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J. W. POWELL IN Chargk 



1891 . 






18 9 



J. W. POWELL IN Charge 










By Albert S. Gatsohet. 



The present Dictionary, divided in two parts, contains the lexical por 
tion of an Oregonian language never before reduced to writing. In view 
of the numerous obstacles and difficulties encountered in the preparation of 
such a work, a few hints upon its origin and tendencies will be of service 
in directing the studies of those who wish to acquire a more intimate know- 
ledge of this energetic and well developed western language. 

The Klamath or Mdklaks language is spoken in two dialects, that of 
the Klamath Lake Indians, or fi-ukshikni, and that of the Modocs. No 
obstacle prevented the gathering of the terms of both dialects into one and 
the same word -list, because the dialects differ but slightly, though more in 
their lexical than in their grammatic forms. The difference is so slight 
that the people of both chieftaincies understand each other readily in con- 
versing about common subjects, and the few terms of which they fail to 
have a mutual understanding are entered below as belonging to only one 
of the two divisions of the Maklaks people. Generally speaking, the north- 
ern or fi-ukshikni dialect has, where differences exist, preserved its words in 
a more original, archaic and uncontracted form, Avhile the southern or Modoc 
dialect is apt to exhibit contractions and elisions instead, as well as other 
phonetic processes which tend to show a more advanced stage of linguistic 
decay. This dialect has also incorporated more foreign terms borrowed 
from English, Shasti, etc. than the northern dialect. 


But aside from these minor discrepancies of spocch, it would bo wrong 
to suppose that the language of the Klamath Lake Indians, or that of the 
Modoc Indians is entirely homogeneous witliin itself Every class or cluster, 
band or settlement of Indians has a lew terms peculiar to itself, or some 
words used in other acceptations than observed among its neighbors ; one 
band may use a derivative of some radix or base in a certain sense, and 
the nearest settlement may use another derivative of the same origin in- 
stead, or pronounce i+ in a different manner. Should, therefore, a traveler 
])assing through the uplands bordering the lakes of the Klamath River 
basin not be able to identify at once some of the words given below, 
tliis would by no means prove that such words do or did not exist in the 
language. Besides the terms extracted from the foi'egoing Texts, there is 
})erhaps not a single word in this voluminous Dictionary that has not been 
repeatedly verified through Indian informants, and what could not stand 
this test has been scrupulously eliminated. 

Narratives and other texts, correctly worded, yield the most important 
con'ributions to a word-collector, and are in every way preferable to the 
gathering of disconnected terms from an unknown language. I have there- 
fore availed myself fully of the lexical treasures stored iip in the historic, 
ethnologic and poetic specimens obtained from the natives ; but, since their 
interlinear translation cannot, in the narrow space allotted, give in every 
instance the full import of a term or phrase, a thorough understanding of 
my Klamath Texts, especially of the songs, implies the unremitting use of 
the Dictionary. To illustrate clearly and thoroughly the special functions 
of words, passages from the Texts contained in Part First of this work 
are adduced as evidence, with their quotation numbers giving the page 
and line where they occur. Quotation figures separated by commas refer 
to tho Texts in prose ; figures separated by semicolons, to the Poetic Texts. 
The Notes explaining portions of the Texts will, in many instances, supple- 
ment the definitions of the words as given in the Dictionary. 

Before tracing the plan followed in composing this Dictionary, a re- 
mark of a more general import may be inserted to illustrate the phonetic 
character of the language. 

The fact that languages of rude and primitive tribes are built up 


more regularly and often show a closer observance of logical principles 
than those of peoples of ancient civilization has often been pointed out, and, 
so far as it relates to the contrast between inflective and agglutinative lan- 
guages, can no longer be doubted. Agglutinative tongues are spoken by 
most of the savage races, and, as to their morphology, show more regularity 
in their inflections, because the affixes are not so much altered and ground 
down by phonetic wear and tear as the affixes of inflective languages. This 
is because in the former languages the mental force binding and fusing the 
affixes to the root has acted less powerfully than in the latter. The natives 
still retain in their minds the original meaning of each verbal or nominal affix, 
whereas this remembrance has been long since obliterated among the indi. 
viduals speaking inflective tongues ; and the regularity of inflections natu- 
rally results in the other group from the indiscriminate addition of these 
to each root or base of the language. A language rich in grammatic forms 
is usually simple in its syntax. 

But in their phonology most agglutinative languages do not show the 
regularity observed in their grammatic forms. Physical agencies, hidden as 
yet from our mental eye, produce alternations of the sounds pronounced with 
the same organ of the vocal tube, which in some of the languages are profuse, 
in others less numerous. In most North American languages we notice the 
interchangeability of the surd and the sonant explosives, of the sounds of 
the labial, lingual, etc. series, of o and ^«, of a and e, and in the language 
of the Mdklaks the alternation of sounds, of which a table is given below, 
plays a very jirominent part. When a word is pronounced in six or more 
different ways, as in this language, it evidently should not appear so often 
in the Dictionary, but on the other hand it would be most unscientific to 
apply a preconcerted, uniform phonetic representative to each of these 
words. This rule has often been adopted in the notation of other Ameri- 
can languages, all terms with initial labial (b, p, m, v, w) having, for 
instance, been written either with b or m. I have in the Dictionary pre- 
ferred the method of placing at the head of each item that phonetic form, of 
the ivonl which is most frequently heard,, and of subjoining to it the other, or 
a few of the other phonetic forms, the order in which they follow suggesting 
the order of their frequency. 


This method is applicabk; to tho preparation of a dictionary ; but in 
writing texts of the language, everj^ word and sound nuist be hiid down as 
it flows from the lips of the native informant, pure and unaltered, in these 
laniiiiaiies, (;very sound of the current speech is, or may be, significant ; 
iiiHliaiii;(i(l ))y imaginary phonetic rules derived from the study of literary 
languages, every word and syllable should be, as it were, photographed 
\\ith its peculiar short, long and duplex, clear and obscure vowels, drawl- 
ings and sto])s of the voice, noises and clangs. The law of accentuation, as 
observed in the language of the MAklaks, sustains this principle in a singular 
manner ; for in this western tongue accentuation is much more a syntactic 
than a morphologic feature, the position of the accent being very generally 
determined by the run of the sentence. There are but a few polysyllabic 
words that never shift their accent. 

One of the manifold consequences of following fanciful phonetic rules, 
often engendered by the desire of using as few types as possible, is the 
arbitrary suppression in literary publications of sounds existing in a lan- 
guage. Thus the Mohawk dialect of Iroquois is repi'esented to have twelve 
oi' thirteen sounds only, while in reality it has no less than twenty-six. 
Iiulian texts can convey their full meaning only by accurate phonetic 
transcription ; and when they pass down to posterity in this shape, as a 
true and faithful monument of the tribe who produced them, others may 
discover phonetic or other laws of the language which our studies have failed 
to reveal to our own understanding. 

After the al)solute form of the word, the Dictionary gives in the majority 
of cases its distributive form, derived from it by what is called distributive 
reduplication. When the various phonetic modes of forming the distribu- 
tive from the absolute form have been studied attentively in the Grammar, 
the absolute form will readily suggest itself when looked for in the Diction- 
ary, though in some of the more difficult cases indications are given to help 
the reader in his search. Many no?nina adoris and other terms occur in the 
distributive form alone, or are more frequent in this than in the absolute 

The definitions are presented in their etymologic order, which is the 
order of their historic evolution. It is true that in many instances the form 


or function of the radix is unknown, and then the meanings are presented in 
the order which seemed most plausible. Wherever it could be done, the 
radix or base of a derivative is pointed out (except when it is contained in 
the item just preceding), and comparisons of an etymologic or synonymic 
import are added at the end of the item, to aid fui'ther research. 

The proper names found in the language, personal and local, were 
gathered with special care on account of their linguistic importance, and 
inserted into the Dictionary. Those among their number which can no 
longer be explained by the existing words of the language are likely to 
contain archaic forms, and archaic forms belong to the most valuable ma- 
terials of which grammarians can avail themselves. American names given 
to Indian men and women were inserted into the Dictionary, but names of 
Americans were excluded from it, though mention is made of them in the 

Animal and plant names are mostly derivatives, and the difficulty ex- 
perienced in analyzing them etymologically jjroves their high antiquity. 
A large amount of both were furnished by the informants, though I was 
often left in the dark concerning their accurate equivalents in the English 
language. Many bird names have an onomatopoetic origin, and many 
beasts, especially those pursued by hunters, have several names, varying 
according to the color shade of their peltry as altered by the seasons, or 
possessed of one real name and various attributes or poetic epithets. Of a 
few animals the male bears another name than the female; of a few aliment- 
ary plants the eatable portion another than the stalk or tree. I took down 
as many characteristics of these nameless waifs of the Klamath fauna and 
flora from the Indians as they could recollect, and on returning to Wash- 
ington submitted the notes on the animals to H. C. Yarrow, M. D., and 
to Mr. H. W. Henshaw, the well-known ornithologist ; on the plants, to Mr. 
Lester Ward, and Dr. George Vasey, botanist of the U. S. Agricultural 
Department, these gentlemen having personally observed these objects 
during their extensive travels in the great interior Basin and on the 
Western Slope. The scientific names given in the Dictionary rest on 
their identification, and where the species could not possibly be identified, 
the name of the genus at least was entered in following their suggestions. 


It is proper to state here that the ancient Modoc country on Lost River 
and vicinity has a niihler climate than the settlements of the Klamath 
Lake peojile on Upper Klamath Lake, and that on this account the former 
country fields soni((what different and more abundant natural products 
than the latter. 


a as m alarm, wash; Garman, Mann, hat; French, 2)as, gras, Jlanc. 

a longer sound of a, as in far, father, smart, tart; Grermau, schaden, 

lahm, Fahne. 
t as in law, all, fall, tall, taught. 

a as in hat, man, fat, ass, slash. 

b as in blab, bold; German, beben; French, barbe. 

d as in dread, did; German, das, diirfen; French, de, darder. 

dsli as in judge, julep, George, dudgeon. 

e as in then, swell, met; German, schwebt; French, belle, selle. 

6 as in last syllable of preacher, butler, tippler; German, Biicher; 

French, le, je, me. 
e as in they, fade, jade, shade; German, stehlen; French, chaire, 

g as in gig, gull; German, gross; French, gros, grand, orgueil. 

g lingual guttural produced by bending the tip of the tongue back- 

ward, resting it against the palate, and when in this positicm 

trying to pronounce g in gag, gamble, again. 
h as in hag, haul, hoot; German, haben, Hals. Written sometimes 'h 

in the midst of words, 
i as in marine; Gem\an, richten; French, ici, patrie. 

i longer sound of i, as in bee, glee, reef; German, spiegeln, Stiefel 

i as in still, rim, ivhim, split; German, finster, schlimm, Wille; when 

long, it is i in German ihn, schielen. 
y as in year, yolk; German, Jahr; French, yeux; not used as a vowel. 

k as in Icick, kernel; German, Kamm, Kork; French, soc, coque, quand; 

Spanish, quedar, quizd. 


k lingual guttural produced like g by Ijending the tip of the tongue 

backward, holding it against the palate, and then trying to 
pronounce k, c, in kindness, killing, cool, craft. The tongue must 
be placed more firmly against the fore portion of the palate than 
in the g, in order to allow less breath to escape. 

X the aspirate guttural in lachen, iracJden, Bachen, Sadie, as pro- 

nounced in Southern Germany; not occurring in English, 
French, or Italian; Spanish, mujer, dejar ; Scotch, loch. It has 
nothing in common with the English x. 

1 as in lull, loon, lot; German, Lilie; French, lance. 

m as in madam, mill, mimic, mum; German, Memme. 

mb as in ramble, gamble, nimble. 

mp as in imp, sample, thumping. 

n as in nun, net, noose; German, nein; French, nuire. 

nd as in under, quandary ; German, Stunde; French, lande, offrande. 

ng as in ring, hang, singing ; German, singen, hangen. 

nk as 'va. prank, rink, spunk; German, Schwank; French, cinquante. 

nk the lingual guttural k nasalized. 

nx the aspirate guttural x nasalized. 

nt as in ant, internal; German, Tinte, Flinte; French, erainte. 

o short and clear, as in oracle, proxy; German, Molken, rollen; 

French, monter, sotte; Spanish, oso. 

o longer sound of o, as in note, rope, coast, close; German, Floh, 

Boot, roth; French, sauter. 

6 as in bird, burn, surd; German, Mode, Bomer; French, deuil, 


p as in pipe, papa; German, Puppe; French, pied. 

s as in sad, sale, soul, smell; German, Seele, Sichel; French, sauce, 


sh as in shaft, shingle; German, Schale, schon; French, chercher. 

t as in trot, tell, tiptop; German, Tafel; French, tour. 

tch as in church, chaff, choke; German, hatscheln; Italian, cicer&ne- 
Spanish, chaparral, chicha. 

u as in smooth, truth; German, Fuss; French, loup, poutre, otitrage. 


u longer .soniid of u, as in crude, flume, fool; (iorman, Stulil, liiihr, 

Blume; French, lourd, sourd. 
u as in full, 2Jull; German, Flucht, Kluft, Russland; Italian, lungo. 

ii not in English ; German, Iciihl, Gefuhl; French, lune, puce. 

V as in valve, veer, vestige ; German, Wolke, Wasser, wehen ; French, 

vautour, veut. 
w the u before vowels; water, ivaste, wolf, ivish, ivayward; in German 

it corresponds nearest to short w, not to w ; nearly as French 
ou in oui, ouate. 
% as in zeal, zone, frozen ; German, Hase; French, zele, rose. 

The English x is rendered by gs or ks, the German z by ds or ts, all 
being compound articulations. The two points on a, o, u (a, o, ii,) are not 
signs of diifiresis; they mark softened vowels. 

The pronunciation of the diphthongs may be easily inferred from their 
component vowels; it is as follows: 

as in life, mine, sly, die, dye. 

as in loud, mouse, arouse. 

a combination of e and i resembling the vowel sounds in 

the word greyish, united into a diphthong, 
as in pure, few, union. 
as in loin, groin, alloy. 
as in watch, wash; French, oie, hi, roi. 
as in squid, win, switch. 
All tlie diphthongs being of an adulterine character, they can generally 
be separated into two vowels, and then are hyphenized, as in i-u, o-i, 
d-i, a-u. 


- arrested sound : sk^^hs, spring time; tchu-ka, to swim up stream. 

' apostrophe marking elision of a vowel, of e or any other sound : 

heshudmp'H for heshu4mp6li, to recover one's health. 
hiatus, separating two vowels as belonging to two different 

syllables: p;ila-ash, ^owr; leme-ish, thunder; or two consonants: 

tsiiils-hii'mi, at salmon-time. 





or in 










separates the parts of compound terms : skuks=kia'm, spirit-fish or 

letiferous fish. 
acute ; the only accent used for marking emphasized syllables 
vowel pronounced long : mu'ni, large, great; tchuleks, meat. 
vowel pronounced short, except 6, to which a distinct sound is 

given : yumaltka, to return from berry-harvest. 


(alt. means: "alternates with".) 


alt. g, 6. 


alt. p (rare). 


alt. li, ; e (rare), o, or elided. 


alt. 1 (rare and only dialectic^ 


alt. o. 


alt. t ; d (rare). 


alt. e, e. 


alt. g, nk. 


alt. 0. 


alt. k, ng. 


alt. a (rare); e. 


alt. k. 


alt. p. 


alt. X, K k, "k- 


alt. t ; nd. 


alt. t, nd. 


alt. ds, tch, ts ; sh (rare). 


alt. a. 


alt. a, i ; ai (rare). 

alt. u, a, &. 


alt. e, a, o, i ; or elided. 

alt. u; ua; au. 


alt. 1 (not often) ; e-i, a-i, 



alt. b ; mp (rare). 


alt. k ; % ; seldom h, g, k, 



alt. sh; ss, z (rare). 


alt. k ; % ; g, k (rare). 


alt. s ; tch (rare) ; ss. 


alt. k ; deciduous. 


alt. d ; nt, nd (rare). 


alt. iy, yi ; e. 


alt. dsh, ts, ds; sh. 


alt. iy, yi ; e (not often). 


alt. ; vu. 


alt. i in diphthongs. 


alt. o ; wu ; ua. 


alt.g, z, k; h; g(i''ire)- 


alt. a. 


flit Z, k, g ; g. 


alt. 6, u. 


alt. k, k, g ; g, h (rare). 


alt. u, wu. 


alt. n (rare and only dialectic). 


alt. u in diphthongs etc. 


alt. mp, p (rare). 


alt. vu, u. 


alt. b (rare). 


alt. s (rare). 


The sounds d and t were kept stricth* distinct tVoni the palntnls 
and tch throughout the series of words in which they occur, but words 
containing the sounds m and n were left intermingled with those containing 
n;;; and the nasalized explosives mb, mp, nd, ng, nk, nk, nt, of which tluiy 
form components. 

V occurs only in the combination vu. Words with initial wu- are all 
entered under vu-. 

See remarks on the diphthongs, Texts, page 12. 

Forms included in parenthesis ( — ) are very unfi'equently met with. 

The simple sounds susceptible of gemination are as follows: the 
vowels a, e, i, o, u ; the consonants g, h, k, 1, m, n, p, s, t. 

From the alternating list of sounds and the rules submitted the finding 
of a Klamath word in the Dictionary will not, after a few hours of practice, 
meet with any difficulties. I subjoin a list of instances, which will prove 
useful to beginners, and have italicized the most frequent form of the word 
as the one occupying the first or only place in the list of words. 

Gd-uni can be pronounced kd-uni, ka'-iini, %a'-uni, ga'-uni, and will bo 
found under ke-uni. 

N^illa can be pronounced ki'la, klia, kllla, killa, n/i'ia, and will l)o 
found under kl'la, though in this special instance it is difficult to state wliicli 
is the pronunciation most frequently resorted to. 

The term tamno can be pronounced tdm'nu, damenu, tamenii, and 
will be found under tdmenu. Other instances are : 

hui'dtoks, hu41taks, wdltaks, wdltoks. 

Sa-ad, Sa-at, Sd't, Shtit, Sha't. 

p'la'ntant, pHentant, p'le'ntant, ple'ntant. 

i-amnash, lyamn^sh, ydmnash. 

penodsha, peno'tcha, peno'dsa, pino'dsa, pinu'tcha, pimitsa. 

guka, gukd, k6ka, k6ga, ku'ka 

ud6pka, vut6pka, wud6pka, udupka, vudi'ipka, wutupka. 

sawiga, shawiga, sawika, shawika, tchawi'ga, tcha-uika. 

uydsh, u-iesh, wiesh. 

temdshka, t'mc'ska, imeshka, temdsga, t'mdshga. 

k6kna, ki'ikua, guhua, gu'kua, guha etc. 



tcliaggdya, tchaktiya, tcli;ikai. 

kai'ka, k4-ika, kaya, kaiJia, kaihha. 

kuhiuisligdsha, guhudshJdcJia, g-uliii;isktsa. 

gu'li, guM, gu'hli 

ntdggal, nclAggal, nddkal, ntdkal. 

ntultchna, ntiinshna, ntiuisna, tunsna, tuldslma etc. 

ggndlla, gendla, geui'ilki, k'liAlla. 









future tense 

























Chin. J. 

Chinook Jargon 


instrumental case 


conditional mode 


Klamath Lake or 



northern dialect 



. lit. 





local, referring to a 







locative case 


derivation, derived 







distributive form 


Modoc or southern 






nom. pr. 

proper noun 

e. g. 

for example 


objective case 


et cetera 


oblique case or cases 


enclitic form 


onomatopoetic term 






exhortative mode 


passive signification 





poriplinistic form 












present tense or pre- 

sential form 


preterit form 


proclitic form 



q. V. 

quod vide; (reference 

to another term) 


reduplicated form 




and the lino follow- 



and the lines follow- 



sribjective case 





V. act. 

active verb 

V. impers. 

impersonal verb 

V. iutr. 

intransitive verb 

V. med. 

medial verb 

V. recipr. 

i-eciprocal verb 

V. refl. 

reflective verb 

V. trans. 

transitive verb. 



A, when beginning a word, is usually pronoiuiced clear, as iu barge, large ; 
it alternates at times, when in the middle of or at the end of words, with a, 
e and other vowels. This vowel is a component of many radical syllables, 
as observed in pdha, tamenu, taktakli, and when serving as a prefix is in- 
dicative of one long-shaped article; cf. adshdga, atchfga, dtpa; before a 
nasalized consonant in dmda, 4nku. 

a the enclitic particle of the declarative mode of the Klamath verb ; it is 
appended to every verbal base not ending in another vowel or in -1, -n, as 
ktclna to sleep; latcha to build a house. It then becomes frequently em- 
phasized, especially in such verbs as indicate locomotion, removal, travel 
etc.: giika, guka to climb up; mddsha, medshA to emigrate; nuta, nuta to 
set on fire, 89, 2. A occurs also often as a separate word, more fi-equently 
so in the Kl. than in the Mod. dialect, and then is usually placed before 
the verb : Titak a Idtcha TitaJc is building a house. It is not easily trans- 
latable in English, but indicates very frequently custom or habit, as will 
be seen by the following instances: Spu'klish a sha shu'ta kud-utch they 
construct sweat-lodges from willows, 82, 2 ; tatataks a hlshuaksli tchimena 
whenever a husband became a widower, 82, 4; tia'muk a hii'ntsna hungry I 
fly around, 177; 21; pa'p an a nu sha'shatk; nu a gatpa pa'p I am called 
the marten; I, the marten, am coming, 177; 10. Cf 82, 6, 8. 12.; 84, 1.; 
87, 4. 10.; 88, 4. In historic narrative a is almost as frequent; cf 22, 
19. 24, 21. 29, 21. 64, 9. 68, 4. 70, 9. 120, 11. 140, 2. 5. 6. 11 (an for 
a nu); 141, 3. 5. When coalescing with other words than verbs, it often 
changes into a or g : dtgnen for at a nen, 23, 5. ; tdnkte nat for tdnkt a 
nat; tdtatgnat for tat at a nat, 24, 19.; Atgnish, 4t6ni, 90, 12. 13. and 
Note to 138, 6. 7.; or it becomes emphasized: tata for tat ;'i, tat hd (this 
is also interrogative) ; tatdtuk ; aka, akti, for ak a, ak ha, ak ha; unA for 
una A; tidshd, 189; 5. 


a? k1 ha? ha? Interrogative particle, often encHtic, inserted into ques- 
tions, and mostly appended to them as the concluding word or standing 
after the first word. Being a particle of actuality, it refers to the present 
tense. Shan;i-iil' i ampo a? or simply: ampii a? do you ivant wafer? v.t 
ha pitclia loloks? is the fire outf Mod ; Ple'nkamkshi A1 at FranUs house? 
140, 4; k/i-itak lui i nlsh 161a? do you not believe me? Mod.; at \\k 1 
mulua? are you ready? In tatA, 41, 5., it is combined with the adverb 
tt'ita (t4ta hii?). 

a abbr. from at, now, then, q. v. 22, 2 21, 29, 19. 30, 3. 31, 13. 184; 37. 
It is pronounced long. 

a abbr. from the pronoun at, ye, q. v., as na is abbr. from nad, nat. 

a- ah ah ly a, a refrain frequently heard in shamanic and popular songs. 
Cf. hahi-iya. Occurs also in Iroquois and other Indian songs, and is of 
a lugubrious character. 156; 34. 

fl - a t i , d. of dti, q. v. 

4 dak, .'itak, d. a-ddak salt: a. ita, shewana to put salt on, to salt. Kl. slml, 
shii'l. Only Modoc ; it is the Shasti term s'ltak, Ata%, salt. 

a d s h a g a , d. a-adshaga to play the violin, to fiddle. 

adsliago'tkish, d. a-adshago'tkish violin, fiddle. 

AgAwesh, AkA-ush, (1) nom. pr. of an Indian settlement and camping 
place on Lower Klamath Lake and on Hot Creek, Cal., which runs into 
that lake from the south. (2) nom. pr. of Lower Klamath Lake. The 
name is mentioned by Squire E Steele as Okk6wish in Re})ort of Indian 
Affairs 1864, ]). 121, but it is given there a too wide signification. Cf 

Agency, agens', the agency buildings oi the Klamath Reservation, Lake 
Co., Oregon: 36, 11. 66, 12. 14. Laki pen gdiia agency luldaui ///(• chief 
went again to the agency in winter, 35, 17. 

agenci'ni, adj., pertaining to the agency: agenci'nisli lakiash hasliashuakia 
he spoke to the ^^agency-officer", viz. to the agent, 66, 15. 

a g g 4 - i d s h a , d. a-agga-idsha to go and stick up, to raise on a stick or jJoZe, to 
suspend on a pole. Speaking of more than one object: igga-idsha, 1 1 9, 12. 

aggA- i dsh n a, d. a-agga-idshna to hang up, to suspend while going. 
Speaking of many objects: igga-idshua, 105, 2. 

a? — A Is hi sh. 17 

aggay a, d. a-agg4ya (1) to he hung, fixed, or suspended; to he stuck in at 
some elevated spot: Iddshashtat aggdyank being hung up inside the lodge, 
122, 10. Refers to one long-shaped article; and as v. trans.: to hang up, 
to suspend, as clothing after washing: wdkash pi'l sha ydmtki dggaipksh 
they forgot none except the hone-awl which was sticking (in the upper part of 
wigwam), 120, 22. (2) to hang up provisions, food etc. in sacks upon trees. 
Speaking of many objects: igg^ya, d. i-iggdya. Cf ipma'tsa, kshaggdya, 

aggddsha, d. a-aggddsha (1) v. trans, and intr., to turn around in a cir- 
cular motion, to describe a circle or segment of a circle. (2) subst.: hand oj 
a clock- or watch-dial. Cf kshakldsha, niulgi'dsha. 

a g g 1 d s h a , d. a-aggf dsha to go up while sticking close to ; as weasels do 
when climbing trees, 168; 37. 

aggi'ma, d. a-aggfma (1) to go around, encircle; said of inanimate ob- 
jects. (2) subst : rim encircling kettle or other vase. Cf takima. 

A h a - a s h , pi. tumi a., small species of crows. Onomatop. 

a 1 , a-i. See hai. 

a 1 s h i , d. a-i'shi to secrete, to conceal; to keep secret, to keep as a secret, 122, 20. 

Afshiamtch, " OldAishish", one of the many mythologic names com- 
posed with -amtch, q. v. See also Afshish. 

A i s h i s h , Aisis, nom. pr. of Aishish, in whom some natural powers were 
deified in masculine shape by the Mdklaks. He is reputed to be the son 
of the creator and ruler of the world and mankind, the tricky K'miikamtch: 
94, 8. 9., 95, 20 He has five wives, whose names are given 99, 9. 10. : 
Tiihush, St6kua, Kli'tish, Wa'ks, Tsi'ka ; four of these are the names of 
birds, and three among them of water-fowls. He associates with men 
(niaklaks), gambles with them, 99, 2-8; and rivalizes with them success- 
fully when shooting at the mark, as reported in his "shashapkgldash" or 
myth : 99, 4. 100, 20. To judge of his mythologic character con-ectly, 
it is important to observe that when he kindled his camp-fire the flames 
were purple-blue, while those of Silver Fox, K'miikamtch's companion, 
were yellow, and K'mukamtch's own fire emitted smoke only, 99, 3. 4. 
His father attempts to destroy him by inducing him to climb a pine-tree to 
obtain an eagle's nest : 100, 1 sqq , 94, 8 sqq. Famished and almost dead, 


ho is iiiuilly rescued by two buttei-flies, 95, 13-22., 101, 7-21. K'mii- 
kamtch had seduced one of his wives and attempted to seduce the others; 
Afshish therefore revenges himself on him by causing his son to throw 
his (K'miikamtch's) tobacco-pipe into the fire; the death of K'miikamtch 
was the immediate consequence of this act: 96, 10-18. When K'mii- 
kanitch had returned to Hfe, he attempted to wipe out Alsis and his entire 
family by a general conflagration of the country, 96, 19 — 97, 2. The 
Klamath folklore ascribes personal beauty to this deity. Two Aishish- 
songs were obtained from a Modoc, 193; 10. 11 and Note. Der. aishi. 

afshishtchi (1) beautiful, prettij, handsome, lit. "Afshish-like". This 
epithet is sometimes ironically applied to ugly women. (2) subst.: 
personal beauty. Der. Afshish, -ptchf. 

A i s h = T k a 1 i' k s, nom. pr. of a locality on Upi)er Sprague River, above 
Yaineks, called after a large standing rock. Der. tguliga; Aish is perhaps 
the abbreviated atfnsh (tall). 

ti - i t i , aitlni, Kl. dialectic or d. form for ati, atfni, q. v. 

Aitinsh = L4k = Gftko, nom. pr. fem., Kl. " Long-Haired". 

a i t z 4 m n a , d a-it%4mna, to grow smaller than; said of plants only: pdwash 
a k(idsha ait;t^iii<5nash ko'l the paw ash-root grows to less height than 1m' I; 
148, 7. Der. d-iti, d. of ati. Cf eltakta. 

a y u 1 a 1 6 n a , o-olal6na to dry by the fire, as berries ; 76, 7. Cf. awala. 

a k , ak a, akti, ka. Particle of suppositive and potential signification when 
placed before verbs; to be rendered by perhaps, probably, possibly, 60, 
22. 93, 7. 105, 8. 141, 6., or by the verh I can, lam able to: 105, 8.: wdkak. 
The verb connected with it stands either in the declarative mode: nil ak 
hun shl(^a I can see him; hun ak sha g(i-u k'l^pgi kek^wel^a they have prob- 
ably wasted my red paint, 121, 2 3.; or it stands in the conditional mode: 
pi ak shuint he can sing ; ak a nu k4-i pdwat I cannot swim; kd-i dka nu 
k6kant ko'shtat I cannot climb the pine-tree. 

-ak, -hak are particles appended enclitically to nouns and pronouns. (1) 
appended to substantives or to other nouns used in the capacity of sub- 
stantives, ak means : only, but, merely: slayaksak lii'yaga mere smoke arose 
from (it), 100, 16. Cf. 99,4. ndann&,ntak only for three, 142, 15.; hu'kak 
the same, lit. "none other but he"; na'sh waitak on a single day, 56, 7.; 

aishishtchi — alkgtchik. 19 

hissuaksuk (for hfssuaks ak) the husband only, the husband alone, 83, 1.; 
shanks hak sha pAn they eat it just raw, 148, 21.; t^nkak a few, not many ; 
pdniak nude, undressed; Idpiak two only, 107, 1. (2) appended to substan- 
tives, -ak, -aga, -ka, -ga etc. form dim. nouns: viinak son; mukak babe, 
109, 13; taltsidga little arrow, 107, 14. (3) appended to adjectives, 
ak often forms a degree of comparison, answering to our comparative: 
shkainiak, skalnihak stronger, 112, 2. 5. 8. 13.; muak (for mu'ni ak) 
larger, taller, 109, 13. (4) appended to adjectives and adverbs, it be- 
comes an enhancive particle, "much, very, intensely"; una, early, una'k 
very early, ketchkaniak very small. Suffixed to adverbs, the meaning of 
merely, only predominates: tinak simultaneously, m;'intsag a short while, 
tsussak always, pa'nak once more, wiggdtak at one spot, together, nishtak, 
pslnak in the same night. (5) appended to verbs or at least to their 
verbals, just then, just only: k^lpokslitak as soon as heated, 113, 1.; 
n6kshtak as soon as cooked, stewed, 113, 2. Cf. hak. 

a k d t c h g a, d. a-aktitchga to break; said of long articles only: a. ma'tchash 
to strike matches. Mod. 

Akd-uskni, Agdweshkni, Agaweshni (1) belonging to, native of, coming 
from Hot Creek or Agdwesh, q v. Agaweshni d-ush Little, or Lower 
Klamath Lake. (2) nom. pr of a Klamath Lake man. 

dkua; dnkua, d. a-akua; ankuankua to lay across, to superpose crosswise, 
transversely. Said of logs and other long-shaped objects, when space is 
left between them. Der <4nku. Cf akuash, ksh^t'leka, n4kua. 

d k u a s h , d. a-dkuash accumulation of hard material, agglomeration, heap of 
debris, land- or snow-slide ; k. ktcikuela an avalanche or land-slide rushes 
downwards. Mod. 

aldhia, dlaya, alahi, d. a-dlahia, a-Jilaya, a'lahi to shotv, let see; to point out, 
exhibit; 106, 6. (where kdpka is omitted): a. mish anku I tshow you a tree; 
Alahi-uapk am'sh nu anku I shall shotv you that tree. Der. hiya. 

alketchlk, the dentalium-shell or wampum-bead-shell of the Pacific 
Coast Indians, serving as an ornament and as a currency on the coast 
and in the interior. Name borrowed from the Alikwa tribe on outlet and 
lower reaches of Klamath River, Cal, and called by other Indians: kiip- 
kup, haikwa, by the Mtiklaks: ti'itash, q. v. 


A 1 k u 1 ii' n a , nom. pr. of a Modoc woman; interpreted by ^^Briglil Eyes". 

A 1 ' p a , nom. pr., corrupted from Applegate; 36, 9. 

am, particle expressing potentiality and choice; tchdlzut am i kji'dshikuk 
ye ought to sit down because ye are tired; fi'tch giiitak am nu ge'nt I would 
like to go. Cf Ampka. 

i'l 111 ash, d. A-amash doll. 

iimbutka, iimputka, d. a-Amputka, v. impers. to he thirsty: dmbutka a 
nu'sh, dmbutkan's / am thirsty, I ivant to drink water; partic, ambutko 
(for ambutkdtko) thirsty. Der. ;impu. Cf. la=a-4mbotkisli. 

;imda, Am6ta, pi. tiimi a. tool for digging eatable roots and bulbs, 190; 9. 10. 
It has the shape of a stick 2^' to 3' long, is bent or provided with a 
handle at one end and sharpened at the other. A straight stick charred 
in the fire at one end usually serves the purpose, though recently such tools, 
or "camass-sticks'' have been manufactured of iron and steel. Also called 
meyo'tkish. Der. mda, m^ya. 

a m n a d s h a , d. a-dmnadsha to speak loud or cry on one^s ivay, 121, 17. 

a m n 1 a m n a , d. a-aninlamna to go around speaking, crying, or vociferating 
among the people; to scream, weep or cry while walking in public, 189; 1. 

d m p k a , dmbka little water. Der dmbu. 

dmpka, dmka (1) conj.: or. This particle is used, when a choice is left 
between the things mentioned, and when a strict alternative is put; it 
stands for the Latin vel and aut: ha lo'k shiiika dmka tdslatch if he killed 
a grizzly bear or a cougar, 90, 19. C£ 87, 2. and g^ka. (2) conj.: or else, 
unless, lest: ampkd ak i liishiikat lest you may kill each other. 

Ampka'nini k6ke, nom. pr. of Columbia River. This is only one of 
its names, and is more specially intended for that portion running past 
the Dalles (Amp%a'ni) and the Cascades to its junction with the Willamet 
River, in northwestern Oregon. 

Ampkokni, A. mdklaks, nom. pr. of the Umpqua Indians; early home 
in Umpqua Valley and in the upper portions of Willamet Valley, south 
of Eugene City, Oregon. These Indians belong to the Tinnd race. 

A m p z e' n i , Amp^ani, nom. pr. of the Dalles, a series of swift rapids of the 
Columbia River, between Oregon and Washington Territory. Of the 
Wasco Indians, of the Chinook family, a portion lives there; the locality 

A 1 k u 1 a' n a — d n a . 21 

was a meeting- and market-place for all the aboriginal tribes of Oregon, 
the Columbia River, and the Coast, 93, 3 4. Der. dmpu, -%e'ni. 

Amp/jinkni, nom pr : Wasco Indian; pi., the tribe of Wasco Indians, 
belonging to the Chinook family of Columbia River. A portion of them 
still inhabit their old homes at the Dalles (of Amp^e'ni), while the ma- 
jority have been removed to the Warm Spring Agency on the Lower 
Des Chutes River, Oregon; 93, 1-10. 

d m p t c h i k s h , abbr. -amptch, -amtch, -amts. Same as dmtchiksh, q. v. 

dmpu, dmbu, d. d-ambu water; water of spring, river, lake or sea; drinking 
water. Ambu ish tchlktchi! go and get me some water! d. punua to drink 
water, 123, 2. ; dmbu=tchipko'tkish water-pitcher; .shnekdlpka nu dmbo / am 
boiling water; ampuam Idk, see Idk; dmputat mpetlal6na to float down on 
the water'' s surface ; ko-e a vudumtchna dmbutat the frog sivims (or lives) in 
the water; dmputala kaydhia to drive off from the water, 42, 20. (explained 
under kaiha) ; nu gena amputka I went through the water (on my errand), 
174; 9. 

d m p u a 1 a , d. a-dmpuala (I) to be in the water; to lie in deep water. (2) to 
increase, rise; said of water and liquids only. 

d m t c h , d. d- amtch, abbr. from dmtchiksh, q. v. 

dmtchiksh, abbr. dmtch, -amtch, d. d-amtchiksh, abbr. d-amtch. (1) 
belonging to the past, old, ancient, primeval, by-gone: a. kafla the country for- 
merly inhabited; dmtch tchi'shtat ga'mpgle he returned to his former home, 
36, 5. Appended, usually in the abbreviated form -amtch, to all mythic 
beings mentioned in Klamath Lake and Modoc folklore: K'mukdm- 
tchiksh, or K'mukamtch " /7«e Old Man of the Ancients", Aishiamtch 
'■'Old Aishish", Lukamtch or Shdshapamtch ''Old She-Grizzly" , Tch^- 
wamtch " Old Antelope", Skt^lamtch and a host of others. (2) old fashioned, 
out of use now; worn out; used up, good for nothing: dmptchiksh kalliu=sku- 
tash worn out rabbit-skin garment, 126, 12. and Note; shdplamtch old seed- 
paddle. (3) ugly, unseemly, hideous, unattractive; unsightly through age: 
tchilluyamtch old bachelor; shiwamptch old maid, 185; 40. Occurs also 
in some personal names: Kiliiamtch '^Fighting Bully", Klukamtch, "Old 
Conjurer" etc.; -amtch is here applied contemptuously. Der. dmtch, glsh. 

d n a , d. d-ana to carry away, to take off with or without permission, as food, 
provisions etc.; to help oneself to. Cf (ina. 


d n i g a , Anika to order or advise somehody to taJce (proAnsions) away with or 
without permission : 75, 9. nil fwam d. Dibash I told you to go to David for 
herries; dnika shasli jidla-asli Dibash / tell them to go tvhere David has his 
flour; dnshat dnika shash fwam I advise them: '■'ye may go therefor berries" 
75, 8. Causative of dna; of. dnsha. 

diiku, (1. a-dnkii (1) tree, sJiriih : tuitchxsnm L wild cherry-tree ; a'pl'sam d. 
apple-tree. Anku is usually omitted in names of trees and shrubs, the 
possessive case in -am standing instead of a subjective case : killluam ju- 
niper-tree; kpu'kam gooseberry bush. (2) forest, bush, shruhbery, ivoodland: 
dnkuam tchikass, dnkuti tchikass the bird of the forest. (3) tvood; piece of 
tvood. C£ 120, 18. 19. (4) stick, 122, 3. club, block, log, limb of tree, 118, 
11. 120, 4., splinter, 126, 4.: d.=latchash log-house; ttiwa d. they drive a stick 
into the ground 80, 8.; atfni a. a long pole. 

d n k u a , see dkua and ndkua. 

dnkuala, d. a-dnkuala to cut sticks, tree-limbs, trees, 89, 1. Der. dnku. 

dnsha, dutcha, d. d-ansha to start out for taking or carrying away for one- 
self, as provisions, 75, 8. Der. dna ; cf (^na, anulipka. 

a n 1 1 (3 y a. The song-line where this word occurs, 185; 46., is said to mean: 
"you have a large penis". Not Klamath. 

aniilipka, d. a-anulipka to take away without asking for ; to abstract, filch. 
C£ dna, dnsha. 

anullpkuish object formerly abstracted from others. Cf. Note to 121, 3. 

at; apoc. a (pronounced long), at the time being: now, presently, from this 
moment; then, at that period, epoch, time; after. This particle refers to the 
time actually mentioned in the context. (1) noiv, presently, at this time: at 
ga'tak! that all! thaVs the end of it (cf. gdtak)! 89, 7.; at nu k'lewi I quit, 
I have enough of it now; at dtpa, the time is up; at ndpal hasp6pke «02<; 
the egg is hatched. Mod.; at hd i mii'lual are you ready f tii'm at ngii'-isha 
many are wounded already, 22, 9.; dtiink at up, above there now, 100, 9.; 
tchd at wow, presently, 87, 14.; at! Mod dtui! enough! tchitchiks a hu't 
gi! stop that matter now! 96, 15. (2) then, at that time, or epoch. When 
used in this signification, at generally refers to the past, not to the future : 
tdnkt at suddenly, at once, 23, 11.; at mdklaks hemkanktdmpka the In- 
dians then begun to discuss; at ni ho'tsnan at then I ran toivards (them), 

Aniga — ati'. 23 

22, 10.; at vushd E-ukski'shasli then they tvere afraid of the Lal;e Indians, 
28, 12.; fit toks huk Alshish shiiisha hut now Aishish became emaciated, 
95, 13. In historic and other narratives, at serves to introduce new 
events changing the situation, to mark antitheses and contrasts, or to 
quote the words spoken by a new speaker; of. 100, 1-17. 101, 2. 6. 7. 
19-21. (3) afier, afterward, hereupon, finally ; stands either in the incident, 
or in the principal clause (apodosis), or in both: tchiii at hereupon, 23, 4. 
12. 24, 11. 95, 4.; tsiii I'pka ma'nts, at wa'mpele he lay sick for a long time, 
and finally recovered, 101, 21.; k'la'wi at after this they quit, 89, 7. cf. 90, 19.; 
k'lekuish at just after his death, 65, 8. ; at g^tpa at shlo'kla when they had 
arrived, they shot at the mark, 100, 20. When at stands in the incident 
clause, the verb connected with it can usually be rendered by our pluper- 
fect tense : tii' gena M6atuasli k'lawfsham at away went the Pit Biver In- 
dians, after shooting had come to an end, 20, 5 Cf. 74, 6. 7. 95, 4. 122, 14. 
Cf. at a, 4tu, dtui, dtutu. 

a t a just now, just then, presently : at a sha i w6kash hfwi-uapk at this time 
they will transport home the wokash-seed, 74, 14.; dtenen presently, as they 
say, 23, 5.; at a naish hti'ktakag pinu'dsha now '^she" has caught up with 
us, 121, 22. C£ 121, 6. 10. 

at, apoc. a; obj. ma'lash, ma'lsh. Mod. mal; poss. mdlam: you, ye, personal 
pron. of second person plural: at shtlna'shtat gatpdntak! come (ye) to the 
house ! tdt at gdna % where do ye go f kd-i a samtchdtka ye do not under- 
stand, 34, 11.; c£ 20, 14. 15. 118, 10-12. 120, 10-13. In the imperative, 
at is suffixed to the verbal basis: tchdl^at! sit down! from tch^l/a; shla't 
isli! shoot ye at me! from shlfn. I, ik thou often stands instead of at; see 1. 

d t a k , ata%, see ddak. 

(it^rx an just now, as tliey say ; at connected with nen by the declarative 
particle a (6), 23, 5. Cf at a; atgni 138, 6. 7. and Note. 

dti, ati, ati', d. d-ati, d-iti, adj. {\) far, distant, remote: dti kaila m^o a/ar- 
off land, for ati kaflatala, 44, 7. 9. (2) high, tall, large; deep (of rivers, 
water): dti dnku a large tree; tchdlash na'sh p^tch atf the stalk is one 
foot high, 147, 20. (3) long: ati lu'ldam a long winter, 105, 9. Abbr. of 
atini, but differing somewhat in signification from it. 

ati' , dti, d. d-ati, adv. (1) distantly, remotely, afar: ati tchelewa to ripple tJie 


water far and wide, 162; 6.; d-ati kgld-ush ^hu the sand is deep here; 4-ati 
dmpil e-ewa the water (of this pond) is deep; t&' viinsh a. gdna the boat sails 
far Old from the shore; a. liu'iik kaki"hha thet/ missed their aim hy a ivide 
distance, 31, 10; tii'nep pe'tcli a. gint^gatk ^oiw^ into the ground Jive feet 
deep, 87, 8.; tiitaks atifar away, 141, 12.; a. kddsha high it grew, 95, 3. 4.; 
a. Idshna to bring from a long distance, 85, 17. (2) by far, much, a great 
deal: ati' iia'lsh wlni^itko a great deal stronger than we are, 112, 1. 

atlni, d. a-atini, a-itini long, long-stretching, long and tall, high, lofty: a. 
kl-lntch libelhda; a. tu't long tooth, tush; a. dnkn, a long stick, pole; a. 
kshu'n a tall grass, 149, 4.; ati'nsh 14k gitk wearing the hair long, 23, 8. 
90, 6. Cf. dti. 

atikni, d. a-atfkni (1) coming from afar, 87, 10. (2) stranger, foreigner, 
alien. Der. Ati. 

dtpa, d. a-/itpa (1) <o carry away or to fetch for oneself; to go for something, 
to bring or carry home. (2) to take somebody along tvith. (3) to wear, as cloth- 
ing. (4) V. intr., to pass by, to be gone: at Atpa the time is up. Refers usually 
to one long-shaped object; when many of them are spoken of: ftpa, q. v. 

dtii jicst now, presently, at the present moment : kin. hatakt gi now is the time ; 
kin lulalkshe'mi gi it is time to go to bed. Mod. Der. at, hii. 

dtu high up, above, up there, 100, 7.: dtunk at uj) there now, for dtu hunk 
at, 100, 9. Contr. from dti=u (for hu). 

d t u i now, just now, presently Often found in imperative locutions : atui 
g^nat! let us go! dtui i^dtchat! let us eat now! Mod. dtui shla't! or simply 
dtui! shoot off! fire! dtui til, same as dtutu. Mod. for dtiu Kl. 

dtiitii, ad6du presently, just now, already; emphatic form of dtu, dtui: a. 
pji'xtgi the morn is dawning already, 1 82 ; 5 : a. huggidsha now I am getting 
better, 175; 18. 

atchf ga, atchika, d. a-atchiga (1) to twist, to wring out, as cloth. (2) to 
detract, to slander, to misrepresent, to tell lies about. 

A - u s h m e , A-usmi, nom. pr. of A-ushmi, an island situated in Upper Kla- 
math Lake, off" Modoc Point, and about two miles from the east shore, 
142, 11. No other trees grow on it but juniper-trees. K'miikamtch 
created it from a game-stick thrown by him into the lake, as the myth 

. relates. Cf U^^tuash. 

atini — ii'plgsh. 25 

a w A 1 a , awa'la, awo'la, d. a-u-dla to hake or roast provisions by burying 

them about one foot deep in the ground and then burning a pile of wood 

on their top: 74, 9. Cf. ayulal6na. 
aw41Ssh, pi. tiimi a., thigh of a quadruped's hind leg, beef's foot: Msham a. 

quill, feather-quill. Cf. wAkaluish. 
awal6ga, d. a-awaldga little island. Contr. from awaluaga. Der. awaluash. 
Awalokdksaksi, nom. pr. of a camping-place on Williamson River ; 

lit. ^^ Little Island-there". Der. awal6ga. 
Awal6kat, nom. pr. of a locality on Sprague River; lit. "at Little 

dwaluash, d. a-Awaluash island: d,walues sk^na they row over to the 

Island (in Klamath Marsh) 74, 14. 
Awaluash%e'ni, nom. pr. of a camping-place on Klamath Marsh; "at 

the Island"; probably the one mentioned 74, 14, 

• • 

Interchangeable throughout with e; in a few cases with a. For words 
not found here look under E. 

ii' - a 1 % a , d. a-a'-al%a to give names; to read, d. of ^l%a, q. v. 
a k 6 1 a' k 6 1 a to be long and slim, as foxes and some kinds of dogs, 154; 7. 
A m m a' r i , nom. pr. of a Klamath Lake woman called White Cynthia. 

The name is taken from the Shasti language and means, according to 

her own statement, "Neatly-Dressed". 
a' m p 6 1 e , ii'na, iiniya, see ^mpgle, ^na, enia. 
a' -oho, a-6ho, interj.; a war-cry of the MAklaks, shouted alternatingly 

with f-uhu, 194; 8. This war-cry was often heard from the Modocs 

during the lava-bed fights in 1873. 
a - o h 6 a , d. a-ohoh6a to emit the a'-oho-cry, to shout a war-whoop. Some 

Indians call this: "to cry like goats". Cf i-ulnia. 
a - o h o = li' t c h n a , d. a-oho=udtchna, a-oho=huhdtchna to run while hallooing 

a' -oho; to halloo i-uhuhu ivhile running, 23, 15. Der. ii'-oho, hiidshna 
ii'plSsh, a'puls, pi. tumi a., apple: a'puls=hiishuash orchard; ii'p'lsam dnku, 

or: a'p'lsam apple-tree. From the English. 


A' s li 1 i n , noui. pr. of the town of Ashland, Jackson County, Oregon; about 

one hundred miles from Fort Klamath. 
A - u k s i , A'-uks, see K-uksi. 

A - u k s k n i , A-ukshkni. Same as Iil-ukshikni, q. v. 
;i' - u n a to Jill oneself with food. Der. ewa. Of. ewi'si. 
ii-unola to deplete oneself, defecate; to discharge fecal matter 144, 5. 
ii - u s h u 1 1 k a 1 a , v. intr. to turn into a large pond, lake, or sea; to be changed 

into a lake: sti'ya ii'-usheltkal minukash kilfla the pitch was changed into a 

lake all over the earth, 96, 22. Der. c^-usli. 


B, as initial and medial sound, alternates with p, and does not occur at 
the end of words. Words not found here to be looked for under P. 
b a m b a m , (d. babdmbani) drum, Onomatop. teiou; cf Uinta-Uta: timbui= 

mb^mban: "iron-kettle". 
b d h a 1 k a , see pdhalka. 
B a' n t c h o , nom. pr. of a Modoc warrior, who died as a state prisoner at 

the fortress of Alcatraz Island, San Francisco Bay, Cal., in 1875 Cf 

44, 7. lie received the above name, as alleged, by being compared 

with Sancho Panza on account of his exterior, 
b (5 1 a , belat, see pi'la. 
Ben, nom. pr. of a subchief or headman of Klamath Lake Indians settled 

at Ydneks; 58, 5. Abbr. from Benjamin, 
bl, pi. tiuni Iji hee; bl'sam wax heesivax. From the English. 
Bin, nom. pr. of a Modoc man living on Upper Sprague River, 190; 19. 
li 1 a c k Jim, nom. pr. of a Modoc warrior ; he cooperated in the assassi- 
nation of the Peace Commissioners, and was executed on that account 

Oct. 4, 1873; cf 44, G. and Notes to 37, 12. 42, 1. 
Bogus Charley, nom pr. of a young Modoc warrior, 40, 12-22. and 

Note. He is called so because his father lived on Bogus Creek, Cal. 

For some time he was a chief of the Modocs in the Indian Territory, 

where he was exiled with the other Modoc captives. 
B 6 s h t i n , pi. tiimi B. (1) American, inhabitant or citizen of the United 

States of America: B. lakf American agent, Indian agent of the federal gov- 


A'shlin — Dave HJl j. -LIBRARY. | 27 

ernment, 35, 9. 12. 14. 36, 2. 11.; na'sh na'ds B. til'la an American was 
with Its, 19, 7.; 6reginkni B. the American settlers in Oregon, 40, 17., cf. 
36, 18. 21.; B. kiiila the United States, or: the city of Boston; B6shtinash 
tula on the American side, 28, 13. (title); B6shtiiiam=shitko in American 
style, 87, 3. (2) white man or woman; white people, 35, 7.: B. yalank like 
white people, 59, 20.; B6shtiiiash shut61ank after creating the white people, 
103, 3. 5. Term adopted from Chin. J.; the first American traders in 
furs and other articles having come in ships to the Pacific Coast and 
Columbia River from Boston, Mass. 

B o s h t i n A g a ( 1 ) half-American by descent, one of the parents being of the 
white race. (2) nom. pr. masc. Mod., of Boston Charley: "Little Ameri- 
can", 44, 7. 

B6stin Charley Boston Charley, nom. pr. of a Modoc warrior, also 
called Boshtindga, q. v. He participated in the assassination of the Peace 
Commissioners by mortally wounding Dr. Thomas, 42, 10.; and was 
hanged with three of his accomplices on Oct. 3, 1873. Cf. 44, 5-8. 

box box, coffin, 87, 3.: b6xtka i'sha they bury in a coffin, 87, 1. From Eng. 

b u n o' k i s li , puno'kish, d. pupano'kish drink, beverage, potion. Der. bunua. 

biinua, pu'nua, d. bubanua, pupanua (1) to drink: n4nuk b. to drink out; 
tumeni b. to drink often; watch a punua the horse is drinking ; bu'nuapka 
tcha'kele i'wam they will drink the red juice of berries, 75, 7.; hut a 
pu'nuashtka Ambu he wants to drink ivater. (2) to be a drinker. Cf p6po-i. 

b u mi d s li a , d. pupanudsha to go and drink, to start out after drinking: k6pe 
bunu'tchatko ,(/owr/ to drink coffee, 186; 56. 

b I'l n u i s h , d. bubiinuish, pupanuish drinker, drunkard: kdtcha b. tippler. 

h u n u o' t k i s h, d. pupanu5'tkish bottle. Mod. for wdkoksh Kl. 


In the few words in which d is heard as initial sound, it is interchange- 
able with t. It does not occur but exceptionally at the end of Kl. words, 
but when final or medial it also alternates with t. The palatal dsh is not 
found as an initial sound in genuine Kl. words, being replaced there by 
the surd palatal tch. 
Dave Hill, nom. pr. of the subchief nnd interpreter at the Klamath 


agency, 58, 1. His Indian names are Liildatkish, Wawdliksh (from Wa- 
walfgish), Wawaliksh=Skaltatko, q. v. Ddvlsh laki tapltan the chief rank- 
ing just after Dave, 58, 2. In the texts obtained from him lie gave hvely 
sketchings of the feats of war performed by him against the Pit River 
and Snake Indians, pp. 19-31. Cf Introduction, pp. 6, 7. 

Doctor John, the American or "Boston" name of the conjm*er Kdkash, 
tried and imprisoned for manslaughter, q. v. 

Do'tchmal, pi. tumi D., German, German settler; corruption of the 
popular term "Dutchman". Some German settlers near the reservation 
have married Indian women. 

Dshiep, Dshep, nom. pr. masc, Jefferson; from the English. 


This vowel occurs as initial, medial, and final sound of words. Short e 
alternates with o, sometimes with i. Long e (e) originated from, and there- 
fore alternates with, i, e-i, a-i, ai. E and the vowel i represent a prefix in- 
dicative of a plurality of long-shaped objects in words like ^l%a, ^na, ^pka, 

e, e-e, i-4. yes, yea; see I, I-i. 
d d s h a , d. ^-adsha, d-edsha, v. trans., to suck, to extract by suction. Said of 

milk and blood only; object not always added to the verb 
(idshash, d. d-edshash (1) milk: i. piinua to drink milk; cf. nd6pa. (2) fe- 
male breast, mamma, teats, udder: (idsham lawdlash nipple. (3) butter, cheese. 
c h u ; same as dwa, q. v. 
eika, ef^a, d. ^-ika to advance the head; to put the head out: ei%i\ Muash 

the South Wind put his head out of his lodge, 111, 9. 
efkana, aikana, d. e-i'kana (1) to put, stick the head out. (2) to nod, as 

lizards do, 155; 19. and Note, 
e f 1 a k a , d. e-llaka to lay the head down upon, as upon a table, pillow etc. 
eftakta, d. e-ftakta to hide the head under soniethimj. 
e i t a k t n u 1 a , d. e-itaktnula to stick out the head from under, as from a den 

or cavity, 156; 36. Der. eltakta. 
d 1 h u i s h, d. e-dlhuish backbone, vertebral column; back of quadrupeds. Der. 

ilhi, ilfa. 

Doctor John — enfa. 29 

(jlktcha, d. e-^lktcha to leave while going, to leave behind; long-shaped 
articles only, as hair, thread, ropes, poles. 

dl;ja, dlka, i\xa, d. d-al%a, a'-al^a, \-k\%?i {I) to lower, let down, to prostrate, 
to deposit, said of long-shaped articles: nu' hfmpoks e. I am lowering a log; 
ktchal%ishtat, mdhieshtat fl^a he exposed them to the sunheat, he put them in 
the thade, 103, 3. 4.; to lay down, put down on the ground: 161oksgish mi &k\ 
lay down your gun ! 37, 6. 9.; cf. 34, 14.; (kshun) Idpashfl^at! make ye two 
stacks (of this hay)! 75, 13. (2) to deposit in the ground; to keep, preserve 
in caches or other places of safety, as food, provisions, seeds etc., 146, 10. 
148, 10. (3) to bury, to inter, said of dead bodies 87, 11. (4) to give 
name, to call by name, to name, to call — the term shdshash name, to be sup- 
})lied to the verb; 142, 3-12: d-aizi^, a'al%a to give a name to each object, 
142, 1.; to read, lit. "to give a name to each word": see a'-al%a. (5) to state 
the price, to price, to value: turn haf i nen 6. you charge too much for it, viz: 
"you call it too high"; mu i 6., tu'ma 1 4. you sell dear, too dear; kdtcha nii 
6. I sell at low figures, cheap Cf ilzi, ilks, sh(^al;(a. — Except in No. 4 
and 5, Kl. prefers fl%a to ^l%a, a'l^a. 

e' m p 6li , a'mpgle to bring, carry, lead, convey back; to convey home: kfuksas 
a'mpgle tclii'shtal they brought the (dead) conjurer to his wigwam, 69, 3.; 
cf 96, 7. 119, 13. Der ^na, -pelf. 

(i m t c h n a , d. e-dmtchna to carry; said of an infant tied to its board. Der. dna. 

dna, a'na, d. d-ena (1) to carry, bring, transport, mainly used of bulky, 
heavy objects transported by horses: 1 1 1, 1. 2.; ndnuk nat dna! all of us 
help in carrying {w6kash-seed.)\ 75, 2.; nga'-isapksh a'nok nddnna because 
ivc carried (with us) three tvounded men, 24, 7. ; wdtchatka dnank bringing 
(them) out on a horse or on horses, 87, 6. (2) to take along with, remove, 
make go; said of persons: lapksapt wdwauuish and nat hunk we took with 
us the seven women, 31, 6.; cf 31, 15. 134, 12. (3) to carry by mail; Kl. — 
Speaking of many objects: idsha, idshna, q. v, are used, though more 
in Mod. than in Kl. Cf dna, dnsha 

e' n i , d. e'-eni spirit-land, abode of the deceased: d-eni nu witka / blew out 
from me in the abode of the deceased, 174; 11. 

e n i a , d. e-enfa to carry to somebody; to bring or transport in somebody'' s inter- 
est: pdsh anlyuk in order to bring him victuals, 66, 8. Der. ena. 


dpnt, d. c'pat, ii'pat (1) species of tall grass foiiiul in the Khiuiatli lliyli- 
laiids. (2) ornament made of it; portions of its stalk are braided around 
buckskin strings and appended to the dress. 

epka, Ji'pka, d. e'pka to fetch, to bring, to bring along; said of pei-sons and 
objects of long shape. Mish nu ii'pkolatkik (for a'pkolatki gi) I told you 
to bring from there (said of women), 107, 10.; cf ibid. 4. 8. 11.; tsialsh 
kawi tchish t'pkuapk (sa) theg would bring home salmon and lamprey-eels, 
93, 5.; wikansh, atinsli dnku isli dpki! bring me a short, a long stick! Kl. 
for atpa, ftpa Mod. 

(J t e s h u a , dt'shua, d. e-atshua to sneeze. 

e 1 1 e' z i , d- itle'^i. Cf. ksh(^t'leka. 

e t c h m li' n a , d. i-atchmu'na purple salmon, 3-4 feet long, coming up the 
Klamath River into the Lake Region in the latter part of November. 
Shasti term adopted by Modocs; unknown to Klamath Lakes. 

d-ukik broken, rotten canoe or dug-out; wreck of a canoe, leaking canoe: 
e-ukik pi'la (iwank nothing but a leaking, water-filled canoe, 182; 8 Cf 

E - u k s h i , A'-uksi, A'-uks (1) nom pr. loc. of the whole district including 
the eastern shore of Upper Klamath Lake from Nilaks and Modoc Point to 
Kohdshti, a few miles up the Williamson and Sprague rivers, the agency, 
Fort Klamath, and the country up to and along Klamath Marsh. Lit. " w 
the Lake country". A'-uksi na'dsant shiii'lgishtat o)i one and the same reser- 
vation on the Upper Klamath Lake, 68, 9.; E-ukshitala to Upper Klamath 
Lake country, 34, 2. Cf 58, 4. 147, 18. (2) nom. pr. loc. of Klamath 
Marsh, an extensive swampy and marshy tract, with sheets of open 
water, in northern part of the reservation. Williamson River (K6ke) 
takes its origin in it ; the Marsh is visited ainuuiUy by the Lake People 
for gathering w6k;i,sh-seed, berries, and for hunting, and its shores were 
formerly inhabited thi-oughoiit the year. E-uksi (for Ill-uksitala) gcn- 
uapka they will repair to Klamath Marsh, 74, 6.; Avakaptch E. ne'pka 
how Klamath Marsh appears, looks, 192; 4. The Marsh is mentioned 
16, 17. 20, 17. 24, 12. 28, 1., referring to a time when the wigwams of 
the Klamath People were still surrounding it. The name for the Upper 
Klamath Lake country is distinguished by these Indians from that of 

dp at — E-uslitat. 31 

Klamath Marsh by a very slight difference in the pronunciation of 
fi-ukshi, which I was unable to represent. Der. d-ush. 

E-vikshikni, fi-ukskni, El-ushkni, A'-ukskni, A'-ushkni, nom. pr., (1) 
adj., helonging to the Klamath Lake tribe: £. wewanuisli the Lake females, 
28, 1. 80, 1-7.; E. niaklaks, 131, 1. 13. ; E. tenuya-ash a maiden from 
Upper Klamath Lake, 190; 21. (2) subst, the tribal name of the Kla- 
math Lake People in its phonetic variations. It includes only the Mdklak.s 
living on the banks of Williamson River and the shores of Upper Kla- 
math Lake, not those inhabiting Sprague River Valley (P'laikni), nor the 
Modocs (Moatokni) or Snake Indians (Sha't), both of whom are P'laikni 
also. The regular form of the name is E-ukshikni, 13, 1. 2. 79, 1. 103, 3. 
E-ukskni, A'-ukskni, the form most frequently heard among the Klamath 
Lakes, occurs 16, 3. 9. 20, 2. 9. 28, 8. 12. 35, 5-21. 36, 1-3 E-ukskni 
na'd tchi tchia ive Lake Lndians live in this way, 58, 1 . ; A'ukskni is 
found 18, 2.; E-ushkni, 16, 1. 18, 3. Der. fi-ukshi No. 1. 

fi-ukshiwash (1) adj. coming, hailing from Klamath Marsh 190; 13. 
(2) subst., inhabitant of the shores and surroundings of Klamath Marsh. 
Der. E-ukshi No. 2. 

E-ukalkshi, nom pr. of a locality on Wood River, between Fort Kla- 
math and the agency buildings. A myth relates, that the ancient, mor- 
tuary sweat-lodge there was built by K'mukamtch and given by him to 
the Indians at the Lake, 142, 12. 

E-ukalksfni k6ke, nom. pr. of Wood River, a rivulet flowing west of 
Fort Klamath and entering Upper Klamath Lake near Kohiishti, almost at 
the same spot as Crooked River: tiinsna tu'sh iwutit K6hashti shutAndank. 

E-iihdsoltko, nom. pr. masc, Kl. ; the man lives at Yaneks. 

c-ush, d-us, ii'-ush, d. e-e-ush (1) lake, stagnant ivater ; fresh-water lake, 
122, 13. 148, 1. 167; 34.: Agaweshni e. Little Klamath Lake; c-us, mean- 
ing Warner Lake, 2^', 7-9.; e. tchiwd tlie lake is brimful of tmter, 122, 
12.; d-usam 4mbu, e-ushti dnibu the water or waters of the lake; miVni c. 
sea, ocean, 127, 14.; .simply 6-ush in 103, 5. Conjurer's songs, hi which 
lakes are mentioned: 162; 6. 164; 1. 165; 15. 167; 34. 179; 4. (2) E-ush, 
nom. pr. of Upper Klamath Lake; cf. E-ukshi, E-ushtat, 144, 6 10. 

fi-ushtat, (1) nom. pr. of the location of the Old Agency buildings at 


KohdsJdi, northeast corner of Upper Klamath Jjnko, three miles from 
Y/i-nga, 78, 13. (2) "at the Lake", 90, 2. The main settlement of the 
Indians on Lower Williamson River is meant, and fi-ushtat stands for 
E-ukshi No. 1 It may be used for sites on any other lake also, as on 
Tide Lake, Clear Lake etc. 

dwa, fwa, dhua, dhu, d. e-dwa, e-dhu, (1) v. intr , to be contained wifJiin, to 
Jill, to Jill up: dwank full of water, 182; 8 (2) v. intr. to he stagnant; to he 
deep: uyuga hdtokt dwa it is not deep here; A-ati si'ipgn kehi-ush dliiia 
the sand lies deep ; kd-i A-ati kgM-ush dhu the sand is not deep. (3) v. intr., 
to he frozen, ice-covered: k6ke a dwa the river is frozen over. Cf we'n. (4) 
V. impers., to he satiated, replenished, satisfied: &(\. an tu'm pAn ewa nish, punua 
ewa nish I have eaten, drunken enough; Atgnish ewd shui'sh I' had songs 
enough, I am tired of songs, 90, 12. Cf ii'-una. (5) v. trans., to place, put 
upon, empty upon (mainly in use with collective nouns): tchipasli dwa 
palatka they put the (ground-up) tchipash-secd upon a matted dish, 14!), 9. 

d w a g a , d. e-dwaga pond, spring of water, lagoon, small lake or hody oftvater, 
82, 10. Dim. d-ush. 

e w 1 s i , a-ui'sht, d. e-ewisi to digest. Cf ii'-una, a-un61a. 


Words with initial guttural not found under G to be sought under K 
or K. On initial gutturals reiDresenting abbreviated prefixes, cf introduc- 
tory words to letter K. Some verbs in ga-, ge- are used only when more 
than one subject or object is spoken of 
ga, gd; gil-ag; see ka; gdhak. 
gd-asht, gd-ash, kA-asht thus, so, in this manner, 103, 12.; gd-ash, 103, 

y.; g. hdmkanka thus lie said; so she said. Cf n4-asht. 
g d d a k t i s h , d. gaggddaktish quilt for beds or wagons, 
gdhak, ga-ag, kd-ag long time hence; many years ago (indicates a more 

remote past than nia'ntch in Kl.), 65, 11.; gd-ag, 94, 1.: shiiilka na'lsh 

kd-ag he brought m together long ago, 28, 13. Der. kad, hak. 
g d h i p a, gd-ipa, d. gaggl'pa to catch air with a grunt after weeping or crying, 
g a i k d n k a , d. gaigaikdnka to go around sobbing, whining, 1 i)0 ; 18 Cf gdhlpa. 
gafkanka, d. gaggikanka,' 182; 11. See kd-ikanka. 

dwa — gaki'ma. 33 

g Ay aha, kAya-a, d. gaggidha, v. intr., (1) to rttn away from. (2) io hide, 
to conceal, secrete oneself: gayd-a na'ts (for ndlash) they hid themselves on 
seeing us, 31, 11.; nAnka gaggidha peno'dsasam some secreted themselves 
before the pursuers, 17, 14. Said of many subjects only; cf huyaha, fha. 

g a y ;i - i d s h a , d. gaggid-idsha to pass or advance before, in front of somebody : 
na'ts i^for na'lash) gayd-itsampk shu'ldshash huk the soldiers had already 
advanced in front of us, unseen by us, 29, 17. Der. gaydya. 

gay dy a, d. gaggiAya (1) to go in front of, to pass ahead of. (2) to go in 
front scouting or spying; to be on the looJwut. (3) to head off, surround, cut 
off from retreat, as enemies, wild horses etc. 

g a y a t g 6 1 a , d. gaggiatg61a (1) to retire from, to get away from. (2) to lack, 
to miss; to be deprived of 

g a y u e , d. gaggi-iie, v. trans., to scatter about, to diverse. Refers ^to many 
objects only. Cf. skiiyui, ulAyue. 

g 4 k a , gakk, gak4, d. of g^na, q. v. 

gaka-lpka, contr. from gakaydpka ; see gakdya. 

g a k d y a , d. gagakdya to go, to enter into woods, bushes, recesses, marshes, or 
other hiding places : gakdyapguk M6atuash i-o'ta the Pit River men disap- 
peared in the woods and shot (at us), 21, 15.; wdsh padshdySmat gaka3dpkan 
ka'kini^e coy ote went into the manzanita-thicket and disappeared, 128,6. Mod.; 
also contr. into gaka-fpka. — Said of many subjects in Kl. Cf hukdya. 

g a k a y 5' 1 a , gakayu'la, d. gag'kayula to come out from woods, bushes, or 
recesses: dtgnen gakdyoluapka as they say, they will leave now their position 
in the bush, 23, 5. Speaking of one only, hukayo'la. Cf skuyokayo'la. 

gakdtpna, 131, 7., d. of gdtpna, q. v. 

gake'mi, d. gag'ke'mi, v. intr., to make a turn, to turn arownd, to describe a 
turn, or bend: stu' s^a'tigshtant g. gii'kshtantal the road turns to the left. Kl. 

g a k i d m n a , d. gag'kidmna (1 j to approach close to, to go near, to go around. 
(2) to encircle, surround, as an enemy: tsui gdkiamna Idtchas then they sitr- 
rounded (our) lodges, 16, 17.; to form a circle around, 87, 12. Cf 16, 4. 21, 
14. 42, 19. This verb stands without object in 37, 4. Cf. i-ukakidmna. 

g a k i' m a , d. gag'ki'ma, v. intr., to move around, to move in a circle, to en- 
circle: g. sd-atchiik they performed a circular dance around the scalp-pole, 
16, 11. Cf agglma, gake'mi, taklma. 


}^- ;i k t c li u i , d. gagtiktchui to go into cliffs or rocks, ivoods or iiuiccossible 
places: ndnuk hftk Sa't gt'iktsui wali'shtat all tJie Snake Indians retired into 
rock-cliffs, 30, 7. — Said of many subjects only. 

}^- ii k II a , kiikua, d. gag/ikua (1) to cross, to cross over; said of waters, rivers, 
lakes etc. : kokaitat gag;ikua to cross rivers. Mod. ; to cross a brook or river 
on a foot-loff, bridge, or ferry: tat^glampani gaggritk(o) having crossed the 
river half ways, ! 23, 2. (2) to approach, come over, go over towards: Leme-ish 
g^kua shle'dsliuk the Thunders ivent over (to Ske'l's couch) to look (after 
him), 113, 15. 

j^-ak a 1 a , kakala, d gag'kala to ivalk ov go around, to go or inarch in a round, 
circular line: kafla nu gakdla I run in circles over the ground, 174; 10. 

gaki'dsha, d. gaggagi'dsha; same as kaki'dsha, q v. 

galfila, d. gaggelala to go around in the camp, settlement. 

g a 1 a 1 i n a, d. gakalalfna to walk around the water's edge, to follow the shore- 
line: ku'tagsh stu'kapksh galalin6ta tvhile (the Crane) walked around the 
waters gigging minnow-fish, 122, 6. 

gj'ilampaga, d. gakalampaga to follow in a file, to form a file in marching 
behind: tapi' g. to follow in a file after, 85, 5. 

galdsh^wia, d. gaggaldshawia to come close to, to approach in a friendly 
or hostile intention: la' nat wAk galdsawiA-a! we do not know in which man- 
ner to approach! 22, 2.; wikatant galtchawiank ivhen approaching close to, 
121, 3.; cf. galdsha-uyank, 131, 8. Der. galdshui. 

gAldshui, d. gaggaldshui (1) to approach, to meet, to come close to some- 
body in a, {riendly or hostile intention, 139, 10.: tapi'tankni g. Tchikash 
from behind he approached Tchika, 96, 2.; Shashapamtch g, Tchc^wash Old 
Grizzly went to meet Old Antelope, 119, 3.; galdshuyank approaching 96, 6. 
(2) to rejoin, unite to somebody: Alshishash hun g. unite yourself to Aishish, 
193; 11.; hu'nkesh hai nu galdshui-uapka JmWaitoc/i, unite myself to him. 

gam a, ka'ma, d. gagga'ma to grind, to crush, to pound, to mash fine; said of 
seeds, dried fish etc.: 147, 16. 148, 10 

g 4 m a = p a 1 }i - a s h flour-mill, grist-mill; lit. "grind-flour". 

g tl m 6 n i , d. gag/im'ni (1) to wind around; to dodge (a missile). (2) to climb 
up by going around (a tree, log, mountain etc.). 

g;'imkish, gil'mkish, d gagamkish wortor, made of stone or any other 

gAktchui — ga't. 35 

material: skfitka gAma ga'mkishtat Ihey potind in a mortar hy means of a 

pestle, 147, ".6. Der. gdma. 
gamnl'kish, d. gaggamnikish stairs, staircase, flight of stairs: i' hunk 

bubdnuish yilokudla gamniglshtat yotc kicked that drunkard down stairs. 

Der. gameni. 
gamo'tkish, d. gaggamo'tkish grinding, crushing ox mashing apparatus, 

mill; grist-mill, coffee-mill etc. Der gama. 
g4nkanka, d gagtvnkanka to hunt game, 107, 6.: vu'n g. (or vunaldsha) 

to hunt elks; pa^o'les, tcha'-u g. to hunt the mule-deer, antelope, 74, lo. 
gankdnkish, d. gagankankisli hunter, huntsman: nAnka gakankankish 

shi'shala some of the hunters became sick, 128, 7. 
gAnkanktka, d. gagankanktka to return from the chase; to come home from 

game-hunting, 111, 21. 
gankAnktcha, d gaggankAnktcha to hunt while going about, to he on a 

hunting trip, 144, 7. 
gdnodsha, d. gagganodsha to go hunting on the ivater, lake etc. ; to he on 

a duck- or geese-hunt. 
g a n t a , d gaganta to approach on the shj, to slip up to, to sneak or move sloivly 

towards; said of men and animals, 110, 8. 12. 
g a n t a = p A p a 1 i s h , d gagunta=papalisli sneak-thief. 

gantf la, gandlia, d. gagandi'la to creep up to; to observe secretly, 185; 40. 
ga-6l6ka; see ga-ul/a 

g a p n e a g a , d. gagapneaga young louse, young headlouse. Cf. kiitash. 
gapt6ga, d gagaptoga to join, rejoin, 37, 18. Cf. kAptcba. 
g A p t c h a , gAptcbe ; see kuj^tcha. 
g A p u , gApo, gapu'tko etc. ; see kApo etc. 

gashAktchna, gasAktsina, d. gakshAktchna (1) to follow, to march be- 
hind; used, for instance, of mourners following a corpse to the burying- 

ground, 87, 7. 17. (2) to piursue; to follow or hunt in pursuit, 28, 7. 
g A s h t i s h doorflap; door. Shorter form of kaishtish, q. v. 
ga't, ka't, pi. tumi g sage-brush: Artemisia tridentata, a shrub of spongy 

growth attaining a height of 3—6 feet and covering extensive arid regions 

in Western North America The plant furnishes an excellent fuel and the 

stems are used by Indians as the turning part of the aboriginal fire-drill. 


gatdml'xa, d. gagt&mVxsi to go, travel around, 154; 15. 

g a t i' t a n a , d. gakati'tana, gaggatltana to walk around a house, lodge or other 
structure on its outside. Cf. luy^na. 

g ii t k a , gAt^a, d g;lkt;^a to reach, attain, arrive, come to. 

<j; a t k a p s h a , d. gagdtkapsha to reach while walking or traveling in the dis- 
tance, or unseen hy others: gdt%apshank k6k6tat reaching the river's hank, 
122, 18. 20. Contr. from gdtkapktcha; same suffix as in gi^luipktcha. 

gatkta, d. gaggdtkta to enter, go into, invade: pakshtat g. to enter into 
a canon or deep valley; gu'shuash k6-idshi shku'ksh g. wicked spirits, 
^'devils", went into the hogs, 128, 1. 

g ;i t p a , d. gagdtpa to arrive; to come, go, proceed towards; refers to arrivals 
not seen by the one speaking or to movements of distant animate beings: 
g. tumi' mdklaks many Indians arrived (in our country), 16, 16. 28, 12.; 
nat sash g. we reached them, 29, 20.; shuldshdmkshi g. he came to the camp, 
40, 13.; cf 109, 8. 122, 16.; g. mdklaks htakll'sh men arrive clad in armor, 
88, 7 ; g. ktu'tpnuk pa'sh he came to bring him food, 66, 7.; hu'dshatoks 
atikni g., wdtchatka g. but those who come from a distance, come there on 
horseback, 87, 10.; nu a g. pa'p I the marten am coming, 177; 10.; at gdt- 
pisht villd afier her arrival they asked her, 41, 1.; g^tpa mfi'ns (or: mu'n) 
comes out a large object, 68, 5. Cf. 28, 3. 29, 3. 127, 10. Cf g(^pka. 

gatpamna, d. gagdtpamna to come around; to come near, 128, 6.; to arrive 
in the vicinity of, to come to the lodge, lodges or camp: gdtpamnan nanuk 
ktchlnksh papdlla they came to the (Modoc) camp and stole all their rails, 
35, 15.; gdtpamnan kiiilatat arriving on the ground, 85, 2.; Ydmatkni gat- 
pam'n6ka on account of the arrival of the Northerners in our land, 192; 1.; 
tud gatpamn6kaybr what object he had come where they were, 34, 1. 

g4tpamp6li, d. gagdtpanipgli to return to one^s own home, to come back 
home; used in the sense of gdtpna, sometimes with the addition of tchl'sh- 
tat 'Ho the lodge", 95, 9. 100, 11.: sa g Idtsastat they returned to their wig- 
wams, 101, 1., but much more frequently without these locatives: lupi' 
g. to be the first in returning home, 20, 14.; shushotankishdmgshi gotpdm- 
pglan having returned to the Peace Commissioners (where she d\velt at that 
time), 40, 6.; Kc-utchiamtch g. Old Wolf came home, 112, 15.; gatjjaniijc 
llssa they came home, 101, 8. Cf. 20, 16. 17. 82, 12. 105, 13. 110, 2U. 
Der. gdtpna, -pelf; c£ gdpgapGle, gdmpgle. 

gatdml'^a — ga-u'l^a. 37 

gatpdnkshka, d gagatpdnkska to come near reaching, to arrive almost up 
to: gatpdnkshkshi (for gatp4nkshkash=i) hH'nk wdts after he had almost 
reached the horse, 30, 5. Der. gdtpna, -kshka. 

gatpaniila d. gatgatp'niila to come and leave again; to arrive and depart, 
105, 14. Der. gdtpna, -u'la. 

gatp6n6ta, d. gagatp'n6ta to arrive, to come near with somebody or some- 
thing: m'na unakam gatp6n6tash having come there with his son, 66, 14. 

g d t p n a , gatpena, d. gagdtp'na to arrive; to come, go, proceed towards; used 
in the same manner as gdtpa, but with the idea of contemporaneous oc- 
currence, one or several acts being performed during or just after the 
arrivals or comings: gdtpanank tch^l^a he arrived and sat down, 96, 12.; 
gAtpnank l't;{a shash when he reached there he took from them, 1 09, 4. ; kd- 
yak tchi'sh gAtpgnunk not having reached his home yet, 131, 6.; tula 
tchlsh huk gdkatpantk those who had arrived in his company, 131, 7.; 
hAtokt gAtpantk going there, 140, 6 Cf QQ, 15. 71, 3. and: hu gatpdmpka 
(met. for gatp'ndpka) he has arrived (far out there). Der. gAtpa. 

gatchesh, d. gdktchesh thicket, shrubbery, woods, underbrush, forest: ga- 
tch^shtka gdna to go through the woods. Cf gdktchui. 

gatch^tko, d. gaktchdtko (1) wooded, overgrown with bushes. (2) tract 
or land overgrown ivith shrubbery, scrubs, scrub-thickets, bushes. 

ga-iila, ga-o'la, d. gaku'la, v. intr., to ascend, to go or move iqnvards. 

ga-iilakpka, d. gaggiilakpka, kak61akpka to ascend, mount repeatedly, to 
climb up by repeated attempts : yainatala kak6Iakpka we again climbed up the 
hill-ridge, 29, 8. Frequentative of ga-ul%a, q v. 

gA-ulapka, d. gaggu'lapka, kak61apka (\) to ascend, mount, climb in the 
distance or unseen by others; as a hill, eminence, roof of house etc. (2) 
g., or ga-ul6pka, v. impers., when referring to tlie course of the sun: it is 
noon, midday, lit: the sun has ascended. Mod. for shew;it;fa Kl. 

ga-ulapgdp6le, d. gaggulapkdpgle (1) to climb up again, or a second 
time; to reclimb. (2) to climb the outside ladder of one's own winter-lodge 
or mud-house, usually without the indirect object luldamaldkshtat, 11^?, 
3. 6. 9 11. 17. Der. ga-uMpka, -pglf. 

ga-ii'l^a, gd-ulgka, d gagga-ul%a to climb up, to ascend, to scale: yafna 
g. to climb an eminence; tu' ati g. we climbed high hills, 30, 7.; ndnuk ga- 


6l6ka all tvent up hill, 29, 21.; ga-uLikiuipk sliki'iyui sliash he sent them 
to ascend in the air, 101, 11. Der. ga-ula. Cf. gc'kuela, kiiiual%a. 

ga-iilo'la, d gaggulo'ki (1) to descend, to go down hill or down stairs; lit. 
to cease to ascend; Kl. and Mod. (■^) when said of the sun or day-time: 
"it is mid-afternoon^^ Mod. for tiiiolohx Kl. Der. ga-iila, -o'la. 

g a - u 1 li' 1 k i s h , d. gaggulu'lkish outside ladder of an Indian tvinter-lodge ; 
the inside ladder being called wAkish: ga-ulu'lkishtala shndtkual thei/ fast- 
ened it to, or against the outside ladder, 120, 19 Der ga-ulc'ila. 

gdwal, gAwala, d. gAkual, gagguala to find, to fall in with, to discover 
accidentally, 24, 13.: shiihankptchak an g ko'sh I have discovered, I found 
hy chance a similar tree 

gawaliii'ga, d. gakualia'ga (1) to hegin coming up (2) to mount, ascend, 
go up hill, 29, 15. 16. — Said of many subjects; cf huwali^a. 

gaw41p6li, d. gaku41peli to find, find out again; to recover, to rediscover, 
110, 21.; partic. : gdwalpalank, 110, 22. 

g (\ w i a hlach bird not specified Its incantation, 163; 10. 

gawlna, d. gakufna, gaggui'na to join, rejoin; to meet again, to meet a 
second time, 23, 12.; to meet for surrendering, 44, 2. and Note to 43, 22. 

g ii' - i s h , Kl. for ng^-ish, q. v. 

gjl'ka, gii'tak, ga'l^alga; see g^ka, getak, g^l;^alka. 

gii'tsa, gii'dsha, ga'dsa; see ki'tcha 

ge, §Q'g, gdgsha; see ke, ke'k, ke'ksha. 

g e ' h 1 a p k a to ascend, mount, stej) upon by using hands; g. watchat to mount on 
horseback hy a grip of the hands; g. shnu'lashtat he helped himself over tJie 
rim of the nest and climbed into it, 95, 5. Der. gelApka. 

ge 'h laptchapka, QQ, 13. See gelaptcha. 

g ^ k a , geka, gii'ka, d. g^kga, ke'kga to go out of, to leave, to set out from the 
place, spot or dwelling habitually occupied: shtiua'sh nil gckisli shana-uli 
I ward to leave the house, Mod. ; sumat g. tcluikele the blood rises to the throat, 
83, 5.; ke'kga mbu'shan ku'mgtat next morning they left the rock-cave, 43, 
3. When g. refers to dwellings, it is used by or in reference to those who 
stay inside: geka ampka, gilli ampka! get out or come in! geka shtina'sh! 
go out of the house! Mod. Cf 82, 9. 113, 21. 

geki'impeli (1) to leave, to go out again: g. pash the food passes through the 
body, is ejected. (2) to return by going through or out, HI, 13. Der. gvkna. 

ga-ulo'la — gelidanka. 39 

gek iin ki sh , d. gegakankisli aperture for going out, outlet, passage-way: 
kittiam g cat-hole. Mod. Der. g^kna. Cf. gutdkuish 

gijkansha, d. gegAkansha to go out of, to have; refers to the leaving of 
one's own dwelling in: 1(15, 2. 112, 3. 10. Der. gekna. 

g (i k a n s h n a , d. gegakanshna to go out or start out of at the time being ; re- 
fers to one's own lodge in: 112, 5. For gekansheml'nk see Note to 112, 9. 

gekna, gji'kna, d. gegakna {\) to set out from; to march, proceed, start from 
the place or spot habitually occupied: giikan a na't! let us march (against 
tliem)! 17, 9.; gekantgi tpii'wa he told him to leave (the lodge), 113, 21.; 
tcha'keli ge'kanuapka the blood will come up (to the throat), 83, 5.; gekud- 
napka met. for gekna-uapka, 17, 9.; geknan, gegAknat stina'sh! get out of 
the house! Mod.; geknat! ye go out! KL, both said by those who remain 
within. (2) to come out of (a place occupied): geknank shlu'lushtat coming 
out of the reed-whistle, 123, 5.; gc'knan henit'%e coming out he said, 37, 5. 

g e k n o' 1 a , d. gegakno'la to set out to a distance, to ivalh or travel far off, 
141, 9 Der. gekna. 

ge'kshta, ke'kshta, adv., on this part or side; correl. ge'kshta gti'k- 

shta on this side on the opposite side, 88, 9. 10.; ge'kshtantala in 

yonder direction. Abbr. from ge'kshtana. Der. ke'k. 

g e k u a n a p k a ; 17, 9. See gekna. 

g e k u e 1 a , gii'kuela, d. gegakuela to descend, go down hill; also: yaina g. 

g e 1 a p k a , d. geklapka {\) to step on, tread upon : g. tchu'kshtat he stepped 
upon the leg, 123, 1. (2) to ascend, mount: g. watchat (or simply gelApka) 
to mount on a horse. (3) to ride on horseback. 

g e 1 a p k a p e 1 e , d geklapkapele (1) to tread upon again. (2) to reascend: 
g. watchat to mount again on horseback. (3) to ride back, to ride homeward: 
nat gii'lapgapele shtilshampeli-Ucipkuk we rode back to report again, 29, 17. 
Der. gelapka, -p6li. 

g e 1 a p t c h a , d. geklaptcha to mount a horse while abroad, on a trip or jour- 
ney: watch hatokt ge'hlaptchapka there he mounted on horseback by a grip 
of hands (-'h-), ivhile unseen by others, 66, 13. and Note. Cf. gelapka. 

gelash, 186; 58.; see kailash. 

gelidanka, d. geglfdanka (y) to meet somebody at the home or stopping 
place of that person. (2) to meet as friends, to bid welcome. Cf. hushtanka. 


geliddnktsa, kglitdnktcha, d. geglfdanktsa (1) to go to meet somebody at 
his or her home. (2) to go to meet in the distance, or away from home: 
ggleddnktsuk Ydmakisas in order to bid welcome to the Warm Spring In- 
dians, 17, 1. This passage refers to a march of about 30 miles made 
by the Klamath Lake Indians to receive their friends. 

g e 1 k d y a , apoc. gdlkai, d. geggalkAya to erect a platform on a scaffold. 

g^l%a, kdl^a, d. gegg&lxa, (I) v. intr, to come doivn, to drop; to fall acci- 
dentally, to happen to fall, 80, 3. : Idlakiak (tiit) takanl'l;^uk g^l^a, hH'nkant 
a na'sh wf-uka kshe'sh when the upper (two teeth) fall right side up, they 
win one game-check on this account, 80, 4. (2) v. impers. it is the habit of, 
it is customary with: M^a a n'sh ii'nak ge'-u pdtkalsh I am in the habit of 
rising early; partic. gdl;^atko tised to, accustomed to. 

g ^ 1 Z a 1 g t , d. geggdl^algi io reach the ground when climbing down, 112, 11.: 
gill^algfpka to have descended a hill in the direction towards somebody, 29, 18. 
Der. g^l;i:a. C£ liipiak. 

g^l^alka, d. gegdl^alka to proceed further after going down hill; to march 
on after a descent. Der. g^l^a. 

g e 1 o' 1 a , d. geklo'la to dismount from horse, wagon, or other conveyance, 20, 
13. 29, 12.: wdtch g. to dismount from horse; nad gelo'la pd-uk we dis- 
mounted for eating, 19, 7.; gelo'lank for gelo'lan gt they dismounted, )9, 10. 

g^luantcha, k^luandsa, d. kekdluandsha to go, march or pass around 
(lakes, rivers, prairies etc.) : nat e-ushtat g^luandsa we marched around a 
lake, 29, 7. 

g e 1 n 1 p k a , d. geklufpka to be at home after having returned; to arrive home. 

g e 1 u i p k d p 6 1 e , d. g^kluipkapgle to have returned home again, 85, 13. 

gdluipktcha, d. gdggaluipktcha to visit, to make a call, to go to see; 111, 
12. ; gdluiptcha is incorrect, though often used. Der. gelulpka. 

g ^ m p 6 1 e , ga'mpgli, d. gegdmpele to return, to come back; to go or come 
home; the generic term for returning, coming home, but mostly referring 
to places distant from the person speaking, 28, 10.: maklakshdmksht 
ga'mp6l6 he returned to the (Modoc) camp, 40, 22.; gji'mpgle Iddsashtat 
he returns to his lodge, 83, 3.; of. 36, 4. 5.; ga'mpgle Sa't the Snake Indians 
returned (to their camp), 28, 6.; g^mpglin retreating, 37, 22.; g. an I come 
back, 176; 7. Der. gdna, -p6li. 

geliddnktsa — g^na. 41 

g d m p k a , d. gegdmpka to go to, to proceed to: tdt' n^ g.? where did she go 
to (after leaving her home)? 105, 4. Contr. from g^napka. 

g^mptchi, g^mtchi, adj., shaped, formed in this mode; like this or these: 
constituted alike, looking alike: g(^mtchi ts^las so looks the stalk, 147, 5.; g(in 
g^ntch (for g^mtcha) in this manner, 95, 20. ; nu a g^mptcha pshe-utfwa- 
shash gl'tki gi: gli'ggamtchishash! I vote, that men he created such, as to 
grow old! 103, 11. 12. Cf 103, 8. and humtchi. Der. g^n, -ptchi. 

gdn, gen, in compounds: gen- and gin-, gin-: pron. dem., this, this here, 
referring to objects- in close proximity, like Latin hoc, hocce. (1) It 
generally applies to inanimate and abstract things, as in: g. kaila the 
country before you, 34, 5.; g. mbu'shant this morning, 140, 6.; g. waitash 
this day, 87, 15.; g^nta (for g^ntat) into this (basket), 95, 18.; g^ntka pdta 
this summer; gdnu this thing right before me. It refers to a dead person in 
64, 2. G^ntala in this direction, over there, 182; 11.; g^n gdntch in this 
manner, 95, 20. (2) Refers to persons and animate beings in a few in- 
stances only: to the person last named in the context, 94, 3. 113, 20. 
114, 2.; g^nu o-61ka this little gray pigeon here, 182; 4.; g^n said of a 
male, 100, 19.; of a female, 107, 9. 

g ^ n , gl'n, end. gen, gin, local adv., here, right here, here before you, at this 
spot here, 121, 15.: y^na nfi gen g(^na here I go, or went down hill; gin 
wawdlkan sitting down here on ground, 34, 13 ; gin at those places, 37, 17.; 
gl (for gin) here, lb, 2.; wak i g^n gitkl what are you doing here? 101, 14.; 
una gl'n, iinagin long ago; g^n ndnuk kdluat all over the sky up there, 96, 
20. Combined with a in gind: gina tchillx'! sit here! Kl.; ginA tchd^e, 
g^pke ! come here and sit close to me (for gin A tch^lzi, gipk' i) ! 

gen a, d. gaka (1) to go away, to depart, to leave, to set out, to travel: tsui g. 
killikankank and he went speeding off, 30, 4.; g. an ati, gdmpgle an I go far 
away, and then return, 176; 7.: g. mi at huki'sh! now your life has departed! 
87, 15. Cf 121, 17. 19. Refers to long travels, 36, 14. 93, 2-10.; cf 
111, 4. 8.: kek6-uya ge'shtka giuga he tried to reach, to enter into, 55, 11.; 
gdmpktch -(for genApkash) who has gone, who tvent, 140, 9. (2) to go, to 
walk, to march, to proceed; generic term for all modes of going and mov- 
ing from place to place: wdtch g. the horse marches, 85, 5.; hu kaf at g. 
he is going now. Mod.; shd-amoks luidaktna gen6ga when some relative 


passes this spot, 85, 15.; ge'ntko kiiilatat wdlldng on the earth, 125, 1.; 
pdpkash w41ta gd-u a gd-ish lumber-boards are rattling while I walk on them, 
178; 7. Cf. 165; 13. 14 and Note to 164; 4.— Speaking of more tlniii 
one subject, gdna has almost entirely superseded the d. form gaka. 

genjila, gendlla, d. geknaK (1) v. intr.: to start off, to set out, to leave: 
klfpa nti gendlla / the mink I am starting (on my errand), 174; 12. (2) 
V. trans.: to approach to, to touch, 184; 36. Der. gt'na. 

g e 11 a, 1 i , g'uAli, d. g'nag'ndli after-birth, placental matter. Der. gcina. 

g ^ n a n a , d. gekn;ina to go uninterruptedly, to travel without stoppage : nat a 
genanuapk! let us travel right along! 75, 1. Der. g^na. 

gdnasha, d. g(iknasha to follow pell-mell, not in file. Cf gdlampaga. 

g d n t c h , 95, 20. ; same as g^mptchi, q. v. 

gd n u for gdn li, gdn hu; see gdn. 

g e n u a 1 a , geno'la, d. geknu'la to be gone, to depart and be away: get geno'la 
that way he has started off, 189; 2.; ge't a genil'la in this direction she has 
left, 105, 4.; k6-idshi wdtch g. a wicked steed has disappeared, 184; 35.; 
genu'l a huk un4 they have gone, they left long ago, 121, 12 ; at genil'la noiv 
he is gone. Der. gdna. — Same word as gfnuala, but differently pronounced. 

gdnuish, genhuish tread, march. In the Incantations, i)p. 164-178, g. 
can often be translated by these terms; but being the verbal preterit of 
gdna, other renderings are also admissible: kii'ltam at huk gennish / tlie 
otter have passed here, 177; 9.; kiimtilagam gc-u genluiish I the black snake 
have started off, 165; 8. Cf. 166; 24. 169; 55. 176; 4. 177; 13. and Note 
to 164; 4.; also, ge-ish, under gena 

g e n u t a to go or walk all the time; to go at the time being. 111, 3. Der. gdna. 

g.cpg^pgle, d. gegapg^pele {\) to come hack, to return; refers to the spot 
where the speaker is or the object just spoken of: tu'kni g. from, there they 
returned (to the place where we sat), 29, 14.; Icwitclita sha gei)giipelish 
they did not want to return, or: they tarried, loitered on their return trip. Cf. 

. 20, 5. (2) to return home, 20, 7. 24, 12. 141, 11. 144, 8.; to withdraw for 
/w»He, 16, 9. Der. gdpka, -pell. Cf gdtpampeli. 

g d p k a , gdpke, d. gegdpka to come to, to proceed towards the one speaking 
or the object just spoken of, 28, 2. 4. 95, 14.: shu'ldshash gepka! soldiers 
are coming! 42, 16.; i lakf gc'pki! chief! come out of your lodge! 37, 4.; 

g e n 4 1 a — g e - u p k a . 43 

g^pk'i! come here! at gtipkat! at gegdpkat! come ye! come ye all! i g^p- 
kuapk lakidmksi you must come to the chief's lodge, 60, 7. ; agency gdpksht 
shasli after they had arrived at the agency (the relator being there), 66, 12.; 
tchekel' a g. the blood comes up (to the throat), 84, 1. 

gdt, ga't, kli't (vowel long) (1) pron., so great, so large; the Latin tantus: 
Tftak ge't hu t'shin Titak has grown so tall, to that size; got pi tchn;i so thick 
or so large is the tvdjpatu-root, 149, 1 2. (2) pron , so much, that much, so many 
as that; the Latin tot, tantum: ga't 1 n's sku'ktanuapk so much you have to 
pay me, 60, 10. (3) adv loc, so far as that; this way out, out there: ge't a 
genu'la through tliere she went away, 105, 4., cf. 189; 2.; ga't out there, 140, 
7. 141, 3.; ga'tant, see g^tant; get^dni at this end (of a log, for instance). 

g (i t a k , gii'tak, adv., just so far, not further than that; most frequently con- 
nected with at: at gii'tak Kl., corresponding to ki'inktak Mod. (1) just this 
thing, 39, 9 : hun g this one only, 97, 1. (2) enough of it, sufficiently: at 
gii'tak no more, noiv it is enough; frequently involving- the idea of snrfeit, 
of tediousness, or of being tired: at g. ni stiyuakta that^s all I knoiv of it, 
17, 18.; at g. tliafs the end, 89, 7.; gii'tak finally, [Q, 12. Cf 62, 6. (3) 
g. and at g. are used as verbs, though not inflected, in the sense of: to quit, 
stop, cease: aXV^iakhe (p,iits, 133, 10.; gii'tak pala-ash ktetegi ! do not cut 
any more bread! tsui nat at gii'tak then we ceased fighting (supply: shen6- 
tanka), 24, 3. Compare herewith: at gii'tak Satas shliia tve found no longer 
any Snake Indians, 31, 12.; at sa gii'tak sakla they became tired of gambling 
and quit it, 101, 2. Der. get, ak. Cf. kel^wi. 

g (i ta n t , gii'tant to the opposite side, to the other side or end of: n.ikosh gii't- 
ant to the other end of the dam (across the river), 132, 4. 

g ^ t k a 1 a , ke'tkal, d. ge'ktkala, ke'ktkal to go out of again, to leave again; to 
vacate, 43, 3. Der. gfea. 

g^tpa; 68, 5. Same as gatpa, q. v. 

g ^ t u i , adv. loc, at some distance out there, over yonder. Cf guni. 

g^-u, k^-u, pron. poss., my, mine: g. hishuaksh, g. lakf my husband, 183; 
19. 20. 21.; g. snAwedsh my tvife; kii'gi g. vu'nsh I have no canoe, 122, 
21.; k^-u tdla belonging to me alone; ge-utala steinash to my hearts content, 
136, 8. Cf 39, 6. 22. 65, 7. 9. 125, 3. 168; 43. and gel^a No. 2. 

ge-upka, ge-upga to arise, ascend, come uj); said of celestial bodies: lalap 


(shdpash) gd-upkatki glug through the apparition of two (moons) at a time, 
105, 2. Der. gdna, hH. 

g^-upka, ga'-upka, d. gekupka (1) to wade in, to tvade through: d-ushtat 
gii'-upkapk they tvaded through the lake, 29, 8.; gd-upgan mfi'ni c-ushtat 
wdngga going into the sea they were drowned, 127, 14. (2) to swim; to cross 
hy swimming Der. gdwa. 

g d w a , (1. g(^kua to go, to jump or leap into the water; said of many subjects: 
kokji'tat gewd sha they leaped into the river, 17, 12. Cf. hliwa. 

gi, gi, cond. gl't, gi't, partic. gfank, gink; gftko, gitk; verbals: gish, glslit, 
gftki, gfng, gfula; d. form not in use. (1) to exist, to stay, remain; corre- 
sponding to the Spanish estar, to be accidentally; 22, 1.: kani gi, kani'g he 
is outside, outdoors; nl ndnukash shla'sh ki I can see into every corner, I can 
see all of them, of it, 22, 17.; tfdsh gi to feel comfortably, to feel at ease, 136, 
6.; ku-i gi to be in bad health; to be sick, unwell; lApik there were two, 
20, 2.; yuteti'impka ktdyat gfpkash they began to fire at them tvhile they 
tvere in the roclcs, 38, 18.; ku'mmgtat gfank staying in a cave or in caves; 
tud ki nil k6ga'? which is the thing I suck outf 155; 17. cf 60, 17. 105, 11. 
153; 4. 155; 21. 159; 58.; hdtokt ni'sh a gishi' tvhen or while I loas there, 
22, 2. 3. ; nd-ul%a pdplishash gi'tki gfug he caused a dam to come into exist- 
ence, 94, 5.; gd-uga, 141, 11. Mod.; see wakaitch; glula, completive form 
of gi: to elapse, to be past: tfna siinde kfulan after more than a week, 44, 3. 
(2) to become, to begin to be: nu gi'tki gi I say that (they) must become, 103, 
8. 9. 12. 13; tsiii klllitk tsula'ks gi-uapk then your body will become vigor- 
ous, 142, 9.; kd-i ni a kiikamtchish gf-uapk I would never become an old 
man, 64, 13.; ku-i gi to become worse, 68, 8. 9.; tidshi' tin gi-n sku'tash 
gftak it will become a good robe for me, 125, 3 (3) the substantive verb 
to be, corresponding to the Spanish ser to be really: kanf hii't gi? who is 
that man? tch^lash pdlpali gi the stalk is white, 148, 3. cf ibid., 5.; a nfl. 
hun gitk gi! thus I say it should be! 139, 8 ; nil tchi'sh a Mo'dokni gl I 
am a Modoc also; myself I «»^ « Modoc, 41, 4. Cf 55, 8. 9. 105, 9. 140, 5. 
167; 29. 35. 36. 168; 40. 45. 169; 53. 57. etc. 185; 44. With the verbals 
and participles of every verb, gi makes up periphrastic conjugational forms: 
ndnuktua nil papl'sh gi I am devouring, or: / can devour all sorts of food, 
158; 53.' Cf 22, 17. 55, 11. 60, 13. 135, 3. 182; 7. (4) to be possessed by. 

gd-upka — glmpka. 45 

to he the property of; takes the owner or proprietor in its poss. case, the 
poss. pron. in its subj. case; gftko is construed with the obj. case of the 
thing possessed: kanam kek i-4mnash gl? whose are these heads? tun^pni 
g^-u wdlwash gi I have five water-springs, 157; 46.; tmdlhak g. possessed 
of a tmelhak-squirrel, 134, 5.; ka-ilalapsh=kitko dressed in leggings, 90, 17 ; 
Mpa weweash g., 118, 2.; to he provided, endowed with: ka-4 kalkAlish 
liilp g. having too rounded eyes, 91, 5.; k6kuapkash lu'lp gipkash having 
swollen eyes, 186; 54.; stiya pil nush gi'pksh having pitch on her hare 
head, 96, 6.; gi'tkiug (for gi'tki giug) when having, 60, 13. Of Note to 
146, 7. 14. (5) to do, to act, to perform: k4-i gi! donH do it! 22, 7.; tfdsh 
gi to act well, to do one^s duty, to do right, 59, 19. 20. 21.; kii-i gl to act 
wickedly, to do evil, wrong, 59, 17. 139, 5.; wAk i g^n gitk? tvhat are you 
doing here? 101, 14.; wdk at nii'sh gi'-uapkf what do you intend to do 
with me? 95, 18.; wdk giug? why? lit. "for doing what?" 184; 26.; hu- 
masht and wAk glsht, w. gi'tk, w. gi, see hiimasht gi, w^k. (6) to say, 
to speak; the spoken words being quoted verbally: nu n4-aslit gi I spoke 
thus; nd-asht gi, na'shtk, na'shtg J, he, they said so; tchfn hdtaktk so there 
I said, 22, 9.; tchl' nl kl' so I said, 22, 8., cf 78, 4. 61, 3-5. and Note; 
kd,-i n4-asht gi! don't say so! epexegesis to the preceding tchi'tchiks, 119, 
15.; hiimasht gl, gink, giug, gisht, see hiimasht gi. 

-gianggin, -gfnggi, -kinki, -kink, suffix forming reflective pronouns, 
when appended to personal pronouns, the syllable -ta- intervening: mu- 
linank itaginggi cutting hay for yourself Occurs also as a suffix in shiii- 
lagien, tidshkidnki, q. v. Der. giank, partic. of gl No. 5. 

gilhua, d. giggdlhua (1) to slope down on two sides, to slant, to he roof- 
shaped, to extend in a ridge. Cf gl'nshka. (2) to form a level top, to he 
fiat-topped: gilhuantko sMnkosh bridge crossing the river; ati ka-4 g. sldn- 
kosh huk this hridge is very long, lit. "quite far that bridge extends in a 
level plane". Cf gl'nshka. 

gilhuapksh, d giggdlhuapksh (1) ridge, roof-shaped body ; pshi'shara g. 
ridge of nose. (2) table land, plateau ; flat, wide mountain-top. Der. gilhua. 

g i 1 % i , d. giggal;(i, v. intr., to pass through, to go out from, to he removed from: 
ka-i gl'l^isht pdsh since the food was not passing off from the bowels, 68, 9. 

gimp k a d. gigg^mpka to he empty: gita g. this place is empty, vacant ; 
nothing is there; same as kd-i a kaitua. 


gi 11 a g-,s li t ill! t , giiiiigslitan, Mod ginag'slita; d. gigganri'gshtant, prep, 
and postp., this side of, on this side. Der. gdn, a, -kshi. 

g i u a' 1 a ; in ginala huliikank, 1 82 ; 5. ; identical with genala No. 2,q. v. 

gi' n at, for gin at, here now, 121, 6. 10. 

gin a tan i , d giggnatani, adj., (1) situated or being on this side of, in front 
of: g. yalna being on this side of the mountain (2) next, nearest, 2>i'oximate, 
vicinal. Der. g^n. 

g i u a t a n t , ginatan, d. giggndtant, prep, and postp., this side of, on this side, 
in front of: gfnatan ko'sh in front of the pine-tree; ge-u wakalak latsas g., 
latsas wakala;^ gunltant my corral lies on this side of the house, the house 
on the other side of the corral. Der. g6n. 

ginhit^na, d. gigganhiena (1) v. intr., to he within, inside, as in a lodge, 
house, 182; 4. (2) prep, and postp., inside, indoor, within. 

g i n h i e n 6 1 a t k o , d. gigganhienolatko being comprised within; staying in- 
side: ka'gi g. there is nothing inside. 

gink, gi'nka, gi'nkak; see kinka, kfnkak. 

gi nka, gi'nka, d. gigganka, giggan%a (1) to be hollow, as a reed; to be 
perforated in its length, to be titbiform : ginkatko perforated as a tuhe. ( 2) 
to pierce, perforate: psi'sh g. to pierce the septum of the nose; ginyjintko 
orifice, opening, of an inkstand or bottle, e. g. 

gink ;i y a t k o , d giggankdyatko clearing in the woods. 

gi n kak i amna, d. gigankakiauina (1) v intr, to encircle in the form of 
a holloiv body, to surround in the shape of a concave body or half globe. (2) 
pre]), and postp , aK aro«»«/, in the liorizontal dimension: kdlo iianuktua 
g. horizon ; lit. "sky encir(;ling everything." 

g 1 n k a k s h , d. giggankaksh intervening space, vacant space between: nc'pani 
giggdnkaksh space between fingers. Der. giiilca 

g 1 11 k a n k a , d giggankanka to bring there, to make come, to take along with; 
said of a plurality of persons, quadrupeds, and other tall or long-shajied 
objects, as poles, fish-lines: watch a luhiagsh tchi'sh ka-i g. hu'lkish they 
■ take no horses or slaves (to tlu^ grave) for immolating them, 88, 4. 

g 1 11 k i a m n i s h , d. gigankianinish midriff, diaphragm. Der. ginkidnina. 

g i 11 ;/ i s h , d. gigg4nxisli ( 1 ) passagv-way of tubular shape, hole pierced 
through. (2) smoke-hole of lodge; aperture on lodge-top. Der. ginka 

g i 11 ;'i g s li t a u t — g i u t f 1 a . 47 

g i n s li a s % a 11 1 k o , d. gigganshasxantko tuhiform, hollow, perforated in its 
length; Mod for ginkatko Kl- 

gi 11 silk a, d. giggdnshka, (1) v. intr., to slope, to slope down, to form de- 
clivity; more frequently used than gilliua; ginshkAtko hillside, mountain 
side. (2) subst, slope, declivity: yainatat g slope of mountain. 

giiis^a, d. giggans^a, (l) v intr., to he hollow, vacant, empty, opened up; 
gi'ta a g. there is empty space here; the place is unoccupied. (2) to he practi- 
cable, passable, to he open for passage. 

gi n .s;{ an tko , d. giggaiis;^antko (1) ix.A]., passable, open for passage. (2) 
subst, passage-tvay, thoroughfare; aperture: t4-uni=g. street of a city or 
to/rii; pslii'sliam g. nostril. 

giiis;^isli, d. giggans^ish street, roadway, thoroughfare in town or city: 
tu'pen ginsxi'slitat there is mud in the street Der. gins%a. 

g i 11 1 , g^nt, end. gint, gent: thereabout, around there: g. tiwisli the waters 
rushing, falling there, 94, 5.; tu'sh gint malasli nu shl^ta? tvhere in the 
world shall I find yef 121, 18. 

gfiitak, conj. almost always postpositive: (1) upon this, thereupon, after- 
wards, hereafter: ma'ntcli g long afterwards, 148, 14.; kako g. after this, 
a hone, 71, 7.; g. k'le'ksht itpon the death of, 87, 1.; c£ 103, 10.; nu'sli g. i 
witchnoka because you love me, lit. "after you have taken a liking to me", 
1 >»3; 16. (2) though, although, in spite of: kla'^atk g. i, although you he dead, 
110, 6 ; tsuti'sh g. ku-i gi she gets worse, though treated hy a conjurer, 68, 8.; 
shkayent g. although he is strong, 112, 3 ; cf. 185; 44 Cf li'tch. 

gintala, kmtala, d. gigdntala, v. intr., to go or stroll around; to circulate, 
186; 52. Cf gatamr;^a. 

g 1 11 1 an a , d. gigantana, v. intr., to stick on the surface of, to he on something, 
as paint, blood, stains, spots etc., 139, 4.: gek a tu4 g something sticks to 
it; gintanatko adhering, adhesive; sticking to, 39, 1. Cf giita. 

gi 11 tdtka, d. giggantatka. v. intr., to be torn, to have a hole or holes; said 
of clothing etc. : gintatkatko steginsh a stocking tvith a hole in it 

g i 11 1 (^ g a , d giggaiitf^ga, v. intr., to have an opening, to open out, to be open: 
niumu'atch g. the ear has a hole, passage ; tu'nep pe'tch ati gintegatk a 
hole sunk to the depth of five feet, ^1, 8. 

gi 11 til a to lie underneath, to lie under or below; fut.: gintiltak they will lie 
under (me), 40, 5. 


gi'ntzi, d. giggAntzi, v. intr. (i) to open out above. (2) to slope doivn, to 

be sloping or precipitous; said of valleys, canons, abysses, precipices: atf, 

wiggd g there is a long, short slope. 
gfnt^isli, d. giggdntxish (I) aperture, opening, as of the ear. (2) abyss, 

precipice, mountain slope or gorge. 
g 1 n 1 1 a n 8 h n a , d. giggdntlanslina to go straight, to run in a straight direction ; 

said of anim. and inan. subjects, sometimes adding tala-ak, straight. 
gfntchzish, d. gigdntch^ish orifice, aperture, opening: pshisham g. nostril. 
g i n u a 1 a , gi'nual, d. gfgganuala to be empty, vacant: gita at g. there is space, 

room here; it is vacant, empty; nothing is in. Same as genuAla, q. v. Cf. 

gins^a, gfmpka. 
g i s h , gfsh, verbal indef. of gi, q. v. 
gi'shala, klshla, d. giggdshlu to handle, to have to do with: vrdk gfshla 1 

liun? what are you doing with this? Kl. ; hishuaks tiima ndnuktuan gisliAltko 

ffl m^an engaged in various kinds of trade or commerce, Mod. 
g i s h 4 p a ; see ksliApa. 
g 1 s h t , gisht, verbal cond of gi, q. v. 
gi'ta, gfta, gitd, abbr git, (1) loc. adv., at this place or spot, here; near by, 

close to: gitd in this district, 58, 1 ; g. Iuish6tpa agency he rode up to the 

agency here, 6fi, 14.: cf. 149, 10.; g. E-ukdk to Fort Klamath near by, 31, 

14.; i gft' here to my lodge, 182; 4.; gitatoks but right here, 147, 10. 18.; 

git ktaiksi where the rocks lie, 142, 3.; git, gitd here, 142, 8-15. 143, 4. 

Cf. 22, 13. 40, 3. 4. (2) temp adv., then, that time. 
g i t dk n i , adj., coming from there, from this place; inhabitant, native of that 

locality, 30, 18. 
gi taks, apoc. from gl ta=kshi at that place, 19, 12. Cf. gfta. 
g i t a 1 a , g^tala, abbr. gftal, g^tal, adv., in that direction, towards that spot, 

thereto; also used as a rel. adv.: whereto: g. this tcay, right ahead, 185; 39.; 

Ics'ma ge'tal ta'ds he did not discover (me) in that direction, 30, 15.; gi'tal a 

sha gutdktcha here they have crawled through, 121, 14. 
g 1' t a t a , adv., right here, just here. 
g i t k o , gitk, parti c. of gi, q. v. 

gi-udshna, d. giggu'dshna to go out, to start off: pfpa g. tJie letter is mailed. 
gluga, giug, gd-uga, the verbal caus. of gt, q. v. 

gi'nt;ti — guhuAshka, 49 

g 1 - 11 1 a , ki-ula, v. intr., to elapse; to he over, to he past; the completive form 
of gi, No. 1 and 3, q. v. 

g i' u 1 % a , gi'ulgka, d. giggfil^a (1) to go out, to come out of; to have. (2) to he 
lorn, 109, 13.; liishu^kga g. tapita tlie second horn hoy ; tapini g. the last 
horn child; tat i g^-ulg^atk? where are you horn? Cf Note to 54, I. 

Gl' wash, Ge'wash, nom. pr. of Crater ^fountain, 20 miles north of Fort 
Klamath; an extinct volcano, height about 8000 feet. 

G i' w a s h fi - u s h , nom. pr. of Crater Lake, a volcanic basin filled with 
water, having an island with a high peak in its sonthwestern part and no 
visible outlet; a short distance west of Crater Mountain. 

g i' w a s h , d. gikwash (i short, s -) hluish-gray squirrel, of the size of tire 
marten: Sciurus Boiiglassii. 177; 14. 180; 1. In this term the g is differ- 
ently pronounced from the g in the word preceding. 

g6-itak, pi. tiimi g., house snake; a reptile with beautiful skin, about 
three feet long. Mod. 

g o y ^ n a , ku^na to walk around within, to go about inside of: pumam nu 
wdsh g. I walk around in the heaver's den, 185; 42. 

g s h - , g s - ; see ksh-, ks-. 

g u , gu ; gui ; see ku, kui. 

gu'ggamtchish, 64, 13. 103, 7. 12., d. of k'miitchish, q. v. 

g u h 4 s h k t c h a, other form for guhuAshktcha, q. v. 

g 11 h i a , kuhia, d. kiik'hia, kukia to have a permanent swelling on a part of 
hody, e. g of the neck-glands. Mostly used in the d. form Der. giihua. 

gu'hll, gu"hli, to enter, come in, go into; to help oneself into ; same as guli, 
gulhi', but implying the use of the hands or extremities of the body 
while entering: gu'hli', 105, 3., refers to entering a winter-lodge. Cf. 
gu'l'hi, 71, 1. and ge'hldpka. 

g u ' h 1 1' p e 1 i , to go into again, to re-enter ; to go into one's own house oi* lodge : 
nil' ak ya huu shkdyent gmtak gu'hli' plit I can certainly enter my lodge, 
although he (who is in it) is quite strong, 112, 3 Cf gu'hli. 

g u h u a , k6hua, gtiha, guh4, d. giik'hua, k6kua, gukua, giik'ha, kuk'hua 
to swell, to swell up, to he in a swollen state: guhAtko swollen; kokuapkash 
lu'lp gitko having swollen eyes, 186; 54.; used as v. impers : guhu4 nish 
I am swollen, 138, 3. Cf giihia, gush. 

g u h u A s h k a , d. guk'huAshka to depart, leave, quit. Der. ku, hua. 


g u h u ;i s li k t c h a , kuluu'isligdslia, tl. guk'Iuuisliktcha to dart off, to net out, 
to (JO travelinfj ; to ivalh away, to leave, quit. Refers to all modes of loco- 
motion, as going on foot, on horseback, on wagons or canoes: 20, 13. 41, 
23. Ill, 12. Hi), 21. 126, 5. 141, 1. 7.; guhashktcha is a defective pronmi- 
ciation of the word: 24, 6. 29, 10. 110, 11. 21. Cf Koliashti. 

g li i ; same as ki'iish, q. v. 

g li i h u a levet, fertile ground. 

g II i k a k a , k6-i%aga, d. guggikaka (1) ^o leave home or cami), as for collect- 
ing -wukash, roots, berries etc., 74, 3. Cf guikaksli (2) to run off, run 
awai] ; to escape, slcedaddle: giiikak ICi'gs a slave ran away, 20, 17.; hatokt 
giiki'kak lu'luags there (some female) captives ran aivay, escaped, 20, 12.; 
hudslia a gni'kakshtka gi these persons arc on the point of runniny off; they 
leant to escape. Der kiii. 

guikaksli, guf/aksh, d. gukikaksh (1) the startiny-out from home for the 
chase, for fishing, collecting roots and berries: gui%aksha'ml at the time of 
tlie general exodus of the tribe in May, June, and July; also gui;^aksliii'- 
migshta, 148, 19. and Note. (2) act of runniny away; escape, ftiyht. 

g u i k a, k t c h a , gui/aktcha, d guggi^dktcha (1) to leave one^s home or camp 
hahituaUy. (2) to start out from home for gathering provisions: at sa ko- 
i;(aktchuapka now they tvill (soon) leave home, 74, 2. Der. guikaka. 

guikinsha, d. guggikinsha to start away from; generally refers to the 
leaving of open places, waters, prairies, clearings etc. and retreating into 
the bu.sli or timber. Der. kui. Cf huikini 

guikidsha, d gukikidsha to cross, to cross over, to j^ass, as an eminence; 
lit. "to cross by making turns" Der. kui 

giii;^i, gui;jin, d guggi'^i, gnggi^m to cross, cross over: (1) to cross a 
■mountain, mountain pass, eminence (2) to arrive at the top of a mountain. 
(3) to cross waters hy swimming, 174; 9., or by wading. Der. kui. 

g u y a n t c h a , guyansa, kuyandsha, d. gukiantclia to go or fy to a great 
distance: pishasli guytintsa nu I the humming-bird I am fyiuy along a moun- 
tain side, 177; 26. Der ki'ii. 

guy {'i s % a t k o , d. kukidspjatko afflicted tvith gonorrhasa. 

gi'ika, gii'ka, koka, d. gii'kaka, giig'ka to climb, to climb up; as on trees, 
ladders etc.,: g. Icapkagatat he climbed up the smcdl pnne-tree, 95, 2. 101, 1.5.; 
koki'sh gc-u during my ascent by climbiny, 101, 16. 

guhii ushk tcha — gu'lutiga. 51 

gukeno' tkisli, d gugakeno'tkish ladder; a movable ladder, not the 
ladder fastened to the Indian winter-houses. Der. gukna. Cf. wakish. 

gii'kna, gu'kena, d. gugakna, kukiikna to climb, to climh up, 100, 8.: 
shataldi'ldamna giikenu'ta wJdle climbing up he persistently looked downwards, 
95, 3.; Alahia kokAntki giug he showed him where to climb up, 100, 6. 

gull, guli, gu'li, gulhi', giilhi, d (irregular) gilhi, kilhi to go into, to pass 
into, to enter: kii'me g. to enter a cave, 30, 8.; nu g. stina'sh, Idtchash I go 
into the house or lodge; g. (without latchash) to go into a lodge, and said of 
more than one person, 84, 1.; g. latchashtat to enter the lodge, 84, 2.; g. to 
enter a house to live in it, 189; 7. ; ya-uksmendmksh g. he went into the phy- 
sician^s house, 66, 16.; nu kaishniila gulhi I open the door and enter; ku'lsh 
kule6tank ivhile the badger enters his den, 185; 43. Cf kilibli. 

g u 1 i' n d s a , d. gukhndsa (1) to go down into, to descend into : tsiii nat g. lapi 
we two went down into the valley or canon, 29, 11. {2) to depart, go away, 
leave: wAtsak wawa a gvilindshisham dogs are whining when they arc left 
behind, 144, 4. 

gulipeli, gulhi'pele, d. gilhipeli to go into again, to re-enter; to enter one^s 
own dwelling: gulhi'pelank re-entering, 112, 13 19 ; nduuk gulhi'bele all 
went in again, 112, 20. Der. gull. 

g 11 1 k a s h , d. guggalkash ; see kul^ash. 

gu'lki, gu'lgi, d. guggdlki to charge, to attack: tsiii g. nad M6atiiashash 
hereupon we attacked the Pit River Indians, 19, 15.; pshi'n g. at night they 
made an attack, 54, 10. Cf 21, 14. 28, 9. 54, 7. Der. guli. Cf tashui. 

gulkmaks, d. guggalkmaks, species of wild flax; stalks 2-3 feet high, 
the fibers of which serve the Indians as thread. 

g u' 1 k s , d. gi'iggalks, species of large broivn-spotted duck; different from kulla. 

g \\ 1 u , kulo, kii'lu, giilo, nku'lu, d. gfi'ggalu, kukalo, ngu'kalu, subst. and 
adj. : female, of the female sex; said of certain animals only: deer, wolf, bear, 
dog, cat etc. and of all the birds: tchikin g. hen-chicken, hen, 133, 5.; kalsam 
kulo the female kdls-bird, 166; 23 ; giilo piishish female cat; wita'm ki'do 
female black bear, 177; 1. Cf laki, ndsilo and their dim. forms. 

g u 1 u a g a , d. giVggaluaga, adj little female ; used of smaller female animals 
only, or of young animals, especially of hen-chickens: shai%i'sh g the 
female of a little forest bird, 163; 16.; wita'm kulualv the young female off- 


spring of the black hear, 177; 1.; kiVkaliuik pu'nuini tut hoth female or lower 
teeth of heaver used in the sku'shash-game, 80, 3. Dim. of gulu, q. v. 

g 11 1 u y a , kiiluya, d. guggfiluya tadpole. Der. k6e. 

G iV m b a t , Guuibatkni, Giimpatuasb ; see Kunibat etc. 

g li 11 , kun; see guni. 

gun i , guni, gun, konf, konii, ko'n, kCxn, (1) pron., the one there, over there; 
the one yonder ; refers to distance rather than to close contiguity: giinitok 
sakta the nail over there; ka-i a hiin konc tashtAnt a! do not touch that! ka-i 
kun pen kiiila no other land besides this, 3i), 6 (2) adv., same as getui; t;iui 
i shiwaksh shliiA g.? did you see the girl out theref 140, 9. Kl.: guni 
kanktak! you there, stop! Mod. Dei', ku, kiii. 

gunigshtant, gunigshta, adv., prep, and postp., on the other side of, on 
opposite side, opposite, 31, 16.: g. sakta the nail on the opposite side; hatakt 
g. opposite that locality, 22, 6. ; K6ke gunigshta on the other side of Lost 
River, 37, IG. ; ^-ush guni'gshta beyond the ocean, 103, 5. Cf giinitana 

g u n i t a n a , giinitan, kunitan, guni'ta, prep, and postp., (1) on the other side 
of, opposite, rehitively to the speaker: giinitan Ampu beyond the water. (2) 
beyond, further than, behind; guni'ta niish beyond you, or beyond your house, 
183; 17.; lupi ndlam s^Haluish guni'ta further than the spot where we had 
fought previously, 21, 12.; gunitan k5'sh behind the pine-tree Cf ginatant 

gii'pal, pi tuini g black substance, 158; l.Q; represents an object sucked 
out of the patient's body, and supposed to have caused his disease. 

gu'pashtish noriJnvest wind 

g u p d 1 i s h , pi. tuini g , huckleberry. Mod. Cf iwam. 

gush (u short), d guggush swelling on body. Contr fr. guhuash. Der. giihua. 

giVshka, d. guggashka to leave, abandon, to part from: ha tchi m's sna- 
wa'dsh gu'skuapk and if yowr wife should run away from you, 60, 14. 16. 

gush II, pi. tumi g (d. guggdshu), swine, hog; Mod.: g. atak itiintko salt 
pork. Cf 127, 13-128, 3. From Chin. J. k6sho, this from French cochon. 

gush u a g a , pi. tumi g. pig, young hog. Dim. gushu. 

gu'shuptchi hoglike, hoggish, resembling hogs, swine: ^\ a kakndgatk g 
he, she is as dirty as a hog. 

gu'ta, d gu'gta, gil'kta {\) to come towards; to go on the outside or surface 
of; to take hold of: g. na'lsh come to us, 139, 2.; shillalsh hu't g. a disease 

g u 1 u y a — g u' t c h a 1 a . 53 

took hold of his body; lit "came on him", 64, 1.; iTroi'xojuaz is iised in 

same sense, Hom. II. I, 50. 388. (2) to stick to, as dirt on cloth, 
gu' tal X a, d. gu'gtalxa, gu'ktalka to go into, pass into, enter: g. hu'k nga'- 

ish t6kstala that bullet entered his body at or near the navel, 23, 19. 
gntdmpka, d. guktdmpka to charge, attack, assail; lit. "to come towards 

from a distance", 37, 21. 38, 17. Cf guild, 
gutedsha, gutii'dsha, d. guktedsha, to start out, as on the war-path; to 

wage war, to march out for warfare: M6atuash;^eni gutii'dsha hii he started 

out to the Pit River country on a raid. 
g u t d g a , kutdga, d guktega to make one's way into, to crawl through ; to enter, 

to slide into; subject of verb anim. and inan.: guta'ga tsula'kshtat it enters 

the body, 73, 5. Cf 121, 16. and kiatega 
g u t e k t c h a , d. gukt^ktcha to enter, go into; to crawl into, to crawl through, 

120, 20. 121, 15. See gitala. 
g u t ^ k u i s h , d guktekuish aperture, orifice, opening, place of exit, issue ; 

hole to crawl through, 121, 15 Der gutega. Cf. gekankish. 
g li' t g a p 6 1 i , gutkApgli, d guggatgapeli to climb back (to the former place) : 

ka'shgug gii'tgapglish being unable to return by climbing, 95, 6. Der. gut^a 
gutila, gudila, d. guktila (1) to descend into, to go down into: kiifla nu g. 

nu I descend into the ground, 154; 5 (2) to go under something, to take 

shelter, to go for shelter. (3) to enter below, to pass underneath : Anku 

sht^-kshtat nu'sh g. I have run a splinter under the finger-nail. 
g u t i 1 a ]} k a p 6 1 i , d. guktilapkapeli to descend while making turns oi- round- 
ing a distant hill, 29, 15. 
gutitgulash, gudftkuls d. guktitgulash belly-ache, 166; 27. 167; 28 

179; 8. 
gii' tkga, d. guggdtkga to be sick with the small-pox; to be afiiicted with the 

measles. Der. giita. 
gii' t% a , gu'tke, d. guggat%a to climb down, to descend, as a ladder: gii't^itko 

one who has climbed doivn, 112, 9 and Note. Der. guka 
gut^aksh, d. guggat^aksh (1) smaW-^oa;, 70, 7 166; 24. 179; 8.: ku'tkaks 

shilala to fall sick tvith the small-pox, 70, 5. (2) any other eruption of the 

skin, as measles etc. Der guta. 
gii'tchala, d kuktchala to bite in the hair or fur ; contr from kuatchala, 

119,5 Cf. ku4tchaka. 



This laiTngejil sound, wlicii initial, can be dropped in niany words begin- 
ning^' in lii-, hi-, hn- and in a few words l)efjinnin<i- in lia-, lio-. Wlien medial, 
-h- is often dropped, wlien standing between two \owels; or it stands there 
to preclude hiatus, as in shanahd'li. When pronounced with emphasis, it be- 
comes geminated, as in kaihlia, kai'ldia to miss. Prefixed or suffixed to the 
radix, -'h- sometimes means tliat an act is perfoi-med with the hands or ex- 
tremities (ha hyhand), cf. ge'hlapka, gu'hli, ])'hn'shka, pu'l'hka, wa'ht/ikia. 
ha, ha, interrogative })article equivalent to a? a ?, i\. v. 
h a, hd, other form of the declarative particle a, q. v., but occurring very 
unfrequently. Ci'. ak lui for aka, tat ha for tata, and ;'iti ha shuishuk (for 
ati a shufsh hu'k) far away arc. these songs, 68, 4. 
hi'i, adv., in one^s lioi/d, iritli the Jiaiid, hi/ Juwd: ha li'iyam'na, nil luyam'na 
I hold it in my haud, J hold it, 154; 14. Also used as pretix and auffix, 
cf. introductory words to letter H; and Note to GG, 13. 
h4dak, h;idakt, hadaktok; see luitak, hAtakt, hataktok. 
hiiggi, hagga, pi. lu'iggat, inteij. serving to call somebody's attention: 
look here! lo! behold! halloo! 22, 12.: lu'igga ta, shle-ek! well! let me see! 
127, 3.; haggat! look here! 120, 2. 4 7. When introducing a verb, h. can 
be rendered by let me, Ictus: hagga shlii'k! let me fire! 22, 19. Cf 127, 2. 
h a h a y f - 1 a ; 157 ; 38. variation of a-ahahiya, q. v. 

h ai , haf, ai, a-i, a-f, a-i; ]\Iod. liai, ai, kai, ;^ai, adverbial particle pointing to 
acts visibly performed before oneself or others, or which everybody can 
take notice of or verify personally; not always translatable, sometimes 
corresponding to our positively, certainly, evidently, of course, as you see, as 
you hear. It is the second word in the sentence. I a-i tawi! eridently 
you have bewitched (lier)! G8, 2.; genta a-i mi'sh hishtclia;i^u'gank placing 
you into this (basket before you), 95, 18.; nu hai hii'kshi! I surrender my- 
self! tu'sli hai at tataksni wawatawa tvhere the children ivcre note sitting in 
the Sim, as she positivel}- thought, 121, 7. cf. ai certainly, 121, 10.; ka-a 
pelak ai heme'^e he speahs too fast, as you hear. Ilai, ai is frequent in the 
incantations, where it points to the supposed travels of the animals sent 
out to discover the patient's disease within, upon, or above the ground 

ha — h a k t c h . 55 

or in the water, cf. pp. 164-171; 1 70-178. W^lwash kal nish paMlla / 
see that the tcater sjjring has become dry to my disadvantage, 173; 4. Mod. 
cf. 174; 9. 193; 10.; Meacham kai hu pipa itpa Meachaw hronr/ht the docu- 
ment itself to use it as an evidence, 34, 6. Mod.; k(k' kai hu amputat w;'i 
the frog lives in the icater, as you can see yourself and as everybody knows; 
Mod.; sheshatuish %ai nu ki I am a trader, merchant; said in reply to in- 
quiry. Mod Cf. haitch, wakai. 

ha it eh, adv., compo.sed of hai, hai and the additive and emphatic -tch, 
-ts, q. v., by which hai is brought in connection with preceding words, 
phrases or sentences: tarn hak haitch i liu'nk shliiatk? did yon perhaps see 
him personally? refers to a man called Frank mentioned just before, 140, 
5.; nu haitch \6\i\.viki\. evidently I ran astray; tu'sh haitch tchii'l^a? ivhere 
did ye see him sit? 105, 14., cf. ibid. 5. Frequently connected with wak: 
wak haitch i gi? how do things look doivn there? 22, 17. Cf hai, wakaitch. 

haitchna, d. hahi'tchna (1) to jiur sue, prosecute ; to hunt, to hunt up, to 
follow up: Mo'dokni watch h. the Modocs went after their (stolen) horses, 
54, 6.; wiwalag h., kueish h. to pursue the young antelopes, to follou- up 
tracks, 122, 17.; said of enemies, 17, 5. 13. 14.; ka-i sa hu'nk haitchant 
liiluags they did not hunt for the (runaway) captives, 20, 12. (2) to search, 
to look out for: ne'gsh malam p'gi'sha haitchnuk in order to look otd for 
your absent mother, 119, 19 

h a k , -hak, (1) other forai of ak, -ak only, but, merely: tu'hak on this side of a 
distant object, lit. "not quite out there", 29, 19. and Xote; wikahak not 
far from there, 24, 15. 125, 6. (2) other form of the potential ak: probably, 
perhaps, 140, 4. (3) shorter form of pron. hilk, hu'k, tliis, this one, this 
here: tchokat ak huk lu'ldam hak they tvould perish in this (in so long a) 
■ winter, 105, 8 {A) other form of the adv. huk: pj'ish hak sh(iwana there 
he handed food, 66, 9.; hak this time, 41, 14. Cf ak, tu'hak. 

h a k s h a k t c h u. i , d hahakshaktchui to carry about oneself; to carry in tlie 
pocket, under the dress, blanket: hakshaktchuitko carrying in his pocket, 
111, 13. Cf kshena, kshe'wa, shitila. 

hakshga y a, d. hahakshgdya to hang oneself, to commit suicide by hanging. 
Der. kshaggdya 

h a k t c h , pai-ticle composed of hak, q. v., and the connective -tch, -ts, q. v. : 
tu'm haktcli shapesh too many moons altogether, 105, 7. 


h a k t c h <i m p t c h i , adj., one who looks or behaves that way, in the same 
manner: 1 haktcli/impesh wdnni tchik61al%a, klftisham wc'asli w. tch. 
strangely you are taking strides just like the young crane, 190; 12. 

hala, d. hahdla to swallow, 190; 13. 21. The form hald-ahas the declara- 
tive particle a added to it. Cf. hM-a. 

hamgkupka, d. hah'mgkupka to speak to, to halloo at a distant person, 122, 
6. Der. hemd^e. 

h A m 6 n i , h4m6ne, d. hahdm'ni (1) to wish, to desire, to want; to express a 
wish or desire: kuatchdgash h. she wanted to bite the fur, 119, 7.; shu'tanksh 
hamgniiiga wishing to come to an imder standing, M, 6.; to prefer, (with 
verbal intentional), 36, 16. (2) to be intent upon, to attempt, to try: lu(^lsh 
h. they tried to kill, 128, 9.; hishtchish hamgniuga trying to save him, 42, 
14. Kl. prefers shanaho'li to h., q. v. 

ham6asha, d. hah'm6asha to call, to shout; to shout at somebody, 121, 5. 
Der. ha'ma. 

h a n d k e r c h I p handkerchief; 87, 14. From the English. 

h A n s h i s h , hdntchish, d. hahdnshish the substance or small-sized object 
which the conjurer feigns to suck out of a patient's body, 68, 7. It is sup- 
posed to have been the material cause of his sickness. Der. hansha. 

h A n s h n a , hdntchna, d. hahdnshna to suck, to suck at; said of the conjurer, 
68, 5.: h. ma'shish he sucks at the patient, 71, 5.; summAtka luintchna to 
suck with the mouth, into the mouth, 68, 6. and Note. Cf (^dsha, hanulpka. 

hantila, d. hahantfla to excavate, to dig a hole or cavity under something: 
hantilatko person who lost the lower range of teeth; shtina'shtat liantilatko 
a cellar. Cf hanulpka, i-utila. 

Hantchatchia-ash, nom. pr. fem. Kl. : " Wide-Mouthed". 

h 4 n t c h i p k a , d. hahantchipka to suck out of, lit. " to suck towards one- 
self", 71, 6. Cf 68, 6. and Note. Der. hdnsha. 

hanulpka, d. hahanulpka (1) to have a gap or hole in a limb; to have an 
open wound or sore. (2) to keep or hold open : shu'm h. to hold the mouth open. 

h A p a , luiba, d. hahApa upper end of a cone; upper part, top of a tree, mount- 
ain, hill etc.: yaii^al huntchua k6sham h4ba p'laitana a white-headed 
eagle flies above the pine-top. 

h A p u s h , d. hahtipush wood-rat, field-rat. Mod. for kmiimutch Kl., q. v. ; 
adopted from the Shasti language. 

haktchAmptchi — hAshpa. 57 

h a s h a m p k a , d. haliashampka to form a ring ; to surround, encircle, form a 
circle around: sht4 E-ukskni li. the Lale men formed a full ring around 
(them), 23, 12. Cf. gaki'ma, s4-atcha. 

h a s h a s h 11 a k i a , d. hah'shashudkia {\) to speak to, to talk, converse with; to 
discuss, 34, 15. 66, 7. 15 16.: li. p'laikisliash to pray to God. (2) when con- 
nected with pipa: to read, periise; lit "to speak to the papei', document, 
letter, book". Cf. a'-al;{a, ^l%a. 

h a s h a s h u a k i d' t k i s h speaking tool, instrument for transmission of speech: 
wAtiti h. electric telegraph. 

h a s h a s h u a k i t d m p k a to commence conversing; to begin negotiations, 38, 12. 

h a s h a t u a y a , d. hah'shatudya (1 ) to assist each other, to afford mutual help. 
(2) to assist, help somehodg. Der. shatudya. 

h a s h 1 u g a , d hahashiuga to teach, instruct, make learn, inform, educate, 
train: iidudamtchnish nu h. hu't wdtchag I taught that dog swimming; 
tpjd-ush, watch ni h. I break a colt, a horse for work. Der shayiiga, 

hashingish, d. hahashfugish teacher, educator, instructor; trainer. 

h a s h i w a k t c h a , d. hahashiwdktcha to start out for the ptirpose of showing 
or informing; to shoiv, exhibit, inform, of: h. nu stu' I come to sliotv you the 
trail or road. Der. hasliluga. 

hashke m 6 1 sh a m , d. hahashkem61sham shrub about 3 to 5 feet in 
height, producing a round, hollow, black, sweet fruit not unlike a small 
cheny; 75, 4.; it is rather scarce in the Klamath Highlands. 

h a s h ;( d m m i s h , d. hahash^ammish (1 ) brushwood inserted in walls to pre- 
vent drafts of air. (2) lodge open at the top. 

h a s h z a m n a s h , d. hahashx^nnnash small lodge or dwelling open at the top; 
Mod. for hash^dmmish No. 2 Kl. 

h a s h 1 d - i ;{ a , d hahashld-i^a to expose to tlie smoke : h tchu'leks to smoke 
meat. Der. shlii'-ika. 

h a s h 1 a n t c h u i p e 1 e d. hahashldntchuipgle to get back, to reobtain, to re- 
ceive the same thing again; said of garments and other articles enveloping 
the body. Cf shldtpampeli. 

hdshpa, d. hahdshpa (I) to feed, give food to children, cattle etc.: h. nu 
hu'nk hishudkga / feed that boy. (2) to hand over, tender the food, with 
double ol>j. case, 113, 3. Der. pdn. 


liashpu/ pel i , d. haliashpa^peli tn ruh oneself dry after hatliwg: nt h. 
pc'niani I rt(h my face dry after washwg Der. spalia, -pelf. 

h a s h p k n k \\ a , d. liahaslipi'mkua to ford a river on horseback Der. pAnkua. 

haslipapka, d. lialutslipapka to hatch, said of eggs: at tchfken niipal h. 
the chicken has hatched the eggs, lit. "the eggs were fed by tlio chicken"; 
haslipap^no'la to come to an end with hatching; to hatch out. 

hashpj^tchka, (for hashtpatchka) d. hahashpatclika to wash another's 
face: kitclikayii'n'sh liashpatski! wash this cMUVsfacc! Der slitajiatchka. 

liashpkish, d. hahdshpkish feed, fodder for animals: \v;itchnin h horse- 
feed; oats Der. hdslipa. 

h a s h p 5' t k i s h , d. hahashpo'tkish (1 ) feed-trough, manger. (2) dish, plate, 
cup. Kl.: h s\\i\^^\ii^\\ assortment for dinner- ox suppier-tahle. Der liashpa 

h ii s h t a k s li , d. liahashtaksli perforationof nose-septum, earlobe. Der. hashtka. 

h a s li t a 1 1 a 1 a , d. haliashtt'dtala {\) to converse, to speak to each other (2) 
to dispute, to discuss, to speak pro and contra, to debate: pa't haslitahal they 
disputed among themselves, 104, 3 (3) to quarrel. Der. shatela 

h a s h t a 1 1 ;'i m p k a , d hahashtaltilmpka (l) to give orders, manage, control 
(2) to own, possess; to be proprietor, to lord it over: hu hun h. stina'sh he otvns 
the house; haslitaltampatko owner of property, houses or land; boss, employer, 
jmneipal in business; Mod. for hashtaltampkatko. Der. shdtela. 

haslitaltelAmpka, d. hahashtalteh'impka to live in contiguous houses, 
lodges; to be neighbors, Ht "to converse at a distance"- Der. liashtaltaha 

li a s Ii t a ni n a , d hahaslitamna (\) to fasten by inserting in perforations. (2) 
to wear on oneself in j)erforafed parts of body: sncwedsli tu'tasli hahaslitani- 
nipksh (for: hahashtamnfpkash) a woman who wore denfalium-shells in her 
ears. 111, 14. Cf luishtka, shtashtanniish 

h a s h t a t c li m a y a , d. hahashtatchniiij^a to fasten or p>in together: j'mkutka 
h. to fasten together with small sticks of wood, 126, 4. 

h a s li t a Av a , d lialiashtiiwa to starve out, to let perish by hunger: hashtAwan 
shit'ika to kill by starvation, 36, 17. Der. st;'iwa. 

Iiashtka, hashtka, d. hahashtxa to perforate the nose, nose-tcall, ear, ear- 
lobe etc Der stuka Cf hashtaksh. 

h a s h t c h A k u a , d haliashtchakua to wash another's hands. Der. sliatchakua. 

h a s h u a - a , d. hahashua-a to sow, to plant; to raise vegetables or cereals. 

h a s h p A % p e 1 i — h ^ t k a k . 59 

hasliii Akisli, cl hahasluidkish garden, garden-hed, vegetable-garden ; Mod.. 
for hdshuasli Kl 

hashudkla, cl. hahashudkla (1) to live together, to stay in company of: li. 
naish lie stayed with us. (2) to live ivith another party, to remove into an- 
other family This is often done by women expecting confinement. 

hdshuash, d. bahashuash (1) vegetahles, litchen-greens. (2) ground used 
for sowing, planting: vegetable-garden, garden, garden-bed; field, farm. Cf 
bashuAkish. Dei- basbua-a. 

b a s b u 4 1 a n a , d. liabasbudtana to look at oneself, 189 ; 5. Cf shuawina. 

b a s s u i s b % i s b hreech-clout of buckskin ; an obsolete portion of the female 
wardrobe somewbat sborter tban tbe bisbtcbisb%asb. C£ sbuitala. 

li A t a k , batok, loc. adv., mostly connected witb verbs of motion in Kl. ( 1 ) 
here, on this place or spot: sbui'sb b. nu gdna nu I the magic song am passing 
here before you, 156; 31.; b. nad \i\-m\?i we tvill play here, 120, 8. (2) 
there, over there, at yonder spot or locality : ]i.=tcbi'tko a settler in that country or 
tract of land, 36, 18.; b.=tcbi'sb, same meaning, 37, 4 16., Mod.; cf tcbi'sb; 
biitoktala towards that spot, 80, 10.; mii'lua g^nuapkiig bataktala he made 
himself ready to proceed there, 96, 11. Der. ba, tak. 

li a t a k t , hatokt there, out there, at that spot, at yonder place ; refers to a lo- 
cality out of sight, and is in Kl. mostly connected with verbs of locomo- 
tion, like ha tak: sakemawank hatokt mu'lua there, as at the rendezvous, 
they prepared for the campaign, 29, 3. ; hatokt gjitpampele he tvent back there, 
95, 9.; kayak an hatokt gatpantk I tvas not going there at cdl, 140, 6.; 
kta-i hadakt nutolaktcba they thretv a stone ichile passing there, 85, 15.; 
Mod., cf 21, 2. 15. 22, 1-4. 131, 1-4.; humasht nat liatokt m;iklt';^ank so 
acted we, when we passed the night there, 21, 7.; hataktk (for biitakt gi) said 
there, 22, 8. 9. 

b a t a k t a n a , bataktna by that place, through that locality : badaktna geno'ga 
ivkde passing or frarelrng by that spot, 85, 15. 

biitakt ok, bataktak rigid- there; tbe locality referred to by this adverb 
is described in 24, 12. 85, 17.: h. tcbia there they remained, 37, 18. Der. 
batak, tak, q. v. 

hdtkak, batkok (for batak ak) right there, just there, on the very spot, 131, 
6.: tiii'mishtka tsiii nanka h. tsiSka then others perished on the spot by hunger, 
17, 15 ; k'nii'ika tgu'tgank batkok lie stood there and looked around, 110, 16. 


li ii', procl. ha, (hd, he) coiij., if, ivhen, supposing that, supposed. The conditional 
clause introduced by hii' usually stands before the principal clause, but the 
inverted position of it is just as correct: hii' nen wa'g'n kii'git, wdtchatka 
sha hu'nk dnank i'lpjtcha tvlien a wagon is not on hand, they place the body 
on a horse and bring it to the grave, 87, 5.; spfilhi-uapkA m's nl, hii' 1 sas 
pdlluapk I shall imprison you if you seduce them, 58, 11. Cf. 110, 3. Hii' 
is sometimes suppressed in the conditional clause, cf 85, IG. 134, 15. The 
principal clause does not generally contain a conj. correlative to hii', cf 
59, 6. 14. 90, 7. 110, 6. 134, 16., but it may be introduced by tchui, 36, 2., 
by -tok, -toks, 134, 15., by at: 90, 19., Mod., or by tchii', which is the 
real correlative corresponding to ha' : hii sliudpkst, tchii ma'lsh ngdtuapk 
nd'hlis if ye will be shot, then to ye will snap the bowstring, 21, 10. Hii' is 
found connected with other particles suffixed to it: hii'tak, hii'tok, hii' toks 
but if, p. 58 sqq.; hii'atoks, 135, 1 ; ha tchui, abbr. hii' tchi, tsi, 60, 10. 
14.; hii' tchish, contr. hii'tch, ha'ts, 60, 10. 21. 

h ii h ii' t a m n a to cry hd, hd repeatedly; to keep on grunting, humming, 105, 6. 

liii'kskish walking-stick: skil'ksam h. spirifs walking-staff, 181; 4. 

li ii' m a , hema, d. hilliii'ma, hehdma to produce or emit sound, noise, voice. (1) 
said of some sounds or noises produced by the forces of nature, of disturb- 
ances of the atmosphere, waters etc.: to roar, to sound, to resound, to murmur. 
(2) said of sounds produced by means of musical instruments. (3) said of 
some modes of utterance of the human voice: to cry, to scream, to shout. 
(4) said of the voice of most of tlie quadrupeds, of birds etc.: to neigh, 
roar, bray, hoivl, mew, bark, bellow, bleat, cry, squeal, squeak; to twitter, ivhistle, 
crow, caw, screech; of noises made by insects: to chirp, hum, buzz: miikash 
h. the owl hoots, 88, 6. 192; 2.; piishish, tohikin h. the cat meivs, the chicken 
crows, 133, 4. 5.; wis^ak h the ivisxak-bird sings, 144, 3. 

hii'mgle, hdmele to shout downwards to : Kii'-udshiamtch h. Skdlamtchish 
Old Gray Wolf shouted down into tlio lodge to Old Weasel, 112, 17. 

liil'mSta, d. hiiham'ta; see hdm'ta 

li il' m e t c h i p k a ; see hdmtclia. 

liilinola, d. hiih'm(')la to resound, to make noise: mbu'shant kiiila h. in the 
morning the Earth resounded, made a rumbling noise, 192; 3. To the In- 
dians tills is a magic song sung by the L^arth. 

b a' — h d m k a n k a . 61 

h a n ii' s i s li long arrow used by conjurers as a magic tool for curing the 
sick, 73, 5.; its incantation: 164; 3. 

liii'nuash, d. halianuasli rocTc standing upright. The Klamath Lake peo- 
ple has a myth about a group of these rocks; incantation, 179; 4. Cf 
yatish and Note to yainalam shuluyualsh, I.'iS; 50 

ha'tak, hil'tok, lia'taks, hii'-atoksh, conj., hut if, hut ivJien; supposing how- 
ever that. Cf hii'. 

hc-e-i, a term of unknown signification, adapted to the metre, 156; 34. 

h e - i' , interj , here! look here!. Cf hiiggi. 

heihe i , hiiihiii, Mod. heihai, pi tumi h., red fox, silver fox; other name for 
wan, q. v.: wu'n h. mil shti'shuapk the shins of the elk and the silver fox will 
sell at high prices. 

hey en a, d. hehie'na to rattle hy shaking: lamam=wakokshtat heydnatko 
yanmash heads rattling in a (sliaken-up) bottle Cf. hii'ma. 

h e k s h ii t % a , d. hehakshat^a to divide hetwecn two, to make two portions. Cf 
kshe'sh, shiatka. 

hekshatleka, d hehakshatleka, v. trans., to load, charge, freight trans- 
versely: hekshatlekitko watch a horse carrying a load fastened transversely, 
85, 4. Der. kshet'leka. 

h e m e' ;U e , hame;je, d. heh'me%e to say, to speak The regular use of this 
verb implies the verbal quotation of the words said or spoken: Aisis 
ham(';;^e: "K'mukamts an'sh p'laiwash shti'lta" ^Mis/isawZ; "K'mukamtch 
sent me after the eagles'', 101, 15. Cf 36, 2. 95, 17. 96, 3. 105, 4 9 10. 
107, 9. For h. Mod. sometimes uses heme'%en: 125, 3. 5. 6. 126, 9.; cf 
125, 9. The proper words of a speaker are often introduced without h. 
or any other verb of the same import : 2 1 , 1 0. 4 1 , 3 H. stands instead of 
tpcwa to order: 95, 1.; instead of vu'la to inqtiire of- 95, 17. 105, 4. 9. 
Der. hii'ma. Cf gi No. 6., hemkanka 

h e m e' % i s h , d. heh'm^^ish what is or has been spoken: word, speech, sentence. 

hemkanka, d. hehdmkanka (l) to speak, to talk, to deliver a speech; the 
spoken words are not mentioned after this verb, or when they are, they 
are not quoted verbally, but only the gist or abstract of them is given: 
tii'm li na-asht/ie spoke at length as follows, 64, 8.; hishu^ikshash shitko ish 
hemkank! sjjeak to me as to a man! 37, 8 ; hemkankdtko su^ntch a habbling. 


prattUhij child, Mod.; iia'wt iii heinktiuk: "huiyu"! so I said: ^'douH tjo!^' 
30, 4. Ct". 34, 4. 11. 42, 2 (2) to converse, discourse, to have a talk, to 
discuss, debate: ti'dsli li. to speak in favor of peace, to hold a peace-council, 
13, \1.; to speak tu one's benefit, 34, 12.; kcdslia hemkanktltko after the dis- 
cussion had lasted for a short tvhile, 34, 1 G. ; lienikankul6tak (for -ta ak) 
just after that talk, 39, 10.; at iiii kddshika heuikanksh now I am tired of 
debating, 42, 3. Cf 42, 5. (3) to declare, assert, proclaim: spoken words 
quoted, 39, 12 ; lienikankota while they declared, 35, 6.; Cf. 34, 16. 35, 11. 

li c 111 k a 11 k a t c Ii u a , d. liohamkaiikatclina to repeat while spvaluiifj or sayiiig, 
to fiaij repeatedly, 121, 19. 

li (' 111 k a nksli , d. helmmkanksli i^X) speech, discourse, sermon, address ; cf. 
wi'dtoks. (2) lanyuaye, dialect: E-uksliiki'shaui, j\I6atuasham li. the Kla- 
math Lake, the Fit River (Indian) lanyuagc, 23, 'I.; h. tumena to understand, 
to know a language, 23, 3. Der. licnikanka. 

li (_■ 111 k a 11 k t a ni p k a , d lieliamkanktdm])ka to begin to speak; to commence 
talking, discussing, debating, 38, 7. Der. licnikanka. 

licin kan kuisli , d. hehamkankuish the spoken ivord ov words; speech, 
saying, utterance, 40, 6. Cf henie'xish. 

li c m ' t a , lia'incta, d. liehani'ta to say, to speak to somebody, in the sense of 
order, command, of inquiry, of reproach etc., witli or without verbal 
mention of the spoken words: 109, 9. 110, 18 111, 14. 112, U;.: h. 
Tchashgayash gentki giug he told Weasel to go to, \\\, i.; "skishiili!" 
hcnita in'na ti'ipia "tvake up!" said it (the young antelope) to its younger 
brother, 121, 23. Der. hii'nia. 

hcmtcha, d. hehaintclia to say, cry, ov shout to: ktso'I hiimetsipka: "})!it- 
kal!" the stars shouted at him: '■^ arise!" 134, 10 Der. liii'ina. 

h V III t c h n a , d. helii'imtclina to say, speak, shout to somebody, to reply to while 
engaged in conversation, 110, 11. 122, 20 Der. hii'ma. 

hc'slia, d. hehiisha to send, to send out, to dispatch. Kl. for shiii'dslia Mod. 

h e s h a m k a n k a , d. hehashanikanka (1) to tell each other ; to give orders to 
each other, 113, 20. (2) to express an idea by different turns of words or 
locutions; to cx])lain, to render plain, to make comprehensible. Der. hcmkaiiku. 

lies licgslia, d. lieliaslu'gsha (1) to explain to each other; toexplain, 122, 8.; 
to understand each other. (2j to make a report, to report (3) to report against. 

h e m k a n k a t c h n a — h e s h 1 6 1 % a . 63 

to make an uiifavorahh report; to complain, to speak against: laki li. E-ukslii- 

kisLam ktchinksli pen pallasli the chief complained that the rails had been 

stolen again hg the Klamath Lake Indians, 35, 17. Der. shegslui. 
h e s h e 1 i 6 1 a , d. liehasliliota to exchange goods; to follow the bartering trade: 

lit. "to exhibit to each other". Der. heshhi. 
h e s h 6 111 e s h , d. heh'shdmesh jewsharp ; contr. from hesh'h^mesh. Der. 

hii'iiia. Cf. shushap. 
h e s h e m li t k i s h music produced on instruments of every description : 

piano, cornet, pansflute, flute, drum etc. Der. hii'ma. Cf. heshc'mesh. 
lieshka, d. hehasliga to drop, let fall, lose; to lose something from a set or 

from the place to which it belongs, as buttons from a dress, beads or rings 

from the body, 
li e s h k a t c h k i' m i s h brush lodge. Cf. hash^ammish, hashxamnash. 
h e s h k li , Mod. heshgun, d. hehashku, Mod. hehashgun to bet, to make bets, 

to stake for a bet: ti'im sa li. theg made various bets, 99, 6 Der. slii6. 
h e s h k li s li , d. hehashkush stake or stakes of a bet; game-stake, 80, 5. 
h e s h ;{ a 1 p e 1 i , d. hehash^alpeli to receive back bg exchanging for other arti- 
cles; to reobtain by bartering or by payment of money, 5H, 16. 59, 1. Gl, 8. 9. 

Der. skeala (sk(ia), -peli. 
h e s % A t a n a , d. helias^atana to become rusty, to rust: li. tchikemen iron gets 

rusty; hes^atanatko rusty, full of rust; Kl. for heshkatantko Mod. 
h e s h ;^ il' k i , d lieliasli;(a'ki to kill, slay, murder ; said of many objects only, 

Mod.: lap hishuatch^ash hash^e'gi two men were killed, 43, 1. and Note. 
hdshla, heshela, d. hehashla (1) to show, to exhibit, to let see: lieshle-uapka 

nil mish I will let you see; lidsh'la hit shumriluash he shoived (liim) that he 

had written, 34, 6. (2) to shoiv itself, to appear. (3) subst. : wild-fire. Jack 

olantern; lit. "what shows itself" Der. shlea. 
h ^ s h 1 a k 1 a s h , d. hehashlaklasli large whole apron buttoned on back. 

Der. shlekla. Cf sania-isli. 
h d s h 1 a k t c h a , d. hehashlaktcha to rust, to become rusty. Der. shldka. Cf 

h (J s h 1 1 a n k s li , d. hehashltanksli cushion of chair. Der. shl^tana. 
he slit al/ cash, d hehashtal/t'ash top) (as a plaything). Der. shetal/ea. 
h e s h t (') 1 % a , d. hehashtolp^a to live as man and tvifc, to consort, to live in 

concubinage, 60, 2. Der. shet61;(a. 


h d s h t c li a , d. hcliiishtclia to suckle : miikaksh li. to suckle an infant. Dei: 
ddsha. Cf. li<4nshna, hdntchipka. 

lieslitsdlxa, lieshtclij'ilxa, d. hebashtsal;ja to make sit, to set up, to set to 
rest; said, e. g , of babies made to sit up. Der tcbdl^a. 

hosbuiimpgli, d behashudmpgli (1) to restore to health, to cure, 72, 4. 
(2) to be in good health again. Kl. for hishudmp6li. Der. wduipele. 

bdt^a, ha't%e, d. bebdt;(a, biibdt^e to fall down, to drop: bebat^e tapak the 
(witbered) leaves are falling, 75, 15. 

bow a, ba'wa, d. bdbua to suppose, believe, think: nii ka-i kjUak b. I doubt 
it, lit "not true I bold it". Kl. for sbdwa, Kl. and Mod. Cf 161a. 

b i , bi, 111', i, i; emphat. bi'-i, i'-i, adv. loo. also serving as prefix and suffix 
and forming contrast to lia and bii' (-U-): (1) on the ground, upon the soil; 
upon this or that ground, here, there, over there: w4k baltcb i gil how is it 
down there? 22, 17.; tcbiii bi'-i Idlktcha tcbfktcbik and there (in tbe 
woods) he abandoned the wagon, 78, 14. and Note; bi ludlks=ki;im gi'-uapk 
there will be a fish-killing place, 143, 1.; kd-i kanf bf gatpanuapka nobody 
shall go to that place or ground; bi tcbel61uisb pudl%' ! throw the peelings 
away! kldsbna ai i kmhu. they throw water on (tbe stones) wbile tbese are 
on tbe floor of tbe sweat-lodge, 82, 8.; gen sl6kalsbt bi after he has shot at 
the mark, whicb stands on tbe ground, 100, 19. Cf 29, 16. 37, 1. 55, 13. 
and Notes; 157; 47. 168; 38. 177; 9. (2) at home; in the lodge or camp; 
towards home, to the camp; tbis adv. serves to express "bome" because tbe 
floor of tbe lodge is tbe soil itself: bi ml gdnuapk / intend to go home; i 
git' (for i, bi gita) here into my lodge, 182; 4.; cf. also 74, 14. and Notes to 
37, 1. 55, 13. Cf. i No. 3. 

hiapd,t%oksh, Mod. hi-ipAt^oksb, d. biapaipat^oksb. Mod. hi-ipaipat- 
%oksb stocking. 

bidtala to mash, crush; to exterminate by crushing: pse-utiwasb bidtalt 
(cond., for bietalat) nusb the human beings will crush me, arc in the habit of 
crushing me, 104, 2. 

bikl^a, d. bibdkl;(a to shake, shatter; said, c. g., of an eartbquake. 

biksii'lsba, d. bibaksii'lsba to fish with the tdwas=wits61as dip-net on a 
canoe. Cf 149, 22. 150, 5. 

bi 1 1'ldsli na, d. bilubiludsbiia to push, to push away, to remove by band, 

h^shtclia — hfshlan. 65 

feet or otherwise: pi hunk na'lsh hiluhiliidshna he pushed us away repeat- 
edly Kl. for yilo'dshna Mod. Der. ludshna. 
hf mpoks, himboksh (1) fallen tree. (2) tree cut down, felled tree, log, 78, 

14.: h.=stina'sh log-house. Der. hinui. Cf. hi'wi. 
himputia/i^a, d. hihamputia^i^a to bounce, sJdp, leap over a log or other 

obstruction. Kl. for mbute'^e Mod. Der. hinipoks. Cf shampatia^itia. 
hi 11 aw 41 a, d. hihanw^la, (1) v. intr., to swing back and forth, as when 

moved by the wind. (2) v. trans., to swing, shake the head or body, while 

walking, 186; 53. Der. hinua. 
h 1 11 s h % a , d. hihans^a to fall near, between or on : hins^an anku a tree falling 

into the midst of others. Said of inanimate subjects only. Der. hinua. 
hint 11 a, hindila, d. hihantila (1) to fall under something. (2) prep, and 

postp , under, underneath, below, beneath. Cf i-utila, wintila. 
hinua, d. hihanua to fall on, upon, into (not into water). Cf tinua. 
hinui, hi'nui, d. hihdnui (I) to fall to the ground; to fall down, come or tumble 

down; used of inanimate subjects only. Cf. 162; 1. and Note. (2) to fell, 

make come down: nu h. ko'sli I fell that pine-tree. Cf liinua, hishdnui. 
h i s h 4 k t g i , d. hili'shaktgi to shake, bring in motion; as a pole, boulder etc.: 

ko'sh nu keshga hishaktgish I cannot shake that pine-tree. Der. shiktka 
hishamkdnka, d. hihashamkanka ; same as heshamkanka, q. v. 
hishdnui, d. hihashanui to fell by cutting down, sawing etc. : nu h. hun ko'sh 

I cut down that pine-tree. Contr. from hish'hdnui. Der. hinui. 
h i s h k a n t c h n a , d hihashkantchna to travel in a file on foot, wagon, 

horseback. Der. kintchna. 
hishz6lul%a, d. hihash/elu'l^a (1) to measure by length, the unit of 

length being a step or pace, or the length of one arm, or of both arms 

extended. (2) to make of the same size, length, breadth. Cf shikashla. 
h i s h 1 a k s h k a , d. hihashlakslika to shoot well nigh each other ; to come near 

tvounding or killing each other by shooting, 110, 2. Der. hishlan, -kska. 
hfshlan, apoc. hishla, d. hihaslilan, hihdshla (1) to shoot, to fire at each 

other, 108, 1 ; to wound or kill each other: ndtak h. ivc shot men of our own 

party, 24, 4.; hishl4-uk for having fired at our own men, 24, 17. (2) to ri- 
valize ivith another, or others, in shooting at the mark: hi'shla nte-ishtka they 
shot with hows at the mark, 109, 15. (3) to shoot oneself; to commit suicide 
by shooting. Der. shlin. Cf Notes to 24, 4. and 109, 15. 


h i s li 1 ;i t c h n u , d. hihashliitchna to he or go on a shooting trip, to go around 

shooting, to divert oneself ly shooting, 1.^6, 3. Der. hfshlan. 
h i s h 1 u t a n k a , d. hihashlutanka to lend over for clasping, as the blade of 

a pocket-knife. Cf. liwakukpgle. 
hi sli 1 u t ch tank a, d. bihashlutchtdnka to tie up, to tie together: hihash- 

lutclitanka, k'lk Lenie-isham he tied the Thunders together by their own hair, 

113, 19. C£ shlltchta. 
li i s li 11 k 1 1 a , d. hihaslinkita (1) to disobey, disregard: p'gishap nu'sh lewd- 

ula c-nslital genuapksht, nu hishnkl'ta liunksh my mother forbade me to go to 

the lake, hut I did not mind her order. (2) to be reckless, rash, audacious: 

ka-itoks i-i hishnkita! donH be so reckless! Der. shnikita. 
li i s li n s h a , d. hihaslmsha to go about eating, to eat while walking. Cf. shne^fa. 
li i s li o' t k i s h , d. liih'slio'tkish curtain; window-shade. 
li i s li p 1 a m n a , hishpla'mna, d. hihashpl&'mna to lead, to drag, to tow (boats, 

animals etc ). Der. shepoldmna. 
h i s h t a 1 1 a , d. bibasbtdlta (i) to inform, apprise; to report to. (2) to promise 

mutually; to promise, 34, 21. Der. stllta. 
li i s li t a n t a , d. bihasbtdnta (\) to love, cherish each other, to be fond of each 

other: gek sbiiisbuak b. these girls love each other. (2) to love oneself. 

Der. stfnta. 
bf sbtatcba, d bibdsbtatcba, bibdst'sba to educate, bring up, raise: tatA- 

kiasb, tcbi'kinasb bibdsbt'sba to raise children, chickens. Der. t'sbm. 
bisbtilankanke-o'tkisb hoop as a playtbing for children. Der. 

tilankfinkia. Cf sbtildnshna. 
b 1 s b t i s b , d. bibdsbtisb, a species of little sucker-fish, tbe smallest of tbat 

fisb-ti-ibe found in tbe waters of tbe Klamatb region. 
Hisbtisb = Ludlks, nom. pr. of a camping and fisbing place on tbe 

headwaters of Sprague River: '^^ Fishery of small suckers". 
b i s b t n a 1 k a n k a , d. bibasbtualkAnka (1) to sicay, swing, tveave, rock to 

and fro. (2) to roll forth and back. Cf tilankanka. 
bisbtcbakta, d.. bibasbtcbdkta to become angry, irritated at each other; 

to quarrel, to have a fight, contest, difficulty: tsi'ii b. lidtakt then they quarreled 

there, 11), 8. Der. shitcbakta. Cf sbawiga. 
hi sb t (• li ;'i k 1 11 a , d. bibasbtcbaktna, (1) v. refl.: to become angry at each 

h i s h 1 ;i t e h n a — h i s h u A 1 ;c a . 67 

other; to start a quarrel, altercation, 35, 1. GO, 19. 22. (2) v. intr. : to become 
angry, ivroth at somebody or something, 21, 3. 37, 2. Der. shitchdktna. 

hishtcha^uga, d. hihaslitchazuga to put or place into something, as into 
a basket, 95, 1 9. 

h i s h t c h i , d. hih^shtchi to save, rescue, deliver : hu hf shtchish Meachash 
hameniiiga because intending to save MeacJi ant's life, 42, 13. 

h i s h t c h 1 s h % a s h breech-clout longer than the liassufsh^ish ; two articles 
of female wardrobe which have now become obsolete. 

hishnakga, d. hihashudkga boy-child, boy; boys are called so by the 
Klamath Lake people from their birth until tliey become adult: na'sh 
gitsganits (for kitchkdni tchish) h. a young boy too, 23, 13. Dim. hishu- 
aksh; contr. frorii hishudkaga. Cf shnaw^dshka, tchdki, tchilloydga. 

hishuaksh, Mod. hishu4tch;^ash, d. hfhashuaksh, hi-assuaks, Mod. hi- 
hashuatch^ash (1) husband: nalam h. our husband, the husband of us all, 
95, 10 ; kii'liak h. not having a husband, 60, 1.; hissuAksh m'na k'l^ksht her 
husband having died, 89, 5.; cf 61, ll). 20 78, 3. 7. 142, 9. 14. 16. 186; 54.; 
married matt : ha i h. p411uapk snawii'dshash if you as a married man should 
seduce a married woman, 59, 2. Cf 61, 11 (2) person of the male sex: 
male, man, adult man: hlssuaks ka'liak snAwadsh a man without a wife, 60, 
1.; ha'toks 1 hi'hashuaksh shishukiiapk but should you fight with {other) 
men, 59, 13.; hishu4kshash=shitko ish lu'mkank! speak to me as to a man! 
37, 7. C£ 33, 6. 80, 6. 87, 1. 17 90, 11. (3) young man capable to carry 
arms; fighting man, tvarrior, brave. Cf the term "yeoman". Ka'gi hi- 
hassuaks tdnkt no fighting men were present at that time, 16, 17.; hihassuaks 
at tinkujulsL the armed men ran out of the bush, 23, 11. Cf. 28, 7 30, 8. — 
The d. form here serves as a real pi.; hissuaks stands instead of this pi. 
form in 28, 4. Deiuved from a form parallel with hashuAkla. Cf laki, 
mdklaks, mbushni, sheshalolish 

h i s h u a k s h 1 a , d. hihashuakshla ( 1 ) ^ be married to a man, to tulie for a 
husband. (2) to consort with a man: hlshudkshlank, for hishuakshlan gi, 
was consorting, 'db, 11. Kl. Der. hishuaksh. Cf shnawtidshla. 

h i s h u A 1 % a , d. hihash ual/a (V) to lay oneself down, legs drawn up, face down, 
or leaning on elbows, when stretched out the whole length. (2) to hide, to 
secrete oneself, to lie in ambush. Der. shiiilka; lit. "to gather oneself up". 
Cf kniikla, knukl;^a, liitchl%a. 


li i s h u ;i t f h % ii s li ; Mod. for hfshuaksh KL, q. v. 

h i s h u ;i t c li z u s h 1 a , d liiliashuatchxAshla, 54, 16. ; Mod. for hishudkshla 
Kl., q. V. Cf shnaw(idsliaslila. 

h i s li u' d s h % a , d. hihashii'dshxa to spread over, as sheets, blankets etc. 

h i s li u <^ g a }' a , d. hihashuggdya, v. trans., to hang above or over something; 
to suspend, extend over, as a blanket over a shrub. Der. shuggdya. Cf. 
kshaggiiya, shakdtchuala. 

hishii'ka, d. hihashuka, hih'shuka, (1) v. recipr., to Jcill or murder each 
other; 60, 22.: tu' sas hisho'kst that they had killed each other out there, 108, 5. 
(2) V. refl.: to commit suicide. Der. shii'iga. 

h i s h li n u a , d. hiliashunua to apply or make use of the song-medicine, 129, 5. 
Der. shufna. 

liita, liitA, abbr. hi't, hi'd (1) loc. adv. here on the ground, on this soil: 
nda'ni nu hl'd sliuewatka ^wakatat three times I fished with the line here in 
the pond. (2) here in the lodge, in or into this house: hita tchla! here she sits 
in the lodge! 105, 5 ; hi't a tcha'l;ta here he sat down, 105, 15.; mashipksh 
a sha hi'd itpa li6nta Mtcheshtat they hring the sick people into this house 
here (into a hospital). (3) at this place, at that spot: liielat hii'nksh hi't! 
kill ye him on the spot, 190; 15. Cf. gfta, hi, hitksh, hitok. 

h i' t k s h, contr. from hita=kshf at this place; from this point, from here, 192; 4. 

hitok, hi-itok, ( I ) adv., right here on the ground; right here, just on this spot : 
hi'-itak there, meaning on the bottom of the lark's nest, 95, 6. (2) verbi- 
fied: hit6k i! hi-it6k at! he quiet! no disturbance! lit. "sit down on the 
ground! sit down again!" 34, 11. From hi, tok. 

h i u h i u s h , d. hihiuhiush soft ground, morass, marsh: h. f;^alamta to the west 
of the marsh, 24, 10. A locality is here alluded to, situated on the trail 
followed by the M/iklaks when on their raids to Pit River valley. 

hiuhiwa, d. hihiuhiwa to he soft, elastic; to rise up after depression like a 
sponge; said of marshy ground; partic. hiuhiwatko marshy, 20, 4. ' 

liiii'shga, d hWvvL^gfi to order, to command: p'na mdklakshash hi'ushga 
kd-i shuenktgi he ordered his men not to kill, 56, 6. 

Hi'wats noni. pr. masc. Kl. : '^Lips-hanging", "Big-mouthed". 

hi' wi , hewi, iwi, d. hi-iwi to fetch home, to pack away for home, to transport 
to onc^s camp, 74, 13. 14. 75, 1.: kshii'n h. to hring hay to one^s home or lodge. 

hishu<4,tch;tash — hlu'kash. 69 

75, 12.; h. himboks to haul logs or fallen trees, 78, 14. Der. hi. Cf. hiwi- 

dsha, iwa, iwUxa. 
li i w f d s h a , iwl'dsha, d. hi-iwidsha (1) to go and fetch home, to haul to one's 

camp: w6kash, kshiin iwf-idsha they take home the pond-lily seed, the hay, 

75, 1. 12. (2) to put, to stow away underground, in caches; used when 

speaking of dried provisions to be stored at the prospective wintering 

place; 74, 6. Der. hiwi. 
h 1 a' , d hla'hla to ac^'ust feathers on arrows, to xyrovide them with fliers. Cf. Idsh. 
hid -a, hla', M-a, d. hlahla, lald-a (1) to breed, to hear offspring; said of 

quadrupeds and other animals: watch lald-a mares foal, 75, G. (2) to lay 

eggs: tchikgn ndpal h. the chicken has laid an egg. Cf. knukla, Idlash, le- 

l^dshi, lilhanksh. 
hldka, d. hldlka the shorter wing-feathers of a bird. Dim. of Idsh, hldsh; 

contr. from hld-aga 
hlakhldkli, d. hlalakldkli; same as lakldkli, q. v., but less frequent, 
hl^ka, Idka, d. hldlka, Idlka (1) to draw breath in audibly, to make ^hh. (2) 

to sob, to breathe heavily: Idgguta hiimdxe she said while sobbing, 121, 4. 

(3) to lap, to lap up Cf hl6pa. 
H 1 (i k o s h , nom. pr. of a Klamath man : '^Lapping up^\ ^'Lap- Water", 141 , 

8. 11. Der. hl^kua; stands for Hlekuish. 
h 1 ^ k u a , hla'kua, d. hlehldkua to drink out of the hand, to draw water into 

the mouth, to lap ; often used instead of hl6pa, q. v. 
hlila, If la, d. hli'hla, lil'la; see lila. 
hlfntana, d. hlflantana to rub the sides or flanks against: 157; 37. Cf 

Idlash, tilantana. 
hlfvash, Ifwash, d. hlihliwash, lillwash (1) a species of trees; grows near 

the Agency buildings. (2) basket, crate probably made of the wood of this 

tree ; large digger-basket hung over the shoulders to collect edible roots, 

tubers and bulbs: 190; 19. Der. liwa 
hl6pa, hlu'pa, d. hluliipa (1) to lap, lap up, sip: wdtchag ddshash h. the dog 

is lapping milk (2) to eat in a brute-like manner: nc^patka tchipash h. they 

sop up ivith their hands the tchipash-pulp, 149, 10. (3) to eat with a spoon. 
hlvl'ka, hl6ka, d. hlohl6ka, hlol6ka {\) to snore. (2) to grunt. 
h 1 u' k a s h , d. hlulukash ; see Mkash. 


ho a, h6ha, d. h6hoa; same as hdwa, q. v. 

h 6 y e k a , li6ye;{a, d. h6hieza to take a long leap, to leap far out, to jump into 
distance; different from hiiyeka, q. v. 

b6ka, liuka, d. Ii61i'ka, holili'ka (1) to breathe: keshga liukisli he is unable 
to breathe, he is suffocated, choked or smother iny. (2) to sigh heavily ; to sigh. 

hok4mp6le, d. hoh'kampgli {I) to breathe in, to inspirate air. (2) to re- 
gain consciousness, to come to life again, to breathe again. Der. h6kna, -p6lf. 

h6kansha, d. Ii6b'kansha; see hukansha. 

hokno'tkisli, hti'knotch, d. huhakno'tkisli nostrils of persons and animals, 
lit. "breathing apparatus". Der. hokna 

h6ksaska, d. liohiiksaska to catch or capture by hand: kiitash h. to catch a 
louse on one's own head C£ kshikla. 

h61aka, in gindla li61akank! run and come here! 182; 5, stands for h61al- 
kank running up to; cf. h61al;^a. 

h 6 1 a 1 z a , holdlka, d. hohdlal%a (I) to run fast, to run up to: ho'lalk tchawl'k 
sandholiug he runs up to, desirous of a mad fight, U4; 28. (2) to run or 
jump through: h. liilukshtat to jump through a fire. 

holdpka, d. hohoMpka {\) to leap or jump upon something. (2) to run up 
hill, to ascend quickly. 

h u 11 a k s h , hoXakali pine-nut while provided with two wings similar to those 
of the maple-seeds, 7.5, 4. Der. hul;(a. Cf hudsha No. 2. 

h 1 u f p k a , d. hohaluipka to run up close to, to come near. Cf. hulludslmi. 

h 6 n e = s h u s h a t i s h bee, lit. "honey-maker''; half English. Cf bi. 

Hopats, uom. pr. of a camping place on Sprague River; Indians inter- 
pret it by "Passage to the timber''. 

h6p6litchna, d. huhapehtchna to dodge missiles by jumping aside; to 
evade shots: h5'pelitsnank anibutat (sa) gena while dodging arrows they ran 
into the water, 20, 3. Cf gameni. 

hu, hu, hu', abbr. vl, 6, o ; pi. hudsha, hil'dsha (for hCuslia), pron. dem. 
this, this here; pron pers. he, she, it. Refers to animate beings and inani- 
mate things within sight of the one speaking or supposed to be speaking; 
used more frequently in Mod. than in Kl. Cf hu ka-i nilsh 161a Mod., 
hfik ai hunk kd-i 161a nush Kl. he does not believe me. We find it used as 
follows: kafliak hu tupaks gi he has no sister, [>[), 1."..; lapeiii hu siiawe- 

h6a — huAshka. 71 

dshcila he married twice, bb, 16.; hu'toks hut he, 34, 5.; tchaiish p/iwa hu 
he cats like a porcupine, 190; 14,; cf. 40, 20. Hence it refers to persons 
or objects mentioned immediately before, which therefore are present to 
the mind of the speaker and of the hearer: hu g^-u l(^witchta tp^wash he 
(the conjurer) objected to my speaM't^g, 34, 8.; c£ 36, 15.; ketchkanit^nash 5' 
gisht w^ngga they died when he ivas cm infant, bb, 2 1 ; cf 56, 1 . 181; 35. and 
Note; h6taks tatdksni these, those children previously alluded to, 141, 12. 

h u , hu, hu', u, fi, u', 5', -u, (1) loc. adv., wp, above, up there, above there; par- 
ticle often found suffixed to pronouns, affixed to verbs etc , and composing 
a series of verbal suffixes. It refers to elevation above the soil or horizon, 
to hills, mountains, to the flight of birds etc. : tu'sh hu wik4 n^nu waiwash 
tchllamnu? where is it, that up there waiwash-geese are said to crowd to- 
gether? 189; 3. Cf Atu for dti hu (2) loc. adv., far off, in the distance; 
either visibly or so far as to be invisible: not on hand; in many instances 
untranslatable in English: na's wipka liu Ambotat one man retreated into 
the tvater, 88, 7.; pdgashtat hu nn'ilk wd worms live in moist ground; kuyii- 
mashtat hu tidsh get utchin in muddy water it is good to fish with nets; g^-u 
hu g^pkash when I reached there, 175; 19. Cf 131, 3. and Note to 112, 
11. 12. (3) adv., right here, here, then, at that time, now; often not ti-ansla- 
table in English, temporal and local at the same time, and having refer- 
ence to local distance of the past, present, or future action from the person 
speaking or supposed to speak. Stands almost exclusively, in Kl. song- 
lines and in the Mod. dialect, for hu'nk, hiink KI.: kti-i hu maklaksh 
pupashpu'shlish gu'shu luela the Indians do not kill (at present) black hogs, 
128, 2.; tiihush 6 wiUaslina far away the mud-hen is sprawling, 185; 41.; 
nu hu shin' tWa, I scratched this ground, 157; 42., cf 91, 7.; hu' (snbj.) mlsh 
hii' shneksh\tn{i])ksi he will save you, 193; 11.; palak ish hu lulpalpaliat ! 
quick! make eyes for me at once! 154; 11.; gd-u hu mu'muatch, g^-u hu 
na'p, g^-u hu nu'sh gl these are my ears, this is my paw, this is my head; 
said in reference to a dog by a conjurer. Presence is marked by the 
suffixed forms 4tu (for at hu), g^nu, g^-u, hunu, tamii', and others. 

hudlka, d. huhuAlka, 120, 4.; same as huwalp^a, q v. 

hudlta, hudltka, hudltoks; see wAlta, wdltka, wAltoks. 

liiiashka, d. huhujishka to keep away from, 139, 12. Cf inuhuashka. 


hud^kshin, hut^kshin trunk to pack things in: hiideksfnti tchikgmen 
iron trunk-lining. Cf. utdtchkia 

h I'l d s li a , hu'tcha, h6tclia, d. huhdtclia to run, to run fast, to rush within 
sight of the one speaking or supposed to speak: nkllank h. to run fast; 
kd,-i hu'tsa (for hil'tsi, or hu'tsa i)! donH run! 22, 7. — Speaking of two or 
three, tushtcha; of several or many, tfnsha. 

h u d s li a , d. huhiidsha (1) seed of the white oak tree; \\i. "it runs, it flies"; 
called so on account of its wings. (2) fruit of the white oak; acorn. Der. 
hudsha. See luidshnam. 

hudshdltka, d. huhudsh^ltka to disappear, vanish : liiash h. the fog disap- 
pears. Der. hudsha. 

h u d s h a m p e 1 i , d. huhddshampeli to run home, to jump out and run hack: 
hutchampglu'ta when he had run hack home, 1 IV, 4. Der. hudshna, -p6lf. 

h li d s h a m p k a , d. huhddshampka to run. away, to flee, to rtish ojf unseen by 
or at a distance from the one speaking. — Speaking of two, tiishtchampka; 
of many, tinshampka: tsiii ktaftal ti'iisliampk Sii-at huk hereupon the Snake 
warriors fled to the rocks (unseen by me), 29, 19. Der. hudshna, q. v. 

hudshfpka, d. huhadshfpka to run towards, to rush tip to: hutchlpke 
shliuapkiiga she ran to shoot him, bb, 5. Der. hudsha. 

hudshna, hiitchna, ho'tchna, d. liuhAtchna, huho'tchna (1) to run, to 
hurry; to run or rush away, to make off, to scamper off, to take to one!s heels 
within sight of the one speaking or supposed to speak. Applies to one sub- 
ject in Kl. Hiitchant hal nu nen if I had run; hudsliAntak hu he will run 
away; kila nad huliutchna we run, travel fast, Mod.; M-i huluitchantgi 
(exhortat.) they must not run away, 54, H. Mod. Cf. 42, 15-17. 54, 7. 125, 4. 
Nil hu'tsna tu' Iran over there, 22, 4. ; hii'tchanuapk! I shall rush over! 22, 
8. Said of the young antelope, 177; 5., of other quadrupeds, 125, 4. 6. 9. 
177; 10. 14., of the salmon, 177; 31. (2) to pass, to pass hy, to elapse; 
said of time. — Speaking of two or three, tiishtchna, 122, 5.; of many 
subjects: tfnshna, q. v. 

hiidshnam, hiitchnam, d. huhadshnam white oak tree: Quercus alba; not 
found in the vicinity of the Klamath lakes. Cf. hudsha No. 2. 

huds6tcha, d. Iiuhads6tcha to ride on horseback \A\\\q ixhronA, on atrip 
or journey: hudshotchijjka to ride totvards, 182; 3. 

hud^kshin — huyd;{edsha. 73 

huggidsba, hukidsha, d. huhaggldsha, huh'kldsha (1) to go around some- 
thing ; to revert, to turn lack (2) to regain health, to he convalescent: dtutu 
huggl'dsha! now I mn getting better! 175; 18. 

h u g g i' t k o , d. huhaggi'tko deaf. 

h u i k 1 n i , d. Imhuikini to run up into timber, woods, cliffs or recesses. 

h u i k 1 n s h a , d. huhuikinsha to run away from, as from a river, lake, 
prairie, hill ifito the woods. — Speaking of two or a few, tushlkinsha; of 
many subjects, tiiii'kinsha Der. liuikini. Cf guikfnsha. 

h u 1 ;^ a n s h a , d. liulmixansha to run along a stream or river against its cur- 
rent — Speaking of two, tushi';{ansha; of many subjects, tini';^ansha 

b u 1 7 i p 6 1 e , d. hubuizip6le to hurry, to run, jump or scamper out of again, 
112,4.6.7. C£ gui^i 

b II i s b i p 6 1 e , d. bubuisbipele to threaten, menace. Cf busbasba. 

bi'ii t, pi. tumi b., wheat; grain of cereals: buitam nusb ear of Indian corn 
(maize), tvheat etc. From Englisb wheat. 

b II y a , bu-iya (I) near, near by, close to: wAsh a ndlsh g(jluipk b. the prairie- 
wolves approach near to our home. (2) for a while, not a long time. ('?>) 
inteij.: don't do it! used in a prohibitory sense, 30, 3. 4.; nd-asbt ml b(^m- 
tan "bu-iya" bu'nksb I told him not to do it H. is the radix of wiki'i near, 
is used as verbal suffix (see Note to 19, 4.) and has no d. form. 

buy aba, buyti-a, d. buhiyaha (\) to rush away from, to run away: wdsb a 
gii' n'sb b. the prairie-ivolf runs away from me, 184; 32. 34. (2) to hide, 
conceal oneself, 186; 57 — Speaking of more than one subject, giiyaba, q. v. 

buy4-edsba, d. bubid-edsha to run past, to run by within sight: tcb*i-u 
K'mii'kamtchasb b. the antelope ran past before K'mukamtch, 126, 9. 

b u y d g a, d. bubayega to sit, to be seated in the distance : sbla-A Aisbishasb 
buyegank she saiv Aishish sitting, 96, 5. Cf huyaha. 

b 11 y <^ g a , d. hubi^ga to rise up, to stand up suddenly, to rise to one's feet ; lit. 
" to begin to leap", 42, 8. — Speaking of a few, tushidga; of many subjects, 
tini(iga, q. v. 

hiiyeka, huye^a, buf-i^a, d. bubie^a (1) ^o ship up high, to jump or leap 
high. (2) to run up hill. (3) to climb, to climb up, as wild beasts — Speaking 
of many subjects, tini/i, q. v. Cf hoyeka. 

b u y e ;( e d s b a , d bubi(ixedsha to jump high while running: nu b. bfmboks 
1 jumped over a log. Der. hi'iyeka. Cf shnyuziega. 


liu y uka, d. hiihiuka to heat, to make hot or incandescent: h. slia ktd-i they 
heat stones, S>, 6. 8. 112, 21. 

liu'k, hilk. lu'ik, o'k, obj. hft'nkiash, hu'nkesh, hu'nksli, hu'nk; pi hii'kslia, 
hi'dcsa (1) i)ron. dem. that, that one, yon, yonder; pi. those; referring to 
anim and inan. (but not inflected when alluding to inan.) things re- 
moved from sight, or supposed to be unseen by the one speaking and 
distant from him, but present to his mind. Shui'sh hu'k those magic songs, 
83, 5.; hu'k this (distant) man, 101, 10.; shmilas toks hu'k p'lafwasham 
though that (nest) was the nest of the eagle, 100, 9.; hu'kslia nakush- 
kshdkshni those who dwelt at the dam, 132, 3. Cf. 20, 17. 65, 11. QQ, 10. 
H. may also refer to the dead or their spirits, when they are thought to 
be far away: pil mdklaks hu'k only a dead Indian, 129, 2. 7. 130, 1. 2 and 
Note. Only when connected with gek, hita, h. can mean proximity: 
hu'k gQg this man here before us, 9.'), 10. 158; 54.; luelat hii'nksh hi't! 
kill ye this fellow! 190; 15. (2) pron. pers. anim. and inan., he, she, it; 
pi they ; used in the same way as the pron dem : kd-i huk hiimeni he 
did not wish, 55, 1 3. ; hunk kuih^gshash shftko shpunkdnka she kept him 
at home like an orphan, 55, 18.; huk ka-A she'llual he fought bravely, 56, 1.; 
cf 16, 15. 24, 18.; tsiii kedsa huk then it grew up, 100, 7.; ati huk, k.4-i 
wlga it is far, not near ; tcht' hunk hu'ksha gi so they said, 95, 11.; hu'ksha 
gatpa they have reached, 122, 16.; at hu'ksa tu'm waltka tj'mkt hereupon 
they had a long talk, 23, 3. 

h u k , huk, hu'k, adv. loc and temp, simultaneously; untranslatable in Eng- 
lish, but generally referring to the past tense and to acts performed in 
presence or absence of the one speaking or supposed to speak : kokiilam 
huk pdlkuish miinA tu the dry bed of a river was deep below (us), 21, 15.; 
na'dshak huk hishuakshlank K'mukamtchash one only consorted with K'lni'i- 
kamfch, 95, II.; ;'it toks huk Afshish shu'isha but now Aishish became lean, 
95, 1."^.; genu'l a hu'k und tdtakshni the children left long ago, 121, 12.; 
hu'k Kayutchish gatpa Gray Wolf arrived, 131, 5.; tat i huk a shay an - 
tildsha? tvhercfrom did you carry off under your arm? 1K6; 50. Cf 101, 
1 1. and tcliuyuk. 

h I'l k a , d huh'ka to run about; to run or rush to or towards: hu'kank running 
around, 186; 54.; connected with the poss. case: ni'sh liiwii'-iila hu- 

h u y u k a — h u k f s h . 75 

kuapksht ku'kalam palkui'sbam ttiey did not permit me to run across the 
dry bed of the river, 22, 5. — Speaking of many subjects, gdka (not tfn;j;a). 
h u k 4 y a , d. huhakdya, huh'kaya to run into, to retire to the timber, bush, 
Woods, to inaccessible places : tchiitchak Ankutat h. the squirrel climbs around 
the trees, lives among the trees; hukaydpka to run into distant ivoods, to dis- 
appear in the bush, 23, 19 21. — Speaking of two or three, tushkaya; of 
many, tin^dya. C£ gakdya, liuikini, huikfnsha. 
Ii u k ;i y u 1 a , d. huhakayula to run out from bushes, woods, recesses or hiding 
places. — Speaking of two or three subjects, tushkayiila; of many, tin- 
kaj'ula, 23, 11. Cf gakayula. 
liiikak, pi. hii'kshak, obj. hiinkak the same, the identical one ; ht. "he, she 
only": hiikak ya ge'n hu'shkanka WichVkm I think it is the same small 
one; hiikak a gek the same person (present); hiinkak ha i shuentchash 
hemtal did you speak to the same child f Mod.; hu'nk shitko hak exactly in 
the same manner. From hii'k, ak. 
hukampeli, d. huhdkampeli to hurry, run, rush out again; to run to the 
former place, 112, 14. — Speaking of two, tu'slikampeli, 120, 12. 15.; of 
man}' subjects, tinxampeli Der. huka. 
h u k d m p 6 1 i ; same as hokdmp6le, q. v. Der. hdka. 
h li k a n s h a , hokdnsha, d. huhdkansha to run, to jump out of, to leave hur- 
riedly, to depart in haste: mu'-ue pu'tan hiikdnsha the mole ran out half- 
smothered, 127, 7. — Speaking of two or three, tu'shkansha; t. ku' m^i-Ai they 
ran out of the cave, 122, 4.; of many, tin;fansha, 23, 14. Cf. gekansha. 
hukanshdmpeli, d. huh'kanshdmpeli to run out of again, 112, 11.: 
liu'kantchampglok for the purpose of hurrying out again, 112, 10. — Speak- 
ing of two or three, tiishkanshampeli; of many subjects, tin%anshampeli. 
huki, huki, pron. dem. and refl., referring to the bodily or mental con- 
dition of the person spoken of: he within himself, she by herself; inessive 
case of hu'k: huki' ku-i gi she gets worse "within", 68, 7. Cf. huni. 
h II k i a n , hu=kianki, pron. pers. and refl., he for himself, she by herself, it 

for itself: h. keshga htimkanksh he is hoarse. Der. hu or hu'k, -gianggin. 
hukidtansha, d, huhakititansha to run past, to pass by quickly. 
hukish, d. huh'kish (O breathing, respiration, breath. (2) spirit, animal 
life: h. gekansha the spirit or soul departs; g^na mi at h. notv your life is 
ended, 87, 15. (3) beating of pulse, pulsation. Der. h6ka. 


li li k n a , d. liiih^kna to run out, to rush out of. Der. hiika. 

hiikgniiks h t, 1V6, 22.; contr. from huh'nunk gisht, periphr. of bdkna. 

hukslii, d. liuhdkshi to surrender, give oneself up to, 55, 14.: hii ka-i h. 
na'lsh i if you do not surrender to us. 

liu'ksht, o'ksht, obj. hu'nksht, pi. hu'kshtsha, (1) pron. dem., that one, 
those. (2) pron. pers., he, she, they; refemng to persons unseen, far off, 
absent or thought to be at a distance, 192; 7 and Note. Cf. hu'nksht. 

hiTkt, luikt; obj. hu'nkt, q. v., pi. hu'ktsha, (1) pron. dem, that, that one; 
those; referring to absent persons and distant things: wakahk hu'kt ki this 
one (wife) had a child, 96, 1. (2) pron. pers.: he, she; they; used Hke the 
pron. dem.: h. pll na'dshek he (Flu) was the only man, 6G, 10.; h. sh(511ual 
he made war (just after a hiik), 56, 1. ; h. tidsh tin^a he succeeds tcell, 134, 18. 

h u' k t a g a , hu'ktag, a term of familiarity: this little one; this child or young 
one, 96, 15. 121, 23. Dim. hu'kt. 

hii'ktakaga, hu'ktakag, a term of familiarity: ^Hhat little one", used by 
the antelopes to designate Old Grizzly, 121, 22. 122, 7. Dim. hii'ktaga. 

h u 1 h e , hii'lhi, d. huhalhe to enter, run into, rush into: i-a-uka hu'lhiank run- 
ning into other people^ s houses, 184; 26.; kaydta h. he runs into the small 
tvigwams, 183; 18.; mu'-ue nayanta wa'shtat h the mole ran into another 
hole or den, 127, 7. Cf 127, 5. 

h u 1 h e k ii n k a , hulhikanka, d. huhalhekdnka to run into continually, to rush 
into frequently, 183; 18 

h u 1 1 1 ;j a , d huhalilza to fly near the ground, 183; 25. Cf hul^a. 

hulfpeli, hulhipgle, d. huhalfpgli (1) to hurry into again, to re-enter in 
haste. (2) to run or rush into, as into the windings of a chasm, nan-ow 
vale, 23, 15.; into one's own lodge, 121, 9. — Speaking of two or three, 
tu'shlipgli; of many subjects, tilhipgli. Der. hiilhe, -p6li. 

h u 1 % a , d. huhal^a to stop on the way, to make short stops while traveling, as 

birds do in their flight, 
h u 1 1 a d s h u i , huladslmi, d. huhallddshui to run up to, to approach in haste, 

96, 16.: pen h. K'mukamtchash he ran up again to ICmukamtch, 96, 14. 
hulladshuitdmna, d. huhalladshuitdmna to run up to and hack again, 

continually, 96, 13. 
hum as lit, d. hiinulmaHht, huh'masht; tlic latter used sometimes in Mod. 

h li k 11 a — h d u . 77 

(1) adv., thus, so, in this manner, in such a way: n4nka k4-i h. shewanat 
others did not give in this manner (as he did), 66, 10.; li. laldki nd-ulakta 
Kakdshash thus did the chiefs punish Doctor Johi, p. 64 (title) ; h. shdpash 
lu'pi shutey^gatk so ivere the moons made at first, p. 105 (title). Cf. 
65, 12. 120, 8. 139, 12. (2) interj., that's, so! that's tJie way! that is right! 
h. tidsh, or h. toks tidsh! thaVs good! 139, 14.; cf. 182; 7. Cf. hiimaslit 
gi, liumtchi. 

li u m a s h t a k , d. humdmashtak, adv , equally, in the same manner, just as ; 
lit "thus only": h. na'd ka-i hu'shkankuapk just as we would not mind it, 
139, 5.; h. correl. with wdkaktoksh in the same manner . . . as, 139, 10.; h. 
giuga therefore, hence, 91, 7. ; humdshtak ni shnak6lui-u4pka in the same man- 
ner I shall remove him from his post, 59, 15. Cf 64, 15 134, 15 18. 139, 8. 

h u m a s h t gl , hum^shtgi, d. humamasht gi (1) to do so, to act in this man- 
ner: h. glsht therefore, for that reason, 135, 4.; h.=glsht shnu'kp'lisht because 
he took her hack, 61, 10.; h. gi'nk (for giauk) hy so doing, 96, 18. 119, 10.; 
h. giug on that account, therefore, 61, 21. 103, 4.; on this subject, 78, 6.; h. 
sh4hunk giug for the same reason, 134, 4., lit "for doing so, for acting 
thus"; cf 139, 7 ; h. gi stands for h. giug, 75, 2.; h. giulank. Mod. h. giu- 
lan, after doing so, having acted thus; tchiii slia h. gi'ulank patampka having 
achieved this they begin to eat, 149, 9. Cf 94, 8 96, 21. 99, 6. 149, 7. (2) 
to say so, to agree, to assent, to give one's assent: Idwitchta humashtgish he 
refused his assent to, 36, 13.; k^shga nu hun h. kish I cannot consent to this, 
42, 6. Cf gi, humasht, nd-ashtgi. 

h u m t s a n t k a , adv., in the same manner, just so, equally ; instr of humtchi : 
nash wti'k shli'tk hii'mtsantkak another was shot in the same manner in the 
arm, 24, 8.; the suffixed -k is gi, ivas 

humtchi, hii'mtsi, obi. humtcha, adj., (1) alike to this; like him, her, it, 
them; like that thing, like those things. (2) such, such one, one of the same 
kind, one of that sort, one in that condition : hiinitchi ki it is of the same kind, 
126, 9.; ge-u tcliish h. gi! I have caught one of that ilk! hu'mtcha kalak 
one of the kind called relapses, 72, 3.; hu'mtcha gCi'l the kbl-root in this state, 
condition, 147, 9.; hii'mtcha liishuAtch;fash a husband of this description, 
186; 54. Der. hiin, -ptchi. Cf gc^mptchi. 

hun, hu'n, (1) pron. dem., that thing, that object; refers to inan. things pres- 


cut, visible, or to acts, words, speeches, etc and things of an al)strnct 
nature: hu h. hashtaltdmpka stina'sh he owns this house, Mod.: li. lumii'islit 
kish to consoit to this, 42, 6.; 161oksgish mi h. dlk! lay down your rifle! 37, G. 
Cf. 110, 1. and a quotation under gi'sliala. When referring to persons, 
it seems abbr. from hunk, hii'nk; cf. 65, 9. 1)7, 1. and o'nisli. Hi'nita (for 
hi'intahx) thus, 104, 4. and Note, also a quotation under hita. (2) pron. 
pers., it, for inan. things, corresponding to the hii'k as used in relation to 
aniui. beings: h. hushkanka to mind it, 139, 4. 

hun, hiin, adv. simultaneously loc. and temp., usually marking past tense: 
h tch(^keli kititchna they spilled the blood, 13, 8.; tsi sa hu'n ki so they said, 
100, 13.; tank luln shellualtampka hence began the war, 37, 10.; tchildlat 
hiln iwam they will boil berries, lb, 8. Cf. 95, 2. 121, 2. Connected with 
imperatives in Mod. songs: 193; 11. 12. Cf. hunk (adv.) un. 

h u n 4 m a s h t , interj marking surprise : is that so f indeed? Mod. 

huna'shak, abbr. hunshak, huntsak, hunsak, d. huhanashak, adv , the 
various meanings of which are based on the fundamental signification: 
^^for no apparent reason'\ (1) groundlessly, unreasonably, in vain, foolishly, 
absurdly: h. hu h(^mkanka he talks silly things; hu'ndsak tchi insh spu'lhi 
for no reason you thus imprison me, 64, 16.; for no real cause, 38, 17. 59, 
16. 64, 10. (2) falsely, abusively: h. shdshatko /je has a nickname. (3) 
gratuitously, for nothing, scot-free, without pay: h. pe'lpeli to work for no 
compensation, 35, 18. (4 J accidentally, fortuitously : h. nu shnuka I obtained 
by mere chance. (5) unawares: h. ktiule;fa he was knocked down unawares. 
(6) "/ do not know'\ in reply to a query like: "What will you do?" Cf. 
tud lish? what is the matter? or: what do you want? hunsak: '^nothing", lit. 
"your question is to no avail": hunsak vula 1. — In the Nisqualli Selish 
language patlatl corresponds exactly to h. ; c£ G. Gibbs' Dictionary, in 
Contrib. No. Am. Ethnol. I, p. 339, under "nothing". 

hundred, English term substituted for ta-un^pni ta-unep: tinA h. one hun- 
d/red, 90, 1. 3.; vun^pni h. shu'ldshSsh /o«r hundred soldiers, troops, 37, 20. 

h u n f , hu'nitak, pron. pers. and refl., in his or her own mind, by himself or 
herself: slji'popk hu'nitak he was aware, he knew; lit. "he observed by 
himself", 107, 14. 108, 5. Cf. hukf. 

h u 71 k , hu'nk, pi. hu'nksha; obj. of sing, and pi. hu'nkiash, hu'nkigsh, 

hull — hunk. 79 

hunkish, hu'nksh, hu'nk, hunk, link (1) ])ron. clem, this, this one. (2) pron. 
pers he, she, it. — Used very unfrequently in the subj. cases, but in the obi. 
cases referring to anim. beings (and in the form hunk to inan. things also) 
present and visible or supposed to be so: hiinkiash tunepa'nash sha't'la 
he hired these five (men), 44, 2.; 161oksgish hunkish ii't%i! disarm him of 
his rifle! 37, [).; i a-i tawi hiinksh you have bewitcJied her, 68, 10.; shli't i 
luVnks! you shoot him! 107, 14.; hu'nksh vu'shat ^ will flee before him, 
147, 13.; na'dskank hu'nk uba-ush while applying that piece of skin, 73, 4.; 
shliutuapkug hu'nk /o>" the purpose of firing at him, 66, 12 ; hu'nk nu nen 
gi / mean him, her; hu'nk sa kiuksas a'mpgle tchi'shtal they brought that 
conjurer hack to his lodge, 69, 2. Here h refers to a dead person, and 
like Iiii't, hu'nksht, it is often used in this sense to avoid giving the name 
of the deceased: hiik pil link shla't shku'ks dead persons only can see the 
spirits, 129, 1. Cf 68, 5. 10. 87, 1. 11. 12. 129, 4-7. and Note to 64, 1. 
It is not always easy to distinguish, whether h. is the pron. or the adv., 
cf. tchu'tantki giug hu'nk shillalpksli to have the one treated who fell sick, 
65, 18.; cf 64, 5. 11. 101, 16. Locat. case: hunkant (4nkutat) ts'hdlam- 
nank sitting against that tree, 30, 12.; shnu'lashtat hu'nkant m that nest, 
101, 13.; partit. case: pi hu'nkanti shdwana he gave (him) of that (meat), 
113, 10.; cf 30, 21.; instr.: hunkantka uba-ushtka by means of that piece 
of buckskin, 73, 2.; hunkantka waitashtka the same day, 87, 2. Cf. hu, 
hu'k, hunkanti. 
h u n k , hu'nk, unk, adv. simultaneously loc. and temp., referring to acts 
performed or states undergone in the distance and proximity, most fre- 
quently in the past tense, but sometimes in the present and future tense 
also; not translatable in English. Connected with intransitive verbs we 
find it in: nu h. tiii'ma / was hungry ; at h. pdn pala-ash ye were eating 
bread; maklaks h ndniik wawapkan the Indians all sitting around, 14, 5.; 
wak i h. giug ka-i u'na gii'mpele? why did you not go home yesterday? sha 
h. spu'klitcha they start out for sweating, 88, 3 ; 1 unk h^mkanka you were 
talking. With transitive verbs it occurs in: lakf p'nd h. shu'ldshash hi- 
hashual%an the commander then placing his soldiers in ambush, 14, 3.; nd- 
ul^a h ge'n Jie resolved, 94, 3.; h. na-a'sht gi Aishish so said Aishish, 
95, 21.; tdnk a nu h. shu'ktga I struck myself sometime ago with the hand 


or fist; i nOsh tula h. wudu'ku liii'iiksli you and I struck Iiiiit with ii club; 
cf. 59, 22. 65, 6. 66, 1. 73, 8. 95, 10. 19. Cf. the udverbs: hu, huk, 
tclifhunk, tchig'hunk, tchuyunk. 

h u n k ;i y a , d. huhankAya to fly on, to fly towards or m/;o«, as upon bushes, 
trees, rocks etc. : p'laf wash h. kdpkatat the golden eagle flew upon the pine- 
tree, 100, 7. Cf. gaki'iya, tchaggdya. 

hiinkanka, d. huh^nkanka (1) to run habitually or repeatedly: hohiiidc- 
ankatk Iflhanks the running animals, quadrupeds (viz : animals neither swim- 
ming, nor creeping, nor jumping), 145, 1. (2) to fly hahituaUy: unkutat 
tchia nanuktua huhankankatko on trees live all kinds of birds; cf. 145, 8. — 
Speaking of two or three: tushkanka, of many: tinkanka, 80, 7. 

h u n k a n t i , hunkgiinti, hu'nkant (1 ) partitive case of hunk, q. v. (2) adv. 
and conj.: thereby, therefore, on that account, for that reason: h sawika he 
became angry for this reason, 19, 8.; cf 21,4.; h. wfshink hamt';{e on this 
sid)ject the garter-snake said, 103, 8.; hunkanti' thereat, 58, 14.; hu'nkant 
tchish a wi-uka on that account also they win, 80, 4. Cf 96, 14. 21. 103, 11 
Hu'nkant is also locat. case, and then is abbr. from hu'nkantat; see tbe 
pronoun hunk. 

hunkantcha' an account of that, for this reason, considering that, 59, 1. 
Contr. from hunkanti tche'. Cf tche. 

h li n k 6 1 a m , pron. poss. of the third pers. sing.: his, her or hers, its. It is 
the poss. case of hu'nk, q. v., and refers to anim. and inan. objects sup- 
posed to be in closer proximity to the one speaking than with p'ndlam: 
h. p'gi'shap its mother, 91, 4. 5.; h. we'ash his or her child, 85, 16 

h u n k e 1 a m s h a m , syncop. Kl. : hu'nkiamsham, hu'nkimsham, pron. poss. 
of the third pers. pi.: their, theirs (anim. and inan.). It is the poss. case 
of hiinksha, pi. of hu'nk, which has to be compared for its signification: 
shu'dshash hunkidmsham while a camp-fire was kept up by them, 119, 21. 
Sham stands for h. in r22, 17. Cf 111, 19. and hiinkelam. 

h u n k C 1 a m s k n i , pi. hunkeliimshamskni coming, proceeding from, belong- 
ing to his or her place, house, lodge, 20, 18. Contr. from hunkSltimkshkni. 

h u' n k s h t , ])1. hu'nktsha, but more frequently hii'ktsha, obj. cases sing, 
and pi. of hii'ksht, hiiksht tliat, that one, referring to anim. beings absent 
or supposed to be at a distance and invisible : na'-ul;f a h. Pd'lam snawa'- 
dsas they tried that wife of Ball, 78, 9. Stands also for the pers. pronouns 

li u u k a y a — h u' p 6 1 a u s h a . 81 

Mm, her, it, them: tankt iiat siuga h at last we killed him, 23, 2.; kdyak h. 
sliewanank giving nothing to him, 113, 8.; h. kaltchitchikshash heshuam- 
pglitki ging that the spider-remedy ivould cure him, 72, 4. Cf. 59, 11. 

hunkt, sing, and pi., obj. case of hu'kt, hukt: that thing, those things; or 
as pron pers.: it, them. Refers to inan. objects which are far off or in- 
visible, or supposed to be so by the one speaking: nu a eal^a h. I gave 
names to those objects. 

h li' n k t a k , hiinktoks, obj. case sing, and pi. of pron. dem and pers. hu'k- 
tak: anim. and inan. (1) with emphatic signification: him, her, it, them: 
hu'nktoks nu hushkanka ma'ntchnish all these things of the past I recollect. 

(2) with refl signification : himself, herself, itself, themselves. 

h u n t a k i a , d huhantakia to fly upon, to rush doivn upon : yaukal hu'nta- 

kiank shnu'ka tchikash the white-headed eagle rushing down catches a bird. 
hiinti sh , d. huhontish a butterfly, whose caterpillar is called s^esliish and 

the chrysahd pu'l^uantch, q. v. Cf hiintchna 
hiiutsak, 59, 16 ; same as hun4shak, q. v 
h u n t c h d m p e 1 i , d. huhantcluimpeli to fly back or home, to return by flying; 

said of the shkt'-bird, 177; 21. 
h u n t c h i p k a , d. huhantchipka to fly towards, 1 83 ; 25. 
hiintchna, h6ntchna, d huhontchna (1) to fly or soar in a straight line, 

177; 21.; said of night birds, 145, 7. (2) to fly, to soar away, 144, 5. 6. 

(3) to fly or flutter around; said of certain species of butterflies, one of 
which is called huntish, q. v. 

h li n u , hu'nii, pron dem : that thing before me or you. Cf gdnu from g^n. 
h li' n u a , d. huhanua to fly while skimming the tvaves, to fly while half in the 

toater: tdplal w6-a hu'nflank mil stix'tzantko loud is the loon^s cry when he 

skims the wave-crests, 183; 24. 
h u p a k 1 e z a , d. huhapakle^a to meet while running, to run against: tsui ni 

h. lAp a hihassuaksas tvhile I was running I encountered two men, 23, 16. — 

Speaking of two or three, tushpakle;^a; of many subjects, timpakle;ja 
h li' p 6 1 a n s h a , d. huhapglansha to run or rush alongside of, as along the 

course of a river and in the direction of its current: tsui ni hopeldnsa and 

I followed the river, 23, 16. — Speaking of two or a few, tu'shp'lansha; of 

many, timp'lansha. Der. hii'ta, -p6li. Cf hui^ansha. 


hupka, d. Iiuhapka to he in a condensed state; to he thick, heavy, strong: ruii 

h. luash the fog is very thick; hiipkan kto'dsha a heavy rain falls; md 

hupkatk paisliash heavy storm-cloud, cloud-hurst, Lat: iraber; mu liiipkatk 

kailiilapsh trousers of thick material (cloth, buckskin etc.); t;t6po pat 

hi'ipkatko as thick as the thumb. 
li I'l s li a , d. huliAsha to remember, recollect; to think of: skaki'sli ni'na hii'sbilk 

remembering his heirloom, 100, 2. Cf. lidwa, shewa. 
li u s li a k a , d. huhashdka to drive out, as animals out of boles, dens, recesses 

etc., 127, 8. Der sbu'ka. 
bu sbakgiol6tki sb , d. hubSsbakgioldtkisb key, door-key, lit. "uu- 

locker". Kl. Der. hushaki61a. 
b u s b A k i a , busb6kia, d. buksbakia (for bub'sb^kia) to lock, as a door, 

trunk etc.; when door is the object, kaisbtisb can be added to the verb, 
h u s h a k i 6 1 a , busboki61e, d. buksbaki61a to unlock. 
b u s b a k i 6 1 k i s b , contr. busbakio'tcb, d. huhasbaki6tkish (1) key; door-key. 

Kl and Mod. (2) lock, door-lock, Mod., lit. "locking- tool". Der. hushakia. 
h u s b a n u a 1 k s h , d. bubashdnualksh paper kite; balloon. Der nuwdl;ta 
b u H b a s h a , d linb'sb4sha to threaten ivith a blow, to make a motion to hit. 
b u s b a t s a , d. luihashatsa (1) to ride fast. (2) toga andride, to start on, aride. 
b us b a tchipgap 6li to throw up again after swallowing: bdnsbisb h. to 

throw up the sucked-out object, 68, 6. 
busbenisb, d buhasb^nish /jorse-race. Der. busblna-a. 
b u s b g a p t c b a , d. buhasbgaptcha, v. trans., to satisfy, to please somebody. 
bushinii-a, husbina-a, apoc. bushina, d. bubasbina-a, hubashina (1) to 

race horses, to start or arrange a horse-race, to take part in it. A law of the 

Klamath Lake tribe interdicts these races: 59, 22.; bushina i-Af do you 

race any horses? (2) to have afoot-tace. 
b u' s h k a , d. buliAsbka to run or swim away. 
hushka (u long), d. bubiishka to think, reflect, study: tua i busbka? what 

do you think about itf Der. biislia. Cf husbkanka. 
b u s h k a k n (■ g a , d. huhashkaknega to soil or besmear oneself, to get dirty. 

Der. kakncga. 
b u s b k a 1 k a , d. hubaslikiilka, v. trans., to insert into the perforated nose, 

as a dentalium-shell (tutasli). Cf shei;tisb. 

h I'l p k a — h u s h n II t a . 83 

h u s h k/i 1 ;j a , luish;^;il;fa, d. liuliash;^al%a (1) to lay, to stretch out; to lay on 
the ground. (2) to put to bed, bring to bed, as babies, patients etc. Der. 

h 11 s li k a 1 X a n d t k o of diversified colors, showing various colors. 

hushkanka, d. huMshkanka (1) to think, to think over, to reflect: tidsh 
h. to have good intentions, 93, 8. (2) to remember, recollect, 82, 12. (3) to 
mind: kd-i tchin wdk o'skank I do not resent it much, I am not very angry 
about this matter, I donH mind it in any ivay, 65, 1. Cf. 139, .5. Der. 
lu'ishka. More in use than husbka and liusha. Cf. htiwa, k6pa, shc^wa. 

hvi sh k an k sli , d. Inihfishkanksh (1) thinking, thought, idea, reflection. (2) 
power of reflection, intellect, mind, will (in 139, 2. it stands for "kingdom^^): 
I'tak hai wt'tk gi mitok li. ! do what you please! Mod.; hfshuaksh taMnish 
ak h. gitko a man of well-balanced mind, Mod. Cf. k6%pash. 

h u s h k i u t a n k a , d huhashkiutanka (1) to bring together. (2) to make live 
together: hushkiu'tankpele to cause to live together again, 78, 6. Der. 
shkuyui. Cf hushutanka No 1 . 

hiishkititka, d. hiikshkiutka, 7S', 12 ; same as hushkiutanka, q v. 

h I'l s li % a k t a , d. liuhash;ijakta to demand, charge, ask for money or valuables. 

hushliamna, d. huhashliamna to hand over to all around, to put in the 
hands of all: te'kish shash huhashliamna he put swords in all their hands, 
113, 19. Der. shulia. 

h u s h 1 1 n s h a , d. huhashlinsha ( I ) to run away from, to abandon, relinquish. 
(2) to step down from the horse, mule. (3) to leave at home, in the camp. — 
Speaking of two or three, tushlinsha; of many objects, tilfnsha, q. v. 

hush It a, d. huh^shlta (1) to comport oneself, the French "se porter"; all 
these verbs being used of the state of one's health : nil tidsh h gen waitash 
I feel ivell to-day ; wdk i li6shltaf how do you dof tidsh, kii-i h nil I am 
in good, bad health, or: ku-i a n'sh h I feel unwell (2) to be in good health, 
to do well (without the adv. tidsh) Der. shldta. 

h u s h m o' k 1 a ; d. liuhashmo'kla ( 1 ) ^o weed or pluck out the hair on beard 
or body, 90, .5. (2) to shave oneself Der. smo'k. 

hush mokl 6 t k i sh , d huhashraoklotkish, any instrument for removing 
hair. (1) jnncer to pluck out hair on body, beard etc. 90, 5. (2) razor. 

li u s h n a t a , d. huhashnata, v trans, and impers., to burn oneself on part of 


body: li. a n'sli spt'luish / hurnt myself on tJie index-finger; nut4k ne'p li. / 
hi(nil viy limid. Dei\ slinuta. 

li u s h n % a , d. liuli;'islai%a {\) to seize, grasp each other. (2) to shake hands; 
lu'p hands is usually added to this verb. Der. sliiu'ika, q. v. 

h u s h 11 o' k a , d. liuhashno'ka to hake, to cook. Der. slinu;ja. 

li u s h u k a n k a , liusliukanka, d. liuhashokaiika to ride upon, the object be- 
ing- added: pi a h. gx'-u watch he rode my horse; g^pke 1 tul' i'sh hu8h6kank 
i'k a watchatka! come and take a ride with me! 

h u s h 6 1 a 1 X a , d. huhh'sh61al%a to prance aboid, to ride around, 183; 22. 

h u s h 6 t p a , d. huhash6tpa to ride up to; to arrive on horseback, QQ, 14. 

hiishotchna, d. huhash(jtchna, huhh'sh6tchna (1) to ride fast, to gallop. 
(2) to ride on horseback ; wiitchtat, watchat "ow a horse" is added some- 
times. Der. shiidshna. 

li u s h p i'l 1 i , hushpalhi, d. huhashpdlhi to lock oneself up or in. Der. spuli. 

h u s h p a n t c h n a , d. liuhashpaiitchna to walk arm in arm. Der. spunshna. 

h u sli p {\ n u a , d. huhashpdnua to make drink, give to drink: nu a watchasli 
auibii h. I give the horse to drink. Der. bunua. 

h u s h p k t c h t a , d huhashpjitchta to scare, to frighten, 41, 17. Cf. hi'isht;ja. 

h u s h p u' t % a , d. huhashpu't%a to put the legs apart. Cf. pe'tch. Der. stulka 

h u s h t a n k a , d. huhashtdnka to meet, when both parties are walking or 
coming towards each other, 40, 13 : Modoki'sliash h. K6ketat he met the 
Modocs on Lost River, 33, 2.; cf. 40, 10. 41, 9-19. Ill, 13. Cf gglidanka. 

h u s h t a p k a , d. huhashtApka (1) to stab each other, 11 4, 2 3 (2) to stab 
oneself; to prick, puncture oneself. (3) to strike, stab hack. Der. stiipka. 

hushtctish, d. huhasht(itish (1) tracing, painting, picture; lit. "scratch- 
ing". (2) portrait of somebody: mi'ut (mi hu't) h. this is the portrait of your 
own self. Kl for husht^wash Mod. Der. hushtiM'a. 

h u s h t r k t a m n a , d. huhashti'ktamna to dream frequently, 83, 3. ; to dream 
habitually. Der. ti'ii;(a, -tamna. 

li u s li t i % a , d. huhashti;ia to make somebody dream, 129, 2. Der. tuiza. 

liushtiwa, d. huhashtiwa (1) to scratch each o^Aer with a sharp instru- 
ment, i>iii, needle etc.; to prick, puncture, stab each other. Mod. hushtiyua. 
(2) to scratch, prick, puncture somebody or something. Der. t(^wi. 

li u s h t k a , (1. huliashtka to stab oneself- h. watitka he stabbed himself with a 
knife. Der. stuka. 

h u s li 11 X a — h u' t . 85 

li u s h t % a , d. hulii;isht%a (\) to scare, frighten, make fear : tchtiki a h. na- 
yents the hoy scares another; h. i n'sh you frightened me. (2) to threaten with 
a blow or Uows. Der tuka Cf. hushpatchta. 

li 11 s h 1 1 1 n a , d. huhashtlina to quarrel; to he wroth, angry: nkn%a. huhaslit- 
liiia some (of us) were quarreling, 23, 7. Der. stulf 

li u s li 1 5' 1 k i , d. huhashto'lki to pile uj), heap up, accumulate, as when gather- 
ing up the fire, coals. Cf. shio'l;^i, shutualsha. 

husht6pakta, d. huhashtiipakta (\) to d-raw forth, pull out: h. loloksgish 
to draw forth the rifle, 19, 9. (2) to prepare for hattle, to he ready for the fight; 
to he on the point of attacking (Jf shuktapka, stupka. 

h u s h t p 4 t c h k a , d. hiihashtpatchka ; same as hashpatchka, q. v. 

hushtch6ka, hushts5'%a, d. huhashtchoka (I) to kill, to murder each other, 
108, 5. (2) to cause to perish, to put to death; to kill, murder, exterminate, 
generally used when speaking of more than one object, 88, 7. 9. 10. and 
Note; 93, 7.: nanka Sa't liu'shtchok some of the Snake Indians were killed, 
28, 10.; fi-ukskni tu'm hu'shtclioz Moatuashash the Klamath Lakes killed 
(in war) many Pit River Indians, 19, 1. Cf i6, 8. 17, 2. 9. 14. 28, 6. 
69, 1. (one person) 133, 8. 134, 8. Der. tch6ka. 

h u s h t c h o' k ' li u y a , husts6kuya to kill a few only, 1 9, 4. and Note. 

hushu'dsha, d. huhashudsha; same as hushatsa, q. v.: hush6tclupka to 
ride fast or gallop towards ; to ride up to, 189; 4. Der. shiidsha. (Jf. hu- 

hushu'ktgi, d. huh'shti'ktgi to make hurry up; to arouse for the start, to 
set a going, to force to go. Der. shuka. 

hushutanka, d. huhashtitanka (1) to tie together, strap up. (2) to secure 
a wild or runaway horse or other animal. Kl. for hushu6tanka Mod. 

hushutanka, d. huhashiitanka to go to meet secretly, to approach on the sly, 
to rejoin clandestinely, 110, I. and Note Der. hiitanka. Cf shawaltanka 

hu' t, hut, ho't, pi hu'dsha (from hu't=sha), pi'on. dem.: this, this one, the one 
here; pi. these, these here. Refers to anim. and inan. objects of a long or 
elongated exterior, as persons, quadrupeds, birds, arrows, poles, fires etc. 
seen in close proximity or at a short or moderate distance only, or sup- 
posed to be near: kani h gi? wlio is this man standing before us? h. lali'ga 
Tiihushash it remained sticking on 3Iml-IIen here, 97, 1 ; ge-u a h. hii'njl- 


sish thin here is my long magic arrow, 164; 3., cf. 183; 19.; hflt dn'sh it! 
shli'kshga this (boy here) well nigh shot me out tlwre, 101), 16.; K'mukdmts 
a lio't ki! this one here is K'mukamtch! 100, 13 ; but tcbi'ka-ag (bis) old 
mother here, 158; 54.; but na'sbt sbii'shatk pi'sliasb this (bird before you) 
is called humming-bird, 177; 25. In the same sense it may stand also for 
our pers. prons. he, she, it, they. Modocs use hCi instead of hu't, and the 
pi. biVdsba is at the same time the pi. of bu and hu't: bfl'dsbatoks but those 
persons who, 87, 9. Hu't also refers to the dead, when they (or their 
spirits) are supposed to exist at a small distance only: 64, 1. 9. and Note 
to 64, 1. 
h li t, hti't , adv. referring to the same class of objects as described under 
pron. hu't, and appearing, or supposed to appear visibly either close by or 
at some distance from the one speaking: (1) right here, close by: hu't ka 
shashgu'tkish gcipka here an old beggar comes. (2) over there, yonder, in the 
distance ■' hii't mAlam p'gi'shap shu'dsha over there your mother built a fire, 

119, 20; ka-i hu't lu'loks Aishisham nu'ta it is not AishisMs fire which 
burns out there, 100, 18. 

huta, hu'ta, (u short) d. huhdta (1) v. intr., to jump up, to run, to start on a 

run. (2) V. trans., to rush upon, 
h u t a 1 a , d. huhatala to run against with a hostile intention. Der. hiita. 
li u t a 1 % a , d. huhatdl;ta to run or rush towards, to rush at: hu hutaldk mish, 

Mod., he rushes at you aggressively. Der. hutala 
but a m p k a , d hub'tampka (l) to run into distance. (2) to run off near to, to 

approach closely while running, the indirect object to be added: yafnatat to 

the hills or mountains. — Speaking of two or a few, tu'shtampka, 23, 15.; 

of many, tfntampka. Der. hiita. 
h u t a m s z a , d. buhatams^a to rush near or between, to jump between, 34, 10. 

42, ! 3. Der. hiita. 
hut ap on a, d. huhuttlpena to reach by running, to run near, to run past: 

butapgno'lshi n's after I had reached there by running past (for: butapgno'- 

lashi nush) 22, 11.; butdpenan. Mod., it ran past, went past, 127, 2. 
h u t a t c h k i a ; see hutatcbkiiila and utdtchkia. 
h u t a t c h k i u 1 a , d. hu-utatchkiula to remove the cover or lid, to open up, 

120, 10. Cf utdtchkia. 

hut — h II w a 1 X a . 87 

h I'l t k a 1 a , hu'tkal, d. huhatkala, huluitkal to arise, get up, start up, as from 
sleep etc.; to jump up, start, 110, 16. — When speaking of two or tliree, 
til'shtkala; of many subjects, tintkala, 16, 5. 

h I'l t k a 1 p 6 1 i , d. huh^tkalpgh to rise up again, to run or jump up again, 
] 08, 2. : kla'^atk gi'ntak i htl'tkalpalank shh'-uapk though dead you will rise 
up again to shoot (him), 110, 6. 

h I'l t k a 1 s h n a , d. huhdtkalshna to start up, to rise suddenly, to get up pre- 
cipitately, 112, 1 3. 

h u t ;{ a p s h a , d. huh4t;^apsha (1) to run or move fast towards, as towards 
a river, lake, prairie etc. (2) to run straightways, in direct line towards. — 
Speaking of two or a few, tu'shtxapsha; of many, tint^apsha. Der. hiitxi. 

h.\\i%\ , luit%e, d. huh4t%i to rush to a spot, to run towards; to leap, to jump: 
tsui ni h., tsui 14p nish ntd-isalta hu't.;fipsh (for hut;^ipkash) thereupon I 
leaped down fthe rocky slope), then two men shot at me while I ran doivn, 
22, 3.: tsiii ni ho't^e then I rusJied towards (him), 30, 16. 

hut%idsha, hut%idshna, d. huhat^idsha, huhat%idshna to jump or leap 
while running, 125, 4. 7. 9. 126, 1. 

hiitna, d. huhAtna to run up to, to rush upon; to attack, 55, 3.: hu'tan for 
hu'tna sJie ran up (to him), 96, 5 and Note. Der. huta. 

h lit pa, d. huhdtpa (I) to run towards the one speaking. (2) to run, rush 
or jump towards, 22, 4.; to arrive at. — Speaking of two or a few, tu'shtpa; 
of many, tintpa, 23, 20. 

hiitcha, d. huhatcha; see hudsha. 

h u t c h n a , d. huhAtchna; see hiidshna. 

hutchndash, d. huhatchn^ash runner, climber. Cf. p'laina=hutchn(iash. 

hiiwa, h6a, d. hu'hua, h6hoa (1) to leap, to jump into the water, river, lake. 
(2) to skip up in the water; said of men jum})ing from one boulder to 
another in a river, 74, 2. — When speaking of two, tu'shua; of many sub- 
jects, tfnua Cf. gdwa, shuwa. 

huwali^ga, d. huhuali^ga to run up hill; lit "to begin running upwards". 
Said of a young man, 183; 17. 

h u w a 1 % a , hu'-ualka, d. huhu'wal^a to run against: hu'walakuapk a't Anku- 
tat ye would run against (projecting) tree-limbs, 118, 11.; hualaknnpkslit 
ndlsh ankutat we might run against tree-limbs, 120, 4. 



I is pronounced either clear (i) or dumb (i), alternates with y, e, a, is 
sometimes lengthened into iy- or yi-, and also forms diphthongs. Initial i 
(or e-) sometimes represents the prefix i-, indicative of a plurality of long- 
shaped articles, even persons; cf. iggd}a, ikla, ila, fmnaks and the prefixes 
a-, ksh-, ta-, u-. In ib^na, ibutuya the prefixed i- is the particle hi, i, on 
or in the ground, upon the soil, q. v 

1, i', i-i, i-i; e, e-e, e-c' (1) yes, yea, yes indeed! "i"', a lu'l^ag "yes", (said) 
the bear cubs, 120, 11.; tarn liiluks pitchga? i', pftchga! Is the fire out? yes, 
it went out! i-i tidsli! that^s well! all right! I is more frequent than e, 
e-e; cf. 125, 5, where e marks surprise, and 41, 19. (2) interr., is that 
sof indeed f 140, 11. 
i, i, procl. and end ; i, i', i-i; Ik, ik; obj. mish, abbr. m'sh, m's. (1) pron. 
pers. of the second person sing, thou, you: hii i lin pen gdpktak, tchu'i 
mish nu un tush spulaktak if you come here again then I will loclc you up at 
some place, 36, 2.; i tchui'n! you mud sing! 90, 12 ; i pi'l i hissudksh pil 
you the husband, you alone, 60, \.i ; i-i tcliiii tumenal ellipt. i-i tchiii? do 
you hear mef do you understand now? sfuga 1'! you killed (him)! 65, 14.; ik 
for i occurs in a quotation under liushokanka. (2) i, ik are used some- 
times in allocutions for at ye, when by addressing one all others present 
are addressed also: i hipuk both of ye, 60, 6.; ampka ak i hishu'kat lest 
ye may kill each other, GO, i2.; shuinuapk i ndnuk! all of ye sing! 90, 14.; 
wak I'k 161i? why do all of ye believe? 64, 10. Cf. 58, 10. 
i, i, -i, -i', apher. form of hi, hi on the ground, etc.; suffixed to nouns as a 
postposition of the inessive case, and to the verbal indef as a temporal 
suffix; cf. waslii, in the den or cavity; ni'sh a gishi' whik I stayed, 22, 2. 3. 
It occurs also as a suffix in hukf and hunitak, q v., and in other functions, 
i-akdwa, yakc'vya, d. of ik(^wa; see ukewa. 
f-alliish, 1)1. tiimi i., guardian, watchman, policeman ; jail-keeper, 59, 17. 

19. Absolute form not in use. Der. ilhi. 
1-amna, lyannia, d. i'-amna, v. trans., referring to a plurality of long- 
shaped objects: (1) to put, set, hang on or around oneself; to wear, as beads. 
(2) to fake hold of, to take away for oneself, to confisratv: nu i'-amnuapk i';Kaks 

i — ids^a. 89 

mi I shall take away your gain, 59,22. (3) to seize, grasp by hand, to take hold 
of: i-amnAii Idloksgish seizing their rifles, 34, 10. and Note. (4) to tale 
along with, to carry about; when speaking of persons, to be at the head of, to 
command: pas I'yamnatk dmbuts I'yamnatk carrying food and wafer with 
them, 101, 12.; shu'ldshasli i-amnatko in command of troops, 43, 5.; mdklaks 
f-amnatko at the head of Indians, 55, 12. 56, 5, cf. 99, 2. — Speaking of 
one object only, iiyamna, q. v. Cf. yamnash, kshuyamna. 

1 - a m n a s Ii ; see yamnash. 

i - ti t k 1 i s h , pi. tiimi i., (1) one who finds accidentally. (2) lucky, fortunate, 
favored by fortune. Der. itkal ; see also nddkal. 

i - A - u k a 184 ; 26 , d. of Iwag, q. v. 

ib^kantko, d. ipepkantko (1) hole, boring; perforation made by an 
auger, borer. (2) hole or aperture scratched out. (3) tunnel, subterranean 
gallery, horizontal passage underground. Cf. ibt-na, y^wa, stu. 

i b e n a , hipdna, d. ibdpa, hipepa to dig in the ground; to mine, excavate, dig 
up : to dig a hole, 85, 1 1 . Mod. for yepa Kl., q. v. Cf. mdjsi, p'nana. 

ibut6katko, d. ibu-ipt6katko (1) adj., honeycombed, full of holes, diggings, 
excavations. (2) subst., mine-shaft, rock-pit. Cf. ib^na. 

i b u t u y a , d. ibu-iptuya to dig, to dig up, to dig a hole; to work with a pick- 
axe. Cf ibdna. 

1 d s h a , itcha, d. i-idsha, i-itcha (1) to carry, transport; chiefly used of long- 
shaped, heavy objects and of articles spoken of collectively: hii kanf ko'l 
idshant if somebody carries kol-roots with him, Note to 147, 12.; at idshi'sht 
when (the bodies) are brought out, 85, 1. {2) to remove, drive away, make 
go; said of persons, cattle etc.: idsha (for i'dsha at) mdklakshash remove 
ye the Indians, 37, 1.; watch i. they drove away the horses, 54, 12.; cf 44, 
5. (pass.). — Speaking of one object, see remarks at end of article ^na. 

i d s h 4 m p e li , d. i-idsh4mp6h to bring or convey back, to remove to the former 
place or seat: shand-uliuga itchdmpglish ivishing to bring them back, 36, 10. 
Der. fdshna, -p6li. 

idshlpa d. i-idshipa to strip, disrobe: nde-ul;fapkash i. shulo'tish they strip- 
ped the fallen man of his coat, 42, 10. Der. idsha. 

£ds;^a, idshka, d. i-dds^a (l) to lay, stretch over somebody or something; 
said of long-shaped articles only, as poles, sticks, pencils. (2) to sprecul, 


sprinkle, bestrew with: tchu'lelcs k'lekApkash i. they spread pieces of flesh 
over the corpse, 85, 8. Der. ita. Cf. Ifds^a, n^dsza, shldds^a. 

f dshna, ftclina, d. i-adshna; (1) same as fdsha: to bring, transport to; ati' 
idshnan bringing from a great distance, 85, 17. (2) to remove to, drive to, 
34, 2. Der. fdsha. Cf. ^na. 

i d li y u a to kick each other, Mod. Cf. idii'ka, idupka. 

i d u' k a , idi'ikka, d. i-idiika to kick: idulcatko one who is kicked. 

i d II pka , d. idu-iddpka to kick, inflict kicks: tchdwash hii'nk idu'pka tchd- 
keli tflktgi, he kicked the antelope to make it bloodshot, 126, 7. 

i - o s h k 6 t k i s h , yc^slikutch rag; sheet, sheet of paper etc: n^-ish (for nd-i 
tsli) lin i-^shkutch! give me this rag, hand me this sheet! 

iggd-idslia, d. i-igg^i-idsha ; see agga-idsha. 

i g g a - i d s h n a , d. i-iggd-idshna ; see agg4-idshna. 

i g g a y a , d. i-iggjiya, ( 1 ) v. trans. ; see agg4ya and kshaggdya. (2) subst., 
provisions hung in sacks upon trees. 

i h a , d. i-alia, lyaha to hide, secrete, conceal; said of inan. things. Cf gdyaha. 

f h i a to pick out, select, choose: ktd-i shiishuankaptcha i'hiank selecting stones 
of the same size, 8i, 13. Cf shi-fha. 

i h 1 - u , exclam. used chiefly by females; see i-u. 

i h u ii 1 a , d. i-uhudla; see iwtila. 

ik, pron. pers. of second pers. sing., thou, you; see i. 

i k a , d. f-ika to take out, extract, remove from: weweas m'na i'ka (the wolf) re- 
moved his young (from the lodge), 113, 22.; lo'kpeksh i. to take the ashes out. 

ikaga, f^aga, ikak, Mod. fkga; d. '\-i%?igiy, Mod. i-lkga (1) to take out, take 
from, extract, 113, 1.: I'kagank pa'n ku'l shtapka ktayatka te/cm^ om< (of 
the pit) the kol-roots again they pound them with stones, 147, II. (2) to win, 
gain; to obtain by winning a game: uduiwisham i'%aguk n4nuk having won 
all the articles staked by the losers, 79, 6.; 1 in'sh ixdkl you win me! sas 
Aishish i'kak Aishish won their stakes, J) 9, 6. c£ 99, 8.; sa K'mukamtsas 
i'kak they won over ICmukamtch, 101, 1.; tu'm i'kak they won many stakes, 
101, 1.; turn ix-A^y-x he makes many gains, i34, 5. Der. ika 

ikay lila, d. i-ikayuhi to pick out, select, choose, 107, 7. Der. ika. Cf ihia. 

iktikpele, I'xakpgle, d. i-ik4kp6le (\) to remove again, take out anew: kta-i 
i'%akpele they took out the stones again, 113, 2. (2) to win again, to gain once 
more. Der. ikaga, -pCli. 

idshna — ikxiga. 91 

ikak s, i^aksh, d. i-ikaks (I) object taken out, extracted. (2) gain, stake won 
at a race, play or game, 59, 22. Der. Ikaga. 

f k a ni p 6 1 i , d. i-ikampeli (\) to take out again. (2) to take out, haul up, re- 
move from, 120, 17. Der. ikna, -p6li. 

1 k a s h 1 a ; see yikashla. 

ik^wa, ika'wa, d i-akdwa; see uk^wa. 

ikla, d. i-;ikla, v. trans, referring to long-shaped objects: (1) to lay down 
upon; to lay, place, put upon: ti'atat I'kglank tchule'ks j^wi^m^ meat upon a 
paddle, 113, 10. (2) ikla, or partic. iklatko, numeral classifier added to 
numbers from 12 to 19, 22 to ^9, 32 to 3'» etc.: I lay down, he lays doivn; 
laid down, viz "counted". (3) to lay under, to put below, underneath; as 
a stick under a table. Der. fka. Cf ila, kshikla. 

i k 1 a s h , d i-dklash saddle-blanket. 

1 k n a , d. i-akna (\) to take out of, to extract. (2) to extirpate : partic. ikantko 
d. i-ikantko castrated, gelding; castrated ox, hog, horse etc.; also called kdliak 
sliilks, Kl. Der. ika. 

Ikta , d. i-4kta (1) to offer, make an offer. (2) to offer a reward Der. Ika. 

i k t c h a , i'ktsa, d. i-aktcba to obtain while going; to go and take, to go after; 
to seek, haul, haul in, fetch. Applies to anim and inan. objects: wewansh 
i. to bring in women (for wives), 107, 2., cf. 107, 3 5.; skutasb i'ktsa they 
fetched blankets, mantles, 93, 4.; guhuasliktcha i'ktchuk tchu'leks she started 
out for getting the meat, 119, 22.; shtuli i'ktchatki gfug kma' he sent (him) 
to obtain the skullcaps,, 109, 3. Der. ika. 

Iktchapgli, d. i-4ktchapeli (1) to reobtain while going. (2) to fetch out 
from the lodge or house: ntd-ish i. Shu'kamtch Old Crane went home to get 
a bow, 123, 4. 

1 k u a k p e 1 i , d. i-akuakpeli (I) to put into again, to fill up, to locate a second 
time within. (2) to reload with bullets. Der ikuga. 

ikuga, ikiVga, \%6gix, d. i-dkuga, i-aku'ga, i-a^dga, yiyxxxoga. {I) to place 
in, to put, push into; to insert into, locate within or inside, 95, 16.: yakitat i. 
to put into the seed-basket, 119, 11.; I'ba wiUishikat ikiigank after fillli/g 
sacks with Vbd-seed, 147, 16 17 ; ni'l ikugank stuffing with down, 144, 2.; 
tchekaksh mbu shaksh yi'yu^oga lu'lpat he pushed an arrow-head into the 
blackbird^s eyes, 113, 16. (2) to load a gun, rifle; the object ngt'-ish ball, 
bullet l)eing frequently omitted. Der. ika. Cf. ksh^kuga. 


i X j1 g a , I'^aks ; see Ikaga, fkaks. 

I'la, d. i-;ila, yilla, ydlha, y^la; v referring to persons and to tall, long- 
shaped objects: (1) ^o ^ay down upon^ put down upon, to deposit upon: git 
yjillii! lay (them) doivn here! vunshtat ildpka to had a canoe, to charge or 
freight a hoat. (2) to be alike, to assimilate to: B(3shtin ydlank tvhite-man- 
lilce, in the American manner, 59, 21. (3) yala, yela, partic. ydlatko, 
y(^latko, numeral classifier appended to numbers from 11 to 1^', 21 to 29, 
'6\ to 3!) etc.: k^-u lAp taunepdnta spdkanash ydlatko / possess twelve 
needles. — The form I'la, to lay down one object, is almost superseded l)y tlie 
d form. Cf ilhi, ikla. 

i 1 a 1 a , d. i-ildla to set to the fire for cooking or roasting. 

f 111 i , I'lli, ilhfa, d. i-Alhi, yalhi {\)to put on, locate upon : nepshish f. to place a 
ring on one^s finger. (2) to bring inside, to carry within: (spiiklishtat) I'lhiat 
dtui then they will bring the heated stones into the sweat-lodge, 82, 8. (3) to 
take in, inclose, confine, lock up: la'p I'shka illiuapkuga tchu.shni two they re- 
moved to have them imprisoned for life, 44, 8.; illi-uapka, ilhi'-uapk mish I 
will imprison you, 59, 7. 13. — Speaking of one object only: spulhi, q. v. 

f 1 ' h k a , d. i-;irhka scraper made of stone. Cf il;{(jtkish. 

iligish, illfgish, d. i-iligish (I) inclosure, ground fenced in: ktchi'nkshi. 
corral. Cf niuHgish. (2) guard-house, jail, " sMkum.-house" , Kl. Der. Ilhi. 

ilfna, illfna, d. i-ilfna to take doivn, to toko off 

f 1 k g i s h , d. i-Alkgish; see ilkshgish. 

5' 1 k s h , ilks, d. i-alksh ( 1 ) dish, basket or paddle filled with eatables, 70, 7. 8. 

(2) tlie dance-feast, to which food- l)askets are brought by the partici- 
pants: at g^ntak i'lksat pdn a ye shall go to the feast to eat, 70, 2. and Note. 

(3) i'lks, apoc. from Ilkshgish, q. v. Der. el%a. 

i' 1 k s h gi s h (for ilktchgish), abbr. ilkgish, ilktch, i'lks, d. i-alkshgish grave 
in the ground, 87, 8.: i. yepa to dig a grave; ilks;(e'ni towards the grave, 87, 
6. 7. 9. 16.; ilktch spushspaktchdmpka they make the graves mound-shaped, 
88, 2. Der. ilktcha. 

i' 1 k s h g i s h 1 a , i'lkgishla, d. i-alkshgishla to dig a grave. 

f Iks hi a, d i-alkshla, yalksla to preserve, to keep in caches habitually ; to 
preserve by burying in caches, 146, 10. Der. ilksh. Cf vumi, vumi'sh. 

ilktcha, d. i-dlktcha ( I) to carry away out of sight, to dispose of, to secrete 
underground (vumi'shtat), or in any other maniior: i wigi'ipaiii to put away 

f % a g a — i n o t ( 1 a . 93 

for a while (to get it afterwards). (2) to submerge., immerse, secrete on the 
bottom of waters: w5'ns i. to submerge a dug-out canoe for future use, 74, 15. 
(3) to carry out for burial or cremation, to dis]}ose of the dead, to have a funeral, 
('6, 2. 87, 6. In this signification Kl. prefers isha. 

il%a, d. i-al;{a; same as ^l%a, q. v. 

i\x^ J fl- i-^l^i to lag doivn on the ground; to fell, cut down: tiim i. anku (the 
ax) fells many trees, 178; 11. 

il % 6 1 a , d. i-al^ota to burg along with, to inter simultaneously: pupakuak sha 
nanuktua i. theg burg (with the corpse) all Jcinds of drinJcing vases, 87, 4. 

i ] % 6 t k i s h , il^o'tch, d. i-al^otkish scraping-tool made of iron, bone, horn 
etc., as used in various manufactures (of leather etc.). Cf il'hka. 

ll^uatchla, d. i-til%uatchla to bury in something: i'l^utchluk in order to 
bury (the corpse) in (a blanket), 88, 5.; in this passage shki'itashtat is gov- 
erned by sh^shatui. Der. ilktclia, 

illi, illigish, illi'na; see ilhi, iligish, ili'na. 

i 1 1 6 1 a , ilhola, d. i-ill61a, ( 1 ) v. trans., to take away, to take off, to remove from ; 
to scrape off. (2) v. trans., to discharge, unload, as a horse, mule: to unsaddle: 
ill61i hun watch! unsaddle that horse! (3) v. impers : illola Mod, illolula 
Kl., the year goes round, the year comes to an end, is over, past, completed: 
vun(^pni t4-unap i. at, forty years ago; lApeni illulan after two years; ta- 
unep ill61atko ten years old; illoluapka the year ivill be at an end; lapeni 
ta-unepanta lap pe-ula illo'latko gi he tvas ttventy-two years old, 55, 8., cf. 
54, 3. 55, 20. Mod.; ti'na illololatlc Sha't guikak after the lapse of one year 
the Snake Indians left, 28, 14 Kl. Der. ila. 

i 1 1 6 1 a s h , d. i-ill61ash year; the lapse of one year from one autunmal sea- 
son to the next one: t^-unapni i during ten years, 54, 3.; 1857 i., in the 
year 1857, .'"4, 6.; shAlam i in the autumn of the year, 54, 16. 

i 1 1 o 1 6 1 k i s h , contr. ill61otch, illaiutch, d. i-illol6tkish tool or instrument 
for removing. Cf kpatia. 

i'mnaks necklace, neckwear, beads; Kl. See yamnash. 

1 n a , d i-dna, ysina, adv , downwards, down The absolute form occurs in 
compound words only; see yana. 

inotila (1)^0 place, put, send below, underneath, in the shadoiv of, 183; 15. 
(2) prep, and postp., underneath, below, under. Der. fna, yutfla. 


i 11 11 h II ;i s li ]< ;i to hccp off, to Jceej) away, to prevent: iniihuaslikpak i (fur 
iiiuhuaslikapk i) keep away from, 139, 6.; inuhuasliktipkii a nu tatakiasli 
yuUii-uapkasht g6-u luishuasbtat I prohibit the children from going into 
iiiij garden. Der. ina, hii, huaslika. 

ipaksli j'^ccf^, lodge or cache where provisions are kept; storing-place, maga- 
zine: inbushant nil gdnuapk pu'ksh gt'-u ipakslikstiksi to-morrow I repair 
to the place where I keep my camass. Der. ipka. 

i p c 11 e' % i to place on the top of; said of baskets, disbes, vases ab-eady filled: 
p'le'ntant i. to place on the top of, \\b, II. Cf hapa, ipma'tclia, ksbet'leka 

ipka, d. i-clpka (1) to lie on or in the ground; to remain, to be kept there; 
said of inan. things: I'pakt it may be kept, 14)^, 14 (2) to lie on the ground 
or in bed, to be sick in bed, 101, 20. : k'k'klxatk i. they lay dead on the ground, 
110, 17. (ti) to line, to smear on, to put over: k'la'pki i'p/a tdlishtat they 
smeared red paint in their faces, 120, 1>'. (4) to keep, to secure, to holdfast 
in one's power: M6atuasbasb i'pkan lii'luagslan keeping the Fit liiver In- 
dians and making slaves of them, 54, 10. 

Ipkai, nom. pr. niasc. of a Modoc; this name is said to be burrowed from 
the Pit River language. 

i p m a' t c h a , d. i-ipma'tcha to fix on the top, to stick tip at the top of some- 
thing, as of a pole: wdlas sa tilwA lak ipma'tsank they planted a pole and 
placed dry scalps on the top of it, 16, 0. 

i p o , i'po, ipka, ip%a, Shasti terms, largely in use in Southwestern Oregon, 
for the kd'sh-\>u\h, q. v., which is also called "wild potato". 

ipshvina. Mod.; ipsbuua, Kl. ; d i-iwpshunn swamp-dogberry ; a blue berry 
growing on the ipshiinalam bush. Term borrowed from Shasti. 

i p s h li n a 1 a m , d. i-apshiinalam swamp-dogberry bush, a shrub growing in 
California and throughout Southwestern Oregon, attaining a height which 
varies from 5 to 20 feet. Cf. ipshiina. 

i s h , ish, i'sh, abbr. fi'om nish me, to me; see nu. 

is ha, d. i-isha (1) to carry out, to bring out. (2) to convey to the grave, to 
dispose of a corpse by interment or cremation, 87, _.; to attend a funeral. 
(<'5) subst., funeral, burial. Cf ilktcba, ishniila. 

i s h a 1 k , istak, isdak, pi. tiimi i. ( 1 ) ear of maize or Indian corn. (2) grains 
of same. Kl. and Mod.; term borrowed from the Shasti language. 

i n u li u a s h k a — 1 1 % a . 95 

fshalkam, istakam, isdakam stalk of maize or Indian corn: Zca mays. 

f shka, I'shga, d. i-dshka (1) to extract, draw out, take out: tala i. to draw 
money from, to make money by, 64, 13. 14.; istak i. to husk maize-ears; i. 
nayents pshish to ivipe another's nose; la'p i. ati kaila two men they brought 
to a far-off land, 44, 7.; tatktish i'shkuk in order to extract the disease (mado 
corporeal), 71, 6. (2) to pull, pidl up, 14!', 13. (tchua); to pull off, collect, 
(jathcr ; to cull, as berries, fruits, vegetables: isKkii'lank kgldtch after having 
finished gathering all the keldtch-berries, 116, 10.; tch^lash slia i. they pull 
up the stalks, 148, 2.; wakinsh i. to pick substance for red paint, 150, 6. 

i s h n u 1 a , d. i-ashniila (1) to carry out, bring out. (2) to convey to the grave, 
to bury. Der. isbna 

istak, isdakam; same as ishalk, fshalkam, q. v. 

ita, d. i-ita (\) to place upon; to lay or locate on: ndnukash i. to put all 
over; atak itd to put salt on, to salt down; Mod. (2) to pack, load, charge, 
freight, as horses, wagons etc. (3) to paint, to line; to smear over; n;lnu- 
kash ltd to paint all over. Cf shi-ita. (4) to embroider. 

itak, i'taks, i'tok, itoks, obj.: mishtak (1) with emphatic signification: jms< 
thou or you; but you; often marks syntactic contrast. (2) pron. refl.: thy- 
self yourself. Cf i. 

i t a k i 4 n k i , itagidnggin, pron. pers. and refl. : thou for thyself, you for 
yourself ; contr. from i tak giank. Cf -giAnggin 

i t a n k i s h , d i-itankish what is smeared on: k'nukshtat=i. wax put on thread 
(for sewing). Der. ita. Cf itish. 

itatka, d. i-itatka to hold over somebody or something; said of long- 
shaped articles only, as sticks, poles, etc. Der. ita. 

itish, d. i-itish what is put or smeared on: wii'gnam i. wagon-grease. Der. 
ita Cf itdnkish. 

itkal, d. i-4tkal (I) to find, gather up by chance; said of many objects or 
of objects spoken of collectively; see ndakal. (2) to lift up, pick up; to 
collect, catch: kia'ui i'tklank scooping up fish (with baskets), 94, H. ( i) to 
extract, to take or jmll out, to suck out: tch^kgh:' i he sucks out the blood, 7 1 , S. 

{ t z a , it;^i, d. i-dt^a, i-4t%e to carry off; take away from, remove from : i't;^e 
he took down from the walls or ceiling, 1 05, 1 2 ; i't;^ a shash he took away 
from them, 109, 4. — Speaking of one object only, ut;^a, q. v. 


i t n li 1 a , d. i-utni'ila to unload, discharge: kek a watch i-itnu'latko lhif> horse 
is unloaded. Der. itna. 

1 1 p a , d. i-atpa to fetch, to bring, to carry, to convey; to take persons or things 
along ivith; refers to a phiraHty of jjersons, animals, long-shaped articles, 
or to objects spoken of collectively: S4-atas i'. gi'ta he brought the Snake 
Indians here, 28, i^.; at i. tu ladsastat he brought (the women) to the lodge, 
107, 8.; k'lekapkash i. they convey the body, 85, 4 ; tiinia tua i to fetch, 
haul many different articles; tu'm wdtch i'. they brought many horses with 
them, 20, 19.; li'lhankshti i he brought venison, 112, Ifj. — When speaking 
of one object only, atpa, q. v., is preferred to I'tpa Der. I'ta. Cf ena, 
epka, idsha, idshna, spunshna 

i tjj am n a , d. i-atpaunia to take, bring or carry along with: nutak itpamnan 
ki I take away for myself. 

1 1 p a m p 6 1 i , d. i-Atpamp6li to convey, bring back to the former 2)lace; to bring, 
carry home, 109, 5. 110, 22 : l'b4 sha ftpampalank shpaha after carrying 
home the Vbd-seed they dry it, 147, 15 Der. itpna, -peli. Cf. atpa. 

i tp n a , d. i-atpna to carry along, transport, convey: itpand'pkasht for itpanu- 
apkasht (passive) /or the purpose of transportation, 85, 3. Der itpa. 

itchua to put on, upon; i-efers to exterior of anim. or inan : ku'shga tcha 
p'lu' i'tchuank Aishishash they combed Aishish and put grease or fat (in his 
hair), 95, 17. Der. ita 

i-u, yu, adv., really, surely; identical with ya, but having the particle u 
(liu) instead of a (lu'i) as final component: i-u nenak yan'wan' i you are 
quite helpless, as they say, 183; 12.; At yu nat gdna! Kl., atui g^n nat! 
Mod., let us go! 

i - u , ihi-u, exclam. repeated as a sort of refrain at the end of many songs 
sung by females, 186; 49. 197, Note to A. 

I - u a u n a , nom. pr. of Linkville, town on Link River, in Lake Co., Oregon; 
seems a condensed form of Yulal6na, q. v. 

i - li' d s h n a , d. i-u-udshna; see yudshna. 

1 - u h u , i-iihuhu, interj., a war cry. Cf a'-oho, i-u. 

i-uhiia, d. i-uhuhua; same as a-oh6a, q. v. 

i - u h u = h il' t c h n a , d. i-uhu=huhAtchna; same as a-oho=u'tchna, q. v. 

i-ukak, d-ukag (1) inside, within, in the midst. (2) I-ukak, E-ukAk, 

i 1 11 11 1 a — i' w a . 97 

E-ukaka Fort Klamath; so called from its location inside of, or between 
mountains: 44, 5. 8. 147, 9. This fort has accommodations for about 
300 soldiers and is located in a wooded plain at the western foot of a 
steep trap rock ridge, six miles from the seat of the Klamath agency and 
twelve miles from the main settlement of the Lake tribe near the outlet 
of Williamson River. A nat gatp4mpgle gi'ta E-ukdk then we returned to 
Fort Klamath near by, 31, 14. Der I'wa (No. 2), with double ak. 

i - u k a k i ti m n a , d. i-6'kakiamna, adv., prep, and postp., around, about, in 
the vicinity: i shtinash around the lodge; tchia i. mdklaks the Indians live 
all around. Cf gakiamna 

i - u 1 a 1 i n a , i-ulal6na ; see yulalina, yulal6na. 

i - u m a 1 a , y umala to gather annually tvhortleberries or other berries. Der. iwam. 

i - u m d 1 1 k a to return from whortleberry-gathering ; to return from berry har- 
vest, 75, 7. Der. iwam. 

i-umami for iwamami, 76, 6.; see iwam. 

i-unega, yun^ga, d. i-unt^ga the sun is down; said only of the time be- 
tween sunset and complete darkness. 

i - u n (^ g s h , yun^gsh, yuni'ksh, d. i-unigsh (1 ) the time between sunset and 
dark: i-uneks%e'ni a yulina after sunset I menstruate, 182; 2. 185; 48.; 
i-undgshtka ^Ms^ after sunset, 133, 4-7. (2) red at sundown. 

i-uta, i-5'ta, i-iitautko; same as yuta, yutantko. Cf. shlfn. 

i-ut4msxfi, prep and postp., among, amid, between. Cf t%Alam. 

i-utila, yutila, d. i-6tila (1) to fall under something; to be placed, to lie 
underneath. (2) prep, and postp., under, underneath, below: yutila anko 
under the tree; ndnuktua kaila i. wd all that grows underground: bulbs, 
roots etc.; cf 145, 20.; lemewaliekshtat i under the drifted logs, 21, 19.; 
wali'sh i. under the rock-cliffs, 31, 1. The form yutilan is frequent also: 
shiimam y., or shiimam k4ko y., lower jaw. 

iwa, i'wa (i short), d. i-iwa, i-i'wa (1) to put or to dip into water; (kta-i) 
i'wa kalati ambo tchi'pgank they dipped (the hot stones) into the bucket 
containing water, 113, 1., cf 2. (2) adv., into water. Its signification 
comes near to that of t^wa No. 6, q. v. 

i' w a (1) outdoors, far from home or camp: i'wa i shx61akuapk you shall sleep 
under the sky. (2) among the hills, in or among the mountains; the camps 
of the Miiklaks being located only in the more level parts of the country. 


i vv ag , iwak, d i-A-uka near home, a short distance from home; not far from 
the camp: i. shku'l%a he lay down to sleep before reaching camp, 131, 5.; i. 
sha hu'nk tu'kgl^a they rested for the night at a place near home, 131, 7.; 
i-d-uka hu'lhiaiik running about in the neighborhood, into neighbors^ houses, 
184; 26. Der. fwa, ak. Cf. 1-ukak. 

Iwal , nom. pr. of a camping-place on Klamath Marsh. Iwal means "the 
end, extremity"; cf. iwAla (3). 

i w ala, ihuAla, d. i-uhuAla, i-owdla (I) to put on the top of, to fasten at the 
upper end of many long-shaped articles. — Speaking of one only, kshdwal, 
q. V. (2) to pour on, to let drop on, to fill up with a liquid. (3) subst., the 
top or end of something: pshish i. point of nose; 161oksgish i. muzzle of a 
gun; yafna ihudla top of a mountain. 

i w a 1 p e 1 i , d. i-uhudlp6li to empty upon again; to pour out on, 111,2. 

iwam, lyuam, d. i-iwam (1) upland tvhortleberry ; various species of the 
genus Vaccinium, sweeter than the eastern whortleberry, often as large as 
a common cherry; plant 3 to 10 feet high, 75, 7-10. Cf guptilish. The 
different species of whortleberries growing in the Klamath Highlands are 
as follows: kdkam i. the raverHs whortleberry; yaukSlam i. the bald eagles 
whortleberry; tchiksham i. the birWs whortleberry; tchu'tchkam i., also 
called washlalam i., the squirreVs whortleberry. (2) these berries in the 
dried and pressed state: berry-paste. (3) generic term for other berries of 
whortleberry-size: raspberry etc., and for all berries: i-uma'mi at berry 
time, commencing about tlie middle of August and extending into au- 
tumn, 7,5, 6. 145, 1!) ; tcha'kgle i. red berry juice, 75, 7. 

i w a s h , d. i-fwash wild, savage, not domesticated; said of beasts. Der. i'wa. 

i wi;t a, i'wi^i, d. i-o-i%a, i-o'-i^i (1) ^o put into, to fill up in sacks, as seeds, 
flour etc.; to pack away in sacJcs or bags, 74, 11. 12.: w6kash iwi^i'e (for 
iwi^itko a) ri/je wokash-seed on hand and put in bags, 74, 11. (2) to load a 
gun, rifle, piece of artillery. Der. dwa C£ Ikuga. 

i w i % 6 1 k i s h , pi. tiimi i., (1) box, case, casket, receptacle; k'lekdpkash i. coffin. 
(2) implement for loading: 161oksgish i. ramrod. 

I \v I'l % a , d. i'wil;^a to fetch home by going forth and hack. Der. hiwi. 

i w I'na, d. i-iwfna, iwina (1) v. trans., to put into, to place inside of, 150, 9. 
(2) adv , inside, tvithin, in the interior: winkogslit for ivvfna hii ^'sht. Der. 
(iwa. Cf vuliiena. 

1 w a g — y a d s li a p k a . 99 

1 w i s li , pi. tiimi 1'. ; same as y6wis]i, q. v. 

1 w u t i t , prep, and postp., further away than, farther off, beyond. Term 
formed like kuitit. Cf quotation under E-ukalksini k6ke. Der i'wa (1). 

Jack, Captain, nom. pr. of a famous Modoc cLief. His Indian name 

was Kintpuasli. For particulars, see Kintpuash and Note to 35, 8. 
Johnson, nom pr. of the head chief of Modocs settled at Y4neks, 58, 6. 7. 


When the vowel i assumes a consonantic pronunciation, as in diphthongs, 

it is written y, and both frequently alternate in the Klamath language; cf. 

introductory words to letter I. In the scientific alphabet used here, y never 

designates a vocalic sound, but is always pronounced like y in yell, yoke. 

For terms not found here look under E, I. In many of the terms given 

below, initial yan-, ya-, yu-, yo- represents a prefix ''down, down Mow". 

Y a , ya, i-a, a particle of asseveration corresponding to indeed, really, cer- 
tainly, surely. Ya! to be sure! 112, 11.; ka-i sha i-a vu'sha of course they 
were not afraid of, 93, 6.; tu4 nl a tdla ya ishka shiugok? what money did 
I make in fact by killing himf 64, 14. Ya is often connected with the po- 
tential ak: tidsh ak ya ndpakuapka I expect positively good weather; nu ak 
ya gu'hli'plit I can certainly enter (my own lodge), 112, 2. Cf. i-u, 

y d-a, d. yaya-a, yaiya-a to scream, screech, cry, vociferate: yd-a akd tan 1 
believe you are crying. Mod. for yea Kl. Cf ydwa. 

y d-aga (1) a species of willows growing near waters; 20 to 30 feet high. 
(2) Ya-aga, Yd-ag, nom. pr of a locality rich in willows, forming the 
center of the Klamath Lake Indian settlements, situated where the Gov- 
ernment bridge crosses the Williamson River (Ind. Aff". Report 1870, p. 
68), and about one mile from Upper Klamath Lake. (3) Ya-aga, nom. 
pr. of the Williamson River; called thus near this bridge only: luela 
kdpto YA-ag they catch kdpto-suckers in the Williamson River, 74, 1.; cf 
54, 1. Dim ydsh. 

y ads am, nom. pr. of a species of short grass growing in diy places, two 
to three inches long. 

yadshapka, d. ya-idsliapka to mash, mangle. C£ ndshdpka. 


yalii, d yayalii, yd-ilu(l) generic term iorbead: sli6kaltko y. beads of va- 
rious colors mixed together. (2) glass bead. 

ydhiaga, d yayAblaga, little bead: Mashptchi ysiy&hiak small smoke-colored 
beads. Dim. yahi. 

y a, li i a s li a water-fowl not specified, 1 68 ; 8. 

yai'iiii, d. ya-l'na (1) mountain, peak, btdfe : mu'nk y. ahuteyi^'gii the mole 
began to make mountains, 104, 4.; yainash a-i nu shlul61a I am wafted off 
from the mountain, 157; 43.; yainatat on a mountain, 135, 1. 156; 36. Cf. 
158; 50. 179; 3. Occurs in proper names: 193; 14. (2) ridge of mountains, 
mountain range: YAmakisham yafna Cascade Range; yainatala, yainatal 
uphill, up the mountain, up the ridge; yainatal kak61akpka we climbed up 
(Warner) ridge, 29, 8. Der. yana. Cf. gi'nslika, iwala. 

y a i n a - a g a , d. ya-Ina-aga, ya-ina'ga (1) hill, hillock, eminence, little mount- 
ain; kima'dsham y. ant-hill; yaina-ag tu'pka a low hill lag (back of us), 31, 
9.; cf 43, 11. 12. (2) Yainaga, uom. pr. of a liill: "Little Butte", two 
miles south from Sprague River, at YAneks subagency, and giving its 
name to the latter. Dim. 3^aina. 

Y a 1 n a k s h i , nom. pr. of the Indian settlements of Ydneks, along Middle 
Sprague River, in a healthy and fertile tract of land inhabited by Kla- 
math Lake, Modoc, and Snake Indians; lit. "where the hill is", 58, 6. 
90, 3. 148, 8. Yaneks is the seat of a subagent of the Klamath Indian 
reservation. Lupitala mcdsha Y. sheshapkash they migrated eastward to 
what is called Ydneks, 36, 6.; Yainakshi gishi' (Mod.) whose residence was 
at Ydneks, or: while he stayed at Ydneks, .h6, 9.; tu'-una Yainakshina aroMwd! 
Ydneks, 40, 4. For the origin of the name, see yaina-dga. Cf P'laf. 

Y a 1 n a k s k n i , adj. and subst., staying at, native of, inhabiting Ydneks; In- 
dian settled at Ydneks; Sk6ntchiesh laki Yainakskfsham mdklaksam Skon- 
tchishis a chief of the Ydneks Indians, 58, 5. Der. Yafnakshi. Cf P'laikni. 

y a i n a 1 a , d. ya-l'nala to make, create, throw up hills or mountain-ridges, 
104, 4. Der yafna. 

y a y a y ;i -as bewitching power, from which the conjurer gets his inspira- 
tion, when he jjrepares to cast around him the dire spells of his magic 
inflixence, or, as the Indians call it, "the doctor's poison", 70, 5. 6. and 
Note. Cf yAyakia. 

yahi — y4makni. 101 

y 4 y a k i a to he afraid, to he in fear of: kd-i liiela yayakiuk / was too terri- 
fied (at the eagles) to Mil them, 1 00, 4. 

y ii k a , ya'ka ; see y (^ka. 

y d k i , d. ydyaki, yd-iki (a short in Kl.) conical basket or receptacle worn on 
back for collecting roots, tubers, seeds, and seed-grasses, and ir.ade from 
branches of the young willow: y. shkdtkgla to carry a hasket on hack, 109, 
1.; y. shl^yamna to string a basket around oneself, 10', 11.; y. shtagi to fill 
the basket, seed-basket, 118, 4. 7.; ydkiamtch old, broken or used wp basket. 
01 146, 4. 147, 15. 148, 6. Der. ydsh. 

ydla, ydlatko, ydlha; see 11a. 

ydliala to become clear, transparent, pure, unclouded: dmpu a yAlialtk gi 
the water is clear, limpid. 

Ydlialant, nom. pr. of a camping ground on Williamson River: ^^ At the 
Crystal- Water". Locat. of ydliali. 

ydliali d. yaydliali clean, pure, limpid, transparent; said of water. 

y A 1 k a m , yal^am, d. yaydlpjam had weather, storm, tempest, atmospheric dis- 
turbance. Der. i-dl^a, d. of ^l^a (to prostrate). 

ydl^amala, d yaydl^amala to produce a storm or rainy iceather. Some 
Oregonian Indians believe this can be effected by rolling rocks downhill. 

Ydmak, nom. pr. of Oregon, 44, 1(K; abbr. from Ydmakni; stands for Yd- 
mat, Ydmatala, or Yamaki'sham kailatat. Mod. Cf Note to 44, 6. 

y d m a k i s h , same as yamakni, to which it furnishes the oblique cases. 
Na'wapksh yamakstan to the north side of Goose Lake, 31, 7.; see Note. 

Ydmakisham Yaina, nom. pr. of Cascade Range; lit. "mountains of 
the Northerners". Cf ydmakni. 

ydmakni, ydmatkni, ydmatni; obj yamakishash (1) adj., coming from 
the North, horn in a northern land; inhabiting the country north of the Klamath 
Lake highlands: y. gdtpa came from the north, 131,5 (2) subst., Ydmakni 
Northerner ; generic name for all Indians living north and northwest of the 
Klamath Lakes and Modocs, 192; 1.: Yamaki'shamkshi in the country of 
the Northerners, U;9 ; 2 Special tribes are sometimes designated by this 
name; the Nez-Perc^s; the Warm Spring Indians in 13, 16. 17, 1. (cf 18, 
2. and 78, 10.), the scouts recrviited among this tribe in the Modoc war, 
who were largely mixed with Wasco Indians: 43, 5. (Note!) 6. 15. 21. 


(3) Yanmkni, name given by Modocs to tohite settlers in the noi-thern 
and southern parts of Oregon: Oregonians, Orcgonian volunteers, 39, 3.: 
Yamatkni'sham kiiila in Oregon, 54, 1. Der. ytimat, q v. 

y d m a 1 , d. yd-imal, yafmal pelican; a lai-ge water-fowl. Cf kumal. 

y dm ash (1) north wind; often mentioned in the incantations: y. a nil 
shui'sh I sing about the north wind, 170; 58.; ydmsam gd-ish the north 
wind^s tread, passage, 164; 4.; ydmashtka in the north wind, while the north 
wind Mows (upon me), 155; 16. 24 , cf 155; 20. 179; 1. (2) Ydmash, nom. 
pr. of the personified Northwind, a power of nature deified in the myths 
of the majority of Indian tribes: Ydmshamkshi at the house or home of the 
Northwind, 111, 5-10.; also called Ydmshamtch, cf amtchiksh: Sk(^lamtch 
lalk;'idsha Ydmshamtcham nu'sli Old Marten cut off the head of Old North- 
wind, 111, 11. Cf Ydmsi and Notes to 111, 4. 164; 4. 

ydmat (1) the north, as a point of the compass: tdlaaks ydmtital (for ta- 
laak=ts ydmat-i-tala) in a direction due north, 29, 6., cf. 29, 10.; ydmatala 
g^niita while traveling north, 103, 3. (2) adv., northwards, toivards the 
north: y. t&m6nii6t{i while running northwards, 37, 16.; (3) adv., from the 
north: y. t^luitgank having returned from, the north, 184; 31. (4) Ydmat, 
nom. pr. given by Modocs to the State of Oregon, as far as it extends 
north of the Klamath uplands ; Ydmatala (Ydmat-tala) into, towards 
Oregon, 13, 4.; in Oregon, 44, 8. 

y a m n a s h , f-amnash, pi. tumi y., ( 1 ) neckwear, necklace; necklace of beads, 
shells, teeth, claws etc.; bead-string, wampum-collar: skutash I'ktsa Amp- 
Xani y. tchish blankets they fetched at the Dalles, and bead-strings also, 93, 4. 
Cf 7 9, 1. 87, 5 96, 8. 9. Ill, 1-3. 131, 6. 9. 12. (2) beads, grains of beads, 
cf ydmnashptchi. Der. lyamna (1). Cf i'mnaks, yahi. 

Ydmnash = Pdktish, nom. pr. of a young Klamath Lake man, now 
deceased, the friend of Dave Hill, Some notices about him will be found 
in A. B. Meacham's "Winema", p. 109 sqq. Lit. "tearing his bead- 
strings". Cf ydmnash, pakdga. 

ydmnashla to manufacture, to make neckwear or beads: tchc'lish hu'nk 
luelank y. he killed porcupines and made necklaces (from their bristles), 96, 
8. Der. yanmash. 

ydmnashptchi purple-blue; lit. "looking like beads": y. mat Ivl'loks 
Alshisham they say that AishisKs fire-flame urns purple-blue, 99, 3. 

y A m a 1 — y a n h u ;i n i . 103 

ydmpka, yamka, d. yayampka to he lazy, inactive; to lounge about. 

ydmpkamptch, d. yaydmkamptch laziness, lack of activity. 

ydmpkash, d. yayAmpkash lazy person; idler, bummer, lounger. 

Y 4 m s 1 , nom. pr. of a mountain lying north of Klamath Marsh; it passes 
for the mythic abode of K'mvikamtch and his brother, the "Weaslet", 
107, 1 and Note. Stands for Ydmasht, inessive case of y^niash, q. v. 

ydmtltal for yamati'tala, 29, 6.; see ydmat (1) 

y timtki , d. yayAmtki to forget: wAkash pil sha y. they forgot none but the 
bone-awl, 120, 22.; ydmtkln hemkanksh forgetting what he had said, 35, 8. 

y A n a , i-4na, ydna, d. of fna, which occurs as prefix only: adv., down, down- 
hill, downwards, down below, further down: y. telshna to look down, 174; 13; 
ydna nri g^n gena I went down stairs. 

y Ana, yanA to hand or bring something /rom below; to bring wp, uphill. 

yana = kani, yAnakani, adj., somebody or something at the lower end or ex- 
tremity, below ; pi. 01' d. yanakiiiiini each one, every one at the lower end. 
Refers to stalks (tchdlash) in 148, 2 

yandkni, pi. tumi y., native, inhabitant of a lower country or loivland; 
dweller on lower course of a river. 

Ydnaldi, YAnalti (1) nom. pr. of a mountain ridge close to and north of 
Klamath agency buildings, rising 4' to 600 feet above Upper Klamath 
Lake, and contiiuiing past Fort Klamath due north into the vicinity of 
Klamath Marsh. (2) Y., or Y. K6ke, nom pr. given sometimes to Crooked 
River, because this rivulet is bordered on the east side for miles by the 
Ydnaldi hill-ridge. Cf Tutashtaliksini K6ke 

ydnani (1) nether; located below, under, underneath; relating to lower, in- 
ferior part or end; the Latin infimus, imus: yAnansh (for yananish) pil 
md-i p'4nk eating only the loiver end of the tule-grass, 1 48, 2. (2) referring 
to what is underground. Der. yana No. 1. 

y il n i to give ; see liya. 

y A n h u a , yAn'hua, ydnua to he in a wretched state through sickness, aban- 
donment or extreme poverty; lit. "to lie deep down". Yanua-uk shi'la 
to be on the verge of death through disease Der. yAna, wA. Cf wakiAnua. 

yanhuAni, yanuani wretched, poor, miserable, distressed, 183; 12.; yan- 
huAni keliak tua a poor person destitute of everything. Cf i-u. 


yankiipshti, yank/ipshtia, d. yayankdpshti (1) to place info an opening, 
aperture, as a stick, straw, pebble etc. (2) to bar an entrance, to close an 
aperture; said, e. g., of pasting paper on a broken window-pane: wa'slitat 
y. to obstruct the den (of a buiTOwing animal), 127, 6. Cf krnaki'ipshti 

y d n k u a , d. yaydnkua to take down ; to take, to score for oneself: la'p kshe'sh 
y. they win two counting-checks, 80, 2. 

y An tan a, d. yaydntana (1) to put down into, to put alongside of, to insert: 
tfildshi mish nt ydntanuapk t6-ukankshtat I will put arrows i'lto your 
quiver. (2) adv., y., abbr. ydnta down, downwards, 190; 15. 

yantani, yantdnni (1) adj., situated below, located underneath or further 
down; lower, nether, inferior. (2) subst., lower, nether part or portion of: 
h'llpam y. lower eyelid. Der. yjina No. 1. 

y d n t c h , nom. pr of an edible cylindric root of the size of tlie camass- 
bulb (piiksh) and as thick as a thumb ; the plant grows on rocks, in fields 
and in prairies to the height of one to two feet, bearing a dark-colored 
fruit: 146, 1-2. Der. ydna. 

yapalpul(^ash butterfly, diurnal lepidopterous insect, 95, 22. Der p/ilpali. 

yash, ya'sh, pi. tumi j., willow; tvater-willow : y. stindsh ginxant (Kl.) 
willow lodge; tsui sa shliid }astat li'ukaipksh then they discovered them 
crowded among the willows, 20, 6. Cf yd-aga; kiilsham y^sh. 

yashala to be full, grown over with willows: ydshaltko studded, lined with 
willow-bushes, 31, 1. 

Y 4 s h = L a m a' d s h , nom. pr. of a camping-place on Klamath Marsh ; lit. 
"Ahead of the willows". From ytish, lamMsha. 

yatdsl^a to press. Cf yads;ipka, y^ts^aka. 

y a t i' s h (- -i) rock standing upright; smaller than the hji'nuash, q. v., 1 1 9 ; 4. 

y/i-uy a, d. yayo'-nya; same as yauyj'iwa, q. v.: silwals g(^-u v. ?»// bird- 
claws are rattling, being fastened to a necklace or conjurer's rattle: 177; ' G. 

y a u y k w a , d. yayo'yawa to make noise, to be noisy, to rattle. Onomato]). 

yd-uka, d. yayu'pja (1) to treat in sickness, said of the oonjnrer, 7,'5, 1., 
and of the physician. (2) to cure, restore to health. 

y a li k 6 1 a , conti-. y6k6la, }-6k'la to perform puberty or pilpU dances. When 
the tribe participates in them, they n.^^nally last five nights. Cf. 134, 21. 
22. and shuyu;^ala, stupui, stina'sh. 

yankApshti — yekdwa. 105 

Yaukelam = Ldslii, nom. pr. of a Klamath camping-place on Klamatli 
Marsh; ht. "at the Eagle's Wing". From yau^al, L4sh. 

Yaiik6lam = Sn61ash, nom. pr. of a camping-place near Klamath Marsh ; 
lit. "Eagle's Nest". From yaii^al, shnulash. 

yd-uks, pi. tiimi y., (1) drug used as medicine; remedy, medicament oi a 
palpable nature: k6-idshi y. poison, mischievous drug. (2) tamdnuash- or 
spiritual remedy of the conjurer, consisting of witchcraft, dreams, shamanic 
songs etc. When these songs are sung by the shaman, they reveal to 
him miraculously the nature of the patient's disease: y. huk shla^^ kAlak 
a gek the song finds out that the patient has a relapse, 72, 2. C£ kiuks, 
shulsh. (3) said to be the name of a certain poisonous plant: kelako'tch 
y. deadly berries; k6-idshi y. poison-berries. Der. yd-uka. 

yauksmjin physician of the white race; a hybrid word half Klamath, half 
English, and recently formed: y4-uks=men4mksh at the physician^ s shop 
or house, QQ, IT^.; the syllable men- embodying the word man. 

yaii^al, yaukal, d yayaukal white-headed eagle, bald eagle: Haliaetus leu- 
cocephalus. 144, 5. Another name used for this bird is shkiishki, Kl., 
q. V. Incantations: 162; 4. 165; 5. 180; .*]. Quoted under iwam. 

yau^aldla, d. yayaup^aldla to go on a bald eagle hunt; to hunt bald eagles. 

y a' k a , ya'kua ; see y^ka, ydkua. 

y ^a, d. y^ya to howl: wdsh y. tchushak the prairie-wolf howls in one strain. 
Onomatop. Of. ya-a, y^ka, y^wa, w^a. 

y ^ h i s h , d. yeydhish arrow-shaft polisher. A rough stone serves for pol- 
ishing arrow-shafts. Cf. tkiiilkish, tkuy6tkish. 

y d k a , ya'ka, (yaka), d. yd-ika, yil'-ika (1) to howl and cry in chorus; to sing 
in chorus, 153; 1. (2) to sing while dancing; to celebrate a victory or happy 
event by dances, dance-songs and glee-songs ; often used of scalp-dances, but 
may be said of every sort of social dances: tsui sa ya'ka then they sang 
and danced, 16, 10. and Note. Der yea. Cf sha'dsha. 

yekdwa, d. ye-ik^wa (1) to break one long article in many places, as an 
arrow: yek^witko broken, fractured in several or many places. The distr. 
form: to break each long article in many places. (2) to disregard, to treat 
with contempt: na'-ulaks y. to break the Jaw ov laws, 61, 7.; ftit yeka'-uapk, 
for yeka'w-uapk (na'-ulaks), 58, 14. Cf ydkua. 


yi^kish, d. yt'-ikish Indian dance of any kind; scalp-danco, war-dance, 
"doctor"-dance, dance in dance-house etc. Der. y^ka. 

ydkna, (ydkna) d. y^-ikna, 16, 10. and Note; same as y(^ka, q. v. 

y (^ k u a , d. yd-ikua to Weak one long object in one place only, as an arrow; the 
distr. form: to break each long article in one place only: Ameta y. to break 
the camass-stick in two, 190; 10. Cf. yekdwa, k(5wa, pek(jwa, sli^yakua. 

yekual61a, d. ye-ikual(')la to break off, to sever a piece by breaking it off: 
y. dnku na-itx<^ni to break a stick at one end. 

y d 1 a , y^latko, d. of ila, q. v. 

ydlmatko, d. yey^lmatko ripened; ripe. 

y e' 11 , yJi'n, a very palatable fish of the sucker tribe, over one foot long, 
and caught in April in large quantities in the Williamson River: Catosto- 
mus labiatus Gird., 180; 14 In the incantation 165; 6. y^nash occurs as 
obj case, instead of ye'n. Other sucker-fish are the kdpto, sdwalsh, 
tsuAm, litsaks and wuya-ak, q. v. The ye'n is darker than the other 
suckers caught in the Williamson River. 

y^na; see y Ana No. 1. 

y ^pa, d. ye-lpa to dig, to dig up; to scratch up, to scratch for digging, 82, 1.: 
wa-utchdga yi'-ipa kailanti the dogs scratch the ground. Kl. for ibena Mod. 

y(5pantchna, ydpontchna, d. ye-fpantchna to dig or scratch Aofcs while 
going from place to place. Der ycjp'na. 

y t5 p ' n a , y^pona, d. y^-ipna; same as y^pa, q. v.: yepantko, ydpontko dtig 
out, excavated, 87, 8. Kl 

y e s h k ti t c h ; see i-eshkutkish. 

Y e t k a s h , nom pr. of a locality at YAneks. 

y(its%aka to choke, throttle. Cf yatasl;{a, shayt'ts^aka, tuftch^ash. 

y (i - u s h , d. ydyusli (1) den of a burrowing animal (2) eatables gathered 
and hoarded up by mice and other rodents in their dens. Der. y^wa. 

y^wa, d. yeyu'a to burrow, undermine; said of mice, moles etc. 

y^wa, d. yeyua to howl, as the storm does. (2) to blow; said of the east 
wind only: 165; 7. and Note. Cf yea. 

yd wash east wind; lit. "the howler". 

y d w a t (1) subst., the east, as a point of compass. (2) adv., eastward, toivards 
east. (3) adv., /row the east. Cf yamat, li'ipit, 

y f y u X o g a , d. of fkuga, q. v. 

y ^ k i s h — V II i^> 1 k i s li . 107 

yikaslila, y^kashla, fkashla to spear fish through ice-holes; wdshtat 
'^through ice, in the ice^^ can be added. Der. Ika. 

y 1 k i a k , d. yidkiak, dialectic form of yukiak, q. v. 

yil6dshna, d yilu-iludshna, Mod for hiliidshna Kl., q. v. 

y i 1 o k n d 1 a , d. yilo-ilokudla to kick down, to kick downhill. Cf. gamni'kish. 

yim^shka, d. yime-irndshka to fake away; to remove from. Mod. Cf 

yimeshg4p6le, d. yime-imeshgdpele to take back, retake, reconquer: 
wiitch y. to reohtain one^s horses, 54, 12. and Note 

y i u 1 1 n a , d. yiyulina to push off, to push or send over the edge. — Identical 
with yulina, q. v., but differentiated from it in course of time in its pro- 
nunciation and signification. 

yl-uslina, d. yiyushna to push doivn, to push under: nu w4tchag yiu- 
shdmpkan dmbutat hun shiuka / pushed the dog under the water and 
drowned him. 

yo-ishi, yo'shi, d. yoy6-ishi to he lost, to he astray; said of arrows sent 
too far, 136, 3. 4.; y6shinko, y6-osink (for y6-ishiank hu, yo'shiank) he 
is lost, astray, said of a vicious steed, 184; 35. and Note. Cf yushka. 

y o' t a , see yuta, shim. 

y 6 w i s h , i'-oish, i'wish, pi. tumi y., (1) heel of persons and animals, 13, 5. 
Mod. (2) hoclt; knee of quadruped^ s hind leg. (3) calf of leg; hack of knee. 

yvia, d yuyua (1) to strike the water, to splash in the water; contr. from 
yuwa. (2) to strike upon something ; to strike the ground; said of bullets 
or arrows shot, stones thrown etc. Cf yiiash, yul^a. 

y u al k a , d. yuyalka, yuy^l;ta; chiefly used in the distributive form in the 
three last definitions: (I) to he indigent, to he in need or poverty. (2) to 
he full of sorrow, to suffer, to pine away: ma'sha steinash yuyal;ij6ga to 
suffer from sick-heartedness (3) to he sorry ahout, to regret: yuyAlka ml 
I am sorry for it. (4) to pity, have pity on: yuy^l;ca a nu hu'nksh I pity 
him or her. Kl 

y u a 1 k i s h , yualks, d. yuydlkish, yuyalks; chiefly used in the distributive 
form in the second definition: (1) poor, indigent, wretched: hii'toks i yualks 
but if you are poor, 60, 9. 10. 12.; yuydlks tsi tidsh ki'-uapk although 
ivretchedly jwor, he will feel at ease, 136, 6. (2) afflicted; mournful, sorrow- 


ful^ ivorried; saddened by experiencing heavy losses, as of relatives, personnl 
liberty, property etc.: yiialks^sitk, yuyalks=sitk su'ta to render sorrowful ; 
to make a mourner of somebody, 17, 21.; yuyalk=9bftko (for yuy/ilkishash- 
shitko) hehaving like a mourner or captive. 

yudlkishptchi, d. yuytilkishptehi (1) having a wretched appearance; 
poor- or sad-looking. (2) sorrowful, pining away. Cf. yutilkish 

yiiasli, d yuyuasli limit, terminus for throwing, shooting, or runniug: 
shudshna yu'ashtala sha tchui then they pursue each other up to the limits 
meted out, to the base of the pla3--ground, 80, 12. Der. yiia. 

y 11 a s h 1 a , d. y uyiiashhi to fix a demarcation line, to set up a limit for shoot- 
ing, throwing, running. Der. yi'ia. 

y 11 d s h 1 d k t k a 1 , d. yiiyadshhikfkal to slip with the feet. 

y 11 d s h n a , d yii-udshna to be flying, to move through the air ; said of arrows, 
balls or other projectiles. 

yuhan^ash sword, dagger, or knife over two feet long, 193; 10. Mod. for 
t^kish Kl. The derivation from yuhit'na points to a weapon kept in a 
scabbard or sheath 

yuhi(^na, d. i vihiena (1) to be inside, within; as on the ground-floor of 
lodge, in a receptacle, case etc. (2) prep, and postp , inside, indoors, 
within: y. gl'sht being inside, or, for being within, 128, 5 ; speaking of more 
than one being within, wink5gsht (we'nku gi'sht or iwina, iwinank hu' 
gisht) or w^nkogsht, 127, 14. 

y uh6, d. yu-ih6 buffalo: Bos americanus. Cf hiika, hiil^a, huwa. 

y 11 h 6 1 a 1 ;( a , d yu-ih6hil%a to march and dance around; this being a por- 
tion of certain dances performed before starting on the warpath. Cf h6- 
hil%a, yuhulaklal^a. 

y u h u 1 a k 1 4 1 ;j a , d. yu-iholaklAl;(a to perform, a certain war-dance. Mod. 
for yuh61al%a Kl., q. v. 

yuydlka, yuy^l;{a, 3aiyAlkish ; see yualka, yualkish. 

y ukiak, yikiak, d yu-ikiak, yiakiak (1) species of owl living on squir- 
rels; small and of reddish color: Scops asia. (2) yiikiak: mocking-bird, 
Mimus polyglottus; Mod., 183; 21. (3) jay bird, Cyanura stelleri: yuki- 
kam shkutantki having the head adorned with jay feathers, 183; 20. 

yiikiuka, yu^iuga, d yuj-iikiuka, v. mtr., to .smart, give pain; to itch. 
Cf yiiktgi, kinia'dsh and the German: "jucken". 

y u A 1 k i H li p t c h i — y I'l s h ^ i s h . 109 

yukmalam, pi. tiimi y., the so-called ^^ mountain mahogaruf^ : Cercoctupiis 
ledifolius ; a tree furnishing the yellowish-brown wood for bows, for the 
cylindric gaming-sticks used in the spdlshna-game, and other implements. 
It grows in the mountains east of Upper Klamath Lake. 

yuktgi, d. yuyii'ktgi to itch; Mod for yukiuka KL 

y u 1 a 1 i n a , i-ulalina (1) v. intr., to fall over an edge or tini ; to foiin an edge 
in falling (2) v. intr, to form a heach or shore-line; said of water. (3) 
subst , edge of thin articles, as of paper, or sheets of any kind. (4) prep, 
and postp., alongside of along the brink of: kiike y. along a river side, 
127, 11. Cf yiulina, yulina. 

yulal6na, i-ulal6na (l) to move forth and back, to rub, to make the motion 
of riibhing: lematchatka y. to mash fine upon the mealing-stone, 149, 8. (2) 
Yulalona, nom. pr. of Link River, the outlet of Upper Klamath Lake, 
running into Lower or Little Klamath Lake The name is interpreted 
by '■^receding and returning water" ; for the waters of Link River retreat 
there undo* the pressure of the south wind to return afterwards, 94, 4. 
(3) Yulal6na, nom pr. of Linkville, a town located on Link River, below 
the cascade of this stream. Cf I-uauna, Tiwish;^e'ni. 

yulina, d. yuyulina to menstruate: i-ungks%e'ni a y. after sunset I am men- 
struating, 182; 2., cf 185; 48. The distributive form also occurs in 
puberty songs, and indicates that the catamenia have occurred repeatedly : 
yuyuline'pka, abbr. yuyulinne I am in the age of female puberty, 185; 47., 
cf. 182; 1. and Note. Cf yiulina. 

y u 1 k a , l-iil^a, d yuyul;^a to go down, to strike the ground; said of an ar- 
row or other missile: K'mukamts tu' hak yuTka K^mukamtch struck the 
ground with his arrow this side of the mark, 99, 5.; tu' a nit y. my bullet 
(or arrow) struck down there Cf. 100, 20. 110, 9. 136, 3. Der. yiia. 

yumddsha, i-umMsha, d. i-omadsha (tirst a pronounced long) to 6e a^ 
the lower end or extremity. Cf laniAdsha, tamAdsha. 

y u s h a k e n a to extend or put forward the index finger, 79,3 Der. y ushka. 

y u s h k a , yiish^a to put fortvard or to use the index finger when making 
guesses in the spdlshna-game. Cf yiish^ish. 

yiish^ish second finger of hand; technical term used by gamesters in- 
stead of speluish: y. sp(^lshisht by proffering the index finger, 79, 6. 


yiita, i-iita, i-6'ta (1) to he Jieavy, weighty, ponderous; cf. yutantko. (2) to 
walk with heavy, ponderous steps: 169; 52. (3) to shoot at, to fire at: liuka- 
yank a i-u'ta! lying in amhush they are firing! 30, 3. Cf. 21, 16. 22, 9. 21. 
23, 1. 31, 2. (4) to kit or wound hy shooting, firing: nia'ns hii'k tchaksi- 
yank i-u'ta for some time he, while sitting in the hush, fired with effect, 
23, 21. (5) to kill by shooting or firing. — In the definitions (3) (4) (5) 
yiita is used only when many objects are spoken of; speaking of one 
object, or of one shot hitting many objects, shlin, q. v. Cf ngd-isha, tdwi. 

yutantko heavy, weighty, ponderous ; partic. of yutna. Cf t'shdkatko 

y u t a t k a to cry, iveep for, after somebody ; said of mourners, of babes, or 
of children prevented from following their parents, 89, 3. 

yutetampka to begin shooting, to commence firing, 37, 12.: y. kU'iyat gip- 
kash they began firing at them while they were in the rocky ledges or lava beds, 
38, 18. Der. yuta, q. v. 

yutila, yutilan; see i-utila 

yutlanshna, d. yuyu'tlanshna to shoot or hit aside of the mark; to miss 
the mark in direction, though not in distance, 99, 5. 100, 21. Der. yiita. 

K alternates with g, % and, less frequently, with k, h, hh and g; in some 
instances, k becomes nasalized into nk, nx etc Words with initial k, %, and 
g not found under K, to be looked for under G or K; or, if nasalized, 
under N. K- is sometimes prefix, abbr. from ke, ki tlms, so; cf. kshapa; 
the prefix ke-, ki-, abbr. k-, refers to an act performed sideways or above; 
the prefixes kshi-, gshe-, kshu- point to animate beings, or more frequently 
to one animate being only, as object. The prefixes kui-, gui-, ku-, gu- 
alliide to distance, while in a few verbs the initial syllables (radicals here, 
not prefixes) ka-, ga-, ke-, ge- indicate plurality of the subject or object. 
The negative particle kA-i, not, is embodied in a few terms beginning with 
k- or k-, cf k4mpka, kAyutch. 

ka, kd, ga, gti; d. kdka, kagga, kak (1) pron. rel , abbr. from kat, q. v., 
usually proclitic: gd tudta (for tudtala) shkafnihaktch gdtpa whosoever 
has come, stronger (than 1), 112, 2.; kdgga i hemkankish? ivhich ivords 
have you been speaking (to me)? 158; 55. (2) pron. interr., abbr. from 

y {i t a — k a, - i h a . Ill 

kanf, q v.: k4 tuata? kti tuak? what sort of — ? tvliat hind of — f 112, 
8. 12.; kd tal (for kani tala)? ivho tJienf 189; 7. (3) adv , so, so much, 
thai much thus: abbr. from the adverb kAnk: ka tanni: nddn pe'tch three 
feet long, lit. "so long: three feet"; yantcli kiik tdn: 18" each of the ydntch- 
plants is as tall as eighteen inches (tan for tdnni), 146, 1.; ka tanni: 1' one 
foot long, 146, 12 

ka, ga (1) adv., abbr. from kd-a, q. v. Cf 122, 15. and Note. (2) conj., 
same as ak, ak a, akd; originated from the latter by apheresis of the a in 
ak Quot under adv hut, q. v. Cf. ak, dmpka, kam. 

k d - a , ka-d, kda, contr. ka, ka, ga, adv. of quality : very, greatly, strongly, 
largely; is found in connection with adjectives, advei'bs, attributive and 
other verbs, and is usually placed before them: kd atf, d. ka d-ati very 
high or tall; ka-d ktchdl%a the sun is quite hot ; kda lua the fog is thick; k. 
ma'sha it is bitter, it pinches the tongue; or: he is very sick, he feels acute 
pain; k. papdlish of very mean character; k. pushpushli of a deep black 
color; k. sh(illual he fought bravely, with vigor, 56, 1 ; k. tidshi rather good- 
looking, quite pretty, 183; 14.; ka-d tchgmuka to be pitch-dark Cf 182; 7. 
Contr. into ga in 122, 15. (2) stands sometimes for our too, too much: 
kad kalkdlish lu'lp gitko having too round eyes, having eyes very round- 
shaped, 91, 5 and Note to 105, 7 Cf mii, skd. 

k d - a g , kd-ak ; see gdhak. 

k d - a k t for kakat, d. of kat, q. v. 

k d - a s h t , kd-ash ; see gd-asht. 

k d g a , kdka, d. kdkga to wear out, to use up : kd-i kagatko unworn, not torn, 
not used up, complete, ivhole. Mod. for tdga Kl. 

kdhaha, d. kakdhaha to ache, cry, cry loudly as one afflicted with pain: k. 
shli'sham he ached, having been shot, 22, 11. — Onomatop.; cf gdhipa, 
gaikdnka, kaikdya, kdyaiha. 

kahiewa, d. kaki^wa to hunt up, to try to obtain, 182; 9. Cf kaihia. 

k a 1 , kai, ^ai, same as haf, q. v. ; especially in use in the Mod dialect. 

kd-i, kai, d. kdki, species of rabbit whose fur is white in winter, bluish in 
summer: Lepus campestris. 

kd-iha, kaiha, kdya, kaydhia, kd-ika, d. kakd-iga, kakd-ika (1) to seek, to 
search, to look for, to start out after: kahhiank w^wanuish looking out for the 


females, 20, 6 ; w(iwanuish ka-ig6ga in order to run after women, 186; 52.; 
kdkiash lish i kd-iga ivhom you perhaps hole out for, 121, 13 ; ma'iis ka-ika 
I searched a long time for (the arrows); inbiisant kdyakuapk (nu) to-morrow 
I shall go on the search, 136, 4. (2) to pursue, to chase; to hunt, hunt 
down; to follow up in a hostile intention; chiefly in use for the pursuit of 
enemies: dmputala kaydhia they chased them away, cut them off from the 
water, 42, 20. ; kA-itoks kAyaktgi ntsh he must not pursue me, 40, 4. Cf. 
giinkanka, haitclnia, k;iyaktcha. 

k a i h li a , ka'liliia to miss the aim. See kai'hha. 

k a i li 1 a , kalgia, d. kakfgia to hunt for, to pursue in the interest o/ somebody. 
Cf Note to fjf), 14. etc. Der. kA-iha. 

ka-ika, gd-ika, ka-iga, d. kaki'ga (1) to behave extravagantly, to act in a 
foolish, silly, odd manner. (2) to stcarm or skip around, to fool around: 
tchiishgai niji k. I the weasel am behaving oddly, make odd jumps, 177; 12., 
cf l.')8; 52. Cf ka'la 

kaikdy a, gaikdya to sob, whine; to snore. Cf gaikdnka. 

kd-ikanka, gaikanka, d. kakfkanka to hunt after, to seek continually or 
repeatedly, 182; 11. Der. kd-ika, same as kd-iha, q. v. 

ka-ikash, gaikash, d. kakl'kash, gaggi'kash (1) acting in an extravagant 
manner; behaving excitedly, oddly, foolishly : gaikash nuy&rami fooling I run 
about, 158; 52. (2) subst., wag, fun-maker, punster. (3) Mod. adj., silly, 
imbecile Der. kd-ika 

k d - i k 6 m a , kaf;^ ema, d. kaki^^ma ( 1 ) not to know, not to recognize, to con- 
sider as a stranger. (2) to suspect, to cast suspicions upon, 95, 10. 100, 12.: 
at sa kdyek'ma then they suspected (him), 100, 16. 

k a i 1 a 1 d p ' 1 i , d. kakilaldp'H (1) to put on one's leggings. (2) to put on one^s 
pantaloons, trousers. 

k a i 1 a 1 a p 6 1 a , d. kakilalap61a to take off on£s leggings or pantaloons. 

kaildlapsh, d. kakildlapsh ( 1 ) ^mV o/ /e^^m//i, usually made of buck- 
skin; an aboriginal garment covering the whole leg, but now out of use: 
k.=kitko having leggings on, 90, 17. Cf mftash, shnashnlksh. (2) pair of 
pantaloons, trousers. 

k a i 1 i , kaili, d kdkgli to gird oneself ; to put a belt on. 

k a (lish, kaflish, contr. kdlish, d. kakalish, kdkglish (1) belt, skin belt. 

kaihlia — kayAta. 113 

90, 6. 95, 2.: s/l'I k. oUer-skin belt; belts were made of the skins of almost 
every quadruped, 90, 6. (2) loin cloth; breech-clout originally made of skin. 

kailiu , kalliu, d. kakaliu (1) mantle or robe made of rabbit skins or bird 
skins, especially from duck-scalps; not made at the present time by the 
M4klaks, but manufactured in great perfection and beauty by the In- 
dian women of Puget Sound and on the coast north of it: k.-skiitatko 
clad in a rabbit-skin mantle, 125, 2. {2) fur -skin mat; fur dress: kailiulam 
skutash, or kallio=skutash, fur-skin blanket or mantle, 125, 3. . 

K a 1 m o m , nom. pr masc. Kl. ; a son of Tselo;tiDS, q. v. Some Indians 
interpret this name by "Light-Haired". Cf ka-i. 

kd-ishna, d. kaki'shna (1) /o close with a cover or lid. (2) to close, shut 
up a lodge or house by closing the door-flap, smoke-hole, door, or other 
issue; to lock a door, 66, 4. 

k a i s h n 6 1 k i s h , d. kakishn6tkish lock, latch, door-latch. 

kaishnula, kaishn61a, d. kaldshniila (1) to open up a cover or lid; to un- 
cover the iopof the mud- or winter-lodge, 120, 12. 13. 15. 17. (2) to open 
a door: kitchkdni, kaishnuli! boy, open the door! nu gaishniila g^ka / open 
the door and go out Der. kd-ishna. 

kaishnulia, d. kakishnulia to uncover, open up, open the door for some- 
body, 120, 17. 

kafshtish, gdshtish, d. kaki'shtish ( 1 ) door-flap of lodge. (2) hinge door, 
door of room or house; cover serving as door or entrance, 66, 13.: wdklakam 
k. wall-gate, corral-gate. 

k a y 4 h i a ; same as kd-iha, q. v. 

kayaktdmpka to begin hunting, pursuing, searching or looking out for, 
126, 8. Der. kd-iha. 

kdyaktgi, 40, 4.; exhortat. mode of ka-iha, q v. 

kdyaktka, d. kaki'ktka to return from the search, lookout, pursuit or hunt, 
140, 7. 141, 3 Der. kd-iha 

kdyaktcha, d. kakdyaktcha (1) to go and look out for, to be searching for, 
108, 4. 5 110, 20. (2) to be engaged in pursuing: mdklaksash k. tJiey pur- 
sued the Indians, 43, 4. Der. ka-iha. 

kdyaktchna, d. kakayaktchna to pursue to a distance, 30, 11. 

k ay at a, the smallest kind of Klamath dwellings: 183; 18. The two old 
Thunders, parents of the five Thunders, are supposed to have lived in a 


kaydta or little lodge, while their progeny lived in an earth-lodge. Cf. 
kiitni, and Notes to 111, 12.; 112, 3. 

kay4tala to erect a kaydta-lodge. 

k a y e k ' m a , 1 00, 1 6 ; see k4-ik6ma. 

k a y e t c h o , same as ka'dshu, q. v. 

kay utch, kdyuds, kdyu, Mod. ka-iu, kayu (1) not yet, not at the time be- 
ing: k. nu'ka w6kash pond-lily seed is not ripe yet, 74, 7.; k. tud ka'sh not 
any ipos at all, 118, 4 , cf. 184; 37 ; kayu shldpatko not yet opening out or 
blossoming. (2) before, prior to: kA-iu B6shtinash gdtpish before the 
Americans arrived, 90, 16. (3) never, at no time. Der. kd-i, utch or u, hu. 

kdyutchish, d. kakd=utchish ; see kd-utchish. 

kdk , kak; see ka. 

k a k , kakat ; see kat. 

k 4 k i a k , d. kakdkiak a species of little white marine shells. 

kdkiaksh, kdkiegsh, Mod. kdkiegsh, d. kdkakieksh whirlwind, cyclone, 
tornado. Der. kakidsha. 

k a k i a s h , obj. d. of kanf, pron. interr., and of kat, pron. rel., q. v. 

k a k f d s a p 6 1 e , d. kakakidsapgle, 20, 4. ; same as kaki'dsha, q. v. 

kakfdsha, gaki'dsha, d. kak'kl'dsha, gaggagi'dsha to proceed by turns; 
to move, to fly in serpentine, meandering, winding lines; to go snake-like; said 
of the shka'-bird, 167; 36. 

kdklash, d. kakaklash saddle: k. hu illola fo take off the saddle. Cf. fklash. 

k a k n d g a , d. kakakn^ga to besmear, to soil : k. shidshka to soil, to make 
dirty; lit. "to smear and rub on"; kakn^gatko dirty, soiled, unclean. 
Cf shidshka. 

k a k n 6 1 a , d kakakn61a to put on, to be dressed in an elk-skin armor or par- 
flesh: partic. kakn61atko; kakakn61atk giug on account of being protected 
by elk-skin parfleshes, 1 7, 4. 

kakn61sh, d. kakakn61sh armor, farflesh, war-cuirass; was made of half- 
tanned, doubled-up skiiis, usuall)'- elk-skins, and when put on as a cuirass 
was almost impencitrable to arrows. Indians used them all over Oregon 
and the Columbia River Basin. Nga'-ishtka shim kakno'lsh to strike the 
cuirass with arroivs ; k. temdshka, shl('t;^a to abstract, to talie away parfleshes, 
21, 4. 5. Incantation: 178; 5. 

kayutalii — k;ilkma. 115 

kaka'dsha, gako'tcha, d. kak'ko'dsha (1) to cross, to go across, to go over to: 
Sk^Iamtcli k. Leme-isbamksh Old Marten passed over to the place ivhere the 
Tlmnders weri, \Vd, 18. (2) to ford a river, brook, or other shallow 
water while traveling. Der. gdkua. 

k a k o' k i s h , kdkogsh, d. kak'ko'kish ford; fording place of a river or shal- 
low water. In 74, 1 6. is mentioned a ford over a tributary of Williamson 
Eiver, remarkable by its blackish waters; the ford is close to the outflow 
of Klamath Marsh into the Willian^son River. Der. g^kua. 

kak61akpka, d. of ga-ulakpka, q. v 

kakpatn6tkish, d. kakakpatnotkish (I) pin, cloth-pin, Kl (2) screw, 
Mod. Der. kdpatna. 

k 4 k t a , d. of ktdna, q. v ; k a k t a k , see katak. 

KAktsamkshi, nom pr. of a camp and little spring near the subagency 
buildings at Ydneks. 

k d 1 , gAl, d. g4gal species of tree-moss of black or dark color. 

k a 1 a , pi. tiimi k., flat and round or ovoid basket having the shape of a 
bucket and made in the Shasti country of roots growing there. They 
are of various sizes ; the larger ones, impervious to water, serve for boihng 
water and for cooking food, 113, 9. MiYni k. a large flat bucJcet, 112, 21. 
The cooking by means of this vase is described 1 1 2, 2 1-1 13, 4. T6kiam 
k. cup made of horn. 

kdlak, d-kakAlak person relapsed into disease; used attributively, 72, 1.; 
predicatively, 72, 2.: k. antch (for a nush) ma'sha ku-ak vudokuisham 
nush I have suffered relapses on account of having been beaten. 

kAlam, poss. of kani, pron.; and of kat, pron. rel., q. v. 

k A 1 a p s h , d. kakdlapsh decayed log. Cf kalina, under k'ldka. 

kalfna to die; see k'ldka. 

k d 1 k a 1 a , d. kakdlkala to rustle; said of crawling reptiles. 

kdlkela, d. kak^lkgla (1) to fall sick, to hurt oneself, to be hurt, 158; 54. 
(2) to relapse into sickness; to become kdlak. 

kAlkma, k^l^ma, pi. tumi k., woman's skull-cap made of the roots of trees 
found in the ancient domain of the Shasti tribe, in Northern California. 
This cap is of half-globular shape and also serves as drinking-cup. Der. 
Mlkali, kma'. Cf. kma', mdksha. 



k41ksh, d. kdkalksh, a peculiar fishing-implement or scoop not unlike 
the meat- or flesh-hooks used by the Romans, called creagra. Der. ki^lkali. 

kalktch61a, d. kakalktch61a to catch fish by means of the Mlksh. 

K A 1 p s h i , nom. pi*, oi Silver Lake; a water basin about seventy miles north- 
east of the outlet of the Williamson River, bordered by rocks inclosing 
petrifactions. Cf kalapsh. 

kdltchitchiks, d. kak/dtchitchiks (1) spider; its incantation: 175; 15. 
(2) the magic song called ^^spider", sung by the conjurer during the 
treatment of relapsed patients, 72, 4. 73, t. 3. Der. kdlkali, tchi'dsha. 

kaltchuyiiga, d. kakaltchuyiiga to be red hot or incandescent, Kl. Cf 
ktchuil6ka, tchiiitchiga. 

kAluish, d kakdluish anterior dorsal fin, above the gills, 177; 31. 

kam, k4m, particle expressing desire, hope, probability; corresponds 
somewhat to our adverb ^^fain": hu'ktkam gAtpant, i kam gdtpant, I hope 
he, you will come : nil' kam hi'tksh telu'lTt / would like to look doivn (upon 
it), 192; 4. From ak, am. 

k d m a 1 s h , gdmalsh, d. kdkmalsh dried fish reduced to powder. The vai'i- 
ous species of fish, caught by the Maklaks, are hung on limbs of trees 
to be dried by sunheat, then pounded and filled into sacks holding 50 
to 70 pounds, to be stored in caches and kept for winter. They often buy 
this kind of provisions from Warm Spring Indians, who call the sacks 
tgfllak. Kdmals pahd they dry and prepare the fish, 74, 3. Der. gama. 

kdmpka to he deprived of, to stand in need of, the object missed being 
usually added to the verb; lap tat4kiash (or simply: Mp) k. to lose two 
children by death; kdmp'kuk k^liak pasli tia'ma the indigent man is hungry 
when he lacks food, 136, 8. — Contr. from kdwampka; cf kdwantko. 

kdmtilaga, species of black snake of the genus Bascanium: its incanta- 
tion: 165; 8. Cf 180; 16. 

k d n , d. kdkan urine-bladder. Cf shufdshash. 

kdndan fonns (1) oblique cases of the sing, of kat, pron. rel., q. v.; or (2) 
stands for kanitani and kanitant, q. v. 

kanl, kdni, abbr. kan, ka, obj. kdnash, kdnsh, kdnts, poss. kdlam. Mod. ka- 
nam; d. kdka, obj kdkiash (1) pron. interr., whof tvhatf tvhich? referring to 
persons and animals as well as to inanimate things: k. hu? k hu't gi? tvho is 

kalksh — kdnktak. 117 

he, she? mish k. ggndlla? tvJio has touched you? 184; 3G.; kdni lakf? tvhaf 
husband? what sort of a husband? 186; 55.; k. hushdtchipka? who is riding 
towards me? 182; 3. 189; 4.; kiln ish shlfn? who shot me? 138, 2., cf. 74, 
12 ; kdnts (for kAnasli) sliudpkst who might be shot, 21, 10.; killam go 
Mtchash gl? who owns this house? kdnam shapiya (1)? by whom were you 
told? 41, 1.; kdni 4nku sbla'a i? which tree do you see? (2) pron indef , 
somebody, some one; anybody, any one: ha k. ko'l e'nt when somebody carries 
M about oneself , 147, 12 ; hak. shla'-a, s\m.k\\n,if somebody finds, saves, 13 ', 
1 6. ; kd-i k. nobody, not anybody, not one (anim. and inan.) ; kaitoks k. vuini'^i 
certainly no one conquers (him), 134, 14. 15.; kd-i kdnts shluksh not to Ml 
anybody, fi4, 14.; ml un kd-i kdnash shapftak I shall tell it to nobody, 40, 8. 
Suffixed to adjectives, -kani means an uncounted, undetermined number: 
nu IdnkanJiansh, i'toks tiima=kau'sh wdtch gitko I possess afetv horses, but 
you have many; lit. "a few ones", "many ones". Cf 60, 13., and yana- 
kanf, kitchkdni, also ka No. 1 (2). 

kanl, kgnf, genf, d. kdkni, adj. and adv., being or staying outdoors ; one who, 
one thing which, those who are outside, tvithout, out of doors, out of the house : 
mdklaks a kani'g (for kani gi) an Indian is outside; mdklaks a kdkni several 
Indians are outside; kanf gidnk being outside of the lodge, 121, 9.; ka'gi a 
kanl gi nobody is outside; tdm i kanl pdka? do you smoke outdoors? kani' 
gekno'la he went out, he left the house, 141, 9.; kdtnt for kdkni outdoors, 
outside of the lodge, 121, 10. 

k a n 1 1 a n i , d. kaknltani (1) adj., exterior, being on the outside of. (2) subst., 
outside, exterior; crust. 

kanltant, kanltan, kanita, d. kaknltant, kaknita, prep, and postp., out- 
side of : dmbu k., or: kanltan dmpu out of the water, not in the water; kanita 
pi'sh outside of his lodge, lit. "outside of himself", 71, 2.; kanita nen? loho 
is that fellow (making noise) outside? 

kank, abbr ka, adj. and adv., so many; so much, that much; Lat tantum, 
tot: k. she'sha that ivas the cost, 44, 11.; k. sh^shatko ivorth that price; 
kdnt (for k, at) kil'sh so many pine-trees, 148, 21. K. is correlative with 
tdnk in tdnkeni (tdnk a ni) in 70, 9. From kdnni, gi. Cf ka No. 1 (3). 

kdnktak (1) adj. and adv , emphatic form of kdnk: so many, an equal 
number of; so much; when referring to time: so long, 74, 8. (2) enough, 


sufficiently; when added to a verb, or when standing for itself, it corre- 
sponds in Mod. exactly to Kl. g^tak (2) and (3), q. v. (3) ex clam, or 

interj , you or ye stop! quit! hold on! enough of it! give us a rest! Mod. 

Cf giini. (4) adv., quietly, tvith ease, dispassionately, 84, 1 3. Mod. 
k A n n i , gdnni, abbr. kdn so many, such a number of; chiefly used when 

pointing at objects or counting them on the fingers: gdnni wdtch so many 

horses. Cf. ka, kank, tdnni. 
kdnt, 148, 21.; see kdnk. 

kdnts for kdnash; see kani, (1) pron. interr., and (2) pron. indef. 
kdp, d. kdkap stalk; see tkdp. 
k d p a , d. kdkpa cup, saucer, small vase. From the English cup. Cf p6ko. 

On kdpa, 164; 4., see Note. 
k a p d g a , d. kakpdga little cup, dipper, saucer. Dim. kdpa. Cf tutfsh. 
k d p a t a , d. kdkpata to touch, to reach up to : kal6 k. kdpka the kdpka-pine 

reached to the skies, 1 00, 8. Cf kdptchi. 
K a p g a' k s i , nom pr. of a camping- place on Klamath Marsh; lit. "at the 

thicket of kdpka-pine trees". 
k d p i u n k s , pi tiimi k. a palatable black seed growing on the kdpiunksam- 

grass on prairies, and ripening about the month of August, 146, 5. 6.; 

k.^shftko in the same manner as kdpiunks, 148, 6. 
k d p i u n k s a m the plant producing the kdpiunks=seed; described 146, 3-6. 
kdpka, d. kakdpka (1) species of low pine growing on the Klamath Lake 

reservation: Pinus contorta. In spring its fiber-bark (st6palsh) is peeled 

off by the natives and eaten: 148, 20. 150, 2. (2) young pine-tree: 82, 11. 

100, 7. 8. 101, 16. This definition was obtained from man}- Indians, but 

its correctness was doubted by others. Der. tkdp. 
kapkdbl an taks! inteij., be silent! hush up ! stop talldng or crying! 192; 

7. Der. kdpkap, also occurring in kapkapaglnk i, q. v Cf k^mkem, and 

the ka kii refrain mentioned in Note to 194; 2. 
kapkdga, d. kakapkdga a young or small pine of the kdpka species: ni 

kuka kapka-dgatat I climbed up the young kdpka-pine, 101, 15. Dim. kdpka, 

and double dim. of tkdp. 
kdjikapo, t^dt^abo, d. kakdpkapo, t;fatxdtzabo wrist-bone. Der. t^^po. 

Cf nawdlash. 

k A n 11 i — k a t . 119 

kdpo, gdpu, d. k4kpo, gAkpo coat, citizen's coat, dress; overcoat. From Cli. 
J.; this from French copo^.- overcoat. 

kap61a, d. kakp61a [i) to take off the coat. (2) to undress. 

kap6peli, d. kakp6p6li to put the coat on. 

kap6pka, d. kakp6pka to put another's coat on 

k d p t u , kdpto, pi. tiimi k., a species of small sucJcer-fish, named by Prof 
E. D. Cope Ghasmistes hrevirostris, sp. nov. They are fourteen to sixteen 
inches long, body nearly cylindric, dusky above, silvery below; caught in 
April, before the larger sucker species, in the Klamath lakes and in the 
WiUiamson River: 74, 1. 

k /i p t c h a , gAptcha, d. gagdptcha (1) to go behind. (2) to hide behind, to he 
close to, to he in contact with. (3) k. or gkptche fifth finger, small finger; the 
spur oi certain birds: kdptchelam shindktish, q. v.; gaptchatka tchi'l;^ia 
they placed on the floor with their small fingers, 113, 3., cf 113, 4. (4) the 
moons or months of the Mdklaks year, whicli are counted on the smallest 
finger, and correspond inaccurately to our May: gaptsatka in May, 74, 
1.; gaptcht^tka t^alampAni 1870 in the middle of May 1870, 36, 7.; and to 
om December, 75, 17. Cf yanbipshti, kapdta. 

kdptchelam shindktish (1) fourth finger of the hand, or ring finger. 
(2) the moons or months counted on this finger; they correspond, though 
not exactly, to our April, 75, 21., and to our November, lb, 16. 

Kapuak, nom. pr. masc: ''Little Coat on", 140, 4. 9. Der. kdpo. 

k a p u t k o , d. kakputko wearing a coat, dressed in a coat. Der. kdpo. 

k d s h m a the edible root or bulb of a plant growing on rocky ground, 146, 7. 

Kdssilag, nom. pr. masc, a son of Tsdlo;jins, q. v. The name is in- 
terpreted by "Straying, Runaway". 

kat, kdt, abbr. ka, obi. kdndan, d. kdkat, met kd-akt, abbr kdk, obj. kd- 
kiash, (1) pron. dem.-rel., that one ivho, that which, those tvho or which (2) 
pron. rel., who, what, tvhich. Applies to anim. and inaii. equally: k. hiik 
shli'kshga the ones tvho had almost killed him, 30, 6. : k. huk hii't tchui lali'ga 
Tuhu'shash tvhich thing since then stuck on Mud Hen, 97, 1.; kat p'lai 
tchi'a tvho dtvells on high, 139, 1.; tsui ni shli'n hii'nk, kdt huk yfi'ta then 
I wounded the one who was shooting, 23, 1.; kdndan liii'nk slilin the one 
tvhom I had shot, 23, 20., cf 30, 18.; kdnda nat a'na the one tvhom we car- 


ried, 24, 9.; kdhaktok whatsoever, 71, 7. and Note; ndnuktu.i kd-akt li<ik 
giig all various kinds (of beings) tokich exist here, 94, 3.; liu'ksa, kdk at 
tinl'xi tsa those who had just gone up hill, 23, 13.; t4takshni, kdkiash Ikd-iga 
the children, whom you are seeking, 121, 13. Cf. 68, 10. and ka No 1 (1). 

k Jl' t , pi. tiimi k. ; see gS't. 

kdta, d. kakdta (1) v. intr., to break asunder; said of strings, straps, reins: 
shtchigt^fshti pnkii'wish a kdtatk the bridle-rein is broken. (2) v. trans , 
to cav^e to break; to gnaw through. Cf. kdga, kdtchka, ukdta. 

k d t a g s , kdtoksh, d. kakiltaks (1 ) adj., frosty, cold, cool, chilly (of weather) : 
k. gi-ud,pka gdn waltash it will be cold to-day. (2) subst., the cold, frost, 
chill, chilliness: kdtogshtka dmbu we'sh k'ldka, or kdtogsbtka dmpii wdn, 
by cold the water turns into ice. Der. kdtka. 

K a t a' g s i , nom. pr. of a camping-place on eastern part of Klamath 
Marsh; lit. "where ga't-bushes are". 

kdtak, kdtok, d. kdktak (1) adv., truly, faithfully, with veracity: k. gt to 
speak, tell the truth; kaktak jii'la hdmkanka to speak nothing but the truth, 
61, 3.; n<i kd-i kdktak ht^wa I doubt these things. Cf. 64, 11. 139, 1. (2) 
subst, the truth, what is true: k. gd-u what I know to be true, 65, 7. (3) k. 
for kdtak gi, the gi having coalesced with final -k: to tell the truth, 61,4 

kdt'hidwash (1) tying up the hair and putting something long in it; an 
Indian conjurer's manipulation in curing sickness: 165; 9. 181; 3. (2) 
name of a little white aquatic bird with a forked tail; the forks are 
slightly ovoid; the "doctor" sings the magic song of this bird. 

k d t k a , katga, d. kakatka {\) to feel cold, to he cold (on body) : k. nu I am 
cold; gd-u tchole'ks k my body is cold all over. (2) to have the body or 
parts of it frozen; chiefly said of nose, ears etc, while freezing of hands 
and feet is ndd-itia. Cf dwa, kdtags, skd, tchkdwa. 

kdtn i (for kdyatni) adj., sitting, staying, or living in a kaydta-lodge, 112, 10. 

kdtni, 121, 0.: for kdkni, d. of kanf No. 2., q. v. 

katokfwash, d. kakatoklwash, pi. tiimi k., (1) promontory, hillspur, foot- 
hill. (2) Katogfwash, nom. pi-, of the Sacramento River country and In- 
dians, being situated south of a nimiber of spurs or promontories to be 
passed when coming from the Klamath or old Modoc country. Katugi- 
washam K6ke, nom. pi-, of the Sacramento River, Northern California. 

k d t p a 8 h , d. kdkatpash tail of bird. 

ka't — ka-ututkish 121 

kat'sitsutsutias the potoer of producing large snowflakes; it is attributed 

~ to conjurers, cf. 181 ; 3. 

katchdga, d. kaktchiiga {1) to mix, to mix up. (2) to knead, as dough; 
to handle, stir up : katchak61a to stop stirring up or kneading. 

k a t c h a k i d n i , d. kaktchaki^ni to stir tip, set in motion, as liquids, Mod, 

Kdtsaklatko, nom. pr. masc. ; interpreted by: "Bump- Buttocks". 

K a' t s i , nom. pr. of a little spring at Y4neks. 

kdtchka, d. kakdtchga, v. trans, to break hj striking, to break, as strings 
tied or fastened to some object. Cf, kdta. 

kdtchkal, d. kakdtchkal (1) Indian tobacco, a mixture of leaves from 
various growths, known as kinnikinnik, killikinik, an Algonkin term: 
pa'ks kdtchkalam mil'lnash the pipe is the implement for the weed, 167; 33., 
cf 178; 12. (2) tobacco, the leaves of Nicotiana tabacum, usually sold in 
flat pressed bars in the United States, 189; 1.: k. pdn to masticate tobacco, 
136, 8. 137, 1. 3 Der. katchdga. Cf*k6kanka. 

k At chna pine-log; fallen pitch-pine tree: kdtchannat, loc. for kdtchna-at, 
into a pine-log. 111, 16. 

Kdtsuiits, nom pr of a locality and camp on Sprague River; it is in- 
terpreted by: "wild rocks sloping into the river". 

Kauhalpkni, Kauhafpni, nom. pr. of a tribe of Indians (uncertain 
which) visited by Klamath Lake Indians in the vicinity of Oregon City, 
on lowest course of Willdmet River, Oregon. 

K auk at si Yalna, nom. pr loc. of a mountain in the Klamath Lake 
.Highlands: 193; 14. 

k a - u k d - u 1 i , Mod. ke-uk(^-uli, kevk^vli, d. kakukd-uli, Mod. kekuke-uH 
brown, cinnamon-colored, light sorrel. Sometimes abbr. into ka-ukd-u. 

k a - u k d w a , d. kakukdwa to rattle, to make a clattering noise, 1 22, 9. 

ka-ul6ktana, d. kakul6ktana to step across a space, as floor, room, in- 
side of a lodge etc. Der. ga-ula 
ka-uloktantktdmna, d. kakuloktantktdmna to continue walking forth 
and back across a space, 1 1 3, 1 3. and Note. Der. ka-ul6ktana, -tka, -tamna. 
ka-ulu'ktcha, d. kakulu'ktcha to spy, to spy out; to scout, to be on a 

scouting trip. Der. ga-iila. 
ka-ututkish, d. kaka-ututkish, species of scorpion one inch in length 
and much dreaded. Der kawuta. 


K uwa, Kaiia, noiu. pr. of a camp at Yiineks inhabited by Modoc Indians. 
Apocopated from K4wam, q. v. 

k a w a k d g a , d. kakaukdga, kawakaukiiga to rip up tvith the teeth ; to tear 
to pieces ivith the teeth, 127, 5. Cf kako. 

k a warn, kuwiam, d. kdkuam (supply ampu, or kokedga) spring or water 
peopled with eels; some of these springs in the KLamath country are con- 
sidered sacred, since bathers derive from their use miraculous effects on 
character and bravery. 17"; 4. and Note. Poss. case of kiiwe. 

K a w a m or K;ivviam K6ke, (1) nom. pr. of Columbia River of Oregon; also 
called Tuma=Kawe=^Gitko, "many lamprey-eels". (2) nom. pr. of Eel River 
in Northern California. Poss. case of kdwe. 

K;'i w amkshlksh , nom. pr. of a fishing place and camp-on Sprague 
River; lit. "Eels'-Place". Cf kawam. 

K a w a m ;ij e' n i , nom. pr. of a spring and camp on Sprague River, where 
eels are caught; lit. "Eels'-Home". Cf kawam. 

kdwantko, d. kak;iwantko j)oor, indigent, 182; 10.: k. papAtalish poor 
and begging. Der. k<i-i, wA. See kdmpka. 

kdwe, kd-ui, d. kakui (1) eel (2) lamprey eel, 93, 5. Forms the name 
of several springs and rivers; cf. kdwam and its derivates 

k d w i a g a , d. kakuydga (1 ) young eel, 177; 30. (2) a species of small eel 
or eel-like fish. Dim. kdwe 

k a w u t a , d. kakwuta to catch, to get hold of; to catch ivhat is thrown, 80, 9- 

kil'batxa, d keka'bat%a to cover, as with straw, earth, mud. 

kiibat^ole d ke^^iihntx^^Q to uncover, disinter: wetta hissuaks kiibat^o'l- 
sham the man laughed when they disinterred him, 4, 14. 

k a 1 1 a , kil'la, ke'la, obj., kiiila and kiii'lash, loc. kailatat, kiiilant, kjifla, (d. 
kakaila), pi. tumi k., (1) earthy matter, mud, dirt; soil, ground: k. spiamna 
to d/rag out dirt, 1G3; 14., cf 157; 42.; k. sliiita to work tmderground, to be 
a miner; kailant skdt;tipeli to carry down to the ground in a basket, 95, 22. 
(2) place, section ov piece of land, farm: "Tchcwam Stii'", tchiludv sii'satk 
k. a place called the " Antelope! s Pathtvay," 29, 11.; Fairchildam k. 
gtshi'kni coming from Fairchild^s farm, 55, 11.; Tuli'sh k., Tu'kua kii'la the 
place Tulish, Tukua, 142, 2-5., cf 11. (3) district, country, land, region: 
kailatat m'lidlani in their rrspccfire districts, or lands; gi'-u k. my own 

Kdwa — kaka'kli. 123 

country, mtj native land; Boshtinam k. the land of the whites, the United 
States; Yaniatkni'sham k. in the country of the Oregonians, in Oregon, 54, 1.; 
k.=nakant all over the country, 157; 40.; k. sayufikta to he acquainted ivith 
the country, 16, 15. Cf. 36, 19. 20. 39, 5-7. (4) the earth or world as far 
as known to these Indians: kailash shut61an having made the earth, 125, 
1., cf. 103, 5. 142, 1.; gdnta kiiilatat ahoid this tvorld, 94, 2.; nanukashni 
k. the universe. Several telluric phenomena gave rise to superstitious 
fears expressed in "earth songs," a most remarkable class of song lines: 
158; 48. 175; 16. 176; 3. 192; 3. 9. In some other incantations the 
earth is simply made mention of; 162; 5. 173; 2. 174; 9. 10. 175; 19. 
192; 8. On the meaning of k. in creation myths, see Note to 96, 23. 
kaflala, ka'lala, d. kiikailala (1) fo haul earth, dirt, or mud; to carry off 
earth. (2) to make, procure a country, or world; to create the earth or world. 
k a i 1 a 1 1 a to make or create a country or world for somebody, 103, 5. 
k a f 1 a n t i , d. kiikailanti yellow ground snake, a species of the genus Pityo- 

phis. Der. kaila (1). 
k ii 1 1 a p t c h i , d. kakailaptchi earth-colored, gray, the color shade of many 

woolen blankets. Cf luashptchi, mii'kmakli. Der. kaila, -ptchi. 
kaflash, gelash, d. kakailash semen, seminal fluid, 186; 58.; kailash 
shtdni ! an opprobrious epithet in use among the Mdklaks. Der. kafla (1). 
kaila = shushatish, pi. tumi k. (1) excavator, miner. (2) mole; lit. 

" ground- worker," 1,34, 17. Der. kaila, shiita. 
kiif la = shutesh, d. kaila=shiishtesh ploughed land, cultivated area; corn- 
field, agricultural land. Der. kaila, shiita. 
kii'katilsh, pi. tumi k. (1) hair under armpits. (2) Kji'katilsh, nom. pr. 
of an Indian tribe inhabiting the Dalles of the Columbia River, Oregon. 
On their origin, see 143, 3. and Note. This name, "the Armpit-Hairy", 
is a contemptuous nickname bearing analogy to Ka'kakilsh and to Sma'k, 
q. V. Cf vuyukiaks. 
kakii'kli, kakii'kh, d. kakaka'kli (1) green, the common word for this 
color; said of leaves, grass, etc. (2) yellow, copper colored; of a reddish, 
yellowish metallic shine: k. watiti copper, brass, bronze; k. tdla, k. tchikemal. 
Mod., gold coin, metallic gold; k. yamnash or I'mnaks yelloto beads of a 
rounded shape, Kl.; k. lu'loks yellow fire-flame, 99, 3. Original form: 
kiikka'kli. Cf kedsha, tolaliiptchi. 


k ;i k ii k t k a n f t s f k k a , name of a forest bird not specified, i)erhaps the 
oriole; stands for ka'kakli=tkamtchfkash, "bird somewhat yellow," 180; 8. 

K ji' k a s h t i , nom. pr. of a mountain on Upper Klamath Lake. 

k ii k n 6 1 k i s h , ka'kndtcli, d. kakakn6tkish shovel. Cf kdka. 

k ii' k t s n a , see kddshna. 

k ji' 1 a , d. kakdla ; see ka'la. 

Ka'lalkshi, Kii'lalks (1) nom. pr. of a mountain on the east side of 
middle part of Upper Klamath Lake, near Captain Ferree's house. (2) 
nom. pr. of a locality west of Upper Klamath Lake: "Dirt-hauling Place", 
142, 6. Der. kailala. 

kii' lash, g^lash; same as kjiflash, q. v. 

kii' 1 i s h , obj. case of ka'liak; see kdliak. 

Kil'mpu, nom. pr. masc, "The Tall One": Shasti name of Captain Jack, 
the Modoc chief; kimpi, gfmpi great, large, in Shasti. See Kfntpuash. 

ka'sh, d. kii'kash, Kl., same as shkfsh, q. v. 

kii'tch, d. kix'katch (vowels long) a species of magpie: Pica melanoleuca 
hudsonica. Onomatop.; cf wekw^kash. 

ktl'tsa, ka'tcha, ka'tsna; see kddsha, k^dshna. 

ke, ge, kii', ga', procl. and end. ke, gii; poss. kdlam. (1) pron. dem., this 
here, this; refers to one person, animal or inan. object within sight and in 
close proximity; Lat. hicce, hocce. (2) pron. pers., he, she, it. — It is the 
simplex form of ke'k, q. v., and the radix of gdt and ge-u. Gii' ki hu 
shlako'tkish this thing here is an ax, 178; 10.; gii' a gd-u kdknulsh this is 
my war-cuirass, 178; 5.; gii' kanf? tvho right there f 182; 3.; k4 hai, gd 
hai this one before you; ke' lish tok wal^atchkatko gulf this (woman) has 
entered the lodge of a poorly dressed (husband), 189; 7; k41am ge hitchash 
gii who owns this house? kdlSm wunl'bi wenufpkam wewdas she is a 
widow with four children; gitala, this way, through here; see gitala. 

ke, ke. Id, d. kek, adv., so, thus; "what follows" ; used in introducing 
speeches in the form as delivered. Cf 155; 19. 185; 43. Kl. for Ide 
Mod., q. V. 

kddsha, ke'tcha, ka'tcha, d. kdkatcha, kdktcha (1) to leave, abandon, cast 
away, said of persons: tchui piin k"(?dsa Paul then Ball left (his wife) again, 
78, 10.; cf 77, 2. 3. and vtit(')(lshna. To throw atvay, reject, said of inan. 

k a k ii k t k ;i 11 1 t s f k k a — k d k n i s h . 125 

things. (2) to run away from, to flee, withdraw: kiimeti ke'ktcha to with- 
draw from tJie cave, 42, 21. (pass.). (3) to give an answer or answers, to 
reply to, lit. "to throw out words": kti-i kdktchauk hu'nksh not replying to 
him, keeping sUence, 110, 19. Cf. wklx'A. 
kedshamkedshalkca to wheel or turn around on one's feet. 
k t' d s h 1 a k s h , d. kek4dshlaksh heap, pile; pile of wood, 85, 7. 
kt'dshna, ka'tsna, d. kek(idshna, kii'ktsna (1) to cast, throw away. (2) to 
spread, to sprinkle; to sow. (3) to flse away, to take flight, to withdraw; to 
he running away, 88, 10.: tsui k. sa, tsiii dmbutat g(jna then they fled and 
ran into the water, 20, 3. Der. ke'dsha. 
k(^-ish, kd-ishala; see ke'sh, ke'shala. 

ke'k, ge'k, gek, ga'g, obj. kdkish, ge'ksh, poss. kdkglam; pi. ke'ksha, 
gtigsha. (1) pron. dem., this here, this; same as ke and a reduplication of 
it, but referring almost exclusively to persons and other anim. beings 
in close proximity: kek tidshi (gi) he is of good character; ke'ksha titadshi 
they are good men, people; ge'k hunk uu el;ta I give name to this person; 
huk gek this here; ke'k this (patient) here, 15^ ; 64.; kat gek wd which lives 
there, 129, 7.; ndnuktua kA-akt hu'k gag all whatsoever is here, 94, 3.; ge'k 
a lu'lp, mumuatch these are the eyes, ears (of the old hag's spirit), 178; 
13.; kd-i a ke'k Aisis! this is not Aishish! supposing him to be at a 
distance, 100, 16. (2) pers. pron., he, she, it; pi. they: g(^kish tchek 
k'lewiudpka at ye will flinch before him, 39, ). 
k ^ k a , ka'ka, d. kdk'ka, kii'k'ka to lore, pierce, perforate with an awl, nail 

etc ; as cloth, wood, portions of tlie body etc. Cf. kii'k, tkeka, tu^ka. 
k^kanka, d. kekdkanka to spend, lavish, throw away: tdla k. to spend 

money, 182; 9. Cf. kddsha (1). 
k(ik6lam, ge'ggglam, poss. pron. of third person singular, anim., his, her, 
its; his, hers, its; the poss. case of kek, q. v.: k. miiklaks his or her pro- 
geny, descendants; k. ma'ntchni niciklaks his, her ancestors. 
k^kglamsham, poss. pron. of third person plural, anim., their, theirs; 

the poss case of ke'ksha, pi. of kek: k. p'tishap their father. 
kekelufpalish, pi. tiimi k., dissolute, debauched person, male or female, 
ke'kga, 43, 3.; see g^ka 
k(^knish, pi. tumi k., (1) a falling of snow: hitak a kdknish gi dti there 


was a heavy snow-fall here; lii't kii-i k. not much snow fell here. (2) heap 
of fallen snow; snow heap. Der. k(ina. 

ke'ktcha, 110, 19.; see kddsha. 

k e' X t g i to become pale in the face. 

k e 1 ;i d s li 1 a to collect keldtch-herries annually or liabituully : k'ladghUi'mi in 
the Ida' dsh-gathering season, a period of the year commencing in the middle 
of August and extending into autumn, 46, 9. Der kgl^tch. 

kClayua, species of long-tailed mouse, black, with large eyes, living in 
earth-holes. Its incantation : 165; 10, of. 179; 10. Cf. k'layudga. 

k e 1 a m t c h a , d. kakelamtclia to close the eyes: t keldmtsank si'tk lu'dshna 
ye wander as if ye had your eyes closed, 64, 11. 

k e 1 a m t c h 1 4 m n a , d. kak'lamtchtdmna to continue closing and opening the 
eyelids; to keep on ivinking, to nictate, to hlink. Cf. shuekAptcha. 

k C latch, k'la'dsh, klii-ads, klus, pi. tiinii k , a bean-shaped, sweet-tasting, 
black or deep blue l)erry growing on the low keldtcham-bush Some In- 
dians compare it with a whortleberry, others with a prune; ?;•, 5. To 
the natives it is an important article of food, cf 146, 8-11. 

kelatcham, pi. tumi k., the bush jjroducing the keldtch-berry ; this bush is 
of low growth (wikani), not over eight inclies high; 146, 8 Cf kelatch 

k e 1 a - u n a , ke'la-una to cover up ivith, to bury in; to throw down or upon: 
kiiila k. to cover with earth, mud, dirt; to bury, inter, 85, 11. Der. kiiila. 
Cf. k^lua, keki-ush, shekelaluua, sheke'lki. 

k 6 1 4 - u s h , kla-ush, k'14-ush, pi. tunii k., sand Der. kaila. Cf k'laushaltko. 

kelii'pi, k'lii'pi, d. klakla'pi; see kUi/pi. 

kdlam, kdlam, poss. pron. of third person sing., his, her, its; his, hers, its; 
the poss. case of ke, ge, q. v. 

k elm ash, g(ilmash, d. kekdlmasli tear, eye-water, 1 10, 15. 

k e' 1 1 a m a , d. keka'ltama to drop on, to let fall upon, 80, 1. 

ki'lua, ki'lua, ki'lhua, kii'lua, d. kekdlua, kikdlhua (1) v. trans., to throw 
down or into, to cover up with, to fill up: k. kaila il;^uk they fill up the earth 
into the grave to bury (ilie corpse), 87, 11.; kiiila kii'lua they fill up tvith 
earth, 148, 18. (2) v. intr., to pass over, to cover up, said of liquids: 
amliu a n'sli nu'sli ki'lhua the water ivent over my head. Cf. kela-una. 

kemutcha, kgniiitchatko; see k'mutcha. 

k e' k t c h a — K d - u t c h i a m t c h . 127 

k ^ n a , d. Mkna it snows, snotv falls: k^ntak d-ati deep snow Ms fallen, Kl.; 
k(ikna much snowfalls; it is snowing all over the country; mu kii'na there is 
a heavy snowfall, 75, 17. Cf. kt^kiiish. 
k e n d w a t , Mod. kandwat, d. kakndwat horse-sorrel, a vegetable growing 
to the height of 1 to 2 feet; the leaves are eaten when young and soft. 
Found in the Shasti country, around the Siskiyou mountain ridge. In 
warmer climates this lettuce-shaped plant grows very fast, but in the Kla- 
math Highlands it is of a stunted growth. Leaves lanceolate or obo- 
vate, 3 inches long. A species of Bumex, or "dock" is called horse-sorrel 
in the east of the United States. 94, 9. and Note; 146, 12. 
k e' n e k a n , Mod. kii'nkan, d. kekdnkan, species of tree-squirrel, long and 

of grayish hue: Sciurus fossor. Cf kenkatilatuash. 
kenkatllatuash, one of the popular names given to the wandka or 

young silver fox. Cf kdnekan. 

k e n 6 1 a , d. kekn61a to cease snowing: kenolasht after snowing. Der. kdna. 

k e' s h , k^-ish, pi. tumi k., snow: k. ka'gi the snow is gone; k. mulua tlie snow 

is ready (to arrive), 170; 60.; keliAnta ke-ishtat tvhen no snow covered the 

ground, 37, 21. 

k e' s h a 1 a to produce snoivfall, to make snow This artifice is attributed to 

several birds, as to the tchiutchiwiish, 180; 7., the wihuash, 180; 8. 
k d 1 1 a s h , gt^tlash, d. gegdtlash hlock of wood on which the fire-drill sage- 
bmsh stick (ga't) is turned. These wood-blocks are usually taken from 
the cedar-tree (vuluandsham). 
k(^tcha, k(^dsha, kddsa; ketchkani; see Idtcha; kitchkdni. 
k e - u k d - u 1 i , kevkt^vli ; see ka-ukd-uli. 
ke-uldla, d. kekulala to push into, to push towards, as with a stick: ke- 

ulalapka to push away into, to make go further, 96, 17. 
kd-una, g(^-una, kt^-uni, d. keku'na, gege^-una, adv., (1) slowly, at an easy 
pace; nat gii'-una g(ina we proceeded slowly, §4, 6. (2) loosely : k. shlitchlka 
to tie loosely. (3) lightly, not heavily. 
kd-uni, d. keku'ni, gegd-uni, adj., (1) slow, gentle. (2) loose, easy, slight 

(3) light, not heavy. 
Kc-utchiamtch, abbr. from K(^-utchi=amtchiksh, uom. pr of ''the Gray 
Wolf of the Ancients", a personified mythic animal, the prototype of the 
present race of the gray wolf ; 112, 15. 17. 19. 113, 9. 131, 8. 10. He is 


called Skii'lam sM-amoksh tJie kinsman of Old Marten, 111, 21., and lived 
with his cubs in the same lodge with the Thunders. Also called Ke- 
utchish; see kd-utchish (2). 

kd-utchish, ka'-utchish, kdyutchish, kAwitchish, k;i-utchish, d. kakaii- 
tchish, kakd-utchish (1) wolf, gic-y wolf: Canis lupm, 88, 3. 144, 11. 12.: 
ka'-utchish gu'lo the female wolf, 190; 16.; incantations, 157; 37. 165; 
12.; ka'-udshlsh topinkan(i) the younger wolf, the wolf's younger brother, 
184; 31. (2) Kd-utcliish, noni. pr. of the gray wo// personified, 111, 20. 
112, 17. 113, 21. 131, 5-15.; identical with Kd-utchiamtch, q. v. 

kdwa, nkcwa, n^ii'wa, d kekewa, ktkua, nkekua (1) to break, fracture, 
smash, disintegrate; said of one object only: nte-ish np^ii'wa the bow was 
broken, 23, 18.; ts'u'ks ke-usht tvhen a leg is broken, 71, 8.; tcha'sliusli 
tch6kash nk^vvatko a skunk with a fractured leg, 127, 10.; wc'knini n;^u'wa 
his arm was broken at different places, sustained a compound fracture — 
Speaking of many objects, nguldsha, q. v. (2) to put on or into, to mix 
in; said of salt put on meat, of sugar put in tea, and of other processes 
of dilution. Cf yekewa, ydkua, ngumshka, pekewa, sheyakua, ukcwa. 

Kewii = Gitko, nom. pr. masc. of a Klamath Lake chief at Yaneks; 
^'■Broken-Leg". Abbr. from Tch'u'ks=Kewtipkash=Gitko. 

kewel^a, d. kekewdl^a to waste, to use unavailingly, 121, 2. 3. Der. kdwa. 

k'hiulaksalsh, Idulaksalsh, d. k'hikulaksalsh ^a^;, banner; lit. "what 
is hoisted". Der. k'hiule;ta, kluleka. 

k ' h i u 1 6 z a , d. k'hikul6%a ( I) to raise or hoist by the simple motion of the 
hands, as a flag is raised by pulling a string. (2j to holdup by hand, arm: 
palpalishshil k'hi'ul6%an raising a white flag (of truce), 14, 2. Der kiuleka. 

ki, 155; 19. Same as kie, q v. 

kla, kiy a, d. kikiya, keki'a fcarc?, 180; 17. Incantations: ki'ya nu afkana 
I the lizard am nodding at the issue of my den, 155; 19.; ki'alam ke-ish 
the lizard^ s tread or passage, 165; 13. 14. Cf kidsha. 

k i' - a d s h yolk of egg. 

k i d k u g a , d. ldk;'ikuga to rub sideways, to move the fingers from one side into 
or around something; k. lulpat to move the fingers over the eye, either to the 
right or left, a treatment resorted to by Indian mothers on their infants 
when the eyes or features seem out of shape. Kl. for kiancga Mod. 

k(^-utchish— kilibli. 129 

k i a n (^ g a , d. kikan^ga to move the fingers sideways over, to rub from one 
side; lit. "to begin moving sideways": p'gi'shap kikannega lulput nepatka 
the mother passes with her hands over the eyes, 91, 6. Mod. Cf. kidkuga. 

kiiipka, d kakiiipka (1) to lie on one side of the body, to recline sideways. 
(2) to lean on one arm. 

kiat^ga, d. kikat%a, v. intr., to enter sideways, 73, 5.; to slip into from 
one side, to slide into. Cf. gut^ga. 

kia'm (d. kdkiiim), pi. tiimi k., generic term for all kinds oi fish, 94, 4. 
145, 11.: k. Mela to catch fish, 28, 5. 132, 3.; k. p4n to eat fish, viz., to eat 
nothing but fish, to fast on fish, 89, 7. and Note; ku-idshi k. rotten, stink- 
ing fish, 132, 3. 4.; kiamji'mi, kiame'mi, kiarna'm in the fishing season; 
this period comprehends the early and the warm months, during which 
the fish ascend the waters of these highlands, 148, 19. Cf kia, kidsha. 

kia'm = lu^lks, kia'm=lu(51kish, or lu^lks=kia'm fishing-place; a place where 
fish are caught in large quantities, as an obstruction, dam in a river etc. 

kia'm = luelksHa to procure, to make a fishing-place or fish-trap for some- 
body's use, 142, 2. 

kia'm = luelo'tksh; see luel6tkish. 

kidsha, kidsa, d. kikadsa. Mod. kiktcha (i) to swim below the water's sur- 
face. (2) to dive: k. .t41a to dive after a coin of money. (3) to creep, crawl, 
as snakes, lizards, worms. 

kids hash, d. ki'ktchaah fin of fish ; generic tei-m for all fins except the 
kdluish, q. v.: k. yutflan, or k. vush6ksaksin breast fin; pipelantan k. 
side fin; shuitchashks4ksin k. belly fin. 

kie, kl in this manner, 155; 19; so, thus; can be used when quoting the 
very words used by the one speaking: h(imkanka kie, Mod., she spoke thus, 
31, 11., for Kl. ke a hemkanka, kek h^mkanka so she said. Stands also 
for Kl. gd-asht, nd-asht, tchf. 

k i k 1 o' s , kiklu's, d. of kilosh, q. v. 

ki'la, d. kikdla; see kila. 

k 1 1 d s h n a , d. kikdldshna. Mod. for kintchna, q. v. 

kilibli, d. kiklibli (1) to go into, to enter, to pass within, said of one or sev- 
eral animals entering their dens, burrows. (2) to slide into ; to crawl, creep 
into. — Speaking of one subject, gulipeli may be used in the second defi- 
nition. Der. kilhi, -peli. 


killii, j^illii, d. kikalhi, giggalhi to enter, to go into, to pass into; said of 
many subjects; speaking of one subject, guli, q. v. 

kilidshiga, d. kik'lidshfga a species of little, long-necked ducks; syni- 
zesis for kilidshiaga, 193; 13. Dim. kilidshiksh. 

kilfdshiksli, d. kiklidsliiksli, species oi duck, rather large-sized. Its 
incantation: 165; 15. 180; 12. 

kili'lka to raise, kick up, icliirl up dust; said of the otter's tread, 166; 24. 

k i' 1 i 1 k s , kfllilksh dust; raised by the march of persons or animals, 29, 7. 

kilit, gi'lit (1) hole, a2)erture, orifice. (2) rectum or anus as a part of the 
entrails, 119, 12. 20.: gilit=mashash ^i/es, hemorrhoids. Dei: kilhi. 

k i 1 1 w a s h , d. kikli'wash the flicker, a red-headed woodpecker, whose scalp 
is highly j)rized by the Western Indians, is used as a charm, and enters 
in the ornamentation of belts, mantles and blankets: k. shkiitatko wrapped 
in a robe ornamented with scalps of the k. ivoodpecker, 189; 6. and Note. 

k f 1 k a , Kl. kil^a, d. kikal^a to become humpbacked: kil;^antko, humpbacked 
person, humpback; kil%dntko humpback, when imitated by playing children. 

k i 1 % i s h , d. kikal;(ish hump, gibbosity. 

Kilukaga, noni. pr. of a Klamath Lake man, signer of the treaty of 
1864: lit. "Warrior of small stature." Der. ki'losh. 

kilosh, kilu's, nkilush, d. ki'klosh, kikli'is (1) angry, irate, ivroth; furious, 
133, 10.: kilos ke-udsis impetuous is the gray wolf, 144, H-; kpu'tsampgli 
sas kiklo's hu'k in their war-fury they forced them to tvithdraw, 17, 3. (2) 
bold warrior or fighter ; rabid fellow: Sa't laki kilu's the war-leader of tlie 
Snake Indians, 28, 8. and Note Der. kilua. 

k i 1 u a , ki'lua, kilhua (V) to become or be angry, to be in a wrath, anger, rage, 
36, 2.: ka-i kiluat! donHbe angry! 34, 13. (2) to be in the wild, savage state. 

ki'lua, kilhua, d. kikdlua; see kelua. 

Kiluamtch, nom. pr. masc, ^'Old Brave ^', or "Captain George". This 
was the name of a Klamath Lake warrior, a reckless fighter of a remark- 
ably tall stature. Cf. Note to 21, 5. Dei- kilosh, -amtch. 

kima'dsh, kimdtch, d. kikma'dsh ant: liikam k. black ant, lit. "bear's 
ant"; kima'dsham patko afflicted with toothache; lit. "eaten by the ant", 
126, 6.; compare with this tlie French fourmiller, the \ti\\. for micolare. 

kimalia, d. kikmalia to smart, to cause pain: ka-d k. it smarts intensely. 

k i 1 li i — K i u t p u a s li . 131 

kimbaks, kimpoksh ^fe, row, line; file of ])ersons: lap k. gashaktchna 
they follow in two files, 87, 17. C£ kintchna, mtipoks, tunsliish. 

kinka, gi'nka, gi'nk (1) adv.,io a small extent ; not largely, a little, a trifle: 
Lu'kamtcli gi'nka meya Old Grizzly did not dig much, 118, 7.; cf. 119, 2. 
(2) when used as adj. it is abbr. from kinkani, q v 

kinkak, ginkag, adj. and adv , only a few, 25, 2.; hut little; kinkag 
tchu'leks hat a small portion of meat, 119, 12. 18. Der. kinka, ak. 

kinkani, ginkani, adj., (1) scarce, spare, '■few and far hetween''' : kinkdn' 
smo'k gitk having a spare heard, 90, 5. ; k. tut wa they are scarce out there, 
134, 16.; cf 144, 10. 149, 14. (2) few in mimher, not many, in small 
quantity: hii kinkanish weweshcUtko he, she has few children only; k. 
kit(Mka[ a little hit of tobacco, 137, 3 and Note. Abbr. into kinka (2). 

kfnkutko, kingg5'tko, d. kikauko'tko square, Jour-cornered, four-edged : 
mil kinkutko forming a large square; broad, wide; mu gi'nggotk ne'p a 
broad hand; Idtcba ginko' iko Jbrming a small square; narrow. 

kinsh, ki-intch, d. ki'kansh (1) wasp. (2) yellow jacket wasp, also called 
skintch; incantations of this insect, 165; 16 180; 18. (3) generic term for 
wasp-like insects: ati'ni ki-intch libellula, dragon-fly. Cf ki'sh, kiutka (3). 

k i n s h a k p k a , d kikanshakpka ( I ) to point by hand at an object located 
below. (2) to give a downward direction to an arrow, rifle or piece of 
artillery, ball or bullet, 24, 1. 

kinshakshna, d kikanshakshna to follow in a file: shashamoks tchi'k 
k. then the relatives follow (the wagon) in a file, 87, 9. Cf gashilktchua. 

k I n s h a m p k a , d. kikdnshampka to point at a distant object. 

k i n s h i p k a , d. kikanshipka to point at; to show with the extended arm. Cf 
alahia, kinshampka. 

k i n s h i p k i a , d. kikanshipkia to beckon, to make a sign or signs to somebody; 
to make come by beckoning. Cf shahamiiya. 

K i n t p u a s h , nom. pr. of the Modoc chief and principal leader in the 
Modoc war of 1872-1873, called Captain Jack by the white population. 
Through his personal influence upon the younger and more turbulent 
portion of the Modoc warriors he brought on a separation from the more 
peaceable moiety of the tribe in Api'il, 1870, and wliile the latter 
migrated from Modoc Point to Yaneks, he returned to the old Modoc 


country on the California border, Lost River etc., with the other haU": 
36, 3-8. The first active measures taken by the Government to bring 
back the runaway Modocs of Kintpuash to the Khimath reservation from 
the lands which they had ceded and sold, ended in a massacre of Indian 
women, childi'en, and defenseless whites, and thus gave rise to the Modoc 
war: 37, 3—19. Kfntpuash with his warriors and their families retreated 
to the lava beds, an inaccessible tract of land impregnable by mere 
assault, set up his "headquarters" in Wright's cave, and resisted all 
attempts of the American troops to carry his position from January 16 
to the bombardment of the lava beds, April 16-18, 1873: 42, 18-43, 2. 
The progress of the war, which up to April had been exceedingly slow 
and meager in results, became more active only on account of the assas- 
sination of two of the Peace Commissioners, a dastardly act in which 
Kintpuash had played the most prominent part: 42, 1-17. After leaving 
the "rocky cave" and the lava beds, K. with his warriors resisted for a 
while successfully the regular troops in the engagements on Sand Hill, 43, 
6-12, and Dry Lake (or Grass Lake), 43, 13-16. But finally the Indians 
separated and this ended the Modoc campaign. K was captured June 
1, and with five others tried in Fort Klamath, and hung October 3, 
1873. In our texts K. is mentioned as Captain Jack, or as: laki, 
Mo'dokni laki in 34, 3 35, 8. 17. 21. 36, 4. 10. 13. 37, 4. 5. 17. 39, 5-10. 
18-22. 40, 2-5. 41, 6. 42, 1-5. 7. 8. 18. 44, 2-8. He was the cousin of 
Toby Riddle, both descending from brothers, 39, 22. His name is inter- 
preted by "Having the waterbrash", cf. kidshipka, a verb of the same 
meaning, though provided with another suffix; others explain it, though 
incorrectly, by the Shasti term kimpi, as referring to his high, tall 
stature Cf. Kil'mpu, and Notes to 34, 4. 8. 42, 1. etc., especially the 
Note to 35, 8. Oregonians wrote his name: Kreintpoos, Keintpoos. 

k i n t c h d m p 6 1 i , d. kikantchdmpgli to return, go or ride hack in a file; to 
go home single file, 85, 12. Der. kfntchna, -p6li. 

k i n t c h {\ n t k , d. kikantchcintko (I) adj. passable for travelers walking or 
riding single file. (2) adj., open for passage, practicable: tfdsh gfnshantk 
luitakt it is good walking through here. (3) subst., narrow way or pass, 
pathway: ketcha k. /oo^2^a</^. Uer. kintchna, q. v. Cf. ginszAntko. 

kintchampeli — kitcha. 133 

kint chna, Mod kildslma. d kikantchna to walk, march, or ride in a file; 

to go single file. Cf. kfnshakshna, kintchdntko, skintchna. 
kf nual;^ a, d. kikanual^a (I) to go, march or travel uphill in a file, 23, 7. 
(2) to go up hill, to climb an eminence, said of many subjects. Cf. g-a-ul^a. 
kfnualpka, d. kik^nualpka to give an upward direction to an an-ow, rifle, 

piece of artillery. Cf kinshakpka, Mya. 
kinuina, d. kikanufna (1) to go single file, to travel one behind the other. 
(2) to proceed in a serpentine, meandering line. Note to 162; 1. 

kt'sh, d. ki'kash (i short) fishin/f-spear ; fish-gig, fish-harpoon of Indian 
manufacture, 180; 20 Cf kiutka (3). 

kl'sh, M'h, d.'kiM^h stmset, sundown, eve, evening: kissa'mi, kishe'mi, d. 
klk'she'mi at sundown, in the evening twilight, 31, 1.; kishdmtki, Mod., about 
six d'cloch in the evening. Contr. from gd-isli ; see gdna 

kfshlza, d. kikdshl^a to step, pace, tread. 

klshkanka d. kikdshkanka to walk about, 24, 20.; to walk outdoors, in the 
field, prairie etc. 

kishtelAntcha, d. kikashteldntcha to .90 around the camp;, to visit one's 
neighbor or neighbors. 

kishtelAntchna, d. kikashteldntchna to walk on the side of the horse or 
wagon: gel61ank k. to dismount and walk on the horse's side. 

kfshtchipka, d. kikdshtcliipka to step up, to come towards; to approach to 
somebody, 136, 6. 

k 1 s h t c h k a , d. kikashtchka to step on something while marching ; to tread 
upon, 104, 2. Cf kfshl;fa. 

kishtchna, d. kikAshtchna (1) to go slow, to pace; said of persons, horses, 
etc. (2) to step on, tread upon: na'shak wakish kfshtchnank after step- 
ping on one step of the inside ladder, 112, 4. 

kitita, kitlua, kituina, kitulala; see kitita, kftlua, kftiuna, kituldla. 

kitti , pi. tumi k, domestic cat; from Engl kitten. Mod. for pushish Kl. 

kittidga, ^\. txum 'k.., kitten, young of cat. Mod. Dim. kitti. 

kf tcha, kitcha, k^dsa, ga'dsa, (1) adv., in a small degree; a little, not much, 
somewhat: ke'tcha i dl^a you are selling cheap; t^^lamash kdtsa miiatita 
shl^wish southwest wind. (2) adj., little, small; abbr. from kitchkdni: 
gil'tsa lupi kiat^ga a little bit (of it) enters first, 73, 5. : k^tsa=laki subchief 


k i t (• li ;i k 6 1 a , d. kikntchdk'la (I) to pay a sum owed, to repay a debt: n\i 
w;itch spuni kftchakluk t41atat I gave a horse to repay the money I owed. 
(2) to settle up; to pay, to reward, 35, 19.: 1 kitcluikli! you pay him! you 
settle with him! Of. skd-uta, skiikta. 

K i t c h a = K 1 11 1 k o i nom pr. of a Klamath Lake man : " Small-Posteriors" . 
Stands for: kitehkdnish klu gftko. 

kltchka, d. kik;'itchka small fin ; all fins of small fish are called so except 
the tailfin. Dim. kfdshash Cf. kAluish, kldshash, kpdl. 

kftchkam handkerchief. 

kitchkAni, ketchkdni, d. kikatchkdni (1) small-sised, small, little: k. 
shMpsh small is the flower, 147, 6. 149, 22.; k. ak very small; k4-i k. not 
so small; k. laki chief of second order, suhchief, cf. Idtcha; kitchganld 
the smallest; ketchgdne skutash a S7nall mantle, 125, 7.; ketchkdne we'sh 
a small block or chunk of ice. (2) young, not adidt, not having reached full 
size: gitsgdni hissudkga a youngster, boy, 23, 13. or simply kitchgdni, 19, 
6 ; ketchkanidnash o' gisht tvhen he was quite young, 55, 20. 56, 1.: cf. 54, 
1. and Note; kotchkAne ;inku young tree, sapling. Der. kftcha, -kani; 
original form kitchikdni, cf. 82, 3. 

kitcho'tki to rush down: yaukal k. the eagle rusTies down. Cf lu'mtakia. 

kfn, kf-u, kill, pi tumi k., (1) anus; loiver end of rectum. (2) posteriors, 
buttocks. Cf kilit, Kitcha-Kfutko, pushaklish, Push=Kiu, shki'a, shkfwa. 

ki'udshna, d. kikudshna, 80, 11.; same as gi-udshna, q. v. 

ki-uggidsha, d. kikiiggidsha (1) v. intr, to circle around, to describe 
circles: yaukal k. kAlo-ushtat the eagle circles up in the skies. (2) v. 
trans., to cause to turn; to wind up, as a watch Cf aggedsha. 

ki-nggitch6tkish, abbr. kiiiggftchotch, d. kikuggitch6tkish screw; 
linear, not hook screw. 

kiuydga, d. kikiiyega (1) to hoist up sideways, to raise obli(pcely. (2) to 
pull up, to hoist, to raise, as a flag; to pitch up, as with a pitchfork; to lift 
over oneself: tia kiuyaga he held a tray over himself and family, 96, 21. 
Der. ny(^ga. Cf khileka, shuvega. 

kill y i a/i 6tk ish , d. kikuyia/iotgish kitchen fork, large fork; pitchfork. 

kiukclya, d. kikukdya to stick up obliquely; to hang out sideways; said of 
flags, conjurers' signs, etc.: wan k. to hang out a fox-skin, 71, 2.; kiiika- 
yunk flags tliey are sticking ou,t flags on oblique poles, 134, 4. 

kitchakela — klutchna. 135 

Kiukamtch, nom. pr. of a Modoc headman: ^^ Old Conjurer". See 21, 
5. and Note. Der. kfuks, Amtchtksh. 

kiukidga young or little conjurer, shaman. Dim. kfuks, q. v. 

kiuks, kiuksh, d. kiukiaks, kukiaksli Indian conjurer, shaman, sorcerer; 
conjurer of diseases, medical practitioner, 59, 6. 70, 4. 7. and pages 68, 69. 
These "medicine-men" do not only treat the sick, but they arrange 
and preside over the "doctor-dances" in the communal dance-house, are 
consulted for dreams, predict the weather, during the pond-lily harvest 
give advice on the more important incidents of tribal pursuits, and are 
much dreaded on account of their alleged power of sorcery. They are 
called kiuks, because they stick out a rabbit skin or some other sign on 
a rod slanting obliquely over their lodges (kiukaya). It is estimated that 
more female than male conjurers are now engaged in the treatment of 
patients among the Modocs. Kemutchdtko k. the old conjurer, 40, 20.; 
k. weM^ash doctress, old female conjurer; tsAshash=k. a sJcunJc acting as con- 
jurer, 134, 8.; kiuksam tchuy<^sh a very high huck-skin hat; kiuksam 
shui'sh magic song ; see shul'sh and Note on page 159; n4nka kukfaks 
several conjurers, 64, 1. cf. 65, 10. 71, 1-4. 72, 1. To call a conjurer for 
the treatment of a patient is shuakia, slmAkidsha, q. v. 

kiulaksalsh; see k'hlulaksalsh. 

kiulAla, d kikuMla to roast on a spit: tchuleks k. to roast meat. Cf. iMla. 

kin Ian, partic. of giula, verbal and derivative of gi, q. v. 

kiuleka, d. kikiileka (1) to raise, stick up, hoist, lift, pull up. (2) to take 
up by means of a stick, pole. Cf k'hiule%a. 

kiuliga, n^i-uliga, d. kikulfga, v. intr., to drip or drizde doivn; to fall 
upon: stiya n^i'-ulig-a laki Tuhu'shash the pitch dripped down on the forehead 
of Mud Hen, 97, 1. Cf. laliga. 

k i u 1 6 1 a , d. kikul61a (1) to peel off, scrape off: kakowatka sha k stopalsh 
they scrape off with pieces of hone the fibre-bark (of a tree), 148, 19. (2) to 
skim off froth, cream, etc. 

k i u 1 o 1 s h , d. ki'kvil5lsh, lower horse-rib sharpened into a bark-scraper. 

k i u p a t a , d. kikupata to land, to arrive on shore. Cf s/apdta. 

k i u t k a , d. kikutka (l) to raise up repeatedly. (2) to take up, lift with a fork, 
as meat; to put into a kettle with a fork. (3) to prick, sting. Cf kiuydga. 

klutchna to stick out; to hold up while moving or traveling, 87, 16. 


k i w ;i 1 <i p il t a , d. kikualapAta to drag or trail along upon the soil: Idkiam 
pji'-ia sha kiifla (for kaflatat) k. they dragged the chief's daughter on the 
soil, along the ground, 190; 11. 

k 1 a' d s h , d. kldkladsh (1) level piece of ground, plain. (2) clearing in the 
woods: tch^-xi klAdshat gshi'kla an antelope lay in a clearing, 126, 6. Mod. 
for kna't Kl, q. v. 

k 1 a' d s h , k'hitch ; see kgMtch. 

kl Ala, kkih'la, klsilha, pi. tumi k., hailstones fall ; it is hailing. 

k 1 d 1 a s h , abbr. kldlsh, pi. tumi k., (1 ) hail, fall of hailstones. (2) hailstone; 
nddshiak k. a single hailstone. Cf. stukish. 

Kla'll, nom. pr. fem. Kl : '^Skin Scorched ojf". 

k 1 A n a , the palatable root of an aquatic plant growing in rivers, 146, 1 4. 

klap gonorrhoea: klap=m4shash gonorrhoea; klapraashetko afflicted with 
gonorrhoea. From the English clap. Cf guyds^atko. 

k 1 A p a , pi. tumi k., the edible, cylindric root of the small-leaved, red- 
blossoming pudshak-plant, 147, 1. 

k ' 1 4 p i\ , a hawk-like black bird changing to a lighter hue in winter and 
living on mice; tail white 

k 1 a' s h , d. kldklash raw shin, raw fur-skin, untanned hide. Cf kiul61a. 

kldtcha, geldtsa, d. kekldtoha to move the hand sideways, to perform a lat- 
eral or whirling motion with the hand or arm Der. ki-, l^na. 

kldtchna, geldtchna, d. kekldtchna to make a side motion with the hand. 
When relating to the sp^Ishna-game, it designates a half circular side 
motion performed with all the fingers: vu'ish sha kldtchnank shlin they 
express their guessing at the vuish by a side motion of the hand, 79, 4. and Note. 

K'laushAlpkash Yaina-aga = gishi, nom. pr. of Sand Hill, a lo- 
cality where a battle of the Modoc campaign was fought on April 26, 
1873; 43, J 2. and Note to 43, 1. K6la-ushdlpkash=Yaindkishi, 56, 4. 
Lit. "Sand-covered Hill at". Der. k'laushaltko, yaina-dga, gi. 

k'laiishaltko, pi. tiimi k., sand-covered, sandy Der. keld-ush. 

klji'yam, species of grass about 3 inches long, with a narrow panicle. 

k'layuaga, a kind of mouse not specified. Dim. kgldyua. 

kla'pi, kgla'pi, k'le'pi, d. kliikla'pi, a long flat species of rush or scirpus; 
used for manufacturing little aiTows as playthings: k'l^piam lutish, shldpsh 
seed, flower of kid' pi-reed. Not to be confounded with kldpa, q. v. 

kiwalapata — kliitsu6tkish. 137 

kle'clshu, kla'dsho dam; fresh-water and salt-water muscle ; bivalve : M4- 

dshuam wAkoksh shell, muscle-shell, clam-shell. 
Kle'dshil = P4kishkni, nom. pr. fern. ; name of one of Chief Lelt^kash's 

ten wives, who came from a lake or river productive of muscle-shells; 

"Belonging to the Shell-Eaters". Der. kle'dshu, pdka. 
k ' 1 d k a , d. k'ldklka ; see k'Mka. 
kldna, gl(?na, d. kleklAna, gl^gla (1) to walk on one leg, to hop. Cf she- 

kli^iea. (2) to obtain fire, to get a spark of fire from the nearest lodge or 

camp-fire; the object, liiloks, is not expressed. Der. Mna. Cf kMtcha 
k ' 1 e' p k i , kla'pke, k'le'pgi, pi. tiimi k , red paint consisting of a yellow earth 

mixed with grease and used by Indians to line over or paint their faces. 

It is of a dark red color; the natives apply, it at times to keep off the cold, 

while the DAnkali of Nubia put a similar loamy substance on their bodies 

to keep off the sunheat. 121, 2. 18 i; 1. k. t^Hshtat ip^a they smeared 

red paint in their faces, 120, 18. 
KHtiamtch, nom. pr. of "Old Sandhill Crane''', a miraculous bird of 

Klamath Lake mythology and one of Afshish's five wives, 95, 23.; cf 96, 

6. Der. kl^tish, Amtchiksh. 
kl^tish, klitish sandliill crane ; a noisy bird found on the shores of the 

xipland lakes in the Klamath region: Grus canadensis. KHtisham w^ash 

the cranes offspring, 190; 12. These birds take long sti-ides or steps: 

tchikolal^a, 190; 12. Personified in Kletiamtch, q. v. 
k ' 1 (^ w i , k6l^-ui, d. k^klui ; see k'l^wi. 
k 1 i p a , d. kliklipa mink, a quadruped of the weasel tribe : Putorius vison. 

Mink-incantations: 156; 29. 162; 6. 174; 12. 177; 13. 
Kli'p = Skutatk, nom. pr. of Dave Hill's father: " Minkskin-JDressed". 
k 1 i' s h , d. kliklsh acorn of the black oak. 
k 1 i' s h a m , d. kliklshana black oak tree; the wood of this tree serves for the 

manufacture of bows, 
kliuldla to sprinkle with water or other liquids, 82, 8. 
klu' , a cylindric, eatable root found in the old Modoc country, 147, 2. 
kludshoa, d kluklddshua to fish imth a light or lantern. 
kludso^a, d. klii'kltsoxa to suck at something, 
k 1 u t s u 6 1 k i s h , klutsuo'tch, d. klukltsu(Stkish apparatus intended for at- 


traction, especiall}' for alluring fish: kl. ankii jj?7c7i tvood set on fire on a 
fishing-canoe, 150, 6. Der. kludshoa. 

k 1 u k a 1 g i , d. kii'kulg-algi to haid, fetch, to come after or for something: k. 
an Id'loks, kti-i ni sliudshank tchia I come after fire, for I have no fire 
where I stop. Cf. klena. 

klu'shl^a, d. klukli'ishl^a to go to sleep, to go to rest; said of birds and 
other animals in Kl.; in Mod. of persons also. 

k m a' , pi. tumi k., (1) woman^s skullcap of the Mdklaks pattern, similar to the 
kdlkma, but flat on the top. This headcover, sometimes worn by old 
men also, is manufactured from various kinds of aquatic grasses and 
scirpus. One specimen was bordered at the rim with md-i (bulrush, 
tule-grass), further inside appeared the yellow-colored tkap; the shma- 
yam, also yellow, on the outside, and the ornaments of the cap were 
interwoven with the black miikuash. Cf 87, 4. 109, 3-5. 9. 10. (2) 
stnall tray, or drinking cup manufactured as above. Cf. kalkma. 

km 4k a, k'makka, d. kdkmka, kmak'mka (1) to look about, to look around 
oneself, 110, 15. ■ (2) to he on the lookout, to spy, reconnaitre, scout: km;ikok 
MoatuAshash in order to espy the Pit River Indians, 21, 12. 29, 12. 13. (3) 
to expect, wait. — The first d. form is used when speaking of a few subjects, 
the second, when speaking of many. 

k m a k a p s h t i , d. kakmkapshti to put a stick or straw into an orifice, open- 
ing, den, hole. Cf yankj'ipshti. 

k mapat' hi en atko , d. kniakmpatic^natko ivrinkled, furrowed : kmapat'- 
hi^napksh tcilish gi'tko tvrinkled in face. 

k m a t c h ;{ 6 1 k i s h , d. kmakmatchx<5tkish holh spurs of a rider. Mod. 

Cf ktuk('.tkish Ki; 

k m ^ 1 / a , d. kdkmel^a, kmdkmal^a, v. trans., to lay down, to leave; said of 
threads, ropes, and similar objects. The first d. form is used when speak- 
ing of a few objects, the second, when speaking of many. 

k Ml 1 ti k, a muscle of the human nock: the sterno-cleido-mastoid muscle. 

kmu'gga, kmiika, d. km6kumka to growl; said of dogs only. Cf the 
German: mucksen. 

k m u y u I a t k o , k. kukmiulatko shaggy. 

K ' m u k :i m t c h i k s li , al)l)r. K'mukamtch, K'ninknmts, nom. pr. of JCmi't- 

k 1 u k ti 1 g i — K ' m u k 4 m t c h i k s h . 1 39 

kamtch, the creator and supreme ruler of the world and of mankind in the 
mythology of the Modocs and Klamath Lake Indians. His name means: 
"^Z^e Old Man of the forefathers", or "the primeval Old Man". In him the 
natives have deified the most powerful agency of nature known to them, 
the sun. As the supreme deity of a hunting race, he is invested with all 
the attributes of certain animals pursued by the Indian hunter: sagacity, 
cunning, recklessness, gigantic power etc. He also appears under the 
mask of the sagacious marten (Skdlamtch), 107, 1. 3., and as such he is 
the elder brother of Little Weasel (Tchashg^yakj, whom he is sending out 
from Ydmsi, his temporarj' residence, to obtain one-eyed wives for both, 
107, 1-4. 109, 3. 4. K. creates the earth, 104, 4. 126, 1. 142, 1., and 
gives names to all the localities made by him in the Klamath countr)-, 
142, 1 sqq. He creates the human beings, 94, 1. 2.; the races and tribes 
of men, 103, 1-5. 143, 2-4.; all things upon the earth and the fish in the 
water, 94, 3—4. In concert with him some animals determine the duration 
of human life, 103, 6-104, 6. He saves the child of a mother who is in 
the act of leaping into the fire to destroy .herself, and hides it in his leg; 
from there it is afterwards born miraculously and called his son, Aishish. 
During the incessant persecutions of Aishish (q. v.), K. shows himself as 
a tricky, treacherous, and low character, as a typical beast-god. In the 
same light he appears in his dealings with the mother-coyote, 105, 3-16., 
cf. 132, 1-3. He revenges himself upon the Northwind (Yamshamtch) 
and the Southwind (Muash, Mu'shamtch) for the killing of his younger 
brother, by cutting off their lieads, a myth describing the final victory of 
the warming rays of the sun over the rough blasts of the wintry season, 
111, 4-11. The extermination of the five Thundei-s and the two Old 
Thunders is the symbolization of another meteorologic process, 113, 
13-114, 12. From several of our Texts it becomes apparent that in the 
popular belief K. is not alone regarded as an unapproachable, terrific and 
demoniac power, but, like the devil of medieval Europe, has begun to 
assume a grotesque and popularly comical character: pp. 105, 125, 126. 
Being merely a power of nature and not a moral power, the Indians do 
not pray to him, but worship him in their dances (yekish) only. Two 
Modoc songs describe his unlimited power over the earth and mankind. 


192; 8. 9. Being the ruler of the whole world (K. n.^muktua )K'-ul%a), he 
will punish bad men (shiktchdktchanuapka k6-idshash hihashudktchash) 
by changing them into rocks or by burning them. For the orthography 
of the name, see 125, 1-9. and Note to 126, 11. 12. Cf. also 65, 11. 131, 
2. and in the Dictionary: Alshish, dmtchiksh, k'miitcha, Ktd-iti, kji'k. 

kmuk61tgi, d. kmuk'mk61tgi, v. intr., (1) to wither, fade out; to become 
ivrinMcd by wetting. (2) to become decrepit by age. 

kmi'ilt^aga, d. kmukmdlt%aga to bubble up in water; the result of a mo- 
tion made below. Cf kmutcho'sha. 

kmiimutch, km6match, pi. tumi k., field rat, wood rat; called hdpush by 
Shastis and Modocs, q. v.: Neotoma cinerea. Der. miimuatch 

k ' m u t c h a , kgmutcha, d. ku'kumtcha, kiik'mtcha to grow, become old, to 
attain old age, 142, 10.; partic. k'mutchatko, d. kok'mtch4tko, guggum- 
tchdtko (1) decrepit by age, grown old. (2) old person; old man, 40, 20. 
94, 2.; tchikii kgmuts;itk a man bent by eld, 136, 5. 

K'mutcham = Ldtsaskshi, nom. pr. of a hill and camping place on the 
Sprague River: "At K'mukf^mtch's Lodge", as the Indians interpret it. 

k'mutch^watko, k'mutchdwitko, d. kuk'mtcha'witko old person; old 
man. The incantation of the "Old Man" is declared to be of a perni- 
cious influence, 179; 7.; 'rautch^watk an old man, 183; 13. 

k ' m u t c h i s h , kgmutchish, d. kiikamtchish, kuk'mtchish, gu'ggamtchish 
old, aged, advanced in years: nu yd k4-i ni a kiikamtchish gi'-uapk shfugok 
I would certainly never get old if I had killed him, 64, 13. and Note; nil a 
gu'ggamtchishash gi'tki gi! / want them to become old, 103, 7. 12. 

kmutcho'sha, d. kokmtcho'sha (1) to bubble up in water, Mod. for 
kmult;^'aga Kl. (2) to such juice out of bones, stalks etc. Kl. 

K'miitchuyakshi nom pr. of a rock on Klamath Marsh, shaped like 
a man and visible from afar; lit "Old Man's Place." Der. k'miitcha. 

k n a d s h i k 1 a , d. kakandshikia to wink, blink with one eye. 

k n d k 1 i t k o , d. knakndlitko beach, shore line. 

kna't, d. kna'knat feve^, dry, rocky land without vegetation, table land; on 
tracts of this kind the ipo-root is often found. Kl. for kla'dsh Mod. 

knd-udshi, kn^-udshe, d. kndknudshi coarse outer bark of tree, especially 
of the pine-tree, 148, 18. Cf. ndshg'dsh, st6palsh. 

kmukoltgi — Kolidshti. 141 

knd-ush fish-line, JisJi-striny, to which apiece of bark is fastened; nu k. 
mbu'shan shle-etchu4pka to-morrow I shall go and look at the fish-lines. 
Der. kn^wa. Cf shue'-ush, takeleash. 

k n e w a to put out the fish-line : pshiu k., or simply kn^wa, to put the fish-line 
out for the night. Cf. shue-udsha. 

k n 1 a , d. kniknia (i short) to be in erection. 

knukdga, k'nukaga, d. knuknuk^ga thread; little, thin or tiny string : k. 
tuns;t4ntko wick; lit. "small string passing through it." Dim. knuks. 

kniikla, d. knuknakla (1) to bend the body downwards, as in squatting, 
stooping etc. (2) to deposit, lay; said of birds laying eggs: tchikass n4pal 
k. the bird has laid an egg, or eggs. 

k n u' k 1 % a , d. knuknakl^a (i) to lie down curled up, face down or leaning on 
elbows; to have the knees drawn up in sitting or lying. (2) to lurk, watch 
when lying in amhush; to place oneself in ambush. Der. knukla. Cf. ldigl%a 

kniiks, k'niiks, kenti'ks, pi. tiimi k, (1) thread, string, cord: k'no'kshtat 
itd,nkish wax, beeswax to put on threads (2) rope, cable, 82, 11.; the in- 
cantation of the rope, 165; 11. — Lit. "what is bent, twisted." Cf. knukla. 

k 6 a , d. k6koa, kukua, a white species of crane or heron living on the Kla- 
math lakes, spread of wings two feet; probably Herodias egretta. K. 
wahdshtat tgaliga a koa-fowl stands on the rock-cliff at the shore. 

k 6 d s i n k s ; see kiidshinksh. 

k6e, ku'e, d. k6koe, kukue (1) toad. (2) the larger species of frogs, like 
the bullfrog, Bana pipiens. Incantations of ku-e wel^kash the old female 
frog, 163; 9. 173; 5.: hu'kt shuisham laki, k6a this is the chief of songs; 
the toad (or frog) song, 180; 17. Cf. wek^tash. 

k6-eptchi, ku^ptchi, d. kuku^ptchi toad-shaped, frog-like: k. snaw^dshash 
a frog-like wife, 18(i; 54. Der. k6e, -ptchi. 

K o h 4 s h t i , nom. pr. of an Indian settlement of five or six lodges, located 
on northeast end of Upper Klamath Lake, three miles north of Y4-aga, 
q. V. ; also fishing place and starting point for canoes going to the western 
and southern shores of this upland water basin. During about three 
years it was the seat of the reservation agent; cf. Ind AfF. Rep. 1866, p 
89-91. On the origin of the name, ^'Set-Out", cf. 142, 12.; K. is also 
called Skohudshki. Cf. E-ukalksfni k6ke, guhuashktcha, s^owashka. 


k 6 hi ash, d. k6kiash (l)^ea. (2) bedbug. Der. k(5ka. 

k 6 - i k a , d. kokf^a; see kui;ija 

k6-i;fag'a, d. kukf;<agrt ; see guikaka. 

ko-ish(iwa, ku-idsh«wa, d. kokishdwa to rejoice over, to be glad of: kui- 
dshdwa i gtitpisht I am glad that you have arrived; ku-ish^wank shla'pgle 
rejoicing to have found him again, 9fi, 5.; kii-ishe-uk rejoicing, joyful, merry, 
96, 13. Cf. kuydvva 

k6ka, ku'ka, d. kukaka, kuk'ka (1) to be dressed in a gown, long robe; to 
wear the hiks-garment ; said of botli sexes. (2) to be dressed, arrayed, clad; 
said of women only: tidslia hu't kokatko she is nicely dressed; cf. 189, 5. 
Cf. kukpgh, kiiks, shul6ta. 

k6kantcha, kukdnsha, d. kuk'kantcha to go climbing, to climh up to a 
distance, 100, 7.; to ascend, as a ladder or tree. Der. guka. 

k 6 k a t % a s h , pi. tumi k , nom. pr. of an edible root not specified. Cf. 
k6katka, frequentat. of k6ka. 

k6kna, d kokAkna; see gukna. 

k o k 6 1 e flint-rock, a whitish rock used in the manufacture of arrow- and 
spear-heads: k nhAwahh. flint arrow-head, flint spear-head. Little pieces 
of this rock are found at different spots on the reservation. 

k6ktingsh, ku'ktinksh, abbr. ko'tingsh, ku'ktu, d. kokAktingsh dragon- 
fly, libcUnla, muskito hawk. Der. giita. Cf kinsh, K6tingsh. 

k o k t k f n s h k a , d. kokaktkinshka to scold, blame, vituperate; to charge with 
reproaches, 184; 30. and Note. Der k6ktingsh. 

k 6 k u a , k6kuatko, d. of guhua, q v. 

k61ansli, pi. tumi k., (1) joint, articulation of limbs. (2) knee-joint, knee- 
articulation, knee-bone, knee. Der. ga-iila. 

K61mai, nom. pr. fem.; interpreted by "Great Talker." 

k o' 1 1 a , k61ta, d. kokil'lta otter, fish otter: Lutra canadensis. K61ta wc^as the 
otter's offspring, 180; 1. and Note. Incantations: 166; 24 177; 9. Por- 
tions of its skin serve as magic curing-tools in the form of belts, 167; 30. 

k o m u' s h n i , kamushni, d. kokmu'shni wild, savage, runaway: ka-i k. tame, 
domesticated. Der. kii, mc^dsha. 

k o n c , kon, koni, kun, same as giini, q. v. 

kd'pe, k6pi coffee: k. bunu'tchatko (you are) going to drink coffee, 186; 56. 
From the English. 

kuliiiish — kpg'l. 143 

ko's h , ku'sb, obj. koshash and ko'sh, d. kokosb, %6;{osb (1) pine tree, pine. 
The species most generally met with in the settled parts of the reserve is 
Pinus ponderosa, growing from eighty to one hundred feet high and 
branching out at a distance of thirty feet from the soil; kosbash at the 
pine tree, 162; 2. (2) pine trees being the only conspicuous trees near 
the settlements of the Klamath Lake natives, they use k. as generic term 
for every kind of tree, 145, 21.; the k4pka-pine is called so, 148, 21,: 
kteleam k. sugar pine. The Mod. term for tree is anku, q. v. 

k 6 s h a p a s b , d. k6ksbapash clasping -hnife, pocket-knife. 

k6shpaksb, ku'shpaksh, d. kokoshpaksb father-in-law, mother-in-law; 
said by or in reference to husband of elder or younger daughter. 

Ko's=Tue'ts, nom. pr of an encampment of Snake Indians ten miles 
above Ydneks; lit. "where pine trees stand." Der. ko'sh, tiiya. 

k 6 1 a k s h , kiitagsh, ku'toks minnow, a species of fish of the genus Phoxi- 
nus, occurring in Upper Klamath Lake, long 3-5 inches, 180; 14.: 
ku'tagsh stu'ka to gig minnow-fish, 122, 6. 

k 6 1 a s h , gu'tasb, pi. tiimi k., head louse, 71, 9. 119, 3. 6. 8.: gu'tash kshlkla' 
to catch a louse on another^s head. Der. guta. Cf gapnedga. 

K(5tingsh, nom. pr. fem. Kl. : ^^Dragon-flg," nickname for a woman with 
a slender waist. Eegular form k6ktingsh, q v. 

koto, kii'to, d. k6kto, ku'kto (1) waist, loin of man. (2) the part of quad- 
rupeds where the hind legs join the body; middle portion of hack, ^^horse- 
lump". Der. giita. 

kowAktcha, d kokuaktcha to bite through, to tear off by biting: k. ni'sh 
she bit through the neck, 119, 9. 

k p a , d. kpdkpa fire-poker of wood or iron. C£ kpe'l. 

k p a d s li a , d. kpAkptcha to extinguish a light or candle by hand. 

k p a p s h a , d. kpakpapsha to taste, degustate, as food, liquids. Cf. kjx'to. 

kpapshash, d. kpakpdpshash sense of taste, taste of tongue and palate: 
luiluyatk k. sweet to the taste, 148, 7. 

k p a t a k a n k a , d. kpdptakanka to hold between one's legs or knees. 

kpatia, d. kpakpatia ^o ^oA'e in the fire: illa'ludsh kpatiank luloksh ^re- 
pincers. Cf illol6tkish. Der. kpa. 

kpe'l, kpel, Mod. kpe'l, d. kpekpal (1) tail, caudal appendage, 144, 9.: 


watcMgalam k. the dog a tail; Tcheinamgnam k. Chinaman^s tail; kpg'lam 
tiitish origin of the tail, liicautatious exist on the tails of several animals; 
Note, p. 178. (2) long hair on tail, Kl. for hik Mod. (3) tail-Jin of fish. 

k jj e t o , d. kpcjkpto to taste, to sip. Cf kp4psha. 

k p i a m n a (1) ^o put into the mouth; said of articles larger than the mouth 
and protruding from it. (2) to have or to roll in the mouth an object pro- 
truding from it. Cf shikpualkana. 

kpitchtchna, d. kpikpdtchtchna to spit; Mod. for shliiktchna Kl. and 
Mod. Cf kputchna. 

k p 6' k , d. kpO'kpak yoostben-y of dark hue and of the size of the domesti- 
cated gooseberry, growing in clusters; the fruit of the kp6kam-bush. 
Cf liiiluish, pukpok 

kp6kam, kpu'kam, d. kpukpakam (supply: Anku), a species of the 
gooseberry hush; probably Rihes aureum. 

kpudsho'sha, d. kpukptcho'sha to suck. Cf kluds6;ta 

kpiiyumna to revolve in. the mouth; to masticate, chew: kdtchgal k. to masti- 
cate tobacco. Cf. ktchan, k6kanka, pdn. 

kpiilaktcha to drive away while marching or running; to follow up, hunt, 
pursue, as an enemy, 30, 7. Der. kpu'l^a. 

kpuli, kpiili, d kpiikpli to drive into, huddle into: watsagkpuli' wakaldkat 
shi'p the dog huddled the sheep into the corral. 

kpii'l^a to drive off, expel, remove by force, 29, 21. 

kputcha, kpudsha, d. kpu'kptcha, kpu'kpdsha (1) to expel, oust, to drive 
out. (2) to chase, pursue, follow up closely, to press upon. Cf tpiidsha. 

kputch4mp6li, d. kpukptchdmpeli to drive out again; to force to a home- 
ward retreat, to expel from the country, 17, 3. 28, IL Der. kputchna, -peli. 

kputchapka, d. kpiikptchapka to chase, pursue, while unseen by, or dis- 
tant from the object pursued: ndlsh kpu'dshapka she presses hard upon us 
from the rear, 122, 7. Der. kputcha. 

kputchitchka to kiss; it is against the custom of western Indians to 
kiss any person except babies. 

kputchna, kpd'tchna, d. kpukpo'tchna (1) to drive out, expel. (2) to 
squirt from the mouth. Der. kputcha Cf kpitchtchna, kputchitchka. 

kshaggaya, d. kshakshgdya, v. trans., {I) to hang, to hang up, suspend. 

kpdto — kshawalidga. 145 

as game, clothing. (2) to put to death by hanging, 44, 4. 7. 8. 55, 21. — 
Speaking of many objects, igg^ya Cf. agg^ya, hishugg^ya, lagg4ya. 

kshaggay6tkisli, d. kshakshgay6tkish gallows. 

kshaklclsha to circle in the air; to describe circles, as birds of prey, 165; 
5. 169; 50. C£ aggddsha, ki-uggMsha. 

-ksaksi, -ksaksina, postp. of the emphatic adessive case in KL, '^ at, just 
at. there", not occumng in our Modoc texts. Often appended to parts of 
animal body, 21, 17. 30, 5.; to local names and terms of topography, 
19, 7. 20, 10-13. 22, 1.: keld-ush ish iktchi d-ushkshakshi ! get me some 
sand at the lake! Cf Weldkash=KnukleksAksi. 

kshdpa, ksapa, gishdpa (I) to tell, to relate, to state, to say so; introducing 
sometimes the proper woi'ds of the one speaking, sometimes not, 119, 21.: 
"kaila p'nalam" kshapa, "Modokishash 161oaksh" kshapa, "B6shtin 
kldksht" kshapa they said that the land belonged to themselves, that the 
Modocs were slaves and would soon become white people, 35, 6-8.; hun 
Wcitchag hu'mtcha kshdpa he told me that this dog ivas of such a description; 
kdnt sha Dr. J6hnash tawiank shi'uks gishdpa the one tvhom they said to 
have been bewitched by Doctor John, 65, 18 ; "hu'nksh" u'nk kshdpa 'Hhis 
one" said he. (2) to think, to believe, to hold, to suppose: hu'nk M6atuashash 
ksdpok thinking him to be a Pit River man, 24, 4. Der. ke No. 2, shdpa. 

kshapdta, d. kshakshpdta (1) v. trans., to bend backward or downward. 
(2) V. intr., to lean back on one's seat or chair. Cf tchapata. 

-kshdpta, -gshapta, a term composing the numeral terms six, seven, eight; 
also their multiples sixty, seventy, eighty, and others; lit. "I bend down- 
wards (the finger) ". Contr. from kshapAta. 

k s h a t g a t n u 1 a to draw out, extract, pull out; kdtchannat kshatgatnti'lank 
taking out from, extracting from the log, 111, 17. Der. tgatmila. 

kshdwal, ksdwala, d kshdkshual, ksaksuala (1) to stretch out upon, to 
deposit, lay upon: k. k'lekapkash Anko kedshlakstat they laid the body 
upon a pile of ivood, 85, 6.: shtchilv'l^ank tchiii gdlkai, tchiiyunk k. 
k'lekapkash after erecting poles they construct a platform and deposit on it the 
corpse. (2) to fix, fasten or tie above, high up, as at the top of a standing- 
pole. — Speaking of more than one object, iwdla. Cf ipma'tcha, kshuiwal. 

kshawalidga, d. kshakshawalidga to carry up, to transport upwards, up- 
hill. Cf 74, 17. Der. kshawal. Cf huwali(^ga. 


k s li a w i 11 a , d. ksliasliuina to fall down, one of one pair with marks up or 

down, the other three with the marks down or up; said of the two pairs 

of beaver or woodchuck teeth used in the skushash-game. By this 

throw none of the players on either side will gain anything, 80, 5. 
k s h e k a n s h a to fly around, to take an aerial fligJit : kalo nu k. Tfly through 

the clear skies, 169; 50. 
kshekiiila, d. kshekshakiula to catch, cajdure: ma'iilv k. to catch uflij. 
k s h ^ k u g a , ksikoga, d. kshekshakoga to put, place or locate into, as into a 

basket, cradle etc.: tchakeldtat k. to place into a willow basket, 101, 19.; 

bo'xstat kshex^ga to lay, place in a coffin. Refers to one person or anim. 

object; speaking of many or collective objects, ikuga. 
ksh^la, ksha'la to place tvithin, to imt or lift into: tsui nat ksii'lapk liu'nk 

shlipks then we lifted that wounded man into (the ambulance bed), 24, 5. 
kshelktcha, d. kshekshalktcha to leave behind, relinquish while going; 

said of one long or anim. object only. Speaking of many, dlktcha. Cf 

kshel^a, d. kshekshdl^a to deposit; to lay down on the ground; said of 

one long-shaped object, person etc.: tAukni mdklaks k. k'lekApkash the 

forefathers laid down the body of the deceased, 85, 6. Der. el%a. 
k s h e 1 u i k i (^ t i s h , d. kshekshaluikie'tish (1) one who is living with others. 

(2) servant, hired person. Der ksh^luya. 
kshdluish, ksdlhuish, d. kshekshdluish mane of horse, lion etc. Cf. 

dlhuish, wAmglhuish. 
kshclu5^a, kshelui, d. kshekshtiluya to lie near ov by the fire; to warm 

oneself: kt4na kshelnyank lu'lukshtat she slept within the warming rays of 

the fire, 122, 1. Cf kslu^/a. 
kslu'na, d. ksheksha, kst'gsa (1) to carry on the arms one long-shaped 

object: mukdk k. to carry a baby, Kl. (2) to carry off, take aw«/y in the 

arms or hands: iiiiku k. to carry away sticks, tvood. Der. dna. 
kshe'sh, kshi'sh little stick serving as counting check in games. In the 

spelshna-ganie six of them are commonly used, 80, 2-4.: na'shak k. only 

one check, 79, 5. Der. kshdna 
kshdt'leka, kshatla'^i, kshatle'^i, d. kshekshct'le;(;a, kshakshtle'^i (1) to 

lay across, transversely, athwart; to deposit crosswise, as one log across 

another. (2) to fasten, tie transverscli/ : kshet'lii/ipkiish watchtat I'tpa 

k s li a w i n a — k s i li t a k i . 147 

(k'lekapkash) they convey the body tied transversely over a horse, 85, 3. — 
Speaking of more than one long-shaped object, etle'^i. Cf. akua. 

ksh^wa, d. ksh^kshua to put upon, to locate inside; to introduce: ku'tash 
k. liilpat he puts a louse into the eye, 71,9. Der. iwa. 

-kshi, -ksi, -ks, Mod. -gishi, postp. of the adessive case. Aishishamksh 
the home of Aishish, is used as a subj. case in 96, 23. Cf -ksaksi. 

kshikla, d. kshikshakla; refers to one long-shaped or anim. object or 
subject. (1) V. trans., to lay down, to place, stretch out, deposit on the ground 
or elsewhere: kutash k. to catch, hill a louse on another's head; kiitash 
kshikshakla to kill lice. (2) k., or partic kshiklatko, numeral classifier 
added to the numbers 11, 21, 31, 151 etc. '^I lay down one", '^laid down 
one", viz. "counted", 37, 15. 42, 20. In 55, 11. kshiklapkash stands in- 
correctly for pe-uh^pkash. (3) v. intr., to lie in, to he placed or deposited on 
or within, 126, 6.: shuulashtat kshi'klapksh lying in the nest, 96, 15. — 
Speaking of more than one object or subject, ikla (1) and (2), q. v. 

kshi'kshnish , a gray species of sparn9^<;-7^a^<;A;.• also called tchikass=k. ; 
Tinnuncidus sparverius Its incantation: 166; 18., cf 180; 9. Der. ksh(^na. 

kshita, d. kshikshita to escape, 14, 9. and Note; 42, 17. 128, 1. Mod. 

ksliiulakgish, abbr. ksiulgish, d. kshikshulakgish, ksiksiilgish dance- 
house, communal lodge erected for public dances, 75, 19. 90, 10.: k. Mtcha to 
erect a dance-house; ksiulaksh;^en towards the dance-house, 141, 3. The 
dance-house is called spii'klish in 7. , 11. Der. kshiul6%a. 

k s h i u 1 a k t ;i m p k a d kshikshulaktampka to begin to dance, 70, 3. 

k s i u 1 a k t c h a to go and dance; to arrange or have a dance, 70, 1. 141, 4. 5. 

kshiul6;ja, ksiulka, kshiwal/a, d. kshiksliule^a to dance, 163; 12.: sha 
ksiulakuapk they propose to dance, 140, 1.4.; kshi'ul/ish for dancing, for 
the dance, 140, 3.; spu'klishtat kshiwal^a they dance in the dance- (lit. 
"sweat-") house, 75, 11.; shtupuyuka gshiiilaka they have a puberty dance, 
134, 21. The term is applied to animals also: to the prairie-wolf, 128, 
8.; to the skunk, 162; 7. (2) to perform ceremonial dances: tsiii sa ksl'ul6% 
ki'uks suawinuk and they danced, when a conjurer examined them, 21, 9. 

ksiiitaki, ksiu'tgi, d. ksiksiutaki, ksiksiu'tgi to run fast; said of foot- 
racers and horsemen: nki'l k. to run fast, to run hard; nat ksi'utakiank 
gc'pgapele tvc returned home spieedihj, 24, 11.; nki'l ksiu'tgish, ksiutgish 


tchatclmi the speediest runner; ksi'iitakiank at g^niiapk! ye must travel as 
fast as ye can! 20, 15. Cf. kshiutchna. 

kKliii'itchna, d. kslukshutchna {\) to bounce, to skip, go around Iwpping. 
(2) to perform long dances. Cf. kshiule;ta. 

k s li i u 1 g i s li ; abbr. from kshivilakgish, q. v. 

k s 111 w a 1 % a ; same as ksh{ul6;ja, q. v. 

k s li i w i 6 1 k i s h animaVs cage; cage for wild beasts. Mod. Der. kshdwa. 

kshui%i, d. kshukslif;^! to surpass, excel in size, strength or power: wdtcli 
kshdi^itko t;{4-ushash the horse is larger than the colt. Cf uy^^itko, wini^i. 

k s li u i w a 1 , kshuyuwala to lay or deposit upon, as a corpse upon the funeral 
pile, 89, 1. Cf kshciwal. 

k s h I'l y a to give, bestow; said of one long-shaped object. Speaking of more 
than one object, shewiina. Der. iiya. Cf liiya. 

k s h u y a m n a , d. kshukshiyamna, ksuksl-amna to hold on one's arms one 
long-shaped object; said chiefly of babes. 

k s h u k A t k al (I) to carry about in the arms, to carry around with oneself, to 
bring bach: wdash k-\ nu k I carry my young with me, 166; 18. (2) to carry 
off, to steal, kidnap. 

k s h u k s h i ^ pj a s h grease in the flank of animals. Mod. Cf tchdshlaksh. 

kshulotkish, d. kshukshal6tkisli moww^ sc«/^/je. Mod. Cf muhn6tkisli. 

kshfi'n, kshun, pi. tumi k., (1) grass, grass stalk; generic term for all 
graminaceous or even glumaceous plants, including bulrushes, aquatic 
grasses etc.: k. puetilank putting grass underneath, 148, 17.; atini k. a 
high, tall grass, 149, 4.; nadshak k. a blade of grass; kshu'nat on a (prairie-) 
grass stalk, 148, 5. (2) dry or dried grass, hay: k. hiwidsha to lay in hay 
for winter, 75, 12.; ksliune'mi in haying time, 148, 3. Haying begins in 
July. Cf vuizankish. {?>) seed-grass, I Ab, \^. 148,5. Der. ksh^na. 

k s h u n 4 1 1 k o productive of grass, grassy: k. kaila grazing land, pasture land; 
tu'm kshundlpash (for kshundlpkash) kafla producing much grass every- 
where, 86, 20. and Note. Der. kshiinala. 

k s h u' n p t c h i having the appearance of a grass-stalk or graminaceous plant; 
looking like grass, 149, 5. 

k s h li s h a , d. kshu'ksha to lie, to be lying on, upon, within, below, underneath; 
k. talual;(an he was lying inside, the face turned upward, 24, 14. Der. lisha. 

kshiutchna — ktdyalish. 149 

k s h li t i , ksu'ti, d. ksuksu'ti, a species of swamp grass often used as hay for 
cattle. C£ ksliu'n. 

kshutila, d. kshukshtfla (1) to he or lie underneath; to live below: ksliuti'la 
pu'shish tdbullat the cat lies under the table. (2) to be, lie or live in the shade 
or shadow. — Speaking of many subjects, i-utila. Der. utila. 

k t d - i , ktal, loc. ktdyatat, ktd-itat, ktdyat, (d. ktakti), pi. tumi k., (1) stone, 
pebble, rock-fragment, 82, 7. 13. 85, 12.: k. sha huyu^a theg are heating 
stones, 82, 6.; ktaydtka by the throwing of a stone, 125, 5. 8. (2) rock, 
rocky formation, rock ledge: k. sii'smaluatk painted rocks, 179; 3., cf shii- 
malua; ktdyam skutash rock-moss ; kiiitsant tchia ktdyat they stayed in the 
midst of inaccessible rocks, 21, 13.; ktdyat li'uptsank hiding behind rocks, 
22, 6.; git ktaiksi where the rocks lie, 142; 3. (3) brick, tile. 

ktai = sliishnish, pi tiimi k., the dipper ; a little brown dipping bird be- 
longing to the ousel tribe: Cinclus mexicanus. Der. kta-i, shina. 

ktaf = shtina'sh house built of stone or brick. Mod. 

K 1 4 - i t i , nom. pr. given to a rock standing in the bed of the Williamson 
River, about three-quarters of a mile below the Sprague River junction. 
According to a myth, K'niiikamtch was changed into this rock, after he 
had selected this spot as a fishing place. Lit "at the Rock". 

Ktai = TupAkshi, nom. pr loc, ^^ Standing-Bock^^ ; name of a rock about 
ten feet high and fourteen feet in width, situated fifty j^ards north of the 
Sprague River and about one hundred and fifty yards from the junction 
of Sprague and Williamson Rivers. Indian pictures are visible on its 
surface, and the rock is called " K'mukamtch's chair", because this deity 
had, according to the myth, constructed a fish-trap of willow branches 
there, and was watching on this rock for the preservation of this struc- 
ture. West of K. is an obstruction in the Williamson River, serving as 
a fish-trap to the Indians: 74, 2. and Notes; 143, 2 Der. kta-i, tiipka. 

Ktai = Washi, nom. pr. of a camping place on Klamath Marsh ; lit. ' ' where 
rocks ai'e", or "Rocky Hollow". Der. ktdi, wash. 

ktaydga, d. ktaktiaga little stone or pebble, 82, 12. Dim. ktd-i. 

ktdyalish, ktayalsh, d. ktaktayalish (1) adj., rocky, full of rocks, rock- 
bound; denuded of vegetation : tumi Sha't tu Ktayalshtat Yainatat wd many 
Shoshoni Indians live in the Rocky Mountains. (2) subst., rocky region, 
stony tract: ktayalshtula g^na he proceeded towards the lava beds, 37, 18. 


k t a k a g a , d. ktaktkdga to rip open, to tear open. 
k t a k d k i t c h n a , d. ktaktkdkitchna to rip or tear open successively. 
ktakdlitko (1) adj., tvounded by a cut or gash. (2) subst., thr wound, 
. gash: mu'ni k. a large, wide wound; kt'tcha k. a small wound. 
ktaki61a, ktakiula to sever, cut off: wdtsag hu'k k'leka kdndan kpe'l 

ktakio'la the dog died, whose tail I cut off. Cf. ktdkta No. 1. 
ktdklish, d. ktaktdklish (1) adj., arrayed with the halmo'lsh or elk-shin 

armor: mdklaks ktaklfsh men 'clad in shin-armors, 88, 7. (2) subst, 

warrior on the warpath ; fighter arrayed for war. Cf. kakn61a, kaknolsh. 
k 1 4 k t a , d. ktaktdkta to cut off; to cut asunder, sever in two, as a string, 

rope, limb, 134, 14. Cf. ktukta, ktaki61a. 
k t d k t a , d. of ktdna, q. v. 
ktalddshna, d. ktaktladslma to cut, slash; to tvound with a cutting 

instrument. Cf ktakdlitko. 
ktdna, d. ktdkta, kdkta to sleep, to be asleep, 110, 20. 113, 17.: nfshta nat 

kd-i kdktant (for kdkta nat) the whole night we did not sleep, 31, y., cf. 

sa kdkta they slept, held siesta, 19, 13.; ktdnhuisli (h epenthetic) while she 

slept, 122, 3.; ktdmpsh=shltk (for ktandpkasli=shitko) slilc'ash appearing 

like one who is asleep, 113, 17., cf 131, 9. 
ktandpka, d. ktaktandpka to be drowsy, sleepy: ktanapkatko (ungram- 
matically ktanapatko in 91, 7.), one tvho is sleepy. Der. ktaiia. 
k t d n s h a , ktdndsha, d. kdktanslia {\) to go to sleep, to retire to bed: Lgmt'- 

ish kdktansha the Thunders ivent to sleep, 113, 18. (2) to full asleep : sku'l- 

^ank ktdndsha lying down she fell asleep, 122, 3.; tamil'dsh ktdnshisht 

whether he was asleep or not, 113, 15.; ktdndshi, 122, 4., stands for ktdn- 

dshisht. Der. ktdna. 
ktdnshna, d. kdktanshna to fall asleep, 113, 14.: Skclamtch ktdnshan 

(inverted for ktdnshna) ndnui sh%olz6tak Old Marten fell asleep as soon as 

he lay down, 113, 11. Der. ktdnsha. 
k t ii' 1 o , ktii'lualsha ; see ktdlo, ktdlualsha. 
ktck'hiehe, d. ktektdk'hiehe i'o «,ofc/«; toindentate. Partic. ktek'hielu'tkn 

(1) notched; indentated. (2) subst., angle or particle cut out on a rim or 

edge; a notch. Cf ktui%i. 
k t d k n a , d. ktekt/ikna to cut a hole into: y (Swish ktc'ktaknan having made a 

cut through both heels, 13, 5. Cf tkdka. 

k t a k ;i g a — k t i u y e g a . 151 

k t e k u (i 1 a , d. ktektakuela to rusk down; to slide down, to slip. Cf. akuash. 
k t e 1 1' s h k a , d. ktektel^shka to push away; kteleshkapka to push away to a 

distance, or forcibly; intensifies the signification of tlie simple k., 42, 13. 
k t ^ 1 X a , d. ktekt<41%a, v. trans., referring to persons or long-shaped objects 

only. (1) to cut with a knife, as sticks, wood etc.; same as ktdkta No. 1. 

Cf. ktet^ga. (2) to let fall, to let down on the ground, to drop: 161oksgish k. 

sha they let the rifle rest on the ground, 74, 16. (3) to let fall, to let slip into 

the water. (4) to slide down into the water, to let oneself fall in the water; to 

he drowned: tkm hiinkelara t'shfshap una ktel^a? ivas his father drowned 

some time ago? Cf tinua, tinuash. Der. el%a. 
ktdlo, ktii'lu, d. \itQ\.t&\o pine-niit ; the brown resinous fruits contained in 

the burs of the pine are eaten raw by Indians, 75, 5. Ktdleam ko'sh sugar- 
pine. They prefer the nuts of the sugar-pine to those of other pine-trees, 
ktdlualsha, d. ktektdlualsha to gather pine-nuts annually or habitually: 

ktalowalshuapka nad we shall gather pine-nuts, 75, 3. Der. ktdlo. 
k t e p e t a , ktepta, d. ktektpeta, ktektapta to notch, to indentate. 
ktetega, to cut up, to cut to pieces: k. n;inuk she cut up the whole of the 

body, 119, 10.; w/itch hiink tchui ktedega they then cut up the horse, 

85, 7. Mod. ; pala-ash k. to cut bread into slices, Kl. 
ktiyuiakfa, ktiwia^ia, d. ktiktiyuakia to lift up, ^msh over, place on the 

top in somebody's interest, 22, 12. Der. ktiwi^i. 
kti'tchitcha to split the long way, to split in the tvhole length : watitka dnku 

k. to split a stick with a knife. 
ktiudshna, d. ktiktudshna to continue pushing; to push somebody, e. g. 

to excite his attention or to stop his talking, 119, 15.: i a nush tula k. 

hunksh you and I are pushing him. 
ktiuga, d. ktiktuga {V) to throw, to throw out; to push or force out of, as 

out of the house: k. or k. pdtchtka to kick out Cf. ktuka, shiktokanksh. 

(2) to close forcibly, bolt up, as a door, gate, 
ktiugia, d. ktiktugia (1) to throw out, push out of for somebody. (2) to 

kick, force for somebody, or in one^s own interest. 
ktiugiula, d ktiktugiula to push, force or kick open : ktiugiulank ka-ish- 

tish kicking the cover or door open, 66, 13. 
ktiuyega, d. ktiktuydga (1) to push open, to open, as a door, window. 

(2) to help up, assist in rising or getting up (persons, beasts). 


]<. t i II k i s h , d. ktfktukish latch, bolt on door. Der. ktiuga. 

k t i u k u d 1 a , d. ktiktukudla to throw downhill or down stairs, 131, 11. 

k t i u 1 (5 X a , d. ktiktul6;{a, ktiktul^a (\) to push dmvn, to make descend. (2) 

to knock down, to prostrate on the ground: huna'shak k. Im'k he was knocked 

down unawares. Cf. ktfuga. 
ktlwala, d. ktfktuala to lift or post up, on the top of. Der. f wala. 
kti walkf dslia , k ktiktualkidsha (1) v. trans., to make revolve, veer 

around. (2) v. intr., to turn, revolve, gyrate, veer around, move in a circidar 

line; said of birds. Cf. aggddslia, talkidslia. 
ktiwal;^a, d. ktiktual^a ; same as ktf wala, q. v. 

k t i w 1 % i , d. ktiktul'^i to place or push on the top, to lift or push over some- 
thing, 22, 13. 18. Cf ktiyuiakia. 
ktd'dsha, ktu'tcha, d. ktokto'dsha it rains, rainfalls: liu' ka-ti k., k. mil, 

75, 19. it rains hard; kto'dshuapka a rainstorm comes on; tcbeksla kto- 

tchuapka after a while it will rain; ktudshidga, ktudsLtdmpka it begins to 

rain; ktudslii61a the rain is over 
k t o' d s h a s h , kto'tchash, d. ktokto'dshash rain, rainfall, rainstorm, 179; 2. : 

k. gatpa it is going to rain; k6l(iwi k. it ceases to rain. Cf. klt'lka. 
k 1 6 1 c h k a , d. ktoktdtchka; same as ktushka, q. v. 
Ic t li i % i , d. ktukti%i to notch, to make indentations. 
k t u y u a , d. ktuktiwa, v. recipr., to strike, hit each other; to inflict blows to 

each other. Mod for shuktfipka Kl. Der. ktiika. 
ktuyuga, d. ktuktiyuga (1) to cut off, sever, clip, crop. (2) to clip the 

hair; to shear, as the wool of sheep, 
k t u y u m a , d. ktuktiuma to cut into many pieces. 
k t li k a , ktiiga, d. ktuktka, ktuktga to strike by hand, with the clasped hand 

or fist: ktiikuapk mish nu I shall give you a beating ; nad ktiikuapka hiinksli 

we are going to strike him; k. pdtchtka to kick. C£ ktiuga. 
ktuk6tki3h, ktug6tkish, d. ktuktk6tkish, ktuktgo'tch spur of rider. 
k t II k s , eatable root of the aquatic cat-tail plant, 147, 3. : shlapsh ktu'ksam 

piipash the top (lit. blossom) of the ktuks=root consists of whorls, 147, 3. 
ktiiksam cat-tail plant, on which the eatable ktuks-root grows; the 

leaves of the plant are made up of whorls (pu'sh, d. piipash) 147, 3. 
k t li k t a , d. ktuktdkta to cut in two, to sever, as a rope; Mod. for ktilkta No. 1. 

ktiukish — ktch/ik . 153 

k t u 1 d s h a , d. ktuktaldsha to cut or sever in many places, into many frag- 
ments, portions or pieces. 
ktul6dsha, d. ktuktl6dsha to cut in two, to separate many things simulta- 
neously hy cutting. 
ktul6dshna, d. ktuktlddshna (1) to push away, to force away, to separate. 
(2) to push repeatedly. Cf. ktfudshna. 

k t u' 1 1 s head of an elongated cylindric form, inserted into necklaces, neck- 
wear (ydmnash). Der. ktuldsha. 

k t II p k a , d. ktuktapka {I) to strike repeatedly. (2) to heat, slap, chastise hy 
heating, 62, 5. 96, 3. 4. Der. ktiika. 

ktiishka, ktutska, kt6tclika, d. ktuktdshka, ktoktdtchka (1) to cut out, to 
cut off, to separate with knife or scissors, as a piece from a hide, 13, 3. : to 
slice off, to cut into slices. (2) to cut off, to clip somebody's hair, the object 
(Idk) being usually omitted, 78, 9. Clipping the hair short so as to reach 
only the ears or neck is the usual punishment inflicted on Kl. and Mod. 
females for being too intimate with the other sex, 58, 16. 90, 7. Kt6ktats- 
ka na't, at hunk yaka'wa na'-ulaks we cut her hair, for she hroke the law, 
61, 6. (3) subst, slice, cut, clipping. 

ktushk6tkish, abbr. ktushgo'tch, d. ktuktashk6tkish shears, scissors: 
shi'pam=nl'l-k. shears to clip wool. Der. ktiishka. 

k t li s h k u i s h , d. ktuktdshkuish portion, piece cut or sliced off: na-lgshtani 
k. one half of a thing cut through the middle. Der. ktiishka. 

k t li s h n a , d. ktuktiishna, v. intr., to sink down; to sink down in water. Mod. : 
c4mputat ktiishnan k'leka to he drowned. Cf ktut^ga, tchla'l^a. 

k t u t ^ g a , ktutii'ga, d. ktukt^ga to sink down in water, moist or soft ground, 
sand etc. Kl. C£ ktiishna. 

k t li t e k s , d. ktiikteks impression made hy stamping with the foot or other 
long-shaped object. Cf niiteks. 

ktu'tpna to hring, transport, haul in front of , close to, near: Sh^^lag gatpa 
ktu'tp'nuk pa'sh Skelag came to hring him victuals, QQ, 7. 

k t c h d y a s h , d. ktchaktchiash scarahee with fangs ; large heetle, 91,10, Cf 
ktchapash, ktchidsha. 

ktchak (a short), d. ktchAktchak (1) mother of pearl shell, avlone shell of 
the Pacific Coast; a common species is Ealiotis rufescens. (2) sea shell 
and fresh-ivater shell of every description. Cf ktchtil;t;a, laktash. 


ktcli ill Iiua , ktclialua, d. ktchaktcluilhua, ktchaktchalixa (1) to shine, to 
shine with light, to radiate, to he resplendent, to beam forth, to shed rays, to 
cast a glare. (2) to reflect the sunlight, as water, gkiss, polislied stones etc. 

k t c h a 1 % a , d ktcliaktch;il/a {\) to radiate light, to shine, to emit rays, as 
sun, moon etc. (2) to radiate heat, to emit tvarmth or heat, as sun, fire etc. 
(y) to x>rodticc sunburns. Cf. ktchi'ilhua, ktcho'l. 

ktcliAlzish, d ktchaktclm];iisli (1) shine, ray of light, beam of light, 
dazzling splendor, radiance. (2) sunshine, .sunray, sunbeam; glare of sun- 
rays, 121, 7. (3) heat; heat of the sun, 103, 3., of the fire etc. (4) sun- 
burn, 150, 8. Der. ktch;il/a. 

ktcluilslikasli glory, splendor ; lit. "radiance", and hence correspond- 
ing to the word ()6P,a occurring in tlie Lord's Prayer, 139, 7. 

k t c h 4 1 1 a , d. ktcliaktch/ilta to reverberate; to reflect sunbeams, as is done by 
water or poh'shed articles. Cf. ktchalhua (2). 

k t c h /i 1 u a ; see ktchalhua 

ktchalui, ktsAlui, d. ktchaktchAlui to be resplendent, radiant; to be multi- 
colored, to shine in many hues, colors, or tinges; said of water sheets, of the 
rainhow etc., Ui4; 1.: the lizard's skin, 165; 14.; the weasel's, 109; 55. 

k tell tin, d. ktch/iktclian to chetv, masticate, as tobacco. 

ktchApash, pi ti'imi k., wild silkworm, bombycine caterpillar. 

ktchea'mu, ktseamu, species of aquatic grass, 180; 19 

ktchel61a, d. ktchektchlola to husk, to peel with the liands or teeth: 
ktchelolatko peeled ofl\ Der. tchel-, radix of tclii'lksh. 

k t c h e 1 1') 1 a .s h , d. ktchektchlolash rind, peeling; emptied husk. 

k t c h e 1 6 1 u i s h , d. ktchektchl61uish peeled fruit, husked ear. 

ktchena, d. ktchektcha, kts^ktsa (1) to pierce, strike, stab. (2) to be 
stabbed accidentally; to run a splinter into the foot or other jxirt of body. 

ktchidsha, ktsl'tsa, d. ktchiktcha, ktsi'ktsa to crawl, creep, train oneself 
along the ground ; said of insects, reptiles, babies unable to walk yet; to 
slip up while crawling, creeping: tsiii nat ktsi'ktsa, tsui nat sas tu' shlii'popk, 
we crept up (along the rock surface), then we saw them in the distance, 22, 
19.: i\i'kiA'X\i& I crept forward, 22, 13. Cf shi'ktehashla. 

ktchldshii, (d. ktchiktchtchu) pi. tumi k., bat, cf 127, 1-8.: nio-(')\ve 
ktchidshviash hii'tnan the mole jumping or rushing at the but, 127, 1. Der 
ktchiMsha, hil (1) "above". 

k t c h A 1 h u a — k u a' k a. 155 

ktchi'k, pi. tiimi k., oar, paddle, 133, 10. 180; 20. 

k t c h i k ;i y a , d. ktchiktchkdya (1) to climh up, as on trees, rocks etc. (2) 

to creep, craivl into woods, thickets, timber or wildernesses: pelakag mu'ni 

wi'tam ktcliikayil'la suddenly a huge brown hear came out (of the manzanita- 

shrubs) 128, 6. Der. ktchidsha. 
ktchikansha, pi. tiimi Ic, to crawl, to creep through an aperture, hole, 

passage, harrier. Cf. ktchidsha, ktchitpa. 
k t c li i k i d s h a to crawl around, to crawl forward, to go on creeping hy turns: 

ktchigidshapeli to creep hack to the former place, 22, 15. 
k t c h i n k A g a , d. ktchiktchankaga fenced inclosure, corral of small dimen- 
sions. Kl. Der. ktchinksh. 
ktchinksh, d. ktchiktchanksh (1) rail, split rail, fence-rail, 35,4. etc. 

{2) fence, rail-fence, inclosure: k.=illigish corral, fenced inclosure; ktchink- 

sham sttikish gate of corral. 
ktchi'shlkish , d. ktchiktchashlkish cow. Kl. for titehi'tchkish Mod. 

Der. ktchi'tchta. 
k t c h i t a n a , d. ktchiktch/itana to crawl upon, to creep along. 
ktchitpa, d. ktchiktchtpa to creep, to crawl towards something, somebody 

to some purpose, 
k t c h i t p a m p 6 1 i , d. ktchl'ktchtpampeli to creep or crawl hack towards 

somebody on purpose, 22, 16. 
Ktchitchok, nom. pr. masc. of an individual of short stature; abbr. from 

ktchitchodga "Little Baf\ Dim. ktchidshu. 
k t c h i' t c h t a , d. ktchiktchatchta to trample, stamp or touch with the feet. 
ktchuiloka, d ktchuktchil6ka to be incandescent; to he at red or white 

heat. Mod. for tchuitchiga Kl. Cf kaltchuyuga. 
ktchu'l, ktso'l, d. ktch6ktchol (1) star; constellation; the stars, 134, 10. 

(2) meteor; shooting star: k. Idna a meteor passes over the sky Cf. ktchAl^a. 
k u , ku', gvi' far, far off; same as kui, q. v. : gii' n'sh huyaha he runs far 

away from me, 184; 32. 34.; chiefly occurring in compounds, 
ku aga, k6-aga, d. kukuaga young, small toad or bullfrog, 71, 6. Dim. k6e. 
K u a 1 y u t s a k , nom. pr fern Kl. ; apparently a diminutive form, 
kua'ka, kuakka, kowa'ka, d. kakuaka (1) to bite off from, to bite holes into. 

(2) to tear off particles from. Cf kowaktcha, kiipka, kwushka. 


k u u k A k s h k a , d. kak6kakslika {\.) to Lite off minute portions, to nibble at. 
(2) to take, tear off a piece from. Cf. kuekn61a. 

kiij'inka, d kuakudnka to he lame, to limp: kuiinkatko limping, lamed, lame. 

k u a' n k u a n a to experience the natural alteration of the voice, as boys do 
from their 16th to 18th year. Cf. wdkena. 

kui'ita, pL tiimi k., quarter of a dollar, 25 cents; or, in Western parlance, 
"■two hits". From English "quarter^\ 

K u a 1 1 1 a k , nom. pr. of a subchief of the Modocs at Y^neks, George K., 
58, 6.: lit. "the one who hurt his foot". A man called Kiletoak was a 
signer of the treaty in 1864, but is mentioned there as a headman of the 
Yahushkin band of Snake Indians. Der. kuatfl^a. 

k u a t f 1 z a- , d. kakuatil^a to hurt one^s foot, e. g., by wearing tight boots. 
Der. kuiita. 

kudtcha, d. kakudtcha to hite off, to tear away hy hiting, to remove tvith the 
teeth. Der. kua'ka. Cf kwiishka. 

k u A t c h a k a , d. kakutchdga to hite into, as into the hair, fur. 119, 4. 6-9. 

kuatchdki, d. kakutchdki to hite, itch; said, e. g., of lice, 119, 6. 

k u' d s a , pi. tiimi k., gray tvood rat or field rat, resembling a peccary, not 
throwing up mole-hills; a species oi Neotoma. Cf knnimutch. 

kiidsha, gu'tcha, pi. tiimi k., (1) gudgeon; mud-gudgeon. (2) dorsal bach- 
fin, between the kAluish-fin and the tail-fin. 

k li d s h a - a g a , ku'tsag small gudgeon; gudgeon or some other fish of small- 
est size; incantation: 178; 1. Dim. kudsha. 

k li' d s h a 1 a to fish or catch gudgeons. Der. kudsha ( 1 ). 

k li d s h i n k s h , ko'dshinks, Mod. ku'shinksh, d. ko'ktchinksh foot, claw, 
hoof oi a deer, horse or ruminant: kodsings a gt;-u walta my deer-hoof is 
rattling; song-line referring to the custom of rattling with deer-hoof 
rattles during festive dances, 166; 17. and Note. Cf liish;^ish. 

kudshi'nkshka, d. kuktchi'ngshka claw, hoof of a young deer, horse 
etc., 166; 21. Cf Note to 166; 17. Dim. kudshinksli. 

kuelsh, d. kdkuish footstep, foot-print, track: k. haitchna to follow foot- 
prints, 122, 17. Cf goy(^na, kuentchna, k6-ena. 

kuekn61a, d. kakuakn61a to hite, nibble or pull off. small particles or minute 
thinys sticking on a surface. Der. kua'ka 

k u H k a k s li li a — k li i s h . 157 

kucnt%apsha, d. kukueutxapslia, v. intr., to reach to while going, to reach 
a spot in the distance; said of footsteps only: gi a k. tatakiam g^t^ap- 
sliuish the foot-prints go to this spot, since the children have reached it, 122, 
19. Cf goy^na, kueisli. 

kiientchna, d. kukuentclia to go to, to lead; said of foot-prints only: 
Idtsastala, k(Skatala k. the foot-prints lead towards the lodge, towards the river. 

k u d t a , d. kudkuta to beckon, make signs. Mod. ; unknown to Kl. Der. kii. 

k u e - u t c h , kwe-utch, apiier. we-utcb, a species of willow of low growth; 
its branches are used in constructing the small sweat-lodges, 82, 3. 

kuhdshgdslia, 126, 5.; same as guhu4shktcha, q. v. 

kiii, gui, giV-i (1) adv., away, away from, far off, at a distance; over there, 
out there. (2) prep, and postp., when speaking of a brook, river, lake, 
or hill ridge: on this side, on the same side where the speaker is, but at 
some distance from him. Der. kii. Cf ge'kshta, gdt (3), g^tui, gindtant, 
gunitant, pcilui, tugshta 

ku'-i (pronounced like ggu'i), pi. tiimi k., core in a boil or ulcer. Cf giita. 

kviika-ush, pi. tumi k., other name for the taslatch (q. v.) or cougar; 
called sometimes mountain lion in the West. 

K u i k n i , K. maklaks, nom. pr., Molale Indian. The Molale tribe is now 
settled on Grande Ronde reserve and near Oregon City, and is some- 
times called " Straight M61ale " in contradistinction to the Tchaka'nkni, 
q. V. The ancient habitat of this roving hunter tribe, cognate with the 
Cayuses, was the western slope of the Cascade Range, Oregon. Reduced 
to about 50 Indians in 1877,. Der. kui. 

k u i k u i s h rabbit; a species of Lepus: kiiikuisham ni'l rabbit skin. Cf. kai. 

kiii/a, k6-ika, d. kuki%a, koki';ja (--l_) (1) to discover, to find out, 100, 
12. (2) to recognize, to be aware of, to know, Lat. cognovisse; nanuk sa at 
pipa kuki^ank hashashudkia they read the whole book through and know its 
contents; k,vu;(an Sa'tas I recognized the Snake man, 30, 17.; tids kui%d 
m's ni I know you well, 65, 11. Cf kai;{6ma, k6%pash. 

k li i n a g away from town, settlement or village ; far away from the lodges, 
houses, 140, 7. Der. kui, -na, ak. 

kuish, gu'-i, gu-ish, d. ku'kuish, black-bellied plover, black below in the 
breeding season, long legs and long bill: Squatarola helvetica Cuv. 


kiiita, pruj). and postp., in the rear, back of, haclivarib of: ki'iita iiats (or 
na'lsh) hack of us, in our rear, 31, 9. Dev. ki'ii. 

kuitak! Qxalam., go back ! remove! sit away from! (e. g., from the fire) 
get aivay!, From kuita, yi. 

k II i t i t , kiiitita, prep, and postp., tliis side of, referring- to the location 
of the one speaking:: Ki'uti kuitit, this side of Kiuti-place, 131, 5. 

knftchia, ku'itsia, (d. kuikuatchia), pi. ti'imi k., a small fat water bird 
having the appearance of the k6kiaks-duck, and provided with rudi- 
mentary wings. Probably a species of grebe or Podiceps. 

kuya, kuye, ku'-ie, d. kii'kia, kukie, (1) crab, either mai'ine or living in 
fresh water; (2) lobster. 

K li y a m = S k ii'- i k s h , nom. pr. of a lodge-site on the Williamson River, 
''The Crabs'' Water Trail", 140, 9. and Note. Der. kiiya, skii'-ika. 

k u y e w a , d. knkiewa to rejoice, to be gladdened, to be glad of: k. m's ni 
giitpisht I am glad that you came. Kl. for ko-isliewa Kl. and Mod. 

kuyiima, koyoma, d. kukiuma to be or become muddy, to be defiled, soiled: 
dmpu a k. the ivater is turbid; guyunia ke-u ka'la my ground becomes 
muddy, 169; 56., of. 177; 13., where kiiila is suppressed; partic. kuyii- 
matko muddied, roiled, unclean, impure. Der. ku-i. 

k n y 11 m a s h , d. kiikiumash turbid, muddy water; gully ; muddy ground. 

k u' k a 1 a m , k iV k a 1 u a k , k u k a m t c h i s h ; see k6ke, gii'luaga, k'mi'i- 

k u k f a k s , 64, 1. ; d. of kiuks, q. v. 

Kukiwash, nom. pr. fern. Kl.: ''Ujihill Goer". Der. gi'dca. 

kuk61e, d. knkak61e (l) to take off, to lay aside the robe or gown ; said of 
both sexes. (2) to undress oneself; said of females only. Der. koka. Of 
ku'ks, kap61a, shanatchvula. 

k u' k p e 1 i , d. Icidtakpeli (I) to dress oneself in the kiiks-garment. (2) to dress 
oneself. Der koka. Cf kap6peli, kukole, ki'iks. 

k li k s , ku'ksh, kd'ks, pi. tiinii k., (1) gown, long robe, long dress, adorned with 
fringes, but rarely worn by men at the present time. The men wore 
ku'ks usually made of buckskin, wliile those of females, snawddsham 
ku'ks, were made more frequently of dressed deerskins, before they 
adopted the habit, now almost universal, of wearing citizen's dress. 
Kaknc'gatko ku'ks unclean gown. (2) female dress, clothing, garb, array. 

kiiita — Kuuibat. 159 

kuktakia, abbr. ku';^tgi, d. kuku'ktakia, kuku'^tgi to covet, to he enam- 
ored of; said of males coveting females, 100, 4. 
ku'ktii (i) dragon-flu, fiWjr. from koktingsh, Kl. (2) name of a root or 

bulb eaten by the Klamath Lake people, 147, 5 (o) d. form of koto, 
kukui mother's uncle, an archaic term, 122, 7. 
Kukumekshi, nom. pr. of a mountain northwest of Klamath agency; 

lit. "where the caves are." Der. ku'mme. 
ku';^tgi, d. kuku';/tgi; same as kuktakia, q. v. 
kuleota, guliuta, 185; 43. durat. form of gulf, q. v. 
kiill'gs, the chrysalis of a butterfly, roasted and eaten by the Klamath 

Lake and Modoc Lidians Cf pul^uantch. 
k u 1 / a m s h , pi. tiimi k., vegetal product used for catching lish on account 

of its narcotic qualities, 149, 21. and Note, 
k u 1 % a s h , d. kukal/ash, guggal;iash rain and snow falling simultaneously. 

Licantation 164; 2. C£ 179; 2. 
kulla, kii'la, d. ku'kla, gtiggla red-head; a canvas-back duck on the 

Klamath lakes, white on body: Aythya ferina var. americaua; 180; 11. 
k u 1 o 5^ e n a , d. kukloyena, kuklohiii'na to stir up hquids. Cf shtiwini. 
ku'lsh, d. kiikalsh badger: Taxidea americana. His cry: nak, nak, alluded 
to in 185; 43. Kil'lsham yash badger-willow, a tree growing in dry 
soil; called so from its reddish, badger-colored bark: Cornus sericea. 
K vV 1 s h = T g u - u s h , Ku'lsam=Tge-ush, nom. pr. of a camp on Williamson 
River; lit "Where the badger stands in the water". Der. ku'lsh, tgdwa. 
Kii'ltam = Wash, nom. pr. of a lodge-site on the Wilhamson River; lit. 

"Otter-Den". From ko'lta, wash. 
kumal, or jamal, 2}eUcun, a large water-bird with a voluminous gullet. 
The only pelican species of those parts is Pelecanus erythrorhynchus, which 
is frequently found on the lake shores. Incantation: 166; 19. ku'mlam= 
shu'm=tchuye'sh gulVs-Ull-cdp, a low cap with a cover or shield to pro- 
tect the forehead. 
Kumii'kshi, nom. pr. of a locality near Sprague River: ''At the Cave". 
K I'l m bat, Gumbat, nom. pr. (1) of a locality on west side of Upper Kla- 
math Lake, now called Rocky Point. The Indians stopping there are 
called Kumbatkni, 142, 5. (2) of a rocky tract of land southeast of Tule 


or Rhett Lake, Cal., extending from the lake shore up to the lava beds, 
and inhabited by the Kiimbatuash, Kumbatuashkni or Kumbatkni On 
this territory was fought a part of the Modoc war of 1873. 

Kumbatkni, Gumbatkni (1) Indian inhabiting Kiimbat or Rocky Point. 
(2) Indian residing at Kumhat, southeast of Tule or Rhett Lake. (3) 
Indian stopping south of the WilHamson River, about Modoc Point. 

Kiimbatni Yafna, or "Mocky Ilountain", nom. pr. of an eminence in 
the Klamath reservation. At its base is a fishing-place called Kawam. 

K xi m b a t u a s h , nom. pr., Indian inhabiting or stopping at Knnibat, south- 
east of Tule or Rhett Lake, California, near or within the lava beds, 13, 2. 
Also called Kumbatuashkni and Kimibatkiii ; they form a medley of Kla- 
math Lake and Modoc Indians and are said to have separated from these 
some time after 1830. Der. Kiimbat (2), wA. 

kii'mme, kume, %u'mme, pi. tumi k., rock-cave, cavern: kiimeti shla'wish 
the wind Mowing out of the cave; k. lalaiishaltko the cave of the lava beds, 
42, 19. and ku'meti /row the cave, 42, 21.; both passages referring to Ben. 
Wright's cave, the refuge of Captain Jack and his Modocs in the lava 
beds, cf Notes to 37, 18. 39, 17.; ku'mets h4takt guli' they also entered the 
caves there, 30, ^.; m4kl6%a ku'mgtat to pass the night in a cave, 121, 20. 

kupka, ku'pga, k6pka (-■-), d. kukapka (1) to bite, itch repeatedly. (2) to 
hite; to itch, puncture: kai-udshisli nish k6pka the gray wolf bites me, 144, 
11.; giitash nu'sh ku'pga nu'sh a louse bites me on the head, 119, 3 Cf 
kuft'ka, kudtchaka, k6ka. 

kii'pkash, d. kukdpkash (1) sticks of kindling-wood eaten by the conjurer 
at festive dances. (2) torch made of pitch, resin. 

k u p k u p e 1 e , d. kukapkupele gulch, dried up river-bed. Cf g(i-upka, ukd. 

k u's li , d. kii'kash white swan. This bird is believed to have the power of 
making storms and tempests; incantation 166; 20. Cf 180; 13. Two 
species of the white swan occur in that region: the smaller being Cygnus 
americanus, the larger Cygnus buccinator. 

k u s h ;i 1 1 k o , d kukshdltko pregnant, with child. 

ku'shka, d. kuku'shka (--, ---) (1) to brush, to clean by brushing. (2) to 
comb another's hair, 95, 17. 

kushk6tkish, kiishkuts, d. kukushk6tkisli brush; cloth-brush. 

K li m b a t k 11 i — K d - a k a m t c h . 161 

kushkusha, d. kukushkusha to rustle, crackle, as hay, straw, dry bul- 
rushes. Of. tiishtusha, 

kushlaksh, d. kakushlaksh 5fej?/a^7«er; said by stepson or stepdaughter. 
Cf. kukui, kushAltko 

k u s h 1 X a t k o , d. kukiishlp^atko stepson or stepdaughter; said by stepfather. 

k u t a k s h , k li t a s h , k u t ;^ a k s ; see kotaksh, k6tash, giit^aksh. 

k u t 6 1 a , d. kukt6Ia to squeeze out, pinch out; to squeeze, press doivn Cf. kii'-i. 

Kut61itko, nom. pr fem. Kl: ''Pimple- Squeezer." 

ku'tchala; see (1) giitchala; Der. kudtcha. (2) kudshala. 

kwu'ldsha, Mod. kavu'ldsha, ka-xVldslia, d. kakuAldsha, Mod. kakowal- 
dsha to erode, to gnaiv ; to gnatu through. Cf. kdta. 

k w vi s h k a , kvushka to bite off a piece, portion or particle. 


The hngual-guttural sound h alternates with the other gutturals in the 
following order of frequency: %, h, g, g; in a few instances also with the 
spirant h ('A-, lih-). Modocs pronounce it more forcibly than Klamath 
Lake Indians, but often elide it altogether when initial, and then substitute 
the "arrested sound" for it: -6ke for k6ke river. The sound k occurs at 
the end of words; when it begins words or stands in the middle of them, it 
is either pronounced ke-, k'-, or is followed by a vowel Terms with initial 
h %i g not found here to be looked for under G or K. Some of the voca- 
bles below contain the negative particle ka-i as initial syllable. Cf intro- 
ductory words to letters Gr and K. 

k;i-ak, ka-ag, ka'k, pi tiimi k., raven: Corvus carnivorus, mentioned 177; 
16. This bird's cry, especially when heard just after sunset, is regarded 
as ominous, not only on account of its peculiar sound, approaching the 
voice of man, but also because the raven was seen to devour dead men ; 
cf 134, 1. 2. The raven therefore became personified in Ka-akamtch, 
q. v.; also called simply KA-ak Cf iwam. Ouomatop. 
K 4 - a k a m t c h , or Ka-ak " Old Baven" ; personification of the raven with 
his oracular powers. In three of our mythic stories the cry or "laugh- 
ing" of "Old Raven" changes men into rocks, a transformation performed 
by order of K'mukamtch. Cf pp. 131. 132 with 134, 1. 2. K. wetanta 

shash Old Haven laughed at them, 131, 2. 14. Kd-ag, 132, 7. Cf kd-ak 
11 ~ ~ 


K a - a s li k s h i , iioni. pr. of a locality on the eastern shore of Upper Kla- 
math Lake, about three hundred yards north of Capt. Ferree's house. 
An ancient funeral sweat-lodge, K. spuklish, lies there; of Note on p. 143. 

kd-i, adv., (1) the negative particle not. It is used for negativing facts or 
assertions in an objective manner, thus differing from le, la, q. v.: ka-i 
ti'dshi skiitash gi-uapka! it will not he a good mantle! 12.5, 5. Cf 42, 7. 
43, 11. It usually occupies the position just before the word to be nega- 
tived, and very frequently figures at the head of a sentence, and then is 
spoken with a higher pitch of the voice: 100, 18. 118, 9-11. 119, 15. 
127, 4. 140, 11. 142, 15.; cf 140, 6., but seldom at the end of such: 
87, 5. In English it has often to be rendered by the indefinite pronoun 
no, none, not one, though in the mind of the MAklaks it remains adverb: 
kci-i tatiiksni gas;iktsina no children follow, instead of: children do not follow, 
87, 7. With many words ka-i forms negative phrases, which we are wont 
to render by a positive turn of the phrase: k4-i kdgatko whole, entire; kd-i 
stinta to hate; ka-i vu'shish brave, bold, j)luchj. Among the many com- 
pounds of the prefixed kci-i we mention : kaf;^ema, ka'gi, kayak, kdyutch, 
kaitua, kd-itata, k(^shga etc. Cf also k;'i-i kanf under kani. (2) no! 
when used in reply to queries. Such replies are generally expressed by 
whole sentences: tarn 1 shltsa hunksh? ka-i nu hunksh shlea. Did you see 
him f I did not. 

kaiga, M-ika, Kl. and Mod. for kaiha Kl., q. v. 

k a i ' h h a , kd'hhia, kahhia, d. k^ki'ha, kaki'ha to miss the aim in shooting, 
firing, striking, throwing: tsiii ktihhia n's; wiggd n's hu'nk kaihha ffw(?/je 
missed me; by a hairhreadth he missed me, 23, 17.; tsui nish kaki'ha and 
they missed m,e at every shot they fired, 22, 10.; tchiii ka'hhian then (he) 
missed while striking, 114, 8. C£ 31, 10. 110, 9. 125, 8. Cf shakiha. 

k a i ' h h 6 1 a , kai'hiita, d. kaki'h6ta to miss the aim at the time being, 1 25, 4. : 
k. ktdyatka he threw a stone, but missed, 125, 5. 

k a 1 1 i a k , kail^ak ; see k^liak. 

kailpaksh Mod. for k(^lpoksh Kl. and Mod., q. v. 

ka-itata, ka-itat^, kd-i tdta (1) adv. loc, nowhere, at no place. (2) adv. 
temp , no more, at no time, not at any time, never, GO, 20.: k4-i an tata 
ma'nsh ma'sha / am no longer sick; k. giitpant they never came again, 28, 12. 

K A - a s li k s h i — K ;i k s i . 1 63 

kaitua, k4-i tua (1) nothing, not a thing or article, 39, 8. 15. 41, 7. 95, 13 : 
kaitua wawdwisli kiiila unproductive soil. (2) none, no one, not even a 
single one, when used of persons, animals: k. shnu'kuk (luluagsh) having 
obtained none (of the women to be enslaved), 23, 7. From k4-i, tua. 

k 4 - i u , kayu. Mod. for k^yutch Kl. q. v. 

k4ya, k4-ia, kd-ie, (d. k4kia,) pi. tiimi k., entrails of animals; gut, bowel. 

k 4 y a i h a , kdyaya to weep as a mourner, to cry mournfully. Cf kAhaha. 

kdyak, kdyak, adv., (1) not yet; kayak wenggApkash zvhen not dead yet, 
38, 1. (2) never, at no time: kiiyak ktakt'nan not sleeping at all, 134, 21.: 
kdyak wdmpelank never recovering again, 65, 20. (3) not at all, in no 
manner, noways: k. tadsh ttilakank but they do not paint (them) at all, 87, 
3.: kdyak hishtchAktnan not at all in a boisterous, unfriendly manner, 37, 2.; 
kayak hassasuakiank exchanging no ivords at all, 66, 7.: kayak hu'nksht 
sh^wanank not giving to him anything, 113, 8. From ka-i, ak. 

kakan, gaggan, pi. tiimi k., crow; KL, 180; 7,. Cf kak. Onomatop. 

kAkash, d. kaMkash (1) great blue heron, yellow-breasted, edge of wings 
brown-colored: Ardea herodias L. Onomatop. (2) K4kash, nom. pr. 
of an Indian conjurer or wizard, called "Doctor John". Several texts 
obtained of him are inserted in this report. His trial for witchcraft is 
mentioned pp. 64-66. 

KakAsam=Yaina, nom. pr. of a little mountain northwest of the Kla- 
math agency building.s, named after the kakash-heron. 

k 4 k 1 ' h a , d. of ka'hhia ; see kai'hha. 

K4k = Kshawaliaksh, nom. pr. of a locality not very distant from 
Klamath Marsh, where a halt is made by the Lake people when return- 
ing home from the w6kash=harvest, 74, 17. From kdk, kshawali^ga. 

ktiko, poss. kdkowam, d. k4kgo (I) bone; bone-substance, 71, 7.: k. y4hi, 
k. ydmnash grain of beads made of bone, looking like small whitish disks, 
with a usual diameter of one-fourth of an inch; k. pil k'leka he was 
reduced to mere bones, 95, 13.; cf 157; 44.; kak6 bela reduced to mere bones; 
lit. "bones only", 101, 7.; kakowatka sha kiulo'la st6palsh with (horse- 
rib-) bones they pieel off the fber-bark, 148, 20. (2) jaw, jawbone. (3) 
with a pronunciation somewhat different: molar tooth. 

Ki'i ksi , nom. pr. of a camping place on Klamath Marsh; stands for Kak- 
kslii, "Baven''s Home^\ 


kdlkali, kiilkali, k61koli, d. kakalkali, kok61koli round, rounded, of round 
shape, viz.: (1) disJc-shaped or circular, lenticular, 91, 5. (2) cylindric: 
yantch kAlkali the ydntch-root is cylindric, 146, 1. (3) annular (4) ball- 
shaped, glohiform: kolkoli lewasli a hall for 2>laying ; ka'ls kalkali the hals- 
root is globular, 147, 6 — Original form : kalkal-li. Cf. Slieniitic: gul, gulgul. 

k a 1 7 a 1 s li , kalkalesh, d. kakdl%alsli; see Mlsli No. 2. 

k a 1 m 6 m o k s h , d. kakalm6moksli gloicivorm, firefly. Mod. ; not Kl. 

k a 1 o , kalu, poss. kaluwam, locat. kaliuishtat, ktilo-utat, kalowat, kdluat 
clear sky, cloudless shy, 96, 20.: k wika't near, close to the sky, 101, 6. 7.: k. 
gi the sky is clear: kal6 kap^ta at kapka the kdpka-pine now reached up to 
the sky, 100, 8.; shti'ya pitli'ga kdluat he lined pitch over the sky, 96, 20. 
Incantations: 162; 1. and Note; 162; 4. 176; 1. 2. 177; 24. Cf. paishash. 

k a 1 s h , the eatable root or tuber of the witchpai water-plant: kais kalkali 
the kals-root is globular, 147, 6. Der. kal, rad. of kdlkali. 

kAlsh, kdl^alsh, d. kAkalsh, a nightbird of gray hue, small (7-8"), vari- 
ously spotted like the pii"hpash, living in woods. Males and females are 
supposed to be fog-makers because they fly aboxit in cold nights, during 
which fog is often formed, 166; 22. 28. 180; 9, Abbr. from kalpialsh. 

k ;i, 1 1 k i , d. kakAltgi (1 ) to become round: k. at ukaiikosh the moon is just 
full. (2) to become hard, dry, strong. Der. kal, rad. of kalkali. Cf ta'p^tki. 

kamtAta, ;i;amtata, d. kakamtdta grasshopper, Mod. for ta'hta-ash KL, 
q. v. Cf. ka'mat. 

kapkapagfnk i!, pi. kakapkapagfnk at! exc\^ra. hush up ! don't speak 
further about it ! stop talking about this matter ! Kl. for kapkapagi'tn'-k i! 
pi. kapkapagi'tii-k at! Mod. Cf k^mkem. 

kdta, g4ta, d. kakdta to gnaw, erode; to chew at; same as kdta No. 2. 

k a - u' 1 d s h a ; sec kwiildsha. 

k d w i a s h , d. kdk'wiash unripe, not yet ripened or matured. Cf yc^lmatko. 

k ii - a s h t A m n a to keep off, to keep or retain away from repeatedly; to pre- 
vent from doing something through admonition, 96, 15. Der. ki'-ash (2). 

kji'dsho, kiidsu, kAjetcho, d. kakii'dshu chin: kiidsuksaksina lil'kshktsa 
(it) grazed him on the chin, 30, .0. 

ka'gi, kii'ki, kr/gi, ^e'gi, k;1yeke, k;'i-iki, d. kiikii'gi, kek^gi (1) not to 
exist ; not to be on hand, or present: ha Avii'g'n kii'git if a wagon is not to be 

k a 1 k a 1 i — k ;i' m a t . 165 

had, 87, 5.; k gx'-u vu'nsh I have no canoe, 122,21.; k. nush vu'nsh 7 /«az;e 
no canoe on hand (2) to disappear, to tvane, recede; to he gone: k. sha 
waita they are absent the whole day, 110, 18 ; paishash k. the clouds disap- 
pear; k. ge-u papkash gd-isli the lumber-hoard swings under my tread, 178; 
8.; wash kii'kin the prairie-wolf disappeared, 128, 5. cf. 7.; Myeke he, she 
is gone; Mod. euphemistically for "he, she is dead"; ke'sh k. the snow is 
gone. (3) to be scarce, unfreqiient. Cf. kinkani. (4) to be powerless, de- 
ficient in strength: kaka'gi a n'sh tcho'ksh my legs do not support me, I am 
lame. Der. kd-i, gi. Cf hesh^e'gi, laki, leki. 

kii'gipele, d. kiika'gipele to he absent again; to disappear again: ndnuk 
hii'k wuydlapsh k all the icicles disappeared, 112, 19. Der. kii'gi, -peli. 

ka'k, d. kii'kak penis of persons and animals. K'mukdmtcham k., ludi- 
crous name given to the thistle. Der. k^ka. 

Kii'kakllsh, ludicrous nickname given by the Klamath Lake people to 
some Oregonian tribe. K'mtikamtch is said to have created them from 
skunks, lOo, 2.; but the name itself points to the d. form of ka'k, with 
the suffix -ila appended. Cf. kii'katilsh, ka'k. 

kii'kl'kish, pi. tiimi k., one who gesticidates ; actor, orator, speaker: Sunde 
k Sunday speaker, preacher. Der. kii'la. 

Kak = Taliksh, iiom. pr. of a camping-place on the Williamson River; lit. 
"Two phalli standing aside of each other, touching each other". Refers 
to rock-pillars. Der ka'k, taliga. 

kil'la, kii'la, d. kiikii'la, kakii'la, kakdla, (1) to do or perform with actions of 
the body, demonstrations, playful gestures etc.; to gesticidate; said of speak- 
ers, playing children etc. : tii'sli ak nen huk wak k. ? ivhat can they be doing 
at some place or otherl 110, 19. (2) to act extravagantly, to behave fool- 
ishly. C£ ka-ika, ka-ikash, ka'kl'kish, leshuat;^ish, utiissusd-ash. 

ka'lo, kii'lu, d. kakalo {or kaluam, d. kaka'luam; supply ko'sh or Anku) 
jtmiper-tree : Juniperus occidentalis. Mu'ni k. hiitakt tiiya an enormous ju- 
niper-tree stood there below (me), 30, 12. 

Ka'lu = T% alamn a, nom. pr of a lodge-site or locahty on the Sprague 
River: ^^Juniper-tree on hiir\ 

kii'mat, ;ia'iiiat, d. kakii'mat hack oi persons and animals: xiimte'tan (for 
kamati=tana) behind on back; x^i^itetan seldapkiitko buttoned behind: 


kdm'tam ksbdluish mane (of horse) ; k(imat pi'la uii wdldshtak it will cover 

the hack only, 125, 9.; ka'mat (for kii'matat) on their hachs, 75, 3. 
k it's h , ke'sh, pi. tumi k., a small, oblong, hard and farinaceous eatable root, 

of whitish color, growing in quantities in the Pacific States and Territories 

and serving as food to the Indian tribes ; commonly called ^J^o, potato, wild 

potato or ipo, i'p;)ja, q. v. It is often shaped like a date-kernel; the plant 

producing it is a species of Calochorttis, with stalk furcated. K. mdya, 

shtd-ila to dig ipo-roots, 109, 1. 118, '6-H.; cf. 135, 1. 2. 147, 8. and kna't. 
ka'shla to gather ipos, to go after the Ica'sh-root, 74, 3. 75, 21.: kashalshii'mi 

"i« the ipo-season" , a time of the year corresponding to our month of June, 
k ^ - a s h , d. kekeash red-tailed squirrel-hawk: Buteo calurus. 
k ^ - a s li , kii'-ash bad thing; a term used to prevent children from handling 

or eating certain articles. Der. kd-i or kii-i. Cf ka-ashtdmna. 
k d d s h a , ;jedsha, d. k^ktcha to groiv; said of plants only, 100, 7.; to sprout 

up, grow up, 95, 3. 101, 16.: k. kshvl'nat grows on grass-stalks, 148, 5.; k. 

safgatat ^ro«(;s on prairies, J 46, 3. 12.; k. tu'm groivs in profusion, 148, 11.; 

kedsha Idhiash M6atok the leyash-root grows in the Modoc country, 147, 18.; 

tsiii kedsha huk tlien it grew up, 100, 7. ; kdtsa pAlpali grows white, 149, 20.; 

ati at kddshisht until it had groivn high, 95, 4. Cf t'shln. 
kddshika, d. kekudshika, kiikadshika; v. intr. and impers. (1) to become 

tired, exhausted, fatigued: M6atuash liipiak Modokishash k. the Pit River 

Indians became exhausted before the Modocs ; nish ka-a ka'dshlka J feecawe 

much exhausted, 20, 4. Ql) to be tired, exhausted, tvorn out: at nu k. h^m- 

kanksh I have talked to satiety, 42, 3. Cf kt'shga. 
k e d s h i k 6 1 a , ka'dshik61a, d. kekadshikola to rest, repose, take a rest or lull. 
k e d s h n 11 1 a , d. kektchniita to grow while something else is done or going 

on, to groiv at the time being, 101, 16. Durat. of kddshna. 
kd-ish, ki'sh. Mod. /e-i'sh, d. ke-ikash rattlesnake, 180; 16. Among the 

four species found in the West Crotalus confluentus is the most common. 

Kl'sham shpaiitish venom of rattlesnake; snake-venom. Quot. under k6ka 
k e k a m m ;i m e n i s h ( 1 ) tendril on creepers, vines etc. (2) ivy. Der. k^mni. 
k^kjidsh, kdketch, Kl. kdketch, gdggesh, pi. tnmi k., vein, blood-vein. 
kt'ko, ka'ku, d. kdkgo to try, undertake, endeavor: n;inuktua kii'kgo to make 

many trials, to undertake frequently , to try in every way. Quot. midei- ktishga. 

ka'sh — k^mkem. 167 

keko-iiya, kekowiya, d. kekgowiya to try for a while, to attempt more 
than once: k. shiu'lkish^eni gdshtga giu'ga he attempted several times to reach 
the reservation-ground, 55, 10. Der. k^ko, -hiiya. 

k^liak, ka'Iiak, kailiak, obj. keliash, locat. k(^lianta, d. keMliak, adj., (1) 
heing without, not possessed of; lacking, wanting, deprived of: k. p4sh without 
food, 136, 8.; k. tuA empty, vacant; k. loloksgish not armed with guns, 41, 
12.; k. shul6tish naked, undressed; k. k6%pash stupid, foolish, extravagant, 
deprived of common sense, Mod.; kailiak skutash without a mantle on, 186; 
54., Mod.; ka'Iiak sndwedsh, obj. ka'lish (for ka'liash) snawedsh an un- 
married man, 60, 2 and Note; tchia kailiak wa'wans they lived unmarried, 
107, 2. Cf. 55, 15. 77, 1. (2) in the absence of is expressed by the locat. 
case: Meachash k^lianta during Meacham^s absence, 41, 10.; keli^nta k^- 
ishtat no snoiv lying on the ground, '67, 21.; kaliant wAshash the prairie- 
wolf not being at home, 105, 3. 

kdl^a, d. kekdl^a; see g(^l%a. 

k ^ 1 p a , d. kekdlpa to pant, to breathe heavily from internal heat. 

kt^lpka, d. kekalpka, v. trans, and impei's , to be hot, to feel warm; said of 
the temperature of weather, water, body and the fire heat: Tit^ash k. 
litak feels hot, Titak is very tvarm ; tchule'ks k. to feel tvarm, lit. "to feel 
warm as to the body"; k. a dt after they are heated, 82, 8.; kdlpkuk when 
feeling hot, 82, 9 ; ktA-i kelpokshtak (for k(ilpaksht ak) the stones having 
just been heated, 113, 1. Cf. kitita, shualka. 

kdlpoksh, x^lpoks, in Mod. also: kailpaksh, d. kek41poksh (1) adj., hot, 
heated, boiling, overheated; said of the temperature of the animal body 
and of winds, fire, objects of nature, boiling water etc.: k. mdshash /et^ej', 

■ feverish disease; kailpAkshtala kaildtala nulidshd (nu) / am sliding down- 
ward towards the burning region, 173; 2.; ktdyatat k^lpokshtat ivith heated 
stones, 148, 17. (2) subst., high temperature, heat. (3) svihsi., fever : %dl- 
pogs ma'sha to be sick with fever. 

k ^ 1 u a , d. kektllua to bathe in warm or hot water. Cf. kdlpka, pdwa. 

keluash, d. k^kaluasli hot, boiling; said of liquids. Ka'luas ampu Hot 
Springs, nom. pr. of a locality 

k^mkem, /em%em, d. ke%am%em, adv., quietly, still, silently: k. a gi'n! pi. 
ke^iimkem a gink at! (gi'n, gink, abbr. from giank) keep quiet! be still! 


kenin i, kii'm'ni, d. kekam'ni creeping plant, creeper, vine. Cf. kddsha. 

-ke'ni, -ze'iii, -;ua'n, case postp., with the meaning of (1) towards, in the 
direction of. (2) at that place, there. Often appended to local names, as 
M6atuashzeni, Salkiin, Tivvish^e'ni, Tchuaxe'ni etc. 

kenkapshlJi'li, a popular epithet given to the young silver fox, which 
figures as the mythic companion of K'miikamtch. Cf kenkatilatuash. 

k(ipkap, %6\)xi\i), d. kdkapkap (1) a species of butterfly originating, 
through its metamorphosis, from the "wild silkworm"; cf ktchdpash. 
(2) any diurnal lepidopterous insect with gay colors. 

kdshga, d. kekushga {\) tohe unable; connected usually with the verbal 
indefinite or a participle: k nil 161ash I cannot believe it; k. M-i nii kil'- 
kotko I did not succeed zvhen trying ; k. nu humiisht Idsh I cannot consent, 
42, 0.; k. kani hunk nobody was able to, 128, G., c£ 127, 8.; keshgiiga 
idshi'sh because they ivere unable to get them out, 38, 1., cf. 95, 5.; kdshguk 
for ke'shga huk she could not, 121, 16. (2) to he impossible: k. guf^ish it 
is not possible to get over. Der. k4-i. 

k(jtchkatch, d. kekatchkatch little gray fox, a species of Urocyon; lit. 
"rough-furred". 'Der. kitchkitchli. Cf. wan. 

kidshna, kftchna, d. kik;idshna to pour over, upon: dmbu ktdyatat k. to 
pour water on the stones, 82, 8. 

k I'd s h i p k a , d. kikAdshipka to have the waterbrash. Cf Kintpuash. 

kf y a, ki'a, d kikia, giggia to lie, to tell a lie, 40, 20. 41, 16.; to be a liar, 
93, 2.: 1 Idya! you lie! ki'yan ne-ulkfa to make fraudulent compacts (seem- 
ingly) in somebody's interest, 36, 14.; giyan shti'lshga they reported un- 
truths, 38, 16.; kl' shewa nil hil'nkesh I thought her to be a Uar, 40, 21.; 
ha' i ki'-uapka if you should tell a lie or lies, 59, 3.; ki'tgik (for kitki gi), 
61, 3., see Note; ki-i-;i a nen lYtematsis, kl'ya hil'nk Tetgmdtsis Aunt 
Susie lies hy saying this, 64, 4. 5. 6. 

ki'l, ki'la, nkl'l, n^i'l, d. kfkal, nzinxal, the adverbial form of kfla: (1) 
rashly, quickly, hurriedly, suddenly: kfla gdn' i! make hurry! go quick! (2) 
strongly, forcibly ; a great deal: nki'l yiita to be heavy in weight; n^i'l pdl- 
pela to work hard. (3) aloud: k ha'ma to cry aloud or: to produce a loud 
or shrill sound: wy\'\ hii'ma miini h'iloksgish the cannon makes a loud report. 
Cf kfla, kfllitko. 

k (? m n i — k i t 6 1 c h n a . 1 69 

ki'la, kiHa, nki'la, ii;i^illa, d kikdla, n%iii%41a (1) ^o make haste, to hurry, to 
he in a hurry: nkiilan hvlio'tohxio, they ran away fast, 42, 17. (2) to he 
quick, fast, impetuous, rapid: n^ilank t'shln to grow fast; nkillanlc ndlsh 
sko'tki! cross us over quickly! 122, 7., cf. 21. 22. (3) to he anyry, irate, 
wroth, pugnacious. (4) to he strong, pmverful: kd-i k. to he ivithout strength; 
killan shldwi it hlows a gale, Mod.; nkillank shisMkish a hrave fighter ; 
kilank tsuina to sing loud, 70, 2.; killank i'sli gu'tash kuatclidki ! the lice 
hite me sharply in the fur! 119, 6. Ct". ki'l, killitko. 

k i 1 % 4 n t k o , d. kikalx^ntko ; see ki'lka. 

k i 11 e t a n a , d. kikele'tana (1) to insist upon, to tell forcihly : k. ndlash g^ntge 
he insisted upon our going, 34, 9.; ma'lasli killetanudpka he tvill insist 
upon ye, 39, 1. (2) to reproach, reprimand. Der. kila. 

killikdnka, d. kikelikdnka to speed off, to move tvith great speed, to run 
fast, 80, 4. Der. kila. 

killitko, nkfllitko (1) hurried, accelerated, rapid: mu' nki'llipsh tiwisli 
ndu'lshampksh the roar of the rapidly rushing tvaters, 94, 5. (2) strong, 
vigorous; hrave, gallant, plucky: k. tsula'ks gi'-uapk the hody will hecome 
vigorous, 142, 9.; also used of inan. things: nkfllitko Idtcliash "strong- 
house", jail, guard-house. (3) severe, harsh: k. nii'-ulaks tJie laiv is strict, 
60, 4. (4) snhst, force, potcer, strength, 139, 7. Partic. of kila, q. v. 

kl'sh, d. kikish lie, lying statement, untruth: kd-i k it is true, certain, sure; 
there is no doubt about it. Contr. from kiyash. Der. kiya. 

kitlta, kiteta, d. kiktdta (1) to throiv upon, pour omvater, liquids: dmpu 
kelpkdpkash k. to scald. (2) to throw into water. (3) v. intr., to hurst, ex- 
plode: k. pitdk nkdsli her helly hurst asunder, sJied its contents, 105, 16. 

ki tit clan a, d. kikdtitchna to spill: tchdkeli k. to spill blood, 13, 7. Mod. 
for kit6tclina Kl 

kitp^oga, d kikdt%oga to fill with water or any other liquid. 

k i 1 1 u a , d. kikdtlua to overflood. Cf tchi^ga. 

k i 1 6 k a , d. kikt6ka, kekt6ka to drain, to take the ivater out; to hail: vunshtat 
dmpu k to bail a canoe. 

k i t ' 1 6 k a , d. kikdtle^a to fall in quantities, to pour down : kto'dshash kitlta 
a heavy rain is falling. 

kitotchna, d. kikto'tehna; same as ki'titchna, q. v. Kl. 


kitua to pour on, upon, on the surface of": k. liiipat to pour into the eye; 
said of coal mixed with blood, 71, U. 

kit ulna, d. kikatuina to pour into, to pour upon: ;inibu kituinank jjoztr- 
ing tvater into, 149, 9. Der. kitua. 

k i t u 1 n i , d. kikatufui to put in, mix in; said of milk put in tea, of yeast put 
in dough, and of other processes of assimilation. Der. kitua. Cf. k^wa. 

k i t u 1 a 1 a , d. kiktuldla to sprinlde, to pour upon or into: timbu liu'n kitulAl' 
i lu'lukslitat! throw water into that fire! Cf kliuldla. 

kitutana, d. kiktntana to throw or to pour alon/j, to piour or throtv a liquid 
over: pi k. ambu niisli he threw water on me. 

k i t c h k i t c h , ketchketch, d. kikdtchkitch, kekdtchketch, adv. of kitch- 
kftchli: (1) roughly, not smoothly. (2) tightly fitting. 

kit c hk i t chl i , ketchketchli, d. kikdtchkitchli, kekatchkdtchli (1) rough, 
of a rough surface; said of furs, tissues etc.: k tchulish woolen shirt. (2) 
tight-fitting, adjusting itself closely. (3) gray, of grayish tint or color; so 
called after the k(^tchkatch (q. v.) fox-species Der. kitcha. 

K i u t i , nom. ])r. of a localityon Upper Klamath Lake near Modoc Point, 
close to the scene of the legendary encounter of "Old Grizzly" and "Old 
Gray Wolf", 131, 5. 

ki-wash, d. kikiwasli ivhippoorwill, a niglit bird: Antrostomus NuttalU; 
Mod.; term unknown to Kl. 

k'leka, kldka, k'lakd, d. k'lekl;{a, k'lti'klka (1) to reach, to reach to, to 
arrive: tsui nat la'p k., tsiii nat ktsi'ktsa then two of us came up (on the 
rock) and we crept along (its surface), 22, 18. (2) to turn into, to he changed 
into, to come out as, to become: ke'sh we'sh k. the snotv turns to ice; k6-i k. 
to become spoiled, musty, mouldy, unfit for use, 148, 4. 15.; n;inuk kako pil 
k. all his body became reduced to mere hones, 95. 13.; Inl kt;'i-i k'lii'ka they 

. became rocks, 131, 3.; cf 73, ()'. 131, 15. 132, 7.; slieshalulesh keh'/a he 
became a loarrior, 90, 20.; cf. 3>, 7. (3) to die, to expire; mostly used of 
natural, not of violent death; cf. 64, 16. and tchoka: k'lc'pja he dies, S5, 
l(i, 17.; k'lakf'it n' u'nk shlii-ok I may die for having seen him, 129, 5.; 
tutendpni wait61an k6l(5ksht vumf the fifth day after each death they bury 
the body, 85, 1. Mod.; k'leksht at his death, 87, 1. 89, 3. 6.; k'ldkuish ff/fcr 
his death, G5, 20.; k'k'kuisli at just after his death, 6:>, S.; k'k'katko dead, 

kitua — k'liiwi. 171 

deceased; the dead person, corpse, 85, 4-14.; k'lekutk giulxa hisliudkga 
stillborn male child; k'l^katko tchule'ksh dead body, mortal coil; k'l^katk in 
the sense oi half dead, almost dead, 177; 29., cf., 196; 8. and Note; Idpuk 
k'ldkl;^atk I'pka both lay dead on the ground, 110, 17. and Note; ku'ki 
kelekdtko tliey weep for cause of death, 82, 5.; k'l^kshashtala and k'l^ksh- 
tala, in the locution "k. telshdmpka", ungrammatic abbreviations of k'le- 
kapkashtala telshampka to look towards the spirit-land, to be on the verge 
of death, Ut. "to look towards those who have died before"; 158; hA.; 
k'lii'ksh telsdmpka, 68, 8. stands for k'lekdpkash t Cf. ^2, 12. 87, 11. 
110, 6. and in the Dictionary: iwi^otkish, kshdwal, kshet'leka, ktushna. 
K. refers to one person or anim. being; speaking of a plurality of subjects, 
three verbs are in use: («) lula, 161a, q. v.; see also Julatko, =lulsh; (&) 
kalina: kali'napka nanuk all have died in my absence, 183; 13. 194; 16. 
and Notes; (c) w^nka, wc'ngga, q. v, 

k'lekAla, k'lekAlla, d. keklkala, k'leklkAlla (1) v. intr., to be moribund, at 
the point of death; to sink fast, 138, 7. (2) v. trans., to suffer bereavement, 
to lose children, relatives by death, 142, 13. (3) subst., mother of an infant 
just deceased. (4) subst., placental matter, after-birth, cf genii li. 

k ' 1 e k 1 % a t k o , d of k'ltikatko ; see k'lc^ka (3). 

k'lekna {\) tobe half dead, cdmost dying: at k'lekndpk kak6 bela he was 
reduced to mere bones and almost dead at a far-off distance, 101, 6. (2) 
to be afflicted tvith mortal sorrow. Der. k'k'ka (3). 

k ' 1 e k i') t k i s h , kela'kotch substance producing death ; deadly poison, danger- 
ous drug, 150, 1. 2.: k. y (i-uks p)oison berries. Der. k'leka (3). 

k ' 1 d w i , k'lil'wi, kel(iwi, d. k^klui, keklui, v. intr., to cease, quit, stop; to come 
to an end, finish, stop short, 20, 5. 38, 19.: at nu k. shishu'kash now I want 
to stop ivarfare, 14, 1.; tche'k, tchui k. then he, she ceased; then they quit; 
a very common phrase, often applied without necessity, cf. 20, 6. 37, 21. 
85, 10. 89, 7. 96, 17.; e nu k'lewi-udpka hemkanksh I iuill hush it up, 
cease speaking about it; k'lawisham at after (they) had ceased (shooting) 
20, 5.; k. used in the medial sense of "to sun-ender", 39, 1.; k'l^wiank 
subsequently, afterwards ; in this signification it occurs only when standing 
absolutely: k'l^wiank guhuc4shktcha hereupon he set out; lit. "after 
finishing (the abovesaid), he set out," 111, 12 c£ 111, 3. 


k'l e \vi (1 s Ii;i , d. k'lek'hii'dslia to leave , quit , to start away from : latchash, 
kiifla k. to leave the lodge, country ; cf. 39, 5.; k'lewidshupka A'-ukskni the 
Klamath Lake Indians had dispersed, 28, 4. 

k'ldwidshna, d. k'lek'k'widslma (1) to abandon, relinquish by walking 
away: kldwidslinank wewcas tchl'sh^eni leaving their children at home 
1 18, 3. (2) to abandon maliciously or treacherously, i'S, 8. 

k'lfka , d. k'lik'l^ii to be in a hurry or haste, to hurry up: k'liku nu nen / 
have no time; kd-i nu k'likii I have time, I am at full leisure; k'li'kug an 
ka-i misli tchawaya I have no time to wait for you; klikog an ka-i shud- 
iidshat I have no time for fishing tvith the line. Der. kila. 

klopa, klu'pa,d. kluklu'pa (1) to wheeze (2) to move the tongue between 
the compressed lips, Mod. ; unknown to Kl. Cf. hlopa 

k 6 - c n a , d. ko-(ikoa, kii'koa to leave tracks, foot-]}rints. Mod. Cf. goyc'na, 
kueisli, knentchna. 

ko'li i e gsh , Mod. kuihegsli, kiiyeksh, d. kok6hiegsh. Mod kuknihdgsh 
orphan who has lost both parents: snawedshga k. female orjjhan, father and 
mother deceased; kuihdgshash^shitko like an orphan, 55, 18. Cf lula. 

ko-i, k^-idshi; see ki'i-i, kii-idshi. 

ko-il, ku'il, d. kuikuil (1) mountain sheep. Mod. for wn^sli Kl. (2) 
sometimes used for the domestic sheep (see sln'2j) and goat. 

k o - 1 1 c h a t c h t a , d. ko-ikll'tchatchta to bite somebody in the bone. Der. 
koka. Cf kua'ka, ku.Uchaka. 

koka, k6ka, koga, d. kok(Sga {\) to bite; to bite into: kc'-isham nil k6katko 
I am bitten by a rattlesnake ; \6\na^\ixvy intending to bite, 184; 30. (2) ^o 
suck, to suck out, viz. first to Ijite and then to suck from the bite: nJi'paks 
al nu k<iga I am sucking out the disease, 155; 17. 156; 28. Cf ddsha, 
luinshna. (3) to eat up, devour, 169; 54. 177; 32. (4) to weep, lament 
with suppressed voice and biting the teeth; different from kuki, q. v. 

kokaga, k6kak, kokeAga, d. kokgak, kokgeaga (1) river of moderate 
width and depth; stream, streamlet, creek, brook, 30, 21.; ditch, small tvater- 
course: kukdga stuntchishti ditch filled with water, wet ditch. (2) spring of 
water; such springs are called "little rivers" in the Klamath country, 
because they surge at once from the soil, which consists of volcanic sand, 
with a very considerable amount of water, forming ponds from twenty to 
fort}- feet wide. Dim. kuke. 

k'lewidsha — koke. 173 

kokagtalkni, adj., (1) comin(j over the stream: k gepgap'l' they returned 
over a hrooJc, 29, 14. (2) coming from or living on the other side of a rivulet, 
hrooJc or water-course. Der. k6kaga, -tala, -kni. 

Kokdksakslii, noin pr. of a fording place, "at Little Biver", probably 
northeast of Linkville, 19, 7.: sa gelo'la Koka'ksaks they dismounted at 
Little Biver, 20, 1."). A large spring of this name is fifteen miles east of 
the Klamath agency buildings, on the road from there to Y^neks. 

K6kaksi, (1) nom. pr. of a camping place on a tributar}^ of the William- 
son river. (2) nom. j^r. of a lodge-site or camp in Sprague River Valley, 
also called Koka%ii'ni. 

k o k a 1 a m , kokelam, poss. case of k6ke, q. v. 

k o k a 1 k o k II 1 1 k o , d. kokgalkokgaltko ( 1 ) weak in the joints of knees, 
iingers, elbows etc. ; said, e. g., of children just commencing to walk, Kl. 
(2) clumsy, shapeless, Mod. Cf. kAlkali. 

k6kanka, kv'dcanka, d. kokokanka (i) to masticate, chew: katchkal k. to 
masticate tobacco; kukaiika slia tiitatka they masticate with the teeth, 149, 
13.; cf. ktchan. (2) to gnash or grate ivith the teeth. Der. k6ka (I). Cf 

koke, koka, ku'ke. Mod. k6ke, k6kai, d. k<3kge, kii'kga (1) river, stream, 
large running water: kuke yulalina alongside the river, along the river heach, 
127, 11 ; E-ukc41ksin k6ka Wood Biver; kokailam ktay/iga the x>(^Vble of 
the river. Mod.; kokelam shumalkish mouth, of river; kokalam palkuish 
dry bed of a river, dry river bottom., 21, 15.; deep furrow ; kukgetat gagakua 
to cross rivers. Cf gj'ikua. (2) K6ke, local K6ketat, is nom. pr. of all 
the larger rivers of the country, being frequently used without further 
epithet; the bearer has to gather from the context which river is referred 
to. Thus we find the Williamson, Lost, Sprague, and Klamath Rivers 
called "the River", whereas to the Pit, Sacramento, Rogue, Umpqua, 
Willdmet, Columbia and other rivers adjectives are usually prefixed. 
The Sprague River is generally called P'laikni Koke, abbr P'laikni, 
P'lai; the Pit River : Moatuash^e'ni K6ke. The Williamson Biver is 
referred to in 16, 16. 28, 1. 143, 1.; in 54, 1. it is called Ya-aga k6ke, cf. 
Yd-aga. The Lost Biver, in the former country of the Modocs, is referred 
to in 33, 2. 36, 9. 21 37, 12. 16 75, 21. 


K u k e t a t , locat. of koko (2) ; sometimes used instead of K(')ke, q. v. 

k6kiaks, d. kokdkiags, a species of duck, red-eyed; not often seen flying. 

Probably a grebe of the genus Podiceps. Cf. kuitchia. 
"k i') k o - i , pi. tiimi k , to drink; said of infants only. Der. koka. Cf. p6po-i. 

K ok61isli, nom. pr. fem. Kl; means '''Kol-root JEater", and, as a conse- 
quence of this, "of repugnant breath". Der. ko'l. 

ki')%pash, d. k6ko;^pash (1) Uiouglit, reflection: g(^-u mdklaksham k. the 
disposition of my people, 39, 22. (2) memory, rememirance, recollection. 
(3) mind; mental faculty. Mod. for hushkanksh Kl. and Mod. Der. 
k6%pa, d. of k6pa. 

ko'l, ku'l, gu'l, gu'l, (d. k6kol), pi. tumi k., edible root of the Mlam-plant. 
This root has a brownish color and a pungent, but not disagreeable taste, 
when first dug; after roasting it is black and spreads a fetid smell, but 
is very nutritious and highly prized b}^ Indians; it looks like an iri'egu- 
lai'ly-shaped beet, :md is from one to three inches long, 147, 9-13. 

k (') 1 a 1 s h a , d. kok61alsha to gather annually the kdl- or Valeriana-root, 74, 
3.: kolalsha'mi in the ko'l-gathering time. This root is dug throughout all 
the warmer months of the year. 

ko'l am, giilam, pi. tumi k., plant producing the kol-root or: wild tobacco- 
plant. The kiilam-plant has been identified with some species oi Alalia, 
and with the Valeriana edulis or tobacco root, which has a less woody 
root than the Aralia; cf. Report of Commissioner of Agriculture, 1870, 
p. 409. T^ktakli tchdlash gii'Iam nukuk the stalk of the kp'l-plant is red 
ivhen ripe, 147, 9. 

K61am%eni Koke, nom. pr. of an Oregonian river; probably no other 
than the Bes Chutes River. K. K. tu' tu'nsna Sfdaikt liipian the river of 
the kol-root country runs on the east side of Sidaikti. 

kolkoli, d. kok61koli ; see ktilkali. 

k 6 1 k o 1 s h , k61;{olsh, d. kok61;{olsh thimble. When used as an intertribal 
currency, a dozen thimbles are wortli among these Indians about $1.50. 
Der. kdlkali. 

k6pa, d. k6;{pa, k6kpa (1) to think, to reflect; to study: ti'dsli ko;^p;itko 
toell disposed, generous, liberal (2) to suppose, believe: ka-i k. p'nalam ku-i 
giwish they did not believe that outrages had been committed by their own 

K6ketat — kuitlshi. 175 

people, 38, 17. (3) lo recall to one's mind, to recollect, remember. Mod. for 
hushkanka Kl. and Mod. Cf. kopakta, shewa. 

kopdkta, kupAkta, d. ko^pdkta to think of; to remember, recoUect. Only 
the d. form is in general use. Mod. Der. k6pa. 

k6pka, kuvka, 144, 11.; same as kupka, q. v. Cf. kua'ka, koka (1). 

ko-iiyua to bite each other. Der. koka (1). 

kowitiwatko, d. kowikowitiwatko (1) grimacing, making faces, distort- 
ing the features (2) frotvning. 

k u d k u a k s h , d. liualiuakuaksh gillfllrt marc, mare ruptured in Joaling. 
Der. the redupl. k^wa. 

kuata, kua'ta, d. kuaku4ta (1) to be hard, firm, of hard or solid consistence ; 
to be tight: at k. kela-ush now the sand has hardened; partic. kudtatko 
hardened, tightened, firm. (2) adv., firmly, tightly; forcibly, tvith energetic 
grasp: hu'nk k shnukpApka she held her firmly, 5rt, 6.; k. shiitchlka to tie 
firmly; hwAta with a firm grasp, 162; o. (3) adj., hard; solid, firm, tight : 
kuiita kta-i a hard stone. 

kui, ku'-i, k6-i, d. ku'ki, koki, adv. of ku-idshi: (1) badly, wretchedly; 
when speaking of physical qualities of anim. or inan. objects: k. ne'pka 
it is bad weather or these are hard times; cf. ne'pka; k. pilui to smell badly; 
k. piluydash onion (wild); k. tchti m'l u'k the signs are bad for ye, 133, 6.; 
k. taka to be dull, blunt; k6-i tumenash disturbance, bad noise; k6-itoks nil 
hiishlta I feel icnwell. (2) wrongly, wickedly, injustly; used when speaking 
of wicked or hateful moral qualities: ku-i shiita to spoil, to break, 132, 5. 
6.; to treat badly, abuse, injure, outrage, 36, 20., to do wrong, neglect one's 
duty; k. shteinash aggrieved in one's heart, or of wicked intentions; k. 
shpulhi to lock up for punishment. Mod.; 1 a kii-i gi! you are ivrong! k6-i 
ne-ul%a E-ukshikni the Klamath Lake people did wrong, acted in a ivicked 
manner, 35, 5., sa ku-i hak tsia they lived miserably all the time, 78, 12., 
cf 78, 5.; ku-i su'ta stainas to embitter each other's hearts, 78, 5.; ku-i gi 
to do evil to, 139, 5. 

K li i d s h a = N li' s h = G i t k o Ugly Head, nom. pr. of one of the ten wives of 
Lel^kash, a former Klamath Lake chief. 

kiiidshi, ko-idslii, d. kuki'dshi, koki'dshi, adj. (1) bad, ivretched, unavail- 
able, obnoxious in the physical sense: k. kiii'm rotten or poisoned fish, 132, 


3. 4.; misshaped, ugly ; hard, rocky, inaccessible, impracticable ; kuitsant tclu'a 
ktjiyat they remained tvithin inaccessible rocks, 21, 13.; k. ambu hatakt 
hfuliiuatk there the water is of difficult passage on account of the softness 
of its bottom, 20, 3. 4.; sterile, unproductive: k. kiiila had land. (2) bad, 
wrong, mischievous; embodying all the bad and obnoxious JWoraZ qualities: 
k. stefnasli a bad character ; k6-idsha ne-ul%6ga for having done mischief, 
192; 8.; k maklaks a dangerous, ivicked fellow, 184; 28.; k6-idshi wdtsag 
a vicious dog, 184; 30.; stuhhorn, inflexible; wrong-doing, vulgar, unbecom- 
ing; k^-idshitoks hi'shuaksh a criminal, a rogue, Mod.; terrible, horrific: 
kii-idshi skiiks a ivicked spirit, ghost, 127, 13. 128, 1.; ko-idshi shui'sh a 
conjurer's song of pernicious ii^fluence, 1 79; 7. 

k u i h d g s h , kiiyeksh ; Mod. for k5'hiegsh, q. v. 

ki'iki , d. kuk'ki to lament, weep, mourn silently over somebody: k. kglekdtko 
they mourn silently for cause of death, 82, 1. h. and Note. Abbr. from 
ki'ikia and thereby differing from k6ka (4) Cf. k4haha, k^yaiha. 

kxi'lu, kiiluag, kiVme ; see gulu, guluaga, ku'mme. 

k u' t p a s h , d. kukatpash gnat. Der. giita. 


A number of terms commencing in g, k and especially in k ai-e sometimes 
pronounced with %. No list of these is needed, for they are given in 
alphabetic order under k, as ;^a'mat, ^^-ish, %^lpka, %«im%em, -ze'ni, Z^PZ^P> 
Zii'mme and others. 


This sound is interchangeable with n and hi in a few terms; I stands in- 
stead of r in words borrowed from foreign languages: ribbon, Ifpin, lipai. 
Initial 1-, la- may be a prefix referring to the configuration of the soil, de- 
clivities etc., or to existence upon the ground; initial 1-, In- may be a prefix 
indicating round or rounded, bulky shape, and in this case often refers to 
one subject or object only; cf prefix pe-. The prefix le- is of a negative 
import. The initial syllables le-, li-, lui- and Ika-, l%e- are not prefixes, but 
radical syllables, each forming a series of verbs with their derivatives. 
Id, -la, -l6, adverbial particle of emphatic or augmentative signification: 

kftchkan la the smallcd; tehe'ksle ml gatpj'uitki I shall come very soon. 
1 d - a , d. Ial4-a ; see hla-a. 

k u i h e g s li — 1 a k i' s h = s ]i u s lu'i t i s li . 177 

1 a g g a - i d s h a , d. lalga-idsha to sticJc tip, to elevate or hang on a pole or 
stick; said of rounded, hollow and globular objects: tchu'leks gi'lit tchisli 
1. she hung on a stick the meat and the anus, 119, 12., cf. 20. Cf". igga-idslia. 

laggay a, d. lalgtiya, lalkiiya, v. intr., (\) to hang down from, to he sticking 
on; to grow on trees or shrubs, as fruits, berries, 146, 9. (2) to stand in the 
sky ; said of the celestial bodies, which seem suspended there. (3) Mod.: 
to lie upset, to lie upside doivn, as bottles etc. 

laggalagash, d. lalgalagtish AdarnJs apple, thyroid cartilage ; called by 
this term on account of its rounded shape Der. laggdya. 

1 a g g a 1 1 c h n a , d. lalggaltchna to make gashes or long cuts ; to cut hy means 
of gashes: partic. laggaltchantko cm^ or slashed with gashes. 

1 a - i k s , la-ikash, lai%s, d. laliks, lali'kash, lal^kash^s/ii-He^ loith small meshes. 
It is a dip-net provided with a handle and differs from the witsolas by its 
smaller meshes La-ikash=shitko shiita to embroider, viz. "to work net- 
like". Cf. radix la- with h'ltcha, Itidsha 

1 4 y a to point at, to take aim: tam liai mish layank tewi? did he shoot by aim- 
ing at you? 109, 1 7.; Iii3'ipka to point at somebody, or at the one speaking: 
shlaank hii'nkt layipaksht (for h'lyipkasht) lulukshgishtka perceiving that 
he had pointed his gun (at me), 30, 13., cf 15. Cf aldhia, kinualpka. 

lak, la'k, pi. tumi 1., long hair; (1) hair of head, scalp: yAkanuapkuk 1. 
hii'nk in order to have a scalp-dance or scalp feast, 16, 10.; 1 shiashka to 
cut off the hair, 89, 5. 90, 6.; 1 shii'ktaldsha to cid off one's own hair, 132, 
6. Cf. ktushka. (2) hair of mane, of tail or other long hair; Ampuam 1., 
^^ horse- hair", a film- or thread-like organism found in morasses and wet 
places, making snake-like motions in the water: a species of Gordius; 
180; ]8. and Note. 

laka'dsha, d lalka'dsha; same as Idktcha, q. v. 

L a k e 1 4 k s i , nom pr of a mountain situated between Crater Mountain 
and Upper Klamath Lake. Der. lak'laka. 

laki, la'ki, lAggi, d. l&Ud forehead, 24, 4 and Note, 97, 1. Der. hik. 

1 a k i a , d. lalakia (I) to put or place against something. (2) to stop) or bung 
up; to cork; as bai'rels, bottles. Cf shalgia, shalgidsha. 

1 4 k i s h , d lalkish (1 ) cork, stopiper, bung. (2) knob, as door-knob etc. 

1 a k i' s h - s h u s h a t i s li locksmith ; lit "lock-maker". Half English. 


1 d k ' 1 a k a , liU'ikhklka, d. kikik'kika to he, to become slick or slippery, us from 
ice, 111, 20. Of. kikk'ikli. 

1 H k 1 a k p k a , d. kikikkikpka to ivJiisper, to speak low-voiced. (Jl'. k'klckpka. 

liiVklakshti , noin. pr. of a water-course west of the Klamath agency 
l)uikliiigs. (Jf Lakek'iksi. 

laklakli, hlakhkUdi, d. kdakkikli, hkdikUchlakU; said of iiiaii. tlihigs. 
(1) smooth, smoothened ; slick, ''slicking nice", polished. (^2,) slippery. (3) 
even, level. (4) thin, tiny; the opposite of "bulky". 

la'klaksh, d. lala'klaksh hag, satchel, pouch. C£ laklakli (4). 

Lakmii'skni, L. maklaks, nom. pr.: Klakatnas Indian. The Klakaiuas 
tribe of the U})per Chinook family of aborigines lives at the Grande 
Ronde reservation and near Oregon City, Oregon. 

lakpeks, d. Idlakpeks ashes, 14, 7. Cf lukshlaksh. 

laktash, d. Ic41aktash, Idlktash (1) haliotis or mother-of-pearl shell of the 
Pacific Ocean. One species of Haliotis, the Haliotis tuherculata, Span. 
avlone, is 8-12" wide, 3 to 3^, lbs. in weight, and is gathered in large 
quantities near Cape Mendocino, Cal., and at other places on that coast 
by whites, Chinese and Indians, the mollusk serving as food., the shell 
for ornament. See "Bastian u. Hartmann, Zeitschr. f Ethnologie, 1877 
(ix. vol.) p. 74". Cf. ktchak. (2) when wrought out into ornaments: 
mother-of-pearl ornament: 1. snawakitko ivearing a necklace of this shell. 

laktcha, d. lalaktcha; also, laka'dsha, d lalka'dsha: (l) to cut, sever ; to 
clip, crop: nu'sh 1. to cut the head off, to behead; tzalampani 1. to cut through 
in the middle; lakAdshatko watch bobtail horse. (2) to cut the throat of per- 
sons, animals: nde-nl%apkash 1. after he fell they cut Ms throat, 42, 10.; 
Mu'sham rul'sh lalk/idsha he cut off the Southwind's head, HI, 10. 

1 a k ;i k a s h , d. lalkiikash bell Cf wawA-ush. 

laki, laki, d. kiki to be gone, lost: ntc^-ish m'na 1. his bow is gone, meaning 
that it was stolen from him; sku'tash sha pallapka hfi'nksh; lakf hunk 
they robbed him of that blanket; it is gone. Der. le, hd, gi. Cf ka'gi (1) (2). 

laki, d. and pi., lalaki, lakiki, lala;^i (1) chief of an Indian tribe. Tutas- 
Ze'nini 1., muni 1., abbr. mu 1. head-chief high chief; cf. 58, 1.; kitchk;ini 
k, abbi-. kitcha, ketcha 1. suhchief subaltern chief; laldki, or nanuk lalaki, 
the head-chief and the subchicfs, 64, 8. 10. (and Title), Go, 14.; k, in the 
absolute form, is also used for suhchief on pp. f)!)-G2.; sessalolisii 1. leader 

lak'laka — lakiaga. 179 

of war-expeditions, also called 1. kilil's, 28, 8.; tidsi 1., tidsli hiislikaukatk 1. 
'■^peace-chief^ ; W41amskni 1. the chief of the Rogue River Indians, lb', 7.; 
Tchaktot SAtam 1. Tchdktot is chief of the Snake Indians, 58, 8.; Sa't 1. 
the Snake chief 28, 7-10.; Mo'dokni 1. the Modoc chief 38, 14. 39, 5., cf. 
21, 6. 37, 17.; Idkiam wdasli son of a chief the chiefs son, 182; 6.; Mkiam 
pc'-ip the chief's daughter, 190; 11.; lakiamksi to or ait the chiefs house, 
GO, 7.; lakiam shashamoks the family, relatives of the chief. The attri- 
bute rich, wealthy is connected with the idea of an Indian chief through- 
out Oregon and also among many tribes of other territories; cf. 182; 6. 7. 
(2) male person wielding poiver, authority, or influence: army officer ; com- 
mander, leader; lord, ruler; master, employer; officer, manager, director; 
judge; agent of an Indian reservation. Mu 1. tu tchia (for tchiank) Boshtiu 
kaila the President of the United Stales; lit. "the head-chief living far off 
in the American land"; cf 38, 3.; B6shtin 1 the American commander, 14, 
3. 6. lieutenant, 37, 4. 5. army officer, 43, 4. 65, 14.; skuyu'i natch hu'k 
lalaki the two officers in command dispatched us (there), 29, 12.; agent of an 
Indian reservation, 36, 1. 2. 11 ; Idkiam pipa pass-ticket, written permit to 
leave the Indian reservation temporarily, issued to Indians by the agents 
of the reserves; hu lahiki h(imkank the judges or jury passed sentence, 44, 
6. L. also stands for God and for K'mukamtch: p'laikish 1. the heavenly 
lord, 134, 19.; nuVni 1. the great ruler, 40, 9. 192; 8.; and, with unknown 
reference, shappashti nu 1. gi / am the lord of the sun., 163: 15. (3) when 
used attributively, chief means more powerful or more influential than any 
other: shnisham 1 k6-ii of all incantations that of the toad is the most power- 
ful, 180; 17.; shakalshtat 1. tmdlhak the tmelliak-squirrel is the most powerful 
(charm) in any game, 134, 6. (A) husband: 183; 19. 20. 21. 186; 55. Cf. 
hi'shuaksh, lakiala. (5) subst. and adj., masculine, male animal: 1. tchaskai 
male weasel; 1. kii-il ram, buck, wether; w5'n 1 (for wo'n lakiash in 190; 
16.) elk-buck. C£ 14kiaga 
lakiaga, lakiak, d. lalakiak, subst. and adj., little male, young male; said of 
animals only: lakiag wan young male fox; used often in connection with 
names of animals showing the dim. form: hikiag wilaga young male deer; 
lalakiak pu'mam, miiyam tut both upper or male teeth of a beaver, wood- 
chuck; cf 80, 1-6. and Note. Dim. laki (5). 


1 ;i k i a 1 a , lakialu, d. lalakiala tu iiKori/; «aid of females only, 55, 1 8. I )v\: 

laki (4). Ci'. hisliuakshla, snawcdslila. 
La^it, iiom. pr. of a inountaiii near Modoc Point, t>u the east side of 

Upper Klamath Lake. 
1 a 1 a , lalela, lal'la, d. lala'la to slope doivnivards, to be deep, to form a decliv- 

ity: partic. lalatko, laletko slop'ui;) down, ahnqil ; laletko walisli precipice, 

steep rock or rocks. Cf. m'lai. 
lalago (d. lari%o), 1)1. ti'inii L, jiiiic (/iiiii ; a (dear substance flowing intni 

pine-trees and hardening in a slK)rt time. (_'f. lala, walakish. 
lala-ish, pi. tnmi 1, pre<jiiant, with noauij, lircedlwj; said of animals only: 

miishmush 1. preynant cow. Der. Ida-a. 
liUak, d. lalalak brant, or Canada yoose; grayish-brown, paler below, 

head, neck and tail black: Anser canadensis. Onomatop. 
lalamnatko, \)\. \(m\\ \., hampback. Der. lala. Cf kilka, tis^antko. 
lalasli, d. lalalash flank, side of animal: lalalashtala tlnoiujh the flaxks, 

156; '62. and Note; side of human body above hip; rib-portion. Der. lala. 
lalaushal tko , pi. tumi 1., composed or built up of slaty, schistous forma- 
tions, lava rocks: ijipelantan ku'mme 1. on two opposite sides of the lava-rock 

cave, 42, 19. Der. laldwash. Cf. tcheltchhsh. 
lalA wash, lala-ush (1) slate-rock, schistous rock formation,. (2) any rock 

of hard texture, as lava etc. Der. Idwa. 
Lala was X e'n i , nom. pr. of a camping-place on Klamath Marsh; lit. 

"At the Slate-Rock". Der. lalawash. 
liildsish, d. lalaldsish, house-builder, constructor of buildinys. Der. latcha. 
laliga, d. lal'liga (1) to stick, remain upon; said of stains, patches etc. of 

rounded shape, 'J 7, 1. .(2) to be by or on, to stand near by. (3) to be near, 

to stand by the water: latchash a 1. koketat the lodye stands by the river 
lali'sh, hxlish, d. lalalish mountain or hill slope, declivity, valley side; steep 

shore, 21, 15. Der. lala. 
L4t'laks, ''Slopiny Steps^'; name of a steep little eminence bordering on 

Klamath Marsh with about twenty-five steps for its ascent, 74, 15. Abbr. 

from Lal'lakish. Der. lala. 
la m , lum spirituous liquor; whisky, brandy, rum: laniam or 1. bunuotkish, 1. 

wakoksh whisky- oi- rum-bottle. From Chin. .1. lum, this from Engl. rum. 

1.4ktala — hipi. 181 

1 i\ m a , d. liilama {\) to he dizzy, (jiddy, bewildered. Cf. la'mlerasli (2) to be 
drunk, ti2rsy ; to be in a state of inebriation. (3) to curse, to call opprobrious 
names: tina 1. to curse once; to call by one saucy name. Cf. shlAmia. 

1 a m a d s h a , d. lalm^idsha to go ahead ov to be ahead of others. Cf. Y4sh= 
Lama'dsh, yumtidslia, tamddsha. 

lamkosh (1) a species of willow, sometimes used in constructing' bridges 
1^2) Liimkosh, nom. pr. of a brook in Sprague River Valley, aboixt two 
yards wide and named after the Avillows growing on it. The whites, by 
a misunderstanding of the name, call it Whisky Creek; cf. Idmam wa- 
koksh, under lAm. 

la'mlemsh dizziness, giddiness; state of bewilderment, Kl. Der Idma. 

1 a m = p u n u' t k i s h t i , abbr lam=punu'tchti, d lalam=punu'tkishti (1) glass- 
stibstance. (2) drinking-glass, tumbler. Der lam, bunuotkish. 

Lank = Tchan, nom. pr. of Long John, a Klamath Lake subchief, 58, 2. 
3. He figures in one of ihe Pit River raids: Lank=Tsjinash tchish sli'ksga 
they also came near shooting Long John, 21, l(j. 

1 A p a k 1 a s h , d. hilpaklash shoulder. Der. Idpok. Cf tchnipal. 

L Apa = Ki u = Gi'tko , nom. pr. masc: ^' Having- Ttvo-Runips" ; alludes 
either to gluttony or to some bodily deformity, ."^0, ly. Cf Push=Kin. 

14pash, d. lalpash at two places, in two spots, localities, 75, 13. Der. L4pi. 

1 a p a' y a 1 s h , lape-alsh twins. Der. hlpeala. 

l^peala, d. hilpeala to give birth to twins, to have twins. Der lapi. 

lapeni, Mp'ni, d. lalapeni, lalap'ni (1) adv., twice; P'lu 1. sh^wana Blow 
gave twice, 66, 9., cf. 16, 1. 55, 16. 59, 16. 144, 7. Used as a multipHca- 
tive in forming compound numerals: 1. ta-unepAnta lap pd-ula illolatko 
twenty-two years old, 55, 8. 19.; 1. wait61an tivo days after, 43, 17. 44, 1. 
Mod. Cf. 37, 3. 13. 43, 7. 20. (2) adv., in two days, for two days, dur- 
ing the lapse of two days; supply wai'ta, q. v.; 14p'ni gatpampele E-uksi 
in two days (we) returned to Klamath Marsh, 24, 12.; lap'ni wai'ta, Tues- 
day, stands for 1. tinshna Sunde=gmlank waita. Der. lapi. 

lapi, la'pi, abbr. lAp, la'p; d. lalapi, lalapi, abbr. lalap, numeral adj., two. 
At 1. hyaki sh^tashi then the two chiefs shook hands, 35, 2. : 1. stands instead 
of lapeni, 37, 13.; la'pi sha-ungaltk the two related as father and son, 94, 
2., cf. 107, 1.; la'pi gi'ug ^or being double, 60, 18.; hip miles two miles; 


kilt l;il;'ij);v wil'wuns gitk tliose wlu) have two wives, 61, 12.; cf. 60, 17. 18.; 

hipa wewdash gitko had two young ones or cm/as, 118, 1. 2.; refers to the 

fact, that in mythic stories a family of quadrupeds counts two young 

only, cf 177; 2. (Note) 14. 184; 31. and Note to 118, 1. 7.; h'llaiji, Mlap 

two to each, serves for counting objects by pairs or couples; Lilap shdpash 

shipi'it^ukank each couple of moons were covering each other, one of each 

becoming eclipsed, 10.5, 1.; hipantka yuta they fired at him twice, 42, 14. 

and Note. Cf also 21, 5. 43, 4. 7 44, 7. 61, 9. 79, 2. 101, 7. Ill, 18. 

and lab6 for lapa 107, 4. 
1 a p k s h 4 p t a n i , abbr. lapksluipta, d. l;il;ipksh;iptani, numeral adj., seven, 

37, 14. Der. lapi, -ksh;'ipta. 
1 a p k s h a p t a n k n i , d. lalapkshaptAnkni, adv., seven times ; 1. shlin he ivas 

shot seven times, 42, 14.; 1. ta-unep seventy, 36, h. 
1 A J) k 1 e k s h , k'p=%leks, d. lalapkleksh, ldlap=%leks mother tvho lost two or 

more children hy death. Cf lepkldka, tchAlde/a. 
lap ok, la'pnk; obj. lapukayil'nash, 61, 19., Mod. lapuk^nash both; shash 1. 

ii'mpele both of them he brought (home), 96, 7.; 1. pe'tch both feet; 1. 

watcl) both horses; 1. sumsefilgmamks both man and wife, 59, 8.; tsui ni'sh 

hu'k h'lpukantka shlatampk then both dretv their bows at me, 23, 17.; Uipuk 

i^h\6aboth lynxes, 126, 1. Cf 60, 6 108, 3. 110, 17. Der. lapi, ak. 
1 a p t a k , pi tiimi 1., bulrush mat, tule mat. Mod ; Kl. prefer shki-ish. 
lapukni, d. lahlpukni, adv., at both spots, locations, places: kanf nush 

Idpukni g6n411a? tvho has readied or touched you at both spots (of your 

body)? 184; 36. Der. h'lpok 
lash, hlas, d. lalash, hlalas (1) wing of bird. (2) wing-feather ; feather, cf 

awalgsh, hldka, pulxa; cf Note to 183; 21. (Z) flier of arrow. Der. hla'. 
1 a s h a 1 1 k o , d. lalashaltko ivinged, feathered, provided with feathers; lasaltk 

nanuktua all the feathered tribe, 14.5, 3. Der. la'sh. 
lash;(ish, d lalasxish, or w/itcham lashkish horse-shoe; also 1. kii'dsh- 

inkshtat: lit. "shoe on hoof" 
latadsha, d. laltiidsha to iron, as shirts, clothing 
1 a t a d s h 1 ' ;^ a , d lalt4dshrza {\) to press down by iveight ; to place weights 

upon (2) to smooth, iron with the flat-iron. 
latadsh 6 tki sli , d. Ialtadsh6tkish, Mod. for latashtinotkisli Kl, q. v. 

1 a p k s h A p t a n i — 1 a w a 1 a s h . 183 

latashtinotkisli, lutastimi' d»hjlat-ir on for ironing. Cf. latadslia, 

1 a t k a . d. lAltka to be sorrowful, sad. 

14tktchish, d. Mlatktcbish case, sheath, cotter : shiilhash=L pillow-case. 

1 At cha, d. Mltcha to build a lodge, house resting on bent willow sticks, or 
on rails, frames or posts. Quot. under kshiulakgish. 

14tchaksli, d. lAltchaksli (1) fence, enclosure, paling. (2) paling around 
grave. Klamath Lake and Modoc Indians erect palings on their ceme- 
teries almost in the American fashion, paint them white, and make them 
high enough to secure the one or two graves inclosed against the inroads 
of wild beasts Der. latcha. 

1 a t c h a k s h 1 a , d. laltchtikshla (l) to erect a fence, enclosure. {'!) to set up 
palings around a grave. 

latchash, d. la'ltchash (I) Indian lodge constructed of sundry material; 
mostly resting on posts or rails, over which mats, boards and slabs are 
laid, 83, 3. 84, 1.: kiiila 1 earth lodge, dirt-house, winter-house, more fre- 
quently called luldamalaksh. Cf stdpsh. (2) the generic Kl. term for 
house, dwelling, huilding ; Mod. shtina'sh. Cf killitko. (3) Ldtchasli, 
nom. pr masc. Kl. ; pointing to the owner of a spacious lodge, 77, 4. 

1 a - u 1 d w a , d. lalulawa to rattle, to make a clattering noise, as bones striking 
against each other, 157; 44. 

1 a - II 1 X a , d. lalu'l%a, lal61%a to drive a team uphill. Cf. niul^a. 

law a, d. lAlua, v. intr, to project, to advance into; said of capes, promonto- 
ries, terraces or of foot-hills advancing into a plain. Cf Spu'klish=Lawish. 

lawdla, h'lwal, d. lalawala, Idlual (I) to place on the top of; to lay upon, 
place upon, as a ball on a table. (2) to be on the top, to spread or extend over 
the upper part of 149, 1.: shlapsh tsunikalam lawalatko 2" the flower of 
the tsuniJca-plant is two inches wide (viz. "extends 2" over the plant"), 
149, 17.; lawdlatko. Mod. pin. (3) to shake the head while putting on airs. 
Mod. Cf hinawala. 

1 a w a 1 a s h , lawalsh, d. lalawalash, Idlualsh, any round or rounded body 
fastened on the top of something: (1) pin-head, Mod. (2) nipph of breast; 
cf (idshash. (3) lawalsh, or nkdsham Idwalsh, the upper stomach of a 
ruminant; in this signification always pronounced lawalsli. (4) bladder: 
shui'tchash lawalsh, abljr. shuitchash=l;iwish (a) urine bladder; (h) fish- 


bladder, swimming bladder; (c) any kind of bladder fastened to another or- 
gan. (5) the junction of a round organ to the body: nfsham lAwalsli 
junction of nech to head in quadrupeds, Kl. 

la = a- tlmbo tki sh, an amphibian described as of thumb size and not 
unlike a frog in statu nascenti; newt; Ht. "unwilHng to drink"; 180; 17. 
and Note. Der. le, Ambutka. 

la'kshktsa; see le'ktchktsa. 

I'bd, a palatable grain or seed gathered for food in autumn, 147, 14. 

Ibdna to dig ; to dig in the ground, to dig a hole; refers to excavations of a 
rounded shape: 1. shtii'nshnuk 4mbu shnu'ntaltchanuapkug to dig a ditch 
for the water to run through. Cf. ibdna, ydpa. 

1 b II k a , d. Ibuibka, (1) v. intr., to be, to exist, to rest on the ground; to stand 
(buildings etc.), to lie on the ground; said of inan. things: shlak6tkish a 1. 
kailant tJie ax lies on the ground. (2) subst., , plant, fruit, bulbous root, or 
bunch of grass of a round or rounded exterior and growing on the sur- 
face of the soil; vegetable bulb, knoll, tuber, cf. 149, 18. and mvi=lbuka. 

1 d i gl % a , Idi'gglxa, d. ldild<'igl;fa to kneel, to kneel down. 

1 d i' g t a t k a , d. Idilddgtatka to stand on tiptoe. Cf. Idfgl^a, tg^l^a. 

Idukala, Ida'ggala, d. Idu'ldukala to pick up from the ground, to lift up 
one round object. Cf. itkal, lgu'm=ldaklish, ndiikal. 

1 d n k 11 a , d. Idil'ldakua to hug and caress. 

- 1 , -lii, adverbial suffixed particle identical vvitli la, q. v. 

1 e , le, lii, negative particle not, used in a putative sense only like the Latin 
haud, and often connected with the potential ak, ka, aka; le gcnug for 
not being allowed to leave, 144, 4.; 1^ nu ak g^na probably I shall not go, I 
do not expect to go ; le nu ak pan I dorit know how to eat, I cannot eat. Forms 
several compounds: la=a-ambotkish, l;iki, lch6witko, l^ki, 1^ wak, q. v. 

l(^dsha, ledshii, d. h'ldsha to knit: n^tu an k'dshish / have the practice of 
knitting: ledshni'ita an T am used to knitting. Cf. latcha. 

l6-dka, le-ekanka, l6-(ilkish; see Idka, Idkanka, Idlkish. 

1 6 g a k i s h , whip-rod inserted into the whip-stick; see vut6kutksh. 

1 d h i a s h , Idyash, pi. tiimi 1., the radisli-shapod tuber of the lehiasham-plant 
growing in the country formerly held by the Modoc tribe, 147, lS-21; 
it is called ^^Kouse" by the Nez-Perct' Indians. Cf. tjiwiks. 

1 a = a - 4 m b o t k i s h — 1 e 1 a' m a . 185 

1 ^ li i a s li a m , %asham, k'-isham, the plant producing tlie radish-shaped 
lehiash: Peucedanum ambigmm.. Tchelash le-isham takttikli shljipsh gi'tk 
the stalk of Peucedanum has red flowers, 147, 19. 20. Cf. Rep. of Commiss. 
of Agriculture, 1870, p. 407 
le = h(5witko, d. lela=h6witko, lele=h(Switko running sloiv, shiv-going: Ht. 
"not racing, not Hking to run"; said of horses, 189; 8. Cf. le, huwal;^a. 
l^yash, pi tiimil.; see lehiash 

Idka, r^ka. Mod. le-(^ka, d. Ic^lka, Ic^leka, Mod. l6-(^lga, le-c^lka. (1) to he 
mad, crazed, out of one's mind: wdsh leka gi'tk, wash k'ggat;^ a crazed 
prairie-wolf 184; 32. 33. 34. (2) to he drunk, inebriated: ka-;i 1. he is 
dead drunk; lekatko drunk, one who is drunk. Cf. hk'ka. 

l(^kanka, I'tikanka, d. lelakanka, le-el:ikanka to carouse, to drink to excess, 
to go on a spree; to partake in carousals, libations. D. form more in use 
than absol. form. Der. le'ka 

1 e k 4 n k i s h , I'ekankish, d. lelakAnkish carousal, excess in drinking 

Uki! legi! le gi' ! pi. k'kat! excl. quit! stop! cease! hold on! don't! Der. 
le, gi (5). Cf ka-i gi! (under gi (5 i), kii'gl (2). 

Idkish, l'(^kish, l¥ksh, d Idlaksh, le-elekish, le-dlkish (1) adj., crazg, mad- 
dened, resembling a drunken person: said of the gait of a fox-species, 155; 
22. (2) subst., habitual drunkard. 

Uklekpka to whisper, to speak or converse with suppressed voice: leklek- 
pkank waltka ta'dsh to chat or have a talk at low voice. Cf Mklakpka. 

1 e k 1 e k t c h ;i m p k a to ivhisper ; to speak at a low tone of voice to people 
who are at a distance, 113, fi. 

lektcha, lii'ktcha, d. Iel4ktcha to grind; to hone, whet, as knives, scissors. 

1 (i k t c h i ^ h 6 w i t k o slow-running, slow-going, as a hoi-se. C£ le-h6witko. 

Iektch6tkish, d. Ielaktch6tkisli (1) round, disk-shaped grindstone; 
turning grindstone. (2) sandstone rock; this being the rock from which 
the above are made. (3) hone, whetstone. Der. lektcha. 

1 e'k t c h k t s a , d. k'laktchktsa, lolakshktcha to graze the skin; said of mis- 
siles, 30, 5. Der. Idktcha. 

1 d 1 a m i a k s h , pi. tiimi 1., kidneys. 

lei a' ma, d. lel'la'ma, v. intr. (1) to become rotten, putrid, mouldy; to rot; 
to he or become friable (2) to wear out, to he used up, worn out, us clothino-. 


leledslii, (1. lel'lt'dslii young of mammah, hrood; cub, jnippj/ etc. : nu'isli- 
musham 1. calf one year old and upward; slii'pani 1. lamb, lambkin. Der. 
hla-a. Cf. lala-isli, Iflhanksh. 

1 el ed sli i ;i <i-a, lel(idsliiak, d. lel'ledshi/iga young cub, pwppy, whelp; 
animal in its earliest stage of" life Dim. leU'dshi. 

L e 1 (J k a s li , abbr. Lele'ks, Ldleksli, nom. pr. of a deceased liead-cliief of the 
Klamatli Lake tribe, a signer of tlie treaty of 1864. He Iiad ten wives, 
of whom a few were still living in 1877, while others had been repndi- 
ated by himself Tn May 18G0 he was removed from his position as 
chief for imbecility and Allen David cho.sen in his stead; Ind. Aft'. Report, 
1869, p. 176; cf 1867, p. 92. He died a short time after the Modoc war 
in the wooden house built for him by the government at Ya-aga, and 
since then no person of the tribe dared to live in it. Having been the 
owner of a spotted horse, his name is interpreted by: lelekash, spotted ; 
another name of his was Tchm(')%altko, q. v. 

1 e 1 1 w a to be at the end or in a corner of; to form an edge or corner; to stand 
or lie at the end of a roiv or series, 174; 7. Cf lawa, taniiklsha. 

1 d 1 k t c h a , d. leldlktcha to leave, leave behind, relinquish, throw away and 
leave; said of rocks, stones, watches, wheels, balls, filled sacks etc.: 
tchi'ktchik 1. to let a wagon stand, 78, 14 ; kttii 1. to leave stones behind, 85, 
14. Der. dlktcha 

1 (i 1 k a , lt'l;^a, d. lelal/a to lay, to put or p)laee down; to deposit on the ground; 
said of round and bulky things oidy. Der. cl;^a. 

1 e'l tki , d. lele'ltki to peep out, to look at, 126, 8.; to look who comes in 

leluish, pi. tumi 1., a species of black />m^ moving rapidl}' in the water; 
dangerous when swallowed. 

leluidshish time or epoch of death; hishnakga, snavved.shga giul^a 
k'luidshishti son, daughter born after the father's death. Cf =lillsh. 

L 6 m a i k s h i , phonetic metathesis for Melaikshi, q. v. 

Igmatch, leraatch, pi. tumi 1., mealing-stone ; large flat stone about one 
foot square, used by Indian women for griiuling (roasted) seeds, wheat, 
corn, small fruits etc., 80, 1.; the Aztec metlatl; lematchatka sliilaklgfshtka 
57l-ulal(')nank tchipash they rub fine the tchipash-secd upon the mrtatc by means 
of the rnhbing-stone, 1 19, 8. \)ov. lam- in Idma, lemh'ma. 

lel^dshi — le'p. 187 

l6m(^-ish, l'm(i-ish, d. lemt^lemish (1) Sunder, peal of thunder, 169; 63. 
(2) thunderbolt, stroke of lightning. (3) L6m(i-ish, the mythic genii of the 
Thunder, five in number, and their parents, the "Old Thunders". The 
large earth-lodge in which the five lived is represented as a black, dusky 
cave; Ske'l set this lodge on fire and killed all the Thunders. Similar 
myths are found in other portions of the Columbia River Basin. Cf 1 11, 
12-114, 12. and lemldma (1), luepalsh. 
L 6 m e - i s h a m = N u t e'k s ''Place where the thunderbolt went doivn"' ; nom. 

pr. of a locality on Klamath Marsh, 74, 15. From lemt^-ish, niiteks. 
Igmtiua, d. lem(ihna, Igmdlema it thunders; ka-d Fmena it thunders loud. 
1 e m e' s h a m , d. lemcilmesham, species of mushroom growing above the 

ground; not eatable. Mod.; unknown to Kl. Der. lem(^-ish. 
l6me walieksh, d. Imelm^walieksh obstruction in a river formed by 

drifted logs; drift-wood piled up, 21, 19. Der. lemewilp^a. 
lemewil^a, d. lemelemew%a, v. intr., to drift away; to be moved off by 

circular motion: 1. kflilks the dust is ivhirling about. 
1 e m 1 l' m a , d. lelamlcma {!) to ivhirl about, to reel, to be shaken up, 174; 9. 
(2) to be in state of dizziness, giddiness; to stagger when tmlJcing: partic. 
la'mlematko staggering. Der. lama. Cf la'mlemsh. 
lemuna, d lemu'lm'na (1) to be at the bottom, to be underground. (2) to 
swim below the surface, near the bottom, of the water. (3) subst., bottom, 
ground, earth. (4) subst , underground, dark region; the earth's interior. 
1 (5 m u n a k n i , d. lemulm'nakni coming from underground; belonging to the 

dark regions below. Cf. munattilkni. 
1 d n a , d. l^la (1) v. trans., to carry something round, rounded or bulky. (2) 
V. intr., to move on, to travel; said of round bodies; to ride in ivagon, sled 
etc.: ktsu'l 1. a meteor or shooting star travels on. (3) v intr., to move in 
an orbit, circular line, to make a circular or half circular motion: t^opowdtka 
tell lenank shHn they express their guesses by m.aMng a side move with their 
hand, 79, 4.; cf. 80, 1 1. Der. e'na. Cf kl4tcha, kl4tchna, le'ntko. 
le'ntko moved away, removed; lying on or in the ground; said of round or 
bulky objects: wi-uka le'ntk k'yash the ley ash-tubers are lying not very 
deep in the ground, 147, 19. Partic. of Idna. Cf wika. 
le'p, lii'p, hlii'p, d. k'lep, hlel.'ip bran; ray-grass. Cf VhL 


I('|)ka in hiuui, fetch, haul : said of mvoiiihI oi' l)ulkv oljjoct. Der. t'pka. 
Iepkl(^ka, d. lelapklr^a /''' ^osc children by death; said of mothers, who 

have lost two or more cliiUh-eii. Partic. lepk'k'katko bereaved of tno or 

more cliUdren. Uer. la])i, k'lrka (3). Of. lapkleksh. 
1 e p 1 e p u t ii'n a to play "smoke in" or '■'■smoke out'\ a game described in the 

myth of the Bear and the Antelope, and played by their offspring; 

lit. "to smother each other repeatedly by smoke", 120, 7. and Note. 

Der. liipi (in the archaic form lep), puta. 
1 e J) 1 e 1) u 1 6 a to cry leplepute or leple]3utd-a, this cry forming a jiart of tlie 

game described 120, 9-17. Of leplepiita'na and Notes. 
1 e ]) n i 11 s h frying-pan; instr. lepuinatka, 147, 21. Kl. for lipash Mod. 
leshma, Ic'sma, d. l^lashma no^ to see, Jind or discover; not to perceive or 

discover at the spot where sought for, 121, 10.: tchui ni'sh les'ma ge'tal 

ta'ds but hr did not discoi-er me in that direction, 30, 15. Der. le, sld^a, -ma. 
1 <^ s h u a t % a s h fun, sport, comics, antics: lesliuat/sh hemkanka to talk fun- 
nily, comically; 1. kdla to act comically, to behave in a yrotesque manner. 

Met for li'washt^ash. Der. k'wa (2). Of. ka-ikash, kii'la, shesh^ela. 
1 (i t a 1 a n i , d k'lgtalani (I) mischievous, vicious, reckless. (2) stupid, foolish. 

Der. le, t;ila (in talaak). Lit. "not straight". 
1 e - 11 1 a , d. lele-ula to play a game, 159; 58. Der. Ic'wa (2). 
] e - u 1 u a t k a , d. of Igvuatka, q. v. 
1 (■ - 11 11 a, , lii'-nna, d. lek'-nna to go and play, to play a game, to amuse oneself 

at: Had lii'-iiiia hii'iiiaslit! let us play this game! 120, 8. Der. k'wa (2). 
1 (3 - 11 s h a rn , d. lek'-ushain flower of every size and description; cluster of 
flowers on the stem, inflorescence: tchekenish lek'-nsam gi'tk tchclash tlie 

stalk has little flowers (on it), 148, 12. Cf lawa, leliwa. 
1 e - 11 1 c h a , lii'-udsha, d. lele-utcha to go to play ; to go out playing, 1 07, 1 fi. 

109, 15. Der. k'wa (2). Cf shakma. 
1 e-n t <• li 11 a , d. leh'-utchiia to play wliile going, to p)loiy on one's ivay. Cf 

sliakla, shakma, shm'dshna. 
1 e - u t c h 6 1 a , d. lele-utcliola to have gone to play in the distance, to be absent 

for playing, 141, 9. Der. U'-ntcha. 
1 e V u a t k a , luatka. d. levi'iliiatka, contr. le-i'duatka, luluatka to stand, when 

speaking of two or a few subjects only; the absolute form is unfrequent: 

l^pka — lew itch ta. 189 

nad rul'uatka tikeshtat we stand oh day ground. Speakiug of oue subject, 
tgutga; of many, lukantatka. 

l6vuluatka, d. of Igvuatka, q. v. 

1 6 V u 1 li t a , d. of leviita, q. v. Cf. also tguta. 

levuta, I'uta, lata, d. levuluta, (for levulgviita) I'uluta, liilta (1) to hung 
on, to stick to, to adhere to at the time being: yana liita sh4ppesh the sun is 
setting, lit. "hangs down"; wakinsh p4nut luMmpkasli ishka theg remove 
the round pieces of red paint sticking on the panam-tree, 150, 6. (2) to be tied 
to, to hang on, to stand before temporarily: liut link levuluta watch tchik- 
tchigat these horses are harnessed to the tvagon; lit. "these horses stand at 
the wagon for a time". Speaking of one subject, tgiita. (3) v. trans., 
to hang over, to dress in at the time being: shul6tish sha le'vuta they dressed 
him in garments, 95, 17. 

1 6 V u t i 1 a , (1. levulutila ; see tgutila. 

1 e w a , d. lelt'wa (1) to play a ball-game. (2) to play any game, to have social 
sport: gi'n at a nat katni 1. here tve are playing outdoors, 121, 10.; tataksni 
lewapka (for le'wuapka) the children will play, 141, 12. and Note; le- 
watkuk (for l(^watko huk) after they had done playing, after play, 109, 15. 
and Note. (3) to disport or amuse oneself; to romp. Cf luai^a, shAkla. 

1 e w a , la'wa, d. Itilua ; same as liwa, q. v. 

1 ^ w a k , lii' wak, Idwak to be undecided, to be at a loss, to be in a quandary 
or uncertainty about; the pers. pron. being inserted before or after le: ndt 
14 wak ka a; la' a nat wak ka-;'i we did not know at all ivhat to do, 21, .8. 
22, 2.; nat Idwak nii'-uleka tve tvere undecided how to arrange matters, 22, 
12.; la'nwak na'ul6;ja I do not knotv how to have (her) tried, 65, 1. 2. Lit. 
"not how"; supply shdyuakta to know. 

lewash, d. lelewash (I) playing ball, toy-ball. Cf. shakue'ash. (2) ball, 
globe, globiform body: lu'lpam 1. eyeball. Der. l^wa No. 1 (1). 

lewe-ula, le=wc-ula, d. lelue-ula (1) to forbid, to caution against; to dis- 
allow, prohibit, interdict. Cf hishnkita. (2) to give warning, to forewarn: 
nl'sh sa lawil'-ula hii'kuapksht palkui'sham they warned me not to run 
across the dry (river) bottom, 22, 5.; cf. 30, 3. and Note. Der. le, we-ula. 

lewitchta, le=witchta, d. leluitchta to refuse; to object, resist, 24, 16. 75, 
10.: ka-i nu 1. / am willing; nuiklaks 1. kc-ish the tribe refused to go (there). 


84, 'J.; 1. g-e'isli lie declined to go, '6(i, 14.; gc-u 1. tpcwiisli he objected to my 
speaking, he would not listen to my words, 34, 8.; 1. hunk iiiiiiukg(^pgap6lish 
they were all loitering on the return trip. Der. le, witclita. 

1 g u' hlach mixture of burnt plum seeds and bulrushes used as a paint. It 
is put in little round spots on tlie cheeks. Cf. Igum, sh;itua%a. 

1 g u y a , lg6ya, d. Igu'lgia, Igolgia (1) to collect, gather, pick (berries, fruits). 
(2) to husk; to shell, to ^^ shuck." Cf. ktchelola. 

Igum, I'gu'm, leku'm, d. Igulgam, Ikulkam (1) coals, the residuum of 
burnt wood, 71, 8. 121, 15. (2) black paint made from coals and used for 
lining the face and tattooing; different from Igu', q. v. 

Igu'm = ld4klish, lgum=ldu'klish, d. lgum=ldaldaklis]i crepuscularian or 
nocturnal moth, called ^^coal-lifter." Kl. for Igu'ui hdiegish Mod., q. v. Der. 
Igum, Idukala. 

1 g li' m = 1 o 1 i ^ g i s h , d. lgulgam=loliegish nocturnal butterfly; crepuscularian 
or nocturnal moth; Mod. The name is due to a legend, according to 
which these insects are carrying away coals at night. Der. Igum, luytiga 
(or liwaydga). Cf. Igu'm4daklish. 

lfds%a, litch^a, d. lilads%a to lay or place on the top of, to superpose to. 
Der. Ids^a. Cf liitatka. 

If kla, d. Hldkla, said of one round, rounded or bulky object only: (1) to 
lay down, to lay, put or place upon, to deposit: w4tchag shlu'ki na'sh h'klash 
pala-ash the dog ate up the whole loaf of bread. (2) likla, or partic. Hklatko: 
I lay down, he lays down; laid down; viz. "counted"; classifying terms 
placed after the compound numerals 11, 21, 31, 161 etc.; pd-ula being 
used for the remainder of the units. Der. Ikla. Cf. ila, pe-ula. 

Li'kosh, nom. pr. of a Modoc man; other form of Hldkosh, q. v. 

likuiil^a, d. Iilaku41;{a (1) to spark forth, to emit sparks. (2) subst , 
spark of fire. 

Ill a, hlila, d lil'Ia, hli'hla (1) to be sorry, to complain about: 1. an luVn / 
am sorry about that; 1. an hu'nksh ma'shisht, k'leksht I am sorry that he 
is sick, dead. (2) to mourn, to be a mourner: Wil'-aks ka-i hli'la Aisisas 
Mallard did not mourn over AishisKs death, 101, 5. Cf. luatpishla. 

lilhanksh. Mod. lidlanksh; d. lilalhanks, Mod. lildlanksh (1) young of 
wild animals. Mod. {2) young deer ; little deer, Mod. (3) quadruped; hunter^s 

Igu — lilchlitcli. 191 

(jame, beast hunted: holijinkankatk 1., iiauuktua 1. the nmnin(j animah; all 
kinds of quadru])eds, 145, 1.2.; tcliule'ksh li'lliankshti deer-meat, venison, 
113, 7.; li'lliankshti (without tchule'ks) i'tpa he brought venison, II 2, 15. 
and Note. Der. hla-a. Cf. lala-ish, leledshi. 

Li' 1 , Lilu, nom. pr. of a Klamath Lake chief, signer of the treaty of 1864, 
58, 3. Some interpret it by "wolf-dog"; others by "gray wolf". 

Ill p ash, d. lihllpash, round oven; bake-oven, as used for making bread. 
Cf. lepuinsh, lipash. 

limi'l (1) mule. (2) Liml'l, nom. pr. fem., interpreted by "Mule-Ear". 
P^rom Chin. J., this from French la mule. 

1 i m i' 1 = m a n packer of army baggage, 29, 21: lit. ' ' mule-man ". From limi'l, 
and Engl. man. Cf yauksman. 

1 i m 1 i' m 1 i , d. lilamlimli dark-colored ; of persons: dark-complexioned. 

limlima, d.. \\\M\\\im-A to drizzle ; kto'dshash 1 a drizzling rain falls. 

Link River Jack, nom. pr. of a Klamath Lake subchief, 58, 2. 

1 i p a i , d. lilapai ribbon The Mod. form is lipin. From the English. 

1 1 }) ash, (1. lilapash, Mod. ; same as Kl. l(3puinsh, q. v. Cf. lilpash. 

1 i s h , lisli, end. particle usually occupying the place of the second word 
in a sentence. It is mostly found in interrogative sentences, and there 
it answers to our "ii is notV '■'■perhaps," "probably", and to the German 
"■etwa". In most instances it remains untranslatable; wak lish i gi.^ 
what is the matter tvith youf tamii' lish a mulo'la! are you ready or not? 
41, 18.; tat lish mi u'nak? ivhere is your sonf 141, 8.; tatAkshni, kAkiash 
lish 1 ka-iga those children whom probably you are seeking, 121, 13.; M-i 
lish kani nobody, I should say, 39, 8. ; ke lish tok gulf she has entered a 
house, 189; 7. Mod. uses it oftener than Kl. Der. le. 

litki, litke, lit^i, d. lilat^i (1) siibst., eve, evening. (2) adv., in the even- 
ing, late in the day, at nightfall, 20, 17. 141, 12. Cf liita (1), lut%i. 

Littlejohn, nom. pr. of a chief or headman of Lake Indians settled at 
YAneks, on the Sprague River, 58, 5. 

lit c h % a s h , d. lilatch;(ash, headstone, headboard; tchpinuat lilatch%asli each 
headstone on a graveyard. Der. lids%a. 

Iftchlitch, d. lilatchhtch, adv. of litchlitchli, q. v. (1) powerfully, 
strongly. (2) bravely, heroically: mil 1. sliish6ka sliellualshe'mi he fought 
very bravely during the war, 55, 10. 


1 i t (• li 1 1 1 (• li I i , d. lilatchlitchli (1) mighty, poiverful, stroiuf in a pliysical 
sense: ke liai mukloks 1. (Mod.) tins man (or Indian) is physically strong, 
of a powerful pjhysique. (2) strong in a moral sense; brave, valorous, 
heroic: litchh'tclilish steinash gitko a hero; lit. "possessed of a strong 
heart"; of. lo9, 14. (.'5) axxh^ii., poiver, force, might, 139, 13. Cf. Ivi'llitko. 

1 1 1 (' h t a k i a , d lilatchtakia to make strenuous exertions, to try hard, 70, 4. 
Der. litch, radix of litchlitcldi. 

link a y a , d liuliuka}'a, v. intr., to gather, assemble, crowd together in bushes, 
woods, cliffs; to stand, sit or lie, or to be ambushed in the timber, bushes, 
recesses: liuk;i}'ank a i-u'ta Ihey shoot (at yon) while ambushed in their 
recesses, 30, 3 ; sa shlaa yastat li'ukaipksh (for linkayapkash) and they 
discovered them crowded under the willows, 20, 6.; tsiii ni hu'tpa hi'liassuaksas 
liatokt liukd isi (for liukdyashi) then 7 ran to the plaee where (our) men 
had crowded together, 22, 4. Der. liwa (2). Cf. tgakdya (2). 

1 i u k a t k o , d. liuliukatko cur-lobe; Mod., unknown to Kl. Cf. tgakdya (1). 

1 i u k i a m n a , d. liuliukiaunia, v. intr., to gather, assemble around somebody 
or sometliing; to stand, sit or lie in a row, series, file, crowd, or ring: 
wewanuish winuta liukidmnank the tvomen accompany the wizard's song 
tvhile sitting around (in the lodge or outside of it), 71,5. Der. liwa. Cf 

1 i u % u ga , d. liuliuxnga, v. intr., to crowd or gather indoors along the walls; 
to stand, sit or lie around inside a house, lodge. Der. liwa (2). Cf tgi^uga. 

1 i u 1 i g a , d. liluliga to be, to remain, to stand on the beach or shore-line; said 
of many subjects. Der. liwa (2). Cf tgaliga. 

1 i u 1 i w a , d. liloliAva to tremble from terror, fright 

liul%a, d. lilo'l;^a to forma circle; to sit, sit down, lie in a row, ring or 
circle: liulekan while sitting in a circle, 'id 'i; 12. Der. liwa (2). Cf gakl'nia. 

linn a, d. li'luna (1) to stand, sit, lie or crowd inside, indoors, within. (2) 
to stand, sit, lie, be gathered on one side of. Der. liwa (2). 

Hun a, d. lihVna, lilii'-iina to produce a distant roar, crash or rushing noise, 
as a land-slide does. Cf liuliwa. 

liupka, d. lilupka to sit in a circle, ring ov file; to be collected or lumped 
together in one heaj) or body, 22, 1. D(^r. liwa (2). 

1 1 - II \) t (■ li a , h'-nptc]i;i, d. lili'iplcha, v. intr., to gather or collect behind ; to sit 

litchli tc-lili — livvAla. 193 

behind, to gather behind in a crowd: sen6tank ktayat ll'-uptsank they 
fought while hiding themselves behind rocks, 22, 6. Der. liwa (2). 

1 i XI t a t k a , d. lilutatka to stand, sit, lie or gather in a ring or circle. Der. 
liwa (2). Cf. Idi'gtatka. 

1 i n t i 1 a , d. lilutila, v. intr , to gather, collect, stand, sit or lie under, under- 
neath, below. Der. liwa (2). Cf. tchutfla, wawatila. 

li VI tit a, d. lilutita to crowd or gather outside, outdoors; to stand, sit or lie 
around on the outside of (a lodge, camp etc.). Der. liwa (2). Cf. tgatfta. 

liutitna, d. lilutitna; same as lintita, q.v. 

1 f u t k a , d. liliutka to blase up by the ivind or by itself; said of fire-flames. 
Lit. "to gather up again". Der. liwa (2). Cf. tgepalia'ga. 

liwa, lewa, la'wa, d. lilua, leliia (1) to be crowded together in the water. (2) 
to croivd together, to congregate into one crowd or file, to mass uj), to unite into 
one body, 21, 19.: tiVslituk M6atuash 1. where the Pit Biver Indians were 
gathered up, 22, 20.; at liu'ksa liwatk tu'm waltka tAnkt then those who 
were crowded together had a lively talk among themselves, 23, 3.; li'wank i-o'ta 
after gathering they shot (at us), 21, 16.; li'wapksli (for liwapkash) ni 
telshapka I saiv them croivded together, 22, 14. (3) to grow, to come forth 
in clusters; to be, exist together in bunches, grapes or clusters; said of fruits, 
ben-ies etc. — Der ^wa, iwa. Cf hlivash. 

Ifwayaks, liyuiaks, liuyaksh, pocket, sheath, scabbard; wati 1. knife-pocket, 
or any other pocket in the dress; pushpushli 1., pupil of the eye. 

liway^ga, d. liluayega (1) to begin lifting up or hoisting. (2) to lift up 
one ew(? o/ something. Contr. into luydga (2). 

1 i w a k a n k a , d. liluakanka to move or shake some object when lifted at one 
end, as a log, stick etc. 

1 i Av a k li k 2> e 1 e , d. liluakukpgle to clasp the pocket-knife blade. 

liwala, apoc. liwal, d. liluala, lilual (1) to stand gathered on the top of; 
to stand in a bulk upon: hdtakt li'wal Sa't on the top (of that hillock) 
gathered or stood the Snake Indians, 31, 10. (2) to stand up, to be erect 
on one's feet. — Differs from liwi'ila by its accentuation. Speaking of one 
subject only, tgawala, tg4-ula, q. v. Der. iwala. 

liwala, d. liluala (1) v. intr., to unite, gather, collect in a heap or croivd. 
(2) V. intr., to gather in a hidden spot, to collect in an ambush or sheltered 
place; to stand, sit, or lie in a secreted locatioti. Der. liwa (2). 


1 i w A t k a 1 , d. liludtkal to lift up, to raise up again; to place in a seat, 101, 13. 
1 i vv a t c Ii a m p k a , d liluAtchampka to help up or hold top somebody, 158 ; 55. 
Lk5'm A'-ush, nom. pr. of Black Lake, near Klamath Marsh, 74, 16. 

Lit. "Coal Lake". From Igum, d-ush. 
Ikdkimitko, d. IMlkimitko (1 ) undulating, wavy. (2) striped horizontally. 
Ik An, l%An, d. l;{Al%an (1) v. intr., to he agitated, in commotion; said of 

waters. (2) v. trans., to produce commotion in waters, to raise waves or 

billows: shldvvish l^dn the wind agitates the waters. 
1 k ;i p a t a , d. IkAlkpata, v. intr., to be violently agitated, to form surf; said of 

water: ampu Ik. the water makes a surf. Der. Ikan. Cf. ndakalpata. 
1 k 4 p a , Ikdppa, d. Ikdlkpa, l%41%pa to pile up, to pile upon each other: 1. ktdi 

to erect a stone ^nle, 85, 12. Mod. for loktiptch^a Kl. 
1 k 4 s h , d. IkalkasU ivave, billow ; motion on the water'' s surface. Der. Ikdn. 
Ikdshkish, l%4shzish, d. Ikdlzash^ish martingale. 
Ikelhu6pkash, d. Ikel;^ alhu6pkash crupper of saddle. 
Iketkitko, d. Ikelkatkitko, Izel^atkitko striped vertically; the absolute 

form is little used. Cf. Ikakimitko. 
lk61kosh, l%61;{osh, d. le'hk61e'hkosh flank of quadrupeds near genitals. 
1 k I'l m , Igiini, d. Ikulkam, Igulgam ; see Igiim. 
1/Ak canoe-pole; Lat. contus. Cf. Iggdkish. 
l%al%Amnish bulky, long, capacious sack or bag to keep provisions, grain, 

wokash etc. : l;{alxamnishti lulinash recently ground pond-lily seed put in 

long sacks, 74, 10. Cf. willishik. 
l^/iwaltko, d. l^al^awaltko provided tvith antlers, long horns or prongs: 

pako'lsh 1. gi the mule-deer is armed with prongs. 
1 7 a w a w a s h , Mod. l^awAwintch, d. l%al%awawash (1) finger-joint ; articu- 
lation on fingers nxid toes. (2) finger; all the fingers taken together. (3) toe; 

all the toes taken together. Cf. shulapshkish. Der. Ikdn, wawalamna. 
1 % e 1 % a t a n a s h , pi. tiimi 1., harness 

1 X e t ' k n u 1 a , d. l;{el%at'knula to hang down from the mouth, 158 ; 66. 
lo'k, liik, lii'k, d. lolok, lil'luk (1) seed of flowers, fruits, shrubs, trees; 

kernel of fruits: kl'k liii^itk tchl'pshash the seeds are larger than the tchi- 

pash-seeds, 146, 3. (2) marrow, pith. 
1 6 k a n k a , d. lol6kanka to go astray, to get lost, to wander about. 

liwiitkal — 16pkash. 195 

1 6 k a n k s h , d. lol6kanksh smoke-hole of lodge. Cf. gi'nzish (2). 

16kansha, d. lol6kansha to pass through, escape: gi'n%ishtala 1. shl4yaksli 
the smoke goes through the smoke-hole. 

lok4ptch%a to place or spread over, on the top of; to superimpose: kt4-i 1. to 
pile up stones, as on a place of incremation or burial; tchik sha kn^-udshi 
1. hereupon they spread pieces of hark on the top, 148, 18. Kl.; c£ Ikdpa. 

16k ash, 16xash, Kl. hlu'kash; d. lo'lkash roe offish. Der. lo'k. 

L6kltni, nom. pr. of a mountain between the headwaters of Lost River 
and Clear Lake. Cf 16kuash. 

16kuash (1) adj., hot, heated, boiling; said of water. (2) subst, high tem- 
perature, heat. Der. lukua. Cf k^lpoksh, Muash. 

16kuashtkni (1) adj., coming from, belonging to warm or hot, boiling 
springs. (2) subst., L6kuashtkni, (or L. mdklaks), nom. pr. of the Warm 
Spring Indians of Des Chutes River, Oregon; also called Ydmakni, q. v. 
and Waita'nkni, q. v. Der. lukuashti, partitive case of 16kuash. 

L 5' k = P s h 1' s h , nom. pr. fem. Kl. : " Grizzly Bear's Nose". Cf lu'k. 

161a, lu'la, d lolula, lulu'la to believe, to trust, to give credence to : M-i mlsh nu 
I I do not believe you; p'laikl'shash 1 to believe, to trust in God, 41, 17. 134, 
19.; sa lu'la wdsham tpju't/ash they believe in tJie prairie-ivolf s prophecy, 
133, 1., cf. 2. 4.; luluk sa kakam t;^u't%atkash sinQc they believe in the 
raven's oft-repeated prophecy, 134, 1. Cf 64, 7. 127, 13. 128, 5. 135, 4. 

161al%a, d. lolo'lal;^a to go straying, to be abandoned; to be astray, ivander- 
ing, 183; 12. Cf 16kanka, luHna (1). 

lo'lksam, pi. tiimi 1., nom. pi', of a short grass growing in dry places, 
three to four inches long. 

1 6 1 o g s h , 161oks ; see liiloks. 

lol61oisam, d. of luiluisham, q. v. 

161omak, lul6mak, pi. tiimi 1., grain of cereals: wheat, rye, maize, etc.: 
ndnuk tchti'ks 1. g^-u wutA the blackbirds have eaten all my grain. 

1 6 1 u a , d. liilalua, loMlua to sleep outdoors, to sleep outside the lodge or 
house; said of more than one subject. Cf. lu'l^a, sku'lpka. 

1 6 1 u m i , d luMl'mi ; see sku'lpka. 

1 6 p k a s h black pine-tree, probably Pimis contorta : 1. tiipka a black pine stands 
up there. Cf kdpka, ko'sh, p4n, wapal. 


lotelotasli (jrcenish substance excreted, or removed through voinitiiiy, Kl. 

Refers to snakes only. 
1 6 1 e s h , d. 161tesh (1) mat, ])iece of matting made from a species of slough- 

or sedge-grass. (2) a kind of Klamath Lake dwellings, now obsolete, 
lo'tkala, I'hu'tkala, d. lo'ltkala, I'hCd'hutkala fo pi(s/i, move forward; said 

of round or bulky articles only. Der. luitkala. 
1 s h i'k 1 a k , lshikl'%, d. Ishilshaklak ivillow branch or rod bent over and stuck 

in the ground at both ends; tbus forming the rude frame for a family 

sweat-lodge or other small structure. Der. latcha. 

I s h i k 1 a k u 1 g a , Itchiklakuilva, d. Ishilshaklakuiga to iiiulcc a ivillow frame 

for a sweat-lodge, shed, outhouse. Mod. 

I I a k d y a , d. Italtkiiya to pick and eat berries, fruit from buslies: Itakaitkiug 
tuitcli;^ash in order to feed on cliohe-clierries (1. for Itakayatki giuga). 

Itoks, d. Itoltoks (I) spot, dot: wamenigsam ge-u 1. those are my spots, those 

of the blade snake. (2) buckle; as brass buckle on trunks etc. Der. luta. 
Itxii^aga to pierce, perforate ; said of round objects: pu'klash Ituixaktgi 

giug in order to let it consume, eat up the ivhite of the eye, 71, 10. Der. tiieka. 
1 1 c h a m a' s h k a , d. Itchaltchma'shka ; see ntchama'shka. 
1 1 c h i k 1 a k u 1 1 k o , d. Itchiltchaklakuitko ( I) shed or outhouse just begun 

or existing as a skeleton frame only, Kl. (2) shed, shelter, outhouse, Mod. 

Der. Ishiklak. Cf Ishiklakuiga, m^hiash. 
Ilia, d. lulua it is foggy, misty, hasy: kda 1. the fog is very thick. Cf lvVl%a. 
liiagsh, liiagshla, d. luluagsh, luluagshla ; the absolute form exists only 

in the synaeresis: lu'gsh, lii'gshla, q. v. 
luai^a, lualka, d. lualuf%a (1) to make fun, to joke; to deride, cf Note to 

126, 3. (2) to smile, titter, giggle. Der. li^wa (2). 
1 u a 1 a m n a , d. lualo'lamna ; see tkcllamna. 
1 u a 1 z a , (1. lualo'l^a Mod., lueluAl^a Kl.; see tgdl^a. 
1 u a 1 6 y a , d. luelualuya to stand or remain near, in proximity; said of more 

than one subject: 1. pipelantan to stand by on both sides, 85, 9. 
1 1'l ash, d. liiluash fog, mist: 1. luyega the fog goes up; 1. lul%a, lu't;{i the fog 

goes doivn; luashtka nu lu'tchipka through the fog I wander about, 157; 40.; 

lulu-ixash shkutatk wrapped in, surrounded by fogs, 183; 17. Der. lua. 
Ix'iaslip tchi , d. luluashptclii gray, as fog; smoke-colored; said of beads, 

e. g. Der. liiash, -ptchi. Cf yahiaga. 

lotelotiish — luelkslia. 197 

1 li a t k a , I'luitka, d. luluatka, rul'iiatka ; same as levuatka, q. v. 

luatpishla, d. lualuatpishla to tvecp at, to mourn over somebody's cleatlL 
Besides the weeping (Ifla) and the loud or suppressed cries of hamentation 
(stut;^ishla, ki'iki) over a deceased relative or consort, this term also com- 
prehends the rambles at night (shpotu), the fast, the diving in cold waters 
and the dreams seen in this excited condition, 87, 12. Cf. 83, 1-84, 3. 

I u a t p i s h 1 a 1 s h , d. lualudtpishlalsh cry of a mourner ; weeping cry, death- 
lament, 101, 5. Der. luatpishlala. C£ lila. 

Ill d ship a, lii'tchipa to take off from, to strip, to draiv oid: 1. miyensh nep- 
shish to take off a ring from another's finger. Der. udshipa. Cf shulshipa. 

liidshna, d. luludshna (1) to move about, to he wafted, to drift along, as 
clouds, fog. (2) to ivander, to stray out: i kelamtsank si'tk 1. ye tvander 
along as if ye had your eyes closed, G4, 11. Cf. lutchipka. 

1 11 d s o's h a , d. luludsho'sha, v. trans., to besmear, to line over ; to black shoes 
or boots. Cf tudso'sha. 

1 u e 1 a , d. luelola (for lueluala) to kill, to slay, to put to death ; said of more 
than one object, or of many subjects killing one or several objects, or of 
objects spoken of collectively, as fish, cattle etc. Lapgshapta shii'ldshash 
1. they killed seven soldiers, 37, 14.; tatiikiash kii-i 1. they murdered no children, 
37, 17. Said of one object: luelat hu'nksh hi't! kiU ye him on the spot! 
190; 15.; Sk(^lam tapia gen luelat! kill ye Marten' s younger brother ! 113, 
20. 114, 2. In 186; 51. luelola is used in an obscene sense, the term 
purporting that the young woman had been debauched several times; 
n;id hatokt mii'shmush 1. we butchered an ox there, 21,2. L. and its deriva- 
tives are the standing terms used when a copious catch of fish is referred 
to: 1. giug (for lueldtki giug) kiii'm in order to catch fish, 28, 5.; 1. kapto 
Ya-ag they catch kdpto-suckers at the Bridge, 74, 1., cf 75, ;'0. Cf hesh- 
%a'ki, hushtchoka, shiuga, shuc'nka. 

luelkish, luelks, d. Iuel61kish (1) locality, place, where amimals are killed 
singly or in bulk: luelks4da'm fish-catching place, fish-trap, 143, 1.; cf. 
kia'mdu^lks ; ji'laiwasli p'ti's-liilsham m'na luniks a spot where his deceased 
father was habitually killing golden eagles, 100, 2. 3. Cf. 142, 2. and 
Hfshtish=Luc'lks. (2) object for killing, immolating, 88, 5. 

luelkslia to make a killing-place for somebody ; 142, 2. Cf kiii'mduelkslia. 


luel(')lisli, pi. tunii 1., a habitual or professional killer, aa of animals: 
kiii'm-l. fisherman. Der. liiela. 

Iuel6tkish, abbr. luelu'tksh, d. luelol6tkisli substance, drug or article used 
in killing or poisoning many animals: kia'm=luelo'tksh a fish-poisoning sub- 
stance, 149, 21. 160, 3. Der. luela. Cf. k'lek6tkish. 

1 u e 1 u A 1 X a , d. of lu41;^a, 20, 16. ; cf tgel;^a. 

1 u e n , pi. tiimi 1., verdigris. 

luepalsh, d. ludlupalsli (1) lightning. (2) thunderbolt, stroke of lightning, 
179; 2. Der. lu- in luloks. Cf lem^-ish. 

lA'gsh, luksh, lo'ks (for luagsh etc.), d. luluagsh, 161oaks (1) prisoner of 
war; captive: guki'kak luluags the captives ran away, 20, 12.; cf 20, 10. 
54, 9. (2) slave of both sexes: the enslaving of women and children was 
the real object of the annual raids performed by the Mdklaks against the 
Pit River Indians, 20, 17. 20. 88, 4. 93, 3. "Mo'dokishash 161oak8h" 
kshdpa "the Modocs were bondsmen", so they said, 35, 7. 

lu'gshla, M'ksla, d. luluagshla (1) to take prisoner, to take captive in war, 
20, 1. 25, 2. 54, 9.: luluagslash (for luluagsla sha) they made captives of 
them, 31, 6. (2) to make a slave of, to enslave, 133, 9.: luluagsla tu'm 
wdwanuish nd^ndgan's tchi'sh they made slaves of many women and children, 
16, 8. 9.; liigs^ilshtkak sa ndnka some of them wanted to make a slave of 
him, 24, 16. Cf 17, 19. 20. 19, 2. 16. 59, 10. Der. Ivi'gsh. 

1 u h ci s h k t c h a , ludshktcha, d. Iuluh4shktcha to start out, set out, to depart 
in a wagon, carriage. Cf. guhudshktcha. 

lui^i to surpass in size, to be larger than; said of a rounded or bullcy arti- 
cle: lu'k tchi'pshash lui;;(itko (this) seed is larger than the tchipash-seed, 
146, 3. Der. vui;^i. Cf kshui;ii, v/'mi'/i. 

luilamna, d. luliiilamna; see tk^lamna. 

luiluish, d. luluihiish, lol61oish gooseberry. This is the common, sweet, 
wild gooseberry of these regions, black in its ripe state. The natives 
prepare a sort of pies from the boiled fruit. Cf. kp6'k. 

1 VI i 1 u i s h a m , d. luluiluisham, lol61oisam wild gooseberry-bush, producing 
the luiluish, q. v. In 75, 4. the bush is mentioned instead of the berry 
gathered from it. The d. form is often used instead of the absolute. 

1 u i 1 u y a , d. luluiluya to be sweet to the taste; lit. "to taste like the goose- 

Iuel61ish — liikua. 199 

berry": partic. Miluyatko sweet, saccharine; of sweet, sweetish, agreeable 
flavor or taste, 148, 7. 14. 20. 

L u i t s a s , nom. pr. of a Klamath Lake woman. 

liiy a, lui, d. liili {V) to give, transfer, bestow ; said of one round article, or 
of one lodge, house, table, ax, hatchet etc., or of many of them when 
spoken of collectively: fwam luitki n's to give me berries, lb, 10. (2) to 
pay in one coin. — Speaking of many objects considered as separate: p^wi, 
shewdna. Der. liya. Cf kshiiya, ndya, skdya. 

1 u y a m n a , d. 161iamna (1) v. trans., to hold in hand; said of one rounded, 
globiform or bulimy article, 154; 14. (2) v. intr., to ascend, go up, as a 
spider in the web, 175; 15. and Note. — Speaking of more than one round 
object or subject: pd-ukanka. 

Luydnsti, nom. pr. of a camping ground near Klamath Marsh; inter- 
preted by "Inside the Circle". Der. luydna. 

liiyapka, to go astray, to wander about, as blind persons, 157; 40. Cf 
liidshna, liitchipka. 

luydga, liiyaga, d. lulidga (1) v. trans., to lift up, to pick or take up one 
rounded or bulky object: kt4-i 1. to pick up a stone, 126, 1. (2) v. trans., 
to lift at one end; lit. "to begin lifting up." — Speaking of more than one 
object: pe-uydga. (3) v. intr., to arise, ascend, go up; to drift upward; 
said of inan. things: luash 1. the fog ascends, mounts; slAyaksak lu'yaga 
only smoke was curling up, 100, 16. Cf liwaycga, shuydga, uydga. 

1 u y ^ n a , d. luli(;na to go in a circle inside of something, as- of a wigwam: 
luya'nitki for luyii'nitko gi who goes around all the time, 184; 29. The 
wording of this song seems incomplete, cf Note. Cf gati'tana. 

1 u k a , lu'ka, d. liilka to fetch, bring; round, bulky objects being referred to. 

lu'kanka, d. luliikanka; see 16kanka. 

lukantatka to he standing; see levuatka, tgiitga. 

lu'kslaksh, pi. tiimi 1., aslies ; ashes of the funeral pile, 85, 11. Cf 
14kpeks, liiloks. 

lu'ktcha, d. lulaktcha to start out to fetch, haul, bring: shfunks=pakish 
nu'sh lu'ktchi ! bring me a watermelon ! Der. luka. 

lukua, d. lulukua (1) to be tepid, lukewarm: ampu 1. the water is Inkewarm.. 
(2) to be hot; to be at boiling heat. Cf Mkuash. 


L u k u 11 s h t i , nom. pr. of the Hot Springs neai* Linkville, Lake County, 
Oregon. The northeastern springs have a temperature of 190° F., and 
the others are used for bathing. Partitive case of I6kuash, q v. 

lii'k, lo'k, luk, d. lulak grizzly hear; a large kind of bear occurring only in 
the Rocky Mountains and in the counti'ies west of them: Ursus ameri- 
camis var. Jiorribilis; 147; 13 ; lu'kam wdash the grizzly bear's cub, 156; 
36.; hii lo'k shiiika if he kills a grizzly hear, 90, 19 This bear cnjo5'^s a 
great popularitj^ among these and other Indians, and is often mentioned 
in the incantations: 156; 36. 157; 42. 46. 158; 50. 176; 4. In the myths 
he ajipears personified as Liik, 20, 21., Lukamtch, Shashapsh, Shiishap- 
amtch, q. v. Cf. L6k=Pshi'sh, and Note, p. 132, sect. II. Cf. kima'dsh. 

li'ikaga , lu'kag, d. lu'l^aga, lu'lkag cuh of the grizzly hear. In one of the 
mythic tales two of these i^lay with two young antelopes and become 
tlieir victims, 120, 5-121, 11. Cf. shasluipka. 

Lukamtch, one of the names given to the personified grizzly bear in 
mythic stories: ''Old Grizzly" or ''Old She-Bear'', 118, 7. More fre- 
quently called Shdshapamtch, q. v. From lil'k, amtch. 

lula, 161a to die, to expire; said of one or more subjects. Tatataks a 
weas 1. whenever a child has died, 82, 4.; shaslicimoks=161atko ivho has 
or have lost relatives by death, 82, 5.: p'gi'sh=lulatko bereaved of the mother. 
Speaking of one subject: k'l(^ka (3), q. v. Cf. leluidshish, 4ulsh. 

1 u 1 a 1 k i s h , d. lul'lalkish, subst., the act of going to sleep; said of more 
than one person: at tu lulalkshe'mi gi now it is time to retire for the night. 
Uer. lu'l%a. Cf. sku'l^a, sku'lpka. 

1 u 1 a 1 X a , d. of lu'l;^a, q. v. 

lulamna (1) to wander about, to he lost while straying: shaizi'sh giiluaga 
\u\iin\n6\a the female shaixish-hird has lost its ivay home, 163; 16. (2) to 
follow, pursue: luash ai ml'sh a lii'lamnapka fog drifted after me; fog fol- 
lowed me from a distance, 158; 57. 

lii'ldam, d. luhildam winter, tvintry season; lit. "season of fogs", 35, 17.: 
hl'ldam giula the tvinter is over; i'lksla 1. to preserve (food) for winter in 
caches etc., 146, 10.; 1. pashluk when they gather food for the wintry season, 
148, 10.; atf hvi'k 1. gi't too long ivould that tvinter become, 105, 9. (2) 
adv., in, during winter, 105, 8. Der. liia, -tamna. 

L u k u a s h t i — 1 iV 1 ^ a g . 201 

lilldamalaksh, d. lulaldamaMksh winter-house, lodge for passing the 
ivinter. These structures rest on a square, solid entablature of wooden 
pillars and are closed on all sides with slabs or planks, the interstices being 
filled with brushwood. A thick layer of mud is usually thrown on the 
outside to prevent drafts of air. Some of these mud-houses are entered 
by means of an outside and an inside ladder (ga-ululkish, waki'sh) 
while the others have a doorway on a level with the ground. A winter- 
lodge has the appearance of a beehive and rises to a height of 12 to 15 
feet. Der. luldemal;^a. Cf Mtchash, shtultish. 
L u'l d a m = T c h r k s " Winter Settlement or " Winter- Lodge", nom. pr. of a 

lodge-site on the Sprague River. 
Lu'ldatkish Interpreter, meaning Dave Hill, subchief of the Klamath 

Lake Indians, and interpreter at the agency, 28, 13. See lutatkish. 
1 li 1 d e m c4 1 % a , luldamdlza, d. hllaldem^ljja to erect a winter-lodge or mud- 
house. Der. lu'ldam. 
1 li'l d i s h , d. lulaldish stirrup: 1. a p;ipatk the stirrup is broken. Der. liita. 
lu'lhi, luli, d. lulalhi, lul'li to take off, remove a round object: 1. ndpshish 
ilsh (for ilhish) ndyensh to take a ring from one's finger and place it o^i 
another's finger. Cf hulhi, ilhi, ludshfpa. 
luli, d. lululi to rattle around; to handle roughhj, to run against: tchdki 
kaydta 1. the young man runs against the haydta-lodge (when entering it), 
183; 18. Cf. la-uMwa, lulula. 
1 u 1 i k a n k a , d. lululikanka to rattle around frequently, to handle roughly 

more than once, 183; 18. Der. liilhi. 
1 u 1 1 n a (1) to wander away, to go astray, 192; 6. : tuti;tash nu 1. 1 am tvander- 
ing about as a dreamer, 192; 6. (2) ito grind, make fine, reduce to flour or 
poioder ; said of grain, roasted seeds etc. 74, 10. 
1 u 1 1 n a s h , pi. tiimi 1., (1) grain, vegetable seed reduced to flour. (2) wokash- 

seed pounded, grownd lily-seed, 74, 10. Der. lulina (2). 
1 u'l Z a , d. lulal/a {V).to go down, descend: luash 1. the fog goes down. Cf 
lutpci. (2) to go to sleep, to retire to one's bed or couch: tchiii sha lu'Ial;ta 
p4-ulank after the meal they went to sleep, 113, 11.; said of more than one 
subject and used in the d. form only; speaking oi one subject, skiVI^a. 
1 u' 1 % a g , d. of liikaga, q. v. 


liiloks, l(51ogsh, pi. tumi 1. (1) firc; fire on fire-place, camp-fire, or any 
combustion by fire: "Wandkalam kaka'kli 1. the fire of Silver Fox was 
yellow, 99, 3.; 1., the fire of the cremation pile, 85, 9. 10. 138, 7.; 161oks 
wlggAta close to the camp-fire, 16, 13.; liilukshtka in tlie fire; viz. in the 
hot coals or embers, 149, 6.; Wltlksh shpftcht the fire having gone out, 85, 
10.; h61alxa lulukshtat to jump through a fire; incantations of the fire, 
154; 8. 166; 2fi. Cf. kshi^luya. {2) discharge of fire-arms. Cf. shu'dsha. 

luloksgish, 161okski9li, pi. tumi 1. gun, shot-gun, rifle, carbine, 21, 1. 
74, 16.: lit. "fire-maker": 1 tewi to firc off a gun, 38, 11.; mii'ni \. piece of 
artillery, cannon; luluksgii'-ishtka shli'tk shot with a rifle, 24, 8.; cf". Note; 
161oksgisham 4nku wooden rifle-shaft. Der. luloks, gi (5). Cf iwula. 

lii'lp (d. lulalp), pi. tiimi 1. eye, eyes, 110, 15.: 1. ma'sha to have sore eyes, 
71, 8.; sk^tish 1 the left eye, 42, 8.; k6kuatko 1. swollen eyes, 186; 54.; 
kdlkali 1. rounded eyes, 91,5; pdpksham 1. knot in lumber board, 178; 7., 
cf. p6ko; lulpam l^wash eyeball; lulpam y^ntanni lower eyelid; lii'lput to 
the eyes, 91, 6.; cf 71, 9. 

L u'l p a k a t , nom. pr. of a camping place on Klamath Marsh, where white 
chalk is found, and used for the manufacture of body-paint. Der. lupaks. 

1 u 1 p a 1 p a 1 1 a to make eyes for somebody, 154; 11. Der. liilp, pelpela. 

1 u' 1 p a 1 1 k , d. lulalpaltko provided with eyes ; having eyes : mu'kisham nil 
1. / can see as sharp as the horned owl, 175; 14.; luipatka (for liilpaltko a) 
seeing sharp, 122, 2. 15. and Note. Der. lu'lpala. 

1 u' 1 p a t k o , d. lul41patko, formed by ekthlipsis from lu'lpaltko, q. v. 

Liilplna, nom. pr. fem. Kl., ''The Sopper". Der. hl6pa. 

= lulsh defunct, deceased; a term used only as the final part of compound 
words, often end.: p'tish=lulsh deceased father, 100, 2.; p'gi'shJulsh de- 
ceased mother. Der. liila. Cf l^liiidshish. 

1 u 1 u a t k a to stand; see tgiitga. 

1 u 1 u k s a 1 k s cremation-place ; old Indian cemetery. Der lulukslila. 

1 I'l 1 u k s h a 1 1 k a to return from incremation, 89, 4. Der. lulukshla. 

lulukslila to burn, to cremate; said of dead bodies only, 59, 5. 69, 2. 3. 
89, 1.: 1. sha lu'lokshtat they burn him on the funeral pile, 138, 7.; luluk- 
shalshok mu'lua they made preparations for cremating (the dead children), 
110, 22. Der. luloks. 

luloks — liipiak. 203 

Lulukuashti, nom. pr. of a little lukewarm spring in the volcanic 
region of Ydneks; lit. "At the Warm Springs." Der. 16kaash. 

liilula to rattle, clatter, make noise, 112, 9. 183; 16. Cf la-uMwa, liili. 

luliilish, pi. tumi 1. cramps, 179; 8. 

liimalaks fog-maler, producer of fog ; contr. from lumalakish. This 
faculty is attributed to the kdlsh- or kdl^alsh-bird in tlie incantations, 
166; 22. 23. and Note. Der. lumalxa. 

1 u m a 1 ;j a , lumalgka to produce fog, to make fog or mist at will. Der. lua. 

Iumk6ka, lomk6ka, d. Iulamk6ka to take a sweat- or steam hath in the 
sweat-lodge, 91, 2. Mod. for spukli Kl. Der. lua. C£ lumal^a. 

lu'mkoksh, d. lu'lamkoksh /amz7</ sweat-lodge; framed of bent willow 
boughs and located near the water in close proximity to the Indian 
lodge Mod. for spuklish KL, q. v. 

lupaks, lubaksh, d. lulpaks (1) chalk, white chalk: 1. as the color-shade of 
the nush=tilansn^ash-owl, 167; 32.; \. shna-vMymviii to spit chalk on or upon, 
132, 7. (2) chalk, used as material for painting or lining the body, 181; 
1.: 1. shdtua^a to paint one!s body or face with white chalk paint. This 
paint is often put on in streaks or stripes, 22, 21. Cf shatchl;f4mia. 

lupatku^la, d. lulpatku^la to produce a scar, 66, 1. This term forms 
the final part of Scarface Charley's Modoc name: Tchiktchikam=Lupat- 
kudlatko, q. v., 55, 19. and refers to a scar produced by a round or 
rounded article, as a wheel. Der. upata, -kuela. Cf up4tia. 
lupl, lupf (1) adv. loc, firstly, at the head of: 1. gulf they went in first, be- 
fore the others, 120, 9.; lupi' watch g^na the horse marches at the head of 
the file, 85, 4. (2) adv. temp., at first, for the first time: 1. sdllual he (or 
they) warred for the first time, 19, 6. 28, 1. (Titles); 1. gdtpampgli to return 
home first, 20, 14.; na'sh shliwitk lo'k shiiiga 1. the grizzly hear was killed 
at the first shot; lupi'tal sha g^kampele they return to the spot where they 
stood at first, 87, 13. Cf 38, 10. 20. 21. 
lupia, prep, and postp. (1) loc, in front of, before: spiikHsh 1. in front of 
the sweat-lodge, 82, 7. (2) temp., before, earlier than, sooner: pa'ktgisli 1. 
before daylight, prior to dawning, 24, 11. 
liipiak, conj., sooner than, earlier than, before, 119, 2.: 1. m^-isht before 
having dug, 118, 4. 6.; 1. nats gal^algfpka before we had terminated our de- 
scent from the hill, 29, 18 (nats stands here for nat tchish). Der. lupf, ak. 


1 I'l J) i !i n , |»rc|). iiiid postp., on the east side of; see K61am%eni Koke. 

1 u \) 111 i , (l. liilpi'ni, adj., (1) frst; first in space and first in time: 1. kiil'm 
g\'-u slinii'ksli the first fish that I rmight. (2) preceding, jrrior to. 

1 u p i t (1) snbst., the east, as a point of the compass: lupitala (for Inpft-tala) 
yen a to go or travel eastward. (2) adv., eastward, towards the east. (3) adv., 
from the east. Cf y;imat, ycwat. 

1 u p 1 1 a 1 a n i , adj , belonging to, coming from eastern parts; brought from the 
east. Kl. Der. Inpi't, -tala. Cf. lupltkni, t%alamtal4kni. 

lu pi tana, Inpitan, d. lulpftana, (1) prep, and postp. loc, before, in front 
of. (2) prep, and postp. temp., before, earlier than, sooner than. (3) adv. 
temp.; lupidiina, Mod. for the first time, 13, 8. Der. lupf. 

1 u p i't k n i , d. hilpitkni, adj., coming from the east; eastern, native or inhab- 
itant of eastern lands. Der. lupit. Cf. yamakni. 

1 II p 1 tn i , d. lulpitni, adj., first in order; what comes first: 1. pe'tch foreleg. 

1 u p o s h 6 1 k i s li , d. lulposh6tkish fleshing- chisel to clean skins with before 
dressing them. Cf. mba-ush. 

lu'sh, lu'sh, d. h'lhish, Iii'losh, a dusky-colored goose-species. Der. hia. 

1 u s h a , d. lulsha to lie, to lie in, on or upon, to extend over; said of round or 
cylinder-shaped articles: hiiilatat \. lies upon the soil, 146, 1. 149, 1. 15. 
18.; mu'na 1. Ambutat lies deep down in the ivaters, 147, 6.; yiintch ktai- 
yatat lusha the ydntch-root lies, grows upon rocks, 146, 2. Der. lisha. 

1 u s h a n t c li n a to scratch a hollow, den, rounded hole .- miina 1. to scratch a 
deep hole, 134, 7. Cf liishna. 

1 u s h g ci p e 1 e , d. lulashgapele to go and take off, to start out and take back 
again; said of round things. Met. for luktchapele. Der. luktcha, -peli. 

1 il's h k a , d. lulashka to become or to be warmed or heated up, as by running, 
dancing: wu'sa ni luskuapkug I am afraid I may get too warm, 70, 2.; 
ktsii'l 1. a shooting star rushes through the sky; a meteor explodes. Der. 
lush-, in lushlushli. Cf. liishna. 

1 lis hi us h, d lulashlush, adv. of lushlushli: warmly; liishlush gi, or 
lushlushki to feel tvarm. 

lushlushli, d. lulashliishli warm; said of weather, articles of dress, tem- 
perature of the animal body etc. Cf. lu- in hikua, liiloks. 

1 uslil lishl i sh , d. Inlashlusldisli nxirmfh, warm temperature; of the ani- 
mal l)ody, of the weather, winds etc. 

1 u p i a n — 1 li t c li 1 X a . 205 

liisbna, d. lulashna to roast, expose to fire, as on the fire-place, 150, 7. 
1 11 1 a , I'lita, d. I'uliita, Mlta ; same as levuta, q. v. 

lutatka, lutatka, d. lultatka {I) to M(? over somebody or somethinj^; said 
of rounded, bulky, or globular things only. (2) to expound, repeat; to act 
as the repeater of a wizard or conjurer; to assist a conjurer in Us perform- 
ances. (3) to interpret; to act as interpreter from one language into another, 
33, 4. 38, 5. Der. levuta. 
li'itatkish, d. lultatkish, liVldatkish (1) expounder, repeater of the conju- 
rer's songs, ivords, and acts during the treatment of patients; conjurer's 
assistant, 68, 7. 84, '2. (2) 1., more commonly lultatkish, interpreter from 
one language into another; translator (3) Lultatkish, used as nom. pr. 
masc; see Lu'ldatkish. 
lute ash dip-net with a handle, the dipping portion being circular. If 

small-meshed, it is a la,-iks, if wider-meshed, a wits61as. Der. levuta. 

luti'la, d. lultila to he under, below, underneath, beneath; to stand, sit or lie 

under, below: kapkatat stina'sh 1. to he inside of a brush-lodge. Der. utfla. 

lutish, luti'sh, pi. tunii 1., round fruit; berry, small fruit, 145, 20.; root, 

bulb, 147, 2.: miimanti tapa^ti luti'sh, nom. pr. of a berry growing on a 

certain shrub not specified: ''Bigleaf-herrg". Der. levuta. C£ o'tish. 

lutkish, lutkish, lu'tzesh, d. lulatkish fish-hook: lutkeshtkan shuevva 

waitan I fished all dag with the hook-line. Der. lut%i. 
1 11 1 ;^ a , d. lulat/a to take away, to wrench off; said of a round or bulky ob- 
ject, 127, 5. Der. li'tza: Cf liilhi. 
1 11 1 X i , lii'tki, d. lultp^i to descend, to be wafted downward, to come to the ground: 

liiash lu'tki the fog descends, goes down. Der. leviita. 
Lutuami, a word of the Pit River language meaning 'Hake'\ (1) nom. 
pr. given to several lakes, e. g. to Rhett or Modoc Lake. (2) L. fsh, nom. 
pr., Modoc Indian; tribal name given to Modocs by the Pit River Indians 
from one of their residences, on Rhett Lake (ish is man in Pit River). 
1 li t c h i p k a , liidshipka to go straying, to wander about, as a blind person 

does, 157; 40. C£ liidshna, luyapka. 
1 u t c h 1 ;{ a , d. luhitchl;^a to kneel dmvn. Cf knukla, knil'klp^a, Idigl^a. 



Initial m does not alternate with any other sound. Mb and mp repre- 
sent the nasalized forms of h and p and alternate with them in a few terms. 

m a , abbr. from mat, adverbial oral particle, q. v. 

miidna, d. mdmgdna sunflower; a species oi Helianthus, probably lenticu- 
laris. Mod.; unknown to Kl. Cf matn^sham. 

mil hi ash, mdhiesh, d. mdmhiash, m4mhiesh (1) shadow; shade: shl(ja m. 
Afshisham it saw AishisKs shadow, 96, 2.; B6shtinash mdhieshtat i'l^a he 
deposited the white people in the shade, 103, 4. (2) shed, shelter erected for 
cattle, horses, haystacks etc.: mu'ni nAlam m. we have a spacious shed. 

md-i, mai, pi. tiimi m., (1) a tall and very common species of bulrush or 
lacustrine grass serving for the manufacture of mats, baskets, for cover- 
ing lodges; a portion of the stem is eaten raw when just sprouted up; 
Scirpus validus, 148, 1-4. Western people commonly call it tule, from 
Aztec tolin, 24, 5. The largest of these scirpus sometimes extend six feet 
under and ten feet above the water's surface. (2) generic term for the 
larger species of bulrushes. (3) mat made of tule or hidrush. 

maidfktak, pi. tumi m., black-headed snow bird; a bird-species of spar- 
row's size, black head and neck, white bill; Junco oregonus Scl. 

m 4 y a 1 s h a , d. mdmialsha to collect, to gather tule-grass annually or habitu- 
ally, 148, 1. Der. md-i. 

mdyaltko, d. mdmialtko overgrown with tule-grass, studded or filled with 
bulrush. Der. mdyala. 

Mdyaltko lil-ush, nom. pr. of ^'Tule Lake^', also called Modoc Lake 
and Rhett Lake, extending from California into Oregon. Cf M6atak. 

Mdkash, nom. pr. masc. KL; interpreted by "Snorer". 

ma'kash, d. mama'kash; see mukash. 

m a k 1 a k t c h a , d. mamdklaktcha to encamp- at different places while on one 
and the same trip, hunt or journey: hu'masht i tchi-uapk mdklaktsuk 
yalnatat kankanktsuk tclid-u thus you will live ivhen camping out on the 
heights and hunting the antelope; at g(^mpele nat mak'ldktsuk, at tl'nniiga, 
and when the sun was setting we returned to encamp for the night, 30, 20. 

m a k m a k 1 i , ma'kmakli, d. mamdkmakli ; same as miikmukli, q. v. 

ma — maklaks. 207 

m a k o k a p , d. mak6kishap, mAmkokap elder and younger sisters' son or 
daughter; said by aunt. 

m A k p k a , d. mamdkpka to remain encamped for a while, or for days, while 
on a trip, hunt or expedition. 

maksha (1) large cup or bowl, made of tule grass, 122, 23. 123, 2.; it is 
also used as: (2) skull-cap, worn by females. Der. ma-i. 

makt6tkish, d. mamaktotkisli mowing scythe. Cf. mulin6tkish. 

m A k t c h a to camp out, to pass the night while on a trip or hunt. 

m ci k t c h n a , maktsina, d. mamdktchna to encamp, to pitch camp, to pass 
the night while traveling a certain distance: I4p6ni m. sha A'shlin g»inug 
they encamped twice when they went to Ashland; dwalues skdna, mdktsina 
Nu'shkshi they paddle over to the island and pitch their camp for the night at 
Skull-Place, 74, 14.; ndAnni mdktchanuapk g^nug when traveling they will 
camp out three days. 

m a k u a 1 a , makual, makuela, d. mamdkuala, mamdkuela to pass the night 
in the wilds or mountains: mAkual, sta-6tank kaltua p4t in the wilds he 
stays out while starving and fasting, 83, 2. 

makualksh, d. mamakualksh camping place in the wilds or mountains. 

mdkualsha, d mamdkualsha to go and stay, to go and camp in the wilds 
or mountains, annually or habitually: mdkualshuapka 1 yafnatat you will 
pass the nights in the mountains. 

mdklakpeli, d mamaklakpeli to encamp again, to pitch camp, to pass the 
night for a second or subsequent time, 20, 9. 1 1. Der. m4k'l6%a, -p6li. 

maklaks, mdk'laks (d. mamaklaks), pi. tiirai m ; pronounced sometimes 
mak'lSks by Modocs; lit. "the encamped". (1) body of Indians encamped ; 
Indian community, people; Indian tribe, chieftaincy, band: W^lamskni, 
W41amswash m. the Bogue River tribe of Indians; Shasti m. the Shasti 
Indian tribe. In the "Modoc war" m. often stands for Mo'dokni, the whole 
Modoc tribe under Captain Jack: cf. 38, 8. 18 21. and m. lakf the band 
chief, 37, 17. for mdklSksam laki, 34, 3. 38, 10. Of. 29, 13. 38, 4. 43, 
11-15. 68, 5. 143, 2-4. (2) generic term for Indian: Indian man or 
woman, ^^ redskin", native of the American continent. Ketchk4ne m. a young 
Indian, 54, 1.; m. puelhi' they threw into (the lodge) bodies of Indians, 112, 
21., cf. 113, 1.; kiuksam m. the men under the conjurer's leadership, 37, 15.; 


uiui m. gita gatpa many Indians arrived there; ndnuk in. vvawi'ipka the 
whole tribe sat there, 33, 5.; tankni m. the former generations of Indians, 85, 
6.; ni. pAn the Indians feed on it, 140, 15.; Mo'dokni m. a Modoc man or 
tvoman: mak'Iaksam tclii'sh Indian settlement, Indian camping ground and 
lodges; mak'Iaksam pdsli edible roots, tuhers, bulbs and seeds, not enten by 
the whites, 91, 2. 145, 20.; maklaksksaksi the place where the Indians 
encamped, 20, 10. 11. Cf. 36, 20. 65, 12. 68, 1. 69, 3. Quot. under ke- 
kelam. (3) person, human being, individual: B6shtin ni. American, white 
person; m.=papi'sli alligator, caiman; lit. "man-eater"; m.=sln'tko, 128, 10.; 
see below. Der. mak'l6%a. 

m i'l k 1 a k s n i Indians and their families; Indians and what belongs to them: 
nanuktua m. tsokatk dead Indians of every tribe and age, 130, 2. Cf. -ni. 

makla]cs = shitko (1) Indian-like. (2) resembling, alike to men or persons, 
human-like; m.=sh. shlesli gi they have the appearance of human beings, 
128, 10. (3) neighbor, fellow-man, 139, 12. 

m a k ' 1 e % a , mdkl6;{a, mdk'leka, d. mam4k'le;(a {I) to encamp, to settle doivn 
in a temporaiy or permanent resting place: tsiii m. wewanuish then the 
tcomen went to their camping place, 28, 3. (2) to pass the night away from 
home, to strike camp for the night; sa m. Wu'ksalks they encamped that 
night at Wokash-Place, 19, II.; at pshi'n niakleka and at night they camped 
out, 64, 6.; mak'le^apksh ku'metat tvhcn they slept in a cave, 121, 20. Cf. 
28, 7. 8. 38, 14. 119, 17. 20. C£ tukel^a. 

m a 1 a m , ma'Iam, poss. case of pron. pers. a't, a, ye, you; it serves as a pron. 
poss. of the second person plural : your, yours, of ye, belonging to ye. Cf 
34, 12. 14. 38, 22. 105, 5. 119, 17-20. — Mdlamtak belonging to yourselves. 

m a lash, contr. ma'lsh, abbr. Mod ma'l, mdl, obj. case of a't, a, pron. pers. 
of second person plural, ye, you; to ye, to you. Cf. 39, 1-3. 65, 3. 122, 
1. — Malashtak, n^aHshtak yourselves, to yourselves. See a't, malam. 

m a m a k t s u , a species of duck, black and white, length of body about 
one foot. Incantation: 166; 27. Cf. ma'makli. 

ma'msh, or mu'msh, in mu'msh tumf! 17, 8.; see mu'ni. 

ma'nk, miink, d. m4mank {\)fly: m. ha' ma the fly is buzzing. (2) generic 
term for any flying insect, 145, 16. Quot. under kshekiiila. 

m a n k a g a , d. mamankaga little fly, 178; 4. Dim. ma'nk. 

Ill ;'i, k 1 ;i k s 11 i — m a' s b a . 209 

m a'n t c h , mantch, ma'ns, d. m^mantch, adv., (1) for some time, for a while; 
refers to the future as well as to the past, but to no definite length of 
time: kd-i tatti m. no longer, 88, 4.; tch4wika m. he was insane for some 
time, 128, 9.; ma'ns hu'k tchakdyank i-u'ta he shot arrows for some time, 
while posted in the hush, 23, 21. In 73, 6. ma'ns stands for ma'ntch=gitko, 
q. V. (2) when the vowel a is pronounced very long, m. means /or a long 
time: spukli-u4pka m. they will sweat for many hours, 82, 10 ; m. sheno- 
tdnka they fought a long time, 4-!, 8.; ka-i ma'nsh i'pka not long can lie, 
14H, 3. Cf. gdhak, ma'ntch=gftko, nla, tdnk. 

ma'ntchak, mdntsag, d. mdmantchak, adv., a long while; for some time; 
refers to the past and to the future: tatd. mdntsak mbusa'lan gl then he 
lived with her for a good while, 11, 2. ; tsui shp6ka mdntchak then he lay 
quite a while on the ground, 110, 14.; n..; i.shaktch (for m tchi) /or such a 
long time, 110, 18. From ma'ntch, ak. 

m a'n tchak = gi tko , d.\\ak.=gii\n) s~.iiietime afterwards, 29, 13. 

ma'ntch = gitko, mantch=gitk (1) some time after ; long after ; \ii. "\ong- 
been"; refers only to the past or to what is supposed to be past: m.=gitk 
Sktilamtch guhdshktcha after a while Old Marten set out, 110, 21.; cf 73, 
7. 105, 13. 119, 6. 121, 1. 12. 122, 14. 22.; m.=gitk tche'k finally, at last, 
112, 15. (2) informer times, long ago, 93, 3. Der. ma'ntch, gi. 

m a'n t c h n i , d mama'ntchni (1 ) foregoing, previous, early: m. Modokishani 
kaila the old Modoc country (on Modoc Lake, Lost River etc.), 44, 10. 
(2) ancestral, antique, belonging to the past: m. mdklaks the former generations 
of Indians; m. shtdp an old-fashioned arrow-head, 134, 17. Cf tankni. 

ma'sh, pi. tiimi m., a plant similar to wild parsnip; its stalk serves as 
food, its root as medicine. Der. ma'sha. 

ma'sha, mAsha, ma'sa, d. mama'sha (1) v. intr., to taste; to taste like, to he 

flavored like, 119, 15.: luiluyatk tastes sweet, 148, 14., cf 146, 14.; ka-a 

m. it tastes bitter, sour, tart; ka-d mdshitko hitter; sour, tart; wu'kash=shitk 

mashetk tastes like pond-lily seed, 14fi, 6.; Idhiasli kii-i ma'shetk the leyash 

tastes badly, 347, 21. (2) v. intr. and impers., to suffer from an acute or 

painful disease; often confounded with shila, q. v.: k^lpoksh m. to suffer 

from a fever ; tii'tak huk ni. where he suffers, 73, 3., cf 2.; m. n'sh / am sick, 

138, 3. 4.; hit nayiins hissuaksas nia'sliitk ktUak if some man suffers from 


a relapse, 72, 1. and Note; inushetko, mashitko patient, diseased person; 
obj. m;'ishipksh, abbr. ma'shish, 71, 5.; ku-i mdshish gish shdpa tliey say 
that he is seriously sick, 140, 5 ; steinash ni. to endure mental suffering; 
ma'sa nAt stafnas we were sorry at heart, 24, 1 7. Cf. }'iialka, kdlak, kdl- 
poks (3). Quot. under hi'ta, kd-itata, klap, nkash. 

ma's hash, d. mama' shash (I) tosfe, ^at;or. (2) disease, distemper, acute or 
painful sickness: k^lpoks m. fever; Ht. "hot disease". Cf. klap. (3) sore. 

mat, end. oral particle, mostly inserted after the first word of the sentence: 
^^ allegedly, as alleged, as reported, so they say, as he, she said", the Latin 
dicitur, ferunt, aiunt; refers onl}' to facts reported, not to words, speeches, 
sentences, sayings etc. Ydmnashptchi mat lu'loks Aishisham it is said, 
that the fire of Aishish was purplish-blue, 99, 3.; hu'nk kd-i mat pi'sh siiikat 
I did not kill him, as she alleges, 64, 5., cf the nen in the foregoing sentence. 
Mythic stories frequently begin with mat as the second word : 99, 2. 109, 
1. 2. 142, 1. Cf also 70, 1. 5. 6. 74, 3. 4. 107, 13. 140, 2 7. Abbr. into 
ma in: ma na? do wef did wef Mod. tua ma! what is itf hunk ma sha 
wdtchag shiiiga it is said that they have killed a dog. Cf miit, nen. 

m a t n e s h a ni , d. mamatnt'sham poison oak: Rhus toxicodendron. 

m a t c h 4 1 a , d. mamtchdta to hearken, to listen attentively to somebody. 

match4tka, d. mamtchatka (1) to listen to, pay attention to, %A, 11.: ma- 
tchatgi'sh listeners, 84, 2. and Note. (2) to obey. 

m a t c h A w a , d. niamtchawa to listen to noises, clangs, words etc 

ma'kmakli, d. mamakniiikli, memii'kmakli blue mixed or sprinkled with 
white, bluish-gray : the color of many water-birds. Cf mdmaktsu, mii'- 
makli, matchma'tchli. 

mJi'm mother; a child's term, adopted from English mum. Mod. 

mii'makli, pi. tumi m., generic term for all wild ducks and geese, 145, 
6. 177; 21.: shlii'ituk mil'makla (obj.) to hunt and kill ivaterfowl, 136, 1. 

matchma'tchli, metsnu'tsli, d. mamatchmii'tchli, mematsmetsli (1) blue, 
sky-blue, 146, 8. 148, 12.: metsmotsAwals (form, shawalsh) obsidian arrow- 
head; the obsidian rock found in the Klamath Highlands being of a black 
color with a very slight tinge of blue. (2) purple- colored, violet-colored. 

m ii w i ;^ (') t k i s li , mii'wi^dtksh little box or casket which can be locked. 

m b II k a , d. mb;'imbka to break: same word as })i'ika No. 3, q. v. 

m a' s li a s li — in 1) u k a in u a t k o . 211 

mbakla, d. mb^mbakla (1) v. trans., to break or crack something by let- 
ting it fall, as bottles, tumblers. (2) v. intr., to break or crack by heat, 
dryness, drought, exsiccation; to be parched up. Cf. mpdkvxala. 

M b u k u a 1 s h i , nom. pr. of a camping place or former lodge-site on Kla- 
math Marsh; lit. "Top-Dried-Tree". Der. mpakuala. 

mbdkuish broken fragment, as of tumblers, pottery. Der. mb4ka. 

m bat ash, patash, d. mbambtash; see mpatash. 

mbati;{i, d. mbambtixi; same as mbute'^e, q. v. 

mbatchna, d. mbAmbtchna to jump while rmining or going. Cf. mbu'tl^a. 

mbaubawash "</«e howler", a popular name given to the young silver 
fox. Der. mb4wa. Cf wandka. 

mba-ush, ubd-ush, ubJi'-ush, pi. tumi nib., dressed, tanned skin or hide; 
tanned buckskin, as a material for making clothing: Mo'dokni mb. shulo'- 
tantko the Modocs were clad in buckskin, 90, 16.; vunam mb. tanned eWs 
skin, 90, 17.; pushaklash pani tsuh'sh uba-ush skin-shirt, toga-shirt; kaila- 
lapsh=ubd-ush, or simph' uba-usli, buckslin breeches; uba-ush j>iece of deer- 
skin, 73, 1-6. Cf. kla'sh, ndshedsh, ni'l, tchelksh. 

Mba-ush = Shn(ikash, nom. pr. of a mountain west of Upper Klamath 
Lake. Lit. "Bosom-Burnt-Through"; the name is founded on a legend, 
mb. being here the bosom-piece of an aboriginal buckskin dress. 

mb4-uta, d. mbAmbuta to shoot; to hurt, ivound by shooting: wats mb. na- 
ii'nam somebody's horse was shot by another man, 1 9, 8. 

mb4wa, d. mbdmbua (1) v. intr., to explode, burst, burst up; said of a 
bomb-shell, 43, 2 : mb. stefnash nu'dshnuk the heart burst when flying, 
114, 4.; cf 114, 6. 6. 8. (2) v. trans., to cause to explode: mb. ski's to 
break wind, 134, 7. (3) v. intr., to scream, screech: yaukal a mb. the white- 
headed eagle is screaming ; to hoivl ; cf mbaubawash. 

mb II itch, d. mbu'mbitch (1) tendon, sinew, ligament. (2) the strong foot 
ligament above the heel: tendo Achillis. (3) sinew or cord made of ten- 
dons and used on bows and other implements. 

m b u k a , d. mbu'mbuka, mbu'mb/a, v. trans., {Ij to break something hollow, 
as bones, bottles etc. (2) to parch or make crumble by exsiccation or 
drought. (3) subst., dust. Cf mbdkla. 

m b 11 k a m n a t k o , d. mbumbakamnatko tvhat bites the tongue; bitter, sharp, 
acrid Der. mbiikainna. 


Ill b u k a s li , d. lubu'mb/ush earth crumbling into dust, disintegrated by 
parching heat or drought. Der. mbi'ika. 

mbii'sh aksh , d. mbu'mbsliaksh (1) oisiciiaw of a black or ahuost black 
color, a volcanic rock found in the Klamath Iliglilands and serving for 
the maiuifacture of arrow- and spear-heads, knives etc.: nib.=shAwalsh, or 
simply mb., arrow-head made of obsidian, 113, 16.; mb.=wdti obsidian knife. 
(2) implement manufactured from obsidian: stone-knife, shinning implement, 
126, 7. (3) Mbii'saks, nom. pr., an appellation given to the Snake Indians 
by the Klamath Lake people, 143, 2. Cf kok61e, shiiwalsh. 

M b iishaksh dl tko , nom. pr. of a Klamath Lake man, signer of the 
treaty of 1864, and mentioned there as "Poosaksult"; lit. "Possessed of 
obsidian-tools". Der. mbu'shakshala. 

jM b li' s h a k s h a m - W 4 s h , nom. pr. of a locality on Williamson River; 
identical with Mbii'shaksh=Shawalsh. From mbu'shaksh, wdsh. 

M b u' s h a k = S h i w a s h k n i Indians iidiabiting the locality around Mbu'- 
shaksh-Shawalsh; corruption from Mbu'shaksli=Shawalshkni: 141, 5. 

M b li' s h a k s h = S h a w a 1 s h , nom. pr. of a locality at the junction of the 
Williamson and Sprague Rivers, near the house of the Indian Tst'lo^ins. 
About 200 yards above this junction a small stream detaches itself from 
Williamson River and joins Sprague River further below, so as to leave 
a rocky island of the shape of an arrow-head. GAtpa tumi' mdklaks Mb. 
many (hostile) Indians came to ^^tJie Arrow-Head", \G, 16. 

m b u s h a n a k , d. mbumbiishanak the early morning of next day. 

inbushaiit. Mod. mbushan, d. mbunibiishant, adv. (I), on the next morn- 
ing: mb. gdna pa'n next morning they marched again, 19, 11.; of. 24, 11. 
100, 14. 119, 1. (2) on the next day ; to-morrow: mb. unak to-morrow early, 
118, 2.; also: one morning early; mb. at undk the next day early, 101, 11.; 
mb. tchek to-morroiv at last, 122, 1.; mb. wait61ank na-ent waitashtka two 
days afterward, %Q, 2 ; mbu'shan pii'n gcina next day they went again, 110, 
8. (3) in the morning: gen mb. pil this morning only, 140, 7., Kl.; mb 
in the morning, 144, 3. 

mbusheala, mbushela, d. mbumbshdala, nibumbsh^la (1) to wed, marry, 
espouse; said of both sexes, 182; 6. 7. (2) to be married, to be in the mar- 
ried state: mbu.sii'lan gi, or mbushii'lank he lived with her : they lived as 

m b u k a s h — m d y a . 21 3 

ma)i and wife, 77, 2.; hii'k mbush(ila kdlamkshi tak nil tdnk mAk'le;ija tJie 
man at whose Jiouse I stopped, is married; E-ukskfshash mbushdaltk he 
was the husband of a Klamath Lake woman, 30, 19. 

m b u s li e a 1 p 6 1 i , d. mbumbsbealpgli (1) to marry the same person again. 
(2) to live again as man and wife, 60, 20. 77, 2. 78, 2. 11. 

mbu'shni, d. mbu'mbshni (1) to consort with, to cohabit, 90, 7. (2) subst., 
consort; person living' with another of the opposite sex, legitimately or not: 
Sdstiam mb. the husband of a Shasti woman. 

m b u t e'% e , mbati%i, d. mbambute'^e, mbambti;{i (1) to jump, skip, leap over 
something, as an obstruction : Titak a mb. himpoks Titak jumps over a log. 
(2) to make jumps on level ground. Mod. for himputia^i^a Kl. 

m b n't 1 X a , d. mbumb4tl;{a to jump or leap down. Of. mbAtchna, mbute'^e. 

m e a ; see mdya. 

m (^ d s h a , medshA, d. mdmdsba, memdsha (l) to rem.ove, to move away from 
the countr}- or district, to emigrate, cf. 13, 4. (2) to remove with family, 
relatives, 96, 18., or with the whole tribe: medshdpka to remove distantly 
from or unseen by the one speaking, 34, 4. 

m e d s h 4 m p e 1 i , d. memdsh4mpeli to migrate to the former place ; to return 
ivith family to the former settlement. Der. me'dshna, -peli. 

me hi ash, mdhias, mdyas, pi. tiimi m., trout; generic term for all trout, 
the most frequent there being Salmo irideus, 180; 14.: mdhiess pan to eat 
trout, cf 136, 6.; mehiashe'mi, contr. messa'mi, mdssam "?"« the trout-catch- 
ing time'", lasting from spring till autumn. Derived from meya to dig oid, 
as the term trout, Lat. tructa, Gr. rpcohrrf? is derived from Tpcoyeiv to 
gnaw, dig, make holes. 

m(i-idsha, d. memi'dsha to go to dig, to start out for digging edible roots: 
sha mbu'shant gdna md-idshuk ka'sh next day they went out to dig ipo-roots, 
118, 3. 6. 119, 1. Der. mija. 

m d - i s h , d. mdmlsh digging-ground for eatable roots, tubers and bulbs : 
gdna me-ish%dni he went to the digging-prairie, 96, 1. 

m d y a , mda, d. memia to dig out, to extract from the soil with a tool ; said 
only of edible roots, tubers, bulbs etc., the names of these being often 
subjoined; 109, 1. 118, 6 7.: 4mtatka sha m. they dig up with the camass- 
stick, 147, 10.; simply m., 95, 23. 107, 6.; md-ipks (for meyApkash) 


galdsui lie met ilieni digg'mg roots, 107, 5.; lu'piak tu;i kii'sh m<i-isht before 

she had dwj any M'sh-hulbs, 118, 5.; mci-ishi while she had dug, 119, 2. 

Sj)eaking- of more than one subject, Kl. uses meya and slitu-ila, Mod. 

slitA-ila only, q. v. 
mey6tkisli, nieyutkish, abl)r. me'yutch; Mod. me-iitkish, d. memi- 

utkish, Mod. nieniiitkish loot, spade or stick for digging edible roots and 

bulbs; camass-stick, camass-spade. Usually called ;imda, q. v. 
mc'kia, d. menic'kia to he or I)ecome childish, doting; to be in one's dotage: 

m. hu't keniutclu'iga he is doting on account of his old age. 
m e k i s li , d. mem(^kish childish, doting person. 
M e 1 a 1 k s h i , met. Lgmaikshi, nom. pr. of Shasta Butte or Mount Shasta, a 

volcanic cone in the northeastern parts of Sacramento Valley, California; 

elevation 14,442 feet (Whitney). Tu'-una Lemaikshma around Shasta 

Butte, 40, 3. Dor. m'lai. Cf. M'laiksini Yai'na. 
mgnik, mnik, d. nnn'nniak, adv. temp., oerg little; a very short lapse of 

time: m. nu pii'dshit ktana I slept very little to-night. 
m e p k a , d. mt'mapka to be encamped together, to inhabit the same locality, to 

form a community. Cf m(^wa 
m (^ p o k s , d. mdmpoks body of people living at the same spot or belonging 

together ; association, community, company: la'p m. shuldshash two military 

companies, 29, 4. Der. mt'pka Cf. kimbaks. 
m c t ' h 1 i , d. memat'hli hole, aperture, crack, cleft; said e. g. of a key-hole, 
mdtkalsh, d. memdtkalsh (1) what is carried on back or shoulders ; burden, 

load, of hay, grass, e. g. (2) bundle, pack, package, parcel. Der. mdtk'la. 
m^tk'la, mdtgla, d. mematk'la, m^matgla to carry on on£s back or 

shoulders, this being usually done with the strap on forehead: mdtklank 

a dna yutdmpksh lie carries a heavy load on his back; partic. niii'tkaltko 

load carried on back. Cf shkatkela. 
m e t- tiims;^ a, d. meTnat-tams;;^a to dig o id, excavate in the vicinity of ; to 

excavate between two places, as between fences, lodges, houses etc.; to dig 

among, in the midst of. Der. meya. 
metchish, d nu'niatchish hole, orifice, as of ear, nose. Der. mt^ya. Cf. 

gint^ish, gintch/ish, inet'hli. 
m e t s ui 6 1 s 4 w a 1 s obsidian arrow-head ; a compound term formed by 

tlie agglutination of miitchniji'tehli to shawalsh, q. v. 

meydtkish — M6atak. 215 

m e - u t k i s li , d niemi'itkish, Mod. for mey6tkisli Kl. 

mcwa, d. meniu-ua, menu'ivva to mew, to miaul; ki'tti m. the cat is meicing. 
Mod. Onomatop. Cf. hii'ma. 

m (J w a , d. me'mii, mt'mu to pitch camp, to encamp away from the lodge or 
house, oil prairie etc. Cf. medslia. 

mhishetko, d. mhinishetko oily; of oily appearance; said of faces, e. g. 

mini, d. mluVmhu (u short) grouse, 135, 3. Mod. for tmu' Kl., q. v. 

mi, mi, pron. jjoss. of second person sing., usually procl.: thy, thine; your, 
yours; mi p'gi'sliap thy, your mother; me weash (for mi wcasli) thy child, 
mi snawedsh thy wife, 142, 7.; mitant 14tchashtat in thy lodge; mitak, 
mitok just thine ; thy own ; mi tala thine alone. 

midsho, d. mimdsho ladle, spoon, 138, 5.: t6kiti mfdsii horn spoon. 

m i s h , misli, abbi-. m'sh, m's, procl. and end. obj. case of the pers. pron. i, 
thee, to thee ; yon, to you : ko-idshdwa mish nu gu tpisht / am- glad that you 
came; nu niish shdwal/uapk / tvill revenge m,yself on you; spulhi-uapka 
m's nt I would imprison you, ."iS, 11. sqq. ; tids taks mi'sh ni kiii;^a m's ni 
I knotv you perfectly well, 65, 10. C£ i, tk. 

m 1 1 a s h , midash, d. mfmtash, mimdash leggings covering the leg below the 
knee. Chin. J., from French mitasse; the Kl. term is shnAshniksh, q. v. 

m'lai-, adv., steeply, abruptly, going straight up, sloping rapidly. Cf p'lai. 

M'laiksini Yaina, noni. pr of Mount Pitt, a high mountain of the 
Cascade Range, of pyramidal shape, situated due west from the mouth 
of the Williamson River. Der. m'lai. Cf Melaikshi. 

m ' n a , m'nalam, m'ndlsh, Kl ; for p'na, p'ndlam, p'nalsh Mod., see pi, 
p'na, p'ndlam. 

m 6 a , m6at ; see mua, muat. 

M6atak, M6atok, McVdok (1) nom. pr. of Modoc Lake, also called Tule 
Lake (Kl. Tulik) and Rhett Lake; a large fresh- water basin surrounded 
by volcanic formations, situated east of Little Klamath Lake and extend- 
ing from California into Oregon, 20, 11. 21. 8.; also called Moatokni 
E-ush. Cf LutuAmi, Mayaltko fi-ush. (2) noni. ])r. of the district at 
the southern shore of Modoc Lake (one of the ancient homes of the 
Modoc tribe), and its surroundings; Mo'dokam kaila Modoc land, the 
Moatok district; klii' kedsha M. the klu-root grows in the Modoc country, 
147, 2.: cf 18. Der. muat Cf Kumbat (2), Kumbatuasli 


M6atakish, M6atok=gish, M6adokisli; see Mo'dokish. 

M6atni Koke, one of the names given to the Pit River, a large eastern 
tributary of Sacramento River, draining the whole of Pit River Valley, 
California. Its English name is derived from the pits or pit-falls dug 
out by the natives for the trapping of deer and other game on its banks 
and in the numerous side valleys. Cf k6ke (2). 

M6atokni E-ush, nom. pr. of Modoc Lake, also called Rhett Lake and 
Tule Lake. Cf M6atak. 

M6atuash, Miiatwash; or M. mdklaks, nom. pr., Pit River Indian; lit. 
"Southern Dweller". Tribes of this family occupied the largest portion 
of Pit River Valley, California, from Goose Lake down to Hat Creek. 
Raids into their territory were made almost every year by the Klamath 
Lake and Modoc Indians up to the time of the treaty of 1864; for ac- 
counts of them, see pp. 19-27 and 54, 5-15. For various depredations and 
other acts of violence committed upon American settlers a portion of these 
Indians was severely punished by General Geo. Crook in 1867 and re- 
moved to Round Valley reservation, west of the Sacramento River. Shliid 
(nad) M6atuashash tchi'pksh (for tchipkash) we saw the Pit River Indians 
encamped, 19, 15.; cf 20, 1. 5. 8. 21. etc.; 135, 3. Moatuashxe'ni into or in 
the Pit River country. Cf k6ke (2) and Notes on p. 25. Der. miiat, w4. 

M6atuasham K6ke, one of the names of the Pit River, California, 
135, 3.; lit. "River of the Southern Dwellers". Cf k6ke (2) 

Moatuashamkshlni K6ke, nom. pr. of the Pit River; lit. "River of 
the Southern Dwellers' Country". 

Mo'dokish, M6atok=gish, M6atakish, pi. tiimi M., nom. pr. (1) adj., he- 
longing or having reference to the Modoc tribe, or to the Modoc country, or to 
Modoc (Tule, Rhett) Lake; staying, living around Modoc Lake. (2) subst., 
Modoc Indian, Modoc man or woman: Moatokisli iiu'sh shlin a Modoc war- 
rior was shot in the head, 21, 18.; Moadold'sh 28, 13. stands for Moadoki'- 
shash. In the subj. case the usual form is Mo'dokni, q. v., and M6atokni. 

Mo'dokni, Moatokni, Mu'atokni, pi. tiimi M., nom. pr. (1) adj., relating, 
belonging to the Modoc people or tribe: M. maklaks the Modoc people; when 
speaking of themselves they generally say: maklaks '^the" tribe; M. 
mAklaks shellual the Modoc tvar; lit. "the Modoc Indians fought", p. 

M6atakish — rap tit a. 217 

33 (title). (2) subst., Modoc man or woman: na'sli M. one Modoc indi- 
vidual of either sex, or one Modoc man; M., M6atokni all Modocs, 134, 19. 
21. 135, 4.; tu'm shash nga'-isha Moatoki'shash (or Moatokgi'shash) they 
wounded many Modocs, 21, 16, cf. 22. 1.; M6atokni n4nka sd-ulantchna 
some Modocs marched with us, 21, 9. The home of one part of the Mo- 
docs was at the springs, Nushaltkdga,, of Lost River, cf 21, 4.; the 
other two principal settlements of this tribe were on Modoc Lake, and 
on Hot Creek, or Agdwesh, a rivulet running into Little Klamath Lake 
One half of the Modoc tribe was removed to the northeastern portion of 
the Indian Territory for having participated in the Modoc war of 1872-73; 
a few families have remained on Hot Creek, others in the Lost River 
Valley, while some 160 Modocs established themselves around Y4neks, 
on the Sprague River, in May, 1870; cf 36, 5-8. Their chiefs and head- 
men are mentioned in 58, 5—7. Der. M6atok. 

Mo'dok Point, nom. pr of a high and rocky promontory on the east side 
of Upper Klamath Lake, 34, 19., called so because the Modoc tribe 
hved there from Dec. 31, 1869, to April 26, 1870. Cf Notes to 34, 18. 
1 9. 35, 5. This locahty is one of the prominent landmarks of the coun- 
try, is frequently referred to in Indian mythic folklore, and lies about 
four miles south of the main settlements of the E-ukshikni near the outlet 
of the Williamson River. The road from Fort Klamath to Linkville 
passes at the base of the promontory. Cf Kiuti, Miiyant, shuyake'kish. 

M 6 k a i , Moke, or M. mdklaks Kalapuya Indian of Willdmet Valley, Ore- 
gon: M6keash uduyua A'-ukskni the Lake tribe whipped the Kalapuyas, 18, 2 

m 6 1 a s h , jjl. tumi m., slime, phlegm; pus. 

mp4kuala, mbakuala, d. mpampakuala to dry up on the top, as trees. 
Der. p4ha. Cf. mbdkla, mbu'ka. 

mpdmpaktish, mbdmbaktish, a species of small ducks. Incantations 
167; 28. 177; 29. 

m p d m p t i s h , pi. tumi mp. (1) one who strikes upon. (2) one who heats or 
strikes through: tchik6men=mp. blacksmith. Der. mpAta. 

mpAta, d. mpAmpta (1) fe strike, heat upon with a tool. (2) to strike into 
something after going through another object; to j)in fast to: gdn Ish tsu- 
yii'sh mp. (telak) the arrow struck me after piercing this hat, 138, 2. 


mp4tash, piit;i.sli, p<4ta, p. nip;iu]})tasli, puptasli, papta milt, spleen. 

mjjdtkia, d mpampatkia to strike down into, to heat, hit ttpon repeatedly: 
sha skukuin-liouse mpampatkia tchikeminatka they fastened the (under- 
ground) ^r/yV with nails; they nailed down the jail-cover, 60, 4. Der. mpdta. 

mp^to, mpatu, pato, pat6, d. mpAmptu, papto (1) cheek; cheek-lone: pat6 
n slili'n I shot him in the cheek, 30, 16.; mpatuam kakgo cheek hones. (2) 
yill of fish. Der. pat-, in patpatli. 

m])etltclma, d. mpemp4titchna fo float, drift; to drift aivay: yana mp. 
to drift down stream. Der. mpdtchna. 

m p e 1 1 a 7 s h , d. nipdmpetla/sli gizzard. Cf. lawAlash. 

m p e 1 1 a 1 6 n a , d. mpempatlal6na to float doivn stream : amputat mp. to float 
down on the water^s surface. 

m p e 1 1 u a u s h a , d. mpempatluansha to he afloat, to float: 4mputat mp. to 
he afloat in the ivater. 

mpet'tc'ga, mpetdga, d. mjiempat'tdga to sink down in water; to he 
drowned. Der. ampu. Cf. ktuslma. 

mpt^tehna, d. mpdmpatchna, mpii'mpatchna to float, drift; to he drifted 
away. Der. ampu. 

m p u mp ualtka. , pi. tumi mp., to huhhle up in water. Der. ampu. 

m p u t c h 1 a 1 u i s h , d. mpumpatchldluish moustache. 

m ' s h d s h , msliash, d. mstimsash chipmunk, fence-mouse ; species of squirrel 
burrowing in the ground, 110, 2. C£ waslda. 

m shashal t clia , d. mshamshdshaltcha to start on a squirrel-hunt ; mshd- 
shaltchatk (supply: gi) sha hunk they were huntiny squirrels, 110, 1. 

mil, mu, mil', d. muma, mu'm, mum (1) adv. of mvini : greatly, largely, 
extensively; much, very, a great deal. Usually procl., and placed before 
adjectives, verbs, verl)al adjectives and adverbs: mu ti'dshi nice, admirable; 
mudbuka, see Ibiika; mil tiii/ma to he very hungry; mu ktdna to sleep long; 
mu ka'na it snows heavily, 75, 17.; mu ne-ul;;a to punish in an exemplary 
manner, 59, 5.; mu tcha'k nuti'sht tvhen at last the fire hlazed with might, 
114, 1.; mu shudsha to make a^ large camp-fire, 121, 20.; mfi kinkotko wide, 
opened widely; mu nkfUitko very rapid, [14, 5.; mil' skA slii'wi it hlew very 
cold, 31, 2.; miiak, 109, 13., see below; nnVm ktakj'ditko a large, wide gash. 
Cf hiipka. (2) iidj., abbr. of muni: mu lakf head chief principal chief 

nip at ash — mukAlta. 219 

mua, mu'a, m6a, d. mi'imua, v. impers., the south wind blows ; it Mows from 
the south. Cf. muna. 

miiak, mu'ak, adv., a little more, somewhat more; more intensely, 59, 11.: 
m'na u'nakag mu'ak t'slii'sht (for the time when) his little son would have 
grown a little taller, 109, 13. Der. mu, ak 

miiash, mu'ash, d. mumuash (1) soutJi wind: mti'ash shle-uyuk when the 
south wind blows, 94, 6.; mu'ashtka in the south wind, 156; 29. its incanta- 
tion, 167; 29. (2) Muash, contr. Mu'sb, the mj^thic personification of the 
South Wind: Mu'shamkshi to or at the dwelling of the Sordh Wind,. Ill, 4. 7. 
The decapitation of the South Wind by Old Marten is related in 111, 
4—11. Der mua. Cf YAmash. 

miiat, mu'at, d. muniuat (1) subst., the south, as a point of compass; kdtsa 
muatitala (abbr. muatita) shle'wish soiifJiwest tvind, lit. "a wind a little to 
the south". Cf kitcha. (2) adv., m., muatala or muatana southward: 
mu'at geno'ga in order to go, or: ivhen going south, 186; 53.; mu'atan nat 
g^na we marched south, 31, 4. (3) adv., from the south. Cf ydmat, y^wat. 

Mu'atak, MiVatokni; see M6atak, Mo'dokni. 

miiatni, moatni, d. munu'iatni, adj., coming from southern lands; belonging 
to, or native of lands to the south. Der. miiat. Cf M6atni K6ke. 

muatch, 144, 9, for munish; see muni. 

m u i , d. mumi ivoodchuck, a species of rodents belonging to the squirrel 
family, genus Arctomys. Incantation: 154; 5. Cf mu-iie. 

m li i g i d s h a , d. mumigidsha to form eddy, to be eddying: dmbu koketat m. 
the wat^r is eddying in the river. Cf niulgidsha. 

muimuya, d. mumimuya to tremble, shiver; to be shaky like old people, 
103, 12. Also pronounced muhimuya. Cf nainaya, tushtusha. 

Mriyant, nom. pr. of a mountain near Modoc Point. 

m u y ^ n a s h , mu'yans, 60, 8., obj. case of muni, q. v. 

m u k a , d. nuiraka to menstruate. Cf yulina, stupui. 

miikaga, mukak, d. mu'mkaga, miimkak little babe, suckling child, 140, 
10.: mii'mkak gi'ulxa uniik the babies tvere born early in the morning; cf. 
109, 13.; muk4k k'laka the babe died, 78, 1. Dim. niuksh. 

mukalta, d. mumkalta (1) to become wet; to be drenched all through: 
partic. mukaltatko ivettcd, tvet; said of cloth, clothing, e. g. Kl. for pd- 


gatko Mod. (2) v. impers., it is wet, damp weather: gen ilh61ash m. this 
year the weather is wet. Cf. muka, shmiikalta. 

m li k a m u k food, provisions, eatables. Term adopted from Chin. J. Cf. push. 

mukasli, ma'kush, mil'ksli, d. mvi'mukash, mam/ikash (1) down; downy, 
soft, fine feather of birds, especially ducks: ma'kash tchuyesh head-dress 
made of pretty duck-shins. (2) plume, soft feather of animal or vegetable 
origin ; filaments composing veins of feather; plume of grass-stalk etc. : 
kdtpasham miiksh tail-feather of bird; eagle feather xncaxit&tion, 163; 11. 
(3) the finest, thinnest hair on the human head. (4) horned owl, a large 
owl-species, clothed on the breast with the finest down, length of body 
2 to 2^ feet; Bubo subarcticus: m. hii'ma the owl is hooting, 88, 6. 192; 2.; 
miikasham shn^kash lichen, lit. "owl-snot"; muk'sham ndpal oui's egg; 
mu'kisham for mu'kasham, 175; 14. (the owl's incantation). 

m u k m li k a t k o , d. mumakmiikatko provided, endowed with down, soft and 
tiny feathers, plumes ; downy ; plum.ed ; said of animals and plants, 148, 9.: 
tch^lash m. gi the plant-stalk forms a plume. Der. mukash 

mukmukli, d. mumakmukli (1) downy, soft to the touch, as cotton wad- 
ding: m. shldpsh a downy Uossom, 150; 3. (2) light-haired, fair-haired ; 
m. 14k blonde, auburn hair; lit. "hair of down color". (3) of light cinnamon 
complexion, like that of the Oregonian Indians: na'd mdklaks mu'mak- 
mukli we Indians are cinnamon-skinned, 103, 4. Cf. mukash. 

Mu'kmuksh ''■The Downy", nom. pr. of a Klamath Lake woman; having 
once suffered of a sore head, cotton wads were applied to it, which look 
like down (mukash). Cf. mukmukli (1). 

miiksh, mu'ggs, d. miimoksh, miimoggs babe, baby, infant; suckling child. 
Der. miika. Kl. for shu^ntch Mod. 

m li k u a g a , miikug, d. miimkuaga a species of forest- or Held-motise, dark 
colored. Cf. kmiimutch, kxi'dsa, miii. 

m li k u a s h , d. mu'mkuasli a grass-species of dark hue. Cf. kmil'. 

miikukaga, d. mumkukaga, little forest mouse, 179; 10. Dim. miikuaga. 

mu'lalak a species of duck with large flat bill; perhaps the shoveler or 
spoonbill duck, 180; 12. 

mu=lbuka, mulbu'ka, d. mu=lbu'lbka (1) large turnip- or bulb-shaped 
fruit growing on surface of ground : m.=l. gftk having a large turnip or buV>, 
149, 18 (2) round-shaped bunch of grass. From mu, Ibiika. 

m u k a in u k — m u 1 u a s h . 221 

mu'lgap, d. mu'lgishap, Mod. mumdlgap (1) sister-in-law; hr other's ivife, 
said by elder or younger brother; wife^s elder or younger sister, said by 
husband. (2) brother-in-law ; husband's elder or younger brother, said by 
wife; elder or younger sister's husband, said by sister. 

m II 1 1 11 a , d. mtlmlina to cut off, mow; kshiin m. to cut the grass with a scythe, 
to mmv grass, to maJce hay. Cf. mii'shka. 

mulinotkish, contr. mvilinutch, d. mumhnotkish scythe, mowing scythe. 

m u 1 i 11 u i s h , d. mumlinuish stubble. Der. muHna. 

mu'lk, d. mu'malk small insect, worm, maggot; a generic term comprising 
the smaller and less conspicuous kinds of insects and worms crawling on 
the ground or found in the earth, 145, 17. 

mu'lkaga, d. mu'malkaga insect, worm, maggot oi diminutive size, 71, 7. 
145, 17. Dim. mu'lk. 

mu'lka , mu'l%a, d. mumdl^a to be dense, thick; said of drifting fogs, smoke 
etc. : shla3'aksh m. the smoke is very dense. Der. mu, l^^n. 

mu'lmulatko bog, quagmire, mud-puddle. Cf. mu'lu. 

mulo'la (for mulu61a), d. mumalo'la to be entirely ready, to be fully pre- 
pared, 41, 19. Der. miilua. 

mu'lu, miilo, d. mumaln rotten wood, 120, 9. 121, 17.; dust or atoms of 
decayed wood-substance. 

miilua, d. mumdlua (1) to make oneself ready, to get ready, 29, 4. 31, 3. 
95, 22. 110, 22.; to prepare oneself: m. sa lit%i they got ready (for march- 
ing) in the evening, 19, 13.; m. g^nuapkug he made ready to go. (2) to be 
ready, prepared, 170; GO; miiluank nti g^na I am ready to go. 

m u' 1 u a 1 a , d. mumaluala to rot, to be rotten, to decay; said of wood, logs 
etc.: partic. mu'lualtko rotten, decayed, putrescent; m. dnku a rotten tree. 
Der. mu'lu. Cf. nd6pa. 

mulu4p6le, d. mumalu4pele to make oneself ready again, 20, 12. Der. 
miilua, -p6li. 

miiluash, mii'luesh curing implement, magic help of the conjurer in his 
treatment of the diseased. Articles serving for this purpose are bird- 
feathers, scoops, otter-skin straps, rattles, rabbit- or fox-skins etc.: kiuksh 
w4n kiukayank m. m'na the conjurer sticks out a fox-skin as his sign, 71, 2.; 
kutchi'ngshka hu' mii'luesh hoofs of young deer are my curing-tools, 166; 
21. Cf. 167; 30. 32-34. Der. miilua. 


m u 111 i e 11 ;i s h , mumia'nasli, niuiueiiish ; see muni 

mu'msli, 17, 8; see muni (1). 

mii'muatcli both ears; said of persons and animals, Kl.; word existing 
onl}- in the distributive form: ns'i-igslitant. Mod. nagslitant m. on one ear 
only. Cf. kmumutcli, nA-igshtani, ndsh6ka, wawiikasb, and Note to 177; 5. 

mii'muma to hum, hum around, to huzz: mumumsh a m. the humble-bee is 
humming, buzzing. Onomatop. 

m li m u in s li , d. mumamumsh humble-bee. 

miina, mu'na, niund, adv., deeply, at a depth, deep down, low down, 147, 6.; 
tu' m. or: mund tu down there in the bottom, deep down, 21, 15. 19. 22, 1.; 
m. Iusli4ntchna to scratch a deep round hole, 134, 7.; munana deep down, 
165; 10.; munana tatdmnisli moZe, viz. "traveler in the depth", 179; 10. 

munatalkni, adj. (1) staying deep down; coming from below. (2) Muna- 
tdlkni, nom. pr. of Munatalkni, the genius of the underground regions. 
From muna, -tala, -kni. Cf Note to 173; 3. Cf. lemuna, lemunakni. 

miini, mn'ni, obj. muyenash, muyiins, munish, poss. muye!nam; d. mii- 
meni, obj. mumia'nash and miimenisb, poss. mumienam; abbr. inu: (1) 
adj., great in the physical, concrete sense of the word: large, bulky, big; 
wide, extensive; long, tall, high: m. ^-ush ocean, sea; ni wati sword, lit. 
"long knife"; mu-u-iini very large, of colossal dimensions ; mu'yans pi'la 
Ukiash only to the head chief, 60, 8.; miiatch (for munish) kpe'l gi'tko 
having a long tail, 144, 9.; hip miimgni (shiilshesh) the tivo larger sticks 
(of four in the sp^lshna-game), 79, 2. 3.; miimgni a keM-ush the sand is 
coarse; mii'msh (or ma'msli, ma'msli) tumf! (for mu'meni u'tch tumi!) 
whether a large number (of enemies) or not! 17. 8.; wdtchag mti'menish 
wawdkash gitko fox-hound, viz. "long-eared dog". Mod.; miimeanti, mii- 
manti, cf. liitish. (2) adnlt person, grown-up man: mu'ns (for mu'nish) 
lu'gsla to make a slave of an adult man or person, 24, 1 6. (3) great in the 
abstract sense: powerful, strong, superior, mighty ; excellent; m. laki head- 
chief governor; m. lakf tlie President of the United States, 36, 21.; miVni 
Mkiam shtina'sh the President's house; or: the federal government, Mod.; 
mu'yans Idkiash skvi'kta to pay a fine to the headchief 60, 8. 

Mn'ni Yai'na, nom. pr. of a wooded mountain peak of the Cascade 
Range, west of the Klamath agency buildings: "Big Mountain". 

m u m 1 e 11 a s 11 — in ii - ii e . 

li — m u - 11 e . 223 

Munisli = Nka,skiaga=Gi'tko, nom. pr. masc. The father of this 
man, having signed the treaty of 1864, is mentioned in it as Dick 
Mosenkasket: lit. "Big-Belly-Having". 

mu'nk, (1) generic term comprehending mice and other smallest qnadru- 
peds, Mod. (2) mole, Kl. 103, 6. 7. 11. 104, 3. See under iiiuiia, mu-i'ie. 

mii'ntana drawers, imdenvear. Der. muna, -tana. 

Mu'sh, Musharakshi; see muash. 

mu'shka, d. muindshka to mow, to cut with the scijthe: ksliu'n m. to mow 
grass. Mod. for miilina, Kl. 

mushmush. Mod. vushmush, d. mumashmush (1) homed cattle, hecf; ox, 
steer, cow, calf, 21, 2. 182; 10. (2) white-tail deer; the smallest deer- 
species in the Klamath Highlands, of brown color: Cervus macrotis. 
From Ch. J. Oiiomatop. Cf. Note to 13, 13. 

m u t , adv., as reported, as alleged; the oral particle mat with the infixed u, 
hu, which points to elevation or distance, 190; 19. 

' m u t c h 4 g a , d. 'mumtchaga little old person; old man bent by age. Abbr. 
from k'mutchaga. Dim. k'miitchish. Cf. k'mutcha. 

m ri't c h e n e s h , d. mu'matchenesh large fish-net; the netting being fastened 
to a hoop. Formerly in use on the Williamson River. 

'mutch^watko, 183; 13. a common abbreviation for kmutch^watko, 
kmutchewitko, q. v. 

m il' t c h k a to hate, detest, abhor: m. nu hun hishudtchkash / hate that man. 

m u t c li u t c h u y ;i p k a , d. mumatchutchuyapka to smile. Cf. tchutcliua. 

mil- lie, mo-6we, d. mu-umu'e mole, species of the order of Insectivoroi, 
throwing up mole-hills, 127, 1-8. Mod. for mii'nk Kl. Der. mu- (in 
muna), wA Cf miii, mundna tatamnish (under miina). 


The sound n alternates with I only, and ratlier unfrequently ; cf. ntcha- 
ma'shka. Guttural and dental sounds, though in a limited number of 
terms only, become nasalized into ng, nk, nk, vy; nd, nt ; palatal sounds 
into ndsh, ntch. Initial n-, followed by a vowel or diphthong, is in a num- 
ber of terms a prefix descriptive of something thin, flat, pliant, sheet-like, 
string- or rope-like, or pointing to a motion along the ground, or on the 


hoi'izon. Initial nu-, in a series of words, is a radix i-et"ening to some- 
thing round, rounded, or bulky, heavy, moving in the air. 

na, nil'; see nat. 

na-a — Terms commencing with na-a to be looked for under na-, na-, 
excepting nd-asht, nd-asht gi. 

n4-asht, nd-ash, na'st, na'sh, na's, Mod. nu-asht, n^-ash; d. nanasht, 
ntinash, Mod. nenasht, nenash thus, so, in this manner, in the same way; 
agreeing with: ii. s^nitsal% so she discovered it to be, 64, 4.; cf. 103, 1.; nu 
nd-ash hii'shkanka gdn waitash kt6tchuapka / think it will rain to-day. 
When used with the verbs to speak, to tell etc., n. introduces the spoken 
words in their literal form as uttered: "as follows", or stands right after 
them: tu'm hdmkank n, he spoke at length as follows, 64, 8.; cf. 30, 4. 64, 
4. 5. 65, 10. 11. 70, 5-7. 10.% 1. 142, 5 sqq.; mu'nk n. hem^^e the mole 
'spoke thus, 103, 11.; cf 104, 1.; sa sii'gsa u. they reported thus, 17, 12.; cf 
23, 6.; n. sh^shatk thus named, by the name of, 29, 1. 4. 5. 9; shepkddsha 
nil mish nenash gisht I thank you for having said that, Mod.; nd-ashtak 
so again, in this sense only, 64, 6, Cf. gd-asht, n4-asht gi, tchi. 

nd-asht gi, na'shtgi, na'shtk, Mod. nd-asht gi; d. ndnasht gi. Mod. nd- 
nasht gi (1) to agree with, to conform with, to comply with; lit. "to do so, 
to act thus": mu'ni Idkiash shan4-uli nu neasht gi 1 desire to agree with 
the great ruler (God), 40, 10. From nd-asht, gi (5). (2) to say so, to 
speak thus, to speak in this manner ; the spoken words either preceding or 
following: 11. gi he said so, 95, 21., cf. 17, 8. 13. 65, 8. 95, 18.; n. giug 
for saying so, 78, 5., cf 65, 10.; hutchampeliita Lemd-ish n. giuta after 
running home (this) Thunder reported thus, 112, 5. Abbr. into na-ashtg, 
na'shtk I, he, she, or they said, 100, 19.; gi after n. is omitted in 65, 10. 
100, 17. From n4-asht, gi (6), q. v. Cf. humdsht gi, tchi, wak. 

na-ashtg, na'shtk ; see nA-asht gi. 

nd-ant, 59, 3., for ndyent; see na'dsh. 

na'd, n4d, pron. pers., we; see na't. 

na'dsh, na'sh, na's, nd-as, obj. na'dsh, na'sh, d. nanadsh, ndnash (1) 
num. adj., one; a single one: n. ke'sh one flake of snow; w/itch na'sh 
tkAlamna a single horse stood on a hill, 30, 1.; nii'sh sApash in one month, 
93, 4.; na'sh waita in one day, 127, 9.; cf 56, 7.; liii i na's luluksaluapk 

na — uadsliksh^ptani. 225 

if you sJiould cremate one (coi-pse), 59, 5.; na'sh kailatoks tchplnualank 
thei/ bury on one graveyard only, 8S, 1.; ndnash s%o's;ttash several hunches 
Cf. 20, 1. 7. 30, 2. 87, 17. 88, 7. 99, 9. 10. 114, 5-8. 125, 4-8. (2) 
other, another one; inflected differently from (1) in the oblique cases; 
see nc4yensh. (3) somebody, some one; inflected like (2); see uayensh. 
(4) next, following; see ndyensh. 
na'dsag, na'dsak; see na'dshak and nadslmsiiak. 

na'dshak, na'shak, nMsh ak (1) adj., only one, hut one, a single one only, 
95, 11.: n. kshu'n one blade of grass; n. shumaluasli one letter of the alpha- 
bet; na'shak kshe'sh sha wiuka they ivin only one counting stick at a time, 
79, 5.; na'dshek the only one, QQ, i 0. and Note; na'dshek 'mutchewatk only 
one old man, 183; 13.; patcho'le na'shak he stepped down one step only, 
112, 3. C£ kishtchna. (2) adv., abbr. from nadsha'shak, q. v. 
na'dshash, adv. {{) at one place, on one spot, locality. (2) on or to another 
place: n. shellualshgishi on another battle-field, 56, 6.; n. shiashla he re- 
moved (them) to another spot, 35, 19. Der. na'dsh. Cf ndanash. 
II a d s h a's h a k , abbr. na'dshak, na'dsag, adv. (1) loc, together, in one spot, 
88, 1., locality or district; into one spot, place or locality: n. nanuk tchia 
they live or stay all together; na'dsag tchia to live together in one spot, 28, 
14.; c£ 13, 2. 35, 1.; mu'lk u. wA the insects fly or stay together in one hevy 
or swarm; na'dsag i'tpa he gathered or collected into one district. (2) modal, 
at once, simultaneously: n hii shitishla he removed them at once, in one 
batch; n. vudshAya to crack, split all through. (3) temp., at the same time, 
simultaneously: n. tchutchtnishash win6ta they accompany in chorus the 
conjurer while he treats (the patient), 71, 5. and Notes. 
n a'd s h i , abbr. from the more frequent na'dshiak, q. v. 
na'dshiak, abbr. na'dshi, d. nana'dshiak, abbr. nana'dshi, adj., alone, 
unique; being alone, standing alone, 107, 5.: n. hii'nk none but he, 22, 21.; n. 
hu wAtch there is one horse only (]\Iod.); n. klalash, kltilesh one hailstone 
only; n. shultish the only room in the house; n. pc^lpela to work alone; 
na'dsiak mi snawii'ds your monogamic wife, 60, 21. 
nadshi^atko, d. nandshi^atko having one eye open. Der. na'dsh. 
nadshkshaptani, abbr. nashgshtipta, d. nanadshkshdptani, abbr. iia- 
nashks4pta six; 43, 10. 44, 6.: nadshgshdpta taiinep p(^-ula Mo'dokui 
sixteen Modocs, 44, 1. Der. na'dsh, -kshapta. 


n H d s h k s li a p t a ii kni, d. iianadslikshaptAnkni six times: n. td-uniiji (or 
td-unip, taiinop) sixty; lit. "six times ten"; n. taiinep Ydmakni sixty 
Warm Spring scouts, 43, 20.; of. 43, 5. 

iia'ds%eks, d. ii4nads;ijeks nine; lit. "one left over"; iiauads%eks Idpensh 
liihasliudkshish nine to each two men. Kl. for skekish Mod. 

n ads;^ oksht Ank ni , d. nanads%ekshtdnkni tiine times ; K.\.: n. tc-iinap 
(or tc'-unip, taiinep) ninety. 

nj'idsli p akslit, 96, 17.; see natspka. 

n a - e n d s ; same as ndyents, q. v. 

naggciy a, nakdya, d. nangaya, v. trans., to hang iq), to suspend; said of 
thin or sheet-like objects: tchiiyesli n. to Itang up a hat. Der. agg;iya. 

naggfdsha, d. nanggi'dsha, v. intr , to circle, to float, turn about in the air; 
said, e. g., of birds: tchuai'sh ai nu n. I the vulture am circling above, 
170; 62. Der. aggfdsha. Cf kshakddsha, kakldsha. 

nd'lilish, d. naniilish howstring, 21, 10. 11. 

n a ' h n 1 a s h , nanfas, a mytliic dioarfish human creature leaving small foot- 
prints like those of a little child behind him; is visible only to Indian 
conjurers: 163; 13. and Note. 

n d - i , pi. tumi n., seed basket made of roots and having a diameter of 
2 to 2 J feet; women carr}- it on their backs Avhen gathering tchfpash 
and other small seeds: lui-iti m'ndlam sha skayamtch pash /imbutch 
i'kugank they carried in their basket food and water, which they had placed 
into it, 95, 15. 

nd-igsh tani , Mod. ndgshtani, abbr. na'gsta, adj., half parted, halved, 
half: n. ktiishkuish one half cut off, one half of ; n. Boshtin of half ivhite 
blood and the other half either Indian or other race; la'p td-unap pe-ula 
nagshta twelve and a half ; na'dsh tAla pen n;i-igsta, Kl. ; nddsh t41a (pan) 
niigsta, Mod., one dollar and a half ; nagshtdni a'pulsh half an apple; nA- 
igshtala shepdt^a to sever, break off at one end; cf. ktiishkuish; ma' sha 
nu na'gshtant miimuatch, Kl , I suffer pain in one ear; see mu'nuuitch, 
ndsh6ka. Der. na-i in ndyents, na-it%cni, nafnaya. 

nafnaya, v. intr., to totter, tremble, as an animal stunned by a blow; to 
shake, shiver when chilled liy frost or winds, 156; 27. Lit. "to sway to 
and fro laterally". Cf uuiimiiya. 

nadshkshaptAnkni — nak^ntkni. 227 

nai shhikgi sh, d. naishlashlAkgish (1) species of beetle with large 
fangs, brown-colored and found in rocks. (2) fang of beetle; horn of 
the horned toad or horned frog; naishlashl4kgish=gitko horned toad, horned 
frog, Mod.: Phrynosoma {platyrrhinumf), 91, 9. Cf shlakat6tkish (2). 

n a i t a 1 1 e 1 s h n a to stretch or extend on one side, sideways : naitaltdlshnank 
husho'dshua to ride sideways, women fashion. Der. na-i (base), t^ltali. 

na-it%tini at one extremity or side: yekual61a Anku n. to break a stick at 
one end. Cf. get^c'ni, under g^t. 

n A y a n t a , ndyant ; oblique case of ndyensh, q. v. 

ndyensh, n4y6ns; also nddsh, na'sh, nas; obj. nay(jnash, ndyents, n4- 
ends, poss. nayenam, na-ji'nam, d. nanf-ensh (1) another one; other, another: 
nA-ends nu'sh shlin Muatokish another man, a Modoc, was shot in the head, 
21, 18., cf nAyens, 22, 11.; tchAki a hu'sht%a ndyents one boy scares an- 
other; ktiwal%at na-(^ntch tchkash! lift ye up another man besides (me)! 22, 
15., cf 18.; ha'doks i nA-ant snawii'dshash sheto'lakuapk but if you cohabit 
with another wife, 59, 3.; ha nAyiins hissuAksas ma'shitk kalak when another 
man (than the conjurer) has relapsed into the same disease, 72, 1. and Note; 
na'shtoks but the other one, 23, 19. cf 24, 8.; nA-ens to another, 20, 18.; 
nash tcha'shash another skunk, 127, 10.; nAyanta wa'shtat hiilhe he ran 
into another hole, 127, 7.; nAyanta kafla elsewhere. Cf 112, 5. 10 125, 
4-8. (2) somebody, some one, the Lat. quidam: ha i nA-ands sat61akuapk 
if you should sleep) iv'ith some man, 60, 1.; nAsh hishuaksh some married man, 
61, 9. (3) next, following, subsequent: nAyantka shAppesh next month; 
na-Jintka sko'shtka tlie next spring season, 21, 1. Cf 66, 2. 

n a k , onomatopoetic imitation of the cry or muttering sound of the beaver; 
ki' nak en gi' (for: ki' nak, nen gi'), 185; 43. and Note. The kl' standing 
first is the particle ke. Mod. kie, q. v. 

iiAka, d. nAnaka cinnamon bear; also called red bear, yellow, brown and 
black bear, the color of his fur changing with the season: TJrsus ameri- 
canus, var. cinnamomeus. This bear is a variety of the witix'm, not a dif- 
ferent species, though the Indians distinguish closely between the two. 

n A k a ii t for nAnukant; see nAnuk. 

nakAntkni, adj., coming from everywhere; belonging to all surrounding 
places, countries: nAnukash=nAkantkni mAklaks gAtpa all tribes of Indians 
have come. Contr from nAnukantkni. 


nakia, d. luiuakia to patch, to mend; said of garments etc. Cf. lakia. 

ndkish, nAggish, d. na'nkish (1) patch for mending. (2) sole of foot. 

iiAkosh, nj'ikilsh, d. mlnkosh, nAnggosh dayn made of felled ov fallen trees; 
river-obstruction, fish-trap. The mythic dam destroyed by the loon upon 
K'mukamtch's order was a lumber-dam similar to a beaver-dam and 
fastened upon rocks projecting from the river bottom, 132, 1-8.: n. 
gii'tant to the other side or end of the dam, 132, 4.; nak6tk (for nakotka) 
on account of its dam, 143, 1.; pumam n. heaver dam. Der. nakua. Cf. 
akuash, otilks, pAplish. 

N a k 6 s k s i k s , nom. pr. of a fishing-place in the Sprague River, near its 
junction with the Williamson River: '^At the Pile-Dam^\ 

n A k u a , d. nan;ikua to build a dam, to dam up the water. Der. Akua. 

nakushkshakshni, adj., living near a lumber-dam; inhabitant of the 
place where the dam is, 1 32, 3. Der. ndkosh 

n a k u s h % e'n k n i , d. nankushze'nkni, 132, 6 ; same as nakushkshakshni. 

n a 1 , nal, Mod., abbr. from nalash, na'lsh, pron. pers. ; see nat. 

nalam, na'lam, pron. poss., our, ours, of us, belonging to us; the poss. case 
of nat, tve, q. v.: n. p'gi'shap our mother, 120, 3.; n. hishuaksh our 
common husband, 95, 10. — NAlamtak, na'lamtoks of ourselves, our oivn; 

■ nalamtoks mdklaks our own people, tribe; nalamtak ktlila our own country. 

n a n a s h g i s h , pi. tumi n. butcher. Der. nashki. 

nan flash, a species of little bird, ascending high in the air, 177; 24. 
Dei", ndna. 

n a n k a , n{m%-A, d. nananka some, a few, 64, 1 . ; a part, portion, section of; 
something, 22, 7. 23, 3. 7. 24, 17.; n. toks but the others, 95, 11.; n. lulu- 
agsla some became prisoners of war; n. tchrtka some perish, fade away, 148, 
22.; n. vumi' some they buried, 85, 17.; nanka .... n4nka, or nanka .... 
nan^atoks some — some, some — some others, one part — the other part, 17, 14. 
15. 20, 16. 28, 10. 44, 9. 10. 

nAn^atch, contr. either (1) from n;inka tcliish some also, 16, 7., or (2) 
from ndnka tchui then some, or (3) from nilnka sha some they. 

ndn ui as soon as; immediately after: n sh;jol%6tak as soon as he laid him- 
self down, 113, 12. and Note. 

n k n u y a to make everything ready; to put in readiness, said of inan. objects, 
30, 14. Der. ndnui. Cf inulua. 

nAkia — nAnuktua. 229 

nanukj obj. anim. nanuktinash and ndnuk, obj. inan. nAnuk; local ndnii- 
kanta, contr. nAkanta, iijikant (1) all, every; every one, everything: iia'd n. all 
of us, 66, 16.; n. m/iklaks all people, all men, 85, 13. 134, 7; all the tribes, 
54, 18.; n. every person, wan, 22, 20. 85, 12. 99, 7.; I'xak n. sas he won 
everything from them, 99, 8.; n. sh(^gsha to explain everything, 95, 20.; n. . 
nadsha'shak sliuina all sing in a chorus; n. tuA, nanuktua everything, q. v. ; 
n. psliin every night, cf nishta; n. iii tids shla'popka shash I could distin- 
guish every one of their nimiber, 22, 14.; iiAnuki (for n gi) all are, 91, 8.; 
nanuk(3nash lalakiasli all the chiefs, 56, 2. (2) whole, entire, in its totality, 
the whole of- n. shulota to pint on the whole dress, all garments; ii. shrd6tish 
the whole garb, dress, 95, 7.; piishish n. mshash pdn the cat ate up the whole 
squirrel; n. slidllualsh the entire war, 44, 11.; n. the ivhole of his body, 

95, 13.; of her body, 119, 10.; kaila=nt'ikant (for nAnukant) all over the 
land, 64, 16.; over, through this ivhole country, 157; 40. 

nAniikash, adv., everywhere, in every part, all over,' throughout, 168; 43. 
1 73 ; 6. : tchu'leks n. k'lekiipkash i'dsh%a they laid the flesh all over the 
body of the deceased, 85, 8.; n.=kiiila everywhere, 148, 11.; all over the world, 

96, 23.; n. shla'sh ki I can see all over, into every corner, 22. 17. Quoted 
under Ita, q. v. Cf. na'dshash, ndanaali. 

n ii n u k a s h = k si 1 1 a k n i , ( 1 ) adj , coming from, belonging to every land. 
(2) 9,\xh9.t., persons, natives from all parts; kA-i tatA lu'luagsla n. the sur- 
rounding tribes never made slaves, 1 7, 20. Der. nAnukash, kilila. 

n a n ii k A s h k n i , uanukAshni, also nAnukasli=ki'sh (1) settled everyivhere; 
inhabiting all parts of the country, coming from every part: E-ukskni pi'la 
lu'luagsla nAnukasli=ki'sas gii'nta kailatat only the Lake People enslaved all 
the Indians settled within this country, 17, 21. (2) general, universal: nAnu- 
kashni kaila the universe. 

nAnuktua, nAnuk tua, obj. nanuktuAlash (1) all different kinds of, every 
kind of articles, 71, 7. 87, 4.: n. shAyuaksh knowing everything, smart, 
intelligent; tumi n. ginhi^na house furniture. Mod.; n. shunuisliAltko rich, 
wealthy; n. kia'm every species of fish, 130, 1. Like tuA and kaitua, n. 
applies also to persons and to things personified: nanuktuAlash sha 
shtuli'dsha they enjoined to every article, to every object, 120, 21.; mi 
sA-amoks n. your relations of all degrees, 142, 15. Cf. 145, 1-9. (2) 


everything, all things; all objects indiscriminately; nAnuktuanta in regard 
to all things, 59, 19.; nanuktudnta pdpuadshnisli spendthrift, too lavish 
perxon; n. kd-i i i^(x]\.\\iv^\<. you shall steal nothing whatever, 68, 13. 14.; d". IC. 

N d n u k t u a S h d y u a k s h , nom. pr. fern. Mod. ; sec ndnuktna (I) 

ndpal, d. ndnpal egg, 185; 45.: n. hashpdpka to hatch eggs. 

ndpSnapsh, d. natndpgnapsh temple-hone, temple. 

na's, a kind of tule or bulrush, used in manufacturing arrows 

na'sh, na'shkshapta; see na'dsb, nat; nadshkshdptani. 

ndshki, na'shge, d. nandshgi (1) to skin, flay: nashgiuta while skinning. 
(2) to butcher, slaughter; to cut up. Cf. ndnashgish. 

nashkiutna, nashgiutna, d. nanashgiiitna to skin, flay with, by means of, 
as with a knife or other instrument, 126, 8. Der. ndshki. 

nashkiila, d. nanashkiila to skin, flay, to remove the skiti. Der. ndshki. 

na'sni, 142, 5. sqq. ; contr. from nd-asht ni. 

na'shtk, na'shtg; contr. from nd-asht gi. Cf nd-asht gl. 

nat, na't, ndt, nat, nad, na'd, ndd; apoc. Mod. na, na'; obj. ndkish, na'lsh, 
natch, na'sh. Mod. na'l; poss. ndlam, q. v., loc. na'lamtant: pron. pers. of 
first person plural, ive; us, to us, for us: kd-i nat kdktant (for: kdkta ndt) 
we did not sleep, 31, 8. 9.; ndts shla'pka Sha't the Snake Indians perceived 
or noticed us, 29, 7.; na'sh for na'lash, 20, 9.; na'ts shlad M6atuash the 
Pit River Indians saw us, 21, 14.; shaplya na'tch they notified us, 23, 5.; 
at na gdtpa we arrived there, 33, 5. Cf 31, 9-13, 103, 4. 120, 1-8, 121, 
10. 22. 122, 7. 8. 192; 3. 

n a'ta , ndta, d nana'ta, a species of small black duck. Incantation, 1G7; 31. 

ndtak, ndtoks (for na't tak, na't toks); obj. ndlashtak, na'lshtak: (1) with 
emphatic signification : just we, none but we ; often marks syntactic con- 
trast. (2) pron. refl., ourselves: na'tak hlshlan we had shot one (or more) 
of our own party, 24, 4. ; ndtakinki we for ourselves. Cf itak, niitak. 

n d t Iv a 1 g a , d nandtkalga to blaze up. Der. niita. 

n d t k o 1 u a ; see nutkolua. 

ndts, ndtch, na'tch; contr. for na'lash; see nat. 

n a t s a g { u 1 a , d. nantsagiula to melt off at the bottom of cooking utensils. 
Der. natchdka. Cf n%uta, n^utdgia. 

natchdka, natsdga, d. nantchdka, v. intr., to melt, dissolve by fire heat. 

NAniiktua Shdyuaksh — nddnash. 231 

ndtspka, nAdshpka to he burnt up, to be consumed by fire, to he charred: 
n. tchulii'ks the body was consumed, 89, 4.; Aisliish pAksli ke-ulalapka 
nddshplk:sht Aishish pushed the tohacco-pipe further (into the fire), until it 
was all burnt up, 96, 17. Der. nuta. 

n a li k a s h , contr. no'ksh, d. nauaukash throat: n. liiktcha to cut somebody's 
throat; nu ktdkta g^-u n. I cut my own throat. 

N A - u k i , nom. pr. of Butte Creek Lake, a water basin of the Modoc High- 
lands, in CaHfornia, about forty miles from Upper KUxmath Lake. 

naiiknauksaksh guUet of quadrupeds. : n. slakdga the gullet hangs down. 
Der. naukash 

ntiwal, d. minual (1) v. intr., to lie, he lying upon; said of thin or sheet- 
like articles: pipa tcibullat n paiters are lying on the table. (2) v. intr., to 
be fastened on or upoti. (3) v. trans., to put or place at the top of, to fasten 
at the upper end of. Cf newal. 

nawAlash, contr. nawalsh, d nanudlash, ndnualsh (1) ^'omi, «r^icwto'o« 
of body : pdtcham ndwalsh i^istep of foot. (2) n. or n^pam n. ivrist of hand, 
wrist-joint Cf kapkapo. (3) whip reed, thin whip-stick; a small rod in- 
serted into the top of the Western whip-stick or vutuk6tkish. 

n ii'n s ak m vain, to no avail; to no purpose: na'nsak toks 1 nen sakamka in 
vain you attempt to deny or to controvert it, 65, 9. Kl.; cf huna'shak. 

nda-itia, ndaitia, ndu-iti, d. ndandi'ti, ndanda-iti, v. impers. (1) to feel 
cold, to be cold on limbs: nd. a n's my hands and feet are cold; ndandi'ti 
na Ish our hands and feet are cold. (2) to be benumbed hy cold, as in a 
foot, finger, to have a limb/ro^e«. Cf. kdtka. 

n d dka , d nddnt/a to pound, pound fine, mash with a flat piece or board of 
wood. C£ gama (to mash witli a stone), nduka. 

n d d k a 1 , ntaggal, d. nddntkal to find by chance; to pick or gather up fortui- 
tously, 134, ) 3. Speaking of more than one object, itkal. Cf. Idiikala. 

n d a k a 1 k a n k a , d. ndandkalkanka to find accidentally while going, to pick 
up while walking, 126, 4. Der. ndakal. 

n d 4 k a 1 p a t a , ntdkalpata, d. nda'ntkalpata to he in violent agitation, to form 
surf; said of water: 4mpu, e-ush nd. the water, the lake is surfy. Cf nduka. 

ndan, d. nddndan, abbr. form of ndani (1), q v. 

n d a H a s li , d. nddndanash, adv., (1) at three places. (2) in a third place or 


location: at Mo'dokni nd. 'pelpeltAmpka then the Modocs commenced to work 
in a third place, 35, 20. Der. ndAni. Cf. Idpash, na'dshash, ndnukasli. 

ndanii'yala, ndanc'ala, d. ndandanii'yala to have triplets; to hear three 
cJiildren at once. Der. nd;'ini. Cf. Lipeala, pdyala, we'kala 

n d a n ji,' y a 1 s h triplets, tliree children born at one 1)irth. 

n d a n d a k s n i the three stars in Orion's belt. Der. nddni. 

n d {in i , nddnni, abbr. ndiin; d. nddndani, abbr. ndAndan: (1) numeral adj., 
three: nddna shdktat^atko one third; ndanne'ntch wdwanshish (for ndan- 
ndnash wewanuishash) to three (of his) wives, 96, 9.; ndanni waftash three 
days. (2) adv. (not in the abbr. form nd;in), thrice, three times; 59, 16.; 
nd. tc-unap, ndanni tii-unep thirty; nddnnitaks n i tameno'tka ^Aree ^mes / 
have been there, 25, 1., cf 2.; nd. walta for or after three days, lit. "three 
times a day has elapsed"; nd. tlnshna sunde=giulank wafta Wednesday ; 
nd. ill61a, Kl. illol61a after three years. (3) adv., nd., (not: nd;in) during, 
for or after tliree days; waita being omitted. Cf maktchna. 

n d a n k s h il p t a n i , abbr. ndankstipta, d. ndandankshaptani, adj., eight: nd. 
mdklaks waw4pka eight Indians sat there, 42, 1. Der. nd4ni, -ksh4pta. 

ndankshaptfinkni , d. ndandakshaptdnkni, numeral adv., eight times: 
nd. t4-unep eighty ; lit. " eight times ten". 

nddga, nddka, d. ndenddga, Mod. nddntga (1) v. intr., to explode, hurst, 
hurst iip. (2) V. trans., to crush; to pound, thresh. Cf rabawa, ndAka, tega. 

n d d k a n i , d. ndendgani ; same as ndshdkani, q. v. 

nddksktsa, d. ndendaksktsa ; same as ntfkshktcha, q. v. 

n d d k t a , d. ndend4kta to stain, dot with, to make stains or dots, to dot over. 

ndektish, d. ndendAktish dot, stain. 

ndektana, d. ndendektana to stain over and over, to make dots all along: 
partic, nde%atanatko stained over, studded with marks etc. Cf ndc'kta. 

nddna, d. nddnda (1) to cry or scream aloud, to halloo; to halloo at some- 
body to come, 68, 3. 71, 1. (2) to talk indistinctly; to prattle, as cliildren. 
(3) to speak in public; to deliver a speech, discourse; to preach. 

Nddndinish, nom. pr. masc Kl. : "Prattler" ; name given in early 3'outh. 

N dS's, nom. pr. of a Klamath Lake man; interpreted by "Swimmer" (?). 

nddtchgi, nddtchki, d. ndenddtchki. Mod. for nddtchka Kl., q. v. 

nddtchka, d. ndend4tchka (1) to feel shame, to be ashamed, to blush: nd. 
nu I am ashamed. (2) to be timid, bashful. Kl. for nddtchgi Mod. 

ndanli'yala — nd6pa. 233 

nddtchkish shame, feeling of shame, blushing. 

n d e - u k u e 1 a , d. ndendukudla, ndindukut'Ia to fall downhill; to roll cloivn 
the hill; to Jlow down. Speaking of more than one subject, wetknela. 
Der. ndewa (2), -kucla. 
n d e - u k u e 1 a p e 1 i , d. ndendukudlapeli to roll downhill again, to fall down 

an eminence previously ascended, 23, 10. 
nd(i-uli, ndi'-uli, d. ndende-oli, ndindiuli to fall down; to slide or rush 

downwards, to roll down. Speaking of two or more subjects, wetuli: tsi'ii 

weto'Ii lali'shtat then they rushed doivn the slope, 21, 15. 
n d e - u If n a , ndi-ulina, d. ndinde-ulina to fall or roll down a small distance. 

Der. ndewa (2). Cf. nd(j-iit%i. 
ndd-ul^a, ndi-ulza, d. ndendd-uljja, ndinde-iilgka (I) to fall from an 

upright position; to fall ivhile standing or going, 23, 19.: ndiulakslit ni'sh 

after I have fallen ; or: ivhen lam Jcilled in battle, 40, 5.; nde-ulxc-ipkash 

Idktcha u'hen he had fallen, they cut his throat, 42, 10. (2) to let oneself 

fall or timhle down, 30, 13. (3) to roll doivn, downhill. Der. ndc'\A'a (2) 
n d e - n s li k a , ndi'-ushka, d. ndi'ndushka to fall down by becoming detached; 

to get loose, to break off, 118, 10. 
n d (i - u t z i , ndi'-ut;^i, d. ndindut;)ji to fall down from a height, tree, rock etc. 
ndewa, ndfwa, d. ndendua, ndfndua (1) to fall into the water: kta-i n. the 

stone fell into the water; nu (amputat) ndi'wa / let myself fall into the 7vater. 

(2) to fall down, roll or topple over. Cf gewa, huwa, tinua. 
ndewa to scream., vociferate; to laugh loudly, 192; 7. Cf ndena. 
n d e w a k s li k a , ndi'wakska, d. ndinduakska to come near falling into the 

ivater; to roll almost into the water. Der. nd^wa (I). 
n d e w a n k a , ndi'wanka, d. ndendowanka, ndinduanka to fall dorm from 

a sitting position ; to topple over, 23, 1. 30, 16. Der. ndewa (2). 
ndilasli, ndiish, pi. tumi nd., species of gudgeon not unlike in size to the 

sardine. Tlie ndilsh-catching season (ndilsa'mi) lasts throughout * the 

warmer months of the year. Der. tila (1). 
ndi-ush, pi. tiimi n., kangaroo rat; probably JacM^ws hudsonius. Mod. 

Cf. gi'wash, nddwa. 
n d o'k a 1 s li , pi. tumi n. foam, froth oftvater. Cf ndakalpdta. 
ndopa, ndiipa, d. ndu'ntpa (1) v. intr., to be rotten, mtisty, decomposed. 


said of fruits etc.; to stagnate, said of liquids; to become putrescent: ndu- 

patko fetid, stinking, rotten. (2) v. intr., to curdle; said of milk: ndupatko 

ddshasli serum of milk; also stvill milk. (3) v. trans., to smell, to perceive by 

the sense of smell, 134, 10. Of mu'luala, ntiiptpa, tiipesh. 
n d II y u a to strike each other, to fight, to inflict blows. Der. nduka. 
nduka, d. ndiVntka to strike by hand or with a weapon; to strike, hit with 

the bill, when speaking of birds: liiepalsli a liuidv nd. latcliash lightning 

struck the house. C£ ndukish. 
ndukish, abbr. ndfi'ks, d. iiduntkish (1) pigeon-hawk, American merlin, 

popularly called in Oregon : sparrow-hawk, king-hawk : Falco coliunbarius 

L., 180; 4. This bird strikes his game on the breast. (2) pestle, 180; 

20.— Cf. ska'. Der. ndiika. 
ndund6tatuash, a popular name of the silver fox or wan, and of the 

young silver fox, wanaka, q. v. 
ndupash, d. ndu'ntpash putrid smell, rottenness, "rotten stink^\- nd. pilui 

to emit a rotten smell. Der. nd6pa. 
ndu'pka, d. ndu'ndupka to beat; to assault, attack with blows. Der. nduka. 
ndupual^a, nd'hu'pual^a, d. ndu'ndapual^a to bubble up in hot water. 

Der. nd6pa. Of. kmult%aga. 
ndupula, d. nduntpula to be in commotion; said of waters: d-usli nd. the 

lake has waves without wind. Lit. "to cease stagnating". Der. nd6pa. 
ndsdkia, d. nds4nsakia [1) to stop up, close an opening. (2) to be choked 

through swallowing something obnoxious or too bulky. Cf ycts;^aka. 
Nds^kiaks, nom. i)r. of a Modoc headman, who signed the ti-eaty of 

1864 and is mentioned in it as Chuckeiox; "Almost- Choked". Der. ndsdkia. 
ndsiikish hole, opening, orifice, chink, slit. Der. ndsakia. 
n d s h a m a - a , Mod. ndsham;i-a, d. ndshandshdma-a to look on, to be a 

spectator: nanuktua n. to look at everything. 
ndshiipka, nshdpka, d. ndshaiishapka (1) to x)Ound, to pound fine, to mash, 

as grains in a mortar: s^dtka n. to pound with a pestle. (2) to mash, break; 

to clash to pieces, to break forcibly : nshdpkuapka nu wdkamua I shall smash 

the tumbler to pieces. Cf. yadshtipka 
n d 3 h a s h 1 1 n a , d. ndshandshashh'na to brush down ; to wipe down from. 
n d s h a s li 1 6 1 a , d. ndsliandshashlola to brush off; to wijie, to wipe off. 

ndiiyua — ndshishlza. 235 

n d s h 6' d s h , nds^dsh, ndslii'tch, tsddsh, tchdtch, d. ndsh^ndshadsh, tsen- 
tsatcli, tchdtchatch: (1) generic term for shell, hardcover: ndpalam n. egg- 
shell; hard fruit-shell, as of walnut, filbert etc.; seed-receptacle, pod. (2) 
outside lark of tree or shrub, synonymous with kn^-udshe: ndshictchatka 
knu'ks a sha shiishata /rom (willow) hark they make strings, 82, 11. 12. 

(3) snake skin, when on body and before being shed. Cf skinshgdkuish. 

(4) mythic cetacean, fabulous "whalejish" said to exist in Western rivers. 
K'miikamtch made it as large "as a house", put it into Lost River, and 
if anybody has the misfortune of seeing it, he will die. Fossil bones of 
it are said to exist on Lost River, and the name is evidently derived from 
some kind of petrifactions. 

ndshekani, tch(ikani, tsekeni, loc. ntchekdyant, d. ndshdndshkani, 
tchdtchkani: (1) adj., small-sized, small, little, petty; fine, tiny, exiguous, 148, 
12. 13.: tchdkan'e a kgld-ush this sand is fine; tchiikeni kia'm small fish; 
ntch^kayant kshii'nat on small grasses, 148, 5.; ndnuktua nshendshkiine 
everything that is small-sized, 71, 7.; c£ 149, 12.; ndshdkansh (shiilshesh) 
shlfn at the slender (game-sticks) they guess, 79, 3.; cf 2. (2) subst. and 
adj., child, offspring; the young of certain animals, as quadrupeds, birds; 
young and small: ndshenshktini the young (cranes), 122, 11. 13. Cf kitch- 
kdni, ntchdlka, -tkani, tchdki. 

ndshdl%a to understand, comprehend: kd-i a nu n. / do not understand. 

n d s h i (i t c li , 82, 11.; other form of ndshe'dsh, q. v. 

ndshilo, d. ndshindshalo (I) female of certain animals: n. watchAga 
bitch. (2) n. or n. watch mare. Cf giilu, ndshekani, t'shin. 

ndshfluaga, d. ndshindshaluaga (1) yourig or small female of certain 
animals; ndsiluag w4tsag young bitch. (2) n. or n. wdtch young mare, 
mare colt. Dim. ndshilo. Cf guluaga. 

ndsliindshishkanka, d. ndshindshandshishkanka to drizzle down in 
atoms: kt6dshash n. a drizzling rain comes down. Kl. for tchiptchima Mod. 
Dei-, tchi- in ndshishl/a, tchidga, tchishkidsha. Cf limlima. 

ndshiptchpa, d. ndshindshdptchpa (1) to be irritated, to ivax wroth. (2) 
to be petulant, to show oneself reckless. 

ndshishl%a, d. ndshindshashlza (1) v. intr., to drip dotvn, to -ome down 
in small drops. (2) subst., drop: w.. drnputi a drop of water. 


n (1 s h i' t c li , (I. ndslifiidsliatcli ; same as ndsli6'dsh, q. v. 

ndsh6ka, ntohu'ka, d. ndshu'ndsxa, ntchu'ntchka (1) v. impers., to he 
deaf: n. niisli you are deaf; ndshokd nish nA-igstant ma'shok I camwt hear 
with one ear, being sick. (2) v. trans., not to understand: n. a nad Scistiam 
wdltoks we do not understand the Shasti language. Cf. ndshdl^a. 

ndshok61atko, ndslmkulatko, d. ndslioiidsli%ulatk() curled, curly: n. l<4k 
curly hair. Cf. tchitaksh. 

11(3, 105, 4.; abbr. from nen, q. v., like ma from mat. 

nd-asht; ndasht gi, Mod. for na-asht; na-aslit gi, Kl., q. v. 

n d d s z a , nii'ds;{a, nli'dska to lay on the top of, to apply over; said of flat, 
tliin articles, sheets etc. Td, 4. 

n e i n d y a , 174; 8. same as nfnia, q. v. 

neg, ne'g, ndk, nil'g, obj. ncgsh, pi. ne'gsha, nii'gsha absent, gone; who has 
gone, who has left, 119, 17. 19.: tu'm ne'gsh p'gi'sha malam tcliu'leks 
shewana they gave much meat to your absent mother, 119, 17 ; wak giug 
nii'g tu'm liaktch shii])esh shushdta? ivhy did the absent mother-coyote make 
too many moons f 105, 7.; tam i nii'gsh shiwaksh shliia? did you see the 
girl who is absent from home? 140, 9. Cf kuinag. 

ndya, nc'a, nd-i, d. nc'ni (I) to give, to tender, hand over; as cloth, paper, 
sheet, rope, thread, and speaking of one article only: ndat ish knu'ks! 
give ye a thread or string to me! nd-i ish (contr. nd-ish) hu'n t6ntish! give 
me that rope! see: i-eshk6tkish. (2) to pay in one greenhaclq note or check. 
— Speaking of many objects given or paid out, shewana Cf liiya, uya. 

n d k 1 a , nikla, d. nendkla, nlnakla (1) to lay down, deposit, place upon or on 
the top of; said of objects of a flat, even, sheet-like, or thready, string- 
like shape: Shii'kamtch spii'kua m'na tchii'ksh, maksha ndklank Old Crane 
Xmrted his legs, placing a skull-cap upon one of them, 122, 23. (2) n. or 
partic. ndklatko, niklatko, numeral classifier placed after numbers from 
10 to 19, 21 to 29, 71 to 79 etc, / lay doivn, he, she deposits upon; laid 
down, viz "counted". Der. ikla. Cf. \\6\%a. 

n e 1 1 n a , d. nenlina {\) to skin, flay. (2) to scalp: kd-itat sa nelli'nat they 
never loere in the habit of scalping, 19, 3.; tsiii neli'na nu then I scalped 
him, 30, 17.; neWnnlank having terminated the scalping act, 30,20.; shana- 
uli nelinash they were willing to scalp (him), 42, J 5. 43, 21. Der. nl'l. 

ae'lka, d. nene'lka; see ni'lka. 

ndslii'tcli — udp. 237 

ndlktclia, d. nendlktcha to leave, leave behind, relinquish; refers to thin, 
tissue- and thi-ead-like articles only. Der. elktclia. Cf. Idlktclia. 

ndlka, ne'l^a, n(^l;^a, d. nenalka, nenal^a, v. intr., to hum, to he hurnt vj)i 
to he reduced to ashes, as houses, trees. Cf. shn^-ilaks, shncka, shn(^l;^a. 

nel%a, d. nenalka to lay down, to deposit on tlie ground or elsewhere: 
n. m'na tchuyesh he laid down his hat, 112, 18. Der. i\%'A. Cf n(^kla. 

n e n , nen, abbr. ne, end. oral particle used sometimes adverbially, some- 
times as a conjunction; usually the second word in the sentence, it alludes 
to the words, speech, or conversation of others, as to the contents only, 
not to the words themselves. Cf mat. To be translated by: "as re- 
ported, as alleged, as they say, as you say; I say so": kanitan nen kani'g 
(for kani gi)'l who is outside f viz: who says that he is outside? tAt' nd 
gempka? where did she gof viz: where did she say she would go, 105, 4.; 
dtenen gakdyoluapka, nen sa skuyokoyo'la wewAnishash; nA-asht nen 
waltka noiv, as they say among themselves, they are going to leave the ivoods, 
they ivill send the women away from there, 23, 5. 6.; tua nii mish nen sha- 
piyash liAmene I want to tell you something, 40, 7.; tua nen? tvhat is it you 
sayf i-u ndnak yan'wan i as they say, you may he suffering (for nen ak), 
183; 12.; nen shapa they say so, 140, 5.; cf 64, 4. 11. 120, 7. 122, 21. 
Nen also refers to other sounds than those of the human voice; the 
tsis%i;ji-bird says about its own voice: nu ai nen nu shui'sh gi I sing my 
own song; viz: my twittering is my song, 170; 59.: cf ndnu. 

nena (1) v. trans., to hring or carry something thin or string-like. (2) v. 
intr., to move, heat, flap the tvings tvhile walking on the ground, as birds do 
when starting to fly up, 158; 49. Kl. for shne'dsha Mod. Der. dna. Cf. 
Idua, nalnaya, ninia. 

Nenatchkish, nom. pr. fern.; interpreted by "Sunken-Eyes". 

nenea, 174; 8. same as ninia, q. v. 

n e n 6 1 ;( i s h , d. of nd-ulaksh, q v. 

n d n u , na'nu as I hear from the distance; as heard from afar or from above, 
189; 3 ; nii'nu wlka=sliitko mukash hil'ma an owl is screeching U2) there, 
and seemingly close by, as I hear, 192; 2. From nen, hu. 

uenu', words of the conjurer manipulating on the patient, 157; 38.; 
connected with ndna, q. v. 

ndp, ne'p, na'p, d. ndnap (1) hack of hattd. Cf ndpgli, takak. (2) hand, 


148, 3.: n. slinukca to shake Jiands, to clasp hands, with double obj. case, 
87, 10.; cf. hushn%a, shatasbi; ma'lrim ndptat on your hands, 40, 17.; 
nepatka tkuya to straighten hy hand, 91, 5. Sometimes n. means forearm 
tvithhand; cf. gi'nkaksli, Ixawawasli, nawi'ilash, shulapshkish. (8) clmv, 
paiv: tchfksam n, shnawdkitko wearing a necklace of bird-claws. 

nep;'iga, d. nenpaga (1) little hand, 91, 9. (2) little claw, paiv. Dim. ndp. 

ndpaksh, ndpoks, lui'poks disease, sickness, epidemy; lit. "what comes 
through the air". The occurrence of diseases, their being wafted tlirough 
the air, their discovery by animals sent out after them, their removal by 
suction or other manipulations are among the most constant subjects of 
the shamanic songs: 153; 3. 4. 155; 17. 21. 15G; 28. 35. 157; 45. 162; 1. 
167; 28. 168; 43. Der. ne'pka, q. v. 

ndpgli, d. neniipgli (1) v. trans., to turn over, to invert. (2) subst., a spe- 
cies of rodents with a large inverted foot; gopher. Cf nciya. 

n d p e s h , d. ndnpesh glove; mitten. Der. ndp. 

ne'pka, ndpka, nii'pka, verb used of flat, thin, phant, even of invisible, 
aeriform, or imaginary objects, of appearances. (1) v. trans., to bring, 
fetch, haul: ne'pkt un ydshkutch ! bring this sheet (or rag) ! (2) v. trans, and 
intr., to bring on; to occur, to come on, to happen; said of facts or changes 
occurring without the (direct) co-operation of man, like accidere, rvy- 
xdvEiv. k6-i nii'pka there were hard times, 192; 1. It is most frequently 
used of diseases, epidemics: gutkaks gd-u n. my small-pox has come, 166; 
24, cf. 166; 27. 168; 39. 47. 169; 48.; shilalsh nii'pka ndlsh disease has 
invaded us; sllalsh nii'bakuapk disease tvill come on, 70, 5.; na'pka to bring 
sickness, 168; 39. or to have brought it, 170; 64. 67. N aj^plies particu- 
larly to the infectious diseases the germs of which are wafted through the 
air; but it is also used of other diseases, even of hunger. N. is also often 
used of the changes of weather: tfdsh, ki'i-i n. the weather is fine, bad; 
tldsh a ndpakuapka the weather is clearing up; k6-i ak ya ne'pakiuipka I 
expect bad tveather, a storm; p/iha nd[)kiink the weather is dry. (3) v. intr., 
to look like, to appear as; said of landscapes etc : wAkaptch hi'tksh lll-ukshi 
n. how Klamath Marsh appears when seen from here, 1 92 ; 4. Cf. fpka. 

n e p n i , d. nepnini, adv., on or ahout the hand or hands: nepnl'ni nguldsh6- 
tan I struck him upon the hand in several places, 23, 18. Cf ndp, -ni. 

n e p u g a — n e - u 1 ;i k i d g a . 239 

11 (■ ]) s li i s li finger-ring: n. sliulslii'pa to take off a ring from one's own finger. 
Dor. iil'j). Cf. ludshipa, ndpesh. 

n e s h k 6 1 k i s h , neshkotch, d. nenashkotkisli fleshing implement, drcssing- 
Jaiife made of bone. Dcr. n/ishki. 

neta, <l. iicneta, nt'nta (i) to fix or paste on; to put on; word accompany- 
ing tlie manipulations of the conjurer: 157; 38. (2) to add, to adjoin: pen 
n^sli n., pen lil'p nen'ta adding one, adding two. Der. ndya. Cf. ita. 

net a t k a , na'tatka, d. ndntatka to hold over, to stretch out over; said of thin 
articles only: p'laita skutash n. he stretches a blanket over it, 73, 4. 

net! la, d. nentfla (1) v. trans., to put under, to place below, to lay down 
underneath. (2) v. intr., to lie below: mish tchaggdgatat netilapkash goii, 
ivhen you lay under the serviceberry-bush, 186; 51. Cf i-utila, lutila. 

nc'tna, d. ndntna; same as n^ta, q. v.: nu netanudpka I am going to put 
more on ; I shall add to it. 

n c tn ak , nii'tnag, nc^tnaksh tJwn; after this, hereupon, in the future: ti'dshok 
n. git k'mu'tchatk after having grown, so as to be old people, 103, 10.; at 
untsa'g nii'tnag pa-uapk tu'm mbu'shant then, as to the future, ye shall cat 
plenty to-morroiv, 70, 4. From ndtna, ak; lit. "adding only this". 

n e t n 6 1 % i s h , natno'l;^ish (1) government of an Indian tribe; government, 
administration of a county, state, country: netno'l^isham Idtchash council 
chamber ; council lodge. (2) legislature. Der. n^-ul^a 

n c t u , d. nt'ntu to have the practice, to be used to: n. an ledshish stt^ginsh I 
have the practice of knitting stockings. 

ne-ukish {I) confluence, junction of running tvaters. (2) Nd-ukish, nom. 
pr. of a locality in Sprague River Valley: ^' Stream- Junctioiz" . Der. ndwa. 

n e - u X t'i 1 p e 1 i , ni-u%alpeli, d. nenu^alpeli to order repeatedly, to order or 
summon several times: ne-u%alp'lish gi'ntak lakiam although we had been re- 
peatedly summoned by the chief, 21, 6. Met. for ne-ul%apeli. Der. nd-ul^a. 

n e - u 1 a k g i s h , contr. nd-ulaksh, d. ndnulakgish council meeting, general 
council: 11. stina'sh council-house, council-lodge, Mod.; ne-ulakshgishi (Mod., 
for ne-uliikslikshi, ne-ulakshksAksi Kl.) K6ketat upon the (customary) 
council-ground on Lost River, 33, 2. 

n e - u 1 a k g i s h 1 a , d. nenul/ikgishla to erect a communal lodge, council-house. 

n e - u 1 a k i d g a , d. nenulakidga to commence to order, resolve or administer ; 
to begin to legislate, lOH, 6. Der. nd-ul%a. 


11 c- ulaksli , iiil'-ulaks, d. nenulaksh, nen61xisli (1) legal practice, legal 
custom, unwritten or written law, 60, 5.: yakii'wa n. she broke the law, 61, 7., 
cf. 58, 14.; nii'-ulaks K'mukamtsaui a law of K'mukamtch, viz.: an ancient 
popular custom, 65, 11. (2) judgment, decree, resolution, edict; rule, sway; 
stands for tLe biblical term kingdom in 139, 7. (3) message; order, behest. 
(4) abbr. from ud-ulakgish, q. v. Der. nc-ul%a. 

n d - u 1 a k t a , d. ncnulakta (1) to resolve, conclude, to make up one's mind, 72, 
1. (2) ^0 treat, handle, deal with. (3) to chastise, punish; to treat badly, 
95, 20.; corresponds somewhat to the Latin: animadvertere in c. accus.; 
p. 64 (title). (4) to plot against, to make plans, form a complot; to proceed 
secretly or insidiously against, 96, 19. 100, 1. Der. nc-ul%a. 

no ulakt Ampka, d. nenulaktampka (1) to punish, chastise somebody 
ivho is absent, 121, 5. (2) to plot against such. 

n e - u 1 i n s h , a black bird living on trees; wings red underneath, 1 80; 7. 

n e - u Ix ii , na-ul%a, nd-ul6ka, d. nenu'l^a, niinul;ja (1) to resolve, decree, con- 
clude; to take a vote, to command, to order, to ordain: n. hunk ge'n this one 
resolved, 94, 3., cf 142, 11.; at miikloks u. then the tribe took a vote, 40, 1.; 
tchi laki nii'-ul^a so the chief orders, 59, 23.; kaitua ko-i ne-ulkuapkiiga 
to give no outrageous, wicked orders, 39, 15. (2) to arrange, manage, to pro- 
ceed in the matter ; to bring on, to cause, procure: k6-i n. to act ivickedly, 35, 
6.; k6-idsha n. to do mischief; lit. "to cause mischief to be done", 192; 8.; 
paplishash gi'tki giug n. he caused a dam to come into existence, 94, 5.; iid- 
v\%Vig for taking action, 1 04, 3. ; hii i hak nu-ulaktak (for nd-ul^a tak) if 
you will arrange things in this manner, 41, 14. (3) to try in court, to try in 
the capacity of a judge: lahiki nii'-ulza the chiefs tried in court, 78, 6. 9. 
15. Cf 59, 1. 61, 13. 18. (4) to punish; said of a chief, judge or other 
person in authority: 59, 3-6. 9-12. 62, 1.; mil' n. to punish hard, 59, 5. 

n e - u 1 X 1 a , d. nenul;ffa (l) to decree, order, command in the interest o/ some- 
body, to rule in favor of. (2) to make a compact, to promise mutually, to arrange 
with, 38, 8. 10. In 36, 14. ne-ulkiash must be taken in a passive sense, 
as shown by the poss. case Idkiam: (knowing) that three times fraudulent 
compacts had been made by the government (cf Note) Der. nd-ulp^a. 

n(j-ush, d. ndnush (\) field, tilled ground, cultivated land (2) land adapted 
to agricultural 2)ursuits. Der. ndwa. Cf kilila shutesh. 

ne-ul;iksh — ugd-isha. 241 

n^-utko, d. n^iiutko field, piece of ground, section or patch of land; lit. 
"what extends, stretches out", Mod.: tchuke n. field covered ivith pumice- 
stone. Partic. of newa. 

new a, d. nc;nua to form an extension, to he extended, to form a sheet; said, 
e. g., of prairies, level lands, water: ^waga shtAni wishink n. the pond is 
full of garter-snalies. Der. 4wa. Cf ne-ush, n^-utko, tchiwa. 

newal, d. nenual (1) v. trans., other form of nAwal, q. v. (2) subst., ?nis- 
tletoe: Phorodendron arccuthohium. Cf iwala, kshtiwal, lawiUa, liwal. 

new41ka, d. nenualka; same as niwalka, q. v. 

n e - ti p k a , na'-upka, d. n(^nuapka to run into a pond, marsh, lake, or other 
sheet of water ; said of rivers. Contr. from newapka. Der. newa. 

N c w a p k s h i , apoc. Na'wapksh, nom. pr. of Ooose Lake, a large water 
basin extending from Oregon into Californian territory, 31, 7. 14. and 
Note. Its shores were and are still a favorite resort for all the neighbor- 
ing tribes of Indians. Der. nc-upka. 

ncwisht, d. ncnuisht remains of human or animal body: lukslAksh n. 
tchi'sli sheke'lke they rake xip the ashes and the remains, 85, 11. 

n g a - i s h k a , d. ngdngishka to remove through breaking, fracturing: partic. 
nga-ishkatko, d. ngangishkatko having no front teeth; having a gap in the 
teeth: p'laitanish n. one who lost his upper teeth. Cf kdwa, ngata. 

ngak, d. ng4ngak turtle; land and water turtle. Probably species of Che- 
lopus. Its incantation: 159; 58. 

ngangati'^i, nkankati%i to play leap-frog. Cf. ngAk. 

n g 4 1 a , d. ngaiigdta, v. intr., to break, to break off; to snap in two, as a string: 
ma'lsh ngatuapk na'hlis the bowstring will snap to ye, 21, 10. Speaking of 
many subjects, ngiildsha. Cf kdwa. 

ngd-ish, nge'sh, nga'-ish, ga'-ish, d. ngengish (1) arroiv used in war; 
arrow tipped with a stone, bone or iron point, 138, 1.: nas nu'sh shli'tk 
Moatokni nga'-ishtka one Modoc man shot in the head by an arrow, 24, 7. 8 ; 
nge'shtka shenotanka to fight with arrows, 90, 18. (2) projectile of fire-arms: 
bullet, ball, shell, 21, 17. 24, 4. 30, 5. Der. kdwa. Cf sluiwalsh, tdldshi 

nge-isha, nga'-isa, contr. nge'sha, d. ngengl'sha, {\) to shoot at with war 

arrows or fire-arms. (2) to hit, wound, to inflict a wound by shooting, 21, 16.: 

ugii'-isapksh for nge-ishapkash, 24, 7. 133, 7. 


ngd-islina, d. iigengg-isluia to go and sJioot, to start out for shooting or 
wounding: nge-ishan for nge-isbna, 123, 5. G. 

11 g e' s li a 1 s li , d. ngengl'shalsli lead. Der. rigd-ishala. 

11 g e s b e - II y a , d. ngengeslie-uya to disahle by sJiooting, wounding; to wound 
tjut not to kill, 43, 10. 16.: kanktak sliu' m. an equally large number 
of soldiers ivere wounded, 37, 14. 

iiguldsha, iiguitcha, d. ugungaldsha (1) v. trans.; same as kdwa, but 
referring to more tbau one object: a-atfnsli ko'sb iiii ng. I have felled tall 
pine-trees; nepni'ui nguldsb6tan I strucJi him about the hand, 23, 18. (2) v. 
intr.; same as ngata, but referring to more tlian one suljject. 

ngulo, nku'lo, d. ngungalo, nku'nkalo; sec gulu. 

ngumsbka, d. ngumgamshka, v. trans., to break, fracture : biki ng. ngil'- 
ish the bullet had fractured his forehead, 24, 4. Cf. kdwa, ngata, ngiildsba. 

ni, ni, pron. pers, I; see nu, nii. 

n i , ni', pi tiimi ni, wide and rounded, sole-sbaped, buckskin snow-shoe on 
a wood-frame, fastened witb strings to tlie foot. 

- n i , -ni, d. -nini, suffix appended to nouns, especially generic and collec- 
tive nouns, to express the idea: "and all tbat sort of, and all belonging 
to them, and all connected witb him, her, it, them": nanuk wewansni 
(for wcwanuishni) the women and all, all women and their families, 21, 19.: 
nepnini ngiildsba he has or had his hand fractured at several places by one 
shot, cf 23, 1 8. ; buk a nanuk watch gena, ge-uni all the horses are going 
and mine also; watch tchish maklaksni nanuk tamen6tka the horses and all 
'the Indians with them have been there. Cf -ni in tataksni children. 

n 1 a , d. ninia, adv. (1) lately, newly, recently ; not limiting the length of time 
elapsed: ni'a i hemkanka you told a short time ago, 39, 15., Mod ; niatoks 
ma'ntch some time hence; sunde giulank, or n. suudo last tvceJc. (2) yester- 
day. Mod. Cf unak. (3) a while ago, long ago, 1.58; .5.5.; Kl. 

11 i d s h o n i d s b u a , d. nindshom'dshua (1) to ivink witb the eyes. (2) to 
grimace, to make faces. 

iiigga, pi. ti'imi n., negro, Ethiopian, 190; 22.: niggalam shd-amoksb, 
Mod., monkci/. From the English. Cf. waiha. 

n i k a , d. iiiiika (1 ) to extend the arm. (2) to put the arm out of, as of a door, 
lodge, window etc ; wii'k, arm, is usually added: we'k ninakilmpka nu I 
put both arms out. Cf ei%a, spuka. 

ngc'-isliua — iii'lka. 243 

n i k u n k a to beckon with one's arm, hand: ii. nc'p to make signs ivith the hand. 
n i k 1 k a , w<ik\x-A, d. ninakl;^a to work hij hand, to do hand work, as field 

work, chopping wood etc. Mod. Dur. iiika. 
n i k u 4 1 k a , ui'kiial;ija, d. nlnakualxa to extend one arm or hand: iiinakudlxan 
tk6tka to stand tvifh loth arms extended; i)'liiitala n. to come doivn right side 
■up tvhen falling; said of beavers teeth, 80, 2. 
11 1' 1, ni'], ne'l (d. lu'uTl), pi. tiimi n. (1) short hair on animal body; fur, 
wool, bristle; doivn, smaller feathers of birds; hair of tail etc.; hair on a 
person's ai-uis, chest, back : shi'p tunia n. gftko a sheep having much wool; 
n. wiksa the down of the mallard, 144, 1. 2. (2) hide or skin ivith the 
animal hair on; fur, peltry, whether dressed or not: piimam, k61tam, 
nkolam n. beaver-, otter-, rabbit-skin; tidsa ne'l gftko wdsh the prairie-wolf 
has a delicate fur, 144, 10 Der. newal. Cf lak, miikash, nelina, smo'k. 
nilakla, d. ninilakla to apptear first, said of daylight; nilaklola nalsh, 
nilakloltamna na'lsh the dayUgU dawns over us. Met. for nilkala. Der. 
N i 1 a k s h i , apoc. Nilaksh, Ni'laks, nom. pr. of Nilaks or ''Daylight" Mount- 
ain, a steep hill-ridge two miles south of Modoc Point, bordering on the 
middle part of Upper Klamath Lake, 75, 20. Pronounced Nailix by the 
white settlers. Der. nilka. 
Nilakskni, adj. and subst., coming from, native of Nilakshi; settled at 
Nilaks-Mountain. N. maklaks are the portion of the Klamath Lake 
Lidians once settled at the western base of Nilaks Mountain, 17, 3. 
ni'laltko, d. ninilaltko covered ivith hair, fur, pelt, down, feathers; same 
as ni'l gftko, c£ nl'l. When used of persons it is identical with popam- 
kish and means "hairy all over the body". Der. ni'lala. 
uilf wa, d. nin'liwa to blaze up, to burst into a light; said of tire blazing up 
by itself, or when excited by the wind: kaila n. the ground teas on fire, 
174; 9. Cf hutka, nelka, nl'lka, ni'ita, shnilfwa, tgepalia'ga. 
Hi'Ika, nflka, ne'lka, d ninflka, nene'lka (1) v. impers., it is dawning; 
daylight appears: tsui ne'lka; tsui sa gu'lki at the first dawn they attacked, 
17, 2 ; nflaksht at dawn of day, 144, 3. (2) subst., dmvn, daylight, begin- 
ning of day. (3) v. iutr., to expect the dawn of day in camp or elsewhere; 
to be somewhere at daylight, 31, 5. Cf pa'kto-i. 


n f n i ;i , nciicii, neincya to JluUer like chickens, ducks or geese moving their 

wings while walking on the ground, 174; 8. Der. nt'na. Cf. nafnaya. 
n i n k for ni giank, I for myself, 122, 1 5. and Note. Cf. -gianggin, itakidnki, 

nish, nish, contr. n'sh, n's, pron. pers. me, to me; see nu, nii. 
ni'sh, nish, d. nfnlsh neck of persons and animals, 119, 9.: ni'sh it4 to put 

upon the neck, 91, 10.; nisham Uwalsh, Kl, nisham shalatcligualash, Mod., 

junction of neck to head in quadrupeds. 
nfs%aga, ni'sh^ak, d. nins^aga little girl. Girls are called so from 

infancy to the age of puberty and even later. Cf shiwaga. 
nishta, adv., (5) during the night, at night {ohsoleie). (2) all night long, 

the ivhole night; n. ktana to sleep all night, 31, 8.: tiinepni sa-atsa sa n. 

during five whole nights they danced around the scalps, 16, 11.; nishta nat 

gdna ive marched the whole night, 31, 4., cf. 19, 13.; n. hii'ma mu'kasli tJie 

horned owl hoots all night, 88, (!. See pshfn. 
nishtak, adv., during the same night: ni'shtak tchi'sh gakiarana the same 

night they surrounded the lodges, 16, 4. Contr. from nishta (1), ak. 
n i t u , nito, d. ninto to suppose, guess, conjecture: nii n. mish wiltch pallasht 

/ suppose you were the thief of the horse or horses. Cf shdwa. 
n i u d s h n a , d. ninudshna to drive on level ground, as horses, cattle: shtiitka 

n. to drive on a road, along a trail, 127, 11. 
niukla, d. ninukla to give or confer through another; to hcstoiv through 

somebody else. Der. ndya. 
niukna, d. ninukna to compel to leave, to drive out of, as horses, cattle: 

wdtch ni'-uknan driving the horses oid of the inclosure, 127, 11. 
Ta.i-w%ix, d. nind-u%a; see shui-u/a. 

niulgidsha, d. ninulgi'dsha (1) v. trans., to drive together what is scat- 
tered, as horses, cattle. (2) v. intr., to whirl around, to move in a circle, to 

form a whirl or eddy. Der. niuli, -kidsha. Cf aggt'dsha. 
n i - u 1 i , ni-ule, d. ninu'le to drive into, 127, 10. 

n i u 1 i g i s h , d. ninuligish fenced-in pasture-ground. Der. ni-uli. Cf iligish. 
niul%a, niu'lza, d. ninul^a; same as niwAl%a No. 1. Cf lA-ul;ja. 
niwa, d. ninua; see shuwa. 
n i w a 1 k a , nr\val;ja, m'ulp^a, d ninualka (1 ) v. intr., to ascend, go uphill: stu' 

Ill Ilia — nkenkanka. 245 

n. to follow the uphill frail, 185; 39. (2) v. trans., to drive uphill, as a team 

with two or more horses etc. Mod. for tpiil;^a Kl. Der. n(iwal. 
n i w d 1 k a , d. ninudlka, v. iiitr., to go mvaij, to he removed: k(3-i n. it goes away 

too slowly; said of food not agreeing with the stomach. Der. niwa (2). 
n i w i k a k p e 1 i , n i w i k i n a ; see shuikipeh", shuikfna. 
nka'kgi, np^dkgi, d. nkankukgi to give birth, to he confined, to hecome a 

mother: n;^akgi hipuk hoth became mothers, 107, 12.; snawddshash vunipa 

nka'kgin, Mod., a woman delivered of four rhildren at one birth; nka'kgiuga 

on account of a childbirth, 91, 1. Der. nkash. 
n k ti n k a t u i s h , pi. tiiuii n., fetlocks and stnall pastern of horse or mule, 

just above hoof Der. iigata. 
nkash, nkdsh, d. nkankash, nyfmxa^h. (1) abdomen, belly, the bowels; the 

largest stomach of ruminants, 105, 16.: nktisham lawalsh stomach of man; 

the first or smallest stomach of ruminants; crop, craw; maw, cf xn^iilaxsh.; 

nkasham walshash peritoneMm, tissue enveloping the bowels; nk. ma'sha 

to feel pain in the boivels, to have belly-ache: colics, dysentery, diarrhoea. 

Cf nkdshgi. (2) mountain-trout; a spotted fish found in the Williamson 

River, but not in Upper Klamath Lake, 
nkashgi, nga'sgi, d. nkankashki, ngangaski to have diarrhcea. 
n k a s h k i a g a belly; occurs in the proper name Munish=Nkaskiciga=Gi'tko, 

q. v., and seems dim. of nkash. 
nk(^wa, nka'wa, nx'^'wa, d. nkenkewa, nkekua; same as kewa, q. v. 
nki'ka, d. nkinkga (I) to he full of dust, atoms, pulverized substance. (2) 

subst., dust, atoms. Cf kllilks, mbuka. 
n k i'k e 1 z a , d. nkinkak'le;)ja, v. iiitr., to weigh: kank ml a nk. / am tveigh- 

ing so much. Der. kila (4). 
nkak , n%ak, d. nktinkak (1) top of the head, vertex or crown of head: n^ak- 

ksaksi'na, ngak-ksaksh on the top of the head, 21, 17. Cf. wdlwash. (2) 

skull offish; crest or comb of bird. Cf nka'kgi. 
nkala, np^ala, d. nkdnkala to wither, fade; said of trees, plants: n;jaltko 

withered. Cf kmuk61tgi, nukola. 
nkdna, np^ena (e short), d. nxeii^a to halloo, to cry loudly, to shout; the 

words halloed are quoted, 42, IG. Cf ndt'na, sti'ika. 
nkenkanka, np^a'nkanka to halloo to somebody repeatedly or continually; 
to shout in one strain. 


nki'l; nkfla, nkllla; see ]<il; kila etc. 

nkii'k, d. n^u'nzak, a black goose not, specified 

nkti'l, nk61, n;^61, d. nkunkal, n%ii'nxn,l grmj tvhite-tailed rahhit: nk61am 

ni'l rahhit-skin. Cf. k4-i, kuikuish. 
n%dka, nkd-aga young mountain-trout, or a smaller species of this fish. 

Incantation: 177; 34. Dim. nkdsh (2). 
n % ^ w a , n%a'-ua, d. n%^n%ua; same as k(iwa, q. v. 
n^i'la, d. n^inp^dla; same as kfia, q. v. 
n z f t s a , n^itcha, d. n^fn^tcha, v. intr , to dry up. to become exsiccated: 

partic. n^l'tchatko dry, dried up, atrophied. 
N%ltsd = Tsu'ks, abbr. from N;ii'tsatko=Tsu'ks, nora. pr. Kk of ''Dried- 
Leg'', a chief of the Snake Indians, 28, 7. 9. Der. n/i'tsa, tchu'ksli. 
n%f-nllga, d. nxin/ulfga, 97, 1.; same as kiulfga, q. v. 
n^iita, d. \\%\\.'\\%is, to hum at the hotfom of a pan, kettle, cooking utensil: 

partic. n^utatko («) half charred, almost hurnt up. (b) subst., slags, dross. 

Der. noka. Cf natsagi'ula, nMla. 
n % u t li g i a , d. n%unxiit;'igia to hum at the bottom of a pan, cooking utensil 
noka, n6ka, n6%a, d. n6nnka (1) to ripen, to mature; to he ripe for eating, 

147, 14.: nu'kuk when rijK, 147, 9.; kdyndshnn'ka, it is not ripe yet, 14,1. 

(2) to become palatable by boiling, cooJcing, roasting or broiling; to he cooked. 

(3) V. trans., to cook, boil, stetv: partic. nukdtko cooked, prepared, done; nu- 
ktipkash pdn to eat cooked food; no'ksh tvhen stewed, boiled; woyxxk when 
done, 148, 14.; niiksht after baking it, 150, 7.; nii'ksht after roasting it, 
113, 9.; nokshtak (for n6ksht ak) as soon as stewed or done, 113, 2. 

n 6kl a, no'kla, niikala, d. nomikla to roast, broil on hot coals: nukaltauipka 
tchule'ks he commenced roasting meat, 113, 9. Der. noka. Cf pi'ika. 

nshapka, d. nshdnshapka; same as ndshapka, q. v. 

nshi'i,tclit%i, d. nshAnshatcht^i to form a ivaterfall, cascade; said only of 
water falling free fiom an elevation, not of rapids in rivers. 

n s h a t c h t X i s h , d. nslianshatcht/ish cascade over a vertical rock; ivater- 
fall as from a mill-run. 

nshendshkAne, 71, 7.; d. of ndshdkani, q. v. 

Nshkaiikalsh, nom. pr. masc. Kl.; interpreted by "The Coaxer". 

Ntiipa, nom. pr. masc. Mod., interpreted by "Broken Arm". 

ntd-ish, nte'sh, d ntentish (1) bow with arroivs as making up the outfit 

nki'l — ntu'lt%aga. 247 

of .1 warrior or hunter, 123, 4.: ntd-ish nl i'-amnatk g^na J started out 
carrying how and arrows, 21,1. (2) how as a weapon, having a length of 
2^ to 3^ feet: hi'shla nt^-ishtka they shot at the mark with bows, 109, 15. 
136, 1. 2. (3) clavicular hone; collar-hone. Der. tdwi. 

nt(j-ishala, d. ntentfshala to shoot arrows. 

ntc-ishalta, d. ntentishalta to shoot arrows at a person or animal, 22, 3. 

n t e )' a g a , d. ntentiaga (1) small how with arrows; small how. (2) Nt^yak, 
noni. pr. masc: "Small Bow and Arrows". Dim. nt^-ish. 

n t e y ;'i k a 1 a , d. ntentidkala to make a little bow as a plaything. 

n t e y a k a H a , nteyakalfya to make a little bow for somebody ; nt. m'na 
unakag he made a bow for his little son, 109, 13, 14. Der. nt^yaga. 

n t e'k t i s h , nd^ktish, abbr. nt^ktch, d. nte'ntaktish (1) stem of arrow; the 
lighter portion of the bird-hunt er's arrow, into which the tulish, of harder 
and heavier wood, is inserted as a point: nt^ktcham tulish arrow-point 
of wood. These arrows are used for shooting ducks and geese while on 
the water; their points make up one-third of the whole length and are 
fastened to the stems by means of a glutinous substance called w41akish. 
(2) arrow made of the shdl-reed; shaped diflPerently from the arrow called 
shAl, 136, 2. (3) any reed or reed-like stem used for the manufacture of 
arrows Cf. nt^-ish, tdldshi, t(^lak, tchuitiam. 

n 1 1 k 1 a k s h , d. ntint4klaksh drop : na'dsh 4mpil nt. one drop of ivater. 

n t i'k s h k t c h a , nd^ksktsa (1) to scratch, graze ; to inflict a slight wound, 21, 
18. (2) to shoot a hole through, as through a sleeve, blanket. Cf. nd^ga. 

n t i n 1 6 1 A k t a , d. ntintantelakta to go to stool. Der. tfl%a. Cf ntiklaksh. 

u 1 1 1 e 1 a k t c h a , d. ntintatglaktcha to go to stool. Der. til%a. Cf. s^udsha. 

ntu'lkidsha, d. ntuntdlkidsha to eddy around, to form an eddy ; said of 
running waters only. Cf. muigidsha, niulgidsha, tchishkidsha. 

n t u' 1 1 s a n u i s h dry river-bed; the former water-course of a stream, rivulet, 
brook. Der. ntultchna. Cf. pulkuish. 

n t II 1 1 k i , ndu'ltke to fall down, to form a chute or cascade; said of waters: 
ati huk ntii'ltke koke this river forms a high cascade. Cf. nshAtcht;iji. 

ntu'lt^aga, ndultxaga, d. ntuMlt^aga (for ntunt^lt^aga) (1) to have its 
spring, to rim doivn from its source or origin; said of waters: k6kag nt. the 
brook runs down from there. (2) to bubble up; said of springs only. 


ntii'ltpu to run, floiv towards the one speaking: pen /imbu nt. the water 
runs again towards (me, us) after a stoppage. 

n t u 1 1 c h a m p k a , ndu'lshampka, ntnlsliampka to rush, run, flow while out 
of sight or in the distance; to run doiun away from; said of rivers, streams, 
ditched waters etc. Der. ntiiltclma. 

nti'il tch% antcha, tuns;(antsa to pass through; to run, to flow through; 
kokdg tu'ns;fantsa a stream ran through, 31, 1. 

n t u 1 1 c h n a , ntiilsna, ndul'slma, tunshna to he in the act of running, to flow 
continuaUy: ambu nt. the loater runs all the time; kinkani iimbu nt. only a little 
water is running in the river bed or ditch; k(')kag hdtakt tu'nsna a brook ivas 
running there, '60, 21. 31, 8 : partic. \\(iu!\!i\\v\w\\\.o flowing past, 94, 5. 

n t I'l n s h n a , tu'nslma ; same as ntultchna, q. v. Cf. shtu'nshna. 

ntuptpa, d. ntuntiiptpa (1) to throiv up huhhles. (2) to seethe, to he in a 
hoiling state: ntuptpdtko ;'impn hoiling tcater. Der. nd6pa. 

n t u p t c h m a g a , d. ntuntaptchmaga to come tip in hubbies, to bubble up in 
water or liquids. Cf. ntuptpa. 

ntchaya, d. ntchantchaya to split; same as utchdya, q. v.: Mo'dokni 
ktchlnksh ntchayetdmpka the Modocs commenced to split rails, 35, 4. 

n t c h ti k t a , d. ntchantchdkta to be sticky, glutinous; to stick on. Cf. gfntana. 

ntchAlka, d. ntchantchdlka (1) to be green, fresh. (2) to be young; said 
of persons and animals. 

n t c h ;i 1 k n i , d. ntchantchalkni (1) adj., fresh, green: n. w^kash raw piond- 
lily seed; ntchal/ni tchiileks fresJt, meat. (2) subst., boy, youngster: hunk 
ntchalkenash shiuka sha they have killed that boy. Cf tchaki. 

n t cli am a'shka, Itchama'shka, d. ntchantchama'shka to icipe off from. 

n t c li a m a s h 1 6 1 a , d. ntchantchamashlola to wipe off. Cf ndshashlola. 

n t c li li ska, ntchtlshki, d. ntchantchaska, ntchantchdski to clean off, remove; 
to rub with the hand: ntcliaski a nil gen kiiila I clean off that dust. 

Ntchokish, noni. pr. niasc. Mod.: ^^Deaf-Ear". Der. ndsh(jka. 

nu, nil, emphat. nu'-u; ni, ni; both abbr. -n; obj. nush, nil'sh, nish, ni'sh, 
abbr. n'sh, n's, ish, i'sli, i)ei's. pron. of the first person sing., 1; obj. mc, to 
me. Nii hunk lalakiash iK'nikaidca I spoke to the chief; lap a nil shlea ta- 
t;ikiash I see two children; nil hu'nk i'-aninuapk i';jaks mi I will confiscate 
your gain, 59, 22.; tsi ni gi {or ki) so I said, 22, 8. 16. 17.; nil tala none hut 
me, I alone; pato n shli'n / shot him in the check, 30, 16., cf 61, 3. 154; 

n t u' 1 1 p a — n li' s h . 249 

12.; slmu'kslitkan / tvmit to ohiain, 23, 8.; nush shumal6tkish 6-i! give me 
a pen! hu nish h^shela, Mod., he showed to me; tchf n'sh sa gi so they said 
to me, 22, 17.; cf. 22, 7-11.; I'sli shla't! shoot ye at me! Mil me! 41, 5.; 
i'sh ktiyuiaki'at! 7je lift me up there! 22, 12.; ish hu lulpalpaliat! make ye 
eyes for me! 154; 11.; nushxe'ni towards me, 158; 55. — In tlie subj. case 
the pron. frequently appears doable: ni gfta ni t^lsliapka wik4 li'wapksh 
I perceived them crowded there at no great distance, 22, 14.; tchm a ni 
shldwal 161oksgish thus I cocked my gun, 22, 21.; tsiii nii'-ulekan titdtnan 
then sometimes I chastise, Gl, 10., cf. 23, 18. 59, 17. 119, 3. 130, 1. — Nil 
stands for nat in: lapi nil two of us, 177; 2. 

nuata;^atko, n'huta%atko, d. nuanut4%atko (1) soiled, full of spots, specks, 
etc.; said of ink-dots etc. (2) passing gradually into darker or lighter 
shades, blending insensibly, cloudy; said of colors, spots on dress, etc. 

n u' d s h a , d. nuno'dsha to flit, to be borne at or into a long distance: p'laftala 
n. to go to the upper regions (after death). Cf Idsha. 

nu'dshna, d. nuno'dshna to flit away, to fly off into distance; said of the 
heart of one of the Thunders, 114, 4. 

nuyamna, d. nuniamna to whirl about, to run, skip, or walk around; said 
of the weasel, 158; 52.; wishtkak nu n. I ivalk around blowing; said of the 
pelican, 16G; 19. Cf. nutuyamna. 

n u y u a , d. nuniwa to shine from a distance, as a light Cf niitkolua. 

niikala, nfi'kla, d. nunukla; same as n6kla, q. v. 

nukanka, d. nunukanka logo astray; to stray around, as dogs, 155; 24. 

n u k 6 1 a , d. nun%61a to shrink by heat, as observed on skins etc. Der. nuka,. 

N fi' k s h a m , nom. pr. of a Klamatli Lake man, signer of the treaty of 
1864; interpreted by "Dried Fish". Der. n6ka. 

n u' 1 i d s h a to be wafted downwards, to glide down into distance ; to jmss to the 
inferior regions of the eartli, 173; 2. (spirits' song). Cf. vii'li. 

nii'sh, nu'sh, nu'ss (d. niinash), pi. tiimi n. (1) head oi persons and ani- 
mals: n. shlin he ivas shot in the head, 21, 18. 22, 11.; tsiii ni pil'n shli'n n. 
I shot him a second time, and in the head, 30, 1 6.; Mil' sham n., Ydmsham- 
tcliam n. lalkadsha he cut off the head of the South Wind, and that of the 
North Wind, viz. he stopped tlieir blowing, 111, 10. 11.; gu'tash nu'sli 
ku'pga nu'sh lice bite me on the head, 119, 4.; n.-tilansncash, name of a 


hird, q. v.; n.^ma'shash headache; m'lshti \d\ko shuU. Cf. 89, G. !)o, (J. io8, 
1. 3. 6. 154; 12. (2) ear of wheat, maize etc. 

niishaltkAga, d nunshaltkiiga ( 1 ) small water-sprinf] (2) head-waters, 
pond-source, spring of a stream or river. It is peculiar to tlie streams 
coming from tlie volcanic soil of the Klamatli Highlands, that they origi- 
nate in large ponds or small lakes surging by many sources out of the 
ground, which are seen bubbling at the edges of the ponds. Such a 
pond is called w^lwash or n., nushaltkaga. Der. nushtUtko. 

NushaltkAga, nom. pr. of (1) head-ivaters or pond-sources of streams 
running from the north into Lost River near Bonanza, a recent settlement 
about t\velve miles east of Linkville, Lake County. This section was 
the home of one portion of the Modoc Indians. (2) the head-waters of 
Willoiv Creel; also called Rusli Creek, running into Clear Lake from the 
east, in Modoc County, California: N. ^"'Id-xi-AW above the sprUvjs of Willow 
Creel; 44, 3., the spot where Captain Jack surrendered. 

N n s li a 1 1 k A g a k n i , Nusalt%;'igakish, nom. pr., Modoc Indian settled at the 
head-ivaters mentioned under 'Nushaltkaga (1): ntinka tchilliik Nushalt- 
%agaki'shash some men who were friends of the Head-tvater Modocs, 21,4. 

n u s h a 1 1 k o , d. nunshaltko (i) provided with a head. (2 j hearing an ear 
or cars, as cereals. (3) taking its source or origin, as a river. Der. niishala. 

N u'shkshi , nom. pr. of a camping-place on east side of Klamath Marsh. 
Lit. "At the Skull"; so called because a human skull was once found 
there, 74, 15. From nii'sh, -kshi. 

n u'sh = til an sn easli "turnhead" or ^^rollhcad", a large, grayish-white 
owl living in earth-holes: Speotyto hypugaia. Incantations: 154; 12. 167; 
32. Der. nu'sh, tilanshnea. Cf. lupaks. 

n vita, nfi'ta, d. niinata, nu'nta (1) v. intr. and impers., to hum, to flame, to 
blaze up: n., or lu'loks n , the fire is hurniny, 100, 18.; gil's n. the gas is burn- 
ing; tunepni mithhivhile five fires tvere burning; lit. "when it was burning 
fivefold"; nnl tchil'k niitisht when at last the fire was hlasing high, 114, 1.; 
luVnatauk tchii'ka they perished in the flames, 114, 4. (2) v. trans., to burn 
tip, to destroy by fire : tsiii sa nAnuktua n. then they burnt tip everything, 89, 2. 

nutagianggi, niitagiank, nutakink, pron. pers. and reM., I for myself : 
ni'itagianlv shiu'la, or nixtak shifi'la gianggin / am gathering for myself. 
From ni'itak, -gianggin. Cf. itakianki, nink. 

n u s h a 1 1 k 4 g a — n u w a 1 % a . 251 

n u t a k , a palatable, veiy small seed growing on a prairie-grass, this being 
a species of the Glyceria family, 148, 5. 6. and Note. 

nutak, nutAk, nu'taks, niitok, nu'toksh, obj. nu'shtak (1) hut I, just I, I 
however; standing in clauses which express contrast or emphasis: nu'toks 
as for me, as far as I am concerned, 105, 8. 186; 56.; nu'.slitoks maklaks 
shl(ia people have seen me; niitoks hfm spAga shll I am ■wetting this piece of 
cloth. (2) Y>voT\. refl., m.yself: ka-i i genuapk, n. ge'sh yhan;i-uli you shall 
not go, I ivant to go myself 111, 6.; nutdk nep hushnata / himit my oivn 
hand, or I received a hum on my hand. 

Nu'tiis, nom. pr. masc: ^'' Burnt-Back''^ ; for Niitd-ish. Der. ni'ita. 

niite'ks, d. nunte'ks rounded spot where the effect or impress of a blow 
is visible: contusion by a hammer-stroke, aperture made by a thunder- 
bolt, round-shaped impression. Of ktute'ks. 

ni'itkolua. Mod. natkoliia, d. nu'ntkolua, Mod nanAtkolua to shine from 
a distance, as from a lake, prairie, mountain. Cf. nujaia. 

n u 1 6 d s h n a , d. nunto'dshna, nuntudshna to hurl, to throw away, as spears, 
rocks etc.: tdnk haftch i kta-i nntudshna? how many stones did you throivf 

nut6kakua, d. nunt6kakua to swing to and fro, as a pendulum. 

n u 1 6 1 a k t c h a , d. nuntolaktcha to tliroiv or hurl aivay to a distance, as a 
rock, stone etc.; to throw there while going, marching, passing : ktii-i hadakt 
nutola'ktcha (Mod.) they thretv a stone there while p)assing, 85, 15. 

nutoliila, d. nuntolala to throw hy swinging, to siving away: lu'lukshtat 
n. to jerJc, throw into the fire, 96, 16. Cf nut6dshna. 

n u t o 1 a 1 6 1 a , d. nuntolal61a to throtv away from hy swinging: shtiili pa'ks 
nutolalolatkiuk (for nutolalohitki giug) he ordered him to swing off and 
throw away (into the fire) the tobacco-pipe, 96, 11. 

n u t u y a k f a , d. nuntuy akf a to throw or swing over for somebody, in some- 
body's interest, 132, 4. 

n u t u y a m n a to hum, huzz around; said of insects which fly with a swing- 
ing, Avhirling motion, 165; 16. Cf mu'muma, nuyamna. 

n u w ;i Ixix,, nu-udl^a, d. nunu'al^a to take an upward flight, to fly skyward; 
said of rounded or bulky subjects: steinash huk n. this heart flew up to the 
sky, 114, 8. Cf hushanualksh, nu'dshna, shuwtil^a. 



alternates tlirongliont with the primitive vowel tt, and in many 
instances is the prodnct of synizesis, especially when pronounced long. 
Words not found here to be looked for under U. 
o, o', interj. marking surprise, «/*/ ohc! sometimes followed by a quick 

inspiration of breath. 
o , o', abbr. for hu, pron. deni. and for hu, adv., q. v. 
6 - i-, oya. ; see I'na. 
6 - i t c h n a , d. u'-itchna, o-ui'dshna, n-uidshna to give away a gift or present 

l)reviously received hy oneself. Der. x'lya. 
oy6ka, d. uy6ka; see uyiika. 
okd-ilag-en! d. o-oka-ilagen ! certainly ! of course ! "you let!" term of 

assevei-ation used in confirming statements or for answering questions in 

an affirmative sense. Mod. for wak hai la gen Kl. 
o' k s h t , pron. dem. ; same as hu'ksht, q. v. 
(J k s li 11 a , d. odkshiia (1) to cough. (2) to throio up phlegm. 
o - o 1 a 1 6 n a , 75, 7. ; see ayulal6na. 
o'lash, Kl. o'lsh, iVlsh, (d. o-61ash), pi. tiimi o'. (1) white hair; whitish 

down, {z) mourning dove, a species of dove or wild pigeon of a whitish 

or ashy color, called so onomatopoetically after its melancholy, pitiful 

cry: 6-5; Zenaidura carolinensis. The Maklaks say the bird cries after 

its grandmother. B6shtinam o'. domestic pigeon. 
o'l s h a 1 1 k o , u'lshaltko, d. o-i'dshaltko white- or gray-haired. 
onion ow/oh; 6nions=shitko Zi/oe o«io>?s, 148, 13. From the English, 
onl'sh, obj. case of bun, pron. dem., 13G, 7. and Note, 
o - 6 a k g i , d. u-6akgi to do so, to act thus, to act in such a manner: o. mitok 

shtefnash do what you please. From liu, wak, gi 
o - 6 1 k a , o'laga, pi. tumi o., little or young dove. Dim. 5'lash, q. v. 
O r e g I n k n i , nom. })r., Oregonian; white settler of Lake County who eame 

there from some other portion of the Oregon territory: Oreginkni B6sh- 

tinash ma 1 ka-i shudnktgi in order that the Oregonian settlers (who had 

formed a corps of volunteers) may not kill any more of ye, 40, 17. 
o'skiink, 05, 1., cf: 7.; see husldcaidva. 


ha. 253 

otilks, uti'lksh (- -), d. u-utilks dam, fisliimj-dam exteiidinj^ below the 
water's surface. The natives wade over it to scoop up the fish with their 
dip-nets. A dam of this kind is at Ktdi^Tupdkshi, 74, 2. Der. utihi. 

o'tish, ii'tish, d. u'tish/rwi^ o/?OK;(7 ^/iope; ear of cereals : istakam, tk4pam 
o'. ear of maize Cf. liitish, nii'sh (2). 

our, awi- hour: \i\]) our^ two Jwurs Mod. From the EngHsh. 


P alternates with h, in, and is nasalized into mb, mp; only the alternation 
with h is of frequent occurrence. Words not found under P to be looked 
for under B, M. Initial p-, p'- is often the proprietary prefix p-, as in the 
terms of relationship etc. The prefix pe- is indicative of a plurality of 
round-shaped and bulky objects, of persons etc., though it is not entirely 
confined to this function; cf pd-ula. 
p a , p;i, particle referring to the logical subject of the clause or sentence. 

Cf pa-ak, pash and suffix -pa. 
pd-ak, a jjarticle of same meaning as pa, q. v., in most cases intranslat- 

able: pa-ak ka-i an shayuakta! tvhat do I know of it! 140, 2. This can be 

expressed in a shorter way: p;i-ak (or pa) I do not knotv. From pa, ak. 
pa-al4mip, d. pa-alamishap (1) elder or younger brother'' s ivife; said by 

his sisters. (2) husband's elder or younger sister; said by his wife, 
pa-anip, d. pa-auishap (1) elder brother; said by younger sister. (2) 

elder sister; said by younger brother. Cf Note to 134, 9. 
p ;i d s h a , patcha, d. papadsha to split up, to rip, to tear a hole, as into an 

article of dress. Cf gintdtka, spatcha. 
pa'dsha to become blind oj one eye; d papa'dsha of both eyes: partic. papa'- 

dshatko blind; lit. "having become blind of both eyes". Der. pAha. 
pads hay a, d. papdshaya to tear up, to tear; as dress, cloth. Cf pakaga. 
pAdshayam, d. papdshayam (supply: 4nku) manzanita bush, 128,5.; 

grows not higher than four feet in the colder portions of the reservation, 
p a d s h i t ; see pii'dshit. 
paga, d. papAga to make wet, to wet, to wet through, to drench: ]iartic. 

pAgatko drenched, tvetted, ivct. Cf shpaga. 
pah a, d. pAp'ha, papa (1) v. intr., to become dry; to be, stay, remain dry: 


Aisliisluiinksli pi'l palia only AisMsh^s home remained drij, 96, 28 ; ko-e 
palij'i|)kasli a dried-tip frog, 134, 14., cf. 17.; pa'slit (for paliawlit) after 
having become dry, 147, 17.; pa'slitak, pa'slit ak as noon as dried by the 
sun, 148, 4.; gen padsbit i'lhulsh (for illoUisb) p. nt'pkank this year 
the iveather is dry. (2) v. trans., to make dry, to dry, to exsiccate; p. udsdks 
they dry the large sueher-fish on tbe fire and in the sun, 74, 1.; kanials paba 
they dry fish and reduce them to powder, 74, 3. and Note; paba (for pabatko, 
paliapkasli) at po'ks iwidsbat then they put in caches the Jjaked camass- 
roots, 74, 6.; pabapk (for pabApkasb) ivvani dried berries, 75, 10.; pab4tko 
iniisbniushani tc\n\\e'ks jerked beef. Cf". pata, sbpaha. 

pAbalka, bahbal^a, pa'lka, d. papabalka (1) v. trans., to make dry, to 
exsiccate. (2) v. Intr., to become dry, to dry up; said of tlie soil, of rivers 
etc. (3) V. intr.. Mod., to suffer of a lingering disease; to look meager, lean, 
sickly, famished. Der. paba. Cf. pci'hlaksb. 

P a li a p k a s b = E - u s li = g i' s h i , nom. pr. of Grass Lake or Dry Lake, 
wbere a battle of tbe Modoc campaign was fought: lit "Dried-u]> Lake 
at"; 43, 14. Pabatko E-usb (tbe same locality), at Dry Lake, 43, 17. 
From pdba, c-ush, gj. 

pA'bla, pdla, d. pap'bla, p4p'la (1) circular dish made of root fibers or 
rushes, tight and solid, having often a diameter of three feet; round 
matted dish or tray; tvickerwork dish. (2) sort of scoop or paddle made of 
branches or of tule-bulrushes, larger than the shdplash, q. v.; used on 
the water, 167; 34. Der. pala. Cf tfa. 

p A ' h 1 a k , palaga, d. pdp'lak tvilloiv tray, matted dish of small size; from six 
to twenty inches in diameter. Dim. pd'hla, q. v. 

p a ' h 1 a k s h , d. papd'hlaksh of lean, meager or sickly appearance ; famished, 
emaciated: wdsb=p. a fox species; see washpalaksb. Der. pdhalka. 

p a h oka, d. papah6ka, v. intr. and impei's., to linger with a slow or internal 
disease : ml p. stelnash, or p. n'sli I am permanently sick, Kl. ; kaka'gi a 
n'sb kako; pap6k=shitku n'sb (for papab6ka=shitko nush, or papahokatko= 
shitko) 7ny bones {or legs) are tveak; they are paining me; lit. "to me they 
seem exsiccated". Der. pdba. 

p d ' h p a s h , pdpash earwax; Mod. for tutii'ksh Kl. Der. pdba. 

p a ' b t c h n a , d papd'btclma to be thirsty; to suffer from exhaustion. Der. 
pdba. Cf ambutka, pahoka, pdtchnam. 

p ;i li a I k ii — p ;'i k 1 u a . 255 

paisha, pd-isha, d. papi'sha, v. impers., (\) it is damp, sultry: ku-i a n'sh 
hii'sblta paishuk sultriness oppresses me. (2) it is cloudy weather, the shy is 
clouded, overcast. Cf. paga, shtipa, tgiwa. 

pais hash, pa-ishash, d. papl'shash (1) clouded, overcast shy. Cf. ktilo. 
(2) cloud, rain-cloud, 179; 2. Quot. under hupka, ka'gi, pitkala. 

paishkaga, d. papl'shkaga ?i<i/e c?o«(fL- kitchkani p. Zamft-c/oMd 

p a y a k u a pochet, side pochet in dress: payakuatat tchel^tka to taJx out of 
the pochet; pi a slialaktcliui wAti m'natant payakutat he is pidtiny his 
knife in his pochet. Der pe-iiycga Cf. liyuialcs. 

paka, paka, d. papka, pap;^a {)■) to eat, to feed on: tutixolatko uiiak pApka 
she tooh early meeds each time after a dreamy night, 158; 54. (2) to smoke 
tobacco, either pipe or cigar, 137, 2. .3.; at nu k'lewi pAksh now I abstain 
from smoking; jjakola to cease smoking, 137, 4. Der. pAn. 

paka, paga, d. papka to bark; said of the dog, wolf, and prairie-wolf: 
watchagalam pakash ku-idshi the harking of a dog is of bad augury. 

paka, mbaka, d. papka, mbambka, (1) v. intr., to be brohen, fractured; 
partic. pAkatko, mbakatko, d. papatko (for papkatko), mbambdkatko 
broken; kdklash, lu'ldish a papatko the saddle, the stirrup is brohen; said 
of plants: old, decaying, tvithered. (2) v. trans., to breah, to break to pieces: 
w^kamua p. to breah a tumbler. Cf ndshdpka. 

pakaga, d. papkaga to tear ; tear up, to jerk off. 

p a k a k 6 1 a , d. papkak61a to tear away from., to jerk off to a distance, 96, 16. : 
pa'ksh pakakoleshtka (supply gi) he attempted to jerk off' the pipe, 96, 14. 

pakalaksh fold, crease; term for composing nmltiplicativc numerals: 
nda'nash, vu'nipsh p threefold, fourfold. Cf. spagal;^a. 

pake61a, d. papake61a to open by tearing, pulling, or jerking: pipa p. to 
open a letter. Der. ]idka No. 3 (2). 

pakish, d. papkish eatable, serviceable as food: skdwanks ka-i p. the ivild 
parsnip is not eatable, 160, 2 ; p. wdk ku'tsag! hoiv palatable is the gudgeon! 
178; 1.; ka's paki'sh the ipo-root is eatable, 147, 8.; shdnkisli=pakish water- 
melon. Cf. pp 146-150, also Kle'dshu=Pdkishkni. Der. pdka No. 1. 

pak'lgish, d. papdk'lgish (1) mess-table, dinner-table. (2) table: kek p. 
ktek'hiehdtko this table is notched. Der. pdka No. 1. 

paklua, d. p;ii)aklua to hoivl, bark; said, e. g., of the cry of the prairie- 


wolf: wi'isham pakhu'pkiisli ivhcn the wolf howls at (them) from a distance, 
133, 2., cf. 3. Der. paka No. 2. 

j);'iksli, d. papaksh canon, ravine, steep valley, deep (jorge. Derived from 
paka to break, as Span, qucbrada is derived from quebrar, to break, to burst 
open. Cf. gatkta, iikd. 

paksh, pa'ksh, d. pdpksh tobacco-pipe; originally made of stone (ktaf=p.), 
1)6, 11-16.: lakf pa'kshtga Mkpeks shuydga the commander lifted up ashes 
with his pipe, 14, 6.; incantations: 167; 33. 178; 12. Der. paka No. 1 (2). 

pakta, d. papakta to tear in two, to pull apart, to jerk asunder; said of 
long-shaped objects, as cords, bead-strings etc. Cf. pakaga, paktish. 

p4ktish, d. papaktisli one who tears, one who pulls apart long-shaped 
objects. Cf Y4mnash=Pdktisli. 

p a'k t i s h , pa-aktish, d. pa'ktishap (1) elder and ifounger brother's son; said 
by uncle. (2j elder and younger brother's daughter ; said by uncle. 

pdkuish; same as mbakuisli, q v. 

pakolesh, pd%olsli, d. papakolsh mule-deer; the largest deer-species in 
the Klamath liighlands: Cervus macrotis, 74, 13. 

p al a , pa'la, d. pap'la, papla (1) fo become dry, exsiccated, drained; to dry up: 
p. nanuk everything is dried up ; ti'wish ndu'lshampksh pdltki the rushing 
umters to be left dry, 94,6.; pdltko w^lwasli gi the springs of xoater are dried 
up, 157; 46. (2) to be, stay, remain dry; to be in a drained condition. (3) 
liver, 120, 2. — Contr. from pdhala; cf piiha. 

p A 1 a , p ;i 1 a k s h ; see pd'hla, pa'hlaksh. 

p41a-ash, palash, pi. tiimi p., (I) flour, Kl. and Mod.: palasham wa^ogsh 
flour-sack, flour-bag, 74, 10. (2) bread, 139, 3., KL: p. liklatko a loaf of 
bread. Der. pala. Cf ktetdga, shdpele. 

l^Alak, Mod. pelak; d. pap6lak, paplak, Mod. pdp'lak (1) quickly, rapidly, 
fast, 142, 10.; swiftly, hurriedly, in a haste: p. pan to eat hurriedly; p. shii'- 
wan t! give me quickly! I3S, 4. .5.; ka-i pap'lak hemc;^' i! do not speak fast! 
(2) within a short time, tvithout delay, at once, 144, 8. 154; 11.: kd-i pclak 
shayiika to learn with difficulty. P. and p(!lak are used equally often in Kl. 

pAlakak, pAlakag, Mod. pdlakag, d. pAp'lakak, adv. (1) very quickly, quite 
rapidly, tvithout delay, 120, 10. 13.: p. nxii\<.gi lApuk both became mothers 
tvithin a short time, 107, 12.: j )clakag s/;or% after this, 40, 22. (2) sud- 
denly, on a sudden, 128, 5. From pAlak, ak. 

p a k s h — p a ] p a 1 i . 257 

p a 1 a k m ii 1 a 11 k quickly, fast, at a rapid gait, 122, 5. 

paid la, palalla, d. pap'lala, v. iutr., to dry up, to become dry: welwash p. 

the spring has ceased to flow, 173; 4. Der. pala. 
palalea to pull out, take out with the roots; said of certain kinds of lacus- 
trine rushes, grasses etc., 184; 37. Cf patchnam. 
P a 1 a n E - u s h , nom. pr. of a flat rock emerging from the surface of the 
Sprague River at low water; lies close to Wek'kagJvnuklekshdkshi, q. v.; 
lit. "Water drying up". Der. p41a, e-ush. 
p a 1 a p e 1 e , pallapele, d. papalapele, papallapeli ( I) to steal or deceive again, 

for a second time. (2) to steal or seduce repeatedly. Der. ptilla, -peli. 
p a 1 d s h a p e 1 e , d. papdldshapele, v. intr., to return for stealing, to go hack 
and steal or seduce: snewedsh paldshapekk for the purpose of going to se- 
duce (ant)ther's) wife, 95, 8. Der. pdlla, -peh. 
p d 1 a s h , palsh, d. papalsh dried-up place or spot; waterless space, spot left 

dry by the waters, 94, 7. Der. pala. 
p a 1 k i s h d. papdlkish dried-up spot, dry bottom, dry river-bed. Der. pdhalka. 
p a 1 k u i s h , d. papdlkuish ancient river-bed or lake bottom left dry long ago; 
gulch deeply washed out: kukelam p. dried-up river, dry ditch; kokdlam 
hiik p. mund tu there was a dry river-bottom Jar below, 21, 15., cf. 22, 5. 
Der. pdhalka. Cf. kiipkupele, ntu'ltsanuish, pdlash, ukd 
p d 11a, d. papdlla (I) ^o steal, pilfer, purloin: kani watch gt-u p.! who stole 
my horse? vu'nsh p. to abstract, steal a boat, canoe, 78, 8. Cf. 35, 16. 21. 
54, 6. 58, 13. 14. (2) to cheat, defraud, deceive. (3) to deceive by seducing, 
to seduce from, as a wife from her husband, or a husband from his wife: 
tfna sndwiids htik p. hishuaks m'na this woman once deceived her husband, 
78, 7. Cf 58, 10. 11. 61, 14. and nitu. 
pdlpali, pii'Ipali, d. papdlpali, piipalpah (1) white-colored, white, 146, 7. 
149, 20.: p. tchikeman silver, silver coin, silver money; p. watsdtka on a 
white horse, 183; 22.; pnlpalkh shUpshaltko having a tvhite floiver, 146, 14.; 
the vowels are dissimilated in: pa'lpali kshu'n a white (-flowering) grass, 
149, 3.; pa'lpali shldpsh the flower is white, 149, 19. (2) tvhite, light-com- 
plexioned: p.=tchuleks, or pdlpahtchuleks=gitko white manor person; Ameri- 
can, European, pale-face ; term standing instead of Boshtin, q. v.; 38, 15. 
and Note; 55, 4. cf 103, 5. Original form palpdl-li. Der. pdla. Cf. 
mukmi'ikli, o'lshaltko. 


palpi 1 cg;i, uiimcaninjr word sung- by Modocs (liiriii<r games; formed by 
analogy of yapalpuldasli rfrt^-&M^fer^^, lyT); 3. 4. 

pAlsh, d. pApalsh, 1)4, 7. Contr. from p/ilawh, q. v 

p ji ni p a k t i s h ; see mpampaktish. 

Pampi, nom, pr. of a Klamath Lake man, 77, 1. Not a Kl. term; it is 
probably the Shoslioni word pdmpi, "Iiead", in the sense of '■'Large-Head". 

pAn, d. pApan (1) to eat, to feed upon: tchuleks, kiii'm p. to feed on meat, 
fish; maklaks p. the Indians feed on it, 14^^, 15.; palak p. to cut ravenously ; 
pushish shiiiga m'shash, p. hunk n;inuk tlie cat killed a chipmunk and ate, it 
all up; ydnan'sh pil p-ank eating the lower end only, 148, 2.; p;i-nk /or eat- 
ing, 19, 7.; pd-uk shlink to cat after killing, 136, 1.; tiii'muk kaftua pa-uk 
through hunger and abstention from food, 95, 14.; sta-6tank kaitua Y>{xt fast- 
ing and hence eating nothing, 83, y.; (at) pd-uapk tu'm ye shall eat plenty, 70, 
4.; mbil'shant tche'k p;i-uapkuk in order to cat it next day, 119, 16.; pd- 
ulank after repast, 113, 11. (2) to chew, masticate: katchgal }). to masticate 
tobacco, 137, 1. Cf kima'dsh, kpuyumna, pawa. 

p a n a , d. pApa, papd to dive, to plunge under the water's surface. 

Panalna, nom. ])r. of a cliief of the WalpApi tribe of Snake Indians, 

' better known to the Oregonians as Pauline, Paulini, Palfhi. Not long 
after the government had concluded a separate treaty with the Walpapi, 
dated August 12, 1865, this inveterate enemy of the whites jjrevailed 
upon his tribe to leave the Klamath reserve in April, 1866; ef 29, 2. 
He fell in an engagement with scouting parties at a locality north of the 
reserve in 1867. Cf. Note to 33, ". Pauline Marsh and Lake, about 
sixty miles northeast of Fort Klamath, have since perpetuated his name. 

pan am, d. papdnam; also: pan, d. papan; locat. Kl. panut, Mod panatat 
spruce pine, spruce: Abies menzicsii; grows west of the Klamath Lakes, 
in the Cascade Range. Its bark exudates a reddish substance used by 
the natives as a red paint, called wakinsh, 150, 6. Cf. Inpkasli. 

pAnani , d. papanani, adj., a,s long as, to the length of: ni'p paiuuii being as 
long as the hand; to the length of a hand, 148, 3. Der. pani. Cf. -ni. 

p/mi , pani', pan, ])an, d. papAni (1) loc. adv., jirep. and postp., up to, as far 
as, rcachiiifi to or up In: vA'sIm |). reaching or coming up to the chest, breast; 
kai'lisli pan dowu to llie tvuisl, hip, 90^ (J. Cf. nil);i-ush, p('niak (2) tem]). 

p ;i 1 p i 1 e g a — p 4 s h . 259 

adv., prep, and postp., until, as long as: wi'ga pani, wigapani a short while; 
kaitua sbu'ta tchi'sh p. slialam nothing was done further till autumn, 36, 
18.; shu'-utanksh nd-ulaksh pani' as long as an agreement was being dis- 
cussed, I' 8, 9. (ne-ulaksh is here a verbal, not substantive). 

p a n k o k s h , d. papdnkoksh wading ford, ford which can be passed on foot. 
Der pdnkua. Cf kako'kish. 

p a n k u a , bankua, d. papAnkua to wade through, to ford on foot a river, pond, 
hike, swamp, marsh etc. Der. pana. Cf g^-upka No. 2, hashp4nkua. 

pan6pka, v. impers., to desire to eat, to be hungry: p. a nu'sh, contr. pa- 
n6pkansh, / tvant to eat. Contr. from panuapka. Cf. pan. 

Papahuatk, Papa-natko, nom. pr. masc. Kl.: '■'■ Dry-Eyes". This name 
Avas further explained: "Eyes turned upward with mouth open". Der. 
paha. Cf pa'dsha, papatk/iwatko. 

papalish, pi. tumi p (1) subst, casual or professional thief purloiner, 
filchcr: ganta=p. sneak-thief (2) adj , mean, abject, wicked. Der. pAUa. 

papatalish, pi. tumi p., parasite, beggar. C£ kciwantko, patMsha. 

p apa tk4 watko , pi. tiimi p. (1) blear-eyed. Mod. (2) raw-boned, lean, 
meager, Kl. Cf shu-isha, tchmu'tch. 

p d p a t k o , partic. d. of pdka No. 3, q. v. 

p a p i a' n a to enjoy a picnic at a communal dance or at the inauguration 
of a new winter-house. Every family contributes a portion of the eat- 
ables consumed at this festive occasion, 75, 11. and Note. Der. pdn. 

p a p i s h , papi'sh, pi. tumi p., an eater, devourer ; habitual eater of: ndnuktua 
nu p gi I can eat everything, 158; 53.; maklaks=papi'sh a/%ator. Der. pAn. 

pdpkash, pi. tumi p. fl) lumber, board, plank, sawed timber, 180; 22.: p. 
walta ge-ii a gd-ish the board cracks tvhen I walk on it, 178; 7. 8.; p<4pkashti 
shu'tank box of lumber they make a coffin, 87, 2.; papksham Iti'lp knot in 
board, 178; 7. Incantation: 155; 18. (2) what is made of lumber: lumber 
wall of house etc. (3) club, heavy stick, piece of ivood. Der. pdka, No. 3. 

p a p k a s h = s h II s h a t i s h carpenter ; lit. "lumber- worker". Cf shiita. 

p a p 1 i s h , d.' jiapdplish dam, stoppage of running xvaters, originally and 
usually made of wood; obj. paplishash (for p;1plish), 94, 5. Cf. ndkosh, 
oti'lks, papkash. 

pash, pa'sli, d. papash food, eatables, victuals, provisions, ^'grub", 66, 7.: 
tfdshi p. a nutritious food, 147, 12.; maklaksam p. eatable roots, tubers and 


6i</6s, 91, 2. and Note; cf iiiaklaks (2); puyli sluishatisli coo/;; p. ambutch 
food and tvater, 95, 15. KJ. and Note. Der. pan. 

pash , pi'isli, i)article related to pa, pa-ak, (q. v.) like lisli to le, tii'sh to tu: 
tna p. nu what am If 154; 13.; tamiidsh p^sli nu tuniena? do I hear some- 
thing said concerning myself? 185; 38. Cf. pani, pat No. 2. 

P a H h a y II k s , d. Pa])sliaynks Frenchman. Fi'oni Cliin. J. 

p a s hi II t a , d. papshinta to cook: waitan pashiutola an luiluish I have cooked 
gooseherries all day. Der. ptish. 

pashla, or lu'ldani p. to gather food for the winter, 148, 10. Der. pash 

p a s li 11 1 a , pasliota, d. papshuta, papsliota (1) to attend to the cooking, to he in 
the hahit of cooking. (2) to feast on, to have a meal: tchiii sha shutchapelank 
pdshota tlien they built afire and took their supper, 112, 20. Der. pdsh. 

pat, pat, pa't they, pi. of the pron. pers. pi, pi, q. v. 

pat, pat, d. papat, jjostp in or to the size of: t%6po pat hu'pkatk, or: t%6po 
pAt=pani as thick as the thumb. Cf. p/ini, panani. 

pata, pa'ta, d. papta (1) v. intr, it is dry or hot iveather, it is dry season, it 
is summer. (2) subst., dry or hot time of the year, summer, warm season, 
heated term: p. gi'vda the summer is past; p.=giulshenii after summer is over, 
146, 4.; p. tchi'k about summer-time, 149, 5. Cf skoa. (3) subst ; see 
mptltash. Der. paha. 

patddsha, d. paptadsha, v. trans., to stretch, extend, to strain out: wawd- 
kash p. she stretches both ears, 91, 9. Der. pat- in patpdtli. 

patak, pi. of the pron. pitak, q. v 

patdmpka, d. papatampka to commence to eat, 113, 6.: p. sha wawdl^ank 
they commence eating it sitting all around, 149, 10. Der pAn, -tampka. 

p 4 1 a s h , mpatash a kind of hat or hat ornament. Cf Note to 183; 21, and 
lash tchuye'sh, under tchuyesh. 

pdtasli, pata, d. paptash, papta; see mpatash. 

pdtkal, d. ))a});itkal to get up, to rise from bed, to rise in the morning, 37, 5. 
134, 11.: uil)usant iKitkelank rising the next morning, 137, 2.; Wdlamskni 
papatkal the liogiic River Indians arose from sleep, 16, 6. 

p atk a 1 p ell, d. pa|)atkalpeli (1) to arise from sleep, to rise from bed, 134, 
11. (2) to arise from sleejj every morning. 

p ;'i t (I , d. papto; see mpato. 

p a s h — p ii' k a . 261 

p.-itpani d. papAtpani as large as, just as great or thick as: yantch t%6po 
patpan tJie yantch-root is as thick as the fhioiih, 146, 1. From pat, pAiii. 

patpat, d. papatpat, adv. of patpatli: (I) rough but level, Kl. (2) smooth, 
flat: patpat shuta to plane, to make even, to smooth. Mod. 

patpatli, pa'tpatli, d. papatpatli, papa'tpatli (1) rough and level, like cut 
stone, Kl. (2) even, smooth, level, flat, Mod. (for tatdtli, Kl.). Cf. mpdto. 

p j'l t c li a , d. pdptcha to eat, as an habitual, every-day act; to feed tqwn habit- 
ually: tsidlash patso'k for the purpose of feeding upon salmon, 189; 2.; atui 
patchat! take your meal ! Der. pan. 

patchx^lip, d. patch/alishap, papatcli;^alip elder or younger sister's son 
or daughter; said by uncle. Kl. for patcli^alap Mod., sister's daughter. 

p A t c h n a m , mpatchnam (1) grass tuft, bunch of grass; used in an obscene 
sense for hair on genitals, 184; 37. (2) a species of lacustrine grass. 

p d - u k i s h , d. papu'kish pasttirc land; pasture ground not fenced in. Der. 
p4wa. Cf. ktchinksli, niuligisli. 

pa-ula, d. iD^pula (I) v. trans, (for pavvala) to take food, to eat: nu tumena 
mat p. I heard say that he tvas taking food, 140, 7.; unan pa-ula I ate some- 
time ago. Der. pawa. (2) p., 113, 11.; verbal completive of p4n, q. v. 

pa-iitkisli, pa-u'tksh d. papa-i'itkish reed-stem of tobacco pipe: dnku p. 
pipe-stem, made of wood. C£ paka to smoke. 

p a w a , d. papua ( 1) to eat, browse, graze, feed, as beasts: mushmusli safgatat 
p. the cattle are grazing in the field (2) to eat, to feed on; said of persons, 
beasts, etc.: tchJi'lish p h\i he eats like a porcupine, 190; 14. 

p ;i w ash; same as pdwatch, but a vulgarism and less in use. 

pA watch, pAwash, d. papavvatch, papawash (1) tongue. Cf. pdlka. (2) 
an edible, tongue-shaped tap-root of sweet taste, smaller than the k5'l- 
root, 148, 7-10. (3) beet, carrot: taktakli p. red beet. Der. pawa. 

p a' d s h a , d. piipa'dsha to simulate sickness. 

pa'dshit, padshit (1) to-day, this day: p. or padshit wai'ta to-day; p. 
tchgaki it is cold to-day. Cf. menik. (2) at the time being: p. sko' (Mod.) 
when it tvas just spring time, 54, 2.; gen padshit i'lhulsh in the j^resent year. 

p ii' ' h p ii s h , a prettily colored or spotted species of owl. 

pji'ka, d. pil'pka, mantle or blanket of Indian manutacture enveloping 
the whole bod}". 


p ii k p fi'k H , d. piipakpii'kli gratj, gray-finlcd ; the hue of" many water-birds. 

pii'ktgi, d. pepii'ktgi (ii long) (1) to dawn; to appear, «iid of dayhght: 
4tutii pa'%tgi it dawns already, 182; f).; pji'ktgtsli lii'pia wdnga they died 
before dawn, 24, 11; mbu'shan pii'ktgisht next morning after daylight, 
before sunrise, 54, 7 , Mod.; n4d pa'ktgist gt'ikiamna at datmi we surrounded 
(them\ 21, 14. (2) v. intr., to 2)ass, remain or stop at a place at dawn, 
sunrise: tii' nat yainatat p. on the distant hills we were at dawn, 31,4. (b) 
subst., the dawn of day ; early hours, morning. Der. plik- in pakpii'kli. 
Cf. ni'lka, pii'dshit, ta'^tka. 

p ii n , p ii' n a k , p ii' n i a k ; see pe'n, p^nak, p^niak. 

pil'ni , d. piipii'ni, a species of grass, 3 to 5 feet long, used in the manu- 
facture of coai'se mats to cover small lodges: pe'ni st^-ulash mat made of 
the pd'ni-grass. 

pii'patchle, 112,6.; see petch61i. 

p e - i p , pil'-ip, pe'j) (pii'p, pii'v), obj. pe-ia, pii'y^' ])Oss. p^yalam, abbr. 
pdyam, d. p^-ishap daughter: g^-u unakam p. 7ny son's daughter; gci-u 
p(jyalam vu'nak my daughte/s son; lakiam pe-ia the chiefs s daughter, 190; 
11.; Pampiam pii'-ia Pdmpi\s daughter, 77, 1 ; cf 4. 

p e y a 1 a , pd-iala to give birth to a daughter. Cf ndanii'yala. 

p ^ k a 1 u i , d. pepxalui to be an accom])lice. 

p c k a s h , d. pt']:)kash strap for holding saddles etc., cut from the liide of 
horses, elks and other animals. Cf. pukewish (2). 

p e k e w a , d. pepk^wa to break to pieces, smash, smash up, destroy by break- 
ing ; said of a plurality of round-shaped or" bulky objects: tchui j). tat- 
%elampani shApash then he broke to pieces one half of the moons, 105, 12. 
Der kewa, q. v. Cf. pe'ksh, peksha. 

pe'ksh, d. pdpaksh rubbing stone ; tlie small mealing ston(! used on the 
lematch or flat, large mealing-stone. Cf. lematch, shilaklkish. 

p d k s h a , d. pepaksha to grind, to grind into flour, potvdcr or atoms, mash 
fine by means of the mealing apparatus, 74, 9. 146, 4.: p. lematchatka 
to grind on the flat mealing stone or metate, 149, 7.; peksh61a to cease, stop 
grinding, 149, 8. Der. pe'ksh. Cf. gtima, ndshapka, tanua. 

p d k s h i , d. pepakshi ; same as pdksha, q. v. 

pclak, d pi'p'lak, Mod. fi)r |)alak Kl , (j. v. 

]) ii k J) ii' k 1 i — p e' n t c h . 263, pi'lak ak, Mod. for pAlakak KL, q v. 

}) (■ 1 k a , pc'l;;Ka, d. pepalka to lick ivith the tongue; said of persons and ani- 
mals: pel^a- pawatch to put tlie tongue out. Cf. p'lai. 

p('l;jatana, d pepiil^atana to lick with the tongue repeatedly or continuously: 
to lick something in its whole length : pusliish ge-u nep p. a cat licks my hand. 

pcilpela, d. pepe'lpela to work, to perform labor: pe'lpela, d. pepe'lpela 
(e long) to work for oneself or for somebody; E-ukshiki'sliash pelpeliash 
hnnc'ishak to work gratuitously for the Lake Indians, 35, 18. C£ lulpalpalia. 

p (■ 1 p e 1 a to murmur, to talk indistinctly. Cf. the suffix -peli. 

pelpeli^ga, d. pepelpeliega ^o commewce <o ?t;orA-, 104,3. Kk 

p e 1 p e 1 1 ;'i m p k a , d. pepelpeltilmpka, 35, 20 ; same as pelpeli^a; Mod. 

pelui, pil'lui, adv., prep and postp. (1) down in, doivn below: p. kokagtat 
down on the beach, down in or along the hollow of the river bed. (2) farther 
off, farther away. Cf p'laf, spc'Iuish, tiipelui. 

p e m p t k i , d. pepamptki to fall in a swoon, to faint, to become unconscious, 
to take a fit: partic. pemptkitko one who has fainted. 

pe'n, pen, pil'n (d. pepen) (1) a second time, once more, once over again: p. 
luunasht gi to say so a second time, to repeat; pen tcliia they made another 
stand, 43, 4.; c£ 78, '2. (2) again, anew, repeatedly: ktl-i nu p. kslu'in 
shandholi / want no more hay; ka-i pen no longer, no more, 42, 7.; p. na'sh 
another one, 114, 5. 6. 8. 125, 6 ; cf. 34, 16. 16. 78, 10-12. 16. P. often 
introduces a new item or sentence and thus marks progress in the narra- 
tive; tchiii pan hereupon, 91, 8. 103, 2.; at \)M after this, now, and; cf. 
42, 9. 43, 4. 94, 4. lOo, 7.; the English again is often used in the same 
sense. (3) and in numerals, 33, 6. 37, 20. 43, 7. 10. 20. 54, 13. 

p e n a , 34, 6., Mod , emphatic form for p'na, q. v. 

pt'nak, pii'n ak a second time, once more, 78, 1 1. 12. 120, 7. Cf. pe'n. 

p e n i a k , pil'niak, d. pepdniak naked, undressed, destitute of clothing, 93, 4. : 
p. ko'ks without any dress or garments; stark-naked, 82, 9. Cf. p4ni. 

peno'dsha, pinu'dsa (1) to pursue, to run after, to hunt, to follow up, 17, 
14.: gaggiiiha \)enn' dani'/Am they hid themselves, being pursued, 17, 15. (2) 
to reach after following, to attain through pursuit, to catch up with, 121, 20. 
21. 22. 122, 6. 7. Cf. luidsha. 
p e' n t c h , d. pc-pantch hunter's pit for trapping deer and other game. The 
Pit River of Califoi-nin is named after pits of this kind. Cf. p'nana 


pe'p, pii'p, p'liii'p, (i. pi'p:>p, \)'hi['\)i\Y) pinr marten, sahlc: MnsteJa americana. 

Incantation 177; 10. Cf. ske'l. 
Pt'pakli, noni pr. fern. Kl.; interpreted by "Dry-Skinned". 141, 9. 12. 

Der. puhalka, in the contr. form pa'lka. 
p dpn ad sh n ish , d. tumi p. spendthrift, prodigal, squanderer: nanuk- 

tuanta p. one who squanders all Ms property. Der. piuulslia (under puedsha). 
pet, pdt, d. p(^pat, 24, 6. ; see skuihasli pet. 
petciga, d. peptega to break, tear; to fear to pieces, as cloth, paper; pct(i- 

gank hi'mboks tearing the log to pieces, IH, 17.; nnnnk p. to tear into 

shreds; lit.: "to tear the whole of it." Der. t^ga. 
petila, d. peptl'la (1) v. intr., to he a midwife. (2) snbst, midwife. 
pe'tch, d. p^patch, pa'patch foot: lapi p. ticofeet, 149, 15.; lapok p. both 

feet : p. ska'tish tapidshni the left hind leg, 134, 14. ; tu'nep p. atl gintegatk 

five feet into the ground, 87, 8.; p^tcham n;'iwalsh, IMod., anJde. Cf. ktuka. 
petchdga, d. peptch^iga little foot, 91, 9. Dim. pe'tch. Cf petch/ikaltko. 
petch4kaltko, d. peptchdkaltko having a little foot, leg, small-legged; 

said of lizards, insects etc ; used mainlj- in the d. form. Der. petch/igala. 
p^tchaltko, d. pdptchaltko provided with afoot, leg. Der. p^tchala. 
petch61i, pjidshoie, d. pepatcho'li; by elision: pepatchle, pa'patchlo to 

step off from, to step down from: patcho'le na'shak he stepped down onhj one 

ladder-step, 112, 3.; pa'patchle lapok waki'sh he stepped doivn two ste2)s of 

the inside ladder, 112, 6.; cf. 9. and Note to 112, 3. 
petchtna, d. p(^patchtna to touch with the feet, to step upoti, to tread on: 

(wakisli) p^tchtnank tvhen stepping upon or down on, 112, 6. 
p (^ - u d s h a , d. pepe-udsha to go bathing; to go and take a cold plunge : pepe- 

udshak (for pepd-udsha ak) just for bathing, 82, 9. Der. pewa. 
pe-uydga, d. pepuy^ga, v. trans., (1) to pich, lift, gather up; said of a 

plurality of round or bulky articles: kttli pe-uy^gan picking tip stones, 

125, 4. (2) to lift at one end. Speaking of one object, luyc^ga. 
pe-ukanka, d. pdpilkanka; see luyamna. 
pe-ula, 25a'-nla, d. pc'piila, v. trans., referring to a plurality of persons, 

animals, round, rounded and bidky objects: {I) to lag down, to deposit in 

or upon: shliia tchitchiliieka pa'-ulapksh shnvi'lashtat he saw little birds 

deposited in the nest, 95, 4. (2) ]j. or partic. pe-ulatko, numeral classifier 

added to nuudjers from 12 to 19, 22 to 29, 32 to 39, 192 to 199 etc. and 

p e p — pi 


referring to objects as mentioned above, and also to periods of time, as 
days, months, years: ''I lay down, lie lays down; laid dotvn'", viz. "counted". 
Nadshgshapta taunep p. Mo'dokni sixteen Modoc Indians, 44, 1.; tina 
hundred pen lap p. latchash one Jmndred and two lodges, 90, 3.; hlpeni ta- 
unepanta lap p. illo'latko gi he was tiventy-tivo years old, 55, 8. 20. Cf. 
33, 6. 40, 1. and Note, 43, 10. 15. 18. 66, 5. 105, 1.; used irregularly in 
90, 2.; p. instead of p^-ulatko, 90, 3.; omitted in 54, 13. Speaking of 
one object: kshikla, Ifkla. Der. pewi. 

p(3wa, pil'wa, d. pepewa (1) v. intr., to hathe in cold water; to hatJie, sivim, 
plunge, 83, 1. 144, 8. (2) v. trans., to wash or hathe; said of anim. beings 
only: ge'k shash shiushuak pepewa these girls washed each other (the 
whole body). Cf gewa, nt'wa, pana, tchiwa. 

p (i w a s h , d. p(^puash locality for bathing or swimming; bathing -place. 

pewi, pii'wi, d. pe'pui ; see luya. Cf shew4na. 

p 'gas hip, d. p'gdshishap, Mod. p'gap'gaship {\) grandfather; said to or 
of the grandfather by the children of his daughter. (2) grandcliild; said 
by grandfather to or of the children of his daughter. Cf p'lugship. 

p'gishap, p'ki'shap, d. p'gishishap mother, 54, 2. 65, 9. 20. 91, 4-10. 119, 
14.-120, 8.: t'shi'shap p'ki'shap the father and the mother, 91, 1.; shapi'ya 
p'gi'sha m'na it said to its mother, 105, 13. 15.; p'gi'shamshitko luilam like 
our mother, 119, 14. Der. gi; cf ki- in ki'-adsh 

p ' g i s h = 1 u 1 a t k o , d. p'gip'gash=lulatko bereaved of the mother, motherless. 
From p'gishap, lula. 

p'gi sh = liilsh, d. p'gipgash=lulsli deceased mother. From p'gishap, lula. 

p ' g u'm % i p , d. p'gu'm;(ishap (1) husband's younger sister's son or daughter; 
said by aunt. (2) mother's elder brother's wife; said by nephew or niece. 

p ' h u' s h k a , p'huska, d. p'hup'ht4shka to tear off by hand, Kl. Der. puslika. 

p ' h u' s h k u i s h , d. p'hup'hashkuish piece torn off by hand. 

p i , pi, obj. pish, pii'sh, piish, ni'mllsh, poss. sing, p'na, Kl. m'na, d. and pi. 
pat, pat, pat, obj. p'nAlash, p'na'lsh, p'nash, pe'nsh, pants, pilsh; poss 
p'ndlam, Kl. m'n^lam; pers. pron. of third person anim : he, she, it, pi. 
they; refers to anim. beings invisible, distant or thought to be at a distance, 
and is usually procl. in the subj. case of the singular; |)i genuapkug 
himseJf piropiosing to go, 111, 4.; tchiii hu'nk shiuga pi Shashapamtchash 


tlwnhe (the wolf) Idlkd Old Grizzly Bear, 131, 12., cf. lOJ, 12.; pi' U-\\\<x\A\ 
nc-ulakt;i m'na linaka he then punished his son, 96, 19.; pi is soiiKtiiucs 
added attril)utively to the subject of the sentence; pi shki'shkish nii-;isht 
he thefly-huff said thus, 104, J.; pi p'ti'shap gi-u he, my father, US, 20., cf. 
132, 2.; kii-i nu slilea ])u'sh I did not see her, 140, 11.; K'mukamts stuli'sht 
pi'ts that ICmukamtch had advised him, 107, 15. and Note; bants' for p4sh, 
pu'sh, obj. sing him, 129, 3.; shli'sht m'ndlsh i shlin if he shoots then you 
shoot (hhn), 107, 15.; pa't h,4shtaltal n(3-ul%ug they disputed among them- 
selves before taking action, 104, 3 Cf. 121, 21. 134, 2. Pi is used excep- 
tionally of iiian. things; get pi tchusi of this shape it is, the ivdpatu-root, 
149, 12. To p'ndlasl), obj. pi., the form shash is preferred by Kl., by Mod. 
po'sh: shishiika po'sh ka-a they fight each other vigorously; shiii'wi bosh 
the ivind hloics at them. For the poss. cases see p'na, p'nalam. 

pi ash, pi. tiimi p. (1) fore end or how of canoe, boat. (2) same as pul;iu- 
antch, q. v. Cf. piena. 

plena to shove or scrape sideways: pienu'tkishtka p. they scrape (the ground, 
kiiila) sideways with a scraping-paddle, 15, 3. 148, 10". Cf. piash. 

p i e n I'l t k i s h , pieno'tkish scraping-paddle ; a flat piece of wood used by 
women when searching for chrysalids in the soil of pine-forests, 148, 16. 

pila, pila, bela, pi'l, pil, d. plpil, adv , only, hut, solely, merely: wew^ga pil 
tchi'shi only the children being at home, 105, 3.; ke'inat j/i'ia nothing hut the 
back, 125, 9.; ge'n mbii'shant pil this morning only, 140, 7.; ka-i ki'lank 
pi'la i-fi'ta they do not shoot in quick succession, 22, 9.; nanuk titads^atko 
pil ilktcli every grave being provided with head- and foot-board only {not with, 
one board alone), 88, 2.; at niu'i^k pi'pil hunta m'-ulxa the m.ole thus made 
(each mountain) alone, 104, 4. P. is often added to parts of the animal 
body in the sense of: bared, bare; kako pila inlsh skull, skull-bone; sti'ya 
pi'l nu'sh gi'pksh having pitch on her hare head, 9(i, 6. Cf. kako, shki'sh. 

pilhap, d. pipalhap sinew, strong ligament; said, e. g., of the sinews con- 
necting tlie head with the back of man. Cf. nibi'iitcli, j/lin. 

pilpil first menstruation. From Chin. J. pilpil '^hlood"; this from pil red. 
Cf. yulina, nu'ika, stiipui. 

]) i 1 1 p a n t k o , d. pipaltpantko fat of deer and other game. Der. p'lhi. 

p f 1 u i , (1. pipi'dui, V. intr. (i) la smell, to emit an odor, a Jlarar: ko-i p. he 

p i a s h — p i t a Iv . 267 

teas stinking, 134, 10.; k6-i piluitko smelUnfj disagreeably, 148, 7.; slilaps 
tidsli piluitko the flower has an agreeable smell, 146", 13.; tsmo'k pi'luitlc 
smelling after rotten fish, 146, 7. (2) to taste, to be flavored, said of food 
and beverages: kii-i piluftko, or piluitko tainted, infected, musty; piluitko 
tchuleks tainted meat. Cf. ndupa. 

p i 1 u y (? a s h , d pipaluyc'ash (1) adj., what emits odor, flavor, or has a pe- 
culiar taste. (2) subst. in: ko-i piluyeash («) a species of wild, small onion, 
Kl.; (b) onion, a kitchen vegetable, Mod. 

p i n o' p t c h a , d. pipno'ptclia to blow out a candle, light or lamp. Der. pniwa. 

pi'nsh, pintcli ^mtts. From the English 

p i n u' d s h a ; see peno'dsha. 

pip a (pe'pa)) P^- tumi yi. {1) 2)aper ; sheet of paj)er, card, paste-board. (2) 
anything manufactured or made from paper or card-board: letter, docummt, 
book, newspaper, writing-booh, cover of booh, ticket; p. shnigo'dshna to send 
a letter by mail, to mail a note, parcel; p. shnigota, 36, 21. Mod., same 
signification; p. hashashuakia to read; lit. "to speak to the paper"; ke'-u 
lakiam p. iyamna nii I carry my pinss-ticket ivith me; p. hu itpa he brought 
the document, 34, 6. From Chin. J. pipa^jajjcr. 

p i p 6 1 ji n t a n a, pipelantan, pipCdangshta, adv., prep, and postp., from, oppo- 
site sides, from or on two flanks or sides, on two or both sides or parts: p. ki- 
dshash pectoral fins ; Idpuk pi'pelantana ganta both sneaked up from opposite 
sides, 110, 12; ku-i suta pipelangshtan stainas they embittered each others' 
hearts, 7S, 5.; pipelangshtant on either side, 80, 8.; pipelangshta Modok- 
ishash lakiash on both sides of the Modoc chief's position, 39, 18. Cf. 42, 
18. 19. 85, 9. Der. pipil (d of pila). Cf. shipapelangshtant. 

pish, d. pipash gall, bile. 

p i s h a s h , poss pisham, d. pipashash humming-bird: pi'sham shnii'lash nest 
of humming-bird, 134, 13.; incantation 177; 25. 26. The species found in 
these highlands is either Selasphorus rufus or Stellula calliope. 

pitagianggin, pita=kiank, pitagi'nk, d and pi. patagianggin, pron. 
pers. and refl., he (absent) for himself, she for herself, it for itself; pi. they 
for themselves. From pitak, giank. Cf. -giangghi, itakidnki. 

pitak, pitak, d. and iil. patak, pa'tak, pron. (1) with emphatic significa- 
tion: just he, she, it, Ihcy ; but he, but she, but it; but they; often marks syn- 


tactic contrast. (2) pron. refl., himself, herself, itself, pi. themselves: kiti'ta 

pitak nkiisli her belly burst up; lit "herself she burst as to the belly", 105, 

16.; pitdk shi-ita to paint one's own body; tchdshash tchla'1/a pitakmani 

the sJcuuk tvas droivned itself, 127, 12. and Note 
pf till, d. pipdtiu dew-claw on middle jofvi't of a canine's hind-leg. 
pitkala, v. intr., to travel, movem any direction; said of inan subjects: 

paishash jiitkal the cloud travels Cf itkal, ndakal. 
pitliga to smear, daub or line over, as pitch, 96, 20. Cf kiuliga, laliga. 
Pit River Charley, nom. pr. of the headman of the few Pit River In- 
dians settled on the Klamath reservation: 58, 4. and Note. His lodge 

is but one mile south of the agency buildings, 
pitch a to go out through lack of fuel, to become extinct; said of fire, 85, 10. 

and Note: pitchutipka loloks the fire tvill go out; pitchola to go out wholly. 

Mod. for pitchka Kl. Cf shpitcha. 
P i t s u a , nom. pr. of an eminence about two miles SSW. of the Klamath 

agency buildings. A fine view of Upper Klamath Lake and the Cascade 

Range can be enjoyed from the rocky summit, 
p i u p i n tana, pi. tilmi p., to go or move along somothing ivhUe piching at if, 

as at the bark of trees: 162; 2. Onomatop. 
p'k;itchip, pka'dship, d. pk^tchishap, Mod. p;,jii])kii(ls]ii]) (I) female 

cousin; daughters of persons related as brothers and s^isters call each 

other thus, 54, 4. (2) daughter of a female cousin; daughters of p'katchip 

(1) call each other by this term, 
p'ka'ship, d. pkii'pkaship son-in-law ; said to or of the husband of an 

elder or 3'ounger daughter by her father or mother. Cf p'ke'shap. 
p'ke'shap, p'kii'shap, d. pke'pxeshap; Mod. for p'ka'ship Kl., q. v. 
p ' k i' s h a p ; see p'gishap. 
p'kulip, p%61ip, d. p'kulishap, p/ohshap (1) grandmother; said to or of 

the grandmother by the children of her daughter. (2) grandchild ; said 

by the grandmother to or of the children of her daughter, 
p'kutchip, d. pku'tchishap, p^o'tchishap (1) elder or younger brother's 

son or daughter; said by aunt. Cf patch;^alip. (2) fathcr''s elder or younger 

sister; said by nephew and niece. Cf p'shakip. 
p'laf, ])la-i, d. ])l;'i])lai, adv., (1) ahorc, high up, on an eminence: hi the air; 

pi till — p'laitalkni. 269 

on high, 139, 1.; p. shMps the flower or hlossom on the top, 146, 12.; cf. 14. 
(2) upward, uphill, skyward; p. (or p'laitala) nu'dslia to go to ''the good 
spirits"; cf. nu'dslia. (3). Plai, uom. pr. of Spragae River Vallcg. (4) 
P'lai, nom. pr. of the Sprague Biver, an eastern affluent of the Wilham- 
son River, draining Sprague Eivcr Valley and flowing past the settle- 
ments at YAneks. Cf koke (2), p'laikni (4). 

p'laiki, p'lai gi, d. p'laplai'ki to be high up; to culminate: gitaks p'lai- 
kishtka (or p'laikishtka gi, p'laikishtkak) sapprish then the sun approached 
its culmination x)oint, 19, 12. 

p'laiki sh, plaikish, d. p'laplikish, other form of subj. case for the more 
common p'laikni, q. v. Der. p'lai, gi. 

p'laikni, d. plaplikni (1) adj., coming from, native of the tipper part of a 
countr}^ (2) adj., doing, acting from above; p'l. shiilipka to hand down 
from above, 66, 9. (3) adj , ivhat is high above, on high, heavcnlg; p. laki 
the heavenlg ruler, 134, 19. (4) P'laikni, nom. pr. of the Indians living 
along the Sprague River, so called to distinguish them from the Indians 
living at Upper Klamath Lake (or in its nearest vicinity) on the outlet of 
the Williamson River. (5) P'laikni, abbr. from P. K6ke, nom. pr. of the 
Sprague River. (6) siibst, tlie Christian God: p'laikishash hashashuakia 
to pray to God; p'laikishash 161a to trust in God, 41, 17. 22. Cf p'laitalkni. 

p'laina, d. p'lap'lina, plaplina, adv (1) upivard, towards the sky; p. nil ai 
ho'tsna / am running up the trees; said of the gi' wash-squirrel, 177; 14.; 
p nil luyainna upivard I travel ; said of the .spider, 175; 15. (2) up, above; 
on high, in the sky: p. nil kshakidsha on high I am circling about; said of 
the white-headed eagle, 165; 5. Cf 167; 86. 173; 6. Cf. p'laitala. 

p ' 1 a i n a = h u t c h n e a s h upivard-cUmber, an epithet frequently given to the 
kenekan or gray squirrel, Sciurus fossor, to distinguish it from squirrels 
moving along the ground. Cf p'laina (1). From p'laina, hudshna. 

p'la-ini, plaini, d. p'laj^lini (1) adj., highest, topmost. (2) subst, top, 
summit, apex. Cf h/ipa. 

p'laitala, plaital, d. p'lap'litala, adv. (1) upivard, skyward: p. nikual/a to 
fall with the marked side upward, 80, 2. (2) above, on high. Der. p'lai, -tala. 

p ' 1 a i t a. 1 a n t n i , adj., who or what is up, above, in the heaven or skies, 1 73 ; 1. 

p'laitalkni, d. p'laplitalkni (1) adj, coming from above, staying, living or 


bdrif/ ahvrc, ir>\), .'5. (2) subst., the Christ'unt, God, 130, 4 ; cF. 130, 1.; 

p.=shiisliatisli jirnicJ/cy, lit.: "God- worker"; p'laitiilki.sluisli liasliasliuakia 

to pra]j to God; \). nu'sh slilii'popk God sees me, ()4, 12.; hu'nk p'kiitc'lkui 

Hliayiiiikta God knows it, 65, 4. Der. ))'la{tala. 
p'l ai t a. 11 a, i)'laitaii, p'ld-ita, d. p'lap'litana, prcj). and postp , alwvr, Imjher 

than, farther up than : Niishaltkag-a p'la-itaii above the headwaters, 44, 3.; 

p'laita iit'tatka he extends over it, 73, 4. Der. p'lai. Quot. under liapa. 
p'laitani, d. plaplitaiii, adj., upper, superior, tvhaf is above: p'laitdnish 

(supply tutat) nga-isligatko one ivho lost the tq)per teeth. Der. p'laitaiia. 
p'laiwash, d. plapli'wash golden ear/le; so called on account of the 

golden-brown color of the head and neck: Aquila chrysaetos L. The 

blackish quill-feathers of this largest (_)regonian bird (six feet span) form 

an article of Indian commercial exchange; cf. 04, 0. 100, 2-0. 134, 8-11. 

180; 3.; ]).A\\i^\\s.s spot tvhere eagles are caught and killed, 1()(», 2. 3. Der. 

p'lai, wa. Cf. yailkal, luelkish. 
J) ' 1 a I w a s h (i 1 1 c h a to go on a golden-eagle hunt. Cf yau^rdiVla. 
p 1 e' k , pla'g, 1)1. tumi \A. flag, banner Cf. 14, 2. 87, 16. From English flag. 
Ple'nk, nom pr. masc, i^raw A:; Ple'nkamkshi at Frank's house, 140, 4. 

From the English name 
p'lentankni, d. peplcntankni, adj., the one or those above, up, uphill; 

that or those remaining, sitting or posted above, in a domineering position,; 

also used as adverb: p'lii'ntankni kinshakpkank pointing their rifles from 

the hill-top or hillside downward, 24, 1. Der. p'ldntant 
p'lentant, plii'ntan, d. peplentant, peplii'ntan, adv., prep, and postp., 

above, higher than, on the npper side of, on the surface or top of; p. tchi'wish- 

ksaksi overlooking (their abandoned) camping-place, 22, 1.; skdtisham 

iiepam p. the back of the left hand; p. latchash in the uptper storg or stories 

of the house, or on the house-top; p'le'ntant ipiSne'^i she laid on the top of a 

basket already filled, 110, 11. Der. p'laina, -tana. 
l)'l 1 n , (1. pliplan to become fat, to gain flesh; partic: plitko (l) fat, well fed, 

corpulent; (2) subst.,ya^ or grease of the animal or human body. Der. p'lu. 
l)'lu, pliV, pelu, d. p'luplu {\) fat, tallow, suet, grease, 160, 9.; lard, bacon; 

oily substance: p. shtika nu I smell talloiv ; wil'gnam p. ivagon-grease or 

wagon-oil; p. itchua to rub ivith fat, oil or grease, 05, 17. (2) P'lu, nom. 

p ' 1 a i t a n a — p ' n a u k u i s h . 271 

pr. of the liead-cliief of the Klamath Lake tribe, referring to liis fat, 
stout exterior, and corrupted into "Blow" by the Americans. He was 
one of the signers of the treaty of 1864: P. laki tiitasp^enini Bloiv is head- 
chief, 58, 1. Cf 58, 2. 6fi, 9. 

p'lugship, Mod. p'lu'kshap, d. p'lugshishap (1) grandfather; said to or 
of the grandfather by the children of his son, 96, 13. (2) grandchild; 
said by the grandfather to or of the children of his sons. C£ p'gtlship. 

p'luku'tchip, d. p'liiku tchishap (1) mother's elder or younger brother; 
said by nephew and niece. (2) father's elder brother; said by niece. 

p'na, p'na Mod., m'na, m'na KL, pron. poss. of the third person sing. 
anim., and referring to absence or distance: his, her, its; his, hers, its. It 
is the poss. case of pi, pi, q. v., and is quite distinct in its use from kelam, 
k^kelam, himkelam, q. v.; wu'la m'na imakag he asked his young son, 109, 
17.; nt^l/a m'na tchuyesh he laid down his hat, 112, 18., cf 71, 2. 105, 14. 
15. 112, 13.; genipelan p'na shne-ipdkshtat returning to his hearth, 36, 4.; 
hanshish m'na the article sucked out by him, 68, 7.; m'ndtoks sha watch 
shdshatui but they barter off his horses, 88, 5.; heshl'a hil pena she'shash 
shiimaluash he showed (him) that he had written his otvn name; pena being 
an emphatic Mod. form of p'na, for p'natak his oivn, 34, 6.; m'natant 
y&k\iaX into her basket, 119, 11. 

p'nalam Mod., m'nalam Kl., pron. poss of the third person pi. anim., 
their, theirs: shul6tish p. their garments, 91, 3.; klewidshnank m'nalam 
weweash leaving their offspring at home, 118, 3. Cf. 65, 20. 134, 3. 

p'n Alamtak Mod., m'nalamtak KL, pron. poss. pi. (1) emphatic: but their, 
just theirs; often marks syntactic contrast. (2) their own. 

p'nana, v. trans. (\) to bury, inhume, inter. (2) to store underground. 

p'nanip, d. p'nanishap, father's elder or younger brother's daughter: 
female cousin; laki hem(i;te p'niina p'na the chief said to his cousin, 39, 22. 

p ' n a u k i s h graveyard, place to bury, burying-ground. Cf tchpinu. 

P ' n a n k s i , nom. pr. of the Indian burying-ground in the woods on the 
Williamson River. It includes the old cremation-place, and at present 
its aspect differs but little from that of our cemeteries. Der. p'nana. 

p'ndnkuish, pi. tumi p., cache; spot where provisions etc. are stored 
underground, Der. p'nana. 


p'liiitak, puutok, Mud., m'mitak Kl., proii. poss. euiphat. : (1) but his, bid 
her, hers, or its; just his etc.; often marks syntactic contrast. (2) his own., 
her or its own: pnutak kailatat in his own country, 39, 7.; i)iiata tclmli'sli 
tcdsha to ivash onels own shirt, Mod.; m'ndtak imakap; for his own little son, 
109, 14.; ni'ndtak shdkta her own hone-awl, 112, 12. From p'na, tak (q. v.). 

p'lii, pGui, pi. ti'imi p., ivild garlic; a species oi Allium. Cf. pnivva. 

p H i u d a k t a u a , d. pnipnudaktana to blow into, as into a tube: pn. katcli- 
annat snavvedsli he blew the woman into a pine locj, 111, 16. Der. jjniwa. 

pui-ukshla, d. pnipniVkslda (1) to blow with the mouth; to iniff air out. 
(2) to extinguish by blowing. Der. pniwa. 

piif-ukshna, d. pnipnukshna; same as pni-ukslihi, q. v. 

]) n i u 1 i n a , d. pnipnulina {I) to blow out of, to blow down. (2) to blow away, 
as dust, flies etc. Der. pnivva. 

pniutakta, d. pnipnutakta, to blow into; said of long-shaped objects; p. 
sliasli shl61ushtat he blew them into a whistle, 122, 9. Der. pniwa. 

p n i w a , d. pnipnua (1) v. intr., to blow with the mouth. (2) v. trans , to Jill 
ivith air, to blow up : p. slii'pimsh to blow up a bladder. Der. niwa. Cf. shldwi. 

p 6 k a , d. p6[)ka ; see puka 

p 6 k a n g s h , i)u'kanksh, d. pu'pkangsh dandruff. 

pokdwish, pukiiyuish, d. popxa-iiish ; same as pukcwish, q. v. 

poko, poko, p6%o, pu'kii, d. p6pko, piipzo, (1) cooking vessel, kettle ; origi- 
nally a wickerwork vase intended for cooking with heated stones; bucket, 
pail: tchekeli p. bucket or kettle of yellow metal. (2) p. or iwam p. cylindric 
crate roughly made from spruce-bark, holding from one-quarter of a gallon 
up to several gallons. They can be made water-tight, but serve mainly 
for collecting whortleberries. (3) knot in a tree, plank or board; Mod 
for pukualtisli Kl. : kosam p. knot in a pine-board. Der. puka. 

p k 6 y a , d. popkoya to piull out, tear away, as sticks, wood etc. Cf. put6ga. 

pokoti , pok(')ti, d. pupkoti tinned sheet-iron ; lit. "bucket-substance". Der. 
p6ko. Cf watiti. 

po'ks, po'ksh tama^s; see piiksh. 

po'ks, 1)1. tumi 1)., mud, dirt, slush. Cf Poksti. 

po'ksalsh;!, i)ri'kslil;i, p('>ksla, d. piipaksidsha to dig, gather, collect annu- 
ally the pu ks oi' bulb of Cumassia esculenta, 74, 4. Der. piVks. 

p ' n <4 t a k — p s h i n . 273 

Pokst i, nom. pr. fem.: "Mud-Lark" ; lit. "mud on lier". Der. po ks. 
p o k u ;i g a , d. pu'pakuaga small bucket, cup or drinking-vase ; Uttlc vessel, jar, 

or muff; gohlet: pupakuak ndnuktua il%6ta small cups of various kinds they 

inter with (the dead), 87, 4. Dim. p6ko. 
Popamksli, nora. pr. masc, interpreted: "Hairy all over". Cf. nl'laltko. 
p6po-i, pi. tiimi p., to drink; said of babes etc.: mu'ksli 4mbu p. the child 

drinks water. Cf. k6ko-i. 
p 6 p = t s i k a s , a forest-bird living in the higher mountain ranges. Incan- 
tation 167; 35. Cf 180; 10. From p6po-i, tchikass. 
p 6 p 11 s h a , d. p6p'pusha, a species of prairie-chicken or sage-cock, Mod., 

either Pedioecetes phasianellus, the sharp-tailed grouse, or Centrocercus 

urophasianus, the sage-cock. See pu'pisha, Kl. 
p6p = waks, a species of duck; 180; 12. Der. p6po-i, wti'-aks. 
p o w e t e g a , d. popuet^ga to cut into parts or 2)ieces, to sever, to shatter. 
pox (1) 2}ox, or small-pox. Mod. for gutaksh Kl. (2) syphilitic tumor: pox= 

ma'shetko afflicted -with syphilis. From the English, 
p ' s h a kip, p'sha^ip, d pshakishap mother''s elder or younger sister ; said by 

nephew or niece, 
p'shaship, d. p'shdshishap (1) stepmother. (2) stepson or stepdaughter; 

said by stepmother Cf kushl;{atko. 
pshd, d. psh(jpsha, adv., in the day-time, during the day, 122, 2. and Note. 
p'shd-ip, p'sheyip, d. pshe-ishap (1) father's elder and younger brother; 

said by nephew. (2) father'' s younger brother; said by niece, 
p s (i k s h , psiksht, d. ps^psaksh, psipsaksht noon, noon-time, midday: ps(?ksht= 

giiila afternoon. From pshe, gi'sh (or gi'sht) 
pshe-u ti wash , abbr. pshc-utuash human beings, people, folks ; a plural 

word occurring only in mythic stories, where maklaks, people, is found 

less frequently. Some animals are discussing the most appropriate 

limit to be given to the life of the p., cf 103, 12. 13.: hu'nshak i pshe- 

utuashash shnulu'kuapkak you -will simply friglden the human beings, and to 

no effect, 114, 11. Cf 104, 1. 126, 11. 

p s h i = k e k e n i s h the planet Venus, when evening star. Der. pshin, gekna. 

psi'kst, d. psi'psaksht; a word given as equivalent to pseksh, q. v. 

pshin, psin, d. pshipshan (1) subst., night: p. tat^elam midnight. (2) adv., 

274 KLAMATH -EKGL1«L1 J)10TlU]SAliY. 

in the night, at night, 54, 6. 10 83, 3.; p.=tat;imnish a night traveler; lu'imik 

p., or iifinuk p. gisli every night, Note to 83, 3.; p. huntchna they fly at night, 

145, 7.; p. liu at gntpampele token he had returned in the evening, 41, 12.; 

psinak in the same night, 31, 3.; tsui sa psfn g^na then they traveled at night, 

19, 13 ; psin i-i'ita they fired sometime during the night, ;S\, 2. Cf. m'shta 
pslii ii = tat/elam (1) subst , midnight. (2) adv., at midnight, 113, 17. 

Der. p.shin, t/alain. 
pslii'sli, d. pshi'psliasli (I) nose, nasal organ: tchaktcliakli p. sharj) nose; 

p. iwt^lau (or iwala) iwint, end of nose; tchekcli ntu'lsna psi'slitat the blood 

floivs from the nose; pshi'sliam kikantch^ish nostrils. Cf. gfntchzish. (2) 

snout, proboscis, nasal organ of animals. Cf gi'nka, Lo'k=Pshi'sh. 
p s li u k a , to twist: psukatko mbuitch twisted thread of sinew Cf nsVhlisli, 

p'talip, d. p'talishap (1) elder sister; said by younger sister. (2) elder 

female cousin; called so by younger female cousin. Cf. shaptAlaltko. 
p'tewip, p'ta'wip, d. p't^wishap, p'tep't^wip (I) grandmother; said to or 

of the grandmother by the child of her son. (2) grandchild; said by the 

grandmother to or of the child of her son. Cf. p'kulip. 
p ' t i's h a 1 p k a to call somebody father; to call the father by his name, D6, 3. 

Der p'ti'shap. 
p'ti'shap, d. pti'shishap, ptiptashap yrti^/«er; p. g4-u my father, d5, 20.; 

nalam p. our father, 139, 1.; p'tisa m'na sapi'ya they said to their father, 101, 

8.; p'tissap sam shkiiyui shash their father sent them, 101, 11.; ptissisap 

sham their fathers, 108, 4. Kl. for t'shfshap Mod. 
pti'sh = liilatko, d. ptfptash lulatko bereaved of the father, fatherless; 

hishudkga, snawc^dshga p male orphan, female orphan whose father has died. 

Der. p'ti'shap, lula. C£ kd'hiegsh. 
p ' t i' s h = 1 u 1 s h , d. p'tip'tasli=lulsli deceased father ; p'ti'H4ulsham m'na of 

his dead father, 100, 2. Der. p'ti'shap, lula. Cf. luelkish. 
p'tutap, d. p'tutshap, Mod. p'tup'tap elder or younger son's wife; said by 

liis father and mother: daughter-in-law. Cf. i)'ka'ship. 
p'tu't^ap, d. i^'tutxi»ha]) father-in-law, mother-in-law; said by elder or 

younger son's wife. Cf. k6shpaksh 
p t c h a k 1 ;^ a , d. ptchaptchaklza to pat, to caress by stroking or patting. 

Mod. for ptchi'klxa Kl Cf sliashtushta, tahika, tatcha'lka. 

p s li i n = t A t X e 1 a m — p u e k d in p 6 1 e . 275 

p'tcliikap, d. p'tchikshap (1) JmshancVs elder or younger hrot}ier\s wife; 
said by wife. (2) ivifc^s younger or elder sister'' s husband; said by husband. 

p t c h i k 1 7 a , d. ptiptchakl^a Kl for ptcliAkl^a, Mod., q. v. 

p tell ink so itlooJiS; the ptchi united to giit is, which is nasalized into 
-nk: lit. "thus shaped it is", 149, 21. and Note. 

_p t c h i w i p , d. ptchitchiwip. Mod. ptchiptchuip owner of a slave; master or 
mistress of slave: shtip'sam p., a species of black caterpillar, often found in 
hay or straw, 1 to 2 inches long: lit. "the sun's proprietor", a term evi- 
dently referring to some legendary tale. C£ pshe- in pshe-utfwash. 

ptch6katko, ps6;{atko, d. ptch6ptch%atko (1) soft to the touch ; said of 
cloth, fur. (2) shaggy; said of bears' or goats' skins. Mod. Cf pshuka. 

p'tchu'kap, d. ptcho'ptchashap, ptchu'ptchkap (1) brother-in-law; said 
by males only: (a) elder or younger sister s husband; said by her younger 
and elder brother; (b) wife's elder or younger brother; said by husband. 
(2) mothers younger brother'' s son or daughter; said by male cousin. 

p u a 1 4 1 a to throw or cast tqjoii, into: p. sha hunkelam tiikanksh (lulukshtat) 
they throw his quiver (into the fire), 89, 2. 

p u d s h A , ^^ going to smother }ou", exclamation used by children playing 
the lepleputda-game, 120, 14. Der. piita. 

p u' d s h a k , a red-flowered, small-leaved plant which produces the eatable 
klapa-root, 147, 1. and Note. Cf. kldpa. 

p vi d s h o , d. pu'ptcho, species of wild vegetable of agreeable smell, some- 
what bitter and strong to the taste; its root and leaves serve as food. 
Said to be a species of Angelica (Umbelliferse). 

puedsha, puedsha, (piiadsha) d. put^pudsha, pepiidsha (1) to cast or 
throw away, to reject as useless or undesirable, 148, 2. 4.; to scatter about: 
shulotish p. they cast atvay their garments, 91, 3. (2) to give up, abandun, 
relinquish. ' (3) to spend, expend, give away: tAla p. to spend money, to 
incur expenses. Cf. pepuadshnish. 

p u e d s h a m p e 1 i , d. pepudsli4mpeli to pid to flight, to drive back to his or 
their own home, 16, 2. Der. piiedshna, -peli. 

p u e k a m p e 1 e , d. pepuekampgle to throw back, to return by throwing or 
hurling back: kiua })uak4mpele ladsheshtat he threw the scullcaps back to 
them out of his lodge, 109, 9. 


p u 6 1 Ii i , (i. popuellii to throw doivn to the ground; to throw, cast down into: 
maklaks [)uel!ii' thei/ threw (dend) j^ersons into the lodge, 112, 21. and Note. 

pucl^a, d. pepm'l%a, said of inan. objects: (1) to throw dotvn, Kl. (2) to 
project, cant, hurl. Ci. puedsha. 

puetila to put undvrncutli, to place below, 148, 17. and Note to 148, 16. 

pi'ii, d. jjupui {\) to cut into strips or fringes, as a skin. (2) to adorn with 
fringes, as a garment; partic. pnitko cut into fringes; fringed, adorned tvith 
fringes; 2:»nitko ku'ks a fringed gown 

pi'iisli, bn'isli, d. pupnisli/rm^e, buckskin fringe wliile not yet fastened to 
leggings or other garments. Cf. piish. ■ 

p u i 1 1 a n t c h A n t k o , d. pupuitlantchantko having fringes on ; fringed, 90, 
1 6. Cf. puitlantchish. 

p ui tl A n t chi sh , d pupiiitl4ntchish/n"w^e, .^ei o//rm^ei-, while fastened 
to the garment. Der. pui. 

p n k a , poka, d. pupka, p6pka to roast, bake in a pit by snperimposing grass, 
then heated stones, 147, 11. 148, 9. 16. 18.: at sa po'ks popaknapk they 
■will roast camass now, 74, 4.; jjartic. piikatko roasted; piikatk tchek after 
being roasted, tvhen in the roasted state, 148, 13. Cf. nukla. 

p u'k a 1 s h , or p. tchuye'sh, d. piipkalsh, a sort of Jiigh cap manufactnred of 
elk- or buckskin in the shape of the vu'lal^tchuye'sh; now obsolete. It 
was wide-brinuned and painted; cf. 90, 17. and Note. 

pukewiga, puke-uiga, d. pupkewiga (1) small piece of leather. (2) small 
leather string, buckskin strap, buckskin shoe- or moecasin-string. Contr. from 
pukewiaga. Dim. pukewish. 

pukewish, pokii'-uisli, pokawish, pukc-ush, d. pupkewish, pop;^e-uish 
(1) leather: }).=nu'sh, p.=slui'm ^'' leather-head,^^ ^'leatJier-snout," opprobrious 
epithets corresponding to our blockhead, dunce. (2) article manufactured 
from leather: harness, rein, strap: poka'wishtka vvcpla to bind with straps. 
(3) fringe or set of fringes on a skin garment. 

Pukish, ^'■Camuss-Baker," nom. pr. of the Klamath Lake man whose 
unexpected death caused the arraignment of Doctor John for man- 
slaughter through witchcraft. Cf. pp. 64-68. Der. puka. 

p u'k lash ivhite of the eye, 71,9. 

p Ilk J) ok, a species of gooseherrg. Probably aphseresis of kpukjjok, 
kpo'kpak, d. of k[)o'k, cj. v. Cf. luiluish, pu'kpuka. 

p u e' 1 h i — p li m t c h i )> . 277 

p u'k p u k a to crack with the teeth, to bite audibly, 119, 9. Onomatop. 
p u' k u , p u' k u a g a ; see p6ko, pokudga. 

p u'k u a 1 1 i s h , d. pupdkualtish knot in a board. Cf. lii'Ip, poko. 
pukuish, piikguish old or former roasting place, roast-pit. For pu'k- 

guishamtat, 147, 10., see Note. Der. piika. 
p u k s h , po'ks, d. tumi p. camass, the edible, saccharine bulb of the blue- 
flowered plant Caniassia (or Scilla) esculenta, growing extensively through- 
out Oregon, Idaho and Washington Territory, and forming in the roasted 
state one of the principal food supplies of the natives, 148, 11-15. and 
Note: sakd a po'ks the// eat camass raw, 74, 5.; po'kshami, pu'kshami in 
the camass-season, 148, 19. Der. piika. Cf Note to 164; 1. 
PiVl, nom. pr. masc. This name is pronounced P5l, Pii'l, Paul, Ball, 

Boll, and is probably of English origin, 77, 1. 78, 9-15. 
p li r h k a , d. pup41'hka to pluck out, to tear out hy hand: m'\ p. to pluck out 

down-feathers by hand, 144, 1. Der. pvtlp^a. Cf shupd'hlka. 
pul/a, pu'lka, d. pup.%a, pupa'lka to tear out, to pluck out: Idsh p. to 

pluck out feathers from wings. Cf pu^l;^a. 
p u' 1 % u a n t c h , p<jlokuantch, the chrysalid of a lepidopterous insect called 
huntish, whose caterpillar is called szeshish. This chrysalid, one inch 
long and ^ of an inch thick, is scraped up annually by the women of the 
tribe, who find it imbedded in the ground around the larger pine-trees. 
After roasting it is said to possess an egg-like flavor; 75, 3. 148, 16-18. 
and Note. Der. pul;^a. Cf piash 
pii'l^uantchla to collect or scrape up the puUxuantch-chYyuaWtS. annually 

or habitually, 148, 16. Cf pienutkish. 
pu'm, d. pupam, pupom beaver; Castor fiber L.; pvimam ndkosh beaver- 
dam.; pumani wash the beaver's den, 185; 42.; pii'mam tiitatka ^«;//// leaver's 
teeth, 80, 1. Pumam ski'sh castorium; lit. "beaver's wind." The M;iklaks 
Indians place this substance into a ball-shaped, sometimes beaded, sachel 
and wear it on the neck or suspend it in their lodges; when worn as an 
amulet, its agreeable smell is believed to act as a remedy against sore eyes, 
pumtchip, d. pupamtchip (1) male cousin; said by or in reference to 
brother's or sister's son or daughter. (2) sons of such cousins as descend 
from brothers or sisters call each other thus. Cf shupumtchishiiltko. 


p u 11 u a , p li n u i s li , p u n u o't k i s li , etc. ; see buiiua, buiiuisli etc. 
pu'pa , d. pti'pupa, v. impers., to bleed, to lose blood: pii'pa a ii's wii'k / am 

bleeding from the arm; my arm is bleeding. Cf. p6po-i, tch^kgli. 
piipakuak, 87, ."<.; d. of pokuaga, q. v. 
pupdnua, d. of bii'nua, q. v. 
pupl'dsha blue-colored beads ; blue glass-beads. 
pu'pisha, d pu'p'pisha sage-cock, sage-hen; it is either another name for 

the shua't-bird or designates a species related to it, Kl. Cf. popusha. 
push-, abbreviation of pushpiishh (q. v.) occurring in several terms, 

when standing at the beginning of the word, 
push, d. pupash whorl, as seen on the cat-tail and many other plants; cf 

ktu'ksam, 147, 3. Der. pui. Of ktuks, pu'shak, pu'sh%am. 
pushak, d. pii'pashak little whorl; little bunch of j)ine-needles. Dim. push, 
p u' s h a k 1 i s h , pushaklash, d. pu'pshaklish ( 1 ) upper part^f leg between 

hip and knee. Cf mbA-ush, tchu'ksh. (2) posteriors, buttocks. Cf kiu. 
pi'ishish, pi. tumi p. domestic cat, Kl., 133, 4. From the EngWah pussy. 
p u s h k a , d. pupdshka to cut off with knife, scissors, sharp stone or other 

cutting tool. Cf ktushka, p'hu'shka. 
P u s h = K i u , Push=Kiyu, nom pr. of a headman of the Klamath Lake 

tribe, living at Ya-aga, the brother of Kiluamtch, q. v., and a signer of 

the treaty of 1864. From push- (m pushpushli), kiu. 
pushkuish, d. pupashkuisll piece cut off with knife or scissors; portion 

cut or shorn off. Der pushka. 
pu'shx^i^ twig, limb, bough of coniferous trees, on which the pu'shak, q. v., 

grow: p. ktipkalam the branches of the kdpka-pine, 150, 2. 
piishpush, d. pupashpush, adv. of pushpushH black: pushpi'ishuk (for 

pushpiish huk) shle'sh it appears dark; lit. "it is black to look at"; 73, G 
pushpushli, d. pupashpiishh (1) black, of dark color, 13, 7.: p. gu'shu a 

black hog, 128, 1. 2.; shlAps p. the flower or top is dark-colored, 14(), 12.; 

lu'k pupashpush=tkani the seeds are a little hhick, Uucki'ih, 14(J, 3. (2) dark 

complexioned, 37, 6. 8. 182; 1 ). 
piita, d. piipta to have a choking sensation in the throat; to he smothering, to 

lose breath, 127, 7.: tsi'ii put;i hereujwn he feels choked, G8, (j.; pu'tank 

smothering, 118, 12. 120, G ; puta -a! smother! 120, 14-16. Cf pudsha. 

p li n IX a — s li a , 279 

p u 1 1 s h S7naU dip-net with a handle. Cf. put6ga. 

put6ga, d. pupt6ga to tear out, to pull out; said of grasses, weeds, hair. 

Cf. palal^a, shiiptVhlka, shupt6ga. 
p u 1 6 y a , d. puptoya to remove, scratch away ground or sod. Cf. sputuya. 
p u t p li 1 1 i , d. pupatputli, Kl.; same as pdtpatli, q. v. 
p li t c h k a , d. pujiatch^a to spread, part the feet or legs. Der. pe'tcb. 
pii tchkanka, d. pupatclikAnka (1) ^o move the feet or legs quickly. Cf. 

shpiikanka (2) to hold the feet or legs apart. Cf spukua. Der. pe'tch. 
piitch%ash, d pupdtchxash arrow-head diverging into two points on 

lower end ; made of deer-bone or iron. Der. putcbka. 
p II t c h t a , d. pupate] ita to touch with the feet. Cf hushp;itchta. Der. pe'tch. 

S. SH. 

S alternates throughout with sh. Some words are more frequently pro- 
nounced with initial s than with sh, and these I have written with s, although 
both were made to form only one alphabetic series. In the conversational 
form of language s prevails over sh before vocalic sounds as well as before 
some consonants. Dialectically, sh, s sometimes alternate with tch, ts: 
shkil'mla, sgii'mla. Mod.: tchgu'mla, tskiVmla toybnu hoarfrost. The prefix 
S-, sh- forms medial and a few reflective and reciprocal verbs, as well as a 
number of compound prefixes, like shl-, slm-, etc. 

s h a , sa, tsa, obj. shash, sas, poss sham, sam, procl. and end. pers. pron. 
of third person pi. anim., they, themselves: sha hu'nk tu'kel%a they stopped 
on their ivay, 131, 7.; at mat sa waslala then, as reported, they hunted chip- 
munks, 107, 13.; tsi sa he'mkank so they speak, 58, 9.; kak at tini'%i tsa 
tvho had just gone up tJie hill, 23, 13.: Leme-ish hashpa shash Skelamtchash 
the Thunders handed them over to Old Marten, 113, 3.; pnfutakta shash 
shlulushtat he hleiv them into a whistlestick, 122, 9.; hutAmsxan shash 
rushing hctween them, 42, 13.; Ka-akamtch wetanta shash Old Raven 
laughed at them, 131, 3. H.; ki'i-i sham ndkush shu'ta he spoiled their dam, 
or "the dam to them," 132, 5.; nash wii'ka sham klaka one of their babes 
died, 77, 3. Sha may form compounds with other pronouns, as hu'dsha, 
hukslia, hu'ktsha, ke'ksha, negsha, and often stands in their stead, as sham 
stands for lul'nkclamsliam in 101, 11. 108, 4. 122, 17. Sha is used in a 


sense almost equi\aleiit to the reciprocal pronoun each other in 58, 10. 11. 
13 sqq. 100, 15.; cf. Note to 58, 10. and quot. under p^wa. It is often 
omitted altogether, when the hearer can supply it by the context, 144, 
7. 8.; it may coalesce with the foregoing word, as in tchissa (for tchf sa) 
thiis they, 17, 17.; shushu'dshapelish (for shushu'dshapeli sha) they rebuilt 
their camp-fires, 16, 5.; cf. lu'luagslash 31, 6.; mats, 74, 4.; se, 8'2, 4. 

sha-ak4kta; see shakakta. 

sha -amoks, d. shash^moks (sheshamaks) (1) relative, Icinsman, person 
related through consanguinity or marriage; Idn, kindred, 87, G. 9. 16. Ill, 
21. 133, 8.; shashanioks=161atko who have lost relatives, 82, 5.; sha-amoks- 
ksakst m'na geno'la he went to his relative; sa-amoksamkshi m'na at the lodge 
of his relative, 88, 8.; k'lexj'ipkam sh. the relatives of the deceased, 85, 5. 15. 
Cf. nAnuktua (1), nigga. (2) friend; or collectively: friends, company, 
party, 13, 7.; ge-u sh. my friend, IIJ, 15. Cf. shitchlip. 

sha-apA-a, d. shasha-apA-a to dare, to provoke, to call out for action: t^wi 
sh. mish nu nen! shoot me if you dare! lit. "to shoot me I provoke you". 
Sh. is the word sh4pa, q. v., lengthened by diaeresis. 

s h a'd s h a , s4-atcha, d. shasha'dsha to perform a scalp-dance, 16, 11. and Note. 

shah 4k a, sahaga, v. med., to breathe upon parts of one^ s oivn body: an hu't 
n(ip sahAga I tvarm my hands by breathing on them. Der. hoka. 

shahamuya, sAhamui, d. shashamuya, sAssamui to make come, let come, 
to call to the spot, to send for, 66, 16.; the Latin arcessere: n^patka sdhamui 
to beckon with the hand to come. Der. ha'ma. Cf. sha'hmiilgi. 

sha hi ash couch, bed, resting-place: shdhiashtala m'na on his couch, 112, 
13. C£ sh4-ishi. 

s h a ' h 1 m 4 1 % a it is autumn, the fall of the year is at hand. Der. sh41am. 

sh a'hlmal% o't ch the beginning of the autumn or fall season, 147, 14. 
Contr. from sha'hlm41xuish. Der. sh41am. 

sha'hm6ka, d. shasha'hm<5ka (1) to call out, call to the spot: shtina'shtat 
sh., Mod., to call out of the house; (sha) ndena sha'hmoknok they halloo to 
call (him) out, 71,2. (2) to assemble, convocate hy a call. Der. ha'ma 

sha'hmulgi, d. shasha'hmulgi io caW fo^e^/«er, convocate, assemble: sha'h- 
mu'lgi Sh4shtiash, E-ukshikishas etc she called together the Shasti, Kla- 
math Lake Indians etc. in her capacity as a messenger, 54, 1 7. Der. hiimcMa. 

s h a - a k A k t a — s h d y u a k s h . 281 

s li ;i li u a 1 1 a , s h a h n a 1 1 a n a ; see shawdlta, shawdltana. 

.sliahunk, 134, 4.; met for shiihank, q. v. 

saiga, sha-ika, zaiga, d. shashiga j^^mme; level, grassy tract of land, treeless 
(/round, 148, 6.; plain, field, 30, 21.; mu'ni s. ivide prairie-lands ; saigatat 
on the prairie, 107, 5.; sa saikiin (for saiga^e'iii) g^na they went to the field, 
107, 2., cf. 6. Valleys are also called s., if grassy and not timbered. 

s a i k A g a , sliA-ikag, zaiktiga, d. shashik4ga little prairie, level grassy land 
of small extent Dim saiga. 

Saikiin, nom. pr. of SaiMn, a grassy pi-airie in the nortlieastern corner 
of the Klamath Lake reserve, often called Thompson's Marsh, and over- 
flowed in certain seasons of the year. Saikiin River, which is the north 
branch of the Sprague River, runs out of it The northern boundary 
line of the reserve runs through this prairie. Abbr. from Saiga;!^e'ni. 

shaikish, ghai%ish, d. shashf^ish (1) name of a little black forest-bird: 
sh. guluaga the female shaiyjsh, 163; 16. (2) other name for the tchsikinks 
Avater-bird, q. v. (3) species of beetle, scarabee: sh. a-i ni koga I, the hug, 
am, sucking, 15G; 28. 

s h a i p a t m a w a , d shashipatmawa to hold a thin or flat article ahove another 
of the same kind. 

sh a- IS hash, d. shashishash secret: shegsha m'sh ni sh. ge-n I tell you 
my secret; shapa sha hn'nk sh. they divulged a secret. Der. sha-ishi. 

s li f'l - i s h i , (for sha-aishi) d. shashi'shi to keep as a secret; to hush up, con- 
ceal, 78, 4.; sha-ishian ipka (Mod.) to keep concealed, secret. Der. afshi. 

s h a y A k s h u a , d. shashiakshua to wish for, to desire. 

s h a y a 1 a , d. shashiala to groan, to moan. 

s h a y a n t i 1 d s h a , d. shashianti'ldsha (1) to put under one^s arm; to carry 
off under one!s arm or arms, 186; 50. (2) to start, set out or travel, taking 
along large-sized objects. Der. yantana. Cf. shaktila. 

shayets^aka to choke, throttle oneself. Der. y^ts^aka. 

shay uaksh, d. shashiyuaksh, shashiwaks, adj., always accompanied by 
its object: (1) knowing, ajiprised of, aivare of: sayuaks hu'mtcha kalak 
having discovered tlmt he is of the kind of relapsed, (patients), 72, 3. (2) 
expert, instructed, tvell informed; intellectual, tiseftd: nanuktua sh. informed of 
everytJiing, smart; kai'tua sh. sloiv of perception, ignorant, obtuse, of no account; 


cf. 41, 7. and Note; (jood for nothing, 114, 10.; tnielliak sli. ihc tmrlhak is 
of great help in the game, 1 34, 6. ; shakalshtat sh. expert, successful in 
gambling; sh. tu;i lu'ssuaks the man is intelligent. Cf. 145, 9. Der. shnAuga. 

shayuakta, d. shashiyiuikta, shashiwakta (1) to recognize, acknowledge, 
54, 15. (2) to know, to he acquainted with, to be apprised, informed of, 65, 4.: 
pipa nanuk sh. to be erudite, learned; lit. "to know everytln'iigfroni books"; 
k;i-i nil sh. / do not know ; perhaps, may be; tsl nu s. thus I am informed, 
1\), 8., cf. 20, 21 ; kii-i an sh. I do not know, 140, 2.; cf pa-ak; sayuaktant 
(for saynaktank) kiii'la well acquainted with the country, 16, 15., cf. 65, 4.; 
nanuk^nam sa}naktish well-known ; lit. "known by everybody." (3) to 
become aware of: .sh. luVnk nannk liL'mkanksh he found out all about the 
discourse, 110, 4. Cf shla'popka. Der. shayiiga. 

shayiiaktna, d sha.shiyuaktna, shashiwt'iktna to go and inform oneself, 
39, 6.; kci-i kiin pen kiii'la shayuaktnii'ga tclii'sh because (I am) not going 
to learn of another country to live in, b9, (J. 

shayiiga, saynka, d. shashiiika /o /mrw; udn'damtchnish hunk sh. hut 
wj'itchag, Kl , this dog has learned swimming; cf. 145, 9. 

s a k d - a , d. saska-a, sliashka-a (1 ) io be raiv, uncooked. (2) to eat uncooked: 
sak4 a po'ks they cat camass-bulbs rate, 74, ^. Cf shdnki. 

s h a k a k ;1 g a , d shashkak4ga to carry on one^s chest, breast. Cf. shdlamna. 

shakAkta, sha-akakta, d. shashakakta to reproach, blame, reprimand: 
uiVtak sh. I blame myself 

shakaktna, d. shasliakaktna, 41, 21.; same as shakakta, q. v. 

shakaliega, d. shashkaliega to start the game, to commence gambling, 99, 
6 100, 21. Kk Der shdkla. 

shakalsh, d. shdshkalsh game, play of any description, 134, 6. Der. 
shakla. Cf. laki (5), Id-ula, le-una, lewa. 

shakalsha, d. shashkalsha (1) to be in the habit of playing, gaming, gamb- 
ling. (2) to play the spelshna-game habitually; shakalsh for sh., 80, 6. 

shakamka, d shashkamka {\) to deny, contest; to oppose denial to, 68, 11. 
(2) to deny an averred, accomplished fact ; to dispute perversely, 64, 5. 05, 9. 

s ii a k a ni s h i a , d. shashilkamshia to be lonely, lonesome, solitary. 

s h A k a m s h i n e a , d. shashakamshinea to be lonely, lonesome through fear. 
Cf. shinanishta. 

s h A y n a k t a — s h a k p a k s h . 283 

sliaka ps taka, d. sliashkapslitaka to cluck with the torif/iie. Kl. for sha- 
kptciksha Mod. Cf. kaptcha (2). 

s li a k a t g A - a , d. sliashkatgA-a to be in earnest. Der. kdtak. 

s h {\ k a 1 1 a , d. shashkatla to come, arrive, approach by the trail or road, 28, 2. 

s li a k a t p a m p e 1 e a , d. shaslikatpampek^a to engage in a horse-, foot- or 
other race, 20, 13. Der. g^tpampeli. 

shakatpam pel e'gish, d. sbashkatpanipelekish race, mutual contest Ini 
racing: horse-race, foot-race, swimming-match etc. 

s li a k a t c li a 1 i s h , d. shashkatchalish sun-halo. ■ shap'sham wanani sli. yel- 
low or reddish halo around the sun. Cf. sela, wan, and Note to 99, 3. 

s h a k a t c li u a 1 a , d. sliashkdtchuala to place or lay upon, as a pack upon 
one's shouklers, or to hang a blaid<et over bushes for protection against 
sun-heat or rain: tidsh sh. to protect effectively against the sun-rays, 193; 
12. Der. aggaya. Cf. hishuggaya. 

s li a k e 1 A m t c h a , d. shashak'kimtcha to ivink, nictate with the eyes. Der. 
kehimtcha.. Cf kelamtchtamna, shuekaiitclia. 

shakema, shakma, d. shashkma to play; to play a game. Cf. k'-una, 
le-utcha, l^wa, sh;ikla. 

sliakemawa, sak'uidwa, d. sliashakemawa to meet by previous arrange- 
ment; to meet at a rendezvous, 29, 3. Quot. under hatakt. 

s h a k e ni 1 a , d. shashkgmia .( 1 ) to pilay in somebody's or one's own interest. 
(2) to play treacherously or deceptively; to piretend to play when deception 
or treason is intended: mdlsh ml tatakiash shakemiyuapk I will p)lay a 
sharp game ivith ye children, 122, 1., cf. J 5. Der. shakema. 

sliakla, shakek, d. shash;'dda (1) to play, to play a game. (2) to play for 
a stake or stakes, to gamble, 99, 2. (3) same as spelshna, q. v.: shakehik 
shi-i'%aga yamnash ivhile gambling with sticks they win from each other neck- 
wear, 79, 1. Cf le-una, lewa, shakema. 

s h a k 1 6 t k i s h , d. shashakl6tkish ( 1 ) gamester, player ; professional gambler, 
134, 5. 13. 15. (2) small stick used in certain games: lit. "gaming imple- 
ment." Der. .shakla. Cf. kshe'sh, shulshesh. 

s h a k 6 1 k a , d. shashk6tka to ask for repeatedly, to insist, as beggars do, 
113, 5. Der. guta. Cf shashkutkish. 

s h a k p a k s h , d. sh;ishakpatch hair-tress, hair-braid of males, worn on fore- 
head and falling over tlie ears and shoulders. Der. sluikpka. Cf. wektash. 


s li a k p a t a ii k a , d. sliasliak])atanka ; same as shakpatmawa, (|. v. 

sli ak patni a w a , d. sliasliakpatni;'nva, to spear several objects at once, 
(1) to pin together. (2) to gig two or more fish simultaneously. Der. k;'i])ata. 
Cf. liaslitatclimjiwa, mpAta. 

s Ii a k ]) k a , d. shasliakpka to braid one's oivn hair hahitually. Cf. shdk- 
])aksli, wc'ktasli. 

s li a k p t a k s h a , d. shashaptdksha; Mod for sliakapstaka Kl , q. v. 

s a k t a , sliakta, d. sliAshakta, any long, thin and sharp ]}iercing tool. (1) awl, 
mostly bone-awl (s. or kako s. hone-awl): kakoat saktat ska'ntsna to sew 
tvith a hme-awl ; m'natak sh. her own lone-awl, 121, 12., cf. 14. (2) nail: 
kiikil'kli hu s. (]\lod.) tliis nail is made of brass or copper. ]\ro(l. Cf 
tclu'kenien. (3) taUe-fork, Mod. Cf. wAkash. 

s h ;'i k t a k 1 a , d. shasliaktakla to cut or tvound without removal of flesh. Cf 

s h a k t a k t % a , d. shashaktaktpja to clap the hands. Der. kti'ika. 

shaktila, d. shashaktila (1) to take under the arm or arins„ (2) to carry 
under the arm.. Der. gutila. Cf shayantildslia. 

s li a. k t Iv a, 1 II i s h incision, wound, scar or cut by whirli, iio flesh was removed. 
Der. shaktakla. Cf shnktashkuish. 

s li i'l k 11 a 1 , d shasliakiial (1) v. refl., to find oneself. (2) v. recij)!-., to find 
each other: ankutat sh. to find each other in the tvoods. Der. oiiwid. 

shakuash, sakuash, abbr. from shtchakuasli, ([. v. 

shakneash, d. .sjiasliakueash ball, jtlay-hall ; made of tliread, strings or 
other material: lii'wa shakueashtka to play at ball. (U". kawi'ita, U'wash, 
sliakla, shakema, shi'ip'luash. 

s li ;'i k u y ash, d. .shashakuyash ; same as shaktieash, q. v. 

s li a k i h a , d. sliash;jiha (1) to miss each other, 37, 10. (2) to miss m shoot- 
ing or throwing; to tniss one^s aim. Der. kai'hha. 

sha'l, sal, d. shashal, sdsal (1) a lacustrine or swamp reed of the genus 
J'hragmites, 4 to (i feet high, a little thicker than a common lead pencil, 
and used for manufacturing arrows, 180; 19. Cf. tkap. (2) rt/Tozt; manu- 
factured from the shal-reed; see nte'ktish. 

slialaggay a to ascend, climb up; as spiders in the web. Der. laggaya. 
Cf luyamiia, .shalamnfdsha. 

s li a k p a t a 11 k a — is li a 1 k i a - a . 285 

s a 1 a k i a , salgki, sluilzi, d. sas41kia, slmshalzi to miss through absence or 

disappearance of: salAkiuk Afsisas because they missed Aishish, 101, 2.; at 

saleki ptissi'sap sham then their fathers missed them, 108, 4. 
s h a 1 a k 1 a , d. sliashhikla to cut or slash oneself. Cf. laktcha. 
shell akta, d. shfishkkta (1) to cut off, sever one's own foot or arm.. (2) to 

cut oneself loose from. Cf. hiktcha. 
s h a 1 a k t c h a , d. shashkiktcha to cut one's own throat. Der. laktcha. 
s h a 1 a k t c h u i to put into, as a knife into tlie pocket. Quot. under payakua. 
s h a 1 a 1 a 1 i n a , d. shashlalalina, v. trans., to pass from one end of mouth to 

the other; as is done with the jewsharp. 
shaltila, d. shashlAla to scratch oneself, rub oneself against a post or tree; 

said of quadrupeds. Der. lala. Cf hlintana. 
shalallish, d. shashalallish jews/«a/"|>; Pan's fute. Cf. shalalah'na. 
shalam, sh'halam, sha'hlani, d. shashlam autum.n, fall of the year, 13, 9. 

33, 1. 36, 18. 54, 16.; sh.=n;{altko withered by the cold of autumn. 
s h a 1 a ma, d. shasliLinia to curse, to offend hy the use of opprobrious terms, to 

call saucy names. Der. lama. C£ shlamia. 
s h A 1 a m n a , d. shashalamna to carry on hack. Cf uietk'la, shepolamna. 
slialamnidsha, d. shashlamnidsha to climh top, ascend, go up; as spiders 

in the web. Cf. luyamna, shalaggAya. 
s h A 1 a s h 1 a , d. shashlashla to move, remove, as a table in a room, 
s h a 1 a t c h g d p s h t i s h room in a lodge or house. 
shalatchguJila, d. sliashlatchguAla (1) v. intr., to be joined to, to he in 

connection with. (2) v. intr., to join, to unite, to meet with others. 
s h a 1 a t c h g u 4 1 a s h , d. A^&s\^{a.t^i\\g^uil?^^\\ junction, connection: ni'shani sli. 

junction of head to neck in animals, especially quadrupeds. Cf. lawalash. 
s h a 1 g i a , d. shashalgia to put or place against something. Der. Mkia. 
shalgidsha, d. shashalgidsha to go and put or place against; to throw 

against, as against a wall, a hole, or opening: gutekul'shtala Igu'ni sh. 

they threw coal into the opening, 121, 15. and Note, 
s h a 1 k a k i 4 m n a , d. shashalkakiamna to climb (a tree) by going around it; 

to go around something, said of anini. subjects, 
salkakish, shalkaksh necktie, bow-necktie. 
s h a 1 k i a - a , d. shashalkia-a to put on airs, to swagger; to be dandy-like. 

286 KLAMATU-ENGLLSll 1)I( TlOi^^AliY. 

B h a 1 % 1 1 a , d. sliaslialzita to suffer from a dangerous spell of witcheraft ; to lie 

prostrated under, or to be hewitched by the spell of the conjurer or some 

wicked spirit, 68, 1 (Note). 5. Only used in ;i passive sense, the active 

verb being tawi, q. v. Cf. shda. 
shalp^itna, d. shashal%itna, 68, 10 6'l, 1.; same as shal;fita. 
s h ;i 1 X u e tgi sh starting-point; line from tvhich the game is started, 80, 8. 
s h a 1 1 , sa'lt salt: sh. ita; shewana to salt, to put salt on; to salt down. From 

the EngHsh. Cf. sidak. 
s h i'l 1 1 k a 1 a , v. impers., to be surrounded by a halo; said of tlie moon. Der. 

h'lt^a. Cf. sliakatchaHsli, seh\. 
sham, sam, ,poss. case of pron. pers. sha, sa, q. v. 
s h a m e n a k i a , d. shashmguakia to eapress one's wishes; to desire, claim for 

oneself, 190; 16.; cf Note. Contr. from sh'hamenakia. Der. hamgni. 
s a m k A - a , sham;^a-a, d. shashamka-a to stand out above, to rise from the 

midst of a river, lake ov prairie 
s a m k a - u s h , sham%a-ush rocks projecting from a lake or water-course, often 

used as iishing-phices; file or series of cliffs, 179; 4. Cf samkti-a. 
S a m k a - u s h ;{ e n i , nom. pr. of a caniping-phice on the Williamson River, 

just below Klamath Marsh; the rocks projecting above the river afford 

good opportunities for catching fish, 
s h a' m o k s ; see sha-amoks. 
s h a ni p a t i a % i (i a , d. shashampatia/it'a to jump or skip over beams, logs, 

obstructions, 118, 11. 120, 4. Der. mbati^i. 
s h a ui p a t i a % i e n a to start out for jumping over beams, 120, 2. 
s h a m J) o's h a , d. shashnmpo'sha to knock one thing against another, to knock 

together. Cf nibakla, mbuka. 
s a m t c h a k t a , d. sasamtchakta, formed by metathesis from samtchAtka, 

and identical in signification. 
samtch;itka, d. sasamtch;itka to understand, com]) rehend ; to comprehend 

the meaning of, 34, 12. Der. niatchatka. Cf shemtchAl^a. 
s h :i n a t c h v u 1 a to take off, divest oneself of , as of a hat, 112, 17. 18. 
tsliana-uli, shanahole, shanaho'li, d. shashna-uli, v. trans., construed 

with the verbal indef and intentional; (1) to 'wish, ivant, desire: jx'lak hii 

sli. shno'ksh he is of a greedy, grabbing disposition; sh. itchampelish, gem- 

s h a I / i t ;i — s h H p a . 287 

pelish he wanted to hriiifj hack, to return to, 34, 7. 8. 36, 10.; sli. kauasli 
push shlepdktgi he wanted somebody to care Jor Mm, 36, 14., cf. 19.; kA-i 
ml slianaho'le tvi'ma shapash gl'tki giug I do not wish that too many moons 
exist, 105, 11., cf. 120, 1-5.; nu'sli shana-ulitko although you wanted me, 
186; 56.; cf. 95, 12. Ill, 6. 120, 1-5. 120, 3. (2) to like, to l)e fond of: 
ka-i nu san4hole Amp;;janknisliash / do not like the Wasco Indians; see 
Note to 93, 7. 9.; k4-i shand-ul' ge-ishtka gi'ug he did not like to go to, 
111, 5.; kA-i nu wh. k6-eptcha snawddshash I do not take a fancy in a frog- 
like female, 186; 54. (3) to need, require: mu'nsli an latchash sli. I need 
a large (or larger) house; 1 tchuye'sli sh. you need a hat or cap. — The usual 
Kl. pronunciation is shanaho'li. Der. nawal. 
shauhish, Mod. shianlii.sli, d. shashanhisli rafter, 180; 22. 
sania-ish, shaniash skin rt^row worn by women; small apron: mba-ush 

s. buckskin apron. Cf heshlaklash. 
shankakash, d. shashankdkash string of beads worn around the neck; 

collar, beads, neckwear; usually showing a variety of colors, 
sankawaltko one whose hair rises up stiff, in porcupine fashion; high- 
crested, when said of the blue jay, 170; 61. Cf samkd-a. 
shanki, shan^i, d. shashdnki, shashan^i {\) to be raiv, uncooked: parti c. 
shankitko raw, crude, not cooked or roasted; shAnkitk giug while raw, 148, 
13. (2) to be unripe; partic. tinripe. Der. n6ka. Cf saka-a. 
shaiikish, shan^ish, d shashan;^ish raw, uncooked, unboiled: sh.^pakish 
(commonly pronounced: shungsp'ki'sh) watermelon; lit. "raw-eatable"; 
sh. pan to eat uncooked; shdnks (for shankish) hak sha pan just raw they 
eat it, 148, 21. Cf sakA-a. 
shan tchaktantko, d. sliashantchaktantko (1) groiving together, united 
in the same lump or bunch, Kl. (2) manifold; triple, threefold, tripartite; 
Mod. Der. na'dshak. Cf pakalaksh, shtcha^alkatko. 
sha61a, d. shash61a; same as sha-ula, q. v. 

shdpa, si'ipa, d. shfishpa {\) to make known, indicate, divulge; to enunciate, 
declare: slia-ishash sh. to divulge u secret; \s\\{x\^n.we\h}\t just now you have 
declared, 185; 44.; sha shtuli'dsha ka-i sluiptki giug they enjoined them not' 
to divulge anything, not to say a word, 120, 21.; yayay;i-as, shui'sh s;ip'a 
the magic power, the magic song declares, 70, 5. 6. 72, 3. (2) to say, speak, 


discourse; often followed by the very words spoken, at other tunes by 
an abstract of what was said: n4-asht kinks sapa the conjurer speaks as 
foUoivs, 70, 7.; shapi'ik when spealdnjj abont the matter, 65, 13.; sha hiink 
niashish gi'sli sli. they reported him sick, 140, 5.; shAshap'i! shaslip'a't, at 
shashpat! tell on! go on with your story! Cf. gi (6), hemexe, henikanka, 
hem'ta, shashapkelcash, shapiya, wdltka. 

shiipash, sf'qjpgsh, sluipesh, pk tiimi sh. (1) sun: sh. a tinsliipka tlie sun 
ascends in the sky ; sh. a. tinoldnapka the sun is near setting ; sh. a ktchal^a 
the sun shines hot; tu'sh lish at gi sh.? Mod., what time is itf lit. "where 
is the sun now?" shAp'sam ptchiwip a caterpillar; cf. ptchfwip; p'lai- 
kishtkak sappash the sun was going to culminate, 19, 12.; shiippashti laki 
the lord of the sun, 163; 15.; sliAp'sam stuti'sh beams of rising or setting 
sun, 179; 3. (2) moon: wdsh sh. shu'ta the prairie-wolf made moons, 
105, 1., cf. 7-12.; sh. (or ukaukosh) k'leku it is new moon ; lit. "the moon 
is dead"; c£ kaltgi, shukuAshka, tgc'l%a, tgel^manka, nkankosh. (3) 
lunar month, lunation; moon as a division of time, and counted on the 
lingers of the hand; there are twelve and a half in the year. La'p sh. 
spu'lhi I imprison (him) for tivo moons, 61, 11.; sha'hlmal^o'tchtat shd- 
pashtat in the moon or month, in which autumn begins, 147, 14.; nash sapash 
gepgapeliuapk they would return after one month^s absence, 93, 4. (4) clock, 
tvatch, time-piece, indicator of day-time. (5) kneepan; so called from its 
rounded, moon-shaped outlines. Der. shapa; lit.: "indicator (of time)". 

shapgle, d. shashapele (1) flotir, Kl. and Mod. (2) bread. Mod.: sh. pan 
they eat bread, 91, 2. and Note. From Chin. J. stipeHl /owr. Cf pdla-ash. 

sliapiya, sapia, d. shashpia (1) to inform, notify somebody; to report, 
announce to somebody, the words of the one speaking being given ver- 
batim or ad sensum: sh. m'na p'gisha it said to its mother, 105, 15.; lAkiash 
sh. she announced to the chief, 39, 21.; sh/ipi mi Mkiash! tell your general! 
40, 3.; wiuldgalam shapiyash after the young antelopes had related, 122, 
10. Cf. 22, 16. 36, 1. 40, 6-18. (2) to say, to tell to, to discourse with 
somebody; the words of the one speaking being usually given verbatim: 
nvi haitch sh. hiinkak I told him the same thing. — Mod. often uses sh. where 
Kl. has sh4pa. Der. shapa. 

sli a [) i y lila, d. shashpiyula to come to an end in telling or reporting; to 

s h d 2^ a s h — S lui s h a p a ni t c h . 289 

nofifii fuUy, to give full notice to somebocly : ni4klakshash shapiyulan having 
notified the Indians. 

s h a p i t a m p k a , d. shashpit;'impka to commence reporting., divulging, or 
telling: nnd hu'nkesli sh. ux commenced telling him. Der. sbapiya. 

s li a p k a t c h ;'i 1 1 k o , d. shasliapkatchdltko females related to each other as 
cousins. Dei-, p'katcliip. Cf. shaptalaltko. 

sliapkua, d. shfishapkiia (I) to paint oneself in the face; refers only to 
painting with the red mineral paint (k'le'pki). Cf. shat^adsha, shAtuaza 
(2) to strut about, to put on airs. Modocs use this term of females only, 
and in the form shapkud-a. Cf. shalkia-a, shipnu. 

shaplash, d. shdshpelash (1) concave, oblong wickerwork paddle, one to 
two feet long, nsed b}' the women for beating ripe seeds from grasses 
etc. into the seed-basket: shaplamtch, d. sassaplamtch used up, ivorn-out 
seed-paddle; cf amtch. (2) plate, dish of wickerwork or pottery: sh. 
vudsho'ka to wash, clean dishes. Cf. hashpo'tkish. 

shaplka, d. sassaplka shaplash of small size; small dish made of wicker- 
work, rushes or earthenware. Dim. shaplash. 

shaptalaltko, d. shasliaptalaltko. Mod. shashaptdlishaltko (]) females 
related as sisters; sisters hg Hood, 101, 12. (2) females related as cousins, 
descending either from sisters or from brothers. Der. p'tiilip. 

sliash, sas, end. obj. case of pron. pers. sha: them, to them. See sha. 

s as saga, shashdga, d shashshaga to provide against danger, to take care of 
oneself: sassdguk ka-i gena I will not go if I incur danger, 93, 9. ; sassdgank 
i gi! take care of yourself ! 93, 7.; sassagasht hashudkla na'lsh he remained 
until us, being afraid of danger. Contr. from sha-isliaga. Der. afshi. 

s h a s h A 1 k i a , d. shash'shdlkia to quarrel. 

S h a s h a p a m t c h , abbr. from Shashapamtchiksh, nom. pr., ^'■Grizzly Bear 
of the ancestors,^' "■Old Grizzly," the mythic personification of lu'k, q. v. 
Tliis familiar name of the male and female grizzly bear does not occur in 
conjurers' songs nor elsewhere except in mythology, and alternates there 
with Lii'k, Lukamtch, Shashapsh. Old She-Grizzly, the mother of two 
cubs, is one of the chief actors in the burlesque story of the "Bear and 
the Antelope," pp. 118-123.; Sh. is killed by "Old Wolf," near Modoc 
Point, as related in 131, 12. Cf. lii'k. Der. shapa, amtchiksh. 


shashfipka, d. sliasliaslii'ipka cub of the (jrizzly hear; hear cub; familiar 
term occurring' only in niythologic stories and alternating there with 
liikaga, liizag: 119, 23. 120, 3. 9. Contr. from shashdpaga. Dim. 
Shashapsh. Cf. Shdshapamtch. 

s h a s h a p k e 1 (3 a s h , d. sliashashapkeldash ( 1 ) narrative, story, account 
given of a fact, 77, 1. (title) (2) mythologic fiction, fabulous story, especially 
dealing with personified ;niimals; folklore, fable, myth, ^'old yarn," 99, 1. 
(title), 94, 1. (title). Der. shashapkelia. 

s h a s h a p k 6 1 d - i s h , d. sliashashapk6le-ish (1) narrator, story-teller, rhap- 
sodist (2) expounder, narrator of mythologic tales; myth-, legend-, or fable- 
teller. Der. shashapkelia. 

shashapkelia, shashapkelia, d. shashasliapkeh'a to narrate or expound a 
story or stories, to relate historical facts, fictions or myths, 94, 2.: shashap- 
k6le-uapkan Aishishash / shall tell a story about Aisis, 99, 1. Der. shapa. 

Shdshapsh, nom. pr., one of the Grizzly Bear's mythologic names; in- 
cantation, 176; 4. Much less in use than Shashapamtch, q. v. 

shashkotdktalish, shash%ntaktalish, pi. tumi sh constant, persistent 
beggar. Der. shakotka 

shashkiitki sh , shash^otkish, pi. tumi sh., beggar. Der. shak6tka 

s h a s h t d m n i s h , i)l. tumi sh. stairs, flight of stairs. 

shashtanul61asli, shashtaniiiolsh outside ladder of large stveat-lodge, 
180; 22. Cf. ga-ulu'lkisli, Avakish. 

s h a s h t A s h t a , d. shashashtashta to touch each other with the hand or hands. 
Der. tdshta. Cf tashul61a 

ShAsti, Sasti, pi. tumi Sh., (1) nom. pr., Shasti Indian. The ancient 
domain of this tribe Avas in Northern California on the Klamath River 
near Shasta Butte, Yreka and vicinity and in Scott's Valley, extending 
also into Southwestern Oregon. A few Shasti still exist in Horse Creek, 
in Hamburg etc., but the larger portion was, after their ])ai-tiri])ation in the 
Oregon Indian War (1855-1856), removed to the Grande lumde, Siletz 
and the (abolished) Alsc^ya reservations, Oregon. The usual form Shasta 
is a corruption of Shasti, SAsti, 18, I. 19, 1. 54, 17 ; Shastiam maklaks 
the people of the Shasti; Sastiarn hc^mkanks, kiiila the language, country of 
the Shasti; Sastiarn mbu'sluii (he husband (f a Shasti icoman ; nom. pr. of 

s h <i s h i'l p k ;i — s h a t a 1 1 i 1 1 a m n a . 291 

a inan called Tsclo/ins, q. v. (2) adj., helong'mg or referring to flic Shasti 
Indians or their count ry : Slicistl maklaks a Shasti Indian, 55, 9. Cf ndshoka. 
»S li a s t i a g a , Sastiak ( I ) half Shasti by descent, the other parent being of 
another race or tribe. {'I) nom. pr. of the daughter of Tselo^ins; ''Half 
Shasti". Dim. Shasti. C£ Boshtinaga. 

Shast^e'ni, Tchast^e'ni, nom. pr. (1) of the ancient seats of the Shasti 
people on Middle Klamath River, in Scott's Valley and surroundings, 
California. (2) sometimes used for State of California. 

Sliastxe'nini Yaina, nom. pr. of Shasta Butte or Mount Shasta: lit. 
"Mountain of the Shasti Country." Also called Melaikshi, q. v. 

shashuaki'sh, 84, 1.; see shuAkia. 

Sa't, Sha't, SA-ad, pi. tumi S., nom. pr. (1) Snake Indian; Indian of the 
Snake tribe, a branch of the great inland Shoshoni race of Indians. 
About 140 of them, belonging to the Walpapi and Yahiishkin tribes, 
reside east of Yaneks, in Sprague River Valley, and are mainly hunters 
and root-diggers. Cf. pp. 28-31, and 13, C. 18, 1. (2) Payute, Bannock 
Indian; also said of other Shoshoni Indians of Oregon, Idaho, and 
Nevada. (3) adj., Monging or referring to the race or tribes of Snake In- 
dians: siuka Sa'tas lakias they killed the Snake chief 28, 9. cf 28, 7. 8.; 
Sa'tas wats horses of the Snake Indians, 31, 13 , cf 16. Cf mbu'shaksh (3). 

sha't, d. shashat (1) looking like a Snake Indian; large-headed (mu=nu'sh 
gi'tko), as the Snake Indians are. (2) adj., unclean; disheveled, uncombed, 
Kl. (3) mean, inferior, of low character, Mod. Cf Sa t, Sha'tptchi. 

s h a t a k n ii 1 a , d. shatashtaknula (for shatashataknula) to remove from one^s 
own mouth; said of a disease, 153; 4. Der. taknula. Cf shatatka. 

shatalaka, d. shashtalaka (1) to rub, friction oneself. (2) to rub on one's 
body. Der. talaka. Cf shtitglakish. 

shataliaya, d. shashtaliaya to look out ahead, to look forward: sliatalia- 
yapka to look ahead into distance, 121, 1. 

s h a t a 1 k i A m n a , d. shashtalkiamna to look about, look around oneself, 96, 
4. C£ shataltila, tdlish. 

s li a t a 1 1 i 1 a , d. shashtaltila to look downward. 

s h a t a 1 1 i 1 1 a m n a , d. shashtaltiltamna to look downward constantly; to con- 
tinue looking dowmvard: ALshish shataldi'ldamna giikenii'ta while climbing 
tip, Aishish was looking downward constantly, 95, 3. 


s li a t a p i A 1 1 k o , d. shashtapidltko related as brothers or sisters are to their 
younger brothers or sisters: Sfitapealtk Tchasligayaks he was the older 
brother of Weaslet, 107, 1. Der. tapiap. 

sliiUashi, d. sh;ishtaslii (\) to touch each other. (2) to shalce hands: lapi 
lalaki sh. both chiefs shook hands, 35, 2. Cf. luislm%a, nep, taslita. 

s li a t a s h k a k i d ni n a to 2)ass around while touching, to encompass closehj: 
wa'k sh. to embrace, to pass the arm around. Cf. tdshta. 

s li a t a s h p a p k f a , d. shashtashpapkia to make the gesture of washing the 
face. Cf. stapdtchka, tddsha. 

s h a t a s h t a k n u' 1 a , 1 53 ; 4 ; d. of sliatakniila, q. v. 

shatashtdtza, 153; 4.; d. of shatatka, q. v. 

s h a t ;'i t k a , d. sbatashtatka to malw go out from mouth, to remove from mouth: 
tua ki nu shatashtatxi'sli? ivhat thing is if, which I did remove from my 
mouth repeatedlyf 53; 4. Cf shatakni'ila, taknula. 

sliatela, shdtela, d. sliashdtela {\)to fell to, to declare to somebod}^, 119, 
5. Cf. hashtAltala. (2) to require, enjoin to do something, to hire into 
service; mostly connected with the verbal intentional: sh hitatkdtki he 
hired as interpreters, 33, 3 ; sh. kayaktcha he hired for the pursuit of , 4 \, 2. 

s h A 1 6 1 a k i s h , d. shAshtelakish what is rubbed on or applied to the body- 
surface: mAshishtat shi-ush shatelaks salve; lit. "rubbing substance put 
on sores." Der. shatalAka. 

sha'tki, d. shasha'tki to be tired, fatigued; to be exhausted, as from travel. 

shatzAsha, d. shashatxasha to paint one^sface; term used by Kl. of the 
red mineral jjaint (k'le'pki) only. Cf sliapkua. 

shAtma, d. shashAtma to call, to call out, to call by name; to invite, said of 
the voice of the sage-cock, 1 35, 4. Cf shetma. 

shatmApSle, d. shashatmApele to call back, to call home, 96, fi. 

satnAlha, d. sastndlha to heat the cooking stones repeatedly \f\\G\\ baking 
camass or other roots, 74, 4. This operation lasts three days. 

Slia'tp tclri , adj., (1) looking like a Snake Indian; cf Sa't, sha't. (2) 
unclean; uncomfied, disheveled; often applied to females, Kl. From Sa't, 
-ptehi. Cf. aishishtchi. 

shatudya, d. shashtudva to help somebody, to I)e helpful to, as in work- 
ing; /o //if.sT/ o»('.<iY'// for somebody, 75, 14. Der. shi'ita Cf. hashatudya 

s h a t a p i ji 1 1 k o — s h d - u t a m a . 293 

s h a fc u a ;^ a , d. shashatua^a to mark the face with small dots of paint. Tliis 

may be clone with the tclipal or yellow mineral paint, cf. tchpal; witli 

the white chalk paint, cf. lupaks; with black paint, cf. Igu'm; lyu' 

shdtua^a to marJc the cheeks with little round Igu'-dots. Der. tudka. 

s h a t c h 4 k t c h a k a , d. shashtchaktchaka to rub, friction against each other: 

ndp sh. to rub one's hands. Cf. shatchdkua, shudshoka. 
shatchakua, d. shashtch4kna, to wash one's hands. Cf hashtchdkiia, 

s h a t c h a t k a , d. shashatchdtka to lose part of what is staked in game. Cf 
shdkla, watch pka. 

s h a t c h 1 X i'l m i a , d. shashatchl;^amia to paint white one's face or body, 
while holding the fingers at some distance from each other: "to scratch- 
paint:' The paint put on is chalk, 22, 21. Cf. tchlakddsha. 

s li a t c h o'l g i , d. shashatcho'lgi to contract the half-opened hand or fingers. 

sha-ukciga, d. shashukaga to place or tie around one's -neck, as a neck- 
kerchief. Cf. shakakdga, shei)uk4ga. 

s h a - u 1 a , sa-u'la, d. shashula (1) to provide an arrow with a stone-point or 
iron-head, to tip it tvith an arrow-head. (2) to carry on head an object 
fiistened or not fastened to it. Cf shdwalsh, tudshna. 

sha-ulanka, d. shashu-uldnka to accompany, to go with, to walk in com- 
pany. Stands for shawalhAnka. Der wal;^!^- Cf shawalina'a. 

s h a - u 1 a n k A n k a , d. shashidankanka to accompany on a walk, trip, hunt, 
travel; to he the habitual companion of, IOC, J 7. 

s h a - u 1 a n t c h a , d. shashulAntcha to go with, to accompany to some distance : 
nu'sh wikA i sha-uUintcha! go a short distance with me! 

sha uhintchna, d. shashulAntchna, 21, 9.; same as sha-uldntcha, q. v. 

s h a - u 1 i a , d. shashulia to arm, tip an arrow with a stone- or iron-Z^m^i for 
somebody: taltsidgatat sh. to tip a boy's arrow, 107, 14. Der. sha-iila (j). 

s h a - u 1 (J 1 a , d. shashul61a to swing around, brandish above one's head, 1 93 ; 
1 0. Der. sha-iila (2). 

s h a - u n g a 1 1 k o , sha-un'kaltko, d. shashungdltko related as father to son 
or son to father, 94, 2. Der. Muiak. C£ shepialtko. 

s h a - u p a 1 a k s h , d. shashupalaksh garter. 

s h a - u t a m a , d. shashutma to wrap around oneself, to cover oneself with, as 
with a blanket, mantle, quilt, 10<S, 5. 


s h a w a 1 i n a'a , sawalliint'a, d. shaslmaliiiii'a (]) to associate, to staif topdhcr 
as companions, to befriends, to play togetlier. (2) to accompany, to march 
or travel in company. Dei-, walha, under w/ilp^a. Cf". sha-ulanka. 

s h aw al i n ea sli , d. sliashualind-asli (1) companion, associate ; playmate, 
mate, follower; Kl. for shitchlip Mod. (2) fellow-traveler, fellow- warrior: 
sawalinti'-ash ge-u my companions on the warpath, 17, 9. 

s li a w a 1 ;j a , d. shaslmal;Ka, {\) to present tvith a gift, to make a present, 13G, 
7. (2) to take revenge on somebody: nii mish sliawal%uapk I ivill revenge 
myself on you. Der. \yi\\%i\, d. of viil;^a. Lit. "to reciprocate, return to." 

slidwalsh, sawals, d. shaslmalsh (]) arrow-head manufactured of stone: 
kok61e sh. flint arroiv-head; metsmetsawals, nibu'shaksh=sh. ohsidian arrotv- 
head; cf. miitelimii'tchli, mbu'shaksh; tcliikemen sh. iron arrow-head; 
shfiwalish for the more usual shdwalsh, 163; L 0. Cf. ngc-ish. (2) rifle- 
ball, leaden projectile: mil'ni sh. cannon ball; explosive shell, 43, 2. (3) 
when used is connection with bird names in incantations it means crest, 
ptlume-crest, feathers growing on head, 1^3; 2.; cf sha-iila (2); for sawals 
177; 16. see yd-uya. (4) a small lisli of the sucker species; probably 
identical with shilwash, by an elision referred to in Note to 56, I.; 
sawalsa'mi ^^ at the time of catching small suckers" about the commence- 
ment of April. Met. for shd-ulash Der. sha-ula. 

s h a w a 1 1 a , shahudlta, d. shashut'ilta, v. intr , to tremble, to shake, to be 
shaken, to rattle through shaking: kiiila nu ai sh. I the soil am shaking and 
rattling, 176; 3. and Note. Der. wdlta. Cf. muimuj^a, tushtusha. 

s h a w ;i 1 1 a n a , shahudlt'na, d. shashudltana (l) to tremble, to be shaken up; 
to shake oneself spontaneously. (2) to make a rattling noise, to croak; wek- 
wekash ai ni shahu41tampk I the magpie chatter in the distance, 177; 17.; 
w^keta nu shahualtdmpka / the green frog am croaking on the soil, 1 78; 2. 

s h a w a 1 1 4 n k a , d. sliashualtdnka to creep up, to move forward in a crouch- 
ing position of the body, 110, 12. 

s h a w 4 1 1 c h a , d. shashuiildsha to cover: sh. pitAk to cover oneself 

shawAltchna, d. shashudltchna, v. refl., to go and shelter oneself, logo 
under cover: shawaltchnish slu'ka wekwekash I the magpie am devouring 
(my ju'ey) ivhile under cover, 177; 18. 

shti wash, tchawash, tsi'iwas, a species of sucker-fish, small and palatable^ 

s h a \v i'l 1 (l s li a — s li e g g a t % a . 295 

found in Klamath Marsh and in Upper Klamath Lake, 4 to 6 inches h:)ng-. 
Apparently identical with shawalsh (4), q. v.: 169; 57. 180; 14. 

s h a w e 1 , \A. tiuiii sh. shovel. From the English term. 

sh a wig a , tchawika, d. shashuiga, tchatchuiga (1) to become angry, wroth, 
furious, to he aroused to wrath; to he in a rage, fury: sawika hishuaksh the 
man became angry, 19, 8.; shawigank heme^e angered she cried out, 121,2.; 
partic. shawfgatk excitable, irritable, 93, 2.; shawiguk made angry, 123, 3.; 
tchawika he became furious, 134, 9. Cf. 17, 8. 29, 2. 30, 9. 132, 5. 184; 
■..'8. {2) to be a maniac, to rave, to be crazed: tchawika ma'ntch shle-iiga 
for seeing them he became insane for some time, 128, 9.; tsa'wik he is 
demented, 133, 11. In this definition (2) the form tchawlga is more fre- 
quent than shawiga, especially in Mod.; kiluoka hu tchawika he is in a 
state of madness. Cf tchawikatko. 

s ii - , shii-. For words not found under these initials look out under se-, she-. 

shil'tfi, sii'tua, d. sha'shtu; same as shetua, q v. 

sa'-ug, 29, 15.; see shdwa 

S c a r f a c e Charley, nom. i)r. Mod. See Tchiktcliikam=Lupatkuehitko. 

shedl%a, d. shesh41%a to call oneself by name; to give a name to oneself: 
nad sheshal;{a -we call ourselves. Der. cl^a (4). 

she-Ji'ta, she-eta, sii-ata, d sheshe-a ta, shesheta (1) to divide up, appor- 
tion, distribute, {l) to pay out, to have pay-day. 

s h e d s h ii 1 a , d. sheshidshLila t:) emit, to ejaculate the seminal fluid. Der. idsha. 

s h e - e t i s h , she-edsh ( 1 ) distribution, apportionment (2) pay-day; Saturday: 
she-edshtat mat sha ndnuk shuku'lki-iiapk kshi'ul^ish on Saturday they 
ivill all, as reported, gather for dancing, 140, 2., cf. 141, 5. Der. she-a'ta. 

s h e g a p e 1 e , d. sheshgapele to return ; to go home. Cf g^mpele, gepgapele. 

s h e g g a t k t c h a , d sheshgatktcha to become scattered by going or running 
in different directions. Der. sheggat%a. C£ gayi'ie. 

sheggdt^a, shekatka, d. sheshgat;ta, v. intr., to separate from each other; 
to break up connection, 36, 6. 43, 17.: E-ukshikni Modoki'shash sh. the 
Klamath Lake Indians became separated from the Modocs, 1 3, 1 . cf 3. ; partic. 
sheggat^atko, she/atgdtko («) separated, removed from, each other, (b) 
subst, sjjace between fingers, (c) subst., interdigital membrane of canines, 
felines, waterfowd etc. Cf. shc'kelui, shipi't%a. 


she'gsha, sa'gsn, d .slieslR'gslia, sesil'gsa (1) to speak out one's mind; to 
speak out, to declare, to explain, 95, 20. 101, 18.; tsui link sii'gsa nCi hereupon 
I declared, 17, 7. 05, 3. 7.; k;itak sh. to profess the truth, G5, 5.; sii'gs' tsh 
(for slidgsli'i nish)! let me knoiv! confess! tell it all to me! 78, 4. (2) to 
reply to; to inform, report; tunepni sa'ksa nd-asht five men made such a 
report, 17, 12.; to announce, 20, 9. (3) to report unfavorably, to denounce, 
to complain of. CI", shapiya. 

s li g s h d w a , d. shesliekshewa to tell Icnowingly, to declare under standingly: 
kdtok 111 gc'-Ti sag.sii'wa / am certain that I made a truthful report or state- 
ment (k;itok is used here as a noun), 65, 7. 

sliL'yakua, d. sheshikewa, v med., to break one^s limbs, as arms, legs in 
one place. Der. 3c'kua. Cf. kewa (1). 

shdka, d. shesliil'ka, sheslidka (1) to squeal; said, e. g., of the weasel, 155; 
23. (2) to bid fareivell, to say good bye: tcha shekug mi'sh nil shnuka ne'p! 
now to say good bye I shake hands ivith you! 87, 14., cf. 15. 

sliekaktcha, d. sheshkaktcha to return blows, to Jight back: ka-i sh. to 
avoid fighting, to refuse to fight, L9, 9. 

s h e k a t c h a , d. sheshkatcha, v. intr , to become or be divorced. Der. kcdsha; 
lit. "to cast off from oneself." Cf vutodshna. 

shekelalona, d. sheshkelaluna to cover up, to fill in, as a hole in the 
ground : tsu'tskam snii'lash sakiilalo'nank having covered tvilh earth the den 
of a squirrel, 24, 13. Der kjilla. Cf kc^la-una. 

sheke'lki, d. sheshke'lki to heap, to raJce together, 85, 11. Der. kiiila. 

shekel ui, d. sheshakelui, v intr. (1) to terminate, to be at the end, to end. 
(2) to separate, to part; to be no longer united: ka-i sh(^kelui to stay together 
in one body, to remain united. Der. kgldwi. 

shekla't^a, d. sheshklil'txa to open and lay doivn flat, so that both sides 
are visible; said of books and similar-sliaped articles. Cf shitchlut;^a. 

s h e k 1 i % i e a , d. sheshkli^iea to -walk on one leg, to liop. Cf klc'iia. 

s h c k p e ;^ a , d. sheshakpe^a to beat, strike ov hit each other. 

shektakta, met. shektatka, d. sheshaktakta to cut in two 2}arts or 2)or- 
tions; the d. form means: to cut these two portions into smaller portions. 
The partic. shektaktatko, met shektat^atko divided into, cut up into, serves 
to express arithmetic fractions: ndana sh. one-third; 1dpi ti'mlp sh two- 
fifths. Der. ktdkta. Cf sheldt^a, shendtxa. 

s h e' g s li a — s h e 1 1 ii n 1 . 297 

shektakudla, d. sheshaktakuula to slide downhill; to play at diding 

downhill. Der. kteku^la. 
s h ^ k t a II k s h line in hand, hand-wrinkle. Cf. sbekitko, partic. of sli^ka. 
s h e k 1 1 ii 1 (S n a , d. slieshaktlal6na to skate. Cf. kteleslika. 
sbekutka, v. trans., to break, to break asunder: 4nku sh. tat^elamtala to 

break a stick in the middle. Cf ycikiia. 
shuka, shii'ka, d. sh^sh%a to pierce, launch, perforate: wawdkash sh. to 

pierce the ear, ear-lobe; the partic. sh^kitko, sa'^itko cruciform, in form of 

a cross, originally referred to perforations, by ^Yhich the piercing object 

remains in the aperture after going thi'ough it. 
shdkish, d. shesh;(ish piercing, perforation: wawakam sh. gi'ntatko per- 
foration of the ear. Cf. sbe'l;^isb. 
shekukedsha to gnash, grate the teeth. Der. koka. Cf. k6kanka (2). 
sela, shela, d. sheshla; or shap'sbam shela: ring around sun ; light-colored 

halo around sun. Cf sbakatchdlish, sbapash (1). 
shelakla, d. sheshlakla to cut oneself: stt'laplcsb sh. nu gd-u wC^]) I cut 

myself in the right hand. Cf sliel^alua. 
s b e 1 d k t c b a , d. sheshlaktcha to cut onc!s own throat. Der. Mktcha. 
sh el akt cilia, d. sheshlaktcbia to make the gesture of cidting one's own 

throat. Cf shatashpapki'a. 
s h e 1 d t ;^ a , d. sliesbldt^a to divide among several or many; said of whole 

articles only, which are distributed intact. 
Selkantko, nom. pr. fern. Kl., "Shell-Nosed"; viz: wearing a long den- 

talium shell in the nose-septum, 
s h e 1 z ♦I' k ;'i n a t k o , d. sbeshal;jakanatko ( 1 ) adj., striped transversely or at 

right angles. (2) subst, woven tissue. Only the d. form is in constant use. 
sliL'l/alua {V) to he striped lengthwise, as a garter-snake (wishink). Cf 

Ikakimitko, Iketkitko, sbel;fakdnatko. (2) to gash one^s skin. This was 

practiced by the Shasti Indians for the purpose of tattooing themselves 

by rubbing coal-dust into the gashes. Cf shelakla. 
she'l^ish, A. ?\\Qs\i{i\xh\\ nose-ornament ; white dentalium shell inserted 

tlirough the nose-septum: '■^nose-quill". Cf hashtkfi, sheka. 
s^llaluisli, for s^llualuisli, verbal indef of slic'llual, q. v 
slu'llual, sc'llual, sii'lual, d. shrsldual to give IxiUlc, in wage ivar, to he out 


on. the ivaipath, to battle, Jifjlit against, with obj. case, 16, 1. 17, 19. ^8, 11.: 
kiiu sli. he fouijht bravely, .00, 1.; shcllualsh shand-uli he wanted to wage 
tvar, 55, 13.; p'niilam shelliialuish in the fights fought by them or among 
themselves, in, their former hostilities, 55, 1.; lupf ndlam sdllaluish (for 
slidllualuisli) giini'ta further than when ive tvere on the warpath for the first 
time, 21, 12.; sellolok (for sdllualuk) icheti at war, or for the purpose of 
warfare, 17, 20. and Note, of. 90, 18.; shL'llualjjksli (for shellual/ipkasli) 
shasli when they tvere engaged in fighting, 131, 14.; lapuiii vvaitolan shell u- 
Id'lash (for shellualulash) ttco days after having fought, 43, 18. Cf. p. 33 
(title); 43, 12. and shenotanka, shiuga. Der. liwala. 

she'll ualsh, d. sh(ishlualsh (1) war, tvar-expedition, campaign, 44, 11.: 
shellualshe'mi during the war; the Modoc war of 1872-73 being referred 
to in 55, 8. 10. (2) battle, action in war: shellualshgisht (Mod.) on a battk- 
field, 5G, 6. For 55, 13. see sh(illnal and Note to 56, 1. 

s h e 11 u a 1 s h a , d. sheshhialsha to start for tvarfare, to go out on the war- 
path, to go and fight: Wawdliks tapi' sh. Dave Hill went to war for the 
second time, 21, 1. (title). Cf. 2.% 1. and Note. Der. sh(^llual. 

shellualtAmpka, d. sheshlualtAm[)ka to begin fighting, to start warfare, 
37, 11. 12. 38, 20. 131, 13.; to recommence the fight, 54, 8. 

shellolotkish (1) implement for fighting, weapon, e. g., a clnb. (2) a sort 
of sententious interlocution delivered between the incantations by wizards 
or conjurers, expressly declared to be distinct from the songs (shui'sh and 
shuin6tkish). Der. shellual. 

slieltapka, seldApka, d. sheshaltiipka to button: %iinitc'tan sc'ltaj^katko 
(or sheldapkutko) buttoned behind. Der. Ic^vuta (3). 

sh eltapko tki sh , seldapko'tch, selt/ipkiish, d sheshaltopkutkish, sesal- 
tapkush button on garments. 

shemtishla, d. sheshmAshla to remove to a distance; to remove or migrate 
with one's family to another place ; to emigrate, 85, 14. Cf nicdslia. 

S (' ni i a n d i , nom. ])r. of a Klamath Lake man. 

shonipL'ta, d. sheshampeta io g'Marre/; to argue. Der. mpata. Cf shApa. 

s h e m t (■ li a , d. sht'shamtcha {\) to hold a stick or pole in hand or hands. (2) 
to move along while leaning on a sticl; ; to go around slowly, to move tvith diffi- 
culty. Der. ena. Cf ('nitclnia, shi'kaniba. 

s ht^ 1 1 u a 1 s h — s h e n o't k a t k o . 299 

shomtch41%a, «iimts;'il/:a, d. sheshamtchal%a (1) to become aware of, to 

notice: sh. Shdshapamtohasli pinudshasht m'nalsh fliey became aware that 

Old Grizzly had reached them in her pursuit, 121, 21. (2) to find out, to 

discover through inquiry, 64, 2-4. ; shiunu'tnuk s. to discover by singing 

magic songs, 66, 1 6. Cf. matchdtka, and 65, 2-8. 
s h d m t c h n a , d. sheshdmtchna to hold a stich or pole in hand or hands; to 

swing a stick: nanuk shu(ikush shoshamtchantk every one holding a willow 

pole in hands, 80, 7. Der. enitchna. 
s h e n 4 1 X a , d. sheshn<4t%a to divide among several or many; said only of 

articles equal in size. Cf. shelat^a. 
Scndakliks, nom pr. masc. KL; interpreted by "Black-Painted", or 

having "embellished" his head with black paint. C£ ndekta, shutpAshui. 
shenge'sha, shenki'sha, d. sheshnge'sha (1) to shoot at oneself. (2) to 

shoot at each other. Der. ng(^-isha. Cf hishlan. 
s h e n i u t a , d. sheshniuta to- exchange, barter, swap. Cf shdshatui. 
shen6k'la, d. sheshn6k'la, v. intr., to cross each other, to form a cross; 

said of roads, streets or trails forming four corners. Cf sheka. 
s h e n 6 1 a k u i s h , d. sheshncSlakuish promise, engagement, compact, 41 , 1^5. 

Der. sheno'l^a. 
sheno'l^a, d. sheshno'l^a, sheshml'l%a (i) to engage oneself, to compact, to 

promise, 41, 11. (2) to form a complot, to plot: Leme-ish sheshnii'l^a 

shiiiknapkuk Skelamtchash the Thunders formed a plot to kill Old Marten, 

113, 13. Der. ne-ul^a. 
s h c n 6 1 a n k a , d. sheshn6tanka to fight, battle with bows, guns, pistols etc., 

17,2.3. 20, 1. 22, 6 43, 8, 14. 90, 18; tchuyunk sen6tankash (for 

shen6tanka sha) hereupon they fought, 22, b.; nat kayak shen6tankatk 

(supply gi) we were not fighting at all, 26, 1.; san6tanksi when or while 

they fought, 29, 20. Der. niwa. Cf shdllual, shiuga. 
s h e n o t a n k d k s k a , d. sheshnotankdkska to come near fighting; to engage 

almost in a fight, battle, 21, 3. 
shenotank'hiiy a, d. sheshnotank'huya to fight for a while only, to 

skirmish about, 20, 2. 
sheno'tkatko, d. shesshno'tkatko (1) confluence, junction of running 

tvatcrs. (2) affluent, tributary. Mod. Cf iic-ukish, iK'-upka, shutandiinka. 


shcnuu, (1 shoshanua, Mod.; same as shenuya, Kl. 

shun u i (I sli a , d. ahdslinuidslia (1) v. iutr., to avoid, to go out of the iva;/. 
(2) V. trans., to turn over, to transfer to somebody, 35, 3. Der. slii'niiya. 

s h d nil y a , .shenua, d. slieshanuya to avoid, shun, keep out of the way; to fee 
l>efore: shcnui i'sh! go oid of my way! slienuyatko ni (supply gi) I am 
keeping out of the way of, i 84; 29 Der. niwa. 

s h e p a 1 II a , d. sheshpalua to make an object of derision or mockery, to show 
the long nose; to move the tongue in and out as a gesture of mockery. 

sli epj'it;^; a, d sheshpat;^a {\) to cut, tear, break asunder; to break into frag- 
ments, 2^ortions: nd-igslitala, tat^elamtdla sh. to break at one end, in the 
middle. (2) to divide, distribute the severed portions of an object among an 
equal number of persons. 

s h e p a t e h 1 1 1 a , d. sheshpatchtila to place one's legs under oneself: shepatcli- 
tilank tchi'a to sit like a Turk or tailor. Der. pe'tch. 

sli p p e 1 p el atko , d. shesbpelpelatko acting on one^s own impulse; self- 
trained, self-reliant. Mod.; tidsh sh. spirited, sly, smart, resolute, ^^up to 
snuff" Der. pelpela: lit. "working by oneself." 

shepialtko, d. sheshapidltko related as mother to daughter or as daughter 
to mother. Dei", pc-ip. Cf. sha-ungaltko. 

shepkcidsha, d. sheshapkddsha to thank, to render thanks: sh. misli ml 
/ thank you; ml hunta hunkesh sh. I thank him for it. See under nd-asht. 

shepolamna, d. .slit'slipolamna to carry on back, lLi3; 13. Der. p'lai. 
Cf hishphimna. 

shepukaga, d. sheshpuhAga to tvear on the neck: partic. shepukdgatko 
(a) woru on neck or cJiest, tied around neck. (Jj) siibst., two (or more) 
oblong pieces o/haliotis or mother-of-pearl shell tied together and worn on 
the neck. Cf shakakaga, sha-ukaga. 

she's ha, sil'sa, d. shesluisha, sjisdsa, v. trans., [i) to name; to give a name 
or appellation ; to call by name, J4J, 1 1.; tchi'huk sii'satk so he was called, 
1(), 7. uO, 19.; na-asht shdsatk called by that name, so called, 2H, 8. 29, 1-5. 
30, 19., cf 143, 2. 3.; shesha (for: sht'shatko) waiwasli birds named waiwash- 
geese, 189; 3. (2) to price, to put a price or value on: mil sheshuapka 
i you will price it high; partic. sh(^shatko priced, valued at; kdnk sheshiitko 
tvorth so much; til'm scssatko high-priced. (3) v. intr., to be ivortli, to cost: 

s h ^ n u a — « Ii e s li % e' 1 a 301 

ge'g mu'shmush lajj'ni ta-unep t41a sh. (or: sht'shatko) tins cow is worth 
twenty dollars; kdnk she'sha shdllualsh the tvar has cost so much, 44, 11. 
Cf. (^l^a, helhei, she'shatuish. 

sheshalkosh, pi. tumi sh. spectacles, eye-glass. Der. slik'kua. 

sheshal^akdnatko, d. of shelxakanatko, q. v. 

sliesh c>,161ish, pi. tumi sli., fighter, warrior, brave; male adult Indian: 
sessalo'lish lakf war-chief (of olden times); T6biash sheshaloli'sliash 
shdyuakta theg acknowledged Toby to be a fighter, 64, 15.; sheshalulesh 
keld^a to become a brave, 90, 20. Der sli(^llual Cf ki'losh, shish6kisli. 

shdshash, shii'shash, d. sheshdshash name, proper name; appellation of 
persons or things: mi sh. thy name, 139, 1. 9.; sh. dl/a (or simply el;^a, 
;l'l;fa) to give, bestoiv, impart a name, 143, 1.; huna'shak sh , Mod., niclc- 
name; she'shash shiimalua to write a name, 34, 7. Cf dl%a. 

s h 6 s h a 1 11 a - i s h , d. sheshshatua-ish person who wants to trade, dealer 
intent upon a bargain, Kl Der sheshatui. 

shdshatui, sessatui, d. sheshshatui (I) to trade, barter, exchange, swap, 
traffic: watch sh. shkutashtat they exchange horses for blankets, 88, 5.; lu'gs 
watchat sdsatni to barter slaves for horses, 20, 1 9. ; shdshatuishtka hil'k 
gi he is tvilUng to or on the point of bartering, exchanging; cf 75, 1 0. Cf 
sheniuta. (2) to exchange for money or valuables; to sell: kaila sh. to sell 
the country, 34, 4. 5. Der. shdtua. 

sheshatuika, d. sheshshatuiga to trade off, to barter, to give in exchange 
for goods, valuables, 93, 3. 

s li e s h a t u 1 k i s h , d. sheshshatuikish shop, warehouse, store-house. 

shdshatiiish, sessii'tuish, d sheshshatuish (1) trader, shopkeeper, mer- 
chant. (2) cost, cost-price. (3) price paid to parents for obtaining their 
daughter in marriage: ntinuktua sh. m'na the whole marriage fee paid by 
him, 58, 16. cf 61, 8. (4) retail price, selling price. Der. sheshatui. 

s h d s li a t u i s h 1 a to be about to trade off; to intend to sell. 

s h e s h a t u 1 1 k a {I) to return from trading, bartering, swapping, 20, 20 (2) 
to return from selling; to have achieved a sale. Der. shdshatui. 

s h d s h a n a , d. sheshdshana to be sad, afflicted, dreary. 

shesh;; atkatko , d. of sheggat/atko, partic. of sheggat%a, q. v. . 

shesh;^c'la, d. sheshashke'la (1) to act extravagantly, to behave noisily: 


utitssusji-asli sli. the down pcrjbmts his tricks. (2) to act as conjurer, 

ivizard, sorcerer, Mod. Der. ka/la. 
slieslix eil d-as h , d. sheshash%oil;i-ash (1) noisy felloic. (2) conjurer, 

wizard, ^^medicine-man'\- called so with respect to his noisy peri'orniances 

Mod. (3) company ofjroliclers, revelers. Cf. ka-ika, kivdcs, kii'la. 
sh(isli talk ash, d. shesliashtalkash ivag, punster, funny fellow. Der. 

tal;^ea. Cf utiissusa-ash. 
shesh t6Ik i s h , d. sheshashto'lkish (1) prostitute, whore, harlot. (2) 

whoremonger, fornicator. Der. shetol^a. 
s h e t a 1 a , shdtalha, d sht'shtala to be in the presence q/ persons, while visit- 
ing them (patients, e. g ) Cf. shdtaltcha, telish. 
slietal4tka, shetalhAtka, d. sheshtalatka to return from a visit 
shetal^da, d. sheshtal;;{da to stand on one's head; said of persons and 

inan. things. Der. talka. Cf. heshtal^easli. 
sh eta 1% dash , d. sheshtal/eash top (as a plaything). Cf talkidshfc 
sheti'ilpgli, d. sheshtalpeli to look hehind oneself, to look backward. 
s h c t a 1 1 c h a , d. sheshtAltcha to visit, to call upon, as upon sick persons, 

friends etc , 1 40, 10. Der. shdtala 
shdtalua, d. slu'shtalua (1) v. intr., to he reflected by the water or other 

smooth surface, as of mirrors, panes of glass or polished metal. (2) v. 

trans, to reflect, to reverberate; said of the same. Cf shc'tala, telshna. 
s h e t a 1 u ash, d. shdshtaluash (I) pane of glass, ivindoiv pane; window, Kl. 

(2) mirror, looking-glass. Mod. 
shdtaluatko. d. shdshtaluatko possessed of: mu sh. piossessed of many 

things; rich, tvealthy, 189; 7. Cf talaltko. 
sh d tasli tz apksh , d. slu'shtasht/apksh shoulder-blade, omoplatc. Cf 

lapaklash, tchnfpal. 
s h d t a t % a , d shdshtat%a to frown. Cf shitchAkta. 

s h e t li t c h a , d. sheshtatcha to tvash one's head. Der. tddsh;». Cf. stapatchka. 
S d t a t s a s h , nom. ]«•. masc. Kl. " Wet-Head." 
sh e t% d - u n a 1 1 k o , d. sheshat%d-unaltko Kl., slicshat;^d-uiiishaltko Mod. 

with <)l)j. case: standing in the relation of older to younger In-other, of older 

to younger male cousin, 109, 2. Der. t%d-unap. Cf sha])talaltko. 
s li (' tm a , (1. slidslitma fo call someljody to come, to call out Jor ; to request to 

go with oneself. Cf shdtma. 

s li c s h % e i 1 ;i - a s h — she w ti n a . 303 

sliot(')l;{a, sliat(51eka, d. sheshto'l^a (1) to cohabit, to co'ptdatc, to f<Ic('p ivitJi, 
59, 3. 78, 7. 9.; ha 1 B6shtinash sha'tolakuapk if you should cohabit tvith 
a ivhite man, 58, 15.; n;'i-ands siit61%a to copulate with some man, 60, 1.; 
mi'sh setu'l^a to consort with you, 78, 3. (2) to stay or lodge with, 78, 10. 
Der. shdtui. Cf. hesht61;^a, sh^tupka, shina. 

shdtixa, sha'tua, sJi'tu, sh«eto, d. shii'shtua, sfi'stu, she'shto to count, figure 
up, enumerate, 70, 8. 9.: shdtuank hank (for hak) mi heme^isli! speak only 
in a slow measure! lit. "just count your speaking!" Cf. she-ii'ta, sheshatui. 

shetudya, d. sheshtuaya; same as shatuaya, q. v. 

shdtui, d. shdshtui, v. recipr., to shoot ov fire at each other: lapok sh. both 
fired at each other, 37, 10 ; ht. "to pierce each other" Der. tewi. 

shetupka, d. shc^shtupka to consort, to cohabit with: shil'tupk Stu'kuaksh 
he slept with Little Squirrel, 1 00, 1 1 . Der. tt'wi ; iterative of she'tui. 

s h e t c h a k t a , s h o t c h ;'i k t n a ; see shitchiikta, shitchAktna. 

shew a, sii'wa, d. sheshua, sii'sua {\) to think, heUeve, assume; to form an 
opinion, to suppose; the object being usually expressed by an objective 
clause, a verbal, or a participle: ki' sh. nil hfi'nkesh / tliought she was 
telling lies, 40, 21.; ;i nu toks shiwaga sh. / assume that you are a virgin, 
184; 37.; ti'dsh a k6katk i sh. you think you are nicely dressed, 189; 5.; 
nAn;{a ts sii'wa and some were of the opinion, 65, 15.; tamiVdsh ktandshi 
(for ktandshisht) shdwuk sluituyakiea thinking that she might he asleep, they 
bombarded her, 122, 4.; kawaliJi'kuapk sji'-ug assuming they ivoidd ascend 
the hill, 29, 15. (2) to consider oneself as, 177; 20. 178; 3. Der. hewa. 

she wala, shewal, d. shcshual {\) to state, affirm, 185; 44.; to aver, to cor- 
roborate (2) to slander, to defame; to be a slanderer, backbiter: watchagalani 
weash sha'walsh tumgna / heard that this son of a bitch has imputed immor- 
alities to me, 185; 38. 

she wan a, d. sheshuana (1) to give, confer, transfer to; to hand over, to give 
away; to donate, to make a present with; a verb used when many objects of 
every kind or shape, or objects spoken of collectively, are transferred, 
139, 3. 11.; watch sh. to transfer horses, 60, 15. 16.; yamnash sh. he 
gave necklaces, 96, 8. 9.; p^tsh sh. to give food, 66, 9. 95, 16.; hii'nk na-as 
sa ngii'-is silwana to him alone they passed the arrows, 22, 21.; shewan61ank 
pa's after having finished giving food, 101, 20 ; (nu) s^wanuapk patki giuga 


iiichiess I shall (jive (her) trout to eat, 136, 5. cf. 7.; shalt sli. to put salt on, 
to salt. (2) to pay in more than one coin, hill, check or other means of 
monetary exchange; see slduhiksh Cf. kshuya, luya, nt;ya, shiii, spniii. 

shewandpSli, d. sheshuan;ipeli to return, restore to, 39, 11. 12. 14.; to 
return things previously given, 1 09, 8. 

shewanish, d i^\\es\mixms\\ present, gift, donation. Der. shewana. 

shewantamna, d. sheshuantamna to continue to give, 136, 7.; to keep 
on handing over. Der. shewAna, q. v. 

shewat^a, saw4t%a, d. sheshuAt^a, v. intr., to separate in two, to fall 
asunder in two ; apphed to the division of the day into forenoon and after- 
noon: sh. shappash the sun culminates, is in the meridian-line. Cf. ga- 
ulApka, shewat^ula. 

shdwat^ash, sawdtxash, d. sheshuatxash noon, noon-time: shewtitxastka 
at noon-time, 19, 10; shewatxash pan! up to noon-time, till noon; sewat- 
kashtka nAnuk watchpka about noon-time all the gamesters had lost their 
stakes, 99, 7. Der. shewiitxa 

s li e w a t X u 1 a , d. sheshuatxuki, v. intr., to come to an end with separating in 
ttvo: sh. shappash the sun has passed the meridian-line. Der. shew4txa, q. v. 

she watxulash, d. sheshiiatxulash afternoon: siiwatxo'lsi, shewatxu'lsi 
in the afternoon, 24, 6. and Note. 

s h e w a 1 1 X e a s h , d. sheshuatlxt^ash die, cube, cubiform body. 

she we- Ilia, d. sheshwii uk, v. med., to agree to, to give one's assent, ;<8, 
10. Der. we-ula. Cf. humdsht gi, lewe-nhi. 

shewokaga, d. shashew6kaga to shake, wag: wa-utch;'ig shashewokdga 
kpe'l the dogs wag their tails. 

sg-, shg-; for words not found here look under sk-, shk-; sk-, shk-. 

s g li' m 1 a , sku'mla, d. sgushganda, v. impers. ( I) to form hoar-frost: skiVmla 
ko'shtat there is hoar-frost on pine-trees; shgii'mla mbu'shant there was frost 
in the morning. (2) to be cold weather, to freeze: shkumluapka frost will 
come on. Kl. for tchgu'mna, tchgu'nila, tsku'mla Mod. Der. ska. 

s g iV m 1 a s h , shkumlash, d. sgushgamlash hoar-frost. 

s g u' t c h., sku'tcli father of a first child. Cf. skiiksap. 

sh iaksliinga , d, sliiaslmikshiaga (1) to shake, to shake up, to make trem- 
ble, as a tree. (2) to balance on one's arms. 

s li e w a 11 a p e 1 i — S i d a i k t i . 305 

s li i <i 1 a m n a , d. sliishdlamna to nib, line, smear on one^s hack. Cf. sliiaslika. 

H lii alamiiii to foUoiv dose to, to travel behind: tselewash iiish sh. tapltllas 
the rippling of the waters travels behind me, the loon, 168; 46. 

s h 1 a m n a , sliiyamiia, d sliishiyamna to seise, grasp each other; to clinch 
together; said of nanilasli-birds, 177; 24. Der. fyamna. 

s li i a p k a to line, put on one^s face, as paint etc. Cf. shat^^sha. 

s h i a p k 6 1 a to remove or wash off from one's face, body. 

s h i a p k o 1 o t k i s li wash-towel : n^pki liun sh. ! bring me that towel! 

shiAslika, siasga, d. sliishashka, sissasga (1) to tahe off from; to divest 
oneself of : K'mu'kamtcli liemc%e slii'ashkank hu'n tcliiilisli K'm. told (him) 
to take off his shirt, 95, 1.; kiktsamatka shiif;ttch sh. to clean one's nose tvith 
the handkerchief; pshish sh. to clean one's nose. (2) to cut off short, to crop: 
shisliashka sha lak they cut off the hair in every instance, 89, 5. ; shiAshgatko 
lak (their) hair is cut short, 90, 6. (3) to rub, line, to pass over something; 
to rub or smear on : kakn^ga (or kaknt^gatko) sh. to besmear, pollute, render 
dirty, to soil. C£ ktiishka (2), shiiipka, shiiktaldsha. 

s h i a s h 1 a , d. shishashla, v. trans., to remove, displace, to take away, 35, 20.: 
wemii sh. to remove to another place or spot, 35, 14.; said of anim. and inan. 
objects, as utensils, furnitm-e. Cf. mddsha, nadsha'shak. 

s h i a s h 1 k An k a , d. shishashlkdnka, v. trans., to continue removing; to 
transport to different places. 

s h i A s h n a , d. shishdshna, 39, 17. ; same as shiashla, q. v. 

s h i a t k a , shidt^a, d. shishdtka, shishAt^a (1) to take out of, as of a pocket, 
bag etc. (2) to select, to pick out: £-ukskni shishatxa w^wanuish the Lake 
men selected females (to be their slaves), 23, 6. (3) to segregate, divide 
into several portions, to put asunder. Cf hekshAt;^ a. 

S i d a i k t i , noni pr. of locality thirty miles south of The Dalles (on the 
Columbia River), Oregon, and forming a part of the Warm Spring Indian 
reservation. Wasco Indians were located there by the Government: 
Amp%ankni Sidaikti tchia Wasco Indians reside at Sidaikti. A small 
western tributary of the Des Chutes River, called Shitike Creek, runs 
through that reservation. Cf K61amzeDi K6ke. 

sh I'd sha (for shi-idsha), d ii\\\ii[n'(\s\\n. to put ov lay upon oneself : shhlniiuk 

shti'ya shishi'dsha in their sorrow they laid resin (or pitch) upon their heads, 


132, 6.; shti'a sa ml'slitat slii'dslio they jnit pitch on their heads (shi'dslio, 

suffix -u for suffix -a), 101, 4. Der. itchua. 
shidshl'y amna, 177; 24. for shislu'yamna, d. of shianina, q. v. 
s li 1 d s h 1 a , d. shfslitclila; see shitchla. 
sill -ilia, d. shishihn to ajrec, to consent: hii si-i'huapk i lapuk tvheti both 

of ye shall have agreed, 60, 6. Cf. ihia, shitko. 
slii-izaga, d. sliishi'xaga to win, gain from each other; to win through 

fjamhling, 70, 1. 80. 5. Der. Ikaga. ()f. ika, ikampoli, I'kiia. 
sli I'-ita, d. sliishita to line on, to paint, smear on: pitak sli. to line on one's 

own body, to bedaub oneself Der. ita. 
slii-itna, d. shishltna to load, charge; to overload: ke a shisliitantk wi'itcli 

this horse is overloaded; kinkani shisliitautk watch the horse is not loaded 

enough. Der. ftna. Cf. itniila. 
sliiy uta, d. shishfyuta to exchange, to harter, swap; to carry on the barter- 
ing trade. Cf. hesheli6ta, sheniuta, shushatui. 
s li i k d m b a to walk with a stick ; to lean on a staff while walking: ml si'kamba 

1 (or hi) I am leaning upon, 168; 38. and Note. Cf shikutcha. 
shikantdna, d. shlshkant/ma to show, point to somethmg on a person''s 

body, as wounds, scars, attii'e, garments etc. Der. gintana. Cf hashu- 

atana, shikantila. 
shikant^la, d. shish^antdla (1) to pile up, lay upofi each other, as sheets 

etc. (2) to ruffle: shikantelatko k6ksh a ruffled dress. 
shikantila, d. shish;)^antila to shoiv, pmnt to something on a persoris J'oot 

ov feet, as scars, moccasins, boots. Der. gintila. Cf shikantana. 
s h i k a s h 1 a , d. shishkashla to step, pace, walk, tread. Cf kishl;^a. 
s h i k a s h 1 a s h , d shislikashlash a step, a pace. 

s h i k a s h t k a , d. shishkashtka to take one step) or pace. Cf. shikashla. 
s h i k C n i t g i' k a , d. shishakgnitgi'ka little pistol ; contr. for shik6nitki'-aga, 

19, 6. Dim. shikgnitkisli. 
s h i k6 nitki sli , d. shishakenitgish ^isto/, revolver, 30, 17. 66, 11.; lit. 

''object pulled out by hand." Der. shikna. 
s h i k i a n k a to convey on one's shoulder, to carry on the shoulders: shi'-i%iank 

a ^na he carries a heavy load on his shoidder. Cf nu'tk'la. 
shikita, d. shishkita to report falsely, to make false repjorts about, to rejrre- 

sent ivrongly. Der. kiya. 

s h i d s li i' y a m 11 a — s h i 1 a . 307 

s h i k i 1 11 a , d. sliishkitna; same as shikita, q. v.. lia nl siki'tnank sii'gsuapk 

if I should make false statements (before the chiefs), 65, 7. 
shikna, si'kna to throw, dart, hurl: ddlts si'kna-uk for throwing a spear. 
shikpi^yash, d. shishakpiayash apron; teiin interpreted by: "what 

comes down, falls down." Cf heshlaklash, sha-upAlaksh. 
shikpualk An a , shikpualkena to put into or roll in the mouth; said of 

articles smaller than the mouth: nu shikpualkana ktayaga I roll a little 

(gravel) stone in the mouth. Cf. kpiamna. 
shiktka, d. shishaktka to make motions, to move about: ka-i shl'ktgisht 

since she did not stir, 122, 4. Cf. shiwina. 
s liikt okank sli, d. shishakt6kanksh (1) foot-hall. (2) ball of various 

other descriptions. Der. ktiuga. 
s h i k t u' d K h a m p k a , d. shishaktu'dshampka to lean on both elbows; as, 

e. g., when sitting at table. Der. ktiudshna. 
s h i k t ti' d s h n a , d. shishktu'dshna to piush oneself. Der. ktiudshna. 
shiktchaktchna, d. shishaktchaktchna to cause to expiate; to punish, to 

make atone by chastising. Cf kitchakela. 
s h i k t c h a s h 1 a , d. shishdktchashla to crawl on the ground: si'ktsaslan 

wika I moved a short distance by creeping about, 30, 14. C£ ktchidsha. 
s h i k u i / i s h , d. s]iishkui;^ish umbrella. 

s h i k u i ;{ 1 1 k o , d. shishkui;ijftko provided with, carrying an umbrella. 
s h i k u k A n g o t c h (for shikukank6tkish), d. shishkuktingotch stilts. 
s h i k u t c h a , d. shishkiitcha to walk while leaning or reclining on : shiku- 

tcliipk (or shikutchipkatko) tchikA an old man walking on a stick, 136, 5. 

and Note. Cf shikamba. 
shikikia, shiki%i(^a, d. shishkikia to dive, plunge in the tvater (with or 

without timbutat), 118, 11. 120, 6. Cf kidsha, p(iwa 
s h i k i X i e n a , d. shishki^i^na to go and dive, to start for a plunge, 120, 5. 
slii'l, Kl, shi'l, d. shi'shil, pi. tumi sh., (1) cloth, woven tissue, textile fabric 

of any description: sheeting, linen, cotton or silk cloth; printed goods, 

calico. (2) flag, banner. Mod., 14, 2. — The d. form is in use for smaller 

pieces or sheets, while the absolute refers to slieets of larger size (Mod.). 

From Chin. J. sill, sail, this from English sail. 
s h i 1 a , shi'la, si'la, d. shisha'la, sissala to be sick, diseased; to be afflicted with 


sickness or distemper, G4, 3. G8, 10. 128, 7. Refers to chronic and incur- 
able diseases: kc'lpogs sli. to be fever-stricken ; shtefnash sh. to be heart-sick, 
Jicarf -broken; shi'llalslit having fallen sick, 68, 2. Der. fla. Cf. ma'sha. 

s lii'l a k a , slil'l^a, d. sliishal%a to become sick, to fall sick, 68, 1 1. Der. sln'la. 

!s li f 1 a k 1 k i s li , sliilaklgish riibbing-stone used for grinding seeds and grains 
(in the hirge nieahng-stonc or leniatch. It is generally of small size and 
often provided with two horns serving as handles, 149, 8. Cf. pe'ksh. 

s h i 1 a 1 a , d. shishalAla to fall sick: kii'tkaks sissalaluapk (sa) they will be 
afflicted with small-pox, 70, 6.; tchii'tantki gmg hu'nk sln'llalpksh (foi- 
sliilah'vpkash) in order to treat the man ivho fell sick, 65, 18. Der. shi'la. 

s h 1 1 a 1 s h , shillalsh, d shishalalsh disease, sickness, distemper of a chi'onic 
or incurable nature: shillalsh hii't gii'ta 50we disease invaded him, 64, 1.; 
silalsh n;i'bakiia])k disease tvill come on, 70, 4. Der. shila. Cf. ma'shash. 

shi'lasli, d. shishdlash few^. Der. shi'I. 

shi Iba .silrer: sh. t41a silver dollar; silver coin. From the English. 

shi'lkshla, d. shish;ilkshla to difj a ircll ; the word for well, welwash, is 
not added. (_'f i'lkshgishla, ilkshla. 

shiloatcha, d. shishaloatcha (1) to help each other, to cooperate: tchime 
isli tilla sh. ! come and do the thing trith mcf Mod. (2) to help in carrying, 
to carry together Der. Ifwa Cf shatnaya. 

s h 1 1 s li i 1 a , d. shishalshila to resound like thunder; said of the earth, 158; 48. 

s h i m h ii't c li n a , d. shishamhu'tchna to curse each other, to call each other 
opprobrious epithets. Cf lama, mu'tchka. 

s h f n a , shi'na, d. shi'sha to cohabit. Cf. ktchena, shishna. 

s h i n ak ta , d. sliishnAkta, v inti-., to touch, to be close to. 

shin a Ic t i s h , d. sliishnAktish one who touches, one who is or lies close by: 
kaptchelam sh. fourth finger, q. v.; lit. "the one touching the smallest 
finger"; also name of two months. 

shinamshta, d. shishnarashta to be afraid of, to be frightened, 1)6, 22.: 
slii'namshtnuk /or /ear, 122, 10. Cf. shakamsliinea, viVsha. 

s h i n s h 1 % a , d. shishanshi%a to croicd in or i)do. 

shiuiiya, shmui, d. shishni'iya to cohabit: partic. shinuitko after cohabita- 
tion; said of a female, 186; 57. Der. shina. 

slii'niikla, d. shfshnukla to cause to give away, to persuade to part with. 
Der. nuikla. 

s h i' 1 a k a — s h i s h u k a . 309 

shi6, shiu', d. shi'sho, shishu to bet, to make a het or hets; said, e. g., of 

gamblers. Cf. the refl. verb he'sliku, Mod. lieshgiin. 
shio'l^i, d. slnsho'l;^!, Kl. for hushto'lki Mod., q. v. 
slu'p, pi. tiimi sh., sheep, domestic sheep: slil'pam leledshi lamb, lambkin; 

slu'pam watchtlga shepherd^s dog; sLi'pam ni'l wool. From the English. 

Cf. ktushk6tkish, ko-il, nii, wiesh. 
shi palkaiika, d. shislipalkanka to go around stinking, to stink around, 

with obj. case, 186; 58. Der. pilui. 
s h i p a p e 1 a n k s t a n t , prep, and postp , among each other, against each 

other, 61, 17. Der. pipelangsta, under pipelantana. 
s h i p a t % li k a , d. shishpat/uga ( 1 ) to use as a shield or means of covering; 

e. g , by raising the foot to shield oneself. (2) to cover or eclipse each 

other: shipAt^ukank they were continually eclipsing each other, 105, 2. 
ship at ch, d. slu'shapatch ^^, appropriate, convenient: sh. nanuktua shute- 

6tkish fit for every use, appropriate to any purpose; at a sh. pala-ash the 

bread is noiv done (or: fit to eat). 
s h i p i' t ;{ a , shipitka, d. shishpi't^a, v. intr., to separate, part from each other 

by going in different directions, 31, 14.: to separate; said, e. g., of hn.sband 

and wife, 77, 4. Cf. sheggat^a. 
s h 1 p k g i s h , d. shishtqjkgish, shishtipk-gish beads in a ring inserted in the 

nose-septum; nose-ring. Cf. shepiikaga. 
s h 1 p n u , d. shishApnu {\) tobe blown up, to be full of air, wind. (2) to be 

haughty, swaggering, bragging. Der. pniwa. Cf shalkia-a, sh4pkua. 
ship n u s h , d. shishdpnush bladder blown up, wind-bag. Der. pniwa. 
s h i ]) t c h % a 1 1 k o , d. shishaptch^altko related to each other as brothers-in- 
law or sisters-in-law Only relatives of the same sex call each other by 

this term Der. p'tclukap. 
shishat%a, 23, 6.; d. of shidtka, q. v. 
shfshna, d. shishashna, v. intr., to enter the flesh or skin; as splinters, 

thorns, filaments of plants. Cf. ktchdna, shina. 
s h i s h n i s h , pi. tumi sh. fornicator. Der. shina. Cf. ktai=shfshnish. 
shishokish, d. sh\sWs\\6k\s\i (l) fighter, bruiser, bully. (2) warrior. (3) 

enemy, foe, hostile warrior. Der. shiuga. Cf sheshal61ish. 
shishiika, siss6ka; d. of shiuga, q. v. 


shi sliiikash , sisso'ksli, <I. shish'shokash (1) row, scuffle, fist or cliih fifjld, 
affray, disturhance. (2) battle, battling, skirmish: sliislmkslie'nii at the time 
of the battles (of the Modoc war), 65, 19. Der. sluuga. 

s h f t a s li , d. sliishftash clitoris. Der. shfna. 

s li i t i a i k a , d. shisbatiaika to cry with joy, to give a shout, to shout from exul- 
tation; said, e. g., of children who see their parents coming, 

s h i t f 1 a , d. shishitila to carry beneath the clothing, in the dress, G6, 12. 

sh 1 tko , sl'tko, end. =shitk, =sitk, (d. sliishatko), adj., alike to, similar to, re- 
sembling; comparable to: used of resemblances perceived by the senses of 
hearing, seeing, tasting etc., but also of resemblances of an abstract and 
moral nature, and appended to other words, mostly in an enclitic form: 
wu'kash=shitk m^ishetk tasting like pond-lily seed, 14G, 6., cf 147, 3. 148, 
7. 149, 12.; wikashitko seemingly near, 192; 2.; hu'nk shitko hak exactly 
alike; Afshish-shitk sla's looking like Aishish, 100, 10.; yuyulks-sitk sor- 
rowfid, wretched, 17, 21., cf yualkish and 64, 11. Sh. is not inflected and 
governs either the obj. or the poss. case; ktAmpsh= (for ktan;ipkash=) shitk 
like one sleeping, 113, 17.; B6shtinam sh. in American style, 87, 3.; p'gi'- 
sham=shitko ntllam like our mother, 1 19, 14 Contr. from shf-itko, partic. of 
shf-iha: lit. "agreeing with". Cf fla, m(4klaks=shitko, -ptchi (in ptchink). 

s h f t c h a , d. shish^itcha to fly aicay, to fly up, 101, 7. Der. fdsha 

shit c h k k t a , d. shishtch^ikta to he angry, to be incensed at; to become irri- 
tated, to wax wroth, 192; 3.: sh. ml hun hishuakshash I am angry at this, 
man. Cf. shawiga, sh^tat^a. 

s li i t c h a k t n a , d. shishtcluiktna to become angry, to get into a rage, 58, 15. 

shi tch4ktn i sh, d. shishtchdktnish quarreler; termagant, habitual quar- 
reler; personal enemy, G4, 9. 

s h i t c li a 1 s h u i , d. shishatchdlshui to move towards; said of objects resting 
on the ground: shitchalshue kAlati he moved (them) towards the bucket, 
113, 4. Cf \chi\za, tchil^ia. 

sbitch4txep6le, s]iits4tkap6li to fly back, to fly home, 101, 8. Der. 
shitcha, -tka, -p6li 

s h i t c h k a t c h 1 6 1 k i s h , d. shishatchkatchlotkisli fine-toothed comb. Cf 
tchlakddsha, tchl%tchixa. 

sh Itch la, slu'dslda, d. shishj'itchla (l) to unite, associate, to club together. 

s li i s li u k a s h — s h i u k a 1 a . 311 

(2) to help each other, to help somehody ; to stand together, form alliance: 
I^-nkshikni Mo'dokishash shidshla the Modocs were assisted hij the Lake 
people, 54, 11. Der. tchilla. Cf. shawalina'a. 

sliitclilala, d. sliisliatchlala to associate, to become friends, to form friend- 
ship; to keep up friendly relations with, 35, 1. 

s li i t c h 1 i p , poss. sliitchlam, d slusliatchllp (1) companion, comrade, fellow- 
warrior; Mod. for sbawalin^ash Kl. (2) guest, friend, ally, 34, 12. (3) 
neighhor; ke-u shltchlam gu'sliu the hogs of my neighbor. Der. shitchla. 

s li i t c h 1 6 1 X a , d. shishatchl6t%a to spread out, lay out equally on both sides; 
said, e. g., of laying down flat an opened book: (nep) lu'lput sliislia= 
tclielo'tka (she lays a hand) on each eye and draws them apart, 91,6. Cf. 
shekla't^a, tchel(itka. 

s h i t c h p a 1 e a s h , d. shishatchpak'ash tattoo-marks, tattooing. 

s h 1 1 c h p a 1 u a , shitspolua, d. shishatclipalua to tattoo. The coloring sub- 
stance used in tattooing is pulverized coal (Igum). 

shiuga, siuka, d. shishuka, sissoka (1) to fight, quarrel, to come to blows; 
to scuffle, to fight with fists or clubs; chiefl}' used in the d form, with 
reciprocal signification: si'ssok hu'k wewdas sham their boys quarreled 
among themselves, 107, 13.; sissu'kuk tsil'ssak on account of their continual 
quarrels, 77, 3. Cf. 55, 4. 59, C-IG, 78, 4. 11. (2) sh., usually sissoka, 
to battle; to fight in battle or ivar, 43, 19. Cf. shish6kisli. (3) to kill, slag, 
put to death, to butcher ; to assassinate, murder. Refers to the killing of 
one or of many objects collectively or by one stroke by one subject: 
shi'uguapkug hiVnk /or the purpose of killing him., 113, 15.; shiukuapkiika 
na'ts intending to kill (all of) us, 192; 3.; snawedsh kiuksam sinks the 
tvoman killed by the tvizard, 69, 2.; shiuk6la to come to an end ivith killing, 
55, 7.; wushmush shiukulan after butchering the ox, 13, 15. Cf 13, 6. 30, 
18. 43, 16. 21. 62, 4. 64, 5-14. 65, 9-15. 19. Ill, 17. 123, 7. 128, 4. 6. 
133, 9. In 110, 14. it refers to shooting with fatal result. The killing 
of more than one object, and the slaying of one or many objects by 
many subjects are expressed by luela, shu^nka, q. v. Cf. hesh^a'ki, 
hushtch6ka, shlin, tc'wi. 

shiiikala, d. shishukala to kill, slay, murder; said of persons in reference 
to their relatives, or of animals to their owners, 133, 10. Cf. shiuga (3). 


shiukiii, d. sliishukia to kill, butcher for or in the interest of souiebody: 
maklriksliash wuslmiiish shiukidshtka that he proposed to butcher an ox for 
the benefit of the Indians, lb, 13. 

slii ukf ga, d. sliishukiga to hill, to slay: p'laiwasli sli. to hill a golden eagle. 

s h i u k \\ y a , d. sissukiiya to fight, scuffle; to have a bout, roiv of slight conse- 
quence, 61, 18. Occurs chiefly in the d. form. Der. sluuga. 

shiiilagia, (u long) Mod. shi61agianki, shiulagien, d. shishulagia, Mod. 
shishulagien : to gather, collect for oneself ; to gather, to bring together: shiu- 
lakiank ktAi they are in the habit of collecting stones, 82, 6.; shiidakiank 
ko'l they bring the ko'l-roots to one spot, 147, 11.; anko turn shiii'lagian it 
collected a quantity of fire-wood, 127, G.; nanuk shiulagien i-uyiak to gather 
the crop into the barn; lit. "to gather the whole inside", Mod.; of. iwf;fa. 
Sh. can be separated into its components: niitak shiiilagian, or shiula 
ni'itak giankin I gather for myself. From shiiila (in shiu'lka), -gianggin. 

shiula \) k n t k i s h , siulapkotch/aM, Kl. Cf. shiulina. 

shiulAtchka, d. shishcdatchka to shake off from oneself: hishuaksh a 
shiullatchkampka g;ipo klllilkshtnt the man shakes the dust from his coat. 

shiulina, d. shishulina (J) to fan.{2) to toinnotv ; to clean by winnotving, 
74, y. Cf yiulina, shiulopk6tkish, wfuka. 

s h i u' 1 k a , d. shishu'lka to collect, unite, gather, assemble, 28, 13. Cf. hislnu'd^a. 

.shlu'lki, d. shishu'lki to gather, collect to a certain spot: ndnuk sh. ivvika 
to gather the crop into the barn; lit. "to collect the whole inside." Cf 
shiulagia, shiu'lka. 

.shi il'lkipeli , d. shishu'lkipeli to gather again; to gather, collect, bring 
together: shifi'lgip'l sha ts6%apksh they brought the fallen to one spot, 89, 1. 

s h i u' 1 k i s h , d shishulkish (1 ) gathering-place, place of accumulation. (2) 
sh. or mdklaksam sh. Indian reservation ; tract of land reserved by the 
Federal Government for the residence and exclusive use of one or several 
Indian tribes, 58, 9.: shiiYlkishdcaila, same meaning, 34, 7. 9 ; shiillkish- 
X^m=ka.i\a, 34, 17. and shiulkish%cni at or into the Indian reservation, 34, 
2 18. 55, 10. Der. shiu'lki. 

sh i ul oksl otk i sh , d shishulokslutkisli ,/«>?, I\Iod Cf shiulatchka. 

s h i u n (') t a , d. shishunota to start a chorus-song; said, e. g., of the conjurer 
starting a remedial song over a patient and advising those jjresent, who 

shiukfa — skTi'. 313 

are mostly women, to join liim: hCik kiiltchitchiks siuiKjta lie starts the 
spider-incantation for the choristers, 73, 3.; said of a duck, 177; 29. Met. 
foi" shuin6ta, of which sh. is a vulgar form. Der. shuina. Cf winota. 

shiun6tish, d. shishun6tish (1) song of choristers. (2) chorus song oi 
women, started by the Indian kiuks or sorcerer when treating a patient: 
shlii'popka siunoti'sh he hears in his dreams the chorus-songs of the women, 
83, 4. Met. for shuinotish. 

shin n ii t n a , d. shishun6tna to sing magic or dream chorus-songs uninter- 
ruptedly, G5, 16. Vulgarism for shuinutna. Der. shiunuta. 

s h i - u s h a to rub on, to line upon: ma'shishtat sh. shatelaks to nib a salve on 
a sore, or: a salve to be rubbed on sores Cf. shi-ita. 

shiwaga, siwak, d. shishuaga (1) girl, unmarried female, young woman, 
whether adult or not, 23, 10.; siwak (obj.) atfnsh lak gitk girl tvearing 
the hair long, 23, 8.; nil'gsh shiwaksh the girl absent from her home, 140, 
9. and Note; shiwakshash (obj.) for shiwakash, 185; 40. and Note to 
184; 37.; shiwakuash to the girls, 80, 11. and Note. {^) virgin; nu sh. 
shewa I hold (you) to be a virgin, 184; 37. Cf liishtanta, nis^aga, p^wa. 

s h f w a m t ch , d. shishuamtch (1 ) old maid: shiwamptchash waiwash gan- 
dila waiwash-geese secretly observed an old maid, 1 85 ; 40. Ironically applied 
to lazy girls and to hermaphrodites. (2) virago. Der. shiwaga, Amtch. 

shiwi^i, d. shishui/i to increase, to become stronger; said of winds, tem- 
pests etc. Cf shiwina, ska (3). 

sliiwina, d. shishuina to move or stir about, to be active: M-i sh. hu'k he 
feels sick, is unable to move about. Cf. shiktka. 

ska, shkA, d. skaska, shkashka (I) v. impers., to be cold, chilly, frosty weather: 
ska a ka it is very cold; it is quite chilly; pa'dshit a s. ne'pka it is cold 
tveather to-day. (2) adv., tvith chill, coldly: mu' skd tdnkt slii'wl it blew 
very cold at that time, 31, 2.; pa'dshit s. gi it is cold to-day. (3) v. impers., 
to be strong, powerful ; said of winds, storms etc. (4) adv., strongly, hard, 
with might; said of the blowing of the wind, and associated with the idea of 
cold or chill: skd shla'wi it is blowing hard. Kl. for tchg;i Mod. Der. ka-a. 

skTi', s%a', d. ska'ska, s%as;^a ivooden or stone pestle, used for pounding 
seeds, dried fruits or grain in a mortar, 147, Ifi.: s^i'itka ndshapka to 
jiound with a pestle. Cf gamkisli, kewa, ndukish. 


slikaini, d. shkashkl'ni (1) strong, poivcrful, untamed. (2) irresistihic, of 
unearthly power, strong as a demon: <^ii tudta sli. giitpa how unapproachaUc 
soever that man is who has arrived, 112, 2.; skjiyent (for shkaini at) 
g-i'ntak though he is quite strong^ 112, 3.; shkainiak stronger, more power- 
ful, 112, 2. 5. 8. 13. and Note. Der. ska. 

ski'iya, skaf, d. shkdshkia, skdski to give in a basket: ani'k tcliAkela n's 
skaf tak I send a tvilloiv basket, so that thcij may give me (berries) in, Ih, 5). 

skayamna, d. skashkiamna (1) to carry on one's back. (2) to hold or 
carry in a large basket or seed-hasket, these baskets being always worn on 
tlie back by females: na-iti s. to carry in a nd-i-basket, 95, 15. and Note. 

S k a k a w a s h , nom. })r. Mod. of Frank Riddle; interpreted by "lean, raw- 
boned." Cf. papatkawatko, tclimii'tcli. 

s li k ;i, 1 k e 1 a , d. shkashkalkela, v. trans., to hurt, injure, 97, 2. Der. kalkela. 

shkauaga, shkntika, d. shkashkndga (I) to assault, attack: wAtsag shka- 
ntikapka (nlsli) a dog attacks (me), 184; 30. (2) to scold, Maine, reprimand. 

s k ii n s h n a , ska'nshna, shk6nshna, d skasbkanshna, skoskansbna to walk 
with the head bent forward and sticking out; to go head fonvard or downward, 
to ivalk pole-necked, as horses. Cf. Sk6ntcliish. 

s h k a p s h t c h a 1 a to roll up, coil up: shkapshtchalola to unroll, uncoil. 

s li k a p s h t c h i 1 ii' 1 i k s h , skapshtsila'liks eyelid. Der. shkapshtchdla. 
See s^emintch. 

s k a p u k a k , s^cibugak man just married and not father yet. Dim. sktipnksli. 

s k ;i p u k s h , s;{abugs married man or tvoman who has no children. Also 
ex[)ressed by s. kailiak wewdash. Cf. sgn'tcb, skukshap. 

skatish, d. skashkatish. Mod. for skatchisli Kl., q. v. 

skdtkala, shkdtkela, Mod. skAtkelan, d. shkashk^tkela, ska'shkatgala to 
carry on back: ytiki sbkii'shkatkaltk each carrying on back a basket, 109, 
1. and Note; shkaslikatkaltk kii'sh carrying ipo-roots in their seed-baskets 
on the back, 109, 8. Der. skti- in sktlya, skayamna, q. v. Cf mc'tk'la. 

skatkanka, d. skashkatkanka to leap repeatedly; to skip habitually, as 
frogs, toads, 145, 12. 

s k j'l t k 6 1 a n , d. skaskAtkelan, Mod. for skatkala Kl. 

s k a t X a , d. skashkat^a to carry about in a basket. Cf skdya, skAtkala. 

s k a t % i d s b a , d. skashk^t^idsha to take back, to bring back or home on one's 
back, or in a seed-basket carried on tlu^ back, 101, 20. 

shkaini — skeka. 315 

.sk a tx ip 6li , d. skti,shkat%ipeli to carry hack or Jiome on one^s hack or in 
a basket, 96, 19.: skat%ipeli-uApkuk kailant for taking down to the ground 
again, 95, 22. Der. sk4t;{a, hi, -pell. Cf. skat^idsha. 

skcitchampgle, d. skaskdtchampele to pay a visit to the old home as a 
sk^tisli or skdtchish, q. v. 

skatchish, d. skaskdtchish (1) woman married to an Indian of an alien 
tribe visiting her old home and offering cloth, clothing or beads, blankets 
etc. as presents to her i-elatives. (2) her welcoming by the relatives. Kl. 
for skdtish Mod. Der. skaya. 

S k a t c h p a 1 i k n i , pi tumi S., (1 ) inhabitant of Scotfs Valley, in Northern 
California, which is drained by Scott's River, a southern affluent of the 
Klamath River: Shasti Indian inhabiting Scotfs Valley. (2) inhabitant of 
Klamath River Valley belotv Scott's River Junction: Ara or Kdrok In- 
dian; Hupa Indian; AUkwa or Yurok Indian; white settler inhabiting these 
tracts of land. From the English "Scotfs Valley". 

skaiikush, shkukas, s%u'kas, skA-vikosh, large black species of wood- 
pecker; -pr ohahlj Hylotomus pileatus, 180; 6. Cf ka-ukawa. 

s k a w a n k s h a m , abbr. skdwanks, d. s;{as%u-anksham, a weed popularly 
called wild parsnip, growing in wet ground, poisonous to cattle; described 
150, 1.2.; s. spaiitish virus of wild parsnip. Pi-obably a species of Sium. 

ska'-ika, s^e'^i, d. skashki'ka, s%es%e'zi to walk backward like a crab. 
Probably identical with sk^ka (2), q. v. Cf Kuyam=Ska'-iksh. 

ska'-iksh, s^e'ks, d. skji'shkiks </ai^ o/ a crab; craVs trail. 

Ska'ititko, Skaititko, nom. pr. masc. Kl. "Left-Handed" ; see shkdtitko. 

s k a y a d s h u a to yawn. Cf skeka (2). 

s h k d , ska', shga', a species of gray hawk, size of the tsi'ktu-hawk, thick 
and fat; sk^lam lash wing-feather of the shke-hawk. Incantations, 167; 36. 
177; 21-23. The female of the shk^ is called spu'm. Cf ska'-ika, skdl;fa. 

s k ^ a , shk^a, d. shlccshka to buy, purchase : t6ntish ish shk(ian itak ! yon buy a 
rope for me! Mod.; snawedshash s. they purchased a tvife, 90, 19. 

skcidshatko, d. skeshkedshatko gray, gray-colored: s. kta-i, s w^itch a 
gray stone, a gray horse. Cf kiiilaptchi, pakpa'kli, spiigatko. 

skdka, shkeka, s^a'ka, d. shk(ishka (for shkeshk-ka) (1) v. med., to pierce, 
transfix by shooting or stabbing, 138, 1. and Note. (2) to part, to place 


apart, especially applied to the parting of the legs: skdkank tgel^a,, s;f(^%aiik 
tk6tka to stand with the legs apart. Cf. luishpu't;^a, putcbka. (3) to he 
iveak physically. Cf. skli'-ika, t(^ga, tkeka. 

skekl'shla, d, skeslikl'slila ; same as skiikl'.shla, q. v. 

shkektle%ia to sit astraddle, to sit with legs apart: skt'ktle^iaiik hu- 
sho'dshna to ride astraddle. Der. sk(;ka (2), etle'%i. Cf. naitalti^lshna. 

ske'l, skdl, skii'l, .sxi'l (I) archaic term for the marten; called so from his 
variable, often smoky color; cf. Skdlamtch. The Indians allege that 
"the marten had this name before man was created." (2) Ske'l, Skel, 
nom. pr., shorter form of Skdlamtch, q. v. (3) otter-shin strap; ro])e 
twisted from otter skins, usually not over three feet long; skin strap 
twisted into the braids of men and made from the skin of any furred 
(juadruped: s^i'l tchuyt^sh tie or diadem encircling the head and made of 
an otter-skin strap; s^T'l ai nu mu'luash the otter skin is my curing tool, 
1C8; 40.; s;^i'l kallish otter-skin belt. (4) conjurer's long otter-tall orna- 
ment hanging over his chest or back, embellished with beads, shells etc. 
Cf 167; 30. (Note). Der. skel/a (2). Cf. pe'p. 

S h k e 1 a g a , Ska'lag, S^dlag, nom. pr. of Skelag, one of the two watchmen 
appointed to guard the underground jail on the Williamson River, 66, 
5-8. 140, 2. 6. etc.: Shkelaksh tiVla aided hy Skelag, GQ, 5 

Sktilamtch, Skiiiamtch, nom. pr. of Old Marten, a mythic character in 
the folklore of Klamath (and other Western) Indians, the elder brother 
of Old Weasel. K'mukamtch assumes the mask of S. when he starts to 
destroy the five Thunders and their parents; cf. his "shashapkgle'ash," 
pp 109-114. Called Ske'l, Shkel in IJO, 9-14. Incantation, 168; 37. 
cf. 180; 1. From ske'l, -amtch. 

s k e 1 k e t a , d. skeskalkta, v. intr., to hecomc sooty; to he sooty. Cf. skc'l^a. 

s k e 1 % a , ske-il%a, skii'lka (1) to construct a fire-place in the free air, gener- 
ally for the purpose of baking camass. (2) to hecome black or dusky-colored 
from smoke or other agencies; said of the fur of wild quadrupeds. 

S k (' 1 1 ail s k n i , or S. nuiklaks, nom. pr.: inhabitant of a locality on Lost 
River, Lake County, near Henry's store. 

s k e 1 1 i a , d. skeshkallia fo hem hy scivhig, to hem. 

s k e 1 1 i a s li , d. skeshkalliash Jicm-sram. 

skeki'slila — skiiitcliua. 317 

s k u 11 s h 11 a , Mod. skeiitclina, d. skeshkAnshna to setv, to stitch. 

sk e n sli 11 u tki sh , skenshnotksli, d. skeslikanslmutkisli, "what is used 

for sewing;" (1) thread, cord: slikenshnutksli mbu-itch lisukatko twisted 

sinew-thread. (2) sGwing -machine. 
skeiitaiia, d. skeslikaiitaiia (1) ^o sew up into, to inclose by sewiiKj, 85, 3. 

(2) to paste over, to cover tightly. 
s k e n t c Ii i s li , d. skeskantcliish seam, stitching. Der. sk^nslina. 
ske'sli, skii'sli, d. s;^e'sli;(asli; same as sliki'sli, q. v. 
s k c t c li 1 a k s li hnish-wall around camp-fire. Der. sketclile^ix. 
s k e t c li 1 e z «■ , d. sketchkatcld'^a, sketch%atchl;(a to secure fire against 

the ivind by putting brush-wood around. Der. skelp^a. Cf. lieslikatcliki'misli. 
skc-uta, d. skeslikiita; see skiuta. 
ske-utish, shkiutisli, d. skeshku'tisli debt; money owed: kitcluikli nusli 

tiila skiutislitat! 2^('!/ *"c the money you owe vie! Der. skiuta. 
slikia, d. shkkhkln to fart, fizzle. Der. kiu. Cf. slikisb, slikiwa. 
ski 1 hi, d. skiskalhi to craivl into a hole, to creep underground; said of 

snakes, lizards etc. Kl. Der. ki'lhi. Cf guh'. 
s k i 1 u 1 % 6 1 k i s h , abbr. skiUulpjotch apparatus, instrument for measuring: 

s.=anku measuring-stick ; yard-stick. Der. kal- in kj'ilkali. Cf hish/ekil/a. 
Sking Dsliu'dsh, King=Dshutc]i, nom. pr. Englishman; in the Atftilati 

dialect of Kalapuya: Akindshodsh. From Chin. J. King Ghautsh (G. 

Gibbs): Ht. "King George's man." Cf Bushtin, Pashaj'uks. 
S k i n k n i , or S. maklaks, nom. pr. of an Indian tribe said to inhabit a 

country above the Dalles (Anipze'ni, q. v.) of Columbia River, 
s k i n s h g A k u i s h , d. skiskansligakuish snake skin after being shed. KI. 

Der. skintchna. Cf ndshe'dsh (3). 
shkinshna, d. shkishkanshna; same as skintchna, q. v. 
skin tell, Kl. ; same as kinsh, q. v. 
s k i n t c h i s h g a k u i s h , d. skiskantchishgakuish, Mod. for the syncopated 

skinshgakuish Kl, q. v. 
skintchishx tiga, d. skishkantchish%aga to shed the skin; said of am- 
phibious animals, as snakes etc. 103, 9. Der. skintchna. 
skintchna, skintchna, shkinslma, d. skiskantchna, sxis/antchna to crawl, 

creep; said of rei)tiles, eels etc.: ski'ntsnan kawiag / the little eel am 

crawling, 17'i ; 30. Kl. for s;^idsha Mod. Der. Idntchna. 


sk 1 lui asli k !i, d. ski'shkanuashka to creep mvaij from: kusliam wc-uk 
skiskaniiiislika ka'ilant the roots oftJie pine creep along the (/round. 

shkisli, shki'sh, ske'sh, kii'sb, d. slikl'shkisli, s;^c'shxasli, kil'kasli (1) fart, 
fizzle, hreaUng wind: nibdwa ski's to break tvind, 134, 7.; pi'imam ski'sli 
ca.^torium ; a substance liung up in tbc Indian lodges to counteract 
offensive smells; see under pu'm. (2) dung, excrements of men and 
animals, especially quadrupeds: shka'sh plla kf-u gitko! a very oppro- 
brious epitliet. Der. shkia. 

s k i' s h k a n k a , d. skislikdshkanka to creep, crawl repeatedly or habitually; 
as snakes, 145, 15. Cf kidsba (3), sldntcbna. 

sliki'shkish, a small insect witb wings, living in tbe ground; rendered 
by "fly-bug", 103, 6. 13. 104, 1. Cf. szidslin, Mod. for skintchna. 

skis bill a, s^ishola, d. slikishkasbula, s;^isbk'sh61a (1) v. intr., to become 
awake, to wake up from^ slumber, 113, 18. 114, 1.: nu a s. / am awake; 
skisliu'li! wake up! 121,23: s;ijisbu'lauk awakening, 122, 14. 131, 11. 
(2) v. tran.s., to awake somebody, 121, 22. 

s li k i t c li i w a , d. shkishktchfwa to wink, nictate with one or both eyes. Cf. 
knadsbilda, nadshi^atko. 

S k i t c h u e s b t k n i , or S. maklaks, nom. pr. of a tribe of Indians said to 
be living near Portland, in Northwestern Oregon. Not yet identified 
witb any of the present tnbes For the suffix -tkni cf. 16kuaslitkni. 

shkiu^iutch, d. shkishku^iutch table fork. Der. kiuyega. Cf. kiuyia- 
%i6tkish, kiutka. 

shkiulaksh, d. shgishgulaksh money owed, debt, indebtedness: shkiulAk- 
shtat shewani ! pay what you owe! ko-idsbi hii ka-i IdkadshAklish skfu- 
lakshtat wicked is he who does not pay his debts. Mod. Der. shkiiilka. 

s h k i u 1 k a , d. shgishgul/a to be in debt, to owe. Der. skda. Cf skiuta. 

skiuta, shkc-uta, d. skiskiita, shgeshgo'ta (1) to owe, to be indebted: tala s. 
to be in debt, to owe money. (2) to buy on credit, to run up a bill. Der. 
skda. Cf. sk(i-utish, shkiulka. 

s h k f w a , d. shidshkua to spawn. Der. kfu. 

skiw6tkish sling, as an implement for throwing; term more frequent 
than shuntoyakea-6tkish. 

s k 1 il't c h k a n t c h a {}■) to go, move, travel about with a light or spark of fire. 

s k 1 n II a s li k a — s k 6 n s li u a . 319 

(2) to paddle about with « (pitch- wood) light on the canoe when fishing after 
dark Cf. klt^na, kliidshoa, klutsu6tkish, shlu'tchua. 
sk6! d. sku'sku! ^'come up!" particle used as exclamation, and referring to 
one's own forgetMness or lack of memory, e. g., wlien a name or fact 
cannot be remembered. 

sk6, sko'sh, sko'lis, d. sk6sku, sko'shkii'sh spring of the year, spring season, 
135, 4.: pii'dshit sko' when it was spring, 54, 2.; shko-emi and skoslie'mi 
in spring-time; nanuk sko'-lis every gear in the spring-season, 19, 2. and 
Note.; na-iintka sko'shtka next spring or in the spring of next year, 21, 1. 

skoa, sk6wa, d. skoshkna, v. impers., to he spring-time; to he in the spring 
season: skowapka spring comes on; winter is soon over. 

Skohuashki, other form of the loc. name Kohdshti, q. v.: '■^Canoe- 
Starting-Place". Der. s^owAshka. 

sko-il%a, d. shkoshki'l^a to pile upon each other, 82, 7.: ktaktiag shko- 
shki'l^fl' to erect cairns, 82, 12. 

s k 6 k a n k a , d. sknshk6kanka to be in the act of cohabitation. 

shko'ks, sku'ks, d. shkiishkoks (1) sjnrit of deceased person. When seen 
in dreams they are of funest influence and objects of the most intense 
dread; after leaving the body of the deceased they are supposed to travel 
through the air on sticks and to rattle their dry bones against each other: 
wengapkani (or wengApkash) shko'kshasli (obj.) the spirits of the deceased, 
134, 20.; sku'ksam ha'kskish walking-sticl;, staff, cane supposed to be used 
by spirits, 168; 38. 181; 4. Cf 129, 1-8. 130, 1-4., e'ni, shko'ksddam. 
(2) demon, ghost, spirit, of beneflcial or pernicious influence on mankind: 
161a k6-idslia sku'ksh wdshtat wcnkogsht they believe that a wicked spirit 
resides in the prairie-wolf, 127, 13., cf. 128, 2. 4. and gatkta; shko'ksani 
stefnash the spirifs heart, supposed to have brought on disease, 174; 11.; 
sko'ksam kiiila gen i\ go to hellf 

slik6'ks = ki ii'm ^'sjnrit-fish" ; fish whose body is supposed to contain 
the soul or spirit of a deceased Indian, 129, 1. (title), 4. 

sk(')la, d. shku'shklii; see shkule. 

s k 6 1 o s , sku'lush turkey-buzzard ; a black vulture, with long bill, red neck, 
carrion-eating.- Cathartes aura, 180; 3. 

s k 6 n s li n a , d. skoshkanshna; same as skiinshna, q. v. 


S k o a t c h i s li , iioiii. pr. masc. Mod. : ^^ Stick-out Jlcad". (1 ) name of Joliii 
Skontchish, signer of the treaty (in Avhicli lie is mentioned as "Sclion- 
cliin"), a Modoc headman, conjurer, and leader, luuiyed for having par- 
ticipated in the assassination of the Peace Commissioners during the 
Modoc war of 1873: 34, 5. 42, 12. lo. 44, C; mentioned as ki'uks, 34, 8. 
and Note. During the progress of the war he showed himself more 
fanatical and averse to any compromise with the Americans than Ki'nt- 
puash or any other of the leaders. (2) name of the brother of John 
Skontchish, who is a subchief of the Modocs settled at Yaneks, and quite 
different from his brother in character and disposition: ISkontchiesli laki 
Skontchish is subchief, 58, 5. Cf. Note to 34, 18. Der. skanshna. 

sk6tka, s^u'tka, sku'txa, d. skoshkotka, s^us^atka, v. trans., "to make 
pass." (1) to sivaUow, to fjulp down, 68, 7. (2) to convey over the icater, to 
set over a river, lake etc., 122, 7. 8. 123, .: killank i'sh s^ii'tki! set me 
over in a hurry! 122, 21. 22. Cf. s^u'tchgush. 

skotigsh, skii'tigs, d. s%osh%6tigsh, a species of lizard about one foot in 
length, 180; 17.: s,.^s\m.m. hare-lip person. 

Skua' Sti'l, nom. pr. masc; Skua' is the Modoc pronunciation oi squire, 
38, 13. Cf. 38, 22. 55, 1. and Notes. 

skuy a, d. sku'shkia, shkushkiya (1) v. trans., to crush, mnsh, bray, 74, 14. 
Cf. ndsliApka, ska'. (2) v. intr., to be crooked, to be a humpback; lit. "to 
be crushed down". Cf. kilka. 

s k u y o k <i y a , d. skushki-ukAya to send or dispatch into the woods, recesses 
or hiding-places. Der. skuyui. Cf. gakaya. 

s k u y o k a y 6 1 a , d. skushkiukay61a to send out of the woods, timber or 
cliffs: s. wewdnishash they send the females out of the bush, 23, 5. 

.ski'iyuash, d. skuskl'wash spy, scout, war-scout. Der. skuyui. 

skuyuepeli, d. skuskiyuepeli to send off again, to remove away from: 
shu'ldshash s. to dismiss the troops, 42, 4. From sku}aii, -pell. 

s k u y u i , shguyue. Mod. skuyui, shguyuen, d; skuskiwi, shgiishgi'yue to 
send, to send away, to dispatch, 29, 11. 68, 2. 101, 11. 107, 3.: ge't nil 
hi'udcesh Y4-aga shguyuyula I dispatched him to the Williamson River 
bridge; nal shguyuen mal shutanktgi he sent us to make peace with ye, 
40, 15. Der. kui. Cf. gayiie, ulayue. 

Skoutcliisli — sku'l^a. 321 

s k u y u s li k a to send mvay from, _^;a>-^ one from the other , 60, 19-61, 2. 

s k u k a s h a g a , sku'kashak young woodpecker of the species called skaii- 
kush, q. v.; mentioned in the incantation, 168; 39. 

skukla to have the limbs chapped through frost or heat, as hands, feet, foce: 
p'na'sh ktchal^ishtka shliuklunpkasht to preserve or keep themselves (viz. 
their faces) from chapping through swnhurns; the idea of "preserving 
against" is liere expressed by the future tense, 150, 8. Der. skd. 

s k li k s h a p mother whose children are all alive. Cf sgu'tch. 

skiikta, s;f6kta, d. skoskdkta (1) to pay in money or in goods, to pay cash, 
to make a transfer to effect a purchase: hats i sku'ktish hamgniuk and 
if you want to pay the marriage fee to the parents, 60, 11.; wats sk6kta he 
transferred horses, 78, 11. Cf Note to 35, 19. (2) to pay a fine, to he 
fined: w^tch sk6kta to he fined in horses, 62, 5. 78, 16. 90, 8. Cf. kitchakla 

s k u k t n a , sx<5ktna, d. skushkaktna to go and pay in money or in articles; to 
come and pay : tu'nep 1 n's tala sku'ktanuapk you shall pay me five dollars 
as a fee, 60, S., cf. 9. 10.; tu'nip (wdtch) i sku'ktanuapk snawii'dshash 
you may transfer five horses for the wife, 60, 1 1. 

sk lik II m - liouse yai?, guard-house, prison, 66, 4.; lit. "strong-house"; 
Chin. J. for ili'gish, killitko latchash KL The Chin. J. term skukum 
strong occurs in the Chin. J. phrases: s. tchuk rapid stream, s. teyi head- 
chief, s. doctor stout doctor etc. 

s k II 1 e , shku'le, sk61a, d. shku'shk'le, skushkelJi lark, skylark, a small gray, 
yellow-bellied bird: Eremop)hila cornuta, 183; 25.: shnu'lashtat shku'lelam 
in the nest of the lark, 95, 5.; shkulelam (or skid^lam) weweka the young 
of a lark, 94, 9. People who pick up larks are believed to become indo- 
lent and lazy: a Modoc superstition. Incantation, 168; 43. 

skii'lha, d. skushkalha, v. intr., to lie upon, to rest on: s/o'lhok /or the 
purpose of lying on, 144, 1.; s^o'lhank ivhen resting upon them, 144, 2. 

s k u'l h a s h pet, d. skiilhash pepat amhulance-hed : md-i s. amhulance made 
of tule-reeds, bulrushes, 24, 5. Cf shl4-ish. 

sku'l;ja, d. skuskal;{a, shkushkalka to lie down, to go to sleep, to go to bed: 

i'-uag shkul;^a he lay doivn near his home, 131, 6.; iianui sh^ol^otak as 

soon as she had lain doivn, 113, 12.; sx(jlakok to induce sleep), 144, 8.; 

pakolank s;;(61akuapka (nu) after smoking my pipe I tvill go to rest, 137, 4. 


Cf. 108, 5. 121, 21. Tliu origiiuil form of s. is skiuilaka. ^uppasli ut 
tiinig-a, s%udlnkiiapk patkaliiapk the sun has set; it will rest and rise afjain. 
Speaking of more than one subject, lulal/;., d. or lii'l/a, q. v. Cf 
ktansha, mi'ikle/a, sku'llia. spi'dva. 

s k iVlpka, sj^o'lpka, d. skiiskalpka to lie extended, as one who is asleep; to 
be lyiny, to lie in hal : shkd'lpkank ktdna he lay on his couch and slept, 1 10, 
20. Speakiiiy of nidre tlian one subject, hjlunii. Cf. sku'l^a. 

skiVlusli, sku'nilash; see skulos, sf^'u'mhvsh. 

s klip ma to conquer, vanquish, outdo. Cf. vutul;(a. 

shkii'sliki, d shkushkashki white-headed earjle; other name for )-aiikal. 

s k u t a , d. skushkta to ptd around oneself, to wrap oneself in: kaiho skii'tan, 
^lod., ivrappinff himself in his mantle, 126, /.: partic, sku'tatko («) dressed 
in a sku'tash or rohe, sJdn-rohe, blanket, mantle, lib, 2. ISO; G. and Note; 
skiitash skutapkash, obj., wraipped in a garment or robe, 12('', 12. Cf 
kiliwash, tche-ush. (I)) clad, dressed in, surrounded by, tvrapiped in: 
luluash skutatk wrapped in fog, surrounded with mist, 183; 17. (c) Sku- 
tatko, nom. pr. masc. and fem., "Dressedin a blanket". Der. giita. Cf s;{uta. 

s k u t a s li , shkii'tas, d. skii'shktash ( 1 ) sleeveless garment, cloak to wrap 
the wliole person in; blanket, mantle of native or American mauufiictnre, 
71), 1.; tanned buckskin robe, skin-robe, skin-blanket: shloa (for shl6alam, 
shloam) s. wild-cat or lynx-skin mantle, not reaching down to the knee, 
now out of use; pakolsliam s. mule-deer shin robe; 16kam s. grizzly bear's 
tanned skin; niiVshin'sham s. white-tailed-deer robe; n%6hxm nl'l s, gray- 
rabbit-skin mantle; kaiHo s. ralMt-fur robe, 12.'\ 3. .5. 12G, 11. 12. Cf 
kuks. (2) enveloping organ: suentcham s., Mod, /coiidj. {:i) cover, cover- 
ing substance: ktayani s. rock-moss, Mod. Cf s/utash, wi'ilsliasli. 

skii'tawi a to tie together, to bind or fasten together, 82, 1 1. Der. sp^u'ta 

s k u 1 1 a , shkutiya, d. skusktiya to dress oneself or to be dressed in a robe, 
mantle, blanket, cloak, 154; 8. 

s k u' t c h a 1 a , skutchhi, d. skushkatchhi, v. trans. ( I ) /w (//e.v.s- in a long 
dress, cloak or blanket, skiitash. (2) to clad, clothe, ivrap in, surround: 
lu'lnks sku'tchaltko dressed in a fire-blanket, wrapped in fire; forms the 
subject of a funeral incantation, \C>G; 2G. (3) to manufacture a blanket 
from small patches in- pieces of cloth. W'v. skutash. Cf teshashkuala. 

sku'lpka — skii'shasli. 323 

s k ii' w a s h , skii'-u-ash rock projecting above water or above the level of the 
jrrairie: Sku'washkslii, nom pi\ of a locality near Yaneks. Cf. samkii-ush. 

ska laps, s^alapsh, d. s%ash;iAlaps, a peculiar kind oi head-cover, 127, 
1-5. Its round or rounded shape is indicated by the verb lii't^a, 127, 5. 

s k d p u k s , s^abuksh ; see skapuksh. 

Skatidgitko "Left-Handed", nom. pr. of two signers of the treaty of 
1864, one a Klamath Lake and the other a Snake headman. The first is 
mentioned there as Skiatic, the latter as Sky-te-ock-et. Cf shk^titko. 

skjiki'shla, d. skiishM'shla to inherit Der. skekish (1). 

skdka, s;{a'ka, d. shkeshka; same as shk^ka, q. v. 

skekish, s/ekish, ska'kish, d. sxes;;(ckish (1) heirloom, inheritance: skii- 
ki'sh p'ti's4ulsham m'na p'laiwashJuelks the hunting-place of golden eagles, 
inherited from his deceased father, 100, 2. (2) nine; lit "left over": s. ngdk 
nine turtles; te-unepanta s. pe-ula nineteen. Mod. for niids;ieks Kl. 

skekishtankni , d s%es%ekishtdnkni iiine times: s. t^-uniip ninety. 
Mod. for nads;^ekshtankni Kl. 

s k c t i s h , s;((itish, d. skeshketish, s%es;jctish, adj., left, left-sided, on left- 
hand side: s. ndp, wek left hand, left arm; pe'tch ska'tish tapi'dshnish 
(obj.) left hind-leg, 134, 14.; skdtish lu'lp shlin he shot him in the left eye, 
4:>, 8.; sketigslita vush6 in the left breast, 42, 10. Cf shkdka (3). 

shketitko, d. shkeshkctitko (1) left-handed person. (2) Skaititko, Skai- 
titko, nom. pr. of Dave Hill's father; cf Introd. to the Texts, page 7. 
(3) Shkctitko, nom. pr. of ShacJcnasty Jim, the son of "Patch-Eye"; a 
Modoc warrior who voted for the assassination of the Peace Commis- 
sioners, and was present at this sanguinary event. At the close of the 
Modoc war hu assisted the troops in tracking up Kintpuash. Cf Note to 
42, 1. and Meacham, Winema, pp. HT-Ol. Cf Skatiagitko. 

s h k (5 k a s , sku'kash ; see skaukush. 

S k o k a t k , nom. pr. of a Modoc chief; called so, as reported, after his 
grandmother, wlio was in the hal)it of wearing something tight-fitting or 
choking around her neck. 

s h k 6 k s , sh%5'ksh, d. s%6shxoksli tick, sheep's tick. 

sku'sha, d. sku'shksha to play the heaver- ov woodchuck-teeth game, 80, 1. 6'. 

sku'shash, ^a««e of dropping beaver's or woodchuclSs teeth, four 
in a set and provided with certain marks; played by women. Cf 80, 1-G. 


ax ay a, shkuya, Mod. tch^aye, d. s;fasxiiye, Mod. tc'li%;vtch;iHye ^«7/ of lislj 

and amphibians. Cf. mjjato. 
s;^akndga, d. sliashxakne'ga to soil, besmear, render dirty. Dur. kakiu'ga. 
sxiipjita, d. s;(asli%pata, v. iiiti-, to land, to disembark. Cf. kiuptita. 
szatkipgli to come back, to roiv, paddle back in a canoe, boat. C£ s/riia. 
sx fitz idsha, d. skasli^atxidsha to come back in a day-out canoe ; to row 

one's canoe back, or home. Cf s;^c'iia. 
sxt^dsha, d. s%dslixtclia to d^evulc Cf ;i-uii61a, utiutelakta, ahki'sh (2). 
s%e'%i, d. s;jes%e'%i; same as skii'-ika, q. v. 
s ;t <^ ni i n t c h , d. skeshkdmintch cijclasJi. 
s^cna, skdna, d. sp^dsli^a to paddle, to row: to i/o boaiiu;/, 74, 14.: vii'iisli s. 

to row away a canoe, 133, 9.; vu'iisatka skil'iia to row out in a canoe, 78, 8.; 

tank nu s. long time ago I was rowing a boat; t;ini i s^es^eni'sli ^i ? can 

you rotv? lit. "are you a rower?" tchdnish talc nii s%e'sli gi I cannot row; 

lit. "I am not a rower", Mod. Der. gdna. 
szeslii'sh, the caterpillar of the liuntish-butterfly and of the pul;^uantcli- 

chrysalis. It is roasted for food in the same manner as the chrysalis, 
s % d t c h a , d. s%es;{4tcha to pid out two fingers, the index- and middle-finger ; 

a manipulation resorted to in the shulshesh-game ; cf. 79, 1-6. and Notes. 
s % e t c h a s h , d. s/dsxtchash the pidting forward of the two fingers mentioned 

under s^dtcha: s;{dtchashtka sha shlin they indicate their guess by puttiny 

forward these two finyers, 79, 3. 5. 
s^i'b, s;^i'p, skfp, a forest bird not specified: s%ipa nii slmi'sh I, the s%ib- 

bird, sing my own song, 168; 41. and Note. Cf ts;is%ipsh. 
s% i'dsh a to crawl, creep; said of snakes. Mod. for skintchna Kl 
sxi'ntchna, d. s;fis;^antchna ; same as skintchna, q. v. 
s^inueta to ride on a swing. 

s%inuit6tkish, abbr. s^inuito'tch swing for children. 
s ;{ 1' t o n k s h , d. sxis^titonksh wart. 
s%6dshish, d. spju'sh^tchish breast, chest of horses, mules, cattle, etc.; 

the French "poitrail". 
s;;^o-ikina, d. s;jus/ikina to row, paddle to or along the shore. Cf. .s^ena. 
s;;j61akgish couch, bed, as used by the natives. Der. sku'l^a. 
S/o'li, or S. maklaks, nom. pr. of an Indian tribe or band which, as 

alleged, lived formerly around Oregon City, Norfliwestern Oregon. 

s z A y e — s h 1 {'i k a . 325 

sp^owushka, skuwashka, d. skuskuwAshka (1) to paddle, to sail off the 
shore. (2) to stay off from the shore: willidshat s. to keep atvay from the 
cliffs, reefs, rocks or rocky shore. Cf. s^^na. 

s%uyamnish, d. s;{ush;^iamnish roiver, sailor; boatman; person handling 
canoes, oars, boats, ships; used chiefly in the d. form. Cf. s%ena. 

s ;< u 1 k i s h , d. s/ush^o'lkish; Mod. for s;^61akgish Kl., q. v. 

s ;^ u 1 II a 1 k i s h , d. s%ush;{aluiilkish bedstead. 

s% uta, d. sxu's%ata (1) to tie together, tie up in a hunch or bundle; to wrap 
in: partic. s^utatko tied together, forming one bunch or bundle: dnkuag 
s;{utatko hunch of short sticks ; bundle of kindling-tmod. (2) to tie up pro- 
visions for a trip or journey. Same word as skiita, bitt differentiated 
from it in course of time in signification and pronunciation. Cf w^pla. 

s;{iital%a, d. s;(u'sh;{tarka to run against a reef to strike on a shoal. 

s% lit ash, sko'tasli, d. s^u'sh^tash, s%d's;)jtash (1) hunch; ivhat is bundled, 
hound together, or tied around, wrapped in: na'nash szo's;^tash several 
hunches. (2) the tivo slender sticks of the four used in the spclshna-game; 
they are cylindric and wrapped over with narrow buckskin straps, 79, 2. 
Same word as skiitash; see remark under s^uta. 

s^u'tka, d. s^ush^atka; same as skotka, q. v. 

s ;j u t k a n u' t k i s h , abbr. s^otnotkish, d. szus^utkanu'tkish (i) oesophagus, 
pharynx. (2) larynx, wind j)W^'i s.=lakish Adam^s ap])le; also, throat in 
general Cf. sk6tka (1). 

s X li' t c h g u s h , d. s%us%4tcligush crossing piece, foot-log Der. sk6tka (2). 

s h 1 4 - a , shlaa, d. shldshla ; see shlea. 

shlA-imugsh, d shhishhmuksli rattle of rattlesnake. 

shlA-ish, shlaish, d. shldsldish {i.)mat; rush-mat: m4-i=sh. mat made of 
tule or bulrush; coarse mat for covering lodges. (2) bed of the natives; 
made of mats. (3) bedcloth. Cf hiptak, shlania, shldnka. 

shlayaks, shla'-iyaks, sla'-iks, d shlashlayaksh (1) smoke; smoke of fire: 
K'nnikamtcham lu'loks shlAyaksak the camp-fire of K'mukamtch was nothing 
but smoke, 99, 4. (2) gunpowder: shlayaksam wawAkoksh powder-horn: 
shla'yaksam wetkok6tkish load-gauger, charger. Cf shlakdya; lit. "what 
is spread, susijended in the air". Quot. under lokansha. 

shlaka. Mod. shk'kn, d. sldasldka, Mod. shleshlka (1) to observe, watch, 


guard. (2) to keep guard over, to Icerp in order, to control: wAtch sli to 
guard the horses, 30, 1 . ; kd-i k.-ln.'im shl(5kish hj no one I am observed, con- 
trolled, 192; 8. Der. shlea. 

slili'ikay a, shlaggjiya, d. shliislilkA}'a (1) v. intr., to hang doivn from, to he 
hanging. (2) v. trans., to hang tq), suspend, as clotliing on a hook or line. 
Cf. aggdya, kshaggdya, laggtiya. 

s li 1 a, k a k a , d. shlaslilkdga, v. intr., to hang down. Cf. nauknanksaksh. 

s li 1 a k 4 k a s li , contr. shlakaksli, d. shlasldkakasli gidlet of quadrupeds etc. 

s li 1 a k a t a ,' d. shlashlkdta to saw with a small saw. Cf Idktclia 

shl akat 6tkish , d. shlashlkatotkisli (1) saw, hand-saw, small saw. (2) 
dagger, poniard. 

S h 1 a k e i t a t k o , Shla%aftatko, noni. pr. of a Modoc man. 

sh 1 ak6 tkisli , shliiko'tksh, d. shlashl^utkish ax, hatchet; larger than the 
tcliiktchikash. Incantation 178; 10. 1". Cf Mkteha. 

s li 1 a 1 a k s li , d. shlashldlaksh floor of room. Cf slila-ish, shlania. 

shlaltpa to give for use, to surrender for .some purpose; said of tissues, 
mats and similar objects: k41a sh. taluodsh mAklaks theg gave a large flat 
bucket to stew the (dead) Indians in, 11 i<, 1. 

shldmia, d. shlashlamia (I) to feel offended by hearing a deceased rela- 
tive's, friend's or other dead person's name called or mentioned ; to resent 
or punish it as an insult, 96, 3. (2) to look sad, aggrieved, mournful; to 
act like a mourner or one bereaved, 132, < .: shlamuapk (for shlami-napk) 
1 nanuk! look ye all mournful and therefore stop singing! 90, 13 , cf 14. 
For external signs of mourning, cf stiya. Der. lama (3). 

shlania, shlaniya, d. shlashlniya to spread out for somebody, as carpets, 
mats, cloth, blankets, skins, 186; 55. 

shlanka, d. shlashUnka to spread out, as skins, blankets: slankok sldoa 
tchakelatat spreading a lynx-skin in the willow-basket, 101, 19. Cf shlania. 

s h 1 a n k a y a s h , d. shlashlankayash scaffold, scaffolding. Cf gelkdya. 

shlankosh, d. shlashlankosh (1) bridge. (2) Shbinkosh, or Tchushnini 
Slankosh, nom. pr. of the Natural Bridge, a natural rock-arch on Lost 
River, Lake County, Oregon, 33, 3. and Note to 33, 2.; it is overflowed 
by the waters of Lost River during many months of the year and hence 
its other name: Tilhuantko, q. v. (.'i) Slankosh, nom. pr. of another 
natural bridge near Klamath ]\bush. Dor. shlankua. 

s h 1 A k a y a — s h 1 a - u k i . 327 

8 1 u 11 k o .silk s u'k si , nom. pr. of a locality on the Williamson River; 

lit. "where the old bridge was." 
s h 1 a n k o s h 1 a , d. shlashlankoshla to erect a bridge. Der. shldnkdsh. 
s h 1 ii n k u a , d. shlashlankua, v. trans., tQ spread out over the water, river. 
s h 1 a n ;;j o k s h lining, as of a hat. Cf. shMnka, sliletilsh. • 
s h 1 ,Mi u a 1 a , d. shlashlanuala to roof over, to cover tvith a roof. Cf shlani'a. 
sill :'i 11 11 a 1 s h , contr. shlanuash, d. shlashlAnualsh roof. 
s h 1 ;i p a , d. shldshlpa (1) v. inti-., to open out, displaij itself. (2) v. intr., to 

hhom, to blossom; to iwoduce flowers : kayu shlapatko in the buddir/fj stage, 

not pet expanded into a flower. 
sill ap ali aks h , yX. iivim ^\\., twins. Der. lapeala Cf. lapa'yalsh. 
shlapsh, d. slilaslilapsh (1) ^OM;er; state of inflorescence: sh. pushpushli 

the flowers are of a dark color, 146, 2.; cf 7. 12. 147, 20. (2) bud; upper 

portion of plant or weed with the flowers on it, 147, 3. Der. slilapa. 
shl iip shal tko, d. shlashl/ipshaltko ^02<'em?,(7, blossoming; having flowers, 

buds, blossoms, inflorescence: ska wanks pu-shpu'shlish sh. wild parsnip has 

da rh-rolored blossoms, IfiO, 1.; cf 146, 14. 
s h 1 ;i, p s h t a , d. shlashlapshta to close, clinch the hand. Der shlapa. 
shl a t a m p k a , d. slilaaJiltampka to draw the boivstring for shooting; to draw 

the bow, 2.1, 17. Der. slili'n, -tampka. 
s h 1 a t a n f y a , shlatania, d. shlaslilatania to be on the point of shooting at, to 

mahe ready for shooting at, 163; 10. Der. shlin. 
shl at pamp e 1 i to give back, to return or bring back; said of garments, 

sheets etc. Dei', atpa. Cf haslilantchuipele. 
s h l/i t c h a - i s h , d. shlashl'tcha-ish ; see shlatchayotkish. 
s h 1 a t c h a y 6 t k i s h , slatsayii'tksh, d. shlasld'tchayt'itkish saw-mill. Mod. 

for shl4tcha-ish Kl. 
s h 1 a t c h i d g a , d. shlashlatchi(^ga to splash. 
shlatchka, d. slilashlatchka to sift; same as slilitchkn, q. v. 
s h 1 a t c h k n 6 1 k i s Ii , contr. shlatchknotch, d. sliLishlatchkn6tkish sieve. 
s h 1 A t c h u a 1 ;< a , d. shlashlatchual%a to splash. Cf shlatchi%a. 
s h 1 A - u k i , slauki ( 1 ) ^o close with a cover or lid. (2) to close or shut an 

opening, as the door-flap of lodge, a door or gate: partic .slaukitko the door 

is closed. Mod. for ka-islnia Kl. 


shla-uki^la, shlaukio'le (1) to uncover. (2) to open a lodge-cover, door, 
doorflap, opening. Mod. for kaishnula. 

shlauklpele, to shut or close the door or door-flap as an liabitual act, 
Mod.: i slaukipeli! shut that door!. 

slilii'-ika, d. slilashll'ka to make or produce smoke: liiloks sh. the fire is 
smoking; hdgga shla'k! (for h. shla'-ika!) let me fire off (my rifle)! 22, 19. 
Of hashl4-ika, shliiyaks. 

shlii'k, 22, 19.; see shla'-ika. 

s h 1 e a , slad, shl4-a, d. shldshla, sla'sla (1 ) to see, to behold, to look at, to per- 
ceive: tiinep sh. shl6a he saw five lynxes, 125, 1 ; tsiii shlad nuiklaks then 
he sees people, 83, 2.; slilii'-at, shla't can see, may behold, 129, 1. 2. 7. 130, 
2.; ha ni link shlaAt if I should see, 129, 4.; slilli-6k/o/- seeing, on account 
of having- seen, 129, 5. 130, 3. ; shla-iikit (for shlii'-ok at) na'd if ive should 
see, 129, 6.; shld-i! pi. shlc^-at! see this here! look here! kanktak shleshl'i! 
(Mod) stop looking at these things! ])ushpiishuk (for hu'k) 
shle'sh this thing black to look at, 73, 6.; tsula'ks=sitk ^hXii'^h Jlesh-like to 
look at, appearing like flesh, 73, 7.; Afshish=shitk slii's so as to look like 
Aishish, 100, 10., cf. 91, 7. 147, !!•. 148, 13.; ni nannkash shlil'sli ki 1 
can see into every corner, 22, 17.; nYi^Ao'tnls. at the mere sight, 19, 3. Cf 
29, 7. 100, 8. 126, 10. Note to 127, 2-4. and hAggi, h^ishla, l(^slima 
(2) to find, to find out, to discover after a searcli: slii/i mdk'l6xapks (for 
niak'le^dpkash) they found him encamped, 28, 8., cf. 21, 13. 14.; gi'ta nish 
shle-uApka ktdyat he unllfmd me here in the rocks, 40, 3 ; kd-i i kt'sh shle- 
etak (Mod.) you will find no ipo-roots, 135, 1., cf 2.; kA-i shl(^ank gatpdm- 
pele not finding them, he returned home, 110, 20.; shhiank watch finding a 
horse, 66, 13.; shle-iita nii inish sliewant a when I find it I will give it to 
you. Cf 43, 6. 14. 72, 2. 134, 14-16. and Note, 136, 3. 148, J. 

s h 1 c d s h a , d. shleshltcha to come and see, to visit, to go on a visit, 113, 15. : 
mdklakshash K6ketat sh. he visited the Indians on Lost River, 36, 10. 

slile'dsh, sle'ds, (1) a species of wild hemp; made into ropes. (2) nar- 
cotic part of (1); used by Indians for poisoning fish, 150, 3. Cf shle^ds/a. 

shlt;ds%a, d. shleshhids^a, v. trans., to lay on the top of, to lay over; said 
of garments, large sheets, blankets etc. Der. ids^a Cf. n^ds^a. 

s h 1 d - i p 6 1 e , d. shk'shlipele, v. trans ; said of woven or sheet-like objects 

s h 1 a - u k i 6 1 a — s h 1 (5 p k a . 329 

etc.: (1) to return, to hand over in return: sh. shasli kdla he handed them 
back the Mla-bucket, 113, 8. (2) to restore, give hack: kakno'lsli s. nad we 
restored (to them) their elk-skin armors, 21, 6. G. Cf. 178; 5. 

shldyamna, d. shleshli'amna to take along, to carry around oneself: y;'iki 
shldyamgnank taking a basket with them strung around their bodies, 101, 12. 

shldka, d. shldshlka, Mod. for shldka Kl., q. v. 

shliikla, d. shleshlAkla, said of garments, sheet- or thread-like objects 
only: (1) v. trans., to lay down, deposit; to lay on the ground. (2) sh or 
partic. shl^klatko I, he or she lays doivn; laid down; viz. "counted"; 
numeral classifier added to numerals from 11 to 19, 21 to 29, 151 to 
159 etc., when counting articles of the shape as described above. (3) 
V. trans., to put on as a dress, to put around oneself, to dress in, as in a 
cloak: kailiu sh. to dress in a rabbit-skin- or feather mantle. (4) v. intr., 
to lie upon, to be deposited upon: kailiu tcht^wat shlekldpkash shlea he saw 
his mantle lying upon the antelope^ s back, 126, 10.; to lie on the ground. Der. 
ikla. Cf heshlaklash. 

s h 1 (i k a , shleza, d. shl^shr;Ka to molder, to become musty or moldy, as eat- 
ables: shlfixatko shApele, Mod., musty bread. Cf heshhiktcha. 

shlelaluash, d. shleshlaluash, sheet-like article serving as a cover; sh., 
. or lu'lpam sh. upper eyelid. 

shldlaluish, d. shldshlaluish cream: ^dshashtat sh creavi of nidk ; lit. 
"what has formed a cover over the milk". 

shl^lktcha, shla'l;{tcha, d. shleshlalktcha to deposit ivh He going, to leave 
behind, relinquish on the way ; said of articles of a slieet-like form. Der. 
shl(^lza. Cf. (ilktcha, Itilktcha. 

shldlktchana, slt^lktsna, d. shleshldl%tchana ; same as shlelktcha. 

shl^l;ca, d. shleshMlxa to lay down, deposit, as on the ground, floor etc.; 
said of objects of a sheet-like form. Der. dl;^a. Cf shlelktcha. 

shl(impeli, d. shleshlampijli to bring back or home; to take home: yaki 
shla'mp'l i! take that seed-basket home! Der. e'mpeli. Cf inn. 

shnpele (1) to see, behold again. (2) to find anew, to m.eet again, 96, 5. 
Der. shl^a, -p6li. 

shl(^pka, d. shldshl'pka to bring, haul, fetch, as cloth, shirts, mantles: sku'- 
tash tdnish shldpki! bring a new blanket! Der. epka. 


shlr/pka, slilii'pka (\) to see or notice at a distance, 29, 7. 19. (2) to care 
for, protect, f/iiard the interests of: B6shtinash tfdsh shlepaku4pka!«ht Mo- 
di ikishasli fJi(d the Government ivould efficiently protect the Modocs, 35, 9.; 
sliayudkta 'rcliniu'tcliam talaak shlepakudpkasli he knetv that he would be 
well cared for hij Frank Middle, 36, 12.; ml'shtoks ma'lash shldpaktgl that 
ye take care of me, 42, 3. Contr. from shle-apka. Der. shlt'a (1). 

s h 1 e ]) k 1 p e 1 e (1) to hring, fetch, or carry hack. (2) to hring, fetch, as done 
liabitually: shlcipkipal' i'sli ge-ii tenish k4po! bring me my neiv coat! 
Der. shk'pka, -i-, -peli. 

slilepopka, shlii'popka, sk'papka, d. shleshlepa'pka (1) to look at from 
a distance; to take notice of; to notice, 20, 1.; to notice in one's dreams, 83, 
4.; tu4 1 slti'popk? what are you looking atf ntinuk ni tids shlii'popka shash 
/ perceived every one of them perfectly well (though they did not see me), 

22, 14. (2) to watch, ohserre, to observe closely, 64, 12 : a't shlii'papa- 
kuapk yc will find oid by observing, 100, 19.; tgi'ts^ank sh. standing near, he 
looked at him closely, 110, 1.5.; tidsh sh. (Mod.) to take care of. Der. shlea 

s h 1 c' s li 1 a p t c h a m , j)l. tiimi sh., wild crab-apple tree; growing to an alti- 
tude of 6 to 10 feet and bearing eatable fruit: Pyrus rivularis. 

shl^ta, d. shleshlta to find, discover; said of persons, animals and other 
objects of long shape, 121, 19. Der. shle'a (2). 

shletana, d. shleshhitana to put on loose, to cover loosely: partic. shleta- 
n4tko loose: fitting loosely; not tight. Cf hc^shltanksh. 

s h 1 e t a t k a , d. shleshlatatka to hold over somebody or something; said of 
sheet- or tissue-like articles only. Cf lutatka, shletana. 

s h 1 e t ' h i s h , shl^tish, d. shleshldtish ( I ) any loose cover or covering: sho'l- 
hashtat sh. pillow-case. (2) mat to cover lodges. 

shletilsh lining of clothing: kailalapshtat s. lining of pantaloons. Cf 
shlan;^oksh, shletana, sldt't'hish. 

shlet^a, d. shleshlat;^a to take away, to carry off: la')) nat kakmYlsh .sh. 
we took away two elk-skin armors, 21, 5. Der. ft;^a. Cf lutxa, ut^a. 

shlewala, Mod. shliwala, d. shldshlurda (1) to draw the bowstring for 
shooting. (2) to cock the hammer for firing: 161oksgish sh. to cock the rifle, 

23, 1.; cf 30, 14.; shlishlol61an, 41, 3.; see Note. Der. shli'n. Cf shliidula. 
shlt'wi, slii/wi, d. shlrshlui (1) v. impfsrs., to blow; said of storms, winds. 

shle'pka — shlin. 331 

wind-gusts: kr-iini, iikilak, killitk, mil' ska sh. the tvind blows ffcntly, 
stronger, very strong, very cold, cf. 31, 2. ; mu'a.sli slile-uyuk ivhen the south 
wind blows, 94, 6. (2) v. iutr., to blow from the mouth. Cf. pnfwa. 

s h 1 e w 11 a m n a , d. shleshliiilanina to blow around in the sky, to blow in 
various . directions ; said of winds, 156; 35.: lit. "to blow down around". 

shlcwish, sliiVish, d. shl^shluish (1) ivind; any commotion of the at- 
mosphere moving in one direction only, as blast, breeze, gale, puff, storm, 
tempest. The wind, as a carrier of infectious diseases, is very frequently 
mentioned in the conjurer's incantations: 153; 3. 155; 25. ISG; 27. 30. 
and Note; 168; 42. 173; 6., also the winds specified after the points of 
compass, as ytimash, muash etc. C£ kAkiegsh. (2) blast from the mouth, 
157; 45. (3) Slil'wish, nom. pr. of a windy locality in a bend of 
River. Der. shlewi. Qitot. under kitcha, Ikan. 

shle wita, sliiwita, d. shleshluita to bloiv at or upon persons, animals etc.; 
said of winds, of animal breath: nu'sh a-i shliiwi'ta, kii'mat a-i shlilwita 
I blow upon myself, I blow upon my bade, 177; 28. Der. shlc^wi. 

shle wi t a kn Ilia, d. shleshluitaknula to blow breath from one's mouth: 
nepaksh nish sh. the disease is being blown out through my mouth, 153; 3. 
Der. shlewi. Cf. shatakniila, tilntaknula. 

shli'kshga, shli'kska, d. shlishMkshga to come near shooting, wounding or 
killing, 30, 7. 10 , 16. 110, 10. 13.: tiY shlikshgan's a Sa't by shooting at 
long range the Snakes came near killing me, 29, 20. Der. shlin (1) (2). 

shlikui, d. shlishlakui (1) v. trans., to make fire by the fire-drill or 
shlikuy6tkish, q. v.; to kindle fire by friction or by rapid turning; to strike 
a match. (2) v. intr., to catch fire, to begin to burn. Der. shlin. 

s h 1 i k u i s h , d. shlishldkuish piece of pine-root serving to catch the spark 
elicited by the aboriginal fire-drill. Tiiis piece of resinous wood is made 
more susceptible to fire by being rubbed with willow-bark and charcoal. 
Der. shlikui. Cf. ga't, k(itlash. 

shlikuyotkish, d. shlishlakuycStkish, any apparatus for making fire: In- 
dian fire-drill; match-box, rough surface to strike matches on etc. Der. 
shlikui. Cf shlikuish. 

shlin, d. shlishlau (1) to shoot at with arroivs, balls, bullets or other mis- 
siles: shll't ni'sli a nen! or shla't ish! i'sh slila't! 41, 5.; shoot ye at me! 


ka-i i shli-uapk shash do not shoot at each other, 58, 10.; shliutuapkug 
lul'nk for the purpose of firing at him with it (the pistol), 66, 12. Cf. 
slil6kla. (2) to hit, wound hy shooting ; to hit, wound, lacerate, disable by 
an arrow or other missile dispatched: tsiii sa sh. tu'kni then the men from 
the other side shot him, 23, 21.; nu'sh sh. M6atokish a Modoc man. was shot 
in the head, 21, 18.; shift 1 hii'nks! gou must shoot him! 107, 14.; shli'nk 
shiiiga he killed hy a shot, 110, 14.; shliudpka m'sh! Ihey ivill shoot you! 22, 
7.: partic. shlltko tvounded, 24, 3. 7. 8.; obj. shlfpks for shlipkash, 24, fi.; 
shift for shlltko gi was shot, 20, 8. Cf. 23, 1. 24, J. (3) to kill hy shoot- 
ing or firing, to shoot with fatal effect: n'unk sh. siwdga I killed that girl, 
23, 10.; kdnts sli-uApkst tvho might he killed, wounded to death, 21, 10.; hii' 
mish shli-uapk if he kills you, 110, 6.; shlink ndekti'shtka killing them with 
arrows, 136, 1.; shliutuk ma'makla for killing water-fowl tvith it, 136, 1. 
(4) to indicate a guess by a gesture made with the liaud or finger; lit. "to 
shoot the finger forward", 79, 3. 4. and Note. Cf yushka. — Speaking of 
many objects shot, hit or killed, or of one subject shooting many objects 
by diiferent, repeated shots, yuta, q. v. Der. lena. Cf. nge-isha, tdwi. 

shlitamna, d. shHshl'tamna to shoot, h'lf, wound continually: Alshish shli'- 
tam'na tdlaak Aishish hits the mark at every shot, lUO, 20. Der. shlfn. 

shlfti^apka, d. shllshlti^apka to hold the fingers at some distance from 
each other in a scr(dching position. Cf shatchl^iinia. 

shlitchf;{a, d shlishltchi;^a to comb : ti'dsh shlitclii^atko ivell combed. Cf 

shlitchi^ash, d. shlishltchi'xasli comb. 

s h 1 i t c h i ;^ 6 1 k i s h , d. shlishltchipjotkisli comb. 

slilitchka, shlAtchka, d. shlishlatchka, shla.slilatchka, \\ trans., to pass 
through a sieve; to sift. Cf latcha, ledsha. 

s h 1 i t c h k a ]) e 1 e , d. shlishlatchgapele to untie, unhitch : watch at nu 
shlitchgapele ko'shtat / unhitch the horse from the pine tree. 

s h 1 f t c li 1 k a , d. sldishhitchlka to tie, to tie together, as strings, animals etc. : 
Ice-une (k^-una), kuata sli. to tie loose, tight. 

shlitchta, d sldisldatchta (1) to tie to or together: to hitch, to attach: sh. 
dnkutat to tie the brunches or ttvigs of a shrub: w4tch sh. ni ko'shtat I hitch 
the horse to the pine tree; topitan wiig'n sli. tliey fastened behind a tvagon, 
13, 6. (2) to hitch (horses, nud<\s) to a wagon. 

s h 1 i t ;i 111 n a — s li 1 u k a 1 a k s h . 333 

s h 1 i - u y a , shlihiiya, d. shlishl'iiya to hit or wound, though not danger- 
ously or fatally, 54, 14.; partic. shliwitko (a) wounded, disabled by a shot. 
(b) shot-wound. Der. shlin. Cf. ugeshe-iiya, stuka. 

s h 1 i u 1 6 1 a s h , d. slilishhuMlash hammer or lock of (jun, rifle, pistol. 

shliulula, d. shlishlulula (1) to unstriucj the how (ute-iyh). (2) to uncock 
a pistol, gun, rifle; to drop the hammer. 

shliuta, d. shlishluta to shoot, kill by means of; see shlin (1), (3). 

s h 1 i w a 1 a , d. shlishluahi, Mod. for shluAvala KL, q. v. 

shl6a, shlu'a, pi. tunii sh. (1) lynx, vulgarly called tvild-cat: Lynx rufus: 
shk'a sh. dnkotat wawakayapkash he saw lynxes sittiny on tree-limbs, 125, 
2.; cf 3. sqq. (2) hide, fur or tanned skin of lynx, 186; 55. Cf skutash. 

s h 1 o'k i n g s h , d. sshlushlo'kingsh surf. Cf Ikapata. 

s h 1 6 k 1 a , slo'kla, d. shlushlu'kla to try marksmanship, to shoot at the mark, 
99, 4. 100, 20.: gen shlokalsht In after his shoot hiy ; lit. "after the time 
when he will have shot at the mark," 100, 19. Der. shlin. 

shloklgish spittoon, cuspidor: wikamos. chamber-pot; lit. "spittoon 
standing on ground." Cf shluktchna. 

shlok6pash, shliikopsh former location of a lodye, house or building, exca- 
vated area of former house; remains of Indian lodge, 180; 23. 

S h 1 o k 6 p a s h k s h i " Lodge-Hole", nom. pr. of a locality at Yaneks. 

slo'ksh, shlo'ktsna; see shlu'ktch, shlu'ktchna. 

shl61ush, slri'lush, d. shlushlulush ivhistling-stick, whistling-reed, clnijUy 
made of elder-wood, 122, 9. 12'i, 5.; reed-pipe, reed-flute. These Indians 
use wooden and reed flutes, pipes being scarce. Der. shle'wi (2). 

shl61usham, pi. tumi sh., eMer-^ree.- >Sambucus (glaucusf). Cf shluhish. 

s h 1 II i h u y a , d. shlushluihuya to trot, to ride at a trotting gait. Cf shnii'- 
uldsha, wdksha. 

sluitch, d. sMshlitch slough, swamp, marshy tract of land; wet meadotv. 

shluyakiga, shlauyakiga, d. shlashluyakiga to whistle; to whistle a tune. 
Der. shl^wi. Cf. shl61ush. 

s h 1 u y u g a , sloyuka, d. shlushliuga to whistle. Cf shl61ush. 

shliika, slu'ka, d. shlu'shlka, 177; 17. 18.; same as shlu'ki, q. v. 

sh liikalaksh, d. .shlu'shl'kalaksh (1) loop, noose, knot: shutat liu'n sh.! 
make ye a knot! (2) trap, lasso. Der. shlukal^a. 


.slilukul;^a, d. shlushlkal^a to make a knot or noose, to tie a knot: slilu- 

kal%61a to untie a knot. 
sill u'ki , d. slilu'slilki to eat up, devour, consume: w/itchag sli. iia'sli liklasli 

pala-ash the do;) ate up a whole loaf of bread. 
s h 1 u k s h k u , d. shliishlakshga to pick to pieces for eating, devouriiif/, 114, 9. 
sliVktch, slo'ksh, d. slu'slaktch, slo'slaksli (1) saliva, spittle; phlegm spit 

out. (2) constellation formed of "six stars" standing close together; 

evidently the cluster of the seven Pleiades. Cf. shluktchna. 
shluktchna, d. shlushlaktchna to spit, spit out. Kl. for kpitchtchna 

Mod. Cf kputchna (2). 
shlu'ldsha, d. shlushlaldsha to saw ivitli a Iiand-saw. Cf spuldsha. 
shl ul ds h 6 tk i s h , d. shlushlaldsh6tkish (\) large saw. (2) sivord. Cf 

shlakat6tkisli, shlatchayotkish. 
shlil'lksh, d. shhVshlalksh (1) scrotum. (2) testicle. (3) Slii'lks, nom. 

pr. of a Modoc warrior, sentenced to life-long imprisonment for j)artici- 

pating in the assassination of the Peace Commissioners on April II, 

1873; lit. "Large Testicles". Called S161eks by the whites, 44, 7. 
s h 1 u 1 k s h d 1 1 k o , d. shlushlalkshAltko domestic animal not castrated; bull, 

stallion. Der. shlu'lks. 
shlulola, d. shlushlol61a to drift aivay, as a cloud or fog, 1-7; 43. Cf 

lua, lula, hisha. 
s 1 li' m d a m d = w d s h steep hole showing location of an old sweat-house, 

180; 23. Der. wash. Cf shlokopash. 
s h 1 u s h 1 (5 1 u i s h , pi. ti'iini sh., trumpeter, bugleman. 
s h 1 u s h s h a - i s h , pi. ti'iini sh., saivyer. Cf shlu'ldsha. 
shlu'tila, d. shlushlu'tila to scratch out a den, burrow: kaila sh. to scratch 

up the ground; said of beasts, 157; 42. Der. hitila 
s h 1 u't c h u a , d. shlu'shl'tchua to take fish ivith a light or fire-brand: pshin 

sl(')tsuank sht6ka, or pshi'n sh. to fish with a fire-brand or torch. Stands 

for shklu'tchua; cf. klutsu6tkish, sklu'tchkantcha. 
s m j'l h i a , d. shmashm'hia to cast a shadow. Cf m;ihiash. 
sh ni iih i 1 aksh , d. shmashnu'hilaksh shed, covered at the top only. 
s h ni a 'hit c h / a , d. shinashiu'liitch^a (1) to make shadow. (2) to shelter, 

Iv give shelter. (!f mahiasii. 

s li 1 u k ;i 1 % a — s h in u k a t a u a . 335 

s li 111 a ' li t c li a , (1. slimashm'tclia to project one^s shadow while walking or 

moving. Cf. mdhiash. 
s h m a ' li t c h d g a , d. shmasbm'tcliaga to project one^s shadotv, 13^, 1 . 2. 
small ui, smAwi, d. smasuuiliui to cease raining or snowing. Cf. mdhiasli. 
s m a h u y 6 1 a , shmauyola, d. smasmauy61a to cease raining or snowing. 
s h m a y a 1 s h , d shmashmayalsh huckskiu robe of female, fringed with por- 

cwp'me quills, 154; 6. and Note; slimashmayalti is the partitive case of the 

d. form. Der. shmayam (2). 
shmayam, pi. tiinii s., (1) a yellowish species of tough lacustrine or 

prairie grass used in the manufacture of basket-ware, woman's skullcaps 

etc.: Junciis (balticusf). Cf kma'. (2) bristle ov quill of porcupine, 154; 

U. and Note. Der. m4-i. 
sma'k, shma'k, d. smiismak (1) coarse hair on genitals. (2) Snia'k, nom. 

pr. given to a tribe of Indians living in Oregon, south of The Dalles, as a 

burlesque nickname, 143, 'd. Cf Kii'kakilsli, patchnam, smo'k. 
s h ni a k a 1 1 k o , d. shmashmakaltko provided with hair on private parts. 

The passage, 185; 41.: ka-i weli'slit i mish shmdkalpsh (for shmakdlpkash) 

gi'sh shapa explains itself through the custom of many Indian tribes of 

pulling out all hair growing around the genital organs. 
s h m a u y 6 1 a ; see smahuy61a. 
S m e - u s h i s h , nom. pr. of a Klamath Lake man. 
sm5'k, slimo'k, d. shmu'shmok (1) hair of beard; long hair around the 

mouth of cats and other felines. (2) beard, mustache, whiskers, goatee. 

Der niuk- in mukash, mukmukli. Cf ni'l, sma'k. 
slim6kaltko, pi. tiimi sli., (1) wearing a beard, mustache, or whiskers. 

(2) Shm6kaltko, Tclim6%altko, nom. pr., given, e. g., to the Klamath Lake 

chief Lelekash, who wore a little beard, 
shmo'tka, shmu'tka to fill, fill up, replenish: kela-ush a sli. nalam la- 

tchasli sand fills our house; nAnuktua kiii'la shmu'tkatko everything is filled 

ivith dust. Der. mu- in inuna Cf ^wa, sh6pa. 
s h m u k a 1 1 a , d. shmii'shmkalta, v. trans., to ivet, to moisten : pi kitutana 

iimbu nush, sli. ge-u ku'ksh nanuk he threw tvater on me, and drenched mg 

whole dress. Der. mukalta Cf. mu- in muka. 
s h 111 u k a tana to wet, drench, dipt in liquids. Cf mukc'ilta. 


s 111 ii'l inks, shmi'ilinksli bladder of fish. Cf. lawulasli, f^luudsliash. 
s li ill II s h m o'k 1 i s h barber, shaver. Cf luislinio'kla. 
sliiialiualpakta, d. shnasluialiiialjiakta to start, raise an echo. Cf. 

wdlta, wAltka. 
slni ;i liual ta, d. shiiashualta to cause to sound; to ring, as a door-bell. 

Der. wAlta. Cf. spatchfga (2). 
s li 11 a 1 1 i p^ s h , d. slinashnl'ligsh eyebrow. Mod. for shiiekelisli Kl. 
sliiiay ciia, d. slmaslmi^na to fly ov flutter around, as a captive bird, 177; 

29. Cf. niiiia, shne'dslia. 
s li n a k p t i g a , d. shiiasliiiakptiga to seize ivith pincers or tongs. Cf. slinuka. 
sli nak p tigo t ki sh , d. slmashiiakptigotkisli pincers; blacksmith'' s tongs. 
s li n ;'i 1 u a 1 s h , d. shnashnfilualsh coverlet spread o\ er the bed. Der. lawala. 
s h u a 111 b u a , d. shnashiiiimbua to make explode by a stroke of the hand, as a 

bladder. Der. mbdwa. 
s h n a 11 d s h m a - a , d shnashnAndshma-a to amuse by jests or tricks. Der. 

ndshaixiJi-a. Cf. kii'la, Idshuat^ash, sheshtalkash. 
s h n a 11 1 a t c h 1 % a , d. shnashnantatchl^a to obtain by trapjpirig, to ensnare: 

shiiantatclil;^aiik shnuka to catch by trapping. 
s h uantdtch l;ij ish, d. shnashnantatchl%isli trapper: pu'm slmashnan- 

t4tchl%ish beaver-trapper. 
8 h n a n t A t c h 1 X o 1 h trap ; h miter'' s trap, steel trap. 
s h n A n t c h a k t a , d. shnashnaiitehakta (1 ) v. intr , to be sticking, stuck or 

pasted on (2) v. trans., to stick or 2)ade upon. Cf. slmatchAka, shndtkuala. 
s li n a p e m p e m a , Mod. shuepe'nipema, d. ahnashnp(inipeuia (1) to allure, 

to fool, to induce by tricks, to entrap, 44, 3. 94, 10. (2) to feign, simulate 
shniipka, d. shnkshn'pka to flatten, to render flat: nu'sh sh. to flatten the 

head of infants; a custom largely observed by the coast tribes from 

Middle Oregon northward and by the Klamath Lake and Modoc Indians, 
s h n a s h n a t i a , d. shnashnashndtia to sneer at, to grimace at, to make faces: 

ka-A sh. to make many grimaces. Cf. kowitiwatko, nidshonidshua 
s h n }i s h 11 i k s h , sn4sneks, pL tiimi s., leggings covering the leg below the 

knee, and formerly worn by males and females. The summer leggings 

were made of buckskin, those for winter of tule-bulrush ; on both ends 

they fitted tight, but were loose in the middle and had no fringes. Cf. 

kailalapsh, mitasli. 

■ s m u' I i 11 k 8 — s li lui w c d s li k a . 337 

s li 11 a t a k p u t c li , d. shiu'ishntakpiitcli cattle-whip made of leather. 

shnatchaka, d. shnashntchcika, v. trans., to melt, dissolve, as tallow, 
wax, pitch. Der. natehdka. 

shnatchAktka, d. shiiashntchdktka to point, to sharpen, as a stick. 
Mod. for shnatchdktgi Kl. Der. tchak- in tchaktch^kli. Cf watchdka. 

shiiiitkalka, shnatg/ilka, d. shnashn^tkalka (1) to kindle up; to light, as 
a lamp, candle. (2) to set on fire: shnatgalka Mlo he set the sky on fire, 
96, 20 C£ nutkolna. 

s h n a t k o 1 u a , d. shnashnatkolua ( 1 ) v. intr., to shine from a distance. (2) 
V. trans., to light a fire atvay from the camp or home. Der. niitkolua. Cf. 
shn^na, shne'pka, shni'ita, shu'd.sha. 

shn4tkuala, shmitkual, d. shnashnjitkual to set up straight, to raise up to 
an erect position, 120, 18. 20. Cf. tgi'ita, tgiitga, tkAna. 

s h n a - u 1 a m n a to spit all over, to spit upon, 132, 8. Der. nAwal. 

shnawa'ka, d. shnashua'ka to put on neckwear, to adorn one^s neck with 
heads; partic. shnawakitko wearing a necklace, adorned with heads or other 
neckwear: tchi'ksam sliu'm shnawakitko loearing a necklace of hird-bills; 
these necklaces are worn by boys. Cf. laktash (2), n^p. 

shnawa'kish, smiwaksh, d shnAslmaksh (1) heads in a hunch. (2) 
neck-ornament, necklace; necklace of shells: wfikash=sh. necklace of hone. 

s h n A w e d s h , snawa'ds, sn^wedsh, Mod. shnawedshash, pi. w^wanuish ( 1 ) 
woman; said of an adult female only: na'sh ni lu'gsla snawa'ds (for 
snawji'dsas) I captured one female, 20, 1.; hii lish snawtidshash ki'ya, Mod. 
this woman lies, 40, 20., cf 41, 6.; snewedshash refers to a female con- 
jurer in the incantation 158; 51. (2) wife; married woman: sh. ge-u 
my wife, 68, 1.; Riddlam snawe'dshash llkldle's wife, 40, 19.; lupi'ni sna- 
w^dshash the former or nrij'c, 55, 17.; lii'ssuaks kii'liak snAwiidsh a 
single man, 60, 1.; sn^wedsh paldshapeluk in order to abduct (his) wife, 
95, 8.; snawa'dshash palla to seduce a married tvoman, 59, 2. Cf 60, 11. 
14-16. Ill, 13—17. Cf. giilu, nibu'shni, ndsilo, shnawddshka, waishi, 
weldkash, w^wanuish. 

s h n a w e d s li a s h 1 a , d. shnashuuedshashla. Mod. for shnawddshla Kl., 
q. V. Cf hishuatch%ashla, lakiala. 

K h n a w 6 d s h k a , snawedsga, met. Kl shn^wadshka (I) infant of the female 
sex, huhy girl : sh. gi'ul^a the first -horn girl ; lit. "a girl is born first", with 


ellipsis of lupi "at lirst". (2) little girl: sli. koliieg-sh female orphan, of 
tender age; sh. tgdptclia gaishtishtat the little girl hides herself behind the 
door. Contr. for shnavvcdshaga, dim. slmdwedsli. Cf. liisliuiikga. 

s h 11 a w d d s h 1 a , Mod. shnawedsliiishla and snawedsliala, d. shnashnuc- 
dshla, Mod. shnashnnedshashla and snasnuedslidla to marry, espouse; 
said of the luisband only: na'sak, lap snawii'dsla to take one wife, two 
wives, 60, 17 ; pdn snawil'dslila to marry a second wife; lapeni liu snawed- 
sb^la he married twice, 55, 16. Cf. mbuslieala, sbumpsedla, wewdnuishla. 

shniika'gi, d. sliiiaslin;^a'gi; see shnekcgi. 

shnii'-uldsha to ride at a gallop, to gallop, or in Western parlancu 'Ho 
lope", 29, 12. Cf wdksha. 

s h n e'd s b a , d. sbne'shndslia to flutter, to heat or flap the wings in water or 
when running on tbe ground. Mod. for nena Kl. Der. ne- in ndna. 

sbnu-ilaksb, contr. slme'laks, d. sbnesbnilaksh (1) fire-place, hearth, 
120, 20. 150, 7.; cf. Note to 36, 4. (2) chimney in a room, open chim- 
ney; flue of chimney. Der. sbudl^a. Cf sblayaks. 

s li n e - i p a k s b , d. sbnesbnipaksb fire-place belonging to a lodge or en- 
campment, 36, 4. and Note. Der. sbne'pka. 

sbnd-isb, species of duck, small, spotted in wbite on head and wings: 
Bucephala alheola, 177; 27. Its limbs are made tbe subject of conjurer's 
incantations; cf Note on page 178. Der. shne'dsha. 

sbn cka, d. sline'shnka, v. intr. (1) to burn; to he lit up, to shine. Cf. sline- 
kupka. (2) to hum through. Cf Mb;i-nsb=Sbnc'kasb. Der. nuta. 

slinekalpka, d. slinesbnk/ilpka to heat or boil liquids: sb nil dmbo, 
Kl , I am boiling water. Der kelpka. Cf tcbibila. 

sbnekglisb eyebrotv ; lit. "what moves from its position". Kl. for 
snailigsh Mod. Der. slincikglui. 

sbnekglui, snaklui, v. trans. (1) to remove from position or location. (2) 
to remove from office: lakiash siuikgli-uapka nii I ivill remove the chief (or 
subchief) from the chieftaincy, 59, 12. 15 17. 20. Der. kgk'wi. 

s b n e k 1 5' t c b n a , d. shnesbnaklo'tcbna to sail. Word recentl}- formed, 
as tbcse Indians use no sails on their dugout canoes. Der. sbiu'kebii (1). 

s li 11 k i o t c b 11 6 t k i s b , pi. tuiiii wb , sail, canvas spread out, Mod. : sh.= 
vii'nsli sail-boat. CI', sbneklo'tcbna. Cf sbniwatnotkisb. 

s h 11 a \v c d s li 1 11 — s h ii e - u 1 i a . 339 

shndksLita, shniksbita, d. shneshnakshita to save, deliver, rescue, 193; 
11. Der. kshita; lit. "to to escape". 

s hn e'k t chig-s h, d. shneshndktchiksh (1) shoulder; term chiefly applied 
to quadrupeds. (2) shoulder-Made. 

s li n e k u p k a , d. shneshnkiipka to shine, be lit up above and at a distance: 
wakai (for wak kd-i) lalap a hun shneku'pkashtkak i1 ivhy don't you want 
two at a time to shine up there? 105, 10. Der. slin^ka, -u-, -apka. 

slinek^gi, d. shneshnke'gi, shneshn%a'gi (1) to spill, waste, lose. (2) to 
lose something, as from a side-pocket. Kl. for stewa Mod. Der. kii'gi. 

shne'^ash, sn^^ash, d. shnishne^ash, Mod. for shni'^sh KL, q. v. 

shne;{ia to eat up, devour, consume, 154; 10. Cf. shluki, shnuka. 

s h 11 e' 1 a k s h , 160, 7. ; see shne-ilaksh. 

s h n d 1 % a , shne'lka, d. shneshnal/a to set on fire, to burn down, to reduce to 
ashes, as wood, lodges, corpses etc.: tchi'sh sh. to burn a lodge, 85, 13.; 
lAtchash shnjl'l^a to set. a lodge on fire, 59, 14. 113, 22.; shneslinal;(6ta 
(supply Idtchash) ivhile setting fire to the lodges, 88, 7.; sh. Leme-ish titskd- 
aksh he burnt up the Old Thunders, 114, 12. Der. ndlka. Cf. shnd-ilaks. 

s h n ^ 1 u a , d shneshniUua to stain, to color, to dye: partic. shn^luatko colored, 
dyed. Cf ntiwal. 

shndluash, d. shneshnAluash (1) dot, stain, spot. (2) color, as the pro- 
duct of a dyeing process. 

shnelu6tkish, sn^luotch, d. shneshnalu6tkish dye-stuff, coloring matter. 
Der. shn^lua. Cf shn^luash 

s h n e n a , d. shndshna, or sh. lu'loks to make or build a fire while on a 
journey, 99, 3. and Note; 100, 15. 

shnepdmpema, d. shneshn'peinpema. Mod. for shnapempema Kl , q. v. 

s h n e'p k a to make or build a fire: shu'tchank anut hu'iik sh. we have a fire 
in the camp. Contr. from shnc-ipka Cf shne'-ipaksh, shii'dsha. 

shnetchu^ktekiutch wax, beesioax: bi sh. shu'ta the bee produces tvax. 
Cf. tchiwi^a. 

shue-uyAla to destroy, annihilate almost; to render useless by partial de- 
struction: iiAkosh hii'nk tAplalush nd-ul%a shne-uyalatki sliasli he ordered 
the loon to destroy the dam to their disadvantage, 1 32, 1 . Der. sluKiwi. 

shn^-ulia, Mod. sniuln, d. shiieslinulia to catch a cold, to become rheu- 
matic; to suffer of rheumatism. 


s h n e - u 1 6 1 a to throw dotvii, as a horse does a rider. Cf. slma'-uldslui. 
shnd-utchna, d. slineshmitchna to mark, to draw a line: tdlaak sh. to 

draw a straight line. 
s li 11 c w a d s h k a; met. for slmawudsliga, q. v. 

s li n c w a 1 k n 6 1 k i s h , d. sliiiesliii'\valkn6tkisli bellows. Cf. niwAlka No. 2. 
s li 11 1' wi , d. slin^shnui to destroy, demolish, 132, 2. Der. niwa 
s li n i k k t c h a , d. slinishru'iktcha to send a person for something: spaiitish 

sh to send for poison, 13, 14. 
shnig6ta, d. shmshng6ta (1) to send off, to send aivay, to dispatch. (2) 

to send by mail, to mail, 36, 21. 
shnigo'tchna, d. shnishngo'tchna to send by mail; to send away; said 

only of letters and similar objects, 
s li n i k A 1 u a , d. shnishnkAlua to madden, excite to rage, irritate, as persons, 

dogs etc. Der. kilua. 
s h 11 1 k a n u a , d. shnishndkanua to let ripen, to allow time for ripening; said 

of seeds, w6kash, berries, 74, 8. Der. iiuka 
s h n i k a n u 4 n k a , d. shnishnkanuanka ( I ) to make pauses in the gathering 

of fruits or digging of eatable roots, tubers. (2) to cease fishing and then re- 
commence; to fish with interru])tiom. Der shnikanua 
shnikishala, shniggislii'ila, d. shnishnkisliala to distrust: sli. n'hiink 

hunkelam hishudksham shapiyash I do not believe all that is said by this 

man. Der. ki'sh. Cf shikita. 
shnikita, d. shnishnkita to lose, let fall; said of long-shaped objects, as 

needles, pencils etc. Der. kt'wa. Cf hisliii'kita. 
shniklwa, d. shnishnkiwa to throw, hurl, cast; said of round or bulky, 

heavy objects. Kl for slinikoa Mod. Cf nutodshna, nuwalxa. 
s h 11 i k u a , d. shnishnkoa; Mod. for shnikiwa Kl., q. v. 
s h 11 i k s h 6 k s h u k a , pi. tumi sh., (1) to smell around, to put the nose about, 

as horses, cows etc. (2) to root, as hogs, 
s h 11 i k s h u'l;( a, d. shnishnakshu'ljja to make dance; to force, pro))ipt, ov 

cause to dance, 16, 12.: piiu sa shuikslio'l/a lu'luags they made the captives 

dance again, 20, 10. Der. ksiu'le^a. 
shiiT';ja, d. shnishne'%a (1) to remove the mucus: siiip^i mi psisli! blow 

your nose! (2) to snuff, sniff: p'lai'tan siii^a to snuff uji info the nose. 

shne-iil61a — sliniwatchn6tkisli. 341 

slini'^sli, sliniksli, d. .shuisline;fsh mucus, snot: shi<4ski mi hiin siii'^sh! 

dean your nose with the handkerchief! Kl. for shne'^ash Mod. 
s h u i 1 i w a , d. shnishnliwa to kindle a fire; to strike a match. Der. nih'wa. 
shn indu'dshna, d. shnishnandu'dshna to lose something, as out of the 

side-pocket Cf nd^-uli, shnek(^gi, shnikita. 
s h n i n d u w a to dip, douse, let fall into the tvater, 123, 4. Der. ndewa (2). 
s lin i n k a k ' 1 k 6 1 k i 8 h , shnenkakl;^5'tch weighing-scale. Der. shnin- 

s h n i n k A k ' 1 % a , d. shnishnankdk'l^a, v. trans., to weigh hy means of a 

scale. Der. nki'kelza. 
s h n i n s h A 2? t c h p a , d. shnishnshdptchpa to tease, to annoy. Mod. Der. 

shnint61a, d. slinishnant61a (1) v. trans., to let fall, to drop down. (2) 

V. intr.. Mod., to fall, to drop. C£ nde-uli. 
s h n i n t o'l x <i , d. shnishnanto'l^a, to let fall, to drop. Dor. nde-ulp^a. 
shninto't^i, d. shnishnant5't%i, v. trans, to let fall, to drop upon the 

ground, a.s fruits from a tree. Der. xiM-\\ty\. 
shnipelan, d s\\n\%\\x\kYiQ\3in to fatten, to render fat. Der. p'lin. 
shnitchip^a, d. shnishnatchf;fa to fry: lepuinatka sh to fry in frying- 
pans, 147, 20. Cf shnitchkua. 
shnitchkua, snitskoa, d. shnishndtchkua, snisnatskoa (1) to broil in a 

pan ; to fry. (2) to dry meat, berries or fruits over the fire. Cf shnitchi;{a. 
s h n i t c h 1 k u t k i s li , contr. snftchlgiitch small hook, crochet, fibula. 
s n 1 u % t c h a , d. snisnii^tcha to detest, hate. Cf mvi'tchka, shn6kakia. 
snfula, d. shnishnuki, Mod.; same as shnd-ulia Kl., q. v. 
s h n i u 1 a t c h g 4 n k a , d. shnislmulatchganka to glance off; said of mis- 
siles: shni'ulatchgankan hu'n gi it was glancing off; the subject, tal- 

dshidga, to be supplied, 110, 11. 
shniwadshna, d. shnishnuddshna to swalloiv: tina'k shniwdtchna to 

swallow in one draught. Cf sk6tka (1). 
s h n i w a t n u t k i s h , d. shnishnuatn6tkish canvas spread out, sail. Der. 

niwatana; lit. " what drives along". Cf. shneklotchn6tkish. 
s h n i w a t c h n 6 1 k i s h , d. shnishnuatchn6tkish (1 ) oesophagus, pharynx. 

(2) throat. Der. shniwadshna. Cf s^utkanutkish. 


slniokakia to detest, linte: slm6kakiula nu hiinksh ka-a / hate, him thor- 
oughly. Cf. niiVtt'lika, sniii;^tcha. 

shn6kg'isli, d. slniuslinokoiish handle o^ tools, trunk etc. Der. shniika. 

slin ui tcimpk a d. slimishnitaiupka to Iceep hiirning : 161oksli sh. they kept 
up the fire by stirring it, 85, 9. Der. shniiya. 

shnuya, d. shnu'shnia (1) v. intr., ^o burn, conflagrate; to be consumed by 
fire. (2) V. iiitr., to shine, radiate; to appear radiantly or as a fire. (3) 
subst., polar light, aurora horealis. Der. nuyua. 

s h n u y a k t a , d. slmuslniiakta to singe. Der. shnuya. 

shnuyoka, d. shnushniuka to cause to hum; to burn off, to singe off, as 
hair. Der. shiu'iya (1). 

shniika, snoka, d. shnushnka, sn6shnxa (1) to seize, to take hold of; to 
grasp, to seize forcibly ; to catch, to capture: shniik' at mi'daii he talcs up the 
spoon, 138, 5.; nep sh. to shake hands with somebody; sh. ne'p k'hlktipkash 
to shake hands with the deceased, 87, 10.; cf. ne'p; ndnuk shfxl6tlsli sh he 
took away the whole dress, 95, 7.; hfi'nk lu'hiags wa'k shnii'shne%ank seiz- 
ing the war-captives by their arms, 16, 12.; tala shnil'ksh hu hameni, Mod.: 
he, she is eager to grab money; nu slnuikotak (or: nu shnukdntki), Mod., 
I will get it for myself; shnil'kshtkan (for slmu'kshtka gi nu) na'sh siwdk 
I want to obtain (this) one girl, 23, 8., cf. 20, 7. 23, 7.; M-i nat snu'kat 
watch hunk we did not capture the horse under these circumstances, 30, 6. 
Cf. hipini. (2"! to receive, obtain, he presented with. Der. ika. 

s h n u k 4 1 k a , d. shnushnkAtka to approach for seizing, grasping or catching; 
to go and get hold of, 183; 23. 

s h n u k p a , sno'kpa, d. shnushndkpa to seize for oneself; to grasp, to hold 
fast on purpose: shnukpapka to seize an object standing or lying on the 
ground, 55, 7. Der. shniika. 

shnu'kpgli, d. shnushndkpgli to take hack, to get back, to reobtain, GO, 14. 
61, 10.: sniikp'la 61, 10. for shnu'kp'H a. Der. shniika, -p6li. 

s h n li k t c h a , d. shnushnaktcha to go and seize; to catch, capttire while going 
or running: na'sh shnuktsdstkak hu'nk watch a man started to get hold of 
the horse, 30, 2. Der. shniika. 

shniikua, d. shnushnakiia [l) to grasp, to get hold of, to catch: slinukiiola 
to get a firm hold of. (2) to catch in the ivater. Der. shniika. 

s h 11 (') k a k i a — s h n ii t a . 348 

slinu';{a, d. shnti'shn^a to parch; said of seeds, roots, fruits etc., 149, 7. 
Uer n6ka. C£ shnuta. 

shniilash, sno'lash, d. shnushndlash (1) birds' nest, 154; 9.: sh. slikule- 
1am larKs nest, 95, 5.; p'lai'washam sh., 94, 9. 100, 9., yaiikglam s. eagles^ 
eyrie; pi' sham sh. humming bird^s nest, 134, 13. (2) den of animals, bur- 
row, hole, recess: tsu'tskam snu'lash ground-squirrels^ hole, 24, 13. 

s li n u 1 6 k a , d. shnushnl6ka (1) to snap at, as dogs, turtles etc. ; said of the 
spu'm-bird, 168; 44. (2) to scold, threaten; to scare off by threats, scolding; 
to frighten, to scare: hu'nshak i pshe-utudshash shnulu'kuapkak (for 
shnulukuapka ak) you will only scare the human beings, and to no effect, 
114, 11. Cf shkan4ga, shiila. 

s h 11 u m d t c h k a , d. shnushn'mdtchka to annoy, tease, 36, 3. Der. mii'tchka. 

s h 11 u m p s h ^ a 1 a , snu'mpsa-ala to unite a couple in wedlock, 60, 7. Der. 
shumpsh^la. Cf mbushdala. 

shnu'ntatka to interpret: shahamuyank sh. sending for somebody to act 
as interpreter, 66, 16. and Note. Cf. lutatka (3), netatka. 

s h 11 u n 1 4 1 1 c h i s h , d. shnushnant41tchish erosion, wash-out, earth or hill- 
side washed out. Der. ntultchna. 

s h n li n t a 1 1 c h 11 a , d. shnushnantaltchna to come down, to flow, rush doivn- 
ward; said of water: Ibena stvinshnuk dmbu shnuntaltchanudpkug to dig a 
canal-ditch for the water, to canalize a stream or water-course. Der. ntultchna 

shnuntatchelo'ks trap; cf. the more original form : shnantdtchlxotch. 

s h n u n t o p ' 1 k 6 1 k i s h , d. shnushnantop'l%6tkish ( 1 ) iron oven, round 
oven. (2) yeast; yeasted dough for raising bread, Kl. Der. nuta, p'laf. 

sh nun t ch;( 61a, d. shnushnantchz61a to curl, as hair; to put into curls. 
Cf ndsliok61atko, tchitaksh. 

s h n u n t c h X o 1 s h , d. shnushn;intcli%olsh curl; curl of hair. 

s h 11 u p o' d s h a , d. shnushnpo'dsha to cause to eject, to force out of; said, 
e. g., of the contraction of the musculus sphincter after defecation. Der. 

s h n 11 1 a , shn6ta, d. shnushndta (1) to burn; to destroy by fire; cf. hushnata. 
(2) to parch or dry by fire-heat: shnut^tko topesh brich, tile; lit. "parched 
mud". (3) to build, kindle a fire while away from the lodge or camp: 
tsvii M6atuasli shnushndta then the Pit Biver Indians built fires, 23, 15. 
Der. mita. Cf shn4tkolua, shu'dslia. 


sli 11 11 1 o t k i sli , coiitr. slnu'itotcli, d. .shnuslintutkisli, coiitr. slini'islintotcli 
hard crust or shell of romul or rounded shape: slini'ishutotch-gitko small 
beetle; lady-hiu): Coccinella septempunctata. 

s li 11 IX t c h 1 u k t ii o- i a to plane, render smooth, 87, 3. Der. tclilii;ijatko. 

shnutch6ka, d. .shiuisluitcli6xa {i) to burn or singe to death; to lill bi/ 
burning. (2) to torment to death; to tease unbearably. Der. tclioka. 

s h o - , so-; words not entered here may be found under sliu-, su-. 

s h 5' d s h n a , d. shusho'dshna to carry in hand, in a bucket or pail. Cf. steiia. 

shoh6ta, d. sliosli'li('>ta to satisfy uppetUc or Jmnger; to fill the stoiitavh. 

shokekA-ash, d. shoshkekti-ash, Mod. for slmkikasli Kl., q. v. 

s li o k 6 1 a n a , d. slioshkotana to bite oneself in the tongue or lip, as when 
eating: shokutantk in' t fore-teeth ; ht. 'teeth biting tlie hp". Der koka. 

sho'ksh, sliii'ksli, so'ks, Mod. tche6ksh; d. shuslioks, shoshoks, Mod. 
tche6tcheoksh (1) night-heron; a noisy, gray or grayish-bhie species of 
heron or crane inhabiting the shores of the Klamath upland lakes and 
rivers; two feet spread of wings, long bill: Nyctiardea Gardenii: su'mmat 
(for shu'matka) shtii'ka kia'ni sho'ks the night-heron catches fish with its 
bill. (2) Sho'ksh, the mythic personification of this heron, 122, 9.; also 
in the form Shu'kamtch, q. v. Cf tchu'ksh. 

s h 6 k u n k a , d. shushokunka to form, produce or develop froth, foam, to 
foam; said of waters. Cf k^wa. 

s h 6 k u n k s h , d. shush6kunksh foam, froth of tvaves. 

sh61alua to pack goods on a horse or mule with ropes. 

Sh61aluish "Horse- Packer", noni. pr. of Klamath headman, signer of 
the treaty of 1864, and mentioned in it as "Shollasloos". 

S61dshoks, S6ld'lioks, nom. pr. of a Klamath Lake man; interpreted 
by "Long-Legs". Der. tchu'ksh. 

s h 6' 1 h a s h , d. shushAlhash pillow : sho'lhashtat shlct'hish 2>illow-case. 

s 6 1 1 , sho'lt; see shalt. 

Soltchokni, or S. maklaks, nom. pr., "Salt-Chuck" or Pacific Coast In- 
dian; a comprehensive term including the Coquille, Coos Bay, Saj-uskla, 
Siletz, Als^ya, Yiikona, Nestucca, Tillamuk, Nehelim, Clatsop Lidiaus, 
who are the fisher tribes of the Oregon Coast. Among the Salt-Chuck 
Indians are counted also remnants of some tribes formerly living iiilinid, 

s h n u t (') t k i s h — s p n 1 A 1 a . 345 

as a portion of tlie Rogue River and Shasti Indians. From the Cbin. J. 

salt-tchuk salt-water. 
sho-6ta, d. shosh6ta, Mod for shu-iita Kl., q. v. 
s h 6 p a , sii'pen, shiipa (1) v. intr , to lie in a heap, stacJc, pile, layer. Cf. 

sh6pal%a. (2) adv., in a heap, in a pile: ;i-ati su'pen kelu-ush ^hua the 

sand lies deep; lit. "deeply in a layer the sand extends." 
s h 6 p a 1 X a , shu'paleka, d. shushpal^a to pile up, to heap up in a stack or 

stacks, lb, 13.: kshu'n tiinepni na'd sh6pelakiiapk tve will make five stacks 

of that hay (each to form one load, for hanling it home), 75, 12. 
shot el 61 a, shutalola, d. shushtel61a (1) to terminate, finish up, achieve; to 

come to an end ivith preparing. (2) to unfetter, discngagr, unroll, uncoil; 

wi-ilti nil sh. I am drawing back my prepuce, 185; 42. Der. shutela. 
s h p A g a , spa gga, d. shpashpiiga, spashpa'gga to wet, to drench. Der. pdga. 
spagdlaksh, d. spaspgdlaksh fold, crease in cloth, paper etc. Der. 

s p a g a 1 X a , d. spaspagal/a to fold, to fold up : partic. shpagal^atko folded, 

doubled up. Cf. pAkalaksh 
s h p A h a , spdha, spaha, d. shpashp'ha, spAspa, v. trans., to render dry, to 

dry near the fire, in the sun etc., 146, 9. 147, 15 : shpAhank after drying 

it, 146, 10. 148, 10. Der. paha. Cf haslipd/peli. 
Spa-isli Valley, nom. pr.: Surprise Valley. Lies in the northeastern 

angle of California, southeast of Goose Lake. The Snake Lidian chief 

Ochoho resides there with man}^ of his men. Cf 29, J. and Note; 31, 15. 
spaka, d. shpashpka to punch, to break by jnmching: spaka=wesh tool for 

breaking chunks of ice. Der. pdka. 
spakAga, d. spashpkAga to tear, to tear up by hand, 125, 2. Der. pakAga. 
s p 4 1 , tchpAl, pi. tumi s., yellow ocher, a light-colored or yellow mineral 

substance; when exposed to the fire it turns red and then is used as a 

paint to mark the face with small dots: tchpdl shAtua^a to mark the face 

with ocher-dots. One of the places where it is found lies between Link- 

ville and Upper Klamath Lake, on the Link River. Der pAla. Lit. 

"what is dried". Cf Lu'lpakat. 
s p a 1 A 1 a , d. spashprdi'Ua to feed; said of animals feeding their young. Der. 

piin. C£ lidshpa. 


sptllptchi {i) looking like spdl-paint, ocJier. (2) light yellow, light brown, 
like dry leaves in the fall. Der. spal, -ptchi. 

spj'imi, d. spaspdmi needle of the pine-tree, green or dried up. Der. p.'da. 

S p 4 n i o 1 k 11 i Spaniard; Mexican; tvhite man from the South. 

s p a t fi d s h a , d spaslip'tMslia, v trans., to stretch, to stretch out by hand; to 
extend. Der. pat/idsha. Cf. spitddsha. 

s p d t c h a , spa'tcha, spotsa, d. spdptcha (1) to split in the ivhole length, as a 
piece of wood. (2) to tear, as cloth, paper. Der. padsha. Cf. petdga. 

spate hlga, d. spasliptchfga (1) to twist, turn over, as one's lips, ears. Kl. 
(2) to ring, as a door-bell: wawd-nsh s. to ring the door-hell. Cf atchiga. 

spa-utish, shpautisli, d. spashpd-utish poison oi every description, 13, 
14-17.: s. itd tchiile'kshtat to poison meat. Der. ptin. Cf ke-ish, st^tmash. 

S p a w a u k s h i , noiii. pr. of a locality on the Sprague River, near Yaneks. 

spekan6tkish, d. speshpakan6tkish sewing needle: lit. "tool to draw- 
out". Kl. for splkanash Mod , q. v. Der. spika. 

spekp(51a, d. speshpakpela to squint: partic spekpelitko («) sg2«'«ii«9, 
squinter, cross-eyed, (h) Spekpelitko, nom. ])r. masc. Kl. Der. spika, -peli. 

spekp'lftkptchi, d. speshpakp'litkptchi cross-eyed. 

speletakliitch, d. speshpk'takliitch rake. Kl. for wakatchotkish Mod. 

s p ^ 1 s h a , d. spespAlsha to advance, to put forward ; usually said of fingers, 
79, 6. Der. spdluish. 

sp^lshna, d. speshpdlshna (1) to put forward the index-finger (spc'Iuish), 
or other fingers. (2) to play the spelshna- or Indian guessing game by 
putting forward fingers to indicate the supposed location of the four 
game-sticks lying under a cover. See p. 80, first Note. Speldshna is a 
corruption of spdlshna. Contr. from spciluishna. Der. speluish. 

sp(iluish, d. speshpdluish (I) second finger, index-finger; cf yiishka, 
yush%ish, the first Note on p. 80, and Note to 79, 3. (2) name of several 
moons of the Mdklaks year: usually mentioned in the instrumental case 
spt^luishtka, and then used in a temporal sense. The speluish- or index- 
moons correspond, though not exactly, to our month of February, 75, 
19.; to onr July, 75, 1.; and to our September, 75, 11. Der. pc'lui (2). 

Spespakp'Htko, nom. pr. masc. Kl. : '^Squinter^\ " Cross-JEye'\: d. 
form. of partic. of spekpdla, q v. 

s p a 1 p t c h i — s li p 6 1 u . 347 

s p d - u k i t c h n a , d. slipeshpukitclnia to continue eating up, 118, 5. 

spfamna, shpiyamna (1) ^o pull forth, to draw forth, to drag out: kiii'la s. 
to drag out earth, dirt, 163; 14. (2) to lead hy hand, as a child or horse: 
spij^amnatko wAtch nu g^na A'shh'n I take horses with me when going to 
Ashland. Cf. plena, spi'ka, uj^amna. 

s p 1 d s h a , d. spishptcha to drag behind, to draw, pull after oneself. Cf. 
pfena, spiamna, spika. 

s p i d s h li'd s h n a , d. spishptchiidshna to uneoil, draw out; said of a string 
or rope fastened at one end. Der. s^^idsha. 

spika, shpi'ka, spika, d. spi'shpka to draw, pidl out, as a rope, string, 
thread. Cf. pfena. 

spikanash, spe^kanash, d. spishp^kanash needle, sewing needle: i spika- 
ndshtka skentchantak you will sew tvith a needle. Mod. for spekanutkish Kl. 

spitddsha, d. spishptadsha to pidl at; to stretch, extend, pidl out; said of 
the pulhng of ears, fingers, the pinching of noses, the stretching out of 
elastic objects etc. Cf. sj^attidsha. 

spitkala, spitkal (1) v. intr., to drift, to move up slowly, as clouds. Cf. 
shlul61a. (2) V. trans., to make stand up, to raise up, 24, 15. Der. pitkala. 

s p 1 1 c h a , shpi'tcha, d. spi'shptcha; said of fire only: (1) v. trans., to extin- 
guish, put out: spitch' i 161oks! put out the fire! (2) v. intr., to go out, to 
become extinct: lii'luksh shpitcht (for spitchasht) after the fire has become 
extinct, 86, 10. Mod. for spitchka Kl. Der. pftcha. 

s p i t c h k a , d. spishpAtchka, Kl. for spitcha Mod., q. v. 

spi tchotkf p6li , d. spishptchotkipeli to haul or pruU doivn: ple'k s. to 
haul down the flag. Der. spidsha. 

shpiu'hpush Harris' woodpecker, spotted ; Picus EarrisH : 180 ; C. Ono- 
matop. Cf. piupiutana. 

s h p 6 1 u , spiitua, d. sposhptu, spii'shptu, spu'spatua (1) to take strong physi- 
cal exercise by rambling for five days and nights through hills, woods 
and vales, fasting, plunging in cold water, rolling large boulders uphill, 
then sleeping outdoors to obtain magic dreams etc. These exertions 
form a part of the mourning customs of the Oregonian Indians, 82, 10. 
83, 1. (2) to become vigorous, strong by the above exercises; tq fortify, 
strengthen, invigorate oneself. Cf luatpishla, spuka, sputiidsha 


s ]) u ;^u t k () , (1. si)iisli])i'ijj;atko gray, gray-colored. Cf. piikpii'kli, ski'dsliatko.. 

s )) u k a , spuka, slip(')ka, d. spu'shpka (1) to put out the feet, as out of a door, 
wigwam, window, with or without adding- pe'tch (feet). Cf ei'%a, nlka. 
(2) to lie down, to lie on the ground: shp(')]ca nuintchak he lay on the ground 
for a while, 110, 14; tu'shtok spuk4 shli'tk fi-ukskni where the wounded 
Lake Indian ivas lying, 24, 3.; spu'ksksaksi ivhere the (wounded man) ivas 
lying, 24, 20.; partic. spukatko recumbent, lying on ground. (3) to lie in 
bed; lit. "to stretch the legs out". Cf spiinka. 

s p u k a n k a , d. slipushpi'ikanka to move the feet quieJcly. Cf ptitchkiinka. 

S p u k a' n , or Sp. maklaks, nom. pr., Indian of the Spokane tribe of Wash- 
ington Territory, eastern part, belonging to the Selish family. Two or 
three Spokane men live on the Klamath reservation. Cf Note to 78, 15. 

spu'kli, spiiklia, spiiklea, d. spushp;ikli, shpiishpdklia (I) to take a steam- 
bath in a sweat-lodge ; refers either to the daily steam-bath in the small 
willow-lodges, 82, 4. 8. 10., or to the three mortuary sweat-lodges, 89, 7. 
142, 6-9. 12—15. (2) to sweat in willow-lodges and dance during five 
days under the direction of the conjurers at Klamath Marsh, in the 
wokash-season, in order to insure a good crop of pond-lily seed. Uer. 
spuka. Cf lumk6ka, spii'klish. 

sjiu'kliga, d. spushptikliga little sweat-lodge; such as found erected near 
every Indian lodge. Coutr. from spukliaga. Dim. spu'klish. 

spiVklish, d. spushpaklish sudatory, siveat-lodge. They are of three 
kinds: (1) small ones made by bending over a few willow boughs; these 
are covered by mats or blankets to confine the steam, are iised daily by 
the Indians, 82, 3., and a more spacious kind serves also as a place of 
retirement for women in childbed and during the menstrual period; in- 
cantation, 178; 9. (2) solid structures erected of timber, stones and 
earth, and visited by mourners only. Three of these exist in the Upi)er 
Klamath Lake country, all given to the Lake Indians by K'mi'dvamtch, 
82, 7. 142, 6. (Wakciksi) 12. (R-ukalkshi), and tlie Kd-ashkshi s.; the 
Modoc tribe had some of their own. (3) the comnumal dance-house or 
kshiu'lgish is also called sweat-lodge (cf. wdla); i{ is a spacious structure 
erected in the style of earth-lodges (luldamaliiksh, q. v.), having an 
entrance on a level willi the floor, 75, 1 1. Oer. spuka (2). 

s p u g a t k o — s p II 1 i' k s li . 349 

s p li'k 1 i s li 1 a , d. spuspAklishla (1) to erect a sivcat-lodgc by bending- over 
a few willow poles. (2) to lay mats or hlankets upon the sweat-lodge to 
confine the steam. Der. spu'klisb. 

Sp u'klisb = L;'i w ish , nom. pr. of a ssweat-lodge and camping-place on 
Klamath Marsh; lit. "Promontorial Sweat-Lodge". 

s p u'k 1 i t c h a , d. spushpAklitcha to (jo and sweat in a sudatory; to start out 
for a sweat-lath or steam-hath, S2, 5. 88, 3. 89, 6. 

spukliuta, d. spnspaklinta to use for siveatiny purposes, to use for steam- 
baths ; lit "to sweat by means of", 82, 7. Der. spu'kli. 

s p u k t c h 4 m p k a , d. spushpaktchampka to heap up earth, to vtakc mounds; 
said especially of the small grave-mounds, about man's length and sur- 
rounded by palings, 88, 2. 

spukua, d. spushpakua to spread out, extend, display: Shu'kamtch s. m'na 
tchu'ksh Old Crane parted his leys (across the i-iver); Old Crane stepped 
across, 122, 23.: partic. spukuatko («) spread out, displayed, distended; (b) 
inflamed; said of eyes only; hVlp shpushpashkuatko gi both eyes are in- 
flamed. Cf patAdsha, spukanka 

spukuga, d. spushpukuga (I) to dray by the feet. (2) to dray, to dratv, 
pull. Der. spuka. 

s p u k li g a t c h n a , d. spushpkugatchna (l) to drag by the feet or legs, Avhilo 
on a march, 1 3, 6. (2) to drag behind, to drag over the ground. 

s p u 1 d s h a , d. spusptlldsha to saw with a cross-saw. 

spill hi, spulf, d. spushpfilhi, spii'shp'li, v trans., referring to one object 
only: (1) to put, place, carry, bring inside, within, indoors. (2) to close, 
close up, contract; to contract a muscle, e. g., the musculus sphincter C£ 
shnupo'dsha. (3) to take in, confine, loch up, imprison; to punish by im- 
prisonment, 58, 11. 12. 13. 59, 2. 11. 60, 2. 3. 21. 78, 15. etc.: tche'ks 
shpulhiu4pka he will soon be locked up, QQ, 4. 5. Speaking of more than 
one object, ilhi, q. v. Cf. hushpalhi, kui (2). 

s p u 1 h i k i s h , d. spushpalhlkish, full form of spuli'ksh, q. v. Der. spulhi 

s p u 1 h 1 1 k a , spulitka, d. spushpalhftka to return from placing inside, closing 
up, imprisoning: gii'mpgle spulhi'tkuk they went home, returning from the 
imprisonment (of Doctor John), 66, 6. 

s p u 1 1' k s h , d. spushpall'ksh jail, guard-house, place of confinement, imprison- 
ment for one person. Contr. from spulhikish. Cf. ih'gish, skukum-house. 


spu'm the female of tJie shkd' -hawk, q. v.; incantation, 168; 44. 

s p 11 n a'k s h , shponc'ksli, tl. spushpnc'ksli time for rest; bright or later part of 
evening: nauuk spunil'ks evert/ night, 78, 4. Der. spuiiega. Cf luldlkish 
and the Lat. nox conciihia. 

spundga, d. spuslipnii'ga, v. inipers., «7 in late in the evening or night; it is 
sleeping time: tcliui sli])uniik tlien it became late, 100, 11. Cf. spuka. 

s p u n dk 1 a , d. spuslip'nL'kla. v. inipers., it is getting late at night. 

sp ungatg-ap(5l e , spunkiitkapeli, d spuspangatgapele to take back, bring 
baek again; said of one anim. object, 78, 13. 

s p u n g a t k a , spnnkarka, d. spuspangatka to take a person along with 
when returning; to return in somebody's company Der. spiaika. 

spungatcha, d. spuspangatcha; same as spi'mktclia, q. v. 

spu'ni, shpiini, d. spu'slipni to give, to confer upon; to present with, transfer 
to, as a squaw, slave, head of cattle etc.: ka-i huk watch m'sh spuni-uajDka 
she need not transfer a horse to you, 6'0, 15.; lu'gs ge-u spuni'sh the slave 
transferred by me, 20, 18.; spuni'n (for .spuni' nu) I had given or trans- 
ferred, 20, 18.; ka-i snawedsh spuni vnshuk througli fear they did not give a 
wife to him, 93, 1. Speaking of more than one object, shewana, cf 60, 16. 

spunk a, shpu'n;^a, d. spushpanka, spnshpan^a to let out of , to dismiss, to 
let go. Lit "to cause to move the legs"; cf. spuka. 

spun k a m p 6 1 i , d. spushpankampeli to dismiss from jail, to set free, 78, 16. 

spiVnkanka, d. spushpdnkanka (1) to travel along with, to take as com- 
panion for traveling. (2) to take up for oneself, to keep in one's company, as 
a man, child, strange dog etc., 55, 18. Der. spunka. 

spiinktcha, spungatcha, d. spuspanktcha to take, bring along while on 
one's march; said of one anim. object. Der. spiinka. 

s p I'l n k t c h a p e 1 i , d. spushpanktchapgli to convey, to bring back or home 
while on a trip, march or journey; said of one anim. object, 78, 14. 

spans hdm pd 1 e , d. spushpanshAmpele to lead, convey or take back, to 
take or hring home, QQ, 3. 96, 5. Der. spunslma, -pelf. 

s p li n s h i p k a to bring or convey somebody towards, 107, 4. 

s p u n s h i p k 1 a to bring along tvifh, lead, convey a person for another, 107, 9. 

spunshna, d. spush]);iiislina (1) to lake (dong with, to take along as com- 
panion, 95, 1. (2) to lake away by Jlaitcrii/g, to coax away. (3) to take 

s p li' ni — w t ;i - i 1 a . 351 

along forcibly ; to capture, arrest; to convey as a captive, 24, 15. 36, 17. 66, 
3. 133, 9. 1 0.— Speaking of move than one anini. object, ena, idshna. 
Cf. liushpantchna. 

spunt^a, d. spuslipant;^a to abduct, steal, take away from: spil'nt^ashtka 
giug snawedsli m nix for the purpose of abducting one of his ivives, 94, 10. 

spuntpa, d. spushpcintpa to bring, take along with; the French "em- 
mener'' : lu'ks t'shi'n spii'ntpisliani a prisoner of war grew up to adnlt age, 
after they (the enemies) liad carried him off, 16, 14. Speaking of a plural- 
ity of anim. objects, I'tpa. 

spun tp4mp6l i , d. spushpantpampeli to bring back to, to travel back or 
homeward ivith, 78, 15. Speaking of a plurality of anim. objects, 

sputidshanuish, d. spushptidshanuish furrow made by the plow 

spu'tua, sp6tu, d. shpiVshpatua; same as shp6tu, q. v. Cf spuka. 

s p u t u' d s h a , d. shpushptu'dsha to go out to fortify oneself; to go and take 
exercise for becoming strong in body. Der. shp6tu. 

s p u t u y a , d. spushptuya to plow. Der. putoya. 

s p u t li y o t c h , d. spushptuyotch plow. Kl. for shutoy otkish Mod. 

s p u t u y u i s h , sput6-iwish, sputi'i-ihuish, d. spushpt6-iwisli furrow of 
plow. Der. sputiiya. 

spiitchta, d. spusbpdtchta to frighten, to scare, to terrify. Cf hush- 
pAtchta, piitchta. 

std, shtd, d. stdsta, sbtdshta (1) to be full, filled, replete, 75, 9 : slitA safka 
the prairie was fidl of them, 107, 6. Cf ^wa, I'wa, sluno'tUa, .sh6pa. (2) 
to be complete, entire. (3) adv., fully, to repletion. (4) adv., completely, 
entirely: shtA tok sa E-ukskni hashAmpka the Lake warriors completely 
encircled them, formed an unbroken ring around theui, 23, 12. 

stdgi, sht4gi, d. shtashtdgi to fill, fill up, make fidl: slitiigi m'na ya'ki she 
filled her seed-basket with roots, 118, 4. 7. Speaking of many subjects, 
st4-ila. Der. sta, gi (5). 

s 1 4 - i 1 a , shta'-ila, d. shtashtila, v. trans., referring to more than one sub- 
ject: (1) to dig out edible roots, tubers or bulbs with a tool (amda); an 
occupation devolving almost exelusivel}^ upon the women of the tribe. 
Cf m^ya, stagi. (2) to gather, collect, reap edible seeds by beating them 


from the bushes into the basket, 75, 5. 14{i, 4.; to gather bei-ries; to hring 
together; said of tlie stalks of tlie nia-i or tall biUrush-grass, 148, 3. Lit. 
"to fill down into (the basket)". Der. st;i 

staiiiaksh, d. stastinaksh heel. Cf staklinsh. 

s t a k 1 a to fasten, to stick up: vu'nshtat a. to stick up on a dugout canoe, 150, 5. 

staklinsh, stAkglins hall of the foot: stakelinsksaksi at the ball, 24, 18. 

s t a k 1 6 1 a t k o , d. stashtakol61atko bald-headed. 

stilkpiinksh, d. stastakpunksh (1) leech. (2) snail, slug: stdkpunksam 
latchash snail-shell; lit. "snail-house''. Cf. the German: k-clmeckenhaus. 

S t a k t ak s , nom. pr. of a camp-site on the Sprague River; interpreted by 
"End of the Hill". 

stalAla, d. stashtaldla, shtasht'ldla to fill: pAksh s. to fill the pipe, 14, 4. 
and Note. Der. stdni. 

staldgatko, shtalikatko, d. stashtaldgatko, adj., m close contact -with, 
fastened to, e. g., to the animal body. Said of coverings for the feet: ati 
s. waksna high-topped moccasins ; wiuka s. low-topped. Der. taliga (1). 

s t a 1 k s h , d. stiishtalksh wall; house-wall, wall of building. Der. stal;fa. 

s t a 1 % a , d. shtashtdlxa to ptlant two poles in the ground; see tevva. 

stani, shtani, d. stastni, shtashtni, nA]., full, filled with, replete, brimful: 
s. kdlo ktchti'l (supply: gi) tlie sky is full of stars; shnulash a s. napal 
the nest is full of eggs ; ewaga s. wishink the pond is filled tvith garter- 
snakes; ya'kiti w6kash s. the seed-basket is full of ivokash; lit. "the lily- 
seed is brimful within the basket"; nep, we'k s. a handful, ariiifal. Der. 
std. C£ kliilash, ncwa, stena, stu. 

Stan n't chn a , d. shtasht'ni'itchna (I) v. intr, to lose, to be deprived of one 
object, 43, 9. (2) v. trans., to deprive of, to cause to lose, 43, Ifi. Cf. stewa. 

sta-(Sta, d. shtashta-ota, v. intr., to starve for a while, to be famished for tlie 
time being: sta-6tank nuikual he camps out while starving himself or fasting, 
83, 2. Dur. of stawa. Cf shp6tu 

stap, shtaj), pi. tumi s., fiint arroiv-heud, fiint spear-head, 134, 17. 

s t a p a 1 a , st;i])al, d. shtashtpal, Mod. form of st6pela, q. v. 

stap a t c h k a , stupatchka, d. shtashtapatchka to wash one's ow)i face: jVlai- 
wash stopatchka the golden eagle washed Jtis face, 134, 11.: nu stapatsku- 
iipka I am going to ivash my face. Cf. shatashpapki'a, shct;itcha. 

s t a p a t e h k 6 t k i s h wash-basin ; lit. " what serves for washing the face". 

stainaksh — shte'ksh. 353 

stixpka, d. stastapka to pound, make fine, mash fine: sliMpka (slia) kta- 
yatka tJiey pound with stones, 147, 11. Cf. ndshapka, ska'. 

stap6tkish, d. stashtp6tkish wooden or steel needle used in the manu- 
facture of mats ; length about six inches. Cf. stdpsh. 

stiipsh mat made of buh-ush, lacustrine grass: s. Idtchash cabin covered 
with bulrush mats, "tide lodge". Cf stApka, st^-ulash. 

s t a s h 1 4 m n i s h , pi. tumi sh., set of earrings. Cf. hashtamna. 

sta wa , d. stdshtua (1) v. trans., to deprive somebody of food or necessaries ; 
to starve. (2) v. intr. or refl., to he dejrrived, to (leprive oneself of the neces- 
saries of life; to starve, to starve to death, to he famished. Cf. hashtawa. 

s t Ji - 1 1 d s h a , shtd-ildsha, to start out for digging roots, bulbs; to set out for 
gathering fruits, seeds, 101, 4. Der. sttl-ila, q. v. 

Steamboat, nom. pr. of Steamboat Frank's first wife, 5'' , 17. 

shtdginsh, pi. tumi st, stocking: n^tu an Iddshish s. / have practice in 
knitting stockings. From the English. 

s h t e g i n s li a 1 a to knit, make, manvfacture stockings. 

steinash, shta-inash, d. shtashtinash (1) heart; the agency and principle 
of physical hfe, vitality, 118, 10, 175; 17.: Leme-isham s. the heart of 
the Thunders, 114, 4-8.; shko'ksam s. the spirits' heart, 174; 11. Cf. 
pahcSka, shila. (2) soul or sensitive power of man: gd-utala s. to my heart's 
content; ku-i s. gi to be aggrieved in one's heart; kii-i su'ta pipghingshtan 
stainas they mutually emhittered their lives, 78, 6.; litchlitchlish s. gitko 
plucky, brave. Cf ma'sha, o-6j>Jvgi. (3) morals, seme of right and wrong: 
tidshi, k6-idshi s. of good, of wicked character. 

steinshaltko, d. stash tinshaltko (1) possessed of a heart. (2) having 
sensitive or moral affections or qualities; disposed, affected: at tidsh nfi 
stainsh41tko now I am rejoicing, now my heart is gladdened. (3) thoughtful, 
reflective. (4) Steinshaltko, nom. pr. masc. Kl ; interpreted by "Big 
Heart", which is intended for "plucky" or "magnanimous" and presup- 
poses a fuller form of the name: Mu'=Steinshaltko. 

s h t d y a k ' 1 a k p a to listen, hearken, 114, 1. 

stdkish, d. shtdshtkish doorway, passage, entry : latch'sam s. doorway of 

lodge. Cf st6kish. 

shte'ksh, ste'ks, sti'ks, Mod stt^ks (e short), d. shte'kshtaks. Mod. stg'k- 


slitiiks (1) nail VII Jiuger and toe. Qiiot. under gutila. (2) claw, funy; 
talon: tsi'ksam s. bmVa claws or necklace made of such; 16kani s. grizzly 
beards claws: l(jkam s. siuiawakitk wearing a necJclace of grizzly bear''s claws; 
sufli necklaces are seen no longer, but formerly were worn by men and 
esi)ecially by women below the breast, being highly valued on account 
of their flavor (cf sti'ka). Cf nep (3). 

s t e 1 ;'i )) k i s h , d. siiteshtliijjkish, adj., rigJd, on riglit-hand side : slnuVka 
ste'lapksli (for .stel;ii)ki.sha.sli) ne'p they grasp his right hand, 87, 13. Mod. 
also pronounce stel(')pg<ish. Cf sketish, shketitko. 

s t e 1 e w a , d. shteshtak'wa to stir, excite the water. Cf Ikan, tchelewa. 

s t e m s h , d. shteshtamsh ivoman^s private parts. 

stc'na, d shtc'shta to curry in a pail or bucket. Der. ena. Cf sho'dshna. 

s t (.' tni a s li , d. stestiitmash dipped in poison; poisoned: nge'sh s. poisoned 
arroir, 90, 1 8. Cf temadsha. 

s t e - u 1 a s h , shte-ulisli, d. steshtu'lash (1) rush or tule-mat to cover Indian 
lodges: pe'ni shte-ulasli coarse mat made of the tall j^a'wi-^rass; used for 
covering cabins. (2) willow-framed lodge (stina'sh) covered with rush-mats. 

s t e w a , d. shteshtua to lose, to be dejjrived of: nanuktua s., to lose every- 
thing; slnVldshash s. they lost or missed soldiers, 37, 22. Speaking of one 
object, stanu'tclma, ([. v. Mod. Cf shnekegi, stawa. 

stewa, shte-ua (1) to mix with, to mix up, mash up with, mingle, 150, 9. 
(2) to mix with water for kneading; said of dt)ugh. Der. ewa 

s t (.' w i , shtewa to shoot several objects by the same charge. Der. tewi. 

stialtko, stealtko, d. stista'ltko containing resin or pitch, lb, 5.; smelling 
like resin. Der. stiya. 

stiva, stia, shti-e, d. stishtia, shti'shtie (1) resin, as exsudated by pine- 
and other trees, 96, 6., cf pila; shti'ya shishi'dsha they put resin on their 
heads as a sign of sorrow, 132, 6.; shti'e shupeluka nu'ss wen6yuk they 
heaped resin on her head, for she had become widowed, 89, fi. (2) pitch, tar. 

stika, shti'ka, d. shti'shtka, v. trans., to scent, to perceive by smelling: p'h'i 
s. to smell fat or lard; lu'k hu'nksh shti'kok vu'shat the grizzly bear smell- 
ing (the ko'1-roots) will flee him, 147, 13. Cf shte'ksh. 

sri'klkish, shtiklgish, d shtishtaklgish notch, incision: nge'shara s. 
notch at lower end of arrow for appl)-ing the bowsti-ing. 

stelapkish — stilta. 355 

stikshui, Mod. .stiksliuai, d (slitislitakshui (1) boot. (2) shoe. From 
English through Chhi. J.; stick-shoe: "high shoe". Cf. w4kshna. 

s t i 1 a k a , stillaga, stilez'd, d. stistalel^a to await in a canoe the entering of 
finh into the tewash-net; to Jish with the tewash-dipnet: la-ikashtka s. to fish 
ivith the Id-il'sh-dipnct. Dei\ tda. 

8 1 1 1 a k g i s h "Dipnct Fishery", nom. pr. of a camping site on the Wilham- 
Bon River. Der stikika. 

s t i 1 a n k a n s h a to pass a gate, as teams and wagons. Der. tihxnktinsha. 

stilanksh, d. stishtekuiksh (I) hooj), circle: tchikemiin s. iron hoop. Cf. 
hishtihinkanke-o'tkish. (2) quiver with its string and arrows. Cf stihxsh, 

stilankua, d. stishtekinkua to ford a river on a wagon; Ht. "to wheel 
through the water". Cf gakua, pankua. 

stilanshna, stilantchna, d. stishteMnshna, v. trans. (1) to roll on the 
ground or foor. (2) to drive a hoop, wheel or circle. 

s t i 1 a s h , shti'lhash, d. shtisht;ilash string used as a holder, handle (of basket 
etc.); s., or tukankshti s., quiver-strap, made of buckskin hide: tsuyesham 
or tsuy ^shti s. guard-string of hat; ya'kiti s. string of the conical root-basket, 
which is worn on back. 

atilhipeli, d slitishtalhipeli to return and tell, to report: s. shash kiitni 
he reported to those staying in the haydta-lodgc, 112, 10. Cf sti'l^a No. 2. 

stilkakuish, d. shtishtalkakuish person sent out to report forth and hack; 
messenger, dispatch carrier ; chiefly used in the d form. Der. sti'l/aNo 2 

s 1 1 1 X a , shtilka, d. shtislital%a, v. trans., to melt, as lead, tallow : shulalan 
s. to melt in a pan, pot, ladle or crucible; to place into (the net) to be dis- 
solved m the water; said of fish-killing substance^, 150, 4. Der. til%a. 

stil^a, d. stistal%a to report; to make known, to divulge. Cf stilta, stiltpa. 

stillidAnka, shtilitanka to report, to carry news, to bring information, 
111, 21. Der. stilta. Cf stilta No. 2, stuli. 

s t i 1 1 i n a s h , d. stisht'linash tallow, rendered fat. Cf stilta No. 1 . 

s t i 1 s h a m p e 1 i , d. stistalshampeli (1 ) to report hack: shtilshampeli- 
uapkuk for the purpose of reporting, 29, 17.; stildsampelok sas in order to 
announce (it) to them, 22, 15. (2) to bring a message. Der. stiltchna, -peli. 

stilta, d. stishtalta to announce, report to; to inform somebody personally 


or through a messenger, to tell somebody about, 94, 9.: K'mukanits aii'sh 

p'lai'wash shti'lta, ICmukamtch told me about the golden eagles, 101, 15. 

Cf. hislitiiha, shapiya, stuH. 
s ti 1 ti s h , d. stist^ltish (I) announcement, message. (2) used as a verbal of 

stilta in 55, 14, cf. Note, 
s 1 1 1 1 ]) a , d. stistahpa to announce to, to bring a message to, 40, 23. 
stiltchka, stilshka, d. stistdltchka (1) ^o report, to announce in the quahty 

of a messenger : giyan shti'lshga to report lies, to lie in one!s reports. Mod., 

38, 16. (2) to divulge a secret, KL Der. stilta. 
stilt chna, shti'lshna, d. stistAltchna to go and report, to start off, to report, 

inform, to carry news or information, with verbal cond., 39, 10 43, 22.: 

nd-ulaksh s. to bring a message, 38, 14.; gen;i shti'ldshnuk he went ivith 

the message, 88, 8. Der. stilta. 
s t i n ti - a , d. shtishtnd-a (1) to build, erect a stina'sh or tule-covercd lodge, Kl. 

(2) to build a house, lodge, cabin of any description, Mod.: shtishtnad'tan 
for erecting lodges with the split rails, i'5, 4. 

stina'ga d. stistina'ga little willow-lodge, small cabin, 82, 3. Contr. form 
stinA-aga. Dim. stina'sh, q. v. 

stina'sh , shtina'sh, d. shti'shtinash, stistinash (1) KL, willow-lodge ; Indian 
cabin erected on a frame of willow bouglis bent over; when covered witii 
mats, it is called ste-ulash: yauk6la=stupuyuk s menstrual lodge. (2) 
building, lodge, house of any description; dwelling-house built in Indian 
or American style; oidhouse, provision-house, shed etc.: shtindshti p411a. 
to steal from the house. Mod. for latchash Kl. Der. stinA-a. Cf. at, lotesli, 
lutlla, ste-ulash, tchi'sh (2). 

sti'nkpeli to bend, to bend back: na'hl^shtka s. ntd-ish to bend the bote by 
(drawing) the string. 

s t i n t a , d. stistdnta yi) to receive well, in a friendly manner or with honors: 
pi a n'sh tidsli stfnta he received me well. (2) to love, to like, as a friend, 
parent or relative: mi liu ge-u stintish you are dear to me; cf. 93, 7. 

(3) to revere, worship, 134, 19.; to appreciate, to value or prize highly, 139, 
2. 9 Cf hishtanta, tintampka, tintpa. 

shtipa, d. shtishtj)a (1) to be clouded, to be full of clouds: kalu a stipa 
paishasli the sky is covered with clouds. (2) to be clouded with lamb-clouds. 
Mod. Cf kalo, paisha, tgiwa. 

stilt is h — stosht6tisli. 357 

s t i p a 1 e / a , d. shtishtepal;^a to turn upside down, to turn over. Der. p'lai. 

s 1 1 p 1 , pi. tiimi s., stable; stable with barn. From English stable. 

stit%a, d. sliti.shtdt;{a to cheat, defraud of. Der. ft;(a. Cf. palla. 

stiwi%6tkish, d. stishtni%6tkish baby-board; small board to which 
infants of Western Indians are tied and carried about by their mothers 
while their heads are undergoing the process of flattening. Mod. Der. 
iwi;^6tkish. Cf. (^mtchna, shuentch. 

s ti w 1 n i , d. stishtulni to stir up, as dough: n^patka s. to stir with the hand 
or hands. Der. iwina. Cf. kuloyena. 

st6, sht(j, d. st6shtu; see stu. 

st6kish, d. st6shtkish doorway, gate: ktchfnksham s. gate of a corral, in- 
closure. Mod.; unknown to Kl. Der. stu. Cf st^kish. 

stokuaga, st6kuak " little burrower^^: (1) species of small fish, four or five 
inches long. (2) species of long-tailed squirrel: Spermophilus Beecheyi. 
(3) St6kuag, abbr. Stokua, one of Afshish's mythic wives, mentioned in a 
mythologic tale, and supposed by some to be the small fish (1), by others 
the squirrel (2), 99, 10. 100, 5. 11. 12. Der. stu (1). Cf. m^hiash. 

stopalhuish, or stapaluisham, d. sta'shtpalhuish (1) tree partly peeled 
off. (2) verbal indef preterit of st6pela, q. v. Cf. wapalash. 

stopalsh, d. sht6shtpalsh the inner or fibrous bark of trees; the sweet- 
tasting fiber-bark of the kapka pine-tree is peeled off and eaten raw by 
the Indians in April, when the sap goes up, and later in the spring, 148, 
19-22. Cf. st6pela. Cf. knd-udshi. 

st6palsha, d. st6shtpalsh to scrape off annually or habitually the fibrous 
or inner bark of pine-trees, especially of the kdpka-pine; to peel a pine- 
tree and eat the fiber-bark, 148, 19. and Note 

St6palsh = Tamddsh "Solitary Peeled Pine", nom. pr. of a locality near 
Klamath Marsh, 74, 16. From st6palhuish, tam4dsha. 

st6patchka, shtii'patchka, d. shtu'shtpatchka; same as stap4tchka, q. v. 

s 1 6 p 6 1 a , Mod. stdpala, d. st6shtpela to scrape off, peel, remove the inner bark 
of trees, 148, 20.: ku'sh st6paluish, st6palhuish pine-tree partly deprived 
of the fiber-bark, 148, 21. 22. Der. u-, p41a; Ht. "to make dry above." 

stosht6tish, pi. tiimi s. (1) gopher, mole; a species oi Thomomys; lit. 
"maker of passages". (2) bugleman, trumpeter. Der. stu. Cf stuka 


sti'i, slitii', st6, d. shtii'shtu, stoslitii (I) passage, aperture in the ground; 
hvrrow, den, hole, tunnel, subterranean passage-ivay, gangivay; loiv entrance. 
(2) tuhiform passage, tube, air-passage. (3) passage, thoroughfare above the 
ground ; trail, j^ath, jxifhwag; wag, road, causeivay, street: slitu' st/uii kClu- 
ush the road is full of sand; 161oks=wii'genam sto railroad; lit. "fire- 
Avngon's pjitli"; jjrt//?, trail of animals, 29, 1 1. 

stiii'iga, slito-aga, d. shtushtuAga (1) small burrow or suhterranean passage. 
(2) ^)«^//, pathway, foot-path. Dim stii. 

stti'ilash, (1. shtushti'lasli (1) ^j?7e of tcood. (2) ^/-e-f^^oof^ put away for 
the cold season, Kl. Der. tiiila. Cf To-ilkat, tiiilasli. 

stilish, slitu'ish, d. shtu'shtish ftirrrow; gopher s den; mole-hill: shtu'ishtat 
gatpamnan coming to a gopher-hole, 128, 6. Der sti'iya. 

s 1 11 y a , shtoya, d. shtushtia (\) to make a road, way, passage, gangway ; to 
tunnel through, 104, 4. (2) to jilace on the road or trail, to set going, to 
cimdatc: stoyuapka (supply: nil pa'ksh) I iviU put the tobacco-pipe in circu- 
lation, 137, 2. Der. stii. 

stuyAkishka, d. stuslitiAkishka to clip the hair. Cf. shiashka (2), 
shuyoka (2), shi'iktaldsha. 

stuyua, d. stushtiyua to stab each other; to wound or cut each other with 
sharp-pointed weapons: partic. stuyuetko stahbed, pierced Der. stii'ka. 

stu'ka, .shtuka, d stn'shtka (1) to shout through the hands applied to the 
mouth as a tube. (2) to shotd, halloo, cry aloud. Cf ndena, nkena, 
stu't%6na, stu't/jjishla. (3) to stab; to ivoimd or cid with a pointed weapon, 
to pierce ; lit "to make a way through": partic. stukatko {a) cut, stabbed; 
wounded with a knife oi" spear; (b) stab-wound. (4) to gig, to catch with 
poles, to spear; said of fish: ku'tagsh s. to gig minnow-fish; said of Old 
Crane, 122, 6.; pshi'n slotsuank shtoka to spear fish by torchlight. Cf. 
stukua. (5) to sting, bite. Mod.; said of bees, snakes etc. Cf. kiutka. 
Der stu. Cf hashtaksh, hashtka. 

stii'kish, stokish, d. stii'shtkish (1) hailstone: mu'm&m s. heavy hailstones, 
156; 26. (2) hailstorm. Der. stu'ka (3). 

s t vl' k s h a 1 1 ]< o notched; having portions or angles cut out. 

stukua, d. stiishtkua to stab in the water; to gig, kill by stabbing in tvater: 
kiii'm s. to gig, harpoon fish. Cf tu;ikish. 

stu — stupka. 359 

stuleolisli, d. stustaleolish definite order, command: kA-i hu'shkank 
K'nuikamtsatn stuleo'ls gi'ulatki he was not mindful of K'mukandcNs sharp 
order enjoining him (to bring etc.), 107, 7. Der. stuli. 

stuli, shtuli, stullii, d. stustali, stustalhi to order, command; to enjoin, give 
directions; connected usually with the verbal intentional: s. i'ktchatki 
gi'ug kma' he sent him to obtain the skullcaps, 109, c^.; s. linakag m'na 
shii'tki he advised his little son to shoot, 110, 2.; nanuk maklaksash slitu- 
liuhink after having left orders ivith all the Indians. Cf. 96, 11. 107, 13. 15. 
110, .0. 118, 9. Cf. tpevva. 

stulidsha, d. stushtalidsha to order, enjoin while going; to give directions 
wliile passing around: nanuktualash sha shtulidsha kA-i sliAptki giug tliey 
tvent around commanding every article not to tell, 120, 21. Cf. stuli. 

stu'lka, d. stushtalka to jicrforate another person's >^ose with a sharp in- 
strument, as a needle. Der. talka. Cf. liAshtaksli. 

stiVnka, d. stushtanka to pass or run through, as a rope, string, 13, 6. 

stunk^dsha, d. stushtankedsha, v. trans., to encompass, encircle with; 
said, e. g., of embroidering or sewing beads around the rim of a cushion. 

stunkiamna, d. stushtankiamna (1) v. mtv., to pass around, go around; 
said of inan. subjects, as neckties, e. g. (2) v. trans., to encompass, en- 
circle, as a piece of land with a fence Der. stu'nka. 

s t I'l n % i a , d. stushtdnkia to pass or run through oneself: kenuks a-i ml 
stu'n;(i-napk I will pass out a rojje through my anus, 165; II. and Note. 

stun slush, Mod stu'ntchish, d stushtanshish. Mod. stushtantchish ejjca- 
vated canal, ditch, wet ditch: kukaga shtunshfshti stream, passing through 
an artificial bed; canalized riindet or brook. Cf stu'nshna. 

stii'nshna, Mod. shtuntchna, d. stushtAnshna, Mod. stushtantchna to 
make pass through; to conduct, force, or pull through or onward: knukstat 
s to drag an object behind on a rope; Ibe'na shtunshnuk ambu to dig a 
conduit for water, to dig a canal or ditch. Der. ntultchna. 

stiVnta, shtu'nta, d. shtushtanta to fasten or fix on, as a rope, string. 

stiip, stu'pa, pi. tiimi s., stove; iron heater: stu'pat wintila to lie under, near 
the stove, 186; 56. From English stove. 

stiipash, stnpesh, pi. tumi s., bone marrow, animal marrow. 

stupka, d. stustapka (1) to puncture. (2) to stab repeatedly in several 


places; to wound or kill hy stabbing: ])artic. st6pkatko, stupkatko {a) 

wounded hy stab-wounds, (b) stab-wound. Der. stu'ka. Cf. hushtdpka, 

ktakalitko, stil'ka (3). 
s t u p k a , d. shtushtupka to stand, to be contained in; said of inan. subjects: 

dmpu sh. pok6ti water stands in the bucket. Der. tiipka. Cf. stiitka. 
s t u' p u a 1 ;f a , d. stusht;ipualxa to bubble up in cold water; said of the effect 

of articles thrown in. Cf. kmult;faga, kmutcho'sha, pu^lhi 
s t u p u i , d. stushtdpui to menstruate for the first time ; to enter the age of 

feminine puberty: stupuyiiga, stupvlyuk oti account of first menstruation, 

134, 21.; yauk6la=stupuyuk stina'sh menstrual lodge. Cf ynlina, pilj)il. 
s t u p u i s h , d stushtApuish first menstruation 
stutash, d. stushtiitash j;i|)e; reed-pipe. Der. stu (2) 
s t u 1 1 1 a , d stnshtila to roof over, to cover with a roof resting on pillars: stu- 

tilantko spu'klish (these) sweat-lodges are roofed, 82, 2. 
s t u t i 1 a s h , stnti'lsh roof-pillar, post, solid ivood frame of Indian lodg-e: hllt- 

mdlaksam s. vertical booms or posts sustaining a winter-lodge ; usually sot up 

in the form of a regular square, 
s t I'l t i s h , d. stushtish ; occurs in : shiip'sam stuti'sh beams of light projected 

by the I'ising and the setting sun, 179; 3. 
s t u t k a , d. stushtfitka to stand, to be standing; said of anim. subjects: wtltcli 

a atf stutkatko the horse is tall. Cf stupka No. 2, tupka. 
stu't%6na, d. shtushtdt^ena to emit a voice, sound; said of persons and 

animals: ku-i an s. I have no good or strong voice: partic. stut;ijantko having 

a voice, endowed with a voice; mu'=stutzclmpkash gisht being possessed of 

a strong voice, 55, 17. cf. 18 i; 24.; wayo'sham stu't%antk singing like the 

waiwash-goose, i. e. "harmoniously", 183; 19.; yukikam stu't^antk ^os- 

sessing the voice of the mocking-bird, 183; 21 Der. stu (2). 
stu't^ish, d. stushtdt^ish (1) sound, clang, tone. (2) human or animal 

voice. Cf stut^Sna. 
s t u' t X i s h 1 a , d. shtushtatzishla to tveep aloud, to cry in mourning; to weep 

as a mourner, while sitting at the side of the deceased, 89, 3. Cf ki'iki, 

ludtpishla, stu't^Sna. 
s h t c h a y A s h 1 a , d. shtchashtchi4shla, v. intr., to produce a noise, report, 

rustle; said of the elementary forces. 

s t I'l p k a — s h t c h i s h a 1 k a t k o . 361 

sli t chakalka , d. shtehashtclikurka to form a corner, angle; partic. d. 

shtchaslitch;^alka.tko triangular; lit. "acute-angular." Der. tcliak, radix 

of tcliaktchakli. 
shtchakalidtpish angle of any description ; corner of a room. 
shtchakuash, abbr. sdkuash, d. sbtchaslitch4kuasli (I) pole sharpened 

at one end. (2) spear, gig-spear, gigging pole used in fishing, 180; 20.: 

sakuashtka kia'm stu'ka to spear fish. This spear is composed of two 

long poles inserted into each other and of a smaller one at the end, the 

whole reaching sometimes a length up to twenty feet (3) fish-spear, 

pole with three iron prongs. Der. tchak, rad. of tchaktchakli. Cf. ki'sh. 
s h t c h ii 1 a p s h t i s h , d. shtchashtch^lapshtish rainbow, Mod. Cf. wftchiak. 
shtchaiikitko, d. shtchashtcliu'kitko deaf. Der. ndsh6ka. 
shtchd-ush, sts4-us s^icA;, rod or pole, used in erecting sweat-lodges: stsa- 

usa^wdlks (for sts4-usam=wdlks) hole made in the ground for planting the 

rods when building a sweat-lodge, 168; 45. 180; 23. Cf. shtchdkuash (1). 
s h t c h a u t a n t k o , d. shtchaslitchu'tantko deaf. Mod. for shtchaukitko Kl. 
s h t c h e 1 ^ vv a , d. sliteheshtchele'wa to bubble up in water, to form ripples 

spontaneously. Mod. Der. tchel^wa. 
s h t c h 1 d s h a p k a , d. shtchishtchapka to bring, carry to somebody several 

objects of the same description or things gathered in a hunch. Cf. tchipka. 
shtchiyakeka, d. shtchishtchiak^ka to tickle. Mod. Cf. she'yakua. 
s h t c h i y a m n a , d. shtchishtchiamna to carry in hand articles in a bunch 

or several objects of the same description. Cf f-amna. 
sht chi'kg ds hna, d. shtchishtchak'tchna to trot, as a horse. Cf. kish- 

tchna, shnii'-iildsha. 
s h t c h I'k e d s h n i s h , d. shtchishtcliAggedshnish trotting horse, trotter. 
s h t c h f k ' 1 z a , d. shtchishtchak'l^a to erect poles for a scaffold or platform. 

Cf kshdwal, tchikla, tchik61al%a. 
s h t c h 1 k p a k s h , d. shtchishtchakpaksh halter of horse. 
s h t c h i' k t % i s li , d. shtchishtchakt^ish bridle. Cf tchi%tchi%a. 
sh tchipka, d. shtchishtchapka to gather, unite articles into a bunch; to 

collect objects of the same nature. Der. tchipka. 
sht ch i shalkatk o , shtchishl%atko, d. shtchishtchash'l;(atko crooked, 

curved, bent over. Cf tisMlatko. 


s li t (• li 1 1 cli tell n a, d. shtchitchtclidtchtchna to sqiibt. Cf. kpitclitclma. 
s li t, (; li i' w a k s h , slitchiyuaks, d. shtchfshtclmaksli ( I ) short (joirn reaching 

from waist to knees, worn by women; also called uba-ush sli. (2) petticoat 

or skirt, as parts of female dress, 
s h t c li I'l y a m p k a , d. shtchushtchiampka to shine or reflect into the eyes so 

as to injure the poiver of vision. Cf. shtcliu'katko. 
s li t c li u k a 1 k i d s h a , d. shtchushtchzalkfdslia, v. intr., to male a lend or 

turn, as a river or road, 
shtcliu'katko, d. shtcluVshtch%atko (1) one-eyed, 107, 4. 8. 10. 109, 

3-12. (2) Stsokatko, nom. pr. of a Klamath Lfike man. Der. shtchi'i^a- 

Cf. Note to 109, 6. 
s h 11 a d s h a m t c h ' m a , d. shuashudshamtch'nia to wag the tail. 
shua-i, sutl-i hiack-fail deer; a species found onl}' in and west of the 

Kocky Mountains: Cernis columhiamis. Cf. muslmiush (2), pakolesh. 
shu ait It'll a, d. shuashuaitlala to heat stones during one dag for cooking, 

baking or roasting purposes, 74, 4. . Cf. satnalha 
s h u a k a k , shuakaga, d. shuashuakak ■prairie-chicken ; gray and brownish, 

with down. A bird closely related to the p6pusha, q. v. Der. shua't. 
s h u a k i'l t c h k t c h a , d. sliuashukiitchktcha to shake the head in refusal. 
shu a k i a , d. shushuakia to call a conjurer for help; term used of conjurers 

only and therefore not necessarily connected with its object, kiuksash. 

Customers are afraid to enter the wizard's own lodge and therefore call 

him out by loud cries and hallooing. Tsika shuakiuk ndena the old man 

shouted after the shaman or conjurer, G8, 3 ; .shuakiuk kiukshash when 

calling the conjurer, 71, 1.; shashuaki'sh (another d. form for shushuakish 

or shuashuAkish) ^9eoj>Ze calling the conjurer, 84, 1. Cf. kiuks, wakena. 
s h u a kids h a , d. shuashiikidsha to start out for shamanic help; to go and 

call a conjurer for help, 65, 18. (i8, 2., construed like shuakia, q. v.: tsui 

gcna tcliika suakitsuk then the old man left for obtaining the conjurefs help, 

68, 3. Cf. kiuks, sluiishala. 
shuaktcha, suaktcha, d. shuashufiktcha to shed tears, to weep, to wail; to 

cry loudly, 122, 12. 13. 190; 17.: kiifla sh. the earth ivept, 17r); 19.; su4s- 

suaktch maklaks lu'innk every individual is tceeping, 70, 6 ; shuashuaktchish 

loud mourners, bewailers, 84, 2. 100, 9.; shunslmaktchota tvhile tvceping 

over their loss, 110, 22. Cf. luatpishla, stu't;(ishla. 

s h t c h 1 1 c h t c h n a — s li u a - u k a . 363 

s h u a k t c li t A in p k a , d. shuasluiaktchtanipka to commence weeping, wail- 
ing; to begin to shed tears, 126, 2. 
s h u a 1 a , d. shuaslmala to pile up, to pile upon each other: ktd-i sli. to pile up 

rods, to erect a rock-harricade, 30, 9. Cf. wdlasli, walisli. 
s h u a 1 a 1 i a m p k a , d. shuashualaliampka (1) to watch, to keep watch over: 

sh. kiii'm to watch the fish. (2) to protect, watch the interests of, 34, 20.; to 

take care of, 39, 13. 21.; to manage, to superintend, cf. 33, 2. and Note, 

134, 6. Cf. slnuilka No. 1, wtil^a (1). 
sliudlka, A. ^\mi\s\in{\W^ to preserve, keep entire ; to save, \ZA, 7. Mod.; 

unknown to Kl. Der. wal;ja (1). 
s h u a 1 k a , d. sliuashualka to sweat, perspire, to he in a perspiration, to he 

warm or hot; not referring to the sweat-lodge. Der. w<41a. 
s li u a 1 k a s li , d. shuaslmalkash sweat, perspiration. 
s li u a 1 k 6 1 a , d. shuashualkola to cool oneself off. Der. shiiAlka. 
shualkcVl tcha, d. shuashualko'ltcha to cool oneself while walking, 82, 9. 
shualxi^, d. shnshualxa; same as shuwal;ja, q. v. 
Shuals%e'ni, nom. pr. of a camping-site on Klamath Marsh; lit. "At 

the Pile of Rocks". Der. shuala. 
s h u k n k a p t c h i ; same as shuhankptchi, q. v. 
s h u ;'i n s h a k 1 n i s h , Mod. shuantchilkeluish (1) mane of horse, lion. Cf 

ksh^luish, wakaluish, wamelhuish. (2) Mod , hristles on hog's back 
s h n a 11 11 i , d. shiishanui to covet, to he in love with. Cf kuktakia 
s h u a s h u 1 a 1 i a m p k i s h , pi. tumi sh. ( 1 ) watcher, watchman, guardian : 

shi'p sh. shepherd. (2) administrator, superintendent, 33, 1., and Note 

to 33, 2.; Government agent of an Indian reservation : Dya sh. kshita the 

agent Byar escaped, 42, 1 7. Der. shualaliiimpka. 
shua't, d. shuashuat sage-cock, sage-hen; a western bird belonging to the 

Tetraonid or grouse family: Centrocercus urophasianus, 135, 4. Cf 

p6pusha, pupisha, shnakak 
shuatawi, Kl. shuatawa, d. shuashuatawi (1) to stretch, to extend one's 

limbs through laziness or other causes. (2) to sprain a limb: shuatawitko 

ma'sha huk he suffers of nerve-spraining. Cf. tchattiwa 
shu4-uka, d. shuashua-uka (1) to squeal, ivhlne; .said of persons and 

beasts. (2) to yelp. Cf sheka, shuaktcha. 


Shu a vv ;i t i , iioiu. pr. of a camp-site on the Spraguo River, near Yaneks. 

s h u a w 1 (1 s h n a , d. shuashuawidshna to take aim, to point at with a gan, 
arrow etc. Cf. kinshampka, hiya, shuawlna. 

s h u a w f n a , d. shuashuwina to look over, to overlook in the sense of exam- 
ining: ki'uks suawinuk sas k4nts sliiidpkst tvheii a conjurer overlooked them 
to find out who would he shot, 21, 9. 10. 

s li u'd s h a , shil'dsha, d. shushu'dsha (I) to build afire; to have an open fire 
at the camping-place, in or before the lodge; refers especially to camp- 
fires at niglit and to fires built for cooking, the object, luloks, being 
usually omitted: kissii'mi sh. Sa't at nightfall the Snake Indians built a 
camp-fire, 31, I.; maklC^nk sh. she built a fire to pass the night by, 119, 
20.; mu' sh. to build or have a large fire, 121, 20.; shu'dsliank nat tchla 
tve sit around the fire in camp; nduuk te-unipni Utchashtat shushii'dshuapk 
luloks for each ten lodges they will kindle a fire. Cf klukalgi, slmAtkolua, 
shndna, shne'pka. (2) to build, to have a fire in a stove, on the hearth etc. 

shu'dshapeli , d. shushu'dshapeli (1) to rekindle, rebuild a fire; to build 
another or a new fire, as at dawn of day, 16, 5. and Note; 112, 20. (2) 
to rekindle the fire before or in the lodge habitually every morning or day. 

shu'dshgish, d. shusho'dshgish fireplace in or outside the wigwam, 
lodge or house. Der. shu'dsha 

s h u d s h g i' s h a 1 s li , d. shiisho'dshgishalsh provision for the fire-place : sh. 
Anku fire-wood. Cf. stu'ilash. 

s h u d s h i p k a , d. shushudshipka, v. trans , to follow up, to walk towards by 
following or pursuing; said of one object only, 174; 8. 183; 14.; mu'sh- 
mush sh. to drive one head of cattle, 182; 10. Contr. from sli'hiidshipka. 
Der. hudshlpka. Cf. k4-ika, kd-ikaiika. 

sliiVdshna, d. shushu'dshna (1) v. trans., to chase, pursue ; said of per- 
sons and animals: shil-ii'dshant t! (for shudshnat i!) chase him! 193; 14. 
Cf. kiiyaktcha, kayaktchna. (2) v. recipr., to chase each other, to run after 
each other: shu'dshnuk when chasing each other, 80, 10., cf. 80, 12. Contr. 
IVom sh'hiidshna. Der. hudshna. 

s h u d s h k a , Mod. shutchuka, d. shushudshoka (I) to tvash one's whole body. 
( to wash part of one's body: we'k, pe'tch sh. to wash one's arms, feet. Cf. 
pt'wa, sliiitcliriktcliakii, shatcliakua. 

Shiiawati — sbudwa. 365 

sli u dslioka] dm 11 a , d. sliushudshokalAmna to wash one' shack; kii'mat 
hack is sometimes added. Lit. "to wash oneself all around". 

s h u e d s h a 11 1 a m ii a , d. shueshudshantdmna to he in the habit of gambling 
when on a journey, 100, 15. Der. shuddshna, -tamna. 

s h u e d s li 11 a , snetsna, d. shudshudslina to go to play, to go to the gamhling- 
place, to he on a gaming tour: sliuedslinuk ivhen gamhling on their wag, 99, 
2.; shasli at slmatsna he went awag from them for gamhling, 100, 14. and 
Note; sudtsnuk sas in order to have a game among themselves, 100, 15. 

s h u e k a 1 s h , d. shueshukalsh sleeve, as of a shirt, coat. 

shuekdptcha to ivink with the eyelids; to nictate. Cf kelaiiitchtamna, 
knadshikia, shakelamtcha. 

s h u d k u s h , shu(ikosh j)olc, tvand, rod; sivitch used in certain games, 80, 7. 
9. Der. kcwa. C£ shtchakuash, shtchd-ush. 

shuelita, d. shueshulita, v. intr., to form a cross, to intersect; said of lines 
etc. : partic. sliuelitdtko («) disposed crosswise, (h) crossing diagonally the 
texture of woven cloth. Cf shdka, shenok'la. 

shudnka, d. shueshuanka to kill, slay, to put to death ; said of more than 
one object, and used almost exclusively by Modocs: mu'ne shawalsh 
mbAwan sli. an exploding shell killed them, 43, 2. Cf 40, 17. 41, 15. 21. 
43, 11. Der wc'nka. Cf luela, shiuga (3). 

shudntch, d. shudshuantch (1) hahy-hoard, cradle-hoard to which the in- 
fant or child is tied or strapped, Kl. for stiwix<5tkish Mod., q v. (2) baby- 
hoard with the hahy on it. (3) Mod., infant, hahe, suckling child, 91, 8. 9.: 
su(^ntcham skutash tvonib, uterus. Der. dna. Cf mukaga, nuiksh. 

shuentchAga, d. shueshuantchAga (1) small baby-board, Kl (2) little 
babe; infant just born, Mod., 91, 4. Dim. shudntch. 

s h u d - u d s h a , d. sliudshiidsha to go fishing with the line: nu sue-utchuapk 
gen waitash / shall start for angling this day. Der shuewa. Cf k'lika. 

s h u d - u s h , d. shudshush fish-line, angling-line. Der. shudwa. Cf takeldash. 

shud-usham, d. shueshusham yellotv tree-moss : Evernia vidpina. 

shud-utka, d. shudshutka (1 ) to return from angling. (2) to angle habit- 
ually or repeatedly: ndani a nu hid sh. dwakatat gen waitash to-day I went 
three times to the pond to fish with the line. 

sbudwa, d. shudshua <o fish ivith the line, to angle: nisbtA nu sh. I have 
angled all night. Der. dwa Cf. knd-ush, kiiewa, lutkish. 


sh I'lggiii , pi. ti'inii sh., sugar. Froui tlio Englisli. 

sliiiggi'iy a, shukuya, d. ahuslikiiya to hanrj on or out, to he suspended on; 
said, e. g-., of young birds lianging out of their uests, 94, 10. 

sliugg-ii'l aki , shuguTki, d. sliushgu'laggi: same as sliuku'lki, q. v. 

s h u li a n k , sbii'ank, met. shahunk, d. shiishuank agreeing ifith, alike, 
similar to, conformably with: lu'miasht shaluink gi'ug for this same reason, 
134, 4. Cf. haktchamptclii, shewa, sliitko. 

sliu lian k p t c hi , shiihanktchi, d. shushankptchi, adj., similar to, resem- 
bling; of same shape, form, size, exterior, color etc. : kc^tcha sh. resembling 
somewhat; a little alike; shuliankptcliak an g;iwal ko'sh tu'gshta c-ush 1 
found the same kind of pines on the other side of the lake; kta-i shushuank- 
aptcha i'hiank selecting stones of equal size, 82, 13. 

s h u h a n k = s h f t k o , sliuliankshitk, d. shushank=shitko, shushank=shisli4tko 
(1) adv., alike, similarly to; equally, evenly, in a similar manner: sh.=sh. telan 
having the same features, when speaking of members of same family; 
shuhaidv=sitk sissoka to beat each other evenly, 59, S. (2) adv., at the same 
time, simultaneously. (3) eonj., at the time when, 109, 12. 

s h u h a t c h x Ji , d. shushudtchpja to step, tread on one!s own foot. 

sh u h at (• h;^ al a, shubitehkala, d shushuatch/ala, shushuitchkala to roll 
oneself up, to double up; to curl or coil oneself up, to contract one's body, to 
draw up one's legs; shuhatch/alatko kc-ish (gi) the rattlesnake is coiled up. 

S h u h i a ;ij i d g i s h , nom. pr. of rocks near Modoc Point; of. shuyake'kish. 

shuhu'lulea, d. shushu'lulea to jump, skip down from, 120, 1.: ka-i a't 
shuhu'lule-uapk latchashtat ye shall not skip down from the lodge-top, 
118, 10. Cf hulhe, hulipeb. 

s h u h u 1 u I (' n a , d. shushululeua to go and jump down from, 119, 23. 

s h I'l i , (1. shushui to give in a cup, bucket, on a plate, pan, dish, tray, pd'hla 
or shdplush. Speaking of many different objects, shewana. Cf. luya, I'lya. 

shuidsha, shuitcha, d. shuishudsha to urinate. Der. idsha 

shuidshash, suitchash, d. sluushudshash (I) urine. (2) sh. or sh.=la- 
walsh urine bladder. Cf kan. (3) bladder of any kind; sh. or sh.da\valsh 
swimming bladder of fish: shuitchashksaksin=kitchash anal fin. (4) any 
organ of the shape of a bladder ; maw, craw, gizzard etc. Cf laAvalash. 

s h u i k 1 n a , d. shuishukina to drive away from water, as a horse, dog, cow 
etc. Speaking of more than one object, niwikina. Cf shuina, shiiwa. 

sli u i 11 ill a. 367 

shuikipeli, d sliuislikipeli to drive out of the ivatci again, as a horse, 
cow, dog. Speaking of more than one object, niwikapeH. 

shuikashlina , d. shushikashh'na to sprain: petcham nawalsh sh. to 
sprain the instep. Cf. shuatdwa. 

s h u i % i a , d. shuslii%ia to carry on shoulder: shui^iank ciia, Mod. shui/ian, 
shiu^ien t'na to carry on shoulder. Cf. shdpolamna, shikianka. 

s h u' i 1 a , d. shuishu'la to shake oneself: watch a sh. the horse shakes himself 

s h u i 1 a 1 s h k a , d. shuishulAlshka to shake off, remove from. oneself by shak- 
ing: watch a kilhlksli sh. the horse shakes off the dust. 

shuilpka, d. shuishualpka (1) to lie or stretch oneself on the ground, hack 
upward. Speaking of more than one subject, wiwampka, d. of wimpka. 
(2) to lie flat on the ground, as for sleeping. (3) to lie or hide oneself in 
amhush: tsui fi-nkskni sh., tsui ti'ntkal sha, yo'ta sha then the Klamath 
Lake men ambushed themselves, then they suddenly arose, and dispatched their 
missiles, 16, 5. Der. ilapka, from ila. Cf. hishual^a. 

s li ni m p atampka to lean backward on a chair, bench or seat; to lean 
against the back of a chair. Cf. kshapata, tchajiata. 

shi'iina, Mod. shuinea, d. shushfna, Mod. shushint^a to race; to take part 
in a foot or other race. Kl. Cf. shakatpampek'a, slmikina. 

shuina, tsui'na, d. shuishua to sing, either solo or in chorus: tuti'ksh ma- 
khiks sh. the natives express their dreams in song, 134, 3.; iiu tchuinuapk! 
i tchui'n! I will sing! you sing! 90, 12.; Ateni keldwi shul'sh wo?c 7 cease 
to sing, 90, 13.; shuinuapk i nnnuk! sing all of ye! 90, 14.; ki'lank at 
tsninuapk! ye must sing loudly! 70, 3.; nanuk nadsha'shak sh. all are 
singing in a chorus; luAtpishluk sh. (sha) they sing mourning songs, 87, 12. 
Tlie voices of animals and spirits, the twittering of birds etc., are often 
compared to the singing of songs; e. g., the voice of the weasel, 162; 5.; 
that of a black mouse, 165; 10.; of a spiint, 173; 1.; of K'miikamtch, 
1:'2; 9. Tchuina, tsiiina is a vulgarism for shuina. Der. wina. 

shuinala, shuinalla, d shnishuala (1) to sing simultaneously with the 
starter of the song, to accompany the leader of the chorus (2) to sing 
repeatedly, to repeat a song: kaila nu shuinalla / repeat my earth-song, 
175; 16. All the incantations, song-lines, tunes, melodies etc., are 
repeated an indefinite number of times b}- the Oregoniau Indians, varia- 
tions beint.- introduced in the words as well as in their tunes. 


s h u i 11 c a , d. shusliiiKia to race; same as slu'iiiia, q. v. 

s li u i 11 c a , d. shushiiKja to sing in some person's interest; to sing Jor some- 
body's pleasure. Kl. Der. sliuiua. 

s li u i 11 6 t a , d. sliushin6ta; same as sliiim6ta, q. v. 

s h II i n 6 1 i s h , d. shusliiiiotisli; same as sliiuuotisli, q. v. 

s li u i n 6 tki s li , d. shusliinotkish incantation started by the conjurer to be 
repeated by a chorus, and supposed to emanate not from himself, but 
from some animal sent out to search after the disease, or from another 
object of nature, of which he acts as the mouthpiece. Cf shui'sh and 
Notes to 154; [). 155; Ki. 21. and first Note on p. 171. Der. shufna. Cf 
shellolotkish (2), shui'sh, wiiiota. 

shui'sh, shui'sh, su-is, d. shuishuish, suisuis (1) song, chant; referring 
either to solo songs or to choruses; pilpil sh. puberty or virginity song. (2) 
melody, tune. (3) magic song of conjurer; tamdnuash-song, fatal incantation, 
^^ medicine song^\ ivizard''s spall. These songs are agencies of terrific power 
in the hands of conjurers of both sexes, and can inflict, according to the 
common belief, sudden death or fatal disease upon any person present 
or absent. Conjurers who obtain this power of casting spells by fasting 
and dreaming can thereby ascertain by whom and by what agencies a 
person has been bewitched into disease or has suffered violent death. 
Many of these song-spells are called mischief-bearing (ku-idslii): k6- 
idshi a-i nii shuisli gi 1 am a conjurer^ s fatal song, 166; 25.; k'mutcha'witk : 
ko-idshi shui'sh gcnti kiii'lati the old man^s song is a fatal song in this 
country, 179; 7. Other songs sung by conjurers are considered bene- 
ficial to mankind: laki shuisham ko-a the toad song is chief of all songs, 
180; 18. Cf kaltchitchiks (2). Magic songs are mentioned: suis mi'sh 
ge-u sliia my dream song has seen you; viz. "it has revealed to me the trutli 
concerning yourself," 65, 9.; tchi liuk sh. sd]ia so the magic song indicates, 
tells, 72, 3.; sh. hii'k na'sht ki the magic songs say (to him) as folhivs, 83, 5. 
The incantation appears in a personified form in 156; 31. 165; 12 ; 
Iduksam sh. sometimes means the dire spell sent out ])y the wizard; at 
other times it is equivalent to shuinotkish, q. v. Cf 68, 4. (4) sh. is 
equivalent to shuinutkish, Avlien the conjurer acts simply as the organ 
of birds or other animals or objects of nature previously intrusted by 

s h u i n i^ a — s h u y a k e' k i s h . 369 

him with the search after the disease : nu ai na'ta sh. I am the sonij of the 
ndta-duck, 167; 31. Cf. 167, 35. 36. and kiuks, shuin6tkish. Der. shuina. 

shuinshna to protract, to drag out, to make a long line of: (kshu'n) ati'sh 
shui'nshnank i'l^fit stack ye the hay into long-protracted heaps, 75, 13. The 
word heap Hes in the verb sh., which is connected with the objective case 
of an adjective (ati'nsh stands for ati'nish), which assumes here the 
function of an adverb. Cf pdlpahsh in 146, 14. and shuina, shuinda. 

s h u i p k u 1 i s h , d. shuishuapkulish ; Kl. for shuipiikhish Mod., q. v. 

s h u i p li k 1 a s h , d. shuishupu'klash small cushion or pilloiv used in flatten- 
ing infants' foreheads on the baby-board Mod for shuipkuhsh Kl. 
Der. ipkula, from ipka. 

s h li 1 s h a , sh6-isha, d. shushisha to become lean, meager, emaciated; to lose 
flesh, 95, 13.: tia'muk sh. to lose flesh through hunger or famine: partic. 
shiiishatko lean, meager. 

s u i s i , species of mole or shrew with a long and sharp proboscis. 

shulshla, d. shuishuishla to free oneself of the magic spell, 12!', 3. and 
Note: ha'toks ni shuishaltk (gi) hut if I undergo fasts, ascetic exercises 
and recur to magic songs (in order to liberate myself from the tam^nuash- 
spell cast upon me), 130, 3. Indians call this "to keep the song-medicine 
for oneself". Der. shui'sh (3). 

s h u i s h t c h A k t c h k a , d. shuishushtchdktchka to bend or ttirn the head 
for a bite; said of dogs and wild beasts. Der. hishtchiikta 

s h u i t a 1 a , shuit'la, d. shuishudt'la to gird, to strap the saddle-girth around, 
as around a horse. Der. ita. Cf. hassuisli^ish. 

s h li i t a 1 s h , d. sluiisluitalsh girth of saddle, saddle-strap. 

S u i' t s t i s , nora. pr. of a camp-site on Upper Sprague River, near Wii'ksi. 

s h u 1 - u % a d. shushi-vi;{a to drive out of an inclosure or corral. Speaking 
of many objects, ni-u%a. Cf. shuka, shuwa. 

shuy ake'kish, shuy^akeks (1) place for leaping, jumping, 142, 4. (2) 

Shuyake'ksh '^' Leaping- Place", nom. pr. of a locality at Modoc Point, 

close to north end of the Nilaks mouutain-i-idge and the shore of Upper 

Klamath Lake, a quarter of a mile from Chief Link River Jack's lodge. 

Here the Indians leap for amusement over large rocks, which have rolled 

down from the impending ridge into the plain. Pronounced also Shuyi- 


keks, Suhia;^e'gJsh, Shuhiaxiii'gisb, Tsuyakeks, 142, 3. Sh. sometimes 
designates Modoc Faint, q. v. Der. shuya;(iuga. 

S h u y a k e'k s h n i , Tsuyake'ksni, or Sh. mdklaks, nom. pr. of a portion 
of the Klamath Lake Indians settled near the Shuyake'ksh-rocks, q. v. 
They ai-e also called Linkville Indians, 75, 20., Link River Jack being 
their chief, cf 58, 3. They were 92 in number in October, 1877. 

s h u y a, X i ^ g a to leap, jump or skip over, as over a rock. Cf. hiiyeza. 

s h u y L' g- a to begin singing, to start a chorus or choruses, 71,4. Der. shuina. 

s h u y c g a , shu-iyc'ga, d. shushuyt^ga, said of long-shaped and anini. ob- 
jects: (1) to lift up, to lift or raise above something: laki pakshtga lak- 
peks sh. the commander lifted up ashes with his tobacco-pipe, 1 4, 6. (2) to 
stir up, to cause to rise, as an animal lying on the ground. Der. uy^ga. 

s h u y oka, shix'yuga, d. shushuyuka (1) to clip, cut one's hair short: partic. 
shuyiikatko, more frequently d. slmshuyiikatko, one ivho ivears the hair 
short. The majority of males in the tribe cut their hair off one inch from 
the skull. (2) to shave oneself: smo'k sh. to shave one's beard, whiskers ; 
the proper term for "to shave"; cf hushmS'kla. Der. uyiika 

s h u y II / a 1 a , shuyiik'la, d. shushiuk'la to dance the shuyuxalsh or virginity 
dance, a solemn festivity celebrated during five nights, 131, 1-4.: shuyii- 
%'lotk latchash menstrual lodge Der. yaiikela. Cf stupui. 

S h u y u % a 1 k s h i , nom. pr. of camps and dancing-places on the William- 
son River and other places. Abbr. from Shuyu%cilshkshi. Cf 131, 1-4. 

s h u y u ;j a 1 s h (1) virginitg or puberty dance performed at various localities 
on the reservation. (2) Shuyuxalsh, Sii'-iixals, "the Pilpil- Dancer", nom. 
pr. of a Klamath Lake girl. Der. shuyu^rda. 

s h u y u 1 u i s h , d. shushuyuluish, species of polecat smaller than the com- 
mon skunk. Cf tchAshish. 

shiika, d. shi'ishka (I) to drive out from a lodge, house or other locality, by 
entering it for the purpose. (2) to fight, combat. Der. huka. Cf ika. 

s h u k a 1 s h , shokols paste made of berries (vidiortleberries, serviceberries 
etc.) and camass; it is pressed and kept in cachds as food for winter. Lit. 
"mixture". Der. shu'kla. 

shukaltko, shukaltko, d. shii'shkaltko; partic. of shu'kla, q. v 

S h u'k a m t c h , nom pr. of " Old Crane", a mythic bird of Indian folklore, 

Shuyake'kshni — shuktakla. 371 

called the uncle (kukui) of "Old Antelope"; by causing Old Grizzly's 
death in the waters of a river, Sh. managed to save the young of the 
Antelope from destruction, 122, 6-123, 7 : gatpa Shu'kamtchamksh tlmj 
reached the home of Old Crane, 122, 16. From sho'ksh, amtch. 

shri'kanka, d. shushu'kanka (\) to follow steadily. (2) to chase continu- 
ally, to pursue each other persistently or repeatedly. Der. shiika. 

s h u k 4 p k a , d. shushkapka to he croivded within, to crowd up a space. 

shukat'nola, d. shushokat'nola to gather one's hair into a hraid or ^j/«?Y. 

s h ukat o n o 1 6 tki s h , shukatonolo'tch, d. shushokatonolotkish /wr-sAm 
strap tied into the hair, 95, 2.; men let it dangle over the ears and clieeks, 
women tie it into their braids and let it hang down behind. 

s h u k e 1 a t c h i t c h n a , d. shushakglatchitchna to use torches ; to travel with 
torches, firebrands, lights. Cf kliidshoa. 

s h u k e 1 a t c h n 6 1 k i s h , d. shushkelatchn6tkish ( 1 ) torch, torchlight. (2) 
large-sized lamp or light. 

s h u k i d s h a , d. shushkidsha to start for driving out, ousting, expelling from. 
Der. shiika. Cf tpugidsha. 

shukikash, Mod shokeka-ash, d. shushkikash, Mod. shoshkeka-ash 
parents, progenitors; father and mother. 111, 19.: pdlpela shukl'kasham 
tp^wash to obey the parents' commands Cf p'gishap, t'shika-aga. 

shukiota, d. shushaki6ta (1) to pass another on the way; to go past, to 
pass by. (2) to shun, avoid, go out of the way. Cf shenuya, shuka. 

shu'kla, shiVkela, sh6k'la, d. shnshdkla (I) v. trans., to mix together, inter- 
mingle; said of objects differing among themselves in aspect or quality: 
tch^kelitat Igu'm shii'kelank mixing coal with blood, 71, 8.; shukaltko yahi 
heads of various colors mixed together. Cf hushkalp^andtko, shanktlkash. 
(2) V. intr., to dwell, reside among others, to be mixed with; said of a plurality 
of subjects only, 37, 14. 20 Cf tchawina. Der. ikla. 

shu'klaksh, d. shu'shaklaksh pole-lodge ; sJcin-lodge. Der. shu'kla (2). 

sliiikpgli, V. intr, to leave again, to quit, to retire: shukpaltakiug, for 
shukpelitki or shukpalitki giug in order to tvithdraw, 68, 8. and Note. 

s h u k p t c h { t c h k a , d. shushakptchitchka to kiss each other. Der. 
kputchitchka, q v. Cf shuldtikua, witchta. 

s li u k t a k 1 a to inflict a ivound by which flesh is removed. Cf shaktakla. 


s h u k t a 1 d s h a , d. shuslidktaldsha to cut off, clip, remove from one's own 

body: l&k sh to clip one's own hair, 132, 6. Der. ktuldsha. Cf. shi4shka. 
s h II k t ti m p k a , d. sbusliktampka to commence fighting; to begin active war- 
fare: shuktdmpkan udani waita sliellual when they began to fight, the battle 

lasted three days, 42, 18. Dor. sliiika. 
sliiiktapka, d. slmshakU'ipka to fight ivith fists, to pummel each other, to 

scuffle. Der. ktiipka. Cf. ktiiyua, sliiuga (1), slmntApka, shutapka. 
s li li k t a s h k u i s h scar of a wound by which flesh liad been removed. Cf. 

shaktkaluish, shuktakla. 
s h li'k t k a , d. shushdktga to beat or strike oneself. Der. ktiika. 
s h u k u 4 s h k a to be severed, to be broken or cut to pieces : sh. sh4ppash it is 

half moon; lit. "part of tlie moon is broken off." Der. ukdwa. Cf. igi\%- 

manka, nkaiikosh. 
shuku'lki, sliuggiilaki, shugu'lki, d. shushku'lki, shushgulaki, v. intr., to 

collect, gather up, assemble; to meet, come together, to be ov go together, 140, 3.; 

to form a company, society, croivd, flock, swarm, bevy: suku'lki ydkanuapkuk 

hik they came together for the scal2)-dance, 16, 10.; ndniik lala^i shugii'laggi 

at when all the Peace Commissioners had met together, 41, 20. 
shuku'lkipfili, d. shushku'lkipgli, v. intr., to reassemble, to meet, come 

together again, 24, 3.: na'sh se'gsa E-ukskni suko'lkipaluk the Klamath 

Lake Indians bid us to reassemble, 20, 9. 
shuku'lkish, d shushku'lkish council, general assembly: suku'lkishxeni 

at the council-house, at the meeting place of the council. Der. shuku'lki. 
s h u k u s h g u t k i s h , d. shushkushkutkish hair-brush. Der kushk6tkish 
sbuke'ki, shoke'ki, d shushkeki to growl, to quarrel, to disjmte 
shuke'kish, d. shushkdkish quarrelsome person, scold; shrew, termagant. 
shukikshlga, d. shush;(ikshl6a to jMarreZ; said, e g., of jealous women 

quarreling over their husbands. Der. shuke'ki. 
s h u k 6 k a , d. shushk6ka to bite oneself: nil or niitak sh. I bite myself; I bite 

myself accidentally (in tongue or H])). Der. k6ka. 
s h li 1 a , sula, d. shushiila (1) to hand over, to pass, to transmit. Cf. shulipka. 

(2) to chide, scold, wrangle, 78, 3. Der. ila. 
shulak ua we ta, d. shushlakuawdta to swing to and fro; to ride on a 

swing. Cf. s;;jinueta. 

s h I'l Ic t a 1 d s h a — s h u 1 i t si n k a . 373 

sliulala, d. shushlala, v. trans., to melt, dissolve in a pan, ladle. Der. 
ilala Cf. stil;{a No. 1. 

s h u 1 a 1 6 t k i s h , d. shushlal6tkisli melting-pan, bullet-ladle. 

shuliipshkish, d. shushliipshkish {1) forearm of man. Cf. n^p. (2) 
elbow: sh. tapini knuckles of hand. {3) knee of quadruped'' s foreleg. Mod. 
for shnlpshaksh Kl. Der. shiikipka, from sliiila (1). Cf. l%a\v;'i\vash. 

s h u 1 a t c li t i 1 a to throw back owe's leg or legs: slmlatchtllan tchdl^a to he 
071 one's knees Cf. lutchlxa. 

sliuldakua, d. shushuldAkua to make love to, to hug and caress. Der. 
Idukua. Cf witclana, witchta. 

s h u'l d s h a s li , sho'Idshish, sho'lsas, pi. tumi sh., soldier: shil'ldsisas, su'ld- 
sisas sheto'l%a to consort with a soldier, 78, 7. 10.; shuldshanikshi, silld- 
samkshi to the soldier's camp, to the troops, 40, 12. 23. 41, 8. 78, 8.; cf. 14, 
7. 29, 2-6. 37, 13. 20. 22. 38, 2. 16. 39, 17. 43, 10. 20. Frequently the 
term is not inflected for case: sh. f-amnatko being at the head of troops, 
13, 9., cf 14, 3. 4. (for shu'ldshasiiash); lakf sh. or sh. (for shu'ldshasham) 
laki the officer, lieutenant, 29, 3-6.; cf. 29, 4. 61, 6. From the English. 

shiile^a, shvi'l;(;a, d. shushdle;{a to grumble, growl, roar; to pur, as a cat. 

s h u 1 d 1 ;ij a , d. shusholeil^a to roar, as a bear; to roar or grotvl loudly. Mod. 

s h u 1 e m o k e d s h a , d shuslilenioke'dsha, v. trans., to swing, whirl around, 
to cause to turn around: "kaila nil sh. I am whirling the earth about", the 
words of an earth-song, 192; 9. and Note. Der. Mma. Cf. agg^dsha. 

s h II 1 h a , d. shushalha to put, place, shove into, as into a bag, pouch. Cf. 
sho'lhash, shulliipeli. 

shulhash, d. shushdlhash; same as sho'lhash, q. v. Cf. l^tktchish. 

s h vi 1 h a s h 1 a to make or manufacture pillows, 144, 1. 

s h u llii p e 1 i to shove or join one part into the other; said, e. g., of arrows, 
pitch being put over the joint. Der. ilhi (2), -peli. Cf tulhipgli. 

s h u 1 ' h u'l % a , d. shushal'hu'lxa, v. trans., to run over, to run to the ground. 

s h u 1 i a , d. shushlia to hand over to and in the interest of somebody. Der. 
shiila Cf hushliamna. 

sh ulipka, d. shushalipka to hand over to, j^ass, transmit to: pdsh shu'lip- 
kank p'laikni handing him doivn food from above, 66, 9. Der. shiila (1). 

shulitanka, to pur.Vfc, to chase, as a refugee or enemy; to follow up 


closely: Lgmd-isli snewedsh (for snawddshasli) sli. one of the Thunders 

pursued a woman, 111, 14. Cf. hulhe, shu'dshna. 
ahii'l^fi, d. shiisli<il%a to tie or hind together, to make hunches: sh. dnkutat 

to tie together the houghs of hushes, shruhs, when returning from the mor- 
tuary sweat-lodge. Der. (^l%a. Cf. skutawia, shlitchta. 
shul^dtchna, d. shushalx;itchna to ivalk together, to go in company; said of 

two persons, generally wlien of different sex. KI. for shulp^atclitchna Mod. 
slinlota, d. shu8lial6ta to dress, clothe oneself. Der. leviita. Cf 95, 17. 
s h u 1 6 1 a n a , sulotna, d. shushal6tana to put one^s whole suit on, to dress 

the whole hody; partic. shul6tantko dressed, clad in, clothed with: mba-ush 

shulotantko dressed in tanned buckskins, 90, 16. Cf k6ka, ku'kpgli. 
shulotish, d. .shushalotish, sliushlotish (1) suit, garh, dress, 34, 20.87, 

4.; niinuk sh. the whole dress, 95, 7 , its parts being described in 95, 2.; 

keliak sh. naked. (2) article of dress, garment, 91, 'd. 95, 17. Der. shul6ta. 
sh u 1 ]) s li ak sh, shu'lpshoksh, sulpsoks, d. shushdlpshaksh, Kl.; same as 

sluihipshkish. Mod., q. v. 
s h u 1 s h e s h , d. shushalsliesh gaming-stick used in the spelshna or shulsh^sh- 

game. Two slender and two thicker sticks, each about one foot in 

length, make up the sp(^l.shna-set. Cf shakl6tkish (2). 
s h u 1 s h e .s h 1 a , d. shushalsh(5shla to play the spelshna-gamc with the four 

shulshesh-sticks : vu'nip shulshdshlank (for shulshdshlan ki) they are in the 

habit of playing the spelshna-game with four sticks, 79, 2. 
shulshipa to take off, remove from one's body; said of round or rounded 

objects only: sh. nepshisli to take off a ring from one's own finger. Contr. 

from shuludshipa. Der. ludshlpa. 
shultila, d. shushaltila <o /ioW or carry under the arm or arms, 127, 1.; 

partic. shultilatko, when used as subst.: round or bulky object held or 

carried under the arm: bundle, package, parcel. Der. lutila. Cf shuti'la. 
shultilash, shu'ldilsh, d. shushaltiLash (1) hunter's gamc-hag ; bullet 

pouch. (2) soldier's canteen; avaijW pilgrim bottle of basket-ware. 
shultish, d. shushdltish roo;j;, apartment in lodge: nddshiak sh. the only 

room in the lodge or house. Der. l6vuta. Cf stutila. 
s h u 1 u a k t a , d. shushaludkta to laugh at, scoff; to jeer at a person, 1 25, 8 : 

mish un .shuslialuaktantak they will jeer at you, 126, 11. Der. luai^a. 

s h li' 1 X a — s h u m a 1 u a . 375 

shulutiktcha, d. shushalu4ktcha to continue making fun of, to deride 
repeatedly. Cf. tdl^ea. 

s li u 1 u A t c h n a , contr. shulu'dshna, d. shushaluatchna fo dress in, to put 
on clothing, attire or neckwear tvJiile walking or traveling, 95, 7. 131, 10. 

shulixyuala, d. shushaluyuala to be or stand high up in a file, row; 
said of rounded or globular articles. 

sliuluy ualsh; yainalam sh. "round objects standing in a row or file 
on top of a mountain or elevation." Occurs in a grizzly bear's song 
and probably refers to projecting cliffs or rocks. See Note to 158; 50. 

s h u 1 u' 1 k i s h , d. shushalu'lkish gathering-place, meeting-place : kima'dsham 
sh. ant-hill. Der. Iiw41a. 

s h u 1 u t a m n a , d. shush'lutamna to he in full attire ; to have a dress, orna- 
ments or beads on : nanuk sliulu'tamantko yamnash being in full style, 
having all beads on, 131, 6. Der. shul6ta. 

shulutantcha, d. shush'lutantcha to dress oneself, to put clothing on 
while going or traveling: K'mukamts ga'mpele at, sulu'tantsa Ai'shish 
shi'tk slii's ivhen irmukamtch returned home he dressed himself so as to 
appear like Aishish (by putting on Aishish's dress), 100, 10. Der. shul6ta. 

shii'm, svim, su'm, d. shiishum, susum (1) mouth of persons, snoid of 
mammals; vocal organ: sh. shiidshoka to wash one's mouth; sh. tdkua to 
gag the mouth, snout, 120, 18. 19.; summatka through the mouth, 68, 5., 
cf. 6.; it stands for throat, back part of mouth, in: siimat (or siimtat) g^ka 
tchdkele the blood mounts to the throat, 83, b. Cf hanuipka, puk^wish, 
sk6tigsh. (2) bill, beak of birds. Cf. kumal, shnawa'ka, sho'ksh, shi'i- 
malua. (3) mouth, outlet of running water. Cf shumalkish, Sii'mti. 

shumalgiiltko, d. shushmalgaltko related by marriage, as brothers-in- 
law to sisters-in-law, or vice versa. Only relatives of different sex call 
each other by this term. Der mu'lgap. 

shumdlkish, d. sliushmalkish outlet, mouth of river, brook or other 
running water. Der. shu'm. Cf k6ke (1). 

shumal6tkish, Kl. shiimaluatch, d. shushmal6tkish (1) hair-pencil, 
hair-brush. (2) writing-pen, lead-pencil: 6-\ hu'nksh sh.! give him a lead- 
pencil! Der. shumalua. 

sh XI main a, d. shiishmalua {I) to use bird-bills as neckwear, to put on an 


ornament or necklace of binl-heaks: tclifkass=sunialuatko iccaring a neddace 
of hird-hiUs. (2) to mark, to provide with marks ; to make dots, daubs, spots, 
stains; to dot, stud or stain over; to scratch marks into: shumahuitko watch 
a inebald horse. {3) to draiv, paint; to make drawings, pictures: ktd-i su'- 
smaluatk rocks painted over with red concentric circles or other rude draw- 
ings as seen in various parts of the Khiuiath reservation, 179; 3. (4) to 
write witli a pen, lead-pencil etc.: hu slieshash pe'na sh. he wrote his oivn 
name, 34, 6. 7.: pi'pa shumAluan setting up a document, petition, 36, 21., 
Mod.; lit "to use a tool shaped like a bird-bill". Der. shu'm 

shu mal uakitko, d. shushmaluakitko marked; provided with distin- 
guishing marks, scratchings, incisions, signs, letters: piimam, muiyuam sh. 
tut marked beaver^s or woodchucKs tooth, 80, 1. 2. and Note. Contr. from 
shumaluash gftko. 

8 li u ni a 1 u a s h , d shiislimaluash painted, drawn or written object; writing 
mark; letter of the alphabet; numerical figure. Der. shumalua. 

s h u m a 1 u a t c h , the usual Kl. form for shumal6tki8h. 

sh'iVmka, sh6-umka, d. shushdmka (1) to make hm, hm, ha, hd: K'miV- 
kamtch shu'shamka: hii, ha! K^mukamtch hummed on: hd, hd! 105, 6. 
(2) to grunt; to grunt when expressing dissent, disbelief. 

8 h u m p s e a 1 a , sumsa'-ala, contr shumpsh^la, d. shushampshdala to marry, 
to enter into the married state; said of both sexes, 60, 10 78, 17.: shump- 
sealuapka hu't he is a bridegroom; she is a bride; partic. shumpshealtko 
married; sumseAIstka gi to be on the point or to be willing to enter the 
married state, 60, 6. Der. mbushdala. Cf Idkiala, shnaw(idshla 

shumps^alsh, d. shushamps^alsh marriage, wedlock, 77, 1. (title). 

s h u m s h e a 1 6 m 4 n t k , d. shushamshealemantko married man or woman : 
hipuk sumseAlemaniks, obj. case (for shum(p)sheal6m4mpkash) the 
married couple, 59, 8. Cf mbushni (2). 

Sii'mti, Su'mde "At the Outlet,''^ nom. pr. of a camping-ground on Kla- 
math Marsh. Der. shii'm (3). Cf shumdlkish. 

sunde, pi. tumi s (1) Sunday, the first day of the week: s.=ka'klkish 
preacher: Sunday ki-uks clergyman; lit. "Sunday conjurer," 42, 12. (2) 
week: ndsh a. for one week, 61, 16.; Idpeni ^. for two weeks, 43, 16. 61, 19. 
62, 2.; ndiin s. for three weeks, 61, 20. 21. From Eng. Cf nfa, lankak. 

s h u ni a 1 u a k i t k o — s h u p 1 6 g a . 377 

8unde = giiila , suncfegmlank Monday; lit. "Sunday past": vunepni 

tinshna s.=giulank vvaita, or simply: vvmepni tinshna Thursday. Cf. Idpeni 

(2), ndAni (2), she-^tish (2). When not a compound: last week Cf. 

m'a (1). 
s h u n t d p k a , d. shushantdpka to engage in a fight, to assault each other with 

stones, blocks or other bulky things. Cf. nut6dshna. 
s h u n t o y a k e a - 6 1 k i s h , shuntoyaki6tkish (1) sling for throwing heavy 

missiles. (2) ball, plat/-hall. Cf. skiwotkish, shunt6wa-udsha. 
shunt6wa-udsha, d. shushantowa-udsha to throw at each other, 185; 

45. Cf nutudshna, nutoldla. 
s h u n u i s h , shnnu-ish, d. shu'shnuish property, possession, riches, valuables: 

ke-u shnawedsham sh. the property of my wife. 
s h u n u i s h a 1 1 k o , d. shushnuishaltko possessed of, owning: ndnuktua sh. 

rich, wealthy. Cf. hashtalttimpka. 
s h u n 11 y u a . shunui-uya to feel ill or aggrieved, 190; 17. 
shunu'kanka, d. shushniikanka to make observe, to compel observance, as 

of laws, orders, regulations. Der. niwa. 
shunu kanksh, d. shushnukanksh order, ordinance, behest, 61, 7. 
shupa'hlka, d. shushpa'hlka to pull, to tear out from one' s body : Idk sh. 

to tear out one's own hair. Der. pi'd'hka. Cf shupt6ga. 
shiipalz a, shupiileka, d. shushpal^a; same as sh6palxa, q. v. 
s h u p A s h k a , d. shushpAshka to draw, pull out (a weapon) for a fight, 37, 

10. Der. piishka. 
sh up 61 6k a to lay on, put on, heap upon: shti'e sh. niVss to cover the head 

tvith a coating of resin, 89, 6. Cf. sh6palxa. 
shu pka, d. shushapka to be heaped up, to lie on a heap; to be loaded on a 

vehicle, to form a load: kshu'n sh. here is a load of hay; kta-i, papkash sh., 

a load of stones, lumber lies heaj)ed upon the ground, on a wagon etc. Der. 
sh6pa. Cf. sh6palza, shu'ptchna. 
shu'p'luash, shu'pluhash, d. shushap'lu'hash ball, play-ball, ton-ball. 

Der. shu-ii'ta, peli, -u-. Cf. l(^wash, shakueash. 
s h u p 1 u g a , d. shusliap'lu ga little ball, little play-ball. Dim. shu'p'luash. 
s h u p 1 6 g a , d. shushapt6ga to pull, tear out from oneself: lak sh. fo fear out 
one's own hair. Der. putoga. Cf. shupa'hlka. 


sliu'ptchna, d. shush.'iptchna to he in motion; said of a load, heap or 
pile: ksliun sh a wagon load of hay is traveling. Dei', sliopa 

s li u p u ui t c li i s h ;'i 1 1 k o , d. shushapumtchishdltko related as male cousins; 
.sons of brothers or sisters call each other by this name. Der. jnuntchip. 

slivi'shap, pi. tiinii ah.., jeivsharp, Kl. From the English. Cf. shahtllish. 

sh I'l s ha tis h , pi. lumi sh., worker; maker, producer, manufacturer; forms 
a large number of compounds, as: kaila=sli. miner; mole, 134, 17 ; lit. 
"worker in tlie ground"; laki'sh=sh. locksmith; p4pkash=sh. carpenter; 
pash=sh. cook; p'laitalkni sh. {a) preacher, {h) heavenly Maker, creator, 
God: siinde-sh. preacher; watiti=sh. smith, blacksmith. The absolute form 
shiitesh, q v., is unfrequent. Der. shuta. 

s h u s h u t a n k i s li , pi. tumi sh., negotiator; negotiator of peace, peace com- 
missioner, 38, 5. 14. 39, 20. Der. shi'itanka. 

shuta, su'ta, d. shushata (1) to perform, to act, to achieve, to do: kaitua sh. 
nothing was done, 36, 18. 43, 13. cf. 134, 15.; ku-i sh. to spoil, to render use- 
less; to outrage etc., see kiii; kani ku-i shuta? who has spoiled f yualks= 
shitko sh. to render sorrowful, 17, 21.; shute-uapka huk he will do it; at 
an hiink nanuk shut61a / have finished all my work; tdlaak sli. to straighten 
out, to make right, 34, 14.; shu'ta to work on somebody; said of the con- 
jurer's manipulations upon a patient, 68, 5.: wak i'sh shutil! do, perform 
something for me! protect me! Ill, 15 and Note; ka-i na'lsh i tna shut^tki 
let us do nothing wicked, 139, 6.; cf. 11. (2) to manufacture, to jtrepare, to 
produce, to shape: gupiunks sh. they prepare the kdpiunks-food, 146, 5.; 
palash sh. lehiash they make bread from the lehiash-roof, 147, 21.; shul6tish 
sh to make a garment or a suit of garments; ktclu'nksh shushata they made 
rails, 35, 5. 15.; kaila sh. to work in the ground; said of miners and of 
burrowing aniiuals; tumiintka shute-uapka laki the majority will (or 
has to) elect the chief, 90, 4.; tidsh sh. she shapes (them) aright, 91, 9. cf. 
91, 6. Cf. lil-iks, shushatish. (3) to create, to make: kiifla, or kiiilash sh. 
to create the earth, world, 125, 1. 142, 1. 2., cf. kiiilalia; B6shtinash shut61ank 
after creating the white race, 103, 4.; K'mukamtchani shut61ash after 
K^mukamtch had created (the earth); lit. "wlien creating was terminated 
by K'mukamtch", 104, 5. cf. 142, 1 ; sluijiash sh. to create moons, 105, 
1. 7.; sli is construed with two objective cjises in 103, 2. (4) to gain, to 

s b li' p t c h n a — s h u t (^ d s h n a . 379 

make profit hi: tna nil sliutii'-uapkf ivhat ivoulcl I have profited hy it? 
64, 12. — The majority of the derivatives of shi'ita come from an original 
form shut^a, slmta'-a. 

s li u t a k t a , d. shuslit;ikta to swagger, to put on airs. Cf shalkitl-a, shApkna 
(or shapkua-a), shipnn. 

shutandanka, d. shushtandanka to form confluence; said of two streams. 
Cf. sheno'tkatko. Quot. nnder E-nkalksi'ni K6ke. 

sliutanka, shn-ntanka, d. slmshutanka, shusho'tanka (1) to meet from 
opjiosite directions; to meet in council; to palaver, negotiate, confer: slm- 
utanktgi pi'sh to meet Mm in council, 13, 12. Mod. for liuslitanka Kl. (2) 
to conclude a treaty, agreement, bb, 1.; to make peace; liii i iin shu'tanktak 
if you make peace, 39, 21.; shutankuapkiiga for the jmrpose of making a 
peaceable settlement, 38, 3 ; shu'tanksh to treat for peace; euphemistically 
for: to surrender, 43, 22. Contr. from sh'hiitanka Der. liiita. 

shutankish, slm-utanksh, d. sbnshotanksh (1) negotiation, parley, war- 
council, palaver. (2) treaty, agreement, 38, !>. Cf. ptini (2). 

shu t anku t k i sh , d. shuslitankutkish tool, instrument or contrivance to 
effect an agreement, treaty or peace negotiation: shu-utanko'tkish=pAksli 
council-pipe, 14, 5. Der. sliutanka. Cf shushutankish. 

s h u 1 4 n k t p a , d. shushotanktpa to meet in council or for negotiation, 14, 3. 

shutankula, d. shushotankula (1) to close negotiations. (2) to succeed 
in concluding peace ; to make peace at last, 39, 13. Der. shutanka 

s h u t a p k a , d. shushutapka to fight with chths, sticks or other long articles: 
pitdk sh. he strikes himself. Der. udi'ipka. Cf shuktapka, shu-utapka. 

shutapkea, d. shushtapkea to stand on one's head; said of persons and 
things. Der. tupka. Cf shetal;{ea. 

s h u t e d s h a n u i s h , d. shusht^dshanuish, lit. "what has been performed 
on the way while walking": (1) road cleared of obstacles. (2) plow's fur- 
row. Kl. for shutitcbanuish Mod. Der. shut(idsbna. 

s h u t ^ d s b k a , d. slmshte'dshka to surround tvith rails, palings or fence; to 
fence in, as a grave, 88, 2. Der. shuta. 

shut(idsbna, d. sbusbtcjdsbua to do, perform on one^s way, to make while 
traveling, 103, 3.: lapi gena tidsh shutedshn6ka two men will go and put 
(the road) in good order, viz., clearing it of every obstacle, as fallen trees, 
e. g., 85, 2. Der. shuta. 


•s h 11 1 ey dgu , sluitiiyc'ga, d. shushteydga to begin to make; to cnmmence 
producing, creating, 104, 4.: humasht shdpash hl'pi shutey^gatk in this 
manner the moons were first made, 105, 1. (title); lupf na'lsh shiitilyega he 
created us first, 94, 1. and Note. Der. sliiita. 

shut ('la, d. slnishtdla to prepare; to build, construct, manufacture for a 
purpose, 24, 5.; wdtsat shuta'lank ^^^eparm^ (a bed) on a horse, 24, 9. 

s li u t e 1 6 m a , d. shHshatel6ma, v. trans, and refl., to put on, to line or smear 
oneself with; said of body-paint: shushatel6ma t^lish every one lines his 
face with it, 150, 8. 

s h u t e 1 m 4 s !i 1 a , d. sliushteloindshla to be in the habit of lining or smear- 
ing oneself; said of body-paint, 150, 6. 

s h u t e - 6 1 k i s h , contr. shuto'tkish, d. shushte-6tkish article serving for 
performing, doing, maling or accompilishing something: (1) working tool; 
tool, instrument of an}- description: nge'sh= or shawalsh=sh. bullet-mold. 
(2) article forming part of an instrument or implement: t6kanksti=sh. quiver- 
string; stilhanks=sh. quiver with string and arrows complete. Der. shuta. 
Quot. under shipatch. 

shutesh, d. shushtesh (1) adj., for shuta-ish, shuta'ish appropriate for 
work, fit to work upon. Occurs in kalla=shutesh, q. v. (2) subst; same 
as shutish worker; maker, manufacturer of one object only: kai'la shiitish 
creator; speaking of many objects, shiishatish, q v. Der. shuta. 

shut^shla, d. shushttishla (1) to cook; to cook in a kettle ov pot, 147, 16.; 
pdsh sh. to cook food. (2) to make bread; to grind, pound into flour: w6- 
kash sh. to grind pond-lily seed, 74, 9. Der. shuta. 

shutila, d. shushtila {}■) to hold or carry under the arm or arms; said of a 
long-shaped object. (2) to tie, bind together ; to make a long-shaped bundle. 
Der. uti'la. Cf i-utila, shultila. 

shutish, shutesh, abs. form of shiishatish. See shutesh. 

s h I'l t k a , d. shushiitka to injure by wounding; to inflict wounds, bruises or 
bodily injury: ti'tatna tch k4-i sh., sissukiiya hak also at times they do not 
wound each other, but treat each other to fisticuff's only, 61, 18. 

s h u 1 6 y a , d. shusht6ya, shushtuya to plow. Mod. for sputuya Kl. Der. 
vutoya. Cf yepa, sputuyuish. 

s h u t (vy 6 t k i s h , d. shushtoy6tkish plotv. Mod. for sputuyotch Kl. 

s h u 1 y u g a — s li v iV n t k a . 38 1 

sliutpaksh41tko, d. shushatpaksliAltko (1) related to each other as 

younger sister to elder brother. (2) related to each other as brother to sister, 

and vice versa. Der. txipakship. Cf. sbatapialtko. 
s h u 1 p d s h u i , d. shushatpashui to put black paint on one!s body; this being 

the paint of dancers, 158; 51. and Note. Cf. shutel6ma. 
s h u t n a 1 s h a , d. shiishtualsha to throw at each other repeatedly, as balls 

while at play, 80, 10. Der. slm-ii'ta. 
shntuyaki^a to fhrotv over, to throw at, to bombard: tinkntka sli. to throw 

sticks at, 122, 3. 4. Cf. shu-ii'ta. 
shutcho'sha, d. shnshtcho'sha, shushatso'sha to rub, line, smear over; 

e. g., the skin with oil; to besmear oneself. Der. tudsbd'sha. 
shu'-uashipka, a lengthened pronunciation of shu'dshipka, q. v., as 

required by the metre, 183; 14. 
sbu-iVta, shuwiVta, d. shushu-u'ta, shushwu'ta (1) to throw, to hurl at 

each other. (2) to play at ball or club; to play bandy, balls being hit and 

driven with sticks. Der. vuta (1). Cf. vutodsha. 
s h n - u t a p k a , shu'tapka, shutopka, d. shushutapka to throw at each other; 

said of long objects, as clubs; different from shutapka, q. v. Der. viita. 
shuwa, shu-ua, v. trans.; said of one anim. object, as a man, horse, cow, 

dog etc. (1) to drive out, expel, oust. Cf shiika, its derivatives and those 

of niwa. (2) to drive into the water. Cf gewa, huwa. — Speaking of more 

than one object, niwa, d. ninua: wAtch kuketat n he drove the horses into 

the river, 127, 11. 
s h u w A 1 % a , shu;il%a, d. shushual^a, v. intr., to fly, flit, glide, move, agitate 

through the air: shual^^ta tvhile flying, 114, 9.; shiulapk6tkishtka shual^a 

to fan. Cf nuwiil^a. 
s h u w li 1 1 k t c h a , d. shushualtktcha to fly after, to follow through the air, 

114, y.; to fly after to distant parts. Cf. nuwal;^a. 
shvuyusha, d. shvushvuyusha (1) to think of, remember. (2) to think 

over, to study. Cf. hushka, shciwa. 
s h V u y u s h a g a , d. shvushvuyushdga. Mod. ; same as shvuyusha. 
shvu'ntka. Mod. tchvu'ntka, d. shvushvantka, v. impers., hoar-frost is 

forming. Der. wen. Cf sgu'mla. 



"^J' alternates witli d, sometimes with nt, nd; cf. Introductory words to the 
letters D and N. Words beginning witli tch, ta were gathered under a 
separate heading. The })refix ta- refers to persons or to long-shaped things 
standing upright, and usually occurs in some abbreviated form: te-, t6-, t'-, t-. 
'Y\w initial syllables ti-, tin- and tush- form verbs with the signification of 
running, moving fast, when more than one subject is spoken of, and are not 
prefixes, but radical syllables. To some verbs with the radical ti- this does 
not apply. Words with initial tg-, tk-, tk, t%- generally express the idea 
of one subject standing uprigld. 

ta, -ta, accented -t4 (1) abbr. of Mod. particle tala none hut, just, merely: 
hcigga ta shld-ek! hallo! let me just see it! 127, 3. Cf tala (3). (2) abbr. 
of the postp. of the directive case, -tala. Cf. tdla (4). (3) abbr. of the 
particle tala then. Cf ttila (5). Quot. under hun, shepk(idsha, wak. 
tAdsh, ta'dsh, end. tads. conj. introducing a strong and unexpected con- 
trast and answering somewhat to our in spite of, however, though: tu' hak 
yviTka K'mukamts; Wanak tads yii'tlansna K^mukamtch's arrow fell this 
side of the mark, but that of Silver Fox missed the direction, 100, 21.; waltka 
sha ta'dsh Idklekpkank they conversed among themselves, but only in whis- 
pers; unak ta'ds nuliuapgle in spite of that they got ready at an early hour, 
20, 12. It is connected with ak in: kiii t. ak giug hietalt nush by mere 
cruelty (lit. "by acting wickedly") they will tramp on me, 104, 1.; with 
toks in: na-asht ta'dsh toks nu tu'mgna I was, however, informed to that 
effect, 140, 6. Cf. 101, 17. 108, 5. 122, 20. 134, 5. 147, 12. Usually t. 
stands after the first word of the sentence, 
t a d sha, d. tatadsha to touch each other ivhile tvalking. 
t a d s i , unmeaning term serving to beat the measure for dancing with 

shortstops, 163; 8. Cf t(i-i. 
t a d s h 6 1 a , d. tatadshola to dance a ivar dance before the fight. Der tadsha. 
t a ' h t a - a s h , d. tatata-ash, tatata'sh grasshopiper, Kl. for kamtdta Mod. 

Dried grasshoppers serve as food to many Indian tribes. Der. t/ikt^a. 
t a y a s h , d. tatdyash sack, bag for holding provisions, as seeds, roots etc. 
They were manufactured of lacustrine grasses and reeds, and are now 
superseded by fiour-sacks bought from the whites. Cf Note to 74, 10. 

ta — tAkia. 383 

tak , -tak, -tak, tok, -tok, -tilk, end. particle of adversative, disjunctive im- 
port, conveying the idea of contrast; it is appended to all parts of speech, 
more in use in Mod. than in Kl., and not always easily translated in 
English, though it corresponds to hut, however. (1) Contrast is indicated 
by it when it is suffixed to the first word of a sentence, the contents of 
which form contrast to a previous one: tapitak Leme'-ish shiuga snawedsh 
but after this the Thunder killed the woman, 111, 17. C£ 150, 9. (2) Stand- 
ing in the principal clause of a sentence it often indicates the future 
tense, when appended to a verb: tatank itak shewanash hamenian Isli 
shpunkaktak vushmush I will let you have this cow for ivhat you like to 
pay, Mod. Modocs place it in the incident as well as in the principal 
clause in conditional sentences, and connect it in the latter, or in both, 
with the particle un, un, q. v.: hii 1 paltak, spulhitak sha mish un if you 
steal, they will lock you up; hii nish un Boshtin laki tidsh shualaliampjiktak, 
ge'ntak nu un agency if the American agent will protect me well, I will go 
to the agency, 36, 11. Cf. 36, 2. 3. 75, 9. (3) Emphasis rather than con- 
trast is indicated when tak is appended to pronouns: nu I, nutak myself: 
nutak fdshnan (gi) I take away to keep. Mod.; mitok thy own; cf. 189; 7.; 
with other parts of speech, taks, toksh is more frequent to mark emphasis. 
Cf. tddsh, taks. 

tak a, d. tatka, v. intr., to he sharp, to cut: Titkam wati a kui tJikatko 
TitaKs knife is dull, hlunt; tidsh takatk sharp, cutting well. 

takaga, d. tatkaga to tear up, to tear to shreds, as paper, clotli. Der. kaga. 
Cf. kata, pete'ga. 

takaga, taggaga, d. tatgaga, tatkaka (1) quail, mountain quail; Oreortyx 
picta. Kl \2) female quail. Mod. Cf. tikaga. Onomatop. 

takak, t4kak, t;ika;j, d. tdtkak, tdtkak flat portion of foot, hand: (I) sole 
of foot. (2) t. or nepam t. pahn of hand. (3) callosity on foot or hand. 

t a k a n i 1 % a to turn the right side up, 80, 3. : (ha) lalakiak tiit takani'l;^uk 
gel;fa if the male pair of heaver teeth are dropped with the tvrong side down, 
80, 4. Cf. gdl^a, nikualka. 

t a k e 1 e' a s h float; cork or tule-reed is used for this purpose: sut'-ushtat t. 
float on fish-line. Cf knci-ush, kn^wa, stAkla, shue-ush. 

taki a, d. tatkia to stop up, hung up, as a barrel: partic. taki'tko hanged up. 


t Ilk 1111 a, d. tatkima to form a ring, circle; said of persons. Mod. Cf. 
•raki'ma, tgakiAmna. 

1 51 k i s li , d. tdtkisli small net; seed-net or net for catching insects. 

takni, d. tatakiii, abbr. from tatkni, q. v. 

taks, -taks, -taksh, toks, -toksli, -tuksb, particle mostly used eiiclitically, 
enlarged from tak and of the same signification, but connecting words 
or sentences more closely to what precedes, and not employed in form- 
ing a future tense. (1) Contrast is indicated to what is contained in the 
sentence preceding: tchelash toks le-isham hut the stalk of the leyash, 147, 
19.: gitatoks but here, 147, 10. 18.; hutaks tin^antko gi he is indeed a lucky 
felloiv ; kshawinasht tii'ksli hut if they fall unequally, 80, 5.; Aishish toks 
shli'tam'na talaak! Aishish, hoivever, always hits the mark! 100, 20 ; ha'- 
toks i hussiuuapk hut if you join in a horse-race, 59, 22., cf. 59, 2. 9.; 
shniilas toks liii'k p'laiwasliam although it was the nest of the eagle (not of 
the lark), 100, 9.; tankt .... huktoks hfssuaks gepka that time . . . ivhen 
these men arrived, 28, 4. Cf 19, 1. 29, 21. 79, 3. 80, 3. 88, 1. 95, 7. 13. 
19. 23. 119, 15. 149, 11. and tddsh. (2) t. indicates emphasis, when ap- 
pended to personal, possessive and other pronouns; cf. tak: nalamtoks 
mtiklaks our own tribe. Cf. 184; 37. andkani (2). (3) Gradation is often 
intended, when t is connected with adjectives and adverbs: tidshitoks 
very good, better than, superior to; ma'ntchtoks at padshit waitash. Mod, 
the days are quite long (this season of the year). 

taksish, the eatable portion of an alimentary plant described in 149, 1. 

t a k t a k 1 i , tAktakli, dissimilated taktii'kli ; d. tataktdkli, dissiuiilated 
tatii'ktakli, 147, 1. 9. (1) red, red-colored: t. wdtch sorrel horse; t. pa- 
watch red heet; t. (for taktAklish) shldpsli gi'tk having a red flower, 147, 
20.; kctcha t. reddish. (2) Taktdkli ''the Red,'' "Reddy," nom. pr. of a 
Rogue River Indian chief, 16, 6. (3) vermilion, scarlet, crimson and other 
shades of red. (4) pink. Cf. ta'^tka, ta'^tki. 

taktakli, tnz^AyVi, d. tatiiktakli even, level, plane, unbroken: taktakh'uita 
kailatat in an open field, 43, 20. (Mod.) ; cf. 43, 8. Contr. from talakta- 
Mkli. Cf. tdlaka, t/iltali. 

t ;'i k t z a , d. tatakt%a to make a chirping, rustling, whirring noise. Said of 
the chirping of grasshoppers, crickets etc. Cf. ta'httl-ash. 

takima — tjilaak. 385 

T a k t / 1 s h , riom. pr. of a cauiping-place on Klamath Marsh ; lit. "Crickets' 

tak II a, d. tAtkiia to gag: aukutka shu'm t. to gag the mouth ivith a piece of 
wood, 120, 18. 19. Cf. takia. 

ta'^tka, d. tata'^tka to he or become red^ ruddy; said, e. g-., of coloration 
produced by sun rays: paishash t the clouds are glowing red. Der. tak- 
in taktakh. Cf. skc'l;{a (2). 

t a'% t k i , d. tata';ttki ^o blush. Der. tak- in taktAkli. Cf. ko'xtgi, nddtchka. 

tala, diila, pi. ttimi t. (1) dollar: lap, tunep t. two, Jive dollars, 74, 10. 11. 
(2) money in coin or in notes, 87, 5.; t. puedsha to spend money; to incur 
expenses; t. shewanatki money to be paid, '65, 13. 36, 1.; talalam wakoksh 
purse, money-bag. From the English dollar. Cf ske-utish. 

tala, -tala, d. tattUa, titala (1) adv., right ahead, straight out, direct: tattila 
kit'gi notte of them are straight ahead of me, 136, 3. (2) adv., correctly, 
justly: i a tAla gi! you arc right! (3) adv., but, only, merely, solely, none 
but; Mod. for pila, pi'l Kl. : hu'-utak t. it was none other than he, 173; 3. 
(for lai't pilak Kl); i tain, nu t. you alone, I alone; gd-ii t. p'ti'shap my 
father alone. Often abbr. into -ta, especially when suffixed to pronouns. 
(4) postposition of the directive case: {a) towards, to: kailatala towards 
the region, 173; 2. (b) at, in (a place): Ydmatala in Oregon; t^dlamtal in 
the West; frequently occurs as a formative of compounds: kokagtdlkni, 
p'laitalkni etc. (h) particle expressing amazement, surprise; not easily 
translated, but sometimes corresponding to then and abbr. into -tal, -ta: 
tuAtala what then, ivhat after all, 158; 56.; tu4tal, tuata which kind of, 
112, 2. 5. 12.; w4k ta gi'ug how then, why then? 110, 10., cf. 65, 5.; ka 
tall (for kani tala?) ivho thenf 189; 7. Cf. ta. 

tiilaak, d. tatdlak; adv., and emphatic form of tala No. 2. (1) straight, 
straightly, right, ahead, directly: t. slmd-utchna to draw a straight line; at 
nu t. shu'ta then I will straighten out all difficulties, 34, 14., cf. 16, 11.; nat 
talaaks yamtital gdna we proceeded in a direction due north, 29, 6.; here 
talaaks was explained by talaak-kshi, as its original form. (2) correctly, 
justly, rightly: tdlaak lu'if is that correctf shli'tam'na t. he always hits the 
mark, 100, 20. (3) truly, justly, uprightly, unimpeachably, 36, 12. 14. 15. 

(4) prep and postp., directly toivard: t. nats toward us, 29, 15. Cf. talaat. 

(5) used as adj.: straight, long: t {or taltdv) m\\\\ firc-tvood. From tala, ak. 


tcilaat for t^laak. Cf. Note to 29, 10. 

t a 1 i'l k a , tdlaka, d. tatalcika (i) to rub with the puhti of the hand; to pass over 

a level surface; to rub. (2) to plane, plane off, sutoofh off. (3) to paint, ^mt 

paint on, to varnish, as furniture: talakauk (for talakan gi) they are in the 

habit of painting, 87, 3. and Note Der. tjila No. 2. 
till altko , pi. tiimi t. (1) provided tvith money, coin or notes. (2) 'wealthy, 

moneyed, rich. Der. tala No. 1. Cf shetaluatko, sliunuislialtko. 
talAni, d tataliini right-minded, upright, honest, cxempla)y: tal4nishak 

hii'shkanksh gftko well-intentioned. Der. tala No. 2. Cf letalani. 
1 51 1 d s h i , d. tataldshi (1) arrow with ivooden point to hunt small game with : 

long arrotv provided with a heavy wooden point. (2) shooting aptparatus; 

bow and arrow. (3) short spear, javelin: dalts shikna to throtv a spear. 

Lit. "straightened" (wood). Der. tala No. 2. Cf nge-ish, nte'ktish. 
taldsh i Aga, taltsiak, d. tataldshiaga little arroiv; used by boys as play- 
things, 107, 14. 109, 15. Dim. tAldshi. Cf shii-ulia. 
taldshitko, d. tatdldshitko armed with arrows, or with bow and arrows: 

Sho'ksham wewdkalam i. provided with the arrows of the young cranes, 123, 

(). and Note. Der. taldshi. 
t/ile, d tatale stagnant water, slough, swamp: weketash tjiletat tchia the 

green frog lives in the swamp. Cf 147, 3. 149, 20. 150, 1. Cf taltali. 
t a 1 f g a , d. tatliga (1 ) to be or stand near; to touch, to be in contact with. Cf 

Kak=Taliksh. (2) to be or stand near the water. Cf Wak=Taliksh. 
talk a, tAl%a, d. tetal;^a to stick up something sharp or pointed; to pierce, to 

impale, to spit: wiikash tetal^ok while sticking bone-awls into the ground, 

105, 6. Cf shetalxtia, stulka. 
t a 1 k i d s h a , d. tatalkidsha, v. intr. (1 ) to veer around, rotate, gyrate; to turn 

around like the hands of a clock. (2) to whirl around; said of persons, 
t Aljj e a , tal^a-fi, d. tetalp^ea to talk jokingly, with exaggerations ; to make fun 

of, to joke about: talke-ug while joking about, 105, 16. Cf sheshtalkash. 
t a 1 p A k p k a , d tatalpakpka to look into another's face; to look at a person's 

features closely, e. g. when surprised. Cf tdlish. 
t a 1 p a t k a , d. tatalpatka to look into a person's face. 

t a 1 p a t k 6 1 a , d. tatalpatk61a to look out from under a cover or shed, 96, 23. 
t a 1 .s% a, d. tatal.s;(a to see, look through a tube. 

t d 1 a a t — t a m li . 387 

t a 1 1 a 1 i , d. tataltali, adj., running straigJit; forming an unbroken sti'aiglit 
line; said, e. g., of the border of a square table. Der. ttila No. 2. Cf 
naitalt^lshna, taktakli. 

ttiltalsh, d. tatdltalsh ^toe; tin plate. 

lalual;^a, d. tatalualxa to turn the face to the sky, upwards: t!'dual;{ank 
sp^iiipka to lie on one's back; ksliu'sha talual^an he was lying ivithin on his 
back, 24, 14. Cf. tc^lish. 

tAluodsha, d. tataluodsha to stew, boil up, 113, 1. 

t a m , procl. tarn (1) interr. particle standing as the first word in a direct or 
indirect query in the absence of another interr. particle (or pronoun); 
not translatable in English, but generally used where an affirmative reply 
is expected : tarn i niish 161a? do you believe mef tarn nii'sh setu'l%a kanil 
did anybody consort tvith youf 78, 3 ; tarn hai tchl' msh hu'nk Idyank tewi? 
did he really shoot at you, taking aimf 109, 17.; tam tatakiash shle'sht? 
if he had seen the childrenf 122, 18., cf. 19.; tam i shla'a? do you see? 
Modocs most fi-equently connect t. with lish: tam lish i nu'sh 161a? do 
you believe mef Kl. with hai, haitch; cf 140, 4 9. Cf. tamu, tamudsh. 
(2) adv., somewhere, at some place; contr. from tata am: kani hi tdm paka? 
who is smoking around here f 

tamddsha, d. tat'madsha (a in -ma- long) (1) v. intr., to stand at the end 
of a row, file or series; to stand out, aside or in front of a group; to be the 
first or last. (2) v. trans., to place, fasten at the extremity of: with double 
obj. case in: kia'm=luelo'tksh vu'nsat tamddsank tewas they fasten it as a 
fish-killing article in the forked net at the bow of a canoe, 149, 22. Cf 
yumadsha, lamadsha, leliwa, St6palsh=Tama'dsh. 

t a m e n 6 1 k a , tamnu'tka, d. tatamno'tka to return, come back; to have been 
at, to have visited a place; lit. "to return from traveling": ni t. tina tapi' 
/ was there for the last time, 24, 21.; cf 25, 1. 2.; tat i tamnu'tka? ivhcre 
do you come from f 141, 2.; tAt lish i tamno'tka? Mod. where have you been? 
Der. tamgnii. Quot. under -ni. 

tamenu, tamno, damenu, d. tatamnu (1) to travel, march; to be on a jour- 
ney, trip or march: yamat tamenuo'ta while running out in a northern 
direction, 37, Ifi. (2) to walk, go away; to go. Cf tatamnuish. 

tamu for tam hu'; cf. tam. In 41, 18 -u', -hu' points to local and tem- 
poral presence: tamu' lish a mulo'la? are ye ready here nowf Cf tam. 


t a III u d s h , tiunu'dsli (1) interr. particle in questions put directl}'; like 
tarn, it is generally untranslatable, and often used when a negative an- 
swer is expected: t. kek hisluuikga heudianka? can this hoy speak f kfi- 
yudsh luVt hemkankatk gi he cannot speak yet; t. p;ish nu tuniena? do I 
hear something said concerning myself f 185; 38. T. is sometimes used 
elliptically for taniii'dsli i {or ilt) mu'lual are you (or ye) rcadyf (2) 
particle introducing questions put indirectly: tliat, whether, if, whether or 
not: shle'dshuk, tanuVdsIi ktanshisht in order to see whether he ivas asleep, 
113, 15. Cf. 122, 4. as quoted under sliewa. Der. tarn, li'tcli. Cf. tam. 

t a n , d. tatan, abbr. from tanni, q. v. 

tanapsli, pi. tiimi t., turnip, 147, 18 From the P^nglisli. 

taniani, d. tataniaui, adj , as large in size; so large: lawal ka tiinian 
slapshtat this is its tvidth at the hud, 149, 1. Der. tanni. Cf. -ni, pdnani. 

tdnk, d. tatank (I) adv temp then, at that time, epoch, or period; often 
placed after the noun: tina ilfolash t. last year. (2) adv. temp, (a long: 
ta'nk) long ago, many months or years ago; the length of time elapsed 
remaining wholly undetermined: snawedsh k(^l6m t. kel^ka the wife of 
this (man) died long ago. Cf. gahak, ma'ntch, nia. (3) adj., so many, so 
much. Quot under tak (2). (4) pron. interr., hoic manyf how much? 
70, 8.; tankeni standing for tank a ni. Contr. from tanni gi. Cf. kank. 

tf'ink, dank, d. tatank; abbr. from tankatch, q. v. 

tankak (1) adv. temp., then, that time; referring to a short lapse of time. 
(2) adv. temp., not long ago, a short time ago: tdnkak iiA-entk sunditka 
last week. Gf nia, welisht (3) adj., a few, some, some few, not many: 
Moatuashash pila sa si'uga tiinkak they killed a few Pit River Indians only, 
20, 8.; wats sawana t. he gave a few horses only, 78, 1. From tAnk, ak. 

tankakak (1) adv. temp., a short time only. (2) adj., a few only: t sa 
siuka wewalii'ksas k'mutchapkas tclii'sh they killed only a few old women 
and old men, 17, 18. From tankak, ak. 

t ti n k a t c h , tangatch, abbr. tank, d. tatankatch palate. 

taukui, d. tatankni, adj., often with adverbial function: (1) helonging to 
that time; living at the time, existing at the period referred to (2) early, 
ancient, hygonc: t. ninklaks (a) the ancient tribe; {h) the earlier generation, 
85, G. Cf. ma'ntcluii. (3) short, not extended, brief in time (from tank in 

tdmudsh — tdnni. 389 

the sense of tiinkak (2), cf. tinkt at, tAnktak): t. waito'lan after the lapse 
of a feiv days only, 43, 4.; ma'ns tiinkeni ak waitash after a tvhile, within 
so many days, 73, 7. (4) adv., so many times ; many times, often, 59, 16. 
(5) tankeni in 70, 8. is: tank a iii (satu)'? how many do I count f Cf. 
tank (4). — Der. tank No. I. 

tankskni, 24, 21.; same as tanktclukni, q. v. 

tiinkt, d. tdtankt (1) adv., at that time, then: kii'gi t. none tvere there at 
that time, 16, 17.; t. ni g^na that time I set out, 21, 1.; tiVm t. hushtchoka 
sa many they killed then, 16, 8.; t. gatpanuapkshe'mi in a future time, in 
a time to come; iiash (for ndlasli) se'gsa t. E-ukskni suko'lkij)rdiik at that 
time (or hour) the Klamath Lake warriors told us to reassemble, 20, 9. ; cf 
19, 6. 21, 1. 24, 20. 28, 4. 31, 2. 6. 64, 3.; tAnkt at quickly, suddenly, 
at once, 23, 11. (2) adv., Jinally, at last, 23, 2. 20. 60, 19. 22. (3) conj., 
after, afterwards: t. nu hemkdnktak after this is done, I will talk over, 42, 
5. ; t. shuldsham genuisli mdklaks shu^nka hu'nk after the troops had left, 
the Indians killed (the disabled ones), 38, 2.; tankt then, after these acts, 
59, 17. 18. Cf tapitana (2). From tdnk, at. 

tanktak, d. tatanktak (1) adv., very soon, pretty soon, shortly afterivards, 
28, 6. 37, 12.: t. tchiksh at the same time, 87, 11.; composed of tAnkt a7id 
ak. (2) adv , formerly, long ago, long since; composed of t4nk and tak. Cf 
gahak, ma ntch. (3) t. and tAnktoksh, exch of one molested or teased by 
others: enough! stop! quit! cease! lit. "so much then!" Composed of tank 
(3), tak. Mod. for ga'tak Kl. Cf. kdnktak. 

1 4 n k t c h i k , adv., (d that time, then; lit. "then at last". T. is a correlative 
to tat4taks in 128, 1. From tank, tche'k Cf tdnktak tchiksh smw/ta- 
neously, at the same time, 87, 11. 

tanktchikni, Kl. tankshikni, tankskni, d. tat4nktchikni, adj., he, she or 
it from that time; this or that from that time to the present time; that or those 
living since that epoch, 128, 9. and Note; t. ka-i pen nadsha'shak tchia/ro>« 
that time they never dwelt together again, 13, 2.; tchiii t. kc4.-itata ge'nt sel- 
lu41shuk from that time I never started again for warfare, 24, 21. Der. 
tAnk, tche'k; the adj. of tanktchik. 

tdnni, abbr. tan, d. tatdnni (1) pron. interr., hotv manyf how much? to 
tvhaf amount f t. ilksh shil'tu a't? hotv many food-huckets do ye cotintf 70, 8.; 


t. sha g{?na? how many went there f 93, 5.; t. wdtch gi? Mod.; t. mi wdtch 
gi? Kl. how many horses have youf tdn a i wewt^asli gitk"? how many children 
have youf (2) pron. dein., so many, so much; to' that figure, to that amount: 
ka t: 3" so long: three inches, 147, 1., cf. 146, 1. 12. 149, 1.^. Cf. kank, 
tiiniani, tdnk. 

t4nt, d. tdtant (1) floor of the sweat-lodge or spiiklish. (2) fire-place of 
winter-house: t. wakl'sh inside-ladder of the winter-lodge, 180; 22. 

tiiniia, dt4nua, d. tatdnna (1) heavy flat stone serving as a mealing-stone 
for grinding pond-lily and other seeds; resembling the Igmtitch, but hol- 
lowed out more deeply: ddnuatat pdksha to grind upon the mealing-stone. 
Kl. (2) stone mortar for pounding corn, grain, seeds etc. Mod. 

Tdnua=Lutl'lsh, nom. pr. of a camping-ground on the Wilhamson 
River; lit. "Under the Flat Rock". From tdnua, lutfla. 

tApak, tilpa%, d. tdtpak, t/itpak leaf oi plant, shrub, or tree: hehutxe t. 
tlie (withered) leaves are falling, lb, 15.; tdpa^ kitchkdni (supply: gi) the 
leaves are small, 147, 1. Der. tiipka. Cf. liitish. 

tapdta, d. tatpata to hold together articles unequal in size or quality: {}) to 
hold or lay together sheets of unequal size. (2) to seize hot objects by means 
of a substance intervening. Cf shnakptiga. 

tapi, tapl d. tatpi (1) adv. loc, hehind, aft; in succession, following : sha- 
amoksh tS,pl' gAlampaga the relatives follow hehind, 85, 5., Mod. (2) adv. 
temp., follotving in time, subsequently, afterwards: t. tita, t. tftna a short time 
after this, 66, 12.; tinA t.for the last time, 24, 21.; tapi' shelludlsha he uent 
to fight a second time, 21, 1. (title); tapitak but after this. 111, 16. 

tdpiaj), ta'piap, t6piap, d. t4tpishap, tatapiap (1) younger brother, said by 
or in reference to elder brother, 113, 20. 114, 2.: shtuli' ta'pia m'na he 
ordered his younger brother, 109, 3.; younger sister, said by or in reference 
to elder sister. Cf tapfnkani. (2) younger male or female cousin; said by 
elder male or elder female cousin. (3) half brother; half-sister. Der. tapi. 
Cf pa-anip, shatapialtko, t^e-unap, tupakship. 

tapf dshni, d. tatpfdshni, Mod.: 134, 15.; same as tapitni, q. v. 

tapini, t^pfni, topini, d. tatpfni, totpini, adj. (i) second, second to; second 
in order, file or rank, station, age etc. Cf. tapiap, tapfnkani. (2) foUotv- 
ing, subsequent, latter; last, ultimate: t. tchkash g^kansha the last one also 
rushed outj 112, 12. Cf shuhipslikisli. (3) secondary, inferior. Der. tapi 

tilnt— tAslatcli. 391 

tapinkani, tapinikani, d. tatpmkani the younger or youngest; coming in 
age right after another, 119, 14.; said of children and of young- animnls: 
ka'-udshish topinkan the gray wolf^s younger brother, 184; M.; tapinika- 
3'entch (for tapinikanienasli) ankutka tAkuank sliu'm gagging the mouth of 
the younger (cub) ivith a piece of ivood, 120, 19.; cf 121, 22. Der. tapi'ni, 
-kani. Cf. tapiap, t^cwaga. 

tapitana, tapitan, tapita, topi'ta, d. tatpitana, totpita (1) loo. prep, and 
postp., after, behind, in the sequel or wake of; in the rear of: Davish tapi'tan 
laki the chief ranking next after Dave Hill, 58, 2. ;<.; tch(j-u tapittinna hu'd- 
shna an anteloim tuas running behind (him), i2G, 8 ; topitan wa'g'n behind 
the wagon. Id, 6.; nu'sh tapi'tan in the back of the head, 42, 9. (2) temp. 
conj., subsequently: tapi'ta gatpa Wiilamskni tchi'shtat afterwards (or after 
this) the Rogue River Indians came to the settlement, 17, 1 Cf. ta])i (z), 
tchui. From tapi, -tana. 

tapitankni , d. tatpitankni, adj., one who is or remains behind; staying or 
coming in the rear of, 9G, 1. 

tapitni, tapitni, Mod tapidshni, d. tatpitni, tatpitni, adj., posterior, hind- 
most: t pe'teh hind leg, cf. 134, 15.; t. tchii'kash from behind their hips, 
128, 10. Der. tapita, the abbr. ta[)itana. 

tiipka, d. tatiipka, v. intr., to stand out from, to jut out, to be salient; said 
of long things: pshi'sh t. the nose projects. Cf samkd-a, tapak, tuila, 

tiiplal, pi. tiimi t., loon: a large fowl, black, with white spots; an excel- 
lent diver, allied to the grebe, but having the toes fully Avebbed: Colym- 
bus torquatus. By order of K'mukamtch the loon destroys a fish-trap of 
the Maklaks Indians at the junction of Sprague and Williamson Rivers. 
This myth is given lii2, 1-8., and more explicitly in the Notes. Incan- 
tations: 168; 46. 177; 28.: t. w<ja the loon cries, 183; 24. 

ttips^oya, d. tat4ps;{oya, v. impers., to be benumbed, rigid, as with cold; 
said only of extremities of the body; t. an's, t. na'lsh my, our fingers are 
stiff by cold. Kl. Der. t^pka. Cf k4tka, ndd-itia. 

tApsnek, d. tatapsnek, titdpsni^ brain. Kl. for t\6zo Mod 

t a s h k a , tdsga, d. tatashka to let go, let loose, 55, 7. : tashg' i ish ! let me go! 
k^kish tdshk' i! let him go! at tashgat Imnkesh! ye let him go! 

tdslatch, d. tatAsIatch cougar or American tiger: Felis concolor, LO, 19 ; 


also called kuika-usli, q. v. Indian and Americ;in liunters have recently 
exterminated all the cougars in the Klamath Highlands. Cf. tchlakatcha. 

ti'ishta, d tatashta to touch lij hand: M-i i hiin kiini tashtdnta! don't touch 
that! hands off! Cf. shiitnshi, tddsha, tashul61a 

tiishui, tdssui, d. tatdshui to attack, charge, as an enemy: tsui tdssuipk 
(Sa'tas) then they attacked (the Snake Indians) in the absence of the one 
speaking, 29, 19.; cf Note. Cf gutampka. 

tashul61a, d. tatashuldla to stroke, to 2^ass through with the hand, e. g. 
through hair or fur; the French effleurer: 155; 21. Cf tashta. 

T a t a , nom. pr. of a Klamath Lake female. 

tAta, abbr. tdt, tat (1) adv. interr. loc, where? in which spot? at which 
place? 141, 1. 4.: tdt a't tatdkshni gl? children! where are yef 121, 5., cf. 
Note to 121, 9.; tat lish! Mod., where then? where? 141, 8.; tdtai! for tata 
hi? q. V. (2) where? to or toward which place? tdt at gdna? where are ye 
going? in questions put indirectly: tat k6%pash genudpka. Mod., where 
the heart tends to go, 3V, 22. Cf 105, 4. (3) adv. loc, where, at which 
place. Cf tatd No. 2., tatdtuk, tdtkni, ta'tak. 

tatd, abbr. tdt, d. tatatd, tdt'ta (1) interr. temp, particle, when? at which 
time or period? tdta (for tdt a) ml'sh nu tpdwa? when did I order you? 
109, 6., cf 10.; t. ma'ntch? how long ago? t. lish sha ksfulakuapk .^ tvhen 
will they have a dance? 140, 1. (2) conj. temp., when, at the time when; 
then: tiV tdwipk, t Doctor Johnam sndwedsh shila out there he bewitched 
him, when Doctor John's tvife was sick, 64, 2.; tatdtgnat (for tatdt a nHt) 
that time we, 24, 19., forms epexegesis to the foregoing tanktg nat; tatd 
gen 1 shle-uga kukpdktak i nu'sh! Mod., when you see this think of me! 
(3) adv. temp., ever, at any time: kd-i t. never; kd-i nu'sh shiugat tdta he 
can never Idll me, 96, 22. Cf kd-itata, tdtatak and 24, 21. 34, 5. 

tatd whence, where from; from whom, 41,6. and Note; also used interroga- 
tively. Contr. from tdta where? and interr. particle d, lid. 

tdtai? at which spot, place, locality? 140, 4. From tdta, hi. 

tatdksni, tdtoksni, obj. tatdkiash children; children able to walk; a subst. 
having plural signification only, 34, 1. 37, 15. 17. 141, 10. 12.; said of 
boys, 109, 15.; t. Tchevvamtcham the children of Old Antelope, 121,4.; cf. 
121, 6. 13. 1.5-19. 21. I;i2, 1. 15-19. Cf snffix -ni, WL^ash. 

tAshta — tatchiipka. 393 

tataksniptchi acting UJ,e children; childlike; childish. 
tatamnuish, abbr tatumnish, pi. tiimi t, one who is ivalking, traveling, 

journeying, strolling about; habitual walker ; traveler: tchiissak t. a //"rtw?|), 

vagrant, Mod.; kd-i hu t. he is tarrying, loitering on his journey, or walk; 

mundna tatdmnish mole; see under miina." Der. tamenii. Cf. pshin. 
Tdtapkaksh ^^High-Cheekhones", nom. pr. of a Klamath Lake man, 

signer of the treaty in 1864; mentioned there as Tatetpas. Der. tapka. 
t d t a t a k , tdtataksh whenever, at the time when, just ivhen, 82, 4. 5. : tatatak 

se (for tdtatak sha) spuklid tvhen they are siveating inside, 82, 3. Der tata. 
tatatli, d. tatatatli flat, level, even, smooth. Original form tat-tat-li; c£ 

patpdtli, tdktakli. 
Tatatmi, nom. pr. of a hill near Yaneks subagency, in Sprague River 

Valley. Cf tatdtli. 
tatatuk? tohere then? t. mdklaks gatpa? tvhere have the (Rogue River) 

Indians gone f 17, 7. From tdta where? A, ha interr., tuk (cf tnk) then. 
tatita, d. tatatita, v. intz\, to be stuck up, to stick out; said of long-shaped, 

inan. things: muiuash t. the rabbit-skin sign (of the Indian conjurer) is 

stuck up, hanging out. Cf kiuyega, kiukava. 
tatkni, abbr. takni, d. tatatkni, abbr. tatakni, adj. of tiita: (1) coming 

from ivheref inhabitant, native of tvhich jdace or country f t;itkni igi? where 

are you from? (2) the one being there; he who, that which is there: tatakni 

yu'l%a (the arrows) that have struck the ground at that spot, \3(i, 3.; native 

of that place or country. Also used as an adverb, 
t d t k t a , d. tatdtkta, v. intr., to smart, to feel pain. 
tdtktish, d. tatatktish (1) pain, smarting, bodily suffering: incantation, 

168; 47. (2) the article or substance producing disease; the sickness or 

disease in a tangible bodily form, 71, 6. Conjurers feign to suck it out 

from the patient's body in the form of a pin, small stick, little frog etc. 
tdt%6lam, tdt%elamni, tat^gldrnpani etc., forms used by Kl. 

in the absolute as well as in the distributive signification; cf t;>;alam, 

t^dlamni, t^dlampani, etc. 
tatcha'lka, d. tatatcha'lka to stroke, pat, caress by patting, 183; 23. 

Der. tadsha. Cf ptchdkl;^a, tatchdpka. 
t a t c h d p k a , d. tat'tchapka to squeeze, press by hand; to mash. Cf ndshapka. 


t a I c h t d d s h a t k o , d. tatatchtadshatko elastic, as india-nibber. 

t a - 11 1 a k t tl m n a , d. tatulaktdmna to swalloio ivhile raising the Jicad : tchf- 
kass a ambii piimiog t. the bird is drinking ivatcr. 

ta-imep, tii'-unep, d. tati'uiep, tatunep; same as tc'-nnep, q. v. 

ta-iini, d. tatii-uni (1) town, city, settlement of white people: tzalampan- 
kani t. one-half of the town (2) T;i-uni, name given to several of the 
larg'er towns in the vicinity of the Klamath reservation, as Ashland and 
Jacksonville in Oregon, Yreka (prononnced Wariki) in California, and 
their surroundings. Yreka is referred to in 54, 4. 55, 1. Cf Note to 
55, 1 and 3. From the English town; -i is the suffix of the inessive case. 

t A w a 1 K h , d. tatualsh young quadruped; a term referring to certain animals 
only: viinam t. elk one year old. C£ lel^dshi, wf'hlaga. 

tiiwi , d. tAtui, v. trans., to bewitch, to charm; to cast a deadly spell upon, to 
infect with a long-lasting disease by sorcery, witchcraft, magic artifice, by the 
"eOT7 eye". The jieople believe that conjurers only have the power to do 
this at will, and that they cast their spells during festive dances, or when 
visiting the sick etc. Ha' i kiiiks t4wi-uapk, mu' mish ni nil'-ulakuapk 
should you, as a conjurer, cast a spell, then I woidd punish you in an exem- 
plary manner, 59, C; k'lgkd, tawi'sh the bewitched one dies, 62, 3.; tii' tdwipk 
far away from here he cast the spell upon him (tiiwipk for tdwi-apka), at a 
distance from others, or unseen by them, 64, 2. 3. Cf 6G, 1. 68, 2. 10. 
11. Cf kinks, shal;^ita, tdwi. 

tdwiks, pi. tumi t, a plant growing in open places in the Klamath high- 
lands, producing small yellow flowers standing in a bunch. The stalk 
is about one foot long and has a white tap-root of the same length, 
which is eaten raw or roasted. 

tawiksalsha, d. tatuiksalsha to gather the tdwiks-root annually or habitu- 
ally, 74, 3. Cf. kulalsha, po'ksalsha. 

ta'tak, adv. loc, where, just where; when correlative with gii'tak "so 
much . . . . as where,^' 73, 3. Der. tdta, ak. 

tii'taktak, adv. loc, just where, right at the spot ivhere: tiitiiktak huk 
IcAlak mii'sha, ga'tak ubd-ush ktu'shka as far as the infection extends on the 
body of the relapsed patient, so large a piece he cuts out of the deer-skin, 
73, 2. From ta'tak, tak. 

tatchtAdshatko — te'lak. 395 

T ^ a z t k n i , or T. m/iklaks, nom. pr. of tlie Tygh Indians, a tribe in North- 
ern Oregon, called so from Tygh Creek, a western tributary of the Des 

Chutes River near its influx into the Columbia River. Rev. Pandosy 

mentions the Tairtla as a tribe of the Sahaptin family. Also called 

T(ilknikni, T mtlklaks. 
t^dsha, tetcha, d. tetddsha to wash, as articles of dress, bedding etc.: 

tetiidsha tchulish to wash shirts. Absol. form little in use. Cf shetdtcha. 
t e d s h 1 a , tetchia, d. tetadshi'a to wash for somebody. Cf. tedslia, temddsha. 
t ^ g a , d. tetdga to ivear out, to use up by wear and tecrr Kl. for kaga Mod., 

q. V. Cf lelii'ma (2), ndega, pot(^ga, wena. 
t»i-i, unmeaning word; spoken while beating the measure for short-step 

dances, 162; 7. Cf tadsf. 
t «i - i n , te'n, t'e'n, d. tetin, adv. of te-ini, a short while ago, very recently: d-ati 

kesna t. deep snoiv fell a little tvhile ago; t^-intaks nia a short time ago. 

Cf nia, tankak, welisht. 
teina, tama maiden; young ivoman in her teens, 186; 49. Cf te-ini. 
t ^ - i n i , te'ni, d. tetini new, recent; young. Quot. under shk'pka, sklepkipele. 
t e - i n i w d - a s h , t(iniwash, tenuyd-ash, d. tetinivvd-ash ( 1 ) woman rcccnthj 

married; called so by her husband's parents. (2) young woman, maiden, 

190; 9. Der. tti-ini, wd. Cf tenuydga. 
tt'yi chief, headman; commander; high officer; applies to white and Indian 

dignitaries. Chin. J. for lakf Kl. Cf laki, skiikum-house. 
T^kash, nom pr. masc. Kl., interpreted by: "crying tik, tik." 
te'kish, tdkish sivord, long hlade, long knife, 113, 19. 114, 2. Cf yuha- 

n^ash, tkeka, wdti. 
T^kmal, nom. pr. of a Klamath Lake man, 65, 17. 
tekteka, d. tetdkteka to pain, burn ; Jo produce a smarting sensation : nu'sh 

t shldledsham the nettle burns me. Der. tika. 
t^kua, d. tetdkua to break, to breaJc asunder, to smash to pieces; said of 

long-shaped objects. Der. k^wa. Cf tk^wa, uk^wa. 
tdlak, ta'lak ivar-arroiv; battle-arrow, 138, 1. Der. t^l^a. Cf ng^-ish, 

nte'ktish, tdldshi, tdlka. 
te'lak, d. te'telak Mod., tete'lak Kl., waistcoat; garment belonging to the 

wardrobe of males, 186; 50. 


t dill a, tdla, d. tetdlha, tetdla (l) to look upon, to look on, to overlook: tt'l- 

hapka, telYipka to look upon from a distance; nat wai'ta }'ainatat telliap- 

kank we passed one day in looldng down, observing from an eminence, 21, 12. 

(2) to look like, resemble in the face; to have the features of: shuhank sliftko 

telan having similar features; partic' telantko having a face, provided with 

such a face: wika=telantko short-faced, short-featured, li)0; 14. Der. tala 

No. 2 (1) Cf. telish, teloli, telshapka. 
t ^ 1 h i , d. tetiilhi to look at, to look down iqion; said of objects on the ground, 

in a lodge etc.: s^ishii'liink te'llii ku'metat ivaking up, she looked into the 

cave, 122, 14. Cf. tellia, teloli. 
tClikual%a, d. titliikual^a to look up, ivpward, skyward. Cf taliuil^a. 
tellna, d. tetglma to let go, to set free: teli'n'i ish let me alone; telintok nal 

hil un he will let us go. Mod. Cf spiinka, taslika, ti'la. 
telish, ta'lisli, delish, d. tetalish {l^face: i'p;{a tc'lislitat they smeared into 

their faces, 120, 18. (2) human face, human features, 87, • ,'). 150, 8. Der. 

tela. Cf kmapat'hienatko, telha, telhi. 
tol 1 1 a II kpka , d. tetalitankpka to see somebody's /are y/o>» a distance; 

to see somebody within recognizing distance; to see one coming, 100, 19. 

Der. t(^lhi. Cf teloli. 
t(; 1kg ish, d. iQikXkgiaXx place of perforation : wawaksaui t. ear-lobe. Der. 

tel%a. Cf liashtaksh, shdkish. 
Tdlknikni, T niaklaks; same as Ti'a^tkni, q. v. 
tdl%a, tel'ka, t;l'l;^a, d. tetel;(a to loound tvith an arrow; to shoot, pierce: 

nga'-isli a ni tiiixiipksh the arrow by which I teas shot, 158, 1. and Note. 

Cf. tdlka, telak, tewa, tewi. 
tel61i, tiilo'li, d tet'lo'li, tetlii'li to look down on, to embrace with one stveep 

of the eye, 29, 10.; to overlook, said of scouts, 29, 12.: ml kam telii'llt 7 

would fain look down (uj)on it), 192; 4. Der. tdlha. 
t e 1 s h d m p k a , d. tetalshampka (1) to turn the eyes toward, to look at, sec or 

observe sotnethmg distant ; to fix one's looks or attention upon, 113, 14 (2) 

t. or k'ldkshashtala t. to turn the sight toward the dead; to be on the verge of 

death, 158; 54; explained nnder k'leka (3), q. v. (3) to turn the eyes 

around, to look about or around. Der. telshna. 
tdlshapka, d. tetalshapka to see, perceire, observe; said of objects at a 

t(^llia, — ttUalza. 397 

certain distance : Moatudshash ni t. wik;i liwapksh I i}erceived at a short 

distance Pit River Indians crowded together, but was not seen by them, 

22, 14. Cf. tdlhi, tt^lshna. 
t(51slina, d. tetalslma (I) to have the power of vision: niitokska-i t. I have 

lost my eyesight. (2) to sight, to behold, to have a look at: p'lai, yana t. to 

look upward, dowmvard, 174; 13. Cf. telish. 
teltclhi, KL te'ldtd'hli; d. tutaltclhi, Kl. teta'hlte'ldi flat, dej)ressed, low; 

deep: t. kaila deep valley. 
t o 1 u a k u y a , d. tetaluakuya to run or ride after an object seen, 31, 11. 
tdluitka, d. tetaluitka to return 'from a visit or ride: yAmat tdluitgank 

after having returned from a northern trip, 184; 31. 
teliiks, tlu'ks, d. tutl'uks small rush or reed basket of any shape, 75, 9. 
1 6 1 u % a g a , d. tutl'^aga small rush or reed-basket. Dim. tek'iks, q. v. 
t e m a d s li a , d. tetemadsha, to wash, as clothing: nu ge-u tetgmatcha shu- 

lotish I wash my own clothing; wennikisham i tchulish tetma'tcha you wash 

other peoplc^s shirts. Only nsed in the d. form. Der. t^dsha. Cf stetmash. 
t e m 6 1 a , d. tetm61a to produce ground-fog, to be clad in or covered with mist: 

mbii'shant kiiila tam61a early in the morn the earth was clad in mist; tam61a 

being a variant of hiimo'la in 192; 3. According to the belief of the 

natives this portends that the eartli is angry at the people Cf. hia. 
ten\61o, tmolo, tomolo, d. t6t'mlo wild plum: temolola'mi in the wild 

plum season, a period of the year corresponding to end of August and 

commencement of September. Cf. tmuk61atko 
t e n u y ;1 - a s h , 1 90; 21. ; other form of te-iniwa-ash, q. v. 
tenuyaga, 190; 13.; dim. of tenuy;i-ash, q. v. 
tepa, tii'pa, t'a'ba, d. tetepa, species of bony fish, popuhirly called 6m«- 

fish; not unlike the minnow, smaller than the vunai, q. v. 
t (^ s h a s h k o , d. t^t'sliashk'o torn cloth, piece of cloth, rag : t. amtchiksh old 

rag. Cf. i-eshk6tkish. 
t e s h a s h k u 4 1 a , d. tet'shashkuala ( 1 ) to tear cloth into shreds or pieces. 

(2) to make a blanket from small rags or patches. Cf. sku'tchala. 
tetadshisli, pi. tumi t., launderer, laundress: t. snawcdshasli washer- 

looman, laundress. Der. tedsha. Mod. for tetemadshish Kl. 
tetak<^vva, tetkewa, d. of tkewa, q. v. 
1 1' t a 1 % a , d. of talka, q. v. Cf. t(iwa. 


t c 1 11 1 % a , cl. of tulxca, q. v. 

t e t e m <i d s h a , totmri'tclia, cl. of temadslia, q. v. 

tctomadshish, pi. tiimi t (1) washerman or ivaaherwoman. Cf k'ta- 
dshish. (2) Tetdm:'idshish, Tctematsis, noni. pr. of a Klamath Lake 
woman, also called Aunt Susie, Vuya-ak. She is mentioned in Kakash's 
trial as one of the female "doctors" in the Klamath Lake tribe, 64, 1-10. 
65, 2-13. 16. 66, 1. and Note to 64, 1. (p. 67). Der. temadsha. 

tet'mashkish, pi. tumi t. (l) thief, robber, flicker. (2) vagrant, tramp. 
Der. t'mcishka. Cf p;ipalish. 

tetch6tki sli , d. tetatchotkish tvash-tub, laundri/-tub. Der. tc'dsha. 

t e - n k t c - u k a s li , te-uktt;-uks, d. tetokte-ukash, a species of haivk, long- 
tailed; perhaps the marsh-hawk: Circus hudsonius. Onomatop. 

te-unep, tii'-nnap, ta-unep, d. tetunep, tiituniip ten: te-unepanta na'sh 
likla, fci-unepanta la'p p(j-ula eleven, tivelve: nda'ni taiiniip Yamakni thirty 
Warm Spring scouts, 43, 5., cf 42, 20. 43, 10 18. 20. 44, 1.; tunepni t. 
ffty; lapkshaptankni t seventy; t(i-unepa shektat^atko a tenth part; t(5- 
nne})ash pakalaksh tenfold. Cf. toiisand. 

te-unepni, ta-unepni, d. tc^tnnepni ten times: t. te-unep one hundred; 
t. sha gdna ten men went there; lit. "they went ten together", 93, 6. 

t d - u n o 1 s h ; same as tiuno'lsh, q. v. 

t e - u t e w a , pi. tumi t., to break doivn, to fall to pieces, to be crushed, as by 
trampling upon, 121, 17. 

tew a, tii'wa, d. tetua to fix, drive, run, plant in tlie ground; to set up, 
fasten: wAlas t. to plant a pole or scalp-pole; kailatat /mku t. to drive a post 
or stick into the ground; t. anku they plant sticks (as limits), 80, 8.; ameta 
ti'vvank ivhen planting the camass-stick into the soil, 190; 9. To plant two 
posts into the soil for building, stal^a; many posts, tdtal;^a, d. of talka. 

t(5 w a s li , d. tc'tuash scoop-net, dip-net with a handle, 149, 22. The dipping 
jjortion, wliich holds the meshes, is formed by two sticks forking out from 
the handle, and herein the t. differs from the round-shaped luteash. 
When the meshes are narrow^ and small, the t. is a Id-iks; when wider, a 
witcholash. See liiksii'lsha, tamadsha. 

t c' w i , d. tdtui (1) to shoot an arroiv, arrows: na's t., kahhia n's one sent an 
arrow, but missed me, 23, 17.; tarn hai m'sh t.? did he really shoot at you? 

tetAl%ea — tgiiwala. 399 

109, 17. Cf. 110, 9. 13. (2) to shoot with fire-arms, to (jive fire, to fire off; 
generally used without obj. case, 30, 4.: loloksgish t. to fire a (jun, 38, 
11. 21. Der. tewa. Cf. hushtiwa, ute-ish, sh^tui, sbliu, tawi. 

t^wish, d. tctuish loud report, as of gun, cannon; explosion. 

t g - ; terms not found under these initials to be looked for under tk-, {%-. 

tgakaya, d. tgatgakaya {I) to stand or remain o?i something. Cf. tgi- 
kela. (2) to stand, stay, remain in the woods, marshes, wilderness, clifts: 
lilhanks t. gatchcshtat tlic deer is standing in the hushes. Speaking of more 
than one subject, liukaya, q. v. Der. gakaya. 

tgakianina, d. tgatgakiamna to stand near by ; to he standiny in a file, 
eroivd, ring with others. Speaking of more than one subject, liukiamna, 
lualoya and their d. forms. Der. gakidmna. 

t g a 1 i g a , tkallika, d. tgatgliga, tkatklika to stand, remain or exist on the 
shore, near the water: kii-il koketat t. a mountain sheep stands on the river 
shore; sho'ks walidshtat t. a heron stands on a cliff at the shore. Speak- 
ing of more than one subject, liluliga, d. of liuli'ga. Cf. Aish=Tkali'ks. 

tgapata, tkajjata, d. tgatkpata to stand ayainst an object while touching- 
it: pap;{ashtat t. to stand against a wooden wall. Der. kdpata 

t g a p t c h a , d. tgatgaptcha (1) to go and stand elose to. (2) to hide, conceal 
oneself while standing behind. Qviot. under shnawedshka. Der. kaptcha. 

t g a s h a s h % i s h , d. tgatg'shj'ish;(isli ivomaii's shirt, shift. 

tgatita, tgutita, d. tgatgati'ta; same as tgatitana, q. v. Speaking of more 
ihan one subject, lilutita or lualutita, d. of liutita, q. v. Cf gatl'tana. 

tgatitana, tgatidna, d. tgatgatitna to stand outdoors ; to stand outside of, as 
of a building, lodge, 1 14, 1 . Speaking of more tlian one subject, lilutitna 

tga-ule%a, tga-ul^a, d. tgatgu'lpja (1) to arise, to rise or get up, as from 
a sitting attitude or from the ground. (2) to assume a standing position ; 
said of the moon: t. at ukaukosh the moon is completing the first (or last) 
quarter, Mod. Der. ga-u'l%a. Cf tg^l;^a (1). 

t g ;i w a 1 a , tgd-ula, d. tgatgula {\) to stand on the top of; to stand upon; to be 
erect upon: tchaki t. himpokshtat the boy stands on a log; tgA-ulank (hitcli- 
ashtat) standing on the top of the lodge, 113, 22. (2) to be standing, to stand 
on one! s feet: tkiiwalsh one ivho is standing erect — Speaking of more than 
one subject, liwala. Der. gawal. 


tgeliwa, d. tf>etgiiliwa, tgutgeliwu to stand on the top or rim; to stand 

above, on high, 154; 9 
t.gcl%!i, ix'd'^yji, tl. tgetgiil/a, t%at%;'il;ja (1) to rise up, stand itj); to start 

up from a sitting position: t^ii'l^a (ni) I rose upon my feet, 30, 14. 105, 

12.; tgcl^an dmbutat vu'slui pani / stood in the tvater up to the chest. Kl. 

for tgo-ul;ija Mod. (2) to stop, to stop short after a run: tgdl%! (for tgdl;^' 

i!) stop right here! 126, 10. (3) to he exhausted, to give out after exertion. 

Speaking of more than one subject, lueliial;ija Kl 20, 16., lualo'l^a Mod., 

d. of huil%a. Cf. puta. (4) to stand up, to he in a standing attitude ; said 

of the moon when half or in the shape of a crescent: t^ii'lza sh;'ippash 

the moon is in the first or last quarter. C£ tga-ule^a (2). 
tgc'l^manka, d. tgetgal%manka to he crescent- shaped; lit "to assume a 

standing attitude": ukaukosh tgdl;{mangatko the moon is crescent-shaped, 

in the first or last quarter. Der. tgel^a (4), q. v. 
tgepalia'ga, d. tgitgpalic'ga to blaze up, to start up vertically; said of 

fire: liiloks t. the Ji re gets started, blazes up. Cf. liutka, niliwa. 
tgcwa, d tgc'tgua to stand in the water: tgewan ambutat vu'shu pani / 

stood in the water up to the chest. Speaking of more than one subject, liwa 

(I). Der. gewa. Cf. hiiwa, KxVlsh=Tgc-ush. 
tgikela, tgi'kla, d tgitgiikla to stand upon something: ke'nta kailatat t 

to stand on this earth, 192; 9. Cf tgakaya. 
tgi'xuga, d tgitga^uga to stand indoors, inside of a lodge or building. 

Speaking of more than one subject, liu%uga, lluna No. 2, with their d. 

forms: liuliu^uga, inverted luilua;juga; Ifluna. 
tg 1 1 1 a k dried fish reduced to powder and bought, in sacks weighing about 

70 pounds, of the Sahaptins of Columbia River, especially of the Warm 

Spring Indians of Des Chutes River, from whose language the word is 

said to be borrowed. Cf. kdmalsh. 
tgits^a, d. tgitgdts/a (I) to stand close by, 110, 16. (2) to stand between; 

to be or remain standing betwixt, among. 
t g i w a , d. tgitgi'wa it is damp, close, sultry weather. Cf paisha, shtfpa. 
tgo-iil/a, d. tgotgil'l^a. Mod. for tga-ule%a (I) and for tgcl;/a (1) Kl., 

q. v. : tgo-ul%un rising upon his feet, 42, 7. 
t g u 1 u t c h , d. tgu'tglutch small beetle with a green or purplish shell, living 

in the "round or seeking the shelter of bushes. Cf tgutfla. 

tgeliwa — tidsh. 401 

T g u I u t c h a m K s li u t (^ 1 s h "-Beetle's Best", nom. pr. of the small brook 
ou which the buildings of the Klamath agency are erected. It rises in a 
deep spring of clear water, is one-eighth of a mile in length, drives a saw- 
mill and a grist-mill and joins Crooked River. See tgiilutch, kshutila. 

t g li t a , tgu'ta, d. tgutgata to stand for a time, to be standing there for a while 
or for the time being: hu'k t. watch tchiktchigat this horse is harnessed to 
the wagon; lit. "stands at the wagon for a time". Speaking of more 
than one subject, levuluta, I'uliita, q. v. 

t g li t g a , tku'tka, d. tgutg^tka, generic term for to stand: tgix'tgank hatkok 
standing there, 110, 15.; watch hatokt tkii'tkapksh shlnank finding a horse 
standing there, 66, 13.; ninaku41%an tk6tka to stand with both arms extended 
to right and left. Refers to one subject only ; speaking of two, three or 
four subjects the d. forms of Igvuatka (syncop. luatka) are used: Igviilu- 
atka, contr. l6-uluatka, I'ul'uatka, liiluatka; cf. levuatka. Speaking of 
many subjects, lukantatka, d. luliikantatka. 

t g u t f 1 a , d. tgutgatlla to stand underneath, below. Speaking of more than 
one subject, levutila, often syncop. into I'utila, lutila, q. v.; la'pi a wdtch 
levutila mdhieshtat two horses are hitched under the shed (or in the shadow). 

tgutita, d. tgutgatita; same as tgatfta, tgatitana, q. v. 

1 1 a , a kind of flat or concave wickerwork paddle larger than the shaplash, 
q. v.; used by the women in gathering seeds, 96, 21.: tiatka with a paddle, 
147, 15.; ti'atsit i'k&lank placing on a paddle, 113, 10. Cf p4'hla. 

tiii'ma, d. tetiji'ma (l)v. intr. and impers, to feel hungry: t. nu, i I am, you 
are hungry. Mod.; mu t. mish you are very hungry; you are famished ; shkd 
tiil'muk a hu'ntsna I the shke-hawk fly around hungry, 177; 21.; tia'muk by 
hunger, 95, 13.; tia'mansh, tia'maansh (for tiii'ma a nii'sh), I feel hungry; 
ni'sh tia'matk M-a I am very hungry, 138, 5.; cf. 136, 8. (2) v. trans., 
to long for, desire, crave: tiii'mantk shui'sh (nu) I am desirous of singing 
or of hearing songs, 90, 1 2. 

tia'mish, d. tetiii'mish (1) hunger, strong appetite ; starvation, famine. In- 
cantation: 169; 48. (2) strong desire, craving. 

tidsh, tlds, titch, d. titadsh, titads, titatch, the adverb of tidshi: (I) tvell, 

in a satisfactory manner, in a physical or concrete sense: nicely, thoroughly, 

strongly, elaborately, beautifidly, perfectly, agreeably etc.; t. shi'ita to set 


ari<]lit or to treat well; t. tunicna to hear dearhj ; t. i slm6ka! take good hold 
of! mbiisant t. ndpakuapk to-morrow the iveather will he fine; t. tchia to 
live comfortahly, 34, 13.; t. tm;^a he has good luck, 134, 5. 16. 18.; tlds 
masitk of agreeable taste, 146, 14.; t. gi to feel comfortable, to feel well, to 
he at ease, 136, 6 ; t. shutddshna to put in order while on the wag, 85, 2. 
(JK 22, 14. IJO, 10. 14. (2) well, in a .satisfactory way, morally and 
abstractly sjjcaking: uprightly, generously, nobly, adequately, rejoicingly; t. 
k6kpatko generous. Mod. ; t. slilepapka to take good care of; t. gi to do one's 
duty, 59, 19-21.; t. a steinash gitko good-hearted or rejoicing at; \. nad 
tcliitchia we live contented; heinkanka t. he spoke well-meaning words, 34, 
12.; t. liii'shkanka to he ivcll-intentioned, 93, 8. Cf. tdlaak (3), and 36, 11. 

tlds ha, tidshd, d. tit'tcba to floiv, rtm off, to escape; said of" liquids. 

tidshewa, titcbdwa, d. titedsbewa, tit'tcbcvva to rejoice at, to like, to he 
glad, to he pleased with: ka-i a mi'sh t. he does not like you; 6-it nu tidsa'wa 
I like to give, 136, 1.; tidshewan mi'sh nu un vu'lktak I shall lend it to 
you with pleasure ; tidshewan tilotpa to receive in a friendly manner, 38, 15. 
Mod.; tidsa'wank tchia heing glad to remain alive, 64, 14. Cf. 136, 2. and 
ko-ishdwa, kuydwa. 

tidshi, tidsi, titchi, d. titddshi, titatchi, titadsi (1) good, in a physical or 
concrete sense; nice, fine, delightful, beautiful, handsome, agreeable; sweet to 
the taste; useful, easy: t. tchawAlkish guxhximy furniture of house or rooms; 
lit. "good chairs inside"; t. watch enduring horses; fleet horses, 20, 14.; 
ka-a t. snawddshash a rather pretty female, 183; 14.; t. ne'l delicate fur, 
144, 10.; t. tadsh pFt'sli hut it is a wholesome food, 147, 12.; ti'dsa, ti'tatsa 
wdwanuish j?re%, handsome women, 107, 7. 10. 11.; tidsbantala kaila wto 
a good country, 39, 2. Cf ttiks (3). (2) good in the moral, 'abstract 
sense: ivell-meaning, peaceful; upright, generous, just, noble; smart, intel- 
lectual; contented, satisfied; t. hissuaks a good man, C4, 9. 101, 9.; t. laki, 
or tidsh henikankdtko \aki peace-chief ; t. watchag the dog is smart; kii-i t. 
not well-meaning, not to be trusted, 93, 8. Cf steinash (3). 

tidshkianki, d. titadshkianki careful, provident; lit. "acting well for 
oneself". Der. tidsh, -gianggin. 

1 1 d s xi\i\o; see titads;(atko. 

1 1 k a , tigga, d. titaka, titagga to be sore, to cause pain; said of ulcers, boils, 
open wounds. I\[o(l.; unknown to Kl. Cf tt'kteka. 

tfdsha — Tilhuautko. 403 

t i k a g a , tiggaga, d. titgdga male of the mountain quail. Mod. ; unknown 

to Kl. Onomatop. Cf. takdga. 
1 1 k e s h , d titkesh claij, loam, argillaceous soil, Mod. Cf. Igvuatka. 
tikiwatko, d. titkiwatko hent, crooked, wry-shaped. Cf. Note to 91, 4. 
1 1 k o g s h , d. titkoksli tvoman's private parts. Cf. sttimsh. 
tila, til4, d. titela (1) v. intr., to roll, to roll on; to be borne; to spread about. 

(2) V. intr. and trans., to flood, to pass the limits; to overflow, submerge: 

dmbn til%an til4 the water dripped down and overflooded. 
Tilak, noni. pr. masc. Mod.; interpreted by "Small", "Stunted", 
t i 1 a 1 1 n a , d titglalina to roll off and down ; to spread, extend in a downward 

direction. Der. tila. 
tilaluansha, d. tit'laludnsha, v. intr., to roll around, 154; 12. 
t i 1 a n k a n k a , d. tit6lank4nka to roll forth and back, to keep on rolling to 

and fro, 105, 16. 
tilankdnsha, d. titglankansha (1) v. trans., to roll away. (2) v. intr., 

to ivheel or swing around, to swing to and fro: hlivasli t. the root-basket 

moves to and fro, 190; 19. Cf. .stilankansha, tilank^nka. 
tilanktidsha, d. titelankedslia, v. trans. (1) to wheel or roll away; to 

wheel around. (2) to turn over, to upset: kaila t. to upset the earth, world, 

the whole creation, 192; 8. 
t i 1 a n k i d s h d t k o , d. titelankidshatko wheel. Partic. of tilankddsha, 
tilankuela, v. trans., to roll downhill; when unattended by injuries or 

breakage. Cf. vud'hitakudla. 
t i 1 a n s / a , d. titlans%a. to make a slight cut or scar; to pass over body or 

limb while making a slight incision. Der. tila. 
tilanshnca, d. tit'lanshnea to contort, wrench, turn about; referring to 

the limbs of the body. Cf nu'sh=tilansncash. 
til an tana, d. tit'lantana, v. intr., to roll against; to roll around or along; 

said, e. g., of animals. Der. tila. Cf. hliutana. 
t i 1 h i p e 1 i , tilipeli, d titalhipeli, titalipeli ; see hulipeli. 
tilhua, tilua, d. titdlhua, titalua (1) v. intr., to spread, to flood, to run over; 

said of liquids. (2) v. trans., to flood, overflow, submerge ; partic. tilhuantko 

submerged. Der. tila. Cf. kitlua, tchitiga. 
T i 1 h u a n t k o (1), nom. pr. of Natural Bridge, a huge rock arch aiumally 


submerged by the spring floods of Lost River; described under Slilan- 
kosli, q. V. (2) nom. pr. of several other locaHties periodically overflowed. 

tilihash, a light wood or portion of a plant serving to attract fish, 150, 
5. It is cut to the length of about three feet, then fastened on the fish- 
ing canoes almost in the shape of forks. 

t i 1 1 n d s h a , ti'llintsa, tilinsha, d. titalindsha, titaliusha ; see hushlindsha: 
tilli'ndsa wc'wanuish tlicij deserted their women, 19, 6. 

til%a, d. titalxa (1) v. intr., to fall in drops, to drip down; said of liquids: 
at ampu t. the water is dripping; latchashtat t. to drip down from the house- 
top; til^an tchidga j'lmpu the water dripped down and overflowed. (2) v. 
intr., to decline towards the horizon; said of celestial bodies: at yaua t. 
shfippash the sun began to descend, 30, 10. Cf levuta. (3) v. trans., to make 
drip, fall in drops; to force liquids into; with double obj. case in: tchewash 
tcht^keli tilktgi in order to m,ake the antelope bloodshot, 126, 7. Der. tila. 

Ti\%o-\i "Drip- Water", nom. pr. of a mountain peak on Upper Klamath 
Lake, south of the agency. Cf. ntiklaksh. 

tilo'dsha, telo'dsha, d. titel6dsha to see moving, going or coming; said of 
distant anim. and inan. objects: tilo'dshipk nat Sdtas we saw the Snake 
Indians coming from a distance toward us, 29, 14. Der. tdlha. Cf t(ilshna. 

til6takna, d. titglotakna (1) to see somebody putting food in his mouth. 
(2) to cause to fall sick, to render sick: for if a shko'ks, q. v., sees anybody 
putting food in his mouth, he may enter the mouth and the eater may 
fall sick, 179; 8. Cf. shataknula, shatatka, tdlha. 

tilo'tkala, dilo'tkal, d. tit'lo'tkala (1) to start after a stoppage; to be on 
one's way again after a short stop; to depart unexpectedly: nil am'sh dilo't- 
kala {or tilo'tkalsha) shlii'papka I saw that you started off suddenly. .(2) to 
labor under hallucinations, delusions of mind. 

tilo'tpa, d. titelo'tpa (1) to see somebody coming, arriving. (2) to receive 
a newcomer or visitor: maklaksh nal tidshewan t. the Indians received us 
with kindness, 38, 15. Cf stinta. 

t i 1 u t a k n u 1 a , d. titelutakniila to see somebody spitting out, or removing 
something from the mouth, 157; 45. Der. til6takna. Cf shataknula, 

t i m J) a k 1 6 ;( a , d. titampaklg/a; see hup;ikle%a. 

tilibasli — tini^i. 405 

tfmpelansha, d. titampglansha ; see hu'pglansha. 

tin a, tind, d. tftna, abbr. tita; d. of titna: tftatna, adv., a single time, one 
time, once, 25, 1. 78, f>'.: t. walta, t. illdla to complete, finish one year; t. 
ill61ash t4nk one year since; lit. "a year being once ended since tben"; 
t. siinde kiulan more than one tveek afterward, 44, 3.; cf. Idma (3); at a 
certain time: tapi' ti'ta sometime afterward, 66, 12.; tinatoks some other 

time; tlnd tinatoks one time but the second time, 16, 1. 2.: titn;i 

at a time, 17, 17. 78, 8.; titnA some other time, .16, 14.; titatna, tit4tna a 
few times, not often, sometimes, at times, 18, 2. li?, 1. 61, 8. 11. 16-21. 146, 
5. 148, 11.; titatnatoks hut at other times, 61, 11 87, 16. Der. td-in. 

tind-ak, tina'k, d. titna-ak, titnak; d. of titnA-ak: titatna-ak (1) at one 
time, at once, simultaneously ; lit. "once only": t. sliniwAtchna to swallow at 
once, in one draught or gulp. (2) once only, 144, 7.: titatnak bem^x'i! 
tell me only one thing or word at a time! Der. tina, ak. 

tinega, tinniiga (~^ — ), d. titanega to go down, to set; said of celestial 
bodies: t. shdppash the sun sets; it is sundown; nat at g^mpele mak'laktsuk, 
at ti'nnaga when ive returned to encamp, the sun went down, 30, 20. Quot. 
under sku'l^a. Not to be confounded with tinitiga to rise. 

tinega, tinna'ga (-~i~) to snort; to inhale breath with noise, to inspire 
forcibly: w4tch t. the horse is snorting loudly. 

tine'%ish (1) sunrise. (2) the point of horizon where the sun rises; east, 
orient: tine;ijish%^ni on the east side, 39, 17. Synizesis of tinie^ish. Der. 
tiniega. Cf. kl'sh, lupit. 

tinidga, d. titania'ga, v intr. (1) fo rise on one's feet; to rise, jump up: at 
tineii'ga mAkloks i-amndn 161oksgish then the Indians rose upon their feet, 
seizing their guns, 34, 10. Speaking of one only: huydga No. 2. (2) to 
rise, to ascend above the horizon; said of celestial bodies: shapash a t. tlie sun 
has just risen; shAppesh a tinie'kska (for tini^gishtka) it is forenoon; lit. 
"the sun is on the point of ascending". Cf. tini^i. 

t i n i e' k s k a , d. titanie'kska ; verbal desid. of tinitiga, q. v. 

t i n i ;^ a n s h a , d. titani^ansha ; see hui;tansha. 

ti ni% i , tine';^e, d. titani^i (1) to go uphill, to ascend: tsui at ndn%a t. and 
some of them went uphill, 2o, 12. c£ 13. Speaking of one subject, hiiyeka. 
(2) to rise; said of celestial bodies. 


t i 11 k a n k a , d. titaiikanka ; see liunkanka. 

t f n k a n s h a , ti'nxaiisha, d. titdnkaiislia, titaiizansha ; see liukansha. 

1 1 n k o p k a , d. tit/inkopka to tie, hind, fasten together, as by strings, wisps 
etc. Cf ski'itawia, s^u'tka, wt'pla. 

ti n k u d 1 a , d. titankuola to sink down, disappear; said of the setting sun or 
moon. Cf. tinaga, tin61a, tinol61a. 

tf n^a, d. titan^a, v. intr,, to have luck, to succeed: tidsh t. good luck favors 
him, lf^4, 5. 16. 18.; partic. tinman tko lucky; favored hy luck in gambling 
etc. : luitoks t. gi he is a lucky fellow indeed. Cf. i-atklish. 

t i n ;{ a y a , d. titan;{;lya; see hukAya. 

t i n % a y u 1 a , d. titan^ayiila; see hukayiila. 

t { n % a m p 6 1 i , d. titdnxampele ; see hvikampgli. 

tin 61a Mod., tin61e, tino'li Kl. and Mod., d. titan6la, titan6]i to 2)ass 
under the horizon; to go doivn, to set: sliApash a t. the sun is setting ; tino'li 
(without shapash) the sun tvent down, 34, 16. Contr. from tiniiala 

t i n o 1 ti n a , d. titanol(^na to he on the way of setting, to approach setting time: 
shapash a tinolenapka the sun is near setting. 

tinoli61a, tinualiula, d. titanoli61a, v. impers.; same as tinolola, q. v. 
Kl. Der. tino'H. 

tin61ish (1) sunset. (2) the point of compass wliere the sun is setting: 
west, Occident: tinohsh%(^ni on the west side, od, 17. Cf. t^illam. 

t i n 1 6 1 a , d. titanul61a, v. impers., it is late, it is sunset time; lit. "the sun 
(supply shApash) has ended its descent". Der. tin61a. Cf. ga-ul61a. 

t i n o 1 6 1 e s h , tinuh'dash time about sundown, 37, 21. 

tfnsha, d. titdnsha; see hiidsha No. 1, and tinshna. 

tinshampka, d. titAnshampka; see hudshampka and In'ulshna. 

1 1 n s h i p k a , d. titAnshipka to come toward the one speaking, to go up toward. 
When referring to celestial bodies, t. describes their motion from the rise 
to the culmination point: shdpash a t. the sun rises upon the sky; it is fore- 
noon; pshi=kdkenish tintchipka the morning star has appeared. Cf. tinshna. 

tfnshna, d. titanshna (i) to run away, to hurry off; to take to one's heels 
within sight of the real or supposed speaker: tchui sha t. hatoktala then 
they hurry toward that spot, 80, 1 ; ti'nsna Sa't the Snake Indians fled, 
28, 9.; cf. li), 3. 16. Speaking of one subject only, hiidshna, q. v. (2) 
to pass by, elapse: pdlak shApash t. the clock or time moves rapidly. 

t i n k a n k a — t i t c h I' t c h k i s h . 407 

1 1 n t a m p k a , d. titdntampka; see liutampka. 

tin tan, pi. tumi t, c/wrc^-6e/^. From Chin. J. ti'ntin &eZ/. Onomatop. 

tf ntkala, tintkal, d. tit/mtkala, titdntkal, 16, 5.; see liutkala. 

t f n t z a p s h a , d. titdntxapsha ; see hutxapsha. 

tint p a , d. titdntpa; see hutpa, 

tin u a , d. tltdnua (l) to run, skip, jump, go into the water; speaking of one 
subject only, liiiwa, q. v. Cf. tgewa. (2) to fall into the water; to be 
droivned: t. w^slitat to fall through the ice. Cf. kt^l;ja (4), ndc'wa. 

t f n u a s h , d. titannash ( 1 ) act of going into the water. (2) place for water- 
ing; drowning place. Cf. pciwasli, Vushi'nkam Tinuash. 

t i p t i p 1 i , d. titaptipli ( 1 ) darli- or dushy- colored, hrotonisJi-hlacJc: t. paishasli 
dark, heavy cloud; storm-cloud. Cf hupka. (2) dim, obscured, murky; said 
of the sky, weather etc. Cf. shtipa. 

tishilatko, d. tidsliilatko bent, crooked, not straight Kl. for tishiwatko 
Mod. Cf shtchishalkatko, tikiwatko, tishka (2). 

tishiwatko, d tit'shiwatko, 91, 4. Mod. for tishilatko Kl, q. v. 

tishka, tisxa, d. titashka (1) ^o drop, fall down; said, e. g., of rain: k;i-i 
dnipu hi tiska no rain-water falls. Cf kto'dsha, tidsha. (2) to become 
bent by age; partic. tfs%atko, tis%antko (a) bent, crooked through old age. 
(b) Tishkatko "Crooked", nom. pr. fern. Kl. Cf. Idlamnatko, skuya. 

tish^alkuledtko, d. titash^alkuledtko (1) shoiving or imitating the 
motion of a crawling snake. (2) crumpled; corrugated; plicated, ruffled. 

t i t a , d. titita, v. intr., to explode, burst, to become rent.. Cf. mbawa. 

tit a, 66, 12.; d of tina, q v. 

t i t a d s % a t k x^rovided ivith head- and foot-board, said of a grave: appears 
in the d. form and not in the absolute, tids/atko, because all graves are 
provided with both boards at the Klamath Lake cemetery, 88, 1 . Cf. pila. 

tltak, pi. tiimi t. (1) swallotv. (2) Titak, nom. pr. masc. Kl , interpreted 
by "Short Man". 

t i t d k i a , pi. tunii t swallow. Mod. for tftak Kl. 

titatna, d. of titna; see tina. 

t i t ' s h a n , tit'sha, d. of t'shi'n, q. v. 

titsga-ak, titska-amtch, d. and pi. of t'shika-aga, t'shika-amtch, q. v. 

t i t c h I't c h k i s h , d. titchtchl'tchkish cow. Mod. for ktchi'shlkish Kl., q. v. 


ti u 1 o 1 a to drip down: ampu a t. h'ltcliaslitat water drips from the roof. 

ti II n 6 1 i , td-nnoli, d. tftun6H to flow from above; to rise in the mountains. 

tiuno'lsh, te-unolish (1) rivulet or brook running- down from a hill or 
mountain side. (2) Tiuno'lsh, nom. pr. of a locality in Modoc Count}-, 
California, distant one day's Indian travel from the Pit River to the north, 
20, 9.; Tiuno'lsh for Tiuno'leshtat, If), 12 21, 9. (a) T(j-unolsh, nom. 
pr. of a spring rising on a hill near the valley road, at Yaneks. 

1 1 w i , d titui to roar, to rush down with noise; to fall, shoot down with roaring, 
thundering noise; said of cascades, rapids etc. Cf liuna No. 2. 

ti \v i s h , d. tituish rush and roar of falling waters, 94, 5. Cf. p;ila. 

Ti w i sh;^ e'n i (1) nom. pr. of the Cascade formed by the Link Rivei', 
a little north of Linkville and near the mouth of Upper Klamath Lake. 
The Link River forms the connection between Upper and Lower 
Klamath Lakes, and is oidy a few miles long. (2) nom. pr. of the 
town of Linkville, Lake County, Oregon. Cf I-uanna, yulal6na. 

tk-; terms not found under these initials to be looked for under tg-, tx-. 

tk^lamna, t;t41amna, d tkatkdlamna (l) to stand among or around, to be 
near, about, around, between. (2) to stand on an eminence, hill or mountain, 
30, 2.; to stand above others or above the one speaking. Cf Ka'lu= 
T;{dlamna (3) to sit on a horse or mule. — Speaking of two or three sub- 
jects, luAlamna; of many, luilamna. (4) t^dlamna, 31, 7.; see t;(alam(3). 

t k a 1 (.' g a , tgal^ga, d. tkatkl^ga to rise, stand up on one^s feet; lit. "to com- 
mence getting up": o'kst a t ndewa that woman rises up and cries with a 
loud voice, 192; 7. and Note. Cf tga-ulg^a (l). tgel^a (1). 

t k 4 n a , d. tkAtkna to stuff: tkdnatko tchikass a stuffed bird. Cf shnatkuala. 

-tkani, suffix of adjectives: a little, somewhat, not intensely; lu'k pupash- 
push4kani the seeds are somewhat black, 146, 3. Cf. 180; 8. 

tkAp, (d. tkAtkap, tkdkap), pi. tiimi t. (1) species of grass reaching the 
height of five feet; seeds not edible. Cf. kma' (I), sha'l. (2) t. or more 
frequently kAp, d. kakap, generic Mod. term for any kind of tall rush, 
reed or stalk belonging to the family of gramineous plants: maize-stalk ; 
tkdpam or kapam o'tish ear of maize. Cf m4-i. 

tk4-ukua, t;taukoa, d. t^at^o'lcua to knock; to rap with the hand or 
knuckles. Cf ukd-ukua. 

t i n 1 6 1 a — t x j'l 1 a, m n i . 409 

tk(ika to make a hole ivith a cutting instrument or with a stroke of the hand. 
Der. kdka. Cf. kt^kna, ktet^ga, skeka, tuc^ka. 

tk^wa, d. tetakdwa, tetkdwa to break asunder, to break to pieces; said of 
long-shaped objects. Original form: tekewa or takt'wa. Cf tekiia 

t k u i 1 k i s h arrow-shaft straightener made of stone. Der. tkiiy a. 

tkiiya, t%uya, t%uyd, d. tkutkia, i%\\'ix\s, (1) to make straight, to straighten; 
to extend or make straight by slightly rubbing or squeezing, 91, 4. (2) to 
extend, spread for tanning; to tan, dress; said of hides. Cf tAlaka. 

t k u y 6 1 k i s h , t^uyutkish ( 1 ) arrow-shaft straightener made of wood. (2) 
fleshing -chisel of stone, to clean skins with. Cf y^hish. 

t% - ; terms not found under these initials to be looked for under tg-, tk-. 

t%alam, tat/elam, d. txat%alam Mod., prep, and postp. (1) in the midst 
of: i. e-ushtat awal6ka the little isle is in the midst of the lake; psliin ttit- 
Xelam at midnight, 11.', 17.; tAt^elam shalxn^tgish in the midst between the 
two starting-places, 80, 8. Cf shekutka, shepat^a. (2) between, among, 
when on the same level: t. lukslAkshtat in the midst of the ashes, Sf), 10. 
— For the definitions (1) and (2) t. is the Mod. form, but Kl uses tdtz6lam 
for the absolute and for the d form (3) su.bst., t^dlam Kl. and Mod., the 
west: t%alamtala westwards, in a western direction, or the western lands, the 
west; talaat t%alamti'tal (for -tala) due westward, 29, 10, cf yamatital 
under y4mat; t^alamna to the tvest, is t^alam with the locat. suffix -na, 
31, 7. and Note. Cf T^alamtala. (4) t. Mod., tat^elam Kl., the middle 
finger; abbr. from t^Alamni (3), q. v. (5) t. Mod., tatz6lam Kl., name 
given to the months counted on the middle finger; abbr. from t%alamni 
(4), q. V. Der. tkdlamna (1). 

t^iilama, t/dlma, d. txcitxlama it is west wind; the ivind bloivs from the 
west; lit. "it is between (the north and the south)". 

t%Alamash, abbr t^dlmash, d. tz^tx^amash west wind, 179; 1.: t. k^tsa 
miiatita shl^wish southwest wind. Cf t^dlama. 

Txalamgiplis, nom. pr. of a camping-place near Klamath Marsh; in- 
terpreted by "back away from the west". Der. t^Alam, gi, -peli. 

tzii-lamni, Kl. tat;)^elamni, d. tp^at^dlamni, Mod., adj. (1) being, sitting or 
standing amid, in the midst or middle: t. tut front tooth; t. l;ijawawitch. Mod., 
middle finger, cf (3); tat%6lanmi' tchkash hemd^e the one intermediate in 


age also said, 1 12, 8.; see Note. (2) half: t. B6shtin, t. mdk'laks a mixed- 
blood; person half white, half Indian. Cf. t%/ilanipani. For the definitions 
(1) and (2) Kl. uses tat^gldmni for the absohite and for the d. form. (3) 
subst, the middle finfjer; abbr. into t;it%elam Kl., t;uAlam Mod. (4) the 
months of the year which are counted on the middle finger; abbr. into 
tAt^ehmi Kl., t%;'ilam Mod. They eon-espond, though not exactly, to our 
March, 7!S, 20. and October, 75, 15. Der. tkcilamna. 

t;{alampani, Kl. tat^gldmpani, d. t^atzAlampani (1) one half of half 
portion of; used with collective nouns. (2) halfways, in the middle, in the 
midst of, 123, 1.: gaptclu'tka t. in the second half of the sniaU-fingcr month, 
36, 7.; t. mdklaks one half of the tribe; t. Idktcha to cut through in the 
middle; t<4t%elampani gu't^itkt after he had climbed down but one half (of 
the ladder), 112, 9 ; i't%e ttitp^elampani shdpash he took down one half of 
the moons, 105, 12. Kl. uses tat%el4mpani for the absolute as -well as for 
the d. form. From t^alam (1), pani. 

t z a 1 a ni p a n k a n i , Kl. tat%Slampankani, d. t;^at/iilampankani Mod., adj., 
forming one half, making up one mmety: t. td-uni one half of the totvn; part 
of city; abbr. in t^illampanki radkloks, Mod., half the tribe, 3G, 6. 

t ;f a 1 a m p a n k i , 36, 6. ; abbr. form of tpralampankani, q. v. 

T%dlamtala, nom. pr., the State of Oregon; lit. "towards the west, 
westward", 33, 2. A term formerly in use among the Modocs instead of 
YAmat and YAmatala, q. v. Der. t^alam (3). 

t X a 1 a m t a 1 4 k n i , contr. t^alamtalkni, adj., also used as adv., who or tvhat 
comes from the west: t. shk'wish west wind; incantation 16' ; 49. Der. 
t^i'ilam (3), -tala, -kni. Cf. lupitalani, lupi'tkni. 

t%;ilamtana, abbr. t^alamta, d. t/at/alamtana, prep, and postp. (I) 
through the middle or midst of: t. gu"hliank passing through the midst of 
(the circle), 87, 12 (2) to the west of westward from: lu'uhiush txdlamta 
to the tvest of the marsh, 24, 10. Cf t%;ilmakstant. 

txalmakstant to the westward of : Ktai=Tupakshi t. on the tvest side of 
Standing- Rock, 74, 2. From t^dlam, -kshi, -tat. 

t % a' n t X a n a , pi. tumi t., to be possessed of a deep or basso voice. 

t%a-ush, d. t%at%a-ush colt;fiJlif. Cf kshui^ji, ndshlluaga, fclwalsh. 

t;^ ^ - u , tp^ii'-u, txetxi'-u (1) first; first in rank or order of time; antecedent. 

t%dlampani — tm(jshka. 411 

preceding, standing ahead of. (2) senior, eldest; said of the first-born child 
of either sex in a family: t. hiinkelam p^-ip Ms first daughter ; t. L6m^-ish 
the oldest of the Thunders, 112, 2. Abbr. from t^d-uni. Cf. tapmi. 

t z <^ - u n a p , d. tx<J-nnishap, t%et%e^-unap (1 ) eldest or elder brother ;^ said by 
younger brother, 39, 7.; simply brother in 55, 16. (2) elder male cousin; 
said by younger male cousin Der. i%i-\i. Cf. shet^d-unaltko, tdpiap. 

t% ^ w a g a , t%a'wag, d. t;^etxcwaga the elder or eldest of the little ones; said 
of children and young animals. Of the latter two are supposed to belong 
to one family of quadrupeds in fictitious stories concerning animals: wa- 
sha=weka t^a'wag the elder of the young prairie-wolves, 105, 9. 13. Cf. 
119, 15. 120, 18. 121, 22. and some passages mentioned under lapi, q. v. 
Dim. t%i-\\. Cf. tapinkani. 

tx 6po, instr. t%op6watka; (d. t^iit^po) pi. tumi t. (1) thumb, 79, 4. 146, 1.; 
t;jop6=shitko looldng like a thumb, 149, 12. (2) the largest of the toes. (3) 
name of three Klamath months counted on the thumb; corresponding, 
though not exactly, to our January, lb, 18.; June, 74, 6.; August, 75, 6. 
Cf. kapkdpo, l^na (3), tkAp. 

t/u't^a, t%6t.xa, d. t%u't;{at%a to presage death or overwhelming calamity, to 
foretell a violent death; said of the dismal cries of some animals, heard 
shortly after sunset, 88, 6. 133, 2-7. Cf tiika. 

t%u't%ash, d. i%\\'tx3A.x?i^h. fatal prophecy OY presage, 133, 1. 134, 1. 

tx u't% atkish , pi. tumi t., one who presages death or great misfortune: 
wAsh, kak t. the prairie-ivolf the raven is a presager of death, 133, 1. 134, 1. 

1 1 6 7 o , d. t5'tl;(0, t6tl%o brain, cerebrum. Mod. for tapsnek Kl. 

1 1 u 1 , d. tlutlal ground-cricket. Cf. tchigatchkish. 

tm^lhak, species of squirrel, short-tailed, bluish or black; legs fastened 
sideways on the body, a curious circumstance, which caused these organs 
to be adopted as charms for gamblers, 134, 5. and Note. 

t m (i n a , d. t(^t'mna to go or get through, to come to an end; to terminate, 
finish, wind up. Cf. tamenil, tmuyi^ga. 

t m d s h k a , teme'shga, t'm^ska, d. tmetm4shka and tet'ma'shga io abstract, 
remove from ; to take away in an illicit manner; minuk ktchinksli E-ukshikni 
t. tlie Klamath Lake Indians abstracted all the rails, 35, 6. 10. Mod. Speak- 
ing of a plurality of anim or long-shaped objects, yimeshka.. Cf. Note 
to 54, 12. and yimeshgiipele. 


t m 6 k i 1 , d. tot'mkil, ta'tmkil green lizard. Cf. tmuk(')latko. 

Tm6kila, iioni. pr. fern. Mod.; interpreted by "Squint-Eye". 

t m 6 1 o , d. t6t'ralo; see tem61o. 

tmu', d. tmfi'tmu Oregon ruffed grouse: Bonasa vorsabinei. Kl. Cf. mhii. 

t mil y c g a , tmoy^ga, d. tiitmiyc^ga to start with, to begin, commence at one 
end: liipi t. to commence. Cf. tmena. 

tmuk61atko, d. tutmk61atko tvrinJcled in the face. Cf. tm(')kil. 

to - ; terms not found here to be looked for under ta-, tu-. 

Toby Riddle, nom pr. of Frank Riddle's Modoc wife, and interpreter 
during the Modoc war of 1872-73. She is mentioned 33, 3. 34, 10-15. 
38, 5. 8. 13. 39, 20-41, 7. 42, 13-lG. Some facts concerning her jDre- 
vious life are contained in her biographic notice, pp. 54, 55. The Modoc 
man, who informed her of the intended assassination of the Peace Com- 
missioners (40, 6-11. 41, 4-Ji.), was, according to a communication in 
A. B. Meacham's "Council P'ire", a monthly periodical (April, 1880, 
pp. 62, 63), Samuel Clinton, or "Faithful William", now living with 
the other exiled Modocs on the Quapaw Reservation, Ind. Terr. Cf. 
Tchmii'tch, and Introduct. to the Texts, p. 6. 

T6^ilkat, nom. pr. of a locality near Klamath Marsh; lit. "rail-tripod, 
stick-pyramid", 74, 16. Der. tiiilka. 

t o k , -tok ; toks, -toksh, tuksh ; see tak, taks. 

t(')k, an aquatic food-plant, mentioned 149, 3. Cf t(5ke. 

tr)'ke, d. to' txe fir e-j)lace, hearth. Cf shne-ilaksh, shne-ipaksh. 

t u k e , toki, t6;^e, d. tu't;fe, tu't^i ( i ) horn of quadrupeds, as of cattle, 
buffalo, goat, wether; antler of deer, elk etc.; prong of antelope; fang, 
feeler of insect, slug; miini t6ki large, strong horn Cf. l^Awaltko, mfdsho, 
naishl4kgish. (2) tool made of horn; especially the elk-horn wedge, form- 
erly used for splitting wood. (3) corn on feet. 

t6ksh, d. tu'taks, tcStaksh (1) t., or t. yiintant navel: gutal;ta hilk tokstala 
it entered at or into the navel, 23, 19. (2) fish-bladder, swinnning-bladder 
of a fish. Cf lawiilash (4), smu'links, shufdshash (3). 

1 61% ash, d. tutdl;^ash (1) a kind of grass not specified; used in the 
manufacture of tissues. Cf. ti'ilalui. (2) tuft of grass, grass-sod, clod. 
Der. tulha. Cf pdtchnam. 

tm6kil — tpu'l;fa. 413 

topf, t6piap, topini etc. ; see tapi, tdpiap, tapini etc. 

T6plameni, nom. pr. of a mountain near Modoc Point and Nilaks. 

1 6 - u g s li t a n t , 1 6 - u k a n k s h ; see tugshtant, tiikanksh. 

to us and, tousan thousand, 35, 6. 15.; also expressed by td-unepni t^- 
unepni te-unap From the English. 

t o d s h i t o' d s li i , d. totiJdshitu'dshi to rattle, as arrows in a quiver. 

t p e w a , tpa'wa, d. tpetpdwa, tpiitpewa, v. trans., usually connected with 
the verbal intentional: (1) ^t» tdl, announce, 12, 4.; to entreat, invite: nad 
mii'shmush luela Boshtin tpii-ok na'lsh we butchered an ox, an American 
having invited us to do so (by offering us the animal), 21, 3. (2) to com- 
mand, order, enjoin: kA-i t. he did not give orders, 35, 12. 13.: shui'shuk t. 
he orders songs (to be sung), 68, 6. 109, 6. 10. 113, 21.; pit taplalash 
shnewi'tki giug (nakush), he ordered the loon to destroy the dam, 132, 2. 
Cf hem'ta, hiii'shga, stuli. 

tpewash, d tpetpciwash (1) announcement, invitation, message. In 34, 8. 
it refers to interpreted words. (2) order, command, 85, 8. 

t p u a 1 i d g a , d. tputpuli(iga to drive up to the top of a hill, mountain, passage 
etc., as cattle: p'lii'ntant is sometimes added. Cf niwcilka (1). 

tpiidsha, tputchii, d. tputptcha to expel forcibly, oust, drive out: Moatuash 
t. they repulsed the Pit River Indians, 54, 9. Cf tpuli. 

t p u d s h n a , tpvi'tchna, d. tpiitptchna; same as tpiidsha, q. v.: ka-i gc-isht, 
tpudshantak! if they do not go, expel them by force! 37, 2. 

t p u g i d s h a , d. tputpgidsha to set out, to start for expelling, driving away. 
Speaking of more than one object, shiikidsha. 

t p u g i d s h a p 6 1 i t a ni n a , d. tputpgidshapelitilnma to continue driving 
back, to rejmlse repeatedly, bb, 12. From tpugidsha, -p6li, -tamna. 

tpuy amna, d. tputp4yamna (1) v. refl., to chase each other around (2) 
V. trans., to chase, run after; to drive around, chase about. Cf tpuli. 

tpuli, tpiili, d. tpiitpli to drive, drive away; to make go, to force to retreat: 
ktdyat t. to drive into the rocks, 38, 18. Cf kpuli, tupelui. 

t p u H g i s h , d. tputpli'gish corral, inclosure for cattle. 

tpulina, d. tputplina to drive out or off, to expel, to oust: Modokishash 
kaila t. to drive the Modocs out of the (or their) country, 3(i, 19. Der. tpuli. 

tpii'l/a, d. tputpiilxti to drive uphill, as cattle. Cf kpul;^a, tpualiega. 


t }) u t p 11 y a m 11 i s li , pi. tumi t., owe who pursues, chases, rims after: wewdn- 
uisliash t. one ivho runs after women. Der. tpi'iyamna 

t'sli;ikatko, d. i'shnt's\iiikatko light of weight. Cf yiitaiitko. 

t'slii'ka, tchfka, d. tcliitchka (1) v. intr., to he old; to have attained old age. 
(2) V. intr., to groiv old, to become aged. (3), old person ; person, man 
bent by age, 68, 3.; tchikash skiiyui he sent out an old man, 68, 2. 136, 5.; 
old bachelor. (4) T-shikka, nom. pr. "Old Man", 54, 2. Der. t'shi'n. 

t's 111 ka- aga, tcliika-ag, tcliikag, d. and pL ti'tsga-ak, tcliitchkrik (1) old 
man or woman; person bent by age. (2) old parent; old father, old mother, 
158; 54.; Icipi titsga-ak L6me-ish the two old Thunders, parents of the five 
Thunders, 111, 18. 22. 114, 12. Dim. t'shi'ka (3). Cf. shuki'kash. 

t ' s h 1 k a - a m t c h , tchikamtch, d. and pi. tftska-amtch ; same as t'shika- 
aga, q. v. From t'shi'ka, amtch. 

t'shimankatko, d. t'shit'shmankatko young person of either sex. 

t'shi'n, t6shm, d. t'shi't'shan, tit'shan, ti't'sha to grow, to increase; said of 
bodily growth of men and animals: ka-d dti nil 1. 1 have grown quite tall; 
get hu t. he grew so tall; P61uk t. Ball grew up, 11, 1.; ti'dshok having 
grown, cf Note to 103, 10.; tit'sha wew^as the children grew up, 107, 12.; 
mu'ak t'shi'sht when he will grow taller, 109, 13. Cf ke^dsha, ndshilo, tchiya. 

t'shishap, d. t'shishishap father; the Mod. term for p'ti'shap Kl., 39, 6. 
54, 2. 3. 55, 9. 2.0. 21.: na'lam t. our father, 40, 9. 10. 139, 9., stands for 
God; miVni t., uncommon for mu'ni laki, the President of the United States, 
40, 15.; limi'lam t. ass, jackass; ht. "the mule's father", Mod.; t'shfsham 
smo'k the father's beard. Der. t'shi'n. 

tu, tu, tu', tu, d. tiita, tu't (I) adv. loc, there, out there, yonder ; far, far off ; 
generally refers to considerable distances, the objects being within sight 
or out of sight: tu' atf guni'ta much further than, 21, 11.; tu' pe'n makl6%a 
sha at a distance they passed another night, 19, 10., cf 20, 5. 21, 2. 8. 11.; 
tiitaks ati far away, quite a distance off, 141, 12., cf 122, 16.; guhashktcha 
tu he started to a distance, 110, 21.; tu shlin to shoot at long range, cf. 29, 
20.; tut out there, 134, 16. Cf 107, 5. 8. 108, 5. 109, 16. Ill, 18. 112, 
12. (2) up, above; refers to heights, mountains, hills, for what is high 
above the level ground is far off also: tu'taks ga-61eka they climbed high 
up, 29, 21., cf 30, 7. 100, 3.; Aisis kokantsa tu' Aishish climbed up (the 

t p u t p a y a, m u i s li — t u e k 6 t k i s h . 415 

ktipka-tree), 100, 7.; tumi Sha't tiV yainatat tchia many Snake Indians live 
in the mountains. (3) adv. temp., at that time, then; referring to a distant 
past or future: at tu' tsussak ever since, 99, 7 : tu hi, tui at that time. Cf. 
4tu, bu No. 2, kui, muna, tuhak, tusli. 

tua, eucl. tua, -tua (1) pron.' interr., which? whatf ivhat thin//f 34, 1.: t. 
tAla? what money f tvhich amount of money f 64, 13. 14.; t. ma, Mod., which? 
what then? cf. mat; t. i shana-uli shiyutash? what ivill you harter this for? 
t. ki nu k6ga'? what do I suck out? 155; 17. (2) adv. interr., why? where- 
fore? tuatala? tvhy then? J85; 39.; tuhtaiaUvhy then? why after all? 174; 8. 
Cf. 64, 9. (3) something, some object; some kind or sort of: t. ko-idslii any 
wicked thing, 139, 4. 6. 7.; wennini t. gatpa sotne kind of a stranger has 
entered, 112, 1. 7., cf 12. 16.; ga tuata shkainihaktch g4tpa of whatsoever 
kind the demoniac one may he, ivho has come in, 112, 2. (4) thing, object, 
article: tumi t. many things; laki tii'ma t. gitko a rich man; keliak t. empty, 
vacant; lit. "without anything"; t. mi shapiyash ''the thing which is your 
talk", or tvhat you want to tell, 40, 11. Kl. uses tua sometimes for persons 
when speaking collectively: ka-i shash t. (for kaitua shash) none of them, 
20, 7 ; cf. kaitua, nanuktua and 17, 17. 23, 7. 173; 3. 

tiiaka, tuagga, d. tudtuga to evaporate; to produce vapor, steam. Der. 
wak- in wakwaka. 

t u a k i s h , wAkish, w4kas, poss. tudksham, wJdksam, species of crane (vul- 
garly called shitepoke) of a greenish-gray color, spread of wings two feet ; 
t. summutka kia'm stukua the tudkish-crane catches fish with its hill; wtlkas 
ni tchekl^la I, the crane, crouch on the water'' s edge, 170; 63. and Note. 
Incantations: 154; 9. and Note, 156; 33. 34. and Wt^kashak. Onomatop. 

tuankshi (1) adv. interr., at which spot or place? tvhere? tuanksi m'sb 
ma'sha? where do you feel painf (2) adv. loc , somewhere; at someplace; 
anywhere on body, 59, 11. From tua, -kshi. 

t u d s h n a , d. tutudshna to carry on the head or hack. Der. idshna. Cf 
sha-iila, shepolamna. 

t u d s h o' s h a , d. tutadso'sha to besmear the body of another. Cf. shutcho'sha. 

t u e k a , tu^%a, d. tueto;(a to perforate, pierce, make a hole with a boring 
instrument; to hore through. Cf. kdka, tkdka. 

t u e k 6 1 k i s h , d. tuetu^o'tkish small boring- instrument, gimlet: mbusbaksh=t. 
boring tool made of obsidian or other stone. 


t u c k t u e k a , cl. tuetudktueka to stare at, to fix the eyes upon; lit. "to bore 
through with the eyes". Der. tudka. Cf. talptikpka. 

t ii' g s li t a n t a , tiikshtaut (diseretic. to-ugshtant), tugshta, d. tutiigshtanta, 
tuto'gshta, prep, and postp., on the opposite side of; to the other side or 
shore, opposite, across, beyond: tu'gshta K6ke on the other hank of Lost River, 
37, VJ.; t(3-ugshtant A'-ushtat, (or E-ush), to the opposite shore of Upper 
Klamath Lake, 144, 6. Cf gunigshtant, giinitana, kiii, shuhankptchi. 

t II h a k , tu' hak, adv., this side of; referring to a spot between the speaker 
and some distant object, 99, 5. 100, 20.; behind something or somebody, 
29, 19. and Note; cf. 119, 17. Lit. "not quite so far". Cf. hak, kui. 

tuhush, pi. tumi t, (1) coot, popularly called mud-hen; a bluish-black or 
lead-colored fowl inhabiting in large numbers the lakes of Southern 
Oregon: Fulica americana: t. o willasli'na the mud-hen is sprawling, 185; 
41. (2) Tuhush, nom. pr. of one of the five mythic wives of Aishish: 
97, I. 99, 9. A mythic explanation of the origin of the black spot on 
its forehead is given: T. talpatk61a Mud-Hen pid out her head, 96, 23. 

t u i , for tu hi, at that time, just then, 99, 6.; at the same time. 

t u i d s h , d. tutidsh nap, light slumber, short sleep. 

tuidsha, d tutidsha to doze, to take a nap, to slumber. Cf. ktana, tiii^a. 

til i d s h n a , d. tu't'shna, tutshna to doze, slumber at intervals, 83, 2. 

tuiksh, d. tutiksh (1) dream. (2) dream of a presaging, magic character, 
often unfolding secrets: tutiks shuina to express in song what was seen while 
dreaming, 65, 20. All dreams are regarded by these Indians as super- 
natural revelations. Der. tiii^a- 

tiii%a, tuika, d. tuti;^a, tutl'ka, toti'ka {\) to have a dream or dreams: tuti- 
%ash while constantly dreaming, 192; 6.; tuti%61atk having ceased to dream, 
158; 54. (2) to have a magic, prophetic dream, 83, '^. 3. Mainly used in 
the d. form. Cf. tuidsha, tuiksh. 

t I'l i % a to swell up, protrude: piikhish tuip^ampgatko the white of the eye being 
swollen, protruding, 71,9. Cf. tuila. 

t II i 1 a , d. tutila (1) to converge at the top, to stand in a converging, pyramidal 
or conical form. (2) to advance, project, stand out, as a triangle, cone or 
bump: stikshui-shitk hu'k tuti'la st/ikelinsksaksi his foot iras projecting at 
the ball like a boot, 24, 1 8. and Note. Cf. t^pka. 

t u c k t u e k a — t li' k n i . 417 

t u i 1 a s h , d. tutilash pyramid of sticks, logs, or rails. Rails are put together 
in this position to preserve them from rotting. Cf. stu'ilash. 

t II i 1 k a , tuilaga, d. tutilka small rail-pyramid. Dim. tuilash. Cf". T6-ilkat. 

tuinega, d. tuitunciga to cave in; said of wells, diggings etc. 

t u i n i / a t k o , d. tuituni^^tko hermaphrodite. 

tiiitia, tuiti, pi. tiimi t., young duck, 180; 12. Cf tuhush, tuituigidsha. 

tui t uigi dslia , d. tutituigidsha to hop around, to perform a gay dance; 
said, e. g., of the skunk, 155; 16. Cf tiiitia. 

tuitch^ash, d. tuitudtch^ash choke-cherry; the 'fruit of the tuitch;(sam- 
tree, q. v. Der. y^ts^aka, nds4kia. 

t u i t c h ;;^ s a m , d. tuitudtch/sham choke-cherry tree: Prunus demissa. 

tui t ch;{ a s hla, d. tuitudtch%ashla to gather choke-cherries: tuitch^ash- 
la'mi "m* the choke-cherry time"; a period of the year corresponding to 
the end of August and the commencement of September. 

tuya, d tiitia to stand below the location of the one who speaks; said of 
one inau. subject, 30, 1'^. Cf Ko's=Tue'ts, stuish, stuya, tuindga, tiipka. 

t II J a m n a , d tutiyamna, tutl'amna to swim helow the water's surface: kia'm 
a tutiyamna the fish swims in all directions. Cf kfdsha, udumtchna. 

tu'k, 87, 12. for t6k; see tak (I). This passage explains itself as follows: 
away from the tile or circle formed by the mourners, they step forward 
to the deceased and bid the last farewell to him, then return to their 
former place in the circle. 

t u k a , t6ka, d. tu'tka, tut%a to be startled, frightened; said, e. g., of persons, 
wild horses: tchdki a t. the boy is scared. Cf t^u't/a, tchamptki. 

t li k a n k s h , t6-ukanksh, d. tiitukanksh quiver; receptacle or pocket for 
arrows, worn on back; made of the skins of deer, prairie-wolf, etc. 89, 3.: 
incantation, 163; 8. Cf stilanksh, stilash, shute-6tkisli. 

tukel^a, d. tutakel^a to halt, to rest on the way, as travelers do, 131, 7. 

t u k 1 a k t c h n a , d. tutaklAktchna to make stops on the tvay; to stop at times 
ivhen traveling: ni'shta sha g^na tuklaktsnank they traveled all night, stop- 
ping at intervals, 19, J 4. Cf tukgl^a. 

tu'kni , d. tiitkni, adj., he, that or those over there; the one or those placed, 

located or stopping on one side, on the other side or in the distance, 80, 1 1 . 

lOl), \>^.: sa shli'n tu'kni they shot Jiimfrom the other side, 23, 21. Der. tu. 


tii'ksh, 80, 5.; same as taks, q. v. Cf. tak 

t uk t ukuasli, d. tutaktukiuish j^s/t-/iaM;A;, a bird of the osprey family: 
I'undion carolinenalii. Incantations, 162; 3. 169; 60. Onomatop 

tukiia, d. tut'kua (1) to go toward the water; to travel in the direction of a 
lake, bay, river. (2) Ti'ikua, Tokiia, iioiii pr. of a campinjj and landin<^ 
pkice on Upper Klamath Lake, eastern sliore, at the nioutli of the AVil- 
liamson River, 142; 5. Cf. gewa, huwa, tiniia. 

t \\ k n a g a , d. tutkuaga little stream, rivulet, brook. Cf. tiikua. 

t u k i ;'i g a , d. tutakiaga little horn, antler, fang, feeler etc. Dim. toke, q. v. 

t u 1 - ; words not found here to be looked for under ntul-, ntun-. 

t u 1 a , tulA, t61a, ])rep. and postp., with, in eompany of on the side of; along 
tvith, together tvith; also; connected with the obj. case: mish t., hishuak- 
shash t. with you, tvith a man; kA-i nalash t. without us; nil'sh t. gc'n! go 
with me! hu p'na t'shisha t. tchia she lived with her father, 54, 3.; Shke- 
laksli t. aided by Shelag, 66, 5.; mu'nkash tiilak (for tula ak) only with the 
mole, 104, 1. The use oft. as a preposition is rather exceptional: tul' ish 
hi my company; t. hak (for hunk) ivith him or her; Canby tula shushu- 
tanki'shash gcna Gen. Canby went with the Peace Commissioners, 38, 4. 5. 
T. stands without any complement in: tula shuenksh to hill at the same 
time and spot, bb, 3.; shash them is suppressed in 34, 18. Cf 19, 7. 37, 
4. 18. 90, 12. 137, 2. Cf tulha. 

t li 1 a 1 u i , tolalui, d. tut'lalui a sort of tissue, cover or mantle made of swamp- 
grasses. Cf. tol^ash. 

tvilaluptchi, d. tut'laluptchi light-green; lit. "colored like a tiilalui- 
mantle". From tulalui, -ptchi 

t u 1 e , tuli, generic term for bulrush, reed, scirpus, swamp-grass. From the 
Aztec tolin; cf. Molina, Aztec Diet. : jMwda {Cyperus) 6 espadana {reed- 
mace: Typha latifolia): atolin, itztolin, tolli, tulli. This term has not 
passed into Chin. J., but is in daily use among the white population of 
the Pacific Coast. The Kl. generic tei'ms for tule are kshii'u, ma-i. 

tulha, tula, d. tutalha, tutala to club together, to be in company; to form a 

swarm, crowd, school or bevy; said, e. g., of l)irds, fish. Cf. t61;iash, tuli. 

tulhfpgli, tulhfbele, d. tutlfpele to shove or join one part into another; 

said, e. g., of arrows, no pitch being put over the joint. Cf shullu'peli. 

tii'ksh — tumenasli. 419 

tuli, tullii, d. tutli to insert; to join together. 

T u 1 i k , noni. pr. loc. Tule Lake. Abbr. from the English. Cf. M6atok. 

tulina, d. tutelina, tutlma to leave behind; to abandon, relinquish, 38, 1. 

t u 1 i s h , d. tiitHsh, any article inserted, joined or serving for inserting pur- 
poses: (X) handle: vf iitiam t. knife handle ; p^kshtat t. stem of tobacco-pipe, 
usually made of reeds. (2) notch in upper end ofarroiv to insert the arrow- 
head. (3) wooden head, tip, point of arrotv, when made of heavier wood 
than the arrow itself Cf. nte'ktish. (4) the stem or rod of a certain 
shnib growing in the water; used in the manufacture of these arrow- 
points. (5) spawning-place offish. (6) Tulish, nom. pr. of a locality on 
Upper Klamath Lake near the mouth of the Williamson River, abundant 
in fish: T. kiiila the place Tulish, 142, 2. Der. tuli. 

tii'lshna, ntu'lshna; same as ntultchna, q. v. 

t I'l m , tu'm, adv. of tumi : much, greatly, in profusion, largely; very: t. wAltka 
to talk much, to converse on many things or for a long time, 23, 3.; t. hem- 
kankish one ivho talks much; t. shdshatko valuable, high in price; t 
tchdtchui too much, cf Note to 105, 7.; shta -ila t. they gather it in large 
quantities, 147, 10.; kddsha t. it grows in abundance, !48, 11.; hushts6%a 
t. they killed many; lit. "they killed to a great extent", 16, 8. 88, 10., cf. 
34, 5. 148, 8. T. often stands abbr. for tumi or for tuma, obj. or obi. 
case of tumi; cf. 13, 14. Ill, 22. and tiimi. Cf ka-a. 

Tuma = Kdwe = Gitko, nom. pr. of several rivers, streams etc yielding 
large quantities of eels or lamprey-eels (kawe): (1) Columbia River, 
Oregon. Cf. Ampka'nini K6ke, Kdwam Koke. (2) Eel Biver, Cali- 
fornia, etc. Lit. "Many-Eels-Having." Cf. kdwam, kdwe. 

t u m 6 n a , tumna, d. tutamna (1) to hear, 68, 3. 101, 5. 6. (2) to be informed 
of; to learn, to be apprised of 39, 20. 60, 3. 93, 10. 140, 6 185; 38.; k;i-i 
ni tumenat I had no opportunity to learn, 78, 18.; t. m'na iVnaka tchi'sht 
he ivas informed that his son was alive, 96, 10. (3) to understand, compre- 
hend: nan^a tiimenatk (gi) M6atuasam hemkanks some understood the Pit 
Biver language, 23, 3. The French entendre is used in the same sense. 
(4) to listen to; to obey, 61,7. 

tumenash, d tutamnash (1) sound, clang, noise: k6-i t. disturbance, bad 
noise. (2) information, intelligence, 40, 11. 


tumcni, d. tutimun, adv., often, frequentli/; many times, IS, 6.; in man/fold 
ways: t. biinua to drinh often; t. waltan ill61a there are many days in the 
year; lit. "the year completes itself going through many days"; i'pakt t. 
illolash it may remain for many years, 14H, 15.; t. hours several hours; 
lit. "many times one hour", 82, 9. Der. tumi. 

tiimi, tu'nii, tumi, obj. tuma; abbr. tu'm, adj. (1) many, a great deal of, a 
number of ; much, much of, V6, 4. Ifi, 16'.: t. nuiklaks many ])eoiile, 88, L).; 
kil-i t. not in profusion, 148, 11.; tumi-i-i tut a large number of teeth; tuma 
shunuish gitko tvealthy, rich in property ; tu'ma watcluiltko having many 
horses, 127, 9., cf. 60, 11. 13.; tii'ma weweshaltko having many offspring, 
85, IG.; tumanta wiishtat into many holes; tumdntka by the majority, 90, 3. 
t. pAka (stands for tu'm pdka, adv.) to smoke much, 137, 3. Abbr. in 
tu'm: tu'm Mo'dokni gatpa many Modocs arrived, 13, 14. and Note; cf. 
16, 8. Ill, 22. (2) sufficient, enough of: at a t. pdla-ash gi! there is bread 
enough! lit. "much bread is there"! (3) too many, too much; c£ 105, 7. 9. 
11. and Note. Cf turn, tumgni, tumidga. 

tumiaga, d tutmitiga, adj., yew;; wo^ maw?/; i. ixii a few teeth. Dim. tumi. 

T u m s h a m n i n i Y a 1 n a , nom. pr. of a mountain in the Klamath Lake 

tun-; words not found here to be looked for under ntul-, ntun-. 

tuna, diajretic. tu'-una, d. tiitana, t6tan, prep, and postp., around, in the 
vicinity of: tu'-una Lgmaikshina, Yainakshfna around Mount Shasta, around 
Ydneks, 40, 3. 4. The d. form means also: on the other side of, beyond; 
t6tan yaina on the other side of the mountain. Der. tii. Cf. gunitana. 

tunep, tunap, tunip, d. tutenep, tut'njip, tu'tnip ^?;e.- t. kshi'ta, five men 
escaped, 14, 9.; t. shlda^ve lynxes, 125, 1.; te-unepanta t. likla fifteen; cf. 
43, 15. 18.; tunipa shdktat^atk one fifth 2>(irt; lapi tunipa shektat^atko 
two fifths. Of 70, 8. 8>^, 9. Five is a number constantly recurring in the 
myths, traditions and customs of the Maklaks and many other Oregonian 
Indians; cf. tunepni. 

t u n e p u i , d. tutenepni (1) adv , five times, 75, 12.: t. te-unap fifty; t. waita 
giulan, or t. wai'ta Friday, cf. sunde; t. sd-atsa sha \\\' ahi-A five whole nights 
they danced around the scalps, 10, 11.; t. (supply wafta) spu'kle-uapk ^/om 
shall siveat five days, 1 42, 8. 9. 13.; t. waitulat (hiring five days, 70, 1., cf 

t Ti 111 u )i i — t u p e s ]i . 42 1 

i^. and l.";4, "21.; tuiuipni wiiita five days long, 134, 21, Mod.; lu'tenipui 
iwalpele each one c.nptkd five (sacks), 111,2.; tutenejini w;iit61an in every 
instance after five days have elapsed, 85, 1.; tuteiiiipni waftasli for five days 

in every instance, 88, 4. Quot. under mita (2) adj. num., five, when con- 
sidered as belonging together, forming a whole, 17, 2. 13.; tiinepanti ^t'e 

more added to the five previous ones, 111, 1.; sawu'la hu'nkiast tiVnipans 

tliey inquired of these five (men), 17, G.; tunipantok only five. 
tnnshish, d. tut^nshish series, file, roiv, line, e. g., of persons; lit. ''what 

runs along": 88, 1. Cf. kimbaks, ntultchna. 
tunshna, tu'ns;{antsa ; same as ntultchna, ntultch^antcha, q. v. 
t u n s X d n t k o , d. tutans%dntko passing through, going across a solid body 

from end to end: t. kenukdga tvick of candle; tAlaak t. passing through in a 

straight line. Cf. gi'nka, gin^ish, gins^antko 
1 11 n t i s h , tontish, d. tutAntish ( 1 ) Indian short rope tivisted or braided from 

straps ofratv hide. (2) any sort of rope, cable, thick cord or string. 
tunuliila, d. tutanulula to hang over, to be suspended over something, to 

dangle dotvnfrom, as snakes from rocks, 157; 47. 
tupaksh, d. tutpaksh (1) standing place: Kt;'u=Tupakshi, nom. pr. "at 

the place where the rock is standing", q. v. Der. tupka. (2) abbr. from 

tiipakship, q. v. 
tupakship, abbr. tupaksh, topaks; d. tiitpakship, abbr. tiitpaks (l) 

younger sister; said by or in refei'ence to elder brother. Kl. (2) Modocs 

use tupaksh for sister indiscriminately, 3H, 12. 134, 11.: p'laiwAsham t. 

the golden eagle's sister, 131, 9. and Note; tapini t6paks the younger or 

youngest sister. Der. tapi. Cf shutpakshdltko, tiipiap. 
t u p a k s 1 f a , d. tutpakslia to give a sister to somebody: lApeni t. to give two 

sisters. Cf kailalia. 
t li p e 1 u i to be next in order, following after, second to. From tii, pdlui. 
tiipeluish (1) adj., who or which comes next. (2) subst., neighbor, next 

house, nearest lodge: tupeluish (for tiipeluish tala) ani'k (nu) tCluks I send 

somebody with a tule-basket to the nearest lodge, 75, 9. 
tup^na, tupen, t6pan, d. tutpen to be muddy, miry, boggy; to mire: tu'jjen 

gins%ishtat there is mud in the road or thoroughfare. Der. ndopa. 
txipesh, t(')pesh, d. tiitiiesli (1) mud, dirt, wet ground; muddy place, jniddle; 


the partitive case: tupeshti "mud on it", is used as adj.: miry, full of mud 
(2) Kl.: wet clay; dough. Cf. po'ksh, shniita (2), tfkesh. 

t li p k a , d. tuttlpka to stand on the same level with the one speaking or sup- 
posed to speak; said of one anim., but more especially of one long inan. 
subject: nil'shtga t. to stand on the head; p'laf t. to stand above the level 
of: tu'sh t. kiiilatat stands straight up on the ground, 149, 21.; yafna-ag 
kuita nats huk tu'pka a hillock lay back of us, 31, 9. Speaking of more 
than one subject, Ifupka. Cf. 16pkash, stiipka No 2, stiitka, t4pka, 
tgutga, tkAlamna, tuya 

t u s h , tfish, tu'sh, d. tutash ; same definitions as tu, but connecting what 
follows closely with the sentence preceding: (1) adv. loc, out in the distance; 
far out there, 78, 13. 140, 11.: at some place, 36, 2.: tu'shtaks to the spot 
where, 68, 4. In 149, 21. distance from the ground is alluded to: 
"straight up". (2) adv. loc. interr., at which place or spot? where? 75, 12. 
110, 19. 121, 18.: tushu (or tush hu) walwash tchilamnu? where do the 
tvaitvash-geese assemble on a hill? 189; 3 ; tu'sh haftch mtilam p'gi'shap 
tchiaf at which of these places does your mother sit? 105, 5.; tu'shtal? 
whither? in what direction? 121, 13. Der tii. Cf tushtak, tutasxenini. 

tushak, adv., at some other place; somewhere far out. From tush, ak. 

tiishgish, tushkish (1) adv. temp., that time, then, at the time being: t. 
tchek some other time. (2) adv. temp, interr., ivhen? what time? at which 
hour? t. i patkal? ivhen did you rise from sleep? Der. tu, gi. 

t u K h i e g a , d. tutashi^ga ; see huy^ga No. 2. 

t u s h 1 ;( a n s h a , d. tutashi'^ansha ; see hui^ansha. 

t u s h k a y a , d. tutashkdya ; see hukdya. 

tushkayula, d tutashkayula ; see hukayiila. 

t li s h k a m p 6 1 i , d. tutdshkampgle ; see hiikampgli. 

t li s h k a n s h a , d. tutAshkansha ; see hiikansha. 

t u s h 1 1 n d s h a , d. tutashlmdsha ; see hushlindsha. 

t li s h 1 i p 6 1 i , d. tutashlipgli ; see hu'lipeli 

t li' s h n a k m X a to grunt: gushu t. the hog is grunting. Cf sh'ii'mka. 

tii'shni, d tutashni, tiitshni (1) adj. and adv., coming from somewhere in 
the distance; coming from above. (2) adj. and adv. interr., coming, arriv- 
ing from where? kafki pafsas; to'sni hut dmpu gepkaf there are no clouds; 
whence does that rain-water come ? Der. tiish. 

1 11 p k a — 1 11 1 a n k s li a m . 423 

t u R h 6 k a s h , tii'ssoksh, tushiiksb, d. tut'shukash, tiitshoksh lungs, lights. 

t n s h p ;i k