(navigation image)
Home American Libraries | Canadian Libraries | Universal Library | Community Texts | Project Gutenberg | Children's Library | Biodiversity Heritage Library | Additional Collections
Search: Advanced Search
Anonymous User (login or join us)
Upload
See other formats

Full text of "Contributions to the natural history of the Lepidoptera of North America .."



*^ 




^^^#_ z>. L bi b Clofk^ 






CONTRIBUTIONS 

TO THE 

NATURAL HISTORY 

OF THE 

LEPIDOPTERA 



OF 



NORTH AMERICA 



VOL. IV 

No. 1 



A REVISION OF THE GENUS 
HYDRIOMENA HBN. 

BY 

WILLIAM BARNES. S. B., M. D. 

AND 

J. H. McDUNNOUGH, Ph. D. 



DECATUR, ILL. 

THE REVIEW PRESS 

MAY Zi. 1917 



Published 

Under the Patronage 

of 

Miss Jessie D, Gillett 

Elkhart. 111. 



ADDITIONS AND CORRECTIONS TO 
VOLUME III 

Page 18. Phvtometra curvata B. & McD. 

Sir George Hampson lias called our attention to the fact that this 
name is probably a synonym of Antarcliaea obliqualis Dyar described 
from Mexico (1912, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus. 42, p. 80) ; we agree with 
this, but see no reason to change the generic reference, Pliytomctra 
Haw. in any case having priority over Antarcliaea Hbn. if the respec- 
tive types of the two genera should prove congeneric. 

Page 98. Chlosvne lacinia Geyer. 

Prof. T. D. A. Cockerell has called our attention to a valuable 
article by W. II. Etlwards on this species in Can. Ent. 1893, p. 286, 
which we hatl ovcrloolved entirely. In this article Edwards first pro- 
looses the names nigresccns and rufescens which should therefore be 
credited to him and not to Wright as we have done. It would also 
seem from the article that in New Me.xico we have a meeting-point 
of the Texan race adjutrix and the Arizona race crocalc, a single brood 
of larvae producing both forms ; this would appear to be a parallel 
case to that of BasUarchia astyaiiax and B. arthemis which show all 
manner of curious intergrades along the border line where the two 
forms overlap, I'ic, Catskill Mts. and northern New York State. 

Page 103. line 1— Read RIODINIDAE 
Page 119. LvcAENA pardalis Behr. 

Our statement that the $ genitalia resemble those of the arion 
group of blues and that in consequence the species should be referred 
to the genus Lycacna is quite erroneous. At the time we had only a 
single i specimen which we merely examined under the binocular; 
the receipt recently of further specimens made it possible for us to 
remove the abdomen of this same specimen and prepare a microscopic 
slide of the genitalia ; to our surprise we found them practically ident- 
ical with those of icarioidcs and we can only ascribe our former serious 
error to a distortion of the genitalia in the dried specimen. Pardalis 
should therefore be removed from the genus Lycaena as it stands in 



our New Check List and placed next to icarioidcs in the genus Plcbcius 
L. ; it is possibly a lowland race of this species characterized by brown 
ground color and heavy spotting on the underside and it is quite within 
the bounds of probability that maricof^a Reak. will, after all, take 
precedence over the name pardalis as the large black spots are distinctly 
mentioned in the original description. Our San Francisco collectors 
should be able to solve this problem and discover whether the $ "s 
ever show any traces of blue or are constantly dark brown. 

Page 128, line 28 — Omit and insert: 

claims to have a type 6 from \'ancouvcr Is. but as the species was 

Page 161. Epipsilia okakensis Pack. 

We were incorrect in stating that ohakensis falls to ciiicira Staud. ; 
Sir Geo. Hampson has called our attention to the fact that while 
cincrea was diagnosed in 1861 (Stett. Ent. Zeitsch. p. 369) it was not 
until 1871 (Cat. Pal. Lep. p. 114) that the name cincrea was actually 
given to the Labrador form and that therefore okakensis Pack, has 
several years priority. 

Page 164. Homohadena inconstans Grt. 

Our statement that Grote originally referred this species to 
Oncocnemis was erroneous; it was described as a Homohadena (Can. 
Ent. XV, 28). This will not, however, aiJect the statements made in 
the remainder of our note. 

Page 172. Acidalia persimili.s Hist. 

On reviewing Packard's description of quadrilineata with a view 
to determining a White Mt. species captured by ourselves in 1916 at 
Bretton Woods, N. H., we were struck by the fact that the description 
did not tally well with the specimen we had recently compared with 
the type in the Cambridge Museum Collection and on the strength of 
which we had made pcrsimilis Hist, a synonym ; this was particularly 
the case with regard to the underside which calls for a 'dark scalloped 
line common to both wings and situated half-way between the discal 
dot and outer edge.' We wrote Mr. Swett on the subject and he was 
kind enough to examine the types ; he wrote us that of the original type 
series only 1 $ from Orono, Me., and 1 $ from Brunswick, Me., 
remain in the Packard Collection and that these represent two species, 
the former showing the irregular dark s. t. line on the underside, the 



latter having the line straight and corresponding to Hulst's persimilis 
concerning the identity of which the original description leaves no doubt 
(C. Ent. XXX, 158). We had evidently compared a specimen with 
the Brunswick. Me., type but in view of Packard's statement in the 
original description we feel that the type must be restricted to the 
Orono, Me., specimen, the name persimilis Hist, becoming valid for 
the other species, distinguished by its less angled secondaries and non- 
scalloped s. t. line, the cross-lines also being considerably more ochreous 
in this latter species than in quadrilineata; Packard's figure in the 
Monograph (PI. X, Fig. 64) bears more resemblance to this latter 
species than to the true quadrilineata. We are now confronted with 
the problem as to which of these two species is represented by Walker's 
junctariu which we have already referred to this group (Cont. Ill, (1 ) 
p. 41 ) ; the description of the type V is very brief, but we would note 
that Walker uses the term 'testaceous' as applied to the cross-lines and 
as he uses the same term in his description of similaria which we have 
referred to crythemaria Gn. (Cont. Ill, (1) p. 36) we get a fairly clear 
conception of his idea of this color; it would seem that the 9 of 
persimilis Hist, would match the description far better in this respect 
than the 9 of quadrilineata for which Walker would probably have 
used the term "fuscous' as applied to the lines; we believe therefore 
that the correct usage will be to apply juitctaria Wlk., with persimilis 
Hist, as a synonym, to the one species, using quadrilineata Pack, for the 
other ; corresponding changes should be made in our New Check List. 

Page 296. The localities for Fig. 2 and Fig. 4 should be interchanged. 



A REVISION OF THE GENUS HYDRIOMENA 
BASED ON THE MALE GENITALIA 

Mr. L. W. Swctt in liis notes on this genus (1911, C. Ent. 43, p. 7i; 
1912, C. Ent. 44, p. 225 ; 1915, C. Ent. 47, pp. 9, 58) has clone valuable 
work in separating our North American species, his subdivisions into 
short, moderate and long palpal groups being a distinct advance over 
anything heretofore attempted in the classificatory line ; personally we 
have never favored his color-pattern scheme, it has seemed to us too 
artificial and we have always had the feeling that a number of his 
so-called forms might, on further study, prove to be good races or even 
species, a theory which has been amply borne out by our studies. It 
is greatly to be regretted that Mr. Swett's work was, as he himself 
states, more or less unfinished; his inability to examine and compare 
the i genitalia of the various species involved has, we fear, led him 
into several rather serious errors which we feel sure would have been 
eliminated if he had had the opportunity to work out the structural 
details of the genital organs. 

We recently had occasion to examine the genitalia of a number of 
species in this group and the results were so startling that we decided 
to extend our investigations to all the species contained in the genus ; 
we were primarily struck by the excellent means of separation afforded 
by the shape of the Uncus which is all the more important as, generally 
speaking, this portion of the genitalia may be examined under a strong 
lens or binocular by simply removing a few hairs with a fine brush 
from the dorsal portion of the anal segment ; the necessity for breaking 
off any portion of the abdomen and the consequent mutilation of choice 
specimens to establish their identity is thus obviated and. while not 
always conclusive, the general results obtained by such an examination 
are eminently satisfactory, especially if taken in conjunction with the 
palpal length of the species in question. 

In the following notes we give the result of our investigations, and 
would take this occasion to extend our thanks to Mr. Swett for his 
hearty co-operation. We are also greatly indebted to the authorities of 
the American Museum of Natural History for the loan of their entire 
material in this genus which, containing as it does several hundred 



specimens from the Hy. Edwards, Grossbeck and Pearsall Collections, 
has proved of enormous value to us in determining the status of obscure 
forms. 

We might note that we have found it extremely difficult to accur- 
ately identify some of the older names, notably those of Packard, on 
account of the types being almost invariably $ 's and furnished with 
very inadequate locality labels ; this, combined with the fact that several 
species which show an extraordinary difference in the shape of the S 
Uncus, are superficially extremely alike, renders this group one of the 
most perplexing among the Nortli American Geometridac. 

We retain the palpal subdivisions as proposed by Mr. Swett and 
consequently in the main his sequence of species ; we illustrate our con- 
ception of each species by a half-tone figure of the insect in question 
as well as of the S genitalia ; in instances where it has been impossible 
to make a slide we add a text-figure of the Uncus as viewed from above 
under a binocular microscope ; we have found the shape of the Uncus 
remarkably constant in all species where long series have rendered it 
possible for us to make slides of several specimens as well as to examine 
the Uncus under the binocular ; some slight variation is naturally pres- 
ent which we shall comment on under the various specific heads, but 
wherever we have found a marked difference we believe the above 
grounds justify us in treating it as of specific value. 

I. Short Palpi Group. 

HvDRiOMENA FURCAT.\ Thun. (PI. I, Figs. 1-6; PI. VII, Fig. 1). 

An excellent figure of the genitalia of this European species is 
given by Mr. Pierce in 'The Genitalia of the British Geometridae,' PI. 
43 ; we have made slides of European specimens and of numerous 
specimens from various North American localities and find them 
practically identical ; there is considerable variation in the length of 
the lateral apical points, but this is more apparent than real as these 
points show a tendency to curl up. The species extends along tiie 
Pacific Coast from Alaska through British Columbia, where it is com- 
mon, (Vancouver Island, Kaslo, Arrowhead Lake) down the Sierra 
Nevada range into Central California (Siskiyou Co., Alameda Co.) ; 
it also extends down the Rockies into Colorado (Calgary, Alta. ; 
Banff, Alta.; South Park, Colo.) and we even have single specimens 
from the White Mts., Arizona and Provo, Utah. The furthest point 



8 

eastward from which we have received specimens is Hymers, Out.. 
north of Lake Superior, but we should not be surprised if it were 
found through Northern Quebec and Labrador. As in Europe the 
species appears to be single brooded, occuring generally in July and 
August, although some of our Vancouver Is. material (doubtless due 
to the early spring) was captured in late June; a partial second brood 
occurs in some of the southern localities (Alameda Co., Calif.) in 
October; we have received small specimens from Mission San Jose, 
bred from larvae on willow, emerging in late October. 

The North American specimens before us show either a decided 
reddish or else a smoky tinge ; some are strongly and clearly marked 
as in fuscoundata Don. {vide Seitz, Palaearct. Geom. IV, PI. 10 k), 
others are much suffused (obscura Peyer) ; we have seen no entirely 
green specimens corresponding to sordidata Fabr. although a few 
specimens from Vancouver Is. show a slight greenish tint mixed with 
the red. The American varieties listed by Mr. Swett under furcata 
(C. Ent. 43, p. 82) must, we believe, with the exception of pcficlata 
Swett be removed from this association and treated (at least partially) 
as good species. With regard to periclata Mr. Swett has examined 
the type specimen and informs us that the uncus is broken off but 
that the basal portion is rather narrow and suggests that of furcata ; 
it is evidently one of the suffused forms belonging to the partial sec- 
ond generation to which we have already referred. 

We figure several of the marked varieties of furcata for which 
we believe European names will for the present suffice ; distinguishing 
characteristics may be found in the fourth (postmedian) dark band 
of primaries which is practically perpendicular to inner margin from 
vein 6, becoming attenuated to a mere line below vein 3 and generally 
distinctly crenulate on its outer edge in costal portion; the fifth dark 
band (subterminal) is well-removed from outer margin and strongly 
crenulate on outer edge ; the pale spot often present in this band is 
situated between veins 3 and 4 and is large, diffuse and not sliarply 
defined. 

Hydriomen.\ quinouefasciata Pack. (PI. I, Figs. 7-9; PI. VI, Figs. 

10-11; PI. VII, Fig. 2) 

Among the slides we made of the preceding species we were sur- 
prised to find a type of Uncus differing considerably from that of fur- 
cata; the basal portion was much broader and the central apical area. 



9 

instead of being strongly concave, was convex with the lateral points 
much less sharp than in furcata. We were able to separate out a 
series of nine specimens in the Barnes Collection, using this feature in 
the S 's as the distinguishing character ; of these seven were from 
X'ictoria. B. C. or its vicinity, one S was from Verdi, Neva- 
da and one 9 from Plumas Co., Calif. ; there were also five 
specimens in the American Museum material, all from the Hy. 
Edwards Collection and bearing the simple label 'California" with the 
exception of one ? from Summit, Sierra Nevada Mts. The general 
type of maculation of these specimens agrees so closely with that of 
furcata that it is very difficult to point to any one distinguishing char- 
acteristic except that of color; in all the specimens before us the pale 
areas are more or less strongly sprinkled with green, and at times 
heavily tinged in the median band with ruddy, some of the specimens 
approaching much more closely the European sordidata Fabr. than any 
of our N. American forms of furcata; with regard to the macula- 
tion the fourth dark band (postmedian) seems broader above the inner 
margin than is usually found in furcata; it also shows a slight inward 
angle on vein 3 and above this is less evenly crenulate ; the submarginal 
band is in general slightly closer to the outer margin than in furcata; 
these points, however, may not be constant and too great stress cannot 
be laid on them. We sent specimens of this species to Mr. Swett 
along with typical furcata (according to genitalia) and asked him to 
examine Packard's types of quinqucfasciata and viridata in the Cam- 
bridge Museum and see whether these names might be applicable to this 
new form ; unfortunately both of Packard's types are 2 's so that it 
is impossible to determine anything from the genitalia; however. Mr. 
Swett, after careful comparison, has written us that, although not abso- 
lutely identical, our species is considerably closer to the types than is 
typical furcata; he has also sent us a S specimen from Guerneville, 
Calif., for examination which he considers to be viridata and the Uncus 
undoubtedly agrees with that of our form ; this would correspond to 
our own comparisons, made however, at a time when we had not real- 
ized that there were two closely allied species. Packard's types of 
both species came from California (possibly the vicinity of San Fran- 
cisco as they were collected by Mr. Behrens) and until material from 
this locality is available which can be exactly matched with the types 
there will always be an element of doubt as to the status of quinquc- 
fasciata; for the present we think it advisable to associate both the 



10 

names quinquefasciata and viridata with this species; viridaia is ahnost 
certainly correctly applied and if it be found that the former name 
should be transferred to fiircata will then be the proper one to use for 
this species. Through the kindness of Mr. S. Henshaw of the Cam- 
bridge Museum we have received photographs of the types of these two 
species which we publish on Plate \l Figs. 10, 11 ; the name qmiiquc- 
fasciata we apply to the form with rather clear well-defined bands com- 
parable to the form fuscoundata of fiircata; ziiidata is greener and 
much more suffused and indistinct in maculation and without the ruddy 
shades of the former form. 

Hydriomena ai.bifasciat.\ Pack. (PI. I, Figs. 10-15; PI. VU, Figs. 

3-4). 

Even a casual glance at the Uncus of this species shows that it 
has nothing whatever to do with fuicata as listed by Mr. Swett; in 
common with rcflata Grt. and cochizcata Swett it has a conical Uncus 
with narrow truncate apex ; the latter form shows distinctions in tlie 
penis armature from albifasciata and is therefore a distinct species, but 
the former is practically identical in genitalia and we consider that the 
name reflate can only be used in a varietal sense for the Arizona race of 
a species which on account of the law of priority must bear the name 
albifasciata Pack, although evidently the nimotypical form is an aber- 
rant one. 

The species is easily separable from fiircata by the form of the 
postmedian band which is narrow, sharply angled inwardly at the cell 
and then bulging outwardly; Mr. Swett is mistaken in stating (C. Ent. 
XLIII, 78) that this cone-shaped projection (as he calls it) is not 
found in albifasciata, for Packard's figure of the type distinctly shows 
it ; the pale patch in the subterminal band is smaller, whiter and is sit- 
uated between veins 4 and 5 (not veins 3 and 4 as in fiircata) with 
frequently a short tail crossing into the space between veins 3 and 4. 
As already stated the nimotypical form with white median band as 
figured by Packard (Monog. PI. VIII, Fig. 34) is rare; reseda Swett 
is clearly referable to this species and represents a form suffused with 
ruddy; in his description Mr. Swett mentions particularly the white 
tailed spot in the subterminal band; the early date of capture (Feb.) 
also points to this species. We have before us a form from Sonoma 
and Alameda Cos., Calif., which appears to be much more of tlie normal 
form in California than any of those forms to which names have 



11 

already been applied ; it is dull olive green, heavily suffused with smoky, 
the maculation being more or less lost in the dark shading, the median 
area is as dark as the rest of the wing, the veins in the subterminal 
area are tinged with ruddy and the white subterminal spot with tail is 
quite distinct ; the average expanse is between 28 and 31 mm. ; we pro- 
pose for this name puncticaudata our types being 3 <i 's froni 
Oakland, Calif., and Eldridge, Sonoma Co., Calif., (Feb.) and 2 9 's 
from Eldridge, Sonoma Co., Calif., and Alma, S. Clara Co., Calif. 

There is still another race foimd on Vancouver Island in early 
spring which is much larger and more clearly marked than pitncticaii- 
data, of the same size as reflata with practically identical maculation, 
differing however in having the ground color a dull green (instead of 
gray) with slight rosy sprinklings along the veins ; we propose the name 
VICTORIA for this race, our types being 3 S 's from Victoria, B. C. 
(Mar. 20) (Apr. 19 and 29) and 2 9 's from the same locality cap- 
tured on April 12. 

Typical reflata (syn. abacta Hist.) (PI. I, Figs. 13, 14) is a large 
dark gray form with well defined purple brown bands and the median 
area sprinkled with brown ; specimens occur corresponding to albifas- 
ciata (with prominent white median band) and to reseda (suffused 
with ruddy) but we do not believe names are necessary for these 
forms ; we have seen no greenish specimens of this race. The Uncus 
(PI. VII, Fig. 4) is rather stumpier with shorter apical section than 
in albifasciata but as the remainder of the genital organs are similar 
we regard the variation as varietal, not specific. 

As far as can be judged from the material before us the species 
occurs in the earliest days of spring, probably hibernating as a pupa, 
a fact which in itself would show a specific distinctness from f areata; 
we have no record of a second generation. 

HVDRIOMENA CGCHIZEATA Swett. (PI. II, Figs. 1-3; PI. VII, Fig. 5). 

Air. Swett kindly sent us photographs of the two S types of this 
species which confirmed our own identification ; the species is appar- 
ently rather local as both the types and a long series in the Barnes Col- 
lection were taken at Palmerlee, Arizona, the latter during the month 
of February; five specimens in the Grossbeck Collection, originally 
from Dr. Barnes, are labelled Redington, Ariz. (Jan., Feb.) 

The Uncus is very similar in shape to that of reflata; the best point 
of distinction in the genitalia is found in the armature of the Aedoeagus 



12 

which in reflata has a single stout central spine terminally whilst 
in cochiaeata we find three strong spines, two lateral and one central. 

The species is generally rather suffused in maculation but in speci- 
mens where the postmedian band is clear it is very characteristic, being 
strongly dentate below costa with two large teeth above veins 2 and 3; 
we find the same range of variation as is found in albifasciafo— 
suffused smoky forms, suffused greenish forms, reddish forms and 
white-banded forms, one of the original types belonging to this latter 
form ; we would restrict the name to the type with smoky gray suffusion 
over the wing and for the rather rare white-banded form, correspond- 
ing to nimotypical albifasciata, we propose the name swetti in honor of 
Mr. Swell who has named so many forms in this variable group ; our 
types are two 5 's from Palmerlee, Ariz. 

HvDRiOMENA NUBILOFASCIATA Pack. (PI. II, Figs. 4-8; PI. VII, 

Fig. 6). 

We have nothing to adil to Mr. Swell's comments on this species 
except to present a figure of the Uncus which is rather intermediate 
in shape between the fnrcaia and the albifasciata groups ; as Mr. Swell 
points out one of the characteristic features of the species is the dark 
terminal band ; the various color forms have been fully treated by Mr. 
Swell in his notes (C. Ent. 43, p. 79) ; we figure a few of the most 
striking forms on Plate 11, Figs. 4-8. 

Bamvahrata Stkr. may possibly be a synonym of this species ; we 
have not had the opportunity to examine the type recently, which is 
in very rubbed condition, but our notes would indicate that it would 
fall here. 

The species flies in early spring; our California specimens from 
Sonoma and S. Diego Co. are dated February and March; we liave 
the species also from Salem, Ore. (Mar.) and Palmerlee, Ariz. 
(April) ; Mr. Swett records it from British Columbia. 

Hydriomena manzanita Taylor. (PI. II, Figs. 10, 11; PI. \TII, 

Fig. 1). 

The shape of the Uncus shows a close relationship to the preced- 
ing species, which is further borne out by the dark terminal band found 
in both manzanita and iiiibilofasciata; however, in the former species 
this is not prominent owing to the general dark color. We only possess 



13 

the species from British CoUinibia but there is a specimen in the Gross- 
beck Collection taken in the Santa Cruz Mts. Calif, in March. Appar- 
ently it only flies in early spring. 

With this species we end those members of the short palpi group 
in which the Uncus is simple and more or less broad at the apex ; the 
remaining species in the group show a bifurcate Uncus and lead over 
into the moderate palpi group in which the bifurcation of the Uncus is 
carried to a still greater degree. In this present subdivision are several 
apparently undescribed forms with long narrow neck to the Uncus and 
with each fork narrow and straight, forming together a broad Y shaped 
opening ; we commence with the description of these species. 

Hydriomena TUOLUMNE sp. nov. (PI. II, Figs. 13, 14; PI. VIII, 

Fig. 2). 

Palpi very short; primaries light gray sprinkled with smoky and shaded 
with ruddy brown ; basal space rather clear gray bordered outwardly by a dark, 
very oblique subbasal line extending from costa near base to jnst before middle 
of inner margin, either rigidly oblique or with a very slight incurve below cell; 
between this subbasal line and the antemedian line is a broad space shaded 
strongly with ruddy brown and crossed centrally by an oblique, broad, dark band 
forming slight outward angles in cell and submedian fold; the inner margin of 
this antemedian space is shaded with black ; antemedian line narrow, wavy, dark, 
slightly less oblique than subbasal line, angled in the submedian fold; median 
space pale whitish with a slight ruddy tinge and narrow discal streak, edged 
outwardly by a dark postmedian line which is strongly angled inwardly in cell, 
bent backward between vein 4 and subtnedian fold narrowing the median space 
considerably and tending to connect with antemedian line at this point, then 
parallel to same to inner margin at outer angle ; subterminal space shaded with 
ruddy brown and bordered outwardly with a broad curved purplish-black s. t. 
band, narrowing toward inner margin with straight outer edge; a dark apical 
dash below which are two parallel dark streaks, the lower extending from outer 
edge of s. t. band to postmedian line ; terminal area pale with veins bordered on 
each side by short dark streaks. Secondaries pale smoky with traces of a discal 
dot and curved postmedian line showing through from under side. Beneath pale 
smoky, secondaries with discal dot and line better defined. Expanse 28-30 mm. 

Habitat: Tuolumne Meadows, Tuolumne Co., Calif. (Aug. 8-15) (6000 
ft.); So. Fork, S. Bernardino Mts., CaHf. (Grinnell). 3 <J , 6 9. Types, 
Coll. Barnes. 

This species is apparently confined to liigh altitudes of the Sierras ; 
besides the type series we have a single 9 from the Lake Tahoe dis- 



14 

trict. Our specimens are mostly rather worn but the maculation is 
readily tlistinguishable. The ruddy suffusion is quite characteristic 
and very constant; with the exception of the second (antemedian) and 
fifth ( submarginal ) the bands of the preceding group are reduced to 
lines and the maculation is very clean cut. 

Hydriomena exculpata sp. nov. (PI. Ill, Figs. 1-3; PI. VIII. 
Fig. 3.) 

Palpi rather longer than in the preceding species, especially in the 9 sex ; 
type of maculation essentially the same but wing expanse considerably greater ; 
the subbasal line is heavy, black, oblique, often slightly rounded below costa ; 
basal area pale gray, the space between the subbasal and antemedian lines is usu- 
ally of a deep rich brown, showing only faint traces of a smoky waved ante- 
median band ; this brown color spreads over into the central portion of the pale 
median space, at times very markedly (typical form); in other specimens the 
brown color is greatly reduced being coniined to the margins of the cross-lines, 
the whole wing appearing grayish ; the subterminal and terminal areas are 
strongly suffused with brown; secondaries rather dark brownish with dark discal 
dot and angled postmedian line. Expanse 30-34 mm. 

Habitat: Ketchikan, Alaska (May-July) 5 S, S 9. Types. Coll. 
Barnes. 

Our types are all of the brown-banded form and were received 
through the kindness of Messrs. A. N. Avinoff and B. Preston Clark; 
for the gray form from the same locality we propose the name tribu- 
lata; a few specimens (mostly 9's) from Kaslo, B. C, Crater 
Lake, Oregon and Silverton, Colo, we cannot separate from these gray 
Alaskan specimens ; it would seem as if the species extended down the 
Coast Range and Rocky Mts. for a considerable distance but series of 
both sexes from the southern localities will be necessary before decid- 
ing this point. 

The shape of the Uncus is very similar to that of the preceding 
species of which we would have considered it a race were it not for 
the fact that e.rcitlf>ata shows a distinct lateral tubercle or ridge at the 
base of the neck which is also rather broader than in tiiohimne. The 
dates of capture on our species would seem to indicate a single genera- 
tion extending over a considerable period of the summer. 



15 

IIVDRIOMENA HENSUAVVI Swett. (PI. II, Fig. 9; PI. \'l, Fig. 12.) 

The species was unknown to us except for a photograph of the 

type from Nevada received through the kindness of Mr. S. Henshaw 

of the Cambridge Museum of Comp. Anatomy ; in the material sent by 

the American Museum, however, we found 

five specimens which we think are without 

much doubt this species; one S from the 

Sierra Nevadas. Calif, ex Hy. Edwards Coll. 

is very close to the figure of type before us ; 

1 (J and 1 9 from Estes Park, Colo. (June 

''"'■ ' 11, 18) agree structurally and except in a 

L'ncus of H. henshaivi . . ... , . ti .. 

few mnior points also in maculation ; another 
9 from Hy. Edw. Coll. is simply labelled 'Colorado'. Unfortunately 
the abdomen of the type specimen is lost so that we have been unable 
to confirm our identification by comparing the structure of the Uncus ; 
our figure, as well as our text figure of the Uncus, is that of a Placer 
Co. Calif, specimen which is better marked than the type. The forks 
of the Uncus are rather more U shaped than in the preceding species 
but the long narrow neck shows its close relationship. In the 9 the 
palpi seem slightly longer than in the (J . The species is apparently 
found only at higher altitudes in early summer. 

HVDRIOMEXA SHASTA sp. IIOV. (PI. Ill, Fig. 4). 

Palpi apparently short and rather hairy ; primaries rather unicolorous 
dark gray with median band slightly paler, the dark areas lightly sprinkled with 
whitish dots; subbasal line (line 1) dark, very strongly oblique from costa to 
cell, then bent at almost right angles and slightly ovit- 
wardly oblique to inner margin one third from base 
where it forms a small black patch ; band 2 almost 
lost in the general dark color of the antemedian area 
which is streaked with black along inner margin; 
line 3 slightly wavy, in genera! rather evenly oblique 
from somewhat before middle of costa to slightly 
P 2 beyond middle of inner margin; median area much 

Un s of H Shasta constricted between vein 2 and inner margin, bor- 

dered outwardly by line 4 which forms an irregular 
outward bulge opposite cell; band 5 (submarginaU broad but more or less lost in 
dark ground color, its outer edge being scalloped and faintly bordered by a pale 
shade ; an oblique dark apical dash, extending to s. t. band ; fringes long grayish. 
Secondaries even gray with concolorous fringes and a slightly darker terminal 
line. Beneath rather even dark gray with traces of small discal dots and post- 
median line on both wings. Expanse 25 mm. 




16 

Habitat: Mt. Shasta, Calif. (July 17) (McDunnough) 1 S. Type, 
Coll. Barnes. 

The single type was captured near the timber line at an altitude 
of from 7000-8000 ft. ; its very dark color is quite characteristic as is 
also the strongly bent nature of the subbasal line ; the type of Uncus 
is that of the perfracta-frigidata group but as far as we can tell from 
the rather twisted palpi they are short rather than moderate and we 
place the species therefore next to henshazci Swett. 

Hydriomena irata Swett. (PI. II. Figs. 12, 15; PI. IV, Fig. 6; PI. 

VIII, Fig. 4). 

This is a good species and easily distinguished from californiata, 
which it superficially resembles, by the shape of the Uncus as well as 
by the shortness of the palpi. From the preceding group it is separated 
by the stouter forks of the Uncus, the included space being rather more 
U shaped than V shaped. 

The species is apparently rather constant iu coloration, judging by 
our series of twelve species and other twelve in the Am. Mus. material 
which all show distinct reddish antemedian and postmedian shading ; 
the sub-basal line is strongly bent in the cell which serves to distinguish 
the species both from the preceding group and from californiata in 
which it is more or less straightly oblique. The form niveifascia 
Swett, described as a variety of californiata (C. Ent. 48, p. 249) prop- 
erly belongs here as an examination of the Uncus of the unique S 
type, kindly loaned us by Mr. Swett, distinctly shows; the palpi are 
slightly longer than usual which doubtless led to the reference but 
this is a somewhat variable feature in the series before us. We figure 
the type of this form on PI. IV, Fig. 6. 

Most of our specimens were captured in April but we have a 
single specimen from Duncans, Vane. Is., B. C. taken in September 
which would indicate if the label is correct at least a partial second 
generation ; we have not seen the species from other localities than 
Vancouver Island and the northern Pacific coast, a single S in the 
Barnes Collection having been captured at Ketchikan, S. Alaska. 

II. Moderate palpi group. 

The following group of three species, with which we commence 
the second group, frigidata VVlk. perfracta Swett, and transfigurata 
Swett, all originally described from the Eastern States or Canada, are 



17 

very closely related in the structure of the Uncus and also in general 
niaculation. The first two species have been listed respectively as a 
synonym and a color form of cccrulata Fabr. {aiitumiialis Strom); 
this species however scarcely occurs in North America (unless possibly 
in Alaska) and our studies of the genitalia have shown us that the 
forms of the Eastern States at present listed under this name may really 
be readily separated into several distinct species. 

The two latter of the three species mentioned are apparently quite 
rare and study of more material and especially of life histories may 
cause some change in our grouping but for the present we list each as 
a good species. 

Hydriomena frigidata W1U-. ( PI. Ill, Figs. 12-14 ; PI. X'lII, Fig. 5). 

The species, as already noted, is quite distinct from cccrulata 
Fabr. ; it is a form of the early spring ( April-May) and can at once be 
separated by its extremely dark secondaries which have the cross-line 
only faintly developed ; the primaries are usually a deep blackish-green 
crossed by a rather obscure median whitish band, a characteristic of 
which appears to be that it shows distinct black shading below the discal 
streak. The Uncus is bifurcate with long narrow neck, the bifurca- 
tions forming more of a U than a V and being rather short and chunky. 

A form of what we believe to be this species occurs in Manitoba 
and is characterized by the much whiter basal and median areas, the 
latter still showing, however, the blackish suffusion below discal streak ; 
the green of the ground-color is also rather paler ; we propose for this 
race the name Manitoba, our types being 4 (J , 1 9 from Cartwright, 
Man. (May 25 and 28). 

The typical form appears wide-spread in the Eastern and Middle 
States ; we have seen specimens from New York and New Jersey and 
have series from New Brighton, Pa. and Decatur, 111.; there is also 
a single specimen in the American Museum from Blanco Co., Texas 
and Mr. Swett tells us that a specimen mentioned by Packard from 
Kentucky under calif oniiata (Monog. p. 95) is probably this species. 

Hydriomena transfigcrata Swett. (PI. Ill, Fig. 15). 

Through the kindness of Mr. Swett we possess a Co-type of this 
species; as this is a unique specimen in our collection we have been 




18 

unable to make any dissections but as far as we can tell by an exam- 
ination of the Uncus under the binocular the 
species is closely allied to frigidata. We 
note however that the neck is rather broader 
and shorter, the forks of the bifurcation 
rather longer and there appears to be a tuber- 
cle or ridge at the base of the neck much as 
Fic. 3 in excnlpata; it seems to us therefore that we 

Uncus of H. transRguraia g^g dealing with a distinct species. The gen- 
eral coloration, while greenish as in frigidata, is much paler, the median 
band is broader at costa and shows no trace (in our specimen at least) 
of the black discal shading of frigidata. For further details we would 
refer the student to Mr. Swett's note (C. Ent. 44, 228). The species 
occurs in early May in Massachusetts; we incline to think that Mr. 
Swett's mention of New Brighton, Pa. (Merrick) as a locality (1. c. 
p. 228) is incorrect and that the only species occurring there is frigi- 
data; the Merrick Collection (now incorporated in our own) contained 
no transfigurata but a good series of frigidata and any other specimens 
we have examined from this locality all proved to be the latter species. 

Hydriomena perfracta Swett. (PI. IV, Figs. 1, 2; PI. VI, Fig. 13; 
PI. VIII, Fig. 6). 

As already noted the species was described as a color form of 
ccerulata Fabr. {autumiialis Strom) although later (C. Ent. 44, p. 226) 
Mr. Swett suggests that plnviata Gn. may be the more correct name 
for the North American species. We entirely 
concur with him in this view but for the pres- 
ent hold perfracta distinct from pluviata as 
there seem to be differences in the shape of the 
Uncus which place it very close to transfigur- 
ata. The species seems to be rare; besides 
Fic- ■» the type which we figure (PI. VI, Fig. 13) we 

Uncus of H. terf.acta j^^^^ ^^^^ ^^g,^ ^ ^jj^gj^ ^ f ^om the Catskill 

Mts. (type locality) in the American Museum material and another 
$ in our own collection from the vicinity of Calgary, Alta. (Dod), 
all three specimens being practically identical in maculation and size. 

We would note that while the maculation of both perfracta and 
pluviata is practically the same, the former species is much larger 
(30 mm.) than pluviata which averages 25 mm. in the S sex; the 



_19 

ruddy shading on both sides of the median wliitish area is very bright 
pinkish whereas in those specimens of pluviata which show a ruddy 
tinge the color is dull and more generally suffused over the entire 
wing surface. The time of flight would appear to be somewhat 
earlier ; the Catskill Mt. specimens were captured in late May whereas 
pluvxata, which is common in the same locality, judging by a long 
series before us from the Pearsall Collection, is at the height of its 
flight in mid-June, continuing into July. Finally the Uncus of per- 
fracta examined under the binocular shows a narrow neck of the 
frigidata type with the forks distinctly divergent, whilst in plmiata 
the neck is more of the cacnilata type showing scarcely any contraction, 
with the lateral edges forming almost a straight line from apex of 
forks to base of neck. These differences may or may not prove 
specific when more material can be examined and life histories studied 
but for the present no great harm is done by treating the two forms as 
distinct species. 

We have two specimens from Vancouver Island, B. C. which 
seem best treated as a race of this species and for which we propose 
the name exasperata ; they are slightly smaller than typical pcrfracta 
(28 mm.) and are more sharply marked, the cross-lines being heavy 
and distinct; the whole of the primaries is evenly suffused with a 
ruddy color giving the form a great similarity to californiata Pack, 
from which it may at once be separated by the shape of the Uncus 
(PI. VIII, Fig. 6) which is very similar to that of perfracta. the forks 
being rather chunkier and somewhat shorter and the neck slightly 
thicker. Our types are 2 i's, the one from Departure Bay, Vane. 
Is. B. C. (July 13), the other from Wellington, B. C. (June 23) both 
originally collected by Rev. G. W. Taylor. 

Hydriomena marinata sp. nov. (PI. VI, Fig. 6). 

Palpi moderate ; primaries olive-green whh a very faint ruddy tinge ; sub- 
basal line black, in general oblique with a slight incurve in the submedian fold and 
a faint angle at times on median vein ; band 2 broad, 
irregular, bordered on each side by the green ground 
color ; line 3 fine, dark, irregularly oblique ; median 
area greenish, more or less dark shaded around cell 
with a fine dark discal streak narrowed consider- 
ably at inner margin; line 4 oblique at costa. angled 
inwardly opposite cell followed by a strong outward 
bulge, after which it is irregularly scalloped and 
aia inwardly oblique to inner margin : outer area uni- 

colorous olivaceous crossed by the usual broad dark 
subterminal band which is connected with apex of wing by a dark streak; dark 




20 

terminal streaks on both sides of veins. Secondaries rather pale smoky white 
with two rather distinct postmedian parallel dark lines and a terminal dark line. 
Beneath much the color of secondaries above with two subterminal lines on 
primaries corresponding to lines 4 and 5 of upper side; secondaries with a single 
angled postmedian line and faint discal dot. Expanse 30 mm. 

Habitat: Type, Verdi, Nevada; Paratype, Marin Co., Calif. (Hy. Edw.) 
2 $. Type, Coll. Barnes; Paratype, Coll. Am. Mus. N. H. 

The species is one of those obscure greenish ones which we 
should have been inclined to associate with glaitcata if it had not been 
for its shorter palpi and the differently shaped Uncus which is very 
close to that of frigidata but considerably thicker and chunkier. 

An examination of the 2 S types of cliiricahitata Swett in the 
Barnes Coll. shows that tliey belong to two distinct species; we limit 
the name therefore to the type from the Chiricahua Mts., Ariz., which 
has a very deeply bifurcate Uncus and will deal with the species in 
more detail later under the long palpi section ; the other specimen from 
the Huachuca Mts., Ariz, has a type of Uncus very similar to that of 
the frigidata group and although the palpi are scarcely perceptibly 
shorter than those of the true chiricahuata we prefer to deal with it 
for the present in this section. Apart from the difference in the Uncus 
the two species are so strikingly similar that with our limited material 
we find it very difficult to point to any definite means of separation in 
maculation ; the basal and median areas are rather paler in the present 
species, the former being rather more extended than in chiricahuata; 
the secondaries are paler basally and on the underside show no discal 
dot; we describe the species in detail as follows: 

HVDRIOMENA ARIZONATA Sp. UOV. (PI. Ill, Fig. 10). 

Primaries gray, shaded and sprinkled with olivaceous-brown with paler 

basal and median spaces and heavy black cross-lines; line 1 (subbasal) strongly 

rounded outwardly from a point on costa near base almost to middle of inner 

margin ; band 2 purplish, irregular, with outward 

angles in cell and submedian fold, shaded on both 

sides with brownish-gray and with a heavy black 

mark just beyond it on inner margin; line 3 rather 

fine, somewhat irregularly oblique, with inward angle 

above inner margin ; median space paler, with fine 

discal dot, bordered outwardly by a very irregular 

Pjj, g line (line 4) which shows a prominent inward angle 

Uncus of H arhonaia opposite cell, two scallops in the interspaces of veins 

2-4 and is then bent strongly backward reaching the 

inner margin close to line 3 and narrowing the median space between vein 2 

and inner margin to half its width at costa ; a very distinct submarginal purplish 



21 

band shaded on both siilcs with ohvaceous-brown and crossed by the usual 
black subapical dashes ; dark terminal dots on both sides of veins ; fringes smoky 
with darker median line. Secondaries pale smoky at base with much heavier 
smoky shading terminally, a fairly distinct angled postmedian line, somewhat 
emphasized on the veins by dashes and separated from the darker terminal 
shading by a narrow pale band; fringes pale, checkered with smoky-bown. Be- 
neath primaries pale smoky crossed by two sinuous subterminal lines and shaded 
with gray along costa and at apex; secondaries whitish, sprinkled lightly with 
smoky brown, with the postmedian line of upper side very distinct and with 
traces of a paint parallel subterminal line; terminal dark line on both wings; 
fringes pale, checkered. Expanse 11 mm. 

n.\BiT.\T: Palmerlee. Ariz.; Huachuca Mts., Ariz. 3 c5 ■ Types, 
Coll. Barnes. 

We have two specimens before us, one a 9 in the Barnes Coll. 
from Vineyard, Utah (Sept. 1), the other a 3 from Stockton, Utah 
(Oct. 12) in the American Museum material ex Coll. Grossbeck which 
seem to represent a new species, characterized by its light gray color 
and pale secondaries, the underside of which is almost imtnaculate 
white ; we also possess a worn and stained 3 from Glenwood Spgs., 
Colo. (May 1-7) which seems to belong to the same species and may 
represent a spring generation. The type of Uncus is essentially that 
of the frigidata group. The following description is drawn up from 
the 9 specimen on account of its more perfect condition ; we might 
note however that the palpi in the 9 , owing to abrasion, give the 
appearance of being shorter than in the S which has the palpi in 
good condition but the wings rather worn ; there seems, however, no 
doubt as to the specific oneness of the two specimens. 

Hydriomena obliquilinea sp. nov. (PI. Ill, Fig. 11). 

Palpi rather short; thorax dark gray with faint ochreous tinge; primaries 

gray much obscured by smoky, especially in the antemedian and costal areas ; mac- 

ulation ratlicr indistinct with the exception of an oblique, dark, rather broad line 
(line 1) extending from costa near base to inner 
margin about one third from base, bordered inwardly 
with whitish; a faint wavy median line (line 3), par- 
allel to this first line, reaches inner margin well 
before inner angle, the included space being slightly 
darker than the basal area, and crossed by an indis- 
tinct waved smoky band, the inner margin of wing 
in this area heavily streaked with blackish ; the 
'"^' ' median area is defined outwardly by a dark line, 

Uncus of H. ohhqmhnca ^^.^^ ^^^ shaded inwardly with white at costa and 

above inner margin, strongly oblique outwardly to vein S then indistinct but 




_^2 

apparently angled inward opposite cell and rounded outwardly across veins 4 
and 3, then distinct to anal angle and decidedly crenulate, the lower portion of 
this median area is pale, the upper portion, especially in the broadest part oppo- 
site the cell, is shaded with smoky purple ; two distinct black subapical streaks 
above veins 5 and 6; subterminal band defined by two pale whitish parallel lines, 
bent strongly outward at costa and then parallel with outer margin and close to 
same, ending in a small black spot just above anal angle; a broken terminal dark 
line ; fringes dusky ; secondaries whitish tinged with smoky with an indistinct 
postmedian line, bent inwardly on vein 2, and a prominent dark terminal line 
broken by a pale dot on the veins ; fringes pale with a minute dark dot opposite 
the veins. Beneath primaries pale smoky with maculation of upper side indis- 
tinctly showing through ; secondaries white ; fringes as above. E.xpanse 26 mm. 
Habitat: 9, Vineyard, Utah (Sept. 1); S, Stockton, Utah (Oct. 12). 
1 (5,1 9 . Type $ , Coll. American Museum ; Type 9 . Coll. Barnes. 

Hydriomena marmorata .sp. nov. (PI. IV, Fig. 3; PI. VIII, Fig. 7). 

Among the material sent by the American Museum we found nine 
specimens (6 S , 3 9 ) all bearing the label "Sierra Nevadas, Calif. 
(Hy. Edwards)', which to our mind represent a distinct species for 
which we propose the above name, describing as follows : 

Palpi moderate, tending to short rather than long, blackish; head and 
thorax gray, sprinkled and marked with blackish and with a strong blackish 
metathoracic tuft; primaries narrow, elongate, with pointed apex, dull gray 
marbled with reddish pink and with the usual purplish lines and bands ; basal 
space pale gray sprinkled with black atoms, especially along inner margin, defined 
outwardly by line 1 which is strongly outwardly oblique from costa to cubital 
vein, then angled and concave, but still oblique, to inner margin somewhat before 
middle; band 2 broad, dark, irregular, shaded on both sides with ruddy-pink and 
tiiarked with a black dash at inner margin ; the inner defining line of the paler 
median area (line 3) not well marked; this area is narrow, sprinkled with dark 
gray and suffused with ruddy below the cell, with small dark discal dash ; the 
outer defining line is irregular with a strong inward bend opposite the cell ; 
beyond this is a broad ruddy area followed by a broad purplish gray subterminal 
band crossed by the usual subapical dashes; terminal area gray, sprinkled with 
darker gray and somewhat diffused with ruddy; veins marked terminally on 
both sides by blackish streaks. Secondaries rather pale smoky with more or 
less distinct postmedian and subterminal dark parallel lines, rather strongly 
angled on vein 3. Beneath smoky gray with dark discal dots and two postmedian 
lines on both wings, especially distinct on secondaries. Expanse 32 mm. 

The types i and 9 are in the American Museum Collection 
along with Paratypes; through the kindness of the authorities of the 
Museum 2 3,1 9 Paratypes are retained in the Barnes Collection ; 
Mr. Swett has also recently sent us a S from California which we 
have made a Paratype. There is a worn 9 from Provo, Utah (July 



23 

23) amongst the Museum material which is apparently referable here 
and another rubbed 9 in the Barnes Coll. from Redington, Ariz, may 
also possibly be found to represent a form of this species. 

The species seems best placed near perfracta Swett ; its narrow 
pointed wings and peculiar mottled appearance should render it easily 
recognizable. 

We have before us several specimens from the Sierra Nevadas, 
Calif, which seem to represent a new species; the general appearance 
is strikingly close to a \Vestern race of niberata to which we will refer 
later but tlie palpi are distinctly shorter and the average size somewhat 
smaller. The species is related in shape of Uncus to the perfracta 
group but the Uncus has a very narrow neck and the bifurcations are 
short and not widely separated, resembling considerably the Uncus 
of tiioliimne; we describe the species as follows: 

HVDRIOMENA SIERRAE sp. ttov. (PI. IV, Figs. 4, 5; PI. VIII, Fig. 8). 

Primaries dull gray, sprinkled with smoky; space between lines 1 (subbasal) 
and 3 (antemedian) filled with dull reddish-brown through which runs a faint 
irregular smoky band shaded with black at inner margin ; similar reddish sliading 
beyond line 4 (postmedian) ; basal and median areas whitish-gray, very slightly 
tinged with ruddy, latter with small discal dash; line 1 (subbasal) black, thick, 
slightly rounded below costa and bent in somewhat in fold ; line 3 rather evenly 
oblique, slightly waved ; line 4 thick and outwardly oblique below costa, bent in 
opposite cell and then strongly bulging outwardly, bent backward between veins 
4 and 2, forming two scallops, and parallel to line 3 from vein 2 to inner margin ; 
subterminal band broad, smoky, slightly scalloped on both sides and bordered 
by a white line ; apical black streak and two parallel black subapical black dashes, 
the lower one longer and extending across subterminal band to line 4 ; fringes 
checkered with blackish at ends of veins. Secondaries rather pale smoky with 
distinct discal dot and two darker lines, the one postmedian, rather sharply bent 
before vein 3, the other submarginal, broader and more diffuse ; fringes distinctly 
checkered. Beneath pale smoky with distinct discal dots and postmedian and 
submarginal lines on both wings. E.xpanse 26 mm. 

Types, 1 ^,1 9. Shasta Retreat, Siskiyou Co., Calif, (June 24-30) (July 
1-7) (McDunnough). Paratypes, 4 $,2 9- Cisco, Placer Co., Calif. (June), 
3 $ and 1 9 being in the Collection of the American Museum, 

With the above species we end the members of the moderate palpi 
group in which the Uncus is shortly bifurcate with a rather long narrow 
neck, the remaining members of this group form a subsection in which 
the bifurcations are very deep and U-shaped, thus eliminating more or 



2£ 

less all trace of the neck. Of this group candata Fabr. (autumiwlis 
Strom) is a typical member but we doubt very much if this European 
species can be accredited to the North American fauna as has generally 
been done up to the present. A very good figure of the c! genitalia 
is given by Pierce (Gen. Brit. Geom. PI. 43), our own dissections 
proving the accuracy of his figure ; we have found nothing among our 
American material to correspond with this and while it is possible that 
candata may be found in the far north just as is the case with 
Dysstioma popidata L. which occurs in Alaska, we think it advisable 
to drop the name for the present from our lists. 

As we have already noted the name autumiialis has been applied 
in this country to a conglomeration of species for which there are 
valid names, given principally by older authors ; we have already separ- 
ated out fngidata \\\k. and now treat of pluviata Gn. 

HvDRioMENA PLUVIATA Gn. (divisaria W'lk. ) (PI. I\', Figs. 7. 8; 

PI. VI, Fig. 16; PI. IX, Fig. 1). 

Gucnee's diagnosis of this species is sufficient to determine the 
form with considerable certainty; he mentions the sharper apex of 
primaries, the more oblique first line, the bulging of the median space 
in its central portion and the paler hind wings as compared with 
cccndata, all of which points are found in a species which occurs com- 
monly in the Catskill Mts.. N. Y. in June and July and extends through 
the New England States into Maine and Canada; from our notes on 
the type of divisaria Wlk., a sketch of the Uncus kindly made for us 
by l\ir. A. W. Baker of the Ontario Agricultural College, Guelph and 
a photograph of the type ( PI. VI, Fig. 16) we have little doubt that 
Walker's name falls as synonym to Guenee's older name. Besides 
the points already mentioned the species is characterized by its small 
size (25-27 mm.), general dull color with considerable tendency to 
brown or ruddy sufifusion, a rather prominent incurve in the first line 
below the cell and a very strong inward tooth in the fourth line (post- 
median) in the cell, these two last features being not entirely constant. 

The Uncus in shape forms a connecting link between the two 
groups, the forks being not so deep as in cccndata, leaving a short 
broad neck visible ; in a long series examined we found slight variabil- 
ity present in the length of the bifurcations and consequently the 
length of the neck, but our figure seems to be that of an average 
specimen. 



Hydriomena renunciata Wlk. ( PI. I\', Figs. 10-14; PI. IX, Fig. 2). 

There is another species which occurs in the Eastern and New 
England States along with pliiviaia and which has invariably been 
confused with the same although they are easily separated by even a 
superficial examination of the Uncus ; for this species we believe the 
above name is applicable, judging by a colored figure of the type in the 
British Museum which we have received. It is this species which 
Packard figures in the Monograph on PI. VIII, Fig. 29; it is generally 
rather larger than plH^iata with broader primaries and in general macu- 
lation approaches closer to the European cocndata than does plniiata; 
the ground color is rather dark, often quite blackish with an admix- 
ture of green shades and the whitish median band is of more even 
width throughout and often stands out very prominently from the 
darker surrounding area. 

The Uncus is still more deeply bifurcate than that of cartilata 
and the neck is consequently practically eliminated. 

The species has apparently the same range as plitviata; Dr. 
McDunnough found it common, although somewhat worn, in the 
White Mts., N. H. (Bretton Woods) in mid-July and we have series 
before us from Northwestern Ontario (Hymers), Digby, N. S., \'er- 
mont and the Catskills Mts. 

On the northern Pacific coast this species is represented by the 
race columbiata Tayl. (PI. IV, Figs. 13, 14) which is rather larger 
and slightly more variegated in appearance, but has the same type 
of genitalia ; we have, besides the types, a long series from Vancouver 
Is. and Ketchikan, Alaska. 

There is a considerable tendency toward melanism in the western 
form, (PI. IV. Fig. 12) especially in those occurring inland; Mr. 
Swett mentions this form under the name nigresccns Heune (C. Ent. 
44, p. 228) from Saskatchewan but of course this name is not applic- 
able; we propose therefore the name pernigr.\ta for the suffused 
blackish form with only traces of a paler median area, our types being 
1 (J , 2 9 from Glacier National Park, Montana ; we have made 
Paratypes of 1 $ , \ 9 from Skagit Basin, B. C. and 1 5 from 
Stickeen River, B. C, the two former in the Collection of the Amer- 
ican Museum; two very similar specimens from the Sierra Nevadas, 
Calif. (Hy. Edwards) are also in this collection. 



26 

Hydriomena crokeri Swett. (PI. IV, Fig. 15; PI. IX, Fig. 3). 

We consider this a good species and not a variety of the preceding 
as Hsted by Mr. Swett; in type of genitalia it is close to columbiata 
Tayl. but apart from its yellowish-green coloration which is very 
constant in our series of eight specimens, it may easily be recognized 
by the subbasal line which is very strongly bent outward below costa, 
whereas in cohtmbiala this line is generally quite rigidly oblique, only 
occasionally showing a slight bend ; another feature is a tendency to 
show considerable whitish shading in the subterminal dark band, which 
when present seems quite characteristic. The Uncus also shows points 
of distinction, possessing a short neck and being rather intermediate in 
the shape of the forks between columbiata and calif orniata. We have 
a single ? from Salem, Oregon, our other specimens having been 
captured in the vicinity of Victoria, B. C, in April and May. 

Hydriomena muscata sp. nov. (PI. IV, Fig. 9; PI. IX, Fig. 4). 

We have three S specimens from Eldridge, Sonoma Co., Calif, 
captured in February, which, on account of the similarity of Uncus and 
the fact that the subterminal band shows white shading, may prove to 
be a southern race of crokeri; as however the general appearance is 
quite different we treat it for the present as a distinct species. The 
primaries are dark mossy green, crossed by the usual dark bands and 
with tlie median area whitish, strongly narrowed toward inner margin 
and with slight ruddy shading in the fold; the subbasal line is bent 
below costa much as in crokeri; line 3, bordering the median area 
inwardly, is rather rigidly oblique, being only slightly waved ; the sub- 
terminal band shows traces of white shading which in one specimen 
has spread so as to obliterate entirely the central portion of the band. 
Our types in the Barnes Collection are the three specimens already 
mentioned. 

Hydriomena califo'kni.'VTA Pack. (PI. V, Figs. 1, 2; PI. X, Fig. 2). 

On a recent visit to the Cambridge Museum of Comp. Anatomy 
we were unable definitely to locate Packard's type of this species which 
was a specimen from California (Behrens), no sex being mentioned; 
Mr. Swett at the time told us that it appeared to have been lost and 
after a careful study of the original description we both agreed to 
accept his identification of the species (C. Ent. 44, p. 229) as correct. 
Since then he has written us that he has discovered the type in an old 



box of Peabody Academy material, that it is a $ markeil 'Behrens, 13' 
and that it does not aher our conception of the species. 

We might note that Packard in his Monograph (where he hope- 
lessly confused several species under the name californxata) states that 
the specimen figured on PI. \'III, Fig. 30 is the normal form, another 
specimen being figured as calif orniata on PI. VIII, Fig. 33; these two 
specimens differ considerably in the shape of the subbasal line which in 
Fig. 30 shows a rather strong bend, in Fig. 33 on the contrary being rig- 
idly oblique ; the original description is rather ambiguous on this point, 
Packard merely stating 'an oblique black line finely and acutely pointed 
on the median vein goes obliquely outwards.' Our conception of the 
species is rather that of the latter figure, which was evidently a small 
S , Fig. 30 to our mind being closer to irata Swett in some ways than 
to our notion of californiata. 

Apart from this one point, which in our series seems in any case 
somewhat variable, we find nothing in either of the figures that would 
cause us to alter our previous determination of the species. 

We have a long series from various localities on Vancouver Is. 
B. C. where it appears to be common but have seen no Californian 
material ; some of the 9 's are rather difificult to separate from those of 
coliimbiata Tayl. but usually in the former species band 2 is less elbowed 
outwardly below the costa and line 4 (postmedian) more deeply exca- 
vated opposite the cell ; generally the characteristic ruddy tinge of the 
antemedian and subterminal areas is sufficient to identify the species. 
The palpi are quite long in the 2 sex, in some specimens being only 
very slightly shorter than in rubcrala which falls into the following 
section. 

The Uncus is very characteristic, the forks being deep, very stout 
and more bent inward apically than in the preceding species. 

The species occurs on Vancouver Is. in June in contradistinction to 
irata which is an early spring species (April) ; our earliest date for 
caUformata is May 23d, our latest July 20th ; colmnbiata appears to be 
intermediate in time of emergence between the two, our few speci- 
mens from Vancouver Island having been taken in May. 

With the preceding species we end the second main group; the 
following section, consisting of the long palpi species, may be sub- 
divided, according to the shape of the Uncus, into several secondary 



28 

groups, each of which seems to bear more relation to one of the preced- 
ing groups than to the other subdivisions of its own section. 

The first subdivision shows in the shape of the Uncus great affinity 
to califoniiata Pack., in fact the palpi themselves are only slightly 
longer than we find in califoniiata 9 "s and the species might almost 
as well be placed in the preceding section. 

Our S material in this group is very limited and we do not feel 
at all sure but that with more material and better knowledge of the 
type specimens some of our conclusions may have to be altered ; how- 
ever we give our opinions for what they may be worth and trust that 
those more favorably situated with regard to material than we are will 
be spurred on to test the correctness of these conclusions. 

III. Long Palpi Group. 

Hydriomena BisTRiOLATA Zell. ( PI. V, Figs. 3, 4; PI. IX, Fig. 5). 
The type of this species is a 9 in the Zeller Collection in the 

British Museum; according to Zeller, Packard and Swett (Can. Ent. 

47, p. 59) there is in the Cambridge Museum a 9 (not a 5 ) which 
may be possibly considered a Paratype as it 
bears a yellow label indicating that it had been 
examined by Zeller; Packard figures a speci- 
men from St. Louis, Mo., which he had com- 
pared with this latter specimen and found to 
agree (Mon. Geom. p. 95, PI. VIII, Fig. 32). 
I'iG. 8 We have a single $ from Decatur. 111., 

Uncus of H. bistrioUita ... ,, • , -r* i i' i^ -.1 

which agrees well with Packard s figure and 
which we imagine therefore may be referred to this species; it shows 
only a faint tinge of green on the pale areas whereas typical bistriolata 
is strongly suffused with this color, but a series would probably show 
considerable variation in this respect. We figure the Uncus, drawn 
after an examination under the binocular, our material not permitting 
of any slides being made ; Mr. Swett has kindly sent us a sketch of the 
Uncus of two <5 "s in the Cambridge Museum from Dallas, Tex. (Boll), 
probably part of the type lot, which agrees with our figure so that we 
imagine our identification is fairly certain ; it will be seen that the fork 
is very deep and strongly U shaped, each branch being thickened and 
slightly bent inward toward apex ; it would seem to be a further devel- 
opment of the califoniiata type. The species has only been taken in 




g9 

early spring ; Mr. Swett mentions March for the Texan specimens ami 
our specimen was taken in early April along with frigidata Wlk. 

In our Contributions \'ol. II, p. 204 we referred to some Colorado 
specimens, identified for us by Mr. Swett as bistriolata, as being dis- 
tinct from this species ; an examination of the $ Uncus of these 
Colorado specimens shows however no point of difiference from that 
of our Decatur specimen ; it would seem therefore that Mr. Swett was 
correct and that we were in error in calling these a distinct species ; 
they do, however, represent a distinct race characterized by the entire 
lack of green shading, the deeper brown color of the antemedian band 
and the paler color of the secondaries ; the basal and median areas of 
primaries are also considerably suffused with light gray scaling. We 
propose the name modestata for this race, our types being 2 ,J , 2 ? 
from Glenwood Spgs., Colo, captured in April and May, one of the 9 
Paratypes being in the American Museum Collection. 

Hydriomena chiricahuata Swett. (PI. \', Fig. 5). 

As previously stated the type must be limited to the 3 specimen 
from the Chiricahua Mts., Ariz. The type of Uncus is distinctly that 
of bistriolata, in fact, apart from the smaller size, which is only natural, 
we can see no difiference in the structure of this organ in the two 
species ; it may be, therefore, that chiricahuata is merely a small Arizona 
race of the preceding species but for the present it may be kept separate 
until more is known about its life history and time of appearance; 
apart from the type we have seen three $ specimens from Palmerlee. 
Ariz., all undated, and 2 9 's from Yavapai Co., Ariz. (July 2) and 
Prescott, Ariz. (Sept. 9) which seem referable here; I $ and 2 9 's 
are in the American Museum material ex Coll. Grossbeck. 

H\T)RiOMENA RUBER.\TA Freycr. (PI. V, Figs. 6-9; PI. IX, Figs. 6, 7). 

The species occurs quite commonly in the New England States 
and extends Westward through Canada to the Rocky Mts. ; we have 
series from Manitoba and Alberta which show, besides the typical 
form as figured by Seitz (Macro. Pal. IV, PI. 10k) also the form 
variegata Prout ; it is probably that the other European forms also 
occur as noted by Mr. Swett (C. Ent. 47, p. 61). We have no record 
of the occurrence of the species in British Columbia, although we have 
a single 9 labelled Easton. Wash. 



30 

The Uncus is strongly bifurcate with a rather narrow short neck 
but with very stout forks which broaden apically giving a very char- 
acteristic appearance; Mr. Pierce has figured the genitalia (Gen. Brit. 
Geom. PI. 43) and specimens from North America which we have 
examined agree well with his figure ; there is some slight variation in 
the width of the neck which at times may be very narrow ; the depth of 
the forks is also somewhat variable. 

On the East and West slopes of the central Sierra Nevada Mts. 
(Verdi, Nevada; Cisco, Placer Co., Calif.) we meet with a race of 
ruberata which has generally gone under the name similaris Hist, but 
this name, as we have already had occasion to point out (Contr. Ill, 
p. 176), has been erroneously applied. This race, (PI. V, Figs. 6, 9) 
besides being somewhat smaller, is generally duller and more washed- 
out in color, the whole of the primaries having a sufifused grayish 
appearance without the sharp definition of the typical form ; the forks 
of the Uncus (PI. IX, Fig. 7) are rather variable but in general are 
less swollen apically than in Eastern specimens and show a tendency 
to keep close together, making the open V quite narrow. We propose 
for this race the name nevadae, our types being 7 S, 6 9 from 
Verdi, Nevada (Jime), 2 5,3? Paratypes being in the American 
Museum Collection. The race shows the same varietal tendencies 
which we find in the nimotypical form. We have seen additional speci- 
mens, rather better marked from Cisco, Placer Co., Calif. 

The two following species, glaucata Pack, and cdenata Swett, 
have caused us a great deal of trouble with regard to their correct 
identification owing to the fact that the Holotypes of both species are 
9 's whilst the type of maculation is extraordinarily similar ; for a 
considerable time we considered that the two names represented races 
of a single species which extends more or less along the whole Pacific 
Coast ; the recent receipt of a pair of specimens from the San Gabriel 
Mts., Calif, in which the $ Uncus is of an entirely different type to 
that of our so-called glaucata whilst the general maculation is astound- 
ingly close has convinced us that we are certainly dealing with two 
species, but has also left us in great doubt as to how to apply the 
names correctly; our present usage is therefore more or less tentative 
and caused by a desire not to augment the confusion already existing 
by adding new names which may later prove to be synonyms; we 




imagine that a careful study of the types will settle the question but 
until we are in a position to do this on a future visit to the New York 
and Cambridge Museums the matter must remain in abeyance. 

Hydriomena glaucata Pack. (PI. VI, Fig. 4.) 

The unique type 9 from California is figured in the Proc. Bost. 
Soc. N. Hist. PI. I, Fig. 6, but owing to the rather worn nature of the 
specimen and the poor reproduction this figure is not very satisfactory 
as a means of absolute identification ; we be- 
lieve, however that Mr. Swett is correct in 
stating (C. Ent. 47, p. 63) that the type exists 
in the Hy. Edwards Collection in the New 
York Museum, but we cannot agree with his 
statements (C. Ent. 47, p. 62) that it is a green 
form of ruberata; we examined this specimen 
''"^- ' a year ago and thought at the time we had 

Uncus of H. glaucata niatched it with a series of specimens taken 

in Sonoma Co. in February, such as we figure on PI. III. Figs. 5-7, 
and which in the type of Uncus corresponds to what we treat in this 
paper as edenata Swett ; as however we were unaware at the time of 
the existence of two species with closely allied maculation we feel that 
our comparison will need careful revision before we can consider that 
glaucata and edenata represent forms or races of a single species. 

As already stated we prefer for the present to apply the name 
glaucata tentatively to the species of which we possess I S ,\ 9 from 
the San Gabriel Mts. Calif, captured June 29th by V. L. Clemence and 
received by us from Mr. F. Grinnell Jr. ; we figure the 9 which 
matches Packard's figure pretty well, being in general however rather 
darker (which may be due to the freshness of the specimen) but show- 
ing the greenish shade as mentioned in the description. The S Uncus 
has a short, moderately narrow neck and very long wide-spreading 
forks, being closer to crokeri and muscata in this respect than to any 
other species we know of, but of course dififering widely from these two 
in length of palpi and general maculation. 

Hydriomena edenata Swett. (PI. Ill, Figs. 5-9; PI. VI, Figs. 5, 7, 

14;P1. X, Fig. 1). 

The Holotype of this species is a 9 from Eden Valley, Monterey 
Co., Calif, in the Cambridge Museum ex Coll. Swett {vide C. Ent. 47, 



p. 59) and through the kindness of Mr. S. Henshaw we are able to 
give a figure of this type on PI. VI, Fig. 14; the S specimen from 
Monterey Co. ex Coll. Grossbeck, mentioned in the original descrip- 
tion is in the American Museum and Mr. F. Watson the Curator has 
sent us a sketch of the Uncus which corresponds with that figured by us 
on PI. X, Fig. 1. As may be seen by a reference to this figure it is 
very different from that of the preceding species, the neck being 
rather long and narrow, the forks narrow, compressed laterally at 
apex and bent downward with a small terminal hook which is quite 
characteristic; the depth of the bifurcation varies somewhat but it is 
usually about equal to the length of the neck. 

If this S is conspecific with the 9 type, which it is impossible 
for us to determine at the present moment, our identification may be 
regarded as fairly safe ; the species appears to be rather wide-spread 
in apparently two generations along the whole Pacific Coast from 
San Diego to \'ancouver Is., B. C. The typical form is without green 
shades, the antemedian area being shaded with warm brown ; it occurs 
ostensibly in June and our figure (PI. III. Fig. 8) of a S from 
Monterey Co. we regard as fairly typical ; we have other specimens, 
rather deeper in shade, taken in June in San Diego Co. Wright has 
recently applied to two forms of this species from San Diego (Ent. 
News, XXVII, p. 460) the names olivata and pallidata; we are able 
through the kindess of Mr. Swett to figure Co-types of these forms (PI. 
VI, Figs. 5, 7) which appear, according to the shape of the Uncus, to 
be correctly associated with cdenata; these Co-types before us were 
captured in February and March which would point to an early spring 
generation ; this is corroberated by a series from Sonoma Co. in our 
collection, captured also in February, three specimens of which we 
figure on PI. Ill, Figs. 5-7; as already stated we were inclined to 
consider these as referable to glaucata but if our present conception 
of glaucata prove to be correct they will probably represent a good race 
of edenata agreeing as they do in the structure of the Uncus. 

Mr. Swett mentions (C. Ent. 47, p. 60) a large Vancouver Is. 
form as belonging to cdenata; we have before us 1 5,3 9 of this 
form, captured in March and April, 1 9 , which we figure, showing 
considerable green tinges, the other three specimens being largely brown 
with pale basal and median areas. There is nothing in the structure 
of the Uncus to separate these B. C. specimens from those of Sonoma, 



33 

Monterey and San Diego Cos. but as their large size (38 nini. in both 
sexes) is apparently constant we believe we are justified in proposing 
to use the racial name grandis, our types being 1 S from Duncans, 
B. C. (Mch. 24-30) and 3 9 's from Victoria, B. C. (Apr. 8, 13. 16) 
1 9 , Paratype (Victoria, Apr. 13) being in the American Museum 
Collection. 

We have before us two specimens from Arizona which we discov- 
ered mixed up with a race of speciosata to which we will refer later; 
in the S sex the Uncus is enormously forked with a long thin neck, 
quite distinctive from any other species we know. We describe it as 
follows. 

Hydriomena furculoides sp. nov. (PI. V. Fig. 15). 

Palpi long, thin, purple-brown tipped with ochreous ; head and thorax pale 
greenish-yellow, the latter with two black spots on prothorax and one at base of 
primaries; metathoracic tuft tipped with black, abdomen ochreous. Primaries 
pale greenish-white suffused with purplish-brown 
and crossed by bands of this color; line l(subbasal) 
line, bent strongly outward just below costa, then 
perpendicular to inner margin forming a right angle 
in the cell with a slight inward bend in submedian 
fold ; band 2 starting from a large costal patch, then 
rather indistinct and more or less fused with the 
following band owing to dark scaling in central 
area of wing; band 3 (antemedian) bent outward 
below costa, then rather straight and perpendicular 
to inner margin ; median space pale, slightly 
sprinkled with dark scales and with a dark streak 
above vein 4; line 4 (postmedian) bent out below 
costa, then jagged and toothed to vein 4 below which it is more or less obsolete 
as a fine line close to the subterminal band ; snbterminal space similar in color 
to median area ; subterminal band broad, with irregular edges, approaching close 
to outer margin at vein 3 ; terminal area with very broad purplish streaks on 
the veins which mostly connect with the subterminal band, leaving only small 
terminal patches of the pale ground-color visible and a costal patch of same 
color just beyond s. t. band below which is the usual black streak ; fringes pale 
ochreous, dotted with brown at ends of veins. Secondaries pale smoky with 
traces of a discal dot and somewhat crenulate postmedian line. Beneath whitish 
with maculation of upper side partially visible ; secondaries with distinct discal 
dot and rather sharply angled postmedian line. E.xpanse 30mm. 

Habitat : $ Redington, Ariz. ; 9 Tucson, Ariz. 1 $ . Types, 
Coll. Barnes. 




Fig. 10 
Uncus of H. furculoides 



34 



The preceding species ends the division of the long-palpi group 
with bifurcate Uncus ; the following species have a simple narrow point- 
ed Uncus and show great similarity in general type of genitalia to the 
albifasciata group of short-palpi species where we imagine their real 
relationship will be found to exist. 

Hydriomena speciosata Pack. (Pi. V, Figs. 11-14; PI. X, Fig. 3). 

We have nothing further to add to Mr. Swett's treatment of this 
species (C. Ent. 47, p. 9) which is readily recognizable; the Uncus is 
short with a moderately broad base and the Aedoeagus is armed with a 
bunch of long spines. 

We have before us a small series of specimens from Arizona 
which appears to be a race of this species ; in general color they 
approach closer to the form taylori Swett than to the typical form, one 
of the 9 's however showing a considerable amount of green ; the 
race is characterized by the reduction of the cross bands 4 and 5 (post- 
median and subterminal) ; tlie former is closer to the latter than is usu- 
ally found in the typical form, leaving the median space broader ; it is 
also rather evenly dentate or crenulate, especially below the costa, a 
feature which occasionally is found in the type form but which is 
usually hidden in the broad blotches. The Uncus has the basal portion 
rather less broad, the whole organ gradually and evenly tapering, 
whereas in the type form the broad base is rather sharply separated 
from the narrow apical section ; the spines on the Aedoeagus seem to 
show a difTerent arrangement but this may not be constant in a series 
of slides. We propose for this race the name morosata, our types 
being 5 3,3 2 from Redington, Arizona, one of the former in the 
Collection of the American Museum. 

Hydriomena barnes.^ta Swett. (PI. V, Fig. 10; PI. X, Fig. 5). 

The type of genitalia shows that this species is correctly placed 
next to speciosata; the narrow portion of the Uncus is considerably 
longer than in speciosata and the armature of the Aedoeagus consists 
of a small patch of minute spines, otherwise the genitalia are very 
similar. The species seems to be widely distributed in Southern 
Arizona ; we have it from various localities in Cochise Co., from the 
White Mts. and also from Ft. Wingate, N. Mexico, all our dated 
material having been taken in June or July. 



35 

Hydriomena regulata Pearsall. (PI. VI, Fig. 15). 

We do not know this species but have received through the kind- 
ness of the authorities of the American Museum photographs of the 
types, one of which we publish ; Mr. Watson informs us that these 
types are two 9 's, not S 's as stated in the original description. 
Judging by the photographs the species must be intermediate between 
siinilaris Hist, and the Arizona race of spcciosata, differing from both 
apparently in the maculation of the basal portion of the abdomen ; on 
account of the obscure maculation it is rather difficult to place from 
a study of the figure alone and we must await the receipt of more 
material before definitely deciding its position. 

Hydriomena similaris Hist, (glciiwoodata Swett.) (PI. VI. Figs. 

1. 2; Pi. X, Fig. 4). 

The type of genitalia shows that the species should be associated 
with spcciosata rather than placed in the moderate palpi group ; the 
Uncus is considerably broader than in either of the two preceding 
species and is merely bluntly pointed, not tapering to a fine point; the 
Aedoeagus is very heavily armed with spines and hooks and the prox- 
imal portion is drawn out to a rather lengthy point, a quite unique 
feature in the group. 

Our recently described species, termiiiipunctata, proves to be a 
race of this species, characterized by its much paler color and better 
defined markings as well as by the strong whitish terminal streaks of 
secondaries which in the typical form are merely very faintly indicated. 

We have the type form from Colorado (Glenwood Spgs.), New 
Mexico (Jemez Spgs.) and Arizona (Pinal Mts.) taken in June and 
July ; the race terminipimctata from Stockton, Utah. 

HYDRIOMENA CYRIADES DrUCC. (PI. VI, Fig. 8). 

We have already recorded what appears to be this species from 
Tucson, Ariz. (Contr. Ill, p. 23) ; if our identification be correct the 
species will fall into this group the Uncus being pointed much as in 
speciosata. 

The remaining three species show no very close relationship to 
any of the preceding groups; as they are all found in Arizona it is 
probable that their affinities will be with Mexican species rather than 
with the more northern forms. In mcdiodcntata the palpi are decidedly 



36 




short; in the other two species they are moderately long but shorter 
than in speciosata. 

Hydriomena mediodentata B. & Mc.D. (PI. VI, Fig. 3). 

This obscure species has the basal portion of the Uncus rather 
broad with two stout curved hooks, broaden- 
ening apically, projecting downward from its 
under surface. Apart from the 9 type and 
g<Y,'-'-''.«':5^ the single <J specimen mentioned in Contr. 

Ill, 22, we have seen no other specimens of 

Fig. 11 
Uncus of H. mediodentata the SpCcicS. 

Hydriomena costipunctata B. & McD. 

This species has nothing whatever to do 
with speciosata as suggested by Mr. Swett (C. 
Ent. 47, p. 10) ; the Uncus, as may be seen 
from our drawing, is of a totally different 
shape. We have seen no material other than 
the types; our figure (Contr. I, (5) PI. II, 
Fig. 14) should render the species easily 
recognizable. 

Hydriomena magnificata Tayl. (PI. \T, Fig. 9). 




Flc. 12 
Uncus of H. L'ostit^unctata 



Apart from the type specimen we have 
two specimens in the Collection from Palmer- 
lee, Ariz. (April) one of them, which we fig- 
ure, exceptionally perfect ; the Uncus is very 
long and spoon-shaped. 



Fig. 13 
Uncus of //. niagniticata 



In conclusion we offer the following arrangement of the species of 
this group to supplant that of our Check List. 

Genus Hydriomena Hbn. 
* 1 furcata Thun. 
clutata Hbn. 
form fuscoundata Don. 
form periclata Swett. 



37 



2 qiiinquefasciata Pack, 
form viridata Pack. 

3 albifasciata Pack, 
form resecta Szi'ett. 

form puncticaudata B. & McD. 
a victoria B. & McD. 
b reflata Grt. 
abacta Hist. 

4 cochizeata Sivett. 
form swetti B. & McD. 

5 nubilofasciata Pack. 

Ibanavahrata Strkr. 
form raptata Sivett. 
form cupidata Sivctt. 
form cumulata Sivett. 
form vulnerata Sxvett. 
form sparsimacula Hist. 
?a scalata JVarr. 

6 manzanita Tayl. 

7 tuoluinne B. & McD. 

8 exculpata B. & McD. 
form tribulata B. & McD. 

9 henshawi Swett. 
10. Shasta B. 6- McD. 
11 irata Swctt. 

form niveifascia Swctt. 
** 12 frigidata Wlk. 

form manitoba B. &McD. 

13 transfigurata Swett. 

14 perfracta Swett. 

a exasperata B. & McD. 

15 marinata B. ^ A/r£>. 

16 arizonata B. & McD. 

17 obliquilinea B. & McD. 

18 marmorata B. & McD. 

19 sierrae B. & McD. 

20 pluviata Gn. 

divisaria Wlk. 



38 



21 


remiiiciata JVlk. 




a columbiata Tayl. 




form pernigrata B. & McD 


22 


crokeri Swett. 


23 


miiscata B. & McD. 


24 


calif orniata Pack. 


*** 25 


bistriolata Zell. 




a modestata B. & McD. 


26 


chiricahuata Swett. 


27 


ruberata Frey. 




form variegata Front. 




a nevadae B. & McD. 


28 


furculoides B. & McD. 


29 


glaucata Fack. 


30 


edenata Szvett. 




a olivata fVgt. 




form pallidata H'gt. 




b grandis B. & McD. 


31 


speciosata Fack. 




form agassizi Swett. 




form taylori Swett. 




form ameliata Swett. 




a morosata B. & McD. 


32 


barnesata Sivett. 


33 


regulata Fears. 


34 


similaris Hist. 




glcmvoodata Swett. 




a terminipunctata B. & McD. 


35 


cyriades Druce. 


36 


mediodentata B. & McD. 


37 


costipunctata B. & McD. 


38 


magnificata Tayl. 



40 



Fig. 


1. 


Fig, 


2. 


Fig. 


3. 


Fig. 


4. 


Fig. 


5. 


Fig. 


6. 


Fig. 


7. 


Fig. 


8. 


Fig. 


9. 


Fig. 


10. 


Fig. 


11. 


Fig. 


12. 


Fig. 


13. 


Fig. 


14. 


Fig. 


IS. 



PLATE I 

H. furcata T/nm. S Duncans, Vane. Is., B. C. 

H. furcata Tliun. 9 Wellington, B. C. 

H. furcata TIntn. (dark form) i Duncans, Vane. Is., B. C, 

H. furcata Tliiiii. $ Hymers, Ont. 

H. furcata Thtin. $ Calgary, Alta. 

H. furcata Thun. (dark form) $ Shasta Retreat. Siskiyou Co.. 

Calif. 
H. quinquefasciata Pack. $ Victoria, B. C. 
H. quinquefasciata Pack. 9 Victoria, B. C. 
H. quinquefasciata form viridata Pack. $ Victoria, B. C. 
H. albifasciata Pack. $ San Gabriel Mts., Calif. 
H. albifasciata form puncticaudata B. & McD. S , Paratype 

Sonoma Co., Calif. 
H. albifasciata victoria B. & McD. <J , Type Victoria, B. C. 
H. albifasciata reflata Grt. $ Palmerlee, .\riz. 
H. albifasciata reflata Grt. (banded form) i Palmerlee, Ariz. 
H. albifasciata victoria B. & McD. 5i Paratype Victoria, B. C. 



Plate I 



(Sf>^ 



^TOft^ 




tk.^'f 



k^. 



i J 










N^ 







^-. » -^ 



%|i%i5i(;ss.w 



1 



42 



Fig, 


1. 


Fig. 


2. 


Fig. 


3. 


Fig. 


4. 


Fig. 


5. 


Fig. 


6. 


Fig. 


7. 


Fig. 


8. 


Fig. 


9. 


Fig. 


10. 


Fig. 


11. 


Fig. 


12. 


Fig. 


13. 


Fig. 


14. 


Fig. 


15. 



PLATE II 

H. cochizeata Swett S Palmerlee, Ariz. 

H. cochizeata Swett 9 Palmerlee, Ariz. 

H. cochizeata form swetti B. & McD. $ , Type Palmerlee, Ariz. 

H. nubilofasciata Pack. S Sonoma Co., Calif. 

H. nubilofasciata Pack. 9 Sonoma Co., Calif. 

H. nubilofasciata form cumulata Swett $ San Gabriel Mts , Calif. 

H. nubilofasciata form vulnerata Swett S Oakland, Calif. 

H. nubilofasciata form vulnerata Swett 9 Sonoma Co., Calif. 

H. henshawi Swett $ Deer Park, Placer Co., Calif. 

H. manzanita Tayl. 3 Duncans, Vane. Is., B. C. 

H. manzanita Tayl. 9 Duncans, Vane. Is., B. C. 

H. irata Swett S Victoria, B. C. 

H. tuolumne B. & McD. S, Paratype S. Bernardino Mts., Calif. 

H. tuolumne B. & McD. 9, Type Tuolumne Meadows, Calif. 

H. irata Swett 9 Wellington, B. C. 



Platk II 



% 






Kj^. 



<?S4 



- %' 



^i^{|f 



m^^ ^% 



^^^^^ 




%%^ 



.^ 



;r 



-*j^. 



..y-.J 



'^JT 



s^ ■ V 













44 



PLATE III 

Fig. 1, H. exculpata B. &■ McD. $, Type Ketchikan, Alaska. 

Fig. 2. H. exculpata B. & McD. 9, Type Ketchikan, Alaska. 

Fig. 3. H. exculpata form tribulata B. & McD. $, Type Ketchikan, 

Alaska. 

Fig. 4. H. Shasta B. & McD. $, Type Mt. Shasta, Calif. 

Fig. 5. H. edenata Swell (?) S Sonoma Co., Calif. 

Fig. 6. H. edenata Swett (?) S Sonoma Co., Calif. 

Fig. 7. H. edenata Swett (?) 9 Sonoma Co., Calif. 

Fig. 8. H. edenata Swett S Monterey Co., Calif. 

Fig. 9. H. edenata grandis B. & McD. 9, Type Victoria, B. C. 

Fig. 10. H. arizonata B. & McD. $, Type Palmerlee, Ariz. 

Fig. 11. H. obliquilinea B. & McD. 9 Type Vineyard, Utah. 

Fig. 12. H. frigidata Wlk. 5 Decatur, 111. 

Fig. 13. H. frigidata manitoba B. & McD. $, Type Cartwright, Man. 

Fig. 14. H. frigidata manitoba B. & McD. 9, Type Cartwright, Man. 

Fig. 15. H. transfigurata Swett S, Paratype Cohasset, Mass. 



I'LATK III 




^.iC%^ 



^ii^^ivSg 



-^ 









y^ 



fr') 



u. 



W|«r 



.--J^ 
W 







v-ja%^C^ 





w 



i 



•^^ 






46 



PLATE IV 

Fig. 1. H. perfracta Swett $ Calgary, Alta. 

Fig. 2. H. perfracta exasperata B. &■ McD. $ , Type Departure Bay, 

Vane. Is., B. C. 
Fig. 3. H. marmorata B. & McD. S. Type (Col). Am. Mus.) Sierra 

Nevada Mts., Calif. 
Fig. 4. H. sierrae B. & McD. S, Type Shasta Retreat, Siskiyou Co., 

Calif. 
Fig. 5. H. sierrae B. & McD. 9 , Type Shasta Retreat, Siskiyou Co., 

Calif. 
Fig. 6. H. irata jorm niveifascia Swell $, Type (Coll. Swett) Vane. Is., 

B. C. 
H. pluviata Gn. $ Catskill Mts., N.Y. 
H. pluviata Gn. 9 Catskill Mts., N.Y. 
H. museata B. & McD. $, Type Sonoma Co., Calif. 
H. renuneiata Wlk. S Bretton Woods, N. H. 
H. renuneiata Wlk. 9 Bretton Woods, N. H. 
H. eolumbiata form pernigrata S , Type Glacier Park, Mont. 
H. renuneiata eolumbiata Tayl. S , Type Wellington, B. C. 
H. renuneiata eolumbiata Tayl. 9 Ketehikan, Alaska. 
H. erokeri Swett 9 Victoria, B. C. 



Fig. 


7. 


Fig. 


8. 


Fig. 


9. 


Fig. 


10. 


Fig. 


11. 


Fig. 


12. 


Fig. 


13. 


Fig. 


14. 


Fig. 


15. 



1 Vatic I\' 











% 



'f 



'"^Mi^^ 

















^^. .-^: 



^^j 



^ ,?'■ 




liW?r^ 



% ■ 






??«^ 



V/>-^-vt' 



■r 



48 



PLATE V 

Fig. 1. H. calif orniata Pack. S Wellington, B. C. 

Fig. 2. H. californiata Pack. 9 Duncans, Vane. Is., B. C. 

Fig. 3. H. bistriolata Zell. $ Decatur, III. 

Fig. 4. H. bistriolata modestata B. & McD. 9, Type Glenwood Spgs., 

Colo. 

Fig. 5. H. chiricahuata Swett S Palmerlee, Ariz. 

Fig. 6. H. ruberata nevadae B. & McD. $ , Type Verdi, Nev, 

Fig. 7. H. ruberata Prey. S Cartwright, Man. 

Fig. 8. H. ruberata Prey, (dull form) S Meach Lake, Que. 

Fig. 9. H. ruberata nevadae B. & McD. 9 Paratype Verdi, Nev. 

Fig. 10. H. barnesata Swett S Paradise, Ariz. 

Fig. 11. H. speciosata Pack. S Wellington, B. C. 

Fig. 12. H. speciosata form taylori Swett $ Departure Bay, B. C. 

Fig. 13. H. speciosata morosata B. & McD. $, Type Redington, Ariz. 

Fig. 14. H. speciosata morosata B. & McD. 9, Type Redington, Ariz. 

Fig. IS. H. furculoides B. <S- MfZ). $, Type Redington, Ariz. 



Pr.ATE \' 











%i^ I -^ 






7 



feS^^ 



Vj;^, 











l^>. 



4^^^Mt^^ 







.-Ir 



50 



Fig. 


1. 


Fig. 


2. 


Fig. 


3. 


Fig. 


4. 


Fig. 


s. 


Fig. 


6. 


Fig. 


7. 


Fig. 


8. 


Fig. 


9. 


Fig. 


10. 


Fig. 


11. 


Fig. 


12. 


Fig. 


13. 


Fig. 


14. 


Fig. 


15. 


Fig. 


16. 



PLATE VI 

H. similis Hist. £ Jemez Spgs., N. M. 
H. similis Hist. 9 Jemez Spgs., N. M. 
H. niediodeiitata B. & McD. S Palmerlee, Ariz. 
H. glaiicata Pack. 9 San Gabriel Mts., Calif. 

H. edenata olivata U'gt. S, Cotype (Coll. Swett) San Diego, Calif. 
H. marinata B. & McD. 3, Type Verdi, Nev. 
H. olivata forw pallidata IVqt. 3 , Cotype (Coll. Swett) San Diego, 

Calif. 
H. cyriades Druce S Tucson, Ariz. 
H. magnificata Tayl. S Palmerlee, Ariz. 
H. quinquef asciata Pack. 9 , Type (Coll. Camb. Mus. Comp. 

Anat.) 
H. viridata Pack. 9. Type (Coll. Camb. Mius. Comp. Anat.) 
H. henshawi Sivctt 9, Type (Coll. Camb. Mus. Comp. Anat.) 
H. perfracta Swell. $, Type (Coll. Camb. Mus. Comp. Anat.) 
H. edenata Szwtt 9, Type (Coll. Camb. Mus. Comp. Anat.) 
H. regulata Pears. 9, Type (Coll. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist.) 
H. divisaria H7*. 5 , Type (Coll. Ont. Agr. Coll. Guelph) 



Plate "V^l 










if^'f 



^^cv.^.^ 









m« 



V 



Ti 








52 



PLATE VII 

Fig. 1. Male Genitalia of H. /«rfa/a. Thun. Wellington, B. C. 

Fig. 2. Male Genitalia of H. viridata Pack. Victoria, B. C. 

Fig. 3. Male Genitalia of H. albifasciata victoria B. & McD. Victoria, B. C. 

Fig. 4. Male Genitalia of H. albifasciata reflata Grt. Palmerlee, Ariz. 

Fig. 5. Male Genitalia of H. cochiseala Swett Palmerlee, Ariz. 

Fig. 6. Male Genitalia of H. nubilofasciata Pack. Sonoma Co., Calif. 



Plate VTI 




54 



PLATE VIII 

Fig. 1. Male Genitalia of H. mamaiiita Tayl. Vane. Is., B. C. 

Fig 2 Male Genitalia of H. tuolumne B. & McD. Tuolumne Meadows, 

Calif. 
Fig. 3. Male Genitalia of //. exculpata B. & McD. Ketchikan, Alaska. 
Fig. 4. Male Genitalia of H. irala Szvetl Victoria, B. C. 
Fig. 5. Male Genitalia of H. frigidata Wlk. New Brighton, Pa. 
FiK 6 Male Genitalia of H. perfracta exasperata B. & McD. Wellington, 

B. C. 
FiK 7 Male Genitalia of H. marmorala B. & McD. Sierra Nevada Mts., 

Calif. 
Fig. 8. Male Genitalia of H. sierrae B. & McD. Cisco, Placer Co., Calif. 



IVatk \'I1I 




56 



Fig. 


1. 


Fig. 


2. 


Fig. 


3. 


Fig. 


4. 


Fig. 


5. 


Fig. 


6. 


Fig. 


7. 



PLATE IX 

Male Genitalia of H. phtviata Gn. Catskill Mts., N. Y. 

Male Genitalia of H. renunciata IVtk. Hymers, Ont. 

Male Genitalia of H. crokeri Swett Vane. Is., B. C. 

Male Genitalia of H. muscata B. & McD. Sonoma Co., Calif. 

Male Genitalia of H. bistriolata modestata B. & McD. Glenwood 

Spgs.. Colo. 
Male Genitalia of H. ruberata Frey. Cartwright, Man. 
Male Genitalia of H. ruberata nevadae B. & McD. Cisco, Placer Co., 

Calif. 



Plate IX 




58 



Fig. 


1. 


Fig. 


2. 


Fig. 


3. 


Fig. 


4. 


Fig. 


5. 



PLATE X 

Male Genitalia of H. cdenata Swett. Sonoma Co., Calif. 
Male Genitalia of H. calif orniata Pack. Vane. Is., B. C. 
Male Genitalia of H. si'cciosata Pack. Vane Is., B. C. 
Male Genitalia of H. similis Hist. Jemez Spgs., N. M. 
Male Genitalia of H. boniesala Swett. White Mts., Ariz. 



ri.ATi: x 






INDEX 



Page 

abacta Hist 11 

albifasciata Pack 10 

arizonata B. & McD 20 

autumnalis Strom 2■^ 

banavahrata Stkr 12 

barnesata SwctI 34 

bistriolata Zcll 28 

californiata Paik 26 

chiricahiiata Swcft 20, 29 

cochizeata Swctt 11 

coenilata Fabr 24 

columbiata Tayl 25 

costipunctata B. & McD 36 

crokeri Szvelt 26 

cyriades Druce 35 

divisaria Wlk 24 

edenata Swett 31 

exasperata B. & McD 19 

exculpata B. S- McD 14 

frigidata IVlk 17 

furcata Thiiii 7 

furculoides B. & McD 3.^ 

fiiscoundata Don 8 

glaucata Pack 31 

glenwoodata Swctt 35 

grandis B. & McD 33 

henshawi Swell IS 

irata Swett 16 

magnificata Tayl 36 

manitoba B, & McD 17 

manzanita Tayl 12 

marinata B. &■ McD 19 

niarmorata B. &r McD 22 

mediodentata B. &■ McD 36 

modestata B. & McD 29 



Page 

morosata B. & McD 34 

muscata B. & McD 26 

nevadae B. & McD 30 

nivei fascia Swett 16 

nubilofasciata Pack 12 

obliquilinea B. & McD 21 

obscura Peyer 8 

olivata Wc)t 32 

pallidata Wgt 32 

perf racta Swett 18 

periclata Szvett 8 

pernigrata B. & McD 25 

pluviata Gn 24 

puncticaudata B. & McD 11 

i|iiinqiiefasciata Pack 8 

reflata Grt 11 

regulata Pears 35 

reminciata Wlk 25 

resecta Swett 10 

riiberata Prey 29 

Shasta B. & McD 15 

sierrae B. S- McD 23 

similaris Hist 35 

sordidata Fabr 8 

speciosata Pack 34 

swetti B. & McD 12 

taylori Swett 34 

terminipunctata B. &• McD 35 

transfigurata Swett 17 

tribulata B. & McD 14 

tuolumne B. &■ McD 13 

variegata Prout 29 

victoria B. & McD 11 

viridata Pack 9 



CONTRIBUTIONS 

TO THE 

NATURAL HISTORY 

OF THE 

LEPIDOPTERA 

OF 

NORTH AMERICA 



VOL. IV 
No. 2 



NOTES .'^^Ti^ NEW SPECIES 

BY 

WILLIAM BARNES, S. B., M. D. 

AND 

J. H. McDUNNOUGH, Ph. D. 



DECATUR. ILL. 

THE REVIEW PRESS 

MAT IS. 1918 



Published 

Under the Patronage 

of 

Miss Jessie D. Gillett 

Elkhart, 111. 



61 



NOTES AND NEW SPECIES 

PAPILIONIDAE 

Papilio troilus ilioneus a. & S. 

A study of Abbot's figures of this species (1797, Lep. Ins. Ga. 
PI. II) inclines us to the belief that the specimen figured in the upper 
left-hand corner on which the text practically bases the name ilioncns 
is that of the southern race to which the name texanus Ehr. has been 
generally applied. We would call attention to the large marginal spots 
extending to the costa of primaries and preceded by a partial row of 
yellow spots and also to the broad extent of the greenish area on sec- 
ondaries both of which features are characteristics of the southern 
race. The description of troilus apparently applies to the northern 
form and certainly Cramer's figure (Pap. Exot., Ill, pi. 207, B. C.) 
does, so that by using the name troilus for this northern form the name 
ilioneus A. & S. becomes applicable for the southern race with texanus 
Ehr. as a synonym. 

Parnassius clodius Men. 

The synonymy of this species must be changed somewhat from 
the conception given in our Check List. Mcnetricsi Hy. Edw. has 
been listed by both Dyar and Skinner as published in 1878; the species 
was published in Pac. Coast Lep. No. 22 with the date of Dec. 18th, 
1876; as these articles were issued as separates before the completion 
of the whole volume of the Proc. Calif. Acad, of Science {z'idc Strecker, 
Cat. Lep. N. Am., 1878, p. 225) it is reasonable to suppose that No. 22 
appeared early in 1877 at least a month or so before the publication 
of W. H. Edwards' Catalogue of Diurnal Lepidoptera which prob- 
ably did not appear much before April, 1877, as it is reviewed in the 
Can. Ent. for May of that year. On page 12 of this catalogue Edwards 
lists menetriesi Hy. Edw. and later in the work mentions several others 
of Hy. Edwards' new species from the same paper so that it is evident 
that the article in question was known to him before the issuing of his 
Catalogue. The name baldur proposed by him in this catalogue for the 
figures 1-4 of Plate IV, Vol. I of his Butterflies of N. America is 
therefore antedated by mcnetricsi Hy. Edw. According to the descrip- 
tion the name menetriesi is based on specimens in which both sexes 



62 

are very similar in inaculation ; the type localities mentioned are several 
places in the general vicinity of Lake Tahoe, Calif. (Edw., Behr) and 
Mt. Nebo, Utah (Putnam); judging by series before us the Utah 
form is more or less constant, i. e. S 's and 9 's closely resemble 
each other, but in the Sierra Nevadas of California it is only rarely 
that we find a 9 which is not much more heavily marked than the 
S ; for this reason we would restrict the name mcnctricsi Hy. Edw. 
to the 9 from Utah, this type, ex Coll. Am. Mus., being figured by 
Skinner in Ent. News XXVII, p. 216, PI. XII, Fig. 3. If this be done 
the name baldur Edw. with lusca Stichel as a synonym will be appli- 
cable to the Sierra Nevada race of smaller size than typical clodius 
and with reduced ocelli on the secondaries ; Edwards' figure 2 is exactly 
the same thing as lusca Stichel, having the lower ocellus reduced to a 
black dot. 

The synonymy will then stand 
clodius Men. Coast Range of Calif. 

a claudianus Stichel Wash. ; Vane. Is. 

ab. altaurus Dyar Idaho 

/' gallatinus St'ich. Mont. 

(• baldur Edw. Sierra Nevadas, Calif. 

lusca Stich. 
ab. lorquini Obcrth. 
d menetriesi Hy. Edw. Utah. 

ab. immaculata Skin. 
The race gallatinus Stich., is imknown to us ; it is based on the 
S and 9 figures of clodius in Elrod's Butterflies of Montana (p. 16, 
fig. 15) and differs in having in the S sex the spot on inner margin 
of primaries joined to the costal spots by a black band; this is prob- 
ably an individual aberration, the form otherwise being intermediate 
between claudianus and menetriesi. 



63 



PIERIDAE 

PlERIS NAPI FRIGIDA Scild. 

In our Contributions Vol. Ill, p. 58, we referred to this race 
as the spring form of acadica Edw. and figured our conception of fri- 
gida on PI. VII, Figs. 1, 2. This identification was based on two Lab- 
rador specimens in the Scudder Collection, evidently the 2 $'s men- 
tioned by W. H. Edwards in his article on P. napi (1881, Pap. I, pp. 
92/3) and with which our figured specimen (fig. 1) agreed exactly. 

A recent visit to Cambridge, combined with a careful study of 
Scudder's original description and the discovery in the main collection 
of a specimen under the name frigida labelled "Labrador, Packard", 
has led us to the conviction that the 2 5 's in the Scudder collection 
cannot be considered as types or as even typical of frigida. 

Scudder's original description was drawn up ostensibly from 2 
S 's and 2 9 's collected on Caribou Is. Straits of Belle Isle by Prof. 
A. S. Packard ; it is therefore reasonable to suppose that the specimen 
labelled "Labrador, Packard" in the main Cambridge Collection is 
at least one of the type lot, especially as it agrees far better with Scud- 
der's rather vague description than do the 2 cj 's in the Scudder col- 
lection which further show no evidence on the label of having been 
received from Packard. This Packard specimen is labelled $ but 
seemed to us to be a 9 although the abdomen is so badly crushed 
that with a low power lens (the only one available) it was impossible 
to definitely determine the sex. 

A study of the original description has shown several points of 
discrepancy between the text and the so-called frigida specimens of 
the Scudder collection ; in the first place the under surface of the 
wings is given as "dirty-white, tinted with very pale greenish yellow" 
whereas Scudder's S 's and our series from Newfoundland show a 
rather brilliant yellow coloration on secondaries and at apex of pri- 
maries ; they further show on upper side of primaries considerable 
apical dark suffusion, (usually more so than in our figured $ ) and 
the 9 's have the two subterminal round spots of primaries fairly 
well developed ; none of these latter points are mentioned in the descrip- 
tion and indeed the fact that Scudder compares frigida to olcracea 



64 

would presuppose tlie absence of these characters unless specially men- 
tioned. 

Packard's Labrador ? on the other hand bears out excellently 
the characters given by Scudder ; the underside is worn but is, as 
stated, dirty white with a yellowish tinge; we imagine fresher speci- 
mens will show a coloration much as in typical olcracca. The bases of 
the wings above are heavily black-shaded, the veins are also partially 
outlined in black at outer margin and there is considerable smoky 
suffusion on the wing causing that "green appearance" mentioned 
by Scudder and suggesting a bryoniac form without the two black 
subterminal round spots. Scudder lays a good deal of stress in his 
description on wing-shape of secondaries as compared with olcracea 
and the fact that the black costal edge of primaries extends in frigida 
further around the outer margin but we must confess these are points 
of which we can make nothing from a specific standpoint. 

In the light of the above remarks we believe we are justified in 
accepting the single 9 labelled "Labrador, Packard" as a type (or 
at least as typical) of frigida Scud., the other three original specimens 
having apparently vanished from Scudder's ken before 1881 and been 
replaced by the 2 S's mentioned by him to Mr. W. H. Edwards on 
this date (Pap. L P- 93) which seemingly also served for the errone- 
ous description of frigida given in the Butt. New Eng. Vol. H, p. 1193. 

The acceptance of this type of frigida will somewhat alter the con- 
ception of the race and make it much closer to olcracea Harr. and 
pscudonapi B. & McD. with possibly borealis Grt. as a synonym. We 
must await material from Labrador before definitely placing it but 
would note that Verity's figure (Rhop. Pal. PI. XXXH, Fig. 8) prob- 
ably approaches the true frigida very closely, although the secondaries 
in this figure appear rather too yellow ; in the light of this figure we 
believe his remarks on p. 333 to be entirely correct. 

PlERIS NAPI MARGINALIS Scud. 

The original description of this race calls for a S type from the 
Gulf of Georgia and a 2 specimen from Crescent City, Calif., stat- 
ing that "males and females are alike in their markings." These speci- 
mens, collected by Prof. Agassiz, are in the Cambridge Museum; the 
so-called 9 from Crescent City proves to be a $ which accounts 
for the extraordinary statement as to the similarity of the sexes; the 
($ is simply labelled "Washington Terr., Agassiz" and was presum- 



65 

ably taken at Port Townsend, at which locality Agassiz collected most 
of his material labelled "Gulf of Georgia." These two types bear 
out completely our remarks on the race in our Contributions Vol. Ill 
(2) p. 58 and make it a mystery how Scudder could ever have later 
referred the form to rapae. Our remarks on pallida Scud, in the same 
article are also substantiated by the types which still exist in the Cam- 
bridge Museum. 

For some reason or other ibcridis Bdv. (1869, Lep. Cal. p. 39) has 
been omitted from all our recent catalogues and lists; the 9 type is 
figured by Verity (Rhop. Pal. PI. XXXII, Fig. 43) and proves the 
species to be an exact synonym of castoria Reak. Rcscdac Bdv. at 
present listed as a further synonym was based on a yellowish-colored 
specimen stated by Boisduval to be a 9 but figured by Verity as a 5 
(1. c. PI. XXXIII, fig. 3) ; we believe the name should supplant flava 
Edw., based on a yellowish 9 of pallida from Washington State ; the 
difference between the forms pallida from northern Washington and 
B. C. and castoria from Middle California, consisting as it does in the 
presence of a dark subterminal spot on primaries in the $ of the 
latter race, is so slight and apparently so inconstant that we believe 
one name for the yellow form of both these so-called races will suffice ; 
this yellow form also, we might note, occurs in the spring races, niar- 
ginalis and I'ciiosa. 

EURYMUS OCCIDENTALIS Scud. 

This species has caused entomologists a good deal of perplexity ; 
it was originally described (1861, Proc. Bost. Soc. N. H. p. 109) from 
2 S , 3 9 , Gulf of Georgia (Agassiz) ; Fort Simpson, British Amer- 
ica (W. H. Edwards). Hagen later (1882, Proc. Bost. Soc. N. H. p. 
164) gives further details concerning these types and we find that of 
the five original specimens 1 $ and 2 9 collected by Agassiz near 
Port Townsend, Wash., on the Gulf of Georgia (thus giving a definite 
locality for Agassiz's material labelled "Gulf of Georgia") were in 
the Cambridge Museum and that the other S and 9 from Fort 
Simpson were presumably in the W. H. Edwards' Collection. We 
have recently examined the types in Cambridge and concur absolutely 
with Dr. Hagen (1. c. p. 164) in referring the 9 's to the white form 
of curytheme Bdv. ; the single $ specimen comes extremely close to 
a specimen of chrysomclas Hy. Edw. from California labelled by Ed- 
wards himself and presumably the specimen referred to by Hagen on 



66 

p. 170 of his article; it agrees in size, width of dark border, and the 
fact that the dark sufifusion on secondaries extends over a considerable 
portion of the wing. Henry Edwards, basing his knowledge of occi- 
dentalis Scud, on the types in the W. H. Edwards' Collection from 
Mackenzie River, {vide Pac. Coast Lep. p. 125) considered chrys- 
ontelas a distinct species; just what species these Edwards' specimens 
represent it is hard to say and we have no further note on the speci- 
mens except that they exist at Pittsburg in the Carnegie Museum; if 
however Edwards' figures of occidentalis (Butt. N. Am. I. Colias, VII, 
figs. 1-4) are drawn up from these types then they certainly, as Hagen 
says (1. c. p. 165) represent something quite different from the S 
type in Cambridge and do not agree well with Scudder's original 
description, notably in the small amount of black suffusion on sec- 
ondaries of $ ; Scudder distinctly states that "grayish scales are 
scattered over nearly the whole wing, more profuse at base" ; the 
interior margin of the black terminal band also does not coincide 
with Scudder's figure (1. c. p. 107) nor is the color of the underside 
of secondaries deep enough yellow ; judging from the mere figures 
we should suggest that Edwards' $ occidentalis comes very close 
to some Calgary specimens of interior before us whilst his 9 is prob- 
ably referable to a yellow form of Christina Edw. In view of the dis- 
crepancies which exist between Edwards' figures of occidentalis (pre- 
sumably based on his knowledge of the species from his Mackenzie 
river types) and the original description we believe we are justified 
in restricting the type of this species to the $ specimen in Cambridge 
from Port Townsend, Gulf of Georgia (Agassiz) which fully agrees 
with Scudder's diagnosis ; the exact relationship between occidentalis 
and chrysoniclas will have to be left for discussion until such a time 
as good series of occidentalis in both sexes are available from Port 
Townsend ; we might note that the Vancouver Is. form which we have 
been inclined to associate with this name (1916, Contr. Ill, (2) pp. 67, 
68) is slightly smaller than Scudder's type but otherwise close in gen- 
eral maculation and habitus. 

EURYMUS INTERIOR Scud. 

Dr. Hagen has already given full details regarding the types of 
this species (1. c. p. 159) ; the type at Cambridge is labelled "Rapids 
of Saskatchewan" and other specimens bear the label "Portage." The 



67 

types of latirentina from Cape Breton Is. (Thaxter), also in the Cam- 
bridge Museum, are considerably smaller than those of interior and 
show a rather broader black border ; they appear to represent a slightly 
modified racial form of interior. 

EUREMA LISA Bdv. & LcC. 

In Dyar's list and in our own Check List, following Godman and 
Salvin (Biol. Cent. Am. Rhop., II, 162), this species has been made 
a synonym of eutcrpe Men. (1832, Bull. Soc. Imp. Nat. Mosc. 199) ; 
this is probably due to the fact that these authors have accepted the 
date of the title page (1833) of the Lep. Am. Sept. as that of the whole 
work whereas this work was issued in parts commencing in 1829 
{vide Hagen. Bibl. Ent. p. 64). Scudder in the introduction to his 
Historical Sketch (p. 98) states that he has taken the dates of those 
of Boisduval's works which appeared in "livraisons" from the official 
literary bulletin published at that time in Paris and that they can be 
relied on for accuracy; as he gives the date of the genus Xaiithidia 
as 1829-30 and also mentions the genus Callidryas (which appeared a 
number of pages later) under the same date we may conclude that 
the name lisa (Lep. Am. Sept. p. 55) dates at the latest from 1830 and 
therefore has priority over euterpe Men. 



68 



SATYRIDAE 

Genus Oeneis. 

Our grouping of the species of this genus in our Check List 
was more or less tentative, especially in the oeno-semidea group; in 
general we adhered to W. H. Edwards' arrangement as expressed in 
J. B. Smith's list of 1903, but we felt that considerable study was 
necessary before arriving at any definite conclusion. Recently we have 
worked over the S genitalia of the above mentioned group, in con- 
nection with a careful study of Elwes and Edwards' most excellent 
revision of the genus (1893, Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. IV, 457) and 
are glad to be able to state that our own dissections fully agree with 
the figures of the $ claspers given in the above work. 

The species which has caused the most trouble to identify cor- 
rectly is oeno Bdv., described apparently from Russian Lapland in the 
Icones (1833, p. 196, PI. 39, Figs. 4-6) although specimens from Siberia 
and Labrador are also mentioned ; Moeschler, ( 1863, Wien, Ent. Mon. 
VII, 201), Scudder (1865, Proc. Ent. Soc. Phil. V, 13) and Edwards 
(Butt. N. Am. Ill, Chionobas, VII) have all treated this species in great 
detail and all have expressed different opinions as to its identity ; Elwes 
has omitted the species in his paper as unknown to him as he states 
later (1894, Can. Ent. XXVI, 133). After a careful study of Bois- 
duval's figures and text we have concluded that Scudder's determina- 
tion satisfies the requirements best and propose adopting it until an 
examination of Boisduval's type specimens (which should be in the 
Oberthur collection) is possible; according to this identification ocno 
Bdv. takes priority over crambis Freyer. Elwes, after a study of the 
type specimens and their genital structure makes subhyalina Curt, and 
assimiiis Butl. also synonymous with crambis which very unjustly calls 
down the wrath of W. H. Edwards (1894, C. Ent. XXVI, 55) who 
refuses to accept the evidence of the genitalia as of any value and 
casts doubts on the authenticity of the type specimen of subhyalina 
ex Coll. Oberthur. In both this paper and in Volume III of his But- 
terflies of N. Am. (Chionobas VII) Edwards very emphatically asso- 
ciates oeno and assimiiis with a Colorado form which Elwes had al- 
ready shown to be quite distinct in genitalia from the types of assimiiis 
and subhyalina and very closely approached to seniidea. We can see 



69 

no adequate reason, after summing up the evidence on both sides, for 
not accepting Ehves and Edwards' reference and this course has seem- 
ingly been followed by Seitz's Macrolepidoptera of the World in both 
the Palaearctic and Nearctic volumes. On the face of it oeno Bdv. 
(1832-33) would seem to have the priority; Scudder (Hist. Sketch, 
140) gives the date of publication for the genus Chionobas (proposed 
in the Icones) as probably late in 1832; subhyalina Curt, was published 
in 1835 and the other names much later. Whether typical oeno and 
crambis (Northern European forms) occur in this country we do not 
know ; the common form in Labrador is that figured by Edwards as 
crambis (Butt. Ill, Chionobas VI) ; for the present until good series 
of Arctic material are available we would list the species as follows : 

oeno Bdv. 

crambis Frey. 

a subhyalina Curt. 

b assimilis Butl. 

Katalidin Newc. from Maine is very closely related to the Lab- 
rador oeno in genitalia and will probably prove to be a race of this 
species; peartiae Edw. (if our identification of a single specimen from 
the Arctic Coast Plains in Coll. Barnes be correct) is also very close 
in the shape of the claspers but the underside of the primaries is much 
darker than in oeno and it may be kept separate until more material is 
available. 

Brucei Edw. also belongs in this group but the apical portion of 
the clasper is more slender than in either katalidin or oeno. 

Semidea Say and beani Ehves belong to a group distinct from 
the oeno group and with them must be associated the Colorado form 
figured by Edwards erroneously as oeno (Butt. Ill Chionobas, PI. 
VII, Figs. 1-4) which Elwes shows (1. c. PI. XV, Fig. 9) to have a form 
of clasper closely related to that of semidea but with fewer and larger 
teeth on the apical dorsal portion; as this character is quite constant 
in a long series before us we see no reason for not regarding it as of 
specific value especially as the form is easily separated from semidea 
by the general yellower appearance of the underside. As there is 
apparently no name available we describe the species as follows : 

Oeneis lucilla sp. nov. (PL XI, Figs. 16-18). 

Palpi black, fringed with white on dorsal side ; antenna! knob ruddy brown ; 
upper side of wings dull immaculate brown in $ with faint traces of a broad 



70 

diffuse sex mark in and below the cell of primaries and with the maculation of 
underside of secondaries more or less visible above; in ? often tinged with 
yellowish with an occasional blind ocellus in the interspace between veins 5 and 
6; fringes white, checkered with brown. Beneath primaries in $ slightly paler 
than above, marbled with whitish toward apex and often with a small white- 
centered ocellus subterminally between veins 5 and 6 which in the 9 is followed 
at times by similar ocelli in the interspaces between veins 2 and 3, and 3 and 4; 
the 9 usually also shows a distinct yellowish tinge over the whole underside 
of the wings ; secondaries heavily marbled with blackish intermingled slightly 
with whitish streaks much as in semidca but considerably paler and yellower; 
the black curved median band is generally almost lost in the heavy striations 
but its outer edge is faintly defined by the paler subterminal shading; a small 
anal ocellus is often present preceded by a curved row of small obsolescent 
ochreous spots; terminal diffuse dark patches mingled with whitish; fringes 
checkered. Expanse 41 mm. 

Habitat: Hall Valley, Colo. (July). 6 3,6 9. Types, Coll. Barnes. 

Daura Stkr. (not dauria as generally listed) is only known by the 
single 9 type specimen from Arizona in the Field Museum, Chicago ; 
it should probably be associated with chryxus but until a series is avail- 
able its status is problematic. 

We figure the S genitalia of the various species involved in the 
above notes as far as possible on Plate XXV. 



71 



NYMPHALIDAE 

Brenthis HELENA iNGENS vaf. nov. (PI. XI, Figs 5, 6). 

In the Yellowstone Park there occurs a race of Helena disting- 
uished by its large size from the typical Colorado form (PI. XI, Fig. 
7) ; this latter averages 38 mm. wing expanse whilst the present form 
exceeds 40 mm. ; on the underside the basal area of secondaries is a 
distinct leathery brown color without any purplish shades, the basal 
and median rows of spots show no trace of silver, being pale yellow 
and in the latter row the spot opposite the cell is generally much less 
prolonged distally than we usually find in the nimotypical form; the 
spot between veins 1 and 2 shows also strong tendency to be cut com- 
pletely in two by the black defining lines ; the marginal spots are large 
and faintly silvered. Our type series consists of 4 5 's and 6 5 's, two 
of the latter from Sheridan, Idaho; three of the Paratypes are in the 
Collection of Prof. E. T. Owen of Madison, Wis. 

EUPHYDRYAS MAGDALENA Sp. nOV. (PI. XI, FigS. 1-4). 

$ Primaries black; cell with a yellow triangular spot at base, another, 
large, quadrate in middle and three conjoined ones at the distal end, all bor- 
dered with black and separated from each other by leathery brown spots ; beyond 
the cell is a curved row of leathery brown spots, the costal one being narrow 
and yellow and preceding this row on inner margin is a large quadrate yellow 
spot; a curved subterminal row of round yellow spots, well separated from each 
other and from the other rows by the black ground color; two terminal rows 
of small leathery brown spots, the inner one lunulate and more or less tinged 
with yellow. Secondaries with three postmedian rows of spots, the middle one 
being largely yellow, the other two leathery brown; a median row of yellow 
oblong spots considerably tinged with brown and separated from a yellow patch 
at end of cell by a leathery brown area which at times extends upward to costa ; 
a yellow spot near base of cell and another above anal margin ; fringes check- 
ered. Beneath primaries leathery brown, the yellow spots in cell of upper side 
only faintly repeated but the defining black lines distinct; two subterminal 
rows of large pale yellow lunules separated from each other by a heavy black 
line extend across the apical half of wing, bordered inwardly and outwardly 
by black lines; below vein 3 they become indistinct and more or less lost in 
the reddish brown ground color; secondaries with the usual subbasal and 
median rows of spots which are pale yellow, heavily black-bordered and more 
or less connected by a yellow discal patch ; a row of large submarginal lunules 
bordered heavily with black and preceded by round spots of a leathery brown 



7^ 

color more or less surrounded by pale yellow; terminal and basal areas leathery 
brown the latter shaded with yellow. 

2 . Similar to $ in maculation but rather paler and showing a tendency 
for all the rows of spots on secondaries above to become brown. Expanse $ 
32 mm. ; $ 36 mm. 

Habitat: White Mts., Ariz. 6 $,6 9. Types, Coll. Barnes. 

The species belongs in the anicia-maria group and may prove to 
be a race of either one of these forms ; from anicia it is easily sepa- 
rated by the much paler shade of the underside ground-color which 
lacks all the red tints ; from both forms it differs in the sharply defined 
and black-bordered submarginal lunules on primaries above vein 3 ; 
the secondaries show a very clean-cut maculation of a decided check- 
er-board pattern, due to the sharp black defining lines of the various 
bands. There is considerable variation in the color and distinctness 
of the red and yellow bands of upperside as is usual in this group; a 
rather larger and brighter colored form of what is seemingly this 
species, approaching very close to maria on the upper side, occurs in 
the vicinity of Pagosa Springs, Colo., but further study of more mate- 
rial and especially of life-histories will be necessary before the range 
of each species can be determined or indeed before we can tell whether 
we are dealing with good species or mere races ; for the present we 
are content to differentiate the form magdalena which is readily rec- 
ognizable and, to judge by about forty specimens before us, runs quite 
true to type, at least in its type locality. 

Melitaea hoffmanni segregata var. nov. (PI. XI, Figs. 8-10). 

Typical hoffmanni as figured by Holland, Butt. Book PI. 17, Fig. 
13, is distinguished by the post-discal area on primaries being largely 
pale orange with the three bands of spots ill-defined and not well sepa- 
rated by black lines; on the secondaries the three bands of orange 
spots are large and distinct, the inner one being pale yellowish and 
composed of large oblong spots, especially in the 9 {'■idc PI. XI, 
Figs. 11, 12). 

In a series of specimens from Crater Lake, Oregon, we note a 
decided deepening of the orange color, combined with an extension 
of the extradiscal black areas, the bands of spots being better defined 
on the primaries, especially in the 9 , on the secondaries the middle 
row of the three extradiscal rows tends toward obsolescence and the 
inner one is reduced in size. On the under side of secondaries the 



73 

black edging to the rows of spots is very heavy and black spots are 
usually visible in the submarginal orange row much as in palla. Occa- 
sional specimens approach the typical form in maculation but the nor- 
mal form in this region is the dark one which seems worthy of the 
racial name we have proposed above ; our types are 6 S's and 4 9 's 
from Crater Lake, Oregon, 6500 ft. (July 24-31). 

Melitaea flavula sp. nov. (PI. XI, Figs. 14, 15). 

We have had in the collection for a long time a series of a Melitaea 
from the Rocky Mt. region which has perplexed us greatly to place 
correctly and seemingly has caused others an equal amount of trouble 
as it has come to us labelled acastus, palla and even gabbi; from the 
typical form of all these species it differs and would seem to be inter- 
mediate between acastus and palla, approaching very close to the Colo- 
rado form of the latter species. Acastus (PI. XI, Fig. 13) is a large 
species, rather pale orange-brown on the upper side and especially 
characterized by the pale creamy, almost white banding on the under- 
side of secondaries with a light leathery-brown basal area and heavy 
black border lines; typical palla from California is deep reddish-brown 
on the upper side, intermingled with a considerable amount of black ; 
on the underside the secondaries have the banding very pale yellow 
with very deep leathery brown basal area and rather heavy black 
bordering lines; we have Colorado specimens from the vicinity of 
Denver and Manitou which match up very well with Californian speci- 
mens; Wright's figures of these two species (Butt. W. Coast, PI. XIX, 
Figs. 175, 176) show the distinctions fairly well although the color 
has not been very accurately reproduced. 

Our new form is rather smaller in wing expanse than either of 
the allied species, averaging 35 mm. ; in the color and maculation of 
the upper side it is almost the exact counterpart of acastus with pos- 
sibly a slightly greater amount of black in the marginal area; the 
underside of the secondaries is (as is usual in the group) the most 
characteristic portion, the pale banding being a very decided yellow, 
slightly deeper than in palla, whilst the leathery brown basal and term- 
inal area is much paler than we find in the nimotypical Californian 
form ; combined with this is the very fine nature of the black bordering 
lines, especially those of the broad median yellow band ; the orange 
band of spots preceding the large yellow marginal lunules is rather 
reduced, leaving considerable of the yellow color visible, being in this 



74 

respect more like acastus than palla. With the exception of two speci- 
mens our type series of 13 S 's bears no more explicit labelling than 
the state label "Colorado", having been probably collected by D. Bruce ; 
these two specimens are labelled respectively Glenwood Spgs., Colo., 
and Hall Valley, Colo. We have the species further from Utah (Provo, 
Salt Lake) and also from the Yellowstone Park Region. The form 
may prove to be a race of palla and with sufficient material from known 
localities connecting links may be found with the Colorado specimens 
already mentioned from Denver and Manitou ; for the present, how- 
ever, we see no harm in treating it as a separate species. 



75 



RIODINIDAE 

Apodemia mormo DESERTi var. nov. (PI. XII, Figs. 1, 2). 

We have 3 specimens from La Puerta Valley before us which are 
distinctive enough to warrant a racial name. The head, patagia and 
abdomen are partially clothed with pale yellow hairs, primaries from 
base to postmedian band of white spots pale orange (except at inner 
margin) with the usual white black-bordered discal spots; beyond this 
postmedian band the wing is deep gray-brown with a very prominent 
subterminal row of white spots ; secondaries deep gray-brown, slightly 
tinged at base with orange with the white spots of primaries repeated, 
the subterminal ones being particularly well-developed; beneath much 
as in the type form. This is probably a desert race easily distinguished 
from the type form (PI. XII, Figs. 3, 4) by its pale coloration and 
large white subterminal spots ; it is slightly smaller in size, the S being 
22 mm. and the 9 25 mm. in expanse. Our types (1 S , 2 5 ) 
were received from Mr. G. Field of San Diego who captured them 
on July Ilth in La Puerta Valley, S. Cahf . ; we have similar speci- 
mens from Palm Springs, Riverside Co., Calif., on the borders of the 
Mohave Desert. 

Apodemia multiplaga Schaus. (PI. XII, Fig. 14). 

This species, described from Mexico (1902, Proc. U. S. N. M. 
XXIV, 404) must be added to our N. Am. Lists ; we have a specimen 
from San Benito, Texas, captured during the latter half of June. 

Genus Calephelis G. & R. 

We have been greatly puzzled by a species from San Benito, 
Texas, of which we have a good series and for which we can find no 
valid name. 

It differs from nemesis Edw. {australis Edw.), (PI. XII, Figs. 
8-10) which also occurs in the same locality, by the fact that in both 
sexes the primaries are equally rounded, not sharply pointed in the 
$ sex as we find in nemesis; the S 's are difficult to separate, but 
apart from the greater depth of the brown ground-color above they 
may be generally fairly readily distinguished by the fact that the outer 
row of black basal dots is much closer to the postmedian silver line 



76 

than we find in nemesis, resembling in this respect virginietisis Gray ; 
from this latter species, however, with which it also agrees in size and 
wing shape, it is readily separated by the fringes which in I'irginiensis 
(PI. XII, Figs. 11-13) are entirely dusky whilst in our Texan species 
they are checkered with white at apex and inner angle of primaries; 
the ground color is a much deeper, duller brown and the black row 
of dots on the underside to which we have already referred is indis- 
tinctly geminate whilst in virginiensis it is single and very sharply 
defined. The species can hardly be laverna G. & S. which is dififeren- 
tiated from virginiensis by the more pointed primaries, nothing, how- 
ever being said concerning the fringes; as Stichel (Gen. Insect. Riod. 
p. 161 ) makes it a race of virginiensis we presume the fringes are simi- 
lar in both forms. We cannot, either, make it coincide with nilus Feld. 
or argyrodines Butl. which Stichel separates apparently in his prelim- 
inary remarks (1910, Berl. Ent. Zeitsch. LV, pp. 17, 18) and in the 
revision proper (1. c. p. 162) treats as synonyms, giving Texas as one 
of the localities, possibly in error ; certainly Godman and Salvin's fig- 
ures of argyrodines (Biol. Cent. Am. Rhop. Ill, PI. 44, Figs. 5, 6) do 
not apply to our species. 

We propose therefore the name Calephelis perditalis (PI. XII, 
Figs. 5-7) for this species, our type series (6 $ , 6 9 ) having been 
captured at San Benito, Texas, in the latter portion of July ; we have 
also specimens from Brownsville, taken in October, which would indi- 
cate at least two generations yearly. We offer the following key to 
the N. American species of this puzzling group: 

A Size large, over one inch borealis G. & R. 

A' Size small, less than one inch 

B Fringes entirely dusky virginiensis Gray 

B' Fringes checkered at apex with white 

C Primaries of S rounded as in 9 . .perditalis B. &McD. 

C Primaries of S more pointed than in 9 

nemesis Edw. {australis Edw.) 



77 



LYCAENIDAE 

Philstes glaucon Edw. 

In our notes on this very puzzling group we have twice referred 
to this species; in Contr. Ill, (2) 117 we observed that the types were 
not to be found in the W. H. Edwards' Collection but that a S and 
9 specimen existed in the Hy. Edwards' Collection in the American 
Museum which be believed to be typical ; specimens from Utah which 
we had compared with these and which to us at the time seemed identi- 
cal we figured on PI. XI, Figs. 2, 5, and later after a study of the 
genitalia (Contr. Ill, (4), 215) we referred glaucon as the Great 
Basin race of enoptes. 

On our latest visit to New York, realizing from our recent studies 
of the group that there were forms with battoides-Vike genitalia which 
superficially could scarcely be definitely separated from ciwptes, we 
examined the genitalia of the S specimen which is labelled Lye. glau- 
con Edw. in Hy. Edwards' handwriting and found to our chagrin that 
the genitalia were those of battoidcs and not of enoptes and that, if 
this specimen was typical of the true glaucon, our notes were in need 
of considerable revision. 

The first point to be decided was naturally as to whether this 
S specimen was typical of glaucon; as we have already remarked, 
the species was described in 1871 from 2 * , 1 9 taken in Nevada 
and sent by Hy. Edwards, the description of the $ being fairly lengthy, 
of the 2 merely a few lines, the underside being dismissed with the 
words "as on male". The specimen in question bears three labels 
besides the name label, the first is a small printed label "Nevada", the 
second a circular one with written number "251", and the third the 
American Museum's Accession label "No. 6122. Coll. Hy. Edwards". 
In Hy. Edwards' original Catalogue of his Collection which is in pos- 
session of the Museum and the necessary portions of which Mr. F. E. 
Watson has kindly transcribed for us, the number "251" is apparently 
used for several specimens referred to as L. battoides and taken in 
1868-9 in June by W. T. Eaves in Storey Co. and Bear Valley ; Storey 
Co. is in Nevada and contains Virginia City, the Bear Valley men- 
tioned being probably a valley of that name in the vicinity of Lake 
Tahoe, Calif. ; evidently therefore our $ specimen in question, as it 



bears the label "Nevada", was taken in the hills around Virginia City, 
Nevada in 1868 or 1869 and could very well have been one of the type 
lot from which the description in 1871 was made; comparing it with 
the description it agreed excellently in every particular except that the 
fulvous suffusion on underside of primaries on the two submarginal 
spots above the anal angle was not present and this, judging from our 
series of some of the other forms, is a variable feature; we would note 
that the fulvous spots on upperside of secondaries are present, also 
the broad submarginal fulvous band on underside with a median row 
of heavy spots as on primaries as mentioned in the original description, 
and finally that it is distinctly allied to L. battoides Behr as stated by 
W. H. Edwards. 

As regards the 9 specimen in the collection under this name it 
is probable that it was captured at a much later date than 1871 as it 
bears a label "7116" and this number is included in a supplementary 
catalogue which we believe only contained the most recent acquisitions 
to the collection ; in any case, it is one of those unfortunate interme- 
diates which it is almost impossible to place exactly and has the median 
row on underside of secondaries composed of very small spots which 
rather contradicts the original description. While the S specimen 
cannot be considered as a type, we do think that we are justified 
in calling it typical and until further evidence to the contrary can be 
produced it will represent our idea of the species. This specimen, 
which was kindly loaned to us by the Museum authorities, we have 
compared with the various races in our collection and find it most 
closely approached to centralis B. & McD. although not exact, this 
latter race showing more smoky suffusion above anal angle of primaries 
on underside and having a deeper ground color. Roughly speaking 
battoides Bdv. with its race orcgoncnsis B. & McD. may be separated 
from glaucon Edw. with its forms intermedia B. & McD. and centralis 
B. & McD. by the heavy black basal fringe line on underside ; the geni- 
talia of all of these forms seem similar and it will be a question for 
field workers to solve as to whether we are dealing with two species 
or merely races of a single one ; our series of the forms with narrow 
fringe line is quite limited but we doubt if this will prove a constant 
means of separation when more material is available and personally 
we incline to the view that glaucon and its related forms are merely 
low altitude races of battoides which is typically a race of the highest 



79 

Sierras ; the southern race, bernardino B. & McD. may be readily rec- 
ognized by its smaller size and whiter underside. 

For the form with cnoptes-like genitalia which we have been erro- 
neously calling glaucon and which we figured in our Contributions, 
PI. XI, Figs. 2, 5, a new name will be needed and we propose using 
ancilla; the form is so similar to the true glaucon in maculation as to 
render our misidentification almost excusable ; we can point to no obvi- 
ous specific differences although there is a tendency, especially in the 
9 , towards a rather rougher squammation on the underside and a 
thickening of the black basal fringe line ; the $ 's show only traces 
of fulvous on upper side of secondaries ; we regard it as a race of 
cnoptes from which it may be distinguished by the continuous fulvous 
band on the underside of secondaries which in typical enoptcs is always 
broken into small spots ; the black spots are also heavier. Our type 
specimens are a series of 6 3,4 2 from Eureka, Utah (July 1-7) 
two of which are figured as glaucon on the above mentioned plate; we 
also possess numerous specimens from other localities in Utah and 
Colorado. 

We cannot agree with Mr. R. C. Williams that glaucon Edw. is 
the same species as our spaldingi (Ent. News XXIX, 101) ; Edwards 
in his description of the underside of the secondaries of glaucon dis- 
tinctly states that a broad orange stripe occupies the space between the 
two submarginal rows of spots ; this does not at all apply to spal- 
dingi in which the red area is reduced to crescent-shaped spots and the 
inner row of spots is almost lacking; the median row of spots is also 
not pronounced enough to fit in well with Edwards' diagnosis. 



80 



HESPERIIDAE 

Pamphila horus Edw. 

This species was placed in our List next to Lcrema accius A. & S. 
following the generally accepted idea. A recent examination of the 
type 2 in the Cambridge Museum shows that it has nothing in com- 
mon with this species ; the stout antennal club with short point at once 
separates it generically from accius which has a rather slender club 
with long bent point. Hants would seem to be best associated, there- 
fore, with the Pamphila group of genera but until the receipt of a S 
specimen its exact position is doubtful. The type is a rather large, 
almost unicolorous brown, specimen, as large as a good-sized attalus 
or leonardus $ , and may be a melanic form of some well-known 
species ; the only traces of maculation are semihyaline subterminal 
spots in the interspaces of veins 2 and 3, and 3 and 4 on the under- 
side and the usual small costal spots, all of which are however very 
obscure. 

Atrytgne kumskaka Scud. 

This species, described in 1887 (C. Ent. XIX, 45), has been 
omitted from our list and indeed from all recent lists except Skin- 
ner's Supplement to the Diurnal Catalogue; it is based on specimens 
from Denison, Iowa, misidentified as conspicua Edw. by Scudder in 
his paper in Tr. Chicago Acad. Sci. I, 336, on Iowa butterflies. Judg- 
ing by the description the species must be very close to byssns Edw. 
which, however, we only know from Florida; the $ genitalia of this 
species, viewed superficially, also shows a close resemblance to Scud- 
der's figure of this organ ; material from Iowa, however, is much to 
be desired in order to definitely establish the identity and relationship 
of this species. 



81 



SATURNIIDAE 

Hemileuca electra CLIO var. nov. (PI. XIII, F'igs. 1, 2). 

As compared with typical electra from the San Diego region this 
Arizona race differs as follows : the thorax and patagia are black, 
the latter bordered with pale yellowish (in electra this whole area is 
covered with mixed black and pale yellow hairs) ; with the exception 
of the pale median band enclosing the reniform the whole of the 
primaries are black (in electra there are two whitish basal streaks 
and considerable pale subterminal markings) ; the median pale band 
is much as in typical electra but the central pale lunule in the round 
black spot is rather narrower than usual. The secondaries are a rich 
deep brick-red much more heavily scaled and deeper in color than in 
electra, the 9 before us showing considerable blackish suffusion 
beyond the discal mark; in our $ specimen this mark is merely a 
round black patch without pale central dash, in the 9 a narrow pale 
central streak is present. Beneath the color is much deeper than in 
the typical form and the pale abdominal rings are narrower. Expanse 
$ 52 mm. ; 9 63 mm. 

Habitat: Kingman, Ariz. (Oct.) 1 $, I 9. Types, Coll. 
Barnes. 



82 



ARCTIIDAE 

LITHOSIINAE 

Genus Illice Wlk. 

The species of this genus offer in the S genitalia excellent points 
of differentiation which can in most cases be seen without removing 
the abdomens as the sexual organs protrude ; we have made no slides 
of these organs but an examination of the claspers under a lens is 
sufficient to show that there are several distinct types, a study of which 
clearly proves that our present arrangement is faulty. 

We have already (Contr. Ill, (3), 157) separated tcnuifascia 
Harv. from miifascia G. & R., placing the former in the genus Oao- 
dania Dyar which at least serves to call attention to the protruding 
tuft of hair in the $ along the anal margin of the secondaries ; with 
the types of both these species undiscoverable there is of course the 
possibility of an error of determination on our part, but we have 
made our determinations fit as closely as possible the rather inadequate 
original descriptions and must leave the matter standing as it is for 
the present. 

The clasper of uiiifascia is strongly bifurcate, showing a long 
dorsal and a similar ventral prong; we have a series of a form from 
the vicinity of Brownsville, Texas, which shows the same type of 
clasper but differs in maculation in having the transverse band broken 
into a small triangular costal spot and a similar larger one on inner 
margin, the apices tending to meet in the center of the wing; an 
ochreous streak along inner margin as in itnifascia; the ochreous por- 
tions are rather paler than in uiiifascia and the pink of the secondaries 
inclined toward flesh-color with generally a distinct dark costo-apical 
spot ; the 9 's are rather smaller as a general rule and show a greater 
tendency to have the band complete. As the form is quite readily 
recognizable and in order to distinguish it from similar forms of tcnui- 
fascia we propose for it the name of ruptifascia (PI. XIV, Fig. 5), 
considering it for the present as a race of unifascia (Fig. 4) ; our 
types are 8 S and 5 9 from Brownsville and San Benito, Texas, 
captured on various dates from March to June, probably indicating 
several generations. 



83 

Kcntuckiensis Dyar we do not know ; it was described (1904, Proc. 
Ent. See. Wash., VI, 198) as a broad-banded form of unifascia and as 
such we leave it. 

Perrosea Dyar, (1. c. p. 198) (PI. XIV, Fig. 7) also described as 
a variety of unifascia, is a good species; the clasper is broad at the 
base, narrowing suddenly into a long slender prong bent inwards 
towards the apex and touching that of the opposite side ; angclus Dyar, 
(PI. XIV, Fig. 8) described as a good species, (1. c. p. 198) has a 
very similar type of clasper and may prove to be a racial form, al- 
though easily separable on maculation with its entirely ochreous thorax 
and broad band on basal two-thirds of inner margin. 

Barnesi Dyar (PI. XIV, Fig. 10) is a good species and not a form 
of unifascia; the clasper has a broad basal portion similar to that of 
perrosea but instead of being produced into a long slender point it 
shows a long prong arising from its dorsal margin and bent sharply 
downward with a short tooth on the inner margin of the prong near 
the base ; the species occurs in two color forms ; the typical form has 
pink secondaries ; for a rather rarer form with yellow secondaries we 
propose the name flavula, our types being 3 $ and 1 9 from 
Glenwood Spgs., Colo. 

We have 4 specimens before us from Texas (no further locality 
on label) which superficially in size and maculation bear a close resem- 
blance to angelus but which show a type of clasper very similar to 
barnesi; the thorax is entirely yellow, the primaries have a broad 
yellow band along inner margin and a transverse yellow postmedian 
band considerably narrowed in central portion; the secondaries are 
pink with a smoky patch at apex descending to about the center of 
the outer margin ; there is a slight trace of sexual hairs along the anal 
margin in the $ but scarcely sufficient to warrant placing the species 
in Osodania; we propose the name picta (PI. XIV, Fig. 11) for this 
species, which is probably confused in collections with unifascia, 
although considerably larger in size ; our types are 1 <J , 3 9 received 
at various times from older collections which accounts for the lack of 
data on the label. 

According to the form of the claspers we believe liberomacula 
Dyar (PI. XIV, Fig. 6) must be considered a good species and not a 
form of dorsimaciila (PI. XIV, Fig. 12) as placed in our List; in 
liberomacula the distal end of the clasper is evenly long and narrow. 



84 

ending in a slight knob with a few bristles; in dorsimacida the end of 
the clasper is decidedly spoon-shaped and terminated by a distinct spine 
approaching in this respect faiistinula Bdv., the clasper of which seems 
to have an identical shape; nexa Bdv., which Williams claims (1905, 
Ent. News, XVI, 257) to be merely a form of faiistinula has a decid- 
edly different form of clasper, more allied to that of liberomacula 
but with the narrow distal end shorter and the base broader. Stretch's 
figures (Zyg. Bomb. N. Am., PI. 2, Figs. 10, 11) should serve to 
readily distinguish nexa and faiistinula and we can only conjecture that 
Williams either collected unknowingly the larvae of both species which 
possibly show no particularly distinctive features or else that his identi- 
fications of Boisduval's species were incorrectly made. 

A form of liberomacula which is seemingly commoner than the 
type form and which is distinguished by the presence of a white streak 
above the inner margin from the base to the postmedian white spot, 
is without a name; we propose for this form the name basijuncta 
(PI. XIV, Fig. 9), our type series being numerous specimens from San 
Diego, Calif. 

ARCTIINAE 

EUBAPHE LAETA Guer. 

The figure given of this species (Icon. Reg. Anim. Ins. PI. 88, 
Fig. 6) would seem to point to the typical form as being the southern 
one, common in Florida, characterized by small size and considerable 
brown shades in the color of the primaries; the northern race we had 
separated in our List under the name rubropicta Pack, based on a 
specimen from Rangeley, Me.; we have, however, recently seen the 
type of treati Grt. in the Cambridge Museum Coll. and believe that 
this name will take priority over Packard's, based as it is on a Massa- 
chusetts specimen. We could not find the type of rubropicta at Cam- 
bridge but judging by material before us from Maine the two names 
are synonymous. The northern race is larger and the primaries show 
much more of a gray tint than we find in the typical form; the race 
extends westward to northern Illinois and Manitoba. 

EuBAPHE FRAGILIS Stkr. (PI. XIV, Fig. 13). 

An examination of the type of this species in the Field Museum, 
Chicago, shows that it agrees stnicturally (length of palpi) with im- 
maculata Reak. and probably is merely the Colorado race of this 



85 

species ; some of our Colorado material can hardly be separated from 
Eastern specimens. The species which has been generally going under 
the name of fragilis has much shorter palpi and we believe is a Colo- 
rado race of costata Stretch from Texas, distinguished by the flesh 
colored primaries instead of the mouse gray found in typical costata; 
due to this color the scarlet costa and discal spot are much less notice- 
able, the latter in fact being at times quite lacking; the secondaries 
are only slightly deeper in color than the primaries so that the whole 
insect has a much more unicolorous appearance than costata. 

As this form is apparently quite constant we propose for it the 
racial name costata pallipennis (PI. XIV, Fig. 14), our types being 
a series of specimens from Glenwood Spgs., Colo. (July). 

DiACRISIA vagans Bdv. 

The synonymy of this species is considerably involved and although 
a number of authors have attempted to elucidate the matter, each 
seems to have arrived at a separate conclusion. Vagans was described 
by Boisduval in 1852 (Ann. Soc. Ent. Fr. X, 322) as follows: "Size 
of the largest specimens of fuliginosa. Primaries and thorax yellow- 
ish-gray. Secondaries black with the fringe broadly yellowish-gray. 
Abdomen blackish-gray. Beneath the four wings are yellowish gray 
with a black lunule on the disk of each. S Antennae rather strongly 
pectinated." The type locality was given as Northern California. 

In 1855 in Bull. Soc. Ent. Fr. Ill, 32, the name rufida is given 
by Boisduval to a series from California which he intended to describe 
and which is here very briefly characterized as having "the primaries 
of a ruddy-brown with a blackish discal spot and transverse streak 
(raie transverse) ; the secondaries are blackish with ruddy-brown 
fringe; the body is without spots, reddish like the primaries." 

Later in 1869 (Lep. de la Calif, pp. 79-80) Boisduval goes into 
further details regarding these two species, giving the size of nifula 
as equal to that of mendica and calling attention to the great variability 
in color in both sexes of both species ; he quotes Lorquin as stating 
that the larvae are different and separates the two species on the 
strength of a bent extradiscal line on primaries in rufula which is lack- 
ing in vagans. 

In the meantime Packard (1864, Proc. Ent. Soc. Phil. Ill, 123) 
had described his punctata in his Synopsis of the Bombycidae of North 



86 

America. Stretch in 1874 (Zyg. & Bomb. N. Am. p. 192) sinks both 
rufttla and punctata to vagans, caUing attention to the fact that larvae 
producing $ 's are differently colored from those producing 9 's and 
proving that Boisduval's characteristic point of distinction for riifula 
will not hold good in a bred series; he errs in quoting Boisduval as 
saying the size of vagans is that of "very small specimens of fuligin- 
osa" ; Boisduval uses the words "plus grands" in this connection. 

On the strength of Stretch's synonymy Hy. Edwards described 
(1874, Pac. Coast Lep. 27) Spilosoma pteridis from Vancouver Island 
as new but later (1. c. p. 43) states that he and Stretch had come to 
the conclusion that pteridis was a synonym of vagans Bdv. which was 
after all distinct from the Central Californian rufida Bdv. (punctata 
Pack.) 

A recent examination of the type specimens shows that pteridis 
Hy, Edw. is exactly the same thing as danbyi Neum. described from 
Victoria, B. C. (1893, Ent. News, IV, 141) as a variety of rubra 
Neum. which still further involves the synonymy as rubra has been 
listed as a good species by both Hampson and Dyar and also in our 
recent Hst ; after studying the types we can see nothing except color 
whereby to separate rubra and danbyi and believe they are correctly 
listed as forms or races ; however, pteridis Hy. Edw. must certainly 
take priority and if Hy. Edwards' conclusions be followed then the 
correct name for this species would be vagans Bdv. This is a matter 
impossible to be determined by us without a knowledge of the actual 
type specimens, presumably with M. Oberthur in Rennes, France. The 
size given by Boisduval for vagans rather contradicts Edwards' the- 
ory as pteridis is much smaller than the largest fuliginosa; judging 
by descriptions alone we incline to think that vagans was originally 
based on rather dark immaculate 5 's and rufida on a 9 of one 
and the same species and that later (1869) Boisduval, having received 
more specimens, tried to divide them up between his two so-called 
species with rather indifferent success as he himself states they may 
be mere varieties of one species and again makes no mention of the 
quite obvious difference in size to be found between pteridis and 
rufula. For the present therefore we shall follow Stretch in listing 
vagans Bdv. rufula Bdv. and punctata Pack, as referring to a single 
species which we figure on PI. XIV, Figs. 1 and 3. 



87 

In ATarch, 1881, Hy. Edwards gives the name proba (Pap. I, 39) 
to the mountain form of vagans {punctata) distinguished by "having 
the secondaries always concolorous with the primaries in both sexes 
and by the maculate band being more broken up into spots." In Oct., 
1881, Butler, misidentifying the 9 vagans as rubra Neum. described 
as a new species under the name walsinghami a single red $ from 
Rogue (not Rouge as given) River, S. Oregon; our own collecting 
experience in the Shasta region of Northern California proves con- 
clusively that walsinghami is nothing more than the 9 of proba Hy. 
Edw.; the race, as stated by Hy. Edwards, seems perfectly constant, 
the $'s (PI. XIV, Fig. 2) being dull ochreous with more or less 
black spotting on both wings and the 9 's (PI. XIV, Fig. 17) rather 
bright crimson with very little black on secondaries. 

Kasloa Dyar (1904, Proc. Ent. Soc. Wash. VI, 18) would seem to 
be a northern race of vagans, characterized by the bright ruddy wings 
in both sexes; there is considerable variability in the maculation of 
secondaries and pale specimens show a close resemblance to proba Hy. 
Edw. which, however, we have never seen in the $ sex with ruddy 
suffusion. 

Bicolor Wlk. (1862, Tr. Ent. Soc. Lond. I, 270), a species omitted 
by Hampson but listed by Dyar, seems correctly referred by the latter 
to vagans. 

As far as our material permits us to judge, ptcridis Edw. (PI. 
XIV, Figs. 15, 16) may be se]>arated from vagans and its forms, apart 
from its smaller size, by the fact that the secondaries in both sexes 
are black right up to the base of the fringe, whereas in those speci- 
mens of vagans which show black secondaries we find a distinct pale 
marginal area, a fact which fits in excellently with Boisduval's char- 
acterization "fringes broadly yellowish-gray". In typical vagans the 
$ 's range in color from yellowish-ochre to deep smoky brown — we 
have never seen any red $ 's nor had apparently Stretch — the 9 's 
from ruddy-brown to bright brick-red, the secondaries in both sexes 
being more or less heavily suiifused with black; the race proba Edw. 
has pale ochreous $ 's and bright red 9 's with secondaries concol- 
orous with primaries, and the race kasloa Dyar has red wings in both 
sexes with the secondaries showing all forms of variation between 
black and red in which latter case there is a more or less distinct 
maculate submarginal black band. 



In conclusion we offer the following synonymy to replace that 
of our List: 

955 vagans Bdv. 

9 rufiila Bdv. 

S punctata Pack. 

S bicolor Walk. 
a proba Hy. Edzv. 

$ walsingbami Butl. 
b kasloa Dyar. 

956 pteridis Hy. Edw. 

danbyi Neum. 
a rubra Neum. 

Apantesis ornata hewletti var. nov. (PI. XIII, Figs. 3, 4). 

We have received from Miss Esther Hewlett of Nellie, San 
Diego Co., Calif., specimens of an apparent race of ornata which on ac- 
count of the fact that it is very liable to be confused with gencura Stkr. 
{incorrupta Hy. Edw.) and its forms seems worthy of being named. 
It differs from typical ornata in having the subbasal half-band always 
well developed ; as in ornata the veins are only marked in white along 
the outer margin, vein 1 being also slightly marked at base of wing. 

The subbasal line is very occasionally met with in ornata but 
generally speaking it is entirely absent or confined to a slight creamy 
mark on costa ; French's figure of his 9 sliastacnsis (Can. Ent., XXI, 
162) is one of these instances ; the specimen, however, is in other 
respects distinctly aberrant and our own collecting experiences in the 
type locality show that the normal form is without this band ; the 3 's 
of sliastacnsis from the same locality French considered to belong to 
geneura Stkr. (1. c. p. 162) although we are convinced that the two 
were merely sexes of one species ; these S 's were, according to 
description, perfectly normal ornata. We therefore do not believe 
that the name sliastacnsis, based on an aberrant 9 from a totally 
different locality, can be applied to the present form. 

We have also received larvae from Miss Hewlett and these, al- 
though not yet full grown, correspond well with Gibson's description 
of Stage VI of ornata larvae (Can. Ent., XXV, 122). Miss Hewlett 
tells us that captured specimens are generally of the form with scarlet 
secondaries whilst her bred specimens have almost invariably shown 
yellow secondaries, due probably to change in the amount of moisture 



89 

in her breeding cage as compared with out-door conditions. Our 
types ( S and 9 ) are both of the yellow-winged form ; we do not 
care to propose a name for the red-winged one, as both occur equally 
frequently in nature in all the forms of oniata; we also have specimens 
from the vicinity of San Diego which show the lining on the veins as 
in achaia G. & R. as well as the sub-basal band of hczvletti, an addi- 
tional proof, if necessary, that in Southern California we find a race 
of ornata with normally well-developed sub-basal band. 

Pygarctia eglenensis Clem. 

This species has generally been considered to be the same as inop- 
inatus Hy. Edw. and placed by Hampson and Dyar in the genus Am- 
malo Wlk. A careful reading of Clemens prefatory remarks to this 
species (1860, Proc. Acad. N. Sci. Phil. pp. 532-3) shows that the 
anterior tibia terminates "in front in a rather long curved spine" which 
at once precludes the present association. We therefore in our recent 
list transferred eglenensis Clem, to Pygarctia and left inopinatus Hy. 
Edw. as the correct name for eglenensis Auct. ; we have not yet identi- 
fied the species. 

Halisdota davisi Hy. Edw. 

In our list we placed this as a synonym of cinctipes Grt. but agree, 
after seeing the type, with Rothschild (Nov. Zool. XVI, 282) and 
Dyar (Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus. XLII, 52) that it should be treated as 
a good species ; it is readily recognized by the paucity of the macula- 
tion of primaries which is usually reduced to the costal and discal 
spots. Dr. Dyar considers it an offshoot of undenvoodi Roths, but 
we can hardly concur with this ; to us it would seem to be more prob- 
ably an immaculate form of schausi, the ground color being similar 
in both species. Dr. Dyar lists the true cinctipes (which is a Cuban 
species) from S. Florida (Proc. Wash. Ent. Soc. IV, 452) ; we have 
seen no Florida material of the typical form, our only Miami speci- 
men being a small, rather faintly marked S , apparently closer to 
schausi insidaris Roths, than to typical cinctipes; however the occur- 
rence of the typical form there is very probably and in any case our 
material is far too scanty to warrant any definite statements regarding 
this extremely puzzling group. 



90 

Arachnis picta verna var. nov. (PI. XIII, Figs. 5, 6). 

We have received a series of an Arachnis from a correspondent 
in Three Rivers, Tulare Co., Calif., which does not exactly match 
any of the named species or races of this genus. In the S sex it is 
closest in maculation to maia Ottol. (PI. XIII, Fig. 7), the maculation 
and color of primaries on upper and under sides being practically 
identical ; the secondaries however on the upper side show none of 
the hyaline nature so characteristic of the Coloradan mam but are 
evenly pink with three broken rows of black spots much as in hampsoni 
Dyar ; the underside shows the same white costal spots which we find 
in maia and is otherwise similar to the upperside in markings. In the 
S sex the dorsal dark gray markings are less broad than in tnaia 
(Fig. 8) and more as in citra, i. e., the basal segments show a narrow 
dark median line broadening gradually towards anal segment into tri- 
angular or diamond-shaped patches ; the banding of the secondaries 
is also more as in citra for the subterminal blackish band is broken 
into spots, not broadly continuous as in maia, and the terminal border 
is somewhat reduced. As our series is very constant in these respects 
and as we also possess a single $ specimen from Eureka, Utah with 
similar maculation we believe we are justified in proposing the above 
racial name for this form which we take pleasure in naming after Mrs. 
Verna Fry, the collector ; the status of the various forms needs carefully 
working out with due regard to genitalia and larvae before we can know 
whether we are dealing with several species or merely races of picta; 
if citra should prove to be a good species our new form will probably 
become a western race of it characterized by the whiter coloring of 
the bands ; for the present we treat it as a race of picta; our types series 
consists of 3 S 's and 6 9 's all from the above mentioned locality. 

Apantesis franconia Hy. Edw. 

In our recent List we made this a form of figurata Dru. with 
preciosa Ni.xon as a synonym ; in the Hy. Edwards Coll. there is no 
specimen marked "type" but under celia is a specimen labelled "Fran- 
conia N. H. (Slosson)" which may possibly be the original type speci- 
men if this is not in Mrs. Slosson's Collection. According to this speci- 
men we believe Dr. Dyar is correct in listing franconia as a synonym 
of celia, which leaves the name preciosa Nixon for the yellow form of 
figurata; celia may be a small northern race of figurata, agreeing as it 
does in general type of maculation, but until exact details concerning 
the larvae are available any such reference would be premature. 



91 



NOCTUIDAE 
AGROTINAE 

ScHiNiA TERRiFiCA sp. nov. (PI. XVIII, Fig. 14). 

Fore tibiae with one large inner claw and a couple of spines and several 
(2-4) smaller outer claws; head and thorax whitish-ochreous, the patagia 
slightly shaded with pale olivaceous ; primaries with basal area light pink, 
bounded outwardly by the slightly deeper t. a. line which is strongly bulging 
on median vein ; median space pale whitish ochreous crossed by a broad oliva- 
ceous brown median shade which occupies most of this space at inner margin 
and contains below costa a diffuse blackish reniform spot; outer margin of 
median space forms t. p. line which is not otherwise indicated, being evenly 
sinuate with veins somewhat dentated by white markings ; subterminal space 
pink, this color extending through the terminal interspaces to outer margin, 
the veins themselves being broadly bordered with whitish, giving a marked 
striate appearance ; fringes checkered white and olive-brown ; secondaries white, 
shaded with smoky at base and along inner margin and with a broad terminal 
dark band, broken somewhat by whitish shades with a faint pink sprinkling ; a 
large diffuse discal spot. Beneath whitish, shaded outwardly with pink and 
smoky and with large discal spots on all wings. Expanse 33 mm. 

Habitat: Colorado (Oslar, Bruce). 4^,1 $. Types, Coll. Barnes. 

This species has been for years in our collection under the name 
of gloriosa Stkr. ; a recent study of the type (which we figure on PI. 
XVIII, Fig. 15) shows that this latter species is very closely related 
to sanguinea Geyer of which it may be merely a form or race; our 
Colorado species is a much paler and more diffusely marked form. 

Hemigrotella gen. nov. (Type HemigrotcUa argenteo-striata sp. 
nov.). 
Palpi oblique, short, heavily scaled ; squammation of head and thorax 
smooth, scaly; front somewhat roundedly protuberant but without tubercle; 
fore tibia with strong terminal claw, unspined ; mid tibia with inner row of 
large spines; hind tibia with single spine between the spurs; venation normal; 
primaries long, narrow, costal and inner margins subparallel. 

H. ARGENTEOSTRIATA sp. nOV. (PI. XVII, Fig. 15). 

Palpi, head and thorax white, patagia tinged with yellow ; abdomen light 
gray ; primaries yellow-ochre with a silver costal stripe narrowing towards 
apex and three broad silver stripes, one from base to middle of wing below 
cell, the second from cell to near outer margin, the third, smaller, triangular, 



92 

below apex of wing ; fringes white ; secondaries white, tinged with smoky, 
especially in 9. Beneath silvery-white. Expanse 24 mm. 

Habitat: Palm Spgs., Riverside Co., Calif. (Mch., Apr.). 8 $.3 9. 
Types, Coll. Barnes. 

Grotella spaldingi B. & McD. (PI. XVII, Fig. 16). 

We have before us long series of this species from Pahn Springs, 
Riverside Co., CaHf., and Olancha, Inyo Co., Calif. ; there is a ten- 
dency in the Californian form to show a distinct checkering in the 
fringes which in our typical Utah series is lacking; this feature is 
however not constant as a number of our Olancha specimens are en- 
tirely without it and cannot be separated from the Utah form. We 
figure a specimen with the checkered nature of tlie fringes well defined. 

EUXOA CINNABARINA sp. nOV. (PI. XV, Fig. 1). 

Head and thorax rich cinnamon-brown, collar crossed by a pale band 
above base ; primaries cinnamon-brown with the median space deeper in color 
than remainder of wing; subcostal and median veins outlined in white to end 
of cell, the angle between them at base of wing more or less filled with whitish, 
vein 1 faintly white marked; basal half line indicated by a whitish streak on 
costa ; t. a. line blackish, regularly dentate, slightly outwardly obHque, bordered 
inwardly at costa with whitish, which is continued across wing as a paler brown 
shade than ground color ; orbicular obliquely oval, outlined in yellowish and 
black and filled with brown; reniform lunate, similar to orbicular in color with 
slight whitish filling in lower portion; claviform a small dark loop; t. p. line 
dark, dentate, bent out below costa, incurved below cell, bordered at costa 
by a white line outwardly continued faintly across wing by a yellowish shade ; 
s. t. line distinct, irregular, pale yellowish; slightly shaded inwardly by smoky; 
a black broken terminal line ; fringes ruddy at base, paler outwardly. Second- 
aries light smoky with pale fringes and a rather well-marked discal lunule. 
Beneath whitish ochreous, tinged with pinkish along costa of both wings, 
broadest on secondaries ; a discal spot on all wings, that of primaries more 
or less surrounded by smoky shading; abdomen ochreous above, pinkish be- 
neath. Expanse $ 33 mm. ; 9 41 mm. 

Habitat: $ Monachee Meadows, Tulare Co., Calif. (Aug.); 9 Nellie, 
S. Diego Co., Calif. (July). 3 5, 1 9. 

This handsome species belongs close to divcrgens but is readily 
recognized by the bright cinnamon color of the primaries; it lacks the 
black basal dash of divergens Wlk. 

Agrotis fortiter sp. nov. (PI. XV, Fig. 4). 

Palpi, head, thorax, and primaries deep unicolorous purple-brown, the 
latter slightly shaded with grayish ; maculation very obscure, t. a. line indicated 



93 

by a few black dots on veins ; t. p. line rather better defined, bent outward below 
costa, incurved in fold with black dots on veins just beyond it giving a dentate 
appearance; reniform and orbicular obsolescent; terminally the veins are finely 
black-lined ; an ochreous line at base of fringes. Secondaries white basally 
with broad smoky terminal shading and pale ochreous basal fringe-line. Be- 
neath primaries smoky gray, rather irridescent basally, with curved black post- 
median line ; secondaries hyaline white broadly sprinkled with smoky-brown 
along costa, this portion crossed by a continuation of the dark line of primaries. 
Expanse 35 mm. 

Habitat: Stockton, Ut. (Spalding) (July 30); Glenwood Spgs., Colo. 
(July 8-15). 2 5. Types, Coll. Barnes. 

Closely resembles exculpairix Dyar but differs in lacking the dis- 
tinctly black front of this species, the head and thorax being concolor- 
ous ; the veins are also much less distinctly outlined in black ; in respect 
to the concolorous nature of the front, it agrees with corrodcra Sm. 
but the primaries show none of the red-brown coloring of this species 
nor the heavy black veining. 

Anytus connecta Sm. 

This species, described as a Polia and placed in our list in the 
genus Eumichtis, must be transferred to the genus Anytus as the mid 
tibiae are rather feebly spined and the hind tibiae show constantly a 
single spine between the spurs; the species is well figured by Smith 
(Tr. Am. Ent. Soc. XVII, PI. Ill, Fig. 2) and while allied to discors 
Grt. should be readily recognizable by the large pale orbicular and 
the white shading beyond the t. p. line above the inner margin; the 
type locality is Glenwood Spgs., Colo., and besides specimens from 
there which we have compared with the type in the National Museum 
we have series from Eureka, Utah, and Palmerlee, Ariz. ; cupola Hamp. 
described from material from Eureka, Utah, (Ann. Mag. N. Hist. (8) 
XII, 590) may prove to be a synonym but without a knowledge of the 
type we are unable to definitely place this species. 

Pronoctua pyrophiloides peabodyae Dyar. 

This form was described in a paper entitled "List of Lepidoptera 
taken at Williams, Ariz." from a single 9 with pinkish ground color 
instead of the gray color of Californian specimen; Dr. Dyar men- 
tions also a S taken at Bluflf, Utah. Both these specimens are marked 
"type" in the National Museum, but it seems well to restrict the type 
to the 9 specimen from Arizona as the S is very worn and the 



94 

pinkish color is doubtless due to discoloration, as a careful examina- 
tion showed us traces of the original gray ground color on a small 
section of the primaries. 

Protagrotis EXTENSA Sm. (PI. XV, Fig. 2). 

This species, at present listed under the genus Lupcrina, should 
be transferred to the genus Protagrotis Hamp. as the hind tibiae show 
a single spine between the upper and lower pairs of spurs. The species 
is closely related to nh<eivenosa Grt. but lacks the white veins of pri- 
maries and is generally deeper in color. 

HADENINAE 

SCOTOGRAMMA FULGORA sp. nOV. (PI. XVI, Fig. 9). 

Head and thorax deep gray, collar tipped with white and crossed by a 
black line ; patagia with well defined black line near upper margin ; primaries 
dark smoky gray; a slight black dash at base; t. a. line obsolescent, geminate, 
thrice dentate, preceded above inner margin by an oblique smoky shade ; clavi- 
form prominent, large, outlined in black and filled with smoky ; orbicular a 
decumbent oval, outlined in white; reniform moderate, filled with a smoky 
shade in lower portion, incompletely outlined in white and black toward costa ; 
t. p. line obsolescent, geminate, sinuate ; s. t. line prominent white, forming a 
distinct W mark on veins 3 and 4, angled outwardly below costa and bent out 
on vein 1 to outer margin, preceded by dark streaks in central portion ; ter- 
minal dark broken lunulate line ; fringes smoky-gray cut by paler opposite the 
veins. Secondaries whitish with a broad smoky terminal suffusion and veins 
outlined in smoky ; fringe pale with central dusky line. Beneath primaries 
smoky, sprinkled with white along costa and outwardly with prominent dark 
discal lunules ; secondaries whitish, heavily sprinkled with smoky especially 
along costa and outer margin. Expanse 27 mm. 

Habitat: Olancha, Inyo Co., Calif. (Apr.) 1 $. Type, Coll. Barnes. 

The species has probably been confused with hadcniformis Sm. 
but differs structurally, this latter species possessing a lunulate frontal 
prominence with large central tubercle, whereas our species has merely 
a rounded protuberance as in trifolii. We have three other specitnens 
collected by O. Poling in Southern Utah. 

PoLiA IMPOLITA Morr. 

The identity of this species has been for years more or less of a 
puzzle ; in our list we followed Hampson, placing the species in Scoto- 
gramma, but it was unknown to us at the time. The species was de- 
scribed from a single specimen received from Prof. Belanger of Quebec 



95 

and recently through the kind offices of Mr. G. Maheux, Provincial 
Entomologist of Quebec, we have been able to trace this type in the 
Collection of Laval University, Quebec, and have received a photograph 
of the same. It turns out to be the same species as cristifera Wlk. 
and the name must therefore be removed from Scotogramma and sunk 
as a synonym of this earlier name. 

POLIA SUBJUNCTA G. & R. 

This species has a very wide range extending from the Atlantic 
to the Pacific and from British Columbia on the north to Southern 
California in the south; it is not surprising, therefore, that several 
more or less well defined races can be separated ; one of the best 
marked of these we have received from Southern California, it differ- 
ing from the typical form of the Atlantic States in the general much 
lighter and grayer color and the almost entire absence of the carneous 
shades, especially beyond the reniform ; above the basal streak and 
beyond the claviform the reddish shade still persists, but the general 
impression is that of a distinctly gray species. We propose the racial 
name eleanora for this form, our type series consisting of 2 3 and 
6 9 from Nellie, Palomar Mt., S. Diego Co., Calif. We figure the 
form on PI. XVI, Fig. 1. 

POLIA HANHAMI B. & McD. 

In Central and Southern California this species assumes quite a 
different aspect from that of the typical Vancouver Is. form (PI. XVI, 
Fig. 6) ; in the Calif ornian race (Fig. 5) the ground color of pri- 
maries is a pale flesh-color and the rather heavy blackish suffusion in 
the median and terminal spaces is greatly reduced, the dark median 
shade and the black-filled lower portion of reniform show very clearly 
in consequence; this latter has a couple of whitish dots on each side 
of the black filling but there is no trace of any white suffusion beyond 
the reniform as is often seen in the typical form. We propose the 
racial name semicarnea for this form, our type series consisting of 
4 S and 3 9 from Camp Baldy, S. Bernardino Co., Calif. (June- 
July) ; we also have the species from Middle Calif, and Nellie, San 
Diego Co., Calif. 

POLIA PULVERULENTA Sm. (PI. XVI, Figs. 2, 3). 

Through the kindness of Prof. H. T. Fernald of Amherst, Mass., 
we have received a photograph of the unique type of this species con- 



96 

tained in Mrs. Fernald's Collection, now in the possession of the 
Massachusetts Agricultural College; the species is a good one and not 
a form of assimilis as listed ; it is one of those northern forms which 
extend across the entire continent and is apparently commoner on 
the Pacific coast than in the east ; we have a series of specimens from 
Ketchikan, Alaska, and have seen several from the vicinity of Vic- 
toria, B. C. ; it is also reported from various localities in the Canadian 
Rockies and from Winnipeg, Man. Mr. Wolley-Dod's remarks in 
the Report of the Ent. Soc. Ont. for 1910, p. 110 concerning the species 
are perfectly correct and it was due to the fact that our attention was 
called to this note by Mr. E. Blackmore of Victoria that we were 
spared from describing the Pacific coast specimens as a new species. 
The $ genitalia, while essentially of the same general type, show 
sufficient difference from assimilis in the finer detail to leave no doubt 
as to its specific distinctness ; our series shows considerable variation 
in the size and shape of the spots and in the distinctness of the macu- 
lation ; we figure a couple of specimens to illustrate this. 

Epia amabilis sp. nov. (PI. XVI, Fig. 4). 

Head and thorax deep smoky gray, collar crossed by a black line ; pro 
and mesothoracic tufts tipped with black; primaries deep gray; basal half-line 
geminate, inner line black, broken, outer one gray, indistinct ; t. a. line out- 
wardly oblique, geminate, almost rigid, inner line gray, outer black ; t. p. line 
rather squarely exserted around cell, strongly incurved in the submedian fold, 
geminate, inner line black, outer gray, slightly crenulate ; median space below 
cell black shaded, obscuring a small black claviform, orbicular large, round, 
pale with darker central area ; renif orm moderate, lunate, edged with white 
and then with black, most prominently on inner side ; s. t. line pale, arising 
from a dark costal shade and edged inwardly with smoky, forming a small W 
mark on veins 3 and 4, preceded by short black dashes ; terminal dark crenulate 
line; fringes dusky. Secondaries dark smoky, paler basally with dark discal 
lunule. Beneath smoky, both wings paler basally, secondaries most promin- 
ently so ; discal dot on all wings ; postmedian dark line on secondaries. Ex- 
panse 29 mm. 

Habitat: Loma Linda, S. Bernardino Co., Calif. 1 $ Type, Coll. 
Barnes. 

The species is allied to niinorata Sm. but differs from the type, 
with which we recently compared it, by the lack of brown shades on 
primaries and the more strongly incurved nature of the t. p. line below 
cell. 



97 

Nephelodes demaculata sp. nov. (PI. XV, Fig. 3). 

Head and thorax deep ochreous, at times tinged with purplish ; primaries 
deep ochreous, in some specimens with a decided violaceous tinge ; the macu- 
lation is of the usual type but so obscured as to be practically obsolete; the 
t. p. line is the best defined due to the paler character of the subterminal and 
terminal areas which further show the veins outlined in dusky; the outer half 
of the median area is often the darkest portion of the wing; secondaries deep 
smoky with pale fringes. Beneath light ochreous with faint discal dots and 
obscure postmedian line. Expanse 38 mm. 

Habitat: Plumas Co., Calif. (Aug.-Sept.) 7 S, 1 9. Types, Coll. 
Barnes. 

The peculiar coloration of this species, which resembles that of 
some of the Agropcrina group, should readily distinguish it from pec- 
titiata Sm. with which it agrees in antenna! structure; the lack of 
maculation is also characteristic; in none of our specimens is the reni- 
form distinct but in a few it can just be traced as a faint palish patch. 

Xylomyges cognata Sm. (PI. XVI, Fig. 10). 

We have already had occasion (Contrib. II (1), 16, PI. VII, 
Figs. 13-15) to comment on the variability of this species; it was 
described from three S specimens from Vancouver Is., B. C, Oregon 
and Colorado (Bruce), this last specimen being in the collection of the 
National Museum and marked "type" ; we have seen no other Colo- 
rado material besides this type, but specimens from Vancouver Is. 
which we compared with it agree so that this form may be regarded 
as typical; Smith's figure of the species (Trans. Am. Ent. Soc, XXI, 
PI. V, Fig. 3) also agrees with our figures 13 and 14. With regard 
to this latter specimen it bears the label "Calgary, Alta." but is prob- 
ably a portion of the material distributed by Neumoegen labelled 
indiscriminately "Ft. Calgary, Brit. Columbia" or "N. W. B. C," and 
which was mostly collected by Danby in the Kootenay District of 
British Columbia; Mr. Wolley Dod states that the species never has 
been taken at Calgary, Alta. 

We have recently received more material of the California form 
(which we figured previously in Fig. 15) froin Eldridge, Sonoma Co. ; 
it diflfers from the typical form in the even olivaceous gray colora- 
tion of the primaries with obscure maculation ; it is also considerably 
smaller in size. As it seems perfectly constant in these characteristics 
we propose for it the name minorata (PI. XVI, Fig. 11), our types 



98 

being 5 £,2 9 from the above mentioned locality ; it also occurs in 
a very slightly different form in Southern California. 

Along with minorata we received a series of a closely allied species 
which has possibly been confused with cognata but for which there 
appears to be no name available ; we describe it as follows : 

Xylomvges februalis sp. nov. (PI. XVI, Fig. 12). 

Collar and thorax with thick vestiture composed of whitish scales, vari- 
ably and contrastingly mixed with black; a black transverse line across collar; 
primaries white suffused with black (at times largely black) and shaded with 
olivaceous ochreous, especially at base of wing and around reniform; macula- 
tion much as in cognata but better defined; subbasal line geminate, crenu- 
late, white filled, followed below cubital vein by a broad blackish shade 
connecting it with t. a. line; subbasal space largely dark, distinctly olivaceous 
ochreous along inner margin; t. a. line geminate, prominently white-filled, 
irregularly dentate; claviform variable in size, usually large, outlined in 
black, filled with olivaceous; orbicular inconspicuous, large, oval, outlined 
in black, white filled; reniform large, broad, irregularly lunate, whitish, 
shaded with olivaceous in lower portion and with central dark lunula; median 
shade broad, dark, outwardly oblique to base of reniform, then angled, narrow, 
dentate and parallel to t. p. line, the median space beyond it largely olivaceous; 
t. p. line strongly crenulatc, broadly geminate, white filled, well bent out beyond 
reniform, then inwardly oblique and closely approached to median shade; s. t. 
line whitish, irregular, slightly dentate on veins 3 and 4, preceded by black 
shades and followed by a black suffusion which occupies the whole terminal 
area except at apex of wing which is pale; a narrow white terminal line; 
fringes dark, cut by white opposite veins. Secondaries whitish, slightly sprinkled 
with smoky and with a prominent dark discal dot and terminal line ; a faint 
curved median line. Beneath primaries pale with traces of a dark postmedian 
line bent slightly at costa ; secondaries much as above, rather paler with stronger 
maculation. Expanse 37 mm. 

Habitat: Eldridge, Sonoma Co., Calif. (Feb.) 8^, 2 9. Types, Coll. 
Barnes. 

The species is readily separated from the form minorata which 
occurs with it by the larger size, the much more contrasted maculation 
and the strikingly black and white thoracic vestiture; from typical 
cognata which it more nearly approaches it may be quickly distin- 
guished by the entirely blackish terminal area of primaries ; the macu- 
lation, especially the t. p. line, is better defined, this line being more 
strongly and evenly crenulate above the inner margin than in cognata. 
The $ genitalia are very similar but there are minor points of dis- 
tinction which point to specific distinctness; in cognata the terminal 



99 

area of the claspers is deeply and triangularly excavated, leaving 
sharp dorsal and ventral teeth or spines; in our species these spines 
are much smaller and the triangular excavation less prominent ; the 
harpe is also more slender and rather longer than in cognata. There 
is considerable variation in the amount of black shading on the pri- 
maries, a few specimens before us being very strongly suffused witli 
this color with almost no olivaceous shading. 

CiRPHis INCOGNITA sp. nov. (PI. XVII, Figs. 6, 9). 

Head and thorax light ochreous, collar rather pinkish in color and crossed 
by two or three dark lines, patagia with a few dark scales ; primaries ochreous, 
sprinkled faintly with dark dots and with faint brownish lines on each side of 
the veins and in the center of each interspace beyond the cell; the veins them- 
selves beyond the cell are faintly white ; a dark streak extends along the median 
vein from base of wing to t. p. line, containing a small white spot or comma 
mark with dark central dot at lower angle of cell ; t. p. line a curved series 
of black dots at times very well marked and joined to form a dentate line ; a 
faint trace of the dark subapical triangular shade ; terminal line of dark dots ; 
fringes with palish basal line. Secondaries in both sexes shiny white with 
faint dark terminal dots, not reaching inner angle. Beneath primaries and 
costa of secondaries pale smoky; remainder of secondaries whitish; terminal 
dark dots to both wings. Expanse 30 mm. 

Habitat : Brownsville, Texas. 6 S , 6 9 . Types, Coll. Barnes. 

This is the species we figured in Contr. II, (1), PI. IX, Fig. 14 
as doubtfully texana Morr. ; it having been proved by an examination 
of the type that texana is correctly referred to ligata by Hampson it 
remained to find a name for our Brownsville species which we have 
been unable to do; by Hampson's keys it would fall in the neighbor- 
hood of latiuscida H. S. but is certainly not this species, being much 
paler in color without any ruddy tinges, with pure white secondaries 
and of much smaller size; it would seem to be closer to punctifera 
Moesch. which Hampson lists as a synonym of latiuscida but which 
from the description has white secondaries. It also bears quite a 
resemblance to the figure of cinereicollis Wlk. given by Hampson 
(Cat. Lep. Phal. B. M., V, PI. 93, Fig. 18) but lacks the black streak 
below base of cell of this species. 

The 9 's are usually better marked than the $ 's, at times showing 
traces of a punctiform t. a. line, forming a slight outward angle in sub- 
median fold ; the genital tufting of the $ is ochreous. 



100 

CUCULLIINAE 

CoPicucuLLiA BASiPUNCTA sp. nov. (PI. XVI, Fig. 5). 

Palpi and head deep gray sprinkled with white; antennal region with two 
dark transverse lines; tegulae white with dark line at base and a faint one 
near tips which are also blackish ; patagia and thorax gray, former with a dark 
line near posterior margin; metathoracic tuft large, black; abdomen pale 
ochreous. Primaries blue-gray with the usual strigate appearance caused by 
the veins being faintly outlined in black ; a distinct black dot at base of wing 
below costa ; t. a. line arising from a small dark costal patch, indistinct in costal 
region with prominent outward tooth below cell and a smaller tooth at inner 
margin, heavily marked in black and preceded by some black shading ; orbicular 
and reniform included in a dark costal shade, former round, with pale center, 
ringed with white and black, reniform large with pale central lunule, similarly 
outlined to orbicular ; t. p. line faint, pale, crenulate, bent outward below costa, 
then subparallel to margin, marked inwardly in submedian fold and at inner 
margin by black spots, the former preceded by a prominent white streak con- 
necting it with the tooth of the t. a. line; faint pale streaks between the veins 
terminally and a dark blotch above inner angle drawn rearward to a point 
which almost touches t. p. line ; fringes alternately pale and dark. Secondaries 
shiny white with veins slightly outlined in dark. Beneath primaries pale gray 
with darker costa and fringes, latter checkered basally with white ; secondaries 
as above. Expanse 35 mm. 

Habitat: Palm Spgs., Riverside Co., Calif. (Mch.) 1 S. Type, Coll. 
Barnes. 

This very distinct species should be easily recognized by the 
pure white secondaries, the basal black dot and the white quadrate 
patch in the submedian fold. 

Oncocnemis primula sp. nov. (PI. XVII, Fig. 3). 

Head and thorax a delicate flesh color, a transverse dark band on tegulae, 
patagia with two black spots and a larger black spot on mesothorax centro- 
dorsally; squammation largely hairy. Primaries flesh-color, the median area 
largely suffused with black on which background a small round orbicular with 
central black dot and a very large, almost quadrate, reniform stand out sharply; 
slight dark basal shading; t. a. line upright, black, irregular; t. p. line gem- 
inate, costal portion lost in black shading, lower portion inwardly oblique and 
dentate ; slight black subterminal spotting consisting of a costal blotch, a slight 
patch around vein 3 and another at anal angle ; fringes concolorous, with 
incomplete row of dark basal dots. Secondaries in both sexes white with a 
geminate black dot at anal angle which in the 9 shows traces of being 
continued toward costa as a dark s. t. line. Beneath white with maculation of 
upper side partially visible. Expanse 31 mm. 

Habitat: Palm Spgs., Riverside Co., Calif. (Mch.) 1 ^,1 $. Types. 
Coll. Barnes. 



101 

Closely allied to flagrantis Sm., differing in the larger size, brighter 
cx)loration, and white secondaries in both sexes. 

Graptolitha puella Sm. 

The acquisition recently of the co-type of this species from the Doll 
Collection shows that the figure given in Hampson's Cat. Lep. Het. 
Brit. Mus. PI. CII, Fig. 30, is very faulty, much too pale and apt to 
give an entirely erroneous impression of the species ; it is only fair, 
however, to Sir Geo. Hampson to state that the species was unknown 
to him and his figure is merely a reproduction of a colored drawing 
of the type in the National Museum which was evidently poorly exe- 
cuted ; Smith's original photograph (Tr Am. Ent. Soc. XXVII, PI. 
IV, Fig. 25) gives a much better idea of the species and shows it to 
be extremely close to what we described later from Kerrville, Texas, 
as laccyi (Contr. II, (3), p. Ill), in fact they are so close that we 
should be inclined to consider the two names as synonymous if it 
were not for the widely separated type localities, the two specimens 
of pnclla being labelled California; of course there is the possibility 
that this label is erroneous as many of the older collectors (from one 
of whom these type specimens apparently came) were careless in 
their data, but lacking at the present time sufficient material, we 
believe it safer to associate the two names closely and leave the matter 
of their identity or distinctness to be settled when more material is 
available. 

EUROTYPE ANCEPS Steph. 

In 111. Brit. Ent. Haust., Ill, 31, PI. 26, Fig. 2, Stephens describes 
and figures a species which he doubtfully calls polymita Linn. ; in his 
Cat. Lep. Brit. Mus. 1850, p. 285, he proposes the name anceps for 
the same species, having evidently recognized that it was not the 
true polymita and lists it as doubtfully North American. Sir Geo. 
Hampson to whom we referred the matter, writes us that Stephens 
figure agrees exactly with the type of aciitiss-ima Grt. and we thor- 
oughly concur with him in this reference. As Stephens' name has 
priority the synonymy of the species must be changed as follows : 
anceps Steph. 

polymita Steph. {nee Linn.) 
acutissima Grt. 
form confragosa Morr. 
medialis Grt. 



102 

CONISTRA SIDUS Gn. 

In our recent List we followed Hampson in making ivalkcri Grt. 
a synonym of sidus Gn. and listing vinulenta Grt. as an aberrational 
form. We believe, however, after a study of the original descriptions 
that it will be more correct to list vinulenta as the synonym and walkeri 
as the form. 

Guenee in his description gives the color of sidus as even brick- 
red with a yellow reniform which he remarks will probably also be 
white in some specimens as in the European satellitia; Grote's descrip- 
tion of vinulenta was based on a red specimen with white reniform 
as a reference to his description and the colored figure given clearly 
shows; the difference between the two is therefore merely a slightly 
different shade of the reniform which scarcely warrants a name in our 
opinion. There is no type of vinulenta labelled as such at the Phila- 
delphia Academy where the type should be, but there is an old speci- 
men with a label "No. 239" which agrees excellently with Grote's 
figure and which is probably the original type specimen. 

Walkeri is based on an ochreous-brown specimen rather suffused 
with smoky, the color probably being due to the fact that the speci- 
men had hibernated, as we have noticed that nearly all specimens 
taken in early spring lack the brilliant color of those of the fall ; no 
type is marked as such at Philadelphia but there is in the series a speci- 
men on an old pin without a label which agrees so well with Grote's 
figure that it could very well be considered the original of it ; the name 
walkeri may be used for the dull ochreous form of sidus with suffused 
and indistinct maculation but we can see nothing in either Grote's 
figures or the presumable types to warrant specific separation. 

CONISTRA GRAEFIANA Grt. (PI. XV, Fig. 16). 

This species should be removed from the synonymy of indirecta 
Wlk. in our list ; our error was due primarily to an apparent mix-up 
in the British Museum series as the specimens figured by Hampson 
(Cat. Lep. Phal. VI, PI. CVI, Figs. 27, 28) as indirecta Wlk. and 
moffatiana Grt. and based seemingly on type material certainly re- 
present but one species and Hampson in his text had already referred 
graefiana to indirecta Wlk. (Cat. Lep. Phal. VI, 466). 



103 

The original descriptions of graefiana (Bull. Buff. Soc. II, 89) 
and moffatiana (Bull. Geol. Surv. VI, 581) and especially the latter 
give us a good clue as to what the true graefiana really is ; the figure 
of this latter species in Grote's 111. Essay PI. Ill, Fig. 38, is erroneous 
and correctly referred to moffatiana by Hampson, as this is one of 
Mr. Moffat's specimens on which Grote based his later name, stating 
at the time that graefiana can always be distinguished by its "yellow 
ground color, red lines which are also straighter and perhaps thicker, 
as well as the paler hind wings" ; the original description of graefiana 
bears out these distinctions excellently. It is possible that the true 
type is in the Graef Coll. at the Brooklyn Inst.; the British Museum 
type, if it agrees with Hampson's figure of indirecta, must be spurious. 
We figure both species, our figure of indirecta (PI. XV, Fig. 17) being 
of a specimen we compared in 1913 with Walker's type. 

HOMOGLAEA VARIEGATA Sp. nov. (PI. XV, Fig. 7). 

Palpi and front heavily clothed with pinkish brown hairs ; thorax hairy, 
brown ; primaries deep ochreous heavily black-sprinkled leaving the ground 
color only visible along the costa, between the geminate portion of t. a. and t. p. 
lines and slightly in the cell and subterminally ; basal half line black, indistinct; 
t. a. line geminate, slightly outwardly oblique, crenulate, filled with ochreous; 
orbicular obliquely oval, large, partially outlined in orange; reniform upright, 
narrowly figure-of-eight-shaped, black-filled, the outer edge rather rigid and 
outlined in pale ochreous followed by an orange line which extends around 
the entire spot ; a dark indefinite median shade-line subparallel to t. a. line ; 
veins beyond reniform slightly outlined in ochreous ; t. p. line geminate, gently 
sinuate and finely crenulate, filled with pale ochreous, followed by a broad 
dark shade band limited outwardly at costa by a dark dash slightly shaded 
with orange ; beyond this is a paler s. t. area containing minute black dots 
representing s. t. line, followed by dark terminal shading ; fringes dark with 
orange-ochreous basal portion, forming a distinct pale crenulate line. Secon- 
daries dark smoky with paler, slightly pinkish fringes. Beneath primaries smoky 
with distinct pinkish shades along costa and terminally; secondaries paler, pink 
shaded with prominent dark discal dot and postmedian line. Expanse 40 mm. 

Habitat : Palmerlee, Ariz. 2 S . Types, Coll. Barnes. 

In one $ , which we have made a Paratype, the ground color is 
a pale pinkish ochreous with obsolescent maculation ; enough remains 
of the spots, the costo-apical dash and the s. t. line to show that the 
two specimens belong to a single species which doubtless shows great 
variability as regards the ground color and distinctness of maculation. 



104 

ACRONYCTINAE 

Trachea rubiginosa Wlk. 

Sir Geo. Hampson informs us that this species, listed by us in 
the genus Oligia, is in all probability a synonym of Trachea binotata 
Wlk., being another of those cases in which Walker described the 
same specimen twice under different names. Rubiginosa was described 
from a S from Vancouver Is. presented by Dr. Lyall (Cat. Lep. P.. 
M. XXXII, 674) and binotata a few pages previously (1. c. p. 663) 
from a specimen from the same source and locality so that there is 
every reason to believe that Hampson is correct, especially as nothing 
in the description contradicts this association. 

Trachea monica sp. nov. (PI. XV, Fig. 9). 

Very similar to susqucsa Sm. (Fig. 8) of which it may be possibly a race; 
the general ground color of the primaries is much deeper with less of the 
light brown shades; the pale areas, on the contrary, beyond the reniform and 
claviform are paler, almost whitish and the veins 3, 4, 6 and 7 are better out- 
lined terminally with white; the maculation is similar, but more indistinct; 
the general squammation of the wing is rougher; secondaries rather heavily 
and evenly sprinkled with smoky over a white ground; on the underside the 
discal spot which is quite prominent in susquesa is reduced to the merest 
dot and there is no postmedian line ; the excavation of the outer margin at vein 
5 appears also to be rather smaller; the wing expanse (34 mm.) is distinctly 
larger. 

Habitat: Redington, Ariz. 2 $. Types, Coll. Barnes. 

Trachea serrula sp. nov. (PI. XVI, Fig. 7). 

S antennae distinctly serrate and fasciculate; head and thorax dark 
gray, peppered with white; primaries similar in color with slight pale ochreous 
shades beyond reniform and claviform and a rather indistinct maculation with 
the exception of a black basal streak and a large claviform, outlined in black 
and extending across the whole median space; t. a. line scarcely traceable, in 
general slightly oblique and irregular; t. p. line obscure, bent outward below 
costa to just beyond reniform and then inwardly oblique, passing very close 
to lower end of reniform, orbicular dark, oval, partially outlined with white; 
reniform figure-of-eight-shaped, outlined, especially in lower portion, with 
black and followed by a palish shade occupying the betid of the t. p. line; s. t. 
line close to outer margin, obscure, best marked by white dentate streaks on 
veins 3 and 4 and 6 and 7; terminal space somewhat darker than subterminal 
one; fringes dark, spotted with ochreous at end of veins; secondaries strongly 
excavated at vein 5, whitish in $ with veins and outer border sprinkled with 
smoky, in 9 largely smoky. Beneath pale, more or less sprinkled with smoky, 
especially primaries, with small discal dot on each wing. Expanse 30 mm. 

Habitat: Palm Spgs., Riverside Co., Calif. 7 S, 2 9. Types, Coll. 
Barnes. 



105 

The species belongs in tlie binotata group and is closely allied to 
susquesa Sm., but differs in the distinctly serrate antennae and the 
course of the t. p. line which is less bent around cell and more closely 
approximate to reniform; the color also is dark gray instead of 
brownish. 

Agroperina popofensis Sm. 

This species, described as a Luperina (1900, Proc. Wash. Acad. 
Sci. II, 492), should be transferred to the genus Agroperina; an ex- 
amination of the type shows it to be very close to indela Sm. of which 
it is probably only a northern race ; we have a series from Kodiak, 
Alaska. 

ACRONYCTA ARIOCH Stkr. 

In our notes concerning this species in Contr. Ill (3), 166, we 
have made a rather grave error, confusing the species evidently with 
A. gasta Stkr.; it is this latter species which resembles so closely A. 
megacephala from Europe as to lead to our suggestion that the speci- 
men serving as type bore a wrong locality label. A. arioch, which is 
related to oblinita A. & S. should be reinstated on our lists, whilst 
gasta may be dropped ; the type specimen was received by Strecker, 
according to information received from Mr. Wm. Gerhard of the 
Field Museum, from a Chicago collector, Paul Vollbrecht, a German 
by birth, who might accidentally have mixed a European specimen 
with those collected in the vicinity of Chicago by himself. 

Merolonche dolli sp. nov. (PI. XVI, Fig. 6). 

S antennae lamellate; head and thorax hairy, dark gray; collar with a 
central black vertical line ; thorax with two central dark lines, upper and lower 
edges of patagia black ; primaries dark gray, heavily black shaded ; a minute 
black dash on costa at base followed outwardly by a pale patch representing 
the filling of an obsolete subbasal line; a distinct black basal dash below median 
vein reaching to t. a. line ; this hne geminate, very distinct due to the pale fill- 
ing, with three prominent outward angles, below costa, below median vein 
and above inner margin ; median space largely blackish with a pale oblique 
costal patch, descending between the spots almost to t. p. line ; orbicular small, 
round, white centered ; reniform obscured by black shades, rather broadly 
lunate ; t. p. line very distinctly dentate, geminate, pale-filled, bent out around 
cell and incurved in fold ; s. t. line represented by a few intravenular dark 
marks on a paler ground color ; secondaries dull smoky with whitish fringes. 



106 

Beneath primaries smoky, secondaries whitish with smoky sprinkling and a 
small discal dash. Expanse 37 mm. 

Habitat: Central Park, L. I., N. Y. (April) 2 S- Types, Coll. Barnes. 

We recently received the types with other Noctuid material from 
the Doll Collection and take pleasure in naming the species after this 
well known collector; we believe the species has been known to East- 
ern collectors for some time but there seems to be no available name, 
and it is the first Eastern record for a species of this genus. In 
appearance it superficially resembles a dark Acronycta distans Grt. 
but the hairy nature of the palpal and thoracic vestiture as well as a 
reduced proboscis render the reference to Mcrolonche advisable; the 
antennae resemble those of spinea Grt. with the slight lateral projec- 
tions reduced to mere stubs, giving a distinctly lamellate appearance. 

Leucocnemis variabilis sp. nov. (PI. XVII, Figs. 13, 14). 

9 . Primaries dark gray sprinkled with white and shaded slightly with 
ochreous; t a. and t. p. lines wanting; orbicular a long decumbent oval, white 
with dark center; reniform small, irregular, whitish; claviform indistinct, out- 
lined in dark, longer than orbicular; s. t. line close to edge of wing, white, 
very irregularly dentate, preceded below apex by several blackish streaks ; a 
white terminal line followed by a black line at base of fringes; these are long, 
whitish with the terminal portion checkered with black. Secondaries pale 
smoky ochreous. Beneath pale, primaries tinged with smoky along costa and 
outer margin. 

S . Much paler than 9 as a rule, almost whitish with obsolete macula- 
tion. Expanse 20 mm. 

Habitat: Olancha, Inyo Co., Calif. 11 ^,16 9. Types, Coll. Barnes. 

The species is extraordinarily variable; our description is drawn 
up from a well marked 9 but we have all manner of intergrades to 
almost immaculate white specimens with the merest traces of dark 
shades ; in general the S 's are decidedly paler and more immaculate 
than the 9 's and of the series before us only one 5 specimen 
shows a maculation in agreement with the above description. The 
palest specimens still show traces of the dark terminal spots on 
fringes and a slight dark apical shade. 

Stilbia apposita sp. nov. (PI. XVI, Fig. 8). 

Head and thorax dark gray, the latter with small divided mesothoracic 
tuft tipped with blackish; abdomen smooth, smoky ochreous; primaries dark 



107 

gray slightly suffused with ochreous in the submedian fold and heavily shaded 
with blackish in costo-median and subterminal areas; t. a. line geminate, black, 
partially white-filled, irregularly dentate with outward angle on cubital vein 
and inward tooth in the fold ; orbicular obscure, round, largely lost in the dark 
costal shading; renifomi conspicuous, whitish, with central lunate dark streak; 
t. p. line obscure, oblique at costa followed by whitish shading, bent around 
reniform and almost touching it with inward curve in the fold and outward 
tooth on vein 1 ; s. t. line defined by dark shading in s. t. area, inwardly oblique 
from apex to vein 6, bulging outwardly across veins 3-5, curved inward in the 
fold and bent outward above inner margin ; apical area white-shaded ; a ter- 
minal dark line ; fringes smoky, deeper basally. Secondaries smoky-ochreous 
with heavy, broad, smoky outward border partially broken by ochreous shades 
in extreme terminal area; traces of a curved t. p. line preceding this border; 
a heavy dark terminal line ; fringes pale at base followed by a smoky area, 
the tips being whitish. Beneath primaries smoky, sprinkled lightly with whitish 
and with a round pale discal spot ; secondaries paler than above. Expanse 
28 mm. 

Habitat: Prescott, Arizona (June, Sept.) 2 9. Types, Coll. Barnes. 

The lack of definite structural characters would seem to place 
the species in Stilbia; in maculation it seems fairly close to the type 
of the genus, anomala Haw. 

ACOPA BISTRIGATA Sp. HOV. (PI. XVII, Fig. 18). 

$ antennae thick, serrate and fasciculate ; proboscis wanting ; front rather 
roughly prominent ; thoracic vestiture rough, scaly, mixed brown and white ; 
abdomen grayish, untufted ; legs heavily clothed with thick brown hairs; pri- 
maries short, broad, light brown, shaded with paler, basal area darker ; t. a. 
line broad, white, straight to submedian fold, then with a prominent outward 
tooth above vein 1 ; a broad white discal dash continued by a white line to inner 
margin, subparallel to t. a. line; a white line at apex of wing preceded by a 
large dark brown patch ; a ruddy brown broken terminal line ; secondaries 
pinkish-brown. Beneath primaries smoky, tinged with ruddy with a white 
dash at apex and another a short distance from it on costa, the area between 
being brownish ; secondaries pale, sprinkled with ruddy-brown with a brown 
apical patch and traces of a curved postmedian line. Expanse 21 mm. 

Habitat: Paradise, Cochise Co., Ariz. (Aug.); Huachuca Mts., Ariz. 
(Aug.) 2 $ . Types, Coll. Barnes. 

The reference to Acopa is not very satisfactory although it runs 
out to this genus by Hampson's key; the heavy hairy clothing of the 
legs and the general appearance point to a new genus, but we are loath 
at the present time to create a new one, and place it provisionally here. 



108 

Namangana viridescens sp. nov. (PI. XV, Fig. 12). 

$ antennae rather broad, ciliate and fasciculate; palpi ascending, deep 
chocolate brown, rimmed with ochreous at end of 2nd joint; front smooth, 
roughly clad with long chocolate-brown hairs; head and thorax with rough 
squammation of hair-like* scales, emerald-green with slight brown admixture, 
ochreous at base of antennae; patagia partially chocolate-brown, broadly ringed 
with ochreous ; primaries deep black-brown strongly suffused with emerald- 
green; basal line curved, geminate, green-filled; t. a. line rather irregular, in 
general upright, green-filled; claviform very large, outlined in green, open 
above and below, dark filled; reniform rather obscure and much as orbicular 
in size, partially outlined and filled with green; t. p. line green-filled, arising 
from a green costal patch above reniform, bent strongly out just below costa 
to well beyond reniform, then parallel to outer margin with slight inward tooth 
in submedian fold; s. t. line poorly defined, whitish, preceded by broad green 
lunules in central portion of wing; terminal area green with brown-lined veins 
and terminal interspaceal blackish triangular spots; fringes pale, cut with black- 
ish opposite the spots. Secondaries brownish ochreous along inner margin ; 
traces of a pale postmedian curved line and a pale terminal line between vein 
3 and inner angle with dark lunules at edge of wing; fringes ochreous cut by 
smoky patches. Beneath primaries smoky-brown, tinged with ochreous on costa 
and fringes with traces of a postmedian dark line; secondaries pale ochreous, 
sprinkled with brown with large brown discal spot and distinct curved crenu- 
late postmedian line; fringes on both wings ochreous cut with brown. Ex- 
panse 40 mm. 

Habitat: $ Chiricahua Mts., Arizona (Sept.), 9, S. W. Arizona. 
1 ^ , 1 9 . Types, Coll. Barnes. 

The generic reference is provisional ; it is impossible to follow out 
the species in Hampson's key as the thoracic vestiture is disarranged 
in our speciinens and all marked structural features are lacking; in 
any case at the best Hampson's finer subdivisions, based on the diver- 
gent nature of the thoracic tufting, are extremely difficult to compre- 
hend and we are not at all convinced that he has correctly diagnosed 
all our North American species. To our mind the present species is 
related to a group of species consisting of sniaragdina Neum., marina 
Sm., laetabilis Sm. and canoa Barnes ; all these show a rounded frontal 
prominence smoothly clothed with closely appressed scales, diflfering 
in this respect from viridescens but resembling it in general habitus, 
smooth abdomen and lack of further definite structural characters. 
These four species were placed by Hampson in the genera Trachea, 
Cerma, Amiana and Namangana but with the exception of laetabilis 
were unknown to him at the time; laetabilis is obviously incorrectly 
placed (owing to a wrong conception of Dyar's genus Amiana which 



109 

falls near Lithacodia) and we placed it in our list provisionally in 
Nantangana which, as we have already had occasion to remark, is 
more or less of a dumping ground for species with uncertain rela- 
tionships. Possibly some of Dr. Dyar's new Mexican genera will prove 
to be the final resting place for these troublesome species but until we 
have had the opportunity of examining his types we are uncertain 
even of this. 

EuTRicopis NEXiLis Morr. 

This species, which occurs in Colorado and the Pacific Northwest, 
shows typically on the underside, apart from the ordinary pale median 
spots, considerable whitish shading on the secondaries at the base 
and costo-apically ; we have a series of specimens from the southern 
Sierras which entirely lack this pale shading with the exception of a 
few pale hairs basally ; the secondaries, roughly speaking, show a deep 
pink costal half and a black inner half, the pink portion extending 
about half way down outer margin ; there is a rather broad black 
marginal line on both wings below and the fringes of primaries on 
upper side are prominently white with a dark apical spot ; otherwise 
we can see no marked difTerence in maculation between the forms 
which we consider racial; for the Californian form we propose the 
name subcolorata, our types being 8 5,3 9 from Tuolumne 
Meadows, Calif. (July) ; we also have specimens from Mineral King, 
Tulare Co., CaHf. (July). 

Annaphila astrologa sp. nov. (PI. XIX, Fig. 11). 

Pectus and base of palpi white ; upper side of palpi black ; thorax scaled 
with black and white and with a few reddish-colored hairs ; abdomen blackish, 
ringed with pale ochreous inter-segmentally ; primaries largely blackish; t. a. 
line geminate, filled with white, slightly oblique with prominent outward angle 
below cell ; orbicular obscure, round, outlined in black, crossed by a dark median 
line, subparallel to t. a. line ; reniform oval, white, dark centered, attached 
outwardly to the broadly white-shaded t. p. line which starts from a white spot 
on costa, forms a small loop at upper end of reniform followed by a much 
larger one crossing vein 4, bends strongly inward below cell forming two 
slight teeth and then bulges outward to inner margin ; s. t. space slightly shaded 
with blue-white ; s. t. line white, faint, irregular, close to outer margin. Sec- 
ondaries with central area orange, basal area black with slight orange shades ; 
a broad black outer border into which the orange color bulges roundedly 
opposite cell ; a very faint trace of a black discal dot or else none at all. 
Beneath primaries orange crossed by broad black median and subterminal bands 
the latter strongly broadened at costa ; terminal area white-shaded ; a faint 



110 

discal dot ; secondaries orange with narrow antemedian black curved line, small 
discal dot and broad black outer border, interrupted terminally by whitish 
ochreous shading, broadest and most distinct at apex; fringes dusky, slightly 
marked with white on secondaries. Expanse 21 mm. 

Habitat: Redington, Ariz.; S. Ariz. (Poling); Ariz. 4 5. Types, Coll. 
Barnes. 

We figured this species as divinula Grt. in our Contributions, 
Vol. I, No. 4, PI. XXV, Fig. 10; it differs however from this Cali- 
fornia species (PI. XIX, Fig. 13) in its larger size and lack of prom- 
inent black discal streak on secondaries above and on all wings beneath 
besides other minor details of maculation. 

PSEUDACONTIA MODESTELLA sp. nOV. (PI. XVI, Fig. 13). 

Very similar to groteana Dyar (Fig. 14) but smaller in size and deeper 
in color, the whole wing being deep black-brown without any gray shading 
and with all the maculation except the t. p. line obsolete ; the t. p. line as in 
groteana with the white shade above inner margin slightly more conspicuous; 
fringes unicolorous blackish without the checkered terminal area of groteana. 
Beneath blackish, primaries with a white spot beyond the cell and another 
below it on inner m.irgin ; secondaries with two superimposed white spots at 
end of cell and a sma'l one above anal angle. Expanse 19 mm. 

Habitat: Camp Baldy, S. Bern. Mts., Calif. (July) 1 ^,5 9. Types, 
Coll. Barnes. 

ERASTRIINAE 

Oruza albocostaliata Pack. 

As Dr. Dyar has pointed out (1914, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 
XLVII, 379) this species should be removed from the genus Eleo- 
nectyptera as listed by us (No. 3457) and placed in the genus Oruza 
Wlk. to precede Cobubatha Wlk. 

A second species closely related to the above and unfortunately 
very similar in name is albocostata Druce (1899, Biol. Cent. Am. 
Het., II, 537, PI. 99, Fig. 8) of which we have several specimens from 
Arizona ; in Druce's species the white costal streak is rather narrower, 
especially toward apex of wing, the discal mark is usually faint and 
when present is a distinct lunule, not a round dot as in albocostaliata; 
the subterminal line is also not so sharply defined. This species should 
be added to our list. 



Ill 

OzARBA NEBULA sp. nov. (PI. XVIII, Fig. 5). 

Primaries pinkish-gray suffused with olivaceous in the outer portion of 
median area and the costal portion of the subterminal area ; t. a. line geminate, 
pink-filled, upright, with an outward bulge in the submedian fold ; median 
shade dark, outwardly oblique from costa to a point on the submedian fold 
close to t. p. line, then bent slightly inward and again bulging outwardly to 
inner margin ; t. p. line geminate, pink-filled, outwardly oblique to vein 7, con- 
cave to vein 5, forming two short teeth on veins 5 and 7, then straight and 
slightly inwardly oblique to inner margin; reniform a narrow oblique oval, 
outlined in white and situated close to t. p. line, the intermediate portion filled 
with pinkish ; beyond the teeth of the t. p. line two olivaceous-brown streaks, 
the upper one broader and heavier; several white points on costa beyond t. p. 
line with olivaceous shading beyond them ; s. t. line, faint, pale, in general par- 
allel to outer margin; a faint pale terminal line; fringes purplish with pale 
pink apex. Secondaries pale smoky. Beneath primaries dark smoky, secon- 
daries paler with small discal dot and traces of curved postmedian line. Ex- 
panse 15 mm. 

Habitat: Winnfield, La. (June 16-23). 1 <J . Type, Coll. Barnes. 

Besides the type we have three worn specimens, two labelled 
"Texas", the other Chokoloskee, Fla. The species is closely related 
to aeria Grt. and fannia Druce but the small size and white-outlined 
reniform should distinguish it ; apparently in some collections it has 
been placed under aetheria Grt. as one of our specimens is so labelled. 

Chamyris sirius sp. nov. (PI. XVII, Fig. 17). 

Very close superficially to cerintha in maculation but differing in the 
following points; the base of the collar is very distinctly white-banded which 
is only very occasionally the case in cerintha; the basal white area on pri- 
maries juts further out into the following dark space along the median vein; 
the orbicular and reniform are more definitely outlined in black and the greenish 
or purplish waved lines between them are less suffused and form four quite 
distinct lines on inner margin ; the t. p. line is shaded outwardly with dark 
brown for its whole length and the crenulations of the s. t. line are deeper ; the 
size is smaller. Expanse 25 mm. 

Habitat : Kerrville, Texas. 1 $ , 2 9 . Types, Coll. Barnes. 

Genus Cryphia Hbn. 

This monotypical genus is based on the species nana, figured in 
the Zutr. Exot. Schmett. Figs. 53-54 from Georgia. Following Grote 
and Smith (who however had never satisfactorily identified it) the 
species has been generally listed in our North American catalogues 
under Bryophila or Jaspidia. Hampson (1910, Cat. Lep. Phal. Brit. 
Mus., X, 552) on the strength of a single Alabama specimen in the 



112 

Grote collection, has referred the species to the genus Lithacodia 
Hbn. ; we have before us a specimen of the species identified by Hamp- 
son as nana but doubt greatly the correctness of this determination ; 
to our mind the reference of actheria Grt. as a synonym of nana, as 
given in our Check List, seems more probably; of course it will be 
impossible ever to be absolutely certain concerning the identity of 
the species, but we would call attention to the fact that the t. p. line 
in Hubner's figure is represented as being squarely exserted around 
the cell, which certainly fits actheria of which we figure a specimen 
(PI. XVIII, Fig. 4) which has been compared with Grote's type 
and marked "exact". We see, therefore, no reason for changing the 
conception of the species as given in our list in which Crypliia Hbn. 
supercedes Hyperstrotia Hamp., both genera being based on the same 
species ; the venation as given in Hampson's diagnosis is correct, veins 
7, 8 and 9 of primaries being stalked, 10 and 11 free and no accessory 
cell. 

Two closely allied species, flavigiittata Grt. and sccta Grt., have 
been included in Eustrotia by Hampson presumably because a small 
accessory cell is present although a note under the latter species calls 
attention to a variability in the venation of the specimens under this 
name in the British Museum collection. Typically we find that in 
Eustrotia vein 7 is connate with 8 and 9 from the angle of the acces- 
sory cell, 10 being free from its upper corner ; we have examined two 
specimens of ftaviguttata and six specimens of secta (1 $ , S 9 ) and 
find that in all cases vein 7 is distinctly stalked with 8 and 9, an acces- 
sory cell being present but reduced in size. The stalked nature of 
vein 7 combined with the general maculation certainly points toward 
an association with the genus Crypliia from which indeed the venation 
only differs in the presence of the small accessory cell ; as this however 
is apparently constant and would represent a more primitive type 
according to Hampson (1. c. p. 2 ) we propose the generic term Pro- 
TOCRYPHiA for these two species, specifying secta Grt. as type of the 
genus. 

Several species have been mixed under the name sccta in our 
collections, which probably accounts for Hampson's remark concern- 
ing the variability of the venation; the true secta (PI. XVIII, Fig. 7) 
is readily recognized by the presence of a large dark patch at the 
center of the inner margin; both Grote's original diagnosis and his 



113 

type specimen agree in this respect. We have before us specimens 
(2 5,4 9 ) of a very similar species which, however, is at once 
distinguished by the even gray color of the primaries with no dark 
blotch on inner margin ; the venation also is constantly different, there 
being no accessory cell, 7, 8 and 9 stalked, 10 free but very closely 
approached to 11 for a short distance beyond its point of origin; it 
is a true Cryphia and apparently unnamed ; we describe it as follows : 

Cryphia pervertens sp. nov. (PI. XVIII, Fig. 8). 

Primaries rather dark gray, variably shaded with lighter gray, maculation 
obscure; t. a. line straight to cubital vein then slightly angled and somewhat 
inwardly oblique, preceded by faint dark blotch on costa ; median shade out- 
wardly oblique from center of costa to inner margin close to t. p. line ; reniform 
small, narrow, partially outlined in whitish with two superimposed black dots 
in center, the upper one often obsolete ; t. p. line squarely exserted around 
cell, bent inward in submedian fold; s. t. line faint, irregular, preceded below 
costa by a darker shade ; terminal broken dark line. Secondaries deep smoky. 
Expanse 19 mm. 

Habitat: New Brighton, Pa. (June-July), Big Indian Valley, Catskill 
Mts., N. Y. (July). 2 $, A 9. Types, Coll. Barnes. 

A third species, similar in venation to pervertens but which accord- 
ing to our dated material is on the wing a month later than this species 
we characterize as follows : 

Cryphia villificans sp. nov. (PI. XVIII, Fig. 9). 

Primaries deeper in color than pervertens with more contrasted colora- 
tion, the inner side of t. a. line and outer edge of t. p. line being more or less 
relieved by white shading ; maculation very similar to that of pervertens but 
t. a. line with stronger angle on cubitus and more oblique lower half; lower 
portion of median area partially brown-shaded, approaching seeta Grt. in this 
respect somewhat; a whitish apical oblique shade; s. t. line more irregular 
than in preceding species. 

Habitat: New Brighton, Pa. (July-Aug.) ; Essex Co., N. J. (July). 5 9. 
Types, Coll. Barnes. 

The species identified by Hampson as nana is without a name if 
our conception of Hubner's species be accepted as correct ; it corre- 
sponds fairly well structurally with the definition of Lithacodia except 
that the front is prominently bulging and not smooth as in our other 
North American species ; this would throw it according to Hampson's 
keys into Bryocodia Hamp.. but as it appears to have little similarity 



114 

to the species included under this generic head by Hampson we describe 
it as a Lithacodia in which genus it appears at least fairly at home. 

LiTHACODIA INDETERMINATA Sp. nOV. (PI. XVIII, Fig. 3). 

Metathorax with prominent scale tuft; abdomen with large tufts on 4th 
and 5th segments ; primaries deep dark gray scarcely relieved by paler shading, 
with obscure maculation ; t. a. line obscurely geminate, poorly defined and 
rather irregularly dentate in costal half, strongly inwardly oblique below cell 
and quite prominently black; a broad oblique costal patch in median area rather 
paler than the ground color followed by a narrow dark shade which connects 
with a small loop-like reniform, defined in black and open toward costa, con- 
nected by a fine black line along vein 3 with t. p. line ; below this a faint ruddy 
shade stretching across t. p. line; a faint black line from angle of t. a. line 
through submedian fold but not reaching t. p. line ; this line obscure, geminate, 
crenulate, outwardly bulging to vein 3 then curved sharply inward and again 
straight below fold to inner margin ; beyond t. p. line at costa a slightly darker 
patch defined below by a distinct short black line extending between t. p. and 
s. t. lines; s. t. line pale, obscure, irregular, rather prominently bulging across 
veins 3 and 4; faint broken dark terminal line; secondaries smoky. Beneath 
primaries smoky, secondaries paler with distinct discal dot and faint post- 
median curved line. Expanse 19 mm. 

Habitat : Winnfield, La. 1 2 . Type, Coll. Barnes. 

The species resembles somewhat a Sarrothrips, the primaries being 
rather broad with the costal and inner margins semiparallel. 

HOPLOTARACHE ALBIOCULA sp. HOV. (PI. XVII, Fig. 12). 

Palpi white laterally; front and thorax with an admixture of white and 
black scaling, the former with a raised circular process with tubercle on its 
lower margin, abdomen smoky gray, untufted; primaries pale ochreous, heavily 
suffused with blackish in median and subterminal areas ; basal area pale with 
a fine black basal streak connecting with a long ill-defined claviform outlined 
in black and filled with white and continued by a white line to s. t. line ; t. a. 
line marked by an oblique dark streak from costa and a dentate mark at inner 
margin ; median space largely dark except between the spots and beyond the 
reniform; both spots prominent, white, the orbicular decumbent, oval, the 
reniform large, rounded ; t. p. line not defined ; s. t. line commencing as an 
oblique dark streak from apex and continued as a diffuse dark shade parallel 
to outer margin with a small outward bend at inner margin ; the terminal area 
more or less pale with slight dark shading ; fringes sharply black and white 
checkered. Secondaries smoky with veins partially lined with black and 
blackish fringes slightly pointed with white. Beneath pale smoky with dark 
checkered fringes; traces of a diffuse s. t. line on primaries and a large discal 
spot on secondaries. Expanse 22 mm. 

Habitat: Olancha, Inyo Co., Calif. 1 ?. Type, Coll. Barnes. 



115 

The species according to Hampson's key would fall into the above 
genus, although totally dissimilar to the other species placed here. 
Superficially it bears considerable similarity to our Leucocnemis vari- 
abilis but is darker and heavier marked. Possibly its nearest ally is 
Paracretonia aleptivoides B. & McD. a desert species from the same 
general region. 

Tarache CORA sp. nov. (PI. XVII, Figs. 19, 20). 

$ . Front and collar white ; thorax largely purple-brown, the patagia 
shaded with white ; abdomen dull ochreous ; primaries with hyaline fovea at 
base ; costal edge to near apex broadly white, narrowing beyond cell ; remainder 
of wing purple-brown, shaded with olivaceous just below the white area which 
is crossed by two yellow outwardly oblique bands, dividing the wing into three 
equal parts, the border line between the light and dark areas of wing forming 
a slight angle where the inner yellow band touches it ; above inner margin 
beyond fovea some slight pale marks indicate the t. a. line ; reniform round, 
partially projecting into white costal area and outlined in blackish; t. p. line 
only distinct above inner margin as a waved white line margined inwardly 
by olivaceous which is preceded by some bluish-white scaling; subterminal 
area shaded with bluish-white; terminal area white, broadest above anal angle, 
narrowed to a point some distance below apex, bisected by a pale yellow shade ; 
terminal dark dots on apical portion of outer margin ; fringes white with a 
slight apical dark shade and a larger one opposite cell ; secondaries hyaline 
whitish, shaded along outer margin with brownish ; fringes with basal half 
pale brownish, outer portion white. Beneath primaries smoky brown with cell 
ochreous; secondaries paler than above with faint dark discal dash. Expanse 
25 mm. 

$ . Larger than S with basal half of primaries white, crossed by a 
broad sinuate yellow band originating in a purple-brown costal blotch and 
preceded by a bluish-gray costo-basal round spot and similar shading along 
inner margin ; orbicular a small round blue-gray spot ; reniform a similar 
larger spot partially encircled with white; a faint gray shade between spots; 
outer area of wing purple-brown shaded with olivaceous and blue gray with 
large triangular white costo-apical spot ; a strongly sinuate t. p. band bends 
around reniform, largely olivaceous, bordered outwardly with blackish and 
arising from a blackish blotch on costa; irregular bluish-white shading sub- 
terminally; terminal area and fringes as in S except latter have slight dark 
shade above anal angle. Secondaries pale smoky, darker outwardly. Beneath 
primaries smoky with palish costo-apical patch ; secondaries creamy with small 
discal dash. Expanse 28 mm. 

Habitat : 3 , Baboquivera Mts., Ariz. ; 9 Redington, Ariz., Paradise, 
Ariz. 1 $.5 9. Types, Coll. Barnes. 

We are not sure that our $ and 9 represent the sexes of a 
single species, but judging by the sexual diflferences found in allied 



116 

species {lucasi Sm., tctragona Wlk.) we should not be surprised to 
find our reference correct ; the S resembles lanceolata Sm. but may 
be distinguished by the basal fovea ; veins 3 and 4 of secondaries are 
stalked in both sexes. 

CATOCALINAE 

CaENURGIA TRIANGULA sp. HOV. (PI. XV, Fig. 13). 

Head and thorax light purplish-gray ; primaries with the cell, costal region 
to t. p. line and inner margin purplish gray; reniform narrow, gray, slightly 
oblique, continued by an oblique broader band of similar color bordered finely 
with white to a point above anal angle ; the large triangular basal area formed 
by this band, the cubital vein and vein 1 is deep black brown, its lower margin 
straight and bordered by a fine whitish line; before reniform and near base 
of wing just above inner margin slight blackish streaks ; t. p. line white, rigid, 
from a point on costa before apex to near inner margin where it connects 
with the upper border line of the pale band joining the reniform with the 
anal angle thus forming at this point a sharp acute angle ; this angle as far as 
vein 3 is filled with a triangular patch of black-brown ; between veins 3 and 4 
from their point of origin to t. p. line is a pale brown shade and between veins 4 
and 6 in the space between reniform and t. p. line a quadrilateral black-brown 
patch above which the costal region is purple-gray; s. t. space light brown 
bordered outwardly by a blackish s. t. line, rigid, parallel to t. p. line and some- 
what diffuse below apex ; terminal space purplish-gray bordered by a fine dark 
terminal line ; fringes dusky. Secondaries smoky crossed by a pale postmedian 
band somewhat bent above anal angle ; a darker subterminal shade and dark 
terminal line. Beneath light smokj' ochreous with traces of paler postmedian 
band on both wings. Expanse 28-30 mm. 

Habitat : Redington, Ariz. ; Palmerlee, Ariz. ; Santa Catalina Mts., Ariz. 
6 5,6 9 . Types, Coll. Barnes. 

The species is allied to infcrcalaris Grt. (PI. XV, Fig. 14), but 
has a much longer triangular black basal patch, the lower margin of 
which is straight and not curved up near base as in Grote's species ; 
the paler area separating the two dark patches beyond the reniform 
is confined to the area between veins 3 and 4 in our species whereas 
in intercalaris it extends between veins 3 and 5 and is much paler in 
color ; various other points of distinction may be noted from our illus- 
trations. We also figure (PI. XV, Fig. 15) diagonalis Dyar which 
we are not convinced is specifically distinct from intercalaris. 

DoRYODES BiSTRiALis Geycr. (PI. XVII. Figs. 4, 5). 

In sorting over our material of this genus we were struck by the 
fact that specimens from the Northern Atlantic and New England 



117 

States were invariably larger and darker than those from southern 
localities ; as there appeared to be two races or possibly species involved 
it was necessary if possible to ascertain to which form Geyer's name 
was applicable. The species was figured in the Zutraege, IV, Figs. 
775-6 but unfortunately in the text the only locality given is "North 
America" ; from the figure it is impossible to ascertain the minute 
details, but we would note that the size of the figure is distinctly smaller 
than that of the New York and Maine specimens ; it might also be 
noted that a large proportion of Hubner's North American material 
came from Georgia (presumably from Abbot's collecting) so that 
there would be nothing out of the way in selecting this state as the 
home of the species. 

Acutaria H. S. was figured in the Samml. Eur. Schmett., VI, 74, 
Fig. 447, as a European species and as we have no access at present 
to this work we have been forced to rely on Guenee's description and 
figure, drawn up from two Georgia specimens (Sp. Gen., X, 233, PI. 
17, Fig. 6) ; this figure is also poor but the size is small as was to be 
expected from the locality given for the specimens. Hampson in his 
Cat. Lep. Phal. B. M., XIII, p. 114, figures the large northern form 
as bistrialis, having no southern material before him except Floridan 
material which he has referred to spadaria Gn., his diagnosis of this 
latter species corresponding with our own identification from a series 
from Everglade, Fla. ; we imagine therefore that we are safe in fol- 
lowing Hampson's citation of diz'isa Wlk. and promptella Wlk. to 
spadaria Gn. especially as the size given by Walker for his types 
distinctly points to their being large forms. 

As far then as our present knowledge goes we must apply the 
name bistrialis Geyer with synonym acutaria H. S. to the small southern 
form which in the S 's averages a wing expanse of 30 mm. and in 
the 9 's about 34 mm. We have the form from as far north as 
Southern Pines, N. C. (figured by us as bistrialis, Contr. I, (5) PI. 
VIII, Fig. 19) and from various Florida localities (Ft. Myers, Dade 
City, Glenwood) ; we imagine the Everglade specimens listed in Gross- 
beck's List of Florida Insects (Bull. Am. Mus., 37, p. 66) under 
bistriaria should be referred to spadaria; all our specimens collected 
at the same time were this latter species. 

For the larger northern form we propose the racial name grandi- 
PENNis (PI. XVII, Figs. 1, 2), our type series consisting of 7 S's 



118 

from Long Is., N. Y., Kittery, Me., Elizabeth and Anglesea, N. J.; 
the average expanse in the $ 's is 34 mm. and of the 9 's 37 mm. ; 
the race, besides being larger, is deeper ochreous with less of the 
purplish suffusion found in the smaller southern specimens and the 
dark streak from base of wing is usually quite broad with the upper 
and lower silver borderings overlapping well at end of cell ; in size 
and general appearance it looks closer to spadaria (PI. XVII, Figs. 
7, 8) than to bistrialis. We figure our conception of all the species 
and add the description of what appears to be a good species, as far 
as species go in this genus. 

DORYODES TENUISTRIGA sp. nOV. (PI. XVII, FigS. 10, 11). 

Thorax pale pinkish-gray; primaries pale olive-ochreous, broadly shaded 
along costa and inner and outer margins with pale purplish ; two faint dots in 
the cell; a narrow, dark, olive-brown striga below median vein narrowing at 
end of cell and curving upward to below apex bordered by a silver streak on 
upper side to end of cell and on under side from apex to vein 3, a faint dark 
s. t. line near outer margin not reaching below submedian fold. Secondaries 
whitish. Beneath primaries smoky, secondaries whitish with smoky costa. Ex- 
panse S 33 mm., 9 41 mm. 

Habitat: San Benito, Texas (Mch.-Apr.) ; Brownsville, Texas (Mch.). 
2 5,1 9. Types, Coll. Barnes. 

The species may be distinguished from spadaria Gn. by the paler 
ground color and the narrower black striga, especially noticeable at 
end of cell where the two silver streaks slightly overlap; the apex 
of primaries seems also less pointed in the S sex. 

EREBINAE 

Drasteria graphica Hbn. 

The type locality of this species which is figured in Hiibner's 
Zutrage I, Figs. 11-12, is given as Georgia; both the locality and the 
figure point strongly to graphica being the same species as capiticola 
Wlk., given specific rank in our List and figured in both sexes by us 
(Contr. Ill, (3) PI. XIII, Figs. 7, 8) ; capiticola (not capticola as we 
have listed it) will sink therefore to graphica and for the northern 
form from New Jersey and Long Island localities which has commonly 
been known as graphica we will apparently need a name. This race 
of graphica (PI. XIX, Figs. 1, 2), as we consider it, is distinguished 
by the fact that the primaries in both sexes are practically similarly 
marked, the 9 showing none of the obsolescence of markings char- 



119 

acteristic of the southern graphka; the white dots of the subterminal 
Hne are less prominent in the northern form and the two teeth of the 
extracelkilar patch are generally much more pronounced ; the yellow 
color of secondaries is slightly paler and shows less of the inclina- 
tion towards orange that we find in graphka. We propose the name 
ATLANTiCA for this racc, our types (3 $ , 2> ? ) having been cap- 
tured at Rock Beach, L. I., on June 9th by Mr. J. Doll. This race 
should not be confused with the very similar species, occulta Hy. Edw. 
(Fig. 3), which also occurs at Lakehurst, N. J., and the vicinity of 
Boston, Mass., and which is rather larger, much deeper purplish in 
color of primaries with a broader terminal area and with heavier 
black banding on secondaries ; we figure both species which illustrates 
the diflferences better than a description. 

Syneda abrupta sp. nov. (PI. XIX, Figs. 12, 14). 

$. Head gray; thorax an admixture of ochreous and gray scaling with a 
longitudinal black streak on each tegula and black shading on the patagia ; 
primaries with basal area lilac-gray crossed near base by a geminate black 
subbasal line, not reaching inner margin, and defined outwardly by a broadly 
geminate t. a. line, black, irregular, filled in with brown and with prominent 
outward bulges in the cell and again in subraedian fold ; median area whitish 
ochreous, paler inwardly and rather shiny, crossed outwardly by a geminate 
brown line arising from a diffuse smoky area on costa above reniform which 
is itself dark smoky, its basal edge formed by a straight white streak, its outer 
edge very irregularly dentate and outlined with white, this color also extending 
along veins 3 and 4 to t. p. line; beyond reniform the sinus formed by the t. p. 
line is filled with brownish shading; t. p. line as usual strongly bent around 
cell with small tooth just below costa and more prominent one on vein 6, 
bluntly protruding between veins 3 and 4, straight from base of vein 3 to inner 
margin ; s. t. space largely smoky ; terminal space lilac-gray defined inwardly by 
a slightly paler, obscure, very waved s. t. line, strongly bulged outwardly below 
costa and at vein 3; dark crenulate terminal line; fringes checkered, white and 
smoky. Secondaries with basal half rather hyaline, slightly smoky, with dark 
lunule and broad outer smoky band broken by a pale spot on outer margin 
between veins 2 and 3 ; fringes checkered. Beneath whitish hyaline, primaries 
with large dark discal lunule in a diffuse dark spot and broad outer border, 
secondaries with smaller lunule and narrow subterminal dark band, the mar- 
ginal area being white with slight dark spot between veins 3 and 4. 

9. Median area darker than in $, with more lilac-gray shading; 
secondaries with basal area scarcely paler than marginal band ; beneath more 
obscure with pale marginal area of secondaries generally obscured with smoky. 
Expanse 41 mm. 

Habitat: Huachuca Mts., Palmerlee, Ariz.; Jemez Spgs., N. M.; 2 $, 
3 ?. Types, Coll. Barnes. 



120 

The species is closely allied to sabulosa Hy. Edw. but differs 
among other things in the more contrasted maculation, especially the 
pale median area and the white markings around reniform; sabulosa 
is listed at present in the genus Cissusa Wlk. (type, spadix Cram.) 
but cannot stay there on account of the scaly nature of the thoracic 
vestiture; for the present we place both species in Syneda and must 
await Sir Geo. Hampson's revision of the Erebin'ae (Noctuinae) for 
the correct location. 

Syneda tejonica Behr. (PI. XIX, Figs. 5, 6). 

A good deal of confusion exists concerning the identity of this 
species, described in 1870 (Tr. Am. Ent. Soc. Ill, 26) from three 
species from Ft. Tejon, Calif., which locality we have recently discov- 
ered to be in San Bernardino Co. The description, mainly in Latin, 
is not very lucid and the fact that the types are destroyed does not 
tend to improve the situation ; however, there is one feature of the 
diagnosis which eliminates practically all of our identified Synedas 
from consideration, viz, that Behr distinctly states that the under side 
of all wings is -ivhitc (subtus alae omnes candidae) more or less tinged 
with orange; the only two species known to us to which this could 
possibly apply are Drastcria mirifica Hy. Edw. and the species listed 
as Syneda perfecta Hy. Edw. A foot note by Behr further elucidates 
the situation as he states that "the species varies in the coloration of 
the hind wings, which are, in two specimens, nearly white with only 
a slight orange tinge about disc and margin." This at once eliminates 
mirifica and points strongly towards perfecta as it is well-known that 
the S 's of this species have the secondaries largely white whilst in 
the $ 's they are orange. We have before us a series of specimens 
from Loma Linda, San Bernardino, Co., Calif., which complies with 
Behr's diagnosis in every respect, showing the pale violet median and 
terminal areas of primaries, the white wings in S and the orange 
ones in 9 and the white under side in both sexes, although we might 
note that in the 9 the orange suffusion is at times extended so as 
to almost cover the entire wings ; we believe without question that 
these represent the true tejonica Behr. As compared with perfecta Hy. 
Edw. they are so close that we should hesitate to even give the two 
names racial value ; however, as the name perfecta was based on Ari- 



121 

zona specimens, for the present it may be well to consider it as applying 
to an Arizona race of tejonica which latter name has well-established 
priority. 

Syneda pulchra sp. nov. (PI. XIX, Fig. 4). 

Head and thorax gray, tegulae with darker lateral stripes; primaries 
with basal area black-brown slightly sprinkled with gray, this area bordered 
by a darker t. a. line, irregular in course with a prominent inward angle below 
median vein, followed by a rounded bulge and then bent strongly backward 
to inner margin ; median space ochreous, grayish-brown at costa and inner 
margin and crossed outwardly by a geminate brown line; reniform a dark 
lunate blotch bordered inwardly by an ochreous line; t. p. line as usual 
bent strongly outwardly beyond cell, forming prominent angles on veins 3, 4 
and 6, bent backward below vein 3 to its base then rounded and rather irregular 
to inner margin; beyond the reniform some white shading especially on veins 
3 and 4; subterminal space black-brown bordered by a pale, quite regular s. t. 
line, parallel to outer margin with slight inward bend in submedian fold and 
preceded in costal area by black dashes bordered outwardly by a dark line 
arising from an apical dark streak; terminal area violet-gray with marginal 
dark crenulate line; fringes smoky spotted at base with gray. Secondaries 
vermilion with a faint dark discal lunule, a narrow postmedian dark band 
curving downward at vein 2 to anal angle, where it is thickest, and median and 
costal dark blotches on outer margin, fringes pinkish tinged with smoky 
opposite blotches. Beneath pinkish, primaries with postmedian dark band, 
forming a heavy triangular dark blotch on costa of primaries, heavy disca! 
lunule and traces of apical and median dark shading along outer margin; 
secondaries as above. Expanse 34 mm. 

Habit.at: Palm Spgs., Riverside Co., Calif. (Mch.) 1 $. Type, Coll. 
Barnes. 

Obviously allied to tejonica Behr but differing in the course of 
t. a. and s. t. lines and the ochreous median band ; the S secondaries 
are also vermilion instead of white with pinkish shading. In view 
of the fact that these features are usually constant in the group and 
that our new species comes from a desert region we venture to describe 
from a single specimen. 

Syneda hudsonica G. & R. (PI. XIX, Figs. 7, 8). 

This species is well-figured by Grote on PI. Ill, Figs. 7, 8 of Proc. 
Ent. Soc. Phil. IV (1865); its range is probably over the whole of 
northern Canada from Hudson Bay to Alaska and down the Rockies 
at higher altitudes into Colorado and Utah ; we have typical speci- 
mens from Field, B. C, and Glacier National Park, Mont. ; specimens 
from the southern portion of Colorado and Utah have been given 



122 

the name scposita Hy. Edw. but this is apparently only a race with 
slightly yellower secondaries and rather more brown shades on pri- 
maries of $ sex. 

In southern Manitoba we meet with a race (PI. XIX, Figs. 9, 10) 
of the same species which is characterized by the pale gray color of 
primaries and by the obsolescence of the maculation in the 9 sex, 
the primaries at times being almost uniform gray; the s. t. line of 
primaries is also generally not so markedly crenulate and the color of 
secondaries is a pale ivory; just as in the type form the median 
pale band may or may not show brown shading outwardly. We pro- 
pose for this race the name heathi, our type series (2 3,3 $ ) 
having been captured at Cartwright, Man. (June) by the late Mr. 
E. F. Heath; we have other specimens from Winnipeg and Miniota, 
Man., and from various Saskatchewan localities. 

HYPAENINAE 

Hemeroplanis scopulaepes Haw. 

Sir Geo. Hampson has called our attention to the genus Scopelo- 
pus Steph. (1830, 111. Brit. Ent. Haust. HI, p. 124), erected for the 
species inops Steph. which name Stephens proposed to replace scopu- 
laepes Haw. ( 1809, Brit. Ent. No. 260) ; stating that the species is 
probably a native of Georgia and erroneously included among the 
British Lepidoptera by Haworth ; from the generic and specific descrip- 
tions there seems no doubt but that the name was applied to what 
is now listed as Pleonectyptera pyralis Hbn. which names, both generic 
and specific, will have to fall. Apparently, however, both Scopclopus 
Steph. and Pleonectyptera Grt. are synonyms of Hemeroplanis Hbn. 
(1816, Zutr., I, 23, Fig. 127; 1825, Verz. p. 259) based on the single 
species pyralis Hbn. {pyraloides Hbn.) The generic name Hemero- 
planis has probably been sunk as a homonym of Hemcroplanes Hbn. 
(1820, Verz. p. 133) ; we believe according to the latest rulings that 
both names are valid but in any case Hemeroplanis Hbn. has priority 
as the whole Vol. I of the Zutrage was completed in 1818 and the plate 
containing Hemeroplanis pyralis was probably issued in 1816; generic 
names based on figures in the Zutrage are considered by some authors 
as non descr. but Rule 79 of Banks and Caudell's Code distinctly per- 
mits of their acceptance and we see no reason for not following this. 



123 

There seems also to be no reason for changing the original name as 
given by Havvorth and the synonymy will therefore stand : 
Hemeroplanis Hbn. 

Scopelopus Steph. 

Pleonectyptera Grt. 
scopulaepes Haw. 

pyralis Hbn. 

inops Steph. 

irrecta Wlk. 

ftoccalis Zell. 

Mycterophora rubricans sp. nov. (PI. XVIII, Figs. 1, 2). 

Palpi long, porrect, blade-like; $ antennae strongly bipectinate, 2 
simple; thorax and both wings pale ochreous, heavily sprinkled and shaded 
with fuscous and with a distinct pinkish suffusion over the whole wings ; macu- 
lation variably distinct due to the greater or less amount of fuscous shading; 
t. a. line rather closer to base than usual, dark, irregular, with an inward angle 
on median vein ; a broad dusky median shade rounded outwardly below 
costa, preceded in the cell by a small dark dot representing the orbicular and 
followed by a small dark lunule with pale center in the place of the reniform; 
t. p. line dark, single, strongly bent outward below costa to beyond cell, then 
inwardly oblique and wavy, in general parallel to outer margin ; s. t. line faintly 
represented by a diffuse ochreous shade-line preceded and followed by heavier 
fuscous shading; a more or less broken, dark, crenulate terminal line; fringes 
concolorous, slightly checkered with pinkish opposite veins and cut by a median 
smoky line. Secondaries similar to primaries in maculation without the basal 
line; a large dark discal lunule resting on the median shade. Beneath pale 
smoky with pinkish fringes and faint traces of the maculation of the upper 
side. Expanse $ 26 mm., 2 24 mm. 

Habitat: Monachee Meadows, Tulare Co., Calif., 5 5,8 2. Types, 
Coll. Barnes. 

The species is allied to monticola Hist, and may possibly prove to 
be identical with it; this latter species possesses, however, none of 
the ruddy shading which is characteristic of our species and from our 
notes on Hulst's type would seem to dififer somewhat in minor details 
of maculation. 

Genus Parahvpenodes gen. nov. (Type P. qnaJralis sp. nov.). 

Proboscis greatly reduced ; labial palpi long, upturned, second joint blade- 
like, far exceeding front, heavily and smoothly scaled, third joint almost as 
long as the second, thread-like, acuminate; $ antennae heavily ciliate; front 
rough-scaled ; legs normal ; primaries with 10 veins, 3, 4 and 5 separate from 



124 

around lower end of cell, 6 from below apex of cell, 7 and 10 from a point 
at apex of cell, 8 and 9 absent, 11 free from about middle of cell ; secondaries 
with 3 and 4 from a point at end of cell, 5 parallel to 4 from below middle 
of discocellulars, 6 and 7 slightly stalked. 

P. QUADRALis sp. nov. (PI. XVIII, Fig. 6). 

Primaries dull ochreous gray, shaded with deep smoky ; t. a. line single, 
dark, irregular, arising from small dark costal blotch, bent inward below costa 
with prominent outward bulge in the submedian fold ; t. p. line single, dentate, 
squarely exserted around cell, then strongly inwardly oblique to a point on 
the middle of inner margin; at the end of cell a square blackish patch, the 
most prominent feature of the maculation ; subterminal area dark smoky, the 
terminal area pale grayish, the difference between the two shades defining 
the s. t. line which is in general parallel to outer margin with a slight bulge 
opposite cell; outer margin slightly crenulate with dark terminal line; fringes 
dull ochreous, cut with smoky. Secondaries deep smoky with traces of a darker 
oblique line crossing from costa near apex to inner margin above anal angle. 
Beneath smoky, secondaries paler in basal area with traces of a curved post- 
median line. Expanse 18 mm. 

Habitat: St. Therese Isl., St. Johns' Co., Que. (July). 3 $. Types, 
Coll. Barnes, Paratype, Coll. W. Chagnon. 

We can find neither a generic nor a specific term applicable to this 
species. In Schaus' recent revision of the Hypeninae, to which the 
species evidently belongs, no mention is made of any genus with veins 
8 and 9 of primaries lacking; we risk therefore the description of 
both genus and species which should be readily recognizable super- 
ficially by its general Episcuxis-Wkt appearance and the square dark 
patch at end of cell. We are indebted to Mr. W. Chagnon of St. 
Johns, Que., for the specimens ; a Paratype remains in his collection. 

Genus Epizeuxis Hbn. 

Schaus, in his "Revision of the Subfamily Hypeninae" (1916, 
Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, p. 359) gives the type of this genus as 
aemnla Hbn. and the original reference as "Verz., 1816, p. 346"; this 
date is obviously wrong as may be seen by referring to Sherbom's 
article on the dates of Hubner's Verzeichniss (Ann. Mag. N. H., 1912, 
Jan.) ; according to this article page 346 was not issued until 1826; 
Schaus further ignores Grote's fixation of the type as cah'arialis D. & 
S. in 1874 (BufT. Bull., II, 47). The generic term Epizeuxis was how- 
ever used by Hubner long before it appeared in the Verzeichniss; in the 
Zutraege Exot. Schmett. he uses it in connection with our N. Ameri- 



125 

can species lituralis (1. c. Figs. 19, 20) and this portion of the publi- 
cation was probably issued considerably before 1818; as this is a very 
clear case of the usage of a generic term along with a single specific 
name, we hold that the genus was originally monobasic with lituralis 
Hbn. as type of the genus, Hubner's later action in the Verzeichniss 
being merely an extension of the generic conception to include other 
species which he considered congeneric. 

Our usual conception of the genus as given in Smith's revision of 
Deltoid Moths (1895, Bull. 48 U. S. Nat. Mus.) and as followed 
by Dyar and Schaus must be changed. Epizeuxis Hbn. will supplant 
Zanclognatha Led. as used in our lists and for the genus to which 
the name Epizeuxis has been usually attached we must seek a new 
name; Helia Gn. cannot be used as it is preoccupied by Hclia Hbn. 
(Verz., 259) and Grote's term Pseudaglossa (Buff. Bull., II, 47) we 
believe will fall to Camptylochila Steph. (1834, 111. Brit. Ent. Haust., 
IV, p. 21) proposed for two species, nndulalis and bistrigalis, presum- 
ably British, but which Stephens later (1850, Cat. Lep. Brit. Mus., p. 
303) lists as North American; judging by Wood's figures of both 
species (Ind. Ent., PI. 27, Figs. 77^ and 774) and Stephens" figure 
of the latter species (1. c. PI. 2)Z, Fig. 3) we believe that undulalis is 
aemula Hbn. and bistrigalis will fall to lubricalis Geyer. With un- 
dulalis {aemula) as type, the genus Camptylochila can be employed 
in precisely the same sense, therefore, as Epizcuxis as used by Schaus 
and for those who desire fine distinctions Grote's Pseudaglossa may 
still be used for the lubricalis group as has been done by Schaus (1. c. 
p. 360) who separates the two in his key on antennal differences. 
We are indebted to Sir Geo. Hampson for first calling our attention 
to Stephens' generic name. In going over the species of this genus we 
have come across a group of four closely allied species for which 
apparently only two names are available ; of these four the first named 
and best known species is rotundalis Wlk. {borealis Sm.) (PI. XVIII. 
Fig. 10) a deep purple-brown species with indistinct maculation ; in 
well-marked specimens the lines are rather broad, blackish, the t. a. 
upright and the t. p. only slightly bent inward at costa and practically 
parallel to outer margin ; the renif orm and orbicular are never prom- 
inent and the under side of secondaries is pale smoky with obscure 
discal spot and dark postmedian and subterminal lines. 

A second species is forbesi Frch. (1895, Bull. 111. Sta. Lab. N. 
Hist., IV, 8) of which merrickalis Sm. must be made a synonym; 



126 

French's description is very clear and applies exactly to Co-types of 
merrickalis before us as well as to a long New Brighton series ; in 
his revision Smith sank forbcsi to rotundalis and later probably, re- 
cognizing the differences as specific but overlooking French's name, 
redescribed the species. Forbesi (PI. XVIII, Fig. 11) is a much bet- 
ter marked species than rotiindaUs; the t. p. and s. t. lines are marked 
at costa with ochreous streaks, the former is much more strongly bent 
outward below costa and more irregularly dentate ; the secondaries 
are paler on both sides with two distinct dark cross-lines and a pale 
s. t. line in the broad dark marginal border. 

The two other forms before us have received Mss. names from 
Smith and we have Co-types in our collection; the names however 
have never been published as far as we can ascertain ; using Smith's 
names we therefore present here the characteristic features of each 
species. 

C. JULIA sp. nov. (PI. XVIII, Fig. 13) is close to rotundalis but aver- 
ages rather larger and is slightly paler with faint pale dots on costa 
at the inception of the lines; the t. a. is bordered inwardly by a faint 
pale line, the t. p. is bent more strongly outward beyond the cell and 
the reniform is represented by a distinct pale dot; beneath a very 
characteristic feature is the pale basal area of secondaries with the 
dark discal dot preceded half way to base of wing by a small dark dot; 
there is a distinct broad postmedian line and pale s. t. line. Four of 
Smith's Co-types before us are from New Brighton, Pa. ; we have 
other specimens from the same locality as well as from Manchester, 
N. H., and Decatur, 111. 

C. DiMiNUENDis sp. nov. (PI. XVIII, Fig. 12) is the smallest of the 
four species, averaging 18 mm. wing expanse and is at once recogniz- 
able by the ochreous orbicular and reniform, the former a mere dot, 
the latter small but distinct ; the color is even purple-brown with no 
ochreous shades along costa ; the t. p. line black, irregular, well bent 
out at costa and incurved in fold ; the under side is rather even dull 
smoky with base of secondaries paler with small discal dot and post- 
median line. We have before us a long series from New Brighton, 
Pa., including five of Smith's Co-types; we also have the species from 
Pittsburg, Pa. ( 9 Co-type), Cincinnati, Ohio, and Douglas Lake, 
Michigan. 



127 

Renia nemoralis sp. nov. (PI. XV, Figs. 10, 11). 

Head, thorax and primaries a distinct reddish-brown somewhat shaded 
with smoky, giving rather a purplish hue along costa and subterminally ; a 
faint basal curved half-line; t. a. line dark, even, slightly rounded outwardly 
with minute angle at costa ; orbicular a round orange spot, poorly defined by 
black; reniform orange, narrowly lunate with central upper and lower black 
dots often joined by a dark line; a median dark shade crossing the reniform; 
t. p. line bent outward at costa, then evenly crenulate and parallel to outer 
margin ; s. t. line faint, ochreous, irregular, preceded by dark shading ; a broken 
dark terminal line. Secondaries smoky, paler basally with dark, slightly crenu- 
late median line, sharply angled near inner margin, shaded outwardly by pale 
ochreous ; a faint dark s. t. line most distinct at inner margin where it is shaded 
slightly with ochreous. Beneath smoky brown, basal half of wings pale with 
smoky sprinkles, primaries with discal dash, rather distinct straight postmedian 
line and faint s. t. line, defined at costa by several ochreous dots ; secondaries 
with large prominent discal streak, a curved crenulate postmedian line and a 
faint pale s. t. line ; dark marginal line to both wings. Expanse 28 mm. 

Habitat: Long Is., N. Y. (Aug.); Nueces Riv., Texas. 2 $,2 9. 
Types, Coll. Barnes. 

We have had the upper wings of a specimen from Elizabeth, 
N. J., in the collection for some time awaiting further material, so 
imagine the species will occur in most of the Eastern States. This 
species has probably been confused with factiosalis Wlk. but differs 
in its much larger size, a red-brown color in both sexes (factiosalis 
is smoky brown in S ) and more sharply angled median line on sec- 
ondaries ; it differs from larvalis Grt. with which it agrees in size, by 
the more regular t. a. line. 



128 



NOTODONTIDAE 

Heterocampa cubana Grt. (PI. XX, Fig. 14). 

We have received several specimens of this species from Venice, 
Fla. ; it is a new addition to our North American fauna. The species 
is allied to varia Wlk. but lacks the white subapical shade ; the course 
of the t. p. line is also somewhat different and the median line makes 
a sharp outward angle above the inner margin. It is this species which 
is reported in Lepidoptera p. 109 by Mr. Bonniwell as a peculiar form 
of H. varia. 



129 



LYMANTRIIDAE 

Olene vagans B. & McD. (PI. XX, Figs. 8, 9). 

In the summer of 1917 whilst on a collecting trip in Maine, Dr. 
McDunnough took two Olenc larvae from an apple tree at Packard's 
Camp, Sebec Lake; at the same place on a hazel bush he also took a 
single larva which was distinct from the preceding although closely 
related. In the course of time the first two hatched into a S and 9 
of the above species; the other larva produced a S (PI. XX, Fig. 7) 
which on returning home and comparing with the material in the 
collection we decided must be willingi which we had treated in our 
revision as a race of vagans but which in the light of the larval dis- 
tinctions must be regarded as a distinct species. 

Numerous S specimens of Olene taken at light at Sebec Lake 
were carefully worked over and separated, using the bred material 
as a basis; we found that with the exception of rubbed specimens 
(which are very difficult to place correctly) the majority of 
the S specimens could be fairly readily referred to either the 
one form or the other by taking into account a combination of 
the following features: (1) vagans has a rather darker color with 
the cross lines more evident and with a tendency for the t. a. and t. p. 
lines to approach each other quite closely at the inner margin; (2) 
the dark band following the t. p. line in vagans is quite well defined 
outwardly by an irregular white s. t. line terminating in a distinct white 
spot above inner margin and showing slight dark transverse dashes 
below costa; in willingi the s. t. area is very poorly defined and the 
white spot is far less noticeable; (3) the reniform is more distinctly 
white shaded in vagans than in willingi. 

With regard to the 9 's we are unable to give any comparisons, 
as the only 9 secured was the one bred from apple; we beheve 
however on the strength of this specimen that our 9 types of vagans 
belong to another species and that the name must be restricted to 
the $ type figured in our Contributions, Vol. II, (2) PI. Ill, Fig. 1 ; 
we figure the correct 9 (PI. XX, Fig. 9), and a comparison of 
this figure with those on PI. Ill, Figs. 2 and 4 of the revision will 
show the marked diflferences; it may be that our 9 Co-type should 



130 

be referred to willingi but until the 9 of this has been bred it is 
impossible to make any definite statements. 

With regard to the larvae, our figures on Plate V, Figs. 5 and 6 
of the revision are correct ; we would call attention to the distinct 
diflferences in the dorsal tufts which are clearly visible in the photo- 
graphs. In the text (pp. 63 and 64) instead of "segment 11" should 
be substituted "segment 11" and we would point out that there actually 
is in willingi a small dorsal hair pencil arising out of the raised tuft 
on this segiTient but the hairs forming it are very apt to be rubbed 
off when the larvae crawls around and it is only in freshly moulted 
individuals that it is clearly visible. We append a description of both 
larvae drawn up from the living specimens : 

O. VAGANS (mature larva). 

Head black. Body dull gray-black marbled with white with coral-colored 
eversible glands; two anterior and two posterior lateral black hair pencils; 
eighth abdominal segment (seg. 11) with a dorsal tuft of black hair surrounded 
at the base by white feathery hairs; subdorsal rosettes of similar white hair on 
meso- and metathorax and on abdominal segments 5-7; first four abdominal 
segments with heavy light-brown dorsal tufts intermingled sparsely with white; 
lateral rosettes of short white plumed hairs on all the segments; subspiracular 
tufts of long white plumed hair, each tuft with a central black plumed hair 
which is occasionally double; on the meso- and metathorax the number of 
black hairs is normally 2-3. 

O. WILLINGI (mature larva). 

Head black. Body and lateral black hair pencils as in the preceding; 
8th abdominal segment with a fine black hair pencil arising out of the dorsal 
tuft; the dorsal tufts on abdominal segments 1-4 are mouse gray without an 
admixture of white hairs except that they are bordered laterally by the usual 
white rosettes which occur further on the meso- and metathorax and on 
abdominal segments 5-7; the prothoracic hairs are quite characteristically tinged 
with ochreous; the lateral and subspiracular ttifts are pale gray, the hairs 
being much less plumed than in the preceding species; the central black hair 
is also merely barbed, not plumed. 

The distinctions in the color and quality of the hair can be readily 
seen in the cocoons which are formed of the larval hairs loosely spun 
together; that of vagans is much deeper in color and lacks the slight 
ochreous tinge found in willingi cocoon. 

With regard to our figures in the revision on Plate III, we might 
say that the type (Fig. 1) does not show the close approximation 



131 

of the t. a. and t. p. lines often found and which may be seen in the 
bred specimen we figure in this present paper (PI. XX, Fig. 8) ; it 
does however distinctly show the well-defined s. t. area and there 
is no doubt as to the determination of our Maine series; the 
specimen from Hymers, Ont., (Rev. Fig. 9) should probably be 
referred to vagans as a dark form; note the approximation of 
the lines and the distinct white area around the reniform. With 
regard to grisea B. & McD. our type series from Utah seems to agree 
with willingi rather than vagans, and we propose for the present 
treating the two as races of one species ; as the name grisea has page 
priority the species will be known by this name with zvillingi as a 
northern race. The Manitoba specimen figured as grisea (Rev. Fig. 3) 
we regard as rather doubtfully placed; it may represent a new form 
but until the larva is known nothing definite can be said. 

Generally speaking vagans seems to show a relationship with 
basiflava whilst grisea var. zvillingi tends more towards atomaria. 



132 



LASIOCAMPIDAE 

DicOGASTER CORONADA Barnes. 

The receipt of two Lasiocampid larvae feeding on oak from Para- 
dise, Ariz., which we succeeded in breeding through into the 3 and 
9 of the above species proves that our description of the larva pub- 
Hshed in the revision (Contr. I, (2), p. 16, 1911) was erroneous; 
the larval notes published under coronada should possibly be referred 
to Quadrina diacoma Grt. which appears to occur in the same gen- 
eral locality but of this we have no definite knowledge. We offer 
the following description of the true coronada larva. 

Head large, blackish, brown at the extreme sides with white cen- 
tral line and white clypeus with central dark line; three outcurved 
white lines on each cheek; whole head covered with long brownish 
hairs. Body broad and rather flat with strongly developed lateral 
tubercles on anterior segments, very similar to those found in Tolype 
larvae; clothed with sparse rather short deep brown hairs shading 
into white laterally; color deep velvety black-brown with very faint 
pale dorsal stripe ; prothoracic shield largely whitish ; posterior margin 
of segments rather broadly whitish narrowing laterally ; a broken pale 
ochreous supra-spiracular stripe consisting of two distinct portions 
on each segment, an anterior straight short stripe and a posterior 
larger oblique patch situated directly above the spiracle which is pale 
with a faint light patch below it. Each abdominal segment is sub- 
divided into four subsegments, the fourth one containing subdorsally 
two minute orange dots on each side ; anal plate whitish ; legs reddish ; 
prolegs pale, tinged with pink; under side pale whitish ochreous. 
Breadth of head 7 mm. Length at rest 70 mm. Width, 12 mm. 

Tolype lowriei sp. nov. (PI. XX, Figs. 10, 11). 

Palpi black at sides; front white with an admixture of black hairs; 
thorax pure white, the tufting deep brown, heaviest on metathorax, the an- 
terior portion often covered by the white thoracic hairs ; abdomen light blue- 
gray dorsally, shading into white laterally; primaries white, banded with light 
blue-gray with the veins outlined in white; basal area gray-shaded followed 
by an upright band of white, enclosing a narrow gray line ; median band gray, 
the inner edge straight, the outer slightly angled below costa gently concave 
between veins 4 and 6 and then practically straight to inner margin ; follow- 
ing the median band is a prominent broad white area bounded outwardly by 



133 

an oblique dark shade band from costa near apex and more or less rigid with 
a slight outward bend at inner margin; this pale area is crossed by an obso- 
lescent oblique gray line ; subterminal area beyond oblique shade and terminal 
area slightly paler blue-gray ; s. t. line broad, distinct, white, bent inward and 
forming more or less of a white blotch between veins 5 and 6 and slightly 
accentuated on veins 2 and 3; a white terminal line; fringes blue-gray, paler 
outwardly; secondaries white crossed by a broad subterminal smoky band, 
narrowing toward costa and slightly angled at vein 4; slight smoky shading 
above inner margin toward base of wing. Beneath much as above with the 
maculation less distinct, the subterminal dark band of primaries strongly 
marked. Expanse S 35 mm., 9 43 mm. 

Habitat: Santa Cruz Mts., Calif. 4 $,4 $. Types, Coll. Barnes. 

This species was bred by Miss Elizabeth Lowrie and her sister 
from eggs laid by a captured 9 , taken at Mt. Heimon in the Santa 
Cruz Mts. at an elevation of 400 ft., the larva feeding on pine ; it is 
the first recorded Tolype species from California and appears suffi- 
ciently distinct to warrant a name; we take much pleasure in naming 
it after the collectors who have been instrumental in supplying many 
an interesting specimen to our collection. The species is allied to 
minta Dyar from Florida but is larger with a much more regu- 
lar outer edge to the median gray band. The larva, according to 
Miss Lowrie, is gray-brown with a black transverse mark on 3rd 
body segment containing two yellow dots, beneath whitish, tinged with 
yellow mesially and with central diamond-shaped black patches; from 
an alcohol specimen kindly forwarded us it would seem as if the 
larva showed a series of broad, dark, dorsal diamond-shaped patches, 
more or less connected, and a waved dark stigmatal hne, but these 
points may have been accentuated by the preserving fluid. 



134 



GEOMETRIDAE 

HEMITHEIINAE 

Racheospila irregularia sp. nov. 

Palpi and front dull red-brown ; a white fillet between antennae edged 
posteriorly with red ; collar and thorax green ; abdomen green dorsally with 
four large raised white spots ringed with red, anal segment white, beneath 
white; legs white, fore coxae green-tinged. Primaries bright green with nar- 
row white costa ; t. a. line white with prominent outward angle in submedian 
fold ; t. p. line very irregular and strongly dentate, straight from costa to above 
vein 4, strongly bent outward across veins 3 and 4 with teeth on the veins, bent 
back sharply to the submedian fold with tooth on vein 2 and then perpendicular 
to inner margin; a small black discal dot; a narrow red terminal line broken 
by white dots at ends of veins; fringes white, faintly red-tinged opposite veins. 
Secondaries similar in maculation to primaries with the same irregular t. p. 
line. Beneath whitish slightly green-tinged with faint red terminal line. Ex- 
panse 19 mm. 

Habitat; Brownsville, Texas (May, June). 2 2. Types, Coll. Barnes. 

Belongs in Section II of Racheospila as defined by Prout ; appar- 
ently related to texana Hist, but with much smaller discal dots and 
more irregular t. p. line. 

Nemoria aemularia sp. nov. 

Palpi ochreous tinged with ruddy ; front dull pinkish-red with white inter- 
antennal fillet ; thorax and collar green ; abdomen with basal segments green, 
terminal segments whitish, with a narrow broken dorsal line of ruddy-brown 
in the S and a broad band of same color in ? which practically displaces 
all the green color; abdomen beneath and legs pale ochreous; primaries pale 
blue- or yellow-green, heavily and roughly striate with pale creamy, veins 
outlined in creamy ; costa cream colored, ruddy at extreme base ; t. a. line 
faint, creamy, rounded, partially hidden by the striations ; t. p. line broad, 
creamy, almost parallel to outer margin ; fringes creamy with slight yellow 
tinge ; secondaries similar to primaries in maculation. Beneath whitish, partly 
hyaline. Expanse $ 23 mm., 9 25 mm. 

Habitat: Paradise, Cochise Co., Ariz.; Palmerlee, Ariz. 5 S, 4 9. 
Types, Coll. Barnes. 

The species is hardly a typical Nemoria, the 9 palpi being longer 
than usual and more as in Racheospila; as however it appears to be 
otherwise obviously related to viridicaria Hist, and caenilescens Prout 
we place it in this genus. Its yellow-green coloration with veins out- 
lined more or less in ochreous is characteristic. 



135 

Nemoria punctularia sp. nov. 

Palpi pale ochreous, tinged with reddish, 3rd joint largely reddish ; front 
dull reddish, dotted anteriorly with white; white fillet between antennae bor- 
dered posteriorly with red; collar and thorax green; abdomen dorsally largely 
light brown with dark purple blotches at base and on 3rd and 4th segments, 
each with a slight sprinkling of white scales forming a more or less evident 
small central patch; laterally the abdomen is tinged with green shading into 
white, beneath white; legs ochreous tinged with ruddy; primaries bright green, 
evenly sprinkled with fine white dots, costa narrowly white with red shading 
at base; faint white t. a. line, outwardly oblique; t. p. line white, faint, almost 
straight across wing; a prominent purple-brown discal dot; fringes pale with 
slight ruddy shading near apex. Secondaries similar to primaries in macula- 
tion but the cross-lines curved ; discal dot present. Beneath pale greenish white 
with ochreous costa. Expanse 27 mm. 

Habitat: San Francisco, Calif. ( 5 ) ; Camp Baldy, S. Bern. Mts., Calif. 
(June-July) (?). 1 3. 2 5. Types, Coll. Barnes. 

Very similar in maculation to darwiniata Dyar but with large 
discal spots ; the abdominal maculation is peculiar, the prominent white 
spots with narrow red border of Jariciniata being modified into pur- 
plish blotches with small white center, segment II being brownish, 
not green. 

ACIDALIINAE 

ACIDALIA BUCEPHALARIA sp. nOV. (PI. XXIII, Fig. 2). 

Primaries even dark ochreous, very slightly speckled with black; cross 
lines well defined, blackish; t. a. line single, bent outward below costa, then 
inwardly oblique to inner margin, a small discal dot, usually quite distinct, fol- 
lowed by a slightly waved dark line in general parallel to outer margin ; a rather 
heavier and more strongly waved s. t. line, parallel to the preceding; faint 
traces of a pale line in the terminal space preceded by smoky shading; a faint 
dark dotted fringe line; secondaries with the lines of primaries continued with 
the exception of the t. a. line and with the discal dot usually represented by a 
small dark dot in the median line. Beneath paler than above with similar macu- 
lation, the t. a. line of primaries being however lacking, the other lines very 
distinct as is usually the case with the discal dots. Expanse 24 mm. 

Habitat : Tuolumne Meadows, Calif. 13 5,8 ? . Types, Coll. Barnes. 

The species is very close to sideraria Gn., agreeing in antennal 
structure but entirely lacking all trace of the ruddy terminal shading 
found in this species ; the under side also is much paler ochreous and 
more heavily marked. In connection with the generic name Acidalia 
Tr. (1825) we would note that we are aware that this is preoccupied 



136 

by Acidalia Hbn. (1818, Verz., p. 31) but are not certain as to the 
correct name to be used in its place; it is very possible, according 
to Messrs. Prout and Hampson, that Scapula Schr. (which in any case 
has priority and for which the correct type is said to be ornata Scop.), 
should be employed. 

LARENTIINAE 

LiTHOSTEGE FUSCATA Grossb. 

After a careful study of the type from Colton, Calif., in Rutgers 
College Collection and a comparison with several specimens taken 
with us, we cannot find any distinct characteristics that would sepa- 
rate this from rotmtdata Pack. ; the wings are rather more suffused 
with gray than is the case with Packard's type specimen from San 
Diego, Calif., but only slightly more so than in the type specimen of 
ariconata Grt. in the Brooklyn Inst. Coll. which is listed as a synonym 
of rotundata; we can make absolutely nothing of the supposed differ- 
ence in the course of the three subterminal white lines on which 
Grossbeck lays stress. We have a good series of specimens from 
Arizona localities as well as from various S. Californian localities as 
far north as the San Bernardino region and find that there is as 
much variation between specimens from any one locality as there is 
between the types of rotundata Pack., arisonata Grt. and fuscata Grt. 
The name fuscata may be retained for the suffused forms if desired 
but we cannot see that it is entitled to specific rank. 

Stam NODES DECEPTivA sp. nov. (PI. XXIII, Fig. 1). 

Front, thorax and abdomen light fuscous, tinged with pink between the 
antennae and at base of collar ; primaries deep orange with basal third of costa 
gray-black ; a large, broadly triangular spot of same color on costa beyond 
middle and a smaller narrower one before apex ; apical third of outer margin 
gray black with irregular inner edge closely approached to apex of costal tri- 
angle ; fringes dusky, cut with white. Secondaries orange with gray-black 
markings as follows; a basal spot, the basal half of costa which is joined to 
two spots in the cell, a large oblong patch on costa near apex, a larger patch 
above inner margin joined at its extremities to the margin and enclosing a spot 
of orange color, a smaller lunate patch above anal angle and a slight irregular 
band on central portion of outer margin; fringes dusky partially cut with 
white. Beneath primaries as above but costa pale ochreous, this color enclosing 
the outer triangular spot ; secondaries pale ochreous with blackish markings 



137 

of upper side repeated, with pink shading at base of wing and a broken pink 
band centrally in the postmedian pale area. Expanse 24 ram. 

Habitat: Paradise, Cochize Co., Ariz, (June, Aug.). 2 $. Types, 
Coll. Barnes. 

A very striking species, allied to fervifactaria Grt. but differing in 
the maculation of the secondaries. 

EUSTROMA FASCIATA sp. nOV. (PI. XXI, Fig. 1). 

Primaries with the basal area whitish, sprinkled with brown, crossed by 
a fine brown rounded basal line and bordered outwardly by a broad deep choc- 
olate brown band which tends to suffuse over the whole basal area; this band 
is followed by a broad upright white ante-median band, faintly brown sprinkled, 
the inner edge of this band is gently rounded at costa and is rather even with- 
out prominent angles (in the 9 there is a small projection in the cell) the outer 
edge is regularly dentate and curved slightly inward at costa; median area 
deep chocolate brown, shaded with pale in costal portion around a small discal 
dot and crossed by two waved dark lines, parallel above inner margin, diverg- 
ing in the cell and approaching each other again at costa ; outer border of median 
space with prominent bulges between veins 2 and 3 and 3 and 4 and a slight 
inner angle on vein 1 ; subterminal and terminal spaces largely whitish, lightly 
sprinkled with brown with a fairly evident crenulate pale s. t. line, shaded 
inwardly with brown which forms a distinct patch at costa; a dark brown 
subapical patch and a slight oblique apical streak; terminal broken dark line. 
Secondaries whitish, lightly brown-sprinkled with a fairly evident median dark 
line bent rather sharply at vein 4 and heaviest above inner margin ; faint traces 
of a pale s. t. line, shaded inwardly with brown. Beneath pale with the macula- 
tion of upper side partially showing through, a pale broken s. t. line on primaries 
and a distinct discal dot on all wings. Expanse 5 34 mm., 9 i7 mm. 

Habitat : $, 9 , Ketchikan, Alaska (June, July) ; 9 , Cowichan Lake, 
Vane. Is., B. C. (June). 1 5,3 9. Types, Coll. Barnes. 

The species is allied to mihilata Pack. (Fig. 2) but has the ante- 
median white band with much more regular edges and less bent in at 
costa; there is also no trace of yellow shading; various other minor 
points of distinction are best brought out by our figure ; the 3 geni- 
talia offer no point of distinction from that of nnbilata as far as we 
can see; the species should be readily recognized by the contrasting 
nature of the alternate brown and white bands. 

Dysstroma mulleolata Hist. (PI. XXI, Figs. 7, 8). 

In our notes on truncata and its forms (1917, Contr. Ill (4), 
227-30) we accepted tentatively Mr. Swett's determination of this forni 
which we considered a race of truncata but which Mr. Swett treated 



138 

as a good species (1917, C. Ent. XLIX, 68). Recently we examined 
the so-called "Type" at Rutgers College which as we have already 
noted (1. c. p. 229) is labelled "Washington Terr." ; this type proves 
to be not what we figured (1. c. PI. 21, Figs. 4, 5), but a similarly 
colored form of citrate L. (according to our genitalic slides) which 
Mr. Swett in his paper (1. c. p. 65) has called punctum-notata Haw. 
and which is quite common on Vancouver Is. in August ; the speci- 
men bears out the original description excellently except that the 
locality is wrong and the size given (lJ/2-1^ in.) is considerably too 
large; in the same paper however (1881, Bull. Brooklyn Ent. Soc. IV, 
26-8) we find a similar discrepancy in the size of another described 
species, Cidaria nocticolata {moHtanata Pack.), which certainly does 
not expand to 1% in., and further would note that the type of semi- 
atrata, listed as from Colorado also bears a label "W. T." in the Hulst 
Coll. It would seem then that this particular paper abounds in inac- 
curacies and we believe that until further evidence to the contrary be 
produced it will be best to accept this specimen in the Hulst Coll. 
as the type of mulleolata and transfer the name to citrata L. For 
the large truncata form Mr. Swett has already in our opinion given 
us sufficient names (1. c. pp. 69-70) ; sobria Swett, being the first on 
the list, may be used for the race collectively. A reference to our 
figures will show how extremely close the two species are superficially. 
The above mix-up is only a further illustration of how extremely 
necessary it is to have an accurate knowledge of type sp)ecimens before 
attempting to revise a group. 

Dysstroma brunneata Pack. (PI. XXI, Fig. 9). 

After a careful study of the type and a comparison with it of 
specimens from Ketchikan, Alaska, we believe the species distinct 
from either truncata or citrata and very closely related to kasloata 
Tayl. ; the genitalia of our Ketchikan species (which we consider 
identical with brunneata) shows an entire lack of spines to the Aedoe- 
agus. We have a single S from Nepigon, Ont., which we also 
incline to place here, showing that the species extends across the entire 
continent in northern latitudes. 

Genus Hydriomena Hbn. 

We have recently received a number of specimens belonging to 
this genus taken by our collector in the Monachee Meadows, Tulare 



139 

Co., Calif., at an altitude of about 8000 ft. ; these meadows are situ- 
ated on the Eastern side of the Sierras, south of Mt. Whitney near 
the headwaters of the south branch of the Kern River and proved to 
be an excellent collecting ground. 

Superficially all the specimens appeared very similar but an exam- 
ination of the structure of the S antennae and uncus showed clearly 
that three species were represented, all belonging to the short-palpi 
group. Apparently they are races of species described from more 
northern localities to judge by the similarity of the structural details 
but as they present quite a distinct appearance we believe that racial 
names are warranted. The three species with which we associate 
our new forms are hcnsliawi Swett, sha^ta B. & McD. and irata Swett ; 
the first named may be separated by the thin $ antennae which are 
scarcely thicker than in the 9 sex ; shasta has very thick $ antennae, 
strongly laterally compressed and with the segmental incisions rather 
deeply cut so that the lower surface is distinctly serrate in appearance ; 
in irata the antennae are rather thinner than in shasta but still more 
serrate ; the differences in the shape of the Uncus have been already 
illustrated by us in our Revision of the genus. We describe the new 
races as follows. 

Hydriomena henshawi expurgata var. nov. (PI. XXI, Fig. 6). 

Typical henshawi is more or less entirely suffused with dull gray pre- 
senting quite a unicolorous appearance; the present race is much more con- 
trastingly and brightly marked ; the basal and median areas are pale with a 
slight ochreous tinge and the antemedian and subterminal blue-gray bands 
stand out sharply and brightly ; the pale median area is bordered on both 
sides by distinct ruddy shades, especially toward the inner margin, and there 
is a certain amount of ruddy shading terminally and beyond the pale basal 
area, these shades serving to accentuate the blue-gray bands already mentioned. 

Habitat: Monachee Meadows, Tulare Co., Calif. (8000 ft.). 3 ^,6 2. 
Types, Coll. Barnes. 

Hydriomena shasta borussata var. nov. (PI. XXI, Fig. 5). 

Larger and much paler than our unique type of shasta; primaries whitish, 
lightly sprinkled with smoky atoms with the dark cross lines and bands rather 
contrasted ; subbasal line outwardly oblique with prominent outward angle in 
cell and inward angle in submedian fold ; antemedian band prominent, dark, 
dentate; the border lines of the broad pale median area improminent, edged 
faintly with a ruddy suffusion ; subterminal band broad except at inner angle, 



140 

followed by a prominent oblique dark apical dash surrounded by slight ruddy 
shading. Expanse 32 mm. 

Habitat: Monachee Meadows, Tulare Co., Calif. (July). 1 S, 1 9. 
Types, Coll. Barnes. 

The description is drawn from the 9 specimen, the $ being 
rubbed and generally duller in color as far as can be determined. 

Hydriomena irata quaesitata var. nov. (PI. XXI, Fig. 4). 

Dull gray with the bright ruddy shades of the typical form only very 
faintly indicated in the ante-median area ; lines as in the type form, well defined ; 
median area broad. Expanse 35 mm. 

Habitat: Monachee Meadows, Tulare Co., Calif. (July). 2 S. Types, 
Coll. Barnes. 

Spargania bellipicta Warr. (syn. S. illustrata B. & McD.). 

This species, described in 1901 from Golden, Colo. (Nov. Zool. 
VIII, 468), was overlooked by us in preparing our Check List; from 
the description there seems little doubt that we redescribed the species 
under the name illustrata in 1917 (Contr. Ill, (4) p. 230). 

EuPHYIA UNANGULATA Haw. (PI. XXI, Fig. 3). 

We have received two specimens of what seems to be undoubtedly 
this species from Ramparts, Alaska ; the species is generically distinct 
from alternata Mull, (sociata Bork.) the areole of the primaries being 
double whereas in this latter species it is single; it may be separated 
from intermediata Gn. (lacustrata Auct.) which it agrees with gen- 
erically by the presence of a dark terminal band on both sides of sec- 
ondaries, this band in intermediata being broken up into several waved 
lines. The species must again be included on our lists ; we omitted 
it from our Check List as the records had evidently been based on 
specimens of alternata; we figure one of the specimens which is not in 
the best of condition. 

Xanthorhoe salvata Pears. 

In his description of this supposedly new species, Mr. Pearsall 
entirely overlooked the fact that the antennal structure of his species 
agreed with that of the European abrasaria H. S. ; on the strength 
of this and because the general description pointed strongly in this 
same direction we recently listed salvata as a race of abrasaria, giving 
however trilineata Warr. priority. An examination of the type has 



141 

shown us the correctness of our identification ; iiow Mr. Pearsall ever 
came to associate this Colorado race with incursata Hbn. as he evi- 
dently did, judging by his paper, must remain a mystery; it exactly 
resembles a large specimen of the common form of abrasaria found 
in the White Mts., N. H., and to which the name congregata Wlk. 
applies. The tnie incursata (or at least a very closely allied race of 
the same) occurs in this country at high altitudes in the Canadian 
Rockies ; we have a series from Laggan and Banff. 

Genus Nasusina Pears. (PI. XV, Fig. 7). 

Following a discussion by Grossbeck (1908, Jour. N. Y. Ent. Soc. 
XVI, 21) of the genus GymnosccUs Mab. and the species included 
in it by Hulst in which the variability of the number of pairs of spurs 
on the hind tibiae was pointed out Pearsall ( 1908, Can. Ent. XL, 344) 
erected the genus Nasusina for seven species which he claimed all 
possessed a similar nose-like frontal prominence; he designated as 
type the species inferior Hist. The choice of inferior as the type 
of the genus is singularly unfortunate as this species does not possess 
the cone-like prominence found in gypsata Grt. and its allies as has 
been already noted by Grossbeck in the above mentioned article ; in this 
species however the front is distinctly roundedly bulging, being con- 
siderably raised between the eyes, and is covered with a closely 
appressed thick mat of scales giving a very distinctive appearance 
quite in contrast to what is found in typical Eupithecia species where 
we have a flat sloping front with merely a terminal tuft of scales 
protruding between the palpi. We think therefore that the genus 
will hold, but so far as our investigations go should be made to include 
only three species, viz, inferior Hist., minufa Hist, and vaporata Pears. 
Of these last two species vaporata was described as a Eupithecia but 
has exactly the same style of raised front as inferior, our own opinion 
regarding this species being confirmed by Mr. F. E. Watson who has 
kindly examined the type specimens for us; minuta Hist, has been 
included in Mabille's genus Gymnoscelis on the strength of the single 
pair of spurs on the hind tibiae; this genus, based on the European 
species pumilata Hbn., is however characterized by Meyrick as pos- 
sessing a similar cone of scales on the front to that of Eupithecia ( 1892, 
Tr. Lond. Ent. Soc. p. 65) and Rebel (Spuler, Schmett. Eur. II. 68) 
notes the fact that veins 6 and 7 of secondaries are always unstalked ; 



142 

as minuta shows these veins stalked as in Eupithecia and differs fur- 
ther from the characterization of Gymnoscclis in its frontal structure 
we believe this genus should be dropped and minuta included in 
Nasusina, the spurs of the hind tibiae having already been shown to 
be a variable feature although in this one species apparently constantly 
single. In the three species noted the palpi are short, rather laterally 
compressed with the second joint heavily tufted with scales on its 
dorsal surface. 

The following species, included up to now under Nasusina, all 
agree in showing a cone-like protuberant front projecting between 
the eyes with closely appressed scaling and with the under surface 
more or less hollowed out so as to partially contain the roUed-up 
proboscis ; the palpi also differ from the type found in Nasusina in 
being more compressed laterally with much closer appressed scaling 
and with little or none of the dorsal tufting found in both that genus 
and in Eupithecia; on the other hand at the base of the palpi on the 
under side the scaling is more prominent ( PI. XV, Fig. 6 ) : 

gypsata Grt. 

leucata Hist. 

remorata Grossb. 

discoidalis Grossb. 

artestata Grossb. 

desperata Hist. 

mellisa Grossb. 

insipidata Pears. 
Of these eight species the only one unknown to us and of which 
we do not possess a specimen compared with the type is artestata 
Grossb. and we presume that Grossbeck was correct in placing it, 
although the type at Philadelphia must be examined to make this cer- 
tain ; opinata Pears, we believe better placed in Eupithecia; the front 
is only very slightly bulging but has a scale tuft which probably misled 
Pearsall into placing the species in Nasusina; the palpi are also dor- 
sally tufted and the species would in some ways appear to lead over 
from Nasusina to Eupithecia; nivcifascia Hist, is distinctly a Eupi- 
thecia and superficially somewhat similar to perbrunneata Tayl. 

As it seems advisable to separate this group from the main bulk 
of the genus Eupithecia we propose for it the generic name Proeella, 
designating gypsata Grt. as type; the main characters of the genus 



143 

we have already given but would note further that the venation is 
that of Eupithecia and that the upper pair of spurs on the hind tibiae 
may be present or wanting; in remorata we find the greatest develop- 
ment of the frontal prominence but in the other species it is also readily 
recognizable ; we would however warn against mistaking the conical 
scale tuft found generally in the genus Eupithecia for the frontal pro- 
tuberance of Prorella, this latter being actually a portion of the chit- 
inous membrane and as well defined in denuded specimens as in those 
fully scaled. It is possible that ravocostaliata and its allies must also 
be referred here as they show a somewhat similar frontal projection, 
but further study of the whole Eupithecia group will be necessary 
before this is done. 

Nasusina insipidata Pears. (PI. XXII, Fig. 4). 

In our recent Check List we placed this species as a synonym of 
incllisa Grossb., our knowledge of the species being based on the 
Co-type from California in the American Museum; we recently ex- 
amined the type from Las Vegas, N. M., in the National Museum 
and we believe that this represents a species distinct from mellisa 
(PI. XXII, Fig. 3) and is not the same thing as the New York Co-type; 
it has a darker ground color with none of the ochreous shading found 
in mellisa and with apparently a smaller discal dot. Until good series 
of both these species are available for study it would be wise to keep 
them apart. We figure our conception of both species. 

Eupithecia mendicata sp. nov. (PI. XXII, Fig. 2). 

Confused with Nasusina vaporata Pears. (Fig. 1) is another small 
species from the same locality which may be separated primarily on 
the frontal structure. We have already dealt with the structure of 
vaporata; in the new species the front is typically Eupitheciid i. e. 
sloping, non-protuberant and ending in a tuft of conical scaling; the 
palpi are also somewhat longer than in vaporata and project slightly 
beyond the front. Under the above name we describe the species as 
follows : 

Primaries dull gray shaded along outer margin with smoky; the sub- 
basal, antemedian and postmedian lines are distinct, dark and parallel, being 
inclined sharply outwardly below costa, then angled or rounded and inwardly 
oblique, parallel to outer margin, to inner margin; the median space formed by 
the two latter lines is crossed by two further faint wavy lines and contains a 
rather prominent dark discal dot; there are also several faint lines preceding 



144 

the antemedian and one following the postmedian line ; along the costa the 
main lines are generally accentuated by slight dark blotches ; through the darker 
terminal space are traces of a pale waved s. t. line ; a heavy blackish terminal 
line broken by pale dots on the veins. Secondaries with the lines of primaries 
continued, the postmedian being especially heavy and preceded by a minute 
discal dot. Beneath primaries darker than above with traces of the same 
maculation but much fainter and confined largely to the outer area; secondaries 
paler than above with dark basal area, well defined discal dot and postmedian 
line and dark subtemiinal one. Expanse 13-14 mm. 

Habitat: San Diego, Calif. (Apr. -May). 3 5 , 2 $. Types, Coll. 
Barnes. 

One 9 Co-type is in the collection of the American Museum, 
this specimen having been included by Pearsall as a Co-type of vapor- 
ata; apart from the frontal structure the species may be recognized 
by the larger discal dot of primaries and the paler color with better 
defined ante- and postmedian lines. 

EUPITHECIA MISERULATA Grt. 

There seems to be no end gained in disputing the identity of this 
species as determined by Pearsall and Grossbeck (Ent. News, XIX, 
312) and we agree in applying the name to the species with heavily 
fasciculate-ciliate antennae. Regarding the synonymy we are rather 
in doubt ; nehulosa Hist, was described from speciinens from N. Y., 
Texas and N. J. ; the type from N. J. is a 9 in the Philadelphia 
Academy Coll. and is probably miscrulata; the N. Y. and Texan 
specimens are in the Hulst. Coll. the latter being in very poor con- 
dition ; under these circumstances we believe the holotype should be 
restricted to the N. Y. specimen as was virtually done by Grossbeck 
(Ent. News, XVIII, 343). This specimen is one of those forms with 
rather evident brown band following the postmedian line and with 
darker median area than usual and equals grossbeckiata Swett ; know- 
ing how close some of the Eupithccia species run to each other we 
are in doubt as to whether nebttlosa may not eventually prove a 
good species but our material at present is totally inadequate to decide 
the question and we suggest for the present listing nehulosa (gross- 
beckiata) as a form of niiserulata rather than making it an exact syn- 
onym in order that this possibly distinctive feature may not be totally 
lost to sight. 

Plumbaria Hist, based on a single 9 from Washington, D. C, 
in the National Museum seems to be nothing but a 9 miserulata 
and must be added to the synonymy. 



145 

EUPITHECIA PERFUSCA Fllst. 

This species was limited by Taylor to the one represented by the 
type 9 from Utah in the National Museum (C. Ent. XL, 58) which 
he and Dr. Dyar seemed to regard as conspecific with an obscurely 
marked species common at Kaslo and Wellington B. C. After a study 
of this type we are in some considerable doubt as to whether this 
identification is correct; the type is a very immaculate specimen with 
less rounded apex of primaries and a distinct black band on the abdo- 
men and runs closer to slocaiiata Tayl. than anything else we know 
of ; more study, especially of Utah material, will be necessary to settle 
the status of perfusca; the whole group is one of the most difficult 
of this difficult genus. 

EuPITHECIA ANNULATA Hlst. (PI. XXII, Fig. 9). 

The species was described from a single specimen of doubtful 
locality, probably California; a study of the type at Rutgers College 
has convinced us that the species is the same as that described later 
by Pearsall as limnata from Vancouver Is. material. 

EuPITHECIA FLEBILIS Hlst. 

This species from Alaska and lagganata Tayl. are very closely 
related and in fact a comparison of the types failed to show us any 
marked points of distinction ; in view however of the wide divergence 
of the type localities it might be well to keep the two names separate 
until longer series establish firmly their exact relationship. We figure 
the type of lagganata Tayl. (PI. XXII, Fig. 5). 

EuPITHECIA FORTUNATA Pears. (PI. XXII, Fig. 6). 

We believe this name must fall to obumbrata Tayl. ; the type 
localities Golden, Colo., and Victoria, B. C, are wide apart but the 
species with its dark secondaries marked much as the primaries is 
easily recognized and rather striking ; it is apparently a northern species 
extending down the Rockies and the Pacific Coast. 

EuPITHECIA FAsciATA Tayl. (PI. XXII, Fig. 7). 

This name will fall to catskillata Pears, which has a couple of 
years priority; two of the types from Ottawa and N. J. are before 
us and we have seen the third type from Mass. in Coll. Swett ; they 



146 

are conspecific; we have also compared the type with Pearsall's type 
series of catskillata so feel reasonably sure of the correctness of our 
reference. 

EUPITHECIA CALIFORNIATA Gumpp. 

This name was given by Gumppenberg (1888, Nov. Act. Halle 
52, p. 174) for a supposed variety of misendata, based on three speci- 
mens from California mentioned by Packard in his Monograph, p. 
54, under miscrulata; these three specimens which represent the types 
of californiata have been found by Mr. Swett in the Packard collec- 
tion ; they have, however, nothing to do with misendata but are very 
closely related to rotnndopuncta Pack. ; they seem to have more pointed 
wings and a smaller discal dot but more study with better preserved 
material will be necessary before the exact dififerences can be pointed 
out. 

EUPITHECIA ADORN ATA Tayl. (PI. XXII, Fig. 10). 

This species will, we believe, fall to obscurior Hist. ; this latter 
species was described (Tr. Am. Ent. Soc. XXIII, 271) from speci- 
mens from California and Colorado; in the Rutgers Coll. the type 
is labelled "Colorado (Bruce)" and we would make this specimen 
the holotype; we have no record of the existence of any other type 
in other collections. Taylor's adornata was described from Calgary 
specimens and we have compared one of the Co-types with the type 
of obscurior and believe them to represent the same species. We might 
note in this connection that the type specimen of nimbicolor Hist, from 
Calgary greatly resembles a rather suffused obscurior, but without 
comparing further material we would hesitate to call them identical; 
they should however be placed next each other in our lists; another 
very close ally is incresata Pears, described from Princeton Summit 
and Skagit Basin, B. C. ; it shows the same brownish basal and s. t. 
shades but is rather duller in maculation. 

EuPiTHECiA PERiLLATA Pears. (PI. XXII, Fig. 11). 

A study of types proves this species the same as behrensata Pack. ; 
the type of this latter at Cambridge is a rather worn specimen with 
the cross-lines indistinct whereas Pearsall's type shows the lines fairly 
clearly, but sufficient of the lines can be traced on Packard's type to 



147 

make the reference fairly certain ; we might note that the discal dot 
varies considerably in size in the three specimens we possess from San 
Bernardino Co., Calif. 

EuPiTHECiA cLASsicATA Pears. (syn. E. penumbrata Pears.) (PI. 
XXII, Fig. 8). 
The species classicata was described from a single male from 
the Huachuca Mts., Ariz., the type being now in the Coll. Am. Mus. 
Nat. Hist, ex Coll. Grossbeck ; penumbrata was described several years 
later as a Eucymatoge from two specimens, a 9 from Palmerlee, Ariz., 
the Holotype, which is also in the Am. Mus. Coll. ex Coll. Pearsall 
and a S from Redington, Ariz., in the Barnes Coll labelled "Co-type," 
which we figure. The type of classicata is in very poor condition, but 
as far as can be told represents a rather dwarfed $ of penumbrata; 
Mr. F. Watson has kindly examined the venation of the type for us 
and reports that, although somewhat torn at this point by the spread- 
ing needle, the specimen appears to show two accessory cells, which 
would throw it into Eucymatoge as defined by Hulst. Pearsall evi- 
dently later considered the two names to be synonyms as the type 
of penumbrata bears a label in his handwriting "Is this a synonym of 
E. classicata?" and a "Yes" written diagonally across it; our own 
comparison of our Co-type with the types in New York failed to 
show any definite points of distinction, and we beheve the above syn- 
onymy should be accepted; the species however, according to Mr. 
Prout, is better placed in the genus Eupitliecia, belonging to a small 
group with double accessory cell, which includes atiticaria Wlk. and 
graefi Hist. 

Eucymatoge spermaphaga Dyar. 

This recently described species (1917, Insec. Ins. Menstr., V, 68) 
is apparently the one listed by the Rev. G. VV. Taylor as togata Hbn. 
(1909, C. Ent., XLI, 428). The larva of this European species has 
similar food-plants to that of spermaphaga, viz. the cones of various 
pine and fir species, and it will be interesting to determine whether 
any specific differences exist sufficient to warrant the retention of 
Dyar's name. As to the generic reference Dyar has probably fol- 
lowed Hulst who cites togata as the type of Eucymatoge ; European 
authorities (Rebel, Prout., etc.), however, agree that the presence of 
a double areole on the primaries is not of generic value in this case 
and the species should be listed under Eupitliecia. 



148 

GEOMETRINAE 

Macaria unipunctaria Wgt. (PI. XXI, Figs. 10, 11). 

We have recently received through the kindness of E. P. Van 
Duzee a photograph of the Paratype of Melanolophia unipunctaria 
Wgt. described recently in the Ent. News, 1916, XXVII, p. 458; the 
species is quite misplaced in the genus Melaiiolophia and belongs in 
the granitata group of Macaria being very close to succosata Zell. 
which was described ostensibly from Massachusetts material received 
from Packard. We have never seen any Eastern material that would 
correspond with Zeller's diagnosis, so cannot give the points of dis- 
tinction ; we would however call attention to the large red-brown costal 
spot beyond t. p. line common to both species. Besides a 9 from 
the type locality we have specimens of unipunctaria from Monachee 
Meadows, Tulare Co., Calif., and various points in the Santa Catalina 
Mts. of Arizona ; the species is probably a pine feeder. The $ an- 
tennae we should characterize as serrate and fasciculate rather than 
pectinate; the serrations are slightly shorter than in multilineafa Pack, 
but larger than in the Vancouver Is. form of dispuncta Wlk. 

Macaria adonis sp. nov. (PI. XXI, Fig. 12). 

Antennae in $ serrate and fasciculate, in 9 simple ; palpi, head and 
collar bright orange, abdomen pale ochreous with a double row of black dorsal 
dots; thorax and primaries mouse gray, the latter somewhat shaded with 
whitish on inner half of wing; three prominent black costal spots giving rise 
to the ordinary dark lines, the second line rather closer to the first than to 
the third (postmedian), these two being rather faint, slightly bent outward 
below costa, then straight across wing ; the postmedian line is prominently 
angled on vein 6, then indistinct, broken and parallel to the other lines, all 
three showing under a lens traces of olivaceous scaling; beyond the t. p. line 
the outer area is bright cinnamon-brown with the exception of an apical gray 
patch and a smaller costal triangular patch adjacent to t. p. line ; at times a 
faint gray s. t. line may be traced through the brown area arising from the 
apical gray patch ; a broken terminal dark line ; fringes dusky, deepest in the 
subapical excision, with a small pale area at apex of wing. Secondaries simi- 
lar to primaries with the basal area rather paler, the two outer lines continued 
across wings, the outer being wavy ; a small discal dot ; outer margin crenu- 
late, distinctly angled at vein 4. Beneath whitish, shaded with light brown 
especially on outer area, the lines of upper side reproduced ; discal dots on 
all wings, most distinct on secondaries. Expanse 31-34 mm. 

Habitat: Monachee Meadows, Tulare Co., Calif. 5 3,9 9. Types, 
Coll. Barnes. 



149 

The species belongs in the bicolorata group but we know of no 
name applicable to it; it is extremely handsome and should be easily 
recognized from our figure. 

Phasiane hebetata Hist. (PI. XXI, Fig. 13). 

In our Contributions Vol. Ill (3) p. 181, we called attention to 
the poor condition of the type 9 at Rutgers and expressed the 
opinion that hebetata would probably prove to be a poorly marked form 
of decorata Grossb. A further study of the type and comparison 
with more material proved conclusively to us that this reference was 
erroneous; we believe now that hebetata is the same species as our 
ponderosa form demaculata (Contr. Ill, (4) p. 235) ; the heavily 
sprinkled under side with tinges of ochreous along costal border of 
primaries and the large discal dot of secondaries are characteristic ; 
besides a specimen which we figure which agrees absolutely with the 
type, we have a Colorado $ of the heavily marked form ponderosa. 
The synonymy would therefore stand 

hebetata Hist. 

demaculata B. & McD. 

form ponderosa B. & McD. 
Decorata Grossb. must be reinstated as a good species and not a 
form of hebetata. 

Itame sericeata Hist. (PI. XXI, Figs. 16, 17, 19, 20). 

This species was described (1898, C. Ent. XXX, 191) from 
several specimens from Colorado Desert (Edw.) and Arizona 
(Kunze) ; in Ent. News XVIII, 149, Grossbeck refers the 2 5 types 
in the Hulst. Coll. to correllata Hist.; Dr. Dyar (Ent. News XVIII, 
205) on the strength of a type from Prescott, Ariz., in the National 
Museum objects to this reference and Grossbeck (1907, Tr. Am. Ent. 
Soc. XXXIII, 341), after having seen a specimen agreeing with the 
National Museum type, refers 1 9 type (Colorado Desert) to cor- 
rellata, but keeps the other (Senator, Ariz.) as a good species, not- 
ing however later on (1909, Ent. News, XX, 354) that sericeata Hist, 
falls as a synonymy of colata Grt. 

The type of this latter species is a 9 from Tucson, Ariz., in 
the Brooklyn Inst. Coll. ; we have examined this type carefully as 
well as the two types in the Hulst Coll. representing respectively cor- 
rellata and sericeata and fail to find specific diflferences; colata 



150 

and sericeata are based on 9 specimens and both show a straighter 
t. p. line with very little bend in the submedian fold as com- 
pared with correllata, based on a 5 specimen ; this difference 
we believe to be sexual and not specific and not even entirely constant 
in either sex, as a long series before us from Vineyard, Utah, shows 
considerable variation in the course of this t. p. line in both sexes; 
we believe we are correct in referring both sericeata and correllata 
as synonyms of colata Grt. 

We figure a pair of specimens from Utah which agree with the 
types of correllata and colata respectively, and also a pair from Mon- 
achee Meadows, Tulare Co., Calif., which shows a still greater curve 
in the t. p. line and probably represents the form of the High Sierras. 

Itame simpliciata sp. nov. (PI. XXI, Fig. 15). 

Front whitish, thorax and primaries whitish to pale mouse gray, evenly 
sprinkled with brown atoms; t. a. line obscure, strongly angled outwardly be- 
low costa, then slightly incurved to inner margin ; t. p. line prominent, almost 
upright, with a small outward tooth on vein 5 and an outward bend above inner 
margin, accentuated by a dark spot above vein 5 and more heavily marked 
in the submedian fold, followed except at costa by a dark shade; s. t. line only 
marked for a short distance below costa by a dark shade-line ; fringes pale 
outwardly, darker at base. Secondaries smoky, whitish along inner margin 
with smoky speckles, fringes white outwardly. Beneath primaries smoky brown 
with the apex broadly light gray; secondaries light gray sprinkled with brown 
and with an obscure curved brown postmedian line. Expanse 24 mm. 

Habitat: Paradise, Arizona (Mch. Apr.) 2 $. Types, Coll. Barnes. 

The species is allied to pallipennata B. & McD. but is more even 
in color with a straighter t. p. line and no postmedian line on upper 
side of secondaries. 

Plataea trilinearia astrigaria var. nov. (PI. XX, Fig. 1). 

Median area of wing pale olivaceous bordered by white bands as in the 
type form; remainder of wing very pale olivaceous, scarcely darker than 
the white bands in consequence of which these latter are very improminent; 
s. t. line faint, white, just perceptible on the slightly darker ground ; an oblique 
white discal streak ; fringes white with very prominent blackish streaks opposite 
the veins. Secondaries white, slightly peppered with dusky atoms. Expanse 5 
36 mm., 9 33 mm. 

Habitat: Olancha, Inyo Co., Calif. 1 $, \ 9. Types, Coll. Barnes. 

A very striking race easily recognizable by its pale coloration and 
entire lack of white marks on the veins ; it may prove to be a good 
species but for the present we treat it as a desert race of trilinearia. 



151 

Plataea calcaria Pears. 

Apicrcna calcaria Pears., 1911, C. Ent. XLIII, 205 ( 9 ). 

Plataea triangulata B. & McD., 1916, Contr. Ill, (1), 27, PI. Ill, 
Fig. 18. (5). 

The receipt of several more specimens of both sexes from Palm 
Spgs., Calif., and also of a 5 from Yuma Co., Ariz., convinces 
us that our triangulata is merely the 2 sex of Pearsall's calcaria 
of which we have recently examined the type; the sexual difference 
is striking but the agreement in structure of the two sexes makes 
the reference certain. We can see no reason for retaining the genus 
Apicrena Pears. ; the venation is that of Plataea with which genus it 
also agrees in the shortly pectinate 9 antennae. 

Glaucina puellaria Dyar. (PI. XXII, Figs. 12, 13). 

The types are several 9 's in the National Museum from vari- 
ous southern Arizona localities ; they appear to be conspecific although 
a Co-type sent us years ago by Dr. Dyar from Catalina Spgs., Ariz. 
(Schwarz) represents an entirely different species, being a 9 Syn- 
glochis perumbraria Hist. ; the 2 i 's mentioned by Dr. Dyar in his 
description as being doubtfully identical we believe to be something 
else and, as these are provided with type labels and might lead to con- 
fusion later, we hereby restrict the type of puellaria to the 9 from 
S. Arizona, Poling. We believe the species will prove to be synony- 
mous with escaria Grt. ; the markings and color of primaries agree 
exactly with a specimen (also from S. Arizona, Poling) which we 
have compared with the $ type in the Brooklyn Inst.; the under 
side of both wings shows a broad darkish marginal band in the puel- 
laria types but we believe this is merely a 9 characteristic. In our 
Contributions (Vol. Ill (3) 183) we were inclined to associate error- 
aria Dyar with escaria Grt. but believe now that the species is valid ; 
at that time our notion of puellaria was taken from the S specimens 
instead of the true 9 types. Erroraria (PI. XXII, Fig. 14), the 
type being a 9 from Hot Springs, Ariz. (Schwarz), is very similar 
to puellaria (escaria) in maculation but the color of primaries is paler, 
approaching fawn-gray, and the secondaries have a whiter basal area ; 
the type shows a whitish, subcrenulate s. t. line which is obsolete in 
the two co-types from Tucson, Ariz. ; we have not yet definitely identi- 
fied S 's of erroraria. 



152 

The group is a difficult one and will require further study, but 
we are reasonably sure of our reference of puellaria Dyar to escaria 
Grt. 

Glaucina simularia sp. nov. (PI. XXI, Fig. 14). 

Thorax and primaries deep smoky ; t. a, line indistinct, sharply angled 
outwardly below cubitus ; a slight black streak in cell ; median shade and t. p. 
line close together and parallel, arising from apical portion of costa and 
strongly inwardly oblique, the former broad, smoky, bent outward below costa, 
then oblique and slightly crenulate with a faint inward angle in submedian 
fold ; t. p. Une narrow, oblique at costa, slightly bulging at vein 6, then curving 
obliquely backward to submedian fold where it bends outward and continues 
less obliquely to inner margin just beyond its center; it is followed by a 
distinct light brown shade-band ; subterminal area shaded with blackish and 
white and bounded outwardly by a white s. t. line, in general parallel to t. p. 
line ; fringes dark with white basal line. Secondaries heavily sprinkled with 
smoky and with a deeper smoky terminal border, containing a white, slightly 
irregular s. t. line parallel to outer margin ; fringes as on primaries. Beneath 
heavily peppered with smoky with traces of the subterminal markings of upper 
side on both wings; secondaries with small discal dot. Expanse 28 mm. 

Habitat : Monachee Meadows, Tulare Co., Calif. 1 9 . Type, Coll. 
Barnes. 

The species is closely allied to hulstinoides Grossb. but is larger, 
darker-winged and the lateral rim of the frontal prominence is not so 
well defined. Both species show distinct pectinate antennae in the 
9 sex which may eventually lead to their separation from the genus 
Glaucina to which in maculation they show no very great affinity. The 
tibial spine on our species is small and might easily be overlooked. 

Pterotaea obliviscata sp. nov. (PI. XXI, Fig. 21). 

Very similar to memoriata Pears. (PI. XXI, Fig. 18) but paler in color 
without the ochreous tinge of this species ; the maculation is very obscure, but 
in general similar to that of memoriata ; the s. t. line is better defined, irregular, 
distinctly dentate, the whole terminal area being paler then the s. t. area and 
without the heavy dark shades at apex and ana! angle with a pale space be- 
tween veins 3 and 4 which characterizes memoriata; there is a distinct row of 
terminal blackish interspaceal dots on both wings (lacking in Pearsall's species) 
and usually a small but fairly clear discal dot. Beneath both wings are whit- 
ish with generally a small discal dot and dotted terminal line. Expanse 23 mm. 

Habitat: Paradise, Arizona (May, Aug., Sept.) 7 3, 4 9. Types, 
Coll. Barnes. 



153 

As the species is difficult to describe we give figures of both 
species which should show the salient points of distinction better than 
a mere description; we have a good series of mcmoriata before us 
and the differences seem perfectly constant; both species occur in the 
same locality and are alike in structure. 

Cleora (Selidosema) dionaria sp. nov. (PI. XX, Fig. 6). 

Primaries whitish, rather heavily sprinkled with smoky and with a yellow- 
ish tinge on the veins in the neighborhood of the cross-lines; four obscure 
equidistant smoky patches on costa giving rise to cross-lines of which the first 
is obsolescent, outwardly rounded and closely approached to the second at 
inner margin ; the second corresponds to the ordinary t. p. line, is not very 
distinct, inwardly oblique and slightly dentate ; the third is bent out below costa 
forming an angle in which a discal ringlet rests, then irregular to inner margin 
and approximate to t. p. line; the fourth or t. p. line is the most distinct of 
all, evenly dentate, rounded outwardly below costa, then oblique inwardly to 
inner margin above which it forms a rather prominent inward excavation with 
an outward angle on vein 1 ; following it is a slight brownish shade, most 
distinct on the veins ; s. t. line obscure, pale, dentate, preceded by smoky shade ; 
a black scalloped terminal line, accentuated at base of scallops by a dark dot; 
secondaries similar to primaries in color, with a distinct dentate t. p. line and 
a somewhat larger discal ringlet. Beneath silky whitish, costa of primaries 
pale ochreous, blotched with smoky; faint discal ringlets and dark terminal 
line to both wings. 

9 . Whiter than the $ with prominent discal ringlet on secondaries. 
Expanse $ 40 mm. ; 2 45 mm. 

Habitat: Palmerlee, Ariz. 4 $, \ 9. Types, Coll. Barnes. 

Very similar to grisearia Grt. but larger, less contrasted in colora- 
tion and with a discal ringlet on secondaries instead of a dot ; it is also 
allied to fiirfuraria Hist, but separated readily by the ringlet; the S 
shows no hair-pencil on the hind-tibia. 

Cleora porcelaria Gn. 

This species, which was not definitely recognized by either Pack- 
ard or Hist., was doubtfully placed as a synonym of umbrosaria Hbn. 
by Hulst in Dyar's List (p. 325) and this reference was followed by 
ourselves in our recent Check List. The types are stated to be 3 $ 
in Coll. Paris Museum and Boisduval ; M. Oberthur states (fit. Lep. 
Comp., VII, 274) that no specimen exists in his collection ex Coll. 
Boisduval and we were unable on our last visit to Paris to find any 
type specimens there so that we must conclude that the types are 
probably lost. 



154 

Guenee in his description separates porcelaria (not porccllaria as 
usually written) from his gnophnria by the fact that the discal ringlet, 
so prominent in this latter species, is reduced to a simple curved dash 
(un simple trait arque) ; he further mentions particularly a fovea 
(vesicule) at the base of primaries which forms on the under side a 
small rounded depression (une petite fossette arrondie). 

These two features lead us to believe that without much doubt 
Guenee had before him specimens of what is listed at present as 
indicataria Wlk. ; this species distinctly resembles iimbrosaria {gno- 
pliaria) in type of maculation, but has the ringlet reduced to a curved 
dash and further shows a very prominent fovea at the base of pri- 
maries. As Guenee ascribes the name porcelaria to Abbot (presum- 
ably according to an unpublished figure), we may take it that the 
type locality was Georgia ; in this case filaria Wlk. and maestosa Hist. 
{vide B. & McD. Contr., Ill, (3), 185) become synonyms of porce- 
laria and the name indicataria Wlk. may be employed for the northern 
race common in the New England States and Canada if it be so 
desired. 

As regards gnopharia Gn. and iimbrosaria Hbn. we believe, as 
far as we can judge from the rather poor figures given, that they 
are synonyms; Guenee's idea of iimbrosaria with uniform dark gray 
under side and no subterminal band does not coincide with Hubner's 
figure in our copy of the Sammlung Ex. Schmett. 

Philtraea elegantaria paucimacula var. nov. (PI. XX, Fig. 3). 
The typical form of this species (Fig. 2), has the black markings 
on both sides of the t. a. and t. p. lines and within the circular reniform 
yellow spot very heavy, the latter being almost entirely black filled; 
the typical species occurs in the mountain ranges of Pima Co., Ariz. 
In the eastern portion of its range the species assumes a somewhat 
different aspect, showing a marked reduction of black spotting, espe- 
cially noticeable within the reniform ring where the spots are usually 
mere dots and the center is white; as this difference seems entirely 
constant we propose the above racial name, our type series being 
2 ,J , 5 2 from San Benito, Texas (Mch.) ; we also have the race 
from Greenville, Miss., and it extends west through New Mexico (Ft. 
Wingate, Jemez Spgs.) to the eastern border of Arizona (White Mts.) ; 
the Ft. Wingate specimens are slightly better marked than our types, 
but eastern Arizona ones show even less markings; it may be that 
semi-desert conditions are responsible for the lack of maculation. 



155 

Plagodis KUETZiNGARiA Pack. (PI. XXIII, Fig. 3). 

We already (Contr. Ill, (4) p. 249) have had occasion to refer 
to this species and its involved synonymy; on a recent visit to Cam- 
bridge we went over the specimens of this species contained in the 
Packard collection and found that of the original type specimens only 
the single specimen from Maryland was present and this did not agree 
well with either the description or the figure given (PI. XI, Fig. 44). 
A visit to the collection of the Boston Society of Natural History 
proved, however, that there still existed in the Harris Collection the 
specimen labelled "Cambridge May 6," "Coll. Harris," and as this 
agrees well with Packard's figure we propose that it be made the holo- 
type of the species. Of the other specimens mentioned from Albany 
(Lintner) Ithaca (Comstock) and New York (Grote) we have no 
record ; it may be that they may still be found in the respective collec- 
tions; Morrison's Cambridge specimen is probably destroyed. 

Purpuraria Pears, we believe will prove a distinct species from 
kuetsingaria as thus limited; the group seems to be an involved one 
and until careful comparisons of S genitalia can be made we prefer 
not to make too definite statements. 

GoNODONTLS? siMPLicius sp. nov. (PI. XX, Figs. 4, 5). 

Palpi moderate, porrect; $ antennae bipectinate to near apex, 9 an- 
tennae faintly serrate; head, thorax, abdomen and wings pale grayish ochreous, 
the latter heavily sprinkled with blackish dots which thicken in the subterminal 
area forming an irregular blackish band bordered outwardly by a pale s. t. line 
beyond which the terminal area is paler than remainder of wing; a discal dot 
on both wings, largest on primaries; the t. p. line is generally wanting, but 
in some instances is present, slightly crenulate, outwardly oblique from costa 
to vein 6 then bent and parallel to outer margin ; fringes pale ochreous. Be- 
neath considerably paler than above but similar in maculation. In the 9 the 
abdomen projects considerably beyond the secondaries with protuberant ovi- 
positor and the wings are rather stumpy looking, giving the appearance of 
being slightly aborted. Expanse 35 mm. 

Habitat: Olancha, Inyo Co., Calif. (June ). 8 5,8 ?. Types, Coll. 
Barnes. 

The generic reference is doubtful and the species possibly might 
better be referred to Mcris Hist. ; the venation appears to agree with 
Hulst's definition of this genus, veins 10, 11 and 12 anastomosing; 
the hind tibiae in the 5 are without hair pencil and we can see no 
fovea at base of primaries ; the species resembles, however, cctrapclaria 



156 

Grossb. so closely that we feel it should be placed next this species; 
from cctrapclaria it differs by its much smaller size and generally 
more slender build ; the 9 has a much longer abdomen which pro- 
trudes well beyond the secondaries and from what can be seen of the 
t. p. line it appears to be more crenulate in our new species. 

Synaxis triangulata B. & McD. 

This recently described species (Contr. Ill, (1) 2>i) was placed 
by us in Sabulodes from a single 9 specimen ; the receipt of a 5 
from Kerrville, Texas, which has pectinate antennae renders the re- 
moval from this genus necessary ; the antennae of the 9 , as noted 
in our original description, are distinctly bidentate and although the 
S antennae are much more strongly pectinate than in fnscata Hist, 
or jubararia Hist, the reference to the genus Synaxis is the most satis- 
factory we know of at the present time, the palpi being distinctly 
shorter than we find in members of the genus Phcrne and Epiplaly- 
metra. 

Stenaspilates metzaria Dyar. 

This name is based on a rather dark gray $ from Clarcmont, 
Calif., of the species apapinaria Dyar, described the year previous from 
ochreous 9 specimens from San Diego, Calif. ; as in the whole 
Stciiaspilatcs group there is a great variety of color exhibited in this 
species, the S 's ranging from dark gray to dark ochreous, the 9 's 
being more constantly deep ochreous. If desired, the name metzaria 
may be used for the color-form of apapinaria as noted. 

Sabulodes accentuata sp. nov. (PI. XXIII, Fig. 4). 

Thorax and wings pale to deep ochreous, the primaries striate in appear- 
ance and crossed by two rather broad smoky lines, the t. a. line outwardly 
oblique from costa to lower portion of cell, then slightly angled and almost 
straight to inner margin ; t. p. line from costa near apex, very slightly sinuate, 
almost rigidly oblique, accentuated on the veins by black dots, continued across 
secondaries as a straight line, similarly dotted on the veins. Beneath silky 
ochreous with maculation of upper side showing through; fringes rather deeper 
in color with distinct black dots at end of veins. Expanse 39 mm. 

Habitat: Flagstaff, Arizona (May). 4 $. Types, Coll. Barnes. 



157 

Destutia sericeata B. & McD. 

We find on going over our collection that this species recently 
described by us (1917, Contr., Ill (4) 261) is closely related to the 
species now listed as Phcngommataca dissimilis Hist. ; typical dis- 
similis from Glenwood Spgs., Colo., is without cross lines and of a 
rather deeper yellow shade than sericeata but we have specimens from 
Jemez Spgs., N. Mex., showing traces of lines which have a similar 
course to those of our species although not so clearly defined. Both 
species are without the tibial hair-pencil, a feature which led Hulst 
to place dissimilis in the genus Phcngomntataea where it is clearly mis- 
placed ; we believe they would be better placed in Grossbeck's genus 
Destutia which differs from Sabidodes in the lack of this tibial hair 
pencil; they may prove to be merely races or seasonal forms of one 
species. 



158 



MEGALOPYGIDAE 

Megalopyge lapena Schaus. 

In Can. Ent. 1913, p. 185, we recorded the above species from 
Arizona ; recently, together with Dr. Dyar, we compared one of our 
y\rizona specimens with Schaus' type in the National Museum and 
noted that they were not identical ; in the type S there is a distinct 
small brown patch on primaries at end of cell at the origin of vein 
5 which in our Arizona specimens (PI. XX, Fig. 12) is reduced quite 
constantly to a small dark dot which, together with the subapical spot, 
is rather darker brown than the basal patch ; Druce's figure of lapena 
in Biol. Cent. Am. Het. PI. 86, Fig. 13, does not bring out very clearly 
the nature of the discocellular patch which is really much better defined 
than in the copy before us. For our Arizona form, which we treat 
as a race rather than a species, we propose the name heteropuncta, 
our types being 3 S from Chiricahua Mts., Ariz. (Aug.) and 2 $ 
from Palmerlee, Ariz., and Paradise, Cochise Co., Ariz. 



159 



PYRALIDAE 

PYRAUSTINAE 

Syngamia florepicta Dyar. 

The species was described (1914, Proc. U. S. N. M. XLVII, 392) 
from Mexico and was later listed (1917, Insec. Ins. Menstr., V, 71) 
from the United States. There seems little doubt that the name is 
a synonym of talis Grt. (No. 4936 of our list) ; the description agrees 
perfectly with a specimen we have compared with Grote's type in the 
British Museum. The species is rather widely distributed throughout 
the Gulf States. 

ISCHNURGES CHROMAPHILA Dyar. 

If Dr. Dyar's record of this species from Arizona (1917, Insec. 
Ins. Menstr., V, 72) is based on correctly identified material then 
cliroinafliila becomes a synonym of roscopcnnalis Hist. (No. 5053 
of our list) ; the species was described from material from N. Carolina 
and Arizona and we have specimens from both localities which we 
cannot separate either in structure or maculation ; our long Arizona 
series shows considerable variation in the amount of pink shading 
beyond the cell on primaries. We see no adequate reason for remov- 
ing the species from the genus Diascmia at present as the maxillary 
palpi are certaintly not filiform althougli not very markedly tufted. 

LOXOSTEGE ANARTALIS Grt. 

In our Collection there have been several species included under 
this one name; typical auartalis (PI. XXII, Fig. 15) was described 
from Soda Springs, Siskiyou Co., Calif., and is characterized by the 
deep black border of secondaries preceded by a broad band of creamy 
white with the basal area blackish ; beneath both wings show a broad 
black border. Hulst's description of lulualis (Trans. Am. Ent. Soc, 
XIII, 150) applies exactly to this form and although we restricted 
the name to the type specimen from Anticosti Island (Contr. Ill, (3) 
191) this action of ours may not hold if the specimen does not agree 
with the diagnosis. We have several specimens from Manitoba and 
Alberta (PI. XXII, Fig. 17) which differ from typical anarlalis at the 
first glance by lacking the broad white area of secondaries which is 



160 

reduced to a narrow dull gray band preceded by a dotted blackish 
line, the whole basal area being deep smoky ; the outer band is less 
intensely black and narrower. Beneath there is none of the prom- 
inent black marginal banding of anartalis, both wings being pale whitish 
ochrcous with slightly darker terminal area ; the primaries show small 
orbicular and reniform marks and there is a trace of a dotted post- 
median line crossing both wings ; the fringes are pale smoky basally, 
whitish outwardly and there is a broken dark terminal line to both 
wings. The coloration of the upper side of primaries is rather vari- 
able, being deep smoky-black more or less shaded and suffused with 
white scaling giving a grayish appearance basally and subterminally ; 
the maculation is similar to that of anurtalis but the orbicular and 
reniform are smaller and generally better defined and the median area 
often considerably darker than the rest of the wing. We regard this 
form as specifically distinct from anartalis and propose the name 
ALBERTALis for the species ; our type $ is without a label but probably 
from the same locality as our 9 type which was taken at Gleichen, 
Alta. (July) by Mr. Wolley-Dod; we have other specimens from 
Beulah and Miniota, Manitoba, and a single Alaskan $ which pre- 
sumably belongs here but which has the whole basal half of secondaries 
much paler. 

In Utah we meet with another form (PI. XXII, Fig. 16) in which 
the secondaries are entirely blackish with a trace of a pale s. t. band 
confined to the central portion of the wing and quite improminent. 
Beneath both wings are much darker than in albcrtalis, being gray 
quite heavily sprinkled with smoky, the maculation being otherwise 
as in this species. The primaries above are quite similar to those of 
albcrtalis but slightly darker in tone. For this form we propose 
the name saxicolalis, our type being a $ from Stockton, Utah 
(May) ; besides this specimen we have four other worn ones taken at 
Eureka, Utah, in April and May. 

LoxosTEGE TERPNALis sp. nov. (PI. XXII, Fig. 20). 

Palpi, head and thorax clothed with mixed black and white scales ; pri- 
maries with a general dark bluish-gray appearance caused by heavy white 
scaling over a blackish ground color, shaded with white broadly before t. a. 
line and beyond t. p. line as well as along outer margin except at apex ; t. a. 
line rather regularly outcurved; t. p. line arising from slight blotch on costa, 
squarely exserted around the cell and finely crenulate with a prominent tooth 
above vein 1 ; some apical dark shading continued as a fine line across wing 



161 

and broadening at inner margin ; a faint terminal dark line ; fringes checkered 
black ?.nd white at base, paler outwardly with dark central line. Secondaries 
light brownish with small dark discal dot, traces of a curved postmedian line 
and a rather heavy subtenninal shade line; fringes pale with dark basal and 
median lines. Beneath pale brownish, primaries with orbicular and reniform 
marked in black and the t. p. line of upper side fairly distinctly outlined; 
secondaries paler and less maculate than above. Expanse 22 mm. 

Habitat: Olancha, Inyo Co., Calif. (Apr. June) 2 9. Types, Coll. 
Barnes. 

Allied to allectalis Grt. and lepidalis Hist, but with the bulge of 
the t. p. line closer to outer margin than in either of these two species. 

Lo.XOSTEGE UNILINEALIS sp. nOV. (PI. XXIV, Fig. I). 

Primaries pale creamy white slightly sprinkled with smoky and with a 
single dark line starting from costa near apex, gently rounded and then rigidly 
oblique to just beyond the middle of inner margin ; a faint dark terminal line ; 
fringes pale with faint smoky median line. Secondaries whitish, slightly smoky 
outwardly with tenninal line and fringes as on primaries. Beneath primaries 
pale smoky with the maculation of upper side partially developed; secondaries 
white. Expanse 14 mm. 

Habitat: Redington, Ariz. 1 $■ Type, Coll. Barnes. 

This small species is placed in the genus Loxostege on account 
of the conically protuberant front; if the frontal structure did not 
disagree we should be inclined to place it in Edia Dyar (Titanio) along 
with the bclialis group although even here it would be aberrant. The 
proboscis is reduced and concealed by the palpi which are rather shorter 
than usual in the genus. 

Loxostege parvipicta sp. nov. (PI. XXIII, Fig. 10). 

Palpi and front whitish; thorax pale yellow with a central pinkish-purple 
stripe ; primaries pale yellow crossed by two curved parallel bands of pinkish- 
purple; costa to first line of a similar color; a large round pinkish-purple 
discal dot; secondaries white in 5, in 9 shaded with pinkish terminally. 
Beneath primaries largely pinkish with pale yellow terminal area, secondaries 
as above. Expanse 13 mm. 

Habitat: Olancha, Inyo Co., Calif. 3 3,2 9. Types, Coll. Barnes. 

Belongs in the vibicalis group but has a rather more prominent 
frontal protuberance than usual. 

Titanic subargentalis sp. nov. 

Vestiture of palpi and head very shaggy, composed of mixed black and 
white hairs. Primaries blackish with indistinct maculation very similar to that 



162 

of Orenaia trivialis B. & McD. ; some whitish scattered scaling at base and 
in cell and a better defined s. t. band of whitish scales becoming obsolete towards 
apex of wing. Secondaries deep smoky with darker shade near outer margin 
between veins 2 and 3 outlined outwardly partially by a paler shade. Beneath 
silvery with a slight smoky tinge, primaries with discal dash and faint s. t. 
line; secondaries with discal spot (which appears closer to base of wing than 
usual owing to the shortness of the cell) and a curved dark indistinct s. t. 
line bent downward at anal angle ; fringes on both wings smoky. Expanse 
20 mm. 

Habitat: Nebraska Hill near Tolland, Gilpin Co., Colo. (July 5). 1 $. 
Type, Coll. Barnes. 

The specimen was sent us by Prof. T. D. A. Cockerell through 
whose kindness we are permitted to retain it. It is in rather poor 
condition and we should have hesitated to describe it if it had not 
been for the structural characters and the characteristic under side 
which should render the species recognizable ; from trivialis it may 
be separated by the very hairy palpi which in trivialis are smooth 
scaled. It is probably a day flyer, our specimen having been captured 
sitting on the flower of Silene acaulis. 

Phlyctaenia angu.stalis sp. nov. (PI. XXII, Fig. 19). 

Primaries long, narrow, light mouse gray somewhat darker in costal area ; 
maculation rather indistinct ; t. a. line black, inwardly oblique with a prom- 
inent outward tooth in the cell, preceded on inner margin by a slight white 
dash and dark spot ; t. a. line gently rounded and slightly dentate from costa 
to vein 4, sharply bent inward to beyond reniform with slight outward tooth 
in fold and then parallel to t. a. line to inner margin ; beyond the t. p. line 
is a pale shade, narrower in costal portion, broad above inner margin and 
defined slightly outwardly by a darker line; a dark subapica! shade; veins 
apically partially outlined in black; reniform narrow, indistinct, partially out- 
lined in black, pale filled ; terminal dark dots not reaching anal angle ; fringes 
dusky, slightly white-spotted. Secondaries hyaline smoky with curved post- 
median dark line, prominently dentate below costa; a triangular smok>' shade 
on outer margin between veins 2 and 4; terminal dark dots on veins, most 
distinct on the dark patch ; fringes smoky, cut by a pale median line. Beneath 
smoky with a dark reniform mark on primaries and dentate postmcdian line 
crossing both wings ; terminal dark dots, most prominent on secondaries. Ex- 
panse 34 mm. 

Habitat: La Puerta Valley, S. Calif. (March). 2 $,2 9. Types, 
Coll. Barnes. 

The large size and long, narrow primaries render the species easily 
distinguishable ; it belongs in the itysalis group. 



163 

Phlyctaenia berberalis sp. nov. (PI. XXIV, Fig. 2). 

Primaries pale ochreous sparsely dusted with fuscous, maculation fairly 
distinct; t. a. line single, black with prominent tooth in the cell and slight 
inward bend in the submedian fold ; orbicular a small round spot filled with 
the pale ground color; reniform medium-sized, lunate, pale-centered; four 
or five minute dark costal spots between reniform and apex; t. p. line single, 
dentate, with large inward loop below the cell to base of vein 2, terminal 
dotted line; fringes pale. Secondaries pale smoky with traces of discal dot 
and bent postmedian line and distinct terminal dotted line. Beneath primaries 
pale smoky with traces of the maculation of upper side visible, secondaries 
paler with discal dot and postmedian line better defined than on upper side; 
terminal dotted line on both wings. Expanse 18-22 mm. 

Habitat: Loma Linda, S. Bernardino Co., Calif. (May, June, Sept.). 
3 5,7 9. Types, Coll. Barnes. 

Closely allied to ivashingtonalis Grt. but duller in color and with- 
out the brown patch above the reniform ; it is paler than indistinctalis 
Warr. with better defined maculation. There are apparently two 
generations, the September specimens being much smaller than the 
spring ones. 

Pyrausta ochreicostalis sp. nov. (PI. XXIII, Fig. 8). 

Head, thorax and abdomen ochreous ; primaries ochreous along costa and 
through the cell, remainder of wing deep blue-gray caused by white scaling 
over a blackish ground ; whitish shading through the submedian fold to t. p. 
line ; veins lined with white ; t. a. line only marked by a white dash on inner 
margin preceded by a slight dark spot ; t. p. line far out, gently rounded from 
costa to vein 2 then curved strongly towards base of wing and again straight 
to inner margin near t. a. line, shaded outwardly by a white line broadest below 
costa; a terminal white line and slight dark dots at ends of veins; fringes 
pale ochreous. Secondaries hyaline whitish shaded with smoky outwardly, with 
smoky postmedian wavy line angled sharply at vein 2 near outer margin and 
not continued to inner margin ; terminal broken dark line ; fringes pale. Be- 
neath primaries pale smoky with t. p. line and pale shade at costa more or 
less defined ; secondaries whitish with dark costal postmedian mark. Expanse 
18 mm. 

Habitat: Palm Spgs., Riverside Co., Calif. (Apr.) 2 $. Types, Coll. 
Barnes. 

The species is closely allied to linealis Fern, differing in the ochre- 
ous shades along costa and in the cell ; it is not quite a typical member 
of the genus Pyrausta as the front is sloping and slightly raised above 
the level of the eyes terminally without forming the distinct conical 
protuberance of Loxostegc ; it belongs in a group with linealis Fern., 



164 

napaealis Hist., sartoralis B. & McD., pilatcalis B. & McD., and pos- 
sibly a few other species which for the present we place in Pyrausta 
until a satisfactory revision of this unwieldy genus can be made. 

Pyrausta zonalis sp. nov. (PI. XXIV, Fig. 10). 

Head, thorax and abdomen brown, palpi beneath, a lateral line above each 
eye and the segmental incisions white ; primaries with sharply pointed apex, 
deep smoky brown with indistinct maculation, reniform and orbicular marked 
by indistinct dark shades ; t. p. line minutely waved, fairly distinct, far out, 
evenly rounded from costa to vein 3 where it bends in and then runs straight 
again to inner margin ; fringes pale smoky, dotted near base by prominent dark 
spots. Secondaries dull smoky with traces of a postmedian line angled at 
vein 2 and fringes as on primaries. Beneath light smoky with maculation of 
upper side partially visible. Expanse, 15 mm. 

Habitat: Palm Springs, Riverside Co., Calif. (March). 1 5, 3 9. 
Types, Coll. Barnes. 

Closely allied to napaealis Hist, but much smaller, with less dis- 
tinct maculation and with no white terminal shade on primaries. 

Pyrausta pythialis sp. nov. (PI. XXHI, Fig. 7). 

Palpi, head and thorax ochreous-brown with a slight pinkish tinge; base 
of palpi and line above each eye white; abdomen ochreous at base, other seg- 
ments smoky, ringed with pale ochreous ; primaries deep pink with a bright 
yellow patch at base of wing on inner margin extending from base to t. a. 
line which line is fragmentary, yellow-bordered and denticulate ; orbicular and 
reniform obscure, small, fuscous spots; t. p. line originating in a well defined 
triangular costal patch, obscure, yellow, bent well inward below cell and then 
perpendicular and somewhat waved to inner margin ; terminal area and fringes 
bright yellow. Secondaries smoky with central portion of outer margin nar- 
rowly bright yellow, the inner edge of this area distinctly dentate ; a faint, 
pale, straight s. t. line from lower edge of this yellow area runs toward costa 
but does not reach beyond vein 6; fringes bright yellow. Beneath primaries 
smoky with pale yellow costo-apical triangular patch, outer margin and fringes ; 
secondaries pale smoky, darker in costal area with dentate curved postmedian 
line and pale yellow outer margin and fringes. Expanse 17 mm. 

Habitat: Cartwright, Man. (Heath); Aweme, Man. (Criddle) (June). 
8 S. Types, Coll. Barnes. 

This species is seemingly related to acrionalis Wlk. but has a 
slightly more bulging front than this species, somewhat similar to that 
found in the Unealis group. We have been unable to find any name 
to fit the species and venture to describe it as new ; if we have over- 
looked an older name no doubt some kind friend will call our atten- 
tion to the matter. 



165 

Pyrausta inveterascalis sp. nov. (PI. XXIII, Fig. 6). 

Very similar to the preceding species but slightly smaller, the ground 
color of primaries dull vinous, the basal yellow shade lacking, the terminal 
yellow area confined to the fringes and a narrow terminal line on the wing 
itself; the yellow triangular costal patch present but duller in color; lines about 
the same in their general course. Secondaries smoky, entirely without the yel- 
low terminal area and with pale smoky fringes; postmedian line similar to 
that of preceding species but rather better defined. Beneath primaries deep 
smoky with pale yellow costo-apical patch and similarly colored fringes which 
show a distinct broken dark line at base; secondaries pale hyaline, smoky out- 
wardly and along costa with traces of a postmedian line. Expanse 15 mm. 

Habitat: New Brighton, Pa. (June). 2 $. Types, Coll. Barnes. 

Besides the types we have two other worn specimens from the 
same locaHty, one labelled " angiistalis" which is a Western species 
fully twice the size and without the pale fringes of primaries. 

Pyrausta tuolumnalis sp. nov. (PI. XXIII, Fig. 11). 

Base of palpi and pectus white; palpi and thorax mixed black and ochre- 
ous; abdomen black with white scaling and segmental incisions marked in 
white ; primaries dark blue-gray suffused in basal and subterminal areas with 
rather ruddy brown, contrasting considerably with the median and terminal 
spaces ; t. a. line obscure, dark, incurved at inner margin ; orbicular and reni- 
form slight dark blotches; t. p. line single, dark, rather distinct, rounded out- 
wardly below costa and bent strongly inward in submedian fold, then per- 
pendicular to inner margin; space between reniform and t. p. line filled by a 
yellow patch ; a smaller triangular yellow patch beyond t. p. line at costa which 
is more or less distinctly continued by a fine yellow line, bordering t. p. line 
outwardly to inner margin; fringes dusky tipped with whitish. Secondaries 
blackish, crossed by a broad postmedian band of pale creamy color; a dark 
tenninal line; fringes with basal half dusky, outer half white. Beneath creamy 
with the maculation distinctly defined in black; on primaries reniform, orbicular 
and claviform are represented by dark spots, the latter being an elongate dash ; 
t. p. line fine black, sinuate ; a dark, subterminal, somewhat broken band, con- 
tinued across secondaries which show as well a dark median line and small discal 
dot ; fringes as above. Expanse IS mm. 

Habitat: Tuolumne Meadows, Calif. 10 5, 5 9. Types, Coll. Barnes. 

The species resembles closely ochosalis Dyar in type of maculation, 
but should be recognized by the cream-colored band on secondaries. 

Pyrausta merrickalis sp. nov. (PI. XXIV, Fig. 9). 

Palpi brown laterally, ochreous at base and on upper surface ; head rough 
scaled, ochreous ; thorax and primaries deep brown, the lines on latter very 
obscure, blackish ; t. a. line outcurved, t. p. line slightly irregular in upper half 



166 

and subparallel to outer margin, bent in strongly below cell, with slight traces 
of ochreous shading outwardly most marked at costa; orbicular and reniform 
obscure dark spots, with faint ochreous dash between them ; secondaries and 
fringes deep smoky. Beneath primaries much as above with the ochreous 
costal spot distinct ; secondaries paler, with traces of a bent postmedial line 
tinged outwardly with ochreous and a dark discal spot. Expanse 13 mm. 

Habitat: New Brighton, Pa. (July 9-26) (F. Merrick). 5 S- Types, 
Coll. Barnes. 

The species is very closely related to xanthocrypta Dyar from S. 
Calif, and Mexico but is smaller and much deeper in the color of both 
wings. 

Pyrausta emigralis sp. nov. (PI. XXIV, Fig. 7). 

Pectus and base of palpi whitish ochreous; palpi outwardly smoky, upper 
surface ochreous; head ochreous; thorax and wings deep black-brown with 
very obscure markings, the most prominent features being an ochreous dash 
between two dark shades representing the ordinary spots and a curved row 
of ochreous dots delineating the t. p. line outwardly and strongly bent inward 
in submedian fold ; the t. a. and t, p. lines are scarcely visible as slightly darker 
shade-lines. Secondaries deep unicolorous brown. Beneath deep black on 
both wings with an ochreous dash on costa near apex. Expanse 19-20 mm. 

Habitat: Palmerlee, Ariz. 5 $,2 5. Types, Coll. Barnes. 

Also a close ally of xanthocrypta but the dotted nature of the 
ochreous t. p. shading and the almost unicolorous dark under side 
should separate it easily. These three species, xanthocrypta Dyar, 
merrickalis B. & McD. and emigralis B. & McD. form a group that 
we place for the present in the genus Pyrausta, following Dyar, but 
which seems to have no particular resemblance to any of the other 
N. American species included in this genus. 

We have a species very similar in general appearance to the 
preceding group but differing structurally in having a rudimentary 
proboscis which is entirely hidden between the palpi ; for this reason 
we incline to place it in Dyar's new Schoenobiid genus Loxotegopsis 
(Ins. Ins. Menst. V, 84) with which it agrees well structurally; it 
is apparently widely spread throughout the west, but we can find no 
name applicable, and describe it as follows : 

Loxotegopsis curialis sp. nov. (PI. XXIV, Fig. 8). 

Palpi brown laterally, ochreous above ; head ochreous ; thorax and pri- 
maries deep brown with obscure maculation; t. a. and t. p. lines darker, obscure, 
the former bent outwards, the latter irregular and parallel to outer margin 



167 

in upper half, strongly bent inward in submedian fold and then perpendicular 
to inner margin ; outwardly this line is bordered with ochreous, forming a more 
or less obvious blotch on costa; orbicular and renifomi obscure, blackish with 
an ochreous streak between them; fringes dusky. Secondaries pale smoky 
basally, darker terminally with indistinct curved dark postmedian line and 
large discal spot. Beneath pale smoky, darker in the 9 's, with the maculation 
of upper side faintly repeated and the discal spots forming more or less obvious 
ringlets. Expanse 20-25 mm. 

Habitat: Eureka, Utah (July) (Spalding), type; Redington, Ariz., Pal- 
merlee, Ariz.; Camp Baldy, S. Bern. Mts., Calif. 7 5, 2 9. Types, Coll. 
Barnes. 

The species is almost an exact counterpart of xantliocrypta in 
maculation but the palpi are somewhat longer and the proboscis obso- 
lete; we cannot but feel, however, that there is probably a close rela- 
tionship between the two species and that the present arrangement 
which would place them in different subfamilies is quite artificial ; 
it is very probable that the conception of the Schoenobiinae must be 
somewhat revised and that it will be impossible to place all genera 
under this group simply because they show a reduced proboscis. 

NOCTUELIA RUFOFASCIALIS Stcph. 

This name which was proposed for fascialis Haw. (ncc Hiibner ) 
(1834, 111. Brit. Ent. Haust., IV, 33) must supercede thalialis Wlk. ; 
the species is figured by Wood (Ind. Ent. PI. 27, Fig. 790) and is 
credited correctly to N. America by Stephens in his List Lep. Brit. 
Mus., 1850, p. 309; Sir Geo. Hampson tells us that Haworth's speci- 
men exists in the British museum labelled "fascialis n. sp. I bought 
this from Mr. Knight as British" and that it is undoubtedly the same 
species as thalialis. 

NocTUELiA MINIMA Dyar. 

This species, described in Ins. Insc. Menst., V, 132, is, to judge 
by the description, the same as Pyrausta conimortalis Grt. (C. Ent., 
XIII, 232) ; the reference to Noctuclia rather than to Pyrausta seems 
preferable. 

NOCTUELIA PALMALIS Sp. nOV. (PI. XXIII, Fig. 5). 

Palpi white at base, gray laterally; head and thorax dark gray mixed 
with white and ruddy scaling; primaries ruddy brown scaled with white at base 
and broadly on outer side of t. a. line and inner side of t. p. line; t. a. line 
upright, t. p. line slightly irregular, nearly perpendicular from costa to vein 5, 



168 

bent back at right angles as far as the cell and then slightly outwardly oblique 
to inner margin just before anal angle ; fringes smoky. Secondaries pale ruddy, 
deeper in 9 than $, shaded with smoky outwardly with traces of a dotted 
s. t. line. Beneath pale ruddy with dusky fringes. Expanse 15-16 mm. 

Habitat: Palm Springs, Riverside Co., Calif. (March). 1 5, 2 2. 
Types, Coll. Barnes. 

Allied to puertalis B. & McD. but ruddier in color with a differ- 
ently formed t. p. line. 

NOCTUELIA VIRULA sp. HOV. (PI. XXIII, Fig. 9). 

Palpi white below, brownish above ; head and thorax red-brown with 
white lines above eyes and along margin of patagia ; primaries olivaceous brown 
with a slight ruddy tinge; a white shade at base above inner margin; t. a. line 
far out, rigidly inwardly oblique, blackish, bordered broadly outwardly with 
white; t. p. line black, starting from costa near apex, perpendicular to vein 
4, bent backward sharply to near t. a. line and then outwardly oblique to anal 
angle, the portions of the line above and below the prominent bend shaded in- 
wardly with white; a fine white terminal line; fringes light brown in basal 
half, white outwardly. Secondaries in 3 pure white with faint terminal 
brown dots, in $ with a continuous brown terminal line and dusky fringes 
on both wings. Beneath primaries smoky, secondaries white. Expanse 12 mm. 

Habitat: Palm Springs, Riverside Co., CaUf. (March). 3 S, 3 9. 
Types, Coll. Barnes. 

Closely allied to bnbubattalis Hist, but smaller and easily dis- 
tinguished by the white secondaries. 

CoRNiFRONS ACTUALis sp. nov. (PI. XXII, Fig. 18). 

Head white; thorax white peppered with black, patagia black-bordered; 
primaries white suffused with dark gray in lower half of wing and subtermin- 
ally; t. a. line very oblique, arising from middle of costa, with prominent tooth 
in the cell and a distinct tooth at inner margin; reniform a small obscure dark 
shade; t. p. line arising nearer apex than usual, angled outwardly on vein 7, 
then crenulate and curving gently backward to vein 3 where it again juts 
sharply outward, forms two teeth, and curves back to inner margin; in the 
upper half of the wing it is preceded by a broad white area, and beyond it 
except at apex (which is white) the subterminal area is largely gray; terminal 
area narrowly white; dark terminal line; fringes pale, smoky at tips. Sec- 
ondaries whitish, shaded with smoky outwardly with traces in central area 
of a dark curved s. t. line opposite which is a very distinct dark terminal line 
which fades considerably toward apex and inner margin; fringes white, tipped 
with smoky opposite dark portion of terminal line. Beneath primaries pale 
smoky, secondaries white. Expanse 28 mm. 

Habitat: S, Loma Linda, S. Bernardino Co., Calif. (Mch.) ; 9, Palm 
Springs, Riverside Co., Calif. (Mch.) 1 S, I 9. Types, Coll. Barnes. 



169 

The species belongs in the same section with phasma Dyar, the 
frontal prominence being distinctly blade-shaped and the corneous 
plate with small lateral projections. The very oblique nature of the 
t. a. line and the point of origin of the t. p. line near apex are char- 
acteristic features. 

NYMPHULINAE 
Cataclysta (Elophila) fulicalis Clem. 

In reading over Dr. Dyar's recent Notes on N. Am. Nymphulidae 
(1917, Ins. Ins. Menstr. V, 75) we noted that Dyar's conceptions of 
fulicalis Clem, and conftisalis Wlk. seemed to be just the reverse of our 
own and a recent visit to Washington confirmed this opinion ; the 
series in the museum under fulicalis is what we have called confusalis 
Wlk. based on a specimen which we had compared with the type {vide 
Contr. II, (5) p. 215) ; the type of fulicalis is not labelled as such at 
Philadelphia but the series under this name, which very possibly 
includes the type specimen, is certainly not fulicalis of Dr. Dyar ; 
Clemens' description is fortunately very clear; he distinctly mentions 
the narrow dark line on the secondaries which Dr. Dyar claims is 
absent, and in his description of the primaries states that the oblique 
ochreous band is margined along the discal nervure on both sides with 
fuscous, no mention being made of a discal spot ; there seems therefore 
little doubt that fulicalis Dyar is confusalis Wlk. and confusalis Dyar 
equals fulicalis Clem. Regarding Lederer's species cited by Dr. Dyar 
in the synonymy, we prefer to say nothing as without a definite knowl- 
edge of the type specimens neither his descriptions nor his figures 
can be of much use; we might note, however, that Lederer himself 
was inclined to associate his opulentalis with fulicalis Clem, and not his 
angulatalis; if Dr. Dyar's references are correct angulatalis will have 
priority over confusalis Wlk.; the type of angulatalis is a single S 
from the Kaden Coll. but we have no record as to where this collection 
now is; the Felder Coll. which should contain the types of opulentalis 
is at Tring Museum but we do not know whether these particular 
types still exist in it. 

HyDROPIONEA FENESTRALIS B. & McD. 

Dr. Dyar has referred this species to Clupeosoma but Sir Geo. 
Hampson informs us that the correct genus is Hydropionea Hamp. 
(1917, Am. Mag. N. Hist. (80) XX, p. 275) ; a comparison of the 



170 

types has proved to both Dr. Dyar and ourselves that the species is 
not synonymous with lavinia Schaus as claimed by Dr. Dyar (Ins. Ins. 
Menst. V, 79). 

Hydropionea eumoros Dyar. 

This species is the same as oblcclalis Hist, at present listed under 
Loxostege but properly referable to the same genus as fenestralis B. & 
McD. Dyar's name becomes a synonym. 

CRAMBINAE 

Crambus oslarellus Haim. 

It was an error on our part to cite this species (Contr. Ill, (3) 
191) as a synonym of carpenterellus Pack. It is a good species and 
may be distinguished from carpenterellus by the less angled nature of 
the subterminal white line which is gently rounded opposite the cell 
and not sharply angled as in carpenterellus ; the white costal spot pre- 
ceding this line is larger in carpenterellus and the tooth on inner side 
of the white basal streak is more prolonged along the vein ; the outer 
margin is also slightly more bulging; our figure (1. c. PI. XIV, Fig. 18) 
represents oslarellus. 

Crambus bartellus sp. nov. (PI. XXIV, Fig. 3). 

Palpi and head white, the former brown laterally; primaries white, 
shaded with brown; the basal half of wing entirely white with some slight 
pale brown shading in the cell at base and along vein 1 ; a broad dentate 
brown median band with prominent outward angles in the cell and below 
median vein shaded with blackish; outer half of s. t. area brown-shaded; s. t. 
line fine, brown, prominently bent outward opposite cell and with slight inward 
angle above inner margin, partially separated from subterminal brown shading 
by a white line, especially distinct at costa ; terminal area white, with outward 
brown shading cut by the pale veins; fringes brown, slightly cut by white and 
with distinct white basal line; secondaries pale smoky with indistinct dark s. t. 
line. Beneath pale smoky, veins of primaries marked with white terminally, 
secondaries as above. Expanse 22 mm. 

Habitat: Tuolumne Meadows, Calif. (Aug.). 3 $. Tv-pes, Coll. 
Barnes. 

Closely related to oregonicus Grt. of which it may be merely a 
race with the white areas greatly extended; its white color with con- 
trasting brown bands should make it easily recognizable. 



171 



Crambus ericellus sp. nov. (PI. XXIV, Fig. 4). 

$. Palpi smoky, tinged with white; thorax and primaries brown, the 
latter faintly black-sprinkled and shaded with gray broadly along inner margin 
and beyond cell (this shade being at times very noticeable, at others more 
or less obsolescent) ; median and subterminal dark cross-lines are more or less 
present (at times very distinctly), subparallel, rounded strongly outwardly below 
costa, then inwardly oblique and forming an angle above submedian fold ; above 
inner angle three or four terminal dark dots; fringes gray with a shiny basal 
line; secondaries even smoky with paler fringes cut near the base by a darker 
line. Beneath unicolorous smoky. Expanse 26 mm. 

Habitat: Tuolumne Meadows, Calif. (July, Aug.) 15 S. Types, Coll. 
Barnes. 

The species is allied to undatus Grt. in type of maculation but 
lacks the white streak through the cell and the prominently metallic 
fringes; we have a 9 from the same locality which we are inclined 
to refer here which is much smaller, grayer, with more pointed apex 
of primaries and without the cross-lines. 

Crambus modestellus sp. nov. (PI. XXIV, Fig. 5). 

Thorax and primaries light gray, under the lens with a peculiar rough 
scaly appearance; traces of a white streak through the cell most prominent 
beyond the cell in subterminal area; two yellowish brown cross lines medianly 
and subterminally, subparallel, the inner bent sharply out below costa then 
angled and inwardly oblique with a distinct sharp tooth below cell ; the outer 
gently bulging below costa and slightly crenulate, bulging again above inner 
margin, bordered outwardly narrowly with white; a very fine dark terminal 
line; fringes gray slightly white-shaded at base. Secondaries smoky with paler 
fringes. Beneath smoky, fringes of secondaries white. Expanse 25 mm. 

Habitat: Kerrville, Tex. 2$. Types, Coll. Barnes. 

Allied to ccelliis but larger, more even gray and with the apex 
of primaries less falcate. 

Crambus angulatus sp. nov. (PI. XXIV, Fig. 15). 

Primaries whitish, sprinkled with light brown, at times very heavily ; a fine 
dark brown line, starting just beyond middle of costa, projects very sharply 
outward, forming an acute angle in the subterminal area and then runs obliquely 
to middle of inner margin with a slight tooth at lower angle of cell above which 
it is rather heavier than elsewhere ; a brown s. t. line forming a prominent bulge 
in upper half of wing which nearly attains outer margin, an inward angle on 
vein 2 and a less prominent bulge above inner margin ; this line is bordered 
outwardly by a fine white line following which is brown shading, most prom- 
inent along costa and in lower portion of wing ; a slight white triangular patch 
on costa beyond s. t. line; outer margin slightly bulging below vein 3 with two 



172 

or three black dots on this section ; fringes pale basally with the portion opposite 
the black dots shiny; a dark median line and the extreme tips brownish. Sec- 
ondaries whitish (at times pale smoky) with a brownish marginal line, diffuse 
at apex. Beneath primaries pale brownish, secondaries whitish. Expanse 14-15 
mm. 

Habitat: San Diego, Calif. (July-Aug.) 7 $. Types, Coll. Barnes. 

We employ one of W. D. Kearfott's Mss. names as specimens 
have possibly been distributed under this name. 

Thaumatopsis actuellus sp. nov. (PI. XXIV, Fig. 6). 

3 antennae unipectinate. Primaries light brown with a broad white 
streak from base of wing through the cell to the outer margin above which 
the costal area is deep brown ; veins as well as a streak through the submedian 
fold outlined in dark brown partially covered with white scaling. Secondaries 
deep black-brown with paler fringes. Beneath smoky. Expanse 20-25 mm. 

Habitat: Lakeland, Fla. (May); St. Petersburg, Fla. (Nov.); Stemper, 
Fla. (July) ; Southern Pines, N. C. (Aug.). 1 $,3 9. Types, Coll. Barnes. 

Very similar to pectinifcr Zell. from Texas but in this species 
the white streak does not extend beyond the cell. 

Platytes puritellus Kft. (syn. dinephei.alis Dyar). 

This species, of which the two 9 types are before us (not $ 
and 9 as erroneously listed in the original description, Proc. U. S. 
Nat. Mus. 35, p. 393) has been redescribed recently by Dr. Dyar 
(1917, Ins. Insc. Menst. V, 85) under the name dinephelalis; we 
possess a $ specimen which we have compared with the type in the 
National Museum. 

Platytes damon sp. nov. (PI. XXIV, Figs. 13, 14). 

$ . Antennae lamellate, rather thick and strongly compressed laterally, 
palpi long, porrect, covered with mixed brown and white hairs ; thorax and 
primaries rather a bright brown, the latter with the main veins marked in 
white and those beyond the cell blackish with narrow white edging on both 
sides ; two white streaks through the cell as well as one in the submedian 
fold all partially black sprinkled ; a more or less complete submarginal white 
line sprinkled with black scales and a prominent white line at base of fringes 
bordered outwardly by a narrow brown line beyond which the fringes are dusky. 
Secondaries deep smoky with somewhat paler fringes which show an ochreous 
basal line. Beneath light smoky with a prominent white line at base of fringes. 
Expanse 15-17 mm. 



173 

9 . Much paler than the $ , almost yellowish with the white markings 
on the veins more extended ; the secondaries are whitish with a faint brownish 
border; fringes whitish. Expanse 18-20 mm. 

Habitat: San Diego, Calif. 13 i, 6 2. Types, Coll. Barnes. 

The practical absence of the proboscis would place the species 
in the Australian genus Ubida Wlk. according to Hampson's key but 
we prefer for the present to place it in Playtcs with which it agrees 
in all other respects. We employ an Mss. name given by W. D. Kear- 
fott and found on specimens in his Pyralid collection recently acquired 
by us ; the name has never been published but specimens may have 
been distributed and our use of the same name will obviate any change 
in nomenclature. 

MACROTHECINAE 

Alpheias transferens Dyar. 

This recently described species (Ins. Ins. Menstr. V, 82) is the 
one figured by us in Contr. I (5) PI. Ill, Figs. 10, 13, under the 
erroneous name of ponda Dyar; it is not vicarilis Dyar as Dr. Dyar 
suggested (Ins. Ins. Menstr. I, 22) which species is probably a syn- 
onym of baccalis Rag. according to our notes on the type in Paris. 

The following two species appear to be new. 

Macrotheca bilinealis sp. nov. (PI. XXIV, Fig. 11). 

Thorax and primaries even gray, the latter crossed by two black distinct 
lines, the inner about the middle of wing, almost rigidly perpendicular to inner 
margin with ver>' slight angle below the cell, the outer near margin of wing, 
oblique, subparallel to outer margin ; faint dark fringe dots and a minute obsolete 
discal dot. Secondaries pale smoky. Expanse 18 mm. 

Habitat: Paradise, Cochise Co., Ariz. (June) 2 $. Types, Coll. 
Barnes. 

Macrotheca angulalis sp. nov. (PI. XXIV, Fig. 12). 

Primaries gray, heavily suffused with black, especially in median area and 
shaded broadly but faintly with ochreous along inner margin ; two heavy black 
cross-lines, the inner forming a very prominent outward angle in the cell and 
bordered inwardly with a fine white line; the outer slightly irregular, sub- 
parallel to outer margin ; a dark discal streak and a black, somewhat inter- 
rupted terminal line; secondaries pale smoky. The 5 is more obscured with 
smoky with less distinct maculation. Expanse 19 mm. 

Habitat: $ Tehachapi. Kern Co., Calif ; 9 Camp Baldy, S. Bern. Mts., 
Calif. 1 S, I 9 . Types, Coll. Barties. 



174 
PHYCITINAE 

MiNEOLA CALIGINELLA Hlst. 

The so-called type in Rutgers College Coll. is labelled "California" 
and is probably spurious ; there is however a 9 from Arizona in the 
series with Hulst's label caliginella and this is so close to a San Diego 
specimen of caliginoidella Dyar that we should hesitate to separate 
the two; both Ragonot and Hulst in their revisions list comptella 
Rag. from Calif, as a synonym, the former mentioning the fact that 
the $ (presumably of comptella) shows a strong tooth at the base 
of the antenna ; this of course separates the species structurally from 
caliginoidella Dyar which is without a tooth ; if we regard this Arizona 
V as the true type it remains to be seen whether comptella is really 
a synonym of caliginella or whether we have two species represented, 
with the possibility of caliginoidella being a synonym of Hulst's species. 
Until Ragonot's type has been carefully examined and a series of both 
sexes of caliginella from Arizona has been obtained we must leave 
the matter in abeyance. 

PiNIPESTIS ALBOVITELLA Hlst. 

The type locality given in the original description is Hot Springs, 
N. Mex. (Aug.), but the type in the Hulst Coll. bears the label "Colo. 
(Bruce)"; it agrees well with Hampson's figure in Ragonot's Mono- 
graph (PI. 50, Fig. 3) and also with the description, so we suppose it 
is another case of careless labelling and that the specimen may be 
accepted as the original type. 

Tacoma texanella Hlst. 

We have already noted (Contr. HI, (3) 193) that the type of 
this species and that of dulciella Hlst. showed great similarity ; a fur- 
ther examination leads us to the belief that the two names refer to but 
one species, texanella having priority. 

HOMOEOSOMA impressale Hlst. 

Attention has already been called (Contr. HI (3) 200) to the 
mix-up in the types of this species ; the true type from Nevada is 
probably a specimen in the Hulst collection labelled uncanalis; it 
agrees in markings and locality label with the original description 
and is the species figured by Ragonot as uncanale on PI. XXXHI, 
Fig. 18, of his Monograph ; of course it cannot possibly be imcanale, 



175 

which is a dull gray species allied to clongelluin Dyar; the type of 
uncanah- is presumably a 2 in the Hulst Coll. from Custer Co., Colo. 

Tlascala oregonella sp. nov. (PI. XXIV, Fig. 16). 

Very similar to umhripcnnis Hist, from Colorado but duller in color with- 
out the shiny appearance and with the secondaries of a paler smokier shade 
without the brown tints of Hulst's species; primaries with the basal area con- 
siderably gray-sprinkled ; t. p. line distinct, gray, bent abruptly outward at vein 
5 ; terminal space gray shaded. Beneath primaries dull smoky with traces 
of a pale costo-apical spot bordered by black; secondaries pale smoky with 
darker costa ; distinct pale basal fringe line. Expanse 27 mm. 

Habitat: Crater Lake, Oregon (July 16-23) (McDunnough). 2 ,J , 2 9 . 
Types, Coll. Barnes. 

This may simply be a race of timbripcnnis but the above mentioned 
points of distinction seem constant enough to warrant a name; the 
species was taken among some low scrub pines at an altitude of over 
8000 ft. and probably is a pine feeder. 

Melitara parabates Dyar. (PI. XXII, Fig. 21). 

This species (Proc. U. S. N. M. XLIV, 322) must be added to 
our lists; we have a long series from various Arizona localities; it is 
allied to dentata Grt. but is narrower winged, grayer and has a shorter 
tooth in the t. p. line opposite cell. 

Olyca ponderosella sp. nov. (PI. XXII, Fig. 22). 

$ antennae ciliate ; palpi largely blackish, sprinkled with white especially 
at base; basal tuft black with white sprinkles; front largely whitish; thorax 
deep gray sprinkled with whitish ; primaries deep gray with heavy white 
sprinkling ; the cross lines obscure in S , better defined in 9 ; t. a. line up- 
right, dentate, with prominent tooth below cell, t. p. line obsolete at costa, very 
oblique inwardly in lower portion, approximate to t. a. line on inner margin 
where the two lines are obscured by a diffuse dark shade ; a black basal streak 
extending along the fold to margin, usually broken in median area, a heavy 
black streak in outer half of cell and all veins beyond cell distinctly lined 
with black, the heavy streak of cell being continued more faintly above vein 
S by a streak similar to those on the veins. Secondaries hyaline white, slightly 
smoky outwardly in 2 . Expanse 37-42 ram. 

Habitat: Palm Spgs., Riverside Co., Calif. (Apr.). 5 $, 3 9. Types, 
Coll. Barnes. 

The species is superficially similar to Cactobrosis strigalis B. & 
McD. but is heavier and less smooth in maculation ; the distinct tufting 
at base of palpi and on 3rd joint separate it generically from this 
species. 



176 

ANERASTIINAE 

Altoona ardiferella Hist. 

There appears to be an unfortunate niix-up in the types of the 
species; the species was described as Altoona ardiferella (Ent. Am. 
IV, 118) from material from Texas (no further data given) ; Ragonot 
in his List of N. Am. Phycids (Ent. Am. V, 116) transfers it to 
Zophodia; Hulst in his revision (Tr. Am. Ent. Soc. XVII, 208) again 
places it in Altoona, listing it from Texas and N. Mex. and disagreeing 
with Ragonot on the ground that the species shows an "entire absence 
of tongue"; Ragonot in his Monograph figures the species (PI. XXIV, 
Fig. 14) placing it in Tolima in an addenda to Vol. II. In Dyar's 
Catalogue Hulst places the species in Saluria giving its distribution 
as Texas, Colo., N. Mex., Cal.; Dyar (Proc. Ent. Soc. Wash. VI, 159) 
makes nigromaculcUa Hist, a synonym and places it in the genus 
Pectinigeria Rag. 

In the Hulst collection the so-called type of ardiferella is labelled 
Colo. (July) and is probably spurious as it does not agree well with 
the description ; the only Texas specimen is in a small series imder 
the label nigroniaculella and is a specimen of Zophodia dilatifasciella 
Rag. ; the description fits this specimen rather better than it does the 
Colorado "type", especially the statement regarding the presence of a 
basal dash, but in view of Hulst's definite remark that the tongue is 
entirely lacking we hardly thing it wise to accept this as type. Rag- 
onot's figure seems quite accurate but we doubt if this equals nigro- 
maculcUa Hulst ; it is possible that the true type was lent Ragonot 
to figure and never returned, but until the Ragonot collection can be 
carefully examined we imagine the identity of ardiferella will remain 
doubtful; in any case it seems hardly wise to accept any specimen in 
the Hulst Coll. as type ; for the present we believe that Ragonot's 
figure must be considered as typical. On the strength of a very similar 
species of which both sexes are before us and which Dr. Dyar has 
been calling ardiferella Hist, we believe that this group will fall into 
the genus Parramatta Hamp. (1901, Rag. Mon. Phyc, II, 366). The 
S 's are without any antennal tuft and vein 10 of primaries is widely 
separated from 8 and 9. Our new species we describe as follows : 



177 

Parramatta placidella sp. nov. (PI. XXIV, Fig. 17). 

$ antennae untufted, ciliate; palpi long, porrect, blackish laterally, mixed 
dorsally with white scales; thorax largely whitish with faint ochreous tint; 
primaries whitish, lightly sprinkled with black atoms ; a faint black dash at 
base below which is an orange ochreous patch on inner margin extending 
nearly to t. a. line and continued beyond the t. a. line as a broad band which 
at times extends across the entire median space but is generally confined to 
the immediate vicinity of the t. a. line; this line white, rounded outwardly, 
not distinct at costa where it merges into the ground color, followed by a 
distinct triangular black spot in the cell which does not touch costa but is at 
times connected with it by a fine black line bordering the t. a. line; this cellular 
black patch rests on the ochreous shade already mentioned ; preceding the t. a. 
line on inner margin is a slight intensification of the black sprinkling forming 
a darker shade but no distinct spot ; discal spots black, superimposed but the 
upper one generally obsolete ; t. p. line white, bordered inwardly with black 
and followed outwardly by slight black shading, arising from center of an 
oblique black patch on costa, bulged outwardly opposite the discal spot and 
with small inward angle in the fold ; an incomplete terminal dotted line ; fringes 
pale inwardly, smoky outwardly. Secondaries whitish, in 2 tinged with 
smoky. Beneath primaries smoky with whitish apical patch preceded by a 
dark streak; secondaries as above. Expanse 19 mm. 

H.\BITAT: Olancha, Inyo Co., Calif. (June). 1 5,4 9. Types, Coll. 
Barnes. 

The species is much paler than ardifcrella, especially in the median 
area; we have several specimens from Stockton, Utah, one of which 
has been labelled "ardifcrella" by Dr. Dyar. 



178 



AEGERIIDAE 

Gaea palmi Beut. (PL XX, Figs. 13, 15). 

This species was described in the genus Scsia (Synanthedon) 
ostensibly from two $ 's (Jour. N. Y. Ent. Soc, I, 126) ; the receipt 
recently of a series of both sexes from Kingman, Arizona, some of 
which were taken in copula, shows that Beutenmuller had mistaken the 
sex and that the types were two 9 's. The color of fresh S 's is 
glossy blue-black, the brown color mentioned in the description being 
due to the f)oor condition of the types, one of which is before us. 
The S is totally different, displaying a remarkable sex dimorphism, 
in view of which fact we believe that the following description of 
this sex may be of value : 

i . Antennae strongly serrate and fasciculate ; palpi rather long, slightly 
upturned, 3rd joint porrect, long, pointed; pectus and under side of palpi white, 
3rd joint fuscous; head mixed black and ochreous; thorax black with a cen- 
tral and two lateral pale ochreous stripes; abdomen grayish-ochreous, anal tuft 
blackish edged laterally with ochreous; legs pale smoky ochreous, coxae black- 
ish ; wings opaque, primaries smoky with an orange tinge, a heavy black discal 
dot followed by a small orange spot and sometimes preceded by a dash of the 
same color; fringes dusky; secondaries bright orange at the base, shaded broadly 
with smoky outwardly ; a small discal dot ; fringes dusky with a faint pale basal 
line. Beneath much as above but primaries showing rather more orange shading. 

As veins 3 and 4 of the secondaries are connate we believe the 
species should be removed from Synanthedon and placed in the genus 
Gaea; a proboscis is present but apparently rather reduced and gen- 
erally hidden by the palpi ; the species was collected during the early 
part of October. 



179 



COSSIDAE 

Genus Heterocoma gen. nov. (type H. albistriga sp. nov.). 

Palpi minute, upturned, hairy; $ antennae bipectinate, 9 serrate; thorax 
and abdomen clothed with long hair; proboscis absent; hind-tibiae with two 
pairs of well-developed spurs ; venation much as in Comadia but without the 
cellula inirusa on both wings; veins 6 and 7 of secondaries well stalked. 

H. ALBISTRIGA sp. nov. (PI. XX, Figs. 16, 17). 

Thorax light silvery gray, mesothorax crossed by a curved black line and 
tipped posteriorly with black; abdomen smoky, paler laterally and on anal seg- 
ment; primaries light gray, non-striate, costa white with numerous small dark 
strigae; vein 1 streaked with white to subterminal area; an outwardly oblique 
white streak at end of cell extending a short distance along vein 3 ; a faint white 
incomplete s. t. line parallel to outer margin ; near base of wing between cubital 
vein and vein 1 two short ochreous upright dashes; an incomplete and indis- 
tinct ochreous band at end of cell crossing the white streak and ending at 
vein 1 ; fringes concolorous, paler outwardly. Secondaries deep smoky. Be- 
neath smoky, costa paler with dark dashes; fringes whitish outwardly. 

5 . Generally whitish with obsolescent maculation. Expanse 30 mm. 
Habitat : Paradise, Cochise Co., Arizona. 2 $ 1 $ . Types, Coll. 
Barnes. 



180 



PLATE XI 



Fig. 


1. 


Fig. 


2. 


Fig. 


3. 


Fig. 


4. 


Fig. 


5. 


Fig. 


6. 


Fig. 


7. 


Fig. 


8. 


Fig. 


9. 


Fig.. 


10. 


Fig. 


11. 


Fig. 


12. 


Fig. 


13. 


Fig. 


14. 


Fig. 


15. 


Fig. 


16. 


Fig. 


17. 


Fig. 


18. 



Eiiphydryas magdalena B. & McD. 
Euphydryas magdalena B. & McD. 
Euphydryas magdalena B. & McD. 
Euphydryas magdalena B. & McD. 
Brenthis helena ingens B. & McD. 

Brenthis helena ingens B. & McD. 



T>'pe, S White Mts., Ariz. 
$ White Mts., Ariz. 
S White Mts., Ariz. 
Paratype, 9 White Mts., Ariz. 
Type, $ Yellowstone Pk., 
Wyo. 
Paratype, $ Yellowstone Pk., 
Wyo. 
Brenthis helena Edw. $ Silverton, Colo. 
Melitaea hoffmani segregata B. & McD. Paratype, $ Crater Lake, 

Ore. 
Melitaea hoffmani segregata B. & McD. Type, 9 Crater Lake, 

Ore. 
Melitaea hoffmani segregata B. & McD. $ Crater Lake, Ore. 
Melitaea hoffmani Behr $ Nevada Co., CaHf. 
Nevada Co., Calif. 
Glenwood Spgs., Colo. 
Paratype, $ Colo. (Bruce). 
Paratype, $ Colorado. 
Type. $ Hall Valley, Colo. 
Paratype, S Hall Valley, Colo. 



Melitaea hoffmani Behr 9 

Melitaea acastus Edw. S 

Melitaea flavula B. & McD. 

Melitaea flavula B. & McD. 

Oeneis lucilla B. & McD 

Oeneis lucilla B. & McD 

Oeneis lucilla B. & McD. Paratype, 9 Hall Valley, Colo. 



Pr.ATK XI 




f^* 







'1 



182 



PLATE XII 



Fig. 1. Apodcmia monno dcserti B. & McD. Type, S 
2. Apodemia mormo deserii B. & McD. Type, 9 



Fig, 

Fig, 
Fig 
Fig 
Fig. 
Fig. 
Fig 
Fig. 
Fig, 
Fig, 
Fig, 
Fig 
Fig, 



La Puerta Valley, 
Calif. 

La Puerta, Valley, 
Calif. 



Apodcmia 
Apodcmia 
Calcphclis 
Calcphelis 
Calephelis 
Calcphelis 
Calephelis 
Calcphelis 
Calephelis 
Calcphelis 
Calephelis 
Apodemia 



mormo Feld. $ Eureka, Utah. 
mormo Feld. 5 Eureka, Utah. 
pcrdilalis B. & McD. Type, S San Benito, Texas. 

Paratype, $ San Benito, Texas. 
Type, 9 San Benito, Texas. 
San Benito, Texas. 
Brownsville, Texas, 
San Benito, Texas. 
$ Fort Myers, Fla. 
9 Vicksburg, Miss. 
9 Fort Myers, Fla. 
9 San Benito, Texas. 



pcrditalis B. & McD, 
perditalis B. & McD, 
nemesis Edw. $ 
nemesis Edw. 9 
nemesis Edw. 9 
virginiensis Gray 
virginicHsis Gray 
virginiensis Gray 
multiplaga Schaus 



Plate XII 




184 



PLATE XIII 

Fig. 1. Hemileuca elect ra clio B. & McD. Type, S Kingman, Ariz. 
Fig. 2. Hemileuca electro clio B. & McD. Type, ? Kingman, Ariz. 
Fig. 3. Aparxtesis ornata hczvletti B. & McD. Type, 9 Nellie, S. Diego, 

Co., Calif. 
Fig. 4. Apaniesis ornata hewletti B. & McD. Type, 9 Nellie, S. Diego 

Co., Calif. 
Fig. 5. Arachnis picta verna B. & McD. Type, $ Tulare Co., Calif. 
Fig. 6. Arachnis picta verna B. & McD. Type, 9 Tulare Co., Calif. 
Fig. 7. Arachnis picta maia Ottol. $ Colo. (Bruce). 
Fig. 8. Arachnis picta tnaia Ottol. 9 Salida, Colo. 



Plate XIII 










■> 5" 




^^ 






0^ ''^^I^ 



^^^ 




186 



Fig. 


1. 


Fig. 


2. 


Fig. 


3. 


Fig. 


4. 


Fig. 


5. 


Fig. 


6. 


Fig. 


7. 


Fig. 


8. 


Fig. 


9. 


Fig. 


10. 


Fig. 


11. 


Fig. 


12. 


Fig. 


13. 


Fig. 


14. 


Fig. 


15. 


Fig. 


16. 


Fig. 


17. 



PLATE XIV 

Diacrisia vagans Bdv. 3 Stanilaus Co., Calif. 

Diacrisia vagans proha Hy. Edw. $ Truckee, Calif. 

Diacrisia vagans Bdv. 9 California. 

mice unifascia G. & R. V Kerrville, Texas. 

mice unifascia ruptifascia B. & McD. Paratype, $ Brownsville, 

Texas. 
mice libcromactila Dyar S San Diego, Calif. 
mice pcrrosca Dyar S San Diego, Calif. 
mice angelus Dyar S Babaquivera Mts., Ariz. 
mice libcrumactila i. basijuncta B. & McD. Paratype, $ San 

Diego, Calif. 
mice barnesi Dyar S Gltnwood Spgs., Colo. 
mice picta B. & McD. Type, 5 Texas. 
mice dorsiinacula Dyar <5 San Diego, Calif. 
Eubaphe fragiUs Stkr. $ So. Utah. 

Eubaphe costata pallipennis B. & McD. $ Glenwood Spgs., Colo. 
Diacrisia ptcridis Hy. Edw. S Wellington, B. C. 
Diacrisia ptcridis Hy. Edw. S Duncans, Vane. Is., B. C. 
Diacrisia vagans proba Hy. Edw. 9 Plumas Co., Calif. 



Tr.ATE XI\' 




188 



PLATE XV 

Fig. 1. Euxoa cinnabarina B. & McD. Paratype, S Monachee Mdws., 

Calif. 
Protagrotis extcnsa Sm. $ Colo. (Bruce). 

Nephelodes deniaculata B. & McD. Paratype, $ Plumas Co., Calif. 
Agrolis fortiter B. & McD. Type, 9 Stockton, Utah. 
Polia hanhami scmicarnea B & McD. Type, $ Camp Baldy, S. 

Bern. Mts., Calif. 
Polia hanhami B. & McD. $ Duncans, Vane. Is., B. C. 
Homoglaea variegata B. & McD. Type, $ Palmerlee, Ariz. 
Trachea susqucsa Sm. $ San Diego, Calif. 
Trachea monica B. & McD. Type, 3 Redington, Ariz. 
Rcnia nemoralis B. & McD. Type, S Long Is., N. Y. 
Renia nemoralis B. & McD. Paratype, 9 No locality. 
Namangana viridesccns B. & McD. Type, S Chiricahua Mts., Ariz. 
Caenurgia triangula B. & McD. Paratype, $ Redington, Ariz. 
Cacnurgia intercalaris Grt. $ Paradise, Ariz. 
Caenurgia diagonalis Dyar 9 Redington, Ariz. 
Conistra graefiana Grt. 9 Concord, Mass. 
Conistra indirecta Wlk. 9 Canada. 



Fig. 


2. 


Fig. 


3. 


Fig. 


4 


Fig. 


5. 


Fig. 


6. 


Fig. 


7 


Fig. 


8 


Fig. 


9 


Fig. 


10 


Fig. 


11 


Fig. 


12. 


Fig. 


13. 


Fig. 


14 


Fig. 


15 


Fig. 


16 


Fig. 


17. 



Plate X\' 




190 



PLATE XVI 

Fig. 1. Polia subjuncta elcanora B. & McD. Paratype, 9 Nellie, S. Diego 

Co., Calif. 
Polia pulverulenta Sm. 5 Ketchikan, Alaska. 
Polia pulverulenta Sm. $ Ketchikan, Alaska. 
Epia ainabitis B. & McD. Type, 2 Loma Linda, Calif. 
Copicucultia basipuncta B. & McD. Type, $ Palm Spgs., Calif. 
Merolonchc dolli B. & McD. Type, S Central Park, L. I. 
Trachea scrnila B. & McD. Paratype, S Palm Spgs., Calif. 
Stilbia apposita B. & McD. Type, 2 Prescott, Ariz. 
Scotogramma fulgora B. & McD. Type, $ Olancha, Inyo Co., Calif. 
Xylomyges cognata Sm. $ Victoria, B. C. 

Xylomyges cognata minorata B. & McD. Type, S Eldridge, Son- 
oma Co., Calif. 
Xylomyges fcbrualis B. & McD. T)!)^ $ Sonoma Co., Calif. 
Pseudacontia modestella B. & McD. Paratype, 9 Camp Baldy, Calif. 
Pseudacontia groteana Dyar 9 Paradise, Ariz. 



Fig. 


2. 


Fig. 


3. 


Fig. 


4. 


Fig. 


5. 


Fig. 


6. 


Fig. 


7. 


Fig. 


8. 


Fig. 


9. 


Fig. 


10. 


Fig. 


11. 


Fig. 


12. 


Fig. 


13. 


Fig. 


14. 



'latic X\'I 




192 



PLATE XVII 

Doryodcs histrialis grandipennis B. & McD. Paratype, S 

Doryodcs histrialis grandipennis B. & McD. Ty-pe, 5 Anglesea, 

N. J. 
Oncocncmis primula B. & McD. Type, 5 Palm Spgs., Calif. 
Doryodcs histrialis Geyer $ Dade City, Fla. 
Doryodcs histrialis Geyer 9 Ft. Myers, Fla. 
Cirphis incognita B. & McD. Paratype, $ Brownsville, Tex. 
Doryodcs spadaria Gn. S Everglade, Fla. 
Doryodcs spadaria Gn. 9 Everglade, Fla. 
Cirphis incognita B. & McD. Paratype. 5 Brownsville, Tex. 
Doryodcs tcnuistriga B. & McD. Type, 3 San Benito, Tex. 
Doryodcs tcnuistriga B. & McD. Type, 9 Brownsville, Tex. 
Hoplotarache albiocula B. & McD. Type, 9 Olancha, Inyo Co., 

Calif. 
Lcucocncmis variabilis B. & McD. Paratype, $ Olancha, Calif. 
Lcucocncmis variabilis B. & McD. Paratype, 9 Olancha, Calif. 
HemigrotcUa argcnteostriata B. & McD. Paratype, $ Palm Spgs., 

Calif. 
Grotella spaldingi B. & McD. 9 Palm Spgs., Calif. 
Chamyris sirius B. & McD. Type, 5 Kerrville, Tex. 
Acopa histrigata B. & McD. Type, 5 Paradise, Ariz. 
Tarach-e cora B. & McD Type, $ Babaqiiivera Mts., Ariz. 
Fig. 20. Tarachc cora B. & McD. Paratype, 9 Paradise, Ariz. 



Fig. 
Fig. 


1. 
2 


Fig. 


3. 


Fig. 


4. 


Fig. 


5. 


Fig. 


6. 


Fig. 


7. 


Fig. 


8. 


Fig. 


9. 


Fig. 


10. 


Fig. 


11. 


Fig. 


12. 


Fig. 


13. 


Fig. 


14. 


Fig. 


15. 


Fig. 


16. 


Fig. 


17. 


Fig. 


18. 


Fig. 


19. 



Plate XVII 




194 



Fig. 


1 


Fig. 


2 


Fig. 


3 


Fig. 


4 


Fig. 


5 


Fig. 


6 


Fig. 


7 


Fig. 


8 


Fig. 


9 


Fig. 


10 


Fig. 


11 


Fig. 


12 


Fig. 


13 


Fig. 


14 


Fig. 


15 



PLATE XVIII 

Myctcrophora ruhricans B. & McD. Paratypc, $ Monachee Mdws., 

Calif. 

Myctcrophora rubricans B. & McD. Parat.vpe, 2 Monachee Mdws., 

Calif. 

Lithacodia indctcnninata B. & McD. Type, 9 Winnfield, La. 

Crypliia nana Hbn. 9 S. Pines. N. C. 

Ocarba nebula B. & McD. Type, $ Winnfield, La. 

Parahypcnodcs quadralis B. & McD. Type, $ St. Johns Co., Que. 

Protocryphia sccta Grt. 9 Decatur, 111. 

Cryphia pcrvcrtcHs B. & McD. Type, 9 New Brighton, Pa. 

Cryphia villificans B. & McD. T>-pe, 9 New Brighton, Pa. 

Camptylochila rotundalis Wlk. $ Chicago, 111. 

Cainptylochila forbesi Frch. $ New Brighton, Pa. 

Camptylochila diminucndis B. & McD. $ New Brighton, Pa. 

Camptylochila julia B. & McD. $ New Brighton, Pa. 

Schinia tcrrifica B. & McD. Type, $ Colorado (Oslar). 

Schinia gloriosa Stkr. Type, 9 San Antonio, Tex. 



Plate X\'II1 
















If- 




196 



Fig. 
Fig, 



Fig. 


3. 


Fig. 


4. 


Fig. 


5. 


Fig. 


6. 


Fig. 


7. 


Fig. 


8. 


Fig. 


9. 


Fig. 


10. 


Fig. 


11. 


Fig. 


12. 


Fig. 


13. 


Fig. 


14. 



PLATE XIX 

Drasieria graphka atlantica B. & McD. Paratype, $ Rock Beach, 

L. I. 

Drasteria graphica atlantica B. & McD. Paratype, ? Rock Beach, 

L. I. 

Drasteria occulta Hy. Edw. 5 Lakehurst, N. J. 

Syneda pulchra B. & McD. Type, S Palm Spgs., Calif. 

Syneda tejonica Behr $ Loma Linda, Calif. 

Syneda tejonica Behr $ Loma Linda, Calif. 

Syneda hudsonica G. & R. $ Field, B. C. 

Syneda hudsonica G. & R. 9 Glacier Park, Mont. 

Syneda hudsonica heathi B. & McD. Paratype, 9 Cartwright, Man. 

Syneda hudsonica heathi B. & McD. Type, S Cartwright, Man. 

Annaphila astrologa B. & McD. Paratype, 9 Arizona. 

Syneda abrtipta B. & McD. Type, S Palmerlee, Ariz, 

Annaphila divinula Grt. 9 San Diego, Calif. 

Syneda abrupta B. & McD. Type, 9 Jemez Spgs., N. M. 



Tl.ATE XIX 




198 



PLATE XX 

Fig. 1. Plataca trilinearia astrigaria B. & McD. Type, $ Olancha, Calif. 

Fig. 2. Philtraea clegantaria Hy. Edw. S Babaquivera Mts., Ariz. 

Fig. 3. Philtraea clegantaria paticimacula B. & McD. Paratype, 9 San 

Benito, Tex. 

Fig. 4. Goiwdontis (?) simplicitis B.SiMcD. Paratype, $ Olancha, Calif. 

Fig. 5. Gonodontis (?) simplicius B. &McD. Type, 9 Olancha, Calif. 

Fig. 6. Cleora dionaria B. & McD. Type, $ Palmerlee, Ariz. 

Fig. 7. Olene willingi B. & McD. $ Sebec Lake, Me. 

Fig. 8. Olene vagans B. & McD. $ Sebec Lake, Me. 

Fig. 9. Olene vagans B. & McD. 9 Sebec Lake, Me. 

Fig. 10. Tolype lowriei B. & McD. Paratype, 3 Santa Cniz Mts., Calif. 

Fig. 11. Tolype lowriei B. & McD. Paratype, 9 Santa Cruz Mts., Calif. 

Fig. 12. Megalopyge lapcna heteropuncta B. & McD. Type, $ Chiricahua 

Mts., Ariz. 

Fig. 13. Gaea palmi Beut. $ Kingman Ariz. 

Fig. 14. Heterocampa cuhana Grt. 5 Venice, Fla. 

Fig. 15. Gaea palmi Beut. 9 Kingman, Ariz. 

Fig. 15. Heterocoma aJbistriga B. & McD. Paratype, $ Paradise, Ariz. 

Fig. 17. Heterocoma albistriga B. & McD. Type, 9 Paradise, Ariz. 



Plate XX 




200 



PLATE XXI 



Fig. 1. Eustroma fasciata B. & McD. Type, ? Cowichan Lake, Vane. Is., 

B. C. 
Eustroma nubilata Pack. 9 Wellington, B. C. 
Euphyia unangutata Haw. S Ramparts, Alaska. 
Hydriomena irata quaesitata B. & McD. Type, $ Monachee 

Mdws., Calif. 
Hydriomena shasta brunneata B. & McD. Type, 3 Monachee 

Mdws., Calif. 
Hydriomena hensliawi expurgata B. & McD. Type, 3 Monachee 

Mdws., Calif. 



Fig. 


3. 


Fig. 


4. 


Pig. 


5. 


Fig. 


6 


Fig. 


7. 


Pig. 


8 


Fig. 


9 


Fig- 


10 


Fig. 


11 


Fig. 


12. 


Fig- 


13 


Fig. 


14. 


Fig. 


IS 


Fig- 


16 


Fig. 


17 


Fig- 


18 


Fig. 


19. 


Pig. 


20 


Fig. 


21. 



Dysstroma mulleolata Hist. 
Dysstroma mulleolata Hist. 
Dysstroma brunneata Pack 
Macaria unipunctaria Wgt. 
Macaria unipunctaria Wgt. 



B. C. 



Duncans, Vane. Is., 

Wellington, B. C. 

Ketchikan, Alaska. 

Redington, Ariz. 

Deer Park Spgs., Lake Tahoe, 
Calif. 
Macaria adonis B. & McD. Paratype, S Monachee Mdws., Calif. 
Phasiane hebetata Hist. S Yosemite, Calif. 
Glaucina simularia B. & McD. Type, 9 Monachee Mdws., Calif. 
Itame simpliciata B. & McD. Type, $ Paradise, Ariz. 
Itaine colata Grt. S Vineyard, Utah. 
Itame colata Grt. 9 Vineyard, Utah. 
Pterotaea mcmoriata Pears. 5 Paradise, Ariz. 
Itame colata Grt. $ Monachee Mdws., Calif. 
Itame colata Grt. 9 Monachee Mdws., Calif. 
Pterotaea ohliviscata B. & McD. Paratype, $ Paradise, Ariz. 



Plate XXI 




202 



Fig. 


1. 


Fig. 


2. 


Fig. 


3. 


Fig. 


4. 


Fig. 


S. 


F.g. 


6. 


Fig. 


7. 


Fig. 


8. 


Fig. 


9. 


Fig. 


10. 


Fig. 


11. 


Fig. 


12. 


Fig. 


13. 


Fig. 


14. 


Fig. 


IS. 


Fig. 


16. 


Fig. 


17. 


Fig. 


18. 


Fig. 


19. 


Fig. 


20. 


Fig. 


21. 


Fig. 


22. 



PLATE XXII 

Nasusina vaporata Pears. $ Loma Linda, Calif. 

Eupithecia mcndkata B. & McD. Paratype. $ San Diego, Calif. 

Prorella mcllisa Grossb. 9 Kingman, Ariz. 

Prorella insipidata Pears. 9 Prescott, Ariz. 

Eupithecia lagganata Tayl. Type, S Laggan, Alta. 

Eupithecia obumbrata Tayl. S Vane. Is., B. C. 

Eupithecia fasciata Tayl. Type, 2 Ottawa, Canada. 

Eupithecia penumbrata Pears. Cotype, $ Redington, Ariz. 

Eupithecia annulata Hist. S Wellington, B. C. 

Eupithecia adornata Tayl. Cotype, $ Calgary, Alta. 

Eupithecia behrcnsata Pack. $ Loma Linda, Calif. 

Claucina cscaria Grt. $ Paradise, Ariz. 

Glaucina cscaria Grt. 9 Babaquivera Mts., Ariz. 

Claucina crroraria Dyar. 9 Wenden, Yuma Co., Ariz. 

Loxostcge anar talis Grt. 9 Siskiyou Co., Calif. 

Loxostcge saxicolalis B. & McD. Type, $ Stockton, Utah. 

Loxostege albertatis B. & McD. Type, 9 Red Deer River, Alta. 

Cornifrons actualis B. & McD. Type, S Loma Linda, Calif. 

Phlyctaenia angustalis B. & McD. Paratype, 9 La Puerta Valley, 

Calif. 
Loxostcge tcrpnalis B. & McD. Ty-pe, 9 Olancha, Calif. 
Melitara parabates Dyar $ Gila Co., Ariz. 
Olyca ponderosella B. & McD. Type, 9 Palm Spgs., Calif. 



Plate XXII 







#^f ^>^, ^^"^ 







^^^ 



'7 






^^^T^,^^""^ ^^^ 



T'lTfiiiiii irnrmiiM 



204 



Fig. 


1. 


Fig. 


2. 


Fig. 


3. 


Fig. 


4. 


Fig. 


5. 


Fig. 


6. 


Fig. 


7. 


Fig. 


8. 


Fig. 


9. 


Fig. 


10. 


Fig. 


11. 



PLATE XXIII 

Siamnodcs deceptiva B. & McD. Type, S Paradise, Ariz. 
Acidalia bucephalaria B. & McD. Paratype, $ Tuolumne Mdws., 

Calif. 
Plagodis kuelsingaria Pack. S Newton, Mass. 
Sabulodcs acccntuata B. & McD. Type, S Flagstaff, Ariz. 
Noctuclia (lalmalis B. & McD. Type, 9 Palm Spgs., Calif. 
Pyransta invctcrascalis B. & McD. Type, $ New Brighton, Pa. 
Pyransta pythialis B. & McD. Type, $ Cartwright, Man. 
Pyrausta oclireicoslalis B. & McD. Type, $ Palm Spgs., Calif. 
Nociuelia virula B. & McD. Type, $ Palm Spgs., Calif. 
Loxostcgc parvipicta B. & McD. Type, $ Olancha, Calif. 
Pyrausla tuolumnalis B. & McD. Paratype, $ Tuolumne Mdws., 

Calif. 



Plate XXI IT 




206 



Fig. 


1. 


Fig. 


2. 


Fig. 


3. 


Fig. 


4. 


Fig. 


5. 


Fig. 


6. 


Fig. 


7. 


Fig. 


8. 


Fig. 


9. 


Fig. 


10. 


Fig. 


11. 


Fig. 


12. 


Fig. 


13. 


Fig. 


14. 


Fig. 


IS. 


Fig. 


16. 


Fig. 


17. 



PLATE XXIV 

Loxostege unilinealis B. & McD. Type, $ Redington, Ariz. 
Phlyclaenia berberalis B. & McD. Type, 9 Loma Linda, Calif. 
Crambus bartcllus B. & McD. Type, $ Tuolumne Mdws., Calif. 
Crambus ericellus B. & McD. Paratype, S Tuolumne Mdws., Calif. 
Crambus nwdestelhis B. & McD. Type, S Kerrville, Tex. 
Tlwumatopsis actuellus B. & McD. Type, $ Lakeland, Fla. 
Pyrausta cmigralis B. & McD. S Palmerlee, Ariz. 
Loxotegopsis curialis B. & McD. Paratype, S Eureka, Utah. 
Pyrausta merrickalis B. & McD. Paratype, S New Brighton, Pa. 
Pyrausta zonalis B. & McD. Type, 9 Palm Spgs., Calif. 
Macrotheca bilinealis B. & McD. Type, $ Paradise, Ariz. 
Macrotheca angulalis B. & McD. Type, 9 Camp Baldy, Calif. 
Platytes damon B. & McD. Paratype, $ San Diego, Calif. 
Platytes damon B. & McD. Type, 9 San Diego, Calif. 
Crambus angulatus B. & McD. Type, $ San Diego, Calif. 
Tlascala oregonella B. & McD. Type, $ Crater Lake, Ore. 
Parramatta placidella B. & McD. Paratype, 9 Olancha, Calif. 



Plate XXIV 




:^-*«^ 




6 




208 



Fig 


1. 


Fig 


2. 


Fig 


3. 


Fig 


4. 


Fig 


5. 


Fig 


6. 


Fig 


7. 



PLATE XXV 

Genitalia of Oeneis katahdin Newc. 
Genitalia of Oeneis brticei Edw. 
Genitalia of Oeneis semidea Say. 
Genitalia of Oeneis bcani Edw. 
Genitalia of Oeneis lucilla B. & McD. 
Head of Prorclla gypsata Grt. 
Head of Nasiisina inferior Hist. 



T'l.ATn XXV 




INDEX 



Page 

abrupta B. & McD 119 

acastus Edw 73 

accentuata B. &■ McD 156 

actualis B. & McD 168 

actuellus B. & McD 172 

actuaria H. S 117 

acutissima Grt 101 

adonis B. & McD 148 

adomata Tayl 146 

aemularia B. & McD 134 

aetheria Grt 112 

albertalis B. & McD 160 

albiocula B. & McD 114 

albocostaliata Pack 110 

albocostata Druce 110 

albostriga B. & McD 179 

albovitella Hist 174 

amabilis B. 6- il/fD 96 

anartalis Grt 159 

anceps Steph 101 

ancilla B. & McD 79 

angelus Dyar 83 

angulalis B. & McD 173 

angulatus B. & McD 171 

angustalis B. & McD 162 

annulata Hht 145 

apposita B. & McD 106 

ardiferella Hist 176 

argenteostriata B. & McD 91 

arg>-rodines Bull 76 

arioch Stkr 105 

arizonata Grt 136 

assimilis Bull 68 

astrigaria B. & McD 150 

astrologa B. & McD 109 

atlantica B. & McD 119 

baldiir Edw 61 

barnesi Dyar 83 

bartellus B. & McD 170 

basijuncta B. & McD 84 

basipuncta B. &■ McD 100 

battoides Behr 77 



Page 

beani Edw 60 

behrensata Pack 146 

bellipicta IVarr 140 

berberalis B. & McD 163 

bicolar IVlk 87 

bilinealis B. & McD 173 

binotata IVlk 104 

bistrigalis Gcyer 116 

bistrigalis Steph 125 

bistrigata B. & McD 107 

borealis Grt 64 

borealis G. & R 76 

borrusata B. & McD 139 

brunneata Pack 138 

bucephalaria B. & McD 135 

calcaria Pears 151 

Calepbelis G. & R 75 

caliginella Hist 174 

californiata Gummp 146 

Camptylochila Steph 125 

capiticola IVlk 118 

catskillata Pears 145 

celia Saund 90 

centralis R cS- MfD 78 

chromaphila Dyar 159 

chrysomelas Hy. Edw 65 

cinctipes Grt 89 

cinnabarina B. & McD 92 

classicata Pears 147 

claudianus Stich 62 

clio B. & McD 81 

clodius Men 61 

cognata Sm 97 

colata Grl 149 

commortalis Grt 167 

confusalis Wlk 169 

connecta Sm 93 

cora B. & McD 115 

coronada Barnes 132 

correllata Hist 149 

costata Stich 85 

crambis Frey 68 



Page 

cristifera IVlk 95 

Cryphia Hbn HI 

cubana Grl 128 

cupola Hainp 93 

curialis B. & McD 166 

damon B. & McD 172 

danbyi Neum 86 

daura Stkr 70 

davisi Hy. Edw 89 

deceptiva B. & McD 136 

decorata Grossb 149 

demaculata B. & McD 97 

deserti B. & McD 75 

diagonalis Dyar 116 

diminuendis B. & McD 126 

dinephclalis Dyar 172 

dionaria B. & McD 153 

discors Grl 93 

dissimilis Hlsi 157 

divinula Grt HO 

dolli B. & McD 105 

dorsimacula Dyar 83 

eglenensis Clem 89 

cleanora B. 6- MfZ? 95 

electra Wgt ' 81 

emigralis B. & McD 166 

Epizeuxis Hbn 124 

ericellus B. & McD 171 

erroraria Dyar 151 

escaria Grt 151 

eiimoros Dyar 170 

cuterpe Men 67 

expurgata B. & McD 139 

extensa Sni 94 

fasciata B. & McD 137 

fasciata Tayl 145 

faustinula Bdv 84 

februalis 5. <&■ MfD 98 

f enestralis B. & McD 169 

figurata Dru 90 

filaria Wlk 154 

flaviguttata Grt 112 

flavula B. & McD. (Illice) 83 

flaviila B. & McD. (Melitaea).. 73 

flebilis Hist 145 

florepicta Dyar 159 

f orbesi Frch 125 

fortiter B. <S- iWcZ? 92 



Page 

fortunata Pears 145 

fragilis Stkr 84 

f ranconia Hy. Edw 90 

frigida Scrid 63 

fulgora B. & McD 94 

fulicalis Clem 169 

fuscata Grossb 136 

gallatinus Stick 62 

gasta Stkr 105 

glaucon Ediv TJ 

gloriosa Stkr 91 

graefiana Grt 102 

grandipennis B. & McD 117 

graphica Hbn 118 

grisea B. & McD 131 

grossbeckiata Swctt 144 

hanhami B. & McD 95 

heathi B. & McD 122 

hebetata Hist 149 

helena Edw 71 

Hemeroplanis Hbn 122 

Hemigrotella S. <5- MfD 91 

heteropuncta B. & McD 158 

Heterocoma B. & McD 179 

hewletti B. & McD 88 

hoffmanni Behr 72 

horus Edw 80 

hudsonica G. & R 121 

Hyperstrotia Hamp 112 

iberidis Bdi' 65 

ilioneus A. & S 61 

Illice Wlk 82 

illustrata B. & McD 140 

immaculata Reak 84 

impolita Morr 94 

impressale Hist 174 

incognita B. & McD 99 

incresata Pears 146 

indeterminata B. & McD 114 

indicataria IVlk 154 

indirecta IVlk 102 

inferior Hist 141 

ingens B. & McD 71 

inopinatus Hy. Ediv 89 

insipidata Pears 143 

intercalaris Grt 116 

interior Scud 66 

intermedia B. & McD 78 



Page 

inveterascalis B. & McD 165 

irregularia B. & McD 134 

Julia 5. & McD 126 

kasloa Dyar 87 

katahdin Newc 69 

kentiickiensis Dyar 83 

kumskaka Send 80 

kuetzingaria Pack 155 

laceyi B. & McD 101 

laeta Gucr 84 

lagganata Tayl 145 

laurentina Scud 67 

liberomacula Dyar 83 

limnata Pears 145 

lisa Bdv. & Lee 67 

lituralis Hbn 1-25 

low riei B. & McD 132 

lucilla B. & McD 69 

magdalena B. & McD 71 

marginalis Scud 64 

maria Skin 72 

mellisa Grossh 143 

niemoriata Pears 152 

mendicata B. & McD 143 

menetriesi Hy. Edzv 61 

merrickalis B. & McD 165 

merrickalis Siii 125 

metzaria Dyar 156 

minima Dyar 167 

minorata B. & McD 97 

minuta Hist 141 

misenilata Grt 144 

modestella B. & McD 110 

modestellus B. & McD 171 

mofFatiana Grt 102 

monica B. & McD 104 

mormo Fcld 75 

mulleolata Hist 137 

multiplaga Scltaus 75 

mna. Hbn Ill 

napi Linn 63 

Nasusina Pears 141 

nebula B. & McD Ill 

nehulosa Hist 144 

nemesis Edzv 75 

nemoralis B. & McD 127 

ncxa Bdz' 84 

nexilis Morr 109 



Page 

nimbicolor Hist 146 

oblectalis Hist 170 

obliviscata B. & McD 152 

obscurior Hist 146 

obumbrata Tayl 145 

occidentalis Settd 65 

ochreicostalis B. & McD 163 

occulta Hy. Edv.' 119 

Oeneis Hbn 68 

oeno Bdv 68 

opinata Pears 142 

oregonella B. & McD 175 

orcgonensis B. & McD 78 

oniata Pack 88 

oslarcllus Haiin 170 

palla Bdi' 73 

pallipennis B. & McD 85 

palmalis 5. & McD 167 

palmi Beut 178 

parabates Dyar 175 

Parabypenodes B. & McD 123 

parvipicta B. & McD 161 

paucimacula B. & McD 154 

peabodyae Dyar 93 

peartiae Ed'iSi 69 

penumbrata Pears 147 

perditalis B. & McD 76 

perfecta Hy. Edw 120 

perfusca Hist 145 

perillata Pears 146 

perrosea Dyar 83 

pervertens B. & McD 113 

picta B. & McD 83 

picta Pack 90 

placidella B. & McD 177 

plumbaria Hist 144 

ponderosa B. &■ McD 149 

ponderosella B. & McD 175 

popofensis Sm 105 

porcelaria Gn 153 

preciosa Nixon 90 

primula B. & McD 100 

proba Hy. Edw 87 

Prorella B. & McD 142 

Protocryphia B. & McD 112 

pteridis Hy. Edxi.' 86 

puella Sni 101 

puellaria Dyar 151 



Page 

inilclira B. & MiD 121 

pulverulenta Sm 55 

punctata Pack 85 

punctularia B. & McD 135 

pliritellus Kft 1"' 

purpuraria Pears 15j 

pyralis Hbn 122 

pythialis B. & McD 164 

qtiadralis B. & McD 124 

qiiacsitata B. & McD 140 

resedae Bdv 65 

rotundalis Wlk 125 

rotundata Pack 136 

rubiginosa Wlk 104 

rubra Neum 86 

rubricans B. & McD 123 

rubropicta Pack 84 

rufofascialis Stcf'h 167 

rufula Bdv 85 

ruptifascia B. & McD 82 

sabulosa Hy. Edii' 120 

salvata Pears 140 

saxicolalis B. & McD 160 

Scopclopus Stcpli 122 

scopulaepes Haw 122 

secta Grt 112 

segregata B. & McD 72 

semicarnea B. & McD ?5 

semidea Say 69 

seposita Hy. Edit' 122 

sericeata B. & McD 157 

sericeata Hht 149 

serrula B. & McD 104 

shastaensis Frch 88 

sidus Gn H'2 

simpliciata B. & McD 150 

simplicius B. & McD 155 

simularia B. & McD 152 

sirius B. & McD HI 

spadaria Gn 117 

spaldingi B. & McD. (Grotella) 92 



Page 

spaldingi B. & McD. (Philotes) 79 

spcrmaphaga Dyar 147 

subargentalis B. & McD 161 

subcolorata B. & McD 'i'9 

subhyalina Ciirt 68 

subjuncta G. & R 95 

tejonica Behr 120 

tenuifascia Harv 82 

tenuistriga B. &■ McD 118 

terpnalis B. & McD 160 

terrificaS. & MeD 91 

texanella Hist 174 

thalialis Wlk 167 

transferens Dyar 173 

treati Grt 84 

triangula B. & McD 116 

triangulata B. & McD. (Plataea) 151 

triangulata B. & McD. (Synaxis) 156 

troilus Linn 61 

tuolumnalis B. & McD 165 

unangulata Haza 140 

uncanale Hist 174 

undalis Sicpli 125 

unitascia G. & R 82 

unilinealis B. 6r McD 161 

unipunctaria Wgt 148 

vagans B. & McD 129 

vagans Bdv 85 

vaporata Pears 141 

variabilis B. & McD 106 

variegata B. & McD 103 

vema B. & McD 90 

villificans B. & McD 113 

vinulenta Grt 102 

virginiensis Gray 76 

viridescens B. & McD 108 

virula B. & McD 168 

walkeri Grt 102 

walsinghami Butl 87 

wiUingi B. & McD 129 

zonalis B. & McD 164 



CONTRIBUTIONS 

TO THE 

NATURAL HISTORY 

OF THE 

LEPIDOPTERA 

OF 

NORTH AMERICA 



VOL. IV 

No. 3 



NOTES AND NEW SPECIES 

BY 

WILLIAM BARNES, S. B., M. D. 

AND 

AUGUST BUSCK 

MAILED MARCH 8, 1920 



211 



NOTES AND NEW SPECIES 
TORTRICIDAE 

Amorbia synneuraxa, n. sp. PI. XXXI, Fig. 3. 

Labial palpi light yellow, slightly brownish exteriorly. Face, head and thorax 
light straw-yellow. Forewings light straw-yellow with a small faint light red- 
dish brown dash on the middle of costa, directed outAvardly, and with a similarly 
colored very faint dash on apical third of costa. Hindwings pale straw-colored. 
Abdomen light yellow with whitish underside. Legs pale yellow. Underside 
of wings unicolored light yellow. The female has both pairs of wings a shade 
darker tlian the male, but is identical in markings. 

Alar expanse : S 20-24 mm. ; 9 26 mm. 

Habitat: Redington and Babaquivera Mts., Arizona. 

Type and cotypes in Collection Banies; cotypes in U, S. National Museum 
(No. 22634). 

This species is similar to Amorbia emigratella Busck, especially 
in the males, but is without the dark costal-apical edging of the hind- 
wings found in that species, and the markings of the forewings are 
much paler. The female dififers from any described species of the 
genus by having veins 7 and 8 of the forewings united as in the male, 
not stalked as is the normal. The Californian Amorbia cuneana Wal- 
singham, is very variable in color, but is much larger and even the 
palest male of that species is darker ochreous than those of the present 
species. The male genitalia of this genus are very uniform with but 
slight specific modification, but A. synneurana has the costa of the 
harps somewhat arched, not straight, and the center of the transtilla 
is much less spined than in A. cuneana Wlshm., it also has a very 
dififerent armature of the penis from this species (see PI. XXXI, Fig. 
1 and 3). 

Sparganothis machimiana, n. sp. PI. XXVIII, Fig. 2. 

Labial palpi light ochreous, suffused with dark fuscous exteriorly and with 
dark fuscous terminal joints. Face naked. Head and thorax light ochreous 
brown. Forewings light ochreous brown, evenly sprinkled with single scales of 
darker brown and dark fuscous; a faint series of small blackish dots along the 
costal and terminal edges; a conspicuous small black round dot at the end of 
the cell; cilia ochreous. Hindwings light brownish fuscous with paler cilia; 
underside with very faint transverse blackish striation. Abdomen ochreous 
fuscous above, yellowish on the underside. LefTS ochreous with dusky tarsal 
joints. 



212 

Alar expanse: 21-26 mm. 

Habitat : Paradise, Cochise Co. and Palmerlee, Arizona. 
Type and cotypcs in Collection Barnes; cotypes in U. S. National Museum 
(No. 22635). 

Sparganothis umbrana, n. sp. PI. XX\'III, Fig. 3. 

Labial palpi dark reddish brown. Face naked. Head and thorax light 
reddish brown. Forewings light ochreous with golden and greenish iridescence 
and with dark brown markings; an ill-defined, narrow, reddish brown fascia 
from before the middle of costa to just beyond the middle of dorsum; an apical 
dark brown area occupies the outer third of the wing and is sharply outlined 
against the lighter ground color of the basal two-thirds, which terminates before 
apical third of costa and bulges outwards shortly below the costa into the 
darker apical part of the wing; a small reddish brown spot on the fold near 
the base. Cilia light ochreous. Hindwings dark fuscous brown with light 
ochreous cilia. Abdomen dark ochreous with lighter underside. Legs ochreous 
with tarsal joints faintly annulated with fuscous. 

Alar expanse : 22-24 mm. 

Habitat : Denver, Colorado. Oslar, collector. 

Type and cotypcs in Collection Barnes; cot\pcs in U. S. National Aluseum 
(No. 22636). 

A somewhat variable species, closely allied to the very variable 
Californian species 5". scuccionana Walsingham, which I consider only 
a variety of riidana Walsingham and of the iminaculate incoiiditana 
Walsingham ; in a very large series before me these forms grade into 
each other so completely, that I can only consider them all one species, 
as many genitalia slides of the various forms seem to support. The 
present species differs in having much longer labial palpi than the 
Californian species, which must bear the first Walsingham name, in- 
coiiditana. 

Platynota iridana, n. sp. 

Labial palpi reddish brown, mottled with black. Head and thorax reddish 
brown. Forewings of the female reddish brown with a darker brown indistinct, 
outwardly oblique facia from before the middle of costa to before tomus ; 
another blackish brown fascia, broad on the apical third of costa becomes 
attenuated and stops before it reaches tornus ; on both sides of this last dark 
fascia are narrower light reddish outwardly oblique and curved fasciae which 
are heavily overlaid with iridescent and silvery scales ; extreme terminal edge 
and apex dark brown ; at the end of the cell a conspicuous black dot. In the 
males the costal fold reaches to apical third of costa, broad on basal half and 
narrow outwardly; basal two-thirds of the wing heavily overlaid with dark, 
blackish brown scales, contrasting with a light ochreous transverse space at 



^3 

apical fifth, which is overlaid with iridescent scales; lerniiiial edge dark reddish 
hrown. Hindwinps in both sexes light reddish brown. Abdomen light golden 
brown with golden ochreous underside. Legs light ochreous, dnsted with dark 
brown. 

Alar expanse: $ 14 mm. ; 9 15-17 mm. 

Habitat : St. Petersburg, Florida. 

Type and cotypes in Collection Barnes; oot.\pes in U, S. National Museum 
(No. 22637). 

Nearest to the larger and ligliter coloretl Plalynota tnctaUica W'al- 
singham. 

PlATYNOTA VIRIDANA, 11. sp. PI. XX\'III. Fig. 4. 

Labial palpi light greenish yellow, heavily sprinkled with blackish fuscous 
scales. Head and thorax greenish yellow, face and patagia heavily overlaid 
with blackish fuscous. Forewings light yellow with a green lustre, sparsely 
overlaid with darker ochreous and light brown scales ; a well defined, outwardly 
oblique, blackish fuscous fascia from middle of costa to apical third of dorsum 
contains a number of reddish and brown scale?; a similarly colored triangular 
costal spot at apical third ; terminal edge and apex broadly blackish fuscous 
with a reddish brown line along the extreme edge ; cilia ochreous ; costal fold 
in the male very small and not firmly pressed down, covering only basal sixth 
of costa. Hindwings dark fuscous with cilia lighter. Abdomen and legs ochre- 
ous fuscous. 

Alar expanse: 17 mm. 

Habitat: Dewey, Arizona. 

Type and cotypes in Collection Barnes; cotypes in U. S. National Museum 
(No. 22638). 

Platynota chiquitana, n. sp. 

Labial palpi, head and thorax blackish brown. Forewings dark brown with 
outer half lighter yellowish brown especially in the males; costal fold of the 
male short and narrow, reaching only one-fourth of the costa; a blackish brown, 
outwardly oblique, fascia from the middle of costa to apical third of dorsum 
becomes indistinct and suflFused on its lower half, but is edged along its entire 
basal side with minute tufts of raised scales; similar small tufts of black scales 
are found in two series across the apical part of the wing, starting on either 
side of an obscure dark brown triangular costal spot at apical third; additional 
small tufts of scales are scattered on apical part of the wing; terminal edge 
dark reddish brown with small raised scale tufts. Cilia golden brown. Hind- 
wings dark reddish brown. Abdomen dark fuscous with yellowish brown under- 
side. Legs blackish brown. 

Alar expanse : 12-16 mm. 

Habitat: San Diego and Loma Linda, San Bern. Co., California. 



214 

Type and cotvpes in Collection Barnes; cotvpes in U. S. National Museum 
(No. 22639). 

An inconspictioiis species, mainly distinguished stiperficially by 
its small size. 

TORTRIX PERONEANA, n. sp. 

Labial palpi reddish ochreous. Face and head dark ochreous. Collar dark 
reddish brown. Thorax light yellow. Forewings light yellow, slightly suffused 
with reddish scales, especially on outer half and along costa; a short dark brown 
line from just before the middle of costa is directed towards tornus but stops 
at the end of the cell and forms a right angle with a similar, inwardly directed 
line from apical fourtli of costa; costal edge narrowly reddish brown except 
within the triangle formed by these two lines; terminal edge and cilia dark 
reddish fuscous. Male without costal fold. Hindwings light reddish fuscous 
with white cilia. Abdomen light yellow. Legs yellow shaded exteriorly with 
brown. 

Alar expanse: 18-19 mm. 

Habitat : Palmerlee, Cochise Co., Arizona. 

Type and cotvpes in Collection Barnes; cotvpes in U. .S. Xalional Museum 
(No. 22640). 

A striking species of the quercifoliaiia and scmicirculana group, 
easily recognized by its simple pattern. 

The venation of the female of this species is normal with veins 
3 and 4 of the hindwings connate ; the males have these veins dis- 
tinctly separate, tho' approximate, a tentlency foimd in several species 
of the family and indicating that this character. 3 and 4 of hind- 
wing separate or connate, must be used with considerable circum- 
spection in the generic division of the family, more so, probably, than 
has been the case. 

TORTRIX CARNANA, n. sp. PI. XXVIII, Fig. 1. 

Labial palpi light reddish brown. Face and head deep reddish brown. 
Thorax reddish brown ; patagia tipped with white. Forewings white with vivid 
reddisli brown markings; basal fourth reddish brown except along dorsal edge; 
a broad reddish brown fascia from tlie middle of costa, outwardly projected to 
the end of the cell, reaches nearly across tlie wing to the fold; the white apical 
third of the wing outside this fascia is faintly suffused with red except on a pure 
white costal streak immediately beyond the fascia. Cilia white. Hindwings 
pale nisty red. Underside of both wings liglit golden red with the white costal 



215 

marking of tlie forewing sliowing tliroiigli. Abdomen reddish brown with 
whitish base and underside. Legs white, strongly suFEiised with red exteriorly. 

Alar expanse : 26-29 mm. 

Habit.\t: Camp Baldy, San. Bern. Mts.. California. 

Type and cotypes in Collection Barnes; cotypes in V. S. National Museum 
(No. 22641). 

A very striking species, not easily confnsed with any describeil 
species bitt probably nearest to T". Tiridana Dyar. 

TORTRIX DtMORPH.WA, n. sp. 

Labial palpi, face, head and thorax light canary yellow. Forewings light 
canary yellow with blackish fuscous markings; in the female the dark markings 
are confined to a short, inwardly directed, diflfused dorsal streak just before 
tornus and sometimes a scattering of black scales along the terminal and dorsal 
margins; in the male there is an oblique blackish fascia from middle of costa to 
just before tornus, interrupted on the middle of the wing by the ground color; 
there is also a well defined blackish costal spot at apical fourth. Cilia whitish. 
Hindwings and cilia white. Abdomen whitish ochreous. Legs light ochreous, 
shaded exteriorly with brown. 

Alar expanse: 21-24 mm. 

Habitat: Duncans, Vancouver Is. Hanhani coll.; Victoria, British Co- 
lumbia. 

Type and cotypes in Collection Barnes; cot\-pes in U. S. National Museum 
(No. 22642). 

Allied to T. demcnsiana Fernald, but broader winged and distin- 
guished by the dark markings of the forewings. 

TORTRIX INVID.'\N.A, n. sp. PI. XXXI, Fig. 9. 

Labial palpi dirty white, shaded exteriorly with black; terminal joint black. 
Face, head and thorax dirty white with a few single black scales; patagia 
strongly speckled with black. Ground color of the forewings white with gray 
and black markings; basal fourth thickly overlaid with gray and black trans- 
verse striation except on dorsal edge; on the middle of costa is a sharply limited 
black spot, from which an outwardly oblique, strongly angulated fascia of gray 
and black scales runs to the dorsum just before tornus; at apical fourth of 
costa is a large rectangular black and gray spot with a minute costal dash of the 
ground color in the center; beyond this are two thin blackish lines across the 
wing, the first tenuinating in a large ill defined gray spot above tornus, the outer 
just before apex is continued into a series of black dashes along terminal and 
tomal edge and beyond and along dorsal edge between the fascia and the basal 
part. Cilia dirty while. Hindwings light fuscous with the edges slightly 
darker and with a thin fuscous line in the dirty white cilia, parallel with the 



216 

edge. Abdomen fuscous vvitli whitish underside. Legs dirty vvliite, shaded with 
fuscous exteriorly. 

Alar expanse : 19-22 mm. 

H.'VBiT.vT: Duncans, Vancouver Is. Hanham coll.; Victoria, British Co- 
lumbia. 

Type and cotypcs in Collection Barnes; cotypes in U. S. National Museum 
(No. 22643). 

Allied to and with strong general resemblance to Tortrix dissitana 
Grote, but without the solid black triangular markings on the terminal 
edge of this species. 

Peronea m.\ximan.\, n. sp. PI. XXXII, Fig. 1. 

Labial palpi wliite, mottled exteriorly with black scales. Face, head and 
thorax whitish fuscous, sparsely sprinkled with single black scales. Forewings 
whitish gray with a faint bluish tint and irregularly sprinkled and strigulated 
with darker gray and black scales; costal edge with irregularly placed blackish 
brown geminate dashes ; terminal edge w ith a scalloped blackish brown mar- 
ginal line, at basal third of costa is an outwardly directed transverse blackish 
fuscous fascia, sometimes faintly indicated. A somewhat more distinct irregu- 
lar transverse dark shade across the end of the cell from the middle of costa 
is also variable in the different specimens, but is at least always indicated by a 
dark spot at the end of the cell, containing two short longitudinal black streaks ; 
a small blackish dot on the fold near the base. Hindwings light shining fus- 
cous with darker fuscous irregular transverse striation whicli is more pro- 
nounced on the underside; underside of forewings dark fuscous with whitish 
costal edge on which several dark costal dashes show conspicuously. Abdomen 
dark fuscous with yellowish anal tuft. Legs dirty ochreous white. 

Alar expanse ; 28-30 mm. 

Habit.-\t ; Vancouver Is. Hanham coll.; Victoria. British Columbia. A 
J. Crocker coll. 

Type and cotypes in Collection Barnes ; cotxpes in U. S, National Museum 
(No. 22644). 

A striking species nearest allied to Peronea ferrug'uugnttata Fer- 
nald. A series of specimens from the same locality but smaller (22-27 
mm) seeiTi to grade right into the larger form, which I have made the 
type and I am unable to separate them, at least for the jjresent. 

Peronea fuscana, n. sp. 

Labial palpi whitish on their inner side, dark fuscous exteriorly. Face, 
head and thorax dark fuscous. Forewings dark fuscous with a few scattered 
brown scales and with black markings; base of costa broadly black; a black 
rectangular triangle, consisting of two costal spots and an intermediate spot 
below and between these, closely connected around a small dot of the ground 



217 

color at apical third ; a small black dot on the fold near the base ; faint blackish 
brown transverse striation on apical third of the wing; cilia dirty white. Hind- 
■\vinf;s light shiny fuscous with whitish cilia. Abdomen ochreous fuscous with 
lit;hter underside. Legs ochreous fuscous with blackish shading e.\tcrior!y. 

Alar expanse: 16 mm. 

H.'VBiT.AT : Aweme, Manitoba, Criddle coll. 

Type and cotypes in Collection Barnes; cotypes in U. S. National Museum 
(No. 22645). 

A dark inconspicuous species of the Snbnh'ana group. 

Perone.\ stadi.^na, n. sp. 

Labial palpi yellowish white on the inner side, mottled with reddish brown 
exteriorly. Face, head and thorax light reddish brown. Forewings light red- 
dish brown with a dark brown triangle, enclosing a small triangular spot of the 
ground color on apical tliird of costa ; a faint dark brown striation on basal 
third of the wing; apical third rather heavily overlaid with dark brown; a small 
black dot on the middle of the cell and a similar dot at the end of the cell, con- 
taining a few white scales; a small black dot on the fold near base; all of these 
black spots consist of raised scales; the extreme terminal edge of the wing 
dusted with black; cilia light fuscous. Hindwings dark brownish fuscous with 
yellowish cilia. Abdomen fuscous above, underside light ochreous. Legs light 
ochreous; tarsal joints shaded exteriorly with brown. 

Alar expanse: 15-17 mm. 

H.\BITAT : Ottawa, Canada. C. H. Young coll. 

Type and cotypes in Collection Barnes; cotypes in U. S. National Museum 
(No. 22646). 

Apparently a not very variable species, near P. viburnana Clem- 
ens in color, but smaller and witli the costal triangle less extensive. 



218 



PHALONIIDAE 

IIv-TEROSIA PERSIMCTANA. n. sp. PI. XXVIII, Fig. 5. 

Labial palpi whitish gray, sprinkled with dark brown scales. Head and 
thorax whitish gray sprinkled with brown. Forewings without costal fold in the 
male; the white ground color thickly and evenly dusted with gray, black and light 
fawn colored scales so as to appear gray to the unaided eye ; from the middle 
of costa to near base of dorsum runs a dark gray narrow^ fascia, ill defined out- 
wardly, but sharply outlined basally by a line of white scales; a large blackish 
brown transverse spot, undulated in outline toward the base and outwardly 
curved toward apex reaches from apical fourth of costa to tomus and is edged 
outwardly by a line of pure white scales; an indistinct triangular dark gray 
area before tomus is emphasized by a lighter gray edge toward the base of the 
wing; cilia white with base and tips brown. Hindwings whitish, heavily but 
indefinitely mottled with transverse gray strialion, which is more pronounced on 
the underside ; cilia white dotted with brown. Underside of forewings light 
brown with the outer curved white line and the dark subapical spot of the upper 
surface clearly indicated. Abdomen li.ght grayish brown. Legs whitish, dusted 
with brown. 

Alar e,\p.".nse : 25-27 mm. 

H.\r.iTAT : Paradise, Cochise Co., Arizona. 

Type and cutvpes in Collection Barnes; cotvpes in U. S. National Museum 
(No. 22647). 

Nearest to //. tcnninaua Busck, but ver_v distinct from any of our 
described species of the gentis by its soft gray color and the externally 
white edged dark apical sjiot. 

HVSTEROSIA CANARIANA, n. sp. PI. XXVIII, Fig. 6. 

Labial palpi light yellow, mottled externally with brown. Face, head and 
thorax light yellow. Forewings pale canary yellow, overlaid with darker yel- 
low scales and with reddish brown and blackish markings; costal fold of the 
male blackish brown, reaching to basal third; a series of faint, equidistant, light 
brown dots along costal edge beyond the fold ; an inwardly oblique blackish 
brown streak across the base of the cell; a small black spot at the end of the 
cell and a reddish brown streak, mixed with black scales across the tip of the 
wing from apical fourth to tornus. Cilia reddish white. Hindwings light fus- 
cous with faint transverse darker striation. Abdomen dark fuscous with yellow 
anal tuft. Legs light ochreous. 

Alar expanse: 19-23 mm. 

Habit.'m: White Mountains, Arizona. 

Type and cotvpes in Collection Barnes ; cotvpes in U. S. National Museum 
(No. 22648). 



219 

Nearest to //. anicoalbida Walsingham. but darker yellow with 
darker markings and at once distinguislied from it by the dark hind- 
wings. 

HvsTEROSiA KMLviPLiCANA Walsingham. PI. XXXII, Fig. 10. 

1879, 111. I.ep. Met. Brit. Mus.. Vol. IV, p. 25, PI. LXVI, Fig. 2, 3. 
n. syns : 

Hysterosia aegrana Walsingham. 

1879, 111. Lep. Het. Brit. Mus., Vol. IV, p. 26, PI. LXVI, Fig. 4. 

Hysterosia homonana Kearfott. 

1907, Can. Fnt., \'ol. XXXIX, p. 84. 

Hysterosia komouana Kearfott. 

1907, Can. Ent., XXXIX, p. 121. 

A very large and perfect series from the type locality of Wal- 
singham's species show sufficient variation in the ground color of the 
forewings to indicate that the two names fiilviplicana and aegrana 
apply to only one species of which the males normally are the larger 
and white, while the females are ochreous and much smaller, but both 
sexes vary and intergrade to some extent and enough to account for 
Walsinghani's description and figures of the supposed two species. 

Lord Walsingham evidently had some suspicion of this, but his 
short series did not enable him to connect the extremes in coloration 
and size. In spite of considerable collection in the type region only 
one species of this genus has been turned up and only one seems to 
occur there. 

Kearfott's two names Hysterosia homonana and H. komonana 
apply to small varieties of male specimens of this same species as his 
types prove ; genitalia slides of cotypes of both his species have been 
made and are found to be alike and identical with those of f tiki plic ana 
Walsingham. 

The synonymy is augmented by the names refuga Meyrick and 
fermcntata Meyrick, supplied with the idea of supplanting Kearfott's 
"nonsense " names. 

It is further added to by Lord Walsinghani's identification of the 
European Hysterosia inopiana Stephens, from California, which in 
our opinion was based on a female of the variable fnlviplicana, this 
European name should be discontinued in our North American List 



220 

except as a synonym of fitk'ipUcana as H . inopiana Walsingham, not 
Stephens. 

In most species of Lepidoptera the female is larger than the male 
in alar expanse and the opposite condition in this species is noteworthy, 
though found in several others. It does not hold for the other species 
of the genus. In the oecophorid genus Scmioscopis it is the condition 
found in all the species, that the males run considerably larger than 
the females. 

ITy.sterosia terminana Busck. 

1907. Jour. N. Y. Ent. .Soc, XV, p. 33. 
n. syn. 

Hystcrosia nicrrickaiia Kearfott. 

1907, Can. Ent., XXXIX. p. 59, 121. 

These two names ])ul)lished with short intervals stand for the same 
species and mcrrickana must sink as a synonym. 

Hy.sterosia baracana Busck. 

1907, Jour. N. Y. Ent. Soc, XV, p. 38. 
n. syn : 

Hystcrosia tiscana Kearfott. 

1907, Can. Ent., XXXIX, p. 123. 

Hystcrosia vigilans Meyrick. 

1912, Ent. Mo. Mag., XLVIII, p. 35. 

Kearfott's name H . tiscana, published a few months after Hystc- 
rosia baracana. falls as a synonym for it and witli it Meyrick's substi- 
tute for Kearfott's name. 

I [vsTF.KosiA cautwuigiitana Kearfott. 

1907. Can. Ent., XXXIX, p. 123. 

This name has been placed wrongfully as a .synonym of H. 
villana Busck. and should he resurrected as a valid species. The gen- 
italia of this genus are remarkably uniform and difficult to dififerentiate, 
but exhibit good characters, however small, in the form of the trans- 
tilla and the armature of the penis. 



221 

Phai.onia marloffiana Busck. 

1907, Jour. N. Y. Ent. Soc, XV, p. 26. 
new syn : 

Phalonia nonlavana Kearf. 

1907, Trans. Am. Ent. Soc, XXXIII, p. 85. 

This synonymy and that of the two Hystcrosia species, presented 
in this paper was realized and admitted by Mr. Kearfott during his 
visit at the National Museum shortly after their publication, but was 
not published In' our late friend, as intended, before his untimely 
demise. 



222 



COSMOPTERYGIDAE 

PSACAPHORA EDITIIEI.LA, II. sp. I'l. XXVIII, Fig. 11. 

Labial palpi light whitish straw colored with anterior edge purplish black. 
Face, head and thorax shiny purplish black; antennae purplish black. Fore- 
wings shining golden red with bronzy black and metallic golden markings ; ex- 
treme base of wing black, which color is continued narrowly on the costal edge 
to basal fourth and broadly along the dorsal edge to basal third; the outer half 
of the dorsal part of this area is heavily irrorated transversely with metallic gold 
and terminates in a tuft of raised scales; near the end of this black area is a 
blunt irregular extension upwards into the cell, so strongly overlaid with metallic 
golden scales as to obscure the black entirely in certain lights and appear solid 
gold; a similarly colored elongate spot on outer half of the cell; an elongate 
black, golden irrorated spot on the end of the fold, but not touching the dorsal 
edge, terminates in a tuft of raised scales and has a large spur upwards over 
the end of the cell ; the tufts of raised scales have the lower scales pure white and 
when the tufts are pressed down in setting the specimen these scales protrude 
and form small white spots at the edge of the black and golden areas; just 
beyond apical fourth is a conspicuous white costal dash and beyond this the 
costal, apical and terminal edges are deep black, heavily overlaid with metallic 
golden scales. Cilia bronzy black. Hindwings and cilia bronzy black. Abdomen 
Mack. Legs black with the ends of the joints white. 

Alar expanse: 16-17.5 mm. 

H.\BiTAT: Chimney Gulch, Golden, Colorado. Oslar coll. 

Type and cotypes in Collection Barnes; cot\pes in U. S. National Museum 
(No. 22649). 

A very brilliant moth, typical of the genus and nearest to P. piir- 
piiricUu Busck, but easily distinguished by the lighter color, different 
pattern and striking metallic golden wings. 

Named in honor of Miss Edith Horstmann. 

.Stagmatopiiora vvvattella, n. sp. 

Labial palpi white with base of second joint and with base and a broad 
annulation on terminal joint black. Face and head white. Thorax black. Fore- 
wings black with a strong purplish sheen and with silvery white markings; an 
outwardly oblique white streak from basal fourth of costa reacliing to the fold; 
a similar but smaller streak on the middle of costa and a semicircular white 
costal spot at apical fourth; a silvery white spot on the middle of dorsal edge, 
connected by white scales with another white spot at apical fourth of dorsum; 
a few scattered white scales at apex. Cilia blackish fuscous. Hindwings dark 
blackish bmun with a stron.^ purple sheen; cilia blackish fuscous. Abdomen 



223 

blackish brown with silvery underside. Legs black with broad white bars and 
tarsal annulation. 

Alar expanse: 13-16 mm. 

H.^BITAT: Pales Park and Edgebrook, Chicago, Illinois. A. K. Wyatt 
coll. 

Type and cotypes in Collection Barnes; cotype in U. S. National Museum 
(No. 226S0). 

Named in honor of the collector. Very close and similar in color 
and ornamentation to Stagmatophora sexnotclla Chambers and easily 
confused with this species, but somewhat larger and differing in the 
more extended white markings, in the connected dorsal spots and in 
the much darker hindwings. 



224 



GELECHIIDAE 

ISOPHRICTIS ACTIELLA, n. sp. 

Labial palpi, face, head and thorax white. Forewings dark brownish 
fuscous with a greenish sheen; a broad longitudinal spindle-shaped white streak 
on the middle of the wing from base to the end of the cell; an outwardly oblique 
white costal streak before the cilia, meeting a similar opposite dorsal streak in 
a sharp angle ; three white costal dashes and five nearly confluent dorsal pencils 
beyond these first streaks; a deep black basal line at base of apical cilia; cilia 
white with three parallel black lines beyond the black base. Hindwings silvery 
fuscous. Abdomen dark fuscous. Legs dark fuscous with narrow white annu- 
lations at the end of the joints. 

Alar expanse: 10-11 mm. 

Habitat: San Diego, California. 

Type and cotvpcs in Collection Barnes; cotvpes in L' S. National Museum 
(No. 22651). 

A small strongly marked species, nearest Isopliriclis (Paltodora) 
canicostella Walsingham, which differs in the white costa and other 
details of the pattern. 

All the American species hitherto placed in the genus Paltodora 
IMeyrick must be transferred to the genus Isophrictis Meyrick ( Ent. 
ATo. Mag., \'ol. LIII, p. 113, 1917).' 

Epithectis citrinella, n. sp. 

Labial palpi light yellow with a broad black annulation on the middle of 
terminal joint. Face, head and thorax light yellow ; base of patagina black. 
Forewings light lemon yellow ; base of costal edge black ; a black costal spot at 
basal fourth and another just beyond the middle; a small black spot on dorsal 
edge at the end of the fold and three small black dots along the terminal edge. 
Cilia dusky. Hindwings light silvery fuscous. Abdomen yellow with dusky 
annulations Legs yellow with black bars on the front tibiae. 

Alar expanse: 8-10 mm. 

Habitat : Palmerlee, Arizona. 

Type and cotypes in Collection Barnes; cotypcs in LI. S. National Museum 
(No. 22652). 

Closest and quite similar to E. saniidersclla Chambers, but with 
the forewings lighter yellow, with no black markings except those men- 
tioned above, and with yellow thorax. 



225 



Telphusa baldiana, n. sp. 

Labia! palpi whitish, heavily sprinkled with fuscous and black scales espe- 
cially on outer surface; terminal joint with an ill defined broad black annula- 
tion around the middle and another just before the tip. Face whitish. Head 
and thorax light fuscous, each scale tipped with white. Forewings bluish white, 
overlaid with fuscous, black and brown scales; a rather well defined outwardly 
oblique fasciae of black raised scales from near the base of costa to basal fourth 
of dorsum; an ill defined light fuscous spot on the middle of costa; an ill de- 
fined transverse shade of fuscous over the end of the cell, edged exteriorly by a 
narrow nearly unniottled white fascia; at the end of the cell a short transverse 
streak of black and brown raised scales, tip of the wing well overlaid with fus- 
cous; a short longitudinal black line on the end of veins 5 and 6. Cilia light 
fuscous. Abdomen light ochreous fuscous. Legs light ochreous with ill defined 
fuscous bars and annulations. 

Alar expanse : 19-21 mm. 

Habitat : Camp Baldy, San Bernardino Co., California. 

Type and cotypcs in Collection Barnes; cotypes in U. -S. Nationrd Museum 
(No. 22653). 

The largest described North American species of the genus and 
easily distinguished by the deep black basal fascia. 

Aristotelia monilella, n. sp. 

Labial palpi white, second joint with an indistinct brown annulation near 
the tip, terminal joint with two broad, blackish brown annulations. Face, head 
and collar yellowish white. Thorax golden brown. Forewings light golden 
brown; at basal fourth an outwardly oblique white transverse streak, attenu- 
ated towards dorsum and not quite reaching the dorsal edge; on the middle of 
the costa is an equilateral triangular white spot and at apical fourth an in- 
wardly directed triangular white spot; all of these white spots are marginal 
and continued across the wing by black and metallic blue scales and terminate 
on the dorsal edge in small white spots; apical and terminal edges broadly 
velvety black with conspicuous tufts of metallic blue scales around the margin. 
Cilia dark brown with white tips. Underside of both wings brown and both 
with a large white spot at apical fourth. Abdomen black, each joint tipped with 
silvery white. Legs dark brown with white bars and tarsal annulations. 

Alar expanse : 12-13 mm. 

Habitat: Southern Pines, North Carolina. 

Type and cotypes in Collection Barnes; cotypes in U. S. National Museum 
(No. 22654). 

Very close to Aristotelia clegantella Chambers and to A. argeiiti- 
fera Busck and rivalling them in exquisite beauty, but easily distin- 
guished from either by the different pattern. 



226 

Aristotelia lindanella, n. sp. 

Labial palpi white, second joint slightly shaded exteriorly with reddish 
brown ; terminal joint with two anniilations and extreme tip black. Face, head 
and thorax light yellow. Forewings yellowish white ; extreme base of costa 
black; at basal third a broad blackish brown transverse fascia, slightly nearer 
base at costa than on the dorsal edge; at apical third is a similar broader fascia, 
strongly overlaid with brick-red on the dorsal half and touching on the dorsal 
edge a third broad fascia across the tip of the wing, which is nearly all brick 
red with only the costal end blackish brown; tip of the wing white with a few 
scattered brown scales. Cilia white. Hindwings light whitish fuscous. Abdo- 
men yellowish with silvery underside. Legs white with dark brown bars and 
nearly black tarsal joints. 

Alar expanse: 10-11 mm. 

Habitat: Loma Linda, San Bernardino Co, and Olancha, Inva Co., Cali- 
fornia. 

Type and cotypes in Collection Barnes; cotypes in U. S. National Museum 
(No. 22655). 

Nearest to Aristotelia bifasciella Busck, but smaller with straighter 
fasciae and at once distinguished by the yellow head and the brick-red 
shading on the wings. 

Anacampsis psoraliei.i.a, n. sp. PI. XXVIII, Fig, 10. 

Labial palpi and tongue light golden ochreous. Face, head and thorax 
olivaceous blackish brown. Forewings nearly iinicolorous blackish brown with 
apical fourth a shade lighter; the two shades are faintly but sharply defined by 
a transverse line, which is slightly but sharply outwardly curved and pointed 
on the middle ; four hardly perceptible darker brown spots, one near the base, 
one on the middle of the cell, one at the end of the cell and one on the middle 
of the fold. Cilia dark brown. Hindwings dark olivaceous brown with the cilia 
a shade lighter. Abdomen blackish brown with light yellowish underside. Legs 
yellowish shaded exteriorly with brown. 

Alar expanse : 18-21 mm. 

Habitat: Sioux City, Iowa. 

Food plant : Psoralca argol'liyUj. 

Bred by Dr. A. W. Lindsey. 

Type and cotype in Collection Barnes; cotype in U. S. National Museum 
(No. 22656). 

Allied to A. liipinrlla Busck, Ijut larger and differing in the light 
yellow labial palpi. 



227 

Anacampsis i.ACTiLUSOciiKELi.A Chambers. 

Gelechia lacteusochrcUa Chambers, 1875, Cinn. Quart. Jour., Vol. 

11, p. 244; Busck, 1903, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., Vol. XXV, p. 897; 

Barnes, 1917. List Lep. Bor. Am., No. 6329. 

This name, which for nearly half a century has been on our list 
as unrecognized, we now apply to a small inconspicuous species of 
Anacampsis from Riverside, Calif., and South California, which agrees 
well with Chambers' description, incomplete as it is. The species is 
nearest A. crescentifascicUa Chamb. and A. argyrothamniella Busck, 
and good series are fotmd so labelled in U. S. National Museum and 
in collection Barnes. 

EUCORDYLEA ELUCIDEM.A. n. Sp. 

Second joint of labial palpi blackish brown with a large ill-defined white 
annulation below the middle ; terminal joint black with two narrow diffused 
white annulations, one at base and one on the middle and with extreme tip 
white; brush on the inner side of second joint in the male large, dirty yellowish 
white ; this brush is not found in the females. Antennae black with narrow 
white annulations. Face and head yellowish white, sprinkled witli fuscous. 
Thorax dark fuscous. Forewings light gray with three ill-defined and obscure 
blackish dashes on costa, one at basal fourth, one on the middle and one at 
apical third ; these black dashes are edged with white and are faintly continued 
across the wing, the first as an outwardly oblique narrow and broken fascia, 
the two others straight across the wing; each of these fascia is emphasized by 
tufts of raised black scales, edged with white, two of which on each fascia are 
larger and more persistent in the flown specimen than the other markings. 
Cilia light fuscous. Hindwings light fuscous; in the males with a large expan- 
sive bright yellow hairtuft at base. Abdomen ochreous above with fuscous 
underside. Legs ochreous white barred and annulated with black. 

Alar expanse: 11-13 mm. 

Habitat: San Diego, California. June. 

Type and cotypes in Collection Barnes; cotypes in U. S. National Museum 
(No. 22657). 

The genus Eucordylca Dietz was erected on the peculiar labial tuft 
and has been known hitherto only from a few males. The females are 
now found to have palpi as normal in the genus Recurvaria with which 
Eucordylea is identical in venation. I postpone until a revision of the 
family the decision whether or not the genus Eucordylea can be log- 
ically maintained. 



228 

Gf.i.ixhia spilosella, n. sp. 

Labial palpi with well developed furrowed brush, whitish fuscous, mot- 
tled with dark fuscous and black. Face ochreous fuscous. Head and thorax 
dark fuscous. Forewings dark fuscous minutely irrorated with black, extreme 
tip of each scale being black; a prominent blackish brown spot on the middle 
of the cell and another similar spot obliquely below it on the fold, both partly 
edged with light brown scales; a small light brown spot on the end of the cell 
contains one or sometimes two small black spots ; a very faint, hardly discern- 
able lighter fuscous transverse shade across the wing at apical fourth, some- 
times accentuated by a faint ochreous costal spot; a few black dots along the 
terminal edge before the lighter fuscous cilia. Hindwings brownish fuscous 
Abdomen dark fuscous with basal joints velvety ochreous above. Legs dark 
fuscous with narrow ochreous tarsal annulations. 

Alar expanse : 20-21 mm. 

H.'\bitat: San Diego, California. 

Type and cotypes in Collection Barnes; cotypes in U. S. National Museum 
(No. 22658). 

Gei.echia retiniella. n. sp. 

Labial palpi white. Face and head white. Thorax light yellow. Fore- 
wings white, heavily overlaid with light ochreous scales, which only leaves the 
white ground color exposed on a very diffused outwardly oblique fascia from 
basal fourth of costa to basal third of dorsum, on a similarly ill-defined trans- 
verse fascia across the middle of the wing and on a somewhat better defined 
transverse fascia at apical fourth. Cilia whitish fuscous. Hindwings silvery 
fuscous. Abdomen ochreous. Legs dark ochreous with white annulations. 

Alar expanse: 18-21 mm. 

Habitat : Verdi, Nevada. 

Type and cotypes in Collection Barnes; cotvpes in U. S. National Museum 
(No. 22659). 

Described from a series placed by the late Win. Kearfott under 
this name; the specimens are in rather poor condition, but the species 
is so strikingly different from any described N. Am. species that it is 
deemed well to record it especially as specimens probably have been 
named for collectors. The light ochreous color with the transverse 
white fascia suggest somewhat the genus Evetria (Retiiiia). 
Gelechia xanthophilella, n. sp. 

Labial palpi light yellow-, terminal joint sprinkled with black anteriorly. 
Face and head yellowish white. Thorax light yellow ; patagina black. Fore- 
wings light yellow with a blackish brown longitudinal streak through the middle 
of the wing from base to the middle of the cell, whence it bends obliquely up- 
wards to the middle of costa; costal edge above this line sprinkled with black; 
an ill-defined, irregular blackish brown fascia at apical third contains a short 



229 

black transverse spot at the end of the cell. Cilia yellowish white. Hindwings 
silvery white with jellowish cilia. .-Vbilomen light silvery yellow. Legs silvery 
yellow with dark tarsal nnnulations. 

Alar expanse: 11-14 mm. 

Habitat: Olancha. Inya Co., and La Puerta Valley, California. 

Type and cotypes in Collection Biirnes ; cotypcs in U. S. National Musenm 
(No. 22660). 

A bright easily recognized little species allied to Gclecliia abdom- 
inella Busck and G. coticola P.usck. 

Gei.echia benitella, n. sp. 

Second joint of labial palpi light yellow, terminal joint blackish brown with 
extreme base and tip yellow. Face and head light yellow. Thorax dark black- 
ish brown with a broad central longitudinal yellow stripe. Forewings dark 
purplish brown; a light yellow streak from basal fifth of costa curves down- 
wards and outwards along the fold and then upwards, ending at the end of the 
cell ; it is partially edged with black scales ; a light yellow triangular costal spot 
at apical fourth. Cilia purplish fuscous. Hindwings light fuscous. Abdomen 
dark fuscous with yellowish base and underside. Legs purplish black with nar- 
row yellow tarsal annulations. Venation typical ; hindwings with 3 and 4 con- 
nate, 6 and 7 closely approximate. 

Alar expanse : 12-13 mm. 

Habitat : San Benito, Texas. 

Type and cotypes in Collection Barnes ; cotypes in V. S. National Museum 
(No. 22661). 

Probably nearest to Gclecliia inacqualis Busck. The pattern re- 
minds somewhat of Tclphitsa longifasciclla Clemens. 

Gelechia rectistrigeli,a, n. sp. 

Labial palpi long, thin, second joint but slightly thickened by a short even 
brush, furrowed in its entire length; terminal joint nearly as long as second, 
white sprinkled with black and brown scales. Lower part of face whitish, upper 
part of face and head light ochreous. Thorax white evenly sprinkled with dark 
brown. Forewings white with the venation nearly perfectly outlined by thin 
dark brown lines; on the middle of costa a narrow blackish brown edge, ter- 
minating at apical third in a small whitish dash ; on the end of the cell a small 
round black dot. Cilia light reddish fuscous, sprinkled with black. Hindwings 
dark fuscous with ochreous fuscous cilia. Abdomen light ochreous with whitish 
underside. Legs whitish, heavily shaded exteriorly with black ; tarsi black with 
very narrow ochreous annulations at the base of the joints. 

Alar expanse : 20 mm. 

Habitat: West Riverside, California. 

Type and cotypes in Collection Barnes; cotypes in U. S. National Museum 
(No. 22662). 



230 



Of the group strigella Busck and figurella Busck, and intermediate 
in size and pattern but very distinct from either. 

Gelechia psiloptera, n. sp. 

Second joint of labial palpi light yellow, much sprinkled with black ex- 
teriorly ; terminal joint black with a few scattered yellow scales. Face, head 
and thorax shiny blackish brown with a purple sheen. Forewings to the naked 
eye shiny blackish brown, nearly black; under a lens it is seen that the black 
tipped, closely applied scales have light yellow bases and that the wing thereby 
is finely dusted with yellow; at apical third is a small indistinct and diffused 
yellowish costal spot, an inconspicuous purplish black spot at the end of the 
cell, another on the middle of the cell and a third below this latter on the fold; 
in some specimens these spots are hardly discernible or absent. Cilia blackish 
fuscous. Hindwings dark fuscous with cilia a shade lighter. Abdomen blackish 
brown. Legs light brown with dusky tarsi. 

Alar expanse: 16-17 mm. 

Habitat : Meach Lake, Ottawa Co., Quebec, Canada. 

Type and cotypes in Collection Barnes; cotypes in U. S. National Museum 
(No. 22663). 

A shiny nearly black species with rather narrow pointed wings. 

DiCHOMERIS MOLLIS, n. sp. 

Tuft on second joint of labial palpi well developed, pointed, ochreous on 
the inner side, blackish brown exteriorly except for a thin w4iite line on the 
upper edge; terminal joint ochreous with white base and with a longitudinal 
black line in front. Face, head and thorax ochreous fuscous. Forewings light 
ochreous fuscous sprinkled with black ; costal edge narrowly and faintly touched 
with brick red ; a small inconspicuous second discal spot at the end of the cell 
white, edged with black; a similar even less conspicuous dot, consisting of a few 
scales on the middle of the cell; a very faint row of black dots on the terminal 
edge, which is slightly darker than the rest of the wing; cilia ochreous fuscous 
mixed with black. Hindwings light fuscous with ochreous fuscous cilia. Abdo- 
men ochreous fuscous above, underside blackish with a central longitudinal 
broad ochreous line. Legs blackish fuscous on their outer surfaces, light 
ochreous on their inner side. 

Alar expanse : 19-21 mm. 

Habitat: Redington, Arizona. 

Type and cotypes in Collection Barnes; cotypes in U. S. N;itional Museum 
(No. 22664). 

This is very close to and may prove merely a western variety of 
D. georgicUa Walker (roseocostella Walsingham), but the tuft on the 
labial palpi is longer and more pointed and the forewings are nar- 
rower and more imiformly colored than in the eastern species. 



231 



OECOPHORIDAE 

Agonopteryx callosei.la, n. sp. PI. XXXVIII, Fig. 4. 

Labial palpi with well developed brush, decreasing in length towards base 
and apex: terminal joint slightly thickened with scales anteriorly; light ochreous; 
second joint shaded exteriorly with black; terminal joint with a faint annula- 
tion on the middle and with extreme tip black. Face light ochreous. Head and 
thorax reddish ochreous. Forewings reddish ochreous, sparsely sprinkled with 
black; first and second discal spots small, deep black; n faint small blackish 
cloud anterior to and above second discal spot; a faint row of terminal black 
dots; cilia reddish ochreous with a purple sheen. Hindwings light ochreous 
fuscous with whitish fuscous cilia. Abdomen ochreous with four longitudinal 
rows of black dots on the underside. Legs ochreous with ill-defined black tarsal 
anniilations. 

Alar expanse: 19-23 mm. 

Habitat: San Diego, San Bernardino Co. and Monachee ^feadows 
(8000'), California. 

Type and cotypes in Collection Barnes; cotypes in U. S. National Museum 
(No. 22665). 

Agonopteryx ptele.^e. n. sp. PI. XXVIII. Fi,cr. 13, PI. XXXVIII, 

Fig. 1. 

Brush on second joint of labial palpi largest in the middle, shorter towards 
base and apex, furrowed, light ochreous, sprinkled with black and brown ex- 
teriorly; terminal joint ochreous with broad ill-defined black annulation before 
the tip. Face light silvery ochreous. Head reddish ochreous. Thorax dark 
ochreous, mottled with brown and black scales; extreme posterior tip black. 
Forewings light ochreous brown with black markings ; extreme dorsal base 
whitish ochreous, broadly edged with black; a series of ill-defined black dots 
on costal edge from base to apical third; at apical third a large blackish ill- 
defined spot, reaching down to the end of the cell; an indistinct series of 
terminal black dots along the edge; first and second discal spots small, black, 
the latter obscured in the large costal spot; cilia ochreous brown; the entire 
wing and especially the costal edge with a roughened aspect, because the scales 
are slightly raised, not firmly pressed down as is normal in the genus. Hind- 
wings light ochreous fuscous; base and cilia a shade lighter than the rest 
of the wing. Abdomen light ochreous brown with two ill-defined longitudinal 
rows of black scales on the underside. Legs ochreous brown, barred and an- 
nulated with blackish brown. 

Alar expanse: 20-22 mm. 

Habitat: Decatur, Illinois. 

Food plant : Ptelea trifuliata. 



232 

Type and cotypes in Collection Barnes; cotypcs in U. S. National Museum 
(No. 22666). 

Bred in a fine large series from Hoplree together with A. nlgri- 
notella Biisck, by Dr. J. H. McDiinnough. 

The species reminds by the roughened scales of A. scabclla Zel- 
ler and is nearest to this species, but easily distinguished from all 
described N. Am. species by the striking black, nearly circular costal 
spot. 

Agonopteryx terinella, n. sp. PI. XXVIII, Fig. 15. 

Second joint of labial palpi with moderate evenly rounded divided brush ; 
light ochreous sprinkled with black exteriorly ; terminal joint slightly thickened 
with scales, light ochreous with two pale blackish brown broad annulations at 
base and around middle and with extreme tip black. Face silver}' ochreous. 
Head and thorax light ochreous. Forewings light ochreous, sprinkled with 
blackish brown ; the scarcely paler ochreous basal and costal area is limited by 
a dark brown shade; on the middle of the cell are two obliquely placed small 
blackish brown dots ; a similar second discal spot at the end of the cell is 
preceded by a small dusky area on the upper part of the cell ; a series of obscure 
small brown costal spots and a more pronounced and better defined row of 
terminal marginal spots. Cilia light ochreous. Hindwings pale ochreous fuscous 
with whitish ochreous cilia. Abdomen ochreous fuscous above; underside ochre- 
ous with two longitudinal rows of black dots. 

Alar expanse: 23-24 mm. 

Habitat: Silverton, Colorado 

Type and cotypes in Collection Barnes; cotvpes in U. S. National Museum 
(No. 22667). 

Agonopteryx blaceli.a, n. sp. PI. XXXVIII, Fig. 2. 

Brush on second joint trumpet shaped, gradually larger towards apex; 
light ochreous gray, dusted with black exteriorly; terminal joint light ochreous 
with two ill-defined black annulations, one near base and one near apex and 
with extreme apex black. Face silvery ochreous. Head and thorax blackish 
fuscous, the latter with a small posterior bifid tuft of raised scales. Fore- 
wings dark ochreous fuscous, slightly sprinkled with single black scales; dorsal 
half of extreme base whitish ochreous, edged exteriorly with black; a series 
of small ill-defined black dots on basal third of costa ; two obliquely placed 
small tufts of black scales on the middle of the cell, the outer one edged with 
a few yellowish scales, followed by a cloudy area at the upper edge of the cell, 
somewhat darker than the rest of the wing; second discal spot indistinct, white, 
circular and edged with black scales ; midway between first and second discal spot 
a minute yellowish dot; a faintly indicated series of blackish dots around apical 
and terminal edge ; sometimes a small faint dark cloud before tornus ; cilia 
concolorous with the wing. Hindwings shiny light ochreous fuscous with 



233 

whitish fuscous cilia. Abdomen dark fuscous above; underside light ochreous 
with four longitudinal rows of black dots, which are more or less confluent 
in the males. Legs light ochreous, shaded Exteriorly with blackish brown. 

Alar expanse : 19-24 mm. 

Habit.\t: Shasta Retreat and Truckee, California. 

Type and cotypes in Collection Barnes; cotypes in U. S. National Museum 
(No. 22068). 

Agonopteryx latipalpella, n. sp. 

Second joint of labial palpi with strong, evenly rounded, divided brush; 
light ochreous, sprinkled with single black scales; apical joint heavily thick- 
ened with scales nearly to the tip, light ochreous with an ill-defined black 
annulation at base and a similar one on the middle. Face, head and thora.x 
ochreous fuscous. Collar narrowly black. Forewings light fuscous ochreous, 
sparsely sprinkled with black; extreme base light ochreous, edged with black; 
the light shade continues faintly along the costa, hardly paler than the rest 
of the wing; a series of black cloudy costal spots; a small, easily obliterated, 
white first discal spot with a more persistent black basal edge; a larger round 
white second discal dot encircled by black scales; cilia ochreous. Hind wings 
ochreous fuscous with lighter ochreous cilia. Abdomen fuscous above, under- 
side ochreous with two black longitudinal lines. 

Alar expanse : 17-19 mm. 

Habitat: Brownsville and San Benito, Texas. 

Type and cotypes in Collection Barnes; cotypes in U. S. Xalional Museum 
(No. 22669). 

Depressaria groteella Robinson. 

1870, Ann. Lye. Nat. Hist. N. Y., IX, p. 157, PI, I, Fig. 10. 

Depressaria synitnochlota Meyrick. 

1918, Exot. Micros. Vol. II. p. 223. 

The larva of Depressaria groteella Robinson feeds on Corylus and 
has apparently been redescribed by Meyrick as D. symmochlota. A 
bred series from Sebec Lake. Maine, exhibits some variation especially 
in size and in the more or less obscure angulated thin fascia across the 
veins of the forewings but agrees in every detail with Meyrick's de- 
scription and his name may with advantage be placed as a synonym 
of Robinson's species provisionally at least until an examination of the 
unique type in England can be made. 

We take occasion to point out the inconvenience of descriptions 
from single specimens of American Microlepidoptera by European 
authors, such as those by Mr. Meyrick in the same paper (Exot. 



234 

Micros, \'ol. II, ]i. Z2.\ 1918) of two I'frprcssaria from Colorado. 
Everybody knows that iIktu are additional undescribed species of 
Dcprcssaria in Colorado and the merest beginner can easily describe 
such from stray specimens in his possession ; such descriptions how- 
ever are not advancing our knowledge, but retarding it. It is impos- 
sible to determine such a species with certainty from even the best 
description in a group of so many and so closely similar species as 
Agotiopteryx and Dcprcssaria, at least not without a most careful 
figure of the moth and its genitalia, and our exact knowledge of such 
insect is therefore suspended until someone can go to England and 
compare specimens with the unicjue type in !\lr. Meyrick's private 
collection. 

This kind of work was excusable and even defensible fifty years 
ago, when the American fauna was little known and when every au- 
thorative determination extended our knowledge of geographical dis- 
tribution, if nothing more. It may again become of value, when the 
fauna eventually shall be so well known as it is in Europe, when any 
deviating variety described can easily be recognized and assigned to 
its proper position as species or variety as the case may be, but at the 
present time, when we are struggling with many as yet unrecognized 
described species and are trying to acquire sound knowledge of our 
fauna through the collection of large series and careful breeding, any 
stray description from "Colorado, 7000 feet, one specimen," is a hind- 
rance pure and simple to our knowledge, not an advance as a descrip- 
tion should be. 

Colorado has an area of over 100,000 square miles, more than 
England and .Scotland together, and it has a thousand ditTerent locali- 
ties of 7000 feet altitude. Mow would Mr. Meyrick consider a locality 
for a new species given as ; Great Britain, without indication whether 
it came from Cornwall or Aberdeen ? It is a regrettable fact that the 
most of the "unrecognized" species in our American lists and empty 
spaces in our American collections are no longer those of Chambers, 
whose many insufficiently described species hitherto have been our 
main difficulty, but are those of our eminent colleague in England, 
whose genius and indefatigable diligence has advanced the knowledge 
of the world's inicro-fauna more than any other past or present worker 
and to whom the American student otherwise is greatly indebted for 
his continued liberal assistance. 



235 

We have siuli profound and often expressed admiration for our 
eminent English friend that we trust no offense can be provoked b)' 
our earnest desire not to see him spasmodically descend to the level 
of his, often undeservedly, abused countryman, Francis Walker, and 
without his excuse. 
BoRKHAUSENiA HAVDENELLA, Chambers. PI, XXXVIII, Fig. 5. 

Blepharocera Iiaydenella, Chambers. 

1877, Bull. U. S. Geol. Surv., Ill, p. 145. 

Chambersia liaydeiiclla, Riley. 

1908, Busck, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus.. Vol. XXXV, p. 187. 

1917, Barnes, List Lep. Bor. Am., No. 6503. 

This species which has remained unrecognized since its descrip- 
tion in 1877 from a unique specimen from Colorado in spite of consid- 
erable effort to place it, is now definitely determined and we are able 
to dispose of the long standing empty generic name Chambersia Riley. 
The credit for this interesting identification is entirely due to our 
friend Dr. J. H. McDunnough. who collected and determined three 
male specimens at Silverton, Colorado. We have carefully gone over 
the generic and specific characters and find it to be a very distinct spe- 
cies of the genus Borkhausenia. 

It is generically identical in all respects with the Australian genus 
Crossophora Meyrick, which was separated from Borkhausenia only 
by the somewhat longer ciliation of the male antennae, a character 
also found in our N. Am. B. ascriptrlla Rusck and as already stated 
(Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., Vol. XXX\', p. 204. 1908) a character which 
can not be maintained as of generic value. 



236 



STENOMIDAE 

The family Stenomidae is the prevalent family of Microlepidop- 
tera in Central and South America and comprises there many hun- 
dred species of remarkable specific diversity in color, size and shape, 
but with little generic differentiation. 

North of the Rio Grande the family is represented only by the 
few species tabulated below. 

The family can be recognized by the following characters: Labia! 
palpi long recurved, second joint smooth, terminal joint pointed. Male 
antennae ciliate, female antennae simple ; no pecten on first antennal 
joint. Forewings with 12 veins (sometimes 11 by veins 2 and 3 
united) ; apical veins separate (in one small central American genus 
8 and 9 stalked) ; 7 separate to termen or apex (in one south American 
genus, Gonioterma, vein 8 also to termen) ; 2-3 and 4 variable in posi- 
tion, sometimes even within the species, separate, connate or stalked ; 
2 and 3 sometimes coincident. Hindwings broader than the forewings 
with rounded termen ; 6 and 7 stalked ; 3 and 4 connate, stalked or co- 
incident ; 5 approximate to, connate or stalked with 4. Posterior tibiae 
hairy above. Male genitalia with peculiar spatulate, forked hairs, so 
far as I know, not found in any other family of Microlepidoptera. 

The male genitalia of the Microlepidoptera present most val- 
uable characters for the classification and each family type of these 
organs can rarely be confused with those of any other family. Nor- 
mally the genus is also well characterized by the genitalia and with the 
exception of a few groups (Coleophoridae and Sesiidac), in which a 
remarkable uniformity is found, the specific identity is nearly always 
clearly expressed in the male genitalia, if nowhere else then in the 
armature of the penis. Several hundred slides made during the last 
year by Mr. Carl Heinrich and myself prove beyond adventure, that 
we shall eventually be able to determine with certainty any Micro- 
lepidopteron (possibly with the above mentioned few group excep- 
tions) by its genitalia alone. 

The specific characters in these organs are commonly so striking 
as to afford much easier and surer differentiation between closely 
allied species than the wing coloration and this fact makes the geni- 



237 

talia of particular value in the determination of the specific identity or 
non-identity of closely allied forms in different continents or faunal 
areas, and of the various forms in species, which exhibit great variety 
in color and wing pattern. Differences of opinion as to the identity or 
non-identity of such forms may at once be changed from individual 
speculation to scientific certainty by a comparison of the male genitalia 
of the forms in question. The structure of the male genitalia is nor- 
mally too intricate for successful photographic reproduction and really 
satisfactory figures must be drawn under the specialists' close super- 
vision ; but in very many cases can the species be definitely recognized 
from a good photograph of its male genitalia alone and it has been 
deemed worth while to so illustrate in this paper examples of various 
forms in the different micro-families in the hope to stimulate further 
study and more perfect illustration of these absorbingly interesting 
organs, which will give much new light and aid to the proper classifi- 
cation of the Microlepidoptera. 

We like to call attention to the fact that Lord Walsingham first 
used these organs for specific differentiation in the present family 
thirty years ago (Insect Life, Vol. II, 1889) and that his few simple 
genitalia characters then given for his new species in the genus 
Stenoma enable their recognition. 

Incidentally it may be stated that the genus Mcncsta Clemens, 
which Walsingham at that time considered allied to Stenoma and the 
relationship of which has since been in dispute and of some uncer- 
tainty, due to the reduced and superficially Stcnomid-Wkt venation, is 
conclusively proven by its genitalia not to be a Stenomid but a Gelechid. 

Only two genera of this family is at present recognized from 
North America north of Mexico ; they may be separated as follows : 
Forewings with 11 veins; 2 and 3 coincident: Hindwings, with 7 veins; 

3 and 4 coincident Mcitcsloinorpha Walsingham 

Forewings with 12 veins; Hindwings witli 8 veins Stenoma Zeller 

Genus Menestomorph.\ Walsingham. 

1907, Proc. U. -S. Nat. Museum, \"ol. NNXIII, p. 214. 

Type : :!/. oblongata Wlsm. 

Forewings with 11 veins; 7 to apex; 2 and .3 coincident, stalked 
with 4. Hindwings with 7 veins ; 3 and 4 coincident, connate with 5. 

Only one species is at present recognized. 



238 

^Ienestomorpiia oblongata Walsingliam. PI. XXX, Fig. 8. 

Reared from Cynipid gall on Oak, Fort Grant, Arizona. 
Genus Stenoma Zeller. 

1839, Isis, p. 195. 

Type : 5". litura, Zeller. 

Forewings with 12 veins ; 7 to terincn or apex ; 2 and 3 separate, 
connate or stalked ; 4 free. Hindwings with 8 veins ; 3 and 4 connate 
or stalked ; 6 and 7 stalked. 

The species at present recognized in North America may be sep- 
arated as follows : 

Forewings not unicolored 1 

Forewings unicolored or nearly so, with only second discal spot darker 7 

1 Uncus simple 2 

Uncus forked 6 

2 Forewings with costa white 3 

Forewings with costa not white Iiumilis Zeller 

3 Forewings with faint longitudinal ochreous lines crumbitclla Wlsm. 

Forewings without longitudinal lines 4 

4 Forewings with pronounced black second discal spots ircnc Busck 

Forewings without defined spot at end of cell 5 

5 Forewings with dorsal dark area interrupted at apical tliird ; left clasp- 

ing organ of $ genitalia forked schlaegeri Zeller 

Forewings with dorsal dark area continued beyond apical third ; left 

clasping organ of 3 genitalia simple lindseyi Busck 

6 Forewings narrow, pointed; termen very oblique: Hindwings, triangu- 

lar pointed furcata Wlsm. 

Forewings broader, rounded; termen less oblique; Hindwings rounded 

algidclla Walker 

7 Ground color of forewings white 8 

Ground color not white 9 

8 Forewings pure white with black second discal spots vcstalis Zeller 

Forewings yellowish white without discal spots thomasi Busck 

9 Forewings dark brown dccoraseUa Busck 

Forewings grayish or ochremis stone colored 10 

10 Forewings ochreous unij^unctclta Clemens 

Forewings grayish 11 

11 Forewings with apex pointed; with single black dot at the end of the 

cell mistrella Busck 

Forewings with apex rounded; with two black dots at end of cell 12 

12 Occurring in Eastern or Central States qucrciella Busck 

Described from California osscclla Wlsm. 



239 

This last species, 5". osseella IValsingham, is known only from the 
two female types in Zeller's collection, now in the British Museum, 
supposed to have come from California. By the description it cannot 
be differentiated froin the eastern S. qiierciclla Busck, and it may ulti- 
mately prove that this name is a synonym of osseella, but to this date 
no specimen of querciella has been received from California; in fact, 
tho very considerable collecting has been done of late years on the 
west coast no species of Stenonia has been obtained west of the Rocky 
Mountains and the family is apparently not represented there. I am 
therefore inclined to doubt the locality given to the Zeller specimens, 
which may prove to come from central or South America. 

All the North American species of Stenoma may readily be deter- 
mined by their striking characters of the male genitalia shown on 
plates XXIX and XXX. 

Stenoma lindseyi, n. sp. PI. XXIX, Fig. 2. 

Closely allied to and very similar in size and color to Stenoma schlaegeri, 
of which it is the western representative; but the forewings are somewhat 
longer, narrower and more pointed and the dark dorsal area, which in schlaegeri 
is interrupted by white shortly beyond the middle of the wing, is continued to 
tornus. Hindwings of the males dark brownish or blackish fuscous, very con- 
siderably darker than those of schlaegeri. The genitalia of the male are nearest 
to those of schlaegeri, asymmetrical and with uncus simple as in this species, 
but with the left antlerlike organ hooked, not forked and with a differently 
shaped oedeagus. 

Alar expanse : 25-28 mm. 

Habitat: Paradise and White Mts., Arizona; Fort Wingate, New Mexico. 

Type and cotypes in Collection Barnes; cotvpes in U. S. National Museum 
(No. 22670). 

Named in honor of Dr. A. W. Lindsey, who in many ways has 
materially assisted in the preparation of this paper and who has been 
good enough to draw the genitalia for this family, which were found 
to be uiisuited for photographic reproduction. 

Stenoma irene, n. sp. PI. XXVIII, Fig. 7. 9; PI. XXX, Fig. I. 

Labial palpi white, slightly shaded with dark fuscous exteriorly. Face and 
head white. Thorax dark fuscous with a proportionately large bluish black 
rounded posterior tuft. Forewings of the females white with the extreme base 
of dorsal edge dark fuscous, a conspicuous deep black short transverse streak 
on the end of the cell; a faint, ill-defined fuscous shade below this to tornus; 
a very faint narrow transverse, outwardly curved, fuscous line across apical 



240 

part of the wing; in some specimens a cloudy spot on the middle of dorsum 
Cilia white. The males have entire basal fifth of the wing blackish brown and 
have besides the pattern of the female additional cloudj- ill-defined, more or 
less transverse areas on the middle of the wing and across apical third; also 
an interrupted line of small black marginal dots. Hindwings light whitish fus- 
cous. Anterior legs dark brown on their outer side ; other legs white with dusky 
tarsi. 

Alar expanse : 19-20 mm. 

Habitat : Brownsville and San Benito, Texas. 

Type and cotvpes in Collection Barnes; cotvpes in U. S. National Museum 
(No. 22671). 

Intermediate in color between S. algidella Walker and 5". vcslalis 
Zeller, smaller than either, and differing from both in the single simple 
uncus and by the dark basal area of the forcwings in the male. 

Named in honor of Mrs. Winifred Irene Lindscy. 
Stenoma thomasi, n. sp. PI. XXX, Fig. 5. 

Labial palpi, face, head, thorax and forewings yellowish creamy white 
without any markings. Hindwings pale yellowish white with cilia pure wliite. 
Abdomen creamy white. Legs white with dusky tarsal joints. 

Alar expanse: 21-24 mm. 

Habitat: Palmerlee, Paradise and H\iachuca Mts., Arizona; .Mbuqucrque, 
New Mexico. 

Type and cotypcs in Collection Barnes; cotvpes in U. S. National Museum 
(No. 22672). 

Nearest in size and color to Stenoma crambitella Walsingham, but 
without the indistinct longitudinal markings and the minute second 
discal spot of this species; also very distinct in the male genitalia; 
(compare Figs. 5 and 7, PI. XXX); the attenuated cleft uncus dis- 
tinguishes this species from all described North American species of 
the genus. 



241 



ETHMIIDAE 

The North American species of this family have been carefully 
studied anew with the advantage of very large series of nearly all of 
them; several were hitherto known from a few or single representa- 
tives. All but one of the described species are figured on Plates XX\'I 
and XXVII. We are under obligation to Rev. Joseph de Gryse of 
Staunton, \'irginia, for the drawings which are photographed on Plate 
XXVI. The genitalia are shown on Plates XXXI\', XXXV and 
XXXVI. 

The value of the genitalia in this family was first demonstrated 
by Dr. Harrison G. Dyar in his revisional paper (Jour. N. Y. Ent. Soc, 
\'ol. X. p. 202-208, 1902) and his descriptions of these organs readily 
enable the recognition of most of the species. A few species, sus- 
pected by him to be synonyms, have proven to be so by further study 
and the synonymy is given below. 

The genitalia of this family demonstrates clearly the value as 
well as the limitations of photographic reproduction of these organs. 
Some species exhibit an extraordinary diversity of these structures, 
which can readily be recognized from a photograph, while other un- 
doubtedlv distinct species have attained or retained a most remarkable 
similarity in these highly developed structures, which is apt to confuse 
in a study of the photographs if not accompanied by a careful com- 
parison of the actual organs under the microscope. 

Ethmi.\ .\RCTOST.\riiYLELLA Walsingham. PI. XXVI, Figs. 10-11-12; 

PI. XXXIV, Fig. 6. 

1880, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., p. 88. 
n. syns : 

Ethinia obscitrcUa Ceutenmuller. 

1888, Ent. Amer., Vol. IV, p. 29. 

Etitinia mcdiella Busck. 

1913, Jour. Ent. & Zool., Vol. V, p. 99. 

Large series clearly indicate that these names stand only for va- 
rieties of one species, which grade into each other. The genitalia are 



242 

identical (PI. XXXIV, Fig. 6). The names may with atlvantage be 
retained for the extreme varieties. 

Ethmia DiSLOSTKifiELLA Chambers. PI. XXVI. Fig. 14; PI. XXVII. 
Fig. 10; PI. XXXIV, Fig. 9. 

1877, Bull. U. S. Geol. Surv., Vol. Ill, p. 122. 
n. syn: 

Ethmia subcaerulea Walsingham. 

1880, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., p. 89. 

Very large series of discostrigella show considerable variation and 
all gradations to the form described by Walsingham are found. The 
genitalia are identical. 

Ethmia apicipunctella Chambers. PI. XXVI, Fig. 15 ; PI. XXXVI, 

Fig. 7. 

1875. Can. Ent., Vol. VII, p. 8. 
n. syn : 

Ethmia zavalla Busck. 

1915. Proc. Ent. Soc. Wash., Vol. XVII, p. 84. 

PI. XXVI, Fig. 15; PI. XXXVI, Fig. 7. 

Large series prove this synonym beyond question. The genitalia 
of the species are shown on PI. XXXVI, Fig. — . 
Ethmia hagenella Chambers. PI. XXVII, Figs. 7, 8; PI. XXXV, 

Fig. 4. 

1878, Bull. U. S. Geol. Surv., IV, p. 80. 
n. syn : 

Ethmia josephinella Dyar. 
1902, Jour. N. Y. Ent. Soc, X, p. 205. 

The two forms of pattern grade into each other and represent 
only one species; the genitalia are shown PI. XXXV, Fig. 4. 

Ethmia geranella. n. sp. PI. XXVII, Fig. 3; PI. XXXIV, Fig. 7. 
Labial palpi whitish gray, sprinkled with black; second joint with a broad 
ill-defined black annulation near the tip; terminal joint with a narrow ill-defined 
annulation near the base and another near apex. Face and head whitish 
strongly overlaid with black and dark brown scales. Thorax blackish with a 
few white scales intermixed and with the tips of patagia white. Forewings 
narrow, apex pointed, termen very oblique; bluish white overlaid with dark 
brown scales; a broad longitudinal streak through the middle of the wing from 



243 

base to apex of black, brown and yellow scales is interrupted at the end of tlie 
cell by an oblique pure white dash; cilia bluish white, mixed with gray and black. 
Hindwings fuscous white with purer white cilia. Abdomen whitish fuscous. 
Legs blackish, sprinkled with white ami with narrow white tarsal annulations. 

Alar expanse : 21-22 mm. 

Habitat : La Puerta Valley, South California. 

Type and cotypes in Collection Barnes; cotypes in U. S. National Museum 
(No. 22673). 

Very similar and closely allied to the eastern Etiimia viacelhosi- 
ella, Busck, with same pattern less boldly outlined, differing in the 
whitish hindwings and the smaller size. The male genitalia also show 
good distinguishing characters (PI. XXXIV, Fig. 7). 



244 



COLEOPHORIDAE 

COLEOPHORA KEARFOTTELLA, 11. sp. 

Labial palpi without projecting tuft, smooth; both joints somewhat thick- 
ened with scales ; terminal joint blunt, white. Antennae vvitli basal joint en- 
larged with heavy scaling and the following two joints also somewhat thick- 
ened, white with black annulations. Face silvery white. Head light golden 
ochreous. Thorax white. Forewings light golden ochreous, the color becoming 
gradually deeper towards apex, which is golden brown ; a broad margin along 
costa from base to beyond apical fifth silvery white; dorsal edge from base 
to cilia narrowly silvery white; a thin silvery white line along the fold from base 
to the middle of the wing; the space between these latter two white lines is very 
pale golden yellow; dorsal cilia whitish; apical cilia golden ochreous. Hind- 
wings light silvery fuscous. Abdomen dusky white above, silvery white on the 
underside. Legs white. 

Alar expanse: 11-12 mm. 

Habitat: Essex Co., N. Jersey. 

Foodplant : Salix. 

Type and cotypes in Collection Barnes; cotypes in \J. S, National Museum 
(No. 22674). 

Named in honor of our late friend W. D. Kearfott, who bred this 
interesting species and had it set apart as probably new. 

The case is curiously made of silk and budscales of the foodplant 
into a rough, irregular, very deceiving cover, nearly as broad as long, 
somewhat flattened and with the edges of the budscales protruding; 
mouth at a very oblique angle, nearly horizontal. The species is near 
to Coleophora cretaticostclla, Clemens, but of a darker, more reddish 
yellow color and at once distinguished by its case ; it resembles also 
the Californian C. accordclla. Walsingham, but is much smaller and 
paler. 

B.ATRACiiEDRA KNABi Walsingham. PI. XXXVII, Fig. 4. 

1909 and 1914, Biol. Cent. Am., Vol. IV, pp. 9 and 320 PI. I, Fig. 8. 

1912, Busck. Smithsonian Misc. Coll , Vol. LIX, p. 2. 

This interesting and striking species, known hitherto from the 
unique female type in U. S. National Museum from Cordova, Mexico, 
has been recognized in good series of both sexes from Brownsville, 
Texas, and from Paradise, Cochise Co., Arizona. Specimens in U. S. 
National Museum and in Collection Barnes. 



245 



HELIODINIDAE 

Heliodines ciccella, n. sp. 

Labial palpi golden yellow with dusky tip. Face and head dark purplish 
brown. Antennae brown. Collar yellowish. Thorax dark lead color. Fore- 
wings light golden reddish ochreous; six nearly equidistant metallic, silvery blue 
costal spots; the first at extreme base, all edged basally with black; the middle 
pair connected or nearly so with black scales on their lower edge ; the outer 
pair likewise connected by a line of black and sometimes with the metallic 
color partly fused; five very uneven metallic dorsal spots; the first narrow 
along basal fifth of dorsum, narrowly edged above with black; the second 
small, round, edged basally with black and with a few black scales on its outer 
side; the third and largest elongate, occupies the middle of dorsum and is edged 
with black basally; the fourth at base of cilia similar to but a little larger than 
the second and also edged with black basally; the fifth a narrow silvery line 
along terman edged above with black; on the middle of the cell is a narrow 
longitudinal silvery spot, enlarged upward basally and sometimes connected 
with the third costal spot. Cilia dark greenish fuscous. Hindwings blackish 
brown with a purple sheen. Cilia blackish fuscous. Abdomen and legs dark 
purplish brown. 

Alar expanse: 16-17 mm. 

Habitat: Palmerlee, Arizona. 

Type and cotypes in Collection Rarues ; cotvpes in U. S. National Museum 
(No 22675). 



246 



PLUTELLIDAE 

Plutfxla armoraciae Busck. 

1913, Proc. Ent. Soc. Wash., XIY. p. 219. 
n. syn : 

Plutella monocldora Meyrick. 

1914, Exot. Micros. I, p. 228. 

Suspecting that Mr. Meyrick might have redescribed the Colorado 
horseradish pest as P. monochlora, the writer sent him cotypes of 
P. armoraciae in 1914 for comparison with the unique type of mono- 
chlora, described from Colorado. 5000 feet alt. 

Mr. Meyrick immediately recognized it as his species and wrote 
me to that effect. It is due to an oversight on the writer's part, that 
the two names were placed separately in Barnes' List Lep. Bor. Am. 
as Nos. 7676 and 7682. 

Harpipteryx xylostella Linne. PI. XXYIII, Fig. 12. 

This well known European species has been identified from North 
Eastern United States and has been bred by Mr. S. A. Shaw at Hamp- 
ton, New Hampshire, from Honeysuckle (Loniccre) , the same food- 
plant as recorded in Europe. 

The species is close to and nearly identical in the pattern of the 
forewing to our western //. dcntifcrella Walsingham, but is at once 
distinguished from it by the dark brown hindwings. The shape of 
the harps in the male genitalia of xylostella is somewhat more elongate 
oval with the costal and dorsal margins nearly parallel, while in denti- 
fcrclla these organs are ovate and broader; otherwise the structures 
are very similar, compare Figs. 1 and 2, PI. XXXIX. //. fnistrella 
Walsingham and H. canariella Walsingham, must be considered only 
forms of H. dentifcrella; the genitalia in the three forms are identical; 
but the names may with advantage be retained for the different ex- 
treme wing-patterns, tho somewhat intermediate varieties occur. 



247 

Trachoma falciferella Walsingham. 

1881. Proc. Zool. Soc. London, p. 307. 
n. .syn : 

Cerostoma ordiiialis Meyrick. 

1914, Exot. Micros. I, p. 227. 

A large series of Trachoma falciferella from Mt. Shasta and from 
Wellington, Brit. Col., in all stages of preservation show a consider- 
able variation in markings and will easily inclnde Meyrick's ordinal'is, 
described from a single specimen from Wellington, Brit. Col. 



248 



ELACHISTIDAE 

COELOPOETA BALDELLA, n. sp. 

Palpi, head and thorax white. Antennae white witli black annulations. 
Forewings white more or less suffused with golden ochreous and in some speci- 
mens dark brown, scattered scales, mostly on the outer half of the wing. Some 
specimens are nearly unmottlcd white except for a small suffused area below the 
end of the cell on which the darker scales persist. Cilia white sprinkled with 
ochreous. Hindwings and cilia white on the upper surface. Underside of both 
wings dark fuscous, contrasting strongly with the white upper surface of the 
male. Legs white sprinkled with dark fuscous. Abdomen silvery white. 

Alar expanse, 10-14 mm. 

Habitat: Camp Baldy, Bernardino Co., California. 

Type and cotypes in Collection Barnes; cotvpes in U. S. National Museum 
(No. 22676). 

A very large series, more than one hundred specimens, shows this 
species to be very close to the type of the genus Coelopocta gliitinosi 
Walsingham, but much lighter in color than the large series of cotypes 
sent to the National Museum by Lord Walsingham. The description 
of C. glntinosi however would include the present species and it is pos- 
sible that Lord Walsingham had a mixed series before him. Exam- 
ination of the genitalia prove these to be of a simple primitive type 
without much specific differentiation but sufficient to indicate that the 
two species are distinct and not merely varieties. 

The genus Coelopoeta is intermediate between Elacliista Auct 
and Cygnodia Herrick-Schaefifer, correlated with or derived from the 
latter. 



250 



PLATE XXVI 

Fig. I. Ethmia albitogata Wlsm. 

Fig. 2. Ethmia coquillcttcUa Busck. 

Fig. 3. Ethmia umbrimarginclla Busck. 

Fig. 4. Ethmia hisscnclla Busck. 

Fig. 5. Ethmia albistrigclla Wlsm. 

Fig. 6. Ethmia monachclla Busck. 

Fig. 7. Ethmia caliginosella Busck. 

Fig. 8. Ethmia fuscipcdella Wlsm. 

Fig. 9. Ethmia inonticola Wlsm. 

Fig. 10. Ethmia arctostafihylclla mediella Busck. 

Fig. 11. Ethmia arclostaphylella Wlsm. 

Fig. 12. Ethmia arctostaphylella obscurelia Beut. 

Fig. 13. f.tlimia semitenebrella Dyar. 

Fig. 14. Etiiinia discoslrigella Cham. 

Fig. IS. Etiimia apiciftvncteUa Cham. 

Fig. 16. Ethmia pratticlh Busck. 

Fig. 17. Tamarrlia delliclla Fern. 

Fig. IS. Tamarrlia hittcnctla Busck. 



I'l.ATF. XWI 




<K 



13 



14 



IS 



^<% 






18 



252 



Fig. 


1. 


Fig. 


2. 


Fig- 


3. 


Fig. 


4. 


Fig. 


5. 


Fig. 


6. 


Fig. 


7. 


Fig. 


8. 


Fig. 


9. 


Fig. 


10. 


Fig. 


11. 


Fig. 


12. 


Fig. 


13. 


Fig. 


14. 


Fig. 


IS. 



PLATE XXVII 

Elhmia imicelliosicHa Busck. S . Plummcr's Id., Md. 

Elliiiiia iiiaccllwsiclln Busck. 9. Plummcr's Id., Md. 

Etlnnia gerancHa B. & B. Cotype $. La Puerta Valley, S. Cal. 

Etlimia >narnwrea Wlsm. Chimney Gulch, Colo. 

Ethmia semiliigens 2ell. 

Ethmia 7nirusella Cham. 9 ■ Aweme, Man. 

Etlimia hagenclla Cham. Burnet Co., Tex. 

Ethmia Iiagenella joscphinclla Dyar. Mesilla, N. M. 

Etlimia seniiomhra Dyar. Cotype. Brownsville, Tex. 

Ethmia discostrigella snhcacrulca Wlsm. Cotype. Blue Lake, Lake 

Co.,' Cal. (Wlsm.. 1871.) 
Elhmia zcllericlla Cham. S . Decatur, III. 

Etlimia confusella Wlk. San Francisco Mts., San Domingo. W. I. 
Ethmia corancUa Dyar. $. Kerrville, Tex. 
Ethmia longimacittella Cham. 9. Montreal. 
Ethmia apicipunrtrlla Cham. 9. San Benito, Tex. 



I'l.ATK X.W'll 




254 



PLATE XXVIII 

Fig. 1. Tortrix carnana B. & B. Cotype $■ Camp Baldy, San Bernardino 

Mts, Cal. 
Spargaiwlhis macliimiana B. & B. Type 9 . Paradise, Ariz. 
Sparganothis umhrana B. & B. Type $. Denver, Colo. 
Platynota viridana B. & B. Type $. Dewey, Ariz. 
Hysterosia perspicuana B. & B. Type 9 . Paradise, Cochise Co., 

Ariz. 
Hysterosia ranariana B. & B. Type S. Wliite Mts., Ariz. 
Stenoma Irene B. & B. Cotype $ . San Benito, Tex. 
Batrachcdra knabi Wlsm. 9 . Kerrville. Tex. 
Stenoma irene B. & B. Type $. Brownsville, Tex. 
Anacampsis psornlielh B. & B. Type 3. Sioux City, la. 
Psacaphorcj cdithella B. & B. Type S . Chimney Gulch, Golden, 

Colo. 
Harpiptcryx xylostella Linn. European. U. S. N. M. 
Agonopteryx pteleac B. & B. Cotype $. Decatur, 111. 
Heliodines eiccella B. & B. Cotype. Palmerlee, Ariz. 
Agonopteryx terinella B. & B. Cotype. Silverton, Colo. 



Fig. 


2. 


Fig. 


3. 


Fig. 


4. 


Fig. 


5. 


Fig. 


6. 


Fig. 


7. 


Fig. 


8. 


Fig. 


9. 


Fig. 


10 


Fig. 


11. 


Fig. 


12. 


Fig. 


13. 


Fig. 


14. 


Fig. 


15. 



I'l.ATI. X.W 111 





1 


"^■^i. -«■■■■■■ 

m 


^ 


%w 




256 



PLATE XXIX 

Male eenitalia 



Fig. 1. Stenoma schlaegeri Zell. 

Fig. 2. Stenoma tindseyi B. & B. 

Fig. 3. Stenoma unifunciclla Clem. 

Fig. 4. Stenoma algidella VVlk. 

Fig. S. Stenoma querciella Hiisck. 

Fig. 6. Stenoma deeorella Busck. 



I'lATK XXIX 




258 



Fig. 


1. 


Fig. 


2. 


Fig. 


3. 


Fig. 


4. 


Fig. 


5. 


Fig. 


6. 


Fig. 


7. 


Fig. 


8. 



PLATE XXX 

Male genitalia 

Stenoma Irene B. & B. 
Stciwiiia huinitis Zell. 
Stenoma furcaia WIsm. 
Stenoma vestalis Zell. 
Stenoma thomasi B. & B. 
Stenoma misirella Busck. 
Stenoma crambitella VVlsra. 
Menestomorpha oblongata Wlsm. 



Plate XXX 







/J^ 




U\iM 



'^'^'^l.M^JI'' 



260 



PLATE XXXI 

Male genitalia 



Fig. 1. Amorhia cuncana Wlsm. 

Fig. 2. Sparganotliis xanthoides Wlk. 

Fig. 3. Amorbia synncurana B. & B. 

Fig. 4. Sparganotliis inconditanii Wlsm. 

Fig. 5. Sparganotliis sulphnreana Clem. 

Fig. 6. Tortrix quercifoliana Fern. 

Fig. 7. Adoxopliyes furcatana Wlk. 

Fig. 8. Cacoecia persicana Fitch. 

Fig. 9. Tortrix iiividana B. & B. 



Ti.ATi: XXXl 






k«2(Mfc^«»st:4^^ 



\ 



iT^ 




./ 




262 



Fig. 


I. 


Fig. 


2. 


Fig. 


3. 


Fig. 


4. 


Fig. 


5. 


Fig. 


6. 


Fig. 


7. 


Fig. 


8. 


Fig. 


9. 


Fig. 


10. 



PLATE XXXII 

Male genitalia 



Peronea maximana B. & B. 
Peronea fcrrugana Schiff. 
Tortricodes fragariana Busck. 
Tortricodes basiplagana Wlsm. 
Plialonia iitigustana Clem. 
Tortrix dissitaiia Grt. 
Peronea cervinana Wlsm. 
Plialonia dorsimaculana Rob. 
Peronea nivisellana Wlsm. 
Hysterosia fulviplicaiia Wlsm. 



I'l.ATK XXXII 







U,^ \\ 'A. 4. 




■ ^- — ■^ii^ 



^ 




264 



PLATE XXXIII 

Male s;enitalia 



Fig. 1. Olethreutcs pennundana Clem. 

Fig. 2. Olethreutcs ferrifcrrana Wlk. 

Fig. 3. Ancylis nubitana Clem. 

Fig. 4. Eucosma virginiana Busck. 

Fig. S. Eucosma crambitana Wlsm. 

Fig. 6. Eucosma sandicgo Kearf. 

Fig. 7. Eucosma affcctalis Hulst. 



I'l.ATF. XXX III 











s 



^Kk 

■"^ 




266 



Fig. 


1. 


Fig. 


2, 


Fig. 


3. 


Fig. 


4. 


Fig. 


5. 


Fig. 


6. 


Fig. 


7. 


Fig. 


8. 


Fig. 


9. 



PLATE XXXIV 

Male genitalia 

Ethmia alhitogata Wlsm. 

Ethmia macellwsiclla Busck. 

Ethmia semitcnehrcUa Dyar. 

Ethmia semilugens Zell. 

Ethmia coquilettella Busck. 

Ethmia arctostaphylella obscurclla Beut. 

Ethmia geranella B. & B. 

Ethmia albistrigclla Wlsm. 

Ethmia discostrigeUa Cham. 



Plate XXXIV 




Fig. 


1. 


Fig. 


2. 


Fig. 


3. 


Fig. 


4. 


Fig. 


5. 


Fig. 


6. 



268 



PLATE XXXV 

Male genitalia 



Ethniia montkola Wlsni. 
Ethmia zeltcricUa Cham. 
Ethmia caliginosclta Busck. 
Ethmia hagenella Cham. 
Ellimia lassciiella Busck. 
Etluiiia fuscipedella WIsm. 



Pi. ATI. XXXV 




270 



Fig. 


1. 


Fig. 


2. 


Fig. 


3. 


Fig. 


4. 


Fig. 


5. 


Fig. 


6. 


Fig. 


7. 


Fig. 


8. 


Fig. 


9. 


Fig. 


10 



PLATE XXXVI 

Male genitalia 



Elhmia longimaculella Cham. 
Ethmia coranclla Dyar. 
Ethmia monachella Biisck. 
Ethmia mirusella Cham. 
Ethmia marmorea Wlsm. 
Etliviia scmiombra Dyar. 
Ethmia apicipunctella Cham. 
Tamarrha bittenella Busck. 
Ethmia umbrimarginella Busck. 
Tamarrha delliella Fern. 



Plate XX.WI 




272 



Fig. 


1. 


Fig. 


2. 


Fig. 


3. 


Fig. 


4. 


Fig. 


5. 


Fig. 


6. 


Fig. 


7. 



PLATE XXXVII 

Male genitalia 

Trichostobas parvtda Hy. Edw. 
Scythris eboraccnsis Zell. 
Gnorimoschcina gallaesolidaciinis Riley. 
Batrachcdra knabi Wlsm. 
Gnorimoschcina busckiella Kearf. 
Dichomcris vcntrellus Fitch. 
Gelcchia flurialella Busck. 



Pi.ATi.: XXXVII 




^d-^ 






274 



Fig. 


1. 


Fig. 


2. 


Fig. 


3. 


Fig. 


4. 


Fig. 


5. 


Fig. 


6. 


Fig. 


7. 


Fig. 


8. 



PLATE XXXVIII 

Male genitalia 

Agonoptcryx ptelcac B. & B. 
Agonopteryx blacclla B. & B. 
Borkhauscnia pseudosprettclla Stainton. 
Agonopteryx callosella B. & B. 
Borkliausenia liaydeiiella Cham. 
Oecophora neivmanclla Clem. 
Semioscopis merriccella Dyar. 
Semioscopis packardella Clem. 



I'l ATI-: XXX\ 111 



\) 



yi- ym ^,^ ; .. 




A 4 







>:^ 







I 



^> 







^-^ 



ft* 



^ 






276 



Fig. 


1. 


Fig. 


2. 


Fig. 


3. 


Fig. 


4. 


Fig. 


5. 


Fig. 


6. 


Fig. 


7. 


Fig. 


8. 



PLATE XXXIX 

Male genitalia 



Harpipteryx canariella Wlsm. 
Harpipteryx xylostella Linn. 
Mieza basistriga B. & McD. 
Miesa atrolinea B. & McD. 
Mieza pnpula Hbn. 
Yponomeuta mullipxinctclta Clem. 
Bucculatrix crescentella Braiin. 
F.permenia imperialetla Busck. 



Plate XXXIX 




27! 



Fig. 


1. 


Fig. 


2. 


Fig. 


3. 


Fig. 


4. 


Fig. 


5. 


Fig. 


6. 


Fig. 


7. 



PLATE XL 

Male genitalia 

Dorata lincata Wlsm. 
Scardia anatoiitclla Grt. 
Phyllonorycta fitchclla Clem. 
Gracilaria rlwifrnctella Cham. 
Camerarta hamadryadclla Clem. 
Acrolophus plumifrontcllus Clem. 
Acrolophu.t quadrelhi.f B. & McD. 



1*1, ATE XL 









V 3 







s 



k 



' 'v, ^ 





[v'# 



INDEX 



Page 

actiella B. & B 224 

aegrana IVlsin 219 

affectalis Hist., Eucosma, pi. 

XXXIII, f. 7. 

Agonopteryx 231 

albistrigella Wlsin., Ethmia, pi. 

XXVI, f. 5; pi. XXXIV, f. 8. 
albitogata IVlsin., Ethmia, pi. 

XXVI, f. 1; pi. XXXIV, f. 1. 

algidella Wlk 238 

Amorbia 211 

Anacampsis 226 

anatomella Crt., Scardia, pi. XL, 

f. 2. 
angustana Clem.. Plialonia, pi. 

XXXII, f. 5. 

apicipunctella Cham 242 

arctostaphylella IVlsin 241 

Aristotelia 225 

annoraciae Busck 246 

atrolinea B. & McD., Mieza, pi. 

XXXIX, f. 4. 

baldella B. & B 248 

baldiana B. & B 225 

baracana Busck 220 

basiplagana IVlsin., Tortricodes, 

pi. XXXII, f. 4. 
basistriga B. & McD., Mieza, pi. 

XXXIX, f. 3. 

Batrachedra 244 

benitella B. & B 229 

liittenella Busck. Tamarrha, pi. 

XXVI, f. 18; pi. XXXVI, f. 8. 

blacella B. & B 232 

Borkhausenia 235 

busckiella Kearf., Gnorimorsch- 

ema, pi. XXXVII, f. 5. 
caliginosella Busck, Ethmia, pi. 

XXXV, f. 3. 

callosella B. & B 231 

canariana B. & B 218 

canariella Wlsm 246 

carnana B. Sr B 214 



Page 

cartwrightana Kcarf 220 

cervinana Wlsm., Peronea, pi. 
XXXII, f. 7. 

Chambersia 235 

chiquitana B. & B 213 

ciccella B. & B 245 

citrinella B. fr B 224 

Coelpoeta 248 

Coleophora 244 

Coleophoridae 244 

coquillettella Busck, Ethmia, pi. 

XXVI, f. 2; pi. XXXIV, £. 5. 
coranella Dyar, Ethmia, pi. 

XXVII, f. 13; pi. XXXVI, f. 2. 

Cosmopterygidae 222 

crambitella Wlsm 238 

crescentella Braun, Bucciilatrix, 

pi. XXXIX, f. 7. 
cuneana Wlsm., .Amorbia, pi. 

XXXI, f. 1. 

decorasella Busck 2.38 

delliella Fern., Tamarrha, pi. 
XXVI, f. 17; pi. XXXVI, f. 10. 

dentiferella Wlsm 246 

Depressaria 233 

Dichomeris 230 

dimorphana B. & B 215 

discostrigella Cham 242 

dissitana Crt.. T o r t r i x, pi. 

XXXII, f. 6. 
dorsimaculana Rob.. Phalonia, pi. 

XXXII, f. 8. 
eboracensis ZclL, Scythri?, pi 

XXXVII, f. 2. 

edithella B. & B 222 

Elachi.stidae 248 

elucidella B. •.'r B 227 

Epithectis 224 

Ethmia 241 

Ethmiidae 241 

Eucordylea 227 

falciferella Wlsm 247 



Page 
ferriferrana iVlk., Oletlirciites, 

pi. XXXIII, f. 2. 
ferrugana Scliiff., Peronea, pi. 

XXXII, f. 2. 
fitchella Clem., Phyllonorycta, pi. 

XL, f. 3. 
fluvialella Busck, Gelecliia, pi. 

XXXVII, f. 7. 
fragariana Busck, Tortricodes, 

pi. XXXI, f. 3. 

frustrella IVlsin 246 

fiilviplicana Jl'tsni 219 

furcata M'ls)n 238 

furcatana I'Vlk., Adoxoplives, pi. 

XXXI, f. 7. 

fuscana B. & B 216 

fuscipedella Wlsm., Etlimia, pi. 

XXXV, f. 6. 
gallaesolidaginis Riley, Gnorimo- 

schema, pi. XXXVII, f. 3. 

Gelechia 228 

Gelechiidae 224 

geranella B. & B 242 

groteella Rob 233 

hagenella Chain 242 

hamadryadella Clou., Cameraria, 

pi. XL. f. S. 

Harpipteryx 246 

liaydenella Cham 235 

Heliodines 245 

Heliodinidae 245 

homonana Kearf 219 

humilis Zell 238 

Hysterosia 218 

imperialella Busck, Epermenia, 

pi. XXXIX, f. 8. 
inconditana IVlsiii.. Sparganotliis, 

pi. XXXI, f. 4. 

invidana B. & B 215 

Irene B. &■ B 239 

iridana B. I'r B 212 

Isophrictis 224 

josepliinelia Dyar 242 

kearfottella 244 

knabi 244 

koinonana Kearf 219 

lacteiisochrella Cham 227 

la=;sendla Busck, Etlimia. pi. 

XXXV, f. 5. 



Page 

latipalpella B. & B 233 

lindanella B. & B 226 

lindseyi B. & B 239 

lineata Wlsm., Dorata, pi. XL, 

f. 1. 

litura ZcU 238 

longimaculella Cham., Etlimia, pi. 

XXVII. f. 14; pi. XXXVI, f. 1. 
macelhosiella Busck, Etlimia, pi. 

XXVII, ff. 1, 2; pi. XXXIV, 

f. 2. 

machimiana 211 

marloffiana Busck 221 

niarmorea Wlsm., Ethmia, pi. 

XXVII, f. 4; pi. XXXVI, f. 5. 

maximana B. & B 216 

mediella Busck 241 

Menestomorplia 237 

merriccella Dyar, Semioscopis, pi. 

XXXVIII, "f. 7. 

mcrrickana Kearf 220 

miriisella Cham.. Etlimia, pi. 

XXVII, f. 6; pi. XXXVI, f. 4. 

mistrella Busck 238 

mollis B. A- B 230 

monachella Busck, Ethmia, pi. 

XXVI, f. 6; pi. XXXVI, f. 3. 

monilella B. Sr B 225 

miitii'chliira Meyr 246 

monlicola ll'lsm., Etlimia, pi. 

XXXV, f. 1. 
niultipimctella Clem.. Yponomeu- 

ta, pl. XXXIX, {. 6. 
iiewmanella Clem.. Oecopliora, pl. 

XXXVIII, f. 6. 
nivi.sellana Wlsm., Peronea. pl. 

pl. XXXII, f. 9. 

nonlavana Kearf 221 

nubilana Clem.. A n c y I i s. pl. 

XXXIIt, f. 3. 

oblongata Wlsm 238 

obsciirella Bent 241 

Oecopboridae 231 

ordinalis Meyr 247 

osseella Wlsm 238 

packardella Clem., Semioscopi.s, 

pl. XXXVIII, f. 8. 
parvtila Hy. F.d-w.. Tricbostobas, 

pl. XXXVII, f. I. 



Page 
permiindana CL'iii.. Olethreutes, 

pi. XXXI 11, f. 1. 

I'cronea -!() 

peroneana /i. cr B iH 

persicana Fitcli, Cacoecia, pi. 

XXXI, f. 8. 

perspicuana B. & B 218 

Phalonia 221 

Plialoniidae 218 

I'latynota 212 

pliimifrontellus Clem.. Acrolo- 

plius, pi. XL, f. 6. 

Plutella 246 

Plutellidae 246 

Psacaphora 222 

pseudosprettella Staiiit., Bork- 

hausenia, pi. XXXVIII. t. 3. 

psiloptera B. &■ B 230 

psoraliella B. &■ B 226 

pteleae B. & B 231 

pupula Hbn., Mieza, pi. XXXIX, 

f. 5. 
quadrellus B. & McD.. Acrolo- 

phus, pi. XL, f. 7. 

([iierciella Busck 238 

cpiercifoliana Fern., Tortri.x. pi. 

XXXI, f. 6. 

rectistrigella B. & B 229 

retiniella B. & B 228 

rhoifructella Cham., Gracilaria, 

pi. XL, f. 4. 
sandiego Kearf., Eucosma, pi. 

XXXIII, f, 6. 

schlaegeri Zcll 238 

semihigens ZclL, Ethmia, pi. 

XXVII, f. 5; pi. XXXIV. f. 4. 
semiombra Dyar, Ethmia, pi. 

XXVII, f. 9; pi. XXXVI. f. 6. 
semitenebrella Dyar., Ethmia, pi. 

XXVI. f. 13; pi. XXXIV, f. 3. 



Page 

Sparganothis 211 

spilosella B. & B 2m 

stadiana B. & B 217 

-Stagmatophora 222 

Stenoma 238 

Stenomidae 236 

subcaerulea Wlsm 242 

sulphureana Clou., Sparganothis, 

pi. XXXI, f. 5. 

symmochlota Meyr 233 

synneurana B. & B 211 

Telphusa 225 

terinella B. c'r B 232 

terminana Busck 220 

thomasi B. & B 240 

tiscana Kearf 220 

Tortricidae 211 

Tortrix 214 

Trachoma 247 

umbrana B. cr B 212 

umbrimarginella Busck. Ethmia, 

pi. XXVI, f. 3; pi. XXXVI, f, 

9. 

iinipunctclla Clem 238 

ventrellus Pitch. Dichomeris. pi. 

XXXVII, f. 6. 

vestalis Zcll 238 

'cigilans Meyr 220 

virginiana Busck. F.uonsma. pi. 

XXXTII, f. 4. 

viridaiia B. &■ B 213 

wyattella B. & B 222 

xanthoides VVlk.. Sparganothis, 

pi. XXXI. f. 2. 

xanthophilella B. <'r B 228 

xylostella Linn 246 

r.avalla Busck 242 

zclleriella Cham.. Ethmia, pi. 

XXXV, f. 1. 



CONTRIBUTIONS 



NATURAL HISTORY 



OF THE 

LEPIDOPTERA 



NORTH AMERICA 



VOL. IV 
No. 4 



THE PTEROPHORID^ OF AMERICA, 
NORTH OF MEXICO 

BY 

WILLIAM BARNES, S. B., M. D. 

AND 

A. W. LINDSEY, M. S., Ph. D. 



DECATUR, ILL. 

THE REVIEW PRESS 

AUGUST 31, 1931 



281 



THE PTEROPHORIDAE OF AMERICA, NORTH 
OF MEXICO 

For twenty-three years the Ftcrophoridac of North America have 
received no more attention than the occasional description of ntvf 
species or the publication of a few biological notes. In fact the pioneer 
work on this very interesting family, Fernald's "Pterophoridae of 
North America", has remained the only work available for the identi- 
fication of our species. Since its publication in 1898 many new species 
have inevitably been discovered, with the result that this excellent 
paper is now entirely inadequate for the proper study of our fauna. 
Unhappily, too, many new synonyms have been made, and the old 
synonymy, hallowed by years of use, has proven to be erroneous in 
several instances. Through spontaneous interest in these insects and 
a realization of their incomplete and imperfect classification, we were 
led over a year ago to commence this revision. In the course of our 
studies we have investigated one point after another until our task 
has exceeded our wildest anticipation, but we have fortunately suc- 
ceeded in verifying all but a very few of the important questions which 
have come up. Of the resources which have enabled us to do this 
we will speak in detail. 

The types of North American species are included in seven col- 
lections, viz., the U. S. National Museum, British Museum, American 
Museum of Natural History, Museum of Comparative Zoology (Cam- 
bridge Museum), the personal collections of Mr. Edward Meyrick, 
Marlborough, England, and of Mr. Fordyce Grinnell, Jr., now in the 
Southwest ]\Iuseum at Los Angeles, and last, but most important of 
all, the Fernald collection, made by Prof. C. H. Fernald of Amherst, 
Mass. Of these we have studied in person the material from the 
National and Cambridge Museums, and the Fernald and Grinnell col- 
lections. The last contains the types of Grinnell's species. Fernald's 
collection is very rich in types, including Fitch's Pterophoridae, "para- 
types" of most of Walsingham's North American species, all of Fish's 
types and those of Fernald's own species. The American Museum 
refuses to risk types in shipment, so Mr. Frank E. Watson has kindly 
compared specimens for us with the types of Grossbeck's species. We 



282 

understand that the collection contains ])aratypes of others, but since 
we have not examined these we prefer to reserve comment upon them. 

In the British Museum are the types of the few species which 
Walker described from this continent, in addition to Lord Walsing- 
liam's collection, which contains his own types and some of Zeller's. 
Mr. Meyrick has very kindly visited the Museum in our behalf and 
compared specimens with all of these types. We are indebted to him 
also for making comparisons with the types in his own collection, and 
for the gift of a paratype of Ptcrophorus citrites, which we had been 
unable to place. 

These comparisons have enabled us to establish beyond doubt the 
identity of all species occurring in North America, with the exception 
of those described in Europe by the older writers, Linnaeus, Haworth, 
Huebner, and Denis and Schiffermuller, and a very few whose types 
we have not located. I'^ortunately the latter class includes only two or 
three species about which there can be no reasonable doubt. 

We wish to express our gratitude to those men whose assistance, 
either privately or as the officials of museums, has enabled us to lay 
a foundation of such gratifying soundness for our revision. 

In the preparation of the paper we have concluded to illustrate 
only the primaries of the insects, solely for the reason that it is im- 
possible to secure sufficient magnification of an entire specimen and 
at the same time retain such depth of focus as is necessary to produce 
a photograph with satisfactory definition. In the case of Trichoptiliis, 
PteropJwrus, Platyptilia, and the few species of other genera whose 
secondaries show characters of specific value, we illustrate these wings 
as well, but we have been forced to omit the bodies, even though in 
a number of species they are very distinctively marked. The illus- 
tration of genitalia has also been curtailed as much as possible, but 
we are able to give notes or a figure of at least part of the genitalia 
of all species except T. pygmaeus Wlsm., P. wilUamsi Grin., rhodo- 
dactyla D. & S., xylopsamma Meyr., 0. baroni ¥\s\\, citrites Meyr. 
and iiiiicolor B. & McD. The value of the genitalia is limited, and 
in many cases where we have made a figure from a single slide we 
cannot say that the figure will be more than a possible help in the 
identification of the species. 

In the figures of genitalia will be found some points which may 
need explanation. We have drawn these structures as opaque objects. 



283 

This means that not only the heavily chitinized structures normally 
shown in such drawings are treated as opaque, but also the thin mem- 
brane which closes the twelfth segment and reaches the anal opening. 
X'isible through the various parts are a number of structures, of which 
we represent only the hidden portion of the oedeagus and the long 
hair-tuft on the claspers, when present. The latter is represented 
by fine broken lines, and its point of attachment by heavy dots. The 
outlines indicated by heavy lines are mostly definite, free margins. 
We have departed from this usage in a few cases to show heavy areas 
of chitin which are conspicuous and distinctive, as in Ada'ma amhrosiae 
Murt. The claspers in this family are often thin, more or less inflated 
sacs, which become flattened in mounting and exhibit two outlines of 
approximately the same shape, the inner representing the actual inner 
surface of the clasper. The harpe is developed only on the left valve, 
and is usually rather simple. Near its base, and often embracing it, 
the lower margin of the valve is often folded, forming, apparently, the 
sacculus of Pierce's works. On the right valve there is frequently 
a slight ridge which is probably a rudiment of the harpe. In Oidae- 
matophonis mizar B. & L. this bears a small transverse lobe which 
may be the ampulla of Pierce. In the thin membrane which connects 
the bases of the valves and closes the twelfth segment there is devel- 
oped an area of chitinization which becomes thicker as it approaches 
the opening through which the oedeagus projects, and forms a free, 
forked organ of n:ore or less complex shape which embraces this 
opening. This structure appears to be homologous with the juxta of 
Pierce. Its connections are not clear to us, but it extends very defin- 
itely, decreasing in strength, in most of our slides toward the ventral 
extremity, and exhibits definite lateral margins which we represent 
by heavy lines, although they are continuous with the membrane men- 
tioned. A few slides show what appears to be a ruptured connection 
between the base of the fork and the inner face of the valves. Such 
apparent connections are indicated by dotted lines. In Plafyptilia the 
juxta is not so developed, but the oedeagus projects through an open- 
ing in the posterior membrane whose sides are produced more or less 
as slender lobes. The oedeagus has a ventral process near its base 
by which it appears to be attached near the base of this opening. It 
probably moves in an arc whose center is this attachment. The 
gnathos is apparently not chitinized ; other structures require no re- 
marks. We are at a loss to explain the remarkable development of 



284 

the genitalia in some species of Adaina and in Oidacmatophonis mono- 
dactyliis Linn. 

Before taking up the systematic treatment of these families a 
word regarding their relationship may not be amiss. By early writers 
both Pteroplioridae and Alncitidae (better known as Orncodidac) 
were placed at the end of the order, a procedure from which Meyrick 
first departed by proposing the position which they have since occu- 
pied. Speaking of the Pteroplioridae (Gen. Ins. c, 1.) he says: "The 
family is an aberrant group of the Pyralidina, with some relation to 
the Oxychirotidac, Orncodidac and Pyraustidac, but no close or obvi- 
ous connection with any of these, the indications of affinity being 
merely general." Some writers regard the Pteroplioridae, Alncitidae, 
and presumably the Oxychirotidac as an independent superfamily. We 
prefer to treat them as members of the Pyraloidca. We consider 
the two families together because the presence of only one Alucitid in 
our fauna renders that family too small for separate treatment, and 
this is its closest relationship. 



285 



FAMILY PTEROPHORIDAE 

Phalacnac Alucitac Linnaeus, Syst. Nat. ed. X, I, 542, 1758 (in part). 

Pterophorae Hucbner, Tentamen, 1806. 

Pterophorites Latreille, Consid. Gen. 370, 1810 (in part). 

Duponchel, Cat. Meth. 380, 1845. 
Alucitadae Samouelle, Ent. Comp. 255, 1819 (in part). 

Alucitac Hiiebner, Verz. bek. Schmett. 428. 1825 (in part, Intcgrae + Trifidae). 
Alucitidac Stephens, Cat. Brit. Ins. II. 229, 1829 (in part). 

Westwood, Mod. Class, Ins. II, 413, 1840 (in part). 
Ptcroplioridac Zeller, Isis X, 756, 1841 (in part, Ptcraphoridae proprii). 

Wallengren, Skand. FjSd. 1859. 

Walsingham, Pter. Cal. Ore. 1880 (in part, ex. Clirysocorys). 

Meyrick, Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. 1890, 483. 

Fernald, Smith's List Lep. N. A. 87, 1891. 

Meyrick, Handbook, 429, 1895. 

Tutt, Pter, Brit. 14, 1896. 

Femald, Pter, N. A. 1898. 

Id., Bull. 52 U. S. N. M. 441, 1902. 

Meyrick, Gen. Ins. C, 1910. 

Spuler, Schmett, Eur. II, 317 ,1910. 

Meyrick, Wagner's Lep. Cat. pars 17, 3, 1913. 

Fracker, Class, Lep. Larvae 94, 1915. 

Mosher, Class Lep. Pupae 70, 1916. 

Barnes & McDunnough, Check List 150, 1917. 
Ocelli sometimes present but never very easily seen. Proboscis well devel- 
oped. Maxillary palpi absent. Labial palpi variably developed, sometimes very 
small. Primaries with vein A simple (or shortly forked, fide Meyrick), Mj 
and M., very weak or absent; R., often absent; R.„ R^, R^ and R. frequently 
stalked (the first almost obsolete in Marastnarcha cervinicolor). Primaries 
with a single cleft and secondaries with two in all but one species of our fauna. 
Secondaries with a conspicuous double row of black scales on under surface 
along cubital stem. Veins Mj and M„ very faint. All parts of these insects arc 
more or less elongate and slender, and in resulting delicacy they rival the crane- 
flies. The legs are provided with two pairs of spurs on the hind tibiae and a 
terminal pair on the middle tibiae. The fore and mid tibiae also have bushy 
scale tufts in some species. 

."Vs pointed out by Meyrick, the black scales on the under surface 
of the secondaries are an absolute character for the Pterophoridae. 
With the exception of our one species of Agdistis the North Ameri- 
can Pterophoridae may be placed at once by the cleft wings, without 
reference to other structures. 



286 



As to the internal classification of the family, we must depart 
from the customary arrangement. The presence of two anal veins in 
the secondaries of Aciptilia, Pselnophorus, Adaiua and Oidacmato- 
phorus definitely groups these four genera, while those remaining are 
characterized by the presence of only one anal in the secondaries, 
Agdistis alone excepted. It, however, is at once segregated by its en- 
tire wings. On this basis Spuler divides the Pterophoridae into three 
sub-families, the Agdistinae, Platyptiliinae and Pterophorinac. In our 
opinion these divisions are scarcely necessary to a convenient classi- 
fication, but they are tenable. The last would become the rather 
clumsy word Oidacmatophorinac according to our revised nomencla- 
ture. 

Which of the two higher groups should stand next to Agdistis in 
a linear series, seems to us largely a matter of personal opinion, for 
each is more highly developed in some particulars than the other. We 
prefer to begin with the complete Platyptiliid series, inserting Oidae- 
matophorus and allied genera before Agdistis because of their posses- 
sion of two anal veins, as already mentioned. This arrangement results 
in the least possible deviation from that now in use, since it involves 
change of position in the cases of Exelastis, Marasmarcha and Stcn- 
optilia alone. 

The following diagram expresses our views on the phylogeny of 
the genera : 
Triclwptilus 



Ptcrophonis Exelastis 



Aciptilia 



Adaina 



Platyptilia 


Marasmarcha 


Pselnophorus 


Oidaematophoriis 




Stenoptilia 
























Agdistis 

















287 

W'itliin the genera the difficuhies of the systematist multiply. 
Many species are vei"y close, especially in Platyptilia, and can be sepa- 
rated only by careful study. In this one genus the genitalia are of 
no assistance, but in the others they are usually helpful. We have 
come to the conclusion that one trouble in the past has been the failure 
of the student to observe closely the more minute features of these 
insects, and the placing of undue emphasis on the pattern of the wings. 
In Oidacmatopliorus characters found in palpi and legs often serve to 
separate closely related species, while we have found that the pattern 
of the primaries is subject to such great variation that it is difficult 
to point out single features for the separation of many species. The 
remarkable fragility of specimens, once they have been dried, results 
in many lacking parts which might place them readily. The only 
remedy for this is, of course, careful collecting and abundant material. 
It is hopeless, without an extensive knowledge of the family, to attempt 
to identify many of the sad specimens which seem to be all too numer- 
ous in collections. 

Too little work of a scientific nature has been done on the early 
stages to enable us to make generalizations of value, so we refer our 
readers to the notes given under various species. 

The larvae of some species bore in the stems of plants, but in 
most of those whose habits are known they are external feeders on 
leaves or flowers. The pupae are naked, attached to a button of silk 
at the caudal end only. 

We have adapted a portion of the key to the genera given by 
Meyrick in the Genera Insectorum to the uses of this paper, following 
the Comstock-Needham nomenclature, and have drawn our notes on 
genera largely from the same source. 

Key to the Genera 

1. Wings entire Agdistis 

Wings cleft, the primaries bifid, secondaries trind 2 

2. Primaries with vein R, absent 3 

Radius of primaries with all five branches 9 

3. Primaries with CUj absent (only two veins in second lobe), deeply cleft 

and with very slender lobes 4 

CUj present, primaries cleft much less than one-half their length 5 

4. Primaries with vein R^ present Trichoptilus 

Primaries without R^ Acintilia 

5. Branches of radius of primaries free Oidaematophorus 

Some branches of radius stalked 6 



288 

6. R and R, of primaries short stalked, R.^ stalked with R^, R^ absent 

Pselnophorus 

R.^ free, R., and R^ stalked (sometimes only connate?) 7 

7. Secondaries with a tuft of black scales near tip of third feather 

Pterophonis 

No such tuft 8 

8. Secondaries with only two veins in the second lobe Adaina 

With three veins 9 

9. Fringes of inner margin of third lobe of secondaries with a few black 

scales (sometimes faint in our species) Exelastis 

These fringes without black scales Marasmarcha 

II). R„ R^ and R^ stalked Pterophorus 

All branches of radius separate 10 

11. Secondaries usually with black scales in fringes of inner margin. Anal 

angles of both lobes of primaries usually prominent Platyptilia 

Without black scales. Anal angles marked, but very retreating. . Stenoptilia 

Genus Trichoptilus Walsingham. 

Haplotype Trichoptilus pygmacus Wlsm. 

Trichoftilus Walsingham, Pter, Cal. Ore. 62, 1880. Pyijmaetis sole species. 

Mcyrick, Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. 1886, 7, 1886. 

Id., op. cit., 484, 1890. 

Femald, Smith's List Lep. Bor. Am. 88, 1891. 

Tutt, Pter, Brit. 77, 1891. 

Hofmann, Deutsch., Pter,, 49, 145, 1895. 

Meyrick, Handbook, 430, 1895. 

Fernald, Pter, N. A. 13, 1898. 

Id., Bull. 52, U. S. N. M. 441, 19(12. 

Tutt, Ent. Rec. XVII, 36, 1905. 

Meyrick, Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. 1907, 472, 1908. 

Id., Gen. Ins., C, 3, 4, 1910. 

Id., Wagner's Lep. Cat. pars 17, 3, 1913. 

Walsingham, Biol. Cent. Am., Lep. Het. IV, 434, 1915. 

Barnes & McDunnough, Check List 150, 1917. 
Bucklcrki Tutt, Ent. Rec. XVII, i7, 1905. Orthotype Pterophorus patudnw 

Zell. 
Stangeia Tutt, Brit. Lep. V, 492, 1906. Haplotype siccliota. 

Id., Ent. Rec. XX, 53, footnote, 1908. Cites siccliota as type. 
Forehead without tuft; ocelli obsolete. Labial palpi moderate, ascending. 
Second joint with a terminal tuft beneath in some species; third joint variable 
in length, slender. Fore wings cleft from before middle, both lobes slender, 
tapering, without anal angle; Cu„ absent or stalked with M.,; Cu, absent; M^ 
and M scarcely traceable, short; R. long, R., absent, R,. absent nr stalked with 
R , R separate or stalked with R^. Secondaries trifid, third feather usually with 



289 

a black scale tuft in the cilia of the inner margin. Vein Cu., from middle of 
cell, Cug absent. (See pi. XLVIII, fig. 1.) 

Like all previous writers, we liave been unable to examine tbe 
structures of pygmaeus, the genotype. We have seen two specimens 
of this species, however, and a careful comparison with the other 
species regarded as congeneric leads us to believe that the ordinary 
use of the genus is correct. 

Key to the Species 

1. Abdomen with parallel longitudinal stripes. Third feather of secondaries 

without black scale tuft in cilia parvulus 

Abdomen otherwise. Tuft present 2 

2. Antennae longitudinally striped above 3 

Antennae brown and white dotted above 4 

3. Second joint of palpi with long apical tuft below. Hind tibiae with two 

straight dorsal stripes before first spurs calif ornicus 

Second joint of palpi without tuft. Stripes of hind tibiae in part spiral, 
and anastomosed distally defectalis 

4. Size small, about 10 mm. expanse. Colors pale, whitish pygmaeus 

Much larger, rarely under 14 mm. Colors darker, brownish lobidaclyhis 

1. Triciioptilus parvulus n. sp. 

Head brown; palpi oblique, slender, exceeding vertex, brown with white 
dorsal and ventral lines ; antennae lacking. Thorax brown. Legs white with 
brown stripes, tarsi of first two pairs lacking. Brown stripes of hind legs lost 
in broad brown bands at bases of spurs. Spurs white with a brown stripe. First 
pair inserted just beyond middle of tibia and reaching end of joint; terminal 
pair equal in length to first joint of tarsus. Tarsus whitish, first joint brown 
above except near base, remainder brown-tipped. Abdomen brown with a pair 
of whitisli subdorsal stripes, two lateral on each side, one ventro-lateral and 
a mid ventral pale area which forms a stripe near base, bears a few ventral 
brown dots near middle, and is completely divided by a brown line toward 
outer end. 

Primaries dull, dark brown, paler at the base and with some ochreous 
scales on the lobes. First lobe crossed by a whitish band about one-third from 
apex, and with a few pale scales indicating the usual band about twice as far 
from apex. Apical portion with whitish scales. Second lobe similar, without 
whitish scales in terminal area and with the outer pale band nearer apex. 
Fringes cnncolorous. with a few whitish hairs in groups along inner margin, 
and numerous large Mack scales. Of the latter there are six tufts in the some- 
what damaged fringes along the inner margin of the first lobe of the type, a 
series on the costal margin of the second lobe, broken at the outer white band, 
and five tufts on the inner margin. Secondaries and their fringes also dark 
brown, the third feather without dark scales in the dorsal cilia. Expanse 10 mm. 

Described from one specimen : 

Holotype ? , Vernon ph., La., May, G. Coverdalc, in coll. Barnes. 



290 

This species is the most highly specialized of our fauna, according 
to Mr. Meyrick's views on the phylogeny of the genus, because of 
the complete absence of the scale tuft in the fringes of the secondaries. 
This structure is present in all of our other species, though Mr. Mey- 
rick records its absence from some of the exotic forms, and its absence 
in this case removes all hesitation which we have felt about describing 
from a single poor specimen. The parallel stripes of the abdomen are 
also strikingly different from anything else which we have examined. 

2. Triciioptilus defectalis Walker. PI. XLI, fig. 1. PI. XLIX, fig. 9. 

Ptcrophorus defectalis Walker, List Lep. Ins. B. M. XXX, 943, 1864. 

Pterophorus congrualis id., op. cit. 943-4, 1864. 

Ptcrophorus oxydactylus id., op. cit. 944, 1864. 

Aciptilia haivaiicnsis Butler, Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist. (S) Vll, 408, 1881. 

TrichoptUus ochrodactylus Fish, Can. Ent. XIII, 142, 1881. 

Femald, Pter, N. A., IS, pi. V, ff. 13, 14, 1898. 

Id., Bull. 52 U. S. N. M., 441, 1902. 
TrichoptUus coinpsocharcs Meyrick, Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. 16. 1886. 
Trichoptiltis ccntctcs id., op. cit. 16, 1886. 

Walsinghani, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond. 494, 1891. 

Id., op. cit. 1897. 

Grossbeck, Bull. Am. Mus. XXXVII, 135, 1917. 
TrichoptUus ralumensis Pagenstecher, Zoologica XXIX, 239, 19(T0. 
Triciioptilus OA'ydactylus Walsinghani, Faun. Haw. I, 471, 1907, 
TrichoptUus coiigi'iialis Meyrick, Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. 1907, 473, IWS. 

Id., Gen. Ins., C, 5, 1910. 

Id., Wagner's Lep. Cat. pars 17, 4, 1913. 

Barnes & McDunnough, Check List 150, 1917. 
TrichoptUus defecluHs Meyrick, Gen. Ins., C, 5, 1910. 

Fletcher, Trans. Linn. Soc. Lond. (2, Zool.) XIII. 312, 1910. 

Walsingham, Biol. Cent. Am., Lep. Het. IV, 434, 1915. 
Bucklcria defectalis Fletcher, Trans. Linn. Soc. Lond. (2, Zool.) XIII, 398, 1910. 
Head, thorax and abdomen light brownish ochreous. Posterior end of 
thorax whitish, abdomen often with divergent light and dark dashes on part of 
the segments above. Antennae white above with a longitudinal brown line. 
Third joint of palpi tipped with wliite and in some .specimens touched with 
brown on the sides. Legs brown and white striped, oflfering the distinctive 
feature noted in the key. 

Primaries light ochreous-brown, the first lobe more brownisli and crossed 
by the two ordinary bands which are scarcely, if at all, paler than the ground 
color. Second lobe hardly darker than the discal area and with the bands 
scarcely indicated. Fringes brown, containing some whitish hairs and black 
scales in cleft on each lobe and several tufts of black scales on the inner mar- 
gin, the last at tlie apex and the preceding one followed by a pencil of white 



291 

hairs. On the costal margin of the second lobe toward its apex the fringes 
are white tipped. Secondaries dark brown, fringes concolorous, containing a 
tuft of black scales beyond middle of inner margin of third feather. Expanse 
13 to 15 mm. 

Distribution: If the synonymy here adopted is correct, this 
species occurs on every continent except Europe, and on numerous 
islands, inchiding the East and West Indies and Hawaii. It is repre- 
sented in coll. Barnes by a series from Florida containing twenty 
specimens from Chokoloskee, without dates, and one from St. Peters- 
burg, taken in October. We have verified the identification of Arizona 
specimens in the National Museum. The type of ochrodactylus is 
labelled Texas. 

The synonymy of this species is presented as it appears in the 
Biologia. It has largely been worked out by Mr. Meyrick, to whose 
experience and judgment we defer in adopting it, for we have not 
been able to examine material from the numerous foreign type-locali- 
ties. The names which chiefly concern a student of the North Ameri- 
can fauna, in that they take priority over the sole name based upon 
North American material, were described from the following locali- 
ties : dcfcctalis from Sierra Leone and the Congo, congrualis from 
India and China, oxydactylus from Ceylon and haivaiiensis from the 
island Maui of the Hawaiian group. The types of all four are in the 
British Museum, and in addition paratypes of ccntctcs and compso- 
charcs. The types of Meyrick's species are in his own collection and 
that of ralumcnsis Pag. in "Mus. Dahl" according to the Biologia. The 
type of ochrodactylus Fish is in the Fernald collection at Amherst, 
Mass. We have seen this type, and find it to be in fairly good condi- 
tion, excepting the loss of the abdomen. 

The "Lepidopteronnn Catalogus" gives as a biological reference 
"Fletcher, Spol. Zeyl. 6 (21) p. 28 (biol.), t. A. f. 8 (1909)." We 
are not familiar with this article and know nothing else of the early 
stages. 

3. Triciioptilus californicus Walsingham, PI. XLI, fig. 3. PI. 

XLIX, fig. 8. 
Aciftilns? californicus Walsingham. Pter. Cal. Ore. 60, pi. 2, f. 9, 1880. 
Trichoptilus californicus Meyrick, Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. 7, 1886. 
Pterophorus californicus, Fernald, Smith's List Lep. N. A., 88, 1891. 
jTrichoptilus lobidactylus Fernald, Pter, N. A. IS, 1898 (in part). 
Id., op. cit. pi. VII, fig. 12-14, 1898 ( 3 gen.) 



292 

Id., Bull. 52 U. S. N. M. 441, 1902 (in part). 

B. C. Ent. Soc. Check List, 42, 1906. 

Meyrick, Gen. Ins. C, 5, 1910 (in part). 

Id., Wagner's Lep. Cat. pars 17, 4, 1913 (in part). 

Barnes & McDimnoiigh, Check List ISO, 1917 (in part). 

Grossbeck, Bull. Am. Mus. XXXVII, 135, 1917 (in part). 
Trichoptilus wrightii Grinnell, Can. Ent. XL, 314, 1908. 
XTrichoptilus lobidaclylus race ivrighti Barnes & McDunnough, Check List 150. 

1917, 
Head and thorax brown, the posterior end of both thorax and patagia 
white or whitish. Antennae white above with a fine dark longitudinal stripe. 
Second joint of palpi with tuft below at distal end as noted in key, sometimes 
rubbed off in poor specimens ; color same as head, white below. Third joint 
slender, moderately long, dark at the side and light above and below. Abdomen 
brownish above with divergent light and dark stripes on the first few segments 
and parallel stripes on the last two or three. Legs brown and white striped 
as in defectalis, the hind pair differing in that the two brown stripes on the 
upper surface of the tibiae before the first pair of spurs are separate and straight, 
not in part spiral and joined near their distal end. 

Primaries concolorous with anterior part of thorax, varying from light 
ochreous to a dull brown. First lobe darker, the transverse bands marked dis- 
tinctly with white scales on the costa, these usually continued from second band 
to apex. The primaries are otherwise as in defectalis with two exceptions 
The costal fringes of the second lobe are not white tipped near the apex, and 
the white hairs in the fringes of the inner margin are grouped in two rather 
conspicuous patches. The secondaries arc a darker, more dull shade of brown, 
each feather usually with a few dark scales in the apical fringes. The third 
feather has the tuft of black scales on the inner margin well-developed, and the 
fringes preceding it often contain noticeable white hairs. At the apex of this 
feather the fringes are usually white: otherwise they are concolorous with the 
wing. Expanse 14-18 mm. 

Although the superficial appearance is not very different from 
tliat of defectalis Wlk. the male genitalia (plate XLIX, fig. 8) are 
much nearer to those of lobidactylns Fitch in form. The narrow valves 
at once separate the species from defectalis, in which they are very 
broad. 

Distribution : We have seen no specimens of this genus from 
British Columbia, but think it probable that those recorded in the 
B. C. Check, List as lobidactylus are this species. Calif ornicus occurs 
throughout California, whence we have specimens taken in various 
])laces in IMay, Aug., Sept., and Oct. In the Barnes collection there 
are also specimens from Utah, Aug. ; Colo., Ariz., Se])t. ; and Fla. May. 

The early stages are unknown. 



293 

This species was described from specimens taken in Mendocino, 
Shasta and Colusa counties, Cal. The types are in the British IMuseum, 
and three paratypes in the Fernald collection. Our attention was first 
drawn to the distinctness of the species from lobidactylus, of which 
it had long been recorded as a synonym, by the discovery that all of 
our Calif ornian specimens had striped antennae, in marked contrast 
to the dotted antennae of the latter species. Lord Walsingham both 
described and figured the species with dotted antennae, but in sending 
material to Mr. Meyrick for comparison with the type we called his 
attention to this feature, and he noted that they are striped in the types. 
This is true also of the paratypes in the Fernald collection. In the 
Grinnell collection of Pterophoridae as sent to us for examination 
there were no types of Trkhoptilus zvrightii, but in Mr. W. S. Wright's 
material we found two specimens from the type locality which were 
true californicHS. Since we have seen only this species from the entire 
state of California, we feel that Mr. Grinnell was probably guilty of 
an oversight in describing his species with "barred" antennae. 

4. Trichoptilus pvgmaeus Walsingham. 

TrichoMilus pygmaeus Walsingham, Pter. Cal. Ore. 64, pi. Ill, f. IS, 1880. 
Meyrick, Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. 7, 1886. 
Fernald, Smith's List Lep. N. A. 88, 1891. 
Id., Pter. N. A. 14, 1898. 
Id., Bull. 52, U. S. N. M. 441, 1902. 
B. C. Ent. Soc. Check List 42, 19(^)6. 
Meyrick, Gen. Ins. C, 5, 1910. 
Id., Wagner's Lep. Cat. pars 17, 4, 1913. 
Barnes & McDunnough, Check List ISU, 1917. 

Since we have seen only two specimens of pygmaeus, one a para- 
type, we reproduce the original description : 

"Very small and slender. 

"The head pale fawn-colour, with some erect scales above and behind the 
eyes ; antennae slightly pubescent spotted alternately with fawn-brown and white 
above; the palpi projecting nearly the length of the head beyond it, whitish, 
touched with pale fawn-colour. 

"Fore wings cleft slightly more than half tlieir length, very pale fawn- 
colour, dusted with fuscous-brown scales along the costa, especially above the 
base of the fissure, also towards the base of the dorsal margin. The two slender 
lobes diverge considerably, and are barred before and beyond their middles 
more or less distinctly with white, which extends tlirough the otherwise pale 
fawn-coloured cilia on both sides; along the base of these intermediate fawn- 



294 

coloured cilia are some scattered fuscous-brown scales, two darker tooth-like 
projections almost fuscous appearing on the dorsal margin of the second lobe. 

"Hind wings pale greyish brown ; the cilia cinereous, internipted with 
white behind and at the points of the lobes. The third segment has long ciner- 
eous cilia, interrupted with white at the apex; slightly beyond the middle of its 
dorsal margin is a very small square projecting tooth of fuscous scales, pre- 
ceded by a scarcely conspicuous white dash in the cilia. 

"The legs are white, dotted and barred above with fawn-brown ; the spurs 
white, the joints above them being thickly clothed with fawn-brown scales, 
from amongst which project some few almost erect white ones. 

"Abdomen whitish, faintly touched with pale fawn-colour at the sides and 
above posteriorly. 

"Expanse scarcely 10 millims." 

The type series included three specimens taken "near Millville, in 
Shasta County, California, on the 11th of July, 1871." Two are now 
in the British Museum and the remaining paratype in the Fernald 
collection. It agrees very closely with the description. The second 
specimen which has been before us is in the National Museum. It 
lacked the abdomen and was slightly more grayish than Walsingham's 
figure, but we found no reason to doubt that it was true pygmaciis. 
This specimen was labelled "Washington, D. C. July," so careful col- 
lecting may prove the species to be much more common and wide- 
spread than it seems. 

In common with other writers, we have had no opportunity to 
study the structures of the species so as to settle definitely the status 
of the genus of which it is the type, but the paratype which we have 
seen appears to substantiate the customary usage. 

5. Trichoptilus lobidactylus Fitch. PI. XLI, fig. 2. PI. XLIX, 
fig. 7. 

Ptcyophonis lobidactylus Fitch, Trans. N. Y. Agr. Soc. XIV, 847, 1854. 

Id., 1st. Rept. Ent. N. Y. 143, 1854. 

Morris, Cat. Lep. N. A. 54, 1860. 

Walker, List Lcp. Ins. B. M. XXX, 940, 1864. 

Fernald, Smith's List Lep. N. A. 88, 1891. 
Aciplilus lobidactylus Dimmock, Psyche III, 389, 1882 (morph.). 

Id., op. cit. 404, 1882 (biol.). 
Trichoptilus lobidactylus Fernald, Pter. N. A. 15, 1898 (in part). 

Dyar, Psyche VIII, 249, 1898 (biol.). 

Fernald, Bull. 52, U. S. N. M. 441, 1902 (in part). 

Meyrick, Gen. Ins. C, 5, 1910 (in part). 

Id., Wagner's Lep. Cat. pars 17, 4, 1913 (in part). 



295 

Barnes & McDunnough, Check List ISO, 1917 (in part). 

Grossbeck, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist. XXXVII, 135, 1917 (in part). 

McDunnough, Can. Ent. LII, 88, pi. II, f. 1, 1920 (biol.). 
Trhiwftilus lobidactyla Dyar, Ent. Rec. XI, 140, pi. I, f. 1, 1899 (Lar^'s). 

Head brown with a white line over eyes. Antennae blackish below, al- 
ternately black and white spotted above. Palpi with second joint whitish, brown 
tipped, and with a terminal tuft projecting below tliird, which is white above 
and at its base below, otherwise brown. Thorax brown, posteriorly fawn with 
some white scales. Patagia concolorous, whitish tipped. Abdomen mixed fawn 
and brown. Dorsal surface with divergent white dashes, edged with dark 
brown, on alternate segments. Ventral surface with ventral and ventro-lateral 
white stripes edged with dark brown lines, the intervening spaces mixed fawn 
and brown with some white patches. Legs brown and white striped as in cali- 
fornicus. 

Vestiture of primaries a mixture of bright brown, blackish and white 
scales, the first usually predominating and the last very scanty. First lobe with 
two transverse pale bands, sometimes white and sometimes partly obsolete. 
Costal fringes often white from outer band to apex. Second lobe with the 
bands not more than indicated by a few white scales. Fringes of mixed brown, 
black and white hairs containing a few black scales in the cleft. Inner margin 
of first lobe also with a dark preapical pencil, sometimes preceded and followed 
by white. Inner margin of wing with clusters of black scales and three white 
patches; apex of second lobe with a black pencil and some white hairs. Sec- 
ondaries dark coppery brown with gray brown fringes. Third feather with 
black scales and white hairs at apex, the latter sometimes lacking, and with a 
large triangular black scale tuft in fringes of inner margin beyond middle, pre- 
ceded by variably conspicuous pale hairs. Expanse IS to 20 mm. 

Fitch's type has been destroyed. The pin and type label remain 
in the Fernald collection, with the added notation of its loss. 

Lobidactyliis was described presumably from New York sjieci- 
mens. Its range has been extended to include all of the northern 
United States in various works, but the elimination of caHfoniicits 
from the synonymy curtails this range extensively. It is in the Barnes 
collection from Ontario (July), N. H., N. J. (June & July), and 
Meach Lake. Ottawa Co.. Que. From the last named locality we have 
a small series, apparently reared, of very dark specimens. In the 
National Museum there are specimens from W. Va. and < )hio, the 
latter state being the most westerly locality of which we know. Gross- 
beck's Florida records probably refer partly to this species, since the 
food plant is mentioned, but the Barnes & McDunnough specimens 
mentioned are certainly calif or nicus. 



296 



SiS 



Prof. Fernaltl records the food plant as Solidago canadoi 
(Pter. N. A. 16). Dr. Dyar (Psyche VIII, 249) gives a description 
of the larva and pupa from material taken in Van Cortlandt Park, New 
York City, and reared on Solidago sp. Dimniock's papers give no fur- 
ther information beyond some morphological data and the locality 
Massachusetts. In Dr. McDunnough's paper descriptions, which we 
quote below, of the full grown larva and of the pupa are given, and 
a figure of the latter. The larva is here noted as feeding "on the 
terminal buds of a Solidago species". The descriptions are as follows : 

"Lar\'a ( full-grown). — Head ochreous. Body cylindrical, green, with 
slightly darker mediodorsal line, due to the dorsal vessel showing through the 
integument, and containing on each segment centrally a minute black dot ; sev- 
eral other similar black points are scattered with more or less regularity over 
the integument, the most constant being a single one midway between tubercles 
II and HI and another, rather linear in shape, before the spiracle. Subdorsally 
there is a series of large, brownish, rectangular, chitinous patches extending 
across the major portion of each segment and containing tubercles I and II 
which are represented by two long brownish setae, arising from the centre of 
each patch, very glutinous, swollen irregularly several times during their length 
and club-shaped at their tips; the posterior portion of each patch contains two 
minute, whitish club-shaped setae. Tubercle III is represented on the abdom- 
inal segments by a single long brownish seta, a short anterior whitish one and 
a mimite posterior hair ( ? Ill a of Dyar). Tubercle IV + V, directly below 
the spiracle, consists of an anterior shorter and a posterior longer clubbed white 
seta arising from a brownish base; there are usually also two further minute 
white clubbed hairs situated respectively on the ventral and on the posterior 
margins of this dark base. Ventral to the tubercles and on the posterior margin 
of each segment are generally several minute white clubbed hairs. A single 
white unclubbed hair arising from a dark base and surrounded by other minute 
hairs probably represents tubercle VI and two or three small hairs at the base 
of the prolegs constitute tubercle VII. 

"On the thoracic segments the dorsal setae show some variation from that 
normally found on the abdominal segments: on the mesothorax tubercle I + II 
consists of two long setae and one minute white one whilst on the metathorax 
only a single long dorsal hair is found. On both segments tubercle III shows 
two long setae. The prothorax has a row of six long hairs along the anterior 
margin with a second row of six immediately behind these; the dorsal area 
corresponding to the prothoracic plate is covered with fine, minute, white, clubbed 
hairs. Ventrad and anterior to the spiracle is a tubercle bearing three hairs. 
All spiracles pale, brown-ringed. Length 10 mm. 

'The arrangement of tubercular hairs as listed above differs in several 
points from Dr. Dyar's figure of the fifth abdominal segment of this species 
(1899, Ent. Rec. XI, pi. I, f. 1) but this is in the main due, I believe, to slight 
inconsistencv in the number of sm.all white secondary hairs which may occur 



297 

on each primarj' tubercle; Dr. Dyar's figure accentuates these secondary hairs, 
giving the impression that they are nearly as long as the primary, dark ones, 
which was far from the actual case in all specimens examined by me. 

"Pupa (Fig. 1).— Rather bluntly tnmcate at apex with four short horns 
arising from the base of the antennal and eye-sheaths and a distinct sub-dorsal 
ridge extending as far as fourth abdominal segment. Colour green, with the 
horns and surrounding area extending over the prothorax vinous pink; a large, 
pink, dorsal patch is also present on each of the third and fourth abdominal 
segments (not segments 4-S as stated by Dr. Dyar). The wing-cases are darker 
green than the remainder of the pupal integument and possesses three more or 
less complete parallel rows of minute white clubbed hairs; the sheaths of the 
legs and mouth parts are not very clearly differentiated and are well sprinkled 
with minute white warts on lenticles, particularly numerous on the eye caps. 
The tubercular setae of the larval stage are present, tubercles I and II being 
situated on the subdorsal ridge and particularly prominent on the pink-coloured 
segments. The prothoracic plate and the dorsal portions of the other thoracic 
segments are heavily sprinkled with small white lenticles; these lenticles on the 
abdominal segments are generally restricted to the area contiguous to the tuber- 
cular setae, this area being bounded posteriorly by a row of four or five short 
white clubbed hairs placed at regular intervals. The cephalic portion of the 
modified tenth abdominal plate contains a cluster of minute pinkish hairs 
and the cremaster is composed of a larger cluster of similarly coloured, glut- 
inous hairs." 

Genus Pterophorus Geoffrey. 
Logotype Alucita didactyla Linn. 

Pterophorus GeofEroy, Hist. Nat. Ins. II, 90, 1762. 

Fabricius, Syst. Ent. 671, 1775 (in part). 

Latreille, Consid. Gen. 442, 1810. Cites didactylus as type. 
Oxyptilus Zeller, Isis X, 765, 1841. 

Wallengren, Skand. Fjad. 14, 1859. 

Zeller, Stett. ent. Zeit. XXVIII, 335, 1867. 

Jordan, Ent. Mo. Mag. VI, 121, 1869. 

Meyrick, Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. 8, 1886. 

Id.,' op. cit. 485, 1890. 

Femald, Smith's List Lep. N. A. 88, 1891. 

Tutt, Pter. Brit. 60, 1891. 

Meyrick, Handbook 431, 1895. 

Hofmann. Deutsch. Pter. 49, 119, 1895. 

Fernald, Pter. N. A. 16, 1898. 

Id., Bull. 52 U. S. N. M. 441, 1902. 

Tutt, Ent. Rec. XVII, 35, 1905. Cites pilosellae Zell. as type. 

Meyrick, Gen. Ins. C, 6, 1910. 

Id., Wagner's Lep. Cat. pars. 17, 5, 1913. 

Walsingham, Biol. Cent. Am., Lep. Het. IV, 435, 1915. 



298 

Mosher, Class. Lep. Pupae 70, 1916. 

Barnes & McDunnough, Check List ISO, 1917. 
Cappcria Tutt, Ent. Rec. XVII, 37, 1905. Orthotype heterodactyla de Vill. 
Geina Tutt, Brit. Lep. V, 411, 1906. Orthotype didactylus Linn. 
Crombrugghia Tutt, op. cit. 449, 1906. Orthotype distans Zell. 

Forehead smooth, witliout tuft in our species: oceUi obsolete. Labial 
palpi moderate, oblique; second joint with a ventral apical tuft in only one 
North American species; third joint moderate. Tibiae thickened with scales 
at bases of spurs. Primaries bifid, cleft from about middle; M,, and Cu^ stalked, 
connate with Cu^ ; R^^ from below angle of cell, R., and R^ stalked with R^ or 
R. and R coincident; Rj free. Secondaries trifid, third segment with a well 
developed tuft of black scales in the fringes of the inner margin: Cu„ from 
middle of cell; Cu^ from near angle; R. to apex. (See pi. XLVIII, fig. 2.) 

Although the type of Pterophorus was fixed as didactyla in 1810, 
no subsequent writer with whose work we are famiHar has recognized 
the genus as identical with Oxyptihis Zell. The attempt of Lord 
Walsingham and Mr. Durrant (Ent. Mo. Mag. XXIII, 41, 1897) to 
fix the type of Alucita Linn, gives us the first summary by modern 
writers of the history of Pterophorus. In this suminary it is stated 
that Lamarck (Syst. An. sans Vert. 288, 1801) fixed the type as 
pentadactylus. The International Rules do not permit us to recognize 
this fixation, which is thrown out by Walsingham and Durrant for 
other reasons. Latreille's citation of didactylus is overlooked, appar- 
ently because it has no bearing on Alucita. On p. 42 we find the state- 
ment that Wallengren (Skand. Fjar. 20, 1859) "cited monodactylus 
Linn, as the type of Pterophorus (Geoffr.) auct." The authors accept 
this as the true type of Pterophorus on the basis that didactylus Geofif. 
was an incorrect identification of monodactylus Linn. Opinion 14 of 
the International Rules deals with a similar case and thereby validates 
the acceptance of didactylus Linn, as type of Pterophorus Geoflf. The 
genus has commonly been used as limited by Walsingham and Dur- 
rant, but Mr. J. W. Tutt (Ent. Rec. XVII, 35, 1905) claims that 
Geoffrey himself fixed the type as pentadactyla Linn. We think that 
no other writer has taken this view of Geoffrey's work, though some 
have accepted pentadactyla as type of this genus through Lamarck's 
supposed fixation. Curtis (Brit. Ent., Lep. I, 161, 1827) actually 
cited this species as type but his action was rendered invalid by that 
of Latreille. 

We follow Meyrick's synonymy. Geina Tutt is, of course, a syno- 
nym of Pterophorus. We are not familiar with the types of Capperia 



299 

and Crontbrugghia in nature but from Tutt's remarks we judge these 
genera to be of the same character as numerous others of his, and 
tlierefore happily suppressed. We regard a genus as a systematic unit, 
not a biological division, and feel that when it loses its value for classi- 
fication it has lost its right to exist. 

The male genitalia in this genus show two forms of harpes, the 
one long, heavily chitinized and curved, the other weak and mem- 
branous. In our species and in the four European species which we 
have seen, ri:;., didactylus, hicracii, pilosellae and parvidactylns, those 
species which have the terminal tuft on the second joint of the palpi 
are furnished with the second type, and those which lack this tuft 
have strong genitalia. These characters apparently divide the genus 
into two well marked groups, but we do not regard them as worthy of 
generic rank. 

Key to the Species 

1. Second joint of palpi with a distal tuft projecting beneath third. .rfc/fUt'iirtVui 
Palpi slender ; second joint without tuft 2 

2. Median spurs of hind tibiae attached three-fifths or more of length of 

joint from its base ^ 

These spurs very close to middle of tibia 4 

3. Dorsal surface of abdomen with divergent white lines reaching from 

front to hind margins on several segment?, widening behind ningoris 

White lines on dorsal surface of abdomen obsolete at least anteriorly, 
usually limited to a few scales in posterior margins of segments. A 
much darker species raptor 

4. Light brown; abdomen without contrasting pure white marks above 

pcriscelidttctylus 

Ven' dark brown; abdomen with some pure white above except in dark- 
est specimens ^ 

5. Fourth abdominal segment brown above, the adjacent segments with 

white marks tenuidactylus 

Fourth segment white above, others white marked cygnus 

1. Pterophorus periscelidactvlus Fitch. PI. XLI, fig. 4. PI. 

XLIX, fig. 5. 
Pterophorus periscelidactylus Fitch, Trans. N. Y. Agr. Soc. XIV, 843, 1854 
(biol.). 

Id.. 1st. Rept. Ent. N. Y. 139, 1854 (biol.). 

Morris, Cat. Lep. N. A. 54, 1860. 

Walker, List Lep. Ins. B. M. XXX, 940, 1864. 

Riley, 1st Mo. Rept. 137, pi. II, ff. 15, 16, 1869 (biol). 

Id., Am. Ent. II, 234, f^g. 148, 1870. 

Id., 3rd. Mo. Rept. 65, fig. 27, 1871 (biol.). 



300 

Packard, Guide 356, 1872, 

Saunders, Can. Ent. V, 99, fig. 15, 1873. 

Rogers, Can. Ent. VII, 217, 1875. 
Oxyptilus periscelidaclylus Zeller, Stett. ent. Zeit. XXXII, 178, 1871. 

Id., Verh. z.-b. Ges. Wien XXIII, 319, 1873. 

Walsingham, Pter. Cal. Ore. 25, pi. II, £. 5, 1880. 

Riley, Supp. Mo. Rept. 58, 1881. 

Dimmock, Psyche III, 390, 1882. 

Id., op. cit. 403, 1882. 

Saunders. Can. Ent. XIX, 27, 1887. 

Id., Ins. Inj. Fruits 268, 1889. 

Hy. Edwards, Bull. 35, U. S. N. M. 136, 1889. 

Femald, Smith's List Lep. N. A. 88, 1891. 

Dyar, Psyche VII, 253, 1895. 

Comstock, Manual 238, 1895. 

Smith, Econ. Ent. 318, 1896. 

Truman, Ent. News VIII, 28, 1897. 

Fernald, Pter. N. A. 17, pi. II, ff, 3, 4; pi. V, ff. 1, 2, 1898. 

Id., Bull. 52 U. S. N. M. 441, 1902. 

Holland. Moth Book 416, fig. 237, 1903. 

Osborn, Jn. Econ. Ent. II, 15, 1909. 

Meyrick. Gen. Ins. C, 7, 1910. 

Winn, List Ins. Que. 85, 1912. 

Meyrick, Wagner's Lep. Cat. pars 17, 7, 1913. 

Fracker, Class. Lep. Larvae 95, 1915. 

Barnes & McDunnough, Check List 150, 1917. 

Britton, Ins. Conn. 103, 1920. 
General color light brown, the head, thorax and abdomen somewhat paler, 
the last with creamy-white dashes above and mostly whitish below. Antennae 
white, dark below and with a row of connected dark dots above. Palpi white, 
light brown at the sides. Legs white, the first two pairs striped with dark 
brown, their tarsi with brown shading on one side of all but the second joint. 
Hind pair with brown tufts at bases of spurs and brown annuli on the tarsi. 
First spurs attached near middle of tibia and reaching to its end. 

Primaries with two white, diagonal, subparallel bands across first lobe, the 
basal one broader and less regular tiian the outer. These are continued across 
second feather, where they converge toward inner margin. Enclosed space on 
both lobes somewhat darker than rest of wing. Cleft preceded by a sHght 
whitish patch, then by a short transverse brown dash. At two-fifths from base 
of wing is a whitish spot, more or less vague. Fringes creamy white, slightly 
darker in cleft, where they contain brown scales. At apex of both lobes and 
anal angle of first they are marked by dark pencils of hair, and before anal 
angle of second lobe a broader brown patch preceded at some distance hy two 
small tufts of dark brown scales and some scattered white scales. First two 
featlicrs of hind wings dull brown with lighter fringes, the third light brown 
at base and tip, white between, fringes as on other lobes, but containing a large 



301 

tuft of dark brown scales at the outer end on both costal and inner margins. 
Some specimens are darker and of a duller shade of brown. Expanse 16-20 mm. 
Distribution: Quebec to New Jersey, west to Manitoba, South 
Dakota and Mo. Fernald arlds Texas but we are unable to verify 
this. The specimens which we have were taken in June with the 
exception of a single one without locality which bears an August date 
label. There are Mo. specimens in the Cornell collection dated May, 
and New York specimens dated July. The species was described from 
New York, and a reared specimen in coll. Fernald among Fitch's 
material is probably the type, though it does not bear Fernald's type 
label. 

The early stages have been considered in a number of papers. 
Riley's third report gives a good account of the habits of the insect, 
and both this and Saunder's "Insects Injurious to Fruits" describe 
the early stages in part. Dyar's paper in Psyche, vol. VII, and 
Fracker's are the only papers known to us which give any information 
of value on the structure of the larva. Fernald's monograph of the 
family contains the following description of larva and pupa : 

"Larva. — Length, about 12 mm. Head yellow, with the mouth parts brown. 
Body pale greenish yellow, deeply constricted between the segments. Each 
segment has a transverse row of ten moderately sized tubercles, from each of 
which arises a cluster of from six to twelve long, whitish, diverging hairs, 
besides which, scattered over the surface, arc short hairs which are enlarged 
at the tip. Legs yellow, long and slender. 

"Pupa. — Length, 11 mm. Diameter, 2 mm. Front obliquely truncated, 
with two irregular ridges extending up over the truncate part and along the 
dorsum on either side of the median line, diverging toward the meta-thorax, 
where they terminate in a pair of flattened, sharp-pointed projections, about 
as high as two-thirds of the diameter of the pupa. The ridges are higher, and 
toothed on the top of each segment. On the first five abdominal segments 
there is a row of short spines on each side, in line with the abdominal projec- 
tions. These spines incline forward, and on the posterior side is a small tooth 
and two short diverging club-shaped bristles. The pupae attach themselves by 
a cluster of fine hooks at the end of the abdomen to a button of silk spun by 
the caterpillar before pupating. The pupal stage lasts about a week." 

2. Pteropiigrits tenuidactvlus Fitch. PI. XLI, fig. 5. PI. XLIX, 
fig. 1. 

Ptcrophorus tcnuidactylus Fitch, Trans. N. Y. Agr. Soc. XIV, 848, 1854. 
Id., 1st Rept. Ent. N. Y. 144, 1854. 
Morris, Cat. Lep. N. A. 54. 1860. 
Walker, List Lep. Ins. B. M. XXX, 940, 1864. 



302 

O.ryl^lilus nigrocUiatus Zeller, Verb. z-b. Ges. Wicn XXIII, 332, 1873. 

Walsingham. Pter. Cal. Ore. 31, pi. II, f. 8, 1880. 

Dimmock, Psycbe III, 403, 1882. 

Packard, Kept. U. S. Dept. Agr. 326, 1886 {fide Hy. Edw.). 

Ply. Edwards, Bull. 35, U. S. N. M. 136, 1889. 

Saunders, Ins. Inj. Fruits 314, 1889 (bio!.). 

Packard, 5tb Kept. U. S. Ent. Com. 851, 1890. 
Oxyl^tUus tcnuidaciylus Murtfeldt, Am. Ent. Ill, 235, 1880. 

Fernald. Smith's List Lep. N. A. 88, 1891. 

Dyar, Psyche VIII, 249, 1898 (biol.). 

Fernald, Pter. N. A. 20, 1898. 

Id., Bull. 52, U. S. N. M. 442, 1902. 

Dyar, Proc. U. S. N. M. XXVII, 923, 1904, (bid). 

Anderson, Cat. B. C. Lep. 50, 1904. 

B. C. Ent. See. Check List 42, 1906. 

Forbes, Psyche XVI, 136, 1909. 

Meyrick, Gen. Ins. C, 7, 1910. 

Winn, List Ins. Que. 85, 1912. 

Meyrick, Wagner's Lep. Cat. pars 17, 8, 1913. 

Barnes & McDunnough, Check List ISO, 1917. 

Britton, Ins. Conn. 103, 1920. 
■\0.ryplilus dclavarims Forbes, Rept. Ent. II!. XIV, 91, 1885 (biol.). 

Very dark brown, with a coppery tinge. Antennae white, dotted witli 
brown above. Palpi white with lateral brown stripes, the third joint sometimes 
entirely brown. Thorax wliite behind. Legs white, first and second pairs 
striped with dark brown except tarsi, which are touched with brown on one 
.side of each joint. Hind legs as in pcriscelidactylns but with dark brown mark- 
ings. Abdomen brown, with diverging pairs of white stripes on t!ie third seg- 
ment. Fourth segment entirely brown above, fifth mostly white, due to the 
extension of stripes similar to those on the third. Beneath, the abdomen is more 
licaviiy marked with white, tlie fourth segment almost entirely wliite. 

Primaries with a fine transverse white line across outer !ialf of both lobes. 
First lobe willi a broader stripe basad of tliis. Second lobe with this stripe 
represented Ijy a small white patch. Fringes and secondaries as in (icriscelidac- 
tylus but much darker. Exp. 13-17 mm. 

Fernald's figuies of genitalia under this name appear to l)e!ong 
to the following species. 

Distribution: Quebec to W. Va., west to Vancouver Id. (Day), 
Tex. and Cal. Ma)- to Aug. 

Tlicre are three specimens in the Fernald collection among Fitch's 
material. tv,-o of which bear P'ernald's type labels. One of these is 
fragmentary and the other a 9 in good condition. 



303 

We have examined over forty specimens in the Barnes collection 
and smaller series in various other collections, among which were 
many bred specimens. The species is remarkably constant in super- 
ficial appearance, probably due to its general darkness, for the white 
markings are greatly reduced in the darker examples. The one dark 
segment of the abdomen, preceded and followed by white marks, is 
usually characteristic, though we have seen cases of obsolescence of 
these white marks. 

Tcnuidactyliis has been reared from the buds of blackberry by 
several entomologists. Dyar (Psyche VIII) gives a description of 
the larva and pupa, while S. A. Forbes (111. Rept.) and Saunders give 
similar data and some remarks on the habits of the larva. According 
to Dyar the larvae feed on the buds of blackberry, which they mimic 
closely, and in B. C. on thimble-berry, Ritbus imtkamis. There is a 
specimen in the Fernald collection which is labelled as having been 
reared from a larva boring in the stem of a species of Solidago. We 
have checked this identification carefully, and cannot account for such 
a strange difference in both habit and food plant if the record is cor- 
rect. One Wisconsin specimen in the National Museum was reared 
from strawberry. 

Dyar's description of larva and pupa is as follows : 

"Head green, 7 mm. wide. Body pale green, with a faint sub-dorsal white 
band. Warts i and ii imited, bearing about ten setae with simple ends; iii 
with six setae; a small wart behind it with two setae (iiia) ; iv -1- v with two 
large setae and several small ones; a single seta behind this (iiib) ; vi with 
a distinct tubercle, but somewhat confused among the secondary hairs; vii of 
three large setae with several shorter ones ; secondary hairs scattered over the 
body, and these as well as some shorter ones from the warts have swollen or 
cleft tips. 

"Pupa. Slender, tapering behind, fastened by the cremaster. A row of 
sub-dorsal tubercles bearing four spines in a fan-like arrangement, continued 
as a carinated ridge on the thorax. Thorax widened, the cases produced into a 
point along the abdomen. Two slight points above the eyes. Whitish green, 
cases more greenish. There are several spines on the thorax, and some fine, 
soft hairs on abdomen laterally. Another pupa was light purplish brown. 

"On the buds of blackberry (Rubus), Keene Valley, N. Y., June. Found 
with Batalis basilaris Zell., but more closely resembles the blackberry buds than 
this Tineid does." 



304 

3. Pterophorus cygnus n. sp. PI. XLIX, fig. 2. 
fOxyptilus tenuidactylus Fernald, Pter. N. A. pi. VI, ff. 4-6, 1898(?). 

We are unable to point out any superficial differences between cygmis 
and tenuidactylus except in the abdomen, hence the description of the latter 
species will answer almost completely for this. The hind legs of the unique 
t>-pe are unfortunately lacking, but in species otherwise so close we think it 
unlikely that they would show any marked difference. The abdomen differs 
from that of tenuidactylus in that every segment is marked more or less with 
white above, including the fourth. This, together with the third and fifth, is 
heavily marked. Beneath, the fourth segment bears two white dashes, while 
the others are mostly brown. Expanse 13 mm. 

Described from one male, (holotype) taken at Iowa City, la., July 2, 
1918, by A. W. Lindsey, and now in coll. Barnes. 

In the male genitalia differences are found in the uncus, vinculum 
and valves as shovvn in the figures. The oedeagus was lost in making 
tlie slide. Fernald's figures agree except in the shape of the vinculum. 
Since Fernald removed the entire abdomen for study, we are unable 
to check this by superficial characters. 

4. Pterophorus raptor Meyrick. PI. XLI, fig. 6. PI. XLIX, fig. 3. 

Oxyptilus raptor Meyrick, Trans. Ent. Soc. Loud. 1907, 478, 1908. 
Id., Gen. Ins. C, 7, 1910. 

Id., Wagner's Lep. Cat. pars 17, 8, 1913 (in part). 
Barnes & McDunnough, Check List ISO, 1917 (in part). 

The original description is as follows : 

"9. 19 mm. Palpi whitish, spotted with dark fuscous. Abdomen brown 
mixed with dark fuscous, segmental margins mixed with white. Legs white, 
lined and banded with dark fuscous. Forcwings cleft from beyond middle, 
segments narrow, first pointed, second somewhat dilated, its apex long, acute, 
termen concave ; ferruginous-fuscous, irrorated with dark fuscous ; a small dark 
fuscous spot on base of cleft; first segment crossed by two inwardly oblique 
whitish bars at 1/3 and 2/3, former rather broad, latter slender; a similar bar 
crossing second segment at 2/3; cilia dark fuscous, on costa more blackish, 
and barred with whitish on costal markings, beneath apex with two whitish 
bars, on termen of second segment whitish except toward angles, on dorsum 
mostly whitish with dark fuscous bars before and beyond cleft, and a dark 
fuscous patch towards tornus. Hind-wings cleft firstly from 2/S, secondly 
from 1/4, segments very slender; dark fuscous, third segment brownish- 
ochreous from base to near 2/3 and at apex ; cilia fuscous, both margins of 
third segment with a patch of blackish scales extending from before 2/3 of 
segment to 5/6. 

"Colorado, U. S. ; one specimen." 



305 

With a series of eleven specimens of both sexes before us we 
are unable to add to this description except by noting the position of 
the first pair of spurs on the hind tibiae in contrast to the preceding 
species, as noted in the key. Our specimens are from Denver, Chimney 
Gulch and South Park, Colo., taken by Oslar. Only two are dated, 
one June 23 from Chimney Gulch and one Aug. 19 from South Park. 
We have seen a single 9 labelled Hessville, Ind.. Sept. 8. which was 
submitted by Mr. A. K. Wyatt for identification. 

5. Pterophoku.s NiNGORis Walsingham. PI. XLI, fig. 7. PI. XLIX, 

fig. 6. 
Ox-yft'ltts ningoris Walsingham, Pter. Cal. Ore. 26, pi. II, f. 6, 1880. 

Fernald. Smith's List Lep. N. A. 88, 1891. 

Id., Pter. N. A. 20, pi. VI, ff. 1-3, 1898. 

Id., Bull. 52 U. S. N. M. 442, 1902. 

Dyar, Proc. U. S. N. M. XXVII, 923, 1904 (biol.). 

Anderson, Cat. B. C. Lep. SO, 1904. 

B. C. Ent. Soc. Check List 42, 1906. 

Meyrick, Gen. Ins. C, 7, 1910. 

Id., Wagner's Lep. Cat. pars 17, 8, 1913. 

Barnes & McDunnough, Check List ISO, 1917. 

Britton, Ins. Conn. 103, 1920. 
%Oxyptilus nigoris Murtfeldt, Proc. Nat. Sci. Club, 13, 1896. 
Oxyptilus hernardinus Grinnell, Can. Ent. XL, 315, 1908. 
Oxyptilus raptor Meyrick, Wagner's Lep. Cat. pars 17, 8, 1913 (in part). 

Barnes & McDunnough, Check List 150, 1917 (in part). 
General color dull brown with a grayish cast, due to the presence of true 
brown only at the tips of the scales. Head with a few whitish scales. Antennae 
light spotted above, otherwise dark. Palpi rather long and slender, oblique, 
dark brown with both joints white-tipped. Fore and middle legs white striped 
with brown, the tarsi largely brown on their inner surface. Hind legs pure 
white with the usual bands at the bases of tlie spurs and on the joints of the 
tarsi. Tibiae also with an incompletely spiral brown line preceding spurs. 
First spurs attached about three-fifths from base of tibia and reaching its tip. 
Abdomen with many white scales and a pair of subdorsal stripes made up of 
divergent dashes on e.ich segment. Beneath mostly white, due to anastomosis 
of longitudinal white stripes. 

Fore wings usually with a somewhat hoary appearance, sometimes accen- 
tuated by the presence of white and fuscous scales, particularly along the costa. 
First lobe crossed by the usual two lines, the outer slender, the inner broad. 
Both arc continued on the second lobe, but are ven,' variable, sometimes exten- 
sive and sometimes greatly reduced. The outer line reaches the anal angle in 
well marked specimens. Cleft preceded by a few white scales, and disk with 



306 

two vague whitish spots, one near inner margin about one-third from base 
and one beyond it in cell. These wings are cleft from about the middle, and 
the lobes are somewhat narrow, so that in general appearance the species looks 
like a Trichoptitus. Fringes fuscous at apex, becoming white toward base of 
cleft and containing brown scales in cleft. Second lobe with tufts of fuscous 
scales at apex, anal angle, and along inner margin. Outer margin with fringes 
partly white, inner with fuscous fringes between last two tufts. Secondaries 
brown, similar to primaries, with gray-brown fringes. Third lobe somewhat 
paler, white beyond middle, with large tuft of blackish scales in fringes of 
outer third. Expanse 18-20 mm. 

Distribution: California: we have specimens from Tulare and 
San Bernardino counties and Lake Tahoe. Part of the type series was 
taken in Oregon. Mr. G. O. Day sent in one 9 labelled Cowichan 
Lake, Vane. Id., and the B. C. Entomological Society records the spe- 
cies from the mainland. The specimens which we have examined were 
taken from the eighteenth of Jime to the end of July. The Connecticut 
record is probably based on a misidentification. 

Dyar's account of the life history is as follows: 

"Seven specimens, June 25, 27, 29, August 3. The young larvae were 
found webbing the heads and deforming the leaves of a wooly herbaceous plant 
with milky juice, Hicrachim albiflorum. The larvae were very small but made 
a great showing as the whole head of the plant is webbed and distorted, the 
leaves cnunplcd and the flower shoot does not grow up as it normally would. 

"Larva. — Head small, bilobed, pale honey yellow, mouth pointed. Body 
robust, tapering a little at the ends, feet normal, slender, dilated at the ends as 
usual in the Pterophoridae. Primary hairs simple, coarse, white, i and ii 
closely approximated, the tubercles black ; iii single, iv and v closely approxi- 
mated, vi single, the tubercles brownish ringed. Numerous small secondary 
hairs all over, white, short, broadly clavate tipped. Olivaceous green, the food 
dark; skin densely covered with minute black, flat granules; spiracles black 
ringed. Later there is a deep brown spot on tubercle i + ii. 

"Pupa. — Attached by the anal extremity, free ; pale yellow, the tubercles 
like those of the larva, the dorsal ones colored red. The young larva is with- 
out the capitate secondary hairs." 

We have at hand a specimen compared by Mr. Meyrick with 
Walsingham's type in the British Museum, the specimens, four in 
number, which Walsingham placed in the Fernald collection, and a 
specimen personally compared with Grinnell's series of bernardinus, 
and are thus able to establish beyond reasonable doubt the identity 
and synonymy of this easily recognized species. In Grinnell's col- 
lection we foimd a series of five specimens over this name which were 
apparently those referred to in his description. None of these was 



307 

labelled type, so we selected the best and supplied it with a type label 
bearing a note of the circumstance. We are not acquainted with the 
European teticrii with which Walsingham compares his species, and 
so must accept his decision that they are distinct. 

6. Pterophorus delawaricus Zeller. PI. XLI, fig. 8. PI. XLIX, 

fig. 4. 
Oxyptilus delawaricus Zeller, Verh. z.-b. Ges. Wien XXIII, 320, 1873. 

Walsingham, Pter. Cal. Ore. 29, pi. II, f. 7, 1880. 

Fernald, Smith's List Lep. N. A. 88, 1891. 

Id., Pter. N. A. 19, pi. VI, ff. 7, 8, 1898. 

Id., Bull. 52 U. S. N. M. 442, 1902. 

Dyar. Proc. U. S. N. M. XXV, 397, 1902 (biol.). 

Meyrick, Gen. Ins. C, 7, 1910. 

Winn, List Ins. Que. 85, 1912. 

Meyrick, Wagner's Lep. Cat. pars 17, 7, 1913. 

Barnes & McDunnough, Check List 150, 1917. 
Oxyptilus bernardinus form finitimus Grinnell, Can. Ent. XL, 315, 1908. 
Oxyptilus raptor Meyrick, Wagner's Lep. Cat. pars 17, 8, 1913 (in part). 

Barnes & McDunnough, Check List 150, 1917 (in part). 
Bright golden brown, about the same color as pcriscclidactylus. Antennae 
white with brown spots above. Palpi brown at the sides, the vestiture of the 
second joint produced into a point below which almost reaches tip of third. 
Legs brown and white striped, fore and middle tarsi with each joint partly 
brown on one side. Hind legs banded and striped as in the preceding species. 
Abdomen with diverging white dashes above and some white scales in the 
posterior half below. 

Wings marked as in raptor, from which they differ conspicuously in color. 
Expanse 13-20 mm. 

Distribution: N. J. to ^Mass. and Quebec. S. Cal. to B. C. Early 
Tune to early Aug. We have seen a single speciinen from \'an- 
couver Id. 

This is the only North American species belonging to the group 
characterized by the tufted second papal joint and weak, membra- 
nous claspers. 

Zeller described this species from a single male from the Dela- 
ware River which should now be in the British jMuseum. Unfor- 
tunately we had not yet placed the species when we submitted speci- 
mens to Mr. Meyrick for comparison with the types in that institution, 
but from Walsingham's notes in the "Pterophoridae of California and 
Oregon" we feel that its identity is sufficiently well established. The 



308 

single specimen mentioned in Grinnell's description of bcrnardinus and 
named fiititimus was found to be without a label in the Grinnell col- 
lection, though placed in the series of bernardinus. We labelled this 
specimen type. It was so badly rubbed that comparison was difficult, 
but left no doubt that it is the same as the species figured by Walsing- 
ham under the name dclawaricus. As to the identity of the eastern and 
western insects, we have felt some doubt. We have only two speci- 
mens from the east, both taken at Essex Co. Park, N. J., by W. D. 
Kearfott, June 30 and July 15. One is a male, and we are unable to 
find specific differences between its genitalia and those of western 
specimens. Our western series, including eleven specimens, comes 
from British Columbia and Washington. These specimens are, on 
the whole, larger and brighter than the two from New Jersey, but 
in the Fernald collection we find these conditions reversed. We are 
therefore disposed to believe that Walsingham and Zeller were right 
in their reference of the Californian species to delaiivricits. It is quite 
likely that the species will be found in intervening territory, either in 
the States or in a northward curve in Canada, to connect the isolated 
localities which we are now able to give. 

Dyar's notes on the early stages are puzzling to us, and we believe 
that they cannot refer to the true dclawaricus. Our notes on the 
National Museum material do not mention his specimens in detail, 
but record no true dchri^'aricns. All Colorado specimens which we 
listed were tcnuidactylits. .Since dclawaricus has tufted palpi and weak 
genitalia, we should expect its early stages to be decidedly ditlerent 
from pcriscclidactylus, which belongs in the other group, and think 
that Dyar's notes refer either to raptor or another species. His re- 
marks on the adult suggest pcriscclidactylus, though he makes them 
in contrasting with that species. 

We have examinetl several European species belonging to this 
group and concluded that dclaicaricns is distinct from them. 

Genus Platyptilia Huebner. 

Logotype Aluciia gonodactyla D. & S. 

Phityflilia Huebner, Verz. bek. Schmett. 429, 1826. 
Meyrick, Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. 9, 1886. 
Id., op. cit. 485, 1890. 
Fernald, Smith's List Lep. N. A. 87, 1891. 



309 

Meyrick, Handbook 432, 1895. 

Hofmaim, Deutsch. Pter. 48, 60, 1895. 

Tutt, Pter. Brit. 22, 1896. 

Femald, Pter. N. A. 22, 1898. 

Id., Bull. 52 U. S. N. M. 442, 1902. 

Tiitt, Ent. Rec. XVII, 35, 1905, cites gonodaclyla D. & S. (mcgadactyla 
Hbn.) as type. 

Meyrick, Gen. Ins. C, 9, 1910. 

Id., Wagner's Lep. Cat. pars 17, 10, 1913. 

Walsingham, Biol. Cent. Am., Lep. Het. IV, 437, 1915. 

Mosher. Class. Lep. Pupae 70, 1916. 

Barnes & McDunnough, Check List ISO, 1917. 
§Amplyptilia Huebner, Verz. bek. Schmett. 430, 1826. 

Tutt, Ent. Rec. XVII, 35, 1905, cites acanthodactyla Hbn as type. 
Ainhlyptilia Huebner, Verz. bek. Schmett., Anz. 72, 1827. 

Hofmann, Deutsch. Pter. 48, 82, 1895. 

Tutt, Ent. Rec. XVII, 35, 1905, cites acanthodactyla as type. 

I\Ie\Tick, Gen. Ins. C, 9, 1910. 
XPlatyptilus Zeller, Isis X, 764, 1841. New name for Platyptilia Hbn. 

Wallengren, Skand. FjSd. 11. 1859. 

Zeller, Stett, ent. Zeit. XXVIII, 331, 332, 1867. 

Jordan, Ent. Mo. Mag. VI, 120, 1869. 

Walsingham, Pter, Cal. Ore. 3, 1880. 

Tutt, Ent. Rec. XVII, 35, 1905, cites gonodactyla D. & S. as type. 
WCnaemidophorus Wallengren, Skand. Fjad. 10, 1859. Haplotype rhodo- 
dactyla D. & S. 

Jordan, Ent. Mo. Mag. VI, 120, 1869. 

Tutt, Pter, Brit. 18, 1896. 

Id., Ent. Rec. XVII, 35, 1905. 
tAmblyptilus Wallengren, Skand. Fjad. 13, 1859. New form for Ambtypiilin 
Hbn. 

Zeller, Stett. ent. Zeit. XXVIII, 331, 335. 1867. 

Jordan, Ent. Mo. Mag. VI, 121, 1869. 

Walsingham, Pter. Cal. Ore. 21, 1880. 
Sochchora Walker, List Lep. Ins. B. M. XXX. 952, 1864. Haplotype 5'. don- 
atclla Wlk. 

Tutt, Ent. Rec. XVII, 36, 1905. 

Walsingham, Biol. Cent. Am., Lep. Het. IV, 436, 1915. 
tCncmidophorus Zeller, Stett. ent. Zeit. XXVIII, 332, 1865. 
Eucnacmidophortis Wallengren, Ent. Tidsk. II, 96, 1881. New name for Cnae- 
midophorus Wallengren, preoccupied. 

Hofmann, Deutsch, Pter. 48, 57, 1895. 

Tutt, Ent. Rec. XVII, 26, 1905. 



310 

Cilbcrtia Walsingham, Ent. Mo. Mag. XXVII, 259, 1891. Orthotype G. eques 
Wlsm. 
Tutt, Ent. Rec. XVII, 36, 1891. 
Crocydoscclus Walsingham, Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. 35, 1897. Orthotype C. 
fcrruginea Wlsm. 
Tutt, Ent. Rec XVII, 36, 1905. 
Gillmeria Tutt, Ent. Rec. XVII, 27, 1905. Orthotype ochrodactyla D. & S. 
Frcdericina id., loc. cit. Orthotype cdodactyla D. & S. 

Front with a prominent scale tuft in some species, usually with at least 
a moderate tuft. Palpi short, scarcely exceeding front, to long; second 
joint obhque, third porrect. Tibiae sometimes with slight scale tufts. Fore 
wings cleft not more than one-third their length, anal angle evident on 
both lobes, in some species prominent and in some retreating. Vein Cu,. well 
before angle, Cu^ near angle. R^, R., and R- separate, R„ and R^ stalked. 
Hindwings trifid, third segment with black scales or scale tuft in fringes of 
inner margin in most species. Vein Cu., from middle of cell, CUj from near 
angle. (See pi. XLVIII, fig. 3). 

As noted by Meyrick in the Genera Insectorinn this genus ap- 
proaches Stcnoptilia closely. In some of the species which we include 
here the black scales are lacking, and we retain them in Platyptilia 
only because they seem generally closer to the characteristic species 
of that genus. Referring again to Meyrick in this connection, we 
quote his statement that "as the two types are really quite distinct 
and in general easily separable on a comparison of all the characters, 
it is desirable to keep them separate." 

We are not adopting the grouping proposed for this genus, based, 
so far as it concerns us, on the scale tuft, because it is likely to prove 
too confusing in the separation of the North American species. 

The identification of these insects is by no means easy, though 
some of the species are well marked and may be recognized without 
trouble. Others are difficult to place, even with an abundance of 
material and authentic specimens at hand. Of these we can only 
say that careful study of the superficial characters has led us to believe 
that the species which we retain are all valid, with possibly one or two 
exceptions. Unfortunately the genitalia are of no assistance in such 
cases, for throughout the genus they seem to differ in proportion to 
the other characters. Keying such a genus has naturally been a try- 
ing task, and unsatisfactory in its results, but we feel that the key 
which we present will suffice for the identification of most material. 



311 

Key to the Species 

1. Frontal tuft as long as eye or longer, conical 2 

Frontal tuft usually distinctly shorter and more blunt. Doubtful speci- 
mens may be placed by presence of dark triangle on primaries before 
cleft 4 

2. Tuft longer than palpi albcrtae 

Tuft not longer than palpi. Faint dark scale tuft in fringes of inner 
margin of third feather, or scattered dark scales .3 

3. Scale tooth near middle of feather; no other dark scales present 

pallidactyla 

Scale tooth near end of feather; sometimes not evident Carolina 

4. Palpi short, slightly exceeding front. Third feather with a weak scale 

tuft near middle tesseradactyla 

Palpi distinctly exceeding front or species otherwise different 5 

5 Third feather of secondaries with a well marked tuft of dark scales in 
fringes of inner margin, usually with scattered black scales preceding it C 
This tuft entirely absent or faint, and of very slender scales, rarely pre- 
ceded by other dark scales 16 

6. Scale tuft at middle of margin 7 

Scale tuft beyond middle (in some cases scarcely beyond, beginning at 
middle) 9 

7. Color more or less tawny. Second joint of hind tarsi scarcely dark 

tipped. Wings usually warm brown 8 

Color gray-brown. Second joint of hind tarsi as deeply dark tipped as 
those following zvilHamsii 

8. Scale tuft strong, triangular, sometimes prolonged carduidactyla 

Scale tuft weaker, scarcely triangular, sometimes very faint or even 
absent pcrcnodactyla 

9. Scale tuft within distal third of feather 10 

Scalt tuft farther from end of feather 13 

10. Brown, conspicuously marked with white. Third feather of secondaries 

chiefly white except opposite scale tooth rhododactyla 

Not such species 11 

11. Abdomen evenly colored or with faint parallel stripes; a variable num- 
ber of segments with single dorsal dots on hind margins. A small 

species crcniilata 

Abdomen with oblique stripes and rough vestiture 12 

12. Size usually large, 19-31 mm. Grayish with conspicuous dark markings. 

Scales in tuft of about equal length throughout cdwardsii 

Size moderate, 20 mm. Dark gray with the markings scarcely darker. 
Scales in tuft becoming more or less perceptibly shorter outward, tuft 
therefore slightly triangular auriga 

13. First lobe of primaries beyond base of cleft with a triangular pale 
brown spot resting on cleft with apex on costa. Scale tuft about two- 
thirds from base marmarodactyla 

Triangle vague or absent. Tuft just beyond middle 14 



312 

14. Wings in general warm brown acanthodactyta 

Wings of colder shades; grayish or black and white 15 

15. Contrastingly black and white. Abdomen distally white above and 

below P'^" 

Rarely with contrasting black and white areas; the white always suf- 
fused and powdery. Abdomen without the white areas punctidactyla 

16. With a few slender dark scales very faintly indicating a scale tuft near 
end of third feather of secondaries, scarcely visible to the naked eye 
and occasionally lacking. A large species with the dark areas gray. 

Expanse 27 mm. or over albidorsclla 

Dark scales scattered or absent. If grayish, size usually less than 26 
mm 1' 

17. Triangular patch at base of cleft well marked and usually conspicu- 
ously darker than wing 1^ 

Triangular patch never well developed, usually not indicated 22 

18. Size large, expanse about 35 mm grandis 

Smaller, less than 30 mm 19 

19. Hind tibiae with dark areas in the form of more or less definite annuli 

at bases of spurs ; sometimes entirely pale 20 

Hind legs more evenly suffused with dark shades or inwardly dark and 
outwardly pale 21 

20. Pale areas brownish white to buff white fragilis 

Pale areas white to pale gray albida 

21. Brown, only the dark brown triangular patch conspicuous. Fresh speci- 
mens with a powdering of bluish scales on the primaries. Outer margin 

of second lobe evenly rounded, anal angle retreating alhiciliata 

Ground color buff. Triangular patch brownish black. Outer margin 
of second lobe slightly wavy, with a median prominence. Anal angle 

more prominent ortUocarfi 

General color more grayish shastac 

22. Costal lobe of primaries with a conspicuous oblique black dash, .fctrodactyla 
Without such a dash ii 

23. Inner margin of primaries with two clusters of dark scales in fringes 

below base of cleft macii 

Fringe of this margin without such marks 2-1 

24. Primaries with two brown and two whitish transverse bands of about 
equal width on first lobe or darker and with a faint scale tuft at middle 

of third feather of secondaries albicans 

Only one narrow pale transverse band, if any 25 

25. Costal fringes of primaries pale (subapical) xylopsamma 

Costal fringes dark 26 

26. With a dark dot before base of cleft 27 

Without such a dot albiilliala 



313 

27. With a pale longitudinal dash near costa of primaries above base of 
cleft in most specimens. Costa usually darker before cleft. Subterm- 
inal pale line on first lobe usually traceable. Two spots or a transverse 

line before cleft in many specimens schwarzi 

Costa more evenly colored. Subterminal line rarely faintly marked. A 
single heavy spot before cleft modesta 

1. Platyptilia rhododactyla D. & S. PI. XLIII, fig. 3. 
Alucita rhododactyla Denis & SchifTermueller, Wien. Verz. 146, 1776. 
Ptcrophonis rhododactylus Fabricius, Mant. Ins. II, 258, 1787. 

Porritt, Ent. Mo. Mag. XII, 88, 1875 (biol.). 
Cmicmidophorus rhododactylus Wallengren, Skand. Fjad. 1(1. 1859. 

Tutt, Pter. Brit. 19, 1896 (biol.). 
Platyptilus rhododactylus Walker, List Lep. Ins. B. M. XXX, 928, 1864. 
Eucncmidophorus rhododactylus Hofmann, Deutsch, Pter. 58, 1895 (biol.). 
Platyptilia rhododactyla Meyrick, Handbook 435, 1895. 

Dyar, Ent. Rec. XI, 140, pi. I, f. 4, 1899 (larva). 

Meyrick, Gen. Ins. C, 10, 1910. 

Id., Wagner's Lep. Cat. pars 17, 11, 1913. 
Bright brown, thorax white behind. Antennae dotted with dark brown 
and white above. Palpi short, scarcely exceeding front. Legs white, femora 
brown, tibiae with brown tufts, joints of hind tarsi brown tipped. Abdomen 
without marks. 

Primaries crossed by an oblique white band just before cleft. This band 
widens or turns outward near inner margin, which it does not always reach. 
First lobe with a slight whitish dash near apex. Disk with vague white spots, 
one near inner margin one-third from base, and one in cell near middle of 
wing. Transverse line bordered inwardly opposite cleft by a dark brown dash 
preceded by an area slightly darker than the ground color. Costa with a few 
white scales. Outer margin with a dark terminal line, fringes whitish with 
small tufts of brown scales in their base at apex of both lobes and anal angle 
of first, and a broad tuft at anal angle of second, gray brown opposite all tufts 
and in cleft. Hind wings also brown, but of a duller shade than primaries. 
Third feather white in basal tw-o-thirds with some brown scales. Fringes gray- 
brown, with white scales along inner margin and at apex of third feather, 
and a large tuft of brown scales preceding apex. Expanse about 22 mm. 

We have been unable to examine the male genitalia of this species, 
for our series includes only four females. 

Distribution: Europe. The only North American specimens 
which we have seen are the series reared by Miss Murtfeldt at Kirk- 
wood, ^lo. Whether the species is actually established on this con- 
tinent or not, we are unable to say. The series mentioned is dated 
]\Tay and June of several years. We have two of the specimens from 



314 

the Kearfott collection, one from Dr. W. T. M. Forbes from the 
Murtfeldt collection at Cornell, and a single European specimen ob- 
tained through Mr. Busck. The Cornell collection contains thirteen 
other specimens from Miss Murtfeldt and the Fernald collection one. 

The life history of the species has been described in a number 
of places. We reproduce the descriptions of larva and pupa given 
by Porritt in the Ent. Mo. Mag. : 

Larva: "Length about half an inch, and of tolerable bulk in proportion: 
body cylindrical and strongly attenuated towards the extremities; is consid- 
erably retractile, and when at rest has a dumpy appearance; the head is small, 
globular, smooth and shining, about the same width, or perhaps ver>- slightly 
narrower, than the second segment ; the segmental divisions are distinctly 
marked; the skin soft, but has a slightly rough appearance, and is sparingly, 
though conspicuously, clothed with short hairs. 

"The ground-colour is a rather bright greenish-yellow, in some specimens 
yellowish-green; the head is grayish, with the cheeks and mandibles shining 
black. A very conspicuous purple stripe forms the medio-dorsal line, — from 
the 2nd to 6th segment this stripe appears as composed of round purplish marks 
joined at the segmental divisions, consequently the stripe is rather broad ; on 
the remaining segments it is much narrower and more uniform, but equally 
distinct ; the sub-dorsal and spiracular lines are yellow, but only faintly indi- 
cated; the segmental divisions are also yellow. The ventral surface and prolegs 
are uniformly dingy green or yellowish, according to the ground of the dorsal 
surface ; legs black and shining. 

"The larvae were found feeding on wild rose, beneath the leaf overlapping 
the rosebud, eating into the unexpanded bud from the side ; others, however, 
were found feeding in similar positions at the tips of the young shoots. When 
full-grown those that have been feeding on the buds affix themselves to the side 
of the leaf close by the bud, and draw the leaf and the bud together by means 
of a few silken threads; the others draw together in a similar way several 
leaves at the end of the young shoot. 

"The pupa is about three-eighths to half-an-inch in len.gth ; pale green, 
the wing-cases whitish,— the eye- antenna- and leg-cases, also the edging of the 
wing cases, smoky-black." 

Tutt, in the Pterophorina of Britain, quotes these descriptions 
with a very few additions. 

2. Platyptilia marmarodactyla Dyar. PI. XLI, fig. 9. PI. L, 

fig. 10. 
Platvplilia marmarodaclyla Dyar, Bull. 52 U. S. N. M. 442, 1902. 

Id,, Proc. Ent. Soc. Wash. V, 296, 1903. 

Meyrick, Gen. Ins. C, 11, 1910. 

Id., Wagner's Lep. Cat. pars 17, 13, 1913. 

Barnes & McDunnough, Check List 150, 1917. 



315 

Platyptilia pasadencnsis Grinnell, Can. Ent. XL, 317, 1908. 
Meyrick, Wagner's Lep. Cat. pars 17, 13, 1913. 
Barnes & McDunnough, Check List 150, 1917. 

In general brownish-gray, with faint transverse whitish lines on the pri- 
maries, producing a wavy appearance. Head and thorax with scales pale edged, 
the latter with a velvety black area behind, followed by a broad white margin. 
Abdomen with some whitish scales. Antennae slightly paler below than above, 
palpi moderate, oblique, exceeding the short blunt frontal tuft. Legs whitish, 
with dark bands and stripes on fore and mid tibiae. Hind tibiae entirely dark. 
All tarsi with dark annuli. 

Primaries narrow, both lobes crossed near outer margin by a slender, 
wavy white line. The terminal area is marked with white scales. Transverse 
line preceded by a dark triangle whose base rests on the costa, and followed 
by a dark costal dot ; in second lobe preceded by a dark shade. A dark trans- 
verse line before the cleft is connected to a dark costal triangle, and the space 
between this and the similar outer mark is pale brownish buff. This pale mark, 
roughly triangular, is a convenient distinguishing feature of the species. From 
the apex of the outer dark triangle a dark line usually projects into the pale 
area. Outer margin crenulate. Fringes greyish, with scattered black scales 
in cleft and along inner margin, and a basal row of similar scales on the outer 
margin. Secondaries grey-brown, fringes concolorous, with scattered black 
scales on inner margin of third feather and a tooth of black scales at two- 
thirds from base, usually more or less triangular, but variable. Expanse 
16-19 mm. 

The male genitalia are quite different from those of the species 
to which marmarodaciyla seems most closely related. The narrovir, 
regular claspers can readily be examined in situ under a binocular. 

Distribution: Colo., S. Cal., Ariz., N. M. We have a series of 
over one hundred specimens from San Diego, Cal., taken from late 
in April to early June, and late in October. From other California 
localities we have specimens taken in March, June, July and August; 
from Arizona, April and July, and from Colorado in July. New 
Mexico is one of the type localities. 

Of the three cotypes submitted to us in the National Museum 
material, two from Las Vegas Hot Springs, N. M., Aug., were found 
to represent our conception of this species. The third, from the Santa 
Rita Mts., Ariz., May 26, 1898, belongs to crcmdata B. & McD., and 
bears our label to that effect. The type S of pasadencnsis Grinnell 
from Pasadena, Cal., July, proved to be easily referable to this species. 

We know nothing of the early stages, except that a label was 
pinned into the National Museum series saying that the species is 



316 

destructive to the flowers of white sage. This may or may not apply 
to this species, since the label was not attached to a specimen. 

3. Platyptilia cri:ni:lata Barnes & McDunnough. PI. XLI, fig. 15. 

PL L, f^g. 5. 
Platyptilia crenulata Barnes & McDunnough, Cont. Nat. Hist. Lep. N. A. II, 185, 
pi. Ill, f. 8, 1913. 
Id., Check List 150, 1917. 
Grossbeck, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist. XXXVII, 135, 1917. 

Brownish gray in general appearance, thorax behind and base of abdomen 
whitish. Abdomen more tawny, with whitish scales and black dorsal dots in 
posterior margins of some segments. Palpi and antennae concolorous with 
liead, second joint of the former with a slight scale tuft projecting beneath 
the rather prominent third joint. Fore and mid tibiae brown and white striped, 
not banded as in marmarodactyla: tarsi dark on one side. Hind legs evenly 
drab. 

Primaries tawny gray at base, becoming darker outward, more or less 
marked with brown and whitish scales. A vague dark triangle on costa before 
cleft, apically produced. First lobe crossed by a white line at its outer third, 
whence a heavy dark dash and a dark costal shade run toward base, the latter 
containing a smaller dash. Tlie region into which these dashes run is pale, as 
in marmarodactyla, but less conspicuous. Terminal area with some whitish 
scales. Second lobe with whitish scales and a vague indication of a white line. 
Fringes whitish to grayish tawny, with black scales along inner margin and a 
basal row on tlie conspicuously wavy outer margin. Secondaries gray-brown 
with concolorous fringes. Inner margin of third lobe with scattered black 
.scales and a variable tuft just before apex. Expanse 9-16 mm. 

The form of tiie male genitalia shows that this species is more 
closely related to pitnctidactyla than to marmarodactyla, and this is 
born out by a close examination of the superficial characters. In gen- 
eral habitus, however, it agrees rather better with the latter species. 

Distribution : Described from a series of six specimens, a type 
i and five "cotypes", from Ft. Myers, Chokololcskee and Everglade, 
Fla.. taken in April and May. We are able to add Arizona and south- 
ern California to its range, and it probably occurs in the intervening 
Gulf States. We have but one Californian specimen from San Diego, 
and one from Yuma Co., Ariz., May. The cotype of marmarodactyla 
which belongs here was taken in the Santa Rita Mts., Ariz., in May. 
A superficial examination of the genitalia of this specimen, which is 
now before us, proves beyond a doubt that we are right in separating 
it from the remaining cotypes. 

Nothing is known of the early stages. 



317 

4. Platyptilia punctidactyla Haworth. PI. XLI, fig. 10, 11. PI. 

L, fig. 13. 
Alucita punctidactyla Haworth, Lep. Brit. 479, 1812. 
Alucita cosmodactyta Huebner, Samttil. Eur. Schmett., Aluc. pi. VII, £f. 35, 

36, 1823. 
Alucita ulodactyla Zetterstedt, Ins. Lapp. 1012, 1840. 

Platyptilus cosnwdactylus Walker, List Lep. Ins. B. M. XXX, 929, 1864. 
Phityf'tilus cosmodactyliis van stacliydalis Frey, Mitt. Schweiz, Ent. Ges. III. 
290, 1870. 

Id., Stett. ent. Zeit. XXXII, 125, 1871. 
Amblypiilus cosmodactyliis Walsingham, Pter. Cal. Ore. 23, pi. II, £f. 2, 4, 1880. 

Dimmock, Psyche III, 403, 1882. 
%Amblyptilia cosmodaotyla Hofmann, Deiitsch Pter. 85, 1895. 
Amhlyptilia cosmodactyla id., op.cit. 89, 1895 (biol.). 
Amblyptilia punctidactyla Tutt, Pter. Brit. 57, 1896 (bio!.). 
Platyptilia cosmodactyla Fernald, Smith's List Lep, N. A. 87, 1891. 

Mevrick, Handbook 433, 1895. 

Fernald, Pter. N. A. 25, pi. IX, ff. 1-3, 1898. 

Dyar, Proc. Wash. Acad. II, 499, 1900. 

Fernald, Bull. 52, U. S. N. M. 442, 1902. 

Dyar, Proc. U. S. N. M. XXV, 399, 1902 (biol.). 

Id., op. cit. XXVII, 922, 1904 (biol.). 

Anderson, Cat. B. C. Lep. 50, 1904. 

B. C. Ent. Soc. Check List 42, 1906. 

Meyrick, Wagner's Lep. Cat. pars 17, 12, 1913. 

Barnes & McDunnough, Check List ISO, 1917. 

Britton, Ins. Conn. 103, 1920. 
Amhlyptilia cosmodactyla ab. nivca Bankes, Ent. Rec. XVIII, 39, 1906. 
Platyptilia monticola Grinnell, Can. Ent. XL, 316, 1908. 

Barnes & McDunnough, Check List 150, 1917. 
Platyptilia punctidactyla Meyrick, Gen. Ins. C, 10, 1910. 

Head and thorax clothed with black tipped grayish scales Antennae dark 
above and light below, the dark area evidently made up of connected spots. 
Frontal tuft rather short, bluntly conical, surpassed by the third joint of the 
concolorous palpi. Legs blackish, with white scales intermixed, and sometimes 
with imperfect white stripes on the fore and middle tibiae and annulate tarsi. 
Thorax in well marked specimens black behind with a white W mark. Abdomen 
very variable in North American specimens, sometimes with a rather evenly 
colored vestiture of mixed white, tawny and blackish scales, sometimes with a 
mid dorsal stripe, as in European specimens, made up of paired curved whitish 
dashes on the several segments, their convex sides together and the included 
space darker. 

Primaries brownish gray to olive-black with a very variable superficial 
white irroration. Costa with white dots on a blackish ground, running from 
base to cleft. A black triangle, paler on the costa, reaches just beyond base 



318 

of cleft. In some specimens this is reduced or obscured by white scales, leav- 
ing a black transverse line before cleft. Beyond this triangle the first lobe 
is tawny or whitish, often suffused with gray, and blends into a dark shade 
which precedes the usual transverse white line. Terminal area more or less 
white-irrorate, apex strongly produced, acute. Second lobe with the transverse 
line and dark shade in well marked specimens ; sometimes even grayish. Fringes 
white to dark graj', with tufts of black scales along inner margin and a basal 
crenulate row, sometimes cut with white, on outer margin. Secondaries brownish 
gray, fringes concolorous. Third feather with black scales along inner mar- 
gin, a large triangular scale tooth just beyond middle preceded and followed 
by whitish fringes, and a small tuft at apex. Expanse 20-23 mm. 

We have a series from Crater Lake, Oregon, Aug. 1-7, reared by Dr. 
McDunnough from "Castillcia or Orthocarpus sp." Most of these specimens 
are of a very uniform dull gray with white irroration obscuring all marks, and 
very evenly colored abdomens. In the same series, however, we find specimens 
which afford us our best comparison with material from Europe. The species 
is extremely variable with us, and usually much less olivaceous than the Euro- 
pean examples which we have seen, tending to black and white. 

Distribution : Vancouver Is. to Manitoba, south to N. 111., Colo, 
and S. Cal., May to August. Alaska, June, in National Museum. Dyar 
also records it from Kadiak in July. Europe. The Connecticut record 
is possible but seems doubtful. 

The life history has been worked out by various European ento- 
mologists. The food plants on that continent are recorded as Aqni- 
Icgia and Gerantum {fide Tutt) and Prey says that he has reared many 
from larvae living in the seed capsules of the former. His var. stachy- 
dalis was described from specimens reared from Stachys syhatica. 
Tutt expresses doubt that the Stachys-ieeding species is the same as 
that on Aquilcgia. He regards the latter as probably cosmodactyla 
Hbn. and the former as punctidactyla Haworth. We follow Meyrick's 
synonymy, and arc unable to say that our North American species is 
distinct from a specimen of cosmodactyla Hbn. from continental 
Europe, though they are not an exact match in any case. To this con- 
fusion we must add Dr. McDunnough's record of "Castillcia or Ortho- 
carpus" as food plant in Oregon, and Dyar's Colorado record of a 
larva on Lonicera involucrata! We have no mention of Dyar's speci- 
men in our notes on the National Museum material, and so cannot 
check the identification, but since his is the only description of a North 
American larva known to us which is even possibly this species, we 
reproduce it : 



319 

"Larva.— Head round, vertically bilobed posteriorly, pale testaceous. Body 
cylindrical, normal, green, a dull crimson dorsal line with a small oblique 
subdorsal dash on joint 6 and a dash on joints 5 to 12; a white subdorsal line 
from joint 2 posteriorly to 13 anteriorly and a broken subdorsal one the larger 
anterior part on each segment oblique. Tubercles small, hairs single, i and ii 
separate, iv and v approximate, v anterior and dorsal to iv. On thorax ia + 
ib, iia + iib, iv + v, numerous fine, short, secondary hairs, shorter and easily 
differentiated from the primary- ones, bulbous tipped. Hairs all white, not 
long, inconspicuous. 

"The larva was found resting on the red fruit bract of Loniccra mvolu- 
crata, and was not observd to feed, being matured and pupating immediately. 
Apparently the larvae do not eat the leaves, but more probably the flowers. 
Found at Pine Grove, Platte Canyon, altitude about 7000 feet." 

A number of pupa cases in the Barnes collection from Crater 
Lake, Ore., show the following characters : Thorax slender, cylindri- 
cal, obliquely truncate in front, with two low, dorsal ridges running 
back from the head. These are more prominent on the angle of the 
thorax, and at their posterior ends opposite ends of wing-cases, form 
prominent leaf-like projections. They are continued on the remaining 
abdominal segments by rows of low compressed tubercles, acutely 
produced in front and less so behind. Below the spiracles is a short 
ridge bearing two small setae on each segment. The sheaths of the 
appendages are, of course, disarranged, but they show a rather long 
projection beyond the thorax. The pupa cases are pale, with a reddish 
tinge about the thorax. They are marked by longitudinal brown lines 
on the abdomen and two oblique lateral lines on each side of the 
thorax. We are unable to distinguish them from a European pupa- 
case of cosmodactyla. 

We accept Meyrick's arrangement of the synonymy as far as 
European names are concerned. There seems to be some doubt that 
pimctidactvla is the oldest name, so we follow Hagen's dates for 
Maworth's work. We found the type of monticola Grinnell, now in 
the Southwest Museum, to be a very poor S specimen, scarcely rec- 
ognizable in this difficult group, and at first referred it to marmaro- 
dactyla Dyar. A study of the genitalia in situ showed us that it did 
not belong there, and subsequent careful examination of the super- 
ficial characters convinced us that it was this species. 



320 

5. Platyptilia pica Walsingham. PI. XLI, fig. 12. 
Amhlyttilus pica Walsingham, Pter. Cal. Ore. 21, pi. II, f. 1, 1880. 
Platyptilia pica Fernald, Smith's List Lep. N. A. 87, 1891. 

Id., Pter. N. A. 24, 1898. 

Id., Bull. 52 U. S. N. M. 442, 1902. 

Anderson, Cat. B. C. Lep. SO, 1904. 

B. C. Ent. Soc. Check List 42, 1906. 

Meyrick, Gen. Ins. C, 11, 1910. 

Id., Wagner's Lep. Cat. pars 17, 13, 1913. 

Barnes & McDunnotigh, Check List 150, 1917. 
Head and thorax clothed with white scales more or less heavily mixed 
with tawny and brown. Thorax white behind, with two heavy black dashes. 
Antennae whitish, black dotted above. Palpi concolorous, third joint exceeding 
the short frontal tuft. All tibiae and tarsi black and white banded, the front 
and middle tibiae with also a black stripe. 

Primaries white to well beyond base of cleft, followed by a black shade 
which terminates at the usual transverse white lines on the two lobes. Costa 
black with white spots, and with a heavy black triangle before cleft. Disk with 
a black spot at one-fourth from base near inner margin, a few black dots near 
middle of this margin, and a black spot at middle of cell. Terminal area brown- 
ish with white scales which sometimes cover the darker color. Apex produced, 
acute; fringes of outer margin grayish, their bases black and white checkered; 
in cleft blackish, and along inner margin whitish with black tufts. Secondaries 
gray-brown with concolorous fringes. Inner margin of third lobe with scat- 
tered black scales before middle, a large triangular tooth beyond and a small 
tuft at apex, the tooth preceded and followed by paler fringes. Expanse 
17-24 mm. 

The abdomen offers the only constant distinguishing feature. Its upper 
surface is marked with a large white triangle on each segment, apex forward, 
and tlie last few segments are almost entirely white. Beneath it is broadly 
white on its distal half. In some specimens which we refer here the upper 
surface almost lacks white, but the under surface retains its white patch. 

The male genitalia are as in the preceding species (see pi. L, 
fig. 13). 

This description is of typical pica. The species varies with a grad- 
ual increase in the number of tawny and blackish scales in the white 
areas, which may be so numerous as to give the insect the appearance 
of piiiictidactyla. We are inclined to believe that the two are good 
species, but our material is scanty (eleven specimens) and all from 
one locality, so we recognize the possibility that pica may be merely a 
form of punctidactyla. Meyrick says in a letter of July 17, 1920, that 
"Scotch examples recently stated to be this are, I think, only vars. of 
punctidactyla; the true pica seems to be a good species." 



321 

An interesting and valuable piece of biological work for the ento- 
mologists of British Columbia lies in the breeding of these species. By 
that alone can we arrive at really satisfactory conclusions concerning 
their relationship. 

Distribution : Wellington, B. C, May to August. The types 
were taken at Crescent City, N. Cal.. and are in the British Museum. 
The National Museum collection contains typical pica from Mt. Rainier 
and Seattle, Wash. We have seen one specimen from Vancouver Is. 

Nothing is known of the early stages. 

6. Platvptilia aca.ntthodactyla Huebner. PI. XLI, fig. 13. PI. 
L, fig. 13a. 

iPtcrophorus calodactylns Fabricius (not D. & S.), Mant. Ins. II, 258, 1787 

(fide Mcyyick). 
Alucila acanthodactyla Huebner, Samml. Eur. Schmett., Aluc. pi V, ff. 23, 24, 

1804-18. 
Platyptilus acanlhodactylus Walker, List Lep. Ins. B. M. XXX, 929, 18(4 
Amhlyptilia calminthcu Frey, Stett. ent. Zeit. XLVII, 16, 1886. 
Ptcrophorus acanlhodactylus Porritt, Ent. Mo. Mag. XXIII, 132, 1886 (biol.). 
Amhlyptilia acanthodactyla Fernald, Smith's List Lep. N. A. 87, 1891. 

Hofmann, Deutsch. Pter. 85, 1895 (bio!.). 

Tutt, Pter. Brit 53, 1896 (biol.). 
Amhlyptilia acanthodactyla var. tetralicclla Hofmann, Deutsch, Pter. 86. 1895. 
Platyptilia acanthodactyla Meyrick, Handbook 433. 1895. 

Fernald, Pter. N. A. 25, 1898. 

Id., Bull. 52 U. S. N. M. 443, 1902. 

Kearfott, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist. XXIII, 167, pi. VIII, f. 16. 1907. 

Meyrick, Gen. Ins. C, 11, 1910. 

Id., Wagner's Lep Cat. pars 17, 12, 1913. 

Barnes & McDunnough, Check List 150, 1917. 
Genera! color dull brown. Antennae with alternate light and dark spots 
above in some specimens, usually uniform dull brown. Palpi and frontal tuft 
concolorous, the latter short, surpassed by third joint of former. Legs whitish 
with dark bands on tibiae and tarsi; front and middle tibiae also striped; hind 
pair mostly brown. Abdomen in poor condition in our series, in one specimen 
brown with a faint trace of a dorsal stripe similar to tliat of pnnctidactyla. 
Thorax white behind, with two dark brown dashes. 

Costa of primaries dotted with white to the brown triangle before cleft. 
Disk in some specimens with traces of the wavy white marks found in pnnc- 
tidactyla and with the usual vague dark spots near inner margin and in cell. 
Both lobes with a heavy transverse white line preceded by a dark brown shade. 
Between this shade and tlie dark triangle the wing is more or less tinged with 
tawny, containing a small dark dash on the first lobe. Terminal area tinged 



322 

with gray. Outer margin crenulate, apex of first dots acute, produced. Fringes 
grayish witli paler bases, including tufts of dark scales on inner margin and 
a basal row on outer, sometimes cut with white. Secondaries as in punctidac- 
tyla. Expanse 18-22 mm. 

Male genitalia as in punctidaclyla (see plate L, fig. 13), with the 
uncus slightly more slender. 

Distributions: Europe. We have ten specimens from Carmel, 
Cal., taken in April and two from the San Bernardino Mts., Cal., taken 
in June and July. The species is in the Fernald collection labelled 
West Farms, N. Y. 

The early stages have been studied in Europe, and the following 
description of the larva is given by Porritt. — After noting that the 
larva is very like that of punctidactyla he writes : "As in that species 
there are two distinct forms, and intermediate varieties occur partaking 
more or less of each of these extreme forms : — 

"Var. 1 has the ground color deep purple; head yellowish-grey, or yel- 
lowish-brown, marked on the crown and sides with black, the mandibles brown ; 
medio-dorsa! stripe smoke-coloured ; sub-dorsal lines, and another line of equal 
width below it, white, but interrupted and not very conspicuous; and below 
these is another scarcely so pale line along the spiracles ; hairs and the distinct 
tubercles white. Ventral surface and prolegs greenish-olive, anterior-legs shin- 
ing black, ringed with paler. 

"Var. II has the ground color bright pale green; head as in Var. I; the 
pulsating dark smoky vessel — in some specimens tinged with pink anteriorly — 
forms the dorsal stripe: sub-dorsal lines indistinct, whitish; below these is 
another line, but much interrupted and broken into short lengths ; there are 
no lines along the spiracular region ; hairs and tubercles white. Ventral sur- 
face and prolegs of the bright green of the dorsal area, the legs shining black, 
ringed with white." 

Tutt vv'rites briefly of the pupa as follows : 

"The pupa appears to vary in ground colour to the same extent as the 
larvae, the ground colour varying from pale green to dark purple, but getting 
darker in the paler forms just before emergence. In this species, as in the 
next, [punctidactyla] the antennae cases are quite detached, and these, with 
the two curious curved protuberances specially characteristic of this genus 
[AmhlyptUia], give it a very strange and curious appearance." 

Tutt and Hofmann, in summarizing the biological knowledge of 
the species, both mention Stachys, Ononis, Geranium and Pelargonium 
as food-plants, and Hofmann adds Salvia, Euphrasia, Bartsia, Mentha 
and a few others. It is mentioned as feeding on the buds of most of 
tliese, and in one case on leaves. 



323 

7. Platyptilia tesseradactyla Linn. PI. XLI, fig. 17. PI. L, fig. 8. 

Alucita tesseradactyla Linnaeus, Faun. Suec. 370, 1761. 
Ptcrophorus tcsscradactybis Fabricius, Mant. Ins. II, 259, 1787. 
Pteroplwrus fischeri Zeller, Isis X, 781, 1841. 
Platyptilus fischeri Gartner, Wien. ent. Mon. VI, 331, 1862. 
Platyptilia tesseradactyla Femald, Smith's List Lep. N. A. 87, 1891. 

Id., Pter. N. A. 33, pi. VIII, ff. 8, 9, 1898. 

Id., Bull. 52 U. S. N. M. 444, 1902. 

Dyar, Proc. U. S. N. M., XXVII, 923, 1904. 

Anderson, Cat. B. C. Lep. 50, 1904. 

B. C. Ent. Soc. Check List 42, 1906. 

Meyrick, Gen. Ins. C, 11, 1910. 

Winn, List Ins. Que. 85, 1912. 

Meyrick, Wagner's Lep. Cat. pars 17, 13, 1913. 

Barnes & McDunnough, Check List 150, 1917. 
^Platyptilia tessaradactyla Hofmann, Deutsch. Pter. 64, 75, 1895 (biol.). 

Vestiture of brownish gray scales, mixed and overlain with whitish 
scales. Antennae dotted with white above. Palpi small, so that they appear 
scarcely to exceed the front. Legs whitish tinged with brown on one side. 
Abdomen with white scales in posterior margins of segments. Thorax white 
behind. 

Primaries rather evenly grayish, the markings produced by variation in 
the mixture of white scales, and therefore powdery and indefinite. Costa 
darker, dotted with white, with the usual dark triangle, sometimes very vague, 
before cleft. This contains two dark dots connected by a transverse shade, 
variably distinct, just before cleft. Outer transverse white line present, incom- 
plete on second lobe. Sometimes with a vague dark dot in cell and blotch near 
middle of inner margin. Fringes whitish with gray tips, with dark tufts at 
apex and anal angle of each lobe, two on inner margin, and a basal row of 
dark scales along outer margin. Secondaries brownish gray, fringes slightly 
paler with dark scales at tip of each lobe and a weak tuft of approximately equal 
dark scales just beyond middle of inner margin of third lobe, sometimes pre- 
ceded by scattered scales. Expanse 16-20 mm. 
The male genitalia are very simple. 

Distribution : Europe. Quebec to N. Y. and Pa., Colo. We 
have a series from New Brighton, Pa., taken in May (Merrick), one 
from Durham, N. H., and a single $ from Silverton, Colo., taken 
early in August. There are New York specimens taken in April and 
May in the Cornell collection and two Mass. specimens in the Fernald 
collection. In the last there is also one specimen from Marshall's 
Pass., Colo., taken July 15, 1888. Dyar lists it from the Kootenai 
District, B. C. 



324 

European specimens in our possession are more brownish and 
contrasty than North America, but they show no definite superficial 
dififerences, and the genitalia are the same in specimens from both 
continents. 

Under the synonym fischcri Gartner gives an account of the early 
stages which we translate as follows : 

The egg is pale green, polished and elongate-spherical, and the larva in 
its first stage (zartesten Alter) cream-wliite with separate hairs, black head, 
similar cervical and anal shields; later (in September) it bears dorsal and 
lateral rows of red-brown dots and after hibernation (middle of March) it 
has become stout, without having increased much in length. Head, cervical and 
anal shields dark brown, dorsal stripe carmine-red, made up of three-cornered 
spots; similar but finer subdorsal and lateral stripes. The ground-color of the 
body yellowish, belly reddish. In its adult state the larva is small before and 
behind, cylindrical in the middle ; the small head black ; the cream-white cer- 
vical shield bears a small black shield-shaped spot (? Schildfleck), which is 
divided with light (shades) ; the color of the body is dark red-brown, the 
back has on each segment a white spot with two pairs of black spots, of which 
the posterior is widely separated ; there are also such spots on the sides, upon 
which stand pale hairs; anal shield and claws (!) dark brown. In addition 
the larvae vary frequently in the shade of its color. 

The slender pupa is tapered behind, the head brownish dark gray, which 
color extends over the thorax. Eyes dark, with the point of the head between 
them. On the sides of the back the color of the body is ivory yellow (bein- 
gelb), the row of dorsal spots and the lateral arched design darker; above the 
cremaster is a long, thickly ciliated, somewhat projecting point.. The wing 
cases are light greenish, the projecting leg-cases, which are free for three and 
one-half segments, brownish; before the hairy cremaster, ventrad, are two 
points. The older the pupa, the more brownish-gray mottled it is. 

The food plant given by Gartner is Gnaphalinm dioicum L., to 
which Hofmann adds G. arcnarimn. 

8. Pl..\TVPTILIA CARDUIDACTYL.\ Riley. PL XLIII, fig. 1. 

Ptcrophoriis carduidactylus Riley. Mo. Rcpt. I, 180, pi. II, If. 13, 14, 1869 (bio!,). 

Id., op. cit. Ill, 67, 187i. 

Murtfeldt, Am. Ent. Ill, 235, 1880. 
Ptatyptilus carduidactylus Zeller, Stett. ent. Zeit. XXXII, 179, 1871. 

Dimmock, Psyche III, 403, 1882. 

Id., op. cit. 413, 1882. 
tPlatyftilia cardui Zeller, Verb. z.-b. Ges. Wien XXIII, 318, 1873. 

Walsingham, Biol. Cent. Am., Lep. Het. IV, 438, 1915. 
Platyptilus cardui Walsingham, Pter, Cal. Ore 7, pi. I, f. 6, 1880. 

Kellicott, Bull. Buff. Soc. Nat. Sci. IV, 47, 1882 (biol.). 

Hy. Edwards, Bull. U. S. N. M. 35, 136, 1889. 



325 

Pterophorus cardui Riley, Index to Mo. Rept. 83, 1881. 

tPlaiyptilia cardiiidactyla Fcmald, Smith's List Lep. N. A. 87, 1891. 

Id., Pter. N, A. 26, pi. II, ff. 1, 2; pi. VII, ff. 8-11, 1898. 

Id., Bull. 52, U. S. N. M., 443, 1902. 

Dyar, Proc. U. S. N. M. XXVII, 923. 1904. 

Anderson, Cat. B. C. Lep. 50, 1904. 

B. C. Ent. Soc. Check List 42, 1906. 

Meyrick, Gen. Ins. C, 11, 1910. 

Winn, List Ins. Que. 85, 1912. 

Meyrick, Wagner's Lep. Cat. pars 17, 13, 1913. 

Barnes & McDunnough, Check List 150, 1917. 
PlatyptiUa hesperis Grinnell, Can. Ent. XL, 316, 1908. 

Meyrick, Wagner's Lep. Cat. pars 17, 15, 1913, 

Barnes & McDunnough, Check List 150, 1917. 
Brownish buff, thorax whitish behind. Antennae dotted with brown above. 
Frontal tuft moderate, blunt, surpassed by third joint of oblique palpi. Front 
and middle legs brownish inside, dark without, the tarsi distinctly pale. Hind 
tibiae with two broad brown bands ; tarsi with at least the second joint entirely 
whitish. 

Primaries with the costa dark brown dotted with white as far as the usual 
brown triangle, which is much the darkest part of the wing. Disk with blotches 
near inner margin at about one-fourth and three-fifths from base, and a spot 
in cell. The heavy triangle contains a dark transverse dash before cleft which 
is visible only in paler specimens. Beyond triangle there is a transverse line 
of ground color, often obsolete except on costa; both lobes thence pale brown, 
crossed by a vague light Hne toward outer margin ; terminal area usually with 
some hoary scales. Fringes grayish-buff with a row of brown scales in base 
along outer margin, gray tufts at apices and anal angles, and two dark brown 
scale tufts on inner margin. Apex acute, moderately produced. Secondaries 
gray-brown, fringes slightly paler with short dark scales at apices of first two 
lobes. Fringes of inner margin of third lobe with a prominent triangular 
tooth of dark brown scales at middle, its point perhaps slightly before middle 
of lobe. This tooth is preceded and followed by a variably complete row of 
short, dark scales, and the lobe is whitish before it. Expanse 20-27 mm. 

The species varies to a duller brown, sometimes with a purplish tinge, 
and reduced contrasts. Darker specimens show some superficial whitish ves- 
titure. 

Male genitalia as in pcrcnodactyla Wlsm. (see plate L, fig. 14). 
Distribution: Laborador (Aug.) to D. C. (May), west to the 
Pacific Coast. We have it from various localities taken in every 
month from May to September, inclusive. 

Riley, in his initial paper on the species, gives an interesting 
account of the early stages. According to this account the larvae 
are gregarious, living in webbed heads of common thistles. Eight to 



326 

twelve are said to live together, and different stages may be found 
in one group. The pupal instar lasts one week. Riley apparently did 
not learn the stage of hibernation, and we are unable to supply this 
information. He describes the larva and pupa as follows: 

"Larva. — Average length 0.60. Largest in the middle of body, tapering 
thence each way. Color light straw-yellow — greener when young. Somewhat 
darker, partly translucent, dorsal, subdorsal and stigmata! lines. Two lateral 
rows of black spots, the lower spots rather smaller and placed behind the upper 
ones. A third row above these, and others along the back, but so small that 
they are generally imperceptible with the naked eye, except on the thoracic 
segments, being especially distinct on segment 2. Head small, black, sometimes 
inclining to brown. Cervical shield black, divided longitudinally in the middle 
by a higher line. Caudal plate also black. Segment 11, besides the spots above 
mentioned, has two transverse black marks, the posterior one the largest. 
Thoracic legs black, the others of the same color as the body." 

"Pupa. — Average length 0.45.— Soft, dull yellow, with a lateral dusky line, 
each side of dorsum, and another, less distinct each side of venter. Also dusky 
about the head and wing-sheaths." 

From two voided pupal skins we are able to add that the pupa 
is much less angular and rather stouter than that of punctidactyla 
already described. The dorsal ridges are present, but very low, and 
the leaf-like projections and tubercles are not at all developed. The 
cases of the appendages form a very short ventral process. 

We have had much difficulty in deciding whether or not this and 
the following species are distinct, and have come to the conclusion 
that they probably are. The differences are mentioned under percno- 
dactyla. The types of hesperis Grinnell belong to carduidactyla ac- 
cording to our concept. 

9. Platyptilia I'ERCNODACTYLA Walsitigham. PI. XLIII, fig. 2. PI. 
L, fig. 14. 

Platyptilns percnodactyhis VValsingham, Pter. Cal. Ore. 8, pi. I, f. 7, 18S0. 
XPlatyptUia percnodactyla Femald, Smith's List Lep. N. A. 87, 1891. 

Id., Pter. N. A. 27, pi. VIII, ff. 14, IS, 1898. 

Id., Bull. 52 U. S. N. M. 443, 1902. 

Anderson, Cat. B. C. Lep. 50, 1904. 

B. C. Ent. Soc. Check List 42, 1906. 

Meyrick, Gen. Ins. C, 11, 1910. 

Id., Wagner's Lep. Cat. pars 17, 14, 1913. 

Barnes & McDunnough, Check List 150, 1917. 

The appearance of this species is substantially that of the preced- 
ing, and for a time we regarded them as the same. We have con- 



327 

eluded, however, that their distinctness is sufficiently probable to war- 
rant the retention of both names. Walsingham, in describing this 
species, contrasts it with Riley's, and says that it has shorter fore 
wings with a less prominent apex, and that it is in general less robust. 
We have carefully studied a large series from all parts of the country, 
and are convinced that the species cannot always be separated on this 
basis. Fernald separates them in his monograph on a difference in 
the extent of the brown bands on the hind tibiae. This we regard as 
wholly insufficient. The series which we finally retain as percno- 
dactyla differs from our carduidactyla in the greatly reduced scale 
tooth. In carduidactyla, as noted, this is distinctly triangular. In 
pcrcnodactyla it is often very weak, and is made up of scales of ap- 
proximately equal length. The two paratypes in the Fernald collec- 
tion, and, according to Meyrick's comparison of our specimen, Wal- 
singham's own series, have this type of scale tooth. 

Distribution: B. C. to Alta., south to Wyo., Utah and S. Cal., 
June to August. 

The early stages are unknown, and may, when studied, clear up 
the standing of the species. 

10. Platyptilia CAROLINA Kearfott. PI. XLI, fig. 16. PI. I., fig. 13. 
Platyttilia Carolina KearfoU, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist. XXIII, 155, pi. VIIl, 
f. 17, 1907. 

Meyrick, Wagner's Lep. Cat. pars 17. 16, 1913. 

Barnes & McDunnough, Check List 150, 1917. 
Tawny. Frontal tuft prominent, conical. Palpi oblique, exceeding tuft: 
second joint with a short tuft projecting below third. Antennae dotted with 
brown above. Legs brownish within, whitish outside ; hind pair slightly darker 
at bases of spurs and ends of tarsal joints. Abdomen with paired white spots 
in terminal margins of several segments. These are not evident in some of 
our specimens, probably due to stain. 

Primaries concolorous with body at base, often darkening toward apex. 
Outer margin with a few dark scales, costa brown before apex and cleft pre- 
ceded by two brown dots. Other marks very variable, consisting of the two 
usual discal spots and dark triangle. Lobes crossed by a pale outer line, poorly 
marked in most specimens and sometimes absent. Fringes whitish with a basal 
row of dark brown scales along outer margin, pencils of grayish hairs at 
apices and inner angles, and two brown scale teeth and some scattered scales 
on inner margin. Secondaries rather darker than primaries with more grayish 
fringes. Inner margin of third lobe with scattered brown scales in the fringes 
and in its outer third a small scale tooth, sometimes lacking. Expanse 18-26 mm. 
Distribution : N. J., N. C, Utah, Cal. May to Sept. 



328_ 

Two of the cotypes, a S and a 9 , are in the Barnes collection. 
These are North Carolina specimens taken in May and June in the 
Black Mountains, and are the lightest and brightest of our series. 
Four from New Jersey, taken in June, August and September, differ 
in the stronger brown markings. The Utah specimens were taken in 
July and August, and are rather dull and evenly colored, and the 
one Californian example, from Carmel, June, is similar. We regarded 
the western specimens as a distinct species for a time, and separated 
them by the even color and moderate apex of the primaries. In the 
New Jersey specimens the apex is sharply produced and the outer 
margin of the first lobe deeply concave, but we note that there is some 
variation, and that one of the cotypes has the apex nearly the same 
as the western series. 

The remainder of Kearfott's series is in the American Museum. 

Some specimens are almost as dull as albiciliata Wlsm. but differ 
in possessing scale teeth on the inner margin of the primaries and in 
a few minor points. The uncus is more pointed in Carolina and 
broadly spatulate in albiciliata. In slides of the former it is sometimes 
flattened so that the tip is somewhat spatulate, but it does not show 
this form in situ. 

11. Platvptilia edwardsii Fish. PI. XLIV. fig. 1. 
Platyftilus edwardsii Fisli, Can. Ent. XIII, 72, 1881. 
Platyptilia edwardsii Fernald. Smith's List Lep. N. A. 87, 1891. 

Id., Pter. N. A. 25, pi. VII, ff. 6, 7, 1898. 

Id., Bull. 52 U. S. N. M. 443, 1902. 

Meyrick, Gen. Ins. C, 10, 1910. 

Winn, List Ins. Que. 85, 1912. 

Meyrick, Wagner's Lep. Cat. pars 17, 11, 1913. 

Grossbeck, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist. XXXVII, 135, 1917. 
^Platyptilis edwardsii Beutenmueller, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist. IV, 198, 1892. 
tPlatyptilia edwardsi Barnes & McDunnough, Check List ISO, 1917. 

Head brownish with a mixture of whitish scales; thorax somewhat hoary, 
whitish behind ; abdomen apparently with a dark mixture of gray-brown and 
ochreous scales, beneath with converging whitish dashes. Antennae sometimes 
dotted above. Palpi moderate, oblique, scarcely exceeding the short, conical 
frontal tuft. Fore and mid tibiae whitish with dark brown stripes, tarsi and 
hind legs with dark shades. 

Primaries buff, freo.uently tinged with brown and lioary with wliitish 
scales, the buff appearing only in the pale markings and along the inner margin. 
The usual dark triangle, blackish brown, contains a heavy transverse dash, 
scarcely visible, before cleft. Brown shade continued along costa to base, toward 



329 

which it becomes faint. Brown spot in cell is usually connected with costa. 
Inner margin frequently with brown shades. Both lobes with pale outer line, 
incomplete on second, preceded by a heavy brown shade which blends into 
buff or grayish toward triangle. This shade on first lobe sometimes paler, 
showing a heavy brown dash near cleft. Terminal area hoary with whitish 
scales over brown. Fringes whitish with a row of dark brown basal scales 
cut with white on outer margin. Inner margin with two slight dark scale 
teeth. Apex moderate. Secondaries gray-brown with concolorous fringes which 
have pale bases on inner margin of third feather and there contain scattered 
brown scales and a variable, but always weak tuft of slender, almost equal 
brown scales within outer third of feather. Expanse 19-29 mm. 

The male genitalia resemble those of Carolina (see plate L, fig. 
15). 

Distribution : Mass., N. H. ; Fernald adds Maine and Winn lists 
it from Que. in July; B. C, Wash., July and August. 

The early stages are unknown. 

Edwardsii was described from two males and three females taken 
at Boston by Hy. Edwards and five males and one female from Am- 
herst., Mass., by L. W. Goodell. Of the first five, one male and one 
female are now in the American Museum, and the remaining three 
in the Fernald collection. One of these, a male, we have labelled 
lectotype; the others are a female and a specimen without abdomen. 
We know nothing of the types from Amherst, though a fragmentary 
specimen with a type label in the Fernald collection may be one of 
them. This collection also contains a series of fifteen specimens 
labelled only "T 6/9" or "T 6/10". One of these is labelled as a type, 
but the word "type" is crossed out. We have seen several specimens 
from the Hope Mts. (Day) and Mt. Cheam, B. C. (Blackmore). The 
one Washington specimen which we include in our series was taken 
in the third week of July on Mt. Rainier. Its expanse is only 19 mm., 
seven under the usual minimum, but it seems to be a dwarf of this 
species without doubt. 

Many of the specimens in the Fernald collection are moderate in 
size and rather dark. We have felt that these may possibly be con- 
fused with the following species, and hence selected the large male 
type as lectotype. There is no reason to believe that the types are 
not all of the same species, however. 



330 

12. Platyptilia AURIGA n. sp. PI. XLIV, fig. 2. 

General color gray, with a very slight brownish tinge. Scales of head and 
thorax with paler bases, thorax whitish behind. Antennae spotted above. 
Frontal tuft short, conical; palpi rather long, oblique, slender. Fore and mid 
tibiae black-striped, tarsi with slight dark shades on one side. Hind legs grayish 
with darker bands, three distal tarsal joints mostly whitish. Abdomen with 
diverging light and dark stripes above, sometimes obscured (stained?) except 
in posterior margins of segments, and parallel stripes below. 

Primaries dull dark gray, variably, usually slightly, irrorate with white 
scales. Cleft preceded by a transverse black dash which forms the outer margin 
of an imperfectly developed triangular patch reaching the costa but fading 
out basad. Cleft outlined with blackish in its basal half. Both lobes with 
blackish dashes reaching the outer pale line, which is more or less incomplete. 
Dashes sometimes obscured in a general dark shade. Fringes white, gray 
tipped, with black basal scales on outer margin. Apices and anal angles with 
gray fringes, inner margin with several scale teeth and scattered black scales. 
Secondaries and their fringes concolorous with primaries. Fringes of inner 
margin of third feather with pale bases containing numerous black scales and a 
somewhat triangular tooth just before apex. Expanse about 18 mm. 

Holotype 3 , paratype S , paratype ? , and an indeterminate paratype, Essex 
Co. Park, N. J. (Kearfott), May, June and Sept., in coll. Barnes. 

Allotype, Greenwood Lake, N. J., May 30 (Kearfott), coll. Barnes. 

Paratype S, Black Mts., N. C, May (Beutenmiiller), coll. Barnes. 

Paratype S, Essex Co. Park, N. J., Aug. U. S. N. M. No. 23461. 

In addition to the types we have a single broken specimen from 
Montclair, N. J- 

The early stages are unknown. 

This species resembles dark specimens of edzvardsii and is not 
unlike the female which we are calling zvilliamsii Grin., but the form 
and position of the black scale-tooth alone suffice to distinguish it. 
The markings of the abdomen are useful in good specimens. The 
male genitalia resemble those of Carolina (see plate L, fig. 15). 

13. Platyptilia williamsit Grinnell. PI. XLI, fig. 14. 

Platyptilia williamsii Grinnell, Can. Ent. XL, 315, 1908. 
Meyrick, Wagner's Lep. Cat. pars 17, 14, 1913. 
XPlatyptilia williamsi Barnes & McDunnough, Check List ISO, 1917. 

Head and thorax with mixed ochreous-brown and whitish scales. Antennae 
brown dotted above; frontal tuft moderate, conical; palpi longer than head, 
rather stout, almost porrect. Abdomen stained in our one specimen, brown, 
hoary above, according to Grinnell. Hind legs as described by Grinnell, brown 
and white banded, but others shaded on one side. 



331 

The primaries appear to be gray with blackish marks, but under a lens 
they are seen to be more ochreous-brown with dark brown patches, with white 
irroration forming a trace of transverse wavy Unes and dotting the brown 
costa. The brown triangular spot is poorly defined toward base of wing. Cell 
with a brown spot. Our one female has the basal half of the cleft margined 
with dark brown and the outer white line preceded by heavy dark patches 
which are apparently continuous to the naked eye. Terminal area distinctly 
hoary. Apex rather prominent. Fringes brownish gray with whitish bases 
containing brown and white scales. Inner margin with numerous scattered 
black scales and a few small clusters. Secondaries gray-brown with concolor- 
ous fringes. Third lobe with a slight triangular scale tooth at middle, as in 
carduidactyla, preceded by scattered black scales. 

We have the following note on the type : Unique type lacks the 
subterniinal dark area of the compared specimen, this region being 
even brown. Otherwise type is less contrasty. The two agree in the 
form of markings, palpi, and fairly well in the scales of the third 
feather of the secondaries ; here the compared specimen has a more 
definite tuft. 

Grinneirs type was reared from the head of a composite flower 
at Lake Merced, San Mateo Co., Cal., in May. Our specimen is 
labelled "Larva in flowers of Grindelia robusta. Alameda Co., Cal. 
Dec." Considering this similarity of larval habit and several peculi- 
arities common to the two imagines, notably the long palpi and position 
of the scale tooth, we think that the two specimens are of the same 
species and that the adtlitional data supplied by ours may be applied 
here without hesitation. 

14. Platyptilia orthocarpi Walsingham. PI. XLIH, fig. 4. 

Platyptilus orthocarpi Walsingham, Pter. Cal. Ore. 11, pi. I, f. 9, 1880. 

Dimmock, Psyche III, 403, 1882. 

Hy. Edwards. Bull. 35 U. S. N. M. 136, 1889. 
Platyptilia orthocarpi Fernald, Smith's List Lep. N. A. 87, 1891. 

Id., Pter. N. A. 29, 1898. 

Id., Bull. 52, U. S. N. M. 443, 1902. 

Meyrick, Gen. Ins. C, 11, 1910. 

Id., Wagner's Lep. Cat. pars 17, 14, 1913. 

Barnes & McDunnough, Check List 150, 1917. 
Head and palpi brownish ochreous, the latter moderate, oblique, touched 
with white above and below. Antennae W'ith dark dots above. Thorax mostly 
whitish in front and behind, brownish ochreous across tips of patagia. Legs 
whitish with pale brownish shades, the fore and mid tibiae sometimes with 
traces of stripes lost in the dark areas. Abdomen brownish ochreous with two 



black puints and some while scales in posterior margin of each segment beyond 
middle; similar below, with two pale ventral stripes. 

Primaries ochreous along inner margin, mixed brown and white with a few 
ochreous scales toward costa. Costa itself narrowly blackish brown with white 
dots. Dark triangle before cleft. Terminal area brown, hoary with white 
scales, preceded by a faint transverse pale line, less complete on second lobe. 
Spaces between this and triangle ochreous irrorate with white, with an elongate 
triangular brown dash and costal shade on first lobe and two dashes on second. 
Cleft margined with a few dark scales. Fringes white, grayish at angles, with 
the usual basal dark brown scales along outer margin. Inner margin with 
scattered brown scales and two poorly marked clusters. Secondaries brown, 
third feather more ochreous. Fringes more grayish with white bases along 
inner margins and at apices of first two lobes, containing a few brown scales 
in basal half of third lobe. Expanse 20-26 mm. 

We have not examined the genitalia of a typical example. In 
forms which may belong to this species they are similar to those of 
Carolina, but with a broadly spatulate uncus. 

Distribution: Type locality N. Ore.; one paratype 9 is in the 
Fernald collection. We have a single typical specimen from British 
Columbia, taken by Mr. G. O. Day in June 

The types were reared from a species of Orthocarpiis. but we 
have no knowledge of the early stages beyond this. . 

We doubtfully associate with this species a number of specimens 
from Utah, Colo., Nev.. Mont, and Cal., taken May to July. Meyrick 
returned some of these specimens as orthocarpi after comparing them 
with the types in the British Museum, and though they are easy to 
separate from the typical form, we find it hard to believe that they 
are not very closely related to it. Together with fragilis, shastae and 
albida they make up an extremely difificult group which we are inclined 
to believe in a state of evolution. The named forms can he recog- 
nized. Iiut whether to regard them as forms and races of one species 
or as distinct species is a question which we are unable to decide. We 
give here a general characterization of the group, and under eacli 
name point out the features which we regard as distinctive of that 
form. 

The head, body and appendages are as described under orthocarpi. 
varying in shade from white to dark grayish and ochreous, and with 
the legs variably marked. The markings of the abdomen are reduced 
or absent. 



333 

The primaries vary from ochreous buff to white or dull grayish. 
The dark triangle is always present, brown to dark brownish gray, 
continued in a white-dotted costal stripe toward base. Lobes crossed 
by pale line and triangle followed by a pale shade, the included space 
with a brown or gray shade, rarely with the dark dashes of orthocarpi 
indicated by a few dark scales. Terminal area hoary. Fringes as in 
orthocarpi. Spot in cell and near base and middle of inner margin 
variable. We regard orthocarpi as properly included in this group, 
but give a separate description of it because the typical form is so 
distinct. As in that species, the genitalia of the three following re- 
semble those of Carolina but have a broadly spatulate uncus. 

15. Platvptili.\ fragilis Walsingham. PI. XLIII, fig. 5. 
Platyt'tihis fragilis Walsingham, Pter. Cal. Ore. 16, pi. 1, f. 12, 1880. 
Platyftilia frayiUs Fernald, Smith's List Lep. N. A. 87, 1891. 

Id.. Pter. N. A. 28. 1898. 

Id., Bull. 52, U. S. N. M., 443, 1902. 

Anderson, Cat. B. C. Lep. SO, 1904. 

B. C. Ent. Soc. Check List 42, 1906. 

Meyrick, Gen. Ins. C, 11, 1910. 

Id., Wagner's Lep. Cat. pars 17. 14, 1913. 

Barnes & McDunnough, Check List 150, 1917. 
iSteiwptUia coloradcnsis Grinnell, Can, Ent. XL, 321, 1908 (in part). 

In this fonn the general color is more or less huff or hrownish, the marks 
of the primaries usually all present and well marked. The fore and middle tibiae 
are definitely striped, and the hind tibiae and tarsi usually with evident dark 
bands on a whitish ground. Expanse 20-24 mm. 

Distribution : Ariz., Cal., Wash, east to Colo. July, Sept. 

Brightly marked specimens of this group with bufif or brownish 
appearance and conspicuous maculation may safely be placed here. 
The doubtful specimens mentioned under orthocarpi may belong to 
this form. 

16. Platyptilia albida Walsingham. PI. XLIII, fig. 6. 
Platyptilus albidus Walsingham, Pter. Cal. Ore. 10, pi. I, f. 8, 1880. 
tPlaiyptiUa albida Fernald, Smith's List Lep. N. A. 87, 1891. 

Id., Pter. N. A. 29. pi. VIII, ff. 10, 11, 1898. 
Id., Bull. 52 U. S. N. M. 443, 1902. 
Meyrick, Gen. Ins. C, 11, 1910. 
Id., Wagner's Lep. Cat. pars 17, 15, 1913. 
Barnes & McDunnough, Check List 150, 1917. 
In albida the legs are marked as in fragilis and the wings show about the 
same dark areas, but of a much colder shade of brownish-gray, almost black. 



334 

The head and body are whitish above. On the primaries all pale areas are 
heavily clothed with whitish scales and all dark spots but the large triangle 
more or less irrorate with white. Expanse about 21 mm. 

Distribution : The types were taken on the Rouge River, S. Ore., 
and in Lake County, Cal., in May and June respectively. We have 
four specimens from Monache Meadows, Tulare Co., Cal., taken at an 
altitude of 8000 ft. in July. 

There are two paratypes in the Fernald collection. (3ne lacks the 
wings on one side, and agrees with our specimens as described above. 
The other is in good condition and is less contrasty. 

From some two hundred specimens of this group in the Barnes 
collection, including a good series from the locality mentioned above, 
we have picked only the four specimens which seem to us typical of 
this form. Others from the same locality appear to be nearer fragilis 
and shastae. 

17. Platyptilia shastae Walsingham. PI. XLIII, fig. 7. 
Platyptilus shastae Walsingham, Pter. Cal. Ore. 14, pi. I, f. 11, 1880. 

Dimmock, Psyche III, 403, 1882. 
Platyptilia shastae Fernald, Smith's List Lep. N. A. 87, 1891. 

Id., Pter, N. A. 28, 1898. 

Id., Bull. 52 U. S. N, M. 443, 1902 

B. C. Ent. Soc. Check List 42, 1906. 

Meyrick, Gen. Ins. C, 11, 1910. 

Id., Wagner's Lep. Cat. pars 17, 15, 1913. 

Barnes & McDunnough, Check List ISO, 1917. 
Shastae is in general of cold shades, but much darker than albida. The 
legs, as noted in the key, tend more to a variably complete suffusion of gray 
and the head and body are usually noticeably gray above. The spots near the 
inner margin of the primaries are completely lacking in the typical form, and 
that in the cell is fused with the dark costal area. All other marks are as in 
albida and the other forms, but the wings have a vaguely marked, dull-gray 
appearance. Expanse about 22 mm. 

Distribution: California, June and July; Utah, June. The type 
locality is Mt. Shasta, where the types were taken at an altitude of 
6,700 ft. 

18. Platyptilia albidorsella Walsingham. PI. XLIII, fig. 9. 
Platyptilus albidorsellus Walsingham, Pter. Cal. Ore. 13, pi. I. f. 10, 1880. 
tPlatyptilia albidorsella Fernald, Smith's List Lep. N. A. 87, 1891. 

Id., Pter. N. A. 30, pi. VIII, ff. 5-7, 1898. 
Id., Bull. 52 U. S. N. M. 443, 1902. 
Meyrick, Gen. Ins. C, 11, 1910. 



335 

Id., Wagner's Lep. Cat. pars 17, 14, 1913. 
Barnes & McDunnoiigh, Check List 150, 1917. 
fStcnoptilia coloradcnsis Grinnell, Can. Ent. XL, 321, 1908 (in part). 

Albidorsclla is closely related to the several preceding species, 
but we do not doubt its distinctness. We have two specimens from 
the Monache Meadows, taken in July, which, with two other Califor- 
nian specimens in coll. Fernald, are very similar in appearance to 
shastae as already described. One specimen from San Diego is much 
brighter, approaching albida but more heavily marked and with less 
whitish. The expanse of these specimens ranges from 27 to 30 mm. 
We regard the faint scale tuft in the fringes of the third feather of 
the secondaries as the distinguishing feature of the species. This tuft 
is made up of slender dark scales and is not readily noticed without 
the aid of a lens. It occurs just before the apex of the lobe, and is 
preceded by only a few scattered dark scales. Such a tuft appears 
in a few specimens which we refer to maca, but these may be separated 
by their smaller size and the absence of a well defined costal triangle. 

The male genitalia resemble those of the preceding group. 

19. Platyptilia grandis Walsingham. PI. XLIV, fig. 6. 
Platyptihis grandis Walsingham, Pter. Cal. Ore. 6, pi I, f. 5, 1880. 
Platyptilia grandis Fernald. Smith's List Lep. N. A. 87, 1891. 

Id., Pter. N. A. 30, 1898. 

Id., Bull. 52, U. S. N. M. 443, 1902. 

B. C. Ent. Soc. Check List 42, 1906. 

Meyrick, Gen. Ins. C, 12, 1910. 

Id., Wagner's Lep. Cat. pars 17, 15, 1913. 

Barnes & McDunnough, Check List 150, 1917. 
BufT. Antennae with brown dots above. Frontal tuft very short; palpi 
moderate. Abdomen with subdorsal and lateral black spots in posterior mar- 
gins of segments. Triangular spot on primaries light brown with its angle 
opposite cleft blackish. Spot in cell blackish, light brown shades near inner 
margin at one quarter from base and at middle. Both lobes with similar shades, 
crossed by a whitish outer line. Fringes white, containing a row of blackish 
scales along outer margin and a few clusters on inner. Secondaries pale, dull 
brown, fringes with paler bases. Third lobe buff along inner margin, with 
a few light brown scales in fringe. Expanse 36 mm. 

Distribution : Siskiyou Co., Cal. The three types were taken 
on M'Leod Creek, near Mt. Shasta, and the one female in our pos- 
session at Shasta Retreat, all in August. Its occurrence in British 
Columbia is not improbable, but we cannot verify it. 



336 

This magnificent species is so easly recognized that we give only 
a brief description of it. One paratype is in the Fernald collection, 
without abdomen, and is the only specimen which we have seen 
besides the female mentioned above. Walsingham's figure is rather 
browner than either of these. 

The early stages are still unknown. 

20. Platyptilia albiciliata Walsingham. PI. XLIII, fig. 10. PI. 

L, fig. 15u. 
Platyftilus albiciliatus Walsingham, Pter, Cal. Ore. 17, pi. I, f. 13, 18811. 
tPlatyptilia alhiciliata Fernald, Smith's List Lep. N. A. 87, 1891. 

Id., Pter. N. A. 32, pi. IX, ff. 6-8, 1898. 

Id., Bull. 52 U. S. N. M. 443, 1902. 

B. C. Ent. Soc. Check List 42, 1906. 

Meyrick, Gen. Ins. C, 12, 1910. 

Id., Wagner's Lep. Cat. pars 17, 16, 1913. 

Barnes & McDiinnough, Check List ISO, 1917. 
The paratype in the Fernald collection is, as described by Walsingham, 
of an even dull brown shade. It has a very faint indication of the dark triangle, 
and the thorax is somewhat lighter behind. The palpi are moderate, oblique, 
and the frontal tuft very short and blunt. 

We refer five specimens, four from British Columbia and one from Mon- 
tana, to this species. These diflfer in having the triangular spot well marked, 
the outer pale line evident at least on the first lobe, and some irroration of 
bhiish-white scales on the disk. The fringes, as in the paratype, are grayish 
with pale bases which bear a row of dark scales on the outer margin. The 
inner margin in the paratype and four of our specimens has only a trace of 
scale clusters. The secondaries are concolorous, their fringes with pale bases, 
sometimes conspicuous, and a few scattered brown scales along the inner mar- 
gin of the third lobe. Expanse about 21 mm. 

Distribution : N. Cal. to B. C. Montana ? Late May to July. 
The specimen which we first took to be this species are those 
now placed tentatively as Carolina. They differ in their lighter, more 
tawny shade of brown, in the two well marked scale tufts on the 
inner inargin of the primaries, and the more pointed uncus. Fernald's 
figure shows that in his paratype of albiciliata the uncus was broadly 
spatulate at the tip, and our British Columbia series agree in this 
structure, as well as in the dull ground color. We had set these speci- 
mens aside as new, but have little hesitation in applying this name to 
them, though they are distinctly marked. It is quite likely that Wal- 
singham's series of six, taken on the same day, were an abnormally 



337 

dull form, as was the case with one other of his species. Our Montana 
specimen is more doubtful. 

The early stages are unknown. 

21. Platyptilia maea n. sp. PI. XLIII, fig. 8. 

Head and body grayish white with some brown scales. Abdomen witli 
dark subdorsal lines just beyond middle and similar lines below. Antennae 
brown dotted above : frontal tuft very slight ; palpi moderate, slender. Fore and 
mid tibiae whitish with dark lines. Legs otherwise whitish with gray-brown 
shading which usually predominates. 

Primaries with a dark dot before cleft and a costal shade above which 
indicate the outer limits of the usual triangle, but in this case they are vaguely 
connected by a brownish gray shade which nins back along the costa. On 
the costa it is always followed by a whitish dash which may extend further 
across the wing as a pale shade. Lobes brownish gray crossed by the usual 
outer pale line, incomplete on the second. Inner margin paler, especially just 
inside of the cleft, where it is sometimes whitish buff. Spot in cell and those 
near inner margin present or absent. Dark areas more or less irrorate with 
white, but never plentifully. Fringes gray with white bases containing the 
usual dark basal scales on the outer margin and two clusters on inner; dark at 
angles. Secondaries more brownish with concolorous fringes; third lobe paler, 
with a few dark scales in fringes of inner margin. Expanse 19-25 mm. 

Male genitalia as in the preceding species. (See plate L, f. ISu.) 

Described from nine specimens taken in the Tuolumne Meadows, Tuolumne 
Co., Cal., in July and August, and disposed as follows: 

Holotype S , allotype and 4 paratypes 5 , coll. Barnes. 

Paratype S and paratype 9 , U. S. N. M. No. 23462. 

Paratype S coll. Meyrick. 

We associate with these a number of specimens from Wash., 
Ore., Alta., Utah. Colo, and Cal. which are in general much lighter in 
color. All agree in lacking a well defined triangular spot before the 
cleft, and in having the position of the anal angle of this spot marked 
by a blackish dot, conspicuous in all but the darkest specimens. The 
form may belong to the albida series, but is very readily separated. 
It is intermediate between those species and cooleyi in the development 
of its pattern. 

In a few specimens there is a trace of a subterminal cluster of 
slender dark scales in the fringes of the third feather of the second- 
aries which indicates relationship with albidorsclla as well. 



338 

22. Platyptilia cooleyi Fernald. PI. XLIV, fig. 9. 

Platyfihlia cooleyi Fernald, Pter. N. A. 30, 1898. 

Id., Bull. 52 U. S. N. M. 443, 1902. 

Meyrick, Gen. Ins. C, 12, 1910. 

Id., Wagner's Lep. Cat. pars. 17, IS, 1913. 

Barnes & McDiinnough, Check List 150, 1917. 
Stcnot'tilia schwarzi Dyar, Proc. Ent. Soc. Wash. V, 228, 1903. 

Meyrick, Gen. Ins. C, 18, 1910. 

Id., Wagner's Lep. Cat. pars 17, 28, 1913. 

Barnes & McDunnough, Check List 151, 1917. 
Vestiture of head and body a mixture of gray brown and tawny, with 
a few whitish scales. Antennae dark above with a few white scales, giving a 
va.guely dotted effect. Frontal tuft very slight; palpi moderate, porrect, touched 
with white above and below. Thorax whitish behind. Fore tibiae brown striped, 
the stripes often fused into broad shades on inside. Tarsi and hind legs brown- 
ish-gray with whitish scales, paler on inside. 

Primaries with mixed whitish and brownish gray scales, olive gray in 
general tone, becoming buff toward inner margin. Costa with a dark stripe, 
dotted with whitish scales, which terminates above base of cleft. This is pre- 
ceded by a subcostal whitish line which reaches costa above cleft and usually 
forms a prominent pale mark. The cleft is preceded by a dark dot, sometimes 
included in a vague transverse dash, and there is a similar dot in the cell about 
half way to base. As the ground color is lighter or darker, these markings 
vary in contrast. Lobes may or may not be crossed by the usual outer pale 
line. Fringes grayish with pale bases containing a row of gray-brown scales 
along outer margin. Inner margin without clusters of scales. Secondaries 
brownish gray. Fringes concolorous with pale bases, sometimes containing a 
few scattered scales on inner margin of third feather, but these are never dark 
enough to be conspicuous. Expanse 22-32 mm. 

The male genitalia resemble those of tlie albida groitp. 

Distribution : Colo., Ariz., Nev., Jime to August. 

Fernald described cooleyi from "seven examples taken in Mar- 
shall's Pass, Colo., July 15, 1888, and one taken in Colorado by Bruce." 
There are now only six specimens labelled "M. Pass. 7-15-88" in the 
Fernald collection, four labelled cotype, one type, and one with only 
the name which is evidently another "cotype." The specimen col- 
lected by Bruce is in the National Museuin, labelled as a cotype of 
cooleyi, but it belongs to modesta Walsingham. We have specimens 
from Silverton, Colo., July, which are almost exact matches for the 
type, and these are evidently the same as sclnvarzi, though the unique 
type of schwarci taken at Williams, Arizona, is in too poor condition 
for really accurate identification. This type expands 32 mm., while 



339 

none of our specimens is over 28 mm., but in view of the range of size 
exhibited by our series of fifteen specimens, we do not regard this as 
important. Such markings as are still distinguishable correspond with 
our series. 

The early stages are unknown. 

23. Platyptilia xylopsamma Meyrick. PI. XLIV, fig. 5. 
Platyptilia xylopsamma Meyrick, Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. 1907, 488, 1908 (Feb). 

Id., Gen. Ins. C, 12, 1910. 

Id., Wagner's Lep. Cat. pars 17, 16, 1913. 

Barnes & McDunnough, Check List ISO, 1917. 
Stenoptilia gorgoniensis Grinnell, Can. Ent. XL, 321, 1908 (Sept.). 

Meyrick, Wagner's Lep. Cat. pars 17, 30, 1913. 

Barnes & McDunnough, Check List 151, 1917. 
The original description is as follows : 

"9. 28 mm. Head light yellow-ochreous sprinkled with whitish, frontal 
tuft moderate. Palpi 2 1/3 (X eye], pale yellow-ochreous sprinkled with fus- 
cous, white beneath and at apex. Antennae whitish-ochreous, above with a 
dark fuscous line. Thorax brownish-ochreous sprinkled with whitish, espe- 
cially on patagia, which are somewhat expanded towards apex. Abdomen 
whitish-ochreous, faintly streaked with brownish. Legs whitish, lined with 
dark fuscous (posterior pair broken). Fore-wings cleft from 3/4, segments 
broad, termen of first somewhat sinuate, of second very slightly bent, oblique; 
brownish-ochreous, slightly sprinkled with whitish, dorsal half suffused with 
pale whitish-ochreous from base to cleft ; costal edge very shortly strigulated 
with dark fuscous on basal third ; a small round dark fuscous spot in disc at 
1/3, and another tending to form a transverse mark close before and beneath 
cleft; a mark of dark fuscous suffusion along costa above cleft, followed by a 
white mark mostly in costal cilia; cilia pale greyish-ochreous, on tennen with 
basal half rather dark fuscous, on dorsum with a greyish bar beneath cleft. 
Hind-wings cleft firstly from before middle, secondly from 1/5; first segment 
considerably dilated, second moderate; ferruginous-fuscous; cilia pale greyish, 
within cleft mostly suffused with very pale ochreous, on termen of first seg- 
ment darker grey on basal half, on dorsum with a series of short dark fuscous 
scales from base to 2/3. 

"Colorado, U. S., 7000 feet ; one specimen." 

Our single specimen, which has a broken abdomen and only one 
leg, is from Stockton, Utah, Sept. 6 (Spalding). Mr. Meyrick has 
examined this specimen and returned it to us as this species, and we 
have found personally that it is almost an exact comparison with the 
types of gorgoniensis Grinnell. both of which are males. The type 
locality of the latter species is South Fork, Santa Ana R., San Ber- 
nardino Mts., Cal. 

We have no notes on the habits of this species. 



340 

24. Platyptilia modesta Walsingham. PI. XLIII, fig. 12. PI. L, 

fig. 7. 
Platyptilus modcstus Walsingham, Peter. Cal. Ore. 18, pi. I, f. 14, 1880. 
XPlatyptilia modesta Fernald, Smith's List Lep. N. A. 87, 1891. 

Id., Pter. N. A. 31, 1898. 

Id., Bull. 52 U. S. N. M. 443, 1902. 

B. C. Ent. Soc. Check List 42, 1906. 

Meyrick, Gen. Ins. C, 12. 1910. 

Id., Wagner's Lep. Cat. pars 17, 16, 1913. 

Barnes & McDunnough, Check List 150, 1917. 
Abdomen tawny, thorax and head more brownish-gray with a few white 
scales. Antennae dark above, pale below. Frontal tuft slight, blunt. Palpi 
moderate, touched with white above and below. Legs whitish ; fore and mid 
tibiae striped with gray brown, tarsi and hind legs shaded on one side. 

Primaries grayish brown or brownish gray, blending to buff or tawny 
on inner margin and heavily irrorate with whitish scales. At middle of cell 
and before cleft are black or brown dots. The costa is dark as far as cleft. 
First lobe sometimes with a very faint trace of the outer pale line. Fringes 
grayish with pale bases; a basal row of dark scales on outer margin and a few 
scattered dark scales on inner. Marginal scales on costa of first lobe concol- 
orous with wing. Secondaries brownish gray, fringes with pale bases containing 
a few inconspicuous scales on inner margin of third lobe. Expanse 21-24 mm. 

The male genitalia, as shown in the figure, are similar to those 
of the albida group but have relatively broader claspers and a trun- 
cate-spatulate uncus. 

Distribution : N. Cal. to Colo., N. M. and Ariz. Apr., June, July, 
Aug. 

We have but four specimens of this species, one from Denver, 
Colo., one from the Pluachuca Mts., Ariz., and two from Ft. Wingate, 
N. M. Of tlie last, one has been returned to us by Meyrick as equal 
to the type of modesta in the British Museum, and the other is a good 
match for the National Museum cotype of coolcyi mentioned imder 
that species. As exemplified by these specimens, the species resembles 
coolcyi but dififers in its smaller size, the absence of the outer pale line 
on the lobes of the primaries and of the pale dash above the base of 
the cleft. It is even closer to xylopsamma Meyrick. We should have 
made the latter a synonym but for the fact that Mr. Meyrick called 
our attention to the whitish marginal scales on the costa of the first 
lobe of the primaries. In modesta, as noted, these are concolorous 
with the wing. 

Nothing is known of the life history. 



341 

25. Platyptilia petrodactyla Walker. PI. XLIV, fig. 7. 
Pieroplwrus petrodactylus Walker, List Lep. Ins. B. M. XXX, 940, 1864. 
Plalyftilus petrodactylus Walsingham, Pter. Cal. Ore. 20, pi. II, f. 15, 1880. 
tPlatyptilia petrodactyla Fernald, Smith's List Lep. N. A. 87, 189L 

Id., Pter. N. A. 31, 1898. 

Dyar, Proc. Wash. Acad. II, 499, 1900. 

Fernald, Bull. 52, U. S. N. M. 443, 1902. 

Meyrick, Gen. Ins. C, 12, 1910. 

Id., Wagner's Lep. Cat. pars 17, 16, 1913. 

Barnes & McDunnough Check List 150, 1917. 
Primaries powdery gray. Cleft preceded by a faint transverse dash and 
a few black scales. Both lobes crossed by a pale outer line, preceded in the 
second by two dark dashes and in the first by a heavy black dash, very oblique, 
running toward base of cleft and in turn preceded by a pale costal area. Sec- 
ondaries concolorous, third feather with a few scattered blackish scales in 
fringes of inner margin. Expanse about 25 mm. 

The male genitalia agree with those of Carolina and the albida 
group, but in our .single slide we are unable to be certain of the shape 
of the uncus. 

This species was described from '"Arctic America," and is known 
to us through two specimens from Dawson, Alaska, taken June 20, 
1916. These were presented to the National Museum by Mr. B. P. 
Clark, and through the courtesy of the staff of that institution, one 
is now in the Barnes collection. Mr. Meyrick has verified our identi- 
fication by comparison with Walker's type in the British Museum. 
Dyar records three specimens taken on Popof Is., July. 

Walsingham's figure, presumably drawn from the type, is much 
paler than the Alaskan specimens, but agrees in essential features. 
We regard the heavy oblique dash as a sufficient distinguishing fea- 
ture. It is conspicuous and easily separates this froin all of our other 
species, since they are marked in the same place by either transverse 
shades or longitudinal dashes. 

Nothing is known of the early stages. 

26. Platyptilia albicans Fish. PI. XLIII, fig. 11. PI. L, fig. 12. 
Platyptilus albicans Fish, Can. Ent. XIII, 71, 1881. 

Platyptilia albicans Fernald, Smith's List Lep. N. A. 87, 1891. 
Id., Pter. N. A. 32, pi. VIII, ff. 12, 13, 1898. 
Id., Bull. 52 U. S. N. M. 443, 1902. 
Meyrick, Gen. Ins. C, 11, 1910. 
Id., Wagner's Lep. Cat. pars 17, 15, 191.1. 
Barnes & McDunnough, Check List 150, 1917. 



342 

Creamy white, usually more or less discolored. Antennae with brown 
dots above. Frontal tuft lacking. Palpi rather small and slender, but pro- 
jecting well beyond front ; brownish on sides. Legs with brown stripes, hind 
pair with brown shades. 

Primaries creamy white with white-irrorate brown areas, the two colors 
about equally extensive. Both lobes with a terminal brown band and one just 
before middle which fades out toward inner margin of wing. Costa brown 
as far as base of cleft and inward to a transverse dash before cleft, this area 
usually almost connected by brown with anal angle. Fringes white with gray 
tips ; brown and white scales in bases along outer margin. Secondaries gray- 
brown, either without dark scales in fringe or with a faint tuft of slender 
scales, not visible without lens, near middle of inner margin of third lobe. 
Expanse 17-24 mm. 

The male genitalia are somewhat similar to those of tcsseradac- 
tyla, which agree also with the two following species, but possess dis- 
tinctive features as iUustrated. This relationship suggests that tesscr- 
adactyla should be associated with this and the other two species, but 
its superficial characters lead us to leave it elsewhere. 

Distribution: Described from Nevada (Morrison). We have 
five specimens from Verdi, Nev. June, one from Yellowstone Park, 
VVyo., July, and two from Silverton, Colo. In the Fernald collection, 
in addition to the unique 9 type, there is a specimen from California, 
and we have identified a specimen from British Columbia for Mr. G. O. 
Day. 

The last specimen mentioned, a 3 taken on Stoker's Mt., July 
23, 1909, is anoinalous. We place it here with little hesitation, though 
it is so much darker than the typical form that a casual examination 
discloses little resemblance. It corresponds in essential features with 
our series, but differs in having the brovv'n areas darker and more 
extended, the pale areas consequently narrow and somewhat tinged 
with brown. The tuft in the fringes of the secondaries is faintly visible 
to tiie naked eye. 

Nothing is known of the life history. 

27. Platyptilia pallidactyla Haworth. PI. XLIV, fig. 3, 4. PI. 

L, fig. 11. 
.Uiicita pallidactyla Haworth, Lcp. Brit. 478, 1812. 
Ptcrophorus marginidactylus Fitch, Trans. N. Y. Agr. Soc. XIY, 848, 18S4. 

Id., 1st Rep. Ent. N. Y. 144, 1854. 

IMorris, Cat. Lep. N. A. 54, 1860. 

Walker, List Lep. Ins. B. M. XXX, 940, 1864. 



343 

Ptcrophorus nehulaedactylus Fitch, Trans. N. Y, Agr. Soc. XIV, 849, 1854. 

Id., 1st Rep. Ent. N. Y. 145, 1854, 

Morris, Cat. Lep. N. A. 54, 1860. 

Walker, List Lep. Ins. B. M. XXX, 940, 1864. 
Platyptilus bertrami Roessler, Wien. Ent. Mon. VIII, 54, 1864. 

Walsingham, Pter. Cal. Ore. 3, pi. I, f. 3, 1880. 

Dimmock, Psyche III, 403, 1882. 
Playptilus bischoffi Zeller, Stett. ent. Zeit. XXVIII, 333, 1867. 
Pterophorus cervinidactylus Packard, Ann. Lye. N. Y. X, 266, 1873. 
Platyptilus adustus Walsingham, Pter. Cal. Ore, 5, pi. I, f. 4, 1880. 
Pkityptilia bischoffi Murtfeldt, Am. Ent. Ill, 235, 1880. 
Pterophorus bertrami Porritt, Ent. Mo. Mag. XXII, 103, 1885. 
tPlatyptilia adusta Femald, Smith's List Lep. N. A. 87, 1891. 

Id., Pter. N. A. 32, pi. V, ff. 7, 8, 1898. 

Id., Bull. 52, U. S. N. M. 443, 1902. 

Meyrick, Gen. Ins. C, 12, 1910. 

Id., Wagner's Lep. Cat. pars 17, 16, 1913. 

Barnes & McDunnough, Check List 150, 1917. 
fPlalyptilia ochrodactyhi Femald (not Hbn.) Smith's List Lep. N. A. 87, 1891. 
Platyptilia bertrami Barrett, Ent. Mo. Mag. XVIII, 177, 1882. 

Meyrick, Handbook 434, 1895. 

Hofmann, Deutsch. Pter. 64, 79, 1895 (biol). 

Tint, Pter, Brit. 31, 1896. 
tPlatyptilia marginidactyla Fcrnald. Pter. N. A. 34, pi. IX. ff. 4, 5, 1898. 

Id., Bull. 52 U. S. N. M. 444, 1902. 

Id., Smith's List Lep. N. A., Rev. Ed. 99, 1903. 

Winn, List Ins, Que. 85, 1912. 

Britton, Ins. Conn. 103, 1920. 
Platyptilia pallidactyla Meyrick, Gen. Ins. C, 12, 1910. 

id., Wagner's Lep. Cat, pars 17, 15, 1913. 

Barnes & McDunnough, Check List 150, 1917, 
Head and body yellowish white to tawny, abdomen with dorsal and ventral 
brown stripe. Antennae brown spotted above. Frontal tuft about as long 
as head, sharply pointed. Palpi long, slender, porrect, noticeably .surpassing 
tuft. Legs white with brown shadings on tibiae, and a trace on tarsi. 

Primaries with nebulous bright brown and whitish markings. Cleft pre- 
ceded by two brown dots. Pale areas a blotch in cell, preceded by a brown 
dot, one near inner margin about one third from base, and a broader area 
below base of cleft. Lobes paler brown, crossed by a pale line outwardly and 
with a pale area on costa above base of cleft, before which costa is narrowly 
dark brown, dotted with white. All brown areas slightly irrorate with white. 
Apex of first lobe produced, acute. Secondaries brown. Fringes of inner 
margin of third lobe with pale bases and usually with a faint cluster of slender 
dark scales just beyond middle. Expanse 21-26 mm. 

Male genitalia similar to those of albicans but with broader valves 
and without the long processes on the juxta. 



344 

Distribution : Europe. Ranges apparently over the entire con- 
tinent of North America north of Z7° I-at. May to August. 

In North America paUldactyla varies from almost pure creamy 
white to (lull brown, the paratype of adusta being the darkest speci- 
men known to us. It is not difficult to confuse extremely pale speci- 
mens with the following species, but the form of the primaries and 
the relative lengths of palpi and frontal tuft are very different. We 
have examined over one hundred fifty specimens from many North 
American localities. 

There is a series in the Fernald collection from St. George and 
St. Paul Is., Alaska, Aug.. which are scarcely recognizable as this 
species, but which seem to agree in all essential features. The geni- 
talia are similar, the frontal tuft and palpi are similar in those speci- 
mens in which they are reasonably well preserved, and the scale tuft 
in the fringes of the secondaries is the same. The primaries are very 
dull an<l evenly coloured, but this occurs in other regions. The only 
character which is really doubtful is the relatively blunt apex of the 
primaries. The series is so poor that we hesitate to describe it as 
new, and place it here until additional material from Alaska can be 
examined. 

Among Fitch's types in the Fernald collection are a number of 
specimens of pallidactyla, of which four are labelled nebulaedact\ins. 
Two of these bear Fernald's type labels. Both are badly rubbed, but 
recognisable. A specimen of Oedcmatophonis homodactylus Walker 
is also labelled "P. nehulacdactylus Type." One badly molded speci- 
men otherwise in fair condition, is labelled "P. niarginidactylus Type.'" 
The paratype of adusta Wlsm. in this collection is a very evenly dull- 
brown specimen of this species. The type of cervinidactylns is in the 
Cambridge Museum, and is a rather dull specimen of pallidactyla. The 
synonymy otherwise follows Meyrick. 

The larvae live on Achillea millefolium and plannica, attacking, 
according to Barrett, "the top of a young shoot, eating out the heart 
and feeding doivmvards for a short distance into the tender young 
stem, then leaves it to attack another young shoot in the same manner." 

From various sources we have selected the following descriptions 
of the early stages : 

Egg: " * * * elliptical in outline and somewhat flattened. The longer 
diameter was three-sevenths of a millimeter and the shorter diameter was 



345 

three-tenths of a millimeter, and the surface was irregularly corrugated. When 
first deposited they were of a light cream color or almost hyaline with a glossy 
surface, but after two days they turned to a deep flesh color." (Fernald, Pter. 
N. A. 35, quoted from Fish, in litt.). 

Larva: "They were of the usual forui of larvae of this genus, though 
perhaps a little more slender than some species; body cylindrical, stoutest in 
the middle, tapering towards the extremeties: head small and polished, con- 
siderably narrower than the second segment; segmental divisions well defined, 
the skin rather glossy. 

"When about a quarter of an inch long, the ground colour is pale grey- 
ish-olive, but this is almo.st hidden by dark purplish-brown dorsal and sub-dorsal 
stripes, which give the larva a very dark appearance; head very pale straw- 
colour, marked with smoky-brown, the ocelli black, and the mandibles reddish- 
brown; frontal plate and anterior legs polished black. 

"In the next stage, that is, when about three-eighths of an inch long, it 
has become considerably lighter in colour; the ground is glaucous-green, the 
dorsal and sub-dorsal stripes purple, but more interrupted, and not so wide 
as in the earlier stage; head of the same pale straw-colour, but not so clouded 
with darker, though the ocelli are still black, and the mandibles reddish-brown; 
the frontal plate is gradually becoming pale like the head, the black being con- 
fined to the front in some specimens, in others to a black edging, more or less 
broken all round. Ground of the ventral area and the prolegs uniformly 
glaucous-green, the anterior legs now ringed with black only. 

"In the adult stage, about half to five-eights of an inch, the larva has 
a still paler appearance. Ground-colour bright pea-green; head very pale 
straw-colour, faintly tinged w^ith green, the large ocelli intensely black, and 
consequently very conspicuous, the mandibles reddish-brown, frontal and small 
anal plate of the same bright green as the ground-colour; the dark green 
(slightly brownish anteriorly) pulsating dorsal vessel forms the dorsal stripe; 
between it and the spiracular region are two greyish-white stripes, on which the 
small black tubercular spots may be seen; below the spiracles is a still clearer 
and more conspicuous white stripe; spiracles black. 

"Ventral surface uniformly of the same bright green of the dorsal area; 
at the front and at the base of each anterior leg, is an intensely black spot; 
and the prolegs are finely margined with black.'" (Porritt, Ent. Mo. Mag. 
XXII, 103-4.) 

Pupa: "The pupa is a little over half an inch long * * * It has 'a longish 
beak in front, projecting at a slight angle downwards from the head, pointed 
at the tail; the wing-cases of moderate length, well developed, and the ends 
of the leg cases projecting free from the abdomen." The colour is bright 
pale green, dorsal line darker green, edged on the thorax with white; beak 
white above, rust colour at the sides; there is also a conspicuous streak of this 
rust colour on the hind part of the thorax, and the same colour also appears 
(but more faintly) on the abdominal point, and at the tip of the leg-cases; 
subdorsal line dark green, lateral line white. 



346 

"Ventral surface pale green, with darker green lines and the wing cases 
with whitish rays." (Porritt, Ent. Mo. Mag. XXII, 104-5.) 

28. Platyptilia albertae n. sp. PI. XLIV, fig. 8. PI. L, fig. 6. 

White. Antennae dotted above with gray-brown. Frontal tuft as long 
as head, sharply pointed. Palpi moderate, oblique, surpassing front but not 
reaching end of tuft. Fore and middle legs white, shaded with blackish inside. 
Hind legs darker on outside, annulate at bases of spurs and tips of tarsal 
joints. 

Primaries white. Costa narrowly brownish gray to cleft. Cleft preceded 
by two dark dots ; a third similar dot in middle of cell. Lobes with terminal 
and median grayish shades defining the broad outer white line. Fringes white, 
basal scales on outer margin also white, grayish in a few spots. Hind wings 
light brownish gray, fringes and third lobe slightly paler. Fringes with a very 
faint trace of a median cluster of grayish hair-like scales just beyond middle 
of third feather in one paratype ; entirely without dark scales in the remaining 
specimens. Expanse 24-27 mm. 

The shape of the primaries is distinctive. Toward the apex the costa is 
abruptly rounded, the apex is very blunt, and the outer margin of the first 
lobe almost straight. The first lobe, and consequently the entire wing, looks 
very wide and blunt. 

The male genitalia are similar to those of pnllidactyla but differ in the 
form of the valves and uncus. 

Described from four specimens as follows : 

Holotype 9 , Laggan, Alta., Aug. 16-23, and one paratype 9 , OljTnpic 
Mts., Wash., in coll. Barnes. 

Allotype, Mt. Cheam, B. C., Aug., in coll. E. H. Blackmore. 

Paratype 9, Laggan, Alta., Aug. 16-23, U. S. N. M. No. 23463. 

This beautiful species is very distinct from all others. Extremely 
pale examples of pallidactyla resemble it superficially, but the form 
of the wings and relative size of palpi and frontal tuft are conspicu- 
ously different. Unfortunately the wings have a tendency to stain 
very easily, and three of the types are more or less tawny. Only the 
holotype is a clean specimen. 

We have no data on the life history. 

Genus Exelastis Meyrick 

? Orthotype atomosa Wlsm. 

Exelastis Meyrick, Jn. Bomb. Nat. Hist. Soc. XVII, 730, 1907 (fide Meyrick). 
Id., Gen. Ins. C, 17, 1910. 
The one North American species which we incUule in this genus 
differs from Marasmarcha in structure only in the presence of a few 



347 

black scales in the fringes of the inner margin of the third feather of 
the secondaries, and in the great reduction of vein R.j, of the pri- 
maries. This vein is scarcely as well marked as our figure indicates 
(pi. XLVIII, fig. 8a). 

We originally placed ccrvinicolor in Marasmarcha but took up the 
matter with Mr. Meyrick, who agrees with us that E.vdastis should 
be retained. 

1. E.XELASTIS CERVINICOLOR B. & Mc D. PI. XLII, fig. 8. PL XLIX. 

fig. 12. 
Ptcrofhortis ccrvinicolor Barnes & McDunnoiigh, Cont. Nat. Hist. Lep. N. A. 
II, 185, pi. IV, f. 10, 1913. 
Id., Check List 151, 1917. 
Grossbeck, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist. XXXVII, 136, 1917. 

We reproduce the original description. The head and body are 
concolorous with the wings, the fore and middle legs whitish with dark 
stripes inside and the hind pair dark outside, slightly paler within. 
Spurs long. Palpi upturned. 

"Primaries with both lobes narrow, pointed and slightly down-curved 
at apex, deep grayish fawn-color, a slight sprinkling of blackish scales on inner 
margin >i from base, forming a more or less obvious patch, a dark dot yi way 
between base of wing and incision ; two slight black costal dashes near apex 
of wing and another on inner margin of first lobe near apex; extreme apex 
of botli lobes tipped with black and fringe along inner margin of 2nd lobe 
rather regularly cut by black; fringes otherwise pale fawn. Secondaries deep 
smoky with pale fawn fringes. Beneath, smoky, lobes of primaries paler. 
Expanse 16 mm." 

The type appears to be a 9 and the "cotype" a S . Both are from 
Everglade, Fla., Apr. 8-15. We have in addition a small series from 
Chokoloskee without dates. 

The regular black tufts along the inner margin of the primaries 
and the scattered black scales in the fringe of the secondaries should 
remove any difficulty attending the identification of the species. In 
addition the inale genitalia are quite different from any others known 
to us. 

A recent communication from Mr. Meyrick suggests to us that 
cervinicolor is identical with his crepusciilaris, known from S. Africa 
and Australia. This is quite possible, of course, but we prefer to 
retain the present name until the genitalia of specimens from the other 
continents can be examined. 



348 

Genus Marasmarcha Meyrick 
Logotype Alucita lunacdactyla Haw. 

Manuinanha Meyrick, Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. 11, 1886. 

Id., op. cit. 488, 1890. 

Id., Handbook 437, 1895. 

Hofmann, Deutsch. Pter. 48, 115, 1895. 

Tiitt. Pter. Brit. 81, 1896. 

Id., Ent. Rec. XVII, ib, 1905. Fixes type. 

Meyrick, Gen. Ins. C, 17, 1910. 

Id., Wagner's Lep. Cat. pars 17, 26, 1913. 
Front sometimes with a tuft of scales. Ocelli absent. Palpi moderate, 
slender, oblique or upturned. Primaries bifid, cleft about two-fifths; vein 
Cu, from near angle, Cu^ and M^ connate or stalked, R„ and R^ stalked, 
Rj absent. Secondaries trifid, Cu., from near middle of cell, Cu^ and M 
connate or stalked. (See pi. XLVIII, fig. 8.) 

This genus has previously been recorded only from the Old 
World but putnilio is certainly a true Marasmarcha. We are reassured 
in this conclusion by the fact that Mr. Meyrick has recently com- 
municated to us by lei tor the same opinion, intlependently reached. 

1. Marasmarcha pumilio Zeller. Pi. XLII, fig. 7. PI. XLIX, fig. 

13, 
Mhncseoptilus pumilio Zeller, Verb. z.-b. Ges. Wien, XXIII, 324, 1873. 
Marasmarcha liophancs Meyrick, Trans. Ent. .Soc. Lond. 1886, 19. 

Id., Gen. Ins. C, 18, pi. fig. 15, 1910. 
StcHoptilia pumilio Fernald, Smith'sList Lep. N. A. 87, 1891. 

Id., Pter. N. A. 58, 1898. 

Id., Bull. 52 U. S. N. M. 447, 1902. 

Mejrick, Gen. Ins. C, 18, 1910. 

Id., Wagner's Lep. Cat. pars 17, 28, 1913. 

Barnes & McDunnough, Check List 151, 1917. 
ixllimaescpptiliis gilvidorsis Hedmann (not Zcll.), Stett. ent. Zeit. LVII, 8, 1896 

(in part, fide Wlsm.). 
Stenopiilia ? pumilio Walsingham, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond. 1897, 58. 
griscodactylus Pagenstecher, Zoologica XXIX, 240, 1900 {fide Mey- 
rick). 
Head light brown, conocoloroiis with anterior half of thorax. Antennae 
with a dark line above. Palpi slender, second joint oblique, third porrect, the 
sides dark. Posterior half of thorax and abdomen pale yellow, the latter be- 
coming more brownish behind. Abdomen with a brown dorsal and paired ven- 
tral lines, inconspicuous, and several others very faint. Fore and middle legs 
white, striped with brown inside; hind pair whitish, brown without. 



349 

Primaries brown, concolorous with thorax ; inner margin at base yellow- 
ish, like posterior part of thorax, this shade disappearing before middle. Apices 
of both lobes somewhat darkened. Cleft preceded by a vague blackish spot, 
or two with vague dashes extending basad. Spot in cell at two-fifths from 
base and one before this near inner margin, both sometimes faint. Fringes 
brownish gray with pale bases. At the apex of each lobe, within the deft and 
along the inner margin they contain black scales, chiefly collected into tufts at 
regular intervals, five of these are usually evident on the inner margin. Sec- 
ondaries gray brown, fringes slightly paler, without dark scales but with a 
few dark hairs at apices of first and second lobes. Expanse 13.5-16.5 mm. 

The male genitalia are very different from any other known to 
us, but we are able to trace a few slight points of relationship with 
those of ccn-inicolor. 

Distribution: China. India, E. Indies, Africa, etc. In North 
America it ranges from N. J. to Fla. and west into Mo. and Tex. 
according to specimens which we have seen. The type locality is 
Dallas, Tex. Fla. May and Oct., N. J. in Sept., S. C. in June. 

For some time we had a series of this species labelled as a new 
species of Marasmarcha, and had just begun to suspect that it was 
Zeller's species when a note from Mr. Meyrick reached us announcing 
that pumilio and his Marasmarcha liophancs were the same species. 
Later on we received the unique type & from the Cambridge Museum, 
thus establishing its identity beyond doubt. 

Meyrick writes of the species that "it is doubtless artificially 
introduced into N. America, being of alien character, the larva prob- 
ably feeding in the pods of a cultivated Leguminous plant, like its 
allies." 

One of Miss Murtfeldt's types of O. ambrosiac proved to be this 
species. It bears the same breeding label as the others, and we should 
therefore assume that it was reared from Ambrosia artcmisiac folia. 
This is not at all compatible with Meyrick's information regarding the 
allied species, but of course neither possibility is proven fact. 

Genus Stenoptilia Huebner 

Logotype Alucita ptcrodactyla Linn. 

Stenoptilia Huebner, Verz. bek. Schmett. 430, 1826. 
Meyrick, Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. 487, 1890. 
Fernald, Smith's List Lep. N. A. 87, 1891 (in part). 
Mevrick, Handbook 440, 1895. 



350 

Hofmann, Deutsch, Pter. 48, 92, 1895. 

Fernald, Pter, N. A. 57, 1898 (in part). 

Id., Bull. 52 U. S. N. M. 447, 1902 (in part). 

Tutt, Ent. Rec. XVII, 35, 1905. Fixes type. 

Meyrick, Gen. Ins. C, 18, 1910 (in part). 

Id., Wagner's Lep. Cat. pars 17, 28, 1913 (in part). 

Barnes & McDunnough, Clieck List 151, 1917 (in part). 
Mimacseoptilus Wallengren, Skand. Fjad. 17, 1859. 

Jordan, Ent. Mo. Mag. VI, 123, 1869. 

Tutt, Pter. Brit. 84, 1896. 
tMimescoptilus Zeller, Stett. ent. Zeit. XXVIII, iiZ, ii7, 1867. 

Walsingham, Pter. Cal. Ore. 32, 1880. 

Meyrick, Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. 11, 1886. 
Adkinia Tutt, Ent. Rec. XVII, 37, 1905. Orthotype hipunctidactyla Haw. 

Front (in most of our species) with a rounded or conical prominence, not 
conspicuously large, or a scale tuft. Ocelli present. Palpi various. Primaries 
cleft one third or a little less ; Cu, beyond middle of cell, 3 near angle, R„ 
and R^ stalked. Secondaries trifid, Cu„ before middle of cell, Cu^ near angle; 
fringes never contain black scales. (See pi. XLVIII, fig. 9). 

While StcnoptiUa is structurally very close to Platyptilia, as 
pointed out ijy Meyrick, it is not difficult to place our species prop- 
erly. From the greater part of Platyptilia they differ in the complete 
lack of dark scales or tufts in the fringes of the secondaries, and from 
the remaining species in the very retreating anal angles of both lobes 
of the primaries. The first lobe has this angle scarcely indicated in 
five of the seven North American species. 

Key to the Species 

1. First lobe of primaries with a heavy black dash or conspicuous dark 

shade exdamationis 

With a slender pale dash pallistriga 

Without conspicuous marks 2 

2. Primaries tinged with yellow rliynchosiac 

Tawny, gray or brown 3 

3. Expanse under 17 mm. Abdomen with single dorsal dots or none. 

Somewhat tawny parvus 

Expanse over 17 mm. Dull gray or with paired dorsal dots, sometimes 
small and difficult to observe 4 

4. Dull gray. Abdomen with or without a single dorsal dot mcngcli 

Generally grayish brown. Dorsal dots in pairs zophodactyla 

Brown, inner margin of primaries brightest. Dorsal dots paired but 
faint pterodactyla 



351 

1. Stenoptilia RHYNCHOSiAE Dyar. PI. XLII, fig. 9. PI. XLIX, 
fig. 14. 

Pterophorus rhynchosiac Dyar, Psyche VIII, 249, 1898 (biol.). 
Fernald, Bull. 52 U. S. N. M. 446. 1902. 
Meyrick, Gen. Ins. C, 16, 1910. 
Id , Wagner's Lep. Cat. pars 17, 22, 1913. 
Barnes & McDunnough, Check List 151, 1917. 
Grossbeck, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist. XXXVII, 135, 1917. 

Pale yellow. Antennae with a broad stripe above. Palpi rather long, 
slender, a brown stripe on either side; second joint oblique, third porrect. 
Abdomen with a number of fine brown longitudinal lines. Legs whitish with 
brown stripes and shades ; spurs long. 

Primaries yellowish tinged with gray-brown especially toward costa. Cleft 
preceded by a heavy brown transverse blotch or by two spots, of which the 
inner may be absent. Cell with a small brown spot just before middle of wing. 
Tips of veins in both lobes with brown dashes extending through fringes. 
Fringes of gray-brown and yellowish hairs, the bases pale. Secondaries dark 
brownish gray with yellowish bases. Expanse about 18 mm. 

Distribution : Florida ; June, July. 

The type in tlie National Museum is without locality label. It 
is accompanied by a specimen taken at Miami. In addition to these 
we have seen only the two specimens from Stemper in coll. Barnes. 

The genitalia are very remarkable and lead us to question this 
placing of the species, but the neuration is distinctly that of Stenoptilia. 
The anal angle of the first lobe of the primaries is scarcely indicated 
and that of the second slight, but both can be discerned. 

The type was reared, and Dyar's original description includes the 
following notes on the larva : 

"Larva. Downy, pale green, with short white hairs. Pale green, the 
body tapering a little posteriorly; no marks except a very faint, whitish sub- 
dorsal line along warts i and ii ; warts small, i and ii separate, but somewhat 
approximate; a small wart (iiia) below and behind iii ; iv + v distinct with 
a small wart (iii b) behind; skin densely covered with veiy short, white, club- 
tipped secondary hairs. Feet short. 

"On the young leaves of a trailing plant (Rhynchosia) at Miami, Fia., 
December." 

2. Stenoptilia farva Walsingham. PI. XLII, fig. 12. PI. XLIX, 

fig. 10. 

Lioptilus ? parvus Walsingham, Pter. Cal. Ore. 55, pi. Ill, f. 12, 1880. 
Alucila ? parva Feniald, Smith's List Lep. N. A. 87, 1891. 



352 

Pterophorus parvus Fernald, Pter. N. A. 48, 1898. 
Id., Bull. 52 U. S. N. M. 446, 1902. 
Meyrick, Gen. Ins. C, 17, 1910. 
Id., Wagner's Lep. Cat. pars 17, 26, 1913. 
Barnes & McDunnoiigh, Check List 151, 1917. 

Pale tawny or brownish white. Front with a slight prominence. Antennae 
with a brown line above. Palpi moderate, whitish above; second joint rather 
tliick, obHqiie, third slender, porrect. Abdomen often with dorsal and lateral 
dots in hind margin of segments, the former single and often connected by a 
faint hne. Legs shaded with brown inside, spurs rather short. 

Primaries concolorous with body, with scattered white and brown scales. 
The brown scales often form a streak in the first lobe and lines along the 
veins in the second. There are two brown dots before the cleft, one scarcely 
inside of it, the other well toward costa. The latter is larger, rather diffuse, 
often connected with the nearest brown costal spot. From each a line of brown 
scales runs toward base of wing, the inner usually finer, sharper and longer. 
Cell sometimes with a brown dot. Costa of first lobe with two vague brown 
spots and whitish fringes. Fringes otherwise gray-brown with dark tufts at 
and before apex of first lobe and three on outer margin of second. Anal angle 
of first lobe indicated, of second fairly well developed. Secondaries and fringes 
similar to ground color of primaries; slightly darker. Expanse 13-18 mm. 

The male genitalia are very simple, much as in AciptUia 7valslng- 
Iiami, but the insect is otherwise a Stenoptilia in structure. 

Distribution: S. Cal. May, June, Oct. Ariz., Apr., June. N. M., 
July, Aug. (U. S. N. M.). Miss., Sept. (Benjamin). Fla., May. 
The species was described from a specimen taken near Mt. Shasta in 
July. Apparently the complete range is that which seems to be common 
in the family, viz., the West coast south through Arizona and east 
through the Gulf States into Florida. 

The species may be easily recognized from Lord W'alsingham's 
description and figure, but for greater certainty we have had a speci- 
men compared with the unique female type, now in the British Mu- 
seum. 

The life history has never been worked out. 

3. Stenoptilia pterodactvla Linn. PI. XLII, fig. 13. PI. L, fig. 9. 
Alucila ptcrodactyla Linnaeus, Faun. Suec. 371, no. 1456, 1761. 
Ptcrophorus fuscus Retzius, Cor. de Geer Gen. ct Spec. Ins. 35. 1783 {fide Mey- 
rick). 
Walker, List Lep. Ins. B. M. XXX, 937, 1864. 
AIncita juscodactyla Haworth, Lep. Brit. 476, 1811. 
Alucita ptUndactyla Huebner, Samml. Eur. Schmett. f. 16, 1823. 
Miniaescoptihis paludicola Wallengren, Skand. Fjad. 18, 1859. 



353 

iPterol'lwrus pterodaclylus Walker, List Lep. Ins. B. M. XXX, 938, 1864. 
Stenoftilia I'Icrodaclyla Fcrnald, Smith's List Lcp. N. A. 87, 1891. 
Id., Pter. N. A. 58, 1898. 
Id., Bull. 52 U. S. N. M. 447, 1902. 
Meyrick, Gen. Ins. C, 19, 1910. 
Id., Wagner's Lep. Cat. pars 17, 30, 1913. 
Barnes & McDunnough, Check List 151, 1917. 
tStcnoptilia fusca Hofmann, Deutsch. Pter. 97, 106, 1895, (biol). 
Mimacseoptilus ptcrodactyla Tutt, Pter. Brit. 100, 1896, (biol.). 

Head and anterior half of thorax dull brown. A white line over the eye 
extends along sides of short frontal tuft. Antennae white with a brown line 
above. Palpi white above; second joint with thick scaly vestiture, obliquely 
truncate in front, scarcely equalled by the small third joint. Legs white on 
one side, brown on the other; spurs moderate. Posterior half of thorax bright 
ochreous brown with whitish dorso-Iateral stripes. Abdomen slightly darker 
with lateral and paired dorsal dark spots, the lateral scarcely distinguishable, 
and some white scales in posterior margins of segments. 

Primaries with costal portion dark, inner light, concolorous with adjacent 
parts of thorax. Costa vaguely checkered with white scales. First lobe with 
a vague streak of mixed white and black scales. Cleft preceded by two dark 
dots connected by lines of scattered blackish scales with a dot near middle of 
cell. A similar line reaches from below this to the base. Fringes dull gray- 
brown with paler bases and a few vague dark tufts. Secondaries dark brown 
with concolorous fringes. Expanse about 25 mm. 

The male genitalia are similar to the form which predominates in 
Platyptilia but have a much different uncus. 

Distribution: Europe. The only North American specimens 
which we have seen are those in the Fernald collection from West 
Farms, N. Y. (Angus). 

Tutt quotes a description of the larva and pupa from Porritt. 
Entomologist X\', 44-5. Since we are not familiar with the original 
we repeat this quotation in part. 

"Length about five-eighths of an inch, and scarcely so stout as seems usual 
in the genus. Head small, and narrower than the second segment ; it is polished, 
rather flat in front, but rounded on the sides. Body cylindrical, of fairly uni- 
form width, but tapering a little at the extremities, segmental divisions well 
defined ; the skin, with a soft and half-transparent appearance, is sparingly 
clothed with short hairs. There are two varieties, which are perhaps about 
equally numerous. In one of them the ground color is a bright grass-green; 
in the other, it is equally bright yellow-green ; in both forms the head is pale 
yellowish-brown, very prettily reticulated with intense black. The dark green, 
or in some of the yellow specimens dark brown, alimentary canal forms the 
dorsal stripe; sub-dorsal lines rather indistinct, greyish white; below there is 
a still more indistinct waved line of the same colour; there is, again, a similarly 



354 

coloured faint line along the spiracular region; and the segmental divisions also 
are of this pale colour. In some specimens the hairs are grey ; in others brown. 
Ventral surface uniformly of the same colour as the ground of the dorsal area; 
the legs reticulated, and the pro-legs tipped with black." 

The larva is said to feed on Speedwell {Veronica chamacdrys). 
Among the numerous species of Veronica found in this country is in- 
this country is included this European species, which is now found in 
the northeast U. S. and southeastern Canada according to Gray's 
"Manual". The pupa is described as follows: 

"The pupa is attached by the tail only, is rather long, but slender. The 
head, which is the thickest part, is abruptly rounded, and has the snout very 
prominent ; thora.x and abdomen rounded above, rather flattened beneath, and 
attenuated strongly to the anal point ; eye, leg, and wing-cases fairly prominent, 
the last prolonged a considerable distance over the abdominal segments. As 
in the larva, there are two varieties ; in one form, the ground is bright green, 
and there is little of any other colour, the pale gray abdominal divisions, and 
two indistinct pale lines on the dorsal area, with several faint purplish spots 
behind the thorax and on the anal segment, being all that are noticeable. The 
other form has the ground a dingier green, and there is a distinct purple dorsal 
stripe, edged on each side with greyish; the abdominal divisions and the tip 
of the prolonged wing-cases also purple. The pupa is capable of considerable 
movement, and, on being disturbed, turns up sharply the thorax and higher 
abdominal segments, so as to bring them quite at right angles with the several 
posterior segments." 

Tutt records the imago in England in July, rarely in June and 
August. 

4. Stenoptilia zophodactvla Duponchel. PI. XLII, fig. 16. PI. 
XLIX, fig. 15. 

Pterophorus zophodactylus Duponchel, Lep. France XI, 668, pi. CCCXIV, f. 4, 
1838. 

Porritt, Ent. Mo. Mag. XX, 228, 1884 (biol.). 
Ptcrophonis loewii Zeller, Isis, p. 38, 1847 {fide Hofmann). 

Id., Linn. Ent. VI, 364, 1852. 
Pterophorus canalis Walker, List Lep. Ins. B. M. XXX, 944, 1864. 
Mimcseoptilus scmicostatus Zeller, Verb. z.-b. Ges. Wicn. XXIII, 32i, 1873. 
XStenoplilia semicostata Fernald, Smith's List Lep. N. A. 87, 1891. 

Id., Pter. N. A. 50, 1898. 

Id., Bull. 52 U. S. N. M. 447, 1902. 

Meyrick, Gen. Ins. C, 19, 1910. 

Id., Wagner's Lep. Cat. pars 17, 30, 1913. 

Barnes & McDunnough, Check List 151, 1917. 



355 

XStenoptilia sophodactyla Meyrick, Handbook 440, 1895. 
Hofmann, Deutsch. Pter. 105, 1895 (biol). 
Meyrick, Gen. Ins. C, 19, 1910. 
Id., Wagner's Lep. Cat. pars 17, 29, 1913. 
Mimaeseoptilus zophodactylus Tutt, Pter. Brit, 93, 1896 (biol.). 

Head and body gray brown. Antennae darker above. Palpi slightly paler 
above, with a terminal tuft on second joint, below, which equals third joint. 
Fore and middle legs white outside, brown within, hind pair more neutral in 
color. Terminal half of abdomen with small dorsal dots in pairs in the pos- 
terior margins of the segments. 

Primaries dull tawny or grayish brown, slightly ochreous brown on inner 
margin, with scattered dark brown and white scales. These slightly checker 
the costa and form a dash in the first lobe and lines along the veins of the second. 
Discal markings as in ptcrodactyla, viz., two variable spots before cleft con- 
nected by lines of brown scales with a sharper spot at middle of cell, and a 
line from below this spot to base. Fringes gray-brown with white hairs, espe- 
cially in the cleft. Outer margin of first lobe with two or three tufts of blackish 
basal scales, sometimes connected. Second lobe with such a tuft at apex, 
sometimes preceded by others along outer margin. Secondaries gray-brown; 
fringes concolorous with pale bases. Expanse 18-21 mm. 

Distribution : Almost cosmopolitan. We have a good series from 
San Diego, Cal., late June to late Aug. and a single specimen from 
St. Petersburg, Fla., March. Zophodactyla was described from the 
Pyrenees Mts., loc"ini from Italy, canalis from Australia and semi- 
costata from Texas. 

We treated this species originally as si'micostata. and we owe 
the discovery of its synonymy with zophodactyla entirely to Mr. Mey- 
rick, whose decision was based on a specimen from our series. We 
follow Meyrick's synonymy. 

The Museum of Comparative Zoology contains two types of 
semicostata, $ and 9, both from Dallas, Tex. (Boll), and both in 
good condition. These are before us as we write. 

The paired dorsal dots, dull color, and inconspicuous markings 
are distinctive. The anal angles are slight on both lobes of the pri- 
maries, a condition which separates the species from pallistriga. In 
this species the first lobe has a rather prominent anal angle, while the 
color and general appearance scarcely dififer. 

The only biological notes available to us are Porritt's, which we 
quote : 

" * * * The larva is slightly less than half an inch in length, and of pro- 
portionate bulk; head much smaller than the second segment, the lobes rounded 



356 

and polished; body cylindrical and uniform, tapering a little posteriorly; seg- 
mental divisions fairly defined, and a tuft of several short hairs springs from 
each of the indistinct tubercles. In colour there are two extreme varieties, and 
the larva varies between these forms. Var. 1 has the ground colour a delicate 
pale green strongly tinged indeed with yellow ; head pale yellowish-green, the 
mandibles and ocelli brown ; medio-dorsal stripe dark green or purple in different 
specimens ; sub-dorsal stripes yellow, and there are two other fine but very faint 
yellow lines, one above and the other below the spiracles: segmental divisions 
also yellow ; spiracles black, very narrowly encircled with white. Ventral sur- 
face, legs and prolegs uniformly pale yellowish-green. 

"Var. 2 has the ground-colour brownish-yellow ; head also brownish-yel- 
low, freckled with brown ; medio dorsal stripe broad bright purple ; sub-dorsal 
stripes also broad, but of a much less distinct dull pale purple, and having a 
fine white line running through them; a narrow purple line, edged above with 
white, extends along the spiracular region. Ventral surface, legs and prolegs 
uniformly pale yellowish-brown. Feeds on the flowers of Erythraea centaurea. 

"The pupa is slender, and nearly (if not quite) as long as the full-grown 
larva; it is of almost uniform width, the last two segments only tapering to the 
anal point. It is glossy and cylindrical, but there is a depression on the thorax 
and front abdominal segments; the snout and top of the thorax are promin- 
ently and sharply defined ; the leg-cases extend a long distance down the front 
of the abdomen, but before the end, become detached from it. The ground- 
colour is yellow, but is almost hid with a deep pink, which is sufTused all over 
the surface, and almost forms a stripe from the head through the abdominal 
segments ; wing- and leg-cases dingy olive, tinged with pink." 

It is interesting to note that one of our specimens bears the label 
"on Erythraea venusta." 

5. Stenoptilia pallistriga Barnes & McDimiiough. PI. XLII, fig. 

15. PI. L, fig. 16. 
SliHol^lilia pallistriga Barnes & McDunnough. Cont. Nat. Hist. Lep. N. A. II 
(4), 186, pi. IV, f. 11, 1913. 
Id., Check List 151. 1917. 
Grossbeck, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist. XXXVII, 137, 1917. 

Gray brown. Antennae dotted above. Eye surmounted by a white line. 
Palpi moderate, whitish above. Abdomen with paired dorsal dots in the distal 
half. Legs white on one side, the hind pair brownish, dark brown on the other. 

Primaries dull brownish or grayish brown, ochreous toward base and 
inner margin, marked as in the preceding species but with a pale longitudinal 
dash in the first lobe. Fringes gray brown with paler bases and a mixture of 
whiti.sh hairs which predominate in the type on the outer margin of the first 
lobe. Fringes of outer margin with three tufts of black scales on first lobe 
and two on second in type, damaged in other specimen. Secondaries brownish 
with coucolorous fringes, their bases pale as in scmicoslata. The anal angle 
of the first lobe of the primaries is more evident than in scmicostiitii, and the 
outer margin therefore more concave. Expanse 16.5-18 mm. 



357 

The unique male type from Ft. Myers, Fla., May, is in the Barnes 
collection, where it is now accompanied by a female from St. Peters- 
burg, Fla., Sept. The pale dash is well marked in both. Neither 
specimen is reared. 

6. Stenoptilia mengeh Fernald. PI. XI^II, fig. 10. PI. XLIX, 

fig. 16. 
Stenoptilia mengdi Fernald, Pter. N. A. 60, 1898. 
Id., Bull. 52 U. S. N. M. 151, 1902. 
Meyrick, Gen. Ins. C, 19, 1910. 
Id., Wagner's Lep. Cat. pars 17, 28, 1913. 
Barnes & McDiinnough, Check List 151, 1917. 

"Expanse of wings, 20 mm. Head, palpi, thora.x, abdomen and legs dark 
ashy gray. A fine white line occurs over each eye. 

"Fore wings ashy gray and glistening; a few dark fuscous scales on the 
first lobe form an ill-defined longitudinal stripe on the middle; a fuscous spot 
at the end of the cleft and a less distinct one on the middle of the celb Hind 
wings ashy gray. Allied to S. exclamationis and S. semicosttUa. 

"Early stages and food plant unknown. 

"Described from ten specimens, in poor condition, in the collection of 
the American Entomological Society, taken by Mr. L. W. Mengel at Mc- 
Comiack's Bay, North Greenland. * * * ". 

This is all that Fernald wrote about the species, and we are able 
to add only a few notes taken from the three specimens in the Fer- 
nald collection. Two of these are "types," both males. The third, 
also a male, is in the Barnes collection through the kindness of Proi. 
H. T. Fernald. In all of these we are able to discern a dark dorsal 
dot in the hind margin of the first abdominal segment. This is scarcely 
evident against the dark ground color, but we have qualified our key 
to embrace it. A single male from Colo. (Bruce) in the National 
Museum is slightly paler than the types, but in our opinion referable 
to this species without doubt. The primaries show a slight sprinkling 
of whitish scales, and the abdomen has a trace of the one spot. It 
would seem from this that the species is arctic and alpine, rather than 
limited to Greenland, and it may prove to be the same as one of the 
species described from Arctic Europe. The male genitalia are much 
like those of pterodactyla with a few differences in the valves. 

7. Stenoptilia exclam.vtigxis Walsingham. PI. XLII, fig. 11, 14. 

PI. XLIX, fig. 11. 
Mimi'scoptHus cxciawationis Walsingham. Pter. Cal. Ore. 32. pi. 11, f. 10, 1880. 



358 

Steitoj>ti!ia exclamationis Fernald, Smith's List Lep. N. A. 87, 1891. 

Id., Pter. N. A. 59, pi. Ill, ff. 1, 2; pi. VIII, ff. 3, 4, 1898. 

Id., Bull. 52 U. S. N. M. 447, 1902. 

Meyrick, Gen. Ins. C, 19, 1910. 

Id., Wagner's Lep. Cat. pars 17, 30, 1913. 

Barnes & McDunnough, Check List 151, 1917. 
Stenoptilia coloradensis Fernald, Pter. N. A. 61, 1898. 

Id., Bull. 52 U. S. N. M. 447, 1902. 

Anderson, Cat. B. C. Lep. 50, 1904. 

Dyar, Proc. U. S. N. M. XXVII, 924, 1904. 

B. C. Ent. Soc. Check List 43, 1906. 

Meyrick, Gen. Ins. C, 19, 1910. 

Id., Wagner's Lep. Cat. pars 17, 30, 1913. 

Barnes & McDunnough, Check List 151, 1917. 
Gray brown. White line over eye. Antennae darker above than below. 
Palpi as in the preceding species, moderate, whitish above ; third joint small 
and not e.xceeding vestiture of second. Abdomen dark, with mixed blackish, 
ochreous and white scales. Paired dots in posterior margins of segments above 
and two parallel white lines below. Legs whitish on one side as in the related 
species. 

Primaries dark brownish gray on costa, blending into ochreous or pale 
gray on inner margin, and heavily irrorate with white in most specimens and 
with scattered black scales in the darker forms. The white scales vaguely 
checker the costa and are heavy, as a nile, on the terminal area of both lobes. 
Cleft preceded by two blackish dots, usually fused. The first is usually merged 
into a costal shade which is sometimes extensive enough to form a rather vague 
discal triangle such as occurs in Platyl^tilia. First lobe with a heavy oblique 
blackish shade, margined outwardly with white and preceded on costa by a 
white dash. That part of the shade nearest the cleft is a darker, almost longi- 
tudinal, fusiform dash which is sometimes isolated by the surrounding white 
irroration. The white outer margin of this patch is continued on the second 
lobe. There is usually a blackish dot near middle of cell. Fringes white in 
cleft, with grayish clusters before outer margin, elsewhere gray, white below 
apices of both lobes. On outer margin they contain a basal row of blackish 
scales. Secondaries brownish gray with concolorous fringes. Expanse 18-24 mm. 

Distribution : Colo., July and Aug. N. Cal., June. B. C. east 
into Ont., July, Aug. 

The type series of exclamationis was taken in the Siskiyou Mts. 
"on the borders of California and Oregon", in June, and included 
seven specimens. The Fernald collection contains one male paratype 
from this series, which we have examined. It is the most smoothly 
gray specimen which we have seen, and it is scarcely to be thought 
strange that, with limited material, Fernald described the same species 
as coloradensis. The type series of the latter includes a male type and 



359 

two "cotypes" which lack abdomens, all in the Fernald collection. 
These are quite different in appearance from the paratype of exclama- 
tionis, but all come well w^ithin the range of variation of our series, 
and in it there are specimens which approach Walsingham's paratype 
rather closely. An even more remarkable variation from the normal 
is found in a specimen in our series from Aweme, Man. (Criddle) 
which is small and dark, with the discal triangle conspicuous and a 
very evident powdering of black scales on the primaries. Dr. McDun- 
nough sent us for identification a second S from Aweme and two 
females from Trenton and Ottawa, Ont., all of this dark, small form 
and even more extreme than our specimen. The transition shown in 
our series is so gradual that we think it useless to recognize any of 
these forms by names. 

The specimens listed by Grinnell (Can. Ent. XL, 321, 1908) as 
coloradcnsis proved to be a series of Platyptilia fragilis with a specimen 
or two of albidorsclla. We do not know that cxclamationis reaches 
southern California. 

The early stages have apparently not been studied. 

Genus Aciptilia Huebner 

Logotype Aliicita pcntadactyla Linn. 

fAlucila VValsingham & Diirrant (not Linn.) Ent. Mo. Mag, XXIII, 41, 1807, 
Pseudotype pcntadactyla. 

Fernald, Pter.- N. A. 36, 1898 (in part). 

Id., Bull. 52. U. S. N. M. 444, 1902 (in part). 

Tutt, Ent. Rec. XVII, 34, 1905. 

Meyrick, Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. 1907, 488, 1908, 

Id., Gen. Ins. C, 12, 1908 (in part). 

Id., Wagner's Lep. Cat, pars 17, 16, 1913 (in part), 

Walsingham, Biol. Cent. Am., Lep. Het. IV, 439, 1915. 

Barnes & McDunnough, Check List 151, 1917 (in part). 
-\Plcrophiirus Lamarck (not Geoffrey), Syst. An. Sans. Vert, 288, 1801, Pciit- 
adaclyhts cited as example. 

Curtis, Brit. Ent., Lep. I, 161, 1827, Pseudotype pcntadactyla. 

Westvvood, Gen, Syn. 115, 1840. Follows Curtis. 

Meyrick, Trans, Ent. Soc. Lond. 489, 1890, 

Id., Handbook 435, 1895. 
XPtcrophora Huebner, Tentamen, 1806. 

Tutt, Ent. Rec. XVII, .35, 1905. 



3 60 

Aciftilia Huebner, Verz. bek. Schmett. 430, 1826. 

Meyrick, Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. 9, 1886. 

Tutt, Pter. Brit. 137, 1891 (in part). 

Hofmann, Dcutsch. Pter. 50, 182, 1895. 

Tutt, Ent. Rec. XVII, 35, 1905. Fixes type. 
XAciptilus Zeller, Isis X, 768, 1841. 

Wallengren, Skand. Fjar. 23, 1859 

Zeller, Stett. ent. Zeit. XXVIII, 338, 1867. 

Jordan, Ent. Mo. Mag. VI, 150, 1869. 

Tutt, Ent. Rec. XVII, 35, 1905. 
Merrifieldia Tutt, Ent. Rec. 37, 1905. Orthotype Iridactyta Linn. 
Porritia Tutt, op. cit. 37, 1905. Orthotype galactodactyla D. & S. 
VVheekria Tutt, op. cit. 37, 1905. Orthotype spilodactyla Curtis. 

Front rounded, without tuft. Ocelli obsolete. Labial palpi moderate, 
slender. Forewings bifid, cleft from near middle, lobes slender; vein Cu„ in 
our species from near angle of cell, obsolete toward inner margin; Cu^ absent, 
M to end of second lobe. R,, to apex of first lobe, remaining branches absent. 
S. C. to middle of costa. Secondaries trifid; third lobe without black scales 
in fringes; Cu,, from middle of cell, Cu, absent. (See pi. XLVIII, fig. 6.) 

The synonymy of this genus involves one of the most peculiar 
nomenclalorial tangles which has come to our attention. In using 
Pterophora in the "Tentamen" with pentadactyla as the sole species, 
Huebner actually made a new genus, which would stand in this family 
together with PteropJiorus Geoff., according to a literal interpretation 
of the International Rules. This is so highly absurd that we prefer 
to depart from the rules and regard Pterophora as an emendation. 
It was probably so intended, though there is nothing in the "Tenta- 
men" to indicate this. 

The remaining genera involve only the establishment of the first 
type fixation, with the exception of Tutt's. We follow Meyrick in 
assigning these three here. 

Of the four species usually referred to this genus in our fauna 
two belong in Adaina and one in Pselnophorus, leaving only zvalsiiig- 
hami. This species is conspicuously distinct from all of our others. 
The long and very slender lobes of the primaries alone suffice to dis- 
tinguish it, except from Trichoptilus. 

1. AciPTii.iA WALSiNGHAMi Fernald. PI. XLI, fig. 18. PI. XLIX, 
fig. 17. 

Alucita walsingliaini Fernald, Pter. N. A. 36, 1898. 
Id., Bull. 52 U. S. N. M. 444, 1902. 



361 

Meyrick, Gen. Ins. C, 13, 1910. 

Id., Wagner's Lep. Cat. pars 17, 17, 1913. 

Barnes & McDunnough, Check List 151, 1917. 
Whitish, sometimes stained ochreous. Antennae grayish above, darker 
below. Palpi concolorous, small, slender, upturned, reaching middle of front. 
Abdomen with a faint dorsal stripe. Legs whitish, shaded slightly with gray. 
Primaries grayish, the vestiture of mixed white and light brownish gray 
scales, lobes mostly white. The lobes are very long and slender, and the first 
has a tendency to turn forward in many specimens. Fringes brownish gray 
on costa of first lobe with two white patches, at base of cleft and on costa 
of second lobe each with one, and on inner margin with two, and whitish 
toward basal limit. Secondaries brownish gray with concolorous cilia and 
very slender lobes. 

Distribution: Described from four males from Colo. In coll. 
Barnes from Chimney Gulch, Colo., one specimen, and Stockton, Utah, 
(Spalding), a good series taken mostly in June but including one 
specimen dated May 31. 

Of the four specimens in the type series one is now in the Na- 
tional Museum and three in the Fernald collection. Two of the latter 
are labelled "type" and the others "cotype". 

The early stages have apparently not been studied. 

In superficial appearance ivalsinghami is closest to spUodactylci 
Curtis but the alternate light and dark patches in the fringes of the 
primaries are in the opposite order and the insect is more definitely 
grayish. It is the only true Aciptilia in our fauna, and differs from 
all other species except in Trichoptilus in the slender lobes of the pri- 
maries, and from the species of that genus in the grayish color and 
absence of black scales from the fringes of the secondaries. 

Genus Pselnophorus Wallengren 
Haplotype Alucita brachydactyla Treitschke 

Pselnophorus Wallengren, Ent. Tidsk. XI, 96, 1881. Brachydactyla sole species. 

Meyrick, Handbook 437, 1895. 

Hofmann, Deutsch Pter. 50, 178, 1895. 

Meyrick, Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. 1907, 491, 1908. 

Id., Gen. Ins. C, 14, 1908. 

Id., Wagner's Lep. Cat. pars 17, 20, 1913. 
Gypsocharcs Meyrick, Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. 488, 1890, Haplotype baptodactyla 
Zell. 

Tutt, Ent. Rec. XVII, 36, 1905. 



362 

Crcisimctis Meyrick, Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. 489, 1890. Logotype brachydactyla. 
Tiitt, Ent. Rec. XVII, 36, 1905. Fixes type. 

Much like the following genus. Ocelli obsolete ; palpi moderate, slender, 
obHque in our species. Primaries cleft from three-fifths (from middle accord- 
ing to Meyrick, but not in our species) ; M^ and Cu^ stalked, connate with Cu,_, ; 
R and R,^ stalked (very variable in bclfragci), connate or stalked with R.^; R3 
absent; R, free in our species. Secondaries trifid, without dark scales in fringes 
of third feather; Cu., from middle of cell, Cu^ absent. (See pi. XLVIII, fig. 4.) 

Judging by Meyrick's characterization of the genus and the struc- 
tures of the species which we know, Psclnophorus is a very poorly 
defined genus, intermediate between Oidaematoplionis and Aciplilia 
and about equivalent to Adaina in the degree of its development. All 
the species agree in having R-, stalked with one or more of the other 
branches of the radius, wliile this vein is free in Adaina and the anas- 
tomosis concerns R4. The venation is very variable in bclfragei. We 
have specimens in which R.,, R^ and R5 are short stalked, others in 
which R, and R„ are long stalked and R. separate, and still others in 
which Ri and R, are short stalked and connate with R.. 

1. PSELNOPHORUS BELFRAGEI Fish. PI. XLT, fig. 19. PI. XLIX, 

fig. 19. 
AcipHlus bclfragci Fish, Can. Ent. XIII, 142, 1881. 
Pterofhorus bclfragei Femald, Smith's List Lep. N. A. 88. 1891. 
Alucita bclfragei Femald, Pter. N. A. 37, 1898. 
Id., Bull. 52 U. S. N. M. 444, 1902. 
Meyrick, Gen. Ins. C, 13, 1910. 
Id., Wagner's Lep. Cat. pars 17, 17, 1913. 
Barnes & McDunnough, Check List 151, 1917. 

This species is so variable that no accurate description can be given, so 
we merely call attention to the various features and point out the extent to 
which they vary. 

The palpi are brown on the sides, white above and below. Head with 
some white between antennae. Legs white with or without brown shading; fore 
and middle femora and tibiae striped with dark brown. The abdomen is most 
distinctive. It varies from pale ochreous to dark gray brown, due to a variable 
mixture of dark scales. In the most heavily marked specimens it bears two 
conspicuous silky white lines above, margined more or less with black dashes. 
There are similar lines on the sides and a pair below, all less conspicuous, and 
many black scales, especially on the sides in the posterior half of the abdomen. 
In the paler specimens some black scales remain and the dorsal stripes are usually 
faintly marked. 

The primaries vary from white with scattered brown and gray scales to 
dark gray-brown with some whitish scales. The marks are very variable, anil 



363 

consist of a dark brown dot in middle of cell, oblique patch before cleft, two 
spots on costa of first lobe, one at apex and one before, and a spot before apex 
of second lobe. Fringes gray brown, approximately concolorous; whitish patches 
before apices of both lobes, on costal margins, and occasionally on inner mar- 
gins. Expanse 13-19 mm. 

The male genitalia are somewhat variable, and an average form 
is figured. (Plate XLIX, fig. 19.) 

Distribution: Fla., Apr. Texas, Mar., May, June. Ariz. 

The type is a female from Clifton, Tex., May 16, now in coll. 
Fernald. It is in excellent condition, aside from the lack of hind 
legs, and is a inoderatcly pale example. We first made the acquaint- 
ance of the species through our smallest and darkest specimen (from 
Texas), and labelled pale specimens from Florida as a new species. 
The type is nearer to the Florida specimens, but in spite of its gen- 
erally light color, the dorsal stripes are quite noticeable, while in the 
others they are very faint. The only series of reasonable size which 
we have examined is in the Cambridge Museum. It contains twelve 
specimens from Shovel Mt., Tex., and seven from Fedora, Tex., all 
collected by Dr. Dietz. Several of these are being retained in the 
Barnes collection. This series includes only the darkest form, which 
we judge to be the most common. A number from Victoria, Tex., 
in the National Museum are decidedly pale gray, and a single Arizona 
specimen in our series is rather smoothly gray with darker fringes 
and only the costal spots heavily marked. The species is not difficult to 
recognize except in its paler forms which have faint dorsal stripes. 
In some of these an examination of the structural characters of the 
genus must be depended upon. 

We know nothing of the life history. 

Genus Adaina Tutt 

Orthotype Alucita mkrodaclyla Huebner 

Adaina Tutt, Ent. Rec. XVII, 2,7, 190S. 

Meyrick, Gen. Ins. C, 15, 1908. 

Id., Wagner's Lep. Cat. pars 17, 21, 1913. 

Barnes & McDunnough, Check List 151, 1917. 
Very similar to Oidacmatophorns. Ocelli obsolete. Palpi moderate, as- 
cending, slender. Primaries cleft from two-thirds or before; vein Cu^ from 
near angle of cell, Cu^ and M, connate or stalked: R, absent, R, and R, stalked, 
sometimes very shortly (see A. buscki). Hindwings trifid, third segment with- 
out black scales in fringes; vein Cu from middle of cell, CUj absent. The 



364 

species included are not unlike those in Oidacmatophorus, but differ in having 
R., and R^ of the primaries at least short-stalked . In the genotype they are long 
stalked. (See pi. XLVIII, fig. 5.) 

We have felt some doubt about placing several of the species 
included here, for they seem to make a rather heterogeneous group. 
They agree, however, in the stalked second and third branches of the 
radius. Bipnnctata and zcphyria are the most nearly typical, and 
both have genitalia of the usual Oidacmatophorus form, yet the others, 
in which R.^ and R^ are only short stalked, have genitalia of a different 
and definite type, with the exception of citierasccns. In none of them 
are the genitalia similar to those of Oidacmatophorus. These species 
satisfy Meyrick's characterization of Adaiua, however, and even after 
careful examination of a long series we are unable to find characters 
on which we are willing to base a new genus. We are at a loss to 
account for the peculiar discrepancies which exist in the genus as it 
stands. 

Key to the SPEaES 

1. Terminal fringe of first lobe of primaries with a pencil of whitish scales 

separating dark areas 4 

Terminal fringe without such marks ; not more than one dark area 
present 2 

2. Middle and hind tibiae without tufts 3 

Middle tibiae with large terminal tuft, botb with median dorsal tufts, 
that of the hind legs small and spur-like buscki 

J. Expanse not over 11.5 mm. Wings whitish. Antennae evenly colored 

bi[<unctala 

Expanse 14 mm. or more. Wings grayish, more or less powdered with 
brown. Antennae dotted above sepliyria 

4. Hind tibiae and tarsi with dark annuli ambrosiae 

Hind tibiae pale, without rings, though with a few dark scales in darker 
examples 5 

5. Ground color of primaries pure while ; brown irroration often heavy, 

especially in apex of first lobe 6 

Yellowish. Irroration slight, not noticeably heavy in first \ohe. . .cinerasccns 

6. Shining white powdered with scattered brown scales, with a brown spot 

at base of cleft and one on costa above it moiitana 

Similar but frecjuently almost completely covered with dense brown 
irroration. Spot at base of cleft more or less definitely connected with 
costal spot and with one on inner margin, forming a variably complete 
oblique band form declivis 



365 

1. Adaina bipunctata Moeschler. PI. XIJ, fig. 20. PI. XLIX, 

fig. 18. 
Pterophorus bipunctatus Moeschler, Abh. Senck. Nat. Ges. XVI, 346, 1890. 
Fernald, Bull. 52 U. S. N. M. 445, 1902. 

Grossbeck, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist. XXXVII, 135, 1917. 
Alucita bipunctatus Walsingham, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond. 1891, 496, 1892. 
fLcioptilus microdactylus Hedemann, Stett. ent. Zeit. LVII, 9, 1896 (fide Fer- 
nald). 
tAdaina bipunctata Meyrick, Gen. Ins. C, 15, 1910. 

Id., Wagner's Lep. Cat. pars 17, 21, 1913. 
Adaina bipunctatus Barnes & McDunnough, Check List 151, 1917. 
Pterophorus siniplicius Grossbeck, Bnll. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist. XXXVII, 136, 
1917. 

Entirely pale yellowish white. Head touched with pale brownish above 
and on front. Palpi rather long, slender; second joint oblique, third almost 
as long, slightly drooping. Fore and mid tibiae and femora with brown stripes. 
Abdomen with a faint dorsal ochreous stripe. 

Primaries with a few brown scales and several brown spots, one at base 
of cleft, one beyond on costa, followed by a second, one on inner margin of 
first lobe before apex and two on inner margin of second lobe before apex. 
Fringes slightly tinged with gray, similar to secondaries and their fringes. Ex- 
panse 9-11.5 mm. 

The primaries frequently lack part of the spots mentioned, but we have 
yet to see an immaculate specimen. 

The male genitalia are of the form found in Oidacmatophorus. 

Distribution : We have five specimens from various localities in 
Florida, one dated April, and have seen a few others dated March 
and May. The Cornell collection contains one from Biloxi, Miss., 
Jime. Described from Porto Rico. 

The t_ype of bipunctata should be at Berlin. We have not verified 
the identification by reference to the type but see no reason to doubt 
that Moeschler's description applies to our Florida species. If an 
examination of his specimen should show that this is not the case, 
simpliciits Grossbeck will be applicable. The type of this species is 
.5 mm. larger than any other specimen which we have seen, according 
to the original description, but this is negligible. Mr. Frank E. Wat- 
son of the American Museum has very kindly compared specimens 
for us with the types of both of Grossbeck's species, and says that 
"although not an exact match", he considers our specimen labelled 
simpliciits to be the same species as Grossbeck's type. 

The life history is unknown. 



3G6 

2. Adaina zephvria n. sp. PI. XLI, fig. 21. PI. XLIX, fig. 20. 
Brownish white. Head slightly darker in front and above, pale between 

antennae. Antennae dotted with brown above. Palpi rather long and slender, 
l)rown above; second joint oblique, third porrect, as in bipwictata. First two 
pairs of legs brown inside, tibiae striped. Hind tarsi annulate. 

Primaries with brown irroration, forming a vague spot in middle of cell. 
First lobe with a brown spot on costa above base of cleft, a smaller one beyond 
and another at apex; inner margin with one spot. Second lobe with a brown 
dot at apex preceded by two or three at ends of veins, along inner margin. 
There is a less definite spot at the base of the cleft. Secondaries and all fringes 
approximately concolorous with primaries. Expanse 14-17 mm. 

Aside from the left clasper. which is figured, the male genitalia are very 
similar to those of the preceding species. 

Described from a series of thirty-two specimens from San Diego, Ca!., 
August. The types are as follows : 

Holotype S , allotype, 7 paratypes $ and j paratypes 9 in coll. Barnes. 

Paratype <J and paratype 9 U. S. N. M. No. 23464. 

Paratype S in coll. Meyrick. 

In superficial appearance, depending on the amount of irrora- 
tion, this species bears some resemblance to Ocdcmatophonis cadmus, 
iohates and venapunctns, but tlie two brandies of the radius are so 
long stalked that no difficulty should be encountered in placing it as 
an Adaina. 

The early stages are not known. 

3. y\DAiNA MONTANA Walsingham. PI. XLII. fig. 1. 
Aciptilus montanus Walsingham, Pter. Cal. Ore. 59, pi. Ill, f. 14, 1880. 

Kel'icott, Can. Ent. XII, 106, 1880. (Mentions larva without name) 

Fish, Can. Ent. XIII, 141, 1881, (Names Kellicott's larva). 

Dimmock, Psyche III, 404, 1882. 

Id., op. cit. 413, 1882. 

Kellicott, Bull. Buff. Soc. Nat. Sci. IV, 51, 1882 (biol. ) {fide Hy. Edw.) 

Hy. Edwards, Bull. 35 U. S. N. M. 137, 1889. 
Ptcrophonis montanus Femald, Smith's List Lep. N. A. 88, 1891. 
tAliiciln molilalia Fernald, Pter. N. A. 37, 1898. 

Id., Bull. 52 U. S. N. M. 444, 1902. 

Meyrick, Gen. Ins. C, 13, 1910. 

Id., Wagner's Lep. Cat. pars 17, 17, 1913. 

Barnes & McDunnough, Check List 151, 1917. 

"Head white; antennae white, faintly dotted above wilh brownish. 

"Forewings cleft to nearly halt their length, snow-white, sparsely dusted 

uitli fcrnipinous-brown scales, especially towards the costa; a blotch of these 

lies immediately before the base of tlie fissure, and is connected obliquely with 

a similar or r:it!ier darker blotch on the cnsta above it, which is scarcely sepa- 



367 

rated from another costal blotch beyond it, nearer to the apex. The cilia are 
white, except immediately beneath the extreme apex, where they are dark 
ferruginous brown. The outer half of the costal margin of the second lobe is 
dark ferruginous brown, and this colour runs thence through the cilia imme- 
diately beneath the extreme apex of this lobe; all of the remaining cilia are 
snow-white. 

"Posterior wings dusted w ith cinereous brown ; the cilia of the same colour, 
the third lobe only being slightly paler towards the base. 

"The abdomen and legs snow'-whitc, the two anterior pairs tinged with 
brown on their inner sides. 

"Expanse 16 millims." 

Distribution: Type locality Mt. Sha.sta, Cal. The types were 
taken in August. The only other specimens we have seen were taken by 
Kellicott, in New York. There is one in the Fernald collection and 
one in the National Museum, the latter dated March. 

There are four "types" in the Fernald collection, all males, and 
one other specimen which appears to be from Walsingham. The 
single specimen without data which is labelled with Kellicott's name 
completes the series. We have at hand the single specimen belonging 
to the National Museum which was also collected by Kellicott, and 
which presumably came from Buffalo, N. Y., though it is without a 
locality label. This distribution seerns very peculiar, but the species 
will probably be found more widely distributed in Canada than is now- 
known, or it may be the form taken in the southern extremities of the 
range. The known distribution of dcdn'is Meyrick does not substan- 
tiate the latter alternative, and influences us to treat declivis as a form. 

Kellicott reared the species from larvae eating the leaves of Soli- 
dago sp., and at length published a description of the larva and pupa. 
This is quoted by Fernald in the "Pterophoridae of North America." 
apparently from the Bulletin of the Buffalo Society. We have no 
original copy of Kellicott's description and so repeat Fernald's quo- 
tation. We have carefully verified the identification of Kellicott's 
species by sending the National Museum specimen to Meyrick for 
comparison v.'ith Walsingham's type, and also by personal comparison 
with the paratypes in the Fernald collection. 

"T'.'.c larva feed? upon different species of SoUdago. The first examples 
were noticed on May 30. At this time they were found only on the under side 
of the leaves, later they occur on the upper as well. As a rule, they lie close 
to and parallel with the mid-vein. At least \^ hile young they eat out the paren- 
chyma, leaving the epidermis. 



368 

"May 30 the larvae were .1 of an inch and less in length; entirely white, 
except claws and mandibles. The body is not flattened at this stage. The first 
ring is broad, and the head may be well withdrawn into it. The tubercular 
hairs are spined, plainly seen under a moderate magnifying power. 

"June 3 the largest had evidently moulted, length then .2 of an inch, pale 
green, eighth and ninth rings yellow. Lateral tufts more conspicuous. Dorsal 
line faint. Subsequent changes not noted until full-grown larva was described 
the latter part of June. Length .34 to .4 of an inch. Pale pea green, head paler; 
dorsal stripe of three white lines, the middle one the finest and most clearly 
defined. The seventh, eighth and ninth rings yellow. The posterior subdorsal 
papilla of the body rings bears two unequal hairs, the anterior but one; above 
the spiracles and in front of them also is a papilla; below the same there are 
two, from which arise long hairs, five from posterior and ten or twelve from 
anterior, these are spread out fan-like; below these a prominent longitudinal 
fold. From the first ring proceed long hairs reaching over and bej'ond the 
head. Hairs all unbranched and plumose. The body is considerably flattened, 
so when looking down upon it the spiracles from either side may be seen at 
once, spiracles conical, rings black. 

"The f'<P" is .3 of an inch in length; light green, some of them have a 
reddish stripe along dorsal part of the abdomen, the conical spiracles of such 
have the same hue. The upper part of the rings well clothed, especially at 
extremities and along the lateral ridges. Pupa fastens to a tuft of silk by 
means of the hooks of the last ring. Moth appears through greater part of 
July." 

Form DECLivis Meyrick. PI. XLII, fig. 2. PI. L, fig. 2. 
iAlucita cincrascens Dyar (not Wlsm.) Proc. U. S. N. M. XXV, 399, 1902 

(biol.). 
Ptcroplinrus dcclivis Meyrick, Exot. Microlep. I, 112, 1913. 
Id., Wagner's Lep. Cat. pars 17, 25, 1913. 
Barnes & McDunnough, Check List 151, 1917. 

Dcclivis differs from montana in that the primaries are more or less heav- 
ily irrorate with brown scales and the brown marks are heavier. The abdomen 
in some specimens has a few dorsal dots. Expanse 14-16 mm. 

Distribution: Ont., July (N. M.) ; Man., Mar.; Colo., June. 

We have before us two of the specimens reared by Dyar and 
Caudcll in Colorado. These are darker than the paratypes of mon- 
tana in the Fernald collection and lighter than our Manitoba examples, 
but Mr. Meyrick returned one to us as dcclivis after comparing it with 
the type, and at the same time noted its apparent relationship with 
montana. The differences in larval habit noted by Dyar and Kelli- 
cott have led us to make a very careful examination of these two speci- 
mens, montana Kellicott, and Walsingham's paratypes, but minute 
comparison fails to disclose any differences of specific value. 



369 

Dyar's account of the life history is as follows: 

"Larz'Q.— Head long, the mouth pointed, apex under joint 2; whitish. Body 
flattened, narrow, not tapering. Tubercles i and ii approximate with one long 
and several short hairs, iii single haired, iiib several haired, iv + v large, many 
haired, the others retracted subventrally. Translucent green, with obscure, 
straight, subdorsal and broken lateral lines, the latter above tubercle iii. Warts 
black, i + ii largely so, and forming a double row of distinct spots separated 
by a straight line of the ground color. Anterior edge of joint 2, posterior rim 
of reduced cervical shield and warts of anal flap also black marked. Hairs 
white, spinulose; none secondary. Pupa free, not in a cocoon. 

"Larvae in the heads of Helianthus pumilus. near Boulder Creek Canyon. 
May 23; moths issued June 12. Eggs were obtained from these which passed 
the winter without hatching, showing the species to be single brooded with 
hibernation in the egg state. 

"Egci. — Oviform, elliptical, one end more pointed than the other, b-Hh 
slightly truncate at the extreme tips, strongly and sharply flattened on two 
sides, like cakes cut out of dough: pale yellow, opaque, not shining, the surface 
slightly shagreened, not sculptured. Size, 0.55 by 0.4 by 0.15 mm." 

4. Adaina cinekascens Walsingham. PL XLII, fig. 3. PI. L, fig. 3. 
Aciptilus cinerasccns Walsingham, Pter. Cal. Ore. 57, pi. HI, f. 13, 1880. 
Pterophorus cinerascens Fernald, Smith's List Lep. N. A. 88, 1891. 
Alucita cinerascens Fernald, Pter. N. A. 39, pi. H, ff. 5, 6; pi. IX, ff. 9-11, 1898. 
Id., Bull. 52 U. S. N. M. 444, 1902. 
Meyrick, Gen. Ins. C, 14, 1910. 
Id., Wagner's Lep. Cat. pars 17, 20. 1913. 
Barnes & McDunnoiigh, Check List 151, 1917. 

Head very slightly touched with brown above and in front. Palpi very 
short and slender. Antennae whitish. Thorax and abdomen whitish, legs con- 
colorous, the first pair fuscous inside and middle pair with some fuscous. 

Primaries in good specimens distinctly yellowish, very slightly irrorate with 
brown. Costa with a brown patch just beyond base of cleft and another beyond 
middle of first lobe. Cleft preceded by a brown spot slightly produced toward 
first costal spot but not connected with it. Second lobe with costa at apex 
brown. Fringes white on costa, grayish elsewhere with two darker patches 
before apex of first lobe, in cleft, and one below apex of second. Secondaries 
and their fringes pale brownish gray. Expanse 16.5-19 mm. 

The male genitalia have a remarkably developed jtixta, and are 
very distinct from any others known to us. 

Distribution: Described from Mendocino and Lake Co., Cal, 
June. Nevada, June. Utah, July. S. Oregon. 

The Fernald collection contains fotir paratypes in good condi- 
tion. These differ from Walsingham's figure in the two dark areas 



370 

before the apex of the first lobe of the primaries in place of one. The 
marks on the costa are much less extensive than in the figure. 

The yellow color of fresh specimens renders this species very 
distinct from the preceding, but worn specimens of small size are fre- 
quently difficult to distinguish. The differences in pattern noted in 
the key sufiice in all of the few specimens which we have seen, and 
the heavily brown-marked apex of montana seems to us the most 
salient difference in that species. The wings, in our opinion, do not 
show the marked difference in shape which appears in Walsingham's 
figures, though we have compared his own paratypes in the F"ernald 
collection. 

The early stages are unknown. 

5. Adaina buscki n. sp. PI. XLII, fig. 4. PI. L, fig. 1. 

Tawny or brownish white. Antennae and palpi concolorous, the latter 
moderate, slender, upturned or oblique. Abdomen with a slight brown dorsal 
stripe and some brown scales on the sides and below. Legs concolorous, shaded 
with brown. Mid-tibiae with brown scale tufts at end and middle. Hind tibiae 
with a distinct tuft at end, a slight tuft below at base of first pair of spurs, 
and a short, spur-like tuft above at middle, well before spurs. 

Primaries, whitish tawny with scattered brown scales fonning a dot in 
cell and a dash before cleft which projects toward a costal spot beyond base 
of cleft. First lobe with costal dot beyond middle, an apical dot, and one before 
apex on inner margin. Second lobe with some brown scales in apex and at 
end of vein Cu . Fringes gray brown with a darker cluster at spot on inner 
margin of first lobe. Secondaries and fringes gray-brown. Expanse 20-21 mm. 

Holotypc 9, Cocoanut Grove, Fla. (E. A. Schwarz), and paratype in poor 
condition, Miami Fla. (Coll. Schaus), U. S. N. M. No. 23465. 

Allotype S, same source as holotype, coll. Barnes. 

The tufted tibiae of this species do not agree with Mr. Meyrick's 
diagnosis of Adaina, but in venation it corresponds with most of the 
other species which we place in the genus. Veins R. and 4, of the 
primaries are short stalked and R5 free. We examined a specimen 
in the American Museum collection which appeared to be this species, 
and found Rj and R4 only connate. The genitalia of the allotype 
seem most closely related to those of ambrosiac. 

The types were found in the National Museum collection, and 
in recognition of his services in connection with the loan of this mate- 
rial we take pleasure in naming the species after Mr. August Busck. 

We have no data on the life history. 



:vri 

6. Adaina ambrosiae Alurtfeldt. PI. XLII, fig. 5, 6. PI. L, fig. 4. 

Ocdematophonis ambrosiae Murtfeldt, Am. Ent. Ill, 236, 1880 (biol.). 

Dimmock, Psyclie III, 403, 1882. 

Hy. Edwards, Bull. 35, U. S. N. M. 137, 1889. 
Alucita ambrosiae Femald, Smith's List Lep. N. A. 87, 1891. 
§Oedematiis ambrosia Murtfeldt, Proc. Nat. Sci. Club 13, 1896. 
\Pterophorus inquiiwtus Femald, Pter. N. A. 56, 1898 (in part). 

Id., Bull. 52 U. S. N. M. 447, 1902 (in part). 

Meyrick, Gen. Ins. C, 17, 1910 (in part). 

Id., Wagner's Lep. Cat. pars 17, 25, 1917 (in part). 

Walsingham, Biol. Cent. Am., Lep. Het. IV, 446, 1915 (in part). 

Barnes & McDunnough, Check List 151, 1917 (in part). 
Pterophorus ambrosiae Femald, Pter. N. A. pi. VI, ff. 14-17, 1898. 
Pterophorus perplexus Grossbeck, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist. XXXVU, 136, 
1917. 
Head brownish, pale grayish white between antennae. Antennae with a 
dark line, sometimes broken, above. Palpi, small, slender, oblique, brown on 
sides. Thorax whitish to gray-brown. Abdomen similar, somewhat tawny in 
our series but this may be due to stain. There are single black dorsal dots on 
the posterior margins of most segments and a few blackish streaks, all some- 
times obscured by a variable mixture of brown scales. Sides roughened, with 
many brown scales. Under surface with a central stripe fonning dots on hind 
margins of segments. Front legs white, tarsi brown inside, femora and tibiae 
striped. Middle pair similar, tibia with a slight trace of median tuft. Hind 
legs with scattered brown scales and annuli. 

Primaries gray, frequently tawny in first lobe and a little before. Entire 
wing irrorate with brownish black scales which tend to collect along the veins 
and in blotches near inner margin, often reduced on first lobe and increased 
on second. A few pale scales before cleft are preceded by a black dash, some- 
what triangular, outwardly concave, and often produced toward the nearest costal 
spot. This is heavy and usually conspicuous, and is followed aliout half way 
to the apex by a smaller black spot. These are continued through the otherwise 
pale costal fringes. In addition the costa of the first lobe is sometimes marked 
with two dots, one before and one beyond the outer spot, which do not enter 
and fringes. Apex of first lobe and inner margin before apex with black dots. 
Fringes of inner margin of first lobe pale with two dark patches at outer end 
which contain a basal row of black scales. Fringes of second lobe gray brown, 
cut with four pale areas at apex and before it on inner margin. The two outer 
dark areas thus formed have black basal scales. Secondaries and their fringes 
brownish gray. All characters except the larger spots of the primaries are 
more or less variable. Expanse 14-20 mm. 

Distribution : Fla. to Pa., west to S. Cal. and Ariz. In the 
northern parts of its range it appears chiefly in Aug. and Sept., in the 
south and on the Pacific Coast March to July, Sept., Nov. according 



372 

to our series. We have the species in good series from intermediate 
localities, including specimens reared by Dr. McDunnough at Decatur. 

The Murtfeldt collection, now at Cornell University, contained 
three specimens labelled as types of this species, which were submitted 
to us for examination. All bore the same rearing number and the 
locality Mo. One proved to be a specimen of Marasmarcha pumilio 
Zell., the others corresponded to our idea of anibrosiac. We labelled 
a S lectotype and the other, a 9 , which is in the Barnes collection 
through the kindness of Dr. J. C. Bradley, may be regarded as a para- 
type. One specimen in the Fernald collection bore type and breeding 
labels in Miss Murtfeldts handwriting, and we have therefore labelletl 
it as a paratype. 

We have not been able to examine the types of pcxplcxus Gross- 
beck, but placed it as a synonym of ambrosiae by means of the descrip- 
tion. A comparison of specimens with the type, which Mr. Frank E. 
Watson has very kindly made, confirms this opinion. 

Ambrosiae is an extremely variable species in most details of color 
and pattern, and can be confused rather readily with some species of 
Oidaematophoriis in a casual examination. The stalked radial branches, 
however, place it with a group of species from which it is readily 
separable. The single dorsal dots on the abdomen distinguish it from 
iiiquiiiatns, of which it has so long been regarded as a synonym. In 
inquinatus the dorsal dots are paired. 

Miss Murtfeldt reared the species before describing it, and in 
her original paper gives the following account of larva and pupa : 

"Larva: Length 0.35; diameter, 0.09. Form depressed. Color pale greenish 
gray, with ver\' characteristic dark markings and lateral tufts of long, white, 
silken hairs. Head small, light brown, corneous, retractile. Segment 1 with 
a dilated, partially free, shield-like collar covering top and projecting over the 
head. The ornamentation of this collar consists of five central minute brown 
dots, with four still smaller black ones on each side, from each of which pro- 
ceeds a short, curved bristle. The projecting edges are fringed with soft, light 
hairs. Segments 2 and 3, gradually broadening backward, ornamented on dorsum 
with two oblong, pale-brown spots on either side of a triangle of very minute 
black dots, and having a larger black dot on each outer side. Two short bristles 
arise from each of the more conspicuous spots. Abdominal segments, each with 
four, somewhat elevated, brown spots, from which proceed single, short, back- 
ward-curving bristles. Between the posterior pair of brown spots are two smaller 
black ones, each of which forms the base of a very short clubbed piliferous 
process, which turns backward, resting flat upon the surface. 



373 _ 

"The stigmata arc annulated with black, and obliquely above and forward 
of each are two small brown dots. The lateral tufts are below the stigmata, 
and each is composed of from seven to nine long hairs, which, under the lens, 
are remotely pectinate. A little above and back of each of these tufts is a semi- 
circle of fine, scale-like bristles. The prolegs are very short. 

"Pupa: Length, 0.25. Swollen and blunt anteriorly. Color pale fulvous, 
with a roseate hue on dorsum. Dorsal surface beset with tufts of dingy hairs, 
with a lateral fringe of single straight hairs, which serve to secure it more firmly 
to the mat of silk upon which it rests. Dorsum marked, near the head, with 
two large dull-brown spots, and an indistinct longitudinal stripe of same color 
on the abdomen. On either side of the thorax is a small, velvety dark brown 

dot. 

*********** 

"It feeds on the Rag-weed (Ambrosia artemisiacfolia), and I have only 
found it late in the season." 

Dr. McDunnough has communicated to us the following notes : 

"Murtfeldt's description is, on the whole, good. Tubercles I and II are 
raised, conical, brown, with short recurved setae. The two black dots between 
tubercles II are characteristic but piliferous process mentioned could not be 
seen; there is a short seta projecting forward and lying flat on the body sur- 
face, arising from just before tubercle 1 and there is often another behind H. 
but none arising from the spots themselves. Area around tubercles often with 
numerous round minute glandular processes, much like mushrooms. Tubercle 
III anterior to and well above spiracle with minute seta, pointed forward and 
recumbent, above it a black lenticle (these two arising from the two black spots 
mentioned by Murtfeldt). Spiracle raised, black, forming on prothorax a large 
conical process, much raised. Lateral tufts as stated. Tubercle IV is a tuft 
of 4 or S rather short broad setae, situated above and posterior to the lateral tuU 
which represents V and contains 7-8 very long setae and numerous short ones. 
Skin, especially near lateral flange, shagreened ; faint traces of yellow dorsal 
line behind II with V shaped oblique extensions pointing forward. All setae 
strongly barbed. Thoracic tubercles with two short setae and with the spot 
above larger than on abdominal segments, oblong (not round) and consisting 
apparently of fusion of lenticles. 

"Pupa. Wing-sheaths pale green with rows of minute setae and lateral 
fringe of longer ones. Dorsally whitish-green, thoracic segments with purple- 
brown markings and geminate fine dorsal line terminating in a large black- 
brown patch. A faint dark dorsal line on abdominal segments broadening on 
the 4th to a stripe which is continued to anal segment; traces of oblique lateral 
lines, reaching to spiracle and most distinct on the two segments posterior to 
the dark dorsal patch. Spiracles black, the first visible one being raised, conical 
and arising from a black brown lateral patch. Setae of primary tubercles as in 
the larvae; dorsal ones however are not single but have clusters of shorter 
hair around the base." 



374 

Genus Oidaematophorus Wallengren 
Haplotype Aliicita lithodactyla Treitschke 

Oidaematophorus Wallengren, Skand. Fjad. 19, 1859. 

Jordan, Ent, Mo. Mag. VI, 125, 1869. 

Tutt, Pter. Brit. 103, 1896. 

Id., Ent. Rec. XVII, 35, 1905. 
fPtcrophonis Wallengren (not Geoff.) Skand. Fjad. 20, 1859. 

Walsingham, Pter. Cal. Ore. 39, 1880. 

Meyrick, Trans. Ent. See. Lend. 10, 1886. 

Hofmann, Deutsch. Pter. 49, 155, 1895. 

Tutt, Pter. Brit. 110, 1896. 

Fernald, Pter. N. A. 39, 1898. 

Id., Bull. 52 U. S. N. M. 444, 1902. 

Meyrick, Gen. Ins. C, 15, 1910. 

Id., Wagner's Lcp. Cat. pars 17, 21, 1913. 

Walsingham, Biol. Cent,-Am., Lcp. Het. IV, 439, 1915. 

Mosher, Class. Lep. Pupae 70, 1916. 

Barnes & McDununough, Check List 151, 1917. 
Lcioptilus Wallengren, Skand. Fjad. 21, 1859. Logotype tcphradactylus Hbn. 

Zeller, Stett. ent. Zcit. XXVIII, 331, 338, 1867. 

Jordan, Ent. Mo. Mag. VI, 149, 1869. 

Hofmann, Deutsch. Pter. 49, 160, 1895. 

Tutt, Pter. Brit. 114, 1896. 

Id., Ent. Rec. XVII, 36, 1905. Fixes type. 

Meyrick, Gen. Ins. C, 15, 1910. Under Ptcrophonix. Pseudotvpe scar- 
odactylus Hbn. 
tOcdcmatophorus Zeller, Stett. ent. Zeit. XXVIII, 331, 337, 1867. 

Walsingham, Pter. Cal. Ore. 34, 1880. 

Meyrick, Trans. Ent. Soc. Lend. 10, 1886. 

Hofmann, Deutsch. Pter. 49, 148, 1895. 
XLiopiilus Zeller, Stett. ent. Zeit. XXVIH, 331. footnote, 1867. 

V/alsingham, Pter. Cal. Ore. 41, 1880. 

Meyrick, Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. 10, 1886. 
■\AhicUa Meyrick (not Linn.) Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. 487, 1890. 

Fernald, Smith's List Lep. N. A. 87, 1891. 

Meyrick, Handbook 438, 1895. 
Ovcndcnia Tutt, Ent. Rec. XVII, 37, 1905. Orthotypc scplodaclyla Treitschke. 
HcUinsia Tutt, loc. cit. Orthotype ostcodactylus Zell. 
Euimelina Tutt, loc. cit. Orthotype motwdaciyla Linn. 

Front rarely with tuft. Ocelli obsolete. Palpi short to long, usually 
slender and more or less oblique. Tibiae with or without conspicuous scale 
tufts. Primaries bitid, cleft two-fifths or less; vein Cu., about three-fourths 
length of cell from base, Cu^ and M., connate or stalked; radials free, R., absent. 
Secondaries trind, fringes without black scales. Cu., from middle of cell, Cu 
absent. (See pi. XLVltl, (ig. 7). 



375 

Crctidactylus Fitch and allied species in the North American 
fauna are very similar to the type of Oidaematophorus, while palca- 
ccHS Zell. and others are nearer to the type of Lcioptilus, but we find 
such a complete transition of structure that we agree with Meyrick 
in regarding them all as congeneric. Tutt's genera demantl little re- 
mark with the exception of Emmelina, type monodactylus. This genus 
is identical with the '\Ptcrophorus Auct., and in our opinion is not 
worthy of separation, in spite of the rather distinct habitus of mono- 
dactylus. 

The species of Oidaematophorus are not at all difficult to identify 
when one has gained some familiarity with them. Usually some one 
or two characters suffice, but we have found that very nearly all char- 
acters of color and pattern are subject to such variation that the con- 
struction of a key is very difficult. In order that the one presented 
here may offer the fewest possibilities of confusion we have inserted 
a number of species in two catagories. Only in this way have we been 
able to make use of salient features of many species which are not 
entirely constant. 

Key to the Speoes 

1. Palpi porrect, conspicuously longer than head, frontal tuft long. Very 

attenuate insects longifrous 

Palpi not conspicuously longer than head 2 

2. Primaries with a dark costal dot or patch above or just beyond base 
of cleft, sometimes connected with spot at base of cleft to form an 

oblique patch 3 

Without such a mark; costa without spots or first spot near middle of 
first lobe 35 

3. Primaries lemon yellow ; hind wings dark. Expanse about 24 mm. 

Costal spot very small some sulphurcndactyhis 

Primaries not lemon yellow ; if yellowish, expanse of insect less than 

24 mm or with conspicuous dark marks 4 

4. Gray or whitish species; posterior margins of at least part of the ab- 
dominal segments with paired dorsal black dots 5 

Various. Abdominal segments with single spots if any ; sometimes 
immaculate or with a different pattern 7 

5. General appearance dull brownish gray with some white scales on 

primaries inquinaius 

General appearance whitish or Hght gray with dark markings 6 

6. Smaller, 14-18 mm. Wings predominantly greyish below eras 

Larger, 17-24 mm. Secondaries usually more or less whitish below. .. ./>o« 



376 

7. Ground color pure white. Mid tibiae with ri well developed median 

ti, f t clliottii 

Ground color otherwise or mid tibae with only a trace of the median 
tuft S 

8. Primaries tawny, yellowish, or grayish ochreous, expanse less than 
20 mm. or with spot nt base of cleft small, usually rounded, and the 
only conspicuous discal mark. If gray powdered and small, abdomen 

with dorsal dots. Secondaries not contrastingly dark 9 

Not such species !•' 

9. Fringes dark at apex of lobes of primaries 10 

Fringes evenly colored some occidcntalis 

10. Palpi with dark scales on outer surface 1- 

Palpi entirely whitish 11 

11. Primaries yellowish. Expanse under 18 mm. Blackish-brown fringes 
at tip of first lobe conspicuous, apex of second lobe with fringes scarcely 

darkened tinctus 

Primaries more tawny. Expanse 18-22 mm. Dark fringe at tips of 
both lobes cocUisc 

12. Expanse usually under 20 mm. Dark fringes at apex of second lobe 

almost equally extensive on costal and outer margins some iobales 

Expanse usually well over 22 mm. Dark fringes of second lobe mostly 

on costal margin some kclianlhi 

13. Small or moderate species, primaries whitish, yellowish, grayish or och- 
reous, usually rather coarsely powdered wMth dark scales. Either pale, 
without extensive and contrasting pattern, or with dot at base of cleft 
the only conspicuous discal mark. Mid tibiae with no more than a trace 

of median tuft 1"* 

Not such species. Either over 25 mm. expanse, with an evident median 
tuft on mid tibiae, or with nebulous, contrasting gray brown marks on 



prmiarics 



21 



Inner margin of first lobe of primaries rather broadly white, contrast- 
ing with the dark fringe intcgratus 

Without such a stripe, but sometimes with entire lobe paler than fringe 15 
Secondaries dark, primaries yellowish with discal dot, varying to dark, 
smooth gray with yellowish subcostal line ending opposite base of cleft. 
This species has no definite costal spot over base of cleft, but the dark 

shade at this point sometimes approximates a spot some corvus 

Not such species lo 

Longer spur of first pair on hind tibiae reaching over half way to end 

of joint 1' 

This spur reaching less than half distance to end of tibia 18 

Primaries white with scattered brownish scales cadinus 

Primaries more or less ochreous with dark brownish irroration. discal 

dot conspicuous some iubatcs 

Head with a definite white patch between antennae 19 

Without such a patch ; head evenly coloured or nearly so 20 



3T7 

19. Gray. Spot contiguous to base of cleft mcdius 

White, coarsely irrorate with gray. Spot conspicuous, sliglitly before 
base of cleft liniis 

20. Fringes in cleft of primaries dark some arion 

Fringes not dark ; in general about same shade as wing, with light and 
dark areas fishii 

21. Primaries pure white with variably extensive dark marks, cloudy with 

exception of oblique patch. Median tibial tuft very slight brucei 

With strong median tuft on mid tibiae or not pure white 22 

22. Dorsal surface of abdomen with slightly diverging light and dark 
streaks. Primaries with subcostal pale line, usually conspicuous, reach- 
ing costa on each side of dark costal dot over base of cleft austcr 

Not such species 23 

23. Ground color of primaries even yellowish white or whitish with black 
marks, pattern simple. Secondaries contrastingly dark. Western species 24 
Ground color never tinged with yellow, sometimes more or less cream 
colored or tawny but rarely whitish. Secondaries not conspicuously 
darker 25 

24. Fringes in cleft of primaries very dark. Mid tibiae with median tuft 

castor 

Fringes of cleft pale. No tuft /"oZ/kx 

25. Slender winged gray insects. Primaries finely powdered with brownish 
black and white. Inner margin usually with an underlying brown shade 

of variable extent grisescens 

Primaries blackish brown or blackish, conspicuously streaked with pure 

white 26 

Primaries creamy white to tawny brown with brown marks, if any. 
Never extensively irrorate with blackish scales, and with little or no 

white 27 

Not such species 29 

26. Smaller, expanse rarely as great as 25 mm. Front of thorax and basal 
half of patagia white, this shade definitely limited behind. Palpi gray- 
brown above mcyricki 

Larger, rarely as small as 25 mm. White on thorax and patagia more 
extensive and less definitely limited. Palpi mostly white iiihar 

27. With a brown streak in apex of second lobe of primaries, extending 

through fringe 28 

Without such a streak some occidentalis 

28. Thorax and patagia pale citrites 

Thorax and patagia pale in front only, this area sharply limited fieldi 

29. Fringes on inner margin of primaries neither white nor with conspicu- 
ous clusters of white scales, sometimes with a very faint cluster and 

pencil of pale or whitish hairs 30 

These fringes sometimes almost white, always with one or more evi- 
dent clusters of white hairs 33 



378 

Predominating color of primaries some pale, dull shade bordering on 

clay-color 31 

Primaries very dark with some whitish scales; abdomen with two 

heavy black dashes following pale terminal area of thorax alaskensis 

Western species. Primaries narrow, colors usually dull and contrasts 

slight. Expanse over 25 mm 32 

Western. Primaries normal, with blackish-brown irroration, more or 

less longitudinally streaked. Expanse under 25 mm gratiosus 

Eastern. Primaries normal, more or less tinged with brown shades 
and sprinkled with dark brown scales. Triangle at base of cleft powdery 

dark brown, in sharp contrast with ground color cretidactyhis 

Spot before cleft small, sometimes preceded by some dark scales form- 
ing a vague streak, and weakly connected to costal spot. Ground color 

of primaries even, scantily powdered with dark scales rileyi 

Spot usually forming a dark triangle reaching costa. Primaries usually 
somewhat striate, due to pale veins. Dark powdering usually abund- 
ant cineruceus 

Tarsi heavily annulate. Abdomen with two heavy black dashes above 

on first segment alaskensis 

Fore and mid tarsi with a dark annulus about the end of each joint, 
broken on one side on the former. No heavy black dashes on first 

abdominal segment above gtittatus 

Fore and mid tarsi white, faintly banded on one side only in the darkest 



specmiens 



34 



Hind legs usually white, sometimes with faintly darker annuli. Tufts 

of mid tibiae moderate. Primaries evenly pale some mathewianus 

Hind legs with dark tenninal annuli on tibiae and tarsal joints. Tufts 
of mid tibiae large and bushy. In pale specimens the primaries are 
conspicuously lighter in costal portion eupatorii 

35. Costal half of primaries soft grayish to purplish, blending into ochreous 

of inner margin. Expanse over 25 mm haroni 

Not such species 36 

36. Greatest width of primaries about one sixth length. Longest fringes 
of second lobe exceeding width of lobe. Mid tibiae with two weak 

tufts. Hind tarsi usually with a conspicuous dorsal crest monodactyhis 

Wings usually wider, with moderate fringes. Crest on hind tibiae 
never present 37 

i7. Ground color snowy while. Mid tibiae without definite median tuft.... 3S 
Creamy white or darker , 39 

38. With or without a rounded dark dot before base of cleft huinodnctylns 

Witli an oblique mark before cleft at least faintly indicated 

some 9 5 of fisliii 

39. Yellowish with contrasting dark secondaries to dull gray, the primaries 
with a subcostal yellowish line terminating opposite base of cleft. Ex- 
panse 17-20 mm some corvus 

Sulplnir \cllovv with dark secondaries; expanse 24 mm. or over 



379 

some sulphureodactylus 

Not such insects 40 

40. Spot before cleft on primaries more or less conspicuously continued in 

an oblique shade toward costa ■'I 

Spot usually rounded, sometimes continued into a shade in first lobe, 
sometimes doubled, and sometimes included in a transverse dash or 
lacking ■ • • • 42 

41. Frinpes of primaries uniformly tawny some occidentalis 

Fringes more grayish with white hairs included some matbcivianus 

42. Fringes conspicuously darker at apices of lobes of primaries 43 

Fringes not conspicuously darker; if somewhat darker, with the tran- 
sition very gradual 44 

43. Dot at base of cleft on primaries "'■''-^ 

Dot well before cleft some helmnthi 

44. Fringes in cleft of primaries dark throughout, in contrast to wing 45 

Fringes concolorous at least toward base of cleft, darker than wing 
apically in some species 47 

45. With whitish scales in fringes of primaries near apices of lobes 46 

Without pale scales; fringes uniformly dark f'hocbus 

46. Head evenly pale gray some anon 

With a light band between antennae triton 

47. Expanse over 30 mm. (rarely dwarfed). Wings brownish 48 

Expanse less than 30 mm. or wings not conspicuously brownish 49 

48. Terminal dots inconspicuous. Discal dot usually lacking and never 

more than vaguely indicated. Known only from Cal grandis 

Discal and tenninal dots usually conspicuous but often at least partly 
lacking. A dark basal dash usually present. Discal dot sometimes 
preceded by another nearer to inner margin which may be the more 
conspicuous. Known only from Fla. to Tex. and Ariz balanotcs 

49. With a dark dot near base of cleft 50 

This dot usually absent, in some cases vaguely indicated 55 

50. Discal dot before base of cleft or terminal dots of second lobe lacking 51 
Discal dot contiguous to base of cleft 54 

51. Terminal dots on second lobe well marked vcnapunctus 

Terminal dots rarely incompletely indicated, usually completely lacking 52 

52. Primaries pale, whitish to luteous, secondaries more grayish. A fine 

dark point on inner margin of first lobe before apex lutcoliis 

This dot lacking 53 

53. Wings tawny, secondaries sometimes tinged with gray.... some occidentalis 
Primaries variable, usually with a visibly darker shade from base into 
first lobe. Secondaries grayish palcaccus 

54. Primaries usually more or less tinged with clear yellow. Usually 
without terminal dots but sometimes with one in apex of second lobe 

strauiincus 

Primaries with no trace of clear yellow. Terminal spots on both lobes 
more or less evident, sometimes conspicuous kellicottii 



380 

55. Outer margin of primaries with dark dots, sometimes continued inward 

along veins and sometimes scarcely evident lacteodactylus 

Veins sometimes dark on inner half of wing but not conspicuously 
darker at outer margin 56 

56. Primaries strongly grayish 57 

Primaries whitish to yellowish, sometimes with dark shades but not 
conspicuously gray 61 

57. Costa of primaries narrowly yellowish 58 

Costa not yellowish 59 

58. Expanse 25 mm. or less. Second lobe of primaries with the veins dark 

e.xcept in the darker specimens perditus 

Expanse 28 mm. or over. Second lobe with the veins not dark-lined.. 
costatus 

59. Ground color of primaries of mixed gray and whitish scales 60 

Ground color otherwise, usually tinged witli yellow some iuconditus 

60. Part of veins dark-lined 7'arius 

Color even. See notes on varius some falsus 

61. Veins of second lobe of primaries at least partly dark-lined on upper 

or both surfaces 62 

Veins not dark lined 64 

62. Expanse 15 mm. Fla. Known only from type 9 unicolor 

Expanse 20 mm. or over 63 

63. Primaries usually somewhat yellowish with dark shade of a brownish 
hue. Dark lining of veins in lobes usually inconspicuous. Tips of 

fringes usually about as dark as primaries cafalinac 

Primaries usually paler with the shade less conspicuous and the dark 
lined veins conspicuous at least in the second lobe. (Some specimens 
cannot be separated from catuliiiac by superfical characters) ... .co«rfc//i 

64. Primaries yellowish with costal area darker. Secondaries grayish, usu- 
ally conspicuously dark. Palpi long, distinctly exceeding greatest diam- 
eter of eye sercnus 

Not such species. Length of palpi less than or equal to greatest diam- 
eter of eye 65 

65. Primaries ochreous-whitish with a pale red-brown shade running from 
costa at middle of first lobe inward and basad as far as middle of cell 
in well marked specimens. Under surface but slightly infuscated to- 
ward base subochraceus 

Shade extending basad along costa or more grayish, sometimes absent 66 

66. Head, thorax and abdomen chalky white. (Most specimens require 

degreasing to show their tnie color) some falsus 

These parts more or less yellowish or creamy 67 

67. Expanse rarely as great as 22 mm. Primaries pale, usually more or less 

yellowish some incoitditus 

Expanse usually over 24 mm. Primaries cream-colored with a faint 
subcostal shade of dull brown auslralis 



381 

1. OiDAEMATOPHORUS occiDENTALis Walsingliam. PI. XLV, fig. 7, 
8. PI. LI, fig. 1. 

Oedematophorus occidcntalis VValsingham, Pter. Cal. Ore. i7, pi. II, ff. 13, 14, 
1880. 

Dimmock, Psyche III, 403, 1882. 

Hy. Edwards, Bull. 35, U. S. N. M. 137, 1889. 
jAlucita cretidactyla Femald, Smith's List Lep. N. A. 87, 1891 (in part). 
\Pterophorus cretidactylus Dyar (not Fitch), Psyche VIII, 250, 1898 (biol.). 

Fernald, Bull. 52 U. S. N. M. 446, 1902 "(in part). 

Dyar, Proc. Ent. Soc. Wash. V, 228, 1903. 

Meyrick, Gen. Ins. C, 17, 1910 (in part). 

Id., Wagner's Lep. Cat. pars 17, 25, 1913 (in part). 

Barnes & McDunnough, Check List 151, 1917 (in part). 
Stcnoptilia californica Grinnell, Can. Ent. XL, 321, 1908. 

Meyrick, Wagner's Lep. Cat. pars 17, 30, 1913. 

Barnes & McDunnough, Check List 151, 1917. 
Head, thorax and abdomen creamy white to dull tawny-brown ; head with 
a pale patch between antennae, otherwise the darkest part ; thorax paler behind, 
with whitish lateral stripes; abdomen laterally darker near middle. Antennae 
with brown dots above. Palpi rather small, oblique, whitish below at base; 
second joint thickened, white tipped. Legs whitish with more or less evident 
bands at tips of joints, lacking in very pale specimens. Front tibiae with a 
heavy double tuft of brown scales in terminal half, mid-tibiae with heavy median 
and terminal tufts of the same color. Inner spur of median pair on hind 
tibiae almost twice as long as outer. 

Primaries concolorous with thorax, normally with a heavy brown costal 
mark over base of cleft, preceded and followed by a few whitish scales. This 
patch is connected with a small brown triangular shade before cleft. The wing 
is marked with cloudy brown areas and the first lobe is light brown, but these 
areas are not conspicuously powdery, due to the lack of contrast between the 
brown scales and tawny ground color. Fringes even tawny-gray. Secondaries 
brownish, shining, with paler fringes. 

The species is extremely variable, tlie primaries being creamy-white in 
some specimens with only the oblique shade before the cleft evident, and some- 
times without the costal dash. One which we include here has tawny-brown 
primaries with no definite mark but otherwise shows the characters of this 
species. Normal series .show a wide range of variation of the ordinary markings. 
Expanse 26-29 mm. 

Distribution: B. C, Ca!., Ariz., Utah, June to Sept. 

The type series of occidcntalis was taken in Colusa, Shasta and 
Siskiyou Co., Cal., in July and Aug. Four of the "types" are in the 
Fernald collection. Grinnell's series of californica, now in the South- 
west Museimi, contains specimens from the San Bernardino Mts. and 



382 

Pasadena. There is no doubt that these are the same as VValsingham's 
species and not a Stenoptilia, as described. 

We are unable to agree with the commonly accepted placing of 
this name as a synonym of cretidactylus. It is difficult to point out 
single characters to separate the two, yet they are very distinct in 
general appearance. The dark markings of the primaries in occidcn- 
talis are not distinctly powdery, these wings are slightly narrower, 
their color is much more brown or tawny, and, as noted, the first pair 
of spurs on the hind tibiae show a greater difference in length. The 
genitalia of the two species are rather similar. Since this species 
appears to be confined to the western states, and cretidactylus to the 
east, little difficulty should be encountered in separating them. 

Basing our judgment on the food plant and locality we have no 
doubt that Dyar's larvae described as cretidactylus belonged to this 
species. His description is as follows : 

"Head rounded, higher than wide, partly retracted ; green, ocelli black. 
Body a little thickest in the middle, miiform green with a whitish dorsal line. 
Warts round, concolorous, i and ii near each other but separate, a small wart 
(iii a) below and beiiind iii ; another (iii b) behind iv+v, vi and vii not large. 
Feet noniial, the abdominal ones slender, wider at the claspers. 

"Pupa suspended by the cremaster, slender; cases projecting over the 
abdomen half way to the tip. Uniformly green, covered with tufts of sparse 
radiating hairs, arranged roughly as in the larvae. Length 11 mm., width 2.5 
mm. On Aster, Yosemite, Cal. June." In a footnote it is stated that the food 
plant was not identified with certainty. 

Walsingham notes that one specimen in the t\pe series was reared from 
the leaves of "a species of sunflower". 

2. OlDAEMATOPHORUS CRETIDACTYLUS Fitcll, PI. XLV, fig. 13. PI. 

LI, fig. 2. 

Picrophonis cretidactylus Fitch, Trans. N. Y. Apr. Soc. XIV, 849, 1854. 

Id., 1st Kept. Ent. N. Y. 145, 1854. 

Morris. Cat. Lep. N. A. 54, 1860. 

Walker, List Lep. Ins. B. M. XXX, 940, 1864. 

Femald, Pter. N. A. 52. pi. VI, ff. 9, 10, 1898. 

Id., Bull. .52 U. S. N. M. 446, 1902 (in part). 

Meyrick, Gen. Ins. C, 17, 1910 (in part). 

Id., Wagner's Lep. Cat. pars 17, 25, 1913 (in part). 

Barnes & McDunnough, Check List 151, 1917 (in part). 

Britton, Ins. Conn. 103, 1920. 
Ocdemalophorus gypsodactylus Walsingham. Pter. Cal. Ore. 35, footnote, 1880. 
XAlucita crelidactyla. Femald, Smith's, List Lep. N. A. 87, 1891 (in part). 
iPtcroplwrus cretidactylus Grinncll, Can. Ent, XL, 319, 1908. 



383 

Brownish or creamy-white. Head brown except between antennae. An- 
tennae with brown dots above. Palpi rather short, brown on sides. Legs 
whitish, front and middle femora brown inside ; fore tibiae with heavy double 
brown tuft as in occidentalis, mid tibiae with two tufts. Hind legs entirely 
whitish, scarcely touched with brown along tibia, at bases of spurs, on their 
tips, and in dark specimens on tarsi, never conspicuously banded. Inner spur 
of median pair much less than twice as long as outer. Abdomen brownish at 
sides. 

Primaries brownish white with a variable sprinkling of dull brown scales 
darkening the first lobe, apex of second, inner margin and patches of discal area. 
A dark brown costal dash over base of cleft is incompletely connected with a 
similar oblicjue, roughly triangular mark before cleft. All dark areas with the 
rather rough powdering of dark scales evident. Fringes pale ochreous gray, 
sometimes with a slight pale area before apex of first lobe in cleft but without 
definite pale pencils. Secondaries gray-brown, shining; fringes cnncolorous. 
Expanse 22-2S mm. 

Distribution : Described from N. Y. We have a small series from 
Essex Co. Park, N. J., June and July (Kearfott). 

The type of crctidactyliis is among Fitch's specimens in the Fer- 
nald collection. It is a 9 in fair condition, rather faded, and bears 
no type label beyond the general label applied to this group of speci- 
mens. 

As mentioned under occidentalis, it is not easy to point out definite 
differences between these two species, though they seem very distinct. 
The whiter ground color, more roughly powdered dark areas, and 
relative lengths of the median spurs of the hind tibiae distinguish 
cretidactyhis, in our judgment. The primaries are relatively broader, 
but the difference is too slight for actual measurement. A reference 
to the figures will show this distinction. We have seen no western 
specimens, and feel that all such records undoubtedly deal with occi- 
dentalis. 

;\lthough two accounts of early stages have been published under 
the name we are still in ignorance of the life history of the true creti- 
dactylus. 

3. OlDAEMATOPHORlIS M.\THEWfIANUS Zcllcr. PI. XLV. fig. 14. PI. 

LI, fig. 3. 

Lcioftitns inalhcunanus Zellcr, Verb. z.-b. Ges. Wien. XXIV, 445, pi. Xll, f. 13. 

1874. 
xAhicila mathnviaim Fernald, Smith's List Lep. N. A. 87, 1891. 



384 

Pteropliorus mathnviamis Fernald, Pter. N. A. 45, 1898. 

Id., Bull. 52 U. S. N. M. 445, 1902. 

Anderson, Cat. B. C. Lep. 50, 19CW. 

B. C. Ent. Soc. Check List 42, 1906. 

Meyrick, Gen. Ins. C, 16, 1910. 

Id., Wagner's Lep. Cat. pars 17, 23, 1913. 

Barnes & McDunnough, Check List 151, 1917. 
Pteropliorus gorgotiicnsis Grinnell, Can. Ent. XL, 318, 1908. 

Meyrick, Wa.ener's Lep. Cat. pars 17, 25, 1913. 

Barnes & McDunnough, Check List 151, 1917. 
Ptcrofhorus hilda Grinnell, Can. Ent. XL, 320, 1908. 

Meyrick, Wagner's Lep. Cat. pars 17, 25, 1913. 

Barnes & McDunnough, Check List 151, 1917. 
Head and body white, frequently light brown, probably due to stain. Head 
usually with an evident pale patch between antennae, brownish above and in 
front. Antennae with brown dots above. Palpi short, oblique, brown speckled, 
usually mostly brown on sides. Legs white ; front tibiae with a large brown 
scale tuft, tarsi with slight brown annuli at ends of joints, marked only on one 
side; mid tibiae with two heavy brown tufts, tarsi as in fore legs; hind le.gs 
white, in dark specimens somewhat brownish before first spurs and with brown 
at bases of spurs. Abdomen sometimes with dorsal dots, often immaculate. 

Primaries white with variably extensive lawny brown shades, usually 
confined to inner half but sometimes encroaching on first lobe. Costa with 
scattered dark brown scales forming a long spot over base of cleft and two 
dots beyond. Cleft preceded by a white area, and this by a dark brown spot 
or dash continued obliquely to costal spot by a light brown shade. There is 
sometimes a dark dot near middle of cell and some scattered patches of dark 
brown irroration. Inner margin of first lobe with a brown dot before apex, 
followed by a white pencil in the fringe. Second lobe with such a dot in 
apex preceded by two in outer margin which mark the limits of a while area 
in the fringes. This is preceded by a white pencil at some distance. Other- 
wise the frinp;es arc liglit brownish gray with some white hairs. Secondaries 
brownish gray, fringes similar. Expanse 21-27 mm. 

Tlic valves of the i genitalia appear to lack the long tufts of hair 
on their outer surface, such as are present in eupatoru. 

Dislrilnition : Type localit}' \^ancouver Is.. B. C. to S. Cal. July 
and Aug. Colo.? Me.? N. M.? 

\A''e sent specitneiis to Mr. Meyrick as gutiatiis Wlsni. and he 
returned them with the note that he could see no reliable distinction 
hetween them and Zellcr's four types of viatheivianns, in poor condi- 
tion, in the British Museum. The apparent confusion of the two 
species is discussed in detail under the former. The type series of 
hilihi and norgotiiciisis Grinnell, both from S. Cal., contain numerous 



385 

specimens of fishii Fern., but the types appear to be small pale 
examples of mathezvianus. The genitalia of similar specimens cor- 
roborate this. 

The species is very variable in all features, but its generally pale 
appearance, with more or less pure white on the primaries, separates 
it from the allied forms. The two specimens from Colo, and Sebec 
Lake, Me., which we refer to it are extremely pale. That from Colo, 
is white with brown irrorations, and that from Maine somewhat 
darker and with a trace of brownish shades in addition to the irrora- 
tions. We are unable to place these specimens elsewhere, and in all 
essential features they agree with mathewiamts. Both are males, so 
we have the additional evidence of genitalia to verify the identifica- 
tion. There is one lightly marked and faded specimen in the National 
Museum from Beulah, N. ?il., 8000 ft., which we think belongs here. 

The life history is unknown. 

4. OiDAEMATOPHORU.s EUPATORii FernaUl, PI. XLV, fig. 15. Fl. LL 
fig. 4. 

Alucita cupatorii Fernald, Smith's List Lep. N. A. 87, 1891 (in part). 

Id., Can. Em. XXV, 96, 1893 (in part). 
Pterophorus cupatorii id., Pter. N. A. 52, pi. V, II. IS, 16, 1898 (in part). 

Dyar, Psyche VIII, 250, 1898 (biol.). 

Fernald, Bull. 52 U. S. N. M. 446, 1902 (in part). 

Meyrick. Gen. Ins. C, 17, 1910. 

Winn, List Ins. Que. 86, 1912. 

Meyrick, Wagner's Lep. Cat. pars 17. 25, 1913 (in part). 

? Walsingham, biol. Cent. Am., Lep. Hct. IV, 444, 1915 (in part). 

Barnes & McDunnoiigh, Check List 151, 1917 (in part). 

McDunnough, Can. Ent. LIT, 92, pi. II, f. 4, 1920 (biol.). 
Head whitish between antennae, tinged with brown in front and above; 
sometimes darker. Thorax whitish with a brown band, including tips of pata- 
gia ; sometimes suffused with brownish. Abdomen whitish with brown on sides 
and across fifth segment, to ochreous witli scattered brown scales, a few dorsal 
dots, and much darker brown areas; vestiture roughened on hind margins of 
segments in posterior half. Antennae dotted with brown above. Palpi brown 
on sides ; moderate, slender, oblique with third joint porrect. Legs with heavier 
tufts on fore and mid tibiae than in the foregoing species. Front and middle 
tarsi white without brown scales except a trace in the darkest specimens. Hind 
legs whitish or suffused with brown, variably annulate with brown at bases 
of spurs and tips of tarsal joints. 

Primaries with costal area usually whitish, always paler than inner part. 
Inner half of wing with dull brown shades, the veins with paler, often whitish, 



386 

lines in second lobe, A small blackish oblique spot similar to that in mathcw- 
ianus occurs before cleft, continued toward costal spot by a light brown shade. 
Costa marked with a faint shade at middle, a long blackish spot above base of 
cleft and two beyond, the outer larger and continued into a white patch in 
the fringes. Apex of first lobe with a black dash, preceded by another on 
inner margin, the two connected in dark specimens. Inner lobe with black 
dot at apex and two on outer margin, the outer followed by a white pencil in 
the fringes and the inner by a broader white cluster. Fringes otherwise gray- 
brown. The white areas have a variable number of blackish basal scales. En- 
tire wing more or less heavily irrorate with blackish scales which tend to fonn 
longitudinal lines. Secondaries gray-brown with concolorous fringes. Expanse 
23-25 mm. 

The male genitalia are provided with a heavy tuft of long hairs 
on the outside of each valve. Otherwise they are rather .similar to 
those of the preceding species. 

Distribution: Que. to Man. and W. la., south to N. J. and III. 
June and July. 

Fcrnald's types arc four specimens from New York, one S , two 
9 and a broken specimen. 

We have seen no western specimens which we regarded as true 
eiipatorii, and so feel that Walsingham's records in the Biologia, 
Zeller's western "crcttdactylus" and later references pertaining to the 
latter probably concern other species. Its possible relation to the 
allied western species as treated in the literature is discussed under 
guttatns. 

The species may be recognized most readily by the tarsi, but 
average specimens are conspicuous in that the costal and inner areas 
of the primaries are in such sharp contrast. Very dark specimens, 
of which we have several from Maine and Quebec, are much like 
guttatns in appearance. 

The larvae feed on Rufator'uim, and are gregarious. They occiu" 
in considerable numbers on the terminal shoots of the plants, which 
they render conspicuous by their mutilations of the leaves and moder- 
ately extensive spinning. We have selected Dr. McDunnougli's ac- 
count in the Canadian Entomologist to quote. Preserved specimens in 
our possession agree very well with his description of both larva and 
pupa. 

"Larva (full grown). — Head pale reddish ochre. Body pale green, be- 
coming dorsally broadly suffused with purple-red when fully developed ; a nar- 
row ochreous dorsal stripe slightly broken centrally on each segment by a 



__387 

triangular green dot; traces of a broad pale subdorsal band crossiiiR tubercles 
I and II; a narrow lateral line midway between tubercles I and III, bent down- 
ward posteriorly ; a broken spiracular line. Tlie principal setae from tubercles 
I-III arc blackish, very slightly spiculate, long and subequal. On the abdom- 
inal segments tubercles I and II are in line, bearing two shorter anterior hairs, 
the latter with two similar posterior ones and two very minute ones situated 
one posteriorly and one anteriorly. Tubercle III bears two long black setae 
and one or two short white hairs. Behind the spiracle on the posterior margin 
of the segment is a minute white hair. Tubercle IV + V bears five long 
central white hairs and about the same number of shorter ones arranged as 
a rosette around the central hairs; two short white hairs directed backward 
are found posterior to this tubercle; VI is very similar in arrangement of 
setae to IV + V and VII is as usual represented by several hairs at base of 
prolegs. On the prothorax a fringe of white hairs overhangs the head; be- 
hind this is a row of five black hairs and behind this row again are six black 
hairs arising from three tubercles, the middle one of which is centrodorsal. On 
the meso- and metathoracic segments tubercle I + II bears five long black 
hairs, and two or three short anterior white ones; posterior to this group are 
two short white hairs arising from a small tubercle; tubercle III has two long 
black hairs and several shorter white ones. Length 13 mm. 

"Dr. Dyar's statement (Psyche, VIII, p. 250) that cupalorii larvae feed 
on the underside of the leaf, concealed, whereas eU'wtti larvae feed exposed on 
the upper side, was not verified, by my observations ; both species may be taken 
on either the upper or underside of the leaf, a favourite place being among the 
terminal half-opened leaf-buds. 

"Pupa (Fig. 4).^Apple green with purple-red suffusion each side of a 
pale centro-dorsal stripe; the lateral portions below the subdorsal ridge prom- 
inently purple-red with two oblique pale lateral lines and a similar spiracular 
one. Subdorsal and subspiracular flanges well-developed. Wing sheaths with 
lateral fringe of hair and further rows of short hair along the antenna! and 
leg sheaths as in elliotti. Tubercles I and II on abdominal segments each with 
five or six finely spiculate white hairs, arranged more or less longitudinally, 
the central hair being longest. Dorsad to tubercle II is a single minute hair; 
on the first three abdominal segments dorsally is a small tuft of short hair 
anterior to tubercle 1. Tubercle III, situated on anterior portion of the lower 
lateral stripe, bears only a single short white seta; posterior to it are two 
short hairs near rear portion of segment and arranged in line parallel to the 
segmental incision. Tubercle IV + V, situated on the lateral flanges, is prom- 
inent, with about twelve long white spiculate hairs, and immediately anterior 
to it and close to the spiracle are two minute hairs arising from a small 
tubercle. Tubercles IV and VII are each represented by a iouple of short 
hairs. The thoracic segments show the usual modifications in respect to the 
number of tubercular setae." 



388 

5. OiDAEMATOPHORUs GUTTATUS Walsinghani. PI. XLV, fig. 16. PI. 
LI, fig. 5. 

■fOcdewatopliorus cretidactylus Zeller (not Fitch), Verb. z.-b. Ges. Wien, XXIV, 
444, 1874. 

Walsinghani, Pter. Cal. Ore. 35, 1880. 
Ocdcmatophorus guttattis Walsingham, Pter. Cal. Ore. 36, pi. II, f. 12, 1880. 
XAlucita guttata Fernald, Smith's List Lep. N. A. 87, 1891. 
Ptcrophorus guitatus Fernald, Pter. N. A. 53, pi. IX, ff. 12, 13, 1898. 

Id., Bull. 52 U. S. N. M. 446, 1902. 

Meyrick, Gen. Ins. C, 17, 1910. 

Id., Wagner's Lep. Cat. pars 17, 25, 1913. 

Barnes & McDunnough, Check List 151, 1917. 
The description of matheiaianus applies equally well to yuttatus as re- 
gards pattern. The dark markings in guttatus, however, are all of a deeper 
shade and therefore in much greater contrast with the white areas, and are 
rather conspicuously sprinkled with blackish scales on the primaries. This 
iroration tends to form longitudinal streaks. The legs differ from the two 
preceding species in that the tarsi are provided with well marked, though often 
broken, brown annuli. The abdomen is much like that of cupatorii but has 
the transverse brown shade less conspicuous and the dorsal dots more numer- 
ous, in the form of a row of median tufts of brown scales, the largest on the 
fourth segment and the others decreasing in size away from it. Expanse 
23-25 mm. 

The male genitalia differ from those of cupatorii in the absence 
of tufts from the outside of the valves and from those of mathciinanus 
in the form of the left harpe, which appears to be constantly different. 

Distribution : Type locality Pit River, Cal. We have the species 
from the San Bernardino and San Gabriel Mts., Cal., June and July, 
and Colo, and Utah, July. A specimen in the Cambridge Museum 
from Phoenix, Ariz., appears to belong here. 

In general appearance the species might be confused with dark 
specimens of either 7natlu-zi.<ianiis or cupatorii, but such cases should 
be relatively few. The tarsi and abdomen are excellent distinguishing 
features, and the nine slides which we have inade of the genitalia 
of the three species indicate differences which may rasonably be re- 
garded as constant. 

The confusion in the literature regarding cretidactylus and cupa- 
torii, and our own confusion of guttatus and mathcwianus has led to 
a very careful study of these species with the results as presented here. 
In the first place it is generally agreed that Zcller's cretidactylus was 
not that of Fitch, and since it came from \'ancouver Is. it is a safe 



389 

premise that it was one of the allied western species. Our researches 
have led us to believe that cupatorii is not western, hence we have only 
two species, mathcivianus and gnttains which can be crctidactylus Zell. 
For the same reason true guttatus can hardly be cupatorii, as placed in 
the Walsingham collection. Zeller identified his conception of Fitch's 
species from Walsinghani's material, and we should be inclined to 
believe that he was capable of separating it properly from his own 
mathczi'ianus. At the same time it seems unlikely that Walsingham 
would have faileil to recognize it as conspecific with his guttatus if 
such were the case. Apparently then there is a third species from the 
west which we do not know, or one of the two men was confused by 
the variation of the species, which seems the more likely. As to the 
actual identify of guttatus, we first regarded mathczi'ianus as this spe- 
cies. Meyrick corrected us in this, and noted that the types of Guttatus 
in the Walsingham collection were placed in the series of cupatorii. 
Later we were able to examine three paratypes of guttatus in the Fer- 
nald collection, and at first thought them to be a true mathczvianus. A 
more careful examination convinces us that they are pale and rather 
faded specimens of what we now call guttatus, so it seems likely that 
Walsingham had a variable series of this species under two names, 
crctidactylus and guttatus, and we place the references accordingly. 
On the other hand, Walsingham"s mention of crctidactylus Zell. as a 
pale form of grisescens suggests mathezvianus rather than guttatus. 
Unfortunately the abdomens of the paratypes in coll. Fernald arc 
lacking, so we are unal)le to eramine either the genitalic structure 
or the abdominal markings. Fernald's figures of the genitalia do not 
show the distinctive structure, viz., the left harpe. 
The early stages are unknown. 

6. OlDAEMATOPHORUS ALA.SKENSIS n. sp. PI. XLV, fig. 17. PI. LI, 

fig. 6. 

Alaslccn.ns is almost identical in pattern with guttatus, but is extremely 
dark. The description of matliewianus will therefore apply to the body and 
wings, but the parts mentioned as whitish are brownish, and the white is lim- 
ited to a thin superficial scaling over the paler areas. The fringes have only 
a pale pencil on each lobe before apex in place of the extensive white areas. 
The abdomen has dorsal tufts as in guttatus, but less prominent, and on the 
first segment has two heavy black dashes following the white terminal area of 
the thorax. The tarsi are heavily annulate with brown and the hind tibiae 
are brown with two pale annuli. Expanse 26-28 mm. 



390 

The male genitalia have well developed tufts on the outer surface of the 
valves, and other features as well indicate closer relationship to eupatorii than 
to gutlatus. 

Holotype S , Ramparts, Alaska, July 17, 1916, U. S. N. M. No. 23472. 

Paratypc $ Ruby, Alaska, July 22, 1916, coll. Barnes. 

This species cannot, for various reasons, be involved in the con- 
fusion attending those preceding it. 

7. OiDAEMATOPiiORUs GRiSESCENs Walsingham. PI. XLVII, fig. 13. 
PI. LIV, fig. 4. 

Oedematophorus griscsceus Walsingham, Pter. Cal. Ore. 34, pi. 11, f. 11, 1880. 

Dimmock, Psyche III, 403, 1882. 

Hy. Edwards, Bull. 35 U. S. N. M. 136, 1889. 
Alucita grisescens Fernald, Smith's List Lep. N. A. 87, 1891. 
Ptcrophorus grisescens Femald, Pter. N. A. 55, 1898. 

Id., Bull. 52 U. S. N. M. 447, 1902. 

Dyar, Proc. Ent. Soc. Wash. V, 228, 1903. 

Meyrick, Gen. Ins. C, 17, 1910. 

Id., Wagner's Lep. Cat. pars 17, 25, 1913. 

Walsingham, Biol. Cent.-Am., Lep. Het. IV, 446, 1915. 

Barnes & McDunnough, Check List 151, 1917. 
Pterophorus acrias Meyrick, Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. 500, 1908. 

Id., Gen. Ins. C, 17, 1910. 

Id., Wagner's Lep. Cat. pars 17, 25, 1913. 

Barnes & McDunnough, Check List 151, 1917. 
Ptcrophorus behrii Grinnell, Can. Ent. XL, 319, 1908. 

Meyrick, Wagner's Lep. Cat. pars 17, 25, 1913. 

Barnes & McDunnough, Check List 151, 1917. 
Head clothed with gray-tipped white scales, white between antennae. An- 
tennae with brown bars above. Palpi short, oblique, each joint white-tipped. 
Thorax similar to head, dark tips of scales forming a band across thorax and 
tips of patagia. Abdomen mostly white above and below, varying to light gray; 
in brighter specimens with parallel black dashes above. Hind margins of seg- 
ments with brown tipped scale tufts, forming the points of V-shaped brown 
marks on fourth and fifth segments; sides brownish. Legs white, fore and 
mid tibiae with conspicuous blackish tufts; tarsi variably annulate with dark 
brown. 

Primaries narrow, heavily sprinkled with white and with some scattered 
blackish scales. Ground color of inner half brown, of costal half apparently 
gray brown, the scales tipped with white, but this area of the wing is grayish 
white because of the predominating white scales in most specimens. Costa 
with a gray-brown dash over base of cleft and two spots beyond. Cell pre- 
ceded by a white patch and this by a small blackish spot curving forward to- 
ward costal dash in slender line. Remainder of wing with variable vague 
streaking and spotting of gray and white. First lobe with a black dot before 



391 

apex followed by a white pencil in the fringes ; second with two vague outer 
marginal dots. Fringes brownish gray with a very variable mixture of white 
hairs, usually most numerous on second lobe. Expanse 23-30 mm. 

Distribution: B. C. (June) through Colo, and Cal., (June to 
Sept.) to Ariz. (May to Sept.) and southward. Type localities: grisc- 
sccns, Rogue R.. S. Ore., acrias, Colo. ; bchri'i. San Bernadino Mts., 
Cal. 

From Meyrick's comparisons and our own examination of the 
types of behrii we are satisfied that the above synonymy is correct. 
We know no species which can be confused with this. Two of Wal- 
singham's types are in the Fernald collection. 

Aside from Walsingham's note that the eight specimens of the 
type series were reared from Artemisia sp. in May, we know nothing 
of the early stages. 

8. OlDAEMATOPKPRUS CINERACEUS Fish. PI. XLV, fig. 9, 10. 

Oedematophorus cineraceus Fish, Can. Ent. XIII, 73, 1881. 

Oedematophorus lugubris Fish, op. cit. 140, 1881. 

XAhicita cineracea Fernald, Smith's List Lep. N. A. 87, 1891. 

Alttcita lugubris Fernald, loc. cit. 

Pterophorus cineraceus Fernald, Pter. N. A. 54, pi. V, ff. 5, 6, 1898. 

Id., Bull. 52 U. S. N. N. 446, 1902. 

Meyrick, Gen. Ins. C, 16, 1910. 

Id., Wagner's Lep. Cat. pars 17, 23, 1913. 

Barnes & McDunnough, Check List 151, 1917. 
Pterophorus lugubris Fernald, Pter. N. A. 55, pi. IV, ff. 12, 13, 1898. 

Id., Bull. 52 U. S. N. M. 447, 1902. 

Meyrick, Gen. Ins. C, 16, 1910. 

Id., Wagner's Lep. Cat. pars 17, 23, 1913. 

Barnes & McDunnough, Check List 151, 1917. 
Brownish white to grayish, often darker toward the costa ; head tinged 
with brown above and in front, thorax usually darker across lips of patagia 
and abdomen sometimes darker except a dorsal band containing central dark 
dots and slender black dashes in terminal half; scales raised at posterior mar- 
gins of segments. Fore and mid tibiae tufted. Tarsi with dark annuli, very 
variable in extent and shade and sometimes lacking. Antennae with or without 
dark dots above. Palpi short, oblique. 

Primaries rather slender, lutenous to brownish white. Veins in lobes 
and radial stein frequently pale. There is a variable irroration of blackish 
scales which tends to collect between the veins and in tlie basal half of the wing; 
these scales are often very few and widely scattered. Wing at base of cleft 
whitish, prceded by a black or brown dash which curved outward toward costal 
blackish dash above base of cleft. Darker specimens may also have two dots 



392 

on costa of first lobe and some whitish over-scaling before the discal dash. 
Inner margin of first lobe with a faint dot before apex and outer margin of 
second sometimes with two. That on the first lobe marks the location of a 
faint whitish pencil in the fringes. Fringes otherwise brownish gray with a 
few white hairs in some examples. Secondaries gray-brown with concolorous 
fringes. Expanse 27-29 mm. 

The S genitalia are siiiialr to those of mathewianus (see pi. LI. 
fig. 3) but are slightly more slender in all parts. 

Distribution : Vancouver Is. to Colo, and Utah, June to Sept. 
Manitoba and Pa., Aug. Cal., June. 

The Fernald collection contains two types of cineraceus, without 
abdomens, from Washington and three of luguhris, one 9 and two 
without abdomens, from California. These series would hardly be 
taken for the same species even by a careful observer, and it requires 
the transition shown in our series of nineteen specimens froin various 
localities to convince us that the synonymy is correct. Typical lug\t- 
bris is the darker form, w-ith heavier markings, whitish scaling through 
the cell, and very evident blackish irroration. Typical cineraceus, on 
the other hand, has a light brownish ground color, rather even, with 
only a dot in the cell and the oblique patch before the cleft conspicuous ; 
the black irroration is almost lacking. There is also a 5 in the Cam- 
l)ridge Museum which may be regarded as a paratype. It is labelled 
type. 

One specimen in our series from Aweme, Man. (Criddle), bears 
Kcarfctt's label "Pteroplwrns baroni Fish" and another from Rounth- 
waite "compares most closely with baroni Fish". The former seems 
to us to be an immaculate specimen of cineraceus, though the absence 
of discal marks does, indeed, result in an appearance remarkably like 
baroni. The primaries are slightly broader, however, and we think 
it best to place the specimen in this way for the present. The second 
specimen strengthens this opinion, in that it is intermediate between 
the first and typical cineraceus, though with the markings only slightly 
reduced. Our two Calif ornian specimens are also very lightly marked. 

The life history is unknown. 

9. OiDAEMATOPHORUS RiLEYi Fernald, PI. XL\^ fig. 11. PI. LI. fig. 7. 

Ptcrophorus rileyi Fernald, Pter. N. A. 50, 1898. 
ld„ Bull. 52 U. S. N. M. 446, 1902. 
Meyrick, Gen. Ins. C, 17, 1910. 
Id., Wagner's Lep. Cat. pars 17, 25, 1913. 
Barnes & McDunnough, Check List 151, 1917. 



393 

Ground color brownish white to pale brown, head slightly darker except 
between antennae. Antennae with brown dots above. Palpi moderate, slender, 
oblique. Abdomen with black dots above in hind margins of some segments; 
scales in posterior half roughened on these margins. Legs similar, evenly 
colored with a touch of black beneath hind tibiae at bases of spurs and brown 
scale tufts on fore and mid tibiae. 

Primaries same shade as body with a brown costal dash over base of cleft 
and an oblique dash before cleft, continued by a faint shade toward costal spot. 
First lobe with a black point on inner margin before apex. A few scattered 
black scales are present, forming a slight streak before discal dot and rather 
dense along basal half of costa, but elsewhere very scarce. Fringes slightly 
darker and more grayish than wing, with scarcely a trace of pale hairs, even 
at black point on first lobe. Secondaries gray-brown with concolorous fringes. 
Expanse about 32 mm. 

Distribution : Cal., Sept. Described from Placer Co. 

The form of this species is much like that of ciiieracciis and baroni, 
and for a time we were inclined to doubt its distinctness from the 
former. We now believe, however, that its large size and even color 
are a sufficient basis for the retention of the species. Unfortunately 
we have seen only one specimen in addition to the type series, and 
the genitalia afford no definite assistance. Our material in these three 
related species is too meager to allow us to work out the possible 
variations of genitalia, and such as appear in our few slides must 
therefore be discounted, perhaps unduly. 

Fernald says in his original description that the species was 
"described from seven examples taken in September, in Placer County, 
California, and presented to the National Museum by the late Dr. C. V. 
Riley". We found five of these specimens in the National Museum 
material, labelled by Fernald but not as types. In the Fernald collec- 
tion there are two specimens labelled type. We are designating one 
lectotype $ . The other may be regarded as the allotype, and we see 
no reason at all why the remaining five should not be paratypes. We 
have accordingly written labels for them under the U. S. N. M. type 
No. 23496. One of these five, a 9 , is now in the Barnes collection 
through the kindness of the Museum authorities. 

None of the specimens examined were reared. 

10. OlDAEMATOI'HORUS BARONI Fish. PI. XLV, fig. 12. 
Oedematophorus baroni Fish, Can. Ent. XIII, 7i, 1881. 
Alucita baroni Fernald, Smith's List Lep. N. A. 87, 1891. 



3 94 

Plcroflwrus baroni Fernald, Pter. N. A. 54, 1898. 
Id., Bull. 52 U. S. N. M. 446, 1902. 
Meyrick, Gen. Ins. C, 16, 1910. 
Id., Wagner's Lep. Cat. pars 17, 23, 1913. 
Barnes & McDunnough, Check List 151, 1917. 

Grayish to slightly tawny, head brownish except between antennae. Other- 
wise as in preceding species, with abdominal spots less conspicuous and upper 
surface of abdomen very vaguely streaked with black scales in some speci- 
mens. Tufts on tibiae with a generous mixture of white scales. Front and 
middle tarsi sometimes faintly annulate. 

Primaries buff to ochreous along inner margin, blending into the whitish 
mauve to purplish brown costal region. There are a very few black scales and 
the base of the costa is darkened. Cleft preceded by a very faint trace of a 
dark spot. Veins in first lobe pale in the darker specimens. Inner margin of 
first lobe with a fine black point before apex. Apex of both lobes with one and 
outer margin of second witli two very faint black points in some specimens. 
Fringes grayish ochreous with some white hairs but without white pencils in 
the specimens we have examined except a trace at dot before apex of first 
lobe. Secondaries gray brown with concolorous fringes. Expanse about 32 
mm. 

Distribution : Cal. We have it from Alameda Co. and Warner's, 
June and July. 

The immaculate primaries with their pronounced purplish or 
mauve tint render this a very striking species. We have seen only 
four specimens, all females, including the two types, but have no 
doubt that it is a good species. In general form it is identical, so far 
as we have observed, with rileyi. The two types are in the Fernald 
collection. 

We have no information regarding the early stages. 

11. OlDAEMATOPHORUS CASTOR n. sp. PI. XLVII, fig. 10. PI. I.I. 

fig. 8. 

Whitish, faintly tinged with light brown. Head darker except a broad 
patch between antennae. Antennae banded with brownish black above. Palpi 
moderate, oblique, blackish touched with wliite above. Abdomen with a broad 
brown dorsal stripe including black bars on hind margins of several segments 
in holotype and allotype. Legs white. Fore tibiae with one and middle with 
two moderately heavy tufts of blackish scales, including a few white. Mid tarsi 
touched with brown on one side at tips of joints. 

Primaries whitish, delicately shaded with pale brown along the veins in 
the lobes and in a few vague areas on disk and inner margin. Costa with a 
brown dash above base of cleft, sometimes followed by a fine brown dot. This 
dasli is preceded by a broad shade sprinkled with black scales, heaviest toward 
base. Cleft preceded at a short distance by the usual oblique black patch which 



395 

curves outward toward costal patch and is preceded by some black scales. 
Other black scales form a broken basal dash below cell and line the margins 
of both lobes near base of cleft, the inner rather slightly, the costal usually 
heavily. Fringes whitish on costa, with a light brown patch at apex preceded 
by a similar but smaller patch; on inner margin ochreous-gray, in cleft dark 
brownish gray in marked contrast with wing. Secondaries and their fringes 
gray-brown, very evidently darker than primaries. Expanse 29-30 mm. 

Described from three specimens. Holotype 3 , Redington, Ariz., in coll. 
Barnes. Allotype and paratype $, Bear Wallow Trail, Santa Catalina Mts., 
Ariz., July, in Am. Mus. 

The type is in rather good condition but lacks hind legs, while 
the allotype and paratype are in poor condition, but supply this defi- 
ciency. The species is very similar in appearance to poUux, but is 
at once distinguished by its tufted tibiae and the dark fringes in the 
cleft of the primaries. None of the types bear biological data. 

12. OlD.'\EMAT0PH0RUS POLLUX n. sp. PI. XLVII, fig. 11. PI. LII, 

fig. 1. 

Head, thorax and abdomen whitish, tinged with gray-brown, sometimes 
distinctly yellowish. Abdomen with two subdorsal parallel white stripes, some- 
times inconspicuous. Antennae and palpi white, the latter moderate, oblique. 
Legs white. First two pairs with tibiae and femora, and to a certain extent 
tips of tarsal joints, infuscated. No tibial tufts. 

Primaries white to pale yellowish white, costa from base to apex tinged 
with gray-brown and with a blackish dash above base of cleft, followed by one 
or two dots in a few specimens. Extreme apex of first lobe blackish, sometimes 
continued through fringes in a dark pencil. Apex of second lobe with a black- 
ish streak along vein Mg, continued through fringes. At a short distance before 
cleft is a small subtriangular brownish black spot, concave outwardly as it 
curves toward costal spot. There is sometimes a dot at middle of cell. The 
wing is sparsely sprinkled with dark scales which tend to collect along the 
veins and inner margin, and to obscure the base of the costa. Fringes con- 
colorous except as mentioned. Secondaries and fringes gray brown, as a rule 
conspicuously darker than primaries. Expanse 27-33 mm. 

Described from 25 specimens. 

Holotype $ and allotype from Paradise, Cochise Co., Ariz., Sept. and 
Aug., in coll. Barnes. 

Twenty-three paratypes, three $ and twenty 9 , from Mohave Co., Para- 
dise, Palmtrlee and Prescott and the Baboquiviiri and Chiricahua Mts., Ariz., 
Apr., July to Oct. distributed as follows: 1 c5 and 19 U. S. N. M. type No. 
23466, 1 9 coll. Fernald, 1 9 coll. Meyrick, 1 9 Cambridge Museum ; remainder 
in coll. Barnes. 

This beautiful species is placed here with some misgivings, since 
the smooth tibiae would seem to indicate a lower position in the genus. 



396 

In general characters, however, it seems closely related to castor and 
mizar, and with them to stand most satisfactorily in this place. It is 
very different from any other species known to us, though it resembles 
castor superficially as we have already noted. 
We know nothing of the early stages. 

13. OlDAEMATOPHORUS MIZAR n. Sp. PI. XLVII, fig. 12. PI. LII, 

fig. 2. 

Brownish gray, front of thorax and head largely white. Thorax tipped 
behind with a V-shaped white mark. First two segments of abdomen with 
some black on posterior margin, followed by white on following segment; 
remainder with white posterior margins ; a lateral white line is present. Palpi 
moderate, oblique, white, touched with gray-brown below at tip of second 
segment. .Antennae white with dark dots above. Legs white; fore tibiae with 
brownish black stripes inside and a moderate tuft of mixed dark and light scales; 
mid tibiae with two such tufts; fore and mid tarsi with slight dark annuli at 
tips of joints; hind legs with dark bands at bases of spurs, a broad terminal 
annulus on first tarsal joint and slight annuli on remaining four. 

Primaries brownish gray with white streaks, the restricted areas of ground 
color usually sprinkled with 1 lackish scales. The white vestiture clothes the 
wing at base of cleft, where it is inwardly limited by the usual subtriangular 
spot which is here broadly connected with the costa, and spreads out over the 
first lobe. This spot also sends a variably broad streak toward outer margin 
of second lobe. On each side of the base of the cleft is a fine black streak, 
fading outwardly into the grayer lobes, and in the first lobe a second heavier 
streak in basal half, two dots on costa, one cit apex, and one before it on inner 
margin. In the second lobe there may be a black apical dot, a subapical dot or 
streak on outer margin and a few other black scales. In the disk there is a 
subcostal white line, rather vague, a dash in the cell, preceded by a spot rather 
darker than the ground color, a large white spot between cell and inner margin 
about one-third from base of wing, and an almost longitudinal white line, pre- 
sumably on the base of Cu... In addition the dark areas, particularly toward 
the base, are more or less irrorate with white. Fringes variable, but always 
brownish gray cut with white, with darker bases. Secondaries and their fringes 
brownish gray. Expanse 24-29 mm. 

Described from fifteen specimens from Arizona and N. M. Holotype 
$, Chiricahua Mts., Cochise Co., Sept. 1-7 and allot\-pe, Palmerlee, in coll. 
Barnes. Thirteen paratypes, 3 $ and 10 9 , from Redington, Palmerlee, Here- 
ford, White and Chiricahua Mts. and Mohave Co., and a single 9 from Jemez 
Springs, N. M., distributed as follows : <? and 9 , U. S. N. M. No. 23467, 1 9 
coll. Femald, 1 9 coll. Meyrick, 1 9 Cambridge Museum; remainder in coll. 
Barnes. We have also a specimen from Mohave Co. taken in October. 

This and the following species are superficially rather similar, but 
uticar is larafer and the thorax differs as noted in the key. Tlie four 



397 

distal joints of the hind tarsi appear to be relatively more widely an- 
nulate in meyricki, but in lightly marked specimens this is likely to be 
confusing. The lateral marks of the abdomen also differ in the two 
species, but we have had such difficulty in finding specimens with rec- 
ognizable abdominal vestiture, even in our long series, that we have 
thought it inadvisable to use the character in the key. The difference 
in palpi appears to be constant. The distribution as represented by 
our series is dififerent, but mizar occurs in Mohave Co., Ariz., and 
meyricki in S. Cal., and it is reasonable to expect them to overlap in 
these regions. The male genitalia are very different. 
We know nothing of the life history. 

14. OlDAEMATOPHORUS MEYRICKI n. Sp. PI. XLVI, fig. 10. PI. LIV, 

fig. 1- 

The description of the wings of mizar will apply also to this species; the 
markings differ slightly in form, but otherwise are the same. The head differs 
in having a contrasting white patch between the antennae. The palpi are brown 
touched with white below. Thorax with the anterior half white, sharply lim- 
ited, and with some white behind. Posterior margins of abdominal segments 
whitish above. The abdomen is marked laterally with alternating oblique stripes 
of dark gray-brown and white and has a lateral white line in the posterior half. 
Legs as in misar, the tibial tufts very slight and rather darker than in that 
species. Tarsi usually more broadly annulate with gray-brown and with a less 
conspicuous difference between the first and outer joints on the posterior pair. 

Described from thirty specimens taken at San Diego, Cal., in April, May 
and June. Holotype S and allotype in coll. Barnes. All of the paratypes, whose 
total is 3 9 and 22 5, are also in coll. Barnes w^ith the exception of the fol- 
lowing: $ and 5, U. S. N. M. No. 23468, $ coll. Fernald, S and 9 coll. 
Meyrick, 1 $ of Cambridge Museum. 

Since we have described meyricki by pointing out the differences 
between it and micar, no further discussion of this matter is necessary. 
\Vc take this opportunity, however, to mention the apparent difference 
in seasonal occurrence of the two. 

15. OlDAEMATOPHORUS GRATIOSUS Fish, PI. XLVI, fig. 11. 
Ocdetnatophorus gratiosus Fish, Can. Ent. XITI, 73, 1881. 
tAliicita gratiosa Fernald, Smith's List Lep. N. A. 87, 1891. 
Pterothorus gratiosus Fernald, Pter. N. A. 54, 1898. 

Id., Bull. 52 U. S. N. M. 447, 1902. 
Meyrick, Gen. Ins. C, 16, 1910. 
Id., Wagner's Lep. Cat. pars 17, 23, 1913. 
Barnes & McDunnoiigh, Check List 151, 1917. 
Fish described the body and minor appendages thus: 



398 

"Head and palpi rather dark brown, scarcely lighter between antennae. 
Antennae pale brownish, dotted above with white and dark brown scales. 
Thorax brown gray, anterior portion lighter. Abdomen fawn brown ; scales 
somewhat raised at extremity of segments. Legs grayish brown, spurs concol- 
orous, not tipped with darker color, tarsi pale cinereous, slightly browned at 
extremities of joints. Middle band of middle tibiae inconspicuous, consisting 
of a few raised scales on one side." 

Primaries brownish white, more brownish toward costa and paler just 
before cleft. The dark patch before the cleft is powdery, of blackish brown 
scales, and is prolonged about half way toward base of wing and connected 
with a rather vague costal spot over base of cleft. The remainder of the wing 
is streaked with scattered brown scales, forming one dash in the first lobe and 
two in the second. All powdery dark areas bear a few white scales. Fringes 
tawny-gray, slightly darker at apices and in cleft, the dark apical tufts preceded 
by paler, but not whitish, patches. Secondaries brownish gray with slightly paler 
fringes. Expanse about 22 mm. 

We would call attention to the fact that the front tarsi are notice- 
ably pale, and that they are only very slightly darker on one side at the 
tips of the joints. This character is useful to separate the species from 
mcyricki. Judging by our three poor specimens, the middle tuft of the 
middle tibiae is probably well developed in fresh specimens. The 
thorax has dorso-Iateral white stripes behind, connected dorsally at 
their middles. 

Distribution: California. We have it from Carmel, June (Va- 
chell). 

The type in coll. Fernald has no head and only one pair of wings, 
but is supplied with one leg of each pair and the abdomen is in good 
condition, which cannot be said of our specimens. Of our three, none 
are good, but one is sufificiently good to enable us to form a reliable 
idea of the species and a second compares very closely with the type 
as it is at present. We are unable to observe any differences between 
the genitalia of this species and nieyricki, (see pi. LIV, fig. 1) and so 
for a time thought that our series of meyricki was merely gratiosus in 
good condition. The afifinities of the species with fieldi are also worthy 
of consideration, but these species are genitalically distinct and easily 
distinguished by superficial characters. To facilitate the separation 
of the three we have constructed the following key, supplementary to 
the main key to the genus. Fresh specimens should give no trouble. 
1. Fore tarsi while, distinctly annulate. Primaries brownish gray with 

\\ bite streaks meyricki 

Fore tarsi while or whitish, indistinctly or incompletely annulate, or 
without dark bands 2 



399 

2. Dark areas of primaries bright red-brown fieldi 

Dark areas of brownisli black scales, more or less powdery, with a few 
white scales gratiosus 

We have seen only four specimens of gratiosus, and none of these 
was reared. 

16. OlDAEMATOPHORUS FIELDI Wright, PI. XLVI, fig. 12. 
Pterophorus fieldi Wright, Ent. News, XXXII 6, 1921. 

The original description is as follows : 

"Expanse 21 to 26 mm. 

"Palpi, front and vertex mottled light brown and white ; antennae whitish 
with very fine brown annulations. , 

"Anterior part of thorax buff, this color spreading out into the base of 
costa of primaries, somewhat darker and narrower in females than males. 
Thorax dorsally brown, becoming lighter basally. Abdomen light brownish 
butr on anterior part with a red-brown squarish spot close to base, becoming 
quite dark, almost seal brown, mottled with ligher on the anal segments. 

"Fore-wings : Ground color white, the costal edge, discal area from base 
to cleft, and inner margin broadly brown-streaked, the spaces between being 
more or less suffused with light brown scales. A dark brown costal streak just 
above the base of the cleft, connected broadly with the outer end of the discal 
streak, preceded and followed by white; another brown costa! streak at the 
base of the first lobe occupying about one-half the space then narrowly white 
to apex. Extreme tip dark, two short dark longitudinal streaks, rather faint, 
near the base of the lobe. A white spot resting on the base of the cleft con- 
nected obliquely by a fine white line to the outer costal white spot. Second 
lobe brown at tip, a faint brown line down the center, a small rectangular 
white spot on vein lb at about one-third from the base. Fringe smoky, a whitish 
spot at anal angle, darker within the cleft, a very dark spot a little inward from 
tip of first lobe. 

"Hind wings dull smoky brown with a faint reddish tinge and darker 
fringes. 

"Legs white more or less mottled with light brown, a small brush of 
appressed brown scales at end of fore tibia. The middle tibia shows the same 
development and in addition has a small cluster of long scales at the center. 
Hind tibia as the middle, but a little more prominent. Spurs light at base, 
smoky at tip. 

"In many specimens the scale clusters on tibiae become more or less obso- 
lete, being represented by a slight swelling of the member at middle and end " 

The type series was taken at San Diego, Cal., in May and June. 
We liave one specimen from San Diego, Apr. 24-30. one pale speci- 
men from \\'e!lington, B. C, June, anrl three from Mohave Co., Ariz., 
Sept. 



400 

The markings are very variable, but their varibiHty is relatively 
unimportant. The hind tibiae are scarcely tufted, as the description 
suggests, but are conspicuously banded with brown. The important 
features of the species are the bright brown markings, the sharply 
limited buff-white anterior area of the thorax, and the light colored 
front tibiae. 

In addition to the type series mentioned by Mr. Wright in his 
own collection and that of Mr. Field, there are two male and one female 
paratypes in coll. Barnes. 

17. OiDAEMATOPHORUs ciTRiTES Meyrick. PI. XLVI, fig. 9. 
Ptcrofhorus citriUs Meyrick, Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. 1907, 502, 1908. 
Id., Gen. Ins. C, 17, 1910. 
Id., Wagner's Lep. Cat. pars 17, 26, 1913. 
Barnes & McDunnoiigh, Check List 151, 1917. 

Meyrick's description is as follows : 

"$ 9. 24-27 mm. Head ochreous-whitish, face and back of crown more 
ochreous-tinged. Palpi and antennae whitish-ochreous. Thora.x whitish-ochre- 
ous, patagia sometimes more whitish, .\bdonien whitish-ochreous, sides more 
ochreous. Legs ochreous-whitish, anterior and middle femora and tibiae ochre- 
ous. Fore-wings cleft from 2/3, first segment moderate, long-pointed, second 
much broader, shorter-pointed; ochreous, partially tinged with whitish; an unde- 
fined patch of light brownish suffusion with a few dark fuscous scales towards 
dorsum about 1/4; a small spot of similar suffusion in disc at 1/3; an oblique 
dark fuscous mark a little before base of cleft, preceded by some yellow-brownish 
suffusion which is extended upwards as an indistinct oblique streak to costa 
above base of cleft, posteriorly edged with white suffusion; a short longitudinal 
streak of yellowish-brown suffusion sprinkled with dark fuscous in apex of 
second segment, and another less distinct and sometimes obsolete beneath apex 
of wing ; cilia whitish, beneath apex with a pale ochreous patch, within cleft 
tinged with ochreous and on upper margin of second segment with fuscous, on 
dorsum tinged with whitish-ochreous. Hind-wings cleft firstly from before 
middle, secondly from 1/4, segments rather narrow, second long pointed; grey, 
sometimes much suffused with whitish ochreous; cilia wliitish- ochreous-gray 
or whitish-ochreous. 

"Colorado, U. S., 5000-7000 feet, three specimens." 

Through the generosity of Mr. Meyrick a paratype 9 is now in 
the Barnes collection. In addition we have a single specimen, much 
more heavily marked, from Boulder, Colo. There are examples in 
the National Museum from Colo, and New Mexico, Aug., and a single 
specimen expanding 30 mm. from Ariz, which may belong here. It is 
rather badly broken, so we can be certain of the tuarkings of the pri- 
maries onlv, and these are as in citntcs. 



401 

The species is similar to pale specimens of fiddi but the evenly 
colored thorax separates it at once from that species. Paler examples, 
as the paratype in our possession, are easily confused with occidi'iitalis, 
but differ in having only slight terminal tufts, no median, on fore and 
mid tibiae. 

We have had no opportunity to examine the male genitalia, and 
can give no data on the life history. 

18. OiD.\EMATOPiioRUS BRUCEi Fernald. PI. XLVI, fig. 8. PI. LI I, 

fig. 14. 
Ptei-oflwrus brucci Fernald, Pter. N. A. 42, 1898. 

Id., Bull. 52 U. S. N. M. 445, 1902. 

? Forbes, Psyche XVI, 136, 1909. 

Anderson, Cat. B. C. Lep. 50, 1904. 

Dyar, Proc. U. S. N. M. XXVII, 924, 1904. 

B. C. Ent. Sec. Check List 42, 1906. 

Meyrick, Gen. Ins. C, 17, 1910. 

Id., Wagner's Lep. Cat. pars 17, 25, 1913. ^ 

Barnes & McDnnnough, Check List 151, 1917. 
Ptcrophorus chionastcs Meyrick, Trans. Ent. Sec. Lend. 1907, 501, 1908. 

Id., Gen. Ins. C, 17, 1910. 

Id., Wagner's Lep. Cat. pars 17, 25, 1913. 

Barnes & McDnnnough, Check List 151, 1917. 
White, palpi moderate, oblique, rather slender. Legs touched with fuscous 
inside and at bases of spurs. Only a trace of scale tufts on fore and mid tibiae. 
Primaries pure white with some scattered gray-brown scales. Costa with 
a dash over base of cleft and a lighter one at middle of first lobe which does 
not enter the fringes. Cleft preceded by a small elongate-triangular spot, some- 
times connected with costal dash. There is a powdery spot in middle of cell 
and three more or less vagiie powdery dashes in inner half of wing, the last 
extending into second lobe from below triangular spot. Inner margin of first 
lobe with a dot before ape.x. Outer margin of second lobe with some dark 
scales. Fringes whitish, brownish gray in cleft except a white cluster before 
apex of first lobe. The dark areas are sometimes greatly extended, and the 
white parts touched with gray-brown, but all marks remain more or less powdery, 
cloudy and indefinite except the triangular spot and accompanying costal dash. 
Secondaries pale brownish gray, sometimes almost whitish, with slightly darker 
fringes. Expanse 22-27 mm. 

Distribution: Alaska to Ariz., Colo., Manitoba. June to Aug. 
Mass. (Forbes). Pa. (Cambridge Mus.) Vancouver Is. (Dyar). 

The three types of brucei are in the Fernald collection. One is 
a male, and the others have broken abdomens. They were taken in 
Colo, by Bruce. Chionastcs was also described from Colorado speci- 



402 

mens, the four types being in Meyrick's collection. We have one speci- 
men from Boulder, Colo., which Meyrick identified as his species, and 
our personal comparison shows it to be almost exactly the same as 
Fernald's types. Our one Alaskan specimen is the darkest which we 
have seen, but retains the pure white and nebulous dark marks of 
typical brucei. 

The life history is unknown. 

19. OiDAEMATOPHORUs iNQUiNATUS Zeller. PI. XLVI, fig. 1. PI. 

LI, fig. 9. 
Ocdcmatophorus iiiquiiKilHs Zeller, Verli. z-h. Ges. Wien XXII 1, 325, 1873. 

Murtfeldt, Am. Ent. Ill, 235, 1880. 

Coquillett, Papilio 11, 61, 1882 (biol.). 

Uimmock, Psyche III, 403, 1882. 

Hy. Edwards, Bull. 35 U. S. N. M. 137, 1889. 

Hedemann, Stett. ent. Zeit. LVII, 9, 1896. 
tAltuita iiiquinata Fernald, Smith's List Lep. N. A. 87, 1891. 
%Ocdematus infuuiatus Murtfeldt, Proc. Nat. Sci. Club 13, 1896. 
Pterophorus inquinatus Fernald, Pter. N. A. 56 (in part), pi. Ill, ff. 5, 6; pi. 
IV, ff. 3, 4, 1898. 

Id., Bull. 52 U. S. N. M. 447, 1902 (in part). 

Meyrick, Gen. Ins. C, 17, 1910 (in part). 

Id., Wagner's Lep. Cat. pars 17, 25, 1913 (in part). 

Walsingham, Biol. Cent. Am., Lep. Het. IV, 446, 1915 (in part). 

Barnes & McDunnough, Check List 151. 1917 (in part). 

Grossbeck, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat, Hi.st. XXXVII, 136, 1917. 

Britton, Ins. Conn. 103, 1920. 
Vestiture of mixed gray-brown and whitish scales, the front of the 
thorax and a space between antennae more whitish. Antennae white or 
whitish with dark dots above, Palpi rather small, oblique. Abdomen with 
scales on posterior margins of segments slightly roughened, bearing a pair of 
black dots at least on a few segments near middle. Legs whitish; fore and 
mid tibiae striped with dark gray-brown and provided with traces of scale tufts; 
tarsi wiiite, usually finely annulate at tips of joints. 

Primaries white and gray brown, usually so evenly mixed as to produce 
a gray ground color on which the whiter and blacker areas are more or less 
conspicuous. Costa normally marked with a dash above base of cleft and a 
shorter one just beyond middle of first lobe, both of which include the fringes. 
The latter is preceded and followed by small dark dots, which scarcely enter 
the white fringes. Either or both may be lacking. There is a blackish spot in 
cell and a dash before cleft which is prolonged toward costal dash and some- 
times connected to it by a fainter shade. Inner margin of first lobe with a dot 
before apex, and second lobe with one to four such dots at apex and on outer 
margin. The more evident whitish areas are a subcostal line before cleft, a 



403 

spot at one-third from base near inner margin, followed by a dash on vein Cu 
and a patch at base of cleft. Fringes dark brownish gray, slightly darker in 
cleft; cut by a whitish pencil before apex of first lobe and by three or less, 
often grayish and inconspicuous, on outer margin of second. Secondaries 
brownish gray with concolorous fringes. Expanse 15-22 ram. 

Distribution : Atlantic Coast to Cal., south into Mexico. March 
to Sept. We have no Canadian records, and the most northern locali- 
ties represented in our series are N. Iowa and Pa. 

The paired dorsal dots on the abdomen and the general grayish 
color distinguish this common species. The dots are not particularly 
small, but are set close together and are frequently inconspicuous in 
dark specimens. Crumpling and shrinking of the abdomen, which un- 
fortunately is frequent in this family, may render it almost impossible 
to discern the dots and their position, but we have seen very few speci- 
mens in which it was impossible to see one pair, at least. 

Inquinatus is very closely related to the two following species, 
both of which may be mere races or forms. The evidence at our 
disposal leads us to believe that all are worthy of specific rank, and 
this opinion is strengthened by certain genitalic diiTerences, slight it 
is true, but as great as can be expected between closely related species 
in this genus. These differences are found in the left harpe. This 
structure is long and slender, and divided by rnore or less sharp curves 
into three regions, which may be termed basal, median and terminal. 
In inquinatus the terminal portion is evidently shorter than the median, 
and the outer band is relatively sharp. The remaining species may be 
separated from inquinatus on this basis by the following key : 

1. Terminal portion of harpe as long as median 2 

Terminal portion shorter than median inquinatus 

2. Harpe broadly rounded, regions indefinite eros 

Harpe more definitely bent into three portions pan 

All are subject to variation, but the difference as expressed here 
seems to be constant. 

We have not verified the identification of inquinatus by compar- 
ison with the types. When we sent species to England we were under 
the impression that these types were in the Cambridge Museum, but 
it now seems that they are in the British Museum. Three specimens 
labelled by Zeller in the Cambridge Museum collection remove all 
reasonable doubt of the accuracy of our use of the name, however. A 
fourth specimen, Zeller's van b., may be a pale inquinatus or a dark 



404 

pan. Wc favor the latter view, but the matter is so unimportant as 
scarcely to warrant the complication of the synonymy. 

Coc]uilett's brief descriptions of the larva and pupa are the only 
ones known to us. They are as follows : 

"Larva. — Body green, sparsely covered with raised white dots ; warts con- 
colorous, each bearing from two to six stiff, curved, diverging white bristles 
of different lengths; spiracles raised, whitish; head partially retractile into 
segment one, green, tinged with brown and marked on each side with a black 
spot above the jaws ; venter green, unmarked ; length 12 mm. Two specimens. 
Lives on Ambrosia artemisiac folia. One pupated July 27, producing the imago 
August 3; the other pupated July 30 and the imago emerged August 6. 

"Chrysalis. — Of the usual shape, pale ash color, marked with a large pink 
spot near the middle of the upper side; on this spot is large brownish-black 
spot ; length 7 mm. The chrysalis is fastened by its posterior end to the upper 
side of some object, from which it stands in an oblique direction, the abdomen 
being slightly curved." 

We have no way of telling whether the species which Coquilett 
reared was true inquinatiis or ambrosiae Murt. The descriptions 
quoted by Fernald in the "Pterophoridae of North America" apply to 
the latter. 

20. OlDAEMATOPHORUS EROS H. Sp. PI. XLVI, fig. 2. PI. LI, fig. 11. 

Head and thorax white, the former with some gray-brown scales above 
and in front and the latter with a cluster of blackish-brown scales behind. Ab- 
domen mostly white but with a few gray-brown scales. Posterior margins of 
segments with paired dorsal dots, as in inqninatus, but with the vestiture not 
visibly roughened in the type series. Antennae white with gray-brown dots 
above. Palpi white with scattered gray-brown scales, especially on sides. Legs 
white, marked as in inquinatus but less heavily. 

The primaries are marked exactly as in inquinatus, but are much 
lighter. Their appearance is definitely whitish with gray-brown irroration and 
spots, instead of generally grayish as in the other species. The secondaries are 
also of a much lighter shade of brownish gray. Expanse 14-17.5 mm. 

Described from ten specimens taken in Mohave Co., Ariz., Sept. 8-15 
(Poling). 

Holotype $ , allotype and 6 paratypes 3 in coll. Barnes. 

Paratypes 5 and 2 , U. S. N. M. No. 23469. 

The series to which we apply this name is undoubtedly very closely 
related to inquinatus and pan, and may be only a small pale race of 
the former. Until we are able to link them definitely with specimens 
such as we have not at present, we are inclined to believe that it is 
worthy of specific rank. As one would expect, the genitalia of all 
three are quite similar, but there is a general form of the left harpe in 



405 

each which appears to be constant. In cros this structure is much 
more broadly curved than in the other two, lacking definite bends be- 
tween the several regions. The supplementary key under inquiiiatus 
tabulates these differences. 

None of our specimens was reared. 

21. OlDAEMATOPHORUS PAN n. sp. PI. XL VI, fig. 3. PI. LI, fig. 10. 

Head, body and legs white, marked as in cros. The paired spots on the 
abdomen are more conspicuous than in either inquinatus or eras. Scales on 
terminal margins of abdominal segments raised. 

Primaries white with scanty gray-brown irroration. In the most heavily 
marked specimens this irroration darkens tlie costa in its basal half and streaks 
the remainder of the wing. The black costal dash over the base of the cleft is 
conspicuous and usually definitely separated from the discal area by a clear 
white subcostal line. Spot before cleft small, scarcely produced toward costa. 
Remaining marks as in inquinatus and cros. Fringes contrastingly dark but with 
extensive white areas. Secondaries whitish to light gray, usually with much 
more white below than in the other species. Expanse 17-24 mm. 

Described from twenty-seven specimens taken by O. C. Poling en route 
Dewey to Salome, Ariz., April and May 8-15 and three ( 9 paratypes) from 
Palm Springs, Riverside Co., Cal., March 16-23. 

Holotype S, allotype and 22 paratypes, 11^, 11 9, in coll. Barnes. 

Paratj-pes S and 9 U. S. N. M. No. 23470. 

Paratypes S and 9 Cambridge Museum. 

Paratype 6 coll. Fernald. 

Paratype 9 coll. Meyrick. 

With these we associate a number of specimens from other locali- 
ties in Ariz, and S. Cal. 

The species differs from inquiiintus and cros in its larger size, 
lighter color and the form of the left harpe. This, as pointed out 
under inquinatus, is rather broadly bent into three regions, the terminal 
approximately equal to the median. With a good series at our disposal 
we feel that these differences warrant the treatment of pan as a good 
species. It is possible that it is Zeller's inquinatus var. b, but the 
specimen labelled by Zeller in the Cambridge Museum collection is not 
sufficient to establish this. 

We have no knowledge of the life history. We should expect to 
find the larvae of eras and pan on Ambrosia with inquinatus or on 
closely related plants, and hope that some entomologist in the South- 
west will be able to rear them and ap])ly the evidence of life history 
to the separation of the three. 



406 

22. OlDAEMATOPHORUS niOEBUS n. sp. PI. XLVI, fig. 5. PI. LII, 

fig. 15. 

Head brown with a whitish band between antennae. Antennae faintly 
brown-dotted above. Palpi small, oblique, whitish with traces of brown on 
third joint. Thorax whitish in front, becoming tawny to brownish behind. 
Fore and middle legs infuscated, white outside, without tufts. Hind legs whitish 
to pale gray brown in the darkest specimen at hand, spurs moderate. Abdomen 
apparently concolorous with posterior part of thorax, with a variable number 
of single dark gray-brown dorsal dots on posterior margins of segments. 

Primaries whitish to light tawny brown, the palest area in the second lobe 
and along inner margin of first. Costa whitish toward base, sprinkled with 
blackish scales, otherwise immaculate, paler toward apex. Cleft preceded at 
a short distance by a faint dark dot. Entire wing usually with some scattered 
black scales, less numerous on the disk and tending to form streaks in the lobes 
and near the inner margin. Fringes pale on costa, elsewhere brownish gray to 
brownish black, contrastingly darker than wing. Secondaries brownish gray 
with concolorous or slightly darker fringes. Expanse 21-23 mm. 

Described from four specimens as follows : 

Holotype S, Carmel, Cal., June 10 (Williams), paratype ?, Carmel, Cal., 
Apr. (Vachell) and paratype ?, Deer Park Springs, Lake Tahoe, Cal., July 
8-15, coll. Barnes. Paratype ?, San Luis Obispo, Cal, Mar. (Vachell), U. S. 
N. M. No. 23473. The abdomens of all the paratypes are broken. With these 
specimens we associate one 9 from Palmerlee, Ariz., and one from Westmin- 
ster, B. C. The latter is our palest specimen, but we see no reason to doubt 
that it belongs here. 

23. OlDAEMATOPHORUS TRITON n. sp. PI. XLVI, fig. 4. 

Head brown with a whitish patch between antennae. Antennae whitish ; 
palpi small, oblique ; third joint touched with blackish on outside. Thorax 
whitish. Abdomen light brown in the types, but this is apparently due to the 
usual discoloration. In the holotype there seems to be a trace of dorsal brown 
spots. Vestiture roughened on posterior margins of segments. Legs whitish, 
fore and middle pair infuscated within. Spurs of hind pair moderately long. 
Tibial tufts absent. 

Primaries white suffused with light gray lirown excepting a band around 
base of cleft and along inner margin of first lobe, and a variably extensive 
area along inner margin to apex of second lobe. Disk with a faint whitish 
streak leading basad from cleft and a faint subcostal whitish line, meeting 
costa just before base of cleft. Before and beyond this point the costa is darker. 
Cell with a small dark spot at middle, sometimes absent. Before white band 
at base of cleft there may be either one, two or no spots, if tv.o the inner is 
darker. First lobe with a dark dot before apex on inner margin; second with 
a dot or dash at apex and three dashes on tips of preceding veins. In this 
lobe the gray-brown suffusion sometimes marks the veins for a short distance. 
Fringes on costa white with a few grayish scales, elsewhere brownish gray, 



4i)7 

darker in the cleft. Secondaries entirely brownish gray. Expanse 18-20 mm. 

The male genitalia resemble those of micar (see PI. Lll, fig. 2) but the 
left harpe is shorter than the clasper, and the small lobe (ampulla?) is lacking 
on the right clasper. 

Described from four specimens taken at Palmerlee, Cochise Co., Ariz. 
Holotype 3, allotype and one paratype S coll. Barnes. Paratype S U. S. N. 
M. No. 23471. 

This species is apparently related to intcgnitus Meyr., from which 
it differs in the absence of a costal spot over the base of the cleft. 

Life history unknown. 

24. OiDAEMATOPHORUS INTEGRATUS Meyrick. PI. XI. VT, fig. 6. PI. 
LII, fig. 7. 

Ptcrophorus integratus Meyrick, Exot. Microlep. I, 113. 1913. 
Id., Wagner's Lep. Cat. pars 17, 24, 1913. 
Barnes & McDunnough, Check List 151, 1917. 

Head brown, white between antennae. Antennae without dots above. 
Palpi moderate, slender, oblique. Thorax white, brownish across tips of pa- 
tagia. Abdomen apparently whitish, with gray-brown dorsal and lateral dots. 
Legs in poor condition in our series, but whitish and apparently lightly infus- 
cated on one side. Fore and middle tibiae without tufts. 

Primaries light brownish gray with a vague streak from base to cleft 
and a well marked band around base of cleft and along inner margin of first 
feather, apex white. Second feather sometimes vaguely whitish outwardly, 
with slightly darker veins on its gray portion. White hand at base of cleft 
sometimes preceded by a dark dot or curved line. Middle of cell with a small 
dot. Costa with a gray-brown dash above base of cleft, preceded and followed 
by white. Costa of first lobe sometimes with one or two dark dots, apex with 
one, and inner margin with one near apex. Apex and outer margin of second 
lobe with four dark dots at tips of veins. Entire wing with scattered gray-brown 
scales, usually clustered in various areas. Fringes brownish gray with a white 
pencil in cleft before apex of first lobe and more extensive white clusters on 
outer margin of second. Secondaries very pale brownish gray, fringes simi- 
lar. Expanse 17-19 mm 

Distribution : Ariz. Type locality Nogales. We have it from 
the Paboquivari Mts., July, and Palmerlee, Cochise Co. 

The early stages are unknown. 

25. OiDAEMATOPHORUS AUSTER n. Sp. PI. XT^VI, fig. 7. PI. LII, 

fig. 8. 

Head blackish-brown, white between antennae, which are dark with a 
white line above, sometimes broken into dots. Palpi moderate, oblique, gray 
brown on the sides and mostly white above and below. Thorax whitish, scales 
lightly tipped with gray-brown, more heavily in a band which crosses thorax 



408 

and tips of patagia. Legs white ; fore and mid femora and tibiae with blackish- 
brown stripes and without tufts; tarsi and hind legs touched with blackish 
brown at tips of joints and more or less suffused with brownish gray. Abdomen 
gray brown with a few white scales. Above it is marked with two white 
stripes which contain a pair of diverging black streaks on each segment. In 
the posterior half of the abdomen the bases of each pair of streaks are con- 
nected by a broad dorsal dash in the posterior margin of the preceding seg- 
ment. There are also some blackish lateral dashes and two pale ventral stripes. 

Primaries clothed with mixed white and brownish gray scales and more 
or less sprinkled with black. They are more or less whitish basad and along 
inner margin of first lobe, and have a few whitish streaks near the inner mar- 
gin and in the second lobe. There is a small dark dot, sometimes scarcely 
evident, near middle of cell, and a spot before cleft. The latter is usually 
scarcely more than a curved transverse shade, sharply limited outwardly by 
whitish or light gray scales at base of cleft. Costa with a heavy blackish dash 
over base of cleft and shaded with black in basal half. Costa of first lobe with 
two black dots, opposite which there are whitish areas in the fringes. There 
is a pale brown subcostal line which reaches the costa in white patches before 
and after the black costal dash, fades out toward base of wing, and forks 
in the first lobe, the two branches fading out near the middle of the lobe. 
Between them is usually a blackish dash. Apex of first lobe and inner margin 
before apex with black dots. Tips of veins in second lobe touched with black. 
Fringes brownish gray, on the second lobe cut with white at tips of veins, at 
least toward apex. On the first lobe they are white from the preapical dot 
on the inner margin to the apex, with a few dark basal scales. Secondaries 
and their fringes brownish gray. Expanse 20-27 mm. 

Described from fourteen Arizona specimens. 

Holotype $, allotype and four paratypes 2 from Mohave Co., Aug. and 
Sept., two paratypes S and one 9, Yavapai Co., and one paratype 2 eacli 
from Redington and Paradise, May, in coll. Barnes. 

Paratypes 5 and 2, Mohave Co., Sept., U. S. N. M. No. 23474. 

Paratype 2 , Mohave Co., Sept., in coll. Meyrick. 

This beautiful species is unlike an)' other known to us, and may 
be recognized very easily by the abdominal markings and the subcostal 
stripe on the primaries. 

The life history is unknown. 

26. OlDAEMATOrHORUS MEDIUS n. sp. PI. XLVII, fig. 1. PI. LII, 

fig. 4. 

Head brownish, creamy white between antennae. Antennae pale above, 
dotted with brown. Palpi small, slender, oblique, whitish; third joint and tip 
of second touched with brown. Thorax whitish with light brown band across 
tips of patagia. Abdomen gray brown with white scales, whiter above toward 
base, and on posterior margins of segments, which are also marked with single 
dorsal brown dots. Fore and mid tibiae with brown stripes and faint indica- 



409 

tions of tlie usual tufts; tarsi touched with gray brown at tips of joints. Hind 
legs more grayish, tibiae apparently with a white dorsal line ; darker at bases 
of spurs and paler at bases of tarsal joints. Spurs rather short. The hind 
legs are present in only one specimen of the type series. 

Primaries pale dull gray-brown with some whitish scales and a variable 
sprinkling of black ones. There is a rather heavy oblique black dash or spot 
contiguous to base of cleft and a costal spot above it, preceded and followed 
by whitish fringes. The first lobe has two faint black costal dots, one apical 
and one preapical on inner margin, and both it and the second are more or less 
streaked with the black irroration. There is a subcostal line as in the pre- 
ceding species, but in this case it is merely an area of the ground color free 
from both black and white scales, and hence is very inconspicuous. Secondaries 
and fringes of both wings gray-brown. Expanse 17-19 mm. 

Described from five specimens from Texas. 

Holotype 3 , and two paratypes S from San Benito, March 16-23 and 
allotype, Brownsville, in coll. Barnes. 

Paratype S, San Benito, Mar., U. S. N. M., No. 23487. 

We have three other specimens in poor condition from the San 
Benito series. 

Medius is rather distinct by reason of its extreme dullness 
of color, lack of conspicuous pattern other than the one discal dot, 
and by the fact that this dot is contiguous to the base of the cleft and 
not separated from it by pale scales. VVe think that no difticulty will 
be experienced in placing it by means of the key. 

The life history is not yet known. 

27. OlDAEMATOPHORUS LINUS H. Sp. PI. XLVII, fig. 2. PI. LII, 

fig. 9. 

White. Head with some gray-brown scales above and in front. Antennae 
dotted with brown above. Palpi small and slender, third joint and tip of second 
gray-brown. Fore and middle legs with some slender gray-brown stripes, no 
trace of tufts. Hind legs with gray-brown lines on spurs and just a trace at 
tips of some tarsal joints; spurs moderate. Abdomen with single dorsal dots 
in posterior margins of segments, sometimes faintly connected by a dorsal line; 
also with a gray-brown ventral line and lateral spots or dashes. 

Primaries white, more or less heavily irrorate with brownish black scales 
which are more numerous toward inner margin and apices of lobes. Costa 
with a dark dash over base of cleft and another beyond middle of first lobe. 
Apex of first lobe, inner margin just before apex, and tips of veins in second 
lobe with brownish black dots. Those on the second lobe are usually indis- 
tinguishable from the scattered black scales which surround them. There is a 
dark spot a short space before the cleft which is produced obliquely toward 
the costal dash. Fringes brownish gray with whitish pencils at tips of veins 



410 

of second lobe and one before apex of first. Secondaries and their fringes 
brownish-gray. Expanse 21-22 mm. 

Described from seven specimens. 

Holotype i and one paratype S, New Brighton, Pa., June (Merrick) in 
coll. Barnes. 

Allotype Hampton, N. II., July (Shaw) and one paratype S, Wapakoneta, 
Ohio, U. S. N. M. No. 23475. 

Paratype S , Mass. and one paratype with broken abdomen from James- 
ville, Md., Cambridge Museum, together with a fragmentary specimen from 
Hazleton, Pa. 

Paratype 9, Hatch Exp. Sta., Mass., July 2, 1897, coll. Fernald. 

Linus is also a very distinct species, with its rather narrow pri- 
maries coarsel}' powdered with blackish scales over the white ground 
color. None of the types is in perfect condition, but the species 
appears to be rare so we have added as many as possible to the type 
series. 

We have no information about the life history. 

28. OiD.AEMATOPiioRus FisHii Fernald. PI. XLY, fig. 1. 2. PI. LIII, 

fig. 7. 
Aludta fishii Fernald, Can. Ent. XXV, 95, 1893. 
Pterophonts fishii Fernald, Pter. N. A. 40, 1898. 
Id., Bull. 52 U. S. N. M. 444, 1902. 
Meyrick, Gen. Ins. C, 17, 1910. 
Id., Wagner's Lep. Cat. pars 17, 25, 1913. 
tPterophoriis fislii Barnes & McDunnough, Check List 151, 1917. 

i . Pale brownish gray. Palpi with a few darker scales toward tip ; 
small and oblique. Antennae very faintly dotted above. Legs mixed gray 
and whitish, tarsi darker at tips of joints Fore and mid tibiae with slight 
scale tufts. Spurs of hind tibiae short. 

Primaries light gray-brown, sometimes mixed with white scales. Costa 
with a gray-brown dash over base of cleft and a longer one, sometimes divided 
into two, beyond. Cleft preceded at a short distance by a slight dark spot, 
obliquely prolonged in a faint shade toward costal dash. This spot is sometimes 
no darker than the ground color, indicated by the paler scales which follow it. 
There are a few darker gray brown scales scattered over the wing. Fringes 
very pale gray brown with a few whitish areas. Secondaries and their fringes 
scarcely darker than primaries. 

9 . Much paler than $ . White with the darker marks of the S present 
but pale brownish gray. Fringes of primaries extremely pale, whitish. Under 
a lens normal specimens show pure white clusters in the fringes, but in the 
palest specimens they are entirely pure white. The secondaries are faintly 
tinged with gray. Some specimens are almost pure white, but none in our 
possession fails to show the costal dash over base of cleft and mark before 
cleft under a lens. Expanse 17-23 mm. 



411 

Distribution : Described from Nevada. Ariz., S. Cal., Utah, July 
to Sept. Dr. McDunnough sent us one S taken at Avveme, Man., 
July 13, 1904, which appeared to be fishii, but it was in such poor con- 
dition that we could not be certain of its identity. 

This is the only species known to us in which the sexes differ. 
A good series in the Grinnell collection from the San Bernardino Mts., 
Cal., convinced us of this, for it was possible to separate the males 
and females of this series, without an exception, without examining 
the sexual organs. Our own material was too limited to bring us to 
this conclusion, but it is significant that we had set aside a series of 
males from Cal. and Ariz, as a new species, and a series of females 
from Utah as fishii before seeing Grinnell's series. 

In order to avoid confusion which might have arisen from the 
extreme paleness of the markings in some females, we are including 
the species in the key both in the group having a costal mark over 
the base of the cleft and in the one which lacks this mark, though it 
appears to be at least faintly developed in all of our specimens, as 
already noted. 

The unique 9 type is in the Fernald collection. It now consists 
of the thorax and left secondary only, but in the pale color of the 
wing it corresponds with our females. 

The early stages are unknown. 

29. OlDAEMATOPHORUS CADMUS n. sp. PI. XLVTI, fig. 3. PI. LII, 
fig. 5. 

Head brown in front, slightly brownish above, white between antennae. 
Antennae and palpi white, the latter rather short, slender and oblique. Thorax 
and abdomen whitish, the latter with three brown stripes below and sometimes 
vague traces of two above. Legs white, fore and mid tibiae and all spurs with 
fine brown stripes. Spurs long, first pair on hind tibiae reaching well over 
half way to terminal pair, and these about half as long as first joint of tarsi. 

Primaries white, irrorate with brown. The brown scales darken the first 
lobe rather evenly, but are more or less blotchy elsewhere. At base of cleft 
is a white space preceded by a curved, powdery brown line which margins a 
patch of brown irroration extending slightly basad and joining a costal brown 
dash over base of cell. Beyond this is one other costal spot. Apex of first 
lobe, inner margin before apex and sometimes tips of veins in second lobe 
with small browMi dots. Fringes white or whitish in cleft with brownish gray 
tufts at and before apex of first lobe; white on costa, gray brown at spots; 
brownish gray mixed with white ehewhere, with two white patches on outer 
margin of second lobe. Secondaries and their fringes very pale brownish gray. 
Expanse 14-16 mm. 



412 

Described from ten males, nine from Palmerlee, Ariz., and one (paratype) 
from Camp Baldy, San Bernardino Mts., Cal., all taken in July. 

Holotype and eight paratypes coll. Barnes. 

Parat>'pe U. S. N. M. No. 23476. 

This little species is not unlike our Adaina zcphyria in superfi- 
cial appearance, but differs in having the discal spot separated from 
the base of the cleft by a white area, and in the much less prominent 
spots on the margins of the lobes of the primaries. 

Nothing is known of the life history. 

30. OlDAEMATOPHORUS lOBATES n. sp. PI. XLVII, fig. 16. PI. LIV, 

fig. 12. 

Head brown above and in front, brownish white between antennae. An- 
tennae with a slender, somewhat broken brown line above. Palpi moderately 
long, very slender, white with a brown line outside. Fore and middle legs 
white with brown stripes, the tarsi with dashes on one side or merely brown 
shading. Hind legs whitish, sprinkled with brown scales, sometimes very 
heavily. Tarsi with the joints tipped and slightly shaded with brown. Spurs 
long, the inner spur of first pair reaching well over half way to end of tibiae, 
the rest relatively shoiltr tliuii in cadmus. Thorax and abdomen brownish 
white, the latter sprinkled with brown scales about as heavily as primaries and 
usually marked with single brown dorsal dots in posterior margins of segments, 
and a powdery ventral line. 

Primaries brownish white to pale tawny, in the first case a little ochreous 
in first lobe and in the second more whitish toward base. The wings are 
sprinkled with dark brown scales, most heavily in second lobe and along inner 
half. The irroration is limited to these areas in some specimens. Costa usually 
darkened with these scales in basal half, always with a long dash over base 
of cleft and one or two spots beyond, the outer one larger. The irroration 
forms a poorly defined spot at base of cleft, its nucleus apparently separated 
from the cleft, and sometimes a smaller spot near middle of cell. Apex of first 
lobe, inner margin before apex, and tips of veins in second lobe with brown 
dots. Those on the second lobe are often obscured by the brown irroration. 
Fringes concolorous with wing or nearly so on inner margin and in base of 
cleft, becoming much darker toward apices of both lobes. The dark areas 
contain brownish black basal scales at the apices of the lobes, and a few 
clusters of pale scales before apices. Secondaries and fringes pale gray-brown. 
Expanse 17-20 mm. 

The male genitalia have no tufts on the claspers, as is the case in the 
two following species. 

Described from nineteen specimens taken by O. C. Poling in April and 
May 8-15, en route from Dewey to Salome, Ariz. 

Holotype 5, allotype and 12 paratypes, $ and 9, in coll. Barnes. 

Paratypes i and 9 , U. S. N. M. No. 23477. 



413 

Paratj^e 9 Cambridge Museum. 

Paratype $ coll. Fernald. 

Paratjpe 9 coll. Meyrick. 

lobatcs appears to be related to cadmus, and is even more closely 
related to ares. Some specimens of the last named may be easily con- 
fused with it, but these can be distinguished by the more sharply defined 
spot almost contiguous to the base of the cleft and by the unstriped 
palpi. In iobatcs the dark stripe is present in all of the type series. 
while in the related species we are unable to see even a trace of dark 
scales. 

31. OlDAEMATOPHORUS COCHISE n. sp. PI. XLVII, fig. 17. PI. LIII, 

fig. 4. 

Head brown, with a whitish patch between antennae. Antennae whitish 
with a brown line above. Palpi moderate, slender, whitish. Legs as in tobates. 
Thorax and abdomen brownish white, the latter with a few dorsal and lateral 
brown dots. 

Primaries pale tawny, sometimes more whitish toward base. Costa brown 
from base almost to cleft, then with a brown dash, sometimes no more con- 
spicuous than the first line, which is preceded and followed by some whitish 
scales. First lobe with two dark brown costal dots, usually conspicuous, an 
apical dot, and one before apex on inner margin. Second lobe with or without 
a few dark dots at tips of veins. Cleft preceded by a brown spot, the inter- 
vening space often filled with scales of the same color. There is also a small 
dot near middle of cell, some scattered brown scales, less numerous toward 
costa, and sometimes a few white scales in the apices of the lobes. Fringes 
tawny-gray along inner margin, a little darker around apex of second lobe and 
in cleft, and dark brownish gray before apex of first lobe with a wliitc pencil 
at marginal dot. There are some white hairs along the fringes and a few pale 
areas, especially on the outer margin of the second lobe where there are two, 
often whitish. Secondaries brownish gray to grayish tawny, with concolorous 
fringes. Expanse 17-19 mm. 

Described from five specimens from Palmerlee, Cochise Co., Ariz., without 
dates and one $ (parat>-pe) from Jemez Springs, N. M., July 1-7. 

Holotype S , allotype and 3 paratypes 9 in coll. Barnes. 

Paratype 9 U. S. N. M. No. 23478. 

Cochise is very similar to iobatcs but is distinct in several small 
superficial features, as well as in genitalia. The whitish palpi without 
a lateral dark stripe are a convenient character for its separation. The 
genitalia are very close to those of arcs, but we cannot regard the 
superficial features of the two as mere varietal differences, and this 
suggests that the different position of the hair tuft on tlie claspers 



411 

may be of some value. Unfortunately our series are too small to 
allow proper investigation of this feature in the two species. 
The life history is unknown. 

32. OlDAEM.ATOPHOKUS ARES n. sp. PI. XLVII, fig. 18. PI. LJII, 

fig. 1. 

Head brown, tawny-white between antennae. Antennae with a row of 
variably heavy brown dots above. Palpi moderate, slender, whitish. Fore and 
middle legs white with brown lines, continued onto first joint of tarsi ; tarsi 
also shaded with brown. Hind legs light brownish, tarsi slightly paler. Spurs 
rather long. Thorax and abdomen tawny, the latter with some single dorsal 
brown dots in posterior margins of segments, otherwise immaculate. 

Primaries even ochreous-tawny. Cell with a brown dot near middle and 
cleft preceded by a heavy but not large brown spot, from which a few scales 
sometimes extend to embrace the extreme base of the cleft. Costa without a 
patch over base of cleft, but sometimes with its position indicated by two pale 
areas. First lobe with two brown dots on costa, one near middle, sometimes 
absent, and one beyond, a more elongate spot at apex and a heavier one before 
apex on inner margin. Second lobe sometimes with a few dark scales at tips 
of veins. There are a few scattered brown scales on the wing, chiefly along 
tl'.e inner margin near the base. Fringes grayish tawny with a dark brownish 
gray patch preceding apex of first lobe with a few pale hairs at the marginal 
dot, and a similar but paler and less conspicuous dark region at apex of second 
lobe. Secondaries gray-brown, their fringes a little more tawny. Expanse 
20-22.5 mm. 

Described from five specimens, of wliich we have made four types as 
follows : 

Holotype 9, Stockton, Utah, July 30 (Spalding) allot\pe and one para- 
type 9, Provo, Utah, Aug. 12 (Spalding) in coll. Barnes. 

Paratvpe 9, Beulah, N. M., 8000 it.. July (Cockerell) U. S. N. M, No. 
23479. 

.Ires is closely related to cochisc but is much more evenly colored 
and has less blackish-brown irroration. The absence of the costal 
dash over the base of the cleft appears to be constant, and is in itself 
enough to distinguish the species. 

55. OiDAEMATOPiiORUs TiNCTi's Walsinghaiii. PI. XI.V, fig. 3. PI. 
T.II. fig. 3. 

Ptrnil'iKints tiiiclus Walsingliam, Biol. Cent. Am. Lep. Het. IV, 443, 1915. 
We reproduce all that the "Biologia" says about the species : 
".hitcnnae whitish. Palpi slender, porrect, reaching half the length of 

the head beyond it: whitish. Head and face ochrcous, whitish on the crown. 

Tliora.v pale ochrcous. forcivings pale ochreous, strongly tinged with brownish 



415 

ochreous on the costal half, along the cell, and nearly to the apex; on the 
apical lobe an obliquely curved reddish brown spot at the base of the fissure, 
an elongate dark fuscous spot on the costa, above the basal half of the fissure, 
separated by a pale spot from a few fuscous scales beyond it ; a minute blackish 
spot on the lower edge of the apical lobe, between which and the apex the cilia 
are reddish brown, the remaining cilia above and below the lohc being pale 
ochreous; the dorsal cilia of the tornal lobe are also tinged with reddish brown. 
Exp. al. 15 mm. Hindwings and cilia shining, yellowish brown. Abdomen pale 
ochreous. Legs whitish, the hind tibiae and tarsi smeared with brownish fus- 
cous. 

"Type 9 (65514) Mus. Wlsm. (Godm.-Sah: Coll.) B. M. 

"Hab. Mexico: Guerrero: Amula. 6000 ft., VIII-IX (H. H. Smith). Two 
specimens, one much injured." 

We have three specimens, two £ and one without an abdomen, 
from Paradise, Cochise Co., Ariz., August. One of these was com- 
pared by Mr. Meyrick with the type of tincins and returned as that 
species. From this series we note that the color is rather more yel- 
lowish than ochreous. and that the secondaries are what we have called 
pale brownish gray in our descriptions. The first lobe of the primaries 
may have either one or two costal dots beyond the first brown mark. 
Our smallest specimen expands about 15.2 mm. and our largest 17 mm. 

34. OiDAEMATOPHORUS HELiANTHi Walsinghaui. PI. XLVII, fig. 6, 

PI. LII, fig. 12. 
LioptUus hcUantld Walsinyham. Pter. Cal. Ore. 54, pi. Ill, f. 11, 1880. 

Dimmock, Psyche ITT, 404. 1882. 

Hy. Edwards, Bull. 35, U. S. N. M. 137, 1889. 
Alucita hcliantUi Feniald. Smith's List Lep. N. A. 87, 1891. 
Pterophorus helianthi Fernald, Pter. N. A. 43, 1898. 

Id., Bull. 52 U. S. N. M. 445, 1902. 

Anderson. Cat. B. C. Lap. 50, 1904. 

Dynr, Proc. U. S. N. M. XXVII, 924, 1904. 

B.' C. Ent. Soc. Check List 42, 1906. 

Mc\rick, Gen. Ins. C, 16, 1910. 

Id., Wagner's Lep. Cat. pars 17, 23, 1913. 

Barnes & McDunnough, Check List 151. 1917. 
Head brown, whitish between antennae. Antennae whitish with brown dots 
above. Palpi moderate, slender, whitish with gray-brown scales on outer side. 
Fore and middle legs whitish, he.ivily shaded with gray-brown on one side. 
Hind legs whitish, shaded at bases of spurs and tips of tarsal joints. Thorax 
concolorous with primaries, .\hdomen similar above with dark gray brown 
dorsal dots, more or less elongate, forming a broken dorsal line; beneath 
heavily shaded near middle and with an obscure dark ventral line. 



416 

Primaries brownish white to tawny with some scattered dark brown 
scales. There is sometimes a small dot near middle of cell and a dark dash 
on costa over base of cleft, but botli are often lacking. A short distance 
before the cleft and slightly toward inner margin there is a rounded dark 
brown spot, rather well defined, which may be extended as much as half way 
to the costa by an oblique line of dark scales, and occasionally the anterior 
extremity of this mark alone is evident as a spot much more vague than the 
first and preceded by some of the dark scales, grouped into a vague line. Apex 
of first lobe, inner margin before apex, and sometimes tips of veins of second 
lobe with dark dots. Fringes concolorous, those in cleft with dark areas, not 
abruptly limited, just before apices of both lobes. In some specimens these 
areas are not actually very dark, but they are always noticeably darker than 
the wing. Secondaries gray brown, bases paler ; fringes slightly more tawny. 
Expanse 21-29.5 mm. 

Distribution ; Type locality Siskiyou Mts.. S. Ore. Cal, July 
and Aug. Colo., Aug. The type series was taken in June. Dyar 
records one specimen, with doubt, from South Fork Creek, E. C. 

The large size and broad wings of Iiclianthi separate it at once 
from the related species. We have a single specimen whose expanse 
is about 21 mm., but this is very unusual ; the expanse is usually at 
least 24 mm. The general habitus is very distinctive when once the 
species is seen. 

r)ur Colorado sijccimens are from Denver and S. Park (fXslar) 
and average smaller than Californian examples but are otherwise 
aljout the same. 

Walsingham described Iiclianthi from seven specimens "bred from 
larvae feeding on a species of ficliaiitliiis." One of these, now without 
an abdomen, is in the Fernald collection, and the actual type in the 
r.ritish Museum, 

.i5. OiDAEMATOPiiORUS HOMODAcTYLUS Walker. PI. XLV, fig. 4. Pi. 

LI II, fig. 5. 
rtcrophoriis homodactylus Walker, List Lcp. Ins, B, M. XXX, 941, 1864, 

Dvar, Psyche VIII, 250, 1898. 

Fernald, Pter, N. A, 41, pi. IV, ff, 1, 2, 1898. 

Id., Bull. 52 U, S, N. M. 445, 1902. 

Kearfott, Can. Ent. XXXVII, 294, 1905, 

Winn, List Ins. Que. 86, 1912. 

Meyrick, Wagner's Lep. Cat. pars. 17, 24, 1913. 

Walsingham, Biol. Cent.-Am., Lep. Het. IV, 440, 1915, 

Barnes & McDunnough, Check List 151, 1917, 

McDunnough, Can. Ent. I J I. 89, pi, II, f. 2, 1920, (biol,), 

Britton, Ins, Conn, 103, 1920, 



417 

? Lioptilus homodactylus Walsingham, Pter. Cal. Ore. SO, pi. Ill, f. 9, 1880. 
Lioptilus homodactylus Coquillett, Papilio II, 62, 1882, (biol.). 

Kellicott, Bull. Buff. Soc. Nat. Sci. IV, 48, 1882. 

Dimmock, Psyche III, 404, 1882. 

Id., op. cit. 413, 1882, (biol). 

Hy. Edwards, Bull. 35 U. S. N. M. 137, 1889 (in part). 
tAlucita homodactyla Fernald, Smith's List Lep. N. A. 87. 1891. 
^Ptcrophorus homodaclyhis Meyrick, Gen. Ins. C, 16, 1910. 

Entirely snowy white. Palpi small, slender, appressed, with a few fus- 
cous scales outside. Front femora slightly infuscated, and under side of pri- 
maries with a trace of similar color. Primaries above with a slight irroration 
of brownish gray in costal half, sometimes scarcely perceptible except in first 
lobe, and a small dot well before base of cleft. The tips of the veins in both 
lobes usually bear sHght dots or dashes but in most specimens these are very 
inconspicuous. Secondaries tinged with grayish. Expanse 24-26 mm. 

The mid tibiae have a fringe of scales down the inside, but no tufts, as 
in the following species. 

Distribution: Que. to B. C, south into N. J., 111. and Cal, June 
to Aug. 

The ahnost immaculate snowy whiteness of this species cHsting- 
uishes it from all save pale examples of clliottii, with which it has been 
regarded as synonymous by some writers. We find the markings of 
clliottii variable, but the two species can always be separated by the 
vestiture of the mid tibiae. The genitalia are indistinguishable as far 
as we can observe. 

A single specimen from the Hope Mts., B. C, July, sent in for 
identification by Mr. G. O. Day suggested an interesting difficulty 
connected with the identification of these species. It is veiy common 
for the body of a white Pterophorid to be stained "cafe-au-lait" color, 
but in this specimen almost the entire wings were also stained, and 
only a close examination with a lens disclosed the fact that the tips 
of the primaries bore asymmetrical white areas. The tips of the veins 
in this specimen were also unusually heavily marked. 

The life history has been treated by various writers, and some 
have doubtless confused the species with clliottii. Dr. McDunnough 
has worked out the early stages of both species with his usual care, 
and we quote his descriptions of larva and pupa. We have specimens 
reared by Dr. McDunnough, and find that his identifications agree 
with our own, based upon Meyrick's comparison with the type of 
homodactylus and our own examination of Fernald's types. 



418 

"Lanra (full-grown). — Head pale greenish ochreous. Body light green 
with dorsal ochreous line broken in the centre of each segment so that the 
anterior portion tends to form a short inverted Y, and the posterior portion, 
commencing as a fine line, thickens into a small elongate diamond-shaped patch, 
again narrowing at the rear of each segment. A broken, subdorsal, ochreous 
line is also present, situated dorsad to tubercle III and curved downward on 
the posterior portion of each segment; traces of a spiracular line are present 
on the thoracic segments. 

"The hair arising from the tubercles is long, dull-white and slightly barbed ; 
the normal arrangement of setae on an abdominal segment is as follows :— 
tubercles I and II are distinct but contiguous ; I has four long subequal setae, 
II bears two similar ones and a further short posterior one, pointing backward. 
Tubercle III shows one long central seta and two shorter anterior ones, bent 
forward. On the first seven abdominal segments a single hair on the pos- 
terior margin of the segment dorsad to the spiracle probably represents III a. 
Tubercle IV -|- V is very large and situated directly on the lateral flange; 
it bears about twelve hairs, mostly long. Directly behind them is a tubercle 
bearing two medium-sized hairs and two short ones; this is presumably Illb 
of Dyar. Tubercle VI, below the flange, bears ten to twelve hairs and VII 
is represented by several hairs at the base of the prolegs. The thoracic seg- 
ments show the usual modifications: on the mesothorax I -f II bears three 
long, subequal hairs and one short anterior hair and on the metathorax this 
number is increased by a single moderately long hair: both segments show a 
single hair directly posterior to this group. Tubercle III shows four setae of 
which the central one is the longest; in line with the abdominal spiracles near 
the rear edge of the segment is a tubercle which bears one medium hair and 
one small hair pointing backwards (? Illb). The prothoracic plate is not 
well defined ; two large patches of white hair project over the head ; behind 
these are two long single hairs and on the posterior portion three tubercles, 
the central one bearing two hairs and each lateral one three. Two large lateral 
tubercles with numerous hairs are present, the raised spiracle being situated 
posterior to the upper one near the rear margin of the segment. Length 14 mm. 

"Pupa (Fig. 2). — Pale green, with long, white, subequal hairs; wing-cases 
smooth with fringe of short hair only on margin of primaries. The ends of 
the leg sheaths project free but unequally above the fifth and sixth abdominal 
segments; the inner sheaths (prothoracic legs) reach to the rear edge of the 
fifth segment, the outer ones (mesothoracic) to the middle of the sixth seg- 
ment; beneath these a third pair (metathoracic) projects still further, reaching 
nearly to the rear edge of the segment. The antennal sheaths are slightly 
shorter than the prothoracic legs. Apex of pupa sloping gently forward to 
base of antennae where a distinct crescentic flange or ridge is formed; a dis- 
tinct sub-dorsal ridge is present, becoming obsolete caudad to the second abdom- 
inal segment. There is a narrow, cream-coloured dorsal stripe, a broad sub- 
dorsal one along the ridge, encircling tubercles I and II, two pale broken 
lateral stripes, slightly downwardly oblique from front to rear, the lower one 
broader and crossing tubercle III, and a creamy stripe along the lateral flange. 



419 

"The tubercular setae are reduced in number as compared with those of 
the hirval stage; two white hairs arise from botli tubercles I and II, tubercle 
III shows a single hair; tubercles IV and V appear to have become separated, 
both being situated on the lateral flange, the former with two, the latter with 
two or three smaller hairs. The number of dorsal hairs is increased on the 
two posterior abdominal segments and on the thoracic ones tubercle III shows 
the usual two setae. There is on the prothorax a posterior row of eight setae 
crossing the segment, a single lateral hair and a fringe of hairs across the apex." 

36. OiDAEMATOPHORus ELLiOTTii Femalcl. PI. XLV, fig. 5. 
■fLioptilus homodactyhis Hy. Edwards, Bull. 35 U. S. N. M. 137, 1889 (in part). 
Alucita elliottii Femald, Can. Ent. XXV, 95, 1893. 
Pterophorus elliottii Femald, Pter. N. A. 42, pi. VIII, f. 1, 2, 1898. 

Dyar, Psyche VIII, 250, 1898, (biol.). 

Fernald, Bull. 52 U. S. N. M. 445, 1902. 

Forbes, Psyche XVI, 136, 1909. 

Meyrick, Gen. Ins. C, 16, 1910. 

Winn, List Ins. Que. 86, 1912. 

Meyrick, Wagner's Lep. Cat. pars 17, 24, 1913. 

McDunnough, Can. Ent. LII, 90, pi. II, f. 3, 1920 (biol.). 

Britton, Ins. Conn. 103, 1920. 
tPterophorus ctliotti Barnes & McDunnough, Check List 151, 1917. 

Head brown, white between antennae. Antennae white. Palpi small, 
slender, appressed, touched with brown on outer side. Legs white, fore and 
mid femora and tibiae brown inside ; first joint of mid and hind tarsi and 
hind tibiae at bases of spurs usually touched with brown. Spurs with a brown 
line on one side, rather long. Mid tibiae with moderately developed median 
and terminal tufts. Thorax white. Abdomen white with dorsal, ventral and 
broken ventro-lateral stripes, the dorsal line never heavy and sometimes lacking. 
Primaries snowy white with scattered grayish brown scales, most numer- 
ous in costal region and below cell. Costa with a dash just beyond base of 
cleft, usually powdery and sometimes scarcely traceable or absent. This mark 
is continued obliquely inward, becoming faint but usually connected with a 
rounded spot some distance before base of cleft. Cell with a dot near middle 
in some specimens. Costa of first lobe with two blackish dots in the more 
heavily marked specimens, and apex, inner margin before apex, and tips of 
veins of second lobe with similar dots. Our most heavily powdered specimen 
has a brown subcostal line in the first lobe which extends slightly basad along 
costal margin of cell. Fringes pale gray brown with white bases, white in cleft. 
Secondaries white, sometimes tinged with gray; fringes gray tipped. Expanse 
21-26 mm. 

Distribution: Que. to Man., south into N. J. and 111. Late June 
and July. 

The numerous superficial features in which elliottii differs from 
homodactyhis are so variable that they do not sufiice to separate some 



420 

pale specimens, but the tufted tibiae are always dependable if we 
except the cripples which are so numerous in collections of this family. 
The genitalia show no dilTercnce (see pi. LlII, fig. 5, Iwinodactyliis). 

There are four male and three female "types" in the Fernald 
collection, all from New York. 

"Larva (full-grown), — Head pale oclireous. Body light green with long, 
white, shiny, non-spiculate hairs from the tubercles, the longest being about 4 
mm. in length. Except on the prothorax there is a distinct creamy dorsal line 
broken in the centre of each segment by a small, round dot of the ground color; 
traces of a pale subdorsal line are visible crossing tubercles I and II. espe- 
cially shortly before pupation ; a somewhat broken pale lateral line midway 
between tubercles I and III and a similar spiracular line, broken on the posterior 
portion of each segment. Prothoracic plate indistinctly defined, the arrange- 
ment of setae on this seginent being similar to that found in Iwnwductylus. 
On the other thoracic segments tubercle I + II bears two long, central hairs 
and three shorter ones, two anterior and one posterior. A single minute hair 
is situated directly posterior to this group. Tubercle III shows two long cen- 
tral setae, two minute posterior ones and three longer anterior ones ; tubercle 
IV has four long central hairs and six or seven shorter ones arranged in a 
crescent around the edge ; three short hairs are present on a level with the 
abdominal spiracle. On the abdominal segments tubercle I bears one long, 
shiny, smooth, central seta, three anterior shorter ones and one posterior one, 
very minute; tubercle II is represented by a central, long hair, two shorter 
posterior ones, pointing backward, and one very short anterior hair; tubercle 
III bears the same number of setae as tubercle I ; tubercle IV -f V shows four 
long central hairs and about seven shorter ones, arranged in a semicircle 
around the ventral portion of the tubercle ; posterior to this group two short 
hairs, pointing backward, probably represent tubercle Illb; tubercle VI is a 
large one with about twelve hairs of which several are long ; several hairs at 
the base of the prolegs represent tubercle VII. Length 14 mm. 

"Pupa (Fig. 3). — Very similar to that of homodactylus, green with the 
same pale ochreous markings : the white hairs from the tubercles are, however, 
shorter and more numerous, the abdominal segments contain a short white 
centrodorsal hair, midway between tubercles I, and the wing cases, besides the 
lateral fringe of fine hair, bear several additional rows of still shorter hair; 
the sheaths of the two posterior pairs of legs are also of equal length. On 
the first three abdominal segments tubercle I is preceded by a patch of small, 
white secondary hair, and on these same segments it bears one long central 
white hair, one anterior shorter hair and a single very short posterior one ; on 
the remaining abdominal segments both the secondary hairs and the anterior 
tubercular hair are absent. Tubercle II is distinctly laterad to I, is large and 
bears a long, central, wliite hair, and five shorter hairs arranged around the 
circumference; dorsad to tubercle II is a single short hair and laterad to same 
tubercle, situated in the downward angle of the first pale lateral line, are two 
small white hairs, one directed forward, the other backward; below these again 



421 

are two further short hairs on a line with tubercle III; this tubercle is situated 
on the second lateral line and bears one long hair pointing forward and one 
short hair directed backward; anterior to III on the first tliree abdominal seg- 
ments are two short hairs. Below the spiracle and slightly posterior to same 
is a small tubercle with tliree short white hairs (? Illb) and below this on 
the flange IV + V appears as a large crescentic tubercle with about eight long 
white hairs. Three short hairs, well below the flange, apparently represent 
tubercle VI. The thoracic segments show the usual modifications as well as 
considerable secondary hair on the posterior dorsal portion of each segment." 

i7. OiDAEMATOPHORUs sTRAMiNECS Walslngliam. PL XLV, fig. 18. 

PI. LIII, fig. 6. 
Lioptilus stramincus Walsingham, Pter. Cal. Ore. 41, pi. Ill, f. 3, 1880. 
LioptUus angustus Walsingham, op. cit. 43, pi. ill, f. 4, 1880. 
tAlucita angusta Fernald, Smith's List Lep. N. A. 87, 1891. 
tAlucita straminea id., loc. cit. 
Plerophorus stramineus Fernald, Pter. N. A. 44, pi. IV, ff. 7, 8, 1898. 

Id., Bull. 52 U. S. N. M. 445, 1902. 

Meyrick, Gen. Ins. C, 16, 1910. 

Id., Wagner's Lep. Cat. pars 17, 23, 1913. 

Barnes & McDunnough, Check List 151, 1917. 
Plerophorus angustus Fernald, Pter. N. A. 44, 1898. 

Id., Bull. 52 U. S. N. M. 445, 1902. 

Anderson, Cat. B. C. Lep. 50, 1904. 

Dyar. Proc. U. S. N. M. XXVII, 923, 1904 (biol.). 

B. C. Ent. Soc. Check List 42, 1906. 

Meyrick, Gen. Ins. C, 16, 1910. 

Id., Wagner's Lep. Cat. pars 17, 24, 1913. 

Barnes & McDunnough, Check List 151, 1917. 
Head yellow or ochreous, brown in front and usually above. In some 
cases the upper part of the head is so nearly evenly colored that the pale patch 
between the antennae is not defined. Antennae sometimes dotted with brown 
above. Palpi slender, moderate, oblique ; tips of second and third joints touched 
with fuscous outside. Legs yellowish, first two pairs striped and shaded with 
gray-brown on one side. Thora.x yellow. Abdomen yellow with brown dorsal 
and ventral lines. 

Primaries usually definitely yellow or yellowish, occasionally somewhat 
ochreous. There is at least a trace of a brown spot contiguous to the base of 
the cleft, and in a majority of specimens this spot is well marked. The tips 
of the veins in both lobes are sometimes lightly touched with brown, and there 
is often a heavy brown shade nmning from the base next to the inner margin 
into the first lobe. When this shade is absent there is frequently a trace of 
its outer end in the first lobe. Fringes and secondaries more grayish. Ex- 
panse 15-21 mm. 



422 

Distribution : Ariz, and N. M. to Vancouver Is., B. C, east to 
Colo, and E. Canada, thence south into N. J. July to Sept. In a long 
series we have one specimen labelled June. 

Stramincns was described from specimens taken in the Siskiyou 
Mts. of S. Ore. in June, and angiistiis from a series taken on Mt. Shasta, 
Cal., in Aug. The types of both are now in the British Museum, and 
para types in the Fernald collection. We have specimens compared 
with the types by Mr. Meyrick and others which we compared in 
person with Fernald's paratypes, and are unable to find differences 
which we can regard as specific. The species is rather variable in 
appearance, due to the inconstancy of the brown shade, but may be 
easily recognized by the more or less yellow primaries with the brown 
dot at base of cleft, and the secondaries not conspicuously darker. We 
know of no other small species which combines these characters. 

Dyar gives the following account of this species as it occurred at 
Ainsworth, B. C. : 

" * * * The moths were easily started up from low grass and weeds, but 
especially from the plant Anaphalis nuirgaratacca, which I suppose is their food 
plant. Larvae were found commonly in the flower heads of this plant, but 
unfortunately were not bred. The following is a description of them: 

"Larva. — Head shining brown-black, bilobed, the clypeus reaching vertex, 
rounded at top ; mouth pointed. Body robust, flattened, tapered behind, feet 
normal, small. Densely covered with brown-black, fiat granules, forming a 
double patch dorsally, bisected by a pale dorsal line ; ground color whitish, 
forming a subdorsal band ; segmental incisures shagreened. Tubercles i and ii 
separate, i dorsally placed, with secondary hairs ; iv and v separate. Later the 
larva is whitish, with the flat black granules; dorsal, subdorsal, and stigmatal 
]nirplish bands, the dorsal band geminately segmentarily bimacnlate in blackish." 

38. OiDAEM.^TOPHORUs I'ALE.'^CEUS Zeller. PI. XLV, fig. 6. PI. I.T, 

fig. 12. 
Lciof'tilKs paleaccus Zeller, Verh. z.-b. Ges. Wien. XXIII, o26, 187o. 

Murtfeldt, Am. Ent. Ill, 235, 1880. 
L'wpiihis palcaceus Walsingham, Pter. Cal. Ore. 41, pi. Ill, f. 2, 1880, 
Leioptilus sericidactylus Murtfeldt, Am. Ent. Ill, 235, 1880 (biol.). 

Dimmock, Psyche III, 389, 1882. 
lAoptihis sericidactylus Dimmock, Psyche UT, 404, 1882. 

Hy. Edwards, Bull. 35 U. S. N. M. 137, 1889. 
tAlncita paleacea Fernald, Smith's List Lep. N. A. 87, 1891. 
XAlucita scricidactyla id., loc. cit. 



423 

Ptcrophorus palcacciis Fernald, Pter. N. A. 45, 1898. 

Id., Bull. 52 U. S, N. M. 445, 1902. 

B. C. Ent. Soc. Check List 43, 1906. 

Meyrick, Gen. Ins. C, 16, 1910. 

Id., Wagner's Lap. Cat. pars 17, 24, 1913. 

Barnes & McDunnough, Check List 151, 1917. 

Britton, Ins. Conn. 103, 1920. 
Head dark brown, with a brownish white patch between antennae An- 
tennae with a brown line above. Palpi moderate, slender, oblique, with a brown 
line outside. Legs brownish white or whitish, fore and middle femora and 
tibiae striped and tarsi shaded with dark brown. Hind legs similar in color 
with sometimes a trace of brown at bases of spurs. Spurs rather long. Thorax 
brownish white to tawny brown, paler in front. Abdomen concolorous with 
paler part of thorax, with slender parallel brown stripes on all sides. 

Primaries tawny whitish to brownish white, with a broad light to smoky 
brown shade running from middle of base to costa above cleft and thence out 
into the first lobe, which it sometimes obscures completely but usually leaves 
pale along cleft. The cleft is preceded by a variably heavy dark brown dot 
which is sometimes contiguous to and sometimes slightly before it. There are 
no marginal dots. In some specimens the brown shade is much heavier and 
more extensive, and occasionally it suffuses the entire wing. In some of these 
dark specimens the veins are contrastingly pale in the lobes. Fringes and sec- 
ondaries a little darker and more grayish. Expanse 19-26 mm. 

Distribution: Type series from Dallas, Tex. It is reported also 
from Cal. and B. C. but we have seen no specimens from these locali- 
ties. Our series indicates a range from the Atlantic coast west to 
Nebraska and New Mexico. We shouM expect it in southeastern 
Canada. March to Sept. 

There are one male and two female types in the Cambridge Mu- 
seum, and part of the type series in the British Museum. The types 
of sericidactylus which we have been able to locate include a female 
and a male in the Murtfeldt collection at Cornell University, which 
we have labelled lectotype and allotype respectively, a S and a 9 in 
coll. Fernald, and one ? now in our possession through the kindness 
of Dr. J. Chester Bradley of Cornell University. The 9 in coll. Fer- 
nald is a specimen of keUicottii. An examination of the various types 
shows that the previous treatment of both species and synonym has 
been correct. 

Miss Murtfeldt's types were reared from I'ciiwma noi'chora- 
ccnsis. a species of Ironweed, and her account of the early stages is 
the only one known to us. We therefore quote her descriptions. 



424 

"Lan-a: Length, 0.55 inch; diameter, 0.10 inch; form sub-cylindrical. 
Color, when young, ding>--white, with a tinge of green, becoming at maturity 
pale glaucous, often varying, especially in the late Fall brood, to dull salmon. 
Dorsal hairs proceeding from prominent tubercles, and of two sizes in each tuft, 
each of the shorter ones tipped with a minute pellucid bead of viscid fluid, to 
which pollen and bits of leaves often adhere. Lateral ridge well defined. Pro- 
legs long and narrow. When mature, the larva weaves a dense mat of silk, 
upon which it extends itself, remaining quiescent for two or three days, the 
dorsal surface acquiring, meanwhile, a translucent lilaceous hue, with three 
greenish-white longitudinal stripes, of which the mediodorsal is most distinct 
and continuous. 

"Pupa, with ventral surface closely appressed to the mat of silk, to which 
the anal liooks are firmly attached. An upright or inverted horizontal position 
seems to be preferred, although there is no thoracic band or other support for 
the anterior part of the body. 

"Average length 0.45 ; diameter same as larva, tapering rather abruptly 
from seventh abdominal segment backward. Wing sheaths narrow, free at 
the blunt-tips. Dorsum with prominent subdorsal ridges. Color and markings 
quite variable. In the spring brood commonly dull green, with indistinct yel- 
low lateral stripes. In the Fall brood the dorsum is pale yellow, or flesh color, 
with two fine indistinct mediodorsal lines of lilac color; sub-dorsal ridge pale, 
inclining to lilac on outer side. In sub-dorsal space are two nearly continuous, 
quite heavy, black or fuscous lines, separated by a broad, pale stripe, from two 
narrow, interrupted, dark hnes, one beneath, the other, above stigmata. On 
the thorax the dark stripes are represented by two slightly diverging dashes 
on each side. Situated in the sub-dorsal ridge, at the posterior edge of each 
segment, are a pair of small, geminate piliferous warts, each bearing a sparse 
tuft of light sprangling hairs. The last larval skin, rolled into a little hairy ball, 
is often supported over the back of the chrysalis, raised above it on the hairs 
of the sub-dorsal ridges. The pupa is quite active and irritable, striking about 
in all directions when meddled with." 

39. OiDAEMATOPHORUs VENAPUNCTUS Barnes & Lindsey. PI. XLV, 

fig. 19. PI. LIV, fig. 6. 
Ocdciiiatoplwriis vcnapnncius Barnes & Lindsey, in Heinrich, Jn. Agr. Re- 
search XX, 827, 1921. 
^Edcmatophorus vcnapunctus Heinrich, Jn, Agr. Research XX, 827, 1921 (biol.) 

The original description is as follows : 

"Head whitish ochreous between the antennae, elsewhere light brown. An- 
tennae and palpi pale brownish ochreous, almost white, the latter short, oblique 
or porrect. Thorax and legs of the same shade of pale brownish ochreous, the 
fore and middle legs tinged with brown inside. Abdomen similar both above 
and below, with a fine, brown, middorsal line. 

"Primaries concolorous with thorax, darker toward costa, especially in 
first lobe, though this shade is scarcely evident in some specimens. Just before 



425_ 

and below the base of the cleft is a small blackish brown spot, isolated except 
in our darkest specimen, in which it is continued obliquely toward the costa 
by a faint dark shade. In the outer margin of the second lobe there are four 
short, dark dashes on the tips of the anal, cubital and third median veins. These 
are very faint in some specimens. A similar but heavier spot occurs on the 
inner margin of the first lobe a short distance before its apex at the tip of 
the fifth radial. Two vague dots sometimes appear on the costal margin of this 
lobe, one just before the apex and the other almost opposite the one on the 
inner margin. Fringes concolorous, slightly darker toward the apex of the wing 
and with their bases slightly paler. Secondaries somewhat paler than primaries 
and with a more grayish tinge. Fringes concolorous with slightly paler bases. 

"Expanse IS to 18 mm. 

"Described from the following series : Holotype male, Brownsville, Tex., 
March ; paratype male, same locality ; allotype and six paratypc females, San 
Benito, Tex., March and April. (Collection Barnes.) 

"Paratype male, Brownsville, Tex., March, and paratype female, from San 
Benito, Tex., April, in United States National Museum, type Cat. No. 23495. 

"This species appears to be allied to Oedcmatophorus paleaceus, O. stram- 
invus. 0. kcUicotti and related species. It differs from the first two in the pres- 
ence of the terminal dots and from the last two in that the dot in the disc of 
the primaries is not contiguous to the base of the cleft. The form of the male 
genitalia also differs from that of any related species known to us. We have 
been unable to place it as a described Mexican or Central American species." 

Simultaneously with this description there appeared the following 
notes by Mr. Heinrich on larvae and pupae reared from the leaves 
of a composite: 

"The pterophorid larvae have only two setae on the prespiracular shield 
of the prothorax and setae IV and V approximate on the proleg-bearing abdom- 
inal segments, as in the Pyralidae with which they are affiliated. They have, 
however, in distinction from the Pyralidae proper, long stem-like prolegs and 
a greater or less development of secondary setae. The crochets are also pe- 
culiar, being uniordinal, few in number (6 to 8 in the genus Oedematophorus), 
and arranged in a quarter circle opening outwardly. In O. vcnapnnctus the 
secondary hairs are confined to a row of 5 to 8 in the area normally occupied 
by seta VI. The body tubercles are somewhat produced, especially on the 
prothorax and tenth abdominal segment, and the hairs themselves are swollen 
and bulbous. In addition to the setae there are on all except the first thoracic 
and the last abdominal segments several finger-like projections from the skin. 
On the abdomen these arise back of setae I, II, III, IV and V from the base 
of their tubercles and in the area back of the spiracle and seta group IV- V. The 
prothorax is somewhat produced dorsally, and the head is capable of retraction 
under the cover of this rooflike projection. 

"In the pupa the venter of the eighth, ninth, and tenth segments is deeply 
concave with the lateral edges fringed by rather short flexible setae. The 
ventral edge of the tenth segment and the anterior margins of the concavity 



426 

are also armed with clusters of slender, hooked hairs. The caudal end is sharply 
pointed, but there is no distinct cremaster. 

"The larva is an external feeder, and the pupal period is very short. Larvae 
collected by Diven from April 7 to 14, 1919, produced moths as early as the 
19th of the same month." 

40. OlDAEMATOPHORUS LUTEOLUS n. sp. PI. XLV, fig. 20. PI. LIV^ 

fig. 9. 

Head brown, sometimes pale ; whitish between antennae. Antennae whit- 
ish above, darker below, sometimes with a blackish line above near base. Palpi 
moderate, slender, oblique, whitish. Legs white; fore and middle legs, including 
first joint of tarsi, with brownish black stripes, remainder of tarsi brown shaded 
on inside. Thorax and abdomen yellowish, pale brownish white or tawny, the 
last sometimes with a few small blackish dorsal spots. 

Primaries a little paler than thorax and abdomen, tawny white. Inner 
margin of first lobe with a fine blackish brown dot before apex. Cleft preceded 
at some distance by a similar but larger dot. In the allotype there are a few 
dark scales on the discal area, a fine dot in the apex of the second lobe and 
one at the tip of Cu^, which is very faint. The dot before the cleft is also 
slightly extended across the wing. Fringes concolorous. Secondaries and their 
fringes a little darker and more grayish. Expanse 20-21 mm. 

Described from three specimens taken at Paradise, Cochise Co., Ariz. 

Holotype S, May 8-15 and allotype, Aug., in coll. Barnes. 

Paratype 3. May, U. S. N. M. No. 23480. 

We have also a worn male from Jeinez Springs, N. M., which 
differs in the form of the left harpe (pi. LIV, fig. 9a). We are miable 
to say whether this indicates variability in this structure or the specific 
distinctness of the specimen, but we believe the former possibility more 
likely. 

The early stages are unknown. 

41. OlDAEMATOPHORUS LACTEODACTVLUS Chambers. PI. XLVII, fig. 
6. PI. LIV, fig. 2. 

Pterophorus laclcodactyhis Chambers, Can. Ent. V, 72, 1873. 

Femald, Bull. 52 U. S. N. M. 445, 1902. 

Meyrick, Gen. Ins. C, 16, 1910. 

Id., Wagner's Lep. Cat. pars 17, 24, 1913. 

Barnes & McDunnough, Check List 151, 1917. 
tAlucita suhochracca Fernald, Smith's List Lep. N. A. 87, 1891 (in part). 
Pterophorus subochraceus Fernald, Pter. N. A. 43 (in part), pi. IV, f. 9, 1898. 

Head brown, whitish between antennae. Antennae whitish, palpi similar 
becoming brown toward tip ; slender, moderate, oblique. Legs whitish, the first 
two pairs tinged with brown on one side. Spurs of hind tibiae with slender 



427 

brown lines. Thorax and abdomen whitish, sometimes tinged with yellow. 
Abdomen with a faint dorsal line, sometimes marked by brown dots in posterior 
margins of segments. 

Primaries brownish white, the veins in both lobes more or less definitely 
tipped with brownish black. There is sometimes a faint brown spot contiguous 
to base of cleft and a dark basal dash below the cell. The wing is slightly 
darker toward the costa, and there is usually an evident shade on the costa 
of the first lobe, especially above base of cleft. Fringes concolorous at base, 
grayish at tips. Secondaries approximately concolorous, fringes the same. Ex- 
panse 25-28 mm. 

Distribution : Described from Kentucky. North Carolina to Nova 
Scotia, west to Colo. May to July. 

The type of lacteodactylus is now in the Cambridge Museum. It 
is a large specimen and well worn, but is sufficiently well preserved 
to establish its identity satisfactorily. The species is rather closely 
related to kellicottii but dilTers in the absence of a well marked spot 
at the base of the cleft on the primaries and in other slight features, as 
well as in the form of the genitalia. There is no reason for confusing 
it with siibochraceus for that species has no marginal or discal spots. 

The life history is unknown. 

42. OlDAEMATOPHORUS KELLICOTTII Fish. PI. XLVII, fig. 5. 
Lioptilus kellicottii Fish, Can. Ent. XIII, 141, 1881. 

Kellicott, Bull. Buff. Soc. Nat. Hist. IV, 51. 1881. (Biol.) (fide Hy. 
Edwards). 

Dimmock. Psvche III, 404, 1882. 

Hy. Edwards, Bull. 35 U. S. N. M. 137, 1889. 
Alucita kellicottii Fernald, Smith's List Rep. N. A. 87. 1891. 
Ptcrophoms kellicottii Fernald, Pter. N. A. 49, pi. IV, ff. 5, 6, 1898. 

Dvar, Ent. Rec. XI, 140, pi. I, f. 3, 1899. 

Fernald, Bull. 52 U. S. N. M. 446, 1902. 

Winn. List Ins. Que. 86, 1912. 

Grossbeck. Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist. XXXVII, 135, 1917. 
XPlerophorus kellicotti Meyrick, Gen. Ins. C, 17, 1910. 

Id., Wagner's Lep. Cat. pars 17, 25, 1913. 

Barnes & McDunnough, Check List 151, 1917. 
Pterophorns chlorias Meyrick, Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. 497, 1908. 

Id., Wagner's Lep. Cat. pars 17, 24, 1913. 

Barnes & McDunnough, Check List 151, 1917. 
Head brown, whitish between antennae. Antennae whitish. Palpi mod- 
erate, slender, whitish; third joint touched with fuscous outside. Legs whitish, 
the two anterior pairs shaded with brown on one side, including tarsi; spurs 
moderately long. Thorax and abdomen concolorous with primaries, the latter 
with a faint dorsal and several more conspicuous ventral and lateral brown lines. 



428 

Primaries white to pale brownish tawny, usually white tinged with tawny 
or brownish. Cleft preceded by a brownish black spot which usually slightly 
embraces it. The first lobe usually has a blackish dot at apex, one before 
apex on inner margin and two on costa, and the second similar dots or rather 
elongate dashes on tips of veins. All of these may be rather faint, and some 
are frequently lacking. There is a light brown to smoky brownish gray shade 
from base of wing into first lobe, sometimes faint. In part of a series of small 
specimens in coll. Barnes this shade is evident only in the lobe and appear to 
curve outward from the costal extremity of the discal spot. In some specimens 
there are a basal dash, spot near middle of cell, and a subcostal dash near base, 
the dashes somewhat broken. Fringes and secondaries almost concolorous to 
distinctly darker and more grayish. Expanse 14 to 29 mm. 

Distribution: Florida north into Canada and west to Utah. Way 
to Aug. 

One male and one female type in the Fernald collection are larger 
and darker than our series of kellicottii, but both appear to be the 
same species. The female looks much like a small specimen of bal- 
aiiotes, so we have labelled the male lectotype. It appears to be much 
more nearly average. The genitalia also resemble those of balaiioles 
(see pi. I-IV, fig. 5) but nr- much smaller. The specimen which Mey- 
rick compared with the type of chlorias for us is one of a series from 
Utah which is rather duller and more grayish-brown than normal 
kellicottii. Meyrick's types are from Colo, and our equivalent speci- 
mens from Utah. 

The limitation of kellicottii has proven one of our greatest puzzles 
in this genus. The very small Florida specimens with a pronounced 
shade in the first lobe at first seemed to be distinct, but they grade 
into nearly normal individuals in the same locality. Another strange 
form was foimd in a series from Cohasset, Mass., in the National 
Museum. These specimens were also very small and rather evenly 
grayish. The genitalia of all the forms, however, do not differ more 
than is to be expected in any species of Oidaematoplwnis. and we 
are utterly at loss to find tenable specific characters for their sepa- 
ration in markings and superficial structure. For the present, there- 
fore, we feel justified in regarding this limitation and synonymy as 
correct for the species. 

We have no copy of Kellicott's paper on the life history, but his 
account is quoted by Fernald, from whose monograph we reproduce 
it. The food plant is given as Solidago. A specimen in the National 
Museum is labelled "larva boring in Artemisia baccharis." This plant 
is not listed in Grav's Manual. 



429 

"The larva, when first examined, August 22, was .3 of an inch long; color 
light jellow, head and shield darker, tlie oblique anal plate almost black, bear- 
inps hairs and hooks; dorsal and subdorsal lines pinkish. By the middle of 
September it abandons the branches, being then .45 of an inch in length, and 
bores into the stalk a few inches above the ground ; it makes its way down 
the pith into the roots, well under the ground, where it passes the winter. I 
fetched several examples from the fields in January for examination ; they 
were then .58 to .6 of an inch in length, lighter in color, with the longitudinal 
lines of pink brighter than in autumn, the eighth segment conspicuously marked 
on the back by pink. There are few hairs over their smooth bodies; on the 
last ring, however, there is a brown or black chitinous disc, with a circle of 
long black hairs about its circumference ; in the centre of this disc there is a small 
papilla, with two stout, straight black teeth, pointing rearwards ; these teeth 
arc hooked upward in the autumn stage. The hairs render the plate sensitive 
to touch, and help to brush fragments from their long, narrow galleries, while 
the teeth assist in backward motion in them. The mature larvae obtained in 
May differ but slightly from these, except that they are then .7 of an inch 
long, and the pink stripes and marks are brownish. The fourth, fifth and sixth 
segments are smaller than those preceding or following them. They are quite 
active, moving up and down their burrows rapidly. 

"By the middle of May the caterpillar has worked its way back lo 
the place of entrance in autumn, enlarging its way to accommodate its in- 
creased size, and, after loosely stopping the upper part with a few chips, retires 
and changes to the pupa. It is then .6 of an inch in length, slender, cylindrical. 
Color white, except the oblique disc or plate terminating the head, which is 
made dark by many teeth-like elevations on its surface. The abdominal seg- 
ments are clothed with hairs, and the last four segments have each a trans- 
verse row of teeth on the dorsal part, reminding one of a Tortrix or Cossus 
pupa. The conical tip of the abdomen has many teeth ; these teeth together 
with the roughness on the head, enable the pupa to worm its way up and down 
the burrow with readiness. When removed from the stem to the table, it 
travels about, rolling and worming its way very much as do the pupae of certain 
stem-boring beetles. The wing and limb covers are free for a considerable 
distance from their tips." 

43. OiDAEMATOPHORUs BALANOTES Meyrlck. PI. XLIV, fig. 12. PI. 

LIV, fig. 5. 
Ptcrophoms halanotes Meyrick, Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. 1907, 503, 1908. 

Id., Gen. Ins. C, 17. 1910. 

Id., Wagner's Lep. Cat. pars 17, 26, 1913. 

Barnes & McDunnough, Check List 151, 1917. 
Ptcrophorus aquila Meyrick, Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. 1907, 503, 1908. 

Id., Gen. Ins. C, 17, 1910. 

Id., Wagner's Lep Cat. pars 17, 25, 191.!. 

Barnes & McDunnough. Check List 151, 1917. 



430 

Head brown, whitish between antennae. Antennae whitish. Palpi whitish, 
brown toward tips, longer than in the several related species preceding, oblique, 
but long enough to reach bases of antennae if upturned ; slender. Legs pale 
brown or brownish white, the first two pairs brown inside. Thorax and ab- 
domen brownish white, the latter with dorsal, ventral and ventro-lateral brown 
stripes, sometimes faint. 

Primaries brownish white more or less suffused with brown, sometimes 
heavily. The complete markings include dark brown spots at tips of veins in 
both lobes, a brown spot contiguous to base of cleft preceded by a smaller spot 
a little nearer inner margin, which is the isolated outer end of powdery line 
reaching about half way from it to the base, a basal powdery line below the 
cell and a subcostal basal line. We have specimens in which all of these are 
lacking, and they are rarely all present. In one peculiar variation the spot at 
base of cleft is faint, while the one preceding it is conspicuous. Fringes and 
secondaries approximately concolorous, the latter sometimes browner. Expanse 
30-41 mm. 

Distribution : Florida to Arizona. We have specimens taken in 
all months but April, May and Nov. The American Museum collec- 
tion contains a S from N. J. 

The species is so extremely variable in markings that we cannot 
])lace one specimen from Arizona, which e.xpands only 26 mm., here 
with certainty. It has the long palpi of balanotes, however, and may 
be an abnormally dwarfed specimen. As a rule the brownish wings 
distinguish the species, but some immaculate specimens are sufficiently 
ochreous to be confused with (jrandis. In that species the palpi are 
distinctly shorter. 

In sending specimens to Mr. Meyrick for comparison with his 
types we erroneously identified balanotes. Later on, to verify our 
corrected opinion of the species, he very kindly compared the types 
of balanotes and aqitila, both in his collection, and pronounced them 
sexes of the same species. Balanotes was described from a single 
Florida specimen and aqnila from a single Texas example. The de- 
scription of the former immediately precedes that of the latter. 

The life history is unknown. 

44. OlDAEMATOPHORUS GRANDIS Fish. PI. XLVTI, fig. 7. PI. LIII, 

fig. 12. 

Liaplilus (jmiidis Fish, Can. F.nt. XIII. 141, 18S1. 
Alihilo grandis Fernald, Smith's List Lcp. N. .\. 87, 1891. 
Ptcrophonis grandis Fernald, Ptcr, N. A. 50, pi. V, ff. 9, 10, 1898 
Id.. Bull. 52 U- S. N. M. 446. 1902. 



431 

Meyrick, Gen. Ins. C, 17, 1910. 

Id., Wagner's Lep. Cat. pars 17, 25, 1913. 

Walsingham, Biol. Cent. Am., Lep. Het. IV, 441, 1915. 

Barnes & McDunough, Check List 151, 1917. 
Pterofhorus baccliaridi-s Grinnell, Can. Ent. XL, 317, 1908. 

Williams, Ent. News XX, 60, 1909 (biol). 

Meyrick, Wagner's Lep. Cat. pars 17, 24, 1913. 

Barnes & McDunnough, Check List 151, 1917. 
Head brown, brownish white between antennae. Antennae brownish 
white, palpi similar, becoming brown toward apex, slender and oblique, mod- 
erately long. Legs brownish white, first two pairs shaded with brown on inner 
surface. Thorax and abdomen pale tawny, the latter with a faint brown dorsal 
stripe. 

Primaries ochreous, more or less heavily tinged with brown, in some speci- 
mens almost evenly brown but usually paler toward inner margin and along 
base of costa. Veins slightly darker than ground color on inner half of wing 
and sometimes tipped with dark brown in both lobes. Fringes concolorous. 
Secondaries and their fringes slightly more grayish. Expanse 34-66 mm. 

Distribution: California. We have the species from northern, 
central and southern localities, Jtine and July. In U. S. N. M. from 
Mexico. 

There are two types of grandis, a male and a broken specimen, in 
the Fernald collection, and one type male in the Cambridge Museum. 
all from California. Grinnell's two types are this species without 
doubt; they were reared from Baccharis pilularis at San Francisco 
by F. X. Williams, and give us our only knowledge of the life history. 
Williams' account of these specimens is as quoted below : 
"Description of a nearly mature larva (fig. 12). — Head pale brown, darker 
about the mouth and along the sides, clypeus not reaching half way to vertex. 
Body of uniform thickness, somew-hat depressed, shining white, with slight 
creamy yellow tinge ventrad ; cervical shield strong, pale brownish, with two 
transverse patches of small dark brownish tubercles, interspersed rather sparsely 
with hairs, the first patch the narrower. On the second and penultimate seg- 
ments is a less developed patch. On each side of the dorsal line an irregular, 
rather broad and broken purple line ; subdorsad a heavier, wider purple band ; 
and below the brownish spiracles an indistinct geminate line of the same color, 
with an extended blotch just cephalad of each spiracle. Indications of another 
line below lateral fold. Body with sparse brownish hairs, except on last seg- 
ment where the heavily chitinized, dark brown anal plate is widely bordered 
with numerous dark hairs arising from small tubercles. This plate (fig. — ) 
which occupies obliquely half the segment contains a raised disc somewhat 
below its middle, bearing a pair of slightly upcurvcd chitinized processes. On 
this plate between and below the prongs are rough granulations. Feet dull 



432 

white, with pale brown blotches; prolegs dull white, crochets semicircular. 
Length of mature larva 16 mm., width (at seg. 6) 275 mm. 

"Described from fresh specimens, measurements from alcoholic material. 

"Pupa. — Slender, cylindrical, slightly narrowest above middle, color pale 
yellowish brown, darker at base of abdominal segments, and very dark brown 
at the obliquely truncate cephalic end, which is heavily anned with numerous 
little spines. Of these, there is a strong ridge of large ones at the base of each 
antenna above, and a smaller group on each shoulder. Brown hairs especially 
along dorsal edge of this area and on thorax and abdomen. On lower dorsal 
border of segments 4, S and 6 of abdomen is a row of spines pointing obliquely 
cephalad, and on the remaining segments is a row pointing obliquely caudad. 
Somewhat below the lateral line of each of the spiny segments are other spines 
arranged in a row, on segments 4, 5. and 6 few, on the remaining segments 
becoming more numerous. Fused leg and wing tips free from body. Length 
15-18 mm., width at thorax 2.80 mm. 

"Described from alcoholic specimens. 

"The larva bores a smooth cylindrical passage in the stem of Baccharis 
pihdaris, and the oblique opening can be readily detected by the quantity of 
pale-colored frass on the ground below. The galleries may be in the smaller 
stems or in the main trunk and at least partly above ground. On tall shrubs 
the caterpillar may be found working high up in the stems. Several parallel 
passages often occur in one stem, and are usually quite straight and almost 
invariably open on the under side of the branch. 

"The pupa, which is very active, lies some distance from the bottom of 
the gallery, but may move considerably therein. The pupal chamber is not 
silk-lined. A short search in winter revealed no pupae of this insect, but half- 
grown and nearly mature larvae were plentiful. The larval period, while not 
determined, must be of at least a year's duration. Adults were common in June 
and in September, The cocoons of a hymenopterous par.isite were found in 
two galleries, but no adults have as yet been secured." 

We have listed in our notes on the National Museum inatcrial a 
specimen of grandis labelled Plummer's Id.. Md., May, but we feel 
tliat there must be some error either in our record or in the label. 
The family is so imperfectly known, however, that the species may 
occur in the southern states and along the east coast. 

45. OiDAEMATornoRus suBOCiiRACEUs Walsingliam. PI. XPYII, fig. 

8, 9. PI. LIII, fig. 8. 
Lioptilus subochraceus Walsingham, Ttcr. Cal. Ore. 53, pi. IIL f. 10, 1880. 
tAlucita siibochracca Fcrnald, Smith's List Lep. N. A. 87, 1891. 
Ptcrophorus subochraceus Fernald, Pter. N. A. 43, 1898 (in part). 

Id., Bull. 52 U. S. N. M. 445. 

Meyrick, Gen. Ins. C, 16, 1910. 

Id., Wagner's Lep. Cat. pars 17. 24. 1913 (in part). 

Barnes & McDunnough, Check List 151, 1917. 



433 

Head light brown, whitish between antennae. Antennae whitish. Palpi 
very short, oblique, whitish. Thorax and abdomen creamy white, the latter 
with a brown dorsal line. Legs whitish, first two pairs infuscated within, the 
tarsi ver>' slightly. 

Primaries creamy white with bright, but often faint, brown shade from 
middle of costa of first lobe to near middle of anterior margin of cell. Base 
sometimes with a few brown scales. Veins slightly brownish in paler parts of 
wing. Fringes concolorous at their bases, darker at tips. Secondaries and their 
fringes almost concolorous. Under surface of primaries slightly tinged with 
dull brown, especially near base. E.xpanse 27-33 mm. 

Distribution: California. Types from Lake Co., June. We have 
a small series from the San Bernardino Mts., July. 

The types are in the British Museum and our identification is 
based on a specimen compared by Mr. Meyrick. Walsingham's de- 
scription and figure are excellent, and the species need not be con- 
fused with lactcodactylns, as has been done, nor with anstralis, which 
was described as a variety. From the former it is separated by the 
absence of marks from the primaries with the exception of the soft 
brown shade, and from the latter by the relatively pale under surface 
of these wings. The short palpi separate it at once from all related 
species when comparison can be made. 

We know nothing of the early stages. 

46. OiDAEMATOPHORUs suLPHUREODACTYLUs Packard. PI. XLIV, fig. 
10. PI. LI II, fig. 9. 

Pterophorus sulpliurcodactylus Packard, Ann. Lye. Nat. Hist. N. Y. X, 266, 1873. 

Femald, Pter. N. A. 44, pi. V, ff. 3. 4, 1898. 

Id., Bull. 52 U. S. N. M. 445, 1902. 

Dyar, Proc. U. S. N. M. XXV, 398, 1902. (Biol.). 

Barnes & McDunnough, Check List 151, 1917. 
XLioptilus sulphurcus Walsingham, Pter. Cal. Ore. 48, pi. U\, f. 7, 1880 
i.Alucita sulphurcodactyla Femald, Smith's List Lep. N. A. 87, 1891. 
tPterophorus stilphtireidactylus Meyrick, Gen. Ins. C, 16, 1910. 

Id., Wagner's Lep. Cat. pars. 17, 24, 1913. 
Head pale yellow. Antennae whitish with a few brown dots above near 
base. Palpi white with a brown outer line from tip to near base of second 
joint; long, slender, second joint thicker at tip than base of third, third almost 
as long as second, oblique. Legs white, femora yellow ; first two pairs striped 
with brown excepting tarsi. Spurs long. Thorax and abdomen sulphur yel- 
low, the latter with a faint brown dorsal line. 

Primaries sulphur yellow with a small brown spot contiguous to base of 
cleft. Extreme costa whitish darkened with brown scales from base almost 



434 

to cleft and with a small brown dash above base of cleft. These costal marks 
are not at all conspicuous. First lobe with brown dots well before apex on both 
margins. Second sometimes with a few brown scales on veins. Fringes tawny 
gray. Secondaries and their fringes brownish gray, much darker in appearance 
than primaries. Expanse 24-28 mm. 

Distribution: Type locality Goose Lake, Siskiyou Co., Cal., July. 
We have a long scries from Loma Linda, San Bernardino Co., Cal., 
and a single specimen from Golden, Colo., all July, and the species 
is in the National Museum from Mont, and N. M. 

There are six types in the Cambridge Museum, one S and hve 
without abdomens. 

The long palpi, large size and distinctly yellow primaries of this 
species render it very distinct, but the fact that the costal marks are 
inconspicuous may be rather misleading in placing it in the proper 
category of the key, so we have included it in both of the possible 
groups. We have not, however, actually observed specimens which 
lack these marks. 

The .species has been reared by Dyar, who gives the following 
account of the larva: 

"Larva. — Thick, flattened, tapering at the ends ; feet normal, slender. Head 
rounded, bilobed, the apex under joint 2, mouth projecting; width about 12 
mm. ; black, the sutures broadly brown. Body without secondary hairs, the 
warts low and diffuse; i with three or four, ii with one hair, these warts some- 
what approximate ; iii with several hairs ; a group of six hairs on the subvcntral 
fold without wart and a hair posteriorly in line, absent on some segments ; sev- 
eral hairs for tubercle vi. Olivaceous green, a broken, broad, sordid white 
subdorsal line along warts i and ii with four black dots on each segment 
between in a square, becoming black blotches on the posterior segments. Wart 
iii pale; spiracles black; skin finely dark granular; cervical shield blackish, hairy; 
thoracic feet black, the abdominal ones pale. Hair white, minutely glandular 
tipped; segments obscurely 2-annulate ; a black impressed lateral dot in the 
middle of the segment. 

"The larvae were found webbing up the young heads of a wild sunflower, 
Helianthtis pumilus, and feeding within the spun mass. They occurred on the 
foot hills near Boulder Creek Canyon (Colo.). Spun among dead leaves; 
emerged June 10." 

47. OiDAEMATOPHORus SERENus Meyrick. PI. XLIV, fig. IL PI. 

LH, fig. 13. 
Pterophcrus screnus Meyrick, Exot. Microlep. I, 113, 1913. 

Id., Wagner's Lep. Cat. pars. 17, 26, 1913. 

Barnes & McDunnough, Check List 151, 1917. 



435 

Head broadly cream-white between antennae, elsewhere more or less 
brownish. Antennae white. Palpi whitish, long, slender, third joint almost as 
long as second but with its base hidden by the prominent terminal scales of 
the second; outer end of second and entire length of third with a brownish 
gray stripe outside. The palpi are much like those of sulphurcodactylus. Legs 
ochreous whitish, first two pairs suffused with gray-brown on one side. Spurs 
moderate. Thorax and abdomen pale yellowish, the latter with two subdorsal 
pure white stripes, visible only in clean specimens, and a slender brown dorsal 
stripe. 

Primaries whitish to creamy or yellowish on inner margin, blending into 
a deeper dull yellowish suffused with a light gray-brown shade in the costal 
region ; immaculate. Fringes concolorous. Secondaries and fringes gray brown, 
usually contrastingly dark but occasionally rather light in color. Expanse, 23-35 
mm., usually not less than 27 mm. 

Distribution: Type locality Gallinas Canyon. N. M. Ariz, and 
N. M. north into Utah and S. Cal., June to Sept. 

The general appearance of the primaries of screnits is usually 
brownish ochreous, more whitish toward inner margin, but fresh speci- 
mens in our series show that the basic ground color is clear yellow, 
though of a duller shade than that found in sulphureodactylus. The 
white stripes of the abdomen are visible only in specimens which are 
free from grease. We have but one specimen which expands as little 
as 23 mm., but have no doubt of its identity. Our identification of the 
species is based on Mr. Meyrick's comparison with his type. 
The life history is unknown. 

48. OiDAEMATOPHORUs AUSTR.\Lis Grimiell. PI. XLVI, fig. 20, 21. 

PI. LIII, fig. 13. 
Pterophorus subochraceus subsp. australis Grinnell, Can. Ent. XL, 318, 1908. 

Barnes & McDunnough, Check List 151, 1917. 
Pterophorus subochraceus Meyrick, Wagner's Lep. Cat. pars 17, 24, 1913 
(in part). 

Head white, faintly darkened above and in front. Antennae and palpi 
whitish, the latter not longer than diameter of eye, slender and oblique. Legs 
whitish, front and middle tibiae with dark gray-brown stripes. Spurs moder- 
ate. Thorax and abdomen yellowish white. 

Primaries creamy-whitish along inner margin, usually darkened in the 
costal region with a shade of pale ochreous; immaculate; evenly suffused on 
under surface with brownish gray. Fringes concolorous. Secondaries and 
their fringes whitish, faintly tinged with gray. Expanse 24-30 mm. 

Distribution : S. Cal., Utah, Mar., July and Aug. Type locality 
Santa Ana R., San Bernardino Mts., Cal. 



436 

Although described as a subspecies of subochraceiis, australis is 
very distinct from that insect, and is readily distinguished by the evenly 
gray under surface of the primaries. The absence of gray from the 
upper surface of these wings separates it from its nearest ally, costatus. 

Nothing is known of the early stages. 

49. OlDAEMATOPHORUS COSTATUS n. sp. PI. XLVII, fig. 14. PI. LIII, 
fig. 10, 11. 

Head pale grayish-yellow, paler between antennae. Antennae and palpi 
more whitish, the latter moderate, slender, oblique, with a dark streak on out- 
side of third joint and tip of second. Thorax and abdomen pale grayish yellow, 
the latter with a faint brown dorsal line. Legs similar, the first two pairs, 
including tarsi, shaded with gray inside. 

Primaries yellowish-white, shaded over all with gray, becoming darker and 
more brownish in costal region. Extreme costa pale grayish yellow. Fringes 
appro-ximately concolorous. Secondaries and their fringes brownish gray, 
neither conspicuously darker nor paler than primaries. Expanse 30-33 mm. 

Described from seven specimens from the Monachee Meadows, Tulare 
Co., Cal., 8000 ft., July 8-14. 

Holotype S , allotype and 3 paratypcs, 1 (J & 2 9 , coll. Barnes. 

Paratype 9 U. S. N. M. No. 23481. 

Paratype 9 coll. Meyrick. 

We have also a specimen from Vineyard, Utah, taken in August. 

Costatus is very closely related to australis, and we are unable to 
find superficial characters to separate it with the exception of the 
grayish primaries, generally darker color, and the stripe on the palpi. 
Our series is not sufficient to indicate whether or not pale specimens 
occur which might be confused with Grinnell's species. The genitalia 
offer an ultimate character in the form of the right valve. 

50. OlDAEMATOPHORUS FALSUS n. Sp. PI. XLVI, fig. 17. PI. LIV, 

fig. 7. 

Entirely chalky white. Palpi rather long, slender, oblique. Primaries with 
a faint brownish shade in the costal region and sometimes with the entire sur- 
face underlain with brownish gray, rarely dark. Secondaries tinned with 
brownish gray, rather dark in the darker examples. All fringes concolorous. 
Expanse 22-25.5 mm. 

Described from three specimens from Ariz. 

Holotype 5 , Tucson, and allotype, Christmas, Gila Co., coll. Barnes. 

Paratype 3, Christmas, Gila Co., U. S. N. M. No. 23482. 

We have also two specimens in rather poor condition from Yuma 
Co., one dated March, the two others from Christmas. The Yuma 



437 

Co. specimens are much the darkest, hut the holotype shows the grayish 
underlying shade on the primaries with sufficient distinctness to con- 
nect the three, and in its genitalia agrees with the paratype from 
Christmas. The species is unlike any other known to us. Its life 
history has not been worked out. 

51. OlDAEMATOPHORUS V.SRIUS n. sp. PI. XLVI, fig. 16. PI. LII. 

fig. 11. 

Head whitish, faintly touched with brown above. Antennae white usually 
vaguely brown dotted above. Palpi white with a few dark scales on outside 
of second joint, moderate, slender, oblique. Legs white, the first two pairs 
striped with dark brown and the hind pair shaded lightly on one side with 
grayish. Thorax and abdomen white. 

Primaries soft, pale, brownish gray with a variably heavy white overscal- 
ing which is slightly thinner on the costa and often appears to be confined t" 
the spaces between the veins on the lobes so that the veins appear to be dark- 
lined. Fresh specimens show a rather definite band of the white scales entirely 
around the cleft. Extreme costa darker in basal half. Fringes and secondaries 
concolorous but without wdiite scales. Expanse 19-23 mm. 

Type series seven specimens from San Diego, Cal., Apr. to Aug. and one 
paratype $ from Palm Springs, Riverside Co., Cal., Mar. 

Holotype $, allotype and 4 paratypes, iS , \ 9, coll. Barnes. 

Paratype $ U. S. N. M. No. 23485. 

Paratype S coll. Meyrick. 

We also have specimens from Moliave Co.. Ariz., Sept., and Red- 
ington, Ariz. 

Varhis does not impress us as a species which is likely to be mixed 
readily with falsus, but it is difficult to select definite and conspicuous 
characters to distinguish the two. In general falsus is much stouter 
in appearance, and we have seen no specimens in which the costa of 
the primaries was darkened toward the base nor the antennae dotted 
above. The latter is not always true of varius. but the former appears 
to be; both characters are very obscure. 

We have no notes on the early stages. 

52. C)iDAEMATorHORUS coRVUs n. sp. PI. XLII, fig. 17, 18. PI. LIV, 

fig. 8. 

Head brown, narrowly pale yellow between antennae. Antennae whitish, 
dotted with brown above. Palpi moderate, slender, oblique, yellowish white 
with a brown outer line. Legs yellowish white, the first two pairs gray-brown 
on one side and the hind pair variably shaded in the darker specimens. Thorax 
and abdomen pale yellow to very pale grayish yellow, the latter with a fine 



438 

light brown dorsal line and unusually short, scarcely longer than third feather 
of secondaries. Thorax yellowish in front in darker specimens and slightly 
brownish above in the lighter ones. 

Primaries clear pale yellow in the lightest specimens, with some brown 
scales near base, sometimes a small brown dot a short distance before base of 
cleft, and sometimes a brown subcostal shade which meets the costa in the first 
lobe. In the type series these wings have a pale yellowish or grayish yellow 
costal band from base to a point opposite base of cleft, in which the 
extreme costal margin bears some brown scales. Behind this the entire wing 
is clothed with brownish gray mixed with very pale yellowish scales, becoming 
more whitish toward inner margin. The spot before the cleft is faintly marked, 
continued slightly toward costa to form a transverse shade. Costal fringes 
on first lobe yellowish, others dark grayish. Secondaries and their fringes 
brownish gray, in the pale specimens appearing dark in contrast to the yellow 
primaries. Expanse 17-20 mm. 

Holotype, allotype and 11 paratypes, 6 <J 5 9 , from Tuolumne Meadows, 
Tuolumne Co., Cal., July and Aug. and 7 paratypes, S, Deer Park Springs, 
Lake Tahoe, Cal., June and July. Of the first lot there are a paratype S in 
the Fernald collection and 2 paratypes, S and 9 , U. S. N. M., No. 23483. Of 
the second one paratype is in the Cambridge Museum and one in coll. Meyrick. 
The remaining types are in coll. Barnes. 

We have also specimens from Colo., Sept., Wash., July, and B. C, 
July and August. 

The Hfe history is unknown. 

53. OlDAEMATOPHORUS I'ERDITUS n. sp. PI. XLVI, fig. 19. Pi. LTI, 

fig. 10. 

Head dark brown, yellowish white between antennae. Antennae dark 
with a slender line of whitish above. Palpi very slender, moderately long, 
oblique, whitish. Legs whitish, the first two pairs brownish gray within ex- 
cept toward end of tarsi. Thorax pale yellowish white, the patagia touched 
with light brown. Abdomen similar to thorax, witli some gray scales, and 
apparently a faint brown dorsal stripe. 

Costa of primaries very narrowly yellowish, sometimes obscured toward 
base. Just inside of this line the wing is brownish gray, becoming gradually 
paler toward inner margin with an increasing admixture of whitish scales. 
Veins sometimes darker in second lobe. Fringes brownish gray with paler bases, 
on costa yellowish. Secondaries and their fringes brownish gray. Expan'^e 
19-25 mm. 

Types from Chiumey Gulch, Golden, Colo., Aug. (Oslar). 

Holot.\pe (? , allotype and one paratype 9 coll. Barnes. 

Paratype 9 U. S. N. M. No. 23484. 

We have also a single specimen each from Lonia Linda, San 
Bernardino Co., Mar., and San Diego, Cal., Apr., and a small series 



439 

from Claremont, Cal. The last is part of a good series fotiiiil in the 
National Museum material, for which we are indebted to the Museum 
authorities. 

Perditus in a general way resembles corvus, but the pale costal 
line is not interrupted above the base of the cleft, there is no spot 
before the cleft, and the abdomen is of normal length. It is also 
similar to costatns but so much smaller that it is very easily disting- 
guished. The genitalia are distinctive. 

The life history is imknown to us. 

54. OiDAEMATOPHORUS INCONDITUS Walsingham. PI. XLVI, fig. 24. 

PI. LII, fig. 6. 
Lioptilus inconditiis Walsingham, Pter. Cal. Ore. 44, pi. Ill, f. 5, 1880. 
tAluciia incondiia Fernald, Smith's List Lep. N. A. 87, 1891. 
Pterophonis inconditus Fcmald, Pter. N. A. 47, 1898. 
Id., Bull. 52 U. S. N. U. 446, 1902. 
Meyrick, Gen. Ins. C, 16, 1910. 
Id., Wagner's Lep. Cat. pars 17, 24, \9\i. 
Barnes & McDiinnough, Check List 151, 1917. 

Head pale brownish above and in front, broadly wliitish between antennae. 
Palpi moderately long, oblique, very slender, whitish. Antennae whitish. Legs 
wliitish, the first two pairs shaded with gray-brown inside. 

Primaries yellowish white to very pale brownish gray, always with a darker 
shade of a more or less brownish color in the costal region. This shade is 
usually, however, inconspicuous. The veins in the second lobe are often slightly 
darker than the ground color. Fringes and secondaries very pale brownish 
gray. Expanse 14-22 mm. 

Distribution : S. Tex. and Ariz, north into Utah and Cal., Mar., 
May, July, Aug., Oct. Type locality Mendocino Co., Cal., May. 

We are rather doubtful of this species as we limit it here, but 
are unable to divide it satisfactorily either by superficial characters or 
genitalia. We sent Meyrick a rather yellowish specimen, and he re- 
turned it with the note: "probably not correct, but there is little to go 
by, your example being worn ; it is rather larger than the two types 
(which are in very good order), segiuents of forewings apparently 
narrower and more pointed, tone of forewings yellower and less 
grayish ; true inconditus is very uniform and dull-coloured, wings 
shorter-looking." Later we were able to compare the paratype 9 
in the Fernald collection with our entire series. Judging by Meyrick's 
note, this paratype does not dififer from the types in the British Mu- 
seum, and we are able to check the points which he mentions, but 



440 

still quite unable to divide our series in a satisfactory way. We must 
therefore leave the species as a small, variable, pale coloured Oidac- 
matophorus, without strict definition. The larger specimens are from 
Utah, and approach caudclli Dyar, but lack the prominently dark-lined 
veins in the lobes of the primaries. 
The life history is unknown. 

55. OiDAEMATOPiiORus uNicoLOR Barnes & McDunnough. PI. XLII, 
fig. 19. 

Pterophorus unicolor Barnes & McDunnough, Cont. Nat. Hist. Lep. N. A. II, 
185, pi. I, f. 8, 1913. 
Id., Check List 151, 1917. 
Grossbeck, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist. XXXVII 136, 1917. 

The species is still known only from the unique type 9 , so we reproduce 
the original description and notes. 

"Primaries pale straw-color, immaculate, slightly tinged with smoky along 
terminal margins of lobes ; first lobe pointed, second lobe rather broad with 
well defined upper angle. Secondaries pale smoky with lighter silky fringes. 
Beneath, smoky. Legs pale ochreous, first two pairs blackish inwardly. Ex- 
panse 14 mm. 

"Habitat. Marco, Fla. (Apr. 24-30). 1 9. Type, Coll. Barnes. 

"From several larvae, found boring in the stems of the Eupalorium species 
above referred to, we succeeded in breeding this single specimen." 

We would call attention to the fact that the type has a brown 
head with a whitish patch between the antennae, and that vein Rj, and 
all of those in the second lobe of the priinaries are distinctly marked 
vvitli smoky brown, most heavily in the outer margin. The thorax 
and abdomen are pale yellowisli white, the latter with a dorsal and 
several ventral and lateral brown stripes. We associate with the 
type a single other 9 from St. Petersburg, Fla., Oct., whose expanse 
is 19 mm., but we are not at all certain of the identity of this specimen. 

56. OiD.\EjrATOPiiORus cAUDELLi Dyar. PI. XLVI, fig. 23. PI. I. Ill, 
fig. 3. 

Pterophorus caudclli Dyar, Proc. Ent. Soc. Wash. V, 228, 1903. 

Meyrick, Gen. Ins. C, 16, 1910. 

Id., Wagner's Lep. Cat. pars 17, 24, 1913. 

Barnes & McDunnough, Check List 151, 1917. 
Head light brown, yellowish white between the antennae. Palpi moderate, 
oblique, whitish, slender. Antetmae whitish. Legs whitish, the first two pairs 
shaded with fuscous inside; tibiae of hind legs slightly shaded outside. Thorax 
and abdomen yellowish white. Abdomen apparently with a few faint brown 
stripes. We have few specimens in which these can be observed. 



441 

Primaries yellowish white with a li.uht brown or gray brown subcostal 
shade. Wins in paler areas marked with a similar color. Fringes concolorous. 
Under surface mostly gray-brown, but with the lobes as above, with dark veins. 
Secondaries and their fringes pale brownish gray. Expanse 20-27 mm. 

Distribution: Type locality Williams, Ariz. Miss, to Ariz., north 
into S. Cal. and Utah, Mar. to May, July, Sept. 

Like the related species, caudelli seems to be poorly defined. We 
have only a small series, but it includes a very considerable range of 
variation in depth of color and prominence of markings. A specimen 
from Jemez Springs, N. M., is very close to the type, which we have 
examined, but two others from the same lot diverge, and our Utah 
specimens approach auslralis Grin. The genitalia differ from that 
species, and also from those of catalinac Grinnell (agraphodactylus 
Auct. ? Walk.) with which caudelli seems also to intergrade in ap- 
pearance. Unicolor B. & McD. may be based on a dwarfed specimen 
of caudelli, but the type and one other 9 which we refer tentatively 
to that species have the abdomen more distinctly striped than the series 
which we are calling caudelli. 

The life history is unknown. 

57. OiDAEMATOPHORUS CATALiN.^E Grinnell. PI. XLVI, fig. 22. PI. 

LIII, fig. 2. 
fLioptihts agraphodactylKs Walsingham (? Walker"), Pter. Cal. Ore. 46, pi. Ill, 

f. 6, 1880. 
tAlucita agrafhodactyla Feniald, Smith's List Lep. N. A. 87, 1891. 
^Pterophorus agrapliodactylus Fernald, Pter. N. A. 47, 1898. 

Id.. Buil. 52 U. S."n. M. 445, 1902. 

Meyrick, Gen. Ins. C, 16, 1910 (in part). 

Id., Wagner's Lep. Cat. pars 17, 24, 1913 (in part). 

Barnes & McDunnough, Check List 151, 1917. 
Ptcrophonis catalinae Grinnell, Can. Ent. XL, 319, 1908. 

Meyrick, Wagner's Lep. Cat. pars 17, 26, 1913. 

Barnes & McDunnough, Check List 151, 1917. 
This species is so nearly the counterpart of caudelli that a description 
would be mere repetition. We have only six specimens. These average a little 
larger than caudelli and are slightly more yellow, with the brown subcostal 
shade running back to about the middle of the base of the wing. Just within 
the co.stal margin of this shade is a slender line of ground color along the mar- 
gin of the cell. \\'e should hesitate to regard the two species as distinct but 
for the fact that the male genitalia differ conspicuously. Our series expands 
25-27 mm., the t>-pe 28 mm. 



442 

Distribution : Typie locality Avalon, Santa Catalina Id., Sept. In 
coll. Barnes S. Cal., June Aug. Walsinghain recorded it from S. Ore- 
gon, May. 

Our data may be regarded as insufficient for dropping agrapho- 
dactylus from our fauna, and this very probably should not be done. 
We believe, however, that this name is likely to apply to caudelli, 
rather than to the Californian form, and since we cannot settle the 
question we prefer to use names of which we can be certain. We 
submitted a specimen of catalinae to Meyrick as agraphodactyliis, and 
received the following note in reply. "May be correct, but the type 
is in poor condition and wanting in definite characters ; I think it may 
be accepted as reasonably likely." The examination of genitalia of 
West Indian males should settle the question satisfactorily; consid- 
eration of superficial characters certainly will not do so, since the 
type is poor and we are acquainted with two almost indistinguishable 
species of this immediate group. Grinnell's type is in excellent con- 
dition, and is a very well marked example of our west coast species. 

58. OlDAEMATOPHORUS ARION n. sp. PI. XLVI, fig. 18. PI. LIV, 

fig. 3. 

Head, thorax and abdomen evenly dotted with brownish gray and white 
scales. Abdomen with single blackish dorsal dots in hind margins of segments. 
Antennae with gray-brown and white scales, finely banded. Palpi slender, mod- 
erate, drooping in the type but probably oblique in nature; white with gray- 
Lrov.n scales outside. Legs whitish, shaded on one side with fuscous, the 
hind pair lightly. Tarsi very slenderly dark-annulate at tips of joints. 

Costal margin of primaries dark brownish gray, lighter outward with a 
heavy spot beyond base of cleft. Remainder of wing lighter brownish gray 
with a superficial vestiture of white scales. There is a small dark dot in the 
cell and a larger, but still inconspicuous one before the cleft, not touching base 
of cleft. A few scattered dark scales near inner margin. Fringes rather darker 
than wing, darkest in cleft, cut by a few white hairs and tufts especially on 
outer margin of second lobe. Secondaries light brownish gray, fringes concol- 
orous. Expanse 22.5 mm. 

Holotype $, Palmeriee, Cochise Co., Ariz., coll. Barnes. 

We associate with this specimen, with some doubt, a single fe- 
male from Silverton, Colo., July. This 9 agrees with the type in 
most features but the primaries are whiter, with rather plentiful dark 
irroration streaking them. We should hesitate to name the one speci- 
men Init for the peculiar and distinct genitalia. The more salient 
superficial features are the rather narrow primaries, even color, and 



443 

absence of a pale patch between the antennae. The species may be- 
long nearer to the head of the genus with gricscscetis, but it seems to 
us to show some relationship with monodactylus; rather remote, it is 
true. 

59. OiDAEMATOPHORus MONODACTYLUS Linnaeus. PI. XLVI, tig. 
13, 14, 15. PI. LIV, fig. 13. 

Alucita monodactyla Linnaeus, Syst. Nat. Ed. X, 542, 1758. 

Femald, Smith's List Lep. N. A. 87, 189L 

Meyrick, Handbook 439, 1895. 
^Alucita ptcrodactyla Huebner (not Linn.), Samml. Eur. Sctimett. pi. I, t. 4, 

1823. 
Ptcrofhorus cincridactylus Fitch, Trans. N. Y. Agr, Soc. XIV, 848, 1854. 

Id., 1st Kept. Em. N. Y. 144. 1854. 

Morris, Cat. Lep. N. A. 54, 1860. 

Walker, List Lep. Ins. B. M. XXX, 940, 1864. 
Pterophorus naevosidactylus Fitch, Trans. N. Y. Agr. Soc. XIV, 849, 1854 

Id., 1st Rept. Ent. N. Y. 145, 1854. 

Morris, Cat. Lep. N. A. 54, 1860. 

Walker, List Lep. Ins. B. M. XXX, 940, 1864. 
Pterophorus pcrgracilidactylus Packard, Ann. Lye. Nat. Hist. N. Y. X, 265, 1873. 
tPterophorus monodactylus Zeller, Verb. z.-b. Ges. Wien. XXIII, 326, 1873. 

Id., op. cit. XXV, 355, 1875. 

Walsingham, Pter. Cal. Ore. 39, pi. II, f. 16, pi. Ill, f. 1, 1880. 

Dimmock, Psyche III, 390, 403, 1882. 

Hy. Edwards, Bull. 35 U. S. N. M. 137, 1889. 

Hofmann, Deutsch. Pter. 157, 1895 (biol.). 

Fernald. Pter. N. A. 51, pi. I, pi. II, ff. 3. 4; pi. VII, ff. 1-5, 1898. 

Id., Bull. 52 U. S. N. M. 446, 1902. 

Dyar, Proc. Ent. Soc. Wash. V, 228, 1903. 

B. C. Ent. Soc. Check List 43, 1906. 

Meyrick, Gen. Ins. C, 17, 1910. 

Winn, List Ins. Que. 86, 1912. 

Meyrick, Wagner's Lep. Cat. pars 17, 26, 1913. 

Walsingham, Biol. Cent. Am., Lep. Het. IV, 442, 1915. 

Barnes & McDunnough, Check List 151, 1917. 

Grossbeck. Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist. XXXVII, 135, 1917. 
Pterophorus monodactyla Tutt, Pter. Brit. Ill, 1896. 
Pterophorus barbcri Dyar, Proc. Ent. Soc. Wash. V, 228, 1903. 

Meyrick, Gen. Ins. C, 16, 1910. 

Id., Wagner's Lep. Cat. pars 17, 24, 1913. 

Banies & McDunnough, Check List 151, 1917. 
Emmelina monodactyla Tutt, Ent. Rec. XVII, 37, 1905. 



444 

I'IcroI'liorus pkiipennis Grinncll. Can. Ent. XL, 320, 1908. 
Meyrick, Wagner's Lep. Cat. pars 17, 25, 1913. 
Barnes & McDunnough, Check List 151, 1917 

Head very dark brown above, slightly paler in front, nnicli paler between 
antennae, whose bases are sometimes connected in front of this pale area with 
a white line. Antennae whitish with brown dots above, sometimes almost com- 
pletely dark. Palpi small, obliqne, whitish, darkened at tips. Thorax white, 
yellow, tawny, gray, cinnamon or dark brown. Abdomen more or less brown- 
ish or grayish, with some dark streaks and dashes, and a narrow dorsal stripe, 
concolorous with thorax, which widens anteriorly and is sometimes margined 
with white toward its junction with the thorax. The only features of the legs 
which need be noted are the slender tufts of the front and middle tibiae and 
the crest of scales which is usually present on the upper surface of the hind 
tarsi. 

The primaries are narrow, as noted ia the key, but have unusually long 
fringes at the anal angle of the second lobe. The longest of these exceed the 
width of the lobe. The color of these wings is extremely variable. We have 
specimens whicli are yellowish tawnj-, and others gray or whitish with a few- 
brown scales, cinnamon, and various mixtures of these colors. The costa may 
have a blackish spot well out toward middle of first lobe, and in the less grayish 
examples is sprinkled from base to opposite cleft with black and white. There 
is a Mack spot before liase of cleft sometimes extended to it, a dot in cell, some 
at tips of veins in both lobes, and some black scales streaking the wing, at 
least near inner margin. Secondaries and fringes of both wings brownish gray. 
Expanse 21-27 mm. 

Distribution: Europe, N. Africa and Asia. N. America from 
.'\llanlic to I'acific and from Alexico into southern (_'anada. March 
to Novemlier, even in the northern ]iart of its range. 

The brief Euroijean sj'nonyniy is taken from ]\Ieyrick'.s writings. 
The tyjies of cincridactylns and nacz'osidactylus are in tlie Fernald 
collection, of pcrgyacilidactyliis in the ("ambridge IMuseum. of bai-bcri 
in the National IMuseum and of ['ictipeiDiis in the Southwest Museum. 
We have examined all of these types, and (ind the first three to be the 
grav form and the last two ratlier brownish tawny. The type of 
harbcri ha>- no crests on the hind tibiae, but in our series of over a 
hundred specimens we find this crest in all stages of development. 

The sjiecies has been reared bv numerous entomologists on this 
continent, liut we are forced to reproduce Tutt's descriptions of the 
larva and pupa, which he quotes from TVirrilt and South, as indicated. 
The recorded food plants knovvU to us are Coirrol:iiliis scpiiiiii. ar- 
'i'riisis, major, tricolor. CIiriio[^odiiiin alhiiin. .Itri[>lc.r patiilu. Cdllidia 
Tiihjaris. Ipoiiiocii piirpiirra and Rii patoritiiii purptireuni. 



445 

Larva : "Length, when at rest, about five-eighths of an inch, and stout in 
proportion. Head, pohshed and rather small, narrower than the second seg- 
ment. Body uniform and cylindrical, tapering a little posteriorly. Segmental 
divisions, well defined and deeply cut ventrally ; each tubercle emits a tuft of 
short but rather strong hairs. Ground colour, bright yellowish-green, more 
decidedly green on the back; head, pale yellow; the mandibles light brown. 
A fine but clear yellowish-white line forms the dorsal stripe; there is a much 
broader stripe of the same colour along the spiracular region, and the space 
between it and the spiracles is speckled with streaks and spots of the same 
colour. Spiracles black, hairs greyish. Ventral surface, legs and pro-legs 
uniformly pale green." (Porritt, Entomologist XV, 90, 91.) 

Pupa: "Green at first, afterwards pale dingy-brown, more or less suf- 
fused with reddish-brown along the dorsal area. Dorsal and lateral lines in- 
ternipted, blackish-brown; warts and hairs as in the larva except that some 
of the dorsal series are blackish. Head flattened, marked with brown, and 
thickly covered with short hairs. Wing-cases yellowish-green, faintly streaked 
with brown. Attached by anal segment to stem of food plant or other object 
near." (South, Entomologist XVHI, 277.) 

60. OiDAEMATOPHORUs LONGiFRONS Walsingham. PI. XLVII, fig. 15. 

PI. LIV, fig. 11. 
Ptcrol>horus longifrons Walsingham, Biol. Cent. Am., Lep. Het. IV, 448, 1915. 

Head clothed with white tipped gray scales. Frontal tuft long, conical. 
There is no frontal prominence within the tuft. Antennae whitish. Palpi 
long, porrect, about as long as entire head, including tuft, and exceeding front 
by about length of head: grayish, second joint with rather thick vestiture above. 
Fore and middle legs white, shaded with brownish gray inside and at tips of tar- 
sal joints. Third pair whitish, lightly shaded with brownish gray. Thorax 
anteriorly clothed with white tipped, very pale grayish scales, posteriorly with 
a heavy Y-shaped mark outlined in white, the intermediate space gray-brown. 
Abdomen brownish gray with the white margins of the Y continued as a broad 
whitish dorsal stripe containing three gray brown lines, the central one with 
blackish dots in the posterior margins of the segments. Both lees and abdomen 
are very long and slender. 

Primaries grayish on costa, becoming brownish on inner margin, with 
scattered black and a few white scales. Continuing from the pale front part 
of the thorax there is a whitish basal streak. Above base of cleft a whitish 
costal mark faintly relieves a dark spot following it. There is a black dot near 
middle of cell, a faint dark spot or a few pale scales at base of cleft in some 
specimens, and occasionally a few obscure black dots at tips of veins in first 
lobe. Secondaries and all fringes gray-brown. Expanse 25-28 mm. 

Distribution: Mexico. Texas, Mar.; Ariz., June; S. Cal. Sept. 

We have fourteen specimens of this species from the states men- 
tioned. Among them we find two forms of genitaha, hut we arc 
utterly unable to divide the series by superficial characters, and since 



U6 

we have no way of deterniiniiig the genitahc structure of true longi- 
frons we prefer to assume, for the present, that this difference is 
possibly only a variation within the species. We should hardly expect 
this, but the difference lies in the length of the right harpe only, so 
the assumption is reasonable. We have made five slides without 
finding an intermediate, and therefore figure both forms. 

The unique type of longifrons was taken at Omilteme, Guerrero, 
Mexico, in July. It is a male, but the abdomen is broken so the 
form of the genitalia of the species must be decided from topotypical 
material. Mr. Meyrick compared one of our specimens with the type 
and pronounced it correctly identified. 

The early stages are unknown. 

Genus Agdistis Huebner 
Haplotype Ahicita adactyla FIbn. 

Aydislis Huebner, Verz. l.ek. Sdimett. 429, 1826. 

Zeller, Linn. Ent. VI, 321, 1852. 

Meyrick, Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. 486, 1890. 

Tun, Pter. Brit. 14, 1891. 

Meyrick, Handbook 441, 1895. 

Hofmann, Dcutsch. Pter. 47, 50, 1895. 

Tutt, Ent. Rec. XVH, 35, 1905. 

Meyrick, Gen. Ins. C, 20, 1910. 

Id., Wagner's Lep. Cat. pars 17, 31. 1913. 

Barnes & McDunnough, Check List 151, 1917. 
AdiUtylus Curtis, Brit. Ent., Lep. H, 471, 1833. Orthotype adactyla. 

Tutt. Ent. Rec. XVII, 35, 1905. Pseudotype bcnncttii Curt. 
%Agdistcs VVestwood, Gen. Syn. 115, 1840. Orthotype bcnncttii 
tAdactyla Zeller, Isis X, 771, 1841. 

Erncstia Tutt, Brit. Lep. V, 128, 1906. Orthotype leriiiciisis Mill. 
Hcrbcrtia Tutt, op. cit. 129. Orthotype tamaricis Zell. 

Front prominent, sniootlily rounded. Ocelli present. Palpi moderate, 
upturned; second joint with loose vestiture of long scales; third small, ovoid. 
Primaries entire ; Cu., from near angle of cell, M,^ and Cu^ stalked, M._, to Rg 
free, discocellulars obsolete (R, lo R^ approximate or connate in other faunae 
according to Meyrick). Secondaries entire, outer margin sinuate; under sur- 
face -with pecten of black scales over the usual row of black scales on cubital 
stem; Cu., from middle of cell, Cu, well before end of cell, discocellulars and 
one median faintly indicated, M,, strong, one radial and S C near costa, R to 
apex and S C to costa just before apex. Two anals present, obsolescent. (See 
pi. XLVIII, fig. 10.) 



44T 

The entire wings segregate our single species of Agdistis so con- 
spicnously that no other characters are needed for its identification. 
The neuration differs in several particulars from that of the genotype. 

1. Agdistis Americana n. sp. PI. XLII, fig. 20. PI. Lit, fig. 16. 

iAgdistis adactyla Dyar (Not Hbn.), Proc. Ent. Soc. Wash. X, 60, 1908. 
Barnes & McDiinnough, Check List 151, 1917. 

Vestiture of head and body of whitish and brownish gray scales, under 
parts overlaid with white. Abdomen with paired dorsal dots on posterior 
margins of segments. Legs concolorous, more or less whitish on one side ; 
spurs short. 

Primaries with a gray brown, thinly scaled, subtriangular area beginning 
at basal third of cell and extending to outer margin with limits of cell con- 
tinued in a sharp line equidistant from inner and costal margins respectively 
as its boundaries. Remainder of wing with mixed whitish and fuscous scales. 
There is usually a fuscous spot at apex of thinly scaled triangle, two dots on 
its hind margin, and several spots in the apical portion of the costa. Fringes 
grayish white with a dark median line. Secondaries and their fringes similar 
to triangle, sometimes with a slight "pepper-and-salt" area on outer margin. 
Fringes with a faint dark line. Expanse 24 mm. 

The male genitalia are abundantly distinct from those of the European 
adactyla Hbn. 

Described from a long series from San Diego, Cal., taken by Messrs. W. 
S. Wright and Geo. H. Field, in every month from March to August. The 
types are as follows : 

Holoti-pe $ , allotype, and 8 paratypes S in coll. Barnes. 

Paratype i and paratype 9 U. S. N. M. No. 23486. 

S paratypes $ , coll. W. S. Wright. 

The greater part of our series is from the collection of W. D. 
Kearfott, who recognized the distinctness of the species and labelled 
a type series with the name which we now adopt. We have but one 
specimen of adactyla, a male, which differs from the American species 
in its more brownish color, more conspicuously white costal fringes 
on the primaries and u'hite hind tarsi (four distal joints only). The 
genitalia, as noted, are much different. 

The species has apparently not been reared. 



448 



FAMILY ALUCITIDAE 

Pbahicnac alucitac Linnaeus, Syst. Nat. ed. X, I, 542, 1758 (in part). 

Ri[iidophorae Huebner, Tentamen, 1806. 

Ptcrophorites Latreille, Consid. Gen. 370, 1810 (in part). 

Aluciladac Samouelle, Ent. Comp. 255, 1819 (in part). 

Ahicitae Huebner, Verz. bek. Sclimett. 428, 1825 (in part, Multifidae). 

Alucitidac Stephens, Cat. Brit. Ins. II, 229, 1829 (in part). 

Westwood, Mod. Class. Ins. II, 413, 1840 (in part). 
Alucitina Zeller, Isis X, 865, 1841. 

Wallengren, Skand. Fjad. 1859. 

Tutt, Pter. Brit. 155, 1896. 
Orncoditcs Duponchel, Cat. Meth. 384, 1845. 
Onicodidae Meyrick, Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. 483, 1890. 

Fernald, Smith's List Lep. N. A. 88, 1891. 

Meyrick, Handbook 441, 1895. 

Fernald, Pter. N. A. 61, 1898. 

Id., Bull. 52 U. S. N. M. 448, 1902. 

Meyrick, Gen. Ins. CVIII, 1910. 

Id., Wagner's Lep. Cat. pars 17, 40, 1913. 

Fracker, Class, Lep. Larvae 94, 1915. 

Barnes & McDunnough, Check List 152, 1917. 
Ocelli present. Proboscis well developed. Maxillary palpi not developed 
in our species. Labial palpi strong. Both primaries and secondaries deeply 
cleft into six "feathers" each. One vein runs to the tip of each lobe. In 
the primaries we regard these as R„, R., M.,, Cu^, Cu^, and A. S C and R, are 
also present, but short. In the secondaries the veins are probably Rj, R., M^, 
Cu , Cu., and A. S C is present but short. The under surface of the second- 
aries lacks the black scales which occur in the Pterophoridae, and the legs are 
of normal length; spurs as in Ptcrophoridac. 

The family includes four genera, of which only one is represented in our 
fauna. 

Genus Alucita Linnaeus 
Logotype Alucita hcxadactyla Linn. 

Alucita. Linnaeus, Syst. Nat. Ed. X, I, 542, 1758. 

Curtis, Brit. Ent., Lep. II, 695, 1838. Fixes type. 

Wallengren, Skand. Fjad. 23, 1859. 

Tutt, Pter. Brit. 157, 1896. 
Oriicodcs Latreille, Precis Car. Ins. 148, 1796. Logotype hcxadactyla. 

Id., Consid. Gen. 442, 1810. Fixes type. 

Meyrick, Trans. Ent. Soc. London, 490, 1890. 

Fernald, Smith's List Lep. N. A. 88, 1891. 



449 

Meyrick, Handbook 442, 1895. 
Fernald, Pter, N. A. 61, 1898. 
Id., Bull. 52 U. S. N. M. 448, 1902. 
Meyrick, Gen. Ins. CVIII, 2, 1910. 
Id., Wagner's Lep. Cat. pars 17, 40. 1913. 
Bames & McDunnough, Check List 152, 1917. 
liuchiradia Huebner, \'erz. bek. Schmett. 431, 1825. Logotype hcxndactyla. 
Tutt, Ent. Rec. XVII, 35, 1905. 
Meyrick, Gen. Ins. CVIII, 2, 1910. Fixes type (under Orncodcs). 

Characters of the family. 

The European writers on whose work the former usage of this 
genus was based, accepted the restriction to pentadactylus by Poda. 
This is not in accordance with the International Rules. The earliest 
actual designation of a type which is validated by these rules, is that 
of Curtis. We accept this fixation. 

Only one species has been taken in North America. 

L Alucit.\ MONTANA Cockerell. PI. XLII, fig. 2\. PI. LIV, tig. 10. 

^Atucita hcxadaclyta Walsingham (not Linn.), Pter. Cal. Ore. 66, pl. Ill, f. lo, 
1880. " 

Cockerell, Ent. Mo. Mag. XXV, 213, 1889. 
Alucita moHtana Cockerell, Ent. Mo. Mag. XXV, 213, 1889. 
Orncodcs hcxadactyla Fernald (not Liini.), List Lep. N. A. 88, 1891. 

Comstock. Manna! 238, 1895. 

Fernald, Pter, N. A. 62, 1898 (in part). 

Dyar, Ent. Rec. XI, 140, pl. I, f. 6, 1899. 

Fernald, Bull. 52 U. S. N. M. 448, 1902 (in part). 

Houghton, Ent. News, XIII, 89, 1902. 

Dyar, Proc. U. S. N. M. XXVII, 924, 1904 (biol.). 

Meyrick, Gen. Ins. CVIII. 3, 1910 (in part). 

Id., Wagner's Lep. Cat. pars 17. 42, 1913 (in part). 

Barnes & McDunnough, Check List 152, 1917. 
Palpi with second joint heavily sealed, rather triangular, truncate, white 
aliove and below, Iirown on si<les. Third upturned, long, slender, brown with 
white tip and base. Abdomen brown, each segment with white posterior mar- 
gin. Head, antennae and thorax brown. 

The primaries of this specie.s are crossed b.\ a wide median band, margined 
narrowly with wliife, which forks on the first two lobes. Tliere is another band 
nearer the liase on t!u- first lobe which is not distinctly marked elsewhere, and 
an additional subtermina! band which is narrower on the first two lobes. Be- 
tween this and the median band there is a heavy costal spot which does not 
reach the inner margin of the first lolie. All of these marks are margined with 
white. The ground color is grayish tawny and the marks ver>- dark brown, 
as also are the tips of the lobes. Secondaries checkered with dark brown, 



450 

tawny and white. Fringes of both wings concolorous with the contiguous 
parts. Expanse 11-16 mm. 

Distribution : Type locality Custer Co., Colo. Ariz, to Van- 
couver Is., east to Out. and N. Y., Mar., Apr., June, July. 

We have a single specimen of hexadactyla kindly supplied by 
Mr. Busck from the Hofmann collection in the National Museum. 
This specimen is much lighter and more ochreous in general appear- 
ance than our large series of the North American species, and entirely 
lacks pure white scales. It is otherwise closely related. The genitalia 
show enough differences, we believe, to warrant the retention of 
moniana as a good species, though they are of the same general form 
The gnathos is more spatulate in hexadactyla, the uncus in our one 
slide appears to be notched, but without the two small processes which 
are found in montana, and the basal processes on the claspers are much 
more blunt. 

Under the name hexadactyla Dr. Dyar published a few notes 
(Proc. U. S. N. M. XXVII. 924) which indicate that the larva prob- 
ably mines the leaves of snowberry (Syniphoricarpos spp.). The Euro- 
pean hexadactyla lives in the flowers of honeysuckle {Loniccra). 



The following terms and signs, taken from Van Duzee's "Catalogue of 
the Hemiptera," are used in this work: 
Types of genera are designated as : 

Orthotype : type by original designation. 

Haplotype: type by single reference (only included species). 

Logotype : type by subsequent designation. 

P.scudotype : erroneous type designation. 
II signifies preoccupied names. 
t signifies names cited in error. 
t signifies emendations. 
§ signifies clerical errors. 



451 



The figures on plates XLI to XLVII inclusive are three times 
natural size. 

In drawing the figures of neuration on plate XLVII I various 
scales were used to give figures of the same size. 

All figures of genitalia, plates XLIX to LIV inclusive, are ap- 
proximately seventeen times natural size. 



452 



PLATE XLI 

1. Trichoptilus dejectalis Wlk. Chokoloskee, Fla. 

2. Trichoptilus lobidaclylus Fitch. Meach Lake, Ottawa Co., Que. 

3. Trichoptilus catiforiiicus VVlstn. Lakeland, Fla. 

4. Ptcrophorus pcriscclidactylus Fitch. Decatur, III. 

5. Ptcrophorus tenuidactylus Fitch. New Brighton, Pa. 

6. Ptcrophorus raptor Meyr. Chimney Gulch, Golden, Colo. 

7. Ptcrophorus ningoris Wlsm. Deer Park Springs, Lake Tahoe, Cal. 

8. Ptcrophorus dclawaricus Zell. Hot Spring.";, Green River, Wash. 

9. Platyptilia marmarodactyla Dyar. San Diego, Cal. 

10. Platyptilia punctidactyla Haw. Aweme, Man. 

11. Platyptilia punctidactyla Haw. Crater Lake, Ore. 

12. Platyptilia pica Wlsm. Wellington, B. C. 

13. Platyptilia acanthodactyla Hhn. Carmel, Cal. 

14. Platyptilia iciltianisii Grin. Alameda Co., Cal. 

15. Platyptilia crcmdata B. & McD. St. Petersburg, Fla. 

16. Platyptilia Carolina Kft. "Cotype". Black Mts., N. C. 

17. Platyptilia tcsseradactyla Linn. New Brighton, Pa. 

18. Aciptilia walsinghami Fern. Stockton, Utah. 

19. Pselnophorus bclfragei Fish. Fort Myers, Fla. 

20. Adaina bipunctatus Moesch. Florida. 

21. Adaina zephyria n. sp. Paratype c? . San Diego, Cal. 



I'lATK Xl.l 




454 



PLATE XLII 

1. Adatna montana Wlsm. (N. Y. ? Kellicott). 

2. Adaina nwntana form declwis Meyr. Colo. 

3. Adaina cinerascens Wlsm. Verdi, Nevada. 

4. Adaina buscki n. sp. Allotype $ . Cocoanut Grove, Fla. 

5. Adaina ambrosiae Murt. Pale form. San Diego, Cal. 

6. Adaina ambrosiae Murt. Dark form. Decatur, 111. 

7. Marasmarcha pumilio Zell. Essex Co. Pk., N. J. 

8. Exelastis cervinicolor B. & McD. Type 9 . Everglade, Fla . 

9. Stenoptilia rhynchosiae Dyar. Stemper, Fla. 

10. Stenoptilia mengcU Fern. Greenland. (Type lot). 

11. Stenoptilia exelamationis Wlsm. Dark form. Silverton, Colo. 

12. Stenoptilia parva Wlsm. San Diego, Cal. 

13. Stenoptilia pterodactyla Linn. European. 

14. Stenoptilia exelamationis Wlsm. Light form. 

15. Stenoptilia pallistriga B. & McD. St. Petersburg, Fla. 

16. Stenoptilia zophodaetyla Dup. San Diego, Cal. 

17. Oidaematophorus corvus n. sp. Pale form. Victoria, B. C. 

18. Oidaematophorus eorinis n. sp. Gray form. Paratype 9 . Tuolumne 

Meadows, Tuolumne Co., Cal. 

19. Oidaematophorus unieolor B.S!. McD. Type 9. Marco, Fla. 

20. Acjdistis amerieana n. sp. Paratype S ■ San Diego, Cal. 

21. Ahieita montana Ckll. "St. Cruz Mts., Cal." 



IV\Ti: XI. I I 




456 



PLATE XLIII 



1. 


Platyftili 


2. 


Ptatyl'tih 


3. 


Platyptih 


4. 


Plaiypiih 


5. 


Platyptih 


6. 


Platyptih 


7. 


Platyptih 


8. 


Platyptih 




Cnl. 


9. 


Platyplil 


10. 


Platyptit 


11. 


Platyptih 


12. 


Platyptih 



'a carduidactyla Riley, Decatur, 111. 

'a pcrciiodactyla Wlsm. Castle Lake, Siskiyou Co., Cal. 

a rhododactyla D. & S. European. 

a orthocarpi Wlsm. B. C. 

a fragilis Wlsm. Deer Park Springs, Lake Tahoe, Cal. 

a albida Wlsm. Monache Meadows, Tulare Co., Cal. 

a shastae Wlsm. Shasta Retreat, Siskiyou Co., Cal. 

maca n. sp. Paratype 3 . Tuolumne Meadows, Tuolumne Co., 

•a alhidorsella Wlsm. San Diego, Cal. 
ij albiciliata Wlsm. Wellington, B. C. 
'a albicans Fish. Verdi, Nevada. 
o modi-sta Wlsm. Huachuca Mts., Ariz. 



I'LATK XMII 




458 



PLATE XLIV 

1. Platyptilia edwardsii Fish. Durham, N. H. 

2. Platyptilia auriya n. sp. Paratype 5 . Essex Co. Park, N. J. 

3. Platyptilia pallidactyla Haw. Normal. Decatur, 111. 

4. Platyptilia pallidactyla Haw. Pale form. Silverton, Colo. 

5. Platyptilia xylopsamma Meyr. Stockton, Utah. 

6. Platyptilia grandis Wlsm. Shasta Retreat, Siskiyou Co., Cal. 

7. Platyptilia petrodactyla Wlk. Dawson, Alaska. 

8. Platyptilia alhcrtac n. sp. Holotype 9 . Laggan, Alta. 

9. Platyptilia coolcyi Fern. Silverton, Colo. 

10. Oidatmatophorus sulphurcodactylus Pack. Loma Linda, Cal. 

11. Oidaematophorus screnus Meyr. Paradise, Cochise Co., Ariz. 

12. Oidaematophorus balanotes Meyr. St. Petersburg, Fla. 



I'latk WAV 




4G0 



PLATE XLV 

1. Oidacnuitophorus fisliii Furn. $ Chiric;ihua Mts., Cochise Co., Ariz. 

2. Oiddi-inalophorus fishii Fern. 9- San Bernardino Mts., Cal. 
i. Oidacmaiophoms tinctus Wlsm. Paradise, Cochise Co., Ariz. 

4. Oidacmatotihorus homodactylus Wlk. Chelsea, Quebec. 

5. OidaematopliDrus clliottii Fern. Chelsea, Quebec. 

6. Oidaematopiionts faleaccns Zcll. Decatur, 111. 

7. Oidacmatophorns occidcntalis Wlsm. Normal form. Hereford, Ariz. 

,S. Oidacmatophorus occidentalis Wlsm. Dark form. Monache Meadows, 

Tulare Co., Cal. 

9. Oidacmatoplionis iincnii-ciis Fish. Light form. Wellington, B. C. 

10. Oidacmatophurus cineraccus Fish. Dark form. Malahat, B. C. 

11. Oidacmatophorus rilcyi Fern. Deer Park Springs, Lake Tahoe, Cal. 

12. Oidaemaiophorus baroni Fish. Mills College, Alameda Co., Cal. 

13. Oidaeniatop/ionis cretidactylus Fitch. Essex Co. Park, N. J. 

14. Oidaematophorns mathnvianus Zell. Camp Baldy, San Bernardino Mts., 

Cal. 

15. OidaoiiutophiiiKs nipuluiii Fern. Decatur, HI. 

lo. Oidaematopliorus yuttatus Wlsm. Stockton, Utah. 

17. OidaeiiuHophonts ataskcn.ns u. up. Paratype S- Kuby, .\laska. 

18. Oidacniafophorus strainiiicus Wlsm. Aweme, Man. 

19. Oidaemalophmus vcnapuiiclus B. & L. San Benito, Tex. 

20. Oidacnuitopliorus Intcoluf n. sp. Holotype i . Paradise, Cochise Co.. Ariz. 



I 'I \t: XI.\" 








-^ 



««^ 




/^ \ 



iG2 



PLATE XLVI 

1. (Jidiicnmloplwrus iiiQtiinntus Zell. Denver. Colo. 

2. Oiiiaonatophvrus cms n. sp. Paratype S . Mohave Co., Ariz. 

0. Oidacmatophorus pan n. sp. Paratype 9 . Palm Springs, Riverside Co., Cal. 

4. Oidiictiiatoplwnis triton n. sp. Holotype S . Palmerlee, Ariz. 

5. Oidacniiitopliorus phoebus n. sp. Paratype. Carmel, Cal. 
0. Oidaematophorus intcgrattts Meyr. Palmerlee, Ariz. 

7. Oidaonatophorus austcr n. sp. Holotype S . Mohave Co., Ariz. 

8. Oidai'inatophotus hnicei Fern. Aweme, Man. 

9. OidaciiMtopliorus citriles Meyr. Boulder, Colo. 

II). Oidacmatophorus iiieyricki n. sp. Paratype 5. San Diego, Cal. 

11. Oidacmatophorus gratiosus Fish. Cannel, Cal. 

12. Oidaematophorus ficldi Wright. "Cotype" 9 . San Diego, Cal. 

13. Oidacmatophorus monodactylus Linn. Grey form. Loma Linda, Cal. 

14. Oidacmatophorus monodactylus Linn. Irrorate form. Winnipeg, Man. 

15. Oidaematophorus moiwdaclylus Linn. Brown form. Palo Alto, Cal. 

16. Oidaonatophorus varius n. sp. Paratype S ■ San Diego, Cal. 

17. Oidacmatophorus falsits n. sp. Holotype S . Tuscon, Ariz. 

18. Oidacmatophorus arion n. sp. Holotype <J . Palmerlee, Ariz. 

1'), Oidiiciiialot>Iionis pcrditus n. sp. Allotype 9. Chimney Gulch, Golden. 
Colo. 

20. Oidacmatophorus aiistralis Grin. Upper surface. Santa Ana R., San Ber- 

nardino Mts., Cal. 

21. Oidacmatophorus australis Grin. Lower surface. 
Zl. Oidacmatophorus catalinac Grin. San Diego, Cal. 

23. Oidacmatophorus caudclli Dyar. Jemez Springs, N. M. 

24. Oidacmatophorus incouditus Wlsm. San Diego, Cal. 



I'l.ATK XIAl 



't^f^^^- 



^-"-fe. 



y :$K 



.-*v 



i n <ii i ^f' l ii MWl U ffV " 






■«^?"^IS^ 



'SStetta^ 



464 



PLATE XLVII 

1. Oidacmatophorus mcdiits n. sp. Allotype 9 . Brownsville, Tex. 

2. Oidacmatophorus linus n. sp. Holotype $ . New Brighton, Pa. 

3. Oidacmatophorus cadmus n. sp. Holotype $ . Palmerlee, Ariz. 

4. Oidacmatophorus helianthi Wlsm. Tuolumne Madows, Cal. 

5. Oidacmatophorus kcllicottii Fish. Anglesea, N. J. 

6. Oidacmatophorus lactcodactylns Chum. Greenwood Lake, N. J. 

7. Oidacmatophorus grandis Fish. Carmel, Cal. 

8. Oidacmatophorus subochraccus Wlsm. Upper surface. Camp Baldy, San 

Bernardino Mts., Cal. 

9. Oidacmatophorus subochraccus Wlsm. Lower surface. 

10. Oidacmatophorus castor, n. sp. Holotype 5 • Redington, Ariz. 

11. Oidacmatophorus poUux n. sp. Holotype 5 . Paradise, Cochise Co., AHt. 

12. Oidacmatophorus mizar n. sp. Allotype 9 . Palmerlee, Ariz. 

13. Oidacmatophorus griscsccns Wlsm. Loma Linda, San Bernardino Co., Cal. 

14. Oidacmatophorus costatus n. sp. Paratj-pe S . Monache Meadows, Tulare 

Co., Cal. 

15. Oidacmatophorus longifrons Wlsm. Palmerlee, Cochise Co., Ariz. 

16. Oidacmatophorus iobatcs n. sp. Allotype 9- En route Dewey to Salome, 

Ariz. 

17. Oidacmatophorus cochisc n. sp. Holotype $ . Palmerlee, Cochise Co., Ariz. 

18. Oidacmatophorus arcs n. sp. Holotype 9 . Stockton, Utah. 



I'l.ATK XIAU 







^f^ 



^.^■:'_:,"*^^^iBSir' 



.^-^ 



466 



PLATE XLVIII 

Neuration 

1. Trichoptilus lobidactylus Fitch. 

2. Ptcrophorus periscelidactylus Fitch. 

3. Platyptilta carduidactyla Riley. 

4. Psclnophorus belfragci Fish. 

5. Adaina zcpliyria B. & L. 

6. Aciptilia isialsinghami Fern. 

7. Oidaematophunis lithodaclylus Tr. (genotype). 

8. Marasmarcha pumilio Zell. 

8a. Exelastis ccrvinicohr B. & McD., first lobe of primary. 

9. Stenoptilia ptcrodactylaXAnn. (yenot>-pe). 
10. Agdistis amcrkana B. & L. 



I'latk XIA III 




A. W. Lliul.sey. li 



468 



PLATE XLIX 

a. uncus, b. ventral plate, c. right valve, d. ocdeagus. 

1. Ptcropliorus tcnuidactylus Fitch. 

2. P. cygnus B. & L., holotype. 

3. P. raptor Meyr. 

4. P. ddawarkus Zell. 

5. P. periscelidactylus Fitch. 

6. P. ningoris Wlsm. 

7. TrkhoptiUis lobidactylus Fitch. 

8. T. califoniicus Wlsm., lateral aspect. 

9. T. defectalis Wlk., lateral aspect. 

10. Stenoptilia parva Wlsm. 

11. 5". exdamationis Wlsm., right valve. 

12. Exelastls cervinkolor B. & McD., right valve. 

13. Marasmarcha pumilio Zell. 

14. Stenoptilia rhynchosiac Dyar. 

15. 6". zophodactyla Dup. 

16. 5". mcngeli Fern., right valve. 

17. Aciptilia walsingliami Fern. 

18. Adaina hipunctata Moesch. 

19. Pxcbniphorns bclfragei Fish. 

20. Adaina zephyria B. & L. 




A, W. Liii.lsey. del. 



470 



PLATE L 

Male genitalia 

1. Adaina huscki B. & L., holotype. 

2. A. montana declivis Meyr. 

3. A. cinerascens Wlsm 

4. A. ambrosiae Miirt. 

5. Platyptilia crenulata B. & McD. 

6. P. albertae B. & L., uncus and right valve of allotype. 

7. P. inodcsta Wlsm, 

8. P. tcsscradaciyla Linn. 

9. Stenoptilia ptcrodactyla Linn. 

10. Platyptilia marmarodactyla Dyar. 

11. P. pallidactyla Haw. 

12. P. albicans Fish, left valve and uncus. 

13. P. punctidactyla Haw. a. lateral aspect of uncus. u. uncus of acantho- 

dactyla Hbn. 

14. P. pcrcnodactyla Wlsm. 

15. P. Carolina Kearf., cotype. u. uncus of albiciliata Wlsm. 

16. Stenoptilia pallistriga B. & McD., right valve of holotype. 



Plate L 



.^^^ 




A. W. LiiKlsey. del. 



472 



PLATE LI 

Male genitalia 

1. Oidacmatot>horus occidcntalis Wlsm. 

2. O. crctidactylus Fitch, left valve. 

3. O. mathcwianus Zell., left valve. 

4. O. cu(<atorii Fern., left valve. 

5. O. giittatus Wlsm., left valve. 

6. O. alaski'Hsis B. & L., paratype, left valve. 

7. O. rilcyi Fern., left valve. 

8. O. castor B. & L., holotype, left valve. 

9. O. inquinatus Zell., left valve. 

10. O. pan B. & L., left valve. 

11. O. I'l-os B. & L., paratype, left valve. 

12. O. palcacus Zell., left valve. 



I'l.ATF. I.I 




A. W. LiiKlsey, del. 



474 



PLATE LII 

Male genitalia 

1. Oidaematophorus pollux B. & L., paratype, left valve. 

2. O. iiihar B. & L., holotype. 

3. O. tinctus VVlsm., left valve. 

4. O. mcditis B. & L., holotype, left valve. 

5. O. cadnms B. & L., paratype, left valve. 

6. O. inconditus Wlsm., left valve. 

7. O. integratus Meyr., left valve. 

8. 0. ouster B. & L., holotype, left valve. 

9. O. Uhus B. & L., paratype, left valve. 

10. O. pcrditus B. & L., holotype, left valve. 

11. O. I'arius B. & L., holotype, left valve. 

12. O. heliantlii Wlsm., left valve. 

13. O. serenus Meyr., left valve. 

14. O. brucei Fern., left valve. 

15. O. phoebus B. & L., holotype, left valve. 

16. Agdistis americana B. & L., left valve. 



I'l.ATK 1.1 I 




A. W. Lindsey. d.-l. 



476 



PLATE LIII 

Male genitalia 

1. OidiU'iiidlojtlionis tires B. & L., left valve of allotype. 

2 (). cataliiidc Grin., from fpceiincn compared with type. 

3. 0. caudelti Dyar. 

4. O. cot:his( li. & f.., hcl' i;, . 

5. O. humodactyhis Wlk., left valve, 
(i. O. sli-amineus Wlsm., left valve. 
7. O. fisliii Fern., left valve. 

S. 0. suhochraceus Wlsm., left vaUe. 

9. O. sulpliureodactylus Pack., left valve. 

10. O. costalus B. & L., left valve of holotype. 

11. O. coslatus B. & L., right valve of holotype. 

12. O. grundis Fish., left valve. 
1.3. O. aiislratis Grin. 



^ 



I'latk I.I II 




A. \V. Lindsey, d.-l. 



PLATE LIV 

Male genitalia 

!. Oidacmatophorus meyricki B. & L. 

2. 0. lacteodactylus Cham., left valve. 

3. O. arion B & L.. Iiolotype, left valve. 

4. O. griscsci'iis Wlsm., left valve. 

5. O. balanotes Meyr., left valve. 

0. O. venapuHctiis B. & L., paratj-pe, left valve. 

7. O. falsus B. & L., holotype, left valve. 

8. O. corvus B. & L., paratype, left valve. 

9. O. lutcoliis B. & L., paratype, left valve, 
a. harpe of New Mexican specimen. 

10. Alucita montana Ckll. 

11. Oidacmatophorus longifrons Wlsm. 
a. harpe of genitalic form. 

12. O. iohatcs B. & L., paratype. left valve. 
Li. O. monodartylns Linn. 



Tl.ATK Ll\' 




A. W. Lindsey. del. 



INDEX 



Families, genera, species, synonyms of genera and species, species cited in 
error and emendations which involve a considerable change of spelling are in- 
cluded in this index. Typographical or clerical errors and emendations in- 
volving only gender are omitted. 

Those specific names which arc treated as valid in tliis revision arc listed 
under the genera to which they are referred, as well as in the general alphabetic 
index. 



Page 

acanthodactyla Hbn 321 

Aciptilia Hhn 359 

walsinghanii Fern 360 

acrias Meyr 390 

Adaina Tutt 363 

ambrosiae Murt 371 

bipunctata Moesch 365 

buscki n. sp 370 

cinerascens WIsm 369 

declivis Meyr 368 

montana Wlsni 366 

zephyria n. sp 366 

Adkinia Tutt 350 

adustus Wlsm 343 

Agdistis Hbn 446 

americana n. sp 446 

iagraphodactylus Wlsm 441 

alaskensis n. sp 389 

alhertae n. sp 346 

albicans Fish 341 

albiciliata Wlsm 336 

albida Wlsm iii 

albidorsella Wlsm 334 

Alucita Linn 448 

montana Ckll 449 

\Ahicila Meyr 374 

Alucitidae 44.S 

Amblyflilia Hbn 309 

ambrosiae Murt 371 

americana n. sp 147 

aiigtistus Wlsm 421 

aqtiila Meyr 429 

ares n. sp 414 

arion n. sp 442 

auriga n. sp 3,^0 

auster n. sp W 



Page 

australis Grin 435 

baccliaridcs Grin 431 

balanotes Meyr 429 

barbcri Dyar 443 

baroni Fish 393 

behrii Grin 390 

belfragei Fish 362 

hernardinus Grin 305 

bcrtraini Roessler 343 

bipunctata Moesch 365 

bischoffi Zell 343 

brucei Fern 401 

Bucklcria Tutt 288 

buscki n. sp 370 

cadn-.us n. sp 411 

calif or>Hca Grin 381 

calif ornicus Wlsm 291 

culiiiiulliac Frey .''21 

tcaloddclyius Fab 321 

fcjiialis Wlk 354 

tcm-dui Zell 324 

carduidactyla Riley 324 

Carolina Kearf 327 

castor n. sp 394 

catalinae Grin 441 

candelli Dyar 440 

cm fries Meyr 290 

cervinicolor B. & McD 347 

ccr^nnidactylus Pack 343 

chioaastcs Meyr 401 

chlorias Meyr 427 

cineraceus Fish 391 

f cinerascens Dyar 368 

cinerascens Wlsm 369 

cincridactyhis Fitch 443 

citrites Mevr 400 



Page 

WCmiL-niidol^lionis VVlgr 3i)') 

cochise n. sp 413 

coloradensis Fern 358 

icoloradensis Grin 333,335 

compsochares Meyr 290 

congrualis Wlk 290 

cooleyi Fern 338 

corvus n. sp 437 

cosmodactyla Hbn 317 

costatus n. sp 436 

Crasimctis Meyr 362 

crenulata B. & McD 316 

icrctidactyla Fern 381 

cretidactyhis Fitch 382 

■\cretidactylus Zell 388 

Crocydoscclus Wlsm 31U 

cygnus n. sp 304 

declivis Meyr 368 

defectalis Wlk 290 

■fdelavaricus Forbes 302 

delawaricus Zell 307 

edwardsii Fish 328 

elliottii Fern 419 

Emmelina Tutt 374 

Erncstia Tutt 446 

eros n. sp 404 

Euchiradia Hbn 449 

Eucnncmidof'horus Wlgr 309 

eupatorii Fern 385 

exclamationis Wlsm 357 

Exelastis Meyr 346 

cervinicolor B. & McD 347 

falsus n. sp 436 

fieldi Wright 399 

finitimus Grin 307 

fuchcri Zell 323 

fishii Fern 410 

f ragilis Wlsm 333 

Fredericina Tutt 310 

fuscodactyla Haw 352 

fuscus Retz 352 

Gilberlw Wlsm 310 

Gillmcna Tutt 310 

■\gilvidorsis Hed 348 

gorgonicnsis Grin. 

(Ptcrophorus) 384 

gorgoniensis Grm. (Stcnoptili.i) . 339 



grandis Fish (Lioptilus) 430 

grandis Wlsm. (Platyptilus) ... 335 

gratiosus Fish 397 

griscodactylus Pag 348 

grisescens Wlsm 390 

guttatus Wlsm 388 

Gypsocharcs Meyr 361 

gypsodactyltis Wlsm 382 

haivaiii'iisis Butl 290 

helianthi Wlsm 415 

Hcllinsia Tutt 374 

Herbertia Tutt 44o 

hesperis Grin 325 

Viexadactyla Wlsm 449 

liilda Grin 384 

jhomodaclylus Hy. Edw 419 

homodactyhis Wlk 416 

inconditus Wlsm 439 

^itiqiiinatus Fern 371 

inquinatus Zell 402 

integratus Meyr 407 

iobates n. sp 412 

kellicottii Fish 427 

lacteodactylus Cham 426 

Leioptihis Wlgr 374 

linus n. sp 409 

Uophancs Meyr 348 

Vohidactyhis Fcni 291 

lobidactyius Fitch 294 

lonvii Zell 354 

longifrons Wlsm 445 

lugubris Fish 391 

luteolus n. sp 426 

maea n. sp 337 

Marasmarcha Meyr 348 

pumilio Zell 348 

luargbfidactylus Fitch 342 

marmarodactyla Dyar 314 

mathewianus Zell 383 

medius n. sp 408 

mengcli Feni 357 

.Ucrrificldia Tutt 360 

meyricki n. sp 397 

■\microdactylns Hed 365 

Mimacseoptilus Wlgr 350 

mizar n. sp 396 

modesta Wlsm 340 

monodactvlus Linn 443 



Page 

montana Ckll. (Alucita) 449 

montana Wlsm. (Adaina) 3o(j 

muiiticola Grin 317 

naevosidactylus Fitch 443 

ncbulacdactyhis Fitch 343 

nigrociliiiius Zell 302 

ningoris Wlsm 305 

nivea Bankes 317 

occidentalis Wlsm 381 

\ochrodactyta Fern 343 

oclirodactylns Fish 290 

Oidaeniatophorus Wlgr 374 

alaskensis n. sp 389 

arcs n. sp 414 

arion n. sp 442 

auster n. sp 407 

australis Grin 435 

balanotes Meyr 429 

baroni Fish 393 

brvicci Fern 401 

cadmus n. sp 411 

castor n. sp 394 

catalinae Grin 441 

caudelli Dyar 440 

cineraceus Fish 391 

citrites Meyr 400 

cochise n. sp 413 

corvns n. sp 437 

costatus n. sp 436 

cretidactylus Fitch 382 

elliottii Fern 419 

eros n. sp 404 

eiipatorii Fern 385 

falsus, n. sp 436 

fieldi Wright 399 

fishii Fern 410 

grandis Fish 430 

gratiosus Fish 397 

grisescens Wlsm 390 

guttatus Wlsm 388 

helianthi Wlsm 415 

homodactylus Wlk 416 

inconditus Wlsm 439 

inquinatus Zell 402 

integratus Meyr 407 

iobates n. sp 412 

kcllicottii Fish 427 

lacteodactylus Cham 426 



Page 

linns n. sp 409 

longi Irons Wlsm 445 

hitcolus n. sp 426 

mathewianus Zell 383 

mcdius n. sp 408 

meyricki n. sp 397 

mizar n. sp 396 

monodactylus Linn 443 

occidentalis Wlsm 381 

paleaceus Zell 422 

pan n. sp 405 

perditus n. sp 438 

phoebus n. sp 406 

pollux n. sp 395 

rileyi Fern 392 

serenus Meyr 434 

stramineus Wlsm 421 

subochraceus Wlsm 432 

sulphurcodactylus Pack 433 

tinctus Wlsm 414 

triton n. sp 406 

nnicolor B. & McD 440 

variiis n. sp 4 i/ 

venapunctiis B. & L 424 

Orncodcs Latr 447 

Onicodtdae 448 

orthocarpi Wlsm 331 

Ovendenia Tutt 374 

oxydactylus Wlk 290 

Oxyptilus Zel! 297 

paleacens Zel! 422 

pallidactyla Haw 342 

pallistriga B. & McD 356 

paludicola Wlgr 352 

pan n. sp 405 

parva Wlsm 351 

par%'nlus n. sp 289 

l^asadcncnsis Grin 315 

percnodactyla Wlsm 326 

perditus n. sp 438 

fcrgnuiUdactylns Pack 443 

periscelidactylus Fitch 299 

I'crfhwus Grossb 3/1 

petrodactyla Wlk 341 

phoebus n. sp 406 

pica Wlsm 320 

plctipcnnis Grin 444 

Platyptilia Hbn 308 



Page 

acantliodactyb Hbn 321 

alliertae n. sp 340 

albicans Fish 341 

albiciliata Wism 336 

albida Wlsm 333 

albidorsella Wlsm 334 

auriga n. sp 330 

carduidactyla Riley 324 

Carolina Kearf 327 

cooleyi Fern 338 

crenulata B. & Mc. D 316 

edwardsii Fish 328 

fragilis Wlsm 333 

grandis Wlsm 335 

maea n. sp 337 

marmarodactyla Dyar 314 

modesta Wlsm 340 

orthocarpi Wlsm 331 

pallidactyla Haw 342 

percnodactyla Wlsm 326 

petrodactyla Wlk 341 

pica Wlsm 320 

punctidactyla Haw 317 

rhododactyla D. & S 313 

shastae W Ism 334 

tesscradactyla Linn 323 

williamsii Grin 330 

xylopsamma Meyr 339 

pollux n. sp 395 

Porritia Tutt 360 

Fselnophorus Wlgr 361 

belfragei Fish 362 

iptcrodactylaUhn. (Alucita; ... 443 

pterodactyla Linn (Stenoptilia) . 352 

Pterophoridae 285 

Pterophorus Geoff 297 

cygnus n. sp 304 

ningoris Wlsm 305 

periscelidactylus Fitch 299 

raptor Meyr 304 

tenuidactylus Fitch 301 

^Pterophorus Wlgr 374 

ptilodactyla Hbn 352 

pumilio Zell 348 

punctidactyla Haw 317 

pygniaeus Wlsm 293 

ralumcnsis Pag 290 

raptor Meyr 304 



Page 

rhododactyla D. & S 313 

rhyncliosiae Dyar 351 

rileyi Fern 392 

schwarzi Dyar 338 

seniicostatus Zell 354 

screnus Meyr 434 

scricidactylus Murt 422 

shastae Wlsm 334 

simplicius Grossb 365 

Sochcliora Wlk 309 

stachydalis Frey 317 

Stangcla Tutt 288 

Stenoptilia Hbn 349 

exclamationis Wlsm 357 

mengeli Fern 357 

pallistriga B. & McD 356 

parva Wlsm 351 

pterodactyla Linn 352 

rhynchosiae Dyar 351 

zophodactyla Dup 354 

stramineus Wlsm 421 

^subochracca Fern 426 

jsKbochraceiis Meyr 435 

subochraceus Wlsm 432 

sulphurcodactylus Pack 433 

tsidplmrcus Wlsm 433 

itcnuidaclylus Fern 304 

tenuidactylus Fitch 301 

tosseradactvla Linn 323 

frtnilicclla'Hoi 321 

tinctus Wlsm 414 

Trichoptilus Wlsm 288 

californicus Wlsm 291 

dcfectalis Wlk 290 

lobidactylus Fitch 294 

parvulus n. sp 289 

pygmaeus Wlsm 293 

triton n. sp 406 

miicolor B. & McD 440 

varius n. sp 437 

venapunctus B. & L 424 

walsinghami Fern 360 

IVhcclcria Tutt 360 

williamsii Grin 330 

wrightii Grin 292 

xylopsamma Meyr 339 

zephyria n. sp 366 

zophodactyla Dup 354