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Contribution to an evaluation of tree species 
using the new CITES Listing Criteria 



compiled by the 



World Conservation Monitoring Centre 



on behalf of the 

CITES Management Authority 

of the Netherlands 



December 1998 



Digitized by tine Internet Arciiive 
in 2010 witii funding from 
UNEP-WCIVIC, Cambridge 



littp://www.arcliive.org/details/contributiontoev98wcmc 



CONTENTS 



1 . Introduction ' 

2. The new CITES listing criteria 3 

3. Activities undertaken in tree species evaluation 4 

3.1 Selection of species '* 

3.2 Collection of information ^ 

3.3 Application of the criteria 5 

4. Results of the tree sp>ecies evaluation 5 

4.1 Review of species for Appendix I listing 1 3 

4 .2 Re vie w of species for Appendix n listing 15 

5. Discussion '" 

References '' 

Acknowledgements '' 

Annex 1 Biological Criteria for Appendix I 19 

Annex 2 Profiles of Tree Species 21 

Annex 3 List of species recorded as globally threatened as a result of population 433 
decline through exploitation in the Tree Conservation Database 

Index 439 

Boxes and Tables 

Boxl 3 
Summary of the Biological Criteria for listing in Appendix I 
Summary of the Criteria for listing in Appendix n 

Table 1 Tree species included in the Appendices of CITES 2 

Table 2 Summary of results of the tree species evaluation 6 



Tree species evaluation using the new CITES listing criteria 

1. Introduction 

The Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species (CITES) has been utilised for over twenty 
years as a tool to help conserve wild species which are traded internationally. Species which are covered by 
the provisions of the Convention are included in appendices. To qualify for Appendix I, the Convention 
states that taxa must be "threatened by extinction" and that they "are or may be threatened by trade". 
Species included in Appendix n are those which "although not necessarily now threatened with extinction, 
may become so unless trade in specimens of such species is subject to strict regulation in order to avoid 
utilisation incompatible with their survival". 

Procedures to amend the appendices are laid dovvTi within the Convention. Resolutions providing further 
guidance on which species to list on the appendices were passed at the first Meeting of the Conference of 
the Parties to the Convention in 1976 in Berne. The so-called "Berne Criteria" provided guidance on the 
biological and trade status information required for inclusion in a proposal to amend the appendices. In 
1994, the Parties adopted Resolution Conf. 9.24 which contained new criteria for amendment of 
Appendices I and II. These are sunnmarised in Section 2 below. The CITES listing criteria were developed 
at the same time as the development of the 1994 lUCN Red List Categories and are loosely related to them. 
The general aim of the new lUCN system of categorising is "to provide an explicit, objective framework 
for the classification of species according to their extinction risk" (lUCN Species Survival Commission, 
1994). The lUCN categories indicate the degree to which species are threatened by extinction and are thus 
highly relevant to the CTTES listing process. 

As well as detailing the new CITES listing criteria, CITES Resolution Conf 9.24 also sets out in general 
terms the information requirements for amendment proposals. It points out that sufficient information, of 
sufficient quality and in sufficient detail to judge the proposal against the hsting criteria should be provided 
to the extent available. It also acknowledges that for some species the amount of scientific information vnll 
be limited. 

The CITES appendices include a wide range of plant and animal species including, at present, around 
twenty tree species which are traded internationally as timber (see Table 1). The provisions of the 
Convention and subsequent guidance on listing do not generally distinguish between different species 
groups in their application. There has, however, been international debate about the suitability of the 
Convention as a tool to help conserve particular species groups. Increased interest in the use of CITES for 
timber species over recent years has contributed to this debate. Various amendment proposals have been 
submitted to CITES for timber species and have been considered by the Parties at the Eighth and Ninth 
Conferences, prior to the adoption of Resolution Conf 9.24. At the Tenth Conference, Parties again 
considered and rejected a proposal to list a major timber species, Swietenia macrophylla, on Appendix n of 
the Convention. 

At the Tenth Conference of the Parties, the final report of the CITES Timber Working Group ( TWG ), 
convened following the Ninth Conference in November 1994, was considered and endorsed. The CITES 
Timber Working Group (TWG) was formed to review implementation issues relating to timber species. Its 
formation was in response to the increased interest in CITES as a conservation tool for tree species and 
concerns about the potential practical implications of timber listings. 

The CITES listing criteria were applied to tree species for the first time in Phase 1 of this project 
undertaken by WCMC. Fifty-eight species were selected: care was taken in choosing representatives from 
various continents and various climatic regions, trees that were listed in the Appendices and some that 
were not listed, and covering various degrees and forms of utilisation. The choice was made in such a way 
as to evaluate trees with no known use at all, as well as trees used in the pharmaceutical or wood or other 
industries. The results were presented to the Seventh Meeting of the CITES Plants Committee. The Plants 
Committee congratulated the Netheriands CITES Management Authority and WCMC on the production 
of the report, noting that it provided a valuable review of the application of the new CITES listing criteria 
for a range of tree species. Furthermore, the Plants Committee invited the Netherlands CITES 
Management Authority to continue the process of applying the new CITES listing criteria to tree species 
included in the CITES appendices and for internationally traded tree species (and other plant species) not 
included in the CITES appendices. 



Contribution to an evaluation of tree species using the new CITES Listing Criteria 



Phase 2 completed the review of the apphcation of the 1994 CITES listing criteria to timber species. A 
further 250 tree species were evduated against the CITES listing criteria. Although far from complete, the 
list of evaluated tree species aims at providing a reasonable representation of tree species from various 
regions, climates and grades of commercialisation and conservation. The evaluation includes a preliminary 
testing of the criteria against the majority of timber species included in the Appendices of CITES (see 
section 3.1). Application of the criteria to CITES-listed timbers assists in the implementation of a TWG 
recommendation that: 



The Plants Committee under the charge as outlined in Resolution Conf. 9.1, Annex 3, para vii) 
reviews the list of all timber species currently included in the appendices and reports the 
results of this review to the eleventh meeting of the Conference of the Parties. 

Subsequently at the Eighth Meeting of the CITES Plants Committee (November 1997) it was agreed 
that the results of the WCMC Tree Species Evaluation project commissioned by the CITES 
Management Authority of the Netherlands be used as a basis for this review. 

In its final report, endorsed by the CITES Parties, TWG noted that; many internationally traded timber 
species, boreal, temperate and tropical, can be managed on a sustainable basis through the application 
of appropriate silvicultural techniques, but that for other timber species such knowledge is currently 
lacking; and that there may be timber species which are under threat because of detrimental levels of 
use and international trade. 

Consequently the TWG recommended that: 

The range states should pay particular attention to internationally traded timber species 
within their territories for which knowledge of biological status and silvicultural requirements 
indicates concern. 



Table 1. Tree species in the CITES Appendices 



Species 


Appendix 


Use 


ARAUCARIACEAE 






Araucaria araucana 


m. 




BERBERIDACEAE 






Podophyllum hexandrum 


n 


Medicinal 


CARYOCARACEAE 






Caryocar costaricense 


n 


(Timber) 


CUPRESSACEAE 






Fitzroya cupressoides 


I 


Timber 


Pilgerodendron uviferum 


I 


Timber 


JUGLANDACEAE 






Oreomunnea pterocarpa 


n 


(Timber) 


LEGUMINOSAE (FABACEAE) 






Dalbergia nigra 


I 


Timber 


Pericopsis elata 


n 


Timber 


Platymiscium pleiostachyum 


n 


(Timber) 


Pterocarpus santalinus 


n 


Timber/Medicinal 


MAGNOUACEAE 






Magrwlia hodgsonii 


m 




MELIACEAE 






Swietenia humilis 


n 


Timber 


Swietenia macrophylla Call popns. in the Americas^ 


m 


Timber 


Swietenia mahagoni 


n 


Timber 


PALMAE (ARECACEAE) 






Chrysalidocarpus decipiens 


n 




Neodypsis decaryi 


n 




PINACFAE 






Abies guatemalensis 


I 


(Timber) 



Introduction 



Species 



Appendix Use 



PODOCARPACEAE 

Podocarpus parlatorei 

Podocarpus neriifolius 

ROSACEAE 

Prunus africana 

RUBIACEAE 

Balmea stormiae 

TAXACEAE 

Taxus wallichiana 

THYMELEACEAE (AQUILARIACEAE) 

Aquilaria malaccensis 

ZYGOPHYLLACEAE 

Guaiacum officinale 

Guaiacum sanctum 



I 




m 




n 


Timber/Medicinal 


I 


(Timber) 


n 


Medicinal 


n 


Medicinal 


n 


Timber 


n 


Timber 



Note 

Use: ( ) indicate use is minor 

2. The new CITES listing criteria 

The new CITES listing criteria as set out in Resolution Conf. 9.24 include biological criteria for inclusion 
in Appendix I; criteria for the inclusion in Appendix 11 of species in need of trade regulation in order to 
avoid utilisation incompatible with their survival; and criteria for inclusion in Appendix II of species which 
should be included for "look-alike purposes". The main criteria (leaving out those for Appendix II look- 
alike species) are summarised in the Box below. It should be emphasised that each criterion for Appendix I 
hsting is subject to fiirther qualifications, at least one of which should be met for the criterion to apply. The 
Appendix I criteria are given in full in Annex 1 to this report. 

Boxl 



Summary of the Biological Criteria for listing in Appendix I: 

A It has a small wild population (<5000 individuals) 

6 It has a restricted area of distnbution(<10,0(X)km^) 

C The vkild population has been or is inferred to be in decline (50% in 5 years or 2 
generations or for a small population 20% in 10 years or 3 generations). 

D It is likely to meet one of the above within 5 years if not listed on Appendix I. 

For Appendix I, it is considered that a spedes is or may be affected by trade if: 

i. it is known to be in trade 

ii. it is probably in trade 

iii. there is potential international demand for it, or 

i V. it would alter trade if not subject to Appendix I controls. 

Summary of the Criteria for listii^ in Appendix n 

A It is known or inferred that unless the species is subject to strict regulation, it will 
meet AT LEAST ONE of the Appendix I criteria in the near ftiture. 

B It is known or infened that die harvesting of specimens fiom the wild for 
intemadonal trade has, or may have, a detrimental impact on the species by 
EITHER: 

i. exceeding, over an extended period, the level that can be continued in perpetuity 
OR ii. reducing it to a population level at which its survival would be threatened by other 
influences. 



Contribution to an evaluation of tree species using the new CITES Listing Criteria 

3. Activities undertaken in the tree species evaluation 

3.1. Selection of species 

The timber species selected for evaluation were chosen to illustrate a wide range of differing degrees of 
threat to wild populations and levels of international trade. 

In Phase 1 , for Southeast Asian and Latin American species a preliminary report prepared for the European 
Commission, Provision of data on rare and threatened tropical timber species (WCMC, 199 1 ) was used as 
a partial basis for species selection. This report identified timber species in European trade which were 
considered threatened in parts of their range. The Tree Conservation Database prepared as an output of the 
Conservation and Sustainable Management of Trees project, funded by the Government of the 
Netherlands, Ministry of Foreign Affairs/NEDA was a useful tool in the selection of species for review. A 
list was prepared from the Database of all the globally threatened tree species assessed as threatened 
because of decline due to exploitation and for which the threat was annotated as felling (this list is included 
as Annex 3). From this list 58 species were selected for review in the evaluation process. 

In Phase 2, the majority of species selected are tropical in distribution but some temperate species were also 
considered. In general, it is relatively difficult to find examples of temperate timber species which are 
threatened by international trade because the species composition of the temperate timber trade is relatively 
heterogeneous and is restricted to a smaller number of widespread timber sjjecies. This is particularly true 
of the north temperate timber trade which is dominated by a limited range of conifers and hardwoods. 

The species selected in Phase 2 include most of the tree species listed in the CITES appendices. Exceptions 
are Fitzroya cupressoides and Prunus africana evaluated in Phase 1 and the tree species of Aloaceae, 
Cactaceae, Didiereaceae, and Euphorbiaceae. Futhermore, the species Magnolia hodgsonii and Balmea 
stormiae have not yet been reviewed. Other species, for example the African mahoganies 
Entandrophragma and Khaya have been subject to CITES hsting proposals in recent years. 

In total 255 species were selected for evaluation, and summary information profiles for these species are 
given in Annex 2. The information profiles are designed as a basis for testing the CITES evaluation criteria 
and not intended to be fully comprehensive. Availability of information on individual tree species varies 
considerably. In the majority of cases current information is limited, fragmentary and, in some cases, 
availability is restricted. 

3.2 Collection of information 

Information has been collected and summarised for the tree species selected on distribution, habitat, 
population status and trends, ecology, threats, uses, conservation status, conservation measures, and recent 
trade data. These headings broadly correspond to the categories of information specified for inclusion in 
CITES amendment proposals in Resolution Conf 9.24. 

Information held at WCMC for the selected species was reviewed and supplemented by literature survey 
and correspondence with experts. The main source of information on the conservation status of tree species 
has been the Tree Conservation Database. This records information on distribution, mainly at national or 
state level, for over 20,000 tree species. Conservation status is recorded in the Database for about 7000 tree 
species following the 1994 lUCN Red List categories. For globally threatened tree species supplementary 
information is recorded on habitat, ecology, threats, uses and level of use, conservation measures and 
bibliogr^hic references. This information has been compiled during the Conservation and Sustainable 
Management of Trees project. In general, the Conservation and Sustainable Management of Trees project 
has concentrated on endemic and restricted range species and so additional enquiries have been made for 
the more widespread timber species selected for the tree species evaluation. 

Detailed information on timber species in trade is difficult to obtain. The main source of information on 
recent levels of timber trade has been the international trade statistics compiled by ITTO for member states 
(see, for example, ITTO, 1997). PROSEA publications have also been an important source of trade data for 
the Southeast Asian timber species. Information on the non-timber products obtained from the species 
evaluated has mainly been derived from the FAO Non-wood Forest Products series. The PROSEA and 
FAO publications have generally been a valuable source of information for the species profiles. 



Introduction 



For the African timber species, draft species profiles were prepared and distributed to participants in tlie 
Regional workshop for the Conservation and Sustainable Management of Trees project held in Harare, 
Zimbabwe, 9-11 July 1996. Participants reviewed the information, added supplementary comments and 
applied the new lUCN categories of threat For additional African countries not represented at the 
workshop, notably Benin, Burundi, Central African Republic, Cote d'lvoire, Senegal and Togo, requests 
for information focusing on legislation and levels of exploitation for the relevant species were sent to 
national Forestry Departments. 

For the American timber species, draft species profiles were prepared for a selection of species and 
distributed to participants in the Regional Workshop for the Conservation and Sustainable Management of 
Trees project held in Turrialba, Costa Rica in November 1996. Participants reviewed the information, 
added supplementary comments and applied the 1994 lUCN Red List categories to these species. 

Draft species profiles for a range of Asian species were prepared for Regional Workshop for the 
Conservation and Sustainable Management of Trees project held in Hanoi, Viet Nam in August 1997. 
These profiles were again used as a basis for application of the 1994 lUCN Red List categories. 

Information on the conservation status of conifer species has been compiled by the lUCN/SSC Conifer 
Specialist Group as part of the Conservation and Sustainable Management of Trees project with species 
evaluated using the new lUCN categories of threat This information was added to the appropriate species 
profiles and additional enquiries were addressed to the Group concerning the presence of the species in 
international trade. 

33. Application of the criteria 

Evaluation of the selected timber species using the criteria was carried out by Sara Oldfield (Senior Project 
Officer, WCMC and SSC Trees Network Coordinator); Marianne Sandison (Conservation Officer, 
Conventions and Policy Section, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew) and Amy MacKinven (Research Assistant 
Conservation and Sustainable Management of Trees project). The evaluations were based mainly on the 
information in the species profiles. The procedure adopted was to assess each species initially under the 
new criteria for inclusion on CITES Appendix I, these being the more explicit criteria. If the tree species 
did not meet the criteria for Appendix I then the new criteria for Appendix II were applied. As explained in 
Section 2, one of the criteria for Appendix II listing is // is known, inferred or projected that unless trade in 
the species is subject to strict regulation, it will meet at least one of the criteria listed in Annex 1 (ie. for 
Appendix I listing) in the near future. It was, therefore, considered necessary to test the species first against 
the more stringent criteria for Appendix I. 



4. Results of the tree species evaluation 

A summary of the results of the tree species evaluation is presented in Table 2. It is emphasised that these 
are preliminary evaluations based on limited information for a wide range of species. More detailed 
information and quantitative information would, of course, be required to develop CITES amendment 
proposals. 

It was found to be relatively easy to apply the CITES listing criteria to those species which had already 
been evaluated using the new lUCN categories of threat if these were accepted as given. However, it 
should be noted that the criteria by which the lUCN categories are applied are, in themselves, subject to 
differing interpretation by individuals. This is discussed further under the review of species for Appendix II 
Usting. 



Contribution to an evaluation of tree species using the new CITES Listing Criteria 



Table 2. Summary of results of tree species evaluation 



Spedes 


meets criteria for 


Result 


Notes 


App.I 


App. 

n 


Abies guntemalensis 


7 


? 


?IIBi 


On the basis of the lUCN threat category 
alone. Appendix 1 criteria may not be met 


Abies nordmanniana 
subsp. equi-troujani 


X 


X 




NOT in International trade. 


Acacia crassicarpa 


X 


X 






Acer laurinum 


X 


X 




Unlikely to be in trade; insufficient 
information on conservation status 


AJzelia africana 


X 


7 


?U 


Not enough information to assign Appendix n 
criteria. 


Afielia bipindensis 


X 


• 


U Bi, Bii 


Bi - heavily exploited. 

Bii - habitat loss, only few seed trees. 


Afzelia pachyloba 


X 


• 


n Bi, Bii 


Bi - heavily exploited. 

Bii - habitat loss, only few seed trees. 


Afzelia rhomboidea 


X 


• 


II Bi 




Agathis bomeensis 


X 


• 


II Bi 


Appears to meet the criteria but there are 
taxonomic uncertainties about this sijecies. 


Agaihis endertii 


X 


X 






Agathis moorei 


X 


• 


II Bi 




Agathis spathulata 


X 


X 




May qualify if logging intensifies - current 
evaluation based on lUCN category. 


Agathis vitiensis 


X 


X 




May qualify if logging intensifies - current 
evaluation based on lUCN category. 


Aglaia penningtoniana 


X 


X 






Aglaia perviridis 


X 


X 






Aglaia silvestris 


X 


X 






Ailanthus integrifolia 
ssp. integrifolia 


X 


X 






Allanblackia siuhlmannii 


X 


X 




Not in international trade 


Alloxvlon brachycarpum 


X 


• 


II Bi 




Alnus acuminata 


X 


X 






Alstonia pneumatophora 


X 


X 






Amburana acreana 


X 


• 


II Bi 


There is some taxonomic uncenainty about 
the species. It may be conspecific with A. 
cearensis which also meets App. 11 criteria - 
see Annex . 


Amburana cearensis 


X 


• 


11 Bii 


Bii - isolated populations needing cross 

pollination. 

Based on limited infonnation. 


Anadenanthera 
macrocarpa 


X 


X 






Aniba rosaeodora 


X 


• 


II Bi 




Antrocarvon micraster 


X 


X 






Aquilaria malaccensis 


X 


• 


II Bi 




Araucaria angustifolia 


• 




I Bi.iv or 
D 


Based on the lUCN category VU (Bl+2) the 
extent of occupancy is < 20,000km^ but > 
5,000km'. 


Araucaria araucana 


• 








Araucaria cunninghamii 


? 


7 




Insufficient information on conservation 
status. 


Araucaria hunsteinii 


X 


X 






Aspidosperma 
polyneuron 


X 


• 


UBi 


Bi - heavily exploited 
Based on limited information. 


Astronium ururuieuva 


X 


7 


II? 


Threatened by commercial exploitation but 
presence in international trade unclear. 


Aucoumea klaineana 


X 


• 


II Bi, 
(Bii?) 


Bi - heavily exploited. 
Uncertain whether Bii applies. 


Autranella congolensis 


• 




I Ci 


Based on lUCN category (CR Al ). 


Baikiaea plurijuga 


X 


X 






Baillonella toxisperma 


X 


• 


II Bi,ii 


Bi - heavily exploited. 

Bii - habitat loss, extremely slow to reach 

maturity, has restricted regeneration. 



Introduction 



Species 


meets criteria for 


Result 


Notes 


App.I 


App. 

n 


Balfourodendron 
riedelianum 


X 


• 


II Bi 


Based on lUCN category (EN Alacd+2cd) & 
very little additional information. 


Balmea Slormae 


? 


7 






Beilschmiedia 
ugandensis 


X 


X 






Bertholtetia excelsa 


X 


X 






Bombacopsis quinata 


X 


X 






Boswellia sacra 


X 


X 






Brackylaena huillensis 
(syn. Brachylaena 
hutchisonii) 


X 


7 


?n 


Not enough information to assign Appendix 11 
criteria. 


Caesalpinia echinata 


X 


• 


11 Bi 




Caesalpinia 
paraguariensis 


X 


X 




Assumed not to be in international trade. 


Calophyllum canum 


7 


9 




Insufficient information. 


Calophyllum carrii var. 
longigemmatum 


X 


X 






Calophyllum 

eun/phyllum 


X 


X 






Calophyllum inophyllum 


X 


X 






Calophyllum insularum 


X 


• 


DBi 




Calophyllum papuanum 


X 


X 






Calophyllum waliense 


X 


• 


UBi 




Canarium luzonicum 


X 


X 






Canarium 
pseudosurrmtranum 


X 


X 




On the basis of lUCN category. 


Cantleya comiculatum 


X 


• 


UBi 




Cariniana estrellensis 


? 


7 




Insufficient information. 


Cariniana legalis 


X 


7 




Insufficient information. 


Caryocar coslaricense 


7 


• 


A 


Uncertainty about the trade situation remains. 
However the species is very rare and if there 
is any threat of trade Appendix I is probably 
more appropriate. 


Cedrela fissilis 


X 


• 


n Bi 


Bi - heavily exploited 
Based on limited information. 


Cedrela lilloi 


X 


7 


?IIBi 


If in international trade Appendix II criteria 
do apply. 


Cedrela odorata 


X 


X 






Cephalotaxus oliveri 


X 


• 


n Bii 


Bii - habitat loss, dioecious species therefore 
infrequent regeneration. 
Unsure if this species is in international trade 
(Trade criteria ii?). 


Cercidiphyllum 
japonicum 


X 


X 






Ceroxylon quindiuense 


X 


X 






Chamaecyparis 
lawsoniana 


• 




I Ci 


Based on lUCN threat category and decline > 
50 per cent in the last century. 


Chamaecyparis obtusa 
vat.formosarw 


X 


• 


HBi. 
(Bii?) 


Bi - exploited, general deforestation for other 
timber species. 

Unsure if this species is in international trade 
(Trade criteria ii?). 


Chlorocardium rodiei 


X 


• 


UBi 


If production is shown to be sustainable in 
Guyana this result would not apply. 


Chloroxylon swietenia 


X 


7 




Insufficient information on trade. 


Cinnamomum 
_parthenoxylpn 


X 


X 






Copaifera salikounda 


" 


• 


n Bi 


Bi - based on Hawthorne's (1995a) analysis for 
Ghana and assuming the evergreen forests in 
the neighbouring countries are similarly 
exploited. 


Cordeauxia edulis 


X 


X 






Cordia dodecandra 


9 


7 




Insufficient information. 


Cordia millenii 


X 


X 






Cordia platythyrsa 


X 


X 






Cupressus dupreziana 


• 




lA 


NOT in International trade. 



Contribution to an evaluation of tree species using the new CITES Listing Criteria 



Species 


meets criteria for 


Result 


Notes 


App.I 


App. 

n 


Cynometra inaequifolia 


X 


X 






Dacrydium nausoriense 


X 


X 




The species is Endangered, in pan through 
exploitation, but this is not thought to be for 
international trade. 


Dalbergia annamensis 


X 


• 


II Bi 


On the basis of lUCN category - but very 
little additional information. 


Datbergia bariensis 


X 


• 


II Bi 


On the basis of lUCN category - but very 
little additional information. 


Dalbergia baronii 


X 


X 






Dalbergia cambodiana 


X 


• 


II Bi 


On the basis of lUCN category - but very 
little additional information. 


Dalbergia chaplieri 


X 


X 






Dalbergia chlorocarpa 


X 


X 






Dalbergia 
cochinchinensis 


X 


• 


II Bi 




Dalbergia davidii 


• 




lA 




Dalbergia delphinensis 


• 




IB 




Dalbergia greveana 


X 


X 


II Bi 




Dalbergia latifolia 


X 


7 


?IIBi 




Dalbergia louvelii 


X 


• 






Dalbergia mammosa 


X 


• 


II Bi 




Dalbergia mariiima 


X 


• 


II Bi 




Dalbergia nigra 


• 




ICi 


Although recorded as VU, an lUCN category 
of Endangered is probably more appropriate. 


Dalbergia oliveri 


X 


• 


II Bi 




Dalbergia purpurascens 


X 








Dalbergia retusa 


X 


• 


11 Bi 




Dalbergia stevensoni 


X 


• 


II Bi 


Awaiting confirmation of threat status 


Dalbergia tonkinensis 


X 


• 


II Bi 




Dehaasia caesia 


7 


7 




Insufficient information. 


Dehaasia cuneata 


9 


7 




Insufficient information. 


Dialium cochinchinense 


X 


X 






Diospyros celebica 


7 


7 




No recent threat categorisation 


Diospyros crassiflora 


X 


7 


?II 


Not enough information to assign Appendix II 
criteria. 


Diospyros discolor 


*? 


9 




Insufficient information 


Diospyros ebenum 


•? 


7 




Insufficient information 


Diospyros ferrea 


X 


X 




Major concern in Papua New Guinea. 


Diospyros hemiteles 


X 


X 




Critically Endangered but not affected by 
trade. 


Diospyros insularis 


• 








Diospyros mun 


X 


• 


II Bi 




Diospyros philippinensis 


X 


7 


?II 


Information needed for Sulawesi 


Diospyros pilosanthera 


X 


X 






Diospyros rumphii 


7 


7 




Insufficient information 


Dipleryx alata 


7 


7 




Insufficient information 


Durio dulcis 


X 


X 






Durio kutejensis 


X 


X 






Dyera costulaia 


X 


X 






Dyera polyphylla 


X 


• 


II Bi 




Eniandrophragma 
angolense 


X 


X 




More information needed on regeneration 
extent of plantation and sustainable 
management. Listing may be appropriate 
from certain populations. 


Entandrophragma 
candollei 


X 


X 




More information needed on regeneration 
extent of plantation and sustainable 
management. Listing may be appropriate 
from certain populations 


Entandrophragma 
caudatum 


X 


X 






Entandrophragma 
cylindricum 


X 


X 




More information needed on regeneration 
extent of plantation and sustainable 
management. Listing may be appropriate 
from certain populations 



Introduction 



Species 


meets criteria for 


Result 


Notes 


App.I 


App. 

n 


Entandrophragma 
delevoyi 


7 


7 




llnsufficient information 


Entandrophragma 
excelsum 


X 


X 






Entandrophragma utile 


X 


X 




More information needed on regeneration 
extent of plantation and sustainable 
management. Listing may be appropriate 
from certain populations 


Eribroma oblonga 


X 


X 




Syn. Sterculia oblonga 


Erythrophleum fordii 


X 


7 


?IIBi 


Although this species is threatened by 
exploitation for its timber it is unclear 
whether it is traded internationally. 


Esenbeckia leiocarpa 


? 


7 




Insufficient information 


Eugenia flosculifera 


? 


7 






Eugenia koordersiana 


X 


X 






Eugenia ridleyi 


X 


X 






Eusideroxylon zwageri 


X 


• 


IIBi 


Primarily local trade but there are some 
exports. 


Fagus longipetiolata 


X 


X 




Not thought to be in international trade. 


Fitzrova cupressoides 


• 




IBi 




Flindersia ifflaina 


X 


• 


IIBi 




Flindersia laevicarpa 


X 


•• 


IIBi 




Flindersia schottiana 


X 


X 






Geijera salicifolia 


7 


7 


?IIBi 


This species is considered Critically 
Endangered in PNG and there is some trade 
threat; simation elsewhere unclear. 


Gluta papuana 


X 


^ 


IIBi 




Gmelina arborea 


X 


X 






GonysPilus affinis 


7 


7 




Insufficient information 


Gonystylus bancanus 


X 


V 


IIBi 




Gonystvlus brunnescens 


7 


7 




Insufficient information 


Gonystvlus confusus 


7 


7 




Insufficient information 


Gonvstvlus keithii 


7 


7 




Insufficient information 


Gonystylus macrophyllus 


7 


7 




Insufficient information 


Gonystylus maingayi 


7 


7 




Insufficient information 


Gossweilerodendron 
balsamiferum 


X 


• 


II Bi.ii 


Bi - heavily exploited. 

Bii - specific habitat type being lost. 


Guaiacum officinale 


X 


• 


IIBi 




Guaiacum sanctum 


X 


^ 1 IIBi 




Guarea cedrata 


X 


V 


II Bi,ii 


Bi - heavily exploited. 

Bii - habitat loss, shade required for growth. 


Guarea thompsonii 


X 


• 


II Bi.ii 


Bi - heavily exploited. 

Bii - habitat loss, slow growth. 


Guibourtia ehie 


X 


• 


II Bi.ii 


Bi - heavily exploited. 
Bii - habitat loss. 


Hallea ledermannii 


X 


X 






Hallea stipulosa 


X 


X 






Haplormosia monophylla 


X 


9 


?II 


Not enough information to assign Appendix II 
criteria. 


Heritiera ulilis 


7 


7 




Insufficient information 


Homalium foelidum 


X 


X 






Hydnocarpus sumalrarui 


X 


X 






Ilex paraguaiensis 


X 


X 




Not in international trade 


Intsia bijuga 


X 


X 




Certain populations may meet the listing 
criteria 


Irving ia gabonensis 


X 


X 






Jackiopsis omata 


7 


7 




Insufficient information 


Joannesia princeps 


7 


7 




Insufficient information 


Jubaea chilensis 


X 


X 






Juglans neolropica 


X 


■/ 


IIBi 




Juniperus bermudiana 


X 


X 




Critically Endangered but no trade or threat 
of trade. 


Juniperus procera 


X 


X 







Contribution to an evaluation of tree species using the new CITES Listing Criteria 



Spedes 


meets criteria for 


Result 


Notes 


App.I 


App. 

n 


Kalappia celebica 


7 


9 


?I B / II Bi 


Depleted by logging; the lUCN threat 
category is conservative; uncertainty as to 
whether there is any current trade. On the 
basis of its limited distribution may qualify 
for Appendix I. 


Khaya anthotheca 


X 


X 




More information needed on regeneration 
extent of plantation and sustainable 
management. Listing may be appropriate 
from certain populations 


Khaya grandifoliola 


X 


X 




More information needed on regeneration 
extent of plantation and sustainable 
management. Listing may be appropriate- 
from certain populations 


Khaya ivorensis 


X 


• 


II Biji 


Bi - heavily exploited. 

Bii - very little regeneration after disturbance 

(e.g. logging). 


Khaya madagascariensis 


X 


7 


?IIBi 


Uncertain whether this species is in 
intemational trade 


Khaya senegalensis 


X 


X 






Kingiodendron pirmatum 


• 




IC 


Based on population decline (50% in last 20 
years) 


Kjellbergiodendron 
celebicum 


7 


9 




Insufficient information 


Kokoona leucoclada 


9 


7 




Based on ranty may qualify for Appendix I 


Koompassia excelsa 


X 


X 






Koompassia grandiflora 


X 


• 


II Bi 




Koompassia malaccensis 


X 


X 






Lagarostrobos franklinii 


X 


X 






Liquidambar stvraciflua 


X 


X 






Lophira alala 


X 


• 


II Bi 


Bi - heavilv exploited. 


Lophopetalum javanicum 


X 


X 






Lophopelalum 
mullinervium 


X 


X 






Lophopetalum 
pachyphyllum 


9 


7 




Insufficient information 


Lophopetalum rigidum 


7 


9 




Insufficient information 


Lovoa swynnertonii 


X 


• 


II Bi,ii 


Bi - heavily exploited. 

Bii - habitat loss, poor regeneration. 


Lovoa trichilioides 


X 


• 


II Bi 


Bi - exploited. 


Machaenum villosum 


9 


7 




Insufficient information 


Madhuca betis 


9 


7 




Insufficient information 


Madhuca boerlageana 


X 


■/ 




Critically Endangered in PNG - Appendix I 
appropnate but status in Indonesia less clear. 


Madhuca pasquieri 


X 


9 


?IIBi 


Threatened by felling in both range states, 
extent of trade unclear. 


Magnolia hodgsonii 


9 


9 






Mangifera decandra 


9 


9 




Insufficient information 


Mangifera macrocarpa 


X 


X 






Manglietia aromatica 


9 


9 


?IIBi 


Threatened by felling in both range states, 
extent of trade unclear 


Manilkara kanosiensis 


X 


• 


II Bi 




Mansonia altissima 


X 


• 


U Bi 


Bi - heavily exploited. 


Mastixiodendron 
stoddardii 


X 


X 






Merrillia caloxylon 


7 


7 




insufficient information; not thought to be in 
trade 


Mezilaurus ilauba 


X 


X 




In trade and under threat but insufficient 
information. 


Microberlinia bisulcaia 


• 




ICi 


Based on lUCN category (CR A I ) & very 
little additional information. 


Microberlinia 
brazzavillensis 


• 




ICi 


Based on lUCN category (CR Al) & very 
Uttle additional information. 


Milicia excelsa 


X 


• 


II Bi? 


Bi - heavily exploited but 

Considered marginal due to widespread 

distribution. 



10 



Introduction 



Species 


meets criteria for 


Result 


Notes 


App.I 


App. 

n 


Milicia regia 


X 


• 


n Bi 


Bi - heavily exploited. 


Millettia laurentii 


X 


• 


n Bi, 

(Bii?) 


Bi - heavily exploited. 

Bii - not enough information. 


Mimosa 
caesalpiniaefolia 


7 


7 




insufficient information. 


Mimosa verrucosa 





7 




Insufficient information. 


Minquartia guianensis 


X 


X 






Monopetakmthus heitzii 


7 


7 


9 


Not enough information. 


Myrocarpus frondosus 


7 


7 




Insufficient information 


Nauclea diderrichii 


X 


X 


X 




Neesia altissima 


7 


7 




Insufficient information 


Neesia maUrvana 


7 


7 




Insufficient information 


Neobalanocarpus heimii 


X 


7 


?IIBi 


There has been come uncertainty about the 
rate of decline. 


Nesogordonia 
papaverifera 


X 


■/ 


U Bi 


Bi - considered marginal because although 
this species is heavily exploited, it also occurs 
in plantations. 


Noihofagus alessaruiri 


X 


X 




Not thought to be in international trade 


Nothofagus glauca 


X 


X 






Ochanostachys 
amenlacea 


X 


X 






Ocotea calharinensis 










Ocotea kenvensis 


X 


X 






Ocotea odorifera 


X 


y 


II Bi 




Ocotea porosa 


X 


• 


II Bi 




Octomeles sumatrana 


X 


X 






Oreomunnea pierocarpa 


9 


y 


II A 


Uncertainty about the trade situation remains. 
However the species is considered 
Endangered and if there is any threat of trade 
Appendix I is probably more appropriate. 


Palaquium bataanense 


7 


7 




Insufficient information 


Palaquium 
impressinervium 


7 


7 




Insufficient information 


Palaquium mainga\i 


X 


X 






Parinari costala ssp. 
coslata 


7 


7 




Insufficient information 


Parinari oblongifolia 


'^ 


9 




Insufficient information 


Pencopsis elaia 


X 


• 


II Bi 




Pericopsis mooniana 


X 


• 


II Bi + li 


Widespread but widely threatened by logging 
for valuable timber. 


Phoebe macrophvlla 


9 


7 




Insufficient information 


Phoebe nanmu 


X 


• 


II Bi 




Phvtelephas seemannii 


X 


X 






Phytelephas lumacana 


7 


7 




Information required on levels of trade 


Pilgerodendron uviferum 


• 






A higher category of threat may be 
appropriate. 


Pinus amamiana 


X 


X 




Not in trade 


Pinus merkusii 


X 


X 






Pinus pentaphylla 


X 


X 






Pinus tecunumanii 


X 


• 


II Bi and 
Bii 




Pitavia punctata 


9 


9 




Insufficient information 


Pilheccllobium 
splendens 


7 


7 




Insufficient information 


Planchonia valida 


7 


7 




Insufficient information 


Platanus orientalis 


X 


X 






Platymiscium 
parviflorum 


X 


• 


II A 


Uncertainty about the trade situation remains. 
However the species is considered 
Endangered and if there is any threat of trade 
Appendix I is probably more appropriate. 


Platymenia fotiolosa 


7 


7 




Insufficient information 


Podocarpus annamensis 


7 


9 




Threatened by logging but no information on 
trade situation 



11 



Contribution to an evaluation of tree species using the new CITES Listing Criteria 



Species 


meets criteria for 


Result 


Notes 


App.I 


App. 

n 


Podocarpus parlatorei 


• 






An lUCN threat category has not yet been 
assigned but this species is considered 
threatened and in the absence of further 
information appropriately listed on Appendix 

I 


Populus ilicifolia 


X 


X 






Pouteria altissima 


X 


X 






Prumnopitys andina 


X 


X 




Assessment based on lUCN category but 
more information may indicate that cntena 
are fulfilled 


Primus africana 


7 






Based on the lUCN category this species 
would fiilfil Appendix I criteria. However the 
lUCN category appears to be misapplied. 
Without this categorisation the species as a 
whole would not appear to meet any current 
critena for CITES listins. 


Pterocarpus angolensis 


X 


X 




This species is of concern in Zambia and 
Mozambique but is of no concern m South 
Africa. 


Pterocarpus 
dalbergioides 


7 


7 




Insufficient information 


Pterocarpus indicus 


X 


7 


?IIBi 




Pterocarpus 
macrocarpus 


7 


9 




Insufficient information 


Pterocarpus sanlalinus 


•- 




lA 


Range < 10,000 km sq 


Pterocvmbium beccarii 


X 


X 






Pterocymbium 
tinctorium 


7 


7 




Insufficient information 


Pterocymbium tubulatum 


7 


7 




Insufficient information 


Ptengota bequaertii 


X 


X 






Ptengota macrocarpa 


X 


X 






Pterogvne nilens 


X 


• 


11 Bi 




Santalum album 


X 


X 






Santalum macgregorii 


X 


• 


II Hi 




Santiria laevigata 


X 


X 






Scaphium longiflorum 


X 


7 




Insufficient information 


Schinopsis balansae 


X 


X 






Shorea curiisii 


X 


X 






Sindora beccariana 


? 


? 




Insufficient information 


Sindora inermis 


9 


7 




Insufficient information 


Sindora supa 


9 


9 




The lUCN category for this species is 
conservative: no information on trade 


Strombosia javanica 


9 


7 




Insufficient information 


Swanzia fistuloides 


X 


7 


?II 


Not enough information to assign Appendix II 
cntena. 


Swietenia humilis 










Swietenia macrophylla 


X 


• 


II Bi 




Swietenia mahagoni 


X 


• 


II Bi 




Syagrus glaucescens 


9 






The lUCN category suggests no immediate 
concern but is rather contradicted by 
population status and trends summary 


Tabebuia impetiginosa 


7 


7 




Insufficient information. 


Taiwania 
cryptomerioides 


X 


X 




Threatened by logging but no information on 
trade simation; assumed not to be in 
international trade. 


Taxus wallichiana 


X 


• 


II A 




Tectona grandis 


X 


X 






Tectona hamiltoniana 


X 


X 






Tectona philippinensis 


• 




IB 




Terminalia archipelagi 


• 




lA 




Terminalia ivorensis 


X 


X 






Terminalia rerei 


X 


• 


II Bi and ii 




Terminalia superba 










Testulea gabonensis 


X 


• 


U Bi 


Bi - based on lUCN threat category EN 
(A led). 



12 



Introduction 



Species 


meets criteria for 


Result 


Notes 


App.I 


App. 

n 


Tieghemella africana 


X 


7 


?n 


Not enough information to assign Appendix 11 
criteria. 


Tieghemella heckelii 


X 


• 


n Bi.ii 


Bi - heavily exploited. 

Bii - habitat loss, elephants are required for 

regeneration. 


Toona calantas 


7 


7 




Insufficient information 


Triomma malaccensis 


7 


7 




Insufficient information 


Triplochiton scleroxvlon 


X 


X 




1 


Turraeanthus africanus 


X 


X 






Ulmus wallichiana 


? 




Insufficient information 


Vitellaria paradoxa 


X 


X 






Vitex keniensis 


X 


X 






Vouacapoua americana 


7 


7 




lUCN category of Critically Endangered is 
based on information for Brazil only more 
information is needed for other countnes and 
on the trade situation. 


Vavaea bamamensis 


? 


n 




Insufficient information 


Vepns glandulosa 


■/ 




lA&B 




Virola surinamensis 


X 


• 


II Bi 




Vitex parviflora 










Wallaceodendron 
celebicum 


? 


7 




Insufficient information 


Warburgia salutaris 


X 


• 


II Bi 




Washmgtonia filifera 










Widdnngtonia whylei 


• 




IB 




Zanthoxylum flavum 





n 




Insufficient information on whether trade is 
ongoing 


Zeyheria tuberculosa 


7 


n 




Insufficient trade information. 



KEY 

X Does not meet the cnterion 

■•^ Meet the criterion 

? Not enough information available to apply the criterion 

4.1. Review of species for Appendix I listing 

Criteria for Appendix I listing generally have a quantitative element, which is elaborated on in the 
guidelines provided by Annex 5 of CITES Resolution Conf. 9.24. It is emphasised in these guidelines that 
the figures given are indicative only and that there are many cases where they will not apply. As with much 
of the rest of the guidelines, there is considerable room for interpretation. Nevertheless, anplication of the 
CITES criteria for Appendix I tended to be a straightforward exercise when sufficient information on the 
species was available and, in such cases, there was little doubt when a species fulfilled the criteria. 

Criteria A and B concern small population sizes and ranges respectively. Species must also fulfil certain 
additional, often loosely specified, sub-criteria. Criterion A requires that the species has a small wild 
population. Population size is intended to refer to the total number of individuals. Resolution Conf 9.24 
indicates that information on population status in amendment proposals, should give an estimate of the total 
population or number of individuals with: i) date arul nature of census; ii) justification for any inferences 
made about population size and/or number of individuals. In fact there are very few overall population 
estimates for tree species so this criterion is generally not of major relevance. Furthermore, assuming that 
most tree sf)ecies occur within their area of distribution at densities higher than 0.5 per km", a tree species 
which meets the major part of Criterion A (population < 5000) will, in general, also meet Criterion B (area 
of distribution < 10,000 km"). 

Two species evaluated are considered to fulfill Criterion A for listing on Appendix I of CITES. These are 
Dalbergia davidii and Terminalia archipelagi. Dalbergia davidii is only known from a single locality in 
Madagascar. It occurs in lowland, deciduous forest, where selective felling of this rosewood species 
occurs for the export market. Logging activities take place despite the locality being contained in 
Ankarafantsika Strict Nature Reserve. The lUCN Red List category given for the species is Endangered 
B 1 +2de, C 1 . The lUCN Criterion C for Endangered species indicates a population of less than 2500 



13 



Contribution to an evaluation of tree species using the new CITES Listing Criteria 



mature individuals. Terminalia archipelagi occurs only on the islands of the Bismarck Archipelago, 
Papua New Guinea. It is found mainly in lowland primary rainforest where it can be locally dominant 
It is very much sought after for log export as it is favoured for plywood and has been given an lUCN Red List category 
ofENAlcd+2cd,C2a 

Criterion B takes into account species with restricted areas of distribution. Adherence to the guidelines for 
Criterion B means that any tree species qualifies for inclusion in Appendix I which; has an area of 
distribution less than 10,000 km"; which meets one of a series of sub-criteria (fi-agmentation of range, 
vulnerability owing to biology, any decline); and is known to be actually or potentially in trade. In general 
the timber species examined do not fulfil these criteria because of their widespread distributions. However 
species which are considered to meet Criterion B for listing on Appiendix I of CITES are Dalbergia 
delphinensis, Pterocarpus santalinus (already listed on Appendix I), Tectona philippinensis and 
Widdringtonia whyteL Dalbergia delphinensis is confined to the south-east of Madagascar, near 
Taolanaro. The species is threatened throughout its range by selective felling and the decline and 
fragmentation of its habitat. The location is also under threat of being developed for titanium mining. 
Dalbergia delphinensis has been assigned an lUCN category of Endangered A2cd, Bl+2bcde. The B 
criterion for Endangered species indicates an extent of occurrence less than 5000 km". 

Criterion C concerns species known or suspected to be undergoing, or to have undergone, a decline. It 
should be noted that the word "decline" is not qualified in the criterion itself, nor is any upf)er limit to the 
size of the population of the species concerned given, so that theoretically extremely abundant and 
widespread species may qualify. The notes to assist in interpreting the criteria indicate that a decrease of 
50 per cent or more in total within five years or two generations, whichever is the longer, may be an 
appropriate guideline. For timber-producing species the greater length of time is invariably two 
generations. 

Information on generation time is not generally available for tree species. In broad terms estimated 
generation time for trees could be proposed as 5-10 years for pioneer, fast growing species; 50 years for 
most tree species and 100 years for slow growing species. These generation times have been proposed as 
working figures in guidelines on the application of the lUCN threat categories to tree species (Jenkins, 
1996). " 

As information on the rate of decline of tree populations is unlikely to be available for individual species, in 
most cases it will be necessary to use inference or extrapolation, considering, for example, the species in 
relation to habitat decline. Given the generally long generation times known or presumed for most timber 
species, a large number of tree species are likely to qualify under Criterion C in that any species whose 
range has halved through deforestation in the past 100 years (for most trees) or 200 years (for slow- 
growing species) can be inferred as having its population halved and therefore meeting the Criterion as 
long as it is, or may be, in international trade. 

Good data on forest loss over the past 100 or 200 years are scanty. For some areas, however, such as the 
Philippines and south-east Brazil it can be confidently stated that more than half the forest cover has been 
lost in the past century. There may then be good grounds for asserting that all tree species confined to these 
areas, which are in trade, merit inclusion in Appendix I, according to the listing criteria. 

Criterion C for CITES Appendix I listing can be related to the Criterion A used in the application of the 
new lUCN categories of threat as they both deal with population decline. 

lUCN Criterion A is based on an observed, estimated, inferred or suspected reduction of: 

at least 80 per cent decline in 10 years or 3 generations (Critically Endangered) 

at least 50 per cent decline in 10 years or 3 generations (Endangered) 

at least 20 per cent decline in 10 years or 3 generations (Vulnerable) 

If a tree species has been assigned an lUCN threat category of Endangered according to Criterion A, this 
species would not necessarily fall into Criterion C for Appendix I listing because the rate of decline is over 
three generations (ie. 150 years) as opposed to two generations (ie. 100 years). However, if a tree species 
has been assigned an lUCN threat category of Critically Endangered according to Criterion A, then it can 
be extrapolated that the species does fit into Criterion C for Appendix I listing. Assuming that the 



14 



Introduction 



population decline is fairly linear then an 80 per cent decline over t hree g enerations (lUCN Critically 
Endangered) is equivalent to a 53 per cent decline over two generations (CITES Appendix I). 

Species which are considered to meet Criterion B for Hsting on Appendix I of CITES are Dalhergia nigra 
(already listed on CITES Appendix I) and Kingiodendron pinnatum. The range of Kingiodendron 
pinnatum extends from South Kanara in Kamataka to the southern tip of the Western Ghats in Tamil 
Nadu, India. The population of this species is believed to have declined by 50% in the last 20 years 
because of overexploitation, injuries caused by resin collection and habitat degradation. 

Dalbergia nigra produces Brazilian Rosewood, one of the most highly prized woods in Brazil. Tlie 
highest concentrations of the species are located in hygrophilous forest on nch soils in southern Bahia 
and northern Espirito Santo. Exploitation of the timber and devastation of the Atlantic forest habitat are 
the main reasons for the decline of the species and regeneration appears to be poor. Although the 
lUCN Red List category of VU Alcd has been applied to the species, it may be that EN Alcd is more 
appropriate signifying a population reduction of 50 percent over three generations. 



A2. Review of species for Appendix n listing 

The criteria for Appendix n were found to be more ambiguous than criteria for Appendix I; terms are not 
precisely defined, making apphcation of these criteria considerably more difficult. 

Listing according to Criterion A requires that species will ftilfil listing criteria for Appendix I in the near 
future, unless the species is subject to strict regulation. There is no definition of ^near future' given in 
Resolution Conf. 9.24. Criterion A of Appendix n is very similar to Criterion D of Appendix I, with 
Critenon A having a presumed time scale of longer than that outlined in Cnterion D (ie. five years). Timber 
species evaluated which were considered to satisfy Criterion A for Appendix H listing were those already 
listed in Appendix II of the Convention following downlisting from Appendix I. These species are 
Caryocar costaricense, Cieomunnea pterocarpa and Plarymiscium parviflorum. These species are all very 
rare or endangered. The international trade situation remains uncertain particularly with regard to regional 
trade. If any of the species are in fact in trade or at risk of trade Appendix I listing would seem more 
appropriate. 

In contrast to criteria for listing in Appendix I, where international trade must merely be known or 
suspected to take place. Criteria B (i and ii) for listing on Appendix n require that international trade has a 
deleterious effect on the species concerned. The criteria specify either that trade will exceed over an 
extended period the level that can be continued in [jerpeuiity (Criterion Bi) or will cause or has caused the 
taxon to become threatened for other reasons (Criterion Bii). Guidance is not given as to interpretation of 
the term "extended penod" within Resolution Conf. 9.24. 

In evaluation of the selected timber species. Criterion Bi was understood to mean that the level of 
exploitation from the wild for international trade was greater than that deemed to be sustainable and Bii 
was assumed to mean that the level of exploitation from the wild for international trade would reduce the 
population to a level where threats other than exploitation would jeopardise the species. In practice it was 
found to be difficult to make the distinction between Criteria Bi and Bii when evaluating tree species. In 
general, if a forest tree species is being cut down at a level exceeding that which can be continued in 
perpetuity (Criterion Bi), the species may also be more likely to suffer from the impacts of general forest 
loss (Criteria Bii). 

The main difficulty in application of Criteria B(i and ii) during the evaluation exercise was in determining 
whether or not sufficient information was available in order to reach a decision. The rationale adopted was 
to follow the new lUCN categories of threat where they had been previously applied to species, even 
though these themselves may have been applied using limited data and mainly rely on inference. Where 
species have been categorised as Endangered using the new RJCN threat categories and criteria, these have 
generally been considered to meet Criterion B for Appendix n listing but in some cases, not enough 
information was available. 

As previously outlined, the lUCN category. Vulnerable (Criterion A) indicates that the population of a 
species has declined by at least 20 percent over three generations. Very many tropical tree species could be 
placed in this category given the rate of deforestation over the past century. It was decided that further 



15 



Contribution to an evaluation of tree species using the new CITES Listing Criteria 



considerations should be taken into account, notably information on regeneration, growth rate, habitat 
specificity, and population density. This has proved to be very difficult for certain species in Phase 2, for 
example the species of Entandrophragma and Khaya which have already been subject to a controversial 
CITES listing proposal. 

5. Discussion 

It is clear from the evaluation exercise that the new CITES listing criteria can be applied to timber species 
and that many timber species are likely to qualify for listing on the Appendices of CITES. Difficulties in 
application of the criteria relate to ambiguities in the wording of Annexes of Resolution Conf. 9.24 which 
may apply equally to the use of the criteria for any species. Ensuring that the criteria are sufficiently 
flexible for widespread use has resulted in a system with scope for considerable divergences in 
interpretation. 

The limited availability of detailed information for timber species is another problem faced in applying the 
criteria. Again this is not unique to timber species. It is, in fact, likely that considerably more information is 
collected at a national level on the distribution, production and trade in timber species, particularly those of 
international economic importance, than for most other groups of plant or animal species. Collection and 
collation of data on a particular timber species throughout its range is not, however, an easy task. 

To demonstrate for timber species that trade is detrimental to wild populations and unsustainable in the 
sense required for CITES Appendix U listing, information should ideally be available on standing stocks, 
increment rates (taking into account both growth rates and regeneration rates) and volumes exported 
throughout the range. As a crude measure, if annual volume exported overall is greater than annual 
increment rate then trade can be assumed to be unsustainable. In practice these data are very rarely 
available in good quantitative form, and if they are it is almost invariably for a small part of the taxon's 
range. In all cases detailed consideration of the ecology and reproductive strategies of the different tree 
species would be helpful to assess the impact of trade. 

As mentioned in the introduction. Resolution Conf 9.24 specifies that CITES amendment proposals should 
provide sufficient information on which to judge the proposal against the listing criteria. Given the 
relatively controversial nature of timber listing proposals it would appear important to provide thorough 
documentation to support such proposals. Previous CITES amendment proposals for timber species have 
failed to win support, in part, because of weak supporting information. Recently it has been suggested that 
a scientific protocol is required enhancing transparency and compatibility of proposals for (plant) species to 
be listed. Sucti a protocol should describe crucial parameters of population dynamics and geographical 
distribution which should be assessed as well as methods and (sampling) procedures to carry out the 
actual assessment. Execution of such a protocol would result in verifiable scientific judgement of the actual 
status of the species. (Lammerts van Bueren, in litt. 1996) 

Given the nature of tree species in helping to define the ecosystems in which they occur, and the scale of 
the international trade in certain species the following steps may be helpful in a process of initial selection 
of internationally traded timber species for inclusion in the CITES appendices prior to preparation of listing 
proposals. 

i. Determination of the habitat specificity of the species, the extent and rate of decline of 

the habitat This will give a quantifiable indication of the extent to which the species is 
threatened with extinction according to the new lUCN categories of threat. If the timber 
species meets at least the criteria for listing as Vulnerable it may be appropriate for 
further consideration. 

ii. Collection of inventory, production and trade statistics for at least part of the range of the 

species, over a period of time, to determine the likelihood of the trade in the species 
being sustainable (capable of being maintained at the current level in perpetuity). If the 
trade in the timber species does not appear to be sustainable it may be appropriate for 
further consideration. 

iii. Collection of information on the application of silvicultural techniques and extent of 

plantation development for the species. This will give further indirect indication as to 
likely impact of trade on wild populations. Where the species does not respond to 



16 



Introduction 



silviculmal techniques, or these are not apphed, and where plantations are not developed 
for the sjjecies, fiirther consideration of the need for CITES listing is appropriate. 

In general, where a timber species is in international trade, the trade is contributing to the decline in wild 
populations; if the species is threatened with extinction it can be considered to meet the criteria for CITES 
listing. The Tree Species Evaluation exercise has highlighted certain timber species which do appear to be 
clear priorities for inclusion in the CITES Appendices. Such species mclude Dalbergia spp. of 
Madagascar, Dalbergia spp. of the Viet Nam, Laos, Cambodia region, and some of the heavily exploited 
species of Papua New Guinea. For many other species the scientific case remains less clearcut. It is 
accepted that other considerations are likely to be of major importance in any development of the CITES 
appendices for timber species, not least the perceived value of the Convention in relation to the 
conservation of timber resources. Further consideration of the preliminary results of the Tree Species 
Evaluation process by the CITES Plants Committee and range states should help CITES parties to pay 
particular attention to internationally traded timber species within their territories for which knowledge of 
biological status and silvicultural requirements indicates concern. 



References 

Ahead Arramibide, M. (1995). Latin America - case study on national forestry statistics in the region. In: 

Proceedings FAO Group on Forestry Statistics. Rome, 20-24 November 1995. FAO, Rome. 
Hawthorne (1995a). 

ITTO, 1997. Annual review and assessment of the world tropical timber situation 1995. International 
Tropical Timber Organization (ITTO). 

lUCN Species Survival Commission (1994) lUCN Red List Categories. 
Jenkins, C. (1996) Guidelines for the application of the 1994 lUCN Red List Categories to trees. Annex 5 

in: Report of the First Regional Workshop for the WCMC/SSC Conservation and Sustainable 

Management of Trees project. 
Lammerts van Bueren, E.M. (1996). In litt. to the CITES Secretariat. 
Oldfield, S.F., Lusty, C. and MacKinven, A. (1998). The World List of Threatened Trees. World 

Conservation Press, Cambridge, UK. 
Sandison, M.S. (1995) Application of the CITES-lisUng criteria to plants. TRAFFIC Bulletin 15(3):122- 

124 
Varty, N. and Guadagnin. D.L. (1996). Information sources on the biology, conservation and trade of tree 

species of Brazil. Unpublished consultancy report prepared for WCMC. 
WCMC. 1 99 1 . Provision of data on rare and threatened tropical timber species. 



Acknowledgements 

Many people have provided information that has been summarised in the tree species profiles. Particular 
thanks are due to the participants of the Regional Workshops for the Conservation and Sustainable 
Management of Trees project held in Harare, Zimbabwe in June 1996, Turrialba, Costa Rica in November 
1996 and Hanoi, Viet Nam in August 1997. At these meetings the conservation status of a range of timber 
species was reviewed, based on draft species profiles. At the African meeting, Dr Nicholas Chenue 
Songwe, I>r Jonathon Okafor, Dr Ndjete Mianda-Bungi, and Dr Dominique N'Sosso reviewed the species 
profiles for west and central African tree species, and Dr Salomao Bandeira, Bob Drummond, Coert 
Geldenhuys, Craig Hilton-Taylor, Alfred Maroyi, Patrick Phiri, Cathy Rogers and Jonathan Timberlake 
reviewed the species profiles for southern African species. 

The participants at the Costa Rica workshop were Mr Allen J. Coombes; Dr Eduardo Dalcin; Washington 
Galiano Sanchez; Dra Ana Maria Giulietti; Dr William Hess; Dr Shirley Keel; Luis Corrales; Mr Jan de 
Koning; Dr Martin Mitre; Dr Cyril H. Nelson Sutherland; Dr Adrian Newton; Dr Kevin Nixon; Maricela 
Rodriguez; Nina Marshall, Marianne Syrylak Sandison, Nohemy Elizabeth Ventura Centeno; Darien 
Prado; Joaquina Pires-O'Brien; Flavio Benin Gandara; Pamela Wellner; Abdou-Salam Ouedraogo; 
Ximena Buitron; Dr Jose Antonio Vasquez-Garcia; Ms Dora E. Mora de Retana; Dr Nelson Zamora; 
Eduardo Calderon and Silvia Llamozas. 

The participants at the Viet Nam workshop were Professor Dr Chu Tuan Nha; Professor Dr Nguyen Tien 
Ban; I>r Vu Van Dzung; Dr Le Trong Cue; Professor Dr Cao Van Sung; Mr Ninh Khac Ban: Dr Pham 
Hoai Due; Dr Doan Diem; ftof Dr Nguyen Van Truong; Mrs Duong Thi To; Prof Dr Thai Van Trung; 



17 



Contribution to an evaluation of tree species using the new CITES Listing Criteria 



Nguyen Thanh Phong; Mr Tran Lien Phong; Ms Nguyen Hoang Anh;Prof. Dr Le Dinh Kha; Dr Nguyen 
Hoang Nghia; Dr LiUian Chua; Dr David Frodin; Dr Dennis V. Johnson; Dr Domingo Maduhd: Dr Wendy 
Strahm; Dr Johanis P. Mogea; Dr Yong Shik Kim; Fuh-Juinn Pan: Dr Weibang Sun; Profesor C R Babu; 
Mr John Benson; Tonny Soehartono; Vongxay Manivong and Claire WiUiams. 

Special thanks are also due to Jeffrey Atldn, Peter Eddowes; Luis AJfaro Lozana, Hector Arce Benavides; 
Pierre Ibisch; Tim Killeen, Martin Mitre, Adrian Newton (University of Edinburgh) and Israel Vargas. 
Fauna and Flora International provided a copy of the report Conservation and management of Pau-Brasil 
Caesalpinia echinata - An action plan. Trade data for timber species of Cambodia, Laos, Madagascar and 
Viet Nam have kindly been provided by James Hewitt. 

Thanks are also due to Dr Domingo Madulid who provided information on the Philippine tree species for 
the review and to Dr Nigel Varty who collected information on the Brazilian tree species whilst working in 
that country. Trade information for species of Gabon has kindly been supplied by Tom Hammond of the 
WWF Gabon Programme. Aljos Faijon, Chariman of the SSC Conifer Specialist Group, has coordinated 
the collection of information on the conservation status of conifer species worldwide, and has responded to 
various requests for information on whether conifer species are in trade. 

The species profiles were prepared at WCMC by Sara Oldfield, Charlotte Lusty and Amy MacKinven. 
Assistance was provided by Kevin Holohan. Julie Reay assisted with the final compilation of this rep>ort. 
Final editing was undertaken by Tim Inskipp. 

The process of evaluating the timber species was greatly assisted by the participation of Marianne Syrylak 
Sandison of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Martin Jenkins contributed additional comments on the 
results of the evaluation process and ideas for the discussion section of this report. Dr Jan de Koning and 
J.J. Wieringa provided valuable comments on the draft report 

WCMC wishes to thank the CITES Management Authority of the Netherlands for providing the financial 
support required to carry out this project. 



18 



ANNEX 1 

Biological Criteria for Appendix I 

The following criteria are intended to be read in conjunction with the definitions, notes and guidelines 
listed in Annex 5 of Resolution Conf. 9.24. 

A species is considered to be threatened with extinction if it meets, or is likely to meet at least one of the 
following criteria. 

A. The wild population is small and is characterized by at least one of the following: 

i) an observed, inferred or projected decline in the number of individuals or the area and 

quality of habitat; or 

ii) each sub-population being very small; or 

iii) a majority of individuals, during one or more life-history phases, being concentrated m 

one sub-population; or 

iv) large short-term fluctuations in the number of individuals; or 

v) a high vulnerability due to the species' biology or behaviour (including migration). 

B. The wild population has a restricted area of distribution and is characterized by at least one of 
the following: 

i) fragmentation or occurrence at very few locations; or 

ii) large fluctuations in the area of distribution or the number of sub-populations; or 

iii) a high vulnerability due to the species' biology or behaviour (including migration); or 

iv) an observed, inferred or projected decrease in any one of the following: 

the area of distribution; or 
the number of sub-populations; or 
the number of individuals; or 
the area or quality of habitat; or 
reproductive potential. 

C. A decline in the number of individuals in the wild, which has been either: 

i) observed as ongoing or having occurred in the past (but with a potential to resume); or 

ii) inferred or projected on the basis of any one of the following: 

a decrease in area or quality of habitat; or 

levels or patterns of exploitation; or 

threats from extrinsic factors such as the effects of pathogens, 

competitors, parasites, predators, hybridization, introduced species 

and the effects of toxins and pollutants; or 

decreasing reproductive potential. 

D. The status of the species is such that if the species is not included in appendix I, it is likely to 
satisfy one or more of the above criteria within a period of five years. 



19 



ANNEX 2 PROFILES OF TREE SPECIES 



21 



Contribution to an evaluation of tree species using the new CITES Listing Criteria 

AFRICA 



Afzelia africana 

Afzelia; Doussie 



Distribution 

This widespread species occurs in Benin, Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, Cote 
d'lvoire, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Mali, Niger, Nigeria, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Sudan, Togo, 
Uganda and Zaire. 

Habitat 

In Ghana, this species is found in dry forest, especially in the forest-savanna borders. It tends to be 
scattered in areas with rocky soils (Hawthorne, 1995a). 



Vegetation types a ffordin g to White (1983) 

1. Guineo-Congolian rain forest 

Drier peripheral semi-evergreen Guineo-Congolian rain forest and similar forest in the transition 
zones. Afzelia africana is absent from the wetter forest types and is a distinguishing feature of the "fire- 
zone' between Guinea-Congolian rain forest and savanna. 

2. Gidneo-Congolian transition woodland 

3. Guineo-Coi^olian secondary grassland and wooded grassland 

4. Sudanian woodland 

5. The Coastal Plain of Basse Casamance 

N.B. In the Guinea-Congolia/Sudania regional transition zone phytochoria. 



Population Status and Trends 

A. africana is common in Ghana (Hawthorne, 1995a). This species is also common in Nigeria and 
Cameroon (African Regional Workshop, 1996). 

Role of Species in its Ecosystem 

No information. 

Threats 

This species is under pressure from exploitation in Ghana (Hawthorne, 1995a). 

Utilisation 

Timber oi Afzelia spp. in general is used for exterior joinery, flooring, heavy construction, furniture, vats 
and tanks. The seeds are used as a thickening agent (African Regional Workshop, 1996). 

Trade 

A. africana was exported from Ghana as sawnwood in 1994; 2550 m' of air dried sawnwood was 
exported at an average price of US$572.00/m' and kiln dried sawnwood sold for an average price of 
US$630.00/m' (TITO, 1995a). 

Conservation Status 

lUCN Threat Category and Criteria: VU (Aid) (African Regional Workshop, 1996) 
A. africana has been given a red star in Ghana meaning it is conmion but under pressure from exploitation 
and conservation measures are necessary (Hawthorne, 1995a). This species is considered Vulnerable 
according to the 1994 lUCN threat categories (Hawthorne, 1995b). 



22 



Annex 2. Profiles of Tree Species: Africa 



Conservation Measures 

Protected by law in Cote d'lvoire. FAO selected this species for conservation action in Cameroon because 

of the heavy utilisation pressures on the species (Palmberg. 1987). 

This species can be vegetatively propagated by budding (African Regional Workshop. 1996). 

References 

African Regional Workshop, 1996. Conservation and Sustainable Management of Trees project 

workshop held in Harare, Zimbabawe, July, 1996. 
Hawthorne, W.D., 1995(a). Ecological profiles of Ghanaian forest trees. Oxford Forestry 

Institute:Oxford. pp.345. 
Hawthorne, W.D., 1995(b). Categories of conservation priority and Ghanaian tree species. Working 

Document 4 (prepared for the November 1995 Conservation and Sustainable Management of Trees - 

Technical Workshop in Wageningen, Holland). 
nrO. 1995(a). Elements for the annual review and assessment of the world tropical timber situation. 

Draft Document. 
Palmberg, C, 1987. Conservation of genetic resources of woody species. Paper prepared for Simposio 

sobre silvicultura y mejoraniento genetico. CIEF, Buenos Aires, 1987. (NOT SEEN) 



23 



Contribution to an evaluation of tree species using the new CITES Listing Criteria 

AJzelia bipindensis 

Afzelia; (Red) Doussie 



Distribution 

A. bipindensis is found mostly in the Guineo-Congolian regional centre of endemism, but also extends 
into the Zambezian region (White, 1983). This species occurs in Angola, Central African Republic, 
Cameroon, Congo, Gabon, Nigeria, Uganda and Zaire. 

Habitat 

This is a rainforest sf)ecies. 

Population Status and Trends 

There are reportedly only a few seed trees distributed in a narrow range (Afiican Regional Workshop, 
1996). 

Role of Species in its Ecosystem 

No information. 

Threats 

This species is heavily exploited throughout its range (African Regional Workshop, 1996). 

Utilisation 

Timber of Afzelia spp. in general is used for exterior joinery, flooring, heavy construction, furniture, vats 
and tanks. 

Trade 

50(X3m of A. bipidensis sawn wood was exported from Cameroon in 1994 at an average price of 
US$1000.00/m' and the Congo exported 33m' in 1994 (ITTO, 1995 a). In 1987, Gabon exported 2,595m' 
of Doussie from Owendo (lUCN, 1990). Gabon exported 5,302.258 m' of Doussie in 1994 and 7,560.274 
m' in 1995 (DIAF, 1996). 

Conservation Status 

lUCN Threat Category and Criteria: VU (Alc,d) (African Regional Workshop, 1996) 

Conservation Measures 

FAO selected this species for conservation action in Cameroon because of the heavy utilisation pressures 
it faces (Palmberg, 1987). Vegetative propagation by budding/grafting could be feasible (African 
Regional Workshop, 1996). 

References 

African Regional Workshop, 1996. Conservation and Sustainable Management of Trees project 

workshop held in Harare, Zimbabawe, July, 1996. 
DIAF, 1996. Timber trade statistics for Gabon sent from the Direction des Inventaires et Amenagements 

des Forets (DIAF) of the Ministere des Eaux et Forets for 1994 and 1995 sent by Tom Hammond, 
mo, 1995(a). Elements for the annual review and assessment of the world tropical timber situation. 

Draft Document. 
lUCN, 1990. La Conservation des Ecosystemes Forestiers du Gabon. lUCN, Tropical Forest Programme 

Series, pp. 2(X). 
Palmberg, C, 1987. Conservation of genetic resources of woody species. Paper prepared for Simposio 

sobre silvicultura y mejoraniento genetico. CIEF, Buenos Aires, 1987. (NOT SEEN) 
White F., 1983. The Vegetation of Africa. A descriptive memoir to accompany the 

UNESCO/AETFAT/UNSO vegetation map of Africa. Paris:UNESCO. pp.356. 



24 



Annex 2. Profiles of Tree Species: Africa 



Ajzelia pachyloba 

Afzelia 



Distribution 

This species occurs in Angola, Cameroon, Congo, Gabon, Nigeria and Zaire. 

Habitat 

A. pachyloba is a rainforest species. 

Population Status and Trends 

There are only a few seed trees throughout its range (African Regional Workshop, 1996). 

Role of Species in its Ecosystem 

No information. 

Threats 

This species is heavily exploited. 

Utilisation 

Timber oi Afzelia spp. in general is used for exterior joinery, flooring, heavy construction, furniture, vats 
and tanks. 

Trade 

A. pachyloba is an important commercial species in Cameroon, Nigeria and Congo (African Regional 
Workshop, 1996). 

Conservation Status 

rUCN Category and Criteria: VU (Aid) (African Regional Workshop, 1996) 

Conservation Measures 

FAO has selected this species for conservation action in Cameroon because of the heavy utilisation 
pressures on the species (Palmberg, 1987). 

References 

African Regional Workshop, 1996. Conservation and Sustainable Management of Trees project 

workshop held in Harare, Zimbabawe, July, 1996. 
Palmberg, C, 1987. Conservation of genetic resources of woody species. Paper prepared for Simposio 

sobre silvicultura y mejoraniento genetico. CEEF, Buenos Aires, 1987. (NOT SEEN) 



25 



Contribution to an evaluation of tree species using the new CITES Listing Criteria 

Allanblackia stuhlmannii 

Guttiferae 



Distribution 

Tanzania 

Habitat 

A species of moist closed forest up to 1600m. 

Population status and trends 

This tall tree may be found in some abundance in remaining areas of moist upland forest only in 
eastern Tanzania, such as the Usambara Mts. 

Role of species in the ecosystem 

Threats 

Utilisation 

The seeds produce an edible oil, mkani fat. The timber is also used. 

Trade 

The oil is used locally and traded. 

lUCN Conservation category 

VU Bl+2c according to Lovett, J. & P. Clarke (Lovett, 1996). 

Conservation measures 

Forest management and silviculture 

The forests on the Usambaras are under a degree of protection as catchment forests. 

References 

Knox, Eric B. 1995. The List of East African Plants (LEAP): An electronic database (Draft). 72pp. 
Lovett, Jon. 1996. Completed data collection forms of restricted range trees of Tanzania. 
Prospect. 1995. Species listing from the PROSPECT database. 

WWF & lUCN. 1994. Centres of plant diversity. A guide and strategy for their conservation. 3 
volumes. Cambridge: lUCN Publications Unit 



26 



Annex 2. Profiles of Tree Species: Afiica 



Antrocaryon micraster 

Anacardiaceae 

akoua, antrocaryon, aprokuma, bougongi, ifa okete, onzabili 



Distribution 

Cameroon, Cote d'lvoire, DR Congo, Ghana, Nigeria, Sierra Leone, Uganda 

Habitat 

This species is found in lowland tropical rainforest. 

Population status and trends 

This emergent species is heavily exploited for its timber, regeneration is less succesful in burnt or 
heavily disturbed forests. Saplings do not compete well with weeds (Hawthorn, 1995). 

Role of species in the ecosystem 

It regenerates in canopy gaps and its fruit provides an important food source to the mammal 
community. Dispersal/Pollination is aided by Mammals. Seeds oi Antrocaryon have been found in 1% 
(rainy season) to 37% (Dry season) of piles of elephant dung in Bia South Game Production Reserve, 
Ghana (Hawthorn, 1995). 

Threats 

The main threats are clear-felling/logging of the habitat. 

UtiUsation 

This species is used for food, locally for fuel and the stem of the tree is traded internationally. 

Trade 

The species is reported in exports of plywood from Ghana, selling at an average price of US$400/m' 
(ITTO, 1997). 

rUCN Conservation category 

VUAlcd according to Hawthorne, W. 

Conservation measures 

Forest management and silviculture 

References 

Ake Assi. L. 1990. Annotated WCMC list of timber species for the Ivory Coast. (Cote d'lvoire). 

Erfurth, T. & H. Rusche. 1976. The marketing of tropical wood. Rome: FAO. 60pp. 

Hutchmson, J., J.M. Dalziel, & F.N. Hepper. 1927. Rora of West Tropical Afnca. Published by the 

English Ministry of State for the Colonies. 
ITTO. 1997. Annual review and assessment of the world tropical timber situation 1996. International 

Tropical Timber Organization. 
Katende, A.B. 1993. Annotations to: TPU conservation status report for Uganda dated 29 Jun 1993. 

33pp. 
Songwe, C. 1990. Revised preliminary list of timbers of Cameroon with conservation categories. 
Hawthorne, W.D. 1995, Ecological Profiles of Ghanaian Forest Trees, Oxford Forestry institute 



27 



Contribution to an evaluation of tree species using the new CITES Listing Criteria 

Aucoumea klaineana 

Okoume 

Distribution 

Okoume is restricted to west and central Gabon and a few small areas in Equatorial Guinea, Congo and 
Cameroon. In Cameroon 

Habitat 

It is found between sea level and 700 m in lowland broadleaf forests (White, 1996). 



Vegetation tvt)es according to White (\9%3>) 

1 . Guineo-Congohan rain forest 

Hygrophilous coastal evergreen Guineo-Congolian rain forest. Aucoumea klaineana is one of the most 

abundant species in this forest type especially in old secondary forest on well-drained sites. 



Population Status and Trends 

In Gabon the species remains widespread and abundant, and is common in secondary forest; the 
population is more or less stable (Wilks in litt., 1992). 

Regeneration 

Oukome trees flower only once in every 7 - 15 years (Anon, 1994). This light-demanding species is 
gregarious in secondary forests (N'Sosso in titt, 1995). It regenerates naturally where the recuperation 
period between logging cycles is sufficient (Wilks in litt, 1990). However, according to White, in litt. 
1996, Okoume is not regenerate regenerating. It is a light lover which only regenerates in old farms and 
unbumt savannas. Few tree below 30cm dbh are now seen (White, in litt.). 

Role of Species in its Ecosystem 

No information. 

Threats 

Repeated logging particularly in the Premiere zone (near coast) restricts regeneration, although it is 
considered by Wilks in litt., 1992, that the logging is probably sustainable in Gabon. In contrast experts 
at the Regional Workshop for the Conservation and Sustainable Management of Trees project 
considered that the restricted range of this species and the destruction of its ecosystem puts the future 
survival of this species in danger (African Regional Workshop, 1996). 

Utilisation 

Okoume is considered an excellent timber for veneer and plywood and also produces good quality 
sawn timber. 

Trade 

This species is Gabon's most important commercial timber and contributes about 90% of annual 
production. At present international market forces regulate Okoume logging in Gabon and state 
controls are considered ineffective (Wilks, in litt., 1990). France is the main importer of Okoume. Italy, 
Japan and Israel are also important importers. This species is traditionally absent from UK 
markets. (WCMC, 1991). Disappointing oil revenues have resulted in the export of Okoume timber to 
Western Europe and Japan becoming increasingly important to the Gabonese economy (Anon, 1994). 

Congo exported 53,188m' of Okoume logs and 23 665m' of veneer in 1994 (ITTO, 1995). In 1987, 
Gabon exported 603,740m' of A. klaineana from Owendo (lUCN, 1990). An unknown volume of logs 
was exported by Gabon for an average price of US$239.59/m' (ITTO, 1995a). In addition Gabon 
exported 371m' of Okoume as sawnwood for an average price of US$287.77/m', 2,106m' of veneer at 
an average price of US$97. 16/m', and 10,225m' of plywood at an average price of US$300.32/m' 
(ITTO, 1995a). Total export of Okoume from Gabon in 1994 was 1,327,957.181 m' and in 1995 the 
total export was 1,573,702.100 m' (DIAF, 1996). 



28 



Annex 2. Profiles of Tree Species: Africa 



Conservation Status 

lUCN Category and Criteria; EN (Alc,d) (African Regional Workshop, 1996). The gene pool of 
Okoume has been seriously deteriorated by decades of selective harvesting (Anon, 1992). 

Conservation Measures 

A. klaineana is considered a priority species for in situ conservation by FAO (1984). 
More than 29,000 ha have been planted with Okoume in Gabon but reforestation does not compensate 
for felling in natural forests. Inttoduction of this species west of Kribi in Cameroon has been 
discontinued because of its poor form (African Regional Workshop, 1996). 

Minimum logging diameter in Gabon is 70 cm in forest reserves, although this restriction is not 
enforced (Wilks, in litt., 1990). 

A project "Biology of Okoume", has been funded by li'lO and implemented by the government of 
Gabon, through the Ministere des Eaux et Forets. Scientific and technical suppon is provided by the 
Tropenbos Foundation. The aim of this project is to improve understanding of species specific 
characteristics of Okoume, with the objective of realizing high yielding plantations that at least can 
keep track of the current logging rate. The establishment of such plantations will help reduce the 
pressure on Gabon's forest area and its biological diversity. (Anon, 1994). The first phase of the project 
ended in December 1995. 



References 

African Regional Workshop, 1996. Conservation and Sustainable Management of Trees project 

workshop held in Harare, Zimbabawe, July, 1996. 
Anon, 1992. News on other Tropenbos activities. Gabon. Tropenbos Newsletter 2. 
Anon, 1994. Biology of Okoume: an ecophysiological reforestation project in Gabon. Tropenbos 

Newsletter 6:&-\0 
DIAF, 1996. Timber trade statistics for Gabon sent from the Direction des Inventaires et 

Amenagements des Forets (DIAF) of the Ministere des Eaux et Forets for 1994 and 1995 sent by 

Tom Hammond. 
FAO. 1984. Report of the Fifth Session of the FAO Panel of Experts on Forest Gene Resources 

Information No 14:32-49. 
ITTO, 1995(a). Elements for the annual review and assessment of the world tropical timber situation. 

Draft Document. 
lUCN, 1990. La Conservation des Ecosystemes Forestiers du Gabon. lUCN, Tropical Forest 

Programme Series, pp. 200. 
N'Sosso, D., 1995. in litt. D. N'Sosso contributions to the Conservation and Sustainable Management 

of Trees White, L. 1996. in litt. to WCMC. 
Wilks, C, 1990. in litt. to Richard Luxmoore. 
Wilks, C, 1992. in litt. to Pete Atkinson. 
WCMC, 1991. Provision of Data on Rare and Threatened Tropical Timber Species, pp. 58. 



29 



Contribution to an evaluation of tree species using the new CITES Listing Criteria 

Autranella congolensis 

Mukulungu 

Distribution 

This species occurs in Cameroon, Congo, Gabon and Nigeria. 

Habitat 

This species is found in dense forest (N'Sosso in litt, 1995). 

Population Status and Trends 

This species is fairly rare (African Regional Workshop, 1996). 

Regeneration 

This is a recalcitrant species (African Regional Workshop, 1996). 

Role of Species in its Ecosystem 

No information. 

Threats 

A. congolensis is heavily exploited for timber (African Regional Worshop, 1996). 

Utilisation 

The timber is used for heavy construction, flooring, furniture and cabinet-making, acid vats, turnery 
and joinery. Locally the seeds are used and traded as rattlers for dancers (African Regional Workshop, 
1996). 

Trade 

Gabon reported export of 51.2 m' of Mukulungu in 1995 and reported no export of this species in 1994 
(DIAF, 1996). 

Conservation Status 

lUCN Category and Criteria: CR (Alc.d) (African Regional Workshop, 1996) 

Conservation Measures 

None. 

References 

African Regional Workshop, 1996. Conservation and Sustainable Management of Trees project 

workshop held in Harare, Zimbabawe, July, 1996. 
DIAF, 1996. Timber trade statistics for Gabon sent from the Direction des Inventaires et 
Amenagements des Forets (DIAF) of the Ministere des Eaux et Forets for 1994 and 1995 sent by Tom 
Hammond. 
N'Sosso, D., 1995. in litt. N'Sosso contributions to the Conservation and Sustainable Management of 

Trees project for the Congo. 



30 



Annex 2. Profiles of Tree Species: Afiica 



Baikiaea plurijuga 

Zambezi Teak; Zambezi Redwood 

Distribution 

This species occurs in Angola, Botswana, Namibia, Zambia and Zimbabwe. 

Habitat 

This species is confined to lowland tropical forest on the Kalahari sands. Baikiaea plurijuga is the 
dominant component of the Baikiaea forest canopy CWTiite, 1983). Baikiaea forest is the most 
extensive deciduous forest on the Kalahari Sand in the south of the Upper Zambezi basin and B. 
plurijuga is essentially limited to this area (White, 1983). In Zimbabwe, B. plurijuga is found in higher 
areas of thicket on Kalahari sands of the Lupane and Nkayi districts and in higher areas of woodland 
thicket on coUuvium in the Binga district (Timberiake et al. 1991). 



Vegetation type according to White (1983) 

1 . Zambezian dry deciduous forest and scrub forest (Zambezian Kalahari woodland) 



Population Status and Trends 

Precise limits of individual populations of the species are not known but B. pluijuga is the dominant 
species in the Zambesi teak forests the area of which has been measured. In the early 1980s, Zambesi 
teak forests were reported to cover an area of 700,000 ha (Mubiti, 1984 in draft CITES proposal, 1986). 
More recent surveys have shown that 800,000 ha exist in forest commissioned land in Zimbabwe 
(African Regional Workshop, 1996). 

In Zambia this forest type formerly covered almost all of the Western Province, the North-Westem 
Province and the western area of the Southern Province (CITES draft proposal, 1986). The increased 
logging activities of the last fifty years have led to changes in the ecology of the forest; gaps in the 
canopy allow for thicket species to develop (this is especially a problem in Zambia). It is thought that 
these changes might inhibit the re-establishment of the Zambezi teak forests (CITES draft proposal, 
1986). These forests are expected to disappear within 50 years and to be irretrievably diminshed much 
sooner (WCMC, 1991). Populations of older individuals (about 500 years old) have now completely 
disappeared (African Regional Workshop, 1996). 

Although the Zambesi teak forests are threatened, the range of B. plurijuga has only been fractionally 
reduced (African Regional Workshop, 1996). Grassland quickly replaces the Zambesi teak forests once 
they have been cleared, making grassland a more common habitat for B. plurijuga (African Regional 
Workshop, 1996). Populations in fallow fields and national parks are regenerating well (African 
Regional Workshop, 1996). 

There are thought to be intact populations in forests in Botswana and Zambia, where levels of 
exploitation are less well known (African Regional Workshop, 1996). 

Regeneration 

This species coppices well (African Regional Workshop, 1996). 

Role of Species in its Ecosystem 

B. plurijuga is associated with Entandrophragma caudatum, Pterocarpus antunesii and Combretum . 
collinum (Huckabay, 1986). 

Threats 

This species is exploited for its timber. The Zambesi teak forest as a habitat type is undeniably 
threatened, however, the Baikiaea thickets that grow on grassland are still fairly widespread and timber 
from these thickets can be utilised (African Regional Workshop, 1996). 

Utilisation 

The timber is mainly used in flooring. Locally the species is used for medicinal purposes and for 
tanning. B. plurijuga is not locally exploited for its wood because it is too hard to cut. 



31 



Contribution to an evaluation of tree species using the new CITES Listing Criteria 



Trade 

Sales values in Zambia over recent years have been around US$1 million annually, 80% in the 
domestic market and 20% from exports. It is one of the two major commercial timber species of 
Botswana (WCMC, 1991). 

CoDservatioii Status 

lUCN Threat Category and Criteria: LR:lc (African Regional Workshop, 1996) 

Conservation Measures 

This species is considered to be a priority for in situ conservation by FAO, 1984. In situ conservation 
stands have been established in Zambia. The Forest Reserves in Botswana contain B. plurijuga 
(African Regional Workshop, 1996). 

This species is not suitable for a plantation programme because of its slow growth and fire sensitivity 
(African Regional Workshop, 1996). 

References 

African Regional Workshop, 1996. Conservation and Sustainable Management of Trees project 

workshop held in Harare, Zimbabawe, July, 1996. 
Draft CITES Proposal, 1986. Draft proposal to include Baikiaea plurijuga on Appendix II of CITES. 
Huckabay, 1986. cited in the Draft CITES Proposal. (NOT SEEN) 
Piearce, 1986. cited in the Draft CITES Proposal. (NOT SEEN) 
Timberlake, J., Nobanda, N., Mapaure, I, and Mhlanga, L., 1991. Sites of interest for conservation in 

various communal lands ofN. & W. Zimbabwe. Vegetation survey of communal lands. Report No. I. 
WCMC, 1991 . Provision of Data on Rare and Threatened Tropical Timber Species, pp. 58. 
White F., 1983. The Vegetation of Africa. A descriptive memoir to accompany the 

UNESCO/AETFAT/UNSO vegetation map of Africa. Paris:UNESCO. pp.356. 



32 



Annex 2. Profiles of Tree Species: Africa 



Baillonella toxisperma 

Moabi 

Distribution 

Moabi occurs mainly in Cameroon, Gabon and Nigeria, and is also found in Angola, Congo and 
Equatorial Guinea. 

Habitat 

The monotypic genus Baillonella is endemic to the Guineo-Congolian region (White, 1983). 

B. toxisperma is limited to dense primary evergreen rain forests. It requires shade for regeneration to 

occur (Wilks in litt, 1990). 

Population Status and Trends 

If this species continues to be over-exploited it will most likely vanish from large areas of its 
distribution (Schneemann, 1995). In areas of Cameroon that have been logged for several decades (i.e. 
Central, South, South-West and the Littoral provinces) there is a decrease and in some cases 
disappearance of Moabi (Schneemann, 1995). Moabi still remains in East Cameroon where there has 
been no logging. 

Role of Species in its Ecosystem 

Elephants play a part in regeneration and dispersal of Moabi as they eat the fhiits and deposit the seeds 
elsewhere (Schneemann, 1995). Wild pigs and porcupines eat the seeds. 

Threats 

Moabi is heavily exploited in West Africa. This species is further threatened by its restricted 
regeneration (Wilks in litt., 1990). It takes between 50 and 70 years before B. toxisperma starts to 
flower and regular friiit production doesn't occur until the tree is 90-100 years old (Schneemann, 1995). 

Utilisation 

The timber is used for furniture, cabinet work, decorative flooring, turnery and carving, decorative 
veneers, joinery, and stove fittings. 

The edible oil (huile de karite) that is extracted from the seeds is of great importance to the local 
people. The oil can fetch high prices at the local markets in Cameroon; in the larger cities the oil can be 
worth as much as US$12/litre (Schneemann, 1995). The pulp of the fruit is eaten. The bark is used for 
medicinal purposes and has ethnobotanical uses (e.g. the Baka pygmies use the bark to become 
invisible for elephant hunting) (Schneemann, 1995). 

Trade 

Strong demand for Moabi timber comes from Southern Europe (Schneemann, 1995) 

Moabi is an important commercial timber in Cameroon and is a major species in the export trade. 
Production of S. toxisperma in Cameroon has almost doubled since 1989/1990 (Schneemann, 1995). It 
is also commercially important to Congo (exports in 1988 of 4,517m') and Gabon where it is the 
second most important wood in terms of export earnings (Wilks in litt, 1990). Gabon exported 
55,884m' in 1987 (lUCN, 1990) and 59,891m' in 1989. 

According to ITTO (1995a) 25,000 m' of B. toxisperma logs were exported from Cameroon in 1994 at 
an average price of US$385/m\ and 10,000 m' of sawn timber were also exported at an average price 
of USS700.00/m'. While Gabon exported Moabi logs at an average price of US$70.40/m' and exported 
82m' of sawnwood at US$63. 13/m' (ITTO, 1995a). In 1994, Gabon exported a total of 32,572.065 m' 
of Moabi and 44,390.331 m' in 1995 (DIAF, 1996). 

There is some concern about illegal trade from some of the Moabi producing countries (Draft CITES 
Proposal, 1991). 

Conservation Status 

lUCN Category and Criteria: VU (Aid) (African Regional Workshop, 1996) 



33 



Contribution to an evaluation of tree species using the new CITES Listing Criteria 



Conservation Measures 

The minimum exploitable diameter of Moabi in Cameroon is Im and in both Gabon and Congo the 
minimum exploitable diameter is decreed to be 0.8m. B.toxisperma is found in several protected areas 
in Cameroon (i.e. Foret de Nki, Foret de Boumba Bek and Reserve de Faune du Dja). This species is 
also represented in the Sibang Arboretum, Libreville, Gabon. (Draft CITES Proposal, 1991). Cameroon 
has planted 389 ha of this species (African Regional Workshop, 1996). 

References 

African Regional Workshop, 1996. Conservation and Sustainable Management of Trees project 

workshop held in Harare, Zimbabawe, July, 1996. 
DIAF, 1996. Timber trade statistics for Gabon sent from the Direction des Inventaires et 

Amenagements des Forets (DIAF) of the Ministere des Eaux et Forets for 1994 and 1995 sent by 

Tom Hammond. 
Draft CITES Proposal, 1991. 
mo, 1995(a). Elements for the annual review and assessment of the world tropical timber situation. 

Draft Document. 
lUCN, 1990. La Conservation des Ecosystemes Forestiers du Gabon. lUCN, Tropical Forest 

Programme Series, pp. 200. 
Schneemann, J., 1995. Exploitation of Moabi in the Humid Dense Forests of Cameroon. 

Harmonization and improvement of two conflicting ways of exploitation of the same forest 

resource. BOS NEWSLETTER 31 vol. 14 (2): 20-32. 
White F., 1983. The Vegetation of Africa. A descriptive memoir to accompany the 

UNESCO/ AETFAT/UNSO vegetation map of Africa. Paris:UNESCO. pp.356. 
Wilks, C, 1990. in lift, to Richard Luxmoore. 



34 



Annex 2. Profiles of Tree Species: Afiica 



Beilschmiedia ugandensis 

Lanraceae 



Distribution 

DR Congo, Sudan, Tanzania, Uganda 

Habitat 

The species is found in forests around lake Victoria, also in lower montane forest, swamps and damp 
places 

Population status and trends 

A species well known for its timber. It is also used in mine shafts and as a fuelwood. The levels of 
exploitation, notably in Uganda, as well as a general decline in the extent or condition of the habitat, 
are major threats. 

Role of species in the ecosystem 

Threats 

Commercial exploitation, local use 

Utilisation 

The tree is felled to make dugout canoes. It is also used in mines and for charcoal. The fruit is edible. 

Trade 

The trade in the wood occurs at a subnational level. 

rUCN Conservation category 

VU A2d according to MUIENR (Okullo et ai, 1997) 

Conservation measures 

The species has been raised ex situ by tree planting projects in Masaka. 

Forest management and silviculture 

References 

Okullo, J.B. et al. 1997. Completed data collection forms for woody plants of Uganda. 



35 



Contribution to an evaluation of tree species using the new CITES Listing Criteria 

Boswellia sacra 

Burseraceae 

luban, megerot, mugereh, shajerat alluban, olibanum, mogar, mohor, frankincense, 

(sheehaz and beyo refer to the resin) 



Distribution 

Oman, Somalia, Yemen (Former South Yemen), also likely to occur in Ethiopia 

Habitat 

A tree of dry, sparsely vegetated areas and the lower slopes of wadis. 

Population status and trends 

The largest and most widespread occurrence of the species is in northern Somalia. It is also a dominant 
component of desert-woodland on the escarpment mountains in Dhofar in Oman, extending into 
Yemen. In Oman the tree is so heavily browsed that it rarely flowers or sets seed. Several trees appear 
to be dying and regeneration is poor. (Ghazanfar, 1995) In Somalia wild stands belong to local families 
who extract the resin and take care not to damage or overexploit the trees. It appears to be impossible, 
however, to prevent overgrazing, especially in times of drought, which in itself affects the trees directly 
by slowing down growth, hampering regeneration and reducing yields of resin. Tapping is generally 
confined to two periods of 3-4 months depending on the extent and onset of the rains. It is believed that 
the size of the natural resource and its productivity significantly outweighs demand for the product 
(Coppen, 1995). 

Role of species in the ecosystem 

Threats 

Grazing/damage by feral/exotic animals, local use. 

Utilisation 

The resinous exudate is used for burning in religious ceremonies. It is also distilled to yield odorous 
volatile oils for use in the perfumery industry and various forms of the resin and extracts are used as 
fixatives in perfumes. In China the main use of olibanum is in traditional medicine. The leaves are an 
important animal fodder, especially in times of drought. 

Trade 

The international trade in B. sacra is very difficult to separate from that in other gums, resins and 
balsams. It is generally known as the Somalian or Middle Eastern olibanum. B. frereana (Somalia). B. 
serrata (India) and B. papyrifera (Ethiopia) are also major sources of olibanum. Much unofficial 
trading also occurs across the borders of producing countries. The demand today is believed to be less 
than that in the late 1970s and early 1980s. Production is also believed to have declined because of 
severe droughts. 

Major consumers are China and the Middle East. China imported over 1000 tonnes of olibanum and 
myrrh in 1984. Significantly smaller amounts (50 tonnes) are used in the production of essential oils 
and extracts in Europe. The Ethiopian olibanum is exported for use as incense in Orthodox and Roman 
Catholic Churches in Europe and Latin America and the chewing grade olibanum from B. frereana is 
exported in substantial amounts to North Africa and the Middle East. 

Somalia and Ethiopia are the biggest producers of olibanum. The botanical source for the Ethiopian 
olibanum is likely to be B. papyrifera as B. sacra is only suspected to occur in Haierge. B. sacra in 
Somalia produces a higher grade olibanum known as 'beyo' but the highest chewing grade is believed 
to come from B. frereana. World trade in beyo was reported in 1987 to be 2(X) tonnes. 



Ex 


ports of incense gum from Somalia and their destinations, 1975-1980 (tonnes) | 


Destinat 
ions 


1975 


1976 


1977 


1978 


1979 


1980 


Saudi 
Arabia 


na 


156 


- 


11 


67 


na 


United 


na 


- 


70 


- 


22 


na 



36 



Annex 2. Profiles of Tree Species: Africa 



Exports of incense eum from Somalia and their destinations, 1975-1980 (tonnes) 


Destinat 
ions 


1975 


1976 


1977 


1978 


1979 


1980 


Arab 
Emirates 














China 


na 


- 


- 


60 


- 


na 


Djibouti 


na 


. 


16 


- 


29 


na 


France 


na 


16 


- 


- 


- 


na 


Italy 


na 


na 


- 


11 


- 


na 


Total 


684 


173 


86 


81 


118 


373 



Source: Frankincense and Gums Trading Agency, Somalia in Coppen, 1995 



lUCN Conservation category 

LR/nt according to Thulin (1997). 

Conservation measures 

The species is m cultivation at the Sultan Qaboos University Botanic Garden in Oman. Otherwise the 
only studies on its domestication were carried out by a Swedish Aid project in the 1980s. 

Forest management and silviculture 

References 

Coppen, J.J.W. 1995. Flavours and fragrances of plant origin. Non-Wood Forest Products 1. Food and 

Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. 
Ghazanfar, S. A. 1995. Plant conservation in Oman. Part 1. (unpublished). Compiled with Anthony G. 

Miller, Ian McLeish, Tom A. Cope, Phil Cribb and Salim H. Al Rawahi. 62pp. 
Thulm, Mats. 1997. Comments on the draft species summaries of trees occurring in Somalia. 



37 



Contribution to an evaluation of tree species using the new CITES Listing Criteria 



Brachylaena huillensis 

Synonym: Brachylaena hutchisonii 
Muhuhu 

Distribution 

This species occurs in Angola, Kenya, Mozambique, Tanzania, Transvaal and Uganda. 

Habitat 

In Kenya, B. huillensis occurs in the highlands, the coastal belt and in forest remnants (WCMC, 1991). 
It is found in upland semi-deciduous forest and lowland dry forest or thicket (Beentje, 1994). 

It is found in the Usambara steppe and coastal lowland of Tanzania and Uganda (WCMC, 1991 ). This 
species is dominant in evergreen bush, is common in dry coastal forests and can be found in lowland 
dry forests and semi-deciduous dry upland forests (1500m-2000m) (FAO, 1986). 



Vegetation type according to White (1983) 

1. Somalia-Masai scrub forest 

Brachylaena huillensis occurs on the steep northern slopes of the Western Usambara mountains 
between 700 and 960 m. 

2. Zanzibar-Inhambane undifferentiated forest 

This species is found in the drier forests of this region. 



Population Status and Trends 

The distribution of this species is patchy (Marshall & Jenkins, 1994). 
B. huillensis is locally common in Kenya (Beentje, 1994). 

Role of Species in its Ecosystem 

Threats 

The species is subject to heavy exploitation in Tanzania. In Kenya, much of the habitat of this species 
has been lost and the remaining trees are subject to increasingly heavy felling (WCMC, 1991). It is also 
suffering from habitat loss due to settlement and cultivation (FAO, 1986) 

Utilisation 

This species has been used for sleepers, flooring blocks, furniture, carving and turnery. Its main use 
internationally is now for wood carvings. It is commonly used in Tanzania for building posts. In 
Kenya, this species is only used in the carving industry and not for sawn wood (Marshall & Jenkins, 
1994). 

Perfumed oil can be distilled from the wood (FAO, 1986). 

Trade 

Conservation Status 

This species is considered Rare in Uganda (Katende, 1995). 

Conservation Measures 

It is considered a priority for in situ conservation by FAO, 1984. 

B. huillensis is found in the Arabuko-Sokoke Forest Reserve and the Shimba Hills Forest Reserve of 
Kenya. However in both of these areas this species is being collected. In the Arabuko-Sokoko Forest 
Reserve licences are issued for collection of dead wood but most of the trees removed are either newly 
dead (possibly ring-barked trees) or illegally cut trees (Marshall & Jenkins, 1994). It is also collected in 
the Lamu district and transported to Mombasa for the carving industry (Marshall & Jenkins, 1994). 

There are 69 ha of this species in plantations in Kenya (Marshall & Jenkins, 1994). 



38 



Annex 2. Profiles of Tree Species: Africa 



References 

Beentje, H.J., 1994. Kenya Trees. Shrubs and Lianas. National Museums of KenyaiNairobi, Kenya, pp. 

722. 
FAO, 1986. Some medicinal forest plants of Africa and Latin America. FAO Paper 67. pp. 252. 
Katende, A.B., 1995. Annotations to the WCMC list of Trees of Uganda. 
Marshall, N.T. and Jenkins, M, 1994. Hard Times for Hardwood: Indigenous Timber and the Timber 

Trade in Kenya. Traffic Intemational:Cambridge, U.K. pp. 53. 
WCMC, 1991. Provision of Data on Rare and Threatened Tropical Timber Species, pp. 58. 
White F., 1983. The Vegetation of Africa. A descriptive memoir to accompany the 

UNESCO/ AETFAT/UNSO vegetation map of Africa. Paris:UNESCO. pp.356. 



39 



Contribution to an evaluation of tree species using the new CITES Listing Criteria 

Copaifera salikounda 

Etimoe; Bubinga 



Distribution 

This species occurs in Cote d'lvoire, Ghana, Guinea, Liberia and Sierra Leone. 

Habitat 

This species is most abundant in evergreen forests, although most large trees are found in wet, flat, 
disturbed areas. It is not limited to the above habitat types; it does, however, prefer moist to wet 
habitats (Hawthorne, 1995a). 

Population Status and Trends 

C. salikouna is common in Ghana although there is a low density of larger trees. There appears to be a 
lot of regeneration, especially around mother trees. It is a shade tolerant tree (Hawthorne, 1995a). 

Role of Species in its Ecosystem 

The seeds of this species are probably dispersed by birds, although many fall to the ground beneath the 
parent tree (Hawthorne, 1995a). 

Threats 

In Gh£ma this species is threatened by over-exploitation (Hawthorne, 1995a). 

Utilisation 

Trade 

This species is available from specialist timber traders in the UK. It is also recorded m trade with 
German and the USA. 

Conservation Status 

lUCN Category and Criteria: VU (Aid) (African Regional Workshop, 1996) 
Hawthorne (1995a) has given this species a red star, which means it is common in Ghana but under 
pressure from exploitation and conservation measures are necessary. This species is considered 
Vulnerable under the new (1994) lUCN threat categories (Hawthorne, 1995b). 

Conservation Measures 

No information. 

References 

African Regional Workshop, 1996. Conservation and Sustainable Management of Trees project 

workshop held in Harare, Zimbabawe, July, 1996. 
Hawthorne, W.D., 1995(a). Ecological profiles of Ghanaian forest trees. Oxford Forestry 

Institute:Oxford. pp.345. 
Hawthorne, W.D., 1995(b). Categories of conservation priority and Ghanaian tree species. Working 
Document 4 (prepared for the November 1995 Conservation and Sustainable Management of Trees - 
Technical Workshop in Wageningen, Holland). 



40 



Annex 2. Profiles of Tree Species: Afiica 



Cordeauxia edulis 

Leguminosae 
yeheb, yicib, ye-eb 



Distribution 

Ethiopia, Somalia 

Habitat 

The species occurs in semi-arid scrub and is intolerant of waterlogging, growing in areas of 250- 
400mm annual rainfall. 

Population status and trends 

An imponant shrub or small tree confined to semi-desert bushland from eastern Ogaden to central 
Somalia. In 1929 it was reponed to constitute up to half the woody vegetation in many areas, but its 
populations are now much reduced and further threatened by regional droughts and war (Anon, 
1979).The seeds are highly nourishing and are exploited at such levels that regeneration may be 
hampered. High demand and free access to fruiting plants often result in the fruit being collected before 
they are mature (Wickens, 1995). 

Role of species in the ecosystem 

Threats 

Local use, grazing/damage by feral/exotic animals 

Utilisation 

The seeds have a delicious chestnut flavour and may be eaten raw, roasted or boiled as a vegetable. 
They may also be boiled for a sweet liquor. Rich in protein and with twice the energy value of carob, 
the seeds can provide the only source of food in times of famine. Leaves may be brewed into a tea. 
They are also browsed by sheep, goats and camels, which apparently causes the bones to become pink 
with cordeauxiaquinone. This compound is unique in the plant kingdom, producing an insoluble 
brilliant red dye used as a mordant in dyeing factories. The wood is used for firewood. 

Trade 

Seeds are marketed locally, serving as a staple to the poorer people when in season. Production is less 

than demand. 

lUCN Conservation category 

VU A2cd according to WCMC 

Conservation measures 

Forest management and silviculture 

The species has only recently been brought into domestication. It has been introduced on an 
experimental scale in Israel, Kenya, Tanzania, Sudan, Yemen and USA. Early aerial growth is slow 
while the massive root system is establishing. The seedlings develop a tough tap root which makes 
nursery-rearing complicated. Plants bear fruit in 3-4 years, each yielding about 5kg of seeds. The 
species has great potential for development as a food resource for the semi-arid regions and as a dessert 
crop, and possibly for export. 

References 

Anon. 1979. Tropical Legumes: Resources for the Future. National Academy of Sciences, Washington 

DC. 
Hedberg, Inga & Sue Edwards (eds.). 1989. Flora of Ethiopia. Volume 3. Pittosporaceae to Araliaceae. 

Ethiopia & Sweden: The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa & The Department of Systematic 

Botany, Uppsala. 659pp. 
Thulin. Mats. 1996. Annotations to: the conservation listing for trees of Somalia. 
Wickens, G.E. 1995. Edible nuts. Non-Wood Forest Products 5. Food and Agriculture Organization of 

the United Nations. 



41 



Contribution to an evaluation of tree species using the new CITES Listing Criteria 

Cordia millenii 

Omo 

Distribution 

Widespread in tropical Africa, this species occurs in Angola, Cameroon, Central African Republic, 
Cote d'lvoire, Gabon, Ghana, Guinea, Kenya, Nigeria, Sudan, Tanzania, Uganda and Zaire. 

Habitat 

C. millenii grows in closed forests and old secondary formations. 

Larger trees of this species (considering C. millenii and C. platythyrsa together) prefer undisturbed, 
well-drained areas while the smaller trees are more commonly found in disturbed forest (Hawthorne, 
1995a). 



Vegetation types according to White (1983) 

1. Transitional rain forest of the Lake Victoria regional mosaic 

The ICakamega forest in Kenya has several Guineo-Congolian lowland rain forest species including 

Cordia millenii. 



Population Status and Trends 

In Ghana, this species is common (Hawthorne, 1995a). It is only known from a few locations m Kenya 
and in these areas the populations are declining due to habitat loss (FAO, 1986). 

Regeneration 

This is a light-demanding species, as regeneration and large trees are doubled in density in forest where 
there has been disturbance (ie. logged or burnt) when compared to undisturbed forest (Hawthorne, 
1995a) 

Role of Species in its Ecosystem 

In Uganda the fruits are probably dispersed by frugivorous primates (Plumptree et at, 1994 in 
Hawthorne, 1995a). 

Threats 

This species is threatened by habitat loss (FAO, 1986) 

Utilisation 

The wood is thought to be impenetrable to termites and is, therefore, used for furniture, joinery, roof 
shingles, canoes, household utensils and other decorative work. It is used for making musical 
instruments in Uganda (FAO, 1986). It is also used as firewood. Locally this species is used as a shade 
tree. A decoction of leaves are used to treat roundworm, ground up seeds mixed with palm oil are taken 
against ringworm, and the dried leaves are smoked in Nigeria for asthma, coughs and colds. 

Trade 

No information. 

Conservation Status 

lUCN Category and Criteria: LR (Ic) (African Regional Workshop, 1996) 

According to Hawthorne (1995a) this species is not of particular conservation concern in Ghana and 

has been awarded a green star in his star categorization system. 

Conservation Measures 

This species is considered a priority species for in situ conservation by FAO, 1984. 



42 



Annex 2. Profiles of Tree Species: Africa 



References 

African Regional Workshop, 1996. Conservation and Sustainable Management of Trees project 

workshop held in Harare, Zimbabawe, July, 1996. 
FAO, 1984. Report of the Fifth Session of the FAO Panel of Experts on Forest Gene Resources 

Information No 14:32-49. 
Hawthorne, W.D., 1995(a). Ecological profiles of Ghanaian forest trees. Oxford Forestry 

Institute:Oxford. pp.345. 
N'Sosso, D., 1995. in litt. D. N'Sosso contributions to the Conservation and Sustainable Management 

of Trees project for the Congo. 
WCMC, 1991. Provision of Data on Rare and Threatened Tropical Timber Species, pp. 58. 



43 



Contribution to an evaluation of tree species using the new CITES Listing Criteria 



Cordia platythyrsa 

Mukumari 

Distribution 

This species occurs in Cameroon, Ghana, Cote d'lvoire, Liberia and Sierra Leone. 

Habitat 

It is found in closed forests and in old secondary formations and is a common pioneer species. 
Larger trees of these species (considering C. millenii and C. platythyrsa together) prefer undisturbed, 
well-drained areas while the smaller trees are more commonly found in disturbed forest. 

Population Status and Trends 

Regeneration 

C. platythyrsa is a light demanding species, as regeneration and large trees are doubled in density in 
forest where there has been disturbance (ie. logged or burnt) when compared to undisturbed forest The 
species is regenerating well in Ghana, especially along new logging roads (Hawthorne, 1995a). 

C. platythyrsa can reach a height of 23m or dbh of 23cm after four years of growth in open areas 
(Hawthorne, 1995a). In Sierra Leone, the mean annual increments vary between 3.3 and 6.3 cm for the 
first 18 years (Saville & Fox, 1967 in Hawthorne, 1995 a). 

Role of Species in its Ecosystem 

The fruits (fleshy drupes) of this species are probably dispersed by animals, including elephants 
(Hawthorne, 1995a). 

Threats 

This species suffers from some exploitation (Hawthorne, 1995a&b). 

Utilisation 

The timber is used for fiimiture, joinery, and other decorative work. 

Trade 

No information. 

Conservation Status 

lUCN Category and Criteria: VU (Aid) (African Regional Workshop, 1996) 

Under Hawthorne's (1995) star categorization system, C. platythyrsa scores a pink star which indicates 
that it is common and moderately exploited in Ghana. Hawthorne (1995b) considers this species Least 
Concern (or systematically Vulnerable) under the new (1994) lUCN threat categories. 

Conservation Measures 

This species is planted in a limited scale by the Forest Research Institute of Nigeria (FRIN) (African 
Regional Workshop, 1996). 

References 

African Regional Workshop, 1996. Conservation and Sustainable Management of Trees project 

workshop held in Harare, Zimbabawe, July, 1996. 
Hawthorne, W.D., 1995(a). Ecological profiles of Ghanaian forest trees. Oxford Forestry 

Institute:Oxford. pp.345. 
Hawthorne, W.D., 1995(b). Categories of conservation priority and Ghanaian tree species. Working 

Document 4 (prepared for the November 1995 Conservation and Sustainable Management of Trees 

- Technical Workshop in Wageningen, Holland). 



44 



Annex 2. Profiles of Tree Species: Afiica 



Cupressus dupreziana 

Saharan Cypress 

Distribution 

This species is restricted to the Tassili N'Ajjer Massif in Algeria. 

Habitat 

Cupressus dupreziana is found in dry sparsely vegetated areas between 1700 and 1900m. 

Population Status and Trends 

There are 153 individuals remaining within an area of 2001an^. There is no longer regeneration in the 
wild probably due to a water shortage as a result only the larger trees can reach the water table. The 
trees are producing viable seeds that can withstand climatic extremes (SSC Conifer Specialist Group, 
1996). 

Role of Species in its Ecosystem 

This species is associated with Rhus tripartitum, Pituranthos chloranthos, Olea laperrini, Lavendula 
pubescens, Myrtus rivellii, Nerium oleander and Tamarix articulata. 

Threats 

Grazing has been reported to destroy any regeneration of this species (Lucas and Synge, 1978) 

Utilisation 

Previously a major source of timber for local use, C. dupreziana also used to be cut for firewood, but is 
now too rare to support any form of utilisation. It has been suggested that this species could be valuable 
for planting in arid areas (Lucas and Synge, 1978). 

Trade 

No current trade. 

Conservation Status 

Conservation Measures 

The majority of this species is contained in the popular tourist site, the Tassili N' Agger National Park 
valley, which has been designated a World Heritage Site. The trees are guarded against cutting in this 
area (SSC Conifer Specialist Group, 1996). This species is cultivated on a small scale. It can be 
cultivated quite easily in Algiers and in Britain (SSC Conifer Specialist Group, 1996). 

References 

Lucas, G.L. and Synge, H. 1979). The lUCN Plant Red Data Book. lUCN, Switzeriand 

SSC Conifer Specialist Group, 1996. Discussions held by the SSC Conifer Specialist Group as part of 

the WCMC/SSC Conservation and Sustainable Management of Trees Project. March, 1996. 



45 



Contribution to an evaluation of tree species using the new CITES Listing Criteria 

Dalbergia baronii 

Leguminosae 

voamboana, hazovola, sovoka, sovodrano, hitsika, tsiandalana, palissandre, rosewood 



Distribution 

Madagascar 

Habitat 

The species is mainly found in evergreen humid rainforest at low altitudes, along streams, rivers, in 
marshy areas and the back of mangrove stands. 

Population status and trends 

A widespread species confined to the lowland plains of eastern Madagascar. These forests have been 
greatly reduced. Large individuals are rare because of overexploitation. A questionnaire on national 
forest genetic resources sent out by the FAO and completed by the Departement des Recherces 
Forestieres et Piscicoles in Madagascar indicated that all Dalbergia species are threatened by 
deforestation and overexploitation (Andrianasolo Rabevohitra, 1993). 

Role of species in the ecosystem 

Threats 

Commercial exploitation, local use, clear-felling/logging of the habitat, expansion of human settlement 
and agriculture. 

Utilisation 

The timber is used in fine furniture-making, flooring, interiors etc. The species is also a useful source 
of fuelwood. 

Trade 

The timber is present in international trade. Rosewood is reported in annual sawnwood exports to 
Japan, which together with other sawnwoods amounted to between 200 and 800m' between 1992 and 
1995. In 1991 and 1992 South Korea received annual imports of 60m'of rough rosewood, costing 
USSO.lmillion. Rosewood is also recorded in exports of statuettes and other ornaments, veneer and 
plywood, wood chips and as rough wood to the European Union (Hewitt, 1997). 

lUCN Conservation category 

VU Alcd+2cd according to Du Puy (1997). 

Conservation measures 

Forest management and silviculture 

The species is in cultivation and its silvicultural properties are under study. Growth is slow (Blaser, 
1993). 

References 

Andrianasolo Rabevohitra, M.R. 1993. Completed questionnaire on national forest genetic resources in 

Madagascar returned to the Division of Forest Resources, Food and Agriculture Organization of the 

United Nations. 
Anon. 1979. VI Luxury timbers, pp. 21 1-238. In Tropical legumes: Resources for the future. 

Washington, D.C.: National Academy of Sciences. 
Blaser, Jiirgen. et al. 1993. Akon'ny ala. Numeros 12 et 13. Department Des Eaux et Forets. 166pp. 
Du Puy, D. 1997. Completed data collection forms on Madagascan Dalbergia species. 
Du Puy, D. J. & H. Labat. 1996. Data collection forms for Madagascan trees for the Conservation and 

sustainable management of trees project. 
Hewitt, J. 1997. Timber imports from Madagascar. (Unpublished report). 



46 



Annex 2. Profiles of Tree Species: Afi-ica 



Dalbergia chapelieri 

Leguminosae 
rosewood, palissandre 



Distribution 

Madagascar 

Habitat 

This species occurs in humid, evergreen forest up to 1000m altitude. 

Population status and trends 

Although widespread, the species occurs mainly in lowland forest which has been and continues to be 
extensively cleared. A questionnaire on national forest genetic resources sent out by the FAO and 
completed by the Departement des Recherces Forestieres et Piscicoles in Madagascar indicated that all 
Dalbergia species are threatened by deforestation and overexploitation (Andrianasolo Rabevohitra, 
1993). 

Role of species in the ecosystem 

Threats 

Commercial exploitation, loca) use, clear-felling/logging of the habitat, extensive agriculture 

Utilisation 

The timber is valuable as a rosewood and the species is also used as a source of fuelwood. 

Trade 

The species is traded on a minor scale internationally and also in local markets. Rosewood is reported 
in annual sawnwood exports to Japan, which together with other sawnwoods amounted to between 200 
and SOOm^ between 1992 and 1995. In 1991 and 1992 South Korea imported eOm^of rough rosewood 
annually, costing USSO.lmillion. Rosewood is also recorded in exports of statuettes and other 
ornaments, veneer and plywood, wood chips and as rough wood to the European Union (Hewitt, 1997). 

lUCN Conservation category 

VU Alcd+2cd according to Du Puy (1997). 

Conservation measures 

Forest management and silviculture 

References 

Andrianasolo Rabevohitra, M.R. 1993. Completed questionnaire on national forest genetic resources in 
Madagascar returned to the Division of Forest Resources, Food and Agriculture Organization of the 
United Nations. 

Du Puy, D. 1997. Completed data collection forms on Madagascan Dalbergia species. 

Hewitt, J. 1997. Timber imports from Madagascar. (Unpublished report). 



47 



Contribution to an evaluation of tree species using the new CITES Listing Criteria 



Dalbergia chlorocarpa 

Leguminosae 
Palissandre, rosewood 



Distribution 

Madagascar 

Habitat 

A Madagascan endemic occurring in lowland seasonally dry deciduous forest. 

Population status and trends 

The species is fairly widespread in western Madagascar, but the primary vegetation in the area has been 
and continues to be extensively destroyed. A questionnaire on national forest genetic resources sent out 
by the FAO and completed by the Departement des Recherces Forestieres et Piscicoles in Madagascar 
indicated that all Dalbergia species are threatened by deforestation and overexploitation (Andrianasolo 
Rabevohitra, 1993). 

Role of species in the ecosystem 

Threats 

Commercial exploitation, local use, clear- felling/logging of the habitat, expansion of human settlement 
and agriculture. 

Utilisation 

The timber is valuable as a rosewood and the species is also used as a source of fuelwood. 

Trade 

This species is selectively felled for timber and fuel for export. Rosewood is reported in annual 
sawnwood exports to Japan, which together with other sawnwoods amounted to between 200 and 
SOOm^ between 1992 and 1995. In 1991 and 1992 South Korea imported 60m^of rough rosewood 
annually, costing USSO.lmillion. Rosewood is also recorded in exports of statuettes and other 
ornaments, veneer and plywood, wood chips and as rough wood to the European Union (Hewitt, 1997). 

lUCN Conservation category 

VU Alacd+2cd according to Du Puy (1997). 

Conservation measures 

Populations are protected in Ankarafantsika Strict Nature Reserve, Namoroka Reserve and Bemaraha 
Reserve. 

Forest management and silviculture 

References 

Andrianasolo Rabevohitra, M.R. 1993. Completed questionnaire on national forest genetic resources in 
Madagascar returned to the Division of Forest Resources, Food and Agriculture Organization of the 
United Nations. 

Du Puy, D. 1997. Completed data collection forms on Madagascan Dalbergia species. 

Hewitt, J. 1997. Timber imports from Madagascar. (Unpublished report). 



48 



Annex 2. Profiles of Tree Species: Africa 



Dalbergia davidii 

Leguminosae 
Palissandre, rosewood 



Distribution 

Madagascar 

Habitat 

A species of deciduous, seasonally dry forest. 

Population status and trends 

Only known from a single locality, this tree occurs in lowland, seasonally dry, deciduous forest, where 
selective felling of this rosewood species occurs for the export market. Logging activities take place 
despite the locality being contained in Ankarafantsika Strict Nature Reserve. A questionnaire on 
national forest genetic resources sent out by the FAO and completed by the Departement des Recherces 
Forestieres et Piscicoles in Madagascar indicated that all Dalbergia species are threatened by 
deforestation and overexploitation (Andrianasolo Rabevohitra, 1993). 

Role of species in the ecosystem 

Threats 

Commercial and local use 

Utilisation 

The timber is valuable as a rosewood. 

Trade 

Rosewood is reported in sawnwood exports to Japan, which together with other sawnwoods amounted 
to between 200 and SOOm^ between 1992 and 1995. In 1991 and 1992 South Korea imported eOm^of 
rough rosewood, costing US$0.1 million. Rosewood is also recorded in exports of statuettes and other 
ornaments, veneer and plywood, wood chips and as rough wood to the European Union (Hewitt, 1997). 

lUCN Conservation category 

EN Bl+2de, CI according to Du Puy (1997). 

Conservation measures 

The population is contained within Ankarafantsika Strict Nature Reserve. 

Forest management and silviculture 

References 

Andrianasolo Rabevohitra, M.R. 1993. Completed questionnaire on national forest genetic resources in 
Madagascar returned to the Division of Forest Resources, Food and Agriculture Organization of the 
United Nations. 

Du Puy, D. 1997. Completed data collection forms on Madagascan Dalbergia species. 

Hewitt, J. 1997. Timber imports from Madagascar. (Unpublished report). 



49 



Contribution to an evaluation of tree species using the new CITES Listing Criteria 

Dalbergia delphinensis 

Leguminosae 
Palissandre, rosewood 



Distribution 

Madagascar 

Habitat 

This species occurs in lowland, evergreen, humid forest 

Population status and trends 

Confined to the south-east of Madagascar, near Taolanaro, the species is threatened throughout its 
range by selective felling and the decline and fragmentation of its habitat. The location is also under 
threat of being developed for titanium mining. A questionnaire on national forest genetic resources sent 
out by the FAO and completed by the Departement des Recherces Forestieres et Piscicoles in 
Madagascar indicated that all Dalbergia species are threatened by deforestation and overexploitation 
(Andrianasolo Rabevohitra, 1993). 

Role of species in the ecosystem 

Threats 

Commercial exploitation, local use, mining/exploration 

Utilisation 

The timber is valuable as a rosewood. 

Trade 

Rosewood is reported in annual sawnwood exports to Japan, which together with other sawnwoods 
amounted to between 200 and 800m^ between 1992 and 1995. In 1991 and 1992 South Korea imported 
60m^of rough rosewood annually, costing US$0.1 million. Rosewood is also recorded in exports of 
statuettes and other ornaments, veneer and plywood, wood chips and as rough wood to the European 
Union (Hewitt, 1997). 

rUCN Conservation category 

EN A2cd, Bl+2bcde according to Du Puy (1997). 

Conservation measures 

Forest management and silviculture 

References 

Andrianasolo Rabevohitra, M.R. 1993. Completed questionnaire on national forest genetic resources in 
Madagascar returned to the Division of Forest Resources, Food and Agriculture Organization of the 
United Nations. 

Du Puy, D. 1997. Completed data collection forms on Madagascan Dalbergia species. 

Hewitt, J. 1997. Timber imports from Madagascar. (Unpublished report). 



50 



Annex 2. Profiles of Tree Species: Afiica 



Dalbergia greveana 

Leguminosae 
Palissandre, rosewood 



Distribution 

Madagascar 

Habitat 

This species occurs in deciduous, seasonally dry forest and woodland up to an altitude of 800m. 

Population status and trends 

Widespread in western Madagascar, the species is sought after and selectively felled for its high quality 
wood which has formed the bulk of the timber exports from western Madagascar. Population numbers 
have declined over the entire range. A questionnaire on national forest genetic resources sent out by the 
FAO and completed by the Departement des Recherces Forestieres et Piscicoles in Madagascar 
indicated that all Dalbergia species are threatened by deforestation and overexploitation (Andrianasolo 
Rabevohitra, 1993). 

Role of species in the ecosystem 

Threats 

Commercial exploitation, local use, clear-felling/logging of the habitat 

Utilisation 

The timber is valuable as a rosewood and the species is also used as a source of fuelwood. 

Trade 

Rosewood is reported in annual sawnwood exports to Japan, which together with other sawnwoods 
amounted to between 200 and SOOm^ between 1992 and 1995. In 1991 and 1992 South Korea imported 
60m^of rough rosewood annually, costing US$0.1 million. Rosewood is also recorded in exports of 
statuettes and other ornaments, veneer and plywood, wood chips and as rough wood to the European 
Union (Hewitt, 1997). 

lUCN Conservation category 

LR/nt according to Du Puy (1997). 

Conservation measures 

Some localities are protected in Ankarafantsika Strict Nature Reserve and in Ankarana Special 
Reserve. 

References 

Andrianasolo Rabevohitra, M.R. 1993. Completed questionnaire on national forest genetic resources in 
Madagascar returned to the Division of Forest Resources, Food and Agriculture Organization of the 
United Nations. 

Du Puy, D. 1997. Completed data collection forms on Madagascan Dalbergia species. 

Hewitt, J. 1997. Timber imports from Madagascar. (Unpublished report). 



51 



Contribution to an evaluation of tree species using the new CITES Listing Criteria 

Dalbergia louvelii 

Leguminosae 
Palissandre, rosewood 



Distribution 

Madagascar 

Habitat 

A species of lowland, humid forest in eastern Madagascar. 

Population status and trends 

A species confined to the drastically reduced lowland, humid forests of eastern Madagascar. 
Populations are now severely fragmented and trees continue to be selectively felled for the export 
market. A questionnaire on national forest genetic resources sent out by the FAO and completed by the 
Departement des Recherces Forestieres et Piscicoles in Madagascar indicated that all Dalbergia species 
are threatened by deforestation and overexploitation (Andrianasolo Rabevohitra, 1993). 

Role of species in the ecosystem 

Threats 

Commercial exploitation, local use, clear-felling/logging of the habitat, extensive agriculture 

Utilisation 

The timber is valuable as a rosewood. 

Trade 

Rosewood is reported in annual sawnwood exports to Japan, which together with other sawnwoods 
amounted to between 200 and SOOm^ between 1992 and 1995. In 1991 and 1992 South Korea imported 
60m'of rough rosewood annually, costing USSO.lmillion. Rosewood is also recorded in exports of 
statuettes and other ornaments, veneer and plywood, wood chips and as rough wood to the European 
Union (Hewitt, 1997). 

rUCN Conservation category 

EN Alcd+2cd according to Du Puy (1997). 

Conservation measures 

Forest management and silviculture 

References 

Andrianasolo Rabevohitra, M.R. 1993. Completed questionnaire on national forest genetic resources in 
Madagascar returned to the Division of Forest Resources, Food and Agriculture Organization of the 
United Nations. 

Du Puy, D. 1997. Completed data collection forms on Madagascan Dalbergia species. 

Hewitt, J. 1997. Timber imports from Madagascar. (Unpublished report). 



52 



Annex 2. Profiles of Tree Species: Africa 



Dalbergia maritima 

Leguminosae 
Palissandre, rosewood 



Distribution 

Madagascar 

Habitat 

A lowland tree restricted to humid, evergreen, coastal forest 

Population status and trends 

The species' habitat has almost been completely destroyed. The remaining forests are seriously 
threatened by exploitation, clearing and also by titanium mming. Trees continue to be selectively felled 
for export and populations are severely fragmented. A questionnaire on national forest genetic 
resources sent out by the FAO and completed by the Depanement des Recherces Forestieres et 
Piscicoles in Madagascar indicated that all Dalbergia species are threatened by deforestation and 
overexploitation (Andrianasolo Rabevohitra, 1993). 

Role of species in the ecosystem 

Threats 

Commercial exploitation, local use, clear- felling/logging of the habitat, mining/exploration 

Utilisation 

The timber is valuable as a rosewood. 

Trade 

Rosewood is reported in annual sawnwood exports to Japan, which together with other sawnwoods 
amounted to between 200 and SOOm^ between 1992 and 1995. In 1991 and 1992 South Korea imported 
60m^of rough rosewood annually, costing US$0.1 million. Rosewood is also recorded in exports of 
statuettes and other ornaments, veneer and plywood, wood chips and as rough wood to the European 
Union (Hewitt, 1997). 

rUCN Conservation category 

EN Alcd+2cd according to Du Puy (1997). 

Conservation measures 

Forest management and silviculture 

References 

Andrianasolo Rabevohitra. M.R. 1993. Completed questionnaire on national forest genetic resources in 
Madagascar returned to the Division of Forest Resources, Food and Agriculture Organization of the 
United Mations. 

Du Puy. D. 1997. Completed data collection forms on Madagascan Dalbergia species. 

Hewitt, J. 1997. Timber imports from Madagascar. (Unpublished report). 



53 



Contribution to an evaluation of tree species using the new CITES Listing Criteria 

Dalbergia purpurascens 

Leguminosae 
Palissandre, rosewood 



Distribution 

Madagascar 

Habitat 

A species of deciduous, seasonally dry forest up to 1000m. 

Population status and trends 

A widespread and locally common species of east, west and south-west Madagascar. The selective 
felling of trees has resulted in the serious reduction of population numbers. A questionnaire on national 
forest genetic resources sent out by the FAO and completed by the Departement des Recherces 
Forestieres et Piscicoles in Madagascar indicated that all Dalbergia species are threatened by 
deforestation and overexploitation (Andrianasolo Rabevohitra, 1993). 

Role of species in the ecosystem 

Threats 

Commercial exploitation, local use, clear-felling/logging of the habitat 

Utilisation 

fuel (stem, national or subnational trade), timber (stem, minor International trade) 

Trade 

Rosewood is reported in annual sawnwood exports to Japan, which together with other sawnwoods 
amounted to between 200 and SOOm^ between 1992 and 1995. In 1991 and 1992 South Korea imponed 
60m^of rough rosewood annually, costing US$0.1 million. Rosewood is also recorded in exports of 
statuettes and other ornaments, veneer and plywood, wood chips and as rough wood to the European 
Union (Hewitt, 1997). 

rUCN Conservation category 

VU Alcd+2cd according to Du Puy (1997). 

Conservation measures 

Some localities occur in the protected areas at Ankarana, Namoroka, and Bemaraha. 

Forest management and silviculture 

References 

Andrianasolo Rabevohitra, M.R. 1993. Completed questionnaire on national forest genetic resources in 
Madagascar returned to the Division of Forest Resources, Food and Agriculture Organization of the 
United Nations. 

Du Puy, D. 1997. Completed data collection forms on Madagascar Dalbergia species. 

Hewitt, J. 1997. Timber imports from Madagascar. (Unpublished report). 



54 



Annex 2. Profiles of Tree Species: Afiica 



Diospyros celebica 

Maccassar Ebony; Black Ebony 

Distribution 

This species is endemic to Sulawesi. 

Habitat 

This species is found in rain and monsoon forests; however, D. celebica can grow in both humid 
conditions and in seasonal climates. It can survive on a variety of soils (e.g. latosols, calcareous, and 
podzohc soils) (PROSEA, 1995). It occurs in undulating areas upto 600m above sea level (Sidiyasa, in 
litt., 1994). 

Population Status and Trends 

Once a widespread species in Sulawesi, it is now comparatively rare, especially in the south (PROSEA, 
1995). When present in a forest it tends to be scattered irregularly (PROSEA, 1995). 

Regeneration 

Flowering and fruiting occurs at the age of 5-7 years in D. celebica (PROSEA, 1995). The seeds 
remain viable for only a short time. 

Role of Species in its Ecosystem 

Seeds are dispersed by bats, birds and monkeys (PROSEA, 1995). It is often found with Homalium 
celebicum (PROSEA, 1995). 

Threats 

D. celebica is threatened by heavy exploitation since it is an important source of streaked ebony 
(PROSEA, 1995). 

Utilisation 

The timber is used for turnery, piano keys, carving, brush backs, inlaying, parts of stringed instruments 
and marquetry. 

Trade 

This species has been exported from Sulawesi since the 18th century. Export of this wood peaked in 
1973 at 26,000 m', since then export has significantly decreased because few trees remain (PROSEA, 
1995). 

Japan is the primary market for this species, but it is also exponed to Europe and the U.S.. 

Illegal logging and trade has been reported (Draft CITES Proposal, 1994). 

Conservation Status 

This species has an old lUCN global threat status of Rare in the WCMC Plants Database. The new 
lUCN threat categories have not yet been applied to this species. 

Conservation Measures 

In Sulawesi, D. celebica is protected and there is a quota system in place (CITES Proposal, 1994). The 
Indonesian Government has already started a planting programme of D. celebica; it has not, however, 
been planted on a large commercial scale (Sidiyasa, in litt., 1994). 

References ^^^ 

CITES Proposal, 1994. Proposal to include Diospyros celebica in Appendix II of CITES. 
Lemmens, R.H.M.J., Soerianegara, I. and W.C. Wong (Eds.), 1995. Plant Resources of South-East 

Asia (PROSEA) No. 5(2) Timber TreesiMinor commercial timbers. Backhuys Publishers, Leiden. 

655 pp. 
Sidiyasa, K., 1994. Letter to Sara Oldfield re: Diospyros celebica, Intsia bijuga, Intsia palembanica. 

Dated 28th April, 1994. 



55 



Contribution to an evaluation of tree species using the new CITES Listing Criteria 

Diospyros crassiflora 

African Ebony 

Distribution 

This species occurs in Cameroon, Central African Republic, Congo, Gabon, Nigeria, and Zaire. 

Habitat 

D. crassiflora is a lowland rainforest species. 

Population Status and Trends 

Virtually all big trees of the species have been marketed except in remote areas and the species is 
considered to be threatened in several countries such as Cameroon and Congo (WCMC, 199 la). Few 
large trees of the species remain in Nigeria (WCMC, 1991b). 

Role of Species in its Ecosystem 

No information. 

Threats 

According to White (pers. comm., 1990 in WCMC, 1991b), this species is at risk as a commercial 
source of Ebony. 

Utilisation 

A speciality wood used for small parts of musical instruments, carvings and items of turnery. 

Trade 

Until recently, European demand for this species was limited as it is not considered a fashionable 
timber (WCMC, 1991 ), but this situation may now be changing. Zaire is the main exporter of this 
species. It is also of commercial importance in Congo, Cameroon, and Gabon. In the 1960s around 70 
tonnes of wood were exported annually from Cameroon (WCMC, 1991). In 1994, Gabon exported 35 
cu m (ITTO, 1995b). 

Conservation Status 

lUCN Category and Criteria: EN (Aid) (African Regional Workshop, 1996) 

Conservation Measures 

Special permission is required for utilization in Cameroon. 
Regeneration measures are required (African Regional Workshop, 1996). 

References 

African Regional Workshop, 1996. Conservation and Sustainable Management of Trees project 

workshop held in Harare, Zimbabwe, July, 1996. 
ITTO, 1995b. Results of the 1995 forecasting and statistical enquiry for the Annual Review. 
nTC(XIX)/4 
WCMC, 1991a. Pre-project study on the conservation status of tropical timbers in trade. Volume 1. 

ITTO Report PPR 23/91 (M)' 
WCMC, 1991b. Provision of Data on Rare and Threatened Tropical Timber Species, pp. 58. 



56 



Annex 2. Profiles of Tree Species: Afi-ica 



Diospyros hemiteles 

Ebenaceae 



Distribution 

Mauritius 

Habitat 

A species of lowland, dry, seasonal, broadleaved, closed forest up to 350in. 

Population status and trends 

A species, probably used as a timber in the distant past, now confined to a few sites of lowland 
evergreen forest in the south-west and also recently recorded on the east coast at Mt. Brisee. The total 
population is estimated to contain fewer than 60 individuals, although only 42 trees are known at 
present. No regeneration is apparent. 

Role of species in the ecosystem 

Threats 

Grazing/damage by feral/exotic animals, invasive plants, poor regeneration, clear-fellmg/loggmg of the 

habitat 

lUCN Conservation category 

CR C2a, Dl according to Page (1997). 

Conservation measures 

There are plans to plant trees from cultivation into managed reserves. 

Forest management and silviculture 

References 

Bosser, J., Th. Cadet, H.R. Julien, & W. Marais. 1976. Flore des Mascareignes: La Reunion. Maurice, 

Rodrigues. The Sugar Research Institute, Mauritius; ORSTOM, Paris; Royal Botanic Gardens, 

Kew. 
FAO Forestry Department. 1986. Dambook on endangered tree and shrub species and their 

provenances. Rome: FAO. 524pp. 
Pa°e. Wayne. 1997. Data collection forms completed on the threatened tree species of Mauritius. 
Strahm, W.A. 1993. The conservation and restoration of the flora of Mauritius and Rodrigues. 

(unpublished). PhD Thesis (2 vol.), Reading Uni. U.K. 



57 



Contribution to an evaluation of tree species using the new CITES Listing Criteria 

Entandrophragma angolense 

Meliaceae 

African mahogany, gedu nohor, edinam, dilolo, livouti, ndianoni, thiouabid, tiama 



Distribution 

Angola, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Congo, Cote d'lvoire, DR Congo, Equatorial Guinea 
(Bioko), Gabon, Ghana, Guinea, Kenya, Liberia, Nigeria, Sierra Leone, Sudan, Tanzania, Uganda 

Habitat 

The species grows in various types of moist forest and rainforest, particularly in better drained sites, 
along forest edges, in thickets and gallery forest. 

Population status and trends 

The commercial exploitation of this timber species has resulted in the large-scale extraction of mature 
individuals throughout its range. Significant genetic erosion has been reported in some countries 
although no actual data are available. Although the species is common and widespread in forest in 
West Africa, populations in the east are very small, e.g. the species is rare and confined to Kakamega 
forest in Kenya (Beentje, 1995). Overharvesting and encroaching agriculture and settlement has led to 
the near extinction of the species in Uganda (OkuUo et ai, 1997). 

Role of species in the ecosystem 

Threats 

Commercial use, clear- felling/logging of the habitat 

Utilisation 

One of the main sources of African mahogany, used for exterior and interior construction, furniture- 
malcing, flooring. 

Trade 

Ghana exported Entandrophragma spp. in plywood exports in 1995, selling at an average price of 
US$334/m^. It also recorded the export of £. angolense in lOOOm^ of sliced veneer, selling at an 
average price of US$732/m^, as jointed veneer, selling at an average price of US$1365/m^, in 4000m^ 
of sawnwood, selling at an average price of USS472/m' (ITTO, 1997). 

In the same year DR Congo exported lOOOm^ as sawnwood, selling at an average price of US$245/m', 
and 8000m^ of logs, selling at an average price of USS 1 30/m^. Gabon exported 1 69,000m^ of logs at an 
average price of US$22/m^. Cameroon exported 4000m ^ of logs at an average price of USS 170/m ^ 
(ITTO, 1997). 

lUCN Conservation category 

VU Alcd according to Hawthorne (1995). 

Conservation measures 

There are protected populations and felling restrictions in various countries. 

Forest management and silviculture 

Regeneration is relatively good after logging damage but not after burning. The seed does not appear to 
disperse great distances and regeneration is poor away from parent trees. A slow-growing species. 
Successful plantations are established in Cote d'lvoire. 

References 

Ake Assi, L. 1990. Annotated WCMC list of timber species for the Ivory Coast. (Cote d'lvoire). 
Alder, D. 1989. Natural forest increment, growth and yield, pp. 47-52. Wong, J.L.G. (ed.). Forest 

Inventory Project, Seminar Proceedings, 29-30 March 1989, Accra. 
Beentje, Henk Jaap. 1994. Kenya trees, shrubs and lianas. Nairobi, Kenya: National Museums of 

Kenya. 722pp. 
FAO Forestry Department. 1986. Databook on endangered tree and shrub species and their 

provenances. Rome; FAO. 524pp. 



58 



Annex 2. Profiles of Tree Species: Africa 



Hawthorne, W. 1995. Categories of conservation priority and Ghanaian tree species, (unpubhshed). 

38pp. 
Hecketsweiler, P.H. 1990. Incomplete list of the commercially exploited timber species of Congo 

(Brazzaville). 
Hutchinson, J., J.M. Dalziel, & F.N. Hepper. 1927. Flora of West Tropical Africa. Published by the 

English Ministry of State for the Colonies. 
lllO. 1997. Annual review and assessment of the world tropical timber situation 1996. International 

Tropical Timber Organization. 
rUCN. 1990. La conservation des ecosystemes forestiers du Gabon. lUCN, Tropical Forest Programne 

Series. 
Katende, A.B. 1995. Annotations to: WCMC printout of Trees of Uganda dated 23 Nov. 1995. 137pp. 
Keay, R.W.J. 1996. Letter to WCMC concerning threatened and endemic tree species in Nigeria. 1pp. 
Knox, Eric B. 1995. The List of East African Plants (LEAP): An electronic database (Draft). 72pp. 
Okullo, J.B. et al. 1997. Completed data collection forms for woody plants of Uganda. 
Songwe, C. 1990. Revised preliminary list of timbers of Cameroon with conservation categories. 



59 



Contribution to an evaluation of tree species using the new CITES Listing Criteria 

Entandrophragma candollei 

Meliaceae 

African mahogany, omu, penkwa-akoa, cedar kokoti, sipo, kosipo, candollei 



Distribution 

Angola, Cameroon, Congo, Cote d'lvoire, DR Congo, Gabon, Ghana, Guinea, Liberia, Nigeria 

Habitat 

A large tree of lowland rainforest. 

Population status and trends 

Although slightly rarer than other members of the genus, the species is still widespread and heavily 
exploited throughout its range. 

Role of species in the ecosystem 

Threats 

Commercial exploitation, clear-felling/logging of the habitat 

Utilisation 

One of the major sources of African mahogany, used for flooring and furniture-making. 

Trade 

In 1995 Entandrophragma spp. were listed in plywood exports from Ghana, selling at an average price 
of US$334/m^. E. candollei is also recorded in exports of sliced veneer, selling at an average price of 
US$914/m'. and of jointed veneer, selling at an average price of US$1072/m^ 

The species was exported from Cote d'lvoire as plywood, selling at an average price of US$666/m^ as 
veneer, selling at an average price of US$655/m'. 

Exports of this species from Cameroon included a consignment of plywood, selling at an average price 
of US$1005/m5, 28,000m3 of veneer, selling at an average price of US$800/m^ 13,000m' of 
sawnwood, selling at an average price of US$565/m', and 5000m ^ of logs, selling at an average price 
ofUS$180/m^ 

Congo exported 11, 000m ^ of logs. 

DR Congo exported an unrecorded amount of veneer, sawnwood and 1000m' of logs, selling at an 
average price of USS379/m3, US$234/m' and US$120/m3 (ITTO, 1997). 

lUCN Conservation category 

VU Alcd according to Hawthorne (1995). 

Conservation measures 

There are protected populations and felling restrictions in place in various countries. 

Forest management and silviculture 

Population densities are comparatively low and seed production more erratic but regeneration appears 
to be good where parent trees remain and may also occur to some degree after burning. 

References 

Ake Assi. L. 1990. Annotated WCMC list of timber species for the Ivory Coast. (Cote d'lvoire). 

Erfurth, T. & H. Rusche. 1976. The marketing of tropical wood. Rome: FAO. 60pp. 

Hawthorne, W. 1995. Categories of conservation priority and Ghanaian tree species, (unpublished). 1- 

38. 
Hecketsweiler, P.H. 1990. Incomplete list of the commercially exploited timber species of Congo 

(Brazzaville). 
Hutchinson, J., J.M. Dalziel, & F.N. Hepper. 1927. Flora ofV/est Tropical Africa. Published by the 

English Ministry of State for the Colonies. 



60 



Annex 2. Profiles of Tree Species: Africa 



mo. 1997. Annual review and assessment of the world tropical timber situation 1996. International 

Tropical Timber Organization. 
N'Sosso, Dominique. 1995. Contribution de N'Sosso Dominique au projet Conservation and 

sustainable rtuinagement of trees, (unpublished). 24pp. 
Songwe, C. 1990. Revised preliminary list of timbers of Cameroon with conservation categories. 



61 



Contribution to an evaluation of tree species using the new CITES Listing Criteria 

Entandrophragma caudatum 

Meliaceae 

Mountain mahogany, wooden banana tree, jungamtave, mpapama, mupingiri, 

umsikili, umzomondo 



Distribution 

Swaziland, Zambia, Zimbabwe 

Habitat 

A large tree of scattered occurrence occurring in river valleys and open woodland on rocky slopes or 
kopjes and deep kalahari sands. 

Population status and trends 

Unlike other members of the genus, which provide a commercial source of mahogany, this species is 
too rare for more than limited exploitation. 

Role of species in the ecosystem 

Threats 

Utilisation 

The timber is used at a local level, mainly for furniture making. 

Trade 

The species is not present in international trade. 

lUCN Conservation category 

LRAc according to WCMC 

Conservation measures 

Forest management and silviculture 

References 

Gelderblom. Caroline. 1994. Letter from Caroline Gelderblom to Dr Kerry Walter concerning lists of 

threatened plants in Southern Africa dated 7 March 1994. 10pp. 
Goldsmith, B. & D.T. Carter. 1981. The indigenous timbers of Zimbabwe. The Zimbabwe Bulletin of 

Forestry Research No. 9. Forestry Commission. 
Kemp, E.S. 1979. Swaziland. Part of appendix to: Possibilities and needs for conservation of plant 

species and vegetation in Africa, pp. 101-103. In Hedberg, I. (ed.). Systematic botany, plant 

utilization and biosphere conservation. Stockholm, Almqvist & Wiksell International. Stockholm: 

Almqvist & Wiksell International. 



62 



Annex 2. Profiles of Tree Species: Africa 

Entandrophragma cylindricum 

Meliaceae 

African mahogany, aboudikro, penkwa, sapele, sapelli, mboyo, kilouka, essie 



Distribution 

Angola. Cameroon, Congo, Cote d'lvoire, DR Congo, Gabon, Ghana, Nigeria, Sierra Leone, Togo, 
Uganda 

Habitat 

A species of lowland forest and woodland types. 

Population status and trends 

A relatively common species, although less common than E. angolense. It is exploited heavily 
throughout its range. Genetic erosion caused by the large-scale depletion of mature individuals from 
populations has occurred in some countries. In comparison with other species of Entandrophragma this 
species can occur in drier habitats, including abandoned fields. Populations in Congo are localised 
(N'Sosso, 1995). The Ugandan distribution is confined to forests at Budongo, Mabira, Bungoma and 
West Mengo (OkuUo etal, 1997) 

Role of species in the ecosystem 

Threats 

Commercial exploitation, clear-felling/logging of the habitat, expansion of human settlement and 
agriculture. 

Utilisation 

A major source of African mahogany. It is also a source of veneer, charcoal and firewood. 

Trade 

In 1995 Ghana exported the species as plywood, selling at an average price of US$242/m^, and in 
mixed Entandrophragma consignments of plywood, selling at US$334/m^, as lOOOm^ of veneer, 
selling at an average price of US$978/m', as SOOOm^ of sawnwood, selling at an average price of 
USS592/m^ 

Cote d'lvoire exported the species as plywood, selling at an average price of US$472/^, as sliced and 
rotary peeled veneer, selling at USS947/m' and US$496/m3. 

Cameroon exported 19.000m3 of plywood, selling at USS1005/m^, 29,000m3of veneer, selling at an 
average price of US$795/m', 20,000m3 of sawnwood, selling at an average price of US$500/m^, and 
3 1 1 ,000m 2 of logs, selling at an average price of US$25 1/m = . 

Congo exported 73,000m ^ of logs. 

Gabon exported 20,000m^ of logs at an average price of US$37,0O0/m^. 

DR Congo exported eOOOm^ of veneer at US$596m3, 10 .OOOm^ of sawnwood at US$408/m' and 
16,000m3 of logs at USSHS/m^ (ITTO, 1997). 

rUCN Conservation category 

VU Alcd according to Hawthorne (1995). 

Conservation measures 

There are protected populations and felling restrictions in place in various countries. 

Forest management and silviculture 

The species does not respond well to burning. Growth rates are amongst the slowest in the genus. 
Successful plantations are established in Cote d'lvoire. 



63 



Contribution to an evaluation of tree species using the new CITES Listing Criteria 

References 

Ake Assi, L. 1990. Annotated WCMC list of timber species for the Ivory Coast. (Cote d'lvoire). 
Alder, D. 1989. Natural forest increment, growth and yield, pp. 47-52. Wong, J.L.G. (ed.). Forest 

Inventory Project. Seminar Proceedings, 29-30 March 1989, Accra. 
Erfurth, T. & H. Rusche. 1976. The marketing of tropical wood. Rome: FAO. 60pp. 
Hawthorne, W. 1995. Categories of conservation priority and Ghanaian tree species, (unpublished). 

1-38. 
Hecketsweiler, P.H. 1990. Incomplete list of the commercially exploited timber species of Congo 

(Brazzaville). 
Hutchinson, J., J.M. Dalziel, & F.N. Hepper. 1927. Flora of West Tropical Africa. Published by the 

English Ministry of State for the Colonies. 
ITTO. 1997. Annual review and assessment of the world tropical timber situation 1996. International 

Tropical Timber Organization. 
rUCN. 1990. La conservation des ecosystemes forestiers du Gabon. lUCN, Tropical Forest Programne 

Series. 
Katende, A.B. 1995. Annotations to: WCMC printout of Trees of Uganda dated 23 Nov. 1995. 137pp. 
N'Sosso, Dominique. 1995. Contribution de N'Sosso Dominique au projet Conservation and 

sustainable management of trees, (unpublished). 24pp. 
Okullo, J.B. et al. 1997. Completed data collection forms for woody plants of Uganda. 
Songwe, C. 1990. Revised preliminary list of timbers of Cameroon with conservation categories. 



64 



Annex 2. Profiles of Tree Species: Afiica 



Entandrophragma delevoyi 

Meliaceae 



Distribution 

DR Congo, Tanzania, Zambia 

Habitat 

A species of evergreen forest and thicket on well-drained soils. It occurs in disturbed areas but is 
sensitive to fires. 

Population status and trends 

Although most members of the genus are heavily exploited for their commercially valuable timber, this 
species is more seriously threatened by habitat loss throughout its range. 

Role of species in the ecosystem 

Threats 

Clear-felling/logging of the habitat, expansion of human settlement and agriculture. 

Utilisation 

The species is used locally as a source of timber and firewood. 

Trade 

lUCN Conservation category 

NE 

Conservation measures 

Forest management and silviculture 

References 

Adjanohoun, E.J. 1 979. Benin. Part of appendix to: Possibilities and needs for conservation of plant 
species and vegetation in Africa, pp. 91-92. In Hedberg, I. (ed.). Systematic botany, plant utilization 
and biosphere conservation. Stockholm: Almquist & Wiksell International. 

Styles, B.T. & F. White. 1991. Meliaceae in Flora of Tropical East Africa. Rotterdam: A.A. Balkema. 
68pp. 



65 



Contribution to an evaluation of tree species using the new CITES Listing Criteria 



Entandrophragma excelsum 

Meliaceae 



Distribution 

DR Congo, Malawi, Tanzania, Uganda, Zambia 

Habitat 

This species is scattered in areas of upland semi-deciduous forest. 

Population status and trends 

Unlike most other members of the genus, which are commercial sources of African mahogany, this 
species is too rare to be exploited at anything other than a local level. Habitat loss is a more serious 
threat. 

Role of species in the ecosystem 

Threats 

Expansion of human settlement and agriculture. 

Utilisation 
Trade 

lUCN Conservation category 

LR/lc according to WCMC 

Conservation measures 

Forest management and silviculture 

References 

Gelderblom, Caroline. 1994. Letter from Caroline Gelderblom to Dr Kerry Walter concerning lists of 

threatened plants in Southern Africa dated 7 March 1994. 10pp. 
Katende, A.B. 1993. Annotations to: TPU conservation status report for Uganda dated 29 Jun 1993. 

33pp. 
Styles, B.T. & F. White. 1991. Meliaceae in Flora of Tropical East Africa. Rotterdam; A.A. Balkema. 

68pp. 



66 



Annex 2. Profiles of Tree Species: Africa 



Entandrophragma utile 

Meliaceae 

African mahogany, utile, assie, kilouka, mbel, sipo, efobrodedwo, ijebu 



Distribution 

Angola, Cameroon, Congo, Cole dlvoire, DR Congo, Gabon, Ghana, Liberia, Nigeria, Sierra Leone, 
Uganda 

Habitat 

The species grows in various lowland forest types. 

Population status and trends 

A widespread species, although it has a patchy distribution and can be rare or absent from likely places. 
It is reported to be relatively abundant at Mayombe (N'Sosso, 1995). Heavy exploitation of the timber 
continues throughout its range. Genetic erosion caused by the depletion of mature individuals has 
probably occurred in most countries. Local overcutting is also common in pans of West Africa. In 
Uganda populations are confined to forest at Budongo and Mabira, where it is extremely rare and close 
to extinction (Okullo et al, 1997). 

Role of species in the ecosystem 

Threats 

Commercial exploitation, local use, expansion of human settlement and agriculture. 

Utilisation 

An important source of African mahogany, used for interior and exterior construction work, fumiture- 
making. 

Trade 

Entandrophragma spp. are listed in exports of plywood from Ghana in 1995, selling at an average price 
of US$334/m^. E. utile was exported from Ghana in 3000m' of sawnwood, selling at an average price 
of US$675/m'. DR Congo exported the species as veneer, selling at an average price of US$665/m3, as 
3000m' of sawnwood, selling at an average price of US$442/m', and as 18,000m' of logs, selling at an 
average price of US$23 1/m'. Cameroon exported 63,000m ^ at an average price of US$291/m = . Cote 
d'lvoire exported the species as veneer, selling at US$372/m' (ITTO, 1997). 



lUCN Conservation category 

VU Alcd accordmg to Hawthorne (1995). 

Conservation measures 

There are protected populations and felling restrictions in place in various countries. 

Forest management and silviculture 

Regeneration is good after disturbance and the species is generally noted to be more light-demanding 
and tolerant of dry conditions. Growth rates are amongst the slowest in the genus and the seeds and 
seedlings suffer high mortality rates because of insect attack. 

References 

Ake Assi, L. 1990. Annotated WCMC list of timber species for the Ivory Coast. (Cote d'lvoire). 
Hawthorne, W. 1995. Categories of conservation priority and Ghanaian tree species, (unpublished). 

1-38. 
Hecketsweiler, P.H. 1990. Incomplete list of the commercially exploited timber species of Congo 

(Brazzaville). 
Hutchinson. J., J.M. Dalziel, & F.N. Hepper. 1927. Flora of West Tropical Africa. Published by the 

English Ministry of State for the Colonies. 
ITTO. 1997. Annual review and assessment of the world tropical timber situation 1996. International 

Tropical Timber Organization. 



67 



Contribution to an evaluation of tree species using the new CITES Listing Criteria 



Katende, A.B. 1993. Annotations to: TPU conservation status report for Uganda dated 29 Jun 1993. 

33pp. 
N'Sosso, Dominique. 1995. Contribution de N'Sosso Dominique au projet Conservation and 

sustainable management of trees, (unpublished). 24pp. 
Okullo, J.B. et al. 1997. Completed data collection forms for woody plants of Uganda. 
Songwe, C. 1990. Revised preliminary list of timbers of Cameroon with conservation categories. 
Styles, B.T. & F. White. 1991. Meliaceae in Flora of Tropical East Africa. Rotterdam: A.A. Balkema. 

68pp. 
Thome, J.M. 1979. Liberia. Part of appendix to: Possibilities and needs for conservation of plant 

species and vegetation in Africa, pp. 88. In Hedberg, I. (ed.>. Systematic botany, plant utilization 

and biosphere conservation. Stockholm, Almqvist & Wiksell International. 88. Stockholm: 

Almqvist & Wiksell International. 



68 



Annex 2. Profiles of 1 ree Species: Africa 



Eribroma oblonga 

synonym: Sterculia oblonga 
Yellow Sterculia; Eyong 

Distribution 

This species occurs in Cameroon, Congo, Cote d'lvoire. Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, Ghana, Liberia and 
Nigeria. 

Habitat 

It is a lowland rainforest species of transition forests between humid evergreen and semi-deciduous 
forest and it also occurs in secondary forests. 



Vegetation type according to White d983) 
1. Guineo-Congolian rain forest 

Mixed moist semi-evergreen Guineo-Congolian rain forest 

Drier peripheral semi-evergreen Guineo-CongoUan rain forest and similar forest in the transition 

zones 



Population Status and Trends 

This species is common in Ghana (Hawthorne, 1995a). It is also common in Nigeria and Cameroon 
(African Regional Workshop, 1996). 

Regeneration 

The seedlings are shade tolerant, but the larger trees are definite light demanders (Hawthorne, 1995a). 

Role of Species in its Ecosystem 

The seeds are probably dispersed by birds (Hawthorne, 1995a). 

Threats 

E. oblonga is exploited for its timber. 

Utilisation 

The timber is used for decorative veneers, furniture and construction work. 

Trade 

Cote d'lvoire exported 246m' of £. oblonga plywood for an average price of US$3974. 36/m' in 1994 
(ITTO, 1995a). In 1987, Gabon exponed 16m' from Owendo (lUCN, 1990). Gabon exported 987.165 
m' of Eyong in 1994 and 1.893.308 m' m 1995 (DIAF, 1996). 

Conservation Status 

lUCN Category and Criteria: VU (Alc,d) (African Regional Workshop, 1996) 

Accordmg to Hawthorne (1995a), this species is of no particular conservation concern and was 

awarded a green star for Ghana. 

Conservation Measures 

Regeneration work is necessary (African Regional Workshop, 1996). 

References 

African Regional Workshop, 1996. Conservation and Sustainable Management of Trees project 

workshop held in Harare, Zimbabawe, July, 1996. 
DIAF, 1996. Timber trade statistics for Gabon sent from the Direction des Inventaires et 

Amenagements des Forets (DIAF) of the Ministere des Eaux et Forets for 1994 and 1995 sent by 

Tom Hammond. 
Hawthorne, W.D., 1995(a). Ecological profiles of Ghanaian forest trees. Oxford Forestry 

Institute:Oxford. pp.345, 
mo, 1995a. Elements for the annual review and assessment of the world tropical timber situation. 

Draft Document. 



69 



Contribution to an evaluation of tree species using the new CITES Listing Criteria 



lUCN, 1990. La Conservation des Ecosystemes Forestiers du Gabon. lUCN, Tropical Forest 

Programme Series, pp. 200. 
White F., 1983. The Vegetation of Africa. A descriptive memoir to accompany the 
UNESCO/ AETFAT/UNSO vegetation map of Africa. Paris:UNESCO. pp.356. 



70 



Annex 2. Profiles of Tree Species: Africa 



Gossweilerodendron balsamiferum 

Agba 

Distribution 

The genus Gossweilerodendron is endemic to the Guineo-Congolian region (White, 1983). 

G. balsamiferum occurs in Angola, Cameroon, Congo, Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, Nigeria and Zaire. 

Habitat 

This shade-tolerant species usually grows in mature little-disturbed forest (evergreen or semi- 
deciduous) and occurs at elevations below 500m. This species flourishes on ferruginous soils derived 
from secondary sediments. 

Population Status and Trends 

It is absent or rare from part of its range within the main Nigeria\Zaire forest block (WCMC, 1 99 1 ). 

In the Congo, in the forest zone between Louesse and Niari of Makabana, stands of G. balsamiferum 
are found with 5 or 6 exploitable trees per hectare (N'Sosso in litt, 1995). 

Role of Species in its Ecosystem 

No mformation. 

Threats 

This species is declining because of heavy exploitation, habitat loss and a lack of a plantation 
programme (FAO, 1986). 

Utilisation 

The main uses of G. balsamiferum is in plywood manufacturing and for furniture, flooring, household 
fittings and light construction. 

Trade 

In 1994. 22m' of this species was exported as sawnwood from Congo (11 lO, 1995a). From the port of 
Owendo in Gabon, 6,002 m' were exponed in 1987 (lUCN, 1990). Gabon exponed 18,660.055 m' in 
1994 and 27,307.858 m' in 1995 (DIAF, 1996). 

Conservation Status 

lUCN Category and Criteria: EN (Alc.d) (African Regional Workshop, 1996) 

Conservation Measures 

FAO (1986) recommended that the genetic material of this species should be protected so that a future 
planting programme could be set up. A planting programme should be initiated (African Regional 
Workshop, 1996). 

References 

African Regional Workshop, 1996. Conservation and Sustainable Management of Trees project 

workshop held in Harare, Zimbabawe, July, 1996. 
DIAF, 1996. Timber trade statistics for Gabon sent from the Direction des Inventaires et 

Amenagements des Forets (DIAF) of the Ministere des Eaux et Forets for 1994 and 1995 sent by 

Tom Hammond. 
FAO, 1986. Databook on endangered tree and shrub species and provenances. FAO Forestry Paper • 

77:Rome. pp. 524. 
11 lO, 1995a. Elements for the annual review and assessment of the world tropical timber situation. 

Draft Document. 
lUCN, 1990. La Conservation des Ecosystemes Forestiers du Gabon. lUCN, Tropical Forest 

Programme Series, pp. 200. 
N'Sosso, D., 1995. in litt. D. N'Sosso contributions to the Conservation and Sustainable Management 

of Trees project for the Congo. 
WCMC, 1991. Provision of Data on Rare and Threatened Tropical Timber Species, pp. 58. 
White F., 1983. The Vegetation of Africa. A descriptive memoir to accompany the 

UNESCO/ AETFATAJNSO vegetation map of Africa. Paris:UNESCO. pp.356. 



71 



Contribution to an evaluation of tree species using the new CITES Listing Criteria 

Guarea cedrata 

Guarea; light bosse 

Distribution 

This species occurs in Cameroon, Congo, Cote d'lvoire, Gabon, Ghana, Liberia, Nigeria, Sierra Leone, 
Uganda and Zaire. 

Habitat 

G. cedrata trees are most common in moist semi-deciduous forest and in the dryer undisturbed areas of 
moist evergreen forest (Hawthorne, 1995a). 



Vegetation type according to White (1983) 

1. Mixed moist semi-evergreen Guineo-Congolian rain forest 

2. Guineo-Congolian short forest and shrub forest 

3. Upland Parinari excelsa forest in West Africa 



Population Status and Trends 

This species is common in Ghana (Hawthorne, 1995a). 

Regeneration 

Seedlings and saplings are often found in shady areas and tend to thrive in undisturbed areas rather than 
in disturbed areas; trees of all sizes are much more abundant in areas that have not been burnt 
(Hawthorne, 1995a). 

Role of Species in its Ecosystem 

The fruits are eaten and the seeds are most likely dispersed by birds and animals (Hawthorne, 1995a). 

Threats 

This species is moderately exploited (Hawthorne, 1995a&b). 

Utilisation 

Timber from this species is used for furniture, joinery, panelling, boat building, decorate veneers, 
turnery and flooring. 

Trade 

Ghana exported 2,450 m' of G. cedrata logs for an average price of US$ 22 1 .(X)/m' in 1 994 (ITTO, 
1995a), 3,710 m' of air dned sawnwood for US$ 424.00 and kiln dried sawnwood for US$ 563.00/m' 
(ITTO, 1995a). 

Gabon exponed 1.669 m' from Owendo in 1987 (lUCN, 1990). The following amounts of Bosse (both 
G. cedrata and G. thompsonii) were exported from Gabon: 3,179.028 m' in 1994 and 3,572.884 in 
1995 (DIAF, 1996). 

Conservation Status 

lUCN Category and Criteria: EN (A led) (African Regional Workshop, 1996) 
Under Hawthorne's (1995a) star categorization system, G. cedrata scores a pink star which indicates 
that it is common and moderately exploited. Under the new lUCN threat categories (1994) this species 
is considered Vulnerable (Hawthorne, 1995b) 

Conservation Measures 

This species is protected by law in Cote d'lvoire. Regeneration work required. 



72 



Annex 2. Profiles of Tree Species: Afiica 



References 

African Regional Workshop, 1996. Conservation and Sustainable Management of Trees project 

workshop held in Harare, Zimbabawe, July, 1996. 
DIAF. 1996. Timber trade statistics for Gabon sent from the Direction des Inventaires et 

Amenagements des Forets (DIAF) of the Ministere des Eaux et Forets for 1994 and 1995 sent by 

Tom Hammond. 
Hawthorne, W.D., 1995(a). Ecological profiles of Ghanaian forest trees. Oxford Forestry 

Institute:Oxford. pp.345. 
Hawthorne, W.D., 1995(b). Categories of conservation priority and Ghanaian tree species. Working 

Document 4 (prepared for the November 1995 Conservation and Sustainable Management of Trees 

- Technical Workshop in Wageningen, Holland). 
ITTO, 1995 a. Elements for the annual review arui assessment of the world tropical timber situation. 

Draft Document. 
lUCN, 1990. La Conservation des Ecosystemes Forestiers du Gabon. lUCN, Tropical Forest 

Programme Series, pp. 200. 
WCMC, 1991. Provision of Data on Rare and Threatened Tropical Timber Species, pp. 58. 
White F., 1983. The Vegetation of Africa. A descriptive memoir to accompany the 

UNESCO/ AETFATAJNSO vegetation map of Africa. Paris:UNESCO. pp.356. 



73 



Contribution to an evaluation of tree species using the new CITES lasting Criteria 



Guarea thompsonii 

Dark Guarea 

Distribution 

This species is found in Cameroon, Congo, Cote d'lvoire, Gabon, Ghana, Liberia, Nigeria and Zaire. 

Habitat 

This shade tolerant species is found moist and evergreen forest hillsides. 



Vegetation type according to White (1983) 

1. Mixed moist semi-evergreen Guineo-Congolian rain forest 



Population Status and Trends 

This species is common in Ghana (Hawthorne, 1995a). 

The seedlings are less commonly found in the shade when compared to G. cedrata, and some light 

exposure seems necessary for seedlings until a size of 15cm dbh is reached (Hawthorne, 1995a). 

Regeneration 

It takes almost 200 years to reach a 9 foot dbh, and is therefore relatively slow growing (Keay, 1961 in 
Hawthorne, 1995a) 

Role of Species in its Ecosystem 

No information 

Threats 

No specific information. 

Utilisation 

Timber from this species is used for furniture, joinery, panelling, boat building, decorate veneers, 
turnery and flooring. 

Trade 

G. thompsonii is not as commercially important as G. cedrata, although it is moderately exploited 
(Hawthorne, 1995a). The following amounts of Bosse (both G. cedrata and C. thompsonii) were 
exported from Gabon: 3,179.028 m' in 1994 and 3,572.884 in 1995 (DIAF, 1996). 

Conservation Status 

lUCN Category and Criteria: EN (Alc,d,) (African Regional Workshop, 1996) 
Under Hawthorne's (1995a) star categorization system, G. thompsonii scores a pink star which 
indicates that it is common and moderately exploited in Ghana. Under the new lUCN threat categories 
(1994) this species is considered Vulnerable (Hawthorne, 1995b). 

Conservation Measures 

No information. 

References 

African Regional Workshop, 1996. Conservation and Sustainable Management of Trees project 

workshop held in Harare, Zimbabawe, July, 1996. 
DIAF, 1996. Timber trade statistics for Gabon sent from the Direction des Inventaires et 

Amenagements des Forets (DIAF) of the Ministere des Eaux et Forets for 1994 and 1995 sent by 

Tom Hammond. 
Hawthorne, W.D., 1995(a). Ecological profiles of Ghanaian forest trees. Oxford Forestry Institute: 

Oxford, pp.345. 



74 



Annex 2. Profiles of Tree Species: Africa 



Hawthorne, W.D., 1995(b). Categories of conservation priority and Ghanaian tree species. Working 
Document 4 (prepared for the November 1995 Conservation and Sustainable Management of Trees 
- Technical Workshop in Wageningen, Holland). 

White F., 1983. The Vegetation of Africa. A descriptive memoir to accompany the 
UNESCO/ AETFAT/UNSO vegetation map of Africa. Paris.UNESCO. pp.356. 



75 



Contribution to an evaluation of tree species using the new CITES Listing Criteria 

Guibourtia ehie 

Ovangkol;Amazone;Hyedua 

Distribution 

This species occurs in Cameroon, Cote d'l voire, Gabon, Ghana, Liberia and Nigeria. 

Habitat 

G. ehie is a forest species, preferring closed rainforests and transitional forests (WCMC, 1991 ). 
In Ghana, it is successful in the dryer areas of moist semi-deciduous forest (Hawthorne, 1995a). 

Population Status and Trends 

This species is common in Ghana, particularly in the north-west of the country. All sizes of tree do 
better in unbumt rather that biunt forest (Hawthorne, 1995a). 

Regeneration 

Seed dispersal is mainly by wind. Seedlings are found clustered around the parent tree and often remain 
gregarious in advanced stages of regeneration (Hawthorne, 1995a). 

Role of Species in its Ecosystem 

No information. 

Threats 

This species suffers from high rates of exploitation in Ghana (Hawthorne, 1995a&b). 

Utilisation 

The wood of this species is a popular substitute for Rosewood. It is used for fine furniture and 
cabinetwork, turnery, decorative veneers and flooring (WCMC, 1991). 

Trade 

This species is increasingly available in the U.S.. It is exported by Gabon; in 1987, 15,450m' were 
exported from Owendo (lUCN, 1990), in 1994. a total of 8,607.596 m' were exported (DIAF, 1996) 
and in 1995, 10,533.197 m' were exported (DIAF, 1996). The export of this species in log form is 
banned by Ghana. 

Conservation Status 

lUCN Category and Criteria: VU (Alc,d) (African Regional Workshop, 1996) 
For Ghana, Hawthorne (1995a) has given this species a red star, which means it is common but under 
pressure from exploitation and conservation measures are necessary. Under the new lUCN threat 
categories (1994) this species is considered Vulnerable (Hawthorne, 1995b). 

Conservation Measures 

Regeneration measures are required (African Regional Workshop, 1996). 

References 

African Regional Workshop, 1996. Conservation and Sustainable Management of Trees project 

workshop held in Harare, Zimbabawe, July, 1996. 
DIAF, 1996. Timber trade statistics for Gabon sent from the Direction des Inventaires et 

Amenagements des Forets (DIAF) of the Ministere des Eaux et Forets for 1994 and 1995 sent by 

Tom Hammond. 
Hawthorne, W.D., 1995(a). Ecological profiles of Ghanaian forest trees. Oxford Forestry 

Institute:Oxford. pp.345. 
Hawthorne, W.D., 1995(b). Categories of conservation priority and Ghanaian tree species. Working 

Document 4 (prepared for the November 1995 Conservation and Sustainable Management of Trees 

- Technical Workshop in Wageningen, Holland). 
lUCN, 1990. La Conservation des Ecosystemes Forestiers du Gabon. lUCN, Tropical Forest 

Programme Series, pp. 200. 
WCMC, 1991. Provision of Data on Rare and Threatened Tropical Timber Species, pp. 58. 



76 



Annex 2. Profiles of Tree Species: Africa 



Hallea ledermanni 

synonyms: Mitragyna ciliata; Mitragyna ledermannii 
Abura 

Distribution 

Abura occurs in the coastal regions of the following West Africa countries: Angola, Benin, Cameroon, 
Congo, Cote d'lvoire, Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, Ghana, Guinea, Liberia, Nigeria and Zaire. 

Habitat 

H. ledermannii is gregarious in freshwater swamps. This light-demanding species forms a narrow 
border along rivers and lagoons in high forest areas, grass plains, savanna and in swampy areas of 
deciduous and evergreen rain forests (FAO, 1986b) and occurs in areas that are periodically inundated. 
In Ghana it is often found outside forest reserves along rivers and in village swampland; it tends to 
have a patchy distribution around swamps, although it does not inhabit all swampy areas. It is found in 
the coastal regions of Nigeria (Keay, 1989 in Hawthorne, 1995a). 



Vegetation type according to White (1983) 

1. Guineo-Congoiian swamp forest and riparian forest 

Hallea ledermanni is widespread in this forest type. 



Population Status and Trends 

As noted above, H. ledermannii is widespread within swamp and riparian forest. Although information 
on population status and trends is not directly available diis could be inferred from information on the 
extent and decline of its wetland habitats. 

Regeneration 

Regeneration requires fresh water conditions and this species thrives best in humid conditions where 
rainfall is over 1250mm/year and the temperature is between 25 °C and 35 °C. When in its preferred 
habitat regeneration is plentiful and successful and growth is rapid (FAO, 1986b). 

Role of Species in its Ecosystem 

H. ledermanni releases lots of small winged seeds that can produce patches of regeneration on exposed 
mud (annon. 1958 in Hawthorne, 1995a). It can also reproduce vegetatively (FAO, 1986b). Commonly 
Abura is found in pure communities associating with species such as Gilbertiodendron. Randia lane- 
poolei, Symphonia globulifera, and Raphia vinifera (FAO, 1986b). 

Threats 

This species is suffering from over-exploitation in Ghana (Hawthorne, 1995a). 

UtiUsation 

This is a general-purpose timber used in furniture production, joinery, domestic flooring, plywood, 
veneer, carving and transmission poles. H. ledermannii has some important medicinal propenies, e.g. it 
is poisonous to paramecia and has analgesic properties, and many local medicinal uses (FAO, 1986b) 

Trade ^ 

In 1994, 22,133 m' of Abura logs (Hallea ciliata) were exported from the Congo, 9,109 m (@ US$ 
450.57/m') were exported from Cote d'lvoire and an unknown amount of Abura (Mitragyana ciliata) 
was exported from Gabon at an average price of US$ ll.Tllm (ITTO, 1995a). In the same year, 945 
m' of Abura {Hallea ciliata ] sawnwood was exported from Congo and 463 m' of veneer Abura 
(Hallea ciliata) was exported from Cote d'lvoire for an average price of US$ 1680.61/m (ITTO, 
1995a). 



77 



Contribution to an evaluation of tree species using the new CITES Listing Criteria 



Conservation Status 

lUCN Category and Criteria: VU (A led) (African Regional Workshop, 1996) 
Hawthorne (1995a) has given this species a red star, which means it is common but under pressure 
from exploitation and conservation measures are necessary. This species is considered Vulnerable 
(1994 lUCN threat category) due to excessive exploitation (Hawthorne, 1995b). 

Conservation Measures 

It is considered a priority for in situ conservation by FAO, 1984. Ex-situ conservation work should be 
commenced and intensified (African Regional Workshop, 1996). 

References 

African Regional Workshop, 1996. Conservation and Sustainable Management of Trees project 

workshop held in Harare, Zimbabawe, July, 1996. 
FAO, 1984. Report of the Fifth Session of the FAO Panel of Experts on Forest Gene Resources 
Information No 14:32-49. 

FAO, 1986b. Some medicinal forest plants of Africa and Latin America. FAO Paper 67. pp. 252. 
Hawthorne, W.D., 1995(a). Ecological profiles of Ghanaian forest trees. Oxford Forestry 

Institute:Oxford. pp.345. 
Hawthorne, W.D., 1995(b). Categories of conservation priority and Ghanaian tree species. Working 

Document 4 (prepared for the November 1995 Conservation and Sustainable Management of Trees 

- Technical Workshop in Wageningen, Holland), pp.345, 
mo, 1995a. Elements for the annual review and assessment of the world tropical timber situation. 

Draft Document. 
White F., 1983. The Vegetation of Africa. A descriptive memoir to accompany the 
UNESCO/AETFATAJNSO vegetation map of Africa. Paris:UNESCO. pp.356. 



78 



Annex 2. Profiles of Tree Species: Africa 



Hallea stipulosa 

Rubiaceae 

abura, bahia, subaha-akoa 



Distribution: 

Angola, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Congo, Gabon, Ghana, Guinea, Nigeria, Senegal, Sierra 
Leone, Sudan, Uganda, Zambia 

Habitat 

tropical, lowland, moist, non-seasonal, broadleaved, closed forest 

Population status and trends 

In many places it suffers from overexploitation. 

Role of species in the ecosystem 

Threats 

clear-felling/logging of the habitat 

Utilisation 

A widespread and important source of timber which occurs most commonly in swampy areas, timber 
(major International trade), timber (stem) 

Trade 

In 1995 the species was recorded in log exports from DR Congo, selling at an average price of 
US$93/m3 (ITTO, 1997). 

lUCN Conservation category 

VU A 1 cd according to World Conservation Monitoring Centre 

Conservation measures 

Forest management and silviculture 

References 

Hawthorne, W. 1990. Field guide to the forest trees of Ghana. Chatham; Natural Resources Institute, 

for the Overseas Development Administration, London. 278pp. 
Hawthorne, W. 1995. Categories of conservation priority and Ghanaian tree species, (unpublished). 1- 

38. 
Hawthorne, W.D. 1995. Ecological profiles of Ghanaian forest trees. Oxford Forestry Institute. 345pp. 
Hecketsweiler. P.H. 1990. Incomplete list of the commercially exploited timber species of Congo 

(Brazzaville). 
HMSO. 1 . Index Kewensis plantarum phanerogamarum. Kew: Royal Botanic Gardens. 
Hutchinson, J., J.M. Dalziel, & F.N. Hepper. 1927. Flora of West Tropical Africa. Published by the 

English Ministry of State for the Colonies. 
ITTO. 1997. Annual review and assessment of the world tropical timber situation 1996. International 

Tropical Timber Organization. 
Katende, A.B. 1995. Annotations to: WCMC printout of Trees of Uganda dated 23 Nov. 1995. 137pp. 



79 



Contribution to an evaluation of tree species using the new CITES Listing Criteria 

Haplormosia monophylla 

Leguminosae 
akoriko, idewa, larme 



Distribution 

Cameroon, Cote d'lvoire, Liberia, Nigeria, Sierra Leone 

Habitat 

tropic£il, lowland, moist, broadleaved, closed forest, swamp forest 

Threats 

clear- felling/logging of the habitat 

Utilisation 

timber 

Trade 

rUCN Conservation category 

VU Ald+2d according to African Regional Workshop 

There is little information on the status of populations or their regeneration but it is expected that 
overexploitation and habitat degradation are resulting in population declines. 

Conservation measures 

Forest management and silviculture 

References 

Ake Assi, L. 1990. Annotated WCMC list of timber species for the Ivory Coast. (Cote d'lvoire). 
Ake Assi, Laurent. 1988. Especes rares et en voie d'extinction de la flare de la Cote d'lvoire. 

(unpublished). 6pp. 
Hutchinson, J., J.M. Dalziel, & F.N. Hepper. 1927. Flora of West Tropical Africa. Published by the 

English Ministry of State for the Colonies. 



80 



Annex 2. Profiles of Tree Species: Africa 



Heritiera utilis 

Sterculiaceae 

de-orh, niangom, nyankom, ogoue, yawe 



Distribution 

Cote d'lvoire, Gabon, Ghana, Liberia, Sierra Leone 

Habitat 

The species occurs in lowland evergreen wet and moist forest and swamp forest. 

Population status and trends 

A timber species which occurs commonly in remaining areas of forest in the Upper Guinea region and 
Gabon, especially evergreen forest. Exploitation rates are high and likely to be unsustainable. 

Role of species in the ecosystem 

Threats 

Commercial overexploitation, clear-felling/logging of the habitat 

Utilisation 

Trade 

In 1995 the species was exported from Cote d'lvoire, under the name of Tarrietia. in veneer exports 
selling at an average price of US$286/m^ and in 41,000m^ of logs, selling at an average price of 
US$31 1/m^ (ITTO, 1997). Ghana also exported 5000m' of sawnwood, selling at an average price of 
US$653/m3. Liberia exported 4000m3 at an average pnce of US$250/m'. 

lUCN Conservation category 

VU A led according to Hawthorne (1995). 

Conservation measures 

Forest management and silviculture 

Seeding and early growth can be erratic. The species can grow rapidly, however, in suitable conditions. 
Growing the species in plantations is being attempted. 

References 

Hawthorne, W. 1990. Field guide to the forest trees of Ghana. Chatham: Natural Resources Institute, 

for the Overseas Development Administration, London. 278pp. 
Hawthorne, W. 1995. Categories of conservation priority and Ghanaian tree species, (unpublished). 

1-38. 
Hutchinson, J.. J.M. Dalziel, & F.N. Hepper. 1927. Flora of West Tropical Africa. Published by the 

English Ministry of State for the Colonies, 
mo. 1997. Annual review and assessment of the world tropical timber situation 1996. International 

Tropical Timber Organization. 



81 



Contribution to an evaluation of tree species using the new CITES Listing Criteria 

Irvingia gabonensis 

Irvingiaceae 

abesebuo, goron biri, oro, moupiki, muiba, eniok, wild mango, dika nut, andok, 

manguier sauvage, chocolatier 



Distribution 

Angola, Congo, Cote d'lvoire, DR Congo, Ghana, Guinea, Nigeria, Principe, Senegal, Sierra Leone, 
Sudan, Uganda 

Habitat 

The optimal habitat of the species is evergreen rainforest. However it occurs also in gallery forest and 
semi-deciduous forest, also often in towns or on the outskirts of villages. It is restricted to fairly wet, 
well-drained loamy to clay soils. 

Population status and trends 

Population declines have occurred through logging operations, expansion of human settlements and 
poor natural regeneration. The species is, however, relatively common and widespread. Regeneration 
may be limited by the absence of large seed dispersers, such as elephants. 

Role of species in the ecosystem 

The large mango-like fruits are eaten by various animals, including elephants and lowland gorillas 
which disperse the seeds. In certain regions of Cote d'lvoire, the species apparently is only able to 
regenerate through replanting by humans around villages (White & Abemethy, 1996). 

Threats 

Local use, poor regeneration 

Utilisation 

Great quantities of the seeds are harvested throughout the species range. They are processed into 
compacted blocks, resembling chocolate bars. This is believed to provide a significant source of 
income to rural communities (White & Abemethy, 1996). The fruits are also sweet and edible. The 
wood is very hard and fine-grained. 

Trade 

lUCN Conservation category 

LR/nt according to WCMC 

Conservation measures 

This species is now being researched intensively by ICRAF as a fruit tree species for use in 
agroforestry systems. It is increasingly being planted on farms as a result. Trees are often conserved on 
farms during clearance of forest for agriculture, because of their value for fruit production. 

Forest management and silviculture 

References 

FAO Forestry Department. 1986. Databook on endangered tree and shrub species and their 

provenances. Rome: FAO. 524pp. 
Hawthorne. W. 1990. Field guide to the forest trees of Ghana. Chatham: Natural Resources Institute, 

for the Overseas Development Administration, London. 278pp. 
Hawthorne, W.D. 1995. Ecological profiles of Ghanaian forest trees. Oxford Forestry Institute. 345pp. 
Hecketsweiler, P.H. 1990. Incomplete list of the commercially exploited timber species of Congo 

(Brazzaville). 



82 



Annex 2. Profiles of Tree Species: Africa 



Hutchinson, J., J.M. Dalziel, & F.N. Hepper. 1927. Flora of West Tropical Africa. Published by the 

English Ministry of State for the Colonies. 
Katende, A.B. 1995. Annotations to: WCMC printout of Trees of Uganda dated 23 Nov. 1995. 137pp. 
Knox, Eric B. 1995. The List of East African Plants (LEAP): An electronic database (Draft), 72pp. 
White, L. & K. Abemethy. 1996. Guide de la vegetation de la Reserve de la Lope, Gabon. ECOFAC 

Gabon. 



83 



Contribution to an evaluation of tree species using the new CITES Listing Criteria 



Juniperus procera 

Cupressaceae 

East African cedarwood, African pencil cedar, birbirssa, tedh 



Distribution 

Djibouti, DR Congo, Etiiiopia, Kenya, Malawi, Saudi Arabia, Somalia, Sudan, Tanzania. Uganda, 
Yemen (Former North Yemen), Zimbabwe 

Habitat 

A large tree of mountainous areas, occurring in dry forests or as scattered individuals or in pure stands 
on rocky well-drained soils, mostly between 1750 and 2500m, extending up to 3500m.. 

Population status and trends 

A widespread species with a range extending from Arabia to Zimbabwe. Existing populations in the 
Arabian Peninsula represent a small fragment of the woodlands that once existed. At lower elevations 
populations appear to be regenerating extremely poorly, possibly because of climatic changes. Trees 
continue to be cut for fuelwood and timber at a local level, in some places also for export. Few large 
trees remain. Changing land use patterns, browsing particularly by buffalo and elephants and the 
increase in plantations of fast growing exotic species are also contributing to the species decline. 
Outlying populations in Zimbabwe, the Republic of Congo and Malawi are extremely small and 
threatened. The populations in Kenya are noted to have been seriously depleted as a result of 
overexploitation of the timber and oil and also because of changing land use (Coppen, 1995). Stands in 
Somalia are generally made up of trees no larger than 3 or 4m and are small and scattered and in need 
of protection (ThuHn, 1993). The species is said to be common on the West Usambaras and on the 
northern slopes of Mt. Kilimanjaro and other isolated mountains in Masailand in Tanzania. However 
good timber is hard to find here because many of the mature trees have heart rot and are hollow 
(Mhuy a. etal. 1994). 

Role of species in the ecosystem 

Threats 

Commercial exploitation, grazing/damage by wild animals, commercial plantation development. 

Utilisation 

The wood is distilled to produce cedarwood oil. The commercial form of this oil is made up from a 
number of different oil-producing conifer species. Both the oil and its derivatives are valuable. The oil 
is used in soap perfumes, household sprays, floor polishes and insecticides. The timber is of major 
economic importance, particularly in Kenya where it is used for building houses, for poles, furniture, 
pencil making and joinery. The bark is used for beehives. The tree is also planted for shade, ornamental 
purposes and as a windbreak. 

Trade 

USA, Western Europe and Japan are the major markets for cedarwood oil. The major sources are China 
and USA. Oil from Juniperus procera now features rarely in international trade. East Africa was once 
an important source of oil but overexploitation has reduced the wild resources so that only occasional 
shipments are now available (Coppen, 1995). 

In Kenya the species is not now generally available as a timber. It is unlikely that more than 250m^ per 
year is used commercially. Local use, mainly for posts and to some extent furniture and joinery, is far 
greater, at least where stands have survived. A small amount of 7. procera was re-exported through 
Kenya from Tanzania to Germany in 1993 (Marshall & Jenkins, 1994). 

rUCN Conservation category 

LR/nt according to WCMC 

Conservation measures 

Forest management and silviculture 

Slow growth rates have resulted in a decline in interest in experimenting with the species as a 
plantation tree (Mbuya et ai, 1994). In Kenya 4936 ha are planted with the species. 



84 



Annex 2. Profiles of Tree Species: Africa 



References 

Beentje, H. 1994. Kenya trees, shrubs and lianas. National Museums of Kenya. 

Coppen, J.J.W. 1995. Flavours and fragrances of plant origin. Non-Wood Forest Products 1 . Food and 

Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. 
FAO Forestry Department. 1986. Databook on endangered tree and shrub species and their 

rovenances. Rome: FAO. 524pp. 
Farjon, Aljos. 1993. The Taxonomy of Multi-seed Junipers (Juniperus sect. Sabina) in SW Asia and 

East Africa. Edinburgh Journal of Botany 49(3): 251-283. 
Friis, I. 1992. Forests and Forest Trees of Northeast Tropical Africa. Middlesex. UK: HMSO. 396pp. 
Katende, A.B. 1993. Annotations to; TPU conservation status report for Uganda dated 29 Jun 1993. 

33pp. 
Marshall, N.T. & M. Jenkins. 1994. Hard times for hardwood: indigenous timber and the timber trade 

in Kenya. Traffic East/Southern Africa. 
Mbuya, L.P. et al. 1994. Useful trees and shrubs for Tanzania. Identification, propagation and 

Maru2gement for agricultural and pastoral communities. Regional Soil Conservation Unit/SIDA. 
Thulin, M. (ed.). 1993. Flora of Somalia. Volume 1. Pteridophyta; Gymnospermae; Angiospermae 

(Annonaceae-Fabaceae). Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. 
Wild, H. & T. Miiller. 1979. Rhodesia. Part of appendix to; Possibilities and needs for conservation of 

plant species and vegetation in Africa, pp. 99-100. In Hedberg, I. (ed.). Systematic botany, plant 

utilization and biosphere conservation. Stockholm: Almqvist & Wiksell International. 



85 



Contribution to an evaluation of tree species using the new CITES Listing Criteria 

Khaya anthotheca 

Meliaceae 

White mahogany, acajou d'Afrique, acajou blanc, krumben, anthotheca mahogany 



Distribution 

Angola, Cameroon, Congo, Cote d'lvoire, DR Congo, Ghana, Liberia, Malawi, Mozambique, Nigeria, 
Sierra Leone, Tanzania, Uganda, Zambia, Zimbabwe 

Habitat 

The species occurs in lowland evergreen forest. 

Population status and trends 

A common and widespread species which is heavily exploited, particularly in East and West Africa. 
Regeneration is poor in places, especially where parent trees are scarce and serious genetic erosion is 
believed to have occurred. There is only limited commercial application in countries where the 
occurrence is limited, e.g. Zimbabwe (Goldsmith & Carter, 1981). This species is commonly confused 
with K.grandifolia. 

Role of species in the ecosystem 

Threats 

Commercial exploitation, clear-felling/logging of the habitat 

Utilisation 

The species is commercially exploited as a source of African mahogany, used in cabinet and furniture- 
making, veneer, panelling boat building and joinery. 

Trade 

The trade in African mahogany commenced in the 17" century and escalated in the 19" and 20" 
centuries after supplies of American mahogany had declined. 



Export of mahogany from Ghana, 1992-1996 | 


Year 


Volume (m^) 


1992 


14,134 


1993 


22,059 


1994 


20,157 


1995 


17,870 


1996 


18.112 



Source: Ghanaian Timber Export Development Board in Hall, 1997. 

In 1995 the species was exported as veneer, 10,000m^ of sawn wood and 9000m^ of logs from DR 
Congo, selling at an average price of US$51 8/m^ US$328/m3 and US$1 99/m'. 

Togo exported an unrecorded quantity of Khaya sawn wood in 1995. 

rUCN Conservation category 

VU Alcd according to Hawthorne (1995). 

Conservation measures 

There are protected populations, log export bans and felUng restrictions in various countries. 

Forest management and silviculture 

The species is easily confused in smaller size classes with K. grandifolia. The two species can even 
hybridise. There are numerous experimental plantations but the species is not commercially available 
from plantation sources. The species is slow growing, attaining a DBH of 60cm after 40 years. 



86 



Annex 2. Profiles of Tree Species: Africa 



References 

Ake Assi, L. 1990. Annotated WCMC list of timber species for the Ivory Coast. (Cote d'lvoire). 
Gelderblom, Caroline. 1994. Letter from Caroline Gelderblom to Dr Kerry Walter concerning lists of 

threatened plants in Southern Africa dated 7 March 1994. 10pp. 
Goldsmith, B. & D.T. Carter. 1981. The indigenous timbers of Zimbabwe. Forestry Commission. 
Hall, L. 1997. Sustainable exploitation of widely dispersed species: A case study of the timber genera 

Khaya and Lovoa. M.Res. thesis, York University. 
Hawthorne, W. 1995. Categories of conservation priority and Ghanaian tree species, (unpublished). 1- 

38. 
Hecketsweiler, P.H. 1990. Incomplete list of the commercially exploited timber species of Congo 

(Brazzaville). 
Hutchinson, J., J.M. Dalziel, & F.N. Hepper. 1927. Flora of West Tropical Africa. Published by the 

English Ministry of State for the Colonies. 
Katende, A.B. 1995. Annotations to: WCMC printout of Trees of Uganda dated 23 Nov. 1995. 137pp. 
Knox, Eric B. 1995. The List of East African Plants (LEAP): An electronic database (Draft). 72pp. 
Styles, B.T. & F. White. 1991. Meliaceae in Flora of Tropical East Africa. Rotterdam: A.A. Balkema. 

68pp. 
Thome, J.M. 1979. Liberia. Part of appendix to: Possibilities and needs for conservation of plant 

species and vegetation in Africa, pp. 88. In Hedberg, L (ed.). Systematic botany, plant utilization 

and biosphere conservation. Stockholm, Almqvist & Wiksell International. 88. Stockholm: 

Almqvist & Wiksell International. 
Timberlake, J.R. 1996. Annotations to the conservation listing of trees of Zimbabwe. 



87 



Contribution to an evaluation of tree species using the new CITES Listing Criteria 

Khaya grandifoliola 

Meliaceae 

Benin mahogany, kruba, male, oganwo 



Distribution 

Benin, Cote d'lvoire, DR Congo, Ghana, Guinea, Nigeria, Sudan, Togo, Uganda 

Habitat 

The species is found most frequently in dry semi-deciduous forest or rocky forest and forest outliers. 

Population status and trends 

Exploitation of the timber is heavy and has attributed to the comprehensive extraction of mature 
individuals from most populations. 

Role of species in the ecosystem 

Threats 

Commercial use, clear-felling/logging of the habitat 

Utilisation 

The timber is exploited as a source of African mahogany. The wood is esteemed less highly than K. 
ivorensis. The bark is also considered effective against malaria. 
It is sometimes planted in towns as a roadside tree. 

Trade 

The trade in African mahogany commenced in the 17" century and escalated in the 19" and 20" 
centuries after supplies of American mahogany had declined. 



Export of mahogany from Ghana, 1992-1996 | 


Year 


Volume (m^) 


1992 


14.134 


1993 


22,059 


1994 


20,157 


1995 


17.870 


1996 


18,112 



Source: Ghanaian Timber Export Development Board in Hall, 1997. 
Togo exported an unrecorded quantity of Khaya sawnwood in 1995. 

lUCN Conservation category 

VU Alcd according to Hawthorne (1995). 

Conservation measures 

Protected populations and log export bans are in place in various countries. 

Forest management and silviculture 

Regeneration is poor away from parent individuals and is best at the savanna-forest boundary. The 
species is easily confused in smaller size classes with K. grandifolia. The two species can even 
hybridise. There are numerous experimental plantations but the species is not commercially available 
from plantation sources. The species is slow growing, attaining a DBH of 60cm after 40 years. 

References 

Adjanohoun, E.J. 1979. Benin. Part of appendix to: Possibilities and needs for conservation of plant 
species and vegetation in Africa, pp. 91-92. In Hedberg, I. (ed.). Systematic botany, plant utilization 
and biosphere conservation. Stockholm: Almquist & Wiksell International. 

Hall, L. 1997. Sustainable exploitation of widely dispersed species: A case study of the timber genera 
Khaya and Lovoa. M.Res. thesis, York University. 



88 



Annex 2. Profiles of Tree Species: Africa 



Hawthorne, W. 1990. Field guide to the forest trees of Ghana. Chatham: Natural Resources Institute, 

for the Overseas Development Administration, London. 278pp. 
Hawthorne, W. 1995. Categories of conservation priority and Ghanaian tree species, (unpublished). 

1-38. 
Hutchinson, J., J.M. Dalziel, & F.N. Hepper. 1927. Flora of West Tropical Africa. Published by the 

English Ministry of State for the Colonies. 
Katende, A.B. 1993. Annotations to: TPU conservation status report for Uganda dated 29 Jun 1993. 

33pp. 
Katende. A.B. 1995. Annotations to: WCMC printout of Trees of Uganda dated 23 Nov. 1995. 137pp. 
Keay, R.W.J. 1989. The trees of Nigeria. Oxford: Oxford University Press. 476pp. 



89 



Contribution to an evaluation of tree species using the new CITES Listing Criteria 

Khaya ivorensis 

Acajou; African Mahogany 

Distribution 

This species occurs in Angola, Cameroon, Congo, Cote d'lvoire, Gabon, Ghana, Liberia, Sierra Leone, 
Nigeria and Zaire. 

Habitat 

In Ghana, this species occurs in many habitat types but seems to thrive best in moist and wet 
undisturbed evergreen forest (Hawthorne, 1995a). 

Population Status and Trends 

It is found scattered across almost the whole of Congo and is occasionally quite abundant (N'sosso, in 
litt. 1995). African mahogany is common in Ghana (Hawthorne, 1995a). 

Regeneration 

Trees of Khaya ivorensis can have good seed production at the age of 30; it seems that abundant seed 
production only occurs every 3-4 years, although some seed is produced every year. The seeds are wind 
dispersed (Hawthorne, 1995a). The species does not respond well to disturbance (burning or logging), 
as there is very little regeneration in disturbed areas. However, it does require small to medium light 
gaps for subsequent growth (Hawthorne, 1995a). 

Role of Species in its Ecosystem 

No information. 

Threats 

It is over-exploited for its popular timber (WCMC, 1991). 

Utilisation 

The timber is used for panelling, furniture, interior fittings and high quality joinery. 

Trade 

In 1989 Ghana exported 10,463m' of lumber of this species. In a questionnaire survey of UK traders 
carried out for the ITTO, source countries for this species were given as Cameroon, Ghana, Liberia and 
Zaire. Gabon also exports this species; in 1987, from Port Owendo 9,667m' were exported (lUCN, 
1990), in 1994, 5.303.158 m' were exported and in 1995, 7,510.019 m' were exported (DL\F, 1996). In 
1994, Cameroon exported 12,000 cu m and Ghana exported 11,130 cu m (ITTO, 1995b). At the end of 
the 1980s, with the price increases for Brazilian Mahogany and Utile, Khaya has become popular again 
in the UK market (WCMC, 1991). 

Conservation Status 

lUCN Category and Criteria: VU (Alc,d) (African Regional Workshop, 1996) 

For Ghana, Hawthorne (1995a) has classified this a scarlet star species, which means it is common but 

under serious threat from heavy exploitation. Reduced exploitation and full protection are required. 

Under the new lUCN threat categories (1994) this species is considered Vulnerable (Hawthorne, 

1995b). 

Conservation Measures 

K. ivorensis is protected by law in Cote d'lvoire and log export has been banned from Ghana and 
Liberia. It has been considered a priority species for in situ conservation by the FAO (1984). 
Pest control for Hypsilla is required (African Regional Workshop, 1996). 

References 

African Regional Workshop, 1996. Conservation and Sustainable Management of Trees project 

workshop held in Harare, Zimbabawe, July, 1996. 
DIAF, 1996. Timber trade statistics for Gabon sent from the Direction des Inventaires et 

Amenagements des Forets (DIAF) of the Ministere des Eaux et Forets for 1994 and 1995 sent by 

Tom Hammond. 
FAO, 1984. Report of the Fifth Session of the FAO Panel of Experts on Forest Gene Resources 

Information No 14:32-49. 



90 



Annex 2. Profiles of Tree Species: Africa 



Hawthorne, W.D., 1995(a). Ecological profiles of Ghanaian forest trees. Oxford Forestry 

Institute:Oxford. pp.345. 
Hawthorne, W.D., 1995(b). Categories of conservation priority and Ghanaian tree species. Working 

Document 4 (prepared for the November 1995 Conservation and Sustainable Management of Trees 

- Technical Workshop in Wageningen, Holland). 
ITTO. 1995b. Results of the 1995 forecasting and statistical enquiry for the Annual Review. 
nTC(XIX)/4 
lUCN, 1990. La Conservation des Ecosystemes Forestiers du Gabon. lUCN, Tropical Forest 

Programme Series, pp. 200. 
N'Sosso, D., 1995. in litt. N'Sosso's contributions to the Conservation and Sustainable Management of 

Trees project for the Congo. 
WCMC, 1991. Provision of Data on Rare and Threatened Tropical Timber Species, pp. 58. 



91 



Contribution to an evaluation of tree species using the new CITES Listing Criteria 

Khaya madagascariensis 

Meliaceae 

Madagascar mahogany, hazomena, bangoma, manitrolatra, hazomahogo 



Distribution 

Comoros, Madagascar 

Habitat 

Populations are found in rainforest, along rivers, salt-water marshes and also in degraded forest up to 
800m. 

Population status and trends 

In the north-west, the species occurs in Mahajanga, Port-Berge, Mitsinjo, Ambilobe and also on the 
Comoros. It occurs further east on the mainland in Vohemas, Ambila and Mananjary. Both the habitat 
and trees have been heavily exploited. 

Role of species in the ecosystem 

Threats 

Commercial use, clear-felling/logging of the habitat 

Utilisation 

The timber is used in the manufacture of fine furniture. 

Trade 

The species is not specifically recorded in international trade from Madagascar. 

lUCN Conservation category 

EN A led according to WCMC 

Conservation measures 

Forest management and silviculture 

Silvicultural studies are under way and the species has been used for afforestation in Kianjasoa. 

References 

Blaser, Jiirgen. et al. 1993. Akon'ny ala. Numeros 12 et 13. Department Des Eaux et Forets. 166pp. 



92 



Annex 2. Profiles of Tree Species: Africa 



Khaya senegalensis 

Meliaceae 

bisselon, madachi, oganwo 



Distribution 

Benin, Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, Cote d'lvoire, Gabon, Gambia, 
Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Mali, Niger, Nigeria, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Sudan, Togo, Uganda 

Habitat 

A very widespread tree of savanna woodland in moister zones and transition vegetation types. 

Population status and trends 

Logging and local exploitation are largely uncontrolled and poorly monitored. In northern parts of the 
range exploitation may be leading to genetic erosion. 

Role of species in the ecosystem 

Threats 

Commercial exploitation, clear-felling/logging of the habitat 

Utilisation 

The wood is heavier and inferior in quality to K. ivorensis, but is much used in savanna zones. The 
roots are also fed to animals and the bark has medicinal value. Trees are often planted by the roadsides 
for shade in Nigeria. 

Trade 

The trade in African mahogany commenced in the 17" century and escalated in the 19" and 20" 
centunes after supplies of American mahogany had declined. The increasing rarity of large individuals 
of K. senegalensis has led to the species becoming less important in the international market. 



Export of mahoganv from Ghana, 1992-1996 


Year 


Volume (m^) 


1992 


14,134 


1993 


22,059 


1994 


20,157 


1995 


17,870 


1996 


18,112 



Source; Ghanaian Timber Export Development Board in Hall, 1997. 
Togo exported an unrecorded quantity of Khaya sawnwood in 1995. 

lUCN Conservation category 

VU Alcd according to WCMC 

Conservation measures 

Legal protection exists in various countries. 

Forest management and silviculture 

Natural regeneration from the seed is poor but does occur from suckers. The species is even more slow 
growing than other Khaya species. An attempt at cultivating the species in mixed plantations is being 
made on the west coast of Reunion and in production plantations in Mali and Upper Volta (Hall ,1997). 

References 

Adjanohoun, E.J. 1979. Benin. Part of appendix to: Possibilities and needs for conservation of plant 
species and vegetation in Africa, pp. 91-92. In Hedberg, I. (ed. j. Systematic botany, plant utilization 
and biosphere conservation. Stockholm: Almquist & Wiksell International. 

FAO Forestry Department. 1986. Databook on endangered tree and shrub species and their 
provenances. Rome: FAO. 524pp. 



93 



Contribution to an evaluation of tree species using the new CITES Listing Criteria 



FAO. 1990. Report of the Seventh Session of the FAO Panel of Experts on Forest Gene Resources. 

Rome: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. 79pp. 
Hall, L. 1997. Sustainable exploitation of widely dispersed species: A case study of the timber genera 

Khaya and Lovoa. M.Res. thesis, York University. 
Hutchinson, J., J.M. Dalziel, & F.N. Hepper. 1927. Flora of West Tropical Africa. Published by the 

English Ministry of State for the Colonies. 
Katende, A.B. 1993. Annotations to: TPU conservation status report for Uganda dated 29 Jun 1993. 

33pp. 
Keay, R.W.J. 1989. The trees of Nigeria. Oxford: Oxford University Press. 476pp. 



94 



Annex 2. Profiles of Tree Species: Africa 



Lophira alata 

Ekki; Azobe 

Distribution 

Azobe is found in Cameroon, the Congo Basin, Cote d'lvoire. Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, Ghana, 
Liberia, Nigeria, Sierra Leone, and Zaire. 

Habitat 

It grows in evergreen and moist deciduous forests, in freshwater swamp forests and close to river banks 
(WCMC, 1991). Although this species has a definite preference for wet evergreen areas, it is assumed 
to be sensitive to non-evergreen forest soils and is unsuccessful on rocky soils. L alata is a pioneer 
species and is representative of a disturbed forest (Hawthorne, 1995a). It is also sensitive to drought 
(Swaine & Veenendaal, 1994 in Hawthorne, 1995a). 



Vegetation type according to White (1983) 

1. HygrophiJous coastal evergreen Guineo-Congolian rain forest 

Lophira alata is one of the most abundant species in this forest type and is indicative of earher 
cultivation. 

2. Mixed moist semi-evergreen Guineo-Congolian rain forest 



Population Status and Trends 

Azobe is a common species in Cameroon and regenerates well (WCMC, 1991). It has been suggested 
that Cameroon forests with an abundance of this species were once disturbed by humans (Letouzey, 
1960 in Hawthorne, 1995a). It is also common in Ghana (Hawthorne, 1995a). 

Role of Species in its Ecosystem 

The seeds of this species are wind dispersed. Light gaps are necessary for successful regeneration, as 
seed germination does not occur in shady understorey (Hawthorne, 1995a). 

It is estimated that is takes 220 years for a tree to reach a girth of 2.7m in Nigeria Leone) (Keay, 1961 
in Hawthorne, 1995a). 

Threats 

This species is threatened by over-exploitation (Hawthorne, 1995a&b) 

Utilisation 

Azobe is used for heavy durable construction work, harbour work, flooring and in railway construction. 
The fruits can be used to make an edible oil. 

Trade 

L. alata logs were exported from Cameroon, Cote d'lvoire, Gabon, Ghana in 1994 (lllO, 1995a). 
Cameroon exported 49 000m' at an average price of US$200.00/m', Cote d'lvoire exponed 8 351m' at 
an average price of USS219.43/m\ Ghana exponed 1 970m' at an average price of US$ i 3 1 .00/m' and 
Gabon exported an unknown volume at an average price of US$lI.46/m' (ITTO, 1995a). 
Gabon exported a total of 12,416.85 m' in 1994 and 8,518.17 m' in 1995 (DL\F, 1996). 

Conservation Status 

lUCN Category and Criteria: VU (A led) (African Regional Workshop, 1996) 
This specits is considered Vulnerable (1994 lUCN threat category) due to excessive exploitation 
(Hawthorne, 1995b). Hawthorne (1995a) has given this species a red star for Ghana, which means it is 
common but under pressure from exploitation and conservation measures are necessary. 

Conservation Measures 

This species has been selected by FAG for conservation action because of heavy utilisation pressure 
(Palmberg, 1987). It is protected by law in Cote d'lvoire. 

In Cameroon 277 ha have been planted. Regeneration work should be intensified (African Regional 
Workshop, 1996). 



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Contribution to an evaluation of tree species using the new CITES Listing Criteria 



References 

African Regional Workshop, 1996. Conservation and Sustainable Management of Trees project 

workshop held in Harare, Zimbabawe, July, 1996. 
DIAF, 1996. Timber trade statistics for Gabon sent from the Direction des Inventaires et 

Amenagements des Forets (DIAF) of the Ministere des Eaux et Forets for 1994 and 1995 sent by 

Tom Hammond. 
Hawthorne, W.D., 1995(a). Ecological profiles of Ghanaian forest trees. Oxford Forestry 

Institute:Oxford. pp.345. 
Hawthorne, W.D., 1995(b). Categories of conservation priority and Ghanaian tree species. Working 

Document 4 (prepared for the November 1995 Conservation and Sustainable Management of Trees 

- Technical Workshop in Wageningen, Holland). 
ITTO, 1995a. Elements for the annual review and assessment of the world tropical timber situation. 

Draft Document. 
Palmberg, C, 1987. Conservation of genetic resources of woody species. Paper prepared for Simposio 

sobre silvicultura y mejoranienio genetico. CEEF, Buenos Aires, 1987. 
WCMC, 1991. Provision of Data on Rare and Threatened Tropical Timber Species, pp. 58. 



96 



Annex 2. Profiles of Tree Species: Africa 



Lovoa swynnertonii 

Mukonguru 

Distribution 

This species occurs in Kenya, Mozambique, Tanzania, Uganda, Zaire and Zimbabwe. 

Habitat 

It grows within wet evergreen forest. In Kenya, this species prefers sandy or loamy soils (FAO. 1986). 
In the Kwale district of Kenya this species is found in lowland forests dommated by Newtonia 
paucijuga, Milicia excelsa and Antiaris toxicaria and in the Meru district of Kenya it occurs in upland 
forest dominated by Newtonia buchanannii and Ocotea usambarensis (FAO, 1986). In Mozambique, 
this species is only known from the Garuso forests and in Zimbabwe is only known from the Chirinda 
forest where it is found on well-drained slopes of river banks (Flora Zambesiaca). 



Vegetation type according to White (1983) 
1. Zanzibar-Inhainbane lowland rain forest 
2. 21anzibar-Inhanibane undifferentiated forest 



Population Status and Trends 

L. swynnertonii is very sparsely distributed over its range and is only found in a few locations. It is not 
regenerating well (FAO, 1986). This species is at the edge of its range in Zimbabwe and is found in 
low densities in the Chirinda Forest (6km2) where there are over 1000 individuals but no saplings 
(African Regional Workshop, 1996). 

Regeneration 

Seed is wind dispersed. Natural regeneration is reported to be poor (FAO, 1986). 

Role of Species in its Ecosystem 

No information. 

Threats 

This species is suffering from habitat loss. Excessive exploitation of the large seed-producing trees 
occurs and natural regeneration is poor. Plantations tend to be unsuccessful because of infestation by 
Hypsipyla (FAO, 1986). In Uganda the species is suffering from genetic erosion (Styles, in litt, 1991). 

Utilisation 

The timber is used for furniture production and has been used in Kenya for bridge construction. 

Trade 

No information. 

Conservation Status 

lUCN Category and Criteria: EN (Alc,d) (African Regional Workshop, 1996) 
This species' distribution has been greatly reduced, only a few trees remain in Zimbabwe and 
Mozambique (Styles, in litt, 1991). Bandeira (1996) considers this species to be Data Deficient (DD) 
under the new lUCN (1994) threat categories, due to lack of biological surveys in north Mozambique. 
L swynnertonii is also rare in Tanzania and Uganda as it is at the fringe of its range (Styles, in litt., 
1991). Styles (1991) felt that this species deserves endangered status. 

Conservation Measures 

This species is found in a few protected forest reserves such as the Rau Forest, Tanzania, the Chirinda 
Forest, Zimbabwe, and the Meru Forest, Kenya (FAO, 1986). In Mozambique, there are no 
conservation measures being taken (Bandeira, in litt., 1996). Regeneration work is urgently required 
(African Regional Workshop, 1996). 



97 



Contribution to an evaluation of tree species using the new CITES Listing Criteria 



References 

African Regional Workshop, 1996. Conservation and Sustainable Management of Trees project 

workshop held in Harare, Zimbabawe, July, 1996. 
Bandeira, S., 1996. Application of the new lUCN categories to trees of Mozambique for the WCMC 

Conservation and Sustainable Management of Trees Project. 
FAO, 1986. Databook on endangered tree and shrub species and provenances. FAO Forestry Paper 

77:Rome. pp. 524. 
Styles, B.T., 1991. In Litt. Letter to Sara Oldfield. 



98 



Annex 2. Profiles of Tree Species: Afiica 



Lovoa trichilioides 

African Walnut; Dibetou 

Distribution 

This species occurs in Angola, Cameroon, Congo, Gabon, Ghana, Cote d'lvoire, Liberia, Nigeria, 
Sierra Leone, Tanzania, Uganda and Zaire. 

Habitat 

African walnut occurs in evergreen and deciduous forests, preferring moist sites and tends to be 
gregarious (WCMC, 1991). It shows a strong preference for acidic, base poor soil (Hawthorne. 1995a). 



Vegetation type according to White (1983) 

1. Mixed moist semi-evergreen Guineo-Congolian rain forest 

2. Drier peripheral semi-evergreen Guineo-Congolian rain forest in the Guinea- 
Congolian/Zambezia regional transition zone. 



Population Status and Trends 

Dibetou is found all over Congo, however it is generally quite rare (N'sosso, in litt. 1995). It is common 
in Ghana (Hawthorne, 1995). 

Regeneration 

Seeds of this species are wind-dispersed. Copious seed production of this species seems to occur every 
3-4 years in Nigeria (Sanders, 1953 in Hawthorne, 1995a). The viability of seeds is shortlived and they 
are heavily predated (Sar.ders, 1953 in Hawthorne, 1995a). The seedlings are shade tolerant, however, 
they will only develop when there is a light gap in the canopy and seem to require more light once the 
tree reaches larger sizes (Hawthorne, 1995a). Lovoa initially has a slower growth rate than Khaya 
ivorensis, but the growth rate does not slow down as it does in K. ivorensis. It is predicted to take 106 
years to reach a girth of 9 ft (Keay, 1961 in Hawthorne, 1995). 

Role of Species in its Ecosystem 

No information. 

Threats 

Exploitation for international trade. 

Utilisation 

The timber is used for furniture and cabinetwork, decorative veneers, panelling, joinery and shop 

fittings. 

Trade 

The timber is exported by Gabon and Zaire. It is one of the two main species exploited in the Congo 
(WCMC, 1991). 

Cameroon exponed 15,000 m' of Dibetou logs at an average price of US$390.00/m' in 1994 (ITTO, 
1995). Ghana exported sawnwood at an average price of US$467. 00/m' for air dried wood and 
US$567.0O/m' for kiln dned wood (ITTO, 1995). In 1987, Gabon exported 4,653 m' from Owendo 
(lUCN, 1990).Gabon exported only Im' of sawnwood at a price of US$108.00/m' in 1994 (ITTO, 
1995) but according to the Direction des Inventaires et Amenagements des Forets a total of 8,427.548 
m3 was exported from Gabon in 1994. In 1995, Gabon exported 8,923.279 m3 of Dibetou (DIAF, 
1996). In 1994, Cote d'lvoire exported 146m' of Dibetou as a veneer at an average price of 
US$2007 .74/m' (ITTO, 1995). 

Conservation Status 

lUCN Category and Criteria: VU (Alc,d) (African Regional Workshop, 1996) 
This species is considered Vulnerable (1994 lUCN threat category) due to excessive exploitation 
(Hawthorne, 1995b). Hawthorne (1995a) has given this species a red star, which means it is conmion 
but under pressure from exploitation and conservation measures are necessary. 



99 



Contribution to an evaluation of tree species using the new CITES Listing Criteria 



Conservation Measures 

It is protected by law in Cote d'lvoire and is subject to Ghanaian and Liberian log export bans. 
6380 ha have been planted in Cameroon (African Regional Workshop, 1996). 

References 

African Regional Workshop, 1996. Conservation and Sustainable Management of Trees project 

workshop held in Harare, Zimbabawe, July, 1996. 
DIAF, 1996. Timber trade statistics for Gabon sent from the Direction des Inventaires et 

Amenagements des Forets (DIAF) of the Ministere des Eaux et Foreis for 1994 and 1995 sent by 

Tom Hammond. 
Hawthorne, W.D., 1995(a). Ecological profiles of Ghanaian forest trees. Oxford Forestry 

Institute:Oxford. pp.345. 
Hawthorne, W.D., 1995(b). Categories of conservation priority and Ghanaian tree species. Working 

Document 4 (prepared for the November 1995 Conservation and Sustainable Management of Trees 

- Technical Workshop in Wageningen, Holland). 
ITTO, 1995. Elements for the annual review and assessment of the world tropical timber situation. 

Draft Document. 
N'Sosso, D., 1995. in litt. N'Sosso's contributions to the Conservation and Sustainable Management of 

Trees project for the Congo. 
WCMC, 1991. Provision of Data on Rare and Threatened Tropical Timber Species, pp. 58. 



100 



Annex 2. Profiles of Tree Species: Africa 



Mansonia altissima 

Mansonia 

Distribution 

This species occurs in Benin, Cameroon, Congo, Cote d'lvoire, Ghana, and Nigeria. 

Habitat 

M. altissima prefers dry fertile forest soil over wet forest and tend to be drought tolerant (Hawthorne, 
1995a). 



Vegetation type according to White (1983) 
1. Guineo-CoDgolian rain forest 

Drier peripheral semi-evergreen Guineo-Congolian rain forest and similar forest in the transition 
zones. Mansonia altissima is frequent in the peripheral semi-evergreen lowland rain forest but is 
absent from wetter types. 



Population Status and Trends 

Mansonia is common in Ghana (Hawthorne, 1995a). 

Regeneration 

The fruits are wind dispersed; seed germination does not occur in large light gaps (Kyereh, 1994 in 
Hawthorne, 1995a) and seedlings prefer shade for the first two years (Taylor in Hawthorne, 1995a), but 
after that period the species is a definite light demander (Hawthorne, 1995a). Smaller adult trees « 
60cm dbh) are more cominon in disturbed forest (i.e. logged or burnt) (Hawthorne, 1995a). More 
seedlings are found in disturbed areas (Hawthorne, 1995a). 

Role of Species in its Ecosystem 

No information. 

Threats 

In Ghana this species is moderately exploited for its timber (Hawthorne, 1995a&b). 

Utilisation 

Trade 

Imports: Austria. Portugal and the USA are listed by the ITTO (1995a) as imponing Mansonia logs in 
1994. Portugal. Sweden and the USA imported Mansonia sawnwood in 1994 (ITTO, 1995a). 

Exports; Cote d'lvoire exponed 3 14 m' of Mansonia veneer in 1994 for an average price of US$ 
2,706.22/m' (FTTO, 1995a). 

Conservation Status 

lUCN Category and Criteria: EN (Alcd) (African Regional Workshop, 1996) 
This species is considered Vulnerable (1994 lUCN threat category) due to excessive exploitation 
(Hawthorne, 1995b). For Ghana this species has been awarded a pink star in Hawthorne's (1995a) star 
system, which means that it is common and moderately exploited. 

Conservation Measures 

This species is protected by law in Cote d'lvoire. It is considered a priority for in situ conservation by 
FAO, 1984. The export of this species in log form is banned by Ghana. In Cameroon 420 ha have been 
planted (African Regional Workshop, 1996). 



101 



Contribution to an evaluation of tree species using the new CITES Listing Criteria 

References 

African Regional Workshop, 1996. Conservation and Sustainable Management of Trees project 

workshop held in Harare, Zimbabawe, July, 1996. 
FAO, 1984. Report of the Fifth Session of the FAO Panel of Experts on Forest Gene Resources 

Information No 14:32-49. 
Hawthorne, W.D., 1995(a). Ecological profiles of Ghanaian forest trees. Oxford Forestry 

Institute:Oxford. pp.345. 
Hawthorne, W.D., 1995(b). Categories of conservation priority and Ghanaian tree species. Working 

Document 4 (prepared for the November 1995 Conservation and Sustainable Management of Trees 

- Technical Workshop in Wageningen, Holland). 
mo, 1995a. Elements for the annual review and assessment of the world tropical timber situation. 

Draft Document. 
White F., 1983. The Vegetation of Africa. A descriptive memoir to accompany the 

UNESCO/AETFATAJNSO vegetation map of Africa. Paris:UNESCO. pp.356. 



102 



Annex 2. Profiles of Tree Species: Africa 



Microberlinia bisulcata 

Zebrano 

Distribution 

This species is endemic to Cameroon. 

Habitat 



Vegetation type according to White (1983) 
1. Guineo-Congolian rain forest 

Hygrophilous coastal evergreen Guineo-Congolian rain forest 

Microberlinia bisulcata is gregarious in this region, forming almost pure stands with good 

regeneration 



Population Status and Trends 

Information is not available but could be inferred from the extent and rate of decline of the coastal 
evergreen rainforests in Cameroon. The species has a very limited distribution within Cameroon 
(Gartlan, m «K. 1991). 

Role of Species in its Ecosystem 

This is an ectomycorrhizal species and is efficient in phosphorus recycling. Ecophysiological work is 
currently being carried out on this species and related Leguminous species within Korup. 

Threats 

Cutting for the inemational market. 

Utilisation 

A speciality timber with white and black streaks used in turnery. 

Trade 

This timber fetches a high price (African Regional Workshop, 1996). 

Conservation Status 

lUCN Category and Criteria; CR (Ale) (African Regional Workshop, 1996) 

Conservation Measures 

In-situ conservation provided by Korup National Park and ex-situ conservation presently being 
undertaken by the Forest Research Station, Kumbu, Cameroon should be intensified (African Regional 
Workshop. 1996) 

References 

African Regional Workshop, 1996. Conservation and Sustainable Maruigement of Trees project 

workshop held in Harare, Zimbabawe, July, 1996. 
Gartlan, S. 1991. In litt. to WCMC. 
White F., 1983. The Vegetation of Africa. A descriptive memoir to accompany the 

UNESCO/AETFATAJNSO vegetation map of Africa. Paris;UNESCO. pp.356. 



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Contribution to an evaluation of tree species using the new CITES Listing Criteria 

Microberlinia brazzavillensis 

Zebrano; Zebra Wood 

Distribution 

This species is restricted to two coastal areas in Congo and Gabon (Feman Vaz region). 

Habitat 

It is a forest species. 

Population Status and Trends 

The distribution is sparse in Gabon, with less than one individual per square kilometre (Wilks in Hit., 
1992). 

Role of Species in its Ecosystem 

The seeds of the this species are large and heavy and are, therefore, not dispersed far from the parent 
tree (Wilks in litt., 1990). 

Threats 

M. brazzavillensis is lightly logged (Wilks in litt., 1992). There are some populations that are not 
logged in coastal areas of Gabon (Wieringa in litt., 1996). 

Utilisation 

This speciality timber is used for decorative veneers and turnery. It is also used in ski manufacture. 
(WCMC, 1991). 

Trade 

M. brazzavillensis is exported by both Gabon and the Congo (WCMC, 1991). 

Conservation Status 

lUCN Category and Criteria: CR (Ale) (African Regional Workshop, 1996) 

Conservation Measures 

No information. 

References 

African Regional Workshop, 1996. Conservation and Sustainable Management of Trees project 

workshop held in Harare, Zimbabawe, July, 1996. 
lUCN, 1990. La Conservation des Ecosystemes Forestiers du Gabon. lUCN, Tropical Forest 

Programme Series, pp. 200. 
WCMC, 1991. Provision of Data on Rare and Threatened Tropical Timber Species, pp. 58. 
Wieringa, J.J., 1996. in litt. to Sara Oldfield. 
Wilks, C, 1990. in litt. to Richard Luxmoore. 
Wilks, C, 1992. in litt. to Pete Atkinson. 



104 



Annex 2. Profiles of Tree Species: Afi-ica 



Milicia excelsa 

synonym: Chlorophora excelsa 
Iroko; Tule 

Distribution 

This species is widely distributed across Africa; it occurs in Angola, Benin, Burundi. Burkina Faso, 
Central African Republic, Cameroon, Congo, Cote d'lvoire, Ethiopia, Gabon, Equatonal Guinea, Sao 
Tome & Principe, Ghana, Kenya, Malawi, Mozambique, Nigeria, Sierra Leone, Sudan, Tanzania, 
Togo, Uganda, Zaire and Zimbabwe. 

Habitat . . ^ ,. 

M. excelsa is found in transitional vegetation between closed forests and savanna. It is often found in 
gallery forest and can be found in deciduous, semi-deciduous or evergreen forest. Occasionally it is 
found in isolated relict forests from sea level to about 1300m. It is fairly abundant in the drier areas of 
se.m\-AcciA\iousAntiaris-Chlorophora forest (FAO, 1986b). 

Both M. excelsa and M. regia show a preference for dry, flat, light areas (Hawthorne, 1995a). Most 
effective seed germination occurs in half-shade, the seedlings are most commonly found in medium 
sized light gaps and then become light dependant (Hawthorne, 1995a). M. excelsa is considered to be a 
pioneer species which regenerates in disturbed, open areas and in logged forest (Hawthorne, 1995a). 

In Kenya, this species is found in relict moist forest and wooded grassland (Beentje, 1994) along the 
coast and in the central Meru district and Nyanza province (Marshall & Jenkins, 1994). It has been 
found at an altitude of 4500 m on Mount Kilimanjaro in Tanzania; although, it is usually found 
between sea level and 1200 m (FAO, 1986a). In West Africa this species is found in areas where 
rainfall is between 1 150mm and 1900mm and the temperature is between 25 °C and 35 °C. 



Vegetation type according to White (1983) 

1. Guineo-Congolian rain forest 

Drier peripheral semi-evergreen Guineo-Congolian rain forest and similar forest in the transition 

zones 

Milicia excelsa is also commonly found in wetter secondary forest types. 

Old secondary forest 

2. Drier peripheral semi-evergreen Guineo-Congolian rain forest in the Guinea- 
Congolia/Zambezia regional transition zone 

3. Drier peripheral semi-evergreen Guineo-Congolian rain forest in the Lake Victoria regional 
mosaic 

4. Zanzibar-Inhambane lowland rain forest 

5. Zanzibar-Inhambane undifferentiated forest 

6. Zanzibar-Inhambane secondary grassland and wooded grassland 

In this habitat type, M. excelsa from the original forest have been left standing. 

7. Principe 



Population Status and Trends 

Iroko is commonly found growing around villages and old farms as it is left to grow there because of 

its commercial value (FAO, 1986b). 

This species is abundant, especially in Cote d'lvoire, Cameroon, Congo, Gabon and Zaire (N'Sosso in 

litt, 1995). It is also commonly found in Ghana (Hawthorne, 1995a) 

In Mozambique, M. excelsa is very scarce and dispersed (Moreno Saiz, 1996). This is also the case in 

Kenya where this species is now sparsely distributed due to heavy exploitation (Marshall & Jenkins, 

1994). 



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Contribution to an evaluation of tree species using the new CITES Listing Criteria 



Regeneration 

There is very little regeneration of this species in Zimbabwe (African Regional Workshop, 1996). In 
Mozambique, where an area was cleared but large trees of Af. excelsa left standing, there seems to be 
regeneration in the open areas (African Regional Workshop, 1996). 

Role of Species in its Ecosystem 

The fruit of this species contains many small seeds which are dispersed by bats and birds (Osmaston, 
1965 in Hawthorne, 1995a). Duikers and animals eat the newly emergent shoots (FAO, 1986b). 

Threats 

This species is heavily exploited in Ghana (Hawthorne, 1995a&b) and plantations of this species tend 
to be unsuccessful (FAO, 1986b). In Zimbabwe, M. excelsa is threatened by habitat degradation: it is 
found only in an area which is suffering from alluvial erosion. It is not, however, exploited in 
Zimbabwe (African Regional Workshop, 1996). 

Utilisation 

The high quality timber is used as a Teak substitute. It is widely used for all kinds of construction work 
and carpentry including domestic flooring, veneer and cabinetwork (WCMC, 1991). The timber is used 
for building ships and barrels. It is used externally because it has great resistance to bad weather 
(Moreno Saiz, 1996). Locally, this species has many medicinal uses; the bark is also used as a dye 
(FAO, 1986b). The wood is also exploited by the local people (Afiican Regional Workshop, 1996). 

Trade 

This species is not distinguished from Milicia regia by commercial logging companies (Hawthorne, 
1995a). 

Iroko is a major commercial species in international trade. Tanzania and Uganda were in the past major 
sources of the timber and some Iroko is still exported from E. Africa. In Kenya users of this species 
claimed that supplies were variable and unpredictable (Marshall & Jenkins, 1994). 

West African countries are now the main exporters, especially Ghana (traded together with M. regia) 
and Cote d'lvoire (WCMC, 1991). The UK imported 22 648m' in 1989. Cote d'lvoire supplies 60% of 
the Iroko imported to the UK (WCMC, 1991). 

In 1987, 1 1,988m' were exported from Owendo, Gabon (lUCN, 1990). In 1994, Gabon exported 
8,236.664m' of Iroko and in 1995 exported 12,823.169m' (DIAF, 1996). 

According to the FTTO (1995a) in 1994 Iroko logs were exported by: Cameroon (65 000m' at an 
average price of US$245.00/m'), Congo (10 206m'), and Gabon (US$39.75/m'). In addition Cameroon 
exported 12 000m' of sawn wood at an average price of US$640.00/m' and Ghana exported 47 340m' of 
air dried sawnwood (@ US$520.00/m ) and an unknown volume of kiln dried sawnwood at an average 
price of US$653.00/m' (ITTO, 1995). Congo and Togo both export Iroko sawnwood (ITTO, 1995a). It 
is estimated that the formal commercial trade in Kenya uses between 800m' and 1 100m '/year of this 
species (Marshall & Jenkins, 1994). 

There is illegal trade in M. excelsa from Kenya and Uganda and suspected illegal trade from Tanzania 
(Marshall & Jenkins, 1994). Most of M. excelsa used in Kenya is imported (Marshall & Jenkins, 1994). 

Conservation Status 

lUCN Category and Criteria: VU (Alc,d) (African Regional Workshop, 1996) 
This timber species is considered Vulnerable (1994 lUCN threat category) due to excessive 
exploitation (Hawthorne, 1995b). It has been awarded a scarlet star in Hawthorne's (1995a) own 
system, which means that it is common but it is under profound pressure from heavy exploitation in 
Ghana. This species requires protection and exploitation has to be limited if it is to be sustainable 
(Hawthorne, 1995a). 

Conservation Measures 

M. excelsa is protected by legislation in Cote d'lvoire and Mozambique and is subject to a log export 
ban in Ghana. In Cabo Delgado, Mozambique, no Iroko has been cut since 1987 because it took a 
dramatic decline (Moreno Saiz, 1996). In Nigeria, Oyo State has a 10 year moratorium on exploitation. 

Uganda banned export of unworked timber in 1987, although there is still licensed trade with Kenya 
and, more recently, with Europe. In 1993, Tanzania also banned the export of unworked timber. Kenya 



106 



Annex 2. Profiles of Tree Species: Africa 



has imposed a "Presidential Ban on Logging of Indigenous Timber" (1986), however, little is known 
about this ban except that it prohibits logging of indigenous timbers. (Marshall & Jenkins, 1994). 

M. excelsa is found in the Shimba Hills National Reserve, although there are reports that this species is 
still being extracted (Marshall & Jenkins, 1994). 

M. excelsa is found in Reserves and National Parks in Zimbabwe but it is not well protected (African 
Regional Workshop, 1996). 

Additional Information 

Plantations in Ghana have been unsuccessful because of gall attacks (FAO, 1986b). M. excelsa is often 
found with galled leaves caused by the insect Phytolyma lata, it is thought that these outbreaks limit 
high densities of this species due to increased mortality (Hawthorne, 1995a). 

References 

African Regional Workshop, 1996. Conservation and Sustainable Management of Trees project 

workshop held in Harare, Zimbabawe, July, 1996. 
Beentji, H.J., 1994. Kenya Trees. Shrubs and Lianas. National Museums of Kenya.Nairobi, Kenya, pp. 

722. 
DIAF, 1996. Timber trade statistics for Gabon sent from the Direction des Inventaires et 

Amenagements des Forets (DIAF) of the Ministere des Eaux et Forets for 1994 and 1995 sent by 

Tom Hammond. 
FAO, 1986a. Databook on endangered tree and shrub species and provenances. Forestry Paper 

77:Rome. pp. 524. 
FAO, 1986b. Some medicinal forest plants of Africa and Latin America. FAO Paper 67. pp. 252. 
Hawthorne, W.D.. 1995(a). Ecological profiles of Ghanaian forest trees. Oxford Forestry 

lnstitute:Oxford. pp.345. 
Hawthorne, W.D., 1995(b). Categories of conservation priority and Ghanaian tree species. Working 

Document 4 (prepared for the November 1995 Conservation and Sustainable Management of Trees 

- Technical Workshop in Wageningen, Holland). 
nrO, 1995a. Elements for the annual review and assessment of the world tropical timber situation. 

Draft Document. 
lUCN, 1990. La Conservation des Ecosystemes Forestiers du Gabon. lUCN, Tropical Forest 

Programme Series, pp. 200. 
Marshall, N.T. and Jenkins, M, 1994. Hard Times for Hardwood: Indigenous Timber and the Timber 

Trade in Kenya. Traffic Intemational:Cambridge, U.K. 
Moreno Saiz, J.C., 1996. Maderas explotadas comercialmente en Cabo Delgado (Charpers 3 & 4. IN: 

Libro Blanco de los Recursos naturales de Cabo Delgado (Mozambique). GETiNSA- Minisierio de 

Asoutos Exteriores. 
N'Sosso, D., 1995. in litt. N'Sosso's contributions to the Conservation and Sustainable Management of 

Trees project for the Congo. 
WCMC, 1991. Provision of Data on Rare and Threatened Tropical Timber Species, pp. 58. 
White F., 1983. The Vegetation of Africa. A descriptive memoir to accompany the 

UNESCO/ AETFATAJNSO vegetation map of Africa. Pans;UNESCO. pp.356. 



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Contribution to an evaluation of tree species using the new CITES Listing Criteria 



Milicia regia 

Synonym: Chlorophora regia 
Iroko 

Distribution 

This widespread species occurs in Benin, Cameroon, Cote d'lvoire, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea-Bissau, 
Guinea, Liberia, Sierra Leone and Senegal. Introduced into Nigeria. 

Habitat 

Both M. excelsa and M. regia show a preference for dry, flat, light areas (Hawthorne, 1995a). M. regia 
is found in the same forest types as M. excelsa, with a slight preference for moister forest (Hawthorne, 
1995a). 



Vegetation type according to White (1983) 
1. The Coastal Plain of Basse Casamance 

Milicia regia is found in the well-drained drier forest. 



Population Status and Trends 

This species is common in Ghana (Hawthorne, 1995a) 

Role of Species in its Ecosystem 

No information. 

Threats 

This species is severely threatened by over-exploitation in Ghana (Hawthorne, 1995a). 

Utilisation 

The high quality timber is used as a Teak substitute. It is widely used for all kinds of construction work 
and carpentry including domestic flooring, veneer and cabinetwork. 

Trade 

This species is not distinguished from Milicia excelsa by commercial logging companies (Hawthorne, 
1995a). 

Iroko is a major commercial species in international trade. Tanzania and Uganda were in the past major 
sources of the timber and some Iroko is still exported from E. Africa (WCMC, 1991). West African 
countries are now the main exporters, especially Ghana (traded together with M. regia) and Cote 
d'lvoire (WCMC, 1991). 

The UK imported 22 648m' in 1989. Cote d'lvoire supplies 60% of the Iroko imported to the UK. 

Conservation Status 

lUCN Category and Criteria: VU (Aid) (African Regional Workshop, 1996) 
This species is considered Vulnerable (1994 lUCN threat category) due to excessive exploitation 
(Hawthorne, 1995b). It has been awarded a scarlet star in Hawthorne's (1995a) own system, which 
means that it is common but it is under profound pressure from heavy exploitation. This species 
requires protection and exploitation has to be limited if it is to be sustainable (Hawthorne, 1995a). 

Conservation Measures 

This species is considered a priority for in situ conservation by FAO, 1984. It is legally protected in the 
Gambia and is subject to a log export ban in Ghana. Known to be resistant to Phytolema attack and 
deserves trials in plantation throughout its range (African Regional Workshop, 1996). 



108 



Annex 2. Profiles of Tree Species: Africa 



References 

African Regional Workshop, 1996. Conservation and Sustainable Management of Trees project 

workshop held in Harare, Zimbabawe, July, 1996. 
FAO, 1984. Report of the Fifth Session of the FAO Panel of Experts on Forest Gene Resources 

Information No 14:32-49. 
Hawthorne, W.D., 1995(a). Ecological profiles of Ghanaian forest trees. Oxford Forestry 

Institute:Oxford. pp.345. 
Hawthorne, W.D., 1995(b). Categories of conservation priority and Ghanaian tree species. Working 

Document 4 (prepared for the November 1995 Conservation and Sustainable Management of Trees 

- Technical Workshop in Wageningen, Holland). 
WCMC, 199 1 . Provision of Data on Rare and Threatened Tropical Timber Species, pp. 58. 
White F., 1983. The Vegetation of Africa. A descriptive memoir to accompany the 

UNESCO/ AETFAT/UNSO vegetation map of Africa. Paris:UNESCO. pp.356. 



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Contribution to an evaluation of tree species using the new CITES Listing Criteria 

Millettia laurentii 

Wenge 

Distribution 

This species occurs in Cameroon, Congo, Gabon, Equatorial Guinea and Zaire. 

Habitat 

It is a species of semi-deciduous, dense forest and it is sometimes found in inundated swampy forests. 

Population Status and Trends 

No information also this could be inferred from forest extent and rate of decline. 

Role of Species in its Ecosystem 

No information. 

Threats 

This species is threatened by over-exploitation for timber (African Regional Workshop, 1996). 

Utilisation 

A decorative species used in furniture production, decorative veneers and speciality items (WCMC, 
1991). 

Trade 

Zaire is the main source of Wenge for the European market. It is also exported by Congo and Gabon 
(WCMC, 1991). Gabon exported 589 m' of M. laurentii from Owendo in 1987 (lUCN, 1990), a total of 
390.580 m' in 1994, and a total of 400.584 m' in 1995 (DIAF, 1996) 

Conservation Status 

lUCN Category and Criteria: EN (A led) (African Regional Workshop, 1996) 

Conservation Measures 

Special permission is required for exploitation of this species in Cameroon. 
Regeneration work is urgently required (African Regional Workshop, 1996). 

References 

African Regional Workshop, 1996. Conservation and Sustainable Management of Trees project 

workshop held in Harare, Zimbabawe, July, 1996. 
DIAF, 1996. Timber trade statistics for Gabon sent from the Direction des Inventaires et 

Amenagements des Forets (DIAF) of the Ministere des Eaux et Forets for 1994 and 1995 sent by 

Tom Hammond. 
lUCN, 1990. La Conservation des Ecosystemes Forestiers du Gabon. lUCN, Tropical Forest 

Programme Senes. pp. 200. 
WCMC, 1991. Provision of Data on Rare and Threatened Tropical Timber Species, pp. 58. 



110 



Annex 2. Profiles of Tree Species: Africa 



Monopetalanthus heitzii 

Andoung 

Distribution 

Monopetalanthus heitzii is found in the coastal zone of Gabon and follows the Oguooe valley inland. 
Its total distribution range is at least 70,000 km'. 

Habitat 

This species grows in dryland forest. 

Population Status and Trends 

It is not thought that populations have declined substantially although there has been some logging in 
recent years (Wieringa in litt. 1996). 

Role of Species in its Ecosystem 

No information. 

Threats 

No specific information. 

Utilisation 

The timber is used in furniture production, boxes and crates, light construction and plywood 
manufacture (WCMC, 1991). 

Trade ^ 

Gabon exported a total of 18,481.058 m' of Andoung in 1994 and a total of 3,542.281 m in 1995 
(DIAF, 1996). This trade name includes various species oi Monopetalanthus. 

Conservation Status 

lUCN Category and Criteria: DD (African Regional Workshop, 1996) 

Conservation Measures 

No information. 

References 

African Regional Workshop, 1996. Conservation and Sustainable Management of Trees project 

workshop held in Harare, Zimbabawe, July, 1996. 
DIAF, 1996. Timber trade statistics for Gabon sent from the Direction des Inventaires et 

Amenagements des Forets (DIAF) of the Minislere des Eaux et Forets for 1994 and 1995 sent by 

Tom Hammond. 
Wiennga, J.J., 1996. in litt. to Sara Oldfield. 
WCMC, 1991. Provision of Data on Rare and Threatened Tropical Timber Species, pp. 58. 



Ill 



Contribution to an evaluation of tree species using the new CITES Listing Criteria 

Nauclea diderrichii 

Opepe; Bilinga 

Distribution 

This species is widely distributed: Angola, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Congo, Cote d'lvoire, 
Gabon, Ghana, Liberia, Mozambique, Nigeria, Sierra Leone, Uganda and Zaire. 

Habitat 



Vegetation type according to White (1983) 
1. Guineo-Congolian rain forest 

Mixed moist semi-evergreen Guineo-Congolian rain forest 



Population Status and Trends 

In Ghana, this species is found at constant, low densities and is never very abundant (Hawthorne, 
1995a). 

Regeneration 

This species is light-demanding. It is a pioneer species that requires large light gaps to 
regenerate.Young trees are often found in secondary bushy growth in humid areas (N'Sosso, in litt. 
1995). In Nigeria, this species was found to regenerate well in large canopy gaps, but in a clear-felling 
N. diderrichii is out competed by Musanga (Lancaster, 1961 in Hawthorne, 1995a). This species is 
commonly used in plantations (specifically taungya) (Neil, 1983 in Hawthorne, 1995a). 

Role of Species in its Ecosystem 

Elephants and other animals disperse the seeds of this species. Many small seeds are found in the fruit. 
The seeds can remain dormant in the forest soil (Hall & Swaine, 1980 in Hawthorne, 1995a). The seeds 
are stimulated into germination by increased light exposure. The effect on germination of the seed 
passing through an animal's gut has yet to be examined; seedlings, however, are commonly found along 
elephant tracks (Hawthorne, 1995a). 

Threats 

This species suffers from heavy exploitation (Hawthorne, 1995a) 

Utilisation 

The timber is used in general construction, flooring, furniture production, dock and marine work, and 
railway crossings (WCMC, 1991). 
Locally it has medicinal uses. 

Trade 

Cote d'lvoire exported 13,723 m' oi Nauclea spp. logs for an average price of US$ 232.18/m' in 1994. 
Ghana exported 4,960 m^ of TV. diderrichii logs for an average price of US$ 135.00/m' in 1994. In 
addition Ghana exported 1,430 m of M diderrichhi air-dried sawn wood for an average price of US$ 
337.00/m' and an unknown amount of kiln-dried sawnwood (11 TO, 1995a). Gabon exported 1,356m' 
from Owendo in 1987 (lUCN, 1990), a total of 3,570.907 m' in 1994, and a total of 3,010.279 m' in 
1995 (DL\F, 1996). 

In the first half of 1994, Liberia exported 8 m' of Bilinga logs for an average price of US$ 80.00/m' and 
from June to December they exported 22 m' for an average price of US$ 50.00/m' (ITTO, 1995). 

Conservation Status 

lUCN Category and Criteria: VU A led (African Regional Workshop, 1996) 
This species is considered Vulnerable (1994 lUCN threat category) due to excessive exploitation 
(Hawthorne, 1995b). It has been awarded a scarlet star for Ghana by Hawthorne (1995a), which means 
that it is coimnon but it is under profound pressure from heavy exploitation. This species requires 
protection and exploitation has to be limited if it is to be sustainable (Hawthorne, 1995a). 



112 



Annex 2. Profiles of Tree Species: Africa 



Conservation Measures 

Opepe is subject to a Liberian export ban. 

References 

African Regional Workshop. 1996. Conservation and Sustainable Management of Trees project 

workshop held in Harare, Zimbabawe, July, 1996. 
DIAF, 1996. Timber trade statistics for Gabon sent from the Direction des Inventaires et 

Amenagements des Forets (DIAF) of the Ministere des Eaux et Forets for 1994 and 1995 sent by 

Tom Hammond. 
Hawthorne, W.D., 1995(a). Ecological profiles of Ghanaian forest trees. Oxford Forestry 

Institute:Oxford. pp.345. 
Hawthorne, W.D., 1995(b). Categories of conservation priority and Ghanaian tree species. Working 

Document 4 (prepared for the November 1995 Conservation and Sustainable Management of Trees 

- Technical Workshop in Wageningen, Holland), pp.345. 
ITTO, 1995a. Elements for the annual review and assessment of the world tropical timber situation. 

Draft Document. 
N'Sosso, D., 1995. in litt. N'Sosso's contributions to the Conservation and Sustainable Management of 

Trees project for the Congo. 
WCMC, 1991 . Provision of Data on Rare and Threatened Tropical Timber Species, pp. 58. 
White F., 1983. The Vegetation of Africa. A descriptive memoir to accompany the 

UNESCO/AETFAT/UNSO vegetation map of Africa. Paris:UNESCO. pp.356. 



113 



Contribution to an evaluation of tree species using the new CITES Listing Criteria 

Nesogordonia papaverifera 

Danta; Kotibe 

Distribution 

This species occurs in Benin, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Congo, Cote d'lvoire, Gabon, 
Ghana, Liberia, Nigeria and Sierra Leone. 

Habitat 

This species appears to be confined to areas where savannas have in the past replaced forest. 
N. papaverifera prefers base-rich soils. In Ghana, it occiu-s in moist semi-deciduous forest (Hawthorne, 
1995a). This species can occur at altitudes up to 1000 m but it rarely occurs over 500 m (FAO, 1986). 
In logged areas of Ghana, N. papaverifera seems to fare well as large trees of this species still remain 
(Hawthorne, 1995a). 



Vegetation type according to White (1983) 

1. Guineo-Congolian rain forest 

Drier peripheral semi-evergreen Guineo-CongoUan raun forest and similar forest in the transition 

zones 

Nesogordonia papaverifera is frequent in the peripheral semi-evergreen lowland rainforest but is 

absent from wetter forest types. 

2. The Coastal Plain of Ghana 
West AfricEin dry coastal forest 

A^. papaverifera occurs in the western type of this habitat. 



Population Status and Trends 

According to FAO (1986) this species is endangered in parts of its range and subject to genetic 
impoverishment in outlying populations in Gabon, Central African Republic, Cameroon, Liberia and 
Sierra Leone. N. papaverifera can be found at high densities e.g. in the Nesogordonia 
papaverifera/ Khaya ivorensis zone of the Celtis spp./Triplochiton sclerocylon forest type in Cote 
d'lvoire (FAO, 1986). In Ghana, this species is common (Hawthorne, 1995a). 

Regeneration 

This species produces small, wind dispersed seeds, that require moderate shade to germinate and 
seedlings are common in fairly large light gaps. In Ghana, regeneration is twice as common in 
disturbed (logged) forest as in similar undisturbed forest (Hawthorne, 1995a). 

Role of Species in its Ecosystem 

No information. 

Threats 

In Ghana this species is moderately exploited (Hawthorne, 1995a). 

There are no plantations of this species due to its shade demanding nature (FAO, 1986). 

Utilisation 

The high quality timber is used in flooring, boat and vehicle building, for tool handles and for furniture. 
It is locally used for shutters, door/window frames and rafters (FAO, 1986). 

Trade 

Cote d'lvoire exported 9,869 m' of N. papaverifera logs in 1994 at an average price of US$333.23/m' 

and 251 m' of veneer at an average price of US$1 1 86.33/m' (ITTO, 1995a). 

Gabon exported 6,210.734 m' of Kotibe in 1994 and 7,366.573 m' in 1995 (DLVF, 1996). 

Conservation Status 

lUCN Category and Criteria: VU Alc,d (African Regional Workshop, 1996) 
This species is considered Vulnerable (1994 lUCN threat category) due to exploitation (Hawthorne, 
1995b). For Ghana this species has been awarded a pink star by Hawthorne (1995a), which means that 
it is common and moderately exploited. 



114 



Annex 2. Profiles of Tree Species: Africa 



Conservation Measures 

N. papaverifera is protected by law in Cote d'lvoire. Ghana has banned expon of this species in log 

form. 

The FAO (1986) claim that this species is fairly secure because of the frequent high density stands, its 
affinity for growing in groups, and its location on hillsides (which are unsuitable for plantation 
establishment). It still requires in-situ conservation of certain populations (FAO, 1986). 

References 

African Regional Workshop, 1996. Conservation and Sustainable Management of Trees project 

workshop held in Harare, Zimbabawe, July, 1996. 
DIAF, 1996. Timber trade statistics for Gabon sent from the Direction des Inventaires et 

Amenagements des Forets (DIAF) of the Ministere des Eaux et Forets for 1994 and 1995 sent by 

Tom Hammond. 
FAO, 1986. Databook on endangered tree and shrub species and provenances. Forestry Paper 

77;Rome. pp. 524. 
Hawthorne, W.D., 1995(a). Ecological profiles of Ghanaian forest trees. Oxford Forestry 

Institute:Oxford. pp.345. 
Hawthorne, W.D., 1995(b). Categories of conservation priority and Ghanaian tree species. Working 

Document 4 (prepared for the November 1995 Conservation and Sustainable Management of Trees 

- Technical Workshop in Wageningen, Holland), pp.345. 
ITTO, 1995a. Elements for the annual review and assessment of the world tropical timber situation. 

Draft Document. 



115 



Contribution to an evaluation of tree species using the new CITES Listing Criteria 

Ocotea kenyensis 

Lauraceae 

muthuta, muikoni, mututuriet, masaiat, knaget 



Distribution 

DR Congo, Ethiopia, Kenya, Malawi, Mozambique, Rwanda, South Africa (KwaZulu-Natal, former 
Transvaal), Sudan, Swaziland, Tanzania, Uganda, Zimbabwe 

Habitat 

A species of tropical, moist, closed forest 

Population status and trends 

A timber species confined to areas of moist forest in East Africa extending into Central Africa. In some 
areas the populations are very small, e.g. the Zimbabwean population consists of 4 immature 
individuals. It yields a superior hardwood which is heavily exploited throughout its range. 

Role of species in the ecosystem 

Threats 

Commercial exploitation, clear-felling/logging of the habitat, extensive agriculture, forestry 
management 

Utilisation 

The species yields a superior hardwood. 

Trade 

lUCN Conservation category 

VU Alcd according to WCMC 

Conservation measures 

Forest management and silviculture 

References 

Beentje, Henk Jaap. 1994. Kenya trees, shrubs and lianas. Nairobi, Kenya: National Museums of 

Kenya. 722pp. 
Friis, I. 1992. Forests and Forest Trees of Northeast Tropical Africa. Middlesex, UK: HMSO. 396pp. 
Hilton-Taylor, Craig. 1996. Red Data List of southern African plants. Pretoria, South Africa: National 

Botanical Institute. 1 17pp. 
Katende, A.B. 1995. Annotations to: WCMC printout of Trees of Uganda dated 23 Nov. 1995. 137pp. 
Kemp, E.S. 1979. Swaziland. Part of appendix to: Possibilities and needs for conservation of plant 

species and vegetation in Africa, pp. 101-103. In Hedberg, I. (ed.). Systematic botany, plant 

utilization and biosphere conservation. Stockholm, Almqvist & Wiksell International. Stockholm: 

Almqvist & Wiksell International. 
Knox, Eric B. 1995. The List of East African Plants (LEAP): An electronic database (Draft). 72pp. 
Timberlake, J.R. 1996. Annotations to the conservation listing of trees of Zimbabwe. 



116 



Annex 2. Profiles of Tree Species: Africa 



Pericopsis elata 

Leguminosae 

African teak, afromosia, afrormosia, assamela, awawai, ayin, kokrodua 



Distribution 

Cameroon, Congo, Cote d'lvoire, DR Congo, Ghana, Nigeria 

Habitat 

A gregarious species, restricted to the drier parts of semi-deciduous forests. 

Population status and trends 

Four main areas of distribution can be defined; east Cote d'lvoire and west Ghana, Nigeria and west 
Cameroon, the Sangha-Ngoko basin in Congo and the central basin in Zaire. Levels of exploitation 
have been unsustainable in all countries and the species and its habitat has declined through logging 
and clearance. Remaining populations are small and scattered. Natural regeneration is poor and 
insufficient to replace lost populations. 

Role of species in the ecosystem 

Threats 

Commercial exploitation, clear-felling/logging of the habitat, burning, extensive agriculture. 

Utilisation 

Afrormosia provides an important alternative to teak. It is used in fiimiture making, interior and 
exterior work, flooring and boat-building. 

Trade 

Since 1948 trade in the timber has soared; the most significant producers being Ghana and Cote 
d'lvoire. Log production in Congo in 1990 was 9004m3. 

Afrormosia has been used in the furniture industry in the UK. Imports of sawn timber fell from 3500m' 
in 1985 to insignificant levels in 1989. 

lUCN Conservation category 

EN A led according to the African Regional Workshop 

Conservation measures 

The species is currently listed in CITES Appendix II. 

Forest management and silviculture 

Although easily propagated from seed and stem cuttings, the species is not being planted on a large 
scale. Trees are capable of attaining 26m height in 16 years. 

References 

Ake Assi, L. 1990. Annotated WCMC list of timber species for the Ivory Coast. (Cote d'lvoire). 
Anon. 1979. Other fast growing trees, pp. 193-210. In Tropical legumes: Resources for the future. 

Washington, DC: National Academy of Sciences. 
CITES. 1992. CITES Appendices as of June 1992. (unpublished). 
FAO Forestry Department. 1986. Databook on endangered tree and shrub species and their 

provenances. Rome: FAO. 524pp. 
Hawthorne, W.D. 1995. Ecological profiles of Ghanaian forest trees. Oxford Forestry Institute. 345pp. 
Hecketsweiler, P.H. 1990. Incomplete list of the commercially exploited timber species of Congo 

(Brazzaville). 
N'Sosso, Dominique. 1995. Contribution de N'Sosso Dominique au projet Conservation and 

sustainable management of trees, (unpublished). 24pp. 
Songwe, C. 1990. Revised preliminary list of timbers of Cameroon with conservation categories 



117 



Contribution to an evaluation of tree species using the new CITES Listing Criteria 

Platanus orientalis 

Platanaceae 

Chinar, oriental plane tree 



Distribution 

Afghanistan, Albania, Azerbaijan, Bulgaria, Greece (Crete), Greece, Iran, Iraq, Italy, Lebanon, Sicily, 
Syria, Tajikistan, Turkey, Uzbekistan 

Habitat 

This temperate species is confined to damp woodlands, often in temporary ravines, which provide 
moisture throughout the dry season, occurring from low altitude to 3000m. 

Population status and trends 

The only old world plane tree, this species is very widespread ranging from the east Mediterranean 
throughout the middle east to the south-east provinces of the Euro-Siberian region. It is considered to 
be endangered in parts its range because of changing water courses for irrigation purposes and the 
increased expansion of agriculture. 

Role of species in the ecosystem 

Threats 

Pests and diseases, extensive agriculture 

Utilisation 

The species has uses as a source of fuelwood and timber, but it is most well-known as an ornamental 
tree. The most commonly planted tree in London is either a variant or hybrid of the species. It 
withstands high levels of pollution by storing harmful material in the bark which continually flakes off. 

Trade 

lUCN Conservation category 

LR/lc according to WCMC 

Conservation measures 

Forest management and silviculture 

A widely cultivated tree, often planted as an avenue tree. 

References 

Borodin, A.M. et al. 1985. Krasnaya kniga SSSR: redkie i nakhodyashchiesya pod ugrozoi 

ischeznoveniya vidy zhivotnykh i rastenii. - izdanie vtoroe [2]: tom pervyi - vtoroi [1-2]. Moscow: 

Lesnaya Promyshlennost. 
FAO Forestry Department. 1986. Databook on endangered tree and shrub species and their 

provenances. Rome: FAO. 524pp. 
Giiner, A. & J. Zielinski, J. 1996. The conservation status of Turkish woody flora, pp. 12. In Hunt, D. 

(ed. j. Temperate trees under threat. Proceedings of an IDS Symposium on the conservation status 

of temperate trees, University of Bonn, 30 Sept - I Oct. 1994. 
Tutin, T.G., V.H. Heywood, N.A. Burges, D.H. Valentine, S.M. Walters, & D.A. Webb (eds.). 1995. 

Flora Europaea Vol 1-5. 
Velchev, V., S. Kozuharov, I. Bondev, B. Kuzmanov, & M. Markova. 1984. Chervena kniga na NR 

Bulgariya: izcheznali, zastrasheni ot izchezvane i redki rasteniya i zhivotni: tom 1. Rasteniya. 

Sofiya: Izdatelstvo na Bulgarskata Akademiya na Naukite. 447pp. 



118 



Annex 2. Profiles of Tree Species: Afiica 



Populus ilicifolia 

Salicaceae 

Tana River poplar 



Distribution 

Kenya, Tanzania 

Habitat 

A species of lowland, submontane, moist, closed forest, found in riparian habitat on alluvial sandy and 
grey-brown, sandy mud soils up to 1200m. 

Population status and trends 

Restricted to the Tana, Athi and Uaso-Nyiro river systems in Kenya and the Ruvu river system of 
Tanzania, this species is one of the dominant components of riparian forest. The habitat is greatly 
reduced and the species is notably scarcer. Seed crops are frequently washed away in annual floods 
after vegetation clearance. In Kenya the habitat has also been widely irrigated and cleared for 
settlement programmes. 

Role of species in the ecosystem 

Threats 

Poor regeneration, expansion of human settlement and agriculture. 

Utilisation 

On a local scale the species provides a preferred wood for making dug-out canoes. 

Trade 

lUCN Conservation category 

VU B l+2c accordmg to WCMC 

Conservation measures 

Forest management and silviculture 

References 

Beentje, Henk Jaap. 1994. Kenya trees, shrubs and lianas. Nairobi, Kenya; National Museums of 

Kenya. 722pp. 
FAO Forestry Department. 1986. Databook on endangered tree and shrub species and their 

provenances. Rome: FAO. 524pp. 
Kjiox, Eric B. 1995. The List of East African Plants (LEAP): An electronic database (Draft). 72pp. 



119 



Contribution to an evaluation of tree species using the new CITES Listing Criteria 

Pouteria altissima 

synonym: Aningeria altissima 
Mukali; Anegre 

Distribution 

This widespread species occurs in Burundi, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Congo, Cole d'lvoire, 
Ethiopia, Gabon, Ghana, Guinea, Kenya, Nigeria, Rwanda, Sierra Leone, Sudan, Tanzania, Uganda and 
Zaire. 

Habitat 

This species tends to be found in the drier areas of semi-deciduous forests. 



Ve getation types according to White (1983) 

1. Guineo-Congolian rain forest 

Drier peripheral semi-evergreen Guineo-Congolian rain forest and similar forest in the transition 
zones. P. altissima is frequent in the peripheral semi-evergreen lowland rain forest but is absent from 
wetter forest types. 

2. Zambezian dry ever^een forest 

This is a characteristic species of the semi-evergreen forest of marked Guineo-Congolian affinity; 
small patches are foimd in the Mbala district in Zambia. 

3. Drier peripheral semi-evergreen Guineo-Congolian rain forest in the Lake Victoria regional 
mosaic. 

4. Transitional rain forest in the Lake Victoria mosaic. 

P. altissima is at its eastern most limit in the Kakamega forest of Kenya. 



Population Status and Trends 

It is relatively common in Ghana (Hawthorne, 1995a). 

Regeneration 

It is thought that development past the seedling stage requires at least small light gaps (Hawthorne, 
1995a). 

Role of Species in its Ecosystem 

Fruits of this species are eaten and dispersed by birds and perhaps other animals (Hawthorne, 1995a). 
Generally, trees can fruit once they reach a size of 50 cm dbh (Plumptree et al, 1994 in Hawthorne, 
1995a). 

Threats 

P. altissima is threatened by over-exploitation in Ghana (Hawthorne, 1995a). In logged areas of 
Uganda, regeneration of this species is further affected by elephant damage to seedlings and saplings 
(Struhsaker er a/, 1996). 

Utilisation 

Timber from the genus Pouteria is used for general carpentry, joinery, veneer and plywood, and 
furniture components. Locally this species has medicinal uses. 

Trade 

Note: P. altissima and Aningera robusta are often confused and it is thought that no distinction is made 
by the timber industry (Hawthorne, 1995a). 

P. altissima has been exported from Ghana as a veneer; in 1994, 12 080m' of sliced veneer was 
exported at an average price of US$984.00/m' and jointed veneer fetched an average price of 
US$1 375 .00/m' (ITTO, 1995a). 



120 



Annex 2. Profiles of Tree Species: Africa 



Conservation Statiis 

lUCN Category and Criteria: LR (cd) (African Regional Workshop, 1996) 

Hawthorne (1995a) has given this species a red star, which means it is common but under pressure 
from exploitation and conservation measures are necessary. Aningeria robusta has been assigned a pink 
star by Hawthorne, indicating it is of slightly less conservation concern, although the wood of this 
species is also heavily exploited for timber. 

Conservation Measures 

No information. 

References 

African Regional Workshop, 1996. Conservation and Sustainable Management of Trees project 

workshop held in Harare, Zimbabawe, July, 1996. 
Hawthorne, W.D., 1995(a). Ecological profiles of Ghanaian forest trees. Oxford Forestry 

Institute:Oxford. pp.345. 
nrO, 1995(a). Elements for the annual review and assessment of the world tropical timber situation. 

Draft Document. 
Struhsaker, T.T., Lwanga, J.S., and J.M. Kasenene, 1996. Elephants, selective logging and forest 

regeneration in the Kibale Forest, Uganda. / Trap. Ecot. 12:45-64. 



121 



Contribution to an evaluation of tree species using the new CITES Listing Criteria 

Prunus africana 

synonym Pygeum africanum 
Red Stinkwood; African Cherry 

Distribution 

This widespread species is found in Angola, Burundi, Cameroon, Ethiopia, Equatorial Guinea - Bioko, 
Sao Tome & Principe, Kenya, Madagascar, Mozambique, Rwanda, South Africa (Cape Province, 
Natal, Transvaal), Sudan, Swaziland, Tanzania, Uganda, Zaire and Zambia. 

Habitat 

This species occurs at altitudes above 1500m in Kenya (Marshall & Jenkins, 1994). In Madagascar this 
species occurs above 1000m. In Zimbabwe P. africana is restricted to montane rainforest (CITES 
proposal, 1994) 



Habitat type according to White (1983) 

1. Guineo-Congolian rain forest 

Drier peripheral semi-evergreen Guineo-Congolian rain forest and similar forest in the transition 
zones 

2. Marsabit District, Kenya in the Somalia-Masai regional centre of endemism 
Afromontane evergreen forest, scrub forest, and related types. 

3. Afromontane Forest 
Afromontane rain forest 

Prunus africana is a characteristic species of the Afromontane rain forest. 
Undifferentiated Afromontane forest 

4. Afromontane Bamboo 

P. africana is frequently found scattered in Arundinaria alpina bamboo. 

5. Transitional rain forest of the Lake Victoria regional mosaic. 

6. Sao Tome 
Mist forest region 

7. The Comoro Islands 



Population Status and Trends 

In Cameroon, where P. africana is restricted to the montane forests of the western highlands, the high 
level of trade has greatly depleted this species (Dawson & Rabevohitra, 1996). This species is 
relatively rare in Zimbabwe (CITES proposal, 1994). In South Africa, P. africana colonises open sites 
and the species is regenerating well, with younger trees growing along the roads (African Regional 
Workshop comm., 1996). 

Regeneration 

This is a fast growing species and the seeds germinate easily, however the seeds are recalcitrant 
(African Regional Workshop, 1996). 

Role of Species in its Ek:osystem 

P. africana trees are an important part of the montane ecosystem; tree deaths from bark stripping 
affects the integrity of the forest and reduces food resources for rare birds (Cunningham & Mbenkum, 
1993 in CITES proposal, 1994). 

Threats 

High demand for P. africana has led to over-exploitation of this species for its medicinal properties and 
to a lesser degree its timber (Dawson & Rabevohitra, 1996). Bark removal is most extensive in 
Cameroon and Madagascar (Dawson & Rabevohitra, 1996). In Madagascar, trees are being felled for 
the bark in protected areas (100-200 trees along the western boundary of the National Park of 
Mantadia) (Dawson & Rabevohitra, 1996). 

Regeneration from cut young trees appears to be low in Cameroon (Dawson & Rabevohitra, 1996) 
Tree bark can regenerate if care is taken not to damage the cambium. The forestry procedures for bark 
removal in Cameroon are as follows, the bark is to be stripped from the two opposite quarters of the 



122 



Annex 2. Profiles of Tree Species: Africa 



trunk and the tree is then left to regenerate its bark for four years, after this time the remaining quarters 
are then stripped (Pairott & Parroti, 1989). 

This species is not under threat in South Africa, as there is regeneration and limited exploitation in rural 
areas where ring barked trees are dying (African Regional Workshop, 1996). 

Utilisation 

This species has excellent timber for construction, furniture and household utensils. It is used especially 
in the informal sector, although it is also used commercially (Marshall & Jenkins, 1994). The bark of P. 
africana is highly valued for its medicinal properties; it is used as a purgative and as a medicine for 
benign prostatic hyperplasia and prostate gland hypertrophy, diseases that commonly affect older men 
in Europe and N. America (Dawson & Rabevohitra, 1996). Bark extracts were patented about 30 years 
ago (CITES proposal, 1994). 

Trade 

P. africana is exported from Africa to Europe where the active compounds in the bark are used for 
drug production (Walter & Rakotonirina, 1995). Between 1988 and 1993 in Madagascar, the amount of 
bark harvested doubled from 300 tonnes/year to 600 tonnes/year; in 1995, the estimated figure doubled 
again to 1200 tonnes (Dawson & Rabevohitra, 1996). Between 1986 and 1991 Cameroon exponed an 
average of 1923 tonnes/year to France, Zaire exported 300 tonnes/year (oi P. africana and P.crassifolia) 
to Belgium and France, Kenya exported 193 tonnes {in 1993?} to France and Uganda exported 96 
tonnes (in 1993?) (various sources in Walter & Rakotonirina, 1995). 

There have been reports of illegal harvesting in Uganda (Anon, 1993 in CITES proposal, 1994). There 
is evidence of complete sttipping of trees or felling in Cameroon and Madagascar (Dawson & 
Rabevohitra, 1996). Trade bans in Cameroon have led to massive illegal trade (Cunningham & 
Mbenkum, 1993 in CITES proposal, 1994). P. africana is being removed from the Kakamega Forest 
Reserve, Kenya (Marshall & Jenkins, 1994) 

Conservation Status 

lUCN Category and Criteria: Cr (Alc.d) - This category was applied at the Regional Workshop for the 
Conservation and Sustainable Management of Trees project. It may, however, apply to populations of 
the species in parts of its range rather than to the entire population. 

In many areas, P. africana is severely threatened (Dawson & Rabevohitra, 1996). In Madagascar, trees 
are cut down and completely stripped of bark; this heavy exploitation is causing the species to be 
severely threatened (Dawson & Rabevohitra, 1996). This species has been listed as Endangered to 
Extinction by the department of forestry in Cameroon (CITES proposal, 1994). 

Conservation Measures 

This species is listed on Appendix II of the CITES convention. 

There are 153 ha of this species in plantations in Kenya (Marshall & Jenkins, 1994). Seed has been 
collected and substantial planting of P. africana is underway in Cameroon (Dawson & Rabevohitra, 
1996). There are no conservation measures in practice in Madagascar (Dawson & Rabevohitra, 1996). 
P. africana is no longer harvested in Zimbabwe, it is only used locally in South Africa and it has not 
entered international trade in Malawi (CITES proposal, 1994). 

Intensive regeneration is required (African Regional Workshop comm., 1996). 

Additional Information 

P. africana is an important source of income for the villagers employed by licence holders to collect 
the bark (Walter & Rakotonirina, 1995). 

P. africana is a fast growing species that can be cultivated on steep slopes, however, farmers are 
reluctant to plant unless they can be assured that there is a market (CITES proposal, 1994). 

References 

CITES proposal, 1994. Proposal to include Prunus africana in Appendix II of the CITES convention. 
Dawson, I. and Rabevohitra, R., 1996. Status of Prunus africana resources in Madagascar. Survey 

Report. 
Marshall, N.T. and Jenkins, M., 1994. Hard Times for Hardwood. Indigenous timber and the timber 

trade in Kenya. TRAFFIC Intemational:Cambridge, UK. pp. 53. 



123 



Contribution to an evaluation of tree species using the new CITES Listing Criteria 



Parrort, J. and Parrott, H., 1989. Report on the conservation of Prunus (Pygaeum) africanum in 

Cameroon. Draft Report. 
Walter, S. and Rakotonirina, J-C. R., 1995. L'exploitation de Prunus africanum a Madagascar. Rapport 

elabore pour le PCDI Zahamena et la Direction des Eaux et Forets. 
White F., 1983. The Vegetation of Africa. A descriptive memoir to accompany the 

UNESCO/AETFAT/UNSO vegetation map of Africa. Paris:lJNESCO. pp.356. 



124 



Annex 2. Profiles of Tree Species: Afi-ica 



Pterocarpus angolensis 

Bloodwood 

Distribution 

This species occurs in Angola, Botswana, Mozambique, Namibia, South Africa, Swaziland, Tanzania, 
Zaire, Zambia and Zimbabwe. 

Habitat 

In Mozambique, this species is found in all types of woodland and wooded savanna, however its 
occurrence and density is not uniform (Moreno Saiz, 1996). In Zimbabwe, P. angolensis is found on 
the fringe of pan grassland of the Lupane and Nkayi districts and in the woodland thicket on the hills of 
the Binga district (Timberlake et al, 1991). Populations of P. angolensis are denser on Kalahari sand 
(African Regional Workshop, 1996). 



Vegetation type according to White (1983) 

1. Zambezian woodland 
Zambezian miombo woodland 

Pterocarpus angolensis is a canopy associate, rather that a dominant canopy species. 
North Zambezian undifferentiated woodland and wooded grassland 
South Zambezian undifferentiated woodland and scrub woodland 
Zambezian 'chipya' woodland and wooded grassland 
Zambezian Kalahari woodland 

2. Zambezian thicket 

When found in this habitat type P. angolensis tends to be rare and quite small. It is thought that 
large mammals and fire allow for the occurrence of the species in the Zambezian thicket as it 
does not regenerate well in the shade. 

3. Grassland and wooded grassland of the Guinea-Congolia/Zambezia regional transition zone. 



Population Status and Trends 

This species is very widespread although it is never common. In areas where the local people use the 
trees there are fewer older stands. 

In Mozambique, the abundance of this species has decreased dramatically in the last decades; it is 
rarest in the southern province (Moreno Saiz, 1996). 

A large proportion of mature U-ees have been lost to a fungal disease. Approximately forty percent of 
the trees in Zambia have died from the fungal disease (African Regional Workshop, 1996). 

Regeneration 

There is evidence of natural regeneration occuring for this species; however regeneration tends to be 
episodic and is stimulated by high rainfall or fire (African Regional Workshop, 1996). P. angolensis is 
often a secondary coloniser. Reproduction starts when the tree is 15-20 years old. It does not coppice 
well, if at all, and therefore P. angolensis needs to reproduce by seed. 

Role of Species in its Ecosystem 

No information. 

Threats 

P. angolensis is exploited for its timber. Larger trees are dying from a fungal disease that blocks up the 
xylem (African Regional Workshop, 1996). 

Utilisation 

The wood is used for carpentry and construction, especially in the construction of boats. 
The sap is used as a long-lasting dye. It also has medicinal properties. 



125 



Contribution to an evaluation of tree species using the new CITES Listing Criteria 



Trade 

There is a huge demand for this species both within Mozambique for furniture making and for export. 
Almost all of the trees cut in Cabo Delgado, Mozambique are sent to South Africa for export to the Far 
East (i.e. Thailand. Hong Kong, etc.). In 1993, 1,690m' of P. angolensis were exported from Cabo 
Delgardo and in 1994, the volume exported was 5,497m' (Moreno Saiz, 1996). This is currently a key 
species for exploitation in Zimbabwe (African Regional Workshop, 1996). 

This species is imported into Kenya from Tanzania (Marshall & Jenkins, 1994). 

Conservation Statiis 

lUCN Category and Criteria: LR (Ic) (category assigned by the South African group of the Workshop, 
due to observations of sufficient regeneration. VU (Alc,d) was assigned by the West African group.) 

Conservation Measures 

Bloodwood is found in the Derre forest reserve in Mozambique. There are 2 ha planted with this 
species in Kenya (Marshall & Jenkins. 1994). Growth of P. angolensis is slow and variable for at least 
the first seven years, making it less suitable for plantation (African Regional Workshop, 1996). 

In Zimbabwe this species is found in Forest Commissioned land where it is rarely exploited. The 
minimum cutting diameter is 25 cm, however this is not enforced (African Regional Workshop, 1996). 

References 

African Regional Workshop, 1996. Conservation and Sustainable Management of Trees ^roiscx 

workshop held in Harare, Zimbabawe, July, 1996. 
Marshall. N.T. and Jenkins, M., 1994. Hard Times for Hardwood: Indigenous Timber and the Timber 

Trade in Kenya. Traffic IntemationakCambridge, UK. pp 53. 
Moreno Saiz, J.C, 1996. Maderas explotadas comercialmente en Cabo Delgado (Charpers 3 & 4. IN: 

Libra Blanco de los Recursos naturales de Cabo Delgado (Mozambique). GETiNSA- Ministerio de 

Asoutos Exteriores. 
Timberlake, J., Nobanda, N., Mapaure, I, and Mhlanga, L., 1991. Sites of interest for conservation in 

various communal lands of N. & W. Zimbabwe. Vegetation survey of communal lands. Repon No. 

White F., 1983. The Vegetation of Africa. A descriptive memoir to accompany the 
UNESCO/AETFAT/UNSO vegetation map of Africa. Paris:UNESCO. pp.356. 



126 



Annex 2. Profiles of Tree Species: Africa 



Pterygota bequaertii 

Sterculiaceae 

akodiakede, efok, koto, kyereyebere 



Distribution 

Cameroon, Cote d'lvoire, DR Congo, Gabon, Ghana, Nigeria 

Habitat 

A tree of moister types of lowland rainforest, often only in mature forest. 

Population status and trends 

A timber species occurring in forest areas in West and Central Africa. It is much rarer than, but 
commonly confused with, P. macrocarpa. The species appears to be suffering declines because of 
levels of exploitation through most of its range. 

Threats 

Commercial exploitation, clear-felling/logging of the habitat 

Utilisation 

A source of timber and fuelwood 

Trade 

The timber is present at a minor level in international trade. 

lUCN Conservation category 

VU A led according to Hawthorne (1995). 

Conservation measures 

Forest management and silviculture 

References 

Ake Assi, L. 1990. Annotated WCMC list of timber species for the Ivory Coast. (Cote d'lvoire). 
Hawthorne, W. 1990. Field guide to the forest trees of Ghana. Chatham: Natural Resources Institute, 

for the Overseas Development Administration, London. 278pp. 
Hawthorne, W. 1995. Categories of conservation priority and Ghanaian tree species, (unpublished). 

1-38. 
Hutchinson, J., J.M. Dalziel, & F.N. Hepper. 1927. Flora of West Tropical Africa. Publi<'hed by the 

English Ministry of State for the Colonies. 
Songwe, C. 1990. Revised preliminary list of timbers of Cameroon with conservation categories. 



127 



Contribution to an evaluation of tree species using the new CITES Listing Criteria 

Pterygota macrocarpa 

Sterculiaceae 

koto, kyereye, oporoporo 



Distribution 

Cameroon, Cote d'lvoire, Ghana, Nigeria, Sierra Leone 

Habitat 

A common tree of drier deciduous forest types. 

Population status and trends 

Exploitation for the timber occurs at high levels throughout its range and is likely to be causing 
population declines. Regeneration is reported to be abundant in areas of logging damage and also after 
burning. 

Role of species in the ecosystem 

Threats 

Commercial exploitation, clear-felling/logging of the habitat 

Utilisation 

The species is used as a timber and fuelwood. 

Trade 

In 1995 Ghana exported koto in sliced (SOOOm^), rotary peeled and jointed veneer consignments, 
selling at an average price of US$901/m3, US$5 10/m' and US$1247 respectively, also in 9000m3 of 
sawnwood, selling at an average price of US$440/m^ and in lOOOm^ of logs, selling at an average price 
ofUS$165/mMnTO, 1997). 

Cote d'lvoire exported 2000m^ of sliced veneer, selling at US$963/m^, 2000m'of rotary peeled veneer, 
selling at an average price of US$406/m^, and 5000m'of logs, selling at an average price of US$67/m^ 
(ITTO, 1997). 

lUCN Conservation category 

VU Alcd according to Hawthorne (1995). 

Conservation measures 

Forest management and silviculture 

References 

Ake Assi, L. 1990. Annotated WCMC list of timber species for the Ivory Coast. (Cote d'lvoire). 
Hawthorne, W. 1995. Categories of conservation priority and Ghanaian tree species, (unpublished). 

1-38. 
Hutchinson, J., J.M. Dalziel, & F.N. Hepper. 1927. Flora of West Tropical Africa. Published by the 

English Ministry of State for the Colonies. 
ITTO. 1997. Annual review and assessment of the world tropical timber situation 1996. International 

Tropical Timber Organization. 
Songwe, C. 1990. Revised preliminary list of timbers of Cameroon with conservation categories. 



128 



Annex 2. Profiles of Tree Species: Africa 



Swartzia fistuloides 

Dina; Pau Rosa 

Distribution 

This species occurs in Angola (Cabinda), Congo, Cole dlvoire, Cameroon, Gabon, Ghana, Equatorial 
Guinea, Nigeria and Zaire. 

Habitat 

S. fistuloides is found in dense rainforest. 

Population Status and Trends 

This species is rare in Ghana (Hawthorne, 1995a). This species has been classified as a blue star by 
Hawthorne (1995a), meaning it is widespread internationally but rare in Ghana, and it is Ghana's 
interests to look after this species. 

Role of Species in its Ecosystem 

Elephants are seed dispersers ( 1 % of elephant dung piles in the Bia South game park reserve contained 
seeds (Martm, 1991 in Hawthorne 1995a)). 

Threats 

"This species may be suffering from a shortage of elephants" Hawthorne, 1995a. 

Utilisation 

The decorative timber is used for veneer, turnery, carvings and tool handles. 

Trade 

In 1987, Gabon exported 1,250 m' of Pau Rosa from Owendo (lUCN, 1990); in 1994, Gabon exponed 
1,387.583 m' of Pau Rosa and in 1995 they exponed 1,921.841 m' (DIAF, 1996). 

Conservation Status 

lUCN Category and Criteria: EN (Alc,d) (African Regional Workshop, 1996) 

Conservation Measures 

Regeneration work is urgently required (African Regional Workshop, 1996). 

References 

African Regional Workshop, 1996. Conservation and Sustainable Management of Trees project 

workshop held in Harare, Zimbabawe, July, 1996. 
DIAF, 1996. Timber trade statistics for Gabon sent from the Direction des Inventaires et 

Amenagements des Forets (DIAF) of the Ministere des Eaux et Forets for 1994 and 1995 sent by 

Tom Hammond. 
Hawthorne, W.D., 1995(a). Ecological profiles of Ghanaian forest trees. Oxford Forestry 

Institute:Oxford. pp.345. 
lUCN, 1990. La Consen^ation des Ecosystemes Forestiers du Gabon. lUCN, Tropical Forest 
Programme Genes, pp. 200. 



129 



Contribution to an evaluation of tree species using the new CITES Listing Criteria 

Terminalia ivorensis 

Combretaceae 

black afara, emeri, emire, emire, fratnire, framire, idigbo 



Distribution 

Cameroon, Cote d'lvoire, Ghana, Guinea, Liberia, Nigeria, Sierra Leone 

Habitat 

A species of lowland semi-deciduous forest types. It is not uncommon in secondary forest. Adult trees 
are common along roadsides. 

Population status and trends 

A West African timber species found scattered in low densities in remaining forest areas; larger trees 
occurring in lower-lying parts of semi-deciduous forest. Exploitation is moderate. Poor regeneration is 
often attributed to crop failure. Seedlings and saplings appear to be very rare except in upland 
evergreen forest along track sides. It seems the largest stocks of the species may be along roadsides 
(Hawthorne, 1995b). 

Role of species in the ecosystem 

Threats 

Commercial exploitation, clear-felling/logging of the habitat 

Utilisation 

T. ivorensis produces high-quality timber used, for example, in fine carpentry, joinery, building, 
flooring and ply wood manufacture. The species is also used locally as a fuel. 

Trade 

The high quality timber plays a major role in international trade. In 1995 Ghana exported 5000m^ of 
sawn wood, selling at an average price of US$41 0/m', Liberia exported logs at an average price of 
US$ 1 75/m^, Cameroon exported 2000m ^ of logs and Cote d'lvoire exported 9000m^ of logs at an 
average price of US$246/m3 . (ITTO, 1997). 

rUCN Conservation category 

VUAIcd according to Hawthorne (1995a). 

Conservation measures 

Forest management and silviculture 

The species has been well used in Ghana for taungya and other plantations. However frequent diebacks 
have occurred, dampening the interest in the species as a plantation tree. There are records of trees 
attaining 17m height in 8 years, 30m in 15 years, 36.5m in 22 years. 

References 

Hawthorne, W. 1995a. Categories of conservation priority and Ghanaian tree species, (unpublished). 

1-38. 
Hawthorne, W. 1995b. Ecological profiles of Ghanaian forest trees. Oxford Forestry Institute 
Hutchinson, J., J.M. Dalziel, & F.N. Hepper. 1927. Flora of West Tropical Africa. Published by the 

English Ministry of State for the Colonies, 
mo. 1997. Annual review and assessment of the world tropical timber situation 1996. International 

Tropical Timber Organization. 
Songwe, C. 1990. Revised preliminary list of timbers of Cameroon with conservation categories. 



130 



Annex 2. Profiles of Tree Species: Africa 



Terminalia superba 
Combretaceae 

Trade name: Limba, Afara, Frake 

Local names The wider range of local names includes Kojagei (Liberia, Sierra Leone), 
Kobate, Fra, Frake, Fram (Cote d'lvoire), Ofram (Ghana), Afara, Akom and Muhmba. 



Distribution 

Terminalia superba has a broad distribution in West and Central Africa. Range states are Angola. Benin, 
Cameroon, Central African Republic, Cote d'lvoire, Congo, DR Congo, Equatorial Guinea. Gabon, Ghana, 
Guinea, Liberia, Nigeria, Sierra Leone, Togo. 

Habitat 

Limba grows in deciduous moist forest and evergreen rain forest, where it colonises abandoned 
agricultural land. It prefers a climate with an annual rainfall of 1400-2000 mm, a dry season and a 
mean annual temperature of 23-26°C. It favours fertile soils of alluvial origin but will grow on a 
variety of other soil types. The detailed ecological 
requirements of T. superba are discussed by Groulez and Wood (1985). 

Population status and trends 

Although the species is widespread, common and not generally threatened, it is becoming progressively 
impoverished by heavy exploitation, as pointed out by FAO (1984). Supplies in the southern parts of its 
range have dwindled so that forest management and restocking are now needed in those areas where the 
best quality wood occurs (Groulez and Wood, 1985). In situ conservation is considered to be a priority for 
the species by FAO (1990). Heavy exploitation is threatening nattiral populations in West African 
countries such as Ghana and Nigeria. NSosso (1990) notes that Limba is declining in Congo following 60 
years of exploitation, and would benefit from trade controls. Terminalia superba has been recorded as 
threatened in Cameroon, based or assessments by local experts (WCMC, 1991). 

Role of species in the ecosystem 

Threats 

Over-exploitation is the main recorded threat to the species in parts of its range. Forest clearance will also 
have caused population declines but the ability of T. superba to colonise agricultural land reduces the 
overall impact of this threat. 

Utilisation 

Depending on where it is grown, Limba is yellowish to brownish-black and of varying hardness and 
weight. The wood is not durable. It can be easily worked but has a tendency to spht when nailed or 
screwed (Lamprecht, 1989). The timber is used for plywood, furniture, interior jomery and decorative 
veneers. 

Trade 

The market is mainly interested in Limba from the south of its range, especially from the Mayombe of 
Congo and DR Congo. Until 1955 DR Congo was the principal producer, followed by Angola and Congo. 
After 1955 exports from the first two countties declined as the forests became exhausted; whereas those 
from Congo rose annually (Groulez and Wood, 1985). Limba remains one of the most important 
commercial timbers of DR Congo and for the period 1983-1986 ranked eighth in terms of species 
production. In 1995, DR Congo exported 3,000 cu m of Limba logs; 1000 cu m of sawnwood and small 
quantities of veneer (11 lO, 1997). 

Limba was one of the first species commercially exploited in Congo. It declined in importance from the 
1950s to the early 1970s. In the 1960s Limba still represented more than 50% of Congo's log production 
but this had fallen to 4.55% in 1989. In 1989 the volume of log production for Limba in Congo was 
45 525 m' and log exports 22,910 m', according to MEF and DREF statistics. In 1995, Congo exported 
10,000 m' of logs (ITTO, 1997). 



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Gabon exported 221 m' of Limba logs through the ports of Libreville and Port Gentil, in 1989, and 1753 m' 
were exported in the first nine months of 1990 (source: SEPBG). No exports from Gabon are reported in 
mo, 1997. 

Cote d'lvoire exported 17 072 235 kg of T. superba logs in 1988 (11 months). In 1995, 7,000 cu m of logs 
and a small amount of veneer were exported. 

Cameroon exported 62,(XX) cu m of Limba logs in 1995 together with 15,000 cu m of sawnwood, lO.CXX) 
cu m of veneer and an unrecorded amount of plywood. 

Ghana exported 18, (XX) cu m of Limba logs, 3000 cu m of sawnwood and 1000 cu m of veneer during 
1995 (ITTO, 1997). This compares with an average of 3,240 cu m during the period 1980- 1986 (WCMC, 
1991). 

Togo exported a small amount of limba sawnwood in 1995 (ITTO, 1997). 

The wood of Terminalia superba is used particularly in Belgium, Germany and Switzerland (Groulez and 
Wood, 1985). 

Conservation measures (source of information WCMC, 1991). 

Legislation 

Congo - Minimum exploitable diameter 0.6 m 

Gabon - Minimum exploitable diameter 0.6 m 

Ghana - Minimum exploitable diameter 0.7 m 

Liberia - Minimum exploitable diameter 0.7 m 

Presence in protected areas 

Congo Odzala National Park, Conkouati Faunal Reserve, Lekoli-Pandaka Faunal Reserve, Mont Fouari 
Faunal Reserve, Nyanga Nord Faunal Reserve, Tsoulou Fauna! Reserve, M'boko Hunting Reserve, Mont 
Maroumbou Hunting Reserve, Nyanga Sud Hunting Reserve 

Gabon Sibang 

PR Congo Reserve de la Biosphere de Luki 

Provenance collections Seeds of provenances have been collected in various countries such as Cameroon, 
Congo, and Cote d'lvoire for national and international provenance trials and for establishment of 
conservation stands in the countries of origin. Seed trees have been selected in the southern Congo 
provenances and seed orchards of grafted select clones have been established (FAO, 1984). Seventeen 
provenances are being tested in Cote d'lvoire and are subject to regular measurements of 12 characteristics, 
including growth rate and wood characteristics (Anon., 1990). International provenance trials are being 
coordinated by CTFT and FAO's Forestry Department (Anon., 1987). 

Forest management and silviculture 

Groulez and Wood (1985) point out that successful natural regeneration of T. superba requires gaps in the 
forest canopy, sufficiently clean conditions for seed to reach the forest floor, lack of peasant cultivation and 
the absence of competition for several years. These conditions are seldom found and natural regeneration 
as a silvicultural system in forest management is possible, but expensive, and not without risk. 

This species is widely used as a plantation species both within and outside its natural range. Plantations 
have ijeen developed mainly in Congo, Cote d'lvoire and DR Congo. The rotation age of this species in 
plantation varies from 30 to 40 years (Anon., 1987). 



132 



Annex 2. Profiles of Tree Species: Africa 



References 

Anon. (1987). International provenance trial of Terminalia superba. Forest Genetic Resources 

Information No. 15: 61. FAO, Rome. 
Anon. (1990). L'arbre du mois. Le Terminalia superba. Bulletin de liaison de membres du rejeau Arbres 

Tropicaux 16: 5-8. 
FAO (1984). Report of the Fifth Session of the FAO Panel of Experts on Forest Gene Resources. 

December 1981. FAO, Rome. 
FAO (1990). Report of the Seventh Session of the FAO Panel of Experts on Forest Gene Resources. 

December 1989. FAO, Rome. 
Groulez, J. and Wood, P.J. (1985). Terminalia superba: A monograph. Centre Technique Forestier 

Tropical, Nogent-sur-Mame, France and Commonwealth Forestry Institute, Oxford, UK. 
mo 1997. Annual review and assessment of the world tropical timber situation 1996. International 

Tropical Timber Organization. 
Lamprecht,H. (1989). Silviculture in the tropics. GTZ, Germany. 
N'Sosso, D. (1990). Le statut de conservation des bois tropicaux commercialisables. Rapport national du 

Congo. Unpublished report prepared for the 11 lO Pre-project. 
WCMC (1991) 



133 



Contribution to an evaluation of tree species using the new CITES Listing Criteria 



Testulea gabonensis 

Izombe 

Distribution 

This species occurs in Cameroon, Congo, Equatorial Guinea, and Gabon. 

Habitat 

It is found in dense primary forests and transitional formations (WCMC, 1991). 

Population Status and Trends 

It has a scattered distribution. It has a very limited range in Southern Congo near Conkouati (WCMC, 
1991). 

Izombe also has a very limited geographic distribution within Cameroon (Gartlan, in litt. 1991) 

Role of Species in its Ecosystem 

No information. 

Threats 

Exploitation for international trade. 

Utilisation 

Izombe is used for door and window frames, furniture, flooring, turnery and carving (WCMC, 1991). 

Trade 

In 1987, Gabon exported 935 m' of Izombe from Owendo (lUCN, 1990). Gabon exported T. 
gabonensis logs for an average price of US$33.50 in 1994 (ITTO, 1995a). In 1994, 5,176.546 m' of 
Izombe were exported from Gabon and 4,942.090 m were exported in 1995 (DIAF, 1996). 

Conservation Status 

lUCN Category and Criteria: EN (Alc,d) (African Regional Workshop, 1996) 
The species has been considered to be Endangered in Cameroon (Palmberg, 1987). 

Conservation Measures 

Regeneration work is required (African Regional Workshop, 1996). 

References 

African Regional Workshop, 1996. Conservation and Sustainable Management of Trees project 

workshop held in Harare, Zimbabawe, July, 1996. 
DIAF, 1996. Timber trade statistics for Gabon sent from the Direction des Inventaires et 

Amenagements des Forets (DIAF) of the Ministere des Eaux et Forets for 1994 and 1995 sent by 

Tom Hammond. 
Gartlan, S. 1991. In litt. to WCMC. 
ITTO, 1995a. Elements for the annual review and assessment of the world tropical timber situation. 

Draft Document. 
lUCN, 1990. La Conservation des Ecosystemes Forestiers du Gabon. lUCN, Tropical Forest 

Programme Series, pp. 200. 
Palmberg, C, 1987. Conservation of genetic resources of woody species. Paper prepared for Simposio 

sobre silvicultura y mejoraniento genetico. CIEF, Buenos Aires, 1987. 
WCMC, 1991. Provision of Data on Rare and Threatened Tropical Timber Species, pp. 58. 



134 



Annex 2. Profiles of Tree Species: Afiica 



Tieghemella africana 

Douka; Makore 

Distribution 

This species occurs from Sierra Leone to Cameroon, Congo, Equatorial Guinea, Gabon and south to 
Cabinda. 

Habitat 

T. africana is a high rain forest species. 



Vegetation type according to White (1983') 
1. Guineo-Congolian rain forest 

Hygrophilous coastal evergreen Guineo-Congolian rain forest 

Tieghemella africana is found in the western centre of endemism but is replaced by the closely 

related T. heckelii in the easL 



Population Status and Trends 

No direct information although this could be inferred from information on forest extent and rate of 
decline. 

Role of Species in its Ecosystem 

No information. 

Threats 

In Cameroon it is under pressure because of changes in land use (WCMC, 1991). 

Utilisation 

This species is used for timber. 

Trade 

Gabon exported 15,278 m' of T. africana in 1987 from Owendo (lUCN, 1990). In 1994, Gabon 
exported 201m' of Douka sawnwood at an average price of US$92.71m' (ITTO, 1995a). Total Douka 
export from Gabon m 1994 was 20.1 15.323 m' and total export in 1995 was 20,515.665 m' (DIAP, 
1996). Cote d'lvoire exported 196m' of 7. africana veneer for an average pnce of US$1801.07/m' 
CITTO, 1995 a). 

Conservation Status 

lUCN Category and Criteria: EN (A led) (African Regional V/orkshop, 1996) 

Conservation Measures 

Regeneration work is required (African Regional Workshop, 1996). 

References 

African Regional Workshop, 1996. Conservation and Sustainable Management of Trees project 

workshop held in Harare, Zimbabawe, July, 1996. 
DIAF, 1996. Timber trade statistics for Gabon sent from the Direction des Inventaires et 

Amenagements des Forets (DIAF) of the Ministere des Eaux et Forets for 1994 and 1995 sent by 

Tom Hammond. 
ITTO, 1995a. Elements for the annual review and assessment of the world tropical timber situation. 

Draft Document. 



135 



Contribution to an evaluation of tree species using the new CITES Listing Criteria 



lUCN, 1990. La Conservation des Ecosystemes Forestiers du Gabon. lUCN, Tropical Forest 

Programme Series, pp. 200. 
WCMC, 1991 . Provision of Data on Rare and Threatened Tropical Timber Species, pp. 58. 
White F., 1983. The Vegetation of Africa. A descriptive memoir to accompany the 

UNESCO/ AETFAT/UNSO vegetation map of Africa. Paris:UNESCO. pp.356. 



136 



Annex 2. Profiles of Tree Species: Africa 



Tieghemella heckelii 

Makore 

Distribution 

This species occurs in Cameroon, Cote d'lvoire, Gabon, Ghana, Liberia, Nigeria and Sierra Leone. 

Habitat 

It is a high rainforest species, preferring wet, evergreen forest. 



Vegetation type according to White (1983) 
1. Guineo-CoDgolian rain forest 

Hygrophilous coastal evergreen Guineo-Congolian rain forest 

Tieghemella heckelii is found in the eastern centre of endemism but is replaced by the closely 

related T. africana in the west. 



Population Status and Trends 

This species might become extinct in Liberia unless re-planted by the Forest Service (Voorhoeve, 1979 
in WCMC, 1991). T. heckelii is common in Ghana (Hawthorne, 1995a). 

Regeneration 

Bodi the seedlings and the saplings are shade tolerant and shoot up in height when exposed to light 
(Hawthorne, 1995a). 

Role of Species in its Ecosystem 

The large seeds and fruit are eaten by small animals and elephants (in 12% of piles of elephant dung, 
seeds were found in the Bia South game park reserve (Martin, 1991 in Hawthorne, 1995a)). Seedhngs 
are rare because of predation by rodents who eat the large oily cotyledons. 

Threats 

This species is severely threatened by over-exploitation in Ghana (Hawthorne, 1995a). 

The reduction of elephant numbers in high forest areas has limited the natural regeneration of Makore 

(WCMC, 1991). 

Utilisation 

Locally the oil from the seed is eaten and the fruit is used to make soap. 

Trade 

Ghana exported 2.090 m' of T. heckelii air dried sawnwood for an average price of USS5 10.00/m' and 
kiln dried sawnwood was sold for US$659.(X)/m'. Ghana also exported 3,240 m' of sliced veneer at an 
average price of US$778.00/m', rotary peeled veneer for US$446.00/m , and jointed veneer for 
US$1734.00/m'(nTO, 1995a). 

Portugal imported 227 m' of T. heckelii logs at an average price of US$215.00/m'. 

Italy imported 2,336 m' of sawnwood. The USA imported both logs and sawnwood. Portugal and 

Sweden both imported Makore sawnwood. (ITTO, 1995a). 

Conservation Status 

lUCN Category and Criteria: EN (Alc,d) (African Regional Workshop, 1996) 
This species is considered Vulnerable (1994 lUCN threat category) due to excessive exploitation 
(Hawthorne, 1995b). For Ghana this species has been awarded a scarlet star by Hawthorne (1995a), 
which means that it is common but it is under profound pressure from heavy exploitation. This species 
requires protection and exploitation has to be limited if it is to be sustainable (Hawthorne, 1995a). 

Conservation Measures 

T. heckelii is protected by law in Cote d'lvoire. The export of Makore in log form is banned by Ghana 
and Liberia. 



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References 

African Regional Workshop, 1996. Conservation and Sustainable Management of Trees project 

workshop held in Harare, Zimbabawe, July, 1996. 
Hawthorne, W.D., 1995(a). Ecological profiles of Ghanaian forest trees. Oxford Forestry 

Institute:Oxford. pp.345. 
Hawthorne, W.D., 1995(b). Categories of conservation priority and Ghanaian tree species. Working 

Document 4 (prepared for the November 1995 Conservation and Sustainable Management of Trees 

- Technical Workshop in Wageningen, Holland), pp.345, 
mo. 1995a. Elements for the annual review and assessment of the world tropical timber situation. 

Draft Document. 
WCMC, 1 99 1 . Provision of Data on Rare and Threatened Tropical Timber Species, pp. 58. 
White F., 1983. The Vegetation of Africa. A descriptive memoir to accompany the 

UNESCO/ AETFAT/UNSO vegetation map of Africa. Paris:UNESCO. pp.356. 



138 



Annex 2. Profiles of Tree Species: Africa 



Triplochiton scleroxylon 

Obeche; Wawa 

Distribution 

This species occurs in Benin, Cameroon, Congo, Cote d'lvoire, Equatorial Guinea, Ghana, Guinea, 
Liberia, Nigeria, Sierra Leone and Zaire. 

Habitat 

T. scleroxylon occurs mainly in forests transitional between humid evergreen and semi-deciduous 
forests. It prefers base rich, high ph soils and is associated with a two-peak rainfall pattern (Hall & 
Bada, 1979 in Hawthorne, 1995a). The species has extended its range due to deforestation for 
agricultural purposes (White, 1983). 



Vegetation type according to White (1983) 
1. Guineo-Congolian rain forest 

Drier peripheral semi-evergreen Guineo-Congolian rain forest and similar forest in the transition 

zones. 

Triplochiton scleroxylon is often gregarious and can regenerates well on abandoned farmland. 

Old secondary forest 



Population Status and Trends 

It is very common in Ghana, especially outside the wet evergreen forest type (Hawthorne, 1995a). 
Increasingly smaller trees are being logged in Nigeria for match production which is putting pressure 
on the species (WCMC, !991). Populations of this species only occur in north Congo especially in the 
Sangha region. 

Regeneration 

This species regenerates well in logged forest (Hawthorne, 1995a) and in abandonned farmland. It is 
fast growing and light demanding. Seed production is very irregular for this species; good seed years 
occur every 4-5 years. It is thought that the dry spell between the two rainy peaks is a stimulus for 
flowering (Hall & Bada, 1979 in Hawthorne, 1995a). 

Role of Species in its Ecosystem 

No information. 

Threats 

This species is severely threatened by over-exploitation in Ghana (Hawthorne, 1995a) 

Utilisation 

Used locally and internationally as a timber species. 

Trade 

7". scleroxylon accounts for more of the timber volume extracted annually from west African forests 
that any other single species. It is Ghana's major timber species for the export trade; in 1989, it 
accounted for 56.6% of the country's log exports and 22.9% of lumber exports. 

In 1994, 310,000 m' of Obeche were exported in log form from Cameroon at an average price of 
US$220.00/m'. Ghana exported Obeche logs and 131,360 m' of sawnwood, air dried sold for an 
average of US$274.00/m' and kiln dned sold for US$330.00/m'. 

Togo exported Triplochiton spp. as sawnwood. As a veneer, Obeche was exported in 1995 from 
Cameroon, and Ghana (sliced veneer: 660 m' @ ave. US$1214. 00/m'; rotary peeled @ ave. 
US$357.00/m'; jointed veneer @ ave. US$1951.00/m'). Plywood T. sclerox\lon was exported from 
Cameroon (10,000 m' @ ave. US$695.00/m') and Ghana in 1994 (ITTO, 1995a). 

In 1994, T. scleroxylon logs were imported into the Netherlands (2,000 m'), Portugal (408m' @ ave. 
US$18.00/m'), Swiueriand (3,000 m') and the USA (ITTO, 1995a). Italy imported 46,144 m' and 
Switzerland imported 1,900 m' of Obeche sawnwood. Portugal, Sweden, and the USA also imported 



139 



Contribution to an evaluation of tree species using the new CITES Listing Criteria 



Obeche sawnwood. In addition, Portugal and the United States imported Obeche veneer and plywood. 
(ITTO, 1995). 

Conservation Status 

lUCN Category and Criteria: LR (Ic) (African Regional Workshop, 1996) 
This species is considered Vulnerable (1994 lUCN threat category) due to excessive exploitation 
(Hawthorne, 1995b). It has been awarded a scarlet star in Hawthorne's (1995a) star system for Ghana, 
which means that it is common but it is under profound pressure from heavy exploitation. This species 
requires protection and exploitation has to be limited if it is to be sustainable (Hawthorne, 1995a). 

Conservation Measures 

It is protected by law in Cote d'lvoire. Export of this species has been banned by Liberia. (WCMC, 
1991). 

References 

African Regional Workshop, 1996. Conservation and Sustainable Management of Trees project 

workshop held in Harare, Zimbabawe, July, 1996. 
Hawthorne, W.D., 1995(a). Ecological profiles of Ghanaian forest trees. Oxford Forestry 

Institute:Oxford. pp.345. 
Hawthorne, W.D., 1995(b). Categories of conservation priority and Ghanaian tree species. Working 

Document 4 (prepared for the November 1995 Conservation and Sustainable Management of Trees 

- Technical Workshop in Wageningen, Holland), pp.345. 
mo, 1995a. Elements for the annual review and assessment of the world tropical timber situation. 

Draft Document. 
WCMC, 1991. Provision of Data on Rare and Threatened Tropical Timber Species, pp. 58. 
White F., 1983. The Vegetation of Africa. A descriptive memoir to accompany the 

UNESCO/ AETFAT/UNSO vegetation map of Africa. Paris:UNESCO. pp.356. 



140 



Annex 2. Profiles of Tree Species: Africa 



Turraeanthus africanus 

Avodire 

Distribution 

The genus Turraeanthus is endemic to the Guineo-Congohan regional centre of endemism (White, 
1983). This species is distributed in Angola, Benin, Cameroon, Congo, Equatorial Guinea, Ghana, 
Nigeria, Sierra Leone, Uganda and Zaire. 

Habitat 

T. africanus is found commonly in moist semi-deciduous forest and tends not to occur in the wettest 
and the driest forest (Hawthorne, 1995a). 

Population Status and Trends 

This species is common in Ghana and regeneration is sufficient (Hawthorne, 1995a). 

Regeneration 

Only the smaller trees produce fruit and this occurs irregularly (Hawthorne, 1995a). There is high 
viability of seeds that germinate in the shade and seedlings are shade tolerant, however, a small light 
gap is best for growth and survival (Alexandre, 1977 in Hawthorne, 1995a). Large trees are usually 
found in the shade as well (Hawthorne, 1995a). 

Role of Species in its Ecosystem 

Seeds of this species are dispersed by animals (Alexandre, 1977 in Hawthorne, 1995a). 

Threats 

This species is threatened by moderate exploitation in Ghana (Hawthorne, 1995a). 

Utilisation 

T. africanus is used for furniture, joinery, decorative veneer, cabinetwork and panelling (WCMC, 
1991). 

Trade 

The export of Avodire in log form has been banned by Ghana (WCMC, 1991). 

Conservation Status 

lUCN Category and Critena: VU (Alcd) (African Regional Workshop, 1996) 
This species is considered Vulnerable (1994 lUCN threat category) due to exploitation (Hawthorne, 
1995b). It has been awarded a pink star in Hawthorne's (1995a) star system for Ghana, which means 
that it is common and moderately exploited. 

Conservation Measures 

This species is protected by law in Cote d'lvoire. It is considered a priority for in situ conservation by 
FAO, 1984. Urgent regeneration work is required (African Regional Workshop, 1996). 

References 

African Regional Workshop. 1996. Conservation and Sustainable Management of Trees project 

workshop held in Harare, Zimbabawe, July, 1996. 
FAO, 1984. Report of the Fifth Session of the FAO Panel of Experts on Forest Gene Resources 

Information No 14:32-49. 
Hawthorne, W.D., 1995(a). Ecological profiles of Ghanaian forest trees. Oxford Forestry 

Institutc:Oxford. pp.345. 
Hawthorne, W.D., 1995(b). Categories of conservation priority and Ghanaian tree species. Working 

Document 4 (prepared for the November 1995 Conservation and Sustainable Management of Trees 

- Technical Workshop in Wageningen, Holland), pp.345. 
WCMC, 1991. Provision of Data on Rare and Threatened Tropical Timber Species, pp. 58. 



141 



Contribution to an evaluation of tree species using the new CITES Listing Criteria 

Vepris glandulosa 

Rutaceae 

munderendu-itu, munderendu-waitu 



Distribution 

Kenya 

Habitat 

A lower canopy tree confined to patches of upland dry forest between 1550 and 2150m. between the 
lower edges of montane conifer forest, grassland and open woodlands at lower elevations. 

Population status and trends 

Known populations are confined to Muguga, Ragati and Limuru, in central Kenya. The population at 
the type locality in Gichuiro was destroyed along with the forest in the 1970s. The largest population is 
found at Ragati on the eastern slopes of Mt. Kenya, where they are mostly contained in a commercial 
block of Vitex keniensis. In 1995, less than 200 adults were counted along with slightly more saplings 
and coppices. 

Role of species in the ecosystem 

Threats 

Local use, expansion of human settlement and agriculture, forestry management activities. 

Utilisation 

The wood is used locally for making tool handles. The tree is also noted for its use as a bee plant and 
invertebrate food. However the species restricted distribution and population has reduced its utilization. 

Trade 

lUCN Conservation category 

EN Bl+2c, Dl according to WCMC 

Conservation measures 

The Muguga population is protected. Ragati Forest Reserve allows controlled exploitation and 
Thiambethu farm is a privately run ecotourist reserve. Seedlings are being raised on a large scale at the 
Plant Conservation Programme and Kenya Forestry Seed Centre. Only 3 plants have been successfully 
raised to maturity ex situ. 



Forest management and silviculture 

The species coppices and reproduces by seed. 



References 

Achieng', S. et al. 1996. Completed data collection forms for trees endemic to Kenya. 

Beentje, Henk Jaap. 1994. Kenya trees, shrubs and lianas. Nairobi, Kenya: National Museums of 

Kenya. 722pp. 
FAO Forestry Department. 1986. Databook on endangered tree and shrub species and their 

provenances. Rome: FAO. 524pp. 



142 



Annex 2. Profiles of Tree Species: Africa 



Vitellaria paradoxa 

Sapotaceae 
Shea butter tree 



Distribution 

Cameroon, DR Congo, Ghana, Nigeria, Senegal, Sudan, Uganda 

Habitat 

A locally abundant tree restricted to dry savannah and woodland where the water table is shallow, 
generally between 500 and 1000m, often near towns and villages. It grows in areas with annual rainfall 
not exceeding lOOOnmi. 

Population status and trends 

This species has been overexploited for timber, firewood and charcoal production. Its habitat is 
suffering from agricultural encroachment and increasing population pressure. Natural populations are, 
however, often left where land has been cleared. Nevertheless the lack of protection and natural 
regeneration in ageing isolated stands leads to concern over the likelihood of future population 
declines. 

Role of species in the ecosystem 

The fruit are eaten by elephants. 

Threats 

Local use, seed predation, clear-felling/logging of the habitat, expansion of human settlement, 
extensive agriculture 

Utilisation 

The seed is the most valuable commodity. The roasted kernels are pounded and ground into an oily 
paste, which is then boiled and filtered. The purified butter is edible and rich in Vitamin E, used in 
cooking and suitable as an alternative to cocoa butter equivalent for chocolate manufacture. It is used 
commercially in soap, cosmetics and candles and has potential for pharmaceutical preparations. Locally 
it is used in hair dressing, ointments and waterproofing. The fruit pulp is eaten raw or lightly cooked 
and is a good source of carbohydrates, iron and B vitamins. The seed husk is used as mulch and 
fertiliser. The timber is difficult to work but is used for stakes, house posts, ship building and tool 
handles. The wood is also a source of charcoal and firewood. 

Trade 

The amount of fruit harvested each year depends on the price of shea butter. The product is mainly sold 
in local markets for home consumption and is coming under increasing pressure from imported oils. 
The butter requires further refining for the export market (Wickens, 1995). 

lUCN Conservation category 

VU Alcd according to MUIENR (OkuUo etai, 1997). 

Conservation measures 

It is poorly represented m protected areas but is occasionally given protection or planted in farmed 
areas. 

Forest management and silviculture 

Little attention has been paid to cultivating the species and no plantations are established. Trees start to 
fruit at 10-15 years, bearing full fruit crops by 20-25 years with individual yields varying from 20 to 
200kg. 50kg of fresh nuts will produce 4kg of shea butter. 

References 

Okullo, J.B. el al. 1997. Completed data collection forms for woody plants of Uganda. 
Pennington, T.D. 1991. The genera of Sapotaceae. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew & New York 

Botanical Garden. 295pp. 
Wickens, G.E. 1995. Edible nuts. Non-Wood Forest Products 5. Food and Agriculture Organization of 

the United Nations. 



143 



Contribution to an evaluation of tree species using the new CITES Listing Criteria 



Vitex keniensis 

Verbenaceae 

Mem oak, moru, muuru, mfuu 



Distribution 

Kenya 

Habitat 

A species of moist evergreen forest between 1300 - 2100m 

Population status and trends 

The wild populations of the species are confined to parts of the central highlands, including the north- 
east slopes of Mt. Kenya. Most populations, although protected, are in grave danger of being 
overexploited. Most of the commercially available supplies are from plantation sources (Marshall & 
Jenkins, 1994). 

Role of species in the ecosystem 

Threats 

Commercial overexploitation, pests and diseases, clear-felling/logging of the habitat, expansion of 
human settlement, extensive agriculture, forestry management activities 

Utilisation 

Known as the Mem oak, this species provides an excellent commercial timber. It is used for furniture 
making, veneer and panelling etc. It also provides a source of firewood. The fruit is edible and can be 
found in local markets. Trees are also planted for ornamental purposes. 

Trade 

The timber appears to be present only in domestic trade. Five furniture companies in Nairobi used on 
average about 35m^ per year. Total usage is likely to be in the region of 350-450m^ per year. Supplies 
of good quality timber have been said to be poor, much of available stocks have been cut too young 
(Marshall & Jenkins, 1994). As supplies are largely of plantation origin it is expected the presence of 
the species in local markets is small. 

lUCN Conservation status 

VU Alcd+2cd according to World Conservation Monitoring Centre 

Conservation measures 

KEFRl and the Plant Conservation Programme in Kenya maintain a living collection and seed stocks. 

Forest management and silviculture 

The species is one of the very few indigenous trees to be planted over a substantial area, namely in the 
western highlands. It is also planted on a small scale on farms in Tanzania. The plant is fairly fast 
growing and coppices well. 

References 

Achieng', S. et al. 1996. Completed data collection forms for trees endemic to Kenya. 

Beentje, Henk Jaap. 1994. Kenya trees, shrubs and Harms. Nairobi, Kenya: National Museums of 

Kenya. 722pp. 
Knox, Eric B. 1995. The List of East African Plants (LEAP): An electronic database (Draft). 72pp. 
Marshall, N.T. &. M. Jenkins. 1994. Hard times for hardwood: indigenous timber and the timber trade 

in A'ewa.Traffic East/Southern Africa. 
Mbuya, L.P. et al. 1994. Useful trees and shrubs for Tanzania. Identification, propagation and 

management for agricultural and pastoral communities. Regional Soil Conservation Unit/SIDA. 



144 



Annex 2. Profiles of Tree Species: Afiica 



Warburgia salutaris 

Canellaceae 

chibaha, muranga, pepper bark tree, xibaha 

Distribution 

Mozambique, South Africa (KwaZulu-Natal, Mpumalanga, Northern Province), Swaziland, Zimbabwe. 

Habitat 

The pepper bark tree has a scattered distribution in southern Africa, occurring in savanna woodland and 
coastal forest, Afromontane forest up to 1200m and lowland forest patches. 

Population status and trends 

Populations are known from northern KwaZulu-Natal, along the Drakensberg Escarpment in 
Mpumalanga and on the Soutpansberg and Blouberg ranges in the Northern Province in South Africa. 
It is recorded from the Eastern Highlands of Zimbabwe and lowland forest patches in Swaziland and 
the Lebombo Mts. in Mozambique. Habitat losses have occurred but the most serious threat and major 
cause of population declines is the extensive removal of bark, stems and roots for use in traditional 
medicine. This has led to the near extinction of the species in KwaZulu-Natal, parts of Mpumalanga, 
Swaziland and Zimbabwe. In KwaZulu-Natal very little seed is set and no seedlings have been reported 
for unknown reasons (Hilton-Taylor, 1998). The populations in Mozambique appear to be regenerating 
reasonably, but exploitation here too is unsustainable (Bandeira, 1995). There are still large, relatively 
untouched subpopulations in the Northern Province. The precise northern distribution of the species 
and its relationship with closely related species in East Africa requires further investigation (Hilton- 
Taylor, 1998). 

Role of species in the ecosystem 

Threats 

Commercial overexploitation, expansion of human settlement and agriculture. 

Utilisation 

The bark and roots are used in traditional medicinal practices as a treatment of head and chest ailments 
and also to cure people who are bewitched. The wood is also used for making charcoal/fuelwood. 

rUCN Conservation category 

EN Alacd according to Hilton-Taylor (1998). 

Conservation measures 

Plants have been reintroduced into two protected areas in KwaZulu-Natal. Although there are 
subpopulations within protected areas, it is difficult to prevent exploitation. 

Forest management and silviculture 

A number of projects are under way to provide a cultivated form. 

References 

Bandeira, S.O., L. Marconi, & F. Barbosa. 1996. Preliminary study of threatened plants of 

Mozambique. In van der Maesen, L.J.G., van der Burght, X.M. & van Medenbach de Rooy, J.M. 

(eds.). The biodiversity of African plants. Proceedings XlVth Aetfat Congress, 22-27 August 1994, 

Wageningen. The Netherlands: 306-309. 
Bandeira, Salomao. 1995. Data collection forms for tree species of Mozambique. 
Hilton-Taylor, C. (comp.). 1998. Assessment of Southern African Trees for WCMC. 
Hilton-Taylor, Craig. 1996. Red Data List of southern African plants. Strelitzia 4. Pretoria, South 

Africa: National Botanical Institute. 1 17 pp. 
Timberlake, J.R. 1996. Annotations to the conservation listing of trees of Zimbabwe. 
Timberlake, J.R. 1995. Annotations to WCMC printout entitled 'Conservation status listing for 

Zimbabwe'. 79 pp. 
Wild, H. & T. Miiller. 1979. Rhodesia. Part of appendix to: Possibilities and needs for conservation of 

plant species and vegetation in Africa, pp. 99-100. In Hedberg, I. (ed.). Systematic botany, plant 

utilization and biosphere conservation. Stockholm: Almqvist & Wiksell International. 



145 



Contribution to an evaluation of tree species using the new CITES Listing Criteria 

Widdringtonia whytei 

Cupressaceae 

mkungusa, mlanje cypress, mlanje cedar, mulanje cedar 



Distribution 

Malawi 

Habitat 

The species is scattered in submontane, moist mixed, op)en forest between 1500 - 2200m. 

Population status and trends 

The taxonomic validity of the Mulanje cedar is doubtful. It is most likely to represent a variant of W. 
nodiflora, which occurs in Zimbabwe and South Africa. It is endemic to Mt. Mulanje. The timber has 
been heavily exploited in the past. No sizeable stands remain untouched and many former stands have 
been entirely destroyed (lUCN & WWF, 1994). Licences are available now only for the exploitation of 
dead trees, but illegal felhng or killing of trees is believed to take place. Mature individuals appear to 
be dying at a high rate, possibly because of their sensitivity to fires, which have become more frequent. 
Regeneration, on the other hand, depends on fire and appears to be extremely poor. Pinus patula has 
become invasive in areas suitable for Widdringtonia colonisation. The forest is further threatened by 
various forms of encroachment and development. 

Role of species in the ecosystem 

Threats 

Illegal exploitation, poor regeneration, burning, extensive agriculture, natural disaster 

Utilisation 

Mulanje cedar is an enormously valuable asset. The wood is very fragrant and resistant to termites, 
borers and fungal attack. It has been recently found to make excellent timber for boat building and 
fisheries officials have urged that remaining supplies be reserved for the Lake Malawi fishing industry. 
Wood is used locally for making carvings, boxes and furniture sold to tourists. The species also yields a 
potentially commercially valuable cedarwood oil. 

Trade 

The trade in mulanje cedar which peaked earlier in the century, is much diminished, confined now to a 
local scale. 

lUCN Conservation category 

EN Alabcd, Bl+2abcde according to SSC Conifer Specialist Group (Faijon et ai, 1998). 

Conservation measures 

The entire distribution of the species is contained within a forest reserve. Only dead trees are licensed 
for cutting. 

Forest management and silviculture 



References 

Erfurth, T. & H. Rusche. 1976. The marketing of tropical wood. Rome: FAO. 60pp. 
Farjon, Aljos. et al. 1998. Data collection forms for conifer species completed by the SSC Conifer 
Specialist Group between 1996 and 1998. 



146 



THE AMERICAS 

Abies guatemalensis 

Pinaceae 

Guatemalan fir, pashaque, pinabere, romerillo 



Distribution 

El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico 

Habitat 

The tree occurs in tropical, montane, coniferous forest from 1 800 to 4000m. 

Population status and trends 

The Guatemalan Fir is the southernmost member of its genus. It was reported to be common until the 
1940s and large populations may still remain in Honduras. There has been heavy timber exploitation 
throughout the range. Most of the remaining stands in Guatemala are no greater than 3ha in size. 
Isolated stands continue to be exploited heavily by local inhabitants, especially for firewood collection, 
and the deep fertile soils, on which the tree grows, are attractive to agricultural development. Cone 
crops are irregular and germination is poor. 

The status of the species in Mexico is difficult to ascertain because of confusion with other species in 
the genus, many of which are morphologically very similar and some of which appear to have very 
restricted distributions (Newton, in litt. 1998). 

Role of species in the ecosystem 

Threats 

Local use, clear-felling/logging of the habitat, expansion of human settlement 

Utilisation 

The wood has been used as lumber since Mayan times and was used extensively for construction work 
by the Spanish. Today it is the preferred wood for roof shingles, building material, charcoal and 
firewood. 

Trade 

There is no evidence to suggest the species is present m international trade. 

rUCN Conservation category 

VU Aid according to SSC Conifer Specialist Group. 

Conservation measures 

Programmes to improve the status of the species have been run by CAMCORE. Seeds from selected 
trees have been collected and plantings have taken place in Mexico and Colombia. Felling is prohibited 
in Guatemala and Mexico and the species is listed in CITES Appendix I. 

Forest management and ecosystem 

The average growth rate ranges from 0.36 to 0.46m/year between 49 to 71 years of age. Annual 
diameter increment varies from 0.59 to 0.69cm. 

References 

Dvorak, W.S. & J.K. Donahue. 1992. CAMCORE Cooperative Research Review 1980-1992. Forestry 

Department, North Carolina State University, USA: CAMCORE (La Cooperativa de Recursos de 

Coniferas de Centroamerica y Mexico). 94pp. 
Farjon, Aljos, Christopher N. Page, & Nico Schellevis. 1993. A preliminary world list of threatened 

conifer taxa. Biodiversity and Conservation 2: 304-326. 
Farjon, Aljos. et al. 1998. Data collection forms for conifer species completed by the SSC Conifer 

Specialist Group between 1996 and 1998. 
Newton, A. (1998) In litt. to WCMC 



147 



Contribution to an evaluation of tree species using the new CITES Listing Criteria 

Alnus acuminata 

Betulaceae 

aliso, mountain alder 



Distribution 

Argentina (Catamarca, Jujuy. La Rioja, Mendoza, Salta, San Luis, Santiago del Estero), Bolivia, Costa 
Rica, Ecuador, Guatemala, Mexico, Panama. Peru 

Habitat 

A species of tropical, montane, moist forest and woodland areas between 1500 and 3800m. It occurs 
along small streams and at higher altitudes in small valleys where it is protected from cold, dry wmds. 
It is common in montane humid rainforest, upper cloud forest and Tucumanian-Bolivian forest. 

Population Status and Trends 

A common streamside species, distributed in montane areas from Mexico to the Andes. Large stands 
remain in Bolivia, Argentina and probably other South American countries. It is also said to be 
common in Costa Rica (Arce Benavides, 1998). In north-west Argentina the area of forest, dominated 
by Alnus, appears to be increasing, possibly as a result of regular fires preventing more climax species 
from establishing or because of the effectiveness oi Alnus' dispersal system (Grau & Brown, 1995). 
Elsewhere the original habitat has disappeared over the centuries, particularly at higher altitudes in the 
Andes where the species is generally only found in protected valleys. Locally, populations have 
become extinct or are under severe threat from overcutting and habitat clearance and the species is 
included in lists of threatened plants in Argentina and by the FAO (Chebez, 1994; FAO, 1986), but as a 
whole the species has a wide ecological breadth and regenerates well (Ibisch, 1997; Killeen, 1997). 

Role of species in the ecosystem 

Threats 

Invasive exotic plants, extensive agriculture, local overexploitation. 

Utilisation 

The trees are cut for fuel and small construction timber. It is a potentially valuable tree for soil 
improvement, especially for eroded soils. It has been used in agrosilvicultural systems in pastureland in 
Costa Rica. The bark has medicinal value. 

Trade 

Use is only domestic. 

lUCN Conservation category 

LRlc according to WCMC 

Conservation Measures 

Forest Management and Silviculture 

A nitrogen fixing species. It coppices well. Managed populations show yields of I0-15m^/ha pa., with a 
rotation of 18 to 22 years, depending on soil type and altitude. 

References 

Arce Benavides, H. 1998. Comments on species profiles for Costa Rica. 

Brako, L. & J.L. Zarucchi. 1993. Catalogue of the flowering plants and gymnosperms of Peru. Mongr. 

Syst. Bot. (Missouri Bet. Gard.)45: 1-1286. 
Chebez, J.C. 1994. Los que se van. Buenos Aires, Argentina: Albatros. 604pp. 
d'Arcy, W.G. 1987. Rora of Panama: checklist and index. Monographs in Systematic Botany 17: 1- 

1000. 
Estenssoro, S. 1987. Lista preliminar de plantas especiales. La Paz: Centrode Datos para la 

Conservacion. 1 7pp. 



148 



Annex 2. Profiles of Tree Species: The Americas 



FAO Forestry Department. 1986. Dambook on endangered nee and shrub species and their 

provenances.Koms: FAO. 524pp. 
Grau, H.R. & A.D. Brown. 1995. Patterns of tree species diversity along latitudinal and altitudinal 

gradients in the Argentinean subtropical montane forests. In Churchill, S.P. et at. (eds.). 

Biodiversity and conservation of neotropical montane forests. Proceedings of the Neotropical 

Montane Forest Biodiversity and Conservation Symposium. The New York Botanical Garden, 21- 

26 June 1993. 
Ibisch, P.L. 1997. Comments on species summaries for Bolivia. 
Killeen, T. 1997. Comments on species summaries for Bolivia. 



149 



Contribution to an evaluation of tree species using the new CITES Listing Criteria 



Amburana acreana 

Legiiminosae 

cerejeira, cumaru de cheiro, imburana de cheiro 



Distribution 

Bolivia, Brazil (Acre, Mato Grosso, Rondonia), Peru. It is not clear how or if the species is 
distinguished from A. cearensis. which is considered to have the same distribution but is also found in 
Paraguay and Argentina. At present only one species is recognised in Bolivia (Killeen, 1997). Both 
species are recorded in different literature sources in Brazil. 

Habitat 

A species of tropical, lowland, non-seasonal moist forest. The species was formerly abundant in non- 
flooded forest (Varty, 1996). 

Population Status and Trends 

Once considered abundant in Brazil, the species has become rare since exploitation rose to extremely 
high levels. In Rondonia, a major pan of the species range, the number of sawmills principally 
processing A.acreana increased 8 fold between 1975 and 1982 (Vany, 1996). The species is included 
on the list of threatened Brazilian plants compiled by IBAMA (IBAMA, 1992). 

Ecology 

Associated species include Swietenia macrophylla and Bertholetia excelsa 

Role of Species in its Ecosystem 

Threats 

Commercial overexploitation and consequent genetic erosion. 

Utilisation 

The timber is used to make luxury furniture. 

Trade 

See under A. cearensis. 

lUCN Conservation category 

VU Ald-i-2d according to Varty, N. & D.L. Guadagnin. (Varty, 1996). 

Conservation Measures 

The species is included in the official list of threatened species compiled by IBAMA in 1992. 

Forest Management and Silviculture 

Apparently the species is not yet in cultivation (Varty, 1996) 

References 

Brako, L. & J.L. Zarucchi. 1993. Catalogue of the flowering plants andgymnosperms of Peru. Mongr. 

Syst. Bat. (Missouri Bot. Gard.) 5:1-1286. 
Encamacion, F. 1983. Nomenclatura de las especies forestales comunes en el Peru. Lima 147pp. 
IBAMA. 1992. Lista oficial de especies da flora Brasileira ameagadas de extingao. (unpublished). 

4pp. 
Sociedade Botanica do Brasil. 1992. Centuria plantarum Brasiliensium extintionis minitata. Sociedade 

Botanica do Brasil. 175pp. 
Varty, Nigel. 1996. Data collection forms for Brazilian Atlantic forest species. 



150 



Annex 2. Profiles of Tree Species: The Americas 



Amburana cearensis 

Leguminosae 

cerejeira, cumare, cumani, ishpingo, palo trebol, roble del pais, roble salteno. 

umburana do cheiro. 



Distribution 

Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Paraguay, Peru. It is not clear how or if the species is distinguished from A. 
acreana. which is mainly known from Brazil but also possibly occurs Bolivia and Peru. At present only 
one species is recognised in Bolivia (Killeen, 1997). Both species are recorded in different literature 
sources in Brazil. 

Habitat 

A u-ee of premontane forest with monsoon rains, seasonally dry. It is frequent in caatmga, rarer m 
deciduous forest in south Brazil and Argentina. 

Population Status and Trends 

A prime timber species, at least, in Bolivia and Brazil, all large trees are undergoing selective logging 
along with Machaerium and mahogany (Killeen, 1997). Stands of small trees of no commercial value 
survive around granitic outcrops (Killeen, 1997). Exploitation is also of a large scale in other parts of 
the species range. Populations are becoming increasingly isolated, lowering the potential for cross- 
pollination (Herran, 1996). Population density is very low in Argentina and clearance of the subAndean 
piedmont forest, where the species occurs, is continuing at an alarming rate (Prado, 1996). 
Regeneration appears to be poor where adequate management is not in place (Prado, 1996). 

Role of species in the Ecosystem 

Threats 

Overexploitation for commercial use, poor regeneration, habitat conversion for agriculture and cattle 
ranching (Prado, 1996). 

Utilisation 

The timber is used in construction work, decorative veneers and for making furniture. The seed and 
bark are used locally for their medicinal properties in Argentina (Prado, 1996). 



Trade 

A. cearensis is reported in exports of sawnwood from Peru in 1995 and from Brazil in 1994 (ITTO, 
1997^ 1995). In 1994, 6000m' was exported from Brazil, selling at an average price of US$ 430.00/m' 
(ITTO. 1995). Argentina is reported to have imported wood from Bolivia through Salta. Between April 
1995 and April 1996 18,240m^vas imported in this way (Herran, 1996). 



Year 


Sawnwood 


Veneer 


Tonne 


US$ FOB 


Tonne 


US$ FOB 


1993 


3.205 


1,351 


0.874 


1,732 


1994 


3.592 


1,494 


1.457 


2,730 


1995 


3.245 


1,696 


1.066 


2,820 



Source: IBAMA, 1996 



lUCN Conservation category 

EN Alacd+2cd according to the Americas Regional Workshop for the WCMC/SSC Conservation and 
sustainable management of trees project (WCMC, 1996). 

Conservation Measures 

In Brazil the species is listed as threatened by IBAMA. This allows the species protection under both 
state and federal legislation. In Argentina legislation in Salta prohibits the cutting of trees less than 
50cm DBH and in Jujuy completely bans the cutting of the species (Prado, D.E., 1996). 

References 

Centro de Datos para la Conservacion. 1986. Lista preliminar de plantas especiales. Limon, Peru; 
Centre de Datos para la Conservacion. 19pp. 



151 



Contribution to an evaluation of tree species using the new CITES Listing Criteria 



Chudnoff, M. 1984. Tropical timbers of the world. Forest Products Laboratory Madison, Wisconsin: 

United Stales Department ofAgriculture. 464pp. 
Halloy, Stepiian. 1994. Annotations to the Argentina WCMC printout dated 17 Jan 1994. 

(unpublished). 23pp. 
Harcourt, C.S. and J.A. Sayer (eds.). 1996. The conservation atlas of tropical forests: the Americas. 

Simon & Schuster: Singapore. 
Herran 1996. Personal communication to Sara Oldfield 

IBAMA 1996. Fax to Nigel Varty concerning Brazilian export information for various timber species 
ITTO, 1995. Elements for the annual review and assessment of the world tropical timber situation. 

Draft Document. 
ITTO, 1997. Annual review and assessment of the world tropical timber situation 1996. International 

Tropical Timber Organization (ITTO). 
Killeen, T. 1997. Comments on the species summaries for Bolivia. 
Lopez, J. & Elbert L. Little. 1987. Arboles communes del Paraguay. Washington, DC: Peace Corps. 

425pp. 
Prado, Darien E. & Peter E. Gibbs. 1993. Patterns of species distributions in the dry seasonal forests of 

South America. Ann. Missouri. Bot. Card. 80(4): 902-927. 
Prado, D.E. 1996. Completed data collection forms for trees of Argentinia and neighbouring countries. 
Varty, N. and D.L. Guadagnin. 1996. Information sources on the biology, conservation and trade of 

tree species in Brazil. Unpublished document prepared for WCMC/SSC Conservation and 

Sustainable Management of Trees project 
WCMC. 1996. Report of the Second Regional Workshop, held at CATIE, Turrialba, Costa Rica, 18-20 

November 1996. Conservation and sustainable management of trees ■pTo]ecl. (unpublished). 



152 



Annex 2. Profiles of Tree Species: The Americas 



Anadenanthera macrocarpa 

Leguminosae 

angico-bravo, angico preto, angico rajado, angico-veraielho, arapiraca, cambuf-ferro, 

guarapiraca, curupay 

Distribution 

Argentina (Catamarca, Chaco, Corrientes, Formosa, Jujuy, Salta, Santiago del Estero), Bolivia. Brazil, 

Paraguay, Peru 

Habitat 

A species of tropical, lowland, dry forest, caatinga and cerrados, especially on deep soils. In caatinga it 
is found on deep tableland soils and alluvials. 

Population Status and Trends 

The species is common and widespread but population numbers are said to be in slow decline (FAO, 
1986). In Bolivia the species is common and widespread in piedmont forest in Tanja, Chuquisaca and 
southern Santa Cruz, as well as the Chiquiios forest in eastern Santa Cruz (Killeen, 1997). Trees in 
Corrientes, Argentina, have been highly sought-after as a source of tannin (Chebez, 1994). 

Threats 

Utilisation 

The wood is used for construction work, fuelwood and charcoal production. The bark provides tannin 

for the leather industry. 
Trade 

rUCN Conservation category 

LR/lc according to WCMC 

Conservation Measures 

Forest Management and Silviculture 

The species is not commonly cultivated for commercial purposes. Trees of 6 years yield wood for fence 
posts, fuel and charcoal. 

References 

Brako, L. & J.L. Zarucchi. 1993. Catalogue of the flowering plants and gymnosperms of Peru. Mongr. 

Sysi. Bat. (Missouri Bot. Card.) 45: 1-1286. 
Chebez, Juan Carlos. 1994. Los que se van. Buenos Aires, Argentina: Albatros. 604pp. 
Chudnoff, M. 1984. Tropical timbers of the world. Forest Products Laboratory Madison, Wisconsin: 

United Slates Department of Agriculture. 464pp. 
FAO Forestry Department. 1986. Databook on endangered tree and shrub species and their 

provenances. Rome: FAO. 524pp. 
Killeen, T. 1997. Comments on the species summaries for Bolivia. 



153 



Contribution to an evaluation of tree species using the new CITES Listing Criteria 

Aniba rosaeodora 

Lauraceae 

pau rosa, bois de rose femelle, rosewood, pau ferro 

Distribution 

Brazil (Amapa, Amazonas, Para), Colombia, Ecuador, French Guiana, Guyana, Peru, Sunname, 
Venezuela 

Habitat 

A species of tropical, lowland to submontane, non-seasonal, rainforest. It occurs on clay soils, 
developing well in forest clearings (Varty, 1996). The species is also recorded from areas of mountain 
savannah forest up to 1280m. 

Population Status and Trends 

Populations throughout the species range have seriously declined because of rosewood oil extraction. 
Substantial wild stands are believed to exist still in areas which are unlikely to be exploited, but where 
exploitation has occurred the population is devoid of mature trees and significant signs of regeneration 
are absent (Coppen, 1995). The whole tree and its roots are destroyed in the extraction process, trees of 
all sizes being harvested indiscriminately (Varty, 1996). The sole producer at present is Brazil, 
although the species was wiped out through exploitation over large areas in French Guiana between 
1910 and 1930. Harvesting incurs high costs and is taking place in more and more remote locations 
concentrated around Amazon tributaries, principally in Amazonas and Para states (Coppen, 1995). 
Mobile distillation factories have moved deep into the forest (Varty, 1996). Levels of exploitation have 
significantly declined with increased use of synthetic oils (Coppen, 1995). The species is included in 
lists of threatened plants in Colobia, Brazil and Suriname (Calderon, 1997; IBAMA, 1992; Werkhoven, 
1997). 

Ecology 

Early pioneer, light demanding (Varty, 1996) 

Role of species in the Ecosystem 

The few fruit crops produced are sought by parakeets (Varty, 1996). 

Threats 

Commercial overexploitation, poor regeneration, clear- felling/logging of the habitat (Varty, 1996). 

Utilisation 

The essential oil is extracted from the wood. The leaves and roots are also fragrant. Rosewood oil 
contains high concentrations of linalool, which can be transformed into a number of derivatives for the 
flavour and fragrances industry. Rosewood oil has for a long time been used in the preparation of more 
expensive perfumes and at one time in fragrant soaps. Synthetic linalool and more cheaply harvested 
natural sources of linalool are now more commonly used than Rosewood oil. (Coppen, 1995). The 
timber is also of some commercial value in furniture-making, turnery, boat or canoe building, 
millwork, flooring, plywood, veneer and the making of agricultural implements and tool handles 
(Flynn, 1994, Varty, 1996). 

Trade 

At the height of international interest in rosewood oil in the 1960s, Brazil alone exported 500 tonnes 
pa. The world market is now stable at about 100 tonnes (Coppen, 1995). Fluctuations in supplies are 
caused by changes in rainfall levels, which affect access to harvesting sites. Although Peru, Colombia 
and the Guianas have all produced rosewood oil for the international market, Brazil is now the only 
producer. The chief importer is U.S.A. followed by Switzerland, France and other EC countries 
(Coppen, 1995). 



154 



Annex 2. Profiles of Tree Species: The Americas 



Destinations of Brazilian 
Exports 


Amount in tonnes | 


1986 


1987 


1988 


1989 


1990 


1991 


1992 


USA 


28 


22 


na 


na 


40 


na 


na 


Swiueriand 


6 


6 


na 


na 


11 


na 


na 


France 


10 


9 


na 


na 


3 


na 


na 


Former West Germanv 


1 


1 


na 


na 


2 


na 


na 


U.K. 


1 


1 


na 


na 


1 


na 


na 


Netherlands 


- 


- 


na 


na 


1 


na 


na 


Spain 


- 


1 


na 


na 


1 


na 


na 


Total 


48 


39 


95 


78 


60 


74 


68 



Source: Brazilian national staustics in Coppen. J.J.W. 1995 

lUCN Conservation category 

EN Al+2d according to Varty, N. (Varty, 1996). 

Conservation Measures 

The species is included in the official list of threatened Brazilian plants compiled by IBAMA. 

Forest Management and Silviculture 

The establishment of plantations has not been greatly successful and continues at a small scale (Varty, 
1996). Silvicultural studies have been carried out by several Brazilian institutions and are continued by 
the Faculdade de Ciencias Agranas do Para (FCAP) with assistance from the U.K. institutions, NRI, 
on and ITE. 

References 

Calderon. E. (comp.). 1997. Lista de plantas Colombianas en peligro. July 1997 Version. Instituto de 

Investigacino de Recursos Biologicas Alexander von Humboldt, (unpublished). 14 pp. 
Coppen. J.J.W. 1995. Flavours and fragrances of plan: origin. Non-Wood Forest Products I . Food and 

Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome. 
Erfurth, T. & H. Rusche. 1976. The marketing of tropical wood. Rome: FAO. 
FAO Forestry Department. 1986. Databook on endangered tree and shrub species and their 

provenances. Rome: FAO. 524pp. 
Flynn, J.H. 1994. A guide to useful woods of the world. King Philip Publishing Co., Maine, U.S. 382pp. 
Harcourt. C.S. & J.A. Sayer (eds.). 1996. The conservation atlas of tropical forests: the Americas. 

Simon & Schuster. 
IBAMA. 1992. Lista oficial de especies da flora Brasileira ameagadas de extinfao. (unpublished). 

4pp. 
Kubitzki, K. & S. Renner. 1982. Lauraceae I (.Aniba and Aiouea). Flora Neotropica. New York: New 

York Botanic Gardens. 
Fires O' Brien. 1997. Additional information on Brazilian tree species, 
van der Werff, H. 1994. Annotations - List of Threatened plants of South America. 159-165. 
Varty, Nigel. 1996. Data collection forms for Brazilian Atlantic forest species. 
WCMC. 1996. Report of the Second Regional Workshop, held at CATE, Turrialba, Costa Rica, 18-20 

Novembei 1996. Conservation and sustainable maruigement of trees pTOJect. (unpublished). 
Werkhoven, M.C.M. 1997. Threatened trees of Suriname. A list compiled for the WCMC/SSC 

Conservation and sustainable management of trees project. 



155 



Contribution to an evaluation of tree species using the new CITES Listing Criteria 

Araucaria angustifolia 

Araucariaceae 

parana pine, pino Brasil. 



Distribution 

Argentina (Misiones), Brazil (Minas Gerais, Parana, Rio de Janeiro?, Rio Grande do Sul, Santa 
Catarina, Sao Paulo), Paraguay 

Habitat 

A species of tropical, seasonal, mixed moist forest, occumng between 600 - 2300m. It is a dommant 
component of large areas of Atlantic forest in humid areas, which experience a mild to hot summer 
without a dry season. In the northern parts of its range the species occurs over 800m. Further south the 
species can descend to lower altitudes (FAO, 1986). It grows best along the border between forest and 
grassland (Varty, 1996). 

Population Status and Trends 

Parana pine is the most important timber species in Brazil. Although an abundant species, it has 
undergone continuous declines in the extent of its occurrence through logging and forest clearance. The 
original extent of Araucaria forest, estimated at 200,000km', is believed to have declined by more than 
80% in the last century (Varty, 1996). An estimate of 30,000km' of Araucaria forest remamed in 1991 
according to Harcourt & Sayer (1996). In Rio Grande do Sul the forest area, over half of which was 
made up of Araucaria, has plummeted from 40% land cover to 3% today (Varty, 1996). Araucaria 
forest in Sao Paulo was exhausted between 1930 and 1940 and now covers 4.3% of its original area 
(FAO, 1986). A large number of fruit and seeds are also harvested for consumption in Brazil. The 
population in Paraguay is small, occurring in the department of Alto Parana, and seeds are notably 
scarce (Ortega Torres et al, 1989). Small relict populations, covering less than lOOOha, in north-east 
Misiones in Argentina are all that remains of the forest that in 1960 covered 210,000ha (Chebez, 1994). 

Role of species in the Ecosystem 

The dominant species of a habitat type which also contains numerous rare and economically important 
plant species. Seeds are important during winter months for Amazona pretrei (red spectacled Amazon) 
and other bird species. Seeds are fed on and dispersed by a variety of birds and mammals (Varty, 
1996). 

Threats 

Commercial overexploitation, grazing/damage by feral/exotic animals, local use, clear-felling/logging 
of the habitat (Varty, 1996). 

Utilisation 

The principal uses of the timber are in civil construction work, for framing lumber, interior trim, sash 
and door slock, furniture and veneer. In Brazil it is traded as plywood, pulp and paper. It is also used 
locally to make musical instruments, boxes and matches. The species is useful as a fuelwood (FAO, 
1986). Seeds, used as a food source, and the resin from the bark are traded at a subnational level 
(Varty, 1996). The species is planted as an ornamental (Varty, 1996). 

Trade 

Araucaria production in all states increased from 1.5 million m^ to 3.3 million m' between 1945 and 
1 950. Output continued at a level of 2.8 million m^ a year until 1 966 and then it decreased to 1 .8 
million m' in 1972 and continued to decrease to present levels (FAO, 1986). 

More recently, 35,000m'of Parana pine was exported as sawnwood from Brazil in 1994 and 29,0(KP in 
1995 (ITTO, 1995, 1997). 40,194m3 is reponed to have been exported from Porto de Parangua and Foz 
do Iguagu, Parana, Brazil, at an average price of US$508/m^ (Varty & Guadagnin, 1996). There is no 
exploitation of natural stands in Paraguay because of the scarcity of the species and government 
legislation (Ortega Torres era/., 1989). 



156 



Annex 2. Profiles of Tree Species: The Americas 



Year 


Production oiAraucaria angustifolia in Brazil | 


Logs (m^) 


FeUed trees (1000 trees) 


1989 


1,407.572 


680 


1990 


1,050,715 


542 


1991 


832.664 


415 


1992 


645.662 


326 


1993 


600.064 


282 



Source: FAO, 1996 



Year 


Export oiAraucaria angustifolia from Brazil 


Sawnwood 


Veneer | 


tonnes 


US$FOB 


tonnes 


USSFOB 


1993 


25.189 


16.339 


1.734 


1.021 


1994 


25.370 


16.614 


2.149 


1.316 


1995 


20.341 


16.126 


0.865 


452 



Source: IBAMA, 1996 

In addition, 3,400 tons per annum of fruit and seeds are collected in Brazil for human consumption 
(Varty, N. 1996), 

lUCN Conservation category 

VU Alcd+2cd accordmg to Varty & Guadagnin (Varty, 1996), VU Bl+2c according to SSC Conifer 
Specialist Group (Farjon et al., 1996). 

Conservation Measures 

The species is included on the official list compiled by IBAMA of threatened Brazilian plants and 
listed on CITES Appendix I. In Brazil licences to harvest parana pine are obtained only with proof that 
logging will follow an agreed management plan, that the area to be logged is either a plantation or was 
previously under cultivation (Varty & Guadagnin, 1996). In Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, the state forest 
code has set the minimum cutting DBH at 40cm. (Varty & Guadagnin, 1996). The government in 
Paraguay has declared the species protected because of the scarcity of the seeds (Ortega Torres et al. 
1989). 

Forest Management and Silviculture 

The Brazilian Institute for Forestry Development (IBDF) maintain a few natural and planted stands for 
seed production (FAO, 1986). The species is dioecious and slow-growing. Little is known about natural 
regeneration and the likely limitations resulting from seed consumption by natural predators, livestock 
and the humans. (Lamprecht, 1989). Seeds have a shon period of viability (FAO, 1986). In plantations 
with nutrient-rich, well-drained soils there is an annual increment of up to 20m^ per ha. The rotation 
period for maximum yield in terms of volume is 35-40 years, but in terms of value is at least 90 years. 
A supply of timber is apparently available from plantations in the department of Itapiia, Paraguay 
(Ortega Torres et al. 1989). 

References 

Chebez, Juan Carlos. 1994. Los que se van. Buenos Aires, Argentina: Albatros. 604pp. 

Chudnoff, M. 1984. Tropical timbers of the world. Forest Products Laboratory Madison, Wisconsin: 

United States Department of Agriculture. 464pp. 
FAO Forestry Department. 1986. Databook on endangered tree and shrub species and their 

provenances. Rome: FAO. 524pp. 
FAO 1996. Proceedings of the FAO Working Group on forestry statistics. 20-24 November, 1995. 

FAO, Rome. 399pp. 
Faijon, A. et al. 1996. Discussions of the SSC Conifer Specialist Group involving the application of 

revised lUCN red list categories to conifer species. 
Harcourt, C.S. & J.A.Sayer. 1996. The conservation atlas of tropical forests: The Americas. New York 

Simon & Schuster Macmillan. 
IBAMA 1992. Lista oficial de especies da flora Brasileira ameagadas de extingao. (unpublished). 

4pp. 
IBAMA 1996. Fax to Nigel Varty concerning Brazilian export information for various timber species 

dated 11 July 1996. 
ITTO 1995. Elements for the annual review and assessment of the world tropical timber situation. Draft 

Document. 



157 



Contribution to an evaluation of tree species using the new CITES Listing Criteria 



mo, 1997. Annual review and assessment of the world tropical timber situation 1996. International 

Tropical Timber Organization (ITTO). 
Lamprecht, H. 1989. Silviculture in the tropics: tropical forest ecosystems and their tree species: 

possibilities and methods for their long-term utilization. Dt. Ges. fiir Techn. Zusammenarbeit 

(GTZ) GmbH, Eschbom. 
Ntima, O.O. 1968. The Araucarias -fast growing timber trees of the tropics. 
Ortega Torres, E., L. Stutz de Ortega & R. Spichiger. 1989. Noventa especies forestales del Paraguay. 

Flora del Paraguax. Conservatoire et Jardin Botaniques de la Ville de Geneve & Missouri 

Botanical Garden. 
The Nature Conservancy. 1996. Natural Heritage Central Database. (Status and distribution data on 

Latin American plants, developed m collaboration with Latin American Conservation Data Centers 

and Missouri Botanical Garden.). 
Varty, Nigel. 1996. Data collection forms for Brazilian Atlantic forest species. 
Varty, N. & D.L. Guadagnin. 1996. Information sources on the biology, conservation and trade of 

species in Brazil. Unpublished document prepared for WCMC/SSC Conservation and Sustainable 

Management of Trees project. 
WCMC. 1996. Report of the Second Regional Workshop, held at CATIE, Turrialba, Costa Rica, 18-20 

November 1996. Conservation and sustainable management of trees project, (unpublished). 



158 



Annex 2. Profiles of Tree Species: The Americas 

Araucaria araucana 

Araucariaceae 

araucaria, giiillo, monkey puzzle, pehuen, pino araucana, pino chileno, pinonero 



Distribution 

Argentina (Neuquen), Chile. Known widely as the Monkey Puzzle tree, this species ranges from the 
Coastal Cordillera of Chile to the Andes in Argentina. 

Habitat 

A tree of temperate, mixed, moist forest, occurring between 600 and 1700m. 

Population status and trends 

The populations on the coast are restricted and highly threatened. Andean populations are severely 
fragmented. Chile holds the largest populations, some of which are being illegally felled in and outside 
national park boundaries. A rough estimate in 1981 suggested that 600,000 acres oi Araucaria forest 
remain in Chile, yielding a possible 1215 million ft'. Most of these trees are scattered or in inaccessible 
places. 

Role of species in the ecosystem 

Threats 

Clear felling/ logging of the habitat, commercial use and burning are the main theats to this species. 

Utilisation 

The seed is an important source of nutrition in rural communities. The timber has commercial value 
and is used in construction work, interior finishes and furniture, also for making pulp. Trees are planted 
worldwide for ornamental purposes. 

Trade 

According to CITES statistics, Chile is the only country of export for the timber of Araucaria araucana 
exporting 7043m' in 1990, mainly to Italy; 1873m' in 1991 to Argentina, Belgium, Italy, USA and 
Uruguay: and 2347m' in 1992 to Argentina, Spain and the USA. None of these imports are reported by 
the corresponding importing countries. The exports from Chile were in contravention to the Convention 
since the species is, for Chile, included in Appendix I. As well as trade in timber of this species, trade in 
live, anificially propagated plants and seed is reported in CITES annual reports. The live plants are 
mainly produced in European nurseries and exported from Denmark, Germany and the Netherlands. 

lUCN Conservation category 

VU A led accordmg to the SSC Conifer Specialist Group 

Conservation measures 

The Chilean populations are listed in CITES Appendix I and the Argentinian in Appendix II. 
Populations occur within both Chilean and Argentinian National Parks and some private reserves. 

References 

Benoit, C. & L. Ivan (eds.). 1989. Lihro rojo de la flora terrestre de Chile. Santiago: Impresora Creces 

Ltd. 157 pp. 
Chebez, Juan Carlos. 1994. Los que se van. Buenos Aires, Argentina: Albatros. 604pp. 
Gonzalez Cangas, Mauro. 1996. Completed data collection forms for tree species of Chile. 
The Nature Conservancy. 1996. Natural Heritage Central Database. (Status and distribution data on 

Latin American plants, developed in collaboration with Latin American Conservation Data Centers 

and Missouri Botanical Garden.). 



159 



Contribution to an evaluation of tree species using the new CITES Listing Criteria 

Aspidosperma polyneuron 

Apocynaceae 

amargoroso, ibira-ro-mi, palo rosa, peroba rosa 



Distribution 

Argentina (Misiones), Bolivia, Brazil (Bahia, Mato Grosso, Minas Gerais, Parana, Rio Grande do Sul, 
Santa Catarina, Sao Paulo) Colombia. Paraguay, Peru 

Habitat 

A species of tropical, lowland to submontane moist forest. It occurs m various forest types in 
moderately humid areas from low to medium altitudes. It can be dominant in the understory of " 
Araucaria forest. 

Population Status and Trends 

Peroba rosa is a popular timber tree which has suffered intense exploitation and habitat loss over the 
past few decades. The Brazilian populations are largely eroded (Americas Regional Workshop, 1996). 
Although the species was until recently one of the dominant components of certain areas in Paraguay, 
also occurring in pure stands, exploitable populations are now very hard to find and commercial 
sources are almost exclusively confined to Brazil (Atkin, 1998). Populations in Colombia are seriously 
threatened (Calderon, 1997), and in Argentina the species is scarce and confined to an area in the north 
of Misiones (Chebez, 1994) 

Role of species in the Ecosystem 

Threats 

Overexploitation, habitat conversion to pastureland and agnculture (FAO, 1986). 

Utilisation 

Peroba rosa is used primarily in civil construction for joinery, veneers and in the construction of ship 
decks, flooring, furniture and sleepers. (Flynn, 1994). 

Trade 

Peroba rosa is the most available hardwood in Brazil. (Flynn, 1994). 180m^ o{ Aspidosperma spp. was 
exported as sawnwood from Brazil in 1994 at an average price of US$420.00/m' (11 TO, 1995). 

lUCN Conservation category 

EN Alacd+2cd according to the Americas Regional Workshop for the WCMC/SSC Conservation and 
sustainable management of trees project (WCMC, 1996). 

Conservation Measures 

Legislation exists in Colombia to prohibit the export of the species, except in the form of industrialised 
goods (Americas Regional Workshop, 1996). 

Forest Management and Silviculture 

Silvicultural trials have been carried out and in different sites tree heights at 12-13 years have ranged 
from 4.7 to 7.8m with DBH ranging from 5.6 to 9.7 cm. 

References 

Americas Regional Workshop. 1996. Discussions held at CATE, Costa Rica, November 1996 at the 

Second Regional Workshop of the WCMC/SSC Conservation and Sustainable Management of 

Trees project. (Unpublished). 
Atkin, J.S. 1998. Comments on the tree species in trade in Paraguay. 
Calderon, E. (comp.). 1997. Lista de plantas Colombianas en peligro. July 1997 Version. Institute de 

Investigacino de Recursos Biologicas Alexander von Humboldt, (unpublished). 14 pp. 
Chebez, Juan Carlos. 1994. Los que se van. Buenos Aires, Argentina: Albatros. 604pp. 
FAO Forestry Department. 1986. Databook on endangered tree and shrub species and their 

provenances. Rome: FAO. 524pp. 
Flynn, J.L. 1994. A guide to the useful woods of the world. King Philip Publishing Co, Maine, US. 

382pp. ITTO. 1995. Elements for the annual review and assessment of the world tropical timber 

situation. Draft Document. 



160 



Annex 2. Profiles of Tree Species: The Americas 



The Nature Conservancy. 1996. Natural Heritage Central Database. (Status and distribution data on 

Latin American plants, developed in collaboration with Latin American Conservation Data Centers 

and Missouri Botanical Garden.). 
Varty, N. & D.L. Guadagnin. 1996. Information sources on the biology, conservation and trade of tree 

species in Brazil. Unpublished document prepared for the WCMC/SSC Conservation and 

Sustainable Management of Trees project. 
WCMC. 1996. Report of the Second Regional Workshop, held at CATIE. Turrialba, Costa Rica, 18-20 

November 1996. Conservation and sustainable management of trees project, (unpublished). 



161 



Contribution to an evaluation of tree species using the new CITES Listing Criteria 

Astronium urundeuva 

Anacardiaceae 

aroeira-do-sertao, aroeira-legitima, gongalo alves, urundei-me, urundel 



Distribution 

Argentina (Jujuy, Salta), Bolivia, Brazil (Bahia, Goias, Maranhao. Mato Grosso. Minas Gerais. Piaui, 
Sao Paulo), Paraguay 

Habitat 

A species of temperate and u-opical areas, occurring in lowland to submontane, broadleaved forest, 
woodland and scrub between 900 and 1800m. A dominant component of caatinga. also occurring 
widely in cerrado and even in rainforest habitat types. In secondary forest it can form almost pure 
stands. 

Population Status and Trends 

Large natural stands have become scarce in places. Populations in Bolivia are facing commercial 
overexploitation. All size classes are heavily used (Killeen, 1997). It is not clear whether populations 
elsewhere are under similarly intense cutting regimes. The populations in Argentina are considered to 
be of concern (Chebez, 1994). 

Ecology 

Associated species include Piptadenia spp., Choriza speciosa, Tabebuia impetiginosa and Hymenea 
stilbocarpa. 

Role of species in the Ecosystem 

Threats 

Overexploitation 

Utilisation 

All size classes are exploited for a variety of uses; small U-ees for fencing and larger U-ees for railroad 
ties, posts and other construction work. The durability of the wood makes it suitable for external 
structures. 

Trade 

The species is commercially heavily exploitated but there is little indication to what extent it occurs in 
international trade. 

rUCN Conservation category 

DD according to Prado (1996). 

Conservation Measures 

Forest Management and Silviculture 

In different sil vicultural trials u-ees of 3 years have attained a height of 1 .7m, trees of 5 years have 
attained 5. 1 Im a height and ttees of 9 years have attained a height of 9.6m and DBH of 9.7cm. 

References 

Bertoni, Siemens, et al 1994. Flora Amenazada del Paraguay. 

Chebez, Juan Carlos. 1994. Los que se van. Buenos Aires, Argentina: Albatros. 604pp. 

FAO Forestry Department. 1986. Databook on endangered tree and shrub species and their 

provenances. Rome: FAO. 524pp. 
IBAMA. 1992. Lista oficial de especies da flora Brasileira ameagadas de extingao. (unpublished). 

4pp.Killeen, T. 1997. Comments on the species summaries for Bolivia. 
Lopez, J. & Elbert L. Little. 1987. Arboles communes del Paraguay. Washington, DC: Peace Corps 

425pp. 
Prado, Darien E. & Peter E. Gibbs. 1993. Patterns of species distributions in the dry seasonal forests of 

South America. J 80(4): 902-927. 
Prado, Darien Eros. 1996. Completed data collection forms for trees of Argentinia and neighbouring 

countries. 



162 



Annex 2. Profiles of Tree Species: The Americas 



Teixeira, D.E. 1988. Amazonian timbers for the international market. Brasilia: Brazilian Institute for 
Forestry Development & ITTO. 94pp. 



163 



Contribution to an evaluation of tree species using the new CITES Listing Criteria 

Balfourodendron riedelianum 

Rutaceae 

pau-marfim, guatambu, guatambu bianco, yvyra neti 

Distribution 

Argentina, Brazil (Parana, Rio Grande do Sul, Santa Catarina, Sao Paulo). Paraguay 

Habitat 

A common species of lowland rainforest along the banks of the Parana and Uruguay nver systems in 
Brazil and Paraguay (Ortega Torres ei al, 1989). It also extends into cerrado and secondary forest with 
Aspidosperma polyneuron (FAO, 1986). 

Population Status and Trends 

The species has become scarce in places because of overexploitation of the timber and deforestation, 
but it is still reported to occur in abundance in a large part of its range. The genus is under taxonomic 
review (Americas Regional Workshop, 1996). 

Role of species in the Ecosystem 

An important component of high forest with deep soil (Ortega Torres ei al, 1989). 

Threats 

Commercial overexploitation, habitat conversion. 

Utilisation 

The timber is used in furniture-making, floonng, cabinetwork and turnery (Flynn, 1994). It is also used 
in construction work (FAO, 1986). The wood is elegant but not durable (Ortega Torres et al., 1989). 

Trade 

The main use of the timber is domestic. It is relatively inexpensive in U.S.A. when compared with 
other imported species (Flynn, 1994). 

lUCN Conservation category 

EN AIacd+2cd according to the Americas Regional Workshop for the WCMC/SSC Conservation and 
sustainable management of trees project (WCMC, 1996). 

Conservation Measures 

Forest Management and Silviculture 

The species has a great affinity for mixed planting. Various trials have taken place. An average height 
of 21.2m and DBH of 20.5cm have been attained in trees of 26 years and an average height of 10.96m 
has been recorded from trees of 14 years. 

References 

Americas Regional Workshop. 1996. Discussions held at CATIE, Costa Rica, November 1996 at the 

Second Regional Workshop of the WCMC/SSC Conservation and Sustainable Management of 

Trees project. (Unpublished). 
Chudnoff, M. 1984. Tropical timbers of the world. Forest Products Laboratory Madison, Wisconsin: 

United States Department of Agriculture. 464pp. 
FAO Forestry Department. 1986. Databook on endangered tree and shrub species and their 

provenances. Rome: FAO. 524pp. 
Flynn, J.H. 1994. A guide to useful woods of the world. King Publishing Co, Maine, U.S.A. 382pp. 
Harcourt, C.S. & J.A. Sayer. (eds.). 1996. The consen/ation atlas of tropical forest: the Americas. 

Simon & Schuster, Singapore. 
Ortega Torres, E., L. Stutz de Ortega & R. Spichiger. 1989. Noventa especies forestales del Paraguay. 

Flora del Paraguay. Conservatoire et Jardin Botaniques de la Ville de Geneve & Missouri Botanical 

Garden. 
WCMC. 1996. Report of the Second Regional Workshop, held at CATIE, Turrialba, Costa Rica, 18-20 

November 1996. Conservation and sustainable management of trees project, 
(unpublished). 



164 



Annex 2. Profiles of Tree Species: The Americas 



Balmea stormae 

Rubiaceae 

Locally known as ayuque 



Distribution 

Mexico (Michoacan), Guatemala (Zacapa, Jalapa and Huehuelenango) (Standley and Williams, 1975). 
It may be commoner than suspected in botanically unstudied parts of Mexico (Fosberg, 1974). 

Habitat 

The plant has been recorded from both dry, stony places in Michoacan and moist or wet. mixed or oak 
mountain forest in Guatemala at 1,400-2.300 ft. 

Population Status and Trends 

Role of species in tlie Ecosystem 

Threats 

Utilisation 

Due to the brilliant scarlet-red flowers, it has long been a favourite of the people of the region in which 
it grows. It is commonly cut and sold in markets in the Uruapan area as a Christmas tree. This use of 
Balmea arose when laws were enforced making it illegal to cut conifer saplings for this purpose. For 
this reason it is likely Balmea will soon become very rare in any place where it may be discovered 

Trade 

lUCN Conservation category 

Not evaluated 

Conservation Measures 

Forest Management and Silviculture 

References 

Fosberg, F.R. 1974. Studies in American Rubiaceae 2. Ayuque, Balmea stormae, an Endangered 

Mexican Species. Sida 5(4):268-270. 
Martinez, M. 1942. A new genus of Rubiaceae from Mexico. Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club 

69(6):438-441,figs. 1-11. 
Standley, P.C. and Williams, L:0. 19745. Rora of Guatemala: Rubiaceae. Fieldiana. Bot. 24(1 1), Nos. 

1-3: 1-274. 



165 



Contribution to an evaluation of tree species using the new CITES Listing Criteria 



Bertholletia excelsa 

Lecythidaceae 
Brazil nut tree 



Distribution 

Bolivia, Brazil (Acre, Amapa, Amazonas, Maranhao, Mato Grosso, Para, Rondonia), Colombia. French 
Guiana, Guyana, Peru, Suriname, Venezuela 

Habitat 

Tropical, lowland, moist, non-seasonal, closed forest. Trees grow best on deep well-drained alluvial 
soils on high ground not subject to flooding (Prance & Mori, 1979). 

Population Status and Trends 

A widely occurring emergent of Amazonian forest, the Brazil nut tree has experienced major declines 
in its population because of deforestation. One of the greatest concentrations of stands exists in 
Tocantins valley where various activities, from the construction of the Transamazon railway to the 
building of a reservoir, have brought about a shrinking in the gene pool (Smith et al, 1992). An area of 
20O,CK3Oha in south Para has been purchased by the government with the aim of settling landless 
farmers (Salamao, 1991). There are also plans to establish a pig-iron smelter along the Carajas-Itaqui 
railway which is likely to result in the clearance of vast areas of forest to supply carbon (Smith et al, 
1992). Trees remaining in the vast cattle ranches of Para and Acre are neglected and dying (Clement, 
1991). However, large natural stands still exist in northern Bolivia (Killeen, 1997). The species is 
locally abundant in Suriname, where Amerindians harvest the seeds (Werkhoven, 1997). Almost all 
Brazil nuts consumed around the world come from wild trees (Smith et al, 1992). Little is known 
about the impact of seed gathering on regeneration, but it clearly can be limited under certain 
exploitative regimes. Agoutis provide a vital function not only of dispersing the seed but of opening the 
pod, which if left closed generally imprisons the seeds until they rot. As part of some regimes agoutis 
may be hunted or driven away because of lack of food sources as a result of overextraction of Brazil 
nuts (Broekhoven, 1993). The sustainable harvesting of nuts by indigenous people in extractive forest 
reserves offers the most promising protection for remaining natural stands (Wickens, 1995). 

Role of species in the Ecosystem 

The seeds are encased in large pods of 0.5-0.75kg weight. The seeds are eaten by brocket deer 
(Mazama americana). the nocturnal paca {Agouti paca). other agoutis (Dasyprocta spp.) and squirrels. 
Agoutis and squirrels aid dispersal by caching the seeds. Macaws commonly damage the seeds and 
seed capsule before they have matured. The seeds have aJso played a significant role in the diets of 
numerous indigenous peoples. Flowers are pollinated by euglossine, anthophorid and apine bees in the 
gtTieia Xylocopa. Bombus, Centris, Epicharis and Eulaema (Smith et at, 1992). 

Threats 

Logging of the habitat, burning, increasing settlement and agriculture, infrastructural and industrial 
development (Pires O'Brien, 1996). 

Utilisation 

The seed provides a highly nutritious food, high in protein and unsaturated fatty acids. Seed oil can be 
used in cooking and soap-making, and the seed capsule is useful as a fuel or for craft-making 
(Wickens, 1995). The timber is excellent but living trees are considered more valuable as a source of 
nuts. It is used in the construction of ships, water tanks and railway ties but is not thought to have 
commercial value in the international market (Flynn, 1994). The bark is used for caulking ships (FAO 
1986). 

Trade 

Production of Brazil nuts for export is concentrated in north-west Amazonia and Acre in Brazil and the 
Pando/Beni region in Bolivia (Wickens, 1995). Para is also a major area of production (Smith et al., 
1992). At one time Brazil nuts were second only to rubber as an export crop from Amazonian Brazil 
(Wickens, 1995). Annual nut production decreased from 104,000 tonnes in 1970 to 50,000 tonnes m 
1980becauseof habitat loss (Mori etai, 1990). It continues to decrease at an average rate of 820 
tonnes pa (Wickens, 1995). U.S.A, U.K. and Germany are the major importers (Wickens, 1995). 



166 



Annex 2. Profiles of Tree Species: The Americas 



Year 


World Production of Brazil nuts (1000 tons) 


Approx. price 

FOB 

£/ton or US$/lb 


Brazil 


Bolivia 


Peru 


Total 


1970 


50 


- 


- 


50 


£378 


1971 


30 


- 


- 


30 


£487 


1972 


65 


- 


- 


65 


£466 


1973 


65 


- 


- 


65 


$0.63 


1974 


33 


- 


- 


33 


$0.77 


1975 


50 


- 


. 


50 


$0.59 


1976 


32 


- 


- 


32 


$0.76 


1977 


38 


- 




38 


$1.28 


1978 


32 


8 


2 


42 


$1.33 


1979 


50 


7 


3 


60 


$1.04 


1980 


60 


- 




60 


$0.98 


1981 


40 


- 




40 


$1.07 


1982 


28 


- 


- 


28 


$1.63 


1983 


35 


- 


- 


35 


31.41 


1984 


35 


10 


6 


51 


$0.81 


1985 


40 


6 


4 


50 


$0.82 


1986 


35 


8 


5 


48 


$0.90 


1987 


33 


10 


7 


50 


$1.09 


1988 


29 


7 


5 


41 


$1.18 


1989 


25 


9 


6.5 


40.5 


$1.70 


1990 


42 


9 


3 


54 


$1.48 


1991 


24 


5.5 


2.5 


32 


$1.36 


Average 


36.3 


8.0 


4.4 


45.2 


$1.20 



Source: La Fleur 1992 in Wickens, 1995 

lUCN Conservation category 

VU Alacd+2cd according to the Americas Regional Workshop for the WCMC/SSC Conservation and 
sustainable management of trees project (WCMC, 1996). 

Conservation Measures 

It is illegal to fell trees in Brazil (Fires O'Brien, 1996). However, felling continues, particularly in 
southern Para and northern Mato Grosso (Smith et al., 1992). Populations exist in various large 
protected areas and in places which are safe from logging and habitat clearance, such as corporate 
property, Companhia Vale do Rio Doce. A research programme on Brazil nut population biology and 
ecology is set up in north-east Bolivia by the University of Beni in Riberalta (UFA), Utrecht University 
and the Netherlands Committee for lUCN. 

Forest Management and Silviculture 

Natural regeneration is rare in some areas. Trees can sprout from root systems of fallen trees. It is 
believed that many Brazil nut groves have been planted by indigenous people since the time when 
hunter gathers first colonised the rainforest (Smith et al., 1992). The pollinators' dependence on the 
availability of a variety of forest plants, mcluding orchid species, as a source of food and chemical 
signals important in reproduction, has been thought to limit the establishment of plantations outside the 
rainforest. However, it is possible to obtain sizeable harvests from plantation sources given appropriate 
soil conditions and a well-defined dry season (Smith et al., 1992). Trees are 12-16 years old before 
fruiting, with maximum production at 25-30 years. Cultivated compact grafted trees may start 
production after 8 years. During a good year 100-I20kg of unshelled seeds may be harvested from a 
single tree (Wickens, 1995). The Agricultural Research Centre of the Humid Tropics (CPATU- 
EMBRAPA) in Brazil are in the process of creating a clonal germplasm collection and providing 
clones for commercial plantations (Wickens, 1995). The species has been introduced to Malaysia, Sri 
Lanka, Java, Hawaii and the Caribbean (Wickens, 1995). 



167 



Contribution to an evaluation of tree species using the new CITES Listing Criteria 



References 

Broeichoven, G. 1996. Non-timber forest products: ecological and economic aspects of exploitation in 

Colombia. Ecuador and Bolivia. lUCN, Gland, Switzerland. 
Chudnoff, M. 1984. Tropical timbers of the world. Forest Products Laboratory Madison, Wisconsin: 

United States Department of Agriculture. 464pp. 
Clement, C.R. 1991. Amazonian fruits: a neglected and threatened, but potentially rich resource. 

Diversity Magazine. 7, 56-59. 
FAO Forestry Department. 1986. Databook on endangered tree and shrub species and their 

provenances. Rome: FAO. 524pp. 
Flynn, J.H. 1994. A guide to useful woods of the world. King Philip Publishing Co., Mame, U.S.A. 

382pp. 
Harcourt, C.S. & J. A. Sayer (eds.). 1996. The conservation atlas of tropical forests: the Americas. 

Simon & Schuster, Singapore. 
IBAMA. 1992. Lista oficial de especies da flora Brasileira ameagadas de exiingao. (unpublished). 

4pp. 
Killeen, T. 1997. Comments on the species summaries for Bolivia. 
Killeen, T.J., E. Garcia & S.G. Beck (eds.). 1993. Guia de arboles de Bolivia. Missouri Botanical 

Garden, Missouri. 958pp. 
La Fleur, J.R. 1991 Marketing of Brazil nuts. FAO, Rome. 
Mori, S. A., G.T. Prance, & C. Zeeuw. 1990. Lecythidaceae - Part II: The zygomorphic-flowered New 

World genera (Couroupita, Corythophora, Bertholletia, Couratari, Eschweilera, & Lecythis). Flora 

Neotropica, Monograph 21 (II). 376pp. 
Newton, A.C. 1996. The sustainability of uses of U-ees. Unpublished repon for the WCMC/SSC 

Conservation and sustainable management of trees project. 
Prance, G.T. & S.A. Mori. 1979. Lecythidaceae - Part I: The actinomorphic-flowered New Wodd 

Lecythidaceae (Asteranthus, Gustavia, Grias. Allantoma and Cariniana). Flora Neotropica 

Monograph 21 (I). 270pp. 
Pires O'Brien, J. 1996. Completed data collection forms for Brazilian Lecythidaceae. 
Roosmalen, M.G.M. van. 1985. Fruits of the Guianan flora. Wageningen: Institute of Systematic 

Botany, Uu-echt and Silvicultural Dept of Wageningen Agricultural University. 
Salamao, R.P. 1991. Estrutura e densidade de Bertholletia excelsa H.&B. (castanheira) nas regioes de 

Carajas e Maraba, Estado do Para. Belem, Bol. Mus. Para. Emilio Goeldi, ser. Bot. 7(1): 47-68. 
WCMC. 1996. Report of the Second Regional Workshop, held at CATIE, Tumalba, Costa Rica, 18-20 

November 1996. Conservation and sustainable management of trees project, (unpublished). 
Wickens, G.E. 1995. Edible nuts. Non-wood Forest Products 5. Food and Agriculture Organization of 

the United Nations. 197 pp. 
Werkhoven, M.C.M. 1997. Threatened trees of Suriname. A list compiled for the WCMC/SSC 

Conservation and sustainable maruigement of trees project. 



168 



Annex 2. Profiles of Tree Species: The Americas 



Bombacopsis quinata 

Bombacaceae 

cedro espino, ceiba Colorado, ceiba roja, ceiba tolua, pochote, saquisaqui 



Distribution 

Colombia, Costa Rica, Honduras, Nicaragua, Panama, Venezuela 

Habitat 

A species of rainforest and seasonally dry forest occurring on a variety of soil types up to 900m. 

Population Status and Trends 

A taxonomically controversial species, which has a strong possibility of being sunk into Pachira. 
Populations are fragmented within remaining areas of seasonally dry lowland forest and the species is 
threatened at the provenance level, most notably in the Choluteca Valley in Honduras, eastern 
Nicaragua and northern Colombia (Calderon, 1997; Sandiford, 1997). The main undisturbed stands are 
in Darien, Panama, and Llanos Occidentales in Venezuela (FAO, 1986). It is also represented in 
protected areas in northern Costa Rica (Arce Benavides, 1998). 

Ecology 

Associated species include Cedrela odorata, Anacardium excelsum, Hura crepitans, Ceiba pentandra, 
Enterolobium cyclocarpum and Samanea saman. The seeds are dispersed by explosive dehiscence of 
the capsule. Fruits are often damaged by parrots. 

Role of species in the Ecosystem 

Threats 

Overexploitation, burning, increasing human settlement, extensive agriculture 

Utilisation 

The wood is used for general construction, interior finish, millwork, furniture stock, veneer, plywood, 
pulp and paper products. 

Trade 

Bombacopsis "ruinatum" was reponed to be in export as a sawnwood from Colombia in 1995 (ITTO. 
1997). Between 1953 and 1965 it was the second most important species in Venezuela in terms of 
volume produced (FAO, 1986). 

rUCN Conservation category 

VU Alcd according to Sandiford, M. (1997). 

Conservation Measures 

Although occurring in national parks, the habitat is relatively poorly represented in protected areas. 
Much interest has been generated in replanting programmes and various institutes are involved in 
research into wild populations and the conservation of representative genetic samples of remaining 
populations in the form of, for example, clonal seed orchards. 

Forest Management and Silviculture 

Cultivation is straightforward. Trees coppice readily and vegetative propagation is easy. The species is 
grown in small scale species trials in Kenya and the Solomon Islands (Sandiford, 1997). A reforestation 
programme in Costa Rica recorded a relatively slow growth with a rotation of 25-30 years. 

References 

Anon. 1981. Descripcion general y anatomica de 105 maderas del grupo Andino. Junac: Junta del 

Acuerdo de Cartagena. 441pp. 
Arce Benavides, H. 1998. Comments on species profiles for Costa Rica. 
Asociacion Nacional para la Conservacion de la Naturaleza. 1990. List of threatened and vulnerable 

plants of Panama, (unpublished). 
d'Arcy, W.G. 1987. Flora of Panama: checklist and index. Monographs in Systematic Botany 17; 1- 

1000. 



169 



Contribution to an evaluation of tree species using the new CITES Listing Criteria 



Calderon, E. (comp.). 1997. Lista de planias Colombianas en peligro. July 1997 Version. Instituto de 
Investigacino de Recursos Biologicas Alexander von Humboldt, (unpublished). 14 pp. 

Erfurth, T. & H. Rusche. 1976. The marketing of tropical wood. Rome: FAO. 

FAO Forestry Department. 1 986. Databook on endangered tree and shrub species and their 
provenances. Rome: FAO. 524pp. 

ITTO, 1997. Annual review and assessment of the world tropical timber situation 1996. International 
Tropical Timber Organization (ITTO). 

Sandiford, M. 1997. Completed data collection form on Bombacopsis quinata. 



170 



Annex 2. Profiles of Tree Species: The Americas 



Caesalpinia echinata 

Leguminosae 
ibirapitanga, pau brasil 



Distribution 

Brazil (Alagoas, Bahia, Espirito Santo, Minas Gerais, Paraiba, Pemambuco, Rio de Janeiro, Rio 
Grande do Norte, Sergipe) 

Habitat 

The species occurs in littoral forest and woodland, generally on sandy or sand-clay soils that are well 
drained, preferring open less dense forest, frequently in dry high, light environments. 

Population Status and Trends 

Natural stands havs been severely depleted as a result of centuries of exploitation and habitat 
destruction. The exploitation of the species as a source of wine-red dye dates back to 1501 and has 
resulted in the country being named after the tree. The manufacture of synthetic dyes in 1 875 caused a 
gradual decline in the exploitation of wild sources and the species became imponant as a commercial 
source of wood for the manufacture of bows for musical instruments. It remains the most important 
wood for making professional bows, but the scale of this industry is little known (Anon, 1997). The 
remaining stands of the species exist in a few areas on coastal plain, where deforestation rates have 
been rapid (Varty, 1996). Illegal extraction of C. echinata by farmers and foresters is thought to still 
occur, although the extent of this activity remains unknown. The species is included on the official list 
of threatened species in Brazil (IBAMA, 1992). 

Role of species in the Ecosystem 

Trees are frequently covered with orchids and other epiphytes. 

Threats 

Commercial exploitation, local use, clear-felling/logging of the habitat 

Utilisation 

The dye extracted from the heanwood is what the species is famous for. The heavy timber has 
considerable value for use in construction work and carpentry and handicraft, but its most commercial 
application is in the manufacture of bows for musical insUniments. The bark is of local importance for 
its medicinal properties and trees are planted as ornamentals. 

Trade 

Pau brasil was an important source of fiery red colourant during the middle ages. Enonnous quantities 
of dyewood were exported between 1501 and 1850, causing the loss of large areas of forest and 
enslavement of Indians. Synthetic dyes began to become important in the mid 1 800s and have now 
almost completely taken over. Exports of brazilwood, including the heartwood of a number of related 
species from Central and South America to USA. and Western Europe, declined after 1950s. The 
extent of current trade is not known and it is unlikely that brazilwood will be exploited as a source of 
dye at anything other than at a small scale (Green, 1995). The wood began to be used for making bows 
for musical instruments in the last century. The vast majority of professsional bows are now made 
from the species. There are no reliable figures on the quantity of C. echinata exported for this purpose 
but one estimate puts the world demand at 200m'. The actual figure is likely to be considerably greater 
to take account of the large amount of wastage in processing. It is thought that 70-80% of the wood is 
lost in convening logs into bow blanks and a further 70-80% is then lost in processing bow planks into 
bows. About 1500kg of wood is cut to provide 100-200kg of suitable wood for bows; a single violin 
bow demanding 1 kg of wood. A professional bow costs between US$ 2000-5000 (Anon, 1997). 

lUCN Conservation category 

EN Alacd according to Varty (1996). 



171 



Contribution to an evaluation of tree species using the new CITES Listing Criteria 



Conservation Measures 

Two protected areas in Bahia and Pemambuco were set up specifically to protect populations of C. 
echinata. The species is also recorded in other public and private reserves. The species is in cultivation 
in Bahia, Alagos, Pemambuco and Rio de Janeiro and there is also a reintroduction programme at 
Linares Reserve. IBAMA include the species on the official list of threatened Brazilian plants. 

Various federal and state laws exist restricting the export and cutting of C. echinata or its habitat type. 
However there appear to be considerable loopholes and a lack of specific measures to protect the 
species (Anon, 1997). 

Forest Management and Silviculture 

Plants begin to fiower around 3-4 years of age. Seeds fail to germinate after storage for 30 days. The 
development of heartwood in plantation trees is considerably faster than in the wild: the DBH of a 17 
year old plantation tree compares with a 70 year old tree in the wild. The quality of wood from 
plantations is, apparently, not suitable for making bows and consequently there is a lack of interest in 
growing the species in plantation (Anon, 1997). 

References 

Anon. 1997. Conservation and management of pau-brasil, Caesalpinia echinata - An action plan. 

Fauna and Flora International (UK), Botanical Gardens of Rio de Janeiro (Brazil), Margaret Mee 

Foundation (Brazil). (Unpublished report). 
Green, C.L. 1995. Natural colourants and dyestuffs. A review of production and development potential. 

Non-Wood Forest Products 4. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome. 
IBAMA. 1992. Lista oficial de especies da flora Brasileira ameagadas de extingao. (unpublished). 4pp. 

Sociedade Botanica do Brasil. 1992. Centuria plantarum Brasiliensium extintionis minitata. 

Sociedade Botanica do Brasil. 175pp. 
Lewis, G.P. 1987. Legumes of Bahia. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. 
Varty, Nigel. 1996. Data collection forms for Brazilian Atlantic forest species. 



172 



Annex 2. Profiles of Tree Species: The Americas 



Caesalpinia paraguariensis 

Leguminosae 

guayacan negro, guayacau negro, ibira-bera, pau brasil 



Distribution 

Argentina (Catamarca. Chaco. Cordoba, Corrientes, Formosa, Jujuy, La Rioja, Mato Grosso, Mendoza. 
Misiones. Salta, San Juan, San Luis, Santa Fe, Santiago del Estero, Tucuman), Bolivia. Brazil, 
Paraguay 

Habitat 

A species of lowland, seasonal, broadleaved, dry forest and woodland. In Bolivia the species occurs in 
dry chaqueiio forest and interAndean zones (Killen et ai. 1993). 

Population Status and Trends 

The species is largely confined to the Chaco region, where it occurs widely and relatively commonly 
(Prado, 1996). It is at the margins of its distribution in Brazil, occurring only in Porto Murtinho 
(Americas Regional Workshop, 1996). In Bolivia the species is well represented m herbarium 
collections. Some areas may suffer overexploitation but habitat loss is a greater threat (Killeen, 1997). 

Role of species in the Ecosystem 

Threats 

Overexploitation, logging of the habitat, habitat conversion to agriculture and pastoralism/ranching 

(Prado, 1996). 

Utilisation 

The timber is exploited at a domestic level. It provides a durable, weather-resistant wood, which is used 
in construction work. The species is also useful as a source of fuelwood. The seeds yield a dye and the 
bark contains medicinal extracts (Killeen et al.. 1993). 

Trade 

rUCN Conservation category 

VU Alacd according to the Americas Regional Workshop for the WCMC/SSC Conservation and 
sustainable management of trees project (WCMC, 1996). 

Conservation Measures 

Forest Management and Silviculture 

References 

Americas Regional Workshop. 1996. Discussions held at CATIE, Costa Rica, November 1996 at the 
Second Regional Workshop of the WCMC/SSC Conservation and Sustainable Management of 
Trees project. (Unpublished). 

Chebez, Juan Carlos. 1994. Los que se van. Buenos Aires, Argentina: Albatros. 604pp. 

Killeen, T. 1997. Conunents on the species summaries for Bolivia. 

Killeen, T.J. 1993. Guia de Arboles de Bolivia. La Paz, Bolivia: Herbario Nacional de Bolivia. 

Lopez, J. & Elbert L. Little. 1987. Arboles communes del Paraguay. Washington, DC: Peace Corps. 
425pp. 

Prado, Darien Eros. 1996. Completed data collection forms for trees of Argentinia and neighbouring 

countries. ^^ 

WCMC. 1996. Report of the Second Regional Workshop, held at CATIE, Turrialba, Costa Rica, 18-20 
November 1996. Conservation and sustainable management of trees project, (unpublished). 



173 



Contribution to an evaluation of tree species using the new CITES Listing Criteria 

Cariniana estrellensis 

Lecythidaceae 
jequitiba 

Distribution 

Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Paraguay, Venezuela 

Habitat 

Tropical, lowland, submontane, moist, closed forest. 

Population Status and Trends 
Role of species in the Ecosystem 
Threats 

Utilisation 

The wood is used for construction work, furniture-making and as a replacement for mahogany in ship- 
building. 

Trade 

Cariniana spp. are selectively logged in Bolivia (Harcourt & Sayer, 1996). 

lUCN Conservation category 

NE 

Conservation Measures 

Forest Management and Silviculture 

References 

Anon. 1981. Descripcion general y anatomica de 105 maderas del grupo Andino. Junac: Junta del 

Acuerdo de Cartagena. 
Harcourt, C.S. & J. A. Sayer (eds.). 1996. The conservation atlas of tropical forests: the Americas. 

Simon & Schuster, Singapore. 
Killeen, T.J., E. Garcia & S.G. Beck (eds.). 1993 Guia de arboles de Bolivia. Missouri Botanical 

Garden. 
Prance, G.T, & S. Mori. 1979. Lecythidaceae - Part I. Tlie actinomorphic-flowered New World 

Lecythidaceae (Asteranthus, Gustavia, Grias, Allantoma and Cariniana). 



174 



Annex 2. Profiles of Tree Species: The Americas 



Cariniana legalis 

Lecythidaceae 

jequitiba branco, jequitiba rosa, jequitiba vermello, pau carga, sapucaia de apito 



Distribution 

Brazil (Alagoas, Bahia, Espirito Santo, Minas Gerais, Paraiba, Pemambuco, Rio de Janeiro, Sao 
Paulo). The^'species has been recorded in Colombia, Venezuela in the PROSPECT database but these 
occurrences are doubtful and need verification (Americas Regional Workshop, 1996: Prospect. 1995). 

Habitat 

A large emergent tree, sparsely scattered in areas of lowland non-flooded rainforest, such as Atlantic 
forest, mesophyllous, riverine or hygrophyllous forest and semideciduous woodland (Weyland Vieira, 
1990). Large trees are frequently left standing in agricultural areas and coffee plantations. 

Population Status and Trends 

Populations frequently occur on fertile land and considerable habitat loss has caused declines in the 
extent of occurrence of the species (Prance & Mori, 1979). 

Role of species in the Ecosystem 

Threats 

The habitat is threatened by increasing settlement (Pires O'Brien, 1996). 

Utilisation 

The timber occurs in local trade. The bark has local use as source of medicine (Pires O'Brien, 1996). 

Trade 

Cariniana spp. are selectively logged in Bolivia (Harcourt & Sayer, 1996). 

lUCN Conservation category 

VU Alac according to the Americas Regional Workshop for the WCMC/SSC Conservation and 
sustainable management of trees project (WCMC, 1996). 

Conservtion Measures 

The species is found in the Linhares Forest Reserve and is in cultivation at Rio de Janeiro Botanical 
Gardens (Pires O'Bnen, 1996). 

Forest Management and Silviculture 

Many seedlings have been raised from wild seed at Monte Alegre Hortorium (Weyland Vieira, 1990). 

References 

Americas Regional Workshop. 1996. Discussions held at CATEE, Costa Rica, November 1996 at the 

Second Regional Workshop of the WCMC/SSC Conservation and Sustainable Management of 

Trees project. (Unpublished). 
Harcourt, C.S. & J.A. Sayer, (eds.). 1996 The conservation atlas of tropical forests: the 

Americas. Simon & Schuster, Singapore. 
Pires O'Brien, J. 1996. Data collection forms for Lecythidaceae tree species. 
Prance, G.T. & S. Mori. 1979. Lecythidaceae - Part I. The actinomorphic-flowered New World 

Lecythidaceae (Asteranlhus, Gustavia, Grias, Allantoma and Cariniana). pp. 270. 
Prospect. 1995. Species listing from the PROSPECT database. 
The Nature Conservancy. 1996. Natural Heritage Central Database. (Status and distribution data on 

Latin American plants, developed in collaboration with Latin American Conservation Data Centers 

and Missouri Botanical Garden.). 

WCMC. 1996. Report of the Second Regional Workshop, held at CATIE, Turrialba. Costa Rica, 18-20 

November 1996. Conservation and sustainable management of trees project, (unpublished). 
Weyland Vieira, M.C. 1990. Phytogeography and conservation of forests in Monte Belo, Minas Gerais 

-case study: Fazenda Lagoa. Rio de Janeiro 



175 



Contribution to an evaluation of tree species using the new CITES Listing Criteria 



Caryocar costaricense 

Caryocaraceae 

aji, cagiii, almendrillo, almendron, ajo, ajillo, manii, plomillo 



Distribution 

Colombia, Costa Rica, Panama. The species has been erroneously recorded in Venezuela. 

Habitat 

Tropical, lowland, moist, non-seasonal, broadleaved. closed forest. Scattered populations are found in 
lowland evergreen rainforest (Jimenez Madrigal, 1993). It is usually found on slopes (Blaser, 1996). 

Population Status and Trends 

In Costa Rica occurrences are scarce and confined to protected areas. Similarly in Panama, the species 
is restricted to Darien and San Bias, where populations appear to be in a poor slate with little evidence 
of regeneration (Mitre, 1997). The total population number in Central America does not exceed a few 
thousand individuals (Americas Regional Workshop, 1996). Levels of exploitation of the timber are 
reported to be excessive (WCMC, 1996). Deforestation, however, is believed to be a greater threat than 
trade (Blaser, 1996). Populations extend into the Choco in Colombia (Mitre, 1997). C. amygdaliferum, 
endemic to Colombia, is a closely related species. It is used as a commercial timber and is now 
considered threatened (EN Alcd) (Calderon, 1997). 

Ecology 

A primary tree associated with Peltogyne purpurea, Brosimum utile, Qualea paraensis 

Role of species in the Ecosystem 

Threats 

Overexploitation, seed predation, poor regeneration, increasing settlement, agriculture and 
pastoralism/ranching (Mitre, 1997). 

Utilisation 

The solid timber is used for constructing bridges, railroad ties etc. (SSC et ai. 1992). The bark also has 
a medicinal application (Mitre, 1997). 

Trade 

There is no reported international trade. 

lUCN Conservation category 

VU Alacd according to the Americas Regional Workshop for the WCMC/SSC Conservation and 
sustainable management of trees project (WCMC, 1996). 

Conservation Measures 

The species is listed on Appendix 11 of CITES. Occurrences are recorded in a number of protected 
areas (Jimenez Madrigal, 1993; SSC et al., 1992; Mitre, 1997). 

References 

Americas Regional Workshop. 1996. Discussions held at CAllH, Costa Rica, November 1996 at the 

Second Regional Workshop of the WCMC/SSC Conservation and Sustainable Management of 

Trees project. (Unpublished). 
Blaser, J. 1996. Silvicultural considerations of listing timber species in Appendices I, II and III of 

CITES. Working document for the 2nd meeting of the CITES Timber Working Group. 

(unpublished). 
Calderon, E. (comp.). 1997. Lista de plantas Colombianas en peligro. July 1997 Version. Instituto de 

Investigacino de Recursos Biologicas Alexander von Humboldt, (unpublished). 14 pp. 
Jimenez Madrigal, Quirico. 1993. Arboles maderables en peligro de extincion en Costa Rica. San Jose, 

Costa Rica: Museo Nacional de Costa Rica. 121pp. 
Mitre, M.E. 1997. Completed data collection forms for trees of Panama. 
SSC, Traffic & WCMC. 1992. Inclusion of Caryocar costaricense in Appendix II. In Aruilyses of 

proposals to ammend the CITES Appendices. 
Standley, P.C. 1. Flora of Costa Rica. Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Bot. Ser. 18(1); 1-1616. 



176 



Annex 2. Profiles of Tree Species: The Americas 



The Nature Conservancy. 1996. Natural Heritage Central Database. (Status and distribution data on 
Latin American plants, developed in collaboration with Latin American Conservation Data Centers 
and Missouri Botanical Garden.). 

WCMC. 1996. Report of the Second Regional Workshop, held at CATIE, Turrialba, Costa Rica, 1 8-20 
November 1996. Conservation and sustainable management of trees project, (unpublished). 



177 



Contribution to an evaluation of tree species using the new CITES Listing Criteria 



Cedrela fissilis 

Meliaceae 

cedro batata, cedro bianco, cedro branco, cedro Colorado, cedro diamantina, cedro 

misionero, cedro rosdao, cedro vermelho. South American cedar, ygary 



Distribution 

Argentina (Jujuy, Misiones, Salta. Tucuman), Bolivia, Brazil (Rio Grande do Sul, Santa Catarina), 
Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador. Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Venezuela 

Habitat 

A species of tropical, lowland to submontane forest of various types. The species grows well on well- 
drained fertile soil (FAO, 1986). In Bolivia the species occurs in dry semideciduous forest (Killeen, 
1997). 

Population Status and Trends 

At one time an abundant and wide-ranging species. Populations throughout its range have been 
decimated by overexploitation and also habitat loss (Americas Regional Workshop, 1996). The species 
is considered threatened in Colombia (Calderon, 1997), and rates of exploitation in Amazonian Peru 
have resulted in the trees becoming rare (Phillips, 1996). Most natural populations in Ecuador have 
been destroyed. Some large trees remain in Cuyabeno but they are being felled for export to Colombia 
(Buitron et al, 1996). The species has become rare in Bolivia and is now only harvested 
opportunistically whilst mahogany, Amburana and Machaerium are being sought (Killeen, 1997). It is 
apparently still abundant in the Region Oriental in Paraguay, especially along the Parana valley (Ortega 
Torres et al., 1989). Populations in Argentina are restricted to the north, where they are partly 
contained within subandean piedmont forest, a habitat which is under severe threat of disappearing 
(Prado, 1996). In Central America there are very few individuals in Costa Rica, if any at all, and few m 
Panama (Americas Regional Workshop. 1996; Arce Benavides. 1998). The species is included in lists 
of threatened plants in Panama, Ecuador, Colombia. Argentina and also by the FAO ( Asociacion 
Nacional para la Conservacion de la Naturaleza, 1990; Buitron et al., 1996; Calderon, 1997; Chebez, 
1994: FAO. 1986) 

Role of species in the Ecosystem 

A dominant component of various lowland forest types. 

Threats 

Overexploitation, severe genetic erosion and habitat loss. 

Utilisation 

At a local level the timber is used for furniture-making, cabinet-making and general carpentry. 

Trade 

The timber is considered inferior to C. odorata but is sold with the latter in mixed batches. In 1995 
1 1 ,064m' of the timber was exported from the ports of Porto de Paranagua and Foz do Iguagu, Parana, 
Brazil, at an average price of US$298/m3 (Varty & Guadagnin, 1996). A total of SZ.OOOm' of Cedrela 
spp. Sawnwood was reported to be exported from Brazil in 1995. Colombia also reported exports of 
Cedrela spp. (ITTO, 1997). 





Exports of Cedrela spp. from Brazil | 


Year 


Sawnwood 


Veneer | 


Tonnes 


US$FOB 


Tonnes 


USSFOB 


1993 


37.197 


21.609 


1.098 


807 


1994 


32.598 


22,165 


833 


616 


1995 


22.125 


16,510 


416 


655 



Source: IBAMA, 1996 



178 



Annex 2. Profiles of Tree Species: The Americas 



These export figures are questionable, since the species is not believed to be available in such 
quantities in Brazil. It is more likely that a large part of the consignments originated from Paraguay 
(Americas Regional Workshop, 1996). A considerable amount of timber is exponed from Paraguay 
(Ortega Torres, 1989). 

lUCN Conservation category 

EN Alacd+2cd according to the Americas Regional Workshop for the WCMC/SSC Conservation and 
sustainable management of trees project (WCMC, 1996). 

Conservation Measures 

Forest Management and Silviculture 

In the wild, the species has a low population density (1 tree per ha - 1 tree per 50ha), high genetic 
diversity and wide gene flow between populations. The University of Sao Paulo and the National 
centre of Genetic Resources/EMBRAPA are implementing a research programme to map and monitor 
genetic variation in populations. Success rates at establishing plantations of C. fissilis have been very 
low. Mortality rates caused by disease are higii (Americas Regional Workshop, 1996). 

References 

Americas Regional Workshop. 1996. Discussions held at CATIE, Costa Rica, November 1996 at the 

Second Regional Workshop of the WCMC/SSC Conservation and Sustainable Management of 

Trees project. (Unpublished). 
Arce Benavides, H. 1998. Comments on species profiles for Costa Rica. 
Asociacion Nacional para la Conservacion de la Naturaleza. 1990. List of threatened and vulnerable 

plants of Panama, (unpublished). 
Buitron. X. 1996. List of endangered and possibly endangered species of Ecuador, produced in the 

Workshop of Floral Specialists of Ecuador for the National Biodiversity Diagnostic, November 

1996. 
Calderon, E. (comp.). 1997. Lista de plantas Colombianas enpeligro. July 1997 Version. Institute dc 

Investigacino de Recursos Biologicas Alexander von Humboldt, (unpublished). 14 pp. 
Chebez. Juan Carlos. 1994. Los que se van. Buenos Aires, Argentina: Albatros. 604pp. 
FAO ForesU-y Department. 1986. Databook on endangered tree and shrub species and their 

provenances. Rome; FAO. 524pp. 
IBAMA. 1996. Fax to Nigel Vany containing Brazilian export information for various timber species, 

dated 11 July 1996. 
ITTO, 1997. Annual review and assessment of the world tropical timber situation 1996. International 

Tropical Timber Organization (ITTO). 
Killeen, T. 1997. Comments on the species summaries for Bolivia. 
Lopez, J. & Elbert L. Little. 1987. Arboles communes del Paraguay. Washington, DC: Peace Corps. 

425pp. 
Ortega Torres, E., L. Stutz de Ortega & R. Spichiger. 1989. Noventa especies forestales del Paraguay. 

Flora del Paraguay. Conservatoire et Jardin Botaniques de la Ville de Geneve & Missouri 

Botanical Garden. 
Pennington, T.D. 1981. Meliaceae. Flora Neotropica, Monograph 28. 470 pp. 
Phillips, O., A. Gentry, C. Reynel, P. Wilkin, C. Galvez-Durand. 1993. Table of the useful woody plot 

species at Tambopata, Madre de Dios, Peru, from a paper entitled "Quantitative ethnobotany and 

conservation" submitted to Conservation Biology. 
Prado, Darien Eros. 1996. Completed data collection forms for trees of Argentinia and neighbouring 

countries. 
Reitz, Paulino, Roberto M. Klein, & Ademir Reis. 1978. Projeto Madeira de Santa Catarina. 

Levantamento das especies florestais nativas em Santa Catarina com a possibilidade de incremento 

e desenvolvimento. Itajai, Santa Catarina: Herbario "Barbosa Rodrigues" - HBR. 320pp. 
Reitz, Raulino, Roberto M. Klein, & Ademir Reis. 1983. Projeto Madeira de Rio Grande do 

Sul.Levantamento das especies florestais nativas com possibilidade de incremento e 

desenvolvimento. Herbario "Barbosa Rodrigues" - HBR. 528pp. 
WCMC. 1996. Report of the Second Regional Workshop, held at CATIE, Turrialba, Costa Rica, 18-20 

November 1996. Conservation and sustainable management of trees pTOJecl. (unpublished). 
Woodson, R.E. et al. 1943. Flora of Panama. Ann. Missouri Bot. Card. 30 



179 



Contribution to an evaluation of tree species using the new CITES Listing Criteria 



Cedrela lilloi 

Meliaceae 

atoc cedro, cedro bayo, cedro coya, cedro de altura, cedro de Tucuman, cedro del 

cerro, cedro peludo, cedro salteno, cedro vi'rgen 

Distribution 

Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil (Santa Catarina), Paraguay, Peru 

Habitat 

A species of montane and submontane moist forest and cloud forest, occurring up to 34(X)m. 

Population Status and Trends 

The species occurs in dense almost monodominant stands in cloud forest in the region of Santa Cruz, 
Bolivia. These are believed to represent the largest remaining populations (Killeen, 1997; Llamozas, 
1996). Elsewhere populations are isolated and reduced because of habitat loss and overexploitation. 

Role of species in the Ecosystem 

A colonizing species which responds well to large-scale disturbances. 

Threats 

Overexploitation, habitat loss. 

Utilisation 

The timber is high-grade. 

Trade 

The timber is largely present in local trade (Llamozas, 1996). See C. fissilis and C. odorata (Annex 3) 
for trade in Cedrela spp. 

rUCN Conservation category 

EN Ala+2cd according to Llamozas (1996). 

Conservation Measures 

Forest Management and Silviculture 

References 

Arce, S.J. P., C.S. Estenssoro, & S.P. Ergueta. 1987. Diagnostico del estado de la flora, fauna y 

communidades importantes para la conservacion. Bolivia, La Paz, Centro de Datos para la 

Conservacion. 98pp. 
Killeen, T. 1997. Comments on the species summaries for Bolivia. 
Llamozas, S. 1996. Completed data collection forms for tree species of Argentina. 
Pennington. T.D. 1981. Meliaceae. Flora Neotropica, Monograph 28. 470 pp. 
Prado, Darien Eros. 1996. Completed data collection forms for trees of Argentinia and neighbouring 

countries. 
The Nature Conservancy. 1996. Natural Heritage Central Database. (Status and distribution data on 

Latin American plants, developed in collaboration with Latin American Conservation Data Centers 

and Missouri Botanical Garden.). 



180 



Annex 2. Profiles of Tree Species: The Americas 



Cedrela odorata 

Meliaceae 

cedro amargo, cedro rojo. Central American cedar, Spanish cedar, 

zigarrenkitschenholz 

Distribution 

Antigua and Barbuda, Argentina, Barbados, Belize, Bolivia, Brazil, Cayman Islands, Colombia. Costa 
Rica, Cuba, Dommica, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, French Guiana, Grenada, 
Guadeloupe, Guatemala, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Jamaica, Mexico (Quintana Roo), Montserrai, 
Nicaragua, Panama, Peru, St Kitts and Nevis, St Lucia, Sunname, Venezuela 

Habitat 

The species occurs in humid or dry lowland forest, preferring well-drained soils. It colonises secondary 
forest, abandoned pastures and agricultural land. 

Population Status and Trends 

The species occurs in abundance, most notably in Central America (Americas Regional Workshop, 
1996; Arce Benavides, 1998). However exploitation has continued on a large scale throughout the 
species range over the past 200 years and large or well-formed individuals are scarce, especially in 
Amazonia. In Bolivia, the species' rarity has resulted in trees only being cut opportunistically while 
mahogany, Amburana and Machaerium are being sought (Killeen, 1997). Natural regeneration is 
reported to be generally good but there are reports of trees being felled before they reach maturity 
(Americas Regional Workshop, 1996). The species is included in lists of threatened plants in Panama 
and Domincan Republic and by the FAO (Asociacion Nacional para la Conservacion de la Naturaleza, 
1990; Jimenez, 1978; FAO, 1986) 

Role of species in tlie Ecosystem 

The species responds well to disturbance. 

Threats 

Overexploitation, genetic erosion, habitat loss. 

Utilisation 

C odorata produces the most valuable timber within the genus. The wood is aromatic, weather- 
resistant and durable. It is used for ship or boat-building, joinery, cabinet-making and making cigar 
boxes. It is also sometimes maintained as a shade tree in coffee plantations (FAO, 1986). 

Trade 

Throughout the species range Spanish cedar has played a major role in the timber trade. Between 1986 
and 1987 three species, one of which was C. odorata, accounted for 58% of the sawnwood produced in 
Belize (Harcoun & Sayer, 1996). It is one of the most exploited woods in northern Costa Rica 
(Harcourt & Sayer, 1996). It remains one of the most valuable trees in the Costa Rican market but is 
traded only in the domestic market (Arce Benavides, 1998). In 1994 Brazil exported 97,000m3 of 
Cedrela spp.. selling at an average price of US$260.00/m^. Records from 1994 indicate that Honduras 
was exporting logs, sawnwood, plywood and veneer ofC. odorata and Peru and Colombia were 
exporting sawnwood (ITTO, 1995). In 1995 Ecuador is reported to have exported 6000m3 of C. 
odorata sawnwood at an average price of US$5 84/m^, and Peru and Trinidad and Tobago exported 
sawnwood (ITTO, 1997). U.S.A. imported a total of 23,000m3 Cedrela spp. plywood at US$474/m3 in 
1995 (mo, 1997). 





Exports of Cedrela spp. from Brazil 


Year 


Sawnwood 


Veneer 


Tonnes 


USSFOB 


Tonnes 


USSFOB 


1993 


37.197 


21,609 


1.098 


807 


1994 


32.598 


22.165 


833 


616 


1995 


22.125 


16,510 


416 


655 



Source: IBAMA, 1996 



181 



Contribution to an evaluation of tree species using the new CITES Listing Criteria 



lUCN Conservation category 

VU Alcd+2cd according to the Americas Regional Workshop for the WCMC/SSC Conservation and 
sustainable management of trees project (WCMC, 1996). 

Conservation Measures 

Numerous populations are protected within national parks and agricultural landscapes. 

Forest Management and Silviculture 

Plantations are established throughout the tropics. Regeneration is hampered by the frequent attack of 
Hypsipyla spp. on the apical buds of seedlings. For this reason the species is not grown in pure stands. 
Some success has been achieved in Manu, Peru, where seedlings are planted at a distance from one 
another (Americas Regional Workshop, 1996). Trees bear fruit at the age of 15 years (Lamprecht, 
1989). 

References 

Americas Regional Workshop. 1996. Discussions held at CATIE, Costa Rica, November 1996 at the 

Second Regional Workshop of the WCMC/SSC Conservation and Sustainable Management of 

Trees project. (Unpublished). 
Arce Benavides, H. 1998. Comments on species profiles for Costa Rica. 
Asociacion Nacional para la Conservacion de la Naturaleza. 1990. List of threatened and vulnerable 

plants of Panama, (unpublished). 
d'Arcy, W.G. 1987. Rora of Panama: checklist and index. Monographs in Systematic Botany 17: 1- 

1000. 
Erfurth, T. & H. Rusche. 1976. The marketing of tropical wood. Rome: FAO. 
FAO Forestry Department. 1986. Databook on endangered tree and shrub species and their 

provenances. Rome: FAO. 524pp. 
Garcia, R.D. & I. Olmsted. 1987. Listado floristico de la Reserva Sian Ka'an. Puerto Morelos, Quintana 

Roo, Mexico 71pp. 
Harcourt, C.S. & J.A. Sayer. (eds.). 1996. The conservation atlas of tropical forests: the Americas. 

Simon & Schuster, Singapore. 
Howard, R.A. (ed.). 1974. Flora of the Lesser Antilles; Leeward and Windward Islands. Jamaica Plain, 

Mass., Arnold Arboretum. 6 vols, 1974-1989. 
Howard, Richard A. Ferns and flowering plants ofMontserrat. (unpublished). 36pp. 
IBAMA. 1996. Fax to Nigel Varty containing Brazilian export information for various timber species, 

dated 11 July 1996. 
ITTO. 1995. Elements for the annual review and assessment of the world tropical timber situation. 

Draft Document. 
ITTO. 1997. Annual review and assessment of the world tropical timber situation 1996. International 

Tropical Timber Organization (ITTO). 
Jimenez, J. de J. 1978. Lista tentativa de plantas de la Repiiblica Dominicana que deben protegerse 

para evitar su extincion. Santo Domingo: Coloquio Intemacional sobre la practica de la 

conservacion. CIBIMA/UASD. 
Killeen, T. 1997. Comments on the species summaries for Bolivia. 
Lamprecht, H. 1989. Silviculture in the tropics: tropical forest ecosystems and their tree species; 

possibilities and methods for their long-term utilization. Dt. Ges. fiir Techn. Zusammenarbeit 

(GTZ) GmbH, Eschbom. 
Pennington, T.D. 1981. Meliaceae. Flora Neotropica, Monograph 28. 470 pp. 
Polak, A.M. 1992. Major timber trees of Guyana. A field guide. The Tropenbos Foundation, 

Wageningen, The Netherlands. 272 pp. 
Proctor, George R. 1984. Flora of the Cayman Islands. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew: London, HMSO. 

834pp. 
Reynel, C. & T. Pennington. 1989. Reporte sobre los cedros y su situacion en el Peru, una 

contribuccion al conocimiento y la conservacion de las Meliaceas peruanas. Lima: Universidad 

Nacional Agaria La Molina, Centro de Datos Para la Conservacion Peni. 100pp. 
Varty, N. & D.L. Guadagnin. 1996. Information sources on the biology, conservation and trade of tree 

species in Brazil. Unpublished document for the WCMC/SSC Conservation and sustainable 

management of trees project. 
WCMC. 1996. Report of the Second Regional Workshop, held at CATIE, Turrialba, Costa Rica, 18-20 

November 1996. Conservation and sustainable management of trees pTojeci. (unpublished). 



182 



Annex 2. Profiles of Tree Species: The Americas 



Ceroxylon quindiuense 

Palmae 
wax palm 



Distribution 

Colombia 

Habitat 

The world's tallest palm tree is found in montane rainforest or cloud forest, occurring in the Colombian 
Andes between 2000 and 3000m. 

Population status and trends 

The species occurs in the remote Central Cordilleras. The habitat has come under severe pressure from 
increasing agriculture. Little is known on the actual extent of remainmg forest, but the severity of their 
degradation is evident. Although large trees are frequently left standing after the surroundmg areas 
have been made into pastureland, there is little potential for regeneration to occur in the open and with 
cattle grazing (Boa, 1998). Adult trees, although protected by law, are removed for ornamental use 
(Johnson et ai, 1997). The leaves, too, are collected in large quantities for use in religious festivals, 
although there is now mounting pressure to halt overcollection. More recently it has become evident 
that large numbers, up to half of the population in places, are suffering from an unknown disease (Boa, 
1998). 

Role of the species in the ecosystem 

A significant role is played by wax palm forests in protecting slopes from erosion and watersheds. 

Threats 

Extensive agriculture, pests and diseases. 

Utilization 

The leaf fibre is of commercial importance and the timber is also used in construction work. In the past 
the species was important as a source of wax which could be scraped off the trunks. 

Trade 

Trade in the leaf fibre does extend beyond the domestic level. 

Conservation status 

VU Bl+2c according to Bemal (Johnson etal., 1997) 

Conservation measures 

The species is designated the national tree of Colombia and laws have been introduced to protect it. 
Fundacion Herencia Verde, a local NGO, is launching a campaign to improve the knowledge on the 
tree and its present status. Various Colombian universities and CAB International are also involved in 
studies on the tree's ecology, taxonomy and diseases. 

The species is present in cultivation on a small scale. 

Forest management and silviculture 

References 

Boa, E. 1998. Palms in peril. A fabulous tree in Colombia could be in serious danger. New Scientist 

2123:48. 
Calderon, E. (comp.). 1997. Lisia de plantas Colombianas en peligro. July 1997 Version. Institute de 

Investigacino de Recursos Biologicas Alexander von Humboldt, (unpublished). 14 pp. 
Johnson, D. et al. 1997. Completed data collection forms for palms. 



183 



Contribution to an evaluation of tree species using the new CITES Listing Criteria 



Chamaecyparis lawsoniana 

Synonym: Cupressus lawsoniana 
Port Orford cedar 



Distribution 

U.S.A (California, Oregon) 

Habitat 

Port Orford Cedar is restricted to areas that have year-round water seepage and a shallow water table. It 
can be found along riverbanks, bogs and coastal sand dunes. In northern California the species occurs 
in coastal redwood forest stands, mixed evergreen forest, montane forest and subalpine forests 
(Klamath Mountains only). It is a minor component of the Pseudotsuga-Sclerophyll vegetation type of 
the Siskiyou Mountains, the Tsuga heterophylla zone of coastal Oregon and Picea sitchensis zone of 
south-west Oregon. (Draft CITES Proposal, 1994) 

Population Status and Trends 

The current range of C. lawsoniana is limited to an area no more than 64km wide, totalling 18,000km^, 
along the Pacific Coast extending from south-west Oregon to northern California. The majority of the 
commercial stands are found along the Pacific coast but a few smaller isolated stands occur in inland 
valleys of the Trinity and Sacramento rivers. Natural stands have been heavily logged and infestations 
of an introduced untreatable root pathogen Phytophthora lateralis has caused significant declines in 
population numbers. Disease is rapidly spreading between stands via vehicles and logging tracks. The 
standing volume is estimated to have declined from S.lmillion m^ in 1933 to 1.1 million m^ by 1990 
(Draft CITES Proposal, 1994). 

Role of Species in its Ecosystem 

C. lawsoniana is a keystone species in the aquatic/riparian ecosystems. It provides an important role in 
streambank and floodplain stability, also supplying shade, stabilising water temperatures and decay- 
resistant wood. Several fish species and amphibians are reported to be directly affected by the loss of 
the species from the ecosystem. 

Threats 

Overexploitation, pests and diseases. 

Utilisation 

An important timber species, also planted as an ornamental. The wood is used for paneling, decking, 
support beams etc. 

Trade 

This species has a minor domestic market, amounting to less than 1 180m^ pa. Most of the timber is 
exported as unprocessed logs to Japan and other Asian countries. Between 1980 and 1988, 307,000 m' 
was exported at a price of US$ 195 million, making Port Orford Cedar one of the more valuable 
species in international trade. 

lUCN Conservation category 

VUAlde according to the SSC Conifer Specialist Group (Farjon, 1996). 

Conservation Measures 

The species occurs in several national parks and forests (Shasta Sinslaw, Siskyou, Six Rivers, Klamath, 
Trinity). It also shares some of its locations with the endangered Spotted Owl and as a consequence 
receives much of the conservation action directed at the latter species (Farjon et al., 1996). 

Forest Management and Silviculture 

The species is widely cultivated and grown in plantations (Farjon et al., 1996) but most commercial 
stands are threatened by fungal disease (Draft CITES Proposal, 1994). 



184 



Annex 2. Profiles of Tree Species: The Americas 



References ^^^ 

Draft CITES Proposal. 1994. Proposal to include Chamaecyparis lawsoniana in Appendix II of CITES. 
Farjon, A. 1996. A letter from Aljos Farjon re: Chamaecyparis lawsoniana to Dr. J. Belsky dated 20 

August, 1996. 
Farjon, A. et al. 1996. Discussions of the SSC Conifer Specialist Group involving the application of 
revised lUCN red list categories to conifer species. 



185 



Contribution to an evaluation of tree species using the new CITES Listing Criteria 

Chlorocardium rodiei 

Lauraceae 
greenheart 



Distribution 

Brazil, French Guiana, Guyana, Suriname, Venezuela 

Habitat 

The species is a dominant component of a restricted belt of lowland rainforest on brown sand. It is 
occasionally found in other forest types, such as Mora forest and Wallaba forest (Polak, 1992). 

Population Status and Trends 

A large part of the total population is confined to Guyana. The species is found in low densities in 
western Venezuela (Polak, 1992), and only in a small concentration along Maratakka River in 
Suriname, where it is considered threatened (Werkhoven, 1997) Regeneration in natural stands is very 
slow (Chanderbali, 1997). 

Role of species in the Ecosystem 

The seeds are dispersed by mammals (Chanderbali, 1997). 

Threats 

Overexploitation, logging of the habitat (Chanderbali, 1997). 

Utilisation 

The timber is used in construction work; the building of ships, docks, piers and house posts (Flynn, 
1994). There are bitter alkaloids in the bark which have anti-malaria propenies (Polak, 1992). 

Trade 

Greenheart production in Guyana has declined over the past 50 years. 90% of the wood was cut for the 
domestic market before the 1990s. Current trends are more heavily concentrated in the production of 
plywood (WRI, 1996). Greenheart timber is relatively expensive and available as lumber from only a 
few suppliers in U.S.A. Europe takes the largest share of exports (Flynn, 1994). Guyana exported 
8000m' in sawnwood at US$395/m' and an unregistered amount in logs at US$459/m' under the name 
of Ocotea rodiei according to records from 1995 (ITTO, 1997). In Eastbourne, U.K., the groynes 
along the sea front were recently rebuilt using 12,000m'of greenheart from Guyana. 

rUCN Conservation category 

VU A lad according to the Americas Regional Workshop for WCMC/SSC Conservation and 
sustainable management of trees project (WCMC, 1996). 

Conservation Measures 

Forest Management and Silviculture 

Poor germination success has limited progress in establishing plantations (Chanderbali, 1997). Mast 
fruiting occurs every 12-15 years and the seeds are dropped around the parent tree (Polak, 1992). 

References 

Chanderbali, A. 1997. Completed data collection form for Chlorocardium rodiei. 

Chudnoff, M. 1984. Tropical timbers of the world. Forest Products Laboratory Madison, Wisconsin: 

United States Department of Agriculture. 464pp. 
Cremers, G. 1994. Annotations to: Threatened plants of French Guiana (South America). 56pp. 
Flynn, J.H. 1994 A guide to useful woods of the world. King Publishing Co, Portland, Maine, U.S.A. 
Harcourt, C.S. and J.A. Sayer. 1996. The conservation atlas of tropical forests: the Americas. Simon & 

Schuster, Singapore. 
ITTO. 1997. Annual review arui assessment of the world tropical timber situation 1996. International 

Tropical Timber Organization (ITTO). 
Polak, A.M. & H.R. Rypkema. (ill.). 1992. Major Timber Trees of Guyana. Wageningen, The 

Netherlands: The Tropenbos Foundation. 272pp. 
WCMC. 1996. Report of the Second Regional Workshop, held at CATIE, Turrialba, Costa Rica, 18-20 

November 1996. Conservation and sustainable management of trees project, (unpublished). 



186 



Annex 2. Profiles of Tree Species: The Americas 



Werkhoven. M.C.M. 1997. Threatened trees of Sunname. A list compiled for the WCMC/SSC 

Conservation and sustainable management of trees project. 
WRI. 1996. Profits without plunder: reaping revenue from Guyana's tropical forests without destroying 

them, http://www.wri.org/wri/biodiv/guyana/index.html 



187 



Contribution to an evaluation of tree species using the new CITES Listing Criteria 



Cordia dodecandra 

Boraginaceae 
ziricote 

Distribution 

Belize, Brazil, Colombia, Florida, Guatemala, Mexico (Campeche, Chiapas, Quintana Roo.Veracruz, 
Yucatan), Venezuela, West Indies. 

Habitat 

A lowland rainforest species. In Quintana Roo. the species occurs in forests on black soils and in 
secondary formations (Hawthorne & Hughes, 1996). 

Population Status and Trends 

Role of species in the Ecosystem 

Threats 

Utilisation 

The wood is used for flooring and furniture. A syrup made from the bark is used as cough medicine. 

Trade 

Timber is imported into U.S.A. (Americas Regional Workshop, 1996). 

rUCN Conservation category 

DD according to the Americas Regional Workshop for the WCMC/SSC Conservation and Sustainable 
Management of Trees project (WCMC. 1996). 

Conservation Measures 



Forest Management and Silviculture 

References 

Americas Regional Workshop. 1996. Discussions held at CATIE, Costa Rica, November 1996 at the 

Second Regional Workshop of the WCMC/SSC Conservation and sustainable management of trees 

project. (Unpublished). 
Hawthorne, W.D. & C.E. Hughes. 1996. Bioquality of the forests of Quintana Roo. ODA Mexico: 

Quintana Roo Forest Management Project. Biological Component Phase 1 . Report on Consultancy 

Visit. 
Mills, T.H. 1957. Timber trees of Northern Chiapas, Mexico, D.F. 
Vovides, A. P. 1986. Relacion de plantas Mexicanas raras o en peligro de extincion. (unpublished). 

Veracruz: INIREB. 7pp. 
WCMC. 1996. Report of the Second Regional Workshop, held at CATIE, Turrialba, Costa Rica, 1 8-20 

November 1996. Conservation and sustainable management of trees project, (unpublished). 



188 



Annex 2. Profiles of Tree Species: The Americas 



Ddlbergia nigra 

Leguminosae 

Brazilian rosewood, jacaranda caviiina, jacaranda preto, jacaranda roxo, palisander. 

palissandre du Bresil 



Distribution 

Brazil (Bahia, Espirito Santo, Minas Gerais, Rio de Janeiro, Sao Paulo) 

Habitat 

The species is encountered equally in primary and secondary formations, occurring on soils of low- 
natural feruhty, deep clay and clay-sand soils with good drainage. It is able to tolerate dry conditions 
(Varty, 1996). 

Population Status and Trends 

Brazilian Rosewood is one of the most highly prized woods in Brazil. The highest concentrations of the 
species are located in hygrophilous forest on rich soils in southern Bahia and northern Espinto Santo 
(de Carvalho, 1994). Deforestation is occurring at a rapid rate in southern Bahia (Varty, 1996). Already 
noted to exhibit low population densities in the 1920s, the species continued to become increasingly 
rare up to the 1990s. Excessive and indiscriminate exploitation and devastation of the Atlantic forest 
habitat are the major contnbutors to the species' demise (SSC et al.. 1992). Regeneration appears to be 
poor, possibly because of seed predation by rodents. The species is listed as threatened according to 
IBAMA and the FAO (IBAMA, 1992; FAO, 1986). 

Role of species in the Ecosystem 

Rodents predate seedlings. Rhizobium bacteria form root nodules (Varty, 1996). 

Threats 

Overexploitation. seed predation. clear-felling/logging of the habitat (Varty, 1996). 

Utilisation 

The timber has been harvested since colonial times for making high quality furniture and musical 
instruments. Restricted supplies led to the wood being increasingly used for carving and sculpture. 

Trade 

One of the most highly-valued timbers, prices reached as high as US$5000/m5(Varty, 1996). In 1924 
Brazilian exports of both logs and lumber of D. nigra totalled 2,776 tons (Tropical Woods. 1928). By 
1957-61 exports had fallen to 924Mbdft or 2,300 tons (Rizzino & Filho, 1973). In 1984 only 385 
tonnes was reponed in export figures (Banco do Brasil, 1984), most of it going to the fonner West 
Germany, followed by U.S.A. and U.K. Export of roundwood was forbidden in 1965 but is believed to 
have continued illegally (Read, 1993; SSC et al., 1992). 1995 reports indicate USA and Portugal 
received imports of palissandre du Brasii (Dalbergia spp.) as plywood and veneer, Greece received 
plywood, Portugal also received logs (ITTO, 1997). 

Trade data currently recorded in the WCMC CFTES Trade Database refer to the years 1992 and 1993. 
The products reported in ffade are carvings, timber, timber pieces and veneer, with one shipment of Mive 
plants'. The various units of measurement given are kg, m', cm', m^ and ft^. The largest single transaction 
recorded is 710715m5 of timber imported to Japan from Brazil in 1992, as reported by Japan. At the 
CITES Timber Working Group meeting, the representative of Brazil pointed out that the figure shouH 
read 0.7 m' and this was agreed by the representatives of Japan and ITTO. In 1993, no exports of 
Dalbergia nigra from Brazil, are recorded in the CITES statistics (Oldfield and Collins, 1997). The table 
below provides a summary of the CITES-reported trade in Dalbergia nigra. 



189 



Contribution to an evaluation of tree species using the new CITES Listing Criteria 



CUES reported trade in DaWergia nigra 1992 - 1993 



Country of export 


1992 


1993 


Brazil 


710715m3*;71cm3 




Australia 




6kg 


Canada 


9000m2 




Denmark 




1 (no unit of measurement) 


France 


1 carving; 19033m' 




Germany 


27 (no unit of measurement); \6\6nf 


26 carvings; 2543m2 


Japan 


14336ft2 veneer 




Spain 




6541 carvings 


Switzerland 


1 shipment (live plants) 


I297m3 


United Kingdom 


6kg 




USA 


29 (no unit of measurement) 


56 (no unit of 
measurement); 180m' 



Note; * reporting error by Japan - see above 

lUCN Conservation category 

VU Alcd according to Varty. N (1996). 

Conservation Measures 

The species is found in a number of protected areas. It is listed on the official list of threatened 
Brazilian plants by IBAMA. As a threatened species, federal and state legislation prohibits the cutting 
of trees. 

Dalbergia nigra was included in Appendix I of CITES following a decision by the Eighth Meeting of the 
Conference of the Parties in 1992. Specific problems relating to the reporting of trade in worked products 
of Dalbergia nigra, and in particular the trade in musical instruments, were referred to the Standing 
Committee, following the listing of the species. 

Forest Management and Silviculture 

Efforts to establish plantations have been slow and small scale (Varty, 1996). The species is slow- 
growing, although there are reports that it is not as slow-growing as commonly perceived. 

References 

Banco do Brasil. 1984. Brasil 1984: Commercio exterior exportacao de Carvalho, A.M. 1994. The 

genus Dalbergia L.f. in Bahia, Brazil. In Westley, S.B. & J.H. Roshetko (eds.). Dalbergia: 

Proceedings of an international workshop. 
Chudnoff, M. 1984. Tropical timbers of the world. Forest Products Laboratory Madison, Wisconsin: 

United States Department of Agriculture. 464pp. 
FAO Forestry Department. 1986. Databook on endangered tree and shrub species and their 

provenances. Rome: FAO. 524pp. 
IBAMA. 1992. Lista oficial de especies da flora Brasileira ameagadas de extingao. (unpublished). 

4pp. 
Oldfield, S. and Collins, L. 1997 Review and improvement of national reporting for trade in plants 

listed in the Appendices of CITES. A repon prepared on behalf of the CITES Secretariat. WCMC, 

Cambridge. 
Read, M. 1993. Ebonies and rosewoods. Requiem or revival. Fauna and Rora Preservation Society. 
Rizzini, C.T. & A. de Mattos Filho. 1973. Sebastiao-de-Amida. Dalbergia decipularis Rizz. & Matt. 

Brasil Horestal. (IV): 13. p.38. 
The Nature Conservancy. 1996. Natural Heritage Central Database. (Status and distribution data on 

Latin American plants, developed in collaboration with Latin American Conservation Data Centers 

and Missouri Botanical Garden.). 



190 



Annex 2. Profiles of Tree Species: The Americas 



Tropical Woods. 1928. Timber exports of Brazil Yale University, pp.34-35. 

Varty, N. 1996. Data collection forms for Brazilian Atlantic forest species. 

Varty. N. & D.L. Guadagnin. 1996. Information sources on the biology, conservation and trade of tree 

species in Brazil. Unpublished document prepared for the WCMC/SSC Conservation and 

sustainable management of trees project. 



191 



Contribution to an evaluation of tree species using the new CITES Listing Criteria 



Dalbergia retusa 

Leguminosae 

cocobolo, Nicaraguan rosewood 



Distribution 

Belize, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama 

Habitat 

A species of dry forest, woodland and scrub along the Pacific coastal lowlands and slopes, occurring in 
wooded areas as well as rocky ground and pastureland (Jimenez Madrigal, 1993). 

Population Status and Trends 

Exploitation of the timber is intense. Some areas where the species was formerly widespread, now hold 
populations which are almost completely exhausted. This is most notable in Costa Rica (Americas 
Regional Workshop, 1996; Jimenez Madrigal, 1993). There is a limited occurrence of the species north 
of the canal in Panama. Elsewhere, such as Mexico, there are reported to be reasonably-sized 
populations remaining (Americas Regional Workshop, 1996). The dry forest habitat has been under 
exploitation for some 400 years. Continuing habitat destruction, the growth of cattle ranching and 
increasing fires have contributed to the decline in the species (Americas Regional Workshop, 1996). 

Ecology 

The species is associated with Tabebuia ochracea, Astronium graveolens. Tabebuia impetiginosa, 
Sideroxylon capiri and Swietenia macrophylla (Jimenez Madrigal, 1993). 

Role of species in the Ecosystem 

Threats 

Overexploitation, burning, increasing pastoralism/ranching (Americas Regional Workshop, 1996) 

Utilisation 

A durable waterproof timber, which is used for inlay work, musical instruments and other crafts 
(Americas Regional Workshop; Flynn, 1994). A unique property of the species within the genus is the 
secretion of compounds that act as potent bactericides, fungicides and algicides (Anon, 1979). 

Trade 

Limited supplies have led to high prices in the international market (Flynn, 1994). U.S.A. is receiving 
imports (Americas Regional Workshop, 1996). 

lUCN Conservation category 

VU Alacd, CI according to the Americas Regional Workshop for the WCMC/SSC Conservation and 
sustainable management of trees project (WCMC, 1996). 

Conservation Measures 

In Costa Rica populations are contained within several protected areas (Jimenez MadrigEil, 1993). 

Forest Management and Silviculture 

The species responds well to fire. In areas experiencing periodic burning new saplings and small trees 
are observed to be numerous (Jimenez Madrigal, 1993). The species is slow-growing (Americas 
Regional Workshop, 1996). 

References 

Americas Regional Workshop. 1996. Discussions held at CAlib, Costa Rica, November 1996 at the 

Second Regional Workshop of the WCMC/SSC Conservation and Sustainable Management of 

Trees project. (Unpublished). 
Anon. 1979. Tropical legumes: Resources for the future. National Academy of Sciences, Washington, 

D.C. 
d'Arcy, W.G. 1987. Flora of Panama: checklist and index. Monographs in Systematic Botany 17: 1- 

1000. 
Flynn, J.H. 1994. A guide to the useful woods of the world. King Philip Publishing Co., Maine, U.S.A. 

382pp. 



192 



Annex 2. Profiles of Tree Species: The Americas 



Jimenez Madrigal, Quirico. 1993. Arboles maderables en peligro de extincion en Costa Rica. San Jose. 

Costa Rica; Museo Nacional de Costa Rica. 121pp. 
The Nature Conservancy. 1996. Natural Heritage Central Database. (Status and distribution data on 

Latin American plants, developed in collaboration with Latin American Conservation Data Centers 

and Missouri Botanical Garden.). 
WCMC. 1996. Report of the Second Regional Workshop, held at CATIE. Turrialba, Costa Rica, 18-20 

November 1996. Conservation and sustainable management of trees project, (unpublished). 



193 



Contribution to an evaluation of tree species using the new CITES Listing Criteria 



Dalbergia stevensonii 

Honduras Rosewood 

Distribution 

This species is endemic to Belize. It is restricted to tiie southern part of the country between latitudes 
16-17° N. 

Habitat 

This species has been reported to occur in fairly large patches along rivers but also on inter-riverain and 
drier areas; mostly between Sarstoon and Monkey Rivers (Chudnoff, 1984). 

Population Status and Trends 

No specific information is available. 

Role of Species in its Ecosystem 

No information. 

Threats 

No specific information is available. 

Utilisation 

This wood is used for speciality items including musical instruments, knife handles and veneers for 
fine furniture (Bunon, in litt., 1991). 

Trade 

The quantity available on the commercial market is very limited because of restricted growth areas 
(Flynn, 1994). 

Conservation Status 

No information is available on the conservation status of this species in the WCMC Plants Database. D. 
stevensonii has not yet been evaluated using the new lUCN categones of threat. However, considering 
that the recorded total area of forest cover in Belize was 16.864 km^ in 1993 (Harcourt & Sayer. 1996). 
it is probable that this species will fall into at least the Vulnerable category (under criterion B, due to 
the restricted distribution). Confirmation of this categorisation by local experts is awaited. 

Conservation Measures 

No specific information. 

References 

Chudnoff, M., 1984. Tropical timbers of the world. USDA Forest Service Agriculture Handbook No. 

607. 
Flynn, J.H., 1994. A guide to useful woods of the world. King Philip Publishing Co: Portland, Maine, 

US 
Harcourt C.S. and Sayer, J. A. (Eds), 1996. The conservation atlas of tropical forests: the Americas. 

Simon & Schuster:Singapore. 



194 



Annex 2. Profiles of Tree Species: The Americas 



Dipteryx alata 

Leguminosae 



Distribution 

Brazil 

Habitat 

A dry woodland tree, occurring in cerrados on lateritic, sandy-clay soils. 

Population Status and Trends 

This tree is widespread in Brazil, although the habitat has suffered widely from conversion for 
agnculture. Exploitation of the excellent quality timber and edible/medicinal seeds has led to declines 
in population numbers (FAO, 1986). 

Ecology 

Associated species Astronium fraxinifolium, Hymenaea stigneoerpa. Bowdidria sp. and Pterodon sp. 

Threats 

Local use, extensive agriculture 

Utilisation 

The seeds are locally exploited for their medicinal and nutritional properties. 

lUCN Conservation category 

VU Alcd according to WCMC 

Conservation Measures 

Forest Management and Silviculture 

References 

FAO Forestry Department. 1986. Databook on endangered tree and shrub species and their 
provenances. Rome: FAO. 524pp. 



195 



Contribution to an evaluation of tree species using the new CITES Listing Criteria 



Esenbeckia leiocarpa 

Rutaceae 



Distribution 

Brazil (Bahia. Goi'as, Mato Grosso do Sul. Rio de Janeiro, Sao Paulo) 

Habitat 

A species of humid closed forest mainly on sandy but fertile soils. 

Population Status and Trends 

Restncted to the humid forests of Brazil, largely along the Atlantic coast, the species has experienced 
massive forest conversion over the last century mainly to allow for the growth of agriculture, cattle 
ranching and commercial plantations. 

Role of species in the Ecosystem 

Threats 

Overexploitation, clear felling/logging, commercial plantation development, extensive agriculture 

UtiUsation 

The wood has a high density and resistance to rot and mechanical stress. It is useful in construction 
work and external structures. 

Trade 

lUCN Conservation category 

VU Alcd according to WCMC 

Conservation Measures 

Forest Management and Silviculture 

References 

FAO Forestry Department. 1986. Databook on endangered tree and shrub species and their 

provenances. Rome: FAO. 524pp. 
The Nature Conservancy. 1996. Natural Heritage Central Database. (Status and distribution data on 

Latin American plants, developed in collaboration with Latin American Conservation Data Centers 

and Missouri Botanical Garden.). 



196 



Annex 2. Profiles of Tree Species: The Americas 



Fitzroya cupressoides 

Cupressaceae 
alerce 



Distribution 

Argentina (Chubut, Neuquen, Rio Negro), Chile. 

Habitat 

The species occurs in temperate forest in scattered stands from sea level to 1200m (Golte, 1996). 

Population Status and Trends 

F. cupressoides has been logged since the middle of the seventeenth century (Golte, 1996). The largest 
concentration of the species, at the southern end of the Chilean depression, was exploited in the 
eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, leaving no remains except blackened stumps. By the early 1900s a 
third of the Fitzroya forests had been removed. In the 1930s motorised u-ansport and the building of 
roads allowed access to the stands in coastal cordillera and high cordillera. Exploitation continued in 
both of these areas at such intensities that chances of regrowth and regeneration are anihalated (Golte, 
1996). Present estimates of the area of remaining stands lie at 20,000ha, 15% of their original size. 
Restrictions laid down by the Chilean Government and by CITES have not been adhered to and illegal 
logging in remote areas has been impossible to halt (Golte, 1996). Today the best stands may be found 
between latitudes of 41° and 42°S in the high cordillera. Elsewhere populations are small. 

Role of Species in its Ecosystem 

Threats 

Commercial overexploitation, clear-felling/logging; burning, increasing settlement (Farjon et al.. 
1996). 

Utilisation 

The exceptionally durable wood has been used mainly for house construction and roof shingles (Golte, 
1996). 

Trade 

CITES countries are prohibited from trading in alerce. Chile continues to export the wood and illegal 
felling is occurring at alarming rates (Farjon etai, 1996). In 1990, Chile exported 41 876m^ of f/fcroya 
cupressoides, principally to East Germany and the United Kingdom. In 1 99 1 , 3 1 64m^ of the timber was 
exponed together with 2667727 timber pieces. An additional 772422 items of timber were reported to 
be imponed by Japan in the same year. In 1992, Chile reponed exporting 3148m^. Except for the trade 
reported by Japan in 1991, and relatively small imports reported by the United States, 85m' (1991) and 
168m' (1992), the majority of imports are not being reported 

lUCN Conservation category 

EN Ale according to the SSC Conifer Specialist Group (Farjon et al., 1996). 

Conservation Measures 

The species has been included in Appendix I of CITES since 1975. Chile entered a reservation in 1987 
against this listing and legally trades the species as if it was included in Appendix n. 

Chile declared Fitzroya cupressoides a National Monument in 1976 and both Chile and Argentina have 
prohibited logging of this species (Farjon etai, 1996). A total of 2,309 ha oi Fitzroya forest has been 
put under protection in Chile as the Monumento Natural Alerce Costero. Stands also occur in Chile's 
Alerce Andino National Park and Argentina's Los Alerces National Park (Golte, 1996). 

Forest Management and Silviculture 

F. cupressoides is is unsuitable for present day forest management.(Golte, 1996). It is an extremely 
slow growing species, taking up to 200 years to reach maturity and a height of 10-12m, living as long 
as 3000 years (Golte, 1996). Recruitment may be as low as one new specimen for each tree every 1000 
years (Golte, 1996). Regeneration is stimulated by large scale natural disturbance such as landslides or 
volcanoes, but regeneration after forest clearance is poor (Golte, 1996). 



197 



Contribution to an evaluation of tree species using the new CITES Listing Criteria 



References 

Faijon, A. et al. 1996. Discussions of the SSC Conifer Specialist Group involving the application of 

revised lUCN red list categories to conifer species. 
Golte, W., 1996. Exploitation and conservation of Fitzroya cupressoides in southern Chile. In Hunt, D. 

(ed.). Temperate Trees Under Threat. International Dendrology Society, Great Britain. 



198 



Annex 2. Profiles of Tree Species: The Americas 



Guaiacum officinale 

Zygophyllaceae 

lignum vitae, bois saint, guaiaco, guayac, guayacan, guayaco, guiac male, guiac 

officinal, palo santo, palo sano, pau santo 

Distribution 

Anguilla, Antigua and Barbuda, Bahamas, Barbados, Colombia, Cuba, Dominica, Dominican 
Republic. Grenada. Guadeloupe (Guadeloupe, St Martin-St Barthelemy), Haiti. Jamaica. Maninique. 
Moniserrat, Netherlands Antilles, Puerto Rico, St Vincent, Turks and Caicos Islands, Venezuela, 
Virgin Islands (Bntish). Virgin Islands (US) 

Habitat 

A species of lowland, dry forest, woodland and scrub, occurring most frequently in coastal areas but 
also in inland areas. 

Population Status and Trends 

The timber and medicinal resin have been U-aded for several centuries, resulting in overexploitation 
throughout the species range. Many of the Caribbean populations were decimated in the seventeenth 
and eighteenth centuries. Little remains of the species outside of cultivation in the Lesser Antilles 
(Howard, 1986), Barbados, Virgin Islands. Populations are reduced and large trees are extremely rare 
on Puerto Rico, Hispaniola and Jamaica (CITES Proposal, 1992). The population in Colombia occurs 
in Bolivar, Magdalena and Guajira and is critically endangered (Calderon, 1997). 

Role of species in the Ecosystem 

Threats 

Over exploitation. 

UtiUsation 

This is the major source of lignum vitae. The extremely strong heavy wood is used for ship propeller 
shafts, pulleys, bearings, caster wheels and for turnery. The species was, however, originally exploited 
as a cure of syphilis (CITES Proposal, 1992). 

Trade 

G. officinale and G. sanctum are easily distinguishable from one another but are rarely separated by 
collectors. Both species have been U-aded for almost 500 years. G. officinale produces the more 
commercially valuable wood (SSC/TPC, 1981). lUega' trade has been suspected (CITES Proposal, 
1992). 

Limited trade data is available from the WCMC CITES Trade Database. In 1992, the only trade reported 
to CITES, was the export of 1 1000kg of timber reported by Japan. In 1993, Japan reported exporting 15 
tons of sawn wood and 120 timber pieces; Spain reported exporting 36 timber carvings from the 
Dominican Republic; the Dominican Republic reported exporting 113 timber pieces to the USA, and the 
United Kingdom reported importing 615kg from Mexico (Oldfield and Collins, 1997). 

lUCN Conservation category 

EN C2a according to the Americas Regional Workshop for the WCMC/SSC Conservation and 
sustainable management of trees project (WCMC, 1996). 

Conservation Measures 

This species was included in Appendix n of CITES following a decision by the Eighth Meeting of the 
Conference of the Parties in 1992. It is also included in Appendix III of the SPAW Protocol. It is legally 
protected in Martinique and Guadeloupe. 

Forest Management and Silviculture 

Propagation and germination is easy but growth is very slow (CITES Proposal, 1992). Cultivated 
populations occur throughout the tropics. 



199 



Contribution to an evaluation of tree species using the new CITES Listing Criteria 



References 

Brito, A. A. 1995. Letter to Wendy Strahm including annotations to: List of threatened trees of Cuba. 

1-5. 
Calderon, E. (comp.). 1997. Lista de plantas Colombianas en peligro. July 1997 Version. Institute de 

Investigacino de Recursos Biologicas Alexander von Humboldt, (unpublished). 14 pp. 
CITES. 1992. CITES Appendices as of June 1992. (unpublished). 

CITES Proposal. 1992. Proposal to include Guaiacum officinale in Appendix II of CITES. 
Correll, D.S. & H.B. Correll. 1982. Flora of the Bahama Archipelago. Vaduz, Liechtenstein: 

Cramer. 1692pp. 
Howard, R.A. (ed.). 1974. Flora of the Lesser Antilles: Leeward and Windward Islands. Jamaica 

Plain, Mass., Arnold Arboretum. 6 vols. 1974-1989. 
Kraus, Fred. 1991. Biodiversity conservation on Guana Island, British Virgin Islands. Road Town, 

Tortola. British Virgin Islands 138pp. 
Oldfield, S. and Collins, L. 1997 Review and improvement of national reporting for trade in plants 

listed in the Appendices of CITES. A report prepared on behalf of the CITES Secretariat. WCMC, 

Cambridge. 
SSC/TPC. 1981. Report on Guaiacum officinale for the Third Convention of the Parties, New Delhi, 

India. Vol. 1. 
United States of America. 1991. Proposal to include Guaiacum officinale on Appendix II of 

CITES.Submitted for 8th Meeting of Conference of the Parties to CITES, 2-13 March 1992, Kyoto, 

Japan, (unpublished). 22pp. 
WCMC. 1996. Report of the Second Regional Workshop, held at CATIE, Turrialba, Costa Rica, 18-20 

November 1996. Conservation and sustainable management of trees project, (unpublished). 



200 



Annex 2. Profiles of Tree Species: The Americas 



Guaiacum sanctum 

Zygophyllaceae 

gaiac femelle, guayacan, guayacan bianco, lignum vitae 



Distribution 

Bahamas, Belize, Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominican Republic, El Salvador, Guatemala, Haiti, Honduras, 
Mexico (Quintana Roo), Nicaragua, Panama, Puerto Rico, USA (Florida) 

Habitat 

A species of lowland dry forest and woodland. 

Population Status and Trends 

Although large specimens are almost completely absent from most of the species range, small bushy 
trees can be found. Many of the Caribbean populations were decimated in the 17 and 18 centunes. 
Those populations that escaped exploitation in Florida were threatened with habitat conversion for 
retirement homes (Ward, 1979). If native to El Salvador it is now extinct (SSC/TPC, 1981). The 
species is included in a list of threatened timber trees in Costa Rica (Jimenez Madrigal, 1993). 

Ecology 

Associated species are Astronium graveolens, Tabebuia ochracea and Sideroxylon capiri (Jimenez 
Madngal, 1993). 

Role of species in the Ecosystem 

Threats 

Overexploitation. 

Utilisation 

A less valuable source of lignum vitae than C. officinale, but rarely distinguished by collectors. The 
wood is extremely su-ong and heavy. As with C. officinae it is used for ship propeller shafts, pulleys, 
bearings, caster wheels and for turnery. It was also originally exploited as a cure of syphilis (CITES 
Proposal, 1992). It is also sold and planted as an ornamental tree or tub plant. 

Trade 

G. officinale and G. sanctum have both been traded for almost 500 years. International trade has 
continued into the 1990s. A significant amount of illegal trade has continued since 1975, possibly 
between Mexico and U.S.A. Trees were illegally cut in Rorida (CITES Proposal, 1992). 

Limited trade data is available from the WCMC CITES Trade Database. Import of 5430 timber items of 
this species (no units of measurement given) from Mexico were reported by Japan in 1991. In 1992, the 
USA reported importing 7358kg of timber of the species. Exports are reported by Mexico for the years 
1993, 1994 and 1995. The average quantity exported for these years is 222m^, with exports to Canada, 
Germany, Japan, Hong Kong, Korea, Singapore, and USA (Oldfield and Collins, 1997). 

lUCN Conservation category 

EN C2a according to the Americas Regional Workshop for the WCMC/SSC Conservation and 
sustainable management of trees project (WCMC, 1996). 

Conservation Measures 

The species is listed on Appendix II of CITES. 

Forest Management and Silviculture 

Regeneration is good but growth is very slow (Americas Regional Workshop, 1996). It is planted much 
less frequently than G. officinale, and mainly for amenity (CITES Proposal, 1982). 

References 

Americas Regional Workshop. 1996. Discussions held at CATIE, Costa Rica, November 1996 at the 
Second Regional Workshop of the WCMC/SSC Conservation and Sustairuible Management of 
Trees project. (Unpublished). 



201 



Contribution to an evaluation of tree species using the new CITES Listing Criteria 



Brito, A. A. 1995. Letter to Wendy Strahm including annotations to: List of threatened trees of Cuba. 

1-5. 
CITES Proposal. 1992. Proposal to include Guaiacum officinale in Appendix II of CITES. 
d'Arcy, W.G. 1987. Flora of Panama: checklist and index. Monographs in Systematic Botany 17: 1- 

1000. 
Garcia, R.D. & I. Olmsted. 1987. Listado flon'stico de la Reserva Sian Ka'an. Puerto Morelos, Quintana 

Roo, Mexico 71pp. 
Hartshorn, G. et al. 1981. Natural Vegetation, pp. 13-21. In The Dominican Republic, country 

environmental profile, a field study. Virgina: McLean. 
Jimenez Madrigal, Quirico. 1993. Arboles maderables en peligro de extincion en Costa Rica. San Jose, 

Costa Rica: Museo Nacional de Costa Rica. 121pp. 
Liogier, A.'i^. .La Flora de la Espahola. 3 vols. Dominican Republic: Universidad Central Del 

Este.Centenario de San Pedro de Macoris. 
Oldfield, S. and Collins, L. 1997 Review and improvement of national reporting for trade in plants 

listed in the Appendices of CITES. A repon prepared on behalf of the CITES Secretariat. WCMC, 

Cambridge. 
SSC/TPC. 1981. Report on Guaiacum officinale for the Third Convention of the Parties. New Delhi, 

India. Vol. 1. 
Standley, P.C, J.A. Steyermark. & L.O. Williams. 1946. Flora of Guatemala. Fieldiana Bot. 24 
Ward, D.B. (ed.). 1979. Rare and endangered biota of Florida: 5. Plants. Gainesville: University 

Presses of Florida. 175pp. 
WCMC. 1996. Report of the Second Regional Workshop, held at CATIE, Turrialba, Costa Rica, 18-20 

November 1996. Conservation and sustainable management of trees project, (unpublished). 



202 



Annex 2. Profiles of Tree Species: The Americas 



Ilex paraguariensis 

Aquifoliaceae 

congonha, erva-mate, ka'a, yerba mate 



Distribution 

Argentina, Brazil (Rio Grande do Sul, Santa Catarina), Colombia, Ecuador. Paraguay. Uruguay. 
Although generally not thought to be native to Bolivia, natural populations apparently exist in Beni 
(Ibisch, 1997). 

Habitat 

An understorey tree of mixed Araucaria forest and temperate hardwood forest, also occurring in more 
humid subtropical areas, ranging in altitude between 500 and 1500m. In Paraguay the species is 
abundant, almost forming pure stands, in high humid forest with shallow soils. It also appears to be 
well adapted to open places with deep soils, which are intensively cultivated. 

Population Status and Trends 

The rates of exploitation, in some areas, are believed to have caused significant declines in population 
numbers. Plantations have been set up, but the demand for leaves is still, apparently, greater than the 
supply from cultivated stands (FAO. 1986). In Brazil massive declines in the extent of Araucaria forest 
have resulted in declines in the extent of /. paraguaiensis. The species is included in a databook of 
endangered species by the FAO (FAO, 1986). 

Role of species in the Ecosystem 

In Brazil, the species forms a distinct association with Araucaria angustifolia. The dioecious flowers 
have non-specialised pollinators. 

Threats 

Overexploitation. clear- felling/logging. 

Utilisation 

For centunes the leaves have been used to make a tonic and stimulant drink, apparently also relatively 
high in vitamin content. The drinks mate and terere are mixed with other wild herbs and bark. 

Trade 

The species is present only in domestic trade. 

lUCN Conservation category 

LR/nt according to WCMC. 

Conservation Measures 

Forest Management and Silviculture 

Production stands are created by thinning out other species or by enrichment planting with /. 
paraguaiensis seedlings. Plantations are also set up. Vegetative propagation is the most effective 
method of reproduction. 

References 

FAO Forestry Department. 1986. Databook on endangered tree and shrub species and their 

provenances. Rome; FAO. 524pp. 
Ibisch, P.L. 1997. Comments on species summaries for Bohvia. 
Lopez, J. & Elbert L. Little. 1987. Arboles communes del Paraguay. Washington, DC: Peace Corps. 

425pp. 
Ortega Torres, E., L. Stutz de Ortega & R. .Spichiger. 1989. Noventa especies forestales del Paraguay. 

Flora del Paraguay. Conservatoire et Jardin Botaniques de la Ville de Geneve & Missouri 

Botanical Garden. 



203 



Contribution to an evaluation of tree species using the new CITES Listing Criteria 



Reitz, Raulino, Roberto M. Klein, & Ademir Reis. 1978. Projeto Madeira de Santa Catarina. 

Levantamentodas especies florestais nativas em Santa Catarina com a possibilidade de incremento e 

desenvolvimento. Itajai, Santa Catarina: Herbario "Barbosa Rodrigues" - HBR. 320pp. 
Reitz, Raulino, Roberto M. Klein, & Ademir Reis. 1983. Projeto Madeira de Rio Grande do Sul. 

Levaniamento das especies florestais nativas com possibilidade de incremento e desenvolvimento. 

Herbario "Barbosa Rodrigues" - HBR. 528pp. 



204 



Annex 2. Profiles of Tree Species: The Americas 



Joannesia princeps 

Euphorbiaceae 

araranut tree, boleira, coieira 



Distribution 

Brazil (Bahia, Espirito Santo, Minas Gerais) 

Habitat 

The species occurs mainly in humid closed forest. It does not withstand extremely drs' conditions. 

Population Status and Trends 

Population declmes have been caused largely through habitat conversion for agriculture, cattle ranching 
and commercial plantations. 

Role of species in the Ecosystem 

Threats 

Extensive agriculture, pastoralism/ranching, commercial plantation development. 

Utilisation 

The species is exploited for the valuable boleira wood. It is also a source of anda-assy oil, a purgative 

and ointment to combat skin diseases. 

Trade 

lUCN Conservation category 

VU Alcd according to V/CMC 

Conservation Measures 

A population is found in Rio Doce State Park. 

Forest Management and Silviculture 

In the few trials which have been set up, the species has shown fast growth, trees measuring 15m 
height and 1 1cm DBH after 5 years growth and 23.3m after 26 years growth. 

References 

FAO Forestry Department. 1986. Databook on endangered tree and shrub species and their 

provenances. Rome; FAO. 524pp. 
Mabberley, D.J. 1997. The plant book. A portable dictionary of vascular plants. Second Edition. 

Cambridge University Press. 
The Nature Conservancy. 1996. Natural Heritage Central Database. (Status and distribution data on 

Latin American plants, developed in collaboration with Latin American Conservation Data Centers 

and Missouri Botanical Garden.). 



205 



Contribution to an evaluation of tree species using the new CITES Listing Criteria 

Jubaea chilensis 

Palmae 

palma de coguitos, coquito, honey palm 



Distribution 

Chile 

Habitat 

A palm tree of dry river valleys in the Andean foothills and of open hillsides in seasonally dry regions. 

Population status and trends 

Populations were once relatively common between the latitudes of 32° and 35° south, but they are now 
confined to a few small areas. Exploitation of the tree as a source of palm honey is believed to have 
caused population declines. 

Threats 

Grazing/damage by feral/exotic animals, burning, clear-felling/logging of the habitat 

Utilisation 

The massive bole of the tree is tapped or felled as a source of palm wine, which is reduced to make 
honey. The fruit and stem are important food sources. The species is also traded for ornamental 
purposes. 

Trade 

Largely traded or used at a local scale, the species most important commercial use is as a source of 
palm honey which is present at a minor level in international trade. 

lUCN Conservation category 

VU Alcd according to Gonzalez (Johnson, 1997). 

Conservation measures 

Forest management and Silviculture 

Although rare in the wild, the species is widely cultivated. 

References 

Johnson, D. et al 1997. Completed data collection forms for palms. 



206 



Annex 2. Profiles of Tree Species: The Americas 



Juglans neotropica 

Juglandaceae 

cedro granda, cedro nigro, Ecuador walnut, nogal, nogal silvestre 



Distribution 

Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, Venezuela 

Habitat 

A highland species, occurring up to 2000ni in a scattered distribution at the periphery of the Andes and 
in interAndean valleys, often as isolated individuals on agricultural land. Trees are often found along 
stream banks and field boundaries where they regenerate freely (National Research Council, 1989). 

Population Status and Trends 

Declines in habitat have been considerable and the species continues to be felled for timber and 
fuelwood. Large specimens are scarce and no commercial plantations are being established in the 
native range (National Research Council, 1989). Although relatively widespread in Colombia, the 
populations are considered vulnerable (Calderon, 1997). 

Role of species in the Ecosystem 

Threats 

Habitat loss, charcoal/fuelwood production, local exploitation. 

Utilisation 

The wood is used domestically for decorative carpentry and interiors and for making guitars. 
Internationally the species is traded for use as decorative veneers and cabinet or furniture-making. TTie 
Andean walnuts are larger than commercial walnuts but have an unusually thick shell. They are edible, 
nutritious and marketed locally (National Research Council. 1989; Wickens. 1995). Dye and medicinal 
extracts are obtained from the bark and leaves. The dye is one of few that is still obtained from a 
natural plant source. (Sorensen & Schjellerup. 1995). 

Trade 

The species presence in the international timber trade is thought to be increasing. Most of the timber is 
exported from Peru, 134m^ being imported to U.S.A. in 1989. 

rUCN Conservation category 

EN Alacd+2cd according to the Americas Regional Workshop for the WCMC/SSC Conservation and 
sustainable management of trees project (WCMC, 1996). 

Conservation Measures 

The species exists in Colombian and Ecuadorean legislation, concerning cutting and export. 
Populations exist in national parks in all three countries. 

Forest Measures and Silviculture 

The species is occasionally cultivated (Wickens, 1995). Seed nuts collected from Ecuador have been 
planted in New Zealand and have shown very rapid growth, reaching up to 1 .5m growth per year 
durin" the first few years. After 10 years trees were more than 10m high and bearing their third annual 
crop of nuts (National Research Council, 1989). No cross-pollination is required for nut production and 
hybridization appears to be possible (National Research Council, 1989). 

References 

Anon. 1994. Collections of the U.S. National Herbarium, Smithsonian Institution, Washington DC. 
Brako, L. & J.L. Zarucchi. 1993. Catalogue of the flowering plants and gymnosperms of Peru. Mongr. 

Svst.Bot. (Missouri Bot. Gard.) 45; 1-1286. 
Calderon, E. (comp.). 1997. Lista de plantas Colombianas enpeligro. July 1997 Version. Instituto de 

Invesligacino de Recursos Biologicas Alexander von Humboldt, (unpublished). 14 pp. 
Erfurth, T. & H. Rusche. 1976. The marketing of tropical wood. Rome: FAO. 
Ferreyra, R. 1 977 . Endangered species and plant communities in Andean and coastal Peru. Bronx, 

New York; New York Botanical Garden. 150-157. 



207 



Contribution to an evaluation of tree species using the new CITES Listing Criteria 



National Research Council. 1989. Lost crops of the Incas: little-known plants of the Andes with 
promise for worldwide cultivation. National Academy Press, Washington, D.C. 

Sorensen, A. & I. Schjellerup. 1995. Ethnobotany of the Chachapoyas people: use of plants from the 
Peruvian montane forest and related areas. In Churchill, S.P. et al. (eds.). Biodiversity and 
conservation of neotropical montane forests. Proceedings of the Neotropical Montane Forest 
Biodiversity and Conservation Symposium. The New York Botanical Garden, 21-26 June 1993. 
The New York Botanical Garden, N.Y. 579-599. 

WCMC. 1996. Report of the Second Regional Workshop, held at GATE. Turrialba, Costa Rica. 18-20 
November 1996. Conservation and sustainable management of trees proytci. (unpublished). 

Wickens. G.E. 1995. Edible nuts. Non-wood Forest Products 5. Food and Agriculture Organization of 
the United Nations. 197 pp. 



208 



Annex 2. Profiles of Tree Species: The Americas 



Juniperus bermudiana 

Cupressaceae 

Bermuda cedar, Bermuda juniper 



Distribution 

Bermuda 

Habitat 

Temperate, lowland, open forest. Populations occur on limestone-derived soils on hillsides. 

Population Status and Trends 

Overexploitation may have occurred in the past but the most significant population reductions between 
1944 and 1950 were caused by an infestation of two accidentally-inu-oduced species of scale insect. 
One percent of the population is reported to have survived (FAO, 1986). A few stands remain in 
undisturbed areas. Rapid development of the island and the spread of introduced trees have ensured the 
species will never tiike up its former distribution. 

Role of species in the Ecosystem 

Threats 

Pests and diseases 

Utilisation 

The wood is attractive for furniture-making and also valuable as a source of fuelwood. 

Trade 

rUCN Conservation category 

CR Bl+2c according to the SSC Conifer Specialist Group. 

Conservation Measures 

Stands are being established on government land and on Nonsuch Island, a small island at the eastern 
end of Bermuda. 

Forest Management and Silviculture 

The species is easily, although not rapidly, propagated from seed. Vegetative methods of reproduction 
have failed. It is apparently naturalised on St. Helena. 

References 

Adams, Robert P. 1983. The junipers (Juniperus; Cupressaceae) of Hispaniola;. Moscosoa 2(1): 77-89. 
FAO Forestry Department. 1986. Databook on endangered tree and shrub species and their 

provenances. Rome: FAO. 524pp. 
Faijon, A., C. N. Page, & N. Schellevis. 1993. A preliminary world list of threatened conifer taxa. 

Biodiversity and Conservation 2: 304-326. 
Farjon, A. et al. 1996. Discussions of the SSC Conifer Specialist Group involving the application of 

revised lUCN red list categories to conifer species. 



209 



Contribution to an evaluation of tree species using the new CITES Listing Criteria 

Liquidambar styraciflua 

Hamamelidaceae 

American red gum, styrax, sweetgum 



Distribution 

Belize, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico (Chiapas, Chihuahua, Durango, Hidalgo, Oaxaca, San Luis 
Potosi, Tamaulipas, Veracruz), Nicaragua, USA (Alabama, Arkansas, Connecticut. Florida. Georgia, 
Maryland, Missouri, Oklahoma) 

Habitat 

The species occurs in montane pine-oak forest, transition forest and lower altitude broadleaved forest 
(FAO, 1986; Harcourt & Sayer, 1996). It often forms dense pure stands (FAO, 1986). 

Population Status and Trends 

The species distribution is fragmented, populations occurring in southern U.S.A.. 800km to the north of 
the populations in Tamaulipas in Mexico (FAO, 1986). In U.S.A. the species is abundant and the 
abandonment of farmlands may potentially result in rising population numbers (Kimmerer, 1997). The 
major threat to the populations elsewhere is increasing conversion of the habitat for agriculture 
(Americas Regional Workshop, 1996). Grazing can also prevent regrowth. The timber is harvested for 
international trade mainly from the lower Mississippi valley (FAO, 1986; Flynn, 1994) and a balsam 
which is tapped from trees, mainly in Honduras, has a commercial application (Coppen, 1995). 

Role of species in the Ecosystem 

Threats 

Commerical agriculture, pastoralism/ranching. 

Utilisation 

The timber is used for interior finishes, furniture and cabinet-making (Flynn. 1994). It also makes up 
boxes, crates, pallets, plywood, particleboard and pulp (FAO, 1986; Kimmerer. 1997). A balsamic 
oleoresin, known as styrax, can be obtained from the tree and distilled to make essential oils which are 
sold to the perfume industry. The oleoresin is also used to manufacture other commercial extracts. 
(Coppen, 1995) The wood is locally used for fuel (Americas Regional Workshop, 1996). Trees are also 
planted as ornamentals (Kimmerer, 1997). 

Trade 

Sweetgum is one of the most conmion and important hardwoods in southern U.S.A. It is becoming 
increasingly important for pulp production (Kimmerer, 1997). The supplies from the lower Mississippi 
valley are said to be ample and most of the wood in trade comes from here (Flynn, 1994). The main 
demand for the timber comes from the furniture-manufacturing industry in England, France and 
Germany (Flynn, 1994). 

Trade statistics for styrax are not available. Styrax is rarely separated from other gums and resins in 
export or import figures. It is thought, however, that only a few tonnes (including styrax sourced from 
an Asian Liquidambar species) at most are consumed. U.S.A. is the largest importer and Honduras is 
the main producer, although Guatemala and Nicaragua have produced small amounts of styrax in the 
past (Coppen, 1995). 

lUCN Conservation category 

LR/lc according to the Americas Regional Workshop for the WCMC/SSC Conservation and 
sustainable management of trees project (WCMC, 1996). 

Conservation Measures 

Forest Management and Silviculture 

A fast-growing tree and prolific seed producer (Kimmerer, 1997). Both managed natural stands and 
plantations are well established in U.S.A. It has a wide ecological tolerance and grows on a variety of 
soils, including compacted clay (Kimmerer, 1997). Where free from grazing, cut trees can regenerate 
from root sprouts and by coppicing (FAO, 1986). The species requires endomycorrhizal fungi to 
achieve optimal growth (FAO, 1986). 



210 



Annex 2. Profiles of Tree Species: The Americas 



References 

Americas Regional Workshop. 1996. Discussions held at CATIE, Costa Rica, November 1996 at the 

Second Regional Workshop of the WCMC/SSC Conservation and Sustainable Management of 

Treei project. (Unpublished). 
Coppen, J.J.W. 1995. Gums, resins and latexes of plant origin. Non-Wood Forest Products 6. Food and 

Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. 
FAO Forestry Department. 1986. Databook on endangered tree and shrub species and their 

provenances. Rome: FAO. 524pp. 
Rynn, J.H. 1994. A guide to the useful woods of the world. King Philip Publishing Co. Portland, 

Maine, U.S.A. 
Harcourt. C.S. & J. A. Sayer. 1996. The conservation atlas of tropical forests: the Americas. Simon & 

Schuster, Singapore. 
Kimmerer, T.W. 1997. Treeweb Species Guide. http://quercus.ca.ukv.edu/treeweb/sDecies.htrn . Last 

updated 19/01/98. 
WCMC. 1996. Report of the Second Regional Workshop, held at CATIE, Turrialba, Costa Rica, 18-20 

November 1996. Conservation and sustainable rruzruigement of trees proitct. (unpublished). 



211 



Contribution to an evaluation of tree species using the new CITES Listing Criteria 

Machaerium villosum 

Leguminosae 

jacaranda-amarelo, jacaranda-do-cerrado, jacaranda-pardo, jacaranda-paulista 



Distribution 

Brazil (Goias, Minas Gerais, Parana, Sao Paulo) 

Habitat 

A specis of dry highland forest, sometimes also cerrado, occurring on both poor and fertile soils. 

Population Status and Trends 

A fairly widespread species, common in the regions between affluents of Paranaiba and Rio Grande, 
and in south Goias and western Minas Gerais. The natural range of the species coincides with one of 
the regions which has undergone the most severe forest devastation and population numbers are 
gradually declining because of exploitation and habitat clearance for developing pastureland and 
forestry plantations (FAO, 1986). 

Role of species in the Ecosystem 

Threat 

Overexploitation, commercial plantation development, pastoralism/ranching 

Utilisation 

The timber is used to make fine furniture and veneer. The wood is similar to and may be used as a 
substitute for rosewood (DaWergia spp.) 

Trade 

rUCN Conservation category 

VU Alcd accordmg to WCMC 

Conservation Measures 

Forest Management and Silviculture 

Trees in a stand in Sao Paulo reached an average height of 6.10m and 8.40cm DBH at 22 years. 

References 

Anon. 1979. Tropical legumes: Resources for the future. Washington, DC: National Academy of 

Sciences. 
FAO Forestry Department. 1986. Databook on endangered tree and shrub species and their 

provenances. Rome: FAO. 524pp. 



212 



Annex 2. Profiles of Tree Species: The Americas 



Mezilaurus itauba 

Lauraceae 

itauba, itauba-amarela, itaiiba-grande, itaiiba-preta, louro-itaiiba 

Distribution 

Bolivia, Brazil (Amazonas, Para), Ecuador, French Guiana, Peru, Suriname 

Habitat 

The species is scattered in primary Amazon rainforest, also in savannah forest in Suriname. 

Population Status and Trends 

The species is considered rare in Suriname (Werckhoven, 1997). 

Role of species in the Ecosystem 
Threats 

Utilisation 

The timber is internationally traded for use in outside construction, flooring, casings, furniture-making, 
decorative veneers and manne stacks (Teixeira, 1988). The fruit are edible (Killeen et ai, 1993). 

Trade 

Species under the name of M. longipetiolata and M. subcordata are commercially important as 
sawnwood in Peru. Their populations have become vulnerable throughout the Peruvian Amazon 
(Phillips. 1993) 

lUCN Conservation category 

VU Ala according to the Americas Regional Workshop for the WCMC/SSC Conservation and 
sustainable management of trees project (WCMC, 1996). 

Conservation Measures 

Forest Management and Silviculture 

References 

Amencas Regional Workshop. 1996. Discussions held at CATIE, Costa Rica, November 1996 at the 

Second Regional Workshop of the WCMC/SSC Conservation and Sustainable Management of 

Trees project. (Unpublished). 
Encamacion, F. 1983. Nomenclatura de las especies forestales comunes en el Peru. Lima 147pp. 
Erfurth, T. & H. Rusche. 1976. The marketing of tropical wood. Rome: FAO. 
Killeen, T.J.,E. Garcia, & S.G. Beck (eds.). 1993. Guia de arboles de Bolivia. Missouri Botanical 

Garden. 958pp. 
Phillips, O., A. Gentry, C. Reynel, P. Wilkin, C. Galvez-Durand. 1993. Table of the useful woody plot 

species at Tambopata, Madre de Dios, Peru, from a paper entitled "Quantitative ethnobotany and 

conservation" submitted to Conservation Biology. 
Pulle, A.A., J. Lanjouw, & A.L. Stoffers (eds.). 1. Flora of Suriname. Amsterdam: Amsterdam 

Koloniaal Inst. Amsterdam. 
Roosmalen, M.G.M. van. 1985. Fruits of the Guianan flora. Wageningen: Institute of Systematic 

Botany, Utrecht and Silvicultural Dept of Wageningen Agricultural University. 
Teixeira, D.E., M.A.E. Santana & M.R. de Souza. 1988. Amazonian timbers for the international 

market. Brasilia: Brazilian Institute for Forestry Development & ITTO. 94pp. 
WCMC. 1996. Report of the Second Regional Workshop, held at CATIE, Turrialba, Costa Rica, 18-20 

November 1996. Conservation and sustainable management of trees project, (unpublished). 
Werckhoven, M.C.M. 1997. Threatened trees of Suriname. A list compiled for the WCMC/SSC 

Conservation and sustainable management of trees project. 



213 



Contribution to an evaluation of tree species using the new CITES Listing Criteria 

Mimosa caesalpiniaefolia 

Leguminosae 
sabia 



Distribution 

Brazil (Bahia, Ceara, Maranhao) 

Habitat 

A xerophytic species which grows in open dry forest. 

Population Status and Trends 

The species is suffering a slow decline in population numbers and is included in FAO's databook of 
endangered species (FAO, 1986) In Bahia it is only known in cultivation in the Centro de Pesquisas do 
Cacau. 

Ecology 

Associated species include Anadenanthera sp., Tabebuia sp., Astronium sp. and Torresea sp. When 
young the species is lianescent, sometimes remaining semi-scadent when mature. 

Role of species in the Ecosystem 

The species was said to be in slow decline by the FAO (FAO, 1986). 

Threats 

Utilisation 

The species is used on a domestic scale as a timber, fuelwood and for charcoal production. 

Trade 

rUCN Conservation category 

LR/nt according to WCMC 

Conservation Measures 

Rio de Janeiro Botanic Garden hold living specimens. 

Forest Management and Silviculture 

The species is not intensively cultivated, although trials have shown its potential for afforestation 
programmes. Trees may be cut for the productiojn of stakes, fuelwood and charcoal after 3 to 4 years 
if grown on fertile soils. Natural regeneration from stumps and root sprouts is evident. 

References 

FAO Forestry Department. 1 986. Databook on endangered tree and shrub species and their 

provenances. Rome: FAO. 524pp. 
Lewis, G.P. 1987. Legumes of Bahia. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. 



214 



Annex 2. Profiles of Tree Species: The Americas 



Mimosa verrucosa 

Leguminosae 

jurema branca, jurema de oieiras 



Distribution 

Brazil (Bahia, Ceara, Paraiba, Pemambuco, Rio Grande do Norte) 

Habitat 

A common bushy tree of cerado or caatinga on tableland soils in sub-humid to arid tropical climates. 

Population Status and Trends 

The species is common on hills and humid midslopes. However, population numbers were said to be in 
slow decline. Trees have become scarce because of the levels of exploitation m these arid and semi-arid 
regions (FAO, 1986). 

Ecology 

Associated species always include Bauhinia spp. and sometimes include Anadenanthera sp., Torresia 
sp. and Astronium sp. 

Threats 

Local exploitation 

Utilisation 

Little is known about the wood properties. It is used locally for stakes, fuelwood and charcoal. The 
bark is harvested for its medicinal properties. 

Trade 

lUCN Conservation category 

VUB1-I-2C according to WCMC. 

Conservation Measures 

No measures were set in place in 1986. 

Forest Management and Silviculture 

No silvicultural studies had yet taken place in 1986. 

References 

FAO Forestry Department- 1986. Databook on endangered tree and shrub species and their 

provenances. Rome: FAO. 524pp. 
Lewis, G.P. 1987 Legumes of Bahia. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. 
The Nature Conservancy. 1996. Natural Heritage Central Database. (Status and distribution data on 

Latin American plants, developed in collaboration with Latin American Conservation Data Centers 

and Missouri Botanical Garden.). 



215 



Contribution to an evaluation of tree species using the new CITES Listing Criteria 



Minquartia guianensis 

Olacaceae 

acariquara, huacapu, manii negro 



Distribution 

Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, French Guiana, Guyana, Nicaragua, Panama. Peru, 
Suriname, Venezuela 

Habitat 

A widespread species of lowland moist forest types. It is one of the dominant tree species of low-mid 
elevation evergreen rainforest of the Gran Sabana in the Venezuelan Guyana (Steyermark et ai. 1995). 

Population Status and Trends 

The species is notably common in the Guianas. Bolivia and probably elsewhere (Americas Regional 
Workshop, 1996; Hiepko, 1993). Populations in Central America are restricted in range. It has become 
rarer m some areas where the wood is intensively harvested for local use, notably in Brazil and 
Colombia (Americas Regional Workshop, 1996; Calderon, 1997). Seed producing trees are sometimes 
low in numbers but regeneration does not appear to be inadequate (Americas Regional Workshop, 
1996). The species is included in lists of threatened species in Colombia and Costa Rica and also in the 
databook of endangered species by the FAO (Calderon, 1997; Jimenez Madrigal, 1993; FAO, 1986). 

Role of species in the Ecosystem 

Threats 

Local overexploitation. 

Utilisation 

The wood is durable and used to make utility poles and house posts. In Bolivia, it has a local use to 
smoke fish (Killeen, 1993) 

Trade 

The timber is scarce in international trade (Hiepko, 1993). Peru produces sawnwood for trade (Phillips, 
1993). In Costa Rica the species is rare in domestic trade but heavily used on a local level (Arce 
Benavides, 1998). 

lUCN Conservation category 

LR/nt according to the Americas Regional Workshop for the WCMC/SSC Conservation and 
sustainable management of trees project (WCMC, 1996). 

Conservation Measures 

Forest Management and Silviculture 

References 

Americas Regional Workshop. 1996. Discussions held at CAllt, Costa Rica, November 1996 at the 

Second Regional Workshop of the WCMC/SSC Conservation and Sustainable Management of 

Trees project. (Unpublished). 
Anon. 1981. Descripcion general y anatomica de 105 maderas del grupo Andino. Junac: Junta del 

Acuerdo de Cartagena. 441pp. 
Arce Benavides, H. 1998. Comments on species profiles for Costa Rica. 
Calderon, E. (comp.). 1997. Lista de plantas Colombianas enpeligro. July 1997 Version. Instituto de 

Investigacino de Recursos Biologicas Alexander von Humboldt, (unpublished). 14 pp 
d'Arcy, W.G. 1987. Flora of Panama: checklist and index. Monographs in Systematic Botany 17: 1- 

1000. 
Encamacion, F. 1983. Nomenclatura de las especies forestales comunes en el Peru. Lima 147pp. 
Hiepko, P. 1993. Olacaceae. Flora of the Guianas. Koenigstein: Fed. Rep. of Germany: Koeltz 

Scientfic Books. 
Jimenez Madrigal, Quirico. 1993. Arboles maderables en peligro de extincion en Costa Rica. San Jose, 

Cosla Rica: Museo Nacional de Costa Rica. 121pp. 



216 



Annex 2. Profiles of Tree Species: The Americas 



Killeen, T.J.,E. Garcia, & S.G. Beck (eds.). 1993. Gui'a de arboles de Bolivia. Missouri Botanical 

Garden. 958pp. 
Phillips, O., A. Gentry, C. Reynel, P. Wilkin, C. Galvez-Durand. 1993. Table of the useful woody plot 

species at Tambopata, Madre de Dios, Peru, from a paper entitled "Quantitative ethnobotany and 

conservation" submitted to Conservation Biology. 
Stevens. W.D. Flora de Nicaragua (in preparation), (unpublished). 
Steyermark. J.A., P.E. Berry & B.K. Hoslt (eds.). 1995. Flora of the Venezuelan Guyana. Vol 1. 

Introduction. Timber Press Inc., Portland, Oregon, U.S.A. 320pp. 
WCMC. 1996. Report of the Second Regional Workshop, held at CATIE. Turrialba, Costa Rica. 18-20 

November 1996. Conservation and sustainable management of trees project, (unpublished). 
Wurdack, J.J., T, Morley, & S. Renner. 1993. Melastomataceae. Flora of the Guianas. Koenigstein, 

Fed. Rep. of Germany: Koeltz Scientific Books. 



217 



Contribution to an evaluation of tree species using the new CITES Listing Criteria 

Myrocarpus frondosus 

Leguminosae 

brahuna, braiina-parda, cabre uva, ibira-paye, incienso, oleo pardo, yvyra paje 



Distribution 

Argentina (Corrientes, Misiones), Brazil (Minas Gerais, Parana, Rio de Janeiro, Rio Grande do Sul, 
Santa Catarina, Sao Paulo). Paraguay 

Habitat 

A species of tropical, seasonal, moist forest, occurring up to 1200m. 

Population Status and Trends 

The species is threatened largely by habitat loss. In Argentina severe reduction in the seasonal forest 
habitat has been caused by increasing agriculture (Prado. 1996). The species is included in a list of 
Argentinian threatened species (Chebez, 1994). The Brazilian populations are restncted to the Atlantic 
coast where severe declines in forest have continued over the past two centuries. 

Role of species in the Ecosystem 

Threats 

Clear felling/logging, extensive agriculture, pastoralism/ranching 

Utilisation 

A good quality commercial timber tree, also planted as an ornamental. In Paraguay the limber is used 
for making fine furniture, veneers, flooring and panelling. The wood is fragrant and is sometimes burnt 
during ceremonies and as an insect repellent. The resin has a pharmaceutical application. 

Trade 

The timber is exported from Paraguay (Ortega Torres et al., 1989). 

lUCN Conservation category 

DD according to Prado, D. 

Conservation Measures 

Forest Management and Silviculture 

References 

Chebez, Juan Carlos. 1994. Los que se van. Buenos Aires, Argentina: Albatros. 604pp. 

Lewis, G.P. 1987. Legumes of Bahia. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. 

Ortega Torres, E., L. Stutz de Ortega & R. Spichiger. 1989. Novema especies forestales del Paraguay. 

Flora del Paraguay. Conservatoire et Jardin Botaniques de la Ville de Geneve & Missouri 

Botanical Garden. 
Prado, Djirien E. & Peter E. Gibbs. 1993. Patterns of species distributions in the dry seasonal forests of 

South America. J 80(4): 902-927. 
Prado, Darien Eros. 1996. Completed data collection forms for trees of Argentinia and neighbouring 

countries. 
Reitz, Raulino, Roberto M. Klein, & Ademir Reis. 1978. Projeto Madeira de Santa Catarina. 

Levantamento as especies florestais nativas em Santa Catarina com a possibilidade de incremento e 

desenvolvimento. Itajai, Santa Catarina: Herbario "Barbosa Rodrigues" - HBR. 320pp. 
Reitz, Raulino, Roberto M. Klein, & Ademir Reis. 1983. Projeto Madeira de Rio Grande do Sul. 

Levantamento das especies florestais nativas com possibilidade de incremento e desenvolvimento. 

Herbario "Barbosa Rodrigues" - HBR. 528pp. 



218 



Annex 2. Profiles of Tree Species: The Americas 



Nothofagus alessandri 

Fagaceae 
mil 



Distribution 

Chile (Maule) 

Habitat 

A temperate tree of deciduous forest, preferring areas of higher humidity between 150 - 500m. 

Population status and trends 

Endemic to Maule region, the species was once more widespread but is now restricted to eight 
scattered localities in a small area of deciduous forest in the Coastal Cordillera. These stands all 
represent secondary growth from stump sprouts and between 1983 and 199 1 their extent of occurrence 
was reduced by almost 60% as a result of the establishment of plantations oiPinus radiata. About 13% 
of the species range is covered by protected areas. It is recognised as a very primitive member of the 
genus. 

Role of species in the ecosystem 

Threats 

Burning, clear-felling/logging of the habitat, establishment of Pinus radiata plantations, 
pastoralism/ranching 

Utilisation 

The species is used at a local level as a source of timber and fuelwood. 

Trade 

lUCN Conservation category 

EN Alcde. B2cd according to Gonzalez. M. 

Conservation measures 

The species has been cultivated on a small scale. 

Forest management and silviculture 

References 

Benoit, C. & L. Ivan (eds.). 1989. Libro rojo de la flora terrestre de Chile. Santiago: Impresora Creces 

Ltd. 157 pp. 
Benoit, C.I. (ed.). 1989. Red list of Chilean terrestrial flora. (Part One). Santiago: Chilean Forestry 

Service (CONAF). 151pp. 
Donoso, C. 1996. Ecology of Nothofagus forests in Central Chile, pp. 271-292. In Veblen, T.T. et al. 

The ecology and biogeography of Nothofagus forests. 
Gonzalez Cangas, Mauro. 1996. Completed data collection forms for tree species of Chile. 



219 



Contribution to an evaluation of tree species using the new CUES Listing Criteria 



Nothofagus glauca 

Fagaceae 

hualo, roble Colorado, roble Colorado, roble maulino, roble maulino 



Distribution 

Chile (Bi'obio, Maule, O'Higgins, Santiago, Valparaiso) 

Habitat 

A tree of moist lowland to submontane deciduous forest, occurring on thin rocky soils, typically on 
north-facing aspects of steep slopes between 100 - 1500m. 

Population status and trends 

The species is endemic to central Chile, occurring in discrete patches associated with a particular 
topography, soil types and microclimate in both the Coastal Cordillera and the Andes. Almost all the 
pure stands in the coastal range, known as Maule forest, have been logged over the past century and are 
now converted into Pinus radiata plantations. The Andean populations were exploited to a lesser extent 
because of lack of transportation. However, they are presently under conversion. Since 1985 the 
woodchip industry has increased the demand for timber. Regeneration in old growth stands is very 
good. 

Role of species in the ecosystem 

Threats 

Commercial exploitation, clear-felling/logging of the habitat, extensive agriculture, forestry 
management 

Utilisation 

The species is a source of timber, traded mainly on a domestic level, and fuelwood. 

lUCN Conservation category 

VU A led, Bl+lc according to Gonzalez (1996). 

Conservation measures 

The species is rarely contained within protected areas. 

Forest management and silviculture 

A pioneer species which can occur abundantly. After clear cutting second-growth stands of N. glauca 
vigorously develop from stump sprouts if given the chance. 

References 

Benoit, C. & L. Ivan (eds.). 1989. Libro rojo de la flora terrestre de Chile. Santiago: Impresora Creces 

Ltd. 157 pp. 
Benoit, C.I. (ed.). 1989. Red list of Chilean terrestrial flora. (Part One). Santiago: Chilean Forestry 

Service (CONAF). 151pp. 
Donoso, C. 1996. Ecology oi Nothofagus forests in Central Chile, pp. 271-292. In Veblen, T.T. et al. 

The ecology and biogeography of Nothofagus forests. 
Gonzalez Cangas, Mauro. 1996. Completed data collection forms for tree species of Chile. 



220 



Annex 2. Profiles of Tree Species: The Americas 



Ocotea catharinensis 

Lauraceae 

canela pimenta, canela-amarela, canela-bicha, canela-broto, canela-coqueira, canela- 

pinho, canela-preta 



Distribution 

Brazil (Parana. Rio de Janeiro. Rio Grande do Sul, Santa Catarina. Sao Paulo). There is also a 
suggestion that populations exist in Misiones in Argentina and in Paraguay. 



Habitat 

Occurs in tropical rain forest. Most frequent on slopes on rich, deep, clay and well-drained soils a an 
altitude between 30 - 900m 

Population status and trendis 

Formerly abundant, this slow-growing species has become rare because of the levels of exploitation of 
its timber. 

Role of species in the ecosystem 

A shade tolerant tree occurring at the primary stage of succession. Birds and mammals act as the 
Dispersal/pollinating agents. 

Threats 

Clear felling and logging of the habitat for commercial use. 

Utilisation 

The stem of this species is used as timber and is locally used aswell as being traded on the national and 
subnationa! markets fuel. Gum, resin and oil is also extracted from the bark and is traded on the 
national and subnational level. 

Trade 

Gum. resin, oil etc is exported as well as being traded at a national or subnational level, other trade is in 
Timber at a national or subnational level. 

lUCN Conservation category 

VU A led according to Varty, N. & D.L. Guadagnin 

Conservation measures 

Its habitat also continues to decline, although several localities are protected within state parks and 
biological reserves The species is included in the official list compiled by IBAMA of threatened 
Brazilian plants. 

Forest management and silviculture 

Cultivation of this species is small scale. 

References 

IBAMA. 1992. Lista oficial de especies da flora Brasileira ameagadas de extingao. (unpublished). 

4pp. 
Sociedade Botanica do Brasil. 1992. Centuria plantarum Brasiliensium extintionis minitata. Sociedade 

Botanica do Brasil. 175pp. 
Varty, Nigel. 1996. Data collection forms for Brazilian Atlantic forest species. 



221 



Contribution to an evaluation of tree species using the new CITES Listing Criteria 

Ocotea odorifera (=pretiosa) 

Lauraceae 

canela-funcho, canela-prada, canela-sassafras, louro-cheiroso, sassafras-amarelo, 

sassafras-preto 



Distribution 

Argentina? (Misiones?), Brazil (Bahia, Minas Gerais, Parana, Rio de Janeiro, Rio Grande do Sul, Santa 
Catarina, Sao Paulo), Paraguay? 

Habitat 

A species of both primary and secondary forest formations. 

Population Status and Trends 

The species distribution is discontinuous, occurring in coastal forests, which continue to be cleared 
despite legal measures, and also in small woodlands and forest formations on the southern Brazilian 
plateau (Varty, 1996). Cutting of trees as a source of sassafras oil has been uncontrolled but, 
apparently, restricted to Santa Catarina since no other states harbour trees of sufficiently high safrole 
content. Remaining trees are comparatively small, no replanting has occurred and the currently 
available resources are no longer capable of sustaining high levels of utilization (Coppen, 1995). 
Timber is also harvested from the northern parts of the range. The species is included in the official list 
of threatened species in Brazil (IB AM A, 1992). 

Role of species in the Ecosystem 

Threats 

Commercial overexploitation, clear-felling/logging of the habitat 

Utilisation 

Sassafras oil contains 80% or more of safrole. This was formerly used in household products; polishes, 
soaps and cleaning agents etc. Its principal use today is as a source of heliotropin, used as a flavouring 
and fragrance agent, and piperonal butoxide (PBO), an ingredient of pyrethroid insecticides. The future 
of the natural pyrethrum industry is dependent on the continued supply of this vital ingredient (Coppen, 
1995). A useful but comparatively less valuable timber is also harvested. 

Trade 

More than half the sassafras oil on the international market is obtained from Cinnamomum camphora 
in China. This species together with O. odorifera currently supply an international market of 2000 
tonnes pa. Up until the 1960s Brazil was the major exporter of the oil, but production declined with 
diminishing natural supplies. Further declines have occurred because of felling restrictions. Japan, Italy 
and U.S.A. are the major importers of the oil, from which they manufacture the derivatives, heliotropin 
and PBO, for further export. Brazil has the capacity also to manufacture both derivatives but suffers 
from a domestic shortage of sassafras oil (Coppen, 1995). 





Export 
Destinations 


Export of sassafras oil from Brazil (in tonnes) | 




1986 


1987 


1988 


1989 


1990 




Japan 


543 


596 


na 


na 


na 




U.S.A. 


274 


359 


na 


na 


na 




Italy 


281 


292 


na 


na 


na 




China 


154 


- 


na 


na 


na 




U.K. 


169 


15 


na 


na 


na 




Spain 


124 


25 


na 


na 


na 




France 


11 


7 


na 


na 


na 




Total 


1582 


1302 


970 


394 


280 


s 


Durce: Brazilian 


national statistics 


in Coppen, 1997. 









The demand for heliotropin and PBO is increasing and sassafras oil continues to be the preferred raw 
material for their production. The manufacture of synthetic PBO, in particular, is economically 
unattractive. However if continued declines in production are caused by dwindling natural resources, 
alternative plant species, such as Piper spp. are likely to take over as major sources (Coppen, 1995). 



222 



Annex 2. Profiles of Tree Species: The Americas 



lUCN Conservation category 

VU Alcd according to Varty, N. (1996). 

Conservation Measures 

The species is included in the official list of threatened Brazilian plants compiled by IB AMA. Felling 
restrictions are also in place. 

Forest Management and Silviculture 

The prospects of bringing the species into cultivation are unknown but may prove uneconomic. Piper 
spp. may prove to be a commercial alternative (Coppen, 1995). 

References 

Coppen, J.J.W. 1995. Flavours and fl-agrances of plant origin. Non-Wood Forest Products 7. Food and 

Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome. 
IBAMA. 1992. Lista oficial de especies da flora Brasileira ameagadas de extingao. (unpublished). 

4pp. 
Rohwer, J.G. 1996. Letter to Sara Oldfield with information on Neotropical Lauraceae. 
Sociedade Botanica do Brasil. 1992. Centuria plantarum Brasiliensium extintionis minitata. Sociedade 

Botanica do Brasil. 175pp. 
Varty, Nigel. 1996. Data collection forms for Brazilian Atlantic forest species. 



223 



Contribution to an evaluation of tree species using the new CITES Listing Criteria 



Ocotea porosa 

Lauraceae 

imbuia, imbuyana, umbuia 



Distribution 

Argentina? (Misiones?), Brazil (Parana, Rio de Janeiro, Rio Grande do Sul, Santa Catarina, Sao Paulo), 
Paraguay? Suggestions that populations exist in Argentina and Paraguay need venfication. 

Habitat 

One of the dominant species of Araucaria forest. It also acts as a pioneer species in open forest. - 
scrubland and forest/grassland transition between 500 - 1800m (Varty, 1996). 

Population Status and Trends 

The largest populations occur in south Parana and north Santa Catarina, where the species occurs 
almost in pure stands in places. Although present in large numbers, the species is slow-growing and 
declining through timber exploitation and habitat clearance. In rates of extraction, the species is second 
only to Parana pine (Varty, 1996). It is included in the official list of Brazilian threatened species 
(IB AM A, 1992). 

Role of species in the Ecosystem 

Birds and mammals feed on fruit. Members of Scolytidae family and Heilypus parvulus beetles attack 
the seeds (Varty, 1996). 

Threats 

Overexploitation. habitat loss. 

Utilisation 

The timber is used to make luxury furniture, boxes, panels, window blinds. It also provides fuelwood. 
Trees may be planted or kept for shade, ornamental purposes and also as a bee plant (Varty, 1996). 

Trade 

The genus contains several timber-providing species. It is unlikely that different species are 
distinguished in export figures (Americas Regional Workshop, 1996). 

lUCN Conservation category 

VU Alcd according to Varty, N. & D.L. Guadagnin (Varty, 1996). 

Conservation Measures 

Several localities are protected and the species occurs on the official list of threatened Brazilian plants 
compiled by IBAMA (Varty, 1996). 

Forest Management and Silviculture 

In trials trees have reached an average height of 7.81m and DBH of 9cm at 23 years. 

References 

Americas Regional Workshop. 1996. Discussions held at CATIE, Costa Rica, November 1996 at the 

Second Regional Workshop of the WCMC/SSC Conservation and Sustainable Management of 

Trees project. (Unpublished). 
FAO Forestry Department. 1986. Databook on endangered tree and shrub species and their 

provenances. Rome: FAO. 524pp. 
IBAMA. 1992. Lista oficial de especies da flora Brasileira ameagadas de extingao. (unpublished). 

4pp. 
Schmidt. R. 1989. Current tropical moist forest management activities in Brazil. Rome: FAO. 29pp. 
Sociedade Botanica do Brasil. 1992. Centuria plantarum Brasiliensium extintionis minitata. Sociedade 

Botanica do Brasil. 175pp. 
Varty, Nigel. 1996. Data collection forms for Brazilian Atlantic forest species. 
WCMC. 1996. Report of the Second Regional Workshop, held at CATIE, Turrialba, Costa Rica, 18-20 

November 1996. Conservation and sustainable management of trees project, (unpublished). 



224 



Annex 2. Profiles of Tree Species: The Americas 



Oreomunnea pterocarpa 

Juglandaceae 



Distribution 

Costa Rica, Mexico, Panama 

Habitat 

Tropical, lowland, moisi, non-seasonal, closed forest between 500 and 1500m. 

Population Status and Trends 

Until recently thought to be endemic to Costa Rica, the species is likely to be found in other parts of 
Central America. Where it is known, the species occurrence is scarce. It is usually found as isolated 
trees. Little is known of the regenerative capacity of the species, although it does not appear to be 
su-ong (Amencas Regional Workshop, 1996; Jimenez Madrigal, 1993). 



Role of species in the Ecosystem 

Only two species exist in the genus. 



Threats 

UtiUsation 

The wood is useful in house construction and interior finishes (SSC/TPC, 1981). In the past it has been 
used in cabinet-making (SSC et al, 1992) 

Trade 

The timber is not heavily exploited, occurring to some extent in domestic trade but not in the 
international market (Blaser, 1996; Jimenez Madrigal, 1993; SSC et al. 1992). 

lUCN Conservation category 

EN C2a according to the Amencas Regional Workshop for the WCMC/SSC Conservation and 
sustainable management of trees project (WCMC, 1996). 

Conservation Measures 

The species is listed on Appendix II of CITES. It is prohibited under Costa Rican law to export the 
wood or other products (Jimenez Madrigal, 1993). Rare occurrences are recorded in Golfo Dulce 
Forest Reserve and another protected area at Turrubares and a large part of the total population in Costa 
Rica is contained in Monteverde Biological Reserve (Jimenez Madrigal, 1993). It has not been brought 
into cultivation (Blaser, 1996). 

Forest Management and Silviculture 

References 

Amencas Regional Workshop. 1996. Discussions held at CATIE, Costa Rica, November 1996 at the 

Second Regional Workshop of the WCMC/SSC Conservation and Sustainable Management of 

Trees project. (Unpublished). 
Blaser, J. 1996. Silvicultural considerations of listing timber species in Appendices I, II and III of 

CITES. Working document for the 2nd meeting of the CITES Timber Working Group. 

(unpublished). 
Jimenez Madrigal, Quirico. 1993. Arboles maderables en peligro de exlincion en Costa Rica. San Jose, 

Costa Rica: Museo Nacional de Costa Rica. 121pp. 
SSC/TPC. 1981 . Report on Engelhardtia pterocarpa for the Third Convention of the Parties, New 

Delhi. Vol. 1. 
SSC, Traffic & WCMC. 1992. Deletion of Oremunnea (=Engelhardtia) pterocarpa from Appendix I. 

In Analyses of proposals to amend the CITES Appendices. 
Standley, P.C. 1. Flora of Costa Rica. Field Mus. Nat. Hist.. Bot. Ser. 18(1): 1-1616. 
The Nature Conservancy. 1996. Natural Heritage Central Database. (Status and distribution data on 

Latin American plants, developed in collaboration with Latin American Conservation Data Centers 

and Missouri Botanical Garden.). 
WCMC. 1996. Report of the Second Regional Workshop, held at CATIE, Turrialba, Costa Rica, 18-20 

November 1996. Conservation and sustainable marmgement of trees project, (unpublished). 



225 



Contribution to an evaluation of tree species using the new CITES Listing Criteria 



Phytelephas seemannii 

Palmae 



Distribution 

Colombia, Panama 

Habitat 

A small tree of lowland rainforest occurring at altitudes no higher than 200m. 

Population status and trends 

Large populations remain along some rivers on the Pacific coast of Colombia. The greatest threat to the 
species is loss of habitat. 

Role of the species in the ecosystem 

The species has a specialist pollinator, Amazoncharis sp. 

Threats 

Utilization 

Seeds are used for vegetable ivory, which is traded at a minor international level. The species can also 
be found on a minor scale in the international horticultural trade. 

Trade 

Conservation status 

LR/cd according to Bemal (Johnson et al, 1997). 

Conservation measures 

Conservation activities are taking place, and a recent project on the sustainable use of the seeds has 
resulted in local awareness of the importance of the species and its protection. 

Forest management and silviculture 

References 

Johnson, D. et al. 1997. Completed data collection forms for palms. 



226 



Annex 2. Profiles of Tree Species: The Americas 



Phytelephas tumacana 

Palmae 



Distribution 

Colombia 

Habitat 

The species occurs in lowland rainforest on alluvial soils up to 200m. 

Population status and trends 

An endemic palm of Colombia, confined to the Department of Narino near the Ecuadorean border. 
Populations have been severely decimated by increasmg agriculture, most particularly by the spread of 
oil palm plantations (Johnson, 1996). Remaining stands are small and restricted to only a few rivers 
(Johnson etai, 1997). 

Role of the species in the ecosystem 

Threats 

Extensive agriculture, establishment of commercial plantations. 

Utilisation 

The species has a variety of uses as a food, thatching and formerly as an important source of vegetable 
ivory. It also has value as an ornamental. 

Trade 

Utilization and trade continue at local and minor international levels. 

Conservation status 

EN Bl+2c according to Bernal (Johnson et al, 1997). 

Conservation measures 

Forest management and silviculture 

References 

Johnson, D. (ed.). and the lUCN/SSC Palm Specialist Group. 1996. Palms: their conservation and 
sustained utilization. Status survey and conservation action plan. lUCN, Gland, Switzerland and 
Cambridge, UK. 

Johnson, D. et at. 1997. Completed data collection forms for palms. 



227 



Contribution to an evaluation of tree species using the new CITES Listing Criteria 



Pilgerodendron uviferum 

Cupressaceae 

cedro de la cordillera, cipres de las Guayatecas, lahuan 



Distribution 

Argentina (Chubut, Neuquen, Rio Negro, Santa Cruz), Chile 

Habitat 

Temperate, coniferous, open forest up to 900m. 

Population Status and Trends 

Populations of Pilgerodendron uviferum have been severely depleted through the effects of logging, 
fire and clearance for agriculture throughout the range of the species. It is slow to mature and its 
regeneration is very poor, especially under a canopy. Chebez includes the species in the list of 
threatened species in Argentina (1994). 

Role of species in the Ecosystem 

The genus is monospecific. 

Threats 

Grazing/damage by feral/exotic animals, poor regeneration, seed predation, burning, clear- 
felling/iogging of the habitat, expansion of human settlement, forestry management. 

The main threat currently is probably indiscnminate use of fire; almost all populations in central 
southern Chile have suffered fire damage (Newton, in litt. 1998). 

Utilisation 

The first-class timber is exploited throughout the species range, panicularly in the south, Isla de Chiloe 
and Patagonian Islands in Chile, for house consuaiction, flooring, doors and furniture. Smaller u-ees are 
used for fencing and poles. Exploitation of the species provides a principal source of income for 
families in remote areas (SSC/TPC, 1981). 

Trade 

In CITES trade statistics, the only recorded export of the Appendix I species, Pilgerodendron uviferum, 
dunng the period 1990 - 1994 (and in contravention to the Convention) is a single export of 20000 timber 
pieces to Argentina from Chile in 1992, as reponed by Chile. The export of 80 fhiits of the same species 
by Argentina to the United Kingdom is recorded in 1993 (Oldfield and Collins, 1997). 

rUCN Conservation category 

VU Alcd-i-2cd according to the SSC Conifer Specialist Group (Farjon el at., 1996). 

Conservation Measures 

The species is listed in CITES Appendix I. Protected populations occur in Nahuel Huapi and Los 
Glaciares National Park in Argentina, and in a number of Chilean National Parks including Puyehue 
and Torres del Paine. 

References 

Chebez, Juan Carlos. 1994. Los que se van. Buenos Aires, Argentina: Albatros. 604pp. 

Farjon, A.,C.N. Page, & N. Schellevis. 1993. A preliminary world list of threatened conifer taxa. 

Biodiversity and Conservation 2: 304-326. 
Farjon, A. et al. 1996. Discussions of the SSC Conifer Specialist Group involving the application of 

revised lUCN red list categories to conifer species. 
Martinez, P.O. 1981. Flora and phytosociology of relict stands containing Pilgerodendron uviferum in 

San Pablode Tregua Farm. Bosque 4{\): 3-11. 
Newton, A. 1998. In litt to WCMC 
Oldfield, S. and Collins, L. 1997 Review and improvement of national reporting for trade in plants 

listed in the Appendices of CITES. A report prepared on behalf of the CITES Secretariat. WCMC, 

Cambridge. 
Pisano, E. 1983. The Magellanic Tundra Complex. Amsterdam: Elsevier. 295-328. 



228 



Annex 2. Profiles of Tree Species: The Americas 



SSC/TPC. 1981. Report on Pilgerodendron uvifenim for the Third Convenlion of the Parties in New 

Delhi, India. Vol.1 . 
WCMC. 1996. Report of the Second Regional Workshop, held at C ATE, Turrialba, Costa Rica, 18-20 

November 1996. Conservation and sustainable management of trees project, (unpublished). 



229 



Contribution to an evaluation of tree species using the new CITES Listing Criteria 

Pinus tecunumanii 

Pinaceae 
pino rojo 



Distribution 

Belize, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico (Chiapas, Oaxaca), Nicaragua, Panama 

Habitat 

Tropical, montane, dry. moist, seasonal, mixed, closed forest, open forest, occurring from 550 to 
2700m. Although the exact limits of its range are imperfectly known, the species is found in upland 
valleys and plateaux, often growing on deep nch fertile soil, sometimes forming pure stands. 

Population Status and Trends 

A tree increasingly exploited for its quality timber. Populations are restricted in range within each 
country and the areas where they occur are frequently cleared and replaced by secondary shrubland 
with Pinus oocarpa. 

Ecology 

Associated species include P. ayachahuite, P. oocarpa, P. maximinoi. P. pseudostrobus and 
Liquidambar styraciflua. 

Role of species in the Ecosystem 

Threats 

Commercial exploitation, grazing/damage by feral/exotic animals, burning, forestry management 

Utilisation 

The timber is highly valued for use in construction work. 

Trade 

The species is reported in international trade, bemg exported from Honduras 1994 in the form of 
veneer, sawnwood and logs (ITTO, 1997). 

rUCN Conservation category 

VU A2c according to the SSC Conifer Specialist Group 

Conservation Measures 

Plantations have been established but no conservation measures are in place. 

Forest Management and Silviculture 

Seed production per cone is low and the numbers of cones produced is also low. 

References 

Farjon, Aljos. et al 1996. Discussions of the SSC Conifer Specialist Group involving the application of 

revised lUCN red list categories to conifer species. 
mo, 1997. Annual review and assessment of the world tropical timber situation. International 

Tropical Timber Trade Organization (ITTO). 
Mitre, Martin E. 1997. Completed data collection forms for trees of Panama. 
The Nature Conservancy. 1996. Natural Heritage Central Database. (Status and distribution data on 

Latin American plants, developed in collaboration with Latin American Conservation Data Centers 

and Missouri Botanical Garden.). 



230 



Annex 2. Profiles of Tree Species: The Americas 



Pitavia punctata 

Rutaceae 

canelillo, canelillo, pitao 



Distribution 

Chile (Biobi'o, Maule) 

Habitat 

The species occurs in moist lowland forest between 300 and 700m. 

Population status and trends 

A species which is known from two regions in central Chile in the Coastal Cordillera. Populations are 
under threat throughout the area, mamly from logging and forest management activities. Almost all of 
the coastal stands are now replaced by Pinus radiata plantations. 

Role of species in the ecosystem 

Threats 

Clear-felling/logging of the habitat, forestry management 

Utilisation 

The species is used locally as a bee plant and ornamental. 

Trade 

lUCN Conservation category 

EN Alcd according to Gonzalez (1996). 

Conservation measures 

Forest management and silviculture 

References 

Benoit, C. & L. Ivan (eds.). 1989. Libra rojo de la flora terrestre de Chile. Santiago: Impresora Creces 

Ltd. 157 pp. 
Gonzalez Cangas. Mauro. 1996. Completed data collection forms for ttee species of Chile. 
The Nature Conservancy. 1996. Natural Heritage Central Database. (Status and disuibution data on 

Latin American plants, developed in collaboration with Latin American Conservation Data Centers 

and Missouri Botanical Garden.). 



231 



Contribution to an evaluation of tree species using the new CITES Listing Criteria 



Platymenia foliolosa 

Leguminosae 
vinhatico 



Distribution 

Brazil (Bahia, Ceara, Espinto Santo, Minas Gerais, Pernambuco) 

Habitat 

Tropical, lowland, submontane, moist, closed forest, scrub. A widespread species of diverse habitat 
types from dry sub-humid tropical to humid sub-tropical climatic zones, riparian forest, mountain 
ridges, cerrados, also roadsides and cocoa plantations. 

Population Status and Trends 

Selective exploitation for the timber coupled with poor regeneration is causing a decline in population 
numbers, especially in the coastal areas of Espirito Santo. The species is included in the databook of 
endangered species by the FAO (FAO, 1986). 

Role of species in the Ecosystem 

Threats 

Overexploitation, poor regeneration 

Utilisation 
Trade 

lUCN Conservation category 

VU Alcd accordmg to WCMC 

Conservation Measures 

Forest Management and Silviculture 

References 

FAO Forestry Department. 1986. Databook on endangered tree and shrub species and their 

provenances. Rome: FAO. 524pp. 
Lewis, G.P. 1987. Legumes of Bahia. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. 



232 



Annex 2. Profiles of Tree Species: The Americas 



Platymiscium parviflorum (=pleiostachyum) 

Leguminosae 
nambar 



Distribution 

Costa Rica, El Salvador, Honduras, Nicaragua 

Habitat 

The species occurs in remnant dry forests and woodlands on flat ground, including disturbed or 
secondary forest (Blaser, 1996; Jimenez Madngal, 1993). 

Population Status and Trends 

The species is scarce. Individuals often show signs of genetic degradation and regeneration is largely 
absent (Jimenez Madrigal, 1993; SSC et al., 1992). It is included in a list of threatened timber trees in 
Costa Rica (Jimenez Madngal, 1993). 

Ecology 

Associated species include Dalbergia retusa, Tabebuia ochracea. T impetiginosa and Lonchocarpus 
minimiflorus (Jimenez Madrigal, 1993). 

Role of species in the Ecosystem 

Threats 



Utilisation 

An attractive timber which is used to make panels, flooring, furniture and drums (Jimenez Madrigal. 
1993). 

Trade 

Heavy exploitation has occurred in southern Costa Rica (Harcourt & Sayer, 1996) but no international 
trade has been reported to CITES (SSC et al., 1992). It is possible trade is occurring unreported from El 
Salvador and Nicaragua (SSC el al., 1992). Blaser (1996) claims that the species has never been 
internationally traded. 

lUCN Conservation category 

EN CI according to the Americas Regional Workshop for the WCMC/SSC Conservation and 
sustainable management of trees project (WCMC, 1996). 

Conservation Measures 

The species is listed on Appendix 11 of CITES. Costa Rica has prohibited the export of the species. 
Populations are recorded in Santa Rosa National Park and Lomas Barbudal Biological Reserve 
(Jimenez Madrigal, 1993) . 

Forest Management and Silviculture 

References 

Aguilar, J.M. 1981. Annotations to: List of threatened plants of Middle America. 

Blaser, J. 1996. Silvicultural considerations of listing timber species in Appendices I, II and III of 

CITES. Working document for the 2nd meeting of the CITES Timber Working Group. 

(unpublished). 
Harcourt, C.S. & J.A. Sayer (eds.). 1996. The conservation atlas of tropical forests: the Americas. 

Simon & Schuster, Singapore. 
Jimenez Madrigal, Quirico. 1993. Arboles maderables en peligro de extincion en Costa Rica. San Jose, 

Costa Rica: Museo Nacional de Costa Rica. 121pp. 
SSC, Traffic & WCMC. 1992. Deletion of Platymiscium pleiostachyum from Appendix I. In Analyses 

of proposals to ammend the CITES Appendices. 
Standley, P.C. \.¥\oxa of Cos\zK\c3l. Field Mus. Nat. Hist.. Bot. Ser 18(1): 1-1616. 



233 



Contribution to an evaluation of tree species using the new CITES Listing Criteria 



The Nature Conservancy. 1996. Natural Heritage Central Database. (Status and distribution data on 
Latin American plants, developed in collaboration with Latin American Conservation Data Centers 
and Missouri Botanical Garden.). 

WCMC. 1996. Report of the Second Regional Workshop, held at CATIE, Turrialba, Costa Rica, 18-20 
November 1996. Conservation and sustainable management of trees project, (unpublished). 



234 



Annex 2. Profiles of Tree Species: The Americas 



Podocarpus parlatorei 

Podocarpaceae 
pino de cerro 



Distribution 

Argentina, Bolivia, Peru 

Habitat 

Tropical, montane, moist, closed forest, cloud forest. A characteristic species of bosque nublado 
Tucumano-Boliviano (Killeen el al., 1993). 

Population Status and Trends 

The main threat to the species is habitat loss, although it is also considered to be an important 
commercial timber (Blaser. 1996). Populations in Argentina are very thin and scattered. Their exact 
locations are kept undisclosed for better protection (Americas Regional Workshop, 1996). 

Role of species in the Ecosystem 

Threats 

Habitat loss. 

Utilisation 

The wood is a commercial lumber and is used in the manufacture of pencils (Blaser, 1996). 

Trade 

An important economic species for Bolivia (Killeen et al., 1993). No international trade has been 
reported and the species is banned from trade between CITES members (Blaser, 1996). 

lUCN Conservation category 

DD according to the SSC Conifer Specialist Group (Gardner, 1997). 

Conservation Measures 

The species is listed on Appendix I of CITES. 

Forest Management and Silviculture 

Although easily propagated the species is slow growing (0.3-0.5cm increment in diameter pa) and an 
economically unattractive candidate for management (Blaser, 1996). 

References 

Amencas Regional Workshop. 1996. Discussions held at CATIE, Costa Rica, November 1996 at the 

Second Regional Workshop of the WCMC/SSC Conservation and Sustainable Management of 

Trees project. (Unpublished). 
Arce, S.J. P., C.S. Estenssoro, & S.P. Ergueta. 1987. Diagnostico del estado de la flora, fauna y 

communidades importantes para la conservacion. Bolivia, La Paz, Centro de Datos para la 

Conservacion. 98pp. 
Blaser, J. 1996. Silvicultural considerations of listing timber species in Appendices I, II and III of 

CITES. Working document for the 2nd meeting of the CITES Timber Working Group. 

(unpublished). 
Farjon, Aljos, Christopher N. Page, & Nico Schellevis. 1993. A preliminary world list of threatened 

conifer taxa. Biodiversity and Conservation 2: 304-326. 
Gardner, M. 1997. Completed data collection forms for South American conifers. 
Killeen, T.J., E. Garcia & S.G. Beck (eds.). 1993. Guia de arboles de Bolivia. Missouri Botanical 

Garden. 958pp. 
Sachsse, H. & E. Schulte. 1987. Some imponant wood properties of the Bolivian Podocarpus 

parlatorei. Holz Als Roh-Und Werkstoff A5(12): 475-480. 



235 



Contribution to an evaluation of tree species using the new CITES Listing Criteria 

Prumnopitys andina 

Podocarpaceae 

Ileuque, uva de la cordillera, Uva de la Cordillera 



Distribution 

Chile (La Araucania, Los Lagos, Maule) 

Habitat 

The species is distributed in clumps in low- to medium-altitude mixed forest. 

Population status and trends 

A timber tree with a fragmented distribution in the central Andean range. Populations are small, 
containing not more than a few hundred individuals, and exploitation is at a high level throughout the 
species' range, largely for the woodchip industry. 

Role of species in the ecosystem 

Threats 

Commercial exploitation, burning, clear-felling/logging of the habitat, forestry management activities, 
pastoralism/ranching. 

Utilisation 

The fruit is edible and fed to animals 

Trade 

The timber is present in domestic trade 

lUCN Conservation category 

VU Alcd, C2a according to Gonzalez (1996). 

Conservation measures 

Forest management and silviculture 

References 

Farjon, Aljos. et al. 1998. Data collection forms for conifer species completed by the SSC Conifer 

Specialist Group between 1996 and 1998. 
Gonzalez Cangas, Mauro. 1996. Completed data collection forms for tree species of Chile. 
Laubenfels. D. de. 1985. Taxonomic Revision of Podocarpus. Blumea 30(2): 251-278. 
The Nature Conservancy. 1996. Natural Heritage Central Database. (Status and distribution data on 

Latin American plants, developed in collaboration with Latin American Conservation Data Centers 

and Missouri Botanical Garden.). 



236 



Annex 2. Profiles of Tree Species: The Americas 



Pterogyne nitens 

Leguminosae 

amendoim bravo, cocal, guiraro, madeira nova, palo coca, tipa Colorado 



Distribution 

Argentina (Chaco, Corrientes, Formosa, Jujuy, Misiones, Salta, Tucuman), Bolivia, Brazil. Paraguay 

Habitat 

The species occurs in dry deciduous forest, caatinga, transition between caatinga and mata de cipo. 
disturbed deciduous woodland, usually on calcareous soils in areas where there is a well defined dry 
season. 

Population Status and Trendis 

The species distribution is contained within an area extending from northern Argentina into Brazil. 
Paraguay and Boliva. The habitat is unprotected and under decline because of logging, encroaching 
agriculture and pastoralism (Prado, 1996). In Bolivia the species represents one of several species, 
native to the semi-decidous forests of eastern Santa Cruz, which are expenencing increased logging 
pressure (Killeen, 1997). The demand for the wood, especially for industrial use, has resulted in the 
species becoming increasingly rare throughout its natural range. The species is included in the 
databook of endangered species by the FAO (FAO, 1986). 

Role of species in the Ecosystem 

Threats 

Overexploitation, extensive agriculture, pastoralism/ranching 

Utilisation 

In Argentina the wood is considered to be of excellent quality and m high demand (Prado, 1996). The 
wood is exported from Paraguay and used to make veneer, high-quality furniture, turnery, flooring and 
plywood. 

lUCN Conservation category 

LR/nt according to Prado, D. 

Conservation Measures 

Forest Management and Silviculture 

An average height of 9.02m and DBH of 10.71cm after 14 years growth is recorded from trials in Sao 
Paulo. 

References 

FAO Forestry Department. 1986. Databook on endangered tree and shrub species and their 

provenances. Rome; FAO. 524pp. 
Killeen, T. 1997. Comments on species summaries for Bolivia. 
Lewis, G.P. 1987. Legumes ofBahia. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. 
Lopez, J. & Elbert L. Little. 1987. Arboles communes del Paraguay. Washington, DC: Peace Corps. 

425pp. 
Ortega Torres, E.. L. Stutz de Ortega & R. Spichiger. 1989. Noventa especies forestales del Paraguay. 

Flora del Paraguay. Conservatoire et Jardin Botaniques de la Ville de Geneve & Missouri 

Botanical Garden. 
Prado, Darien Eros. 1996. Completed data collection forms for trees of Argentinia and neighbouring 

countries. 



237 



Contribution to an evaluation of tree species using the new CITES Listing Criteria 



Schinopsis balansae 

Anacardiaceae 

quebracho Colorado chaqueno, quebracho Colorado santafesino 



Distribution 

Argentina (Chaco, Corrientes, Formosa, Santa Fe), Brazil, Bolivia, Paraguay. 

Habitat 

A characteristic component of the Gran Chaco. especially in the eastern humid plains. 

Population Status and Trends 

Quebracho is the national tree of Argentina. About half of the quebracho forest is contained in 
Argentina, where it has declined by 65% over the past 80 years through logging and clearance for cattle 
ranching and agriculture. Quebracho forest, originally extending 106 million ha in 1914, is believed to 
have been reduced to 60 million ha by 1956 and to 36 million ha in 1984 (CITES. 1992). Exploitation 
in the present day does not reach pre- 1954 levels but a process of overselection of fit individuals has 
resulted in large areas of forest comprising of only unproductive small bushes. An estimated 80,000km^ 
of the dry Chaco subregion are believed to take this form (Morello & Hortt, 1987). More than 
40.000km2 is thought to have become totally degraded through the destructive action of grazing cattle 
(Morello & Hortt, 1987). The species is included in the list of endangered species in Argentina 
(Chebez, 1994). However it remains common over large areas of forest 

Role of species in the Ecosystem 

Quebracho forests are the habitat of a considerable fauna and flora, notably commercially important 
psittacines. 

Threats 

Overexploitation, pasturalism/ranching, agriculture, burning, clear-felling/logging of the habitat 

Utilisation 

Tannin is the major product of this species, although the timber is of domestic importance for making 
telegraph poles, railway sleepers. It is also used as a fuelwood. 

Trade 

S. balanasae is one of the more valuable of the Schinopsis timbers. Annual extraction from Argentina 
is reported to have declined from 450 million tons in the 1960s to 200 million tons in 1986 (CITES 
proposal, 1992). Tannin exports between 1982 and 1990 were between 40,000 and 80.000 tonnes (SSC 
et al. 1992). Argentina extracted 521,910 tonnes in Schinopsis spp. in 1982 and 289,178 tonnes in 1986 
(SSC era/., 1992). 

lUCN Conservation category 

LRlc according to the Americas Regional Workshop for the WCMC/SSC Conservation and 
sustainable management of trees project (WCMC, 1996). 

Conservation Measures 

The genus is listed on Appendix II of CITES. 

Forest Management and Silviculture 

It takes 120 years for the species to reach maturity (CITES, 1992) but regeneration is good in the 
original habitat. 

References 

Chebez, Juan Carlos. 1994. Los que se van. Buenos Aires, Argentina: Albatros. 604pp. 

Lopez, J. & Elbert L. Little. 1987. Arboles communes del Paraguay. Washington, DC: Peace Corps. 

425pp. 
Morello, J. & G. Hortt, 1987. La naturaleza y la frontera agropecuaria en el Gran Chaco 

Sudamericano.Pensamiento Iberoamericano, Revista de Economia Politica 12 (Medio Ambiente: 

Deterioro y Recuperacion), Espana 
Prado, Darien Eros. 1996. Completed data collection forms for trees of Argentinia and neighbouring 

countries. 



238 



Annex 2. Profiles of Tree Species: The Americas 



SSC, Traffic & WCMC. 1992. Inclusion of Schinopsis spp. in Appendix n. In Analyses of proposals to 

amend the CITES Appendices. 
The Nature Conservancy. 1996. Natural Heritage Central Database. (Status and distribution data on 

Latin American plants, developed in collaboration with Latin American Conservation Data Centers 

and Missouri Botanical Garden.). 
WCMC. 1996. Report of the Second Regional Workshop, held at CATE, Tumalba, Costa Rica, 18-20 

November 1996. Conservation and sustainable management of trees project, (unpublished). 



239 



Contribution to an evaluation of tree species using the new CITES Listing Criteria 

Swietenia humilis 

Meliaceae 

caoba, coabilla, cobano, gateado, Pacific coast mahogany, venadillo, zapaton, zopilote 

Distribution 

Belize, Costa Rica, EI Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama 

Habitat 

A fairly widespread species of dry deciduous forest, savanna, rough scrub, rocky hillsides and 
cultivated fields. 

Population Status and Trends 

Trees are most often seen as scattered and isolated individuals, preserved in cultivated land and 
pastures. Large specimens are rare. 

Role of species in the Ecosystem 

Threats 

Habitat loss 

Utilisation 

The timber is used in local carpentry, but is of little commercial importance. 

Trade 

Reports of international trade in 1994 record Honduras as exporting 4000m^ plywood at an average 
pnce of US$ 149/m3. 4000m3 veneer at an average price of USSSV/m^, SOOOm^ sawn wood at an average 
price of US$7 1/m^ SOOOm^ logs at USSSV/m'. Importers of Swietenia spp. in the form of plywood 
include U.S.A., Ponugal; m the form of veneer include U.S.A., Portugal and Greece; in the form of 
sawnwood include U.S.A., Sweden, Portugal, Greece; and Portugal is recorded as importin" lo^s 
(ITTO, 1997). ^ '^ 

CITES reported trade for this species in the period 1990 - 1994 consists of two transactions reported by 
Guatemala; 12w? exported to Guadeloupe and 41m^ exported to the USA. 

lUCN Conservation category 

Conservation Measures 

The species is listed on Appendix II of CITES 

Forest Management and Silviculture 

Some experimental plantings have been established, for example in Honduras, but have suffered from 
the impact of mahogany shoot borer, Hypsipyla grandella f Newton, in litt. 1998) 

References 

Newton, A. 1998. In litt to WCMC 

Pennington, T.D. 1981. Meliaceae. Flora Neotropica, Monograph 28. 470 pp. 

Standley, P.C, J.A. Steyermark, & L.O. Williams. 1946. Rora of Guatemala. Fieldiana Bot. 24 

The Nature Conservancy. 1996. Natural Heritage Central Database. (Status and distribution data on 

LatinAmerican plants, developed in collaboration with Latin American Conservation Data Centers 

and Missouri Botanical Garden.). 



240 



Annex 2. Profiles of Tree Species: The Americas 



Swietenia macrophylla 

Meliaceae 

acajou, aguano, araputango, caoba, Honduras mahogany, large-leaved mahogany, 

mara, mogno 



Distribution 

Belize, Bolivia, Brazil (Acre, Amazonas, Goi'as, Maranhao, Mato Grosso, Para. Rondonia, Tocantins), 
Colombia, Costa Rica, Dominica, Ecuador, El Salvador, French Guiana, Guatemala, Guyana, 
Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama, Peru, Venezuela 

Habitat 

This species tolerates a wide range of environmental conditions, often in areas of 1000 - 2000 mm 
annual ramfall but also in some very wet areas, over 4000 mm rainfall, and on a vanety of soils. 

Population Status and Trends 

A large timber tree with an extensive distribution, originally described fi-om cultivated specimens in 
India. Currently the most commercially important of the mahoganies, exploitation has been taking 
place for several centuries. Populations in the northern part of the species' range from Mexico to 
Colombia were depleted at a relatively early stage. Exploitation in Brazil began in the 1960s but has 
continued at a very rapid rate. The most extensive stands are found in Brazil. In Bolivia, the 
populations in Santa Cruz are essentially extinct and in Beni they are decimated. Mahogany operations 
continue at Pando but these populations, too, are expected to be exhausted within the decade (Killeen, 
1997). Only a few populations remain in north-east Ecuador, where selective logging has caused 
genetic erosion and population decreases (Buitron, 1996). 

Mahogany regenerates in extensively cleared areas after large-scale disaster and therefore generally 
occurs in even-aged stands. Modem logging practises, therefore, commonly lead to the complete (or 
95%. leaving non-commercially individuals) removal of stands over a large area, leaving few smaller 
individuals and an insubstantial seed source for future regeneration (Snook, 1996). Regeneration after 
selective and clear felling has been noted as poor or non-existant in a number of countnes because of 
these characteristics of the species. Evidence of genetic erosion has been described by various experts, 
although no quantitative information is available to suppon these suggestions (Newton et ai, 1996). 
Harvesting and processing are only 50% efficient. There is little economic incentive to sustainably 
manage natural stands (GuUison, pers. comm. 1996). 

Various countries record the species as threatened at a national level (Asociacion Nacional para la 
Conservacion de la Naturaleza, 1990; Buitron, 1996; IBAMA, 1992; Jimenez Madrigal, 1993). 

Role of species in tlie Ecosystem 

Threats 

Commercial overexploitation 

Utilisation 

Originally preferred for making canoes and ships at a domestic level, mahogany is now considered one 
of the highest-quality woods in the world. It is principally used for interior finishing, furniture, 
ornaments, inlays and carving. 

Trade 

In Brazil and Bolivia over 70% of the mahogany harvested is bound for international trade. Most 
mahogany harvested in Guatemala is also for export, mainly to Mexico (Snook, 1996). 

International trade data from 1994 reports that Honduras exported Swietenia macrophylla in the form 
of plywood, veneer, sawnwood and logs. Peru exported veneer in 1994 and sawnwood in 1995. Brazil 
exported 98,0(X)m^ sawnwood in 1995. The species is also entering international trade from non-native 
sources such as Fiji, Thailand, Trinidad and Tobago. Importers of Swietenia spp. in the form of 
plywood include U.S.A., Portugal; in the form of veneer include U.S.A., Portugal and Greece; in the 
form of sawnwood include U.S.A., Sweden, Portugal, Greece; and Portugal is recorded as importing 
logsdTTO, 1997). 



241 



Contribution to an evaluation of tree species using the new CITES Listing Criteria 



lUCN Conservation category 

VU Alcd+2cd according to WCMC. 

Conservation Measures 

Proposals to list the species on CITES have repeatedly failed. 

Populations are found in a number of national parks and forest reserves, such as the Biosphere Reserve 
Montes Azules in Chiapas and Calakmul in Campeche and the Mayan Biosphere Reserve in northern 
Peten. In Brazil 3.5 million ha of parks and reserves have been created within the mahogany. However 
the enforcement of protective measures in these areas is problematic and illegal logging is known to be 
widespread (Newton etal. 1996). 

Techniques for the effective genetic conservation of mahogany are available. Progress has been made 
in establishing the correct conditions for long term seed storage. However there is no coordinated effort 
to ensure the ex situ conservation of important genotypes. 

Forest Management and Silviculture 

Regeneration is stochastic, depending on large-scale disturbance. The species is cultivated throughout 
the U-opics. It is able to grow on most soil types but responds best when growing in deep fertile well- 
drained soils. Fruit crops are regularly borne after about 15 years age. Growth is very rapid under 
favourable conditions; annual volume increments of 15-20m^ per. ha. have been achieved in the 
Antilles with rotations of 40-50 years (Lamprecht, 1989). The most serious unsolved problem in 
mahogany cultivation, particularly in the neotropics. is the damage caused to young trees by the shoot 
borer Hypsipyla grandella (Lamprecht, 1989). 

Although some mahogany forests have now been certified as sustainable, the vast majority of 
mahogany is exploited in unmanaged stands and there are very few examples where attempts are being 
made to harvest the timber sustainably (Newton, in litl. 1998). 

References 

Asociacion Nacional para la Conservacion de la Naturaleza. 1990. List of threatened and vulnerable 

plants of Panama, (unpublished). 
Buitron, X. (comp). 1996. List of endangered and possibly endangered species of Ecuador produced 

by the Workshop of Rora Specialists of Ecuador for the National Biodiversity Diagnostic, Nov. 

1996. 
Caribbean Conservation Association, (comp.). 1991. St Lucia: country environmental profile. St 

Michael, Barbados; Caribbean Conservation Association, xx-332. 
Centro de Datos para la Conservacion. 1986. Lista preliminar de plantas especiales. Limon, Peru; 

Centro de Datos para la Conservacion. 19pp. 
Centro de Datos para la Conservacion-CDC-CVC. 1980. Lista preliminar de plantas especiales del 

Centro de Datos para la conservacion, CDC-CVC. (unpublished). 10pp. 
Erfurth, T. & H. Rusche. 1976. The marketing of tropical wood. Rome; FAO. 
Garcia, R.D. & I. Olmsted. 1987. Listado floristico de la Reserva Sian Ka'an. Puerto Morelos, Quintana 

Roo, Mexico 71pp. 
Howard, R.A. (ed.). 1974. Flora of the Lesser Antilles; Leeward and Windward Islands. Jamaica Plain, 

Mass., Arnold Arboretum. 6 vols, 1974-1989. 
IBAMA. 1992. Lista oficial de especies da flora Brasileira ameagadas de extingao. (unpublished). 

4pp. 
ITTO. 1997. Annual review and assessment of the world tropical timber situation 1996. International 

Tropical Timber Organization (ITTO). 
Jimenez Madrigal, Quirico. 1993. Arboles maderables en peligro de extincion en Costa Rica. San Jose, 

Costa Rica; Museo Nacional de Costa Rica. 121pp. 
Killeen, T. 1997. Comments on the species summaries for Bolivia. 
Lamprecht, H. 1990. Silviculture in the tropics; tropical forest ecosystems and their tree species; 

possibilities and methods for their long-term utilization. Dt. Ges. fiir Techn. Zusammenarbeit 

(GTZ) GmbH, Eschbom. 
Newton, A.C. et al. 1996. Mahogany as a genetic resource. Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 

niM-li. 
Newton, A. 1998. In litt to WCMC 

Oldfield, S. 1995. Plants and the 1994 CITES conference. Plant Talk 1; 12-13. 
Pennington, T.D. 1981. Meliaceae. Flora Neotropica, Monograph 28. 470 pp. 



242 



Annex 2. Profiles of Tree Species: The Americas 



Snook, L.K. 1996. Catastrophic disturbance, logging and the ecology of mahogany {Swietenia 

macrophyllaKJng): grounds for listing a major tropical timber species in CITES. Botanical Journal 
of the Linnean Society 122:35-46. 

Sociedade Botanica do Brasil. 1992. Centuria plantarum Brasiliensium extintionis minitata. Sociedade 
Botanica do Brasil. 175pp. 

Standley, P.C, J.A. Steyermark, & L.O. Williams. 1946. Flora of Guatemala. Fieldiana Sot. 24 



243 



Contribution to an evaluation of tree species using the new CITES Listing Criteria 

Swietenia mahagoni 

Meliaceae 

acajou, caoba, coabilla, Cuban mahogany, madeira, mahok, mahoni, small-leaved 

mahogany. West Indian mahogany 



Distribution 

Anguilla, Antigua and Barbuda, Bahamas, Cayman Islands, Colombia, Cuba, Dominica, Dominican 
Republic, Grenada, Guadeloupe (Guadeloupe, St Martin-St Barthelemy), Jamaica, Martinique, 
Montserrat, St Kitts and Nevis, St Lucia. St Vincent, Turks and Caicos Islands, USA (Florida), 

Habitat 

A species of tropical, lowland closed and open forest types. In south Florida the species occurs in 
remaining areas of dry or moist forest, often on limestone. 

Population Status and Trends 

The first mahogany to appear in the European market five centuries ago. Natural stands became 
extensively exhausted before the early years of this century in many areas. Some authors have 
suggested that the species has experienced severe genetic erosion, but hard evidence of this is lacking 
(Newton et al 1996). Well formed timber trees are now extremely rare and most individuals are highly 
branched, relatively short trees. It is reported to be one of the dominant species of semi-deciduous 
forest in the Sierra de Neiba in Hispaniola (Harcourt & Sayer, 1996). Various countries have recorded 
the species as threatened at a national level (Calderon, 1997; Jimenez, 1978). 

Role of species in the Ecosystem 

Threats 

Overexploitation 

Utilisation 

As with S. macrophylla the timber is of the highest-quality, used in cabinet and furniture-making, 
panelling and pianos. 

Trade 

Small quantities of timber from plantations are periodically available on the international market. 
CITES reported trade in this species, added to Appendix 11 of the Convention following a decision bv the 
Eighth Meeting of the Conference of the Parties in 1992, consists of the export of 72 carvings from the 
Dominican Republic to Spain as reported by Spain; 41 live plants and 32 timber pieces exponed from the 
Dominican Republic to the USA as reported by the Dominican Republic (Oldfield and Collins, 1997). 

lUCN Conservation category 

EN CI according to the Americas Regional Workshop for the WCMC/SSC Conservation and 
sustainable management of trees project (WCMC, 1996). 

Conservation Measures 

The species is listed in Appendix n of *CrrES. In Florida the species is listed as threatened in Florida 
Statute 581.185. 

Forest Management and Silviculture 

Regeneration depends on large-scale disturbance; flooding, hurricane etc. Trees do not set seed until at 
least 12 years age. The estabhshment of plantations has had limited success because of attack by the 
shoot-borer Hypsipyla grandella. 

References 

Calderon, E. (comp.). 1997. Lista de plantas Colombianas en peligro. July 1997 Version. Instituto de 
Investigacino de Recursos Biologicas Alexander von Humboldt, (unpublished). 14 pp 

Carrington, S. 1993. Wild plants of Barbados. Hong Kong: The Macmillan Press Ltd. 1 - 128. 

Correll, D.S. & H.B. Correll. 1982. Flora of the Bahama Archipelago. Vaduz, Liechtenstein: Cramer. 
1692pp. 

Harcourt, C.S. & J.A. Sayer (eds.). 1996. The conservation atlas of tropical forests: the Americas. 
Simon & Schuster, Singapore. 



244 



Annex 2. Profiles of Tree Species: The Americas 



Howard, R.A. (ed.). 1974. Flora of the Lesser Antilles; Leeward and Windward Islands. Jamaica Plain, 

Mass., Arnold Arboretum. 6 vols, 1974-1989. 
nrO. \991 . Annual review and assessment of the world tropical timber situation 1996. Intemational 

Tropical Timber Organization (11 JO). 
Jimenez, J. de J. 1978. Lista tentativa de p lamas de la Republica Dominicana que deben protegerse 

para evitar su extincion. Santo Domingo: Coloquio Intemacional sobre la practica de la 

conservacion. CIBIMA/UASD. 
Newton, A.C. et al. 1996. Mahogany as a genetic resource. BotanicalJoumal of the Linnean Society 

122:61-73. 
Oldfield, S. and Collins, L. 1997 Review and improvement of national reporting for trade in plants 

listed in the Appendices of CITES. A repon prepared on behalf of the CITES Secretariat. WCMC, 

Cambridge. 
Pennington, T.D. 1981. Meliaceae. Flora Neotropica. Monograph 28. 470 pp. 
FVoctor, George R. 1984. Flora of the Cayman Islands. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew: London. HMSO. 

834pp. 
Rodan, B.D., A.C. Newton & A. Verissimo. 1992. Mahogany conservation: status and policy 

initiatives. Environmental Conservation 19: 331-338. 
WCMC. 1996. Report of the Second Regional Workshop, held at CATIE, Turrialba, Costa Rica, 18-20 

November 1996. Conservation and sustainable management of trees projecl. (unpublished). 



245 



Contribution to an evaluation of tree species using the new CITES Listing Criteria 



Syagrus glaucescens 

Palmae 

Distribution 

Brazil (Minas Gerais) 

Habitat 

The species is found in submontane scrub or cerrado and campo rupestre on rocky outcrops between 
700 and 1200m. 

Population status and trends 

A small palm tree confined to Serra da Diamantina in Minas Gerais. Population numbers are declining 
at an alarming rate. Only a few small trees remain and mature individuals are almost completely absent 
from certain areas. Habitat destruction and human pressures have been cause of declines. There is also 
evidence that adult palms have been collected for the horticultural trade. 

Role of the species in the ecosystem 

Threats 

Burning, clear-felling/logging of the habitat 

Utilization 

A species of ornamental value. 

Trade 

rUCN Conservation category 

VU Ale according to Noblick (Johnson ei a!.. 1997). 

Conservation measures 

Forest management and silviculture 

References 

Johnson, D. ei al. 1997. Completed data collection forms for palms. 



246 



Annex 2. Profiles of Tree Species: The Americas 



Tabebuia impetiginosa i=ipe) 

Bignoniaceae 

ipe, lapacho negro, pau d'arco 

Distribution 

Argentina (Chaco, Cordoba, Corrientes, Entre Rios, Formosa, Misiones, Santa Fe, Santiago del Estero), 
Brazil, Costa Rica, Mexico 

Habitat 

The species occurs on deep alluvial soils in gallery forest, on ridges and table lands. It also occurs as 
solitary trees on pastureland. 

Population Status and Trends 

A widespread species with a wide ecological tolerance. Exploitation appears to have reached such 
levels in some places, notably in Brazil, that significant population declines are occurring. It is only 
threatened at a local level in Argentina (Chebez, 1994). It is included in FAO's databook on 
endangered species (FAO, 1986). 

Ecology 

Usual species associations include Astronium sp., Anadenanthera sp. and Torresia sp. 

Role of species in the Ecosystem 
Threats 

Utilisation 

The heavy, hard wood is used for carving, construction work, sleepers and fence posts. 

Trade 

Tabebuia spp. were exported from Brazil in the form of 19,000m3 of sawnwood in 1995 (ITTO. 1997). 

lUCN Conservation category 

LRlc according to WCMC 

Conservation Measures 

Forest Management and Silviculture 

The species is not cultivated on a commercial scale but it is frequently planted as an ornamental tree. 

References 

Chebez, Juan Carlos. 1994. Los que se van. Buenos Aires, Argentina: Albatros. 604pp. 

dArcy, W.G. 1987. Flora of Panama: checklist and index. Monographs in Systematic Botany 17: 1- 

1000. 
FAO Forestry Department. 1986. Databook on endangered tree and shrub species and their 

provenances. Rome: FAO. 524pp. 
HMSO. 1 . Index Kewensis plantarum phanerogamarum. Kew: Royal Botanic Gardens. 
ITTO. 1997. Annual review and assessment of the world tropical timber situation. International 

Tropical Timber Organization (ITTO). 
Janzen, Daniel H. (ed.). 1983. Costa Rican natural history. Chicago and London: The University of 

Chicago Press. 816pp. 



247 



Contribution to an evaluation of tree species using the new CITES Listing Criteria 



Virola surinamensis 

Myristicaceae 

ucuiiba branca, ucuiiba da varzea 



Distribution 

Brazil (Amapa, Amazonas, Maranhao, Para, Pemambuco, Roraima), Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, 
French Guiana, Guyana, Panama, Peru, Suriname, Venezuela 

Habitat 

A primary species of swamp and inundated forest types. 

Population Status and Trends 

Although the species is relatively frequent, exploitation in parts of the range, chiefly as a soure of 
plywood, is resulting in population reductions (Americas Regional Workshop, 1996). Exploitation is 
reported to be heavy in Brazil and the species is included in the official list of threatened species 
(IBAMA, 1992). 

Role of species in the Ecosystem 

The fruits are an important food source to monkeys, cotingas and toucans. 

Threats 

Overexploitation. 

Utilisation 

The wood is used in house construction but chiefly in making boxes, crates, plywood, boards and 
veneer. Oil is extracted from the seed in Brazil. 

Trade 

In Central Amenca the species provides a cheap source of plywood (Americas Regional Workshop, 
1996). The timber is present in international trade. Brazil exported 21,000m^ of the wood in 1994 at an 
average price of US$145/m^ (ITTO, 1995a). Ecuador exported 393,1 16m^ of timber from Virola spp. in 
1994 (ITTO. 1995b), 1000m' plywood at an average price of US$385/m3 and Or sawnwood at an 
average price of USS393/m^n 1995 (ITTO. 1997). Brazil exported SOOOm' of the species in the form 
of sawnwood in 1995. Peru exported Virola spp. sawnwood in 1995. Importers of Virola spp. in the 
form of plywood, veneer, sawnwood and logs are reported to include U.S.A., Western Europe, Japan, 
Venezuela and Canada (Teixeira, 1988). 

lUCN Conservation category 

EN Alad+2cd according to the Americas Regional Workshop for the WCMC/SSC Conservation and 
sustainable management of trees project (WCMC, 1996). 

Conservation Measures 

Forest Management and Silviculture 

The species is being replanted on 220km^ mixed plots on previously exploited land in Surinam 
(Harcourt & Sayer, 1996). 

References 

Americas Regional Workshop. 1996. Discussions held at CAlUb, Costa Rica, November 1996 at the 

Second Regional Workshop of the WCMC/SSC Conservation and Sustainable Management of 

Trees project. (Unpublished). 
Cremers, G. 1994. Annotations to: Threatened plants of French Guiana (South America). 56pp. 
Encamacion, F. 1983. Nomenclatura de las especies forestales comunes en el Peru. Lima 147pp. 
Erfurth, T. & H. Rusche. 1976. The marketing of tropical wood. Rome: FAG. 
Harcourt, C.S. & J.A. Sayer (eds.). 1996. The conservation atlas of tropical forests: the Americas. 

Simon & Schuster, Singapore. 
IBAMA. 1992. Lista oficial de especies da flora Brasileira ameagadas de extingao. (unpublished). 

4pp. 
mo. 1995a. Elements for the annual review and assessment of the world tropical timber situation. 

Draft Document. 



248 



Annex 2. Profiles of Tree Species: The Americas 



ITTO. 1995b. Results of the J 995 forecasting and statistical enquiry for the annual review. Yokohama 

Japan. 205pp. 
Teixeira, D.E. 1988. Amazonian timbers for the international market. Brasilia: Brazilian Institute for 

Forestry Developinent & ITTO. 94pp. 
WCMC. 1996. Report of the Second Regional Workshop, held at CATIE, Turrialba, Costa Rica, 18-20 

November 1996. Conservation and sustainable management of trees project, (unpublished). 



249 



Contribution to an evaluation of tree species using the new CITES Listing Criteria 

Vouacapoua americana 

Leguminosae 

Distribution 

Brazil (Amapa, Maranhao, Para), French Guiana, Guyana, Peru, Suriname 

Habitat 

A slow-growing species confined to remaining areas of high dense forest on clay or sandy soils. 

Population Status and Trends 

Populations are now reduced to a few privately-owned or inaccessible localities. Declines in numbers 
continue to occur because of overexploitation (Varty, 1996). The species is included in the official list 
compiled by IBAMA of threatened Brazilian plants (IBAMA, 1992). Further data on the status of 
populations in French Guyana and Surinam may alter the current global status of the species. 

Role of species in the Ecosystem 

Threats 

Commercial overexploitation, clear-felling/logging of the habitat 
Utilisation 

Trade 

lUCN Conservation category 

CR Alcd+2cd according to Varty & Guadagnin (Varty, 1996) 

Conservation Measures 

References 

Chudnoff, M. 1984. Tropical timbers of the world. Forest Products Laboratory Madison, Wisconsin: 

United States Department of Agriculture. 464pp. 
Detienne, P., D. Fouquet, & B. Parant. 1990. Les bois Guyanais: proprietes et utilisation. [Guianese 

woods: properties and uses]. Bois et Forets des Tropiques 219: 125-143. 
Erfurth, T. & H. Rusche. 1976. The marketing of tropical wood. Rome: FAO. 
IBAMA. 1992. Lista oficial de especies da flora Brasileira ameagadas de extingao. (unpublished). 

4pp. 
Teixeira, D.E. 1988. Amazonian timbers for the international market. Brasilia: Brazilian Institute for 

Forestry Development & ITTO. 94pp. 
Varty, Nigel. 1996. Data collection forms for Brazilian Atlantic forest species. 



250 



Annex 2. Profiles of Tree Species: The Americas 



Washingtonia filifera 

Palmae 

desert palm, Califomian fan palm 



Distribution 

Mexico, USA (Arizona, California, Nevada) 

Habitat 

A clumped palm of arid regions along streams in canyons, where groundwater is present, occurring 
from sea level up to 1200m. 

Population status and trends 

An estimated 25,000 wild desert palm trees exist in about 1 16 seeps, springs and streams in the 
Sonoran Desert. In California stands are infrequent but the population is thought to be relatively stable. 
Some trees are lost during flash floods or killed when their fan 'skins' are burned by vandals (Reiser, 
1994). There is some controversy over the Nevada subpopulation which is confined to a small area in 
Moapa, in the south. Vanous agencies believe the stands, which number no more than 2000 to 3000 
trees, were introduced and as a consequence are supporting the cutting of trees. The local inhabitants 
believe the stands to be natural and are campaigning for their protection. 

Role of the species in the ecosystem 

Threats 

Dramage. expansion of human settlement 

Utilization 

A valuable ornamental plant. The species is widely planted as a street tree in south west USA. The 
fruits and seeds are edible and the leaf fibre is used in basketry. 

Trade 

The species is traded internationally as an ornamental. 

Conservation status 

LR/nt according to Johnson (1997). 

Conservation measures 

Forest management and silviculture 

References 

Johnson, D. et al. 1997. Completed data collection forms for palms. 

Reiser, C.H. 1994. California fan palm [Washingtonia filifera (Lindl.) Wendl.] In Rare Plants of San 
Diego Count}' WEB site, http://www.sierraclub.org/chapters/sandiego/rareplants . 



251 



Contribution to an evaluation of tree species using the new CITES Listing Criteria 



Zanthoxylum fla vum 

Rutaceae 

Jamaican satinwood. West Indian satinwood 



Distribution 

Anguilla, Bahamas, Bermuda, Brazil (Amazonas), Cuba. Dominican Republic, Honduras, Jamaica, 
Puerto Rico, St Lucia, USA (Rorida). 

Habitat 

The species occurs in thickets and woodland on rocky limestone. 

Population Status and Trends 

In Central America the species is represented by a single collection from Swan Island, Honduras. The 
species has been heavily exploited for its timber over a long period on all the West Indian islands. 
Stands are now largely depleted of mature trees and the timber is extremely rare in international trade. 

Role of species in the Ecosystem 

Threats 

Overexploitation, clear-felling/logging of the habitat 

Utilisation 

An attractive wood which has been used for cabinet work, inlays, fancy goods, turnery and fine 
furniture. 

Trade 

From a commercial standpoint the timber is extremely rare and expensive, basically out of distribution 
(Flynn, 1994) 

lUCN Conservation category 

VU Ale according to Areces-Mallea. A.E. 

Conservation Measures 

Forest Management and Silviculture 

References 

Adams, CD. 1972. Flowering plants of Jamaica. Jamaica: University of the West Indies. 848pp. 
Areces-Mallea, A.E. 1997. A listing of threatened Cuban trees prepared for the Conservation and 

Sustainable Management of Trees project. 
Center for Plant Conservation (CPC). 1992. Printout of CPC's data for North American plants. 
Chudnoff, M. 1984. Tropical timbers of the world. Forest Products Laboratory Madison, Wisconsin: 

United States Department of Agriculture. 464pp. 
Flynn, J.H. 1994. A guide to useful woods of the world. Portland, Maine: King Philip Publishing Co. 
Nelson, C. H. 1997. Threatened Trees of Honduras. 1-8 



252 



Annex 2. Profiles of Tree Species: The Americas 



Zeyheria tuberculosa 

Bignoniaceae 

bolsa-de-pastor, camaru^u, ipe felpudo 



Distribution 

Brazil (Espi'rito Santo, Minas Gerais, Rio de Janeiro, Sao Paulo) 

Habitat 

A pioneer species in altered ecosystems, forming large homogenous stands. It is also found in 
rainforest, dry forest, cerrados and mountain ridges, often at altitudes where there are frequent frosts. 

Population Status and Trends 

The species occurs in an area where the forest has been widely devastated by encroaching agriculture, 
ranching and other developments. However, it is well adapted to altered landscapes where it is allowed 
to grow back. It is included in the databook on endangered species by FAO (FAO, 1986). 

Role of species in the Ecosystem 

Threats 

Local overexploitation, extensive agriculture, pastoralism/ranching 

Utilisation 

A useful timber for civil construction, sleepers and fence posts, also tool handles and fuelwood. The 
leaves are eaten by cattle during dry periods. 

Trade 

rUCN Conservation category 

VUAlcd accordmg to WCMC 

Conservation Measures 

Forest Management and Silviculture 

The species is infrequently cultivated. 

References 

FAO Forestry Department. 1986. Databook on endangered tree and shrub species and their 
provenances. Rome: FAO. 524pp. 



253 



ASIA 

Abies nordmanniana subsp. equi-troujani 



Distribution 

This species is endemic to Kaz-Dagh and Ulu-Dagh in western Turkey. 

Habitat 

This temperate species is found in moist coniferous montane forest and is found in both open and closed 
forest It is found in seasonal chmates between 1000-2000 m (SSC Conifer Specialist Group, 1996). 

Population Status and Trends 

Usually found in pure stands, this species is locally abundant but has a scattered distribution (SSC Conifer 
Specialist Group, 1996). 

Regeneration 

Seeds of this shade tolerant species are wind dispersed. 

Role of Species in its Ecosystem 

Not known. 

Threats 

This species is threatened by habitat degradation, changes in land use, and overgrazing (SSC Conifer 
Specialist Group. 1996). 

Utilisation 

A. nordmanniana subsp. equi-troujani is a timber species. 

Trade 

Not known. 

Conservation Status 

lUCN Threat Category and Criteria: LR Ic (SSC Conifer Specialist Group, 1996) 

Conservation Measures 

No information. 

References 

SSC Conifer Specialist Group, 1996. Discussions held by the SSC Conifer Specialist Group as part of the 
WCMC/SSC Conservation and Sustainable Management of Trees Project. March. 1996. 



255 



Contribution to an evaluation of tree species using the new CITES Listing Criteria 



Acacia crassicarpa 

Leguminosae 
red wattle 



Distribution 

Australia (Queensland), Papua New Guinea 

Habitat 

A species of tropical, lowland, dry, broadleaved, forest and woodland types, including savannah 
woodland, monsoon forest and gallery-type forest. Associated species include Acacia aulaeocarpa, 
Melaleuca spp., Lophostemon suaveolens and Tristancopsis ferruginea. 

Population status and trends 

In Papua New Guinea, this species is confined to dry and seasonal monsoon forests of the Western 
Province. Populations occur in logging areas and the timber is actively sought after (Eddowes, 1997) 

Role of species in the ecosystem 

No information. 

Threats 

Overexploitation, habitat destruction, fire. 

Utilisation 

The wood is used for joinery, furniture, cabinet-work, veneer and flooring. The timber has an attractive 
form and red hue. 

Trade 

The timber is traded on a minor international scale. 

lUCN Conservation category 

VU Alcd-i-2cd, Bl-H2abcd according to Eddowes (1997). 

Conservation measures 

There are probably one or two specimens planted in LAE National Botanic Gardens, Morobe Province, 
Papua New Guinea. CSIRO (Australia) have made extensive seed collections of a range of Acacia spp. 
from Papua New Guinea. 

Forest management and silviculture 

Plantations have been established in Indonesia. 

References 

Eddowes, P.J. 1997. Completed data collection forms for New Guinea. 



256 



Annex 2. Profiles of Tree Species: Asia 



Acer laurinum 

Aceraceae 

perdu, walik elar, wuru dapang, wuru putih 



Distribution 

Borneo, China (Hainan), Java, Lesser Sunda Islands, Myanmar, (Mindanao Island) Philippines, 
Sulawesi, Sumatra, Thailand? 

Habitat 

The only truly tropical maple. A giant tree of primary montane forest, rarely secondary or devastated 
forest, occurring up to 20(X)m. In Sabah and Sarawak populations are apparently confined to soils of 
relatively high nutrient status, on igneous rocks between 200 and 1500m in the upper limits of mixed 
dipterocarp forest and on granodiorite rocks in lower montane oak-laurel forest between 1200 and 1600m. 

Population status and trends 

A widespread and relatively common species, although it appears to be rare in truly non-seasonal parts of 
Peninsular Malaysia, Sumatra and Borneo. In Sabah only two collections have been made and the species 
is frequent within a very local distribution in Sarawak (Soepadmo and Wong, 1995). The distribution in 
the Philippines is also local (Asia Regional Workhop, 1997). According to Sosef, Hong and 
Prawirohatmodjo (1998) the species is uncommon but fairiy widespread and does not seem to be 
threatened. 

Role of species in the ecosystem 

No information 

Threats 

No specific information on threats to this species. 

Utilisation 

The white undersides to the leaves provide an attractive ornamental attribute to the species. Utilisation of 
the timber is very limited due to its scarcity and absence of heanwood (Sosef, Hong and Prawirohatmodjo 
1998). 

Trade 

lUCN Conservation category 

DD according to the Asia Regional Workshop (WCMC, 1997). 

Conservation measures 

It is now in cultivation in the Botanical Garden of the University of Groningen, The Netheriands. 

Forest management and silviculture 

The species is of low forestry interest (Asia Regional Workhop, 1997). Nothing is known about its 
propagation (van Gelderen etal., 1994). 

References 

Asia Regional Workshop. 1997. Discussions held during the Third Regional Workshop for the 

WCMC/SSC 
Conservation and sustainable management of trees project, Hanoi, Viet Nam, 18-21 August 1997. 
Soepadma. E. and Wong, K.M. (Eds.) 1995. Tree Flora of Sabah and Sarawak Volume 1. Government of 

Malaysia, ITTO, ODA. 
Sosef, Hong and Prawirohatmodjo 1998. 

van Gelderen, D.M., P.C. de Jong and H.J. Oterdoom. 1994. Maples of the world. Timber Press, Portland. 
WCMC. 1997. Report on the Thu-d Regional Workshop held at Hanoi, Viet Nam, 18-21 August 1997 
WCMC/SSC Conservation and sustainable management of trees project. 



257 



Contribution to an evaluation of tree species using the new CITES Listing Criteria 

Afzelia rhomboidea 

Leguminosae 

afzelia, balayong, kupang, Malaca teak, tanduk, taram, tindalo 



Distribution 

Eastern Sumatra, northern Borneo and Philippines. In the Philippines it occurs in Luzon, Masbate, 
Marindoque, Leyle, Cebu and Mindanao. 

Habitat 

The species is scattered on low hills and ridges or in areas which are temporarily inundated with 
freshwater at low and medium altitudes (Soerianegara & Lemmens, 1993). In the Philippines it is found 
near the coast and along the edges of dipterocarp forests. 

Population status and trends 

Populations in the Philippines have become depleted through logging and kaingin making (de Guzman 
et al, 1986). There is little specific information on populations elsewhere. It is likely that habitat 
conversion, especially for oil palm plantation, has affected populations in Sumatra (Asia Regional 
Workshop, 1997). Large trees are sometimes left standing as they are too time-consuming and hard to 
cut (Asia Regional Workshop, 1997). 

Role of species in the ecosystem 

No information 

Threats 

Commercial overexploitation, habitat destruction and degradation (Asia Regional Workshop, 1997). 

Utilisation 

The wood is widely used in local crafts and in high grade construction, cabinet and furniture work. 

Trade 

The species is probably still in trade in the Philippines (Soerianegara, & Lemmens, 1993). 

lUCN Conservation category 

VU A led according to the Asia Regional Workshop (WCMC, 1997). 

Conservation measures 

In the Philippines the DENR Administrative Order No. 78 Series of 1987, Interim Guidelines on the 
Cutting/Gathering of Narra and other Premium Hardwoods, imposes restrictions on the felling of this 
species. 

Forest management and silviculture 

A slow-growing species (Asia Regional Workshop, 1997). 

References 

Asia Regional Workshop. 1997. Discussions held during the Third Regional Workshop for the 

WCMC/SSC Conservation and sustainable management of trees project, Hanoi, Viet Nam, 18-21 

August 1997. 
de Guzman, E.D., Umali, R.M, Sotalba, E.D. 1986. Guide to Philippine flora and fauna Volume HI. 
Soerianegara, I. & Lemmens, R.H.M.I. (Eds.) 1993. Plant Resources of South-East Asia (PROSEA) 5(1) 

Timber trees: major commercial timbers. Pudoc Scientific Publishers, Wageningen. 
WCMC. 1997. Report on the Third Regional Workshop held at Hanoi, Viet Nam, 18-21 August 1997 

WCMC/SSC Conservation and sustainable management of trees project. 



258 



Annex 2. Profiles of Tree Species: Asia 



Agathis borneensis 

Araucariaceae 

bembueng, bindang, damar minyak, damar pilau, hedje, tambunan 

Distribution 

Brunei, Indonesia (Kalimantan, Sumatra), Malaysia (Peninsular Malaysia, Sabah, Sarawak). Agathis 
dammara and A. philippensis are treated as separate species. 

Habitat 

A common species of tropical moist mixed closed forest up to 2200m. Pure stands occur on low-lying 
sandy peat soil in Borneo and Peninsular Malaysia. 

Population Status and Trends 

Large stands of trees have been completely extracted through much of its range, most notably in 
Kalimantan. The stands of 100-400m'/ha volume in South Kalimantan have been seriously depleted 
(Soerianegara & Lemmens, 1993). Exploitation continues to be heavy and regeneration in residual 
stands is insufficient to replace lost populations. In the past the tree has also been destructively 
expoited for copal. 

Role of species in the Ecosystem 

Threats 

Overexploitation, clear-felling/logging of the habitat. 

Utilisation 

Agathis species are distinctive, highly-sought and exploited for their valuable timber. It is excellent for 
joinery, boat building, construction, panelling, turnery, utensils. It also makes a good veneer, pulp and 
paper, charcoal and activated carbon. The resin or Manila copal is used in varnishes. Heavy 
exploitation had reduced the economic importance of the genus. 

Trade 

Agathis spp. are reported in exports from Indonesia and Malaysia. Indonesia exported 760,(X)0m^ in the 
form of round logs in 1973. In 1987 and 1988 67,000m' and 83,OOOm3 of sawnwood was exported at a 
value of USS20.1 million and US$22.2 million respectively. Sarawak exported 22,000m3 in log form in 
1987 and Sabah exported 130,000m'. By the 1990s sawnwood had taken over in the market in 
Peninsular Malaysia. The largest export volume of 8300m ' in round wood is reported in 1967. 
Sawnwood expons increased from 3250m' in 1973 to 3300m'in 1986 and 6000m' in 1989 and 
decreased again to 5500m' and 3500m'in 1990 and 1992 respectively (Soerianegara & Lemmens, 
1993). 

The peak in the world production of copal occurred in the earlier part of the century, the large part 
coming from Indonesia. 18,000t was produced in 1926 and in 1987 Indonesia was still exporting 2650t 
at a value of US$650,0CX) in 1987 but production has declined since then (Soerianegara & Lemmens, 
1993). 



lUCN Conservation category 

VU Alacd according to the SSC Conifer Specialist Group (Farjon et ai, 1996). 

Conservation Measures 

Important populations are held in Badas Forest Reserve in Brunei, Gunung Palung Nature Reserve in 
Kalimantan, Bukit Barisan Selatan National Park in Sumau-a and Taman Negara National Park in 
Peninsular Malaysia. 

Forest Management and Silviculture 

It is planted as a plantation tree and in enrichment planting (Soerianegara & Lemmens, 1993). 
Regeneration is only successful under a closed canopy (Lamprecht, 1989). Data from A. dammara 
plantations indicate that the usual rotation for pulpwood production in plantations is 20 years. More 
time is needed for timber production. Annual wood production is 23-32m'/ha in 30years and 22-28m' 
in 50years. A total yield of 570m'/ha may be obtained after 40 years. 



259 



Contribution to an evaluation of tree species using the new CITES Listing Criteria 

References 

de Laubenfels, D.J. 1988. Coniferales. Flora Malesiana series I - spermatophyta, flowering plants 

10(3) 
Faijon, Aljos. et al. 1996. Discussions of the SSC Conifer Specialist Group involving the application of 

revised lUCN red list categories to conifer species. 
Kostermans, A. 1990. Comments from Kostermans on a draft list of tropical timbers for Indonesia. 
Lamprecht, H. 1989. Silviculture in the tropics: tropical forest ecosystems and their tree species; 

possibilities and methods for their long-term utilization. Dt. Ges. fiir Techn. Zusanmienarbeit 

(GTZ). GmbH, Eschbom. 
Soerianegara, I. & R.H.M.J. Lemmens (eds.). 1993. Plant Resources of South-East Asia 5(1). Timber 

trees: Major commercial timbers. Wageningen: Pudoc Scientific Publishers. 610 pp. 
Whitmore, T.C. Utilization, potential and conservation of Agathis, a genus of tropical Asian conifers. 



260 



Annex 2. Profiles of Tree Species: Asia 



Agathis endertii 

Araucariaceae 
bulok 



Distribution 

Indonesia (Kalimantan), Malaysia (Sabah, Sarawak) 

Habitat 

Isolated stands are confined to moist lowland forest or heath forest, often associated with sandstone 

kerangas up to 14(X)m. 

Population Status and Trends 

Although the species is widespread, it occurs in isolated populations. 

Role of species in the Ecosystem 

No information. 

Threats 

Over exploitation, clear- felling/logging of the habitat. 

Utilisation 

The wood is used as kauri. Agathis species are distinctive, highly-sought and exploited for their 
valuable timber. It is excellent for joinery, boat building, construction, panelling, pjmery, utensils. It 
also makes a good veneer, pulp and paper, charcoal and activated carbon. The resin or Manila copal is 
used in varnishes. 

Trade 

Although present in much smaller quantities in trade, the species is included in the export figures 
outlined for A. bomeensis. 

lUCN Conservation category 

LR/nt according to the SSC Conifer Specialist Group (Farjon et a/., 1996). 

Conservation Measures 

Forest Management and Silviculure 

References 

de Laubenfels, D.J. 1988. Coniferales. Flora Malesiana series I - spermatophyta, flowering plants 

10(3) 
Farjon, Aljos. et al. 1996. Discussions of the SSC Conifer Specialist Group involving the application of 

revised lUCN red list categories to conifer species. 
Farjon, Aljos, Christopher N. Page, & Nico Schellevis. 1993. A preliminary world list of threatened 

conifer taxa. Biodiversity and Conservation 2: 304-326. 
Soerianegara, I. & R.H.M.J. Lemmens (,eds.). 1993. Plant Resources of South-East Asia 5(1). Timber 

trees: Major commercial timbers. Wageningen: Pudoc Scientific Publishers. 610 pp. 



261 



Contribution to an evaluation of tree species using the new CITES Listing Criteria 



Agathis moorei 

Araucariaceae 



Distribution 

New Caledonia 

Habitat 

A species of tropical, lowland, moist, open forest occurring on shales, sandstones, schists up to 1000m. 

Population Status and Trends 

Scattered populations are found throughout the northern half of the island, mostly on non-ultramafic 
substrates. Substantial declines have occurred through overexploitation of the timber in recent years. 
Copal is also extracted at moderate levels. 

Role of species in the Ecosystem 

Threats 

Local overexploitation, clear-felling/logging of the habitat 

Utilisation 

Two grades of timber are produced according to their site of origin. The best quality is the heavy red 
kaori. White kaori is less durable and softer. Dammar or copal is used in the manufacture of paint, 
varnish, linoleum and turpentine. The species is also a good source of firewood. 

Trade 

The timber is sold as red or white kaori in mixed parcels with A. ovata and A. lanceolata, both endemic 
to New Caledonia. 

lUCN Conservation category 

VU Bl+2c according to the SSC Conifer Specialist Group (Farjon et ai, 1996). 

Conservation Measures 

Forest Management and Silviculture 

References 

Farjon, Aljos. et al. 1996. Discussions of the SSC Conifer Specialist Group involving the application of 

revised lUCN red list categories to conifer species. 
Jaffre, T., P. Bouchet, & J.-M. Veillon. 1996. Threatened Plants of New Caledonia: Is the system of 

protected areas adequate? Biodiversity & Conservation: 36. 
Keating, W.G. & E. Bolza. 1982. Characteristics, properties and uses of timbers. Volume 1. South-East 

Asia, northern Australia and the Pacific. Inkata Press. 
Laubenfels, D.J. de. 1972. Flore de la Nouvelle-Caledonie et Dependances. Paris: Museum National 

d'Histoire Naturelle. 167pp. 



262 



Annex 2. Profiles of Tree Species: Asia 



Agathis spathulata 

Araucariaceae 
New Guinea kauri 



Distribution 

Papua New Guinea 

Habitat 

A species of tropical, submontane, moist, mixed, closed forest, occurring as an emergent or in groves 
on exposed sites between 900 - 1980m. 

Population Status and Trends 

Scattered emergents survive in small exposed groves of rainforest in the eastern highlands. Over- 
exploitation of the timber is a threat. 

Role of species in the Ecosystem 

No information. 

Threats 

Clear-felling/logging of the habitat 

Utilisation 

The species is a major source of timber and locally used as a fuelwood. 

Trade 

lUCN Conservation category 

LR/nt according to SSC Conifer Specialist Group (Farjon et al., 1996). 

Conservation Measures 

Forest Management and Silviculture 

References 

de Laubenfeis, D.J. 1988. Coniferales. Flora Malesiana series I - spermatophyta, flowering plants 

10(3) 
Farjon, AIjos, Christopher N. Page, & Nico Scheilevis. 1993. A preliminary world list of threatened 

conifer taxa. Biodiversity and Conservation 2: 304-326. 
Farjon, Aljos. et al. 1996. Discussions of the SSC Conifer Specialist Group involving the application of 

revised lUCN red list categories to conifer species. 
Soerianegara, I. & R.H.M.J. Lemmens (eds.). 1993. Plant Resources of South-East Asia 5(1). Timber 

trees: Major commercial timbers. Wageningen: Pudoc Scientific Publishers. 610 pp. 



263 



Contribution to an evaluation of tree species using the new CITES Listing Criteria 

Agathis vitiensis 

Araucariaceae 

dakua makadre, Fijian kauri 



Distribution 

Fiji 

Habitat 

The species occurs at higher elevations in the montane zone, usually mixed formation with other 
softwoods. 

Population Status and Trends 

A massive tree and important timber species, found in low densities. It could become of conservation 
concern if logging was to become more intensive (Faijon etal, 1996). 

Role of species in the Ecosystem 

Threats 

Overexploitation, clear-felling/logging of the habitat. 

Utilisation 

The species is a major source of timber used in light construction, flooring, ship and boat-building, 
furniture, veneer and plywood, pulpwood, musical instruments, joinery, turnery and carving, and a 
local source of fuelwood. 

Trade 

The species is recorded in 1995 in exports of veneer, amounting to 1000m' valued at an average price 
of US$1039/m', and in exports of sawnwood amounting to 5000m' valued at an average price of 
USS445/m' (ITTO, 1997). 

lUCN Conservation category 

LRnt according to the SSC Conifer Specialist Group (Farjon et al, 1996). 

Conservation Measures 

Forest Management and Silviculture 

References 

Farjon, Aljos. Christopher N. Page, & Nico Schellevis. 1993. A preliminary world list of threatened 

conifer taxa. Biodiversity and Conservation 2: 304-326. 
Farjon, Aljos. et al. 1996. Discussions of the SSC Conifer Specialist Group involving the application of 

revised lUCN red list categories to conifer species. 
ITTO. 1997. Annual review and assessment of the world tropical timber situation. 1996. International 

Tropical Timber Organization (ITTO). 
Keating, W.G. & E. Bolza. 1982. Characteristics, properties and uses of timbers. Volume 1. South-East 

Asia, northern Australia and the Pacific. Inkata Press. 
Smith, A.C. 1979. Flora Vitiensis Nova; a new Flora of Fiji. Hawaii, Pacific Tropical Botanic Garden. 



264 



Annex 2. Profiles of Tree Species: Asia 



Aglaia penningtoniana 

Meliaceae 



Distribution 

Papua New Guinea 

Habitat 

Occurring between 30 and 1550m the species is found in tropical, lowland to montane rainforest. 

Population Status and Trends 

A variable species endemic to Papua New Guinea. The levels of selective logging and conversion of 
forest for agriculture may pose potentially serious threats. 

Role of species in the Ecosystem 

Threats 

Overexploitation, extensive agriculture. 

Utilisation 

Little information is available on the species use but it is thought to be of value as a timber. 

Trade 

lUCN Conservation category 

VU Ale according to Pannell (1997). 

Conservation Measures 

Forest Management and Silviculture 

References 

Lemmens, R.H.M.J., I. Soerianegara, & W.C. Wong (eds.). 1995. Plant Resources of South-East Asia 
No 5(2). Timber trees; Minor commercial timbers. Leiden: Backhuys Publishers. 655 pp. 

Pannell. C. 1997. Comments regarding the threat status oi Aglaia trees. 

Pannell, CM. 1992. A taxonomic monograph of the gtnus Aglaia Lour. (Meliaceae). London: HMSO. 
1-379. 



265 



Contribution to an evaluation of tree species using the new CITES Listing Criteria 

Aglaia perviridis 

Meliaceae 

tengkorak lang, tenkohalang, goi xanh 



Distribution 

Bangladesh, Bhutan, China, India (Andaman and Nicobar Is - Andaman Is), Malaysia (Peninsular 
Malaysia), Thailand, Viel Nam 

Habitat 

Occurring between 100 and 1330m, the species is found in tropical or subtropical primary evergreen 
forest, monsoon and secondary forest on limestone or deep ferralitic wet and well-drained soils. 

Population Status and Trends 

Although a common species much of the habitat is threatened with destruction. In Viet Nam 
populations are sporadic in Que Phong and Qui Chau Districts. 

Role of species in the Ecosystem 

Threats 

Utilisation 

The fruit is eaten locally. The timber is used in construction, ship and boat-building, for household 
utensils and agricultural tools. It is often planted as an ornamental tree. 

Trade 

lUCN Conservation category 

VU Ale according to Pannell (1997). 

Conservation Measures 

Forest Management and Silviculture 

Regeneration is said to be poor in Viet Nam and saplings are rarely found under the canopy of mother 
trees (Chinh era/., 1996). 

References 

Chinh, N.N. et at. 1996. Vietnam Forest Trees. Forest Inventory and Planning Institute. Agricultural 

Publishing House. Hanoi. 
Lemmens, R.H.M.J., I. Soenanegara, & W.C. Wong (eds.). 1995. Plant Resources of South-East Asia 

No 5(2). Timber trees: Minor commercial timbers. Leiden: Backhuys Publishers. 655 pp. 
Pannell, C. 1997. Comments regarding the threat status oi Aglaia trees. 
Pannell, CM. 1992. A taxonomic monograph of the genus Aglaia Lour. (Meliaceae). London: HMSO. 

1-379. 



266 



Annex 2. Profiles of Tree Species: Asia 



Aglaia silvestris 

Meliaceae 

ganggo, pacar kidang, kayu wole, bekak, segera, lantupak, salamingai, panuhan, 

chanchamot. 



Distribution; Cambodia, India (Andaman and Nicobar Is - Andaman Is, Andaman and Nicobar Is - 
Nicobar Is), Indonesia (Irian Jaya, Java, Kalimantan, Moluccas, Sulawesi, Sumatra), Malaysia 
(Peninsular Malaysia, Sabah, Sarawak), Papua New Guinea (Bismarck Archipelago, North Solomons, 
Papua New Guinea), Philippines, Solomon Islands (South Solomon), Thailand, Viet Nam 

Habitat 

A species of pnmary forest, swamps, savannah, kerengas, monsoon forest, moss forest, also occurring 
along roads and rivers up to 2100m. 

Population Status and Trends 

A widespread, variable species found in diverse habitat types up to 2100m throughout Malesia and 
Indochina. Habitat destruction is a continuous and potentially very serious threat. 

Role of species in the Ecosystem 

Threats 

Utilisation 

The wood is light and used in house-building and for making agricultural tools. The fhiit are edible. 

Trade 

lUCN Conservation category 

LR/nt according to Pannell (1997). 

Conservation Measures 

Forest Management and Silviculture 

Propagation and planting experiments are taking place on a small scale. 

References 

Chinh, N.N. et al. 1996. Vietnam Forest Trees. Forest Inventory and Planning Institute. Agricultural 

Publishing House, Hanoi. 
Kessler, Paul J.A., Kade Sidiyasa, Ambriansyah Zainal, & Arifm Zainal. 1995. Checklist of secondary 

forest trees in East and South Kalimantan, Indonesia. 84pp. 
Lemmens, R.H.M.J., I. Soenanegara, & W.C. Wong (eds.). 1995. Plant Resources of South-East Asia 

No 5(2). Timber trees: Minor commercial timbers. Leiden: Backhuys Publishers. 655 pp. 
Pannell, C. 1997. Comments regarding the threat status oi Aglaia trees. 
Pannell, CM. 1992. A taxonomic monograph of the gtmxs Aglaia Lour. (Meliaceae). London: HMSO. 

1-379. 



267 



Contribution to an evaluation of tree species using the new CITES Listing Criteria 

Ailanthus integrifolia 

Simaroubaceae 

ai lanit, kayu ruris, pohon langit, malasapsap, balokas, makaisa, white sins 



Distribution 

India (Assam), Papua New Guinea (Bismark Archipelago), Solomon Islands, Viet Nam, and all islands in 
Malesia except Java and the Lesser Sunda Islands. 

Habitat 

Mixed seasonal primary rainforest up to 900 m. Trees are scattered, never gregarious, in valleys aloiig 
streams and in open locations. It is most often found on well-drained deep soils like fertile sandy loams. 

Population status and trends 

Although the species has a large distribution it is rare in most regions. It is locally common in New 
Guinea (Lemmens, Soerianegara and Wong, 1995). 

Roie of species in the ecosystem 

Threats 

Utilisation 

The wood is used for house building, fiimiture manufacture, paper pulp, fuel and charcoal amongst other 
things. The leaves, bark, roots and resin have medicinal properties. The leaves also provide a black dye 
and the resin is burnt for its fragrance. 

Trade 

The timber is sometimes traded together with similar timber as 'mixed light-coloured hardwood'. Japan 
imports small amounts of white siris mainly from Papua New Guinea but it is not thought to be present in 
European trade (WCMC, 1991). In Papua New Guinea logs fetch a minimum price of US$43/m'. 

lUCN Conservation category 

LR/lc according to the Asia Regional Workshop (WCMC, 1997). 

Conservation measures 

A close relative of the tree of heaven {A. altissima), this species is also widely planted. 

Forest management and silviculture 

The species is propagated by seed. Plantations have been developed in certain areas, for example in Java 
and India, but the timber is sourced from the wild in Papua New Guinea. It is believed that the 
establishment of plantations may benefit from a taungya system in which a low annual crop such as chilli 
or eggplant is planted in the first year. The species is fast-growing. Planted trees in Java showed an annual 
increment of 15m%a in the first ten years. In India increments of 20m^/ha have been attained. On suitable 
sites the timber may be harvested at 35-40 years. Natural regeneration of planted trees has been observed 
to occur after four years but seed production is variable. In the wild regeneration is poor in the shade but 
more successful in open weed-free situations. In summary the species has great plantation development, 
especially if seed production can be better controlled (Lemmens, Soerianegara and Wong, 1995). 

References 

Asia Regional Workshop. 1997. Discussions held during the Third Regional Workshop for the 

WCMC/SSC Conservation and sustainable management of trees project, Hanoi, Viet Nam, 18-21 

August 1997. 
Lemmens, R.H.M.J., Soerianegara, I. & Wong, W.C. (Eds.) 1995. Plant Resources of South-East Asia 

(PROSEA) 5(2) Timber Trees: Minor commercial timbers. Backhuys Publishers, Leiden 655pp. 
WCMC. 1991. Provision of data on rare and threatened tropical timber species. Unpublished report, 

prepared under contract to the EC. 
WCMC. 1997. Report on the Third Regional Workshop held at Hanoi, Viet Nam, 18-21 August 

1997WCMC/SSC Conservation and sustainable management of trees project. 



268 



Annex 2. Profiles of Tree Species: Asia 



Alloxylon brachycarpum 

Proteaceae 

pink oak, satin oak, silky oak 



Distribution 

Indonesia (Irian Jaya, Moluccas), Papua New Guinea. In Irian Jaya the species is confined to the Digul 
district and the Am Islands. 

Habitat 

A medium to large sized tree scattered in tropical primary lowland open forest. It occurs in seasonal 
dry climates in monsoon/gallery forest, associated with: Acacia aulacocarpa. Acacia crassicarpa, 
Flindersia spp., Grevillea spp. (Eddowes, 1997). 

Population status and trends 

The population in Papua New Guinea is restricted in range and confined to a fragile ecosystem in the 
Onomo River area in Western Province, where logging and habitat destruction are serious threats 
(Eddowes, 1997). 

Role of species in the ecosystem 

Seeds are dispersed by birds and probably by small marsupials. 

Threats 

Habitat destruction. 

Utilisation 

The wood is used as a decorative veneer and for cabinet work, furniture and turnery (Eddowes, 1997). 

Trade 

The timber is found in minor international trade (Eddowes, 1997). In 1996 Papua New Guinea exported 
121 cu m of 'pink silky oak' logs (Sosef, Hong and Prawirohatmodjo, 1998). 

lUCN Conservation category 

EN A2cd according to Eddowes (1997). This evaluation refers to the situation in Papua New Guinea 
only, however the species is undoubtedly endangered in Indonesia as well (Eddowes, 1997b). 

Conservation measures 

There are no known conservation measures and it is not thought to be in cultivation (Eddowes, 1997). 

References 

Eddowes, P.J. 1997 Completed data collection forms for New Guinea. 

Eddowes, P.J. 1997b. Letter to Sara Oldfield containing annotations to the Draft Red List Summay 
Report for Papua New Guinea trees. 



269 



Contribution to an evaluation of tree species using the new CITES Listing Criteria 

Alstonia pneumatophora 

Apocynaceae 

basung, pulai basong, pulai puteh 



Distribution 

Peninsular Malaysia, Sumatra, Sulawesi, Borneo. 

Habitat 

The species occurs in mixed peat-swamp forest on shallow peat, often where it overlies sand near the 
coastal fringe. It becomes abundant near the mouth of large rivers. 

Population status and trends 

Most Alstonia species are common and widespread. The do not seem vulnerable to genetic erosion 
because they often easily invade severely disturbed places. However stands heavily depleted in places as a 
result of deforestation caused by logging and shifting cultivation (Soerianegara & Lemmens, 1993). 

Role of species in the ecosystem 

Threats 

Logging and shifting cultivation. 

Utilisation 

Pulai is a lightweight hardwood used to make boxes and crates, veneers and plywood, interior trim, 
furniture components and carvings. The wood of the aerial roots is used as a substitute for cork. The latex 
is used medicinally and when mixed with oil make glue sticks (Soerianegara & Lemmens, 1993). 

Trade 

The species is present in trade with other members of the genus. Pulai.as applied to the genus as a whole, 
is one of the six most important export timbers of Indonesia. Export of sawnwood increased from 
50,000m3 in 1987 to TCOOOm^ in 1989, raising a price of US$18.5 million. Sarawak and Sabah also 
export smaller amounts; Sabah exported 20,000m' of round logs and 9500m' of sawnwood in 1992 
(Soerianegara & Lemmens, 1993). Peninsular Malaysia reported in 1995 the presence of 2000m' of 
sawnwood in exports valued at an average price of US$31 2/m' (11 lO, 1997). It is not thought to be 
present in European trade (WCMC, 1991). 

lUCN Conservation category 

LR Ic according to Kade Sidiyasa and the Asia Regional Workshop (1997). 

Conservation measures 

Forest management and silviculture 

Alstonia spp. in general are fast-growing but often show scarce natural regeneration. Seedlings are found 
scattered or in groups particularly at forest edges and in secondary forest In most countries pulai is 
harvested selectively from natural forest and there is little experience of silviculture (Soerianegara & 
Lemmens, 1993). 

References 

Asia Regional Workshop. 1997. Discussions held during the Third Regional Workshop for the 

WCMC/SSC Conservation and sustainable management of trees project, Hanoi, Viet Nam, 18-21 

August 1997. 
iriO. 1997. Annual review and assessment of the world tropical timber situation. 1996. International 

Tropical Timber Organization (ITTO). 
Sidiyasa????? 
Soerianegara, I. & Lemmens, R.H.M.J. (Eds.) 1993. Plant Resources of South-East Asia (PROSEA) 5(1) 

Timber trees: major commercial timbers. Pudoc Scientific Publishers, Wageningen. 
WCMC. 1991. Provision of data on rare and threatened tropical timber species. Unpublished report, 

prepared under contract to the EC. 



270 



Annex 2. Profiles of Tree Species: Asia 



Aquilaria malaccensis 

Thymelaeaceae 

agarwood, agar, aloewood, eaglewood, gaharu 



Distribution 

India (Aninachal Pradesh, Assam, Meghalaya, Manipur, Tripura, West Bengal, Mizoram, Nagaland, 
Sikkim), Bhutan, Myanmar, Bangladesh, Malaysia, Indonesia (Kalimantan, Sumatra), Philippines. 
Populations in Indochina appear to belong to a different species (Asia Regional Workshop, 1997). 

Habitat 

This large evergreen tree is found in primary or secondary forest up to lOOOm. In Malaysia, the species 
can be found up to 750m on plains, hillsides and ridges in primary and secondary forest (Whitmore, 
1973). 

Population Status and Trends 

Populations are widespread but patchy in distribution in Indonesia and Malaysia. According to the 
Indonesian National Forest Inventory Aquilaria spp population densities are 1.87 individuals per hectare 
in Sumatra, 3.37 individuals per hectare in Kalimantan and 4.33 individuals per hectare in Irian Jaya. In 
Malaysia estimates lie at 2.5 individuals per hectare (Soehartono in WCMC, 1997). As the most important 
source of agarwood populations are heavily exploited throughout the species range. Only 10% of the trees 
in any population are likely to be infected with the fungus that causes the wood to decay, producing 
agarwood. Traditionally local people have harvested only infected trees but demand in the last ten years 
has led to excessive harvesting of both diseased and healthy trees (Soehartono in WCMC, 1997). There is 
even a belief that the diseased wood develops in felled trees. Major centres of production are located at 
Riau and Aceh in Sumatra, also Kalimantan and Irian Jaya. The increasing rarity of the species has led to 
traders searching for populations in more remote areas by helicopter and in some cases outside the species 
range (Anon, 1997). Production from plantations is still very minor. The Indian populations are critically 
endangered (Asia Regional Workshop, 1997). In addition, according to the pre-1994 lUCN Red List 
Category system the following populations were considered threatened at the national level Bangladesh 
(Endangered), Bhutan (Rare), Myanmar (Vulnerable), Malaysia (Indeterminate), Singapore (Rare), 
Sumatra (Endangered). 

Role of species in the ecosystem 

Threats 

Overexploitation. 

Utilisation 

The fungal infested wood is used as a medicine, incense, insect repellent and ingredient in perfumes. The 
timber is used for making furniture. 

Trade 

Agarwood often contains a mix oi Aquilaria spp. In the form of powder or wood chips different species 
are indistinguishable (Soehartano in WCMC, 1997). Trade in agarwooc/ between India and Arabian 
countries has continued for centuries. Indonesia is now a major exporter, supplying up to 300 tons pa. to 
Hong Kong. Japan, Taiwan, Singapore, Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirate, Oman and Yemen. The 
lowest grade agarwood fetched prices of US$100/kg in 1993 and the highest grade US$10,000/kg in 
UAE, Saudi Arabia and Bahrain (Kumar & Menon in press in Anon, 1997). Between 1990 and 1991, 
India exporced a total of 432,370 kg, valued at Rs. 6,223,447 (Anon, 1994). 

Since 1995 the species has been included in Appendix 11 of CITES and member states, such as Indonesia, 
have been reorganising procedures of harvesting and trade to fit CITES regulations. Enforcement has 
been difficult and illegal felling and trade have been reported in Indonesia and India. 

lUCN Conservation category 

VU A led according to the Asia Regional Workshop (1997). 

Conservation Measures 

The species is included in Appendix D of CITES. In India, the extraction of this species is either banned 
or regulated depending on the state under the Indian Forest Act and Administrantion Order of State Forest 



271 



Contribution to an evaluation of tree species using the new CITES Listing Criteria 



Department (Anon, 1994). Export is prohibited from India under item 7 of para 158 of prohibited items, 
however exports are still officially recorded (Anon, 1994). 

Forest management and silviculture 

The best agarwood yields are from trees of 50 years age or more but resin is produced as early as 20 
years. Plantations of 10 to 15 ha have been estabhshed in East Sumatra, West Kalimantan and West Java. 
The plantations set up in the early 1990s in India have come under heavy pressure and are largely 
destroyed (Anon, 1997). Experiments are underway to establish a method of injecting the fungus into 
healthy trees. 

References 

Anonymous. 1994. Proposal to include Aquilaria malaccensis in Apf)endix II of CITES. 
Asia Regional Workshop. 1997. Discussions held during the Third Regional Workshop for the 

WCMC/SSC Conservation and sustainable management of trees project, Hanoi, Viet Nam, 1 8-21 

August 1997. 
van Valkenburg, J.L.C.H., 1997. Non-timber forest products of East Kalimantan. Potentials for 

sustainable forest use. Tropenbos Series 16. 
Whitmore, T.C. (Ed). 1973. Tree flora of Malaya: a manual for foresters. Volume 2. Longman: Kuala 

Lumpur, Malaysia. 
WCMC. 1997. Report on the Third Regional Workshop held at Hanoi, Viet Nam, 18-21 August 

1997WCMC/SSC Conservation and sustainable management of trees project. 



272 



Annex 2. Profiles of Tree Species: Asia 



Araucaria cunninghamii 

Araucariaceae 

alloa, colonial pine, hoop pine, ningwik, pien, Richmond River pine 



Distribution 

Australia (New South Wales, Queensland), Indonesia (Irian Jaya), Papua New Guinea 

Habitat 

An emergent tree which occurs mainly in Fagaceae forest above l(X)Om up to 2745m. Relatively dense 
stands are found in forest on loam, clay, sand or peat soils on ridges, sometimes on swampy terrain. In 
Australia, it is scattered in rainforest. In New Guinea associated species include Araucaria hunsteinii. 
Castanopsis, Lithocarpus. Flindersia. Elaeocarpus. Podocarpus and Toona and in Australia Flindersia 
zanthoxyla. F. austrclis. F. pubescens. Dysoxylum spp., Ceratopetalum apetalum and the members of 
Lauraceae and Celastraceae are associated. 

Population Status and Trends 

In New Guinea, stands have been heavily exploited, especially for the plywood industry. Areas such as 
Bulolo in Papua New Guinea are exhausted. Numerous small patches, however, still remain in a range 
of habitats and large scale logging is no longer viable. Large amounts of timber are being produced 
from plantation sources in Australia (Soerianegara & Lemmens, 1993). 

Role of species in the Ecosystem 

A dominant species. Regeneration in the wild takes place in disturbed habitats. 

Threats 

Commercial overexploitation. 

Utilisation 

The timber is useful as a light structural timber, for ship and building, furniture, veneer, plywood, 
pulpwood, joinery and turnery. The seeds are edible and trees are planted as ornamentals. 

Trade 

Araucaria timber is commercially important but mainly locally traded. Araucaria plywood was a major 
export item from Papua New Guinea until 1980 when the supplies of logs from natural sources became 
low. The species is reported in plywood exports m 1995 from Papua New Guinea (ITTO, 1997). 

lUCN Conservation category 

Not evaluated. 

Conservation Measures 

Export of Araucaria logs has been banned from Papua New Guinea. 

Forest Management and Silviculture 

Extensive plantations have been set up in Australia and South Africa, In Australia 44,500 ha have been 
planted and provided an annual timber production of 21 1,000 m^ m 1988-1989 and 248,000 m^ in 
1989-1990. Plantations mixed with A. hunsteinii cover SOOOha in Papua New Guinea, where trees have 
reached heights of 30m after 38 years growth. Trees in Queensland are reported to reach 33m in 34 
years and in"" Peninsular Malaysia the same height is reached in 30 years. Plantation material produces a 
premium quality pulp. Trees usually start to bear cones at 15 to 25 years age. Propagation can be 
achieved from seed, which can be stored for up to six years. 

References . 

Boland, D.J., M.I.H. Brooker, G.M. Chippendale, N. Hall, B.P.M. Hyland, R.D. Johnston, D.A. Kleing, 
& J.D. Turner. 1962. Forest trees of Australia. Melboum: Thomas Nelson & CSIRO. 

Enright, N.J. 1982. The Ecology of Araucaria species in Papua New Guinea. Journal of Ecology 1 

FAO Forestry Department. 1986. Databook on endangered tree and shrub species and their 
provenances. Rome: FAO. 524pp. 

ITTO. 1997. Annual review and assessment of the worid tropical timber situation. 1996. International 
Tropical Timber Organization. 



273 



Contribution to an evaluation of tree species using the new CITES Listing Criteria 



Keating, W.G. & E. Bolza. 1982. Characteristics, properties and uses of timbers. Volume 1. South-East 

Asia, northern Australia and the Pacific. Inkata Press. 
Soerianegara, I. & R.H.M.J. Lermnens (eds.). 1993. Plant Resources of South-East Asia 5(1). Timber 

trees: Major commercial timbers. Wageningen; Pudoc Scientific Publishers. 610 pp. 



274 



Annex 2. Profiles of Tree Species: Asia 



Araucaria hunsteinii 

Araucariaceae 
klinki pine 



Distribution 

Papua New Guinea 

Habitat 

The species is found in Fagaceae forest on well-drained sites, mainly occuring between 700 and 1000m 
but extending up to 2100m. Associated species include Acmena acuminatissima. Elmerillia 
tsiampacca, Ficus spp., Flindersia amboinensis, F. pimenteliana, Pometia pinnata and Xanthophyllum 
papuanum. 

Population Status and Trends 

Stands have become scattered because of heavy exploitation in the past. The habitat is also frequently 
cleared or degraded by shifting agriculture, fire and damage caused by feral pigs. Large scale 
exploitation of Araucaria in Papua New Guinea is no longer viable because of low supplies. 

Role of species in the Ecosystem 

It is said to be the tallest tree in Malesia. 

Threats 

Grazing/damage by feral/exotic animals, burning, extensive agriculture 

Utilisation 

The timber is useful as a light structural timber, for ship and building, furniture, veneer, plywood, 
pulpwood, joinery and turnery. It is specifically recommended for aircraft frame manufacture. Trees 
are planted as ornamentals. 

Trade 

Araucaria timber is commercially important but mainly locally traded. Araucaria plywood was a major 
expon item from Papua New Guinea until 1980 when the supplies of logs from namral sources became 
low. The species is reported in plywood exports in 1995 from Papua New Guinea (ITTO. 1997). 

lUCN Conservation category 

LR/nt according to SSC Conifer Specialist Group (Farjon et al. 1997). 

Conservation Measures 

Araucaria logs are banned from export in Papua New Guinea. 

Forest Management and Silviculture 

Small plantations covering SOOOha of A. cunninghamii and A. hunseinii exist in Papua New Guinea and 
the species has been introduced to Australia, Fiji and Peninsular Malaysia on an experimental scale. 

References 

Eddowes, P.J. 1997. Letter to Sara Oldfield containing annotations to the Draft Red List Summary 

Report for Papua New Guinea trees. 
Enright, N.J. 1982. The Ecology oi Araucaria species in Papua New Guinea. Journal of Ecology 1 
FAO Foresiry Department. 1986. Databook on endangered tree and shrub species and their 

provenances. Rome: FAO. 524pp. 
Farjon, Aljos. et al. 1996. Discussions of the SSC Conifer Specialist Group involving the application of 

revised lUCN red list categories to conifer species. 
Hill, K. 1994. Extract from Flora of Australia Vol 48 - Gymnosperms. (unpublished), keys. 
ITTO. 1997. Annual review and assessment of the world tropical timber situation 1996. International 

Tropical Timber Organization. 
Keating, W.G. & E. Bolza. 1982. Characteristics, propenies and uses of timbers. Volume 1. South-East 

Asia, northern Australia and the Pacific. Inkata Press. 
Soerianegara, I. & R.H.M.J. Lemmens (eds.). 1993. Plant Resources of South-East Asia 5(1). Timber 

trees. Major commercial timbers. Wageningen: Pudoc Scientific Publishers. 610 pp. 



275 



Contribution to an evaluation of tree species using the new CITES Listing Criteria 



Calophyllum canum 

Guttiferae 
bintangor merah 

Distribution 

Brunei, Indonesia (Kalimantan, Sumatra), Malaysia (Peninsular Malaysia, Sabah, Sarawak) 

Habitat 

The species occurs in well-drained mixed dipterocarp forest and peat swamps up to 1200m. 
Considerable morphological variation is evident, correlating with a wide ecological range. 

Population Status and Trends 

It is expected that Calophyllum species will be more heavily harvested when other timber supplies have 
become exhausted. 

Role of species in the Ecosystem 

Threats 

Utilisation 

A source of bintangor, a general purpose timber suitable for light construction, flooring and panelling, 
boat-building, joinery, furniture, veneer and plywood. The latex is used to stupefy fish. 

Trade 

Bintangor is the generic term refering to timber derived from all members of the genus. In Sarawak, 
this species represents one of the most important sources of bintangor. Bintangor is exported in large 
quantities to Japan, especially from Borneo. Round logs exported from Sabah in 1987 amounted to 
42,000m3 with a value of US$2.8 million. In 1992 IV.SOOm^ of logs and 41,500m3 of sawn wood was 
exported at a value of US$10.3 million. Peninsular Malaysia reported the presence of 16,000m^ of 
Calophyllum sawnwood in exports in 1995, valued at an average price of US$167/m^ (ITTO, 1997). 

lUCN Conservation category 

NE 

Conservation Measures 

Forest Management and Silviculture 

Preliminary data from Peninsular Malaysia indicate that members of the genus may be slow-growing, 
taking 70 years to attain a diameter of 50cm. 

References 

ITTO. 1997. Annual review and assessment of the world tropical timber situation. 1996. International 

Tropical Timber Organization (ITTO). 
Soerianegara, I. & R.H.M.J. Lemmens (eds.). 1993. Plant Resources of South-East Asia 5(1). Timber 

trees: Major commercial timbers. Wageningen: Pudoc Scientific Pubhshers. 610 pp. 



276 



Annex 2. Profiles of Tree Species: Asia 



Calophyllum carrii var. longigemmatum 

Guttiferae 



Distribution 

Indonesia (Irian Jaya) and Papua New Guinea 

Habitat 

A medium to large tree scattered in primary, lowland, moist, non-seasonal, broadleaved, closed forest 
between 15 - 3(X)m. 

Population status and trends 

This variety is only known from an area near Jayapura, Irian Jaya, and West Sepik Province in Papua 
New Guinea. It occurs in areas that are subject to intensive logging activities (Eddowes, 1997). 

Role of species in the ecosystem 

Bats, feral pigs, birds and water act as dispersal agents (Eddowes, 1997). Pollinated by insects and wild 
bees (Eddowes, 1997). 

Threats 

Logging is the major threat. 

Utilisation 

The wood is used for plywood, furniture and as a veneer (Eddowes, 1997). 

Trade 

The timber is found in major international trade (Eddowes, 1997). In 1995 Papua New Guinea recorded 
the expon of 231,000m3 of Calophyllum logs, valued at an average price of US$156/m^ (ITTO, 1997). 

lUCN Conservation category 

VU Bl+2abcde according to Eddowes (1997). 

Conservation measures 

No specific conservaiton measures ar eknown. 

Forest management and silviculture 

Preliminary data from Peninsular Malaysia indicate that members of the genus may be slow-growing, 
taking 70 years to attain a diameter of 50cm. 

References 

Conn, B.J. (ed.). 1995. Handbooks of the Flora of Papua New Guinea. Malaysia: Melbome University 

Press. 1-292. 
Eddowes, P.J. 1997. Completed data collection forms for New Guinea, 
mo. 1997. Annual review and assessment of the world tropical timber situation. 1996. International 

Tropica] Timber Organization (ITTO). 
Stevens, P.P. 1997. Annotations to a listing of draft species summaries for New Guinea for the 

Conservation and sustainable management of trees project. 



277 



Contribution to an evaluation of tree species using the new CITES Listing Criteria 



Calophyllum euryphyllum 

Guttiferae 

Distribution 

Indonesia (Irian Jaya, Moluccas), Papua New Guinea (Bismarck Archipelago, Papua New Guinea) 

Habitat 

This tree is scattered in primary rainforest up to 610m, sometimes on coral. 

Population Status and Trends 

Populations are restricted to Central and Milne Bay Districts, Papua New Guinea, the islands of 
Geelvink Bay and the Vogelkop Peninsula, Irian Jaya, also on the Am Islands and the Bismarck 
Archipelago (except New Ireland). It is expected that Calophyllum species will be more heavily 
harvested when other timber supplies have become exhausted. 

Role of species in the Ecosystem 

Threats 

Utilisation 

A source of bintangor, a general purpose timber suitable for light construction, flooring and panelling, 
boat-building, joinery, furniture, veneer and plywood. 

Trade 

The species is probably traded as calophyllum in Papua New Guinea. In 1995 Papua New Guinea 
recorded the export of 23 1 ,000m^ of calophyllum logs, valued at an average price of US$ 1 56/m' 
(irrO, 1997). 

rUCN Conservation category 

LRlc according to Stevens (1997). 

Conservation Measures 

Forest Management and Silviculture 

Preliminary data from Peninsular Malaysia indicate that members of the genus may be slow-growing, 
taking 70 years to attain a diameter of 50cm. 

References 

Conn, B.J. (ed.). 1995. Handbooks of the Flora of Papua New Guinea. Malaysia: Melbome University 

Press. 1-292. 
mo. 1997. Annual review and assessment of the world tropical timber situation. 1996. International 

Tropical Timber Organization (11 lO). 
Soerianegara, I. & R.H.M.J. Lemmens (eds.). 1993. Plant Resources of South-East Asia 5(1). Timber 

trees: Major commercial timbers. Wageningen: Pudoc Scientific Publishers. 610 pp. 
Stevens, P.F. 1997. Annotations to a listing of draft species summaries for New Guinea for the 

Conservation and sustainable management of trees project. 



278 



Annex 2. Profiles of Tree Species: Asia 



Calophyllum inophyllum 

Guttiferae 

Alexandrian laurel, beach calophyllum, bintangor laut, bitaog, Borneo mahogany, 
dingkaran, krathing, naowakan, njamplung, palo maria, penaga laut, ponnyet, 
saraphee naen 

Distribution 

Australia, British Indian Ocean Territory (Chagos Archipelago), Brunei, Fiji, India, Japan, Kenya, 
Madagascar, Malaysia, Mozambique, Myanmar, New Caledonia, Papua New Guinea (Bismarck 
Archipelago, Papua New Guinea), Philippines, Singapore, Sri Lanka, Taiwan, Tanzania. Thailand, 
Tuvalu, Viet Nam 

Habitat 

A widespread tree of sandy beaches near the coast and occasionally inland on sandy soils up to 200m. 

Population Status and Trends 

At local levels populations are heavily harvested. 

Ecology 

Fruits are dispersed by the sea and by fruit bats. 

Role of species in the Ecosystem 
Threats 

Utilisation 

Compared to other Calophyllum the timber is more durable and stronger, with a finer gram. It is used 
for consuuction work, furniture, cartwheel hubs, musical instruments, canoes and boats. The oil from 
the seed is used for illumination, soap making and medicinal purposes. The latex and pounded bark 
also have medicinal uses. Fruit are edible. Trees are planted for shade and ornament. 

Trade 

The timber is often u-aded separately as beach calophyllum. Fiji is recorded as exponing Calophyllum 
spp. as plywood, veneer and sawnwood in 1995 (ITTO, 1997). In the same year Papua New Guinea 
recorded the export of 23 1 .OOOm^ of calophyllum logs, valued at an average price of USS \5(>lrv? and 
Peninsular Malaysia reported the presence of 16,00Gm3 of Calophyllum sawnwood m exports, valued at 
an average pnce of US$167/m3 (ittO, 1997). 

lUCN Conservation category 

LRlc according to Stevens (1997). 

Conservation Measures 

Trees are widely planted both within and outside the natural range, e.g. in West Africa and tropical 

America, as a source of oil. 

Forest Management and Silviculture 

Preliminary data from Peninsular Malaysia indicate that members of the genus may be slow-growing, 
taking 70 years to attain a diameter of 50cm. 

References 

Blaser, Jurgen. era/. 1993. Akon'ny ala. Numeros 12 et 13. Department Des Eaux et Forets. 166pp. 
Erfurth, T. & H. Rusche. 1976. The marketing of tropical wood, (unpublished). FO: MISC/76/8. 
ITTO. 1997. Annual review and assessment of the world tropical timber situation. 1996. International 

Tropical Timber Organization (ITrO). 
Kessler, Paul J.A., Kade Sidiyasa, Ambriansyah Zainal, & Arifin Zainal. 1995. Checklist of secondary 

forest trees in East and South Kalimantan, Indonesia. 84pp. 
Knox, Eric B. 1995. The List of East African Plants (LEAP): An electronic database (Draft). 72pp. 
Loc, Phan Ke. 1992. Annotations to: Conservation status listing for Philippines dated 6 April 1992. 

49pp. 



279 



Contribution to an evaluation of tree species using the new CITES Listing Criteria 



Ng, P.K.L. & Y.C. Wee (eds.). 1994. The Singapore Red Data Book. Singapore: The Nature Society. 

'343pp. 
Penafiel, S. 1990. Annotation to list of tropical timbers for the Phihppines. 
Phengklai, Chamlong & Sanan Khamsai. 1985. Some non-timber species of Thailand. Thai Forest 

Bulletin (Botany) 1(15): 108-148. 
Soerianegara, I. & R.H.M.J. Lemmens (eds.). 1993. Plant Resources of South-East Asia 5(1). Timber 

trees: Major commercial timbers. Wageningen: Pudoc Scientific Publishers. 610 pp. 
Stevens, P.F. 1997. Annotations to a hsting of draft species summaries for New Guinea for the 

Conservation and sustainable management of trees project. 
Taiwan Endemic Species Research Institute. 1995. Conservation Status Listing of Plants in Taiwan 

(Draft), (unpublished). 79pp. 
Topp, J.M.W. 1988. An annotated check list of the flora of Diego Garcia, British Ocean Territory. Atoll 
Research Bulletin 313 
Whitmore, T.C. 1966. Guide to the forests of the British Solomon Islands. Oxford: Oxford University 

Press. 



280 



Annex 2. Profiles of Tree Species: Asia 



Calophyllum insularum 

Guttiferae 
bintangor 



Distribution 

Indonesia (Irian Jaya) 

Habitat 

A tree scattered in primary colline rainforest up to 200m. 

Population status and trends 

The entire population is restricted to islands in Geelvink Bay. The possible exploitation of the timber 
would place the species in a seriously threatened position. The more imminent threat, however, is 
habitat clearance for agriculture and settlement (Eddowes. 1997). 

Role of species in the ecosystem 

The flowers are pollinated by birds and the seeds are dispersed by birds (Eddowes, 1997). 

Threats 

Expansion of human settlements, extensive agriculture 

Utilisation 

The wood is used for plywood, furniture and as a veneer (Eddowes, 1997). 

Trade 

The timber is possibly traded internationally (Eddowes, 1997). 

lUCN Conservation categories 

EN Bl+2c according to Eddowes (1997). 

Conservation measures 

None exist. 

Forest management and silviculture 

Preliminary data from Peninsular Malaysia indicate that members of the genus may be slow-growing, 
taking 70 years to attain a diameter of 50cm. 

References 

Conn, B.J. (ed.). 1995. Handbooks of the Flora of Papua New Guinea. Malaysia: Melbome University 

Press. 1-292. 
Eddowes, P.J. 1997. Completed data collection forms for New Guinea. 
Stevens, P.F 1997. Annotations to a listing of draft species sunmiaries for New Guinea for the 

Conservation and sustainable management of trees project. 



281 



Contribution to an evaluation of tree species using the new CITES Listing Criteria 



Calophyllum papuanum 

Guttiferae 



Distribution 

Indonesia (Irian Jaya, Moluccas), Papua New Guinea 

Habitat 

This canopy tree is usually found in colline or montane forest up to ISSOm, sometimes in depleted 
Agathis forest, rarely occurring in swamp forest. 

Population Status and Trends 

It is expected that Calophyllum species will be more heavily harvested when other timber supplies have 
become exhausted. 

Role of species in the Ecosystem 

Threats 

Utilisation 

The timber is used in building and is considered a decorative substitute for dark-coloured mahogany, if 
suitably stained, and for all kinds of mahogany if transparently coated. It is also substituted for red 
meranti. 

Trade 

The timber is traded in Papua New Guinea as calophyllum. In 1995 Papua New Guinea recorded the 
export of 231,0O0m^ oi calophyllum logs, valued at an average price of US$156/m^(ITTO, 1997). 

lUCN Conservation category 

LRlc according to Stevens (1997) 

Conservation Measures 

Forest Management and Silviculture 

Preliminary data from Peninsular Malaysia indicate that members of the genus may be slow-growing, 
taking 70 years to attain a diameter of 50cm. 

References 

Conn, B.J. (ed.). 1995. Handbooks of the Flora of Papua New Guinea. Malaysia: Melbome University 

Press. 1-292. 
mo. 1997. Annual review and assessment of the world tropical timber situation. 1996. International 

Tropical Timber Organization (Jl'lO). 

Soerianegara, I. & R.H.M.J. Lemmens (eds.). 1993. Plant Resources of South-East Asia 5(1). Timber 

trees: Major commercial timbers. Wageningen: Pudoc Scientific Publishers. 610 pp. 
Stevens, P.P. 1997. Annotations to a listing of draft species summaries for New Guinea for the 

Conservation and sustainable management of trees project. 



282 



Annex 2. Profiles of Tree Species: Asia 



Calophyllum waliense 

Guttiferae 



Distribution 

Papua New Guinea (Bismarck Archipelago) 

Habitat 

Trees are scattered in tropical moist non-seasonal forest on ridges. It is often found in Calophyllum 
forest between 100 and 550m. 

Population Status and Trends 

Restricted to Manus Island, the species is vulnerable to habitat destruction and logging. The island has 
been heavily exploited for its timber resources (Eddowes, 1997). 

Role of Species in the Ecosystem 

The flowers are pollinated by insects and the seeds are dispersed by bats and birds (Eddowes, 1997). 

Threats 

Clear felling/logging 

Utilisation 

The wood is used as a veneer and for furniture and plywood (Eddowes, 1997). 

Trade 

The timber is possibly present in minor international trade (Eddowes, 1997). The timber is traded in 
Papua New Guinea as calophyllum. In 1995 Papua New Guinea recorded the export of 231,000m3 of 
calophyllum logs, valued at an average price of US$156/m^ (ITTO, 1997). 

lUCN Conservation category 

EN Bl+2abcde according to Eddowes (1997). 

Conservation Measures 

None exist 

Forest Management and Silviculture 

This species is not found in cultivation (Eddowes. 1997). 

References 

Conn, B.J. (ed.). 1995. Handbooks of the Flora of Papua New Guinea. Malaysia: Melbome University 

Press. 1-292. 
Eddowes. P.J. 1997. Completed data collection forms for New Guinea. 
Stevens, P.P. 1997. Annotations to a listing of draft species summaries for New Guinea for the 

Conservation and sustainable management of trees project. 



283 



Contribution to an evaluation of tree species using the new CITES Listing Criteria 

Canarium luzonicum 

Burseraceae 

belis, malapili, piling-liitan 



Distribution 

Philippines 

Habitat 

This species occurs in primary forest at low to medium altitudes. 

Population Status and Trends 

Habitat loss is likely to be the greatest threat to remaining populations. The timber has not been of great 
commercial importance to date (Lemmens et a/., 1995). The species is, however, the main commercial 
source oi Manila elemi. This resin is obtained by cutting small strips of bark and collecting the exudate 
(Coppen, 1995). 

Role of species in the Ecosystem 

Flowers are probably insect pollinated. Fruit eating pigeons, monkeys and occasionally bats act as seed 
dispersers. 

Utilisation 

The kedondong timber is used for light construction. A valuable volatile oil, Manila elemi, is distilled 
from the resin and used locally for caulking ships, in torches, varnishes and glues. It is also 
commercially exported for the manufacture of varnish and medicinal ointments. The seeds are edible 
and the bark yeilds a tannin of reasonable quality. 

Trade 

Canarium timber is usually mixed with the timber of other members of Burseraceae and sold as 
kedondong. The production of fruits appears to be more commercially important than of timber 
(Lemmens ef a/. 1995). 

rUCN Conservation category 

VUAlcd according to WCMC 

Conservation Measures 

Forest Management and Silviculture 

Canarium spp. can be propagated by seed. Natural regeneration is believed to be scarce because of the 
scattered distribution of trees and possibly also because of levels of fruit harvesting. A single tree 
yields 4-5kg of resin. 

References 

Coppen, J.J.W. 1995. Gums, resins and latexes of plant origin. Non-Wood Forest Products 6. Food and 

Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. 
Forest Management Bureau. 1988. Natural forest resources of the Philippines. Department of 

Environment and Natural Resources, Manila. 62pp. 
Lemmens, R.H.M.J., I. Soerianegara, & W.C. Wong (eds.). 1995. Plant Resources of South-East Asia 

No 5(2). Timber trees: Minor commercial timbers. Leiden: Backhuys Publishers. 655 pp. 



284 



Annex 2. Profiles of Tree Species: Asia 



Canarium pseudosumatranum 

Burseraceae 

kala, kedondong senggeh, lamshu senggi 

Distribution 

Malaysia (Peninsular Malaysia) 

Habitat 

This species is scanered as very large trees in lowland forest and hill forest between 300 and 920m. 

Population Status and Trends 

Populations are poorly known but recorded firom Pedis, Kedah, Perak, Selangor, Negeri Sembilan and 
Pahang. 

Role of species in the Ecosystem 

Flowers are probably insect pollinated. Fruit eating pigeons, monkeys and occasionally bats act as seed 
dispersers 

Threats 

Clear-felling/logging of the habitat, expansion of human settlement 

Utilisation 

The wood is used as kedondong timber for house buidling, light construction, floorings, interiors, 
furniture, joinery, canoes, veneer and plywood. 

Trade 

Canarium timber is usually mixed with the timber of other members of Burseraceae and sold as 
kedondong. The production of fruits appears to be more commercially imponant than of timber 
(Lemmens et al. 1995). The export of kedondong as sawnwood, valued at US$638/m5, is recorded in 
1995 (ITTO, 1997). In 1983 16.350m3 of kedondong sawnwood at a value of US$675,000 was 
exported to Singapore (69%), South Korea (19%) and Hong Kong (12%). The following year 9500m3 
at a value of USS395,000 was exported to Singapore (99%) and Japan (1%) (Lemmens et al., 1995). 

lUCN Conservation category 

LRcd according to Chua (1997). 

Conservation Measures 

Forest Management and Silviculture 

Canarium spp. can be propagated by seed. Natural regeneration is believed to be scarce because of the 
scattered distribution of trees and possibly also because of levels of fruit harvesting. 

References 

Chua, L. et al. 1997. Completed data collection forms for endemic trees of Peninsular Malaysia. 
ITTO. 1997. Annual review and assessment of the world tropical timber situation. 1996. International 

Tropical Timber Organization (ITTO). 
Lemmens, R.H.M.J., I. Soerianegara, & W.C. Wong (eds.). 1995. Plant Resources of South-East Asia 

No 5(2). Timber trees: Minor commercial timbers. Leiden: Backhuys Publishers. 655 pp. 



285 



Contribution to an evaluation of tree species using the new CITES Listing Criteria 

Cantleya corniculatum 

Icacinaceae 
dedraru 



Distribution 

Sumatra, Sabah, Sarawak, Peninsular Malaysia, Riau, Lingga Archipelago and Bangka. 

Habitat 

The species grows in drier parts of primary freshwater swamp forest or in drier hill forest, on marshy or 
sandy soils, up to 300 m. 

Population Status and Trends 

Populations are scattered and confined to lowlands where they are at great risk from logging and habitat 
clearance. The species experiences the same kind of problems that are faced by Aquilaria species but at a 
lesser level (Asia Regional Workshop, 1997). 

Role of Species in the Ecosystem 

This is the sole member of the genus 

Threats 

Overexploitation 

UtiUsation 

The timber is highly valued and much sought after. It is heavy and hard with a fragrance similar to 
sandalwood for which it is used as a substitute. It is also used for house and ship building and heavy 
construction. 

Trade 

The timber is not thought to occur in European trade (WCMC, 1991). 

lUCN Conservation Category 

VU Alc.d according to the Asia Regional Workshop (1997). 

Conservation Measures 

There are no records of the species in seed or germplasm banks (Sosef, Hong and Prawirohatmodjo, 
1998). 

Forest Management and Silviculture 

Natural regeneration is generally sparse and silvicultural research is urgently needed (Sosef, Hong and 
Prawirohatmodjo, 1998). 

References 

Asia Regional Workshop. 1997. Discussions held during the Third Regional Workshop for the 

WCMC/SSC Conservation and sustainable marujgement of trees proje-cl, Hanoi, Viet Nam, 18-21 
August 1997. 

Sosef, Hong and Prawirohatmodjo, 1998. 

WCMC. 1991. Provision of data on rare and threatened tropical timber species. Unpublished report, 
prepared under contract to the EC. 



286 



Annex 2. Profiles of Tree Species: Asia 



Cephalotaxus oliveri 

Olive Plum Yew 

Distribution 

This species is found in Guixhou, Hubei, Sichuan, Yannan, Guangdong, Guangxi, Hunan, Jiangxi, 
Vietnam and eastern India. 

Habitat 

This species is found in low altitude (300- 1500m) subtropical closed forests. It is mainly found in 
evergreen broad-leaved forests or in evergreen and deciduous broad-leaved mixed forests in valleys 
and by streams. 

Population Status and Trends 

Populations of C. oliveri have been rapidly decreasing. This species is scattered in forests throughout 
its range (China Plant Red Data Book, 1992). 

Regeneration 

This is a shade tolerant species which has moderately slow growth. Seeds germinate after ripening for 
one year in the broad-leaf litter; once the seeds have germinated the seedlings require shade. (China 
Plant Red Data Book, 1992) 

Role of Species in its Ecosystem 

No information. 

Threats 

This species is threatened by over-exploitation and habitat loss (China Plant Red Data Book, 1992). 

The dioecious nature of C. oliveri means that this species is further threatened by infrequent 
regeneration (China Plant Red Data Book, 1992). 

Utilisation 

Used for timber. C. oliveri contains the alkaloids cephalotaxine and harringtonine which can be 
extracted from the leaves, shoots and seeds which have medicinal value for treating leukaemia and 
lymphoma (China Plant Red Data Book, 1992), however, no widespread exploitation has yet taken 
place (SSC Conifer Specialist Group, 1996). 

Trade 

It is not known whether international trade in products from this species currently take place. 

Conservation Status 

lUCN Category and Criteria: VU (Aid) (SSC Conifer Specialist Group, 1996). 

Conservation Measures 

This species is found in several nature reserves (Emei Mountain in Sichuan, Shuanghuang Mountains 
and Zhangjiajie in Hunan (China Plant Red Data Book, 1992). 

Note: C. oliveri is a relict species which is markedly different to other members of the same genus 
(China Plant Red Data Book, 1992). 

References 

Li-Kuo, F. and Jian-Ming, J.. 1992. China Plant Red Data Book - Rare and endangered plants. VoX. 1. 

Science Press:Beijing. pp. 741. 
SSC Conifer Specialist Group, 1996. Discussions held by the SSC Conifer Specialist Group as part of 

the WCMC/SSC Conservation and Sustainable Management of Trees Project. March, 1996. 



287 



Contribution to an evaluation of tree species using the new CITES Listing Criteria 

Cercidiphyllum japonicum 

Cercidiphyllaceae 
katsura tree, lianxiangshu 



Distribution 

China (Anhui, Gansu, Henan, Hubei, Hunan, Jiangxi, Shaanxi, Shanxi, Sichuan, Zhejiang), Japan 

Habitat 

A species of temperate forest, occurring between 400 and 2700m. In China it is also found in 
subtropical regions in mixed mesophytic forest and evergreen oak and Schima forest. In Japan it occurs 
in valleys in beech forest. 

Population Status and Trends 

A rare tree in China, found in remnant patches of broadleaved forest. Regeneration is poor and there is 
evidence of infestations at the seedling stages. Cutting has also contributed to population declines (Fu 
& Jin, 1992). In Japan populations are concentrated in the north and scattered in the south. 

Role of species in the Ecosystem 

Threats 

Poor regeneration 

Utilisation 

One of the most important trees yielding timber in Japan. The wood is light and soft and largely used 
for interior finish, furniture, carpentry. 

Trade 

lUCN Conservation category 

LR/nt according to WCMC 

Conservation Measures 

Populations are likely to occur in various nature reserves in China. 

Forest Management and Silviculture 

References 

FAO Forestry Department. 1986. Databook on endangered tree and shrub species and their 

provenances. Rome: FAO. 524pp. 
Fu, Li-kuo & Jian-ming Jin (eds.). 1992. China Plant Red Data Book. Beijing: Science Press, xviii-741. 
National Environment Protection Bureau. 1987. The list of rare and endangered plants protected in 

China. Botanical Institute of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing: Academy Press. 96pp. 



288 



Annex 2. Profiles of Tree Species: Asia 



Chamaecyparis obtusa van formosana 

Distribution 

This taxon is endemic to Taiwan. 

Habitat 

This temperate species is found in moist coniferous montane forests with a seasonal chmate. It is found 
at altitudes between 1800- 2500m. 

Population Status and Trends 

C. obtusa vai. formosana has been declining since 1960, although it is still abundant in its range (SSC 
Conifer Specialist Group, 1996). 

Regeneration 

Seeds of the species are wind dispersed. 

Role of Species in its Ecosystem 

This shade tolerant species is associated with Chamaecyparis formosensis and other conifers. 

Threats 

C. obtusa var. formosana is threatened by over-exploitation, habitat loss and changes in land 
use/management (SSC Conifer Specialist Group, 1996). 

Utilisation 

It is a timber species. 

Trade 

Currently no evidence of international trade in this species is known. 

Conservation Status 

lUCN Threat Category and Criteria: VU (Alc,d) (SSC Conifer Specialist Group, 1996) 

Conservation Measures 

There is an important population of C. obtusa vai. formosana in Yuanyang Lake reserve. 

References 

SSC Conifer Specialist Group, 1996. Discussions held by the SSC Conifer Specialist Group as part of 
the WCMC/SSC Conservation and Sustainable Management of Trees Project. March, 1996. 



289 



Contribution to an evaluation of tree species using the new CITES Listing Criteria 

Chloroxylon swietenia 

Rutaceae 

East Indian satinwood 



Distribution 

India, Sri Lanka 

Habitat 

The species occurs in dry mixed evergreen or deciduous forest. 

Population Status and Trends 

A slow growing species which has become very scarce in Sri Lanka because of timber exploitation (de S. 
Wijesingheerc/., 1990). 

Role of Species in the Ecosystem 

Threats 

Overexploitation, habitat loss. 

Utihsation 

The heart wood is rated for its extreme durability, but the sapwood is vulnerable to attack by termites. The 
wood is used for decorative veneers, furniture and cabinet work, turnery and interior joinery. The gum is 
also useful. 

Trade 

lUCN Conservation Category 

Vu Ale according to the Asia Regional Workshop (1997). 

Conservation Measures 

Forest management and Silviculture 

References 

Asia Regional Workshop. 1997. Discussions held during the Third Regional Workshop for the 

WCMC/SSC Conservation and sustainable management of trees project, Hanoi, Viet Nam, 18-21 

August 1997, 
de S. Wijesinghe, L.C.A., Gunatilleke, I.A.U.N., Jayawardana, S.D.G., Kotagama, S.W. and Gunatilleke, 

C.V.S. 1990. Biological conservation in Sri Lanka (A national status report). Natural Resources, 

Energy and Science Authority of Sri Lanka, Colombo. 



290 



Annex 2. Profiles of Tree Species: Asia 



Cinnamomum parthenoxylon 

Lauraceae 



Distribution 

China, India, Indonesia, Thailand and Viet Nam 

Habitat 

In Viet Nam the species is found in tropical evergreen rainforests up to 700 m altitude, on sheltered 
slopes, growmg on deep well-drained fertile soils (Vu Van Dung, 1996). 

Population status and trends 

Role of species in the ecosystem 

Threats 

Utilisation 

The wood of this species is used in furniture making, construction, flooring, utensils and wood-carving. 

Trade 

The timber is not thought to occur in European trade (WCMC, 1991). 

lUCN Conservation category 

DD (Asia Regional Workshop, 1997). 

The species has been recorded as threatened in Indonesia (WCMC, 1991). It is recorded as Insufficiently 

Known in the Red Data Book of Viet Nam (Phan Thuc Vat, 1996). 

Forest management and silviculture 

The species is light demanding. Natural and coppice regeneration are good in secondary forests (Vu Van 
Dung, 1996). 

Conservation measures 

References 

Asia Regional Workshop. 1997. Discussions held during the Third Regional Workshop for the 

WCMC/SSC Conservation and sustainable management of trees project, Hanoi, Viet Nam, 1 8-21 

August 1997. 
Phan TTiuc Vat 1996. Red data book of Viet Nam. Volume 2 Plants. Science and Technics Publishing 

House. 
Vu Van Dung (Ed.) 1996. Viet Nam Forest Trees. Agricultural Publishing House, Hanoi. 
WCMC. 1991 . Provision of data on rare and threatened tropical timber species. Unpublished report, 

prepared under contract to the EC. 



291 



Contribution to an evaluation of tree species using the new CITES Listing Criteria 

Cynometra inaequifolia 

Leguminosae 



Distribution 

Malaysia (Peninsular Malaysia, Sabah), Philippines, Thailand? 

Habitat 

Lowland closed forest 

Population status and trends 

The species has been considered to be ** in the Philippines 

Role of species in the ecosystem 

Threats 

clear-felling/logging of the habitat, .extensive agriculture 

Utilisation 

Used as a source of kekatong timber. 

Trade 

Kekatong is not an important export timber, with only very small amounts reported and not specifially in 
this species. 

rUCN Conservation category 

VUAld-WCMC 

Conservation measures 

Forest management and silviculture 

All timber extraction for kekatong is from natural forest, and there has been no replanting or enrichment 
planting (Soenanegara and Lenmiens, 1993). 

References 

Erfurth, T. & H. Rusche. 1976. The marketing of tropical wood, (unpublished). FO: MISC/76/8. 
Penafiel, S. 1990. Annotation to list of tropical timbers for the Philippines. 

Soerianegara, 1. & R.H.M.J. Lemmens (eds.). 1993. Plant Resources of South-East Asia 5(1). Timber 
trees: Major commercial timbers. Wageningen: Pudoc Scientific Publishers. 610 pp. 



292 



Annex 2. Profiles of Tree Species: Asia 



Dacrydium nausoriense 

Podocarpaceae 
tangitangi, yaka 



Distribution 

Fiji 

Habitat 

A tree of dry, seasonal, submontane woodland and scrub between 600 - 800m. 

Population status and trends 

Endemic to the Nausori Highlands in western Viti Levu, the species occurs in small stands within a 
closely confined area. There is evidence that regeneration is poor. The area is unprotected and the 
stands are open to cutting, burning, agricultural and pastoral activities. 

Role of species in the ecosystem 

Tlireats 

Poor regeneration, burning, clear- felling/logging of the habitat, expansion of human settlement, 
extensive agriculture, forestry management, pastoralism/ranching 

Utilisation 

The timber is used on a local scale. 

Trade 

lUCN Conservation category 

EN A led, Bl+2ce, CI according to SSC Conifer Specialist Group (Watt, 1996). 

Conservation measures 

Forest management and silviculture 

References 

Farjon, Aljos, Christopher N. Page, & Nico Schellevis. 1993. A preliminary world list of threatened 

conifer taxa. Biodiversity and Conservation 2: 304-326. 
Smith. A.C. 1979. Flora Vitiensis Nova: a new Flora of Fiji. Hawaii, Pacific Tropical Botanic Garden. 
Watt, Alistair. 1 996. Completed data collection forms for conifers of New Caledonia and Fiji. 



293 



Contribution to an evaluation of tree species using the new CITES Listing Criteria 

Dalbergia annamensis 

Leguminosae 



Distribution 

Endemic to Viet Nam, occuring in Phd Yen and Khanh Hoa provinces 

Habitat 

Lowland dry open forest, at altitudes up to 500m. 

Population status and trendls 

The species is scattered in lowland dry forest. 

Role of species in the ecosystem 

Threats 

This species is endangered by over-exploitation for its valuable wood. Clear-felling is another threat. 

Utilisation 

Trade 

Minor international trade. 

lUCN Conservation category 

EN Alcd according to Nghia (1997). 

Conservation measures 

Forest management and silviculture 

The species is not in cultivation. 

References 

Ministry of Science, Technology and Environment. 1996. Sach do Viet Nam Phan Thuc Vat. Hanoi: 

Science and Technics Publishing House. 484pp. 
Nghia, N.H. 1997. Completed data collection forms for Vietnamese Dalbergia spp. 



294 



Annex 2. Profiles of Tree Species: Asia 



Dalbergia bariensis 

Leguminosae 

Distribution 

Cambodia, Laos, Thailand, Viet Nam 

Habitat 

Lowland and submontane broadleaved forest up to 1000m altitude. 

Population status and trends 

The species is widely distributed and scattered. A rapid decline in number of large trees has occurred 
because of overexploitation of the timber. 

Role of species in the ecosystem 

Associated with species of Leguminosae and Dipterocarpaceae 

Threats 

Timber exploitation and general clear-felling/logging of the habitat. 

Utilisation 

Trade 

Minor international trade 

lUCN Conservation category 

EN Alcd according to Nghia (1997). 

Conservation measures 

It IS legally protected from cutting in Viet Nam and occurs in protected areas. The species is not in 
cultivation. 

Forest management and silviculture 

References 

Lock. J.M. & J. Heald. 1994. Legumes of Indo-China. The Royal Botanic Gardens. Kew. 164pp. 
Ministry of Science, Technology and Environment. i996. Sach do Viet Nam Phan Thuc Vat. Hanoi: 

Science and Technics Publishing House. 484pp. 
Nghia, N.H. 1997. Completed data collection forms for Vietnamese Dalbergia spp. 



295 



Contribution to an evaluation of tree species using the new CITES Listing Criteria 

Dalbergia cambodiana 

Leguminosae 



Distribution 

Cambodia, Viet Nam 

Habitat 

This species occurs in moist lowland forest up to an altitude of 500m. 

Population status and trends 

Widely distributed but scattered 

Role of species in the ecosystem 

Threats 

Illegal exploitation; clear-felling/logging of the habitat 

Utilisation 

The wood is valuable 

Trade 

Minor international trade 

lUCN Conservation category 

EN Alcd according to Nghia (1997). 

Conservation measures 

This species is not in cultivation. 

Forest management and silviculture 

References 

Nghia. N.H. 1997. Completed data collection fonns for Vietnamese Dalbergia spp. 



296 



Annex 2. Profiles of Tree Species: Asia 



Dalbergia cochinchinensis 

Payung; Thailand Rosewood 



Distribution 

This species is found in Cambodia, Thailand, Laos and Viet Nam. 

Habitat 

In Viet Nam the tree grows sparsely in open and semi-deciduous forests, occasionally in pure stands. 
Mainly concentrated at altitudes of 400-500 m preferring deep sandy clay soil and calcareous soil (Vu 
Van Dung, 1996). 

Population status and trends 

In Viet Nam, D. cochinchinensis is found south of Quang Nam-Da Nang, mainly in Gia Lai and Kon 
Tum; it in other provinces it is sparsely distributed in a few localities (Chinh et al, 1996). 

Regeneration 

This species is shade tolerant as a sapling and becomes light demanding. D. cochinchinensis has quite a 
slow growth rate. It regenerates well by coppicing (Chi'nh et al, 1996). 

Role of species in the ecosystem 

No information. 

Threats 

Deforestation and exploitation are threats to this species. 

Utilisation 

D. cochinchinensis is considered a "first class prime timber', as it is hard, durable, easy to work and 
resistant to insects. The distinctive heartwood makes beautiful patterns when cut and the wood is used to 
make furniture, carvings, musical instruments and sewing machines (Chi'nh et al, 1996). 

In Viet Nam the species is classified as a first class prime timber. It is used for furniture, wood turnery, 
fine-art articles, musical instruments and sewing machines (Vu Van Dung, 1996). 

Trade 

No specific information on trade in this species is available. 

rUCN Conservation category 

VU A led (Asia Regional Workshop, 1997). 

This species is considered Vulnerable in Viet Nam (Chi'nh et al, 1996; Phan Thuc Vat, 1996). It is also of 

conservation concern in Thailand (Phengklai, pers. comm. 1989). 

Conservation measures 

A current IPGRI project is looking at the distribution of genetic resources of this species in its range 
countries. It is found in some nature reserves (Asia Regional Workshop, 1997). 

Forest management and silviculture 

References 

Asia Regional Workshop, 1997. Conservation and sustainable management of trees project workshop 

held in Hanoi, VietNam, August 1997 
Chi'nh, N.N, Chung, C.T., Can, V.V., Dung, N.X., Dung, N.K., Dao, N.K., Hop, T., Oanh, T.T., Quynh, 

N.B., Thin, N.N., 1996. Viet Nam Forest Trees. Forest Inventory and Planning Instimte. Agricultural 

Pubhshing House; Hanoi, pp.788. 
Phan Thuc Vat 1 996. Red data book of Viet Nam. Volume 2 Plants. Science and Technics Publishing 

House. 
Phengklai, pers. comm. 1989. 
Vu Van Dung (Ed.) 1996. VietNam Forest Trees. Agricultural Publishing House, Hanoi. 



297 



Contribution to an evaluation of tree species using the new CITES Listing Criteria 



Dalbergia latifolia 

Indian rosewood, Bombay blackwood, lalshisham, Palisandre de I'lnde (Fr), Indonesia: 
sonokeling, sonobrits, sonosunga (Java). Viet Nam: tr[aws]c (Soerianegara & 
Lemmens, 1993). 



Distribution 

This species is found in Nepal, Java and western and north-eastem India, in the states of Kerala, 
Kamataka and Tamil Nadu. It also occurs in Madhya Pradesh and Andhra Pradesh and sporadically in 
northern India (Kumar, 1994). 

Habitat 

Mainly found in monsoon forests in association with species such as Tectona grandis, Albizda chinensis, 
and Cassia fistula. In the southwestern part of its range, it also occurs in evergreen forests. The annual 
rainfall in its natural habitat is between 750 and 5000 m on deep, well-drained, moist soils. The species 
thrives in a variety of edaphic conditions including alluvial, lateritic and gneissic soils and broken rock 
(Lamprecht, 1989). 

Population status and trends 

The species is reported to have declined in Mysore and Kerala (Sirvarajan, 1969). 

Role of species in the ecosystem 

Threats 

Because of the high value of the timber, it is under considerable pressure of illegal felling and theft, 
though such data has not been quantified so far (Kumar, 1994). 

Utilisation 

This species is of great conmiercial significance (Collins, Sayer and Whitmore, 1991). The timber is used 
for fine furniture and cabinet making, musical instruments, turnery and decorative veneers. The species is 
planted as a shade tree (Soerianegara & Lemmens, 1993). 

Trade 

In 1990 a total of 16 750 m of Dalbergia timber was harvested in Java, the majority of which was D. 
sissoo which is planted. The price of sonokeling wood from Java is comparable with that of teak wood 
(Soerianegara & Lemmens, 1993). 

lUCN Conservation category 

VU Alcd (Asia Regional Workshop, 1997). 

Conservation measures 

Plantations have been established in India, Java and Africa. Protection is provided under the Indian Forest 
Act. Export in the form of logs and sawn timber is banned (Kumar, 1994). 

Forest management and silviculture 

A light demanding species, both natural and artificial propagation are possible. Direct seeding, coppicing 
and vegetative propagation with root cuttings are all practised. Rotations of between 60 and 150 years are 
required for the production of high-grade timber (Lamprecht, 1989). 

References 

Asia Regional Workshop, 1997. Conservation and sustainable management of trees project workshop 

held in Hanoi, Viet Nam, August 1997 
Collins, N.M., Sayer, J.A. and Whitmore, T.C. (Eds.) 1991. The Conservation Atlas of Tropical Forests 

Asia and the Pacific. Simon & Schuster: Singapore. 
Kumar, A. 1994. Personal communication to M. Read and S. Oldfield. 
Lamprecht, H. 1989. Silviculture in the Tropics. GTZ 
Lemmens, R.H.M.J., Soerianegara, I. & Wong, W.C. (Eds.) 1995. Plant Resources of South-East Asia 

(PROSEA) 5(2) Timber Trees: Minor commercial timbers. Backhuys Publishers, Leiden 655pp. 
Sirvarajan, M. 1969. On the export trade of Indian rosewood. Indian Forester 95(\2). 



298 



Annex 2. Profiles of Tree Species: Asia 



Soerianegara, I. & Leiranens. R.H.M.J. (Eds.) 1993. Plant Resources of South-East Asia (PROSEA) 5(1) 
Timber trees: major commercial timbers. Pudoc Scientific Publishers, Wageningen. 

WCMC. 1991. Provision of data on rare and threatened tropical timber species. Unpublished report, 
prepared under contract to the EC. 



299 



Contribution to an evaluation of tree species using the new CITES Listing Criteria 



Dalbergia mammosa 

Leguminosae 



Distribution 

Central and southern Viet Nam 

Habitat 

Dense semi-deciduous forest or transitional forest between evergreen and dry dipterocarp forest, up to 
800 m. altitude, sometimes along streams. Found on deep and well-drained old basalt or old alluvjal 
soils. 

Population status and trends 

Scattered in broadleaved forest, the entire population has declined through over-exploitation of the 
valuable timber. 

Role of species in the ecosystem 

Grows in association with Terminalia chebula, Terminalia nigrovenulosa, Stereospermum cylindricum, 
Hymenodyction exselsum, Allospondias lakoensis atid Hopea odorata. 

Threats 

Over-exploitation of the valuable timber through illegal felling; clear-felling/logging of the habitat 

Utilisation 

Trade 

Minor international trade 

lUCN Conservation category 

EN A led according to Nghia, 1997. 

Conservation measures 

The species is legally protected as it is included in the Council of Ministers Decision 18/HDBT (17 
January 1992) as a species with high economical value which is subject to over-exploitation. It is not in 
cultivation. 

Forest management and silviculture 

References 

Chinh, N. N. et al. 1996. Vietnam Forest Trees. Hanoi: Agricultural Publishing House. 1-788. 
Lock, J.M. & J. Heald. 1994. Legumes of Indo-China. The Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. 164pp. 
Ministry of Science, Technology and Environment. 1996. Sach do Viet Nam Phan Thuc Vat. Hanoi: 

Science and Technics Publishing House. 484pp. 
Nghia, N.H. 1997. Completed data collection forms for Vietnamese Dalbergia spp. 



300 



Annex 2. Profiles of Tree Species: Asia 



Dalbergia oliveri 

Leguminosae 



Distribution 

Myanmar, Thailand, Viet Nam 

Habitat 

Dense evergreen or semi-deciduous forest up to 1200m. 

Population status and trends 

Scattered in dense evergreen or semi-deciduous forest within a relatively restricted area of distribution, 
the population has declined through overexploitation. 

Role of species in the ecosystem 

Grows in association with Dalbergia cochinchinensis, Albizzia chinensis, Sindora siamensis and 
Dipterocarpus alatus. 

Threats 

Over-exploitation; clear-felling/logging of the habitat 

Utilisation 

Produces a beautiful red wood 

Trade 

Minor international trade. 

lUCN Conservation category 

EN Alcd according to Nghia, 1997. 

Conservation measures 

In Viet Nam the species is included in the Council of Ministers Decision 18/HDBT (17 January 1992) 
as a species with high economical value which is subject to over-exploitation. A protected population 
occurs in Nam Cat Tien National Park. This species is not in cultivation. 

Forest management and silviculture 

References 

Lock, J.M. & J. Heald. 1994. Legumes of Indo-China. The Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. 164pp. 
Nghia, N.H. 1997. Completed data collection forms for Vietnamese Dalbergia spp. 
Sutter. H. 1986. Annotations to: List of plants in the WCMC database for Burma. 
Suvatti, C. 1978. Flora of Thailand. Bangkok: Royal Institute. 



301 



Contribution to an evaluation of tree species using the new CITES Listing Criteria 

Ddlbergia tonkinensis 

Leguminosae 



Distribution 

China (Guangdong - Hainan), Viet Nam 

Habitat 

Primary and secondary lowland forest up to 500m. 

Population status and trends 

A tree known from scattered populations in areas of primary and secondary forest in Viet Nam and 
Hainan Island of China. In Viet Nam heavy exploitation of the beautiful timber has led to considerable 
population declines. Habitat loss on Hainan Island through logging, has also been significant. 

Role of species in the ecosystem 

Associated species are Aglaia gigantea, Canarium album and Ailanthus altissima 

Threats 

Logging of the species; clear-felling/logging of the habitat; forest clearance for agriculture. 

Utilisation 

The timber is utilised and the species is also grown as an ornamental. 

Trade 

Minor international trade 

lUCN Conservation category 

VUAlcd-Ban, 1997 

Conservation measures 

Small scale cultivation. 

Forest management and silviculture 

References 

Ban, N.T. 1997. Some remarks on the red hst summary report for Viet Nam trees. 1 pp. 

Chinh, N. N. era/. 1996. Vietnam Forest Trees. Hanoi: Agricultural Publishing House. 1-788. 

Loc, Phan Ke. 1986. Lists of rare and endangered plant species of Vietnam (1986-1988). (unpublished). 

Lock, J.M. & J. Heald. 1994. Legumes of Indo-China. The Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. 164pp. 

Ministry of Science, Technology and Environment. 1996. Sach do Viet Nam Phan Thuc Vat. Hanoi: 

Science and Technics Publishing House. 484pp. 
Nghia, N.H. 1997. Completed data collection forms for Vietnamese Dalbergia spp. 



302 



Annex 2. Profiles of Tree Species: Asia 



Dehaasia caesia 

Medang 



Distribution 

Java, Sumatra, Borneo 

Habitat 

Lowland forest 

Population status and trends 

The risk of genetic erosion for Dehaasia spp. is generally considered to be small because they are not 
restricted in distribution (Sosef, Hong and Prawirohatmodjo, 1998). . 

Role of species in the ecosystem 
Threats 

Utilisation 

The wood is a Light Hardwood (Wong, 1982). 

Trade 

This is one of the main species traded as medang. The timber is not thought to occur in European trade 
(WCMC, 1991). 

Conservation category 

The species has been recorded as Rare in Indonesia (WCMC, 1991). 

Conservation measures 

Forest management and silviculture 

References 

WCMC. 1991. Provision of data on rare and threatened tropical Umber species. Unpublished report, 
prepared under contract to the EC. 



303 



Contribution to an evaluation of tree species using the new CITES Listing Criteria 

Dehaasia cuneata 



Distribution 

Thailand, Indonesia and Peninsular Malaysia 

Habitat 

Lowland and hill forest. 

Population status and trends 

The species is naturally scattered. It has been recorded as Rare in Indonesia (WCMC, 1991). The species 
is probably extinct in Java. The risk of genetic erosion for Dehaasia spp. is generally considered to be small 
because they are not restricted in distribution (Sosef, Hong and Prawirohatmodjo, 1998). 

Role of species in the ecosystem 

No information 

Threats 

Utilisation 

This species is not used as timber in Malaysia or Indonesia (Asia Regional Workshop, 1997). 

Trade 

The timber is not thought to occur in European trade (WCMC, 1 99 1 ). 

lUCN Conservation category 

DD (Asia Regional Workshop, 1997). 

Conservation measures 

Forest management and silviculture 

References 

WCMC. 1991. Provision of data on rare and threatened tropical timber species. Unpublished report, 
prepared under contract to the EC. 



304 



Annex 2. Profiles of Tree Species: Asia 



Dialium cochinchinense 

Leguminosae 



Distribution 

Cambodia, Laos, Malaysia (Peninsular Malaysia), Myanmar, Thailand, Viet Nam 

Habitat 

Dense evergreen and semi-deciduous forest and in transistional forest between evergreen and open 
dipterocarp forest, the species is recorded up to 800 m altitude. 

Population status and trends 

Trees of the genus Dialium are naturally scattered and large-scale logging may endanger species 
(Soerianegara and Lemmens, 1993). Occurring in various forest types throughout Indo-China south 
into Penmsular Thailand and Malaysia, this species is becoming rarer in many places because of 
overexploitation. In Viet Nam, it is considered to be threatened. 

Role of species in the ecosystem 

The fruits are eaten by animals and are carried in water currents. 

Threats 

Exploitation of the species and clear-felling/logging of the habitat. 

UtiUsation 

The timber is used as keranji which is highly-valued locally. The sweet pulp of the fruits is edible and 
the tree is used locally a.': a shade tree (Soerianegara and Lemmens, 1993) 

Trade 

Minor international trade. Trees are difficult to cut because of the dense wood and as they are also 
scattered, commercial extraction is not favoured. 

lUCN Conservation category 

LR/nt - WCMC 

Conservation measures 

A protected population occurs in Kon Cha Rang Nature Reserve, Viet Nam. Planted in villages of 
northern Peninsular Malaysia for fruit trees. 

Forest management and silviculture 

Research is required on silvicultural and management aspects (Soerianegara and Lemmens, 1993). 

References 

Chinh. N. N. et al. 1996. Vietnam Forest Trees. Hanoi: Agricultural Publishing House. 1-788. 
Loc, Phan Ke. 1986. Lists of rare and endangered plant species of Vietnam (1986-1988). 

(unpublished). 
Ministry of Science, Technology and Environment. 1996. Sach do Viet Nam Phan Thuc Vat. Hanoi: 

Science and Technics Publishing House. 484pp. 
Soerianegara, I. & R.H.M.J. Lemmens (eds.). 1993. Plant Resources of South-East Asia 5(1). Timber 

trees: Major conraiercial timbers. Wageningen: Pudoc Scientific Pubhshers. 610 pp. 



305 



Contribution to an evaluation of tree species using the new CITES Listing Criteria 

Diospyros discolor 



Distribution 

Native to the Philippines and Taiwan; occasionally planted elsewhere. 

Habitat 

Population status and trends 

The species has been recorded as threatened in both the Philippines and Taiwan. 

Role of species in the ecosystem 
Threats 

Utilisation 

This species is occasionally cultivated for its mabolo fruits. 

Trade 

Conservation category 

The species has been recorded as threatened in the Philippines and Taiwan (WCMC. 1991). 

Conservation measures 

Forest management and silviculture 

References 

WCMC. 1991. Provision of data on rare and threatened tropical timber species. Unpublished report, 
prepared under contract to the EC. 



306 



Annex 2. Profiles of Tree Species: Asia 



Diospyros ebenum 

Blackwood, Ceylon ebony, Mauritius ebony (Lemmens, Soerianegara and Wong, 
1995), ebony, tendu, Calamander Maram or Kalu-mediriya. 



Distribution 

Southern India and Sri Lanka, cultivated in Peninsular Malaysia. 

Habitat 

Dry forests. Grows as an understorey tree in mixed evergreen dry zone forests of Sri Lanka. 

Population status and trends 
Role of species in the ecosystem 
Threats 

Utilisation 

Produces commercial ebony; the fruits are also used medicinally, as a famine food and fish poison. 
Sometimes planted as a shade tree for cardamom (Lenunens, Soerianegara and Wong, 1995). 

Trade 

Commercial ebony long known in international trade; mainly exported to China for furniture and to 
Europe as a decorative wood (Lemmens. Soerianegara and Wong, 1995). It was the main commercial 
ebony in trade for centuries. In Sri Lanka large scale general harvesting of timber in the dry zone forests 
has taken place since the early 1800s. Initially selective felling of prime species took place with some 
expon to the UK. Timber exports continued until a gradual decline after the 1960s (Abeywickrama et al 
1991 ). Ebony on sale in the UK is imported from Sri Lanka. 

lUCN Conservation category 

DD (Asia Regional Workshop, 1997). 

Conservation measures 

There is a general ban on the export of timber from India. Sri Lanka also bans the export of this species. 

Forest management and silviculture 

References 

Abeyickrama, B.A. et al 1991 . Natural Resources of Sri Lanka. Conditions and Trends. A report prepared 

for the Natural Resources, Energy and Science Authority of Sri Lanka. 
Lemmens, R.H.M.J., Soenanegara, I. & Wong, W.C. (Eds.) 1995. Plant Resources of South-East Asia 

5(2) Timber Trees: Minor commercial timbers. Backhuys Publishers, Leiden 655pp. 
Asia Regional Workshop. 1997. Conservation and sustainable management of trees project workshop 

held m Hanoi, VietNam, August 1997 



307 



Contribution to an evaluation of tree species using the new CITES Listing Criteria 



Diospyros ferrea 

Ebenaceae 



Distribution 

Angola, Australia, Benin, Cambodia, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Cote d'lvoire, Fiji, Ghana, 
Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, India, Indonesia, Japan, Laos, Madagascar, Malaysia (Peninsular Malaysia), 
Mali, Myanmar, Nigeria, Papua New Guinea, Philippines, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Singapore, Sri Lanka, 
Taiwan, Thailand, Zimbabwe. 

Habitat 

In Papua New Guinea the species is found in tropical, lowland, moist, broadleaved, closed forest, open 
forest; mainly in primary rainforest and on limestone (Eddowes, 1997). It is associated with Syzygium, 
Palaquium, Aglaia spp and Eucalvpopsis papuana (Eddowes, 1997). 
Altitude: - 50(?)m (Eddowes, 1997) 

Population status and trends 

This family is in dire need of an orderly revision, especially the Papua New Guinea species: the major 
species that produce the famed commercial striped and black ebony from Papua New Guinea are still 
broadly lumped under the very doubtful Diospyros ferrea group (Eddowes, 1997b). Therefore the 
major species of Papua New Guinea, which are clearly highly endangered through over-exploitation, 
cannot be correctly classified due to the insatisfactory taxonomy of the group (Eddowes, 1997b). 

Role of species in the ecosystem 



Threats 

In Papua New Guinea the species is threatened mainly by clear-felling or logging of the habitat 
(Eddowes, 1997). Secondary threats include the expanding human settlements and increased 
subsistence farming (Eddowes, 1997). 

Utilisation 

Trade 

The timber is found in major international trade (Eddowes, 1997). 

The export of Diospyros spp. is banned in round log form from Papua New Guinea (Eddowes, 1997). 

lUCN Conservation category 

EN Alcd-i-2cd, Bl+2abcde according to Eddowes, P.J. (1997). 

Conservation notes: A valuable ebony timber tree. Due to the doubtful status of the Diospyros ferrea 
species group, as applied, it is difficult to assign a specific lUCN threat category. In Papua New 
Guinea, it occurs in primary rainforest and is all but restricted to Woodlark Island and possibly some 
other small islands in the D'Entrecasteaux group. Although the export of Diospyros spp. is banned in 
round log form from Papua New Guinea, this tree has been vigorously exploited in this and other 
regions and is highly endangered. This species is in dire need of immediate and strict conservation 
measures if this species is to survive in perpetuity. The above category applies to Papua New Guinea 
but could well be applied to other countries in its range. 

Conservation measures 

Forest management and silviculture 

Status in cultivation: small scale 

References 

Ake Assi, L. 1990. Annotated WCMC list of timber species for the Ivory Coast. (Cote d'lvoire). 
Balakrishna, P. & T. Ravishankar. 1993. Letter with list of corrections to TPU printout for India. 3pp. 
Dassanayake, M.D. & F.R. Fosberg (eds.). 1980. A revised handbook to the flora of Ceylon. New 

Delhi: Amerind Publ. Co. 
Eddowes, P.J. 1997a. Completed data collection forms for New Guinea. 
Eddowes, P.J. 1997b. Letter from Peter Eddowes to Sara Oldfield dated 13 October, 1997. 



308 



Annex 2. Profiles of Tree Species: Asia 



Hawthorne, W.D. 1995. Ecological profiles of Ghanaian forest trees. Oxford Forestry Institute. 345pp. 
Hutchinson, J., J.M. Dalziel, & F.N. Hepper. 1927. Flora of West Tropical Africa. Published by the 

English Ministry of State for the Colonies. 
Ng, P.K.L. & Y.C. Wee (eds.). 1994. The Singapore Red Data Book. Singapore: The Nature Society. 

343pp. 
Papua New Guinea Department of Forests. 1989. Facts and figures 1989. Boroko NCD: Papua New 

Guinea Department of Forests. 46pp. 
Phengklai.C. 1978. Ebenaceae of Thailand. r/w/ForesrBu/ie/m 11: 1-103. 
Said, I.M. & Z. Rozainah. 1992. An updated list of wetland plant species of Peninsular Malaysia, with 

particular reference to those having socio-economic value. Asian Wetland Bureau. 109pp. 
Timberlake, J.R. 1995. Annotations to WCMC printout entitled "Conservation status listing for 

Zimbabwe". 79pp. 
White, F. 1978. The taxonomy, ecology and chorology of African Ebenaceae, I. TTie Guineo-Congolian 

species. Bull. Jard. Bot. Nat. Belg. 48: 245-358. 
Wild, H. & T. Miiller. 1979. Rhodesia. Part of appendix to: Possibilities and needs for conservation of 

plant species and vegetation in Africa, pp. 99-100. In Hedberg, I. (ed.). Systematic botany, plant 

utilization and biosphere conservation. Stockholm: Almqvist & Wiksell International. 



309 



Contribution to an evaluation of tree species using the new CITES Listing Criteria 

Diospyros insularis 

Ebenaceae 
Ebony 



Distribution 

Papua New Guinea (Bismarck Archipelago, North Solomons), Solomon Islands (South Solomon) 

Habitat 

A tree of primary, lowland, rainforest found up to 50m (Eddowes, 1997). 

Population status and trends 

It is found in only a few localities in the Solomon Islands and New Ireland of the Bismarck 
Archipelago (Eddowes, 1997). It is considered to highly endangered, possibly critically endangered, 
due to exploitation and habitat destruction. 

Role of species in the ecosystem 

The seeds are dispersed by bats and large birds (i.e. pigeons) (Eddowes, 1997). 

Trade 

It occurs in international trade (Eddowes, 1997). This species is currently banned from log export in the 
round form in Papua New Guinea (Eddowes, 1997). 

Threats 

The species is threatened by clear- felling or logging of the habitat (Eddowes, 1997). 

Uses 

The wood is used for carving artifacts, musical instruments and as a veneer (Eddowes, 1997). 

lUCN Conservation category 

EN Alcd+2cd, Bl+2c according to Eddowes, P.J. (1997). 

Conservation measures 

This species is currently banned from log export in the round form in Papua New Guinea. There are no 
other conservation measures known (Eddowes, 1997). 

Forest management and silviculture 

The species is not known in cultivation (Eddowes, 1997). 

References 

Eddowes, P.J. 1997. Completed data collection forms for New Guinea. 

Lenmiens, R.H.M.J., Soerianegara, I. & Wong, W.C. (Eds.) 1995. Plant Resources of South-East Asia 
5(2) Timber Trees: Minor commercial timbers. Backhuys Publishers, Leiden 655pp. 



310 



Annex 2. Profiles of Tree Species: Asia 



Diospyros mun 



Distribution 

D. mun is endemic lo Viet Nam. In the northern provinces it is found at Ha Tuyen, Lang Son, Hoa Binh, 
Ha Tinh, Quang Binh; in the south it occurs at the communes of Cam Thinh Dong and Cam Thinh Tay, 
district Cam Ranh, province Khanh Hoa. 

Habit 

The species grows on limestone mountains in the Northern provinces, up to elevations of 800 m. Further 
south it occurs on yellow ferallitic soils developed from schists. 

Population status and trends 

Populations of this slow-growing species have declined in the wild because of the demand for timber for 
the export market. 

Trade 

D. mun yields back heartwood which is valued for craft objects and especially for chopsticks (Vu Van 
Dung and Vu Van Can, 1991). Timber is reported to be available in UK trade (WCMC, 1991). 

lUCN Conservation Category 

VU A 1 d - according to Amy MacKin ven based on Red Data Book of Viet Nam. 

Conservation measures 

D. mun is included in a list of prime tree and animal species to be protected in Viet Nam (Dang Huy 
Huynhetal. 1989). 

A Ministerial decision on the list of Endangered Forest Wild Fauna and Flaura (Decree No. 18) 17.1.92. 
stipulates protection and management regulations for these species. Under this legislation exploitation of 
D. mun is controlled by an annual quota. The export of round logs and semi-processed wood of the 
species is forbidden. 

In 1992, the Government of Viet Nam announced a ban on all wood exports, aimed at ending widespread 
deforestation in parts of the country. Prior to this Viet Nam had banned log exports and had quotas for the 
export of sawn timber (Callister, 1992). 

D. mun occurs within a number of protected areas in Viet Nam. These include the Cue Phuong National 
Park where it grows in primary humid evergreen forest (Hoang Hoe and Vo Quy, 1990). 

Additional protection needs 

According to Vu Van Dung and Vu Van Can (1991) protection of the species is needed, especially at the 
Nature Reserve of Cam Thinh Dong, district Cam Ranh and at another reserve in Quang Binh province. 
Ex situ conservation measures are also urgently needed. 

Forest management and silviculture 

References 

Callister, 1992 
Dang Huy Huyh et al. 1989 
Hoang Hoe and Vo Quy, 1990 

WCMC, 1991. Provision of data on rare and threatened tropical timber species. Unpublished report, 
prepared under contract to the EC. 



;ii 



Contribution to an evaluation of tree species using the new CITES Listing Criteria 



Diospyros philippinensis 

synonyms: Diospyros cunalon 

Diospyros cumingii 

Diospyros flavicans 
Philippine Ebony; Kamagong 

Distribution 

This species is endemic to the Phihppines and Northern Sulawesi. 

Habitat 

Phihppine ebony grows in primary forest at altitudes up to 200 m (PROSEA, 1995). 

Population Status and Trends 

Very little lowland forest remains in the Philippines. Records of D. philippinensis are often from forest 
fragments or from habitats smaller than 50 km^ (Madulid, in litt., 1996) 

Role of Species in its Ecosystem 

No information. 

Threats 

According to Madulid (1996) this species is rarely exploited for timber. 

Utilisation 

The timber is used for turnery, piano keys, carving, brush backs, inlaying, parts of stringed instruments 
and marquetry. 

Trade 

D. philippinensis from the Philippines is not legally traded in the international market, therefore no 
official records exist (Madulid, 1996). Illegal trade in D. philippinensis is widespread, even though 
there has been a ban on log exports since 1989 (Blockus et al, 1992 in CITES Proposal). In 1991. a 
shipment of illegally cut Diospyros sp. (Kamagong) worth US$ 90, 17 1 was seized in a Philippines port 
before it was illegally exported to Malaysia (Callister, 1992 in Madulid, 1996). 

Conservation Status 

The global threat status of D. philippinensis is unknown according to the WCMC Plants Database. The 
Philippines has had one of the highest deforestation rates for tropical rain forests (Collins, Sayer, and 
Whitmore 1991), making this species probably Endangered due to decline in habitat of more than 50 % 
in three generations, although more information is needed for Northern Sulawesi. 

Conservation Measures 

Philippine ebony is protected in the Philippines (PROSEA, 1995) and felling restrictions are in force. 

D. philippinensis is found in many of the Philippine protected areas (i.e. Mount Arayat National Park, 
Mounts Palay Palay Mataas NA Gulod National Park, Initai National Park) (Dep't of Environment and 
Natural Resources, 1992 in CITES Proposal). 
There are no known plantations of D. philippinensis in the Philippines (Madulid, in litt., 1996) 

References 

CITES Proposal, 1992. Proposal to include Diospyros philippinensis in Appendix II of CITES. 
Collms, N.M., Sayer, J.A. and Whitmore, T.C. (Eds), 1991. The conservation atlas of tropical forests: 

Asia and the Pacific. Simon & Schuster: Singapore. 
Lemmens, R.H.M.J., Soerianegara, I. and W.C. Wong (Eds.), 1995. Plant Resources of South-East 

Asia (PROSEA) No. 5(2) Timber Trees:Minor commercial timbers. Backhuys Publishers, Leiden. 

655 pp. 
Madulid, D. A., 1996. Letter to Amy MacKinven dated 1 1th July 1996 re: Diospyros pilosanthera and 

D. philippinensis. 



312 



Annex 2. Profiles of Tree Species: Asia 



Diospyros pilosanthera 

synonym: Diopspyros hiemii 

Distribution 

This widespread species is found in Myanmar, Thailand, Cambodia, Viet Nam, Peninsular Malaysia, 
Indonesia (Sumatra, Java, Borneo, and the Moluccas) and the Philippines. 

Habitat 

D. pilosanthera occurs in primary lowland and medium altitude forest (upto 900m) and is frequently 
found in peat swamp forest, swampy areas, and in river valley forests. This species can also be found in 
forests on rocky slopes, in old-growth secondary forests and in open forests near the coast (Madulid in 
lin., 1996) 

Population Status and Trends 

Records of D. pilosanthera are often from forest fragments or from habitats smaller than 50 km^ 
(Madulid, in to., 1996) 

Role of Species in its Ecosystem 

No information. 

Threats 

According to Madulid (1996) this species is rarely exploited for timber. 

The forests containing D. pilosanthera have been degraded by legal and illegal logging and loss of 

habitat due to land conversion (i.e. agricultural land, grassland). 

Utilisation 

The wood is used for fancy woodwork, furniture, cabinet making and tool handles. 

Trade 

D. pilosanthera from the Philippines is not legally traded in the international market, therefore no 
official records exist. 

In 1991, a shipment of illegally cut Diospyros sp. (Kamagong) worth US$ 90,171 was seized in the 
port before it was illegally exported to Malaysia (Callister, 1992 in Madulid, 1996). 

Conservation Status 

The global threat status of D. pilosanthera is unknown according to the WCMC Plants Database. 
The new lUCN threat categories have not yet been applied to this species. 

Conservation Measures 

D. pilosanthera occurs in the protected forests of Palawan and Mt. Makiling. Philippines (Madulid. in 
litt., 1996); the rest of the range in the Philippines (i.e. any public land) are under the jurisdiction of the 
Dep't of Environment and Natural Resources (DENR). There are no known plantations of D. 
pilosanthera in the Philippines (Madulid, 1996). 

References 

Madulid, D. A., 1996. Letter to Amy MacKinven dated Uth July 1996 re: Diospyros pilosanthera and 
D. philippinensis. 



313 



Contribution to an evaluation of tree species using the new CITES Listing Criteria 



Diospyros rumphii 

Macassar ebony. Indonesia: maitem, moyondi (Sulawesi), mologotu (Moluccas), 
(Lemmens, Soerianegara and Wong, 1995). 



Distribution 

Sulawesi and the Moluccas (Lemmens, Soerianegara and Wong, 1995). 

Habitat 

Lowland forest up to 400 m altitude (Lemmens, Soerianegara and Wong, 1995). 

Population status and trends 
Role of species in the ecosystem 
Threats 
Utilisation 

Trade 

The species is an important source of black and streaked ebony (Lemmens, Soerianegara and Wong, 
1995). 

lUCN Conservation category 

DD (Asia Regional Workshop, 1997). 

Conservation measures 

Forest management and silviculture 

References 

Asia Regional Workshop, 1997. Conservation and sustainable management of trees project workshop 

held in Hanoi, VietNam, August, 1997 
Lemmens, R.H.M.J., Soerianegara, I. & Wong, W.C. (Eds.) 1995. Plant Resources of South-East Asia 

(PROSEA) 5(2) Timber Trees: Minor commercial timbers. Backhuys Publishers, Leiden 655pp. 



314 



Annex 2. Profiles of Tree Species: Asia 



Durio dulcis 

Bombacaceae 



Distribution 

Indonesia (Kalimantan), Malaysia (Sabah, Sarawak) 

Habitat 

Lowland mixed dipterocarp forest up to 800m. 

Population status and trends 

A large tree found scattered in lowland mixed dipterocarp forest. Durio spp. generally are scattered, 
uncommon and regenerate poorly. Genetic erosion has been reported for this species and protection is 
required (Lemmens, Soerianegara and Wong, 1995). 

Role of species in the ecosystem 

Threats 

Forest clearance and degradation because of agriculture and logging are major threats to the habitat. 

Utilisation 

The fruits and timber are utilised. The wood is probably one of the most important sources of durian 
timber in Sarawak. 

Trade 

The fruit are sold in local and urban markets. 

rUCN Conservation category 

VUAlc-WCMC 

Conservation measures 

No specific conservation measures known. 

Forest management and silviculture 

The species is rarely planted because of its short fruiting period. 

References 

Lemmens, R.H.M.J., L Soerianegara, & W.C. Wong (eds.). 1995. Plant Resources of South-East Asia 

No 5(2). Timber trees: Minor conunercial timbers. Leiden: Backhuys Publishers. 655 pp. 
van Valkenburg, J.L.C.H. 1997. Conversation regarding the conservation status of fruits of East 
Kalimantan with Amy MacKinven. 

Whitmore. T.C., LG.M. Tantra. & U. Sutisna (eds.). 1989. Tree flora of Indonesia. Bogor, Indonesia; 
Forest Research and Development Centre. 181pp. 



315 



Contribution to an evaluation of tree species using the new CITES Listing Criteria 



Durio kutejensis 

durian kunin (Branei); lai, sekawi (Dayak, Kalimantan); durian tinggang (Malay, 
Kalimantan), durian merah (Sabah) and rain isu (Iban, Sarawak) 



Distribution 

Borneo (Sabah, Sarawak, Brunei, Kalimantan). Cultivated in other areas of Malesia e.g. Java and E. 
Kalimantan. 

Habitat 

This species is found in primary mixed dipterocarp forest on fertile clay rich soils (Soerianegara and 
Lemmens 1995). 

Population Status and Trends 

Wild trees are confined to the foothills of centra] Borneo. Durio spp. are usually scattered and uncommon 
(Lemmens et ah 1995). Natural regeneration of Durio spp. in the wild tends to be poor and seedlings are 
scattered . In Indonesia this species is suffering from some genetic erosion in the wild (Lemmens et al, 
1995). 

Role of species in the ecosystem 

The fruits of Durio sp. are eaten by animals, especially orang-utans, which act as seed dispersers 
(Lemmens et al, 1995). 

Threats 

The natural habitat of this species is threatened by forest degradation due to logging and shifting 
agriculture (Pers. Comm. van Valkenburg, 1997). 

Utilisation 

The fruit is popular and is the durian relative that comes closest to the 'real' durian (Durio zibethinus) 
(Verheij & Coronel. 1992). The wood is thought to be utilised as durian timber (Lemmens et al. 1995). 
Durian timber is not durable and is only suitable for construction indoors; it is also used for cheaper 
furniture, cabinets, light-traffic flooring, fittings, panelling, partitioning, plywood, chests, boxes, wooden 
slippers, low-quality coffins and ship building (Lemmens et al, 1995). 

The wild populations may be very important for improving cultivated species (Lemmens et al, 1995). 
Durio kutejensis having an aromatic but less pungent odour than the true durian could be used in breeding 
a variety appealing to non-Asian markets (Soegeng-Reksohihardjo. 1961 in Smith et al, 1992). This 
species starts fhiiting when it is only 4-5 m tall (van Valkenburg, 1997). 

Trade 

This species is traded on a large scale in E. Kalimantan and has the potential for more widespread trade 
(van Valkenburg, 1997). Lai is traded in local markets at the height of the durian season, sometime 
between January and April and there is sometimes a second season in July/August (van Valkenburg, 
1997). Prices vary between Rp.500 to RP.lOOO/fruit depending on size of the fhiit and the supply (van 
Valkenburg, 1997). 

Timber of Duno is traded together with timber of other fiomi^acaceae genera (Lemmens et al, 1995). 
Durian timber is exported primarily from Sabah and Sarawak mainly to Japan (Lemmens et al, 1995). In 
1987 Sabah exported a total of 5,3(X) m' round logs for US$67/m' and in 1992 they exported 8,500m' 
round logs and sawn wood with a total value of US$655,000 (US$170/m' for sawn wood and US$68/m' 
for round logs) (Lemmens et al, 1995). 

lUCN Conservation category 

VU Ale - preliminary evaluation by Amy MacKinven, WCMC. 

Conservation Measures 



316 



Annex 2. Profiles of Tree Species: Asia 



Forest management and silviculture 

The seeds of Durio spp. tend to be recalcitrant as they cannot withstand descication or low temperatures 
(Lenunens at al, 1995). Often management systems do not take into account the sporadic occurrence and 
regeneration of Durian species (Lemmens et al, 1995). 

References 

Lemmens, R.H.M.J., Soerianegara, I. & Wong, W.C. (Eds.) 1995. Plant Resources ofSouth-East Asia 

(PROSEA) 5(2) Timber Trees: Minor commercial timbers. Backhuys Publishers, Leiden 655pp. 
Smith, N.J.H., Williams J.T.. Plucknett, D.L. and J.P. Talbot. 1992. Tropical Forest and their Crops. 

Cornell University Press: Ithaca, U.S.A. 
van Valkenburg, J.L.C.H. 1997. Conversation regarding the conservation status of fruits of East 

Kalimantan with Amy MacKinven. 
van Valkenburg, J.L.C.H. 1997. Non-timber forest products of East Kalimantan. Potentials for 

sustainable forest use. Tropenbos Series 16. The Tropenbos Foundation:Wageningen, The 

Netherlands, pp.61-95. 
Verheij, E.W.M. and R.E. Coronel (Eds). 1992. Edible fruits and nuts. Backhuys Publishers, Leiden 



317 



Contribution to an evaluation of tree species using the new CITES Listing Criteria 



Dyera costulata 

Hill jelutong. Indonesia: jelutung bukit (general), melabuai (Sumatra), panning gunung 
(Kalimantan). Malaysia: jelutung bukit (general), jelutong pipit, jelumng daun lebar 
(Peninsula). Thailand: teen-pet daeng (Peninsula), ye-luu-tong, luu-tong (Malay, 
Peninsular) (Lemmens, Soerianegara and Wong, 1995). 



Distribution 

Peninsular Thailand, Peninsular Malaysia, Singapore, Sumatra, Borneo and intervening islands 
(Lemmens, Soerianegara and Wong, 1995). 

Habitat 

The species occurs in primary evergreen lowland or hill forest, in well-drained locations up to 300 m 
(Lemmens, Soerianegara and Wong, 1995). 

Population status and trends 

Jelutong has a scattered natural distibution and has declined as a result of tapping for latex and felling for 
timber. The risk of extinction was recognised 60 years ago. In Peninsular Malaysia the species has been 
reported to be threatened (Ng et al 1984). Jelutong does, however, regenerate readily in logged-over 
forest. It is also planted commercially for timber. 

Role of species in the ecosystem 

Threats 

Exploitation for latex, felling for timber, conversion of lowland forests to agriculture. 

Utilisation 

It has a number of speciality uses such as pattern making in foundry work, for drawing boards, pencils, 
picture firames. dowels, carving, blackboards, wooden toys, clogs, brush handles and battery separators, 
and it is also used for furniture parts, door knobs, ceilings, partitioning, matchsticks, matchboxes and 
packing cases. The roots are used as a substitute for cork and their wood for axe handles. The latex is used 
in the manufacture of chewing gum, in paints, as priming for concrete, or for sizing paper. Follicles are 
occasionally used as torches by the local population or burnt to repel mosquitos (Lemmens, Soerianegara 
and Wong, 1995). 

Trade 

In the period from 1980-1990 the export of jelutong sawn timber from Peninsular Malaysia was 32000- 
44000m Vyear with a value of US$ 5.1-10.8 million a year; in 1992 it was 19000 m' with a value of US$ 
8.3 million (US$440/m') (Lemmens, Soerianegara and Wong, 1995). In 1995, Malaysia (Peninsular) 
exported 5000 m' of sawnwood at an average price of 7 lOS/m" (ITTO, 1996). 

The export from Sabah was 67000 m' in 1987 with a value of USS4.5 million and 23000 m' (55% as 
sawn timber, 45% as logs) in 1992 with a total value of USS 3.5 million (US$ 215/m' for sawn timber, 
USS 82/m for logs). Japan imports comparatively large amounts of jelutong. mainly from Sarawak and 
Sabah (Lemmens, Soerianegara and Wong, 1995). 

In 1987, Indonesia exported 2,183,462USS worth of this species as jelutong (WWF and lUCN, 1994- 
1995). 

In Malaysia, the trade in latex has declined since the peak production period 1930-1940. The export of 
jelutong latex from Indonesia was still around 3500 1 in 1989 (Lemmens, Soerianegara and Wong, 1995). 

Indonesia is the main source of jelutong gum. Most is exported to Singapore, mainly for re-export to the 
US. Some is exported directly to Japan and Europe where Italy is the main importer (Coppen, 1995). 

lUCN Conservation category 

LR-lc (Asia Regional Workshop, 1997). 



318 



Annex 2. Profiles of Tree Species: Asia 



Conservation measures 

Jelutong is subject to a log export ban in Peninsular Malaysia, and special permission has been raquired to 
cut the tree in Thailand (Ministry of Agriculture and Cooperatives Decree of 1988). 

Regulations on the methods of tapping the latex were introduced in the 1930s (Coppen, 1995). 

Forest management and silviculture 

In Peninsular Malaysia D. costulata is chosen for enrichment planting because it is easy to handle in the 
nursery, survives well when planted out, has a good rate of growth and has good market potential. 
Prolonged contact with acid water in peat forest harms young plants. D. costulata is a very light- 
demanding species and once a young tree is well established in full light, it tends to spread its crown and 
develop into a pronounced 'wolf tree'. Sudden opening of the canopy is favourable for its development 
(Lemmens, Soerianegara and Wong, 1995). 

D. costulata coppices readily and is extremely resistant to girdling (Lemmens, Soerianegara and Wong, 
1995). 

References 

Asia Regional Workshop, 1997. Conservation and sustainable maruigemenl of trees proiecl workshop 

held in Hanoi, VietNam, August 1997 
Coppen, J. J.W. 1995 

mo. 1996. Annual Review and Assessment of the World Tropical Timber Situation. 
Lemmens, R.H.M.J., Soerianegara, L & Wong, W.C. (Eds.) 1995. Plant Resources of South-East Asia 

(PROSEA) 5(2) Timber Trees: Minor commercial timbers. Backhuys Publishers, Leiden 655pp. 
WWFand lUCN. 1994-1995. Centres of plant diversity: A guide and strategy for their conservation. Vol 

2. lUCN publications Unit, Cambridge, UK. 



319 



Contribution to an evaluation of tree species using the new CITES Listing Criteria 

Dyera polyphylla 

Apocynaceae 



Distribution 

Brunei, Indonesia (Kalimantan, Sumatra), Malaysia (Sabah, Sarawak) 

Habitat 

Swamp forest, peat-swamp forest and kerangas on ground water podzols. 

Population status and trends 

A tree restricted to and scattered in swamp forest, peat-swamp forest and *kerangas on groundwater 
podzols. the risk of extinction due to over-exploitation was recognised 60 years ago. It is considered 
endangered in Sarawak. Relatively little is known about this species compared the more common 
Dyera costulata, but considering its restricted distribution and threatened habitat it is apparently at a 
greater risk of extinction. 

Role of species in the ecosystem 

Threats 

Over exploitation and habitat loss; the current burning of peat swamp forests is likely to seriously 
impact this species. 

Utilisation 

The wood is traded as 'jelutong' timber and trees are tapped for the valuable latex. 

Trade 

See information for D. polyphylla. 

lUCN Conservation category 

ENAlcd-WCMC 

Conservation measures 

Forest management and silviculture 

There is some plantation development. 

References 

Anon. Dun - select committee on flora and fauna, (unpublished). 

Erfurth, T. & H. Rusche. 1976. The marketing of tropical wood, (unpublished). FO: MISC/76/8. 

Lemmens. R. H.M.J. , I. Soerianegara. & W.C. Wong (eds.). 1995. Plant Resources of South-East Asia 

No 5(2). Timber trees: Minor commercial timbers. Leiden: Backhuys Publishers. 655 pp. 
Middleton, D. 1997. Conversation between David Middleton and Amy MacKinven regarding the threat 

status of Apocynaceae trees. 



320 



Annex 2. Profiles of Tree Species: Asia 



Erythrophleum fordii 

Leguminosae 



Distribution 

China (Guangdong, Guangxi), Taiwan. Viet Nam 

Habitat 

Monsoon or rainforest up to SOOm. 

Population status and trends 

The Chinese populations are largely reduced to trees left standing around populated areas. The species 
range in Viet Nam extends from the border with China to Quang Nam-Da Nang Province. Occumng, 
in monsoon or rainforest it can form a scattered or dominant component. 

Role of species in the ecosystem 

No information. 

Threats 

In China, overcutting is the main threat. Clear-felling and logging of the habitat together with 
clearance for agriculture are other threats to the species. 

Utilisation 

A valuable timber tree. 

Trade 

lUCN Conservation category 

ENAlcd-Nghia 

Conservation measures 

No conservation measures are recorded for populations in China. In Viet Nam seeds have been 
collected from nine areas within the distribution range of the species and ex situ conservation stands 
will be established at Cau Hai Silviculture Centre (Nghia, 1997). 

Forest management and silviculture 

In China, plantations were established in the 1950s to increase supplies of the hard wood but demands 
are still in excess of what can be sustainably provided. 

References 

Fu, Li-kuo & Jian-ming Jin (eds.). 1992. China Plant Red Data Book. Beijing: Science Press, xviii- 

741. 
Loc, Phan Ke. 1992. Annotations to: Conservation status listing for Viemam dated 25 March 1992. 

(unpublished). 49pp. 
Loc, Phan Ke. 1986. Lists of rare and endangered plant species of Vietnam (1986-1988). 

(unpublished). 
Nghia, H. 1997. Strategy for conservation of forest genetic resources - an important part of 

biodiversity conservation in Viet Nam. In: Report of the Third Regional Workshop of the 

Conservation and sustainable management of trees project. 
National Environment Protection Bureau. 1 987. The list of rare and endangered plants protected in 

China. Botanical Institute of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing: Academy Press. 96pp. 



321 



Contribution to an evaluation of tree species using the new CITES Listing Criteria 



Eugenia flosculifera 

Myrtaceae 
Kelat 

Distribution: 

Malaysia (Peninsular Malaysia), Singapore 

Habitat: 

A lowland, tropical moist species, scattered in the non-seasonal primary forests of Peninsular Malaysia 
and Singapore. Occurs at an altitude of between 30 - 300m. 

Population status and trends: 

Role of species in the ecosystem: 

This species occurs scattered at the primary stage of succesion. Bees, flies and butterflies are 
pollinators. Monkeys, squirrels and bats are species dispersal agents. 

Threats: 

Clear-felling/logging of the habitat 

Utilisation: 

Used as a food for minor international trade, and the stem as timber. 

Trade: 

lUCN Conservation category 

NE 

Conservation measures: 

This species is conserved within the permanent forest reserves of Peninsular Malaysia. Protection in 
Virgin jungle reserves and national parks is uncertain. Asian Eugenia are now included in Syzygium. 



Forest management and silviculture: 

Status in cultivation: 

none 

References: 

Chua, L. et al. 1997. Completed data collection forms for endemic trees of Peninsular Malaysia. 
Ng, P.K.L. & Y.C. Wee (eds.). 1994. The Singapore Red Data Book. Singapore: The Nature Society. 
343pp. 



322 



Annex 2. Profiles of Tree Species: Asia 



Eugenia koordersiana 

Myrtaceae 



Distribution 

Peninsular Malaysia 

Habitat 

A lowland, tropical moist forest tree occurring up to 200m altitude. 

Population status and trends 

Widely distributed and abundant in primary forest of Peninsular Malaysia. 

Role of species in the ecosystem 

Butterflies, bees and flies are pollinators of the species. Dispersal agents include bats, squirrels and 
monkeys. 

Threats 

clear-felling/logging of the habitat 

Utilisation 

Timber 

Trade 

Major international trade 

lUCN Conservation category 

LR/lc - Kochummen, K.M. 

Conservation measures 

Conservation measures for the species, are in place in productive forest reserves. The species is not in 
cultivation. 

Forest management and silviculture 

References 

Chua, L. ei al. 1 997. Completed data collection forms for endemic u-ees of Peninsular Malaysia. 



323 



Contribution to an evaluation of tree species using the new CITES Listing Criteria 

Eugenia ridleyi 

Myrtaceae 

Kelat (Peninsular Malaysia), obah (Sabah), Ubah (Sar.). 



Distribution: 

Malaysia; widely occurring throughout lowland Malaya, with distribution being more frequent locally. 
Singapore and Thailand 

Habitat: 

Inhabits tropical, lowland, moist and non-seasonal closed forest between 30 and 200m altitude. 

Population status an trends: 

Role of species in the ecosystem: 

This species occurs scattered in primary forest. Flys, bees and butterflys are pollinators. Monkeys, 
squirrels and bats act as dispersal agents. 

Threats 

Clear felling and logging of the habitat. 

Utilisation 

The stem is utilised for it's timber and is sold in minor international trade. 

Trade 

Primarily used for timber, it has a minor role in international trade 

lUCN Conservation category: 

LR/lc according to Kochummen, K.M. 

Conservation measures 

A level of protection is provided by the productive forest reserves of Peninsular Malaysia it is 
conserved. Asian Eugenia are now included in Syzygium. 

Forest management and Silviculture 

This species is not m cultivation. 

References: 

Chua, L. et al. 1 997. Completed data collection forms for endemic trees of Peninsular Malaysia. 
Ng, P.K.L. & Y.C. Wee (eds.). 1994. The Singapore Red Data Book. Singapore: The Nature Society. 

343pp. 



324 



Annex 2. Profiles of Tree Species: Asia 



Eusideroxylon zwageri 

Ironwood, Belian, Borneo Ironwood, bois de fer (Ft). Brunei: belian. Malaysia: belian 
(Sarawak, Sabah), tambulian (Sabah), im muk (Cantonese, Sabah), Ulin. Indonesia: 
belian (general), onglen, tulian, tebelian (Kalimantan). Philippines: tambulian, sakian, 
biliran (Sulu). 



Distribution 

Sumatra, Bangka, Belitung, Borneo, Sulu Archipelago, Kalimantan, Sabah, Sarawak, Philippines 
(Palawan). 

Habitat 

E. zwageri is widespread in Borneo and Sumatra as a scattered component of the Dipterocarp forest and 
in some localities forms a single dominant variant. It is generally found in lowland areas of primary forest 
5-400 m, in flat or sloping terrain, and also occurs in old secondary forest (Suselo, 1987). 

Population status and trends 

Belian is one of the most renowned timbers of Borneo. It has been favoured both for local use and the 
export trade. Over-exploitation together with forest clearance have led to the decline of this slow-growing 
timber species. The increased availability of forest roads opened by concessionaires is leading to greater 
problems of uncontrollable exploitation in Kalimantan (Partomihardjo, 1987). 

On the flat lowlands of southern Sumatra, great stands of ironwood, (E. zwageri) once stood, these have 
now been almost entirely destroyed (WWF and lUCN, 1994-1995). 

E. zwageri is considered to be Vulnerable in Indonesia by Tantra (1983) and was in a shortlist of 
Endangered species of the country (Anon., 1 978). It is included in a list of vanishing timber species of the 
Philippines (de Guzman, 1975). The species is considered to be almost extinct in Sabah (Meijer, pers. 
comm. 1997). 

Over 30 years ago, the scarcity of £. zwageri in Sarawak was noted by Browne (1955), who pointed out 
that, "Our survivmg supplies of Belian are by no means very large and are undoubtably dwindling." The 
main causes given for this are shifting cultivation and wasteful use. 

Role of species in the ecosystem 

Threats 

Over-exploitation and shifting cultivation (Soerianegara & Lemmens, 1993). The introduction of chain 
saws and extensive road systems by the timber industry (Peluso, 1992). 

Utilisation 

Belian is used locally in house construction and for water butts. Its commercial uses are for heavy 
construction, marine work, boat building, printing blocks, industrial flooring, roofing and furniture. Belian 
has been esteemed by the Chinese as a coffin wood. 

Production and trade 

Primarily used locally with limited exports recorded by Sabah. In southern Kalimantan this timber is 
felled by the owners of concession rights and also by local people coordinated by Ulin traders 
(Partomihardjo, 1 987). Kartawinata et a/. ( 1 98 1 ) note that transmigrant settlers in East Kalimantan cut 
this species for sale to supplement their income from cultivation. In 1987 Sabah exported 3 836 070 m of 
Belian (source; Forestry Department), in 1992 the export was 7350 m' (Soerianegara & Lemmens, 1993). 

lUCN Conservation category 

VU Alcd &2c,d (Asia Regional Workshop, 1997). 

Conservation measures 

There are attempts to conserve supplies of this species in Sarawak (Asia Regional Workshop, 1997). 



325 



Contribution to an evaluation of tree species using the new CITES Listing Criteria 



Legislation 

Indonesia - Thought to be totally protected by law (Anon., 1978). Indonesian law forbids its export (out of 
country) and restricts cutting to trees over 60 cm diameter at breast height (Peluso, 1992). The need for 
control of exploitation and better cutting criteria are pointed out by Partomihardjo ( 1 987). 

Sarawak - Under the Forest Rules of Sarawak, export of £. zwageri in log, sawn or hewn form is not 
allowed without special permission. Export controls have been in force since 1950. 

Presence in protected areas 

Indonesia Kutai National Park, East Kalimantan - has pure stands of Eusideroxylon zwageri. Tanjung 
Putting National Park, Kalimantan, Gunung Pennsen/Gunung Nyiut Game Reserve, Kalimantan, 
Lempakai Botanical Park, East Kalimantan 

Sabah Tabin Wildlife Reserve 

Forest management and silviculture 

Browne (1955) noted that the patchy distribution, limited extent and inaccessibility of many Belian forests 
in Sarawak made assessment of remaining stands and sustained yield management very difficult. Poor 
seedling regeneration in logged forests has been noted (Kartawinata, 1978). Some plantation was carried 
out in secondary forest in Sumatra (Browne, 1955) and plantation continues on a trial basis both in 
Sumatra and West Kalimantan. Inadequacies of seed and seedling supply limit more extensive plantation 
and the need for tissue culture has been suggested by Suselo (1987). In natural forests ulin is usually cut 
selectively with a diameter limit of 50 cm. Harvesting is usually done manually. Regeneration in logged- 
over forests is often not sufficient, although ulin may coppice freely and be persistent (Soerianegara & 
Lemmens, 1993). 

References 

Anon. 1978. Endangered species of trees. Conservation Indonesia 2(4). 

Asia Regional Workshop, 1997. Conservation and Sustainable Management of Trees project workshop 

held in Hanoi, VietNam, August 1997 
Browne, F.G. 1955. Forest trees of Sarawak and Brunei and their products. Government Printing Office, 

Kuching. 
de Guzman, E.D. 1975. Conservation of vanishing timber species in the Philippines. In: Williams, J., 

Lamourak, C.H. and Wulijami-Soetjipto, N. (Eds), South-East Asian plant genetic resources. 

Symposium Proceedings Bogor, Indonesia, March 1975. IBPGR, Bogor. 
Kartawinata, K. 1978. Biological changes after logging in lowland dipterocarp forest. In: Suparto, R.S. et 

al. (Eds), Proceedings of a Symposium on the long-term effects of logging in Southeast Asia. 

BIOTROP Special Publication No. 3, pp. 43-56. 
Kartawinata, K., Adisoemarto, S., Riswan, S. and Vayda, A.P. 1981. The impact of man on a tropical 

forest in Indonesia. Ambio 10(2-3): 1 15-1 19 
Meijer, W. 1997. Personal communication to Amy MacKinven 

Partomihardjo, T. (1987). The ulin wood which is threatened to extinction. Duta Rimba 87-88(13): 10-15. 
Soerianegara, I. & Lemmens. R.H.M.J. (Eds.) 1993 Plant Resources of South-East Asia (PROSEA) 5(1) 

Timber trees: major commercial timbers. Pudoc Scientific Publishers, Wageningen. 
Peluso, N.L. 1992. The Ironwood Problem: (Mis)Management and Development of an Extractive 

Rainforest Product. Conservation Biology Vol. 6, No. 2: 210-219 
Suselo, T.B. (1987). Autecology of £, zwageri T. & B. (Lauraceae) as applied to forest regeneration. In: 

Proc. Symp. Forest Regeneration in South East Asia. Biotrop Special Publication No. 25 BIOTROP, 

Bogor. 
Tantra, G.M. (1983). Erosi plasma nutfah nabati. J. Penelitian & Penembangan Pertanian 2(1): 1-5. 
WWFand lUCN. 1994-1995. Centres of plant diversity. A guide and strategy for their conservation. Vol 

2. lUCN publications Unit, Cambridge, UK. 



326 



Annex 2. Profiles of Tree Species: Asia 



Fagus longipetiolata 

Fagaceae 



Distribution 

China, Viet Nam (Sapa and Moc Chau) 

Habitat 

Subtropical dense broadleaved forest. Found on wet mountain yellow soils at altitude 1000 - 2600m. 

Population status and trends 

In China this species is quite widespread but nowhere very abundant (FAO, 1996). In Viet Nam this 
slow-growing tfee is only known from Sapa and Moc Chau, where it is sometimes the dominant 
species in dense subtropical broadleaved forest. Regeneration is thought to be hampered by a thick 
layer of leaf litter on the forest floor. 

Role of species in the ecosystem 

Associated with the following tree genera: Quercus, Schima, Pasania and Castanopsis. 

Threats 

Utilisation 

The wood is used to make furniture, implements and musical instruments. The tree also provides a 
useful source of gum, resin and oil. 

Trade 

No information. 

lUCN Conservation category 

VU Alcd - Nghia, N.H. 

Conservation measures 

Forest management and silviculture 

References 

Chinh, N. N. et al. 1996. Vietnam Forest Trees. Hanoi; Agricultural Publishing House. 1-788. 
FAO Forestry Department. 1986. Databook on endangered tree and shrub species and their 

provenances. Rome; FAO. 524pp. 
Loc, Phan Ke. 1986. Lists of rare and endangered plant species of Vietnam (1986-1988). unpublished). 
Ministry of Science, Technology and Environment. 1996. Sach do Viet Nam Phan Thuc Vat. Hanoi: 

Science and Technics Publishing House. 484pp. 



327 



Contribution to an evaluation of tree species using the new CITES Listing Criteria 

Flindersia ifflaiana 

Rutaceae 
ash, hickory 



Distribution 

Australia (Atherton District, nortliem Queensland), Papua New Guinea. In Papua New Guinea it is 
confined to the Oriomo river area of the Western province. 

Habitat 

In Papua New Guinea, this tree grows scattered in primary monsoon and gallery forest up to 50m 
altitude (Eddowes, 1997). In Australia it is found in moist rainforest up to 400 m above sea level 
(Keating and Bolza, 1982). 

Population status and trends 

Role of species in ecosystem 

In Papua New Guinea it is associated with Alloxylon, Grevillea and other Flindersia spp. The seeds are 
wind dispersed (Eddowes, 1997). 

Threats 

The Oriomo river ecosystem of the Western province, where this species occurs, is relatively small, 
fragile and unique but this region is threatened by logging activities (Eddowes, 1997). 

Utilisation 

The wood is used for flooring and exterior joinery (Eddowes, 1997). In Australia it has been one of the 
most important structural timber species of northern Queensland (Keating and Bolza, 1982). 

Trade 

This species is traded internationally on a minor scale (Eddowes, 1997). Small amounts of Flindersia 
wood are imported into Japan from Papua New Guinea (Sosef, Hong and Prawirohatmodjo, 1998). 

lUCN Conservation category 

EN A2cd, Bl+2c according to Eddowes, P.J. (1997). 

The above threat category applies only to the population in Papua New Guinea. 

Conservation measures 

Conservation measures are nil or negligible (Eddowes, 1997). 

Forest management and silviculture 

The species is possibly planted on a small scale at the LAE National Botanical Gardens, Papua New 
Guinea (Eddowes, 1997). It can be grown from seed but trials have shown that this species grows too 
slowly to be of economic importance (Sosef, Hong and Prawirohatmodjo, 1998). 

References 

Eddowes, P.J. 1997. Completed data collection forms for New Guinea. 

Keating, W.G. and Bolza, E. 1982. Characteristics, properties and uses of timbers. Volume 1. South- 
east Asia. Northern Australia and the Pacific. Inkata Press, Melbourne 
Sosef, Hong and Prawirohatmodjo, 1998 



328 



Annex 2. Profiles of Tree Species: Asia 



Flindersia laevicarpa 

Rutaceae 
maple, silkwood 

Distribution 

Australia (Queensland), Indonesia (Irian Jaya), Papua New Guinea. 

It is restricted to north Queensland and in Indonesia the species is known only from Misool Island. 

Habitat 

A large tree scattered in tropical dry and moist, broadleaved, open forest between 50 - 1200m. It is 
specifically found in monsoon, gallery and hill forest on elevated ground (Eddowes, 1997). 

Population status and trends 

Role of species in the ecosystem 

The seeds are wind dispersed (Eddowes, 1997). 

Threats 

This large tree is threatened in New Guinea due to exploitation and logging activities (Eddowes, 1997). 

Utilisation 

The wood is used for high-class joinery, ftimiture and cabinet work (Eddowes, 1997). 

Trade 

This species is found in mmor international trade (Eddowes. 1997). Small amounts of Flindersia wood 
are imported into Japan from Papua New Guinea (Sosef, Hong and Prawirohatmodjo, 1998). 

lUCN Conservation category 

VU CI & C2a according to Eddowes, P.J. (1997). 

The above threat category refers to the species' situation in New Guinea. 

Conservation measures 

Its saving grace may well be its occurrence, albeit sporadic, in the hill forest of the Varirata Naional 
Park in the Central province (Eddowes, 1997). 

Forest management and silviculture 

This species might be cultivated on a small scale (Eddowes, 1997). 

References 

Eddowes, P.J. 1997. Completed data collection forms for New Guinea. 
Sosef, Hong and Prawirohatmodjo, 1998 



329 



Contribution to an evaluation of tree species using the new CITES Listing Criteria 

Flindersia schottiana 

Rutaceae 
ash, silver 



Distribution 

Australia (Eastern seaboard), Indonesia (Irian Jaya), Papua New Guinea 

Habitat 

This species is widespread but scattered in monsoon, hill and lower montane forest between 50 and 
15(K)m. It occurs in tropical, lowland, submontane, dry, moist, non-seasonal, seasonal, broadleaved, 
mixed, closed forest. It is found in association with Acacia, Alloxylon and Grevillea spp. in monsoon 
forest. 

Population status and trends 

Since it occurs in the rugged mountains of the Owen Stanley Range, the species may be spared from 
further exploitation (Eddowes, 1997). 

Role of species in the ecosystem 

The seeds are wind dispersed (Eddowes, 1997). 

Threats 

In Papua New Guinea, this species was subject to exploitation in 2 major logging areas, the Morobe 
and Western provinces (Eddowes, 1997). 

Utilisation 

The wood is used for furniture, joinery, boat-building and sporting goods; it is also used as a veneer 
(Eddowes, 1997). 

Trade 

Its timber is found in minor international trade (Eddowes, 1997). Small amounts of Flindersia wood are 
imported into Japan from Papua New Guinea (Sosef, Hong and Prawirohatmodjo, 1998). 

lUCN Conservation category 

LR/nl according to Eddowes, P.J. (1997). The threat category refers to the species' situation in New 
Guinea. 

Conservation measures 

Forest management and silviculture 

This species is not known in cultivation, however a specimen may be growing in the LAE National 
Botanic Garden (Eddowes, 1997). 

References 

Eddowes, P.J. 1997. Completed data collection forms for New Guinea. 
Sosef, Hong and Prawirohatmodjo, 1998. 



330 



Annex 2. Profiles of Tree Species: Asia 



Geijera salicifolia 

Rutaceae 
satinheart, green 



Distribution 

This species occurs in Australia (northern New South Wales and Queensland), New Caledonia and 
Papua New Guinea. In Papua New Guinea the species is all but confined to the BuloloAVau area of the 
Morobe province (Eddowes, 1997). 

Habitat 

A tree scattered in tropical, submontane, moist, non-seasonal, broadleaved and mixed, closed and open 
forest between 500 and 1250m. It is primarily found in lower montane forest dominated by Araucaria 
hunsteinii, often on ridges. It is associated with Pouteria spp and Firmiana papuana (Eddowes, 1997). 

Population status and trends 

The BuloloAVau region of the Morobe province, Papua New Guinea was once heavily exploited, 
logged and converted into Pine {Araucaria) plantations (Eddowes, 1997). It is debatable as to how 
many mature specimens remain at the edge of its montane habitat (Eddowes, 1997). The species is 
considered to be vulnerable to genetic erosion (Sosef, Hong and Prawirohatmodjo, 1998). 

Role of species in the ecosystem 

Threats 

Logging and general deforestation 

Utilisation 

The wood is used as a veneer and is used for furniture, joinery, boat-building and sporting goods 
(Eddowes. 1997). 

Trade 

The timber is found in minor international trade (Eddowes, 1997). In 1996 Papua New Guinea exported 
160 cu m of timber of this species (Sosef, Hong and Prawirohatmodjo, 1998). 

rUCN Conservation category 

CR C2a according to Eddowes, P.J. (1997). The evaluation refers to the species' situation in Papua 
New Guinea only. 

Conservation measures 

It is not known if there are any conservation measures but if so they are probably negligable (Eddowes, 
1997). 

Forest management and silviculture 

This species is not in cultivation (Eddowes, 1997). 

References 

Eddowes, P.J. 1997. Completed data collection forms for New Guinea. 
Sosef, Hong and Prawirohatmodjo, 1998 



331 



Contribution to an evaluation of tree species using the new CITES Listing Criteria 

Gluta papuana 

Anacardiaceae 
hekakoro 

Distribution 

The species is restricted to the Gulf and Western provinces of Papua New Guinea and it is also found in 
coastal areas Irian Jaya, Indonesia. 

Habitat 

A tree scattered in seasonally inundated forest along rivers, in fresh-water swamps and on well-drained 
soils up to 50m. It is sometimes gregarious along river banks (Eddowes, 1997). 

Population status and trends 

Role of species in the ecosystem 

Seeds are dispersed by wind and water and by fruit bats (Eddowes, 1997). 
It regenerates in primary forest (Eddowes, 1997). 

Threats 

In Papua New Guinea it is restricted to Gulf and Western provinces which are now subject to heavy 
logging activities (Eddowes, 1997). 

Utilisation 

The decorative wood is used for furniture components, turnery and as a veneer (Eddowes, 1997).lt has 
irritant properties which restict its general availability (Keating and Bolza, 1982). 

Trade 

The timber is found in national and minor international trade (Eddowes, 1997). 

lUCN Conservation category 

VU Alcd & 2cd according to Eddowes, P.J., 1997. 

The species is sought after for its decorative grain, so it possibly needs upgrading to endangered 

(Eddowes, 1997).^ 

Conservation measures 

There are no conservation measures known (Eddowes, 1997). 

Forest management and silviculture 

It is not thought to be in cultivation, however there is possibly a single specimen in the LAE National 
Botanic Gardens, Papua New Guinea (Eddowes, 1997). 

References 

Eddowes, P.J. 1997. Completed data collection forms for New Guinea. 

Keating, W.G. and Bolza, E. 1982. Characteristics, properties and uses of timbers. Volume 1. South- 
east Asia, Northern Australia and the Pacific. Inkata Press, Melbourne 



332 



Annex 2. Profiles of Tree Species: Asia 



Gmelina arborea 

Verbenaceae 

gumhar, yemane, Yunnan shizi 

Distribution: 

Bangladesh, Cambodia, China (Yunnan), India, Laos, Malaysia [int] (Sabah), Myanmar, Pakistan, 
Philippines [int], Sri Lanka, Thailand, Viet Nam. 

Habitat: 

Found in both temperate and tropical, moist and dry forest aswell as scrub. 

Population status and trends: 

The species is commonly-planted in South-East Asia and naturally occurring in Indo-China and the 
Indian subcontinent. There is evidence in many parts of its range that populations are declining through 
use; during the extensive surveys carried out by the Sri Lankan National Conservation Review, only 3 
individuals were found. 

Role of species in the ecosystem: 

Utilisation: 

The entu-e plant is utilised for medicine. The stem is used for timber in light construction and as 
pulpwood. Leaves are good cattle fodder. 

Trade: 

A popular source of medicine and also timber. In Sri Lanka all parts of the ttee are used, especially the 
roots, to obtain medicinal extracts. The medicinal products play a major role in international trade. 
Malaysia exported 14,000 m' of this species at 38 $/m' in 1995 (ITTO, 1997). 

Conservation measures 

Forest management and silviculture 

Plantation grown throughout the tropics. In the wild this species regenerates naturally only in the open 
or on the edge of forests. In cultivation, Yemane has a high light requirement and a high sensitivity to 
competition. Good growth and establishment is ensured by good site preparation e.g weeding or 
clearance by fire. In order to produce long clear boles pruning is eessential. A straight bole is ensured 
by cutting all the leaves off saplings with exception of the upper 2-3 pairs. Rotations of 6 years are 
used for those trees destined for pulpwood and of 10 years for those used for sawnwood. The second 
rotation is produced by coppicing. Stump or seedling planting is employed for a third rotation. During 
the first two years weeding is carried out 3-4 times. Stands of 10 year rotation are thinned to 50% after 
5 and 7 years. It has been shown that in order to maintain sufficient growth of Yemane during the 
second cycle extensive adittion of fertiliser is required 

As seedlings demand light there is very little natural regeneration in plantations. 

lUCN Conservation category 

Lower Risk: least concern - according to WCMC 

References: 

Chinh, N. N. et al. 1996. Vietnam forest trees. Hanoi: Agricultural Publishing House. 1-788. 
Erfurth, T. & H. Rusche. 1976. The marketing of tropical wood, (unpublished). FO: MISC/76/8. 
Forest Management Bureau. 1988. Natural forest resources of the Philippines. Department of 

Environment and Natural Resources, Manila. 62pp. 
Fu, Li-kuo & Jian-ming Jin (eds.). 1992. China Plant Red Data Book. Beijing: Science Press, xviii-741. 
Green, M.J.B. and E.R. N. Gunawardena (comps.). 1997. Designing an optimum protected areas 

system for Sri Lanka's natural forests, (unpublished). Prepared by lUCN-The World Conservation 

Union and the World Conservation Monitoring Centre for the Food and Agriculture Organisation 

(FAO) of the United Nations. 
Hamilton, A. 1990. Provisional list of endangered medicinal plants, (unpublished). 



333 



Contribution to an evaluation of tree species using the new CITES Listing Criteria 



Kessler, Paul J. A., Kade Sidiyasa, Ambriansyah Zainal, & Arifm Zainal. 1995. Checklist of secondary 

forest trees in East and South Kalimantan, Indonesia. 84pp. 
Loc, Phan Ke. 1992. Annotations to: Conservation status listing for Vietnam dated 25 March 1992. 

(unpublished). 49pp. 
Loc, Phan Ke. 1986. Lists of rare and endangered plant species of Vietnam (1986-1988). (unpublished). 
National Environment Protection Bureau. 1987. The list of rare and endangered plants protected in 

China. Botanical Institute of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing: Academy Press. 96pp. 
Soerianegara, I. & R.H.M.J. Lemmens (eds.). 1993. Plant resources of South-East Asia 5( 1 ). Timber 

trees: major commercial timbers. Wageningen: Pudoc Scientific Publishers. 610 pp. 



334 



Annex 2. Profiles of Tree Species: Asia 



Gonystylus affinis 

Thymelaeaceae 



Distribution 

Indonesia (West Kalimantan?), Malaysia (Peninsular Malaysia, southwest Sarawak). In Peninsular 
M£ilaysia this species occurs along the west coast, from Kedah to N. Johore. 

Habitat 

This species is found in lowland open rainforest, mixed dipterocarp forest and heath forest, at altitudes 
up to 330 m. 

Population status and trends 

Role of species in the ecosystem 

Threats 

Utilisation 

The 'ramin' timber is used for house construction. Especially used for door and window frames, 
furniture, plywood, toys and handles of non-impact tools. 

Trade 

No information. 

rUCN Conservation category 

NfE 

Conservation measures 

Forest management and silviculture 

References 

Soerianegara, I. & R.H.M.J. Lemmens (eds.). 1993. Plant Resources of South-East Asia 5(1). Timber 
trees: Major commercial timbers. Wageningen: Pudoc Scientific Publishers. 610 pp. 

Whitmore, T.C., I.G.M Tantra, & U. Sutisna (eds.). 1989. Tree flora of Indonesia. Bogor, Indonesia: 
Forest Research and Development Centre. 429pp. 



335 



Contribution to an evaluation of tree species using the new CITES Listing Criteria 

Gony Stylus bancanus 

Thymelaeaceae 

Trade name Ramin 

Local names Melawis (Malaya), Gam Buaja (Indonesia), Lanutan-Bagio (Philippines) 



Distribution 

Brunei, Indonesia (Kalimantan, Sumatra), Malaysia (Peninsular Malaysia, Sabah, Sarawak) 

Habitat 

G. bancanus differs from other species in the genus in being a peat-swamp species. Habitats are 
lowland freshwater swamp and coastal peat-swamp forest including peripheral mixed swamp forest and 
Shorea albida forest. Also found in heath forest. G. bancanus grows at altitudes up to 100m. 

In Peninsular Malaysia peat swamp forest occurs in low-lying plains just behind the coast, mainly in the 
central and southern parts of the peninsula. On the west coast the peat forests occur on heavy alluvial clay, 
whereas on the east coast they occur on coarse sand and white clay. Large areas of peat swamp forest have 
been cleared for agriculture, with extensive development of oil palm and pineapple plantations (Appanah et 
al, 1989). 

Peat swamp forests are widespread in Sarawak, accounting for 14 736 km" or 11.9% of the land area. 
Some conversion to rice and pineapple fields, and coconut and sago plantations has taken place but so far 
on a relatively small scale. Timber production has been the main use of the forests. 

The only extensive area of peat swamp with Gonystylus in Sabah is located in the south-west region (Fox, 

1978). 

G. bancanus occurs in Indonesian peat swamp forests of Simiatra, Kalimantan and Irian Jaya. Estimates of 
the total peat area in Sumatra and Kalimantan vary between 16.5 and 27 million ha. The species is also a 
component of freshwater swamp forests in the lowlands of Sumatra, Kalimantan and Irian Jaya (Silvius et 
al, 1987). 

Total areas of swamp forest of Indonesia 



Extent (1000 ha) 


Peat swamp 


Freshwater 


Original area 


2069511 


560 


Remaining area 


169755 


185 


Area in reserves 


1670 


670 



Source: Silvius et al, 1987. 

Population status and trends 

A gregarious, often dominant tree of lowland freshwater swamp Euid peat-swamp forest. This species 
has been heavily depleted as it is the most important source of 'ramin' timber. G. bancanus has been 
heavily depleted in Indonesia (Haeruman, 1985). It is Vulnerable in Peninsular Malaysia because of heavy 
exploitation, habitat loss, poor natural regeneration and lack of silvicultural knowledge about the species 
(Anon., 1985). According to Repetto and Gillis (1988), the swamp forests of Sarawak were largely 
depleted of Ramin by 1981. The lllO mission to Sarawak, reported that Ramin was being heavily 
overcut. 

Role of species in the ecosystem 

Threats 

It is threatened by over-exploitation and habitat loss. Burning is a major current threat. 

Utilisation 

Ramin is used for furniture, joinery, mouldings, flooring, plywood. 



336 



Annex 2. Profiles of Tree Species: Asia 



Trade 

Ramin is exported by Sarawak as sawn timber. In 1987 Ramin accounted for 87% of total sawn timber 
exports from the State. Sawn timber is mainly exported to EC countries such as Italy (?37%), UK (13%), 
Netherlands (10%), FRG (9%), Belgium (6%) and Spain (5%). The quantity of Ramin exported in 1987 
was 153 879 m' and in 1988, 175 (XX) m^ The volume exported during the period January-March 1989 
was 40(X)0m^, an increase of around 33% over exports diuing the same period of the previous year 
(source: Forestry Department). In 1989, Peninsular Malaysia exfKDrted 16 187 m^ of Ramin sawn timber, 
as recorded by MTTB. 

In the early 1980s Ramin was Indonesia's first species for sawn wood exports, accounting for 37.7% in 
volume, 45.8% in value. The average annual amount exported was 598 000 m', with a value of US$1 19 
million (Laurent, 1986). In 1986 Indonesia exported 377 000 m^ of Ramin (source: Forestry Department). 

In 1989 the UK imported 19 817 m' (as recorded in Customs statistics). 

lUCN Conservation category 

VU Alcd - according to WCMC. 

Conservation measures 

Legislation: 

Indonesia - The export of Ramin in the form of logs or sawn timber is banned. 

Presence in protected areas: 

Indonesia Gunung Palung Nature Reserve, Kalimantan, Mandor Nature Reserve, Kalimantan, Gunung 
Penrisen/Gunung Nyiut Game Reserve, Kalimantan, Berbak Game Reserve, Sumatra 

Peninsular Malaysia The presence of Ramin in the Kuala Langat Selatan Forest Reserve, Selangor VJR 
No 10 is noted by Putz (1978). It has been noted (Anon., 1985) that the great majority of the disjunct 
lowland populations of G. bancanus lack all protection, being outside National Parks, Virgin Jungle 
Reserves and commercial Forest Reserves 

Other conservation needs: 

Appanah et al. (1989) call for the conservation of peat swamp forests in Peninsular Malaysia as a source of 
timber, for genetic resource conservation and to maintain the hydrological balance. They call for the 
conversion of forested land for agricultural purposes to be discouraged. 

According to Wong Khoon Meng (m lin.), conservation of Gonystylus habitats is important in Brunei. 

Forest management and silviculture 

Ramin is the most valuable timber of the peat swamp forests of Sarawak. There have been concerns that 
the timber is not being cut on a sustainable basis, leading to concern about the future of timber production 
from this forest type as a whole. The extent of illegal logging is not known but it has been a problem: there 
was a report, for example, of 1 378 m' of Ramin logs seized in Sarikei Division, Sarawak (Anon., 1988). 

The methods of harvesting and transport of Ramin in Kalimantan are described in detail by Laurent (1986). 
Production is entirely by hand. The only limited mechanised operations are the use of chain-saws for 
felling and cross-cutting and micro-engines for pulling small trucks from log processing/loading yards to 
the floating wood yard. 

References 

Anon. 1985. In situ conservation of forest genetic resources in Peninsular Malaysia, pp. 32-49. In 

Forest Genetic Resources Information 14. Rome: FAO. 
Anon. (1988). Sarawak intensifies campaign against illegal logging. Perkasa 6(4): 3. 
Appanah, S., Chan, H.T. and Hamzeh, K.A. (1989). Peat swamp forests of Peninsular Malaysia: Current 

stams, ecology, management and conservation. FRIM Reports 51: 1-9. 
Bennett, E.L. (1988). Proboscis monkeys and their swamp forests in Sarawak. Oryx 22(2): 69-74. 
Forest Department Sarawak (1989). Annual report of the Forest Department, Sarawak 1987. 
Fox, J.E.D. (1978). The natural vegetation of Sabah, Malaysia. 1. The physical environment and 

classification. Tropical Ecology 19(2) 



337 



Contribution to an evaluation of tree species using the new CITES Listing Criteria 



Haeruman, H. (1985). Future of tropical forests in Indonesia, resolving land resources conflicts. In: 

Davidson, J., Pang, T.Y. and Bijleveld, M. (Eds), The future of tropical rainforests in South East Asia. 

Commission on Ecology Papers No. 10. lUCN, Switzerland. 
Laurent, D. (1986). Kalimantan Ramin and Agathis, where do you come from and how are you harvested? 

Bois et Forets des Tropiques 2 1 1 ; 75-88 . 
Putz, F.E. (1978). A survey of Virgin Jungle Reserves in Peninsular Malaysia. FRI Research Pamphlet 

No. 73. Forestry Department, Kuala Lumpur. 
Repetto, R. and Gillis, M. (1988). Public policies and the misuse of forest resources. Cambridge 

University Press, Cambridge. 
Said, I.M. & Z. Rozainah. 1992. An updated list of wetland plant species of Peninsular Malaysia, with 

particular reference to those having socio-economic value. Asian Wetland Bureau. 109pp. 
Silvius, M.J., Steeman, A.PJ.M., Berczy, E.T., Djuharsa and Taufik, A.W. (1987). The Indonesian 

Wetland Inventory. A preliminary compilation of existing information on wetlands of Indonesia. 

PHP A, AWB/INTERWADER, EDWIN, Bogor, Indonesia. 
Soerianegara, I. & R.H.M.J. Lemmens (eds.). 1993. Plant Resources of South-East Asia 5(1). Timber 

trees: Major commercial timbers. Wageningen: Pudoc Scientific Publishers. 610 pp. 
van Steenis, C.G.G.J. 1948. Flora Malesiana. Leiden: Flora Malesiana Foundation. 

Correspondence and personal communications 

Wong Khoon Meng, Forestry Department, Brunei Darussalam. In litt., September 1989. 



338 



Annex 2. Profiles of Tree Species: Asia 



Gonystylus brunnescens 

Thymelaeaceae 



Distribution 

Indonesia (Kalimantan), Malaysia (Peninsular Malaysia, Sabah, Sarawak). In Peninsular Malaysia in 
Trengganu, Pahang, Perak and Pangkor Island. 

Habitat 

Usually occurring in non-inundated dipterocarp rainforest on hills and low-lying land, often near the 
sea, to an altitude of ISOOm. 

Population status and trends 

Role of species in the ecosystem 

Threats 

Utilisation 

The wood is used as 'ramin' timber. 

Trade 

lUCN Conservation category 

NE 

Conservation measures 

Forest management and silviculture 

References 

Soerianegara, I. & R. H.M.J. Lemmens (eds.). 1993. Plant Resources of South-East Asia 5(1). Timber 
trees: Major commercial timbers. Wageningen: Pudoc Scientific Publishers. 610 pp. 

Whitmore. T.C., I.G.M Tantra, & U. Sutisna (eds.). 1989. Tree flora of Indonesia. Bogor, Indonesia: 
Forest Research and Development Centre. 429pp. 



339 



Contribution to an evaluation of tree species using the new CITES Listing Criteria 

Gonystylus confusus 

Thymelaeaceae 



Distribution 

Indonesia? (Sumatra?), Malaysia (Peninsular Malaysia), Singapore. The species occurs throughout 
Peninsular Malaysia except in Perlis and Malacca. 

Habitat 

A tree confined to non-inundated lowland rainforest up to 600in altitude. Fairly common in evergreen, 
non-inundated rainforest on hills and low-lying land. 

Population status and trends 

Role of species in the ecosystem 

Threats 

Utilisation 

The wood is used as 'ramin' timber. 

Trade 

lUCN Conservation category 

NE 

Conservation measures 

Forest management and silviculture 



References 

Ng, P.K.L. & Y.C. Wee (eds.). 1994. The Singapore Red Data Book. Singapore: The Nature Society. 

343pp. 
Said, I.M. & Z. Rozainah. 1992. An updated list of wetland plant species of Peninsular Malaysia, with 

particular reference to those having socio-economic value. Asian Wetland Bureau. 109pp. 
Soerianegara. 1. & R. H.M.J. Lemmens (eds.). 1993. Plant Resources of South-East Asia 5(1). Timber 

trees; Major commercial timbers. Wageningen: Pudoc Scientific Publishers. 610 pp. 



340 



Annex 2. Profiles of Tree Species: Asia 



Gonystylus keithii 

Thymelaeaceae 



Distribution 

Indonesia (Kalimantan), Malaysia (Sabah, Sarawak) 

Habitat 

Evergreen, non-inundated rainforest mostly on sandy soils, up to altitude of 400m. 

Population status and trends 

The species has a scattered occurrence. 

Role of species in the ecosystem 
Threats 

Utilisation 

The wood is used as 'ramin' timber. The fruits are used as a source of vertebrate poison. 

Trade 

lUCN Conservation category 

VU Alcd+2cd - according to WCMC. 

Conservation measures 

Forest management and silviculture 

References 

Soerianegara, I. & R. H.M.J. Lemmens (eds.). 1993. Plant Resources of South-East Asia 5(1 ). Timber 
trees: Major commercial timbers. Wageningen: Pudoc Scientific Publishers. 610 pp. 

Whitmore, T.C., I.G.M Tantra, & U. Sutisna (eds.). 1989. Tree flora of Indonesia. Bogor, Indonesia: 
Forest Research and Development Centre. 429pp. 



341 



Contribution to an evaluation of tree species using the new CITES Listing Criteria 

Gonystylus macrophyllus 

Thymelaeaceae 



Distribution 

Indonesia (Bali, Irian Jaya, Kalimantan, Moluccas, Sulawesi, Sumatra), Malaysia (Peninsular 
Malaysia), Papua New Guinea (North Solomons, Papua New Guinea), Philippines?, Solomon Islands 
(South Solomon). The most widespread species of the genus. 

Habitat 

Primary forest reaching an altitude of 1500m 

Population status and trends 

The species has a scattered occurrence. The species is extremely rare in Papua New Guinea and occurs 
only on New Georgia and Choiseul of the Solomon Islands where it is locally common. 

Role of species in the ecosystem 

Threats 

Utilisation 

It is one of the important 'ramin' timber species and the heanwood is used as incense. Other products 
include gum, resin and oil. 

Trade 

lUCN Conservation category 

VU Alcd - according to WCMC. 

Conservation measures 

Forest management and silviculture 

References 

Eddowes, P.J. 1997. Letter to Sara Oldfield containing annotations to the Draft Red List Summay 

Report for Papua New Guinea U^ees. 
Erfurth, T. & H. Rusche. 1976. The marketing of tropical wood, (unpublished). FO: MISC/76/8. 
Penafiel, S. 1990. Annotation to list of tropical timbers for the Philippines. 
Said, I.M. & Z. Rozainah. 1992. An updated list of wetland plant species of Peninsular Malaysia, with 

particular reference to those having socio-economic value. Asian Wetland Bureau. 109pp. 
Soerianegara, I. & R. H.M.J. Lemmens (eds.). 1993. Plant Resources of South-East Asia 5(1). Timber 

trees: Major commercial timbers. Wageningen: Pudoc Scientific Publishers. 610 pp. 
Whitmore, T.C., I.G.M Tantra, & U. Sutisna (eds.). 1989. Tree flora of Indonesia. Bogor, Indonesia: 

Forest Research and Development Centre. 429pp. 



342 



Annex 2. Profiles of Tree Species: Asia 



Gony Stylus maingayi 

Thymelaeaceae 



Distribution 

Brunei, Indonesia (Sumatra), Malaysia (Peninsular Malaysia, Sabah, Sarawak), Singapore 
exploited for its valuable 'ramin' timber. The roots are used locally as a medicine administered after 
childbirth. 

Habitat 

Restricted to primary rainforest and peat-swamp forest up to 200m altitude. 

Population status and trends 

The species was stated to be uncommon in Peninsular Malaysia (Tree Flora of Malaysia, Vol 2, 1973). 

Role of species in the ecosystem 

Threats 

It is likely that this species has been adversely affected by the burning of peatswamp forests especially 
in Sumatra. 

Utilisation 

Exploited for its valuable 'ramin' timber. The roots are used locally as a medicine administered after 
childbirth. 

Trade 

lUCN Conservation category 

Conservation measures 

Forest management and silviculture 

References 

Ng, P.K.L. & Y.C. Wee (eds.). 1994. The Singapore Red Data Book. Singapore: The Nature Society. 

343pp. 
Soerianegara, I. & R.H.M.J. Lemmens (eds.). 1993. Plant Resources of South-East Asia 5(1). Timber 

trees: Major commercial timbers. Wageningen: Pudoc Scientific Publishers. 610 pp. 
van Steenis, C.G.G.J. 1948. Flora Malesiana. Leiden: Flora Malesiana Foundation. 



343 



Contribution to an evaluation of tree species using the new CITES Listing Criteria 



Homalium foetidum 

Common names 

Temate ironwood, delisem, malas 

Local names 

Indonesia: gia (general), melmas (Kalimantan), momala (Sulawasi). Malaysia: petalins 
padang (Peninsular), kerning renkas, bansisian (Sabah). Papua New Guinea: malas 
(general). Philippines: aranga (general), kamagahai (Bikol), yagau (Cebu Bisaya). 
Solomon Islands: malasatu (Kwara'ae) 



Distribution 

Sumatra, Peninsular Malaysia, Borneo, the Philippines, Sulawesi, Moluccas, New Guinea. Bismarck 
Archipelago and the Solomon Islands. 

Habitat 

It occurs in thickets in the Philippines and in rain forest elsewhere, often along riverbanks on clayey or 
sandy, often stoney soil ft'om 20 to 200m. In Papua New Guinea, the species is sometimes common on 
alluvial flat lands adjacent to rivers. 

Population status and trends 

H. foetidum is common but scattered in eastern Malaysia. In Papua New Guinea, it is mainly confined to 
the north-western part of the mainland and New Britain of the Bismarck Archipelago, where it can be 
relatively common. The species has been recorded as threatened in Indonesia (WCMC, 1991 ). 

Role of species in the ecosystem 

Threats 

Exploitation for timber and destruction of habitat through logging are the main threats to the species. It is 
particularly vulnerable due to its occurrence in accessible, lowland, primary rainforest. 

Utilisation 

It is a fairly important source of malas timber (Lemmens, Soerianegara and Wong, 1995). Produces a hard 
timber used for house and bridge construction. In Papua New Guinea the timber is exported in log form 
and as sawn square-edged timber. Its hardness and strength together with its permeability to pressure 
treatment renders it suitable for bridge and wharf contruction, marine piling, posts, poles, decking and 
exterior joinery (Eddowes, 1977, 1980 & 1995-1997). 

Trade 

The timber is not thought to occur in European trade (WCMC, 1991 ). This species makes up 
approximately 9% of the total log exports of Papua New Guinea (Eddowes, 1997). In 1995, Papua New 
Guinea exported 326,0CX) m' of logs at an average FOB price of 1 15$/m' (ITTO, 1996). Japan is the major 
importer of malas logs. Australia and New Zealand import sawn timber for decking. 

lUCN Conservation category 

LR-lc (Asia Regional Workshop, 1997). However, further review is desirable (Asia Regional Workshop, 

1997). 

Conservation measures 

Forest management and silviculture 

References 

Asia Regional Workshop, 1997. Conservation and sustainable management of trees project workshop 

held in Hanoi, VietNam, August 1997 
Eddowes, P. J., 1977. Commercial timbers of Papua New Guinea, their properties and uses. Forest 

Products Research Centre, Department of Primary Industry, Port Moresby. Xiv + 195 pp. 



344 



Annex 2. Profiles of Tree Species: Asia 



Eddowes, P. J., 1980. Lesser known timber species of SEALPA countries. A review and summary. South 

East Asia Lumber Producers Association. Jakarta, Indonesia. 79 pp. 
Eddowes, P. J., 1995-1997. The forest and timbers of Papua New Guinea. Unpublished. 
Eddowes, P. J., 1997. Papua New Guinea. Notes on timber exploitation. Unpublished. 
ITTO. 1996. Annual Review and Assessment of the World Tropical Timber Situation. 
Lemmens, R.H.M.J., Soerianegara, I. & Wong, W.C. (Eds.) 1995. Plant Resources of South-East Asia 

(PROSEA) 5(2) Timber Trees: Minor commercial timbers. Backhuys Publishers, Leiden 655pp. 
WCMC. 1991. Provision of data on rare and threatened tropical timber species. Unpublished report, 

prepared under contract to the EC. 



345 



Contribution to an evaluation of tree species using the new CITES Listing Criteria 

Hydnocarpus sumatrana 



Distribution 

Thailand, Sumatra, Sabah, Sarawak, Kalimantan, south/central Java, Philippines. 

Habitat 

The species occurs in rainforest on sandy or clay soil in hilly or steep locations between 30 and 200 m. 

Population status and trends 

This species was formerly common in Java (Asia Regional Workshop, 1997). It has been recorded as 
threatened in Indonesia (WCMC, 1991). 

Role of species in the ecosystem 

Threats 

Utilisation 

Species of Hydnocarpus are utilised for the oil extracted from there seeds which is used for curing 
wounds and eczema. Wood of the genus is used locally for house building and a variety of uses. 

Trade 

The timber is not thought to occur in European trade (WCMC, 1991). There are no specific records of 
trade in timber of this genus although it may possibly occur in mixed consignments of medium- weight 
hardwood (Sosef, Hong and Prawirohatmodjo, 1998). 

lUCN Conservation category 

DD (Asia Regional Workshop, 1997). 

Conservation measures 

Forest management and silviculture 

References 

Asia Regional Workshop, 1997. Conservation and sustainable maruigemem of trees project workshop 

held in Hanoi, VietNam, August 1997 
(Sosef, Hong and Prawirohatmodjo, 1998 
WCMC. 1991. Provision of data on rare and threatened tropical timber species. Unpublished report, 

prepared under contract to the EC. 



346 



Annex 2. Profiles of Tree Species: Asia 



Intsia bijuga 

CommonyTrade name 

Indonesia and Malaysia: Merbau. Philippines: ipil. Papua New Guinea: kwila. 

Local names 

Cambodia: krakas prek. Indonesia: merbau (general), ipil (Sulawesi), ipi (Nusa 
Tenggara). Malaysia: merbau ipil (Sarawak, Sabah), kayu besi (Peninsular). 
Philippines: Ipil, Ipil laut, Moluccan Ironwood, Borneo Teak (UK), Kwila. Papua New 
Guinea: bendora, kwila, pas. Thailand: lumpaw, lumpho-thale (Surat Thani), pradu- 
thale (Central). Guam: Ifil. Samoa: Ifi-lele. Fiji: Vesi. Solomon Islands: U'ula. Viet 
Nam: Go Nuoc, g[ox] n[uw] [ows]s (general), b[aaf]n [ooj]i (southern). 



Distribution 

American Samoa, Australia, Burma, Cambodia, India, Indonesia, Madagascar (at low altitudes in the 
west), Malaysia, Myanmar, Pacific Islands, Papua New Guinea, Philippines, Seychelles, Tanzania, 
Thailand, and Viet Nam. 

Habitat 

It is a tree of lowland, tropical rain forest which is often found in coastal areas bordering mangrove 
swamps, rivers, or floodplains. It is also found inland up to 600m, in primary or old secondary forests 
(Soerianegara & Lemmens, 1993, Kade Sidiyasa 1994). 

Population status and trends 

Intsia bijuga produces one of the most valuable timbers of South East Asia. The species has been 
exploited so intensively for timber that in most countries few trees are left in natural stands. There have 
been few attempts to cultivate the species in plantations and the species was said to face imminent 
disappearance as an economic plant (National Academy of Sciences, 1979). Good stands still exist in 
parts of Indonesia, mainly Irian Jaya, and Papua New Guinea where it is found mainly in the Sepik and 
Madang provinces. In Papua New Guinea, Intsia bijuga is the more dominant than /. palembanica: 
however, this is reversed in Peninsular Malaysia. /. bijuga is never abundant in Peninsular Malaysia and 
rarely achieves timber size (Ser, 1982). The species has been recorded as threatened in Indonesia and 
Vulnerable m the Philippines (WCMC, 1991-check or ITTO report). The species is considered to be 
almost extinct in Sabah (Meijer, pers. comm. 1997). 
Role of species in the ecosystem 

Utilisation 

This very attractive wood is one of the most valued timbers throughout South East Asia. It is stronger than 
Teak and is one of the most decay-resistant timbers known (when not in contact with the ground); in the 
Philippines it is used as a standard against which the durability of other timbers is assessed (National 
Academy of Sciences, 1979). Used for all high-class general construction, flooring (it produces the 
famous 'merbau floors'), posts, beams, etc. and also for musical instruments, furniture and cabinet making. 
Bark and leaves are used medicinally and the seeds are edible. In addition, the wood is a dye source. 

Trade 

The main importing countties are the Netherlands, where the wood is used for windows and doors, and 
Germany. Production of merbau has recently become more important in Indonesia, with production of 
about 137,000 m' in 1992. The main production area is Irian Jaya and production is also significant in 
Aceh and the Moluccas. Japan imports kwila from Papua New Guinea, Sabah and Sarawak (Soerianegara 
& Lemmens, 1993). Approximately 4% of logs exported from Papua New Guinea are /. bijua and /. 
palembanica (Eddowes, 1997). In 1995, Fiji exported 1000 m' of sawnwood at an average FOB price of 
4 1 3$/m' (ITTO, 1 996). Malaysia (Peninsular) exported 42000 m' of sawnwood a an average FOB pnce of 
466$/m' in 1995 (ITTO, 1996). 

lUCN Conservation category 

VU A led according to WCMC 

Conservation measures 



347 



Contribution to an evaluation of tree species using the new CITES Listing Criteria 



Legislation: 

Philippines - Classified as a premium hardwood under the DENR Administrative Order No. 78 Series of 
1987, Interim Guidelines on the cutting/gathering of Naira and other premium hardwood species. Under 
this Order special permission from the Secretary of the Department of Environment and Natural 
Resources is required to fell Intsia bijuga, and various conditions are specified. 

Presence in protected areas 

Indonesia Ujung Kulon National Park, Java, Manusela Wai Nua/Wai Mual National Park, Moluccas 

Philippines St Paul Subterranean River National Park, Quezon National Park, Calauit Island National - 
Park 

Forest management and silviculture 

Trials in the Solomon Islands have shown that it is easily established either from seed or as forest 
wildings potted in the nursery. The potential of the species in these trials was shown by the fact that the 
quickest growing individuals added 2 m height each year, but little general information is available about 
the full plantation potential of the species. Further research on silviculture is urgently needed (National 
Academy of Sciences, 1979). Some planting in Madagascar (Departement des Eaux et Forets, 1993). 

References 

Amerson, A.B., W.A. Whistler, & T.D. Schwaner. 1982. Wildlife and wildlife habitat of American 

Samoa. II: Accounts of flora and fauna. Washington, DC, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. 151pp. 
Chayamarit, Kongkanda. 1986. Leguminous plants in the mangrove formations in Thailand. Thai 

Forest Bulletin (Botany) 1(16): 119-153. 
Departement des Eaux et Forets. 1993. Choix des essences pour la sylviculture a Madagascar. Akon'ny 

Ala 12-\3. 
Eddowes, P. J., 1977. Commercial timbers of Papua New Guinea, their properties and uses. Forest 

Products Research Centre, Department of Primary Industry, Port Moresby. Xiv + 195 pp. 
Eddowes, P. J., 1995-1997. The forest and timbers of Papua New Guinea. Unpublished. 
Eddowes, P. J., 1997. Papua New Guinea. Notes on timber exploitation. Unpublished. 
Erfurth, T. & H. Rusche. 1976. The marketing of tropical wood, (unpublished). FO: MISC/76/8. 
nrO. 1996. Annual Review and Assessment of the World Tropical Timber Situation 
Kostermans, A. 1989. Comments on Indonesian timber species. 
Loc, Phan Ke. 1992. Annotations to: Conservation status listing for Vietnam dated 25 March 1992. 

(unpublished). 49pp. 
Meijer, W., 1997. Personal communication to Amy MacKinven 
National Academy of Sciences. 1979. Tropical Legumes: Resources for the future. National Academy of 

Sciences, Washington D.C. 
Ng, P.K.L. & Y.C. Wee (eds.). 1994. The Singapore Red Data Book. Singapore: The Nature Society. 

343pp. 
Papua New Guinea Department of Forests. 1989. Facts and figures 1989. Boroko NCD: Papua New 

Guinea Department of Forests. 46pp. 
Penafiel. S. 1990. Annotation to list of tropical timbers for the Philippines. 
Said, I.M. & Z. Rozainah. 1992. An updated list of wetland plant species of Peninsular Malaysia, with 

particular reference to those having socio-economic value. Asian Wetland Bureau. 109pp. 
Ser, C.S. 1982. Malaysian timbers - Merbau. Malaysian Forest Service Trade Leaflet No. 65. Malaysian 

Timber Industry Board, Kuala Lumpur. 
Sidiyasa, K. 1994. Personal communication to Sara Oldfield 
Soerianegara, I. & Lemmens, R.H.M.J. (Eds.) 1993. Plant Resources of South-East Asia (PROSEA) 5(1) 

Timber trees: major commercial timbers. Pudoc Scientific Publishers, Wageningen. 
Topp, J.M.W, 1988. An annotated check list of the flora of Diego Garcia, British Ocean Territory. Atoll 

Research Bulletin 313 
Verdcourt, B. 1979. A manual of New Guinea legumes. Botany Bulletin 1 1 

Wheatley, J.I. 1992. A guide to the common trees of Vanuatu. Port Villa, Vanuatu: Dept. of Forestry. 
Whitmore, T.C. & F.S.P. Ng (eds.). 1972. Tree Flora of Malaya. Kuala Lumpur: Longman. 
Womersley, J.S. & J.B. McAdam. 1957. The forests and forest conditions in the territories of Papua 

and New Guinea. Zillmere, Queensland: The Wilke Group. 22-23. 



348 



Annex 2. Profiles of Tree Species: Asia 



Jackiopsis ornata 



Distribution 

Indonesia, Peninsular Malaysia, Sabah, Sarawak. 

Habitat 

Locally frequent although never abundant in Lowland swamp forest and riverine habitats. This species 
occurs in peat-swamp forest in northern Borneo. 

Population status and trends 

This species occurs scattered in the forest and is fairly common, it is not thought to be endangered (Sosef, 
Hong and Prawirohatmodjo, 1998). 

Role of species in the ecosystem 

Threats 

The current burning of peat swamp forests in Borneo is likely to impact severely on this species. 

Utilisation 

The timber is hard, heavy, reddish brown and fine textured, it is used locally in house building and for 
implement such as rice pounders and carrying poles (Sosef, Hong and Prawirohatmodjo, 1998). 

Trade 

The timber is not thought to occur in European trade (WCMC, 1991). The wood is rarely and only locally 
used (Sosef, Hong and Prawirohatmodjo, 1998). 

lUCN Conservation category 

The species has been recorded as threatened in Indonesia (WCMC, 1991). The new lUCN categories have 
not yet been applied. 

Conservation measures 

Forest management and silviculture 

Little is known about the silviculture of this tree, although it is thought more promising as an ornamental 
than timber species. Prospects for timber production are hard to judge (Sosef, Hong and 
Prawirohatmodjo, 1998). 

References 

WCMC. 1 99 1 . Provision of data on rare and threatened tropical timber species. Unpublished report, 
prepared under contract to the EC. 



349 



Contribution to an evaluation of tree species using the new CITES Listing Criteria 

Kalappia celebica 



Distribution 

Endemic to Sulawesi. 

Habitat 

This species usually occurs on poor rocky soils of around pH4 in Lowland rainforest forest in vicinity of 
Malili. 

Population status and trends 

A species endemic to South Sulawesi where it is one of the tallest trees in the forest. The species has 
previously been recorded as endangered (old lUCN threat category) in Indonesia (WCMC, 1991). 

Role of species in the ecosystem 

Very locally it can be one of the dominant species (Sosef, Hong and Prawirohatmodjo, 1998). 

Threats 

Populations were already seriously depleted by the 1950's as a result of large-scale logging for it's 
valuable timber (Sosef, Hong and Prawirohatmodjo, 1998). This species is highly threatened by a 
continued timber trade and lack of proper management 

Utilisation 

The most common use is as a light construction timber used in building ships, bridges and for various 
housing construction purposes. A timber form with beautiful grain pattern was once highly sought after 
for cabinet and other furniture making. 

Trade 

Up until the beginning of the 1950's considerable amounts of Kallapia timber was transported from the 
surrounding areas of Malili and Wotu (South Sulawesi), where K. celebica was common, to be processed 
in Ujung Pandang. Current supplies are probably very limited, and the wood has become rare and 
expensive on the local markets, no trade statistics are known. The timber is not thought to occur in 
European trade (WCMC, 1 99 1 ). 

lUCN Conservation category 

VU D2 - preliminary evaluation by Amy MacKinven. WCMC, on the basis of its limited distribution. The 
evaluation was agreed to by the Asia Regional Workshop (1997), however it was felt that more research 
is needed. 

Conservation measures 

Protection of large areas of forest where it grows is essential for it's survival. This protection may also 
protect Diospyros celebica, another superior timber speceis associated with K. celebica (Sosef, Hong and 
Prawirohatmodjo, 1998). 

Forest management and silviculture 

Regeneration in closed forest is poor and in some examples non-existent. A forest near Wotu containing 
approximately 65 trees per Ha displayed no signs of natural regeneration, however natural regeneration 
was observed in logged over areas. This poor germination may require special forest management 
techniques. Tests with enrichment planting in logged over areas may be worth considering, any current 
activities of propogation by seed have not been reported, although it is known to be possible (Sosef, Hong 
and Prawirohatmodjo, 1998). 

There is currently no evidence of attempts at cultivation of this species. Very little research has been 
carried out on wood properties, propagation, silviculture and forest management of such a valuable timber 
species. 

References 

Asia Regional Workshop, 1997. Conservation and sustainable management of trees project workshop 

held in Hanoi, VietNam, August 1997 
(Sosef, Hong and Prawirohatmodjo, 1998) 



350 



Annex 2. Profiles of Tree Species: Asia 



WCMC. 1991. Provision of data on rare and threatened tropical timber species. Unpublished repon, 
prepared under contract to the EC. 



351 



Contribution to an evaluation of tree species using the new CITES Listing Criteria 

Kingiodendron pinnatum 

Leguminosae 



Distribution 

India (Kamataka, Kerala, Tamil Nadu) 

Habitat 

A large tree sparsely distributed in evergreen hill forest and deciduous forest up to 1000m 

Population status and trends 

The range of the species extends from South Kanara in Kamataka to the southern tip of the Western 
Ghats in Tamil Nadu. The population is believed to have declined by 50% in the last 20 years because 
of overexploitation, injuries caused by resin collection and habitat degradation. Regeneration appears 
to be very poor. 

Role of species in the ecosystem 

Threats 

Commercial exploitation, clear-felling/logging of the habitat, extensive agriculture 

Utilisation 

The species yields useful timber, bark for making varnish and resin for wood polish. 

Trade 

The timber is traded on a local scale. 

lUCN Conservation category 

EN Alcd according to CAMP Workshops on Medicinal Plants in India (Molur et al, 1995) 

Conservation measures 

Forest management and silviculture 

The species is cultivated on a small scale. 

References 

Molur, S et al. (eds.). 1995. Conservation assessment and management plan (CAMP) for selected 

species of medicinal plants of southern India. 108 pp. 
Nayar, M.P. & A.R.K. Sastry (eds.). 1990. Red Data Book of Indian Plants. Vol. 3. Calcutta: Botanical 

Survey of India. 271pp. 
Ramesh, B.R. & J.-P. Pascal. 1997. Atlas of endemics of the Western Ghats (India). Distribution of tree 

species in the evergreen and semi-evergreen forests. Institut Frangais de Pondichery. 403 pp. 



352 



Annex 2. Profiles of Tree Species: Asia 

Kjellbergiodendron celebicum 

Distribution 

Indonesia (Sulawesi) 

Habitat 

This species occurs in mountainous areas. 

Population status and trends 

The species has been recorded as rare in Indonesia (WCMC, 1991). 

Role of species in the ecosystem 

Threats 

Utilisation 

Trade 

The timber is not thought to occur in European trade (WCMC, 1991). 

lUCN Conservation category 

NE 

Conservation measures 

Forest management and silviculture 

References 

WCMC. 1991. Provision of data on rare and threatened tropical timber species. Unpublished report, 
prepared under contract to the EC. 



353 



Contribution to an evaluation of tree species using the new CITES Listing Criteria 

Kokoona leucoclada 

Celastraceae 



Distribution 

Malaysia (Sabah) 

Habitat; tropical lowland, closed forest 

Population status and trends 

Endemic to Sabah, the species has only been collected once from Ranau and once from Sandakan in 
lowland forest. 

Role of species in the ecosystem 

Threats 

The species is threatened by the large-scale clearance of the forest. 

Utilisation 

Trees of the genus are cut for mata ulat timber which is used locally. 

Trade 

Only very small amounts of mata ulat timber are exported if at all. The trees of the genus are generally 
loo scattered and slow-growing to be of commerical importance. (Lemmens, Soerianegara, and Wong 
1995). 

lUCN Conservation category 

VU D2 - accordmg to WCMC 

Conservation measures 

Forest management and silviculture 

References 

E. Soepadmo and K.M. Wong. 1995. Tree Flora of Sabah and Sarawak. Kuala Lumpur: Ampang Press 

Sdn. Bhd. 5I3pp. 
Lemmens, R.H.M.J., \. Soerianegara, & W.C. Wong (eds.). 1995. Plant Resources of South-East Asia 

No 5(2). Timber trees: Minor commercial timbers. Leiden: Backhuys Publishers. 655 pp. 



354 



Annex 2. Profiles of Tree Species: Asia 



Koompassia excelsa 

Tualang 

Distribution 

Southern Thailand, Peninsular Malaysia, north-eastem Sumatra, Borneo and Palawan. 

Habitat 

Pnmary tropical rainforest usually along rivers, in valleys and lower slopes of hills, locally abundant 
(KeBler & Sidiyasa). 

Population status and trends 

A common but usually not very abundant species. Solitary trees standing alone in the open are 
encountered comparatively often because they are difficult to cut and because local people harvest honey 
fi-om the tree crowns (Soerianegara and Lemmens, 1993). 

Koompassia timber is currently gaining importance in the trade because of the shortage of heavy 
hardwood timber (Soerianegara and Lemmens, 1993). 

Role of species in the ecosystem 

An important species for bees. 

Threats 

UtiUsation 

The timber is used as tualang. The wood is sometimes used as firewood. The bark is used medicinally 
(Soerianegara and Lemmens, 1993). 

Trade 

In 1995 Malaysia exported 37000 m' of sawnwood at an average price of 208$/m' (ITTO, 1997). 

lUCN Conservation category 

LR-cd (Asia Regional Workshop, 1997) 

Conservation measures 

Koompassia excelsa is a protected species under Sarawak's Wildlife Protection Bill, 1990. It is known to 
occur in protected areas. 

Forest management and silviculture 

No specific information is available. 

References 

Asia Regional Workshop, 1997. Conservation and sustainable management of trees project workshop 

held in Hanoi, VietNam, August 1997 
mo. 1997. Annual Review and Assessment of the World Tropical Timber Situation, 1996. 
Soenanegara, 1. & Lemmens, R.H.M.J. (Eds.) 1993. Plant Resources of South-East Asia (PROSEA) 5(1) 

Timber trees: major commercial timbers. Pudoc Scientific Publishers, Wageningen. 
KeBler, Paul J. A & Kade Sidiyasa, 1994. Trees of the Balikpapan-Samarinda area. East Kalimantan, 

Indonesia: a manual of 280 selected species. The Tropenbos Foundation (Tropenbos series ; 7). 



355 



Contribution to an evaluation of tree species using the new CITES Listing Criteria 



Koompassia grandiflora 

Leguminosae (Caesalpinioideae) 
kempas 



Distribution 

The species is known only from the Vogelkop peninsula, Irian Jaya, Indonesia and the Morobe, Gulf 
and Central provinces, Papua New Guinea (Eddowes, 1997). 

Habitat 

A primary rain forest tree scanered on coastal plain foothills and stony low hills between 10 - 840m 
(Eddowes, 1997). In addition it is found sclerophyllous habitats (Eddowes, 1997). 

Population status and trends 

Koompassia grandiflora is highly vulnerable because it occurs in primary rainforest, mostly at low, 
readily accessible altitudes (Eddowes, 1997). 

Role of species in the ecosystem 

The species regenerates in primary forest (Eddowes. 1997). 
The seeds are dispersed by wind (Eddowes, 1997). 

Threats 

Observations of active exploitation for the timber of this species in Papua New Guinea were made in 
the 1960s (Frodin, 1997); the timber continues to be in high demand and is heavily exploited in areas 
subject to logging (Eddowes, 1997). 

Utilisation 

The wood is used for heavy construction, beams, flooring, decking and plywood. In addition it is used 
as veneer (Soerianegara & Lemmens, 1993). 

Trade 

This species is and will continue to be heavily exploited in Papua New Guinea for both log export and 
for domestic processing due to its very good bole form, wood quality and market acceptance (Eddowes, 
1997b). 

lUCN Conservation category 

VU Alcd+2cd according to Eddowes, P.J. (1997) 

Conservation measures 

Conservation measures are negligable (Eddowes, 1997). 

Forest management and silviculture 

This species is probably not found in cultivation (Eddowes, 1997). 



References: 

Eddowes, P.J. 1997. Completed data collection forms for New Guinea. 

Eddowes, P.J. 1997b. Letter from Peter Eddowes to Sara Oldfield dated October 13", 1997. 

Frodin, D. et al. 1997. Discussion of the working groups at the Conservation and sustainable 

management of trees workshop held in Hanoi, Viet Nam. 
Hou, D. 1996. Caesalpinioideae. Flora Malesiana. Leiden: Rora Malesiana Foundation. 
Soenanegara, I. & R. H.M.J. Lemmens (eds.). 1993. Plant Resources of South-East Asia 5(1). Timber 

trees: Major commercial timbers. Wagenmgen: Pudoc Scientific Publishers. 610 pp. 



356 



Annex 2. Profiles of Tree Species: Asia 



Koompassia malaccensis 

kempas 

Distribution 

Thailand, Indonesia (Sumatra), the Riau Archipelago, Bangka, Belitung, Borneo Peninsular Malaysia, 
Sarawak, Sabah (Soerianegara and Lxmmens, 1993). 

Habitat 

Lowland forest, peat and freshwater swamp, occurring from sea-level up to 600 m. 

Population status and trendis 

In Peninsular Malaysia it is considered to be the third commonest big forest tree (Soerianegara and 
Lenunens, 1993). 

Role of species in the ecosystem 

Threats 

Utilisation 

The timber is used as kempas. The wood is sometimes used as firewood (Soerianegara and Lenunens, 
1993). 

Trade 

Koompassia timber is currently gaining importance in the trade because of the shortage of heavy 
hardwood timber (Soerianegara and Lemmens. 1993). 

In 1995, Malaysia exponed 30,000 m' of sawnwood at an average price of 328$/m' (ITTO, 1996). Sabah 
exported, 29,000 m' of sawn timber in 1992 (Soerianegara & Lemmens 1993) 

Average annual export of sawn timber from Peninsular Malaysia for the period 1982-1987 was 126,000 
m'. In 1990 the amount exported was 1 14,000 m' and in 1992 49,0(X) ml Export destinations were as for 
K. excelsa (Soeriaegara & Lemmens) 

lUCN Conservation category 

LR-cd (Asia Regional Workshop, 1997). 

Conservation measures 

Koompassia malaccensis is a protected species under Sarawak's Wildlife Protection Bill, 1990. 

Forest management and silviculture 

No specific information is available (Soerianegara and Lemmens, 1993). 

References 

Asia Regional Workshop, 1997. Conservation and sustainable management of trees project workshop 

held in Hanoi, VietNam, August 1997 
mo. 1996. Annual Review and Assessment of the World Tropical Timber Situation. 
Soerianegara, I. & Lemmens, R.H.M.J. (Eds.) 1993. Plant Resources ofSouth-East Asia (PROSEA) 5(1 ) 

Timber trees: major commercial timbers. Pudoc Scientific Publishers, Wageningen. 



357 



Contribution to an evaluation of tree species using the new CITES Listing Criteria 

Lagarostrobos franklinii 

Podocarpaceae 
huon pine 



Distribution: 

Australia (Tasmania) 

Habitat: 

tropical, moist, mixed, closed forest 

Population status and trends: 

Huon pine, one of the longest living trees in the world, is found mostly in small stands in rainforest 
associated with the river systems of south-west Tasmania. Populations retreated during the Last Glacial 
and were heavily logged in the more recent past 

Role of species in the ecosystem: 

Primary Obligative species dependencies: Dioecious; vegetative reproduction is also apparent; 
availability of light increases reproductive output but only a small proportion of individuals are 
reproductive in a season - disproportionate number of them being die oldest winged pollen - wind 
pollinated; seeds disperse by water or gravity and is often poor. 

Threats: 

burning, .clear-felling/logging of the habitat, .industrial development, .mining/exploration 

Utilisation: 

timber (minor International trade) 

Trade: 

lUCN Conservation category: 

VU Bl+2ce according to the SSC Conifer Specialist Group 

Conservation measures: 

Whilst most of the range is protected within a World Heritage Site, significant areas are open to the 
persistent threats of mining, logging, hydroelectric schemes and fire regimes. 

Forest management and silviculture: 

References: 

Farjon, Aljos. Christopher N. Page, & Nico Schellevis. 1993. A preliminary world list of threatened 

conifer taxa. Biodiversity and Conservation 2: 304-326. 
Quinn, C.J. 1982. The Taxonomy of Dae rydium Sol. ex Lamb emend de Laub (Podocarpaceae). 

Australian Journal of Botany 30: 311-320. 
Shapcott, A. 1991. Studies in population biology and genetic variation of the Huon pine 

(Lagarostrobos franklinii). Hobart: The National Rainforest Conservation Program and Department 

of Parks, Wildlife and Heritage, Hobart and Dept. of the Arts, Sports, the Environment and 

Territories. 



358 



Annex 2. Profiles of Tree Species: Asia 



Lophopetalum javanicum 

Celastraceae 



Distribution 

Indonesia (Irian Jaya, Java, Kalimantan, Moluccas, Sulawesi, Sumatra), Malaysia (Penmsular 
Malaysia, Sabah, Sarawak), Papua New Guinea, Philippines, Thailand, Viet Nam 

Habitat 

Found mainly in lowland rainforest, sometimes in hill and montane forest up to 1400m. Often in 
periodically inundated areas or peat swamps and on riverbanks. In Sabah and Sarawak, mainly in 
mixed dipterocarp forest. 

Population status and trends 

A widespread species which is abundant in various forest types. 

Role of species in the ecosystem 

The flowers are insect pollinated and the winged seeds are probably wind dispersed. 

Threats 

Increasing demand for perupok may put this species under threat at least in parts of its range. 

Utilisation 

The wood is utilised as perupok timber. The bark is used as a poison and the tree also provides fuel 
wood. 

Trade 

Trade in perupok, particularly from Kalimantan, has gained in importance over the past ten years. The 
timber is very popular in Japan (Soerianegara and Lemmens, 1993). 

lUCN Conservation category 

LR/lc - WCMC 

Conservation measures 

In East Kalimantan, a project has selected out the "superior mother trees". 

Forest management and silviculture 

Exploitation of stands of perupok is seldom based on sustainable management. Research is needed to 
determine management requirements (Soerianegara and Lemmens, 1993). 

References 

E. Soepadmo and K.M. Wong. 1995. Tree Hora of Sabah and Sarawak. Kuala Lumpur: Ampang Press 

Sdn. Bhd.513pp. 
Erfurth, T. & H. Rusche. 1976. The marketing of tropical wood, (unpublished). FO: MISC/76/8. 
Loc, Phan Ke. 1992. Annotations to: Conservation status listing for Philippines dated 6 April 1992. 

49pp. 
Penafiel, S. 1990. Annotation to list of tropical timbers for the Philippines. 
Said, I.M. & Z. Rozainah. 1992. An updated list of wetland plant species of Peninsular Malaysia, with 

particular reference to those having socio-economic value. Asian Wetland Bureau. 109pp. 
Soerianegara, I. & R.H.M.J. Lemmens (eds.). 1993. Plant Resources of South-East Asia 5(1). Timber 

trees: Major commercial timbers. Wageningen: Pudoc Scientific Publishers. 610 pp. 
van Steenis, C. G.G.J. 1948. Flora Malesiana. Leiden: Flora Malesiana Foundation. 



359 



Contribution to an evaluation of tree species using the new CITES Listing Criteria 



Lophopetalum multinervium 

Celastraceae 



Distribution 

Indonesia (Kalimantan, Sumatra), Malaysia (Peninsular Malaysia, Sabah, Sarawak), Singapore 

Habitat 

This tree is found in freshwater and peat swamp forest and very occasionally in submontane forest up 
to 1500m. It is widely distributed in Sabah and Sarawak. 

Population status and trends 

Common and locally frequent in various forest types. There is great demand for wood of this genus 
which is traded as perupok. 

Role of species in the ecosystem 

The flowers are insect pollinated and the winged seeds are probably wind dispersed. 

Threats 

Increasing trade demands for timber and burning of the swamp forest habitats in Sumatra and Borneo. 

Utilisation 

The wood is utilised as perupok timber. 

Trade 

Trade in perupok, panicularly from Kalimantan, has gained in importance over the past ten years. The 
timber is very popular in Japan (Soerianegara and Lemmens, 1993). 

lUCN Conservation category 

LR/lc - WCMC 

Conservation measures 

In East Kalimantan, a project has selected out the "superior mother trees". 

Forest management and silviculture 

Exploitation of stands of perupok is seldom based on sustainable management. Research is needed to 
determine management requirements (Soerianegara and Lemmens, 1993). 

References 

E. Soepadmo and K.M. Wong. 1995. Tree Flora of Sabah and Sarawak. Kuala Lumpur: Ampang Press 

Sdn.Bhd. 513 pp. 
Erfurth, T. &. H. Rusche. 1976. The marketing of tropical wood, (unpublished). FO: MISC/76/8. 
Ng, P.K.L. & Y.C. Wee (eds.). 1994. The Singapore Red Data Book. Singapore: The Nature Society. 

343pp. 
Said, I.M. & Z. Rozainah. 1992. An updated list of wetland plant species of Peninsular Malaysia, with 

particular reference to those having socio-economic value. Asian Wetland Bureau. 109pp. 
Soerianegara, I. & R.H.M.J. Lemmens (eds.). 1993. Plant Resources of South-East Asia 5(1). Timber 

trees: Major commercial timbers. Wageningen: Pudoc Scientific Publishers. 610 pp. 
van Steenis, C.G.G.J. 1948. Flora Malesiana. Leiden: Flora Malesiana Foundation. 



360 



Annex 2. Profiles of Tree Species: Asia 



Lophopetalum pachyphyllum 

Celastraceae 



Distribution 

Indonesia (Sumatra), Malaysia (Peninsular Malaysia, Sarawak) 

Habitat 

Dry forest on slopes, ridges and limestone cliffs up to an elevation of 450m 

Population status and trends 

In Sarawak, the species is only known from two collections from Bako National Park. 

Role of species in the ecosystem 

The flowers are insect pollinated 

Threats 

Utilisation 

The timber is used as perupok, which is in high demand for the international market. 

Trade 

Trade in perupok, particularly from Kalimantan, has gained in importance over the past ten years. The 
timber is very popular in Japan (Soerianegara and Lemmens, 1993). 2000m of species of 
Lophopetalum, otherwise known as Perupok, was exported from Penmsular Malaysia in 1995 at $607 
perm'(nTO,1997). 

rUCN Conservation category 

NE 

Conservation measures 

Forest management and silviculture 

Exploitation of stands of perupok is seldom based on sustainable management. Research is needed to 
determine management requirements (Soerianegara and Lemmens, 1993). 

References 

E. Soepadmo and K.M. Wong. 1995. Tree Flora of Sabah and Sarawak. Kuala Lumpur: Ampang Press 

Sdn.Bhd. 513 pp. 
Soerianegara, I. & R. H.M.J. Lemmens (eds.). 1993. Plant Resources of South-East Asia 5(1). Timber 

trees: Major commercial timbers. Wageningen: Pudoc Scientific Publishers. 610 pp. 



361 



Contribution to an evaluation of tree species using the new CITES Listing Criteria 



Lophopetalum rigidum 

Celastraceae 



Distribution 

Brunei, Malaysia (Sabah, Sarawak), Kalimantan 

Habitat 

The tree occurs in freshwater and peat swamp forest and *kerangas forest up to 2400m. 

Population status and trends 

Endemic to northern Borneo, the species is locally frequent in Sarawak and recorded from Lahad Datu, 
Keningau and Ranau in Sabah. 

Role of species in the ecosystem 

The flowers are insect pollinated. 

Threats 

Increasing demand for perupok may be a threat to this relatively restricted species and current forest 
burning is expected to impact negatively on the species. 

Utilisation 

The wood is in demand as perupok timber. 

Trade 

Trade in perupok, particularly from Kalimantan, has gained in importance over the past ten years. The 
timber is very popular in Japan (Soerianegara and Lemmens, 1993). 

lUCN Conservation category 

ME 

Conservation measures 

Forest management and silviculture 

Exploitation of stands of perupok is seldom based on sustainable management. Research is needed to 
determine management requirements (Soerianegara and Lemmens, 1993). 

References 

E. Soepadmo and K.M. Wong. 1995. Tree Flora of Sabah and Sarawak. Kuala Lumpur: Ampang Press 

Sdn.Bhd. 513 pp. 
Soerianegara, I. & R.H.M.J. Lemmens (eds.). 1993. Plant Resources of South-East Asia 5(1). Timber 

trees; Major commercial timbers. Wageningen: Pudoc Scientific Publishers. 610 pp. 
Whitmore, T.C., l.G.M. Tantra, & U. Sutisna (eds.). 1989. Tree flora of Indonesia. Bogor, Indonesia: 

Forest Research and Development Centre. 181pp. 



362 



Annex 2. Profiles of Tree Species: Asia 



Madhuca betis 

Sapotaceae 



Distribution 

Indonesia (Sulawesi and Kalimantan), Philippines 

Habitat 

A primary lowland forest species at altitudes up to 300m. 

Population status and trends 

In the Philippines stands have been depleted by logging and shifting agriculture. It has been recorded as 
** in the country. 

Role of species in the ecosystem 

Threats 

Logging and shifting agriculture. 

Utilisation 

A source of bitis timber and also medicinal extracts from the roots and bark. 

Trade 

Bitis is only obtainable in small quantities and is used domestically. 

lUCN Conservation category 

VU Alcd - according to WCMC 

Conservation measures 

Forest management and silviculture 

References 

Erfurth, T. & H. Rusche. 1976. The marketing of tropical wood, (unpublished). FO: MISC/76/8. 
Penafiel, S. 1990. Annotation to list of tropical timbers for the Philippines. 

Soerianegara. I. & R.H.M.J. Lemmens (eds.). 1993. Plant Resources of South-East Asia 5(1). Timber 
trees; Major commercial timbers. Wageningen: Pudoc Scientific Publishers. 610 pp. 



363 



Contribution to an evaluation of tree species using the new CITES Listing Criteria 

Madhuca boerlageana 

Sapotaceae 
nyatoh 



Distribution 

Indonesia (Irian Jaya, Moluccas), Papua New Guinea 

Habitat 

A tree of primary, lowland, rain forest found between 50 - 600m (Soerianegara & Lemmens, 1995). It 
is associated with Terminalia, Pometia, Planchanella and Homalium spp. (Eddowes, 1997). 

Population status and trends 

In Papua New Guinea this species is extremely rare and known from a single sterile collection made 
from the Vanimo area. West Sepik province (Eddowes, 1997). This part of Papua New Guinea is 
heavily logged and there is grave doubt as to its continuing existence in this country (Eddowes, 1997). 

Role of species in the ecosystem 

Primary regeneration guild (Eddowes, 1997). 

Threats 

The main threat to this very rare species is logging of the habitat (Eddowes, 1997). 

Utilisation 

The wood is used for boat-building, furniture, plywood and as a veneer (Soerianegara & Lemmens, 
1995). 

Trade 

This species is found in minor international u-ade (Eddowes, 1997). 

rUCN Threat category 

CR A led, C2ab, Dl according to Eddowes, P.J. (1997). The threat category applies to the situation in 
Papua New Guinea only. 

Conservation measures 

There are no conservation measures (Eddowes, 1997). 

Silviculture and forest management 

It is not in cultivation (Eddowes, 1997). 

References 

Eddowes, P.J. 1997. Completed data collection forms for New Guinea. 

Soenanegara, I. & R.H.M.J. Lemmens (eds.). 1993. Plant Resources of South-East Asia 5(1). Timber 
trees: Major commercial timbers. Wageningen; Pudoc Scientific Publishers. 610 pp. 



364 



Annex 2. Profiles of Tree Species: Asia 



Madhuca pasquieri 

Sapotaceae 



Distribution 

China (south-west Guangdong, southern Guangxi, Mahpo and Pingbian in Yunnan), Viet Nam 
(northern provinces) 

Habitat 

Lowland primary forest up to 1 100m 

Population status and trends 

This large light demanding timber tree species has a scattered distribution.. Populations have been 
heavily exploited throughout the range and few large trees remain. 

Role of species in ttie ecosystem 

No information. 

Threats 

commercial use, clear-felling/logging of the habitat, expansion of human settlement, extensive 
agriculture 

Utilisation 

The seeds are eaten and provide a source of oil. Timber is the main use. 

Trade 

Minor international trade 

lUCN Conservation category 

VUAlcd-WCMC 

Conservation measures 

The species range coincides with protected areas in both countries. In Viet Nam this species is included 
in the Council of Ministers Decision 18/HDBT (17 January 1992) as a species with high economical 
value which is subject to over-exploitation. It is also categorised as a priority for genetic conservation. 

Forest management and silviculture 

References 

Chinh. N. N. et al. 1996. Vietnam Forest Trees. Hanoi: Agricultural Publishing House. 1-788. 
Dzung. et al. 1997. Conversation with Charlotte Jenkins concerning tree species in Viet Nam also 

found in Yunnan. 
Fu, Li-kuo & Jian-ming Jin (eds.). 1992. China Plant Red Data Book. Beijing: Science Press, xviii-741. 
Loc, Phan Ke. 1986. Lists of rare and endangered plant species of Vietnam (1986-1988). 

(unpublished). 
Ministry of Science, Technology and Environment. 1996. Sach do Viet Nam Phan Thuc Vat. Hanoi: 

Science and Technics Publishing House. 484pp. 
National Environment Protection Bureau. 1987. The list of rare and endangered plants protected in 

China. Botanical Institute of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing: Academy Press. 96pp. 
Sun, W. 1997. Completed data collection forms for trees of Yunnan. 



365 



Contribution to an evaluation of tree species using the new CITES Listing Criteria 

Magnolia hodgsonii 
Magnoliaceae 

Distribution 

Bhutan, India and Nepal 

Habitat 

Warm broadleaved forests. 

Population status and trends 
Role of species in the ecosystem 
Threats 
Utilisation 

Wood is good for furniture making 
Trade 

lUCN Conservation Category 

Not evaluated 

Conservation measures 

Forest management and ecosystem 



366 



Annex 2. Profiles of Tree Species: Asia 



Mangifera decandra 

kemang badak (S. Sumatra, Palembang), binjai hutan & belunu hutan (Sabah),?asam 
damaran (Brunei), konyot or konyot besi (Benuaq and Tundjung Dayak: E. 
Kalimantan), palong besi (Kutai: E. Kalimantan). 

Distribution 

Borneo (Sabah, Sarawak, Brunei, E. Kalimantan) and Sumatra. 

Habitat 

This large tree grows in primary lowland evergreen rainforest up to 900 m (once found at 1440 
m)(Kostemans and Bompard, 1993); it is sometimes found in freshwater swamp forest and secondary' 
forests (Lemmens et al, 1995). 

Population Status and Trends 

This species is common but very scattered (Kostermans and Bompard, 1993). It is planted in Dayak home 
gardens in E. Kalimantan (van Valkenburg, 1997). Under the old lUCN threat categories, this species is 
recorded as Rare in Sabah and Indeterminate in Kalimantan. 

Role of Species in the ecosystem 

The fruits are likely to be eaten by animals ie. monkeys, bats and hombills (Lemmens et al, 1995). 

Threats 

Utilisation 

The fruits are edible and the wood is believed to be used as machang timber; machang is used for light 
construction or heavy construction under cover and the beautiful streaked heartwood is used for fine 
furniture (Lemmens et al, 1995). 

Being a wild relative of the mango, this species could be useful for breeding purposes (Smith et al, 1992). 

Trade 

The fruits of this species are found in local markets is E. Kalimantan (van Valkenburg, 1997) 
Machang timber is exported from Borneo in fairly large quantities. In 1987, Sabah exported 40,000 m3 of 
round logs worth US$2.5 million and in 1992 38,(300 m' were exported as sawn timber and round logs for 
US$5.7 million. 

lUCN Conservation category 

NE 

Conservation Measures 

Forest management and silviculture 

There are no reports of machang being planted for timber. Natural regeneration of species is usually 
abundant. Machang stones are recalcitrant (Lemmens et al, 1995). 

References 

Lemmens, R.H.M.J., Soerianegara, I. & Wong, W.C. (Eds.) 1995. Plant Resources of South-East Asia 

(PROSEA) 5(2) Timber Trees: Minor commercial timbers. Backhuys Publishers, Leiden 655pp. 
Smith, N.J.H., Williams J.T., Plucknett, D.L. and J.P. Talbot. 1992. Tropical Forest and their Crops. 

Cornell University Press: Ithaca, U.S.A. 
van Valkenburg, J.L.C.H. 1997. Non-timber forest products of East Kalimantan. Potentials for 

sustainable forest use. Tropenbos Series 16. The Tropenbos FoundationiWageningen, The 

Netherlands, pp.6 1-95. 



367 



Contribution to an evaluation of tree species using the new CITES Listing Criteria 



Mangifera macrocarpa 

Indonesia: gompur (Sundanese, Western Java), n'cham busiir (East Kalimantan), asem 
busur (South Kalimantan). Malaysia: machang lawit (Peninsular). Thailand: mamuang- 
khikwang (Peninsular). 



Distribution 

Peninsular Thailand, Cambodia, Peninsular Malaysia, Sumatra, Sabah, Kalimantan. Western Java and 
Borneo. 

Habitat 

Restricted to primary wet evergreen lowland forest, at altitudes of - 800 m. It occurs scattered in 
lowland rainforest (Lemmens, Soerianegara and Wong, 1995). 

Population status and trends 

The species is very scattered. It flowers and fruits rarely but profiisely (Kostermans and Bompard, 1993). 
It is possibly extinct in Java (Kostermans and Bompard, 1993). 

Role of species in the ecosystem 

Threats 

General threats to the forests where this species occurs include conversion for agriculture and logging. 

Utilisation 

The wood is reputed to be used (Lemmens, Soerianegara and Wong, 1995). 

Trade 

Machang timber is exported from Borneo in fairly large quantities. In 1987, Sabah exported 40.000 m3 of 
round logs worth US$2.5 million and in 1992 38,000 m' were exported as sawn timber and round logs for 
US$5.7 million. 

lUCN Conservation category - 

VU Ale - preliminary evaluation by Amy MacKinven. 

Conservation measures 

Forest management and silviculture 

There are no reports of machang being planted for timber. Natural regeneration of species is usually 
abundant. Machang stones are recalcitrant (Lemmens, Soenanegara and Wong. 1995). 

References 

Kostermans, A.J.H. and Bompard, J.M. 1993. The mangoes. Their botany, nomenclature, horticulture and 

utilization. IBPGR and Linnean Society. Academic Press. 
Lemmens, R.H.M.J., Soerianegara, I. & Wong, W.C. (Eds.) 1995. Plant Resources of South-East Asia 

(PROSEA) 5(2) Timber Trees: Minor commercial timbers. Backhuys Publishers, Leiden 655pp. 



368 



Annex 2. Profiles of Tree Species: Asia 



Manglietia aromatica 

Magnoliaceae 
xiang mulian 

Distribution 

China (Guangxi, Guizhou, Yunnan), Viet Nam 

Habitat 

The species is found in monsoon forest on hmestone hills between 800 and 1550m. 

Population status and trends 

Only a few scattered stands of this important timber tree remain in a range stretching from south-west 
Guangxi to northern Viet Nam. Several subpopulations are reported to have become extinct in both 
provinces, largely because of overexploitation of the timber. Saplings and seedlings are seldom seen. 

Role of species in the ecosystem 

Threats 

Commercial exploitation, clear-felling/logging of the habitat, extensive agriculture 

Utilisation 

The species is regarded as one of the best timber trees in the area. It is also potentially an interesting 
garden plant. 

Trade 

lUCN Conservation category 

VU A led, Bl+2cde according to World Conservation Monitoring Centre 

Conservation measures 

Forest management and silviculture 

References 

Frodin, D.G. & R. Govaerts. 1996. World checklist and bibliography of Magnoliaceae. 

Fu, Li-kuo & Jian-ming Jin (eds.). 1992. China Plant Red Data Book. Beijing: Science Press, xviii-741. 

National Environment Protection Bureau. 1987. The list of rare and endangered plants protected in 

China. Botanical Institute of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing: Academy Press. 96pp. 
Nooteboom, H.P. 1996. The Magnoliaceae of China (Draft). 



369 



Contribution to an evaluation of tree species using the new CITES Listing Criteria 

Manilkara kanosiensis 

Sapotaceae 



Dbtribution 

Indonesia (Moluccas), Papua New Guinea (Bismarck Archipelago, Papua New Guinea) 

Habitat 

A medium to large sized tree scattered in primary lowland rainforest between - 500m (Soerianegara 
& Lemmens, 1993). It is associated with Canarium, Planchonella, Pometia. Syzygium and Terminalia 
spp. (Eddowes, 1997). 

Population status and trends 

A relatively widespread but uncommon species occurring mainly in areas where intense logging is 
being carried out, such as New Britain and New Ireland in the Bismarck Archipelago and the north- 
west of Papua New Guinea (Eddowes, 1997). 

Role of species in the ecosystem 

It regenerates in primary forest (Eddowes, 1997). 

Threats 

Felling is the main threat to Manilkara kanosiensis. As it only occurs in lowland primary forest, 
exploitation of the species and habitat destruction render it vulnerable (Eddowes, 1997). 

Utilisation 

The wood is used to build bridge and wharf superstructures; also it is used for flooring, decking, 
turnery and carving (Soerianegara & Lenmiens, 1993). 

Trade 

The timber is found in minor international trade (Eddowes, 1997). It is reported to be exported to 
Japan. 

rUCN Threat category 

EN Alcd+2cd, C2a according to Eddowes, P.J. (1997) 

Conservation measures 

There are possibly 1-2 specimens planted in LAE National Botanical Gardens, Papua New Guinea and 
it might occur in Bogor Botanic Gardens, Indonesia, however confirmation would be required 
(Eddowes, 1997). 

Forest management and silviculture 

The species is slow-growing. It is not planted. 

References 

Eddowes, P.J. 1997. Completed data collection forms for New Guinea. 

Soerianegara, I. & R.H.M.J. Lemmens (eds.). 1993. Plant Resources of South-East Asia 5(1). Timber 
trees Major commercial timbers. Wageningen: Pudoc Scientific Publishers. 610 pp. 



370 



Annex 2. Profiles of Tree Species: Asia 



Mastixiodendron stoddardii 

Rubiaceae 
garo-garo 



Distribution 

This species is restricted to New Britain of the Bismarck Archipelago and the Solomon Islands 
(Eddowes, 1997). 

Habitat 

A large timber tree occurring in primary lowland rainforest up to 250m altitude (Eddowes, 1997). 

Population status and trends 

New Britain is one of the most intensively logged islands in the Bismarck Archipelago, thereby 
threatening this species with habitat destruction (Eddowes. 1997). The Solomon Islands population is 
also at risk due to logging activities (Eddowes, 1997). 

Role of species in the ecosystem 

Threats 

The main threat to this species is logging of its habitat (Eddowes, 1997). Expanding human settlements 
and extensive agriculture are also threats (Eddowes, 1997). 

Utilisation 

The wood is used for general construction, joinery and flooring; also used as a veneer and a plywood 
(Eddowes, 1997). 

Trade 

It is traded international on a minor scale (Eddowes, 1997). Small amounts oi Mastixiodendron are 
exported from Papua new Guinea and the Solomon islands, mainly to Japan. The genus is regarded as a 
commercial hardwood in Papua New Guinea. In 1992 the Mastixiodendron timber was ranked in MEP 
(Minimum Export Price) group 4, fetching a minimum price of US$ 43/m3 for sawn logs and in 1996 
in MEP group 3, when 38,150m3 of logs were exported at a free on-board (FOB) price of US$ 108/m3 
(Sosef, Hong and Prawirohatmodjo, 1998). 

The range of applications oi Mastixiodendron timber will remain of interest to commerce 

lUCN Threat categories 

VU Alcd+2cd, Bl+2abcde according to Eddowes, P.J. (1997). 

Conservation measures 

Conservation measures are thought to be negligable (Eddowes, 1997). 

Silviculture and forest management 

There is nothing known about silvicultural aspects making it hard to assess the potential of 
Mastixiodendron for plantation purposes (Sosef, Hong and Prawirohatmodjo, 1998). 

References 

Eddowes, P.J. 1997. Completed data collection forms for New Guinea. 



371 



Contribution to an evaluation of tree species using the new CITES Listing Criteria 

Merrillia caloxylon 



Distribution 

South Thailand, Peninsular Malaysia, Sabah, Sumatra. 

Habitat 

Found along river banks in lowland primary or secondary rain forest. It is able to grow on a variety of 
well drained soils. 

Population status and trends 

The species has been recorded as Extinct in Peninsular Malaysia (WCMC 1991) and also appeared on the 
lUCN list of non-endemic threatened plants of Peninsular Malaysia for 1991. Generally it is more 
common than originally suspected (Asia Regional Workshop, 1997). 

Role of species in the ecosystem 

No information 

Threats 

Exploitaiton of the timber and general forest loss. 

Utilisation 

In Peninsular Malaysia, the durable handsome wood, which is yellow with dark brown streaks, has been 
used to make walking sticks, smoking pipes, parang handles and sheaths and other small objects 
(Soepadmo and Wong, 1995). Merrilia has also been used for making furniture and boxes. Medicinal 
applications iot Merillia include an infusion of the wood for stomach ache, and as powder which is 
rubbed into the skin against aches and pains (Sosef, Hong and Prawirohatmodjo, 1998). 

Trade 

The timber is not thought to occur in European trade (WCMC, 1991). The wood is rarely and only locally 
used. Prices are high and it is sold by the piece (Sosef, Hong and Prawirohatmodjo, 1998). 

lUCN Conservation category 

NE 

Conservation measures 

With the exception of the few individuals in botanic gardens and those occurring in small villages there 
are no reports of active ex-situ conservation (Sosef, Hong and Prawirohatmodjo, 1998). This species 
appeared on the lUCN list of non-endemic threatened plants of Peninsular Malaysia for 1 99 1 . 

Forest management and silviculture 

It is possible to propagate M. caloxylon by seed. An experimant in Peninsular Malaysia has shown that 
approximately 75% of seeds germinate within 23-73 days. The growth rate of this species is probably to 
low to make it a suitable plantation species (Sosef, Hong and Prawirohatmodjo, 1998). 

References 

Soepadmo, E. and Wong, K.M. (Eds.) 1995. Tree Flora of Sabah and Sarawak. Volume 1. Government 

of Malaysia, ITTO, ODA. 
WCMC. 1991 . Provision of data on rare and threatened tropical timber species. Unpublished report, 

prepared under contract to the EC. 
(Sosef, Hong and Prawirohatmodjo, 1998). 



372 



Annex 2. Profiles of Tree Species: Asia 



Neesia altissima 

Durian 



Distribution 

Perak, Singapore, Sumatra, Sabah, Java, Thailand, Peninsular Malaysia, Borneo. 

Habitat 

Neesia is found in primary rainforest, often along streams or in freshwater swamp. This species grows at 
altitudes of between 100- 1800m. 

Population status and trends 

The species has been recorded as threatened in Indonesia although the genus does not seem to be m 
immediate danger of genetic erosion or extinction. Logging is seldom, even in concession areas (Sosef, 
Hong and Prawirohatmodjo, 1998). 

Role of species in the ecosystem 

Threats 

Utilisation 

This genus produces a light timber and is suitable for light construction, cheap furniture and fittings, 
flooring, planking, wooden shoes, floats, low grade coffins, sliced veneer and plywood. I>ried fiiiits are 
hung above doors in Sumatra to ward off spirits. The wall of the fruit, of this species, has been used 
medicinally against gonorrhoea. 

There is no expected increase in the use of Neesia. 

Trade 

This is one of the main Neesia species traded with Durio and Coelostegia spp. as Durian. Neesia wood 
makes up only a small proportion of this trade group. Neesia may also be traded in mixed consignments as 
"red meranti" (Sosef, Hong and Prawirohatmodjo, 1998). The timber is not thought to occur in European 
trade (WCMC, 1991). Exports of Durio spp. from Peninsular Malaysia totalled 16,000m^ in 1995 which 
was traded at an average 248$/m' (nTO,1997). 

lUCN Conservation category 

The species has been recorded as threatened in Indonesia (WCMC, 1991), although the genus does not 
seem to be in immediate danger of genetic erosion or extinction. Logging is seldom, even in concession 
areas (Sosef, Hong and Prawirohatmodjo, 1998). 

Conservation measures 

Neesia is not recorded to be conserved ex-situ. 

Forest management and silviculture 

It is possible to propagate Neesia from seeds. 

References 

WCMC. 1991. Provision of data on rare and threatened tropical timber species. Unpublished report, 

prepared under contract to the EC. 
(Sosef, Hong and Prawirohatmodjo, 1998). 
mo. 1997. Annual review and assessment of the world tropical timber situation, 1996. 



373 



Contribution to an evaluation of tree species using the new CITES Listing Criteria 



Neesia malayana 

Distribution 

Peninsular Malaysia, Sumatra, Sabah, Borneo. 

Habitat 

Fresh water swamp forest. 

Population status and trends 

The species has been recorded as threatened in Indonesia although the genus does not seem to be in 
immediate danger of genetic erosion or extinction. Logging is seldom, even in concession areas (Sosef. 
Hong and Prawirohatmodjo, 1998). 

Role of species in the ecosystem 

Threats 

Utilisation 

This genus produces a light timber and is suitable for light construction, cheap furniture and fittings, 
flooring, planking, wooden shoes, floats, low grade coffins, sliced veneer and plywood. Dried fruits are 
hung above doors in Sumatra to ward off spirits. 

There is no expected increase in the use of Neesia. 

Trade 

This is one of the main Neesia species traded with Durio and Coelostegia spp. as Durian. Neesia wood 
makes up only a small proportion of this trade group. Neesia may also be traded in mixed consignments as 
"red meranti" (Sosef, Hong and Prawirohatmodjo, 1998). The timber is not thought to occur in European 
trade (WCMC, 1991). Exports oi Durio spp. from Peninsular Malaysia totalled 16.000m^ in 1995 which 
was traded at an average 248$/m' (nTO,1997). 

Conservation category 

Conservation measures 

Neesia is not recorded to be conserved ex-situ. 

Forest management and silviculture 

It is possible to propagate Neesia from seeds. 

References 

11 lO. 1997. Annual review and assessment of the world tropical timber situation, 1996. 
WCMC. 1991. Provision of data on rare and threatened tropical timber species. Unpublished report, 
prepared under contract to the EC. 



374 



Annex 2. Profiles of Tree Species: Asia 



Neobalanocarpus heimii 

Common/Trade name 

Chengal. Malaysia: chengai, penak. Thailand: takhian-chan, takhian chantamaeo 
(peninsular), chi-ngamat (Narathiwat). 

Distribution 

Indonesia (it may be extinct), Peninsular Malaysia, Thailand (south of Pattani). 

Habitat 

N. heimii grows under a wide range of ecological conditions but appears to grow best on undulating land 
with a light sandy soil (Thomas, 1953). In Thailand it occurs in Hill Dipterocarp forest along slopes and in 
valleys, often growing with Shorea curtisii (Smitinand etal., 1980). 

Population status and trends 

Chengal has been one of the most popular hardwoods of Peninsular Malaysia and has been heavily logged 
throughout the state. The species is the best known and most highly valued timber in the country. By the 
1950s Chengal had been exterminated from some accessible areas, particularly in the western regions of 
Malaya (Thomas, 1953). In Malaysia the species is common but never abundant (Asia Regional 
Workshop, 1997). The species is listed as Vulnerable in Anon. (1985). FAO (1990) notes that the species 
has been over-exploited, has poor regeneration and is need of in situ conservation. 

Inventory data have been used to indicate the depletion of Chengal in Peninsular Malaysia in the period 
between the First (1971-72) and Second (1981-82) National Forest Inventories. There was a measured 
decrease in volume/ha and number/ha for trees over 45 cm in diameter in both virgin and logged over 
forests. 

Role of species in the ecosystem 

Threats 

Logging 

Timber properties 

The wood of Chengal has pale yellow sapwood and light-brown heartwood which darkens on exposure. It 
is a heavy, dense resistant wood which is easy to work. 

UtiUsation 

Chengal is used for heavy construction, in bridge-making and for sleepers and telegraph poles. It is also 
used for boat building and in sea defences. 

Trade 

For the period 1 986 - 1990, Peninsular Malaysia exported an average of 28,500 m' of sawn wood 
annually, and the domestic market consumed an average of 69,000 m' annually. Thailand is the main 
importer. (Soerianegara & Lemmens, 1993). 

lUCN Conservation category 

VU A led - according to Lillian Chua 

Conservation measures 

Legislation 

Peninsular Malaysia - The export of Chengal in log form is banned by Peninsular Malaysia. 

Thailand - Conserved as a valuable source of Dammar. Prior to the general logging ban, exploitation of 
Chengal timber could only be carried out by special permission granted by the Ministry of Agriculture. 

Presence in protected areas 

Peninsular Malaysia Occurs in a number of Virgin Jungle Reserves including those in Ulu Sedili Forest 
Reserve, Johore, Panti Forest Reserve, Johore, Balah Forest Reserve, Pahang, Lesong Forest Reserve, 



375 



Contribution to an evaluation of tree species using the new CITES Listing Criteria 



Pahang, Gunung Besut Forest Reserve, Perak, Sungai Lalang Forest Reserve, Selangor, Angsi Forest 
Reserve, Negeri Sembilan and Pasoh Forest Reserve; it also occurs in Taman Negara National Park. 

Thailand Neobalanocarpus heimii does not occur in any protected areas within Thailand (Phengklai pers. 
comm., 1989) 

Forest management and silviculture 

Natural regeneration beneath parent trees is rarely abundant in primary rainforest except on ridges in hill 
forest Seedlings need shade for development and some success has been achieved with planting in 
secondary forests (Soerianegara & Lemmens. 1993). 

In Malaysia there has been some success in enrichment planting trials in advancing secondary forest (Asia 
Regional Workshop, 1997). 

References 

Anon. 1985. In situ conservation of forest genetic resources in Peninsular Malaysia. Forest Genetic 

Resources Information No. 14: 32-49. FAO, Rome. 
FAO. 1990. Report of the Seventh Session of the FAO Panel of Experts on Forest Gene Resources. 

December 1989. FAO, Rome. 
Smithinand, S., Santiasuk, T. and Phengklai, C. 1980. The manual of Dipterocarpaceae of mainland 

South-East Asia. Royal Forest Department, Bangkok. 
Soerianegara, I. & Lemmens, R.H.M.J. (Eds.) 1993. Plant Resources of South-East Asia (PROSEA) 5( 1 ) 

Timber trees: major commercial timbers. Pudoc Scientific Publishers, Wageningen. 
Thomas, A.V. 1953. Malayan timbers Chengai and Balau. Malayan Forest Service Trade Leaflet No. 20. 

Correspondence and personal communications 

C. Phengklai, Royal Forest Department, Bangkok, pers comm., November 1989. 



376 



Annex 2. Profiles of Tree Species: Asia 



Ochanostachys amentacea 

Olacaceae 

Indonesia, Malaysia: Petaling. Indonesia: petikal (Sumatra), ampalang, empilung 
(Kamlimantan). Malaysia: mentalai (Peninsular), imah, petikal (Sarawak), tanggal 
(Dusun, Sabah), sagad berauth (Munid) and santikal (Iban). 



Distribution 

Sumatra. Sabah, Sarawak, Bangka, Peninsular Malaysia, Borneo and intervening islands. It is probably 
erroneously reported from the Nicobar and Andaman Islands (Lemmens, Soenanegara and Wong, 1995). 

Habitat 

Primary and secondary lowland rain forest, often in mixed Dipterocarp forest in undulating country, on 
hill sides and ridges up to 950 m. It is found on loamy or sandy and rarely periodically inundated ground. 
It is scattered or locally frequent (Lemmens, Soenanegara and Wong, 1995). 

Population status and trends 

A monotypic genus found scattered in the understorey, occasionally reaching the canopy, of primary 
and secondary lowland rainforest, often mixed dipterocarp forest. Natural regeneration of this shade 
tolerant species is sparse and scattered, but it can be good under favourable conditions. The tree is slow 
growing; taking about 150 years to reach a diameter of 50 cm. 

Petaling is generally too scarce to be of economic importance as an export timber. Due to it's slow 
growth, it does not have potential as a timber plantation species (Lemmens, Soerianegara and Wong, 
1995). 

Role of species in the ecosystem 

Birds and monkeys eat the fruits. 

Threats 

Utilisation 

Petaling timber is used for house posts and other heavy construction purposes, such as bridge bearers for 
logging roads and railways, for telephone poles foundation piles, fence posts, flooring and tool handles. 
Utilisation for pallets, boxes and crates has also been reported. The bark and roots are used medicinally 
(Lenmiens, Soerianegara and Wong, 1995). 

Trade 

Petaling is most frequently traded together with other medium- weight and heavy woods as mixed 
hardwood (Lemmens. Soerianegara and Wong, 1995). 

lUCN Conservation category 

DD (Asia Regional Workshop, 1997). 

The species has been recorded as threatened in Indonesia (WCMC, 1991). 

Conservation measures 

Forest management and silviculture 

Petaling is useful for underplanting in forest plantations to reduce weed growth (Lemmens, Soerianegara 
and Wong, 1995). 

References 

Asia Regional Workshop, 1997. Conservation and sustainable management of trees project workshop 

held in Hanoi, VietNam, August, 1997 
E. Soepadmo and K.M. Wong. 1995. Tree Flora of Sabah and Sarawak. Kuala Lumpur: Ampang Press 

Sdn.Bhd. 513 pp. 
Erfurth, T. & H. Rusche. 1976. The marketing of tropical wood, (unpublished). FO: MISC/76/8. 
Kostermans, A. 1990. Comments from Kostermans on a draft list of tropical timbers for Indonesia. 
Lemmens, R.H.M.J., I. Soerianegara, & W.C. Wong (eds.). 1995. Plant Resources of South-East Asia 

No 5(2). Timber trees; Minor commercial timbers. Leiden: Backhuys Publishers. 655 pp. 



377 



Contribution to an evaluation of tree species using the new CITES Listing Criteria 



Ng, P.K.L. & Y.C. Wee (eds.). 1994. The Singapore Red Data Book. Singapore: The Nature Society. 

343pp. 
Said, I.M. & Z. Rozainah. 1992. An updated list of wetland plant species of Peninsular Malaysia, with 

particular reference to those having socio-economic value. Asian Wetland Bureau. 109pp. 
WCMC. 1991. Provision of data on rare and threatened tropical timber species. Unpublished report, 

prepared under contract to the EC. 
Whitmore, T.C. 1990. Comments on Draft Listing of Tropical Timbers of Peninsular Malaysia. 



378 



Annex 2. Profiles of Tree Species: Asia 



Octomeles sumatrana 

Datiscaceae 
Binuang 



Distribution 

Brunei, Indonesia (Irian Jaya, Kalimantan, Sulawesi, Sumatra), Malaysia (Sabah, Sarawak), Papua 
New Guinea (Bismarck Archipelago, Papua New Guinea), Philippines, Solomon Islands (South 
Solomon). 

Habitat 

Evergreen rainforest up to 1000m. Especially common in natural secondary and serai riverine alluvial 
forest. Colonises bare alluvial soil. 

Population status and trends 

This monotypic genus is widespread in Malesia. A pioneer species, it regenerates quickly in disturbed 
habitats such as logged-over forest and areas that were previously cultivated. 

Role of species in the ecosystem 

Bees prefer to nest in the branches of this species. Flowers are wind pollinated and the seeds are 
probably wind dispersed. 

Threats 

No immediate threats to the survival of this species. 

Utilisation 

The timber is utilised and this species also has medicinal uses. The roots are used as a local source of 
food and the bark yields gum, resin, oil. In Malaysia and Indonesia, 'bintuang' u-ees are favoured by 
local people for the wild bees nesting in the branches. 

Trade 

This species is one of the major timbers exported from Papua New Guinea, where it is traded under the 
name 'crima'. It makes up approximately 4% of the total logs exported from Papua New Guinea. Japan 
is a major importer from PNG. 

lUCN Conservation category 

LR; least concern - according to WCMC 

Forest management and silviculture 

Plantations have been established in PNG and the Philippines. 

References: 

E. Soepadmo and K.M. Wong. 1995. Tree Flora of Sabah and Sarawak. Kuala Lumpur: Ampang Press 

Sdn.Bhd. 513 pp. 
Eddowes. P.J. 1997. Letter to Sara Oldfield containing annotations to the Draft Red List Summay 

Report for Papua New Guinea trees. 
Erfurth, T. & H. Rusche. 1976. The marketing of tropical wood, (unpublished). FO: MISC/76/8. 
Kessler, Paul J.A., Kade Sidiyasa, Ambriansyah Zainal, & Arifin Zainal. 1995. Checklist of secondary 

forest trees in East and South Kalimantan, Indonesia. 84pp. 
Lemmens, R.H.M.J., I. Soerianegara, & W.C. Wong (eds.). 1995. Plant Resources of South-East Asia 

No 5(2). Timber trees: Minor commercial timbers. Leiden: Backhuys Publishers. 655 pp. 
Penafiel, S. 1990. Annotation to list of tropical timbers for the Philippines. 
Womersley, J.S. & E.E. Henty (eds.). 1978. Handbooks of the flora of Papua New Guinea. Melbourne 

Uni. Press. 
Womersley, J.S. & J.B. McAdam. 1957. The forests and forest conditions in the territories of Papua 

and New Guinea. Zillmere, Queensland: The Wilke Group. 22-23. 



379 



Contribution to an evaluation of tree species using the new CITES Listing Criteria 

Palaquium bataanense 

Sapotaceae 



Distribution 

Philippines 

Habitat 

Primary lowland forest. 

Population status and trends 

There is no specific information on population trends. 

Role of species in the ecosystem 

No information 

Threats 

clear-felling/logging of the habitat, extensive agriculture 

Utilisation 

A source of red nato timber. 

Trade 

No details of the trade are available. 

lUCN Conservation category 

VUAld-WCMC 

Conservation measures 

Forest management and silviculture 

There is an urgent need for silvicultural research into the genus (Soerianegara and Leimnens, 1993). 

References 

Erfurth, T, & H. Rusche. 1976. The marketing of tropical wood, (unpublished). FO: MISC/76/8. 
Penafiel. S. 1990. Annotation to list of tropical timbers for the Philippines. 

Soerianegara, I. & R.H.M.J. Lemmens (eds.). 1993. Plant Resources of South-East Asia 5(1). Timber 
trees: Major commercial timbers. Wageningen: Pudoc Scientific Publishers. 610 pp. 



380 



Annex 2. Profiles of Tree Species: Asia 



Palaquium impressinervium 

Sapotaceae 



Distribution 

Peninsular Malaysia and Thailand 

Habitat}' 

Lowland, moist, closed forest and hill forest. 

Population status and trends 

This species has a scattered distribution in primary forest. It is harvested to supply wood for 
international trade but the main reason for decline is expansion of human habitations. 

Role of species in the ecosystem 

Threats 

clear-felling/logging of the habitat,.expansion of human settlement 

Utilisation 

Timber 

Trade 

lUCN Conservation category 

VU Bl+2a - according to Lillian Chua 

Conservation measures 

Forest management and silviculture 

This species is not in cultivation. There is an urgent need for silvicultural research into the genus 
(Soerianegara and Lemmens, 1993). 

References 

Chua, L. et al. 1997. Completed data collection forms for endemic trees of Peninsular Malaysia. 

Ng, F.S.P., CM. Low, & M.A.N. Sanah. 1990. Endemic trees of the Malay Peninsula. Kuala Lumpur: 

Forestry Department. 1 1 8pp. 
Soerianegara. L & R.H.M.J. Lemmens (eds.). 1993. Plant Resources of South-East Asia 5(1). Timber 

trees: Major commercial timbers. Wageningen: Pudoc Scientific Publishers. 610 pp. 



381 



Contribution to an evaluation of tree species using the new CITES Listing Criteria 

Palaquium maingayi 

Sapotaceae 



Distribution 

Peninsular Malaysia and Thailand 

Habitat 

Located in lowland and hill forests up to an altitude of 1 100m. 

Population status and trends 

Role of species in the ecosystem 

Pollination/dispersal agents are unknown. 

Threats 

Felling and expansion of human settlement are the chief pressures on the species. 

Utilisation 

The timber is used as nyatoh. The latex makes gutta-percha of moderate quality (Soerianegara and 
Lemmens, 1993). 

Trade 

The timber is traded on an international scale. 

lUCN Conservation category 

LR/lc - accordmg to Lillian Chua 

Conservation measures 

The species is conserved within national parks and protective forest in the permanent foest estate. 

Forest management and silviculture 

The species is not in cultivation. 

References 

Chua, L. et al. 1997. Completed data collection forms for endemic trees of Peninsular Malaysia. 

Ng, F.S.P., CM. Low, & M.A.N. Sanah. 1990. Endemic trees of the Malay Peninsula. Kuala Lumpur: 

Forestry Department. 1 1 8pp. 
Soerianegara, 1. & R. H.M.J. Lemmens (eds.). 1993. Plant Resources of South-East Asia 5(1). Timber 

trees: Major commercial timbers. Wageningen: Pudoc Scientific Publishers. 610 pp. 



382 



Annex 2. Profiles of Tree Species: Asia 



Parinari costata ssp. costata 



Distribution 

Peninsular Malaysia, Sumatra, Borneo (Sabah, Sarawak, Brunei, Kalimantan), Philippines. 

Habitat 

Lowland forest, on hillsides and ridges with a maximum altitude of 300 m. Mixed dipterocarp forests on 
well-drained soils (Soepadmo and Wong, 1995). 

Population status and trends 

The species has been recorded as threatened in Indonesia (WCMC, 1991 ). It is uncommon in Sabah and 
Sarawak (Soepadmo and Wong, 1995). 

Role of species in the ecosystem 

The trees are shade tolerant and under natural circumstances establish in small numbers and grow up in 
primary forest (Sosef, Hong and Prawirohatmodjo, 1998). 

Threats 

Utilisation 

Parinari wood is likely to be used for medium to heavy construction undercover, for example packaging 
for heavy articles, posts, beams, panelling and parquet flooring. It provides a good fuel and charcoal. 
Treated timber can be used for outdoor use for example wharf decking, transmission posts, railway 
sleepers, dunnage, salt-water piling and other marine constructions. The edible fruits of various species 
are not often used and the seed oil is used to lacquer paper umbrellas (Sosef, Hong and Prawirohatmodjo, 
1998). 

Parinari is difficult to saw, for this reason it's use is likely to be restricted to marine constructions and 
fu-ewood (Sosef, Hong and Prawirohatmodjo, 1998). 

Trade 

Species of the genus Parinari are likely to be traded in mixed consignments of medium-heavy hardwood, 
or along with species oi Atuna and Maranthes as 'merbatu'. Supplies are generally limited (Sosef, Hong 
and Prawirohatmodjo, 1998). The timber is not thought to occur in European trade (WCMC, 1991). 

lUCN Conservation category 

DD (Asia Regional Workshop, 1997). 

Conservation measures 

With the exception of those specimens incidently cultivated in botanical gardens there is no ex-sim 
cultivation (Sosef, Hong and Prawirohatmodjo, 1998). 

Forest management and silviculture 

Propagation from seed is possible. 

References 

Asia Regional Workshop, 1997. Conservation and sustainable management of trees project workshop 

held in Hanoi, VietNam, August 1997 
Soepadmo, E. and Wong, K.M. (Eds.) 1995. Tree Flora of Sabah and Sarawak. Volume 1. Government 

of Malaysia, mO, ODA. 
WCMC. 1991. Provision of data on rare and threatened tropical timber species. Unpublished report, 

prepared under contract to the EC. 



383 



Contribution to an evaluation of tree species using the new CITES Listing Criteria 

Parinari oblongifolia 



Distribution 

Peninsular Malaysia, Sumatra, Borneo (Sabah, Sarawak, Brunei, Kalimantan). 

Habitat 

Lowland rain forest and beside rivers in valleys extending to 450 m (Soepadmo and Wong, 1995) and 
occasionally in seasonal swamps (KeSler, Sidiyasa, 1994) 

Population status and trends 

This species has been recorded as threatened in Indonesia (WCMC, 1991). 

Role of species in the ecosystem 

The trees are shade tolerant and under natural circumstances establish in small numbers and grow up in 
primary forest (Sosef, Hong and Prawirohatmodjo, 1998). 

Threats 

Utilisation 

Parinari wood is likely to be used for medium to heavy construction undercover, for example packaging 
for heavy articles, posts, beams, panelling and parquet flooring. It provides a good fuel and charcoal. 
Treated timber can be used for outdoor use for example wharf decking, transmission posts, railway 
sleepers, dunnage, salt-water piling and other marine constructions. The edible fruits of various species 
are not often used and the seed oil is used to lacquer paper umbrellas (Sosef, Hong and Prawirohatmodjo, 
1998).. 

Parinari is difficult to saw, for this reason it's use is likely to be restricted to marine consttuctions and 
firewood (Sosef, Hong and Prawirohatmodjo, 1998). 

Trade 

Species of the genus Parinari are likely to be traded in mixed consignments of medium-heavy hardwood, 
or along with species oiAtuna and Maranthes as 'merbatu'. Supplies are generally limited (Sosef, Hong 
and Prawirohatmodjo, 1998). The timber is not thought to occur in European trade (WCMC, 1991). 

lUCN Conservation category 

DD (Asia Regional Workshop, 1997). 

Conservation measures 

With the exception of those specimens incidently cultivated in botanical gardens there is no ex-situ 
cultivation (Sosef, Hong and Prawirohatmodjo, 1998). 

Forest management and silviculture 

Propagation from seed is possible. The stone of this species has about 70% chance of germination, 
although this does not occur for 9 months after sowing. The last stones may germinate after more than 3 
years (Sosef, Hong and Prawirohatmodjo, 1998). 

References 

Asia Regional Workshop, 1997. Conservation and sustainable management of trees project workshop 

held in Hanoi, VietNam, August, 1997 
KeBler, Paul J. A & Kade Sidiyasa, 1994. Trees of the Balikpapan-Samarinda area. East Kalimantan, 

Indonesia: a manual o 280 selected species. The Tropenbos Foundation (Tropenbos series ; 7). 
Soepadmo, E. and Wong, K.M. (Eds.) 1995. Tree Flora of Sabah and Sarawak. Volume 1. Government 

of Malaysia, ITTO, ODA. 
(Sosef, Hong and Prawirohatmodjo, 1998). 
WCMC. 1991. Provision of data on rare and threatened tropical timber species. Unpublished report, 

prepared under contract to the EC. 



384 



Annex 2. Profiles of Tree Species: Asia 



Pericopsis mooniana 

Conunon/Trade name 

kuku, nedun 

Local names 

kayu laut (Malaysia), nedun (Sri Lanka), kayu kuku, joemoek (Indonesia), makapilit 

(Philippines). 



Distribution 

Micronesia, Papua New Guinea, Indonesia (Irian Jaya, Java, Kalimantan, Sulawesi, southern Sumatra, 
Moluccas), Eastern Borneo (Sabah, East Kalimantan), Philippines (Mindanao), the Moluccas, Sri Lanka, 
Peninsular Malaysia, Sabah. 

Habitat 

This species grows primarily scattered in coastal forests, but can be found along river banks, and in 
periodically inundated lowland semi-deciduous or evergreen forest up to 2(X)(-350) m. In Papua New 
Guinea it is associated with Flindersia, Syzygium and Myristica spp. (Eddowes, 1997). 

Population status and trends 

This highly prized wood is disappearing fast owing to logging and land clearing for rubber and oil palm 
plantations (National Academy of Sciences, 1979). 

P. mooniana is considered to be Vulnerable in Indonesia according to Tantra (1983). It is included in a 
shortlist of Endangered species of the country (Anon., 1978) and this reference noted that it had become 
exceedmgly rare in Kalimantan. Over-exploitation m Sulawesi has resulted in only a few stands of this 
species remaining there, for example m Lamedae Reserve, south of Kolaka in south-east Sulawesi 
(Whittenera/., 1987). 

The species is considered to be almost extinct in Sabah (Meijer, pers. conun. 1997). 

The Papua New Guinea population is restricted to a small area in the Oriomo River region of the Western 
province (Eddowes, 1997). The Oriomo River region is subject to ongoing logging operations and this 
species is in danger of becoming extinct in Papua New Guinea if it is not akeady (Eddowes, 1997b). 

In Sri Lanka, demand for the timber has led to Pericopsis mooniana becoming very rare (de S. 
Wijesmgheera/., 1990). 

Utilisation 

It is eageriy sought after for furniture, cabinet making, panelling, sliced veneer and turnery. 

Trade 

Supplies of the timber are very limited and exports are negligible. Sawn timber from Indonesia is traded 
mainly to Japan (Anon., 1978). 

lUCN Conservation category 

VUAlcd (Asia Regional Workshop, 1997). 

An evaluation of CR C2ab has been assigned for Papua New Guinea (Eddowes, 1997) 

Conservation measures 

It is cultivated in the LAE National Botanical Gardens, Papua New Guinea (Eddowes, 1997). 

Legislation 

Sri Lanka - Included in a list of threatened plant species which will replace the schedule of protected 
plants in the Fauna and Flora Protection Ordinance 1937. 



385 



Contribution to an evaluation of tree species using the new CITES Listing Criteria 



Forest management and silviculture 

In Indonesia trees are harvested according to the Indonesian selective felhng and planting system, with a 
diameter limit of 50 cm. Natural regeneration is generally scarce. In cultivation seeds germinate well and 
the species can also be propagated easily from stem cuttings (Soerianegara & Lemmens, 1993). 

References 

Anon. 1978. Endangered species of trees. Conservation Indonesia 2(4) 

Asia Regional Workshop, 1997. Conservation and sustainable management of trees project workshop 

held in Hanoi, VietNam, August, 1997 
Eddowes, P. J., 1977. Commercial timbers of Papua New Guinea, their properties and uses. Forest . 

Products Research Centre, Department of Primary Industry, Port Moresby. Xiv + 195 pp. 
Eddowes, P. J., 1980. Lesser known timber species of SEALPA countries. A review and summary. South 

East Asia Lumber Producers Association. Jakarta, Indonesia. 79 pp. 
Eddowes, P. J., 1995-1997. The forest and timbers of Papua New Guinea. Unpublished. 
Eddowes, P. J., 1997. Completed data collection form for Pericopsis mooniana. 
Eddowes, P. J., 1997b. Annotations to the Draft Species Profile for Pericopsis mooniana. 
Meijer, W. 1997. Personal communication to Amy MacKinven 
National Academy of Sciences. 1979. Tropical legumes: resources for the future. National Academy of 

Sciences, Washington, DC. 
de S. Wijesinghe, L.C.A., Gunatilleke, I.A.U.N., Jayawardana, S.D.G., Kotagama, S.W. and Gunatilleke, 

C.V.S. 1990. Biological conservation in Sri Lanka (A national status report). Natural Resources, 

Energy and Science Authority of Sri Lanka, Colombo. 
Soerianegara, L & Lemmens, R.H.M.J. (Eds.) 1993. Plant Resources of South-East Asia (PROSEA) 5(1) 

Timber trees: major commercial timbers. Pudoc Scientific Publishers, Wageningen. 
Tantra, G.M. 1983. Erosi plasma nutfah nabati. J. Penelitian & Penembangan Pertanian 2(1): 1-5. 
Whitten, A.J., Mustafa, M. and Henderson, G.S. 1987. The ecology of Sulawesi. Gadjah Mada University 

Press. 



386 



Annex 2. Profiles of Tree Species: Asia 

Phoebe macrophylla 

Distribution 

Indonesia, Peninsular Malaysia, Sabah, Sarawak. 

Habitat 

Population status and trends 

Role of species in tbe ecosystem 

Threats 

Utilisation 

A Light Hardwood (Wong, 1982). 

Trade 

The limber is commonly grouped with that of other species of the family and traded as medang. The timber 
is not thought to occur in European trade (WCMC, 1991). 

lUCN Conservation category 

This species has been recorded as threatened in Indonesia (WCMC, 1991). 

Conservation measures 

Forest management and silviculture 

References 

WCMC. 1 99 1 . Provision of data on rare and threatened tropical timber species. Unpublished report, 
prepared under contract to the EC. 



387 



Contribution to an evaluation of tree species using the new CITES Listing Criteria 



Phoebe nanmu 

Lauraceae 



Distribution 

Endemic to China (Xizang, Yunnan) It is only recorded from Meitus in south-east Tibet (Xizang). 

Habitat In Yunnan the species is known mainly from monsoon forest. It grows at altitudes between 
500 - 1500m. 

Population status and trends 

The species has a scattered distribution. During the last 10 years populations have been declining 
because of overcutting. 

Role of species in the ecosystem 

P. nanmu grows with Semecarpus reticulata and Paramichelia bailonii. 

Threats 

Exploitation together with clear-felling/logging of the habitat and agriculture. Overcutting for timber is 
believed to be the greatest threat (Fu, Li-kuo & Jian-ming Jin, 1992). 

Utilisation 

The timber is excellent for building construction and furniture. 

Trade 

minor international trade 

lUCN Conservation category 

EN Bl+2ce -according to Weibang Sun 

Conservation measures 

Some areas of the forest habitat are protected, for example in Menghai Nature Reserve. There is small 
scale cultivation. 

Forest management and silviculture 

References 

Fu. Li-kuo & Jian-ming Jin (eds.). 1992. China Plant Red Data Book. Beijing: Science Press, xviii-741. 
National Environment Protection Bureau. 1987. The list of rare and endangered plants protected in 

China. Botanical Institute of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing: Academy Press. 96pp. 
Sun, W. 1997. Completed data collection forms for trees of Yunnan. 



388 



Annex 2. Profiles of Tree Species: Asia 



Pinus amamiana 

Pinaceae 



Distribution 

Japan 

Habitat 

Lowland, moisl, coniferous forest 

Population status and trends 

This is only known from scattered populations in lowland coniferous woodland on Yakushima and 
Tanegashima islands. It was formerly exploited and seems slow to regenerate where conditions have 
become exposed. 

Role of species in the ecosystem 

Threats 

Logging has been the main cause of decline. 

Utilisation 

This species produces a good quality timber. 

Trade 

The species is too scarce to be commercially valuable. 

rUCN Conservation category 

VU D2 - according to the SSC Conifer Specialist Group 

Conservation measures 

The habitat of this species is included in a national park on Yakushima. 

Forest management and silviculture 

Not in cultivation 

References 

FAO Forestry Department. 1986. Databook on endangered tree and shrub species and their 

provenances. Rome: FAO. 524pp. 
Farjon, Aljos, Christopher N. Page, & Nico Schellevis. 1993. A preliminary world list of threatened 

conifer taxa. Biodiversity and Conservation 2: 304-326. 
Mill, Robert R. 1994. Annotations to Conifers - taxa listed on BG-BASE - status report as of 2 

February 1994. 43pp. 



389 



Contribution to an evaluation of tree species using the new CITES Listing Criteria 

Pinus merkusii 

Pinaceae 



Distribution 

Indonesia (Sumatra woodlands - around Lake Toba following the mountains north-east), Philippines 

Habitat 

Open pine woodland with grassland growing up to altitudes of 2000m. 

Population status and trends 

This species has been reported to be abundant where it occurs but high levels of exploitation have 
resulted in populations being reduced to very low levels in the Philippines. In Sumatra the timber 
continues to be extracted. The effects on the population here are yet to be confirmed but are not thought 
to be as severe. 

Role of species in the ecosystem 

Threats 

In addition to felling, grazing and burning are threats. 

Utilisation 

An important timber tree. It is also a source of fuel for local use and resin. 

Trade 

minor international trade 

lUCN Conservation category 

VU Bl+2ce - SSC Conifer Specialist Group 

Conservation measures 

Forest management and silviculture 

A light-demanding pioneer .species, natural regeneration is only possible where a relatively large 
amount of sunlight reaches the ground. This species is plantation grown (Lamprecht, 1989). 

References 

Cooling, E.N.G. 1968. Pinus merkusii - fast growing timber trees of the tropics. 

Farjon, AIjos, Christopher N. Page, & Nico Schellevis. 1993. A preliminary world list of threatened 

conifer taxa. Biodiversity and Conservation 2: 304-326. 
Lamprecht. H. (1989) Silviculture in the Tropics. GTZ, Germany. 



390 



Annex 2. Profiles of Tree Species: Asia 



Pinus pentaphylla 

Pinaceae 



Distribution 

Japan, South Korea 

Habitat 

Found in mixed stands on hilltops and rocky outcrops in the deciduous broad-leaved zone and in the 
sub-alpine conifer zone growing at altitudes 60 - 2500m. 

Population status and trends 

This pine grows in small groups on hilltops and on rocky outcrops. Logging operations and forest 
clearance are causing a decline in parts of the species range, especially the northern and south-eastern 
areas. 

Role of species in the ecosystem 

Threats 

Logging operations and cutting of the natural forest. 

Utilisation 

It produces a good construction timber. The species is widely used as an ornamental including bonsai 
cultivation. 

Trade 

lUCN Conservation category 

LRynt - according to WCMC 

Conservation measures 

Cultivated on a small scale. Populations are protected in Japanese national parks. 

Forest management and silviculture 

References 

FAO Forestry Department. 1986. Databook on endzingered tree and shrub species and their 

provenances. Rome: FAO. 524pp. 
Hayashi, Y. 1952. The Natural Distribution of Important Trees Indigenous to Japan. 
Lee, Y.N. 1984. Annotations to: List of threatened plants of South Korea. 
Ohwi, J. 1965. Flora of Japan (in English). Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution. 1067pp. 



391 



Contribution to an evaluation of tree species using the new CITES Listing Criteria 

Pithecellobium splendens 



Distribution 

Peninsular Malaysia, Sabah, Sarawak, Thailand, Sumatra, Borneo. 

Habitat 

In Malaysia it is found scattered in lowlands to 800 m throughout the country but is never gregarious. 

Population status and trends 
Role of species in the ecosystem 
Threats 

Utilisation 

This is the only species in the genus large enough to be considered as a timber species (Wong, 1982). 

Trade 

The timber is not thought to occur in European trade (WCMC, 1991). 

Conservation category 

The species has been recorded as threatened in Indonesia (WCMC, 1991). 

Conservation measures 

Forest management and silviculture 

References 

WCMC. 1991. Provision of data on rare and threatened tropical timber species. Unpublished report, 
prepared under contract to the EC. 



392 



Annex 2. Profiles of Tree Species: Asia 



Planchonia valida 

Putat 



Distribution 

Malaysia, Sumatra, Sabah, Borneo, Java, Lesser Sunda Islands, Sulawesi. 

Habitat 

In Malaysia ii is usually found at low altitudes in open spaces and forest. In Kalimantan it is also reported 
from lowland forest, usually along rivers or on hillsides. 

Population status and trends 

Role of species in the ecosystem 

Threats 

Utilisation 

The wood is easy to work, but not very durable. It provides a good source of firewood and the young leaves 
are eaten as lalab (raw vegetables). 

Trade 

The main species traded as putat. The timber is not thought to occur in European trade (WCMC, 1991). 

lUCN Conservation category 

The species has been recorded as threatened in Indonesia. 

Conservation measures 

Forest management and silviculture 

References 

Kessler, P.J.A and Sidiyasa, K. 1994. Trees of the Balikpapan Samarinda area. East Kalimantan, Indonesia. 

A Manual to 280 selected species. Tropenbos Series 7. Tropenbos, Wageningen. 
WCMC. 1991. Provision of data on rare and threatened tropical timber species. Unpublished report, 

prepared under contract to the EC 



393 



Contribution to an evaluation of tree species using the new CITES Listing Criteria 

Podocarpus annamiensis 

Podocarpaceae 
hainan luohansong 



Distribution 

China (Guangdong - Hainan), Myanmar, Viet Nam 

Habitat 

A tree scattered in rainforest areas on hillsides and ridges at medium altitudes up to 1 699m. 

Population status and trends 

Populations confined to the mountains of southern Hainan Island in China are constantly subject to 
exploitation and have declined. Populations elsewhere are also subject to heavy logging. 

Role of species in the ecosystem 

Threats 

Clear-felling/logging of the habitat 

Utilisation 

The species produces a good wood for carving and making musical instruments. It also has some 
horticultural value. 

lUCN Conservation category 

DD according to SSC Conifer Specialist Group 

Conservation measures 

Populations should be protected in the Jianfeng and Diaoluo Mts. A few individuals are present in the 
arboretum of the Hainan Institute of Forestry. 

Forest management and silviculture 

References 

Farjon, Aljos, Christopher N. Page, & Nice Schellevis. 1993. A prehminary world list of threatened 

conifer taxa. Biodiversity and Conservation 2: 304-326. 
Loc, Phan Ke. 1992. Annotations to: Conservation status listing for Vietnam dated 25 March 1992. 

(unpublished). 49pp. 
Loc, Phan Ke. 1986. Lists of rare and endangered plant species of Vietnam (1986-1988). 

(unpublished). 
Mill, Robert R. 1994. Annotations to Conifers - taxa listed on BG-BASE - status repon as of 2 

February 1994. 43pp. 
National Environment Protection Bureau. 1987. The list of rare and endangered plants protected in 

China. Botanical Institute of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing: Academy Press. 96pp. 
Pham-Hoang. Ho. (ed.). 1991. An illustrated flora of Vietnam. Saigon: Mekong Press. 



394 



Annex 2. Profiles of Tree Species: Asia 



Pterocarpus dalbergioides 

Andaman padauk, Andaman redwood 



Distribution 

Andaman Islands. Planted from India to Indonesia and in Madagascar. 

Habitat 

Deciduous and semi-moist deciduous forest, usually near river banks, on well-drained sites, at altitudes of 
up to 100 m. 

Population status and trends 

Role of species in the ecosystem 

Threats 

No information is available about the proper management of narra in natural stands. The trees often occur 
scattered in dipterocarp forest where the cutting is governed by diameter limits (usually 60 cm). 

Utilisation 

The timber is used as narra (Soerianegara & Lemmens, 1993). The wood yields a red dye and it is also 
used medicinally (WWF and lUCN, 1994-1995). 

Trade 

lUCN Conservation category 

DD - according to the Viet Nam Regional Workshop 

Conservation measures 

Forest management and silviculture 

This species regenerates well naturally. It is well-suited for planting in stand gaps, for enrichment line 
planting, and for agroforestry systems. It is mainly cultivated in India and Myanmar (Lamprecht, 1989). 

References 

Anon. 1979. VI Luxury timbers, pp. 21 1-238. In Tropical legumes: Resources for the future. 

Washington. D.C.: National Academy of Sciences. 
Lamprecht, H. (1989) Silviculture in the Tropics. GTZ, Germany. 
Soerianegara. I. & Lemmens, R.H.M.J. (Eds.) 1993. Plant Resources of South-East Asia (PROSEA) 5(1) 

Timber trees: major commercial timbers. Pudoc Scientific Publishers, Wageningen. 
WWF and lUCN. 1994-1995. Centres of plant diversity. A guide and strategy for their conservation. Vol 

2. rUCN publications Unit, Cambndge, UK. 



395 



Contribution to an evaluation of tree species using the new CITES Listing Criteria 



Pterocarpus indicus 

Trade name 

narra, amboyna, padauk, rosewood 

Local name 

red sandalwood (English), amboine, santal rouge (French). Brunei: angsana. Indonesia: 
linggoa, sonokembang (general), angsana (Java). Malaysia: angsana (general), sena 
(Peninsular). Papua New Guinea: Papua New Guinea rosewood,. Philippines: apalit 
(general), vitali (Zamboanga). Myanmar: sena, padouk, ansanah. Laos: chan deng. 
Thailand: pradu (general), pradu-ban (central), sano (Malay, peninsular). Viet Nam: 
gi[as]ng h[uw][ow]ng. Fiji: cibicibi. Vanuatu: nananara. Solomon Islands: liki. 



Distribution 

Southern Burma, Philippines, Peninsular Malaysia, Indonesia. Sabah, Singapore, India, Myanmar, 
Thailand, Indochina, the Malay Archipelago, Papua New Guinea, Bismarck Archif)elago, Bougainville, 
the Solomon Islands and the Pacific Islands. 

Habitat 

The species is found at low to medium altitudes (up to 750m) in primary and secondary forest, mainly 
along tidal creeks or at the edge of swamps. In addition, it is found in beach forest, on coral sand and on 
rocky shores. It may grow at higher altitudes when planted (Soerianegara & Lemmens, 1993). 

Population status and trends 

This species has a widespread distribution and is widely cultivated e.g. it is the most common street tree 
in Singapore. This species has been recorded as Vulnerable in the Philippines and threatened in Indonesia 
(WCMC, 1991 ). It is probably now extinct in Peninsular Malaysia because of exploitation of its few 
known stands (Soerianegara and Lemmens, 1993). It has been known for 300 years that this species is 
extinct in the wild in VietNam (Asia Regional Workshop, 1997). The species has been heavily exploited 
in Irian Jay a and Papua New Guinea having the largest remaining supplies (Asia Regional Workshop, 
1997). In India this species is endangered (Asia Regional Workshop, 1997). 

Role of species in the ecosystem 

Threats 

Exploitation for timber, including illegal felling, and shifting cultivation (Soerianegara and Lemmens, 
1993). The sustainablily of timber extraction should remain of concern. As narra wood is in great demand 
for top-class furniture, trees of less than 60 cm diameter are sometimes cut illegally, particularly in the 
Philippines (Soerianegara & Lemmens, 1993) 

UtiUsation 

The narra timber is used for high class furniture and cabinets, decorative sliced veneer, interior wall 
paneling, feature flooring (including strip and parquet), musical instruments, gun stocks, rifle butts, turned 
articles, knife handles, boat building and specialised joinery (Eddowes 1977, 1995-1997) 

Trade 

In the Philippines export of nana wood was 3 million kg in 1985, declining to 2.3 kg in 1986 (57% 
processed) and 430,000 kg in 1987 (all processed). From that time export has been negligible and at 
present there is a total cutting ban on the species (Soerianegara and Lemmens, 1993). 

In Papua New Guinea, narra is an important timber which fetches high prices. The export of logs is 
banned and only processed wood is exponed (Soerianegara and Lemmens, 1993). 

Thailand exported 5.8 million kg of sawn Pterocarpus (P. indicus and P. macrocarpus) in 1990. Thailand 
also imports this timber, 1 1000 m' in 1990, mainly from Myanmar but also in small amounts from Laos, 
Cambodia and Viet Nam (Soerianegara and Lemmens, 1993). 



396 



Annex 2. Profiles of Tree Species: Asia 



lUCN Conservation category 

VU Aid - according to WCMC 

Conservation measures 

In Viet Nam this species is included in the Council of Ministers Decision 18/HDBT (17 January 1992) 
as a species with high economical value which is subject to over-exploitation. 

Forest management and silviculture 

Narra is easily propagated by seed. Stump cuttings taken from seedlings or wildlings can also be used as 
planting material and narra can be propagated successfully by tissue culture. It is cultivated in Africa, 
India, Sri Lanka, Taiwan, Okinawa, Hawaii and Central America (Soerianegara and Lemmens, 1993). It 
is also cultivated in Singapore and Papua New Guinea (Asia Regional Workshop, 1997), 

No information is available about the proper management of narra in natiu-a) stands. In the Philippines, 
the trees often occur scattered in dipterocarp forest where diameter felling limits apply. The high value of 
the wood has led to illegal felling of trees in contravention of the felling limits particularly in the 
Philippines (Soerianegara and Lemmens, 1993). 

References 

Asia Regional Workshop, 1997. Conservation and sustainable management of trees project workshop 

held in Hanoi, VietNam, August, 1997 
Eddowes, P. J., 1977. Commercial timbers of Papua New Guinea, their properties and uses. Forest 

Products Research Centre. Department of Primary Industry, Port Moresby. Xiv + 195 pp. 
Eddowes, P. J., 1995-1997. The forest and timbers of Papua New Guinea. Unpublished. 
Soerianegara, I. & Lemmens, R.H.M.J. (Eds.) 1993. Plant Resources of South-East Asia (PROSEA) 5(1) 

Timber trees: major commercial timbers. Pudoc Scientific Publishers, Wageningen. 
WCMC. 1991. Provision of data on rare and threatened tropical timber species. Unpublished report, 

prepared under contract to the EC. 



397 



Contribution to an evaluation of tree species using the new CITES Usting Criteria 

Pterocarpus macrocarpus 



Distribution 

Laos, Myanmar, Thailand, Viet Nam 

Habitat 

In Viet Nam the species occurs in open semi-deciduous dipterocarp forest on well-drained soils. 

Population status and trends 
Role of species in the ecosystem 
Threats 

Utilisation 

Classified as a first class timber in Viet Nam, used in construction, cabinet-work, furniture and fine art 
articles. The resin is used as a red dye (Vu Van Dung, 1996). 

Trade 

Thailand exported 5.8 million kg of sawn Pterocarpus {P. indicus and P. macrocarpus) in 1990. Thailand 
also imports this timber, 11 000 m' in 1990, mainly from Myanmar but also in small amounts from Laos, 
Cambodia and Viet Nam (Soerianegara and Lemmens, 1993). Myanmar exported 37000 m' of logs at an 
average price of 429$/m' and 1000 m' of sawn wood at an average price of 237$/m' in 1995. In 1995 
Thailand exported 5000 m' of sawn wood at an average price of 1761$/m\ 

lUCN Conservation category 

DD (Asia Regional Workshop, 1997). 

Conservation measures 

Forest management and silviculture 

References 

Asia Regional Workshop, 1997. Conservation and sustainable management of trees project workshop 

held in Hanoi, VietNam, August, 1997 
Soenanegara, I. & Lemmens, R.H.M.J. (Eds.) 1993. Plant Resources of South-East Asia (PROSEA) 5(1) 

Timber trees: major commercial timbers. Pudoc Scientific Publishers, Wageningen. 
Vu Van Dung (Ed.) 1996. VietNam Forest Trees. Agricultural Publishing House, Hanoi. 
WCMC. 1991. Provision of data on rare and threatened tropical timber species. Unpublished report, 

prepared under contract to the EC. 



398 



Annex 2. Profiles of Tree Species: Asia 



Pterocarpus santalinus 

Redsanders, Red Sandal Wood 

Local names 

lalchandan, raktachand (Beng. & Hindi); ratanjali (Guj.); agaru, honne (Kan.); 
patrangam, tUapamni (Mai.); atti, sivappu chandanam (Tarn.); agarugandhamu, 
raktagandhamu (Tel.). 

Distribution 

This species occurs mainly in the southern eastern Ghats states of Peninsular India (Andhra Pradesh, 
Kamataka. Tamil Nadu) and sporadically in other states (Anon., 1997). 

Habitat 

Found between 150 - 900 m altitude, this species is restricted to dry, hilly, often rocky, ground in dry 
deciduous forest and is sometimes found on wetter hillsides. 

Population Status and Trends 

The total range of this tree is < 5.000 km^and the area of occupancy is< 1 ,000 km^ (Molur et al, 1995). 
Regeneration of the species is confined to the dry hilly regions of central India (Anon., 1997). No 
populations have been reported for Kerala, Kamataka and Tamil Nadu (Molur et al, 1995). 

Role of Species in the ecosystem 

Threats 

A slow growing species over-exploited for its timber and for the extraction of dye, csometics and 
medicine. 

Utilisation 

Nationally Raktachandan is used as a quality timber (Anon.. 1997). The wood, particularly the 'wavey 
grain' timber, is valued for making highly prized furniture and musical instruments. A red dye called 
'santalin' is produced from this species which is used to mark castes amongst the Hindu community. It 
also has traditional medicinal uses in India. Leaves are used as cattle fodder. 

Trade 

Export of red sandalwood for textile dyeing started in the 17" century and continued unil 1900; the major 
importer being UK. Export figures in the 1880s average around 3000 tonnes per annum. In the 1930s 
Japan imported the wood for making traditional 'shamishen" musical instruments. The market continues 
today with several hundred tonnes of red sanalwood being exported every year. Europe has for a long 
time imported red sandalwood extract as a red colourant, mainly for use in fish processing but recent 
interest has been shown in examining other applications (Green, 1995). 

Large quanities of wood chips (1988/89: 135.4 tonnes; 1989/90: 144.567 tonnes; 1990/91; 23,7 tonnes; 
1991/92; 36.191 tonnes; 1992/93: 24.97 tonnes) and powder (1990/91; 56.41 tonnes; 1991/92; 56.8 
tonnes) are exported regularly mainly for the extraction of dye, medicine and cosmetics (Anon., 1997). 
The major importers of red sandalwood powder have Japan, Taiwan and Western Europe. Illegal trade 
has been reported (Anon., 1997). 

lUCN Conservation category 

EN Bl+2d,e by Molur et al, 1995 which was confirmed at the Asia Regional Workshop (1997). 

Conservation Measures 

It is on the prohibited list of exports which bans export in any form. 
Pterocarpus santalinus is listed on Appendix n of CITES. 

Currently efforts are being made to regenerate this species and introduce it to different Botanic Gardens 
and National Parks (Anon., 1997). 



399 



Contribution to an evaluation of tree species using the new CITES Listing Criteria 



Forest management and silviculture 

Plantations are being established (Molur et al, 1995). The tree regenerates well from coppicing but growth 
is slow and a 40 year coppice rotation is practised in India (Green, 1995). 

References 

Anonymous. 1997. Proposal to include Pterocarpus santalinus in Appendix n of CITES. 

Asia Regional Workshop, 1997. Conservation and sustainable management of trees project workshop 

held in Hanoi, VietNam, August, 1997 
Molur, S., Ved, D.K., Tandon, V., Namboodiri, N. and S. Walker (Eds.). 1995. Conservation Assessment 

and Management Plan (C.A.M.P.) for selected sjjecies of medicinal plants of southern India. Produced 

by participants of the Southern Indian Medicinal Plants Conservation Assessment and Management 

Plan Workshop help 23-25 February at Bangalore pp. 108. 



400 



Annex 2. Profiles of Tree Species: Asia 



Pterocymbium beccarii 

Amberoi 

Distribution 

Indonesia (Irian Jaya and Kai Islands), Papua New Guinea, Bismarck Archipelago, and the North 
Solomons (Bougainville). 

Habitat 

A tree generally found at low altitudes, occasionally found up to 750m, in rainforest on well drained flats 
and foothills, mostly on ridges. It sometimes on alluvial or swampy soils on the mner edge of mangroves 
(Eddowes, 1995-1997). 

Population status and trends 

Somewhat scattered but sometimes locally common, Pterocymbium beccarii is relatively widespread 
throughout the region. In Papua New Guinea this species has been heavily exploited for many years in 
commercial style logging operations on the islands of New Britain and New Ireland in the Bismarck 
Archipelago (Eddowes 1995-1997). The species is not, however, considered to be in immediate danger in 
Papua New Guinea. The species has been recorded as Rare in Indonesia (WCMC, 1991). 

Role of species in the ecosystem 

It plays a relatively important role in the eco-system through its ability to regenerate after logging and its 
status as a pioneer species. 

Threats 

The species is threatened by exploitation for timber, shifting cultivation and agricultural expansion. 

Utilisation 

A soft, liahtweignt, pale (cream to straw) coloured timber. Mainly sought after for veneer and plywood 
manufacture due to its well-formed cyindrical bole which is often large in diameter (Eddowes, 1995- 
1997). 

Trade 

The timber is not thought to occur in European trade (WCMC, 1 99 1 ). It is one of the major commercial 
timbers of Papua New Guinea and accounts for 2-3% of logs exported annually (Eddowes, 1997). In 
1993, it attained an average FOB price of US$ 70/m'. 

lUCN Conservation category 

DD (Asia Regional Workshop, 1997). 

Conservation measures 

There are no known conservation measures of any significance. 

Forest management and silviculture 

There is very little specific information available for this species, but in general Lemmens et al (1995) 
record that natural regeneration is generally good. It often suckers vigorously from cut stumps. Being a 
pioneer, the species needs plenty of light, especially in the seedling stage. Plantations need ot be weeded 
during the first 1-3 years and shold be thinned 5 and 10 years after planting. The rotation of 
Pterocymbium plantations is 30 years or less. 

References 

Asia Regional Workshop, 1997. Conservation and sustainable management of trees project workshop 

held in Hanoi, VietNam, August, 1997 

Eddowes, P. J., 1977. Commercial timbers of Papua New Guinea, their properties and uses. Forest 

Products Research Centre, Department of Primary Industry, Port Moresby. Xiv + 195 pp. 
Eddowes, P. J., 1980. Lesser known timber species of SEALPA countries. A review and summary. South 

East Asia Lumber Producers Association. Jakarta, Indonesia. 79 pp. 
Eddowes, P. J., 1995-1997. The forest and timbers of Papua New Guinea. Unpublished. 
Eddowes, P. J., 1997. Papua New Guinea. Notes on timber exploitation. Unpublished. 
Lemmens, R.H.M.J., Soerianegara, I. & W.C.Wong (Eds). 1995. Plant Resources of South East Asia. No. 

5(2). Timber Trees: Minor commercial timbers. Backhuys Publishers, Leiden. 655 pp. 



401 



Contribution to an evaluation of tree species using the new CITES Listing Criteria 



WCMC. 1991 . Provision of data on rare and threatened tropical timber species. Unpublished report, 
prepared under contract to the EC. 



402 



Annex 2. Profiles of Tree Species: Asia 



Pterocymbium tinctorium 



Distribution 

Myanmar, Thailand, Indo-china, Peninsular Malaysia, Indonesia, Philippines. Sabah. 

Habitat 

This species is most common on alluvial flats, and is also found in evergreen, deciduous or open forest in 
periodically dry locations up to 1000m. 

Population status and trends 

The species has been recorded as Vulnerable in the Philippines and Rare in Indonesia, according to the 
old lUCN threat categones (WCMC, 1991). 

Role of species in the ecosystem 

Threats 

Utilisation 

The timber is known as amberoi. The bark is used to improve black dyeing of conon cloth and locally to 
make rope. 

Trade 

Amberoi timber is traded domestically in Thailand. The timber is not thought to occur in European trade 
(WCMC, 1991). 

lUCN Conservation category 

DD (Asia Regional Workshop, 1997). 

Conservation measures 

Forest management and silviculture 

References 

Asia Regional Workshop, 1997. Conservation and sustainable management of trees project workshop 

held in Hanoi, VietNam, August 1997 
WCMC. 1991. Provision of data on rare and threatened tropical timber species. Unpublished report, 

prepared under contract to the EC. 



403 



Contribution to an evaluation of tree species using the new CITES Listing Criteria 



Pterocymbium tubulatum 

Various vernacular names are recorded for Sumatra, Peninsular Malaysia and 
Kalimantan. 

Distribution 

Malaysia, Sumatra, Borneo. 

Habitat 

This species usually occurs in lowland forests, at the foot of hills, in valleys or along rivers. It grows at 
altitudes up to 1000 m (Lemmens, Soeriangara and Wong, 1995). 

Population status and trends 

This species occurs locally, often in small groups or as scattered individuals. It is much less common and 
widespread than other species in the genus (Lemmens, Soeriangara and Wong, 1995). The species has been 
recorded as Rare in Indonesia (WCMC, 1991). 

Role of species in the ecosystem 

Threats 

Utilisation 

The timber is used as amberoi, a light hardwood. Amberoi is used for veneer, plywood, mouldings, 
fiimiture and other general purposes. 

Trade 

Amberoi is exported from Sabah, but details of trade in this species are not known. The timber is not 
thought to occur in European trade (WCMC, 1991). 

lUCN Conservation category 

This species has not been evaluated with the 1994 lUCN Red List categories. 

Conservation measures 

Forest management and silviculture 

Natural regeneration is naturally good for species of this genus and some species are reported to have 
potential for planting in logged over forest (Lemmens, Soeriangara and Wong, 1995). 

References 

WCMC. 1 99 1 . Provision of data on rare and threatened tropical timber species. Unpublished report, 
prepared under contract to the EC. 



404 



Annex 2. Profiles of Tree Species: Asia 



Santalum album 

Sandalwood 



Distribution 

This species is widely scattered in China, India, Indonesia (Timor, Sumba and Flores and planted in Java 
and Bali), the Lesser Sunda Islands, the Philippines and Australia. Once the tree was thought to have 
originated from India, but most botanists now believe that sandalwood was taken from Indonesia to India 
(Monk, de Fretes and Reksodihaijo-Lilley, 1997). 

Habitat 

In India, 5. album occurs between the elevations of 0-700 m and in rainfall zones of 300-3000 mm. It is 
found mainly in dry deciduous forests (USDA. 1990). 

Population status and trends 

In India, Sandalwood is regenerating when in favourable conditions and it's distribution is extending 
(USDA, 1990). Northern Australia has only a small patch of 5. album in basalt region in the Hughendon- 
Qoncurry area (Statham, 1990). Almost all sandalwood oil in India is produced from wild sources. The 
methods of extraction are destructive, entailing the uprooting of trees. Only mature trees of between 30 
and 50 years form heartwood and younger trees are not harvested. It is believed that spike disease poses a 
more serious threat in India than overexploitation (Green. 1995). In Indonesia continuous harvesting 
combined with very little regeneration because of fires, shifting cultivation and cattle grazing, has led to 
serious declines in wild populations (Green, 1995). 

Regeneration 

5. album regenerates vegetatively with root suckers and by coppicing when the plant is juvenile (USDA, 
1990). It begins to flower at 3 years of age and starts producing viable seeds at about 5 years. 

Role of species in the ecosystem 

Sandalwood is a hemi root parasitic tree and requires a host plant (can parasitise over 300 species 
including itself) for nitrogen, phosphorous and potassium (USDA, 1990). Birds are necessary for efficient 
seed dispersal (USDA, 1990). 

Threats 

Fire and grazing are threats because they have a detrimental affect on regeneration (USDA, 1990). There 
is much concern regarding over-exploitation due to smuggling for trade. 

Utilisation 

The timber is used for fine furniture, carving and turnery. Oil is extracted from the heartwood and is in 
high demand for incense, perfumery and medicines. It is also valuable as a fixative for other fragrances. 

Trade 

The price of Sandalwood in India increased fi-om RS 20,000 per tonne in 1980 to RS 200.000 per tonne in 
1990. "Smuggling has assumed alarming proportions." The total annual production in India is about 1800 
tonnes (Chadha, 1989). 

India uses all S. album domestically and export is prohibited (USDA, 1990). Major exporters of top 
quality logs are Hawai'i, Fiji, Indonesia and Western Australia. The main worid supplier of sandalwood 
chips and powder for incense is Australia, limited quantities are exported from India (USDA, 1990). 
Good quality logs in India sold domestically went for an average price of US$4,590/tonne in 1987 and 
US$9,4 10/tonne in 1990 (USDA, 1990).Under the Indonesian Government, sandalwood was exported 
during the first and second Five Year Plans. Since then, sandalwood oil and handicrafts have become 
more important. In 1994 an export tax was imposed on sandalwood chips, powder and roots to encourage 
local sandalwood handicrafts (Monk, de Fretes and Reksodiharjo-Lilley, 1997). Smuggling of 
sandalwood into East Timor has been reported (Monk, de Fretes and Reksodiharjo-Lilley, 1997). 

Demand for sandalwood oil fell in the 1970s as a result of high pnces and competition from synthetic 
substances. This mostly affected the cheaper-grade formulations and the natural oil has retained its price. 
Demand is now influenced mostly by supply. 



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Contribution to an evaluation of tree species using the new CITES Listing Criteria 



USA and France are the two largest importers of Indian sandalwood oil. The market in the Soviet Union 
has collapsed and imports into the Middle East are increasing. 

rUCN Conservation category 

VU Aid (Asia Regional Workshop, 1997). The Indian population is considered LR-nt (Asia Regional 
Workshop, 1997). 

Conservation measures 

Export of timber from India is totally banned except for handicraft pieces of sandalwood up to 50g 
weight. FAO, 1984 notes that it is a priority species for in situ conservation. 

In East Nusa Tenggara felling of trees under 50 cm dbh is not permitted (Monk, de Fretes and 
Reksodihaijo-Lilley, 1997). 

Forest management and silviculture 

Sandalwood is light-demanding and can be easily suppressed by faster-growing species. Cultivation 
techniques now involve the use of Capsicum and Acacia villosa as host plants. In Indonesia, a 15 year 
programme of planting 30,000 ha of sandalwood was scheduled to start in 1990 through Perum Perhutani 
(HTIs), the Forestry Service, and social forestry programmes (Monk, de Fretes and Reksodihaijo-Lilley, 
1997). Cultivation of sandal in India has had limited success. Sandal trees freely produce seed and natural 
regeneration occurs both via seedlings and through root suckers after trees have been uprooted and the 
stump removed from the ground (Green, 1995). Trees of 100cm girth are reported to yield between 84 
and 240kg of heartwood. Yield of oil is highest from the roots and lowest from wood chips. 

The cultivation or planting of sandal as a short- or medium-term source of income is unattractive because 
the oil is only obtained from the heartwood of mature trees and the tree is slow growing (Green, 1995). 

References 

Asia Regional Workshop, 1997. Conservation and sustainable management of trees project workshop 

held in Hanoi, VietNam, August, 1 997 
Chada, 1989 
FAO. 1984. Report of the Fifth Session of the FAO Panel of Experts on Forest Gene Resources 

Information No 14:32-49. 
Monk, K.A., de Fretes, Y. and Reksodiharjo-Lilley, G. (1997) The Ecology of Nusa Tenggara and 

Maluku. Oxford University Press. 
USDA. 1990. Proceedings of the symposium on Sandalwood in the Pacific. April 9-11, 1990, Honolulu, 

Hawaii. 
WCMC. 1991. Provision of Data on Rare and Threatened Tropical Timber Species, pp. 58. 



406 



Annex 2. Profiles of Tree Species: Asia 



Santalum macgregorii 

Santalaceae 
sandalwood 



Distribution 

This small tree or shrub occurs only in the eastern part of the Central and Gulf provinces and the 
Western province of Papua New Guinea (Eddowes, 1997). Its distributions might extend into south- 
east Irian Jaya, although confirmation of this is required (Eddowes, 1997). 

Habitat 

A parasitic or semi-parasitic species scattered in open savannah vegetation and in savannah forest in 
gullies up to 250m (Eddowes, 1997). Also it is found in anthropic landscapes (Eddowes. 1997). 

Population status and trends 

In Papua New Guinea the exploitation began at the turn of the last century; now the resource is greatly 
depleted as there are no longer any more mature tree or virgin stands (Eddowes, 1997). 

Role of species in the ecosystem 

This species is parasitic or semi-parasitic. 

Threats 

As with all other sources of sandalwood, this species is over-exploited for its scented wood for 
commercial use (Eddowes, 1997). The future of this species is very much dependent on strict 
guidelines being adopted and implemented (Eddowes, 1997). 

Utilisation 

Sandalwood is used for incense, joss sticks, perfume, essential oil and carving (Eddowes, 1997). 

Trade 

It is found in major international trade (Eddowes, 1997). 

lUCN Conservation category 

EN Alcd, CI accordmg to Eddowes, P.J. (1997). 

Conservation measures 

Some attempts have been made to cultivate this species in the past but no large scale or on-going 
conservation practices have been undertaken or adhered to (Eddowes, 1997). A small, insignificant 
number of plantings were made and may still be in around but this is very doubtful (Eddowes, 1997). 

Silviculture and forest management 

Very little in the way of silvicultural practices are carried out (Eddowes, 1997). 

References 

Eddowes, P.J. 1997. Completed data collection forms for New Guinea. 

Eddowes, P.J. 1997b. Letter to Sara Oldfield containing annotations to the Draft Red List Summay 
Report for Papua New Guinea trees. 



407 



Contribution to an evaluation of tree species using the new CITES Listing Criteria 



Santiria laevigata 

Burseraceae 



Distribution 

Indonesia (Sulawesi, Sumatra), Malaysia (Peninsular Malaysia, Sabah, Sarawak), Philippines, 
Singapore 

Habitat 

This species is found in mixed dipterocarp, mixed peat swamp and kerangas forests up to 1500 m. 

Population status and trends 

A widespread but scattered, early pioneer species which regenerates well in logged-over forest and has 
been found to become the dominant species five years after logging. 

Role of species in ttie ecosystem 

The fruit is eaten by many vertebrates. 

Threats 

There are no specific threats to this species which recovers relatively well from logging activities. 

Utilisation 

This species is one of the main sources of kedondong timber; the wood is used for planks, posts, 
furniture and handles. The fruit is edible. 

Trade 

This species is sold in mixed consignments of timbers from u-ees of the Burseraceae family. Minor 
international trade. 

lUCN Conservation category 

LR/lc - according to WCMC 

Conservation measures 

Forest management and silviculture 

References 

E. Soepadmo and K.M. Wong. 1995. Tree Flora of Sabah and Sarawak. Kuala Lumpur: Ampano Press 

Sdn.Bhd. 513 pp. 
Erfurth, T. & H. Rusche. 1976. The marketing of tropical wood, (unpublished). FO: MISC/76/8. 
Lemmens, R.H.M.J., I. Soerianegara, & W.C. Wong (eds.). 1995. Plant Resources of South-East Asia 

No 5(2). Timber trees; Minor commercial timbers. Leiden: Backhuys Publishers. 655 pp. 
Ng, P.K.L. & Y.C. Wee (eds.). 1994. The Singapore Red Data Book. Singapore: The Nature Society 

343pp. 
Said, LM. & Z. Rozainah. 1992. An updated list of wetland plant species of Peninsular Malaysia, with 

particular reference to those having socio-economic value. Asian Wetland Bureau. 109pp. 
van Steenis, C.G.G.J. 1948. Flora Malesiana. Leiden: Flora Malesiana Foundation. 



408 



Annex 2. Profiles of Tree Species: Asia 



Scaphium longiflorum 

Sterculiaceae 



Distribution 

Endemic to Peninsular Malaysia occuring in the states of Kedah. Penang, Perak. Selangor, and Johore. 

Habitat 

Occurs in lowland swampy or semi-swampy rainforest. 

Population status and trends 

A scattered primary forest tree which has declined due to expansion of settlement and logging 
activities. 

Role of species in the ecosystem 

No information. 

Threats 

The largest threats to this species are the expansion of human habitations and logging activities. 

Utilisation 

This tree is exploited as timber for major international trade and as a medicine for minor international 
trade. The timber is known as kembang semangkok. 

Trade 

The timber is exported mainly to East Asian countries. 

lUCN Conservation category 

VU Bl+2c - according to Lillian Chua 

Conservation measures 

This species is not in cultivation. 

Forest management and silviculture 

References 

Chua. L. et al. 1991 . Completed data collection forms for endemic trees of Peninsular Malaysia. 

Ng, F.S.P., CM. Low, & M.A.N. Sanah. 1990. Endemic trees of the Malay Peninsula. Kuala Lumpur: 

Forestry Department. 118pp. 
Soerianegara, I. & Lemmens, R.H.M.J. (Eds.) 1993. Plant Resources of South-East Asia (PROSEA) 5(1) 

Timber trees: major commercial timbers. Pudoc Scientific Publishers, Wageningen. 



409 



Contribution to an evaluation of tree species using the new CITES Listing Criteria 



Shorea curtisii 

Common/Trade name 

Seraya, Dark Red Meranti 

Local names 

Saya daeng, Saraya daeng (Thailand), Seraya (Malaysia) 



Distribution 

Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia, Singapore, Sumatra, Thailand, the Riau and Lingga Archipelago. 

Habitat 

In Peninsular Malaysia 5. curtisii is an important species of Hill Dipterocarp forests. It has a restricted 
occurrence, growing gregariously almost exclusively on ridge tops. It has been suggested that S. curtisii is 
ecologically adapted to such sites through its ability to resist moisture stress (Awang et al., 1981 ). The 
species also occurs on deep and dry soils on coastal hills up to 850 m altitude throughout its range 
(Soerianegara & Lemmens, 1993) 

Population status and trends 

Shorea curtisii is abundant and currently considered to be 'nt' in Peninsular Malaysia. The species is, 
however, included in a list of species requiring conservation action in Peninsular Malaysia (Ng et al., 
1984) and the quality of available timber has suffered a decline (Wyatt-Smith, in litt.). 

Utilisation 

S. curtisii produces a light hardwood with fine grain which has medium/deep red heartwood. The general 
utility timber is suitable for furniture manufacture, interior finishing, flooring, panelling, doors and 
veneers. It is also used in plywood production. The wood is an important and valued source of dark red 
meranti. A resin can be obtained from the tree (Soerianegara and Lemmens, 1993). 

Trade 

5. curtisii is one of the best commercial timber species and is greatly in demand on the world market as 
sawn timber. It is unfortunately impossible to distinguish this species in reported trade statistics. In 1989 
Peninsular Malaysia exported 643 541 m' of Dark Red Meranti sawn timber and 143 428 m' of Dark Red 
Meranti 'pinhole no defect' sawn timber. 

lUCN Conservation category 

LR Ic - evaluated by Peter Ashton and confirmed at the Asia Regional Workshop (1997). 

Forest management and silviculture 

Shorea curtisii is one of the major commercial timbers derived from Hill Dipterocarp forests in Peninsular 
Malaysia. These are the most important source of the State's timber as most of the lowland forests are 
being converted to other forms of land use. The hill forests of Peninsular Malaysia are managed under the 
Selective Management System (SMS). Natural regeneration of desired species in the hill forests has 
generally been poor. It has been noted that economic considerations carry greater weight in logging 
operations involving 5. curtisii than the need for sustained yield management, with excessive logging 
damage and undue selection of logs extracted (Wyan-Smith, 1988). 

In Peninsular Malaysia there has been considerable research on the regeneration of 5. curtisii within 
natural forests. Indications show that the species flowers less frequently than other Red Meranti species 
and its seedlings show poor viability (Nin, 1978). There is some evidence that S. curtisii seeds germinate 
more readily under canopy shade, but seedling growth is favoured in gap conditions of 20-40% flill sun 
(Turner, 1990). 

Conservation measures 

Legislation 

The Government of Malaysia has been urged to ban the export of Red Meranti by the wood moulding and 
furniture industries (Anon., 1989). 



410 



Annex 2. Profiles of Tree Species: Asia 



Presence in protected areas 

Peninsular Malaysia: Taman Negara National Park, Kerau Game Reserve, Endau Rompin Proposed 

Reserve 

Singapore : Bukit Timah Nature Reserve 

According to Anon. (1985) the species is conserved in several Virgin Jungle Reserves. 

References 

Anon. 1985. In situ conservation of forest genetic resources in Peninsular Malaysia. Forest Genetic 

Resources Information No. 14: 32-49. 
Anon. 1989. A review of the trend and short-term outlook of the forestry and wood-based industries of 

Malaysia. Country market statement presented to the Annual ll'lO market discussion, Abidjan, Cote 

d'lvoire, 17-18 May 1989. 
Asia Regional Workshop, 1997. Conservation and sustainable management of trees project workshop 

held in Hanoi, VietNam, August, 1997 
Awang, K. etal. 1981. Effects of some environmental factors on the growth of three hill forest 

dipterocarps. Forest Regeneration in Southeast Asia. BIOTROP Special Publication No. 13, pp. 9-22. 
Ng, F.S.P., Wong, K.M., Kochummen, K.M., Yaf, S.K., Bin Mohamad, A. and Chan, H.T. 1984. 

Malaysian case study. In: Roche, L. and Dourojeanni, M.J., A Guide to in situ conservation of genetic 

resources of tropical woody species. FORGEN/MISC/84/2. FAO, Rome 
Nin, L.H. 1978. Long-term effects of logging in Peninsular Malaysia. In: Suparto, R.S. et al. (Eds), 

Proceedings of a Symposium on the long-term effects of logging in Southeast Asia. BIOTROP Special 

Publication No. 3, pp. 43-56. 
Soerianegara, I. & Lemmens, R.H.M.J. (Eds.) 1993. Plant Resources of South-East Asia (PROSEA) 5(1) 

Timber trees: major commercial timbers. Pudoc Scientific Publishers, Wageningen. 
Turner, I.M. 1990. The seedling survivorship and growth of three Shorea species in a Malaysian tropical 

rain forest. Journal of Tropical Ecology 6: 469-478. 
Wyatt-Smith, J. 1988. Letter to the editor. Forest Ecology and Management 24: 219-223. 

Correspondence and personal communications 

J. Wyatt-Smith, Shillingford, Oxon., in litt., September 1989. 



411 



Contribution to an evaluation of tree species using the new CITES Listing Criteria 



Sindora beccariana 

Indonesia: sasundur, merd-jang, anggi (Kalimantan). Malaysia: tampar hantoe (Sabah, 
Sarawak). 



Distribution 

Borneo, Kalimantan, Sabah, Sarawak 

Habitat 

Scattered in lowland dipterocarp forest on sandy loam or clay soils (Soerianegara and Lemmens, 1993). 

Population status and trends 

Most Sindora spp are uncommon and scattered (Soerianegara and Lemmens, 1993). 

Role of species in the ecosystem 

Threats 

Large-scale of exploitation of forest may seriously threaten these species, except when the felling cycle is 
sufficiently long to allow new trees to reach maturity in sustainably managed forest (Soerianegara and 
Lemmens, 1993). 

Utilisation 

The timber is used as sepetir. 

Trade 

Borneo is the main exporter of sepetir. 

lUCN Conservation category 

DD (Asia Regional Workshop, 1997). 

Conservation measures 

Forest management and silviculture 

References 

Asia Regional Workshop, 1997. Conservation and sustainable management of trees project workshop 

held in Hanoi, VietNam, August 1997 
Soenanegara, 1. & Lemmens, R.H.M.J. (Eds.) 1993. Plant Resources of South-East Asia (PROSEA) 5(1) 

Timber trees: major commercial timbers. Pudoc Scientific Publishers, Wageningen. 



412 



Annex 2. Profiles of Tree Species: Asia 

Sindora inermis 

Philippines: kaya galu (Magindanao), nito-nitong puti (Bikol), sinsud (Sulu). 



Distribution 

Philippines from south Luzon to Mindora and the Sulu Archipelago. 

Habitat 

Forested sea shores and in forests of low to medium altitudes. 

Population status and trends 
Role of species in the ecosystem 
Threats 

Utilisation 

Oil from the trunk has a long-lasting odour and has been exported in the past to Singapore. The timber is 
used as sepetir, especially for high-grade furniture and interior work, musical instruments and fancy boxes 
(Soerianegara and Lemmens, 1993). 

Trade 

The supply of the timber is very limited (Soerianegara and Lemmens, 1993). The timber is not thought to 
occur in European trade (WCMC, 1991). 

lUCN Conservation category 

VU Aid - preliminary evaluation by WCMC confirmed at the Asia Regional Workshop (1997). 

Conservation measures 

Forest management and silviculture 

References 

Asia Regional Workshop, 1997. Conservation and sustainable management of trees project workshop 

held in Hanoi, VietNam, August, 1997. 
Soerianegara, I. & Lemmens, R.H.M.J. (Eds.) 1993. Plant Resources of South-East Asia (PROSEA) 5(1) 

Timber trees: major commercial timbers. Pudoc Scientific Publishers, Wageningen. 
WCMC. 1991. Provision of data on rare and threatened tropical timber species. Unpublished report, 

prepared under contract to the EC. 



413 



Contribution to an evaluation of tree species using the new CITES Listing Criteria 

Sindora supa 

Philippines: supa (Bilcol, Tagalog), baloyong (Batangas), manapo (Tayabas). 

Distribution 

Philippines (Luzon, Mindoro). 

Habitat 

Forest of low to medium altitude on limestone ridges. Appears to be confined to a limited portion of these 
regions which have distinct dry seasons. 

Population status and trends 

The species was recorded as Endangered in the Philippines, according to the old lUCN categories 
(WCMC, 1991). 

Role of species in the ecosystem 

Threats 

Utilisation 

The wood of this species is locally fairly important and used for high-grade furniture and interior work, 
musical instruments and flooring. It is often substituted for the more valuable Intsia bijuga. The wood-oil 
also has various local uses. 

Trade 

lUCN Conservation category 

VU Aid - prelimmary evaluation by WCMC confirmed at the Asia Regional Workshop (1997). 

Conservation measures 

In the Philippines the DENR Administrative Order No. 78 Series of 1987, Interim Guidelines on the 
Cutting/Gathering of Narra and other Premium Hardwoods, imposes restrictions on the felling of this 
species. 

Forest management and silviculture 

References 

Asia Regional Workshop, 1997. Conservation and sustainable management of trees project workshop 

held in Hanoi, VietNam, August 1997. 
WCMC. 1991. Provision of data on rare and threatened tropical timber species. Unpublished report, 

prepared under contract to the EC. 



414 



Annex 2. Profiles of Tree Species: Asia 



Strombosiajavanica 

Belian landak (Sarawak) 



Distribution 

Myanmar, Sumatra, Thailand, Peninsular Malaysia, West Java, Borneo (Sarawak, Brunei and 
Kalimantan). 

Habitat 

Lowland rain forest, secondary forest and mixed Dipterocarp forest up to c 600 m on caly-rich fertile soils 
(Soepadmo and Wong, 1995). Scattered though locally common. 

Population status and trends 

This species has been recorded as Rare in Indonesia, according to the old lUCn categories (WCMC, 
1991). 

Role of species in the ecosystem 

Threats 

Utilisation 

Produces a moderately hard, durable, light yellowish timber, used locally for house construction 
(Soepadmo and Wong, 1995). 

Trade 

The timber is not thought to occur in European trade (WCMC, 1991). 

lUCN Conservation category 

DD (Asia Regional Workshop, 1997). 

Conservation measures 

Forest management and silviculture 

References 

Asia Regional Workshop, 1997. Conservation and sustainable management of trees project workshop 

held in Hanoi, VietNam, August, 1997. 
Soepadmo, E. and Wong, K.M. (Eds.) 1995. Tree Flora ofSabah and Sarawak. Volume 1. Government 

of Malaysia, ITTO, ODA. 
WCMC. 1 99 1 . Provision of data on rare and threatened tropical timber species. Unpublished report, 

prepared under contract to the EC. 



415 



Contribution to an evaluation of tree species using the new CITES Listing Criteria 



Taiwania cryptomerioides 

Taxodiaceae 



Distribution 

China (Guizhou, Hubei, Sichuan, Yunnan), Myanmar, Taiwan 

Population status and trends 

A large slow-growing tree from a monotypic genus, although the Chinese/Myanmar populations are 
frequently refered to as T. flousiana. It is widely scattered as an emergent in mid to high elevation 
forest, usually with Chamaecyparis species. Population declines have occurred because of forest 
clearance and logging, exacerbated by poor regeneration. 

Habitat 

This species grows in mid to high elevation forest, at altitudes of 500 - 2700m usually with 
Chamaecyparis species. It prefers red soil, yellow mountain soil or brown forest soil. In China it grows 
in valley forests in subtropical monsoon and humid regions. 

Role of species in the ecosystem 

Threats 

This species is threatened by overexploitation and clear-felling of the habitat. 

Utilisation 

Timber and ornamental 

Trade 

lUCN Conservation category 

VU Aid - according to SSC Conifer Specialist Group 

Conservation measures 

Forest management and silviculture 

Plantations are now established. 

References 

Farjon, Aljos, Christopher N. Page, & Nico Schellevis. 1993. A preliminary world list of threatened 

conifer taxa. Biodiversity and Conservation 2: 304-326. 
FAO. 1996. Databook on endangered tree and shrub species and provenances. FAO Foresty Paper 77. 

FAO, Rome. 
Fu, Li-kuo & Jian-ming Jin (eds.). 1992. China Plant Red Data Book. Beijing: Science Press, xviii-741. 
Lu, S.Y. & F.J. Pan. 1996. Rare and endangered plants in Taiwan I. 163 pp. 
Pan, F.J. 1997. Completed data collection forms for Taiwanese trees. 
Taiwan Endemic Species Research Institute. 1995. Conservation Status Listing of Plants in Taiwan 

(Draft), (unpublished). 79pp 



416 



Annex 2. Profiles of Tree Species: Asia 



Taxus wallichiana 

Taxaceae 

Himalayan yew, ximalaya hongdoushan 

Distribution 

Afghanistan, Bhutan, China (Xizang). India (Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Himachal Pradesh. Jammu- 
Kashmir, Manipur, Sikkim, Uttar Pradesh), Nepal, Pakistan 

Habitat 

The species occurs in temperate moist forest between 1500m and 3500m. 

Population status and and trends 

In China the population is at a critical low, confined to Gyirong, Xizang, where it is threatened by 
logging (Fu, 1992). The Indian populations are scattered and cover a range of less than 2000km^. They 
have declined by over 90% in recent decades (Molur & Walker, 1998). Exploitation of the various 
plant parts for medicinal use frequently leads to the destruction or felling of U-ees. 

Role of species in the ecosystem 

Threats 

Clear felling/ logging of the habitat, local use. 

Utilisation 

For several centuries the young shoots, leaves and bark have been used for their medicinal properties. 
More recently huge quantities of leaves have been collected for medicinal extracts which have anti- 
cancer properties. The timber is also sought-after and traded at domestic level. 

Trade 

Numerous companies in India are involved in the processing or export of the species for medicinal use. 
Since 1992 substantial quantities of leaves and roots have been exported. For instance 495.137mtonnes 
were exported from Madras/Cochin and 53.75mtonnes through Delhi. 170,710kg of dried leaves were 
export from Arunachal Pradesh in one month (Molur & Walker, 1998). The export from India is now 
banned. 

lUCN Conservation category 

LR/cd accordmg to the SSC Conifer Specialist Group (Farjon, 1998). 

Conservation measures 

Various laws and programmes are in place in an effort to monitor and regulate both the exploitation 
and the trade. The species is listed in CITES Appendix n. 

Cultivating the species is moderately difficult in natural conditions. 

References 

Anon. 1994. English translation of the Flora Rei Popularis Sinicae (Flora of China), (unpublished). 

Farjon, Aljos. et a/. 1998. Data collection forms for conifer species completed by the SSC Conifer 

Specialist Group between 1996 and 1998. 

Fu, Li-kuo & Jian-ming Jin (eds.). 1992. China Plant Red Data Book. Beijing: Science Press, xviii-741. 

Hara, H., W.T. Steam, & L.H.J Williams. 1. An enumeration of the flowering plants of Nepal. London, 

British Museum (Natural History). 

Loc, Phan Ke. 1997. Letter to Sara Oldfield containing a list of the threatened Gymnosperms of 

Vietnam and their lUCN red list categories. 
Mill, Robert R. 1994. Annotations to Conifers - taxa listed on BG-BASE - status report as of 2 

February 1994. 43pp. 
Molur, S. & S. Walker, (eds.). 1998. Conservation Assessment Management Plan (CAMP) workshop 
report for selected medicinal plants of northern, northeastern and central India. 
Pradhan, Rebecca. 1993. Annotations to WCMC plant list for Bhutan dated 31 August 1993. 40pp. 
Rechinger, K.H. (ed.). 1963. Flora Iranica. Austria, Graz. 



417 



Contribution to an evaluation of tree species using the new CITES Listing Criteria 



Tectona grandis L. 

Verbenaceae 

Tradename: Teak 

Local names: Kyun, Lyiu (Myanmar), Teck (French), Teca (Spanish), Sagun, Tegu, 
Tegina, Thekku (India), Mai Sak (Thailand), Djati (Indonesia), Fati (Malay). 



Distribution 

Teak occurs naturally in Cambodia, India, north-west Laos, Myanmar, north Thailand and Vietnam but it 
has been widely planted outside its natural range since the fourteenth century. 

Habitat 

Teak naturally occurs in areas of monsoon climate under a wide range of site conditions. 

Population status and trends 

According to Hedegait (1976), in spite of centuries of heavy and usually dysgenic exploitation, natural 
Teak forests still offer valuable gene resources; but clearing, illegal exploitation, deliberate burning and 
grazing continue at an increasing rate to put pressure on natural populations. According to FAO (1990), 
Teak is considered a priority species for in situ conservation. 

Within its area of natural distribution some varieties are Endangered in India (FAO, 1990). In that country 
there is a huge shortfall in general in the requirement and availability of timber (Chadha, 1988) but Tectona 
grandis. which occurs gregariously, is not under any threat (Lai in litt., 1990). In Thailand Teak has been 
exploited for centuries. By the end of the nineteenth century extraction of Teak at an excessive rate was 
leading to forest deterioration. Protective legislation for the species and control over its exploitation were 
introduced. Teak is not considered to be a rare species within the country but it has disappeared from much 
of the otherwise undisturbed Thai forest. Logging bans in Thailand and Laos have increased the 
international demand for Teak from Myanmar, leading to concern about the rate of felling within the 
country. Illegal felling in the Myanmar/Thai border area to supply Thai sawmills has been widely 
publicised. The protection of areas of undisturbed natural Teak forests to ensure fijture supplies of selected 
seed for commercial plantations is considered one of the highest forest conservation priorities in Myanmar 
(Blower, 1985). 

It is uncertain whether the 'natural' Teak stands in Indonesia are indigenous or were originally planted by 
Hindu settlers. According to Lande (1987) the Teak forests in Java are rapidly decreasing because of 
increasing demands for agricultural land. In the other islands such as Celebes and Nusa Tenggara, the 
'natural' Teak forests are decreasmg rapidly, without sufficient management and planting. 

Role of species in the ecosystem 

Threats 



Utilisation 

The heartwood is dark golden yellow and turns a dark brown with exposure and the wood has an oily feel. 
It is easily worked with hand and machine tools and glues well despite its oily nature. The wood is durable 
against decay fungi and termites but is not immune to marine borers. Teak is one of the world's most 
versatile and outstanding timbers, with many valuable properties. It has a wide range of uses, including 
both heavy and light construction work, house building, carpentry, furniture and wood carvings. 

Trade 

In India, the State Forest Departments and Forest Development Corporations extract timber on the basis of 
approved Management Plans and supply wood to consumers through op)en auctions. The rates for sawn 
Teak are Rs.l8 000-20 000 per m' (Chadha, 1988). No Teak is exported from India. 



418 



Annex 2. Profiles of Tree Species: Asia 



Annual exports of Teak from Thailand prior to the logging ban were as follows: 

Export of sawn timber of Tectona grandis from Thailand (m ) 



1984 



168 



1985 



8171 



1986 



16059 



1987 



14970 



1988 



24117 



Source: Forestry statistics of Thailand 1987-88 

In 1995, Thailand exported 6,000 cu m of teak sawnwood (11 iO, 1996). 

Myanmar is the major source of teak extracted from natural forests for international trade. Teak has been 
one of the country's main foreign exchange earners with its exploitation a monopoly of the State Timber 
Corporation (Blower, 1985). In 1995, Myanmar exported 175,000 cu m of teak logs; together with 28.000 
cu m of sawnwood and small quantities of veneer (ll'lO, 1996). 

In Java, Teak is the main product of Perum Perhutani, the state-owned timber company. About 500 (XK) m 
of timber are produced annually (Lande, 1987). In 1986 Indonesia exported 40 000 m of Teak. 

Various importing countries do have a separate tariff heading for Teak in Customs statistics. Japan, Korea 
and Thailand, for example, have a tariff heading for Teak logs and Australia, UK and USA for sawn 
timber. It is therefore possible to determine the volumes of Teak imported by major importing countries 
and to infer export volumes from the currently available Customs statistics. UK imports 7(X)0-8000 m of 
Teak annually, with Indonesia supplying 65% of the trade (WCMC, 1991). 

Concern about the source of tropical hardwoods is likely to have an impact on the patterns of international 
trade in Teak. Martin (1989), for example, points out that suppliers and manufacturers (of garden 
furniture) are now moving away from Myanmar and Thailand because of serious questions about the 
forestry practices of these countries, with some companies now buying Teak only from Java. The 
Rainforest Action Network has urged its members to boycott 'Burmese and so-called Thai teak', pointing 
out that most of the Teak imported to USA is from Myanmar (Rainforest Action Network, 1989). 

lUCN Conservation category 

NE 

Conservation measures (source of information WCMC, 1991). 

Legislation 

India - The export of all timber from India is banned. 

Myanmar - Teak is protected under the Burma Forest Act 1902, as amended. 

Thailand - Early legislation introduced to control Teak exploitation in Thailand included: 

1 ) the Royal Proclamation of 1 884 concerning the sale of Teakwood; 

2) the Royal Proclamation of 1 887 concerning the transportation of Teakwood; 

3) the Royal Proclamation of 1 887 concerning possession of Teak logs; 

4) the Teak Trees Protection Act of 1 897 ; 

5) the 1899 Act prohibiting the extraction of Teak timber without the payment of royalties or 
duties (Arbhabhirama etal, 1987). 

The Forest Act of 1941, as revised, gives specific protection to Teak. Since 1989 all logging has been 
banned in Thailand. 

Presence in protected areas: 

India Tamil Nadu: Anaimallai Wildlife Sanctuary; Kalakad Wildlife Sanctuary; Mudumalai Wildlife 
Sanctuary (teak plantations). Kamataka: Bandipur national Park (dominant species); Bhadra Wildhfe 
Sanctuary (dominant species); Dandeli Wildlife Sanctuary (dominant species); Nagarhole National Park 
(dominant species). Madhya Pradesh: Bamawapara Wildhfe Sanctary; Bori Wildlife Sanctuary (dominant 
species); Indravati National Park; Kheoni Wildlife Sanctuary; Narsingah Wildlife Sanctuary (Teak 



419 



Contribution to an evaluation of tree species using the new CITES Listing Criteria 



plantations); Noradehi Wildlife Sanctuary (dominant species); Ratapani Wildlife Sanctuary. Maharashtra: 
Borivilli National Park (dominant species); Melghat (Dhaknakolkas) Tiger Reserve (30-40% planted with 
Teak); Nagzira Wildlife Sanctary; Ranch National Park (Teak covers 40% of the area); Tadoba National 
Park. Uttar Pradesh: Dudhwa National Park. Andhra Pradesh: Etumagaram Wildlife Sanctuary; Kawal 
Wildlife Sanctuary; Kinnersani Wildlife Sanctuary; Lanjamadugu (Siwaram) Sanctuary. Gujarat Gir 
Wildlife Sanctuary and National Park; Velavadar Blackbuck National Park (poorly grown Teak). Kerala: 
Parambikulam Wildlife Sanctuary (extensive Teak plantations -8,780 ha of semi mature Teak in 1988, 
natural Teak now rare); Peechi-Vazhani Wildlife Santuary (extensive plantations); Periyar Wildlife 
Sanctuary; Wynad Wildlife Sanctuary (> half Teak and eucalypms plantation); Thattekkad Bird Sanctuary 
(Teak plantations). 

Rodgers and Panwar (1988), in a report of proposed protected areas name the following as having Teak 
present. Gujarat: Puma Wildlife Sanctuary. Madyha Pradesh: Saimura Wildlife Sanctuary; Gollapalli 
Wildlife Sanctuary. Rajasthan: Boroswar Wildlife Sanctuary (Teak biome). 

Mvanmar Alaungdaw Kathapa National Park (classed as reserved forest since 1893; selectively logged for 
Teak in the past) 

Thailand Huai Kha Khaeng Sanctuary, Lum Nam Pai Sanctuary, Mae Tun Sanctuary, Doi Chiang Dao 
Sanctuary, Doi Pha Muang, Omkoi Sanctuary, Doi Suthep-Poi National Park, Khao Sam Lan National 
Park, Mae Ping National Park, Huai Tak Teak Reserve 

Forest management and silviculture 

The exploitation of Teak formed the basis for early forest management in India, Myanmar and Thailand. 
In India, for example, a commission was appointed in 1 800 to investigate the availability of Teak in Kerala 
and minimum girth limits were introduced (Shyamsunder and Parameshwarappa, 1988). Regeneration of 
the species in natural forests is poor. Both within and outside its natural range, Teak is primarily cultivated 
in artificially established pure stands. It has been demonstrated, however, that Teak should be grown 
mixed with soil-enriching tree species (Lamprecht, 1989). 

Since the price of Teak is relatively high and its sources of supply limited, it has been introduced to 
countries throughout the tropics, including Trinidad, Togo, Nigeria, Honduras, Cameroon, Zaire and Benin, 
where plantations have been established. For the production of good quality timber T. grandis needs a 
periodic marked dry period of 3-5 months and grows best where mean monthly maximum temperatures are 
40° C and monthly minimum 13° C, with rainfall of 1 270-3 800 mm (Kaosa-ard, 1981). 

Growth and growth habits show great variation according to site conditions (Bedell, 1989) but only one 
variety (Teli from India) has been recognised. There is thus a good basis for improvement by 
provenance/individual tree selection, and breeding work is being carried out in many countries (Keiding, 
1985). 

Seed dormancy is an important characteristic of Teak. This results in uneven germination and, because the 
plants are sensitive to shade, later germinating plants are suppressed. Several factors are responsible for the 
big difference between potential and rejdised germination recorded in plantation trials but it is largely due 
to the inhibition of germination by dormancy. 

Its seed stores well and may keep their viability for several years. However, they require pretreatment 
before sowing but this varies considerably depending on the source of the seeds and no methods are 
applicable for all types of Teak seed. Research is needed into this problem since it will be increasingly * 
evident as more Teak seed is planted and transferred. Seed is now available from registered sources, 
selected seed stands and clonal seed orchards (Keiding, 1985). 

References 

Arbhabhirama, A., Phanmmvanit, D., Elkington, J. and Ingkasuwan, P. (Eds) (1987). Thailand Natural 

Resources Profile. Thailand Development Research Institute. 
Bedell, P.E. (1989). Preliminary observations on variability of Teak in India. Indian Forester 115(2): 72- 

81. 
Blower, J. (1985). Conservation priorities in Burma. Oryjc 19(2): 79-85. 
Chadha, K.M. (1988). Timber situation and prospects for India. Paper presented at Eighth Session of 

mo, Abidjan, Cote dlvoire. 



420 



Annex 2. Profiles of Tree Species: Asia 



FAO (1990). Report of the Seventh Session of the FAO Panel of experts on forest gene resources. 

December 1989. FAO, Rome. 
Hedegan, T. (1976). Breeding systems, variation and genetic improvement of teak (Tectona grandis L.f.). 

In: Burley, J. and Styles, B.T. (Eds), Tropical trees: variation, breeding and conservation. Linn. Soc. 

Symp. Ser. No. 2. Academic Press, London, 
mo (1996) 
Kaosa-ard, A. (1981). Teak {Tectona grandis Linn.f.) its natural distribution and related factors. Nat. Hist. 

Bull. Siam. Soc. 29: 55-74. 
Keiding, H. (1985). Seed leaflet No. 4 - June 1985. Teak (Tectona grandis Linn.f.). DANIDA Forest Seed 

Centre. 
Lamprecht, H. (1989). Silviculture in the tropics. GTZ, Germany. 
Lande, M.L. (1987). Studies of the management system for long cutting age of man-made forests - 

comparative considerations of management system for teak plantations and cedar plantations of 

Yoshino District. Research Bulletins of the College Experimental Forests. Hokkaido University 44(3): 

955-1017. 
Martin, T.( 1989). Much ado about Teak. Horticulture. October 1989. 
Rainforest Action Network (1989). Don't buy Burmese Teak! Rainforest Action Network Action Alert 40. 

August 1989. 
Rodgers, W.A. and Panwar H.S. (1988). Planning a Wildlife Protected Area Network in India. Volume 2 

State Summaries. A report prepared for the Department of the Environment, Forests and Wildlife 

Government of India at Wildlife Institute of India. FAO, Field Document No. 9. FAO, Dehra Dun. 
Shyamsunder, S. and Parameshwarappa, S. (1988). Forestry in India - The Forester's View. Myforest 

24(2): 81-94. 
Soerianegara, I and Lemmens, R.H.M.J. (1993) 
WCMC(1991) 

Correspondence and personal communications 

Dr J.S. Lai, Director, Forest Service of India, Dehra Dun, India. 



421 



Contribution to an evaluation of tree species using the new CITES Listing Criteria 

Tectona hamiltoniana 

Dahat (Myanmar) 



Distribution 

Endemic to Myanmar, occuring in the dry zone (Prome District and Upper Burma). The area of distribution 
is about 150 by 80 km (FAO, 1986). The distribution range rarely overlaps with that of Tectona grandis. 

Habitat 

Dry, open scrub forest, often growing on f>oor, stony soil (FAO, 1986). 

Population status and trends 

This species has a small area of distribution and is in need of conservation attention (Soerianegara and 
Lemmens, 1993). According to FAO, 1986, the species is in need of further study but is likely to be 
endangered. 

Role of species in the ecosystem 

Threats 

Annual forest fires are a threat to this species and local use has caused declines (FAO, 1986). 

Utilisation 

The wood is used locally for fuel and construction. The bark is also used medicinally. Tectona 
hamiltoniana is not an important timber species but has potential value for plantations on dry sites. 

Trade 

Not thought to be in international trade. 

lUCN Conservation category 

VU B 1 2a+c - according to WCMC on the basis of limited range (less than 20,000 sq km) and reported 
threats. 

Conservation measures 

Rarely planted; the potential for teak breeding should be investigated 

Forest management and silviculture 

Trees have been grown from seed on an experimental basis. 

References 

FAO, 1986 

Soerianegara and Lemmens 



422 



Annex 2. Profiles of Tree Species: Asia 



Tectona philippinensis 

Philippines: Philippine teak (general), bunglas (Panay Bisaya), malapangit. 



Distribution 

Endemic to Philippines (Mindoro, Luzon and province Batagas). 

Habitat 

Thickets and secondary forest at low altitudes (Soerianegara and Lemmens, 1993). It is restricted to a 
special substrate (Asia Regional Workshop, 1997). 

Population status and trends 

A scattered early pioneer species, the natural distribution is restricted and conservaiton measureas are 
needed (Soerianegara and Lemmens, 1993). 

Role of species in the ecosystem 

Insects act as pollinators and the fruit is dispersed by wind. 

Threats 

commercial use, clear-felling of the habitat 

Utilisation 

The hardwood is used for heavy construction (Soerianegara and Lemmens, 1993); also used as firewood 
(Asia Regional Workshop, 1997). 

Trade 

lUCN Conservation category 

EN Bl&2a,b,c (Asia Regional Workshop, 1997). 

Might qualify for Critically Endangered category subject to more information regarding the situation in 
Mindoro (Asia Regional Workshop, 1997). 

Conservation measures 

There is no state protection of this species (Asia Regional Workshop, 1997). 

Forest management and silviculture 

Unlike T. grandis this species is rarely planted and its potential for teak breeding is in need of 
investigation. 

References 

Asia Regional Workshop. 1997. Conservation and sustainable management of trees project workshop 

held in Hanoi, VietNam, August 1997 
FAO Forestry Department. 1986. Databook on endangered tree and shrub species and then- 

provenances. Rome: FAO. 524pp. 
Penafiel, S. 1990. Annotation to list of tropical timbers for the Philippines. 
Tan, B.C., E. Fernando, & J.P. Rojo. 1986. An updated list of endangered Philippine plants. Yushania 

3(2): 1-5. 
Soenanegara, I. & Lemmens, R.H.M.J. (Eds.) 1993. Plant Resources of South-East Asia (PROSEA) 5(1) 

Timber trees: major commercial timbers. Pudoc Scientific Publishers, Wageningen. 
WCMC. 1991. Provision of data on rare and threatened tropical timber species. Unpublished report, 

prepared under contract to the EC. 



423 



Contribution to an evaluation of tree species using the new CITES Listing Criteria 



Terminalia archipelagi 

Combretaceae 
terminalia, red-brown 



Distribution 

A large, well-formed tree occurring only on the islands of the Bismarck Archipelago. Papua New 
Guinea. 

Habitat 

It is found mainly in lowland primary rainforest where it can be locally dominant (Eddowes. 1997). 

Population status and trends 

Role of species in the ecosystem 

The flowers are pollinated by insects and the seeds are wind dispersed. It regenerates in primary forest 
(Eddowes, 1997). 

Threats 

It has been and still is heavily exploited through intensive logging practices; habitat destruction is 
another threat to this species (Eddowes, 1997). 

Uses 

The wood is used for plywood, furniture and as a veneer (Eddowes, 1997). 

Trade 

It is very much sought after for log export as it is favoured for plywood manufacture (Eddowes, 1997). 
It occurs in major international trade. In 1995 102,0OOm3 of Terminalia logs were exported from Papua 
New Guinea at, on average, 135 $/m3 (ITTO, 1997). 

lUCN Conservation category 

EN Alcd+2cd, C2a according to Eddowes, P.J. (1997). 

Conservation measures 

Conservation measures are not known but there may be 1-2 plantings of this species in LAE National 
Botanical Gardens, Papua New Guinea (Eddowes, 1997). 

Silviculture and forest management 

References 

Eddowes, P.J. 1997. Completed data collection forms for New Guinea. 

Eddowes, P.J. 1997. Letter to Sara Oldfield containing annotations to the Draft Red List Summay 

Report for Papua New Guinea trees. 
Womersley, J.S. & E.E. Henty (eds.). 1978. Handbooks of the flora of Papua New Guinea. Melbourne 

Uni. Press. 



424 



Annex 2. Profiles of Tree Species: Asia 



Terminalia rerei 

Combretaceae 
terminalia, red-brown 



Distribution 

A species restricted to San Cristobal and Guadalcanal of the South Solomon Islands. 

Habitat 

Terminalia rerei is scattered in tropical lowland rainforest. 

Population status and trends 

Role of species in the ecosystem 

The floweres are pollinated by insects and the seeds are wind dispersed. It regenerates in primary forest 
(Eddowes, 1997). 

Threats 

This timber species is subject to over-exploitation; it is further threatened by habitat loss due to 
indiscriminate logging practices (Eddowes, 1997). 

Utilisation 

The wood is used as plywood, veneer and to make furniture (Eddowes, 1997). 

Trade 

The timber is found in minor international trade (Eddowes, 1997). 

lUCN Conservation category 

VU Bl+2abcde accordmg to Eddowes, P.J. (1997). 

Conservation measures 

There are no conservation measures. 

Silviculture and forest management 

References 

Eddowes, P.J. 1997. Completed data collection forms for New Guinea. 

Womersley, J.S. & E.E. Henty (eds.). 1978. Handbooks of the flora of Papua New Guinea. Melbourne 
Uni. Press. 



425 



Contribution to an evaluation of tree species using the new CITES Listing Criteria 

Toona calantas 

Philippines: kalantas (general), danupra (Doko). 



Distribution 

Thailand, Indonesia, Philippines. 

Habitat 

Population status and trends 

The species has been recorded as Vulnerable in the Philippines (Tan, Fernando and Rojo 1986). 

Role of species in the ecosystem 

Threats 

The stands have been depleted by logging and shifting cultivation (Lemmens, Soerianegara and Wong, 
1995). 

Utilisation 

The timber is used as surian, especially for furniture, musical instruments, cigar boxes and plywood. The 
wood is suitable for shiitake mushroom culture and may be applied as an aromatic wood for its pleasant 
smell. The bark and flowers are used medicinally (Lemmens, Soerianegara and Wong, 1995). 

Trade 

lUCN Conservation category 

DD (Asia Regional Workshop, 1997). 

Conservation measures 

Forest management and silviculture 

References 

Asia Regional Workshop, 1997. Conservation and sustainable management of trees project workshop 

held in Hanoi, VietNam, August, 1997. 
Lemmens, R.H.M.J., Soerianegara, I. & Wong, W.C. (Eds.) 1995. Plant Resources ofSouth-East Asia 

(PROSEA) 5(2) Timber Trees: Minor commercial timbers. Backhuys Publishers, Leiden 655pp. 
Tan. B.C.. Fernando. E.S. and Rojo, J.P. (1986) An updated list of endangered Philippine plants. 

Yushania 2(2yA-5 
WCMC. 199L Provision of data on rare and threatened tropical timber species. Unpublished report, 

prepared under contract to the EC. 



426 



Annex 2. Profiles of Tree Species: Asia 



Triomma malaccensis 

Burseraceae 

Distribution 

Indonesia (Kalimantan, Sumatra), Malaysia (Peninsular Malaysia, Sabah, Sarawak), Singapore 

Habitat 

Primary lowland rainforest and rarely in secondary forest in well-drained areas: in Sabah and Sarawak 
it is found in mixed diptercarp forest on yellow sandy clay soils. In south Sumatra this species grows 
well on red-yellow podsolic soils in wet areas. 
Altitude: Q- 1000m 

Population status and trendis 

A large, emergent tree, up to 60 m in height, found scattered in the primary lowland rainforests of 
western Malesia. It is common in Sabah and uncommon (2 collections only) in Sarawak. Signs of 
regeneration are very scarce, perhaps due to low fruit setting and seedlings seem to be affected by 
competition. The species regenerates badly in logged over forest. This is a monotypic genus thai is 
considered an ancient relic because of the primative dry dehiscent fruits. 

Role of species in the ecosystem 

Found in association with Castanopsis, Diospyros, Litsea, Lophopetalum, Koompassia, Palaquium, 
Shorea and Syzygium. 

Threats 

poor regeneration, burning 

Utilisation 

Trees are cut and traded as kedondong timber, especially in Malaysia, but it is not cut selectively on a 
large scale. The lightweight wood has many uses. 

Trade 

Timber is traded domestically. 

lUCN Conservation category 

NE 

Conservation measures 

Forest management and silviculture 

References 

E. Soepadmo and K.M. Wong. 1995. Tree Flora of Sabah and Sarawak. Kuala Lumpur: Ampang Press 

Sdn. Bhd. 5I3pp. 
Erfurth, T. & H. Rusche. 1976. The marketing of tropical wood, (unpublished). FO: MISC/76/8. 
Lemmens, R.H.M.J., I. Soerianegara, & W.C. Wong (eds.). 1995. Plant Resources of South-East Asia 

No 5(2). Timber trees: Minor commercial timbers. Leiden: Backhuys Publishers. 655 pp. 
Ng, P.K.L. & Y.C. Wee (eds.). 1994. The Singapore Red Data Book. Singapore: The Nature Society. 

343pp. 
van Steenis, C.G.G.J. 1948. Flora Malesiana. Leiden: Flora Malesiana Foundation. 



427 



Contribution to an evaluation of tree species using the new CITES Listing Criteria 

Ulmus wallichiana 

Ulmaceae 



Distribution 

Afghanistan, India (Jammu-Kashmir), Nepal, Pakistan 

Habitat 

A tree of temperate oak and mixed coniferous forest and of the Cedrus deodara forest zone of the 
Western Himalayas. 

Population status and trends 

A scattered species which has suffered from large-scale lopping its high quality livestock fodder. Once 
the tree has been severely hewed it can no longer reproduce because the resulting coppice-sprouts do 
not produce flowers. Only trees growing in inaccessible areas and protected areas have survived. 

Role of species in the ecosystem 

Threats 

Overexploitation and grazing. 

Utilisation 

Animal fodder and timber. This species exhibits some degree of resistance to dutch elm disease as a 
result is being used in elm breeding programmes for city and landscape use in temperate climates 
(FAO, 1986). 

Trade 

lUCN Conservation category 

VU Ale - according to WCMC. 

Conservation measures 

The example of flourishing trees, and completion of regeneration of this species in Dachigam Game 
reserve near Srinagar, Kashmir, suggests that protection from cattle may suffice to save this species. 
The inclusion of elms and elm habitats in the setting up of future game and forest reserves in 
Himalaysa, should be considered. The plantings should consist of specimens from local origin to 
provide the possibility for cross pollination. The positionmg of small elm stands near wardens/ 
foresters homes where they are protected from lopping will make there protection status clear to all 
(FAO, 1986). 

Forest management and silviculture 

Plants can be easily grown from seeds and various methods of vegetative propogation are effective, for 
example grafting, layering and rooted cuttings under mist in the summer. Seeds are not available where 
trees are regularly lopped (FAO, 1986). Cultivation occurs on a small scale. 

References 

FAO Forestry Department. 1986. Databook on endangered tree and shrub species and their 

provenances. Rome; FAO. 524pp. 
Melville, R. & H.M. Heybroek. 1971. The elms of the Himalaya. Kew Bull. 26(1); 5-28. 



428 



Annex 2. Profiles of Tree Species: Asia 

Vavaea bantamensis 

Distribution 

Indonesia (Java) 

Habitat 

Population status and trends 

Role of species in the ecosystem 

Threats 

Utilisation 

Trade 

The timber is not tiiought to occur in European trade (WCMC, 1991). 

lUCN Conservation category 

DD (Asia Regional Workshop, 1997). 

The species has been recorded as threatened in Indonesia (WCMC, 1991). 

Conservation measures 

Forest management and silviculture 

References 

Asia Regional Workshop, 1997. Conservation and sustainable management of trees project workshop 

held in Hanoi, VietNam, August, 1997. 
Hommel, P.W.F.M. 1987. Landscape ecology of Ujung Kulon (West Java, Indonesia). Wageningen: 

Privately published doctoral thesis. 206pp. 
WCMC. 1991. Provision of data on rare and threatened tropical timber species. Unpublished report, 

prepared under contract to the EC. 



429 



Contribution to an evaluation of tree species using the new CITES Listing Criteria 



Vitex parviflora 

Indonesia: kayu kula, fuli kaa (Timor). Philippines: molave, amugauan, sagat (general) 
(Lemmens, Soerianegara and Wong, 1995). 



Distribution 

Philippines, Sulawasi, Timor, the Moluccas; possibly also Sabah and Java; planted in Central America 
(Lemmens, Soerianegara and Wong, 1995). 

Habitat 

Low altitudes and along sea coasts. In the Philippines this species is the dominant in 'Molave' forest. This 
is a monsoon forest type which occurs on well-drained limestone soils. 

Popiilation status and trends 

Logging for this species has caused thedisapfjearance of Molave forests in most of the Philippines. 

Role of species in the ecosystem 

Threats 

It has been depleted due to logging and shifting cultivation (Lemmens, Soerianegara and Wong, 1995). 

Utilisation 

The timber is used in the Philippines for house building, ship building and carving. The bark and wood 

are used medicinally and the leaves are used as a fodder (Lemmens, Soerianegara and Wong, 1995). 

Trade 

The timber is not thought to occur in European trade (WCMC, 1991 ). 

lUCN Conservation category 

DD (Asia Regional Workshop, 1997). 

The species has been recorded as Vulnerable (old lUCN threat category) in the Philippines (WCMC, 

1991). 

Conservation measures 

Subject to special felling controls in the Philippines. 

Forest management and silviculture 

This species is suggested for the Philippines as a tall tree in shelterbelts. Some plantation in reforestation 
schemes in the country. 

References 

Asia Regional Workshop, 1997. Conservation and sustainable nwnagement of trees project workshop 

held m Hanoi, VietNam, August, 1997. 
Lemmens, R.H.M.J., Soerianegara, I. & Wong, W.C. (Eds.) 1995. Plant Resources of South- East Asia 

(PROSEA) 5(2) Timber Trees: Minor commercial timbers. Backhuys Publishers. Leiden 655pp. 
Tan, B.C.. Fernando, E.S. and Rojo, J.P. (1986) An updated list of endangered Philippine plants. 

Yushania 3(2y.\-5 
WCMC. 1991. Provision of data on rare and threatened tropical timber species. Unpubhshed report, 

prepared under contract to the EC. 



430 



Annex 2. Profiles of Tree Species: Asia 

Wallaceodendron celebicum 

Distribution 

Indonesia, Philippines. 

Habitat 

Along sea coasts. 

Population status and trends 
Role of species in the ecosystem 
Threats 
Utilisation 

Trade 

The timber is not thought to occur in European trade (WCMC, 1991). 

lUCN Conservation category 

DD (Asia Regional Workshop, 1997). 

The species has been recorded as Vulnerable (old lUCN threat category) in the Philippines and 

Threatened in Indonesia (WCMC, 1991). 

Conservation measures 

Forest management and silviculture 

References 

Asia Regional Workshop, 1997. Conservation and sustainable management of trees project workshop 

held in Hanoi, VietNam, August, 1997. 
WCMC. 1991. Provision of data on rare and threatened tropical timber species. Unpublished report, 

prepared under contract to the EC. 



431 



ANNEX 3 

List of species recorded as globally threatened as a result of population decline 
through exploitation in the Tree Conservation Database 



ACERACEAE 

Acer longipes ssp. catalpifolium 



VU Alcd 



ANACARDIACEAE 
Antrocaryon micraster 
Gluta papuana 
Mangifera altissima 
Mangifera monandra 



VUAlcd 

VUAlcd+2cd 
VUAld 
EN Alcd 



ANISOPHYLLEACEAE 
Combretocarpus rotundatus 



VUAlcd 



ANNONACEAE 
Meiogyne hainanensis 
Saccopetatum prolificum 



VUAlcd 
VUAlcd 



ARAUCARIACEAE 

Agathis dammara 
Araucaria angustifolia 
Araucaria araucana 



VUAlcd 

VUAlcd+2cd 

VUAlcd 



BOMBACACEAE 
Rhodognaphalon breviscupe 



VUAlcd 



B OR AGIN ACE AE 
Cordia platythyrsa 



VUAld 



BRETSCHNEIDERACEAE 
Bretschneidera sinensis 



EN Alcd 



BURSERACEAE 
Aucoumea klaineana 



VUAlcd 



CAPPARACEAE 
Boscia arabica 



VUAlcd 



CAPRIFOLIACEAE 
Heptacodium miconioides 



VUAlcd 



CEPHALOTAXACEAE 
Cephalotaxus mannii 
Cephalotaxus oliveri 



VUAld 
VUAld 



CHR YSOB ALAN ACE AE 
Parinari papuana ssp. salomonense 



VUAlcd+2cd, Bl+2abcde 



COMBRETACEAE 
Anogeissus dhofarica 
Terminalia archipelagi 
Terminalia ivorensis 
Terminalia nitens 
Terminalia pellucida 



VUAlcd 

ENAlcd+2cd, C2a 
VUAlcd 
VUAld 
VUAld 



433 



Contribution to an evaluation of tree species using the new CITES Listing Criteria 



COMPOSITAE 



Blepharispermum hirtum 


VUAlcd 


CORNACEAE 




Comus disciflora 


VUAlcd 


Davidia involucrata var. vilmoriniana 


VUAlcd 


CORYLACEAE 




Coryius chinensis 


ENAlcd 


CUPRESSACEAE 




Chamaecyparis lawsoniana 


VUAlde+2de 


Chamaecyparis obtusa var. formosana 


VUAlacd 


Cupressus chengiana 


VUAlcd 


Fitzroya cupressoides 


EN Alcd 


Pilgerodendron uviferum 


VUAlcd+2cd 


Widdringtonia cedarbergensis 


ENAlcd 


DILLENIACEAE 




Dillenia megalantha 


VUAld 


Dillenia philippinensis 


VUAld 


Dillenia reijferscheidtia 


VUAld 


DIPTEROCARPACEAE 




Dipterocarpus conformis ssp. bomeensis 


VUAlcd, Bl+2c 


Parashorea lucida 


CRAlcd, B1+2C, C2a 


Parashorea macrophylla 


CRAlcd. Bl+2c, C2a 


Parashorea malaanoruin 


CRAlcd 


Parashorea stellata 


CRAlcd, Bl+2c 


Shorea acuminata 


CRAlcd 


Shorea acuminatissima 


CRAlcd 


Shorea agami 


ENAlcd 


Shorea argentifolia 


ENAlcd 


Shorea assamica ssp. assamica 


CRAlcd, Bl+2c 


Shorea assamica ssp. globifera 


CRAlcd 


Shorea assamica ssp. philippinensis 


CR Alcd. C2a 


Shorea bracteolata 


EN Alcd+2cd 


Shorea dealbata 


CR Alcd+2cd, C2a 


Shorea falciferoides 


CRAlcd 


Shorea flemmichii 


CR Alcd. C2a 


Shorea inaequilateralis 


CRAlcd, C2a 


Shorea inappendiculata 


CRAlcd. C2a 


Shorea macrantha 


CRAlcd, C2a 


Shorea macroptera ssp. baillonii 


ENAlcd 


Shorea ovalis ssp. ovalis 


ENAlcd 


Shorea ovalis ssp. sarawakensis 


CR Alcd 


Shorea ovalis ssp. sericea 


CRAlcd 


Shorea ovata 


ENAlcd 


Shorea pachyphylla 


CRAlcd,C2a 


Shorea palembanica 


CRAlcd 


Shorea palosapis 


CRAlcd 


Shorea parvifolia ssp. parvifolia 


ENAlcd 


Shorea parvifolia ssp. velutina 


ENAlcd 


Shorea pauciflora 


EN Alcd 


Shorea platycarpa 


CR Alcd 


Shorea platyclados 


ENAlcd 


Shorea polysperma 


CRAlcd 


Shorea quadrinervis 


EN Alcd 


Shorea rugosa 


CRAlcd,C2a 


Shorea selanica 


CRAlcd 



434 



Annex 3. List of species recorded as globally threatened.. 



Shorea singkawang 
Shorea smithiana 
Shorea splendida 
Shorea stenoptera 
Shorea superba 
Shorea teysmanniana 
Upuna bomeensis 
Vateria indica 
Vatica cuspidata 
Vatica nitens 
Vatica pachyphylla 

EBENACEAE 
Diospyros crassiflora 
Diospyros gillisonii 
Diospyros insularis 
Diospyros mun 

ELAEAGNACEAE 
Elaeagnus mollis 

FAGACEAE 
Nothofagus alessandri 
Nothofagus glauca 
Nothofagus leonii 

FLACOURTIACEAE 
Hydnocarpus hainanensis 
Taraktogenos annamensis 

GOMORTEGACEAE 
Gomortega keule 



CRAlcd 
CRAlcd 
ENAlcd 
EN Alcd 
CRAlcd 
ENAlcd 
EN Alcd, C2a 
CRAlcd 
CR Alcd 
EN Alcd 
CR Alcd 



EN Aid 

EN Alcd+2cd, C2a 
EN Alcd+2cd, Bl+2c 
CRAlcd 



VUAlcd 



EN Alcde, B2cd 
VUAlcd, Bl+2c 
EN Alcd, B2c 



VUAlcd 
VUAlcd 



EN Alcd 



ICACINACEAE 
Mappia racemosa 

IXONANTHACEAE 
Ixonamhes chinensis 



VUAlcd 



VUAlcd 



LAURACEAE 
Alseodaphne hainanensis 
Aniba rosaeodora 
Chlorocardium rodiei 
Cinnamomum mercadoi 
Dicypellium caryophyllaceum 
Litsea leytensis 
Ocotea catharinensis 
Ocotea kenyensis 
Ocotea langsdorffti 
Ocotea porosa 
Ocotea pretiosa 
Persea philippinensis 
Phoebe zhennan 



VUAlcd 

EN Ald+2d 

VU Alad 

VUAld 

VUAlcd 

VUAld 

VUAlcd 

VUAlcd 

VU Alcd 

VUAlcd 

VUAlcd 

VUAlcd 

VUAld 



LECYTHIDACEAE 
Bertholletia excelsa 



VUAlacd+2cd 



LEGUMINOSAE 
Acacia campbellii 
Acacia crassicarpa 



VUAlcd 

VU Alcd+2cd, Bl+2abcd 



435 



Contribution to an evaluation of tree species using the new CITES Listing Criteria 



Adenanthera intermedia 
Afzelia bipiruiensis 
Afzelia pachyloba 
Afzelia rhomboidea 
Albizia ferruginea 
Caesalpinia echinata 
Caesalpinia paraguariensis 
Copaifera salikounda 
Cynometra inaequifolia 
Dalbergia annamensis 
Dalbergia bariensis 
Dalbergia baronii 
Dalbergia bathiei 
Dalbergia cambodiana 
Dalbergia chapelieri 
Dalbergia chlorocarpa 
Dalbergia cultrata var. cultrala 
Dalbergia hildebrandtii 
Dalbergia lemurica 
Dalbergia louvelii 
Dalbergia madagascariensis 
Dalbergia mammosa 
Dalbergia maritima 
Dalbergia monticola 
Dalbergia neoperrieri 
Dalbergia nigra 
Dalbergia normandii 
Dalbergia odorifera 
Dalbergia oliveri 
Dalbergia pseudobaronii 
Dalbergia purpurascens 
Dalbergia tonkinensis 
Dalbergia tricolor 
Dalbergia viguieri 
Eryth rophleum fordii 
Gossweilerodendron balsamiferum 
Haplormosia monophylla 
Intsia acuminata 
Kingiodendron pinnatum 
Koompassia grandiflora 
Maniltoa schefferi var. peekelii 
Millettia laurentii 
Pericopsis elata 
Sindora inermis 
Sindora supa 
Swartzia fistuloides 
Vouacapoua americana 



VU Alcd 

VUAlcd 

VUAld 

VUAlcd 

VUAlcd 

ENAlacd 

VUAlacd 

VUAld 

VUAld 

EN Alcd 

EN Alcd 

VUAlcd+2cd 

ENAlcd, Bl+2abcd, Cl+2a 

EN Alcd 

VUAlcd+2cd 

VU Alacd+2cd 

ENAlcd 

VUAlcd+2cd 

VUAlcd+2cd 

ENAlcd+2cd 

VU Alcd+2cd 

ENAlcd 

ENAlcd+2cd 

VUAlcd+2cd 

VUAlcd+2cd 

VUAlcd 

EN Aicd+2cd, Bl+2abcde 

VUAld 

ENAlcd 

VUAlcd+2cd 

VUAlcd+2cd 

VUAlcd 

VUAlcd+2cd 

VUAlcd+2cd 

ENAlcd 

ENAlcd 

VUAld+2d 

VUAld 

ENAlcd 

VUAlcd+2cd 

VUAlcd+2cd, C2a 

ENAlcd 

ENAlcd 

VUAld 

VUAld 

ENAlcd 

CR Alcd+2cd 



MAGNOLIACEAE 
Magnolia nitida var. nitida 
Manglietia aromatica 



VUAlcd 
VUAlcd, Bl+2cde 



MELIACEAE 
Apharuimixis cumingiana 
Cedrela fissilis 
Dysoxylum turczaninowii 
Entaruirophragma angolense 
Emandrophragma candollei 
Entandrophragma cylindricum 
Khaya anthotheca 



VUAlcd 

ENAlacd+2cd 

VUAlcd 

VUAlcd 

VU Alcd 

VUAlcd 

VUAlcd 



436 



Annex 3. List of species recorded as globally threatened. . 



Khaya grandifoliola 


VU Alcd 


Khaya ivorensis 


VUAlcd 


Khaya senegalensis 


VUAlcd 


Lovoa swynnertonii 


EN Alcd 


Lovoa trichilioides 


VUAlcd 


Sandoricum vidalii 


VUAlcd 


Turraeanthus africanus 


VUAlcd 


MORACEAE 




Artocarpus blancoi 


VUAld 


Artocarpus rubrovenus 


VUAld 


Artocarpus treculianus 


VUAld 


Ficus ulmifolia 


VUAlcd 


Milicia regia 


VUAlcd 


MYRTACEAE 




Tristania decorticata 


VUAlcd 


Tristania littoralis 


VUAlcd 


Xanthostemon verdugonianus 


VUAld 


OCHNACEAE 




Lophira alata 


VUAlcd 


Testulea gabonensis 


EN Alcd 


PALMAE 




Jubaea chilensis 


VUAlcd 


PINACEAE 




Abies guatemalensis var. guatemalensis 


VUAld 


Larix mastersiana 


VUAlcd 


Picea brachytyla 


VUAlcd 


Picea brachvtyla var. complanata 


VUAlcd 


Pseudotsuga sinensis var. sinensis 


VUAlcd 


Tsuga forresiii 


VUAlcd 


PODOCARPACEAE 




Dacrydium nausonense 


ENAlcd, Bl+2ce, C! 


Podocarpus salignus 


VUAld+2b 


Prumnopitys andina 


VUAlcd,C2a 


PROTEACEAE 




Helicia neglecta 


VU Alcd. C2a 


ROSACEAE 




Photinia lasiogyna 


VUAlcd 


Polylepis incana 


VUAlacd 


Prunus africana 


VUAlcd 


RUBIACEAE 




Hallea stipulosa 


VUAlcd 


Mastixiodendron stoddardii 


VUAlcd+2cd, Bl+2abcde 


Nauclea diderrichii 


VU Alcd 



RUTACEAE 
Pitavia punctata 



EN Alcd 



SALICACEAE 
Salix magnifica 



VUAlcd 



437 



Contribution to an evaluation of tree species using the new CITES Listing Criteria 



SANTALACEAE 
Santalum album 
Santalum macgregorii 



VUAld 
ENAlcd, CI 



SAPOTACEAE 
Autranella congolensis 
Baillonella toxisperma 
Madhuca betis 
Madhuca boedageana 
Madhuca bourdillonii 
Madhuca oblongifolia 
Madhuca obovatifolia 
Madhuca pasquieri 
Manilkara kanosiensis 
Palaquium bataanense 
Palaquium luzoniense 
Palaquium philippense 
Pouteria villamitii 
Tieghemella africana 
Tieghemella heckelii 
Vitellaria paradoxa 

SIMAROUBACEAE 
Picrasma excelsa 



CRAlcd 

VUAlcd 

VUAlcd 

CRAlcd, C2ab.Dl 

ENAlcd, B1+2C 

VUAld 

VUAld 

VUAlcd 

EN Alcd+2cd, C2a 

VUAld 

VUAld 

VUAld 

VUAld 

ENAlcd 

EN Alcd 

VUAlcd 



VUAlcd 



STERCULIACEAE 
Heriiiera utilis 
Nesogordonia papaverifera 
Pterygota bequaertii 
Pterygota macrocarpa 

STYRACACEAE 

Halesia macgregorii 
Pterostyrax psilophylla 

TAXODIACEAE 
Sequoiadendron giganieum 
Taiwania cryptomerioides 

THEACEAE 
Camellia chrxsantha 



VUAlcd 
VUAlcd 
VUAlcd 
VUAlcd 



VU Alcd 
VU Alcd 



VUAlcd 
VUAld 



VUAlcd 



THYMELAEACEAE 
Aquilaria malaccensis 
Gonyst\lus bancanus 



VUAlcd 

VUAlcd 



TILIACEAE 
Burretiodendron hsienmu 
Diplodiscus paniculatus 

ULMACEAE 
Celtis luzonica 



VUAlcd 
VUAlcd 



VU Alcd 



VERBENACEAE 
Vitex keniensis 
Vitex parviflora 



VUAlcd+2cd 
VU Alcd 



438 



INDEX 



Abies guatemalensis 147 

Abies nordmanniana subsp. 
Equi'iroujani 255 
Acacia crassicarpa 256 
Acer launnum 257 
Afzelia afncana 22 
Afzelia bipmdensis 24 
Afzelia pachyloba 25 
Afzelia rhomboidea 258 
Agathis bomeensis 259 
Agalhis endertii 261 
Agathis moorei 262 
Agathis spathulata 263 
Agathis vitiensis 264 
Aglaia penmngtomana 265 
Aglaia perviridts 266 
Aglaia silvestris 267 
Ailanlhus integrifolia ssp. 
Integrifolia 268 
Allanblaclda stuhlmannii 26 
Alloxylon brachycarpum 269 
Alnus acuminata J48 
Alstonia pneumatophora 270 
Amburana acreana 150 
Amburana cearensis 151 
Anadenanthera macrocarpa 153 
Aniba rosaeodora 154 
Antrocaryon micraster 27 
Aquilana malaccensis 271 
Araucana angustifolia 156 
Araucana araucana 159 
Araucana cunninghamii 273 
Araucana hunsieinii 275 
Aspidosperma polyneuron 160 
Astronium urundeuva 162 
Aucoumea klaineana 28 
Autranella congulensis 30 
Bailaaea pluhjuga 31 
Baillonella toxisperma 33 
Balfourodendron nedelianum 
164 

Balmea stormae 165 
Beilschmiedia ugandensis 35 
Benholletia excelsa 166 
Bombacopsis quinaia 169 
Bosweilia sacra 36 
Brachylaena huillensis 
(syn. Brach\iaena huichisonii) 
38 

Caesalpinia echinata 171 
Caesaipmia paraguanensis 173 
Calophyllum canum 276 
Calophyllum carni var. 
longigemmatum 277 
Calophyllum euryphyllum 278 
Calophyllum mophyllum 279 
Calophyllum tnsularum 281 
Calophyllum papuanum 282 
Calophyllum waliense 283 
Canarium luzonicum 284 
Cananum pseudosumatranum 
285 

Cantleya comiculatum 286 
Canmana estrellensis 174 
Canniana legalis 175 
Carxocar costaricense 176 
Cedrelafissilis 178 
Cedrelalilloil80 
Cedrela odorata 181 
Cephalotaxus oliveri 287 
Cerctdiphyllum japomcum 288 
Ceroxylon quindiuense 183 
Chamaecypans lawsoniana 184 
Chamaecypans obtusa var. 
formosana 289 



Chloroxylon swietenta 290 
Cinnamomum parthenox\ion 
291 

Copaifera salikounda 40 
Cordeauxia edults 41 
Cordia dodecandra 188 
Cordia millenii 42 
Cordia platythyrsa 44 
Cupressus dupreziona 45 
Cynometra inaequifolia 292 
Dacrydium nausoriense 293 
Dalbergia annamensis 294 
Dalbergia banensis 295 
Dalbergia baronn 46 
Dalbergia cambodiana 296 
Dalbergia chaplien 47 
Dalbergia chlorocarpa 48 
Dalbergia cochinchinensis 297 
Dalbergia davidii 49 
Dalbergia delphinensis 50 
Dalbergia greveana 51 
Dalbergia latifolia 298 
Dalbergia louvelii 52 
Dalbergia mammosa 300 
Dalbergia mantima 53 
Dalbergia nigra 189 
Dalbergia oliveri 301 
Dalbergia purpurascens 54 
Dalbergia retusa 192 
Dalbergia stevensoni 1 94 
Dalbergia lonkinensis 302 
Dehaasia caesia 303 
Dehaasia cuneata 304 
Dialium cochinchinense 305 
Diospyros celebica 55 
Diospyros crassiflora 56 
Diospyros discolor 306 
Diospyros ebenum 307 
Diospyros ferrea 308 
Diospyros hemiteles 57 
Diospyros insulans 310 
Diospyros rrmn 311 
Diospyros philippmensis 312 
Diospyros pilosanthera 313 
Diospyros rumphii 314 
Dipteryx alata 195 
Duno dulcis 315 
Durio kutejensis 316 
Eh/era costulaia 318 
Dyera polyphylla 320 
Entandrophragma angolense 58 
Entandrophragma candollei 60 
Entandrophragma caudaium 62 
Entandrophragma cvlindncum 
63 

Entandrophragma delevoyi 65 
Entandrophragma excelsum 66 
Entandrophragma utile 67 
Eribroma obionga 69 
Erythrophleum fordii 321 
Esenbeckia leiocarpa 196 
Eugenia flosculifera 322 
Eugenia koordersiana 323 
Eugenia ridleyi 324 
Eusideroxylon zwageri 325 
Fagus longipetiolata 327 
Fitzroya cupressoides 197 
Flindersia ijflaina 328 
Flindersia laevicarpa 329 
Flindersia schotliana 330 
Ceijera salicifolia 331 
Glula papuana 332 
Gmelina arborea 333 
Gonystyius afflnts 335 
Gonvstylus bancanus 336 



Gonystyius brurmescens 339 
Gonystyius confusus 340 
Gonystyius keilhii 341 
Gonystyius macrophyllus 342 
Gonystyius maingayi 343 
Gos!rweilerodendron 
balsamiferum 71 
Guaiacum officinale 199 
Guaiacum sanctum 20} 
Guarea cedrata 72 
Guarea thompsonn 74 
Guibounui ehie 76 
Hallea ledermanmi 77 
Hallea stipulosa 79 
Haplormosia monophylla 80 
Hentiera utilis 81 
Homalium foefidum 344 
Hydnocarpus sumatrana 346 
Hex paraguaiensis 203 
Inisia bijuga 347 
Irvingia gabonensis 82 
Jackiopsis omata 349 
Joannesia pnnceps 205 
Jubaea chilensis 206 
Juglans neotropica 207 
Juniperus bermudiana 209 
Juniperus procera 84 
Kalappia celebica 350 
Khaya anthotheca 86 
Khaya grandifoliola 88 
Khaya ivorensis 90 
Khaya madagascanensis 92 
Khaya senegalensis 93 
Ktngiodendron ptnnatum 352 
Kjellbergwdendron celebicum 
353 

Kokoona leucoclada 354 
Koompassia excelsa 355 
Kuompassia grandiflora 356 
Koompassia malaccensis 357 
Lagarosirobos franklinii 358 
Liquidambar sryraciflua 210 
Lophira alata 95 
Lophopetalum javanicuw 359 
Lophopetalum multinervium 
360 

Lophopetalum pachyph\llum 
361 

Lophopetalum ngidum 362 
Lovoa swynnenonii 97 
Lovoa tnchilwides 79 
Machaenum villosum 212 
Madhuca betis 363 
Madhuca boerlageana 364 
Madhuca pasquieri 365 
Magriolia hodgsonii 366 
Mangifera decandra 367 
Mangifera macrocarpa 368 
Manglietia aromatica 369 
Manilkara kanosiensis 370 
Mansonia altissima 101 
Masttxiodendron stoddardii 371 
Merrillia caloxylon 372 
Mezilaurus itauba 213 
Microberlinia bisulcata 103 
Microberlmia brazzavillensis 104 
MiUcia excelsa 105 
Milicia regia 108 
Millettia laurentii 110 
Mimosa caesalpiniaefolia 214 
Mimosa verrucosa 215 
Minquartia guianensis 216 
Monopetalanthus heitui 111 
Myrocarpus frondosus 218 
Nauclea diderrichii 1 12 



439 



Neesta alnssima 373 
Neesia malayana 374 
Neobalanocarpus heimii 375 
Nesogordonia papavenfera J 14 
Nothofagus alessandri 219 
Nothofagus glauca 220 
Ochanosiachys amentacea 377 
Ocoiea catharinensis 221 
Ocotea kenyensis 116 
Ocoiea odorifera 222 
Ocoiea porosa 224 
Oclomeles sumatrana 379 
Oreomunnea pierocarpa 225 
Palaquium bataanense 380 
Palaquium tmpresstnervium 381 
Palaquium mmngayi 382 
Parinan costala ssp. costaia 
383 

Pannari oblongifolia 384 
P e neaps is e lata 117 
Pericopsis moomana 385 
Phoebe macrophylla 387 
Phoebe nanmu 388 
Phyielephas seemannii 226 
Phylelephas tumacana 227 
Pilgerodendron uviferum 228 
Pinus amamiana 389 
Pinus merkusii 390 
Pinus pentaphylla 391 
Pinus lecunumanii 230 
Piiavia punciata 23 J 
Piihecellobium splendens 392 
Planchoma valida 393 
Plaianus onentahs 118 



Plarymeniafoliolosa 232 
Plarynuscium parviflorum 233 
Podocarpus annamensis 394 
Podocarpus parlaiorei 235 
Populus ilicifolia 119 
Poutena alnssima 120 
Prumnopirys andina 236 
Prunus africana 122 
Pierocarpus angolensis 125 
Pterocarpus dalbergioides 395 
Pierocarpus indicus 396 
Pierocarpus macrocarpus 398 
Pierocarpus sanialmus 399 
Pterocymbium beccani 401 
Pierocymbium imciohum 403 
Pierocvmbium lubulaium 404 
Pierogyne niiens 237 
Pierygota bequaenii 127 
Plerygola macrocarpa 128 
Sanlalum album 405 
Sanialum macgregoni 407 
Saniina laevigata 408 
Scaphium longiflorum 409 
Schinopsis balansae 238 
Shorea curtisii 410 
Stndora beccariana 412 
Smdora inermis 413 
Stndora supa 414 
Sirombosia javanica 415 
Swanzia fistuloides 129 
Swietenia humilis 240 
Swielenia macrophylla 241 
Swieienia mahagoni 244 
Syagrus glaucescens 246 



Tabebuia impettginosa 247 
Taiwania crypiomenoides 416 
Taxus wallichiana 41 7 
Teciona grandis 418 
Teciona hamilloniana 422 
Teciona philippinensis 423 
Terminalia archipelagi 424 
Terminalia ivorensts 130 
Terminalia rerei 425 
Terminalia superba 13/ 
Tesiulea gabonensts 134 
Tieghemella africana 135 
Tieghemella heckeUi 137 
Toona calanias 426 
Tnomma malaccensis 427 
Tnplochiion scleroxylon 139 
Turraeanlhus afncanus 141 
Ulmus wallichiana 427 
Vavaea baniamensis 429 
Vepns glandulosa 142 
Virola surinamensis 248 
Vuellana paradoxa 143 
Viiex keniensis 144 
Viiex par\iflora 430 
Vouacapoua amencana 250 
Wallaceodendron celebicum 431 
Warburgia saluiaris 145 
Washingionia filifera 251 
Widdnnglcnia whyiei 146 
Zanihox\'lum flavum 252 
Zevhena luberculosa 253 



440 





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