to pass in front of into distance. 
shualalianipka to administer, provide for. ' 
steyak'kanipka to listen outside of a lodge, building, 
shnuitampka to keep up afire away from people; cf niitii to hum. 

-tmlvll, -dnka is a frequent suffix, composed of -ank, the ending of the 
present participle, and tlie a of the declarative mode. Thus it verbifies the 
act or state expressed by the participle, and expresses its duration. This 
may best appear fi-om the following instances: 

k(Skaid<a to masticate; der. koka to bite. 

hushkauka to reflect, think over ; hushka to think. 

shnikanuanka to make pauses in yatherimj crops; shnfkanua to let ripen. 

ndewanka to fall when sitting or standing ; ndcwa to topple over. 

stillit;'inka to report, bring news; stilta to announce. 

shakpat'tanka to compress or pin together. 

shuli'tanka to move an object down and up. 

spi'ikanka to move the feet quickly; spuka to pid out the feet. 

spiinkanka to take as one^s companion; spiinka to let go. 

-Iinsha. Like the verbs in -alsha, -ampka, -anka, -antko, etc., those 
in -anslia are the result of a verbifying process to which an inflectional form 
is subjected. Here the verbal indefinite in -sh of verbs ending in -na, -ana, 
-6na becomes verbified by the apposition of -a, and -ansha conveys the idea 
of locomotion away from somebody or something, of starting out into distance, 
and sometimes that oi passing through or out of The word-accent sometimes 
passes upon the suffix itself (-dnsha), and -ansha is preferable to the form 
-antcha, -andsha, which is sometimes used instead of it. Gckansha to start 
from is therefore derived from geknash the act of starting from, this from 
gckna. Geknash, by becoming lengthened into geknasha, inverts n and a 



LIST OF SUFFIXES. 321 

and becomes ge'kansha. The majority of these verbs are intransitive. Cf. 
-insha. -ansha re-enforced by -na occurs in yutlanshna to hit, or shoot aside 
of the mark. 

hukansha, tushkansha, tinkansha to run out of. 

hui/ansha to run along a river, along its current. 

gatpansha to come near some place. 

kokansha, kokantcha to climb up to a distance. 

kiluansha to hurry away. 

hukietansha to pass quickly by somebody. 

kshekansha to fly or soar up. 

ktchikansha to crawl through a hole. 

shletansha to go to see, to visit somebody. 

nik'kansha to put the arm out of or through an orifice. 

tilankansha to roll something away. 

-anshna, see -ansha. 

-antko, -dntko forms participles and verbal adjectives from verbs in 
-na, -ana, -ena in the same manner as -altko from verbs in -ala, -la. Analogous 
in derivation with these two participial forms are the adjective suffixes -li 
and -ni. The suffix -antko forms its oblique cases: -ampkash, -Ampkam, etc.; 
it conveys a passive and sometimes a medial signification In .some of the 
examples below, the original verb in -na exists no longer, and in others like 
kawantko the -n- seems to be the product of a nasalizing process only. 

kintc-hkwtko passable, pervious; kintchna to march in a file. 

kilkantko humpback; cf kfl;{a to become humpbacked. 

shuli'itantko dressed, clad; shuh'itana to dress oneself. 

tilhuantko submerged; ti'lhua to overfloiv. 

kawantko poor, indigent ; kawa to be poor. 

-ap, see -p. 

-a'pka, -apka. The suffix -pka forms verbs in -apka from verbs in -a in 
the same manner as it forms derivatives in -u pka, -o'pka from verbs in -wa, 
-ua, or derivatives in -ampka from verbs in -na, -ena. Verbs in -apka de- 
scribe an action performed or state undergone at a distance from the person 
speaking or supposed to speak or relate, and are intransitive as well as trans- 



322 GEAMMAR OF THE KLAMATH LANGUAGE. 

itive; other verbs in -apka are usitatives or iterative.s. From the verbs in 
-pka they differ only by the presence of the basal -a. 

I. — Verbs expressing distance from the one speaking: 

(a) Distant, when lying on the ground or within reach. 

iliipka to charge, load by placing the load on the bottom (of boat). 

ki'a])ka to recline sidcwise. 

shnukpapka to hold down on the ground. 

tchiapka, waw/ipka to sit on the ground. 

(I)) At a distance from the one speaking, but still visible : 
gelapka to climb into, step upon at a distance, 
telhapka to survey, overlook, as a country, 
tinok'napka to set, said of celestial bodies. 

(c) Removed out of the usual position, or at a distance sufficient to 

prevent contact: 
klamtch;ii)ka to keep the eyelids closed. 
shatasht^apka to seize an object with the hand so that the fingers do not 

touch the thumb in grasping, 
shmuktchtipka to pout the lips. 

(d) At a distance out of sight: 
k'lewidshapka to leave behind in the lodge, 
kpudshapka to pursue an object out of sight. 

II. — Iterative verbs are as follows: 
shkanakapka to assail repeatedly. 
shuktajjka to strike oneself repeatedly. 
vutikapka to draw the tongue in and out. 

-as, see -ash. 

-ash, -as, -sh. The most frequently occurring nominal suffixes are 
-ash, -ish, -ush, all formed by the connection of the vocalic stem-endings of 
verbs with the noun-making suffix -sh, -s. All of them differ in their func- 
tions, and it is therefore preferable to treat of them in separate articles. The 
suffix -ash is pre-eminently a suffix for names of inanimate objects, while -isli 



LIST OF SUFFIXES. 323 

is tlie suffix forming- names of animate beings chiefly. The difference is best 
shown by examples: 

sliashapkeleash story, narrative, myth. 

shashapkek'-ish narrator, story-teller. 

shlelaluash upper eyelid, or "cover" moving by itself. 

shle'laluish cream of milk, or "cover" to be removed by hand; the real 
meaning of shlt'lalnish being cover. 

tchl'sh (from tchiash) settlement; tchi'sh (from tchf-ish) settler. 

The vowel -a- in -ash is often elided by syncope, especially when pre- 
ceded by a consonant, or suffers contraction, as -a-ash into -ash. 

As an inflectional terminal, -ash forms the ohjective case in the adjective, 
and also in the majority of names of animate beings in the absolute as well as 
in the distributive form. In the numerals, -ash has the function of a locative 
suffix; cf. "Numerals." 

It also forms the verbal indefinite of the verbs in -a: shiyuta to exchange, 
barter — tuA i shana-uli shiyutash'F/or what will you barter this? The verbal 
signification is still perceptible in the nouns ko-i piluyeash onion, viz., "bad 
smeller", and in ko-i tumenash noise, viz, "disagreeable hearing". 

1. Denominative nouns in -ash. I mention a few instances in which the 
primitive term is still in use at the same time with the derivative, so that 
there cannot be any reasonable doubt of a derivation having occurred : 

kaila earth, ground; kiiilash mud, dirt, semen. 

lo'k kernel, seed; liikash ^.s7t-roe. 

miiksh down; mukash owl, 'downy bird." 

nnilu, someilnng rotten ; molash j)hlegm. 

shi'l cloth, tissue; shilash tent. 

t6ke horn, prong; {i')ks\\ navel ; fish-bladder. 

2. To the above may be added a few nouns formed through onomato- 
pceia : 

tuktuk (cry of hawk), tuktukwash fish-haivk. 
wa'k (note of duck), wa'kash, a duck species. 
wdkat (cry of frog), wcketash green frog 

3. Nomina verbalia concreta or substantives in -ash, formed