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Full text of "A contribution to the herpetology of Arabia. With a preliminary list of the reptiles and batrachians of Egypt"

A CONTRIBUTION 



TO THE 



HERPETOLOGY 



ARABIA 



WITH A PRELIMINARY LIST OF THE 

REPTILES AND BATRACHIANS 



EGYPT 



ANDERSON 




Museum of Comparative Zoology 

HERPETOLOGY LIBRARY 



©yfr^^e^^'^ j2^e^<^«-«^'<^ 



'Z'a-e-. 



Ct-c/fttna^tt; 



\V^S. LOIli^J, 



inta 






A CONTRIBUTION 



TO THE 



HERPETOLOGY 



OF 



ARABIA. 

WITH A PRELIMINARY LIST OF THE 

REPTILES AND BATEACHIANS 

OF 

EGYPT. 



.sP 



^^ 



BY ^ 

JOHN ANDERSON, M.D., LL-^^F^R-S. 



e?^ 



& 



LONDON: 
E. H. PORTER, 7 PRINCES STREET, CAVENDISH SQUARE. 

1896. 



fLAJIMAM. 




PEINTED BY TAYLOB AND FRANCIS 



RED LION COUKT, FLEET STIiEET. 



CONTENTS. 



Pago 

Paux I. A Sketch of the Physical Features of the Coast 
of South-East Arabia, and of the Country be- 
tween Makallah and the Hadraraut 1 

Part II. Eeptilia and Batracliia collected on Mr. J. T. 

Bent's Expedition to the Hadramut 19 

Part III. Some Eeptiles from other Parts of Arabia. 

Eeptiles from the Hejaz in the Cairo Museum. 5G 
A Chameleon from Yemen in the Cairo Museum 62 
Eeptiles from Aden collected by Captain C. G. 

Nurse G3 

A new Agamoid Lizard from Maskat in the 

British Museum Go 

Pabt IV. Sketch of the Literature bearing on the Eeptiliau 

and Batrachian Fauna of Arabia G8 

Part V. List of the Eeptilia and Batrachia of Arabia, 

1775 to 189G 77 

General Distribution of the Species S-i 

An Analysis of their Distribution 88 

Literature bearing on the Herpetology of Arabia 92 

Part VI. A Preliminary List of the Eeptilia and Batrachia 
of Egypt (from the Delta to Wadi Haifa) and 
of the Suakin District 94i 

Appendix IIG 

Index 117 



PART I. 

A SKETCH OF THE PHYSICAL FEATURES OF THE COAST 

OF 

SOUTH-EAST ARABIA 

AKD OF THE 

COUNTRY BETWEEN MAKALLAH AND THE HADRAMUT. 



The first part of a valuable memoir on the South-East Coast of 
Arabia, from the entrance to the Eed Sea eastwards to Misenafc 
in 50° 43' 25" E. longitude and 15° 3' N. latitude, by Captain 
Stafford Bettesworth Haines, of the Indian Navy, was read before 
the Eoyal Geographical Society on the 11th May, 18391. The 
second part of the memoir did not appear until 18-45 *. It carries 
the Survey as far east as Eas Jezirah, known as Cape Isolette, 
but more properly Cape Island. 

The Survey of this coast was completed by the Indian Navy 
between 1811-46. It was under the direction of Captain 
Saunders and Lieutenant Grieve, and was conducted from east 
to west, beginning at Maskat. Only a short memoir of this 
Survey was published by Commander Saunders^; but the late 
Mr. n. J. Carter, F.E.S., the Surgeon of the surveying ship, the 
' Palinurus,' gave an account* of Ids own observations, in order 
to complete tlie geographical description of the coast. Separate 
contributions to our knowledge of some parts of the coast-line 
were made by other officers of both surveys. 

' Journ. Eoy. Geogr. Soc. vol. ix. 1839, pp. 125-156 and map. 

2 Ibid. vol. XV. 1845, pp. KH-IGO and map. 

3 Ibid. vol. xvi. 1846, pp. 169-186. 

* Jouru. Bombay Branch Eoy. As. Soc. iii. Part ii. 1851, pp. 224-317. 
I am indebted to Mrs. Carter for the use of a reprint of this paper, illustrated 
by Mr. Carter's sketches of the country and its people. 

b 



As Captain Haines and Mr. Carter did not confine their 
researches merely to tlie coast, but gave an insight into the 
character of the country lying beyond it, I have thought the 
subject of sufficient interest, in view o£ the zoological collections 
made on Mr. Bent's Expedition to the Hadramut being the first 
that have been obtained from South-Eastern Arabia, to justify 
my giving a brief summary of the leading features of the country 
between Aden and Eas el Had, and a sketch of AYrede's ^ 
Hirsch's ^ and Bent's ' impressions of the Hadramut itself. 

Bound the headland of Jebel Shamshan, on which Aden is 
situated, lies the great bay of Ghubbet Sei'lan, from which a plain 
extends into the interior. This plain was traversed by Captain 
S. B. Miles and M. Munzinger in 1870 \ They went to Bir Ali, 
220 miles to the east of Aden, in a small samluJc, and thence 
penetrated into the interior as far as Habban and across the 
plain to Aden, through the country occupied by the Eudhli 
tribe. The plain is about 200 square miles in extent, and is 
watered by two rivers, the Hassan and Banna ; and when 
Captain Miles crossed the latter in the end of July, he says it 
was 400 ® yards broad, and running over knee-deep. Along the 
shore the plain was bordered by a thick forest of acacia, and 
towards the hills broad fields of grass and corn stretched away 
to the Taffai valley ^ The uncultivated parts were either sandy 
patches, or were covered with brushwood and thick jungle. 
The jowari grew to a great height, considerably overtopping the 

' "An Excursion in Hadramaut by Adolpb, Baron Wrede," Journ. Roy. 
Geogr. Soc. xiv. 184-1, pp. 107-112 ; ' Eeise in Hadhraniaut,' edited bj H. F. 
Ton Maltzan, 1870. 

2 Verb. Ges. fiir Erdk. Berlin, xxi. 1894, pp. 126-136 and map. 

^ Geogr. Journ. iv. 1894, p. 315 and map. 

* Proc. Eoj. Geogr. Soc. xv. 1871, pp. 319-328; Trans. Bombay Geogr. 
Soc. xi.x. 1874, pp. 166-186. Accompanjing tbis summary of tbe Narrative 
issued by tbe Government of Bombay is a paper by M. Munzinger on the geo- 
graphical features, geology, and liydrology of the triangle between Ain Jowdri, 
Ilabban, and IlaurA. 

" This is probably a misprint for 40 yards. 

" I cannot refrain from calling attention here to a statement by J. P. 
Malcolmson, in his account of Aden (Journ. Roy. As. Soc. viii. 1846, 
pp. 279-292), that a few hyaenas of small size occur in the deep ravines inland 
from Aden, ^^'hen at Suakin I was told that a small hyaena frequented the 
plain near that town. It proved to be not a byrena, but Proteles crintatus, 
Is Geoffr. Is it possible that the small hjaua of the Aden ravines is the same 
animal ? 



head of a man on a camel. The liilh aro st:xtecl to abound 
with myrrli trees. 

About thirty miles inland rises the high mouiitain-range called 
Jebel Yatiai, attaining to an elevation of over 01)00 feet above 
the sea. It has numerous fertile valleys that produce colTee, 
diira, and other crops. Ras S^^ihin, the eastern extremity of the 
bay, is a low sandy poiut on which a few date trees grow. 
Ten miles to the east of this cape, and about two miles from the 
coast, the country is well watered and cultivated ; but beyond 
the fact that partridges are found on it, nothing is known of 
its fauna. At the village of Su^hra good water, bullocks, sheep, 
poultry, onions, and pumpkins were easily procured. Sixteen 
miles to the north-east of Sughra, Jebel Kharaz lowers to a 
height of 5400 feet above the sea, and has the Wadi Bahrein 
winding through it, abundantly supplied with streams flowing 
into an extensive lake which gives its name to the valley. Then 
follows a tract of low, barren, sandy coast, succeeded by a range 
of limestone mountains, twenty miles in length, and within five 
miles of the sea, with its summits broken up into peaks and bluff 
points. Farther on, a ntimber of black hills and rocky points 
occur at intervals, close to the sea, and then follows a long stretch 
of low sandy coast with more rocky points until the town of 
Howaiyeh is reached, five miles inland, and situated on a wide 
plain, the inhabitants of which were chiefly employed in agri- 
culture. Here the surveying-ship the ' Palinurus ' secured some 
fine bullocks, good water, and excellent fish. Inland from Jebel 
Makanati, four miles north-east of Haura, is the entrance lo 
the AVadi Meifah, one of the great valleys of the coast, in a 
prolongation of which lies the remarkable ruin, JS'akab el 
Hajar, visited by Lieut. Welisted ^ and Mr. Cruttenden in 
April 1835. 

Landing from the ship, they crossed a belt uf low barren sand- 
hills and passed the two villages Ain Abu' Ma'bad and Ain Jowari. 
Continuing their way across a waste of low sandy hilloi ks rising 
in sharp ridges, followed by a sandy expanse covered with 
stunted tamarisks which afforded a slight shade from the 
scorching sun, they reached a tableland about 200 feet above the 
surrotmding plain, intersected by numerous ravines, the beds of 

> Journ. Roy. Geogr. Soc. vii. 1837, pp. '20-34 ; ' Travels in Arabia,' 1838 ; 
Haines, Juuru. Roy. Geogr. Soc. ix. 183'.>, p. 143. 

b 1 



former torrents. The surface of the flat-topped hills was strewn 
with fragments of quartz and jasper. Leaving this barren 
plateau, they met with stunted acacias which increased in number 
as the travellers advanced; and then they came upon good water 
surrounded by trees, among wliich were numerous tamarisks and 
Cissiis orhorea, Forskal. The ground they next passed over 
aff'orded ample evidence of its having been quite recently the 
bed of a powerful stream. JS^umerous hamlets were seen among 
extensive groves of date-palms and verdant fields of dura, and 
there were many herds of sleek cattle. On this, the second 
day of their journey, they travelled on till midnight, and, on the 
following morning, were astonished to find themselves surrounded 
by luxuriant fields of dura and tobacco, extending as far as the 
eye could reach, mingled Avith the foliage of the acacia and the 
stately date-palm. The creaking of nuii;erous wheels for the 
irrigation of the fields, several rude ploughs drawn by oxen, 
the ruddy countenances and lively appearance of the people, 
and the delightful refreshing coolness of the morning air, com- 
bined to form a scene which, Wellsted says, could never have 
been anticipated from the barren aspect of the coast where they 
had landed. 

It was at this part of the coast (Bir Ali ^) that Captnin Miles 
and M. Munzinger entered the country in 1870. The town of 
Habban which they visited lies a considerable distance inland, 
situated in a gorge girt round, on every side, with higli, almost 
inaccessible cliffs. It presents a striking appearance, as the 
houses are lofty, detached, castle-Hke structures. Around the 
town, wheat, jowari, barley, and other crops are cultivated, and 
four crops are raised annually, viz., one rain-crop, and three by 
irrigation. 

Near to Bir Ali is Hisn Ghorab, a dreary-looking, brown hill, 
464 feet high, in the neighbourhood of which the first Himyaritic 
inscription was found by Lieut. Wellsted and Dr. Hult^n on 
6th May, 18-34. Close to this spot, a remarkable, flat-topped 
sandstone hill, called Sha'ran, rises from the plain to a height of 
300 feet. Its summit is a crater-shaped cavity, 2500 yards ia 
diameter, filled with salt water, and presenting the remarkable 
feature that the edge of the water is fringed by an overhanging 

1 Anthracite coal exists at Bir Ali, and specimens used to be taken to Aden 
ns coal. Bitumen is found in abundance, and there are signs of copper. 



bank of mangrove trees. This elevated crater-lake is called Kharif 
Sha'ran, and the view from it is described as both romantic and 
beautiful. Below tlie spectator are the dark waters of the 
crater with its fringe of trees, while, on one side, are rocky 
heiglits frowning over fertile valleys, and, on the other, the blue 
sea, with an island or two in the distance '. At the town of 
Kharijah, still further to the east, the country in places is again 
fertile, abounding in grass and date-palms, with excellent pasture- 
lands affording food to numerous herds of cattle ; but, with the 
exception of these occasional oases, the coast-line is essentially 
barren. 

Beyond Eas Eehmat the laud is bold, with a succession of 
rocky points ; but, a little to the east, the town of Al Gha'idhar 
is embosomed in luxuriant groves of date-palma. Purther on is 
the headland of Eas Barura, with its valley of the same name, 
with palm trees, whilst the inland valleys here produce large 
quantities of dura. The mountains that define them rise to an 
altitude varying from 5000 to 6000 feet ; and their summits are 
said to be occasionally covered with snow in the cold season. 
Capt. Haines has stated, from personal observation, that heavy 
and continuous rains fall in November and December, July and 
August, and even in April and May ; and he records that he has 
seen rain for three consecutive days. 

From Barum to Makallah, the coast is low, barren and sandy, 
forming a slight bay with great mountains in the background, 
chiefly composed of limestone, but with interbedded sandstones 
and masses of granite and basalt. 

At Ea^ Makallah the hills come down to the sea, and above 
the town they rise to about 300 feet as a reddish cliff, while above 
this towers the flat-topped summit of Jebel Grara. A few miles 
further on is the village of Bu He'ish, surrounded by date-trees, 
in a well-watered valley about 1| mile from the shore. Anotlier 
fertile district lies around the town Suku-l-Basir (the Grliai'l ba 
AVazir of Hirsch), a few miles north-west of Shehr on the coast. 
Sixty years ago, Capt. Haines found at the latter place much 
tobacco, plenty of vegetables, good dates, and pure water. 
Although other small oases are present, the coast-line from 
Makallah to the cliflfs of Hami, thirteen miles beyond Shehr, is 

1 I have consulted Capt. Ilaines's original MS. preserved in the India Office. 
It is illustrated by some sketches ; and among them there is a pen-and-ink 
drawing of this lake taken from the margin of the crater. 



an almost unbroken line of low barren sand, but the village of 
Hcanii itself is situated in a picturesque ravine, with a grove of 
date-palms, and cultivated land near the beach. Capt. Haines 
and Lieut. Wellsted were the first to describe the hot springs 
ill tl)is p:irt of the Arabian coast, to the presence of which the 
oases are largely attributable, combined with the drainage from 
the mountains that finds its way down the ravines on to the 
Scihil, or maritime plain. Capt. Haines ascertained that some of 
the springs had a temperature of 140° Fahr. Mr. Carter says 
they occur in such profusion between Makallah and Sihut, at the 
entrance of the Wadi Masilah, as to constitute one of the striking 
features of this part of the coast-line. The same traveller was 
also the first to call attention to another remarkable appearance 
presented by this plain, namely, the presence of extensive out- 
flows of basaltic rock, associated Avith volcanic cones rising to 
about 100 feet above the level of the ground. The basalt, from 
its blackness, is in strong contrast to the rest of the sandy Saldl, 
as a whole ; and is so unmistakably volcanic, that but for its 
being unattended by any active signs of eruption, it might be 
mistaken for a recent lava outflow. These two features of the 
Makallah-Siluit Saliil could not fail to attract the attention of 
every traveller. They have recently been redescribed by Mr. Bent 
in his account of his visit to the Hadramut. 

At Misenat, opposite to the opening of the "Wadi Sheikhawi, 
the land is swampy and mangrove trees are numerous. The 
ofiBcers of the 'Palinurus ' found, a little to theeast of this valley, 
a number of Himyaritic cliaracters in red paint, similar to those 
discovered at Hisn Ghorab. 

Immediately to the east of Sihiit is the great opening of the 
"VYadi Masilah, leading to the Hadramut, and the grandest of all 
the valleys that run inland and seem to divide the mountains of 
South Arabia into separate tracts. A few miles to the east of 
this valley rises the remarkable headland of Eas Sharwcn, capped 
by two natural pillars seen at a di.-tance of GO or 70 miles ; and 
fuither on lies the village of Hishn i, described by Capt. Haines, 
and recently by Mr. Bent. Fifty miles further to the east rises 
the headland Eas Fartak, and, next to Eds Seger, the boldest cape 
on this coast, and marking the boundary between the Mahrah and 

1 Kiclmlir (' Dcscr. de rArabic,' 1774, p. 248, tab. xvii.) lias given a plan of 
this port which he received i'rom an Enghshuian lie met in Bombay. 



Gara tribes, which were described by Carter about fifty j-ears ago \ 
This great j)romoutorj sweeps round to tlie east in one of the 
grandi'st escarpments on the coast. It is six miles in length, 
and, although quite perpendicular, is deeply worn into shelves 
nnder the shelter of which the people live ; and as night comes 
on, the lights of these rock-dwelliiigs are seen flickering on the 
face of tlie precijiice. Mr. Carter observed the people moving 
about in the most perilous positions, and adds that in all 
probability the great size of tiie cliff rendered it difficult to form 
a just estimate of the width of the shelves; but the Mahrah 
pilot of the ' Palinurus ' assured him that it was no uncommon 
occurrence for them to fall over and be drowned. This head- 
land defines the western limit of the bay of El Kamar, inland 
from which runs another great level expanse, wholly barren with 
the exception of a few desert herbs. It is the beginning of 
another enormous valley, along which trade is said to be carried 
on with the Iladramut. The eastern side of the expanse termi- 
nates at Eas Tharbat Ali, 200 feet high, the seaward end of the 
Fattak ridge of mountains, immediately to the east of which lies 
another valley with the village of Damkot at its entrance, on a 
narrow sandy shore where a few miserable date-palms struggle 
for existence. This village is closed in, except towards the sea, 
by inaccessible mountains 3000 feet in height, perfectly barren, 
save on their summits which are more or less covered with grass 
and dotted over with small trees. The coast preserves this cha- 
racter as far as Eds Soger, a distance of about forty miles ; but 
here and there a few narrow ravines lead down from the mountains. 
Carter visited one of these gorges, and found its sides wooded 
with acacias, balsams, and euphorbias. 

Eas Seger is a gigantic headland, 3380 feet higli, the sides of 
which, where not perpendicular, are covered vvitli trees, and tlie 
plateau above with long grass, while numerous caves occur in 
the precipices. Beyond this headland is Eas el Ahmar, or the 
Eed Cape, defining the western limit of the fertile maritime 
plain of Dhofar which is shut in behind by lofty mountains. It 
is the most favoured spot on the coast of South-East Arabia, and 
is the land of the famous frankincense tree. 

^ " Notes on the Mabrah tribe of Soutliern Arabia, witb a vocabulary of 
tbeir Language, to which are appended additional observations on the Gara 
tribe." Journ. Bombay Branch Eoy. As. Soc. ii. 1848, pp. 339-304. "Notes 
on the Gara tribe," id. op. cit. pp. 195-201, and plate. 



8 

This plain of Dhofar was explored by Mr. C. J. Cnittenden 
ill 1834. It has been described by him\ also by Capt. Haines^, 
and by Mr. Carter. Mr. Cruttenden travelled over it on foot ac- 
companied by two men of the Gara tribe. He describes its rich 
vegetation and that of the hills, and mentions the lime, tama- 
rind, henua, nebbuck, tamarisk, dom {Zizyphus spina-cTiristi), the 
subhan or frankincense tree, the abundance of aloes, and the 
figs and grapes of the higher region. The running streams, the 
large sheets of water on the plain, the flocks of sheep and goats, 
the ruins of El Balad, and the remarkable ravine of Darbat behind 
Takal), are all enumerated ; but unfortunately, like all the tra- 
vellers that have followed him, he gives no iuformation about the 
wild animals of the country beyond stating that the only beast of 
prey on the plain of Dhofar is the hyaena, and that antelopes are 
numerous. Haines describes the plain as covered with large 
tracts of maize and millet, and tlie trees so abundant as to afford 
ample shade from the scorching rays of the sun ; the whole being 
richly watered by streams from the mountains. The plain is 
50 miles in length and 6 to 12 miles in breadth. The mountains 
approach it in sudden descents ; and some of their ravines open 
on to it in abrupt precipices over which streams fall into the 
gorges below. One of the mo^t striking of these ravines is that 
of Darbat, described fully by Carter^ many years ago. He 
followed the Ivhor Eeri, and, entering the bottom of that ravine, 
found it suddenly closed by a precipice 250 feet in height, and, 
scaling it, arrived at a grassy plateau shut in on every side by 
the mountains, except towards the sea, where it terminated in the 
precipice just mentioned. This sequestered hollow was occupied 
by a small lake and stream, which were diverted for the irriga- 
tion of crops of indigo, corn, and onions. The lake, on which 
water-fowl floated, was fringed in many places with tall bul- 
rushes and spreading trees; and among them and on the slopes 
were pomegranate bushes and fig trees. Tlie precipitous sur- 

' Proc. Bombay Geogr. Soc. 1837-38, pp. 70-74 ; Trans. Bombaj Geogr. 
Soc. i. 1844, pp. 184-188. 

^ Journ. Roy. Geogr. Soc. sv. 1845, pp. 1 10-122. 

* Journ. Roy. Geogr. Soc. xvi. 184(5, pp. 169-186; Journ. Bombay Branch 
Roy. As. Soc. iii. 1849-51, pp. 252-264. For a geological account of Dhofar, 
see a memoir on the Geology of the South-East Coast of Arabia, Journ. 
Bombay Branch Roy. As. Soc. iv. Jan. 1852, pp. 32-44. 



9 

rounding3 of this plateau were here and there perforated by 
deep caverns inhabited by Graras; and in one of them Carter 
spent the greater part of a day with the Sheikh who lived in it. 
Like those at Has Fartak, these caverns were visible at night by 
their li^jhta, to those on board the ' Palinurus.' Mr. Carter has 
not only given a full description of the physical characters of the 
plain and its mountains, but he has also described the inhabitants, 
the frankincense tree, and the ruins of El Balad ^ 

The mountains lying behind the plain of Dhofar were all desig- 
nated by Capt. Haines as the Subhan range, and in 1831 or 1835 
Mr. J. Smith, purser of the ' Palinurus,' traversed these mountains 
in perfect safety, and, under the name of 'Ahmed,' became a great 
favourite with the inhabitants. He was everywhere hospitably 
received, and they would not allow him to drink water of the 
clear mountain-streams that were meandering in every direction : 
" No," they said, " do not return, Ahmed, and say that we gave 
you water, while our children drank nothing but milk." In every 
instance they gave him the warmest place by the fire, invariably 
appointed some one to attend to his wants, and even extended 
their hospitality so far as to otfer him a wife and some sheep, 
if he would only stay and reside among them. On Mr. Smith 
expressing a wish to see some of the numerous wild animals, 
the footprints of which were everywhere visible, on what he de- 
scribes as tiie park-like mountains, they immediately despatched 
a party, who returned with a splendid specimen of an ibex, a 
civet cat, and a fine ounce ^. Mr. Smith himself saw plenty 
smaller game, such as antelopes, hares, foxes, guinea-fowl, and 
partridges. The plants obtained in his wanderings were the 
same, it is said, as those found on the more elevated parts 
of Socotra. Dragon's-blood, frankincense, and aloes were in 
abundance. 

Mr. Bent^ has quite recently ascended the hills behind Dhofar, 
at two places, accompanied by Mrs. Bent. He characterizes the 
view from the summit of the range as very curious. On the 

• " The Euins of El Ealad," Journ. Eoy. Geogr. Soc. xvi. 184G, pp. 187-199. 

^ Capt. Haines says the horns of the ibex had a curve of 3 ft. : a large bead, 
doubtless of the same species, Capra mihiaiia, F. Cuv., in my possession, killed in 
the desert to the east of Heluan, near Cairo, measures 37| in. along the curve 
anteriorly. By the ounce, probably a leopard was meant. 

^ Geogr. Journ. Ti. 1895, pp. 109-133. 



10 

side townrds tlie sea the mountains are cut up by several deep 
gorges full of vegetation, and all tlie hills arouud, up to their 
summits, are covered with grass and clusters of trees, with here 
and there isolated groups of fig trees, their thick foliage being 
full of birds. He describes the aspect of the country in similar 
terms to Mr. Smith, designating it park-like, and mentions the 
presence of numerous herds of camels, goats, and oxen grazing 
over its pasture. He found the Garas living in caves on the 
hillsides. From the summit of the range, Mr. Bent saw the 
mountains sloping down towards the north and gradually 
becoming more and more arid until they merged in the yellow 
desert, whicli stretched as far as the eye could see, ending in the 
horizon in a straight blue line, as if it were a sea. 

Eas Max'bat, wbich forms the eastern limit of the plain of 
Dhofar, lias at its base a granite plain four miles square and 
about 30 feet above the sea-level, with a group of low granite 
hills immediately below the headland itself, wiiicb consists of 
sandstone and limestone in the form of a precipitous tableland, 
3400 ft. high, ascended by Carter, who has described its physical 
characters and geology. 

Between the headlands Eas Marbat and Eas Nus there is a 
plain of dark igneous rock backed by an enormous cliff 3000 to 
4000 ft. high, the seaward scarp of the tableland of the Subhan 
range of mountains. It descends in one step to the plain ; but, 
when the granite headland of Eas Nus, 1200 ft. high, is rounded, 
the raniie is continued more or less to the north as a serrated 
ridge of at least four great peaks known as the Jebel Habareed, 
one of the most remarkable mountain-masses of tliis coast. 
Beyond this, to the east, the laud suddenly sinks from 4000 ft. 
to 800 ft. in elevation, marking the termination, in this direction, 
of the wooded mountains, and of the fertile and populous region 
to the west, rich in flocks of goats, sheep, and camels, and in 
frankincense trees. 

Eas Shirbetat, about 800 feet high, closes in the eastern side 
of the Bay of Khurya Murya. Here the coast is extremely 
desolate and almost devoid of vegetation, with the exception 
of a few date-palms, and brushwood in the ravines and dry 
watercourses giving cover to antelopes and hares. The largest 
ravine in the tableland of this bay is known as "Wadi Eekot. 
It is also said to lead into the Hadramut, and, as far as it 
was examined by the officers of the ' Palinurus,' it appeared to be 



11 

tliickly wooded and well watered. The imge masses of rock 
iu its dry watercourse fully attested to the strength of the 
current precipitated down it after heavy rain. A spring and 
a lake occur at its mouth, and on the latter widgeon and other 
wild ducks were shot by the ofBcers of the Survey. The country 
of Jezzar, 120 miles inland, was described by the Arabs as 
abounding iu the necessaries of life, and as yielding rich pasture 
for their flocks. 

There are a number of islands, in the Bay of Khurya 
Murya, which were ceded to Great Britain by the Imatim of 
Maskat. One of them, known as Jebeliyah, has been described 
by Dr. Ilulton^ as perfectly barren, but the resort of sea-birds, 
and particularly of a gannet which, when he and his companions 
first landed, seemed inclined to dispute the ground with them. 
Lieut. Whish '"', writing about twenty years later, also calls the 
bird a gannet and states that it was extremely numerous and 
very noisy. It lays two eggs of a light blue tint upon the bare 
ground, merely clearing away the larger stones and collecting 
together a quantity of small gravel. The obstinacy with which 
the gannets defended their nests made them an easy prey. In 
consequence of their presence, the island was covered with large 
deposits of guano, which were estimated, in 1858, at 200,000 tons^ 
"Wild cats were said to be seen sometimes ou the rocks, and rats 
existed in great hordes, supposed to have been introduced by the 
wreck of some native vessel, as they were exactly like the 
common rat. Harmless snakes, described as whip-snakes, 
scorpions and centipeds were common ■*. 

From Eas Therrar, in Khurya Murya Bay, to Eas Jezirah, 
170 miles to the east, the land subsides from 800 to 480 ft., 
but retains, generally, the appearance of a tableland, broken up 
however at Eas Shuamiyah by outbursts of igneous rocks. The 
whole of this part of the coast-line, with the exception of the 
sandy bay immediately to the west of Cape Jezirah, consists of 
a light-brown, barren, arid cliff of limestone rock, without a tree 
or even a mound to vary its outline ; but, opposite to the small 

1 Journ. Roy. Geogr. Soc. xi. 1841, pp. 156-164 and map. 
^ Trans. Bombay Geogr. Soc. xv. 1860, pp. xxxvii to xl, with two plates. 
3 Buist (G.), Proc. Roy. Geogr. Soc. iv. 1859-60, pp. 50-57. In 1858 this 
island was leased by Government, for its guano, to a Liverpool firm of merchants. 
■' Buist (G.), loc. cit. 



12 

island, Hammar el Nafur, the coast presents a range of small 
dark peaks rising gradually from the beach, probably the tops 
of low igneous rocks. This ibland, 320 ft. liigb, is covered by a 
multitude of shags. 

From Eas Jezirah to the Bay Ghobat Hashish, opposite the 
western end of tho island of Masira, a distance of about 
100 jiiiles, the land gradually sinks to the level of the sea. 

From Eas Abu Ashrin to Eas el Had, tho most eastern head- 
land of Arabia, the laud rises somewhat, but is seldom more 
than 100 ft. above sea-level. Along this extensive tract, which 
is known to the Arabs as El Baetan, all mountains to the 
west are lost sight of, but, in places, it rises into rounded, white 
sand-hills, 200 ft. in height, among which may be observed dark 
isolated peaks of similar elevation, whilst, in other parts, it is 
simply a plain covered with salt efflorescence. This low desolate 
tract is the eastward prolongation of the great sand desert of 
Central Arabia. 

The low land between Ghobat Hashish and Eas Abu Ashrin 
is destitute of vegetation beyond some scattered tamarisks, 
salsola bushes, and a few tufts of grass, but is sufficiently green, 
to the eye of an Arab, to entitle it to the name it bears. 

As the island of Masira lying off this bay is the only locality 
on the south-eabt coast of Arabia, besides Makallah, that has 
ajjpeared in zoological literature, a i'ew facts connected with it 
may be of interest. It is situated about 100 miles to the west 
of Eas el Had, and is 38^ miles in length and about 9 miles in 
breadth, at its widest part. A range of mountains GOO ft. high 
traverses it longitudinally and sends out spurs to the principal 
capes, while shorter ridges branch out all over the island, more or 
less rocky and irregularly pointed. With the exception of a few 
dwarf babul and tamarisk trees, and matted grass in level places, 
and a trace of small herbs in the mountains, it is essentially 
barren ; but in the centre of the island there are a few date-palms, 
as it is partially peopled. The miserable inhabitants own some 
sheep and goats, and the usual domestic animals, the dog and cat. 
The only wild animals known to Carter were a gazelle, and a 
rabbit, half the size of the wild rabbit of Europe. Eeptiles also 
were present, but only one species is known, namely, the little 
rock-gecko described by Dr. J. E. Gray as Spatalura carteri = 
Fristui'us carteri. Between the island and the mainland there 
is a channel about ten miles wide, very shallow, and with several 



13 

islets lying iu it. On the banks, around one of tlicse islets sur- 
rounded with ninngroves, myriads o£ wading birds such as 
flamingoes, curlews, plovers, &.C., congregate to feed at low 
water. The island is strewn with the bones of turtle, as the 
inhabitants largely use that animal as food. 

Two remarkable mountains called Jebcl SafFiiu lie within a 
mile and a half of the shore at Eas el Had, with some hillocks 
around them. They are the only mountains at the extreme 
eastern point of Arabia, which is otherwise flat. There are two 
Mores leading into basins of considerable size, the soutlicrn and 
eastern shores of the larger being low and swampy, and over- 
grown with mangroves. 

This completes a rapid sketch of the coast of Southern Arabia 
from Aden to Bas el Had, but after the latter point is rounded 
the following are the broad features of the coast-line northwards. 
To the west a range of mountains rises from the plain in two 
spurs, one 2700 ft. high and close to the coast, and the other the 
Jebel Jallan, about 20 miles inland, and 3800 ft. in height. As 
they run north they shortly unite and continue parallel to the 
coast, with an elevation of about 4000 ft., and are precipitous 
towards the sea, from which they are distant nearly eight miles. 
About 70 miles north of this, the range is suddenly interrupted by 
a narrow gorge known as the Devil's Grap, which is the opening 
of a great valley called Makallah Obar, that runs uj) to the moun- 
tains of Oman. The range on the north of the gap rises suddenly 
to 6228 feet above the sea, and trends to the north-west, with a 
maritime plain between it and the shore ; but within fourteen 
miles of Maskat the shore-land becomes a confused mass of hills 
and ridges with escarped precipices. To the west of Maskat the 
main range is 40 miles inland, and 6000 ft. high. It is prolonged, 
under the name of Jebel Akhdar, to Cape Masseudam, at the 
southern entrance to the Persian Grulf. 

Maskat has become well known as a locality for reptiles, 
through the energetic labours of Dr. Jayakar. It is rich in 
reptilian life, but probably not more so than the area between 
Makallah and the Hadramut. 

The diversity of the physical characters of South-East Arabia, — 
as seen in its generally barren maritime plain, varied occasion- 
ally, however, by the presence of tamarisks, acacias, and palms ; 
its cultivated and watered valleys running to the south from the 
sterile mountain plateau, with nooks of sparse vegetation at 



14 

their heads ; its deep and great canons trending to tlie north, 
covered here and there with groves of palms and zizyphus, and 
riclily cultivated fields ; its nearly sand-choked valleys from the 
great desert ; the fertile plain of Dhofar with its streams and 
lakes, its wooded uplands, and its grassy and park-like higher 
slopes, — offers conditions favourable to reptilian life, of which we 
now gain some ins^ight, thanks to Mr. Bent's Expedition into the 
Hadramut. 

"Wellsted, who resided some weeks at Makallah, in 1834, says 
that the term Hadramut is a corruption by Europeans of an 
Arabic word meaning sudden death, and describes the region as 
" an extensive valley about GO miles in length running nearly 
parallel to the coast." Mr. Bent, the most recent traveller in 
this part of Arabia, defines the Hadramut in almost similar 
terms, saying it is " a broad valley running for 100 miles or more 
parallel to the coast," and that " in the language of the Himyars 
it meant the enclosure or valley of death." 

The Himyaritic inscriptions discovered by the ofiicers of the 
'Palinurus' at Hisn GhorabandNakab el Hajar drew the attention 
of philologists to this part of Arabia, and led Baron Adolph 
"Wrede to make his eventful journey, of 1843, in search of further 
material for the elucidation of the linguistic and historical 
problems that had been raised by the decipherment of these 
inscriptions. Similar reasons also induced Herr Leo Hirsch to 
enter the Hadramut, in July 1893, and Mr. and Mrs. Bent, in 
the latter part of the same year. 

In the descriptions of the wanderings of Wrede and Hirsch 
we look in vain for any information bearing on the fauna of the 
region they visited, which is also unfortunately true of the 
writings of the ofiicers of the ' Palinurus' with the exception of 
the mention, at rare intervals, and in the most general terms, of 
antelopes, hyenas, hares, cats, and rats, and, in equally vague 
terms, of some birds. 

Mr. and Mrs. Bent, however, started accompanied by a qualified 
botanical collector, Mr. Lunt, from the Kew Gardens ; and by 
an Arab zoological collector provided by myself, and to whom I 
had given full instructions regarding the importance of keeping 
an accurate record of the locality in which each specimen was 
collected ; but unfortunately he failed to attend to this, and I am 
therefore not in a position, except in one or two cases, to say 
more than that the specimens w^re collected between Makalhih 



15 

and the Iladrainut Valley, aud between that and the coast as far 
east as Shehr. 

The accounts given by Wrede, Hirsch, a;id Mr. Bent of the 
features of this portion of Arabia may be summarized in a few 
words, after the general description I have given of the coast- 
line derived from the labours of the Officers of the Indian Navy, 
now, T am sorry to say, almost forgotten. 

The maritime plain or Sahil is narrow at Makalhih, and the 
mountains rise abruptly from it, traversed on their seaward 
aspect by short aud steep ravines and valleys. 

Hirscli has given a graphic description of the route generally 
followed by caravans passing from Makallah to the Hadramut, 
and over which he travelled. Mr. Bent followed practically tlie 
same route ; and Wrede, in 1844, ascended from Makallah to the 
plateau, by the same line of country, to reach Khoreba, on the 
west side of the Wadi Doau, which lie made his headquarters. 

This route lies along the shore for a short distance and 
crosses a depression into which the sea at times penetrates and 
into which a number of small wddis open. Further on, it passes 
the village of Bagrin, situated on the borders of a fertile loddi, 
the sides of which are clothed with an exuberant growth of plants, 
richly watered by streams that trickle down the mountain-sides, 
and are carefully diverted for irrigation purjDoses. The AYadi 
Sided is afterwards followed, opening and contracting at places, 
but hemmed in on every side by high and dark mountains. A 
number of villages are passed in this part of the route, and as 
it progresses the road rises more and more, overtopped to the 
left by mountains, but it afterwards lies between high parallel 
ranges. Still further onwards the mountains of Ghail ba Wazir 
are passed on the right, with great precipices and rocky abysses, 
and, beyond this, the Wadi Howari is entered, a long valley 
running up to the west and north. It is defined on the hft by 
a high range of mountains rising to 2000 feet above it, and in 
places assuming the appearance of gigantic castles erected by 
man. Higher up, it becomes strewn with huge isolated masses 
of rock fallen from the mountains overshadowing it, and as it 
is further ascended the grandeur of the scene increases, the clifls 
on all sides rising perpendicularly aud the mountains projecting 
majestically. This mountainous district is known as the Ghail 
Halka, and on the right of the valley lies the vilhige of that name, 
surrounded by cultivation rising in terraces on the mountain-side 



16 

and watered by streams diverted into channels of irrigation. Still 
ascending amidst these magnificent surrounding.^, the traveller 
at last emerges on a vast plateau over 4000 feet High, great level 
tracts of which are destitute of even a blade of grass and thickly 
covered by small black stones, while tliroughout its extent it is 
studded over, more or less, with low isolated hillocks, forming a 
monotonous, dreary expanse, the horizon unbroken by a single 
mountain-top. In traversing this plateau, it is found to be cut 
into by numerous wddis running towards the north, and in their 
beginnings mimosa, frankincense, and myrrb shrubs are found, 
witb other scanty vegetation, and in these localities an occasional 
Bedouin woman may be met with tending her hardy but half- 
starved flock of goats. Thi'ee days are spent crossing this 
featureless, gloomy, untenanted desert towards the valley down 
wliich the route lies to the Hadramut. This plateau is essentially 
waterless, no stream or spring being present in any part of it, 
but as occasional storms burst over it, tanks exist along the 
route for the storage of the water; but, owing to the rapid 
evaporation in this dry climate, these reservoirs are usually found 
to be empty, except immediately after rain. "When the traveller 
reaches the margin of the plateau, where the route descends into 
the Wadi Doau, an astonishing and unlooked-for scene opens out 
before him, not distinctive of this valley alone, but common to 
nearly all the many long valleys that pursue a northerly course 
to the great Valley of the Hadramut, tbat is, to the Wadi Masilah. 
Standing in sucli a spot, the plateau is found to dip down perpen- 
dicularly for 1000 to 1500 feet into the valley below, and in some 
parts the cliffs stand out like a succession of gigantic castles ; 
but they generally terminate below in a slope of disintegration 
on which the towns and villages are built, the bottom of the 
valley being cultivated and covered with extensive groves of date- 
palms. Wrede describes a flowing stream in that part of the 
Wadi Doau where lie entered it, 20 feet broad, enclosed by high 
walled embankments and winding through fields laid out in 
terraces ; and Ilirsch, who descended into the valley at Sif, says 
that the channel of the river, when viewed from above, stretched 
like a white thread through the valley, and into it he saw flowing 
the Al Aisar from the south ; the soil carefully divided out and 
cultivated, with plantations of palms, and Zizyphus spina-cJiristi 
everywhere. 



17 

Mr. Bent observes that "the first peep down from the edge of 
the ])lateau into these very highly cultivated gullies is most re- 
markable, quite like looking down into a new world after the 
arid coast-line and barren plateau." Tlie water-courses in these 
valleys are generally dry, and if running water occurs in the upper 
parts of any of them it ultimately becomes lost in the sanda, but 
after heavy rain the water from the plateau is precipitated into 
the valleys and over the cliffs defining them. AVater is always 
to be found on the level flats of these valleys ; but Mr. Bent 
states, that in the Valley of the Hadramut proper, into which 
these valleys open, water for drinking purposes and for cultivation 
is only to be obtained by sinking wells. 

The great Valley of the Hadramut, in the neighbourhood of its 
capital, Shibam, opens out into a wide plain, valleys entering it 
from the west, north, and south, the main yalley being continued 
eastward to the sea where it opens at the town of Siluit, 
doubtless receiving many tributary valleys in its course: its 
seaward opening being one of the grandest on the coast. The 
level portions of the northern valleys of the p]ate:m, and of the 
Wadi Masilah itself, are more or less covered with sand, while 
those running down from the great sand desert of the interior 
are choked with it, and as they are traced to the north, Mr. Bent 
says, the sand increases and becomes shifty and loose in places, 
and the hills on either side diminish in height. Wrede has given 
a description of a most remarkable accumulation of loose sand 
on the margin of the desert near Sava. He reached it from 
Khoreba by the Wadi Amd and the town of Haura at the upper 
end of the Hadramut Valley, where he ascended the plateau for 
the second time, and then descended upon Sava in the Wadi 
Eakhiah. He says that the desert, a day's journey from Sava, 
" presents an astonishing sight, consisting as it does of an 
immense sandy plain that gives it the appearance of a moving 
sea. Not a trace of vegetation, be it ever so scanty, appears 
to animate the vast expanse — not a single bird to interrupt 
with its note the calm of death." This portion of the margin 
of the desert, according to AVrede, lies 1000 feet below the 
plateau. 

Hirsch, and Mr. Bent returned to the coast by the Wadi Adim, 
which Mr. Bent says differs from all the ether valleys of the 
Hadramut, running into the plateau from the nortli, in that 

c 



18 

it ascends the plateau gradually. It is watered by a inoimiain 
stream, is very fertile and full of palm groves. 

I take tliis opportunity to express my great indebtedness to 
Mr. Bent for having permitted my collector to accompany him 
on his Expedition.^ 



^ The following is a list of the published descriptions of the Invertebrates 
collected on the Expedition : — 

1. " On the Insects other than Ooleopteva obtained by Dr. Audcreon's 
Collector during Mr. T. Bent's Expedition to the Hadramaut, South 
Arabia." Bj W. F. Kirby, F.L.S., F.E.S.— Journ. Linn. Soc, Zool. 
Tol. XXV. 1895, pp. 279-285. 

2. " On the Coleoptera obtained &c." By C. J. Gahan, M.A.— Journ. Linn. 
Soc, Zool. Tol. xsT. 1895, pp. 285-29L 

3. " On the Araehnida and Myriopoda obtained &c. ; with a Supplement 
upon the Scorpions obtained by Dr. Anderson in Egypt and the Eastern 
Soudan." By E. I. Pocock. — Journ. Linn. Soc, Zool. vol. xxv. 1895, 
pp. 292-316, pi. ix. 



PART 11. 



REPTILIA AND BATRACHIA 

COLLECTED ON ME. J. T. BENT'S EXPEDITION 

TO THE 

HADRAMUT. 



REPTILIA. 

LAOEETILIA. 
GrECKONID^. 

Stenodacttlus (Cekamodactylus) pulchee, u. sp. 

1 specimen. 

Body somewhat slender; head rather elongately oval ; snout 
pointed ; eye large ; ear an oval slit, dii'ected obliquely. Nostril 
slightly tumid, formed by the rostral, first labial, and three nasals. 
Eleven upper and ten lower labials ; meijtal large, rounded 
posteriorly, and projected backwards beyond the first lower 
labials. Limbs moderately long and slender; fingers not long, 
rather broad; toes moderately long, not narrow. The fore limb 
when laid forwards reaches the snout, and, when stretched back- 
wards, falls short of the groin ; the hind limb reaches somewhat 
beyond the axilla. Under surface of digits covered with very 
minute scales, feebly imbricate, and obscurely dentate anteriorly, 
and arranged in oblique rows of 8 scales to a row ; a few well- 
defined transverse lamellae towards the tips of the digits, where 
the scales are less numerous ; uj? per surface of the digits covered 
witb seven rows of smooth, feebly imbricate scales, the outer row 
modified on the fingers so as to form a feeble fringed edge, much, 
more marked on the toes, especially on thcii* out sides. Tail 
cylindrical, not thick, gradually tapered to a not very fine point, 
shorter than the body and head. Body covered with minute, 
rounded, slightly convex, juxtaposed scales, very obscurely 
granular, larger on the sides than on the middle of the back, 

c2 



20 

S7nnllest on the occiput, tlie scales on the snout about the size 
of those on the sides, or a little larger, and more markedly 
granular than any o£ the other scales. Scales on the limbs 
slightly larger tlian those on the body ; scales on the taij arranged 
in rings, larger than the body-scales, smooth, or minutely keeled; 
scales on the under surface of the head minute, rounded granules ; 
those on the under surface of the trunk about the size of the 
dorsal scales, somewhat oval, juxtaposed, and more or less gra- 
nular. No prgeanal pores in the females. 

General colour pale fawn, rather reticulately spotted with dark 
brown on the head, and with three interrupted, broken, narrow, 
brown lines on the back, and a narrow, rather feeble pale brown 
line from beliind the eye along the sides ; the upper labials with 
brown centres, and with the scales on the snout minutely speckled 
with brown ; a few dark spots on the thighs, and the upper surface 
of the tail barred with the same dark colour, a round white 
spot, as in Stenodaciylus elegans, Fitz., alternating with the bars. 
Under surface pure ^hite. 

Measurements. 

Snout to vent 30'5 millim.^ 

Tail 26 

Length of head 10 

Width of head 9 

This species differs from S. (C.) dorice, Blanf , in its more 
depressed body, more numerous scales on the under surface of 
the digits, more tumid nostril, more elongate head, and more 
pointed snout. 

Altliough Ceramodactylus doriae^ Blanford, has five rows of 
small imbricate scales on the under surface of the third toe, these 
scales as they approach the tip tend to arrange themselves, and 
do arrange themselves, in the same way as in Stenodaciylus 
elegans, Fitzingcr, that is to say, the gradual passage of the 
central rows of scales into transverse lamelljB is distinct and 
present, so that the distal end of the digit of Ceramodactylus\vA% 
the structure distinctive of the entire digit of yS*. elegans, Pitz. 
In Ceramodaciylus ajpnis, Murray, the scales on the under surface 
of the digits are not so well marked off, into central lamellae and 
lateral scales, as they are in S. elegans, but in this intermediate 
character serve to connect C. dorice with the latter ; and as there 

' All iiicns\u'cmcn1s througlioul lliis jiapcr ;u-e in millinietrcs. 



5J 



21 

are no other characters sepavalint,' them gcneiicallv, thoro Joea 
not appear to be any reason why Ceramodactylus thonld retain 
more than subgeneric rank. 

Stenodactylus (CEEAMODACTrLUs) DORiJB, Blauford. 

Geramodactxjlus dories, Blanford, Ann. & Mag. N. II. (!■ sor.) 
xiii. 1874, p. 454; East. Persia, vol. ii. Zool. & Geol. (l^'^). 
p. 353, pi. xxiii. fig. 2 : Blgr. Cat. Liz. Brit. Mus. i. 1885, p. 13, 
pi. ii. fig. 4*. 

Two specimens agreeing with tlie types. 

BUNOPUS BLANFORDII, Straucli. 

'Bunopus blanfordii, Strauch, Mem. Acad. Imp. St. Petersb. 
(vii. ser.) xxxv. no. 2, 1887, p. 61, pi. figs. 13 & 14. 

8 d and 7 2 ■ 

This species has hitherto been recorded only from Egypt. Tw'o 
specimens were obtained by Eiber and described by Strauch, and 
are preserved in the Museum at St. Petersburg. I am indebted 
to Prof. Pleske, tlirough the kind assistance of Mr. Boulenger, 
for the opportunity I have had of comparing one of the types 
with these specimens from the Hadramut. There can be no 
doubt regarding the specific identity of the African and South- 
EasL Arabian specimens. 

This gecko is of considerable interest, as it is the only species 
that illustrates the passage of prseanal into femoral pores. A 
line of enlarged scales stretches across the praeaual region and is 
prolonged on to the thighs, in the position occupied by the femoral 
pores of other lizards. In the accompanying table, I have given 
the total number of pores. In the cases of the low numbers, the 
pores are essentially praeanal, but, in those in which the numbers 
are higher, the pores pass on to the thighs, and, in the very highest 
numbers, may be seen in interrupted series extending nearly to 
the knee. This interrupted character and their extension over 
varying lengths of the thighs are of considerable interest. 

Bunopiis tuherciilatus, Blanford, and B. hlanfordii, Strauch, 
have both six rows of scales round the middle of the third toe, 
viz., five rows of scales all of which may be referred to the dorsal 
series, although one is lateral in position, and a longitudinal 
median row of lamellae on its under surface. In the former 
species, the lamellaj are somewhat swollen and tubercular, whei'eas, 
in the latter, this character is but little marked, but the free 



22 



ci 






PQ 



1 

o 

1-1 


3 

a 

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f— 1 


















* 3 p 

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CI (H CJ c-i 


Ol 

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CJ CJ C4 CI l-H 


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Length of 

fore limb 

from head 

of humerus. 




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I— 1 CI >— 1 1— 1 


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23 

borders of the plates project and show evidences, under a liaud- 
lens, of tridentatiou and swelling. The scales of the side of tlie 
digit in uo way differ from the other dorsal scales, and conse- 
quently there is no true denticulation of the digits, but, of course, 
when seen in profile, the lateral scales project the one over the 
other. Bu7iopus has thus a simpler form of digit than Steno- 
dactijlus ; and as other dillerences manifest themselves in the 
form and scaly covering of the body, and in the shape of the tail, 
in both of which respects it resembles (7,y?«;20<?ac/'yZ«s rather than 
Stenodactijlus, it would seem to merit generic rank between these 
two genera, as held by Blauford and supported by Strauch. 

Pristurus rupestris, Blanford. 

Prisfurus rupestris, Blanford, Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist. (4) 
xiii. 1874, p. 454; East. Persia, vol. ii. Zool. & Geol. (187G), 
p. 850, pi. xxiii. figs. 1, 1 a ; Proc. Zool. Soc. Loud. 18S1, p. 4G5 : 
Murray, Vert. Zool. Sind, 18S4, p. 3G5, pi. fig. 1 ; Boulcnger, 
Cat. Liz. B. M. i. 1885, p. 53. 

4 d , 3 $ , and 2 juv. 

Head rather short and moderately high ; snout variable, more 
pointed in some (Socotran examples) than in others (Maskat, and 
Iladramut Expedition), exceeding the interval between the 
posterior border of the eye and hinder margin of the ear-opening, 
and equalling the posterior orbital interspace, or nearly so ; fore- 
head flat, not concave ; eye moderately large ; nostril defined by 
the rostral and two or three nasals, the uppermost the largest ; 
rostral large, cleft above, twice as broad as high ; seven or eight 
upper labials ; mental large, triangular, and broader than the 
rostral; five to six lower labials; no chin-shields, but a few 
scattered enlarged granules behind the mental and labials; ear 
situated below the level of the gape, small, oval in outline, and 
placed obliquely. Limbs long ; the fore limb reaches the end of 
the snout, and, when laid backwards, touches the groin, or falls 
short of it ; the hind limb reaches the ear. Tail laterally com- 
pressed, longer than the body and head, with a low dorsal crest 
of flat spines not extending on to the back, the mesial line of the 
under surface having no crest, but a line of enlarged projecting 
scales. In the female, the dorsal crest is very rudimentary. 
Body covered with minute granules, largest ou the upper surface 
of the snout, especially in Socotran specimens. Scales on the 
sides of the tail larger than the body-granules, and arranged 



21 

more or less in verticils ; scales on the cliin and throat minute, 
as small as the bod3'-granules ; those of the belly larger than the 
body-granules, but smaller than the scales on the upper surface 
of the snout. 

Colour olive-grey ; the back and sides with rufous spots, 
forming interrupted longitudinal lines, those on the back larger 
than those on the sides and with a white hinder margin \ A 
pale or light reddish band down the centre of the back. Some- 
times a dark band from the nostril to the eye, and prolonged 
along the temporal region. The sides generally black-spotted, 
and the throat more or less marked with transverse, somewhat 
wavy, black and white bars. 

This species is closely allied to P. Jlavipunctatus, Eiippell, but 
is distinguished from it by its generally longer hind limbs, and by 
the large and polygonal convex scales covering the snout. 

The lizards from Socotra which have been referred to this 
species have a much more pointed and considerably longer snout 
than the types, and from the pronounced character of this varia- 
tion, they would seem to be entitled to rank as a subspecies. 
The typical form of P. rupestris, Blanford, has hitherto been 
recorded only from Kharij Island, in the Persian Gulf, near 
Bushire, and from Maskat. 

The larger d measures as follows : — • 

Snout to vent 32 millim. 

Vent to tij) of tail 53 „ 

Length of head 9 „ 

Width of head 5"5 „ 

Length of hind limb 21 „ 

? Pristitrus collarts, Steindachner. 

SpataJiira collaris, Steindachner, Novara, Eept. 1867, p. 20. 

Pristurus collaris, Blgr. Cat. Liz. Brit. Mus. i. 1885, p. 55. 

39 specimens. 

Head short and high ; forehead flat, or convex antero-poste- 
riorly ; snout short, but longer than the distance between the 
eye and the ear, sharply pointed, beak-like ; nostril perforated 
in a single, prominent, rather swollen, crescentic shield, the 
horns of the crescent either meeting behind the opening, or 
separated by one or more head-granules ; occasionally, the nostril 

' Blanfortl's description of fresh specimens. 



25 

is defined by two nazals, an upper and a lower, separated from 
eacli otlier posteriorly by head-pjranules ; ear-openiii(^ very small, 
obscure, oblique in position, the lower border being anterior ; 
rostral broad, pointed, convex from before backwards, in the form 
of a beak, and with a well-defined groove in the mesial, dorsal 
line of its proximal lialf. Generally 7 upper and 7 lower labials, 
but there may be as many as 8, and as few as G. Limbs mode- 
rately long ; the hind limb when laid forwards reaches to the 
front border of the eye. Toes moderately long. The upper 
surface covered with minute, slightly convex granules, somewhat 
larger on the front of the head, but not markedly so, and smallest 
on the nape of the neck. The granules on the front of the fore 
limb and thigh are somewhat large and imbricate. The scales 
on the under surface of the body are larger than those on the 
back, and there are no erect spiny scales on the mediaii line of 
the belly. Tail laterally compressed, not tapering to a fine 
point, but either truncated with a rounded end, or abruptly 
pointed, and covered with subquadrangular, flattened scales, 
larger than those of the body, and arranged, more or less, in 
verticils, with a rather feeble, serrated ridge along the dorsal and 
ventral lines. 

General colour (in alcohol) pale greyish fawn, grey-brown, or 
even grey. Six or more quadrangular, transverse, brownish 
markings along the back from the nape to the sacral region, 
sometimes with pale posterior margins, and occasi(mally divided 
down the back by a pale mesial baud. Externally to these dark 
squares, there are from 6 to 7 parallel lines of red spots, either 
rounded, or linear, the upper lines beginning behind the eye and 
the lower ones in the axilla. The labials are generally more or 
less blurred with blackish, this colour also invading the sides of 
the head, with yellowish granules intermixed. A narrow, j)urplish- 
black collar from side to side across the neck. Upper surfaces 
of the limbs more or less barred with black. Middle of the 
throat, chest, belly, and under surfaces of the limbs whitish. 
The tail barred like the back. 

Measurements of an adult. 

Snout to vent 52 millim. 

Vent to tip of tail 48 „ 

Length of head 15 „ 

Length of hind limb 40 ,, 



26 

Dr. F. "Werucr, of Vienna, lias been so good as to compare two 
of the foregoing specimens with the types of Sjjatalura collaris, 
Steindachner, preserved in the Vienna Museum, and with which, 
lie informs me, they are perfectly identical. The specimens I sent 
to Dr. Werner had their tails entire and unrenewed, whereas the 
only one of the four types examined by him that possessed a tail 
liad it reproduced. A rough sketch of this tail, with which I 
have been favoured by Dr. AVeruer, represents a tail of the same 
type as that of Spatalura, Gray. It is unquestionably a repro- 
duced tail, crested above and below. Tlie tail, however, of this 
species, when renewed for the second time, becomes nearly 
cylindrical and the crests disappear. 

The types of S. collaris were described by Dr. Steindachner 
as having a dorsal crest on the body, but Dr. Werner, having 
informed me that my specimens, which have no trace of such a 
crest, are perfectly identical with the foregoing types, are we 
therefore to conclude that an error has crept into the description 
of the species ? 

The only particulars in which P. carteri. Gray, differs from 
P. collaris, Steindachner, are that it has a mesinl, ventral patcli 
of spiny scales, and that no collar is present. Dr. Steindachner 
did not know whence his specimens of P. collaris were obtained ; 
whereas the types of P. carteri were from the Island of Masira. 

Hemidacttlus tukcicus, Linn. 

Lacerta turcica, Linn. Syst. Nat. 12 ed., i. 17G6, p. 3G2. 

2 d, 4$, and 3 juv. 

These specimens are all very pale-coloured, with one exception 
in which the dark brown markings of the body and the brown 
bands on the tail are very pronounced. Doubtless, if the 
physical appearances of the localities in which these specimens 
were obtained had been recorded, the light-coloured individuals 
would have been found either to have come from the pale sahil or 
fi'om the nearly white limestone clifts, and the darker specimen 
from dark-coloui'ed rocks, as all geckoes are very adaptive in 
their colouring. 

Hemidacttlus flaviviridis, Eiippell ^ 

Hemidactylus jlaviviridis, Eiippell, Anderson, Proc. Zool. Soe. 
1895, p. 642. 

1 S •, Shelir on the sandy maritime plain to tlie east of Malcallah. 

' Tjpe cxaminecl. 



27 

Tliis species, which was first described by Riippell from a 
specimen obtained at Massowah, was shortly afterwards^ described 
by Uumeril and Bibron from Bengal as Il.coctcei. Klunzingcr, 
in 1878, again recorded it on the coast of the lied Sea at Koseir, 
and since then it has been observed at Aden and at Maskat, and 
has been found at Fao and Jask in Persia. 

Agamid^. 

Ag.uia siNiiTA, Heydeu. 

Afjama sinnita, Heyden, Eiipp. Atlas N. Afr. 1827, p. 10, 
pi. iii.; Dum. & Bibr. Erpet. Gcnl. iv. 1837, p. 509: A. 
Dumeril, Cat. Eept. Mus. Paris, 1851, p. 103; Boettger, 
Bericht. Senck. Nat. Ges. 1879-80, p. 195 ; Blgr. Cat. Liz. 
Brit. Mus. i. 1885, p. 339 ; Boettger, Kat. Eept. Mus. Senck. 
1893, p. 49. 

Agama arenaria, Heyden, Eiipp. Atlas N. Afr. 1827, p. 12. 

Fodorrhoa {Pseudotrapelus) sinaita, Pitz. Syst. Eept. 1813, 
p. 81. 

TrapeJus sinaitus, Gray, Cat. Liz. Brit. Mus. 1815, p. 259 ; 
Giinther, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond. 1864, p. 489 ; Tristram, West. 
Palest. 1884, p. 154, pi. xvi. fig. 3. 

Agama sinaitica, Riippell, Mus. Senck. iii. 1845, p. 302 ; 
Bedriaga, Bull. Soc. Imp. Nat. Moscou, 1879, no. 3, p. 37. 

Agama mutabiJis, Blgr. {non Merrem), Cat. Liz. Brit. Mus. i. 
1885, p. 338 ; Boettger {non Merrem), Kat. Eept. Mus. Senck. 
1893, p. 48. 

Agama sinaiticus, Hart, Fauna and Flora of Sinai &c., 
1891, p. 210. 

2 c?, 3$, and 1 juv. 

Isidore Geofiroy St. Hilaire, at p. 128, and again at p. 13G 
of the ' Description de I'Egypte,' refers to Merrem's Tent. Syst. 
Amph., and states that Merrem's Agama mntahilis was founded 
on the lizard represented in the former work on plate 5. figs. 3 
and 4, and that the term used by Merrem was a translation into 
Latin of the French name under which the lizard was figured. 
Merrem's work was published in 1820, so that plate 5 had 
appeared before, and Isidore Geoff roy's text after that year. 
The plate had been issued before 1817, as Cuvicr refers to it in 
the first edition of the ' Eegne Animal.' 

The tw(j figures of Merrem's A. mutahiUs arc characterized by 



28 

having the fourth (Hf;;it of each foot longer thau the third, so it 
cannot possibly fall under that division of the genus with the 
oci-ipital not enlarged, in which the third digit is longer than the 
fourth. On the other hand, the Agama sinaita, Ileyden, has the 
third digit on both fore and hind limbs longer than the fourth. 

It seems probable that plate 5. figs. 3 and 4, viz. Merrem's 
A. mutahilis, may be the lizard described by Reuss, from Upper 
Egypt, under the name of A. inennis, which, I believe, is the 
species Mr. Blanford ' bad in view as the one to which be also 
would restrict the use of Merrem's name onutahiJis. 

I have examined the types of A. sinaita, Heyden, and A. are- 
naria, Heyden, preserved in the Prankfort Museum. The type 
of the former is a male with no gular pouch, and with ?ix large 
prgeanal pores, i. e. wath the same number as occurs in the spe- 
cimens in the British Museum referred to A. arenaria. The 
dorsal scales are small and imbricate, but feebly so, of very uni- 
form size but very regularly decreasing in dimensions towards 
the sides, where they are very small, yet still feebly imbricate. 
They are quite smooth on the anterior part of the body, but the 
scales on the limbs and sacral region appear to have beeu keeled, 
but only feebly so. The features of tliis individual are the small 
size of the dorsal scales, the regularity of their arrangement, their 
little imbrication, and their generally hexagonal form. The 
scales on the ventral surface are almost as large as the central 
line of scales on the back, and are smooth, or feebly keeled, here 
and there. The scales ou the outsides of the limbs are con- 
siderably larger thau any of those on the body, are strongly 
imbricate, and markedly keeled. The limbs are long and slender, 
and the third digit of both limbs is the longest. The scales on 
the top of the head are large, juxtaposed, and smooth, aud there 
is a spine at the posterior margin of tlie ear. The nostril is 
placed slightly above the canthus rostralis, and looks upwards 
and backwards. The naked ear is larger than the eye-opening. 
The tail is laterally compressed, and the scales are strongly 
keeled. The coloration is completely faded. Habitat : Arabia 
Petrsea. 

A. arenaria, Heyden, is represented in the Frankfort Mnseum 
by the two types from Upper Egypt presented by Eiippell. 
They do not appear to me to differ from A. sinaita, except iu 

1 Eastern Persia, ii. Zool. k Geol. ISTCi, p. .TIG. 



29 

havintx their doi\<al t^cales a liltlo more 8tron<:lv keeled. lu both 
there are seven prfeanal pores. 

The females from the Hadramut have distinct pneanal pores, 
and also those from Suez and Heluan (see Table). 

The specimens of this species from Lower Egypt also illustrate 
its variations. I have met with it on tlie plain of Suez and in the 
desert (Watli Hoaf) at Heluan. The lizard from the former 
locality has its dorsal scales practically smooth, whereas those 
from the latter have distinctly keeled scales. The specimens 
in the British Museum referred to A. arenaria, Heyden, and 
also from Egypt, exactly resemble the lizard from the plain 
of Suez, whereas two specimens in the British Museum from 
Mount Sinai, aud referred to A. sinalta, Heyden, correspond to 
one of my Heluan lizards, a young individual. 

The adult female from Heluan (Wtidi Hoaf) has the mesial 
line of dorsal scales very slightly, if at all, enlarged, considering 
the fact that in all specimens belonging to one or other of 
these varieties the scales gradually diminish in size towards 
the sides. In this specimen, however, the scales are decidedly 
imbricate and distinctly keeled. On the other hand, in the spe- 
cimen from the plain of Suez the scales are only feebly imbricate, 
and carination is all but completely lost. The mesial dorsal 
scales hold almost the same proportions to the lateral scales as 
in the AVadi Hoaf female. In both of these specimens, and in 
the Hadramut examples as well, the ventrals do not vary in size; 
the slight ditlerence between them is confined to the varying 
development of the dorsal scales. As a rule, the Hadramut 
specimens have the mesial dorsal scales decidedly larger than the 
ventrals, and all have distinctly keeled scales, but, among some 
of them, the difference in size between dorsals, laterals, and 
ventrals graduates in the same way as in the Wadi Hoaf female. 
In view of these facts, and the exact similarity of these 
lizards in the other details of their external structure, the dif- 
ferences I have pointed out can only be regarded as illustrative 
of variation, but they present no stability to entitle them to 
varietal rank. It is only another example of the remarkable 
modifications to which the scales of many species of the genus 
Agama are subject, and which is perhaps most strongly pro- 
nounced in that strangely variable form A. inerviis, Eeuss, 
which in one of its phases could never be recognized under this 
specific term. 



30 



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31 

In the two males from the Hadramut, there are three bright 
orange or reddish-brown bands on the back — tlie first on the nape 
of the neck, the second behind the shoulders, and the third on 
the k)ins. These bands are interrupted on the mesial line, and 
the first and last are narrow, but the second expands on the 
sides. Eusty-coloured bars occur at intervals on the tail. The 
heads are yellowish, and bluish. 

From the list of Arabian reptiles appended to this j)apei-, it 
will be seen that the species occurs at Maskat, Aden, the llejaz, 
Akabali, and the Siuailic Peninsula. 

Agama flatimaculata, Eiippell. 

Trapelus flavimaculatus, Eiippell, Neue Wirbelth. 1835, Eept. 
p. 12, pi. vi. fig. 1. 

Agama agilis, Dum. & Bibr. in part, Erpct. Genl. t. iv. 1837, 
p. 496. 

Agama leucostigma, Blgr. {non Eeu?s), Cat. Lizards Brit. 
Mus. i. 1885, p. 34(3; Boettger (part), Kat. Eept. JSammlung 
Mus. Senck. 1893, p. 19. 

1 d and 1 2 . 

Agama adeamitana, n. sp. 

8 c^ and 2 juv. 

Mr. Blanford, a good many years ago, described an Agamoid 
lizard from Abyssinia which he designated A. a?inecfe2is,as he held 
that it served to connect Agavia and SteUio, its tail conforming 
to that of the latter, whereas in other respects it agreed best 
with the former. A lizard closely allied to it occurs in tlie 
country between Makallah and the Hadramut Valley, but it 
presents certain characters which at once enable it to be distin- 
guished from the Abyssinian species. 

Head triangular ; snout rather pointed. A prominent median 
ridge on the snout before the eyes in the adult male, less de- 
veloped in young specimens. Head-scales of moderate size, aud 
smooth. Nostril small, slightly below the canthus rostralis, 
directed outwards and backwards. Ear twice as large as the eye- 
opening. A prominent spiny eminence at the front border of 
the ear, and a few spiny scales above it; a spiny eminence at 
the lower border of the ear, and two at some distance behind its 
posterior border. A spine on the hinder aspect of the angle of 
the jaw, aud a line of spiny scales along its outer surface, con- 



32 

timious ^itli the lower labials. A strong group of spines on the 
post-temporal region. A short but strong, low, nuchal crest of 
about six spines, and a rosette of spines a little way external 
to its middle. Pifteen to seventeen upper and lower labials. 
Scales of the body small, imbricate, keeled, with sharp but 
short projecting points, the largest along the middle of the 
back, arranged more or less in transverse series ; 119 scales 
encircling the middle of the body, and 58 rows occurring 
between the origin of the limbs. The scales on the limbs very 
mucli larger and more strongly imbricate and keeled than those 
of the body ; the scales on the base of the tail nearly four times 
as hirge as the largest body-scales. The scales on the sides of 
the body are smaller than the ventrals, which generally have 
small sharp points, and are either feebly keeled or smooth. 
The scales on the tail are strongly keeled and terminate in 
short sharp points. On the base of the tail the scales are 
not arranged in segments, but, a short distance further back, 
the tail becomes segmented, eacb division containing about four 
annuli. The skin of the neck forms a loose longitudinal fold, 
(there is no true gular pouch), and is traversed transversely by 
a fold between the angles of the jaw, ending posteriorly in 
the true gular transverse fold. The upper surface and the 
sides of the neck are in loose folds. A fold aiises from the 
rosette of spines external to the middle of the nuchal crest, 
and passes outwards and backwards a short way and terminates 
in a prominent spiny eminence, from which a fold crosses 
the upper surface of the neck to the corresponding eminence 
on the opposite side : in its course across, there are three 
rosettes — one external to the mesial line, another to its fellow 
of the other side of the neck, and the third on the mesial line 
immediately behind the nuchal crest. Another small fuld arises 
at the prominent spiny eminence, and passes backwards to the 
front of the prsehumeral pit, and ends in a few small spines, at 
•which point it is joined by two small folds from the angle of 
the jaw. From the point of union of these folds, another passes 
upwards over the shoulder, along the side to near the sacral 
region, and in its course it is more or less beset with small spiny 
scales or rosettes. Immediately above the shoulder, a small 
spiny fold crosses up to the side of the neck. From behind the 
transverse nuchal fold, a series of small spines, set at intervals, 
extend aa far back as the shoulder. The limbs are well developed. 



33 

and the tibia is considerably longer tban the skull. The wrist in 
all reaches iu advance of the snout; but the tip of the fourth toe, 
in three, reaches the eye, whilst, in two, it is in advance of the eye. 
The digits are rather long, and laterally compressed. The fourth 
finger is only very slightly longer than the third, and tlie fourth 
toe than the third. The tail is somewhat slightly compressed 
beyond the base, but afterwards it is round and tapers to a fine 
point; it is about twice as long as the distance between the 
snout and the vent. Six to twelve pra^anal pores in the male, 
with callose scales on the abdomen. 

Olive, mottled with brownisli ; blue about the eyes and along 
the labial line ; the throat more or less reticulated with bluish 
lines. Underparts yellowish, but a few blue spots on the belly. 
A young male is olive, but the body has brownish markings, 
and bluish green on the head above, and bright blue below with 
dark blue lines ; belly greenish yellow, mottled with blue ; tail 
yellow at the base, olive distally, with about 18 brown bars. 
Another male is entirely blue above and brilliant blue below, the 
base of the tail yellow. 

The rosette of spines on the post-temporal region, the short, 
but well-defined nuchal crest, with a rosette of spines on either 
side of it, near its middle, are all absent iu A. annectens^ Blanf., 
in which the lateral fold along the side over the shoulders is 
also practically absent, but, if feebly present, it never presents 
the small spinose rosettes that occur in the Arabian form. The 
scales also of the body are smaller in the Abyssinian species, in 
which there are 150 on the type arouud the middle of the body, 
and only 119 in the Arabian species. 

A. adramitana is distinguished from A. cijanogaster, Eiippell, 
and from A. nupta, De Fil., by its much smaller scales. 

Phetnocephalus aeabicus, Anderson. 

Fhrynoceplmlus arahicus, Anderson, Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist, 
ser. 6, vol. xiv. Nov. 1891, p. 377. 
1 c? and 1 $ . 

Ueomastix (Apouoscelis) benti, Anderson. 

Aporoscelis benti, xluderson, Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist. ser. G, 
vol. xiv. Nov. 1891, p. 376. 

3 J and 3 $ , Bagrin, 3 miles from Makallah. 

As the absence of femoral pores is the only feature whoreiu 
Aporoscelis dillers from Uromastix, there does not appear to be 

d 



34 

any valid reason for its retention as a distinct genus. It may, 
however, be used to indicate the subdivision of Uromastix in 
which pores are absent, represented by the two species U. prin- 
ceps, O'Sh., and U. henti, Anders. Uromastix hatilUferus, VailL, 
from its dentition and the form of its body, is unquestionably a 
member of the genus Agama, but with the tail of an Uromastix. 

Varanus griseus, Daud. 
1 ?. 

Lacertid^. 

ACANTHODACTYLrS BOSKIANUS, Daud. 

16 d, 20 ?, and 3 juv. 

The scales round the bodies of these specimens vary from 35 
to 48. The latter number leads into the type of fine lepidosis so 
characteristic of this species along the seaboard of Lower Egypt, 
where the scales range from 46 to 57. The accompanying table 
(pp. 35-37) contains the measurements of the largest specimens 
of this species yet recorded. I have tabulated the measure- 
ments of 199 specimens from a great number of widely separated 
localities, but not one attains to the dimensions of the largest 
Hadramut individual. 

The coloration of some of them is somewhat different from 
that found in other localities, as the upper surface of a few of the 
adults is lineaied with bluish-grey and reddish-fawn. 

ACANTHODACTTLTTS CANTORIS, GrUnther. 

Acanthodactylus cantoris, Giinther, Eept. Erit. Ind. 1864, 
p. 73 ; Anderson, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1895, p. 646. 

5 S and 9 $ . 

Snout elongate and acutely pointed, more so in some than in 
others. The frontonasals may form either a long or short 
suture, depending on the degree of elongation of the snout which 
also affects the length of the prfefrontals ; four supraorbitals, the 
fourth generally consisting of one elongated piece with granules 
in front of it, but occasionally quite entire ; temporals elongate, 
and generally keeled ; anterior border of the ear with an outer 
row of enlarged scales, resembling truncated denticles, and an 
inner row as well, but the latter is occasionally feebly defined. 
The back, behind the shoulders, is covered ^\ith enlarged, imbricate, 



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42 

strongly keeled scales resembling those of A. losTcianus, Daud., 
increasing in size to the root of the tail ; generally 10 to 16 rows 
of enlarged scales between the thighs ; 38 to 57 scales round the 
body ; 12 to 14 ventral plates, broader than long, the higher 
number being the most prevalent, but, as the ventrals pass very 
gradually into the scales on the sides, it is sometimes difficult to 
define the line of separation. An enlarged praeanal surrounded by 
large scales, but occasionally broken up. 17 to 24 femoral pores. 
The fore limb is well developed, and reaches to the extremity of 
the snout. The digits have an upper, an inferior and a lateral 
plate to each of their sides ; claws moderately long, compressed, 
and sharply curved. The hind limb reaches to between the eye 
and the ear, and even in advance of the eye, and its digits are long 
and tapered, as in A. scutellatus, Aud. ; the fringe is long as iu 
that species, and is longest on the outer edge of the digits ; the 
hind claws are long, tapered, and little curved. 

The coloration is much the same as in A. hoshiamis, Daud. 
The adult may be uniform olive, greyish, or even brownish, some- 
times sparsely covered with small black spots, tending to a 
longitudinal arrangement in lines. The young is lineated with 
eight black and seven white bands. The upper surfaces of the 
limbs are generally covered with white spots on a dark ground, 
and, in some semi-adults, there is a dark line along the back of 
the thigh. Underparts white. 

The typical form, from Sind and the Helmund, is considerably 
larger than any of the specimens from South-Eastern Arabia. 
A male from the former region measures 74 millim. from the 
snout to the vent, whereas, from the latter locality, the largest 
male is only 59 millim. Besides this difference in size, the typical 
form has a somewhat longer, narrower, and more pointed head 
and snout, but specimens are met with in which the head is not 
so pointed, and in which the snout becomes obtusely rounded, 
while in some examples from Sind the head is even still shorter, 
but with a pointed snout. Specimens from Southern Persia 
attain also to a greater size than those from Arabia, but fall 
short of the dimensions of the Helmund liziirds. The heads of 
lizards of this species from Jask approach in their form more to 
the Arabian than to the Sind specimens, the head being rather 
short and broad, with a pointed snout, varying in the degree to 
which the nasal portion is widened. There is also a marked 
difference between the form of the head when the two extremes 



43 

are studied by themselves ; but when the series tabulated is con- 
sidered in detail, the two are unmistakably linked together by 
intermediate variations. 

The lepidosis throughout the area of distribution, with the 
exception of Baluchistan and South Persia, conforms generally 
to that of the typical form, but in these two regions the scales 
are somewhat smaller and consequently more numerous. In 
Sind the variation is from 38 to 49 ; in the Helmund 45 to 48 ; 
in Baluchistan and South Persia 50 to 57 ; in the Hadramut 
42 to 47 ; and Aden 38 to 45. Were the specimens enumerated 
in the accompanying table (pp. 38-41) arranged according to the 
numerical sequence of their scales, they would form a practically 
unbroken series from 38 to 57. 

The structure o£ its digits and its acutely pointed snout enable 
this species at once to be distinguished from A. hoskianus, Daud. 

Eremias guttulata, Licht. 

JEremias guttulata, Blgr. Cat. Liz. Brit. Mus. iii. 1887, p. 87 ; 
Anderson, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1895, p. 646. 

^ 5- . . . . 

In this species the interparietal is almost always in contact 

with the occipital, but exceptions occur in which a well- developed 
small plate is interposed between them. It is rare, however, as 
I have only observed it in three cases, among 52 specimens from 
Egypt proper (Nile Valley) and the district of Suakiu. One 
instance occurred at Luxor, and two at Durrur, north of Suakin. 
In the former locality I also met with two specimens in which 
two small scales existed side by side between the two shields in 
question. This specimen from the Hadramut has also a plale 
interposed between them. In its low number of ventrals, viz. 
eight, it resembles the variety described by Stoliczka as E. {Mesa- 
Una) ivatsonana, which had also a small plate interposed between 
the interparietal and occipital. 

EiiEMiAS BEEViEOSTEis, Blauford. 

Eremias ivatsonanus, Stoliczka, Proc. As. Soc. Beng. 1872, 
p. 125 {nee ante, p. 86). 

Mesalina hrevirostris, Blanford, Eastern Persia, ii. Zool. &Geol. 
1876, p. 379. 

Eremias hrevirostris, 'B\gx. Cat. Liz. Brit. Mus. iii. 1887, p. 89. 

14 6 and 4 $ . 

Head short, contracted before the eyes ; snout short; nostrils 



44 



Eremias hrevirosfris, Blanford. 



No. of 
specimen. 

90 

151 

153 

94 

95 

97 

98 

124 

173 

79 

1736 

73 



Sex. 

d 
d 
6 

6 
6 
6 

6 
6 

6 
6 



Snout 
to 

vent. 



41 
41 
42 
42 
41 
39 
36 
34 
40 
42 



Tail. 



99 



83 
73 
73 
65 

101 



34 

39 



Scales 
round 
body. 

35 
35 
34 
39 
34 
30 
31 
31 
37 
37 

37 
39 



Ventrals. 

10 
10 
10 
10 
10 
10 
10 
10 
10 
10 

10 
10 



Longitudinal 
series of 
Tentrals. 



32 
31 
30 
31 
31 
31 
31 
31 
31 
28 



32 
33 



161 

78 

100 

IGO 

147 

173a..., 
74.11.23.82. 
80.11.10.40. 



2 
2 
2 
2 

6 



35 
34 
39 
35 
40 
41 
36 
44 



76 
70 

67 

51 

85 



39 
39 
31 
34 
42 
37 
43 
45 



10 
10 
10 
10 
10 
10 
12 
12 



31 
32 
32 
30 
34 
32 
30 
32 



45 



Eremias hrevirostris, Blanford. 





Infraoeulars 


Femoral 






betwoeii 








labials. 


pores. 






4-5 


14 
14 


Hadramut. 




5-G 


13 


»> 




5-6 


12 

12 


» 




5-G 


14 








14 


it 




4-5 


14 








14 


i> 




ro-4 

l4-5 


13 






14 


II 




4-5 


11 








11 


II 




4-5 


13 


Hadraimit. Occipital reduced to a granule 






12 


and not wedged in between the parietals. 




4-5 


13 
13 


Hadramut. 




4-5 


12 
12 


Hadramut. Small plate behind the interparietal 






but not in contact with it, and widely sepa- 




f4-5 
' 5-4 




rated from the occipital. 




1.5 
14 


Hadramut. 




J 4-5 

l5-4 


14 
14 


Hadramut. A small plate behind the inter- 




parietal in contact with it, but not reaching 








the occipital, the latter wedged in between the 






to 


parietals. 




5-6 


IJ 

19 


Hadramut. 




r4-o 

'.5-6 


13 






14 


»i 




4-5 


13 
11 


II 




4-5 


12 
12 


„ No occipital. 




4-5 


12 








12 


" 




4-5 


14 
14 


)i 




4-5 


13 


Tumb Island, Persian Gulf. Type of C. hrevi- 




r4-5 
■ 5-4 


13 
14 
14 


rostris. 
Kalabagh, Punjab. Type of E. watsonanus, Stol. 



46 

swollen, formed by three nasals (an upper, lower, and poste- 
rior), the latter small, and sometimes excluded from the nostril 
by the apposition of the other two at their inner points. Fronto- 
nasal grooved, considerably broader than long, shut off from the 
rostral by the nasals; two prsefrontals, grooved in the mesial 
line ; frontal deeply grooved longitudinally, rather narrow, its 
length equals the distance between its anterior border and the 
free margin of the rostral ; anterior supraocular broken up ; the 
second and third separated from the superciliaries by a line of 
granules ; the fourth supraocular small, or broken up into small 
pieces with granules external to it ; frontonasal pentagonal ; 
interparietal quadrately oval, slightly smaller than a single fronto- 
parietal ; a small plate behind the interparietal, in contact with, 
or not in contact with, the interparietal and occipital, but some- 
times wholly absent; the occipital is occasionally absent; two 
loreals, the first long and narrow ; ocular dissk more or less 
broken up ; temporals granular, minute, and smootli ; a line of 
elongated scales along the parietal^. From 4 to 6 labials before 
the interocular; infraocular in the labial margin, but occasionally 
excluded by portions separated off from itself. Ear with an 
enlarged curved scale at its upper border. Body-scales granular, 
smooth, but more or less feebly keeled on the loins, as they 
approach the caudal scales, or they may be smooth throughout. 
30 to 45 scales round the middle of the body ; scales on the u|)per 
surface of the tail sti'ongly keeled, those of the under surface 
smooth, or feebly, obtusely keeled ; small scales, and large plates 
of the limbs, smooth. 10 or 12 rows of ventral plates, depending 
on the degree of development of the two outer rows ; 28 to 33 
in a longitudinal line from the collar to the femoral pores ; the 
two median rows slightly broader than long. 11 to 15 femoral 
pores ; an enlarged praeanal with a semicircle of enlarged scales. 
Limbs and digits slender ; the fore limb, when laid forwards, 
reaches to between the eye and the nostril, and the hind limb 
to between the shoulder and the ear. Tail variable, generally 
more than twice as long as the body and head, but sometimes 
shorter, tapered to a very fine point. 

Fawn-coloured above, or pale yellowish, or greyish brown ; a 
broadish brown lateral band from hehind the eye, more or less pale- 
spotted, with indications of three longitudinal dorsal lines of 
small quadrangular, sometimes rather obscure brown spots, with 



47 

intervening lines of smaller white spots, alongside of tliem ; a 
more or less interrupted, narrow, wliitc line along the upper 
margin of the dark lateral band, and a more or less orange 
line below it ; a dusky line from the nostril to the eye, with the 
upper labials faintly speckled with brown ; upper surface of head 
immaculate, or finely spotted with brown ; the lateral brown 
band is prolonged on to the sides of the base of the tail; upper 
surface of limbs marbled with brown, with one or two wbitish 
spots on the bind limbs. Under surface pure white. 

These specimens have been compared with the types of the 
species, from whicli they differ in having the scales immediately 
external to tbelOth rowof ventrals partaking more of the character 
of dorsal than of ventral scales. Some of these scales, rarely 
however, assume the character of ventrals, so that eleven ventrals 
are present in some, the odd number being due to the scale of the 
oppot^ite side not having taken on the full characters of a ventral. 
These cases of asymmetry are not recorded in the accompanying 
table, but their existence suggests that the difference betv;een 
the types and these Hadramut specimens, in the number of 
their ventrals, will be bridged over when more materials from 
additional localities are examined. 

SciNCIDiE. 

Mabuia beevicollis, "Wiegm. 

Mahuia irevicoUis, Anlersou, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1895, p. G4G. 

2 rj , 3 5 , and 1 juv. 

The two males are distinguished by the presence of pure 
white spots on the head and on the anterior part of the body, 
while the females are not. One female is of considerable interest, 
as the way in which the dark spots are arranged in obliquely 
disposed lines across the body, and the presence on some of the 
scales of a white central dart, recall the coloration of Chalcides 
occllatus, Forskal. This tyj^e of coloration is also occasionally 
present in Eumeces schneideri, Daud., of which Mr. Boulenger 
has shown me some specimens, from Hoana, near Alexandretta, 
with tlie characteristic markings of G. {G.) ocellatiis, Forskal, so 
perfectly reproduced that the lizards might, at first sight, be 
mistaken for it. 



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49 

Scixcus coNiROSTRis, Blauford. 

Scincus conirostris, Blanf'ord, Proc. Zool. Soc. 18SI, p. G77, 
fig. 1 ; Blgr. Cat. Liz. Brit. Mus. iii. (1887) p. 391. 

3 specimens. 

These fine specimens have been compared with the types, with 
•whicli they agree. The ear is covered with two hirge fringed 
scale:?, but, at the same time, it is perfectly distinct. Tlie su])ra- 
iiasal suture is much broader in some than in others, but it always 
effectually excludes the frontonasal from contact with the rostral. 
Two specimens have 26, and the other 28 rows of scales round 
the body. 

Chalcides (Gongylus) ocellatus, Forekal. 

17 specimens. 

Some of these specimens have the pronounced coloration of 
the Berbera lizards, while others, so far as their colour is con- 
cerned, are in no way distinguishable from those from Egypt. 
Only in five out of the seventeen are there 28 rows of scales round 
the body, while twelve have .SO, and one 32 rows of scales, thus 
overlapping the lepidosis of var. tiligugu. 

At Maskat, tbe character of the coloration is similar to that 
just mentioned, but associated with it is a marked variation, in 
the relative development of the black and white spots, like that 
which occurs at Aden. In this variation the entire upper surface 
of the lizard is rich dark brown, and in place of the black 
spots brown ones are substituted, the white darts being reduced 
to fine points. The labials become nearly entirely brown, with 
a small white central spot. At Bushire, the typical form of colour 
is still present, but in intensity it resembles that of the Berbera, 
Aden, Hadramut, and Maskat lizards ; but, as in the last, some 
specimens show a. distinct tendency to assume the brown garb. 
At Jask, in Southern Persia, the South Arabian pronounced 
coloration is preserved, but, strange to say, one specimen from 
the same locality is pale greyish brown, while another is rich 
brown. These specimens have 30 rows of scales. In tracing the 
typical form to the east of Egypt, one is struck by its increase 
in size over those found in the Nile Valley, and in this respect 
the Arabian lizards also recall those found in Somaliland, but 
they have never the thick heavy bodies of var. tiligugu. 

In the accompanying Table (|). 50) it will be seen that the 

variations that occur in the Hadramut lizards are very trifling aa 

a whole. 

e 



50 



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2 o 2 



a: 



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51 



R II ITT LOSS A. 

ClIAM.El.EONTIU.E. 

Cn\M,^LEOK O.VLCARIFER, Peters. 

ChamcBleon calcarifer, Anderson, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1895, p. G51. 

4. 2 and 9 J. 

OPHIDIA. 
CoLUBEIDie. 

Zamenis nnoDoanAcnis, Jan. 

2 d and 2 2 . 

These four specimens agree with those from Aden in the low 
numbers of their ventrals as compared with Egyptian and Indian 
examples of the species. 



















a 


1 












^ 
















&(H 


























.S 


■^ a 


CO 


. 






Sex. 


a 


'3 


a 


"? 


■a 




Upper 
labial:). 


Til ^ 


elation o 
ocular 
frontal. 


a 
o 

O 


o 

a, 

g 


a! 


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H 


H 


> 


1/1 


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1010 


• > • 


226 


. ■ . 


19 


R. 9,L.10 


5&6 


O.i 


2 


2+3 


6- 


1167 


297 


227 


1/1 


129 


19 


R. 9, L. 9 


5&6 


B.C.' 


2 


2+3 


2 


1 


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780 


215 


228 


1/1 


125 19 


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161 


226 


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125 19 


R. 9, L. 9 


5&6 


B.C. 


2 


2+3 


2 


1 



Like the Aden specimen-*, they also belong to the variety 
ladacensis, with no vertebral stripe. They are greyish olive, 
one uniformly so, while the others have the characteristic dark 
cross-bands developed, chiefly anteriorly ; and the angles of the 
ventrals are dusky, with a minute black spot ; a dusky spot 
below the eye ; underparts white. 

Zamenis diadema, Schleg. 

1 d and 1 $ . 

They have both 25 rows of scales round the body, which is a 
rare number, and the lowest that is found in this snake. I know 
of only two other instances of its occurrence, viz., in a specitnen 

' C. Contact. ^ BC. Broadly in contact. 

e2 



52 

whicli tny collector obtained at Duirat, Tunisia, and another 
in Mr. Blanford's collection from Karman, S.E. Persia. As a 
rule, the upper prseocular is in contact with the frontal, but in 
both of these specimens it is excluded, except ou the right side in 
the male. They have the usual markings. 

Tarbophis guenthebi, Anderson. 

Tarhophis guentheri, Anderson, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1895, p. 656, 
pi. xxxvi. fig. 3. 

2 $. 

The details of the external characters of these two specimens 
are given in the paper quoted above. 

The specimen on which Forskal founded Coluber dJiara^ had 
a mutilated tail, with only 48 scutes ; but the number of its 
ventral.^, 235, and the description as a whole, suggest the 
possibility tiiat T. guentlieri, Anders., may be the same species. 
I think it, however, more probable that G. obtusus, E,euss, is 
C. dlmra^ Forskal, as the specimen from near Medina, which is 
not far off from Yemen, mentioned on p. 62 agrees with typical 
C. obtusus, Eeuss, from Egypt. Unfortunately in Forskal's 
account there is no mention of the condition of the anal, and 
no information regarding the labials that entered the orbit. 

CffiLOPELTIS MOILENSIS, EcuSS. 

Coelopeltis moilensis, Eeuss, Anderson, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1895, 
p. 656. 

1 6 and 1 $ . 



















a 




^ 












.a 












en 

"3- 








w 










SB 












^ 


a 




O 










Sex. 


o 


'3 


in 
S3 






a; 
13 


C3 
•—4 

u 






elation 
ocular 
frontal 


"3 
o 


1 
o 

g 


00 

(ft 


o 




H 


H 


> 


<! 


o 
fi3 


17 


8 


Hi 


Oh 



P^ 


2 




'<i 


h-f 
1 


S- 


480 


130 


170 


1/1 


4&5 


IB. Ex.2 


R.2+2 
L. 2+2 


1 


2- 


487 


129 


176 


1/1 


73 


17 


8 


4&5 





1 B. Ex. 


2 


R.2+2 , 
L. 2+3 ^ 


1 



' Descr. Animal. 177J, p. 14. 



Broadly excluded. 



53 

PsAMMOPnis scnoKARi, Forskal. 

Cohther scJiol-ari, Forskal, Descr. Aiiim. 1775, p. 1 !■. 

Coluber lacrymans, Keuss, Mus. Scnck. i. 1834, p. 139. 

Psammopliis pimctatus, Dum. & Bibr. Erpet. Geiil. vii. 185 i, 
p. 896, Atlas, pi. 77, fig. of skull. 

Psammopliis siUlans, var. ?, Blytli, Juurn. As. Soc. Beng. xxiv. 
1855, p. 300. 

Psammopliis sihilans, var. Jiierosolimitana, Jan, Elenco, 1803, 
p. 90 ; Icou. Genl., Livr. 34, Mars 1870, pi. iii. fig. 2. 

Psammopliis sibilans, var. punctata, Jan, Elenco, 1863, p. 90 ; 
Boettger, Kobelt Eeis. Alg. & Tun. 1885, p. 402. 

Psammopliis condanarvs., var, sindanus, Stoliczka, Proc. As. 
Soc. Beng. 1872, p. 83. 

Psammopliis leifliii, Blanford, part.. Eastern Persia, Zool. & 
G-eol. ii. 1876, p. 421 : part., Bl,<;r. Trans. Linn. Soc. ser. 2, Zool. 
v., 1889, p. 103 ; part., Eauna Brit. Ind., Eept. 1890, p. 365. 

Psammopliis moniliffer, var. hierosoli/mitana, Boettger, Ber. 
Senck. Nat. Ges. 1878-79, p. 65 ; id. loc. cit. 1879-80, p. 103. 

Psammopliis moniliger, var. punctata, Boettger, Ber. Senck. 
Nat. Ges. 1879-80, p. 164. 

Psammopliis lacrymans, Bouleuger, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1895, 
p. 538 ; Anderson, op. cit. p. 655. 

1 S J balf-grown. 

This specimen belongs to the variety in which the colour is 
uniform, there being no longitudinal brown bands. It is pale 
greyish olive above, becoming still paler on the tail. The upper 
and lower labials, the throat, and the free margins of the ventrals, 
on the anterior fourth of the snake, are dotted with blackisli. 
This type of coloration is found at Aden, in the Sinaitic Penin- 
sula, and at Maskat. It occurs throughout Egypt, from Cairo 
to Khartum, and at Durrur on the coast of the'lled Sea, It is 
also found in Persia, and as far east as Sind. Although I have 
never met with the striped form in Egypt proper (Nile Valley), 
it occurs at Suakin, which is close to Durrur, also at Maskat, in 
Persia (Jask), and in Afghanistan. A similar coloration is also 
essentially characteristic of the species in the extreme western 
limit of its distribution, on the margin of the desert (Sahara), 
in Tunisia, and Algeria. 

It is generally found on the confines of the stony desert, with 
which \ii colour is in unison, but, at Suakin, where it is more or 



64 

leB3 striped, it occurs on the sandy and stony plain which is 
covered more or less with low thickets of bushes, and longish 
grass. It is extremely rapid in its movements. 

In this male there are 170 ventrals and 141 caudals. The 
variation in the ventrals of this species may be as much as 32, 
the lowest number being IGl*, and the highest 195. In seven 
specimens from Arabia the variation is only 17 ; but if one of 
those from Maskat is excluded, the variation is only 11, the lowest 
number being 168 and the highest 179. This exceptional speci- 
men has 185 ventrals, and iu this high number it leads into the 
representatives of the species found in Persin, Baluchistan, 
Afghanistan, and Sind, which are almost invariably distinguished 
by a high number of ventrals ranging from 182 to 194. Among 
ten specimens from these countries, only one from Sind has its 
ventrals falling as low as 177. On the other hand, 16 specimens 
from Tokar, Suakin, and Durrur, have the ventrals varying from 
163 to 174, but only in four does the number ri.^e above 169, 
while in seven it does not exceed 166. The species, therefore, 
in the Suakin district, is characterized by a lower number of 
ventrals than in any other locality. 

In the lower part of the Valley of the Nile, the ventrals vary 
from 168 to 177, but in Upper Egypt (Assuan) the number 
rises to 195, while, in the extreme west of its distribution, the 
high number 183 occurs at Biskra. 

This species and Psammophis Jeithii, Gthr., have sometimes 
been mistaken the one for the other, and TapTiroitietopon lineo- 
latiim, Brandt, has occasionally not been distinguished from the 
latter. Their features are expret^sed by the following numbers : — 



P. sibilans 

P. sckoA'ari .. 

P. leithii 

T. lineolatum 



a 



158-198 
163-194 
170-185 
175-194 









QD 


* 






















IS 




W) 


'^ 


GO 

r— * 




i 


ation 
ncocu 
nd frc 


abials 

enterin 

orbit. 




c3 


c3 


&. 


13 &. cs 


1/1 


o 


17 


8 


P^ 


^ 


90-116 


C. 


4&5 


1/1 


93-131 


17 


9 


B.C. 


5&6 


1 


92-99 


17 


8 


B.C. 


4&5 


1/1 


72-90 


17 


9 


B.C. 


4, 5, & 6 



55 

ViPEHIDiE. 

YiPERA AEiETANs, Mcrrem. 

A young specimen measuring 210 millim. in length, of whicli 
the tail constitutes 14 millim. It has 32 rows of scales round 
the body, 136 ventrals, 1 an;d, and 18 caudals. 

This is the first record of the occurrence of this species in 
Asia. 

ECHIS CAEINATUS, Schu. 

1 c?. 

ECHIS COLORATUS, Gthr. 

3 $. 

BATRACHIA. • 

ECAUDATA. 

Eana ctanophltctis, Schneider, Anders. Proc. Zool. Soc. 
1895, p. 660, p]. xxxvii. fig. 2, tadpole. 
A number of fine tadpoles. 



56 
PART III. 



SOME llEPTILES 

FROM 

OTHER PARTS OF ARABIA. 



Heptilcs from the Ilejaz in the Cairo Museum. 

The following Ueptiles from the Hejaz were collected for the 
Museum of the Medical School at Cairo, by one of its native 
employes ; and I am indebted to Dr. Keatinge and to Dr. Walter 
lunes for having entrusted their identification to me. 

Pttodacttlus DASSELQuiSTir, Donndorf, 

JLe Gecko des liaisons, Cuv. Eegn. Anim. ii. 1817, p. 49 ; 
Audouin, Descr. de I'Egypte, iS'at. Hist. i. (1827), p. 165, Suppl. 
Eept. pi. i. figs. 2. 1 to 2. 6. 

Lacerta gecko \ Hasselquist & Linn. Iter Falsest. 1757, p. 30G : 
Linn. Mus. Lud. Ulr. Eeginse, 17G4, p. 46 ; Syst. Nat. i. 1766 
(part.), p. 365 : Porskal, Descr. Anim. 1775, p. viii et p. 13. 

Stellio gecTio, Schneider (part.), Aniph. Phys. ii. 1792, p. 12. 

Lacerta hasselqtiistii, Donndorf, Zool. Beylr. iii. ]798, p. 133. 

Gelilio ascalaloies, Merrem (part.), Tent. Syst. Ampb. 1820, 
p. 40. 

GecJco Jolatiis, Licht. Ycrz. Doubl. Beil. Mus. 1823, p. 103 ; 
Is. Geoffr. St. Hil. Descr. de I'Egypte, Nat. Hist. i. (1827), 
p. 132, pi. V. fig. 5. 

Ftyodactyhis hiatus, Gray, Ann. Phil. (2) x. 1825, p. 498 ; 
Iltz. Syst. Eept. 1843, p. 96 ; Boulenger, Cat. Liz. B. M. i. 
1885, p. 110; Bciulenger, Trans. Zool. Soc. xiii. 1891, p. Ill, 
pi. xiii. fig. 2 ; Boettger, Kat. Eept. Mus. Senck. 1893, p. 27. 

Ptyodactjjlus guttatus, Hey den, Eiippell's Atlas N. Afr., Eept. 
1827, p. 13, pi. iv. fig. 1. 

I'tyodactylus hasseJquistii, Dum. & Bibr. Erpet Genl. iii. 1836, 
p. 378, pi. xxxiii. fig. 3 ; Eiippell, Mus. Senck. iii. 1845, p. 300; 
Gasco, Viaggio iuEgitto, (pt. ii.) 1870, p. 110; Tristram, AVest. 
Palest., 1884, Eept. & Batr. p. 153 ; Hart, Pauna & Flora of Sinai, 

' This name was first applied by Linnaus (Mus. Adolpb. Fvid. 175-1, p. 46) 
to ihc Asiatic gecko, kuuwn as G. vcriwiUattis, Laur. 



57 

1S91, p. 210; Ba'tlgtr, Bcr. Senck. Ges. 1S79-80, p. 191; Buutan, 
Kev. Biol, du Nord de la Prance, v. lS93,p. 830, fig. 1. 

Ptyodactt/his oudrii, Lataste, Le Natural. 1880, p. 299 ; Boutan, 
Kev. Biol. Nord France, v. 1893, p. 343, fig. 2. 

rtyodacfyhts lacazii, Boutan, Arch. Zool. Exper. (2) x. 1892, 
p. 17. 

Pfi/odctcft/h/s hischqfslieimi, Boutnn, Eev. Biol. Nord France, 
T. 1893, p. 340, pi. iii. fig. 1. 

rtyodactylus monfmahoui, Boutan, I. c. p. 3G9, pi. iii. fig. 2. 

Plyodactylus harroisi, Boutan, I. c. p. 3)5, pi. iii. fig. 3. 

Plyodaciylus puiseuxi, Boutan, I. c. p. 379, pi. iii. fig. 4. 

Ptyodadyhis lolatus, subsp. syriacus, Peracca, Boll. Mus. 
Torino, ix. 1894, no. 167, p. 1. 

PtyodaciyJus lohatus,\ViV. oiuJrii, AYerner, Yerli. zool.-bot. Ges. 
VVieu, 1894, p. 76; Boettger, Zool. Centralblatt. June 1891, p. 376. 

2 S • Hadir el Kabir near Medina. 

1 juv. Dar Fadda between Medina and El Wish. 

These two males present some resemblances in their general 
form to the individuals of this species found on the plains of Suez, 
but differ from them in their much more pointed snouts, in the 
presence of enlarged tubercles on the thighs and on the tibiae, 
and in their tails being distinctly depressed. Two types of 
nostril are met with in this species in the Nile Valley — one in 
which it is so much raised above the snout as to merit the terra 
tubular being applied to it, and another in which the scales 
defining the opening are only distinctly swollen. In the former 
type, the nostril is surrounded by the first labial and three nasals, 
while, in the simply swollen kind, it is enclosed by the rostral, 
first labial, and three nasals. The individuals from the Hejaz 
have nostrils of the latter type, but not so swollen as to entitle 
them to be called semitubular. In the geckoes of the Plain of 
Suez (2 specimens only), the nostrils are semitubular, and are 
formed by the first labial and three nasals. Individuals in the 
Nile Valley proper, with the nasal formula, rostral, labial, and 
three nasals, have more or less depressed tails like the Hejaz 
geckoes, while those in the former region, with the formula 
L.3N., have rounded tails. There is, however, another important 
character distinguishing them, and it is this, that the granules 
of the body are more or less cariuate while those on the snout 
are distinctly keeled. 



58 

Tliere is another feature, best marked in the adult male from 
Hadir el Kabir, less distinct in the other male, and absent in the 
young specimen, that calls for remark, as it is very rarely present 
in this species. It consists of the presence at the anterior 
border of the ear-opening of numerous spiny scales. A specimen, 
however, from the Mokattam hills, near Cairo, with the nasal 
formula E.L.3N., shows slight indications of the existence of 
similar scales, in the same position. 

After a careful consideration of over sixty specimens of the 
geckoes of this genus from Palestine, the Dead Sea area, the 
Sinaitic Peninsula, the Hejaz, Maskat, the region between Shoa 
and Assab, the Nile Yalley from Wadi Haifa to Suez, and from 
Algeria, I have arrived at the conclusion that the various modifi- 
cations met with over the region indicated can be regarded in 
no other light than as illustrating the essentially polymorphic 
character of this species first described by Hasselquist from 
Lower Egypt. 

Agama siNAiTA, Heyden. 

1 c? . El Haggarieh between Medina and Mecca. 

1 d . Near Medina. 

The former has the following measurements : — Snout to vent 
94 ; tail 172 ; length of head 24 ; width of head 22. Wrist in 
advance of the snout. Fourth toe reaches to anterior angle of 
eye. The scutes covering the bases of the claws, and the brown 
spines, on the under surfaces of the digits, are very well defined. 
Both have larger scales than specimens from the Nile Valley, and 
in this respect they resemble those from the Hadramut. 

Agama etjderata, Olivier. 

4 c? from near Medina. 

These specimens are undoubtedly referable to this species. 
They have the characteristically enlarged scales on the body, 
limbs, and base of the tail. One has the head-scales nearly 
smooth, while, in the other, they are more or less convex. I have 
examined one of Olivier's specimens, from Arabia, preserved in 
the Paris Museum ', with which these specimens practically agree, 
but the spines over the ears are more numerous and better 
developed than in Olivier's specimen, and the few spiny scales on 

^ It is preserved in the bottle numbered 2127, and the specimen itself bears 
a label no. 2G10. 



59 



the back of the head and on the sides o£ the neck arc more 
stronirlv marked : but it must be borne in mind that Olivier's 
lizard lias not the freshness of these recently captured speci- 
mens, which are in excellent preservation. I have never met 
with this species in Lower Egypt. 



No. 
159 


Sex. 
6 


a 
a 

s 

o 


'5 


Fore limb. 


Hind limb 
reaches 


to 

o 


e3 

IS 


bio 

C 


n3 


Locality. 


83 


104 


Fingers in 
advance of 


before ear. 


28 


19 


22-2 


21 


Near Medina. 


158 


6 


81 


■ • > 


snout. 
It 


to ear. 


33 


19 


21 


21 


ti 


101 


d 


79 


100 


It 


to ear. 


20 


18-6 


20-5 


20-2 


Dar om Sheikh Ahmed, 
near Medina. 


IGO 


6 


76 


10-1 


It 


before ear. 


21 


18-3 


20 


20-4 


>i >» 



A&AMA FLAVIMACULATA, Eiippell. 

3 S and 2 ? . Near Medina. 

Body moderately elongate, not depressed ; head large, stoutly 
and broadly cordate ; canthus rostralia short, not defined, 
anterior to the nasal shield, which is circular with the nostril 
directed upwards and backwards and perforated in the hinder 
part of the shield internal to or on the line o£ the canthus ros- 
tralis ; ear considerably smaller than the eye-opening, with a 
fringe of pointed scales along its upper border ; upper surface 
of the head in adults covered with convex scales, es2)ecially large 
along the mesial line ; a number of large, more or less obtusely 
keeled scales behind the eye, more or less continuous with those 
on the upper part of the post-temporal region, on which there 
are a few short, strongly keeled, non-mucronate spiny scales. 
Body covered above with moderately sized, unequal, imbricate, 
more or less subacuminate, but not mucronate, feebly keeled 
scales, those on the sides about half the size of the dorsal scales, 
and more or less obtusely keeled ; 77 to 95 scales round the 
middle of the body ; ventral scales keeled or nearly smooth. 
Limbs well developed, covered with regular keeled imbricate 
scales of moderate size. The wrist reaches to the anterior border 
of the eye or to the nostril, and the tip of the fourth toe extends 
to the ear or nearly so. Tibia shorter than the skull in the 



60 



















. T3 














03 






cS •■- 






















1 






03 

13 














C2 




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g 
< 


•^ 


*■ 


0) 


' 










"S 


■*s 






& 

-*-> 






fl 


^ S 

-" o 




s 


i 








g 

o 


53 










Si 


n 




c 


u 


' 1»> 


3 

tD 


re c 






a 

w 




S3 






s- 


^ OS 










'^ 


C3 


S 


a. 


I-H 


g-s 






B 




Hi 


fi 




^ 


H 


^ 




oi 




















<u 




















§ 


o 


o 


o 


O 


o 


o 


o 


o 




Pm 




















^ 








































Mi 


CO 




CO 


Ol 


o 


o 


o 


o 




^C=2 


<M 


I-H 


I— t 


CO 


CO 


CO 


CO 


CO 




1-^^ 




















■£ .S 




















"SivS 


CO 


V 






m 


rt^ 








c 'r^ 


00 


-+I 


•*! 


■* 


CI 


CI 


OO 


Cl 


« 




T-H 


1—1 


rH 


C) 


CI 


CI 


Q\ 


CI 


'o 


^^O 


















Ph 






































Ch 


"S-S-n 


















§ 


^ ;5 _0 


lO 


CO 


I— 1 


•^ 


o 


o 


o 


o 


is" 


p^ 5 


lO 


Tt< 


■* 


t^ 


l^ 


t- 


1.^ 


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0/ *- m 


















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s 




















53 


^-s^ § 


















§ 


^.£ S fe 


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Lengt 

fore 1 

from : 

of hum 


Ol 


■^ 


(M 


t- 


CI 


00 


CO 


o 




^ 


CO 


CO 


iQ 


lO 


lO 


IQ 


lO 


5S 




















§ 


^n3 


















^ 




»-H 




o 


O 


o 


m 


C5 


1^ 


X 


H 


Ol 


1 — 1 


1—i 


CI 


CI 


CI 


C) 


Cl 




^TJ 




















bD § 


00 




00 






CO 








do 


in 


Tt^ 


o 


m 


ih 


t- 


CO 




1—1 


1— 1 


I— ( 


c< 


o 


Cl 


CI 


Cl 




^'-s 




















ri 


t^ 


o 


t- 


o 


C5 


o 


CI 


n< 




3 


o 


00 


t- 


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CI 


T-H 


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f-H 




H 


1 — 1 






1— 1 


I— t 


I-H 


rH 


7-K 




I? 


i- 


o 


o 


t-i 


CO 


i-H 


CI 


lO 




i- 


o 


o 


rH 


o 


o 


CJ 


o 




QD O 








1-H 


l-H 


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0+ 




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° a 






• 
















►2'S 






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cr 


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cr 


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61 

adult. Tail longer or as long as tlie body and head, rounded, 
rather thick at the base especially in males, coyered with regular, 
rather feebly keeled scales. A large gular pouch in both sexes. 
The usual gular and short praihumeral Iblds are present. Neither 
pra>anal pores nor callose scales are developed. 

General colour jiale yellowish on the head, olive-brown or even 
greyish brown on the body, generally many of the dorsal scales 
being yellow, but this character is occasionally absent. In adult 
males, the sides of the head, the gular pouch, the sides of the 
neck and body, are deep dusky brownish with a purple tinge, or 
rich bluish on the sides of the mouth, gular pouch, sides of neck 
and shoulder, the tail being pale orange-yellow with occasionally 
deep orange spots along its sides. In some of these males, the 
general colour is pale olive-brown, the throat and chest being 
suft'used with bluish, and the tail pale yellow. The adult 
breeding female is nearly olive, with many of tlie dorsal scales 
nearly white, arranged on the sides and on the limbs more or 
less in transverse series, especially on the limbs. The pouch is 
dark chocolate-brown, and the under surface of the head is 
marked with wavy lines of the same colour. Similar but more 
feeble markings occur on the chest. 

The points in which tliis species differs from A. jai/akari, 
Anders., are mentioned under the description of that species 
(p.G7). 

The type was from Jiddah, and is preserved in tlie Frankfurt 
ATuseum. I have examined it, and also the type of A. leuco- 
stygma, Eeuss, to which Mr. Bouleuger refers A. flavimaculafa, 
liilppell, as a synonym, a view which has also been adopted by 
Prof. Boettger. 

Tlie type of A. Jlavimaculata, Riippell, is enumerated in 
Eiippell's Catalogue ' as II. F.F. G a-l, 18.34. The larger of the 
two specimens, a female, is the one figured by Hiippell, and both 
are stated in Prof. Boettger's ^ Catalogue to have come from 
Arabia, but Eiippell in his description^ is more particular and 
gives Jiddah as the locality. There can be no doubt whatever 
regarding the identity of the Hejaz and Hadramut specimens 
with tlie type of the species, but the same cannot be said for their 
identity witii A. leucostygma, Eeuss. The types of the latter are 
two in number, and are marked Cat. II. F.F. 5 k-l, Gesch. 1S27, 

1 Mus. Senck. iii. 1845, p. 302. 

2 Kat. Kept. Mus. Senck. 1S'J3, p. 49. 

3 Neue WirbclLh. 1835, p. 12, pi. 6. fig. 1. 



62 

Dr. Eiippell, Ob. ^gypt. I cannot distinguisli between them 
and the A. pallida, Eeuss, the type of which I have also 
examined. 

Agama stellio, Hasselq. & Linn. 

One specimen from Mount Arafat in the Hejaz. 

Taebophis dhaea, Forskal. 

Coluber dhara, Forskal, Descr. Animal. 1775, p. 11. 
Coluber obtusus, Keuss, Mus. Senck. i. 1834, p. 137. 

One c?. Gireuah Sidi Hamza near Medina. 

This specimen agrees in all its details with those from Egypt, 
whence the species was described by Eeuss. Forskal's G. dhara 
was from Yemen. 

Total length 845 millim. Tail 123 millim. Yentrals 253. 
Anal 1/1. Caudals 60 ? Scales 23. 



A Chameleon in the Cairo Museum. 

I am indebted to Dr. Keatinge and to Dr. "Walter Innes for 
having permitted me to bring to London, from the Cairo Museum, 
a very fine male specimen of a chameleon preserved in alcohol, 
and obtained, some years ago, in the Province of Yemen. And 
I have to record the obligation under which I lie to Professor 
Vaillant, of the Natural History Museum, Paris, for having 
fowarded to the British Museum one of the types of C. calyp- 
tratus, A. Dumeril, in order that I might compare it with this 
male. The result of the comparison of the two has left no doubt 
in my mind regarding their specific identity. 

Chameleon caltpteatus, A. Dumeril. 

Cat. Method. Rept. 1851, p. 31 ; x\rch. Mus. vi. p. 259, pi. xxi. 
fig. L 

The types of this species are females, and they are said to 
have been obtained in the Nile Valley; but in the Catalogue of 
Ecptiles in the Paris Museum, wliere the species was first indi- 
cated, no locality is given. The information that they came 
from the Nile Valley was supplied afterwards by A. Dumeril. 
The specimen in the Cairo Mut^eum from Yemen is the only ex- 
ample of the male in any Museum, so far as I am aware, and 



63 

like the same sex of C. calcarifer, and other allied species, it has 
a tarsal spur. 

There cau be no doubt that this species is very closely allied 
to C calcarifer, Peters, which is found at no great distance to the 
south o£ Yemen, viz. in the neighbourhood of Aden. The leading 
characters distinguishing the present species from G. calcarifer, 
Peters, are tlie great vertical elevation of the crest posteriorly, tlie 
little development of the occipital lobe, and the backward, but 
littlo upward, prolongation on to the crest of the supraorbital 
ridge. The crests and occipital lobes, however, of chameleons 
vary considerably, and C. vulgaris, Daud., is a very good illus- 
tration of this. In the other features the two are practically 
the same. The occurrence, therefore, of two so closely related 
forms in such near geographical relationship suggests the possi- 
bility, in view of the variations just mentioned, that, as the areas 
they inhabit are better explored, links connecting the one with 
the other may ultimately be discovered, but until this has 
happened the two must be kept distinct. 



Reptiles from Aden collected hy Captain C. G. Nurse. 

Captain C. Gr. Nurse has lately presented four species of 
Keptiles from Aden to the British Museum, and I am indebted to 
Mr. Boulenger for permission to enumerate them here. They 
are the following : — Hemidacti/lus yerhurii, Anders. ; Uromastix 
(^Aporoscelis) henti, Anders. ; Chamceleon calcarifer, Peters ; 
and Glauconia nursii, n. sp. 

The Hemidactylus and Chamceleon call for no remark. 

LACEETILIA. 

Uromastix (Apoeoscelis) benti, Anderson. 

One 6 andonejuv. 

These two lizards have a wonderful resemblance at first sight 
to Uromastix ornatus, Heyden, but they are at once distin- 
guished from it by the absence of praeaual and femoral pores. 
In those species which have these structures they are always 
present even in very young individuals, but although in these 
two specimens there are no traces of them, both have a line of 
enlarged scales along the thighs in the position occupied by 
these structures, and more or less callose, but structurally quite 



64 

distinct from the deep pit of a true femoral pore. In the typical 
form of this species there is not the same clear definition of these 
femoral scales as tliat present iti the Aden specimens, but as the 
latter also present other slight modifications in their lepidosis, 
as compared with the types, the differences in question I ascribe 
wholly to local variation. These Aden specimens have somewhat 
smaller scales, which is shown by the number round the body 
being as high as 209 in one and 190 in the other, whereas in the 
typical form the variation is from 14G to 173, 

They were obtained from tbe hills 50 miles from Aden. 

d". Juv. 

Total length 271 146 

Tail 124 65 

Length oE head 27 16 

Width of head 27 16 

OPHIDIA. 

GLAUCCtNIA. isuiisii, n. sp. 

Two specimens. 

Head rather broad; neck distinctly narrower than the head; 
snout rounded ; rostral broader thau the nasal, prolonged back- 
wards nearly on a level with the eyes ; nasal completely divided ; 
nostril removed from the rostral ; first labial very small, slightly 
higher than broad, its upper and lower margins nearly parallt-l, 
aud its breadth slightly less thau that of the lower part of the 
nasal ; ocular in the labial margin ; supraocular and frontal 
shields nearly equal. Diameter of the body about fifty times 
in the total length ; tail ten times in the length. Two hundred 
and eighty-one scales from the labial margin to the vent, and 
thirty-six on the tail; fourteen scales round the body. Pale 
brownish above, nearly white below. 

This species is most closely allied to G. hlanfonUi, Blgr,, but 
is at once distinguished from it by its much narrower rostral, 
and by its shorter first labial which is as broad as high, and about 
equal to the breadth of the lower portion of the nasal ; its body- 
also is somewhat stouter, and the head is broader aud better 
defined. 

Total length 250 230 

Tail 25 20 

Diameter of body at middle . . 5 4 5 



65 

A new Agamoid Lizard from Maskat. 

In going over the apeciea of the genus Ar/ama added to the 
British Musemn collection since the appearance of the first 
volume of Mr. Boulenger's ' Catalogue of Lizards,' I found the 
following species from Maskat to be ono liitherto unrecognized, 
and I have Mr. Boulenger's permission to describe it. 

Agama jatakaei, n, sp. 

Agama isolepis {not Boulenger), Boulenger, Ann. & Mag. N. II. 
(5) XX. 1887, p. 407 '. 

Body elongate, not depressed ; head large, more or leas tri- 
angularly cordate ; snout moderately pointed ; canthus rostralis 
short, not defined anterior to the nasal shield, which is circular 
with the nostril directed upwards and backwards, and perforated 
in the hinder part of the shield internal to or on the canthus 
rostralis ; ear considerably smaller than the eye-opening, with a 
fringe of pointed scales along its upper border. Upper surfiice 
of the head, in adults, with convex scales, especially large along 
the mesial line ; scales on the temporal region large, generally 
well keeled, but sometimes nearly smooth ; scales above, below, 
and behind the ear and on the occipital region with sharp, 
prominent, mucronate points. Body covered above with large, 
equal, strongly keeled, mucronate scales gradually diminishing in 
size on the sides, where they are about hiJf the size of the dorsal 
scales and without keels, but furnished with sharp point3 ; 
about 90 scales around the middle of the body ; ventrals strongly 
or moderately keeled. Limbs well-developed, covered with 
regular, moderately large, strongly keeled, slightly mucronate 
Bcales ; the wrist generally reaches the nostril, but occasionally 
to the snout, and the tip of the fourth toe extends to the ear, or 
it may fall somewhat short of it. Tibia longer than the skull. 
Tail considei-ably longer than the body and head, rounded, rather 
thick at the base, especially in the males, and covered with 
strongly keeled imbricate scales nearly as large as the dorsal 
scales. A large gular pouch in both sexes, with the usual gular 
and short prsehumeral fold. Neither prseanal pores nor callose 
scales are present. 

General colour of the upper parts olive suffused with brownish, 

1 When Mr. Boulenger made this identification, be had only one epecimen 
before bira, and that a female. 

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67 

or witli bluish green, and more or less spotted witli yellowish, 
and the limbs and tail with brownish. The head generally bluish 
green and yellow; on the back of the neck there are usually 
indications of two short lonijitudinal brownish bunds. 

This species is closely allied to A. Jlavimaculata, Kiippell, from 
Jiddah, but is distinguished from it by its large, regular, strongly 
keeled and mucronate scales, by its less cordate head, which is 
shorter than the tibia, and by the more strongly keeled character 
of its caudal scales. It also attains to a greater size, and the 
scales on the back of the head are somewhat more spinose than 
in A. flavimaculata, Eiippell. The entire absence of prseanal 
pores and callose scales in these two species necessitates an 
alteration in the hitherto accepted definition of the genus Agama. 

A. isolepis, Blgr., which has prseanal ]_)ores, is more allied to 
A. agilis, Oliv,, than to this species. 

J udging from the number of specimens sent to the British 
Museum by Dr. Jayakar, it would appear to be well represented 
at Maskat, It attains to a greater size than A. sanguinolenta, 
Pallus. 



./■^ 



G8 
PART IV. 



SKETCH OF THE LITERATURE 

BEARING ON THE 

REPTILIAN AND BATRACHIAN FAUNA OF ARABIA. 



As a supplement to these lists o£ Reptiles, I have uow to add a 
complete list of all the species o£ Reptilia and Batraehia known 
to occur in Arabia, and as an introduction to it I give a sliort 
sketch of the literature of the subject. 

The Danish Expedition equipped by Frederick V. of Denmark 
for the scientific exploration of Egypt, Arabia, and Syria, sailed 
from Europe in January 1761. When it had accomj^lished its 
woik in Egypt, the members of the Expedition went to Suez, and 
after Niebuhr had visited Mount Sinai they sailed on the 21st 
July, 1762, for Jiddah, whence tliey proceeded overland to 
Mocha. Here Van Haven, the philologist, died ; and two 
months afterwards Peter Forskal, the naturalist, succumbed to 
the pligue, at Jerim, on the 11th July, 1763. Shortly after 
this, Niebuhr left Arabia, but be did not return to Copenhagen 
until November, 1767, when he at once began to prepare for 
publication the results achieved by the Expedition, and to arrange, 
for the same purpose, the materials that his friend Forskfil had 
brought together. This posthumous work of Forskal's, entitled 
' Descriptiones Animalium, &c.,' appeared in 1775. It is our 
first introduction to the fauna of Arabia. 

In it he mentions the occurrence in Loheia, north of Hodeida, 
of a land-tortoise, Testudo terrestris, and the local name of which 
is Buzi or Siikar. It is useless attempting to identify this 
animal, but it may possibly bo T. leithii, Glinther, which is found 
in the desert country between Ismailia and El Arisch ; while, 
on the other hand, it may prove to be Testudo elegans, Schoepff, 
which has been recorded from Muscat. 

Four species of Lizards are described, viz. : — Lacerta nilotica,, 
Hasselquist & Linna;us, = Varanus niloticus, Hasselq. & Linn. ; 
Lacerta cegyptia, Hasselquist & Linnaeus, = Uromastix cegi/ptius, 
H. & L. ; Lacerta ocellata, Forskal, =.Chalcides {Gongylus) ocel- 
latus, Forsk. ; and Lacerta gecko, H. & L., =Ptjodactylushassel- 



69 

quistii, Donndorf. Tliere is no explicit statement whence these 
species were obtained. The first-mentioned is certainly not found 
in Arabia; while, on tlie other hand, all of them are present in 
Egypt, and since Hasselquist'a day have been recorded from 
Arabia with the exception of tlie Nile Monitor. 

EorskS.1 describes eight species of Snakes: — 1. Coluber lebe- 
tinus ; 2. Coluber guttaUis, EorskSl ; 3. Coluber Itaje, Eorskal ; 
4. Coluber dhara,^ oviikal; 5. Coluber sc1ioTcari,^ovs\%X; 6. Coluber 
hcetan, Forskal ; 7. Coluber hblleik, ForskS-l; and 8. Coluber 

, Arab. Ilannasch asuced, or black snake. The first was 

received from Cyprus ; the second is assigned to Cairo, and is 
probably the species afterwards described by Is. Geoffrey 
St. Hilaire as C. jiorulentus=Zamenis florulentus; the third is 
Naia Tiaje, but the place of its occurrence is not stated ; the 
fourth is evidently a member of the genus Tarbopliis, and the 
snake described as C. obtusus, Eeuss, is, I believe, identical 
with it, seeing that the Hejaz specimen in no way differs 
from the Egyptian snake described by Eeuss ; the fifth is un- 
questionably the PsafHinopJiis redescribed in after years under 
a variety of names, e. g., P. lacrymans, E,euss, P. punctatus, 
D. & B., and P. sibilans, var. Jiierosolimifana, Jan, &c. The 
descriptions of the three remaining species are too vague to 
enable them to be determined. Only two of the eight species, 
viz. Tarbopliis dliara and Psammopliis schokari, are ascribed to 
Arabia, and to the Province Yemen. 

Besides these reptiles, Forskal mentions a number of others, 
under their native names, chiefly, from Syria, Egypt, and Arabia, 
but it would be vain to attempt to identify them. 

Olivier, iu the beginning of the century, referred a lizard from 
North Arabia to A. ruderata. This specimen is preserved in 
the Paris Museum \ 

Eiippell, about the middle of the second decade of this century, 
began his exploration of North-Eastern Africa, and in the course 
of his travels visited Arabia Petrsea, the Sinaitic Peninsula, and 
the ports of Moilah and Jiddah. The results of his firstjouruey 
were made known by Dr. C. IT. Gr. Heyden, in 1827. In this 
work the following species of Eeptiles and Batrachia are described 
from Arabia, viz.: — Uromastix ornafus, ITeyden ; Agama sinaita, 
Hevden ; Af/ama stellio, II. &L. ; Ptyodaclylus guitatus, Ileyden, 
=P. hasselquistii, Donndorf; Stenodactt/lus scaber, llejd.en,= 
1 Cat. Rept. Paris Mus., Dumeril, 1851, p. 103. 



70 

Oymnodadylus scaler, Heyden ; IIeiindactj/lus[/ra720SHS,Il6jden, 
= HemiJactijlus turcicus, Linn. ; Bufo aralicus, lley den, = JBufo 
viridis, Laur. 

Dr. A. Eeuss, in 1834, characterized a number of reptiles from 
Arabia collected by Eiippell, principally on his second expedition. 
One, however, was obtained on bis first journey, and is stated to 
have been found at Tor, Arabia Petrsea, a locality I have not 
been able to identify, unless it be Tor, on the sea-coast of the 
Sinaitic Peninsula. This species, viz. Lacerta Iongicaudata^= 
Latastia longicaudata \ was afterwards found by Eiippell in 
Abyssinia, where it appears to be common, as it is likewise at 
Suakiu, in the neighbourhood of which I obtained many speci- 
mens. Eeuss also enumerates the following species as Arabian : — 
Agama Ioricata'=A. pallida, Eeuss"; Coluber Iacri/mans = 
Psammophls sclioJcari, Porskal ; and Coluber ■moilensis=^ Coslopellis 
moiJensis, Eeuss. 

Eiippell himself, in 1835, described Trapelus Jlavimaculatus= 
Agama jiavimaculata, from Jiddah, to which locality Dumeril 
and Bibron erroneously ascribed Ac/ama cganogaster, Eiippell, 
which was first discovered at Massowah. 

In the fourth volume (1837) of Dumeril and Bibron's work, 
Agama Jiavimaculata, EiippelP, is wrongly regarded as a 
synonym of A. agilis, Olivier *^, and consequently Jiddah is given 
as a locality for the latter species. 

In 1837, Wiegmann described Scincus meccensis from Mecca ; 
and, iu 1839, Dr. J. E. Gray referred a lizard collected by 
Eiippell in Arabia Petraea to the genus Riopa, but now generally 
recognized to be Ablepharics pannoniciis, Pitz. 

In Eiippell's Catalogue of the Eeptiles in the Frankfort 
Museum, a specimen ol Stenodactylus guttatus, Cuv., =/S'. elegants, 
Pitz., is mentioned from Arabia. 

Dumeril and Bibron, iu their sixth volume (1844), record 
TgpMops vermicularis, Merr., from the foot of Sinai, on the 
strength of specimens from that locality in the Ley den IMuseum, 
and also note the presence of Eryx jaculus, Hasselq. & Linn., 
iu Arabia, but do not state the source of their information 
regarding the latter. 

> Prof. O. Boettger (Kat. Kept. Frankfurt Mas. 1893, p. 89) records this 
species only from Arabia, but besides the type from Tor there are RuppeU'b 
three Abyssinian specimens. 

^ Type iu the Fraukfort Museum examiued. 

^ Type examiued. ' Types examined. 



71 

In A. Dumdril's Catalogue of tlie Eeptiles in the Paris Museum 
(1S51), Agama cynnogaster, Riippell, Eiiprepes scptemfceniatus, 
licuas, = Arahuin sej)temtamiaia, lieuss, and Gongijlus ocellattcs, 
Fovskii\, = Chalcidcs (Go}?gglus) oceJlaius, Forskal, are represented 
by Arabian specimens. 

In the seventh volume of the ' Erpetologio Geueralo ' (1S5-1), 
rsammopliis piinctulatus, D. & B., is described from Arabia, whence 
it had been obtained by M. Arnaud, who travelled as a collector 
for the Paris Museum. 

In 1SG3, Dr. J. E. Gray described Spatalura carteri= Pris- 
turus carteri, a rock-gecko found by Mr. H. J. Carter on the 
island of Masira, and mentioned the existence at Makallah of 
a JJromastix which he was unable to identify. In the following 
year he described a chameleon from Arabia, O. aiiratus=C. vul- 
garis, Daud. 

Professor Peters, in the following year, recorded Chalcides 
(SpJice)ioj)s) srjwides, And., from Tor, Arabia, under the name of 
Sp/icenops capistratus, AVagler. 

Strauch, in his Monograph of the Viperidse (1869), mentioned 
that a specimen of Cerastes cornutiis, H. & L., from Arabah, Arabia 
Petraea, was preserved in the Munich Museum ; and in the same 
year Westplial-Castlenau gave Arabia as one of the localities in 
which E. pardalis, D. & 'B., = Eremias guttulata, Licht., was found. 

In 1871, Peters de^^cribed Pristurus Iongipes=Pristurus 
crucifer,Ydi\.,ivom Aden ; and in that year I characterized a skink, 
Scincus mitranus, from Arabia, allied to S. officinaJis, Schn. 

In 1874, Mr. Plan ford gave an account of a new gecko from 
Maskat, 'Pristurus rupestris, and recorded Pristurus flavi- 
punctatus, Eiippell, from the same locality. 

Captain, afterwards Sir Eichard, Burton presented, in 1878, to 
the British Museum a small collection of reptiles that he had 
brought together in Midiau. The species were described and 
identified by Dr. Giinther, who recognized two as new to science, 
viz. Zamenis elegantissimus and EcJiis colorafus^; while tbe fol- 
lowing were new to the Arabian fauna: — Zamenis cIi//'ordi= 
Z. diadema, Schlegel ; Zamenis venfrimaculatus=Z. rlwdorhachis, 
Jan ; Ecliis carinatus, Schn. ; Ceraviodactglus dorice, Blanford, 
= Stenodactglus (0.) dorice,B\an(. ; Uromastix spin/jycs, Merrem,= 
IT. cegyptius, Hasselquist & Linn. ; Acanthodactylus hoskianus, 
Daud. ; Acantliodactglus cantoris, Giinther, = ^. losJcianus, Daud. ; 
aad Bufo pantherinus, Boie,=^. regularis, Eeuss. 
' Recorded from the island of Socotra by Dr. Gunther, V. Z. S. 1881, p. 463. 



72 

Dr. J. V. Bedi'iaga, in his Catalogue of Ainpliibia and Reptilia 
of "Western Asia (1879), stated that Zamenis larelinii, Brandt, 
had been found at Cape Masseiidam, and mentioned the occur- 
rence of CoeJopeltis lacertina^C. vionspessulana, Hermann, in 
Arabia; but the authorities on which these statements were 
made are not given ^. 

Prof. 0. Boettger, in 1879-80, recorded Plaiydactylus mauri- 
tcmicus, Jj\nn.,=^Tarentola mauritnnica, Linn., from Arabia on 
the strength of a verbal communication from Dr. E. Buck. 

In 1882, Professor Yaillant stated that the Paris Museum had 
received a specimen of Uromastix princeps, O'Shaughn., from 
Aden, but at the same time suggested that it had been taken 
there accidentally. This is probable ; and as it is a striking form, 
owing to its short, broad, spiny tail, it may have been purchased 
from some Somali or other native who had taken it from Berbera 
to Aden, in the expectation of selling it. On the other hand, in 
view of the number of species common to the two sides of the 
Straits, it is just possible that this species may ultimately be 
found in Arabia, but as its presence there is doubtful, I have 
not included it in the accompanying list. 

Dr. Lortct, in his Catalogue of Syrian Eeptiles (1883), men- 
tioned the occurrence of a land-tortoise between Ismailia and 
El Ansch under the name of Testudo Meinmanni, Lortet,= 
T. leithii, Gthr. 

In 1885, Mr. Boulenger, in the first volume of his 'Catalogue 
of Lizards,' described a new gecko from the Sinaitic peninsula 
as Ilemidactylus sinaitus, and recorded Tareniola annularis, Is. 
Geoifr., from the same region. He also identified the Uromastix 
from Makallah, which Dr. Gray had been unable to name, as 
U. hardwickii, Gray. 

Mr, J. A. Murray, in the following year, made known a new 
skink, S. muscntensis, from Maskat, allied to 8. mitranus, Anders. 

In 1887, Mr. Boulenger published a list of Eeptilia and 
Batrachia from Maskat, collected by Dr. A. S. G. Jayakar. 
Tne following species were added to the fauna of Arabia : — Testudo 
stelJafn, Srhn., = T. eJegans, Schoepff, possibly introduced; Also- 
phylax tiiherculatus, Blan^., = Biawpus tuherculafi/s, Blanf. ; ITetni- 

' It is just possible that Dr. Eedrinpa may have had in view the snake men- 
tioned by Riippell as a variety of C. mo7i.'<pe.'<sidana, ITermann, which appears 
to be C. moilensis, Reiiss. As far as I have been able to make out. C. mo7is- 
pexsidaiia has only recently been recorded by Mr. Hart as inhabiting the 
Arabian Province. 



78 

dactylus coctcei^ D. & B., = ^. flaviviridis, Riippell ; Agama isolepis^ 
E]gr.,= ^. jayaJcnri, Anders. ; Varanus ffriseus, Daud. ; Lacerta 
jayakari, Blgr. ; Lytorhynchus diadema, D. & B. ; Dijjsas oltusa, 
^euss, = TarbopJi is yuentheri, Anders. ; and Hiifo aiidersoni, Blgr. 

In the same year, Mr. Boulciigcr, in tlie third volume of his 
' Catalogue of Lizards,' mentioned the following species as repre- 
sented in Arabia: — Acmithodactylusscutellatus, D. & B., Eremias 
mucronata, Blanf., Eremias ruhropunctata, Licht., Mahuia quin- 
quetceniata, Licht., and Ghamaleon calcarifer, Peters ; and, in 18S8, 
he described a new Eryx from Maskat, E. jayalcari. 

Mr. H. C. Hart, in his ' Fauna and Flora of Sinai, Petra, and 
AVadi Arabah ' (1891), recorded RhynchocaJamusmelanocephalus, 
Glhv.,= Oliyodon melnnocephalus, Gtlir., from Petra half-way 
between Akabah and the Dead Sea, and Mana esculenta, Linn., 
from Ghor, at the southern extremity of the Dead Sea. 

Prof. O. Boettger, in 1892, added Scincus hempj'ichii, Wiegm., 
to the Arabian fauna. 

In the following year, Mr. P. Matschie described a new species 
of Lafasfia as Philocliortus neumanni=^L. iieumanni, from Aden, 
and mentioned the presence in the same locality of Mahuia 
pulclira, Matschie, = J/«iz«'« brevicollis, Wiegm., Hana ehren- 
heryi, Peters, = H. cyajiophlyctis, Schn., and Bufo arahicus, 
^].Sii?.c\\\c,-=? Bufo pentoni, Anders. 

In 189-1,1 described two new lizards from the district between 
Makallali and the Hadramut, viz. : — Uromastix {Aporoscelis) 
benti and JPJirynocephalus arahicus; and, in the following year, 
added two new lizards from Aden, Hemidactylus yerhurii and 
Mahuia tcssellafa, and pointed out that the Muscat snake iden- 
tified by Mr. Boulenger as Dipsas ohtusa, Eeuss, is a distinct 
species wh.xQh.'LndimeATarhophis gue^iiheri. I also recorded the 
presence of Acanthodacfylus cantoris, Gtbr., and Bufo pentoni^ 
Anders., at Aden. 

In the foregoing list of Keptiles and Batrachia, collected on 
Mr. Bent's Expedition, the following are additions to the fauna 
of Arabia, viz. : — Stenodactylus (C.) pulcher, n. sp., Bunop)us 
blanfordii, Strauch, Prist urns coUaris, Steindachn., Agama adra- 
mitana, n. sp., Eremias hrevirostris, Blanf., Scincus conirostris, 
Blanf., and the puff-adder, Vipera arietans, Merrem. 

To this list has to be added the new Agama from Maskat, 
Agama jayakari, the chameleon from Yemen, C. calyptratus, 
A. Dumeril, and the Glauconia from Aden, G. nursii, Anders. 



74 

The foregoing species enumerated from Arabia number seventy- 
nine in all, excluding the two species of Bana and the four 
species of Bicfo. 

They represent one Chelonian genus, twenty Lacertihan genera, 
and twelve genera of Ophidia. 

The species are distributed thus : — Testudinidae, 2 species ; 
Geckonidffi, 18 species; Agamidse, 13 species; Varanidse, 1 
species ; Lacertidse, 10 species ; Scincidse, 12 species ; Chamajleon- 
tida?, 3 species ; Typhlopidoe, 1 species ; Glauconiidse, 1 species ; 
Boid£e, 2 species ; Colubridae, 12 species ; Viperidse, 4 species. 
Making in all 2 species of land-tortoises ; 57 species of lizards ; 
and 20 species of snakes. 

The following are the genera and the number of species repre- 
senting each genus : — 

CHELONIA. 
Testudo 2 species. 



Geckoxid-e. 

Stenodactylus 

Bunopus 

Gymnodactylus 

Pristu rus 

Ptyodactylus , 

Hemidacfylus 

Tarentola 



SQUAMATA. 

l a c e r t i l i a. 

Lacertid.e. 

Lncerta 

Latasfia 

Acanthodactylus 

Eremias 



3 species. 
2 species. 



Agamid^. 

Agama 

Phry7iocephaIus 

Uromastix 



Varanus 



VARANIDiE. 



TvPiiiiOriD.E. 



1 species. 
5 species. 

1 species. 
4 species. 

2 species. 

18 

8 species. 
I species. 
4 species. 



SCIXCID-E. 



13 

1 species. 

OPHIDIA 



Mabuia 

Ahlepharus 
Scincus 
Chalcides .. 



1 species. 

2 species. 

3 species. 

4 species. 

10 



4 species, 

1 species. 

5 species. 

2 species. 

12 



ClIAlI.ELEONTID.E. 

Chamwleon 



3 species. 



Typhlops 1 species. 

Glauconiii).e. 
Glauconia 1 species. 



BOID.E. 



Eryx . 



2 species. 



CoH'BRID.E. 



Zamenis 

Lyforhynchiis 
Oligodon 



4 species. 
1 species. 
1 species. 

6 



70 



OPHIDIA {cont). 



CoLUBUiD^ (cont.) ... 6 

Tarbophis 2 species. 

Ccelojieltis 2 species. 

Psammophis 2 species. 

12 



ViPEKID.E. 

Vipera 1 species. 

Cerastes 1 species. 

IJchis 2 species. 



From tlie succeeding Lists of Arabian Eeptiles and the analyses 
accompanying them, it will be seen that 21 species are found in 
Arabia and nowhere else. Leaving these out of consideration, 
and also Hemidacttjlusjlaviviridis, Riippell, Zamenis diadeina, Schl., 
and Echis carinaftis, Schn., all of which have a wide distribution, 
embracing the greater part of India and North Africa, 55 species 
remain, and of these only 13 are not found in Africa ; so that 
the fauna has a most marked African character. Of the remaining 
42 species, 23 are found in the Nile Valley, viz. : — Testudo leitliii, 
Gthr., Stenodacfijlus elerians, Fitz., Bunopus Manfordli, Sti'auch, 
Gymnodactjjlus scaher, Heydeu, Ptyodactylus Jiasselquistii, Donn- 
dorf, Tarentola annularis, Is. GreoiTr., Arjama sinaita, Heyden, 
Agama pallida, Heuss, JJromastix cegyptius, Hasselq. & Linn., 
Varanus griseus, Daud., Acantliodactylus hoslcinnus, Daud., 
Acantliodactylus scutellatiis, Aud., Eremias guttulata, Licht., 
Eremias ruhropunctata, Licht., Mahuia quinquetceniata, Licht., 
Chalcides {S.) sej^oides, Aud., Chamceleon calgp)tratus, A. Dum., 
Zamenis rJiodorliacliis, Jan, Lytorhynchus diadema, J). & 13., 
Tarbopliis dhara, Forsk., Ccelopeltis moilensis, Eeuss, Psammophis 
schokari, Forsk., and Cerastes cornutus, Hasselq. & Linn. The 
affinity, however, of the North- Western portion of the Arabian 
fauna with that of Lower Egypt is further manifested by the 
presence in it of the species which enter the Nile Valley I'rom 
the north, viz. : — Agama sfelUo, Hasselq. & Linn., Eryx jaculus, 
Hasselq. & Linn., and Oligodon melanocephalus, Jan, and by the 
occurrence of the Mediterranean species Hemidacfylus turcicus, 
Linn., Tarentola mauritanica, Linn., Chalcides (G.) ocellatus, 
Forsk., ChamcBleon vulgaris, Daud., and Ccelopeltis monspiessulana, 
Hermann ; so that if these be added to the 23 already enumerated, 
31 species, so far, are common to Egypt and Arabia. But the 
affinity of the two faunas is still further emphasized by a consider- 
ation of the species that are distributed between the Nile aud the 
Eed Sea. The following species occur in the Southern end of 
that area, viz. : — Pristurus flavipunctatus, Eiippell, Pristurus 
crucifer, Val., Ilemidactylus sinaitus, Blgr., Blabuia hrevicollis, 



76 

Wiegm., Mahuia septemtceniata, Keusa, and Scincus hempricJiii, 
Wiegm. ; and all of them are found on the eastern side of the 
Straits of Bab el Mandeb. Agama cyanogaster, Elippell, is also 
an Abyssinian and Somaliland lizard that occurs on the Arabian 
coast, at Jiddah ; and to it have to be added two other Abyssinian 
and Eastern Sudan species, viz., Latastia longicaudata, Eeuss, 
and Eremias mucronata, Blanf., wbich, strange to say, have not 
hitherto been found in South Arabia, but only in the Sinaitic 
Peninsula. Psammophis punctulatus, D. & B., another species 
inhabiting Abyssinia, baa also been recorded from Arabia, but 
from what part has not been stated. Vipera arietans, Merr., 
has recently been received from Somaliland, and it is now for 
the first time recorded from Asia. If to the foregoing 42 species, 
Eemidact ylusflaviviridis, Eiippell, Zamenis diadema, Schlegel, and 
EcJiis carinatus, Schn., be added, the list of 45 species occurring 
on both sides of the EedSea and of the Suez Canal is completed. 
Ablepharus pannonicus, Pitz., Typlilops vermicularis, Merr., and 
Agama ruderata, Olivier, found in the north-western extremity 
of Arabia, do not enter Africa ; wliilst Echis coloratus, Grthr., is 
found in Socotra and Palestine. Two species — Stei2odachjlus (C.) 
doriai, Blanf., and Scincus conirostris, Blanf., — found in South 
Persia, and not to the west of the Persian Grulf, occur also in 
Eastern Arabia, along with Zamenis Jcarelinii, Brandt, which 
ranges southwards to Persia from Turkestan. In the same part 
of Arabia Tesludo elegans, Suhoepff, and Uromastix hardwickii, 
Grav, both of which are essentially Indian forms, are likewise 
present ; and associated with them are other four species, viz. : — 
Bunopus tuberculatus, Blanf., Pristurus t'upestris, li[auf.,AcaniJio- 
dactylus cantoris, Gthr., and Eremias hrevirostris, Blanf., all 
present in the north-western portion of India. 

Two frogs and four toads have been observed in Arabia. Two 
are European species, viz., Eana esculenia, Linn., and Bufo 
viridis, Laur. ; the former extends into North-Western, and the 
latter into North Africa generally. Two of the toads, viz., Bn/o 
i-egularis, Eeuss, and Bufo pentoni, Anders., are closely allied, and 
are confined to Africa and Arabia, the former being only found 
in North-Western and the latter in Southern Arabia. The two 
remaining species, Bana cganopJilgctis, Schn., and Bufo andersoni, 
Bh^r., are confined to Asia, the former having a very wide rauge 
from Malaya to S.E. Arabia, while the latter is a North- AVest 
Indian species extending into S.E. Arabia. 



77 



PART V. 



LIST OF THE 

REPTILIA AND BATRACIIIA OF ARABIA, 

1775 to 189G. 



REPTILIA. 

CHELONIA. 

Testudo elegans, Schoepff i, 1792-1801. 

Maskat (Jayalcar), Bouleuger, 1878. 
Testudo leitliii, Gfchr.^ 18G9. 

Between Ismailia and El Arisch, Lortet, 1883. 

SQUAMATA. 
LAOEETILIA. 

Stenodactylus elegans, Eitz., 1826. 

Arabia, Elippell, 1843-45 ; Sinai, Sinaitic Peninsula {Hart), 
Boulenger, 1S85 ; Mount Sinai, Hart, 1891. 
Stenodactylus {Ceramodactylus) pulcher, Anders., 1896. 

Hadramut, Anderson, 1896. 
Stenodactylus (Ceramodactylus) dorice, Blanf., 1874. 

Arabia (/Sir S. Bitrton), Giinther, 1878 ; Sinaitic Peninsula 
{Hart), Boulenger, 1885 ; Aden {Terhury), Anderson, 
1895 ; Hadramut, Anderson, 1896. 
Sunopus tuherciilatus, Blanf., 1874. 

Maskat {JayaJcar), Bouleuger, 1887. 
Bunopus hlanfordii, Strauch, 1887. 

Hadramut, Anderson, 1896. 
Gymnodactylus scaler, Hey den, 1827. 

Stony plains, Tor, Arabia (Biippell), Heyden, 1827 ; Aden 
(J". Schmidt), Boettger, 1892 ; Maskat {Bornmuller), 
Werner, 1894. 
Bristurus Jlaripunctatus, Eiippell, 1835. 

Maskat, Blanford, 1874 ; A.dien{Terhiry), Anderson, 1895. 

^ Possibly imported. 

* Described from a Sind specimen, probably imported. 



78 

Pristurus rupestris, Blanf., 1874. 

Maskat, Blauford, 1874 ; Hadramul-, Anderson, 1896. 
Pristurus crucifer, Valenciennes, ] 861. 

Kursi, near Aden (Marquis Doria), Peters, 1871. 
Pristurus collaris, Steindachner, 1867. 

Hadrannit, Anderson, 1896. 
Pristurvs carteri, Gray, 1863. 

Island of Masira {Carter), Grray, 186:3. 
Ptyodaciylus liasselquistii, Donndorf^ 

Tor, Arabia Petrasa, Sinai (Suppell), Heyden, 1827 ; Si- 
naitic Peninsula (Hart), Mt. Sinai, Boulenger, 1885 ; 
Maskat (Jai/al-ar), Boulenger, 1887 ; Sinai and Arabah, 
Hart, 1891 ; Caverns of Hammam Far 'un, 60 miles S.E. 
of Suez, Boutan, 1892 ; Medina District, Hejaz, Anderson, 
1896. 
Hemidactylus sinaitus, Blgr., 1885. 

Mt. Sinai, Boulenger, 1885; Aden (Teri wry), Anderson, 
1895; Hadramut, Anderson, 1896. 
Hemidachjlus turcicus, Linn., 1766. 

Arabia (Rilppell), Heyden, 1827 ; Arabia Petra?a, Eiippell, 
1843-45 ; Sinai, Werner, 1893 ; Hadramut, Anderson, 
1896; Tor, Sinaitic Peninsula, Anderson, 1896. 
Hemidactylus yerburii, Anderson, 1895. • 

Aden (Yerhury) (Nurse), Anderson, 1896. 
Hemidactylus flnviviridis, Eiippell, 1835. 

Maskat (Jayakar), Boulenger, 1887; Aden (J. ScJmndf), 
Boettger, 1892 ; Aden, (Neumann) Matschie, 1893, (Yer- 
lury) Anderson, 1895 ; Hadramut, Anderson, 1896. ' 
Tarentola annularis, Is. Geoffr., 1827. 

Mount Sinai, Boulenger, 1885. 
Tarentola waurifanica, Linn. 2, 1766. 

Arabia (Buck), Boettger, 1879-80. 
Agama sinaita, Heyden, 1827. 

Sinai (RUppell), Heyden, 1827; IMaskat, A. Dumeril, 1851; 
Sinaitic Peninsula (iZarO ; Mt. Sinai, Boulcngei', 1885 ; 
Maskat (Jayakar), Boulenger, 1SS7 ; Sinai and Akabab, 
Hart, 1891; Sinai, Werner, 1893; Aden (Yerhury), 
Anderson, 1895; Hadramut, Anderson, 1896; Medina 
District, Hejaz, Anderson, 1896. 

» Zool. Beitr. iii. 17i)S, p. 113. 

- Prof. Boettger liad Dot seen the specimen referred to this species, but 
recorded it on the verbal autliority of Ur, Buck. 



> ' 79 

Agama faUida, Heuss, 1834. 

Arabia, Siuaitic Peninsula, Reuss, 183-1 ; Sinaitic Peninsula 
{Hart), Mt. Sinai, Boulenger, 1885 ; Sinii and Arabah, 
Hart, 1891 ; Aiu Musa and Tor, Sinaitic Peninsula, 
Anderson, 1896. 
Agama riiderata, Olivier. 

N. Arabia, Olivier ; near Medina, Anderson, 1896. 
Agama jagnJcari, Anderson, 1896. 

Maskat {Jayalcar), Anderson, 1896. 
Agama jiavimaculata, Eiippell, 1835. 

Jiddali, Eiippell, 1835 ; Arabia, Boulenger, 1885 ; Iladramut, 
Anderson, 1896 ; Medina District, llcjaz, Anderson, 
1896. 
Agama cyanogaster, Eiippell ', 1835. 

Arabia (Bofta), A. Dumeril, 1851. 
Agama adramitana, Anderson, 1896. 

Hadramut, Anderson, 1896. 
Agama stellio, Hasselq. & Linn., 1757. 

Arabia {Rilppell), Heyden, 1827 ; Mt. Sinai, Boulenger, 
1885 ; Tor, Sinaitic Peninsula, Anderson, 1896 ; Medina 
District, Hejaz, Anderson, 1896. 
Fhrynocephalus arahicus, Anderson, 1894. 

Hadramut, Anderson, 1894. 
JJromastix ornatus, Heyden, 1827. 

Moilah {BuppelT), Heyden, 1827 ; Mt. Sinai, Werner, 1893. 
JJromastix cegyptius, Hasselquist & Linn., 1757. 

Midian {Sir It. Burton), Griinther, 1878 ; Maskat {JayaJcar), 
Boulenger, 1887. 
TJromastix JiardwicJcii, Grray, 1827. 

Makallab, Carter, 1864 ; Boulenger, 1885. 
Uro7nastix {Aporoscelis) henti, Anderson, 1894. 

Hadramut, Anderson, 1894 ; 50 miles from Aden {Nurse), 
Anderson, 1896. 
Varamts griseus, Daudiii, 1803. 

Maskat {JayaJcar), Boulenger, 1887 ; Aden {Terhury), 
Anderson, 1895 ; Hadramut, Anderson, 1896. 
Lacerta jayahari, Blgr., 1887. 

Maskat {Jayakar), ^onlewger, 1887. 

• Dumeril and Bibron erroneously give Jiddah as the locality whence the 
type of A. cyanoc/aster waf5 obtained ; and many authors have repeated their 
statement. It came from Massowah. 



80 

Latastia longicaudata, Heusi*, 1834. 

Tor, Sinaitic Peninsula {Riippell), Reuss, 1834. 
Latastia neumanni, Matschie, 1893. 

Aden, Matschie, 1893 ; Anderson, 1895. 
Acanthodact yJ us bosJcianus, Daud., 1803. 

Midian (Burton), Giinther, 1878 ; Sinaitic Peninsula (Hart), 
Mt. Sinai, Boulenger, 1887 ; Mt. Sinai and Arabah, Hart, 
1891 ; Aden, Matschie, 1893 ; Sinai, Werner, 1893, (Ter- 
hury) Anderson, 1895 ; Hadramut, Anderson, 1896. 
AcantJiodactylus scutellatus, Andouin, 1827. 

Mount Sinai, Boulenger, 1887. 
AcantTiodactylus cantoris, Gthr., 1864. 

Aden (Yerbury), Anderson, 1895 ; Hadramut, Anderson, 
1896. 
Eremias guttulata, Licht., 1823. 

Arabia (Westplial-Castlenau), 1870 ; Sinaitic Peninsula 
(Hart), Mt. Sinai, Boulenger, 1887 ; Arabia and Sinai, 
Hart, 1891 ; Hadramut, Anderson, 1896. 
Eremias hrevirostris, Blanf., 1876. 

Hadramut, Anderson, 1896. 
JSremias riihropunctata, Licht., 1823. 

Sinaitic Peninsula (Hart); Mt. Sinai, Boulenger, 1887, 
Hart, 1891. 
'Eremias mucronata, Blanf., 1870. 
Mt. Sinai, Boulenger, 1887. 
Mabuia brevicoUis, Wiegm., 1837. 

Aden (Neumann), Matschie, 1892, (Yerbury) Anderson, 
1895 ; Hadramut, Anderson, 1896. 
Mabuia tessellata, Anderson, 1895. 

Aden (Yerbury), Anderson, 1895. 
Mabuia septemtceniata, Eeuss, 1834. 

Arabia and Maskat (Arnaud), A. Dumeril, 1851 ; Maskat 
(Blanford), Boulenger, 1887 ; Maskat, Werner, 1894. 
Mabuia quinquetceniata, Licht., 1823. 

Mount Sinai, Boulenger, 1887, 
Ablepliarus prinnonicus, Fitz., 1829. 

Arabia Petrsea (Biippell), Gray, 1839; Eiippell, 1845; 
Boettger, 1893. 
Scincus hemp rich ii, Wiegm., 1837. 

Arabia, Boettger, 1892: Aden (Yerbury), Anderson, 
1895. 



81 

Scincus conirosfris, Blanf., 1S81. 
Hadramut, Anderson, 189G. 
Scincus mitranus, Anderson, 1871. 

Arabia, Anderson, 1871. 
Scincus meccensis, Wiegm., 1837. 

Arabia, "Wiegm aim, 1837. 
Scincus muscafensis, Murray, 1886. 

Maskat, Murray, 188G ; Maskat (Jayakar), Boulenger, 1887 ; 
Island of Bahrein {Bornmiiller) , AVcrner, 1894. 
Chalcides {Gongylus) oce/Z«^«s \ ForskSl, 1775. 

Arabia (Arnaud), A. Dumeril, 1851 ; Sinaitic Penin>^ula 
(Rart), Boulenger, 1887 ; Maskat (Jai/akar), 1887 ; Sinai 
and Arabali, Hart, 1891 ; Aden, Boettger, 1892, Matschie, 
1893 ; Maskat (BornmUUer), Werner, 1894; Aden (Ter- 
bury), Anderson, 1895 ; Hadramut, Anderson, 1896. 
Chalcides (Sjihccnops) sepoides, Audouin, 1827. 

Tor, Sinaitic Peninsula, Peters, 1864; Maskat {Jaynhar), 
Boulenger, 1887 ; Sinaitic Peninsula {Hart), Boulenger, 
1887 ; Wadi Gburandel and Mt. Sinai, Hart, 1891. 

EHIPTOaLOSSA. 
Chamcshon vulgaris, Baud., 1803. 

Arabia (Christy), Gray, 1864 ; Sinai and AVn Musa, Hart, 
1891 ; Ain Musa, Anderson, 1896. 
Chamceleon calcarifer, Peters, 1870. 

Aden (Yerbury), Boulenger, 1887; {Neumann) Matsebie, 
1893; (FerSwr?/) Anderson, 1895; Hadramut, Anderson, 
1896 ; {Nurse) Anderson, 1896. 
Chamceleon calyptratus, A. Dumeril, 1851. 

Yemen {Cairo Museum), Anderson, 1896. 

OPHIDIA. 
Typhlops vermicidaris, Merrem, 1820. 

Sinai, Dumeril & Bibron, 1844. 
Glauconia nursii, Anders., 1896. 

Aden (Nurse), Anderson, 1896. 
Eryx jaculus, Hasselq. & Linn., 1757. 

Arabia, Dumeril & Bibr( n, 1844. 

^ Forskal gives Egypt as the habitat of the species and makes no mention 
of Ariibia, but some authors have quoted him as tiie authority of its occurrence 
in Arabia. 

9 



82 

Eryx jaynhari, Blgr., 1888. 

Maskat (Jayakar), Boulenger, 1893. 
Zamenis rhodorhachis, Jan, 1865. 

Midian {Burton), Giiuther, 1878 ; Maskat (Jayakar), 
Bouleuger, 1887 ' ; Aden (ScJimidf), Boettger, 1892 \ 
(Verhury) Boulenger, 1893, {Yerhiiry) Anderson, 1895; 
Hadramut, Anderson, 1896. 
Zamoiis karelinii, Brandt, 1838. 

Eas Massendam at entrance to Persian Grulf, Bedriaga, 
1879. 
Zamenis elegantissimus, Griintlier, 1878. 

Mountain east of El Muwaylah, Midian (Burton), Giiather, 
1878 ; Akabah, Hart, 1891. 
Zamenis diadema, Sclilegel, 1837. 

Sandy Coast region of theTehama,Midian(5e<r/o;0, Griintlier, 
1878; Maskat (Jayalcar), Boulenger, 1S87 ; Mount Hor, 
Arabia Petreea, Hart, 1891 ; Maskat (Jayakar), Boulenger, 
1893; Hadramut, Anderson, 1896. 
Lytorhynchus diadema. Dam. & Bibr., 185i. 

Maskat (Jayakar), Boulenger, 1887 ; Aden (Neumann), 
Matschie, 1893. 
OliyodoJi melanocephalus, Jan, 1862. 

Arabia Petrsea, Hart, 1891. 
Tarhophis dliara, Forskal, 1775. 

Yemen, Forskal, 1775; Medina District, Hejaz, Andei son 
1896. 
Tarhophis guentheri, Anderson, 1895. 

Maskat (Jayakar), Boulenger, 1887^; Aden (Yerlury), 
Anderson; Hadramut, Anderson, 1866. 
Ccelopeltis mo7ispessuJana, Hermann, 1804. 

Mount Sinai, Hart, 1891 ; Sinai, Werner, 1893. 
Ccelop)eltis moilensis, Beuss, 1834. 

Moilah, Midian (RiippeU), Eeuss, 1834; Aden (Yerhury), 
Anderson, 1895 ; Hadramut, Anderson, 1896. 
Psammophis scliokari, Forskal, 1775. 

Yemen, "fiequens in sylvis montosis," Forskal, 1775 ; Tor, 
Sinaitic Peninsula (RiippeU), Eeuss, 1834 ; Maskat 

' Recorded as Z. ventrimaculatus, Gray. 

- Recorded by Prof. Boettger as Z. ladacensit^, Anders. 

^ Recorded as Dipsas nhtusa, Reuss. 



S3 

(Jai/ahar), Boulenger, 1878 ' ; Aden {Yerhiiry), Anderson, 
18i)5 ; All! Musa, Suez, Anderson, 189G ; Iladramut, 
Anderson, 1S9G. 
Psammophis punctulatus, Dum. & Bibr., 1854. 

Arabia {Arnaud), Punieril & Bibron, 1854. 
Vipera arictans, Merrem, 1820. 

Iladramut, Anderson, 1896. 
Cerastes cornutus, Hasselq. & Linn., 1757. 

Arabah, Arabia Petra;a, Straucli, 18G2 ; Sinai, "Werner, 
1893. 
Echis carinattis, Sclin., ISOl. 

Sandy coast of the Tehama, Midian {Burton), Giinther, 1878 ; 
Maskat (Jai/akar), Boulenger, 1887 ; Aden (Schmidt), 
Boettger, 1892 ; Iladramut, Anderson, 1890. 
Echis coloratus, Gthr., 1878. 

Jebel Shilrr, 4500 ft., Midian {Burton), Giinther, 1878; 
Maskat {Jayahar), Boulenger, 1887 ; Hadramut, Anderson, 
1896. 

BATRACHIA. 

ECAUDATA. 

liana escuJenta, Linn., 1766. 

Ghor, South end of Dead Sea, Hart, 1891. 
Rana cyanophlijctis, Sehn., 1799. 

Arabia, Peters, 1863, Boulenger, 1882 ; Aden {Neumann), 
Matscbie, 1893, {Yerhury) Anderson, 1895 ; Iladramut, 
Anderson, 1896. 
Bufo viridis, Laur., 1768. 

Arabia Petreea {Ruppell),llejdi&x\. 1827; Arabia {Burton), 
Boulenger, 1880 & 1882. 
Bufo andersoni, Blgr., J8S3. 

Maskat {Jayakar), Boulenger, 1887, AVerner, 1804; Aden 
{Yerhury), Anderson, 1895. 
Bufo pentoni, Anderson, 1893. 

Aden {Neumajin), Matscbie, 1893; {Yerhury) Anderson, 
1895. 
Bufo regularis, Eeuss, 1834. 

Midian {Burton), Boulenger, 1882. 

' Eecordt'd as P. hiihii. Gthr. 

9'^ 



8:1 



General Distribution of the Species. 





Africa. 


Asia. 


EuRorE. 


Testudo elegans, Schoepff. 




Ceylon, India, Sind, 






E. Arabia. 




Testudo leithii, Gthr. ... 


Lower Egypt. 


Between Ismailia and 
El Arisch ; Lower 
Syria. 




Stenodactylus elegans, 


Algerian Sahara to 


N.W. Arabia, S. Syria, 


? Island of Syra. 


Fitz. 


Egypt, Nubia, South- 


Western Bejudah 






ern Abyssinia and 


desert. 






Eastern Sudan ; 








Lake Rudolph. 






Stenodactylus (C.) pul- 
cher, Anders. 




S.E. Arabia. 






Stenodactylus (0.) dorire, 
Blanf. 




Persia, Arabia. 






Bunopus tuberculatus, 

Blanf. 




Sind, Afghanistan, 
Baluchistan, South- 










Eastern Persia, E. 








Arabia. 




Bunopus blanfordii, 


Egypt. 


S.E. Arabia. 




Strauch. 








Gymnodactylus scabei-, 


Egypt, Abyssinia. 


Arabia, S. Mesopota- 




Hey den. 




mia, Persia, Afghan- 
istan, Sind. 




Pristurus flavipunctatuB, 


Western Somaliland, 


S. Arabia. 




Jiuppell. 


Abyssinia. 






Pristurus rupestris, 
Blanf. 




Sind, S. Persia, S.E. 
Arabia. 






Pristurus crucifer, Val. . 


Abyssinia, Somaliland. 


S. Arabia. 




Pristurus collaris, Sieind. 
Pristurus carteri, Gray . 




S.E. Arabia. 
S.E. Arabia. 






Ptyodactylus hasselquis- 


Algeria to Egypt, coast 


Syria, W., N., & E. 




tii, Donndorf. 


of Eed Sea, Shoa to 
near Assab. 


Arabia. 




Hemidactylus sinaitus, 


"West Coast of Eed Sea. 


Arabia. 




Blgr. 








Hemidactylus turcicus, 


Algeria to Egypt, East- 


N. & S.E. Arabia, 


Borders of Medi- 


Linn. 


ern Sudan, Senaar, 


Syria, Asia Minor, 


terranean. 




coast of Red Sea, 


Cyprus, Persia, Sind. 






Abyssinia. 






Hemidactylus yerburii, 
Anders. 




Arabia. 










Hemidactylus flavivii-i- 


Coast of Red Sea. 


Arabia, Persia, Baluch- 




dis, Biippell. 




istan, Afghanistan, 
Indo-Malaya. 




Tarentola annularis, Is. 


Egypt, Nubia, E. Su- 


N.W. Arabia. 




Geoffr. 


dan, S. Abyssinia. 






Tarentola mauritanica, 


Algeria to Egypt. 


N.W. Arabia, Cyprus. 


Borders of Medi- 


Linn. 






terranean. 


Agama sinaita, Heyden . 


Egypt, ? Sennaar. 


N., S., & E. Arabia, 
Syria. 




Agama pallida, Beuss ... 


Egypt. 


N.W. Arabia. 




Agama ruderata, Olivier 




N. & W. Arabia, Syria 
to Sind. 








Agama jayakari, Anders. 




E. Arabia. 





85 





Akiuca. 


Asia. 


El' HOPE. 


Agama flavimaculata, 

Uiippell. 
Agama eyanogaster, 




W. Arabia. 
W. Arabia. 




Abyssinia, Somaliland. 


EiippcU. 








A-ianui adramitana, An- 




S.E. Arabia. 




ders. 








Agama stellio, Ilasselq. ^• 


Egypt. 


S. Caucasus, Asia 


S.E. Europe. 


Linn. 




Minor, Cyprus, 
Syria, N. & W. Ara- 
bia. 




Phrynoceplialiis arabi- 

C1I8, Anders. 




S.E. Arabia. 










Uromastix ornafcus, Hey- 
den. 




W. Arabia. 










Uromastix ffgyptius, 


Algerian Sabara, 


W. & E. Arabia. 




Hassclq. iS,- Linn. 


Egypt. 






Uromastix bardvTickii, 
Gray. 




N.W. India, Balucbi- 
stan, S.E. Arabia. 






Uromastix (A.) benti, 
Anders. 




S.E. & S. Arabia. 










Varamis griseus, Daud. . 


Nortb Sabara, Algeria, 


S., S.E.. & E. Arabia, 






to Egypt, Eastern 


S. Syria, Persia, 






Sudan. 


Caspian Province, 
Afghanistan, N.W. 
India. 




Lacerta jayakari, Blgr. . 
Latastia longicaudata. 




E. Arabia. 




E. Sudan, Abyssinia, 


N.W. Arabia. 




Eeuss. 


Somaliland, Taita. 






Tjntnstin. npiimanni. 




S. Arabia. 




Matscliie. 








Acuntbodaotylus boski- 


Algeria to Egypt, Nile 


Soutbern Syria, N., S., 




anus, Daud. 


Valley, Abyssinia, 
Eastern Sudan. 


& S.E. Arabia. 




Acintbodactylus scutei- 


Senegambia, Atlantic 


Southern Syria, N. 




latus, Aud. 


(Cape Jubi) fo Eed 
Sea, Nile Valley 
(desert), Abyssinia, 
Somaliland. 


Arabia. 




Acnnthodactylus cantoris, 
Gthr. 




S. & E. Arabia, S. Per- 






sia, Baluchistan, 








Afghanistan, Sind, 








N.W. India. 




Eremias guttulata, Licht. 


Mogador to Red Sea, 


S. Syria, N. Arabia, 






Nile Valley (desert) ; 


Syria, Persia, Balu- 






Socotra. 


chistan, Sind. 




T^]rftnnas brevirostris 




Per.sia, Beka'a (Coele- 
syria), S.E. Arabia. 




Blanf. 






Eremias rubropunctata, 


Egypt. 


N.W. Arabia. 




Licht. 








Eremias mucronata, 


Eastern Sudan, Abys- 


N.W. Arabia. 




Blanf. 


sinia, Somaliland, 
Berbera, Tana river. 






Mabiiia brevicollis, 


Abyssinia. 


S. Arabia. 




Wiegm. 








Mabuiatessellata, Anders. 
Mabuia septemt£eniata, 




S. Arabia. 

E. Arabia, Syria, Asia 




Abyssinia. 


Eeuss. 




Minor, Persia, Sind. 





86 



Mabuia quinqueteniata. Senegal, Benguela 



Africa. 



Licht 



Ablepharus pannonicus 
Fttc. 

Scincus lieinprichii, 

Wiegm. 
Scincus co))irostris,Bfe»/. 
ScincLis uiilranus, Anders 
Scincus nieccensis, JFi'V^'Wi. 
Scincus muscatensis, 

Murray. 
Cbalcides (G.) ocellatus 

ForsJcdl. 



Cbalcides (S.) sepoides, 
And. 



Cbamffileon Tulgaris, 
Daud. 



Mozambiqiie,to Delta 
of Kile, Abvssinia, 
Eastern Sudan. 



Abj-ssinia. 



Asia. 



Europe. 



El Gada (Cape Jubij 
to Egypt, KileValley, 
coast of Eed Sea, 
Abvssinia, Berbera, 
Somaliland. 

Senegambia, El Gada 
(Cape Jubi) to Egypt 
Nile Valley to Wadi 
Haifa, Soiualiland. 

Mogador to Egypt. 



N.W. Arabia. 



N.W. Arabia, Syria, 
Asia Minor, Cyprus, 
Island of Syra. 

S. Arabia. 

S. Persia, S.E. Arabia. 
Arabia. 
W. Arabia. 
E. Arabia. 

Sind, Persia, Arabia, 
Syria, Cbios, Rhodes, 
Cyprus. 



Hungary, Rou- 
melia, Albania, 
Greece. 



Syria, N.W, 
Arabia. 



and £. 



Cbamaileon calcarifer, 

Peters. 
Chama'leon calyptratus, Nile Yalley. 

A. Dumeril. 
Typbloi:is yermicularis, 

Merr. 



Glauconia nursii, Anders, 
Eryx jaculus, Hasselq. <j' 
Linn. 



Eryx jayakari, B/gr. . . . 
Zaiiienis rbodorhachis, 
Jan. 

Zamenis karelinii,5rawc?<. 



Zanienis elegantissimus, 

athr. 
Zamenis diadema, Schleg. 



Algeria to Lower 
Egypt. 



Egypt, Siimaliland. 



Sardinia, Sicily, 
Malta, Lampe- 
dusa, Crete. 



North Sahara, Algeria 
to Egypt, Eastern 
Sudan. 



N.W. Arabia, Syria, 
Cyprus, Asia Minor, 
Chios. 

S. and S.E. Arabia. 

S.W. Arabia. 

Caucasus, Turkestan, 
Afghanistan, E. Per- 
sia, Asia Minor.Sy ria, 
Palestine, N.W. Ara- 
bia. 

S.E. Arabia. 

N.W. Arabia, Syria, 
Asia Minor, Persia, 
Turke'^tan, Afghan- 
istan. 

E. Arabia. 

Arabia, Syria, Persia, 
Baluchistan, Punjab, 
Western Himalayas. 

Turkestan, Afghan- 
istan, Baluchistan, 
Persia, E. Arabia. 

N.W. Arabia. 

Arabia, Syria, Asia 
Minor, Persia, Balu- 
chistan, Afghanistan, 
Turkestan, Sind, 
Western Himalayas, 
Punjab, N.W. Pro- 
vinces India and 
Western Konkan 
(Bombay). 



S. Spain. 



Turkey, Greece, 
Ionian Islands, 
Rhodes, Cyprus. 



Greece and its 
islands, Corfu. 



87 



Africa. 



Asia. 



Ljtorliynchiis diudema, 

Bum. cj'- Bihr. 
OligodciD melanoccpha-J Lower Egypt i^ Cairo) 

his, Jan. 
Tarbophis dliara, For- 

skdl. 
Tarboitliis guciitheri, 

Aiidc.rs. 
Coclopcltis inonspes- 

sulann, Hermann. 



Algerian Saliara to E. & S. Arabia, Syria, 
" ~ Persia. 

N. Arabia, Syria. 



Cwlopeltis 

lu'KSS. 

Psaiimiophis 
Forskdl. 



inoilensis, 
scliokari 



Psammophis punctula- 

tiis. Bum. if- Bihr. 
Vipera arietans, Merr 



Cerastes cornufus, 

Hasselq. tf' Linn. 

Echis carinatus, Schn, .. 



Egypt, Senaar. 
owor Egypi 

Nile Valley. 



Marocco to Egypt. 



Echis coloratus, Gthr. ... 

B.ana esculenta, Linn. ... 

Rana cyanophlyctis, 

Schn. 

Bufo viridis, Laui- 

Bufo andersoni, B^gr. ... 



Bufo pentoni, Anders. 
Bufo regularis, lieuss. 



Algerian Sahara to 
Egypt, Nubia. 

Marocco, Algerian 
Sahara to Egypt, 
Nile Valley to Khar- 
toum, Eastern Su- 
dan. 

Sonialiland, Mozam- 
bique. 

Cape of Good Hope 
to Senegambia and 
Jfarocco, and to 
Ktirdofan, Abyssinia. 

Algerian Sahara to 
coast of Red Sea, 
Nile Valley to 
Nubia. 

W. Africa, Northern 
Sahara to coast of 
Red Sea, Nile Valley 
(desert), Eastern 
Sudan, Abyssinia, 
Sonialiland. 

Island of Socotra. 

N. Africa. 



N. Africa. 



W. Arabia. 
S.&S.E. Arabia. 

N.W.Arabia, Syria, Asia 
Minor, Cyprus, Lower 
Caucasus, Persia. 

W. &S. Arabia, West- 
ern Persia. 

Arabia, Syria, Persia, 
Balucliistan, AfghaU' 
istau, Sind. 

W. Arabia. 
S.E. Arabia. 



N.W. Arabia, S. Pales- 
tine (desert). 



Suakin. 
N.E. Africa. 



Arabia, desert S. Pales- 
tine, Persia, Balueh- 
isl,an, Afghanistan, 
Turkestan, Sind, 
India. 

W. Arabia, S. end of 
Dead Sea, Jericho. 

PaliBarctie region, 
N.W. Arabia. 

Malay Peninsula to 
Baluchistan; Ceylon; 
S.E. Arabia. 

CentralAsia and south- 
wards to the Hima- 
layas ; N.W. Arabia. 
Agra District, Raj- 
putana, Sind; S.E. 
Arabia. 

S. Arabia. 

N.W. Arabia. 



EUROI'E. 



Southern Europe, 



Palajai'ctic region. 



East of Rhine & 
Rhone. 



88 
An Analysis of the Disteibltion of the Species. 



Species essentially Arabian. 

Stenodactijlus (C.) pulcJier, Anders. 
Pristurus collaris, Steindacbn. 

„ carteri, Gray. 
Semidachilus yerlurii, Anders. 
Agama jayahari, Anders. 

,, JIavimaculata, Riippell. 

,, adrmnitana, Anders. 
Phrynocephaliis arahicus, Anders. 
Uromastix ornatus, Hey den. 

„ (Aporoscelis) lend, Anders. 

Lacerta jayalcari, Blgr. 
Latastia neumanrti, Matscliie. 
Mahuia fessellata, Anders. 
Scincus mitranus, Anders. 

,, meccensis, Wiegm. 

„ muscniensis, Murray. 
CJiamaleon calcarifer, Peters. 
Glauconia nursii, Anders. 
.EryxjayaJcari, Blgr. 
Zamenis eJegantissimus, Grthr. 
Tarhophis guentlieri, Anders. 

"Western Arabia, Palestine, Syria, and Socotra. 
Echis colomtus, Gtlir. 

Species confined to Africa and Arabia. 
Bunopns hJanfordii, Straueh. 
Pristurus flavipimctoius, Eiippell. 

„ crucifer, Val. 

Eemidactylus sinaUus, Blgr. 
Tarentola annularis, Is. Geoffr. 
Agama pallida, Keuss. 

„ cyanogaster, Eiippell. 
Uromastix cegyptius, Hasselq. & Linn, 
Latastia longicaudaia, Eeuss. 
Eremias rulroptinctata, Licbt. 



S9 

Eremias nuicronatd, Blanf. 
Ilahiiia hrcvicoUis, Wiegm. 

,, quinqv.etaniata, Lic-ht. 
Scincus hemprichii, Wiegm. 
Chameeleon calyptratus, A. Dumeiil. 
Tarhopliis dliara, Forskfil. 
Psammophis jjiincttdahis, Dum. & Bibr. 
Vipera arietans, Merr. 

Species found in Africa and Arabia, but extending to the North, 
or to the JVorth-East beyond Arabia. 

Testiido leitliii, Gthr. 
Stenodacti/lus elegans, Fitz. 
GymnodactyJus scaler, Heydeu. 
I'fyodactylus Jtasselquistii, Donudorf. 
Ayama sinaita, Heyden. 
Varctnus griseiis, Daud. 
AcanthodadyJus hosTciamis, Daud. 
,, scutellatus, Aud. 

Eremias giiitulata, Licht. 
Mahiiia sepiemtceniata, Eeuss. 
Chalcides (S.) sepoides, Aud. 
Zamenis rhodorachis, Jan. 
Lytorhynclius diadema, Dum. & Bibr. 
CcelopeJtis moiJensis, Reuss. 
Psammophis schokari, Forskal. 
Cerastes cornutus, Hasselq. & Linn. 

Asiatic species not extending to the West of the Persian Gulf 
and not entering Africa. 

Testudo elegans^ SchoepfF. 
BunopMs iuherculahis, Blanf. 
Pristurus rupestris, Blanf. 
XJromasiix hardivicJcii, Gray. 
Acanthodactylus cantoris, Gthr. 
Eremias hrevirostris, Blanf. 

Southern Asiatic to African Coast of Eed Sea. 
Ilemidactylus flaviviridis, Eiippell. 



90 

Turkestan and Persian species not extending to West of the 
Persian Gulf, and not entering Africa. 
Stenodactylus (C.) doriae^ Blanf. 
Scincus conirostris, Blanf. 
Zamenis karelinii, Brandt. 

Asiatico-African species. 

Zamenis diadema, Schlegel. 
Echis carinatus, Schn. 

Soutlx-Eastern European and South-AVestern Asiatic species 

not entering Africa. 

Ahlepharus pannonicus, Pitz. 
TypJilops vermicularis, Merr. 

South- Western Asiatic species not entering Africa. 
Af/ama ruderata, Olivier. 

South-Eastern European and South- Western Asiatic species 

entering Egypt, 

Agama stellio, Hasselq. & Linn. 

Central and South-Western Asiatic and South-Eastern 
European species extending to North Africa. 

Eryxjaculus, Hasselq. & Linn. 

South-Western Asiatic species extending to Egypt. 
Oligodon melanocephalus, Jan. 

European side of Mediterranean, South-Western Asia 
(Sind to Syria), and North-Eastern Africa. 

Semidactylus ticrcicus, Linn. 

South-Western and Southern Europe and North Africa. 
Tarentola mauritanica, Linn. 

Sardinia, Sicily, Greece, Cyprus, South-Western Asia (Sind 
to Syria), North and North-Eastern Africa. 
Chalcides (G.) ocellatus, Forskll. 



91 

South-AV^estern Europe (Spain) and North Africa. 
ChamcBleon vulgaris, Daud. 

South and South-Eastern Europe, South- Western Asia 
(Persia to Syria), Cyprus, and North Africa. 

CcelojJcUis monspessulana, Hermann. 

Pala?arctic Eegion. 
Hana esculenta, Linn. 

Europe east of the Ehone and Ehine, North Africa, Central 
Asia southwards to the Himalayas. 

JBiifo viridis, Laur. 

African and Arabian species. 

£ufo reffularis, Eeuss. 
,, pejitoni, Anders. 

Malayan Peninsula to Baluchistan, Ceylon. 
Sana cyanophlt/ctis, Schn. 

Agra District to Sind. 
Bufo andersoni, Blgr. 



92 
LITEEATURE. 



1751. Hasselquist, Acta Soc. Eeg. Sc. TJpsal. 

1757. Hasselquist's ' Iter Palsestiuum' was edited by Linnisus, 

wlio took the responsibility for the names of the species 

enumerated. 
1766. Linnajus, Syst. Nat. i., xii. ed. 
1768. Laurenti, Syn. Eept. 
1775, Forskal, Descr. Aiiira. etc. 
1702-98. Doundorf, Zool. Beytr. 
1792-1801. Schoepff, Hist. Test. 
1799-1801. Schneider, Hist. Amph. 
1801-7. Ob'vier, Voy. Emp. Othoman. 

1802. Daudin, Higt. Eept. iii. 

1803. Daudin, Hist. Eept. iv. & v. 
1820. Merrem, Syst. Amph. 

1823. Lichteustein, Verz. Doubl. Mus. Beri. 

1827. GreofFroy, Is., & Audouin, Descr. de I'Egypte, Eeptile3\ 

1829. Cuvier, Eegne Anim. 

1829. Fitzinger, Verb. Ges. Nat. Fr. Berlin, i. 

1834. Eeuss, Mus. Senck. i. 

1835. Eiippell, N. "Wirbelth. F. Abyss., Amphibien. 
1887. Dumeril & Bibron, Erpet. Genl. iv. 

1837. Schlegel, Phys. Serp. 

1837. Wiegiuann, Arch. Naturg. 

1839. Gray, Ann. & Mag. N. H. ii. 

18i3-45. Eiippell, Mus. Senck. iii. 

1841. Dumeril & Bibron, Erpet. Genl. vi. 

1851. Dumeril, Cat. Mcth. Eept. 

1854. Dumeril & Bibron, Erpet. Genl. vii. 

1861. Valenciennes, Compte-Eend. liii. 
1861-81. Jan, Icon. Gen. 

1862. Jan, Arch. Zool. Anat. Phys. ii. 

1862. Strauch, Mem. Ac. St. Petersb. (vii.) iv. 

1863. Jan, Elenco Sist. Ofidi. 

^ Is. Geoffroy St. Ililairc, iu his preface (p. 2) to the fifth volume of the 
work entitled ' Voyage autour du Monde sur la Fregate La Venus,' gives 1827 
as the date of his sections of the above work. On the other hand, Dumeril in 
tbe third volume of the Erp6t. Genl. p. 284, mentions 1828 as the date of its 
publication. 



93 

1863-61. Gray, Proc. Zool. Soc. 

1861. Carter, Proc. Zool. Soc. 

1864. Guntlier, Kept. Brit. Ind. 

1864 Peters, Mon. Berl. Ac. 

1867. Steindacbner, Reise Frog. 'Novara,' Eept. 

1869. Peters, Mon. Berl. Ac. 

1869. Straueli, Mem. Ac. St. Petersb. (vii.) xiv. no. 6. 

1870-71. Peters, Mon. Berl. Ac. 

1874. Blauford, Ann. & Mag. N. H. (4) xii. 

1877. Boettger, Zeitsclir. ges. Naturvv. Berl. (Giebel) (2) i. 

1878. Giinther, Proc. Zool. Soc. Burton's ' Gold Mines of 

Midian.' 
1878-80. Boettger, Bar. Senck. Nat. Ges. 

1879. Bedriaga, Bull. Soc. Nat. Moscou. 

1880. Boulenger, Proc. Zool. Soc. 
1882. Boulenger, Cat. Batr. Sal. B. M. 
1882. Boulenger, Cat. Batr. Grad. B. M. 

1882. Vaillant, Miss. Eevoil, Eept. et Batr. 

1883. Boulenger, Ann. Mng. N. H. (5) xii. 

1883. Lortet, Arch. Mus. Lyon. iii. 

1884. Murray, Vert. Zool. Sind. 

1885. Bouleuger, Cat. Liz. B. M. i. 

1886. Murray, Ann. & Mag. N. H. (5) xvii. 

1887. Straucb, Mem. Ac. St. Petersb. (vii.) xxxv. no. 2. 
1887. Boulenger, Cat. Liz. B. M. iii. 

1887. Boulenger, Ann. & Mag. N. H. (5) xx. 

1888. Boulenger, Ann. & Mag. N. H. (6) ii. 

1889. Boulenger, Cat. Chelouians B. M. 

1891. Bouleuger, Trans. Zool. Soc. xiii. ; Ann. Mus. Genova, (2) 
xii., xxxii. 

1891. Hart, Fauna and Flora of Sinai, Petra, &c. 

1892. Boettger, B.^r. Offenb. Ver. Nat. 

1893. Boulenger, Cat. Snakes B. M. i. 

1893. Boettger, Kat. Eept. Samml. Mus. Senck. 
1893. Matschie, Sitz. Ges. Naturf. Fr. Berl. 

1893. AYeruer, Verb, zool.-bot. Ges. Wien. 

1894. Paracca, Boll. Mus. Torino. 

1894. Anderson, Ann. & Mag. N. H. (6) xiv. 
1894. Boulenger, Cat. Snakes B. M. ii. 

1894. Werner, Verb, zool.-bot. Ges. "Wien. 

1895. Anderson, Proc. Zool. Soc. 



94 



PART VI. 



A PRELIMINARY LIST OF THE 

REPTILIA AND BATRACHIA OF EGYPT 

(from the Delta to "WAdi Halfa) 
AND OF THE DISTEICT OF SUAKIN. 



I AVAIL myself of this opportunity to publish this simple Name- 
list, as it may be useful for comparison with the Arabian List ; 
and, moreover, it affords me the means cf expressing my thanks 
to all those who have been so good as to assist me in procuring 
specimens for the furtherance of my work on these sections of 
the Fauna of Egypt ^. 

A complete set of all the species represented in the Collection 
will be presented to the British Museum, and another set, as 
perfect as it may be post^ible to make it, will also be presented 
to the Museum of the Medical School of Cairo. The remaining 
duplicates will be placed at the disposal of the former Institution, 
for exchange with other Museums. 

I append to the List the names of certain species not repre- 
sented in the Collection, but which have been recorded from 
Egypt ; so that it may be seen at a glance what is the present 
state of our knowledge regarding these sections of the fauna in 
the areas indicated, and what are the desiderata necessary to 
make tiie Collection complete. The mention of these desiderata 
may, I hope, possibly lead to their being procured by some 
of those who have so kindly assisted me in the past. 

The Collection comprises 982 specimens of Lizards, 238 of 
Snakes, and 89 of Batrachia. To these have to be added 1 
Crocodile (jnv.), 3 land Tortoises, and 3 river Turtles. 

' I liavc iiichided the »Siicz district to Ain Mus.-i. 



95 

REPTILIA. 

EMYDOSAUEIA. 

Crocodilus kiloticus, Daud. 

Ijiiv. AVadi Haifa. Surgeon- Captain E. 11. Penton. 

CHELONIA. 

Testudo LEiTHir, Giintlier. 

1 S •'ind. 2 2 . Neighbourhood of Alexandria. 

Trionvx triunguis, Forskfil. 

1 $ . Nile at Cairo. Dr. Walter lunes. 
1 juv. 2 ' Above First Cataract of Nile. 
1 juv. 5 . Wivdi Haifa. Major Ileniy d'Altou Ilarkness. 

SQUAMATA. 

LACEETILIA. 
Stknodacttlus elegaxs, Fitzinger. 

Ascalabotes sthenodactiihis, Lieht. Yerz. Doubl. Ecrl. Mus. 
1823, p. 102. 

Stenodactylus elccjans, Fitz. N. Class. Kept. 1826, p. 47. 

Aqame ponctue, Is. GeofFr. Descr. de I'Egypte, Nat. Hist. i. 
(1827) |.p. 120-180, pi. V. fig. 2. 

Stenodactylus guttatus, Cuv. Ec-gn. An. nouv. ed. 2, ii. 1829, 
p. 58 ; Dum. c^^ Bibr. part iii. IS36, p. 434, sed non pi. 34, no. 2. 

Trapelus savicjnyi, Aud. Descr. de I'Egypte, Nat. Hist. i. 1827, 
p. 167 ; Suppl. pl. i. figs. 3. i, 3. 2, 3. 3 ; Gasco, Yiaggio in 
Egitto, pt. ii. 1876, p. 115. 

Tolarenta toilkinsojiii, Gray, Zool. Misc. 1831, p. 58. 

Stenodactylus mauritanicus, Guieh. Explor. Alger., Zool. v. 
1850, p. 5, pl. i. fig. 1. 

IS- Mandara, east of Alexandria. Dr. Walter Innes. 
1 J and 1 5 . Earaleh, east of Alexandria. 
8 S and 12 $ . From around pyramids of Gizeh. 
3 $ . Tel el Amarna. Professor W. M. Flinders Petrie, 
D.C.L.,&e. 



96 

3 cT and 1 $ . Luxor Desert. 

1 (S ' AVadi Haifa. Surgeon-Captain R. H. Peuton. 

1 c? and 1 2 . Suakin. 

2 $ . Durrur, about 60 miles N. of Suakin. 

1 d" • Ras Gharib, Gulf of Suez. Mr. James Robertson. 

Steijodacttlfs peteii, n. sp. 

Trapelus savignyi, Aud. var. {non Dum. & Bibr.) op. cit. 
p. 168; Suppl. Rept. pi. i. figs. 4. i, 4.2, and 4.3, sed non 
Suppl. Rept. \)\. i. figs. 3. i, 3. 2, and 3. 3. 

Stenodactijlus guttatus, Dum. & Bibr. part iii. (1836), p. 434, 
pi. 34, no. 2. 

1 6 and 2 ? . Tel el Amarua. Professor W. M. Flinders 
Petrie, D.C.L. 

Head large, very distinct from the neck ; cheeks swollen ; 
snout short and moderately pointed ; nostril swollen, defined by 
tbe first labial aud three nasals ; 12 to 15 upper and 11 to 14 
lower labials; mental large, as broad as the rostral and first 
labial. Eye very large ; ear small, slightly oval and vertical. 
Body covered with small smooth, slightly convex scales, generally 
longer than broad, polygonal and somewhat smaller on the middle 
of the back than on the sides, where they are more rounded ; 
they are largest on the snout, hexagonal, very slightly convex 
and rugose; scales on the limbs as large as those on the sides, 
tending to become imbricate and feebly keeled on the humeral 
and femoral regions ; scales on the under surface of the body 
slightly imbricate, obscurely obtusely keeled. Under surface of 
the digits with a longitudinal row of transverse tricariuate 
lamellae, more or less imbricate, with two rows of small, distinctly 
pointed scales external to it ; seven rows of scales on the upper 
surface of the third toe, about its middle; the outer row of 
dorsal scales of each digit forms a well-marked fringe most 
strongly developed on the hind foot, each scale being autero- 
postcriorly expanded at its base and curved distaljy iuto a sharp 
point, the entire Cringe beiug slightly downwardly curved. Scales 
on the tail arranged iu rings, largest on the upper surface, some- 
what larger than the largest body-scales, longer than broad, aud 
more or less strongly keeled; those of the under surface much 
smaller and rounded. Limbs long and slender; fore limb when 
laid forwards reaches beyond the snout, and the hiud limb iu 



97 

advance of the shoulJer. Digits moderately long and slender. 
Tail contracted behind the basal swelling, rapidly tapered to a 
fine point, shorter than the body and head. No pra;aiial pores, 
and no enlarged scales on the position occupied by these structures. 
General colour of the upper parts pale but rich fawn, with 
irregular dark brown markings, most pronounced on the head, 
feeble on the upper surface of the trunk, and tending to 
anastomose ; the most pronounced head-marking occurs behind 
the eye, and curving inwards tends to unite Avith its fellow of the 
opposite side ; an ill-defined pale brown band from the ear along 
the side ; tail banded to its tip with dark brown ; chin to vent, 
and sides of belly whitish ; under suiface of limbs and tail 
yellowish. 

Snout to vent 60 54 

Length of head 18 18 

Width of head 14 14 

Yent to tip of tail 53 51 

This species is distinguished from S. eJegans, Fitz., by its 
longer and broader head, by an additional row of scales on each 
side of the central digital lamella?, by its tapered and finely 
pointed tail, and by its dift'erent coloration. 

Tropiocolotes TRiPOLiTANUS, Peters. 

Tropiocolotes tripolitanus, Peters, Mon. Berl. Ac. 1880, p. 306, 
pi. — . fig. 1 ; Blgr. Trans. t««. Soc. xiii. 1891, p. 108. 

Stenodactylus tripolitanus, Blgr. Cat. Liz. B. M. i. 1885, 
p. 19. 

6 specimens from around pyramids of Gizeh, under stones. 

Heretofore, known only from Tripoli and Tunisia. 

Tropiocolotes STEUD>"ERr, Peters. 

Gymnodactylus steudneri, Peters, Mon. Berl. Ac. 1 869, p. 788 ; 
Gasco, Yiaggio in Egitto, pt. ii. 1876, p. 113 : Blgr. Cat. Liz. 
B. M. i. 1885, p. 34. 

Stenodactylus petersii, Blgr. op. cif. i. p. 18, pi. iii. fig. 4. 

Stenodactylus steudneri, Blgr. op. cit. iii. 1887, p. 480. 

Tropiocolotes steudneri, Big**. Trans. Zool. Soc. xiii. 1891, 
p. 108. 

1, Neighbourhood of pyramids of Gizeh, under stones. 
15. Margin of desert, Luxor ; dug out of small holes. 

1. Desert of PhilsB. 

h 



98 

Pttodacttlus hasselquistii, Donndorf. 

1 (S and 1 ? . Plain of Suez. = P. guttatus, Heyden. 

Yar. sijjhonorhina. 
1 S . Abu Roash, near Glzeli. The late Y. Ball, Esq., C.B. 
1 6 and 1 $ . Beni Hassan. M. W. Blackden, Esq. 

Typical form. 
1 ? . Mokattam Hills, Cairo. Dr. Walter Innes. 

1 c? and 1 2 . Luxor. 

2 $ . In the dark recessts of a chamber in the temple of 

Medinet Habu. 

1 2 . Temple of Edt'u. 

2 6 and 2 2 . Houses, Assuan. 
5 6 and 2 2 • Temple of Philae. 
1 2 • Wadi Haifa. 

3 6 and 3 2 • Wadi Haifa. 0. Charlton, E;^q. 

Pristueus flavipunctatus, Riippell. 

1 S . Suakin. Surgeon-Captain K. H. Penton. 
3 6 and 5 2 • Durrur. 

Hemtdacttlus tuecicus, Linn. 

2 2 • Maryut District, AVest of Alexandria. 
2 2 • Houses, Alexandria. 

1 2 • Mokattam Hills. Dr. Walter Innes. 

1 2 • Edfu, Tipper Egypt. 

2 d and 3 2- Suakin. Surgeon-Captain E. H. Penton. 

1 6 and 1 2 • Suakin. 

2 2 and 1 d . Island of Shadwan, Gulf of Suez. Mr. John 

Strathearn. 

3 2 • ^^^ Gharib. Mr. James Robertson. 
1 6 . Shaluf, Suez. 

Hemidactylus sikaitus, Blgr. 

1 juv. Wildi Haifa. JNlajor Henry d'Alton Harkness. 

4 d , 3 2> and 1 juv. Suakin. Surgeon-Captain R. H. 

Penton. 

5 6 and 4 2 • Suakin. 
4 6 and 4 2 • Durrur. 

Hemidactylus elaviviridis, Eiippell. 
1. Suez. Eev. Walter Statliam. 

1. Suakin. Surgeon-Captain R. II. Penton. 

2. Suakin, British Officers' Mess House. 



99 

Taukxtola annularis, Ih. Geoff r. 

1. A lumse, Cairo. Dr. Walter Innes. 

2. Pyramids of Grizeli. 

2. Mariette Bey's house, Sakhara. 

2. Miuia. Major R. H. Brown, R.E. 

1. Tel el Araarna. Professor VV. M. Eliuders Petrie, D.C.L. 

1. Luxor. 

2. Colossi of Moiiniou, Thebes. 

1. Rocks, bauks of Nile, Assuan. 

2. Rocks, banks, of Nile, above Pirst Cataract. 

1. Wadi Halfii. Surgeon-Captain R. H. Peutou. 

2. Suakin. Colonel Sir Charles Holled Smith, C.B., 

K.C.M.G. 
4. Houses, Suakin. Henry Barnham, Esq., H.B.M, Consul, 

Suakin. 
1. Rocks of Deliilba, Suakin plain. 

3. Erkowit, near Suakin. 

6. Houses, Suakin. 
1. Durrur, 

Tahentola mauritanica Linn. 

1. Cairo, houses. Dr. Walter Innes. 

7. Abukir, on tlie walls of old windmills. 

1. Mandara, east of Alexandria. Dr. Walter Innes. 

2. Ramleh, east of Alexandria. 

7. El Khreit, to the west of Lake Mareotis. 

Taeentola epiiippiata, O'Shaughnessy. 

Tarentola epiiippiata, O'Shauglm. Ann. Mag. N. H. (4) xvi. 
1875, p. 26i ; Blgr. Ann. Mag. N. H. (()) xvi. 1895, p. IGG. 

1. Durrur. 

Hitherto only recorded from West Africa and Somaliland. 

Agama sinaita, Hevden. 

1 2 . Plain of Suez. 

1 c? , 1 $ , and 1 juv. Stony desert above Wadi Iloaf, Heluan. 

Agama pallij)a, Reuss. 

Aqama ruderata (uon Oliv.), Aud. op. cit. p. 1G9, Suppl. Ropt. 
pi. i. fig. 6. 

Agama pallida, Reuss, Mus. Senckenb. i. 1831, p. 38, pi. iii. 
fig. 3. 

Agama loricafa, Reuss, op. cit. p. 40. 

7i2 



100 

Agama nigrofasciata, Eeuss, op. cit. p. 42. 
Agama leucostygma^ Reuss, op. cit. p. 44. 
5 6 and 3 $ . Walls of houses, Suez. 

3 <S and 2 $ . Between Ismailia and Suez. 

2 S and 2 5 . Beltim, between Eosetta and Damietta. Dr. J. 

G. Rogers. 
2 d and 2 $ . Plain of Kafr Gamus, Matariyeh. 

1 d and 1 $ . Abbasiyeh. Colonel H. M. L. Eundle, D.S.O. 

2 6 and 3 $ . Suburbs of Cairo. 

2 J and 1 5 . Suburbs of Cairo. Dr. "Walter lunes. 
1 2 . Mokattam Hills. Dr. "W. Innes. 

1 d and 2 $ . Gizeh. 

2 6 . Xafr Amar. 

1 6 . Payum. 

2 d and 2 $ . Tel el Amarna. Prof. W. M. Flinders Petrie. 
2 c? and 2 $ . Tel el Amarna. 

Agama mutabilis, Merrem. 

L'Agame variable ou le CJiangeant, Is. Geoffr. op. cit. pp. 127- 
129, pi. V. figs. 3 & 4. 

Agama mutabilis, Merrem, Tent. Syst. Ampb. 18?0, p. 50. 
Agama inermis, E-euss, Mus. Senckenb. i. 1834, p. 33. 
Agama gularis, Eeuss, op. cit. p. 36. 
1 c? and 1 2 . Desert at Gizeb. The late V. Ball, Esq., C.B. 

4 c? and 3 2 • Desert at Gizeh. 

1 juv. Desert at Gizeh. The late Miss E. M. Eobertson. 
1 2 • Abukir. 

1 6 and $ juv. Mandara. 
4 d" . Eamleh. 

2 d and 1 ? . Marynt District. 

Agama satignti, Dum. & Bibr. 

13 6 and 4 $ . Prom between Suez and Ismailia. Middle- 
mass Bey, Inspector-General Coast Guard, Egypt. 
1 6 . Beltiin. Dr. J. G. Sogers. 
1 2 • Kafr Amar, below Wasta, on Assiut Eailway. 

Agama sptkosa, Gray. 

Agama spinosa. Gray, Syn. Eept., GriflBtb's A. K. ix. (1831), 
p. 57. 

Agama colonorwn, Eiippell, Neue Wirbelth. 1835, p. 14, pi. iv. 

10 d , 8 $ , and 1 juv. Foot of mountains behind Suakin. 



101 

Agama stellio, Hasselq. & Linn. 

Lacerta stellio, Hasselq. & Linn. Iter Paliest. 1757, p. 301. 

2 d , 2 5 , and 3 juv. Gabari, Alexandria. 
2 juv, Kamleli. 

TJromastix jeqyptius, Hasselq. & Linn. 

The Dliah or Bah, Shaw, Travels, Barbary & Levant, 1738, 
p. 250. 

The Bah, Bruce's Travels to discover Sources of Nile, v. 1790, 
p. 19S. 

Lacerta ^gyptia, Hasselq. & Liun. Iter Falsest. 1757, p. 302 ; 
ForsMl, Descr. An. 1775, p. viii & p. 13 ; Doundorf, Zool. 
Beytr. iii. 1798, p. 136. 

Stellio spinipes, Daud. Kept. iv. (1803) p. 31 ; Is. Geoffr. 
op. cit. p. 125, pi. ii. fig. 2. 

Uromastix spinipes, Merr. Tent. Sysfc. Araph. 1820, p. 56. 

1 2 . Between Suez and Ismailia. 

1 $ . Plain of Kafr Gamus. 

1 6 . BLdtim. Dr. J. Gr. Eogers. 

1 $ . Suburbs of Cairo. 

Ueomastix ocellatus, Licbt. 

Uromastix ocellatus, Lichtenstein, Yerz. Doubl. Zool. Mus. 
Berlin, 1823, p. 107 ; Boulenger, Cat. Liz. B. M. iii. 1887, Corri- 
genda, p. 499. 

Uromastix omatus. Gray (not Heyden), Cat. Liz. B. M. 1845, 
p. 26L 

1 § . Neigbbourhood of Suakiu. 

13 c? , 14 $ , and 1 juv. Neighbourhood of Suakiu. 

1 § . Wadi Haifa. Major Henry d' Alton Harkness. 

Vaeakus geiseus, Daud. 

1 $. Suez. 

1 (S . Desert N.E. of Cairo. 

1 5 ■ Gizeh desert. 

1 $ . Tel el Amarna. Prof. W. M. Flinders Petrie, D.C.L. 

1 S and 1 juv. Suakin. Surgeon-Captain E. H. Penton. 

2 d and 2 $ . Suakin. 

1 adol. 2 • Tokar, about 50 nailes S. of Suakin. 

Vaeanus niloticus, Hasselq. & Linn. 

2 d • Luxor. 



102 

Latastia longicaudata, Eeues. 

Lacerta longicaudata, Eeuss, Miis. Senek. i. 1834, p. 20. 
Lacerta samharica, Blanf. Zool. Abyss. 1870, p. 419, tig. 
Lacerta sturti, Blanf. op. cit. p. 452, fig. 

Ere^nias revoili, Vaill. Miss. Revoil aux Pays ^omalis, Kept 
1882, p. 20, pi. iii. fig. 2. 

Latastia doriai, Bedriaga, Aun. Mus. Genov. xx. 1884, p. 313. 

Latastia samharica, Bedriaga, I. c. p. 319. 

Latastia longicaudata, Blgr. Cat. Liz. B. M. iii. 1887, p. 55. 

4 cJ and 2 2 • Sualdn. Surgeon-Captain E. H. Penton. 

5 6 and 2 2 • Suakin, 

1 d • Akik, about 80 miles S. of Suakin. 

3 d , 5 2 , and 2 juv. Durrur. Colonel A. Hunter, D.S.O. 

ACANTHODACTYLUS BOSKIAI^TTS, Daud. 

8 (S and 5 $ . Banks of Freshwater Canal, Suez. 

4 6 and 1 2 . Abukir. 

6 d and 5 $ . Eamleh. 

17 <S and 9 5 . Alexandria (suburbs). 

1 $ . Maryut District. 

3 c5' and 1 $ . Cairo suburbs. Dr. Walter Junes. 

1 (5 ■ Plain of Kai'r Gramus. 

13 cf , 12 $ , and 2 juv. Margin of desert, Gizeli Pyrauaids. 

9 d and 12 $ . Plain of Tel el Amarna. Prof. W. Plindera 

Petrie, D.C.L. 
8 d , 4 2 , and 1 juv. Margin of desert, Luxor. 
1 2 . Oasis of Dakhel. Mnjor H. S. Lyons, E.E. 
6 d and 3 2 • Assuau. 

I juv. 2 • Suakin. Colonel Sir Charles Holled Smith, C.B., 

K.C.M.G. 
3 d»l 2, audi juv. Suakin. Surgeon-Captain E. H. Penton. 

II d and 11 2 . Plain of Suakin. 
1 juv. Tokar. 

ACANTHODACTTLUS PAEDALIS, Licht. 

IG d and 20 2 • Maryut District. 

AcANTnODACTTLTJS SCUTELLATUS, Aud. 

1 2 • AVu Musa, near Suez. 
3. Suez district. 

1 d • Matariyeh. Dr. Walter Innes. 

2 2 and 1 2 • Margin of desert, Gizeh. The late V. Ball, 

Eq., C.IJ. ' 



103 

2 J , J.' $ , aud 1 juv. ]Margiu of desert, Gizeli. 
1 d ' Desert north of Birket el Kurun. Major R. H. Brown, 
K.E. 

1 d and 1 ? . Wiidi Haifa. 0. Charlton, Esq. 

2 (S and 3 $. AV^adi Haifa. Surgeon-Capt;iiii 11. H. Peuton, 

Eremias mucronata, Blanf. 

1 2 ' Plain of Sualdn. Colonel Sir Charles Ilollcd Smitli, 

C.B., K.C.M.d. 
8 (S and 4 $ . Plain of Suakiii. Surgeon-Captain E. II. 

Penton. 
15 c? and 16 $ . Plain of Suakin. 
12 c? , 6 2, and 2 juv. Durrur. 

Eremias auiTULATA, Licht. 

Laco'f a ffuftulaf a, Jju-ht.Yerz. Doubl. Mus. Berl. 1823, p. 101. 

Eremias gutiulata, Dum. & Bibr. Erpet. Geu. v. 1839, p. 310. 

1 6 . Plain of Suez. 

1 S . IMaryut district, 

1 (S . Plain of Kaf r Gamus. 

2 5 . "Wadi Hoaf, near Heluan. 

1 6 . Beni Hassan. W. M. Blackdeu, Esq. 
4 c? and 4 2 • Margin of desert, Luxor. 

3 6 and 3 2 • Ruins of Karnak. 

2 6 and 3 5 . Euins of Medinet Habu. 

2 2- Assuau. Major D. F. Lewis. 
1 6. Philffi. 

1 d . Suakin. Surgeon-Captain R. H. Penton. 
1 2 . Suakin. 

4 S and 4 $ . Durrur. Colonel A. Hunter, D.S.O. 
1 c? . Erkovvit Mountains, west of Suakin. 

1 6. Akik. 

Eeemias rubropunctata, Licht. 

Lacerta ruhropunctata, Licht. Yerz. Doubl. Mus. Berl. 1823, 
p. 100. 

Eremias ruhropunctata, Dum. & Bibr. Erpet. Gen. v. 1839, 
p. 297. 

3 6 and 3 2 ■ Oasis of Khargeh. Professor Sickeuberger, 

Cairo. 
1 6 and 2 2 • Plain of Tel el Amarna. 



104 

1 2 • Margin of desert at Gizeli. V. Ball, Esq., C.B., F.E.S. 

8 cS and 3 $ . Margin of desert at Grizeh and Abu Eoash. 

2 d and 1 $ . Margin of desert at Kafr GTamus. 

1 6 aud 8 2 • Stony desert plain between Suez Canal and 
All! Musa. 

1 $ . Eas Gharib. Mr. James Eobertson. 

MaBUIA QUlKQUETJ:ifIATA, Liclit. 

2 6 and 1 $ . Grardens and roadside, Grabari, Alexandria. 

1 d" and 1 $ . Abbasiyeh, near Cairo. Colonel H. M. L. 

Euudle, D.S.O. 
1 d , 6 $ , and 1 juv. Alluvium, below Gizeh Pyramids. 
1 2 ''^"d 3. The Fayum. 

1 d and 1. Tbe Fa)um. Major E. H. Brown, E.E. 

4 d and 1 2 . Tel el Amarna. 

5 d and 3 $ . Eoadsides, Assiut. 
4 2 • Banks of Nile, Edfu. 

2 d aud 2 $ . Banks of Nile, Assuaii. 
2 d and 1 2 • Banks of Nile, Pliilse. 

2 d and 1 $. Wadi Haifa. Major Henry d' Alton Harkness. 

3 c? and 2 $ . Wadi Haifa. 0. Charlton, Esq. 

2 d" , 2 $ , and 2 juv. Wadi Haifa. Surgeon-Captain E. H. 

Penton. 
1 2 ■ Snakin. 

Mabuia vittata, Olivier. 

1 d and 5. Gardens and roadside, Gabari, Alexandria. 

1. Fields below Pyramids of Gizeh. 

1 d ,2 2, and 2 others. Fayum. Major E. H. Brown, E.E. 

EUMECES SCHNEIDERI, Daud. 

1 2 ' Marsa Matru, about 150 miles to west of Alexandria. 

2 d and 5 2 • Maryut district. 

SciNCOPUS EASCiATFS, Peters. 

Scincus officinalis^ pars, Straucli, Mem. Acad. St. Petersb. 
(vii.) iv. no. 7, 1862, p. 41. 

Scincus {Scincopus) fasciatus, Peters, Mon. Beil. Ac. 18G4, 
p. 45. 

Ct/clodus Irandtii, Straucli, Bull. Ac. St. Petersb. 18GG, p. 459. 

Scincus fasciatus, 'S>ou\engei\ Cat. Lizards Brit, Mus. iii. 1887, 
p. 390; Trans. Zool. Soc. xiii. (1891), p. 137. 



105 

1 5 . Suakin. Colonel Sir Charles Hollcd Smith, C.B., 

K.C.M.a. 
3 6 ,4> 2 , 'T-iid Ijuv. Suakin, Surgeon-Captain R. II. Penton. 

2 d" . Suakin. 

Known hitherto only from Algeria, Tunisia, and Khartum. 

SciNCUs OFFICINALIS, Laur. 

1 c? , 5 $ , and 3 juv. Desert near Gizeh Pyramids. 

6. Desert in neighbourhood of Cairo. 

Chalcides (Gongtlus) ocellatfs, Porskal. 

2. Marsa Matru. 

2. Maryut district. 

4. Alexandria. 

2. Eamleh. 

2. Beltim. Dr. J. Gr. Rogers. 

4. Mahallet el Kebir, Delta. Q. H. Kent, Esq. 

5. Cairo. Dr. "Walter Innes. 

7. Gizeh. 
4. Fayum. 
7. Luxor. 

1. Oasis of Khargeh. Professor Ernest Sickenberger. 

1. Berys, south of Oasis of Khargeh. Major H.G.Lyons, E.E. 

1. Assuan. 

3. Phil®. 

2. Wadi Haifa. 

4. Durrur. 
2. Tokar. 

Chalcides (Sfh^nops) sepoides, And. 
(5. Between Suez and Ismailia. 
2. Abukir. 
36. Pyramids of Gizeh. 

1. Kafr Amar. 

2. Tel el Amarna. 

Chalcides (SpHiENOPs) delislii, Lataste. 
Allodactylus de Vislei, Lataste, Journ. Zool. v. 187G, p. 238, 
pi. X. 

3. Plain of Suakin. Surgeon-Captain E. H. Penton. 
7. Plain of Suakin. 

3. Durrur. Colonel A. Hunter, D.S.O. 
20. Durrur. 



106 

BHIPTOGLOSSA. 
CHAMiELEON VULQAEIS, Daud. 

1 (S and 2 $ . Ain Musa. 

2 juv. Egypt. 

2 c? and 4 $ . Marsa Matru. 

CHAMiELEON BASILISCUS, Cope. 

2 (S ,1 juv., and 1 juv. $ . Enmloli. 

1 2 ' Tokar. Major H. W. Jackson. 

1 c? , 3 $ , and 1 juv, Suakin. 

l$andljuv. Wadi Haifa. Surgeon-Captain E. H. Peuton. 



OPHIDIA. 

Glatjconia cairi, Dum. & Bibr. 

1. Island of Ehoda, Cairo. Dr. Walter Innea. 

1. Luxor, in alluvium. 

1. Garden of the Luxor Hotel, among moist grass. 

1. Lower floor of a house, Cairo. 

1. Durrur, north of Suakin. 

Eetx jacultjs, Hasselq. & Linn. 

1 d • Beltim. Dr. J. Gt. Eogers. 

1 (f . Mahallet el Kebir. George Kent, Esq. 

1 ?. Abbasiyeh. Colonel H. M. L. Eundle, D.S.O. 

2 2 • ^l»i^ Eoash. 
2 $ . Gizeli. 

1 S • Heluan. 

1 S ■ Neighbourhood of Cairo. 

Ertx thebaicus, Eeuss. 

1 d • Eayum. Major E. H. Brown, E.E. 

1 2 . Tel el Auiarna. Professor W. M. Flinders Petrie, D.C.L. 

2 J and 2 ? . Karnak. 

3 d , 3 2 , and 1 juv. Snakin. 
2 2. Tokar. 

2 2 • Durrur. 

Teopidonottjs tessellatus, Laur. 
1 2 • Beltim. Dr. J. G. Eogers. 

Zamenis unoDORHAcnis, Jan. 

1 2 • Beni Hassan, 

1 jnv, Tel el Amarua. Prof. W. M. Flinders Petrie, D.C.L. 



107 

Zamenis kooersii, Anders. 

1 d - Beltim. Dr. J. Gr. Roi^^ers. 

1 2 and 1 juv. Slialuf. 

1 $ . Marsa Matru. 

1 6 • The Desert, Heluau. 

Zamenis plorulentus, Is. GeoiFr. 
1 $ . Beltim. Dr. J. G. Eogers. 

1 (S . Mandara. 

2 (5 aud 4 $ . Abu Roash. 

1 d and 1 juv. Gizeli. 
1. Fayum. 

2 cJ aud 2 juv. Minia. 
1 $ . Tel el Amarna. 

1 juv. Assiut. 

2 d" and 3 juv. Luxor. 
1 juv. Karnak. 

1 2 • West bank of Nile, Luxor. 
1 $ and. 1 juv. Assuan. 
1 d and 1 $ . Wadi Haifa. 
1 juv. Tokar. 

Zamenis nummifeb, Reuss. 

1 d. Beltim. 

2 juv. Margin of desert, Heluan. Dr. Adalbert Fenyos. 

Zamenis diadema, Sclilegel. 

1 juv. East side of Suez Canal, near Suez. 

1. Fay id, west of Bitter Lakes. 

1 (5 . Abu Roasli. 

3 d" , 1 2 , and 2 juv. Pyramids of Gizeli. 

1 d and 1 ? . Beni Hassan. M. W. Blackden, E^^q. 

1 cJ and 1 2 • Tel el Amarna. Professor W. M. Flinders 

Petrie, D.C.L. 
1 cJ . Suakin. 
1 2 • Durrur. 

Lttokhtnchus diadema, Dum. & Bibr. 
1 d • West bank of Suez Canal, between Suez and Ismailia. 
1 juv. Abu Roasli. 
1 d . Gizeh, margin of desert. 

First I'ecord of its occurrence in Egypt. Present in the 
Sennaar District. 



lOS 

Tarbophis dhaea, Porskal. 

1 ? . Beltim. Dr. J. G. Rogers. 

1 9 . MahaUet el Kebir. George Kent, Esq. 

4 adol. and juv. Margin of desert, Gizeh. 

1 $ and 1 juv. Tel el Amarna. Professor Flinders Petrie, 

D.C.L. 
1 juv. Tel el Amarna. 

1 juv. Assuan. Major D. F. Lewis. 

CcELOPELTis MONSPESSULANA, Hermann. 

2 6 and 1 $ . Maryut District. 
1 d" . Alexandria (suburbs). 

1 cS . Mandara. Dr. Walter lunes. 

CcELOPELTIS MOILENSIS, EeUSS. 

2 5* • Lower Eg3^pt (? suburbs of Cairo). 
Id' Abu Eoash. 

2 2' Suakin. 
1 $ . Duri'ur. 

PSAMMOPHIS SCHOKABI, Foiskal. 

1 2 ' Ain Musa. 

1 cS . Between Suez and Ismailia. 

1 cS . Shaluf. 

1 2 • Abbasijeb. Colonel H. M. L. Eundle, D.S.O 

1 S . Abu Eoasb. 

3 (S . Gizeh. 

1 c? . Assuan. Major D. F. Lewis. 

1 d and 1 2- Suakin Plain. Surgeon-Captain A. H. Penton. 

8 c? and 4 $ . Suakin Plain. 

1 6. Tokar. 

1 2 • Durrur. 

1 2 • Island of Shadwan. Mr. John Stratbearn. 

1 2 • I^^s Gbarib. Mr. James Robertson. 

1 d - Berjs, S. of oasis of Khargeh. Major H. G. Lyons, E.E. 

PsAMMOPHis siBiLANS, Linn. 

1 6 . Beltim. Dr. J. G. Eogers. 

1 d . Northern part of Delta. J. E. Gibson, Esq. 

1 c? and 1 2 - Mahallet el Kebir. George Kent, Esq. 

1 6 . Abbasiyeb. Colonel H. M. L. Eundle, D.S.O. 
3 6 and 1 $ . Abu Eoash. 

2 cJ and 2 ? . Gizeh. 



109 

2 cT and 1 ? . Fayum. 

2 d and 1 $ . Minia. Major R. II. Brown, E.E. 

1 d' and 1 $ . Tel el Amarna. Professor W. M. Flinders 

Petrie, D.C.L. 
1 $ . Luxor. 

Macropuotodon cucullatus, Is. Geoffr. 

1 cS . Maryut District. 

1 $ . Eaiuleli, near Alexandria. 

1 2 • Mandara. Dr. Walter Innea. 

1 ? . Abukir, 

Naja haje, Hasselq. & Linn. 
1 $ . Marjut district. 
1. Beltim. 

1 $ . Abbasiyeh. Colonel H. M. L. Bundle, D.S.O. 

2 2 . Fields below pyramids of Gizeh, close to water. 

1 c? and 1 2 • Fayum. Major R. H. Brown, E.E. 

2 2 • Beni Hassan. M. W. Blackden, Esq. 

16. Tel el Amarna. Professor W. M. Flinders Petrie, D.C.L. 

!Naja NittEicoLLis, Eeicliardt. 

1 2 • Assuan. 

First record of its occurrence in Egypt. 

"Walteeiknesia ^gtptia, Lataste. 

1 d . Purchased in Ciiiro from a snake-cliarmer. Dr. "Walter 
Innes. 

Cerastes vipera, Hasselq. & Linn. 

5 J and 1 2 • Desert on east side of Suez Canal, between 
Suez and Ismailia. 

1 6 . Desert on west side of Suez Canal, between Suez and 

Ismailia. 
4 6 and 2 2 • Desert around Cairo. 

2 6 . Desert, Abu Roash. 

1 d . Desert, Gizeh. E. G. Gallop, Esq. 

1 d . Desert, Gizeh. 

1 d . Desert, Beni Hassan. M, W. Blackden, Esq. 

1. Eas Ghaiib. Mr. James Eobertsou. 

Cerastes cohnutus, Hasselq. & Linn. 
Males with horns. 

1 d . Assiut. 

2 d . Suakin. Surgeon-Captain E. II. Penton. 



110 

Hornless males. 

2 6 . Luxor. 

1 6 . "VVfldi Haifa. Major Henry d'Altou Harkuess. 
1 d . Has Grharib. Mr. James Robertson. 

Females with horns. 
1 $ . Desert east of Suez Canal. 

1 5 • Desert at Gizeh Pyramids. ' 

1 $ . Desert, Luxor. 

3 $ . Plain of Suakin. Colonel Sir C. HoUed Smith, C.B., 

K.C.M.G. 

Hornless females. 
5 $ . Desert, Luxor. 

Hornless, sex unknown. 
1. Luxor. 
1. "Wadi Haifa. Major Henry d'Alton Harkuess. 

1. Eas Gharib. Mr. James Robertson. 

EcHis CABiNATUS, Schneider. 

1 J and 1 2 • Mokattam Hills, Cairo. Dr. Walter lunes. 
1 $ . Assiut. 

1 c? and 1 2 . Suakin. Colonel Sir Charles Hulled Smith, 
C.B., K.C.M.G. 

1 2 . Suakin. Surgeon-Captain E. H. Penton. 

2 d , 2 2 , and 5 juv. Suakin. 

1 6 and 1 2 • Durrur. 

BATRACHIA. 

ECAUDATA. 

Ea>*a mascareniensis, Dum. & Bibr. 

5 6 and 5 2 • Eields below Gizch Pyramids. 

2 6 and ] 2 • Mahallet el Kebi'r. George Kent, Esq. 

4 6 and 1 2 • Freshwater Caual, Suez. 

BUFO KEQULARIS, EeUSS. 

2. Eamleh. 

1. Beltim. Dr. J. G. Eocers. 

3. Mahallet el Kebir. George Kent, Esq. 
12. Ereshwater Canal, Suez. 

4. Canal below Mena. 

8. Tlie Eayum. Major E. H. Brown, E.E. 



Ill 

7. Amarna. Professor AY. M. Fliuders Petric, D.C.L. 

8. Assuan. 

2. AViidi Haifa. 

1. AViuli Haifa. Surtreon-Captain E. H. Peuton. 

BuFO vmiDis, Laur. 

1. In a water conduit, E,auileh. 

Euro PENTONi, Anderson. 

2 d and 1 2 • Shaata Gardens, outside Suakin. Surgeon- 
Captain R. H. Penton. 
17 $ , 1 c?, and 1 juv. "Wells in Gardens outside Suakin. 



Species said to occur in Egypt, hut not ohserved hy me. 

REPTILIA. 

CHELONIA. 

Testudo ibera, Pallas. 

Dr. Keatinge has been so good as to forward to me three 
photographic views of a land tortoise, three living specimens of 
which he had purchased for the Museum of the Cairo Medical 
School. 

The species proves to be Testudo ihera, Pallas, hitherto known 
only from North-West Africa, Syria, Asia Minor, Transcaucasia, 
and Persia. The native from whom they were bought informed 
Dr. Keatinge that he had got them from the Sudan, and that 
he had had them alive for more than fourteen years. There is no 
evidence that this species occurs in Lower Egypt, but, like many 
others, it may possibly range from Algeria and Tunisia to the 
Sudan, and, in view of this, I have thought it is as well to record 
these specimens. If this species is found in the Sudan, it is 
likely to be distributed in the direction of Wadi Haifa, and 
even to the plain of Suakin. 

SQUAMATA. 
LACERTILIA. 
Geckonid^. 
BuNOPUs BLANFOEDii, Strauch. 

Mem. Ac. St. Petersb. (vii. ser.) xxxv. No. 2, 18S7, p. G2, figs. 
13 & 14. 
Egypt : J. Erber, 1870 ; 2 specimens. Strauch. 



112 

Gymnodacttlus scaber, Heyden. 

Peters, Mon. Ac. Berl. 1862, p. 271 ; Gasco, Viaggio in Egitto \ 
(pt. ii.) 1876, p. 113. 

Egypt : MM. Barnim and Hartmann. Peters. 

Near Cairo : Gasco. 

Egypt: J. Doubleday. Boulenger. 

Agamid^. 

UrOMASTIX ACANTHIJfUETJS, Bell. 

Nubia: Euppell, Mus. Scnck. iii. 1845, p. 303, 
Egypt : A. Dumeril, Cat. Meth. Eept. 1851, p. 109. 
Egypt : Boeltger, Kat. Bept. Mus. Senck. 1893, p. 55. 

There is no evidence that this species has ever been found in 
Egypt. EiippeU only gives Nubia as the locality whence his 
specimens were obtained. One of them went to Paris, where the 
locality appears as Egypt ; while, on tlie other hand, the 

^ I bad long been in seareb of tbe late Professor Gasea's work, cited above, as 
I was aware tbat it contained a list of the Reptiles collecled, on bis journey 
through Egjpt, in company with the late Prof. P. Panceri. I had, however, 
applied in vain to the booksellers for a copy ; but on mentioning this to Count 
Peracca, he very kindly presented me with one, which enables me to mention 
some reptiles which Prof. Gasco collected in Egypt. I think it is evident, 
however, that be had no great acquaintance with reptiles, as he refers two 
snakes obtained by himself, near Alexandria, to the American genus Oxyrojphus, 
designating them 0. scolopax, Klein. As some of the species of that genus have 
black heads, I am disposed to think that his two specimens were examples 
of Macroprotodon cucullatus, Is. Geoffr., which occurs in the district of 
Alexandria. 

It is also stated by Professor Gasco that two examples of Lacerfa ocellata, 
Daud. were obtained in the same locality, and he referred them to a variety which 
he called Icpida. It seems highly improbable, however, that this siDCcies should 
occur in Egypt, and as Gasco did not distingiiish between Eremias guttidata, 
Licht., and E. ruhropunctata, Licht., it is just possible tliat he may have 
mistaken an ofcllated specimen of the former for L. ocellata, Daud. Of course 
tills is only guess-work, but so unlikely is it tliat the last-mentioned species 
should be found at Alexandria, that I feel compelled to suggest some expla- 
nation of how the error may have arisen. 

He also records PsammodroTmis algirits, Linn., and says " this species, which 
abounds in Algeria and Spain, was collected by us only in the neighbourhood 
of Alexandria." My impression is tliat in this case also we have an error of 
identification, and that Gasco had probably before him some species of 
Acaiithodactylus. 



113 

four specimens remaining, in the Frankfort Museum, have also 
been referred to Egypt, but why it has been substituted for 
Nubia is not stated. 

SciNCIDiE. 

Chalcides (Seps) trtdacttlus, Laur. 

Sej^s clialcides, Bonap. ; Gasco, Yiaggio in Egitto, pt. ii. 1S7G, 
p. 109. 

Neighbourhood of Alexandria : Prof. E. S. Gasco. 2 specimens. 

This is tlie only record of the occurrence of this lizard in Egypt. 
In going through some reptiles in the Cairo Museum I came 
across one example of this species, but unfortunately there was 
no information wlience it was obtained. As it occurs in Tunisia, 
it may post'ibly extend as far east as Alexandria. 

EHIPTOGLOSSA. 
CHAMiELEONTIDiB. 
CnAMiELEOlS' OALTPTRATUS, A. DuUl. 

Cat. Mdthod. Eept. 1851, p. 31 ; Arch. Mus. vi. 1S52, p. 259, 
pi. xxi. fig. 1. 

From the region of the Nile : M, Botta. 

OPHIDIA. 
COLTJDEIDiE. 

Zamenis dahltt, Fitz. 

Couleuvre, Descr.der-Egypte,Suppl. llept. pi. iv. figs. 4. i to 4. 3. 

Locality unknown. Beyond the fact that the foregoing figure 
of the species occurs in the ' Description de I'Egypte,' nothing 
further is known regarding the occurrence of this snake in 
Egypt. If it is present, it will probably be found in the Delta, 
possibly in the Maryut district, or between the Suez Canal and 
the Nile. 

Oliqobon melanocephalus, Jan. 

F. Midler, Verb. nat. Ges. Basel, vii. 1S85, p. 678. 

The late F. von Miiller has recorded one specimen from Cairo. 
This species is found in the Sinaitic Peninsula, so there is 
nothing remarkable in its presence in Lower Egypt. 

i 



114 

Dastpeltis scabra, Lit>n. 

Gasco, Viaggio in Egitto, (pt. ii.) 1876, p. 119. 

The late Prof. Grasco was the first to record the occurrence 
of the Egg-eating Snake in Middle Egypt, where he obtained 
8 specimens. Count Peracca has been so good as to ascertain 
from Prof. Costa that two specimens brought back from Egypt 
by Prof. P. Panceri, the companion of Gasco, one a skeleton and 
the other in alcohol, are preserved in the Naples Museum. 

Tarbophis SATiaNTi, Blgr. 

Cat. Snakes B. M. iii. 1896, p. 48.' 

Couleuvre, Descr. de I'^gypte, Suppl. Eept. pi. iv. figs. 2. i to 
2. 8. 

The remarks I have made regarding Z. dalilii, Fitz., apply 
equally to this species. 

VlPERID^. 
ViPERA AMMODTTES, Liun. 

Linn. Amcen. Acad. i. 1749, p. 506, tab. xvii. fig. 11. 

Libya. 

This species was recorded by Linnaeus from Libya, on the 
authority of Jonston (Hist. Quadr. et Serp., Lib. ii. 1657, p. 11, 
tab. i. fig. ammodites), who quoted Soliuus as the source of his 
information. 

ViPERA LEBETiNA, Linn. 

Strauch, Mem. Acad. St. Petersb. (vii.) xiv. no. 6, 1869, p. 84. 

Egypt. Berlin Museum, 

BATRACHIA. 

ECAUDATA. 

Htlidje. 
IItla arborea, Linn. 

Ilyla savignyi, Audouin, Descr. de I'Egypte, p. 183, Suppl. 
Eept. pi. ii. ligs. 13. i & 13. 2, 

I have made a most careful search for this species in Lower 
Egypt, but have never succcded in finding it. It is an analogous 
case to Z. dalilii and T. savit/nt/i. 

* I am enabled to make this identification as Mr. Boulenger Las favoured 
me with a eight of the proofs of the third volume of his ' Catalogue of Snakes.' 



115 

CAUDATA. 

Teiton P 

G-ervaia, Ann. Sc. Nat. (2 ecr.) vi. 1836, p. 312. 

Oasis of Bahriyeh. A. Lefevre. 

Gervais mentions that M. A. Lefovro brought a species of 
Triton from the oasis of Bahriyeh. 

Salamandea ? 

Boulenger, Cat. Batr. Grad. 1882, p. 106, footnote. 

Near Alexandria. M. Letourneux. 

Mr. Boulenger says : — " M. F. Lataste received several larvae of 
a Salamandroid collected near Alexandria by M. Letourneux. 
It will probably turn out to be S. maculosa, which has recently 
been discovered in Syria, and which accordingly will bo Circum- 
mediterranean." 

These are tbe only two references in zoological literature tliat 
mention the presence in Egypt of this group of Batrachians. 

I made a most careful search on two successive years for Sala- 
maudroids in the neighbourhood of Ramleh, and on two or three 
occasions I employed an intelligent Syrian, who used to collect 
for M. Letourneux, to do the same, but neither I nor he ever 
succeeded in finding any. I went provided with some British 
newts in alcohol to show to the natives, in order to give them 
some idea of the kind of animal of which I was in quest, but all 
the agricultural labourers to whom I showed them declared that 
they had never seen such animals, in the localities I had selected 
as appearing to me to be the most likely spots in which to find 
Salamaudroids. I hope my experience, however, will not deter 
others from continuiug the search, in view of what has been put 
on record by Gervais, and by Boulenger, on the authority of 
Lataste. 

May 28, 1896. 



APPENDIX. 



I AM indebted to Mr. Boulenger for having directed my attention 
to an article^ by Captain P. Pareati and ProfL'Ssor Luigi Picaglia, 
in wliicli the following species are recorded from Arabia, viz. : — 
llemidactijlus coctcsi, D. & B., = Il.flaviviridis, Eiippell; Psam- 
mosaurus arenarius, Is. GeoftV., = Varanus griseus, Daud. ; 
Oongylus ocellatus, Porskal ; and Zamenis Jlorule?itus, Scblegel, 
= Zamenis rJiodoj^hachis, Jan. 

The mention of these species uecessitates tlie following additions 
to the ' List of the Eeptiles and Batrachians of Arabia,' in 
Part V. :— 

Page 78. Hemidaciylus flaviviridis, Eiippell. 
Add : — Aden {Eugazzi), Pareuli aud Picaglia, 1886. 

Page 79. Varanus griseus, Ti^mA. 
Add :— Jiddali (Bagazzi), Parenti aud Picaglia, 188G. 

Page 81. Chalcides (Gongyhis) ocellatus, Porskal. 
Add : — Jiddah {Eagazzi), Parenti and Picaglia, 188G. 

Page 82. Zamenis rhodorliacliis, Jan. 
Add : — Aden {Eagazzi), Parenti and Picaglia, 1886. 

The same authors also record that Eagazzi obtained a living 
Chameleon at Aden, in 1883. They do not give it any specific 
name, but it was probably C. calcarifer, Peters. 

1 " Rettili ed AnGbi raccolti cla P. Parenti nel viaggio di circurunavigazione 
della r. corvelta ' Vettor Pisani,' negli anni 1882-85, e da V. Eagazzi suUe coste 
del mar rosso e dell' America meridionale negli anui 1879-84." Atti Soc. Mod. 
Mem. (3) v. 1886, pp. 26-96. 



INDEX. 



Ablopharus, 74. 

acanthinurus (Uromastix), 112. 
Acanthodactylus, 74. 
adramitana (Agama), 31, 73, 79, 

So, 8S. 
£egyptia (Laccrta), 68, 101. 
a?gyptia (WtJterinnesia), 109. 
segyptius (Uromastix), 68, 71, 75, 

79, 85, 88, 101. 
affinis (Ceramodactylus), 20. 
Agama, 31, 74. 
Agame ponctue, L', 95. 
Agame variable ou le Changcant, 

L', 100. 
Agamidae, 27, 74, 112. 
agilis (Agama), 31, 67, 70. 
algirus (Psamraodromus), 112. 
ammodytes (Yipera), 114. 
andersoni (Bufo), 73, 76, 83, 87, 

91. 
annectans (Agama), 31. 
annularis (Tarentola), 72, 75, 78, 

84, 88, 99. 
Aporoscelis, 33, 34. 
arabicus (Bufo), 70, 73. 
arabicus (Phrynocephalus), 33, 73, 

79, 85, 88. 
arborea (Hyla), 114. 
areuaria (Agama), 27, 29. 
arietans (Vipcra), 55, 73, 76, 83, 

87, 89. 
ascalabotcs (Gckko), 56. 
auratus (Chamaelcon), 71. 



baitan (Coluber), 69. 

barroisi (Ptyodactylus), 57. 

basiliscus (Chameleon), 106. 

batillifera (Agama), 34. 

batilliferus (Uromastix), 34. 

benti (Aporoscolis), 33. 

benti (Uromastix (Aporoscelis)), 

33, 63, 73, 79, 85, 88. 
bischofFsheimi (Ptyodactylus), 

blanfordii (Bunopus), 21, 22, 73, 

75, 84, 88, 111. 
blanfordii (Glauconia), 64. 
Eoid^e, 74. 
boskianus (Acanthodactylus), 34, 

35-37, 71, 75, 80, 85, 89, 

102. 
brandtii (Cyclodus), 104. 
brevicoUis (Mabuia), 47, 73, 75, 

80, 85, 89. 
brevirostris (Eremias), 43, 73, 76, 

80,85,89. 
brevirostris (Mesalina), 43. 
Eunopus, 23, 74. 

cairi (Glauconia), 106, 
calcarifcr(Cbamxlcon), 51, 03, 73, 

81,86, 88, 116. 
calyptratus (Chamaelcon), 62, 73, 

75, 81, 86,89, 113. 
cantoris (Acanthodactylus), 34, 

38-41, 71, 76, 80, 85, 89. 
capistratus (Sphaenops), 71. 



118 



INDEX. 



carinatus (Echis), 55, 71 , 76, 83, 

87, 90, 110. 
carter! (Pristurus), 12, 26, 71, 78, 

84, 88. 
carter! (Spatalura), 12, 71. 
Ceramodactjius, 20, 21. 
Cerastes, 74. 
Chalcides, 74. 
Chamaeleon, 74. 
Chamteleontida^, 51, 74, 113. 
Clifford!! (Zamenis), 71. 
cocta)! (IIem!dactylus), 27, 73, 1 1 i. 
Coelopelt!s, 74. 
coUaris (Pristurus), 24, 26, 73, 78, 

84, 88. 
collar!s (Spatalura), 24. 
colouorum (Agama), 100. 
coloratus (Echis), 55, 71, 76, 83, 

87, 88. 
Colubr!da3, 51, 74, 113. 
condanarus, var. sindanus (Psam- 

mophis), 53. 
conirostris (Scincus), 49, 73, 76, 

81, 86, 90. 
cornutus (Cerastes), 71, 73, 75, 

83, 87, 89, 109. 
cristatus (Proteles), 2. 

crucifcr (Pristurus), 71, 75, 78, 

84, 88. 

cucullatus (Macroprotodon), 109, 

112. 
cyanogaster (Agama), 33, 70, 71, 

70, 79, 85, 88. 
cyanophlyctis (Pana), 55, 73, 76, 

83, 87, 91. 

Dab, The, 101. 
dahlii (Zamenis), 113. 
de I'isle! (AUodactylus), 105. 
dclisle! (Chalcides (Sphoenops)), 
105. 



Dhab, The, 101. 

dhara (Coluber), 52, 69. 

dhara (Tarbophis), 62, 69, 75, 82, 

87, 89, 108. 
diadema (Lytorhynchus), 73, 75, 

82, 87, 89, 107. 
diadema (Zamenis), 51, 71, 76, 

82, 86, 90, 107. 
dor!a3(Ceramodactylus),20,21,71. 
doriae (Stenodactylus (C.)), 21, 71, 

76, 77, 84, 90. 
doria! (Latastia), 102. 

Echis, 74. 

ehrenberghi (Rana), 73. 

elegans (Stenodactylus), 20, 70, 

75, 77, 84, 89, 95. 
elegans (Testudo), 68, 72, 76, 77, 

84, 89. 
elegantissimus (Zamenis), 71, 82, 

86, 88. 
ephippiata (Tarentola), 99. 
Eremias, 74. 
Eryx, 74. 
esculenta(Eana),73,76,83,87,91. 

fasciatus (Scincopus), 104. 
fasciatus (Scincus), 104. 
fasciatus (Scincus (Scincopus)), 

104. 
flavimaculata (Agama), 31, 59, 67, 

70, 79, 85, 88. 
flavimaculatus (Trapclus), 70. 
flavipunctatus (Pristurus), 24, 71, 

75, 77, 84, 88, 98. 
flaviviridis (Hemidactylus), 26, 

73, 76, 78, 84, 89, 98, 116. 
florulentus (Coluber), 69. 
florulentus(Zamen!s),69,107,116. 

Gecko des Maisons, Le, 56. 
gecko (Lacorta), 56, 68. 



INDEX. 



119 



gecko (Stellio), 56. 

Geckouid.-e, 20, 74, 111. 

Glaucouia, 74. 

Glaixconiidic, 74. 

granosus (Hemidactylus), 70. 

griseus (Varanus), 34, 73, 75, 79, 

85, 89, 101, 116. 
guentheri (Tarbopliis), 52, 73, 82, 

87, 88. 
gularis (Agama), 100. 
gutfcatus (Coluber), 09, 
guttatus (Ptyodactylus), 56, 69, 

98. 
guttatus (Stenodactylus), 70, 95, 

96. 
guttulata (Eremias), 43, 71, 75, 

80, 85, 89, 103. 
guttulata (Lacerta), 103. 
Gymnodactylus, 23, 74. 

haje (Coluber), 69. 

haje (J^aja), 69, 109. 

hardwickii (Uromastix), 72, 76, 

79, 85, 89. 
hasselquistii (Lacerta), 56. 
hasselquistii (Ptyodactylus), 56, 

68, 69, 75, 78, 84, 89, 98. 
hasselquistii, var. siphonorbina 

(Ptyodactylus), 98. 
Hemidactylus, 74. 
hemprichii (Scincus), 73, 76, 80, 

86, 89. 
hierosolymitana (Psammophis), 

moniliger, var., 53. 
hoUcik (Coluber), 69. 
Hylidtc, 114. 

ibera (Testudo), 111. 
inermis (Agama), 28, 29, ] 00. 
isolepis (Agama), 65, 67, 73. 



jaculus (Eryx), 70, 75, 81, 86, 

90, 106. 
jayakari (Agama), 65, 73, 79, 84, 

88. 
jayakari (Eryx), 73, 82, 86, 88. 
jayakari (Lacerta), 73, 79, 85, 88. 

karelinii (Zamonisj, 72, 76, 82, 

80, 90. 
kleinmanni (Testudo), 72. 

lacazii (Ptyodactylus), 57. 

Lacerta, 74. 

Laeertidae, 34. 

lacertina (Coelopeltis), 72. 

lacrymans (Coluber), 53, 70. 

lacrymans (Psammophis), 53, 69. 

ladacensi8(Zamenis),rhodorhachis, 

var., 82. 
Latastia, 74. 
lebetina (Vipera), 114. 
lebetinus (Coluber), 69. 
leithii (Psammophis), 53, 54. 
leithii (Testudo), 68, 72, 75, 77, 

84, 89, 95. 
leucostj'gma (Agama), 31, 61, 100. 
lineolatum (Taphrometopon), 54. 
lobatus (Gecko), 56. 
lobatus (Ptyodactylus), 56. 
longicaudata (Lacerta), 70, 102. 
longicaudata (Latastia), 70, 76, 

80, 85, 88, 102. 
longipes (Pristurus), 71. 
loricata (Agama), 70, 99. 
Lytorhynchus, 74. 

Mabuia, 74. 

maculosa (Salaraandra), 115. 
mascarenicnsis (liana), 110. 
mauritanica (Tureutola), 72, 75, 
78, 84, 90, 99. 



120 



INDEX. 



mauritanicus (Platjdactylus), 72. 
mauritanicus (Stcnodact} lus), 95. 
meccensis (Scincus), 70, 81,86,83. 
melanocephalus (Oligodon), 73, 

75, 82, 87, 90, 113. 
melanocephalua (Pthynchocala- 

mus), 73. 
mitranus (Scincus), 71, 72, 81, 

86, 88. 
moilensis (Coelopcltis), 52, 70, 75, 

82, 87, 89, 108. 
moilensis (Coluber), 70. 
moniliger, var. hierosolymitana 

(Psammophis), 53. 
moniliger, var. punctata (Psam- 
mophis), 53. 
monspessulana (Coelopeltis), 72, 

73, 75, 82, 87, 91, 108. 
montmahoui (Ptyodactylus), 57. 
mucronata (Eremias), 73, 76, 80, 

85, 88, 103. 
muscatensis (Scincus), 72, 81, 86, 

88. 
mutabilis (Agama), 27, 28, 100. 

neumanni (Latastia), 73, 80, 85, 

88. 
neumanni (Philochortus), 73. 
nigricollis (N'aja), 109. 
nigrofasciata (Agama), 100. 
nilotica (Laocrta), 68. 
niloticus (Crocodilus), 95. 
niloticua (Varanus), 08, 101. 
nubiana (Capra), 9. 
Dummifer (Zamenis), 107. 
nupta (Agama), 33. 
nursii ((ilaucouia), 63, 64, 73, 

81, 86, 88. 

obtusa (Dipsas), 73. 

obtusus (Coluber), 52, 62, 69. 



occllata (Lacerta), 68, 112. 
ocellatus (Chalcides (Gongylus)), 

47, 49, 68, 71, 75, 81, 86, 

90, 105, 116. 
ocellatus (Gongylus), 71. 
ocellatus (Uromastix), 101. 
officinalis (Scincus), 71, 104, 105. 
Oligodon, 74. 
ornatus (Uromastix), 63, 69, 79, 

85, 88, 101. 
oudrii (Ptyodactylus), 57. 

pallida (Agama), 62, 70, 75, 79, 

84, 88, 99. 
pannonicus (Ablepharus), 70, 76, 

80, 86, 90. 
pantherinus (Bufo), 71. 
pardalis (Acanthodactylus), 102. 
pardalis (Eremias), 71. 
pentoni (Bufo), 73, 76, 83, 87, 91, 

111. 
petersii (Stenodactylus), 97. 
petrii (Stenodactylus), 96. 
Phrynocephalus, 74, 
princeps (Uromastix), 72. 
princeps(Uromastix(Aporo8celis)), 

34. 
Pristiirus, 74. 
Psammophis, 74. 
Ptyodactylus, 74. 
puiseuxi (Ptyodactylus), 57. 
pulcher (Stenodactylus (Ceramo- 

dactylus)), 19, 73,77,84, 88. 
pulchra (Mabuia), 73. 
punctata (Psammophi3),moniligcr, 

var., 53. 
punctata (Psammophis), sibilans, 

var., 53. 
punctatus (Psammophis), 53, 69. 
punctulatus (Psammophis), 71, 76, 

83, 87, 89, 104. 



INDEX. 



121 



quinquetainiata (Mabuia), 73, 75, 
80, SG, 80, 104. 

regularis (Bufo), 71, 70, S3, 87, 

91, 110. 
revoili (Eremias), 102. 
rhodorhachis (Zamonis), 51, 71, 

75, 82, 86, 89, 106, 116. 
rhodorhachis, var. ladacensis (Za- 

mcnis), 51. 
Riopa, 70. 

rogersii (Zamonis), 107. 
rubropunctata (Eremias), 73, 75, 

80, 85, 88, 103, 112. 
rubropunctata (Lacerta), 103. 
ruderata (Agama), 53, 69, 76, 79, 

84, 90, 09. 
rupestris (Pristurns), 23, 24, 71, 

76, 78, 84, 89. 

Salamandra, 115. 
samharica (Lacerta), 102. 
samharica (Latastia), 102. 
sanguinolenta (Agama), 67. 
savignyi (Agama), 100. 
savignyi (Hyla), 114. 
savignyi (Tarbophis), 113. 
savignyi (Trapelus), 95, 96, 114. 
scaber (Gymnodaetylus), 70, 75, 

77, 84, 89, 112. 
scaber (Stenodactylus), 69. 
scabra (Dasypeltis), 114. 
schneideri (Eumeces), 47, 104. 
schokari (Coluber), 53, 69. 
schokari (Psammophis), 53, 69, 

70, 75, 82, 87, 89, 108. 
ScincidjE, 47, 74, 113. 
Scincus, 74, 

scolopax (Oxyrophus), 112. 
scuteUatus (Acanthodactylus), 42, 

73, 75, 80, 85, 89, 102. 



sepoides (Chalcides (Sphocnops)), 

71, 75, 81, 86, 89, 105. 
aeps (Chalcides), 113. 
septemtajniata (Mabuia), 71, 76, 

80, 85, 89. 
septemta^niatus (Euprepes), 71. 
sibilans (Psammophis), 108. 
sibilans, vai: (Psammophis), 53. 
sibilans, var. hicroisolimitana 

(Psammophis), 53, 69. 
sibilans, var. punctata (Psammo- 
phis), 53. 
sinaita (Agama), 27, 29, 30, oS, 

69, 73, 75, 78, 84, 89, 99. 
sinaita (Podorrhoa (Pseudotrape- 

lus)), 27. 
sinaitica (Agama), 27. 
sinaitus (Hemidactylus), 72, 75, 

78, 84, 83, 08. 
sinaitus (Trapelus), 27. 
sindanus (Psammophis) condaua- 

rus, var., 53. 
siphonorhina (Ptyodactylus) has- 

sclquistii, var., 08. 
Spatalura, 26. 
spinipes (Stellio), 101, 
spiuipes (Uromastix), 71, 101. 
spinosa (Agama), 100. 
stellata (Testudo), 72. 
stellio (Agama), 62, 69, 75, 79, 

85,00, 101. 
steUio (Lacerta), 101. 
Stenodactylus, 23, 47. 
steudneri (Gymnodaetylus), 07. 
steudneri (Stenodactylus), 07. 
steudneri (Tropiocolotes), 26. 
sthenodactylus (Ascalabotes), 

05. 
sturti (Lacerta), 102. 
syriacus (Ptyodactylus) lobatus, 

subsp., 57. 



122 



INDEX. 



Uromastix, 33, 34, 74. 
Varauidas, 34, 74. 



Tarbophis, 74. 

Tarentola, 74. 

terrestris (Tcstudo), 68. 

tessellata (Mabuia), 73, 80, 85, i Varanus, 74. 

88. veutrimaeulatiis (Zamenis), 71. 

tessellatus (Tropidonotus), lOG. vermicularis (Typblops), 70, 70, 



Testudinidte, 74. 
thebaicus (Erys), 106. 



81, 80, 90. 
Vipera, 74. 



tiligugu, Chalcides (G.) ocellatus, vipera (Cerastes), 109. 



vQr., 49. 



Viperidae, 55, 74. 



tridactylus (Chalcides (Seps)), 113. 1 viridis (Bufo), 70, 76, 83, S7, 



tripolitanus (Stenodactylus), 97. 
tripolitanus (Tropiocolotes), 97. 
Triton, 115. 
triunguis (Trionyx), 95. 
tuberculatus (Alsophylax), 72. 
tuberculatus (Bunopus), 21, 72, 

76, 77, 84, 89. 
turcica (Lacerta), 26. 
turcicus (Hemidactylus), 26, 70, 

75, 78, 84, 90, OS. 
Typblopidoe, 74. 
Typblops, 74. 



91, 111. 
vittata (Mabuia), 104. 
vulgaris (Chamaeleon), 63, 71, 75, 

81,86,91, 100. 

watsonanus (Eremias), 43. 
wilkinsonii (Tolarenta), 95. 

yerburii (Hemidactylus), 03, 73, 

78, 84, 88. 

Zamenis, 74. 



PKIXTED BY TAYLOR AND FllANCIS, KED UO.N COUKT, FLEET STREET, E.C.