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Full text of "Conversational Japanese for beginners"

1 



CONVERSATIONAL JAPANESE 

FOR BEGINNERS BY 

ARTHUR ROSE-INNES 



GRADUATED EXERCISES 

IN 

CONVERSATIONAL JAPANESE, 



KELLY & WALSH, LTD, 
YOKOHAMA, SHANGHAI, HONGKONG and SINGAPORE. 

(All rights reserved.) 
THE Box OF CURIOS PRESS, YOKOHAMA. 



CONVERSATIONAL JAPANESE 
FOR BEGINNERS. 



INTRODUCTION. 

This book consists of three parts : Part I, Graduated Exercises in Conversa- 
tional Japanese ; Part II, Elementary Grammar of the Japanese Spoken 
Language ; Part III, Vocabulary of Common Japanese Words.* 

The learning of a language is a complicated process. In general it may be 
said to consist of two parts, theory and practice. Theory refers to the know- 
ledge of words, their peculiarities, special uses, inflexions, how they depend on 
each other and how they are combined in a sentence. Elementary notions on 
these subjects as regards Colloquial Japanese will be found in Parts II and III 
of this work. Practice consists in learning to express oneself without difficulty 
or hesitation, in acquiring a correct pronunciation and in training the ear to 
understand the language as spoken by the natives. Practice, of course, cannot 
be learned from books ; however, the Exercises in Part I, supply models and 
materials for a great number of sentences which can be used in real life. 

The student is strongly advised to speak Japanese or try to speak Japanese 
on every possible occasion : to servants, rikisha-men, tramway-conductors, 
shop-attendants, etc.; and to continue speaking Japanese even when the other 
person answers in quite good English. Get as much practice in Japanese as you 
can, and don't go about giving free lessons in English. 

The author suggests that the student should begin with the Exercises, 
studying only such parts of the Grammar as are indicated at the beginning of 
each Exercise and consulting the Vocabulary when necessary. No particular 
method of study is recommended in detail ; but the author believes that the 
pupil should repeat each sentence after his teacher several times until he can 
say it with a fairly good pronounciation and a reasonable degree of fluency ; he 
should also have a knowledge of what the sentence means while he is saying it ; 
the lesson should not be considered as known until he can do all the above with 
his book closed. 

By the time the student has finished the Exercises, he will have gone all 
through the Grammar, and he should then, if he has the courage, read the Vo- 
cabulary, which contains many useful phrases not found in the Exercises, and 
many hints regarding the use of common words, which frequently are a source 
of trouble to the beginner. 

The Japanese Exercises were made in Japanese by a Japanese under the 
author's direction ; they are in no sense a translation of the English ; on the 
contrary, the English is a translation of the Japanese. It should be clearly 
understood that the version given is only one out of many equally good and 
correct translations which might be given. This will be readily understood 
when it is remembered, that in Japanese nouns have neither gender, number 

* For the convenience of those who wish to read the Japanese Characters from the 
very beginning of their studies, the Japanese text of Part I has been printed apart in 
Japanese Characters with kana alongside : this is called Part IV. 

2045773 



nor case, and verbs have of ten no subject expressed nor have they any inflexions 
corresponding to person or number ; in real life, the meaning is determined by 
context and circumstances. 

In the Vocabulary at the end of this book the etymology of words is given 
when it is considered helpful to the student. The average educated Japanese 
has no notion of what etymology means ; and when asked the origin of a word 
will immediately start explaining the characters or symbols with which it is 
written. .In this matter the author's chief guide has been Otsuki's Genkai. 

Besides the present book, the student who wishes, not only to go through 
these Exercises, but to express his own ideas, must have an English-Japanese 
Dictionary : the best one no doubt is, Hobart-Hampden and Parlett's English- 
Japanese Dictionary of the Spoken Language ; if a pocket dictionary is desired, 
the author's English- Japanese Conversation Dictionary may prove useful. 
Japanese-English dictionaries are very numerous but mostly unsatisfactory as 
they are generally made for the use of the Japanese ; the best one is perhaps 
Brinkley 's. 

The author begs also to recommend the following : Lange 's A Text-book of 
Colloquial Japanese, for exercises of a more advanced type ; Chamberlain 's 
Handbook of Colloquial Japanese, for further studies of the grammar ; Imbrie 's 
Handbook of English- Japanese Etymology, for the translation of those words in 
English which are of special difficulty. These books the author has consulted 
throughout and used freely. 

The author's Examples of Conversational Japanese, Parts I and II may be 
useful to the student who has made some progress in the present book. Part 
II uses no word not contained in this work, Part I has a somewhat more exten- 
sive vocabulary but an English translation is given along with the Japanese 
text. Part III of this work is the Japanese text of Parts I and II in Japanese 
characters with kana alongside. 

Those who wish to obtain some knowledge of the written characters cannot 
do better than study Chamberlain's The Study of Japanese Writing ; a cheap 
extract on the same subject is the author's Three Thousand Chinese- J apanese 
Characters. 

The letter A, B, C or D found after each sentence gives an idea of the 
degree of politeness : ' A ' sentences should be used to inferiors only ; ' B ' are 
familiar ; ' C ' are polite in an ordinary way ; and ' D ' are somewhat formally 
polite. 

Black-face numbers refer to the paragraphs of Part II, 



PART I. 

GRADUATED EXERCISES 

IN 
CONVERSATIONAL JAPANESE. 



EXERCISE 1. 

Japanese nouns have no number and, as a rule, no gender. 

Adjectives in Japanese, as in English, have no gender or number. Japanese 
verbs have no person or number. 

True adjectives in Japanese end in ai, ii, oi or ui. Used attributively the 
adjective is placed, as in English, before the noun. When used as predicates of 
affirmative sentences in familiar speech there is no need of any verb in Japanese ; 
in less familiar speech no desu or simply desu is added. 

The negative construction of adjectives is shown in 195; nai is familiar and 
must be replaced by arimasen in polite speech. 

Particles or postpositions are placed after the word to which they refer. 

empitsu : a pencil. chiisai : small. 

mise : a shop ; an office. kuroi : black. 

uchi : a house. desu : am ; is ; are. 

kono : this. arimasen ; nai (familiar) : is not. 

sono : that (not far). wa : a particle used for emphasis or 

ano : that (far). contrast, often placed after the subject 

takai : dear ; high. of a sentence. 

yasui : cheap. no : a particle with many varied uses. 

okii : big. ka : an interrogative particle. 

1. Kono chiisai mise wa takai (B). 2. Ano okii mise wa yasui no desti, (C). 
3. Kono chiisai mise u'a yasui no desu ka ? (C). 4. Sono chiisai mise wa takai no 
desu (C). 5. Chiisai mise wa yasuku arimasen (C). 6. Kono empitsu wa takai 
desu ka ? (C). 7. Sono empitsu wa takaku nai (B). 8. Kono uchi wa okii ka ? 
(B). 9. Kono uchi wa okiku nai (B). 10. Sono empitsu wa kuroi no desu ka? 
(C). 11. Kono empitsu wa kuroi (B). 12. Ano uchi wa chiisai ka ? (B). 13. 
Ano uchi wa okii desu (C). 14. Ano uchi wa takai desu ka ? (C). 15. Ano uchi 
wa takaku arimasen (C). 16. Sono empitsu wayasui no desu ka ? (C). 17. Kono 
empitsu wa yasui (B). 

1. This small shop is dear. 2. That big shop is cheap. 3. Is this small shop 
cheap ? 4. That small shop is dear. 5. Small shops are not cheap. 6. Is this 
pencil dear ? 7. That pencil is not dear. 8. Is this house big ? 9. This house 
is not big. 10. Is that pencil black ? 11. This pencil is black. 12. Is that 
house small ? 13. That house is big. 14. Is that house high ? 15. That 
house is not high. 16. Is that pencil cheap ? 17. This pencil is cheap. 



EXERCISE 2. 

True adjectives when used as predicates in connection with the polite verb 
gozaru change their terminations as shown in 1 92. 

The negative construction of these sentences is shown in 196. 

hana : a flower. akai : red. 

hey a : a room. kitanai : dirty. 

hon : a book. shiroi : white. 

inu : a dog. gozaimasu (polite) : am ; is ; are. 

kami : paper. gozaimasen (polite) : is not. 

kodomo : a child ; boy ; girl. watakushi ; watashi : I. 

tokei : a watch ; clock. anata : you. 

tsukue : a desk. 

1. Sono tsukue wa tako gozaimasu ka? (D). 2. Kono tsukue wa yam gozai- 
masu (D). 3. Ano hana wa ako gozaimasu (D). 4. Sono kami wa shiro gozai- 
masu ka? (D). 5. Kono kami wa shiro gozaimasen ; kono kami wa ako gozai- 
masu (D). 6. Anata wa okiu gozaimasu (D). 7. Watashi wa okiku arimasen 
(C). 8. Kono heya wa kitano gozaimasu (D). 9. Ano kodomo wa chiiso gozai- 
masu ka?(D). 10. Ano kodomo wa chiiso gozaimasen (D). 11. Watakushi wa 
chiiso gozaimasA (D). 12. Kono kuroi inu wa kitano gozaimasu ka ? (D). 13. 
Sono kuroi inu wa kitanaku arimasen (C). 14. Kono hon wa tako gozaimasu ka ? 
(D). 15. Kono hon wa takaku nai (B). 16. Ano uchi wa ako gozaimasu ka? 
(D). 17. Ano uchi wa akaku nai (B). 18. Kono tokei wa yasu gozaimasu (D). 
19. Ano okii mise wa yasu gozaimasu ka? (D). 20. Ano mise wa yasu gozai- 
masen^). 21. Ano mise wa kitano gozaimasu (D). 22. Kono tokei wa takai 
desuka? (C). 23. Kono tokei wa tako gozaimasen (D). 24. Sono empitsu wa 
kuro gozaimasu ka ? (D). 25. Kono empitsu wa kuro gozaimasen ; kono empitsu 
wa ako gozaimasu (D). 26. Sono akai hon wa tako gozaimasu ka ? (D). 27. 
Kono akai hon wa takaku nai (B). 28. Ano takai uchi wa kitano gozaimasu ka ? 
(D). 29. Ano uchi wa kitanaku arimasen (C). 30. Kono heya wa chiiso gozai- 
masu ka?(D). 31. Kono heya wa okiu gozaimasu (D). 32. Ano okii heya wa 
Itiffutai (B). 33. Kono kuroi inu wa chiiso gozaimasu (D). 34. Ano okii inu wa 
kitano gozaimasu ka ? (D). 35. Ano inu wa kitanai (B). 36. Kono kodomo wa 
kitanai (B). 37. Ano takai uchi wa shiroi desu ka ? (C). 38. Ano uchi wa 
shiroku nai (B). 

1. Is that desk dear ? 2. This desk is cheap. 3. That flower is red. 4. Is 
that paper white ? 5. This paper is not white ; this paper is red. 6. You are 
big. 7. I am not big. 8. This room is dirty. 9. Is that child small ? 10. 
That child is not small. 11. I am small. 12. Is this black dog dirty ? 13. 
That black dog is not dirty. 14. Is this book dear ? 15. This book is not 
dear. 16. Is that house red ? 17. That house is not red. 18. This watch is 
cheap. 19. Is that big shop cheap ? 20. That shop is not cheap. 21. That 
shop is dirty. 22. Is this clock dear ? 23. This clock is not dear. 24. Is that 
pencil black ? 25. This pencil is not black ; this pencil is red. 26. Is that red 
book dear ? 27. This red book is not dear. 28. Is that high house dirty ? 
29. That house is not dirty. 30. Is this room small ? 31. This room is big. 
32. That big room is dirty. 33. That black dog is small. 34. Is that big dog 
dirty ? 35. That dog is dirty. 36. This child is dirty. 37. Is that high house 
white ? 38. That house is not white. 



EXERCISE 3, 

Certain nouns followed by the particle na or no have the force of adjectives, 
and are called quasi-adjectives. 

When used predicatively de takes the place of na (or no) and is followed by 
aru, arimasu or gozaimasu according to the degree of politeness. Note that 
de aru is generally abbreviated to da, and de arimasu to desu. 

In the negative na (or no) is changed to de wa (often abbreviated to ja). 

Some true adjectives may be used attributively as quasi-adjectives in na after 
supressing the final i of the adjective. Thus okii uchi or oki na uchi a big house ; 
chiisai mise or chiisa na mise a small shop. 

kin (noun) ; kin no (adj.) : gold. na : a particle used for forming quasi- 

baka : a fool. adjectives. 

baka na : foolish ; silly. no : a particle used for forming quasi- 

benri na : convenient. adjectives ; also means possession ; of. 

kirei na : pretty ; clean. wata(ku)shi no : my ; mine. 

riko na : clever. anata no : your ; yours. 

murasaki no : violet (colour). de : a particle. 

oki na : big. da (=de aru) : is. 

chiisa na : small. ja =de wa. 

1. Ano kirei na inu wa riko desu ka ? (C). 2. Ano inu wa baka de gozaimasu 
(D). 3. Kono chiisa na inu wa riko de gozaimasu (D). 4. Kono oki na tsukue 
wa benri de gozaimasu ka ? (D). 5. Kono tsukue wa benri de wa nai (B). 6. 
Anata no tokei wa kin de gozaima#ii ka ? (D). 7. Kono tokei wa kin ja nai (B). 
8. Anata no empitsu wa murasaki de gozaimasu ka ? (D). 9. Watashi no empitsu 
wa murasaki j a arimasen ; watashi no wa kuroi desu (C). 10. Kono murasaki no 
empitsu wa benri desu (C). 11. Ano oki na kodomo wa baka desu ka ? (C). 12. 
Ano kodomo wa riko da (B). 13. Anata no heya wa kirei de gozaimasu ka ? (D). 
14. Watakushi no heya wa kirei de wa gozaimasen (D). 15. Kono kirei na hon wa 
anata no hon desu ka ? (C). 16. Sono hon wa watashi no ja nai (B). 17. Anata 
no empitsu wa murasaki desu ka ? (C). 18. Watakushi no empitsu wa murasaki 
de gozaimasu (D). 19. Kin zva kirei da (B). 20. Kin no tokei wa kirei desu (C). 
21. Inu no uchi if a chiisai (B). 22. Sono kirei na hon wa Taro no hon desu (C). 
23. Kono murasaki no empitsu wa anata no desu ka ? (C). 24. Sono empitsu wa 
waashi no ja nai ; watashi no wa akai (B). 25. Ano oki na uchi wa anata no 
uchi' desu ka ? (C). 26. Ano uchi wa watashi no ja nai(B). 27. Watashi no uchi 
wa chiisa na uchi desu (C). 28. Ano kodomo wa baka na kodomo de gozaimasu 
ka ? (D). 29. Ano kodomo wa balcaja nai (B). 

1; Is that pretty dog clever ? 2. That dog is stupid. 3. This small dog is 
clever. 4. Is this big desk convenient ? 5. This desk is not convenient. 6. Is 
your watch gold ? (is yours a gold watch ?) 7. This watch is not gold. 8. Is 
yours a violet pencil ? 9. My pencil is not violet ; it is black. 10. This violet 
pencil is convenient. 11. Is that big boy silly ? 12. That boy is clever. 13. 
Is yours a pretty room ? 14. My room is not pretty. 15. Is this pretty book 
yours ? 16. That book is not mine. 17. Is yours a violet pencil ? 18. My 
pencil is violet. 19. Gold is pretty. 20. Gold watches are pretty. 21. The 
dog's kennel is small. 22. That pretty book is Taro's. 23. Is this violet 
pencil yours ? 24. That pencil is not mine ; mine is red. 25. Is that big house 
yours ? 26. That house is not mine. 27. Mine is a small house. 28. Is that 
a silly child ? 29. That child is not silly. 



EXERCISE 4. 

When the verb .'to be' lias a noun as a predicate, the noun is followed by 
de ani. fie aritiiaxn or (k gnzahnanu in the affirmative, and dc tea nai, de, wa ari- 
masen or <h' HY/ gozahnasen in the negative. Remember the contractions noted 
in the previous lesson. 

' Have (got) ' meaning ' possess ' is translated by aru, arimasu or gozaimasu 
in the affirmative, and by nai. uri waxen or gozaimaseH in the negative; the English 
subject takes the postposition wa, and the object becomes the Japanese subject 
and takes the postposition ga. 

ginko : a bank. are ; sore : that (noun). 

hagaki : a postcard. to : and. 

kitte : a postage stamp. ga : postposition often used after the 

neko : a cat. subject of a sentence. 

.fhhnbun : a newspaper. nani ? nan ? what ? 

kore : this (noun). 

1. Are wa anata no uchi desu ka ? (C). 2. Are wa watakushi no uchi de gozai- 
masu (D). 3. Kore wa Taro no neko de gozaimasu ka ? (D). 4. Sore wa Taro 
no neko da (B). 5. Ano lakai uchi wa ginko ka ? (B). 6. Ano uchi wa ginko 
ja nai (B). 7. Sore wa anata no kitte de gozaimasu ka ? (D). 8. Kore wa wata- 
kiishi no kitte de wa gozaimasen (D). 9. Anata wa shimbun ga arimasu ka? (C). 
10. Watashi wa shimbun ga aru (B). 11. Anata wa hagaki to kitte ga gozaimasu 
ka ? (D). 12. Watashi wa hagaki wa arimasu ; kitte wa arimasen (C). 13. 
Anata wa murasaki no empitsu ga aru ka ? (B). 14. Watashi wa murasaki no 
empitsu ga nai (B). 15. Anata wa kami to empitsu ga arimasu ka ? (C). 16. 
Wnlashi wa kami ga gozaimasen (D). 17. Watashi wa neko ga arimasu ; anata 
wa nani ga arimasu ka? (C). 18. Watashi wa chiisai inu ga aru (B). 19. Are 
n7/ nan de gozaimasu ka ? (D). 20. Are wa ginko desu (C). 21. Kono oki na uchi 
wa nan de gozaimasu ka ? (D). 22. Kore wa mise da (B). 23. Sore wa anata 
no l.fiiku-e de.m ka ? (C). 24. Kore wa watashi no de wa arimasen (C). 25. 
Wntashi no tsukue wa chiiso gozaimasu (D). 26. Sore wa shimbun desu ka ? (C). 
27. Kore wa shimbun de gozaimasu (D}. 28. Kono ginko wa okjiu gozaimasu ka ? 
(D). 29. Kono ginko wa okiu gozaimasen (D). 30. Are wa riko na neko desu 
ka ? (C). 31. Are- wa baka na neko da (B). 32. Anata no neko wa kuro gozai- 
masu ka ? (D). 33. Watashi no neko wa shiro gozaimasu (D). 34. Are wa nan 
desu ka ? (C). 35. Are wa neko de gozaimasu (D). 

1. Is that your house ? 2. That is my house. 3. Is this Taro's cat ? 4. 
That is Taro's cat. 5. Is that tall building a bank ? 6. That building is not a 
bank. 7. Is that your stamp ? 8. This stamp is not mine. 9. Have you a 
newspaper? 10. I have a newspaper. 11. Have you a postcard and a stamp ? 
12. I have got a postcard; I haven't got a stamp. 13. Have you got a violet 
pencil? 14. I haven't got a violet pencil. 15. Have you got some paper and a 
pencil ? 16. I have not got any paper. 17. I have a cat, what have you got ? 
18. I have a little dog. 19. What is that ? 20. That is not a bank. 21. What is 
this big house ? 22. This is a shop. 23. Is that your desk ? 24. This is not 
mine. 25. Mine is a small desk. 26. Is that a newspaper ? 27. This is a 
newspaper. 28. Is this a big bank ? 29. This is not a big bank. 30. Is that 
a clever cat ? 31. That is a stupid cat. 32. Is your cat black ? 33. My cat 
is white. :u. What is that? 35. That is a cat. 



EXERCISE 5. 

.In the sense of 'to he (in a place)' 'there is' use the verb ant. ar imasu or 
gozaimasu if speaking of things without life; and int., imosu or orimasu if speak- 
ing of living things. The negative forms of these latter verbs are i-nai. imasen, 
orimasen. 

hako : a box. San : Mr ; Mrs ; Master ; Miss. 

imo : potato. koko : here ; this place. 

tegami : a letter. asuko ; soko : there ; that place. 

uma : a horse. doko ? where ? 

ushi : a bull ; cow ; ox. ni : in ; at ; to ; etc. 

1. Kami wa doko ni ariinasu ka? (C). 2. Kami wa ano oki na hako ni am (B). 
3. Koko ni ginkoga gozaimasu ka ? (D). 4. Koko ni oki na ginko ga ariinasu (C). 
5. Asftko ni tokei ga gozaimasu ka ? (D). 6. Asuko ni wa tokei wa nai (B). 7. 
Sono hako ni imo ga am ka ? (B). 8. Kono hako ni wa imo ga gozaimasen (D). 
9. Anata no uchi ni uma ga imasu ka ? (C). 10. Watakushi no uchi ni uma ga 
orimasen (C). 11. Yamada San no uchi ni ushi ga iru ka? (B). 12. Yamada 
San no uchi ni ushi to uma ga iru (B). 13. Taro San wa uchi ni imasu ka? (C). 
14. Taro tea uchi ni orimasen (C). 15. Anata no uchi ni neko ga imasu ka? (C). 
16. Watashi no uchi ni wa neko ga imasen (C). 17. Yamada San no tegami wa 
ano hako ni ariinasu ka ? (C). 18. Yamada San no tegami wa asuko ni wa ari- 
masen (C). 19. Soko ni uma ga orimasu ka ? (C). 20. Koko ni wa uma ga i-nai 
(B). 21. Imo wa doko ni gozaimasu ka? (D). 22. Imo wa k&no halao ni am 
(B). 23. Jiro San wa doko ni orimasti ka? (C). 24. Jiro wa Yamada San no 
uchi ni orimasu (C). 25. Anata no hako wa kirei de gozaimasu (D). 26. Kore 
wa Taro San no tegami desu ka ? (C). 27. Sore wa Taro San no tegami ja nai (B). 
28. Taro San no tegami wa doko ni aru ka? (B). 29. Taro San no tegami wa ano 
kirei na hako ni gozaimasu (D). 30. Ano oki na uma wa Yamada San no desu 
ka ? (C). 31. Are wa Yamada Son no uma ja nai, Jiro no uma da (B). 32. 
Anata no shiroi neko wa doko ni imasu ka ? (C). 33. Shiroi neko wa asuko ni 
orimasu (C). 34. Shimbun wa soko ni arimasu ka? (C). 35. Koko ni wa shim- 
bun ga nai (B). 

1. Where is the paper ? 2. The paper is in that big box. 3. Is there a bank 
here ? 4. There is a big bank here. 5. Is there a clock there ? 6. There is no 
clock there. 7. Are there any potatoes in that box ? 8. There are none in 
this box. 9. Is there (have you) a horse at your house ? 10. There is no horse 
in my house. 11. Are there any cows at Mr Yamada 's place ? 12. At Mr 
Yamada 's place there are both cows and horses. 13. Is Master Taro at home ? 
14. Taro is not at home. 15. Is there a cat in your house ? 16. There is no 
cat in our house. 17. Is Mr Yamada 's letter in that box ? 18. Mr Yamada 's 
letter is not there. 19. Is there a horse there ? 20. There is no horse here. 
21. Where are the potatoes ? 22. The potatoes are in this box. 23. Where 
is Master Jiro? 24. Jiro is at Mr Yamada 's house. 25. Your box is 
pretty. 26. Is this Master Taro's letter? 27. That is not Master Taro's 
letter. 28. Where is Master Taro's letter ? 29. Master Taro's letter is in that 
pretty box. 30. Does that big horse belong to Mr Yamada ? 81. That is 
not Mr Yamada 's horse ; it is Jiro's. 32. Where is your white cat ? 33. The 
white cat is there. 34. Is the newspaper there ? 35. The newspaper is not 
here. 



EXERCISE 6. 

Form the present tense of the verbs given below from tables 28 and 29. 
See 35 and 36 ; also 38. 
The subject is often not expressed in Japanese. 

iku (irreg.) : to go. asa : the morning. 

kaku : to write. ashlta : tomorrow. 

kau : to buy. de ': at ; in ; etc. 

kuru (irreg.) : to come. e : to. 

motsu : to have ; hold. mo : also. 

yobu : to call. wo : postposition used after the ob- 

yomu : to read. jective case. 

1. Anata wa nani wo kaimasu ka ? (C). 2. Hon to kami wo kau (B). 3. Ano 
kodomo wa kirei na hako wo motte iru (B). 4. Taro wa tegami wo kaite imasu (C). 
5. Akai empitsu wo kau ka ? (B). 6. Altai empitsu wa kaimasen (C). 7. Anata 
wa ano inu wo yonde imasu ka ? (C). 8. Ano inu wo yonde wa imasen (C). 9. 
Watashi wa asa shimbun wo yomu (B). 10. Yamada San wa Tokyo no shimbun 
wo kaimasu (C). 11. Doko de kami wo kaimasu ka ? (C). 12. Ano oki na mise 
de kau (B). 13. Yamada San wa ashlta Tokyo e ikimasu ; watashi wa ikimasen 
(C). 14. Anata wa ashlta koko e kimasu ka ? (C). 15. Kimasu (C). 16. 
Watashi mo kimasu (C). 17. Ashita no asa Tanaka San ni tegami wo kakimasti 
(C). 18. Ano kodomo wa nani wo motte imasu ka ? (C). 19. Kirei na shiroi 
hana wo motte iru (B). 20. Ashita mo ginko e ikimasu ka ? (C). 21. Ashita wa 
ikimasen (C). 22. Anata wa kono mise de shimbun wo kaimasu ka ? (C). 23. 
Kono mise j a kaimasen (C). 24. Hana-ko San wa nani wo yonde imasu ka ? (C). 
25. Tegami wo yonde iru (B). 26. Yamada San wa ashlta watashi no uchi e 
kuru (B). 27. Hagaki to kitte wo motte iru ka ? (B). 28. Hagaki wa arimasu ; 
kitte zca motte imasen (C). 29. Nani wo kaite ima#& ka ? (C). 30. Taro San 
ni tegami wo kaite imasu (C). 31. Ashita Tokyo de nani wo kaimasu ka? (C). 
32. Hon to empitsu wo kau (B). 33. Doko e ikimasu ka ? (C). 34. Mise e iki- 
masti (C). 35. Watashi no shimbun wa asa kimasu (C). 

1. What are you buying ? 2. I am buying a book and some paper. 3. That 
child has a pretty box. 4. Taro is writing a letter. 5. Are you buying a red 
pencil ? 6. I am not buying a red pencil. 7. Are you calling that dog ? 8. I 
am not calling that dog. 9. I read the newspaper in the morning. 10. Mr 
Yamada buys a Tokyo newspaper. 11. Where do you buy your paper ? 12. I 
buy it at that big shop. 13. Mr Yamada is going to Tokyo tomorrow, I 'm 
not going. 14. Are you coming here tomorrow ? 15. I am. 16. I also am 
coming. 17. Tomorrow morning I shall write a letter to Mr Tanaka. 18. 
What has that boy got in his hand ? 19. He has a pretty white flower. 20. 
Are you going to the bank again tomorrow ? 21. I am not going tomorrow. 
Do you buy your newspaper at this shop ? 23. I don't buy it at this shop. 
24. What is Miss Hana-ko reading ? 25. She is reading a letter. 26. Mr 
Yamada is coming to my house tomorrow. 27. Have you got a postcard and a 
stamp ? 28. I have a postcard but I haven't got a stamp. 29. What are you 
writing ? 30. I am writing a letter to Master Taro. 31. What are you going 
to buy in Tokyo tomorrow ? 32. I am going to buy a book and a pencil. 33. 
Where are you going ? 34. I am going to the office. 35. My newspaper comes 
in the morning. 



EXERCISE 7. 

See how the different forms of the probable present or future tense are formed 
in tables 28 and 29. The principal idea of this tense is uncertainty. 
For the probable present of aru and de aru, see 93 and 94. 

ame : rain. deki'ru : to be able ; can ; can do ; can 

densha : an electric car. speak ; be made, finished, ready. 

Ei-go : English (language). (The English object often becomes 

kisha : a train. the subject in Japanese). 

kudamono : fruit. furu : to fall (as rain, snow). 

kuruma : a rikisha. kaeru : to return ; come back. 

Nihon ; Nippon : Japan. matsu : to wait. 
Nihon-go : Japanese (language). uru : to sell. 
kyo : today. 

1. Taro San wa kyo Tokyo e iku desho ka ? (C). 2. Kyo wa iku daro (B). 8. 
Anata wa densha de kaerimasu ka ? (C). 4. Kuruma de kaero (B). 5. Silva 
San wa Ei-go ga dekimasu ka ? (C). 6. Ei-go wa dekimastimai ; Nihon-go wa 
dekimasu (C). 7. Kore wa Tokyo no shimbun daro ka ? (B). 8. Sore wa Tokyo 
no shimbun ja nai desho (C). 9. Smith San wa Nihon e kuru desho ka? (C). 
10. Kuru desho (C). 11. Ano mise de kudamono wo utte iru daro ka? (B). 12. 
Utte i-nai desho (C). 13. Hana-ko San wa ashita densha de kuru desho ka ? (C). 
14. Kisha de kuru desho (C). 15. Ashita ame ga furu desho ka? (C). 16. 
Ashita wa furumai (B). 17. Tsukue wa ashita no asa dekimasho ka ? (C). 18. 
Dekimasho (C). 19. Jiro San wa mise de watashi wo matte iru daro ka ? (B). 
20. Matte i-nai desho (C). 21. Ano mise ni kono kami ga gozaimasho ka? (D). 
22. Asuko ni wa arimasumai (C). 23. Terada San no uchi ni Ei-go no shimbun 
ga arimasho ka ? (C). 24. Asuko ni wa aru daro (B). 25. Kyo wa ame ga furu 
desho ka? (C). 26. Ame wafura-nai daro (B). 27. Hana-ko wa ashita uchi e 
tegami wo kaku daro ka ? (B). 28. Ashita no asa kaku desho (C). 29. Yamada 
San wa ano oki na tsukue wo kau daro ka ? (B). 30. Kau desho ; ano tsukue wa 
benri desho (C). 

1. I wonder whether Master Taro will go to Tokyo today ? 2. I think he will 
go today. 3. Will you return by tram-car ? 4. I am thinking of going back 
by rikisha. 5. Can Mr Silva speak English? 6. I don't think he can speak 
English ; he can speak Japanese. 7. I wonder whether this is a Tokyo news- 
paper ? 8. I don't think that's a Tokyo newspaper. 9. Do you think Mr 
Smith will come to Japan ? 10. I think he will. 11. I wonder whether they 
sell fruit at that shop ? 12. I don't think they do. 13. Do you think Miss 
Hana-ko will come tomorrow by tram-car ? 14. She will probably come by 
train. 15. Do you think it will rain tomorrow ? 16. I don't think it will. 17. 
I wonder whether my desk will be ready tomorrow morning ? 18. I think it 
will. 19. I wonder whether Master Jiro is waiting for me at the office ? 20. I 
don 't expect he is. 21. Do you think they've got paper like this at that shop ? 
22. I don't think they've got any there. 23. I wonder whether there is an 
English newspaper at Mr Terada 's house ? 24. I expect there is. 25. Do you 
think it will rain today ? 26. I don't think it will. 27. I wonder whether 
Hana-ko is going to write home tomorrow ? 28. I think she will write tomorrow 
morning. 29. Do you think Mr Yamada will buy that big desk ? 30. I expect 
he will ; it looks a very convenient desk. 



EXERCISE 8. 

Study the formation of the past tense in tables; 28 and 29. For am and de am 
see 93 and 94. 

boshi : hat. sum (irreg.) : to do. 

hito : man. zvakaru : to understand. (The English 

ito : thread. object becomes the subject in Japan- 

kotoba : words ; something said. ese). 

niku : meat. e : interjection ; sometimes 'yes'. 

pen : pen. hai : interjection ; I have heard ; I un- 

tamago : egg. derstand ; that is so ; yes. 

kesa : this morning. He : no. 

kino : yesterday. 

1. Yamada San wa kesa nani wo shite imashlta ? (C). 2. Shimbun wo yonde 
ita (B). 3. Kyo ginkd e itta ka ? (B). 4. Kyd wa ika-nakatta ; ashita ikd (B). 
5. Ano mise ni ito ga arimashita ka ? (C). 6. lie, amko ni wa nakatta (B). 
7. Ano boshi wa Suzuki San no deshita ka ? (C). 8. lie, Suzuki San no ja na- 
katta ; Tanaka San no datta (B). 9. Kesa niku to tamago wo kaimashita ka ? (C). 
10. Hai, kaimashita (C). 11. Maruzen ni Ei-go no shimbun ga alia ka ? (B). 
12. lie, arimasen deshita (C). 13. Kind pen wo kaimashita ka ? (C). 14. E, 
katta (B). 15. Hana-ko San wa kind uchi e kimasen deshita (C). 16. Brown 
San wa kind mo hon wo yonde ita ka ? (B). 17. lie, kino wa hon wo yonde i- 
nakatta (B). 18. Ano hito wa Brown San j a arimasen deshita (C). 19. Tanaka 
San no kotoba ga zvakarimashita ka ? (C). 20. lie, wakarimasen deshita (C). 
21. Boshi wa arimashita ka ? (C). 22. Hai, gozaimashita (D). 23. Kono empi- 
tsu wa doko de kaimashita ? (C). 24. Tokyo de katta (B). 25. Kind nani wo 
shimashita? (C). 26. Kind wa uchi ni tegami wo kakimashita (C). 27. Anata 
wa kind uchi ni ita ka ? (B). 28. Kind wauchi ni imasen deshita ; mise de tegami 
wo kaite imashlta (C). 29. Ano pen wa anata no deshita ka ? (C). 30. Lie, 
watashi no ja nakatta (B). 31. Kind Tokyo wa ame ga futta ka? (B). 32. lie, 
furimasen deshita (C). 33. Silva San wa Ei-go no shimbun wo yonde imashlta ka ? 
(C). 34. lie, Ei-go no shimbun wo yonde imasen deshita (C). 

1. What was Mr Yamada doing this morning ? 2. He was reading the 
newspapers. 3. Did you go to the bank today ? 4. I didn't go today ; I shall 
go tomorrow. 5. Did you find any thread at that shop ? 6. There was none 
there. 7. Was that hat Mr Suzuki's? $. No, it was not Mr Suzuki's ; it was 
Mr Tanaka 's. 9. Did you buy some meat and some eggs this morning ? 10. 
Yes, I did. 11. Was there an English newspaper atMaru/en's? 12. No, 
there was not. 13. Did you buy a pen yesterday ? 14. Yes, I did. 15. Miss 
Hana-ko did not come to my house yesterday. 16. Was Mr Brown again 
reading a book yesterday ? 17. No, he wasn't reading a book yesterday. 18. 
That man was not Mr Brown. 19. Did you understand what Mr Tanaka 
said ? 20. No, I did not. 21. Have you found your hat ? (was your hat any- 
where ?) 22. Yes, I have. 23. Where did you buy this pencil ? 24. I bought, 
it in Tokyo. 25. What did you do yesterday ? 26. I wrote home yesterday. 
27. W T ere you at home yesterday ? 28. I was not at home yesterday ; I was at 
the office writing letters. 29. Was that pen yours ? 30. No, it was not mine. 
81. Did it rain in Tokyo yesterday ? 32. No, it did not. 33. Was Mr Silva 
reading an English newspaper ? 34. No, he was not. 



EXERCISE 9. 

The adverbial form of true adjectives is shown in 192; quasi-adjectives change 
na (or no) into ni when used as adverbs. See also 190, 4. 

Atsui and atsuku natta (lit. has or did become hot) both mean 'is hot'; but 
when you say atsuku natta you imply that formerly it was not hot. 

soji : cleaning ; sweeping. oki'ru : to get up. 

atarashii : new. sute'ru : to throw away ; get rid of. 

furui : old. sukoshi : a little. 

hayai : early ; quick. takusan : a great deal. 

mijikai : short. zuibun : very. 

nngai : long. kara : after ; from. 

naru : to become. kara : because ; as ; since. 

1. Yamada San no inu tea okiku narimashlta ka? (C). 2. Hai, zuibun okiku 
narimashlta (C). 3. Kami ga zuibun takaku natta (B). 4. Kind kara imo ga 
sukoshi yasuku natta (B). 5. Ano mise wa takaku uru (B). 6. Watashi no 
boshi wa furuku natta kara, suteyo (B). 7. Anata tea asa hayaku okimasu ka ? 
(C). 8. E, hayaku okimasu (C). 9. Ano hito wa tegami wo kirei ni kakimasu 
(C). 10. Kono uchi wa benri ni dekite iru (B). 11. Kesa uchi wo kirei ni soji 
shimashita (C). 12. Kino Tanaka San kara nagai tegami ga kimashlta (C). 
13. Anata wa kesa heya no soji wo shimashita ka ? (C). 14. Hai, kirei ni soji 
shimashita (C). 15. Uchi ni hana ga takusan arimasu (C). 16. Brown San wa 
kesa Tokyo kara kaetta (B). 17. Ano mise zva takai kara kaumai (B). 18. 
Suzuki San ni mijikai tegami wo kakimashtta (C). 19. Kore wa furui ginko 
desu ka? (C). 20. lie, atarashii desu (C). 21. Kyo wa ame ga furu kara, 
Kamakura e ika-nai (B). 22. Ashita no asa wa sukoshi hayaku okiyo (B). 23. 
Kono hon wa furuku natta kara, sutemasho (C). 24. A no hlto wa zuibun asa 
hayaku okiru (B). 25. Sono kudamono wa furui kara kawa-nai (B). 26. Kono 
boshi wa zuibun kitanaku narimashita (C). 27. Kyo no shimbun wa doko ni ari- 
masu ? (C). 28. Watashi no heya ni aru (B). 29. Hayaku heya no soji wo 
shiyo (B). 30. Anata no uchi ni Ei-go no hon ga takusan gozaimasu ka ? (D). 
31. lie, takusan wa arimasen ; sukoshi arimasu (C). 

1. Has Mr Yamada 's dog grown big? 2. Yes, he's grown very big. 3. 
Paper is very dear now. 4. Since yesterday potatoes are somewhat cheaper. 
5. That shop sells very dear. 6. My hat is old, so I'll throw it away. 7. Do 
you get up early ? 8. Yes, I get up ebrly. 9. That man writes his letters very 
neatly. 10. This house is constructed in a very convenient way. 11. This 
morning I swept the (whole) house very carefully. 12. I received a long letter 
yesterday from Mr Tanaka. 13. Did you sweep your room this morning ? 
Yes, I swept it carefully. 15. We have a lot of flowers in our place. 16. Mr 
Brown returned from Tokyo this morning. 17. I don't think I'll buy (any- 
thing) at that shop, it's too dear. 18. I wrote a short letter to Mr Suzuki. 
19. Is this an old bank ? 20. No, it's new. 21. As it is raining today, I shall 
not go to Kamakura. 22. I think I'll get up a little earlier tomorrow morning. 
23. As this book is out of date now, I'll throw it away. 24. That man gets up 
very early in the morning. 25. As that fruit is stale, I won't buy it. 26. ' 
hat has become quite soiled. 27. Where is today's newspaper? 
room. 29. I will' hurry up and sweep my room. 30. Have you got a lot of 
English books in your house ? 81. No, I haven't got many ; I have a few. 



EXERCISE 10. 



Study the forms of the imperative in tables 28 and 29. 



denki : electricity ; electric light. 

iya na : disagreeable ; distasteful. 

ii ; yoi : good. 

o : honorific prefix. 

omae (familiar) : you. 

dozo : please. 

ikemasen ; ike-nai (familiar) : it 

won 't do. 
kesu : to put out. 
mi'ru : to look. 
tabe'ru : to eat. 
tsuke'ru : to apply. 



kudasai (polite) ; kure (impolite) : by 

themselves they mean ' give ' ; used 

also after gerund in imperative forms. 
nasai : literally ' deign '; used after the 

2nd base in the imperative. 
goran : generally takes the place of the 

2nd base in the imperative of mi'ru 

to see. 
o-ide : generally takes the place of the 

2nd base in the imperative of kuru to 

come and iku to go. 



1. Yamada San, ashita watashi no uchi e o-ide nasai (C). 2. Kyo no shimbun 
wo kudasai (C). 3. Ii kudamono wo katte o kure (A). 4. Dozo Brown San wo 
yonde kudasai (D). 5. Watashi no tegami wo yonde wa ikemasen (C). 6. Ano 
hon wa watashi noja nai kara yonde wa ikemasen (C). 7. Dozo watakushi no heya 
e o-ide kudasai (D). 8. Ano inu wa iya da kara yoba-nai de o kure (A). 9. Kono 
kudamono wo o tabe nasai (C). 10. Sono akai hon wo goran nasai (C). 11. Omae. 
wa sono tegami wo mite wa ike-nai (A). 12. Denki wo tsukemasho ka ? (C). 13. 
lie, tsiike-nai de kudasai (C). 14. Asa hayaku oki nasai (A). 15. Dozo kono 
tegami wo goran kudasai (D). 16. Denki wo keshimasho ka ? (C). 17. Kesa-nai 
de ii (B). 18. A no mise wa takai desu kara, asuko de kami wo kawa-nai de 
kudasai (C). 19. Yamada San ni tegami wo kaite kudasai (C). 20. Ano kodomo 
wo goran nasai (C). 21. Omae no boshi wa kitanaku natta kara, sute nasai (A). 
22. Arc wa Yamada San no inu da kara, yonde wa ike-nai (A). 23. Kore wa ii 
kami desu kara, takusan o kai kudasai (D). 24. Kyo wa ginko e ika-nai de ii 
(B). 25. Hagaki wo kudasai (C). 26. Kono tegami wo yonde o kure (A). 27. 
Watashi no heya e kite o kure (A). 28. Tamago wo takusan katte wa ikemasen 
(C). 29. Ashita no asa hayaku Tokyo e itte kudasai (C). 30. Anata no o heya 
wo soji shimasho ka ? (C). 31. lie, shi-nai de ii (A). 32. Watashi no heya e 
ko-nai de kudasai (C). 

1. Mr Yamada, please come to my house tomorrow. 2. Please give me 
today 's paper. 3. Buy some good fruit. 4. Please call Mr Brown. 5. You 
mustn't read my letters. 6. You mustn't read that book, it is not mine. 
7. Please come to my room. 8. I don't like that dog, so don't call it. 9. Eat 
this fruit. 10. Look at that red book. 11. You mustn't read that letter. 
12. Shall I turn on the electric light ? 13. No, please don't do so. 14. Get up 
early in the morning. 15. Please read this letter. 16. Shall I turn off the 
electric light ? 17. Don't do so. 18. As that shop is expensive please don't 
buy the paper there. 19. Please write a letter to Mr Yamada. 20. Look at 
that child. 21. Your hat is dirty, throw it away. 22. That is Mr Yamada 's 
dog, so you mustn 't call it. 23. As this is very good paper, please buy a good 
deal. 24. You needn't go to the bank today. 25. Please give me a postcard. 
26. Read this letter. 27. Come to my room. 28. Don 't buy too many eggs. 
29. Please go to Tokyo early tomorrow morning. 30. Shall I sweep your room? 
31. No, you needn't. 32. Please don't come to my room. 



EXERCISE 11. 

Study the formation of the gerund in tables 28, 29 and 93 ; some of the uses 
of the gerund in 58, 2, 3, 6. 

fune : ship. dasu : to take out of ; post (of a letter). 

hoki : broom. de'ru : to come out of ; go out. 

Igirisu : England. fuku : to blow. 

ka : mosquito. yarn : to give. 

kane : metal ; money. motte iku : to take. 

kasa : umbrella. motte kuru : to bring ; take to my place. 

kaze : wind. motte kaeru : to bring or take back. 

kyaku : visitor ; guest. ammari : too ; to be in excess. 

au : to meet. 

1. Kesa no shimbun wo motte kite o kure (A). 2. Taro wa kasa wo motte iki- 
mashita ka? (C). 3. E, motte ikimashlta (C). 4. Kono tokei wa Yamada San 
ga Igirisu kara motte kaerimashita (C). 5. Kesa uchi ni tegami wo kaite dashi- 
mashlta (C). 6. Hoki wo motte kite kono heya wo soji shite kure (A). 7. Kono 
hako wo Tanaka San no o uchi e motte o-ide nasai (B). Kono hako wo motte 
Tanaka San no o uchi e o-ide nasai (B). 8. Ano hako kara kami wo dashite 
motte kite o kure (A). 9. Koko wa ka ga takusan ite iya desu (C). 10. Kind wa 
kyaku ga kite Tokyo e ikimasen deshlta (C). 11. Ammari kaze ga fuite fune ga 
de-nakatta (B). 12. Kitte wo katte, kono tegami wo dashlte kudasai (C). 13. Ginko 
e itte, Terada San ni atta (B). 14. Dozo Yoshi-ko ni atte. kore wo yatte kudasai 
(C). 15. Sore wa Haru-ko no desu kara, motte itte yarimasho (C). 16. Kono 
tsukue wo watashi no heya e motte kite o kure (A). 17. Kind hana wo katte Kimi- 
ko ni yarimashlta (C). 18. Sore wo motte itte wa ike-nai (A). 19. Kane ga 
nakute ano kirei na tokei wo kaimasen deshlta (C). 20. Kasa wo motte ikimasho 
ka ? (C). 21. E, motte o-ide nasai (B). 22. Hagaki wo motte kite o kure (A). 
23. A no hlto wa Ei-go ga dekimasu ka ? (C). 24. E, yoku dekimasu (C). 25. 
Boshi wa Maruzen ni itte kaimasho (C). 26. Ammari takai boshi wo kawa-nai 
de kudasai (C). 27. Kind no kane de nani wo kaimashlta ? (C). 28. Empitsu 
to kami wo katte Jiro ni yarimashlta (C). 

1. Bring me this morning's paper. 2. Did Taro take an umbrella with him ? 
3. Yes, he did. 4. Mr Yamada brought this clock back from England with 
him. 5. This morning I wrote a letter home (and posted it). 6. Bring a broom 
and sweep this room. 7. Take this box to Mr Tanaka 's house. 8. Take some 
paper out of that box and bring it here. 9. I don 't like this place, there are so 
many mosquitos. 10. A visitor came yesterday so I didn't go to Tokyo. 11. 
There was such a strong wind the boat didn 't leave. 12. Buy a stamp and 
post this letter please. 13. I went to the bank and I met Mr Terada. 14. 
Please go to Yoshi-ko 's house and give her this. 15. As this belongs to Haru- 
ko I will take it (and give it) to her. 16. Take this desk to my room. 17. ^1 
bought some flowers yesterday and gave them to Kimi-ko. 18. You mustn't 
take that away. 19. As I had no money I didn't buy that pretty clock. 20. 
Shall I take an umbrella ? 21. Yes, take one. 22. Bring me a postcard. 23. 
Can that man speak English ? 24. Yes, he speaks it very well. 25. I '11 go to 
Maruzen 's and buy a hat. 26. Don't buy one which is too expensive. 27. 
What did you buy with your money yesterday ? 28. I bought a pencil and 
some paper and gave them to Jiro. 



EXERCISE 12. 

Study some of the uses of the gerund in 58, 9, 10, 11. 

kden : public garden ; park. haku : to sweep. 

kutsu : boots. nomu : to drink. 

mizu : water. oku : to put ; place. 

nashi : pear. ima : now. 

sakana : fish. mada : still ; yet. 

1. Kaze gafuite mofune wa kyo deru desho (C). 2. Kono hon wo mite mo yd 
gozaimasu ka ? (D). 3. Mite ii (B). 4. Ashita anata no kutsu wo kaimashd ka ? 
(C). 5. Kutsu wa mada kawa-nai de mo ii desu (C). 6. Sono nashi wo tdbete 
mo yd gozaimasu ka ? (D). 7. E, ii (B). 8. Ima anata no heya wo haite yd 
gozaimasu ka? (D). 9. lie, kyo wa haka-nakute mo ii (B). 10. Kono hako wo 
Saburo ni yatte mo ii desho ka ? (C). 11. E, yatte mo ii dard (B). 12. Kyo kden 
ni itte mo ii desu ka ? (C). 13. Kyo itte wa ikenai ; ashita o-ide nasai (A). 
14. Kore wo anata no heya ni 'oite yd gozaimasu ka ? (D). 15. Hai, oite mo yd 
gozaimasu (D). 16. Sakana wo katte yd gozaimasu ka ? (D). 17. lie, sakana 
wa iya desH ; niku wo katte o kure (B). 18. Ano hlto wa kane ga takusan atte mo, 
kin no tokei wo motte imasen (C). 19. Kono mizu wo nonde mo ii desu ka ? (C). 
20. Sore wa kitanai kara, nonde wa ike-nai (A). 21. Yamada San ga ko-nakute 
mo anata wa kimasu ka ? (C). 22. E, kimasu (C). 23. Ano inu wo yonde mo 
ii desu ka ? (C). 24. E, yonde mo ii ; ano inu wa zuibun rikd da (B). 25. Sono 
tegami wo yonde mo yd gozaimasu ka ? (D). 26. lie, kore wa yoma-nai de kudasai 
(C). 27. Ashita anata no uchi ni itte mo yd gozaimasu ka ? (D). 28. Ashita 
wakyaku ga kimasu kara, ko-naide kudasai (C). 29. Sono kitte wo omae ni yaru 
kara, motte itte ii (A). 30. Sono hon wafuruku natte mo sute-nai de o kure (A). 
31. Terada San ni kyo tegami wo kaite yd gozaimasu ka ? (D). 32. E, kyo kaite o 
kure (A). 33. Ashita wa ko-nakute ii no desu ka ? (C). 34. Ddzo ashita mo 
kite kudasai (C). 3.0. Tamago wa ano mise de katte yd gozaimasu ka ? (D). 36. 
Asuko wa stikoshi takai kara, ike-nai (A). 

1. In spite of the wind I expect the boat will leave today. 2. May I read 
this book ? 3. You may. 4. Shall I buy your boots tomorrow ? 5. You 
needn't buy the boots yet. 6. May I eat that pear ? 7. All right. 8. Shall I 
sweep your room now ? 9. No, you needn't sweep it today. 10. Do you think 
it will matter if I give this box to Saburo ? 11. I think that will be "alL right. 
12. May I go to the park today ? 13. You mustn't go today, go tomorrow. 
14. Shall I leave this in your room ? 15. Yes, you may leave it there. 16. 
Shall I buy some fish ? 17. No, I don't want any fish (today) ; buy some meat. 
18. Although that man has a lot of money he hasn't got a gold watch. 19. 
May I drink this water ? 20. Don't drink that, it's dirty. 21. Will you come 
even if Mr Yamada doesn't? 22. Yes, I shall. 23. May I call that dog? 
24. Yes, you may ; that dog is very clever. 25. May I read that letter ? 26. 
No, please don't read it. 27. May I go to your house tomorrow ? 28. Please 
don 't come tomorrow, I am expecting a visitor. 29. You may take that stamp, 
I'll give it to you. 30. Don't throw this book away even after it gets old. 
81. Shall I write to Mr Terada today ? 32. Yes, write today. 33. 
Needn't I come tomorrow? 34. Come again tomorrow please. 35.' Shall I 
buy the eggs at that shop? 36. Don't buy them there, they sell rather 
dear there. 



EXERCISE 13. 

Study the 1st set of numerals in 271 ; see also 276, 1. 

do : times. nikai : first floor (the one above the 
sen : a sen, (1/100 yen). ground floor, therefore the second 

yen : a yen ; Japanese dollar. counting the ground floor) ; upstairs. 

ban : number (for houses in Euro- iku ? how many ? 

pean part of the town). ikura ? how much ? 

banchi : number (for houses in na- kurai (very often gurai) : about. 

tive part of the town). harau : to pay. 
kai : storey ; floor. 

1. Kono boshi tea ikura ? (B). 2. Roku-yen hachi-jis-sen de gozaimasu (D). 
3. Maruzen ni ikura haraimashlta ? (C). 4. Roku-ju-yen haratta (B). 5. 
Yamada San no uchi wa nan-banchi desu ka ? (C). 6. Ni-ju-sMchi banchi desu 
(C). 7. Brown San no uchi wa ju-ban de gozaimasu (D). 8. Kyo wa Tokyo e 
ni-do ikimashita (C). 9. Nikai kara kyo no shimbun wo motte kite o kure (A). 
10. Ano hako iva takai daro ka ? (B). 11. San-jis-sen gurai de gozaimasho (D). 
12. Nikko e iku-do ikimashita ? (C). 13. San-do ikimashita (C). 14. Anata no 
uchi wa sam-byaku yon-ju banchi desu ka ? (C). 15. lie, ni-hyaku yon-ju banchi 
de gozaimasu (D). 16. Kono tokei wa ikura desu ka ? (C). 17. Ju-ichi-yen 
go-jis-sen de gozaimasu (D). 18. Sore wo uchi e motte kite kudasai. Watashi 
no uchi wa hachi-ban desu (C). 19. Ano mise wa nan-gai desu ka ? (C). 20. 
Shi-kai de gozaimasu (D). 21. Anata no heya wa nikai desu ka ? (C). 22. lie, 
watashi no heya wa san-gai ni arimasu (C). 23. Kono akai empitsu wa ikura 
desu ? (C). 24. Roku-sen de gozaimasu (D). 25. Kind go-ju-san-yen no.tsukue wo 
kaimashita (C). 26. Kono kirei na hon wa ikura de gozaimasu ka? (D). 27. 
Sore n-a ni-yen san-jis-sen de gozaimasu (D). 28. Terada San ni ni-do tegami wo 
dashlta (B). 29. Terada San wa nan-banchi ni imasu ka ? (C). 30. Ju-hachi 
banchi ni ini (B). 31. Kono kudamono wo hachi-ju-ichi-ban no Smith Sane 
motte itte kure (A). 32. Kono kutsu wa ikura de kaimashita ? (C). 33. Hachi- 
yen de kaimashita (C). 34. Kyo wa heya no soji wo ni-do shlta (C). 35. And 
uchi wa ni-sen go-hyaku-yen gurai de uru desho (C). 

1. How much is this hat ? 2. Six yen eighty sen. 3. How much did you 
pay Maruzen ? 4. I paid sixty yen. 5. What is the number of Mr Yamada 's 
house? 6. Number 27. 7. Mr" Brown 's house is number 10. 8. I went to 
Tokyo twice today. 9. Bring the newspaper from upstairs. 10. Do you think 
that box will be dear? 11. I expect it's about thirty sen. 12. How often 
have you been to Nikko ? 13. I have been three times. 14. Is the number o 
your house 340 ? 15. No, number 240. 16. How much is this watch ? 
Eleven yen fifty sen. 18. Take it to my house. My house is number 8. 
How many storeys high is that house ? 20. Four storeys. 21. Is your room 
on the first floor ? 22. No, my room is on the second floor. 23. How 
this red pencil ? 24. Six sen/ 25. I bought a desk yesterday for 1 
yen. 26. How much did this pretty book cost ? 27. It cost two yen t 
sen. 28. I have written twice to Mr Terada. 29. What is the number 
Terada 's house ? 30. Number 18. 31. Take this fruit to Mr Smith at numbei 
81. 32. How much did these boots cost you ? 33. Eight yen. 
swept my room twice today, 35. I think they'd sell that house 
thousand five hundred yen. 



EXERCISE 14. 

Many nouns are counted by the aid of an auxiliary numeral ; see 276, 2. See 
also 281, -nin, -hon, -mai, -hiki, -dai. 

bo : stick. hltori : one man. 

hari : needle. futari : two men. 

ko : child. yottari : four men. 

otoko : man. ikutari ? how many men ? 

onna : woman. de : sometimes used after what is the 

jochu : servant (female). subject in English. 
-nin : auxiliary numeral for men ga : but ; however, 
(except 1, 2, 4 men). 

1. San-sen no kitte woju-mai katte o kure (A). 2 Kono murasaki no empitsu 
wo sam-bon kudasai (C). 3. Kodomo wa ikutari am ? (B). 4. Onna no ko ga 
futari, otoko no ko ga httori gozaimasu (D). 5. Hari wo ni-hon motte o-ide 
(A). 6. Yamada San no uchi ni wa uma ga ni-hiki, inu ga ip-piki iru (B). 7. 
Anata no uchi ni jochu ga ikutari imasu ka ? (C). 8. San-nin orimasu (C). 9. 
Kuruma wo ni-dai yonde kure (A). 10. Jis-sen no kitte wo sam-mai to yon-sen no 
kitte wo hachi-mai katte o kure (A). 11. Hagaki wo ni-mai kudasai (C). 12. 
Bo wo ip-pon motte kite o kure (A). 13. Yamada San wa kodomo ga yottari ant 
(B). 14. Anata no uchi ni neko ga imam ka ? (C). 15. lie, neko wa imasen ga, 
inu ga ni-hiki orimasu (C). 16. Kuruma wo ni-dai yobimasho ka? (C). 17. lie, 
ichi-dai de yd gozaimasu (D). 18. Ashita no asa hayaku kuruma wo ichi-dai yonde 
kudasai (C). 19. Yon-sen no hagaki wo go-mai to, jis-sen no kitte wo shichi-mai 
kudasai (C). 20. Empitsu wo jip-pon to kono kami wo hyaku-mai kudasai (C). 
21. Kono empitsu wa yasui kara, ni-hon kaimasho ka ? (C). 22. lie, ip-pon de 
takusan (B). 23. Ashita no asa Asakusa e ikimasu kara kuruma wo ichi-dai 
yonde kudasai (C). 24. Kono sakana wo ni-hiki Tanaka San no uchi e motte itte 
o kure (A). 25. Ano mise ni hito ga ikutari gurai imasu ka ? (C). 26. San-ju- 
nin gurai iru desho (C). 27. Are wa ii uma deshita ga, ammari takai desu kara 
kaimasen deshita (C). 28. Kono bo wo ni-hon kudasai (C). 

1. Buy ten three-sen stamps. 2. Give me three of these violet pencils. 3. 
How many children have you ? 4. Two girls and one boy. 5. Bring me two 
needles. 6. Mr Yamada keeps two horses and a dog. 7. How many servant- 
girls are there in your house ? 8. Three. 9. Call two rikishas. 10. Buy 
three ten-sen stamps and eight four-sen stamps. 11. Please give me two 
postcards (When not otherwise qualified, by the word postcard a Japanese will 
understand a l sen postcard for use in Japan). 12. Bring me a stick. 13. 
Mr Yamada has four children. 14. Do you keep a cat in your house ? 15. No, 
we have no cat, but we keep two dogs. 16. Shall I call two rikishas ? 17. No, 
one will be enough. 18. Call a rikisha for me early tomorrow morning. 19. 
Please give me five four-sen postcards and seven ten-sen stamps. 20. Give 
me ten pencils and a hundred sheets of this paper. 21. As these pencils are 
cheap, shall I buy two ? 22. No, one will be enough. 23. As I am going to 
Asakusa tomorrow morning, call a rikisha for me. 24. Take these two 
fishes to Mr Tanaka 's house. 25. How many people (employees) are there 
in that shop ? 26. About thirty I should think. 27. That was a good horse, 
but as it was too dear I didn't buy it. 28. Please give me two of these 
sticks. 



EXERCISE 15. 

Study the 2nd set of numerals in 271 . See also 276, 3. 4. The 2nd set of 
numerals is used to express a person's age. 

ban : night. dame : useless. 

bin : bottle. ikutsu ? how many? (in connection with 

inki : ink. the 2nd set of numerals). 

koppu : tumbler. hairu : to enter ; go in. 

toshi : year. to'tnaru : to stop ; pass the night at. 

tsuki : moon ; month. shika (foil, by neg.): only. 

1. Nashi wo ikutsu kaimathd ka ? (C). 2. Okii na-shi ico nanatsu katte o kure 
(A). 3. Chiisai koppu wo mitt.su motte kite kudasai (C). 4. Taro wa nashi wo to 
motte imasu ka ? (C). 5. lie, muttsu shtka motte imasen (C). 6. Kesa watashi 
zva tamago wo futatsu tabemashlta (C). 7. Kyoto ni iku-ban tomarimashita ? (C). 
8. Mi-ban tomatta (B). 9. Sono hako ni bin ga iku-hon hairimasu ka ? (C). 
10. Ju-ni-hon hairimasu (C). 11. Hana-ko San no toshi wa ikutsu de gozai- 
masu ka ? (D). 12. Itsutsu da (B). 13. Akai inki wo hlto-bijt katte kudasai (C). 
14. Kono inki wa kitanai kara dame da (B). 15. Watashi wa Rondon ni yo- 
tsuki orimashita ga, Ei-go ga yoku dekimasen (C). 16. Omae wa ikutsu ? (A). 
17. Kokonotsu de gozaimasu (D). 18. Yamada San wa mada go-ju ni nara- 
nai desho (C). 19. Yon-jis-sen no koppu wo yottsu o kai nasai (B). 20. Kono 
kudamono wa hito-hako go-jis-sen ja ammari takai daro (B). 21. Kono bin wa 
ammari chiisai kara, dame da ; okii bin wo motte o-ide (A). 22. Watashi no heya 
kara pen to inki wo motte o-ide (A). 23. Ashita no ban wa Nagoya ni tomarimasu 
(C). 24. S&no hako ni nashi ga ikutsu arimasu? (C). 25. Yattsu arimasu 
(C). 26. Ima kanega sukoshi shika arimasen kara, tokei wa ashita kaimasho (C). 
27. Kono kudamono wofuta-hako uchi e motte kite kudasai (C). 28. Nikko ni iku- 
tsiiki gurai imashlta? (C). 29. Mi-tsuki shika imasen deshita (C). .30. Kono 
uchi ni heya ga 'ikutsii gozaimasu ka ? (U). 31. Muttsu arimasu (C). 32. Wata- 
shi no heya e halite wa ikemasen (B). 33. Terada San wa Igirisu ni futa-tsuki 
ite, kind uchi e kaerimashita (C). 34. Kono koppu wa ikura deshita ka ? (C). 

1. How many pears shall I buy ? 2. Buy seven big pears. 3. Bring three 
small tumblers. 4. Has Taro got ten pears ? 5. No, he has only five. 6. I 
ate two eggs this morning. 7. How many days (lit. nights) did you stop at 
Kyoto ? 8. I stopped three days. 9. How many bottles go into that box? 
10. Twelve. 11. How old is Miss Hana-ko? 12. She is five. 13. Buy 
a bottle of red ink. 14. This ink is no use, it's dirty. 15. I was four 
months in London, but I cannot speak English well. 16. How old are you ? 
17. I am nine. 18. I don 't think Mr Yamada is fifty yet. 19. Buy four forty- 
sen tumblers. 20. I think fifty sen is too much for a box of this fruit. 21. 
This bottle is no use, it 's too small ; bring a bigger one. 22. Bring me a pen 
and ink from my room. 23. I intend to sleep tomorrow night at Nagoya. 24. 
How many pears are there in that box ? 25. There are eight. 2G. As I have 
only a little money now I'll buy the clock tomorrow. 27. Send two boxes of 
this fruit to my house. 28. How many months were you at Nikko ? 
was only there three months. 30. How many rooms are there in this house 
31. There are sLx. 32. You mustn 't go into my room. 33. Mr Terada was 
two months in England, he returned home yesterday. 34. How much was this 
tumbler ? 



EXERCISE 16. 

Study the names of the months, January, February, etc. in 293 ; the days of 
the month in 294 ; and the days of the week in 297. 

nichi : day. itsu ? when ? 

yo-bi : day of the week. nan- ? how many ? 

kongetsu : this month. kakaru : to cost ; take time. 

raigetsu : next month. tsuku : to arrive. 

sengetsu : last month. made : until. 

1. Suzuki San wa itsu Igirisu kara kaerimasu ka ? (C). 2. Raigetsu no mikka 
ni Kobe ni tsukimasu (C). 3. Terada San wa nan-nichi ni Tokyo e kimasu ka ? 
(C). 4. Kongetsu no hatsuka ni kuru daro (B). 5. Sengetsu no itsuka wa nani- 
yo-bi deshita ? (C). 6. Getsuyo-bi de gozaimasu (D). 7. Watakushi no kutsu wa 
itsu dekimasu ka ? (C). 8. Kinyo-bi ni dekimasu (C). 9. Koko kara Rondon 
made iku-nichi gurai kakarimasu ka ? (C). 10. KlsKa de ju-yokka gurai kakari- 
masu (C). 11. Doyo-bi ni koen ni ikimasho (C). 12. Shimbun no kane wa miso- 
ka ni haraimasu (C). 13. Tanaka San wa nichiyo ni mo ginko e ikimam ka ? (C). 

14. lie, nichiyo ni wa uchi ni imasu (C). 15. Yamada San kara suiyo-bi ni 
tegami ga kimashita ka ? (C). 16. lie, suiyo-bi ni wa kimasen deshita ; mokuyo-bi 
ni kimashita (C). 17. Kyo wa kayo de gozaimasu (D). 18. Watashi wa san- 
gatsu futsuka ni Kyoto e iff imasu (C). 19. Anata nojochii wa itsu kaerimasu ka? 
(C). 20. Raigetsu no tsuitachi ni kaerimasu (C). 21. Rondon made tegami MI 
iku-nichi kakarimasu ka ? (C). 22. Hatsuka gurai kakaru (B). 23. Igirisu no 
fune wa itsu tsukimasu ka ? (C). 24. Raigetsu no tsuitachi ni tsuku desho (C). 
25. Yamada San wa doyo-bi ni Kobe kara kaerimashlta (C). 26. Dozo nichiyo 
no asa hayaku uchi e o-ide ku.dasai (D). 27. Kongetsu no yokka ni Nikko no 
Takada San ni tegami wo dashita (B). 28. Kono hon wa mimashita kara Taro ni 
motte itte yarimasu (C). 29. Roku-gaisu no misoka no shimbun wo motte kite kure 
(A). 30. Muika no asa hayaku Mukojima e ikimasu (C). 31. Doyo-bi ni ame 
gafutte Yamada San no uchi e ikimasen deshita (C). 

1. When will Mr Suzuki come back from England ? 2. He will arrive at 
Kobe on the 3rd of next month. 3. When will Mr Terada come to Tokyo ? 
4. I think he will come on the 20th of this month. 5. What day of the week 
was the 5th of last month ? 6. Monday. 7. When will my boots be ready ? 
8. On Friday. 9. How many days does it take from here to London ? 10. By 
train about fourteen days. 11. I am thinking of going to the park on Saturday. 
12. I pay for the newspaper on the last day of the month. 13. Does Mr 
Tanaka go to the bank also on Sundays ? 14. No, he stays at home on Sundays. 

15. Did the letter from Mr Yamada come on Wednesday ? 16. Not on Wednes- 
day, it came on Thursday. 17. Today is Tuesday. 18. I ant going to Kyoto 
on the 2nd of March. 19. When is your servant coming back ? 20. On the 1st 
of next month. 21. How long does a letter take (from here) to London ? 22. 
About twenty days. 23. When will the English boat arrive ? 24. It will 
probably arrive on the 1st of next month. 25. Mr Yamada arrived from Kobe 
on Saturday. 26. Please come to my house early on Sunday morning. 27. I 
wrote to Mr Takada of Nikko on the 4th of this 'month. 28. As I have read 
this book, I '11 (go and) give it to Taro. 29. Bring me the newspaper of the 30th 
of June. 30. I am going to Mukojima early on the morning of the 6th. 31, 
It rained on Saturday so I didn 't go to Mr Yamada 's house. 



EXERCISE 17. 
Numbers 298, 299, 301, 302, and 303 should be studied. 

fun : minute. yoru : evening ; night. 

ji : hour. liambun (noun) ; han (adjective) : half. 

jikan : hour (duration). koro (generally pronounced goro): about. 

gozen : morning. mae : before ; in front, of. 

gogo : afternoon. mo : more ; already. 

him : noon : day-time. sugi : after. 

1. Kind nan-ji no kisha de kaerimashita ? (C). 2. Gogo no roku-ji ni-jip-pun 
no kisha de kaerimashita (C). 3. Kono tegami wa itsu kimashita? (C). 4. Gozen 
ju-ichi-ji goro kit a (B). 5. Ueno kara Nikko made nan-jikan kakarimasti, ka ? (C). 
6. Go-jikan gurai kakaru (B). 7. Yamada San wo, kino yarn no ju-ji no kisha 
de Kyoto e itta (B). 8. Ima nan-ji de gozaimasu ka ? (D). 9. Go-jijip-pun sugi 
desu (C). 10. 3/o roku-ji sugi desu (C). 11. Ashlta no ban shichi-ji han ni o-ide 
nasai (C). 12. Ku-ji mae ni kono tegami wo dashite kudasai (C). 13. Sono nashi 
ico hambun Jiro ni o yari nasai (B). 14. Anofune wa kind san-ji go-fun maeni 
deta (B). 15. Ginkd no mae ni oki na inu ga imasu (C). 16. Kono fune waashita 
no him deru (B). 17. Igirisu no fune wa ashita no ban hachi-ji ni tstikimasu (C). 
18. Kimura San wa mo kaerimashita ka ? (C). 19. lie, mada desu (C). 20. 
Asakusa e kuruma de nan-jikan kakarimasu ka? (C). 21. Koko kara ichi-jikan 
han gurai kakaru (B). 22. Mokuyd no asa hachi-ji han ni Suzuki San no uchi 
ni iku (B). 23. Yamada San wa sengetsu no toka no ban ni kaetta (B). 24. 
Kono kisha wa nan-ji ni demasu ka ? (C). 25. San-ji go-fun mae ni dema&ti (C). 
26. Jochu wa kind yoru no ku-ji ju-go-fun sugi ni kaerimashita (C). 27. 
Watashi wa raigetxu no kokonoka goro Nikko e ikimasu (C). 28. Omae wa asago-ji 
ni oki nasai (A). 29. Ashlta gozen ju-ji han ni niku wo motte kite kudasai (C). 
30. Ano hito wa raigetsu no mikka goro Yokohama e tsuku desho (C). 31. Roku- 
ji mae ni watashi no heya e kite wa ike-nai (A). 32. Koko kara Shimbashi made 
densha de han-jikan kakaru (B). 

1. By what train did you come back yesterday ? 2. By the 6.20 P.M. train. 
3. When did this letter arrive ? 4. It came at about eleven o'clock in the 
morning. 5. How many hours does it take from Ueno to Nikko ? 6. About 
five hours. 7. Mr Yamada left for Kyoto last night by the 10 o'clock train. 
8. What time is it ? 9. It is ten minutes past five. 10. It's already past six. 
11. Come tomorrow evening at half past seven. 12. Post, this letter before 
nine o'clock. 13. Give half of that pear to Jiro. 14. That ship left yesterday 
at five minutes to three. 15. There is a big dog in front of the bank. 16. This 
boat will leave tomorrow at noon. 17. The English boat will arrive tomorrow 
evening at eight o'clock. 18. Is Mr Kimura back already ? 19. No, not yet. 
20. How long does it take to go to Asakusa by rikisha ? 21. About an hour and 
a half from here. 22. I am going to Mr Suzuki's house on Thursday morning 
at half past eight. 23. Mr Yamada returned last month on the evening of the 
10th. 24. At what o'clock does this train leave ? 25. At five minutes to three. 
26. The servant returned last night at a quarter past nine. 27. I shall go to 
Nikko about the 9th of next month. 28. Get up at 5 o'clock. 29. Bring me 
the meat tomorrow morning at half past ten. 30. I expect he will arrive at 
Yokohama about the 3rd of next month. 31. You mustn't come to my room 
before 6 o'clock. 32. It takes half an hour by tram-car from here to 
Shimbashi. 



EXERCISE 18. 

See the formation of the conditional present and past in tables 28 and 29; 
also 93 and 94. 

The negative present conditional followed by ike-nai or nara-nai may be 
translated by 'must' ; (72). 

The past conditional is sometimes translated by 'when' or 'after'; (69). 

jibiki : dictionary. kari'ru : to borrow. 

kimono : dress. kasu : to lend. 

shigoto : work. sumu : to finish ; come to an end. 

kirai : dislike of something.* moshi : if ; supposing that. 

suki : fondness for anything.* nara (used after verbs, adjectives, nouns 

arau : to wash. and adverbs) : if. 

dekake'ru : to leave ; set out. 

1. Anata ga uchi ni ko-nakereba watashi ga anata no uchi ni ikimasho (C). 
2. Ashita ame ga fureba Nikko e ika-nai (B). 3. Ammari ame. ga futte i-ndkereba 
kono tegami wo dashite kudasai (C). 4. Jibiki ga nakereba Terada San ni kari 
na^ai (B). 5. Ju-yen motte ireba takusan desho (C). 6. Hana-ko San ga nikai 
ni imunhitara yonde kudasai (C). 7. Doyo-bi ni Suzuki ga ko-nakattara tegami wo 
dashite kure (A). 8. Moshi kasa wo motte kimaaen deshitara watashi no wo 
kafthimasho (C). 9. Jochu ga soji wo shite i-nakereba yonde o kure (A). 10. Ei- 
go no tegami deshltara ano hito wa wakarimasu (C). 11. Watashi wa roku-ji mae 
ni kaera-nakereba narimasen (C). 12. Omae wa hayaku oki-nakereba ike-nai (A). 
13. Kobe ni tsuitara Yamada San ni tegami wo dashite kudasai (C). 14. Ano 
hito ga dekaketara Tanaka San ga kita (B). 15. Sono shigoto ga sundara kono 
kimono wo aratte kure (A). 16. Moshi kyo uchi kara kane ga ko-nai nara, ginko 
e ika-nakereba nara-nai (B). 17. Kono nashi ga suki nara o tabe nasai (B). 
18. Kirai nara tabe-nai de ii (A). 19. Moshi sono tsukuega benrinara kaima^ho 
(C). 20. Kutsuwamo dekimashita ka? (C). 21. lie, mada de gozaimasu (D). 
22. Dekitara watashi no uchi e motte kite kudasai (C). 23. Kind no shimbun ga 
attara dozo kashite kudasai (C). 

1. If you don't come to my house, I'll go to yours. 2. If it rains tomorrow, 
I won't go to Nikko. 3. If it isn't raining too hard, (go and) post this letter. 
4. If you haven't got a dictionary, borrow one from Mr Terada. 5. If you 
have ten yen with you, that will be plenty I think. 6. If Miss Hana-ko is 
upstairs, please call her. 7. If Suzuki doesn 't come on Saturday, write him a 
letter. 8. If you haven 't brought an umbrella with you, I'll lend you mine. 
9. If the servant is not (busy) sweeping, call her. 10. If the letter is in English, 
that man will understand it. 11. I must go back before 6 o'clock. 12. You 
must get up early. 13. As soon as you arrive at Kobe, please write to Mr 
Yamada. 14. As soon as he'd gone out Mr Tanaka arrived. 15. When you 
finish what you are doing, wash this dress. 16. Supposing I receive no money 
from home today, I shall be obliged to go to the bank. 17. If you like this pear, 
eat it. 18. If you don't like it, don't eat it. 19. If that desk is convenient, 
I shall buy it. 20. Are my boots ready yet ? 21. No. not yet. 22. When they 
are ready send them to my house. 23. If you have yesterday 's paper, please 
lend it to me. 

* The object of the dislike or fondness generally takes the postposition ga 
before kirai or suki. 



EXERCISE 19. 

In Japanese true adjectives have a kind of conjugation ; see 198; 199. 

Study the uses of adjectival gerund noted in 200, 1, 3, 4 and 5. 

No after an adjective often has the meaning of 'one'; akai no the red one. 

shina : quality ; articles. so : so ; in that way ; like that. 

atsui : hot. yori : than. 

muzukashii : difficult. shikata ; shiyo : (lit.) the way of doing. 

umai : nice (of taste) ; well done. shikata (or shiyo) ga nai : there is no 

kamau : to matter (gen. used in neg.). help for it. 

1. Omae no tsfikue wa takakatta ka ? (A). 2. lie, toko gozaimasen deshUa (D). 
3. So ka? takaku nai nara watashi mo kao (B). 4. Ano boshi wa takakaro (B). 
5. Kami wa hyaku-mai go-jis-sen yori takakereba kawa-nai de kudasai (C). 6. 
Atarashii tamago ga nakattara kawa-nai de ii (A). 7. Sono hon ga moshi muzu- 
kashiku nakattara watashi ni kashtte kudasai (C). 8. Kono koppu wa yasukute 
shina ga yd gozaimasu (D). 9. Kono nashi wa yasukutte Umai (B). 10. Kyo 
wa atsukutte shiyo ga arimasen (C). 11. Uchi no jochu wa kitanakute shiyo ga 
nai (B). 12. Kono ito wa furukute dame desu (C). 13. Sono bo wa nagakute 
ikemasen (C). 14. Kono hon wa furuku nakute mo zuibun kitanai (B). 15. 
Sono kudamono wa yasukutte mo umaku nakereba kawa-nai (B). 16. Takakute 
mo kamaimasen kara, atarashii sakana wo o kai nasai (B). 17. Sono hari ga 
moshi dame deshitara, ii no wo o kai nasai (B). 18. Hana-ko no boshi wa akai 
no de gozaimasu (D). 19. Oki na nashi wo kaimasho ka ? (C). 20. Vmakereba 
okiku nakute mo kamawa-nai (B). 21. Yamada San no tegami wa nago gozai- 
mashUa ka ? (D). 22. E, zuibun nagakatta (B). 23. Kono akai empitsu wa 
anata no desu ka? (C). 24. lie. so ja arimasen ; watashi no wa kuroi no 
desu (C). 25. Ano hana wa kirei desu ga, yasuku nakereba kaimasumai 
(C). 26. Ano hon wa ammari muzukashikattara kawa-nai (B). 27. Sono 
empitsu ga go-sen yori yasukattara, jii-go-hon katte o kure (A). 28. Nashi wa 
okikutte mo umaku nai nara katte wa ike-nai (A). 29. Kono bin wa ammari 
okikutte shiyo ga nai (B). 

1. Did your desk cost dear ? 2. No, it was not dear. 3. Is that so ? If 
they are not dear I will buy one also. 4. I suppose that hat is expensive. 5. 
Don 't buy any paper if it costs more than fifty sen the hundred sheets. 6. 
Don 't buy any eggs if they are not fresh. 7. If that book is not difficult please 
lend it to me. 8. These tumblers are cheap and the quality is good. 9. These 
pears are cheap and they taste Very nice. 10. It's awfully hot today. 11. 
Our servant is very dirty. 12. This thread is old, it's no use. 13. That stick 
is too long, it won't do. 14. Although this book is not old, it's very dirty. 
15. If that fruit doesn't taste nice I'll not buy any even if it's cheap. 16. Buy 
some- fresh fish, it doesn't matter even if it's dear. 17. If those needles are no 
good buy some good ones. 18. Hana-ko 's hat is a red one. 19. Shall I buy 
some big pears ? 20. It doesn't matter if they are not big, so long as they taste 
nice. 21. Was Mr Yamada 's a long letter ? 22. Yes, it was a very long one. 
23. Is this red pencil yours ? 24. No, (that is not so ;) mine is a black one. 25. 
Those flowers are pretty, but if they are not cheap I don't think I'll buy them. 
26. If that book is too difficult I won't buy it. 27. If those pencils cost less 
than five sen each, buy fifteen. 28. If the pears are not nice, don 't buy any 
even if they are big. 29. This bottle is very big. 



EXERCISE 20. 

Qua si-adjectives in na (or -wo) have constructions corresponding to the gerund- 
ial constructions of true adjectives ; 219. 

Ordinary nouns followed by de are sometimes used in a way very similar to 
the gerundial constructions of quasi-adjectives. 

No with the meaning of 'one' is placed after quasi-adjectives in na (kirei na 
pretty ; kirei na no a pretty one) ; after quasi-adjectives in no, another no is not 
needed to give the meaning of 'one' (murasaki no violet, or a violet one ; hoka 
no another, or another one). 

byoki : illness. shinsetsu na : kind ; kind-hearted. 

yama : mountain. shojiki na : honest. 

fuben na : inconvenient. wagamama na : self-willed. 

hoka no : another. motto : more. 

joto no (or na) : high-class ; best tabi-tabi : frequently, 
quality. 

1. Ano kodomo wa baka de wagamama da (B). 2. Uchi no jochu wa shojiki de 
shinsetsu desu (C). 3. Kono hako wa kirei ja nakute takai (B). 4. Motto kirei 
dejoto no boshi wao kai nasai (B). 5. Yoshi-ko San wa zuibun riko de shinsetsu 
na Into desu (C). 6. Ano ko wa byoki de wa naku wagamama da (B). 7. Hana- 
ko wa wagamama de shiyo ga arimasen (C). 8. Kono ko wa baka de shlkataga nai 
(B). 9. Kono tsukue wa benri de mo ammari takai kara kawa-nai (B). 10. 
Kami wa joto no de nakute mo kamaimasen (C). 11. Sono hako wa kirei de mo 
yowai kara dame desu (C). 12. Kuroi no wa Taro no inu de, shiroi no wa Jiro no 
inu desu (C). 13. Watashi wa yama ga suki de tabi-tabi ikimasu (C). 14. Brown 
San no tegami wa Ei-go de watashi wa wakarimasen (C). 15. Kono tsukue wa 
fuben de ike-nai kara, hoka no wo kao (B). 16. Motto oki na hako ga nai ka? (B). 
17. Kore yori oki na no wa gozaimasen (D). 18. Kono boshi wa Taro no desu ka? 
(C). 19. lie, sore wa Jiro no da (B). 20. Kono kitte wa Suzuki San no de 
gozaimasu (D). 21. Kono liana wa kirei de suki da (B). 22. Uchi no Matsu wa 
wagamama na jochu de shiyo ga arimasen (C). 23. Motto kirei ni tegami wo kaki 
nasai (A). 24. Kono uchi wa fuben de ikemasen kara, hoka no wo karimasu (C). 
25. Ano hlto wa riko de mo shojiki ja nai kara dame daro (B). 

1. That child is silly and 'self- willed. 2. Our servant is honest and kind- 
hearted. 3. This box is not pretty and it's dear. 4. Buy a prettier and better 
hat. 5. Miss Yoshi-ko is a very clever and kind-hearted girl. 6. That child 
is not ill, he is self-willed. 7. Hana-ko is very* self-willed. 8. This child is very 
silly . 9. Although this is a convenient desk I won't buy it as it is too dear. 
10. It doesn 't matter even if the paper is not of the best quality. 1 1 . Although 
that box is pretty it won't do as it is too weak. 12. The black dog belongs to 
Taro and the white one to Jiro. 13. I often go to the mountains as I'm fond of 
them. 14. Mr Brown 's letter is in English so I don't understand it. 15. As 
this desk is inconvenient and won 't do, I '11 buy another one. 16. Isn 't there 
a bigger box ? 17. There is not a bigger one (than this one). 18. Is this Taro's 
hat? 19. No, it is Jiro 's. 20. This stamp belongs to Mr Suzuki. 21. I like 
this flower, it's very pretty. 22. Our servant Matsu is very self-willed. 23. 
Write the letter more carefully. 24. As this house is inconvenient and won 't 
do, I'll take another. 25. As that man is not honest I don't think he'll suit 
you although he is cjever. 



EXERCISE 21. 

See the formation of the desiderative in tables 28 and 29. The desiderative 
is a real adjective and has all the inflexions of one. The object of the desire 
often takes the postposition ga in Japanese. 

(o) cka : tea. nodo ga kawaku : to be thirsty. 

chichi : milk. onaka : belly. 

gohan : cooked rice ; a meal. suku : to become empty. 

hikidashi : a drawer. onaka ga suku : to be hungry. 

nodo : throat. sampo : a walk. 

kawaku : to become dry. sampo ni iku : to go for a walk. 

1. Nodo ga / kawaita ; mizu ga nomitai (B). 2. Ano akai hon ga mitai (BJ. 
3. Rondon e itte mitai (B). 4. Kyp tea sakana wa tabetaku arimasen (C). 5. 
Nichiyo ni Yamada San no uchi ni ikimashfta ka ? (C). 6. lie, Jiro San ni aitaku 
nakatta kara, ikimasen deshtta (C). 7. Uchi ni tegami wo kakimashita ka ? (C). 
8. E, kakitaku arimasen deshita ga, kakimashita (C). 9. Onaka ga sukimashita ; 
gohan ga tabeto gozaimasu (D). 10. Kino sampo ni ikitakatta ga, omega futte 
dame datta (B). 11. Matsu wa uchi ni kaeritai daro (B). 12. Watashi wa nodo 
ga kawaite, o cha ga nomitakutte shiyo ga nai (B). 13. Taro tea nashi ga tabetai 
desho kara, hitotsu yatte kudasai (C). 14. Watashi wa uchi ni kaeritaku nari- 
mashita (C). 15. Moshi kono hon ga yomitaku natfara, kono hikidashi ni arimasu 
kara, dashite goran nasai (C). 16. Sampo ni ikitai desu ka? (C). 17. lie, kyo 
li-a ikitaku arimasen (C). 18. Ikitaku nattara, itte mo kamaimasen (C). 19. 
Onaka ga sukimashita ka ? (C). 20. lie, onaka IK a sukimasen ga, chichi ga nomi- 
iaku narimashlta (C). 21. Yamada San no uchi ni ikitaku natta (B). 22. Sono 
hon wa mo yomitaku naku narimashita (C). 23. Ano hito no tegami wa yomitaku 
arimasen (C). 24. Nodo ga zuibun kawakimasMta (C). 25. cha wo nomitai 
desu ka ? (C). 26. lie, o cha wa kirai desu ; chichi wo sukoshi nomitai (B). 27. 
Ano tsukue wo kaitai ga, ammari takai (B). 

1. I am thirsty ; I would like to drink some water. 2. I would like to read 
that red book. 3. I would like to go and see London. 4. I don't feel inclined 
to eat fish today. 5. Did you go to Mr Yamada 's house on Sunday ? 6. No, 
I didn 't go as I didn 't wish to meet Mr Jiro. 7. Did you write home ? 8. Yes, 
I didn 't feel inclined, but however, I did write. 9. I am hungry, I would like 
to have my dinner. 10. I wanted to go for a walk yesterday, but as it rained 
I couldn't do so. 11. I suppose Matsu wishes to return home. 12. I am thirsty, 
I do so wish to drink some tea. 13. I suppose Taro would like a pear to eat, 
please give him one. 14. (On account of something which has happened) I now 
feel inclined to return home ; (lit. I have become desirous of returning home). 
15. If you feel inclined later on to read this book, as it's in this drawer take it 
out and read it ; (lit. if you become desirous). 16. Do you wish to go for a 
walk ? 17. No, I don't wish to go today. 18. Should you feel inclined to go 
later on, you may do so. 1 9. Are you hungry ? 20. No, I am not hungry, but 
I would like some milk to drink (lit. I have become desirous of drinking milk). 
21. I feel inclined now to go to Mr Yamada 's house. 22. I no longer feel 
inclined to read that book ; (lit. have become non-desirous). 23. I don't wish 
to read that man 's letter. 24. I am very thirsty. 25. Would you like some 
tea to drink ? 26. No, I don't care for tea, I would like a little milk. 27. I 
would like to buy that desk, but it's too dear. 



EXERCISE 22. 

Honorific and humble words to ascertain extent take the place of personal 
and possessive pronouns : honorific words are generally used when speaking of 
the 2nd (sometimes the 3rd) person, and humble words when referring to the 
1st person. 

Notice the irregularities of the verbs goza.ru, irassharu, kudasa.ru and nasaru 
mentioned in 96. 

age'ru : to give (humble). kudasaru : to give (honorific). 

itadaku : to receive ; eat ; drink meshi-agaru : to eat ; drink (honorific). 

(humble). nasaru : to do (honorific). 

itasii : to do (humble). o-ide nasaru : to be ; come ; go (honorific). 

, maim : to corne ; go (humble). kure'ru : to give (used only of the 2nd or 
goran nasaru : to look (honorific). 3rd person, but not polite). 

irasxhani: to be; come; go (honorific). 

1. Itsu Amerika e irasshaimasu ka ? (D). 2. Raigetsu no muika ni mairimasu 
(D). 3. Dozo kono kudamono wo meshi-agalte kudasai (D). 4. Sukoshi itadaki- 
masho (D). 5. Anata wa nichiyo ni nani wo nasaimasu ka ? (D). 6. Nichiyo ni 
wa Tokyo e mairimasu (D). 7. Suzuki San ga Taro ni kirei na hon wo kudasai- 
mashita (D). 8. Kono hon wo mada goran nasaimasen deshitara, agemasho (D). 
9. Kino Yamada San ni kono hana wo itadakimashita (D). 10. Hana-ko San 
wa mo Kyoto e o-idf nasaimashita ka ? (D). 11. lie, mada de gozaimasu ; ashita 
gogo no roku-ji no klsha de mairimasu (D). 12. Neko ni kudamono wo kurete wa 
ike-nai (A). 13. Kino Yamada San ga o-ide nas'tte kore wo watakushi ni kudasai 
mashUa (D). 14. Terada San wa kesa gohan zoo meshi-agarimasen deshlla (D). 
15. Kono kudamono wo Yoshi-ko San ni agemasho (D). 16. cha wo agemasho 
ka ? (D). 17. lie, o cha wa itadakimasen (D). 18. Dozo ashita no ban hachi-ji 
ni uchi e irash'tte kudasai (D). 19. Kesa nikai no soji wo shita ka? (A). 20. 
Hai, itashimashUa (D). 21. Yamada San wa doko ni irasshaimasu ka ? (D). 
22. Nikai ni irasshaimasu (D). 23. Saburo wa watashi ni chiisa na inu wo ip- 
piki kureta (B). 24. Tanaka San wa ima doko ni irasshaimasu ka? (D). 25. 
Sengetsu kara Hakone ni o-ide nasaimasu (D). 26. Watakushi ga kono hcya no 
soji wo itashimasho (D). 27. Yamada San wa asa no gohan no mae ni shimbun 
wo goran nasaimasu (D). 28. Kind Tokyo e o-ide nasaimashita ka ? (D). 

1. When are you going to America ? 2. I am going on the 6th of next month. 
3. Please eat this fruit. 4. I will eat a little. 5. What do you do on Sundays ? 
6. I go to Tokyo on Sundays. 7. Mr Suzuki gave Taro a pretty book. 8. If 
you haven't yet read this book I will give it to you. 9. Mr Yamada gave me 
this flower yesterday (lit. I received this flower from, etc.). 10. Has Miss 
Hana-ko already left for Kyoto ? 11. No, not yet ; she is going by the 6 P.M. 
train tomorrow. 12. Don't give fruit to the cat. 18. Mr Yamada came 
yesterday and gave me this. 14. Mr Terada didn't eat his breakfast this 
morning. 15. I will give this fruit to Miss Yoshi-ko. 16. May I offer you some 
tea? 17. No thanks, I don't take tea. 18. Please come to my house tomorrow 
evening at eight o'clock. 19. Did you sweep the rooms upstairs this morning ? 
20. Yes, I did. 21. Where is Mr Yamada? 22. He is upstairs. 23. Saburo 
gave me a little dog. 24. Where is Mr Tanaka now ? 25. He is in Hakone 
since last month. 26. I will sweep this room. 27. Mr Yamada reads the 
newspaper before breakfast. 28. Did you go to Tokyo yesterday ? 



E x E;R c i s E 23. 

Ordinary verbs may be made honorific as explained in 359, 360. 

hanashi : a tale. jozu na : a good hand at ; expert. 

kata : person. yasashii : easy. 

sara : plate. dono ? which ? 

hanasu : to speak. taihen : very. 

heta na : incompetent ; a bad hand at. 

1. Anata wa Ei-go wo o hanashi nasaimasu ka? (D). 2. Hai, sukoshi hanashi- 
masu (C). 3. Dono hon wo Taro ui o yari nasaimashita? (D). 4. Yasashii 
hanashi no hon wo yarimashita (C). 5. Kono kirei na sara wa doko de o kai ni 
narimashita ? (D). 6. Sore wa Hana-ko ga Igirisu kara motte kimashita (C). 
7. Mo Suzuki San ni tegami wo o dashi nasaimashita ka ? (D). 8. lie, mada 
dashimasen ; nichiyo ni kakimasho (C). 9. Ashita nan-ji no kisha de Matsu- 
shima e o-ide de gozaimasu ka? (D). 10. Ku-ji no klsha de mairimasu (D). 11. 
Anata wa taihen jozu ni Ei-go wo o hanashi nasaimasu (D). 12. lie, mada heta 
de gozaimasu (D). 13. Kino dono tsukue wo o kai deshita ka? (C). 14. Kono 
chiisaj, no wo kaimashita (C). 15. Mo kyo no shimbun wo o yomi desu ka? (C). 
16. E, mo yomimashita (C). 17. Akai empitsu wo o mochi desMtara, dozo o kashi 
kudasai (D). 18. Silva San wa Nihon-go wo o hanashi nasaimasu ka ? (D). 19. 
Hai, taihen jozu ni o hanashi ni narimasu (D). 20. Ano kata wa Ei-go mo yoku 
o wakari de gozaimasu (D). 21. Terada San ni kudamono wo o age nasaimashita 
ka ? (D). 22. E, kind motte ikimashUa (C). 23. Hana-ko San wa Ei-go ga o 
wakari ni narimasu ka? (D). 24. lie, ano kata wa Ei-go wa o deki nasaimasen 
(D). 25. Kono liana wa o kai ni narimashita ka ? (D). 26. lie, Yoshi-ko ga 
kuremashita (C). 27. Watashi wa Nihon-go ga yoku wakarimasen kara, yasashii 
kotoba de o hanashi kudasai (D). 28. Kono hon wa yasashii desu kara, o wakari 
ni naru desho (D). 29. Yamada San wa Ei-go no tegami wo jozu ni o kaki nasai- 
masu (D). 30. Watashi wa Nihon-go ga heta ni natta (B). 31. Mitsu-ko San 
no tegami wo goran desu ka? (C). 32. lie, mada mi-nai (B). 33. Kono sara wa 
kirei de taihen yasu gozaimashita (D). 

1. Can you speak English ? 2. Yes, a little. 3. Which book did you give 
Taro ? 4. I gave him an easy story-book. 5. Where did you buy this pretty 
plfjtte ? 6. Hana-ko brought it from England with her. 7. Have you already 
written to Mr Suzuki ? 8. No, not yet ; I '11 write on Sunday. 9. By what 
train tomorrow are you going to Matsushima ? 10. By the nine o'clock train. 
11. You speak English very well. 12. No, I still speak it very incorrectly. 13. 
Which desk did you buy yesterday ? 14. I bought this small one. 15. Have 
you already read today 's paper ? 16. Yes, I've already read it. 17. If you 
happen to have a red pencil about you, please lend it to me. 18. Can Mr Silva 
speak Japanese ? 19. Yes, he can speak it very well. 20. He also understands 
English very well. 21. Did you give the fruit to Mr Terada ? 22. Yes, I 
took it (to his house) yesterday. 23. Does Miss Hana-ko understand (speak) 
English ? 24. No, she does not. 25. Did you buy this flower ? 26. No, 
Yoshi-ko gave it to me. 27. As I don't understand Japanese well, please use 
simple words. 28. I expect you'll understand this book as it's easy. 29. Mr 
Yamada writes letters in English very well. 30. I am out of practice now in 
Japanese (lit. I have become" unskilful). 31. Have you seen Miss Mitsu-ko 's 
letter ? 82. No, not yet. 33. These plates are pretty and they were very 
cheap. 



EXERCISE 24. 

A few nouns are in themselves honorific or humble. Many nouns which are 
not honorific, may be made so by prefixing o or, if a person, by adding sama or 
san. 

chichi (humble) ; o to-san (honorific) : ototo : younger brother. 

father. imoto : younger sister. 

haha (humble) ; o ka-san (honorific) : yado (humble) ; danna sama (honorific) : 

mother. husband. 

mustiko : son ; boy. kanai (humble) ; oku-sama (honorific) : 

musume : daughter ; girl. wife. 

o-jo-san (honorific) : daughter; girl, sama : Mr; Mrs; etc. (more polite than 

ani (humble) ; nii-san (honorific) : san). 

elder brother. donata ? (polite) ; dare ? who ? 

ane (humble) ; ne-san (honorific) : keredomo : although ; however. 

elder sister. 

1. Ano o kata wa donata de irasshaimasu ka ? (D). 2. Yamada San no ototo 
desu (C). 3. to-san to o ka-san wa kino Tokyo e o-ide nasaimashita If a? (D). 
4. Chichi wa itta keredomo haha wa ika-nakatta (B). 5. Danna sama wa kyo 
wa o uchi ni irasshaimasu ka ? (D). 6. Yado wa kyo wa uchi ni orimasu (C). 
7. Suzuki San no oku-sama wa taihen shinsetsu na o kata de gozaimasu (D). 8. 
Anata wa o ko san ga arimasu ka ? (C). 9. Musume wa arimasu ga, musuko wa 
arimasen (C). 10. O-jo-san wa Ei-go ga o deki nasaimasu ka? (D). 11. lie, 
dekimasen (C). 12. Yamada no kanai wa watoshi no imoto desu (C). 13. Nii- 
san wa itsu Amerika kara o kaeri ni narimashita ? (D). 14. Sengetsu no hatsuka 
ni kaerimashita (C). 15. Kore wa ne-san no tokei de gozaimasu ka? (D). 16. lie, 
so ja arimasen ; ane wa tokei wo motte imasen (C). 17. Ani wa Ei-go ga taihen 
jozu da (B). 18. Haha wa Terada San no oku-san to Nikko e mairimashlta (D). 
19. to-san wa dare to Yokohama e irasshaimashita ? (D). 20. Imoto to iki- 
mashita (C). 2J . Ani wa kinyo no ban Kobe kara kaette, doyo-bi ni Igirisu e iki- 
masu (C). 22. Yamada San wa musuko ga san-nin atte, hltori wa Amerika ni 
imasu (C). 23. Silva San wa taihen Nihon-go ga o jozu desu ga, oku-san wa heta 
desu (C). 24. Imoto san wa ima nani wo nas'tte irasshaimasu ka? (D). 25. 
Nikai de tegami wo kaite imasu (C). 26. boshi wa koko ni gozaimasu (D). 

1. Who is that person ? 2. He is Mr Yamada 's (younger) brother. 3. Did 
your father and mother go to Tokyo yesterday ? 4. My father went but my 
mother did not. 5. Is your husband at home today ? 6. My husband 
is at home today. 7. Mrs Suzuki is a very kind lady. 8. Have you got any 
children ? 9. I have a daughter but no son. 10. Can your daughter speak 
English? 11. No, she cannot. 12. Mrs Yamada is my (younger) sister. 13. 
When did your brother return from America ? 14. On the 20th of last month. 
15. Is this your sister's watch ? 16. No, my sister hasn't got a watch. 17. 
My brother speaks English very well. 18. My mother went with Mrs Terada 
to Nikko. 19. Whom did your father go to Yokohama with ? 20. He went 
with my little sister. 21. My brother will return from Kobe on Friday and 
leave for England on Saturday. 22. Mr Yamada has three sons ; one of them 
is in America. 23. Mr Silva knows Japanese very well, but his wife hardly 
knows any. 24. What is your sister doing now ? 25. She is writing letters 
upstairs. 26. Your hat is here. 



EXERCISE 25. 

Study the uses that the verbs yarn, age'ru, kure'ru and kudasaru sometimes 
have after gerunds, in 109. 

kori : ice. shim : to know. 

ire'ru : to put into. arigato : thanks. 

kawakasu (trans.) : to dry. iro-iro no : various ; several. 

naosu : to mend ; translate. dare de mo : everybody ; anybody. 

nure'ru : to get wet. itsu de mo : always ; any time. 

oi-dasu : to drive away. nan de mo : everything ; anything. 

oshie'ru : to teach. 

1. O to-san no kimono ga nureie imashita kara, kawakashite agemashita (D). 

2. Tanaka San ga Suzuki San no tegami wo Ei-go ni naoshite kudasaim.ashita (C). 

3. Terada San ga watakushi no tokei wo naoshite kudasaimashita (C). 4. Dozo 
sukoshi Nihon-go wo oshiete kudasaimasen ka? (D). 5. E, yoku wa dekimasumai 
ga, oshiete agemasho (C). 6. Ano hito wa itsu de mo shinsetsti ni oshiete kuremasu 
(C). 7. Kono hon wa dare de mo mite ii desu (C). 8. Omae ga byoki nara, 
watashi ga soji wo shite yarn (A). 9. Ano kitanai inu ga kitara oi-dashite yari 
nasai (A). 10. Yamada San wa itsu de mo jibiki wo kashite kudasaimasti, (C). 
11. Kono kimono ga kawaitara anata no o hey a ni motte itte agemasho (C). 12. 
Dare ga omae ni sono hana wo motte kite kureta ? (A). 13. Hana-ko desu (C). 
14. Brown San wa musuko ni Ei-go wo oshiete kudasaimashita (C). 15. Anata no 
tokei wo naoshite agemasho ka ? (C). 16. Arigato, mo Yamada San ga naoshite 
kudasaimashita (C). 17. Mizu ni kori wo irete agemasho ka? (C). 18. Ano mise 
wa nan de mo yasui kara itsu de mo kyaku ga takusan am (B). 19. Kino Taro 
ni iro-iro no empitsu wo katte yatta (B). 20. Sore wa dare de mo shitte iru desho 
(C). 21. Mizuno San ga tokei wo katte kudasaimashita (C). 22. Kono jibiki zva 
chichi ga.Tokijo de katte kuremashita (}. 23. Watashi wa kino kyaku ga atte, 
Tokyo e ikimasen deshita kara, kami wa Yamada San ga katte kudasaimashita 
(C). 24. Matsu San, watashi no kimono wo aratte kuremasu ka ? (C). 25. 
E, aratte agemasu (C). 

1. Father, as your clothes' were wet I dried them for you. 2. Mr Tanaka 
translated Mr Suzuki 's letter into English for me. 3. Mr Terada mended my 
watch for me. 4. Wouldn't you kindly teach me a little Japanese? 5. I am 
afraid you will find me a very poor teacher but I will do what I can for you. 
6. That man is always willing to teach one. 7. Anybody may read this book. 
8. If you are ill I'll do the rooms for you. 9. If that nasty dog comes again, 
drive it away. 10. Mr Yamada always lends me his dictionary. 11. When 
this dress is dry I'll take it to your room, (so you needn't bother). 12. Who 
(brought and) gave you those flowers ? 13. Hana-ko. 1-1. Mr Brown taught 
my son English. 15. Shall I mend your watch for you ? 16. Thanks, Mr 
Yamada has already mended it. 17. Shall I put some ice into your water? 
18. There are always a lot of customers in that shop, they sell (everything) so 
cheap. 19. I bought several pencils yesterday and gave them to Taro. 20. I 
suppose everybody knows that. 21. (a) Mr Mizuno bought a watch and gave it 
to me. (b) Mr Mizuno bought a watch for me (as I could not go myself). 22. 
My father bought this dictionary for me in Tokyo. 23. I didn't go to Tokyo 
yesterday as a visitor came, so Mr Yamada bought the paper for me. 24 . 
Matsu, will you wash my dress for me ? 25. Very well. 



EXERCISE 26.- 

Study the uses that the verbs morau, itadaku, kuru, irassharu and mairu 
sometimes have after gerunds, in 108, 103. 

shujin : master. kaesu (trans.) : to return ; give back. 

yuki : snow. morau : to receive. 

isogashii : busy. okosu (trans.) : to wake up. 

oishii : nice (of taste). tetsudau : to help. 

aruku : to walk. sugu ni : soon ; immediately. 

1 . Yon-sen no hagaki wo go-mai to jis-sen no kitte wo roku-mai katte kima- 
shita (C). 2. Sugu ni kuruma wo yonde ki nasai (A). 3. Kesa watashi ga 
dekaketara sugu ni yuki ga futte kita (B). 4. Asakusa kara koko made aruite 
irasshaimashita ka ? (D). 5. lie, kuruma de kimashlta (C). 6. Ashita no asa 
hayaku ginko e itte mairimasho (D). 7. Kyo wa isogashii kara tetsiidatte moraitai 
(A). 8. Hana-ko ni oishii nashi wo katte moraimashita (C). 9. Sono tegami wo 
jochu ni dashite morai nasai (B). 10. Kono hana wo Teru-ko San no o uchi ni 
motte itte moraitai (B). 11. Dare ga Tanaka San ni shimbun wo kaeshimashita ? 
(C). 12. Taro ni kaeshlte moraimashita (C). 13. Kino nii-san ni tegami wo 
kaite moraimashita ka ? (C). 14. lie, kind wa ani ga isogashikutte kaite kure- 
masen deshlta (C). 15. Moshi ame ga futte kitara, mise e kasa wo motte kite 
moraimasho (C). 16. Shujin wo yonde itadakitai (B). 17. Dozo kono tegami wo 
Ei-go ni naoshlte itadakito gozaimasu (D). 18. O to-san ni tokei wo katte itadaita 
(B). 19. Ashita roku-ji no kisha de Yokohama e ikimasu kara go-ji ni okoshite 
moraitai desu (C). 20. Terada San ni Ei-go de tegami wo kaite itadaite, Brown 
San ni o dashi nasai (B). 21. Raigetsu kara Brown San ni Ei-go wo oshiete 
moraimasu (C). 22. Ame ga futte kimashlta kara, ototo wa mise kara kuruma de 
kaette kuru deshd (C). 23. Ne-san ni yasashii hanashi no hon wo katte itadaite, 
Jiro ni yard (B). 24. Sara wo ni-mai motte kite moraitai (B). 25. Dare ni tokei 
wo naoshlte moraimashita ? (C). 26. Suzuki San ni naoshlte itadakimashita (C). 

1. I went and bought five four-sen postcards and six ten-sen stamps (lit. 
bought and came). 2. Go and call a rikisha immediately. 3. It began to snow 
as soon as I left this morning. 4. Did you walk all the way from Asakusa here ? 
5. No, I came by rikisha. 6. I will go to the bank (and come back) early to- 
morrow morning. 7. I wish you would help me today as I am very busy. 8. 
Hana-ko bought these nice pears for me. 9. Tell the servant to go and post 
that letter. 10. I wish you would take these flowers to Miss Teru-ko 's house. 
11. Who returned the'newspaper to Mr Tanaka ? 12. Taro returned it (at my 
request). 13. Did your brother write the letter for you yesterday? 14. No, 
he was too busy yesterday to write it for me. 15. If it starts raining take my 
umbrella to the office. 16. Please call your master. 17. I wish you would 
kindly translate this letter into English for me. 18. My father (bought and) 
gave me a watch. 19. As I am going to Yokohama by the six o'clock train 
tomorrow I wish to be called at five o'clock. 20. Ask Mr Terada to translate 
this letter into English for you, and send it to Mr Brown. 21. Beginning next 
month Mr Brown is going to teach me English. 22. As it has started raining 
I expect my brother will come back by rikisha from the office. 23. I am going 
to :i sk my sister to buy me an easy story-book and I'll give it to Jiro. 24. I 
wish you would bring me two plates. 25. Who mended your watch for you ? 
26. Mr Suzuki mended it for me. 



EXERCISE 27. 

Study the uses that the verbs mi'ru, goran nasaru, shimau and oku sometimes 
have after gerunds, in 104 106. 

jama : obstruction. shime'ru : to close ; shut. 

mado : window. shinu : to die. 

toki : time. tsure'ru : to take (person or animal) 

kurai : dark. along with. 

ake'ru : to open. wasure'ru : to forget. 

mise'ru : to show. naze ? why ? 

shimau : to finish ; put away. 

1. Kono tegami wa zuibun muzukashii ; anata yonde goran nasal (C). 2. 
Ashita Smith San no uchi e ittara, Ei-go de hanashite miyo (B). 3. Ammari 
kurai kara, sono mado wo akete mimasho (C). 4. Nichiyo ni Mitsu-ko ga uchi e 
kuru desho kara, anata mo kite goran nasai (C). 5. Kono nashi wo tabete mimashi- 
ta ga, ammari oishiku arimasen (C). 6. Sono hako ni nani ga am ka akete goran 
(B). 7. Naze inu wo tsurete kimasen ka ? (C). 8. Watashi no inu wa shinde 
shimaimashita (C). 9. Uchi nojochu wa bydki de uchi e kaette shimaimashita (C). 
10. Sono hon wo yonde shimattara Taro San ni kaeshite kudasai (C). 11. Watashi 
wa Hana-ko San no banchi wo wasurete shimatta (B). 12. Kono shigoto wo shi- 
mattara, sampo ni iko (B). 13. Shimbun wa ano hako ni shimai nasai (A). 14. 
Kaze ga fukimasu kara, mado wo shimete oite kudasai (C). 15. Kono tegami wa 
shimatte oite, Yamada San ga kita toki misemasho (C). 16. Tanaka San no 
banchi wo kami ni kaite okimashUa (C). 17. Suzuki San no banchi wo wasuretara 
taihen desu kara, kaite oki nasai (B). 18. Yamada San no tegami wa kono hako 
ni irete okimasu (C). 19. Kono hon wa mo yonde shimaimashita kara, hikidashi 
ni irete okimasho (C). 20. Kono tsukue IK a jama da kara, nikai e motte itte oki 
nasai (A). 21. Soji tco shite shimattara. sugu ni ginko e itte kite o kure (A). 22. 
Ano hako ni nani ga arimasii ka? (C). 23. Akete goran nasareba wakarimasu 
(C). 24. Kono kami wa taihen yasui kara, takusan katte okimasho (C). 

1. This letter is very difficult ; see if you can read it. 2. When I go to Mr 
Smith's house tomorrow, I'll try and speak English (to him). 3. As it's so 
dark I '11 open the window (and we will see whether that improves things). 4. 
Perhaps Mitsu-ko will come on Sunday, you come also (and see whether you are 
lucky enough to meet her). 5. I tried these pears but they are not very hice. fi. 
Open that box and see what 's in it. 7. Why didn 't you bring your dog ? 8. 
My dog died. 9. My servant fell ill and returned home (for good). 10. When 
you finish that book please return it to Master Taro. 11. I've forgotten the 
number of Miss Hana-ko 's house. 12. When I finish this work I '11 go for a 
walk. 13. Put the newspaper away in that box. 14. Shut the window as 
it 's windy. 15. I '11 keep this letter and show it to Mr Yamada when he comes. 
16. I wrote down the number of Mr Tanaka 's house on a piece of paper. 17. 
As it would be very inconvenient if we were to forget Mr Suzuki's address, 
write it down. 18. I keep Mr Yamada 's letters in this box. 19. As I have 
finished reading this book I '11 put it away in this drawer. 20. As this desk is in 
the way, take it upstairs (and leave it there). 21. When you've finished doing 
the rooms go to the bank (and come back). 22. What is there in that box ? 
23. If you open it and look, you'll know. 24. As this paper is very cheap I'll 
buy a lot and put it away (for future use). 



EXERCISE 28. 

The Japanese adjective in its ordinary inflexions may mean not only the 
positive but the comparative or superlative degree. Rare wa yasui may be 
translated according to circumstances by ' this is cheap ', 'this is cheaper' or 
'this is the cheapest'. 

The words ho 'side' and yori 'than' make the comparison more explicit ; the 
word ichiban 'number one' serves the same purpose in the superlative. 

himo : string. dore ? which (of several) ? 

ho : side. dotchi ? dochira ? which (of two) ? 

jobu na : strong. ichiban : number one ; used to give a 

katai : hard. superlative effect. 

tsuyoi : strong. no uchi : among. 

yawarakai : soft. ka If a ; to to : or. 

yowai : weak. 

1. Kisha to densha to dotchi ga hayai ka ? (B). 2. Kisha ga hayai desu (C). 
3. Sono bo ga mijikakereba nagai no wo motte kite agemasho (D). 4. Kono himo 
wa yowakutte ike-nai kara, jobu nano wo motte o-ide (A). 5. Kono bin wa chiisai 
kara, oki na no wo kudasai (C). 6. Kono nashi wa dore ga oishii desu ka ? (C). 
7. Sono chiisai no ga oishiu gozaimasu (D). 8. Empitsu wo katte kite o kure (A). 
9. Katai no to yawarakai no to dotchi wo katte mairimasho? (D). 10. Yawarakai 
ho wo katte moraitai (A). 11. Iro-iro mite yawarakai no wo katte mairimashita 
(D). 12. Niku ka sakana ka katte o kure (A). 13. Sakana no ho ga yasu gozai- 
masu kara, sakana wo katte mairimasho (D). 14. Kono empitsA yori sore no ho 
ga yawarakai (B). 15. Brown San no o uchi wa Yamada San no o uchi yori 
toko gozaimasu (D). 16. Hana-ko yori Sum,i-ko no ho ga okii (B). 17. Taro 
to Jiro to Haruo no san-nin no uchi de Jiro ga ichiban tsuyoi (B). 18. Dono 
kutsu ga ichiban yasui desu ka ? (C). 19. Kore ga yasu gozaimasu ga, ammari 
jobu de wa gozaimasen (D). 20. Kono sam-bon no empitsu no uchi de, kore ga 
ichiban kato gozaimasu (D). 21. Kono kami wa are yori yasu gozaimasu (D). 
22. Yamada San no o uchi wa watashi no uchi yori okiku nai (B). 23. Kono 
sam-mai no kami no uchi de dore gajoto desu ka ? (C). 24. Kore ga ii no de 
gozaimasu (D). 25. Akai empitsu yori murasaki no ho ga tako gozaimasu 
(D). 

1. Which is the faster, a train, or a tram-car ? 2. A train is faster. 3. If 
that stick is too short, I will bring a longer one. 4. This string won't do, it's 
too weak ; bring me a stronger piece. 5. This bottle is too small, please give 
me a bigger one. 6. Which are the nicest of these pears ? 7. Those small 
ones are the nicest. 8. Go and buy a pencil. 9. What kind shall I buy, a 
hard one or a soft one ? 10. Buy me a soft one. 11. After having seen several 
I bought a soft one (and came). 12. Buy some meat or some fish. 13. As 
fish is cheaper I will buy some- fish. 14. That pencil is softer than this one. 
15. Mr Brown's house is higher than Mr Yamada 's. 16. Sumi-ko is taller 
than Hana-ko. 17. If we compare Taro, Jiro and Haruo, we find that Jird is 
the strongest. 18. Which boots are the cheapest ? 19. These are the cheapest 
but they are not very strong. 20. This is the hardest of these three pencils. 
21. This paper is cheaper than that. 22. Mr Yamada 's house is not bigger 
than mine. 23. Which is the best of these three sheets of paper ? 24. This 
is the best. 25. A violet pencil is dearer than a red one. 



EXERCISE 29. 

To after the present tense may sometimes be translated by 'if or 'when'. 
To omou is used to express somebody 's thoughts, opinion or intention. 

hima : spare time. torn : to take. 

kaji : a fire ; conflagration. mata : again. 

komaru : to be in a difficulty ; be yube : last night. 

inconvenienced. so (followed by negative) : not very. 

okoru : to get angry. to : thus ; that. 
omou : to think. 

1. Ashita ame gafuru to komarimasu (C). 2. Ammari kudamono wo taberu to 
bydki ni naru (B). 3. Nichiyo ni Hana-ko San ga irasshara-nai to komarimasii 
kara, tegami wo dashimasho (C). 4. Ani ga Amerika kara kaeru to watashi ga 
Igirisu e iku (B). 5. Sono hana wo torn to Taro ga okoru daro (B). 6. Anata 
ga uchi e kaette shimau to watashi ga zuibun komarimasii (C). 7. Yamada San 
wa itsu kuru desho ka ? (C). 8. Doyo-bi no ban ni irassharu to omoimasu (C). 

9. Watashi wa raigetsu Nikko e iko to omou (B). 10. Kono kami wa hyaku-mai 
ni-ju-go-sen nara so takaku nai to omoimasu (C). 11. Kono hon wa muzukashii 
kara, Taro ni yatte mo dame daro to omou (B). 12. Kyo wa ame gafurumai to 
omottaga,matafuttekita(B). 13. Yube no kaji wa nan-ji goro deshlta? (C). 
14. Asa no ni-ji goro deshlta to omoimasu (C). 15. Moshi o isogashiii gozaimasen 
deshitara, sukoshi Ei-go wo oshiete itadakitai to omoimasu (D). 16. E, ku-gatsu 
ni naru to hima ga dekimasu kara, oshiete agemasho (C). 17. Ashita mo mata ame 
da to omoimasu ka ? (C). 18. lie, ashtta wa fura-nai desho to omoimasu (C). 
19. Ano hito ga okotte iru to (wa) omowa-nakatta (B). 20. Hana-ko San wa anata 
wo taihen yowai kata da to omotte imasu (C). 21. Watashi wa ano otoko wa sho- 
jiki na hito to omoimasen (C). 22. Yube Taro ga kuru ka to omottaga, ko-nakatta 
(B). 23. Mata ano hito ga okoru to ike-nai kara, sono hon wa mi-nai de kudasai 
(C). 24. Yamada San wa isogashii hito desu kara, kyo mo uchi ni i-nai desho to 
omoimasu (C). 

1. I would be much inconvenienced were it to rain tomorrow. 2. If you eat 
too much fruit, you'll get ill. 3. As I would be inconvenienced if Miss Hana-ko 
were not to come on Sunday, I will write her a letter. 4. When my brother 
returns from America, I shall leave for England. 5. If you pick those flowers, 
I think Taro will be angry. 6. When you return home, I will find myself serious- 
ly inconvenienced. 7. When do you think Mr Yamada will come ? 8. I 
expect he'll come Saturday evening. 9. I intend to go to Nikko next month. 

10. I don't think this paper is very dear if it only costs twenty-five sen the 
hundred sheets. 11. As this book is difficult, I think it is no use to give it to 
Taro. 12. I didn't think it would rain today, but it has started again. 13. At 
what o 'clock was the fire last night ? 14. At about two o 'clock in the morning, 
I believe. 15. If you are not very busy, I wish you would teach me a little 
English (lit. I think I would like you to teach). 16. All right ; I shall have 
some free time in September, I will teach you then. 17. Do you think it will 
rain again tomorrow ? 18. No, I don't think it will. 19. I didn't think that 
man would have been angry. 20. Miss Hana-ko thinks you are very weak. 
21. I don't think that man is honest. 22. I thought taro might come last 
evening, but he didn't. 23. It wouldn't do to make that man angry again so 
don't look at that book, please. 24. Mr Yamada is a busy person, I expect 
he will be absent from home again today. 



EXERCISE 30. 

To iu is used in direct quotations ; the corresponding English, however, is 
frequently an indirect quotation. 

ji : letter ; character ; word. okuni : to send. 

kuruma-ya : a rikisha-man. do ? how ? what ? 

namae : name. , do iu ? what kind of ? 

rusu : absence. ko iu : this kind of ; such as this. 

tokoro : place. a iu ; so iu : that kind of ; such as that. 

iu : to say. to iu : called ; often not translated. 

1. Kesa Taro ga kite l kyo wa Tokyo e ika-nai' to itta (B). 2. Kuruma-ya ni 
'go-ji ni kite kure' to itte o-ide (A). 3. A no htto no namae wa nan to iimasu ka ? 
(C). 4. Suzuki to iimasu (C). 5. Hakone to iu tokoro wo shUte imasu ka ? (C). 
6. lie, shira-nai (B). 7. Kono ji wa do kakimasu ka ? (C). 8. Nichiyo-bi no 
shimbun wa do shimashUa ? (C). 9. Hana-ko ga ' Yamada San no oku-san_ ni 
okutta' to iimasu (C). 10. Ko iu empitsu wo ni-hon katte o-ide (A). 11. A iu 
hon wo yonde wa ike-nai (A). 12. Anata wa do iu inu ga o suki desu ka ? (C). 
13. Watashi wa chiisa na inu ga suki da (B). 14. Tanaka San wa ' ashita uchi ni 
iru' to iimashUa ka ? (C). 15. Hai, so iimashUa (C). 16. Kind o rusu ni Suzuki 
to iu kata ga kimashUa (C). 17. Ano akai hana wa o suki de gozaima-su ka? (D). 
18. lie, a iu hana wa kirai de gozaimasu (D). 19. Nan to iimashUa ? yoku wakari- 
masen deshlta kara, mo ichi-do itte kudasai (C). 20. Haruo wa ' kyo uchi e kaeri- 
tai' to iu daro (B). 21. Jochu ni 'motto hayaku oki-nai to komaru' to itte o kure 
(A). 22. Ko iu kami ga arimasu ka ? (C). 23. So iu kami wa ima gozaimasen 
(D). 24. Yamada San wa ' doyo-bi ni Kamakura e iku' to iimashUa ka? (C). 
25. lie, so iimasen deshUa (C). 26. Kore wa nan to iu kudamono de gozaimasu 
ka ? (D). 27. Nashi to iimasu. (C). 28. Anata no shiroi inu wa do narimashUa ? 
(C). 29. Are wa byoki de shinde shimaimashlta (C). 30. Matsu ni 'nikai ni 
denki wo tsukete kure' to itte kudasai (C). 31. Moshi rusu ni Kimura to iu hito 
ga kitara 'matte ite kure' to itte kudasai (C). 

1. Taro came this morning and said he wasn't going to Tokyo today. 2. Go 
and tell the rikisha-man to come at five o'clock. 3. What is that man's name? 
4. He is called Suzuki. 5. Do you know a place called Hakone ? 6. No, I do 
not. 7. How do you write this character ? 8. What did you do with Sunday 's 
newspaper ? 9. Hana-ko says she sent it to Mrs Yamada. 10. Go and buy 
two pencils like this. 11. You mustn't read books like that. 12. W T hat kind 
of dogs' are you fond of ? 13. I am fond of small dogs. 14. Did Mr Tanaka 
say he would be at home tomorrow ? 15. Yes, he said so. 16. A gentleman called 
Suzuki came yesterday while you were out. 17. Do you like that red flower ? 
18. No, I don't like that kind of flower. 19. What did you say ? As I didn 't 
quite understand you, please say it again. .20. I suppose Haruo will say he 
wants to go back home today. 21. Tell the servant that I shall be inconvenien- 
ced if she doesn't get up earlier. 22. Have you any paper like this ? 23. 1 
have no paper like that at present. 24. Did Mr Yamada say he was going 
to Kamakura on Saturday? 25. No, he didn't say so. 20. What's this 
fruit called? 27. It's called a pear. 28. What's happened to your white 
dog ? 29. He fell ill and died. 30. Please go and tell Matsu to turn on the 
electric lights upstairs. 31. Should a man called Kimura come while I am 
out please tell him to wait. 



EXERCISE 31. 

Verbs and verbal phrases are often used attributively ; they are sometimes 
translated by relative clauses. 

dempo : telegram. tonari : next-door; immediate neighbour. 

isu : chair. tsubo : jar. 

junsa : policeman. koshi-kake'ru : to sit. 

kago : basket. noru : to get on. 

michi : road ; way. ori'ru : to get off. 

said : sugar. tatsu (intr.) : to stand. 

todana : cupboard. kara after gerund : after. 

1. Asuko ni tatte iru hito wa dare desu ? (C). 2. Kimura to iu hito de gozai- 
masu (D). 3. Ko-no hako ni aru empitsu tea donata no d* gozaimasu ka ? (D). 
4. Ototo no de gozaimasu (D). 5. Todana kara sato ga haitte iru tsubo wo motte 
o-ide (A). 6. Kore wa doko e iku michi de gozaimasu ka ? (D). 7. Kden ni iku 
michi da (B). 8. Shimbun wo yonde kara, tegami wo kako (D). 9. Kino kita 
dempd tt'o motte kite kure (A). 10. Kono hon wo kaita hito wa ima doko ni imasu ? 
(C). 11. Shina ni imasu (C). 12. Kind kaita isu wa dare desu? (C). 13. 
Kino katta no wa nikai ni gozaimaxu (D). 14-. Anata no tonari ni koshi-kakete 
ita hito wa donata deshlta ? (C). 15. Donata da ka shirimasen (C). 16. Watashi 
no tonari ni iru hito wa junsa da (B). 17. Sono tegami wa o to-san ga o kaeri ni 
natte kara o dashi nasai (B). 18. Suzuki San ga Kyoto e o-ide nas'tte kara, mo 
mi-tsuki ni naru (B). 19. Sono kago ni ireta kudamono wo Tanaka San no o uchi 
ni motte itte o kure (A). 20. Kisha ni noru hito wa koko de densha wo orimasu 
(C). 21. Kino o kai ni natta hon wa doko ni gozaimasu ka ? (D). 22. Are wa 
Taro ni okutte yatta (B). 23. Dozo Asakusa e iku michi wo oshiete kudasai (D). 

24. Sendai e iku kisha zca nan-ji ni demasu ka? (C). 25. Asa no roku-ji ju-go- 
fun ni deru (B). 26. Kind mita kirei na boshi wa mo arimasen deshlta (C). 27. 
Toka ni o dashi nas'tta o tegami ga kesa mairimashita (D). 28. Tanaka San ni 
karita kasa \ca mo kaeshimashita ka? (C). 

1. Who is that man standing over there ? 2. He is (a man called) Kimura. 
3. Whose is this pencil in this box ? 4. My brother's. 5. Bring me the sugar- 
jar which is in the cupboard (lit. bring me from the cupboard the jar which has 
sugar in it). 6. Where does this road go to ? 7. It goes to the park. 8. After 
I've read the newspaper I'll write my letters. 9. Bring me the telegram that 
came yesterday. 10. Where is the author of this book living now ? (lit. 
the man who wrote this book). 11. He is in China. 12. Which was the chair 
you bought yesterday ? 13. The one I bought yesterday is upstairs. 14. Who 
was the man sitting next to you? 15. I don't know who he was. 16. My 
next-door neighbour is a policeman (lit. the man living next-door). 17. Post 
that letter after your father returns. 18. It is three months now since Mr 
Su/Aiki went to 'Kyoto. 19. Take that basket of fruit to Mr Tanaka 's 
house (lit. fruit which has been put into that basket). 20. Those who take the 
train get off the tram-car here. 21. Where is the book you bought yesterday ? 
22. I sent it to Taro. 23. Please tell me which is the way to Asakusa. 24. At 
what time does the Sendai train leave ? (lit. the train which goes to Sendai). 

25. It leaves at a quarter past six in the morning. 26. The pretty hat I saw 
yesterday was no longer there. 27. I received this morning your letter of the 
10th (HL the letter you posted on the 10th came this morning). 28. Have you 
already returned to Mr Tanaka the umbrella you borrowed from him ? 



EXERCISE 32. 

Ni after the stem (2nd base) of a verb means 'in order to'. 
No desu frequently added after a verb at the end of a sentence, is generally 
a mere rounding off ; it sometimes, however, has a distinct force of its own. 

e : picture. narau : to learn. 

isha : doctor. sagasu : to look for. 

kotoshi : this year. tanomu : to ask for aid ; request ; order. 

kutsu-ya : bootmaker. issho ni : together (with). 

pan : bread. konaida ; kono aida : the other day ; 

tabako : tobacco. recently. 

warui : bad. 

1. Matsu wa imasu ka? (C). 2. Ima pan wo kai ni ikimashita (C). 3. 
Ashita Taro wo ginko ni kane wo tori ni o yari nasai (B). 4. Kutsu-ya ni ko- 
naida tanonda kutsu wo tori ni itte o kure (A). 5. Doko e itte kimashlta ? (C). 6. 
Inu wo sagashi ni itte kita no desu (C). 7. Hana-ko ga nani wo shite iru ka, mi ni 
ikimasho (C). 8. Tokei ga waruku natta kara, naoshi ni yara-nakereba nara-nai 
(B). 9. Tabako wo kai ni jochu wo yatte kure (A). 10. O isha wo yobi ni dare 
ga itta no desu ? (C). 11. Maeda ga itta no da (B). 12. Brown San wa Ei-go 
wo oshie ni irassharu no desti ka ? (C). 13. lie, Nihon-go wo narai ni o-ide nasaru 
no desu (C). 14. Kotoshi mo nii-san to Hakone e irassharu no desu ka? (C). 15. 
lie, kotoshi wauchi ni imasu (C). 16. Anata wa mo Mits&ya San no e wo goran 
nas'tta no desu ka ? (C). 17. lie, mada mi-nai no desu (C). 18. Kisha ni noru 
htto wa koko de oriru no desu (C). 19. Watashi mo ashita o to-san to issho ni 
Tokyo e iku no desu ka ? (C). 20. Omae wa ikitaku nakereba ika-nakutte mo it no 
da (A). 21. Jochu wa doko e ikimashita ? (C). 22. Tegami wo dashi ni itta no 
desu (C). 23. Yamada San no tokoro e oki na jibiki wo kari ni ika-nakereba 
nara-nai (B). 24. Ashita Tanaka San e konaida karita kasa wo kaeshi ni iko 
to omoimasu (C). 25. O isogashii toki wa tetsudai ni mairimasho (D). 26. 
Sato ga mo arimasen kara, ashita kai ni ikimasho (C). 27. Sono tegami wa dare 
kara kita no desu ka ? (C). 28. Ane kara kita no desu (C). 29. Ima shimbun wo 
kai ni kita hito wa Brown San da (B). 

1. Is Matsu in ? 2. She has gone to buy some bread. 3. Send Taro to- 
morrow to get some money from the bank. 4. Go to the bootmaker's to fetch 
the boots I ordered the other day. 5. Where have you been ? (lit. where did 
you go to and come). 6. I went to look for the dog. 7. I'll go and see what 
Hana-ko is doing. 8. My watch is out of order, I must give it to be mended. 
9. Send the servant to buy some tobacco. 10. Who has gone to call the doctor ? 
11. Maeda went. 12. Does Mr Brown come to teach you English ? 13. No, 
he comes to learn Japanese. 14. Are you going to Hakone again this year with 
your brother? 15. No, I shall remain at home this year. 16. Have you 
(already) seen Mr Mitsuya's picture ? 17. No, not yet. 18. Those who take 
the train must get off here. 19. Am I also to go to Tokyo tomorrow with my 
father ? 20. You needn't go if you don't want to. 21. Where has the servant 
gone to ? 22. She went to post a letter. 23. I must go to Mr Yamada 's house 
and borrow his big dictionary. 24. I intend to go to Mr Tanaka 's house to- 
morrow to return the umbrella I borrowed from him the other day. 25. I will 
come and help you when you are busy. 26. There's no more sugar, I'll go to- 
morrow and buy some. 27. Whom is that letter from ? 28. from my sister, 
29. The man who came just now to buy a newspaper was Mr Brown. 



EXERCISE 33. 



go : an honorific prefix. 
gonien : your permission, pardon. 
komban : this evening. 
konnichi : today. 
tenki : weather. 
inina ; minna : all ; every one. 
mina-san : everybody. 
samui : cold. 

yoroshiku : used for sending or 
giving salutations. 



o-hayo : good morning, 

sayonura : good-bye. 

agani : to go up ; to enter a house (the 

mats are on a higher level than the 

ground) ; to visit (humble) ; to eat, 

drink (honorific). 

domo : has a vague superlative meaning. 
ikaga ? how ? (polite). 
ne : interjection ; at the end of sentence 

it has often -an interrogative force. 



1. Konnieki wa ; Veda San wa irasshaimasu ka? (D). 2. Hai. o-ide nasai- 
masu. Yoku inushaimaskUa ne. Dozo o agari kudasai (D). 3. Mo o kaeri de 
gozaimasu ka ? Mata dozo o-ide nas'tte kudasai (D). 4. Arigato gozaimasu, 
mata agarimasho. Sayonara (D). 5. Mina-san ni dozo yoroshiku (D). Q. 
Watashi no uchi de wa minna jobu desu (C). 7. Gomen kudasai, haitte mo yd 
gozaimasu ka ? (D). 8. O-hayo, kesa wa zuibun samui desu ne? (C). 9. Kom- 
ban ic a. o atsu gozaimasu (D). 10. Kino ^wa kirei na hon wo kudasaimashite, 
domo arigato gozaimashita (D). 11. Do itashimashite (C). 12. Kyo tea ii o tenki 
de gozaimasu ne. Doko e o dekake de gozaimasu ka ? (D). 13. Sampo ni iko 
to omoimasu ; anata mo irasshaimasen ka? (D). 14. Arigato gozaimasu; Idma 
de gozaimasu kara, go issho ni mairimasho (D). 15. cha vca ikaga de gozaimasu 
ka ? (D). 16. Arigato, sukoshi itadakimasho (C). 17. Oku-san wa ikaga de 
irasshaimasu ka ? (D). 18. Arigato gozaimasu, jobu desu (C). 19. Kono nashi 
wo o agari nasai (C). 20. O cha wo agemasho ka ? (C). 21. Arigato gozaimasu, 

cha wa itadakimasen (D). 22. Konaida wa o tegami wo arigato gozaimashita ; 
haha (no bydki] ica mo yoku narimashlta (D). 23. Tanaka San ga anata ni yoro- 
shiku itte kure to iimashita (C). 24. Dozo kono tegami wo ne-san ni agete 
kudasai (D). 25. Mina-san o jobu de irasshaimasu ka? (D). 26. Kyo wa 
domo atsui desu ne (C). 27. Dozo sono mado wo akete kudasaimasen ka ? 
(D). 28. Kyo gogo ni o uchi ni agaro to omoimasu ga, o isogashiu gozaimasu ka ? 
(D). 

1. Good day. Is Mr Ueda at home? 2. Yes, he is; you are welcome. 
Please come in. 3. Are you already going ? Please come again. 4. Thank 
you, I will come again. Good-bye. 5. Please remember me to all at home. 
6. Everybody at home is quite well. 7. Excuse me, may I come in ? 8. Good 
morning. It is very cold this morning, isn't it ? 9. Good evening. It is very 
hot. 10. Thank you very much for the pretty book you gave me yesterday. 
11. Don't mention it. 12. The weather is very fine today, isn't it? Where 
are you going ? 13. I was thinking of going for a walk, won't you come with 
me ? 14. Thank you, as I have some spare time, I will go with you. 15. May 

1 offer you a cup of tea ? (lit. what do you say to some tea ?). 16. Thanks, I 
will take a little. 17. How is your wife ? 18. She is quite well, thank you. 
19. Please eat one of these pears. 20. May I offer you some tea ? 21. Thanks. 
I don't drink tea. 22. Thanks for your letter the other day ; my mother is 
quite well again now. 23. Mr Tanaka asked me to give you his kind regards. 
24. Please give this letter to your sister. 25. Is everybody well at home ? 
26. It is very hot today, isn't it? 27. Please open that window. 28. I was 
thinking of going to see you this afternoon, are you busy ? 



EXERCISE 34. 

The passive is formed from the 4th base. In the case of verbs ending in e'ru 
or i'ru add rare'ru ; in all other cases add re'ru. The subject of the passive in 
Japanese is the person affected by the act of the verb, see 124. The passive is 
often used in a potential sense, see 126. 

dorobo : thief ; robber. ki'ru : to put on ; wear. 

itazura : mischief. kusaru : to decay ; become rotten. 

koto : thing. shikaru : to scold. 

yubi-wa : finger-ring. warau : to laugh. 

korare'ru : irregular passive of kuru yosii : to cease ; leave off. 

to come. totemo : an emphatic negative word. 

1. Ano ko wa itazura wo shite o to-san ni shikar aremashita (C). 2. So iu koto 
wo sum to hito ni warawareru kara, o yoshi nasai (B). 3. Ano hito wa minna ni 
shojiki da to omozvarete imasu (C). 4. Kyo wa asa hayaku kyaku ni korarete 
komatta (B). 5. Yube dorobo ni tokei to yubi-wa wo toraremashita (C). 6. Ano 
jochil wa dorobo wo shite oi-dasareta no dtsu (C). 7. Watashi wa hito ni tegami 
wo miraretaku nai (B). 8. Ano akai hon wo mita kara, Taro ni okorareta no da 
(B). 9. Kino wa Asakusa e itte, ame ni furarete zuibun komarirnashita (C). 10. 

isogashii toki nijochu ni byoki ni nararete taihen o komari deshd (C). 11. Kyo 
wa kaze ga fuite mado wo akeraremasen (C). 12. Kono sakana wa kusatte iru 
kara, taberare-nai (B). 13. Kono kimono wa mofurukutte kirare-nai (B). ,14. 
Nihom-bashi made nam-pun kakarimasu ka ? (C). 15. Aruite ni-jip-pun kaka- 
reba ikaremasho (C). 16. Yamada San no o hanashi wa koko de wa iivaremasen 
kara, komban anata no o uchi ni itte hanashimasho (C). 17. Kono hey a wa 
atetikutte totemo irare-nai (B). 18. Kono nashi wa mo taberaremasu ka ? (C). 
19. lie, mada taberaremasen (C). 20. Yamada San wa oku-san ga go byoki desu 
kara, kyo wa korare-nai desho (C). 21. Konaida dorobo ni torareta yubi-wa wo 
kyo junsa ga motte kite kuremashita (C). 

1. As that child had been up to mischief he was scolded by his father. 2. If 
you do things like that people will laugh at you, so leave off. 3. Everybody 
considers that man to be honest (lit. he's thought honest by everybody). 4. A 
visitor came early this morning and I was much inconvenienced (lit. I got the 
coming of a visitor). 5. My watch and my ring were stolen last night (by a 
robber). 6. That servant was discharged because she was (caught) stealing. 
7. I don 't like people to look at my letters (lit. I do not wish my letters to be 
seen). 8. Taro got angry with me because I looked at that red book. 9. I went 
to Asakusa yesterday and was caught in the rain, so I was much inconvenienced 
(///. I got the falling of the rain). 10. You must find it very inconvenient to 
have your servant ill (precisely now) when you are so busy (lit. to get the falling 
ill of your servant). 11. The wind is blowing (hard) today so I can't open the 
window. 12. You can 't eat this fish, it 's gone bad. 13.* This dress is so old 

1 cannot wear it. 14. How long does it take to Nihom-bashi ? 15. If you 
give yourself twenty minutes you can walk there. 16. I can't tell you here 
what Mr Yamada said, I will go to your house this evening and tell you. 17. 
This room is so warm I cannot possibly remain here. 18. Is this pear fit to eat 
y> t ? 19. No, it is not ripe yet. 20. Mr Yamada 's wife is ill, so I don't think 
he will be able to come today. 21. A policeman today brought me the ring 
which had been stolen the other day (by a robber). 



EXERCISE 35. 

By changing the final u of a verb into e'ru we obtain intransitive verbs which 
often do duty for potential verbs. When the original verb ends in e'ru or i'ni 
this cannot be done. 

nimotsu : package ; luggage. kikoe'ru : irregular potential of kiku 

oto : sound. to hear. 

ri : 2*4 miles. mi e'ru : irregular potential of mi'ru 

yubin : the post. to see ; to be able to see ; be visible ; 

omoshiroi : amusing. come. 

ijiru : to touch ; meddle with. otosu : to let fall ; drop. 

kiku : to hear ; ask. 

1. Ei-go ga yomemasu ka? (C). 2. Hanasemasu ga, yomemasen (C). 3. 
Asuko ni inieru yama wa nan de gozaimasu ka ? (D). 4. Fuji-san de gozaimasu 
(D). 5. Yamada San no banchi wo wanuremashita, Taro San ni kiite kirnasho 
(C). 6. Kind Hana-ko San kara kiita o hanashi wa taihen omoshiro gozaimashita 
(D). 7. Kikoemasen deshlta kara, dozo mo ichi-do itte kudasai (C). 8. Kyo 
wa kane wo otoshite densha ni noremasen deshita (C). 9. Ei-go ga deki-nai to 
fuben de gozaimasu kara, narao to ornoimasu (D). 10. Yamada San ga mie- 
mashita (C). 11. Densha no oto ga koko m.ade kikoemasu ka ? (C). 12. Hai, 
yoku kikoemasu (C). 13. Ano mise no shujin wa Ei-go ga yoku hanasemasu (C). 
14. Kono nimotsu wa yubin de okuremasu ka? (C). 15. Ammariokii kara, okure- 
masen (C). 16. Ichi-nichi ni go-ri arukemasu ka ? (C). 17. E, sono gurai wa 
arukemasu (C). 18. Watashi wa uma ni nore-nai (B). 19. Ei-go ga fianaseru 
hito wo yonde kudasai (C). 20. Sono bin wa kodomo ga ijiru to ike-nai kara, 
mie-nai tokoro e shimatte oki nasai (A). 21. Ima nan-ji desu ka, nii-san ni kiite 
kudasai (C). 22. Ano hito ga nani wo itte iru ka, itte kiite o-ide nasai (B). 23. 
Ko iu yasashii hon nara Taro mo yomemasho (C). 24. Ano kata no o hanashi 
ga kikoemasu ka ? (C). 25. lie, yoku kikoemasen (C). 26. Sore de wa mae e 
irasshai (C). 

1. Can you read English ? 2. I can speak it but I cannot read it. 3. What 
is that mountain you can see over there ? 4. It is Mount Fuji. 5. I have 
forgotten the number of Mr Yamada 's house, I'll go and ask Mr Taro. 6. The 
tale Miss Hana-ko told me yesterday was very amusing (lit. the tale that I heard 
from Miss Hana-ko). 7. As I didn't hear (what y6u said) please say it again 
(If kikimasen had been used instead of kikoemasen the meaning would have 
been, as I wasn't listening). 8. As I lost my purse (lit. money) today I couldn't 
take the tram-car. 9. It is inconvenient not knowing English, so I intend to 
study it. 10. Mr Yamada has come. 11. Can you hear the noise of the tram- 
cars from here ? 12. Yes, quite well. 13. The owner of that shop speaks 
English very well. 14. Can I send this parcel by post ? 15. You can't send 
it, it is too big. 16. Can you walk five ri (twelve miles) a day ? 17. Yes, I can 
walk about that much. 18. I cannot ride on horseback. 19. Please call 
somebody who can speak English. 20. It wouldn 't do for the children to 
meddle with this bottle so put it away somewhere where they can't find it (lit. 
in an invisible place). 21. Please (go and) ask your brother what time it is 
now. 22. Go and see what that man is saying (lit. go, listen and come). 23. If 
it's such an easy book, even Taro can probably read it. 24. Can you hear what 
that man is saying ? 25. No, I can 't hear properly. 26. Well then, go a little 
nearer (lit. in front i.e. a few paces forward). 



, EXERCISE 36. 

K oto and mono (sometimes abbreviated to won' or no) both mean 'thing'. 
Koto nearly always refers to an abstract tiling ; mono generally to a concrete 
thing. These words and the abbreviations man' and no when used after verbs, 
serve to substantivize the verb and form many important idioms. Observe 
the following : 

koto ga deki'ru after verb (present) koto ga nai after verb (generally past) : 

has the force of a potential. never. 

koto ga aru after verb (generally won' desu ka ? after verb (present) is a 

past) : once ; sometimes. denial of, or protest against, an 

koto ga aru ka ? after verb (generally absurd statement or supposition. 

past): ever ? no desu after a verb has already been 

noticed in Exercise 32. 

1 . Watakushi wa haha ga byoki desu kara, ashUa Kamakura e iku koto ga deki- 
masen (C). 2. Anata wa Ei-go de tegami wo kaku koto ga dekimasu ka ? (C). 3. 
Mdda dekimasen (C). 4. Nichiyo-bi no asa koraremam ka ? (C). 5. Nichiyo no 
asa wa tegami wo kakimasu kara, kuru koto ga dekimasen (C). 6. Kyoto e o-ide 
nas'tta koto ga gozaimasu ka ? (D). 7. E, itta koto ga aru (B). 8. Nara e wa 
mada itta koto ga nai (B). 9. Suzuki San ni atta koto ga arimasu ka ? (C). 10. 
E, atta koto ga arimasu ; oku-san ni wa mada atta koto ga arimasen (C). 11. Kore 
wa anata no mono de gozaimasu ka? (D). 12. lie, watakushi no mono de wa go- 
zahnasen (D). 13. Tanaka San no mono wo minna nikai e motte itte o kure (A). 
14. Taro wa Ei-go wo kaku koto ga dekiru desho ka ? (C). 15. Kaku koto ga 
dekiru mon* desu ka? mada yomu koto mo dekimasumai (C). 16. Anata wa 
Yamada San to issho ni Asakusa e iku desho ? (C). 17. lie, iku mon' desti ka ? 
Watashi wa Yamada San wa kirai desu (C). 18. Dare ga omae ni tetmdatte 
kureru mon' ka ? (A). 19. Ano uma ni noru nowa o yoshi nasai (B). 20. Wata- 
fihi tea Hana-ko San no okotta no wo mita koto ga nai (B). 21. Asa hayaku 
okiru no wa ii koto desu (C). 22. Taihen na ame da kara, kyo Hakone e iku no 
wo yoso (B). 23. Tanaka San ni so iu koto wo iu no wa ike-nai (A). 24. Sono 
mixu wo nomu no wa o yoshi nasai (B). 25. Natsume San no kaita mono wo o yomi 
ni natta koto ga gozaimasu ka ? (D). 26. E, yoku yomimasu. Ano hlto no hon 
wa suki desu (C). 

1. As my mother is ill I cannot go to Kamakura tomorrow. 2. Can you 
write letters in English ? 3. Not yet. 4. Can you come on Sunday morning ? 
5. As I write my letters on Sunday mornings, I cannot come. 6. Have you 
ever been to Kyoto ? 7. Yes, I have been there. 8. I have never been to 
Nara (yet). 9. Have you ever met Mr Suzuki ? 10. Yes, I have met him but 
I have never met his wife. 11. Is this yours ? (lit. your thing). 12. No, it's 
not mine. 13. Take all Mr Tanaka 's things upstairs. 14. I wonder if Taro 
can write English ? 15. Of course he can't ; he can't probably even read it yet. 
16. I suppose you'll go with Mr Yamada to Asakusa ? 17. Most decidedly 
not ; why, I hate Mr Yamada. 18. Whoever is going to help you ? (you are 
too lazy, too ill-natured). 19. Don't ride that horse. 20. I have never yet 
seen Miss Hana-ko angry. 21. It is a good thing to get up early in the morning. 
22. As it is raining so hard I'll give up the idea of going to Hakone today. 23. 
You mustn't say things like that to Mr Tanaka. 24. Don't drink that water. 
25. Have you ever read anything that Mr Natsume has written ? 26. Yes, 
often ; I like his books. 



EXERCISE 37. 

The postposition tco, corresponding to the immediate object of the verb suru, 
is often suppressed, the noun and su-ru forming a sort of verbal unit. 

The Japanese future has often the meaning of the 1st person plural impera- 
tive. Iko or ikimasho let us go. 

Ja nai (or arimasen) ka ? is frequently added at the end of a sentence ; it 
means 'isn't it ?' It need not always be translated. 

benkyo : study ; diligence. yakusuru ; yakusu : to translate. 

ryoko : travel. osoi : late. 

sentaku : washing. de mo : a conjunctival phrase ; well, but. 
jikusuru ; jikusu : to be ripe. 

1. Nii-san tea Igirisu de nani wo benkyo shite imasu ka? (C). 2. Ei-go wo 
benkyo shite imasu (C). 3. Kyo wa ii tenki da kara, kden wo sampo shiyo (B). 
4. Chichi wa ima Shina wo ryoko itashite orimasu (D). 5. Kano kimono wo 
sentaku shite o kure (A). 6. Yoku benkyo shi-nakereba Ei-go wo oshiete yara-nai 
(A). 7. Raigetsu wa hima ni narimasu kara, Kyoto ni ryoko shimasti (C). 8. 
Brown San wa Nihon-go wo benkyo shi ni Nihoti e kita no desu (C). 9. Sono ki- 
mono wa mada sentaku shi-nai de ii (A). 10. Tenki ga yokereba doyo-bi no him 
kara, Hakone e iko (B). 11. Hakone yori Nikko ga ii ja arimasen ka ? (C). 12. 
Ano nashi tea jikushite imasu ka? (C). 13. Mada jikushimasen (C). 14. 
hima deshitara, dozo kono te garni we Ei-go ni yakushite kudasai (C). 15. Mada 
ika-nai no desu ka? Hana-ko San ga matte iruja arimasen ka ? (C). 16. De mo, 
mada roku-ji ni nara-nai ja arimasen ka? (C). 17. Osoi kara, mo kaero (B). 

18. Osoku naru to ike-nai, densha de ikimasho (C). 19. Sono hon wo yakushite 
kara, nani wonasaimasu ka ? (D). 20. Sukoshi ryoko shitai to omou no desu (C). 
21. Kyo wa tenki ga warui kara, sentaku suru no wa yoso (B). 22. Kono tegami 
wa muzukashikutte watashi wa totemo yakusu koto ga dekimasen (C). 23. Sono 
nashi wa yoku jikushite i-nai kara, tabete wa ike-nai (A). 24. Sukoshi Ei-go wo 
benkyo shite Amerika e ikimasho (C). 25. Taro ni Brown San no tegami wo 
yakushite moraimasho ka ? (C). 26. Taro wa mada dame j a arimasen ka? Suzuki 
San ni tanomimasho (C). 

1. What is your brother studying in England ? 2. He is studying English. 
3. The weather is fine today, so let's go for a walk in the park. 4. My father 
is travelling now in China. 5. Wash this dress. 6. I won 't teach you English 
unless you study hard. 7. As I shall have spare time next month, I'll make a 
trip to Kyoto. 8. Mr Brown came to Japan to study Japanese. 9. You 
needn't wash that dress yet. 10. If the weather is fine, let's go to Hakone on 
Saturday afternoon. 11. Don't you think Nikko would be nicer than Hakone ? 
12. Are those pears ripe ? 13. Not yet. 14. If you have time please translate 
this letter into English for me. 15. Haven't you gone yet ? Miss Hana-ko is 
waiting for you, isn't she ? 16. Well, but it's not yet six o'clock. 17. As it 
is late, let's return home. 18. As it wouldn't do to be late, let's go by tram-car. 

19. What are you going to do after you've finished translating that book ? 20. I 
think I'll travel a little. 21. As the weather is bad today I think I'll give up 
the idea of doing my washing. 22. This letter is so difficult I can 't possibly 
translate it. 23. Don't eat that pear, it is not ripe. 24. I'll study a little 
English and then go to America. 25. Shall I ask Taro to translate Mr Brown 's . 
letter ? 26. Taro doesn't know enough yet, let's ask Mr Suzuki (lit. Taro is 
still of no use). 



EXERCISE 38. 

Derivative and compound words arc extremely numerous in Japanese : 
the stem (2nd base) of verbs, and the stern (what remains after suppressing the 
final /) of true adjectives, are constantly used in this connection. 

shimai (from shimau to finish] : the kaki-naosu [kaku to write; naom to 

end. mend] : to write over again so as to 

kangae'ru : to think. correct the mistakes. 

kangae : a thought. nori-kae'ru [noru to ride ; kae'ru to 

kai-mono [from kau to buy ; mono change] : to change cars. 

a thing] : a thing bought ; a pur- nakunaru [nai non-existent ; nani to 

chase. become] : to be lost ; die. 

kai-mono ni iku : to go shopping. nakusuru ; nakusu [nai non-existent ; 

nomi-mono : something to drink. sum to make] : to lose. 

mono-oki : store-room ; pantry. mgi'ni : to exceed ; used frequently in 

-ya added to nouns means a shop or compounds. 

the person who keeps the shop or nani ka : something or other, 
trades in an article. 

1. Kono hon tea shimai ga taihen muzukashii (B). 2. Yokosuka e iku (no) ni 
wa doko de nori-kaeru no dew ka ? (C). 3. Ofnna de nori-kaeru no desu (C). 4. 
Kono tegami wa kitanai kara, kaki-naoshite kudasai (C). 5. Sentaku shite kara, 
kai-mono ni itte o-ide (A). 6. Yamada San ni nani ka nomi-mono wo o age nasai 
(A). 7. Mon,o-oki kara sara wo ju-mai dashlte o-ide (A). 8. Sato ga nakunatta 
kara, kawa-nakereba nara-nai (B). 9. Ototo ga Amerika kara okutie kureta kitte 
ico nakushimashita (C). 10. Kono bin wa oki-sugiru, motto chiiaai no wo motte 
o-ide nasai (A). 11. Sono Ei-go no hon wa Hana-ko San ni wa muzukashi-sugiru 
desho (C). 12. Yoku kangaete kara, mono wo o ii nasai (A). 13. Watashi no 
kangoe de wa Jiro wa mo kaette ko-nai daro to omou (B). 14. Hon-ya e itte, 
konaida katta jibiki no kane wo haratte kimasu (C). 15. Koppu wo misete kudasai 
(C). 16. Kore wa chiisa-sugimasu, mo sukoshi okii no ga arimasen ka? (C). 17. 
Kono akai hon wo shimai made o yomi na^aimaffhlta ka ? (D). 18. lie, mada 
hambun gurai shika yomimasen (C). 19. Ilaha zca' 1 Mitsukoshi ni kai-mono ni 
iku' to itte, kesa hayaku dekakemashita (C). 20. Ashlta Tokyo e ikimasu kara, 
nani ka kai-mono ga arimashitara, katte kite agemasho (C). 

1. This book is very difficult towards the end (lit. as for this book the end is 
very difficult). 2. Where must I change for Yokosuka ? 3. You must change 
at Ofuna. 4. This letter is dirty, so write it again. 5. When you finish the 
washing go and do your shopping (lit. go and come). 6. Offer Mr Yamada some- 
thing to drink. 7. Get ten plates out of the pantry. 8. There is no more sugar, 
so I must buy some. 9. I have lost the stamps which my brother sent me from 
America. 10. This bottle is too big, bring me a smaller one. 11. I expect 
that English book is too difficult for Miss Hana-ko. 12. Think before you 
speak (lit. after thinking well, say things). 13. In my opinion Jiro will not 
come back again. 14. I'll go to the bookseller's and pay for the dictionary I 
bought the other day. 15. Show me some tumblers. 16. This one is too small, 
haven't you got a slightly bigger one ? 17. Have you read this red book right 
to the end ? 18. No, I have only read about half yet. 19. My mother went 
, out this morning early saying she was going to Mitsukoshi to make some pur- 
chases. 20. As I am going to Tokyo tomorrow, if there is anything you want 
bought, I can buy it for you. 



EXERCISE 30. 

Ho is used after verbs when comparing acts, in a way which is like its use after 
adjectives, see Exercise 28. 

hoteru : (foreign-style) hotel. massu.gu na : straight. 

If ado : corner. magaru : to turn. 

yado-ya : (native) inn. yarn : to send. 

1. Yamada San ni tegami rco dashimasho ka ? Taro wo yobi ni yarimasho ka ? 
(C). 2. Tegami wo dasu yori, Taro -wo yobi ni yarn ho ga ii desho (C). 3. Ni- 
motsu ga takusan aru kara, densha yori kisha de iku ho ga yokaro (B). 4. Teisha- 
ba e wa koko wo itte ii no desu ka? (C). 5. Ano kado wo magatte massugu iku ho 
ga yd gozaimasu (D). 6. Ko iu yowai hako nara, kazca-nai ho ga yokatta (B). 
7. Kamakura yori Nikko e iku ho ga ii desu (C). 8. Kutsu wo dashlte o kure (A). 
9. Dochira wo dashimasho ? (C). 10. Kind katta ho wo dashlte kure (A). 11. 
Go-sen no empitsti IKO ni-hon kau yori, jis-sen no ico ip-pon katta ho ga ii ja ari- 
masen ka ? (C). 12. Sakana ga kusaru to komaru kara, tabete shimau ho ga it (B). 
13. Koko e tsukue wo oku to jama da, nikai ni motte iku ho ga ii (B). 14. Sono 
tokei ga iya ni nattara uru ho ga yokaro (B).. 15. Nihon no yado-ya e tomarimasho 
ka ? hoteru e tomarimasho ka ? (C). 16. Nihon no yado-ya no ho ga yasui kara, 
yado-ya e tomaru ho ga ii (B). 17. Kono tegami wa junsa ni miseru ho ga ii (B). 
18. Saito San wa irasshaimashita ka ? (C). 19. Mada desu, mo sukoshi matte 
mimasho (C). 20. So iu hon wa kodomo ni mise-nai ho ga ii desho (C). 21. Taro 
San no bydki wo Yamada San ni tegami de itte yarimasho ka ? (C). 22. Tegami 
wo o dashi nasaru yori, atte o hanashi nasaru ho ga yd gozaimasho (D). 23. Anata 
wa doko de kudamono wo o kai nasaimasu ka ? (D). 24. Watanabe de kaimasu (C). 
25. Asuko wa takai desu kara, o kai ni nara-nai ho ga ii desho (C). 26. So dtsu 
ka ? de mo, ano mise no wa taihen atarashikutte ii to omoimasu (C). 27. Atsui kara, 
mado wo akete oku ho ga ii desho (C). 

1. Shall I write to Mr Yamada, or shall I send Taro to call him ? 2. I think 
it would be better to send Taro than to write a letter. 3. As we have so much 
luggage it would be better to go by train than by tram-car. 4. Does this road 
take me to the station ? 5. It would be better to turn at that corner and go 
straight on. 6. It would have been better not to have bought anything at; all 
rather than a weak box like this. 7. It would be better to go to Nikko instead 
of Kamakura. 8. Get out a pair of boots. 9. Which shall I get out ? 10. 
Get out the pair I bought yesterday. 11. Instead of buying two five-sen pencils 
would it not have been better to have bought one ten-sen one ? 12. You had 
better eat all the fish otherwise it will go bad, and I don't want that. 13. You 
had better take the desk upstairs, it's in the way here. 14. If you no longer 
care for that watch, you had better sell it. 15. Shall we stop at a Japanese inn 
or at a hotel ? 16. We had better stop at a Japanese inn, it is cheaper. 17. 
You had better show this letter to the police. 15. Has Mr Saito arrived ? 19. 
N T ot yet ; let's wait a little longer and see if he comes. 20. You had better not 
show" a book like that to children. 21. Shall I inform Mr Yamada of Master 
Taro's illness by letter ? 22. I think you had better go and see him yourself 
(instead of writing a letter). 23. Where do you buy your fruit ? 24. I buy it 
at Watanabe 's. 25. You had better not buy it there, it is a dear shop. 26. 
You may be right, but I find the fruit there very good and nice. 27. As it is hot 
I think we'd better open the window. 



EXERCISE 40. 

Causative verbs are formed from the 4th base. In the case of verbs ending 
in e'ru or i'ru, add sase'ru ; in all other cases add se'ru ; (137). They are trans- 
lated by : tell, get, make, let or have. The agent takes the postposition ni in 
the causative construction ; (145). 

Causative verbs all end in -se'ru ; their 3rd base is irregular, viz. shit ; but 
the regular form -set is also sometimes used ; (97). 

akambo : baby. dare ka : somebody or other. 

daiku : carpenter. koshirae'ru : to make. 

ita : board. sase'ru : irregular passive of sum to do. 

kippu : ticket. kikase'ru : to cause to hear, i.e. to tell. 

ko-zutsumi : parcel (for the post). taitei : generally. 

suteishon : station. 

1. Yo-ji han ni kaeru kara, dare ka kitara, matashite oite kudasai (C). 2. Kono 
kimono wo Matsu ni arawashite o kure (A). 3. Watashi no heya wo jochu ni soji 
sashlte kure (A). 4. Ko-zutsumi wo imoto ni dasashite kudasai (C). 5. Shimbun 
wa do shita no daro ? (B). 6. Mada kimasen, jochu ni kawasemasho (C). 7. Kono 
ita de daiku ni hako wo koshiraesasemasho (C). 8. Taro wo yonde kono tegami 
wo Nihon-go ni yakusaseyo (B). 9. dekake de gozaimasu ka ? kuruma wo yobase- 
masho ka? (D). 10. lie, aruite ikimasu (C). 11. Kippu wa imoto ni kawase- 
mashd (C). 12. Watashi wa tegami wa taitei musume ni kakasemasu (C). 13. 
Ashlta kono kimono wo jochu ni sentaku saseyo (B). 14. Kodomo ni sono nashi 
wo tabesashite wa ike-nai (A). 15. Sono hon wo kodomo ni ijirase-nai de kudasai 
(C). 16. Hana-ko ni mizu wo nomase-nai de o kure (A). 17. Konaida daiku ni 
koshiraesaseta hako wa kore desu (C). 18. Akambo ni chichi wo nomasMte o kure 
(A). 19. Mitsu-ko ni ko iu hon wo yomashite mo, wakara-nai desho (C). 20. 
Sono hanashi wa Hana-ko San ni kikase-nai de kudasaimasen ka? (C). 21. Ano 
tamago wo Chokichi ni motasete, Tanaka San no tokoro e yatte o kure (A). 22. 
Kono hon wo jochu ni yomaseyo (B). 23. Saburo wa ammari jobu ja nai no desu 
kara, so benkyo sase-nai de, sukoshi ryoko wo saseru ho ga ii to omoimasu (C). 
24. Kono hagaki to ko-zutsumi wo jochu ni dasashite kudasai (C). 

1. I shall be back at half past four, if anybody should come tell him to wait. 
2. Tell Matsu to wash this dress. 3. Tell the servant to do my room. 4. Tell 
my sister to post the parcel. 5. What about the newspaper? 6. It hasn't 
come yet, I '11 tell the servant to buy one. 7. I '11 get the carpenter to make a 
box out of this board. 8. I'll call Taro and get him to translate this letter into 
Japanese. 9. Are you going out now ? Shall I get (somebody) to call a rikisha ? 
10. No, I shall walk. 11. I'll get my sister to buy the ticket. 12. I generally 
make my daughter write my letters for me. 13. I'll make the servant wash 
this dress tomorrow. 14. Don 't let the child eat those pears. 15. Don't let 
the child meddle with that book. 16. Don't let Hana-ko drink water. 17. 
This is the box that I had made the other day by the carpenter. 18. Give the 
baby his milk (lit. make baby drink the milk). 19. I don't think Mitsu-ko 
would understand a book like this even if you gave it to her to read. 20. Please 
don 't tell that to Miss Hana-ko. 21. Tell Chokichi to take those eggs to Mr 
Tanaka 's house (lit. make Chokichi carry those eggs and send him to Mr Ta- 
naka 's place). 22. I '11 tell the servant to read this book. 23. Saburo is not 
very strong ; instead of studying so much I think it would be better to make him 
travel a little. 24. Tell the servant to post this postcard and the parcel. 



EXERCISE 41. 

yd na : like ; similar. yubin-kyoku : post office. 

yd ni : like ; in order to ; so that ; ko-ndo : this time ; next time. 

often not translated. hoshii : desirous of having. 

ka mo shire-nai : added at the end mezurashii : rare ; strange. 

of a sentence to express uncer- kowasu (trans.) : to break. 

tainty. tsutsumu : to wrap up. 

1. Watashi mo Yamada San no yd na uma wo ip-piki kaimasti, (C). 2. Man- 
kichi no yd na otoko ni wa kamawa-nai ho ga yokaro (B). 3. Teru-ko San no 
yo na yasashii mueume wa mezurashii (B). 4. Watashi mo Hana-ko San no 
yd na empitsu ga hoshii (B). 5. Bdshi wo o kai nasaimashita ka? (D). 

6. lie, Hana-ko San no yd na no ga arimasen deshita kara, kaimasen deshita (C). 

7. Kono bin rro kowam-nai yd ni aratte o kure (A). 8. Takeo ni isogaxhii 
kara, kondo no doyd-bi ni kaeru yd ni tegami ico kaite kudasai (C). 9. Kuruma- 
ya ni hachi-ji ni kuru yd ni itte o-ide (A). 10. Kono han wo ko-zutsumi de 
okuru yd ni tsutsunde o kure (A). 11. Ko-zutsumi ga kinyd no asa tsuku yd ni 
dashite kudasai (C). 12. Kd iu (yd na) kami ga arimasu ka? (C). 13. Mo 
stikoshi ii no ga hoshii no desu (C). 14. Kono ho ga sore yori ii ka mo 
shiremasen (C). 15. Kyd wa ame ga furu ka mo shiremasen kara, kasa wo 

mochi nasaru hd ga yd gozaimashd (D). 16. Watashi ni tegami ga kite iru ka 
mo shire-nai kara, yubin-kyoku e itte mite o kure (A). 17. Yamaguchi San 
no tonari ni iru hito wa Terada San deshd ka ? (C). 18. So ka mo shire-nai (B). 

19. Brown San wa kondo wa itsu Nihon e o-ide nasaru no deshd ka? (C). 

20. Konaida kiite mita ga, kotoshi wa korare-nai ka mo shire-nai to itte ita (B). 

21. Tard wa ashlta no ban nii-san to issho ni kaeru no ka mo shire-nai (B). 

22. Kono hako wa daiku ga koshiraeta no de gozaimasu ka ? (D). 23. lie. ani 
ga koshiraeta no ka mo shire-nai (B). 24. O td-san no jama ico shi-nai 
yd ni o shi nasai (A). 25. Ashita no asa roku-ji no kisha de iku yd ni hayaku 
okimashd (C). 

1. I also am going to buy a horse like Mr Yamada 's. 2. You had better 
take no notice of a man like Mankichi. 3. It's seldom you find such a sweet- 
tempered girl as Miss Teru-ko. 4. I also would like a pencil like Miss Hana-ko 's. 
5. Did you buy a hat ? 6. No, I didn't buy one as I couldn't find one like Miss 
Hana-ko 's. 7. Wash this bottle and don't break it. (lit. wash this bottle in such 
a way that you do not break it). 8. Write to Takeo and tell him to come back 
on Saturday as I 've a lot of work to do. 9. Go and tell the rikisha-man to be 
here at eight o'clock. 10. Wrap up this parcel (in a way suitable) to send by 
post. 11. Send the parcel so that it will arrive on Friday morning. 12. Have 
you got any paper like this ? 13. I want some a little better. 14. I think this 
kind is better than that. 15. I think you had better take an umbrella as I 
believe it will rain today. 16. As I think there may be a letter for me, go to 
the post office and find out. 17. I wonder if the man next to Mr Yama- 
guchi is Mr Terada ? 18. I believe he is. 19. When do you think Mr Brown 
will come again to Japan ? 20. I asked a few days ago and he said that he 
didn't expect to be able to come this year. 21. I think Taro will return 
tomorrow with his brother. 22. Was this box made by a carpenter ? 23. No, 

1 think my brother made it. 24. Don't disturb your father (///. behave so as 
not to disturb). 25. Let's get up early tomorrow morning so as to catch the 
six o'clock train. 



EXERCISE 42. 

tsumori : intention. kega : wound. 
hazu : obligation ; fitness ; reason- natsu : summer. 

able expectation ; conviction. naoru : to get well ; get mended. 

ashi : leg ; foot. noboru : to ascend. 

atama : head. isshokemmei : with all one 's might and 

inaka : country (as opposed to main ; with concentrated attention. 

town). sukkari : completely. 
karada : body. 

1. Kotoshi no natsu wa do nasaru o tsumori de gozaimasu ka ? (D). 2. Domo 
karada ga warui desu kara, Yumoto e itte, futa-tsuki gurai lie kuru tsumori desu 
(C). 3. Karada ga naottara isshokemmei (ni) Ei-go wo benkyo sum tsumori da 
(B). 4. Kyo wa Yamada San no uchi e iku tsumori desu (C). 5. Ashi no kega 
ga naottara Fuji-san e noboru tsumori dem (C). 6. Omae wa shujin ni yobareta 
toki wa sugu ni iku hazu da (A). 7. Kyo uchi kara tegami ga kuru hazu desu 
kara, kitara sugu ni mise e motte kite kudasai (C). 8. Kono jibiki wa ano hon-ya 
ni aru hazu desu (C). 9. Ano mise ni ko iu hon ga aru hazu wa nai (B). 10. Ano 
hlto no yd ni isshokemmei ni benkyo sureba Ei-go ga jozu ni naru hazu desu (C). 
11. Taro ga Hana-ko San no banchi wo shitte iru hazu ga arimasen (C). 12. 
Hlkidashi niju-yen aru hazu da kara, motte kite o kure (A). 13. Karita mono wa 
kaesu hazuja arimasen ka ? (B). 14. Atama ga warukutte shigoto ga dekimasen 
kara, inaka e iku tsumori de gozaimasu (D). 15. kega wa do nasaimashita ? 
(D). 16. Arigato gozaimasu ; mo sukkari naorimashlta (D). 17. Sore wa yd 
gozaimashita (D). 18. Ototo San wa Nikko kara o kaeri nasaimashita ka ? (D). 
19. He, mada desu ; ku-gatsu ni natte kara, kaeru tsumori desho (C). 20. Yam,ada 
San no bydki wa ikaga de gozaimasu ka? (D). 21. Domo naora-nai de 
komarimasu (C). 22. Kyo wa Ueno e iku tsumori datta ga, iya ni natta kara, yoso 
(B). 23. Inaka wafuben desu kara, ammari sukija arimasen (C). 

1. What do you intend to do this summer ? 2. As I am not feeling at all 
well, I intend to go to Yumoto (and stay there) for a couple of months. 3. When 
I get well again. I intend to study English as hard as I can. 4. I intend to go 
to Mr Yamada 's house today. 5. When my foot gets well, I intend to go up 
Mount Fuji. 6. You must go to your master as soon as he calls you. 7. I 
am expecting a letter from home today ; as soon as it comes bring it to the 
office. 8. You ought to find this dictionary at that bookseller's. 9. They 
don 't keep books like this at that shop. 10. You would make great progress 
in English if you studied as hard as that man does. 11. There's no reason 
why Taro should know Miss Hana-ko 's address. 12. There ought to be ten 
yen in the drawer, bring them. 13. Don't you know yet that when you 
borrow things you must return them ? 14. I am feeling tired and 1 can't 
do my work properly, so I intend to go to the country (lit. my head is bad). 
15. How is your wound getting on ? 16. Thanks, I am completely well a.urain 
now. 17. I am very pleased to hear it. 18. Is your brother back from Nikko 
yet ? 19. No, not yet ; he intends to come back in September (lit. after it 
becomes September). 20. How is Mr Yamada (who has been ill) getting on ? 
21. I am feeling very anxious about him because he gets no better. 22. I 
intended to go to Ueno today but I no longer feel inclined to go, so I won't 
(///. it has become distasteful). 23. I am not very fond of the country, I find 
it inconvenient. 



EXERCISE 43. 

Yd da is used after verbs, true adjectives, or quasi-adjectives in na or no : 
it means semblance or appearance. 

So da is used after verbs, true adjectives, or quasi-adjectives in na: it means 
they say, I hear that, he says, etc. 

gin : silver. seiyo : the West ; Europe, America. 

henji : answer. seiyo no : foreign. 

kaban : trunk ; travelling bag. seiyo-jin : a foreigner. 

penjiku : penholder. kono-goro : now-a-days ; lately. 

saji : spoon. kyonen : last year. 

tana : shelf. okure'ru : to be late, behind time. 

itai : painful. yame'ru : to cease ; stop ; leave off ; 

kara no : empty. give up. 

1. Ame gafuru yd da kara, kyo wa sentaku wo shi-nai ho ga ii (B). 2. Taro 
wa kono-goro yoku benkyd shite iru yd desu (C). 3. Kotoshi wa kyonen yori atsui 
yd de gozaimasu (D). 4. Ano dki na tsukue wafuben na yd da (B). 5. Ano hito 
wa seiyo-jin no yd da (B). 6. Ano saji wa gin no yd desu (C). 7. Ano tana ni 
aru bin wa kara no yd da ga, motte kite goran (A). 8. Asuko ni am no ga wata- 
kushi no kaban no yd de gozaimasu (D). 9. Ano seiyo no shimbun wa Terada San 
no da so desu (C). 10. Kono tabako wo Suzuki San ni okutte agemashd ka ? (C). 
11. Suzuki San wa tabako wo o yame nas'tta so desu kara, okutte agete mo dame 
desho (C). 12. isha ni yameru yd ni iwareta no da so da (B). 13. Kore wa 
Jird San no penjiku no yd da, motte itte kiite goran (B). 14. Jird San no de wa 
nai so de gozaim.asu (D). 15. Go-ji no kisha wa ju-go-fun okureru so da (B). 16. 
Yamada San kara henji ga kita ka, o kd-san ni kiite kudasai (C). 17. Mada 
ko-nai so desu (C). 18. Kado no kudamono-ya wa takai so desu kara, asuko de 
kawa-nai de kudasai (C). 19. Yamada San no inu wa taihen rikd na so da (B). 
20. O Matsu wa atama ga itakutte kyo wa okirare-nai so da (B). 21. Taihen 
warui yd da kara, o isha wo yobd (B). 22. Am wa karada ga yowai kara, mise 
wo yamefe inaka e iku so desu (C). 23. Danna sama wa kono-goro ikaga de gozai- 
masu ka? (D). 24. Kind tegami ga kimashtta ga, md sukkari naotta so desu (C). 

1. You had better not do your washing today, it looks like rain. 2. Taro 
appears to be studying very hard lately. 3. It seems to me that it 's hotter 
this year than last. 4. That big desk looks inconvenient. 5. That man looks 
like a foreigner. 6. Those spoons look like silver. 7. I believe that bottle on the 
shelf is empty, bring it. 8. That bag there looks like mine. 9. I hear that 
foreign newspaper belongs to Mr Terada. 10. Shall I send this tobacco to Mr 
Suzuki ? 11. They say Mr Suzuki has given up smoking, so it will probably be 
useless to send it to him. 12. They say the doctor told him to give it up. 13. 
This penholder looks like Jiro's ; take it and see if it is. 14. Master Jiro says 
it's not his. 15. They say the five o'clock train is fifteen minutes late. 16. 
Go and ask mother if an answer has come from Mr Yamada. 17. She says no 
answer has come yet. 18. They say the fruit-shop at the corner is dear, so 
please don't buy anything there. 19. They say Mr Yamada 's dog is very 
clever. 20. Matsu says she has a headache and can't get up today. 21. It 
seems to ache so badly I think I '11 call a doctor. 22. As my brother is weak I 
hear he is going to leave the office and go to the country. 23. How has your 
husband been lately ? 24. A letter came yesterday and he says he is quite 
well again now. 



EXERCISE 44. 

In dart : the left-hand side. aoi : green ; blue ; pale. 

kao : face. daiji no, : important ; precious. 

kusuri : medicine ; something good shizuka na : quiet. 

for the health. ne'ru : to lie down ; sleep. 

me : eye. yasumu : to rest. 

migi : the right-hand side. do ka : somehow or other. 
te : hand. 

1. Omde wa am kao igo shite iru, do ka shUa no ka ? (A). 2. Onakaga itai no 
desu (C). 3. Sore wa ike-nai. O isha ni mite morau ho ga ii (B). 4. lie, 
kamawa-nai de oite mo naoru desho (C). 5. Kono kusuri wo nonde shizuka ni 
o ne nasai (C). 6. O te wo do nasaimashita ? (D). 7. Kega wo shita no desu ; 
migi desu kara, zuibun fuben desu (C). 8. Taro wa hidari no me ga warukutte o 
isha ni itte iru (B). 9. Watakushi wa sengetsu bydki de mise wo yasumimashita 
(C). 10. Ddzo o karada wo o daiji ni nas'tte kudasai (D). 11. So iu chiisai ji 
no hon wo yomu to me ga waruku narimasu (C). 12. Kusuri wo kai ni jochii 
wo yatte o kure (A). 13. Kind Hana-ko San no o uchi e ikimashita ga, Hana-ko 
San wa go bydki deshUa kara, aimasen deshlta (C). 14. Kono-goro watashi wa 
ddmo atama ga itakutte ikemasen kara hito-tsuki gurai shizuka na tokoro e ikd to 
omoimasu (C). 15. Jiro wa onaka ga itai so desu ; ammari kudamono wo tabeta 
kara desho (C). 16. Sore de wa kono kusuri wo nomasete o yari nasai (B). 17. 
Karada no warui toki wa ko-nai de ii (A). 18. Yamada San kara mada henji 
ga kimasen ga, bydki ka mo shiremasen (C). 19. Tegami wo dashite kiite mimasho 
(C). 20. O yasumi nasai (C). 21. Jochu ga atama ga itai to itte nete iru (B). 
22. Musuko san ga o kega wo nas'tta so de gozaimasu ga ikaga de gozaimasu ka? 
(D). 23. Arigato gozaimasu. Taihen na kega de wa gozaimasen ga, naoru made 
toka gurai kakaru daro to o isha ga iimashita (D). 24. Kono ko wa kusuri wo 
nomu no ga kirai de domo komaru (B). 25. O MatsU wa kyo wa ichi-do mo gohan 
wo tabe-nai kara, o isha wo yonde mite morawa-nakereba nara-nai (B). 

1. You are pale, is anything the matter with you ? 2. I have a stomach- 
ache. 3. I am sorry to hear it. You had better see a doctor. 4. Oh no, if I 
leave it alone and take no notice of it. no doubt, I '11 get well again. 5. Take 
this medicine and lie down quietly. 6. What have you done to your hand ? 
7. I've hurt myself; as it's my right hand I find it very inconvenient. 8. 
Taro's left eye is bad, he goes to the doctor. 9. I was ill last month and on 
that account I was absent from the office. 10. Please take great care of your- 
self. 11. If you read books with such small print, you'll damage your eyes/'#ht. 
12. Send the servant to buy the medicine. 13. I went to see Miss Hana-ko 
yesterday, but as she was ill I didn't see her. 14. As I have been greatly trou- 
bled lately with my headaches, I am thinking of going to some quiet place for a 
month or so. 15. Jiro says he's got a stomach-ache, I've no doubt, it's because 
he's been eating too much fruit. 16. Well then, give him this medicine to take. 
17. You needn't come when you are not feeling well. 18. Mr Yamada hasn't 
answered (my letter) yet, he may be ill. 19. I'll write and inquire. 20. Good 
night. 21. The servant is lying down, she says she's got a headache. 22. I've 
heard that your sou hurt himself, how is he now ? 23. Thanks, it's nothing 
serious, the doctor says he will be well again in about ten days. 24. I really 
don't know what to do with this child, he does so dislike taking medicine. 25. 
Matsu hasn't eaten anything today, I must send for the doctor. 



EXERCISE 45. 

ato-oshi : rikisha push-man. isogu : to hurry. 

machi : town ; street. ma ni au : to be in time ; serve the 

saka : an inclined road ; hill (up purpose. 

or down). tome'ru (trans.) : to stop. 

abunai : dangerous. yatou : to engage ; employ. 

toi : far. ue : above ; on the top of. 
wakai : young. 

1. Kuruma wo yonde kure (A). 2. Kono kuruma wa furukutte ike-nai, hoka 
no wo yonde kure (A). 3. Wakai kuruma-ya no ho ga ii (B). 4. Ueno made 
ikura ? (B). 5. Go-jis-sen itadakitd gozaimasu (D). 6. Go-jis-sen ja ammari 
takai. Tabi-tabi notta koto ga aru kara, taitei shitte iru (B). 7. Amegafutte 
taihen michi ga warn gozaimasu kara, o takaku wa gozaimasen (D). 8. Keredomo, 
sugu soko ja nai ka ? yon-jis-sen de ii daro? (A). 9. Sore de wa komarimasu, 
mo go-sen kudasaimasen ka ? (D). 10. Ja so shiyo (B). 11. Jikan de yatoitai, 
ichi-jikan ikura ? (A). 12. Toi tokoro e o-ide nasaimasu ka? (D). 13. Ichiban 
toi tokoro wa Aoyama da (B). 14. Ginko e itte o kure (A). 15. Hayaku ika-nai 
to ma ni awa-nai (B). 16. Tokei-ya no mae de tomete o kure (A). 17. Isoide saka 
wo orite wa ike-nai, abunai kara (A). 18. Ginko wa nani machi ni gozaimasu ka ? 
(D). 19. Sono saka no sugu ue da (B). 20. Ato-oshi wo o yobi nasai (A). 21. 
Go-ji no klsha ni ma ni au yd ni sukoshi isoide o kure (A). 22. Hayaku ikeba mo 
jis-sen yard (B). 23. Yubin-kyoku e itte kure (A). 24. Koko ni matte lie morai- 
tai (A). 25. Dare ka ni michi wo kiki nasai (A). 26. Atama ga itai no da kara, 
shizuka ni itte moraitai (A). 27. Ammari isoga-nai de o kure (A). 28. Suteishon 
made dono gurai kakaru ka ? (A). 29. San-jip-pun de mairimasu (D). 30. 
Ginko wa doko de gozaimasu ka ? (D). 31. Sono kado wo migi e magaru to sugu 
ginko no mae ni deru (B). 32. Yo-ji mae ni tsukitai no da, hayaku itte o kure (A). 
33. Kono saka wa abunai kara, orite aruite iko (B). 34. Ano hon-ya de kai-mono 
wo suru kara, tomete moraitai (A). 

1. Call a rikisha. 2. This rikisha won't do, it's too old ; call another one. 
3. A young rikisha-man would be better. 4. How much do you charge to go 
to Ueno ? 5. Fifty sen. 6. Fifty sen is too dear. I have often been there 
and I know the proper price. 7. As it has rained and the roads are very bad, 
I really don't think it's too much. 8. Well, but it's only a short distance, will 
you go for forty sen ? 9. That is too little, can 't you give me five sen more ? 
10. Well, I will do so. 11. I want to engage you by the hour ; how much an 
hour ? 12. Are you going far ? 13. The farthest place I am going to is Aoyama. 
14. Go to the bank. 15. If you don't go quickly I won't be there in time. 
16. Stop at that watchmaker's. 17. Don't go too fast down the hills, it is 
dangerous. 18. In what street is the bank ? 19. It's just on the top of that 
hill. 20. Call a push-man. 21. Hurry up a little so as to catch the 
o'clock train. 22. If you go quickly I'll give you ten sen more. 23. Go to the 
post office. 24. Wait here. 25. Ask somebody the road. 26. I want you to 
go slowly as I have a headache. 27. Don't go too quickly. 28. How long 
does it take to go to the station ? 29. I can go in thirty minutes. 30. Where 
is the bank ? 81. Turn to the right at that corner and you'll soon come^ 
the bank. 32. I wish to get there before four o'clock, so hurry up. 
hill is dangerous, I'll get down and walk. 34. I want to stop at that book- 
seller's as I have some purchases to make, 



EXERCISE 46. 

akabo : railway porter. torn : to pass. 

ofuku : there and back ; return. tsukau : to use. 

-to : class (as 1st, 2nd, or 3rd class). soba : beside ; near. 

it-id : first class. tsugi no : next. 

ni-to : second class. yuki (from yuku, the correct form of the 

san-to : third class. verb to go) : used after destination of 

azuke'ru : to give in deposit. trains, ships, etc. 

nose'ru : to put on to. 

1. Kyoto-yuki no kisha wa nan-ji ni demasu ka? (C). 2. Hachi-ji ni demasu 
(C). 3. Kippu tco uru tokoro zva doko desho ? (C). 4. Kobe it-to ichi-mai (B). 
5. Tokyo ofuku ni-to sam-mai kudasai (C). 6. Kono kippu wa iku-nichi ts-ukae- 
masu ka ? (C). 7. Kyoto de orite mo ii no desu ka ? (C). 8. Koko de tabako wo 
nonde mo kamaimasen ka ? (C). 9. Akabo wo yonde kure (A). 10. Kono kaban 
wo kisha no naka e motte itte ii desu ka? (C). 11. Kono oki na nimotsu wofutatsu 
Kobe made azuketai (B). 12. Tsugi no suteishon wa nan to iimasu ? (C). 
13. Kono kisha wa Kyoto e nan-ji ni tsukimasu? (C). 14. Nimotsu wa kimashUa 
ka ? (C). 15. Hai, mo kuruma ni nosemashlta (C). 16. Kono densha wa Shim- 
bashi suteishon no soba wo torimasu ka? (C). 17. Shimbashi e nori-kae-nai de 
ikaremasu ka? (C). 18. Kono tsugi no ni noreba nori-kae-nai de ikareru (B). 
19. Shinagawa-yuki wa koko de noru no desu ka? (C). 20. lie, ano hon-ya no 
mae kara noru no desu (C). 21. Hongo e iku no ni wa doko de nori-kaeru no de 
gozaimasho? (D). 22. Suda-cho de o nori-kae nasareba yd gozaimasu (D). 23. 
Suda-cho wo shirimasen kara, kitara oshiete kudasai (C). 24. Kono tsugi wa 
Suda-cho de gozaimasu (D). 25. Suteishon no mae de orimasu kara, tomete kudasai 
(C). 26. Ofuku ikura desu ? (C). 27. Jis-sen desu (C). 28. Ame ga furu yd 
desu kara, densha de kaeroja arimasen ka? (C). 29. E, so shimasho (C). 30. 
Moshi ame ga futtara, densha wo orite kara, kuruma de iko (B). 31. Nimotsu ga 
takusan aru nara, densha de ika-nai de, kuruma de iku ho ga ii daro (B). 32. 
Densha no ho ga hayai kara densha de iko (B). 

1. At what time does the train for Kyoto leave? 2. At eight o'clock. 3. 
I wonder where the booking-office is ? 4. One first Kobe. 5. Three second 
returns Tokyo. 6. How many days is this ticket available ? 7. May I break 
the journey at Kyoto ? 8. Is smoking allowed here ? 9. Call a porter. 10. 
May I take this bag into the carriage with me ? 11. I want to check these two 
big trunks to Kobe. 12. What's the name of the next station ? 13. At what 
time does this train arrive at Kyoto ? 14. Has my luggage arrived ? 15. Yes, 
I have already put it on a rikisha. 16. Does this tram-car pass near Shimbashi 
station ? 17. Can I go to Shimbashi without changing cars ? 18. If you 
take the following car you needn't change. 19. Is this the place where one takes 
(the tram-car) for Shinagawa ? 20. No, in front of that bookseller's. 21. 
Where must I change for Hongo ? 22. Change at Suda-cho. 23. As I 
don 't know where Suda-chd is, please tell me when we get there. 24. The next 
stop is Suda-cho. 25. As I want to get off at the station, please stop. 26. 
How much is a return ticket ? 27. Ten sen. 28. As it looks like rain, let's go 
back by tram-car. 29. All right, let 's do so. 30. Supposing it starts raining, 
when we get off the tram-car, let's take rikishas. 31. If you have too many 
parcels, instead of taking the tram-car you had better take a rikisha, 32, Let 's 
go by tram-car, it's faster. 



EXERCISE 47. 

kire : cloth. todoke'ru : to send to destination. 

shimi : stain. yokosu : to send (towards the speaker). 

teishaba : station. kitto : positively ; surely. 

uke-tori : receipt. mukai : the opposite side. 

fudan no : usual ; everyday. muko : beyond ; over there. 
iru : to need. 

1. Teishaba e wa dore ga ichiban chikai michi desu ka ? (C). 2. Kore ga ichiban 
chikai (B). 3. Kden e iku michi wa dochira de gozaimasu ka? (D). 4. Ano kado 
wo hidari e magatte massugu ni o-ide nasai (C). 5. Kore wo ikeba Ueno suteishon 
e demasii ka ? (C). 6. lie, koko wo itte wa dame desu ; teishaba wa muko desu 
(C). 7. Tokei wo misete kudasai (C). 8. Kore wa taka-sugimasu, motto yasui no 
ga arimasen ka ? (C). 9. Yasui no de ii no desu (C). 10. Kore wo kaimasho. 
Kyo uchi e todokete kuremasen ka ? (C). 11. Kane wa motte kita toki haraimasu 
kara, uke-tori wo motte kite kudasai (C). 12. Kodomo no boshi wo misete kudasai 
(C). 13. Fudan no desu kara, so ii no wa irimasen (C). 14. Takai kara, yoshi- 
masho (C). 15. Sono kire wo misete kudasaimasen ka ? (C). 16. Koko ni shimi 
ga arimasu ; shimi ga aru no wa iya desu (C). 17. Kutsu wo koshiraete moraitai 
desu ga, itsu dekiru desho? (C). 18. Doyo-bi no gogo ni tori ni yokosu kara,- sore 
made ni kitto koshiraete oite kure (A). 1 9. Ginko no mukai ni hon-ya ga aru, 
soko de ko iu jibiki rco katte kite kure (A). 20. Kono empitsu wa ikura? (B). 
21. Go-sen de gozaimasu (D). 22. Kore wo go-h&n to ano aoi kami wo hyaku-mai 
kudasai (C). 23. Ko-zutsumi de okuru yd ni tsutsunde kuremasen ka ? Uke-tori 
wo naka e irete kudasai (C). 24. Isogimasu kara, hayaku shite moraitai desu (C). 
25. Minna de ikura ni narimasu ? (C). 26. Yubin-kyoku wa doko ni arimasu 
ka ? (C). 27. Koko kara migi no ho e o-ide nasaimasu to gozaimasu. Go-fun 
gurai de ikaremasu (D). 28. Ko-zutsumi wa watakushi no ho de da&himashd ka? 
(D). 29. lie, watashi ga da-so (B). 30. Sore de wa yubin-kyoku made go issho 
ni dare ka ni motasete agemasho (D). 

1 . Which is the nearest way to the station ? 2. This is the nearest way. 3. 
Which is the Avay to the park, please ? 4. Turn to the left at that corner and 
go straight on. 5. If I go this way will it take me to Ueno station ? 6. No, 
that 's not the way ; the station is over there. 7. Please show me some watches. 
8. These are too dear ; have you no other cheaper ones ? 9. A cheap one will 
do. 10. I will take this one. Please send it to my house today. 11. I'll pay 
on delivery, so send the receipt at the same time. 12. Show me some children's 
hats. 13. "As it's for everyday use I don't want a very good one. 14. It's too 
dear, I won't take it. 15. Please show me that cloth. 16. There's a stain 
here, I don't want anything soiled. 17. I want some boots made, when can 
you have them ready"? 18. I'll send for them on Saturday afternoon, so be 
sure and have them ready by then. 19. There's a bookseller in front of the 
bank, go there and buy a dictionary like this. 20. How much is this pencil \ 
21. Five sen. 22. Give me five of these pencils and a hundred sheets of 1 
blue paper. 23. Would you kindly pack them up so as to send by post j 
Enclose the receipted bill, please. 24. As I'm in a hurry, be quick about it, 
please. 25. How much is it altogether ? 26. Where is the post office I 
If you go to the right (on leaving the shop) you'll come to it. It's about 1 
minutes' walk. 28. Shall I send the parcel? 29. No, I will send 
Well then, allow me to send somebody to carry it for you to the post office. 



EXERCISE 48. 

denwa : telephone. Jeakam : used of the telephone. 

go : language ; word. kake'ru : used of telegrams and tele- 

kaki-tome : writing down ; registra- phone. 

tion. todoku : to reach ; arrive. 

mi'ari : end. chotto : a short time. 

tsutsumi : parcel. tabun : perhaps. 

1. Kono tegami wo kaki-tome ni shite dashlte o kure (A). 2. Watashi ni tegami 
ga kita. desho ? (C). 3. lie, mairimasen (D). 4. Kono tegami wa ikura de iki- 
masu ka ? (C). 5. Rokii-aen de ikimasu (C). 6. Ano tsutsumi wo Tanaka San 
e o todoke nasai (A). 7. Dempo wo kaketai kara, yubin-kyoJcu e itte kure (A). 8. 
Ei-go no dempo wo kakeraremasu ka? (C). 9. Ei-go no dempo wa ichi-go ikura ? 
(B). 10. Koko de wa Ei-go no dempo wa kakeraremasen (C). 11. Yamada San, 
dozo denwa wo chotto kashlte kudasaimasen ka ? (D). 12. E, o tsukai nasai (C). 
13. Brown San wa nam-ban desho ? (C). 14. Naniiva no sam-byaku-ju-ichi-ban 
de gozaimasu (D). 15. O rusu ni Suzuki San kara denwa ga kakarimashita (D). 
16. Suzuki San wa ashlta no asa o-ide kudasaru so de gozaimasu (D). 17. 
Tanaka San ga irasshaimashitara, dozo denwa e o yobi kudasai (D). 18. Kono 
ko-zutsumi wa Amerika e ikura de ikimasu ka ? (C). 19. Itsu todokima^u ka ? 
(C). 20. Tabun kongetsu no owari ni tsukimasu (C). 21. Hana-ko San ga Kobe 
kara o kaeri ni natta ka, denwa de kiite o kure (A). 22. Kesa ku-ji goro ni kono 
kaki-tome ga mairimashUa (D). 23. Kono kuda.rn.ono wa yubin de okurima^ho 
ka ? (C). 24. Klsha no ho ga hayaku tsukimasu kara, ktsha de o yari nasai (B). 
25. Denwa de niku wo motte kuru yd ni iimasho ka ? (C). 26. Denwa de wa sugu 
ni motte ko-nai ka mo shire-nai kara, tori ni iku ho ga ii (B). 27. Danna sama 
wa irasshaimasu ka ? (D). 28. Yube haha kara dempo ga kite, sugu ni inaka e 
ikimashUa (C). 29. Donata ka go bydki de gozaimasu ka? (D). 30. lie, so ja 
nai desho to omoimasu (C). 31. Kono tegami wa san-sen de iku desho ka ? (C). 
32. Omoi kara roku-sen kakarimasu (C). 

1. Send this letter by registered post. 2. I wonder if a letter has come for 
me? 3. No. 4. What's the postage on this letter? 5. Six sen. 6. Send 
that parcel to Mr Tanaka. 7. I want to send a telegram, take me to the post 
office. 8. Can I send a telegram in English ? 9. How much does each word in 
English cost ? 10. You can't send a telegram in English from here. 11. Mr 
Yamada, would you allow me the use of the telephone for a moment ? 12. 
Certainly. 13. What's Mr Brown's number? 14. Naniwa three hundred 
and eleven. 15. While you were out Mr Suzuki called you up on the telephone. 
16. Mr Suzuki says that he'll come tomorrow morning. 17. If Mr Tanaka is at 
home, please ask him to come to the telephone. 18. What's the fee for sending 
this parcel to America ? 19. When will it arrive ? 20. Perhaps at the end of 
this month. 21. Find out by telephone if Miss Hana-ko has returned from 
Kobe. 22. This registered (letter) came this morning at about nine o 'clock. 
23. Shall I send this fruit by post ? 24. Send it by train, it will arrive sooner. 

25. Shall I call up (the butcher) on the phone and ask him to send the meat ? 

26. If you telephone for it they may not send it immediately, so you had better 
send for it. 27. Is your husband at home ? 28. Yesterday evening a telegram 
came from his mother and he immediately set out for the country. 29. Is 
anybody ill ? 30. No, I don't think so. 31. Will this letter go for three sen ? 
32. It's overweight, it will need six sen. 



EXERCISE 49. 

gakko : school. seito : scholar ; pupil. 

gomu : rubber ; gum. semei : teacher. 

hakuboku : chalk (for the black- chigau : to be different ; be mistaken, 
board), machigae'ru : to (make a) mistake. 

hatsuon : pronunciation. machigae ; machigai : mistake. 

keiko : exercise ; lesson. oboe'ru : to remember ; learn ; under- 

kokuban : black-board. stand. 

peiji : page. iku mo : any number of ; several. 

1. Gakko e o-ide nasaimasu ka ? (D). 2. Anata no irassharu gakko wa nan to 
iimasu ka ? (D). 3. Nihon-go Gakko to iimasu ; sensei wa Tanabe to iu hito de 
gozaimasu (D). 4. Seito ga iku-nin imasu ka? (C). 5. San-ju-nin gurai 
orimasu (C). 6. Kyo no keiko wa doko kara desu ka ? (C). 7. Ju-ni peiji kara 
de gozaimasu (D). 8. Watakushi ga ichi-do yomimasu kara, mina-san yoku kiite 
irasshai (C). 9. Brown San, anata yonde goran nasai (C). 10. Kokuban e 
'keen' to kaite goran nasai (C). 11. Sore wo hatsuon shite kudasai (C). 12. 
Chigaimasu, ' kden ' no ' &6 ' wa nagaku hatsuon suru no desu. Mo ichi-do itte 
goran nasai (C). 13. Kondo wa yd gozaimasu, iku-do mo hatsuon shite, yoku 
oboete ite kudasai (C). 14. Smith San, 'konnichi* to kaite goran nasai. Haku- 
boku wa ano hako ni arimasu (C). 15. Sore de wa chigaimasu. Jones San, 
anata o kaki nasai (C). 16. So desu. ' Konnichi' wa 'w' gafutatsu aru no desu. 
Smith San, machigae-nai yo ni yoku oboete kudasai (C). 17. Kami wo dashite, 
ivatashi no yomu koto wo kaite kudasai (C). 18. Machigai wa ikutsu gozaimasu 
ka ? (D). 19. Nanatsu gozaimasu (D). 20. Gomu wo wasurete motte kimasen 
deshita, dozo anata no wo kashite kudasaimascn ka? (D). 21. E, o tsukai nasai 
(C). 22. Kyo wa ju-shi peiji made ni shimasho (C). 23. Koko wa muzukashiu 
gozaimasu kara, o kaeri ni natte kara, iku-do mo o yomi ni natte kudasai (D). 

24. Kono tsugi no tokoro wo o uchi de ichi-do yonde o-ide nasai (C). 25. Moshi 
shira-nai ji ga attara, jibiki wo goran nasai (C). 26. Ano kata wa anata no 
Nihon-go no sensei de gozaimasu ka ? (D). 27. lie, ano kata wa sensei no 
o to-san de gozaimasu (D). 

1. Do you go to school ? 2. What is the name of the school you go to ? 3. 
It is called the Japanese Language School ; the teacher is called Tanabe. 4. 
How many pupils are there ? 5. There are about thirty. 6. Where does 
today's lesson begin? 7. It begins at page twelve. 8. lam going to read 
it once ; all of you pay great attention. 9. Mr Brown, please read that. 10. 
Write the word 'kden' on the black-board. 11. Pronounce that word. 12. 
That is not right ; the ' ko ' of ' kden ' is pronounced long. Please say it again. 

13. That is right now. Pronounce it over and over again so as not to forget it. 

14. Mr Smith, write the word 'konnichi'. There is some chalk in that box. 15. 
That is wrong. Mr Jones, you write it. 16. Yes, that's right. 'Konnichi' has 
two n's. Mr Smith, remember it well so as not to make the mistake again. 
17. Take some paper and write down what I'm going to dictate. 18. How 
many mistakes have you made ? 19. Seven. 20. I forgot to bring my 
india-rubber; will you please lend me yours? 21. Certainly. 22. We'll do 
today as far as page fourteen. 23. As this part is difficult, when you go back 
home, read it over several times. 24. Read over the next lesson once at home. 

25. If there are any words that you don 't know, look them up in your dictionary. 

26. Is that gentleman your Japanese teacher ? 27. No, he is my teacher's 
father. 



EXERCISE 50. 

The object of this Exercise is to draw attention to the fact, noticed no doubt 
already by the student, that there are many words in Japanese pronounced alike 
or nearly alike, and verbs which are alike in some inflexions but not in others. 

hen : region. ki : spirit. 

shio : salt. ki wo tsuke'ru : to take care ; pay atten- 

totnodachi : friend. tion. 

yofuku : foreign clothes. kanari : rather. 

1. Kuruma-ya ni itte, ni-ji ni kuru yd ni itte o kure (A). 2. Hoteru ni iru to 
kane ga iru kara, yado-ya ni iru ho ga ii (B). 3. Mise de Yamada San ni atte, 
han-jikan gurai hanashUa ; Yamada San wa shigoto ga takusan atte, nichiyo ni 
mo yasume-nai to itte ita (B). 4. Torn hito ga kudamono wo torn ka mo shire-nai 
kara, ki wo tsukete o-ide (A). 5. Hana-ko San wa kino uchi e yofuku wo kite kita 
(B). 6. Ammari ii o tenki desu kara, sampo ni ikoja arimasen ka ? (C). 7. 
Kyo wa atama ga itai kara, uchi ni itai (B). 8. Nii-san wa ni-san-nichi Hakone 
ni iru to itte tegami wo yokoshimashtta (C). 9. Akai empitsu wo go-hon to kono 
hon wo ko-zutsumi de Taro ni okutte yarimasho (C). 10. Jis-sen no kitte wo katte 
kite kure ; sugu ni itte o-ide (A). 11. Anata wa Kyoto wo shitte imasu ka ? (C). 
12. E, kyo-nen no natsu ano hen wo ryokd shite, kanari yoku shitte imasu (C). 13. 
Kono tsubo wo kudasaimasen ka ? (D). 14. Sore ni wa shio wo iremasu kara, 
irimasu (C). 15. Tanaka San iva o kd-san ga go bydki de kesa go-ji no kisha. de o 
uchi e o kaeri nasaimashlta (D). 16. Taro wo yonde sono tegami wo yonde kikase 
nasai (A). 17. Tomodachi ni attara, jibiki wa Naka-ya ni alia to itte kudasai (C). 
18. Jiro no tokoro e itte, kyo wa ame gafuru yd da kara, ko-nai de ii to o ii nasai 
(B). 19. Kono densha ni wa watashi no kirai na hito ga orimasu kara, orimasu 
(C). 20. Hana-ko San ga Amerika e iku to kiita ga, so daro ka ? Hana-ko San 
no o kd-san ni kiite kite kudasai (B). 21. E, kiite kite agemasho (C). 22. Tonari 
no kodomo wa uchi no mae wo torn to kitto hana wo torn ; domo iya na ko da (B). 

1. Go and tell the rikisha-man to come here at two o'clock. 2. If you stop 
at a hotel it is very expensive (lit. a lot of money is needed) ; so you had better 
stop at a Japanese inn. 3. I met Mr Yamada at the office, and we had about 
half an hour's talk. Mr Yamada has so much to do that he says he does not 
rest even on Sundays. 4. Passers-by may pick the fruit, so take care. 5. 
Miss Hana-ko put on foreign clothes yesterday and came to see me. 6. It's 
such lovely weather, let's go for a walk. 7. I've gdt a headache today, so I 
want to stay at home. 8. My brother wrote saying that he was going to stay 
two or three days at Hakone. 9. I'll send five red pencils and this book to Taro 
by parcel post. 10. Go and buy a ten-sen stamp, and be quick about it. 11. 
Do you know Kyoto ? 12. Yes, I was travelling about there last (year in the) 
summer, so I know it fairly well. 13. Please give me this jar. 14. I need it 
as I use it for putting salt in. 15. Mr Tanaka 's mother is ill, he went home this 
morning by the live o'clock train. 1<>. Call Taro and read that letter to him. 
17. If you meet your friend please tell him that I found the dictionary at Xaka- 
ya's. 18. Goto Jiro 's house and tell him that he needn't corne today as it 
looks like rain. 19. 1 here's a man I hate in this tram-car, so I'll get off. 20. 
I've heard that Miss Hana-ko is going to America, I wonder if that is so ? Go 
and ask her mother. 21. Very well, I'll go and ask her. 22. Whenever the 
child from next door happens to pass in front of our house, he is sure to pick 
some flowers ; he's a most objectionable boy. 



EXERCISE 51. 

Article. Nouns : gender, number. Study 174180. 

gejo : maid-servant. oji : uncle. 

geta : clogs. ondori : cock. 

kuni : country ; province ; one 's shaku : foot (measure). 

native place. tori : bird. 

mendori : hen. wa : aux. num. for counting birds. 

nen : year. hobo : on all sides ; everywhere. 
oba : aunt. 

1. Ano kago ni tori ga iru (B). 2. Kind katta isu wo motte o-ide nasai (B). 
3. Tamago zco hitotsu Saburo ni yatte kudasai (C). 4. Kono kire wa shaku de 
go-jis-sen de gozaimasu (D). 5. Watakushi wa tsuki ni ni-do haha ni ai ni kuni e 
kaerimasu (C). 6. UsJii to iu mono wa tsuyoi mono da (B). 7. Anata wa geta 
to iu mono wo shltte imasii ka ? (C). 8. Hakodate to iu tokoro e o-ide ni natta koto 
ga gozaimasu ka ? (D). 9. II ai, ototo ga imasu kara, taitei nen ni son-do gurai 
ikimasu (C). 10. Kyonen oji to oba to watashi to san-nin de Fuji-son ni nobori- 
mashita (C). 11. Oba no tokoro ni wa ondori ga sam-ba, mendori ga ju-shichi-wa 
imasii kara, itsu de mo atarashii tamago ga arimasii, (C). 12. Tonari ni wa me- 
ushi ga ni-hiki iru; o-ushi ica i-nai (B). 13. Kodomo-tachi wa hobo sagashi- 
mashUa ga, imasen (C). 14. Gejo ga bydki de nete imasii kara, watakushi wa 
zuibun isogashiu gozaimasu (D). 15. Kamakura e iku ni wa Ofuna to iu tokoro 
de nori-kaeru no desu (C). 16. Yokohama e tabi-tabi o-ide nasaimasu ka ? (D). 
17. Nanuka ni ichi-do iku (B). 18. Kono kire ica ikura desu ka? (C). 19. Shakn 
de san-ju-has-sen de gozaimasu (D). 20. Sore zvo roku-shaku kaimasho (C). 21. 
Shina to iu kuni wa zuibun oki na kuni de gozaimasu (D). 22. Amerika e o-ide 
nasaimashitara, tsuki ni ichi-do wa kitto o tegami wo kudasai (D). 23. Watn- 
kushi no Ei-go no sensei zca Thompson to iu Igirisu no Into de gozaimasu (D). 
24. Jibiki ga arimashita ka ? (C). 25. Hobo no hon-ya de kiite mimashita ga, 
gozaimasen deshita (D). 26. Sono akai himo wa shaku de ikura ? (B). 27. Sore 
wo san-jaku kudasai (C). 28. Ano uchi no kodomo-tachi wa minna riko na so 
desu (C). 

1. There is a bird in that cage. 2. Bring the chair I bought yesterday. 3. 
Please give Saburo an egg. 4. This cloth is fifty sen a foot. 5. I go home twice 
a month to see my mother. 6. The bull is a strong animal. 7. Do you know 
what geta are ? 8. Have you ever been to (a place called) Hakodate ? 9. Yes, 
my younger brother is living there, so I generally go there three times a year. 
10. Last year I went up Mount Fuji with my uncle and aunt (three of us al- 
together). 11. At my aunt's house there are three cocks and seventeen hens, 
so there are always fresh eggs. 12. My neighbour has two cows, but he hasn't 
got a bull. 13. I've looked for the children everywhere but I can't find them. 
14. I am very busy as the maid-servant is ill in bed. 15. To go to Kamakura 
you must change at a place called Ofuna. 16. Do you go frequently to Yoko- 
hama ? 17. I go once a week. 18. What is the price of this cloth ? 19. 
Thirty-eight sen a foot. 20. I'll take six feet. 21. China is a very big country, 

22. While you are away in America be sure to write to me at least once a month. 

23. My English teacher is an Englishman called Thompson. 24. Did )'ou find 
the dictionary ? 25. I inquired at all the booksellers but I couldn't find it. 
26. What is the price a foot of that red cord ? 27. Please give me three feet. 
28. They say that all the children of that house are very clever. 



EXERCISE 52. 

Derivative and compound concrete nouns. Study 181, 1 5. 

fiikuro : bag. asobu : to play. 

te-bukuro : gloves. asobi : game. 

kuchi : mouth ; opening. asobi ni iku : to go (somewhere) for 

de-guchi : exit. pleasure ; visit. 

kugi : nail ; peg. hiku ': to pull ; draw ; lead. 

mado-kake : curtain. kake'ru : to hang. 

wa : wheel ; hoop. mawasu (trans.) : to turn round. 

yubi : linger. yogore'ru : to get soiled, dirty. 

1. Taro to Jiro ga wa wo mawashite asonde imasu (C). 2. Komhan omoshiroi 
asobi wo shiyo to omoimasu kara, shichi-ji ni o-ide kudasai (D). 3. Anata nani 
ka ii o kangae ga gozaimashltara, dozo o hanashi kudasai (D). 4. Yamada San 
ga anata ni o hanashi ga aru to itte o-ide nasaimashita (D). 5. Ashita Kamakura 
e asobi ni iku toki kono fukuro e kudamono wo irete irasshai (C). 6. Te-bukuro 
wo dashite o kure (A). 7. Hana-ko wa doko e ikimashlta ? (C). 8. Yubi ni kega 
wo shite, ichi-jikan mae ni o isha e ikimashlta (C). 9. Anata no yubi-zva wa taihen 
kirei de gozaimasu (D). 10. Kesa roku-ji goro Sankichi ga kuruma wo hiite 
torimashita (C). 11. Boshi no uke-tori wa tsukue no hidari no hikidashi ni irete 
oki nasai (A). 12. Kimono wo ano kugi ni kakete oko (B). 13. Mado-kake ga 
yogoreta kara, sentaku sashite o kure (A). 14. Kuchi wo akete goran nasai (C). 
35. De-guchi wa dochira de gozaimasu ka? (D). 16. De-guchi wa muko ni 
arimasu (C). 17. Omae wa uchi ni iru to jama da kara, kden ni itte asonde o-ide 
(A). 18. Kono mado-kake zva furuku natta kara, atarashii no wo kao (B). JO. 
Oji san ni kono yubi-wa wo itadakimashUa (D). 20. Kore wa donata no te- 
bukuro de gozaimasho ? (D). 21. Hana-ko San no ka mo shire-nai (B). 22. 
Oba san ga omoshiroi hanashi wo kikashlte kudasaru so desu kara, itte mo yd 
gozaimasu ka ? (D). 23. E, itte o-ide nasai (A). 24. Hana-ko San no tokoro de 
iro-iro no asobi zco shite, zuibun omoshirokatta (B). 25. Tsukue no hikidashi wo 
soji shite, ira-nai mono wa minna sutete shimaimasho (C). 26. Mado-kake no 
sentaku wo shimashita ka ? (C). 27. Hai, mo sugu ni kawakimasho (C). 

1. Taro and Jiro are playing, rolling their hoops. 2. We are going to play an 
amusing game this evening, so please come at seven o 'clock. 3. If you have a 
good idea please tell it to me. 4. Mr Yamada came and said that he had some- 
thing he wanted to tell you. 5. .When you go to Kamakura tomorrow take 
some fruit in this bag. 6. Get out my gloves. 7. Where did Hana-ko go to ? 
8. She hurt her finger and went to the doctor an hour ago. 9. Your ring is 
really very pretty. 10. This morning at six o'clock Sankichi passed by here 
pulling a rikisha. 11. Put the receipt for the hat in the left-hand drawer of my 
desk. 12. I'll hang my dress on that nail. 13. The curtains are dirty, have 
"them washed. ]4. Open your mouth please. 15. Where is the exit? 16. 
The exit is over there. J7. (If you are) at home you are in the way, so go and 
play in the park. 18. These curtains are old, I'll buy some new ones. 19. My 
uncle gave me this ring. 20. Whose gloves are these ? 21. I believe they are 
Miss Hana-ko 's. 22. My aunt says that she is going to tell us an amusing 
story, may we go (to her house) ? 23. All right. 24. I amused myself a great 
deal at Miss Hana-ko 's house, we played several games. 25. I '11 clean out the 
drawers of my desk and throw away all the things I don't want. 26. Have 
you washed the curtains ? 27. Yes, they will soon be dry. 



EXERCISE S3. 

Derivative and compound concrete nouns. Study from 181, 6 to the end of 
the paragraph. 

aka-gane : copper. niwa : garden. 

aomono : vegetables. wasure-mono : a thing left behind 

fata : lid. forgotten. 

inaka-mono : peasant. hiroi : wide ; large. 

kawa : river. hiro-buta : tray. 

keshiki : view. hataraku : to work. 

ki : tree ; wood. ^ kudaru : to descend. 

nabe : saucepan. 

1. Kono^nabe wa aka-gane de gozaimasu (D). 2. Nabe nifuta wo shite o kure 
(A). 3. Yamada San no niwa wa hirokutte ki ga takusan arimasu (C). 4. Kono 
sara to koppu wo hiro-buta ni nosete nikai e motte o-ide (A). 5. Hon-ya de Taro 
San ni aimashtta kara, nichiyd no asa ku-ji ni kuru yd ni lianashimashita (C). 
6. Sentaku-ya ga o kane wo tori ni mairimashUa (D). 7. Watashi no gakkd no 
Ei-go no sensei wa Amerika-jin deshita (C). 8. Sono kata wa taihen Nihan-go ga 
jdzu de gozaimashita (D). 9. Kyonen no natsu Fuji-kawa wo kudarimashita ga, 
ii keshiki deshita (C). 10. Yokohama no suteishon e wasure-mono wo shite 
kimashita (C). 11. Kono hen wa aomono ga takai yd de gozaimasu (D). 12. 
Uchi nojochu iva inaka-mono desu (C). 13. Asa hayaku kara, yoru osoku made 
isshdkemmei ni hatarakimasu (C). 14. Yubin-kyoku ga chikaku ni gozaimasu ka ? 
(D). 15. Ame gafuru ka mo shire-nai kara, tdku e asobi ni itte wa ike-nai (A). 
16. Tamago wo katte kite o kure ; keredomo, atarashii noga nakereba kawa-nai de ii 
(A). 1 7. Wasure-mono wo shi-nai yd ni ki wo tsuke nasal (A). 18. Ano seiyo-jin 
wa itsu de mo Nihon no kimono wo kite imasu (C). 19. Watashi wa aka-gane no 
nabe wa kirai desu, abunai kara (C). 20. Ano aomono-ya wa takai yd da kara, 
kono tsugi kara hoka no mise de kai nasai (A). 21. Kono michi tea hirokute ii 
(B). 22. Ano mise no shujin wa doko no hito de gozaimashd ? (D). 23. Shina- 
jin da so da ga, Nihon-go ga taihen jdzu da (B). 

1. This saucepan is made of copper. 2. Put the lid on the saucepan. 3. 
Mr Yamada 's garden is large, there are a lot of trees in it. 4. Put this plate 
and this tumbler on a tray and take them upstairs. 5. I met Taro at the 
bookseller's and I asked him to come on Sunday morning at nine o'clock. 6. 
The washer-man has come for the money. 7. The teacher of English at our 
school was an American. 8. He could speak Japanese very well. 9. I went 
down the river Fuji last (year in the) summer, the scenery was very fine. 10. I 
lost something at Yokohama station. 11. Vegetables seem to be dear round 
about here. 12. Our servant is a country girl. 13. She works very hard from 
early in the morning till late at night. 14. Is there a post office near here ? 
15. I think it may rain so don't go (to play) far. 16. Go and buy some eggs, 
however, if there are no fresh ones, don't buy any at all. 17. Take care and 
don't lose anything. 18. That foreigner always wears a Japanese kimono. 
19. I don't like copper saucepans, they are dangerous. 20. That green- 
grocer seems to be rather expensive ; in future buy at some other shop. 21. 
This road is wide and is in good condition. 22. What is the nationality of the 
owner of that shop ? 23. They say he is a Chinaman, but he speaks Japanese 
very well. 



EXERCISE 54. 

Abstract nouns. Study 182, 183. 

ana : hole. itami : pain. 

ha : tooth. kaburu : to wear on the head. 

mizu-umi : lake. taiso : very. 

sun : 1/10 foot ; inch. mo- -mo : a) in aff. sentences after nouns 

Jukai : deep. 'both and'; after verbs or adj. 

nigai : bitter. 'whether or' 'either or'; b) in neg. 

onaji ; onnaji : same. sentences 'neither nor'. 

ilamu : to pain. 

1. Kasawo misete kudasai (C). 2. Kore de wa ike-nai ; watashi wa ao ga kirai 
da (B). 3. Kono mizu-umi wa taiso fuko gozaimasu (D). 4. A no ana no fukasa 
wa ni-shaku go-sun aru (B). 5. Kotoshi wa kyonen yon samusa ga tsuyoi yd de 
gozaimasu (D). 6. Sono himo no nagasa wa dono gurai aru ka, mite o kure (A). 
7. Kore wa taiso nigai kusuri da (B). 8. Kono kudamono wa sukoshi nigami ga 
arimasu ne ? nan to iu mono desu ka ? (C). 9. Atsui no ni boshi wo kabura-nai 
de aruite wa bydki ni naru (B). 10. Karada no yowai no ga ichiban koinaru koto 
da (B). 11. Taro ga yube ha ga itamu to itte ita ga, naorimashita ka ? (C'). 12. 
Mada itami ga tomara-nai to itte, kesa wa okimasen (C). 13. Watashi no kuni wa 
samui koto wa gozaimasen ga, tnihen kaze gafuku tokoro de gozaimasu (D). 14. 
Karita empitsu wo nakushltara, onnaji mono wo katte kaeseba ii desho (C). 15. 
Ko iu kusuri nara, nondemo, noma-nakutte mo onnaji koto desu (C). 16. Kore to 
onaji okisa no koppu wo yottsu katte kite kudasai (C). 17. Sono koppu ga san- 
jis-sen nara takai koto wa arimasen (C). 18. Ano nashi no ki no takasa wa ku- 
shaku shika nai (B). 19. Kono kudamono wa nigakutte taberaremasen (C). 20. 
Kono kire no nagasa wa nan-jaku gozaimasu ka ? (D). 21. Has-shaku arimasu 
(C). 22. Kono mizu-umi no fukasa wa ni-hyaku go-jis-shaku aru to kiki- 
mashita (C). 23. Densha de itte mo, kisha de itte mo, o kane wa onaji koto desu ga, 
densha wa tabi-tabi tomarimasu kara, kisJui de ikimasho (C). 24. Kono heya wa 
hiroi koto wa hiroi desu ga, kurakutte fuben desu (C). 

1. Please show me some umbrellas. 2. This one won 't do ; I don 't like green. 
3. This lake is very deep. 4. That hole is two feet six inches deep (lit. the depth 
of that hole). 5. It seems colder this year than last (lit. the cold of this year 
seems stronger). 6. See how long that string is. 7. This is a very bitter 
medicine. 8. This fruit is a little bitter, what is it called ? 9. If you walk 
about in this heat without a hat, you'll get ill. 10. To be weak is a very great 
trouble (lit. the weakness of the body). 11. Last night Taro said that he had a 
toothache, is he better now ? 12. He says the pain has not ceased yet ; so he 
did not get up this morning. 13. My native place is not cold, but it is very 
windy. 14. If you've lost the pencil you borrowed, buy another just like it and 
that will be all right. 15. If this is the kind of medicine, it doesn 't matter much 
whether you take it or not. 16. Go and buy four tumblers the same size as 
this one. 17. If that tumbler only costs thirty sen, I don't consider it dear. 
18. That pear-tree is only nine feet high. 19. I can't eat this fruit, it is too 
bitter. 20. How long is this piece of cloth ? 21. Eight feet. 22. I've heard 
that this lake is two hundred and fifty feet deep. 23. Whether you go by train 
or by tram it costs the same, but as the tram stops so frequently let us go by 
train. 24. This room is large as far as that goes, but it's dark and therefore 
inconvenient. 



EXERCISE 55. 

Diminutives and augment atives. Study 184 -186. 

chumon : an order (for goods). kawaii : charming ; lovely. 

katana : sword. kezuru : to plane ; sharpen ; scrape. 

kogatana : penknife. kiru (trans.) : to cut, 

o-kaze : gale. kire'ru (intr.) : to cut ; be able to cut. 

dya : landlord, [6 big ; ya person]. moru : to leak. 

yane : roof. taore'ru : to fall over. 

daijobu na : safe ; calling for no togu : to sharpen. 

anxiety. bakari ; bakkari : only ; about. 

1. Abunai kara, kodomo ni katana wo motasete wa ike-nai (A). 2. Kogatana ga 
kire-naku natta, toga-nakereba nara-nai (B). 3. Yamada San no uchi no ko-ushi 
wa kawaii (B). 4. Empitsu wo kezuru toki ni kogatana de hidari no ko-yubi wo 
kirimashita (C). 5. Uchi no neko no ko wa tonari e itte mo daijobu desti, itazura 
wo shimasenkara (C). 6. Kind no o-kaze de taoreta no wa nashi no ki bakari desu 
ka ? (C). 7. lie, hoka ni mo iro-iro taoreta ki ga am (B). 8. Kondo no o-ame de 
yane ga hobo moru yd ni narimashtta kara, dya ni hanashile naoshite moraimasho 
(C). 9. O-kaze de nashi no ki ga taorete shimatte, dai-suki na nashi ga taberare- 
naku natta (B). 10. Tonari no ko-inu wa kitanakutte dai-kirai (B). 11. Oba 
san ni itadaita hon wo daiji ni shite oki nasai (A). 12. Kind no o-kaze de Kdbe- 
yuki no kisha gaju-go-fun bakari okureta so da (B). 13. Akai inki no ko-bin wo 
hito-bin katte kite o kure (A). 14. Kono tsukue wa taihen benri de gozaimasu ne ? 

kai ni natta no de gozaimasu ka ? (D). 15. lie, chumon shite koshiraesashita no 
desu (C). 16. O hanashi shitai koto ga aru no desu ga, itsu agarimashd ka ? (C). 
17. Nichiyo nogogo wa taitei uchi ni imasu kara, sono toki ni o-ide nasai (C). 18. 
O-kaze ga fuite mo kono uchi nara taoreru mon ' desu ka? (C). 19. Ko-neko ga 
doko e itta ka,, ni-san-nichi miemasen (C). 20. Ame bakari nara ii no desu ga, 
kaze ga tsuyoi desu kara, yane ga moru no desu (C). 

1 . Don 't let the child handle the sword, it 's dangerous. 2. My penknife is 
blunt, I must sharpen it. 3. Mr Yamada 's calf is a pretty little thing. 4. 
When I was making a point to my pencil, I cut the little finger of my left hand 
(\vithmypenknife). 5. Even if the kittens go next door, it doesn't matter; 
they don 't do any mischief. 6. Was it only a pear-tree that was blown down 
yesterday by the gale ? 7. No, several other trees were also blown down. 
8. The heavy rain (we have just had) has caused the roof to leak in several 
places ; I must tell the landlord to get it mended. 9. The gale has blown down 
the pear-tree, and now I won 't be able to eat those pears I 'm so fond of. 10. 
My neighbour's puppy is a dirty beast, I hate it. 11. Be very careful with the 
book your aunt gave you (and don't spoil it). 12. On account of the gale 
yesterday, they say that the train going to Kobe was about fifteen minutes 
late. 13. Go and buy a small bottle of red ink. 14. This is a very convenient 
desk. Did you buy it (ready-made) ? 15. No, I had it made to order. 16. 
There's something I want to speak to you about. When could I see you ? 17. 

1 am generally at home on Sunday afternoons, come then. 18. Even if a gale 
does blow, it's absurd to think "that this house can be blown over. 19. I 
wonder where the kitten has gone. I haven't seen it for two or three days. 
20. If it were only rain it wouldn 't matter so much, but with this strong wind 
the roof is leaking. 



EXERCISE 56. 
Adjectives. Study 187 191. 

hashi : bridge. gojo na : obstinate, 

(o) bd-san : old woman ; grand- honto no : true. 

mother. semai : narrow ; small, 

(o) jii-san : old man ; grandfather, shita : under ; below. 

shosetsii : a novel. ikura de mo : any amount whatever. 

1. Nichiyo ni nii-san to issho ni oji son no uchi e asobi ni itte, omoshirokatta (B). 
2. Kono shosetsu wa taihen omoshiroi to omoimasu, mada o yomi ni nara-nakereba 
kashite agemasho (C). 3. Kono ko-neko wa dore no ko desu ka ? (C). 4. Asuko 
ni iru shiroi no no ko desu (C). 5. Nashi no oishii no ga arimasu ka ? (C). 6. 
Hashi no shita ni neko no shinda no ga ita (B). 7. Shimbun nofurui no ga gozai- 
mashitara, go-roku-mai kudasaimasen ka ? (D). 8. Ikura de mo o mochi nasai 
(C). 9. Tonari no wagamama na, gojo na musiime ga kono-goro miemasen ga, doko 
e itta no desho ? (C). 10. Ammari wagamama de shiyo ga nai kara, ano ko no 
sensei no uchi e azuketa so desu (C). 11. Mukai no o bd-san wa shojiki na, shinse- 
tsu na hito da (B). 12. Asuko no o jii-san wa honto nijobu na, okii hito desu (C). 
13. Ko iu semai kurai heya wa iya desu, hoka no wo sagashimasho (C). 14. 
Ammari takaijoto no boshi wo katte wa ike-nai (A). 15. Yamada San no uchi 
ni wa iro-iro no seiyo no shosetsu ga arimasu (C). 16. Jiro wa nashi no aoi no wo 
tabete onaka wo waruku shita no desu (C). 17. Ano otina no hito zva itsu de mo 
kuroi oki na boshi wo kabutte imasu (C). 18. Tamago no atarashii oki na no 
wo itsutsu kudasai (C). 19. Ima oki na no ga gozaimmen (D). 20. Ja, shlkata 
ga nai kara, chiisai no wo katte ikimasho (C). 21. Empitsu no kaiai no wo katte 
o-ide (A). 22. Nani ka yasashii omoshiroi Ei-go no shosetsu wo kashite kudasai- 
masen ka ? (D). 23. Sore de wa, kore wo yonde goran nasai, kitto omoshiroi 
desho (C). 24. Hana-ko San wa wakai kirei na hito desu (C). 25. Kono-goro 
Hana-ko San kara o tegami ga kimashita ka ? (C). 

1. On Sunday I went with my brother to my uncle's house, and I enjoyed 
myself very much. 2. I find this novel is very interesting, if you haven 't read 
it yet I'll lend it to you. 3. Which is the mother of this kitten ? (lit. Of which 
is this kitten the child ?). 4. That white one over there (lit. It is the child of 
that white one). 5. Have you got any nice pears ? 6. There was a dead cat 
under the bridge. 7. If you have any old newspapers, could you let me have a 
few ? 8. Take as many as you want. 9. I haven't seen my neighbour's self- 
willed, obstinate girl lately, I wonder where she's gone to ? 10. She is so self- 
willed that I hear they have sent her to live with her teacher. 11. The old 
lady across the way is an honest, kind person. 12. The old man (who lives) over 
there is a very healthy, big man. 13. I don 't like a small, dark room like this, 
I'll look for another one. 14. Don't buy a too expensive and high-class hat. 
15. Mr Yamada has a lot of foreign novels (in his house). 16. Jiro ate some 
pears that were not ripe, and (the result is that) he's got a stomach-ache. 17. 
That woman always wears a big- black hat. 18. Give me five large fresh eggs. 
19. I have no large ones now. 20. Well, it can 't be helped, I '11 take some small 
ones. 21. Go and buy a pencil, a hard one. 22. Would you please lend me an 
English novel ? I 'd like it to be easy and amusing. 23. Well, try this one, I 'm 
certain you '11 find it amusing. 24. Miss Hana-ko is young and pretty. 25. 
Have you had a letter from Miss Hana-ko lately ? 



EXERCISE 57. 

True adjectives. Study 192199. The examples in this Exercise refer 
especially to those points not previously studied. 

byd-nin : sick person ; patient. sukunai : little (in quantity) ; few. 

gaikoku : foreign countries. kawaru : to change. 

karui : light ; not heavy. umu : to give birth to ; (of an egg) to lay. 
mittomonai : offensive to the sight ; jibun : self ; oneself. 

improper. aida : between ; while ; during. 

omoi : heavy. naka : inside ; among. 
sabishii : lonely. 

1. Brown San wa Nihon-go ga o jozu desu ka ? (C). 2. Hai, seiyo-jin no naka 
de ano kata gurai handseru kata wa sukuno gozaimasu (D). 3. Ani ga Rondon e 
itta koro wa Igirisu ni iru Nihon-jin wa zutbun sukunakattaro (B). 4. Ima wa 
gaikoku ni benkyo ni iku htto ga sukunaku nai (B). 5, Ko shitara mittomono 
gozaimasu ka ? (D). 6. lie, mittomonaku nai (B). 7. O kd-san ga o rusu 
no aida wa sabishikatta desho ? (C). 8. E, sabishiu gozaimashita ; tabi-tabi 
tonari no Sonoe San ni uchi e kite moraimashita (C). 9. Chokichi wa jibun de 
nimotsu wo motte ikimashita ka ? (C). 10. E, so desu ; so omoku nakatta desho 
(C). 11. Kono nimotsu wa okii keredomo omoi koto wa nai (B). 12. Go byd-nin 
wa ikaga de gozaimasu ka ? (D). 13. Arigato gozaimasu, yokattari warukattari 
shite, ammari kawarimasen (D). 14. Kono tori no umu tamago wa akakattari, 
shirokattari suru (B). 15. Nimotsu ga karukatta kara, kuruma ni nora-nai de 
suteishon kara aruite kita (B). 16. Suzuki no kuru no wa osokattari hayakattari 
shite komaru (B). 17. Ano inu wa kitano gozaimasu kara, o kamai nasara-nai de 
kudasai (D). 18. Smith San ga konaida kuni e okutta geta wa san-yen gurai desho 
ka? (C). 19. So takaku nakatta desho (C). 20. Sengetsu made ita hey a wa 
semaku nakatta no desu ga, ano uchi ni byd-nin ga dekimashita kara, yameta no 
desu (C). 21. Sono kaban ga omokereba nii-san ni motte itte morai nasai (A). 
22. Karu gozaimasu kara, jibun de motte ikaremasu (D). 

1 . Does Mr Brown speak Japanese well ? 2. Yes, there are very few foreign- 
ers who can speak Japanese as well as he can. 3. There were probably very few 
Japanese in England at the time when my brother was in London. 4. Those 
who go to study abroad are no longer a few (i.e. quite a lot). 5. If I do this 
would it be considered improper ? 6. No, that would be quite all right. 7. I 
suppose you felt very lonely While your mother was away. 8. Yes, I did feel 
lonely. I often asked my neighbour Miss Sonoe to come and keep me com- 
pany. 9. Did Chokichi carry the bundle himself ? 10. Yes, I don . 't think it was 
very heavy. 11. This parcel is big, but it is not heavy. 12. How is the patient^? 
13. Thanks, he's sometimes better and sometimes worse, (on the whole) there's 
not much change. 14. This hen sometimes lays brown eggs and sometimes 
white. 15. As the bag was not heavy I didn't take a rikisha, but I walked here 
from the station. 16. I am much inconvenienced by Suzuki's coming some- 
times late and sometimes early. 17. That's a dirty dog, leave it alone. 
18. I wonder if the clogs Mr Smith sent home the other day cost him about three 
yen ?, 19. I don't think they were as dear as that. 20. The room I had until 
the end of last month was not a small one, but there was a sick person in the 
house, so I gave it up. 21. If that bag is too heavy for you, ask your brother 
to carry it. 22. It's not heavy, I can carry it myself. 



EXERCISE 58. 

True adjectives. Study 200 21 1 . 

(o) yu : hot water. ore'ru (intr.): to break; be able to break. 

hidoi : cruel ; violent. wakasu (trans.) : to boil. 

mazui : of insipid or bad taste. jiki (ni) : immediately ; soon. 

oi : (too) many ; (too) much. waza-waza : purposely ; expressly. 

tsumetai : cold. ni chigai nai : at the end of a sentence 

anna ; sonna : that kind of. expresses certainty. 

konna : this kind of. 

1. Ann mise no mono wa yasukutte shina ga yd gozaimasu (D). 2. Kono jibiki 
wa chiisakutte kotoba ga di (B). 3. Ano Into ga kaku shdsetsu wa mijikakutte 
omoshiroi desii (C). 4. Kono empitsti wa katakutte jiki ni oreru (B). 5. Konna 
ni kaze ga hidokvtte wa totemofune ga demasumai (C). 6. Amman shio ga dkutcha 
mazuku narimasu (C). 7. Sonna ni muzukashikutcha ano htto wa yome-nai (B). 
8. \Vatashi ga Sihon e kita toki ni wa Yokohama ni iru Igirisu-jin wa ima no yd 
ni dku arimasen deshita (C). 9. Mizu de sentaku sum no wa tsumetai desho kara, 
o yu wo wakashite agemashd (C). 10. Kono hon wo kaeshi ni waza-waza o-ide 
nas'tta no desu ka ? Sonna ni isoide o kaeshi ni nara-nakutte mo ii no deshita (C). 
11. Ano tsukue wa ikura ? (B). 12. Sonna ni tokakutte wa totemo kae-nai (B). 
13. Suzuki San no yd na bdshi ga hoshikatta ri desu ga, arimasen deshita kara, 
konna no wo katta no desu (C). 14. Anna nashi wa mazui ni chigai arimasen (C). 
15. Do shite oto-san ni shikarareta no de gozaimasu ka? (D). 16. 'Isogashii kara, 
sugu kaette ki nasai 1 to itte tegami ga kita no desu ga, sugu ni ko-nakatta no ga 
warui no deshita (C). 17. Tegami ga kita toki sugu kaette ko-nakatta no ga waru- 
katta no desho (C). 18. Anata mo watashi no yd na tsukue ga hoshii no deshitara, 
issho ni chumon shite ageru ri* deshita (C). 19. Mo atama ga itaku nai no nara, 
okite hataraku hazu da (A). 20. Taro ga yonde iru hon wa so muzukashii no ja 
nakaro (B). 21. Tanaka San w a honto ni atama ga itai n 1 ja nakatta desho ga, 
watashi ni aitaku nai kara, anna koto wo itta no desho (C). 

1. The things of that shop are cheap and of good quality. 2. This dictionary 
is small but it has a lot of words. 8. The novels that man writes are short 
but they are interesting. 4. This pencil is hard but it is very fragile. 5. I think 
it's impossible that the boat should leave with this strong wind blowing. 6. If 
you put in too much salt it won't taste nice. 7. If it's as difficult as that, he 
won't be able to read it. 8. When I arrived in Japan there weren't as many 
English people in Yokohama as there are now. 9. I think you'll find it cold 
doing your washing in cold water, let me heat some water for you. 10. Did 
you come expressly to return this book ? There was no need to be in such a 
hurry about it. 11. How much is that desk ? 12. If it's as dear as that, I can't 
possibly buy it. 13. I wanted a hat like Mrs Suzuki's, but as I couldn't find 
one I bought this one. 14. Those pears are not nice, I feel sure. 15. Why 
did your father scold you ? 16. My father wrote to me to comeback immediate- 
ly as he was busy, and I did wrong in not coming back soon. 17. I suppose I did 
wrong in not returning as soon as I received the letter. 18. If I had known that 
you wanted a desk like mine I would have given an order for two. 19. If your 
head no longer aches you ought to be up and working. 20. The book Taro is 
reading is probably not very difficult. 21. I don't suppose Mr Tanaka really 
had a headache, he said that, merely because he didn't want to see me. 



EXERCISE 59. 

Quasi-adjectives in Na or No. Study 212 226. 

fulfil : winter. kosu : to change one's abode. 

kinu ' silk. kurasti : to pass the time ; live. 

attakai ; attal:a na : warm. naru : to bear fruit. 

hade na : bright ; gay. goku : very. 

suzushii : cool. toki-doki : now and then ; occasionally. 

hajime'ru (trans.) : to begin. 

1. Murasaki de nai empitsu ga attara kashlte kudasai (C). 2. Kondo koshlta 
uchi wa shizuka de ii tokoro desu ga, kai-mono ni wa benri de nai tokoro desu (C). 
3. Ano oku-san zva zi-akai no desu ga, hade de nai kimono wo kite imasu (C). 4. 
Ano kata ga suki de nai mono wa age-nai ho ga ii desho (C). 5. Jochugafu- 
slidjiki de domo komarirnasu ; uchi e kaesd ka to omoimasu (C). 6. Tonari no 
kodomo ni fu- shins etsu na koto wo shite wa ike-nai (A). 7. Ano ko wajdbu na yd 
na kao KO shite iru keredomo, toki-doki bydki ni naru (B). 8. Kono kimono wa 
watashi ni wa sukoshi hade na yd de gozaimasu kara, imdto ni yarimashd (D). 9. 
Kono hire wa chotto mireba kinu no yd desu ga, honto no kinu ja nai no desu (C). 
10. Rashi no soba no kudamono-ya wa kono-goro hajimeta mise da (B). 11. 
Uchi no mae no nashi ga kotoshi wa takusan narimashlta (C). 12. Chichi wa 
karada ga yoicai desu kara, natsu wa suzushii tokoro e,fuyu wa attaka na tokoro e 
itte kurashirnasu (C). 13. Shiro no kinu-ito to hari wo ip-pon motte kite kudasai 
(C). 14. Goku yawaraka na,jotd no empitsu wo ni-hon kudasai (C). 15. Yarnada 
San zva so Ei-go ga heta ja nai hlto desu ga, jibun de wa hanase-nai to itte imasu 
(C). 16. Ammarijoto de nai kami wo katte kinasai (A). 17. Yoku hataraitemo 
ju-shojil'i na gejo de tea iya desu (C). 18. Anata ni ageyo to omotte waza-waza 
Jcatte kita no desu (C). 19. Sore ga suki de nakereba hoka no wo o kai nasai (B). 
20. Jama da kara, daiji de nai tegami wa sutete shimau ho ga yokaro (B). 21. 
Kimi-ko wa yasashii yd na musume desu ga, honto wa znilmngojd na ko desu (C). 

1. If you have a pencil which is not violet, please lend it to me. 2. The 
house I 'm in now is in a very quiet locality, but it is a very inconvenient place 
for shopping. 3. That lady is still young but she wears clothes which are not 
gay. 4. You'd better not give that person a thing which he does not like. 5. 
I'm greatly troubled because my servant is dishonest, I'm thinking of dischar- 
ging her. "e. Don't behave unkindly to the children next door. 7. That child 
has a healthy appea ranee, but he gets ill every now and then. 8. This dress 
seems too showy for me, so I '11 give it to my younger sister. 9. At first sight 
this stuff looks like silk. But in reality it's not silk. 10. The fruit-store near 
the bridge is a shop which was opened quite recently. 11. The pear-tree in 
front of the house bore a lot of fruit this year. 12. My father is weak, so he 
goes to a cool place in summer and a warm place in winter. 13. Bring me 
some white silk thread and a needle. 14. I want two, very soft pencils of good 
quality. 15. Mr Yamada doesn't speak English so very badly, but he himself 
says he cannot speak it. 16. Go and buy some paper, it needn't be of the best 
quality. 17. I don't like a dishonest servant even if she works very hard. 18. 
I bought this especially to give to you. 19. If you don 't like that one buy 
another one. 20. You had better throw away all the unimportant letters, they 
are in the way. 21. To look at her, Kimi-ko seems a very gentle girl, but in 
realitv she is a most obstinate child. 



EXERCISE 60. 

Adjectival phrases. Study 227232. 

gyogi : behaviour. oya : parents. 

kenka : quarrel. naka : the relation between two persons. 

kigen : temper ; feeling. tsugo : convenience. 

kyodai : brothers and sisters. un : luck. 

mimi : ear. kawaiso na : exciting pity. 

moto : origin. wakare'ru : to be separated from. 

1. Watakushi no kuni wa ame no oi tokoro de gozaimasu (D). 2. Ichi-do 
Yokohama e itte mitai to omoimasu kara, itsu ka go tsugo no ii toki ni tsurete itte 
kudasai (C). 3. 0-bd-san wa kigen no ii hlto desu (C). 4. Hana-ko to Mitsu-ko 
wa taihen naka no ii kyodai de gozaimasu (D). 5. A no ko wa yottsii no toshi ni 
oya ni wakareta, un no warui, kawaiso na ko desu (C). 6. Kai-mono ni benri 
no ii tokoro e koshito gozaimasu (D). 7. Tonari no musume wa taiso gyogi ga ii 
(B). 8. Yamada San ga raigetsu Kobe e o-ide nasaru so desu kara, wqtashi mo 
issho ni ikareru to taihen tsugo ga ii to omoimasu (C). 9. Tanabe sensei wa 
zuibun kigen ga warukatta ga, kono-goro naotta (B). 10. Ano kyodai wa taiso 
naka ga yo gozaimashUa ga, oya ga nakunatte kara, kenka bakari shite orimasu 
(D). 11. Ani wa imoto to wa naka ga yd gozaimasu ga, ototo ga kirai de gozai- 
masu (D). 12. Tomodachi ga kind ' Kamakura e iko' to itta ga, tsugo ga waru- 
kutte ikare-nakatta (B). 13. Taro to Jiro wa moto wa yoku kenka wo shite ita ga, 
ima wa naka yoku kurashite iru (B). 14. O-jii-san wa mimi ga toku narima- 
shita (C). 15. Uchi no jochu wa kigen yoku shigoto wo shimasu (C). 16. Kono 
hen tea ju-ichi-gatsu wa kaze ga oi toki da (B). 17. Watashi no kuni wa Nihon 
de ichiban ame no sukunai tokoro desu (C). 18. Ano musume wa oya mo kyodai 
mo nakutte kawaiso desu (C). 19. Ashita omae ga Tokyo e itte kureru to taihen 
tsugo ga ii (A). 20. Suzuki San wa Mizuno San to naka ga waril gozaimashlta- 
ga, mo yoku natta ka mo shiremasen (D). 

1. My native province is a rainy place. 2. I'd like to see Yokohama once, 
so when it's convenient to you please be so kind as to take me. 3. Grand- 
mother is a very good-tempered person. 4. Hana-ko and her sister Mitsu-ko 
are very fond of each other. 5. That child is very unlucky and worthy of pity, 
he lost his parents when he was four. 6. I want to change to a more convenient 
place for shopping. 7. The girl from next door is very well behaved. 8. They say 
Mr Yamada is going to Kobe next month, it would be very convenient for me 
if I could go with him. 9. Our teacher Mr Tanabe was very bad-tempered, 
but lately he has improved. 10. Those brothers used to live on very good terms 
with each other, but now they Ve lost their parents, they do nothing but quarrel. 
1 1 . My elder brother is very fond of my little sister, but he doesn 't like my 
younger brother. 12. My friend invited me yesterday to go to Kamakura, but 
it was inconvenient and I couldn't go. 13. Formerly Taro and Jiro were 
always quarrelling ; now, however, they are on good terms with each other. 
14. My grandfather is now hard of hearing. 15. Our servant is always working 
and always in a good temper (lit. works good-temperedly). 16. In this part of 
the country the windy season is in November. 17. My native province is the 
least rainy part of Japan. 18. That girl is to be pitied, she has neither parents 
nor brothers nor sisters. 19. It would be very convenient for me if you were 
to go to Tokyo tomorrow. 20. Mr Suzuki and Mr Mizuno used to be on bad 
terms with each other, but I beHeve they have made it up. 



EXERCISE 61. 

Verbs used as adjectives. Study 233 235. 

doku : poison. yaseta : thin. 

keisatsu : police. haku : to put on ; wear ; (refers to les 

urayamashii : envious. or feet, as boots, trousers). 

futoru : to become fat. hirou : to pick up. 

futotta : fat ; stout. dan-dan : little by little. 

ya-se'ru : to become thin. 

1. Kore u-a doku no aru sakana da (B). 2. Kono kutsu rcafuruku natte hake- 
naku natta (B). 9. Hachi-gatsu ryoko shiyd to amoimashlta ga, byd-nin ga dekite, 
ikare-naku natte shimaimashita (C). 4. Kawata San tea ' karada ga yoicakutte, 
mise ico yamc-nakereba nara-naku natta' to itte tegami wo yokoshimashlta (C)! 
5. Ei-go ga hanaseru ni-ju-go gurai no otoko tvo hitori yatoitai no desu (C). 6. 
. Isuko de shimbun zcoyonde iru futotta hito ga Nakamura San da (B). 7. Watashi 
ic a yaseta hito ga urayamashii (B). 8. Kono sakana wa doku ga gozaimasii- (D). 

9. Ano hito tea futotte iru yd ni mieru (B). 10. Nihon de mo yofuku wo kiru hito 
ga dan-dan oku natte kimashlta (C). 11. Ano hito no byoki tea naora-nai bydki da 
to desu (C). 12. Suzuki San no oku-san wa ano skiroi yofuku wo kita klto de 
gozaimasu (D). 13. Hashi no ue ni totte iru hito wa watashi no gakko no sensei 
desu (C). 14. Yube hirotta tokei wo keisatsu e todokete o-ide nasai (B). 15. 
Taro ni hca-nakereba nara-nai koto ga aru kara, koko e kuru yd ni itte o kure (A). 
16. O to-san no tonari ni koshi-kakete iru hito wa o to-san to onaji mise ni iru hito 
deslw (C). 17. Inaka ni ita haha ga nakunatte, watashi wa kanai to issho ni 
kaera-nakereba nara-nai koto ni narimashtta (C). 18. Konaida jochil ga hirotta 
yubi-v:a iva otoshlta hito ga zvakatta so de gozaimasu (D). 19. Sonnafunikfitte 
hake-nai kutsu iva sutete o shimai nasai (A). 20. Anata no o uchi de Ei-go no 
i'himbun ico o yomi nasaru kata wa donata de gozaimasii, ka? (D). 21. Amerika 
ni go-nen bakari ite kita ani ga yomu no desu (C). 22. Kono boshi mo mo kabure- 
naku natta kara, atarashii no zvo hitotsu kawa-nakereba nara-naku natta (B). 

1. This is a poisonous fish. 2. These boots are old, I can no longer wear 
them. 3. I thought of going travelling in August, but I was prevented from 
doing so by somebody falling ill at home. 4. Mr Kawata writes saying that 
he's very weak and has found himself obliged to discontinue going to the office. 
5. I wish to engage a young man about twenty-five years old who can speak 
English. 6. That stout man over there reading the newspaper is Mr Nakamura. 
7. I envy thin men. 8. This fish is poisonous. 9. That man looks stout. 

10. In Japan also, people who wear foreign clothes are gradually increasing in 
number. 11. I hear that his illness is incurable. 12. Mrs Suzuki is the lady 
wearing that white foreign dress. 13. The man standing on the bridge is a 
teacher at my school. 14. Go and hand over to the police, the watch you found 
last night. 15. Go and tell Taro to come here, there's something I must tell him. 
16. The man sitting next to my father is in the same oflice as he is. 17. My 
mother who was living in the country has died, and so it has become necessary 
for my wife and myself to go home. 18. It seems they have found the owner 
of the ring my servant picked up the other day. 19. Throw away boots like 
that which are so old you can no longer wear them. 20. Who is it in your house 
who reads the English newspapers ? 21. My elder brother who was five years 
in America. 22. I can no longer wear this hat, so I must buy a new one. 



EXERCISE 62. 

Compound and derivative adjectives. Study 236 245. 

ie : house. erabu ; eramu : to choose. 

ishi : stone. kusai : malodorous. 

wake : reason ; cause. 

1. Kono sakana wa kusai kara, tabete wa ike-nai (A). 2. Uchi no jochu UY/. 
Tokyo ni kite san-nen ni naru keredomo rnada inaka-fcdsai (13). 3. Yamada Sun 
no ji wa taiso yomi-ii ji de gozaimasu (D). 4. Ano saka wa ishi ga atte, taihen 
(tnil i-nikui (B). 5. Tonari no Kanekichi San wa karada wa okii keredomo 
kodomorashii kao wo shite iru (B). 6. Oda San wa zuibun nagaku Igirisu ni ita 
no desu ga, Ei-go ga hanase-nai-rashii desu (C). 7. Watashi no oji iva do iu wake 
desho, taiso wasureppoku narimashUa (C). 8. Ashita wa tenki ni nari-so da (B). 
9. Ano kodomo wa riko-so na kao da ga, karada ga yowa-so da (B). 10. Kono 
uchi kara yosa-so na no wo erande kudasai (C). 11. Kato San no tokoro ni tea a>n> 
jibiki wa nasa-so desu -kara, kari ni itte mo dame desho (C). 12. Umi-tate no 
tamago wo yottsu kudasai (C). 13. A no hlto wa bydki de gakko zvo yameru no da 
to itte ita ga, nani ka hoka ni wake ga ari-so da (B). 14. Kono ie wa seii/6-kusai 
ie desu ne? (C). 15. Hana-ko San no uchi wa wakari-niku gozaimasu kara, go 
issho ni itte agemasho (D). 16. Kondo kita jochu wa taiso jobu-so desu (C). 17. 
Anna okorippoi hlto wa mezurashm gozaimasu (I)). 18. Inaka wa fuben de 
gozaimasu ga, tori-tale no aomono ga taberareru no ga yd gozaimasu (D). 19. 
Watashi wa kono-goro zvasureppoku natte komatta (B). 20. Tegami wa yasashii 
kotoba de wakari-yoku kaite kudasai (C). 21. Kono bydki wa naori-niku gozai- 
masu (D). 22. Kono himo wa kire-yasui kara, hoka no motto jobu nano wo inoftc 
kite kudasai (C). 23. Ano hon-ya, ni wa seiyo no hon wa nasa-so da (B). 

1. Don't eat this fish, it smells bad. 2. It is now three years since my servant 
came to Tokyo, but her appearance is still that of a country girl. 3. Mr Yama- 
da's writing is very easy to read. 4. That hill is very stony, walking there is 
very difficult. 5. Master Kanekichi from next door is very big, nevertheless 
he has got a very childish face. 6. Mr Oda was in England a good many years. 
but he doesn't seem to be able to speak English. 7. My uncle for some reason 
or other is always forgetting things now. 8. I believe it'll turn out line to- 
morrow. 9. That child has an intelligent face but he seems weak. 10. Choose 
the one you like best from among these (lit. the one which is probably best). 
11. I think it likely that Mr Kato hasnot got that dictionary, so it would be 
useless to go and ask him to lend it to you. 12. Please give me four new-laid 
eggs. 13. He says he is going to leave school on accbunt of his health, but 
there's probably some other reason. 14. This house in some of its details is 
built in European style. 15. Miss Hana-ko 's house is rather diflicult to find, 
may I accompany you there ? 16. The servant who arrived recently seems to 
be a very healthy person. 17. Persons as bad-ternpered as that man are scarce. 
18. The country is inconvenient (in many Avays), but you have at least the 
advantage of being able to eat fresh vegetables. 19. I've become so absent- 
minded lately, I really don't know what to do. 20. Please write the letter 
using simple Avords so that it can be easily understood. 21. This is an illness 
from which one seldom recovers (completely). 22. This eordis too weak (easily 
broken), please bring me a stronger one. 23. There are probably no foreign 
books at that bookseller's. 



EXERCISE 63. 

Comparison of adjectives. Study 246 252. 

omocha : toy. hae'ru : to grow ; spring up. 

sakura : cherry-tree, kare'ru : to wither ; die (of plants). 

shukan : week. ijo : more than. 

taku : house. sendatte : the other clay. 

hai : aux. num. for glassfuls, cup- yokei : more. 
fuls, etc. 

1. Kono yama ni wa moto wa motto ki ga haete ita no desu ga, dan-dan karete 
Niikunaku natta no desu (C). 2. Kono hon wo yakushite shimau made ni wa tno 
ni-shukan kakarimasu (C). 3. Ammari nodo ga kawaita kara, mo ip-pai o cha 
wo o kure (A). 4. Sendatte katta sato ga mada am ka ? (A). 5. Mo kyo wa 
kudamono wo tabete wa ikemasen (A). 6. O cha wa mo nai ka ? (A). 7. Mada 
tsubo ni gozaimasu (D). 8. Klsha de iku no tofune de iku no to dotchi ga yokei 
<> kane ga kakarimasu ka ? (C). 9. tune no ho ga yokei kakarimasu (C). 10. 
YamadaSan no o taku ni wa kono kden yori yokei sakura no ki ga gozaimasu (D). 
11. Ano ginko ga dekite kara san-ju-nen ijo ni naru (B). 12. Kono shiroi tori 
wa ano oki na tori yori yokei tamago wo umu (B). 13. Watashi no gakko ni wa 
Shina-jin ga go-ju-nin ijo orimasu (C). 14. Rana-ko wa Kinu-ko yori omocha wo 
takusan motte iru desho (C). 15. Mitsuo ni motto chichi wo o yari nasai (A). 16. 
Kono kami wo mo sam-byaku-mai motte kite kurem'asen ka ? (C). 17. San-sen no 
kitte wa mada arimasu kara, kawa-nai de ii desu (C). 18. Shio ga mo gozaimasen 
kara katte mairimasho (D). 19. Akai empitsu ga mada am ka? (A). 20. Mada 
ip-pon gozaimasu (D). 21. Ano bin wa kore yori yokei hairu desho (C). 22. 
Go-nin kuru hito ga aru no da kara, isu wo mo futatsu motte kite kure (A). 23. 
/o?io hey a e wa ni-hyaku-nin yori yokei wa haire-nai daro to omou (B). 

24. Isogashlkutte shiyd ga nai kara, mo hitori jochu wo yatou koto ni shiyo (B). 

25. Taro wa onaka ga warui no desu kara, nashi wo hitotsu yori yokei yara-nai 
de kudasai (C). 26. Sato zco mo futa-saji irete o kure (A). 

1. Formerly there used to be a lot of trees growing on this mountain, however, 
little by little they have died, and there are only a fe\v left. 2. It'll take me 
two weeks more to finish translating this book. 3. I 'm so thirsty, bring me 
another (one more) cup of tea. 4. Is there any of the sugar you bought the 
other day left ? 5. You mustn 't eat any more fruit today. 6. Is there no 
more tea ? 7. There's some in the jar. 8. Which costs more, to go by train 
or by boat ? 9. By boat costs more. 10. There are more cherry-trees in Mr 
Yamada's place than there are in this park. 11. It is more than thirty years 
since that bank was established. 12. This white hen lays more eggs than that 
big one. 13. There are more than fifty Chinese scholars at my school. 1 k I 
think Hana-ko has more toys than Kinu-ko. 15. Give Mitsuo some more milk. 
16. Bring me three hundred sheets more of this paper. 17. You needn't buy 
nay more three-sen stamps, I have some still. 18. I'll go and buy some more 
salt, there's none left. 19. Have you got any more red pencils ? 20. I've 
got one more. 21. I think that bottle holds more than this. 22. There are 
five people coming, so go and fetch two chairs more. 23. I don't think more 
than two hundred people can get into this room. 24. I am so busy that I shall 
engage another servant. 25. Please don't give Taro more than one pear, his 
stomach is out of order. 26. Put in two more spoonfuls of sugar. 



EXERCISE 64. 

Comparison of adjectives. Study 253 259. 

itoko : cousin. hakurai no : foreign-made. 

kazu : number. tari'ru : to be enough ; sufficient. 

kin : pound (lb.). hodo : approximate quantity ; -,vord 

nedan : price. used in comparisons. 

sewa : assistance. zutto : very much. 

shoku-nin : artisan. 

1. Sato wa ik-kin de wa tari-nai, ni-kin katte kite o kure (A). 2. Koko kara 
suteishon made densha de ikeba san-jip-pun kakarimasumai (C). 3. Kono kawa 
no fukasa wa has-shaku wa nai daro (B). 4. Ano tsukue wa chumon shite koshi- 
raesashita no desu ga, roku-ju-yen tara-zu de dekimashita (C). 5. Uchi no shoku- 
nin no kazu wa ano mise yori sukunai desu (C). 6. Itoko wa watakushi yori 
futatsu ue de gozaimasu ga, watakushi yori wakaku miemasu (D). 7. Haruo San 
wa omaf yori toshi ga shita desu kara, iro-iro sewa zvo shite yara-nakereba ikemasen 
(A). 8. Ano hito wa tabun watashi yori mittsu gurai slnta desho (C). 9. Watashi 
wa Yamada San hodo Ei-go gajdzu de wa arimasen (C). 10. Taro kara mireba 
Goro San wa zntto karada ga okii (B). 11. Kono boshi wa hakurai no to onaji 
gurai yoku dekite iru (B). 12. Ano empitsu wa hakurai to onaji gurai no nedan 
desu ga, hakurai hodo shina ga yoku arimasen (C). 13. Ani to one wa onaji gurai 
Ei-go ga hanasemasu (C). 14. Kobe yori toi tokoro e wa ika-nai ho ga yokaro (B). 
15. K ikeba kiku hodo kawaiso na musume da (B). 16. Kyoto wa Nara hodo 
shizuka na tokoro j a arimasen (C). 17. Sato San wa mi-tsuki tara-zu de ano 
shosetsuwo yakusMte shimatta so da (B). 18. Ano koppu to kono koppu wa dkixa 
wa onaji gurai desu ga, nedan wa taihen chigaimasu (C). 19. Kono himo wa naga- 
sugimasho ka ? (C). 20. lie, nagakereba nagai hodo it no desu (C). 21 . Kono 
asobi wa hito ga okereba oi hodo omoshiroi no de gozaimasu (D). 22. Imoto ica 
watashi yori hitotsu shika shita j a arimasen (C). 23. Kyonen wa kotoshi hodo 
atsuku nakatta to omoimasu ga, do desho ? (C). 

1. One pound of sugar will not be enough, buy two pounds. 2. I think it 
takes less than thirty minutes from here to the station by tram-car. 3. I think 
this river is less than eight feet deep. 4. I had that desk made to order, it cost 
less than sixty yen. 5. We employ less men than they do at that factory. 6. 
My cousin is two years older than I but he looks younger. 7. Haruo is younger 
than you, so you must take care of him (and do what is necessary). 8. I dare- 
say that man is about three years younger than I. 9. I can't sp;-ak English 
as well as Mr Yamada. 10. Compared to Taro, Master Goro is a VITV big boy. 
11. This hat is as well made as a foreign-made one. 12. That pencil is the 
same price as a foreign-made onQ, but the quality is not as good. 13. My elder 
sister speaks English just as well as my elder brother does. 14. You had better 
not go further than Kobe. 15. The more I hear about that poor girl the more 
I think she's to be pitied. 16. Kyoto is not such a quiet place as Xara. 17. 
They say that Mr Sato translated that novel in less than three months. 18. 
These two tumblers are the same size, but the prices are very different. IS). 
Will this string be too long? 20. No, the longer the better. 21. The more 
people there are who play at this game, the more amusing it is. 22. My sister 
is only one year younger than I. 23. I believe last year was not as hot as this, 
however. I may be wrong. 



EXERCISE 65. 

Superlative. Study 260270. 

jitsii : fact. mura : village. 

kane-mochi : a rich man. nare'ru : to become accustomed. 

makoto : truth. yohodo ; yoppodo : very. 

1. Kore ic a \ihon ichi no nagai kawa de gozaimasfi (D). '2. Kyoto ichi no 
t/ado-ya wa doko deshd ?. (C). 3. Ano kata no o to-san wa kono machi-ju de no o 
isha de gozaimashita (D). 4. Watashi no mura de no kane-mochi wa Tarnura to iu 
hito desu (C). 5. Watashi no kyddai no uchi de yasete iru no wa ani desu (C). 6. 
J)ono tori ga yokei tamago wo umimasu ka? (C). 7. And hlto no tegami wa naka- 
naka yomi-nikuikara, yoppodo nareta mto de nai to wakara-nai (B). 8. Tsukue 
a -o IntotsU koshiraete moraitai, naru-take yasuku koshiraete kudasai (C). 9. Iro- 
iro shigoto ga aru kara, dekiru dake hayaku kaette kuru ts-umori da (B). 10. Yama- 
da San no o-jo-san-tachi wa makoto ni gyogi ga yd gozaimasu. (D). 11. Kyo tea 
baka ni atsui ne (B). 12. Koyama San ga Hakone de kaita e wa jitsii ni yoku 
dekite_ iru (B). 13. Taro wa ammari gakko e iku no ga suki ja nai yd da (B). 
14. O-kaze de taoreta no wa daibu 6ki na ki da (B). 15. Uchi no mustiko ica 
kanari muzukashii Ei-go no hon wo yomu yd ni narimashita (C). 16. Kutsu wo 
chiimun shitai no desu ga, naru-take jobu ni koshiraete moraitai desu (C). 17. 
Kono mise tea Tokyo ichi no kutsu-ya da (B). 18. Kyodai-ju de ano musAme ga 
icliiban riko da to minna itte iru (B). 19. Kono hon no uchi de suki na no ga 
attar a agemasu kara, o mochi nasai (C). 20. Anata no ji wa kono-goro yohodo 
yomi-yoku natte kimashlta (C). 21. Kono himo wa gokujobu de gozaimasu (D). 
22. Tenki ga warui kara, sakana ga baka ni takai (B). 23. Yamada San ga 
kondo koslnta tokoro wajitsu ni shizuka de ii tokoro desu (C). 24. Sensei ga kigen 
ga icarukutte okotte bakari ita ga, kono-goro daibu naotta yd da (B). 25. Kyo wa 
bijo-nin ga taisd warn gozaimasu kara, dekiru dake hayaku o-ide kudasai (D). 

1. This is the longest river in Japan. 2. Which is the best inn in Kyoto ? 
3. That gentleman 's father was the best doctor in the town. 4. The richest 
man in my village is a man called Tamura. 5. The thinnest of us all, brothers 
and sisters, is my eldest brother. 6. Which of these hens lays most eggs ? 7. 
that man 's letters are very difficult to read, only those who are thoroughly 
accustomed to his handwriting can make them out. 8. I want to have a desk 
made, please make it as cheap as possible. 9. As I have a lot to do, 1 intend to 
come back as soon as possible. 10. The Misses Yamada are really very well- 
behaved young ladies. 11. It's awfully hot today, isn't it ? 12. Tht- picture 
which Mr Koyama painted at Hakone is very well done. 13. Taro doesn't 
seem to care very much for school. 14. The tree that was blown down by the 
wind was rather a big one. 15. Mj^ son is now able to read fairly difficult books 
in English. 16. i want to have some boots made, and I wish them made as 
strong as possible. 17. This is the best bootmaker in Tokyo. 18. Even-body 
says that that girl is the cleverest of all her brothers and sisters. 19. If there's 
any book among these you care for I'll give it to you. 20. Your handwriting 
has improved very much lately. 21. This cord is very strong. 22. As the 
weather is bad, fish is very dear. 23. The house that Mr Yamada has just 
moved to is in a very quiet neighbourhood. 24. Our master used always to be 
in a bad temper, however, his temper seems to have improved a good deal 
lately. 25. The patient is much worse today so please come as soon as possible. 



EXERCISE 66. 

Cardinal numbers. Study 271280. 

abura : oil. hen : num. for times. 

futa-go : twins. ma : room. 

(o) tsuri : the change, (money return- soroi : suit (of clothes). 

ed as balance of that tendered for soroi no : of the same pattern. 

an article). ijime'ru : to tease ; worry. 

hatachi : twenty years of age. mitsuke'ru : to find. 

1. Ani wa hatachi no toshi ni oji ni tsurerarete Igirisu e mairimashUa (D). 

2. Kono nashi wa hUotsu yon-sen, hito-hako ju-ni de yon-jis-sen ni nri nasai (A). 

3. N ana-sen no empitsu wo ju-ni-hon katte o-ide, kyu-jis-sen yarn kara, roku-sen 
no o tsuri da (A). 4. Kono abura wa o ikura deshtta ? (C). 5. Hlto-bin go-jis- 
sen de katta (B). 6. Ano tana ni aru bin wo futatsu motte kite, kirei ni aratte o 
kure (A). 7. Kono hen ni wa ni-sam-ben kita koto ga arimasu kara, kanari yoku 
shitte imasu (C). 8. Kono uchi wa mi-ma shika nakutte, semai dem kara, mo 
sukoshi oki na no wo mitsukemasho (C). 9. Ano mise ni wa onna ga san-nin, 
otoko ga yottari iru (B). 10. Hashi no uedefutari no kodomo ga ip-piki no inu wo 
ijimete ita (B). 11. Anoffitatsu no isu wa America de dekita mono de gozaimasii 
(D). 12. Taro wa kesa tamago futatsu to chichi wo koppu ni ip-pai nomimashita 
(C). 13. Raigetsii gaikoku e iku made ni yofuku wo hUo-soroi koshirae-nakereba 
nara-nai (B). 14. Koko kara Nagasaki made wa futsuka futa-ban kakarintasu 
(C). 15. Ano futa-go wa itsu de mo soroi no kimono wo kite imasu (C). 16. Kono 
shigoto wa otoko go-nin de is-shukan kakaru daro (B). 17. HUo-hako yon-jis-sen 
no nashi ivo mi-hako suguni todokete kudasai, kane wa ima haraimasho (C). 18. 
Nikai nifuta-ma arimasu ga, tsukaimasen kara, dare ka ni kashitai to omotte 
orimasti (C). 19. Ano seiyo-jin wa Nihon e kite yo-tsiiki gurai ni shika nari- 
masen ga, mo Nihon-go ga yohodo hanaseru yd ni narimashita (C). 20. Jochu 
futari de wa shigoto ga 6-sugimasu kara, mo hitori yatowa-nakereba narimasen (C). 
21. Ano hlto wa hatachi desii ga, ni-ju-ni-san ni mieru (B). 

1. When my brother was twenty my uncle took him to England. 2. Sell 
these pears at four sen each, or forty-sen the box of twelve. 3. Go and buy 
twelve seven-sen pencils, I'm giving you ninety sen, so the change will be six sen. 

4. What was the price of this oil ? 5. It cost fifty sen a bottle. 6. Bring t^o 
of those bottles that are on the shelf and wash them carefully. 7. I Ve been two 
or three times in this neighbourhood before, so 1 know it fairly well. 8. 'lit is 
house is small, it has only three rooms. I must look for a bigger one. 9. There 
arc three women and four men in that shop. 10. Two children were worryiiii: a 
dog on the bridge. 11. Those two chairs are American made. 12. This 
morning Taro had two eggs and a cup of milk. 13. I must have a suit of 
clothes made before I go abroad next month. 14. It takes two days and two 
nights to go to Nagasaki. 15. Those twins always wear clothes of the same 
pattern. 16. I think it would take five men a week to do this work. 17. IMease 
send to my house immediately three boxes of pears at forty sen a box, I'll pay 
for them now. 18. There are two rooms upstairs and as I don't use them, I was 
thinking of letting them to somebody. 19. It's only four months since that 
foreigner arrived in Japan, nevertheless he can already speak quite a lot of 
Japanese. 20. The work is too much for two servants, I must engage one more. 
21. That man is twenty, but he looks twenty-two or twenty-three!! 



EXERCISE 67. 

Auxiliary numerals. Study 281 283. 

h ana-ike : flower-vase. shinrui : relation ; relative. 

kawa : side. tori : street ; road. 

kinjo : neighbourhood. watam : to cross over. 

naifu : knife. dake : only. 
ni-guruma : hand-cart. 

1. Kono kusuri wo ip-puku nondara atama no itai no ga naotta (B). 2. Wata- 
shi ic a nen'ni san-zoku kutsu ga irimasu (C). 3. Kono kinjo ni yado-ya ga gozai- 
ma.siid ka ? (D). 4. Kono tori ni wa gozaimasen ga, ano hashi wo zvato.ru to migi 
kawa ni san-gen gozaimasu (D). 5. O rusu ni ko-zutsumi ga ni-ko mairimashita 
kara, o tsukue no ue ni motte itte okimashita (D). 6. Ashlta koshimasu kara, 
ni-guruma tc o ni-dai tanonde kudasai (C). 7. Yon-sen no hagaki go-mai, jis-sen 
no kitte ju-mai katte kite o kure (A). 8. Naifu wo ni-cho motte kite kudasai (C). 
9. Ogata- a ni onwshiroi o hanashi no hon ga arimashita kara, yon-satsu katte, inaka 
no *hi urn i ni okutte yarimashita (C). 10. Kono liana- ike wa ikura? (B). 11. 
Tsu-i de ni-ju-yen de gozaimasu. Uitotsu dake wa urimasen (D). 12. Ashita no 
gogo Igirisu no fune ga ni-so tsuku hazu de gozaimasu (D). 13. Taro no kutsu ga 
ammari fiiruh u natta kara, is-soku katte yard (B). 14. Tabako vco ip-puku ikaga 
de gozaimasu ka? (D). 15. Arigato, ' tabako rra karada ni zearui'to isha ni iw arete 
kara, noina-nai koto ni xhite iru (B). 16. Kono nimotsu wo san-ko Sendai made 
aznketai (B). 17. Seiyo no hon wo uru mine ga arimasu ka ? (C). 18. Kono 
machi ni wa seiyo no hon wo uru tokoro wa nai no desu (C). 19. Nodo ga kawaita, 

cha wo ip-pai o kure (A). 20. Kuruma wa san-dai yobimasho ka ? (C). 21. lie, 
nimoUii ga sonna ni oku arimasen kara, ni-dai de takusan desu (C). 22. Kore to 
onnaji kitgi wo rop-pon motte kite kure (A). 23. Kodomo ni wa kono kusuri wo 
ip-puku no hambun nomase nasai (A). 24. Tegami wo san-shi-hon kaitara, 
Ueno e sampo ni iku t^umori da (B). 25. Kimura San no kyodai wa yottari atte, 
ininna onua bakari desn (C). 

1. As soon as I'd taken a dose of this medicine, my headache was better. 2. 

1 use three pairs of boots a year. 3. I wonder if there's an inn in this neigh- 
bourhood ? 4. There are none in this street, but as soon as you cross that 
bridge you '11 find three on your right. 5. While you were out two parcels came 
for you, I have put them on your desk. 6. As I'm going to move to another 
house tomorrow, order two hand-carts. 7. Go and buy live four-sen postcards 
and ten ten-sen stamps. 8. Please bring two knives. 9. There were some 
interesting story-books at Ogawa 's ; I bought four and sent them to my relations 
in the country. 10. How much is this (lower-vase ? 11. Twenty yen the pair. 
I can 't sell one by itself. 12. Two English steamers are expected tomorrow 
in the afternoon. 13. Taro 's boots are worn out, I'll buy him another pair. 
14. Have a smoke. 15. Thanks, the doctor says it's bad for my health, so I 
have given up smoking. 16. I want to check these three pieces of luggage to 
Seiulai. 17. Is there a shop where they sell foreign books ? 18. In this town 
there's not a single place where you can get foreign books. 19. I'm thirsty, 
get me a cup of tea. 20. Shall I call three rikishas ? 21. No, two will be quite 
enough, I haven 't got much luggage. 22. Bring me six nails like this. 28. 
Give the child half a dose of this medicine. 24. When I've written three or 
tour letters, I intend to go for a walk to Ueno. 25. The Khiiimis MPL- four 
altogether, and they are all girls. 



EXERCISE 68. 

Ordinal numbers. Study 284289. 

kaisha : a company (commercial) ; oto : after ; behind. 

offices of a company. ippai : full. 

tansu : chest of drawers. shiju : always. 

to : door. yatto : at last. 
tazune'ni : to visit ; inquire. 

1. Brown San ni aitai to omotte, san-do tazunernashita ga, shiju a rusu de, yo- 
tabi-me ni yatto au koto ga dekimashita (C). 2. Sam-bam-meno musuko wa Kobe 
de gakko no sensei ivo shite orimasu (C). 3. Alo kara ni-dai-me no kunnna ni 
notte ita no ga kondo gaikoku kara kaette kita Tanaka San no o-jo-san desu (C). 
4. Kono hako wa minna tamago ga haitte iru no de gozaimasu ka ? (D). 5. lie. 
ni-bam-me no wa tamago no hakoja arimasen (C). 6. Yubin-kyoku kara rok-kem- 
me no uchi ga tomodachi no uchi da (B). 7. Migi kara roku-satsu-me no lion ma 
yokoshite kudasai (C). 8. Yottsu-me no isu ni koshi-kaket.e iru no ga Sugita to 
itte, watashi no kaisha ni iru otoko desu (C). 9. Te-bukuro zco daslilte o kit re : 
tansu no shita kara ni-bam-me no hikidashi ni haitte iru (A). 10. Tokyo e kit*' 
mi-bam-me ni o-kaji ga arimashlta (C). 11. Ima tabeta rtashi tea Iiajime no uv/ o/- 
shikatta ga, tsugi no wa mazukatta (B). 12. Konodensha tea ipi>ai dexu kara, ato 
no ninorimasho (C). 13. Mae no Ei-go no sensei wa Amerika-jin deshita ga. ima 
no wa Igirisu-jin desu (C). 14. Ichi-ban shimai ni deru hito wa to wo shimele 
kudasai (C). 15. Tsugi no teishaba de oriru no de gozaimasu (D). 16. Sufeixhtm 
e wa do ikeba yo gozaimasu ka? (D). 17. Ni-bam-me no kado wo hidari e inaguite. 
liuxlii :co wataru to sugu ni suteishon desu (C). 18. Tana ni am, inigi kara iniltxu- 
me no oki na tsubo wo motle o-ide nasai (A). 19. Futa-hako-mc no iutxhi wa 
kuftatta no ga mittsu atta (B). 20. Asa okitara ichi-ban hajime ni to wo akele 
o kure (A). 21. Kono densha wa Shinagawa e ikimasu ka? (C). 22. lie, Shi- 
nagawa-yuki wa kono ato desu (C). 23. Go-bam-me no musuko wa islta ni naritai 
to itte benkyo shite imasu (C). 



1. I wanted to see Mr Brown so I went to his house three times, but lu 
always out ; I was able at last the fourth time to see him. 2. My thin! son is 
teaching at a school in Kobe. 3. The person riding in the last rikisha but one. 
is Miss Tanaka who arrived recently from abroad. 4. Are all these boxes full 
of eggs ? 5. No, the second one is not a box of eggs. 6. The sixth house from 
the post oHice is the house of one of my friends. 7. Hand me the sixtli hook 
from the right, please. 8. The man sitting on the fourth chair is called Sugita. 
he goes to the same office as I do. 9. Get me my gloves ; they are in the clu^t 
of drawers, the second drawer from the bottom. 10. The third night I was in 
Tokyo there was a big fire. 11. The first of the pears I've just eaten was very 
nice, but the next one was no good. J2. This tram-car is full, let's take t he- 
next one. 13. Our former teacher of English was an American, our present 
teacher is an Englishman. 14. The last one who leaves, please close the door. 
15. \Vegetoffatthenextstation. 10. How can I get to the station? 17. 
Take the second turning to the left and cross the bridge. 18. Briny the big 
jar from the shelf, the third from the right. 19. There uere three bad pears in 
the second box. 20. Open the door as soon as yon get up in the morning. 21. 
Does this tram-car go to Shinagawa ? 22. No, the following one is the Shinaga- 
wa tram-car. 23. The fifth son says he wants to be a doctor, lie is studying 
medicine. 



EXERCISE 69. 

Dales, Study 290-297. 

hi : day. odoroku : to be astonished. 

jishin : earthquake. tatsii : to start. 

senso : war. urnare'ru : to be born. 

hajimaru (intr.) : to begin, hajimete : for the first time. 

1. Meiji ni-ju-roku-nen ku-gatsti ni-ju-ni-nichi wa watakushi ga umareta hi de 
gozaimasu (D). 2. Yoroppa no dai-senso wa Taisho san-nen hachi-gatsu ni 
hajiinariiuashtia (C). 3. Wataku'shi ga hajimete Nihon e kita no wa Meiji san- 
ju-ni-nen no roku-gatsn tsuitachi deshita (C). 4. Kobe ni san-ka-nen ite, Meiji 
san-ju-go-nen ni Yokohama e kimashita (C). 5. Ano ko tea Taisho ni-nen 
shogatsu hatsv.ka ni umareta no desu (C). 6. Yokohama ni tsuite m.ikka-me ni 
6-jishin ga atte zuibun odorokirnashlta. Watashi wa jishin ga dai-kirai desu kara 
totem o nagaku koko ni iru koto rica deki-nai to omoimashita (C). 7. Watashi wa 
Rondon ni ni-ka-nen orimashita ga, yoku Ei-go ga hanasemasen (C). 8. Nihon 
kite futa-tsuki~me ni bydki ni natta (JR). 9. Rroivn San wa Nihon e kite hachi- 
nen-me de kcmdo kuni e kaeru no da so desti (C). 10. Chichi wa Meiji shi-jil-san- 
nen no 6-misoka ni shinimashita (C). 11. Ammari karada ga yokit arimasen kara, 
ni-ka-getsu gurai Kyoto no hen de asonde kurn tsumori desu (C). 12. Yamada San 
tea san-gatsii toka ni Rondon rro tatte, Nihon e kaeru to itte yokoshimashUa (C). 
13. Roku-nen-me de kaette kuru no desu. kara, iro-iro kawatte iru no ni odoroku 
desho (C). 14. Nii-san ga Amerika e o-ide nasaru so de gozaimasu ga, itsu o tachi 
nasalmasu ka? (D). 15. Ju-gatsd yoka ni tatsu to itte orimashita (C). 16. 
Atama ga itaku natte kara, mikka-me ni isha ni mite moraimashlta (C). 17. 
Nil/on e kite ini-tsuki-me ni Nihon-go no gakko e haitta (B). 18. Kono bydki 
ga sukkari naoru made ni wa ik-ka-getsu ijo kakaru (B). 19. Ano ginko wa Tai- 
$ho san-nen ni-gatsu yokka ni hajimeta no desu (C). 20. Nihon e kite kara ju- 
nen-me ni narimasu ga, watashi ga kita koro koko wa honto ni sabishii tokoro 
deshita (C). 

1. I was born on the 22nd of September, 1893. 2. The great war in Europe 
began in August, 1914. 3. I arrived in Japan for the first time on the 1st of 
June, 1899. 4. I was three years in Kobe and came to Yokohama in 1902. 5. 
That child was born on the 20th of January, 1913. 6. On the third day after 
my arrival in Yokohama there was a big earthquake which frightened me a 
great deal. I hate earthquakes so I thought I would never be able to live long 
in this place. 7. I was in London two years but I cannot speak English well. 
S. The second month after my arrival in Japan I fell ill. 9. It's eight yens 
since Mr Brown arrived in Japan. He's going back home for the first time now. 
10. My father died on the 31st of December, 1910. 11. I am not very well so 
I intend to go to Kyoto for a couple of months. 12. Mr Yamada writes savin-. 
that he is corning back to Japan and is starting from London on the 10th of 
March. 13. As it's six years since he was here he will be surprised to find many 
things changed. 14. 1 hear your brother is going to America, when does he 
start ? 15. He said he was starting on the 8th of October. 10. I had :\ head- 
ache three days before I went to see the doctor. 17. The third month after I 
arrived in Japan, I entered a school for learning Japanese. 18. It will he I-MUT 
than a month before you recover completely from this illness. 19. That hank 
was founded on the 4th of February, 1914. ' 20. It is now ten years since 
came to Japan, this was a very lonely place at that time. 



EXERCISE 70. 

Time. Study 298304. 

hiru-mae : forenoon. mukae'ru : to go out to meet ; welcome, 

hiru-fiugi ; him kara : afternoon. n(t}chi ; achira : there ; in that place. 

mon : gate. ko(t)chi ; kochira : here ; in this place. 

In/yd : sun. sakki : a short time ago. 

yak&soku : promise. mai- : (in compounds) every. 
nunni mo (with neg.) : nothing. 

1. Nan-ji de gozaimasu ka ? (D). 2. W atashi no tokei if a torn ait e itc tcakari- 
masen ga, yubin-kyoku no mae wo sakki totta toki go-fun de ku-ji deshita (C). 
3. Kono-goro zva roku-ji han goro ni taiyo ga deru (B). 4. Mai-ban ju-ji ni 
mon wo shimete o knre (A). 5. Ashlta asa no shichi-ji no klsha de oji nan ga 
irassharu so da kara, suteishon e niukae ni itte o-ide (A). 6. llaha TLY/ roku-jn- 
go ni narimasu ga, taiso jobu de go-nen-kan ichi-do mo isha ni ikittixe>> (('). 

7. Mise e toi desu kara, asa shichi-ji ni uchi wo de-nakereba ma ni aim awn (C). 

8. Asada San zva ban no ku-ji no klftha de atchi ?ro latte kuru no da kara, kotclii 
e tsuku no zva gozen rei-ji ni-jip-pun da (B). 9. Anata Tokyo e nichiyo ni iku 
nara issho ni ikimasho ka ? (C). 10. Hiru-mae ni o-ide nasaiinasu ka? iiiru-sugi 
de gozaimasu ka ? Wataicvshi wa hiru-mae wa tomodaehi no uchi e iku yakusoku 
wo shimashita kara, mairemaaen (D). 11. Kono ko vca muika-kan naniii mo 
tabe-nai de chichi bakari nonde imashlta (C). 12. Chichi 'ca kind gogo rei-ji go- 
jip-pun ni Kobe ni tsuita to itte dempo ?co yokoshima^hUa (C). 13. O-jo-san icu 
nan-ji no klsha de o l-aeri nasaimasuka? (D). 14. Him. no ju-ichi-ji no kisha 
de kaeru hazu de gozaimasu (D). 15. (hnae wa hint kara yftbin-kyoku c itte 
kite, sore kara nikai no soji wo shi nasai (A). 16. Mai-asa go-ji ni okite, icln- 
jikan han Ei-go wo benkyo shite kara, mise e iku no desu (C). 17. Mo hachi-ji 
jip-pun mae desu kara, isoide o-ide na^ai (B). 18. Konaidn no nichiyo UY/ him 
kara o-ame desMta (C). 19. Yokka-kan yama-nai de ame ga futta kara yane 
ga mom yo ni natta (B). 

1. What o'clock is it ? 2. My watch has stopped ; however, when I passed 
in front of the post office a few moments ago, it was five minutes to nine. 3, 
The sun is rising now at about half past six. 4. Close the gate every night at ten 
o'clock. 5. As your uncle (says he) is coming tomorrow morning by the seven 
o 'clock train go and meet him at the station. 0. My mother is sixty-five, but 
she is so healthy she hasn't seen a doctor once in five years. 7. The office is 
far (from my house), so I have to leave home at seven o'clock if I want to be 
in time. 8. Mr Asada is leaving by the nine o 'clock train, so he '11 arrive at twenty 
past twelve midnight. 9. If you are going to Tokyo on Sunday, let's >jn 
together. 10. Are you going in the morning or in the afternoon ? I can't <;o 
in the morning as I've promised to go to a friend's house. 11. This child has 
been eating nothing for six days, he has only been drinking milk. 12. My 
father sent a telegram saying he had arrived at Kobe yesterday at 12.50. 1H. 
By what train is your daughter corning back ? 14. I am expecting her by the 
eleven o'clock train. 15. After lunch go to the post office, and then do the 
rooms upstairs. 1C. I get up at five o'clock every morning, I study English 
for an hour and a half and then I go to the office. 17. It is already ten minutes 
to eight, so hurry up and go (to your work). 18. Last Sunday it rained very 
heavily in the afternoon. 19. It rained four days without stopping so Un- 
roof started leaking. 



EXERCISE 71. 

Various numerical expressions. Study 305 318. 

heikin : average. oki : omitting. 

sakunen : last year. ichi-nichi oki : every other day. 

maze'ru : to mix. no tame ni : on account of; for sake. 

mokaru : to be earned (of money). zutsu : each. 

hotondo : about. 

1. Kano machi no sam-bun no ichi wa gaikoku-jin no mise de gozaimasu (D). 
2. Kind inaka kara okutte yokoshita kudamono no hako wo akete mitara hambun wa 
kusatte ita (B). 3. Sakunen wa byoki no tame ni hotondo han-toshi nete kurashi- 
mashita (C). 4. Akambo ni yarn chichi wa chichi shlchi-bu ni mizu sam-bu 
mazete yatte o kure (A). 5. Kono hon wa nan-wari mokarimasu ka? (C). 6. 
Ni-wari go-bu mokarimasu (C). 7. Mai-nichi ichi-jikan zutsu Ei-go wo narao to 
amoimashita ga, ichi-jikan wo bai no ni-jikan ni shite, ichi-nichi oki ni shimashUa 
(C). 8. Kono hako zca ano hako no sam-bai hairu (B). 9. Taro San wa kazoe- 
doshi no ju-san de gozaimasu ka? (D). 10. lie, maru ju-san de gozaimasu (D). 
11. Ano miseni tea maru roku-nen orimasMta ga, kono-goro domo karada ga yoku 
<t rim asen k ara, yamemashita (C). 12. Raigetsu no go-roku-nich i goro ni Kyushu 
no ho e ryoko ni dekakeru tsumori desu (C). 13. Asuko no hashi woju-ni-san-nin 
no otoko ga naosMte ita (B). 14. O kyaku ga takusan aru ka? (B). 15. Ichi- 
nichi heikin hak-ku-nin gozaimasu (D). 16. Taihen oki na hon da kara, minna 
yakusu ni wa go-rok-ka-getsu wa kakaru daro (B). 17. Koppu ni mizu wo shlchi- 
bu hodo irete motte kite kudasai (C). 18. Ammari atama ga itai kara, ni-san- 
jikan nete iyo (B). 19. Kono kami wa sendatteno kami no hotondo bai no nedan 
desu ga, shina ga so yoku nai yd dem (C). 20. Konaida no o.-jishin de uchi ga 
hi/aku ni-san-jik-ken taoreta to shimbun ni dete imasu (C). 21. A no musunie wa 
jii-go-roku daro (B). 22. Kyonen me ga warukatta toki wa mi-tsuki-kan yomu 
koto mo kakii koto mo dekimasen deshita (C). 

1. A third of the shops in this town belong to foreigners. 2. When I opened 
the box of fruit that came from the country yesterday, I found that half were 
bad. 3. Last year I was ill in bed about six months. 4. The milk for the baby 
is to be seven parts milk and three parts water. 5. How much per cent, do you 
make on this book ? 6. Twenty-five per cent. 7. I thought of studying Eng- 
lish one hour every day, but instead of that I've decided to study two hours 
every other day. 8. This box holds three times as much as that one. 9. Is 
Master Taro thirteen according to the Japanese way of counting ? -10. No T he . 
has turned thirteen (European style). 11. I was six (complete) years in that 
office, but I left because I have not been well lately. 12. I intend to start on 
the 5th or the 6th of next month on a trip to Kyushu. 13. There were t \\d\c 
or thirteen men mending that bridge. 14. Have you got many customers ? 
15. On an average eight or nine a day. 16. It is such a big book that I expect 
it '11 take me five or six months to translate it all. 17. Bring me a tumblc-r 
about three quarters full of water. 18. I shall lie down for two or three hours, 
I've got such a headache. 19. This paper is almost twice as dear as what I had 
last time, but the quality is not so very good. 20. The newspaper says that a 
hundred and twenty or a hundred and thirty houses were wrecked by the big 
earthquake the other day. 21. I think that girl must be about fifteen or sixteen. 
22. Last year, when my eyes were bad, I wasn't able to read or write for three 
months. 



EXERCISE 72. 
Personal, possessive and reflexive pronouns. Study 319 327. 

filiinyo : confidence. nan to mo (with neg.) : nothing. 

shitaku : preparation. taigai : generally. 

nuu : to sew. iambi : as often as ; whenever. 

1. Baku no uchi no mon no soba ni am nashi no ki wa xhi-.en ni haeta no da to 
iu hanashi da (B). 2. Kimi tea Ei-go ga hanasemasA ka? (C). 3. Sono luiko wa 
omae san ni yarn kara atchi e motfe o-ide naxai (A). 4. Uchi no Hana-ko wa 
jibun de kimono wo nutte kimasu (from ki'ru to put on). 5. Kimi to boku to issho 
ni sampo ni deru iambi ni ame gafuru yd da (B). 6. Sensei-gata UY/. yo-ji made 
o-ide nasaimasu ga, seito wa taigai san-ji made ni kaetteshimaimasu (C). 7. Kono 
nashi wo mittsu zutsu ano kodomo-tachi ni yatte kudos ai (C). 8. Yattsu no Teruo 
wa mai-asa hitori de shitaku wo shite gakko e ikimasu (C). 9. Ana hito-1aclti wa 
Chosen e iku no da so desu (C). 10. Isogashii toki wa o tagai ni tetsudatie agelari, 
tetsudatte morattari shimasho (C). 11. Yarnada San ga Sendai de bydki in naif a 
to iu hanashi desu ga, honto desho ka ? (C). 12. Boku no ho e wa nan to mo lite 
yokosa-nai kara, wakara-nai ga, sonna koto wa nai daro (B). 13. Ano mise wa 
ftmniari shinyo ga nai to iu hanaxhi da (B). 14. Kono bydki wa kamawa-nakittte 
mo shizen ni naoriinasu (C). 15. Watashi ica Suzuki <co shinyo uln-nai (B). 16. 
Ano kiwa shizen ni karete shimatta (B). 17. Omae wa byd-nin da kara, hitori de 
klsha ni nottari shite wa ike-nai (A). .18. Sono hon wo ka-shlte tcudasaimasen ka ? 
(D). 19. Kore desu ka? J ibun no mono nara kashtte agemasu keredomo, kore 
wa tomodaclii no desu kara, kashite ageraremasen (C). 20. Ano oku-san wa niinna. 
jibun de kai ni ikimasu (C). 21. -Kara-da ga warukereba shizen benkyo ga deki- 
naku nant (B). 22. Taro wa kono-goro uchi e tegami i,.o yokosa-nai so da (1>). 
23. Nagasaki no chikaku ni shinrui ga ik-ken aru kara, kotoshi no natsti ittc m it/ft 
to omotte iru (B). 

1. They say the pear-tree by our gate grew by itself (i.e. was not planted). 2. 
Can you speak English 'i o. I'll give you that box, vu may take it. 4. My 
daughter Hana-ko sews her own dresses. 5. Whenever you and I go out 
together for a walk it's sure to rain. 0. The teachers stay until tour, but the 
pupils leave at three o'clock. 7. Give each of those children three pears. 8. 
My son Teruo is only eight but he gets ready and gees to school all by himself 
every morning. 9. I hear that those men are going to Korea. 10. Let's help 
each other,- when you've got a lot to do I'll help you and when I've got a lot of 
work to do please help me. 11. I hear that Mr Vamada has fallen sick at Sendai. 
I wonder whether it's true. 12. I haven't heard from him so I don't know, but 
1 don't think it's true. 13. It seems that that shop doesn't enjoy tin- con- 
fidence of the public. 14. You'll get over this illness without any special 
treatment (N atnre will do the work for you). 15.1 '\ e no confidence in Suzuki. 
16. That tree died of itself (nobody did anything to it). 17. V ou are an invalid, 
and you can't go travelling about by yourself. 18. Would you please lend me 
that book ? IS). Is this the one you mean ? If it were my own I'd lend it to 
you, but it belongs to a friend, so I can't. 20. That lady does all her shopping 
and marketing herself. 21. When one doesn't feel well one naturally becomes 
incapable of studying. 22. They say that Taro hasn't written home lately 
23. I have some relatives in the neighbourhood of Nagasaki (one house of 
relatives), 1 am thinking of g.. ing to see them this summer. 



EXERCISE 73. 

Relative pronouns and adverbs. Study 328 335. 

<aki-ya : empty, unoccupied house. koisaga.ru : to be afraid. 

kashi-ya : house to let, naku : to cry ; sing (of birds). 

poketto : pocket. inaku (intr.) : to boil. 

shibai : theatre ; theatrical play. yake'ru (intr.) : to become destroyed by 

su : nest. lire, burnt. 

betsu no (or na) : different. 

1. Yube no kaji de yaketa uchi wa aki-ya datta so da (B). 2. Konaida Sato 
San ga hanashita kashi-ya wo mi ni itte kimashlta ga, ammari semai desu kara, 
betsu na no wo sagasu tsumori desu (C). 3. Koko wa natsu Yamada San to Suzuki 
iSan ga kita tokoro desu (C). 4. Sakki iwareta koto wo mo wasurete shimatte, wata- 
shi wa do shita no daro ? (B). 5. Poketto ni aru mono wo o mise nasai (B). 6. 
Ano Into no hi no wo kaite kudasai (C). 7. Kobe ni itajibun ni ni-san-do ano hito 
no uchi wo tazuneta koto ga arimashita (C). 8. Igirisu ni ita toki sono shibai wo 
mimashlta ga, so omoshiroi to omoimasen deshlta (C). 9. Kimura San ga kuru 
made ni sono tegami tco kaite shimai nasai (A). 10. Ano ko zvajunsa no kao wo 
mini to kvwagatte nakimasu (C). 11. Taiyo ga hairu to tori ga su ni kaeru (B). 

12. Taiyo ga deru to tori ga naku (B). 13. Sono hon wo yonde shimattara, kondo 
wa mo sukoshi muzukashii no wo agemasho (C). 14. O yu ga waitara so itte o kure 
(A). 15. Shimbashi e tsuku to Taro to Jiro ga mukae ni kite ita (B). 16. Sono 
hanashi no aru hon ga arimasu kara, kashite agemasho (C). 17. Uchi kara o kane 
ga kitara ryoko ni dekakemasu (C). 18. Ima ototo ga itta koto wa tabun machigai 
daro (B). 19. Are ga Yamada San no irassharu kaisha de gozaimasu (D). 20. 
Kore wa uchi no Hana-ko ga kowagaru inu daro ka ? (B). 21. lie, sore j a ari- 
masen. Hana-ko ga kowagaru no wa Suzuki San no inu desu (C). 22. Ano kata 
no kaita mono wa shiju yonde orimasu (C). 23. Tone-gawa wo wataru to ante ga 
futte kite, ni-jikan hodo nurete aruita (B). 

1. They say that the house that was burnt by the fire last night was unoccu- 
pied. 2. I went to see the house to let which Mr Sato told me about the other 
day, however, it is too small, so I intend to look for another one. 3. This is 
where Mr Yamada and Mr Suzuki came in the summer. 4. I Ve already for- 
gotten what I was told just now, I wonder what's the matter with me. 5. 
Show me what you've got in your pocket. 6. Writedown what that man says. 

7. When I was 'in Kobe I went to (visit him at) his house two or three tiim-s. 

8. When I was in England I went to see that play, but I didn't think it so yi-ry 
amusing. 9. Have that letter written when Mr Kimura arrives. 10. Wlit-n 
that child sees a policeman he is afraid and starts crying. 11. When the sun 
sets, the birds return to their nests. 12. When the sun rises, the cock crows. 

13. When you've finished reading that book, I'll lend you one a little more dif- 
ficult. 14. When the water starts boiling, let me know. 15. When I arrived at 
Shimbashi, Taro and Jiro were there to meet me. 16. I have the book in which 
that tale is to be found, I'll lend it to you. 17. When funds arrive from home, 
I'll start on my journey. 18. What my brother said just now is perhaps a 
mistake. 19. That is the office Mr Yamada goes to. 20. Is this the dog Hana-ko 
is afraid of ? 21. No, that's not the one. Mr Suzuki's dog is the one Hana-ko 
is afraid of. 22. I always read what that man writes. 23. When we crossed 
the river Tone it started raining, and we had to walk two hours in the rain. 



EXERCISE 74. 

Demonstrative, interrogative, and indefinite pronouns and adverbs. Study 
Table I of 336, and 337353. 

kane-ire : purse. hakkiri : clearly. 

shimpai : anxiety ; worry. . shibaraku : some time ; a short while ; a 

tsumara-nai : worthless ; foolish. l n g while. 

aki'ru : to get tired of. 

1. Shibaraku Ei-go wo benkyo shite kara Igirisu e iku kangae desu (C). 2. Sore 
wa tsumara-nai j a arimasen ka? Muko e tsuite kara benkyo suru ho ga zutto haya- 
ku oboerareru desho (C). 3. Kore kara Yamada San ni henji wo kaite dashi ni iki- 
masu (C). 4. Kono han wo yonde shimatte, .sore kara hoka no wo goran nasai (B). 
5. Shujin wa yo-ji han ni kaette mairimasu kara, dozo sore made o machi kudaxai- 
masen ka ? (D). 6. Sato ica dono gurai ireru no de gozaimasu ka? (D). 7. Sore 
dake o kane wo motte ittara, takusan daro (B). 8. Are hodo itte kikasete io ma da 
wakara-nai no ka ? (A). 9. Konna yado-ya ni iru no wa akite shimatta (B). 10. 
Kono bin wa ko shite okureba daijobu daro ne? (B). 11. E, so nasareba mo xliini- 
pai wa arimasen (C). 12. O karada wa kono-goro ikaga de gozaima#u ka ? (D). 
13. Anata wa doko no suteishon kara o nori nasaimashita f (D). 14. Doko-ira de 
kane-ire wo otoshita n' desu ? (C). 15. Koko-ira datta to omoimasu ga, hakkiri 
wakarimasen (C). 16. Kino gakko kara o kaeri ni natte, nani wo nasaimashUa ? 
(D). 17. Are kara konaida katta Igirisu no shosetsu wo yonde iru to tomodachi ga 
kite, futari 'de sampo ni ikimashita (C). 18. Koko-ira ni o islia san ga arh)ianhd 
ka ? (C). 19. Ano hito zva to no toki ni omoi bydki wo shite, sore kara tate-naku 
natte shimatla no desu (C). 20. Kore made iku-do mo Ei-go wo oshieta koto ga 
arimasuga, llana-ko San no yd ni hayaku oboeta hito wa arimasen deshlta (C). 21. 
Sonna hon wo yonde wa ike-nai (A). 22. Annahanashi wa mo akite shimatta (\\). 
23. Mikka bakari atama ga itakutte nanni mo dekimasen, isha ni mite morao ka to 
owoimasu (C). 

1. After I have studied English for some time, I am thinking of going to Eng- 
land. 2. Surely that's not the way to do it. Go and study there, that's the 
way to learn quickly. 3. I'll now (write and) send Mr Yamada an answer (to 
his letter). 4. Read this book through, and after that, read another one. 5. 
My master will be back at half past four, please wait until then. 6. How much 
sugar shall I put in ? 7. If you take as much money as that, it will be quite 
enough. 8. Don 't you understand yet after having been told so often ? 9. I 'm 
sick of being in an inn like this. 10. If I send this bottle (packed) like this it 
will be quite safe, don't you think so ? 11. Oh yes, if you pack it like that, you 
needn't worry about it. 12. How have you been lately ? 13. At what station 
did you get on the train ? 14. Whereabouts did you lose your purse ? 15. I 
think it was somewhere about here, but I don't know for certain. 16. What 
did you do yesterday after you came back from school ? 17. (After thai) 
I read the English novel I bought the other day, and then a friend came and we 
both went for a walk. 18. I wonder if there's a doctor round about here? 19. 
That man had a serious illness when he was ten years of age. and since then he 
hasn't been able to stand. 20. (Up to now) I've very often taught English. 
but I've never found a person who learnt it as quickly as Miss Hana-ko. 
21. Don't read a book like that. 22. I'm tired of a tale like that. 23. I've 
had such a headache for three days, I haven't been able to do anything : I'm 
thinking of seeing a doctor. 



EXERCISE 75. 

Demonstrative, interrogative and indefinite pronouns and adverbs. Study 
the second column of Table II in 336. 

botan : button. nokoru : to remain ; be left over. 

netsu : fever. sagaru : to descend ; go down. 

shina-mono : articles ; goods. 

1. Rusii ni dare ka kit am, toka ni kaeru to itte o kure (A). 2. Dare ka boku no 
jibiki wo motte itte shimatta (B). 3. Donata ka Ei-go no deldru kata ni yonde o 
moral nasaru to yd gozaimasu (D). 4. Bozo kmw hana wo dore ka hitotsu kudasai- 
masen ka ? (D). 5. Shina-mono wo kaesu ka, kane wo harau ka dotchi ka ni shi- 
nakereba nara-nai (B). 6. Do ka shite ichi-do Fuji-san e nobotte mitai (B). 7. 
Konna atsui tokoro ni wa iraremasen kara, doko ka suzushii tokoro e ikimasho (C). 
8. Ko in botan ga hoshii no desu ga, Tokyo ni aru desho ka ? (C). 9. Tokyo-ju 
SOgashitara, doko ni kaaru daro (B). 10. Mada Ueno e itta koto ga arimasen kara, 
itsfi ka o hima no toki ni tsurete itte kudasai (C). 11. Sato wa mo nai ka? (A). 
12. Mada ikura ka nokotte imasu (C). 13. Go byo-nin wa do nasaimashita ka? 
(D). 14. Netsu wa ikura ka sagarimashita ga, atama no itai no wa kawara-nai to 
itte imasti, (C). 15. Kimura San ga inaka e o kaeri nasaru so desu kara, nani ka 
inaka ni nai mono wo katte Hana-ko San ni motte itte moraimashd (C). 16. Dare 
ka o isha son wo yobi ni itte kite o kure (A). 17. Dare ka ni michi tco o kiki nasai 
(A). 18. Donata ka kane-ire zvo otoshita kata wa arimasen ka? (C). 19. Itsu ka 
go tsugo no ii toki ni Enoshima e itte kimasho (D). 20. Sono hon wo yonde 
fihimatiara Jiro ka dare ka ni o yari nasai (B). 21. Kono kami wa hakuraiyori 
yasu gozaimasu ga, shina ga ikura ka warui yd de gozaimasu (D). 22. Nodo ga 
kawaita ; nani ka nomu mono wo o kure (A). 23. Ei-go ka Furansu-go ka, dotchi 
ka hitotsu narau tsumori desu (C). 24. Yamada San wa moto doko ka kono kinjo 
ni ita koto ga aru so desu (C). 

1. If anyone comes while I am away, tell him that I'll be back on the 10th. 
2. Somebody has taken my dictionary. 3. You had better get somebody who 
knows English to read it to you. 4. Will you please give me one of these flowers? 
5. I must either return the goods or pay the money. 6. I would like to manage 
somehow to go up Mount Fuji once. 7. I can't live in a place as hot as this, 
let 's look out for a cooler place. 8. I want some buttons like this. I wonder 
whether there are any to be had in Tokyo. 9. If you look all over Tokyo you 
will probably find some like it somewhere. 10. I have never been to Ueno yet. 
Some day when you are free please take me there. 11. Is there no more sugar ? 
12. There's still a little left. 13. How is the patient ? 14. The fever is some- 
what less, but he says his headache is as bad as ever. 15. I hear that Mr Kimura 
is going back to his house in the country, I must buy something which they 
haven 't got in the country for Miss Hana-ko. and ask him to take it to her. Hi. 
One of you (servants) go and call the doctor; (or: Go and call any doctor). 17. 
Ask somebody the way. 18. Has anybody lost his purse ? 19. Some day 
when convenient to you let's go to Enoshima. 20. When you've finished read- 




bring me something 
24. They say that Mr Yamada formerly used to live somewhere in this neigh- 
bourhood. 



EXERCISE 76. 

Demonstrative, interrogative and indefinite pronouns and adverbs. Study 
the third column of Table II in 336. 

arashi : storm. karappo no : empty. 

chawan : teacup. korobu : to fall down. 

kan : tin-can. soto : outside ; exterior. 

rosoku : candle. ura : the back ; rear, 
teburu : table. 

1. Uchi de wa dare mo tabako wo noma-nai (B). 2. Dare ka kimashtta ka? (C). 
3. Kyo wa donata mo o-ide ni narimasen deshlta (D). 4. Kono nashi wa dore 
mo kusatte ite taberare-nai (B). 5. Ano futatsu no teburu wa dotchi mo cliumnn 
shite koshiraesashlta no desu (C). 6. Sendatte no arashi de ura no ki ga ni-xam- 
bon taoremashlta ga, uchi wa do mo narimasen deshlta (C). 7. Otdto san ga ftakki 
mon no soto de koronda so desu ga, doko ka kega wa shimasen deshlta ka? (C). 8. 
Arigato gozaimasu, doko mo itaku tea shimasen deshlta (C). 9. Ko iu chawan ti </ 
kaitai to omotte hobo kiite mita ga, doko ni mo nakatta (B). 10. Itsu mo kau mix? 
de o kai nasai (B). 11. Shio iva ano tsubo ni ikura mo aru (B). 12. Omae wa 
ikutsu mo nashi ga aru no da kara, sukoshi Mitsu-ko San ni o age nasai (A). 13. 
Hakodate e wa iku-do mo mairimashita kara, yoku shitte imasti (D). 14. So iu 
rosoku nara nam-bon mo aru (B). 15. Ano kan ni wa nanni mo gozaimasen ; 
karappo de gozaimasu (D). 16. Kononaka ni dore ka anata nohon ga arima*u ka'? 
(C). 17. lie, dore mo watakushi no de wa gozaimasen (D). 18. Watashi wa Ei- 
go mo Furansu-go mo dotchi mo hanasemasen (C). 19. Ano kata no o niwa ni KY/ 
sakura no ki ga iku-hon mo gozaimasu (D). 20. Suzuki Tama-ko to iu hlto no 
koto wo shitte imasu ka? (C). 21. lie, watashi wa nanni mo shirimasen (C). 22. 
Ryoko shita koto ga arimasen kara, Tokyo no hoka wa doko mo shirimasen (C). 23. 
Fund shimbun wo go-roku-mai kudasaimasen ka? (D). 24. E, ikura mo arinuisu 
kara, hoshii dake o tsukai nasai (C). 25. Ano hito wa itsu mo mise e iku toki 
densha de au hlto da (B). 

1. At home nobody smokes. 2. Did anybody come ? 3. Nobody has come 
today. 4. Every one of these pears is bad, not one is fit to eat. 5. Both of 
those tables were made to order. 6. The storm the other day blew down two or 
three of the trees at the back of the house, but no damage was done to the house 
itself. 7. I hear that your brother fell down outside the gate, has he hurt him- 
self (anywhere) ? 8. Thanks, he didn 't hurt himself at all. 9. I wanted to 
buy some teacups like this and I asked everywhere, but I couldn't find any 
anywhere. 10. Buy it at the same shop you always go to. 11. There's any 
amount of salt in that jar. 12. As you've got any amount of pears, give a few 
to Miss Mitsu-ko. 13. I know Hakodate quite well, I've been there any number 
of times. 14. If that's the kind of candle (you are referring to) I've got any 
number. 15. There's absolutely nothing in that tin-can, it's empty. 1(5. Arc- 
any of these books yours ? 17. No, none of them are mine. 18. I can neither 
speak English nor French. 19. There are any number of cherry-trees in that 
gentleman's garden. 20. Can you give me any information about a person 
called Tama-ko Suzuki ? 21. No. I knou nothing at all about her. 22. As 
1 've never travelled, 1 knoAv no place outside of Tokyo. 23. Would you please 
give me a few old newspapers ? 24. I've got any amount, so take as many as 
you want. 25. That's the man I always meet in the tram-ear when I'm going 
to the office. 



EXERCISE 77. 

Demonstrative, interrogative and indefinite pronouns and adverbs. Study 
the fourth column of Table II in 336. 

fude : writing-brush. teinei na : polite ; careful. 

hasami : scissors. mitsukaru : to become found ; be found. 

kanshin : admiration. ossharu (polite) : to say ; speak. 

katte : convenience. ya : a copulative particle ; and.' 
rambo na : disorderly ; unruly. 

1. Ano musume wa yoku ototo ya imoto no sewa wo shimasu kara, dare de mo 
kanshin shite imasu (C). 2. Donata de mo omae wa rambo da to ossharu (A). 3. 
Koko ni am hasami wa dore de mo tsukatte ii no desu ka ? (C). 4. Fude de mo, 
pen de mo, dotchi de mo o tsulmi nasai (C). 5. Ueno e doyo-bi ni ikimasho ka, 
nichiyo ni ikimasho ka? (C). 6. Do de mo omae no katte ni nasai (A). 7. Nihon 
zva doko de mo roku-gatsu ame gafuru no desu ka ? (C). 8. Ashita ichi-nichi hima 
wo yarn kara, doko ni de mo katte na tokoro e itte asonde o-ide (A). 9. Hon no 
wakara-nai tokoro wo oshiete itadakitai no desuga, itsu agareba yo gozaimasho ? (D). 
10. Gogo nara itsu de mo uchi ni imasu kara, o-ide nasai (C). .11. Byoki nara 
ikura de mo kane wo tsukatte ii (B). 12. Koppu wa ikutsu de mo ano hako ni aru 
(B). 13. Iku-do de mo oboeru made yoma-nakereba nara-nai no desu (C). 14, 
Chiisa na kashi-ya nara nan-gen de mo atta no desuga, oki na no ga mitsukarimasen 
(C). 15. Ano Into no sum koto wa nan de mo teinei da (B). 16. Kono niwa wa 
dare de mo hairemasu ka ? (C). 17. Hat, donata de mo haitte goran ni natte yd 
gozaimasu (D). 18. Ano hito wa watashi ga iku to itsu de mo hon wo yonde iru (B). 
19. Akai empitsu ga gozaimasu ka ? (D). 20. Kuroi no wa nam-bon de mo aru ga, 
akai no wa ip-pon mo nai (B). 21. Oji san ni itadaita o kane de hon wo katte yd 
gozaimasu ka. ? (D). 22. Nan de mo omae no suki na mono wo o kai nasai (A). 
23. Kono hasami iva Tokyo ni aru deshd ka? (C). 24. E, doko ni de mo arimasn 
(C). 25. Dore de mo yd gozaimasu kara, kono e zvo ichi-mai kudasaimasen ka ? 
(D). 26. E, dore de mo ii no wo agemasho (C). 

1. Everybody admires that girl, she takes such care of her little brother and 
sister. 2. Everybody says you are very unruly. 3. May I use any of the 
scissors here ? 4. Use either a brush or a pen. 5. Shall I go to Ueno on Satur- 
day, or on Sunday ? 6. Do just as you like. 7. Does it rain everywhere in 
Japan during the month of June ? 8. I '11 give you a holiday tomorrow, you can 
go and enjoy yourself wherever you like. 9. I wish you'd explain to me some 
things I don 't understand in my book, when can I go to see you ? 10. Come 
some day in the afternoon, I'm always in. 11. In case of illness, it doesn't 
matter how much money is spent. 12. There are any number of tumblers in 
that box. 1 3. You must read it over and over again until you know it (by heart). 

14. There were any number of small houses to let, but I couldn 't find a big one. 

15. Everything that man does, he does carefully. 16. May anybody visit 
this garden ? 17. Yes. anybody may go in and see it. 18. Whenever I go, 
that man* is always reading. 19. Have you got a red pencil ? 20. I've 
any number of black pencils, but I haven 't got a red one. 21. May I buy a book 
with the money my uncle gave me ? 22. Buy whatever you like. 23. I wonder 
M'hether I can get scissors like this in Tokyo ? 24. Oh yes, you can get them 
anywhere. 25. Would you please give me one of these pictures ? I don't mind 
which. 26. Certainly, I'll give you the one you like best. 



EXERCISE 78. 

Honorific verbs. Study 354363. 

shashin : photograph. kekkd na : splendid ; excellent. 

yoroshii (hardly ever used attribu- tadaima : at present ; soon ; just now. 
tively) : good. zehi : by all means ; without fail. 

1. Nani shimbun wo goran ni narimasu ka ? (D). 2. Yamada San no banchi 
wa o to-san ga go zonji de gozaimasu (D). 3. Nii-san wa inaka e o-ide nas'tte 
kara, taihen o futori desu ne (C). 4. Saito San wa Ei-gn wa go zonji de (wa) 
gozaimasen ga, Furansu-go wa taiso yoku o deki no hazu de gozaimasil (D). 5. 
Tegami wo kakimashite gozaimasu ga, kore de yoroshiii gozaimasho ka ? (D). 6. 
Yamada San wa ku-ji ni wa o yasumi no hazu de gozaimasu kara, ima o-ide 
nasaimashlte mo, o me ni kakaru koto wa dame de gozaimasho (D). 7. Oku-sama 
wa tadaima shimbun wo yonde irasshaimasu (D). 8. Konaida Hana-ko San wo o 
tazune itashimashitara, Furansu-go no hon wo o yomi de irasshaimashita (D). 9. 
Kondo o-ide kudasaimasu toki zehi o-jo-san wo o tsure mdshite kudasai (D). 10. 
Nani wo go shimpai nas'tte irasshaimasu ka ? (D). 11. Yamada San ga Rondon 
no shimbun wo totte o-ide no hazu da kara, sengetsu no tdka no wo karite kite o kure 
(A). 12. Sendatte gaikoku ni iru ane ga shashin wo yokoshimashita kara, o we ni 
kakemashd ka ? (D). 13. Hai, haiken itashimashd (D). 14. Kind chddai itashi- 
mashita kudamono wa makoto ni kekko de gozaimashita (D). 15. Tard no sense i 
ni o me ni kakatte, sono koto wo mdshi-agete kudasai (C). 16. Byo-nin ga taiso 
netsu ga demashite gozaimasu kara, sugu ni o-ide kudasiiimasu yd o tanomi moshi- 
masu (D). 17. Kono tegami wo o to-san ni o me ni kakete kudasai (C). 18. 
Danna sama wa nan-ji no kisha de o kaeri de irasshaimasu ka ? (D). 19. Mada 
tegami ga mairimasen kara, wakarimasen (D). 20. Kono-goro Suzuki San wa 
isshokemmei de Furansu-go wo go benkyo de irassharu so de gozaimasu (D). 21. 
Watashi wa ltd desu ga, go shujin ni o me ni kakaritai desu (C). 22. Do~o tt/io 
hon wo haiken sashtte kudasaimasen ka ? (D). 23. O to-san wa atamaga itakuttc 
irassharu kara, jama wo shi-nai yd ni o shi nasai .(A). 

1. What newspaper do you read ? 2. Your father knows Mr Yamada 's 
address. 3. Your brother has become much stouter since he is in the country. 
4. Mr Saito doesn 't know English, but I understand that he knows French very 
well. 5. I have written the letter, will it do ? 6. I understand Mr Yamada 
goes to bed at nine, so you couldn 't see him even if you went to his house now. 
7. My mistress is reading the newspaper- now. 8. When I went to see .Miss 
Hana-ko the other day, she was reading a French book. 9. When you come 
next time be sure to bring your daughter with you. 10. W'hat arc you worrying 
about ? 11. I have reason to believe that Mr Yamada takes in a London 
newspaper, go and ask him to lend me the paper of the 10th of last month. 12. 
My sister who is abroad sent her photograph the other day, would you like to 
see it ? 13. Yes, please show it to me. 14. The fruit you kindly gave me 
yesterday was simply exquisite. 15. Go to Taro's master and tell him that, 
(what we've been speaking about). 16. The patient has developed a high fever ; 
so I beseech you to come immediately. 17. Please show this letter to your 
father. 18. By what o'clock train is your master returning ? 19. I haven't 
received a letter yet, so I don't know. 20. I hear Mr Suzuki is studying French 
very hard. 21. My name is ltd, can I see your master ? 22. Would you 
please show me that book ? 23. Your father has a headache, so don 't bother 
him in any way. 



EXERCISE 79. 

Honorific nouns. Study 364378. 

kuro : trouble ; labour. sitmu : to be easy in mind ; (especially 

o-itoma : leave ; discharge. used in the neg. in sentences said to 

(o) seji : politeness ; civility ; beg somebody's pardon). 

flattery. ainiku : unfortunately. 

sake-nomi : drunkard. rvari ni : relatively ; comparativelv. 

I. Ano onna wa sake-nomi wo teishu ni matte shiju kuro shite iru (B). -2. Yado 
a'fl tadaima Kobe e mairimashite, ntsu de gozaimasu (D). 3. A no sentaku-ya no 
o-kami-san tea o seji ga ii (B). 4. Taku wa nichiyo ni wa itsu mo kodomo wo 
tsurete Ueno e sampo ni mairimasu (D). 5. Dozo anata no o shashin wo ichi-mai 
kudasai (D). 6. Omae wa ikura itte mo o-shaberi ga naora-nakereba hima wo 
yarn (A). 7. KJIO wa taihen o samu gozaimasu (D). 8. Kono kutsu wa o yasui 
wari ni jobu ni dekite orimasu (D). 9. Gaikoku-go wo go benkyo nasaru nara, o 
wakai toki ni o hajime nasaru ho ga yoroshiu gozaimasu (D). 10. O-kage sama de 
Taro ga taiso jobu ni narimashita (D). 11. Kind wa O Kiku wo gakko e tsurete 
itte kudas'tte domo o sewa sama deshita (C). 12. Go-kuro sama desu ga, konc 
nimotsu wo nikai e agete kudasai (C). 13. O jama itashimashita, mo o-itoma 
itashimasho (D). 14. Go-busata itashimashite, makoto m sumimasen (D). 15. 
Ainiku tadaima kono kami wa gozaima^en, domo o kinodoku sama de gozaimasu 
(D). 16. Moshi o isogashiu gozaimasen deshltara kono tegami wo Ei-go ni yaku- 
shlte itadakito gozaimasu (D). 17. Go-busata shite orimashita ga, mina-san o 
kawari wa gozaimasen ka ? (D). 18. Arigato gozaimasu, o-kage sama de minna 
jobu de gozaimasu (D). 19. Danna sama wa kaisha ni itte irasshaimasu ka ? 
(D). 20. Taku wa kono- goro karada ga warui to moshimashite, kongetsu kara, 
kaisha wo yamemashita (D). 21. Ano onna no teishu wa daiku da (B). 22. 
Tonari.no o-kami-san wa o seji ga nakute suki desu (C). 

1. That woman has got a drunkard for a husband with the result that she 
is always in some trouble or other. 2. My husband is not at home, he has gone 
to Kobe. 3. That laundry-man's wife is very civil and well-spoken. 4. .My 
husband always takes the children for a walk to Ueno on Sunday. 5. Please 
jive me your photograph. 6. It's no use speaking to you, so if you don 't 
correct yourself of talking so much, I shall have to dismiss you. 7. It's very 
cold today. 8. These boots are cheap and considering the price, they are 
strongly made. 9. If you are going to study a foreign language you'd better 
start while you are young. 10. Thanks to you Taro is now quite strong. 11. 
Thank you for kindly taking Kiku to school yesterday. 12. I am very sorry to 
trouble you, but would you please take these bags upstairs ? 13. Excuse me 
for having interrupted you ; I will now take my leave. 14. I Ve been sadly 
remiss about calling upon you, I am really quite ashamed of myself. 15. I am 
sorry but unfortunately I have no paper like this at present. 1C. If you are 
not busy now, I wish you would translate this letter into English for me. 17. I 
hope you '11 excuse my not having called upon you lately ; how is every- 
body at home ? 18. Thanks (to you) everybody is quite well. 19. Does your 
husband go to the office ? 20. My husband (says he) has not been well lately, 
he left off going to the office from the beginning of this month. 21. That 
woman's husband is a carpenter. 22. I like that uoman next door, she's not 
jriven to flatterv. 



EXERCISE 80. 

Postpositions and Quasi-postpositions. Study 379 388. 

kagen : state of one's health. noroi : slow (in a bad sense). 

shokuji : a meal. taclii-domaru : to stop while walking. 

sodan : consultation. kawari : alteration ; instead of ; on the 

unchin : charge for transportation ; other hand, 
carriage ; cartage. 

1. Kono hon wa dare ni de mo hoshii hito ni ageru no de.su (C). 2. Shinda im 
tea oki na inu desu ka ? (C). 3. lie, oki na no de wa ariniasen. chiisa na ho de.fil 
(C). 4. Sonojibiki wo uru no wa nii-san ni sodan shite kara no koto ni nasai (A). 
5. Kono nimotsu wo kisha de okuritai no desu ga, Niigata made no unchin ica ikuni 
dfsu ? (C). 6. Sumimasen ga, shokuji wo shimasu aida o machi kudasai (C). 7. 
Kono empitsu wa takai kawari ni shina ga ii (B). 8. Chobei wa nani wo shite mo 
noroi koto wa noroi ga, sono kawari ni teinei da (B). 9. Hashi no ue de inu ga 
kenka wo shite iru to soba wo toru hito ga minna tachi-domatte tnitc inuixhita ; (toko 
no soba). (C). 10. kagen ga warui nara watashi ga kaicari ni kai-mono ni 
itte kimasho ; (anata no kawari). (C). 11. Kono niwa wa dare ga mite mo i> >i<> 
desu ka ? (C). 12. Hai, yoroshiu gozaimasu, haitte naka wo goran kudasai (D), 
13. Tansu no ue no omocha wa tonari no o-jo-san ni ageru tsumori de kalte kit a 
no desu (C). 14. Kimi-ko San no uchi wa ano yubin-kyoku no ura da (B). 15. 
Ginko wa Jiashi no muko janai, kotchi da (B). 16. Enoshima e iva Kamakura 
l-ara de mo, Fujisawa kara de mo ikaremasu (C). 17. Kore wa anata no tokei 
desu ka ? (C). 18. lie, watashi no wa sonna oki nan' ja arimasen (C). 19. Kono 
tegami wo dasu no wa Yamada San ni misete kara ni shiyo (B). 20. Ano yamu 
no ue ni yuki ga arimasu ka ? (C). 21. E, natsu de mo arimasii (C). 22. Hon- 
ya no mae ni kuroi oki na inu ga ita (B). 23. Anewa atamaga itai to moslrimaxn 
kara, watakushi ga kawari ni mukae ni mairimashita (D). 24. Ano mise de kai- 
mono wo shite kimasu kara, sono aida o machi kudasai (C). 

1. I'll give a copy of this book to whoever wants one. 2. Was it the big dog 
that died ? 3. No, it wasn't the big one, it was the little one. 4. Consult your 
brother before selling that dictionary. 5. I want to send this piece of luggage 
by train, what would the charge be to Xiigata ? 6. Excuse me, but would you 
mind waiting while I have my dinner ? 7. This pencil is dear, but on the other 
hand the quality is good. 8. There's no denying that Chobei takes a long time- 
about everything, but on the other hand he works very carefully. 9. Two d<><f 
were fighting on the bridge, and all the passers-by stopped to look at them. 10. 
If you are not feeling well I'll go and do the shopping for you. 11. May any- 
body visit this garden ? J2. Yes, please go inside and see the interior. 13. 
I bought the toy which is on the chest of drawers with the intention of giving 
it to the little girl next door. 14. Miss Kimi-ko 's house is at the back of 
that post office. 15. The bank is not on the other side of the bridge, it's on 
this side. 16. You can go to Enoshima either from Kamakura or from Fuji- 
sawa. 17. Is this your watch ? 18. No, mine is not such a big one. 19. I 
won't send this letter until I've shown it to Mr Yamada. 20. Is there any 
snow on the top of that mountain? 21. Yes, there's snow even in summer. 
22. There was a big black dog in front of the bookseller's. 23. As my sister 
(says she) has a headache, I have come to meet you in her stead. 24. I'm j 
going to that shop to buy something, please wait till I come back. 



EXERCISE 81. 

Wa and Ga. Study 389392. 

(o) bon : tray. ushiro : the back ; behind. 

garasu : glass. koware'ru (intr.) : to break ; be broken 

kawa : leather. or ruined. 

1. Kore wa chichi ga seiyo kara tsurete kita inu degozaimasu (D). 2. Mizu wa 
dono gurai iremasho ka ? (C). 3. Chichi shlchi-bu ni mizu sam-bu irete o kure 
(A). 4. Yamada San no ushiro de hon -wo yonde iru hito wa donata desho ? (C). 
5. O ban wa mono-oki ni arimasu kara, dashite kudasai (C). 6. Hoka no hito ga 
ko-nakulte mo Suzuki San wa kitto kuru (B). 7. Kore wa anata no te-bukuro de 
gozaimasho ka ? (D). 8. lie, ano kawa no ga watashi no desu (C). 9. Kore ga 
o-jo-san no o-ide nasaru gakko de gozaimasu ka?(D). 10. lie, kore wa uchi no 
musume no gakko de wa gozaimasen ; Ueno koen no shita ni aru no ga musume no 
iku gakko de gozaimasu (D). 11. Dare ga ano mado no garasu wo kowashita no 
da ? (A). 12. Jishin de kowareta no degozaimasu (D). 13. Watashi wa Hakone 
yori (*) Chiizenji ga zutto suki de gozaimasu (D). 14. Kane ga nakutte ryoko 
ga deki-nai no ka mo sliiremasen (C). 15. Taro wa doko ga warui no daro ? (B). 
16. Ha ga itai no desho (C). 17. Fuji-san no takasa wa dono gurai arimasu ka? 
(C). 18. Kono tegami wa Hakodate kara koko made yokka kakarimashita (C). 
19. Sato ga mo gozaimasen kara, katte mairimasho (D). 20. Tanaka San wa 
irasshaimashita ga, Suzuki San wa mada o mie ni narimasen (D). 21. Dono 
jibiki ga ii daro ? (B). 22. Kore ga ii yd da (B). 23. Kochira mo nichiyo ni ame 
ga furimashita ka ? (C). 24. Ame wafurimasen deshita ga, o-kaze de soto e dent 
koto ga dekimasen deshita (C). 25. Tatte iru no wa Yamada San ja arimasen ; 
teburu no soba ni koshi-kakete iru no ga Yamada San desu (C). 26. Inu ga kaette 
kimashtta ka? (C). 27. Kuroi nowa kaerimashita ga, shiroi no wa hobo sagasase- 
mashita keredomo, mada miemasen (C). 28. Inu ya neko ga o suki desu ka ? 
(C). 29. Inu wa suki desu ga, neko wa iya desu (C). 30. Dore ga anata no o kutsu 
de gozaimasu ka ? (D). 31. Sono akai no ga boku no da (B). 

1. This is a dog my father brought from abroad. 2. How much water shall 
I put in ? 3. Putin seven parts of milk and three parts of water. 4. I wonder 
who the gentleman is, reading a book behind Mr Yamada ? 5. There are some 
trays in the pantry, take them out. 6. Even if nobody else comes, Mr Suzuki 
is sure to come. 7. Are these your gloves ? 8. No, those leather ones are mine. 
9. Is this the school your daughter goes to ? 10. No, this is not the school she 
goes to, she goes to the school at the foot of Ueno park. 11. Who broke (the 
glass of) that window ? 12. It was broken in the earthquake. 13. I much 
prefer Chuzenji to Hakone. 14. I dare say the reason that he can't go travel- 
ling is that he has no money. 15. What's the matter with Taro ? 16. I think 
he has a toothache. 17. How high is Mount Fuji ? 18. This letter took three 
days to come from Hakodate here ? 19. There's no more sugar, so I'll go and 
buy some. 20. Mr Tanaka is here, but Mr Suzuki hasn't come yet. 21. Which 
dictionary is the best ? 22. This one appears to be the best. 23. Did it also 
rain here on Sunday ? 24. It didn't rain but the wind was so strong it was 
impossible to go out of doors. 25. Mr Yamada is not the man standing, he's 
the man sitting near the table. 26. Have the dogs come back ? 27. The black 
dog has come back, but the white one is not to be found anywhere. 28. Do 
you like dogs and cats ? 29. I am fond of dogs but I don 't like cats. 30. 
\VWch are your boots ? 31. Those brown ones are mine. 



EXERCISE 82. 

De and Ni. Study 393. 

hayashi : wood ; forest. ijasai : vegetables. 

hiru-meshi : lunch. osoroshii : fearful. 

kage : shadow ; shelter. ureshii : joyful. 

tani : valley. same'ru (intr.) : to wake. 

1. Ginko de ju-nen ijo awa-nakatta tomodachi ni atte, ureshikatta (B). 2. 
Hakone ni is-shukan hodo tomatte, sore kara hobo aruku tsumori desu (C). 3. 
Yasai wa lisa de mo ano kado no mise de kaimasu (C). 4. Onaka ga suita ga, 
doko de hiru-meshi wo taJbeyd? (B). 5. Ano hayashi no naka de tabeyoja nai ka? 
(B). 6. Watashi no mura ni wa gakko ga arimasen kara, rninna tonari mura no 
gakko eiku no desu (C). 7. Anatano tokoro ni ka ga takilsan imasu ka? (C). 8. 
Kagen ga warukereba aruite ika-nai de, kuruma de o-ide nasai (B). 9. O to-san 
ni so iwaremashita (C). 10. Yube no arashi de me ga samemasen deshita ka ? (C). 

11. Anata-gata no naka ni (or de) Chosen e itta koto ga aru hito ga imasu ka ? (C). 

12. Sono hako wa ki de dekite iru no desu ka ? (C). 13. Konaida o me ni kaketa 
hana-ike wa ni-ju-yen de katta no de gozaimasu ga, ni-ju-hachi-yen ni urimashita 
(D). 14. Ano yama no kage wafukai tani de, osoroshii tokoro de gozaimasu (D). 
15. Are wa kinu ni miemasu ga, honto no kinuja nai no desu (C). 16. Kono 
machi ni hoteru ga gozaimasu ka ? (D). 17. Yado-ya nara gozaimasti ga, hoteru 
wa gozaimasen (D). 18. Ano ki no kage de shibaraku yasumo (B). 19. Aruite 
mairimasho ka ? (D). 20. Osoku naru to ikemasen kara, densha de mairimashd 
(D). 21. Shina-jin ni wa Ei-go no jozu na hito ga takusan arimasu (C). 22. 
Kono koppu wa muttsu ni-yen de katta no desu (C). 23. Ano mise ni iva taihett 
Ei-go no umai hito ga hltori iru (B). 24. Kesa mise e iku toki densha de Yamada 
San ni atta (B). 25. Donata ka o ko san ga go byoki de irasshaimasu ka ? (D). 
26. Jiro ga shi-go-nichi mae kara kagen ga warukutte netc imasu, keredomo shim- 
pai na byoki de wa arimasen (C). 

1. I had the pleasure of meeting at the bank a friend whom I had not seen 
for more than ten years. 2. I intend to stop about a week at Hakone and after 
that to go touring on foot. 3. I always buy my vegetables at that corner shop. 
4. I 'm hungry, where shall we eat our lunch ? 5. Let 's eat it in that wood. 6. 
There 's no school in our village, so the children have to go to the school in the 
neighbouring village. 7. Are there many mosquitos in your house ? 8. If 
you are not feeling well don 't walk, go by rikisha. 9. I was told so by my 
father. 10. Weren't you woken by the wind last night? 11. Have any of 
you ever been to Korea ? 12. Is that box made of wood ? 13. The flower- 
vase I showed you the other day I bought for twenty yen, and I sold it for 
twenty-eight yen. 14. On the other side of that mountain there's a deep 
ravine, it's an awe-inspiring place. 15. That looks like silk, but it's not 
real silk. 16. Is there a hotel in this town ? 17. There are native inns, but 
there is no foreign-style hotel. 18. Let's rest a while under that tree (in the 
shade of that tree). 19. Shall we go on foot ? 20. As it wouldn 't do to arrive 
late, let's go by tram-car. 21. A great many of the Chinese can speak English 
quite well. 22. I bought six of these tumblers for two yen. 23. There's a 
man at that shop who speaks very good English. 24. This morning, going to 
the office, I met Mr Yamada in the tram-car. 25. Is one of your children ill ? 
26. Jiro is not feeling well, he has been in bed four or five days ; however, it's 
nothing to worry about. 



EXERCISE 83. 
Adverbs. Study 394403. 

mihon : sample. tate'ru : to set up ; build. 

sekitan : coal. yaku (trans.) : to burn. 

sutekki : walking-stick. chitto : a little ; bit. 

nige'ru : to escape ; run away. -darake : all over ; full of. 

1. Kore wa mihon to maru de chigaimasu (C). 2. Uchi no neko wa shi-hiki ko 
wo undo, no desii ga, jobu de ikite iru no wa kono neko ip-piki kiri desu (C). 3. 
Suzuki San ni wa ni-san-do atta kiri de, ammari yoku shirimasen (C). 4. Byd- 
nin ga kite ita kimono wa nokora-zu yaite shimai nasai (A). 5. Kawa no muko ni 
bonyari to mieru no ga Suzuki San ga atarashtku tateta uchi da (B). 6. Dare ni 
de mo wakaru yd ni hakkiri to kaite oki nasai (A). 7. Watashi wa Ei-go no honwa 
yomeru keredomo, hanasu koto wa chitto mo deki-nai (B). 8. Doko ka no otoko no 
ko ga uchi no nashi wo totte, don-don nigete itte shimatta (B). 9. Kono michi wa 
ishi-darake desu kara, soro-soro arukimasho (C). 10. Sekitan wa mo nai ka ? (A). 
11. lie, mada futa-tsuki tsukau hodo gozaimasu (D). 12. Sayo de gozaimasu, mo 
chitto mo gozaimasen (D). 13. Anna hidoi yube no jishin ni me ga same-nakatta 
no desu ka ? (C). 14. E, chitto mo shirimasen deshlta ; nan-ji goro deshita ? (C). 
15. Kind kono sutekki wo wasurete oite irash'tta no wa anata de wa gozaimasen 
ka ? (D). 16. lie, bokuja arimasen (C). 17. Kamakura e nichiyo ni ika-nakatta 
no desu ne ? (C). 18. lie, itte kimashUa; dare ga sonna koto wo iimashUa? (C). 
19. lie, koen de anata wo mimashlta kara, so httori de omotta no desii (C). 20. 
Konna ni ame ga fureba Hana-ko San wa irasshara-nai ka mo shiremasen ne ? 
(C). 21. lie, ano kata wa o tenki ga warukutte mo kitto o-ide nasaimasti (D). 
22. Mo tamago wa mittsu kiri nai no ? (B). 23. Hai, mo sore kiri de gozaimasu 
(D). 24. Afthi ga itai kara, soro-soro ika-nakereba nara-nai (B). 25. Taro to 
Jiro wa kyodai da keredomo maru de kao ga chigau (B). 26. Isshokemmei ni 
shite mo deki-nakereba shikata ga nai kara, dare ka ni tetsudatte morattara ii 
desho (C). 

1. This is entirely different from the sample. 2. Our cat had four kittens, 
but this is the only one that is still alive and strong. 3. I don't know Mr 
Siizuki very well, I Ve only met him two or three times. 4. Burn absolutely all 
the clothes"used by the deceased. 5. The house you see dimly the other side of 
the river is the one Mr Suzuki recently built. 6. Write 't clearly so that every- 
body can understand. 7. I can read English but I can 't speak it at all. 8. 
Some boy I don 't know stole some of our pears and ran away as quickly as he 
could. 9. This road is nothing but stones, let's walk slowly. 10. Is there no 
more coal left? 11. Yes, there's enough for about two months. 12. No, 
there 's not any left. 13. Do you mean to say that severe earthquake last 
night didn 't wake you ? 14. No, I didn 't feel it at all. What o'clock was it ? 
15. Somebody left a stick behind yesterday. Isn't it yours? 16. No, it's 
not mine. 17. So you didn't go to Kamakura on Sunday. 18. Oh yes, I did, 
who said I didn't go ? 19. Nobody said so, but I thought I saw you in the 
park. 20. If it continues raining like this, I don 't suppose Miss Hana-ko will 
come. 21. Oh yes, she's sure to come no matter how bad the weather is. 22. 
What, are there only three eggs left ?. 23. Yes, that is all. 24. I can only walk 
slowly, my feet hurt me. 25. Taro and Jiro are brothers but they don 't look 
like it. 26. If you can't do it by yourself no matter how much you try, you 
had better get somebody to help you. What else can you do ? 



EXERCISE 84. 

Conjunctions. Study 404; 405. 

(o) kashi : sweets ; pastry. bimbo na : poor. 

kemono : quadruped. kau : to keep (of animals). 

undo : movement ; exercise. utau : to sing. 

uta : song ; poem. kawari-gawari : by turns. 

1. Taro to Jiro wa kawari-gfVOHtri o-jii-san ni shimbnn wo yonde kikasemasii 
(C). 2. Oji wa iro-iro no tori ya kemono wo katte imasu (C). 3. Densha to Jca 
denwa to ka iu yd na mono wa kono-goro dekita mono da (B). 4. Om ae wa amniari 
o kashi da no, kudamono da no wo tabe-nai yd ni shi nisai (A). 5. Brown San 
wa Nihcn-go wo hanasu koto mo kaku koto mo dekimasu (C). (>. San-sen no kitte 
wo jii-mai ni, hagaki wo ni-ju-mai katte kite o kure (A). 7. Watasln wa asa-ban 
undo no tame niano kawa no tokoro made iku koto ni shite imasu (C). 8. Yamada 
San wa Kondon e itte, gakko e hairu no da to iimashita (C). 9. Kono hon wa 
omoshirokutte, tame ni narimasu (C). 10. Omae ga watashi no rusu ni deta no de 
doko e itta no daro to omotte ita (A). 11. Asa hayaku okireba karada mo John ni 
nari, benkyo moyoku dekiru no desu (C). 12. Chichi wa shosetsu mo kakn shi. c 
mo kakimasu (C). 33. Ano mise de wa hon mo ureba, shimbun mo uru (B). 14. 
Hon wo yondari, uta wo utattari shite, omoshiroku asobimasho (C). 15. Ano Into 
wa bimbo desu, sore ni karada ga yowai no desu kara, donna ni komatte iru ka 
shiremasen (C). 16. Kono tegami wo motte Yamada San no tokoro e itte o-ide 
nasai ; soshite, henji wo moratte kuru no desu (B). 17. Watashi wa Kyoto e nn> 
itta shi, Kara e mo itta ga, mada Kobe e zva itta koto ga nai (B). 18. Kotoshi no 
natsuiva yama e nobottari, ryoko shltari shite, jitftu ni omoshiro gozaimushlta (I)). 
19. Ko'no hire wa yasukiitte jobu desu (C). 20. Tori wa suki desu ga, inu ya neko 
wa iya desu kara, kaimasen (C). 21. Chichi ni said ni koppu wo futatsu motte 
o-ide (A). 22. Ano toki kara ototo ni wa atta koto mo nai shi, tegami mo kimasen 
(C). 

1. Taro and Jiro read the newspaper to their grandfather by turns. 2. My 
uncle keeps several kinds of birds and animals. 3. Electric cars, telephones, 
and such like things are all modern inventions. 4. Don't eat too many sweets 
and fruit. 5. Mr Brown can both speak and write Japanese. 6. Go and buy 
ten three-sen stamps and twenty postcards. 7. For the sake of exercise, every 
morning and every evening I go as far as that river. 8. Mr Yamada said that 
he went to London and entered college there. 9. This book is amusing and it is 
instructive. 10. You went out while I was away, and I was wondering where 
you had gone to. 11. If you get up early in the morning it would be good for 
the health and you will be able to study better. 12. My father writes novels 
and he also paints pictures. 13. At that shop they sell books and newspapers. 
14. Let's amuse ourselves by reading books and singing songs. 15. That man 
is poor and his health is bad into the bargain : I really couldn 't tell you how- 
much he suffers. 16. Take this letter to Mr Yamada 's place and bring back 
an answer. 17. I've been to Kyoto and I've been to Nara. but I've not yet 
been to Kobe. 18. Last summer I climbed mountains and I went travelling. I 
really had a very good time. 19. This cloth is cheap and strong. 20. I like 
birds, but I hate dogs and cats, so I don't keep any. 21. Bring me some milk, 
some sugar, and two tumblers. 22. Since then I haven't seen my brother nor 
heard from him. 



EXERCISE 85. 
Conjunctions. Study 406 ; 407. 

ban : guard. otonashii : quiet ; well-behaved. 

kohii : coffee. mujaki na : innocent ; simple. 

sei< stature. shimeppoi : damp. 

akarui : well-lighted ; bright. shirase'ru : to inform ; tell. 

hlkui : low. chanto : perfectly ; correctly ; exactly. 

I. Kono o heya wa hirokutte akaru gozaimasQ, ne (D). 2. Tonari no Shinobu 
San wa taihen mujaki de kawaii ko desu (C). 3. Ano hlto wa yasete ite sei ga 
takai (B). 4. Koko wa samukutte, shimeppoi tokoro desu kara, karada no tame ni 
yok-u nai desho (C). 5. Isu ni koshi-kakete irufutotta sei no hlkui hlto tea, watashi 
no itoko de, Yamada to iu no desu (C). 6. O cha lea kohii ka agemasho ka ? (C). 
7. Ikitai nara, dempd ka, denwa de shirasete kudasai (C). 8. Tokyo e itta no wa 
anata desu ka, nii-san desu ka, hakkiri itte kudasai (C). 9. Te ni am mono wo 
mise-nakereba kono hon wo yara-nai (A). 10. Ano onna wa ieishu to wakarete 
kara shichi-hachi-nen ni naru dfi.ro (B). 11. Tamago wa chiisakutte mo, okikutte 
mo, atarashii no naru ii (B). 12. Anna hUo-tachi ga kite mo ko-nakutte mo ka- 
mau mon' desu ka ? (C). 13. Watashi wa ano hito no ban wo shite i-nai kara. 
itsu doko e itta ka shira-nai (B). 14. Sono o kata wa doko no nan to ossharu o kata 
de gozaimasu ka ? (D). 15. Uchino nashi wo totta kodomo tea doko no dare da ka 
chanto wakatte iru (B). 16. Watashi no uchi wa semakutte, fuben desu kara. 
koshitai to omou no desu ga, naka-naka ii uchi ga mitsukarimasen (C). 17. 
Scnoe San wa kirei na otonashii musume san da (B). 18. Kimura San no o-jo- 
$an ni o kashi ka, kudamono ka agete o kure (A). 19. Tetsudatte moraitai koto ga 
aru kara, O Matsu de mo O Yuki de mo yokoshlte kndasai (C). 20. Onna ni wa 
totemo motemase-n kara, Taro ka Jiro ni tanomirnasho (C). 21. Hachi-ji no kisha 
ni nora-nakereba ma ni awa-nai ka mo shire-nai (B). 22. O Kiyo San wa mo 
kodomo ga san-yo-nin aru so da (B). 

1. This room is very big and bright, isn't it? 2. Miss Shinobu from next 
door is a very innocent and charming child. 3. That man is thin and tall. 4. 
As this place is cold and damp I don't think it's good for the health. 5. That 
fat, short man sitting in the chair is my cousin, he's called Yamada. G. May 1 
offer you some tea or some coffee ? 7. If you wish to go let rne know by telegram 
or by telephone. 8. Please tell me clearly who it was who went to Tokyo, was 
it you or was it your brother ? 9. Show me what you've got in your hand, or 
I won 't give you this book. 10. I think it 's about seven or eight years since that 
woman has been separated from her husband. 11. So long as the eggs are 
fresh it doesn't matter whether they are small or big. 12. What does it mai ivr. 
whether people like that come or not. 13. I'm not in charge of that man so^I 
don't know when he went nor where. 14. Where is that man from and what's 
his name ? 35.1 know exactly who the boy was who stole our pears and I know 
where he lives. 16. My house is small and inconvenient so I want to move 
somewhere else, but I cannot find a house to suit me. 17. Miss Sonoc is ;i v.-ry 
pretty girl and she has a very gentle disposition. 18. Offer Miss Kimura somr 
sweets or some fruit, 19. I want somebody to help me, so send Matsu or Vuki 
here. 20. It's impossible for a woman to carry this, so I'll ask Taro or Jiro if 
carry it for me. 21. You must take the eight o 'clock train, or I am afraid you 'II 
be late, 22. I hear that Kiyo has already got three or tour children. 



EXERCISE 86. 

Interjections. Study 408 410. 

After a gerund -tc wa and -de wa are familiarly contracted respectively into 
-cha and -ja. 

hi : fire. heiki na : undisturbed ; indifferent. 

iu koto : something which is said ; yatara na : careless ; reckless. 

commands. butsu : to beat (men or animals). 

iii koto tco kiku : to obey. toto : finally ; at last. 

machido : waiting a long time. yappari : also ; too. 
tori : way ; manner, 

1. Kore, so yatara ni hito wo waratcha ike-nai yo (B). 2. A, toto futte kita (B). 
3. Sore goran, watashino itta tori da (B). 4. De mo, anna ii tenki datta no desft 
mono. Masakafuru to wa omoima-sen deshita tea (C,fem.). 5. Kornban ica kaze 
ga tsuyoi kara, hi wo ki wo tsuke-nai to ike-nai yo (A). 6. Kora, iu koto wo kika- 
nai to butsu %o ! (A). 7. O machido sama ; sd, ikimasho (C). 8. Kono arashija. 
totemo fune wa de-nai desho ne? (C). 9. Ndni, kono gurai no arashi wa heiki sa 
(B). 10. A, komatta! (B). 11. Nani? Do nas'tta no desil? (C). 12. Kono 
tegami ga ne, domo yome-nai no desu yo (C). 13. Ma, sonna koto desu ka ? 
Dore, o mise na^ai, yonde agemasu kara (C). 14. Naruhodo ! kore wa mattaku 
yomi-nikui tegami desil ne (C). 15. Sore, yappari wakara-naija arimasen ka ? 
(C). 16. Yoshi,ja Sato San ni yonde morao (B). 17. Ano ne, tonari no Haruo 
San ga asuko no hashi no soba de koronde ashi ni oki na kega wo shlta n" 1 desu yo 
(C). 18. Md t so desu ka ? kawaiso ni ne (C). 19. Sonna abunai koto wo shite, 
kega wo shitara, sore koso taihen da (B). 20. Nani. daijobu sa ! (B). 21. Ano 
hon wo yonde mo yd gozaimaau ka ? (D). 22. A, ii to mo (A). 23. Kimura San 
wa nam-banchi desuka ne ? (C). 24. Sayo. Asuko wa, e to, hachi-banchi desho yo 
(C). 25. Moshi, moshi, kore iva anata no ja arimasen ka ? (C). 26. Ara ! 
Hana-ko San desho ? Ma, shibaraku (C). 27. Ma, ano tori no hayai koto ! (C). 

1. I saj T , you mustn't go about laughing at people like that. 2. What a pity. 
After all it's begun to rain. 3. There you are. It's just as I told you. 1. 
Well, but the weather was so fine ; I thought it impossible that it would turn 
out rainy. 5. As it is very windy this evening, you must be careful about the 
fire. 6. Take care, if you don 't do what you are told, I '11 beat you. 7. Sorry 
to have kept you so long ; well, let's be going. 8.- In this gale, I suppose it is 
impossible for the steamer to leave ; isn't that so ? 9. Oh nonsense, there's 
nothing out-of-the-way in a wind like this. 10, Oh, I don 't know what to do ! 
11. What is it? What's happened? 12. I cannot read this letter. 13. 
What ! Is that all your trouble ? Show me the letter, I'll read it for you. 14. 
You are right ; this letter is really very difficult to read. 15. There you are ; 
you can't read it either. 16. All right then ; let's ask Mr Sato to read it. 17. 
I say, Master Haruo from next doer fell down near that bridge and hurt his leg 
badly. 18. Oh, you don't say so ! Poor fello\v ! 19. If you do a dangerous 
thing like that and hurt yourself, it would be a serious matter. 20. Oh, there 's 
no fear. 21. May I read that book? 22. Oh, certainly. 23. I say! what's 
the number of Mr Kimura 's house ? 24. H'm. . . .that house,. . . .let me see 
. . . .why, I believe it's number eight. 25. I say, isn 't this yours ? '26. What ! 
is it Miss Hana-ko ? Well, it is a long time since I saw you ! 27. How fast 
that bird flies ! 



EXERCISE 87. 

Construction of sentences. Study 411 413. 

aki-chi : unoccupied ground. atsumaru (intr.) : to assemble. 

kembutsu : sight-seeing. kimani (intr.) : to be settled, decided. 

koe : voice. kime'nt (trans.) : to settle ; decide. 

koe u-o kake'ru : to call out. ki go. sum : to be under the impression ; 
zuts-u : headache. believe. 

kurushii : agonizing ; painful. sakubau : last night. 

1. Muzukashii kono hon ga do shite watashi ni wakarimashd ? (C). 2. Anala 
ni kono hako ga motemasu ka ? (C). 3. Boku ni wa totemo mote-nai (B). 4. 
Brown San ga kuni e o kaeri nasaru 'no de, ano o uchi wa Suzuki San de o kai 
nasam koto ni kimatta so de gozaimasu (D). 5. Yasuda ginko de wa ura no aki-chi 
wo uru koto ni kimeta to iu hanashi da (B). 6. Ani mo one mo Kyoto e kembutsu 
ni ikimashita ga, watashi dake ikimasen deshlta (C). 7. Sakuban asuko e atsu- 
matta Into wa ni-hyaku-nin gurai atta to omoimasu (C). 8. O Matsuwa zutsuga 
sum to itte nete iru ga, yoppodo kurushi-so da kara, isha wo yonde mite morawa- 
nakereba narumai (B). 9. Yamada San wa tabu,n sakana ga o kirai datta to 
omou ga, hakkiri shi-nai kara, kiite miru ho ga ii (B). 10. Ano kata wa Nihon- 
go ga wakara-nai kara, dare ka ni tanonde tegami u-o Ei-go ni na,oshlte moratte o 
da$hi nasai (B). 11. Tanaka San ni ni-do mo' tegami wo dashlte mo mada henji 
ga ko-nai ga, do ka shlta no ka mo shire-nai (B). 12. Ha ga itakutte kind Tokyo e 
ikimasen deshita kara, kawari ni kanai ga ikimashita (C). 13. Kyo uchi no mae 
wo totta musume ga domo mita koto ga aru yd na ki ga sum no de, koe wo kakete 
mini to Kiku San datta no sa (B). 14. It&ii mo kau mise no nashi wa yasukutte 
mo umaku arimasen deshita kara, Kanda made itte kimashlta (C). 15. Karita 
kogatana wo otoshltara, onnaji no wo katte kaeseba ii desha keredomo, karita mono 
ti-fl daiji ni shite, otosa-nai yd ni ki wo tsukeru hazudesu ; tabi-tabi ittaja arimasen 
ka ? (B). 

1. How do you expect me to understand a difficult book like this ? 2. Can 
you lift this box ? 3. Oh no, it 's much too heavy for me. 4. They say that 
as Mr Brown is returning home, Mr Suzuki has decided to buy his house. 5. I 
hear that the Yasuda Bank have decided to sell the unoccupied ground at the 
back of their premises. 6. My brother and my sister both went 911 a trip to 
Kyoto, I was the only one of the family who didn't go. 7. I think about two 
hundred men must have collected there' last night. 8. Matsu is in bed with a 
headache ; as she seems to be in great pain I suppose we had better call a 
doctor. 9. I believe Mr Yamada doesn't like fish, however, as I'm not certain 
you had better inquire. 10. As that gentleman doesn't understand Japanese 
get somebody to translate your letter into English (and sent it). 11. Mr Tanaka 
hasn 't answered yet although I've written him two letters. Perhaps he's ill or 
something. 12. I had a toothache yesterday, so I didn 't go to Tokyo ; my wife 
went instead. 13. A girl passed in front of our house today and I had a feeling 
I knew her, and when I called out to her, she turned out to be Miss Kiku. 14. 
The pears at the shop I usually go to were cheap but they weren't mce, so I 
went as far as Kanda (to see if I could get some better ones). 15. As you ve 
lost the penknife you borrowed you must buy another one like it and return 
that instead ; tiien'it will be all right: however, you ought to take proper care 
of the things you borrow and not lose them ; I've often told you so, haven t 



EXERCISE 88. 

Ellipses. Study 414. 

basha : carriage. busho na : lazy ; slovenly. 

hon-dana : book-shelf. taskika na : safe ; certain. 

zasshi : magazine ; periodical. dempo wo utsil : to send a telegram. 

1. Kind Rondun kara kita zasshi wa doko. ..(desu ka) ? (C). 2. Nikai no 
hon-dana ni agete okimashita (C). 3. Jtasha yori kuruma no ho ga zutto suki. . . . 
(desii) (C). 4. Ashlta made matte henji ga ko-nai nara, dempo rco uta-nakereba .... 
(nara-nai) (B). 5. Dare ga anna hlto no iu koto wo... (honto ni sum man' 
desu ka) ? (C). 6. Moshi O Haru San ni o ai nasaimashltara, dozo yoroshtku. . . 
(osshatte kudasai) (D). 7. O tenki ga yokereba dekiru no de gozaimasu keredomo 
...(o tenki ga warukereba dame de gozaimasu) (D). 8. Domo sumimasen ga, 
tdka ni wa tashlka ni o kaeshi moshimasu kara. . . (sore made dozo o machi kudasai) 
(D). 9. Yamada San wa zuibun hidoi yo ; boku wo butte. . .(B). 10. Omae ga 
ike-nai no da, itsu de mo asuko no inu wo ijimeru kara. . .(butareta no da) (A). 
11. Teishu gajobu ni natte kurereba hoka ni nanni mo komaru koto wa nai no de 
gozaimasu ga...(ainiku bydki de gozaimasu.) (D). 12. Jibun de sureba ii no 
ni. . . (busho shite jochu ni saxeta) (B). 13. Anna kodomo ni kane wo motashlte 
yaru no wa yoku nai koto de. . .(gozaimasu) (D). 14. Konnichi wa makoto ni ii o 
tenki de. . . (gozaimasu) (D). 15. Nani ? Taro no iru tokoro ga wakatta to. . . 
(iu no desu ka)? Sore tea naniyori... (ureshii koto desu) (C). 16. Kore ga 
anata no o kaki nas'tta e. . . (de gozaimasu ka) '? Ala, konna ni o jozu ni. . .(o 
deki nasaru no desu ka) ? (D). 17. Hobo sagaslilta no da keredomo. . .(nakatta) 
(B). 18. Ashlta oloto wo tsnrete agarimasu (D). 19. Imoto san zva. . .(]:<>- nai 
no desu ka) ? (C). 20. Imoto wa O Chiyo San to doko ka e iku yakusoku wo shita 
so desii karc . . . (tsurete koraremasen) (C). 21. O kai-mono . . . (ni o-ide nasaimasu 
ka) ? (C). 22. lie, ginko. . .(e iku no desii) (B). 23. Aruite desu ka. . .? (Aruite 
o-ide nasaru no desu ka)? (C). 24. lie, ashi ga itai kara kuruma de. . . (iku) (B). 

1. Where's the London magazine that came yesterday ? 2. I put it on the 
book-shelf upstairs. 3. I much prefer a rikisha to a carriage. 4. If an answer 
doesn't come by tomorrow, I'll have to send a telegram. 5. Whoever 's going 
to believe what that man says ? 6. If you meet Miss Haru please remember me 
kindly to her. 7. 1 can do it if the weather is fine but. . . (if the weather is bad 
I cannot). 8. I am ashamed of myself, but I'll return it to you on the tenth 
so... (please wait until then). 0. Mr Yamada is very cruel, he beat me. 
10. You are a bad boy ; you are always worrying his dog. That's why. . .(he 
beat you). 11. If my husband were well I'd have nothing to worry me, how- 
ever, ... (unluckily he's ill). 12. You ought to have done it yourself but ... 
(you are lazy and got the servant to do it for you). 13. You oughtn't to give 
a child like that money to carry. 14. The weather is really very fine today. 
1.1. What? Do you saj 7 you know Taro 's address ? Nothing could give me 
greater pleasure. 16. Did you draw this picture ? I didn't know you were so 
clever. 17. I 've looked every where, but. . .(I can't find it anywhere). 18. 
I'll come with my brother to visit you tomorrow. 19. And what about your 
sister ? 20. My sister has promised to go somewhere with Miss Chiyo, so. . . 
(I can't bring her). 21. Are you going shopping ? 22. No, I'm going to the 
bank. 23. Are you going to walk ? 24.. No, my feet hurt me, so I'll take a 
rikisha. 



E X E R C I S B 89. 

Negatives ; Interrogations ; Quotations. Study 415 429. 

basho : place. deki-agaru : to be finished. 

bento : lunch ; light refreshment, yurusA : to pardon ; permit. 

usually enclosed in a box. uchi : while ; within. 

yd : business. 'tte : he says ; they say. 

1. Ano nimotsu wa omokutte hitori de wa motte ikare-nai kara, dare ka ni 
tetsudattc morawa-nakereba nara-nai (B). 2. Yamada San ga kyo wa bento zoo 
motte ko-nai so da kara, uchi fie gohan wo ageru shitalcu zvo shi-nakereba nara-nai 
(B). 3. Kippu K'o motte ika-nakereba asuko wo mirare-nai no desu ka ? (C). 4. 
Molte ika-nakereba nara-nai koto wanai ga, kippuno aruhito no ho gaii basbo ni 
irareni no da (B). 5. Sono musume no kawaixo na hanashi wokiite, naka-nakatta 
hito wa hitori mo nakatta (B). 6. Wake wo hanaseba yurushite Imre-nai koto wa 
nai desho (C). 7. Sakki koko ni atta mono wo shira-nai hazu ga naija nai ka? 
(A). 8. Ano ko no chichi wa ano koga umare-nai mae ni shinda no de, oya no kao 
wo shira-nai no desu (C). 0. Sato San no atarashii uchi tea yatto deki-agatte, 
mada haira-nai uchi ni kaji de yakete shimatta no desu ""tie (C). 10. Oji san ga 
raigetsu irassham 'tte tegami ga kita no kai ? (A). 11. Oji sanja arimasen yo : 
'obasanga o-ide ni nam ' to itte yokoshUa no desCi yo (C). 12. Akio San ga 
'komban roku-ji niuchie kvru' toitta (B). 13. Matsuni moshi yoga nakereba 
kum yo ni itte o Jcure (A). 14. Suzuki San ga tnikka ni kuru yd ni hagaki zco 
yokoshita no de matte ita ga, ko-nakatta (B). 15. Doyo-bi noasa hayakn Hana-ko 
Sanga Kobe kara Amerika o tochinasarn yd ni ossIiaimashUa (D). 16. O to-san 
kara tegami ga ko-nai uchi ica ryoko ni ikare-nai no kai? (A). 17. E, so desu (C). 
18. O rusu ni Goto San ga irasshaimashite ' kongetsu no owari goro Kyoto e tatsu" 1 
to osshaimashita (D). 19. Kono kimono wo O Matsu ni sentaku sashite o kure (A). 
20. Muika modem kono e '0 kaite shimau yd ni tanomareta no da ga, domo atania 
ga itakiitte shigoto wo sum ki ni nare-nai (B). 

1. As that bag is too heavy for me to carry by myself I must get somebody to 
help me. 2. As Mr Yamada didn't bring his lunch with him today, you must 
prepare some lunch for him. 3. Can't you go in and see that without 
a ticket ? 4. A ticket is not absolutely necessary, but those who have tickets 
are given better places. 5. When the audience heard the sad tale of that girl, 
there was not a single person who did not shed tears. 6. If you tell him the 
reason I don't think he will refuse to pardon you. 7. You can't help knowing 
about a thing that was here a few minutes ago (isn 't that so) ? 8. That child 
never knew his father, he died before the child was born. 9. They say that .Mi- 
Sato 's new house was finished, but was burnt down before he moved into it. 10. 
Does the letter say that your uncle is coming next month ? 11. No. it's not 
my uncle, it's m/aunt who's corning, (that's what the letter says). 12. Akio 
says he's coming at six o'clock this evening. 13. Tell Matsu to come if she's 
not busy. 14. I was expecting Mr Suzuki as he had sent a postcard saying he 
was coming on the third ; however, he did not come. 15. Miss Hana-ko v'id 
she was leaving Kobe for America early Saturday morning. 16. Can't you ,'< 
travelling until you receive a letter from your father ? 17. No. I can't. IS. 
While you were away Mr Goto came and said he was going to Kyoto about the 
end of this month. 19. Tell Matsu to wash this dress. 20. was asked to 
finish this picture by the 6th, but I have such a headache that I don't feel likr 
work. 



EXERCISE 90. 
The Present, Probable Present and Future Tenses. Study 38 52. 

hayari : fashion. wyogu : to swim. 

kakko : shape. ima-goro : about this time ; now. 

katappo : one of a pair. nanzo : and such like things. 

tokoro : time ; when. sekkaku : with special pains or difficulty; 

umi : sea. expressly. 

1. Oji son wa ima-goro inaka de uno shdsetsu zoo yakushite irassharu daro (B). 

2. Nichiyo ni umi ni oyogi ni iko to omotte ita ga, ame gafuru no de ikare-nakatta 
(B.). 3. Kesa sukkari shitaku wo shite, ryoko ni dekakeyo to shite iru tokoro e haha 
ga abunai to iu dempo ga kita no desu (C). 4. Ikura kotoshi no hayari de mo, 
konna kakko no boshi wo kabure wa shimasen (C). 5. Masaka ano hito ga 
aonna koto wo iiya shi-nai daro (B). 6. Go-riya roku-ri aruitemo bydki ni narya 
shi-nai yo (B). 7. Yamada to iu hito ni wa mada ai koso shi-nai ga, iro-iro 
hanashi ivo kiite, yoku shitte iru tsumori da (B). 8. Sekkaku motte kite kureta no 
de, arigato to ii koso shita keredomo, boku wa ano kudamono wa dai-kirai (B). 9. 
Sono hon mo hako ni iremasho ka ? (C). 10. lie, kore wa hako ni ire-nai de o 
kure ; kisha no naka de yomu no da kara, jibun de motte iku (A). 11. Ano hito 
wa daiku ni naru no daro ? (B). 12. lie, daiku ni nanzo nari ya shimasen yo, 
te ga katappo warui no ja arima^en ka ? (C). 13. Nii-san ga irassharu kaisha no 
xoba ni oki na aki-ya ga ik-ken gozaimasho ? Suzuki San ga koshite irassharu no 
wa ano uchi de gozaimasu (D). 14. Taro ni yard to omotte kono hon wo katte 
kita keredomo, muzukashi-sugiru kara yatte mo shlkata ga nai (B). 15. Watashi 
wa Ei-gp wa yomi koso shimasuga, hanasu koto wa maru de dame desu (C). 16. 
Yamada San no ushiro ni sei no takai, futotta hito ga iru daro ? Ogawa to in no 
wa ano hito da (B). 17. Kono hanashi wa taihen omoshiroi kara, itsu ka hima no 
toki ni Nihon-go ni yakushite miyo to omou (B). 

1. I believe my uncle is now in the country translating a novel. 2. I was 
thinking of going for a swim in the sea on Sunday, but the rain prevented me. 

3. I had everything prepared this morning for going on a journey and was just 
about to start when a telegram came saying my mother was seriously ill. 4. 
I don 't care how fashionable it is, I 'm certainly not going to wear a hat of this 
extraordinary shape. 5. Oh, it's impossible he should have said a thing like 
that. 6. There's no fear of my being ill because I walk five or six ri (12 15 
miles). 7. I have never met Mr Yamada. but I've heard so much about him 
that I feel as if I knew him quite well. 8. Of course I thanked him for the fruit 
he kindly brought me, but the fact is I don 't like that kind of fruit at all. 9. 
Shall I put that book also in the box ? 10. No, don 't put that in the box ; I 
intend to read it in the train so I '11 take it with me. 11. I suppose that man will 
be a carpenter. 12. No, he can 't be a carpenter or anything like that, don 't 
you know that one of his arms is weak ? 13. You know there's a big house to 
let next to the office your brother goes to ? Well, that's the house Mr Suzuki is 
going to move into. 14. I bought this book with the idea of giving it to Taro, 
hut it's so difficult that it would be of no use even if I did give it. 15. It's 
true I can read English, but I can't speak it at all. 16. Do you see that tall 
stout man behind Mr Yamada ? Well, that's Mr Ogawa (of whom we were 
speaking). 17. This tale is so very interesting that I intend to translate it into 
.Japanese when I have time. 



EXERCISE 91. 

Past and Probable Past Tenses. Study 5357. 

iro : colour. hara wo tate'ru : to get angry. 

miyage : a present (generally a hidoi me ni au : to be treated cruelly. 

souvenir from some place). namake'ru : to be idle. 

senjitsu : the other day. yoru : to call in when passing. 

kyu na : sudden. saki : before. 
hara : belly. 

1. Anata wa tnada koko ni ita n ' desu ka ? Boku wa mo uchi e kaette shimatta 
koto to omotte ita no ni (C). .2. Shina-mono wo matte kita toki kane wo haraimasho 
(C). 3. Do shite anoko ivawatashi yori sakinishinda no daro? (B). 4. Hajime 
omae ga Fuyuo wo baka ni shi-nakereba sonna hidoi me ni iva awa-nakattaro (A). 
5. Oji ga Igirisu kara o miyage ni motte kite kureta oki najibiki ga atla desho ? 
are wo Taro ni kashUe yatta n' desu ga, kaeshite kure-nai no desu yo (C). 6. 
Me ga waruku nakereba ano hito mo Amerika e ittaro ga...(B). 7. Aruita 
no de nodo ga kawaita ; o cha wo ip-pai o kure (A). 8. Senjitsu go chumon 
no kutsu ga dekimashita kara, komban o taku e motte mairimasti (D). 9. 
Sakki made anna nifutte ita no ni kyu ni tenki ni natta (B). 10. Kono boshi wa 
zuib-un takakatta no da ga, mo iro ga kawatte dame ni natte shimatta (B). 11. 
Kokuzd mo kita 'tie kamawa-nai ; basho ga takusan am kara (B). 12. Ano hito 
wa nani wo iwarete mo hara wo tate-nyi (B). 13. Kondo Tokyo e itta toki Goto 
San no tokoro e yotte, hanashite kirnasho (C). 14. Wakai toki ni namake-nai de 
yoku benkyo shite okeba konna ni komara-nakattaro (B). 15. Atsui o yu wo ire- 
nakereba koware-nakattaro ni ; kore kara H wo tsukete o kure (A). 16. Anata wa 
ikura kii&tri wo nonda 'tie, undo wo shi-nakereba yoku nari wa shimasen (C). 17. 
Hachi-ji no kisha de Suzuki San ga irassharu to iu hagaki ga kita kara, teishaba 
e mukae ni itta ga, irasshara-nai no de tsumara-nakatta (B). 18. Inu ga kega zco 
shita so desu ga, do desu ? (C). 19. Mo shinimashlta (C). - 

1. Are you still here ? I thought you'd gone back home. 2. When you 
bring the goods, I '11 pay for them. 3. Oh, why did the child die before me ? 4. 
If you first hadn't played tricks on Fuyuo, he (probably) wouldn't have hit you. 
5. You know I had a big dictionary which my uncle gave me as a present when 
he came back from England ? Well, I lent it to Taro and he hasn 't returned it 
yet. 6. If his eyes hadn't been bad, he also would probably have gone to 
America, but. . .(unluckily he fell ill). 7. I've been walking, so I'm thirsty : 
bring me a cup of tea. 8. The boots you ordered the other day are ready. 
I'll take them to your house this evening. 9. It was raining hard until a 
few moments ago,* and now all of a sudden it's fine. 10. This hat was very 
dear, nevertheless the colour has already faded and it's good for nothing. 
11. Rokuzo can come if he likes, there's plenty of room anyhow. 12. 
That man never gets angry no matter what I say to him. 13. Next time 1 
go to Tokyo I'll call on Mr Goto and tell him about it. 14. If I had studied 
properly when I was young instead of waisting my time, I wouldn't be in .such 
difficult circumstances now. 15. If yon hadn't put in such hot water it 
wouldn 't have broken ; be careful in future. 16. No matter how much 
medicine you take, you'll never get well unless you take some exercise. 17. 
received a postcard from Mr Su/uki saying he was coming by the eight o'clock 
tram, so I went to the station to meet him, but was disappointed as he did not 
come. 18. I hear your dog was hurt, how is he getting on ? 19. He died. 



EXERCISE 92. 

Gerund. Study 58. 

anshin : peace of mind. ayamaru : to beg pardon. 

kao-iro : looks. hikkosu : to change one 's residence. 

yo-naka : midnight ; during the shaberu : to talk without thinking. 

night. dose : anyhow. 

hazukashii : shameful ; ashamed. ittai : exclamation of wonder. 

1. Kono ko wa yo-naka ni naite shiyo ga gozaimasen (D). 2. O Matsu wa kodo- 
mo ni iro-iro na koto wo shabette, domo kama.ru (B). .'}. Ano htio wa U.-ura aya- 
matte mo yurushite kure-nai daro (B). 4. Hana-ko San ni ni-do mo tegami -co 
dashite mo mada henji ga ko-nai ga, ittai do shlta no daro ? (B). 5. Amman undo 
wo shi-sugite mo karada ni doku desu ; ii kagen ni shi-nakereba ike-nai no desu (C). 
6. Inaka wa juben desu ga, atarashii yasai ga taberarete ii desu (C). 7. Do~j) kyo 
san-ji goro iteu mo no yd ni anata no o hey a de uta wo utatte kudasaima$en ka ? (D). 
8. Dose betsu ni yd mo arimasen kara, o taku e agaite utatte mo yoroshiu gozaitunnii 
(D). 0. Anata no koto wa chitto mo waruku ornotte zva imasen kara, go anshin 
nas'tte kudasai (C). 10. Taiso o kao-iro ga o warui yd de gozaimasu kara, o islia 
ni mite o morai nas'tte wa ikaga de gozaimasu ka ? (D). 11. Inaka e hikkoshite 
wa kodomo ga gakko e iku no ni tsugo ga waruku naru kara, yappari koko ni iru 
hoka ffhikata ga arumai (B). 12. Tonari no ko wa uchi no hana wo totte komaru 
kara, ano ko no chichi ni so itte, shikatte qnorawa-nakute wa nara-nai (B). 13. 
Konna kao wo hito ni mirarete zca hazukashii kara, naoru made soto e de-zu ni iyo 
(B). 14. Ano ko wa shiju itazura wo shite wa shikararete iru (B). 15. Kasa wo 
mota-zu ni dekakete wa, ame gafutta toki ni komaru daro (B). 16. Watashi tea 
kono-goro taihen wasureppoku naite, domo kornarimasu ; kind mo kane wo mota- 
zu ni kfli-motio ni itte, zuibun hazukashiu gozaimashlta (D). 

1. This baby cries so much during the night I really don't know what to do. 
2. I really don 't know what to do with Matsu ; she is always telling the children 
lots of silly things. 3. No matter how much I beg his pardon, I don't think 
he'll grant it me. 4. Although I've written twice to Miss Ilana-ko, she hasn 't 
answered me yet ; I wonder whatever can be the matter with her ? 5. If you 
take too much exercise that also would be bad for you, (the same as if you take 
too little), you must take a moderate amount. 6. The country is inconvenient 
in many ways, but one has at least the advantage of being able to eat fresh 
vegetables. 7. Would you kindly sing as usual in your room today at about 
three o'clock ? 8. I have nothing special to do anyhow, so if you like, 1 can 
go to your house and sing there. 9. I 've got nothing against you, so you 
needn 't be anxious in any way. 10. You are looking very pale, wouldn 't 
it be a good thing to see a doctor ? 11. If I were to go to the country it would 
be very inconvenient to send the children to school, so I suppose there's no help 
for it but to remain here. 12. I am much inconvenienced by the child from 
next door who is alwayo picking my flowers, the child 's father must be told and 
he must scold the child. 13. I'm ashamed to be seen with a face like this (e.g. 
a boil) I must remain indoors and not go out until it gets better. 14. That child 
is always up to mischief, that's why he's always being scolded. 15. If you go 
out without an umbrella, you will be inconvenienced should it rain. 16. I'm 
getting so absent-minded lately I really don't know what to do ; (besides the 
other silly things I've done) yesterday I went out shopping without taking any 
money with me, I felt quite ashamed of myself. 



EXERCISE 93. 

The Imperative ; commanding and requesting. Study 59 64. 

baai : circumstances. damaru : to be silent. 

bikkuri : surprise. kakure'ru : to hide oneself. 

hari-shigoto : sewing ; needlework. yukkuri : leisurely. 
tenugui : (Japanese) towel. 

1. Kyo wa taihen isogashii kara, dare mo watashi no hey a e yokosa-nai de o kure 
(A). 2. Anata wa koko ni kakurete irasshai, soshite Taro ga kitara kyu ni dete 
bikkuri sashite o yari nasai (C). 3. Ornae ga kuchi wo dasu baai j a nai, damatte 
i nasai (A). 4. Kyo wa nichiyo de, betsu ni go yd ga gozaimasumai, go yukkuri 
asonde irasshai (D). 5. Kondo Tokyo e itta toki ii no wo katte kite agemasu 
kara, sore made kono hasami wo tsukatte irash'tte kudasai (D). 6. Omae wa 
otonashiku shite o-ide nasai ; sugu kaerimasu kara (A). 7. Anata wa me ga 
sukkari naoru made hari-shigoto wo shi-nai de irasshai (C). 8. A no hito no 
tokoro e wa shibaraku henji wo dasa-zu ni o-ide nasai (C). 0. Sonna ni onaka 
ga 'warukutte komaru nara, kyo wa gohan wo tabe-nai de ite goran (A). 10. 
Ame ga furi-so da kara, sentaku sum no'wa o yoshi nasai (A). 11. Anna hito 
no iu koto wo shinyo shite wa dame desu (C). 12. Shosetsu bakari yonde i-zu 
ni, isogashii toki wa sukoshi tetsudai nasai (A). 13. Sono kitte wa o sute ni 
naru nara, watashi ni chodai (C). 14. Tenugui wo kashite chodai (C). 15. Ni- 
san-nichi shizuka ni nete o-ide nasai (C). 16. Sono ki e nobotte wa dame, abunai 
kara (B). 17. Ano gaikoku-jin wa kitto kotoba ga wakara-nai no de komatte iru 
no daro ; omae itte donna yd ka kiite o-ide (this o-ide means 'come') (A). 18. 
Watashi ga kawari ni wise ni ite yaru kara itte gohan wo tabete ki nasai (A). 19. 
Sono lion wa Jiro ga m.itai to iu ka mo shiremasen kara, mada sute-nai de oki 
nasai (B). 20. Haruo, inu nanzo ijimete i-zu ni, Ei-go wo benkyo nasai (A). 
21. Omae no te no kitanai koto ! Kirei ni aralte irassliai (A). 22. Watashi no 
tegami za-o yoma-nai de kudasai (C). 

1. As I am very busy today, don't let anybody come to my room. 2. You, 
hide yourself here, and when Taro comes, jump out and give him a good fright. 
3. You've no business to meddle, be silent. 4. I don 't suppose you 've got 
anj'thing special to do today as it's Sunday, please stay here and don't hurry 
away. 5. I'll buy you a good pair of scissors next time I go to Tokyo, in the 
meantime try to manage with these. 6. Remain here and behave well, I'll 
soon be back. 7. Don't do any sewing until your eyesight has completely 
recovered. 8. Don't give him any answer for some few days. 9. If your 
stomach is so painful don't eat anything today. 10. Don't do your washing 
(today), it looks like rain. 11. Don't believe a word a man like that says. 12. 
Instead of (wasting your time in) doing nothing but read novels, when I 'm 
busy help me a little. 13. If you are going to throw away that stamp, please 
give it to me. 14. Please lend me a towel. 15. Stay in bed quietly for two or 
three days. 16. Don't climb that tree, it's dangerous. 17. I expect that 
foreigner is in difficulties because he doesn't understand what people are saying 
to him, go and see what he wants. 18. Go and have your lunch, I'll remain 
in the shop instead of you. 19. I dare say Jiro will want to read that book, so 
don 't throw it away yet. 20. Haruo, you study your English instead of worry- 
ing the dog. 21. What dirty hands you've got! Go and wash them. 22. 
Please don't read my letters. 



EXERCISE 94. 

Conditional. Study 6568. 

annai : guide. nemuru : to sleep. 

nami : wave. asatte : the day after tomorrow. 

arai : rough. ototoi : the day before yesterday. 

muri na : unreasonable. jubun : enough. 

1. Doyo-bi nara ikaremasu ga, nichiyo ni wa itoko wo annai shite hobo e iku- 
nakereba narimasen kara, mairemasen (C). 2. Asuko wa nami ga arai nara. 
doko ka hoka no ii tokoro wo sagashite oyogeba yokaro (A). 3. Ototoi churnon shita 
kutsu ga dekite itara motte kite o kure (A). 4. Asatte de nai to deki-nai so de gozai- 
inasu ; kutsu-ya ga kega wo shite shigoto zvojutsuka yasunda no de gozaimasii 'tte 
(D). 5. Otonashiku shi-nakereba doko e mo tsurete Hie agemasen yo (A), 6. 
Ikitaku nakereba muri ni ika-nai de mo ii no desu (C). 7. Fora o cha wo nomeba 
nemure-nai no wa wakatte iru no desu (C). 8. O kane wa san-ju-yen mo moltc 
ikeba jubun desho to omoimasu (C). 9. Yamada San wo yonde kite kudasai ; 
moshi irasshara-nakereba ototo san de mo ii kara kite morau yd ni itte kite kudaxai 
(C). 10. Omae ni sono hon ga yome.ru nara yard (A). 11. Watashi no iu koto ga 
muri da to omou nara, dare ni de mo kiite goran nasai (A). 12. Ano hashi no ue 
ni iru to dare ka watashi no na wo yobu no de, miru to san-ju gurai no shira-nai 
hito datta (B). 13. Ano hito no uchi e il\u to itsu de mo Kyoto no hanashi ga dete 
kuru (B). 14. Watashi wa Tokyo e ikimasu to atama ga itaku narimasu (D). 15. 
Nareta hito de nm to so hayaku wa dekimasen (C). 16. Ju-ji nara oyasumi nasai 
(B). 17. Sampo ni irassharu nara, sumimasen ga, konotegami wo dashite kudasai- 
masen ka ? (D). 18. Ima sugu ni dekakereba ku-ji no kisha ni ma ni au desho (C). 
19. Wake wo hanaseba misete kure-nai koto wa nai desho (C). 20. Kono tegami wo 
kaite shimaeba hima ni narimasu kara, doko e de mo go issho ni ikaremasu (C). 

1. I can go on Saturday, but on Sunday I can 't go as I 've got to take a cousin 
of mine round to several places. 2. If it is rough there, look out for some 
other quiet spot and bathe there (lit. and if you swim there, it will probably be 
all right). 3. If the boots I ordered the day before yesterday are ready, bring 
them. 4. The bootmaker says he hurt himself and was not able to work for two 
days ; they will not be ready until the day after tomorrow. 5. If you don 't 
behave yourself, I won 't take you anywhere. 6. If you don 't want to go, you 
needn 't (go against your will). 7. I know I can never sleep well when I take 
tea in the evening. 8. If you take thirty yen I think that will be plenty. 9. 
Please call Mr Yamada ; if he is not at home ask his brother to come instead. 
10. If you can read that book, I'll give it to you. 11. If you think what I say 
is unreasonable, ask anybody you like. 12. While I was on that bridge some- 
body called my name. On looking round I found it was an unknown person 
about thirty years of age (who was calling me). 13. Whenever I go to that 
man's house we always drift into talking about Kyoto. 14. Whenever I go to 
Tokyo I get a headache. 15. It can't be finished as soon as that unless it "s a 
person accustomed to the work. 16. If it's ten o'clock go to bed. 17. Excuse 
me for troubling you, but if you are going for a walk, would you mind posting 
this letter for me ? 18. If you start immediately, I think you '11 catch the nine 
o'clock train. 19. If you give your reasons, I've no doubt they'll show it to 
you. 20. I shall be free as soon as I have finished writing this letter, and I 
shall then be able to accompany you wherever you may wish to go. 



EXERCISE 95. 

Conditional. Study 6975. 

gakkari : tired ; dejected. iki'ru : to live. 

jo-bukuro : envelope. saku : to blossom. 

aku (intr.) : to open. yorokobn : to rejoice. 
kaze wo hiku : to catch a cold. 

1. Jo-bukuro ga kore detari-nakattara, ano hako ni takdsan haitte imastt (C). 
2. Yube kara baka ni me ga itai kara, kyo isha ni mite morattara, shimpai shi-nai 
de ii to iu koto datta (B). 3. Ame no naka wo ni-jikan bakari aruitara kaze wo 
hiite, nodo ga itakutte shiyo ga naL Shi-go-nichi tattara naoru daro ga.. . (B). 
4. Ueno no sakura ga saitara mi ni ikoja arimasen ka ? (C). 5. Oba ga kind kuru 
to itte yokoshita no de, yorokonde matte imaslntara, kimasen kara, gakkari shimashi- 
ta (C). 6. Kyo koso zra tenki ni naru daro to omottara. matafutte kita (B). 7. 
Oku-sama ga o-ide nasaimaslntara dozo denwa e yonde kudasai (D). 8. Tegami 
u-o kaite sinmattetra, sugu ni dashite kite o kure (A). 9. Kono tegami wo Yarnada 
San no tokoro e motte itte, henji wo moratte ki nasai ; moshi o ru&u dattara oite kite 
ii no da (A). 10. RUSH ni moshi dare ka kitara, yo-ji ni kaeru to itte o kure (A). 
11. Moshi hachi-ji no kisha ni ma ni awa-nakattara densha de iku ho ga yokaro 
(B). 12. Kane sae arya donna koto de mo dekiru to omou to 6-chigai da (B). 13. 
( V* ichi sae ikite orimashitara konna ni komari ya shi-nai no de gozaimasu ga. . . 
(D). 14. Kono ko tea gohan wo tabe sae sureba kitto onaka ga itaku naru no desu 
'1te ; dfsu kara. kyo o isha ni tsurele iku tsumori desti (C). 15. Do shitara kono 
in ado ga akimasu ka ? (C). 16. Sono himo wo hiki sae sureba aku no desu (C). 
17. Ano akai hon wo kind mite itara Taro ni okoraremashita (C). 18. Hana-ko 
San ga o kaeri ni narimashttara, sugu ni uchi e o-ide kudasaimasu yd ni osshatte 
kudasai (D). 19. Kyo wa shi-nakereba nara-nai koto ga atte. dare ni mo aitaku 
nai kara, moshi Into ga kitara, i-nai to itte o kure (A). 

1. If these envelopes are not enough, there are plenty more in that box. 2. 
.My eyes are very painful since last evening ; however, when I went to see the 
doctor, he told me it was nothing to be anxious about. 3. As I was walking in 
the rain for two hours, I caught a cold and my throat is very painful. I expect 
I Ml be better in a few days. 4. When the Ueno cherry-trees are in blossom, 
let's go and see them. 5. My aunt sent word she was coming yesterday ; I was 
awaiting her coining with pleasure, but she disappointed me as she didn 't come. 
<5. I thought at least it would be fine today, however, it's raining again. 7. If 
your mistress is in, please call her to the telephone. 8. Send your letter as soon 
as it "s ready. 9. Take this letter to Mr Yamada 's house and wait for an answer ; 
if he is out you needn 't w r ait but leave the letter there. 10. Supposing some- 
body were to come while I was out, tell him that I'll be back at four. 11. If 
you don't catch the eight o'clock train you had better go by tram-car. 12. It's 
a great mistake to think that provided you have money you can do everything. 
1 3. If only my father were alive I wouldn 't find myself in such straits. 14. 
This child says that he has only to eat something to make his stomach ache, 
that is why I intend to take him to the doctor today. 15. How do you open 
this window ? 1C. You've only to pull that cord and it will open. 17. I was 
reading that red book yesterday and Taro got angry with me. 18. When Miss 
Hana-ko returns please ask her to come to my house as soon as she can. 19. 
I've got a lot of work which must be done today, so I don't want to see 
anybody. Should anybody come, say I'm not at home. 



HXERCISE 96. 

The Frequentative and Desiderative. Study 76 80. 

eda : branch. nama no : raw. 

hige : beard. moke'ru : to gain ; earn. 

mushi : insect. soru ; sum : to shave. 

tsukai : errand ; messenger. suzvaru : to squat down. 

jiyu na : free. nanka : and such like things. 
fu-jiyu na : not free. 

1. Brown San wajiyu ni Nihon-go wo yondari hanashltari shimashita (C). 2. 
Yamada San zva ashi ga warukutte, tattari suwattari sum no ni fu-jiyu da to itte 
yokoshimashita (C). 3. Sonna aoi kudamono wo nama de tabetari sum to bydki 
ni naru (B). 4. Anna chiisa na kodomo wo hitori de tsukai ni yattari nanka shite wa 
abunai (B). 5. Watashi-tachi futari ga mokeru o kane wa tabetari kitari sum ni 
wajubun desu (C). 6. Goran nasai, tori ga atchi no eda ni ittari, kotchi no eda ni 
kitari shite, mushi ka nanka tabete imasu (C). 7. Nii-san wa kesa hayaku okite 
hige u'O suttari, o yu ni haittari shimashita ; doko ka e iku no desho (C). 8. Ano 
hito wa sakki kara uchi no mae wo ittari kitari shite iru keredomo, nani ka yd ga 
aru n' daro ka ? (B). 9. Suzuki San ga mada gakko ni ita koro wa yoku uchi e 
kitari, bokuga ano hito no uchi wo tazunetari shita no desu ga, Hokkaido e itte kara 
wa, tegami wo yokoshita koto mo arimasen (C). 10. Ano futari wa itsu de mo 
omoshiro-so ni uta wo utattari, warattari shite iru (B). 11. Jiro ga anata to go 
issho ni Kobe e ikitai to mosii no degozaimasu ga, tsurete itte itadakemasho ka ? (D). 
12. E, ii desu to mo, tsurete itte agemasho (C). 13. Ano ko wa uchi e kaeritasa ni 
shujin no tokoro wo nigete kita no da so da (B). 14. Hana-ko mo Ueno e ikitai to 
iu nara o yari nasai (A). 15. Kono kata wa anata no e wo mitasa ni toi tokoro 
kara waza-waza o-ide ni natta no desu (C). 16. Byd-nin ga nashi ga tabetai to 
iimasu ga, tabesashite yoroshiu gozaimasho ka ? (D). 17. So desu ne. . . kyo wa 
naru-take tabesasetaku nai no desfi (C). 

1. Mr Brown used to read and speak Japanese quite fluently. 2. Mr Yamada 
writes and says that as his legs are painful he can only stand up and squat down 
with difficulty. 3. If you eat green fruit like that raw, you'll be ill. 4. It's 
dangerous to send a little child like that on errands and such like things. 5. The 
money we two earn is quite enough for our food and clothing. G. Just look at 
that bird, it goes from one branch to another eating insects or something. 7. 
My brother got up early this morning, shaved himself, and had his bath. I 
suppose he's going somewhere. 8. That man has been walking backwards and 
forwards in front of the house for some time. I wonder whether he wants (me for) 
anything. 9. When Mr Suzuki was at school he often used to come to my house, 
and I used to go to his ; however, since he 's gone to Hokkaido we haven 't even 
written to each other. 10. Those two men seem always to be in high spirits, 
laughing and singing. 11. Jiro says he would like to go to Kobe with you ; 
would you be kind enough to take him ? 12. Certainly, of course I will. 13. 
They say that child was home-sick, and ran away from his master's house and 
went back home. 14. If Hana-ko also says that she wants to go to Ueno, let 
her go. 15. This gentleman was so desirous of seeing your picture, that he came 
especially from a long distance with that object. 16. The patient says that he- 
wants to eat some pears, may I let him ? 17. H 'm ... as far as possible, I wish 
you wouldn 't let him eat any today. 



EXERCISE 97. 

The Verbal Stem. Study 81 ; 82. 

ase : perspiration. fuku : to wipe. 

kokoku : advertisement. ukagau : to hear. 
taikutsu : tedium ; weariness. omoi-gake nai : unexpected. 

suteki na : fine ; remarkable. 

1. Go-bmata shite ima-shita ga, mina-san o kaicari tea arimasen ka ? (C). 2. 
Kino katta niku no nokori ga aru kara, kyo ica kavca-nai de ii (B). 3. Sumimasen 
ga, kano hon ico ka-shite kudtisaimasen ka ? Ashlta no ban o kaeshi shimasu (D). 

4. O hanashi tea uchi e itte o cha, de mo nomi nagara yukkuri ukagaimaslio (C). 

5. Kisha no naka de omoi-gake naku onnaji gakko ni ita Motono to iu otoko ni atte 
iro-iro hanafihi nagara kita no de., chitto mo taikutsu shi-nakajta (B). 6. Shi- 
haraku mie-nakatta ne ? kaicari tea nai daro ? (A). 7. Arigato gozaimasii, o-kage 
xama de -nan no kawari mo gozaimasen. Agaro to omoi nagara, isogashii no de, 
taiso go-buftata itashimashita (D). 8. Ano hito vca tabi-tabi Tokyo e ki nagara, 
uchi e KY/ chitto mo yora-nai ga, nani ka okotte de mo iru no daro ka? (B). 9. 
\iku-ya no mae de hitori no hito ga ase TC of tiki nagara, oki na koe de sliabette iru 
kara. do shit a no ka to omottara, ktisuri no kokoku wo shite iru no da (B). 10. 
Yubin-kyoku e iku nara kaeri-gake ni tokei-ya e yotte, konaida, naoshi ni yatta no ga 
dekile itara. wotte kite o kure (A). 11. Ashlta wa mise e iki-gake ni Yamada San 
no uchi e yoru kara, san-jip-pun hayaku shokuji ni shite kudasai (C). 12. .t>> 
h'lto n: a e mo kt'ki, shosetsu mo kaki, uta mo utaimasu ga, dore mo suteki ni umai 
to na hcarenwsen (C). 13. O taku no Haruo San ga kasa wo zcasurete ikimashita 
kara. kaeri-gake ni o yon nasai (C). 14. Amerika e mo itte mi, Yoroppa e mo 
itte )iii)))axhi1a ga, yapparijibun no umareta tokoroga ichiban yd gozaimasu ; anata 
rf do o omoi ni narimasu ka? (D). 

1. I have been sadly remiss about calling upon you ; is, everybody well at 
home ? 2. You needn 't buy any meat today, there 's some left from yesterday. 
3. Excuse me, but would you kindly lend me this book ? I will return it to- 
morrow evening. 4. Come to my house, and I '11 hear what you've got to say, 
leisurely, over a cup of tea or something. 5. I met unexpectedly an old school- 
fellow of mine in the train, a man called Motono ; we talked about all sorts of 
things so the time didn't hang at all heavily on my hands. 6. It's a long time 
I haven 't seen you ; I hope you 're well. 7. Thanks, I am quite well. I was 
thinking of going to pay you my respects, but I was so busy that I put it off, 
and have been very impolite. 8. Although that man comes to Tokyo frequent- 
ly, he never comes to see me ; I wonder if he's put out about anything. 9. 
There was a man standing in front of the butcher's, talking away in a loud voice 
and wiping the perspiration from his face ; I was wondering what it all meant 
and it turned out he was advertising some medicine. 10. If you are going to the 
post office, call at the watchmaker's on your way back ; if the watch I gave to 
be mended the other day is ready, bring it. 11. As I intend to call tomorrow 
at Mr Yamada ? s on my way to the office, please get my breakfast ready half an 
hour earlier than usual. 12. That man paints, writes, and sings, but [ can't 
say that he does anything very well. 13. Your son, Master Taro, left his um- 
brella here ; on your way back please call for it. 14. I've been to America, 
and I've been to Europe, but after all, I like my native land best ; what are 
your feelings ? 



EXERCISE 98. 

The Infinitive (English). Study 83. 

jwnen : ground ; plot of land. iwaku : to tie. 

sumi : corner. kototcaru : to refuse. 

yoso : another, a different place. muku : to peel. 

butsukaru : to hit, bump against. tsubusu : to crush ; smash. 

1. Sono himo wa nani ni o tsukai nasaimasu ka ? (D). 2. Ko-zutswni ya 
nanka iwaku no ni tsukau (B). 3. Do shite o kega wo nasaimashita ? (D). 4. 
Nashi no karva wo muko to shite itara, kodomo ga butsukatta no desu (C). 5. Ano 
hito wa ammari tabi-tabi tanomi ni kuru no de kotow ari-nikui (B). C. Yamada 
San wa uchi wo tateru tame nijimen wo kaimashlta (C). 7. Tanaka San ni ao to 
omotte ikimashlta ga, yoso e dekakeru tokoro deshita kara, sugu ni kaette kirnaslnta 
(C). 8. Ano oki na hako wo sumi e yard to omotte, ashi wo tsubushimashita (C). 
9. Matsu wa irn kai ? (A). 10. Tadaima tegami wo dashi ni ikimashlta (C). 
11. De wa, kaettara, kuruma wo yobi ni yari na-sai (A). 12. Hayaku kuni e 
kaerito gozqimasu (D). 1 3. Sono shigoto wa itsu madt ni nasareba ii no desu ka ? 
(C). 14. Doyo-bi no him made ni shi-nakereba narima^en (C). 15. Ano hlto no 
jiwa yomi-nikui (IS). 16. O Hana San wa Tokyo ni kitai to iimashUa (C). 17. 
Nii-san wa nani shi ni Rondon e irash'tta no desu ? (C). 18. Ei-go wo benkyo 
shi ni itta no de gozaimasu (D). 19. Yoru osoku made okite iru no wa karada ni 
doku da (B). 20. Naze mai-asa sampo wo nasaru no desu ? (C). 21. Asa no 
gohan ga oiskiku taberareru yd ni desu (C). 22. Ashita no asa shichi-ji no kisha 
ni ma ni cm yd ni, hayaku okoshite kudasai (C). 23. Teishaba e iku ni wa dono 
michi ga ichiban chikai desho ? (C). 24. Ano kado wo hidari e magatte massugu 
iku to ichiban chikai (B). 25. O Jritori de ryoko wo tiasaru no wa tsumara-nai 
desho (C). 26. Konojibiki wa tailien hlki-ii (B). 27. O mise no kin jo e hikkoxhf 
nasaru ho ga benri deftho (C). 28. Hibiya kden e iku no ni uam-pun kakarimasii 
ka ? (C). 

1. What do you use that string for ? 2. I use it to tie up parcels. 0. How 
did you cut yourself ? 4. I was going to peel a pear when the child bumped 
up against me. 5. That man has come so often to request me (to do something) 
that it is difficult to refuse him. 6. Mr Yamada bought a plot of land to build 
a house. 7. I went to see Mr Tanaka, but, as he was on the point of going out, 
I immediately came back. 8. I was going to move that big box into the corner 
and I hurt my foot. 9. Is Matsu in ? 10. She has just gone out to post a letter. 
11. Well, when she comes back, tell her to call a rikisha. 12. I would like to 
return soon to my native land. 13. When have you to finish that work ? 14. 
I have to finish it by Satui'day midday. 15. His writing is very difficult to read. 
16. Miss Hana says she would like to come to Tokyo. 17. What did your 
brother go to London for ? 18. He went to study English. 19. It is bad for 
the health to stay up late at night. 20. Why do you go for a walk every morn- 
ing ? 21. I go to work up an appetite for my breakfast. 22. Please wake me 
up tomorrow morning early enough to catch the seven o'clock train. 23. 
Which is the nearest way (to go) to the station ? 24. Turn to the left at that 
corner and go straight on ; (that's the nearest way). 25. It would be very 
uninteresting for you to travel about by yourself. 26. This dictionary is very 
convenient to use. 27. Wouldn't it be more convenient for you to move 
somewhere near your office ? 2S. How long docs it take to go to Hibiya park ? 



EXERCISE 99. 

Various Verbal Phrases, Study 84 91. 

jibun : time. mendo-kusai : troublesome. 

kimochi : feeling. oshii : deplorable ; regrettable. 

saisoku : urging. omoi-dasu : to call to mind ; recollect. 

shitsurei : rudeness. kesshite : an emphatic negative particle. 
uso : lie ; falsehood. 

1. Yamada San ni kashlta hon ZPO saisoku sum no wa shitsurei desho ka ? (C). 
2. Saisoku nas'tte mo betsu ni shitsurei j a nai desho ; toasurete iru.no kamo shire- 
masen (C). 3. Do in wake de Matsu ni hima zvo o dashi ni natta w' desu ka ? 
(C). 4. Are zva shigoto wa isshokemmei ni shite kurete, taihen yokatta no desu 
keredomo, domo o-shaberi de, iro-iro komaru koto ga atta mono desu kara, hima zco 
yatta wake desu (C). 5. Ano hito wa ichi-do chichi ni uso wo itta won' desu kara, 
sore kara uchi de zva kesshite shinyo shi-nai no desu (C). C. Smith San ni wa 
Kyoto ni ita jibun ni ni-san-do atta koto ga aru n ' desu ga, to gurai no toki deshita 
kara, donna hito datta ka chitto mo omoi-dasemasen (C). 7. Hon wo yonde itara 
atarna ga itaku natte kita kara, soto e dete kodomo-tachi ga asonde iru no wo mite 
ita w' desu (C). 8. Kakitai koto wa ikura de mo aru n" 1 desu ga, kaku noga mendo- 
kusai desu (C). 0. O isha ni o-ide nasaimasu ka ? Doko ka o warui no de gozai- 
masu ka? (D). 10. lie, watashi ga mite morau no ja arimasen; ane ga kind kara 
kimochi ga icarui to iimas-ii kara, o isha wo tanomi ni kita n' desu (C). 11. Wata- 
kushi no kuni wa'Sendai de wa gozaimasen keredomo, ju-go no toshi kara oriinaxu 
no de, yoku shitte iru no de gozaimasu (D). 12. Tenki ga yokattara haha m.o iku 
no deshitaro ga, ano ame de, yameta no desu (C). 13. Anata ga ano hon wo youtu 
no dattara sutete shimazva-nai de totte oku no datta (B). 14. Ammari ii tsul:i tic 
neru ni wa oshii kara, sukoshi aruko ja arimasen ka? (C). 15. Asonde bakari 
i-nai de, benkyo wo suru ga yokaro (A). 16. Kono kami wa shujin ga tf garni w<> 
kaku ni Isukaitnasu (C). 

1. Do you think it would be rude for me to ask Mr Yamada to return the 
book I lent him ? 2. I don't see why you shouldn 't ; I dare say he's forgotten 
all about it. 3. Why did you send' Matsu away ? 4. She was a very good 
servant, and she worked very hard ; however, she was such a chatterbox that 
several times she made things very inconvenient for me, so I had to discharge 
her. 5. That man once told my father a lie, and since then, we have no con- 
fidence in him. 6. I met Mr Smith two or three times when I was in Kyoto, 
but as I was only ten years old then, I don 't remember at all what kind of a man 
he is. 7. I was "reading a book and I got a headache, so I went out and looked 
at the children playing. 8. There are any number of things I would like to 
write, but I find writing such a nuisance. 9. So you are going to see the doctor ? 
what's the matter with you ? 10. No, it is not I who am going to consult the 
doctor; my sister is not'feeling well since yesterday, that is why I have come 
for him. 1 1 . Sendai is not my native town, but as I ' ve lived there since I was 
fifteen, I know it quite well. 12. My mother would have gone if the weather 
had been fine, but with rain like that, she gave up the idea. 13. I wouldn t 
have thrown that book away if I'd known you wanted to read it. 
a pity to go to bed yet with such a beautiful moon shining ; let's go for a strol! 
15. Instead of wastmg your time you 'd better study. 1 0. My master usrs 
paper for writing letters. 



EXERCISE 1 00. 

Irregular Verbs. Study 9297. 

akari : a light, kuyashii : regrettable ; annoying. 

gaman : patience ; fortitude, chirakasu : to disarrange ; scatter. 

imi : meaning. katazuke'ru : to put away (in its place) : 

kutsu-shita : socks ; stockings. put in order. 

mendo : trouble ; bother. kutabire'ru : to be tired. 

son : loss. tsuide : opportunity ; at the same time. 

1. Taihen kuro gozaimasu ne, akari wo o tsfike nas'ttara yoroshiu- gozainiasho 
(D). 2. O kao-iro ga o warn gozaimasu ga, muri ni gaman wo nas 'tie irash 'tie 
wa doku de gozaimasu kara, mite o moral ni natte wa ikaga de gozaimasv. ka? (D). 
3. Kono mae anata ga o-ide kudos' 1 tie kara hito-tsuki gurai ni narinia^hd ga. bijo- 
nin wa sendatte to sukoshi mo kawatta kotoga gozaimasen (D). 4. Nikai no .so// w; 
O Matsu ni sashite, omae wa chotto watashi no hei/a e kite o kure (A). 5. Asuko 
wo toru. to otoko no ko-tachi ni itazura wo sareru kara, betsu no michi :co totte iki- 
masho (C). 6. Anna hito ni baka ni sareta to omou to kuyashikutte shiyo ga nai 
(13). 7. Konna ni iro-iro chirakashite oite, o kyaku sama ni korareru to kazukaxhii 
kara, katazukete o kure (A). 8. Yamada San wa nan-ji goro irasshaimashUa ka? 
(D). 9. San-ji han ni irash'tte chichi toju-go-fun bakari o hanashi nas'tte o kaeri 
nasaimashita (D). ]0. Kono ji no imi wo go zonji de irassha-imashltara. dozo 
oshiete kudasaimasen ka ? (D). 11. Anata wa sensei wo okorashite wa son ja ari- 
tnasen ka? (C). 12. Mam-ya e irash'ttara, tsuide ni watashi no kutsu-shitd 
wo katte kite kudasai (C). 13. ftuteifthon kara zutto aruite irash'tta no desu ha ? 
Zuibun kutabire nas'tta deshd ; o cha de mo agatte o yasurni nasai (C). 14. Jibuti 
de henji wo kaku no ga mendo nara 1'aro ni kakashite hayaku o dashi nasai (1?). 
15. Senjitsu wa kekko na nashi zvo kndas'tte doino arigato gozaimashUa ; taixo 
oishiu gozaimashita (D). 1C. Yube anata no tonari ni koshi-kakete irash'tta no 
IK a donata deshlta ? (C). 17. Ano yofuku wo kite irash'tta onna no kata desu ka ? 
Ane no tomodachi de, konaida gaikoku kara o kaeri nas 'tta Hatano to iu kata de*n (C ). 

1. It's very dark, I think you'd better light the lights. 2. You are looking 
pale; it's no good trying to bear your illness without taking any medicine, 
hadn 't you better see a doctor ? 3. I think it 's about a month since you calk'd : 
since then the patient is much about the same. 4. Tell Matsu to sweep upstairs, 
and you, come to my room. 5. If I go that road the boys will play tricks on me. 
so I'll go another way. 6. I'm aw r fully put out to think that a man like that 
has made a fool of me. 7. I'd be ashamed for visitors to come and see things 
all in disorder like this, so put everything away. S. At what time did Mr 
Yamada arrive ? 9. He arrived at half past three, and left again after fifteen 
minutes' talk with my father. 10. If you know the meaning of this character. 
please explain it to me ? 11. It's to your own disadvantage to be always ma- 
king your master angry. 12. As you 're going to Maru-ya 's, would you rnind buy- 
ing me some socks ? 13. Did you come walking all the way from the station 
here ? You must be very tired ; have a cup of tea and rest awhile. 14. If you 
find it too much trouble to write (the letter) yourself, ask Taro to write it for 
you, and send it quickly. 15. Thanks very much for the beautiful pears you 
sent me the other day ; thev were delicious. 1C. Who \vas it sitting last night 
next to you ? 17. Do you mean that lady in foreign clothes ? She is a friend 
of my sister's who arrived recently from abroad, her name is Mrs Hatano. 



EXERCISE 101. 

Auxiliary and Terminal Verbs. Study 98 110. 

kanjo : reckoning ; account. kui-tsuku : to bite (as an attack). 

knsa : grass. inigaku : to polish ; clean. 

megane : spectacles. ftawagu : to make a noise, disturbance. 

tatemono : building. iatamu : to fold. 

kuu : to bite ; eat. 

1. Yamada San wa byoki wo naoshi ni is-shukan bakari mae kara Hakone e itte 
iru so da (B). 2. Sakki kite irash'tta kata wa go shinrui no kata de gozaimaxil ka ? 
(D). 3. Iie,sojanaidesu,tomodachidem(C}. 4. Anata no kimono wa tatande 
arimasu (C). 5. Danna sama no kutsu wo migaita kai ? (A). G. Hai, mo m-igaite 
guzaimasu (D). 7. \Vaiakushi mo ane to issho ni kino Ueno e mairimashUe 
gozaimam (D). 8. Ko-naula Taro San ga jibiki wo kashUe kure to itte kita kara, 
kashlte yattara, sugu ni rnotte knru to ii nagara, mada kaeshite ko-nai (B). 9. 
Ilana-ko San ica ha. ga itai kara komban irasshara-nai to tegami de itte kimaslnta 
(C). 10. Yamashlta San go, Nikko de kaite kita e zvajitsu niyokn kaite am (B). 
11. Sakki kodoino-tachi ga 6-sawagi wo sum no de, nan daro to omotte mite miia 
tokoro ga, hltori ga inu ni kni-tsukarete naite iru no datta (B). 12. Kondo anata 
ga irassharu made ni kore wo yakushlte kirei ni kaite oite agetna.m (D). 13. Sugu 
ni henjircodashite shintawa-nai to -n'asurete shimau kara, irr*a kaite daso (B). 14. 
\Vatakushi wa taihen kimochiga warn gozaimasu kara, megane no kanjo ico tori ni 
Chokichi San ni itte moratte yd gozaimasu ka ? (D). 15. Kono mae kita toki n-n 
kono hen zva kusa ga haete ite sabishii tokoro datta no ni, mo konna ni oki na tate- 
mono ga ikutsu mo tatte iru (B). 16. Itoko ga kotchi e kuru no de, hUo-tsuki bakari 
to-matte itai to in no da ga, nikai ga aite iru kara, watashi wa ii to omou keredomo, 
oii'.ae no kangae wa do da ? (A). 17. So de gozaimasune, yoku kangaete okimashi) 
(D). 18. n'atashi no te-bukuro zco motte kite o kure ; tonsu no hikidashi ni irete 
oita kara (A). 19. Hobo sagashlte mimashita keredomo gozaimasen (D). 

1. Mr Yamada has been in Hakone a week recovering from his illness. 2. Was 
the gentleman who was here just now a relation of yours ? 3. No, he's only a 
friend. 4. Your dress is folded. 5. Have you cleaned your master's boots ? 
6. Yes, I have (lit. they are cleaned). 7. I went with my sister yesterday to 
Ueno. 8. Master Taro came a few days ago to ask me to lend him my dictionary. 
1 lent it to him ; and although he said'he 'd bring it back soon, he hasn 't returned 
it yet. 9. Miss Hana-ko has written to say that she can 't come this evening as 
she has a toothache. 10. The picture Mr Yamashita painted when he was in 
Nikko is really very well painted. 11. The children were making such a noisr 
]ust now that* I wondered what had happened. I went to see and found that 
what had happened was that one oY them had been bitten by a dog, and was 
crying. 12. I'll translate this, write it out and have it ready for you \vlun 
you come again. 13. As I'm sure to forget it if I don't answer the letter soon. 
ril do it at once. 14. As I'm not feeling at all well would you mind if Master 
Chokichi were to go instead of me to collect the bill for the spectacles ? 15. 
AYhen I was here last, all this neighbourhood was all grass and there were no 
houses ; and now, just look at all the big buildings there are. 16. My cousin 
is coming and he says he would like to stay a month here. As the top floor K 
unoccupied I think we could put him up, what do you say t 17. I don't exact- 
ly know, I'll think it over. 18. Bring me my gloves, I left them in the chest 
of drawers. 19. I've looked for them in every drawer, but I can t find them. 



EXERCISE 102. 

Transitive and Intransitive Verbs. Study 111 118. 

ambai : condition ; manner. kobore'ru (intr.) : to get spilt. 

hashigo-dan : staircase. kobosu (trans.) : to spill. 

kane : bell. narasu (trans.) : to cause to sound ; ring. 

tetsubin : kettle. naru (intr.) : to make a noise ; ring. 

urusai : annoying. orosu (trans.) : to take down. 
attamani (intr.) : to become warm, watasu (trans.) : to hand over. 

attame'ru (trans.) : to warm. chodo : exactly ; just. 

1. Ana kane wa nichiyo-bi no asa shichi-ji ni naru no de gozaimasu (I)). 2. 
Chodo ju-ji ni kane wo narashite kudasal (C). 3. AJizu ga ippai haitte imasu 
Icara, kobore-nai yd ni shizuka ni motte irasshai (C). 4. Hashigo-dan e inki wo 
koboshtta no wa dare desti ? Koboshita hlto zva jibun defuite oki nasai (B). 5. 
O yu wo saki ni wakashite, sore kara chichi wo attamete o kure (A). 6. Chichi ga 
attamattara akambo ni o yari nasai (A). 7. Sono hashi wo wataru to Kanda desu 
(C). 8. Kono shashin wo ototo san ni o zvata^hi kudasaimasen ka ? (D). 9. 
Benkyo shite lie akiru to uchi wo dete, kden no naka wo shibaraku aruite kuru koto 
ni kimete imasu (C). 10. Ano ame no naka wo aruka-nakereba nara-nai no ka 
to omotte shimpai shite kimashUa ga, kisha wo oriru to sugu ni ante ga yande, ii 
ambai deshlta (C). 11. Tetsubin ni o yu wo ippai wakashite moraitai (A). 12. O 
yu ga waitara so itte o kure (A). 13. O yu ga wakimashita (C). 14. O yu <a/ mo 
waite iru (H). 15. yu wa mo zvakashite arimasu (C). 16. Sumimasen ga, 
tana kara ano hako wo oroshite kudasaimasen ka? Watakushi wa sei ga hikukutte 
todokimasen (D). 17. Oinae wa urusai kara shita e orite o-ide (A). 18. Kono 
kudamono wo o bon ni nosete danna sama no tokoro e motte o-ide na^ai (A). 1 9. 
Kyo waatamaga itai kara, densha e nora-zu nikurunia de ikimasti- (C). 20. Hon 
zva minna sono hako ni irete kudasaimasen ka ? (C). 21. Minna wa hairimasen ; 
nokotta no zva kaban ni iremasho ka ? (C). 22. E, j a, so shite kudasai (C). 23. 
Mise no kaeri-gake ni Hibiya de densha wo orite, T a naka San no tokoro e chotto 
yotte kimashUa (C). 24. Jochu ga mo mitsfikarim.asMta ka? (C). 

1. That bell rings every Sunday morning at seven o'clock. 2. Please ring 
the bell exactly at ten o'clock. 3. This (jug) is full of water; you must 
carry it very carefully so as not to spill it. 4. Who has spilt ink on the stairs ? 
Whoever has done it must wipe it clean. 5. First boil the water and after 
that warm the milk. 6. When the milk is warm give it to the baby. 7. When 
you cross that bridge you will be in Kanda. 8. Would you kindly give this 
photograph to your brother? 9. It's now a fixed habit of mine when I get 
tired of studying, to go out and walk about the park for a while. 10. I was feel- 
ing anxious (in the train) thinking I'd have to walk in the rain, but luckily I'd 
hardly got off the train when it stopped raining. 11. Boil a kettleful of water 
forme. 12. When the water boils let me know. 13, 14 and 15. The water is 
boiling. 16. Excuse me, but would you mind getting me the box from the 
shelf ? I (am so short that I) cannot reach it myself. 17. You are a nuisance, 
go and stay downstairs. 18. Put this fruit on a tray and take it to your master's 
room. 19. As I've a headache today instead of going by tram-car, I'll take a 
rikisha. 20. Please put all the books in that box. 21. They won't all go in : 
shall I put what's over in the trunk ? 22. Yes, please do so. 23. On my 
\\.-iy back from the office. I got off the tram-car at Hibiya and I made a short 
rail on Mr Tanaka. 24. Have vou found a servant vet ? 



EXERCISE 103. 

Passive Verbs. Study 119 125. 

fu : way ; manner. kern. : to kick. 

waru-kuchi : evil-speaking. nusumu : to steal. 

atarimae no : usual ; ordinary. osowaru : irreg. passive of oshie'ru to 

fui no : sudden. teach. 

okashii ; okashi na : laughablej shimaru (intr.) : to shut. 

strange. shiran (corr. of shira-nai) : having no 
gomakam : to deceive. knowledge ; feigning ignorance. 

home'ru : to praise. shiran kao : not to betray one's know- 

kamu : to bite. . ledge by the expression of the face. 

1. Sono kimono wo kiru to Shina-jin to niachigaerareru daro (B). 2. Sonnafu 
wo shite aruku to hito ni warawaremasii (C). 3. Waru-kuchi wo iwarete mo shiran 
kao de irasshai (C). 4, Anna koto zvo saretara okoru no wa atarimae da (B). 5. 
Inu ni yubi wo kamaremashlta (C). 6. Fui ni watashi ga itta kara, oba san ga 
bikkuri shlta (B). 7. Nikai no niado wa. shimatte iru kai ? (A). 8. Kind wa saka- 
na ga takusan toremashita (C). 9. Takeo wa kind uma ni kerarete kega wo shita 
(B). 10. Kuruma-ya ni gomakasare-nai yd ni ki wo tsuke nasai (B). 11. Ano 
ko wa itsit mo sensei ni homeraremasu (C). 12. Yube dorobo ni yubi-wa wo 
nusumaremashita (C). 13. Nihon-go wo donata ni osowari nasaimashita ? (D). 
14. Tanabe San ni osowarimashita (C). 15. Sonna okashi na fu wo sureba 
warawareru no ica atarimae da (B). 16. Koko ni nan to kaite arimasu ka ? (C). 
17. Watashi wa shira-nai (B). 18. Son,o chawan wa doko de dekita no desu? (C). 
19. Kyoto de dekita no de gozaimasu (D). 20. Danna ni shikararem kara hayaku 
o kaeri (A). 21. Kodomoni nakareru no ga ichiban urusai (B). 22. Ano fiitotta. 
hito wa nan to iu hito desu ? (C). 23. Suzuki to iu hito desu (C). 24. Kore ica 
nan to iu kudamo'no de gozoimasu ? (D). 25. Nashi to iu no da (B). 26. Ano 
yaseta hito zva Koyama to iu hito dtm (C). 27. Kami wo kai ni ikimashUara, mo 
raise ga shimatte imaslnta (C). 28. Ano hito wa shujin ni yobarete mo shiran kao 
wo shite iru (B). 29. Jibun no koto wa hito no sewa ni nara-nai de suru ho ga ii (B). 

1. If you put on that dress, you may be taken for a Chinese. 2. If you go 
out (dressed) like that, people will laugh at you. 3. Even if people speak ill of 
you, don 't take any notice. 4. It is only natural that he should get angry when 
they behave like that to him. 5. My finger was bitten by a dog. 6. As I went 
unexpectedly, my aunt was surprised. 7. Is the window upstairs closed ? 8. 
A lot of fish was caught yesterday. 9. Takeo was kicked by a horse yesterday 
and was hurt. 10. Take care and don't Jet the rikisha-man cheat you. 11. 
That child is always praised by his teacher. 12. Last night a robber stole my 
ring. 13. Mho taught you Japanese ? 14. Mr Tanabe taught me. 15. Of 
course people will laugh at you if you go about in that strange way. 16. What 
is written here ? 17. I don't know. 18. Where was that tea-cup made ? 
It was made in Kyoto. 20. Come back quicklv so as not to get scolded by your 
master. 21. It is very annoying to hear children crying. 22. What's that 
stout man called ? 23. He is called Suzuki. 24. What is this fruit called \ 
25. It is called a pear. 26. That thin man is called Koyama. 27. I went to 
buy some paper but the shop was already closed. 28. Even when his master 
calls him, he pretends not to hear. 29. You had better do your own things 
yourself and not be helped by others. 



EXERCISE 104. 

Pa>Mve Verbs (continued). 

hori : ditch ; moat. hikkomu : to draw back ; retire. 

namake-rnono : a lazy person. in iru : to dig. 

i/oxi't : condition. korosu : to kill. 

'kowai : fearful ; afraid. //an/. : to do. 

dama-sfi : to deceive ; cheat. abekobe : the other \vay about. 

1. Hlto ni iware-nakute mo ii koto wo iwareru no mo minna ano ko no tame da 
(B). 2. Tabako wa karada ni warui to isha ni iwarete kara noma-iiai koto ni 
kimemashita (C). 3. Omae. ni sono old na koe de uta wo utawareru to atama ga 
itiiku naru (A). 4. Miraretara taihen 'desu kara, isoide hil'kamimashUa (C). 5. 
Harm) wa Akin kara damasarete kuyashikute shikata ga nai no desu (C). 6. 
Sonna tokoro e hori wo horarete wa watashi no ho de taihen tsttgo ga wurni desu (C). 

7. Ano o kashi zca tabetai, keredomo, donna ga kaette kite shikar areru to kowai (B). 

8. De mo, kimi ga okorare-nakereba ii no dard ? Baku ga timakn yarn kara, 
ffttari de are wo tabete shim ad (B). 0. Sakki butsukatta otoko ni kane ?co torareta 
no ni kimatte imasu ga, tichi ga bimbo desti kara, wataktishi ga totta to omowareru 
ni clngai arimasen (C). 10. Ano otoko rco damashtte yard to omotte ite, abekobe ni 
damasarete shimatta (B). 11. Konna i/osu ico shite iru tokoro wo Into ni mirareru 
f<> hmukas-hiu gozaimasu kara, soto e detaku gozaimasen (D). 12. Ima made iro- 
iro no koto wo iwarete mo gam an shite Ha ga, dorobo to iwarete wa mo ynrusu koto 
wa deld-nai (A). 13. Ano otoko wa ammari namake-mono desu kara, o to-san ni 
ncfti zvo oi-dasareta no desti (C). 14. Hlto kara nani ka iwareta toki wa kitto o 
l/enji wo shi-nakereba ikemasen yo. Nani ka kikareta toki damatte iru no wa 
taihen shitsurei na koto desu kara ne (B). 15. Inu wo korosareta Into wa ano mi- 
ne no shujin desu (C). 16. Anata ni iwareta tori ni shimaskitara, ha no itai no ga 
sukkari tmnarimashita (C). 17. O to-san ni mitsnkaru to butareru kara, doko ka e 
kakurete irasshai (B). 

1. It's all that child's fault that people are saying things about us they ought 
not to. 2. I've decided to give up smoking as the doctor says it's bad for tho 
health. 3. If you keep on singing songs in a loud voice like that, you'll give 
me a headache. 4. As it would be a very disagreeable thing if he were seen, he 
hurriedly went into the house. 5. Ilaruo was very much annoyed at being 
deceived by Akio. 6. If you dig a ditch there it would be extremely incon- 
venient for me. 7. I 'd like to eat those sweets but I 'm afraid of the scolding 
I'd get when my master comes back. 8. Well, but it would be all right, 
wouldn't it, if he didn't get angry with you ? I'll arrange it cleverly, so let's 
eat them up between us. 0. I'm certain that the man who bumped against me 
just now took the money, but as my family is poor, there's no doubt people 
will think that 1 stole it myself. 10. I thought of deceiving that man but it 
turned out the other way about, I was taken in by him. 11. I don't want 
to go out as I'm ashamed people should see me like this. 12. Up to now he's 
called me many things and I've put up with it, but I can't allow myself to be 
called a thief. 13. That man is so la/y that his father turned him out of the 
house. 14. Be sure to answer whenever you are spoken to ; it is very rude to 
remain silent when you are asked a question. 15. The man whose dog was killed 
is the owner of that shop. 30. I did as you told me, and my toothache has 
entirely stopped. 17. As your father will beat you if he finds you, hide yourself 
somewhere. 



EXERCISE 105. 

Potential Verbs. Study 126136. 

diidokoro : kitchen. suberu : to slip. 

hankechi : handkerchief. torikae'rn : to cliange. 

hashigo : ladder. ue'ru : to plant. 

kura : godown. uke-toru : to receive. 
shiawase na : lucky ; fortunate. 

1. Yube wa kono ko ga naite bakari ite toto -nemwe wa shimasen deshtta (C). 2. 
Surnimasen ga, o m.ise no kaeri ni hankechi wo roku-mai katte kite kudasaimasen 
ka? watashi wa kaze wo hiite ite, soto e deraremo^en kara (C). 3. Anatn no ycna 
kata ga do shite kono omoi mono wo motte ikaremasho ? Dose ototo gd asonde 
imasu kara, go issho ni motashlte agema.su (C). 4. Sakki o to-san ni 'kimono >o 
naoshite kure ' to iwareta toki ' isogashikutte naose-nai ' to wa itta keredotno, so hima 
no iru, koto de wa nai kara, chotto naoshite ageyo (Pi). 5. Musiiko san ga naotte 
hatarakeru yd ni natte o shiawase desii (C). 6. Sono ki wa suberu kara, hashigo 
wo kake-nakereba noboremasen (C). 7. Chodo kyo o me ni kakarete konna ureshii 
koto iva gozaimasen (D). 8. Uchi no tori ga kesa yoso no inn ni korosareta no desii 
ga, ko iu toki ni inn no shnjin kara kane wo torn koto ga dekimasu ka ? (C). 9. 
Soko e ki wo tier arete wa watashi no ho de komaru no desu ga, yoso e uete itadaku 
koto wa dekimasen ka ? (C). 10. Anata gajibun de ginko e ika-nakereba o kane 
wo uke-toru koto ga deki-nai to iu hanashi deshita (C). 11. Yado-ya de dorobo 
ni kane wo torarete shimatte komatta keredomo, tomodachi no o-kage de yatto kaette 
kuru koto ga dekita (15). 12. Mo asuko e kura wo tate-hajimemashUa kara, imn 
kara basho wo torikaeru wake ni wa ikimasen (C). 1 3. Sore wa watashi ga otoshtta 
kane j a nai kara, uke-toru wake ni ika-nai to itta j a crimasen l:a? (C). 14. Ano 
ko wo hltori de tsiikai ni yatte wa ike-nai to itta 'tie, daidokoro wo kamawa-nai de 
watashi ga issho ni itte yaru wake ni wa ika-nai desho ? (C). 

1. Last night this child did nothing but cry, so I wasn't able to sleep the 
whole night. 2. I am soriy to trouble you, but would you mind buying me half 
a dozen handkerchiefs on your way back from the office ? I've caught a cold 
and I can't go out. 3. How can a weak person like you possibly carry this 
heavy thing ? Anyhow, as my brother has got nothing to do for the moment, he 
can go with you and carry it. 4. When my father asked me just now to mend 
his kimono I said I was so busy I could n't'do it ; however, it won't take long 
so I'll mend it for him after all." o. I am glad to hear that your son has recovered 
and is able to work again. 6. That tree" is slippery, you won 't be able to climb 
it unless you've got a ladder. 7. It has been a very great pleasure for me 
{to have been able) to see you today. 8. This morning one of my fowls was 
killed by a (strange) dog ; in such a case can I claim money from the owner of 
the dog'? 9. If you plant the tree there, you will inconvenience me a great deal, 
couldn 't you plant it somewhere else ?" 10. They said that if you yourself 
don't go to the bank, you can't get the money. 11. My money was stolen at an 
inn and I found myself in a very awkward position ; however, at last, thanks to a 
friend, I was able to return home. 12. As I have already started building the 
godown there, I cannot now change the place. 13. I told you I can 't receive that 
money as it wasn't I who lost it. 14. Although you say I oughtn't to send that 
child alone on errands, you can well understand I can't go with him and leave 
the kitchen. 



EXERCISE 106. 

Causative Verbs. Study 137148. 

go-cbifid : feast. mlobu : stove. 

hokori : dust. make'ru : to lose : reduce the price. 

kufu : plan ; scheme. niga-su : to let escape. 

sake : alcoholic drink made from ochi'ru : to fall, 

rice. takv. : to kindle, 
shltate-ya : tailor. 

1. Anata wo kotnaraseyd to iu teumori'fa nai no desu kara, doka waruku ommca- 
nai dc kudasai (C). 2. O samu gozaimashltara, sutobu ni hi wo takasemasho (D). 
3. Ano mise wa baka ni takai kara kondo ittara makesashlte yara-nakereba . . . 
(B). 4. Taro no inu ga TIaruo no inn to kenka wo shite makemasblta (C). 5. 
Ototo wa karada ni warui kara sake wo noma-nai yd ni to iwarete mo yappari notide 
komatta mono da ; do ka shite yamesaseru kuffi wa nai daro ka ? (B). 6. Kono 
kimono wa shltate-ya de nutta no de gozaimasu ka ? (D). 7. lie, uchi no Hana ni 
nuwaseta no de gozaimasu (D). 8. O tsukue no ue ga hokori-darake de gozaimasu 
kara, jochu ni fukasemasho (D). 9. Kodomo ni kego wo sase-nai yd ni shiju ki 
wo tsukete ite o kure (A). 10. Watashi ga uchi e itie kuru aida kono inu wo nigasa- 
luii yd ni ban :co shite ite kudasai (C). 1 1. Watashi sae soba ni itara, sonna shigoto 
?ra sase-nai no desii ga, wake ga atte kochira e kite imasu no de. omou yd ni ika-nai 
no desu (C). 12. Watashi ga yatta inn rvo kodomo ni ijim,esa-seru nara inu wo 
kaeshlte kudasai (B). 13. Kitto onaka wo sukashlte o kaeri daro to omolte, go- 
chisd wo koshiraete matte imashlta (C). 14. Kind Taro ga yane e agatte, do iu 
wake ka ashi wo suberasete ochite kega wo shimashlta (C). 15. Kimono ga yogo- 
reta kara jochu ni arawashlte o kure (A). 16. Koppu wa watashi ga kowashlta 
no desu kara. watashi ni harawasete kudasai (C). 17. Konna hon wo kodomo 
ni ijomasete wa ike-naija nai ka ? (A). 18. Anata wa do iu wake de ko-no ko wo 
iKikashltari suru no desu ? (C). 

1. As 1 had no intention of putting you in an awkward position, please don't 
think ill of me. 2. If you are cold, I'll have the stove lit. .3. As that shop 
always charges so dear, next time I go there I must beat them down. 4. Taro's 
dog had a fight with Haruo's and was beaten. 5. \Ve are very anxious about 
my brother. Although he's been told not to drink sake because it's bad for his 
health, he nevertheless goes on drinking. What could we do to make him stop ? 
H. Did a tailor make this kimono ? 7. No, my daughter Hana made it for me 
(//'/. I had it sewn by my daughter Hana). 8. Your desk is all dusty, I'll tell 
the servant to wipe it (with a duster). 9. Be always careful so that the children 
may not hurt themselves. 10. I'm just going to my house for a moment, 
please don 't let the dog run away in the meantime. 11. If I had only been there 
I wouldn't have let you do (heavy) work like that, but I was obliged to be here, 
so 1 Couldn't do as I wanted. 12. If you are going to let the children worry the 
<log I gave you, you'd better give it back to me. U3. I thought you would be 
Mire to be hungry when you came back, so I prepared a good dinner for you. 14. 
Taro got on to the roof yesterday, and for some reason or other his foot slipped 
and he fell and hurt himself. 15. As my dress is dirty, get the servant to wash 
it. 16. As I broke the tumbler, let me pay for it. 17. You ought to know 
that you shouldn't let children read a book like this. 18. What are you ma- 
king that child cry i'or ? 



EXERCISE 107. 

Reflexive Verbs ; Compound Verbs. Study 149155. 

kogoto : scolding. furue'ru : to tremble. 

inari : ball. kake'ru : to run. 

yukata ; yugata : evening. nage'ru : to throw. 

hosoi : thin. tolni : to jump ; fly. 
to leave open. 



1. O to-san wa Haruo no kao wo -mint to oki na koe de kogolo wo iiinasu no df. 
Haruo wafurue nagara to no kage ni kakurete imashUa (C). 2. Taro wa mari -co 
nagete asonde iru no desu ka ? (C). 3. Sonna hosoi eda e nobotte, eda ga oretara 
kega ico sum ja nai ka? (A). 4. Kono tori wa kega wo shite yoku tobe-nai no desu 
(C). 5. Hana-ko wa nani wo shite imam ? (C). 6. Tadaima kimono wo kite 
irasshaimasu (D). 7. Todana wo akeppanashite oite wa ikemasen (A). 8. Kind 
no yukata kowai inu ga ushiro kara kita no de, isoide kake-dashitara, ki ni butsii- 
katte kega wo shimashita (C). 9. Daibu kutabiremashita ne, asuko c koithi-kakete 
o yasumi nasai (C). 10. Yubin-kyoku e itte dempo wo utte kite o kure, isogi da 
kara, kakete itte o-ide (A). 11. Kono tegami wa ammmi imi ga hakkiri shimasen 
kara, kaki-naoshite kiidasaimasen ka ? (C). 12. Yatto tenki ni natta to oniotte 
Ham, mata furi-dashimashita yo (C). 13. Mi chi ga futatsti ni wakarete lie, dotchi 
wo itte ii ka to omotte ko matte ii'U to, tdri-kakatta hito ga oshiete kuremashtta (C). 
14. Hana-ko no bydki wa yatto kono-goro naori-kakarimashUa (C). 15. Yomi- 
kaketa hon wo yonde shimatte kara, hoka no wo kashite ageyo (A). 16. Jiro San 
wa densha kara tobi-orite tailien na kega wo shtta so desti (C). 17. Kmio kugi ni 
bdshi wo kakete yd gozaimasu ka ? (D). 18. lie, soko wa bdshi wo kakeru tokoro 
ja arimasen ; tonari no heya ni oite kudasai (C). 19. Kono ko wa shira-nai Mto 
no kao wo miru to kitto naki-dashirnasu (C). 20. Yube mado wo akeppanofihlte 
netara kaze wo hiite shimatta (B). 

1. \\'hen my father saw Haruo he scolded him in a loud voice, and Haruo 
trembling hid himself behind the door. 2. Is Taro amusing himself by throwing 
a ball about ? 3. If you get on a thin branch like that, and the branch were 
to break, you would hurt yourself. 4. This bird hurt itself and can 't fly pro- 
perly. 5. What is Hana-ko doing? 0. She is dressing herself. 7. Don't 
leave the cupboard open. 8. Yesterday evening a fierce dog was following me, 
so I started to run as fast as I could ; I knocked myself against a tree and hurt 
myself. 9. You must be very tired, sit down there for a while and rest yourself. 
10. Go to the post office and send a telegram, as the affair is urgent go there 
running. 11. The meaning of this letter is not quite clear, please write- it again. 
12. I thought that at last the weather was going to be fine, and now, it has 
begun raining again. 13. The road branched* into two, and as I didn't know 
which to take, I found myself in an awkward position : but a man who happened 
to pass kindly told me the way. 14. At last Hana-ko is beginning to rex-over 
from her illness. 15. When you've finished reading the book you've begun to 
read, I'll lend you another. 16. They say that Mr Jiro got off the tram-ear 
while it was still in motion, and hurt himself badly. 17. May I hang my hat on 
this nail ? 18. No, that's not the proper place to hang your hat, go and leave 
it in the next room. 19. Whenever this child sees a strange face, he's sure to 
start crying. 20. I slept last night with the window open and I've caught 
a cold. 



EXERCISE 108. 

The Verb Sum. Study 156163. 

aisatsti : salutation. shabon : soap. 

enryo : reserve ; regard for another 's shobai : occupation. 

feelings. shochi : consent ; knowledge. 

jiman : self-praise. negau : to ask ; request. 

nioi : smell. tvukare'ru : to get tired. 

1 . Anata no yd na shobai wo shite iru hito wa mai-nichi san-jip-pun gurai undo 
wo shi-nakereba ike-nai desij, (C). 2. Ano kyodai wa yoku kenka wo suru ga, sono 
kawari s-ugu ni naka ga yoku naru (B). 3. Watanabe wa Ei-go ga hnnaseru no wo 
taiso jiman shite irn n' desil (C). 4. Yokohama e hikkosu no wa chichi ni sodan 
shite kara no koto ni shimashita (C). 5. Kore wa sendatte mo hanashita hanashi 
desu kara, go zonji no kata mo am desho (C). 6. Kono shabon wa iya desu, nioi 
ga shimasu kara (C). 7. Kesa Suzuki San ni atta kara, aisaisu shitara, shiran 
kao shite itte shimatta ; tabun ki ga tsuka-nakatta no daro (B). 8. Zutsu ga suru 
nara, enryo shi-nai de nete iru ga ii (A). 9. Chichi wa ikura negatte mo watashi ga 
Amerika e iku koto wo shochi shi-nai no de, komatte imasil (C). 10. Taro no naki- 
goe ga shimasu ne, do shita no ka itte goran nasai (B). 11. Shibaraku no aida 
byd-nin ni dare mo awase-nai yd ni shite moraitai desu ; hanashi wo suru to do 
shite mo tsukaremasu kara (C). 12. Jiman suru no zva mittomonai nwno da (B). 

18. Nii-san no go benkyd no jama wo shite zva ike-nai kara, naru-take nikai e ika- 
nai yd ni o shi nasai (A). 14. Kore kara o hanashi suru hanashi wa MornMaro 
no hanashi desu (C). 15. Yarnada San ga go bydki no koto wa shochi shite ori- 
mashita ga, masaka konna ni kyu ni o naLunari nasaro to wa omoimasen deshita 
( D). 16. Shujin ga, ' anata nigo sodan shitai koto ga aru kara, sugu o-ide kudasai * 
to moshimashita (D). 17. Anata mo Kyoto e kembutsil ni iku nara, boku mo issho 
ni iku koto ni shiyo (B). 18. Ammari enryo suru hito wa sukija arimasen (C), 

19. Ikura itakiitte mo gaman suru hoka shikata ga nai (B). 

1. A man occupied like you, needs to take half an hour's exercise every 
day. 2. Those brothers are always quarrelling, but on the other hand they 
soon make it up again. 3. Watanabe is very proud of being able to speak 
English. 4. I've decided not to move to Yokohama until after I've consulted 
my father. 5. I already told this tale some days ago, so I suppose some of you 
will know it. 6. I don 't like this soap, the scent is too strong. 7. I met Mr 
Suzuki this morning and I raised my hat to him, but he went by without taking 
any notice ; perhaps he didn 't see me. 8. If you 've got a headache, don 't 
stand upon ceremony, lie down. 9. My father will not consent to my going 
to America, no matter how much I ask him, so I don't know what to do. 10. 
Taro is crying, go and see what's the matter with him. 11. For some days I 
don't want the patient to see anybody ; talking is sure to tire him. 12. To go 
about boasting is not at all a nice thing to do. 13. You mustn 't interrupt your 
brother while he's studjdng, so as iar as possible don 't go upstairs. 14. The 
tale I am about to tell you is the tale of Momotaro. 15. I knew that Mr Yamada 
was ill, but I never dreamt that he Avould die so suddenly. 16. My master says 
that he has something he wants to consult you about, so please come immediate- 
ly. 17. If you are going on a trip to Kyoto, 1 '11 arrange to go with you. 18. I 
don't care for people who stand too much upon ceremony. 19. No matter how 
great the pain is you must put up with it, as there's nothing else to be dene. 



EXERCISE 109. 

The Verb A'ara. Study 164. 

hi : sun ; sunshine. mamoru : to protect ; defend. 

katachi : shape. yakusokn ivo mamoru : to keep one 's 

yaku : service. word. 

yaku ni tatsu : to be of use. metta ni (with neg.) : seldom. 

raku na : easy ; comfortable. nante : and such like things. 

suppai : sour. sen : former ; previous. 

ataru : to strike against. yoyo ' at last. 

hayaru : to be fashionable. 

1. Kono o kashi wa suppalii natte imasu kara, taberaremasen (C). 2. Ano hito 
rca itsu de mo yakusokn ico mainora-nai kara, mo iya ni natte shimatta (B). 3. O 
cha ga nomitaku nattara, itsu de mo so itte kndasai (C). 4. Hana-ko San no yd 
na boshi ga hayaru so da kara, watashi mo kaitaku natta (B). 5. Anata ga Ameri- 
ka e irasshareba uchi no Goro mo kitto ikitaku naru deshd (C). 6. Kono-goro zca kd 
iu katachi no boshi wa hayara-naku natta yd desu ne, metta ni kabutte iru hito ga 
imasen (C). 7. Soko e ki wo nerareru to boku no lieytt e hi ga atara-naku natte 
komaru no desii (C). 8. Kiku ga i-naku natta 'tte? Sore rva taihen da, sugu ni 
hobo sagasa-nakereba (B). 9. Sono kire wa dtsitl o yu ni nante iretara siikkari 
yaku 7i? tata-naku naru (B). 10. Chichi zva waiakushi ga mittsu no toki ni shinde, 
haha tea shiju bydki de gozaimashtia kara, f atari iva gohan vco taberu koto mo deki- 
naku natte shimaimashita (D), 11. Oji kara moratta kane de shobai wo hajimete, 
haha to watashi ga raku ni kuraseru yd ni natta no desu (C). 12. liana wa yoyo 
kino kara okite sukoshi arukeru yd ni natta bakari desft (C). 13. Kuni e kaera- 
nakereba nara-nai koto ni natta kara, rusu no aida ifoku ki rco tsukete, kodomo ni 
kega nanzo sase-nai yd ni shite kndasai (B). 14. Watashi-tachi ga sen Ha nchi n-a 
uru koto ni narimashita (C). 15. Suzuki San rva o td-san ga Nara e irassharu no 
de, issho ni iku koto ni natta sd da (B). 16. Watashi :cd yatto Ei-go no shimbun 
ga yomtru yd ni natta bakari desu (C). 

1. This pudding is (has turned) sour, I can't eat it. 2. That man never keeps 
his promises, I'm disgusted with him, and I'll have nothing more to do with 
him.' 3. Whenever you are thirsty, let me kriow. 4. They say that hats like 
Miss Hana-ko 'sare fashionable now, I also would like to buy one. 5. If you 
go to America, (my son) Goro is sure to want to go also. 6. Lately hats of this 
shape have gone out of fashion, haven't they ? You hardly ever see anybody 
wearing them now. 7. If you plant trees there, my room won 't get the sun, 
and I'll be greatly inconvenienced. 8. Do you say Kiku is missing ? 
very serious, we must immediately look for her everywhere. 9. If you put that 
cloth into very hot water or do other silly things like that, you '11 spoil it entirely, 
and it will be" good for nothing. 10. My father died when I was three, and my 
mother has always been sick, that is why We became so poor that we hadn't 
enough to eat. 11. With money my Uncle gave me I opened a small shop, and 
now, my mother and myself can live comfortably. 12. At last liana was ; 
to get lip yesterday and walk about a little. 18. I find I am obliged to reti 
home, while I'm away, take great care that the children don't hurt 
or come to any harm. 14. The house we used to live in is now for sale. 
They say that" Mr Suzuki's father is going to Nara, it has been arranged that 
Suzuki shall go with him. 16. At last I'm able to read English newspapers. 



EXERCISE 110. 

The Verb 'To Be'. Study 165. 

akindo : merchant. ii-tsuke'ru : to command. 

botchan : polite term for little boy. nekasu : to put to sleep. 

liana : nose. ninu : to suit ; fit. 

mekura : blind person. nuke'ru : to come off ; get left out. 

nadakai : famous. 

1. Ano gakko ni wa mekura no gaikoku-jin ga hitori iru (B). 2. Anata no 
gakko ni mekura no seilo ga arunasu ka ? (C). 3. H ai, hitori gozaimasu (D). 4. 
Watashi no tomodachi ni nadakai isha ga hitori arimasu ga, iwa Amerika e itte 
orimasu (C). 5. Ani wa isha ni naru tsumori deshita ga, mada gakko ni iru uchi 
ni shinde shimaimashita (C). 6. Jochu ni watashi ga kaem made kono heya ni iru 
yd ni ii-tsukete kudasai (C). 7. Anata no tokoro ni kono jibiki ga gozaimashita ne ? 
watashi no wa nukete iru tokoro ga atte komarimashita ; sumimascn ga, chotto 
kashite kudasaimasen ka ? (C). 8. Nihon no onna de yofuku wo kirn Into mo 
arimasu ga, domo niaimasen ne (C). 9. Botchan wa doko ni irasshaimasil ka ? 
(D). 10. Nikai ni nekashlte arimasu (C). 11. Ano inu :ya nige-nai yd ni hako e 
irete arimasu (C). 12. Jii-go ni nattara, sono gurai no koto wa dekiru hazu da (B). 
13. Goro San ni 'nani ni naru tsumori desu . ? ' to kiite mitara, ' akindo ni naru 
kangae da" 1 to itte imashita (C). 14. Chichi wa nagai aida hana ga -^arukutte isha 
ni itte imashita ga, kono-goro daibu yoku narimashlta (C). 15. Kono kinjo ni 
omocha wo koshiraeru hito ga aru (B). 16. Omocha too koshiracru Into ga kono 
kinjo ni imasu (C). 17. Kono gakko ni wa seito ga go-ju-nin ant no desil ga, uchi 
e kaette shimatte, ima iru no wa go-nin dake desu (C). 18. Kono heya ni Eikoku- 
jin ga fiitari imasu (C). 10. Kono heya ni iru hito no naka ni Eikoku-jin ga 
futari aru (B). 20. Ano uchi ni ni-to ni noru hito mo am (B). 21. Ni-to ni 
noru hito wa ano hei/a ni imasu (C). 22. Kono machi no hito no kazu waju-shichi- 
man-nin desu ga, sono uchi gaikoku-jin ga sam-byaku-nin arimasu (C). 

1. At that school there is one blind foreigner. 2. Are there any blind scholars 
at your school '1 3. Yes, there is one. 4. One of my friends is a famous doctor, 
he is now in America. 5. My brother had the intention of being a doctor, but 
he died while he was still studying. 6. Please tell the servant to remain (lit. be) 
in this room until I come back. 7. You used to have a dictionary like this, I 
believe; as some pages are missing from mine, would you please lend me yours? 
8. There are some Japanese ladies who wear foreign clothes, but there's no 
denying it doesn *t suit them. 9. Where 's the child ? 10. He is asleep up- 
stairs (lit. I put him to sleep). 11. I've shut that dog up in a box so that it 
can 't run away. 12. As you are fifteen, you ought to be able to do a thing like 
that. 13. I asked Mr Goro what he was thinking of being, and he said he was 
thinking of being a merchant. 14. My father went to the doctor for a long time 
on account of some trouble in his nose ; however, he is much better now. 15. 
There's a man in this neighbourhood who makes toys. 1C. The man who makes 
toys is in this neighbourhood. 17. There are fifty scholars at this school, 
but for the moment there are only five here as the others have returned home. 
18. There are two Englishmen in this room. 19. Among the men who are in 
this room, two are Englishmen. 20. Among these people there are some second- 
class passengers. 21. The second-class passengers are in that room. 22. There 
are 170,000 people in this town, 300 of them are foreigners. 



EXERCISE 111. 

Doubt, probability, possibility, 'perhaps', supposition, opinion, semblance, 
report. Study 166. 

hakujo : confession. mitai na : like ; similar. 

momen : cotton. hikaru : to shine. 

mo yd : pattern ; condition. kumoru : to be cloudy. 

ozei : crowd, ni'ru : to be alike. 

sora : sky. okkochi'ru : to fall. 
hen na : strange. 

1. Tamura San wa irassharu ka shira (E). 2. Irasshara-nai to mo ie-nai 
keredomo, kono arashi ja. . . (B). 8. Hashi no ue ni anna ni ozei hito ga iru ga, 
dare ka karva e okkotta no ka shira (B). 4. Wake wo hanashite o negai shitara, 
misete kudasara-nai mono de mo arimasumai (C). 5. Kono sora-moyo de wa itsu 
arne ga furr.mai mono de mo nai kara, kasa wo motte iku ho ga ii daro (B). 6. Kyu 
ni kunwtte kimashita ne, mata ame gafuru (no) ka mo shiremasen(C). 7. Hen ni 
attakai kara, arashi ga knru (no) ka mo shire-nai (B). 8. Kaeri wa osoku naru 
ka mo shire-nai kara, rusu wa yoku ki wo tsukete kudasai (C). 9. Kono kire 
wa momen desu ga, hikatte, kinu mitai desu (C). 10. Ano futari zva ammari yoku 
nite ite, maru de kyodai mitai de gozaimasu ne (D). 11. Hana-fco San ga naite 
iru ; mata itazura wo shite o kd-san ni shikarareta to mieru (B). 12. Ano otoko 
wa dorobo shita no wo hakujo shita to iu hanashi desu ne ? (C). 13. E, sukkari 
hakujo shita so desu (C). 14. Kono hen ni yado-ya ga ari-so na mono da ; 
dare ka ni kiite miyo (B). 15. Mo Taro ga kaeri-so na mono da ga, do ka shita 
no ka shira ? Jochu wo sagashi ni yatte miyo (B). 16. Anata wa ii ka mo shire- 
m.asen go, watashi wa kesshlte shochi shimasen kara, sono tsumori de ite kudasai 
(C). 17. Ikura isogashii to itta ''tie, chotto tegami tvo kaku gurai deki-so na mono 
ja arimasen ka? (B). 18. Ano hako wa taihen kirei desu ne ? kai ni natta no 
ka shira ? (C). 19. Nan de mojozu na hito desu kara, tabunjibun de koshiraeta 
no desho (C). 



1. I wonder whether Mr Tamura will come. 2. I can't be absolutely certain 




sky as it is, it may rain at any moment, so you had better take an umbrella. 6. 
It 's become cloudy all of a sudden, I dare say it will rain again. 7. It is strange- 



ly warm (for this time of the year), I dare say we shall have a storm. 8. As it 
may be late before I return, be careful (about things in general) while I am away. 
9. This cloth is cotton, but it shines so that it looks like silk. 10. Those two 
persons are so like each other they look exactly like brothers. 11. Miss Hana-ko 
is crying ; it looks as if she 'd been up to mischief again, and got scolded by her 
mother. 12. They say that man has confessed his theft, don't they? 
Yes, they say he has confessed everything. 14. There ought to be an inn in this 
neighbourhood, let's inquire of somebody. 15. It's time Taro was back I 
wonder whether anything has happened to him. I'll send the servant to look 
for him. 16. You may think it all right for all I know, but I'll never give my 
consent, so make up your mind to that. 17. No matter how busy you were 
you might at least have dropped me a line. 1 8. What a pretty box ! 
he bought it ? 19, I dare say he made it himself, he's clever at everything. 



EXERCISE 112. 

Certainty ; emphasis. Study 167. 

chi : blood. burei na : rnde. 

ii-wake : excuse. rippa na : splendid. 

jijitsu : fact. kurabe'ru : to compare. 

jo : lock. mochiron : of course. 

1. Taro rva kyo Tanaka San ni burei na koto wo itta kara, o to-san ni okorareru 
ni chigai nai (B). 2. Anata ga Nikko e irasshareba oku-san mo o-ide ni nari- 
masho? (D). 3. Sore wa mochiron no koto desu (C). 4. Rokuro San wa isogashii 
kara, ashlta korare-nai to itte yokoshimashita yo (C). 5. So desu ka ? Isogashii 
nante ii-wake ni chigai nai, boku ni aitaku nai no desu yo (C). 6. Sakki kogatana 
de yubi wo kitte, chi ga naka-naka tomara-nai no desfi ; do shitara ii desho ? (C). 
7. Anata no o uchi mo konna ni kirei desu ka ? (C). 8. Boku no uchi nante. 
konna ni rippa ja arya shi-nai (B). 9. Anata no ossharu koto wa rnaru de jijitsu 
to chigatte imasu (C). 10. Hachiro San to boku to nichiyo ni Kamakura made 
aruite iko to omou no desti ; anata no ototo san ni mo irassharu yd ni osshatte kuda- 
saimasen ka? (C). 11. Are wa yoyo toka bakari mae ni okirareru yd ni natta n' 
desu kara, mada sonna ni aruku koto wa totemo dekimasen (C). 12. Kesa deru 
toki tashlka ni jo wo oroshita tsumori da ga, do shite aite iru no daro? (B). 13. 
Hana-ko San no o uchi wa kore yori okii desu ka ? (C). 14. Okii desu to mo ! 
konna uchi to nante kuraberaremasen (C). 15. Yamada San wa Ei-go no shimbun 
ga yomeru desho ka ? (C). 16. Yomemasu to mo, Rondon ni ni-nen mo ita hito 
ja arimasen ka ? (C). 17. Konna ni hidoku futcha Suzuki San wa ko-nai desho 
ne ? (C). 18. lie, tashlka ni o-ide nasaimasu yo, ano kata wa. Ame nanzo ni 
makete irassharu yd na hitoja arimasen mono (C). 19. Koko kara suteishon made 
ni-jikan de iku no wa naka-naka rakuja arimasen ; hidoi michi desu kara ne (C). 
20. Kore wa anala no kasaja arimasen ka ? (C). 21. E, watashi no ni chigai 
arimasen ga, do shite koko ni atta no desho ? (C). 

1. Taro was rude to Mr Tanaka today, you may be sure he'll get a scolding 
from his father. 2. If you go to Nikko, will your wife go with you ? 3. Oh, 
of course. 4. Rokuro writes to say that he is busy and can 't come tomorrow. 
5. Is that what he says ? You may be sure that 's only an excuse. The fact 
is that he doesn't want to meet me. 6. I cut my finger just now with a pen* 
knife, and it won 't stop bleeding ; what had I better do ? 7. Is your house as 
pretty as this one ? 8. Oh, no, my house is not nearly as fine as this. 9. What 
you say is in complete disaccord with the facts. 10. Master Hachiro and I are 
thinking of walking to Kamakura on Sunday, won 't you tell your brother to 
come with us ? 11. Why, it's only ten days since he's been able to get up, so a 
walk like that is entirely out of the question. 12. I feel certain I locked (that 
door) when I went out this morning ; how does it happen to be open now, I 
wonder ? 13. Is Miss Hana-ko 's house bigger than this one ? 14. Of course 
it is. Why, you can't compare the two. 15. Can Mr Yamada read English 
newspapers ? 16. Of course he can, why he was two years in London. 17. I 
don't think Mr Suzuki will come with this heavy rain. 18. Oh, yes, he's sure 
to come. He's not a man to be beaten by the rain or anything like that. 19. 
It's not an easy thing to walk to the station from here in two hours ; the road is 
very bad. 20. Isn 't this your umbrella ? 21. Yes, there's no doubt about 
it's being mine, but I can't think how it got here. 



EXERCISE 113. 
Obligation ; permission. Study 168; 169. 

amai : sweet. azukaru : to receive in trust. 

futsu no : ordinary. kaku : to scratch. 

kaii : itching. sawaru : to touch. 

zonzai na : careless. my 6- (in comp.) : tomorrow. 

1 . K ondo Takeo ni tegami wo yarn toki, anna zonzai naji wo kaite wa ike-nai to 
itte yatte kudasai (C). 2. Yamada San no o rusu no aida kono inu wo azukatta no 
desu ga, uchi ni nare-nai kara, nige-nai yd ni ki wo tsukete He kudasai (C). 3. 
Abunai kara, mado kara kao ya te wo dashite wa ikemasen (B). 4. Kono bin m 
wa doku ga haitte iru kara, kodomo ni sawarase-nai yoni yoku mite ite o kure (A). 
5. Kono o tegami wa kaki-tome ni sum no de gozaimasu ka ? futsu de yoroshiu 
gozaimasu ka ?. (Jty 6. Betsu ni daiji na tegami de mo arimasen kara, futsu de ii 
desu (C). 7. Kaku to nao kaiku naru bakari desu kara, gaman nasara-nai to ike- 
masen (C). 8. Myoasa wa shlchi-ji no kisha de iku kara, go-ji ni okiru no da ; 
wasurete wa ike-nai (A). 9. Haha ga abunai to itte mairimashita kara, makoto ni 
sumimasen ga, dozo futsuka o hima wo itadakito gozaima&u, (D). 10. Sore wa 
ike-nai ; ja itte o-ide (A). 11. Enryo shi-nai de, don-don Nihon-go wo hanasa-nai 
to itsu made mo jdzu ni wa nare-nai no desu ; machigatte mo kamaimasen kara (C). 
12. Kyo wa uchi ni byo-nin ga arimasu kara, Myaku kaera-nakereba narimasen 
(C). 13. Li o tenki da kara, minna de Ueno e iko to omou ga, omae wa ikitaku 
nakereba ika-nai de mo ii (A). 14. Kono hon wa kashite yatte mo ii ga, mo kae- 
nai mono da kara, daiji ni shite, nakusa-nai yd ni shi nasai (A). 15. isha san 
ga kono ko ni wa ammari amai mono wo tabesase-nai yd ni to osshaimashlta (C). 
16. Kyu na yd ga atte, Kyoto e iku kara, rnyoban wa ko-nakutte mo ii (A). 17. 
Sonna rippana kimono wo ki-nai de, fudan no wo kite o-ide nasai (A). 

1. Next time you write to Takeo please tell him that he mustn't write such a 
careless hand. 2. Mr Yamada asked me to take care of this dog while he was 
away; as the dog is not accustomed to this house, be careful he doesn 't run away. 
3. Don't put your head or your hand out of the window, it's dangerous. 4. 
There 's some poison in this bottle, so take great care the children don 't touch it. 

5. Do you want me to register this letter, or shall I send it by ordinary post ? 

6. It's not a specially important letter, so ordinary post will do. 7. If you 
scratch it, it will only itch the more, so bear the itching with patience. 8. As 
\ve are leaving by the seven o 'clock train tomorrow morning, you must get up 
at five, and don't forget it. i). I have received news that my mother is danger- 
ously ill ; I arn sorry to inconvenience you, but would you be kind enough to give 
me two days' leave ? 10. 1 am sorry to hear that (your mother is ill) ; yes, 
you may go. 11. Don't mind what other people think, and don't hesitate to 
speak Japanese ; otherwise you will never learn to speak it well ; it doesn 't matter 
how many mistakes you make. 12. As there's somebody sick at home, I must 




can rio longer be bought. 15. The doctor said that you mustn 't give this child 
too many sweet things to eat. 16. Something unexpected has happened which 
obliges me to go to Kyoto, so you needn't come tomorrow evening. 17. Don't 
put on such good clothes ; go in your everyday things. 



EXERCISE 114. 

Advice ; preference ; judging of two lines of action. Study 170. 

liana-mi : flower- vie wing, toku : advantage. 

hiru-ne : midday nap. yakamashii : noisy. 

jodan : joke. dossari : plenty. 

yam-mono : cheap article of inferior waza to : on purpose, 
quality. 

] . Ann hito wa sugu ni hara wo tateru kara, jodan wo iwa-naiga ii (B). 2. Ban 
ni yoku nemure-nai no nara, hiru-ne rco shi-nai ho ga iija arimasen lea? (C). 3. 
O kane ga aru no nara., motto joto no bdshi wo o kai ni nareba ii ja arimasen ka ? 
sonna yasu-mono de naku (C). 4. Torarete shimatta no nara, ikura kangaete ita 
'tte, shikata ga nai ; hai/aku shujin no iokoro e kaette, wake wo hanashite, ayamaru 
(ho) ga ii (B). 5. Abunai kara sore wa shi-nai ho ga ii desho (C). 6. Taihen ii 

tenki desu kara, kodomo-tachi wo tsurete, hana-mi ni o-ide ni nattara ikaga desu ? 
(C). 7. Kyo wa nan da ka arukitaku nai kara iknmai (B). S. O kane wo motte 
kite yokatta ; moshi motte ko-nakereba, asuko e haire-nakatta no desu (C). 9. 
Watashi no rusuni wa nani mo sawatte wa ike-nai to itsu mo itsu mo itte aru no ni, 
hito ga tomefa koto wo sum. Mo ichi-do ko iu koto wo shUara, yurusa-nai yo (A). 
10. Toi tokoro wo waza-zvaza irasshaimashita no ni, o kamai mo itashimasen de, 
makoto ni shiUiirei itashimashita (D). 11. Kyo wa uchi wo akete wa ike-nai to 
itta no ni (B). 12. Yoku jikushita nashi ga dossari natte iru no ni, waza to aoi 
no zoo totte Saburo ni yarimashita (C). 13. Watashi ga itara kesshite sonna koto 
wa sase-nakatta no ni (B). 14. Konna yakamashii tokoro nara, koshUe ko-nai 
ho ga yd gozaimashUa (D). 15. Kaeri mo densha ni noru nara, ofuku wo kau ho 
ga toku desho (C). 16. O kutabire de gozaimasho ; sukoshi o yasumi ni natte wa 
ikaga de gozaimasu ka ? (D). 17. Ano hito no iu koto wo shinyo shi-nakattara, 
konna koto ni wa nara-nakatta no ni (B). 

1. You had better not joke with that man as he easily gets angry. 2. If you 
can 't sleep at night you had better not sleep during the day. 3. If you have 
money enough, instead of a cheap hat like that you might buy a better one. 4. If 
they have stolen it (the money), thinking over it Avill do no good at all ; you had 
better go back to your master quickly, tell him what has happened, and ask his 
pardon. 5. You had better not do that, it's dangerous. 6. As the weather is 
so fine, what do you say to taking the children, and going flower-viewing ? 7. 

1 dim 't know what 's wrong with me today, but I don 't feel inclined to walk ; so 
I don't think I'll go. 8. I am glad I brought my purse with me ; if I hadn't, I 
wouldn 't have been able to go in there. 9. I Ve told you time after time that 
when I am away you are not to touch anything. What do you mean by doing 
what you've been forbidden ? I won't forgive you next time you do it. 10. 

' Although you have come to such an out-of-the-way place on purpose (to see me), 
I have offered you no entertainment, and I have been very impolite. 11. Didn't 
I tell you not to leave the house today ? 12. Although there are plenty of ripe 
pears, he purposely picked a green one and gave it to Saburo. 13. If I had been 
there I should never have allowed such a thing to happen to you. 14. I wish I 
hadn't moved to such a noisy place as this. 15. If you are coming back by 
tram-car, it would be to your advantage to buy a return ticket. 16. You must 
be tired, won 't you rest a while ? 17. If I hadn 't believed what that man said, 
this wouldn 't have happened. 



EXERCISE 115. 

Desire, wish, want, need. Study 171. 

ama-do : outside shutters. tsuben : interpreter. 

furo : hot bath. atsui : thick. 

hantai : opposition. hijo na : extraordinary ; extreme. 

haru : spring. us-ui : thin. 

iri-yo : use ; need. au : to suit. 

ryo-ho : both. rai-(m comp.): next; coming. 

1. Watashi zva isha ni naru tsumori -de benkyo shite itara, me ga waruku natte 
nare-nakatta kara, sono kawari ni Tarn wo isha ni shitai mono da (B). 2. Domo 
koko wa zvatashi no karada ni aimasen kara, rainen no haru kuni e kaeru yo ni 
shitai mono desu (C). 3. Michi ga warui kara, akarui uchi ni kaeru yd ni shitai 
mow' da (B). 4. Zuibun yoku furimashUa ne ; desu ga, kondo wa tenki ni naru 
desho (C). 5. Kane ga san-ju-yen hodo iri-yo desu ga, kashlte kudasaimasen ka ? 
Misoka ni o kaeshi itashimasu (D). 6. Nan de mo iri-yo na mono ga attara, enryo 
naku so itte kudasai (C). 7. Anata tea ii o koe da to kikimashita, doka itsu ka o 
utai ni naru no n'o kikitai mono desu (C). 8. Komban wa kaze ga ts-uyoi kara, 
ami-do wo shimete moraitai (B). 9. Hijo ni me ga itaku natte kita no de t is\a 
ni mite moraitai to omotte ittara, rusu de dame datta (B). 10. Sore wa ikemasen 
desu ne. Dotchinome ga itain' desu? (C). 11. Kyo-ho to mo itai desu (C). 12. 
Ki/o wa roku-ji ni kaeru kara, sugu nifuro ni haireru yd ni shite oite moraitai (B). 
13. Atsui thick no hantai no kotoba wo oshiete itadakital no desu (C). 14. Sore 
wa nsiti desu (C). 15. Tsuben wo tsurete o-ide ni nattara ikaga de gozaimasii ? 
(D). 16. Kono bo wa naga-sugiru kara, ni-sun bakari mijikaku shitai (B). 17. 
Ammari kutabireta kara, siikoshi neru. Yo-ji ni okoshlte moraitai (A). 18. 
Ashita wa doko ka e asobi ni iku tsumori desu kara, o bento wo koshiraete moraitai 
desu (C). 19. O kd-san wa omae wo bydki ni shltaku nai kara, a osshatta n ' desti 
yo (A). 

1. I was studying to be a doctor but my eyes got bad, and I had to give it up ; 
so I want to make (my son) Taro a doctor instead. 2. Somehow or other this 
locality does not suit rny health, so I want to return to my native country next 
spring! 3. As the road is bad I want to return home while it is still light. 4. 
It has rained a great deal, hasn 't it ? I hope, however, we are going to have fine 
weather now. 5. I 'm in need of thirty yen, would you please lend it to me ? I 
wih return it at the end of the month. 6. If you are in need of anything, please 
say so without standing upon ceremony. 7. I hear you have a very beautiful 
voice, I'd like to hear you sing some day, if possible. 8. As there's a strong 
wind this evening, I want to have the outside shutters closed. 9. My eyes were 
hurting me very much, so I went to see the doctor, but he was out. 10. I am 
sorry to hear you are not well. Which eye is painful ? 11. Both. 12. I shall 
be back today at six, and I want to have my bath as soon as I come ; (get 
everything ready by that time). 13. I wish you would tell me what's the op- 
posite to atsui thick ? 14. It is usui. 15. Would you care to take an inter- 
preter with vou ? 1 6. This stick is too long, I want it made two inches shorter. 

17. I'm so tired I'm going to sleep awhile, I want to be woken at four o clock 

18. I 'm thinking of going on a pleasure-trip tomorrow, get some lunch ready for 
me to take with me. 19. Your mother said that to you because she doesn t want 
you to get ill. 



EXERCISE 116. 

Fear ; Intention. Study 172 ; 173. 

chikara : strength. mekki : plating. 

ham-mono : genuine article. nise-mono : thing which is not genuine. 

i-tna : sitting-room. ryori : cooking ; food. 

kagi : key. shokudo : dining-room. 

leari : debt. zoge : ivory. 

kenyaku : economy. ki-kae'm : to change one's clothes. 

mama : original condition or state, ki ni iru : to like. 

matsu : pine-tree. oru (trans.) : to break ; fold. 

1 . Kyo -iza kaeri ga osoku naru ka mo shiremasen kara, o saki e ban 'no gohan wo 
meshi-agatte kudasai (D). 2. Mits-u-ko San ni hoka ni nakatta no de, kono boshi 
wo katte kimashtta ga, o ki ni ira-nai ka to onwtte, shimpai desu (C). 3. Ima o-ide 
ni natie mo ma ni awa-nai daro to omoimasu (C). 4. Yamada San wa kyo rnise 
kara kaeru to damatte nete o shimai ni natta ; nani ka atta no ka mo shire-nai (B). 
5. Matsuo wa sono hako wo motte iku hodo chikara ga arumai (B). ti. to-sanga 
daiji ni shite iru matsu no eda wo otta kara, okorareru daro to omotte itara, betsu ni 
nan to mo iware-nakatta (B). 7. Ikura kenyaku shite mo, rainen no uchi ni kari 
wo kaeshite shi-m.au koto wa dekimai to omoimasu (C). 8. Ima ko-nai nara, Suzuki 
San wa kyd wa ko-nai to omoimasu (C). 9. Kono yubi-wa wa mekki ka mo shire- 
nai ne (B). 10. Kono zoge wa horn-mono ka shira? (&). 11. Amrnari yasui desu 
kara, tabun nise-mono desho to omoimasu (C). 12. Klsha no naka e kagi tvo 
otoshlte kita ka mo shire-nai ; hobo mite mo nai (B). 13. Kimono wo ki-kaetc iru 
to jikan ni ma ni awa-nai ka mo shire-nai kara, sono mama de o-ide nasai (B). 
14. Yoshio wa Ginza de ryori-ya wo hajimeru tsumori da to itte imashita (C). 15. 
Kono hey a wo watashi no i-ma ni shite, asuko wo shokudo ni shiyo to omou (B). 16. 
Nagasaki e fune de irasshaimasu ka? (D). 17. lie, watashi wa June wa kowai 
kara, kisha de iku koto ni shimashita (C). 18. Mina-san o jobu de irasshaimasu 
ka ? (D). 19. Arigato, haha ga sukoshi netsu ga atte, nete imasu ; waruku nara- 
nakereba ii ga to omotte imasu (C). 

1. I am afraid I may be late this evening, so don't wait dinner for me. 2. I 
bought this hat for Miss Mitsu-ko as there was no other ; but I am afraid she 
may not like it. 3 I am afraid you won 't be in time even if you start immediate- 
ly. 4. Mr Yamada went to bed today as soon as he came back from the 
office, without saying anything to anybody, I am afraid something is the matter 
with him. 5. I am afraid Matsuo is not strong enough to carry that box. 6. 
As I broke a branch of the pine-tree my father is so fond of, I was afraid he 
would scold me, but he didn 't say anything. 7. I am afraid I won 't be able to 
pay all my debts next year no matter how much I try to reduce my expenses. 
8. If Mr Suzuki hasn't come yet I am afraid he won't come today. 9. I am 
afraid this ring is only plated. 10. I wonder whether this is. genuine ivory ? 
11. As it's so cheap I am afraid that perhaps it's only imitation. 12. I am 
afraid I must have lost my keys in the train, I can't find them anywhere. 13. 
1 am afraid you'll be late if you change your dress, go as you are. 14. Yoshio 
says he intends to start a restaurant on the Ginza. 15. I am thinking of ma- 
king this my sitting-room, and that, the dining-room. 16. Are you going by 
boat to Nagasaki ? 17. No, I'm afraid of travelling by boat, I have decided 
to go by train. 18. Is everybody well at home ? 19. Thanks, my mother is in 
bed with a little fever, and I am afraid she may get worse. 



EXERCISE 117. 

This and the following Exercises consist of anecdotes and stories. Those 
who have mastered the first fifty Exercises may find it profitable and interesting 
to try their hand occasionally at these more difficult constructions ; words and 
phrases which are not known, may be looked up in the Vocabulary, Part III. 

Rokuro wa shio to iu mono wo shirimasen deshlta. lllto ga tabe-mono ni shio 
wo ireru no wo mite fushigi ni omoimashtta. 

"Sankichi San, sono shiroi mono ica nan to iu mono desu . ? " 

"Kore ? Kore wn shio to hi mono desu yo." 

"He ? Sosfnte, sore wa ittai nan ni suru mono desho ?" 

"Jddan ja nai. Shio wa nani ni suru mo-no ka shira-nai nante? Anata wa 
yoppodo nonki na hito desu ne. Tabe-mono ico koshiraeru ni wa nakute nara- 
nai mono ja arimasen ka ? Shio ivo ire-nakereba niku de mo sakana de mo oishlku 
nara-nai n ' desu yo. ' ' 

"So iu benri no mono desu ka? Chitto mo shirimasen deshita. Ja, ddka 
siikosjii kudasaim-asen ka?" 

" E, e, o niochi nasai. Ma, tameshite goran rtasai yo. ' ' 

Rokuro wa shio wo moraimashtta. Tabe-mono ni ireru to sonna ni oishiku nan* 
mono nara, shio dake tabetara nao umai ni chigai nai to ornotte, Sankichi ni 
moratta no wo htto-kuchi ni tabeyo to shite odorokimashUa. Karakutte, kara- 
kutte, do suru koto mo dekimasen. Taiso hara wo tatete, Sankich i no tokoro e itte 
moshimashlta : "Anata wa uso-tsuki desu ne, Sankichi San." 

" E ? Nan desu 'tie ? Burei na koto wo itte wa ikemasen. Watashi ga'itsti 
anata ni u#o wo iimashita , ? " 

"Desu ga, sakki watashi ni shio wa taiso umai mono da nante osshatta desho? 
Konna. iya na mono wo oishii nante, uso ja arimasen ka . ? " 

" A, shio no hanashi desu ka? Anata wa baka desti, ne. Mono ni wa hodo ga 
arimam. Do shite sonna ni takusan no shio wo ip-pen ni tabemashita ?" 

Rokuro didn 't know what salt was. He thought it very strange when he saw 
people putting it into their food. 

"I say, Sankichi, what do vou call that white stuff?" 

"This? Why, this is salt/' 

" Eh ? And what do you use it for ? " 

"You are joking. Do you mean to say you don't know what salt is used 
for ? Well, you are a funny fellow ! It's always used in cooking, isn't it ? 
Whether it's fish, or whether it's meat, if it has no salt, it tastes flat." 

"Is it such a useful thing as that? I hadn't the slightest idea. Please 
let me have a little. ' ' 

"Certainly ! Take some. Try and see how you like it." 

Rokuro took the sjilt with him. If salt when 'added to food improves the 
taste so much, he thought that without doubt it would be still nicer if eaten 
by itself. So he put into his mouth all at once the salt he had received from 
Sankichi, but was disagreeably surprised. It was so salty he didn 't know what 
to. do. He got very angry, he went to Sankichi 's house and said : "What a 
liar you are, Sankichi !" 

"What are you saying ? Don 't be rude. When did I tell you a lie ? 

"Didn 't you tell me a short time ago that salt had a very nice taste ? And 
isn't it a lie to say that beastly stuff like this is nice ?" 

"Oh, are you referring to the salt ? You are a fool. Things must^be used 
v.ith moderation. Why ever did you eat so much salt at one time ?" 



EXERCISE 118. 

Ha no -icarui hito ga ha-isha ni ikimashita. 

* ' Konnichi wa. ' ' 

' ' Sd, dozo kochira e o kake kudasai. ' ' 

"Domo ha ga itamimasu kara, mite kudasaimasen ka?" . 

' ' So desu ka ? Dotchi no ho desu ? ' ' 

' ' Hidari no ue desu. ' ' 

"A, kore desho? Naruhodo warui. Koreja itamimasho." 

' ' Taihen warui desu ka? Do shitara ii desho ? Vmete itadake-nai desho ka ? ' ' 

"So desu ne. . . .Ko natte wa umete mo dame desu. Yappari nuka-nakereba 
narimasen ne?" 

' ' So desu, ka. Ja, nuite itadakimasho. Itaku nai yd ni kusuri wo tsukete nuite 
kudasai. ' ' 

' ' E, sore wa daijobu ; chitto mo itaku nai yd ni yarimasu to mo. ' ' 

.Ko shite nukimashlta. 

' ' A, itai ! Kore de mo itaku nai to ossharu n ' desu ka ? A, itakatta. ' ' 

Yubi de sawatte mini to, tonari no ha ga nuite arimasu kara, taiso hara wo 
tatete : 

"Ma, zuibun hidoija arimasen ka? Anata wa tonari nojobu na hawoonuki 
nas'ttan* desho?" 

" Dore ? Kore tva domo. Machigaete, honto ni o kinodoku sama deshita. Mo 
ip-pon nuite agemasho. ' ' 

" E ? sore wa taihen ! ' ' 

' ' lie, o kane wa ip-pon no dai shlka itadakimasen kara, go shimpai nasara-nai 
de kudasai. ' ' 

A man went to see a dentist on account of a decayed tooth. 

"Good day." 

' ' Please sit down in this chair. ' ' 

' ' One of my teeth is very painful. Would you kindly examine it ? " 

1 ' Is that so ? Which one is it ? " 

' ' One of the top teeth on the left-hand side. ' ' 

"Oh, it's this one I suppose. Yes, it does look bod ; it must pain you a 
great deal. ' ' 

" Is it very bad ? What had I better do ? Can you stop it ? " 

"H'm This tooth is too far gone to be stopped. I'll have to draw it." 

' ' Is that so ? Well then, please draw it ; but apply some medicine so that the 
extraction may not be painful." 

"Have no fear. I'll do it so that you'll feel no pain at all." 

And then he pulled out the. tooth. 

* ' Oh, how painful ! Is this what you call a painless extraction ? It hurt me 
very much." 

He felt the place with his finger and found that it was the next tooth which 
had been drawn (and not the bad one). So he got very angry : 

"Oh, that's too bad. You've gone and pulled out the next tooth which was 
perfectly sound." 

' ' Let me see. Well I never ! Yes, I made a mistake ; I am indeed very sorry 
for you. I'll draw the other one." 

"Oh, this is terrible!" 

"You needn't be anxious. I shall only charge you for one !" 



EXERCISE 119. 

Am mise ni kono-goro inaka kara dete kita kozo ga arimashita. Shujin ga 
sono kozo wo yonde : 

1 ' Chomatsu, omae yubin-bako no aru tokoro wo shitte iru ka?" 

"///, shitte orimasu." 

"Dokoni aru?" 

"/vowo o-dori wo migi no ho e itte, kusuri-ya no kado wo magatte sukoshi iku 
to, hidari-gawa ni gozaimasu. ' ' 

' ' De wa ne, kono tegami wo dashite kite o kure ; jis-sen yarn kara, san-sen no 
kitte wo ichi-mai kau no da yo. Tsuri wa ikura da ka shitte iru kai ? ' ' 

Chomatsu wa sukoshi kangaete imashita ga : 

' ' A' ana-sen de gozaimasu. ' ' 

"(So da ; ja, machigae-nai yd ni yoku ki wo tsukete itte o-ide ; isogashii no da 
kara, tochu de asonde ite wa ike-nai. Wakatta kaf 

"Ilai, wakarimashita. Itte mairimasil. "* 

Chomatsu wa tegami to jis-sen no o kane zvo motte dete ikimashita. 

Kaette kite shujin ni : 

"Danna sama, tadaima kaerimashita." 

To itte, o-jigi zvo shimashita. Shujin wa : 

' ' Hayakatta ne ? tegami wa dashite kita kai ? ' ' 

' ' Hai, tashlka ni dashite mairimashita ; kore wa o tsuri to uke-tori de gozai- 
masu. ' ' 

To ii nagara, nana-sen to san-sen no kitte wo ichi-mai shujin no mae ni dashi- 
mashlta. 

At a certain shop there was an errand boy who had recently arrived from 
the country. The master of the shop called the boy : 

"Chomatsu, do you know where the pillar-box is ?" 

"Yes, I do." 

"Where is it?" 

"(Going out from here) you go to the right along this big road, you turn 
at the chemist's shop and go a little further on ; it is on the left-hand side." 

"Very well then, go and post this letter ; here is ten sen, you must buy a 
three-sen stamp. Do you know what the change will be ?" 

Chomatsu thought a little while (and said) : 

"Seven sen." 

"That's right ; well then, take care and don't make a mistake. As theft is 
a lot of work to be done, don't waste your time on the road. Do you under- 
stand ? ' ' 

"Yes, I understand." 

Chomatsu went out with the letter and the ten sen. 

When he came back (he said to his master) : 

"Master, I am back." 

And saying this, he bowed to him. The master (said) : 

"You are back quickly. Did you post the letter ?" 

"Yes, certainly I posted it ; here is the change and the receipt." 

And saying this, he gave his master seven sen and a three-sen stamp. 



* Itte mairimasu, (lit. I go and come). A salutation said on leaving one's house; it 
cannot be translated into English. 



EXERCISE 120. 

hito ga uma wo kai ni ikimashlta. Shi-hlki katte, sono uchi no ip~piki ni 
jibun ga notte uchi ni kaero to shimashita. Tochu de uma wo kanjo shite mimasu 
to, sam-biki shika orimasen. Machigaete sam-biki yokoshlta no daro to omni- 
mashlta. Sore de, utta hito no tokoro e kaette ikimashlta. tfma kara orite, shujtn 
wo yonde ko moshimashita : 

"Sakki watakushi tea shi-hlki dake no o kane wo haratta no ni, uma wa sam- 
biki shika orimasen; nani ka machigai ga am no ja nai desho ka?" 

Shujin wa : 

"So desu ka ? Sore wa fushigi desu ne. De wa, futari de kanjo shite mima- 
sho." 

To itte, finia no tokoro e ikimashlta. Ip-piki, ni-hiki to kanjo shite 

mimasu to shi-hiki orimasu. 

Katta hito ica : 

' ' A, sore nara ii no desu. ' ' 

To itte, main ip-piki ni jibun de notte kaette ikimashlta. Sukoshi tatte kara, mo 
ichi-do kazoete mimashita ga, yappari ip-piki tarimasen. Taihen okotte, utta 
hito no uchi ni iku to, utta hito rva odoroite : 

' ' Mala kaette o-ide nas 'tta no desu ne ? Do ka nas 'tta no desu ka ? ' ' 

" ' Do ka nas'tla no desu ka' 'tte, uma wa do shite mo sam-biki shika i-nai ja 
awinasen ka?" 

"Sonna koto ga aru mon" 1 desu ka?" 

" De mo^goran nasai ; sam-biki shika i-nai desho ?" 

" lie. Jibun ga notte o-ide ni naru no wa do shlta no desu ? Sore mo issho ni 
kanjo nasara-nakereba ike-nai de IK a arimasen ka ? ' ' 

A certain man went to buy some horses. He bought four, got on to one of 
them and started for home. On the road he began to count the horses, but only 
found three. He thought that by mistake they had only given him three. So 
he went back to the house of the man who sold him (the horses). He got off 
the horse, called the master, and said : 

"Didn't I pay just now for four horses ? nevertheless there are only three. 
Isn 't there some mistake ? ' * 

The man answered : 

"Is that so? That is very extraordinary; well, let's count them both 
together. ' ' 

Asid saying so, they went to the place where the horses were. ' : Onc, 
two " and counting thus, they found there were four. 

The buyer said : 

"Oh, if that is so, it's all right." 

And with these words he again got on to a horse, and went on his way. After 
a little while, he counted them again and found there was certainly one wanting. 
He got very angry; when he got back to the seller's house, the seller was very 
much surprised : 

"Have you come back again ? What's the matter now ?" 

" 'What's the matter now ?' do you say ? There is no getting over it that 
there are only three horses. ' ' 

' ' Don 't talk nonsense. ' ' 

"Well, but look ; there are only three aren't there ?" 

"Oh, no. What about the horse you are riding yourself ? You must count 
that one, mustn 't you ? ' ' 



EXERCISE 121. 

Am tokoro ni atama no hagete iru htto ga arimashita. Ke ga chitto mo arimasen. 
Do ka shite ke ga haeru yd ni shitai mono da, to shiju shimpai shite imashita. 
Aru tcki tomodachi ni iimashita : 

tl Do-mo watakushi wa atama ga hagete ite komarimasu. Do shttara ke ga 
haeru desho ? ' ' 

' ' So desu ne, Nakamura San ni o mise ni natte goran nasai. ' ' 

' ' Nakamura San desu 'tie ? So iu namae no o isha san wa hajimete kiki- 
mashtta. Do in kata na no desil , ? " 

' ' Nakamura San wo go zonji nai no desu ka f Zuibun nadaJcai o isha san 
desu yo. ' ' 

"ZJofro ni irassharu o kata desti ? K&no machi ni desu ha?" 

' ' lie, Kyoto ni o-ide ni natte, toki-doki kochira e irassharu no desu. Taihen 
erai sensei de, iro-iro fnshigi na byoki wo takusan o naoshi ni nanmashUa. Shi- 
go-nichi no uchi ni o mie ni naru hazu desu kara, httotsfi mite o morai nasai." 

" So desu ka ? So iu jozu na o isha san ga irassharu nara, motto hayaku mite 
moraeba yo gozaimashlta. li koto wo ukagaimashlta. Domo arigato gozaimasu." 

Nakamura sensei ga o-ide ni naru to, hageta htto wa su.gu ni ikimafihita : 

"Sensei, konaida tomodachi kara, sensei wa iro-iro no byoki wo taihenjozu ni o 
naoshi kudasaru to iu koto wo kikimashita no de, o negai ni agarimashita. Wata- 
kushi wa atama ga hagete komatte orirnasu. Iro-iro tameshite mimashUa ga, dS 
shite mo naorimasen. Dozo ke ga haeru yo ni shite kudasai." 

O isha san wa damatte, kabutte ita boshi wo nuide : 

''''Goran no tori icatashi mo hagete imasu ; moshi, anata no atama wo naoshite 
agerareru nara, jibun no wo saki ni naoshltai mono desu." 

In a certain place there once lived a man with a bald head. He had no hair 
at all. He was always thinking of how he could manage to make his hair grow. 
One day he said to a friend : 

Ci I am so bald, I am really in great trouble. What would you advise me to 
do to make my hair grow ? ' ' 

"Well, why don't you see Nakamura and see how you get on ?" 

"Did you say Nakamura ? I don't know any doctor of that name. What 
kind of a man is he ? " 

"What, haven't you heard of Nakamura ? He is a very famous doctor." 

' ' Where does he live ? Does he live in this town ? ' ' 

"No, he lives in Kyoto, but he occasionally comes here. He is a very re- 
markable doctor and has obtained some extraordinary results. As he is due 
to arrive here in four or five days, just go and consult him." 

"You don't say so ? If he is such a clever doctor, it's a pity that I didn't 
go and consult him before. You have given me a good piece of news. Thanks 
very much." 

As soon as Dr Nakamura arrived, the bald man went to see him : 

' ' Doctor, a friend told me a few days ago that you were very clever at curing 
all sorts of illnesses, that is why I have come to make a request of you. I am 
bald and on that account I am greatly inconvenienced. I have tried all sorts 
of remedies, but they have been of no use. Please do something to make my 
hair grow. ' ' 

The doctor suid nothing, but took off the cap he was wearing. 

"As you see I also am bald. If I were able to cure your head, I would begin 
by curing my own. " 



EXERCISE 122. 

Yamoda San wa taihen kechi desu. Yabuketa uwa-gi too itsu made mo kite 
imasu kara, musuko-tachi iva kimari ga warukutte ta.marimasen. 

"0 to-san, uwa-gi ga zuibun furuku narimashita ne ? Atarashii no wo o kai 
ni natte wa ikaga dean ?" 

' ' Nani, kore de takusan, mada kirareni yo. Ni-ju-yen kakete uwa-gi zco ichi- 
mai koshiraeru yori, sono kane wo motle iru ho ga yoppodo ii. ' ' 

"0 to-san iva itsu de mo so osshaimasu ga, sono kimono wa ammari hidoi ja 
arimasen ka? Zehi, atarashii no rvo o kai nas'tte kudasai. W atashi-tachi ga 
hazukashikutte shiyo ga arimasen." 

" Kimono ga fnruku natta 'tte, hazukashiga.ru koto wa nai. " 

Musiiko-tachi wa do shite mo, uwa-gi wo ichi-mai kawaseyo to omoimashUa. 
Yasukereba kau ni chigai nai to omotte, shitate-ya ni sodan shimashita. Soshite, 
ni-ju-yenno woo to-san ni wa shlchi-yen ni utte moratte, ju-san-yen wa jibun-tachi 
ga harau koto ni kimemashita. 

"0 to-san, kyo shitate-ya ni ittara, baka ni yasui uwa-gi ga arimashlta yo. 
Shina wa goku ii n' desu ga, wake ga atte, tokubetsu yasiiku uru no desu tie. 
Dare ka katte shimau to ikemasen kara, sugu ni katte irasshai. ' ' 

' ' So ka ? yasukutte ii no ga areba, katte mo ii ne. ' ' 

Yarnada San wa shitate-ya ni itte, sono uwa-gi wo roku-yen go-jis-sen ni make- 
sashite kaimashita. Keredomo uchi e kaetta toki ni wa mo sono kimono wo motte 
i-nai no desu. 

"Mattaku omae-tachino iu tori yasukatta, roku-yen go-jis-sen de katte kita yo." 

' ' Roku-yen go-jis-sen de ? Ja, doko ni ant n ' desu ? misete kudasai. ' ' 

' ' Kaeri ni densha no naka de tomodachi ni misetara, 'ju-yen de utte kure ' to iu 
kara, utta no sa. San-yen go-jis-sen mokete kita. ' ' 

Mr Yamada was a miser. He used to \venr his coats until they v/ere so worn 

out and torn that his sons could bear the shame of it no longer. 

' ' Father, your coat is very old, isn 't it ? Iladn 't you better buy a new one ? ' ' 
' ; Oh, this one will do, I can wear it still. It is a great deal better to have 

twenty yen than to spend it on a new coat. ' ' 

"You always say that, father, but really your clothes are too awful. Do 

buy yourself some new ones. We all feel very much ashamed. " 

"Even if rny clothes are old, there is no reason to be ashamed of that." 
The sons thought that they must, somehow or other, make him buy a new 

coat. They thought he would, no doubt, buy one, if it were cheap, so they 

went to the tailor and talked it over. They arranged with the tailor that he 

should sell their father a twenty-yen coat for seven yen, and they themselves 

would pay thirteen yen. 

"Father, we saw a very cheap coat at the tailor's today. The quality is very 

good, but for some reason or other, he is selling it very cheap he says. Go and 

buy it quickly or else somebody else ma}' get it. ' ' 

' ' You don 't say so ! I don 't mind buying it if it's cheap and good. ' ' 

Mr Yamada went to the tailor's and after beating the price down to six yea 

fifty, he bought the coat. However, when he returned home, he had not the 

coat with him. 

"It was really as cheap as you said, so I bought it for six yen fifty." 

"For six yen fifty ? Well, where is it ? Please show it to us. " 

' ' On my way back, I showed it to a friend in the tram-car, and as he asked 

me to sell it to him for ten yen, I did so. So I gained three yen fifty sen. " 



EXERCISE 123. 

Jochu ga arimasktta. Shijii oku-sama no o ki ni iritai mono da to omotte ori- 
mashita ga, baka desu kara do shitara ii ka shirimasen. Am toki tomodachi ni 
atte : 

' ' Do sureba oku-sama no o ki ni iru koto ga dekiru desho ? ' ' 

To kiite mimashita. Tomodachi wa : 

"Sore wa nanni mo muzukashii koto j a arimasen. Oku-sama no nasam koto 
wo nan de mo sono tori mane wo sureba ii no desu. Sore ga ichiban ii shi-kata 
desho." 

' ' So desu ka ? ii koto wo oshiete kudos ''tie arigato. Hitotsu yatte mimasho. ' ' 

Jochu wa. mane wo shiyo to omoi nagara, oku-sama no nasaru koto wo ki wo 
tsukete mite imashita. Kono oku-sama ni wa yoku akubi wo suru kusega arimasu. 
Jochu wa : 

"A, ii koto wo mitsuketa : akubi wo suru mane gurai nara yasashii koto da. 
Dare ni de mo dekiru. ' ' 

To kangaemashlta. Sore kara wa, oku-sama no mae ni deru to kitto old na kuchi 
wo aite isshokemmei ni akubi wo shimashita. Oku-sama wa fushigi ni o omoi ni 
natie : 

"Ornae zca ko no-go ro yoku nemure-nai no kai ?" 

" lie, betsu ni nemure-nai koto zva gozaimasen." 

"Soreja, naze so tabi-tabi akubi ga deru no daro ne?" 

"Sore wa oku-sama no o ki ni iritai kara de gozaimasu. Nan de mo oku-sama 
no nasaru koto wo mane sureba ii to omoimashite " 

Oku-sama wa o okori ni natte : 

' ' Nante omae wa baka daro. Ii koto nara ikura mane wo shite mo ii ga. . . " 

There was once a servant. She was always thinking how she could please her 
mistress ; but as she was a silly girl she didn't know how to set about it. One 
day she met a friend. 

' ' What shall I do in order to please my mistress ? ' ' 

Thus she inquired. The friend (answered) : 

"There's no difficulty about that. Imitate your mistress in everything she 
does : that 's the best way to please her. ' ' 

"Is that so ? Thanks very much for giving me such a good idea. I'll just 
try it. ' ' 

The servant, with the idea of imitating her mistress, took particular notice of 
all her mistress did. Now, this lady had the bad habit of yawning frequently. 
The servant (said to herself) : 

' ' Ah, I ' ve found a good thing. To imitate yawning is easy enough ; anybody 
can do it." 

Thus she thought. And from that time whenever she was in the presence 
of her mistress, she never missed yawning, opening her mouth as wide as she 
could. The lady thought this very strange. 

"Aren't you sleeping ,well of nights lately ?" 

' ' Yes, I 'm sleeping all right. ' ' 

"Then, why are you always yawning ?" 

"It's because I "wanted to please you, madam. I^thought it would 
good thing to imitate you in everything you did " 

The lady got angry (and said) : 

' ' What a fool you are ! It is always a good thing to ^imitate something good, 
but. . . (do not imitate another person's bad habits)." 



EXERCISE 124. 

Dorobo ga sabishii tokoro de, ki no kage ni kakurete hito no torn no wo matte 
imashita. Shibaraku sum to hUori no otoko ga tori-kakarimashita. Dorobo wa 
sugu ni tobi-dashite, kowai kao wo shite iimashlta : 

"Motteru kane wo minna o dashi nasai." 

' ' Kane wo ? aru koto wa am ga, kanai ga bydki de nete iru no da. Kiisuri wo 
kattari, oishii mono de mo tabesaseyd to omotte motte kita kant da kara, totemo 
omae ni yarn koto wa deki-nai. ' ' 

"Guzu-guzu iwa-nai de, arittake no kane wo minna o dashi nasai. Kanai ga 
bydki da nante uso ni chigai nai. ' ' 

' ' Uso da to ornon nara issho ni kite goran. Shiyo ga nai, sore ja, siikoshi dake 
nokoshite nto wa omae ni yard. ' ' 

, ' ' Wakara-nai hito desii ne ? Kanai no bydki nante watashi no shitta koto ja 
nai. Kane tco minna o dashi nasai to itteru w' desu yo. Inochi ga oshlkerya, 
otonashiku watashi no iu koto wo o kiki nasai." 

Dorobo wa teppo wo mukemashita* Otoko wa toto kane-ire zoo dorobo ni 
yatte : 

"A, watashi wa nanni mo nakunatte shimatta. Sore de wa, kawari ni, sono 
teppo de mo kure-nai ka ? " 

"Kane wo toreba hoka ni yd wa nai ; teppo ga hoshikereba agemasti yo." 

Dorobo wa iko to shimashita. Otoko no hito wa yobi-tomete : 

"Sd, kondo wa watashi no ban da : ima no kane wo kaesti ka, omae no inochi 
wo yokosH ka, dotchi ka ni o shi. ' ' 

Dorobo wa heiki de : 

"O kinodoku sama, sore wa kara-deppd da." 

A robber hid himself behind a tree in a lonely place waiting for people to pass. 
After a little time a man happened to come along. The robber immediately 
jumped out and with a threatening face, said : 

' ' Give me all the money you 've got. ' ' 

"Money ? I have some, it is true, but my wife is ill in bed. I intend with 
this money to buy medicine and some dainties for her to eat, and therefore, it is 
entirely impossible for me to give it to you. ' ' 

"It's no use talking ; give me all the money you've got. It is sure to be a 
lie, your wife being ill and all that. ' ' 

' ' If you think it is a lie, come with me and see. I don 't know what to do ; 
well, I will just keep a little and give you all the rest." 

"Will you never understand what I say ? Your wife's illness is none of my 
business. I've told you to give me all the money you've got. If you want to 
save your life, do quietly as I tell you. ' ' 

The robber aimed his gun at him. The man at last gave the robber his 
purse. 

"Ah, I've lost everything! Therefore, in exchange for what I've given 
you, won 't you at least let me have that gun ? ' ' 

" I 've got the money and that's all I want. If you want the gun here it is. ' ' 

The robber was about to go away. The man called him : 

"Ha, it's my turn now. You'll return the money I just gave you or I'll 
have your life ; one of the two. ' ' 

The robber unconcernedly said : 

" I am very sorry for you, but that gun is not loaded ! ' ' 



EXERCISE 125. 

Mukashi, taiso ki no yowai hito ga arimashUa. Senso ga okotte, do shite mo 
ika-nakereba nara-naku narimashita. Sore de, shikata nashi ni, kuroi Uma ni 
notte demashlta. Keredomo, senso ga kowakutte dekimasen. Soko-ira ni taorete 
iru hito no chi n>o kao ya karada ni nuri-tsukete, kega wo shita furi wo shite nete 
imashita. Sono uclii ni dare ka ni uma wo nusumarete shimaimashitn. 

Senso ga o shimai ni natte kara, soro-soro kaero to omoimashlta ; keredomo : 

' ' Moshi dare ka ni ' uma wa do shita ' to kikaretara do shiyo ? Kore wa knmatta 

A, so da, ' iima wa senso shUeru uchi ni korosareta' to itte yard. Sono shdko 

ni wa skippo wo kitte motte ikeba ii. ' ' 

To kangaete, soba ni shindeita shiroiwnanoshippo wo kitte motte kaerimashlta. 
Sum to tomodachi ga : 

' ' Kimi, kyo wa do datta ? ' ' 

' '' Isshokemmei hataraitayo ; katakinokubi wo yottsu, itsutsu totte yatta. Kono 
tori kega wo shite, chi-darake da. ' ' 

"Sore wa laihen datta ne." 

' ' Nani, kono gurai no kega nante nan to mo omowa-nai. Kuni no tame ni wa 
inochi ti-o stitete mo oshiku wa nai. ' ' 

' ' Toki ni, uma wa do shtta ? ' ' 

' ' iJma kai ? Kega wo shite taorete shimatta. Honto ni kazcaiso na koto ivo 
shita yo. Itsu made mo wasure-nai yd ni shippo wo motte kita." 

" Jodan wo itcha ike-nai yo ; kimi no uma wa kuroi uma ja nai ka? Kyu ni 
shiroku naru wake wa nai. ' ' 

Ki no yowai hito wa nan to mo henji ga dekimasen dcshUa. 

Once upon a time, there was a very timid man. His country was at war and 
he was obliged to go to the war together with the others. And so, as it couldn 't 
be helped, he set forth on a black horse. However, he was so frightened that 
he could not tight. He bedaubed his face and body with the blood of a man who 
had fallen near there ; and he pretended to be wounded and lay down. In the 
meantime, somebody stole his horse. 

After the battle was over, he thought of returning home. However : 

"Supposing somebody were to ask what has become of my horse, what shall 
I say ? 1 really don't know what to do. Ah, I have it ! I'll say that my 
horse was killed in the battle. And as a proof of that, it will be sufficient to 
take a horse's tail along with me." 

And with this idea, he cut off the tail of a vyhite horse that was lying dead 
near him, and started to join the others. A friend said : 

"I say, how did you get on today ?" 

' ' I 've done my very best. I cut off the heads of four or five of the enemy. 
And as you see I have been wounded and I am all covered with blood." 

' ' That was very brave of you. ' ' 

" Oh, I think nothing of a wound like this. I don't grudge even my Ii 
the service of my country." 

"By the way,* what's become of your horse ?" 

"My horse ? He was wounded and fell dead. I was really sorry \ 
And so I brought his tail as a souvenir." 

' ' Don 't joke. Yours was a black horse, wasn 't he ? He can t possibly h 
turned white all of a sudden." 

The coward didn't know what to answer. 



EXERCISE 126. 

jii-snn ga uma ni notte, kodomo ga sono ato kara tsuite mairimasu to, kore 
wo mita hito ga : ' ' Goran nasai, nan to iu hidoi o jii-san desho ! Kodomo wo 
arukashite jibun wa uma ni notte ikimasu yo." 

O jii-san wa : " A, ano hito no iu koto wa dori da. Kodomo wo nosete tjara- 
nakereba nara-nai." To kangaete, uma kara orimashita. Soshite kodomo wo 
nosete yarimashlta. 

Shibaraku sum to : " Md, ano musuko wa burei ni yatsii desu ne ? Anna 
toshiyori wo arukashite, jibun wa notte iku nante, akireru ja arimasen ka ? Ano 
gurai okiku nattara, ikura de mo arukeru no ni. ' ' 

Musuko wa : ' ' Naruhodo, ano hito no iu koto wa honto da. ' ' To omoimashita. 
Sore de uma kara orite, futari to mo aruite ikimashita. 

Sukofihi iku to tori-kal.-atta hito ga : " Eaka na hito-tachi ! chotto goran nasai, 
anojobu-so na uma ni nanni mo nose-zu ni tada hiite iku no desu ; anna baka ga 
aro to wa yume ni mo omowa-nakatta. ' ' 

Futari wa sore mo so da, to omoimashita. Soko de kondo wa futari de notte 
mairimashita. 

Aru hito ga mite : "A, nan to iu fu-shinsetsu na hito-tachi daro ! Kan-aixn 
ni, ip-piki no uma ni futari noni to wa ammari da. iJma ga mam de aruke ya 
shi-naija nai ka . ? " 

Oya-ko wa kore wo kiite uma kara orimashita. Soshite ari-awaseta himo de 
bd ni uma no ashi wo shibatte, fiitari de rnotte ikimashita. flashi no ue ni kuru 
to, ozei no hito ga kono yosu, wo mite o-sawagi wo shimashita kara, uma wa 
odoroite ugokimashita. So shite, toto kawa ni ochite, shinde shimaimashita. 

An old man and his son were going along a road ; the old man was riding a 
horse, and his son was following on foot. When people saw this, they said : 
"Look at that cruel old man ! He makes his son walk while he himself is 
riding." 

The old man thought : "Ah, what those people say is right. I must make 
the boy ride. " So he got down from the horse, and he told the child to get on 
to it. 

After a while : " Look, what a rude boy that is ! He makes an old man like 
that walk while he himself is riding ; it's enough to disgust anybody. As he is 
fairly big, he ought to be able to do any amount of walking. ' ' 

The lad thought : "By Jove! What those people say is true. " So he got 
down from the horse and he and his father continued on foot. 

After they'd gone a little distance somebody who was passing said : ' ' W T hat 
fools those men are ! Just look ! Without making use of that strong horse in 
any way, they are just pulling it along. I would never have dreamt such fools 
existed. ' ' 

They felt that that was true. So now they both got on the horse. 

A certain man seeing this, said : "What hard-hearted fellows those are ! 
It's too bad for those two men to be riding on that poor horse. Why, it can 
hardly walk. ' ' 

Father and child when they hdard this, both got down from the horse. And 
then with a cord which happened to be there, they tied the horse's legs to a 
pole, and they carried him along. When they came to a bridge, a lot of men 
saw this strange sight. And as they laughed and made a great noise, the horse 
got frightened and began to move. The result was. that it fell into the river 
and died. 



EXERCISE 127. 

Am hito ga yoso no hatake ni wa mugi ga yoku dekiru no ni, jibun no uchi no 
ioa mai-toski sukoshi shika toremasen kara, fiishigi ni omotte, tonari no shnjin 
ni tazunemashita. 

" Konnichi tea. Kyo wa sukoshi o 'a-kagai shitai koto ga atte agarimashlta. 
taku no hatake kara wa itsu de mo mugi ga takusan toreru yd de gozaimam ga, 
uchi de wa ikura ii lane wo maite mo dame de gozaimasu. Do iu wake de gozai- 
maslid?" 

il Sono koto desu ka ? Nani, betsfi ni zvake tea nai no desu yo. " 

"De mo, zcatashi no ho wa domo umaku ikimasen kara, doka hitotsu oshietf 
kudasaimaseii ka ?" 

" Nanni mo muzukashiku wa arimasen. Tsuchi ga katakfttte wa do shite mo 
mugi ga yoku haemasen kara, tsnchi wo yazvaraka ni shite , soko e ii tane wo o maki 
nasareba, kitto yoku dekimasu." 

"Domo arigato gozaitnashita, sore de wakarimashita,. Kotcshi koso wa jdzu 
ni yarimasu. ' ' 

Oshiete moratta tori, isshokemmei ni hatake wo hotte, tsnchi wo yawaraka ni 
shimashita. Keredomo, tane zvo maku toki ni hUotsu komaru koto ga dekimashUa. 

' ' Moshi watashi ga hatake ni haitte tane wo makeba, mata tsuchi ga kataku 
natte, s*ekkaku no hone-ori ga muda ni natte shimau. Nani ka ii koto ga arumai 
ka?" 

To kangaete ii kufil wo shimashita. Vma ni notte tane wo makeba jibun no 
ashi de tsuchi wo juma-nai de -mo ii to omotta no desu. Soshite kangaeta tori ni 
shimashita. Sum to, naruhodo, jibun no ashi wa hatake ni tsnkimasen deshita 
ga, sono kazcari ni uma no shi-hon no ashi ga hatake rco mecha-mecha nifunde 
shimaimashita. 

A certain man thought it strange that other people's fields should yield good 
crops of corn, while every year his ov.n should only yield a little. So he went 
to make inquiries of his next-door neighbour. 

"Good day ! I have come today because there is something I want to ask 
you about. It seems that you always have a good crop in your field ; but I 
can do nothing with mine no matter how good the seed may be. I wonder 
what the reason is ?" 

' ' Is that all you want to know ? Oh, there 's no special reason. ' ' 

"Well, but 'as I cannot get good results, won't you please tell me what 
to do?" 

4 ' Oh, there's no difficulty about the matter. If the ground is hard the corn 
will not grow well. So loosen the soil, aad if you then sow good seed you will be 
sure to get a good crop. ' ' 

"I am very n.uch obliged to you ; now I understand. I will be sure to go 
about it properly tins year." 

So following the advice he had received, he dug the field as hard as he could 
and loosened the soil. However, when the time came to sow the seed, a difficulty 
arose. 

' If I go into the field to sow the seed the soil will again become hard and all 
my labour will have been in vain. I wonder what 1 can do." 

And thinking over it he struck on a good plan. He thought that if he got 
on a horse to'sow the seed, he would avoid treading the earth. So he did as 
he had planned. IJut then, though he did not as a matter of fact press the 
ground with his own feet, the horse trod all over the field with his four feet. 



EXERCISE 128. 

' ' Hanshichi San ja arimasen ka ? Shibardku desti. ne, yotte o-ide nasai. ' ' 

"Konnichi wa. Chokichi San desu ne. Kyo wa isogimasu kara, kondo 
yukkuri kimasho. ' ' 

' ' Md, chotto o yori nasaimasen ka ? " 

" Arigato. Kyo zua mattaku isoide iru no desu. Mala kondo dete kimasu yo. ' ' 

" I)e mo ii ja arimasen ka ? Waza-waza o-ide nasaru no wa taihen desu kara, 
tori-kakatta tsuide ni yotte o-ide nasai yo. " 

"Sekkaku desu ga, ato de kimasho. Ima wa honto ni isogashlkutte tolemo 
yotte wa irare-nai no desfi. Sayonara. ' ' 

' ' Hanshichi San, do ka nas 'tta no desu ka? taku ni go byo-nin de mo o ari 
desuka?" 

' ' lie, sonna shimpai na koto ja nai n ' desu. ' ' 

" Ja, ii desho ? Nagaku tea tomemasen kara. ..." 

' ' Desii ga, kyo bakkari wa yo-ji ga atte, sugu ni kaera-nakereba narimasen kara, 
sumimasen ga, gomen nasai." 

" Do shite so isoide o-ide nasaru no daro? Metta ni awa-nai no desu kara, 
chotto yotte kudas'tte mo yosa-so na mono desu ga " 

' ' Go shinsetsu wa arigatai desu ga, kyo wa yotte iraremasen ; mata chikai uchi 
ni kitto kimasu yo. ' ' 

' ' Domo lien desu ne. lltai do nas 'tta no desu ? ' ' 

"Jitsu wa, ima kanai no kimono wo katte kita no desu.'' 9 

" So desu ka ? Ja, nani mo isoide o kaeri nasaru wake wa naija arimasen ka ? 
Hayaku katra-nai to, oku-san ni shikarareru to de mo ossliaru no desu ka ?" 

' ' Masaka ! Hayari ni okure-nai uchi ni motte itte yaritfii to omotte " 

"Why, it's Mr Hanshichi, isn't it ? It's quite a long time since I met you. 
Come in a moment. ' ' 

' ' Good day. Mr Chokichi, to be sure. As I am in a hurry today, 1 '11 come 
again when I have some spare time. ' ' 

"Won't you come in for just a moment ?" 

"Thanks. I am really very busy today. I'll come again another day." 

' ' Oh. but you might come in. It would be a great trouble for you to come 
especially to see me ; and as you are passing now, please come in. ' ' 

"It's very kind of you, I am sure. I will come later on. I am really so 
busy now that I cannot possibly stop. Good-bye." 

"Mr Hanshichi, what's the matter ? Anybody ill at home ?" 

"Oh, no, nothing as serious as that." 

"Well then, why don't you come in ? I'm not going to keep you long. " 

"Yes, but 1 have some special business today, I must get back soon. I am 
sorry to appear uncivil, but please excuse me." 

' ' What are you in such a hurry about, I wonder ? As I hardly ever meet 
you, I think you might stop when I do happen to see you." 

"1 am very much obliged to you for your kindness, but I cannot stop today. 
I will come again in a few days without fail." 

' " This is very strange. Tell me what's the matter with you. ' ' 

"The fact is, I've just bought a dress for my wife." 

' ' You don't say so ? Well, that's no reason for getting back in such a hurry. 
Do you mean to say that your wife will scold you if you're not back soon ?" 

"Nonsense ! I want to give it to her before the fashion changes !" 



EXERCISE 129. 

Mukashi, Kichibei to iu mame-ya ga arimashita. Am toki shinrui no hito ga 
nakunatte, omoi-gake naku, sono hito no nokoshile itta o kane wo hyaku-yen 
moraimaslnta. Kichibei u-u, hltori de kurashite imashita. kane wo uchi ni 
oite shobai ni deru icake ni wa ikimnsen ski, mata, mai-nichi sonna takfisan no o 
kane wo inottc aruku koto mo dekimasen. Do shitara yokaro, to kangaemashtta. 
Soshlie, tatami ico ichi-mai huide. scmo shita ni o kane rc-o kakushlte okimashita. 
Keredomo, yappari shimpai desu kc.ra, uchi wo deru toki to, kaetta toki to zva kitto 
tatami zvo agete mint koto ni shite imashita. 

Tokoro ga, chodo sono mukai ni shiju asonde iru otoko ga orimashita. Kono 
yosu wo mite : 

"Kore wa domo okashii. Ittai Kichibei San zva naze anna hen na koto wo 

mai-nichi, mai-nichi shfterii no daro ? Da ga, ano tatami no shita ni wa 

nani ka ant ni chigai nai. Hitotsu Kichibei San no raw ra itte mite yard. ' ' 

Kono mono-zuki na hito zva, Kichibei ga itsu mo no tori mame wo uri ni demasu 
to, ant toki, sotto hditte, tatami a-o agete mimashita. Suru to, hyaku-yen no o 
kane ga chanto kami ni tsutsnnde oite aritnashita. 

" Naruhodo, kore de tiakatta. Kore hodo no kane wo tada Jcoko e cku no zca 
mnda na koto da. Watashi ga tsukatte yard." 

Namake-mono zca niko-niko shi nagara, o kane zvo totte, tatami zco moto no tori 
ni shiite, doko e ka nigete itte shimairnashlta. 

Rusu ni konna koto ga atta no wo yume ni mo shira nai mame-ya wa kyd mo 
kaette kite tatami zco agete mimaslntara, daiji na, daiji na takara wa kage mo 
katachi mo miemasen. 

' ' A, kore de yatto anshin shtia. Kurd ga nakmiatte yokatta ! ' ' 

Many years ago, there was a bean-vender called Kichibei. Once a relation of 
his died, and he unexpectedly received a hundred yen out of what that man left 
when he departed this life. Now Kichibei lived all by himself. On the one hand 
he couldn't go to his work and leave the money behind him. On the other, he 
couldn't go out every day with so much money on him. "What had I better 
do ?" he thought ; and he lifted up one of the mats, and hirl the money under- 
neath. However, as he was still anxious, before going out and after returning 
home, he would lift the mat to see if the money was safe. 

It happened that just in front of his house, there lived a man who never had 
any fixed work to do. When this man saw these strange proceedings : 

' ' This is very curious. Now, why does Mr Kichibei do such an extraordinary 

thing every day ? No doubt he's got something under that mat. When 

Mr Kichibei is out, I will just go and find out. " 

One day when Kichibei went out to sell his beans, as he was accustomed to 
do, this inquisitive man entered the house quietly, lifted up the mat and looked 
underneath. When he did so, there were the hundred yen wrapped up in paper. 

"Oh, now I understand. It's useless for all this money to be lying here 
idle. I'll use it for him.;' 

The idle man, smiling, took the money, replaced the mat, and made off. 

The bean-vender who hadn't got a notion of what had happened during his 
absence, as usual, when he came back, lifted up the mat and looked underneath. 
When he did so, he found that nothing was left of his precious treasure. 

"Ah, I can enjoy peace of mind at last! My anxiety has disappeared. 
What a good thing !" (he said). 



EXERCISE 130. 

bd-sanga mekura ni narimashita. Soko de, o isha san ico yondc : 

" Sensei, moshi anata ga watakushi no me wo naoshite, mata mieru yd ni $hUe 
kudasareba, o rei wo takusan itashimasu ; keredomo, naoshite kudasara-nakereba. 
nanni mo agemasen. Ko iu koto ni shite wa iknga de gozaimasJid ? ' ' 

To moshimasu to, o isha san wa shochi shimasliita. 

isha san wa toki-doki o bd-san no uchi ni kite, me ni kusuri zco sashife yari- 
mashita. Soshite, kuru tambi ni o bd-san no dogu wo hitotsu zutsii, sdtto jibun no 
uchi ni motte ikimashlta. 

Shibaraku tatte o bd-san wa me ga naorimashUa. 

. ' ' Sd, do desu ? Yoku mieru desho ? De wa, sendatte o yakusoku nas 'tta o 
kane wo itadakimasho. ' ' 

Keredomo, o bd-san wa mae ni atta iro-iro no dogu ga chitto mo miemasen kara 
odorokimashlta. Nani ka ii-wake wo shtte, o iaha san ni kane wo haraimasen. 
isha san wa okotte : 

' ' bd-san, anata wa uso zco tsukimashita ne ? Naottara o rei ico suru to chanto 
osshatta ja arimasen ka ? Do shite mo o yakusoku no tori ni nasara-nakereba, 
keisatsu ni so iimasu. ' ' 

Keisatsu-sho de wa sugu ni o bd-san wo yonde kikimashita : 

' ' Anata zua o islia ni ' bydki ga naoreba o rei wo suru ' to itta so desu ga, naze 
yakusoku no kane wo haraimasen ka?" 

"Sayo de gozaimasu ; watakushi wa tashlka ni ' nanreba o kane wo takusan 
haraimasu ga, naora-nakereba nanni mo age-nai ' to moshimashUa. Konaida o 
isha san ga naotta to ossJiaimashUa ga, mae ni uchi ni atta tsukue ya, nabe ya, 
sara ya, naifu nanzo ga, hUotsu mo tnie-nai no de g 



An old woman lost the use of her eyesight, so she called a doctor. 

"Doctor, if you cure my eyes and make me see the same as I used to former- 
ly, I will pay you handsomely ; however, if T do not get better I will give you 
nothing at all. Do you agree to this arrangement ? ' ' 

This is what she said and the doctor agreed to it. 

The doctor went occasionally to the old woman's house and put some medicine 
in her eyes. And every time he went he took away with him, without the old 
woman knowing it, one of her utensils. 

After some time the old woman's eyes got better. 

' ' Well, how are you ? You can see quite well, can 't you ? So please pay 
me what you promised. ' ' 

However, the old woman was very much surprised as she could not find 
several of the utensils and pieces of furniture which she had before she was ill. 
So she made an excuse and did not pay the doctor any money. The doctor 
got angry : 

' Old lady, you are cheating me. Didn't you expressly promise to pay me 
if you got well ? Anyhow, if you don't do as you promised, 1 will complain to 
the police." 

The police called the old woman to the police station and questioned her : 

' ' It seems that you promised to pay the doctor if he cured you. Well, why 
don't you pay what you promised ?" 

"You are right ; I certainly did promise to pay a lot of money if I got well, 
but if I did not get well, I was to pay nothing. The doctor said the other day 
that I was well. However, I cannot see my desk, pots, plates, knives, and other 
things which were formerly in the house. ' ' 



EXERCISE 131. 

Gejo no Take tea bonyari-mono de, shiju sara da no, koppu da no, chaivan da no 
wo kowashimasu. Aru toki oku-san ga : 

' ' Take ya, omae wa are hodo watashi ga ' setomono wa yoku ki wo tsukete kowasa- 
nai yd m' 'tie, itsu mo itte kikashlte aru no ni, honto ni wakara-nai de kornaru ne. 
Mo sukoshi shikkari shite kure-nakucha shlkata ga naija nai ka ? Do shite ano 
daiji na sara wo watte shimatta no . ? " 

' ' Oku-san, makoto ni sumimasen Ko shite watta no de gozaimasu. ' ' 

To ii nagara, mo ichi-mai no sara wo yuka ni otoshlte mecha-mecha ni watte 
misemashlta. 

A servant called Take was very careless. She was always breaking plates, 
tumblers and tea-cups. One day her mistress said : 

' ' Look here, Take, although I am always telling you to be careful not to 
break the crockery, you don't seem to understand, so I don't know what to 
do with you. Don't you see that you must really be more careful ? However 
did you manage to break a good plate like that ? ' ' 

"Madam, 1 am very sorry. This is how it happened." 

And with these words she let fall another plate and smashed it into pieces. 

Aru hlto ga tornodachi kara okuri-mono ni sutekki wo moraimashlta. Siiteki ni 
haikara na sutekki desii kara, o-yorokobi de motte aruite mint to, sukoshi naga- 
sugimasfi. Sore de komori-gasa wo uru rnise ni itte : 

"Konnichi zva. Kono sutekki ga nagakutte komaru kara, sukoshi kitte kure- 
nai ka ? Ni-sun mo mijikaku shite morad. ' ' 

' ' Irasshai. Rippa na mono de gozaimasu ne. Naruhodo, kore ja sfikoshi 
nagai yd de gozaimasu. Shochi itashimashlta. Tadaima sugu ni kiriinasu kara, 
dozo shibaraku o machi kudasai. ' ' 

Kozo ga sutekki no shlta no ho zvo kiro to shimasu to o kyaku wa bikkuri shite : 

' ' A, kimi, nagai no wa shlta no ho ja nai, ue no h da yo. ' ' 

A certain man once received a walking-stick as a present from a friend. As 
it was a splendid and fashionable stick he was very pleased. But when he was 
going out for a walk and wished to use it, he found it was a little too long. So 
he called at an umbrella-shop. 

"(iood day. This stick is too long. Would you kindly cut a piece off ? I 
would like it two inches shorter." 

" It 's a very fine article, isn 't it ? Yes, I see ! It does seem a little too long. 
I will do as you wish. 1 will cut it immediately so just wait a moment, please. 

As the shop-assistant was about to cut off the lower part of the stick, the 
guest in a great hurry stopped him. 

"I say, hold on. The long part is not at the bottom, it's at the top." 



THE END. 



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CONVERSATIONAL JAPANESE 

FOR BEGINNERS BY 

ARTHUR ROSE-INNES 



II 

ELEMENTARY GRAMMAR 

OF THE 



NEW EDITION 



YOKOHAMA, SHANGHAI, HONGKONG and SINGAPORE. 

(All rights reserved.) 
The Fukuin Printing Co., Ltd., Yokohama 



Contents. 

Page Exercises in Part I. 

I WRITING AND PRONUNCIATION . . 5 

II VERBS 10 

Conjugation 10 

Moods and Tenses 12 

General remarks 12 

Present and Probable Present or Future. . 13 6, 7, 37, 90 

Past and Probable Past 14 8, 91 

Gerund 14 . / . . . . 11, 12, 92 

Imperative ; commanding and requesting 16 . . * 10, 03 

Conditional 17 . . . . 18, 29, 94, 95 

Frequentative 19 96 

Desiderative. . .. 20 21,96 

Second base or Stem 20 32. 07 

Infinitive 21 ..98 

Various Verbal Phrases 22 32, 36, 93 

Irregular Verbs 24 22, 100 

Auxiliary and Terminal Verbs 26 . . . . 25, 26, 27. 101 

Transitive and Intransitive Verbs . . . . 29 102 

Passive Verbs 30 34, 103. 104 

Potential Verbs 31 34, 35. 1 05 

Causative Verbs 32 40, 1 00 

Reflexive Verbs 34 1 07 

Compound and Derivative Verbs 34 38, 107 

The Verbs Sum and Naru 35 . . . . 9. 37, 108, 109 

The Verb 'To be' 37 4,5,110 

Miscellaneous Translations 38 

Doubt, probability, possibility, 'perhaps', 

supposition, opinion, semblance, report 38 41 , 43, 1 1 1 

Certainty, emphasis . . 39 112 

Obligation 40 113 

Permission 41 113 

Advice, preference, judging of two lines of 

action .. .. 4l 39,114 

Desire, wish, want, need 42 115 

Fear 43 116 

Intention 43 . . . . 116 

III NOUNS 44 

Article .44 51 

Gender . . . . . . " 44 51 

Number 45 51 

Derivative and Compound Concrete Nouns. 45 38, 52, 53 

Derivative and Compound Abstract Nouns. 46 54 

Diminutives and Augmentatives 47 55 



Page Exercises in Part I. 

IV ADJECTIVES .. .. 47 19,20,56 

True Adjectives 49 .. ..1,2,9,19,57*58 

Quasi-Adjectives in Na or No 52 . . . . 3, 9, 20, 41, 59 

. Adjectival Phrases.. 54 60 

Verbs used as Adjectives 55 31,61 

Compound and Derivative Adjectives . . 56 62 

Comparison 57 28, 63, 64 

Superlative 59 28, 65 

V NUMERALS 61 

Cardinal Numbers 61 . . . . 13, 14, 15, 66 

Auxiliary Numerals 64 14.67 

Ordinal Numbers 65 68 

Dates 66 16,69 

Time 67 17, 70 

Various Numerical Expressions 68 

Fractional Numbers 68 71 

Percentage 69 71 

Multiples . . . . . . 69 71 

Age 69 .. .. .. .. 15,71 

House Numbers 69 71 

House Storeys 69 . . . . 71 

Vagueness 69 . . 71 

VI PRONOUNS 70 

Personal, Possessive and Reflexive Pronouns 70 72 

Relative Pronouns and Adverbs 71 .. .. '.. 31,73 

Demonstrative, Interrogative and Indefinite 

Pronouns and Adverbs 73 .. .. 74, 75, 76 ; 77 

VII HONOR IFICS AND POLITE PHRASES 75 . . 22, 23, 24, 33, 78, 79 

VIII POSTPOSITIONS-PREPOSITIONS .. 80 80 

Quasi-Postpositions 81 80 

WaandGa 82 81 

DeandNi 84 .. .... .. 20,82 

IX THE OTHER PARTS OF SPEECH . . 85 

Adverbs 85 

Conjunctions 87 84 ; 8 

Interjections 89 * 

X SYNTAX 90 

Construction of the Sentence ..' .. 90 " * 

Ellipses 91 * 

Negatives . 93 

Interrogations 94 

Quotations 94 .. ., .. 29,30,89 



The author s thanks are due to his friend 
Dr. H. V. 5. Peeke, of Saga, for many 
valuable suggestions and criticisms. 



ELEMENTARY GRAMMAR 

OF THE 

JAPANESE SPOKEN LANGUAGE 



CHAPTER I. 



WRITING AND PRONUNCIATION. 

1. The Japanese characters are of two kinds : 

a) The Kanj i (or Honji), a collection of several thousand signs or ideographs 
of Chinese origin. Each of these Kanji signs corresponds not to a sound but to 
an idea. Two or three thousand of these characters are known to persons of 
moderate education, and this number is sufficient to read the newspapers and 
write about everyday matters. 

b) The Kana, a collection of signs and diacritical marks in which each sign 
corresponds to the sound of a syllable. 

2. No signs in Japanese correspond to our notion of letters. 

3. The simple syllables of the Japanese language are : 



a ; ka ga 


sa za 


ta da 


na 


ha /HI pa 


ma 


ya 


ra 


wa 




i 


ki gi 


shi ji 


chi ji 


ni 


hi hi pi 


mi 




ri 




n 


u 


ku gu 


su zu 


tsu zu 


nu 


fu bu pu 


mu 


yu 


ru 




^^ 


e 


ke ge 


so ze 


te de 


ne 


he be pe 


me 




re 




s 





ko go 


SO ZG 


to do 


no 


ho bo po 


mo 


yo 


ro 


wo 


2L 



4. The consonant part of the syllables in each column is theoretically sup- 
posed to be the same ; and though the initial sound certainly varies, the average 
Japanese does not perceive the irregularity. It will be readily understood, 
why it is natural in a verb ending, say, in tsu, like tatsu, to find such forms as 
/rtta-rw, tachitai, taieba, into. 

5. The syllables in italics to the right of the black-type ones in 3, are only 
distinguished from the latter in Japanese by diacritical marks. They are not 
to be considered as entirely different sounds, but only as modifications of the 
preceding ones. These modified sounds are called nigori. It is very common, 
especially in compound words, to pass from, say, ta to da and sometimes back- 
wards from da to ta. Thus we have to-dana from to and tana ; nani-take from 
naru and dal~e. 



ELEMENTARY GRAMMAR 



6. The following syllables are written in Japanese kana with two characters 
each, but they are not really dipthongs : 



sha 


J a 


cha 


j* 


shu 


JU 


chu 


JU 


sho 


JO 


cho 


jo 



7. The dipthongal syllables in Japanese are : 



kya gya 


nya 


hya bya pya 


my a 


rya 


kyu gyu 


nyu 


hyu hi/ a pyu 




ryu 


kyo gyo nyo 


hyo byo pijo 


myo 


ryo 



8. Kwa, kzt'o, gu~a. gwo, are frequently written ; but as the w sound in these 
combinations has been entirely dropped by the inhabitants of the centre of 
Japan, we write in this work ka, ko, ga, go. 

Ye is practically never heard now in Tokyo or central provinces, we there- 
fore write e. The y has been retained, however, in the word yen (Japanese 
dollar), as it is printed so pn the bank-notes and cheque forms. 

Wo is generally pronounced o ; but the w is sometimes sounded slightly. 

9. Outside the syllables above mentioned, the average Japanese cannot pro- 
nounce anything else. For instance, he can say, to ; but he cannot say the 
English words, 'tea ' or 'too'. 

10. Japanese is pronounced approximately as follows : 



a 

ai 

au 

ch 

e 

ei 

g 

11. 



o 

ou 
s 
u 



i in machine, 
o in more, 
ou in though. 
s in sat. 
u in put. 



The other letters as in English. 



a in father. 

ai in aisle. 

ow in cow. 

ch in child. 

e in pen. 

ei in rein. 

sometimes as in goat ; some- 
times the sound of ng in king. 

The component elements of double consonants must each be given its 
value in pronunciation. The following are found in Japanese : kk, ss, U, nn, 
pp, mm; also : ssh (=slish), tch (=clich), Us (=tsts). Even in English we have 
some words with the double consonants sounded ; book-keeper, unnatural, 
mis-spel, etc. 

12. The long vowels (a, e, 6, u) must be pronounced long. They are about 
equivalent to double an ordinary vowel. Thus ba-smi is about equal to ba-a- 
san ; Osaka to O-osaka. 



OF THE JAPANESE SPOKEN LANGUAGE 



1 3. The i and u are often hardly audible ; they are then written in this book 
i, H. With regard to these short vowels, it must be observed that, though there 
is in Japanese a clear and sharp distinction between an ordinary vowel and a 
long one, and this difference is indicated in the kana writing, no such clear dis- 
tinction exists between an ordinary vowel and a short one. There is a gradual 
falling off in the length of the syllable until we reach vanishing point, and it is 
difficult to determine when you should begin using the short mark. Authors 
are not agreed on the subject and the average Japanese fails to recognize any 
difference at all. Note also that these short vowels are not pronounced equally 
short by everybody ; and that they are often lengthened on account of the 
following sound or for the sake of emphasis. 

14. Besides the frequent changes due to nigori, note the following vagaries 
of pronunciation : 

1) There is a growing tendency in Tokyo to use double consonants : 

for tada. 
doko ka. 
bakari. 
kore bakari. 
sore kiri. 
atatakai. 
oi-kake'ru. 
iro-iro na. 
In the gerundial termination of adjectives : 

-kutte for -kute. 

2) Contractions and corruptions : 

a) Ira after asoko, koko, soko and doko, may lose the i, as : 

sokora for soko-lra. 

b) I'm (and less frequently iku and irassharu) after a gerund may lose 

the i, as : 

shiteru for shite iru. 

c) The final e of the gerund, may be dropped when followed by the verb 

oku, as : 

kaitoila for kaite oita. 

d) The final te of a gerund followed by the postposition wa may be con- 
tracted to cha, as : 

necha for nete wa. 

e) The final de (the nigori of te) of a gerund or the postposition de, followed 
by the postposition aa, may be contracted to ja (the nigori of cha), as : 

yonja for yonde wa. 

f) The final syllable te or de of a gerund and the first two syllab.es 
ol the verb shimau are contracted to cha or ja, as : 



mittsii 


for mitsti. 


ammari 


for ainari. 


tatta 


yottsu 


yotm. 


onnaji 


onaji. 


dokka 


muttsu 


mutsu. 


minna 


mina. 


bakkari 


yattsu 


,, yatsu 


nanni 


nani. 


koreppakari 


atchi 


., achi. 


sakki 


saki. 


sorekkiri 


kotchi 


kochi. 


sonnara 


so nara. 


attakai 


sotcld 


., soclii. 


yappari 


,, yaliari. 


okkake'ru 


dotchi 


dochi. 


yoppodo 


yohodo. 


ironna 



8 



ELEMENTARY GRAMMAR 



kaichatla for kaite shimatta. 

shinjaimashlta shinde shimaimashlta. 

g) The a before it in the verbs kudasaru, nasaru and irassharu, is often 
dropped, as : 

nas 'tie for nasatte. 

h) The termination eba of the conditional of verbs and adjectives is often 
contracted to ya, as : 
kurya for kureba. atsukerya 

i) We also have : 

da, etc. for de aru, etc. (See 94) keredo or even kedo 

watashi or even kya 

atashi ., wataktishi. mon' 

san ,, sama. n* 

nan nani. o tanomoshimasii 

fu-ju fu-j'iyu. 

3) Additions, the reason for which is generally not apparent : 
iambi for tabi. yon for yo. 
karappo ,, kara. Jienteko hen. 
okkochi'ru ochi'ru. okkotosH otosu. 

4) Long vowels for short ones and vice versa : 



for atsukereba. 

keredomo. 
kiri shlka. 
mono. 
no or ni. 
o tanomi mo- 
shimasH. 



sotto 
soshlte 



for 



so shite. 



nani 
honto 



for nani. 
, honto. 



5) Saying shi for hi or vice versa ; e for ei ; also using one vowel for another : 
shiroi for hiroi. kire na for kirei na. ibi for yubi. 
chigoe chigai. kairu kaeru. iku yuku. 
iiya lie. as&ko asoko. igoku ugoku. 

Some of these last changes are admissible, but others (especially the very 
common use of shi for hi) are decidedly incorrect and should be avoided. If, 
however, an e is found at the end of the first component in a compound word 
it often not only may, but must be changed to a : 

ama-mizu from ame mizu. 

6) Besides the cases mentioned above in 2), wa suffers contraction after many 
words ; the following are a few samples : 

nya for ni wa. konda for kondo wa. atsuka for atsuku wa. 

nd no wa. sorya sore wa. 

7) The above lists are incomplete even as regards common words ; however, 
they are enough to show the student what to expect, and to put him on his 
guard. 

t5. Japanese words are pronounced with an equal or almost an equal stress 
on each syllable. However, there is sometimes a slight accent on the syllable 
preceding a double consonant, and on the syllable containing a long vowel. A 



OF THE JAPANESE SPOKEN LANGUAGE 



short vowel makes the syllable short, and, as a consequence, often throws an 
accent on a neighbouring syllable. 

16. It must be remembered that written explanations about pronunciation 
are generally of little use, and that the only way to acquire a good accent is to 
try to imitate a native and. if possible, forget how the word is written. 

1 7. The Japanese have nothing to correspond to the idea of ' word ' as we 
understand it ; and in their writing, whether kanji or kana, there is no separa- 
tion between the words. 

18. Compound words are extremely numerous in Japanese and are to be 
found in all stages of coalescence. Considerable disagreement seems to exist 
between the best writers as to whether certain words should be written separate- 
ly, joined by a hyphen or amalgamated into one word. In this work a word 
like tabe-mono (tabe'ru to eat, mano a thing) anything to eat, is written as a 
compound ; on the other hand kakemono (kake'ru to hang, mono a thing) which 
is not any hanging thing, but is the name given to hanging scrolls only, is written 
in one word. The honorific o has sometimes entirely lost its meaning as in 
anaka (o honourable, naka inside) belly ; in this case we write one word. Some- 
times it still retains its meaning at least vaguely, but is almost inseparable 
from certain words : o-jigi (o honourable, jigi salutation) a bow ; these words 
we write as compounds. In combinations like o cha (o honourable, cha tea) 
we find that the honorific is used in the majority of cases, but sometimes the 
word cha in this same meaning, is used without the o : in this case we write the 
words as separate. 

19. It frequently happens that the meaning of a compound is not equal to 
the sum of the meanings of the components, but has a specific or proper mean- 
ing of its own. We have already seen the case of kakemono 'a hanging scroll' ; 
again aomono 'vegetables', from aoi 'green' and mono 'thing' is not the same 
as aoi mono. A green anything would be an aoi mono, but not necessarily an 
aomono ; on the other hand a carrot, which is reddish, is an aomono but not an 
aoi mono. > 

20. \Yords very frequently suffer modifications in their sound when they 
enter into composition. The most common case of all, is to change the first 
syllable of the second component into its corresponding nigori'ed syllable. (5). 

Note also that the final n of the first component is pronounced m before b, m 
or p. The euphonic changes of the numerals are explained in 280. 

21 . Numerous examples of how compounds are formed may be found in nn. 
151 et seqq.; 181 ; 182; 236-245. 

22. Our grammatical notions and terminology do not apply well to Japanese, 
any more than do the words carriage or cart correspond to a rikisha. This 
must be borne in mind throughout, when the Japanese language is explained 
in terms of English (or any other European) grammar. 



CHAPTER II. 



VERBS. 



CONJUGATION, 

23. Japanese verbs have no person or number. 

24. Negation is not expressed as in English by adding a negative adverb ; 
there is a complete negative conjugation in Japanese. 

25. There is no form of the Japanese verb that really corresponds to our 
infinitive. We shall however apply this name to the inflexion by which the 

-verb is usually named by Europeans. 

26. Most verbs are capable of forming by means of certain terminations, in- 
finitives of the passive, potential and causative voices. All these infinitives 
are then conjugated regularly. 

27. The following is not an attempt at giving a complete or scientific con- 
jugation of the Japanese verb ; this is long and complicated. The author has 
only endeavoured to show the easiest way of forming those parts of the verb 
in most common use. 

28. TABLE I. (Bases) 



1 


2 3 


4 


5 


Q 


bu 


bi 


nd 


ba 


b 


b 


mu 


mi 


nd 


ma 


m 


m 


nu 


ni 


nd 


na 


n 


n 


gu 

IfU 


g* 
ki 


id 

it 


ga 
ka 


g 
k 


g 
k 


su 


shi 


shil 


sa 


s 


s 


tsu 


chi 


U 


ta 


t 


t 


au 


ai 


ail 


area 


a 


a 


iu 


ii 


itt 


iwa 


i 


i 


ou 


oi 


ott 


owa 








uu 


ui 


utt 


utxa 


u 


u 


aru 


ari 


att 


ara 


ar 


ar 


eru 


eri 


ett 


era 


er 


er 


iru 


iri 


itt 


ira 


ir 


ir 


oru 


ori 


ott 


ora 


or 


or 


uru 


uri 


utt 


ura 


ur 


ur 


e'ru 


e 


et 


e 


er 


ey 


i'ru 


i 


it 


i 


ir 


iy 


IRREGULAR VERBS. 


iku 


iki 


itt 


ika 


ik 


ik 


kuru 
sum 


ki 
shi 


kit 

shit 


ko 
shi 


kur 

Kur 


koy 

shiif 



29. 



TABLE II. 



AFFIRMATIVE. NEGATIVE. 




Infinitive 

to call 
Present 

call, or 
am 
calling 

Prob. present 
and future 

shall call, or 
probably call 

Past 

called, or 
was 
calling 

Prob. past 

probably 
called 

Gerund 

calling 

Imperative 

call! 

Pres. cond. 

if call 

Past cond. 

if called 

Frequentative 

sometimes calling 
Desiderative 

\\-JcVi to call 


4 yoba-XAi 

4 yoba-XAi 
3 yondE I-NAI 

2 t/0&/MASEN 

3 yondE IMASEX 

1 yobiiM\i (see 33) \ 
3 yondE IMAI 
4 yoba-^Ai DARO or DESHO 
3 yondE I-XAI DARO 

2 1/0&/MASUMA1 

3 yondE IMASUMAI 

4 t/O&a-XAKATTA 

3 yondE I-XAKATTA 

2 f/06/MASEX DESHITA 

3 yondE IMASEX DESHITA 

4 /0&a-NAKATTARO 

3 yondE I-XAKATTARO 

4 ?/0&a-XAKATTA DARO 

3 yondE I-XAKATTA DARd 

2 yofrzMASEX DESHITARO 

3 yondE IMASEX DESHITARO 

4 yoba-XAi DE 
3 yondE I-XAI DE 
4 yoba-zu xi 

4 /0&a-XAKUTE 

1 yobu XA 

4 t/o6a-XAI DE O KURE 

3 yondE WA IKE-XAI 

4 t/O&a-XAI DE II 
4 yo6a-XAI DE KUDASAI 

2 o yobi KUDASAIMASU NA 

4 7/o6-XAKEREBA 

3 yondE I-XAKEREBA 

4 t/O&a-XAKATTARA 

3 yondE I-XAKATTARA 

2 2/0&/MASEX DESHITARA 
3 t/onrfE IMASEX DESHITARA 

4 2/0&rt-XAKATTARI 
2 7/0&/TAKU N'AI 
















3 iiondE IRU DARO 
























t/ 


















u 
















2 iiobiTAi . 



12 ELEMENTARY GRAMMAR 

30. With regard to Table I, the column 1 gives the termination of the verbs 
as found in the vocabularies of this work (also as in Hobart-Hampden and 
Parlett's English-Japanese Dictionary, and in the author's -English- Japanese 
Conversation Dictionary}. 

31. As all verbs ending in em and iru do not form their bases in the same 
way, some have been distinguished by a decimal point (e'ru ; i'ru). Those 
which, as written in this book, end in e'ru, belong to the 2nd conjugation in 
Prof. Chamberlain's classification; and those in i'ni, to the 3rd conjugation. 
All other verbs belong to the 1st conjugation.* 

32. Table II shows what terminations are to be added and to which base 
they must be added. 

33. The first form of the negative future is singular in that, in the case of 
verbs of the 2nd and 3rd conjugations, the termination mai is added to that, 
part of base 1 that comes before the point : thus, we have nemai and not neru- 
mai for the negative future of ne'ru ; mimai and not minimal is the negative 
future of mi'ru. 

34. In order to conjugate any verb, first form the bases as per Table I ; and 
then add to the proper base the termination shown in Table II. Take the verb 
yobu, for instance. According to the first line of Table I we have as bases: 
1 yobu, 2 yobi, 3 yond, 4 yoba, 5 yob, 6 yob. Now add to the proper base the 
termination shown in Table II. 

MOODS AND TENSES. 

35. General remarks. Many tenses in Japanese, have a simple form as 
yobu, corresponding to the passing act, and a compound form (composed of the 
gerund and the auxiliary verb i'ru or oru] as yonde iru, which corresponds to 
the continued act or state. Thus yobu means 'I call' ; yonde iru 'I am calling' : 
kawaku 'to dry'; kawaite iru 'to be dry'. The continuativc forms are used in 
Japanese more than in English : icakatte iru, I understand. (See 99). 

36. Yobu and yonde iru have the same meanings respectively as yobiniaxu 
and yonde imasu ; but the latter are more polite. In Table II (see 29), in each 
case in which a distinction is to be made, the polite forms are at the end of the 
tense. (See also 359 et scqq.). 

37. The Japanese sometimes use the negative where we use the affirmative : 
ko-nai uchi ni. before he comes. (See also 415 et seqq.). 

*The verbs in eru or ini which have not this decimal point, i.e. which belong to the 1st 
conjugation are few. The following are the commonest : 

heru to diminish ; ehimeru to become hairu to enter ; maim to come, go ; 

kaeru to return ; damp ; ijiru to meddle with ; negiru to cheapen ; 

Jceru to kick ; suberu to slip ; iru to enter, need ; shim to know. 

shaberu to gossip ; teru to shire ; kiru to cut : 



OF THE JAPANESE SPOKEN LANGUAGE 13 

38. Present and Probable Present or Future. The dominant idea of the 
Japanese present tense is the idea of certainty. It is used for the present, for 
general statements, and for those things in the future which are considered 
certain. It is also used for interrogations regarding the future of the 2nd per- 
s on ; sometimes also of the 3rd person. 

Arukimasu ; he walks. 

Nikon no shokuji zva tabe-nyisen ; I don 't eat Japanese food. 

Ashita Tokyo e ikimasu ; I shall go to Tokyo tomorrow. 

Ashita Tokyo e, irasshaimasu ka ? are you going to Tokyo tomorrow ? 

39. The Japanese probable present or future means uncertainty, and is used 
when speaking of those things of the future which are considered uncertain ; 
also when expressing or asking for an opinion and in interrogations of the 1st 
person future. 

Ashita tea ame ga furu dtslio ; it will probably rain tomorrow. 
Mono-oki ni aru desho ; I think there are some in the pantry. 
IVatakushi ga mairimasho ka ? shall I go ? 

40. By adding desho (or less politely daro) . to the forms of the present we 
obtain forms of the probable present. 

.4?io hito zca Ei-go ga dekiru desho ; I expect that man can speak English. 

41 . Various forms of the probable present, especially those in daro or desho 
often have a quasi-interrogative force, about equivalent to 'as you probably 
know' 'as you will probably agree' 'isn't that so ?' 

Yubin-kyoku no mae ni oki na kusuri-ya ga aru desho ? sono tonari desu ; 
there is a big drug-store in front of the post office, isn't there? well, it (the 
place I am speaking of) is next door to that. 

42. The forms yobo, yonde iyo, yobimasho and yonde imasho when used alone 
refer generally to the 1st person. They are often used to announce a decision 
which has just been taken by the 1st person or to invite the 2nd person to co- 
operate with the 1st ; in this latter case it corresponds to the 1st person plural 
imperative. Iko or ikimasho ; I '11 go. or let us go. 

43. These forms, however, followed by to omou or to shite may refer to any 
person : iko t> omou, I (you, he, etc.) intend to go ; ikd to shite, being about to 

go. 

44. The forms yobu desho and yoba-nai desho are generally used for the 2nd 
and 3rd persons only ; however, when desho has the quasi-interrogative force 
mentioned in 41, they are used for any person. 

45. The forms yonde iru daro and yonde i-nai daro are used for all pel 
when the state and not the passing act is meant. 

46. The following examples may serve to illustrate the difference 1 
the Japanese present and future : 

ltd San wa ashita Tokyo e ikitnasu ka ? will Mr Ito go to Tokyo tomorrow ? 



14 ELEMENTARY GRAMMAR 



ltd San wa ashita Tokyo e iku desho ka ? do you think Mr Ito will go to Tokyo 
tomorrow ? 

In the first case I inquire about the fact of somebody who, I think, ought 
to know (e.g. Mr Ito 's employer) ; in the second case I ask for an opinion. 

47. A common emphatic form of speech consists of a) the second base, b) tea 
or koso, c) the verb sum. This idiom is especially common w r ith sum in the 
negative ; and more particularly so with suru in the negative present. The 
meaning may refer to the future, the present or even the past. 

Iki wa shi-nai ; I certainly will not go, (do not go or did not go). 

48. When the negative past tense of suru is used, the meaning is past ; shimai 
(negative future) is used in the 2nd or 3rd person in hypothetical cases. 

49. Before the negative of suru, vca is often corrupted to ya.* 

50. The Japanese present has sometimes a past meaning : 
Shimbun yea mada mimasen ; I have not seen the newspaper yet. 

Taifien ame ga furimasu kara ikimasen deshita; it rained so much 1 did not go. 
See also 99. . , 

51. The English present is often translated by the Japanese past. (See 56). 

52. For the Japanese present followed by to, see 67. 

53. Past and Probable Past. Just as there is a certain present and a prob- 
able present in Japanese, there is also a certain past and a probable past. 

54. By adding desho (or less politely daro} to the forms of the past tense, we 
obtain forms of the probable past. 

55. Desho (or daro) may again have the quasi-interrogative force mentioned 
in 41. 

56. The certain past is often used in Japanese when we in English use the 
present. Wakarimashita may mean: 'I understood' or 'I understand'. 
Bikkuri shita ; 'I was surprised' or 'I am surprised'. This is especially com- 
mon with inchoative verbs, (114). 

57. The first form of the past tense followed by 'tie may be translated by 
'even if : Ame ga futta 'tte ikimasu ; I shall go even if it rains. 

The corresponding construction in the negative is slightly irregular : Ko- 
nakutta 'tie ; even if he doesn 't come ; see 200, 5, foot-note. 

58. Gerund. The gerund is perhaps the inflexion that is in most frequent 
use.f (Compare 200). 

1) It is used before auxiliary verbs, as : motte iru to be carrying; kaite am 
it is written ; (98 et seqq.). 

*Before ya the final i of the base is often dropped : ikya shi-nai, for iki ya shi-nai. 

(The gerund ending in mashile may be used only in cases similar to those noted under 
3), 4); 5), 7), 9), 10), 11), 12) and 14). 



OF THE JAPANESE SPOKEN LANGUAGE 15 

2) The first of two verbs when they do not form a compound is put in the 
gerund : motte hunt to bring. (Compare 151). 

3) The verb that ends a clause, or is followed in English by 'and' is put in 
the gerund : Han tvo katte kaerimaslilta ; he bought a book and returned home. 

4) After the translation of the gerund, we must sometimes use other con- 
junctions besides 'and' : Hajime atte ozcari ga nai ; there was a beginning but 
there is no end. 

5) It sometimes expresses instrumentality : Kuruma wo hiite kurashimasu; 
he makes his living by pulling a rikisha. 

6) It may signify the reason or cause : Ame ga futte ika-nakatta ; as it was 
raining I did not go. 

7) It often corresponds to 'so' in English : Ashi ga itande shiyo ga nai ; my 
feet hurt me so I don't know what to do. 

8) It is sometimes translated by a preposition : Himo zco motte ircaku ; to 
tie with a string. 

!4) Followed by mo it means 'even it" 'although'* : Ame ga futte mo ikimasu ; 
I will go even if it rains. 

10) Followed by ii, it has a slight imperative force* : Tabete ii ; eat it. Ima 
iits yd gozaimasu ka ? shall I go now ? do you wish me to go now ? 

11) Followed by mo ii it means permission, concession* : after an affirmative 
gerund it may be rendered by 'may' ; after a negative gerund by ' need not'. 
Kaette mo ii ; you may return home : ika-nakute mo ii ; you needn't go. 

12) Wa following the gerund is emphatic; it is often used in sentences that 
contradict what another person has said, or that express a protest, doubt, 
threat, regret, etc. Note that -te wa, -de wa, are familiarly contracted respec- 
tively into -cha and -ja. Nete wa (nechd) i-nai ; oh, no, he is not asleep, lite 
wa (itcha) do desu ka ? what do you say to going there ? 

13) The affirmative gerund followed by wa, or the negative gerund in nakute 
followed by wa. has often a sort of conditional meaning : Yokohama e hikkoshite 
wafuben de gozaimasu; it would be inconvenient for me (if I were) to move 
to Yokohama. Ame ga jutte wa komaru ; (a) if it were to rain I would be incon- 
venienced ; (b) 1 am inconvenienced by this rain. 

Wa after a gerund sometimes means repetition . Itazura wo shite tea shi- 
karareru ; (a) if you get up to mischief you 'II be scolded ; (b) he is often scolded 
as he is always up to mischief. 

The tea is sometimes dropped when the meaning is repetition : Hana wo 
totte komaru; I don't know what to do as he is (you are) always picking my 
flowers. 

*The meanings of mo, ii and mo ii after a gerund are not always as indicated above : 
consult the words mo and yoi in the Vocabulary, Part IT I. 



16 ELEMENTARY GRAMMAR 



14) The gerund followed by wa and ike-nai, (less often nara-nai or dame), 
means that it is wrong or useless to do something. It often corresponds to the 
negative imperative, or to 'must not'. So shite tea ike-nai; 'you must not 
do that', or 'don't do that', (lit. if you do so it won't do). Sonna ni sazcaija 
(stilt-aide zva) ike-nai, 'don't make such a row', (lit. if you make such a row it 
won't do). 

15) The negative gerund in nakute followed by tea and ike-nai (or nara-nai) 
indicates an obligation, and may be translated by 'must': Kaka-nakute tea 
ikemasen ; you must write; (lit. if you do not write that won't do). The 
verb ike-nai (or nara-nai) is sometimes omitted : Ika-nakucJui ; I have to go. 

16) The negative gerund, especially that in -zu, is often translated by 'with- 
out': Kutsu wo tora-zu ni haitte mo ii ; you may go in without taking off your 
boots. Chichi ga nokora-zu koborete shimatta ; every bit of the milk was spilt, 
(nokora-zu, without any remaining over). Kobe wa san-nen bakari nii-nai de im 
aida ni taihen kawarimashita ; I have been three years without seeing Kobe 
and during that time it has changed very much. 

17) Instead of yoba-nai de and yonde i-nai de you occasionally hear the 
corresponding constructions in the masti terminations : yobimasen de, yonde 
imasen de. 

18) The gerund is often used elliptically : 
To zvo akete .... (kure) ; open the door. 

Shitte iru no ni omae zca mo wo tsuite. . . .('shira-nai' to itta) ; although you know, 
you tell a lie .... (and say you don 't know). 

Besides this elliptical use of the gerund, common to men and women, women 
have another, peculiar to themselves, in which the gerund is equivalent to the 
past tense. 

O to-san tea mo o kaeri ni natte ? (natta ka ?) ; is father back already ? E, o 
kaeri ni natte yo ! (=natta yo !) oh, yes ! 

Kono shosetsu zco yonde ? (yonda ka ?) have you read this novel ? 

19) The following constructions are interesting : 
Aruite desu ka ? are you going on foot ? 

Gohan wo tabete (kara) no koto ni nasai ; put it off until after dinner. 

20) The use of the gerund with auxiliary and terminal verbs is shown in 
98 et seqq. 

21) Various contractions of the gerund are noted in 14, 2. 

59. The Imperative; commanding and requesting. The forms shown in 29 are 
a selection from among the numerous ways of commanding, forbidding or request- 
ing. The forms in kudasai are the only polite ones ; the others, especially the 
first ones, savour more or less of a command and should be used only to inferiors. 

The imperative is rendered still more polite by beginning the sentence by 
doka or better still by dozo. Yonde kudasai, is about equivalent to 'please 



OF THE JAPANESE SPOKEN LANGUAGE 17 

call.' Dozo yonde kudasai, 'please be so kind as to call.' 

60. An order to do and continue to do something is often expressed by the 
gerund followed by the imperative of i'ru, viz. o-ide, o-ide nasai, i nasai or 
irassJiai according to the degree of politeness. 

Koko de matte o-ide ; wait here. 

Mizu wo matte kimasii kara sono aida kore wo motte irasshai ; please hold this 
while I fetch some water. 

An order to continue not doing something is sometimes expressed by the 
negative gerund followed by the imperative of i'ru. 

Oki-nai de irasshai ; don 't get up. 

Kono tegami ni wa shi-go-nichi henji wo dasa-zu ni o-ide nasai ; don 't answer 
this letter for four or five days. 

61 . In the negative imperative dame is often heard instead of ike-nai. 
Otoshlte wa dame ; don 't let it drop. 

62. Instead of kudasai children (especially girls) often say chodai. Kudasai 
(or chodai) by itself means, 'please give it to me', not simply 'please'. Pan wo 
kudasai ; please give me some bread. 

In Japanese, as in English, a request often takes the form of an interrogation : 
Hon wo kashite kudasaimasen ka? A'ould you be kind enough to lend me 
your book ? 

63. As stated in 42 the first person plural imperative is often rendered by 
the Japanese future : Dekakeyo or dekakemasho ; ' let us be going'. To the 
first of these forms is often added in familiar speech ja nai ka? Dekakeyo 
ja nai ka ? let us be going, eh ? 

64. In the imperative, the special honorific verb, if there is one, is generally 
used instead of the corresponding simple verb : thus, practically, o-ide nasai or 
irasshai is the imperative of i'ru to be, kuru to come, and iku to go ; and goran 
nasai, the imperative of mi'ru to look. 

The expressions studied under the titles 'Obligation' 'Permission' and 
'Advice' in 168, 169 and 170 are related to the present subject. 

65. Conditional. The conditional present is often used instead of the past 
and vice versa. Sukoshi ki wo tsukereba koware-nai no ni ; if you had been 
more careful it wouldn't have broken. Dekitara motte kite kudasai ; please bring 
it with you if it is ready. 

In Japanese the conditional and expressions equivalent to a conditional, 
have not only the ordinary conditional meaning, but also serve to express other 
relations between two events, especially that of time. Shigoto ga sumeba nani 
wo shimasu ka ? what are you going to do when you have finished that work ? 

When two conditionals are used in Japanese the second may have the meaning 
of 'so long as' 'provided'. Karifa empitsu wo nakuslntara, onnaji mono wo katte 
kaeseba ii deshd ; if you've lost the pencil you borrowed, it will be all right 



18 ELEMENTARY GRAMMAR 



provided you buy another one like it and return that. 

66. The idea of the conditional is sometimes expressed in Japanese by pla- 
cing nara* after the present or the past (more especially after the less polite 
forms). Nara is also placed after the desiderative form of verbs, after adjectives 
and after nouns : Aite iru nara kashite kudasai ; if you have no use for it at 
present, please lend it to me. Mitai nara tsurete ikimasho ; if you wish to see it, 
I Mill take you. Oishii nara o agari nasai ; if you like it, please take some. Neko 
nara oi-dashlte o kure ; if it is a cat, drive it away. Note also so nara (corrupted 
to sonnara) 'if things are so' *in that case' : Sonnara ikimasho ; if that is so, 
I'll go. 

67. The present tense followed by to is about equivalent to the present con- 
ditional ; it often refers to time and may then be translated by when, while 
as soon as, etc. Taberu to o kd-san ni shikararemastt ; if you eat it, your mother 
will scold you. 

Kane ga naru to klsha ga deru ; when the bell rings, the train starts. 

The above construction is especially common with the less polite forms of 
the present but it is sometimes used with the masu forms. Note that if to is 
followed by iu to say, kiku to hear, omou to think, etc., it serves to indicate a 
direct quotation and has nothing to do with the conditional. (See 427). 

68. The gerund followed by tea has frequently a conditional meaning, see 
58, 13, 14, 15. 

The following expressions are therefore more or less equivalent : 
nomeba = nomu nara = nomu to = nonde tea 

noma-nakereba = noma-nai nara = noma-nai to = noma-nakute wa 

69. The past conditional, like the present, may express other relations besides 
that of condition ; the relation of time is especially common and the translation 
may then be : when, after, as soon as, while, etc. 

Kyo tea ame ga fura-nai to omottara rnata futte kita ; although I thought it 
wouldn't rain today, it has started to rain again. 

Aruitara kutabireta ; I've been walking and I'm tired. 

Hi ni atetara iro ga samete shimatta ; it has been exposed to the sun and the 
colour has entirely faded. 

Dekitara (sugu ni) okutte kudasai ; please send it as soon as it is ready. 

Sore ga sundara sampo shimasho ; when (after) you've finished let's go for a 
walk. 

Tsuitara sugu, ame ga futte kimashita ; he had hardly arrived when it began 
to rain. 

70. By prefixing moshi to the conditional present or past we give it a dis- 
tinctly hypothetical meaning : moshi kitara ; supposing he came. 

*You may say naraba instead of nara ; likewise you sometimes hear as the termination 
of the past conditional -araba for -ara. 



OF THE JAPANESE SPOKEN LANGUAGE 19 

71 . The termination eba of the present conditional is sometimes contracted 
to ya in familiar speech : Ko surya (sureba) ii ; you had better do like this. 

72. The negative present conditional followed by ike-nai or nara-nai may 
be translated generally by 'must' : Ko shi-nakereba narimasen ; it must be done 
in this way, (lit.: it won't do if you don't do it thus). 

73. The present conditional preceded by sae means 'if only' 'provided'. 
Ai sae sureba anshin sum ; if I could only see him my mind would be at ease. 

Toki (ni) tea has sometimes a hypothetical meaning : Moshi tegami ga naku- 
natta toki (ni) tea do shimasho ? what shall I do if the letter should be lost ? 

74. We have already seen that in Japanese the conditional is used in many 
cases in which there is no conditional in English : here are some more 
examples : 

Kuru to omotte yorokonde imashitara kimasen deshita ; I was rejoicing at the 
idea of his coming, but it turned out that he didn 't come. 

Kore ZKO mireba- yasashii yd da keredamo hcmto wa taihen muzukashii ; to look 
at it, it seems easy, but it really is very difficult. 

Sono toki tokei wo mimashitara ju-ji sugi deshita; on looking then at the 
clock, I found it was past ten. 

Nih&n-go mo lianaseba ji mo kakemasu ; he can not only speak Japanese but 
he can also write it. 

K iite mireba riko na hlto da ; judging from what one hears, he must be a 
clever fellow. 

Kikeba byoki datta so desu ; I hear that he has been ill. 

Ato de kiitara uso deshita ; I inquired afterwards and it turned out not to 
be true. 

Nippon mo kawareba kazcaru mon ' da ; how Japan has changed ! 

Do oshietara ii desho ; how shall I explain it to them ? 

Ikeba ikareru ; you can go (but 1 think you had better not). 

Mi mo shi-nakereba kiki mo shi-nai ; I neither saw nor heard anything. 

Nedan mo yasukereba shina mo ii ; the price is cheap and the quality good. 

Yoku mireba miru hodo kirei desu ; the more carefully I look at it the prettier 
1 find it. 

75. The Japanese are very fond of elliptical idioms. In these a conditional 
is often found. See 414, 4. 

76. Frequentative. The frequentative form is used when acts or states 
occur by turns. It is frequently used in pairs, the second member being general- 
ly followed by the verb sura. An 'and' is often introduced between the two 
verbs in the English version : SJiabettari warattari shite ua de zca arimasen ka ? 
weren 't you talking and laughing ? 

The frequentative is sometimes used when there is no repetition : 

Do shite icatashi no hana vso tottari shimasu ka ? what do you mean by picking 



20 ELEMENTARY GRAMMAR 



my flowers ? Note that in English you use the plural (a kind of repetition) 

though only one flower may have been picked. 

The frequentative is occasionally used in a distributive sense : 

Kodomo-tachi tea hon wo yondari, e wo kaitari, Jcitte wo mitari shite imasu ; 

some of the children are reading books, some are drawing pictures, and some are 

looking at postage stamps. 

77. Desiderative. The desiderative form is an adjective and has all the 
inflexions of one. (See 192 et seqq.). 

78. Like an adjective it has also a corresponding abstract noun in -sa ; e.g.: 
from ikitai , 'wishing to go,' we get ikitasa, 'the wish to go'. This abstract 
noun, generally followed by ni, refers to the reason or cause of an action. 

kd-san no kao ga mitasani toi tokoro kara kimashlta; I have come from very 
far because I was longing to see my mother. 

79. The desiderative is not used in the 3rd person unless followed by to iu r 
to mosu or no desu. 

The object of the desire often, but not always, becomes the subject and takes- 
ga : Kamakura ga mitaku wa arimasen ka ? don 't you wish to see Kamakura ? 

80. By changing the final i to gam we form a verb ; e.g.: from ikitai, ' wishing 
to go', we get ikitagaru, 'to wish to go'. 

81. The Second Base or Stem. The second base of a verb is very important 
and has to be referred to frequently : we will call it the stem. 

82. The stem of a verb: 1) is very often used as a noun as may be seen 
in several of the following cases. 

2) Followed by suru it sometimes takes the place of the ordinary inflexions 
of the verb : (o) hanashi suru uchi hi ; while w r e were talking. 

3) Preceded by o and followed by certain verbs, it forms polite substitutes, 
for the ordinary inflexions of the verb. See 359-360. 

4) Followed by wa and suru it is emphatic. See 47-49. 

5) Followed by ni, it signifies the motive or object of an action : Tori ni 
Mmashtta ; he came to fetch it. 

6) Followed by nagara, it generally means that two actions are carried on 
simultaneously : Warai nagara kodomo ni omocha wo yarimashita ; laughing, 
he gave a toy to the child. 

7) Followed by nagara it sometimes has an adversative sense : Warui to 
shiri nagara shita ; he did it, though he knew it was wrong. 

8) Followed by gake ni, it means 'on the way' ; this construction is especial- 
ly common in connection with the verbs iku to go, and kaeru to return : Kaeri- 
gake ni yorimashita ; I called on my way back. 

9) When a sentence is composed of two or more parallel propositions, we 
may use the stem of the verb at the end of each member except at the end of 
the last one which takes an ordinary verbal inflexion : Shiroi hana mo an, akai 



OF THE JAPANESE SPOKEN LANGUAGE 21 

no mo ari, aoi no mo arimasu ; some flowers are white, some red, and some 
blue. 

10) When the stem ends in ri and is followed by the verb nasaru, the final ri 
of the stem is sometimes changed to n : o yan nasai for o yari nasai, give it. 

83. The Infinitive. There is no real infinitive in Japanese. The English 
infinitive is translated in a variety of ways : 

1) When it is the subject or object of another verb, by the first forms of 
the present or past followed by koto, to iu koto, no or ho ; all these words serve 
to substantivize the verb : 

Hitori <fe iru to iu koto wa yoku nai koto desu ; it is a bad thing to live by 
oneself. 

Kasa wo motte iku ho ga ii ; it would be better to take an umbrella. 

Hima wo tsubusu no wa warui ; it is bad to waste time. 

tfma wo kawa-nai koto ni kimemashita ; I have decided not to buy a horse. 

2) When it follows a verb of motion and signifies 'for the purpose of or 
" in order to ', by the stem of the verb and ni : 

Tori ni kimashita ; he came to fetch it. 

3) When it follows a verb which is not of motion, and signifies 'for the 
purpose of or 'in order to', by the first forms of the present followed by 
tome ni : 

Komaraseru tame ni shimashita ; he did it to annoy me. 

4) W T hen it follows the means, instrument or agent, by the first forms of the 
present and (no) ni ; the no is sometimes omitted : 

Tegami wo kaku ni kami ga iru ; I want some paper to write a letter. 
Ko-zutsumi wo iwaku no ni tsukaimasu ; I use it to tie up parcels. 
Kore wo ageru no ni tetsudatte kudasai ; help me to lift this. 

5) When it is equivalent to 'for' followed by the present participle, by 
the first forms of the present and (no) ni ; the no is sometimes omitted : 

Kondnimotsu wo teishaba made motte iku no ni, ikura harattara ii desho? how 
much ought I to pay to have (for having) this parcel taken to the station ? 

Mada neru ni wa hayai ; it is still too early to go to bed. 

G) When it signifies 'with the intention of, by the future and to omotte 
or to shile : 

Dekakeyo to omotte boshi wo kaburimashita ; I put on my hat to go out. 

7) When equivalent to a supposition and accompanied by 'it will' or 'it 
would', by some construction with a conditional meaning: 

Ano hito ga okoru to ike-nai kara o yoshi nasai ; it wouldn't do to make that 
man angry so don't do that. 

life mo dame ; it is useless to go. 

Yokohama e hikkoshite wafuben de gozaimasu ; it would be inconvenient for 
me to move to Yokohama. 



22 ELEMENTARY GRAMMAR 



8) After verbs of speaking as : telling, requesting, promising, advising, re- 
fusing, etc., the infinitive is translated by to following the direct quotation or 
by yo ni following the present : 

' Ko-nai ' to kotowarimasliita ; he refused to come. 
Ashita kuru yd ni itte kure ; tell him to come tomorrow. 

9) Sentences belonging to the above class are sometimes translated by the 
causative, sometimes they are entirely changed before*translating : 

Tell Shige to call a rikisha cause Shige to call a rikisha ; Shige ni kuruma 
wo yobashite kure. 

I'll get (tell) the carpenter to make one ; daiku ni koshiraesaseyo. 
Tell O Haru to come=call O Haru ; O Haru wo yonde kure. 
Tell O Haru to go=send O Haru ; O Haru wo yatte kure. 

10) After 'wish' 'want' or 'would like', the infinitive is translated by the 
desidcrative form of the verb: 

Yobitai ; I wish to call. 

11) After 'easy' or 'difficult' etc., the infinitive is translated by the stem 
and yasui or ii (easy), or nikui (difficult) : 

Wakari-nikui ; difficult to understand. 

Koko wa sumi-ii tokoro desu ka ? is this a pleasant place to live in ? 

12) When the infinitive has the meaning of 'must' it is translated in various 
ways : 

Shi-nakereba nara-nai shigoto ga aru ; I have work to do (which I must do). 
Dono michi zvo ikeba ii ka wakarimasen ; I don 't know which road to take. 
Harai ga aritrw.su ka ? is there anything to pay ? 

13) When the meaning is intention, see 173. 

14) Note the following ways of translating the infinitive : 
Kaku hima ga nai ; I have no time to write. 

Chichi wo akambo ni nomashUe o kure ; give the baby some milk to drink. 

Kono heya ni lion wo oku basho ga arimasen ; in this room there's no place to 
put my books. 

Yomu mono ga nai ; I have nothing to read. 

Sara wo ireru hako ; a box to put plates in. 

Naki-dasu ; to begin to cry. 

84. Various Verbal Phrases. The first forms of the present or past when 
followed by koto become substantivized and generally have a meaning in the 
Japanese mind akin to our infinitive, (83, 1) ; but they are not always to be 
translated by the infinitive in English : 

Kurakute yomu koto ga dekimasen ; it is so dark I cannot read. 

Mita koto ga nai ; I have never seen it. 

Kobe e itta koto ga arimasu ka ? have you ever been to Kobe ? 

Itta koto ga gozaimasu ; yes, I have been there. 



OF THE JAPANESE SPOKEN LANGUAGE 23 

85. , The first forms of the present and past may also be made substantives by 
adding mono, mon' or no. The no is often equivalent to mono or koto : 

Kesa itta no tea machigai deshita ; what I said this morning was a mistake. 

It is worthy of note that koto, mono and no may refer not only to the act of 
the verb itself as in the above examples, but also to the thing which is the 
object or subject of the verb. Compare the following examples: 

Kyo wa isogashikutte sore wo sum koto ga dekimasen ; I am very busy today 
I can 't do that ; (the act of doing is impossible). 

Sum koto ga takusan arimasu ; I have a great deal to do ; (things to do). 

Anata no tegami nanzo yomu mon'' (or mono) desu ka ? I'd never dream of 
reading your letters. 

Yomu mono ga nai ; I have nothing to read. 

Dare ga kita no desu ? who came ? 

Kesa kita no wa kono tegami desu ; this is the letter that came this morning. 

86. Especially common is the no desu, (no deshita, etc.) so often heard after 
the verb : it sometimes serves merely to round off a sentence and forms expres- 
sions the meaning of which is practically indistinguishable from that of the 
ordinary inflexions of the verb ; sometimes, however, it has a distinct force 
of its own. The following are some of the commonest combinations with sug- 
gestions for their translation. 

PRESENT. Iku no desu (or da) : go ; shall (will) go ; am going ; should (would) 
go ; must go ; have to go ; am to go ; ought to go. 

PROBABLE PRESENT AND FUTURE. Iku no desho (or daro) : shall (will) probably 
go ; shall (will) probably have to go. 

PAST. Itta no desu (or da) ; ikimashita no desu : did go ; should (would) have 
gone. 

Iku no deshita (or datta) ; itta no deshita (or datta) : should have gone ; ought 
to have gone ; was to go ; was to have gone. 

PROBABLE PAST. Iku no deskltaro (or dattaro) : probably did go ; probably 
would (should) have gone ; probably ought to have gone. 

Itta no deshitaro (or dattaro) : probably did go. 

CONDITIONAL. Iku no desMtora (or dattara) : if go ; if ought to have gone ; 
if I had known you were going. 

Similar constructions may be formed with the compound inflexions, such as, 
yonde iru no desu ; yonde ita no desu ; etc. 

In the case of negative verbs, the negative element may be either in the 
first component or in the second ; e.g. ika-nai no desu or ikunoja arimasen, 
etc. 

87. Examples : 

Ototo wa ashita Tokyo e iku no desu ; my (younger) brother is going to Tokyo 
tomorrow ; my (younger) brother has to go to Tokyo tomorrow. 



24 ELEMENTARY GRAMMAR 



Kind amegafura-nakereba iku no de gozaimashlta ; I would have gone yester- 
day, if it had not rained. 

Kimi ga iku nara boku mo itta no daro ; if you had gone, I would probably 
have gone also. 

Watashi mo asuko e itta no deshita ga samui kara sugu kaetta no desu ; I also 
went there, but as it was cold I soon came back. 

Kane sae areba watashi mo itta no desu ; if I had only had money, I also would 
have gone. 

Ani to issho ni iku no deshita ga, kaze wo hiita no de, yameta no desu ; I ought 
to have gone with my brother, but as I caught a cold I had to give up the 
idea. 

kyaku no kuru no ga wakatte iru no deshitara, ika-nakatta no desho ; if he 
had known that a visitor was coming, he probably would not have gone. 

Anata ga uchi e kuru no deshitara, watashi wa mise e iku no ja arimasen deshita ; 
if I had known you were coming to my house, I wouldn 't have gone to the 
office. 

88. Women often say no elliptically for no desu, no desu ka ? etc. 
Kippu wa aru no ? have you got your ticket ? 

E, aru no ; yes, I have. 

89. On the other hand the no is sometimes corrupted into n' or even dropped 
altogether : 

Tokyo e iku n' desu ; I am going to Tokyo. 

Soko kara mo ikeru desu ; you can also go from there. 

90. Verbs may sometimes, like nouns, take a postposition without the words 
no, koto or mono intervening : 

Motte kuru ga ii ; you had better bring it. 

91 . Observe the constructions of which the following are examples : 

Hau dokoro ja nai, yoku arukimasu or hau no hawa-nai no 'tie, yoku aruki- 
masu ; it is no case of creeping, I can tell you ; why, he walks beautifully ! 

Okotta no okora-nai no ja nai, o-okori ni okotta ; he didn 't simply get angry, 
he got into a towering rage. 

IRREGULAR VERBS. 

92. The verbs sum, kuru and iku form their bases irregularly as shown in 
28 ; but the common inflexions of these verbs are formed regularly from the 
bases. However, the passive infinitives of suru and kuru are sare'ru and 
korare'ru, and the causative infinitives sase'ru and kosase'ru respectively. 
See Vocabulary, Part III : suru ; kuru f iku. 

93. The verb aru 'to be, to have', is especially noticeable on account of its 
negative forms. 



OF THE JAPANESE SPOKEN LANGUAGE 



25 





AFFIRMATIVE NEGATIVE 


aru 


Infinitive 


nai 


aru 
arimasu 


Present 


nai 
arimasen 


aro 
arimasho 
aru desho 


Prob. present 
and future 


arumai (or nakaro) 
arimasumai 
nai desho 


atta 
arimashita 


Past 


nakatta 
arimasen deshita 


attaro 
atta desho 


Prob. past 


nakattaro 
nakatta desho 


atte 
arimashite 


Gerund 


nakute 
nai de 


areba 


Cond. present 


nakereba 


aitara 


Cond. past 


nakattara 


attari 


Frequentative 


nakattari 



There are no desiderative forms. 

94. The verb aru is frequently preceded by the 
generally contracted as follows :* 



postposition de ; it is then 



AFFIRMATIVE 



NEGATIVE 



de aru 




Infinitive 


de wa nai 


de aru 
de arimasu 


=da 

desu 


Present 


de wa nai 
de wa arimasen 


de aro 
de arimasho 


daro 
=desho 


Prob. present 
and future 


de wa arumai (or nakaro) 
de wa arimasumai 
de wa nai desho 


de atta =datta 
de arimashita =deshita 


Past 


de wa nakatta 
de wa arimasen deshita 


de attaro 


= dollar o 


Prob. past 


de wa nakattaro 
de wa nakatta deshd 


de atte 


=de 


Gerund 


de (wa) nakute 
de (zva) naku 




(nara) 


Cond. present 


de nakereba 


de aitara 


dattara 


Cond. past 


de nakattara 



*De followed by aru cannot always be contracted to tfa;e.g. Tdkyo de aru hi hige no ant 
kuruma-ya ni aimashlta, one day in Tokyo I saw a rikisha-man with a beard ; Taro to Harvo 
ga kyodai de aru koto wa shira-natcatla, I didn't know that Taro and Haruo were brothers. 



26 ELEMENTARY GRAMMAR 



95. It will be noticed that in the negative, de is generally followed by wa : 
de wa is often contracted to ja. 

96. The polite verbs gozaru, ossharu, nasaru, kudasaru, and irassharu drop 
the letter r of their last syllable when the suffix masu is used, as it generally 
is : the verb gozaru, indeed, is practically never heard except in the masu in- 
flexions. The last three verbs have as imperative nasai, kudasai, and irasshai ; 
they often drop the letter a before tt ; thus : irash 'tie for irasshatte, nas 'ttara for 
nasattara. Note that in this case irassharu also drops one of its ss. 

97. Causative verbs end in -se'ru : their 3rd base is irregular, viz. -shit ; but 
the regular form -set is also sometimes used. 

AUXILIARY AND TERMINAL VERBS. 

98. The verb i'ru (or oru) following the gerund serves to form inflexions that 
indicate a state or a continued act. The verb i'ru is generally preferred in the 
centre of Japan, but in the provinces, oru is often heard. Instead of i'ru, the 
honorific verb irassharu or o-ide nasaru may be used. 

Kutabirete iru ; I am tired. 

Naite iru ; he is crying. 

Hon wo yonde irasshaimasu ; he is reading a book. 

The i of i'ru is often dropped colloquially after a gerund, thus : naiteru for 
naite iru. 

The gerund of an intransitive verb followed by i'ru (or oru) is generally 
translated into English by means of the past participle or an adjective, some- 
times however by the present participle, but in either case the English must 
express the idea that the subject has reached a certain state and continues in 
that state. 'To be moving' means that the subject has reached the state of 
motion and continues in that state, it is therefore the correct translation of 
ugoite i'ru ; but 'to be dying' means that the subject is approaching death, 
and therefore is not the translation of shinde i'ru, the proper translation is ' to 
be dead'. Likewise, 'to be lying down' means that the subject has attained 
the horizontal position and continues in that position, it is therefore the correct 
translation of nete i'ru ; but ' to be drying ' means to be approaching the state 
of dryness, and therefore is not the translation of kawaite i'ru, the proper trans- 
lation is 'to be dry'. 

Amerika e itta and Amerika e itte iru both mean 'he went to America', but the 
second form implies that he is still there, the first form gives no information 
on that point. 

99. It is interesting to note that a verbal phrase like yonde iru may mean 
not only 'is reading' but 'has read'. 

Ano hlto wa seiyo no shosetsu wo takusan yonde iru ; that man has read a great 
number of foreign novels. 



OF THE JAPANESE SPOKEN LANGUAGE 27 

Ano ojii-san rca hige rco sotte iru ; that old man has shaved off his beard. 

100. The verb aru (or gozaru) following the gerund of a transitive verb means 
that the action of the verb was completed and that things remain in that state ; 
it can generally be translated by the passive in English. 

Furoshiki ni tsutsunde arimasu ; it is wrapped up in a cloth. 

Note also the construction of the polite gerund of an intransitive verb followed 
by gozaru : naorimashite gozaimasu is a very polite equivalent of naotta I have 
recovered. 

101. When two verbs, one intransitive and the other transitive, have cor- 
responding meanings (see 111), the gerund of the intransitive verb followed by 
i'ru (or oru), and the gerund of the transitive verb followed by aru have almost 
identical meanings. Thus : rampu ga kiete iru and rampu wo keshlte aru both 
mean 'the lamp is out (not lighted)'. However, rampu ga kiete iru may be 
said either when the lamp has gone out naturally (e.g. want of oil) or when it 
has been intentionally put out by somebody ; whereas rampu wo keshlte aru is 
said only when the lamp has been put out. 

102. Daro (or desho) following the present tense, makes it into a probable 
present ; following the past tense, it makes it into a probable past. It may 
also have a quasi-interrogative force. See 40 ; 41 ; 54 ; 55. 

103. The verb kuru, (irassharu, o-ide nasaru or mairu) following the gerund, 
adds to the first verb the idea of motion towards the speaker or person addressed ; 
it is, however, often translated by 'go' in English : 

Kippu wo katte kimasho ; I will go and buy a ticket ; (lit. I will buy a ticket 
and come). 

The complex action of buying may be said to consist of three parts : the 
going, the buying, the coming back. In English you mention the first two ; 
in Japanese, the second and third. 

Occasionally the verb kuru which is the second of the two verbs ought logically 
to be the first : 

Omoshiroi koto zco itte kita ; he came and told me a funny story. 

Besides this meaning of motion towards the place where one is speaking, 
kuru after a gerund often means 'coming into being or into existence': 

Ame ga futte kita ; it has begun to rain. 

104. The verb mi'ru (or goran nasaru) following a gerund, means that an 
action is to be attempted ; there is a doubt as to whether the action can be 
accomplished or whether the result will be satisfactory : 

Mado u-o akete mimasho may mean, ' I will try to open the window (which 
has stuck)' or 'I will open the window and we will see whether i* is more agree- 
able so'. 

105. The verb okti following a gerund indicates the full and complete s 

of a matter for the time being with a view to its future use ; it is used generally 



28 ELEMENTARY GRAMMAR 



with transitive verbs : the gerund and oku are sometimes contracted colloquially 
as explained, 14, 2, c. 

Chomen ni tsukete okimasho ; I will put it down in my note-book. 

106. The verb shimau following a gerund indicates the completion of an 
action, or is merely emphatic : 

lite shimaimashita ; he has gone away (and will not come back). 

Toto bydki ni natte shimaimashUa ; 'at last he finished by falling ill', or 
' at last he fell ill ', not ' at last he has finished being ill '. 

The last syllable of the gerund and the first two syllables of shimau are often 
contracted colloquially as explained, 14, 2, f. 

1 07. The verb sum (or itasu) following the stem of a verb and zta, is merely 
an emphatic form of expression. See 4749. 

The verbs naosu, dasu, kakaru, kake'ru and hanasu after the stems of verbs 
have special meanings which are explained in 1 51 . 

108. The verb morau (or itadaku) following a gerund, adds the idea of 're- 
ceiving in answer to a request', and forms an idiom resembling the passive or 
the causative : 

Shimbun wo yonde morau ; to have the newspaper read to one. 
Asa hayaku okoshlte moraitai ; I wish to be called early in the morning. 
Tokei tco soji shite moraitai ; I want to have my watch cleaned. 
Anata ni kaite itadakitai ; I wish you would write this for me. 

109. The verb yarn, (age'ru, kure'ru or kudasaru*) following a gerund adds 
the idea of 'giving'. The choice of the verb will depend on the considerations 
governing the use of honorific and humble verbs. If the giving is the act of 
the 1st person to an inferior, use yarn ; to a superior, use age'ru : if the giving 
is in favour of the 1st person or somebody connected with the 1st person, use 
kure'ni if the act of an inferior, kudasaru if the act of a superior. 

Butte yarimasho ; I will give him a beating. 
Yonde agemasho ka ? shall I read it to you ? 
Yonde kudasaimashlta ; he read it to me. 

110. Terminal verbs sometimes retain their ordinary meanings instead of 
the special meanings mentioned in the above paragraphs. 

Kind Taro no gakko e itte mimashita ; yesterday I went and saw Taro's school. 

It thus happens that sentences of this kind may have more than one meaning : 
katte itadaita may mean, (a) he bought it and gave it to me, or (b) he bought it 
for me (as I was busy and could not go out) ; in this latter case, the favour 
received is not the thing itself (for which I pay) but the act of going and buying it. 

You may s<jmetimes find two terminal verbs used, the one affecting the other : 
naoshite agete okimasho I shall mend it for him (and leave that settled). 

*Kudaoaru is also used after the stem of a verb ; see 362. 



OF THE JAPANESE SPOKEN LANGUAGE 29 

TRANSITIVE AND INTRANSITIVE VERBS. 

V 

111. In English the same verb is often transitive or intransitive according 
to circumstances ; in Japanese there are generally two different verbs with a 
common root ; e.g. kaesu (trans.) and kaeru (intrans.), to return.* 

Ashita hon zco kaeshimasu ; I will return the book tomorrow. 
Kesa kaerimasMta ; I returned this morning. 

112. The gerund of the intransitive verb followed by i'ru has a meaning very 
similar to the gerund of the corresponding transitive verb followed by aru ; 
see 1 01 . 

113. Many intransitive verbs are used as potentials : especially those in 
which the final u of the transitive is replaced by e'ru in the intransitive. See 
127. 

Kono empitsu wa yoku kakemasu ; 'this pencil writes well', or 'you can 
write well with this pencil'. 

Xihon-ji ga kakemasen ; I cannot write Japanese characters. 

114. Many intransitive verbs are inchoative, i.e. they mark the beginning 
of a condition. Some of these are frequently translated by a quasi-passive but 
their primary meaning should.not be lost sight of. Thus : 

Kazvaku is not properly 'to be dry', but 'to get dry'. 'To be dry' is ex- 
pressed by kazvaite i'ru. 

Kutabire'ru is not properly 'to be tired', but 'to become tired'. 'To be 
tired' is expressed by kutabirete i'ru. 

115. These verbs are often used in the past in Japanese when we, in English, 
employ the present ; kawakimashita it is dry ; kutabiremasMta I am tired. 

116. Transitive verbs sometimes have a quasi -causative meaning: kazca- 
kasu 'to dry' i.e. 'to cause to dry in the sun or before the fire, etc.' See 143 
144. 

117. Though it may seem paradoxical, some intransitive verbs take an 
object with the postposition zco. This complement with zvo designates the 
locality at which or from which the action takes place. Watasu means 'to 
take (something) across' and is therefore transitive; zeataru means 'to go 
across oneself and is therefore intransitive ; kazca wo zcataru means 'to go 
across the river' or 'to cross the river'. Likewise: kisha zco ori'ni, to get 
down from a train. 

118. Some Japanese intransitive verbs correspond to English reflexives: 
asobu to amuse oneself, (to play) ; hataraku to exert oneself, (to work). 



*The Vocabulary at the end of this book gives the transitive verb corresponding to an 
intransitive one and vice versa. 



30 ELEMENTARY GRAMMAR 



PASSIVE VERBS. 

119. The passive voice is formed by adding re'ru to the 4th base In 
verbs ending in e'ru or i'ru, add rare'ru to the 4th base. E.g.: korosti to 
kill, 4th base korosa, korosare'ru to be killed ; tabe'ru to eat, 4th base 
lobe, taberare'ru to be eaten. 

120. The verbs sum, kuru and oshie'ru form the passive irregularly ; thus : 
sare'ru, korare'ru and osowaru. 

1 21 . The passives of compound verbs and of such combinations as motte 
kuru to bring, are formed by changing only the last component. Thus : motte 
korare'ru to be brought. 

122. The noun, which in English takes the preposition 'by' in the passive 
construction, is generally followed in the Japanese passive by the postposition 
ni. 

123. It often happens that the English passive is not translated by the passive 
in Japanese ; it is sometimes translated : 

1) by an intransitive or potential verb : odoroita, I was astonished ; nezumi 
ga toreta, a mouse is caught (in the trap).* 

2) by a transitive verb followed by mono (de$u) or no (desu) : Kore wa ko- 
gatana de kitta no (desu) ka ? hasami de kitta no (desu) ka ? was this cut with 
a knife, or with scissors ? 

3) by an active though subjectless construction : Risuke to iu hito ; a man 
called Risuke. (lit. a man they call Risuke). M ado kara kao ivo dasa-nai yd ni 
negaimasu ; you are requested not to put your head out of the window. 
Kono kutsu wo naoshi ni yarimasho ; I'll send these boots to be mended. 

4) by the gerund of an active verb followed by aru : Kaite aru ; it is written. 

5) by the gerund of an active verb followed by morau : Hayaku okoslilte 
moraitai ; I wish to be called early. 

6) by the gerund of an intransitive verb followed by i'ru (or oru) : To ga 
shimatte iru ; the door is shut. 

7) by a noun followed by ni naru : O sewa ni naru ; to be assisted. 

8) by the verb deki'ru ; to be finished, made : Asuko de setomono ga dekiru ; 
porcelain is manufactured there. 

Note also the following examples : 
Kega suru ; to be wounded. 

Kono ji wa to yomasemasu ; this character is read thus (lit. we are caused 
or taught to read this chacracter thus ). 

All the above examples serve to prove that the English passive is often 

*You can also say : nezumi ga neko ni torarcta, a mouse was caught by the cat. The 
intransitive construction is used when there is no reference to an outside agent, (the mouse 
caught itself in the trap) ; the passive construction, when an outside agent is referred to. 



OF THE JAPANESE SPOKEN LANGUAGE 31 

translated into Japanese by other constructions than the passive. On the 
other hand the Japanese often use the passive where the active would be 
more natural in English. 

So sum to o kd-san ni shtkarareru ; if you do that your mother will scold you. 

124. The Japanese passive construction differs considerably from the Eng- 
lish. In English, the subject of the passive verb is the object of the transitive 
verb ; in Japanese, the subject of the passive verb is the person affected by the 
action of the verb. Thus, ' a thief stole my father's watch' becomes in the 
English passive construction 'my father's watch was stolen by a thief; in 
Japanese we would have 'my father got his watch stolen by a thief chichi ga 
dorobo ni tokei wo nusumareta. From this peculiarity of the Japanese construc- 
tion it follows that (as in the above example) the passive verb may govern an 
objective case ; it also follows that intransitive verbs may be used in the pas- 
sive. ' To die ' is an intransitive verb and utterly incapable of being used in 
the passive in English : however, the dying of one person may affect another, 
and therefore we may have the passive construction in Japanese, watakushi 
wa kyonen kanai ni shinaremashita ; I lost my wife last year. 

125. Besides this sense, the Japanese passive has often a potential meaning ; 
see 126. 

POTENTIAL VERBS. 

126. The Japanese passive is often used in a potential sense. Thus okare'ru 
may rrfean either 'to be put' or 'to be able to put'. 

127. Many verbs (not those ending in e'ru) have also another potential 
formed by changing the final u into e'ru* This potential is always intransitive 
and is often identical with the ordinary intransitive verb (111), as in the follow- 
ing common cases : 

kake'ru 'to write (intr.)' or 'to be able to write'. 
kire'ru 'to cut (intr.)' or 'to be able to cut'. 
toke'ru 'to melt (intr.)' or 'to be able to melt'. 
tore'ru 'to take (intr.)' or 'to be able to take'. 
ure'ru 'to sell (intr.)' or 'to be able to sell'. 
yome'ru 'to read (intr.)' or 'to be able to read'. 

128. Thus, kinu ga yoku uremasu may be translated by the intransitive, 
'silk sells well'; or by the potential, 'you can sell a lot of silk'; it may also 
be translated by the passive, 'a lot of silk is sold'. All three translations are 
not always possible in English, sometimes one, sometimes another will suit the 
case ; but do not forget that verbs of this kind are intransitive in Japanese. 

*Verbs ending in -tnu, change tsu into te-rv. 



82 ELEMENTARY GRAMMAR 



129. When the English potential has an objective case, this generally becomes 
the subject with ga (or tea) of the Japanese verb. 

Ei-go ga yomemasu ; I can read English. 

The English subject sometimes takes ni. 

Watashi ni wa Ei-go ga yomemasen ; I can 't read English. 

130. The potential may also be expressed by adding koto ga deki'ru to the 
infinitive.* 

1 31 . We thus see that kake'ru, kakare'ru and kaku koto ga deki'ru may all be 
used as the potential of kaku. There seems to be a slight tendency to prefer 
the intransitive potential in the sense of 'can', and the passive potential in 
the sense of ' may '. On the whole, the intransitive potential is decidedly the 
most used. 

132. The verbs mi'ru to see, and kiku to hear, form the intransitive potential 
irregularly, viz. mie'ru and kikoe'ru. 

1 33. Deki'ru by itself often has the meaning of ' can do (something) '. 
Kore ga dekimasu ka ? can you do this ? 

Ei-go ga dekimasu ; I can speak English. 

Dekiru koto nara ; if it is anything I can do ; (when asked : will you do me 
a favour ?) 

134. The word totemo is frequently placed before the negative potential in 
order to emphasize it. 

Totemo kore hodo wa kake-nai ; I cannot possibly write all this. 

135. The negative potential when "used in a moral and not in a physical 
sense is sometimes translated by wake ni wa ika-nai (or mairimasen) : 

Isogashii kara so hayaku iku wake ni wa ika-nai ; as I am busy I cannot 
possibly go so soon. 

136. The following emphatic construction is interesting : 

Yomeru ni wa yomeru ga . . . ; I can read it but ... (it is extremely difficult). 
Other ways of translating the idea of moral ability or inability, ' may ' and 
'must not', will be found in 168 and 169. 

CAUSATIVE VERBS. 

1 37. Causative verbs are formed by adding se'ru to the 4th base ; in verbs 
ending in e'ru or i'ru add sase'ru to the 4th base : yamu to read, 4th base yoma, 
yomase'ru to cause to read ; tabe'ru to eat, 4th base tabe, tabesase'ru to cause to 
eat, i.e. to feed. 

138. Causative verbs generally form their 3rd base irregularly as mentioned 
in 97. 

"This construction seems to be less used by the Japanese themselves than by foreigners 
who are beginning to speak a little Japanese. 



OF THE JAPANESE SPOKEN LANGUAGE 33 

jf 

139. The verbs kuru, sum and mi'ru form their causatives irregularly, thus : 
liosase'ru, sase'ru and mise'ru (3rd base regular, miset). 

140. Some causatives may be translated by special verbs in English. 
mi'ru to see ; mise'ru to cause to see. i.e. to show. 

kiku to hear ; kikase'm to cause to hear, i.e. to tell. 
shim to know ; shirase'ru to cause to know, i.e. to inform. 
tabc'ru to eat ; tabesase'ru to cause to eat, i.e. to feed. 

1 41 . The fundamental idea of the causative is that the action is done by one 
person (or thing), but another person decides whether the action is to be done 
or not. The causative may have two meanings : (a) to cause to do ; and (b) to 
allow something to be done : the latter meaning is especially common in the 
negative imperative. The causative may generally be translated by make, 
let, have, get or tell. 

Sukoshi matashite o oki nasai ; make him wait a moment. 

Kondo Hani ni nuzvase nasai : let Hani sew it next time. 

Watakushi no hon zco kodomo ni ijirasete zva ike-nai; don't let the child meddle 
with my books. 

HUotsu koshiraesashlte ; have one made. 

Kono hako zva doko de koshiraesasemasMta ka ? where did you get this box 
made ? 

Shige ni kakase nasai ; tell Shige to write it. 

142. The cr.usative is sometimes used in Japanese, when the causation is 
purely imaginary. 

Ashlta furasetaku nai ; I hope it will not rain tomorrow, (lit. I do not wish 
to make it rain tomorrow). 

Kane ga nai no de naoru byo-nin zvo naosa-nai deshinashlte shimatta ; he had to 
let the patient die because he had no money to buy the proper remedies, 
(shinase'ru to cause to die). 

Sentaku wo sumasete uchi e kaerimashita ; she finished her washing and re- 
turned home. 

143. Sometimes when the idea logically corresponds to a causative, an ordi- 
nary transitive verb is used : the action of the subordinate is attributed to the 
principal agent, or an action which is merely allowed to happen is considered 
as having been positively perform ?d. 

Uchi wo tate'ru ; to build a house ; meaning 'to have a house built'. 
Hige wo sum ; to shave one's beard ; meaning 'to get one's beard shaved'. 
Inu wo dashite o kure ; put the dog out ; meaning 'let the dog go out'. 
Neko wo mono-oki ni irete o kure ; put the eat in the pantry; meaning 'let 
the cat get into the pantry '. 

Hi ico kesa-nai de o kure ; don't put the fire out ; meaning 'don't let the fire 

go out'. 



34 ELEMENTARY GRAMMAR 



144. Some transitive verbs have a quasi-causative meaning. Thus, hire 
wo kawakasu, 'to dry a cloth' really means, 'to cause the sun, (fire or wind, 
etc.) to dry the cloth'. 

145. In the case of the causative of a transitive verb, the person to do the 
action takes the postposition ni, the object upon which the action is performed 
takes wo. Mon wo daiku ni naosasemasho ; I will have the carpenter mend 
the gate. 

In the case of an intransitive verb, the person who performs the action takes 
the postposition wo. O kd-san wo nakasemashita ; he made his mother cry. 

146. The idea of the causative is sometimes rendered politely by the gerund 
followed by morau : 

Tokei wo naoshite moraitai ; I want to get my watch mended. 

147. From the causative is formed the passive of the causative, rarely met 
with. There is no causative of the passive. 

148. The causatives of compound verbs and of such combinations as motte 
kuru to bring, are formed by changing only the last component : motte kosase'm, 
to cause to bring. 

REFLEXIVE VERBS. 

149. There are no reflexive verbs in Japanese. English reflexives are trans- 
lated : 

1) sometimes by intransitives : asobu, to amuse oneself, (to play). 

2) sometimes by compounds with sum : shitaku sum, to prepare oneself, 
(to get ready). 

3) sometmes, when there is a clear action of the agent on himself, by a transi- 
tive verb : hige wo suru, to shave oneself ; mi wo nage'ru, to drown oneself. 

150. When it is desired to lay stress on the 'self, the Japanese add hitori 
de or jibun de : 

Kodomo ga hitori de asonde iru ; the child is amusing himself, (i.e. playing 
alone). 

Jibun de hige wo surimasu ; he shaves himself, (i.e. not shaved by another). 

COMPOUND AND DERIVATIVE VERBS. 

151. A very large group of compound verbs is formed by adding one verb 
to the stc-m of another. They correspond sometimes to English prepositional 
verbs, or serve to express a more or less complex idea. The meaning of these 
verbs is generally easily understood, if the meanings of the components are 
known. 

tobi-agaru, to jump up, (lit. jump-ascend). 
tobi-dasu, to jump out, (lit. jump-put out). 



OF THE JAPANESE SPOKEN LANGUAGE 35 

tobi-komu, to jump in, (lit. jump-enter). 
mi-otosu, to overlook, (lit. look-drop). 
buchi-korosu, to beat to death, (lit. beat-kill). 
slvi-naosu, to do over again, (lit. do-mend). 

152. Some verbs when used thus in compounds after the stem of a verb have 
special meanings worth while noticing : 

Dasti means to take out or refers to the beginning of an action : tobi-dasu 
to jump out ; furi-dasu, to start raining. 

Hanasu suffers certain euphonic changes and becomes -ppanasu ; it denotes 
that something has been left in a certain state : akeppanasu, to leave open ; 
dafihlppanasu, to take a thing out and leave it out. 

Kakaru shows that an action is about to commence or else that it is accident- 
al : kare-kakaru, to begin to wither ; Wri-kakaru, to happen to pass. 

Kake'ru signifies the beginning of an action : hanashi-kake'ru to address, 
accost ; yomi-kake'ru, to begin to read. 

Naosu means to do over again by way of bettering or correcting : kaki-naosu 
to write over again ; kangae-naosu, to change one 's mind. 

153. Compound verbs are also formed by a noun and a verb ; e.g.: koshi- 
kake'ru, to sit, (lit. loins, hang). 

Instead of a noun we may have the stem of an adjective, which is often used 
as a noun, and a verb ; e.g.: ama-sugi'ru, to be too sweet, (amai sweet, sugi'ru 
to exceed). 

154. The termination garu added to the stem of adjectives (or the desidera- 
tive form of verbs) or occasionally to nouns, forms a considerable nu nber of 
verbs : 

kawaigaru to pet, from kawaii charming. 
ikitagaru to want to go, from ikitai wishing to go. 
kinodokugaru to feel sorry for, from kinodoku sorrow. 

155. The compounds of sum are explained in the next paragraph. 

THE VERBS SuTU AND NarU. 

156. The verb sum occurs very frequently in Japanese. The primary mean- 
ing of sum is 'to do' 'to make' ; it governs the accusative case with the post- 
position wo : 

Shitaku wo suru ; to make preparations. 

Jama wo suru ; to make obstruction, i.e. to be in the way. 

157. This accusative may be modified by an adjective or by a clause. 
Anata no jama wo suru ; to be in your way. 

158. The postposition zco is very frequently omitted, and suru then becomes 
hardly more than a suffix serving to verbalize the noun. The combination 



36 ELEMENTARY GRAMMAR 



thus formed may be transitive (with an accusative and wo), intransitive or 
passive. 

Jochu ico seica sum ; to procure a servant (for another). 

Shit sure i sum ; to be impolite. 

Kega sum ; to be wounded. 

159. Instead of a noun before sum, we may have the second base of a verb 
(which often acts as a noun), or an adverb. 

Nui wo sum ; to embroider. 
Bikkuri sum ; to be astonished. 

160. Compounds of sum, whether written in one word or two,* are conjugated 
like sum. However, not all verbs that end in sum are compounds of sum : 
thus : sassuru is a compound of sum and makes sasshimasu, etc.; kosuru is not 
a compound of sum and makes kosurimasu, etc. 

The final ru of suru is sometimes dropped in compounds ; thus : nakufiuru or 
nakusii to lose, yakusuru or yakusu to translate. 

161. Sometimes suru when used independently resembles aru in construction 
and. meaning ; it takes ga instead of wo, and means 'to be' or 'to have' : 

Nioi ga suru ; there is a smell. 
Zutsu ga suru ; I have a headache. 

162. A. very common construction is the following. The second base of a 
verb, wa, and the verb suru. See 47 49. For other uses of suru, see the 
Vocabulary, Part III. 

163. The humble verb itasu may be substituted for suru in practically all 
cases in which suru is written as a separate word ; the corresponding honorific 
verb is nasaru.* 

164. Naru 'to become' may be considered the type of an inchoative verb 
(114). It is generally used after an adverb or an adverbial construction, and 
some of the combinations deserve special attention. Note in particular its use 
after the desiderative verbal adjective and after the negative verbal adjective. 
The past tense of naru may be translated into English by either the past or the 
present ; the context will indicate which is to be used. 

Atsuku natta ; (after being cold) it turned out hot (yesterday) ; it has turned 
out hot (today) ; it is hot now. 

Atsuku naru desho ; I expect it will turn out hot. 

Ikitaku natta ; I now wish to go (formerly I didn't care about going). 

Sono koto ga deki-naku natta ; it is now impossible. 

The use of nara-nai after the negative conditional has already been mentioned 
(72) ; for other uses of naru see the Vocabulary, Part III. 



*It is usual to attach mini to the preceding word when this consists of only one 
character ; as jikttsuru, nakusuru. In this case suru cannot be replaced by the polite verb- 
naaaru or the humble verb itasu. 



OF THE JAPANESE SPOKEN LANGUAGE 37 

THE VERB 'TO BE 5 . 

165. The verb 'to be' is translated in various ways : 

1) When a noun is predicate, 'to be' is translated by de aru, etc.. the con- 
tractions da, desiiy etc. (94), or the more polite de gozaim-asu. etc. 

It was a lie ; uso deshita. 
What is this ? kore wo, nan da ? 

2) Aru means properly 'there is', etc.; it is always used when referring to 
inanimate objects, it is also used when the simple existence of a living being is 
spoken of, or when we wish to pick out from a group one or more individuals 
who possess a certain quality. 

Is there any bread ? pan ga arimasu ka ? 

There are some cats without tails ; shippo no nai neko ga aru. 

There are two carpenters among these men ; kono uclii ni daiku gafutari aru. 

When aru is used attributively, it still has this meaning of 'there is', or 'there 
was'; it can often be translated by 'a certain': aru hlto, a certain man, (there 
was a man) ; am hi, a certain day. one day ; (there was a day). 

8) Gozaru takes the place of am in polite speech ; it is not used attributively 
in the sense of 'a certain'. 

4) I'm (less commonly oru) is used when speaking of animate beings that are 
present in a place ; they are generally conceived, at least vaguely, as having 
gone or come there.* 

There are many flies in Yokohama ; Yokohama ni hai ga takusan imasu. 

5) The verb 'to be' followed by the participle signifies a continued act 
or state, it is translated by the gerund followed by i'ru (or oru). See 35. 

6) Irassharu and o-ide nasaru are polite substitutes for i'ru. 

7) The translation of the passive 'to be' is shown in 98-101 ; 119-124; 128. 

8) When the Japanese predicate is a true adjective (191), the verb 'to be' 
need not be translated. 

That flower is red ; ano liana tea akai. 

9) Sum though properly 'to do' has sometimes the meaning of 'to be'. 
(See 161). 

10) Occasionally 'to be' has a meaning of 'to become' and is translated 
by naru : 

I don 't think it will be much of a fire ; oki na kaji ni wd nara-nai desho. 
I am going to be a doctor ; isha ni naru tsumori desu. 

*Things like a rikisha, a carriage, a train, a ship, the sun, the' moon, etc. that appear to 
have proper motion, are often treated like living beings and are construed with the verb 
i'ru instead of aru. 

The other rikisha is a long way behind ; mo ichi-dai no kuruma wa zullo ato ni imatu. 

The moon is behind the pine-tree ; tsuki ga matsu no kage ni iru. 



38 ELEMENTARY GRAMMAR 



11) 'Isn't ?' expecting 'yes ' for an answer, is often translated by de wa 
arimasen ka ? placed at the end of the sentence : 

Isn 't the doctor ill ? o isha son wa bydki ja arimasen ka ? 



MISCELLANEOUS TRANSLATIONS. 

166. Doubt, probability, possibility, ' perhaps', supposition, opinion, sem- 
blance, report. 

1 ) Bare possibility with practical certainty of the contrary : 

There may be a house to let hi Kamakura (but I feel nearly certain there 
isn't) ; Kamakura ni kashi-ya ga nai to mo ie-nai keredo ; (lit. I can't say there 
is not a house to let in Kama kura, nevertheless . . . ). 

2) Probability, etc. beginning with the least probable : 

a) The first form of the present followed by ka shira (less commonly ka 
shir an) : 

I wonder whether it will rain ; ame gafuru ka shira. 

b) The negative followed by mono de mo nai : 
It may rain ; ame ga furumai mono de mo nai. 

I don 't think (but it 's possible) he will refuse to show it to you if you tell 
him the reason ; wake wo hanashltara misete kudasara-nai mono de mo ari- 
masumai. 

c) Ka mo shire-nai or no ka mo shire-nai at the end of a sentence : 
I dare say it will rain ; ame gafuru ka mo shire-nai. 

I dare say there has been an accident ; nani ka atta no ka mo shiremasen. 

d) Tabun at the beginning of the sentence and the verb in the probable 
present or past ; tabun may be omitted : 

Probably it will rain ; (tabun) ame gafuru deshd. 

e) The first form of the present followed by to omou : 
I think it will rain ; ame ga furu to omou. 

f) Kitto placed at the beginning of the sentence and the verb in the future : 
It is sure to rain ; kitto ame ga furu desho. 

3) Semblance, appearance. 

a) Verb or adjective and yd da : 
It looks like rain ; ame ga furu yd da. 

It seems to be raining ; ame ga futte iru yd da. 

These mats seem to be dirty ; kono tatami wa kitanai yd da. 

b) Quasi-adjective in na followed by yd da : 

That seems to be a pretty house ; ano uchi wa kirei na yd da. 

c) Noun followed by no yd da : 

He looks like a thief ; are wa dorobd no yd da. 



OF THE JAPANESE SPOKEN LANGUAGE 39 

d) Adjective stem and -so da : 

These mats seem to be dirty ; kono talami wa kitana-so desu. 

e) Stem of the verb followed by -so da : 
It looks like rain ; ame ga furi-so desu. 

f) The termination -rashii ; see Part III : 
It seems to be finished ; dekita-rashii. 

g) To mie'ru or mitai at the end of the sentence : 
It seems to be finished ; dekita to mieru. 

That man looks like a foreigner ; ano hUo wa seiyo-jin mitai da. 

h) Adverbial form of an adjective followed by mie'ru : 
This spoon looks dirty ; kono saji zva kitanaku mieru. 

4) Report, hearsay, 'they say' etc. may be expressed by : 

a) So da, so desu or so de gozaimasu added to a verb, adjective, or quasi- 
adjective in na. 

They say the mats are dirty ; tatami ga kitanai so desu. 

They say the mats are clean ; tatami ga kirei da so desu, or tatami ga kirei 
na so desu. 

b) To iu hanashi da added to a verb or true adjective : 
They say he is ill ; ano Mto wa bydki da to iu hanashi da. 

c) 'tie (in this case equivalent to to iimasu or to iimashlta] added to a verb 
or true adjective : 

They say it is cheap ; sore wa yasui 'tte 

5) Probability founded on some special reason : 

a) Verb followed by hazu da : 

He ought to be here directly now (because he said he was coming by the 
5 o'clock train) ; mojiki kuru hazu desu. 

b) The stem of the verb followed by -so na mono da. 

He ought to be here directly now ; mojiki ki-so na mono da. 

6) The foregoing constructions may all be used in a past sense by changing 
the present tense into the past ; or the future (i.e. the probable present) into 
the probable past. 

167. Certainty and emphasis may be expressed by : 

1) Words or phrases like, kitto, tashlka ni, ni chigai nai, mochiron, to mo, 
naka-naka. 

2) Kesshite, used in connection with a negative verb. 

3) Totemo, used to cmphazise the negative potential, 134. 

4) Wa after many words is emphatic ; two of its uses are especially im- 
portant : (a) after a gerund (58, 12) ; and (b) after a verbal stem (4749). 

5) Koto wa nai used after verbs and especially after adjectives is o! 
phatic : 

Takai koto wa nai ; it is not dear. 



40 ELEMENTARY GRAMMAR 



Deki-nai koto wa nai ; I certainly can do it (lit. it is not a fact that I can't 
do it). 

6) The use of the present tense when referring to a future time means certain- 
ty : 

Ame gafutte mo ikimasu ; I shall go even if it rains. 

7) Mow' desu ka ? is an ironical question which serves to protest emphatically 
against the absurdity of the sentence after which it comes. 

Taro wa Ei-go ga wakaru desho ne ; I suppose Taro can understand English. 
Wakaru mon' desu ka ? what an absurd idea : of course he can't understand it. 
168. Obligation. 

1) Obligation to do something is expressed by : 

a) The negative present conditional followed by ike-nai, (less often nara- 
nai) ; the verb ike-nai (or nara-nai) is sometimes omitted in familiar speech :* 

I must go ; ika-nakereba narimasen. 

b) The first form of the negative present followed by to and ike-nai (or 
nara-nai) : 

You must be careful ; ki wo tsuke-nai to ike-nai. 

c) The negative gerund in nakute followed by wa and ike-nai (or nara-nai); 
the verb ike-nai (or nara-nai) is sometimes omitted in familiar speech : 

You must tudy ; benkyo shi-nakute wa (ike-nai). 

d) The first form of the present followed by no desu. 

You must change trains at Nagoya ; Nagoya de nori-kaeru no desu. 

e) Hazu da at the end of the sentence ; this construction is used generally 
in the 2nd or 3rd person : 

One ought to speak the truth ; Into wa makoto wo iu hazu da. 

2) Obligation to abstain from doing something is rendered by : 

a) The negative imperative : 
Don 't talk ; hanashlte wa ike-nai. 

b) The first form of the present followed by to and ike-nai (or nara-nai) : 
You mustn 't move ; ugoku to ike-nai. 

3) Obligation to prevent something from happening is translated by : 

a) The negative verb, yd ni, and the imperative of suru : 
Don 't let the fire go out ; hi ga kie-nai yd ni shi nasai. 

b) By a causative or quasi-causative construction, 141 et seqq. 

Don't let the child meddle with my books ; watakushi no hon wo kodomo ni 
ijirashite wa ike-nai ; (lit. don 't cause the child to touch my books). 

Don 't let the fire go out ; hi wo kesa-nai de o kure ; (lit. don 't put the fire out). 

*Nara-nai is used in the case of merely pointing out or stating an obligation ; ike-nai 
when the sentence partakes of the nature of a command, a scolding, a threat or a warning 
that something disagreeable will happen unless a certain act is performed. In a general way, 
nara-nai is commoner in the 1st person and ike-nai in the 2nd. 



OF THE JAPANESE SPOKEN LANGUAGE 41 

Don't let any dogs get in ; inu wo irete wa ike-nai ; (lit. don't introduce any 
dogs). 

4) Negation of an obligation, i.e. the statement that no obligation exists, is 
translated by the negative gerund in ndkute followed by mo ii : 

You need not go ; ika-nakute mo ii. 

169. Permission. 

1 ) Permission to do something is translated by the gerund followed by mo 
ii ; mo is sometimes omitted : 

You may go ; itte mo ii. 

2) Permission not to do something, by the negative gerund in ndkute followed 
by mo ii : 

You need not wait ; matte i-nakute mo ii. 

3) To permit something to happen, or not to permit it, is sometimes trans- 
lated by a causative or quasi-causative construction; see 141 et seqq.; 168, 
3, b. 

4) The indicating of a wish is often equivalent, in Japanese as in English, to 
asking permission : 

Futsuka no hima wo itadakito gozaimasti, ; I would like to have two days ' 
leave . 

5) Permission is occasionally expressed by the potential ; see 126 et seqq. 

170. Advice, preference, judging of two lines of action. 

1) Asking for advice is translated by the past conditional and ii daro (or 
desho) : 

Which road shall I take ? dono michi wo ittara ii desho ? 

Asking about preference may be translated as follows : 

Mizu to o yu to dotchi ga yd gozaimasu ka ? which do you want, hot or cold 
water ? 

Hosoi no to fiitoi no to dotchi ga hoshii no desu ? do you want a thin one or a 
thick one ? 

2) Giving advice : 

a) The conditional (or first forms of the present and to) followed by ii ; or 
the present or past of the verb or the adjective, and ho ga ii ; this savours of a 
command : 

You had better take an umbrella ; kasa wo motte ikeba ii ; kasa wo motte iku 
to ii ; kasa wo motte iku ho ga ii. 

b) Ja arimasen ka? 'isn't that so ?' is sometimes added to the foregoing 

constructions : 

It would be better to take an umbrella, wouldn't it ? kasa wo motte iku ho 

ga ii ja arimasen ka ? 

c) Advice may be given politely by adding desho to the constructions given 

under (a) : 



42 ELEMENTARY GRAMMAR 



Perhaps it would be better to take an umbrella ; kasa zco motte iku ho ga ii 
desho. 

d) In the above cases we have always had the idea of 'better'; other ad- 
jectives have similar constructions : 

Perhaps it would be shorter to go straight on ; massugu no ho ga chikai 
desho. 

e) Advice disguised as a polite suggestion may be given by the past con- 
ditional followed by ikaga desu ka ? or do desu ka ? 

Would you care to take an umbrella ? kasa wo motte ittara ikaga desu ka ? 

3) Approval of past line of conduct is expressed by the gerund followed by 
yokatta : 

It was a good thing you took an umbrella ; kasa wo motte itte yokatta. 
It was a good thing you didn 't take an umbrella ; kasa wo motte ika-nai de 
yokatta. 

4) Disapproval of past line of conduct is rendered, besides other possible 
ways, by any of the following combinations, which are often but not always 
used elliptically : 

The present, ho ga ( yokatta (no ni) 

The present conditional ) and ( yokatta daro (ni) 
The present, to { ii no ni 

You ought to have taken an umbrella ; kasa wo motte iku ho ga yokatta. 
You ought not to have taken an umbrella ; kasa wo motte ika-nai hoga yokatta 
no ni. 

The word ho which appears in many of the constructions mentioned in this 
paragraph, though generally used, is sometimes omitted. 
171. Desire, wish, want, need. 

1 ) A simple desire that a thing is or will be, is translated by : 

a) Ni shltai (mono da) following a noun : 

I hope it will be fine tomorrow ; ashlta tenki ni shltai (mono da). 

b) Yd ni shltai (mono da) following a verb : 

I hope it will be ready tonight ; komban dekiru yd ni shltai. 

c) Shltai (mono da) after the adverbial form of an adjective : 
I hope it will be shorter ; motto mijikaku shltai mono da. 

d) Some form of the future in desho (or daro) : 

I hope you will soon be better ; jiki yoku o nan desho. 

2) Desire coupled with doubt, fear or regret is translated by the present con- 
ditional, or present and to. followed by ii (or yokatta for the past). Doubt is 
emphasized by adding ga or keredomo ; regret by adding no ni : 

I wish it wasn't raining ; ame ga fura-nakereba ii no ni. 

8) Desire in the sense of 'would like to have', is translated by hoshii : 

Taro wants a pear ; Taro wa nashi ga hoshii. 



OF THE JAPANESE SPOKEN LANGUAGE 43 

4) Desire, in the sense of 'need' 'require' is translated by iru or iri-yd 
da ; (of business) yd : 

I want a rikisha early tomorrow morning ; myoata hayaku kuruma ga iru. 

5) Desire to do something is translated by the desiderative form of the verb, 
often followed by mono da : 

I wish to go ; ikitai. 

6) Desire that somebody may do something for me. is translated by : 

a) The gerund and morailai : 

I want to have my watch mended ; tokei wo naoshlte moraitai. 

b) The imperative : 

Please call a rikisha for me ; kuruma wo yonde kudasai. 

7) A desire may be suggested by a question : 

a) The past conditional followed by ikaga desu ka ? or do desu ka? 
Would you care to take an umbrella ? kasa wo motte ittara ikaga destt ka ? 

b) A noun followed by wa and ikaga desu ka ? or do desu ka ? 
What do you say to a walk ? sampo ica ikaga desu ka ? 

c) If the action refers to the 1st person plural, the desire may also be 
suggested by the interrogative future : 

Shall we go for a walk ? sampo ni ikimasho ka ? 

172. Fear. 

1) In the sense of real fear, it is generally translated by means of the adjec- 
tive kowai or the verb koicagaru : 

Are you afraid ? kowai no desu ka ? 

2) In the sense of anxiety that something disagreeable has happened or will 
happen, by : 

a) Shimpai suru or shimpai da : 

I am afraid of dirtying my dress ; kimono wo yogosu no ga shimpai desu. 

b) An elliptical construction consisting of the negative present conditional 
followed by ii ga : 

I am afraid it will rain ; ante ga fura-nakereba ii ga ; (lit. if it does not rain 
it would be a good thing but ....) 

c) The probable present or probable past : 
I am afraid you are tired ; kutabireta desho. 

I am afraid he is not strong enoguh ; sonna ni chikara ga arimasumai. 

d) Ka mo shire-nai : 

I am afraid that something has happened ; nani ka aru no ka mo shire-nai. 

e) To omou. 

I am afraid he won't come today ; kyo zva ko-nai to omou. 

I was afraid he would get angry ; ano Into ga okoru daro to omoimashlta. 

173. Intention may be expressed in two ways between which there seems 
no practical difference : 



44 ELEMENTARY GRAMMAR 



1) The first form of the present followed by tsumori : 
I intend to go to Tokyo ; Tokyo e iku tsumori desu. 

2) The future followed by to omou : 

I intend to go to Tokyo ; Tokyo e iko to omoimasu. 

3) When referring to an action which is about to be performed you may use 
to sum or tokoro desu, thus : 

I was going to peel a pear when a child bumped up against me ; nashi no 
kaiva ivo muko to shite itara kodomo ga butsukatta no desu. 
I am about to start ; dekakeru tokoro desu. 



CHAPTER III. 



NOUNS. 



ARTICLE. 

174. The Japanese noun is preceded by nothing that corresponds to an 
article. It has in itself no gender or number ; and these circumstances are 
generally entirely ignored in speaking. 

175. The English article is sometimes translated : 

1) When 'a' means 'one', it is translated by the equivalent of 'one'. Please 
give me a pear ; nashi wo hltotsu kudasai. 

2) When 'a' means 'each', it is sometimes translated by ni or de. Four 
times a month ; tsuki (ni) yo-tabi : how much a foot ? shaku (dc) ikura ? 

3) When 'a' or 'the' refers to a whole class, the phrase to hi mono is some- 
times placed after the noun. The dog (or a dog) is a clever animal ; inu to iu 
mono wa riko na mono da ; but we could also say : inu wa riko nn mono da. 

4) The difference like that between 'a' and 'the' may sometimes be expressed 
by the correct use of zva and ga ; see 392. 

5) 'The the' e.g. 'the sooner the better' is translated by hodo : see 259. 

GENDER. 

176. Gender is to be found in some nouns that refer to relationship or to the 
occupations of men and women. E.g.: chichi, father ; oba, aunt ; genan, male 
servant ; geisha, singing girl. 

177. In other rare cases, when it is necessary to call attention to the sex of an 
animal it may be done : 



OF THE JAPANESE SPOKEN* LANGUAGE 45 

1 ) By prefixing o (or on) for the male, and me (or men) for the female ; thus, 
o-ushi, bull, ox ; me-ushi, cow ; midori, cock ; men-dori, hen. All names of 
animals are not capable of receiving these prefixes. 

2) By prefixing otoko no for the male, or onna no for the female. 

NUMBER. 

1 78. A Japanese noun of itself is either singular or plural according to cir- 
cumstances. The idea of plurality may be expressed, though it is rarely 
necessary to do so, by adding the suffixes -domo, -tachi or -gata ; the last of 
these is more polite. 

179. The words kodomo and tomodachi were originally plural, but they have 
lost the special idea of plurality and like any other Japanese noun may be used 
indifferently in singular or plural. Kodomo-tachi may be used for the plural of 
kodomo ; tomodachi has no special plural. 

180. The idea of plurality is sometimes expressed by doubling the word, 
thus : hobo everywhere, from ho a side ; kuni-guni various countries, from kuni 
country. 

DERIVATIVE AND COMPOUND CONCRETE NOUNS. 

1 81 . Many concrete nouns are derivatives or compounds : 

1) The stem of a verb is very frequently used as a noun : hanashi a conversa- 
tion, from hanasu to speak. 

2) Compound nouns are formed of two nouns : te-bukuro gloves, from ie hand, 
and fukuro bag : tsuki-hi months and days, time. 

3) Occasionally the words are abbreviated before forming the compound : 
sak-kon, yesterday and today, i.e. recently, from sakujitsu and konnichi. 

4) The stems of two verbs : Mkidashi a drawer, from hiku to pull, and dasti 
to take out. 

5) Noun and stem of verb or vice versa : mado-kake a curtain, from mado a 
window, and kake'ru to hang ; tatami-isu a folding chair, from tafamu to fold 
and isu a chair. 

6) Stem of adjective and noun : aka-gane copper, from akai red, and kOM 

metal. 

7) Stem of adjective and stem of verb : niga-u-arai a sneer, from nigai b 

and warau to laugh. 

8) The suffix - V a a house, added to a noun serves to form a large number of 
compounds that mean the names of shops, and secondarily, tradesmen. HJ 
suri-ya, from ktisuri medicine, means a chemist 's shop or the chemist. 

want to show clearly we are speaking of the man and not of the shop, we 



46 ELEMENTARY GRAMMAR 



add San Mr. Some of these compounds in ya refer only to the person : kuruma- 
ya a rikisha-man. 

9) Words like -jin man. -go language, -kawa river, -shima island, and many 
others are added to nouns to form compounds : Igirisu-jin an Englishman ; 
Furansu-go the French language. 

10) The particle no placed after an adjective is equivalent to a noun with 
the meaning of 'one': chiisai no a small one ; akai no the red one. See 188. 

11) The word mono thing or person, used as a suffix serves to form a very 
large number of compounds : 

a) It may be added to the stem of a verb : kimono a dress, from ki'ru to 
put on. 

b) An adjective stem : aomono vegetables, from aoi green. 

c) A noun : inaka-mono a rustic, from inaka the country. 

d) Compounds in mono often have a special meaning as explained, 1 9. 

e) Mono is often contracted to mow', no, or even n\ 

12) The adverbial form of certain adjectives is sometimes used as a noun : 
hayaku kara osoku made from early morning until late at night ; suteishon no 
chikaku ga ii (a house in) the neighbourhood of the station would be preferable. 

13) A great many Japanese nouns are merely mispronounced European 
words, especially English. 



DERIVATIVE AND COMPOUND ABSTRACT NOUNS. 

182. Abstract nouns are formed in various ways : 

1) The stem of adjectives : oka scarlet (noun), from akai scarlet (adjective). 
Kono moyo u-a aka ga katte iru ; there is too much scarlet in this pattern. 

2) The stem of an adjective to which -sa is added : nagasa length, from nagai 
long. These nouns refer to the degree of a quality. 

Occasionally the noun part of quasi-adjectives in na is used in this same way ; 
jobuia strength, from jobu na strong. 

3) The termination -mi added to the stem of an adjective, forms nouns that 
mean a tinge of a quality, or sometimes the quality itself : akami a tinge of 
red ; amami sweetness. 

4) Two words (verbs, adjectives or nouns) meaning opposite things : aru- 
nashi is-isn't, i.e. the question of the existence of a thing ; suki-kirai the ques- 
tion of liking or disliking. 

5) An adjective followed by the postposition no is sometimes equivalent to 
an abstract noun : Samui no tea ii ga atsui no ni wa komarimasu ; I don 't mind 
the cold, but I find the heat very trying. Takai no ni iva odoroita ; I was 
astonished at the dearness of it. 



OF THE JAPANESE SPOKEN LANGUAGE 47 

6) Adjectives not followed by no are occasionally used as abstract nouns . 
207. 

7) The stem of verbs : itami pain, from itamu to ache. 

8) An adjective followed by koto : hayai koto velocity, from hayai rapid; 
This form is used as an exclamation : hayai koto ! what velocity ! It is also 
often used when we deny the existence of a quality : It is not dear ; takai 
koto tua nai, (lit. there is no dearness). 

183. Mono and koto both mean 'thing'; but koto always denotes an abstract 
idea, a fact, an act, etc., while mono generally refers to something concrete and 
tangible. Thus onaji mono means 'the same thing' 'the identical article', 
whereas o-naji koto means 'the same sort of thing' 'something equivalent'. 
If somebody complains that he was given two five-sen stamps instead of one 
ten-sen one, we might say : onaji koto ja arimasen ka ? ' well, isn 't it the same 
thing ?' Speaking of a picture or a book, etc., we might call it omoshiroi mono 
an amusing thing ; but we would say ryoko sum hodo omoshiroi koto wa nai, 
there is nothing more amusing than travelling. 

DIMINUTIVES AND AUGMENTATIVES. 

184. Diminutives are often formed by prefixing ko child or small. Ko- 
gatana a penknife, from katana a sword ; ko-ishi a pebble, from ishi a stone. 

185. Ko is sometimes used as a prefix to form the names of the young of 
animals, but all animals cannot take ko as a prefix while they can all be followed 
by 710 ko with the same meaning : we may say, ko-inu or inu no ko a puppy ; 
but speaking of the young of a fly we cannot say ko-hai. but only hai no ko. 

186. Augmentatives are sometimes formed by prefixing 6 big, less frequently 
dai (or tai) : d-kaze a gale, from kaze wind ; daiji importance, from ji thing. 



CHAPTER IV. 



ADJECTIVES. 



17. Japanese adjectives have no gender, number or case. 

Muny adjectives are used in two senses : they may refer to the objective 
quality of a thing or to the subjective feeling of a person. Oishii kudamono 
nice fruit ; anata no kudas'tta kudamono wo oishlku iabemashlta ; I ate with pleas- 
an I feelings the fruit you kindly gave me. Likewise : omoshiroi koto an 



48 ELEMENTARY GRAMMAR 



amusing thing (i.e. a thing which produces amusement), and omoshirokatta I was 
amused ; arigatai koto a thing to be grateful for (i.e. which 'ought to produce 
gratitude), and arigatai I am grateful. 

188. Any adjective may be given the force of a noun by adding the particle 
no which then has the meaning of 'one'. From chiisai small, we have chiisai 
no a small one ; from kirei na pretty, we have kirei na no a pretty one. How- 
ever, if the adjective ends in no. another no is not added : hoka no ano'hsr, 
hoka no another one. Two 770 may sometimes follow each other when the first 
one means 'one' and the second 'of: chiisai no no hanashi desu ; we are talking 
of the small one. 

A similar construction of no is found after verbs used attributively (233) ; 
mita no the one I saw. 

No is also used in an inverted construction not infrequently heard. Kitte 
no furui no (lit. old ones of postage stamps) is about equivalent tofurui kitte 
old postage stamps. There is a slight difference between these two expressions 
more easily felt than defined ; the difference is something like that which exists 
between ' postage stamps, old ones ' and ' old postage stamps '. Likewise neko 
no shinda no and shinda neko both mean a dead cat. 

1 89. The joining of two or more adjectives will be treated later on (406), but 
we will remark here that Japanese adjectives, like the English, may sometimes 
folJow each other without any conjunction or special construction : Ano zcakai 
kirei na Into ; that handsome young man, (lit. that young handsome man). 

190. An adjective may be used in four ways : 

1) As an attributive, in which case it is placed before the noun : takai uchi 
a high house. 

2) As a predicate in ordinary sentences : kono uchi wa takai ; this house is high. 

3) As a .predicate in polite sentences with the verb gozaru : kono uchi zca tako 
gozaimasu ; this house is high. 

4) As an adverb, when it may refer either, ) to the verb itself : hayaku 
arukimasu he walks quickly ; yoku mieru I can see it well ; or b) to a noun 
through the verb : ano uchi zva okiku mieru that house looks big ; kire zvo akaku, 
somemasu I will dye the cloth red. In English, case a) is generally translated 
by an adverb (as : quickly, well), and b) by an adjective (as : big, red) ; indeed 
case b) might often be considered and called a predicate. But the two cases a) 
and b), though logically distinct, are included here under one heading as they 
correspond to one and the same form in Japanese, not only in the case of true 
adjectives but also in the case of quasi-adjectives in na or no, and adjectival 
phrases like ki no hayai impulsive. 

191. There are various classes of adjectives : 

1 ) True adjectives, these always end in ai, ii, oi or ui. 

2) Quasi-adjectives formed by adding na or no to nouns, etc. 



OF THE JAPANESE SPOKEN LANGUAGE 49 

3) Adjectival phrases composed of a noun (or its equivalent), the post- 
position no and a true adjective. 

4) Various tenses of verbs and verbal phrases used as adjectives. 

TRUE ADJECTIVES. 

192. True adjectives end in ai, ii, oi or ui. These terminations are changed 
according to the way in which the adjective is used, as shown in the following 
table : 

attribute takAi yasashu shiroi samm 

predicate tak\i yasashu shiroi samm 

predicate ) , _ . 

... f tako yasashiu* shtro stimu 

with gozaru ) 

adverb takAKU yasashiKU shiroKU samuKU 

1 93. What remains after taking away the final i of a true adjective is called 
the stem : taka, yasashi, shiro and samu are the stems of takai, yasashii, shiroi 
and samui. The stem is equivalent to a noun and is used sometimes alone ; 
it is to be found very frequently in compounds. See 181, 6, 7; 182, 2 ; 153; 
154. 

1 94. Nai non-existent, and its inflexions which, as we have seen (93), serve 
as the negative of the verb aru 'to be ' 'to have ' is in reality an adjective 
which is often found alone but more frequently still, is used to form the nega- 
tive of adjectives. When used by itself we have the following forms : 

attribute nai 

predicate nai 

adverb naku 

195. The negatives of true adjectives are derived from the adverbial form 
as follows : 

attribute takaku nai 

predicate takaku nai 

adverb takaku naku 

Another construction of adjectives used predicatively in the negative was 
noted in 167, 5. 

196. Ordinary negative adjectives in nai are not used in combination with 
gozaru ; in these polite sentences the negation is to be found in the inflexion of 
the verb itself : 

It is not dear ; takaku nai or tako gozaimasen : never takaku no gozaimasu. 
However, there is no objection to using ordinary adjectives which happen 
to end in nai, as kitanai dirty, before the verb gozaru : kitano gozaimasu. 

*Shiu is pronounced shu. 



50 



ELEMENTARY GRAMMAR 



197. We cannot say naku nai for the negative of nai ; the only form that 
can be used is nai koto rca nai. 

Other adjectives, however, ending in nai. whether compounds of nai or not* 
as sukunai, kitanai, mittomo-nai, deki-nai, form their negatives in the ordinary 
way : stikunaku nai, kitanaku nai, mittomo-naku nai, deki-naku nai. 

198. True adjectives, especially when used as simple predicates (190, 2), 
partake of the nature of verbs and enclose in themselves the meaning of 'to be'; 
thus, takai means not only ' high ', but ' is high '. It is not surprising then, that 
they should have a conjugation analogous to that of the verb, and behave in 
many ways like verbs. All the inflexions may be formed from the stem. 

199. 



AFFIRMATIVE 



NEGATIVE 



takai 


Present 


takaKU NAI 


takaKAiio 
takai DARO (or DESHO) 


Prob. pres. 
and future 


takaKU NAKARO (or ARUMAI) 
takaKU NAI DARO (DESHO) 


takttKATTA 


Past 


takaKU NAKATTA 


tttkaKATTARO 
takttKATTA DARO (DESH6) 


Prob. past 


takttKU NAKATTARO 
takaKU NAKATTA DARO (DESHCi) 


takaKUTE 
takaKUTTE 


Gerund 


takaKU NAKUTE 
takaKU NAKUTTE 


takaKEKEBA (See 71) 
takai KARA 


Cond. pres. 


takttKU NAKEREBA 

takaKU NAI NARA 


tafcaKATTARA (See 66, note) 

/afcflKATTARI 


Cond. past 
Frequentative 


takaKU NAKATTARA (ARIMASEX 

[DESHITARA) 

takaKU NAKATTARI 



200. The gerundial form of the adjective has great similarity to the verbal 
gerund. (Compare 58, 3, 4, 6, 7, 9, 12, 13, 14, 18). 

1) The adjective that ends a clause or is followed hi English by 'and' is 
put in the gerundial inflexion : Tegami tea nagakutte omoshiroi ; the letter is 
long and interesting. 

2) After the translation of the adjectival gerund we must sometimes use 
other conjunctions besides 'and': Nagasaki wa yasai ga takakute sakana zra 
yasui ; hi Nagasaki vegetables are dear but fish is cheap. 

8) It may signify the reason or cause : Omoktite ikemasen ; as it is heavy 
it won 't do, i.e. it is too heavy. 



OF THE JAPANESE SPOKEN LANGUAGE 51 

4) It often corresponds to 'so' or 'very' in English : Itakute shhjo ga nai ; 
it is so painful I don 't know what to do. 

5) Followed by mo it means 'even if 'although': Yasukute mo kaimasen ; 
I won 't buy it even if it is cheap.* 

6) Wa following the adjectival gerund is emphatic : the final -te of the gerund 
and wa, may be contracted to -dm : lakakute wa or lakakutte wa becomes 
takakucha or takakutcha. 

7) The adjectival gerund followed by wa has sometimes a conditional force : 
Oinokucha ikemasen ; if it is heavy it won't do, i.e. it mustn't be too heavy. 

8) The adjectival gerund is sometimes used elliptically by both men and 
women : 

Kono heya wa semakutte .... (iya da); this room is so small .... (I don 't like it). 
Women have another elliptical use, peculiar to themselves : Omoshirokutte ? 
is it amusing ? E, omoshirokutte yo ! oh, yes !f 

9) The polite verb irassharu or o-ide nasaru after an adjectival gerund imitates 
a common verbal construction : Sei ga takakute irasshaimasu ; he is tall. 

201. We have seen that no following an adjective may mean 'one'. (188). 

202. When the adjective is used predicatively one may sometimes wish to 
employ a construction less curt than the plain adjective, but less stiff than the 
formal gozaimasu. In the negative, this can be done by substituting arimasen 
for nai, and arimasen deshita for nakatta in 199. 

203. In the probable present and past, affirmative or negative, this result 
may be obtained by using desho instead of daro. 

204. In the present tense you may add to the adjective no desu (often ab- 
breviated to n ' desu, desu or even no}. Kore wa chiisai no desu ; this one is 
small. (Compare 86). 

205. In the past tense, no desu may be added to the past inflexion of the 
adjective, or no deshita to the plain adjective : Omoshirokatta no desu or omo- 
shiroi no deshita ; it was amusing. 

Other combinations met with are : omoshiroi no daro (or desho) ; omoshiro- 
katta no deshita ; omoshiroi no dattaro (or deshitaro) ; omoshiroi no dattara (or 
deshitara) ; omoshiroku nai no da (or desu), omoshiroi no de wa nai (or arimasen) ; 
omoshiroku nai no daro (or desho), omoshiroi no de wa nakaro (or arumai) ; 

*ln verbs the past tense may be formed from the gerund or the gerund from the past tense, 
by changing the final c into a or vice versa. In adjectives this is not so : but we obtain a) a 
sort of past inflexion by changing the final e of the gerund into a ; and b) a sort of gerund 
with a past meaning, by changing the final a of the past inflexion into e. The quasi-past (a), 
followed by 'tie has like the past tense of a verb followed by '(te, a meaning of 'even if 
(compares?) : Yasukula (or yasukutta) 'e kaimasen ; I won't buy it even if it is cheap, (from 
the gerund, yasukute or yasukutte). The quasi-gerund (b) is used elliptically by women like 
the true gerund : Yasukatte ? was it cheap ? (from yasukatta, the past inflexion); (compare 
58, 18). 

|See preceding foot-note. 



52 ELEMENTARY GRAMMAR 



omoshiroku nai no datta (or deshtta), omoshiroi no de zca nakatta (or aritnasen 
deshlta); omoshiroku nai no daro (or desho), omoshiroi no de zra nakattaro (or 
nakatta desho) ; omoshiroku nai no nara, omoshiroi no de nakereba ; omoshiroku 
nai no dattara (or deshltara}, omoshiroi no de nakattara (or arimasen deshltara}. 

206. Adjectives are often used interjectionally in Japanese. L'reshii, ure- 
shii I Oh, I am glad ! (lit. joyful, joyful). Abunai ! take care ! (lit. dangerous). 

207. True adjectives are occasionally, though very seldom, used as nouns : 
Amai mo karai mo shitte iru ; he is a man who knows what 's good, (lit. he 
knows the sweet and the pungent). 

208. The adjectives sukunai scarce and oi plentiful, are not used attributively. 

209. The adjective yoi good, used attributively, is usually corrupted to ii ; 
but all the other inflexions such as yd, yoku, yokatta, etc. suffer no alteration. 

210. The two adjectives yoi good, and nai non-existent, are sometimes used 
colloquially in one of their literary forms, yoshi, nashi. Nashi is usually follow- 
ed by the postposition ni or de and then means 'without'; however it is oc- 
casionally used alone. 

211. The following idiom is worthy of note : 

Atsui no atsuku nai no 'tie, yoke-so deshlta ; talk about heat ! It seemed 
as if I were burning. (Compare 91 ). 



QUASI-ADJECTIVES IX A'a OR No. 

212. Many nouns and stems of verbs, followed by na or no are used attribu- 
tively as adjectives : baka na Into a foolish man ; kin no tokei a gold watch ; 
kirei na hon a pretty book ; shimai no peiji the last page. 

213. In the negative, na (or no) is replaced by de nai : baka de nai Into, a 
not-foolish man. Sometimes fu not, is prefixed : fu-shinsetsu na unkind, from 
shinsetsu kind. 

214. In many cases the noun may be used separately like an ordinary noun . 
Kesa kden de baka zee mitq, I saw a fool this morning in the park ; kin gold. 

215. In many other cases although the word is logically a noun and is treated 
grammatically as such, it generally has the meaning of an adjective, as kirei 
pretty. 

216. Some nouns ma}' take either na or no. The former makes the meaning 
more general, the latter more concrete : baka na hanashi is 'a foolish story'; 
but baka no hanashi means 'the story of a fool'. In some cases na or no may 
be used almost indiscriminately. 

217. When quasi-adjcctives are used prcdicatively, na (or no) is changed to 
de and followed by the verb aru or gozaru. Ano hana tva kirei desu(=de 
arimasu), ano hana ica kirei de gozaimasu ; that flower is pretty. 



OF THE JAPANESE SPOKEN LANGUAGE 53 

Iii negative sentences, tea is put after de. Ano hana tea kirei de wa nai, 
ano hana zca kirei de wa gozaimasen ; that flower is not pretty. (See 94). 

21 8. When used adverbially (1 90, 4> a, b) na (or no) is replaced by m. Shin- 
setsu ni shimashfta he behaved kindly ; kirei ni mieru it looks pretty ; baka 
ni mieru he looks a fool. 

In the negative, de naku may be substituted for na (or no) ; but perhaps it 
is more common to use ni and put the verb in the negative : Baka de naku 
mieru he looks anything but a fool ; baka ni mie-nai he does not look a fool. 

21 9. The quasi-adjective is used as a gerund, very much like a true adjective 
(200); na (or no) is then replaced by de. Kono lion ica kirei de omoshiroi this 
book is pretty and interesting : sore -xa ammari hade de kiraremasen that is so 
showy, I cannot wear it. 

In the negative, de (tea) nakute or de (ura) naku (94) takes the place of na (or 
no) : kirei de nakute mo it even if it is not pretty it will do ; kono hana wa kirei 
de nakute nioi ga warui this flower is not pretty nor of pleasant odour ; omae 
no iu koto tea burei de vca naku machigatte iru what you say is not impolite 
but it is not correct. 

220. The nouns from which quasi-adjectives are formed when used as ordina- 
ry nouns may take any postposition. 

221 . Among the quasi-adjectives formed by na, yd na is of special importance. 
Examples of its use will be found in the Vocabulary, Part III. 

222. A great many quasi-adjectives in no are formed from the names of 
countries, materials, and nouns (adverbs) of time and place : Amerika no lion 
an American book ; kin no tokei a gold watch ; kind no tegami yesterday 's letter ; 
asoko no uchi yonder house. 

223. We have seen that the stem of a true adjective is equivalent to a noun 
(193). This noun-stem may sometimes be followed by the particle na and 
become a quasi-adjective. The most common cases are : 

oki na big, from okii ; 

chiisa na little, chiisai ; 

okashi na ridiculous, okashii ; 

yaicaraka na soft, yawarakai ; 

attaka na warm, ,, attakai ; 

komaka na minute, komakai ; 

ki-iro na yellow, ki-iroi ; 

masshiro na snow-white, , ; masshiroi ; 

rnakka na flaring red, makkai ; 

makkura na pitch dark, makkurai ; 

makkurona jet-black, makkuroi ; 

massao na completely green, % massaoi ; 

mammaru na perfectly round, mammarui. 



54. ELEMENTARY GRAMMAR 



Something similar is found in some compound adjectives, as : 

iji-waru na bad-tempered, from iji no warui. 

The first three of the above quasi-adjectives are only used attributively. 

224. Occasionally the stem of a true adjective followed by no is used as ;i 
quasi-adjective. You sometimes hear aka no instead of akai, shiro no instead 
of shiroi, etc. 

225. Sometimes instead of using the quasi-adjective attributively, we may 
place the two nouns together, forming a compound ; for instance : kara no 
kuruma or kara-kuruma an empty rikisha ; kin no tokei or kin-dokei a gold 
watch. 

226. Do not confound quasi-adjectives ending in ai, like zonzai na careless,* 
with true adjectives, like kitanai dirty. You cannot say zonzai hlto, neither 
can you say kitanai no Into : kirei hlto instead of kirei na hlto a handsome man, 
would be altogether inexcusable as there are no true 'adjectives ending in ei. 
Beginners are very apt to make mistakes like these. 

ADJECTIVAL PHRASES. 

227. A great number of adjectival phrases composed of a noun (or its equiva- 
lent), the postposition no, and a true adjective are used attributively. E.g.: 
genki no ii means literally 'good of spirits', i.e. lively, vigorous; genki no ii 
kodomo means ' a lively child '. 

228. When used as predicates these phrases change no into ga and they re- 
semble ordinary sentences ; e.g.: Ano kodomo zca genki ga ii ; that child is 
lively, (lit. as for that child his spirits are good). 

229. In the past tense ii would be changed to yokatta. In a polite sentence 
ii would be changed to yd gozaimasii. Other adjectives are treated in this 
same way. 

The gerundial construction will be understood from the following example : 
Tsugo ga zvaruktitte ikare-nakatta ; it was so inconvenient I was not able to 
go. 

230. When used adverbially (190, 4, a, b), no is changed to ga or sometimes 
suppressed and the adjective is put in the adverbial inflexion. Kigen ga yoku 
narimashlta he is now good-tempered ; ano hlto tea genki yoku hatarakimasu 
that man works vigorously ; ano Mto zva genki yoku mieru that man looks 
vigorous. 

231 . A great many of these adjectival phrases are formed by means of the 
adjective ii good, and their opposites by means of zvarui bad, or nai, the nega- 
tive adjective. 

"Other quasi-adjectives in ai are : hakurai no imported, hantai no opposite, Ji'frai na 
hateful, shimai no last, shimpai na causing anxiety, tagai no reciprocal, common. 



OF THE JAPANESE SPOKEN LANGUAGE 



232. The number of these adjectival phrases is practically unlimited, 
following are only a few of the commoner ones : 



The 



un no n 
naka no ii 
benri no ii 
tsugo no ii 
iji no ii 
kigen no ii 
genki no ii 
ki no hayai 
ki no chiisai 
ki no nagai 
ame no oi 
mimi no toi 



lucky, 

intimate, 

convenient, 

convenient, 

good-tempered, 

good-tempered, 

lively, 

impulsive, 

pusillanimous, 

patient, 

rainy, 

hard of hearing. 



opposite 



warm 
warui 
iscarui 
warui 
warui 
warui 
nai ; 
noroi ; 
okii ; 
mijikai ; 
sukunai ; 



When no corresponding adjective exists in English these Japanese adjectival 
phrases must be translated by relative clauses. 



VERBS USED AS ADJECTIVES. 

233. Many verbs and verbal phrases may be used attributively in Japanese ; 
they are sometimes rendered into English by an adjective, sometimes by a rel- 
ative clause, (see 328 330). The following are a few examples out of a large 
number that may be rendered by an adjective. 

Tsumi no aru onna ; a guilty woman. 

On wo shira-nai kodomo ; an ungrateful child. 

Futotta hito ; a fat person. 

Deki-nai shigoto ; an impossible work. 

234. When these adjectives are used predicatively in English, in Japanese 
the verb resumes its ordinary functions : no where it occurs, is changed to ga. 

Ano onna wa tsumi ga aru ; that woman is guilty. 
Ano kodomo wa on wo shira-nai ; that child is ungrateful. 
Ano hito wafutotte imasu ; that man is fat. 

The negative of negative verbal adjectives in nai, like deki-nai, mie-nai, etc. 
is formed as in 197. 

235. Some of these adjectives may be used adverbially in English (190, 4, 
a, b) ; but no general rule can be given as to how to treat the corresponding 
verb or verbal phrase in Japanese. Each case must be considered individually. 

He looks guilty ; tsumi ga aru yd ni mieru ; tsumi ga ari-so da. 

To act guiltily ; tsumi na koto wo suru. 

Negative verbal adjectives in. nai take the adverbial form naku when used in 



56 ELEMENTARY GRAMMAR 



connection with the verb naru : deki-naku natta it has become impossible, it is 
now impossible. 

COMPOUND AND DERIVATIVE ADJECTIVES. 

236. Compound adjectives may be composed of : 

1) A noun and an adjective : nadakai famous, from na name, and takai high. 

2) The stem of an adjective followed by an adjective : hoso-nagai slender, 
from hosoi narrow, and nagai long. 

3) The stem of a verb followed by an adjective : zvakari-nikui difficult to 
understand, from zvakaru to understand, nikui difficult. 

237. The adjective kusai malodorous, offensive, added to a noun, means 
that one is reminded of the noun, often in an objectionable way : inaka-kusai 
rustic, (lit. stinking of the country). 

238. If ii (occasionally yasui) is added to the stem of a verb, it means that 
the action is performed easily ; if instead, nikui is added, it means that the 
action is performed with difficulty : zcakari-ii easy to understand ; zvakari- 
nikui difficult to understand. 

239. Nearly all verbs have a desiderative form in -tai which is a true adjective. 
(See 77). 

240. By adding -rashii to a noun we get an adjective which often corresponds 
to our adjectives in 'ish' or 'ly'; it may sometimes be translated by 'seems 
to be'. E.g.: kodomorashii childish; otokorashii manly; jozurashii seems to 
be skilful. (See Part III). 

241 . The termination -ppoi added to certain nouns, stems of adjectives or 
verbs, makes an adjective and generally means that the noun is in excess : 
mizuppoi watery, okorippoi quick-tempered. 

242. An important group of quasi-adjectives in na is formed by adding -so 
(appearance) to the stem of true adjectives or verbs, or to the noun part of 
quasi-adjectives : these adjectives have a meaning of probability. E.g.: 
omoshiro-so na likely to be amusing, furi-so na likely to rain, jobu-so na 
apparently healthy. 

243. The adjective yoi good, and nai non-existent, are irregular when they 
take the -so of probability ; they become yosa-so and nasa-so. The compounds 
of nai may either follow nai in this irregularity or be formed regularly. 

244. Quasi-adjectives in no formed by adding -tote to the stem of a verb, 
refer to an action which has just taken place. Thus : umi-tate no new-laid (of 
eggs), from umu to lay. 

245. The negative of quasi-adjectives is sometimes formed by prefixing fu 
(or bu) 'not': this corresponds nearly to our prefix 'un'. 

From shinseisti na kind, we have fu-shinsetsu na unkind. 

From shiazcase na fortunate, we have fu-shiazcase na unfortunate. 



OF THE JAPANESE SPOKEN LANGUAGE 57 

COMPARISON. 

246. There are no inflexions of the Japanese adjective (or adverb) correspond- 
ing to our comparative and superlative degrees. 

247. When only one of the things compared is mentioned, the sentence may 
be treated in various ways in Japanese : 

1) The quality is merely affirmed or denied. 
Kore iKa yasui ; this is cheaper, (lit. this is cheap). 

Kore tea yasuku nai ; this is not cheaper. . 

Dan-dan okiku naru ; he is growing bigger little by little. 

2) The foregoing sentences are sometimes ambiguous : 

Kore zva yasui, for instance, may mean, 'this is cheap' or 'this is cheaper' 
All ambiguity is dispelled by using ho side. 
Kono ho ga yasui ; this is cheaper. 
Nagai ho ga suki ; I prefer the long one. 

3) Sometimes motto more, is used : 

Motto ii no zvo motte o-ide ; bring a better one. 

Motto omoshiroi hon zco kashlte kudasai ; please lend me a more amusing book. 

4) Mo sukoshi a little more, is also sometimes used. 

Mo sukoshi oki na no ga hoshii ; I want one a little bigger. 

5) When we wish to express an intensified quality like 'still better', we may 
use nao : 

Kore tea nao ii ; this one is still better. 

248. Explicit comparisons, when the things compared are both named, may 
be of two classes : 1) the word 'than ' is not used ; 2) the word 'than' is used. 

1 ) Ho is generally repeated in Japanese : 

Kono hon no ho ga omoshiroi ga mo hitotsu no lid ga yasui ; this book is more 
amusing but the other one is cheaper. 

2) 'Than' may be translated by yori ; this construction is generally avoided 
in Japanese ; the implicit form of comparison (247, 1, 2) is usually preferred : 

Asama yori Fuji (or Fuji no ho) ga lakai ; Fuji is higher than Asama. 

249. 'More' 'some more' or ' any more' is translated as follows : 

1) When it means 'a greater quantity', and the amount is designated : 

a) in a vague way motto : 

I want some more nails ; motto kugi ga iriinasu. 

b) in a definite way mo : 

I want six more nails ; kugi ga mo rop-pon iriinasu. 

2) When it means 'left' or 'remaining' in an affirmative sentence mada ; 
Have you any more nails ? kugi wa mada arimasu ka ? 

There are some more in my room ; watashi no heya ni mada arimasu. 

3) In all negative sentences mo : 



58 ELEMENTARY GRAMMAR 



I don 't want any more ; mo irimasen. 

250. ' A little more ' is translated by mo sukoshi. 

Bring me a little (some) more water please ; mizu ico mo sukoshi motte kite 
kudasai. 

251 . ' The more ' may be translated by yokei, sometimes takusan : 
Which box holds the more ? dochira no hako ga yokei hairu daro ? 

252. 'More than' may generally be translated by ijo or by yori yokei : 
It will cost more than five yen ; go-yen ijo kakarimasu. 

It is not more than one pound ; ik-kin yori yokei de wa nai. 
I have more pears than you ; watashi tea anata yori nashi wo yokei motte imasii- 
This small hen lays more eggs than that big one ; kono chiisai tori tea ano dA* 
na tori yori yokei tarn ago wo umu. 

That is a great deal more than is necessary : sore ja taihen yokei da. 

253. ' Less than ' may be rendered by : 

1) A negative sentence : 

There is less than a pound of sugar in the bag ; fukuro ni am sold iva ik-kin 
tea nai ; (lit. there is not a pound of sugar in the bag). 
It is less than three feet long ; nagasa via san-jaku wa nai. 
You will need less than five yen ; go-yen kakara-nai desho. 

2) Tara-zu : 

There is less than a pound of sugar in the bag ; sato ga ik-kin tara-zu fukuro 
ni haitte iru. 

It is less than three feet long ; nagasa tea san-jaku tara-zu desu. 
You will need less than five yen ; go-yen tara-zu kaltaru desho. 

3) Sometimes by yori sukunai : 

There is less than a pound of sugar in the bag ; sato ga ik-kin yori sukunaku 
fukuro ni haitte iru. 

It is less than three feet long ; nagasa zca san-jaku yori sukunai. 

254. The comparison of ages, as 'so many years older' or 'younger', is 
translated by toshi ga ue, toshi ga shlta, or simply ue, shlta. 

Chichi tea haha yori mittsu (toshi ga) ue desu ; my father is three years older 
than my mother. 

255. Several constructions relating to comparatives are mentioned in 170. 
The following construction is al; o interesting : Tokyo kara mireba Kyoto wa 

semai ; Kyoto is small compared to Tokyo. 

256. When we compare A to B in regard to a certain quality, we may find 
that 1) A has the qualit)' in a greater degree than B, as in the examples given 
in 247 and 248 ; 2) A may have the quality in a less degree than B, as : Xara 
is less important than Kyoto ; or 3) A and B may be equal. 

257. In the second case the beginner had better turn the sentence into one 
of the first class, and say : ' Kyoto is more important than Nara '. Or a con- 



OF THE JAPANESE SPOKEN LANGUAGE 59 

struction with hodo may be used thus : Nara tea Kyoto hodo oki na tokoro de wa 
nai ; Nara is not as big as Kyoto. 

258. Comparisons of equality are often rendered by the words onaji gurai 
or hodo as shown in the following examples : 

Kiku San wa O Yuki San to onaji gurai kirei desu ; Miss Kiku is as pretty 
as Miss Yuki. 

Yumoto wa Ashinoyu to onaji gurai takai tokoro desu ka ? is Yumoto as high 
as Ashinoyu ? 

Watakushi wa anata to onaji gurai kanega aru ; I have as much money as you. 

Anata tea watakushi to onaji gurai sei ga takai ; you are as tall as I. 

Tatte iru no mo kakete iru no mo nedan zva onaji ; it is as cheap sitting as 
standing. 

In the first four examples to onaji gurai may be replaced by hodo. 

259. 'The the ', may be rendered by hodo, thus : 
Hayai hodo ii ; the sooner the better. 

Okiku naru hodo waruku naru ; the older he grows the worse he becomes. 
Omoeba omou hodo kanashii ; the more I think of it the more sorry I feel. 

SUPERLATIVE. 

260. The simple adjective in Japanese often means implicitly the superlative : 
Dore ga ii ? which is the best ? 

Kore ga ii ; this is the best. 

261 . The superlative may be rendered explicit in various ways : 

1) Ichiban 'number one' is often placed before adjectives: 

Koko de wa nan to iu yado-ya ga ichiban yd gozaimasu ka ? which is the best 

inn here ? 

2) By means of the words ichi, -ju de or de, after a noun of place : 
Nippon ichi no yama ; the highest (most famous) mountain in Japan. 
Tokyo ichi no hoteru ; the best (largest, finest) hotel in Tokyo. 
Kyoto(-ju] de no isha ; the cleverest (most skilful, famous) doctor in Kyoto 
It will be seen that the adjectival idea is vague unless made clear by the con- 
text ; it can however be clearly stated : 

Nippon ichi no takai yama ; the highest mountain in Japan. 

3) By means of uchi : 

Kono uchi de no omoshiroi hon ; the most amusing book from among 

262. 'The most' meaning 'the greatest of several quantil 
by yokei, sometimes takusan : 

Which box holds the most ? dono hako ga yokei hairu daro ? 
283. 'Very' when translated, may generally be rendered by taihe 
zuibun, taiso, naka-naka, yohodo or goku. Sometimes any one of these may 1 



60 ELEMENTARY GRAMMAR 



used, sometimes only one suits the case and it is not easy fco know which one to 
select. 

TaiJien ii ; it is very good. 

Naka-naka muzukashii ; it is very difficult. 

Goku chiisai kodomo ; very small children. 

264. The gerund of an adjective or verb followed by shiyo ga nai or sMkata 
ga nai which means literally, ' there is nothing to be done' 'there is no help 
for it' is a very common Japanese idiom and corresponds to 'exceedingly' 
'awfully': 

Atsukute shiyo ga nai ; it is awfully hot. 

Kutdbirete sliikata ga nai ; ' I am awfully tired ' or ' I am so tired I don 't 
know, what to do '. 

265. When other negative verbal expressions follow the gerund we often 
have sentences with a superlative meaning which may be translated by 'so' 
or 'too to'. 

Ano liito wa byoki de arukemasen ; he is so ill he cannot walk. 
Kurakute mie-nai ; it is too dark to see. 

266. 'Too', followed by an adjective, after which an infinitive is not found 
(as it is in the last example), is translated by : a) amari followed by the adjec- 
tive ; or b) the stem of the adjective and the verb sugi'ru. 

This bottle is too big ; kono bin tea amari okii, or kono bin wa oki-sugimasu. 

'Too much' is translated by yokei, sugi'ru, or ammari : 

This is too much ; kore wa yokei da. 

You drink too much tea ; anata wa o cha wo nomi-sugimasu. 

Don't drink too much tea ; ammari o cha wo nonde wa ikemasen. 

267. 'As as possible' is translated by dekiru dake or naru-take : 

Run to the house as fast as you can ; dekiru dake hayaku uchi e kakete lite o 
Jcure. 

268. Other expressions with a superlative meaning are to be found in the 
Vocabulary, Part III, under the words, konna, sonna, anna, donna, makoto, 
jitsu, baka, domo, zutto. 

269. 'Not very' ' not so very' may be rendered by amari, sonna ni or so with 
a negative verb : 

It isn 't very interesting ; amari omoshiroku nai. 

He is not so very old ; sonna ni toshiyori de wa arimasen. 

270. 'Fairly' 'moderately' 'rather', etc. are translated by daibu or kanari. 
It is pretty cold this morning ; kesa wa daibu samui. 



OF THE JAPANESE SPOKEN LANGUAGE 



61 



CHAPTER V. 



U M E R A L S . 



CARDINAL NUMBERS, 



271. In the first ten numbers there are three different sets of numerals. 



1 ichi 

2 ni 

3 son 

4 shi (or yo or yon) 

5 

6 roku 

7 shichi (or wana) 

8 hachi 

9 A"W (or kyu) 

10 jffi 

11 ju-ichi 

12 ju-ni 

etc. 



20 
21 
22 
23 
30 
3] 
32 
40 
50 
60 
70 
80 
90 



ni-ju 

ni-ju-ichi 

ni-ju-ni 

ni-ju-san 

san-ju 

san-ju-ichi 

san-ju-ni 

shi-jii (or yon-ju) 

go-ju 

roku-ju 

shichi-ju (or nana-ju) 

hachi-ju 

ku-ju (or kyu-ju) 



hltotsfi 
futatsu 

mitsii (coll. mittsu) 
yotsii (coll. yottsu) 
itsutsfi 

mutsfi (coll. muttsti) 
nanatsu 

yatsii(col]. yattsit) 
kokonotsu 
to (to in comp.) 
ju-ichi 
ju-ni 
etc. 



hii 

/ 
mil 
yd 

ii or (itsti) 
mil 
nana 

yd (or yarca) 
kokono (or kono or koko\ 
to 

ju-ichi 
ju-ni 
etc. 



100 hyaku 
200 ni-hyaku 
300 sam-byaku 
600 rop-pyaku 
800 hap-pyaku 
1000 sen 
2000 7'-^;i 
3000 san-zen 
10000 ichi-man 
20000 ni-man 
100000 ju-man 
1000000 hyaku-rnan 

m' 

272. S/ii four, is often avoided on account of its being homonymous with 
shi death. The combination fthi-nin is particularly objectionable and is never 
used hi the sense of four persons ;* see 281. 

The following nouns are also preceded by yo instead of shi : ban number, 



*However if any other numeral intervenes between shi and nin, shi may be used ; e.g.: 
ehi-go-nin, four or five persons. 



62 ELEMENTARY GRAMMAR 



dai auxiliary numeral for carriages, do times or degrees, ji o'clock, nen 
year, ri Japanese mile. The word rin 1/10 sen, takes either yo or yon; and 
the word sen 1/100 yen, generally takes yon. 

273. On account of the great similarity of the sounds shi four and shichi 
seven, yo (or yon) is often used instead of shi, (see 272), and nana instead 
of shichi in order to avoid the possibility of a mistake : this is especially the 
case when speaking of money. In like circumstances, ku is often replaced by 
kyu, perhaps on account of its similarity with rokn. 

274. Remnants of the second set of numerals above ten are to be found in 
the words, hatachi twenty years, hatsuka the twentieth day, and misoka the 
last day of the month (lit. the thirtieth day). 

275. The third set of numerals is used in counting over things, e.g. linen to 
be sent to the wash : one, two, three hii,fu. mil. . . . 

276. In other cases the set to be used depends on the noun to which the 
numeral refers : 

1) A few nouns take the first set without any auxiliary numeral ; in this 
case the numeral precedes the noun : e.g. two yen ni-yen ; fifty sen go-jis-sen ; 
three o 'clock san-ji : six hours roku-jikan. These nouns are all units of time, 
money, weight, or measure ; the commonest are : nen year ; shukan week ; 
jikan hour ; ji o'clock ; fun minute ; byo second ; yen ; sen ; rin 1/10 of a sen ; 
ri Japanese mile ; shaku foot ; sun inch ; bu 1 /10 of sun or other units ; kin 
pound (Ib.) ; wari 10 per cent ; lien, do, tdbi a time ; kai storey ; gyo row. 

2) Most nouns take the first set with an auxiliary numeral ; in this case the 
usual order is : noun, numeral, auxiliary numeral : e.g. six men Into roku-nin ; 
eight plates sara hachi-mai ; three books hon san-satsu. You may also say : 
roku-nin no Into, etc. ; in complete sentences the no may be dropped, Ano heya 
ni roku-nin hito ga iru there are six men in that room. 

3) A good many nouns take the second set ; the numeral is generally placed 
after the noun : e.g. two eggs tamago futatm ; three chairs isu mittsu ; four 
boxes hako yottsu. You may also say : futatsu no tamago, etc. 

4) A few nouns take the second set after suppressing the final tsu ; 1 Into, 
2 fitta, 3 mi, 4 yo, 5 itsu, 6 mu, 7 nana, 8 ya, 9 kokono, 10 to : the numeral comes 
before the noun : e.g. two nights futa-ban; three boxfuls mi -hako ; eight months 
ya-tsuki. The commonest nouns used in this way are : tsuki month : ban 
night ; ma room ; fukuro bagful ; hako boxful ; yama heap : soroi set ; suji line ; 
kumi set ; kire slice ; sara plateful ; saji spoonful : a shi step ; tsutsumi packet ; 
hari stitch ; shina article ; iro kind; tokoro place; bin bottleful ; tabi time. 
Certain nouns, used figuratively like anshin, kuchi, kuro, me, etc. may take 
htto-, but never futa-, mi-, etc. 

277. Questions relating to number are asked in different ways according 
to how the numerals are used in the simple affirmative (276). In general when 



OF THE JAPANESE SPOKEN LANGUAGE 



the first set of numerals is used in the affirmative, it may be replaced by either 
iku or nan in the interrogation ; the second set is replaced by ikutsu ; the ab- 
breviated second set by iku. Taking the same examples as above, we have - 
1) iku-yen ? how many yen ? nan-sen ? how many sen ? iku-ji ? what o'clock ? 
nan-jikan ? how many hours ? 2) Into iku-nin ? how many men ? sara nam- 
mai ? how many plates ? hon iku-satsu ? how many books ? 3) tamago ikutsu ? 
how many eggs ? isu ikutsu ? how many chairs ? hako ikutsu ? how many 
boxes ? 4) iku-ban ? how many nights ? iku-hako ? how many boxfuls ? iku- 
tsuki ? how many months ? 

278. Some nouns may be used in more than one way ; thus : we have hako 
hitotsu, and hito-hako. There is, however, a slight difference in the meanings 
of these two expressions ; the first means 'one box', the second 'one boxful'. 

279. When a postposition is used, it comes immediately after the noun : 
isu wo futatsu katta ; I bought two chairs. 

280. When a numeral of the first set is followed by a noun or an auxiliary 
numeral (276, 1, 2), the end sound of the numeral and the first sound of the 
noun (or auxiliary numeral) may either or both suffer modifications as shown 
in the following table : 



Before ch, t or is ichi 
hachi 



becomes 



it- 
hat- 





JU 


99 


^W- 






Before / or h 


ichi 


9 


ip-; 


thef(orh) 


itself changes to p 




san 





sam-; 


J5 5J 9} 99 


porb 




roku 


95 


rop-; 


9) 95 59 99 


99 59 55 P 




ju 


;j 


jip-; 


59 5S 59 59 


99 95 59 P 




ht/aku 




hyopj 




99 9> 95 P 




sen 


99 

95 


sem-; 


9> 59 9J 


P ^ b 


Before k 


ichi 


55 


ik- 








roku 


!5 


rok- 








hachi 


99 


hak- (seldom) 




ju 


99 


jik- 








hyaku 


J5 


hyak- 






k after 


san or 


sen generally changes to g 


Before m or b 


san 


becomes 


sam- 








sen 


99 


sem- 






Before s or sh 


ichi 


99 


is- 








hachi 


>J 


has- 







s 
sh 



!)u Jis- 

san or sen generally changes to z 

san or sen generally changes to j 



64 ELEMENTARY GRAMMAR 



For the purposes of these letter changes, w is sometimes treated like an h 
as in ichi-ica or ip-pa, sam-ba, rap-pa, jip-pa, hyap-pa and sem-ba, from :ra the 
auxiliary numeral for birds, and bundles of things tied together. 

The interrogative pronoun nan and the word ban half, are treated for the 
purposes of these letter changes like son. 

AUXILIARY NUMERALS. 

281. The following are the commonest auxiliary numerals. In each case 
the irregularities or special euphonic changes are noted : 

NIN for men : 1 hltori, 2/utari, 3 san-nin, 4 yottari or yo-nin, 5 go-nin, 6 roku- 
nin, etc., ikutari ? iku-nin ? nan-nin ? 

HON for long cylindrical things, such as sticks, trees, pens, bottles, etc., 
also for letters : 1 ip-pan, 3 sam-bon, 6 rop-pon, 10 jip-pon, 100 hyap-pon, 1000 
sem-bon, nam-bon ? 

MAI for flat things such as sheets of paper, boards, coats, rugs, plates, etc.: 
3 sam-mai, 1000 sem-mai, nam-mai ? 

HIKI for animals : 1 ip-piki, 3 sam-biki, 6 rop-piki, lOjip-piki, 100 hyap-piki, 
1000 sem-biki, nam-biki ? 

WA for birds ; also for bunches of things tied together : 1 ichi-wa or ip-pa, 
8 sam-ba, 6 roku-zca or rop-pa, 10 j ip-pa, 100 hyap-pa, 1000 sem-ba, nam-ba ? 

DAI for jinrikishas, carriages, etc.: 4 yo-dai. 

end for things with handles, knives, tools, jinrikishas, etc.: 1 it-cho, hat- 
cho, 10 j it-cho. 

HAI for glassfuls, cupfuls, etc.: 1 ip-pai, 3 sam-bai, 6 rop-pai, 10 jip-pai, 100 
hyap-pai, 1000 sem-bai, nam-bai ? 

FUKU for scrolls, sips of tea, whiffs of tobacco, etc.: 1 ip-puku, 3 sam-buku, 
6 rop-puku, 10 jip-puku, 100 hyap-puku, 1000 sem-buku, nam-buku ? 

SATSU for books : 1 is-satsu, 3 san-satsu, 8 Jias-satsti, 10 jis-satsii, 1000 .sr/i- 
satsu, nan-satsu ? 

KEN for houses, buildings, etc.: 1 ik-ken, 3 san-gen, 6 rok-ken, 10 jik-ken, 100 
hyak-ken, 1000 sen-gen, nan-gen ? 

SOKU for pairs of boots, clogs, socks, etc.: 1 is-soku, 3 san-zoku. 8 has-soku, 
10 jis-soku, 1000 sen-zoku, nan-zoku ? 

TSUI for pairs of things such as vases, etc.: 1 it-tsui, 8 hat-tsui, 10 jit-tsui. 

so for boats, ships, etc.: 1 is-so, 3 san-zo or san-so, 8 has-so, 10 jis-so. 1000 
sen-zo, nan-zo ? nan-so ? 

KO (less commonly ka) for various things that have no special auxiliary 
numeral, as bundles, parcels, etc.: 1 ik-ko, 3 san-ko, 6 rok-ko, lOjik-ko, 100 
hyak-ko, 1000 sen-ko, nan-ko ? 1 ik-ka, 3 san-ka, 6 rok-ka, 10 jik-ka, 100 hyak- 
ka, 1000 sen-ka, nan-ka ? 



OF THE JAPANESE SPOKEN LANGUAGE 65 

282. The construction with the noun is usually as follows : noun, (post- 
position ga, mo, wa, or zco, if used), numeral, auxiliary numeral, (postposition 
ka or yori, if used) ;* e.g.: six postcards hagaki roku-mai ; please give me two 
postcards, hagaki wo ni-mai kudasai ; I'll give him two pencils or two note- 
books, empitsu ni-hon ka chomen (wo) ni-satsu ageyu. 

283. When you don't know which is the proper auxiliary numeral to use, you 
had better employ the second set of numerals. It may not be correct Japanese, 
but you will be understood ; whereas if you use an incorrect auxiliary numeral 
you may not be understood at all. For instance, if instead of sara ni-mai (two 
plates) you say sarafutatsu, it is not usual, but it is intelligible : sara ni-hon 
would be unintelligible. 

ORDINAL NUMBERS. 

284. Ordinal numbers are not much used in Japanese : the cardinals are 
often used instead. 

285. Ordinal numbers are formed by adding bam-me to the first set of nu- 
merals or me to the second : sam-bam-me the third ; nanatsH-me the seventh. 

286. These ordinals may both be followed by postpositions : sam-bam-me 
kara shichi-bam-me made or mittsu-me kara nanatsu-me made, from the third 
to the seventh. 

287. When the ordinal number is used before a noun, we may again classify 
the cases as in 276. 

In the case of the nouns that belong to classes 1) and 4), me is added to the 
noun : roku-jikam-me the sixth hour ; mi-hako-me the third boxful. 

In classes 2) and 3), the ordinal number derived from the first set of numerals 
is put first, then the postposition no, and after that comes the noun : e.g. roku- 
bam-me no hlto the sixth man ; hachi-bam-me no sara the eighth plate ; sam- 
bam-me no isu the third chair. In the case of class 2) the auxiliary numeral is 
often used instead of ban, thus : roku-nim-me no hito the sixth man ; ni-kem-me 
no uchi the second house. Sometimes, especially in the case of class 3), instead 
of using the ordinal number derived from the first set of numerals, the ordina! 
derived from the second set is used and followed as above by no and the noun ; 
e.g. mittsu-me no isu the third chair. 

288. Ichi-bam-me no, ni-bam-me no, etc., hitotsu-me no, futatm-me no, etc. 
when not followed by a noun, mean ' the first one ' ' the second one ' etc. (1 88). 

289. The following expressions are related to this subject : hajime no the 
first one ; ichi-ban shimai no the last one ; tsugi no the next one ; ato no the one 
after ; mae no the one before. 

*When the postposition is de, e, made, or n the construction is as follows : two dogs 
barked at me ni-hlki no inu ni hoerareta. 



66 



ELEMENTARY GRAMMAR 



DATES. 

290. Dates are expressed in Japanese by naming first the year, then the 
month and then the day. E.g.: 26th of July, 1917 ; Taisho roku-nen, shlcJii- 
gatsu. ni-ju-roku-nichi. 

291. The Japanese count their years by eras which correspond to the reign 
of each sovereign. The present era is called Taisho and began on the 31st 
July, 1912. To pass from the Christian era to the era of Taisho and vice versa, 
subtract or add 1911. Before the Taisho era was the era of Meiji, which 
began in 1868 and ended at the death of the late Emperor on the 30th July, 
1912. To pass from the Christian era to the era of Meiji or vice versa, sub- 
tract or add 1867. The year is expressed by naming first the era, then the 
cardinal number of the year and then the word nen year ; thus A.D. 1917 is 
Taisho roku-nen. 

292. In a cardinal sense we may say either ichi-nen or ik-ka-nen one year, 
ni-nen or ni-ka-nen two years, etc. 

293. The months of the year (excepting January) have no proper names in 
Japanese : they are distinguished merely by a number. We give below the 
numerals combined with month (tstiki, getsu or gatsu) in both a cardinal and 
an ordinal sense. 



CARDINAL 



ORDINAL 



Hito-tsuki 


or ik-ka-getsu 


1 month 


sho-gatsu January 
ichi-gatsu (1st month of 
ichi-getsu the year) 


Futa-ts&ki 


or ni-ka-getsu 


2 months 


ni-gatsii February (2nd) 


Mi-tstiki 


or san-ka-getsu 


3 months 


san-gatsu March (3rd) 


Yo-tstiki 


or shi-ka-getsu 


4 months 


shi-gatsu April (4th) 


Itsu-tsuki 


or go-ka-getsu 


5 months 


go-gatsu May (5th) 


Mu-tsuki 


or rok-ka-getsu 


6 months 


roku-gatsti June (6th) 


Nana-tstiki 


or shichi-ka-getsU 


7 months 


shlchi-gatsu July (7th) 


Ya-ts&ki 


or hak-ka-getsu 


8 months 


liachi-gatsu August (8th) 


Kokono-tstiki 


or ku-ka-getsu 


9 months 


ku-gatsu September (9th) 


To-tsuki 


or jik-ka-getsA 


10 months 


ju-gatsti October (10th) 


Ju-ik-ka-getsti 




11 months 


ju-ichi-gatsu November (llth) 


Ju-ni-ka-getsti, 




12 months 


ju-ni-gatsu December (12th) 



OF THE JAPANESE SPOKEN LANGUAGE 



67 



294. The day of the month is named as follows 



ichi-nichi 

tsuitachi 

futsuka 

tnikka 

yokka 

itsuka 

muika 

nanuka 

yoka 

kokonoka 

toka 



1st 



ni-ju-ni-nichi 

ni-ju-sa(n)-nichi 

ni-ju-yokka 

ni-ju-go-nichi 

n i-ju-roku-nichi 

ni-ju-sfrichi-nichi 

ni-ju-hachi-nichi 

ni-ju-ku-Jiichi 

san-ju-nichi 

sa n-ju- ich i-nich i 



22nd 
23rd 
24th 
25th 
26th 
27th 
28th 
29th 
30th 
31st 



ju-ichi-nichi llth 
ju-ni-nichi 12th 

ju-sa(n)-nichi 13th 
ju-yokka 14th 

ju-go-nichi 15th 

ju-roku-nichi 16th 
ju-shlchi-nichi 17th 
ju-hachi-nichi 18th 
ju-ku-nichi 19th 

hatsuka 20th 

ni-ju-ichi-nichi 21st 
The last day of the month (whether 30th or 31st) is called misoka and the 
last day of the year o-misoka. 

295. The numerals for the days of the month are used also in a cardinal 
sense : thus ichi-nichi means 'one day'; futsuka 'two days'; etc. Nan-nichi? 
iku-nichi ? or ikka ? 'how many days ?' or 'what day of the month ?' 

Note : you cannot say tsuitachi for 'one day'. 

296. When speaking of years, months or days in an ordinal sense but without 
reference to date, the suffix -me is used ; thus : the second year ni-nem-me ; 
the third month mi-isuki-me or san-ka-getsu-me ; the fourth day yokka-me, 
' The first ' may be translated by hajime no. 

297. The week has not as much importance in Japan as it has in Europe ; 
the names of the davs of the week are : 



Nichiyo(-bi) 

Getsuyo(-bi) 

Kayo(-bi) 

Suiyo(-bi) 

Mokuyo(-bi) 

Kinyo(-bi) 

Doyo(-bi) 



Sunday 

Monday 

Tuesday 

Wednesday 

Thursday 

Friday 

Saturday 



from nichi 
from getsu 
from ka 
from sui 
from moku 
from kin 
from do 



sun. 

moon. 

fire. 

water. 

tree. 

metal. 

earth. 



TIME. 

298. The time of day is rendered by means of the words ji, fun, byd, hour, 
minute, second. 

Ichi-ji ju-go-fun (sugi) ; fifteen minutes past one, i.e. a quarter past one. 
Ni-ji san-ju-go-fun ; two thirty-five, i.e. twenty-five minutes to three. 

299. The word sugi past, is used more frequently when the number of minutes 
is small, rarely when the number of minutes is large. 



68 ELEMENTARY GRAMMAR 



When only a few minutes are wanting to the hour we may also use a construc- 
tion with mae before, thus : ichi-ji go-jip-pun or ni-ji jip-pun mae ; 'one fifty' 
or ' ten minutes to two '. 

The following expression is also worthy of note : jip-pun de ni-ji ten minutes 
to two. The idea here seems to be that 'only ten minutes are wanting'. 

300. When the time is so many minutes past twelve, the Japanese often say 
zero o'clock (rei-ji) instead of twelve o'clock (ju-ni-ji). Ten past twelve; 
rei-ji jip-pun or ju-ni-ji jip-pun. 

301 . Ante meridian and post meridian are expressed respectively by gozeti, 
and gogo. Asa morning, him middle of the day, ban evening and yom night. 
are also used. All these words, often followed by the postposition no. are 
placed before the number of hours. 

Gogo no shichi-ji ni-ju-go-fun or ban no shichi-ji ni-ju-go-fun ; 7.25 P.M. 
The expressions, him mae forenoon, and him kara or him sugi afternoon, are 
often used to express the time of day, but rarely when specifying the hour. 

302. The word fun preceded by a numeral has the following irregularities ; 
1 ip-pun, 3 sam-pun, 6 rop-pun, 10 jip-pun. (See 280). 

303. Except when speaking of a railway time-table, or such like things. 
instead of 'thirty minutes' you say 'half in Japanese just as in English : 
san-ji han, 'half past three'. A 'quarter', however, is always 'fifteen minutes* 
ju-go-fun, in Japanese. 

304. When speaking of duration, the word kan must be added to ji, fun, 
byd : san-ji-kan three hours ;jip-pun-kan ten minutes. Kan may also be added 
to other units of time when used in this sense : mi-tsuki, mi-tsuki-kan, san-ka- 
getsii and san-ka-getsu-kan all mean 'three months'. 



VARIOUS XI MKRICAL EXPRESSIONS. 

305. Fractional numbers. The way to express fractional numbers will be 
understood from the following examples : 

1/3 sam-bun no ichi 

3/4 ski-bun no son 
A/B B-bun no A 

306. The word 'half is han, or ham-bun when used substantively. The 
following examples will illustrate how these words are used : 

han-gin, half a pound (lb.). 
han-nichi, half a day. 
han-jikan, half an hour. 
icjii-jikan han, an hour and a half. 
ichi-ji han, half past one. 



OF THE JAPANESE SPOKEN LANGUAGE 69 

hambun de takusan ; half will be enough. 

bin ni mizu ga hambun arimasu ; the bottle is half full of water. 
ano nashi wo hambun tabete. hambun tomodachi ni yarimashita ; I ate half 
that pear and I gave half to my friend. 

307. The word bu, when not otherwise qualified, means the tenth part of 
another unit. 

308. Per centage. The Japanese unit zcari is not a ' per cent ' but a ' per 
ten'. Thus ichi-wari, ni-wari, etc. mean 'one per ten' 'two per ten', etc. i.e. 
'ten per cent' 'twenty per cent', etc. The tenth part of the vcari is a bu which 
therefore corresponds to our 'per cent'; ichi-bu, ni-bu, etc. is 'one per cent' 
'two per cent', etc. 

309. Multiples are expressed by the word bai, thus: bai double; sam-bai 
three times as much ; shi-bai four times as much ; etc. 

310. Age. The second set of numerals is used in speaking of ages ; excep- 
tionally : 'tw r enty (years of age)' is hatachi. 

ikutsu desu ka ? yattsu (ni-ju-ichi) de gozaimasti ; how old are you ? I am 
eight (twenty-one). 

311. The Japanese count their ages by adding 1 on the first of January. A 
baby is 1 from birth until the New Year ; it becomes 2 then, even if only one 
day old.* 

312. This is the usual way of reckoning one 's age ; it is called kazoe-doshi 
\kazoe'ru to count, toshi year]. If you wish to refer to complete years, in the 
European style, you prefix maru : mam ju-roku, sixteen (complete) years of 

age. 

313. House numbers. The first set of numerals is used ; they are followed 
by ban if referring to the European part of the town, or by ban-chi if referring 
to the Japanese part. 

314. House storeys. The storeys or floors of a house are named by means 
of the first set of numerals and the word kai ; ni-kait\vo floors, means in English 
'the first floor' i.e. the floor above the ground floor; san-gai is 'the second 

floor', etc. 

315. Vagueness is often expressed in Japanese as in English by means o 
two numerals. In English these are joined by the conjunction 'or', in Japan- 
ese, as a rule, no conjunction is used. This construction is found in both the 
first and second set of numerals. E.g. two or three ni-san or futatsu mitts* ; 
thirty-four or thirty-five san-ju-shi-go. 

316. The words 'several' and 'few' may often be translated 
e g. bring me a few pears nashi wo mittsu yottsti motte kite kure. 

317. When two numerals are thus combined to indicate vaguen 

*** *"* 



*The apanese generally include the first and 
hatsuka made from the tenth to the twentieth of the month ,s 11 day*, not 



70 ELEMENTARY GRAMMAR 



ordinary numerals often take the place of special words ; thus, although you 
never say ni-nichi for futsuka two days, and never san-nichi for mikka three 
days, you may say either ni-san-nichi or futsuka mikka for 'two or three days', 
etc. 

318. 'About' before a numeral, is usually translated by kurai, hodo or bakari 
when it means approximate quantity ; by goro when it means approximate 
moment or date. E.g. about ten yenju-yen gurai ; about three o'clock san-ji 
goro ; about the second of next month raigetsu no futsuka goro. 



CHAPTER VI. 



PRONOUNS. 



PERSONAL, POSSESSIVE AND REFLEXIVE PRONOUNS. 

319. Personal and possessive pronouns are very little used in Japanese. 
The use of honorific or humble words, or the context shows what person is 
meant. 

320. In isolated sentences such as those found in dictionaries, grammars, 
etc., personal pronouns are used more freely than they are in real life. 

321 . When necessary, the personal pronouns may be translated as follows : 
I : zcatakushi (polite), frequently contracted to watashi, or even (by women) 

to atashi ; boku (used by young men and boys). 

WE : (others and I) watakushi-domo ; (you and I) anata to wataktishi (to). 

YOU : (singular) anata (polite) ; kimi (corresponding to boku) ; omae son ; 
oniae (used only to one's inferiors). 

YOU : (plural) anata-gata, omae-tachi, omae-san-tachi. 

HE, SHE : ano (o) kata (polite) that person ; ano Into that person ; ano otoko 
that man ; ano onna that woman ; are that man (or woman). 

IT : are, kore, sore. 

THEY : (persons) ano hito-tachi ; (things) are, kore, sore. 

In the 3rd person kono 'this' or so-no 'that' (near) may be substituted for 
ano 'that' (far). 

322. 'They say' is rendered by so da or to iu hanashi da. See 166, 4. 

323. Personal pronouns are nouns and may be followed by any of the post- 
positions. 



OF THE JAPANESE SPOKEN LANGUAGE 71 

324. Possessive pronouns are formed by adding no to the personal pronouns : 
they become quasi-adjectives. Thus: anata no means 'your'; it may also 
mean 'yours'. See 188. 

325. 'My 'and 'our' are often translated by uchi no (lit. of the house) : 
uchi no inu our dog. 

326. The word 'self is often not translated into Japanese (149). When 
necessary it may be rendered by jibun or hltori used as adverbs, and usually 
followed by de. In speaking respectfully to or of. a person, we say go jibun 
or o hltori. 'Of itself meaning 'spontaneously' may be translated by shizen 
ni : 

Shizen ni kusa ga haemashita ; the grass grew of itself, (I didn't sow any 
seed). 

327. Reciprocity may be expressed when necessary by (o) tagai : 

O tagai ni naka yoku shimasho ; let us be on good terms with each other. 



RELATIVE PRONOUNS AND ADVERBS. 

328. There are no relative pronouns in Japanese. 

Sentences with relative pronouns are generally translated as follows : the 
relative pronoun is omitted, and the relative clause is placed before the noun 
to which the pronoun refers. It thus becomes a verbal phrase used attribu- 
tively (233). The subject of the relative clause, if expressed, is followed by 
the postposition no or ga. 

Ano yama no ue ni haete iru oki na matsu ; the large pine-tree which grows 
on the top of that mountain. 

Shi-nakereba nara-nai koto desu ; it is a thing which must be done. 

Watakushi no mita hito wa, or watakushi ga mita hlto wa ; the person that I 
saw. 

329. The following examples will serve to show how to translate a relative 
clause preceded by a preposition : 

That is the company for which I am working ; are ga zcatakushi no hataraite 
iru kaisha desu. 

That is the town to which I am going ; sore ga watakushi no iku machi desu. 

I have read the book in which that tale occurs ; sono hanashi no kaite aru hon 
wo yomimashita. 

The steamer by which he sailed is the biggest of the company ; ano hito no 
nottafune zva sono kaisha no ichiban okiifune desu. 

330. In the relative clause only verbs in the present and past tenses are 
used ; and of these tenses, the polite forms, i.e. those ending in masu, are not 
often met with. 



72 ELEMENTARY GRAMMAR 



331 . The passive is not often used in Japanese in this kind of construction ; 
when a passive verb is found in English in a relative clause, the sentence is 
generally changed to avoid this construction in Japanese : 

1) The passive may be changed into the active : 

The tree (that was) planted by my father ; chichi ga ueta ki, i.e. the tree that 
my father planted. 

2) Especially worthy of notice is the translation of 'called' or 'named' by 
to iu : 

Suzuki to iu hlto ;'a man called Suzuki, (more lit. a man they call Suzuki). 

3) The passive is, however, occasionally used : 

Inu wo korosareta hUo tea ano hlto desu ; that is the man whose dog was killed. 
Taro ni kowasareta koppu tea kind katta bakari no desu ; the tumbler 
which Taro broke was the one I had only just bought yesterday. 

332. Relative clauses are often translated in other ways, some of which are 
shown in the following examples : 

Mune no icaruku naru hanashi ; a story which it makes one feel sick to listen 
to. 

Sono meishi no kata ; the gentleman who left that card. 

Musume ga hitori atte Haru to moshimasu ; he has one daughter whose 
name is O Hani. 

333. The relative pronoun 'what', which is equivalent to 'the thing which', 
is translated by koto or mono (sometimes contracted to no) .* 

Kino mita koto ; what I saw yesterday. 

Anaia no ossharu no rca honto desu ; what you say is quite true. 

334. ' Where ' as a relative is often translated by tokoro : 

Is this where we take the boat ? koko gafune ni noru tokoro desu ka ? 

335. 'When' as a relative is translated in various ways : 

1 ) In the sense of ' at the time ', by toki (ni) orjibun (ni) : 
When I lived in Yokohama ; Yokohama ni ita toki (ni). 

2) In the sense of ' by the time ', by made ni : 

It will be done when you come ; o-ide nasaru made ni kitto dekite imasu. 

3) In the sense of 'after' or 'as soon as'. 

a) In general statements first form of the present and to. 
When the bell rings the train starts ; kane ga naru to kisha ga deru. 

b) Referring to the future past conditional. 

When you have finished come to my room ; sundara icatashi no heya ni o-ide. 

c) Referring to the past generally by first form of the present and to ; 
Sometimes by the past conditional. 

When he arrived it started to rain ; ano hUo ga kuru to ame ga furi-dashita. 
When I told him what you said he got very angry ; oshatta koto wo itlara 
taihen okorimashita. 



OF THE JAPANESE SPOKEN LANGUAGE 



73 



s - 1 - 1 

S !s 

h^"^ 
CJ 

3 



c 

s -- 

< o 



> cS 

S SB 

5 c 

* >-i 

c S 

O J 

1 .= 

g o" 

2 - 

- "o5 






pH ^ 

(O S 
CO o 



j _ 

^^ ^ ^* 

!g !a " "S fe o o 

^3J5-5J5o ^3 -fl^3 

^5 JS ji 




'O 



5i^^; X ea 

111| I I g 
9 9 4> * S "3 c:>> 




.9 



.2.52-2 3 2 




s lsfl' 



'1 



^S 

:? 



^^.. 
^ -5 >> c -- S^^-G 

3 Jo -g -o 8 a S a gS x 



"^ ** 






ft i 

2 3 



ff fe "S fe S 

OO 

-g-s-g^sss 

gogo o 
oo 






* 



. 



il 1 




74 ELEMENTARY GRAMMAR 



337. The English translations given in the above tables only show very 
imperfectly how these pronouns are used in Japanese. The numerous exam- 
ples found in the Vocabulary, (Part III), and in Exercises 74, 75, 76 and 77 
(Part I), should be carefully studied. In the Vocabulary under the word dare, 
for instance, examples of the other expressions in that line, dare ka, dare mo 
and dare de mo will be found ; in Exercise 75, for instance, examples of dare ka, 
donata ka, and the other expressions in that column are grouped together so as 
to show clearly the force of ka in these combinations. 

338. Kochi, sochi, achi, and dochi are generally pronounced kotchi, sotchi, 
atchi, and dotchi. 

339. Asoko is very often corrupted to asuko, and nani is frequently contracted 
to nan. 

340. The nouns dore and dotchi both correspond to the interrogative ' which ? * 
but dore is used when referring to more than two, and dotchi when speaking of 
two things only. Dono is an adjective, it also means 'which?' and refers to 
more than two things. 

Nihon de dore ga ichiban takai yama desti, ka ? which is the highest mountain 
in Japan ? 

O cha to kohii to dotchi ga o stiki desu ? which would you like, tea or coffee ? 
Dono hon wo yondara ii desho ? which book would you advise me to read ? 

341 . Interrogatives in connection with numerals are explained in 277. 

342. Interrogative pronouns, when used as subject, takega, never wa : dare 
ga kimashita (ka) ? who has coane ? 

343. Kore, kono, etc. refer to things near the speaker ; sore, sono, etc. to 
things at some little distance or things connected with the 2nd person ; are, 
ano, etc. to things still farther away. Sore is used when referring to something 
just said or done by the 2nd person. 

344. Kore, sore and are may be followed by any postposition. 

345. Kore, sore and are may denote time : kore is the present moment, so 
kore kara 'from now on' means 'in future' ; sore kara 'after that' may refer to 
past or future ; are kara ' after that ' refers always to the past. 

346. Kono, sono, ano and dono are often equivalent to kore no, etc. 

347. Kono denotes time in the common expressions : kono aida (or konaida) 
'a short time ago', (something recent, but past) ; kono-goro ' of late ' (some- 
thing recent which still continues). 

348. Kono gurai 'about this much', kore dake 'this much', kore hodo 'so 
much as this', and the corresponding expressions in sono, sore, ano, are, dono, 
dore are often met with. 

349. Konna, sonna, etc. used attributively, are often contemptuous. 
The meaning of the adverbiat*forms, konna ni, etc. is similar to a superlative 
and may be inferred from the following examples : 



OF THE JAPANESE SPOKEN LANGUAGE 75 

Konna ni muzukashii skigoto tea deki-nai ; I cannot do such difficult work 
as this. 

Sonna ni muzukashii no desu ka ? is it as difficult as all that ? 
Sonna ni muzukaslnku nai ; it is not so very difficult. 

350. Ko generally refers to something which is going to be said or done ; so 
to something which has just been said or done. 

Watakushi wa ko kangaemasu . . . . ; this is what I think .... 

Dare ga so iimashUa ? who said so ? 

So shite wa ikemasen ; don 't do it like that. 

351 . Do as an interrogative, can generally be, and often is, replaced by ikaga 
which is more polite. 

Ika hodo is a polite substitute for ikura. 

352. When inquiring about a place, doko no is generally used instead of 
dono : 

Doko no gakko e ikimasu ka ? to what school are you going ? 

353. To ask the name of a thing we use nan to : 

Kono kudamono wa nan to iimasu ka ? what do you call this fruit ? 



CHAPTER VII. 



HONORIFICS AND POLITE PHRASES. 

354. The Japanese have the habit of distinguishing in their speech the ac- 
tions and things of the 1st person (or related to the 1st person) to which they 
apply humble words, from the actions and things of the 2nd person (or related 
to the 2nd person) and to these they apply honorifics. They also take into 
account whether the act of the 1st person is related or not to the 2nd person, 
and whether the act of the 2nd person is related or not to the 1st. 
Patois 'I eat (something you have given me)'; but you would 

gohan wo taberu to dekakemashita I went out this morning immediately a 
eating my breakfast. 

Even the relation of superiority or inferiority between the 2nd and < 
persons is sometimes taken into consideration. Thus : o to-san mo me 
kudasai please show it to your father ; but vmsuko san ni misete kuc 
show it to your son. , . 

355. We may divide all verbs and nouns roughly into three classi 

words, honorifics, and humble words. 

t 



76 



ELEMENTARY GRAMMAR 



The difference may exist in the words themselves which are depreciatory or 
exaltative, or in certain adjuncts which modify the meaning of the principal 
word. 

356. Speaking broadly, humble words are used for the 1st person, honorific* 
are applied to the 2nd person and plain words are employed for the 3rd 
person. 

Each case, however, must be judged on its merits. Thus, if a man is speaking 
to his own servant, he would probably use plain words for both the 1st and 2nd 
persons. On the other hand we often apply honorifics to the 3rd person if we 
want to show special respect, or if that 3rd person is present. 

357. In this way, humble and honorific words in a great measure take the 
place of our personal and possessive pronouns, which, as before mentioned 
(319), are not much used in Japanese. 

358. The following lists will give an idea of the more common humble and 
honorific verbs : 



Be 

Come 
Do 

Drink 
Eat 

Give 



HUMBLE 


PLAIN 


HONORIFIC 




i'ru (oru) 


i'ru (oru) 


f o-ide nasaru 




(mairu ") 
I agaru t 


kuru 


( o-ide nasaru 
\ irassharu 




( suru 1 








iitasu ) 


suru 


nasaru 




( itadaku 1 
(.chodai suru) 


nomu 


( meshi-agaru 
1 agaru 




( itadaku l 
1 chodai suru ) 


( tabe'ru } 
I kuu ) 


( meshi-agaru 
\ agaru 








(kudasaru\ (action 


in favour of 


age'ru 


yaru 


kure'ru* ) 
o yari nasaru (not 


[1st person) 
in favour of 



[1st person) 


Go 


( mairu ") 
1 agaru ) 


iku 


( o-ide nasaru 
I irassharu 




Inquire 


ukagau 


( tazune'ru ) 
I kiku ) 


( o tazune nasaru 
1 o kiki nasaru 




Know 


zonji'ru 


shim 


go zonji de irassharu (de 


aru, 


Look 


haiken suru 


mi'ru 


goran nasaru [or de go 


zaru) 


Meet 


o me ni kakaru 


au 


o at nasaru 




Receive 


( itadaku ") 
1 chodai suru ) 


(uke'ru 1 
1 morau ) 


o moral nasaru 





*Kure"fU is used only when speaking of the giving of an inferior, and in this sense it 
cannot be called an honorific ; it corresponds, however, to this column, inasmuch as it refers 
always to the act of the 2nd (or 3rd) person, and is never used in the 1st person. 



OF THE JAPANESE SPOKEN LANGUAGE 77 



HUMBLE PLATN HONORIFIC 

fo mise nasaru 
Show o me ni kake'ru mise'ru -I o mise kudasaru > (action in fa- 

^haiken wise'ru ) vouroflstp.) 
(moshi-age'ru} (in ) 

S P eak \mosu } ihanasul 

..... (ukagau\ 

I agaru / tazune'ru 

In the above table nasaru where it occurs may be replaced by ni naru, de 
gozaru, or, somewhat less politely, by de aru. The combination goran de gozaru. 
however, is not in ujse. . , 

The above verbs in nasaru are polite but the plain imperative in nasai as 
o-ide nasai, o yari nasai, goran nasai, etc. is decidedly familiar. Say kudasai 
instead of nasai. 

359. A plain verb may be made honorific by replacing the ordinary inflexions 
by the following periphrases : 1) o, 2) the stem of the verb, 3) nasaru, ni naru 
or de gozaru ; e.g. mo o kaeri nasaimashlta ka ? mo o kaeri ni narimaslnta ka ? 
or mo o kaeri de gozaimasu ka ? have you already returned ? 

Instead of de gozaru, de aru may be used, but the sentence is then appreciably 
less polite. O dekake desu ka ? 'are you going out ?' is, so far as politeness is 
concerned, about midway between dekakemasu ka ? and o dekake de gozaimasu 
ka ?* 

360. In the negative, the constructions in de gozaru and de aru are not much 
used ; when employed it is usual to put zva after the de. 

Between the verbal stem and de gozaru or de aru you sometimes find no liazu 
or no yd : o deki no hazu de gozaimasu he ought to be able to (I expect he can) 
do it. 

361 . Verbal inflexions containing i'ru may be made honorific by changing 
i'ru to irassharu. Yoku hon zco yonde imasu ne 'you do read a lot, don 't you ? ' 
may be said more politely thus, yoku honwo yonde irasshaimasu ne.^ 

Verbal constructions in which suru occurs can be made honorific by replacing 
sum by nasaru ; if itasii is put instead of sum they are made humble. Benkyo 
stmi, benkijo nasaru (polite), to study ; o hanashi suru uchi ni, o hatiaxhi ituxfi 
uchi ni (humble), while I was speaking. 

362. When the action of the 2nd (or 3rd) person is performed in favour of 
the 1st person you use the honorific o, the stem of the verb, and the verb kuda- 

*A polite construction of gozaru after the gerund was noted in 100 

fDe irasaharu sometimes takes the place of de gozaru after a verbal stem or noun : hon wo o 

yomi de gozaimasu ka ? (or de irassltaimasu ka ?) ; go benkyo de gozaimasu (or de irasslaimat*). 

The polite construction of iraslam after the adjectival gonmd was noted in 200, 9. 



78 



ELEMENTARY GRAMMAR 



saru ;* or else, the gerund followed by kudasaru. Kono tegami wo o yom i 
kudasaimasen ka ? or kono tf garni IKO yonde kudasaimasen ka ? would you please 
read this letter for me ? 

However, if the performer of the act is one's inferior (e.g. one's servant) use 
the gerund followed by kure'ru. Jochu go, yonde kureta ; the servant read it 
forme. (Compare 109). 

363. The verb age'ru placed after the gerund has the result of making the 
verb humble ; occasionally also mosu is placed after o and the stem of a verb 
for this same purpose : 

Yonde agemasho ka ? shall I read it to you ? 
tanomi moshimasu ; I request you. 

364. The following are some of the more common 
nouns : 

PLAIN HONORIFIC 

chichi o to-sama 

liaha o kd-sama 



humble and honorific 



Husband 



Wife 

Son 

Daughter 
Elder J 
brother) 
Elder sister 



HUMBLE 

chichi 

ha ha 

yado 

taku 
\ uchi 
[ shujin 

kanai 

musuko 
musume 



( teishu (lower class) 1 
I danna (upper class) J 

{ kanai (lower class) ) 

o-kami-san 
oku-san (upper class) J 
musuko 
musume 

ani 



one 



danna sama 



( o-kami-san (lower class) 
1 oku-sama (upper class) 

musuko san 
o-jo-san 

nii-san 
ne-san 



365. Plain nouns may be made honorific by prefixing the words o or go : 
O tegami tco uke-torimashita ; I have received your letter. 

366. Custom has tacked the honorific prefixes on to certain nouns in such a 
way that the exaltative idea has become very vague : thus o cha tea, o yu hot 
water, etc. are generally though not always used with an honorific, whosesoever 
the tea or the hot water may be : expressions like o-jo-san daughter ; o-shaberi 
chatterbox, are hardly ever heard without the honorific. (See 18). 

367. Sometimes indeed the honorific has entirely lost its meaning as in onaka 
the belly (lit. honourable inside) ; omae (lit. honourable in front), is an im- 
polite way of saying ' you '. 

368. The honorific o is sometimes placed before an adjective. O isoganhlii 
gozaimasu ka ? are you busy ? 



*Kudasaru may only be used after the stem of a verb, if the stem has two or more syllables.- 



OF THE JAPANESE SPOKEN LANGUAGE 79 

369. We may also make some nouns honorific by adding the word Mr san 
(or sama which is more polite). Thus: imoto means 'my (or his) younger 
sister', imdto san will be 'your younger sister'. 

370. In Japanese you put the surname before the personal name when calling 
a person by his full namo. 

371 . The equivalent in Japanese of our Mr, Mrs, Master, or Miss is Sama 
generally abbreviated to San. It is put after the name. 

372. -Periphrases like : Tanaka San no oku-san Mr Tanaka's wife, Tanaka 
San no musuko san Mr Tanaka's son, are employed when the simple use of san 
might be the cause of ambiguity. 

373. When calling a woman by her personal name o is generally prefixed 
when we wish to be polite. However the o must not be used if the name has 
more than two (Japanese) syllables : Yuki San Miss Snow. Take San 
Miss Bamboo. You cannot say : Sonoe San, nor Kin-ko San (Ki-n-ko). 

374. Besides this use of humble words and honorifics, which serves to dis- 
tinguish my things which are inferior from yours (or his) which are superior, 
there are certain polite inflexions of the verb which must be used when speaking 
to anyone to whom AVC owe courtesy, irrespective of the person who performs 
the action of the verb. If you wish to be polite always use the inflexions of 
the verb in masu, mashita, masho, instead of those without ; and what is the 
same, use desu, deshlta, and desho instead of da, datta and daro. By frequently 
replacing the verb aru by the verb gozaru, a thing which women especially are 
very fond of doing, we can make our conversation still more markedly polite 
and respectful. 

375. The honorifics are often used in ways which at first strike the foreigner 
as strange. Here are a few of the more common polite phrases in which honori- 
fics are to be found : 

Gomen kudasai ; excuse me, (lit. august pardon grant). 

O-kage sama de ; by your kind influence, (lit. by Mr honourable shade). 

seica sama deshlta ; thanks for your kind assistance, (lit. it was Mr honour- 
able help). 

O kinodoku sama ; I am very sorry for your sake, (lit. Mr honourable regret). 

sasshi moshimasu ; I deeply sympathize with you, (lit. I say honourable 
sympathy). 

Go-kuro sama deshlta ; thanks for your trouble, (lit. it was Mr august trouble). 

O machidd sama ; excuse me for keeping you waiting so long, (lit. Mr honour- 
able long-waiting). 

Go taikutsu de gozaimashltaro ; you must have felt bored, (lit. it probably 
was august tedium). 

jama itashimashita ; excuse me for having interrupted you, (lit. I have 
done honourable obstacle). 



80 ELEMENTARY GRAMMAR 



Go busata itashimashita ; I have been sadly remiss about calling upon you. 
(lit. I have done august remissness). 

376. In regard to honorifics, there are two things to be carefully avoided : 

1) Never apply San or any .other honorific to yourself. 

2) Do not mix up polite and impolite turns of phrase in one sentence. In- 
stead of ikimashlta ga dame datta, say ikimashlta ga dame deshita, or ittaga dame 
datta. 

377. The question of speaking with the proper degree of politeness is_ of the 
utmost importance in Japanese, so to help the foreigner to form his judgment 
a letter, A, B, C, or D, has been placed after each sentence in the Exercises, 
Part I, and also in the Vocabulary, Part III. A means that the tone of the 
sentence is one of authority or anger, B familiarity, C ordinary politeness. 7> 
respect. 

378. This classification must not be taken too literally ; however, it gives a 
rough idea of the subject and so may be of some help. In speaking to an 
ordinary acquaintance do not use style B and still less A ; in speaking to your 
servant, C would probably be too polite and D would be ridiculous. In case 
of doubt it is better to be too polite than not polite enough. 



CHAPTER VIII. 



POSTPOSITIONS PREPOSITIONS. 

379. The words that in Japanese serve to mark the relation of one word to 
another are placed after the word to which they refer and not before as our 
prepositions. The Japanese equivalents of our prepositions are, therefore, 
called postpositions. 

380. The principal postpositions are: de, e, ga, ka, kara, made, mo, na, ni, 
no, shi, to, wa, wo, ya, yori. For the way each one is used, consult the Vocabu- 
lary, Part III. 

381 . Postpositions generally are placed after nouns or words equivalent to 
nouns ; they sometimes follow adverbs. 

382. Two or even three postpositions may follow tach other in Japanese. 
The principal of these combinations may be found in the Vocabulary, in their 
respective places ; see the words de, made, ni, no, to, yori, etc. As examples 
of three postpositions following each other, these may serve : 

Watashi no de iva arimasen ; it is not mine. 
Dare ni de mo o kiki nasai ; ask anybody. 



01' THE JAPANESE SPOKEN LANGUAGE 81 

383. Quasi-postpositions. Certain nouns preceded by the postposition no 
are used very much like postpositions and may therefore be called quasi-post- 
positions. The principal nouns used in this way are the following : aida, ato, 
hoka, kage, kami, kau-ari, mae, maivari, muko, naka, oinole. saki, shimo, shita, 
soba, soto, tame, tsuide, win, ue, lira, ushiro. 

384. These words drop the postposition no after a verb or adjective. They 
also follow kono, sono, and ano without the no ; (remember that kono, etc. are 
equivalent to kore no, etc. as stated in 346). 

So sum hoka (or sono hoka) shikata ga nai ; there is nothing else one can do : 
(not no hoka). 

Kino furimashita kawari ni kyo wa ii o lenki de gozaimasu ; it rained yesterday 
but the weather is fine today ; (not no kazcari). 

Ano uchi wo, semai hoka ni kitanai ; that house is small and besides it is 
dirty. 

Sometimes the noun to which the quasi-postposition refers and the no are 
both omitted. 

(Hako ho) naka ico goran nasai ; look inside (the box). 

Omae ga (watashi no} kawari ni ayamari ni itte o kure ; go and apologize (for 
me). 

385. Here are a few examples of nouns followed by quasi-postpositions : 

tsukue no ue, on the table ; 

mon no soto, outside the gate ; 

hashi no shlta, under the bridge ; 

hako no naka, inside the box. 

386. Phrases like these, i.e. a noun followed by a quasi-postposition, behave 
very much like the nouns (e.g. atarimae, asoko, etc.) from which qtiasi-adjec- 
tives in no are formed (212 et seqq.). 

1) When they come before a noun they take no : 
ATARIMAE no kami ; ordinary paper ; 

HAKO NO NAKA no kami ; the paper inside the box. 

2) As predicates they take de : 
ATARIMAE desu (de arimosu) ; it is usual ; 
HAKO NO NAKA dcsH ; it is in the box. 

3) As predicates in a negative sentence they are followed by de wa : 
ATARIMAE de wa nai ; it is not usual : 

HAKO NO NAKA de rcfl nai ; it is not in the box. 

4) If the verb aru has the meaning of 'there are', they take ni : 
ASOKO ni aru ; there are some there ; 

HAKO NO NAKA ni aru ; there are some in the box. 

5) Before other verbs they take ni or any other postposition ace 
the sense : 



82 ELEMENTARY GRAMMAR 



ASOKO ni mieru ; I can see it there ; 

HAKO xo XAKA ni niieru ; I can see it in the box. 

ASOKO wo miinashlta ; I looked there ; 

HAKO NO NAKA wo mimashita ; I looked in the box. 

ASOKO kara deta ; it came out from there ; 

HAKO NO NAKA kara deta ; it came out from inside the box. 

387. As mentioned in 58, 8, the gerunds of verbs sometimes correspond to 
our prepositions. 

388. Likewise, in 151 we showed that English prepositional verbs may often 
be translated by Japanese compound verbs. 

389. Wa and Ga may both be used after the subject of the verb and the 
problem of determining which is the correct one to use in each particular case 
is an ever-recurring puzzle to the foreigner. 

It is doubtful whether it is worth while learning a lot of more or less com- 
plicated rules on the subject, or whether it is not better to learn a few easy rules 
and trust to your luck, and later on to your instinct, in the cases not determin- 
ed by these rules. 

The beginner may derive some consolation from the fact that there is a good 
deal of variety among the Japanese themselves in the use of wa and ga. 

Some of the following rules or observations may prove useful.* 

390. Wa is used : 1) when it is a question of selecting a predicate i.e.the sub- 
ject is known and we wish to find out or wish to inform somebody what pred- 
icate should be applied to it. The state of mind may be represented by 'A is 
X '. For instance, if I am taking a friend round Tokyo to see the sights, and 
we come across a big building ; the subject is there before his eyes, but he does 
not know whether it is the Foreign Office, the Post Office or what it is. He 
asks : 

Kore wa nan desu ka ? what is this ? 

Kore wa Nippon-Ginko desu ; this is the Bank of Japan. 

2) Similar to the above is the rule that wa is used when the Japanese con- 
struction requires the subject to be placed by itself first, and then followed 
by a question in regard to it, beginning with an interrogative pronoun or 
adverb : 

Ano hito wa dare desu ka ? who is that man ? 

Shio u'ff dono gurai mazatte imasa ka ? how much salt is there (in this) ? 

3) Wa has the effect of separating from the rest of the sentence what comes 
before it and calling especial attention to what follows. It is as if we said : 
'I am speaking of. A, and what I want to say (or ask) is this'. 

Nashi wa mono-oki ni arimasu ka ? He, shokudo ni arimasu. Are the pears 

*For further information see Imbrie's Wa and Ga. 



OF THE JAPANESE SPOKEN LANGUAGE 83 

in the pantry ? no, they are in the dining-room. (I am speaking of the pears, 
are they in the pantry ?) 

As a consequence of this, wa is not used after the subject in a subordinate 
clause. 

4) Wa is generally used when there is a contrast, at least an implied one : 
Watakushi wa mairimasu ; I shall go, (others may go or not as they please). 

5) Wa is specially common in negative sentences. 

6) Wa is used in elliptical interrogative sentences with only a noun, (414, 5) : 
Inu zva ? how about the dog ? or, what of the dog ? 

391 . Ga is used : 1 ) when it is a question of selecting the subject ; i.e. the pred- 
icate is known and we wish to find out, or wish to inform somebody, to which 
subject that predicate should be applied. The state of mind may be represent- 
ed by 'X is B '. For instance, a friend may ask me to take him to the bank ; 
on coming to an imposing-looking building he might ask : 

Kore ga ginko desu ka ? is this the bank ? 

He does not mean ' if this is not the bank, please tell me what it is ' ; but 
* if this is not the bank, please tell me which is the bank'. 
Are ga ginko desu ; that is the bank. 

a) We may consider as a particular case of the above that interrogative 
pronouns, (dare, donata, dotchi, dochira, dore, dono and nani, who ? which ? 
what ?) are all followed by ga : 

Dare ga so ilia ka ? who said so ? 

b) Another application of the above rule is, that in sentences containing a 
formal comparison, the subject takes ga, and the thing with which the subject 
is compared, is generally separated off by wa : 

Kore yori wa are ga ii ; that is better than this. 

2) Except in the case of contrast, ga is used with the subject of aru when it 
has the meaning of, 'there is' ' have (got)' : 

Kane ga arimasu ka ? have you got any money ? 

3) Except in the case of contrast, ga is used before deki'ru (in the sense of 
' can '), iru (to need), and hoshii. 

Nihon-go ga deki-nai ; I cannot speak Japanese. 

4) Ga (or no) is used with the subject of a subordinate clause ; see 328. 

392. In the following examples wa and ga are contrasted. 

Ano kata wa Yamada San desu ka ? is that gentleman Mr Yamada ? (if not, 
who is he ?). The answer might be : lie, ano kata wa Suzuki San desu ; no, he 
is Mr Suzuki. 

Ano kata ga Yamada San desu ka ? is that gentleman Mr Yamada ? (if not, 
which is Mr Yamada ?). The answer might be : He, ano ki no shlta ni tatte iru 
kata ga Yamada San desti ; no, Mr Yamada is the gentleman standing under 
that tree. 



84 ELEMEN'TAKY GKAMMAK 



Kore ti'a ginko desu ka ? is this a bank ? (if not, what is it ?). 

Kore tea ginko desu ; this is a bank (and not a post office). 

Kore ga ginko desu ka ? is this the bank (for which I am looking ; if not, 
which is the bank ?). 

Kore ga ginko desu ; this (and not that building over there) is the bank. 

Kore wa ii no desu ka ? is this a good one ? (or a bad one ?). 

Kore tea ii ; this is a good one (not a bad one) ; this one is good. 

Kore ga ii no desu ka ? is this the good one ? (or is the other the good 
one ?). 

Kore ga ii ; this (not that) is the good one ; this one is the best. 

Some of these examples show that the difference between tea and ga may 
sometimes be rendered by the proper use of ' a ' and ' the '. 

393. De and H\ may both be translated by : at. in, by, of, for. 

1) In the sense of 'at' or 'in', de refers to the place where an action is per- 
formed ; ni to the place where a thing exists. 

Tokyo de kaimashlta ; I bought it in Tokyo. 

Tokyo ni takusan arimasu ; there are a great many in Tokyo. 

2) In the sense of 'by', de is used when speaking of the instrument, ni when 
speaking of the agent : 

Kisha de iku ; to go by train. 

Daiku ni kosJi iraesasemashita ; I had it made by a carpenter. 

3) In the partitive sense of 'of ', either de or ni may be used : 

Nihon no fujin ni (or de) yofiiku wo kiru Into mo gozaimasu ; some of the 
Japanese ladies wear foreign clothes. 

4) When speaking of price, 'for' is translated by de when buying is spoken 
of ; by ni or de when we are talking of selling. 

Ni-yen de katte san-yen ni urimasliita ; I bought it for two yen and sold it 
for three. 

5) When a noun is used as a predicate or in constructions imitating a gerund, 
it takes the postposition de. (Compare 217; 219). 

Inaka defuben da ; it is such a country place that it is not convenient. 

Ame de mo iku tsumori desti ; I intend to go even if it rains. 

This de is often used after the no which serves to substantivize verbs and 
adjectives : 

Kono kami iva Nihon de dekita no de 'oto desu ; this paper was made in Japan, 
it is very good. 

Kyaku ga kita no de ikare-nakatta ; a visitor came to see me so I wasn 't able 
to go. 

(J) When a noun is used adverbially it is followed by the postposition ni.. 
(Compare 218). 

Kin ni mieru ; it looks like gold. 



OF THE JAPANESE SPOKKN LANGUAGE 85 



CHAPTER. IX. 



THE OTHER PARTS OF SPEECH. 



ADVERBS. 

3S4. Words which in Japanese do duty as adverbs are generally derived from 
other parts of speech. The principal are the following : 

1) True adjectives in their ku terminations. (190, 4 ; 192). 

2) Nouns which serve to form quasi-adjectives in na or no become adverbs 
when they change the na or no into ni. (218). 

3) In some cases the adverbial form in ni is in use but there is no correspond- 
ing adjective : sugu (ni) immediately. 

4) Occasionally a noun followed by de is equivalent to an adverb : maru de 
quite. 

5) Nouns without any postposition : konnichi today ; asuko that place, i.e. 
there. Like ordinary nouns, these adverb-nouns may take any postposition ; 
konnichi made until today. 

0) A few ordinary nouns may be converted into adverbs by reduplication : 
hobo everywhere, from ho side ; tabi-tabi often, from tabi time ; etc. 

7) Stems of verbs : amari too, from amaru to be in excess ; kiri only, from 
kiru to cut. 

8) Gerunds of verbs : hajimete for the first time, from hajime'ru to begin ; 
hokora-zu all without exception, from nokoru to be left over. 

395. There is a large class of adverbs to which to is sometimes added ; as : 
bonyari (to) dimly, iiakkiri (to) distinctly. 

356. The to which is found at the end of other adverbs and which forms now 
an integral part of the word itself, is perhaps often of the same origin : chanto, 
chitto, chotto, jitto, kitto, motto, sotto, zutto. 

397. Onomatopes form a very important class of adverbs in Japanese. They 
are extremely numerous, several hundreds in fact, and each one has its own 
special use. The beginner will not find it worth his while to learn many of 
them at first. They are often formed by reduplication as may be seen by the 
following few examples : 

don-don, in rapid succession ; 

guzu-guzu, (of loitering, or grumbling) ; 

mago-mago, (of being bewildered) ; 

mecha-mccha, (of confusion) ; 

niko-niko, (of smiling) ; 

.< oro-soro, slowlv. 



86 ELEMENTARY GRAMMAR 



398. Adverbs in Japanese as in English may modify verbs, adjectives or 
other adverbs. 

Hayaku aruku, to wajk quickly. 
Osoroshlku warui, dreadfully bad. 
Zuibun zcarui, very bad. 
Zuibun hayaku aruku, to walk very fast. 

399. There is no word in Japanese which corresponds to 'yes'. The usual 
way of replying in the affirmative is to say, hai, e or he and to repeat the verb, 
using the humble verb when necessary : 

Go hon Tea arimasktia ka ? did you find your book ? E, arimashlta ; yes, I 
found it. 

E ico goran nasaimashlta ka ? have you seen my picture ? Hai, hai ken 
shimashlta ; I have seen it. 

It can hardly be said that hai, e or lie by itself means ' yes'. We get 
a nearer approach to ' yes ' in the expression so desu (or more politely, say 5 
de gozaimasu) which means ' that is so ' ; and which sometimes takes the place 
of our ' yes '. 

400. ' No ' may be translated by He ; but it is better to repeat the verb in 
the corresponding negative inflexion. 

401 . It must be borne in mind that the Japanese ' yes ' or ' no ' refers not to 
the objective fact nor to what you have said, but to what they think is in your 
mind. You may often hear things like this : Doko de katia no desu ka ? lie 
jibun de koshiraeia no desu. Where did you buy it ? No, I made it myself ; 
i.e. your question supposes that I bought it somewhere, that is not so, I made 
it myself. 

The result of this custom is, that when answering a negative question tlu-y 
often, but not always, say 'yes' say 6 de gozaimasu, where we would say ' no ', 
and ' no ' He, where we say ' yes ' . Supposing you ask somebody : Kyo ikimasen 
ka ? ' aren't you going today ?' If he does not intend to go he will say : Saijo 
de gozaimasu, and his meaning will be : 'The suggestion implied in your negative 
question is correct ; I am not going '. If on the other hand he does intend to 
go, he will answer : lie, and he means : ' It is not as you suggest ; I am going'. 
However, if the question is: Tetsudatte kudasalmasen ka? won't you kindly help 
me ? he will think you are counting on his help, and his answer may be- : />'. 
tetsudatte agemasu to mo yes, of course I will ; or lie, tetsudaimasen no, I won't. 

Besides the case mentioned, of answering to what is in the mind rather than 
to the words themselves, it is well to notice that the Japanese, especially those 
of the lower class, say ' yes ' : (a) when they think you expect the answer yes ; 
(b) when they think it impolite or inconvenient to contradict what you say or 
what they believe is in your mind : (c) when they haven't understood what 
you said and they think ' yes ' is practically the safest answer to give. 



OF THE JAPANESE SPOKEN LANGUAGE 87 

402. When answering a question, therefore, the best plan is to repeat the 
verb in the affirmative or negative as the case may be. When asking a ques- 
tion the beginner should prefer the affirmative form ; and, when he really wants 
to get a true answer, avoid showing in the question what his own opinion is. 
However, should he use the negative form and be in doubt as to the meaning 
of the reply, he must try to obtain an explicit answer and not merely a sayo 
de gozaimasu or an He. 

Kyo kimasen ka ? aren't you coming today ? 

lie yes (?), no (?). 

Kimasu ka ? kimasen ka ? are you coming or are you not ? 

This last question will probably produce the desired result. 

403. The interrogative adverb, ' why ' is translated by naze or do shite. 
Some other adverbs were mentioned in the chapter on Pronouns ; see 334 
et seqq. 

CONJUNCTIONS. 

404. The conjunction ' and ' between nouns is translated : 

1) By placing to after each noun ; the last to is generally omitted : 

Sato to, pan to, niku wo kaimashita ; I bought some sugar, bread and meat. 

2) Ya placed after each noun except the last, is often used especially when 
the list is not given as a complete one : 

Inu ya neko ga suki ; I am fond of dogs and cats (and other animals). 

3) Da no or to ka may also be placed after each noun, including the last. 
Inu da no neko da no ga suki or Inu to ka neko to ka ga suki ; I am fond of 

dogs and cats (and other animals). 

4) Mo is placed after each noun when the idea is ' both and ' : 
Sakana mo niku mo kaimasho ; I will buy both fish and meat. 
Tokyo ni mo Yokohama ni mo ; both in Tokyo and in Yokohama. 

5) Ni may be used in enumerations after each noun except the last ; it 
has the meaning of ' and also ' : 

Pan ni, sakana ni, niku -wo matte ikimasho ; I will take bread, fish and also 
meat. 

6) Between nouns which are habitually coupled together ' and ' is often not 
expressed in Japanese : oya-ko parent and child ; asa-ban morning and evening. 

405. The joining of verbs or clauses is effected as follows : 

1) The verb or adjective at the end of each clause, except the last, is put in 
the gerundial form : remember that a noun followed by de is construed like a 
gerund (393, 5) : 

Hon wo katte tomodachi ni agemashlta ; I bought a book and gave it to my 
friend. 



88 ELEMENTARY GRAMMAR 



Shina ga yoroshlkute, nedan ga yasui ; the quality is good and the price is 
cheap. 

2) The stem of the verb may be used at the end of each clause, except the 
last (82, 9). 

3) Shi is used after verbs, and after adjectives ; the last verb or adjective 
does not take shi. This shi is generally used in conjunction with mo mo, 
thus : 

Ano hito wa Nihon-go mo hanasu shi, ji mo kakimasu ; that man can speak 
Japanese and he can also write the characters. 

Shina mo ii shi nedan mo yasui ; the quality is good and the price cheap. 

4) The conditional is used as shown in these examples : 
Kiki mo sureba mi mo shita ; I both heard and saw. 

Shina mo yoroshikereba nedan mo yasui ; the quality is good and the price 
is cheap. 

5) The frequentative : 

Shabettari warattari shite ita de wa arimasen ka ? weren't you talking and 
laughing ? 

6) After verbs like ' go ' and ' come ', when ' and ' means purpose or object. 
it is translated by the stem of the verb and ni : 

Tori ni o-ide nasai ; please go and fetch it. 

7) Sentences may sometimes be joined by such phrases as so shite (soshlte), 
1 having done so ', sore ni, sono ue, ' besides that '. These expressions are 
also used occasionally after clauses ending in a noun or ni or to. 

S) Sometimes no conjunctival word nor special construction is used : 

Doko no, nan to iu o kata da ? where is he from, and what is his name ? 

Natsu wa suzushii, fuyu wa attakai, jitsu ni ii tokoro da ; it is really a very 
nice place, cool in summer and warm in winter. 

Kane wa nakusu, shigoto wa namakeru, to iu wake de Chobe San sukkari bimbo 
ni natta ; what with losing money and doing no work, Chobe became quite a 
poor man. 

406. 'And' between adjectives is treated as follows : 

1) The gerundial form (200, 1 ; 219) is used for all the adjectives except the 
last. 

Shirokute kirei ; white and pretty. 
Kirei de shiroi ; pretty and white. 

2) It is sometimes necessary to employ two clauses in Japanese where in 
English we only use two adjectives coupled by 'and' : 

The article is good and cheap ; shina ga yoroshlkute nedan ga yasui, (lit. 
the quality is good, and price cheap). 

3) When an adjective is at the end of a clause which is not the end of a com- 
plete sentence it may be treated as above, 405. 



OF THE JAPANESE SPOKEN LANGUAGE 89 

4) Iii Japanese as in English adjectives are sometimes put one after another 
without any conjunctive word : 

Kirei na wakai hlto ; a handsome young man. 

407. ' Or ' is translated : 

1) generally by ka repeated after each noun : what is one sentence in English 
often becomes two or three in Japanese : 

Kore ka are ka ; this or that. 

O taku ni neko ka inu ka ga imasu ka ? have you a cat or a dog in your house? 

Atsui no ga o suki desu ka ? tsumetai no ga yd gozaimasu ka ? do you like it 
hot or cold ? 

Dotchi wo goran nasatta no desu ka ? okii no desu ka ? chiisai no desu ka f 
which did you see, the big one or the small one ? 

2) To ka is sometimes put after each noun : 

Pen to ka fade to ka dotchi ka de o kaki nasai ; write with a pen or a brush 
(but don't use a pencil). 

3) When equivalent to ' if not ', by the negative conditional, or by the nega- 
tive present followed by to : 

Isoga-nakereba o'soku narimasu or isoga-nai to osoku narimasu ; hurry up or 
you will be late. 

4) When 'or' refers to an approximate number it is generally not translated 
(315; 317): 

Go-roku-nen ; five or six years. 

5) 'Either or' 'whether or' in the sense of 'no matter which' is translated 
by mo mo after a gerund or construction equivalent to a gerund : 

Fune de mo kisha de mo ikaremasu ; you can go either by boat or by train. 
O tenki ga yokute mo warukute mo ikimasu ; I will go whether the weather is 
good or bad. 

INTERJECTIONS. 

408. As in most languages, the meaning of Japanese interjections varies con- 
siderably according to circumstances, tone of the voice, expression of face, etc. 
This is especially noticeable in elementary exclamations such as a, e : he. 

409. The principal interjections may be roughly classified as follows : 
Surprise, wonder, admiration : ma, naruhodo, nani, are (corrupted to ara), 

so desu ka, koto (after a verb or adjective). 
Perplexity, hesitation : domo, e to, so desu ne. 
Assent : hai, sayo, so desu, mattaku, nanihodo. 
Dissent : He (sometimes corrupted to iiya), uso, nani. 
Reprimand : kore, sore (often corrupted to kora, sora). 
Calling attention : moshi, moshi moshi, ano ne. 



90 ELEMENTARY GRAMMAR 



Joy, exultation : banzai. 

Protest, complaint : masaka, mono (generally after desu). 
Emphasis : domo, koso, ne, sa, wa. 
Final emphasis : ne, sa, to mo, wa, yo, zo (for threats). 

41 0. Interjections like a, e, ne, he, etc. are pronounced sometimes long and 
sometimes short. 



CHAPTER X. 



SYNTAX. 

411. Construction of the sentence. In Japanese, qualifying words come 
before the word they qualify*. Postpositions, of course, come after the word 
or clause to which they belong. 

Akai hon ; the red book. 

Akai hon no ; of the red book. 

Akai hon no nedan ; the price of the red book. 

Kind mita hito ; the man I saw yesterday. 

412. The order of a Japanese sentence is generally as follows : adverbs of 
time or place, or any word on which emphasis is laid ; subject, when expressed ; 
clauses ; dative ; accusative ; adverb : verb : l Komban ( -watakushi ica) 3 hima 
dattara 4 o kd-san ni & tegami zvo e kitto ^kakimasho; Hhis evening, 3 if I am 
free, 2 I 6 certainly 7 will write 5 a letter *to my mother. 

When one clause depends logically on another, the dependent clause is put 
first and the principal verb last. You do not say ' I cannot go because I am 
busy' but 'as I am busy I cannot go' ; isogashii kara ikaremasen. The regular 
order is, however, often inverted and then the dependent clause partakes of the 
nature of an afterthought : ikaremasen, . . . isogashii kara ; I can 't go, ... I 'm 
busy. 

413. The Japanese subject takes the postposition ga or wa, (389-392), oc- 
casionally de. Sometimes, however, these words are not used ; this is particular- 
ly the case when the subject is qualified by a word like mo also, dake only, etc. 

Sore de takusan ; that is enough. 
Ginko de katta ; the bank bought it. 

* Adjectives are sometimes placed in an order which sounds strange to Western ears ; 
thus you may hear both kono onaji liako and onaji konp hako this same box ; likewise, anata 
no daiji na o-jo-aan and daiji na anata no o-ju-san your daughter, of whom you take such 
great care. 



OF THE JAPANESE SPOKEN* LANGUAGE 91 

Takusan arimasu ; there is plenty. 

Futari kimashita ; two persons came. 

Watashi mo ikimasho ; I'll go also. 

Watashi dake ikimashita ; only I went. 

In verbal phrases used attributively, the subject takes ga or no (328). Ganku 
no (or ga) kalta e a picture painted by Ganku. 

The object in Japanese takes the postposition wo, in cases of contrast 
occasionally wa ; these however, are omitted if the object is qualified by such 
words as mo also, dake only, etc. 

Tamago wa kaimashita ga, niku wa arimasen deshita ; I bought some eggs but 
there was no meat to be had. 

The English objective case often becomes the subject in Japanese. The 
following are the principal cases in which this happens : 

1 ) The accusative of a potential verb. See 1 29 ; 1 33. 

2) The accusative of a desiderative form often, but not always, becomes the 
subject in Japanese. 

Kamakura ga mitaku wa arimasen ka ? don 't you wish to see Kamakura ? 

3) The verbs wakaru to understand, iru to need ; and the words hoshii desi- 
rous, suki fondness for anything, and kirai dislike. 

Ei-go ga wakaru ; I understand English. 

Kane ga irimasu ; it takes money ; I need money. 

Taro iva nashi ga hoshii ; Taro wants a pear. 

Kudamono ga suki ; I like fruit. 

Tabako ga kirai ; I dislike tobacco. 

4) See also suru used independently, 161. 

In the above cases the English subject, when expressed, takes wa, ni, or ni 
tea in Japanese. 

Kimi nifune ga dekiru ? can you make a boat ? 

Watashi ni wa Ei-go ga wakarimasen ; I don't understand English. 

414. Elipses are very frequently met with in Japanese. 

1) Personal and possessive pronouns, whether as subject or otherwise, are 
very often omitted in Japanese. 

So iimashita ; he said so. 

Kanai ga bydki da ; my wife is ill. 

2) In answering a question, the words of the question are often not repeated. 
Kore wa dare no hon desu ?Watakushi no ; whose book is this ? mine. 

3) The suppression of the final verb. 
Sore wo goran (nasai) ; look at that. 
Ika-nakute wa (narimasen) ; I must go. 

Shibaraku (o me ni kakarimasen deshita} ; (it is) a long time (since we met). 
Watashi no boshi zva doko (ni arimasu ka) ? where is my hat ? 



92 ELEMENTARY GRAMMAR 



Sonna baka na koto ga (dekiru mono ka) ? I 'm not going to do such a silly 
thing as that. 

Nani ! ano Into ga shinda to (iu no desu ka) ? what ! is that man dead ? 

Makoto ni o kinodoku sama de (gozaimashlta) ; I am very sorry for your sake. 

Dozo O Kin San ni yoroshiku (moshi-agete kudasai) ; please remember me 
kindly to Miss Kin. 

Moshi, nc-san chotto (o-ide nasai) ; I say, waitress, just come here a 
moment. 

Kimi no tokoro wa doko (desti ka) ? where do you live ? 

Achira e (o iki nasai) ; go away. 

The following construction is also worthy of note : 

Ano kata ga ikeba watashi wa ika-nakatia no desu ; if I had know r n that man 
was going, I wouldn't have gone ; (ikeba iku to wakareba). 

4) Japanese sentences often break off after keredomo, ga. no ni, ni, or mono 
zvo. which is the same as if we finished an English sentence with a word like 
'but' or 'nevertheless' etc. (See 75; 166, 1 ; 170, 4 ; 171, 2 ; 172, 2, b). 

Sore wa so desu keredomo . . . ; what you say is true no doubt, but (there is a 
great deal to be said against it). 

Areba yd gozaimasu ga. . . ; I wish there were some but (I hardly think there 
are). 

Ko sureba dekiru no ni or ko sureba dekiru mono wo ; you could do it in this 
way if you tried but (you haven 't tried, although you ought to have done so). 

Tenki ga yokereba iku no deshlta ga ; I would have gone if the weather had 
been fine but (it was raining). 

5) A noun followed by wa may be used elliptically in an interrogative sense. 
Inu wa ? how about the dog ? what of the dog ? 

This may mean : ' where is the dog ? ' ' has the dog recovered ? ' ' will you 
bring the dog along with you ? ' or almost anything according to circumstances. 

6) Desu ka ? is used elliptically after a noun (followed or not by a postposi- 
tion), an adverb, the adverbial form of an adjective, or a gerund. The difference 
between this construction and the one just mentioned in 5) is, that the con- 
struction in wa serves to introduce a new subject of conversation about which 
we want information, whereas desu ka ? serves to supplement or complete our 
knowledge which is imperfect. 

If you meet a child on the road you might ask : Gakkd desu ka? I see you are 
going somewhere ; is it to school ? 

Somebody might say to me : So shttara iya desho ? if I do such and such a 
thing, it would probably be disagreeable. I might answer : Watashi desu ka ? 
are you referring to me ? 

Sono nimotsu wo izeaite kure tie up that parcel. Kitsuku desu ka ? do you 
want it tied up tightly ? 



OF THE JAPANESE SPOKEN LANGUAGE 93 

Ashlta Ueno e iku I am going to Ueno tomorrow. Aruite desu ka ? Are you 
going to walk there ? 

The reader will notice that these questions have an Irish flavour about them : 
Is it to school (that you're going) ? Is it myself (you're speaking of) ? Is it 
tightly (that you want it tied) ? Is it on foot (that you're going) ? 

7) The gerund is often used elliptically ; see 58, 18 : 200, 8. Remember 
that a noun followed by de is often equivalent to a gerund ; 393, 5. 

Sore wa ammari yoku nai koto de. . .(arimasu) ; I don't think you ought to 
have done that. 

8) It is worthy of m>te that when the Japanese say certain polite set phrases, 
they begin by pronouncing clearly, but finish with an unintelligible mumble 
entirely lost in the profundity of the bow with which they accompany the 
words. The result cannot be represented properly in print : 

Senjitsti wa domo arigato gozaimashita ; thanks very much for your kindness the 
other day. 

415. Negatives. There are no negative pronouns in Japanese : instead, the 
verb is put in the negative and the pronoun in the positive : 

Nanni mo shira-nai ; I know nothing, (lit. I don't know anything, or I ignore 
everything). 

The negative of combinations like motte kuru to bring, is always obtained by 
putting the second verb in the negative and leaving the first one as it is. Thus 
'he did not bring it' is motte ko-nakatta (lit. carrying it, he did not come), 
though logically we often might expect mota-nai de kita (lit. not carrying it, he 
came). The result is that these negative sentences are sometimes ambiguous. 
The above example may mean, according to circumstances, (a) he did not come 
at all, or (b) he came but did not bring it. 

416. In Japanese as in English two negatives destroy one another or are 
equivalent to an affirmative. 

Deki-nal koto iva nai ; I can do it (but it is difficult), (lit. it is not a fact that 
I cannot do it). 

417. Double negatives are employed very frequently. The commonest con- 
struction of all is a verb in the negative present conditional followed by ike-nai 
or nara-nai. This conveys a meaning of obligation and may generally be 
translated by 'must'. 

Ko shi-nakereba narimasen ; it must be done in this way, (lit. it won't do not 
to do thus). 

418. You may even find three negatives in Japanese : 

Shi-nakereba nara-nai koto de zva nai ; it is not an obligatory thing, (lit. it is 
not a fact that it is a thing which it won 't do not to do). 

419. An English affirmative sentence is sometimes translated by the negative 
in Japanese : Ko-nai uchi ni ; before he comes, (lit. during his not coming). 



94 ELEMENTARY GRAMMAR 



420. Interrogations are formed by adding A-a at the end of the sentence. 
However if the sentence contains an interrogative pronoun or adverb, ka is not 
necessary at the end : 

Samui desu ka ? is it cold ? 

Dare ga kita ? who came ? 

In familiar speech Am or kae is sometimes used instead of ka. 

421. Various interrogative pronouns and adverbs are mentioned in 336 et 
seqq. ; 403. Questions regarding numbers are explained in 277. 

422. In Japanese as in English, a request is often made in the form of a 
question. 

Hon wo kashite kudasaimasen ka ? would you be kind enough to lend rne your 
book? 

423. What is one question in English may become two or three in Japanese. 
407, 1). 

424. Negative interrogations which in English expect for answer 'yes' are 
sometimes made, in familiar Japanese, by putting the principal verb in the 
affirmative and adding ja nai ka ? isn't that so ? (165, 11 ; 63). 

425. Ne which is often heard at the end of a sentence, especially in the speech 
of women, frequently has a quasi-interrogative force and may often be trans- 

ated by 'isn't that so ?' 

426. Women sometimes ask questions by finishing the sentence with a gerund 
pronounced with a rising inflexion of the voice. (58, 18 ; 200, 8). 

427. Quotations. The repetition of another's words or the expression of one's 
own thoughts is generally done in Japanese in the form of a direct quotation. 

A direct quotation is expressed by to, ko, or so, and a verb like iu, hanasu, 
kiku, omou, etc. To is used always after, ko generally before, and so generally 
after, the words quoted.* 

' Nichiyo made ni kaeru ' to iimashita ; he said : ' I shall be back on Sunday '. 

O tenki daro to omoimasu ; I think it will be fine. 

Yamada San ni, ' sugu nio-ide kudasai' to itle kite o kure ; go and ask Mr 
Yamada to come immediately. 

Yokohama no densha ni ko kaite arimasu : ' Mado kara kao ya te wo dasa-nai 
yd ni negaimasti* ; the Yokohama tram-cars have this notice : 'You are request- 
ed not to put your head or your hands out of the window '. 

''Jibuti no nimotsu zca minna jibun de motte iku ho ga ii ' ; watashi wa so 
omoimasu ; 'Everyone had better take his own parcel' ; that's what I think. 

The words quoted, however, are not necessarily the very words of the 
original speaker. The person who is quoting will change, if needs be, the 

^Sometimes none of these words are used : ' Fune ga tsukimashita ka .*" kiite goran nasai, 
go and ask if the boat has arrived. On the other hand a pleonastic construction with both 
to ar.d ~) is sometimes employed : Suzuki San wa, 'doyo-bi ni kaeru ' to so iimashita, Mr Suzuki 
aid he would return on Saturday. 



OF THE JAPANESE SPOKEX LANGUAGE 95 

honorifics and humble words into plain words or vice versa, and pronouns may 
be used instead of a proper name, etc. 

A servant will say to her mistress : Danna sama wa 'Tokyo e irrassharu' to 
osshaimashita the master said 'I am going to Tokyo'; although the actual 
words were Tokyo e iku. 

Yamada San ga ' anata ni o hanaslii ga am' to itte kimashlta Mr Yamada 
came and said he wished to speak to you, (lit. Mr Yamada came and said * I 
wish to speak to you'). Mr Yamada 's actual words were perhaps Danna sama 
ni o hanashi shltai koto ga gozaimasu I wish to speak to your husband. 

The colloquial ''tie which is often equivalent to to iimasii or to iimashtta, is 
used frequently after a quotation. 

Kirei desu 'tte ; he says ' it 's pretty '. 

428. An indirect quotation is sometimes rendered by means of yd ni 'so 
that' : 

Ashita kuru yd ni (so) itte kure ; tell him to come tomorrow, (lit. tell him in 
such a way so that he will come tomorrow). 

429. Although indirect quotations are occasionally employed, the Japanese 
generally prefer not to use them, and turn the sentence in such a way as to 
avoid them : 

Tell O Haru to come here=call O Haru ; O Haru wo yonde kure. 
Tell Shige to call a rikisha=cause Shige to call a rikisha ; Shige ni kuruma 
zvo yobashUe kure. 



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CONVERSATIONAL JAPANESE 

FOR BEGINNERS BY 

ARTHUR ROSE-INNES 



III 



OF 

COMMON JAPANESE WORDS 

WITH 

NUMEROUS EXAMPLES & NOTES. 



NEW EDITION 



KELLY & WALSH, LTD. 
YOKOHAMA, SHANGHAI, HONGKONG and SINGAPORE. 

(All rights reserved.) 



List of Abbreviations. 



a. n., auxiliary numeral 

abb., abbreviation, abbreviated 

ace., according, accusative 

act., active 

adj., adjective(s), adjectival 

adv., adverb(s), adverbial 

aff., affix, affixed, affirmative 

attr., attributive, etc. 

aux., auxiliary 

caus., causative 

cogn., cognate 

comp., composition, compound(s) 

cond., conditional 

conj., conjunction, conjugation 

contr., contraction, contracted 

corr., corruption, corrupted 

dat., dative 

der., derivative(s) 

desid., desiderative 

ell., ellipsis, elliptical(ly) 

Eng., English 

esp., especial(ly) 

excl., exclamation 

expr., expressing 

f., from 

fern., feminine, used by women 

fig., figurative, etc. 

foil., following (word), followed 

freq., frequent(iy), frequentative 

gen., generally, genitive 

hon., honorific 

hum., humble 

i., intransitive 

impol., impolite 

ind., indicative 

inf., infinitive 

iufl., inflexion 



interj., interjection 

interr., interrogation, interrogative 

irreg., irregular 

lit., literal(ly) 

n., noun(s) 

neg., negative, negation 

nom., nominative 

num., numeral, numerical 

pass., passive 

pers., person(al), etc. 

phr., phrases 

pi., plural 

ppn., postposition 

pol., polite 

pot., potential 

prec., preceding (word) 

pred., predicate, etc. 

pref., prefix, prefixed 

pres., present 

prob., probable 

pron., pronoun, pronounce, pronunciation 

q., quasi- 

q. adj., quasi-adjective 

q. ppn., quasi -postposition 

refl., reflexive 

rel., relative 

sing., singular 

subj., subject 

suf., suffix, suffixed 

sup., superlative 

t., transitive 

term., termination, terminal 

usu., usual (ly) 

v., verb 

v.i., verb intransitive 

v.t., verb transitive. 

w., with 



Black-face numbers refer to the paragraphs of Part II. 

The letter A, B, C or D, found after each example gives an idea of the degree of polite- 
ness : ' A' sentences should be used to inferiors only ; ' B' are familiar ; * C' are polite in 
an ordinary way; and ' D' are somewhat formally polite. 



VOCABULARY 



A, a. Inter j. expr. surprise, admiration, 

sorrow, pain, dislike, etc. 
a. Like that. 

a iu ; a iu ju na ; a iu yd na : that kind of ; 

that sort of ; like that, 
abekobe. The wrong way ; the other way 

about. 
abunai. Dangerous 

abunai koto wo sum : to do something 

dangerous 'or risky. 
abunai koto deshita (C) : it was a narrow 

escape. 

abunai koto wa nai (B) : there is no danger. 
ano bydki wa abunai (B) : that illness is 

very serious. 

abunai me ni au : to be exposed to danger. 
abunai tenki : doubtful weather. 
abunai hanashi : a doubtful story. 
abunai (yo) .' take care ! look out ! 
abura. Fat ; oil ; grease. 

abura ivo uru : to waste time. 

abura wo tone, : to expose a person 's faults 

(as before others) ; to mortify ; to tease. 
Comp. 

abura-e : an oil painting. 
abura-kami : oil-paper. 
abura-jimi : grease-spot, [shimi a stain]. 
aburakkoi : greasy (of taste), [koi thick]. 
achi, achira, (achi is gen. pron. atchi). There. 

atchi e o iki nasai (B) : get away ; be off. 
Comp.: a(t)chi-ko(t}chi : here and there. 
achi-kochi, (pron. also atchi -kotchi), [achi 
there, kochi here]. Here and there ; every 
where. 

achi-kochi wo sagasu : to seek everywhere. . 
achi-kochi ni aru : found everywhere, 
agaru, v.i. [cogn. w. ageru v.t.J. 

1 ) To rise ; go up ; ascend. 
ayattari-sagatfari sum : to move up and 

down. 

2) To enter a house. (The Japanese mats 
are higher than the level of the ground, 
so you ascend when you go in). 

o agari nasai (B) : please come in (into the 
house). 

3) Used humbly when speaking of one's own 
going to another's house. 

A 1 mo agarimashita ga o rusu de gozaimashlta 
(D) : you were out when I called yester- 
day. 

4) Used politely when speaking of eating, 
drinking or smoking of the 2nd person. 

o agari nasai (B) : please help yourself ; 

(drink or eat what has been served you). 
nani ka o agari nasaimasen ka ? (D) : may 

I offer you some refreshment '' 

5) To be completed ; be finished. 

ante ga agarimashUa (C) : the rain has 
stopped and the weather has cleared 
up. 



6) Various. 
shdko ga agara-nai (B) : they can find no 

proof. 
te ga agaru : to make progress (in manual 

accomplishments). 
gakko e agaru : to enter school (said of child 

who goes for first time). 
kome ga agarimashita (C) : rice has gone up 

(in price). 
ikura de agaru ? (B) : how much would 

cover the expenses ? 
Comp. 
meshi-agaru : Like 4) but more polite still ; 

said of eating and drinking. 
deki-agaru : to be completed. 
tobi-agaru : to jump up. 
age-ru, v.t. L c gn. w - agaru v.i.]. 

1 ) To raise ; lift up. 

agetari-sagetari sum : to move up and down. 

2) Used humbly of the giving of the 1st 
person ; used also of the giving of the 2nd 
and 3rd persons, but not if the gift is to 
me or mine. 

nani ka agemasho ka ? (C) : may I offer you 

anything ? 
dare ni agemashUa ka ? (C) : to whom did 

you give it ? 

3) Used humbly after a gerund when an 
action is performed in favour of another. 

yonde agemasho ka ? (D) : shall I read it to 
you ? 

4) To finish ; complete. 

shigoto wo age-ru : to finish the work. 

5) Various. 

nedan wo age-ru : to raise the price. 
koe wo age-ru : to raise the voice. 
kami wo age-ru : to do up one 's hair. 
nedoko wo age-ru : to put away a bed. 
Comp. 

ageru-mono : a gift. 
mdshi-age-ru : to tell. 
mochi -age-ru : to lift up. 
yobi-age-ru : to call out. 
kaki-age-ru : to finish writing. 
shi-age-ru : to finish doing, 
aida, q. ppn. 
1) Interval of time or space ; between ; 

while ; during. 

go to roku no aida : between five and six. 
yoru no aida ni shinimashita (C) : he died 

during the night. 

juta-tsuki no aida : for two months. 
mikka no aida bydki deshita (C) : I was ill 

for three days. 
jutari no aida ni kenka ga okotta (B) : a 

quarrel has arisen between the two. 
jutari no aida ni kodomo ga hltori mo arima- 

sen deshita (C) : they (a married couple) 

had no children. 
tomodachi no aida ni : among friends. 



aida 



aku 



Yamakita to Gotemba no aida wa yaina no 
keshlki ga naka-naka it (B) : between 
Yamakita and Gotemba the mountain 
scenery is very fine. 

kodomo-tachi wa ki no aida ni kakureta (B) : 
the children hid themselves among the 
trees. 

kisha ga deru made ni wa tnada san-jip-pun 
mo (or no) aida ga arimasu (C) : it still 
wants thirty minutes for the train to leave. 

2) Used without no after a verb : while. 
so sum aida : while he was doing'so. 
Amerika ni ita aida ni : while I was in 

America. 

3) Various. 

nagai aida : for a long while ; for a long 
distance. 

sukoshi no aida ; chotto no aida : a h'ttle 
while. 

sono aida : in the meanwhile ; during that 
time. 
Comp. 
aida-gui : eating between meals, [kuu to 

eat]. 

kono-aida ; ai-no-ko ; q.v. 
ainiku, [a interj., nikui odious]. Unfortu- 
nately. 
ainiku no ame : a rainy day coming just 

when it is not wanted. 
o ainiku sama ! (C) : that was very un- 
fortunate ! 
ai-no-ko, [ai(da) between, no of, ko child]. A 

Eurasian ; a half-caste, 
aisatsu. Salutation ; greeting. 

aisatsu sum : to salute ; greet, 
aita, [past of aku to open]. Vacant ; empty, 
aji. Taste ; flavour. 

aji no nai : flavourless. 
aka, n. 182. [akai, adj. red]. Red. 
aka-gane, [akai red, kane metal]. Copper. 
akai, adj. Red. 

akaku naru : to blush. 
Comp. and der. 
aka, n.: red. 
aka-gane, q.v. 
makkai, see maZ. 
akabd : railway porter, [boshi cap ; porters 

wear red caps]. 
akambo, [akai red]. Baby, 
akari, n. [akarui, adj. bright]. A light. 
akari wo kesu : to put out the light. 
akari wo tsuke-ru : to light the light. 
akari wo mise-ru : to show a light. 
akarui. 

1 ) Bright ; clear. 

sukkari akaruku narimashita (C) : it is 'al- 
ready broad daylight. 

rampu wo akaruku sum : to turn up the 
wick of a lamp. 

2) Clever. 

ano hUo wa Nihon-go ni akarui (B) : he is 
very learned in Japanese. 



Der. akari, q. v. 
akeppanasu, [ake-ru to open ; hana-sii to 

leave]. To leave open, 
ake-ru, [cogn. w. aku v. i.]. 

1 ) v. t. To open. 

to wo akete kure (A) : open the door. 

bin no kuchi wo ake-ru : to open a bottle. 

nimotsu wo ake-ru : to open a bag, (trunk. 

parcel, etc.) ; to unpack. 
ana wo ake-ru : to make a hole. 

2) v. t. To empty ; make vacant. 
teburu wo ake-ru : to clear the table. 

no tame ni baaho wo ake-ru : to mnk- 
room for 

michi wo ake-ru : to make room on tin- 
road ; to open a new road. 

mi-suji zutsu akete kaku : to write on one 
line and leave three in blank. 

ie wo ake-ru : to leave a house empty. 

bin no mizu wo ake-ru : to empty the water 
out of a bottle. 

3) v.i. To be over. 

yo ga ake-ru : the day dawns, (lit. the night 

is over). 
Comp. 

akeppanasu : to leave open, [see - ppanasfi}. 
yo-ake : dawn, [yo night], 
aki. Autumn. 

aki-, ff. aku to open]. Empty ; open. 
aki-bin : an empty bottle. 
aki-ma : an unoccupied room. 
aki-ya : an unoccupied house. 
aki-isu : an empty chair. 
aki-chi : unoccupied ground 
aki-mekura : a man with eyes open but 

blind ; an illiterate person. 
akin do. A merchant : trader. 
akippoi, [f. aki-ru to get tired of, -ppo! q. v. j. 

Soon wearied of ; changeable ; fickle. 
akireru. To be astonished ; surprised. 
akrru, v.i. 114. To get tired of. 

sore ni akimashtta (C) : I am tired of it. 
ano Mto ni hanasu no ni akite shimatta (B) : 

I am tired of telling him. 
Comp.: akippoi, q. v. 
aku, v. i. 114, [cogn. w. ake-ru, v. t.j. 

1) To open. 

nan-ji ni akimasu ka ? (C) : at what o 'clock 

does the door open ? 
kuchi wo aite (or akete) goran nasai (C) : 

open your mouth ; (note the exceptional 

use of aku as a v. t.). 

2) To become vacant. 

kono heya wa ashlta akimasu (C): this room 

will be vacant tomorrow. 
kono hon wa akimas/tlta ka ? (C) : have you 

done with this book 'i 

3) Aite i-ru i to be open ; be vacant. 
aite iru heya : an empty room. 

bin wa aite imasu (C) : the bottle is empty. 
koko wa aite imasii ka ? (C) : is this seat t-n- 
gaged ? is this place taken ? 



aku 



anna 



kono hon ica aite. iru ka ? (B): are you using 

this book ? 
4) Various. 
ima u-a if ga aite imasu (C) : I have a little 

spare time now. 
omae no kimono ni ana ga aite iru (A) : 

there is a hole in your dress. 
Der. 

aita ; aki- ; q. v. 
akubi, [f. aki-ru to get weary]. A yawn. 

akubi (wo) xuru ; akubi ga de-ru : to yawn, 
amai, [f. umai of nice taste]. 

1) Sweet. 

2) Deficient in salt. 

mada shio ga amai (B) : it is not salty 
enough. 

3) Soft ; weak ; stupid. 
amaku guru : to spoil (a child). 

onna n.i amai hito : a man easily led by 
women. 
amai yatsu : a silly, weak person ; a soft. 

4) Amai mo karat mo shitte iru : he is a man 
who knows what ? s good. 

Der. 

amasa : (degree of) sweetness, [-sa q. v .]. 
amami : sweetness, [mi q. v.]. 
amari, (gen. pron. ammari) ; [f. amaru to be 
in excess]. 

1 ) Before an adj . : (far) too. 

kore wa ammari takai (B) : this is (far) too 

dear. 

ammari takusan : (far) too much (many). 
ammari sukunai : (far) too little (few). 

2 ) Before gerund or noun : so ; too to. 
ammari benkyo shite bydki ni narimashUa 

(C) : he studied so much he fell ill. 
ammari kirei da kara do shite mo kaimasho 

(C) : it is so pretty I really must buy it. 
kono kimono wa ammari furukute kirare- 

masen (C) : these clothes are too old to 

wear. 

3) After a quantity : at least ; more than. 
go-yen amari kakarimasu (C) : it will cost at 

least five yen. 

4) Followed by a.neg.: not very ; not many ; 
not much. 

ammari yoku nai : not very good. 

i/yunyu wa ammari suki de wa arimasen (C) : 

I don't like milk much. 
kono-goro ammari aimasen (C) : I have met 

him but seldom lately, (not very often). 
so iu hito wa ammari nai (B) : hardly any 

one says so, (not many people) ; there are 

not many people like that. 
ammari mita koto wa nai (B) : I hardly ever 

see any, (not many times). 
amaru. To be in excess ; be over. 

kane ga amarima-su (C) : the money is more 

than is wanted. 
ano kodotno wa icatakushi no te ni amaru 

(B) : that child is too much for me, 

(beyond my control). 



amaru hodo : more than enough. 
ambai. 

1 ) The seasoning or taste of food as the re- 
sult of artificial preparation. 

o sakana no ambai wa ikaga de gozaimasti. 
ka ? (D, fern.}: how does the fish taste ? 

2) Condition ; way ; manner. 

dd iu ambai ni shimaahd ? (C) : how shall I 
doit? 

kono ambai de ittara yokaro (B) : I hope 
things will continue as they are. 

ambai wa do desu ka ? (C) : how are you 
feeling ? 

o yu no ambai wa ikaga desu ? (C) : how is 
the bath ? (is it hot enough ?) 

chodo ii ambai desti (C) : it is just right. 

ii ambai deshUa (C) : that was a good 

thing. 
Der. 

shio-ambai : same meaning as 1 ). 
ame. Rain. 

ame ga furu : to rain. 

ame ga iuru deeho ka ? (C) : do you think it 
will rain ? 

ame ga futte kimashiia (C) : it has begun to 
rain. 

ame ga fura-nakereba ii (B) : I hope it 
won't rain. 

ame ga futte mo, kaze ga fuite mo, ashita 
Tokyo e iku (B) : rain or fine, no matter 
what happens, I shall go to Tokyo to- 
morrow. 

ame futte ji kataku naru : after rain the 
ground gets hard, (after a quarrel friend- 
ship becomes deeper). 

ame ga yamu : to stop raining. 

ame wo yoke-ru : to shelter oneself from the 
rain. 

ame no oi kuni : a rainy country. 
Comp. 

o-ame : heavy rain, [6- big]. 

ame-furi : rainy weather, [furul to fall]. 

ama-do': outside shutters, [to! door]. 

ama-gasa : Japanese umbrella, [kasa um- 
brella]. 

ama-mizu : rain-water, [mizu water]. 
Amerika. America ; United States of Ameri- 
ca. 

Amerika-jin : an American, [-/in man]. 
ammari, usu. pron, of amari, q. v. 
ana. Hole ; pit ; cave. 

ana wo ake-ru : to make a hole. 

ana wo horu : to dig a hole, 
anata. You, sing, (polite). 

anala-gata ; anata-tachi : you, pi. [-goto ; 

-tachi ; q. v.]. 
ane. Elder sister. 

ane-muaume : the eldest daughter, [musti- 

me daughter]. 
ani. Elder brother. 

anna, [contr. of ano yd na]. That kind of ; 
such as that ; like that ; so. 



anna 



am 



1) Used attr. immediately before a noun, 
it often has a contemptuous sense. 

anna hon wa yonde wa ike-nai (A) : don't 
read a (silly) book like that. 

anna koto ! (B) : don't mention it, (a little 
thing like that !) ; (said after being thank- 
ed). 

2) Has a sup. sense before an adj. or its 
der.; anna ni also has this sense. 

anna ureshii koto wa nakatta (B) : I was 
never so pleased in my life. 

anna ni nagaku Nihon ni ite mo mada chitto 
mo Nihon-go ga u-akara-nai (B) : although 
he has been in Japan such a long time, he 
can 't understand a word of Japanese, 
annai. Guide ; invitation. 

annai sum : to guide. 

anata wa koko-ira wa yoku go annai desho 
(C) : I suppose you are familiar with this 
neighbourhood. 
Comp. 

annai-jd : letter of introduction ; written 
invitation, [jo< letter]. 

fu-annai : ignorance, [fu- neg.]. 
ano, adj. [often=ore no]. That (referring to 
things far off ; 336 ; 343). 

ano (o) kata ; ano hito : he ; she. 

ano otoko : he. 

ano onna : she. 

ano hito-tachi : they. 

ano naka : inside that, (ano = are no). 

ano is sometimes used at the beginning of a 
sentence when the speaker feels rather 
embarrassed or wishes to introduce a 
new subject. 

ano ne ! (B) : (used to call attention) ; I 

say ; look here, 
anshin. Peace of mind. 

anshin sum : to be free from care ; not to 
be anxious ; not to worry ; not to feel 
uneasy. 

anshin sase'ru : to relieve somebody 's 
mind. 

anshin o shi nasai (C) : don't worry ; put 
your mind at ease. 

anshin shimashita (C) : that is a great re- 
lief ; I am much relieved to hear it. 

naka-naka anshin wa deki-nai (B): I cannot 
help worrying about it. 

ammari anshin wa narimasen yo (B) : don't 
be too sure. 

anshin no deki-nai hlto : a person one can- 
not have confidence in. 

kore de yatto hlto-anshin (B) : well, I'm re- 
lieved at last of that anxiety, 
ao, n. 182. [aoi, adj. green]. Blue ; green, 
aoi, adj. Blue ; green ; inexperienced ; un- 
ripe ; (of the face) pale. 

Comp. and der. 
ao, n.: blue ; green. 
aomono : vegetables, [mono thing]. 
ao-zora : blue sky, [sora sky]. 



massaoi ; masfao na : sup. of aoi, [see ma2]. 
arai. Coarse ; rough ; violent. 
Der. 

arappoi : see -ppoi. 

arasJii : storm. 

are-ru : to become rough. 
arashi, [f. arai violent]. A storm ; tempest. 
arau. To wash 

moto wo arau : to investigate somebody "s 

past. 

are, n. That (referring to things far off ; 336 : 
343) ; that person (impol.) ; he ; she ; it : 
they. 

are f inter j. of wonder, gen. corr. to arc .' 

are kara : after that (time, in a past sense 

only). 

are-ru, v.i. 114, [arai rough]. To be rough ; 
stormy ; laid waste. 

umi ga arete imasu (C) : the sea is rough. 

niwa ga arete iru (B): the garden is neglect- 
ed. 

ari-ai, [aru to be ; au to meet]. Happening 
to i^e present ; incidental presence. 

uchi ni ari-ai de ii (B): whatever there may 

happen to be in the house will do. 
ari-awase-ru, [aru to be ; awase-ru to join]. 
To happen to have ; happen to be. 

ari-awaseta. bo : a stick which happened to 
be there. 

ima ari-awase wa kore shika nai (B): this is 
all that I have now. 

uchi ni ari-awase no mono : what one has in 

the house. 

arigatai, [aru to be ; katai hard, difficult : 
kindness is rare, we are thankful there- 
fore when we find it]. Thankful ; grate- 
ful. 

arigatai to omou ; arigataku omou : to feel 
grateful. 

arigatai koto da (B) : it is a thing to be 
grateful for. 

arigato (gozaimasu) (C) : thank you ; see 

foil. 

arigato, [pol. pred. form of arigatai]. Thank 
you. 

domo arigato gozaimasu (D) ; dki ni arigato 
gozaimasu (D) : thank you very much. 

senjitsu u>a arigato gozaimashita (D) : thanks 
for your kindness (present) the other day. 

arigato to itte kudasai (C) . please give him 

my best thanks. 
ari-so (na), adj. [ant to be ; -ad q.v.]. 

Probable ; likely to be (exist) ; appear- 
ing to be. 

ari-so mo nai : unlikely ; improbable. 
aru. The subject of aru takes the ppn. ya. 
The neg. of aru is irreg. nai ; see 93. De 
aru etc. is gen. contr. to da q.v.: see also 
deS) and 94. A polite substitute for aru 
is gozaru. 

1) There is; have (got) : this idea is con- 
tained in all the following examples al- 



aru 



as hi 



though the translation may be, find, get, 
happen, last, etc. 
pan go. arimasu ka ? (C) : have you any 

bread ? 
o td-san ga arimasu ka ? (C) : is your father 

alive ? (have you a father ?) 
>tei no takai Nihon-jin ma aru (B) : some 

Japanese are tall (although most are 

short). 
boshi ga arimasen (C) : I haven't got a 

hat ; I can t find my hat. 
arimashita (C) : I've found it ; here it is. 
tsukue no ue ni aru desho (C) : you will 

probably find it on the desk ; I think it is 

on the desk 
anata no boshi wa koko ni arimasu (C) : 

your hat is here. 
pan wa doko ni arimasu ka ? (C): where can 

I get some bread ? 
ruu ni nani ka kawatta koto ga atta ka ? 

(B) : has anything happened in my 

absence ''. 

donna koto ga atte mo : whatever happens. 
moshi, dare ka o kyaku ga attara : if a visitor 

should come. 

atte mo nakute mo : with or without; wheth- 
er there is any or not. 
nan nichi gurai aru desho ka ? (C) : how 

many days will it last ? 
mada arimasu ka ? (C) : are there any left ? 
jibiki ga o ari desu ka ? (C) : have you got 

a dictionary ? 
ushi ni (wa) tsuno ga aru (B) : cows have 

horns ; (note that the Eng. subj. takes ni 

like a dative in Jap.: horns belong to 

cows) . 

2) Aru still has the meaning of ' there is' 
when used as an adj.: it can be translated 
by, certain, one. 

aru hlto : a certain man ; (there was a man). 
aru hi : & certain day ; one day. 

3) After the gerund of transitive verbs it 
refers to a completed act and may often 
be translated by a passive idiom. 

luroshlki ni tsutsunde arimasu (C) : it is 

wrapped up in a cloth. 
hon ni kaite arimasu (C) : it is written in 

the book. 

4) Aru in the neg., after the adv. infl. of a 
true adj., gen. means ' to be.' 

tsuyoku arimasen (C) : he is not strong. 
When aru means to last, it may be used in 

both the aff. and neg. with the adv. infl 

of a true adj. 
kono shabon wa nagaku arimasu (C) : this 

soap has lasted a long time. 
sonna ni nagaku arimasen (C) : it doesn t 

last very long (time) ; it isn 't very long 

(length). 

5) k to ga aru : sometimes ; once. 
koto ga am ka ? ever ? 

koto ga nai : never. 



Nagasaki ni itta koto ga arimasu ka ? (0) : 
have you ever been to Nagasaki ? 
itta koto ga arimasu (C) : I have been there 
(sometimes). 

itta koto ga arimasen (C) : I have never been 
there. 

Kagoshima de mo yuki no furu koto ga arima- 
sfi (C) : it does snow sometimes also in 
Kagoshima. 
amari mita koto ga nai (B) : I have seldom 

seen any. 

6) De wa arimasen ka ? see de 4). 
Comp. and der. 

ari-ai ; ari-awase-ru ; ari-so ; q.v. 
aru-nashi : the question of the existence of 

a thing, [nashi non-existent]. 
arittake=aru dake, see dake 
da=de aru, see da. 
aruku. To walk. 

aruite ikimasu (C) : I will go on foot. 
aruite ni-jikan kakarimasu (C) : it is a two 

hours' walk. 
niwa wo arukimashua (C) : I walked about 

the garden. 

shijii aruite imasu (C) : 1 am always travel- 
ling. 
Comp. 
aruki-mawaru : to walk round ; walk about, 

[mawaru to turn]. 

aruki-kata : manner of walking, [kata man- 
ner]. 
aruki-kata ga haya-sugimasu (C) : you walk 

too fast, 
asa. Morning. 

asa kara ban made : from morning till 

evening. 

kind no asa : yesterday morning. 
Comp. and der. 

kesa : this morning, [konoZ this ; asa]. 
myoasa : tomorrow morning, [see myo-\. 
asa-ne : sleeping late in the morning, [neru 

to sleep]. 
asa-han ; asa-meshi : breakfast, [han$ food ; 

meshi rice]. 
asa-oki : early rising ; an early riser, [oki-ru 

to rise]. 
asa-ban ; asa-yii ; morning and evening, 

[6on2 ; yu2 ; evening], 
hsai. Shallow. 

dekite kara hi ga ami (B) : it was only 

finished a short time ago. 
asatte. The day after tomorrow, 
ase. Perspiration. 

ase ga de-ru : to perspire. 
Comp. 

hiya-ase : cold perspiration, [hiyaaii to cool]. 
ose-darake : covered with perspiration, [see 

-darake]. 
ashi. 

1) Leg; foot. 

2) Used after the abb. 2nd set of numerals 
(276, 4) : step. 



ashi 



ate'ru 



3) Phrases. 

sam-bon ashi no ieburu : a three-legged 
table. 

ashi no ura : the sole of the foot. 

ashi no hayai Into : a quick walker. 

ashi ga tsuku : to be tracked. 

ashi ga bo no yo ni naru made arukimasMta 
(C) : I walked so much I could no longer 
move my legs. 
Comp. 

doro-ashi : muddy feet, \doro mudj. 

ryo-ashi : both legs, [see ryo], 

kata-ashi : one leg, [see kata]. 

ashi -ato : footprint, [ato after J. 

ato-ashi : hind leg, [ato after]. 

mae-ashi : foreleg, [mae before]. 

ashi-kake : used of incomplete units of time 
(years, months). 

ashi-kakc san-nc.n : three years (not com- 
plete ; e.g. from November 1914, to March 
19 It) ; the first and last are not complete 
years). 

ashi-moto ; muda-ashi ; q.v. 
ashi-moto, [ashi foot ; moto origin]. The 
place where one steps or is standing. 

ashi-moto ni ki wo o isuke nasal (C) : take 

care where you step. 
ashita. Tomorrow. 

ashita no hyaku yori kyo no go-ju : fifty to- 
day is better than a hundred tomorrow ; 
a bird in hand is worth two in the bush. 
asobi, n. [asobu to play]. Play ; a game. 
asobu. 

1 ) To play ; amuse oneself ; visit (for 
pleasure). 

asobi ni iku : to go somewhere for pleasure. 
Suzuki San no uchi e asobi ni ikimashita 

(C) : I went to visit Mr Suzuki. 
chitto o asobi ni irasshai (C) : come and see 

me now and then. 
koen de asonde kimashlta (C) : I have been 

for a stroll in the park. 

2) Asonde i-ru : to be idle ; be out' of work. 
asonde aruku : to gad about. 

Der. 

asobi, n.: play, a game, 
asoko, (gen. pron. asuko). There ; that place ; 

336 ; 343. 
asuko wa doko desu ka ? (C) : what place is 

that ? 
Der. 
asoko-ira : about there ; thereabouts, [see 

ira]. 
assari. Plainly ; simply. 

assari shita : plain, simple. 
asuko, see asoko. 
atama. Head. 

a t< i in n ga itai (B) : I have a headache. 
atama wo itaku sum : to rack one 's brains. 
atama ni haira-nai (B) : I cannot under- 
stand it, (get it into my head). 
atama no ii hito : a clever man. 



atama no nai frito : a silly man. 

atama kara ashi no saki made ; from head 

to foot. 

jibun no atama no hai wo oi nasai : frighten 
the flies off your ow r n head ; mind your 
own business. 
atama kakushlte shiri kak-usa-zu : to hide 

the head but not the body, 
atarashii. Fresh ; new. 

atarashii tamago : fresh eggs, 
atarimae (no or na). Usual ; ordinary ; 

proper. 
ataru, v.i. [cogn. w. ate ru v.t.l. 

1) To strike against ; to hit the mark. 
watakfi-shi no itta koto ga atatta (B) : my 

words have come true. 

2) To warm oneself. 

hi ni ataru : to warm oneself at a fire : to 
remain in the sun. 

hi ni ataru to kuroku naru (B) : if you re- 
main in the sun you will get sunburnt. 

3) Various. 

kesa tabeta sakana ga atatta (B) : the fish I 

had this morning has disagreed with me. 
ano hito wa anata no nani ni atarimasii ka'f 

(C) : what relation is he of yours ? 
bachi ga ataru : to be punished by heaven. 
jochu ni hidoku ata,ru : to maltreat a ser- 
vant. 
Shina wa Nihon no nishi ni ataru (B) : 

China is to the west of Japan. 
Der.: hi-atari, q.v. 
atashi. Abb. of ivatakiishi (q.v.), used esjj. 

by women. 

atatakai, (gen. pron. attakai). Warm. 
Der. and comp. 
attalxi (na) : warm. 

attaka-sugi-ru : to be too warm, [see sii'ji- ru\. 
attamaru, v.i.: to get warm. 
attame-ru, v.t.: to make warm. 
atchi, see achi. 

ate, [ate-ru to hit]. Expectation ; aim ; pur- 
pose. 

ate ni narimasen (C) : he is not to be de- 
pended upon. 
ate ni suru : to rely on. 
ate ni shite wa ikemasen (C) : you mustn't 

count upon me. 
ate ni naru, adj.: reliable. 
ate ni nara-nai, adj.: unreliable. 
Comp. 

ate-na ; na-ate : an address, [no name]. 
ateTu, v.t. [cogn. w. ataru, v.i.]. 

1) To hit ; strike ; touch. 

atsui ka, tsumetai ka, te wo atete yoran (B) : 
touch and see whether it is hot or cold. 

2) To expose to heat. 

kimono wo hi ni ateie kawakashlte o kure (A) : 
dry my dress at the fire. 

3) To guess. 

atete goran nasai (C) : guess what it is. 
Der.: ate, q.v. 



a to 



ayamaru 



ato. 

1) Mark ; impression ; place. 

kore wa inu no kami-tsuita ha no ato desu 
(C) : this is the mark left by a dog's bite. 

teburu wo katazukete sono ato e isu wo o oki 
nasai (B) : put away the table and put a 
chair in its place. 

2) After ; behind. 

anata no ato ni mairimaahUa (C) : I came 

after you. 

ato kara ikimaaho (C) : I will go later on. 
ichlban ato no dempo : the latest telegram. 
toka ato ni, : ten days after ; ten days from 

now (either before or after). 
ato no : the one after : the remaining one. 
shokuji wo shita ato ni kyaku ga kimashita 

(C) : after we had eaten, visitors came. 
sonna ni ato kara oshite wa ike-nai (A) : 

don 't pusli from behind like that. 

3) A successor. 

ivatakushi no ato wa mada kimarimasen (C) : 
my successor lias not yet been appointed. 

4) The remainder ; what is left. 

sore de wa ato no mono ga komaru (B) : that 
would put those remaining l^ehind in a 
difficulty. 

ato ni-hon kaka-nakereba nara-nai (B) : I 
have still two (letters) to write. 

5) Various. 

ato wo katazuke-ru : to clear away things. 
ato wo tsuke ru : to follow in another's track. 
Comp. 

ashi-ato : footprints. 
yubi-ato : finger-marks. 
kizu-ato : scar. 
ato-aahi : hind legs. 
ato-oshi , q.v. 

ato-oshi, [ato behind ; osu to push]. A man 
who pushes behind any vehicle ; a rikisha 
push-man ; a backer. 
ato-oshi wo suru : to push (l)ehind a 

vehicle) ; (fig.) to incite. 
atsuU. Hot. 

kyo no atsui koto ! how hot it is today ! 
ataukuie shiyo ga nai (B) : it is awfully hot. 
atsuku sum : to heat. 
Der. and comp. 
aisusa : heat, [see so]. 
atsu-suffi'ru : to be too hot. 
atsui". Thick ; cordial. 

atsuku o rei wo moahimaeu (D) : thank you 

very much. 
Der. and comp. 
atsusa : thickness, [see -sa]. 
atsu-sugi,ru : to be too thick, 
atsumaru, v.i. [cogn. w. otsume-ru v.t.]. To 

assemble. . 

atsume-ru, v.t. [cogn. w. atsumaru v.i.]. To 

assemble ; collect. 
atama wo atsumete sodan suru : to consult 

together (said of several). 
attakai, see atatakai. 



attamaru, v.i. [f. atatakai warm ; cogn. w. 

attame-ru v.t.]. To become warm. 
attameru, v.t. [f. atatakai warm ; cogn. w. 

attamaru v.i.]. To warm, 
au, v.i. [cogn. w. awasrni v.t.]. 

1) To meet ; see. Au is a plain verb : the 
corresponding humble verb is o me ni 
kakaru (358). 

shujin ni aitai (B) : I wish to see your 

master. 
itftu Tanabe San ni aemasu ka ? (C) : when 

can 1 see Mr Tanabe ? 
itsu o ni nasaimashita ka ? (D) : when did 

you see him ? 
au wa wakare no hajime : the meeting is 

the beginning of the separation. 

2) To fit ; suit ; agree. 

kono kutsu wa watakushi no ashi ni awa-nai 

(B) : these boots do not fit me. 

Nihon no o rha wa watakushi ni aimasen 

(C) : Japanese tea does not agree with me. 
kono tokei wa atte imaau (C) : this clock .is 

right. 

kanjd ga awa-nai (B) : these accounts do 
not agree. 

3) Various. 

hidoi me ni au : to be treated cruelly. 
ma ni au : to be in time. 
Comp. 

ari-ai : happening to be there.. 
deki-ai : happening to be made : ready- 
made. 

hanashi-au : to talk together. 
niau, q.v. 
awaseru, v.t. [cogn. w. au v.i.l. To join ; 

unite. 

awase-mono wa hanare-mono : things which 
have teen artificially united are easily 
separated ; (said of husband and wife who 
disagree). 
Various. 
ima jibun awaseru kao ga nai (B) : I am 

now ashamed to show my face, 
iro wo awase-ru : to match colours. 
tokei wo awase-ru : to put a clock right, 
jfote. Awase-ru is a qausi-causative of 
au to meet ; the 3rd base is gen. awashU, 
sometimes awaset. 
In comp. awase-ru gen. has the meaning of 

' together' or ' happen to.' 
maze-awaee-ru : to mix together, [maze-ru 

to mix]. 

nui-awase-ru: to sew together, [nuu to se 
kiki-awase-ru: to make inquiries, [kiku 

to ask]. 

ari-awase-ru : to happen to have, [ant 
have]. 
i-awase-ru : to happen to be present, [I 

to be]. 
tdri-awase-ru : to happen to pass by, [A 

to pass]. 
ayamaru. To apologize ; beg pardon. 



ay ash if 



10 



bakkin 



ayashii. Suspicious ; questionable ; doubt- 
ful 

azukaru, v.t. [cogn. w. azulifru also v.t.]. 
To receive in deposit : take charge of ; be 
responsible for 

kaeru made kore wo azukatte kudasai (0) : 
please take charge of this till 1 come back. ! 

kono kenka tra watakushi ga azukatte oki- \ 
masho (C) : leave this quarrel for me to 
settle. 
Comp 

azukari-kin : money received in deposit. 

azukari'tnono : thing received in deposit. 

azukari-nin : person with whom a thing 

is deposited. 

azuke'ru, v.t. [cogn. w. azukaru, also v.t.]. 
To (give in) deposit : entrust. 

teishaba ni azukemasMta (C) : I left it in the 
cloak-room at the station. 
Comp. 

azuke-mono : thing given in deposit. 

azuke-nin : depositor. 
ba. Place ; room. 

xono ba de : in the very act ; on the spot ; 

then and there. 

Comp.: baai ; basho ; furoba ; teishaba ; q.v. 
baai, [ba place ; au to meet]. Circum- 
stances ; case. 

baai ni yotte ; baai ni yoru to : according to 
circumstances. 

sore wa baai ni yorimasu (C) : that depends 
on circumstances. 

masaka no baai ni : in case of need. 

kono boat ni wa yaku ni tata-nai (B) : it is 
of no use in this ease. 

baai wo kangae-nakereba nara-nai (B) : you 
must take the circumstances into account, 

donna baai ni mo uso wo itte wa ike-nai (A) : 
under no circumstances must you tell a 
lie. 

bachi, [batsu punishment]. Punishment (in- 
flicted by heaven). 

bachi ga atatta no da (A) : it serves you 

right, 
bai. Double ; twice as much. 

bai no dkisa ; bai hodo okii : twice as big. 

bai ni auru : to (make) double. 

san-nen no (or wo) bai no roku-nen ni shi- 
masho (C) : let's make it six years, the 
double of three. 

bai ni naru : to (become) double. 

sam-bai : three times as much, 
baka. A fool. 

baka na : foolish. 

baka na hanashi : a foolish tale. 

baka no hanashi : the tale of a fool. 

baka na koto wo itte wa ike-nai (A) : don't 
talk nonsense. 

nore hodo baka ja nai (B) : I know better 
than that ; I'm not such a fool as all that 

unimari baka ni shite iru (A) : you are mak- 
ing a fool of me ; you are cheating me. 



ano Into wo baka ni suru : to make a fool of 

him. 
baka ni sarcru no wa iya desu (C) : I don't 

like to be made a fool of. 
baka ni sum nara shite goran nasai (A) : I 

am not to be trifled with. 
nan to iu baka daro ! (A) : what a fool he is ! 
baka na mane ico shite wa ike-nai (A) : don't 

be a fool ; don 't play the fool. 
ammari at-sui no de atama ga baka ni natta 

(B) : I feel half silly in this hot weather. 
ashi ga baka ni natta (B) : my leg is asleep. 
so baka ni shila mcno de mo nai (B) : it is. 

not quite such a trifling tiling as you 

imagine. 

fcaA-a ni nomitai (B) : I am awfully thirsty. 
';//.'/ ni osoroshii mono nashi : fools rush in 

where angels fear to tread. 
baka ni tsukeru kusuri wa nai : there is no 

medicine can cure a fool. 
Der. 

bakarashii : ridiculous ; foolish, [see -rashii]. 
bakari, (often placed after verb). 

1) Only ; just ; (gen. pron. bakkari). 

kort wa onna no gakko de bakkari tsukait 
hon desu (C) : this is a book used only in 
girls' schools. 

koko ni wa onna no gakko bakkari de, otoko 
no wa arimasen (C) : there is only a girls r 
school here, there is no boys' school. 

sore ga dekiru no wa ano hlto bakkari da. 

(B) : he alone can do it. 

kore bakkari wa agerare-nai (B) : this is the 

one thing I cannot give you. 
tomodachi ga bydki de aru bakkari de Kobe e 

kimashlta (C) : I have come to Kobe only 

because my friend is ill. 
kino tttuita bakkari desu (C) : I only arrived 

yesterday. 
gohan wo taberu bakkari ni shite okimashlta 

(C) : dinner is quite ready, (the only thing 
wanting is the eating of it). 

anata wa mada imashlta ka ? watakush i wa 
mo uchi e kaette shimaUa koto to bakari 
omotte ita no ni (C) : what, are you still 
here ? I made sure you had already gone 
back home, (that was the only thing I 
thought, the only supposition I thought 
possible). 

2) About. 

mi-tsuki bakari aimasen (C) : I have not 
seen him for about three months. 

hyaku-nin bakari no seito ga ita (B) : there 
were- about a hundred scholars. 

3) bakari de naku mo : not only but 
also . 

mita bakari de naku tabeta koto mo arimasu 
(C) : I have not only seen it (e.g. that kind 
of fruit), but I have eaten it. 

bakkari, see bakari 1). 

bakkin, [batsu punishment ; kin money]. A 
fine. 



bam-me 



11 



bimbo 



bam-me, suffix added to the first set of car- 
dinal numbers to form the ordinals ; see 
271 ; 285-288. 
banl. A guard ; watchman. 

ban wo furu : to keep watch. 
Comp. 

ban-nin : a watchman, [nin man]. 
ruau-ban : care-taker of a house during 

master's absence, [rusu absence]. 
yo-ban : night-watchman, [yo& night], 
ban-. F.vening : night. 

ashita no ban : tomorrow evening. 
lieu-ban tomarimashlta ? (C) : how many 
days did you stay there ? 
Comp. 

komban : this evening, [see &ono2~L 
myoban : tomorrow evening, [see myo-]. 
takuban : yesterday evening, [see saku-}. 
Note. Ban is used in connection with the 

abb. 2nd set of mim. 276, 4). 
-ban3. A num. suf. used after the first set of 
numerals. 

1 ) Number : turn. 

o mise no denwa wa nam-ban desu ka ? (C) : 

what is the number of the telephone in 

your office ? 
san-zen nana-hyaku ju-hachi-ban desu (C) : 

three thousand seven hundred and 

eighteen. 
u-atakushi no ban da (B) : it is my turn. 

2) -ban is used after the numlier of a house 
if in the foreign part of the town ; if in 
the Japanese part bandu (q.v.) is used 
instead. 

3) Pillowed by the suf. -me (-bam-me), it is 
used for forming certain ordinal numbers ; 
see 285-288. 

4) Ichiban (q.v.) is gen. used in a snp. sense. 
. Comp. 

kawari-ban : by turns, [kawaru to change]. 

Note. Before ban, yo (four) is gen. used 
instead of shi. 

banchi. Number (of a house in the Japanese 

part of a town ; see prec.). 
banchi ga chigatta tegami : a wrongly ad- 
dressed letter. 

banzai. Excl. of salutation, triumph, joy : 
long live ; hurrah ! 

ba-san, [haha mother ; san Mrs]. 

1) Old woman; (the honorific o is often 
prefixed). 

2) Grandmother ; (the honorific o is almost 
always prefixed). 

basha, [ba horse ; aha carriage]. Carnage ; 

coach. 

basho, [ba place]. Space ; place ; room. 
koko ni basho ga arimasu (C) : there is room 
here. 

basho ga nai (B) : there is no room. 
basho wo torn : to take up room. 
no tame ni basho wo ake-ru : to make 
room for . 



batsu. Punishment. 
Der. and comp. 

bass-uru : to punish, [surul to do]. 
bachi ; bakkin ; q.v. 
Bei-koku, [-koku country]. United States of 

America. 
Beikoku-jin : a citizen of the United States, 

[jin man]. 
benkyS. Learning ; assiduity. 

1 ) Benkyo sum : to study. 

benkyo desu (C) : he is studying ; he is 
diligent. 

2) Benkyo suru : to sell cheap. 

yoso yori benkyo itashimasu (D) : I sell 

cheaper than elsewhere. 
benri. Convenience. 

benri no tame : for convenience' sake. 

benri na : convenient. 

benri no ii : convenient. 

benri no warui : inconvenient, 
ben to. Lunch ; light refreshments usu. en- 
closed in a box. 
betsu (no or na). 

1) Different ; another ; other. 

sore wa betsu na koto desu (C) : that is an- 
other thing ; that is not the point. 
betsu no mondai : a different question. 

2) Betsu ni : especially; used also elliptically 
as a neg.. answer to a question. 

kutabiremashUa ka ? -betsu ni (kutabire- 
masen), (C) : are you tired ? nothing to 
speak of. 
kore wa betsu ni harau no desu ka .* (C) : is 

this charged for extra ? 
betsu ni nani mo arimasen deshita ka ? (C) : 

have you any neflte ? 
betsu ni wake wa gozaimasen (D) : I have 

no particular reason. 
betsu na kotoba de ieba : in other words. 
Comp. 

betsu-ma : a separate room, [ma\ room]. 
betsu-mondai : a different question, [mon- 
dai question]. 

betsu-mono : a different thing, [mono thing!. 
betsu-betsu ; see foil. 

betsu-betsu (no or na), [f. prec.]. Separate. 
betsu-betsu ni ikimasho (C) : let us go one 

by one. 
betsu-betsu ni uremasen (C) : they are not 

sold separately. 
bijin, [jin a human being]. A pretty i 

man. 
bikkuri. Surprise. 

bikkuri suru : to be surpriKi, astonished. 
bikkuri shimashlta (C) : 1 am (was) aston- 
ished ; you frightened me. 
bikkuri sase-ru : to surprise, 
bimbo. Poverty. 
bimbd na : poor. 
bimbd suru : to be badly off. 
bimbo hima nashi : poor people have 
spare time. 



bimbo 



12 



byoki 



Comp. 

bhnbo-nin : a poor person, [nin man]. 
bimbo-nin no ko takusan : poor people have 

many children. 
bin. Bottle. 
Comp. 

o-bin : a big bottle, [6- big]. 
ko-bin : a small bottle, [kol small]. 
aki-bin : an empty bottle, [aki- empty]. 
tetsubin : a kettle, \t-etsu iron]. 
Note : used after the abb. 2nd set of num. 

(276, 4), bin means a bottleful. 
bo. Stick, 
boku. I : (used principally by young men 

and boys). 

bon. Tray ; (the honorific o is gen. pref.). 
bonyari. Dully ; dimly ; distractedly. 
bonyari shita : dull ; dim ; absent-minded. 
bonyari shite i-ru : to be dull ; dim ; absent- 
minded. 

bonyari shite, yoku mie-nai (B) : as it is get- 
ting dark I can't see. 
san-jikan mo bonyari matasareta (B) : they 

made me wait like a fool for three hours. 
yube hito-ban-ju okite ita no de atama ga 
bonyari shita (B) : I am not feeling very 

bright as I was up all night. 
fune ga toku ni bonyari mieru (B) : I can see 

a ship dimly in the distance. 
Comp.: bonyari -mono : an absent-minded 

person, [mono person], 
boshi. A hat. 
boshi too toru ; boshi wo nugu : to take ofl 

one's hat. 
Comp.: akabo : railway porter, [akai red ; 

porters wear red caps]. 
bo tan, [f. Spanish or Portuguese]. Button, 
botchan, [chan Mr]. A respectful term for a 

little boy ; your son. 
bu, fcogn. w. bun]. 

1) Part. 

sam-bu wa mizu, ichi-bu wa shio : three 
parts of water, one part of salt. 

2) One tenth part of another thing. 

Loppu ni mizu wo shichi-bu irete kure (A) : 
fill the glass seven tenths (three quarters) 
full of water. 

3) Especially one tenth of the wari (10%), 
therefore : per cent, 308. 

Note. bu is preceded by the 1st set of 

num. 

Comp.: gobu-gobu : equality of two things ; 
half and half ; six of one and half-a-dozen 
of the other, [go five]. 
bu-. Neg. pref., a modified pron. of /-, 

q.v. 
bu-enryo (na), [bu- neg.; enryo reserve]. 

Unreserved ; bold. 

buji, [bu- neg.; jit thing]. Free from acci- 
dent ; peace 
buji na : safe ; happy. 
go buji de (C) : a pleasant journey to you. 



go buji ni itte irasshai (C) : I wish you a 

pleasant journey. 
mina-san go buji desu ka ? (C) : are they all 

well at home ? 
bun, fcogn. w. bu]. 

1) Part : share 

watashi no bun wa dore hodo desu ka ? (C) : 
what is my share ? 
jutsuka bun : enough for two days. 

2) Used for expressing fractions. 
shi-bun no san : three quarters. 
hachi-bum-me : eight parts out of ten. 

3) Kind ; quality. 

kono bun wo mittsu okutte kudasai (C) : 

please send me three of this kind. 
Comp.: hambun ; jubun ; q.v. 
burei (na) ; [bu- neg.; rei politeness]. Im- 
polite ; rude. 

burei na koto wo iu : to use rude language. 
busata. Neglecting to write or visit ; (seldom 

used without the honorific pref. go), 
go-busata itashimashita (C) : I have been 

sadly remiss about calling upon you. 
busho (na). Lazy and dirty ; slovenly. 
Comp.: de-busho : a stay-at-home, [de-ru to 

go out]. 
butsu, ; [corr. of utsu, q.v.]. To beat (men or 

animals) ; strike ; knock. 
Comp. 
buchi-komu : to knock in, [komu to put 

into]. 
buchi-korosu : to beat to death ; kill ; [ko- 

rosu to kill]. 
buchi-kowasti, : to knock to pieces, [kowasii 

to break]. 
buchi-waru : to break by a blow, [waru to 

split]. 

butsukaru, (sometimes pron. buttsukaru), v.i. 
[butsu to strike ; tsukaru to touch ; cogn. 
w. foil.]. To hit, strike, bump against. 
butsukeru, (sometimes pron. buUsuke-ru), 
v.t. [butsu to strike ; tsuke'ru to apply ; 
cogn. w. prec.]. To throw (ace.) at (dat.); 
knock (ace.) against (dat.). 
byo. Second (of time). Byd is preceded by 

the 1st set of num. 
byo-. Illness ; sickness. 
Comp. 
byoki, q.v. 

by5-nin : a sick person, [nin man]. 
byoki, [byo- illness ; ki spirit]. Illness ; sick- 
ness. 

go byoki de irasshaima#u ka / (D) : are you 
ill ? 

bydki desu (C) : I am ill. 
chotto shita byoki desu (C) : it is only a 
slight indisposition. 
byoki no furi wo sum : to feign illness. 
byoki de uchi ni vru : to remain at home 

on account of illness. 

byoki de nete vru : to remain (be) in bed on 
account of illness. 



byoki 



13 



chikara 



uteuru byoki : an infectious disease. 
cha. Tea : (the honorific o is gen. pref.). 
o cha hitoteu ikaga de gozaimasu ka ? (D) : 

may I offer you a cup of tea ? 
o cha wo irc-ru : to make tea. 
hito wo cha ni sum : to make a fool of 

somebody ; slight a person. 
Comp. 

cha-iro : light 'brown, [iro colour], 
cha-ya : a tea-house, [yal house]. 
chawan : a tea-cup. 

chan, [corr. of aonl]. Mr; Mrs; etc.; (used 
especially by and of, little children, par- 
ticularly girls). 
Comp. botchan, q.v. 
chan to. In good order ; perfectly ; correctly ; 

exactly. 

chanto shita, adj.: serious ; correct. 
kore wo chanto shimatte kure (A) : put this 

away in its proper place. 
chanto o shi nasal (A) : do it properly. 
chanto o ii nasai (A) : tell me frankly. 
in 6 chanto shitaku ga dekita (B) : the prep- 
arations are all complete. 
chanto wakatte iru (B) : I understand it 

perfectly. 
kono tokei wa chanto atte iru (B) : tliis clock 

is exactly right. 

sore wo chanto kaite itadakitai (B ) : J should 
like to have that clearly put down in 
writing. 
chil. Blood. 

chi ga de-ru : to be bleeding. 
chi ga tomaru : to cease bleeding. 
chi u-o tome-ru : to stop the bleeding. 
Comp.: chi-suji : pedigree. 

hana-ji : blood from the nose, [hana nose]. 
chi-. Ground. 
Comp. 

aki-chi : unoccupied ground, [aki empty]. 
ii ; iim en ; jwhin ; q.v. 
chichil. Milk ; the breasts. 
ushi no chichi : cow's milk. 
chichi wo nornu : to suck the breast. 
nama no chichi : fresh milk, (not boiled). 
icakashUa chichi : boiled milk. 
ano hito wa mada chichi kusai (B) : he is 

very green, (inexperienced). 
Comp.: chichi-ya : a dairy ; the milk-man, 

[see yal]. 
chichi?. A non-polite word for father (364) ; 

my father. 
chigae-ru, v.t. [cogn. w. chigau v.i.]. To 

make different ; mistake. 
Comp.: kiki-chigae-ru : to misunderstand, 

[Av'fcMl to hear]. 
chigai, [f. foil.]. Difference. 

sore ni chigai nai (B) : there is no doubt 

about it. 
totta (no) ni chigai arimasen (C) : there is 

no doubt he took it. 
ano hito wa do ka slnta ni chigai nai (B) : 



there must be something the matter with 

him. 

honto ni chigai nai (B) : it must be true. 
kono hon ni wa ii no chigai ga takusan aru 

(B) : there are a great many misprints in 

this book. 
mam de yuki to sumi to no chigai (B) : as 

different as black and white. 
chigau, v.i. [cogn. w. chigae-ru v.t.]. To be 

different ; be mistaken ; be wrong. 
sore wa chigau (B) : that is a different mat- 
ter ; that is not the question. 
sukoshi mo chigawa-nai (B) : it is exactly 

the same. 
watakushi no kangae wa chigaimasu (C) : I 

think differently. 
maru de chigaimasu (C) : it is altogether 

wrong. 

basho ga chigau : out of its place. 
chigau no : the wrong one. 
chigatta bdshi wo kabuMe i-ru : to have on a 

different hat. 
shall to will to wa do chigaimasu ka ? (C) : 

what is the difference between shall and 

will ? 
anata wa ki de mo chigatta no dejfu ka f (C) : 

have you token leave of your senses ? 
Comp. and der. 
chigai : difference ; see prec. 
kangae -chigai : misunderstanding. [kan- 
gae' ru to think]. 
iki-chigai : passing each other on the road, 

[iku to go]. 

kichigai : madness. [kiZ spirit]. 
machigau q.v.: to make a mistake. 
tori-chigoe- ru : to take by mistake, [torn 

to take]. 
kiki -chigoe- ru : to hear incorrectly, [kikni 

to hear]. 

chiisai ; chiisa na ; (223). Little ; small. 
chiisai koe : a low voice. 
chiisai toki : when I was little. 
kokoro no chiisai : timid. 
Note : the q. adj. chiisa na is only used 

attributively. 
chika-goro, [chikai near; koro about the 

time]. Recently ; lately ; now. 
chikai. Near ; close by. 

chikai shinrui : a near relation. 
chikai uchi ni : soon ; before long. 
Note : the adverbial form chikaku behaves 

at times like a noun and may be foil. l>\ 

a ppn.; compare tot. 
kaji wa chikaku dettu ka 'f (C) : is tin- fin- 

near here ? 
Comp. 
ckika-mifJii ; chilca> michi : a shorter road ; 

a short cut. 
chika-goro , q.v. 
chikara. Power ; strength. 

chikara r/a nuketa (13) : his Htreimtl, 

him. 



chikara 



chumorr 



chikara no aru : powerful. 
chikara no nai : powerless. 
jitsu ni chikara no am shosetsu de gozai- 

masu (D) : it is really a powerful novel. 
ano hlto wa sore wo yarn chikara ga nai (B) : 

he has no ability to do it. 
chikara no tsuyoi : strong. 
chikara no yowai : weak. 
hlto no chikara wo kari-ru : to be assisted 

by somebody. 

chikara wo tsuke-ru : to encourage. 
chikara wo otosu : to lose heart. 
sazo o chikara otoshi dt gozaimasho (D) : 
you must be feeling very down-hearted, 
(said as an expression of condolence). 
chikara ni euru : to depend, rely upon. 
chikara ni naru : to become the support. 
Comp.: chikara-shigoto : rough work, [shi- 

goto work]. 
-chin. Hire ; fare. 
Comp. 

yachin : house rent, [ya\ house], 
unchin : charge for transportation. 
chirakaru, v.i. (114), [cogn. w. chirakasu 
v.t.]. To get in disorder ; get scatter- 
ed about. 
chirakatte i-ru : to he in disorder ; scattered 

about, 
chirakasu, v.t. [cogn. w. chirakaru v.i.]. 

To disarrange ; scatter. 

chis5. Banquet ; feast ; entertainment ; (sel- 
dom used without the honorific pref. go), 
go-chiso sama deshUa (C) ; makoto ni go- 
chiso sama de gozaimashita (D) : thank 
you, (after partaking of any food or re- 
freshment). 
nani ka go-chiso itashimasho (C) : allow me 

to offer you something. 

chito ; chitto ; (gen. pron. in this latter way). 
A little ; bit ; few. 

chitto o asobi ni irasshai (C) : come and see 
me now and then. 
chitto mo kamaimasen (C): it doesn't matter 

a bit. 
Note. chitto is practically synonymous with 

sukoshi q.v. 

chol. Head ; principal. 
Comp. 

sencho : captain of a ship, [senl ship]. 
(thicho : mayor of a town, \shii town], 
cho-. A. n. used for things with handles ; 

knives, tools, rikishas, et. 
Note : 1 it-cho ; 8 hat-cho ; 10 j it-cho. 
chodai. Please ; please give me ; (used thus 
by itself it is a childish substitute for 
kudasai). 

rhodai sum : synonymous with itadaku q.v. 
chodo. Exactly ; just. 
cliddo ii : just right. 
chodo onaji : exactly the same. 
chodo hachi-ji de gozaimasu (D) : it is exact- 
ly eight o'clock. 



chodo ima kaerimashlta (C) : I have just 
returned. 

chodo hohii to omotta mono deu (C) : it is 
the very thing I wanted. 

chodo dekakcyo to guru tokoro deshita (C) : I 
was on the point of going out. 

chodo ni ehite o oki nasai (B) : please make 

it a round sum. 

choito. Same as chotto (q.v.) but less com- 
mon, 
chomen. An account book ; note book. 

tore wa ch&men ni tsukemashlta (C) : I put 
it down in my account book. 
Chosen. Korea. 

chotto, (sometimes pron. choito). A short 
time ; just : (used as an exclamation for 
calling attention) I say ; just a moment. 

chotto o-ide nasai (B) : just come here a 
moment. , 

chotto matte kudasai (C) : just wait a mo- 
ment please. 

chotto o henji ga dekimasen (C) : I cannot 
give you an answer at once. 

chotto no koto de kisha ni nori-okureta (B) : 
I just missed the train. 

chotto no ma ni taiso okiku natta (B) : how 
tall he has grown in this short time. 

chotto shita koto kara futari no naka ga ira- 
ruku natta (B) : the two men fell out over 
a trifling affair. 
chu. 

1) Middle. 

chu no shina-mono : an article of medium 
quality. 

2) During ; in the course of. 

shokuji chu itazura wo shite wa ike-nai (A) : 

you must behave properly during meals. 
denwa wa ima o hanashi chu desu (C) : the 

telephone is engaged at present. 
Comp. 
chuto : middle class ; second class ; [to2 

class]. 

tochu : on the way. 
In its nigori'ed form ju, it is used as a 

suf. and has the meaning of 'entire' ; see 

-ju. 
chumon. An order (for goods). 

chumon sum : to order; give an order. 
chumon wo tori-kesu : to cancel an order. 
chumon shite koshiraesase-ru : to have 

made to order. 

chumon de koshirae-ru : to make to order. 
konna mono chumon shi ya shi-nai (B) : I 

didn 't order this. 
ima made anata no tokoro ni chumon shita 

mono wa minnay okatta (B) : the articles 

you have made for me have always been 

satisfactory until now. 
are wa anata no chumon no tori ni mairi- 

mashlta (C) : that matter has been settled 

according to your wishes. 



chumon 



15 



dake 



watakushi ni mo chumon go, arimasu (C) : I 

too have a request to make. 
Comp.: chumon-dori : according to order, 
chiito, [chu middle ; to'2 class]. Middle class ; 

second class. 

da, [contr. of de aru]. To be ; (for conjuga- 
tion see 94). , 

1 ) De aru may gen. be substituted for da, 
and it is somewhat more polite. However, 
occasionally as in 7), see below, this sub- 
stitution cannot be made. 

2) Desu, a corr. of de arimasu, is used very 
much like da ; it is somewhat more polite. 
Desu is, however, used sometimes where 
da would be inadmissible : see below, 4), 
6), 8), also under the word no 14). On 
the other hand desu cannot always take 
the place of da : see below 7). 

3) Da, desu, etc. are gen. used after a noun 
which is a predicate ; occasionally they 
are used after the stem of a verb. 

iiso deshUa (C) : it was a lie. 
kirei da (B) : it is pretty. 
sunda koto nara yame da (B) : let us stop if 
it is already done. 

4) No desu, (see under no 14) is often used 
after verbs and true adj.: the no is some- 
times dropped. 

soko kara mo ikeru desu (C) : you can also 

go from there. 
kore wa akai desu (C) : this one is red. 

5) Daro or desho gen. conveys the idea of 
uncertainty or probability. They are 
added to the present and past of verbs, 
and also to adj.; they sometimes have a 
quasi-interrogative force ; 40 ; 41 ; 54 ; 55. 

6) Desu after a verbal stem preceded by 
an honorific, forms an alternative for the 
ordinary verbal inflexions, (359). 

o dekake desu ka ? (C) : are you going out ? 
Suzuki San wa o-ide desu ka ? (C) : is Mr 
Suzuki here ? 

7) Da no is used in enumerations, especially 
when the list is not given as a complete 
one. 

neko da no, inu da no ga suki (B) : I am 
fond of cats and dogs, (and other animals). 

8) Desu ka ? is used elliptically after a noun 
an adverb, or a gerund, (414, 6). On 
meeting a child on the road you might 
ask, gakko desu ka ? (i.e. gakko e iku no 
desu ka ?) are you going to school ? 

9) Various. 

da kara : therefore. 

da ga : nevertheless ; still ; and yet. 
-dachl, [nigori'ed form of -tachi q.v.J. 
daii. 

1) A stand ; pedestal. 

2) A.n. for jinrikishas, carriages, etc. 
Comp. . 

daidokoro, q.v. 

nedai : a bedstead, [ne-ru to sleepj. 



Note. Before dai, yo (four) is gen. used 

instead of shL 
dai*. Price. 

dai wo harau : to pay the price. 
hon (no) dai wo mo haraimashita (C) : I 
have already paid for the book. 
Comp.: kuruma-dai : rikisha fare, 
dai-, (sometimes tai). Pref. meaning large, 
^big. 
Note : dai has the meaning of 'very much', 

before suki to like, and kirai to dislike. 
Comp.: daibu ; daijobu ; daiji ; taigai ; tai- 

hen ; taisetsu ; tai so ; taiyo ; q.v. 
daibu, [dai- great ; bu part]. Much ; a good 

deal ; a good many ; pretty ; fairly. 
kyo wa daibu kimochi ga ii (B) : I feel much 

better today. 

mada daibu nokotte iru (B) : there still re- 
mains a good deal. 

kesa wa daibu samui (B) : it is pretty cold 
this morning. 

daidokoro, [dail a stand ; tokoro place]. Kit- 
chen. 
daiji (na), [dai- great ; jU thing]. Important ; 

serious ; precious. 
daiji de nai : unimportant. 
daiji ni : carefully ; like something im- 
portant. 

o daiji ni nasai (C) : take care of yourself. 
daiji ni sum : to take care of. 
kaji ga daiji ni nara-zu ni sunda (B) : the 

fire was put out before it became serious. 
sore wa ichi-daiji da (B) : that is a serious 

matter, 
daijobu (na), [dai- great ; jobu strong]. 

1) Safe ; all right ; requiring no anxiety. 
daijobu desu (C) : it is all right; you needn't 

be anxious ; you can depend upon it. 
anata ga koko ni irasshareba daijobu desu 
(C) : I shall feel quite safe if you are 
here. 

2) Daijobu without a ppn. is sometimes used 
adverbially. 

daijobu gozaimatu (D) : there are sure to 

be some. 

kisha ni wa daijobu ma ni aimasu (C) 
shall certainly be in time for the train. 
daiku, [dai- big]. Carpenter. 
dake. 
1) Only. 

hltotsu dake : only one/ 
kore dake : only this (one) ; this much. 
kondo dake : only this once. 
futari dake de ikimashita ka ? (C) : did you 

two go all by yourselves ? 
kore dake desu ka / (C) : is this all ? 
sore dake desu (C) : that's all. 
pan dake shika nai (B) : I have onh gp< 

some bread. 
sore no aru no wa Tokyo dake desu (C) : it w 

to be found only in Tokyo. 
o cha dake de naku satd mo o kai nasai (B) : 



dake 



16 



dare 



buy not only some tea but also some 
sugar. 

to dake kaite arimaeu (C) ; to kaita dake 
desti (C) : that was all that was written. 

2) At least. 

watakushi dake wa : I at least : as far as I 

am concerned. 
uhltaku dake wa shite oite kure (A) : make at 

least preparations. 
sore dake wa tashika desu (C) : that much is 

certain. 
ano uchi wo kau dake de ii (B) : if I could 

only buy that house that would be 

enough. 

3) That much ; (sometimes not translated). 

' abura wo jis-sen dake katte o-ide (A) : go 

and buy (as much as) ten sen 's worth of oil. 
is-sun dake watakushi yori sei ga takai (B) : 

he is an inch taller than I. 
hito-tsuki dake Rondon ni ita (B) : I was in 

London one month. 
kore dake itte kikaseru no ni mada wakari- 

inasen ka ? (B) : don't you understand yet 

after having explained it to you so much ? 
are dake yatte areba takusan daro (B) : as I 

have given him that much I think it will 

be enough. 
ano otoko ni wa sore dake no kane wa nai 

(B) : he is not rich enough. 

4) The the. 

takakereba takai dake shina ga yokn nari- 
inasu (C) : the dearer the article the better 
it is. 

kakeba kaku dake jdzu ni naru (B) : the 
more you write the better you '11 do it. 

benkyo sum dake omoshiroku natte kuru 
(B) : the more I study it the more interest- 
ing I find it. 

5) As as. 

dekiru dake hayaku o kaeri nasai (B) : come 

back as quickly as you can. 
iru dake o tori nasai (B) : take as much as 

you want. 
am dake (or arittake) tsukatte shimaima- 

shUa (C) : I used all 1 had. 
aagaseru dake sagashlte rniyo (B) : I'D try 

my best to find it. 
yomitai dake o yomi nasai (B) : read as 

much as you like. 

(i) But ; on the other hand ; therefore. 
takai dake atte shina mo ii (B) : it is ex- 
pensive but it is good. 
kane mo tsukau dake (ni) shigoto mo sum 

(B) : he spends money but he works (and 

earns it himself). 
nagaku Igirisu ni ita dake atte, domo Ei-go 

ga umai (B) : as he has been in England 

so long, he naturally speaks English very 

well. 
Note : dake sometimes has the sound take, 

as naru-take (q.v.) and arittake (=aru 

dake). 



daku. To hold in the arms ; embrace ; (of a 

hen) sit on eggs ; brood. 
d amakasu, corr. of damasu q.v. 
damaru. [tomaru to stop]. To be silent ; hold 

one's tongue. 

o damari nasai (A) : hold your tongue. 
damatte itte shimaimashUa (C) : he left 

without saying anything. 
hito no heya e damatte haitte wa ike- nai. 
(A): you mustn't enter people's rooms 
without leave. 

damasu, (often corr. to damakasfi). To de- 
ceive ; cheat ; mislead. 
damasareru no wa iya da (B) : I don't like 

to be cheated. 

dame (na). Useless ; wrong. 
dame desu (C) : it's no use. 
minna.dame deshlta (C) : it was all in vain. 
so shite wa dame da (B) : it's no use doing 

it like that ; you mustn 't do it so. 
dame ni naru : to become useless ; to come 

to nothing. 

watakushi wa mo dame desu, uchi e kaeri- 
masho (C) : as I can continue no longer 
(doing my work), I'll go back home. 
byd-nin wa mo dame desu (C) : there is no 

more hope for the patient. 
dan. A step. 
Comp. 

dan-dan, q.v.: step by step. 
hashigo-dan : a staircase, [hashigo ladder]. 
dan -dan, \dan a step]. By degrees ; gradual- 
ly ; little by little ; step by step, 
danna. Master (of a house) ; husband. 

danna sama wa irasshaimasu ka ? (D) : is 

your master at home ? 
dara, [corr. of Eng.]. Dollar. 
da rake. All over ; covered with ; full of ; 

(gen. used in a bad sense). 
Comp. 

chi-darake : all over blood, [chi blood]. 
doro-darake : covered with mud, [doro mud]. 
ana-darake : full of holes, [ana a hole]. 
'mh i-darake : stony, [ishi a stone], 
etc. 
dare. 

1) Not foil, by ppn. 

kono hito wa dare da ? (B) : who is this man? 
dare da ka selyo-jin ga anata no rusu ni ki- 

mashlta (C) : some foreigner or other 

came while you were out. 

2) Dare ga. 

dare ga kesa kimashlta ka ? (C) : who came 

this morning ? 
dare ga ii to omou ? (B) : whom do you 

recommend ? 
dare ga nan to itte mo kamawa-nai (B) : I 

don 't mind what anybody says. 

3) Dare no. 

kore wa dare no desu ka ? (C) : whose is this? 
dare no kakari desu ka ? (C) : whose duty 
is it 1 



dare 



datte 



4) Dare ni ; dare ni mo. 
kono tegami ica dare ni l:>ta no desuka ? (C) : 

to whom is this letter addressed ? 
dare ni kore. wo yarn no desu lea ? (C) : to 

whom must I give this ? 
dare ni itta, ni shite mo yoku nai (B) : whom- 
ever you may have told it to you did 

wrong. 
dare ni kiitc nlo so in hanashi desfi (C) : such 

is the story ask whom you will. 
.">) Dare ka ; dare ka no ; dare ka ni. 
dare ka soko ni orimasu (C) : somebody or 

other is there. 
dare ka kimasen deshlta ka ? (C) : hasn't 

anybody come ? 
inata dare ka kimashUa. (C) : somebody else 

has come. 
koko ni dare ka no chdmen ga am (B) : here 

is somebody 's note book. 
ffitatsu am kara hitotsii dare ka ni agema-sho 

(C) : as I have two IH1 give one away. 
ti ) Dare, mo ; dare ppn. mo ; dare ppn. mo. 
dare mo shira-nai (B) : nobody knows. 
dare mo shira-nai mono wa nai gurai desu 

(C) : hardly anybody ignores ; practically 

everybody knows. 
dare mo shinji-nai desho (C) : people won r t 

believe it. 
i<oka ni wa dare mo tsurete itte wa ikemasen 

(B) : besides that person you mustn't 

bring anybody else. 
dare no kangae mo onaji koto desu (C) : 

everybody else 's opinion is just the same. 
dare ni mo aimasen (C) : T met nobody. 
dare ni mo J'anashlte ica ikemasen (B) : you 

mustn't tell (it to) anybody. 
dare kara mo waruku omowarete ima-sti (C) : 

everybody has a bad opinion of him. 

7 ) Dare de mo ; dare de mo. 

ilare dr mo kane ;/a suki desu (C) : all men 

love money. 
dare de. mo so iiniasu (C) : everybody says 

so. 
dare dt mo haireru no desti ka ? (C) : is this 

open to the public ? 
dare de mo kite ii (B) : any one at all may 

come. 
dare no de mo ii kara hltotsu kashite kuda- 

sai (B) : never mind whose it is lend me 

one. 
kongei&u ju wa dare ni df mo misemasu (C) : 

during this month it will lie shown to 

anybody. 
dare ga o tori de mo kamawa-nai (B) : I 

don ! t care who passes by. 

8) Various. 

dare-dare is a kind of plural of dare, 
dare-dare ga kita ka shiralete kudasai (B) : 

please find out the names of those who 

came. 

dare mo ka mo : everybody. 
iirfii no kodomo u-a dare mo ka mo kazc v 



hiite imasu (C) : every one of the children 

has (got) a cold. 
Note : donata is a polite substitute for 

dare. 
dashippanasu, [da*>*i to take out ; lianatru to 

leave]. To leave out. 

dasu. To take out ; put out ; expose ; pro- 
duce ; send ; send away ; let out. 
tansti. kara kimono wo dashlte kvre (A) : get 

my dress out of the chest-of -drawers. 
Ei-koku wa erai hito wo tak&san dashila (B) : 

England has produced many great men. 
mo tegami wa dashimashUa ka ? (C) : ha8 

the letter already gone ? 
inu wo dashimasho ka ? (C) : shall I let the 

dog out ? 
ano hon iva doko de dashimasu ka ? (C) : 

where is that book published ? 
ikura o dashi nasaimasu ka ? (D) : what do 

you offer ? how much are you prepared to 

pay ? (compare the slang, fork out). 
tegami wo dasu : to send a letter (by poet). 
cha wo dasu : to bring in tea. 
chikara wo dasu : to put forth strength. 
mise wo dasti : to open a shop. 
tc wo dasu : (lit.) to put out one's hand ; 

(fig.) to try one's hand at or start sonn> 

new work. 

yatoi-nin wo dasu : to discharge an em- 
ployee. 
shippo wo dasu : to reveal unintentionally 

one's true (bad) character. 
ni-ban kara hi wo dashlta (B) : a fire broke 

out at number two. 
o kyaku sama ni o kashi wo dashimashita 

(C) : he set some cakes before the guest. 
In comp. it often refers to the beginning of 

an action as in some of the foil. 
juri-dasfi : to start raining, [furul to rain]. 
ii-dasii : to begin to speak, [I'M to speak 1. 
kake-dasu : to run out ; start running, 

[kake-ru to run]. 

naki-dasu : to start crying, [naku to cry]. 
nige-dasu : to run away, [nige-ru to run 

away]. 

omoi-dasu : to recollect, [omou to think]. 
uke-dasu : to ransom, [uke-ru to receive]. 
mochi-dasu : to carry away, [tnotsU to 

carry]. 

tobi-da*& : to jump out, [tobu to jump]. 
oi-dasu : to drive away, [ou to pursue}. 
hikidashi : a drawer. [Mku to pull]. 
dashippanasu : to leave out, [hanasu to 

leave], 
datte, [corr. of da to itte, or de attf mo aft or 

dropping the mo], often equivalent to 

de mo, see de 7). 
dd datte, watakushl wa kamau-a-nai (B) : let 

it be how it will I don 't care. 
a itai ! nan datte hlto wo butsu n' da (A) : 

oh, you hurt me ! why do you bump up 

against people like that. 



datte 



18 



ck 



datte, sonna hazu wa nai (B) : but that can- 
not be. 
datte so, isogasMkatta n' desti mono (B, 

fern.) : yes, but I was so busy. 
kimono datte, obi datte, ima am dake de 

tak&san da (B) : you've got quite enough 

dresses and sashes (without buying any 

more). 
watftshi datte dekimasu (C) : even I can do 

it ; I can do it also. 
watashi datte sono kusuri ga areba sugu 

agemami ga (C) : if I had that medicine 

I 'd soon let you have some. 
See also 'tie. 
de. (See 393 for a comparison between the 

uses of de and ni). 
1) A ppn. showing the relation of situation, 

position, cause, reason, means, instru- 
ment, condition, circumstance, measure, 

value, time, etc.; it may be translated 

by : at, by, in, for, with, of, on, from, etc. 
o taku de : at your house. 
onaji nedan de : at the same price. 
o tanomi de : at your request. 
koko de setomono wo yaku no desii ka ? (C) : 

do they make pottery here (at this place)? 
June de : by boat. 
yubin de : by post. 
jikan de yatoitai (B) : I want to engage you 

by the hour. 
Tdkyo de shinimashita (C) : he died in 

Tokyo. 
Ei-go de itte kudaaai (C) : say it in English 

please. 
ni-yen de katta (B) : I bought it for two 

yen. 
kore wa to de ikura desA ka ? (C) : what is 

the price for ten of these ? 
himo de shibaru : to tie with n string. 
empitsu de kaku : to write with a pencil. 
Nihon no fujin de yoftiku wo kiru hito mo 

ffozaimafifi (D) : some of the Japanese 

ladies wear foreign clothes. 
ano hashi wa tetsu de dekite imnsfi (C) : that 

bridge is made of iron. 
michi de : on the way. 
hito no kimochi wa kao-iro de wakaru (B) : 

men's feelings can be told from their 

looks. 

shakii de ikura .' (B) : how much a foot ? 
it-to de o-ide dcsu ka ? (C) : are you going 

first class ? 
} Atari de kimashlta (C) : they came both 

together. 

ni-fun de hachi-ji : two minutes to eight. 
tdka de ichi-nen ni naru (B) : in ten days 

: t will be one year (since that happened). 
de, asa hayaku dekakemashlta (C) : and so 

he set out early in the morning. 
watakuzhi wa walaktish < dc ikimush'Ua (C) : 

I went of my own accord (nobody forced 

me). 



mam de : entirely ; quite. 

2) A noun foil, by de often becomes the sub- 
ject in English ; but in the Japanese mind 
it is conceived as the means whereby, or 
the place in which the action or state 
occurs. 

mittsude takusan (B) : three will be enough. 
yasui no de ii (B) : a cheap one will do. 

(No here means 'one'; do not confound 

this no de with no de meaning 'because'; 

see no 19). 
ano jimen wa ginko de kaimashlta (C) : the 

Bank bought that plot of land. 

3) De may indicate the predicate of the verb 
am or gozaru. Remember that dc ant, 
etc. is usually contracted ; see 94. In 
neg. sentences de is usu. foil, by wa ; not 
so, however, in adj. phr. De wa is freq. 
contr. to ja. 

koko de arimasti (or desti) (C) : this is the 
place. 

san-ji han de gozaimasu (D) : it is half past 
three. 

sayd de gozaimasti (D) : that is so. 

kirc-i de wa arimasen (C) : it is not pretty. 

s6 ja nai (B) : that isn't so. 

anata ja nai. O Kei San wo yonda no de#u 
(B) : it was Miss Kei I called, not you. 

)dbu de aritai (B) : I wish I were healthy. 

o isha san ira byoki ja arimasen ka ? (C ) : 
isn't the doctor ill ? 

baka de nai hito : a not-foolish man. 

de wa sayonara (C) : well then, good byo. 

de wa gozaimaeti ga : that is so no doubt . 
however 

De foil, by am cannot always be contract- 
ed to da ; for instance : 

Taro to Haruo to ga kyodai de aru koto wa 
shira-nakatta (B) : I didn't know that 
Taro and Haruo were brothers. 

4) De wa arimasen ka ? is often used at tin- 
end of a question that expects the answer 
'yes'. 

o isha san wa byoki ja arimasen ka ? (C) : 

isn't the doctor ill ? 
omae wa cfiitto mo shira-nai ja nai ka ? (A): 

isn't it a fact that you know nothing at all 

about it ? 
kasa wo motte ikeba ii ja arimasen ka ? (C; : 

hadn't you better take an umbrella ? 
ikd ja arimasen ka ? (C) : Jet's go. 
De wa arimasen in constructions like tlit> 

foil, has an emphatic force : 
aru no de wa arimasen ( arimaaen) : th"iv 

is not. 
yomu no de wa nai (~yoma-nai) : I (ho) 

do not read ; you must not read. 

5) De after the neg. pres. forms the ne. 
gerund ; it may often be translated by 
without (58, 16, 17). 

nanni mo iwa-nai de itte ahimatta (B) : he 
went away without saying a word. 



de 



19 



deki'ru 



t)) De following a noun, may mark the end 
of a clause which is not the end of a sen- 
tence : it is often translated by 'and', 
and resembles several gerundial construc- 
tions ; it may be considered as the con- 
traction of de atte. In the neg. it becomes: 
tie (wa) nakutc ; de (wa) naku or de (wa) 
nai. 

kono hen wa shizuka de ii tokoro desu (C) : 
this neighbourhood is quiet and nice. 

Taro wa to de Jir5 wa yattsu desu (C) : Taro 
is ten and Jiro is eight years old. 

ame de (or ame. ga futte) dekakeru no wo no- 
bashtta (B ) : I have postponed my depar- 
ture on account of the rain. 

sore iva ammari hade de kiraremasen (C) : 
that is so showy I cannot wear it, (58, 

tratashi no haratta no wa ni-yen de wa nai 
san yen datta (B) : it was three yen that 1 
paid and not two. 

ko iu hon ga yome-nai yd de wa Aoyama 
gakko ni haire-nai (B) : if your education 
is not sufficient to enable you to read 
books like this you cannot enter Aoyama 
college ; (remember that a gerundial 
construction foil, by wa has often the 
force of a conditional). 

7) Demo has several meanings: a) a con- 
cessive force which may be often transla- 
ted by 'even'; b) qualified satisfaction, a 
make-shift ; c) vagueness, which may be 
translated by 'not exactly', 'such a 
thing as' or not translated at all. (Com- 
pare 58, 9--11). 

iya de mo shlkata ga nai (B) : even if you 
don't like it, it can't be helped. 

> ma de mo kikoeru (B) : I can hear it even 
now. 

ame de mo iku txtimori desu (C) : I intend to 
go even if it rains. 

de mo sonna hazu wa nai (B) : still that can- 
not be. 

de mo, mada roku ji ni nara nai (B) : well, 
but it's not six o'clock yet. 

.Vihon de mo yofuku wo kiru Mto ga dan- 
dan oku natte kimashita (C) : in Japan 
also, the number of people who wear 
foreign clothes is gradually increasing. 

dare ga o tori de mo kamawa-nai (B) : I 
don 't care who passes by. 

minna deki-nakereba hambun de mo haratte 
kudaaai (B) : at least pay half, if you 
can't pay all. 

e.mpitsu de mo ii (B) : a pencil will do, 
(though I 'd prefer a pen). 

kaette kara de mo ii (B) : it will be time 
enough when you come back, (though I 'd 
prefer it sooner). 

machido desu kara cfia de mo nomimasho 
(C) : as he is a long time coming, let's 
take tea. 



deki-nai koto de mo nai (B): it's not exact Iv- 
an impossible thing. 

8d demo nai (B) : it's not exactly so. 

sakede mo nonde iru nodaro (B) : I suppose 
he is again drinking sake (or something ( 
the kind). 

lion de mo mimasho (C) : I '11 read a book. 

ano hito de mo itsu kane-mochi ni narumai 
mono de mo nai (B) : it is not exactly im- 
possible that even that man may sonic 
day become rich. 

nani ka okotte de mo iru no daro ka? (B) : 
I wonder if he is put out about anything. 

8) De mo de mo in parallel clauses has the 
meaning of 'whether or', 'either or' 
in aff. sentences ; 'not nor' in neg. 

Nihon-jin de mo gaikoku-jin de mo : every 
one whether Japanese or foreigner. 

kore wa kin de. mo gin de mo arimasen (C) : 
this is not gold nor silver. 

tdka de mo hatsuka de- mo asonde o-ide (A) : 
take ten day's or a fortnight 's rest. 

9) For de mo after dare, donata, dore, dochira, 
d6, doko, itsu, ikura, ikvtsu and nan, see 
these words. 

10) De wa kika-nai : more than. 

jik-kin de wa kika-nai : more than ten 

pounds. 
de-busho, [de-ru to go out ; busho lazy]. A 

stay-at-home. 
de-guchi, [de-ru to go out ; kuchi mouth, 

opening]. The way out ; exit, 
de-iri, [de-ru to go out ; iru2 to go in]. Going 
in and out ; receipts and payments ; used 
of incomplete units of time, same as ashi- 
kake, see ashi. 
de-iri wo suru : to go or come frequently t <> 

a house. 
Comp.: de-iri-guchi : a door used for <MI- 

trance and exit. 

dekakeru, [de-ru to go out; kake-rvl q.v.j. 
To go out ; start. 
itsu o dekake de gozaimasu ka ? (D) : whon 

do you start ? 

deki-agaru, [deki-ru to be made ; agaru to lx 

finished]. To be completed ; be finished. 

deki-ai (no), [deki-ru to be made ; au to 

meet]. Ready-made. 
deki-ai no kutsu : ready-made boots. 
Comp.: dekiai-mono : leady-made things. 
deki'ru, [de-ru to go out ; kuru to come). 
Lit.: to come out ; fortheome. 
1) To be made, done, finished, ready. 
mada dekimasen ka ? (C) : isn 't it ready 
yet ? 

md dekimasMta (C) : it's ready. 
ano hashi wa teteu de dekitt imaml (C) : that 

bridge is made of iron. 
asoko de setomono ga dckiru (B) : porcela 

is manufactured there. 
dekite iru no ga arimasft ka '< (C) : liave you 
any remly-made ? 



deki'ru 



20 



do 



2) To be able ; can. 

deL-ireba : if I can ; if possible ; as far as 
possible. 

roku-ji ni shokuji ga dekimasu ka ? (C) : can 
I have my dinner at six o 'clock ? 

korega dekimasu ka ? (C) : can you do this t 

kyd wa agaru koto ga dckimasen (D) : I can- 
not go to see you today. (See koto 5). 

3) To speak (can speak) ; know. 

Ei-go ga dekimasu ka ? (C) ; can you speak 

English ? 
Nikon-go wa sukoshi shlka dekimasen (C) : 

I only speak a very little Japanese. 

4) Dekiru dake has a superlative meaning. 
dekiru dake yoku nasai (A) : do it as well as 

you can. 
dekiru dake hayaku henji wo shite kudasai 

(B) : please let me have an answer as soon 

as possible. 
dekiru dake itashimasho (D) : I will do my 

utmost. 

5) As a verbal adj. 
dekiru : possible. 
deki-nai : impossible. 

dekiru koto nara nan dc m<t itaxliimasu (D) : 
1 will do anything that is in my power. 

deki-nai koto wu nai (B) : it is not an im- 
possible thing. 

sore wa dekiru koto desu ka ? (C) : is it pos- 
sible to do it ? 

Ei-go no dekiru Into : a man who can speak 
English. 

6) Various. 

o kuni de. wa komc. ga dc.kimasu ka '.' (C) : 

does rice grow in your country ': 
ano finin wa sengetsu kodmno ga dek'i>u- 

shlta (C) : that lady had a baby last 

month. 
Ei-go no deki wa do desu ka ? (C) : how is 

he getting on in English ? 
kodoino ga de.krru : to give birth to a child ; 

be with child. 

kari ga dekrru : to get into debt. 
Note : the subject of deki-ru gen. takes the 

ppn. ga ; this subject is often the object 

of the English potential verb. 
Com p. 
deki-agaru : to be finished, [agaru to be 

finished]. 
deki-sokonau : to !>e a failure, [sokomm \ 

fail]. 

ileki-ai : ready-made. \au to meet], 
dempo. [den- electricity j. A telegram. 

dempo u'o kakc-ru ; dempo wo iitxft : to send 

a tele/rain. 
bydki da to iti dr-mpd ga kita (B) : 1 received 

a telegram saying he is ill. 
den-. Electricity. 
Comp.: deinpo ; denki ; denilitr : dt-nu-a ; 

Cj.V. 

denki, [den- electricity ; kit. spirit]. Electric- 
ity ; electric light. 



densha, [den- electricity ; -aha carriage]. 

Electric car ; tram-car, 
denwa, [den- electricity]. 

denwa e yonde kudasai (C) : please call hin 
to the telephone. 

Tanabe. San, denwa de gozaima.su (D) : Mr 
Tanabe, you are wanted on the telephone. 
o rusu ni Yamatla San kara denwa ga kaka- 
nmashlla (C) : while you were out a tele- 
phone call came from Mr Yamada. 
denwa wo kake'ru : to telephone. 
de-ru. 

1) To go out ; come out. 

ima deru tokoro desu (C) : I am just about 

to go out. 
ano hon wa raigetsu demasu (C) : that book 

will come out (be published) next month. 

2) To leave ; start. 

klsha \va nan-ji ni demasu ka ? (C) : at what 

o 'clock does the train start ? 
kesa Kobe wo demashlta (C) : I left Kobe 

tliis morning. 

3) De-ru has sometimes a humble meaning. 
d-sama no mae ni demashlta (C) : he caim- 

into the presence of the King. 
negatte de-ru : to make a request of a person 

constituted in authority. 
tnotfhi-de-ru : to say something to a person 

in authority. 

4) Various. 

koko wo ikeba leiahaba e d^tnasu ka '.' (C) : 
does this road go to the station ''. 

a-slnta gakko r dvntosu ka '' (C) : are yon tid- 
ing to school tomorrow T 

kaji wa daidokoro kara deta so desu (C) : it 
seems that the fire l:>egan in the kitchen. 

abnnai .' kokn ni kugi ga dete iru (B) : how 
dangerous, there is a nail sticking out 
here. 

chi ga de-nt : to bleed. 

use ga de-ru : to perspire. 

namida ga de-ru : to cry. 

seki ga de-ru : to cough. 

shimbun ni de-rn : to appear in a nt-\\^- 
paper. 

dete kuru : to come out ; apjjear : )>e found. 
Comp. 

de-gucii! : the way out, [kuchi mouth, opcn- 

i"gj- 

dc-bunho : a stay-at-home, [busho lazy |. 
hi-no-de : sunrise, [ft i sun ]. 
di-iri q.v. 
desu, sec da. 

detaranie. Nonsense ; random ; haphazard. 
detaranic wo iu : to talk at random. 
detaranie na. adj.: random ; nonsensical. 
detaramr ni lutiii &m~u : to answer at ran- 
dom, 
do. 

1) Degrei-. 

nani-gotu >no do a~o majite u-a ike -nai (B) : 
yon must m>i ,ii<> to excess in anything. 



do 



21 



do 



anata no megane wa nan-do desu ka ? (C) : 
what is the number of your spectacles V 
2) Times. 
ichi-do : once. 

san-do ni ichi-do : once in three times. 
ni-do-me : the second time. 
ichi-do mo (with neg.) : not even once. 
ichi-do mo mimasen (C) : I have never seen 
it, not even once. 

iku-do mo : any number of times ; very 
often. 

ichi-do Nikko e iUe mitai (B) : 1 would like 
to see Nikko ; (compare hitotsu 2). 
mo ni-doto Kichiza ni cm koto wa dekimaseti 
(C) : she would never be able to see Kiohi- 
za again. 
Comp. 

kondo : this time ; next time ; [see 

mai-do : every time, [mai every]. 

Note : do is preceded by the 1st set of 

num.; before do, yo (four) is used instead 

of fhi. 

dol . Copper, 
do-. Interr. pron. 
1) How ? what ? 
do #uru no desu ka ? (C) : how do you do 

it ? 

do shimashd ? (C) ; do sureba ii deshd ? (C) ; 

do shttara ii ka ? (B) : what shall I do ? 

what had I better do ? 

do 8>iru no daro ? (B) : what shall I do ? 

how is he to proceed 1 
do shimasu ka ? (C) : what do you propose 

to do ? 
do sureba ii no desii ? (C) : what do you 

advise me to do ? 
anata ga i-nakereba do nhimashd ? (C) : what 

should I ever do without you ? 
do sum koto mo deki-nai (B) : 1 can't pre 

vent it. 
Hakone e wa do iku no de#u ka ? (C) : how 

can you get to Hakone ? 
gakko Y> dete kara do nasaru o kangae desi 
ka ? (C) : what do you mean to do when 
you leave school ? 
yoku kiite mini to do dard ? (B) : and when I 
questioned her, what do you think sh 
said ? 

kyonen wa kotoshi yori atsui to omocBMWd ga 
do de#hd? (C) : it seems to me that it', 
hotter this year than last, however I maj 
be wrong. 

2) Do desu ka ? (C) : how are you ? 
koko wa do de*u ka ? (C) : how do you hk 

this place ? 
heitai wa dd desu ka '/ (C) : how do you hk 
being a soldier ? 
isaho ni itte v-a do desu ka ? (C) : what d 
you say to going with me ? 
:}) Do shlta ? 

do shlta no desu ? (C) : what has happened 
what is the matter ? 



do shlta no deshd ? (C) : I wonder what has 

happened ? I wonder how it happened ''. 

dd nasaimashlta ka ? (D) : what is the mat - 

ter with you ? 
kodomo wa do shita no desu ka ? (C) : wlv! 

has happened to the child ? 
watashi no boshi tea do shlta ka? (B) : 

what has become of my hat ? 
do sfilta mon" daro ? (B) : what shall I do ? 
do shlta no ka shira-nai (B) : I don't know 

how it happened. 
do shlta hlto desu ? (C) : what kind of a man 

is he ? 
sore wa do shlta wake desu ? (C) : -what is the 

reaf on of that ? 
dd shlta wake ka o-kami-san ga byoki ni 

narimashua (C) : somehow or other his 

wife fell ill. 
do shlta koto ka hltori ga ashi wo suberaset* 

ochimashUa (C) : somehow or other one 

of them slipped and fell down. 

4) Dd ahlte. 

dd shite kyd ikimosen dethlta ka ? (C) : why 

didn 't you go today ? 
do shite deshd f (C) : I wonder how that 

happened ? 
do shite so natta no desu ? (C) : how did that 

happen ? 
do shite omae wa watakushi no tometa koto 

wo shimasu ka ? (A) : how dare you do 

what I have forbidden ? 
do shite ii ka wakarimasen (C) : I am at a 

loss to know what to do. 
Hakone e dd shite iku no desu ka ? (C) : how 

can you get to Hakone ? 

5) Dd shite mo. 

dd shite mo dekimasen (C) : it is absolutely 

impossible. 
dd shite mo dekakemasen (C) : in any casn 

I shall not go out. 
dd shite mo ike-nai (B) : that won't do at 

all. 
dd shite mo ashlta dekake-nakereba nanma- 

sen (C) : it is absolutely necessary for me 

to leave tomorrow. 
Kdmoto San wa dd shite mo jdzu da (\ 

there is no denying Mr Komoto is very 

clever. 
dd shite mo kd shite mo dd mo nara-nakereoa 

kono kane wo agemashd (C) : if there 

absolutely no other way out of the difl 

culty I '11 give you this money. 
6) Ddmo ; dd (gerund) mo ; dd ni mo ; ( 

also ddmo). 

d-kazega jukimashlta ga itrhi wa dowo nan 

masen (C) : a gale blew but nothing hap- 
pened to my house. 
dd mite mo ano hlto wa Nihon-jm da 

whichever way you look at him he i 

Japanese. 

dd natte mo kamaimasen (C) : I don t care 

what happens. 



do 



doko 



do ni mo naru (B) : it can be turned any 

way. 
do mo kd mo shiyd ga nai (B) : it really 

can 't be help. 
butarete mo naki mo do mo shi-nakatta (B) : 

although he got a beating he didn *t cry 

or do anything like that. 

7) Do ka ; do ni ka ; (see also doka). 

do (ni) ka dekimasen ka ? (C) : can't you 
manage it some way ? 

dd (ni) ka shite o kure (A) : attend to it 
p'.ease. 

sono uchi ni do (ni) ka narimashd (C) : 
sooner or later it will come to some satis- 
factory conclusion. 

ano hito no tokoro-gaki wo do (ni) ka shite 
shiritai mono desu (C) : I wish t could find 
out his address somehow or other. 

dd ka sum to aku no deu ga do sum no da ka 
wakarimasen (C) : this must open some- 
how or other but I don 't know how. 

dd ka shlta no desu ka ? (C) : is any tiling the 
matter with you ? 

do ka shite kawa no mukd e ikitai (B) : I wish 
I could manage somehow to get to the 
other side of this river. 

omae wa kyd wa yoppodo dd ka shite iru (A) : 
there's no doubt about it, you are not 
yourself today, (something has happened 
to upset you). 

8) Do de mo ; do ni d-c mo. 

dd (ni) de mo o ski nasai (B) : do it anyhow. 
do de mo yd gozaimasu (1); : any way will 

do ; it doesn 't matter how it is. 
anatu no kangae de dd de mo nariwasu (C) : 

either of the things you suggest w ; ll do. 

9) Do iu ; do iu ju na ; dd hi yd na : what 
kind of. 

do iu Mto desu ? (C) : what kind of a man is 

he ? 
sore wa dd in wake deu ? (C) : what is the 

reason of that '! what do you mean by 

that ? 
dd iu wake ka kcsa shimbun ga oaoku kima- 

shlta (C) : for some reason or other the 

newspaper came late this morning. 

10) Various. 

do itashimashlte (C) : not at all (after being 

thanked) : don't mention-it. 
dd ka kd ka ; do ni lea kd ni ka : somehow or 

other. 
dd (ni) ka kd (ni) ka fthiincmhu (C) : I will do 

it somehow or other. 
dd no kd no : something or other. 
Xote : ikaya, a polite substitute for do, can 
l>e used in many of the examples in 1.2 
and 3. 

dobutsu. Animal. 

dochi ; dochira ; (dochi is gen. pron. dotchi}. 
1 ) Where ? 

dotchi e o-'ide ni narima^u ka ? ([)) : where 
are you going '' 



dochira kara o-idc nasaimashlta ka ? (D) : 
where do you come from ? 

2) \Vhich (of two) t 

dochira ga o suki desu ka ? (C) : which do 

you prefer ? 
mizu to o yu to dotchi ga yd gozaimasu ka .' 

(D) : is it cold water or hot water that you 

want ? 
shina-monowo ivatasu ka, kane wo harau ka, 

dotchi ka o shi naoai (A) : either hand over 

the goods or pay the money. 

3) Dotchi no ; dochira no. 

dochira no michi -iro ikimashd ka ? (C) : 

which road shall we take ? 
dotchi no hd ? (B) : in which direction ? in 

what part (of the town) ? 

4) Dotchi ka ; dochira ka. 

dotchi ka agemashd (C) : I will give you one 

of these (two). 
kono uchi dochira ka o ki ni irimasu ka ? 

(D) : will either of these suit you ? 
dotchi ka to ieba machi yori inaka no hd c/a 

suki desu (C) : if I must choose between 

the two, I think I prefer the country to 

living in town. 

5) Dotchi mo ; dochira mo. 

dotchi mo onaji da (B) : they are both alike. 
docliira mo ira-nai (B) : I want neither. 
dotchi mo yolrn nai (B) : neither is good. 

6) Dotchi dc mo ; dochira de mo. 
dochira de mo ii (B) : either will do. 

sono kami nara dotchi de mo daijobtt daro 
(B) : either of those pieces of paper would 
be strong enough. 

7) Dotchi ni shite mo : in either case. 
dogu. Tool : instrument ; (piece of) fur- 
niture. 

Comp.: juru-ddgu : second-hand furniture, 

tools, [furui oldj. 
Doitsu, [corr. of the German]. Germany. 

Doitsu no, adj.: German. 
Comp. 

Doitsii-jin : a German, [jin man]. 
Doitfu-go : the German language, [-go 

speech], 

doka, [see dd ka under dd-\. The original 

meaning is 'somehow or other'; but ii 

sometimes is about equivalent ro 'please'. 

doka kore r~o kaife ki'da*ai (C) : please write 

this. 
(JokeTU, v.t. [cogn. w. dohu v.i.J. To re- 

no\'e ; take out of the way. 
dokka, [contr. of doko ka, see doko]. 
doko, [dono which : tokoro place]. 
1) Where ? which r 
o taku u-a doko dcsu ka ? (C) : where do you 

live ? 
koko wa doko desu ka ? (C) : what is the 

name of this place ? 

doko ga ichiban ii hot-cm deshd ? (C) : which 
is the best hotel ? 



doko 



23 



donna 



are wa doko no Mto desu ka ? (C) : what na- 
tionality is he ? 
doko no kata ka shirimasen (C) : I don't 

know who the man is. 
doko no gakko e ikimasu ka ? (C) : what 

school do you go to ? (352). 
doko ni aru no daro ? (B) : I wonder where 

it is. 
doko e itta ka-ahirimasen (C) : I don't know 

where he has gone. 
kore wa doko e iku michi de#& ka ? (C) : 

where does this road go to ? 
doko kara ikhnasii ka ? (C) : by which road 

are you going ? 
doko made ikimashita ka ? (C) : how far did 

you go ? 
doko de katta no ? (B, fern.) : where did you 

buy it ? 
2) Doko ka (often abb. to dokka) ; doko, ppn. 

ka ; doko ka, ppn. 

doko ka (dokka) kono kinjoni sunde iru (B) : 

he lives somewhere in this neighbourhood. 

doko ka no otoko no ko ga uchi no nashi wo 

torimashita (C) : some boy I don't know, 

stole some of our pears. 

doko ni ka (or ka ni) aru desho (C) : it must 
be somewhere ; there must be some some- 
where. 
doko e ka (or ka e) iko ja arimasen ka ? (B) : 

let's go somewhere. 
mizu ga doko kara ka (or ka kara) morimasu 

(C) : there's a leak somewhere. 
doko made ka ikimasho (C) : I'll go part of 

the way. 

IJ) Doko mo ; doko, ppn. mo. 
doko mo shirimasen (C) : I don't know any 

of those places. 

kino doko mo o wami yd de wa arimasen 
desMta (C) : there seemed to be nothing 
the matter with him yesterday. 
doko ni mo gozaimasen (D) : there are none 

anywhere. 

kyd wa doko e mo ikimasen (C) : I'm not go- 
ing out today. 

ket/a wa yubin ga doko kara mo kimasen (C) : 
I haven 't received a letter from anywhere 
this morning. 
doko made mo ikimaahita (C) : I went ever 

so far. 
doko made mo shinseteu na Mto desu (C) : 

there is no limit to his kindness. 
4) Doko de mo ; doko, ppn. de ma. 
doko de mo ii (B) : anywhere will do. 
doko de mo arimasu (C) : you can got it 
anywhere. 

Tokyo de wa doko no mise de mo dcnki ya 
ga*u wo tsukaimasu (C) : in Tokyo every 
shop is lit by electricity or gas. 
doko ni de mo itte irasshai (B) : go wherever 

you like. 

doko e de mo o oki nasai (B) : put it any- 
where. 



doko kara de mo kimasu (C) : they L-OIU-- 

from all parts. 
doko made de mo o tamo itashimashd (D) : 

I '11 go with you as far as you like. 
5) Doko, ppn., gerund, mo. 
doko ni ite mo tabako wo nonde itnasu (C) : 

he smokes wherever he is. 
doko e o-ide ni natte mo so yasuku wa uri- 
masen (C) : go where you will you won't 
get it so cheap. 
doko kara mite mo: whichever way you look 

at it. 

doko made itte mo yama bakari desu (C) : no 
matter how far you go there are only 
mountains. 

doko e iku toki de mo inu u-o tsurete ikitna- 
shlta (C) : he used to take the dog with 
him whenever he went anywhere. 
Comp. 

doko-doko is a kind of plural of doko. 
doko -doko e irasshaimasMta ka ? (D) : to 

what places did you go ? 
doko-ira ? whereabouts ? [see -ira], 
dokoro, nigori'ed form of tokoro q.v. 
doku I . Poison ; something bad for the 

health. 

doku na : poisonous. 

doku ni naru : to prove injurious to health. 
doku ni mo kusuri ni mo nara-nai (B) : it is 

neither good nor bad. 

doku kucba sara made mo : in for a penny 

in for a pound ; one may as well be hanged 

for a sheep as a lamb; (lit.: if you take 

poison, eat the plate also). 

doku-, v.i. [cogn. w. doke-ru v.t.]. To get- 

out of the way ; move aside. 
o doki nasai (A) : get out of the way. 
domo, [totno companion]. Suff. used for 

forming the plural of nouns, (178). 
domo, [do how ; mo even ; see do2 6]. Has a 
vague sup. meaning or serves to empha- 
size a word. 

domo nani wo auru ni mo nagaku kakaru 
(B) : how long he takes about everything ! 
domo kono-goro hima ga nakute komarimafu 
(C) : I have so little time now-a-days, 1 
don 't know how to manage. 
domo o kinodoku eama desu ne (C) : I am 
indeed very sorry for you. 
oaorosMJai domo michi ga uwrut (B) : what 

an awfully bad road ! 
domo shiyo ga nai (B) : there is really n 

help for it. 
sore too domo (C) : that is really too bad ; 

that is very unexpected, 
donatfl, [dono which ; kate person]. Who ; 
polite substitute for dare q.v., osp. used 
in the 2nd person. 
donata de gozaimaau ka f (D) : whom have 

the honour of addressing ? 
don-don, (397). Rapidly : noisily. 
donna, [corr. dono yd na what, kind of]. 



donna 



1) What kind of ? how ? 

donna hon ga irimasu ka ? (C) : what kind 

of book do you want ? 
donna deshita ka t (C) : how did you like 

it? 
donna ka mitai (B) : I would like to see how 

it looks. 

2) Donna ni, donna gerund mo, have a sup. 
meaning or a meaning of 'absolutely with- 
out exception. ' 

donna ni ureshii ka ahiremasen (C) : I can- 
not tell you how very pleased I am. 

donna ni itte mo : whatever you may say. 

donna koto ga atie mo : whatever may hap- 
pen. 

donna hUo de mo hairaremaati, (C) : absolute- 
ly anybody may enter. 

donna uchi ni de mo go'zaimaau (L>) : it is 

to be found in every house. 
dono. 

1 ) Which ? 

dono 1-on ? which book ? 
dono michi wo iku ga chikakard ? (B) : which 
is the nearest road to take ? 

2) Dono gurai : about how much ? what 
quantity V 

dono gurai no dkiaa ni shimaahd ka ? (C) : 

what size shall I make it ? 
dono yurai kakarimasu ka ? (C) : about how 

long will it lake ? 

3) Dono mo : universality. 

dono michi wo itte mo : by whichever road 

one goes. 
dono iau mo tsukotte iru (B) : every chnir is 

occupied. 
dono bin ni -no ippai haitte iru, (B) : every 

bottle is full. 
dore. 

1) Which '" (of more than two). 
dore ? wliich one ? let me see it. 
dare ga ii ? (B) : which is the beat T 

2) Dore ka. 

dore ka kaimaaho (C) : 1 shall buy one 

(some) of them. 
dore ka o lei ni irimashlta ka ? (C) : is any of 

them to your taste ? 

3) Dore mo. 

kore wa dore me ikeinascn ka ? (C) : won 't 

any of these do v 
dore mo kmcnrete int. (B) : they are al! 

broken. 

4) Dore de -mo. 

dore de mo ii (B) : any one will do. 

dore de mo ki ni iru dard (B) : any of these I 

think will please him. 
iij Dore is used as a more or less meaningless 

interj. at the beginning of an action. 
dore, kaero f (B) : well, I'll go back home. 
6) Various. 
dore mo kore mo kowarcle iru (B) : every 

single one is broken. 
dore dale ? dore hodo ? how much ? 



Jird wa dore hodo shikaUe mo kika-nai (B) : 
Jiro doesn't take any notice no matter 
how much I soold him. 
don, [ ? tori road]. 
1) Reason ; right. 
wa'akushi ni dori ga am (B) : I am in thi- 

right. 
dori de mie-nai (B) : no wonder he is not to 

be seen. 

kono-qoro wa o tenki ga wand kara aakana 
no takai no mo dori dc-au (C) : as we have 
had such bad weather lately fish is nat- 
urally dear. 

2) Nigori'ed form of lori q.v. 
doro. Mud. 

hlto no kao ni doro wo nuru : to bring dis- 
grace upon somebody. 
Comp.: doro-ashi : muddy feet, [aahi feet], 
dorobo. Robber ; thief. 
dorobd wo sum : to rob. 
dorobo ni au : to be robbed. 
dorti, [corr. of Eng.]. Dollar, 
dose. After all ; anyhow. 

dosr kono klshawa okureru (B) : thin train 

Is sure to be late anyhow. 
dossari. 
anata wa doasari hon -wo o mochi denu >ir (C) : 

what a lot of books you've got. 
dotchi, see doc/ii. 
\ doyo. doyo-bi, [see yo-bi\. Saturday. 

dozo. Please ; a polite way of granting ;) 
request : most certainly ; you jn- \\i-lcoiiif 
to it. 

ddzo irasshai (C) : please come in. 
el. 

1) Place : to ; towards ; at ; into. 

doko t. ikimasu ka ? (C) : where arc- you go- 
ing to ? 

kopftu c mizu wo irc-ru : to pour water into 
a glass. 

Tokyo e teuku : to arrive at Tokyo. 

ginkd e yott* iku : to call at the Bank on t!i<- 
waj. 

Teikoku Hoteru e tomaru : to stoj> at tlw: 
Imperial Hotel. 

tana e age-ru : to put on the si -elf ; fig. 10 
be oblivious of. 

Nayoya c. chunion aunt : to onler fi\uu N.i- 
goya. 

2) Time. 

soko c : at that monrioni . 

saki c mairimasu (D) : excuse mo for going 

first. 

Note : ni may practically always tx- usoi 
instead of e ; but e only sometime:-! nm\ 
take the place of ni. 
e^. Handle. 
e3. Picture. 

e no yo na : picturesque. 
e wo kaku : to draw (paint) a pictuiv. 
Comp. 
e-kaki : au artist, [kakv to writo, paint j. 



25 



fui 



e-hagaki: a picture postcard, [hagaki post- 
card]. 

abura-e : an oil painting, [abura oil], 
4 ; 6 ; interj. Has various more or less 
vague meanings : surprise ; approval : yes, 
all right, very well ; it may indicate you 
are following what the other man is . say- 
ing : yes, I see. 

v to : let me see (when considering a ques- 
tion). 

eda. A branch. 
L'ornp.: cda-michi : a branch-road , [michi 

road]. 

Ei. In comp. England, 
Ei-go : English (language), see foil. 
L'i-koku : England, [-koku rountryj. 
Eikoku-jin : an Englishman, [jin man]. 
Ei-go, [Ei- England ; -go speech]. The En- 
glish language. 

Ei-go ga deki-'-u : to speak (know) English. 
Ei-yo no dekiru hito : a man who can speak 

English. 

Ei-go de liannsu : to say in English. 
Ei-go ni yal:u sum : to translate into En- 
glish. 
Li-go de tea book to iimaaii (C) : in English 

we say ' book '. 
empitsu. A lead-pencil. 

empit-su wo kezuru : to sharpen a penciL 
engawa. Veranda. 

enryo. Reserve ; regard for another's feelings. 
enryo suru : to stand upon ceremony. 
ddzo fjo enryo nahu (C) : please do not stand 

upon ceremony. 

amari enryo uru no ni mo komaru (B) : ex- 
cessive formality and etiquette make us 
feel uncomfortable. 
Comp. 
bu-enryo na : not bashful ; inconsiderate ; 

[bit- neg.], 
enryo-bukai : careful ; scrupulous ; \jukai 

deep]. 
erabu, [practically the same as crown*]. To 

choose ; pick out ; select. 
kono ttchi kara crande kudasai (C) : plase 

choose from among these. 
erai. Great ; remarkable. A term of praise 
applied to anything which excites our 
admiration and approval ; even such 
things as, a little girl who takes good 
care of her little baby brother ; a hen 
feeding her chicks. Although generally 
used in a good sense it may be applied 
to a storm, wind, rain, etc. 
erai ! bravo ! well done ! 
are dake "jeakattara erai mon' da (B) : he 
would be a remarkable man if he knew as 
much as tnat. 
eramu, see erabu. 
erf. Collar ; neck-band. 

fu-, (in its nigori'ed form &M~). A nog. pref. 
r>a. q.v.; inconvenient. 



fu-annai na : ignorant, [annai a guide]. 
fu-shinaet*u na : unkind, [slrinscisu kind]. 
ju-ahiau-ast na : unfortunate. [shi-au-a*< 
fortunate]. 
hi-soroi na : net equal or uniform, [sorou to 

be arranged in order]. 

kono chawan na fu-soroi da (B) : these tea- 
cups are all odd ones. 
ju-jiyii na, (often pron. fuju na) : not fre". 

\jiyu free]. 

burei na : rude, [ret politeness]. 
buji : free from accident, [ji thing]. 
bu-enryo na : not Imshful, [enryo reserve] 
ffil . Way ; manner ; customs. 

kd tu /w ni siiru kd ga it (B) : you had betHM 

do it this way. 

do in /M ni sureba ichiban ii dexho f (C) : 
which do you think would be the best way 
to do it ? 

diiga f ta fu ni : in a different way. 
NiJhon-fu (seiyd-ju) wo riane s'ini : to imi- 
tate Japanese (European) customs. 
sorr wo kiitf taihen ni odoroita yd na / 
shimashtta (C) : when he heard that h 
pretended to be greatly surprised. 
ffl2, [jutatsu two]. Two (in the 3rd set of 

num.; see 271, 275). 
fuben na, [ju- neg. pret.; ben(ri) com enienwj. 

Inconvenient. 
sore n>a teata-kftshi ni fuben detiu (C) : that 

is inconvenient for me. 
f uchi. A rim ; border ; edge. 
Awra no juchi : banks of a rivt-r. 
meganc no juchi : spectacle framw. 
fuch-i wo nuu : to hem. 
fuda. A countersign ; label. 
fudu wo teake-ru : to label, 
fudan no. Everyday ; usuaL 

fudan no tori de arimathlta (C) : it was as 

usual. 

fudan no kimono : everyday clothes. 
fade. Writing brush ; pen. 

ano hito wa yoku fude ya tattu (B) : !K- i 

good writer. 
kore wa Tamaki San no fude de*u ( 

is a picture (writing) by Mr Tamaki. 
Kobo ni mo fude no ayamari : even Kol 
brvwh sometimes makes a mistake ; evt 
Homer nods at times ; (Kobo was a c 
ebrated learned man). 
fQfu. A married couple ; husband and wit, 

Tanabe San go fufu : Mr and Mrs. Tana 
Comp. 
fufu-wakare : divorce, [wakare-ru t 

ratel. 
fufu-genka: a quarrel betwet-n husha.u 

and wife, [kenka quarrel]. 
fufu-genka wa inu mo kuwa-nai : not even 

a dog takes any interest iu a quarrel 
. tween husband and wife, 
fui no. Sudden. 

fni ni : suddenly : all at onot 



fujin 



futa 



fujin, [iin human being]. \\VnsiUJ ; lady. , 

Tanaka fujin : Mrs Tanaka. 
fukai. Deep. 

kiri ga fukai (B) : the fog is thick. 
imi no fukai , adj.: expressive. 
Comp. 

fukasa : depth, [see -so], 
enryo-bukai : careful, [enryo reserve]. 
fukul. Clothes. 
Comp. 

fuyu-fiiku : winter clothes, [fuyu winter]. 
natau-jukn : summer clothes, [natu siun- 
merj. 
fuku-. A.n. used for scrolls, sips of tea, 

whiffs of tobacco, etc. 

Note : 1 ip-puku ; 3 sam-buku ; rop-puku; 
10 jip-puku ; 100 hyap-pvku ; 1,000 
sem-buku ; nam-buku ? 
See ip-puku. 
fukuS. To blow. 

kazega fuile iniasu (C) : the wind is blowing. 
Comp. 

fuki-dasu : to burst out laughing. 
fuki-keeu : to blow out. 
fuku*. To wipe. 

fukureru. To swell ; be inflated ; be sulky. 
naze fukurete iru no da ? (A) : what are you 

sulking about now 
fukuro, [ ? jukure-ru, to swell]. A bag. 

fiikuro no kuchi wo shime'ru : to tie the 

strings of a bag ; to have control of money. 

fukuro no naka no nezumi : caught like a 

mouse in a trap. 
Comp. 

jd-bukuro : envelope. [jo3 letter]. 
te-bukuro : gloves, [te hand]. 
Note : used after the abb. 2nd set of num. 

(276, 4), fukuro means a bagful, 
fumu. To step ; tread on. 

hlto no ashi wo funde iva ike-nai (A) : don't 

tread on people's feet. 

amtnari chirakatte iru no de ashi no fumi- 
dokoro ga nai (B) : the place is in such dis- 
order I cannot find a spot to step on. 
fun. Minute. 

irh >'.ji jii-go-fun : a quarter past one. 
iku-fun ? nam-pun ? how many minutes? 
Note : fun is preceded by the 1st set of 
num., (276, 1) ; see 298 et seqq. The foil, 
irregularities occur : 1 ip-pun ; 3 sarn- 
pun ; 6 rap-pun ; 10 jip-pun. 
fune. Ship ; vessel ; boat. 
fune dr iku : to go by boat. 
fune. ni noru : to get on board. 
fune va o kirai dvfa ka ? (C) : don 't you like 
the sea ? 

ifotashi ica fune, ni tsuyoi (B) : I am a good 
sailor. 

Amerika ni iku fune u*a itou demasu ka <" 
(C) : when does the boat for America sail ? 
furi. Manner. 

furl (iri>) /turu : to pretend. 



xhira-nai furi (wo] sum : to feign ignorance. 
byoki no furi (ico) auru : to pretend to be 

sick. 
furo. A (hot) bath. 

furo n> hairu : to take a hot bath. 

furo u-a nan-ji ni wakimasu ka '? (C) : when 

will the bath be ready ? 
Comp.: juroba : bath-room, [ba place], 
furoshiki, [furo bath : uhlku to spread ; ori- 
ginally a cloth spread in the bath-room to 
step on]. A cloth used to wrap up par- 
cels. 

Juroshlki ni tsutsumu : to wrap in a furo- 
shlki. 
hi nil. To fall : c-ime down. 

(hidokit) ame ga furu : to rain (heavily). 
yuki ga furu : to snow. 

mydasa shimo ga furu ka mo eh ire -nai (B) : 
I think we will have frost tomorrow 
morning. 
futte mo, tette mo mairimaau (C) : rain or 

shine, I will go. 

futtari tettari it/a na tenki da (B) : now rain- 
ing, now stopping, what beastly weather ! 
Comp.: furi-danu : to start raining, [doKil, 

(in comp.) to begin]. 
furu-, v.t. [ c gn- w. fururru v.i.]. To 

shake ; swing. 

bofhi u^o furu : to wave one's hat. 
at/atna wo ftiru : to shake one's head. 
o-de wo futte aruku : to walk swinging one ' 

arms ; swagger ; [6- big ; te arm]. 
inu ga shippo wo futte iru (B) : the dog is 
wagging his tail. 

Comp.: furi-muku v.i.: to turn ; face to- 
wards ; [muku to turn]. 
furueru, v.i. [cogn. w. furu v.t.]. To shake ; 

tremble ; shiver. 
furul. Old. 

furui tomodachi : an old friend. 
Con':p. 

furu-ddffu : second-hand articles, [ddgu in- 
strument]. 

furu-hon : a second-hand book, [hon book), 
fiishigi. A marvel : wonder. . 

f-aiihiqi ga areba o kiki nasai (B) : if you 

don't believe it, ask him. 
fusliigi na : marvellous : strange. 
jushigi ni oniou : to think (that something 

is) strange. 

jushigi na koto ni wa *akum no sakari ni 
yuki f/a fuita (B) : the wonder of it was 
that snow fell while the cherry-trees were 
in bloom. 

futa, [ ? futahn two]. A lid ; cover. 
futa (wo) sum, : to cover with a lid. 
futa ivo toru : to uncover. 
Comp. 

hirobuta : a tray, [hiroi wide]. 
mabuta : eye-lid, [me eye]. 
futa-, [futatsii two]. Two ; abb, 2nd set of 
num. (276, 4) ; see futoteii. 



futuri 



27 



gaku 



futari, [jutatsu two ; oru to be]. Two per- 
sons. 

futari dc ikimaslio (C) : let's both of us go. 
futatsu. Two. 

futatsu ni sum , jutateu ni wakcru : to 
divide in two. 

kumri wo nomu ka byoki de iru ka no jutatsu 
pi hitotsfi (B) : either you take the medi- 
cine or you remain ill, one of the two. 
kono kurai no mono im Tolcyo-ju sagashUe 
mo jutatsu to va nai dcshd (C) : I don't 
think you could find two like this if you 
searched all T okyo. 

In comp. jutatu is abb. to fiita ; see 276, 4. 
iuta-go : twins, [ko child]. 
juta-oya : both parents, [oya parent]. 
Der. : jidsuka : two days, [see -ka]. 
futoi. Thick ; big ; large. 
futoi koe : a deep voice. 
futoi kangae : wicked thoughts. 
futoi yatsu : an audacious rascal. 
Der. 

futosa : thickness, [see -sa], 
jutoru : to grow large or fat. 
futon. Bed-clothes ; a quilt ; mattress : 
cushion. 

futon u'o shiku : to make a bed (Japanese), 
iutoru, [futoi thick]. To grow large or fat 

futotta, adj.: fat. 
i'utsu. ^ usual occurence. 

fUtsu shimbvn u~a slnchi-ji ni kimuau (C) : 
as a rule the newspaper comes at seven 
o'clock. 

futeu no, adj.: general ; usual ; ordinary. 
jiitsu no hlto : an ordinary man (not an 

omcial). 
futsuka, [jutatsu two ; -ka q.v.J. Two days ; 

second day of the month, 
fuyu. \Vinter. 
Comp. 

fuyu-fuku : fuyu-gi ; juyu-mon'j : winter 
clothes, [fiik-u clothes ; kvru to put on : 
mono thing]. 
juyu-muki no, adj.: for winter uso. [muku. 

to suit], 
gal, ppn. 

1) Sign of the nominative. For a compari- 
son between the use of </a and ira, see 389- 
392. 
enae.i ga miemashUa (C) : the teacher has 

come. 
:?) C!a gen. takes the place of no iii adj. phr. 

ueedpred. (228 ; 231). 
set no takai kodomo : a tall child. 
tsumi no aru hlto : a guilty man. 
ano kodomo ira sei ga takai (B) : that child 
is tall ; (lit. as for that child, his stature 
is high). 
ano hito wa tsumi ga aru (B) : that man is 

guilty ; (lit. as for that man guilt exists). 

AJote : in tliese two last examples *ei and 

tmwi mav lx> corsidered to l>e subjects. 



3) Before the verbs aru, xitru, wakaru and 
irti (to need), and before j>otential verbs, 
the noun foil. Ijy ga often becomes in 
English the object or pred. 

kane ga aru (B) : he has money. 

zutsu ga sum (B) : I have a headache. 

nt'ot ga sum (B) : there is a smell. 

Ei -go ga u-akarimasu (C) : I understand 

English. 
akai empitsti ga irimasu (C) : 1 need a red 

pencil. 

tore ga dekimaxA ka ? (C) : can you do that ? 
Nihon-ji ga yomemaxft (C) : I can read 

Japanese characters. 

4) Ga is used before sfiki, kirai and lioshii, 
also before the dcsid. adj. 

tabako ga suki dvzu (C) : I like smoking ; 1 

am fond of smoking. 
juyu ga kirai (B) : I don't like winter. 
inizu ga hoshii (B) : I would like to have 

some water. 
sono lion ga yomitai (B) : I would like to 

tvad that book. 
ga-, conjunction. 

1) Ga is gen. adversative : but ; yet. 
ikimashita ga dame dfthita (C) : I went but 

it was no use. 

da ga (at the beginning of a sentence) : 
nevertheless ; still ; and yet. 

2) Ga is sometimes merely connective. 
kore de san-do bhanhai e n\airimaiihUa ga 

shi-awase ni itu mo iimi ga shizuka de go- 
zaimashita (D) : this is the third time 1 
make the trip to Shanghai and I have been 
lucky enough each time to have the sea 
smooth. 

kesa shimbun wo mits ima&hUa, ga fui ni lien 
na koto wo miteukemasMta (C) : I was 
reading the newspaper this morning when 
I suddenly came across a strange piece 
of news. 

ko-nai ga do shiyd ka / (B) : he hasn't come 
so what shall 1 do ? 

3) Sentences often finish elliptic-ally by ga. 
ano hito ga kyo kuru to ii ga. . .(B) : I wish 

he would come today but...(J am 
afraid he will not bo able to). 

4) (j a ga : whether or ; either -or. 
iko ga yoeo gu u-ataah* no katte da ( 

whether I go or not is no one's business 
but my OVITI. 
sjaikoku. [gai outside ; -kohi country J. 

eign countries ; abroad. 

Comp.: gaikokn-jin : a foreigner, ffm man], 
-gake. On the way ; whilst ; suf. added to 
ste'ms of verbs, especially those meaning 
coming and going. 

miee c iki-gake ni tomodachi ni atmasli 
(C) : I met a friend as I WHS gofag '" tB 
office. 

kntrl-gake ni : on my "> bat home. 
See om 



gakkari 



go jo 



gakkari. 

1 ) Tired ; dejected : disappointexl 
tjminari aruita no de gakkari shitu (B) : I 

am quite tired out as I have walked a 
long way. 

Mtori-musuko \vo nakushUe gakkari shUe 
irv- (B) : ho is very sad as he has lost his 
only son. 

2) Relieved from anxiety ; agreeably sur- 
prised. 

kono shigoto ga sundara zuibun gakkari. 
urv daro (B) : it will he a great relief 
when this work is finished. 
gakk5. School. 

gakkd ni agaru : to enter school. 
gakko wo sagaru : to leave school. 
s;aman. Patience ; fortitude. 

gaman no nai hlto : a man wanting in forti- 
tude. 
mo sukoshi gaman wo nasai (B) : be patient 

a little longer. 

gaman uru : to endure with patience ; con- 
tain oneself. 

ivatakushi wa sore de gaman shimasho (C) : 
I will make the best of it. 
fhiisai keredomo gaman #uru yori hoka wa 
nai (B) : it is very small nevertheless 
there is nothing to be done but to put up 
with it. 

do *hUc mo gaman ga deki-nai (B) : I abso- 
lutely cannot stand it. 
gara. Kind ; quality ; pattern. 

ano ko wa gara ga okii (B) : that child is of a 

big build. 

garasu, [corr. of Eng.]. Glass. 
-garu. Suf. used for forming verbs. 
1) Added frequently to the stem of adj. or 

desiderative form of verbs. 
kawaigam : to pet, [kawaii charming]. 
ikitagaru : to wish to go, [ikitai wishing to 
go], 
etc. 

'2 ) Added to a few nouns. 
kinodokugam : to feel sorry for. [kinodofai 
sorrow], 

iyagani : to have an aversion for, [iya re- 
pugnance]. 
Per. 

atmigari no : of a person sensitive to heat. ! 

samugari no : of a person sensitive to cold. ' 

Note : these ver!>s in -garu have also pas- I 

sive and causative forms. 
Gasshu-knku, [-koku country]. United States 

of America ; see also Bei-koku. 
gasu, [oorr. of Eng.]. Gas. 

gasu wo twlke-ru : to light the gas. 

(jasu c.'o kcmi : to put out the gas. 

gasu ga hiite arim.aH ka ? (C) : is thern gas 

laid on (in the house) ? 

gata, [kata person]. Suf. used for forming 
the plural of nouns, (178). 
i. [OOTTI. w. getsU}. Month. 



(tho-gatau ; ni-gatau ; etc.: January ; Feb- 
ruary ; etc. see 293. 
ge. Inferiority ; low class. 

Comp.: gehin ; gejo ; genan ; geln ; q.v. 
-ge. Nigori'ed pron. of -ke q.v. 
gehin n&,[gf inferior ; hin sort]. Vulgar : in- 
ferior quality, 
geisha. A singing girl. 

gejo, [ge inferior ; jo woman], Maid-ser\aiit. 
gckkyu, [get*ti month]. Monthly wages. 
genan, [ge inferior]. Male ser\ 7 ant. 
genki. Vigour ; spirit. 

genki na ; genki no ii ; vigourous : high- 

spiritod. 
geta, [ge inferior]. Clogs. 

geta wo haku : to put on clogs. 
getsu, fcogn. w. gatsti,]. Month. 
Comp. 

ichi-getsu : January, [ichi one]. 
kongttsu : this month, [see kono-~\. 
mai-getsu : ever> r month ; monthly : [//'/- 
every]. 

raigttsu : next month, [see rat-]. 
saraigetsfi the month after next, [see 

sarai-]. 

*enget#& : last month, [see sen--], 
getsityo ; getstiyo-bi : Monday, [see yo-bi]. 
gin. Silver ; (compare kin gold). 
Comp.: gin-zaiku : anything made of silver. 

[see -saiku]. 
ginko. A bank. 

giri. Nigori'ed pron. of kiri, q.v. 
gol. honorific pref. It may be placed be- 
fore a great number of noune ; it usually 
is found before hobi and kuro ; it practical- 
ly always is placed before busata and chi- 
tto ; it forms part of the words gohan, go- 
men, goran and gozaru. 
go2. Five. 

-go. A word : language ; speech. 
Comp. 
zoku-go : the colloquial language. [iokn 

common]. 

Ei-go : tho English language, \Ki- England]. 
Nihon-go : the Japanese 'anguage. [Nilit> 

Japan], 
etc. 

gobu-gobu (no), [go five ; bu parts]. Evenly 
matched ; six of one and half-a-dozen of 
the other. 

go- busata, see busata. 
go-chiso, see chiad. 

gofuku. Cloth ; drapery ; dry goods. 
Comp.: gof&ku-ya : a draper, 
go-gatsu, \go five ; gatsu month]. Maj . 
gogo. Afternoon. 
gohan, [go honourable ; han food]. A meal ; 

boiled rice. 

gohan wo taku : to cook rice. 
go hobi, see hvfii. 
g8jo. Obstinacy. 

gojo wo liani : to br> obstinate. 



gojo 



gyunyu 



go jo mo ii kagoi ni o shi nasal (B) : don't 
be so obstinate and listen to reason. 

goid na obstinate : stubborn. 

gojo ni mo ayawara-nakatfa (B) : he stub- 

bornly refused to apologize, 
goku. Very. 

goku cJiiisai koflotno : very small children, 
go kuro, see kuro. 
gomakasu. To deceive ; to take in. 

so nan-do wo gomakashi ga kiku to omou ka ' 

(A) : do you think you can fool me time ! 
after time ''. 

sonna koto de gmnatatareru >ono desu kn .' 

(B) : 1 am not to be hoodwinked in thai 
way. 

gomen, {go honourable ; men pardon]. Par- 
don : excuse. 

gomen kudo-sat : excuse rie : I beg your 
pardon ; (usevi also tor calling attention) 
I s*y. 

sono sodan nara go-men desu (C) : if that is 
what you want to consult me about, I beg 
to be excused. 
go mi. Dirt ; rubbish, 
gomu, [corr. of Spanish or Portuguese goitta 

india-rubber, gum]. India-rubber ; gum. 
Comp. : keshi-gomu : india-rubber (for era- 
sing), [kesii to extinguish]. 
goran, [go honourable ; ran look]. 

1) Used pol. of the looking of the 2nd (or 
3rd) person. The corresponding plain 
verb is mi-nt q.v. 

goran no tori ashi ni ktgn IPO shinia*/>&a 

(C) : as you see I have hurt my leg. 
goran ni ire-ru : to show (to the 2nd person). 
Goran behaves like a verbal stem preceded 

by an honorific (359) : 

goran ni naru ; goran nasaru ; goran de am 
(less polite) : to look (of the 2nd person). 

goran kudasaru : to look (of the 2nd person, 
when the action is in favour of the 1st [Kir- 
son). 

goran naeai (C) ; goran (A) : please look : 
see here. 

nani v:o goran nas'tte irasshaimasii ka ? 

(D) : what are you looking at ? 
thiinbun im mo goran desu. lea ? (C) : have 

you finished with your newspaper ': 

2) After gerund : to try. See mi-ru 2). 
atsui ka tsumttai ka te ivo atete goran 

(ncuai) (B) : touch it and see whether it is 

hot or cold. 
nonde goran (nasai) (B) : drink it and see 

(whether you like it or not). 
niado u'o dkefe goran (na*ai) (B) : open the 

window and let's see (if it is nicer like 

that). 

goro. Nigori'cd form of koro q.v. 
gozaru, [go honourable; ; ant to be]. A 

pol. form of the verb aru to be. which it 

can gen. replace ; and, as da is equal to 

Jc nrn, in its place we na\ put 'h i/o-arii ; 



see am and da. Gozaru is used only in 
the r/icifiu inflexions ; the r is almost 
always dropped. (96). When true adj. 
are pred. of gozaru. they take special 
terminations, (192). The neg. adj. nai is 
not used with gozaru ; instead, gozaru 
itself is put in a neg. inflexion, (196). A 
plain verb may be made honorific by 
putting o before the stem and df. gozartt 
after it. (3S9). It is also used very 
politely after the gerund in -maahite, 
(100). 

sayo de gozaimasu (D) : that is so. 

ikaga df goza>ma#& (ka) ? (D) : how in 
you ? 

gozen. .Morning : forenoon. 
guai. The working of the difierent parts of 
an apparatus ; state of one's health ; con- 
dition. 

kono tokei wa guai ga wanii (B) : something 
is wrong with this clock. 

amado no guai ga irarui (B) : the sliding- 
doors do not fit well into their grooves. 

wata#hi ica konaida kara rrnai ga want< 
(B) : I have been feeling unwell for some 
days past. 

kono-goro daibu guai ga yokn natta (B ) : he 
is now quite well off. 

kono MiLiie iva taihen guai ga yo gozaimasfi 
(D) : this desk is very convenient. 

kono ; #u tea guai ga warui (B) : this chair is 
very uncomfortable. 

ima-goro sonna koto wo iii no mo gvai ga 
tcanti ne (B) : it would be very inconve- 
nient to say such a thing now. 
gurai. Nigori'ed pron. of kitrai- q.v. 
guzu-guzu, (397). 

1) Slowly (in a bad sense). 
guzu-guzu sum : to hesitate ; dawdle. 
guzu-guzu shite, iru hima tra arhnasen (C) : 

there is no time to hesitate. 
sugu dekiru koto wo itsu made mo guzu IJHZK 
shite iru (B) : he is dawdling over a thing 
that can be done in no time. 

2) Complainingly. 

guzu-ffuzu iu : to complain ; grumble. 
"itsu made mo guzu-guzu iu nara junta ico 

yobu zo ! (A) : if you continue bothering 

me I'll call a policeman. 
nani wo gtizu-guzu ittern n' dcxu ka ? (B; : 

what are you grumbling about * 
gy5. A row ; a line (as of writing or prin 

ing). 

jjote : gyo is preceded by tin' 1st set of nun 
gyogi. Conduct ; behaviour : mam 

gyogi no ii (warui), adj.: well- (bdl\ 

behaved. 
omae ica gyogi ga warui (A) : you l>ehave 

very badly. 

gyuniku, {gyu cow ; mint meal . 
gyunyu, [gyfi cow ; nyfi milkj. 
see chifhil. 



ha 



30 



hajime 



hal . Leaf ; blade. 
ha-. Tooth ; edge (of knife, etc). 
ha wo migaku : to brush the teeth. 
ha wo miite morau : to have a tooth drawn. 
Comp. 

ha-isha : a dentist, [isha doctor]. 
ha-migaki : tooth-powder, [migaku to pol- 
ish]. 

mae-ba : the front teeth, [mac before]. 
oku-ba : the back teeth, [oku interior], 
haba. Breadth ; width ; authority. 
ano hlto wa naka-naka haba ga kiku (B) : he 

has great influence. 
hachi. Eight, 

hachi no ji wo yoae'ru : to frown, (the wrin- 
kles of the forehead make the figure eight 

A). 

Note :- hachi in comp. before ch, t, or ts, 
becomes hat ; before k, hak : before * or 
ah, has. 

hachi-gatsu, [hachi eight ; gatsu month]. Au- 

gust. 

hadaka, [hada skin ; akai red]. Nakedness. 
hadaka no : naked. 

hade (na), [hal leaf ; de-ru to come out]. 
Gay ; bright ; showy. 

hae- ru. To grow ; spring up. 

pan ni kabi ga hacta (B) : the bread has 

grown mouldy. 

Inge no haeta otoko : a man with a mous- 
tache. 

hagaki, [/al leaf ; kakul to write]. Postcard ; 
when not otherwise qualified, it means 
a 1 sen postcard. 

Clomp.: e-hagaki : picture postcard, [e3 pic- 
ture]. 

hagane, [ ? haZ edge ; kane metal]. Steel. 

hage*ru, v.i. [cog"- w - hagu v.t.]. To be 

stripped of ; become bald ; fade. 
ano hlto wa atama ga hagete kimaahlta (C) : 

he has become bald. 

kono kimono wa iro ga hageta (B) : the col- 
our of this dress has faded. 

hagu, v.t. [cogn. w. hage-ru v.i.]. To peel 
off ; strip. 

haha. A non-polite word for mother, (364) ; 
my mother. 

hail . Ashes. 

hai*. A fly. 

ha!3. In answer to a call, it may mean : I 
have heard, I am coming, what is it ? In 
answer to a question, it has a meaning of 
assent to what is implied in the question 
and corresponds to yes, when in answer to 
an aff. question ; and must gen. be trans- 
lated by no, when the question is in the 
negative : see 399. 

hai*. A.n. for glassfuls, cupfuls, etc. 
Note : 1 ip-pai ; 3 sam-bai ; 6 rop-pai ; 
10 jip'pai ; 100 hyap-pai ; 1,000 sem-bai ; 
nam-bai ? 
(.'omp.: ippai q.v. : full. 



haikara (na), [corr. of Eng. high collar]. 
Smart ; up-to-date ; elegant in dress with 
foreign tendencies. 

haiketl. A humble word used for expressing 
the looking of the 1st person at something 
belonging to the 2nd person : the plain 
verb is mi'ru q.v. 

haiken sum (D) : to look ; see. 

haiken sawru (D) : to show (to me). 

haiken (B) ; haiken sasete kudasai (D) : 
please show it to me. 

haiken shima-shlta (D) ; haiken itashimashita. 

(D) : I have seen it. 
hairu. To enter ; get in ; go in. 

o hairi kudaaai (D) : please come in. 

me ni nani ka haitte iru kai ? (B) : is there 
anything in my eye ? 

kore ni minna haitte iru no detihd (C) : I sup- 
pose this (charge) includes everything. 

ano hako ni dono gurai hairu ka ? (B) : how 
much will that case contain ? 

sono naka ni nani ga haitte imasti ka ? (C) : 
what is there inside ? 

mo hUot-su hairimasu (C) : there is room for 
one more. 

hlto no heya e damatte haitte wa ike-nai 
(A) : you must not enter people's rooms 
without leave. 

haitte mo yd gozaimasfi ka ? (D) : may I 
come in ? 

dono hako ni mo heitai ga ippai haitte inm- 
shlta (C) : all the (railway) carriages were 
crammed full with soldiers. 

te ni hairu : to secure to oneself ; succeed 

in getting ; obtain. 
hajll, [nigori'ed pron. of hashiZ which is less 

common]. End ; extremity ; border. 
haji?. Shame. 

haji wo shira-nai : shameless. 

Into no mae dc haji wo kakasare-ta (B) : I 
was put to shame in the presence of 
others. 

sonna baka na- koto wo shitara ivatafiht m> 
haji ni naru (B) : if you do a silly thing like 
that it will be a disgrace to me. 

sore wo haji to wa omowa-nai ka ? (A): aren't 

you ashamed of it ? 
hajitnaru, v.i. [f. hashit the beginning ; cogn. 

w. hajime-ru v.t.]. To begin, 
hajime, [stem of hajime-ru. f. hashil the be- 
ginning]. The beginning. 

hajime no : the first one. 

hajime ni : at firet. 

ichiban hajime : at the ver> T beginning ; the 
very first. 

hajime kara Tdkyd ni aunde ira^ahaimoau 
ka ? (D) : have you always (since your ar- 
rival in Japan) lived in Tokyo ? 

ano hlto ya ichiban hajime da (B) : his turn 
comes first. 

Itajime ga areba owari fja rnu : every begin- 
ning ha an onding. 



hajime'ru 



31 



hanashi 



hajime-ru, v.t. [f. hashiZ the beginning; cogn. 

w. hajimaru v.i.]. To begin. 
ima hajimeru tokoro denu (C) : I am just go- 
ing to begin. 
hayaku hajimete o kure (A) : hurry up and 

set about it. 

shdbai wo hajime-ru : to set up in trade. 
Der. : hajime ; hajimete ; q . v. 
hajimete, [gerund of hajime-ru ; f. hashi* the 

beginning]. For the first time. 
Fuji-san ni noboru no wa kondo ga hajimete 
desu (C) : this is the first time that I am 
going up Mount Fuji. 
kore ga kotoshi. no hajimete no yuki desu (C) : 

this is the first snow of the year. 
hajimete wakarimasMta (C) : I'd never un- 
derstood it until now. 

Nihon de hajimete seiyo e itta no wa dare 
rlaro ? (B) : I wonder who was the first 
Japanese to go abroad. 
haiimete o me ni kakarimasu (D) : I am 

pleased to make your acquaintance. 
hakari, [hakaru to weigh]. A pair of scales ; 

balance. 

hakari ni kakete mimasho (C) : I will weigh 
it in the balance (and find out how much 
it weighs). 
ano mise wa hakari ga ii (B) : they give 

good weight at that shop. 
hakaru. To calculate ; estimate ; weigh ; 

measure. 

nan-jaku aru ka hakatte goran nasai (C) : 
please measure it and see how many feet 
it is. 

hashi wo kakete Mto-bito no bcnri wo hakat- 
ta (B) : they considered the convenience of 
the people and built a bridge. 
Der. : Jiakari : a pair of scales. 
hakkiri. Clearly. 

hakkiri o ii nasai (A) : speak distinctly. 
ano hlto wa kuru ka do ka hakkiri wakari- 
masen (C) : I don't know for certain whe- 
ther he will come or not. 
Ei-go de wa jibun no kangae wo hakkiri ha- 
nasemasen (C) : I find it difficult to ex- 
press myself in English. 
hakkiri shlta, adj.: distinct ; clear. 
hakkiri shlta henji : a plain answer, 
hako. Box ; case ; chest ; railway carriage. 
Comp. 

aki-bako : an empty box, [see aid-], 
hon-bako : a bookcase, [hon book]. 
yubin-bako : a letter-box, [yubin post). 
Note : \ised after the abb. 2nd set of num. 

(276, 4), hako means a boxful, 
hakui. To sweep. 
haku2. To put on ; wear ; (refers to legs or 

feet, as boots, trousers). 
hakuboku. Chalk (for black-board), 
hakujo suru. To confess ; own. 
hakurai (no). Imported ; foreign-made. 
ha ma. The sea -coast ; beach; shore; used 



by some Japanese of Tokyo district as ar 
abb. of Yokohama. 

hamaru,v.i. [cogn. w. hame.-ru v.t.]. To fit. 
ham bun, [hanZ half ; bun part]. Half. 
hambun dc takusan (B) : half is enough. 
bin ni mizu ga hambun arimaau (C) : tin- 
bottle is half full of water. 
ano nashi wo hambun tabete, Jiambun tomo- 
dachi ni yarimashita (C) : I ate half thnt 
pear and gave half to my friend. 
omoshiro hambun : half in fun. 
Note : hambun is only used as a noun ; the 

corresponding adj. is Aon2 q.v. 
hame-ru, v.t. [cogn. w. hamaru v.i.]. To fit 

into ; insert. 
hant. A seal ; stamp ; block for printing. 

han wo osii : to stamp. 
han2. Half. 

han-jikan : half an hour. 
ichi-jikan han : an hour and a half. 
ichi-ji han : half past one. 
han-nichi : half day. 

Note : han is used as an adj. and refers lo 
a definite unit ; the corresponding noun 
is hambun q.v. 
han3. Food ; meal. 
Comp. 

gohan : food ; boiled rice ; [go honourable]. 
asa-han : breakfast, [asa morning]. 
hiru-han : midday meal, [hiru midday]. 
yu-han : evening meal, [yu evening], 
hanal. Flower ; blossom. 
hana ga Baku : to blossom. 
hana wo ike-ru : to arrange flowers in a vase. 
Comp. 
hana-ike : a flower-vase, [ike-ru to keep 

alive]. 

hana-mi : flower-viewing, \inv-ru to see], 
hana-. Nose. 

hana saki ni : under one 's nose. 

liana ni kake-ru : to talk through the nos< ; 

to give oneself airs. 
hana ga aku : to be greatly astonished. 
hana no takai hUo : a man with a prominent 

nose ; a proud man. 
hana wo takaku suru : to IKJ boastful, 

proud. 

hana wo oru : to humble another. 
Comp. 

hana-ji : blood from the nose, [chi blood I 
hana-ji ga demaftti, (C) : my nose is bleeding. 
hanareru, v.i. [cogn. w. hanaau v.t.]. To 

part from ; get loose. 
uchi wo hanare-ru : to leave one's home. 

(117). 
hanashi, [hanaau to speak]. A tale : story ; 

what is said. 

hanoahi dake da (B) : it is only in Ik. 
kore ga o hanashi no hon desu ka ? (C) : in 

this the book you referred to ? 
ano hlto no hanashi ni u-a : according to 
him. 



hanashi 



haru 



ano kaia wa Beikokii-jin da to lu hanattlii -In 

(B) : they say he is an American. 
i' kagcn na hanashi : made-up story. 
ryoko no hanashi wo sum : to talk about 

travelling. 

hanashi ga tsiiku : to come to terms. 
mi no lie banashi wo sum : to talk of oneself. 
domo o hanashi ni narimasen (C) : it is a 

thing I really cannot talk about, (it is too 

silly, too terrible). 
Comp. 

muda-bana-shi : idle talk, [muda useless]. 
naisho -banashi : something told in secret. 

[naisho secret]. 
hanashi-au, [hanasu to talk ; ai< to meet]. 

To talk together. 
hatiasfil. To tell ; speak ; talk ; say. 

ano Mto no hanasu no ni : according to 

him. 
kore wa tabi-tabi hanashlte oita (A) : I have 

told you this several times. 
sd (itte) hanashlte o kure (A) : tell him so. 
hontd no koto wo o hanashi nasai (B) : speak 

the truth. 
siikoshi hanashitai koto ga am (B) : there is 

something I want to tell you. 
hanasu made mo nai keredomo : I need 

not say that. 
Der. and comp. 
lianashi q.v.: a story. 

hanashi-au : to talk together, [cm to meet]. 
hanashi -kakc-ni : to address ; accost ; [see 

kake- rwi ]. 

Note : Hanasu is a plain verb ; the corres- 
ponding humble verb for the 1st person is 

moshi-age-ru or mosti, : the exaltative verb 
. for the 2nd person is ossharu. lu q.v. is 

practically synonymous with hanasu and 

is perhaps more used. 
hanasuZ, v.t. [cogn. w. hanarc-m v.i.]. To 

separate : let go ; set free. 
kore wa hanasu no wa iya da (B) : I don't 

like to part with this. 
ima chotto te ga hanasaremasen (C) : I can 

not leave it (the work) at present. 
mo sukoshi aida wo hanashltara ii desho 

(C) : you had better leave a little more 

space between. 
Comp. 
akeppanasti : to leave open, [ake-ru to 

open], 
dashippanasti : to leave out, [dasu to take 

out]. 

okippanasu : to put a thing somewhere and 

leave it there, [oku to put], 
hane. Feather ; wing, 
hankechi, [corr. of Eng.]. Handkerchief, 
hantai. Opposition ; contradiction. 

long no hantai wa nan dtsu ka ? (C) : what 
is the contrary of long ? 

hantai deml ka ? (C) : do you object to it ': 

hantai tic nakereba : if you don't object. 



hantni no Into wa 'Me kudasai (C) : those 
who object, please let me know. 

hantai suru : to oppose. 
hara. Belly ; abdomen. 

hara ga tat#u ; hara wo tale-rii : to get 
angry. 

hara de ivarau -'to laugh in one's sleeve. 

hara ga au : to be of the same mind. 

hara ga haru : to have a swollen belly ; to 
be sated with food. 

hara ga hetta (B) : I am hungry. 

ano Mto no hara wa yoku wakatte iru (B) : 
I know his intention very well. 

hara ni nani ka aru ni chigai nai (B) : I am 
sure he has got something up his sleeve. 

sore to naku ano hlto no hara wo kiite miyo 
(B) : I will sound him in a casual way. 

hara no nai hlto da (B) : he is a poor-spirit- 
ed man. 

hara no kuroi yatsu : a scoundrel. 
Comp.: hara-kiri. : suicide by cutting open 

the abdomen, [kiru'<t to cut]. 
harau. 

1) To clear ; sweep away. 

yofuku no hokori wo haratte kure (A) : brush 

my clothes. 
hataki de tsukue no hokori wo haratte kure 

(A) : get a duster and dust the desk. 
jama wo haratte anshin shlta (B) : my mind 

is at ease now that I have removed the 

obstacles. 

2) To pay. 

kono kanjo wa mo haraimashita (C) : this. 

bill is already paid. 
kore wa haratta tsumori da (B) : I think I 

have paid for this. 
taku e todokete moratte kara haraimasu (C) : 

I will pay at home on delivery. 
Comp. 

saki-barai, q.v. 
harai-zinni : setting an account, [fntinuZ to 

end]. 
hareru. To swell. 

harete Yru : to be swollen. 
hari. Needle ; thorn ; the sting of an insect. 
hari hodo no koto wo bo hodo ni iu : to speak 
of a needle as if it were a pole ; to make a 
mountain of a mole-hill. 
hari no ana kara ten nozoku : to look at the 
heavens through the eye of a needle, (re- 
fers to a narrow-minded person). 
Comp. 

hari-ganc : wire, [kane metal]. 
hari-shigoto : needlework, [shigoto work]. 
Note :- used after the abb. 2nd set of num. 

(276, 4), hari means a stitch, 
harui. Spring ; beginning of the year. 
Comp.: haru-gi : spring clothes, [kvrul to 

put on]. 

haru-, v.t. and i. Meanings vague and diffi- 
cult to classify. 
1) To stretch : spread over ; stick on. 



haru 



hazu 



kono kokokii ico kabc ni hattr ktin (A) : stick 

this advertisement on the wall. 
konotegami ni kitte wo hatte dashite o kitre 

(A)': put a stamp on this letter and post 

it. 
kfsa wa atsui kori ga hatte imashita (C) : 

this morning there was a thick coating of 

ice. 
kire wo liaru 7 to stretch a piece of cloth 

(gen. 011 a board). 

ki wo haru : to exert oneself intellectually. 

2) To he swollen or distended. 

hara ga haru : to have a swollen belly ; to 

bo sated \vith food, 
/.ore wa chitto ni ga harimasu (C) : this 

package is a little too heavy. 
ippai- mizu wo hatte kuda-sai (B) : please fill 

it with water. 

3) To display : exhibit. 

nne wo haru : to keep up appearances. 

>n >se wo haru : to expose one "s goods for 

sale. 
inai-ban Ogawa-machi -no kado e mitt? wo 

harimasA (C) : I keep a stall every evening 

at the corner of Ogawa-machi. 

4) Various. 

atama wo haru : to squeeze (money). 
,'//' >ro lam : to be obstinate. 
"' mono wa nedan ga haru (B) : better arti- 
cles are more expensive. 
ki ga hatte shigoto wo shite ita kara jikan no ' 
tatsfi no wo shira-nakatta (B) : as I was in- 
tent on my work 1 did not notice how 
quicklv the time had passed. 
Der. 

//'/'/'''" ' t pull, [hiku to pull]. 
skibarv : to tie, [shime-ru to tie], 
hasamaru, v.i. fcogn. w. hasamu v.t.]. To be 
pressed, squeezed or pinched l>etween 
i wo things. 

oku-ba ni mono ga hasamatta yd na mono no 
ii kata wo suru hUo da (B) : he is a man 
who hasn't got a frank and open way of 
speaking his mind. 

hasamu, v.t. [ c gn- w. hasamaru v.i.]. To' 
place, squeeze or pinch between two 
things ; to cut with scissors. 
lion no aida ni hasamu : to place (some- 
thing) between the pages of a book. 
Her.: hasami : scissors. 
hashil. Bridge; chopsticks (a bridge from 

the dish to the mouth). 
hashi wo trataru : to cros? a bridge. 
hashtt. (usu. pron. haii). End : extremity ; 

border : beginning. 
hashigo, [ / ha*hil bridge : ko child, small]. 

Ladder. 

hashigo wo noboru : to climb a ladder. 
Comp.: hanhigo-dan : a staircase, \<l>tn <i 

step]. 

hata. A flag. 
Comp.: hata-bi : a feast day, [hi day]. 



hatachi. [cogn. w. hatsuka twenty di<; 

Twenty years of age. 
ha lake. A field. 
hataku. To dust. 

sumi-zumi wo yoku halaite kure (A) : dust 

the comers carefully. 

kane ire iro hataite mo kore dake shika ari- 
masen (C) : even if you turned my purs-- 
inside out you wouldn't find any more 
money. 
Der. 

liataki : a duster. 
hataki wo kakc-ru : to dust. 
hataraku. To work. 

Comp.: hataraki-tnono : an industrious per- 
son, [mono person]. 
hatoba, [ha waves ; to door ; ba place]. Pier : 

wharf. 

hatsuka, [cogn. w. hatachi twenty years of 
age ; see ita]. Twenty days ; the twen- 
tieth day of the month, 
hatsuoti. Accent ; pronunciation. 
hati. To crawl ; creep, 
hayai. Quick ; fast : early ; soon. 

o hayo (gozaimasu) (C) : good morning. 
hayaku .' (A) : make haste ; hurry up. 
dekiru dake hayakti : as soon (early) as pos- 
sible. 
asa hayaku oki-ru : to get up early in tl"- 

morning. 

hayaku ieba : in a word. 
hayaku oboeru mono voa hayaku wasurvru : 
what is soon learnt is soon forgotten. 
k> no hayai hUo : a quick-tempered men. 
ashi no hayai hito : a fast walker. 
mimi no hayai htto : a man who has a sharp 

ear. 

Der.: hayasa : speed, [see -sa]. 
hayari, [hayaru to be fashionable]. Fashion. 
hayari wa chotto no aida no mono desu (C) : 
fashions last but a short while. 
ima wa sore ga d-hayari desu (C) : that i- 
very fashionable at present. 
hayaru, [hayai quick]. To be in great de- 
mand ; popular ; fashionable. 
kono iro wa ima taihen hayarimatt (C) : 

this colour is very fashionable. 
asoko de wa warui byoki ga daibn hayaru sd 
da (B) : they say there is a dreadful epi- 
demic there. 
ano miee MW ta>hen hayaru (B) : that shop 

is largely patronized. 
Der.: hayari : fashion. 
hayashi. Forest ; wood, 
hazu. Obligation : fitness : reasonable \ 

pectation : conviction. 
komban roku-ji ni deru hazu desu ((.') : !> 

to leave at six this evening. 
Into wa makotowoiu hazu da (B) : one ou-jl" 

to speak the truth. 

<iiiic ga Jutta 'He k><ru h<i cv-ii if 

it did rain you ought to have conn . 



hazu 



34 



hi 



nan-ji ni kisha wa tsuku hazu desu ka ? (C) : 

at what time is the train due ? 
iware nai de mo sum hazu da (A) : you 

should do these things without having to 

be told. 
mo tsuite iru hazu da (B) : it ought to have 

arrived by this time. 
mo sugu kuru hazu da (B) : he ought to be 

here directly. 
so suru hazu no mono desu (C) : we ought to 

do so. 
btjdki ni naru hazu da (B) : it was only to be 

expected that he would get ill. 
sonna koto wo shite morau hazu de wa nakat- 
ta (B) : I ought not to have been treated 

like that. 
ima koko ni oita mono ga hltori de nakunaru 

hazu wa nai (B) : I don't see how a thing 

that I put here only a moment ago could 

disappear of itself. 
deki-nai hazu wa nai (B) : there is no reason 

why it cannot be done. 
aru hazu da (B) : there ought to be some. 
aro hazu wa nai (B) : there ought not to be 

any. 
yube Yamada ga tsuita tiazu de gozaimasu 

(D) : I understand Yamada arrived last 

night. 
o to-san no mae de sonna koto wo ieru hazu ga 

nai (A) : you wouldn't dare say such a 

thing if my father were present. 
sore wa sono hazu desu (C) : that is a matter 

of course. 
aiiata ga ichiban yoku shitte o-ide no hazu 

desu (C) : you ought to know better than 

anybody. 
kore iva Tard no empi'su no hazu da (B) : 

this must 1)6 Taro's pencil. 
kyo wa doko de mo yasuwi no (or no) hazu 

da (B) : you will find all the shops closed 

today, 
hazukashti, adj. [haj& shame J. Ashamed ; 

shameful. 
o hazukashii hanashi desu ga. . .(C) : I am 

ashamed to say that. . . 
he ; he ; hei ; interj. Various meanings : 

assent ; yes ; I have heard ; surprise. 
hei. A fence : wall. 

heiki (na). Undisturbed ; unconcerned ; in- 
different ; calm. 
heiki na kao wo shite i-ru : not to betray 

one 's feelings by the expression of the 

face ; not to show in one 'R face that one 

has any knowledge of a certain tiling ; an 

expression of face as if notliing extraor- 
dinary had happened. 
Icono gurai no kaze wa heiki da (B) : a wind 

like this is a comrr;on occurence, (leaves 

me undisturbed). 

heiki no Heizaemon : as cool as a cucumber, 
hcikin. Average. 

heikin no nedan : the average price. 



heikin shite ichi-nichi ja-go-nin no o kyaku 
sama ga gozaimasu (D) : we have on an 
average fifteen customers a day. 
heilai. Soldier, 
heni. Region. 

kono hen ni yvbin-kyoku wa gozaimasu fca '? 

(D) : is there a post office hereabouts ? 
hen2. Num. for times. 

ip-pen yatte tnimasho (C) : I'll just try : 

(compare hrtoteu'2). 

sora de oboeru made nam-bcn de mo yondr 
goran (A) : read it again and again until 
you know it by heart. 

Note : 1 ip-pen ; 3 sam-ben ; 6 ro-p-pen : 
10 jip-pen ; 100 hyap-pen ; 1,000 sem- 
ben ; nam-ben ? 
hens (na), (often corr. to henteko). Strange : 

peculiar ; odd ; queer ; singular. 
hen na hlto da (B) : he is a strange fellow. 
lien da keredomo. . . (B) : strange to say. . . 
nani ga hen da ? (A ) : what is there wrong '.' 
ano hlto wa ki ga hen ni natta (B) : his mind 

has become unhinged. 
henji. Answer. 
henji (wo) suru : to answer. 
tegami de henji wo shite kudasai (C) : pleaae 
give me a written answer. 
hakkiri shlta henji wo shite o kure (A) : 1 
want a plain answer. 

shirabete kara henji shimasu (C) : I will an- 
swer after inquiry. 

go henji wa watakushi no kiite yatta koto no 
henji ni natte imasen (C) : your reply in 
not an answer to my question, 
lierasu, v.t. [cogn. w. he.ru v.i.]. To diminish ; 

reduce ; decrease. 

hem, v.i. [cogn. w. herasu v.t.]. To diminish : 
reduce ; decrease. 
karada no mekata ga daibit hetta (B) : I h\ t- 

lost a great deal in weight. 
bara ga li&tta (B) : I am hungry. 
heta (na). Incompetent ; a bad hand at : 

inexpert ; clumsy. 
anata wa heta no, koto wo shimashlta (B^ : 

you have made a mess of it. 
ano sensei wa oshie-kata ga hcJ,a- da (B) : lie 

is a poor teacher. 

heta ni narimashita (C) : I am out of prac- 
tice. 
hey a. iioom. 

aita heya : a vacant, room. 
hiU 

1) Sun. 

hi ga deru : the sun rises. 

hi ga hairu ; hi ga iru ; hi ga kaknre.ru hi 

ga ochiru : the sun sets. 
hi ga teru : the sun shines. 
hi ga ataru : the sun shines on - 
hi no hikari : sunlight. 

2) Day. 

kono tegami ni wa hi ga kaitc nai (B) : ihss 
letter has no date. 



hi 



35 



hiku 



amio hi no kurashi ni mo koinattt im (B) : he 

is hard up and lives from hand to mouth. 
hi no tataii no tva hayai }>-.rio da (B) : time 

flies. 

A / wo okuru : to pass one 's days. 
Oomp. and der. 

!ti -atari : sunshine, [ataru to strike]. 
hi-no-de : sunrise, [dc'ru to come forth]. 
hi-tjasa : a para-sol, [kasa umbrella]. 
}>ata-bi : a feast day, [haia flag]. 
hi-zuke : date (of letter, document, etc.), 

\tsiike-ru to write down]. 
ki-nichi ; hinata ; him ; hima ; yo-bi ; q.v. 
h|2, [ ? hi sun]. Fire ; flame. 

hi wo taku ; hi wo taki-tsuke-ru : to make a 

fire. 

hi ivo tsttke-ru : to set on fire. 
hi gn tsfikii : to catch fire. 
abura-ganii ni hi ga tsuku yd ni : as quick to 

catch lire as oiled paper, (irascible). 
/( < ico okosu : to make a f ire blaze up. 
hi ivo kesv : to }>ut out a fire. 
hi ga kieta (B) : the fire ims lion.e out. 
.hi c;a kietu yo ni shizuka ni natta (B) : 

everything became as still as death. 
hi ni atarn : to warm oneself at the fire. 
hi wo ki'dasai (0) : please give me a light, 

(lor a eie:ar). 
ni-ban kam hi wo dashita (B) : a fire has 

broken out at num. 2. 

hi no nai tokoro ni kemvri agara-zu : then- 
is no smoke without a fire. 
Comp.: hi-keshi : a fireman, [kcsii to put 

out], 
hi atari, [hi sun ; ataru to strike]. Sunlight ; 

exposure to the sun. 
hi -atari no ii heya : a nice sunny room, 
hidari. Left ; left-hand side. 
Comp.: hidari-giki : left-handed, \kikn to 

be efficacious 1. 
iiidoi. Cruel : severe ; violent. 

amc ga hidoku futte imasu (C) : it is raining 

hard. 
hidoi atsusa ja nai ka ? (B) : isn't it awfully 

hot? 

hidoi yatsu : a rascal. 

hidoi 'me ni au : to be treated with cruelty. 
hidoi me ni awasK-ru : to treat with cruelty, 
higashi. East, 
hige, [ke hair]. Beard ; moustache. 

hige wo soru (or sum} : to shave the beard. 
hii, [Mtoisu one]. One (in the 3rd set of 

num.; see 271 ; 275). 
hijo (na). Extraordinary ; extreme. 

hiid na ame da (B) : it is raining very hard, 
hikari, [hikaru to shine]. Light ; rays. 

migaku to hikari ga deru (B) : it shines 

when polished. 

hito no hikari wo kaa ni kabutte ibatte irn 
(B) : he gives . himoslf nirs under the 
shelter of another's influence ; he struts 
about in borrowed plumes. 



hikaru. To shine. 
Der.: hikari : see prec. 
hiki. A.n. used for animals. 
Note : 1 ip-piki ; 3 sam-biki ; 6 rop-piki : 
10 jip-piki ; 100 hyap-piki ; 1,000 *cm- 
biki ; nam-biki ? 
hiki-uke-ru, [Mku to pull ; uke-ru to receivej. 

To undertake ; be responsible for. 
anaia wa sore wo Mki-uketa ja nai lea ? (B> : 

didn 't you undertake to do it ? 
ano hltq wo Mki-ttkeru koto wa dekimasen 

(C) : I cannot be responsible for him. 
hikizuru, [hiku to pull ; zum as in kontru to 

rub]. To drag along. 

hikkakaru, v.i. [hiku to pull ; kakaru to hang: 
cogn. w. hikkake-ru v.t.]. To get hooked ; 
get caught. 

inaka-mono ga Tdkyo e dete kuru to tabi-tabi 
kuruma-ya ni hikkakatte kane wo tcrareru 
(B) : when country people come to Tokyo 
they are often cheated by the rikisha- 
men. 

hikkakc'ru, v.t. [hiku to pull ; kake-ru to 
hang : cogn. w. hikkakaru v.i.]. To 
suspend ; hook on anything ; defer pay- 
ment intentionally. 

hobo de hito wo hikkakete kane wo totte nige- 
mashtta (C) : he cheated people all round 
and ran away. 

ano otoko wa hobo no kanjo wo hikkakete yo- 
nige shita (B) : that man ran away one 
night leaving all his bills unpaid, 
hikkjomu, v.i. [hiku to pull : komu q.v.]. To 
move ; draw back ; retire. 
iimen ga hikkonda (B) : the ground has sunk 
ano Mto wa shdbai wo yamete inaka e. hikko- 
mimashita (C) : he has retired from busi- 
ness and gone to live in the country. 
xonna ni hikkonde bakkari iru to bydki nt 
narimasu (C) : you '11 be ill if you stay 
indoors like that. 

omae no kuchi wo dasu tokoro ja nai, hik- 
konde o-ide (A) : this is no business of 
yours, shut up. 
hikkosu. v.i. [hlk-u to pull ; kosti, to cross ovor]. 

To change one 's residence. 
hikkoshi san-do ni kaji ichi-do : three re- 
movals are as bad as a fire, 
hlkkuri-kaeru, v.i. [kaeru to return : cogn. w. 
hikkuri-kaeau v.t J. To overturn; tumble 

down. 

basha ga hikkvri-kaeriwashita (C) : the car- 
riage has upset. 

hikkuri-kaesu, v.t. [kaeu to give back : cogn. 
w. hikkuri-kaertt v.i.]. To overturn : up- 
set. 
hiku. 

1) To pull ; drag ; draw ; lead. 
hito-me *co hiku : to attract attention. 
miji wo hiku : to draw a line. 
uma wo hiku : to lead a horse, 
fc wo hiku : to lead by the hand. 



hiku 



36 



hito 



2) To withdraw ; reduce : diminish. 

go kara, san wo hikeba, ni ga rokoru (B) : 

three from five leaves two. 
mo go-sen hlkimasho (C) : I will come down 

another five sen. 
kesa wa kawa no mizu ga yohodo hlkimashlta 

(C) ; this morning the water in the river is 

very low. 
ato e hlka-nai : not to withdraw ; to hold 

to an opinion. 

3) Various. 

kaze wo hiku : to catch a cold. 

ji wo hiku : to find a word (in a dictionary). 

kashi wo hiku : to hand round cakes. 

mise wo hiku : to shut up shop. 

densha ni hlkare-ru : to be run over by a 

tram-car. 
denki ga hiite arimasu ka ? (C) : is there 

electricity laid on (in the house) ': 
C'omp. 

Mkidashi : a drawer, [dasu to take out]. 
jibiki ; hikkuri-kaeru : hikkuri-kaefu; hlki- 

uke-ru ; hlkizuru ; hikkakam ; hi-kkake-rn ; 

hikkonm ; hikkosu ; hipparu : q.v. 
In some of these comp. hiku is pleonastic or 

at most serves to intensify the meaning 

of the Toll. word, 
hikui. Low : short. 
hlkui koe : a low voice. 
se.i no hlkui hito : a man short of stature. 
atama no klhui hito : a servile, obsequious 

person, 
liima, [hi day ; ma interval]. 

1 ) Time ; spare time ; leisure ; opportunity. 
/lima ga dekitara : when I have time. 

itna wa hitna desu (C) : I am free now. 

o hira no toki ni : at your leisure. 

hima ga nai (B) : I haven't time. 

hima ga kakaru, (or tore-ru) : to take time. 

kima wo tsufmsu : to waste time. 

kono-yoro wa shobai ga hima de komarimasu 

(C) : at present, trade is so dull, I don't 

know what to do. 
I'ima na Mto ; hima na karada : a person of 

leisure. 

2) Cessation from occupation. 

hima wo dasu, (or yarn) : to discharge from 

service. 
// ima wo morau, (or toru) : to have one 's 

resignation from office accepted ; to be 

allowed to leave one 's occupation. 
doka o hima wo itadakitai desu (C) : I wish 

to leave your service. 
futsuka o hima wo itadakitd gozaimasu (D) : 

I beg to ask you for two days ' leave, 
hi mo. Cord ; string. 

lii mo wo shime-ru (or musubu) : to tie a 

string. 

himo wo hod-okii : to'untie a string. 
h IIHO de shibaru : to tie with a string. 
hin. Quality ; kind. 

fi-n no ii : high-class ; refined : superior. 



hin no nai : undignified. 

hin no warui : low-class ; inferior. 

nan da ka hin no nai hito da (B) : somehm\ 

or other he doesn't look a gentleman. 
hin ga ochita (B) : the quality has deterio- 
rated. 

hin ga tsulni : to improve in quality or ap- 
pearance. 
Comp. 

gehin : low -class, [ge inferior]. 
johin : high-class, [702 superior]. 
hinata, [hil sun]. Sunny place. 

hinata de hosu : to dry in the sun. 
hi-nichi, [hil day ; nichi day]. Day ; date. 
hi-nichi wa dono gurai kakaru ? (B) : how 

many days will it take '! 
kono tegami wa hi-nichi ga nai (B): this let- 
ter has no date. 
hipparu, [hiku to pull ; haru to stretch). '!'< 

pull ; make taut ; stretch. 
junsa ni hippatte, ikarematthlta (C) : lie WHS 

taken into custody by a policeman. 
hirobuta, [hiroi large ; juta lidj. A tray. 
hirogaru, v.i. [hiroi broad ; -garu q.v.: f-oyn. 

w. hiroge-ru v.t.]. To spread. 
sono hyoban ga sugu hirogarimaahUa (C) : 

the rumour spread rapidly. 
hirogi'TU, v.t. [hiroi broad : cogn. w. hii-<iam 

v.i.]. To spread out ; enlarge 
michi wo hiroge-ru : to widen a road. 
hiroi. Wide ; broad ; large. 

ano hito wa kokoro ga hiroi (B) : that man 

is magnanimous. 
Comp. and der. : h irobuta ; h-irogtn " . hirn- 

ge-ru ; q.v. 
hirou. To pick up. 
hiru, [hil day ; aru to bo]. Noon ; day -time : 

lunch. 

hiru kara : afternoon. 
hiru mo yoru mo : day and night. 
mo jiki hiru ni narimasho (C) : it will sunn 

be noon. 
mo o hiru ni ahimasho (C) : let us h.uc 

lunch now. 
Comp. 

hirurna : day-time, [mal interval j. 
hiru-han ; hiru-meahi : midday meal. \ii<m-\ 

meal ; meshi meal]. 
hiru-mae : forenoon, [mae befon- 1. 
hiru-eugi : afternoon, [sugi past |. 
hiru-ne : midday nap.f'"/v/ to sleep i. 
hito. 

1) Man ; person. 

hito ni naru : to ivar-li manhood. 

hito ni #uru : to make a man of somebody. 

xhira-nai hito: a stranger, (not known i<> 

me). ^ 

Yamada^an n-n Kijol-t no hito <l<x>~< i(') : .Mr 

Yarnada is a natiy** of Kyoto. 

2) People ; somebody : I. 

hito wo nan to in </<r rfi .' (H) : what %vill 
peojtle say '.' 



hi to 



37 



ho 



hito wa do itte mo kamawa-nai (B) : I don't 

care what people say. 
to iu hito mo aru : some people say 
hito no kuchi ni to ?ra taterare-nai : you can- 
not close people's mouths. 
hito ni hito-kiise : everyone has his peculiar- 
ities. 
hito no shiri ni teiiku : to follow somebody 

about play second fiddle to somebody, 
/.ore u-a hito no moiw desu (C) : this belongs 

to somebody. 
hito to hanashi wo shite imashita (C) : he was 

speaking with somebody. 
yoku mo hito wo baka ni ihtta ne (A) : what 

do you mean by making a fool of me like 

that ? 
>~i itai ! nan datte hito ivo butsu n ' da ? (A) : 

oh, you hurt me ! why do you bump up 

against people (me) like that ? 
3 ) Personal disposition. 
a no hito wa hito ga wand (B) : he is a bad- 

natured man. 
inaka ni wa hito no ii hito ga takusan ari- 

ma-su (C) : in the country there are a great 

many good-natured people, 
hito--, [hitotsu one]. One ; abb. 2nd set of 

num. (276, 4) : see hitotsu. 
hito-me. 

1 ) Attention ; notice ; f hito people ; me eye]. 
hito-me wo hlku : to attract attention. 
hito-me wo nusumu : to do something on 

the sly, unobserved. 

2 ) A glance, [hitotu one me eye]. 
liito-me de sore to shitta (B) : he took in the 

situation at a glance, 
hitori, [hitotsu one ; aru to be]. 

1 ) One person ; each. 

tatta hitori kima-shita (C) : only one person 

came. 
t'itori (or hitori -hitori) ni futatsu zut*u o yari 

nasal (B) . give two to each. 
hitori no otoko : a man. 

2) Hitori de : alone ; by oneself. 

hitori de wa dekimasen (C) : I can't do it by 
myself. 

o hitori de o sabishiu gozaimashd (D) : I sup- 
pose you must feel lonesome being all by 
yourself. 

mo koko ni oita mono ga hitori de nakunaru 
hazu wa nai (B) : I don't see how a thing 
that I put here a moment ago could dis- 
appear by itself. 

hitori dc ni naorimashita (C) : 1 got better 
all by myself (without taking any medi- 
cine). 

l.-ono omoclia wa omac hitori no ja nai (A) : 
this toy is not for you only. 

kodomo ga hlturi de asonde int. (B) : the child 

is amusing himself. 
I'omp. 

hUori-mono : a, single (unmarried) person, 
[mono person]. 



hitori-niusuko : an only son, [musuko son]. 

htiori-musume : an only daughter, [musu- 

me daughter I. 

hito-tori, [hitotsti one ; tori way]. In a gen- 
eral way. 

hito-tori wa shitte itnasu (C) : I have a gen- 
eral knowledge of it. 

hito-tori o hanashi kudasai (D) : please give 
me a general idea of it. 

hito-tori no ningen : an ordinary person. 

Ei-go mo hito-tori wa naratte ini (B) : I have 
gone through the usual course in English. 

sono kurushisa wa hito-tori ja nakatta (B) : 

the agony was something extraordinary. 
hitotsu. 

1 ) One ; same. 

fiitatsu no uchi hitotsu : one of two things. 

tatta hitotsu ; hitotsu dake : only one. 

httotsu-hitotsu : one by one. 

hitotsu oki : every other one. 

hitotsu mo arimasen (C) : there is not a 

single one. 

hitotsu mo deki-nai (B) : I can do nothing. 
hitotsu kisha ni norimashfta (C) : we came 

by the same train. 
mo hitotsu : another one. 
mo hitotsu no : the other one. 

2) The meaning is sometimes vague. 

o cha wo hitotsu o agari nasai (C) : pleas*- 

take a cup of tea. 
hitotsu kaite mimasho (C) : I will just writo 

and see. 

In comp. hitotsu is abb. to hito- ; see 276, 4 for 
the list of nouns that take this abb. num. 
hito-me ; hito-tori ; q.v. 

hito-anshin ; hito-honeori ; hUo-kuchi ; hito- 
kurd : see anshin ; hone-ori ; kuchi ; kuro. 
hiyasu. v.t. To cool. 

Der.: o-hiya : cold water, (fern.), [o honori- 
fic). 
ho. 

1 ) Direction ; side. 

dotchi no ho ni ? on which side ? 
kotchi no ho ni : on this side. 
ginko no hj> ni : in the direction of the bank; 
in the neighbourhood of the bank. 

2) When two or more things or actions are 
considered simultaneously and one is 
chosen or compared to the others, hd ha* 
a meaning of 'one', 'way', 'manner'. 

shiroi hd wo motte irasshai (C) : take the 
white one. 

kasa wo motte iku hd ga ii (B) : you had bet- 
ter take an umbrella. 

sono hd ga ii (B) : that would be better. 

sono hd ga suki desu (C) : I like that better. 

ii hd wo o tori nasai (C) : take whichever 
you please. 

konohd ga yaaui (B) : this one is cheaper. 

aakuncn kara shdbai no hd ga sukkari dame, 
ni narimashita (C) : since last year business 
i is very bad. 



ho 



hoka 



Comp. 

katappo : one of a pair, [A-ato one]. 
ryoho : both, [ryd~ both]. 
hobi. Reward ; prize ; (the honorific go is 

gen. pref.). 

go hobi wo moraimaxMta (C) : I won a prize. 
hobo, [ho side ; repeated so as to signify 
universality]. On all sides : everywhere. 
hobo no mise wo tazunemashlta ga arimasen 
deshtta (C) : I asked at several shops but I 
could not get it. 
ho do. 

1) Approximate quantity : about. 
san-ka-getsu hodo : about three months. 
go-kin hodo kaimasho (C) : I shall buy about 

five pounds. 

hari hodo no koto wo bo hodo ni iu : to speak 
of a thing about the size of a needle as if 
it were about as big as a stJck ; to make a 
mountain of a mole -hi 11. 

2) Quantity ; price ; much. 

(lore hodo ? how much ? (quantity). 

ika hodo ? nani hodo ? how much ? (price or 

quantity). 
sore hodo ira-nai (B) : I don 't need us much 

as that. 
kore hodo iUe kikaseru no ni mada wakara- 

nai ka ? (A) : can't you understand yet 

after having heard it explained so much '! 
sore hodo made ni shi-nakute mo ii (B) : you 

needn 't go to that extent. 

3 ) Comparisons of equality : as as. 

anata wa watashi hodo eei ga takai (B) : you 

are as tall as 1. 
Yumoto wa Ashinoyu hodo kirei na tokoro 

desu ka ? (C) : is Yumoto as pretty a place 

as Ashinoyu ? 

4) Neg. comparisons. 

nore hodc waruku nai (B): not so bad as that. 
Yokohama e wa sen hodo tabi-tabi ikimasen 

(C) : I do not go to Yokohama as often as 

1 used to. 
anata no ontou hodo yasashiku wa nai (B) : 

it is not as easy as you think. 
anata wa toshi hodo ni wa mie-ng,i (B) : you 

don 't look your age. 

5) An individual is compared to all the other 
individuals of the same kind. 

l:lsha hodo benri na mono wa nai (B) : there 

is nothing so convenient as a train. 
ano hito hodo zurui hito wa aukunai (B) : | 

there are few men as cunning as he. 
ti) So (that). 
ugoke-nai hodo doaaari tabeta (B) ; dossari ' 

tabete ugoke-nai hodo datta (B) : he ate so i 

much (that) he could not move. 
ahinu ka to omou hodo kuriwhimimashita 

(C) : the pain was so great I thought I 

would die. 
itreahlkute, ureshlkute, do shite ii- ka wakara- 

nai hodo dc^hita (C) : he was so happy he 

didn't know what to do. 



7) Enough. 

raiharu made taukau ho<io sckitan ga gozai 

maeu ka ? (D) : have you enough coal to 

last till next spring ? 
amaru hodo : more than enough. 
iku. hodo i/okit arimascn (C) : I don't ft -el 

well enough to go. 
in hodo no bijin dc mo nai (B) : she is nut 

pretty enough to lie talked about. 

8) The the. 

o' hodo ii : the more the better. 

okiku naru hodo waruku naru (B) : tho older 

he grows the worse he becomes. 
omoeba omou hodo kanashii 'B) : (.lie more I 

think of it the more sorr\ I foci. 

9) Moderation ; limit. 

bakani suru ni mo hodo (ja am (A) : then- 
are limits to be observed even wh i n you 
make a fool of people (but you overstep 
those limits). 

in! no hodo wo .thira-nai yateu da (B) : lie i^ 
a fellow who doesn't know his own po<i- 
tion. 

10) Time. 

hodo naku kaette kuru daro ^B^ : Ji.- will. I 

think, return before long. 
saki-hodo mairima-shi'a (C) : \\<- arrived .1 

short time ago. 

11) Various. 

hodo no -ii Into ttctu (C) : he tia.- a good ad- 
dress. 

ii hodo ni ai#at#u shite oita (B) : I gave a 
vague answer. 

homerareru hodo no hlto de wa nai (B) : ho 
is not a man who deserves praise. 

kane-mochi to iu hodo de wa aritnann> (U - 
shlta (G) : he wasn't exactly what you 
would call a rich man. 

iya to iu hodo b-utsii : to give (somebody) a 
good beating. 

sakura no hana wa iya to iu hodo mitnash.Un 
(C) : I've seen cherry-blossoms until 
I 'm sick of them. 
Comp. 

saki-hodo: a short tiiae ago. [saki before ]. 

yohodo, q.v. 

hodoke*ru, v.i. [cogn. w. foil.]. To got un- 
tied ; come undone. 

hodoku, v.t. fcogn. w. prec.j. To untio : undo. 
hoka. 
1) Different ; other : another. 

hoka no iro : a different colour. 

omoi no hoka : differently from \vlnt I ex- 
pecteil. 

hoka no wa is-shukan di <!tk<>/'sn ((.'): th- 
others will be done in a week. 

hoka de mo nai anata no o tanomi drsu kum 
hone wo otte mimanho (C) : as tho ivjm'st 
comes from you and 110 other. I will (\ 
my best. 

hoka no hito nara tonikakit - : however it 
mav be with others 



hoka 



hvaku 



~1 1?! -sides : except : else. 
Icon o hoka ni ica nati' >u nai (B): f have 

nothinc but this. 
xo sun 1 hoka shlkata ga na> (B; : then- is 

nothing else to be done. 
kono hoka mada taktisan a> imasu (C) : there 

are n great, many besides these. 
/ka cic wo nai ga : what I want to say is 
only this- > 

/,(' yori hoka ica nai (B) : there is nothing 
for it but to go. 
lioka ni nani ga iriina#6 ka ? (C) : what else 

do you \viint ': 

sono hoka iro-iro : and so forth. 
i-hiisai nimotsu no hoka wo minna- mottr o 
kure (A) : take all tlie luggage except the 
small parcel. 
hoka ni dare mo i-nakatta (B) : there \sas 

nobody else there, 
hoki. A broom. 
hokori. Duet. 

hokori wo harau : to (clean off thei dust. 

l-okori ga tatsu : the dust rises. 

txnk-ue no uc ni hokori ga tamattr // (B) : 

my desk is quite dtisty. 
home'ru. To praiso. 

immari homcia hanashi rfe wa na> (B) : it is 

not a thing to be highly commended, 
honl. Book. 
Comp. 

hon-bako : bookcase, [hako box]. 
Iton-dana : book-shelf, [tana shelf]. 
hon-ya : bookseller, [yal q.v.l. 
irn-hf*n : second-hand book, [furui old], 
hon-. A.n. used for long cylindrical things, 
such as sticks, trees, pens, bottles, etc., 
also for letter^. 

Xote : 1 ip-pon ; 3 sam-bon : 6 rap-pon ; 10 
iip-pon ; 100 hyap-pon ; 1.000 sew -fan : 
nani-bon ' 

hon^ (no), [honto truth]. True : mere. 
hon no jodan : merely a joke. 
lion no yaw-mono : merely cheap stuff, 
t. 'omp 

hon-nhi : tht^ man himself, (not a represen- 
tative), [nin man]. 

hon-mono : u genuine article, (not imita- 
tion), [mono thing]. 

ho-gin : solid silver, (not plated), [gin sil- 
ver]. 
hone. Bone. 

hone to kava bakkari : notl-inp l>ni skin and 

I xjnes. 

lionr wo tvuyii : to set a bone. 
krrsa no hon( : the ribs of an umbrella. 
hone desii (C) : it is very arduous work, (an 

elliptical construction, see foil.). 
J. Hone ico oru : to strive hard ; make 
effort: (lit.: to break the 



;i strenuous 
bones). 

ga ore-rv 



(lit.: 
to need great effort >. 



hone wo ottc mittnuhd (C) : I will try my 

best. 

(.'omp.: hone-or/ see foil. 
hone-ori, [hone bones : oni to break : see prec. 

2)]. Effort ; labour. 
hone-ori ga muda ni narimashita. (C) : my 

efforts wore in vain. 
hUo-honcori deahtta ne (C) : thank you \ 

mvich for your trouble. 
honeori-zon no kutabire-moke. : it was ^n 

much labour lost, 
honto (no) ; honto (no). True. 
honto no hanashi : a true story. 
honto no zoge de&u ka ? uso no dtsu ka, ? (< , : 

is it real ivory or imitation ? 
honto desA ku ? (C) : is it true ? are you in 

earnest ? 

honto ka, u#o ka, wakara-nai (B) : I don't 
know whether it is true or false. 
honto wa : to tell you the truth. 
honto ni : in fact ; indeed ; upon my word : 
as a matter of fact ; has also a sup. mean- 
ing. 

lionto ni kirei na musianc wo mimashita. 
(C) : I saw such a pretty glrL 
honto ni so nara : if it really proves to I > 

so. 
dare mo sonna koto wo honto ni shi-nai (B) : 

nobody beh'eves such a thing. 
honto de mo vso de mo : whether it is true 

or false. 
Der. 

hon3 q.v. 

hontora-shii : apparently true, [see -rashii 1 . 
horu. To dig ; carve ; engrave. 
Der. and comp. 
hori : a ditch ; moat. 
hori-mono : a carving, [mono thiii.u i. 
hoshi, (sometimes o hoshi sama). Star, 
hoshii, adj. Desirous of having ; want. 

Taro u-a nanhi ga hoehii (B) : Taro wante a 
pear. 

hoshii no desu ka f (C) : would you like 
some ? 

chodo hoshi i to otnotte ita mono desu (('< : ii 
is just what I wanted. 
Der.: hoshigaru : to desire, [see -garu], 
hosoi. Thin (of cylindrical things) ; fine. 
Comp.: lioso-nagai : slender, [nagai long], 
hosu. To dry ; air ; drain off. 
hinata de (or ni) hoeu : to dry in the sun. 
kimono wo hosu : to air clothes. 
h i de hosu : to dry at a fire, 
hoteru, [corr. of Eng.]. Hotel, 
hotondo. Ahnost ; nearly ; about. 

hotondo dekimashita. (C) : it is almost ready. 
hotondo hyaku arimasu (C) : I have 

a hundred, 
hyaku. A hundred. 

X ote : _100 hyaku ; 300 mm-byakn ; i 
rop-pyaku ; 800 hap-pyaku. One often 
hears also : 400 ifon-hyaku for *hi-hyaku ; 



hyaku 



10 



iMsuke'ru 



700 nana-hyaku for aMchi -hyaku ; 900 
kyu-hyaku for ku-hyaku. 
h yd ban. Opinion ; reputation ; rumour 
hydban no ii hito : a man who has a good 
reputation. 
arm Mto wa hydban ga warui (B) : that man 

has a bad name. 

hydban no rikd mono desu (C) : he is sup- 
posed to be a very clever person. 
hydban ni naru : to be talked about. 
ano hito no hydban ga (chi ni) ochita (B): 

his reputation has fallen (to the erround). 
i-awaseru, [i-rul to be : awase-ru to join]. 

To happen to lye present. 
i-awaseta Mto : a person who happened to 

be there. 

i baru. To be proud ; give oneself airs. 
ibatte aruku : to swagger. 
ano mise wa ima de wa ibatta mono da (B) : 

that shop is doing very well now. 
ibi, common but less correct form of yitbi 

q.v. 
ichi. 

1) One. 

ichi-nichi : one day. 
ichi-nichi-ju : all day long. 

2) Superlative. 

Nippon ichi no (takai) yania : the highest 
mountain of Japan. 

3) Various. 

ichi ka bachi (corr. of hachi) ka : at a ven- 
ture. 

ichi ka bachi ka yatte miyd (B) : I will 
chance it. 

ichi mo ni mo naku shdchi shimaslvita (C) : 
he agreed without hesitation. 

ichi mo tora-zu, ni mo tora-zu : chasing two 
hares and getting neither. 

ichi wo kiite ju wo shim : to know all from 
hearing one. 

Note : ichi in comp. before ch, t or is, be- 
comes it- ; before / or h, ip-; before k, 
ik- ; before a or ah, is . Ichi is always 
omitted before hyaku hundred, and general- 
ly omitted before sen thousand ; but 
always used before man ten thousand, 
for numbers between 10,000 and 20.000. 
C'omp. 

ichi-ichi : one by one. 

ichi-ichi miru koto wa deki-nai (B) : I can- 
not look at every one of them. 

ichiban ; ippai ; ip-puku ; it-td ; q.v. 
ichi ban, [ban3 number]. 

1 ) Number one. 

Yokohama, Yamashita-cho, ichi-ban : num- 
ber 1. Settlement, Yokohama. 
ichi-bam-me : the first. 

2) Superlative. 

kore ga ichiban (ii no desu) (B) : this is the 

best. 
kore ga ichiban suki desu (C) : I like this 

best. 



Kobe <lc icltiban kirei na- miisiime : the pret- 
tiest girl in Kobe. 

dono lutko ni ichiban hairimasu ka f (( ' ) : 
which box holds the most ? 
Yamada San ga ichiban ni kimashlta (C) : 
Mr. Yamada came first. 
ichiban hajime kara : from the very begin- 
ning. 

ichiban klsha : the first train. 
nani wo sum ni mo karada ga ichiban du 
(B) : in everything health should l?e th< % 
first consideration. 
ichl-gatsu ; ichi-getsu ; [gateu, gets ft month!. 

J anuary . 

ie. House ; (see uchi). 
ieru, [potential of iul to say]. To be ablt- i 

say. 

Igirisu, [corr. of English]. England. 
Comp.: Igirisu-jin : an Englishman. \iin 

man]. 
HI, [itsutsu five]. Five (in the 3rd set of num.: 

see 271, 275). 
H2. Common form of yoi good, when used 

attributively : see yoi. 
li-dasu, [iul to speak ; dasu q.v.]. To begin 

to speak ; say. 

ichi-do ii-dashita kara ni wa ato e wa hika- 
nai (B) : after I have said something I 
never go back on my words. 

ima ni natte sonna koto wo ii-dashUe. mo shl- 
kata ga nai (B) : it is no use speaking of 
such things now. 

iie, (sometimes corr. to iiya). The tr in- 
meaning is ' no '; but, as the Japanese 
when answering neg. questions often say 
'no' where we would say ' yes', iie. must 
frequently be translated by 'ye>': s<v 
401. 
ika-nai no desu ka ? iie, iku no dfnfi (C} : 

aren 't you going ? yes, I am. 
kore wa Yokohama de o kai ni narimashltn 
ka, Kobe de o kai ni narimsahita ka ? (D)- 
iie, Tdkyd de kaimashlta (C) : did you buy 
this in Yokohama or in Kobe 'i in nei- 
ther, I bought it in Tokyo. 
iie chigaimasu (C) : no, it is not so ; you arc 

mistaken. 
iie (after being asked pardon or thanked ) : 

don 't mention it. 

li-sugiTU, [iul to speak ; sugi-ru to exceedj. 
To speak too much ; say things you ought 
not to. 
ii isiike-ru, [iul to speak ; t#uke-ru to apply]. 

1) To order ; command. 

naze ii-tsuketa tori ni shi-nai ka ? (A) : 
why don 't you do as I order you ? 

2) To speak ill of somebody ; tell tales. 
sensci ni ii-tsukemasu (B) : I'll tel' tin- 
teacher about you. 

3) To be accustomed to say. 
Der. 

ii-tauki : an order. 



ii=tsuke'ru 



41 



iki 



dare no ii-tsukf de shimashita ka ? (B) : by 

whose order did you do it ? 
ii-wake, [iul to speak ; loake. reason : i.e. a 
reason that consists only of words]. An 
excuse : see wake. 
iiya. Corr. of He q.v. 
iji. Temper. 

iji no ii : good-tempered. 

iji no warui : bad-tempered. 

iji no kitanai : greedy (of food). 

iji wo ham : to be stubborn. 

''ii ni naru : to become obstinate. 

ko nareba iji da (B) : if things come to this 

pass, it is a question of obstinacy. 
ijimeTU, [ ? cogn. w. foil.]. To tease ; vex; 

annoy. 

ijiru. To touch ; handle ; meddle with. 
i|6, f/62 above]. Above ; beyond ; more than ; 

over ; after. 

go -yen ijo wa dasemasen (C) : I will not give 
more than five yen. 

makesaseta ijo wa kawa-nakereba narumai 
(B) : as you have come down in the price 
I suppose I must buy it. 
kiita ijo wa shira-nai to wa ie-nai (B) : now 
that I have heard it I cannot pretend I do 
not know. 
ikaga. How ? what ? 

ikaga desu ka ? (C) : how do you do ? 

kore wa, ikaga itashimasho ? (D) : what shall 

I do with this ? 
kore wa, ikaga desu ka ? (C) : what do you 

say to this ? how would this suit you ? 
o cha, wa, ikaga de gozaimasu ka ? (D) : may 

I offer you a cup of tea ? 
kasa wo motte ittara, ikaga desu ka '? (C) : ! 
would you care to take an umbrella ? 
Note : ikaga may always be replaced by 
do which is however less polite ; on the 
other hand do may often be changed into 
ikaga as noted at the end of do'Z q.v. 
ika-hodo, {ikaga how ; hodo about"!. How 
much ? 
kore u-a ika-hodo desu ka ? (C) : how much 

is this ? 
Xote : instead of ika-hodo you may say 

ikura (less polite). 

ike-nai; ikemasen ; [neg. present of ikerrui, 
potential of ikul to go]. The real mean- 
ing is ' I (you, etc.) cannot go r ; it is gen. 
used to indicate disapproval, ' that won't 
do'. 

1) After the neg. present conditional, the 
neg. gerund in tvikute and wa, or the neg. 
present and to, it is often translated by 
"must* or 'ought'. 

ki wo tsiike-nakereba ike-nai (A) : you must 
be careful ; (lit. if you are not careful 
that won't do). 
benkyo shi-nakute wa ikemasen. (A) : you 

ought to study. 
noma-nai to ike-nai (A) : you must drink it. 



2) After the gerund and wa, or the present 
and to, ike -nai often means 'must not' or 
'don't'. 

hanashvte wa ike-nai (A) : hanasft to ikcmd- 
acn (C) : you mustn't speak : (lil. if you 
speak that won't do^. 

3^ The present foil, by to and ike-nai is nut 
usually translated by 'must not' when it 
occurs in a subordinate clause. 
sensei ni mirareru to ike-nai kara o yoslti 
nasai (B) : leave off or your teacher wi!l 
see you ; (lit. as it wouldn "t do if you wern 
seen by your teacher, leave off). 
irv to iketnasen kara motte ikimasho (C) : 1 
will take it with me in case I need it. 
osoku naru to ikemasen kara, densha di 
ikimaslio (C) : as it wouldn't do to arrive 
late, let 's go by tram-ear. 
koko de wa dare ka otosu to ike-nai (B) : 
somebody may knosk it down here (so put 
it some%vhere else). 
4) Ike-nai after the gerundial form of an 

adj. may often be translated by * too'. 
shirokiite ike-nai (B) : it is too white. 
Compare : shirokiite wa ike-nai (i) : if it i^ 

white it won't do. 

otoko no ko wa itazura de ikemasen (C) : 
boys are a nuisance, they are always np 
to mischief. 
o) As an adj. 
sore wa ike-nai koto desu, ne (C) : L nm sorry 

to hear that. 
ike-nai koto wo shtta (B) : you have ma;i> .1 

blunder. 
ike-nai koto ga arimasu ka ? (C) : is am - 

thing wrong with it ? 
ike-nai ko : a mischievous child. 
bydki ya dan-dan ike-naku narimasit (C . : 
the illness is getting more serious littl- 
by little. 
(i) Various. 

sore wa ike-nai (B) : that won't do. 
sore de wa ike-nai (B) : that one won't d . 
ike-nai kara yoshimasho (C) : I will leave off 

as 'it is of no use. 

kazc ga fuku kara ike-nai (B) : as it is Windy 
I cannot go, (this is the original meanmj 
of ike-nai) ; you mustn't do tliat on ac- 
count of the wind. 
Note : ika-nai (do not go) is soin.-tun.- 

heard in the place of ike-nai. 
ike* nil, [potential of ikul to go]. To \ 
to go. 

ike-nai ; ikemasen ; see prec. 
JkeriA [iki-ru to live]. To keep alive. 
Comp.: hana ike : a flower-vtuw. [* 

or]. 
iki, [iki-ru to live]. Breat!,. 

iki wo suru : iki wo !iiku : to breathe. 
iki ga kire-rn : to bo out ot breath. 
mafia iki ga arimasu (C) : ho is still 
Der.: naga-iki : a long life, (nagai long(. 



iki=chigai 



ikir 



iki-chigai, [i/fcwl to go ; chigau to be different). 
Passing each other on the way ; a mutual 
misunderstanding. 

iki-chigai ni naru : to miss or fail to meet 
somebody. 

ano hV.o wa Ei-go ga wakara-nai kara iki- 
chigai ga dckita. (B) : as he does not know 
English very well there was a misunder- 
standing. 
iki-ru. To live ; survive. 

mtiAa ikite imasii ka ? (C) : is lie still living? 

n'utakushi no ikite iru aida wa : as long a.s 1 
live. 

Der. : ikc'ru?- ; iki ; q.v. 

ikka, [iku- what ; -ka day]. What day of the 
month ': 

kyo wa ikka dettu ka '/ (C) : what day of the 

month is it ? 

ikul, [corr. of yuku] ; iiTog. verb. see 28. 
I ) To go. 

atchi e o iki nasai ( B) : go away. 

itte kimasii (C) : T am going but 1 '11 come 
back again ; a common salutation said on 
leaving one's own house, and in other 
cases where a return is intended soon. 

ittari-kitari sum : to walk Tip and down. 

Nagasaki iki no fune : a ship bound for 
Nagasaki. 

i-ki wa densha de kavri iva arukim-asho (C) : 
I shall go by tram and come back on 
foot. 

kore iva doko iku michi desu ka ? (C) : 
where does this road go to ? 

mb gakko e iku jikan desu (C) : it is time 
now to go to school. 

michi u>o iku hlto : a man passing on the 
road. 

its-it mo iku tokoro : the place I usually go 
to. 

yobarete ikii : to go in answer to an invita- 
tion. 

2) Ni ik-ii : to go, foil, by infinitive ; to go 
for, and. 

bijshi wo tori ni ikimasho (C) : 1 am going to 
fetch my hat ; I am going for my hat. 

'nha wo yobi ni ikimashita. (C) : he went to 
call the doctor. 

ni' ni ikimasho (C) : >et us go and see. 
3) Potential, passive and causative : ike-rul; 
ikare-ru : ikase-ru. 

ikereba ii (B) : 1 wish 1 could go. 

hyd wa >karnnaen (C) : 1 can't go today. 

ikasete o yari nasai (B) : let him go ; allow 
him to go. 

"/' kara moratta kane dr #hobai wo hajimete 
rnku ni kura-shtte ikeru yd ni natta no desu 
(C) : with the money 1 received from my 
uncle, I opened a shop and was thus able 
10 live in comfort. 

'kare-naku narimaslMa (Cj : 1 am prevented 
now from going. 
' 



Note :Yaru to s;nd, is gen. used as ca.u--. 
of ike. 

4) Ikanai. (or ikima*en) sometimes means 
'cannot'; novice especially, (wake) ni wa iki- 
tnasen nsed for forming the neg. potential. 

sd wa ikimasen (C) : that is impossible. 

onion yb ni wa ikimastm nwnc des-u (C) ; 
you can't always have things as you 
would wish. 

do shite mo hakurai no yd (na wake) ni trti 
ikimasen (C) : in any case it cannot be 
H(ual to a foreign-made article. 

iogashii kara so liayaku iku wake ni u- 
ika-nai (B) : as I am busy 1 cannot pos- 
sibly go so soon. 

5) Various. 

ano hlto wa nan de kutte iku ka .' (A) : 
what does he do for a living ? 

t-otihi ga iku : to grow in age. 

rippa ni kurashite iku : to live in splendid 
style. 

iku-do kaite mo omou yd ni ika-nai (B) : I 
can't get it to my liking no matter bow 
often I re -write it. 

Note : the humble form of iku, (po'ite for 
the 1st person) is mairu, occasionally aga- 
ru (q.v.) : the honorific forms (polite for 
the 2nd person) are irasaharu, o-ide nasaru, 
o-ide ni naru, o-ide de gozaru, and o-ide 
kudasaru. The imperative of iku is gen. 
taken from one of the honorific forms. 
C'omp. 

iki-chigai, q.v. 

iki-gake, see -gake. 

iku2- ikutsu. Iku in questions takes the 
place occupied in ordinary aft. sentences 
by the first set of num. or the abb. second 
set (276, 1, 2, 4) iL~i(tnu takes the place of 
the second set of num. (276, 3). 

1 ) How many ? 
>ku-(Jo ? how often ': 

I'tn.pitsu iku-hon ? how many pencils ': 

iku-tsuki ? how many months ? 

isu ikutsu ? how many chairs ? 

o ikutsu desu ka ? (C) : how old are you ? 

2) Iku ka ; ikutsu ka : a good many. 
Yokohama e wa iku-tabi ka mairimashlta >/(t 

yoka zonjimasen (D) : I have been to 
Yokohama several times but I don't know 
it well. 

liako wa ikutsu ka anmnsu ga minna cltiitnt- 
mgimasu (C) : I have a good many boxes 
but they are all too small. 

3) Iku mo ; ikutsu mo : any number : it 
great many. 

empitsii ga iku-hon mo arimasu (C) : 1 hn.ve 

any number of pencils. 
iku-do mo ikimashUa (C) : 1 have been 

(there) any number of times. 
tamago wa ip-pen ni ikutsu mo katte wa ikt - 

masen (C) : don't buy so many og^s at a 

time. 



iku 



inochi 



s Ik >i de mo : ikufufi de mo : any number 
whatever. 

iku-ahaku de mo iru-dake o faukai nanai (C): 
use as many feet (of this cloth) as you 
need. 

nashi nara ikutsu de mo gozaimasu (D) : if 
it were pears (you were in need of) I have 
any number. 

Cogn. words : ikka ; ikura : ikntar> ; q.v. 
ikura, [cogn. w. iku'2]. 
\ ) How much '! 
(minna de) ikura dexfi ka * (C) : how much 

is it (all together) ': 
ichi-nichi ikura desu ka .' (C) : what is the j 

price per day ''. 

2) Ikura ka : a certain amount. 
ikui-a kash ittc ill (B) : I know it a little. 
ikura ka o yari nasai (B) : give him some- 
thing (a little money). 

ikura ka ano hUo no on ni natte imasii (C) : i 
1 am under some obligation to him. 
-". i Ikura mo : any amount ; a great amount. \ 
hagaki wa hlkidaxhi ni ikura mo aru (B) : ] 
there are any amount of postcards in the 
drawer. 
ik'ira mo nokotte i-na.' (B) : there is hardly \ 

any left. 

4.1 Ikura, gerund, mo : however nvich. 
ikura takakutte mo : however dear it ma t > 

ikura benkyo shite mo : however diligent 
one may be. 

ikura itt" kikashKe mo damt da (B) : how- ; 
ever much I explain it to him it is no use. 
ikura nan to ittc nw ahiyo ga nai (B) : no 
matter what you say, it's no use. 
ikura u-atash; ga baka de mo aonna koto wo \ 
.<//; ya shi-nai (B) : I may do silly things 
.-sometimes, but I would never do a thing 
like that. 

~>) Ikura de mo : any amount whatever. 
hima ga ikura de mo aru (B) : I have plenty 
of spare time. 
ikura de mo ii kara motte o-idt (A) : bring as 

much as you please. 
Xote : ika-hodo is more polite than ikura 

and may take its place sometimes. 
ikutari, [zfa'2 how many ? cogn. w. lutar! and 
i/ottari two persons, four persons ; . How 
many persons ? 
ikutsu, see ik-uZ. 
Ima. Now. 
1) The present ; the near past the m-ar 

future. 
ima Kobe ni itte imasu (C) : he is at present 

in K61>e. 
.ion, wo yaru no u-a ima derni (C) : tins is the 

time to do it. 

ima wa kore d* ii (B) : this will do for the 
present. 

imq de wa Nihon de mo ydf&cu wo k>ru Mto 
ya takusar, arimasu (C) : now -a -.lays there 



art- a great many Japam-so who UVHI 

foreign clothes. 
ima no Mto u-a taigai ttlnmbun wo yomu (B): 

people now-a-days generally read tu-\v.- 

papers. 
ima koko ni kilf ita (B) : he was here ju.si 

now. 
ima dekimaav kara matte kuilasai fC) : 

please wait as ?t will be ready in a mo 

ment. 
ima (kuru) ka, ima (kuru) ka to matte imasu 

(C) : I am expecting him every moment. 
2! Ima made : hitherto. 
ima made nani too tthlte ita no di-.su ? ((.': 

what ha\-e you been doing r 
iina made mita uchi dc kore </ ichibai 

(B) : this is the best I have seen so far 

3) Ima kara : in future. 

ima kara isshokemtnci benkyo *h'unaftu (C'l : 
in future I will study as hard a* I can. 

ima kara is-shvkan mo tateba naorimasu (C) : 
he will completely recover in about a 
week's time. 

4) Itna ni : gen. refers to some future indef- 
inite time 

ima ni kuru ka mo xhire-nai (B) : I dare sn\ 

he will come later on. 

ima ni kowasu desho (C) : he will end by 
breaking it. 
/ia ni mo furi-dashi-so da (B) : it threatens 

to rain immediately. 

ima ni natte sonna koto wo H-da.thUe mo xA*- 
kata ga nai (B) : it is no use speakiuu m 
such things now (that it is too late). 
Comp.: ima-goro ; tadaima ; q.v. 
i-ma, \i-rul to be ; mal room). 8it ring-room. 
ima-goro, [ima now : koro about]. Ahoul 

this time. 
chddo sakunen no ima-goro deahita (C) : it 

was just about this time last year. 
ashlta no ima-goro made ni wa dfk>ii,.i" 
(C) : it will be finished by this time to- 
morrow. 

F>nni San wa ima-goro nani wo shite ir.i 
daro? (B) : I wonder what Miss Funii i> 
doing now. 
imi. Meaning 

:// ga wakam : to understand the moaiun; 
,/ iu imi desHka ? (C) : what do you m.-an 
imi wo tori-chigae-rii : to inistak.- tJie n,.-ai, 

ing. 

imo. Potato, 
imoto. A younger sisf, 
inabikari, line ric-e in the field : 

shine: lightning wii> supposed t,. be ban 
eficial to rice]. Lightning. 
inaka. The country ; rural p" 
inaka no hVo : inaka-mono : a 
inki, [English!. Ink. 
inochi. \>'<ki) \<r>th : no of : 

Life. 
inothi urn 9tte-ru . ", sarn'i.-, ..IK- .- life. 



inochi 



ire=kae'ru 



inochi wo hirou : to escape from death 

(great danger). 

inochi no oya : the preserver of one 's life. 
inochi no sentaku : recreation, (lit. washing 

one's life). 
inochi ni kakete mo : even at the risk of my 

life. 
inochi ni kaetti takara na-fhi : no treasure 

can be compared to life. 
inochi atte no mono-dane : tilings can be 

done only if we have life, [mono things; 

lane seed]. 
nagai fatiki-hi ni -mijikai inorhi : time is 

long but life is short. 
inoru. To pray, 
inn. Dog. * 

!nu ni kamare'ru : to be bitten by a dog. 

inu wo kau : to keep a dog. 

kai-inu ni te wo kamare-ru : to be bitten by 

your own dog. 
inu mo arukeba bo ni ataru : even a dog if he 

roams about will come across something 

worth having ; if you give yourself pains 

you will always derive some advantage. 
mi wa mikka kawareru to san-nen wasure- 

nai : feed a dog for three days and he 

won 't forget it for three years, 
ip-pai, \ichi one ; /MM'* a.n.]. 

1) A glassful ; bottleful ; cupful. 
tnizu ip-pai : a glass of water. 

ip-pai hlto sake wo nomi, ni-hai sake sake 
wo nomi, sam-bai sake hlto wo nomu : at 
the first bottle the man absorbs the wine, 
at the second the wine ateorbs the wine, 
at the third the wine absorbs the man. 

2) Ippai : full. 

ippai ni /ruru : to fill, (transitive). 

ippai ni naru : to fill, (intransitive). 

ano bin wa ippai desu (C) : that bottle is full. 

hokori ippai ; ippai no hokori : full of dust : 

covered with dust. 
rhikara ippai ni hippatta (B) : I pulled with 

all my strength. 
kono bin ni mizu wo ippai irete o kure (A) : 

fi'l this bottle with water 
rainen ippai kakarimasfi (C) : it wi'l take 

all next year. 
ippai kuwamreta (B) : 1 was completely 

taken in. 

ip-puku, [ichi one ; fukttZ a.n.]. 
J ) One dose of medicine ; one sip of tea ; 

one whirl of tobacco. 
l:ono kusuri wo ip-puku nonde goran nasai 

(C) : take a dose of this medicine. 
~2) The idea of 'one' may be lost. 
ifrpuku o agari naaai (B) : have a smoke : 

take a cup of tea ; just rest a while, 
ira. A suf. used after asuko. doko. koko. 

ftoko ; it adds the idea of vogue-ness. 
npfiko-ira : thereabouts. 
'loko-tra : wheroabout. 
koko ira : 



soko-ira : thereabouts. 
The i is sometimes dropped : axukora : do- 

kora : etc. 

irassharu, [corr. of iraserare-ru, the pot. ot 
the cans, of iru to enter]. An honorific- 
verb, used politely of the 2nd person : 
(358). It has a few irregularities : it 
drops the final r l>efore the masu ter- 
minations ; the imperative is irasshai : 
one 8 and the a after the h are often dropped 
before terminations beginning with U, thus 
trash 'tte for irasshatte. 

1) To be ; come ; go. 

dnnata de irasshaimasu ka 1 (D) : who .).'. 
you ? whom have I the honour of address- 
ing ? 

ira-sshai (C) : come here ; welcome. 

inata irasahai (C) : please come again. 

t/okv- irasshaima^hlta (D) : 1 am pleased t<> 
see you. 

dozo watashi ni wa katnawa-zu ni, trash 'tt< 
kudasai (D) : please take no notice of me 
and go on with what you are doing. 

Tokyo e irasshaimashita ka ? (D) : did you 
go to Tokyo ? 

go shujin wa irasfhct i.nuum ka '( (D) : is youi' 
master in ? 

ima ehimbun wo yonde irasshaimaau (D) 
he is reading the newspaper now. 

2) Verbal inflexions which contain the aux 
iliary verb vru, may be ir>ade honorific 
by changing i-ru into irasaharu. 

nani shimbun wo totte irasshaimaau ka ? (D) 
^totte imasu ka ? (C) = totte iru ka ? (B) ; 
which newspaper do you take ? 
matte irasehai (C) : please wait a moment. 

3) Irassliaru is used after the gerundial form 
of true adj. although in this case vm to l>e 
cannot be used, (200, 9), 

atama ga itakute irasshaiinami (D) h ha- 

a headache. 
anata tea sei ga takakute iraaahaiinasu (D) : 

you are tall. 

4) Iraasltaru is sometimes used instead of 
yozaru on ant. in cases like the foil. 

hon no o yomi de irasshaimasit ka '( (D) : 

is he rending n book ? 
o dekake de irasshaimasu ka ? (D) : are you 

going out ''. 

shimtetau de irawliaimaati (D) : he is kind. 
go bcnkj/6 de irasshaimasu ne (D) : 1 Bee 

you are studying. 
o ikutsu de irasshaimasu ? (D) : how old are 

you ? 

ikaga de irasshaimasu ! (D) : how are you ': 
irc-kacTii, [ire-ru to put into: kac-ruZ lo 

change]. To replace : substitute. 
lUaras/iii no to ire-kaetc kudasai (C) : pleaM* 

replace it witii a new one. 
kore kara iva kitto kokoro wo ire-kaete ben 

kyo ita*hima3U (D) : I will turn over a ne\v 

leaf and henceforth <ttidv hard. 



i re TU 



iru 



irtrru. v.t. [cogn. \v. iru- v.i.J. To put into : 
allow to come in. 

kore wo kanjd ni irete kudasai (C) . please 
put this down to my account. 

tcatashi mo irete : including myself. 

hUo no koto ni kufhi wo irete wa ike-nai (A) : 
don 't interfere in other people 's affairs. 

abura wo ireru mono ga hnshii (B) : J want 
something to- put oil in. 

dare mo irete wa ike-nai (A) : don't let any- 
one come in. 

o cha wo ire-ru : to make tea. 

negai ico ire'ru : to accede to a request. 

kaze wo ire-ru : to ventilate. 

nen wo ire-ru : to pay attention. 
Comp. 

kane-ire : a purse, [kane money]. 

ire-kae-ni, q.v. 

iri-guchi, [iru- to enter; kiu-hi mo utl', open- 
ing]. Entrance ; way in. 
iri-yo, [i-ru* to need; yo'2 use]. Use; need. 

kore wa o (or go) iri-yo de gozaimasu ka ? 
(D) : do you need this ': 

~ri-yo dake o mochi nasai (C) : take what 
you need. 

ii'tkoshi kane no iri-yo ga dckita (B) : I find 
I need some money. 

go (or o) iri-yo no toki wa it-iu de mo o tsfi/.-ni 
kudasai (D) : please make use of it when- 
ever you need it. 
ira. 

1) Colour. 

usui iro : a light colour. 

koi iro : a dark colour. 

kono iro wa kawarimasu ka ? (C) : does this 

colour fade ? 
kono iro wa aratte mo daijdbu desu ka '! (C) : 

does this colour wash well ? 
gh.ini-pai wo iro ni mo dasa-nai (B) : his face 

does not betray his anxiety. 
iro wo tsuke-ru : to colour (transitive). 

2) Quality ; kind. 

hlto-iro shlka arintasen ka (C) : have you 
only one quality ? 

iu-nin to-iro : ten men, ten opinions. 
Comp. 

iro-iro : ki-iro ; q.v. 

nezumi-iro : grey, [nezutni mouse j. 

rha-iro : light brown, [cha tea]. 

kao-iro ; the colour of the face ; counten- 
ance ; \kao face]. 
Xote : iro is used in connection with the 

abb. 2nd set of num. (276, 4). 
iro-iro (no or na), (when used attrik. some 
times corr. to ironna or ire.nna) ; [iro kind, 
repeated so as to signify plurality!. Vari- 
ous. 

a no Into wa iro-iro no koto u-o, xttilti nmi*i'' 
(C) : he knows all sorts of things. 

iro-iro yatt> nihnashlta (/a dait <te#li~<t (C) : 
I tried several tilings but it was all use- 
less. 



iro-iro rjo niendo na Loin ti-o nef/aimasliitu 
(C) : I have put you to ;: -iv.u <)t-al <>i 
trouble. 

iro-iro na no ivo misete kudasai (C) : pi. 

show mo several, 
i-rui. 

1) To be in a place (said of men or animals : 
Uve ; dwell. 

go shujin wa itnasu ka '( (C) : is your nia<t-r 

in ? 

iichi ni imasu (C) : he is at home. 
anata wa ima doko ni imasu ka ? (C) : when' 

are you living now ? 
ku-gatsii tnadc Kyoto ni imasho (C) : I shall 

probabh- remain in Kyoto until Septcin- 

lier, 
Yokohama ni hai ga takftsan imasu (C) : 

there are many flies in Yokohama. 
hobo sagash imashlta ga imasen (C) : I have 

looked everywhere but I can't find him. 
hoka no kuruma wa zntto ato ni imaitu ((.'): 

the other rikisha is a long way lx:hm<l. 

(on account of its motion the rikisha is 

treated like a living being 165, 4). 

2) I'm after a gerund indicates a state nr a 
continued action, (see 98, 99 and 60). The 
/ is often dropped colloquially. 

sbimbun wo yonde iinasu (C) : h<- is rt^uiin.i: 
the newspaper. 

nete,masu (C) : he is sleeping. 

kitr imasu (C) : he has come (and the action 
continues as he is still here). Compare 
kimashUa he came : nothing is said a I -out 
his being here now. 

ima Kobe ni itte iniasi* (C) : he is at pi.--.-iii 
in Kobe. 

nan da ka ki ga isoide jitbt s)it< iron >'/< 
(B) : somehow I feel flurried and i-ainmr 
remain quiet. 

ano hUo wa seiyo no shdsetsu n-u > 
nondc iru (B) : that man has read a vrr.n 
number of foreign novels. 

koko de. ntatte i nasai (A) : wait here. 

xukkari naont made, oki nai de i nasai (A) : 
don't get up till you have completely 
recovered. 

Xote : i-nt- is a plain verb ; th<- correspond- 
ing honorific verb, polite in the l?n<l per- 
son, is irasaharu. o-ide namni. <>- 
naru, and o-ide d< </o:<irn. The imix-ra- 
tive of i-ru is gen. taken from one of the 
honorific forms. 
Comp.: i-awase-ru ; i-ma : q.v. 
iru-, v.i. [cogn. \v. ire-ru v.t.|. T<> enter. 

Comp.: d,>-iri ; iri-</ic-lii ; hnini : ().\ . 
iru : *. To need. 

kore wa mada o iri ni narinnixfi i." D) : 
do you still require this .- 

kore'u-a irinuisen (C) : I don't nee.) thi->. 

liimd <r >>'" ' to take time. 

/, ./" ''I' ' '" '"' ul 
Com]).: ir^-t/o. (|.v. 



isha 



itasu 



Isha. Doctor ; physician. 

o isha wo mtikavru : to send for a doctor. 
hyaku-nin korcsa-nakercba ii isha ni nart- , 
nai : you can't become a pood doctor uritil j 
you have killed a hundred men : prnctice 
makes perfect. 
Comp. 

ha-isha : a dentist. 
me-isha : an oculist. 
ishi. A stone. 

ishi wo tiage'ru : to throw stones. 
isogashii, [iscgv to hurry]. Busy ; urgent. 
ima wa taihen isogashii (B) : I am vory busy 

now. 
o isogasfilku arimasfn ka ? (C) : are you en- 



o isogashii tokoro wo o jama itaxhimaehita \ 

(D) : excuse me for having interrupted : 

you when you were eo busy. 
isogashii shigoto ga dckita (B) : a preRsing 

business has turned up. 
isogi, [stem of isogu to hurry J. Haste ; j 

hurry. 
wata-shi wa o-isogi desu (C) : I am in a great 

hurry. 

isogi no shiffoio : pressing business. 
isogu. To hasten ; hurry. 

isoga-nakerela osoku narimasu (C) : make 

haste or you will l:e late. 
bttsu ni isogimase'n (C) : there is no particu ' 

lar hurry. 

snide : in a huny : quickly. 
isoide iku : Lo go quickly. 
isogcba koto wo shi-sokonau : if yon hurry 

too much you will spoil it. 
o isogi nasai (C) : hurry up. 
Der.: ieofjashii ; isogi ; q.v. 
issaku-, \i<-H ore: saku preceding). One 

before the preceding one ; the one l>efoTe 

lust : (used only in comp.j. 
issakuban : the night before lust. 
insakiijitsu : the day before yesterday. 
issakvnen : the year beiore last, 
issho, (gen. used as an adv., occasionally ! 

otherwise). 

1 ) Adv.: issho ni : together with. 

go is.iho ni ikimasho (C) : J will accompany 
you ; let us go together. 
issho ni xuru : to put together. 

2) Otherwise. 

go. issho desu lea ? (C) : am I to go together 
with you ': 
isnho no kls/ta de kiinashltu (C) : he came in 

the same train as 1 did. 

isshokemmci. With all one's might and 
main ; with concentrated attention. 
isshokemmei (ni) shit? u>ia#''i (Ci 1 am do- 
ing my very best. 

isshokemmei matte i-nt : to wait eagferl.v. 
isu. ( hair. 

Comp.: akt-isti : an empty oliftir. [se- uki- ] 
ita. A board. 



Comp. 

ita-gami : pasteboard. 
ita-I ufavii : between the devil and the deep 

sea. [hasamu to squeeze]. 
I tadaku. Itadaku is a humble verb, used po- 
litely in the 1st person. 
1) To receive : to eat or drink something ro- 

ceived from another. 
sensei ni itadaita no desu (C) : my teacher 

gave it to me ; (lit. I received it from my 

teacher). 
iiadaita no mo cnaji desu (C) : 1 am as grat - 

ful as if you had given it to me. 
itadak-hnasu (C) : thanks, I will take some ; 

(said when offered food). 
'tudakimasen (C) : no thank you, I won : v 

take any ; (said when offered food). 
'2) Itadaku after a gerund shows that t! 

tion is performed in favour of the 1st per- 
son, in answer to his request : see 108. 
kaitr itadakimashlta (D) : he kindly v.rit 

it for me. 
icatakushi ga iketnasen kara ltd San ni itt< 

itadakima-fihita (D) : as I was unable to go 

I got Mr Ito to go for me. 
)/<' ico mitv Hadakito gozaima&u (D) : 1 would 

like you to examine my eyes. 
nore wo oshiete. itadakitai no desu (C) : I M'ish 

you would explain that to me. 
3) IladatimtuhO whether after a gerund ->r 

not, often means to ask, request. 
<i#uko no ttchi de mizu wo sfih.oahi itadak/ 

masho (D) : I will ask for some wnter ai 

that house. 
nensei ni yondc itadakimaxho (D) : I will ask 

my teacher to read it for me. 
Note : the plain verbs corresponding to 

itadaku are : rnarau to receive ; tabe-nt to 
' eat ; nomu to drink ; see these words, 
ilai, \itatnu to hurt j. Painful. 

nriini ga itai (li) : 1 have an ear-ache. 
tai, itai ! (B) : it liurts : 1 am in pain. 
itai tokoro : a painful place. 
ilalu fitm : to hurt oneself, 
its mi, [stem of itamu to hurtj. Pain. 

itami ga tvmatta (B) : the j)aiii liii> left 

me. 
in inic na itami : (lit.) a p*un in the brenst ; 

(fig.) a deep grief. 
kokoro no itami : A deep grief, 
itamu, v.i. '1 o hurt ; pain ; get injured. 
doko ga itamimasu La? ((.'): where i* (hi- 

pain ? 
tonna koto wo sureba itamima-HV (C> : il' yon 

do that you will injure it. 
ita-nde rru : to be injured. 
doko ga itande, iru no desu leu f (C) : show 

me where the damage is. 
Comp.: itai ; itami ; q.v. 
itasu. To do. 

do Hash inw shite (C) : don't mention it ; not 

at all ; you are welcome. 



itasu 



47 



iu 



tsui shitsurei itashimashUa (D) : excuse me, 

I didn 't do it on purpose. 
Note : itasu is a humble verb used politely 
in the 1st person : the plain verb is miru 
q.v. 
itazura. Mischief. 

itazura na : mischievous ; naughty. 
Jto. Thread ; string. 

hari ni ito wo tosu : to thread a needle. 

ito no yd na koe de iimaslnta (C) : she spoke 

in an almost inaudible voice. 
Comp. 

momen-ito : cotton thread, [momen cotton]. 
kinu-ito : silk thread, \kinv silk], 
itoko. Cousin. 
Itoma, see o-itoma. 
Itsui. 

1 ) Itsu : at what time. 

itsu dekimasu ka ? (C) : when will it be 

ready ? 
itsu da ka yoku oboemasen (C): I don't quite 

recollect when it was. 
itsu kuru ka mo shire-nai (B) : he may come 

at any moment. 
gejo wa itsu no ma ni ka sotto dete ikimaslilta 

(C) : the maid went out quietly no one 

knows when. 

2) Itsu kara : from what time. 

itsu kara Nippon ni irasshaimasu ka? (D) : 

how long have you been in Japan ? 
rjakko tea itsu kara hajimarimavA ka ? (C) : 

when does your school begin ? 
,'{) Itsu ka : some time or other. 
itsu ka atta'koto ga arimasu (C) : I have 
seen him once before. 

itsu ka kaette ahimaimasMta (C) : lit- went 
back I don't know when. 
itsu ka raigetsu no uchi ni : some day next 
month. 

4) Itsu mo : always ; usual. 
itsu mo to onaji : the same as usual. 
itsu mo no tori ni : in the usual way. 
itsu mo no yofuku de ii (B) : your ordinary 
clothes will do. 

itsu mo yori hayaku : quicker than usual. 
itsu mo ki no ue ni kakete oku (B) : I always 
leave it hanging on a tree. 
itsu mo nara : judging by the usual way 

things happen. 

r) Itsu, gerund, mo : however often. 
itsu itte mo iinasen (C) : whenever I go he is 
out. 

ano shibai wa itsu mite mo omdshiroi no desu 
(C) : however often I see that play I al- 
ways find it amusing. 
6) Itsu de mo : always ; whenever. 
itsu de mo shlchi-ji ni okimasu (C): I always 
rise at seven. 
L-ongetsu nara itsu de mo ii (B) : any time 

this month will do. 

watashi ga iku ioki ioa itsu de mo rusu desu 
(C) : whenever I go ho is out. 



isogashlku nakereba itsu dc mo o-ide nasai 
(C) : if you are not busy come and see me 
frequently. 

7) Itsu mad* : until what timt-. Itsu made 
ni : by what time. Itsu made mo : al- 
ways ; never. 

itsu made irassharu o tsumori desu ka ? (C) : 
how long do you intend to stay here ? 
itsu made ni dekimasu ka ? (C) : when will it 

be ready ? 
itau made mo Nihon ni iru tsumori desu (C) : 

I intend to settle in Japan for good. 
soko de wa itsu made mo atsiiku narimafen 
(C) : (if you put itHn that place, it will 
never get hot. 

uchi no iochu wa itsu mad: tn r j inaka-kusai 
(B) : my servant's countrified manners 
and appearance are still just as bad as 
ever. 

Comp.: itsu-goro, q.v. 
itsu2, [itsutsii five]. Five (in the 3rd set of 

num.; see 271 ; 275). 
itsu-goro, [itsui when ; koro about]. About 

what time. 
itsu-goro uchi ni iru denhd ka? (C) : about 

what time will he lie in ? 
itsuka, \itsutsu five; -ka q.v. j. Five days: 

fifth day of the mouth. 
See also its&l., 3. 
itsutsu. Five. 

Tn comp. itsutsu is abb. to itsu ; soe 276, 4. 
Der.: itsuka. q.v. 
ittai. 

1) Properly speaking : really. 

ittai dd shite so naita no dc*fi (C) : ho\v 
did that really happen ? 

2) On the whole. 

ittai ni karada ga chiisai (B) : they haw 
generally small bodies. 

3) Exclamation of wonder. 

ittai do iu imi da ? (A) : what in the worid 

do you mean ? 
ittai doko ni ima made kakurete ita no dci ' 

(A) : where on earth have you been hidinR 

all this time ? 
ittai dotchi no ho ni itta no dard (B) : I won 

<ier in which direction he has gone. 
it- to, [ichi one ; td* class]. First class. 

Kyoto no it-to ichi-mai : one first-class UokH 

for Kyoto. 
kore wa it-td no ahina-mono de. gozaimattu 

(D) : this is a first-class article. 
kore ga itto kirei da (B) : this ou ii 

prettiest. 

iul, (pronounced yu). 
1) To say ; apeak ; tell ; call. 
Ei-go de itte kudasai (C) : please say n 

English. 
do iimashlta ka ? (C) : what did you say 

then ? 

naze kite iimaaen deshita ka f (C.) .- whv 
didn 't you come and tell me ? 



Ill 



jibiki 



so ittr liana-flhite o kiire (A): say tliis : 
'hire df mo so t'imasu (C) : everybody says 

so. 
in nituli >no nai koto da (B) : it goes without 

saying. 
iirare-nai <l<- >no mini haztt (la (A) : you 

should do these things without having to 

he told. 
into, hanashlta koto wo O Ei Nan ni itte ku- 

<l(it>ai (B) : please tell Miss Ei what T have 

just told you. 
k>irtiHi-i/a ni k"in ;>o ni itte o kure (A) : 

tell my likisha-man to come. 
sore wo sum yd ni dare ga iimaslnta kn .' 

(C) : who told yon to do this '! 
Honna koto wo itta oboe wa nai (B) : ] don 't 

remember having said so. 
itta no wa watashi de wa aritnasen (C) : it 

was not I who said it. 
hua itta tori : as 1 have just said. 
anata no iu tori ni sliimasho ((') : I will do 

as you say. 

2) Iu koto : something which is or has been 
said : commands. 

anata no iu koto ga yoku wakarimasen (C) : 
I don 't quite understand what you mean. 

naze anata wa sonna ni iu koto ivo kika-nai 
no de.su ka f (B) : why are you so disobe- 
dient ? 

anata ni iu koto ga am (B) : there is some- 
thing I want to say to you. 

3) Iu is used in Japanese in cases in which 
if rendered literally into English it would 
look as if we doubted somebody's word. 

o kd-san wa ? zutsu ga suru to itte. nete 
imasu (C) : where is your mother ? she 
is in Vied with a headache. 

ikura isogashii to itte. mo liagaki de henji 
f/nrai yokoshitara ii desho (C) : no matter 
how busy you were, you might at least 
have sent me a postcard in reply. 

4) Phrases. 

so ieba so da (B) : from your point of view 
you are right no doubt. 

nso wo iu : to tell lies. 

ittr yaru : to send word. 

no koto wo iu : to speak of 

Yamada 8an no koto wo n-nriil-ii in: tt> 
speak ill of -Mr Yamada. 
.")) To iu see to2, 1, 4-7. 

to ka iu see to%, 1, 16. 

'/ iu ; do iu ; ko iu ; so in : see .7 .- /Id ; ko ; 

so. 

Note : The potential of ht is ie-ru. Iu 
is a plain verb : the corresponding hum- 
ble verbs, polite for the Jst person, are 
mosu and moshi-age-ru ; the honorific 
verl). polite for the 2nd person, is ossharn. 
Comp.: ii-dasft : ii-Km/i-r : i'l-txtlkc-ru ; ii- 

<rnke : q.v. 
in-, (pron. yu). To dress (as the hair) ; do up. 

kiinii in)' nfunia) ii'o iu : to do up the hair. 



iwae-ru : iwaku. To bind : tie up. 
iwau. To celelarate ; congratulate. 

Der.: iwai : celebration. 
iya (na), [He. no]. 

1) Disagreeable ; disgusting. 

iya na o ienki da (B) : it is disagreeable 

weather. 
iya na mono wo mtiri ni to wa iwa-nai (B) : 

I don't want to force you to do anything 

against your will. 
iya da, o yoshi nasai (B, fern.) : I don't like 

it. leave off. 
iya de mo yara-nakereba nara-nai (B) : even 

if you don't like it, you must do it. 

2) Iya is used as a corruption of /'/' in the 
sense of 'no'. 

Der.: iyagaru : to dislike, [see -garu\. 
ja. Contr. of de wa ; see de, 3. 
jama. Obstruction ; hindrance. 

kore wa jama desu ka '? (C) : is this in your 

way ? 
jama wo sum, : to inconvenience another ; 

obstruct another. 
jama wo shi-nai de o kure (A) : don't bother 

me. 

shigoto no jama wo sum : to intermjit an- 
other's work. 
hito no jama wo shite wa ike-nai (A) : don't- 

get in people's way. 
jama ni naru : to be in the way. 
o jama shimashUa (C) : excuse me for hav- 
ing troubled you. 

it isogashii tokoro 100 o iama itashimaxlot" 
(D) : excuse me for having interrupted 
you when you were so busy. 
o jama ni agarimashita (D) : I have coi in- 
to pay you a visit. 

ano muaume ga wataslii u-o jama ni xl/i/i 
ima#u (C) : that girl considers thai I'm 
in her way. 
jH. Letter ; character ; word. 

.//' vo hlku : to look for a word (in a diction- 
ary). 

f'omp.: jibiki ; Roma-ji ; q.v. 
ji2. Hoijr. 

nan-ji (or iku-ii) desu ka ? (C) : what time 
is it ? 

i<-hi-ji han : half past one. 
yo-ii ittta bakkari desu (C) : it I. as jusi 

struck four. 

Note :- ji is preceded ,by the 1st set >! 
num. (276, 1) ; see also 298 et seqq. Yo-ji. 
four o'clock, is always use<l instead of 
shi-ji. 

Comp.: jikan q.v. 
j|3, \ch&~\. Ground. 

Comp.: jimen ; jishin ; q.v. 
j|4. Aft'air ; thing ; (used only in eomp. ). 
Comp.: buji : daiji ; iijitsf/ ; kali ; fihuknj : : 

>/o-ji ; q.v. 

jibiki, (/'I \\<>]'<l : li'ikn i<> extrtict '. A diction- 
ary. 



jibun 



49 



jitsu 



jibunl, [//2hour : bun part]. Time. 

mo kaeri -so na jibim dcttfi (C) : it is time he 
came back 

iratashi tea kodomo no jibun Kyoto ni ima- 
,*h~>ta (C) : I lived in Kyoto when I was a 
child. 

into jibun nani shi ni kita ? (A) : what have 
you come for now ? 

'//"/ iibnn yuki-rja (urn to wa niezurashii koto 
'In (B) : it is a rare thing for it to snow at 
this time of the year. 
kita no tea san-ji jibun deshita (C) : it was 

about three o'clock when I arrived. 
Jibuti?. Self : oneself. 

i'-bint de tsukau no desu (C) : it is for my 
own personal use. 

jibun de o iki nasii (B) : go yourself. 
jibu.n de hige wo surimasu (C) : he shaves 
himself. 
a no htto tea jibun de ko-nakereba ikejnasen 

(C) : he must come in person. 
itnata ga go jibun de nasaimashita ka ? (D) : 
did you do it yourself ? 
iibun no koto wo in : to speak about one- 
'self. 

iibun no ni irimasu (C) : I need it myself. 
jibun no atama no hai wo o oi na-sai (A.) : 
frighten the flies off your own head ; 
mind your own business. 
a no htto wa jibun no koto wo tana ni agete, 
hit<> no koto wo iu (B) : he is fond of find- 
ing fault with others but he forgets his 
own failings. 
<'omp.: jibun-gatte, q.v. 

jibun-gatte, [jibtinZ self; katte convenience]. 
Consulting one's own convenience; self- 
ishness. 
jibun-gatte wo shiyo to sum : to try to get 

fine 's own way. 
jibun-gatte na yatsu desfi (C) : he is a very 

selfish fellow, 
jigi. see o-jigi. 

jii-san, [chichiZ father ; sanl Mr]. 
1) Old man; (the honorific o is often pre- 
fixed). 
2 ) Grandfather ; (the honorific o is almost 

always prefixed). 

jijitsu, [/i-t affair ; jitsu- fact]. Fact. 
H jitsu da (B) : it is a matter of fact. 
'iiiitsu atta koto ka mo shire-nai (B) : as a 

matter of fact it may have happened. 
xonna koto wa jijitsu am hazu ga nai (B) : 
such a thing is, as a matter of fact, im- 
possible. 

jikan, [jiZ hour ; kanZ interval]. An hour ; 
time. . 

June nara iku-jikan (or nan-pkan) kakari- 
masu ka ? (C) : how many hours does it 
take if you go by steamer ? 
xan-iikan : three hours. 
Ukan ga gozaitnasen (D) : there is no time. 
',no jiki jikan desu (C) : it will soon be time. 



jikan ni narimashila (C) : it is time now. 
jikan ni tukimasu ka ? (C) : shall we arrive 

on time ? 
sukoshi jikan ga hayakatta (B) : it was a 

little too early. 

jikan wo muda ni suru : to idle away time. 
jikan de yatou : to hire by the hour. 
jikan ni okureru : to be late. 
jikan wo mamoru : to be punctual. 
Note : jikan is preceded by the first set 
of num. (276, 1). You say yo- jikan in- 
stead of shi -jikan four hours. 
jika (ni), [corr. of jiki immediately]. With- 
out intermediary ; directly ; personally. 
anata kara jika ni hanashUe kudatni (C) : 

please speak to him you yourself. 
jiki. Immediately ; soon ; directly. 

jiki (ni) dekimasu (C) : it will be ready im- 
mediately. 
jiki (ni) kaerimasu (C) : I will be back 

soon. 

jiki chikai : quite near. 
gakko no jiki soba : just by the school. 
jiki soba no gakko : the school in the im- 
mediate neighbourhood. 
jiki roku-ji ni narimasu (C) : it is close upon 

six o 'clock. 
Der.: jika ni, q.v. 
jiko. Season ; climate ; weather. 

y&i jiko ni narima*hita (C) : the weather 

has turned out fine. 
jiku. Stalk ; stem ; axis. 
Comp. : pen-jiku : a penholder, 
jikusu(ru). To become ripe. 
jikushUe i-ru : to be ripe. 
jikushUa kudamono : ripe fniit. 
jiman. Self-praise. 

jiman (wo) suru : to be proud of ; boast. 
xonna koto wo shlta gurai de wa jiman ni mo 
nara-nai daro (B) : there is nothing to 
boast of in doing such a thing. 
jimen, [;'# ground]. Ground ; lot of ground ; 

land. 

jimi (na). Plain ; not gay or ornamented. 
jimi ni kurattu : to live simply (without 

ostentation). 

jin, (used only in composition). Man ; per- 
son. 
Comp. 
Amerika-jin ; Eikoku-jin ; etc.: see Amen 

ka ; Ei ; etc. 

bijin ; jujin ; onjin ; shujin ; q.v. 
jirettal. Provoking; irritating; you 

me. 

jishin, [?# earth]. Earthquake, 
jjtsul. A fact, 

jitsu wa : as a matter of fact. 
anata wa jitsu ga nai (B) : you are unkm.l. 
jitsu no oya : one's real parents. 
kyo wa jitsu ni attakai (B) : it is v.-n, UMI m 
today. 
Comp.: jijitsu, q.v. 



jitsu 



50 



jun 



jitsu2, (used only in composition). Day. 

Comp. : sakujitau ; senjitsu ; q.v. 
jitto. Firmly ; fixedly. 

jitto shite, irasshai (B) : please be still. 
jitto mi-ru : to look fixedly. 
jiyu. Freedom ; liberty. 

jiyu ga kika-nai (B) : 1 am not at liberty 

(to do so). 
jiyu na : free. 
itte mo ika-nakute mo jiyu da (B) : 1 am free 

to go or not. 

jiyu ni shUe mo ii (B) : do as you like. 
jiyu ni sosete o oki noaai (B) : let him do as 

he likes. 

go jiyu ni (C) : make yourself at home. 
ano htto wa jiyu ni Ei go wo hanaahimasu 

(C) : he speaks English fluently. 
naka-naka jiyu ni nara-nai (B) : I cannot 

manage him at all. 
Der. : ju-jiyu na, (often pron. fuju na) : not 

free, [fu- neg. pref.]. 
jo, (used only in composition). Woman. 

Comp. : gejo ; jochu ; q.v. 
jol. Lock. 

jo wo kake-ru ; jd wo orosu : to lock. 
jo wo ake'ru : to unlock. 
jo2. Upper side ; above ; best. 
jo no shina : a superfine article. 
jo no jo de wa arimasen keredomo ii shina- 
mono de gozaimasu (D) : although it is not 
of the very best quality nevertheless it is 
a good article ; (compare : creme de la 
cr&tne). 

Comp.: ijo ; johin ; jdto ; jozu ; q.v. 
j53, (used only in composition). Letter. 
Comp. 
annai-jo : letter of introduction ; written 

invitation ; [annai guide]. 
jo-bukuro : envelope, [fukuro bag]. 
jobu (na). Strong ; soh'd ; robust ; healthy. 
jobu.de nai : not strong ; weak. 
mada jobu ni narimasen (C) : I am still 

weak. 

go jobu de gozaimasu ka ? (D) : are you well? 
jobu ni koshiraete kudasai (C) : make it 

strong please. 
Comp.: daijobu, q.v. 

jochu, [jo woman ; chu middle]. Maid-ser- 
vant, 
jodan. Fun ; joke ; jest. 

hon no jodan : nothing but a joke.' 

jodan (suru no) wa o yoshi nasai (B) : don't 

play jokes. 

jodan ni iimasMta (C) : I said it in fun. 
jodan desho (C) : you are joking surely. 
jodan da to omotta (B) : I took it for a joke. 
jodan harnbun ni Jciite mimashita (C) : I 

asked him half in fun. 

johin (na), [joZ best ; hin quality]. Refined ; 
high-class. 

johin na mono no ii-kata : a refined way of 
speaking. 



joki. Steam. 

Comp.: joldsen : steamer, [sen* ship]. 
jo-san, see o-jo-san. 

joto (no or na), [/52 best ; td'2 class]. First- 
class ; best quality. 
ichiban jdto : the very best. 

JOZU (na). A good hand at ; good at ; skilful. 
ano Mto wa nan de mo jozu desu (C) : he 

is good at everything. 
ano hUo wa Ei-go ga jozu da (B) : he speaks 

English very well. 
Komoto San wa do shite mo jozu da (B) : there 

is no denying Mr Komoto is very clever. 
jozu no te kara mizu ga moru : even the 
wisest make mistakes : even Homer some- 
times nods ; (lit. even from the hand of 
the expert water leaks). 
jozu wo tsukau : to flatter. 
ju. Ten. 

ju-nen hito-mukashi : ten years is a long 
lapse of time (and brings about many 
changes). 
ju-nin to-iro ; ju-nin to-hara : ten men, ten 

opinions. 

Note : ju in comp. before ch, t or ts, be- 
comes jit-; before / or h, jip-; before /> . 
jik ; before s or sh, jis~. One often 
hears : yon-ju for shi-ju, forty ; nana-jti 
for shichi-ju, seventy ; and kyu-ju for ku- 
ju, ninety. 
-ju, [chu (q.v.) middle]. The whole ; all : 

entire ; also used to form the superlative. 
ichi-nichi-ju : all day long. 
nen-jii : all the year round. 
kongetsu-ju : the whole of this month. 
sekai-ju : the whole world. 
karada-ju : the whole body. 
aeito-ju de (kore ga) ichiban riko desu (C) : 

this is the cleverest of all the students. 
Kyoto-ju de no isha desu (C) : he is the 
cleverest doctor in Kyoto. 
Kyoto-ju no isha : every doctor in Kyoto. 
jubun, [ju ten ; bun parts : the Japanese think 
in tens ; jubun therefore means ten parts 
in ten, i.e. 100 per cent: compare 3081. 
Enough ; sufficient : full. 
jubun na kane : enough money. 
kore de jubun desu (C) : this is enough. 
jubun (ni) Ueda San wo shinyo shltemasfi 

(C) : I have full confidence in Mr Ueda. 
mada jubun (ni) yoku arimasen (C) : I am 

not quite well yet. 

ju-gatsu, [ju ten ; gatsu month]. October. 
jii-ichi-gatsu, [ju-ichi eleven ; gatsu month J. 

November. 
jun. Proper order or sequence. 

jun ga chigaimasu (C): they are out of order. 
hon wo jun ni narabete kudasai (C) : please 

arrange the books in order. 
sei no jun ni narande kudasai (C) : please 

arrange yourselves according to height. 
Comp. : junjo ; jun-jun ni ; q.v. 



iu=ni-gatsu 



51 



kaeri 



iu-ni-gatsu, [iu-ni twelve ; gatsu month]. 

Deceniljer. 
junjo, [fun proper order]. Proper order or 

sequence. 

Note : junjo is not vised as an adv. 
jun-jun ni, [jun proper order]. One after the 

other in proper order, 
jnnsa. A policeman, 
kai. Mosquito. " 

Comp.: ka-ya : mosquito net, \ya house]. 
ka2. Abb. of kare that person. 

dare mo ka mo : everybody (see dare), 
nani mo ka mo : everything (see nani). 
nani ya ka ya yo-ji ga arimasu (C) : I am 
very busy what with one thing and 
another 
ka3. 

1 ) Interrogative : if the sentence contains 
another interrogative word ka is generally 
omitted 

arimasu ka ? (C) : is there any ? 
iratakv-sl.i J-a ? (B) : is it I ? 
dare ga kitn (ka) ? (B) : who came '! 
nttakai ja arimasen ka ? (C) : it's warm, 

isn 't it '." 

~2) The interrogation is sometimes merely 

rhetorical or ironical : this is especially the 

case in the phrases mono desu ka, mono ka. 

aru mono ko ? (A) : aru mon' desu ka ? (B) : 

who in his senses would ever believe that 

such a thing exists ? 

Iiaru>.i own' desu ka ? (B) : pay ? how can 

you say such an absurd thing ? 
M) Doubt or uncertainty. 
arv ka to o-nou (B) : I think tnere may be 
some. 

ixatn yuki ga juru ka to omoimasu (C) : I 
think it may snow again. 
ano hito ga tatta ka tata-nai ni iratakushi 
wa tsukhnaslflla (C) : he had scarcely left 
when 1 arrived. (In this case the interval 
between his departure and my arrival is 
so short, that I pretend there is doubt as 
to whether he had left or not when 1 ar- 
rived). 

Uncertainty is also found in such combina- 
tions as to ka, dare ka, do ka, dochi ka, itsu 
ka. nani ka, etc.: see to, dare, do, dochi, 
itsii, nani, etc. 

4) Ka shira, ka shiran or ka mo shire-nai 
frequently heard at the end of a sentence 
also expresses doubt : ka mo shire-nai is 
never used after the future, (166, 2, a, c). 
These expressions are often preceded by 
no. 
nme ga juru ka shira (B): I wonder whether 

it will rain. 

iko ka shiran (B) : I think ['11 go. 
nine ga juru ka mo shire-nai (B; : I dare say 

il will rain. 

nani ' ka atta no ka mo shire-nai (B) : I am 
afraid something has happened. 



inu (da) ka mo shire-nai (B) : I believe it is 

a dog. 
5) Ka or ka ka in parallel clauses means : 

or ; whether or ; either or. 

ano hito ?m Kamakura ka Enofhima e ikn 

dethd (C) : he will go either to Kamakura 

or to Enoshima. 
ikimasu ka, ikimoeen ka ? (B) : will you go 

or not ? 
ano hito wa kurn ka ko-nai ka ehirimasen 

(C) : I don't know whether he w ill come 

or not. 
anata ka u-atakushi lea tka-nakereba nari- 

masen (C) : either you or I rmist go. 
dfkiru ka do ka icakarimasen (C) : I don't 

know whether it is feasible or not. 
Note : 7'oe or kai is sometimes used famil- 
iarly for ka in real interrogations. 
ka*. A. n. 

1) Months and years. 

ik-ka-getsii ; ni-ka-getsu ; etc. : one month : 
two months ; etc. 
nan-ka-getsu ? how many months ? 
ni-ka-nen : two years. 

2) Tsed for various things that have no 
special a.n. as bundles, parcels, etc. 

Note: 1 tk-ka ; 6 rok-ka ; 8 hak-ka ; 10 

jik-ka, ; 100 hyak-ka. 
-ka (usod only in composition). Day. 

fttlmika ; mikka ; etc.: two days; three 
days ; etc.: second day ; third day ; etc : 
see 294 ; 295. 

ikka ? how many days ? on what day <>i ' the 
month ? 

kaban. A travelling bag ; portmanteau ; 
trunk. 

kabe. \ValL 

kabe ni mimi aa aru : walls have ears. 
Comp.: kabe-tsuchi : plaster, [tsuchi earth]. 
kabi, [stm of foil.]. Mould ; mildew. 

nalsu wa mono ni kabi ga haeru (B) : in sum- 
mer things become mouldy. 
kabrru. To become mouldy. (Compare : 

sabi-ru to become rusty). 
Der.: kobi : mould, 
kabiiru. To put or wear on the head. 

boshi u"o kaburu : to put on a hat. 
Comp.: nekokkabiiri, q.v. 
kado. Corner (from the outside). 

kado ii-o magatte ni-kem-me : the second 

house after turning the corner. 
kado no torela hito : a person with all his 
sharp angles taken off ; a person eisy to 
get on with. 

sonna koto wo iu to kado ya tain ft (B) : that 
would sound harsh. 
me ni kado u-o tatete shlkaru : to scold with 

angry eyes. 

kae. Familiar substitute for ka in real inter- 
rogations ; see kaiS. 
kaeri, [stem of foil.]. The return. 



kaeri 



52 



kai 



n-a nan-ji deau ka 'f (C) : at what 

o 'clock will you return 1 
kaeri ni shimbun v: katte kudaaai (1>) : 

please buy a newspaper on your way 

back. 

See also foil, 
kaerul, v.i. [cogn. w. kaesu v.t.]. To return ; 

go or come back. 
kaette kurn : to come back. 
kaette iku : to go back. 
ucht e kaerirnasu (C) : 1 am going back 

home. 
ku-ji ni kaerirnasu (C) : I shall be back by 

nine. 
te wo hanaxu to moto no banho e kaeru (B) : 

if you let it go, it goes back to its former 

position. 
o kaeri nasai (C) : welcome back home : go 

back home. 
mo o kaeri ni narimasu ka ? (D) : are you 

already going back ? 
Der. and comp. 
kaeri ; ka-ette ; hikkuri-kaeru ; q.v. 

kaeri-gake, see -gake. 
kae-ru-, v.t. [cogn. w. kawaru v.i.]. To 

change ; alter. 

kane wo kae-ru : to change money. 
te wo kae-ru : to try another means of 

doing. 
Comp. 
ire-kae-ru (q.v.) : to replace, [ire-ru to put 

into]. 
ki -kae-ru : to change one 's clothes, [ki-ru 

to put on clothes]. 
nori-kae-ru (q.v.) : to change carriages, 

[noru to ride]. 

tori-kae-ru : to exchange, [torn to take]. 
kaeruS, [potential of kaul to buy]. 
kaesu, v.t. [cogn. w. kaerul v.i.]. To send or 

give back ; overturn ; hatch. 
on ico kaesu : to repay a kindness. 
tamago wo kaesu : to hatch eggs. 
Comp. 

yobi-kaesu : to call back, [yobuto call]. 
hikkuri-kaesu : to overturn. 
ura-gaesu : to turn inside out, [ura the in 

side surface]. 
kaette, [gerund of kaerul to return]. On the 

contrary ; rather. 
kaette warttku shite shirnatta (B) : we have, 

on the contrary, made it worse. 
noru yori aruku ho ga kaette ii (B) : I would 

rather walk than ride. 
kusuri wo nondara ka"tte waruku narima- 

shlta (C) : 1 took the medicine but i got 

worse. 
kagami, \kage reflection ; mi-ru to look]. 

Looking-glass ; mirror. 

kagami ni utsuru : to be reflected in a mir- 
ror. 
kagami wo mi-ru : to look at oneself in a 

Jooking-glass. 



kage. Reflection ; shade ; shadow ; shelter : 

behind ; the other side. 
mizu ni Fuji-son no kage ga utsuttc imatm 

(C) : Mount -t'uji is reflected in the water. 
ki no kage ni natt.e hakkiri mie-nakatta (B) : 

I could not see it clearly as it was partly 

hidden by a tree. 
ano yama no kage ni wa fit kai tani go arn 

(B) : there is a deep ravine on the other 

side of that mountain. 
kono-goro kage mo katachi mo iniemasen (C) 

one sees nothing of him now -a -days. 
kage de waru kuchi wo iu : to speak ill of a 

person behind his back. 
kage wo kakusu : to conceal oneself. 
kage ni narit : to get in one's light. 
o-kage sama de : by your kind influence. 

(see o-kage). 
Comp. 

kage-guchi : backbiting, [knchi mouth j. 
kagi-guchi wo iu : to backbite. 
kagen. State or degree of anything; stiiu- 

of one's health. 
o ytt no kagen wa ikaga desn l-'a ? (C) : ho\\' 

is the bath ? (is it too hot ?). 
cliddo ii kagen na jiko da (B) : this is the 

nicest season of the year ; the weather i> 

just right. 

kagen ga warui (B) : I don 't feel \\ell. 
kagen (wo) suru : to regulate teo as to suii 

one's purpose). 
netsu ga c-emashlta kara kusiiri iro kua< ./ 

shite kitdasai (C) : please modify the med- 
icine as i am feverish.. 
ii kagen ni shite o oki nasai (B) : do thing* 

with moderation. 

ii kagen na hanashi : a made-up story. 
do iu kagen deaho ? (C) : 1 wonder what the 

reason is. 
Comp.: ahio-kugen : the degree of saltiness ; 

flavouring ; [shio salt |. - 
kagi. Key. 

kagi wo kake-ru : to lock. 

kore wa kagi no kakam tokoro e shitnalti 

oite kudasai (C) : please put this imdor 

lock and key. 
!:agi no ana : key-hole. 
kago. Basket ; cage. 
kagu, v.t. To smell- 
kaii. Shell. 
I<ai2, [ ? kai\ shell : in olden times shells \vep 

used as money]. Benefit ; ;ul\a!itii^e : 

use. 

kai ga aru : to be worth while. 
kai ga nai : not to be worth while. 
mattaku >i ni iUa kai ga ai-imasu (C) : it 

was really worth while going to see. 
zuiban isahokemmei ni yatta ga sono kai i/n 

nakatta (B) : we did our best but it was no 

use. 

Familiar substitute for ka^ in real in- 
terrogations. 



kai 



53 



kake'ru 



.10 kai ? (B) : is tha, .so ': 
/'.onto kai .' (B) : really ? 
kaH. Floor ; storey (of a house). 

ni-kai : first floor, i.e. the floor above The 

ground floor. 
san-gai : seoond floor. 
iochu u~a ni-kai ni orimasu (C) : the servant 

is upstairs, 
kaigau. The sert-shoie. 

' omp.: kaigan-dori : the bund, [tori street]. 
kail, [ ? kakuZ to scratch I. Itching. 

itattt n-o kaiku mo na> : to he utterly in- 
different to. 

kaii tokoro c te ga todoka-nai yd : h"ke want- 
ing to scratch a place one cannot re&cli 
kaii tokoro e te ga todoku yd ni yoku ki ya 

t&fiku hito d< sii (C) : he is so attentive to 

one 's wants that he leaves notliing to be 

desired, 
kai-mono, [kal to buy ; mono thingj. Things 

bought ; purchase. 
kai-mono ni ikit : to go shopping. 
takusan kai-mono wo itashimashita (D) : I 

have made many purchases. 
kaisha. A company (commercial). 
kaji, [ka fire : ji* thing]. A fire ; conflagra- 
tion. 
lei wo tffiikt-nai to kaii ni narimasu (C) : if 

you are not cai'eful you will set the house 

on fire. 
kaji iva furoba kara deta (B) : the fire began 

in the bath-room, 
kakari, [stem of foil.]. One's .duty or charge 

in an occupation. 
sore wa dare no kakari demi ka ? (C) : whose 

duty is it to attend to this ? 
kore u-a anata no kakari ni sum (B) : I put 

you in charge of this. 
kakari no hito ira mo sagarimashUa (C) : the 

man in charge has already left (e.g. the 

office). 
jv-nin-gakari no shigoto : a work requiring 

ten persons. 

kakaru, v.i. [cogn. w. kake-rul v.t.]. Mean- 
ings vague and difficult to classify. 
1 ) To hang ; be able to hang. 
sono mado ni wa kono mado-kake ga kakaru 

no desu (C) : this curtain is to be hung over 

that window. 
ano kugi ni kakarimasen ka ? (C) : can't 

you hang it on that nail '! 
'2 ) To cover ; go over ; go across. 
kumo ga tsuki ni kakatte imasu (C) : the 

moon is hidden by a cloud. 
ame ga kakaru to dame ni naru (B) : that 

will be spoilt if it is caught in the rain. 
kondo asuko ni hashi ga kakarimasu (C) : 

they are going to build a bridge there soon. 
3) To take, cost, need, or require, as regards 

money, time or trouble. 
dono gitrai kakarimasu ka ? (C) : how much 

will it cost ? how long will it take ': 



amari kane ga kakarimasu (C) : it costs too 

much. 
ichi-nichi kakarimasti (C) : it takes a whole 

day. 
domo nani wo auru ni mo nogoku kakaru 

(B) : how long he takes over everything ! 
te ga kakaru (B) : it require* much labour 

4) To begin. 

shigoto ni kakaru : to begin a work. 

5) Various. 

o me ni kakaru : to meet ; (a humble verb, 
used polite'y in the 1st person). 

hajimete o me ni kakarimasu (D) : this is the 
first time I have the honour of meeting 
you ; very pleased to make your acquaint- 
ance. 

inada o me ni kakatta koto wa arimasen (C) : 
1 have not had the honour of meeting him 
yet. 

ki ni kakaru : to make one anxious. 

nno koto ga domo ki ni kakaru (B) : that 
matter is worrying me a great deal. 

hito no te ni kakaru : to be deceived by 
somebody. 

sonna te ni kakatte wa tamara-nai (B) : it is 
dreadful to be caught by such a trick. 

hito-de (i.e. te) ni kakatte ahinda (B) : he met 
his death at another "s hand. 

hito ni utte kakaru : to attack somebody. 

Into ni kakaru : to be dependent on another 
for support. 

isha ni kakaru : to consult a doctor. 

byoki ni kakaru : to be attacked by an ill- 
ness. 

o ruau ni Yamoda San kara denwa ga kaka- 
rimashita (C) : while you were out -Mr 
Yamada called you up on the telephone. 
In comp. kakaru often shows that an action 
is about to commence or else that ir IN 
accidental. 

kare-kakaru : to begin to wither. 

ki-kakaru : to happen to come. 

tori-kakaru : to happen to pass. 

hikkakaru : to get hooked, [hiku to pull]. 

kakari q.v.: duty, 
kake-dasu, [kake-niS to run ; daru to take 

out]. To run out. 

kake-rul, v.t. [cogn. w. kakaru v.i.]. Mean- 
ings vague and difficult to classify. 

1) To hang. 

kugi ni kakete aru (B) : it is hanging on the 

nail. 
watashi no mono wo asuko ni kakete o kure 

(A) : hang my things up there. 

2) To put on ; pour on ; sprinkle on. 
megane wo kake-ru : to put on spectacles. 
mizu wo kake-ru : to pour water (on some 

thing). 
ttatd wo kake-ru : to sprinkle sugar. 

3) Various. 

o me ni kake-ru : to show ; (a humble verb, 
used politely in the 1st person). 



kake'ru 



kamau 



o me ni kakemasho ka ? (D) : shall I show it 

to you ? 

dozo o kake kudasai (D) : please take a seat. 
koshi (wo) kake-ru : to sit. 
mekata wo kake-ru ; hakari ni kake-ru : to 

weigh. 

kagi wo kake-ru ; jo wo kake-ru : to lock. 
hashi wo kake-ru : to build a bridge. 
hashigo wo- kake-ru : to put up a ladder. 
kotoba wo kake-ru : to speak to. 
koe wo kake'ru ': to call out. 
oya ni kuro wo kake-ru : to give trouble to 
one's parents. 

shimpai wo kake-ru : to cause worry. 
ki ni kake-ru : to worry. 
kokoro ni kake-ru : to bear in mind. 
dempo wo kake-ru : to send a telegram. 
denwa wo kake-ru : to speak by telephone. 
hirnawo kake-ru: to spend much time in 

making. 

kane wo kake-ru : to spend money ; bet. 
kondo no uchi wa yohodo kane wo kaketa yd 

da (B) : he seems to have spent a lot of 

money on his new house. 
inochi ni kakete mo : even at the risk of my 

life. 
kono bydki wa isha ni kakete mo naorimasen 

(C) : this disease cannot be cured even if 

it be treated by a doctor. 
haru kara natsu e kakete nete imashlta (C) : 

I was ill in bed from the spring all through 

the summer. 
tsukue ni kire wo kake-ru : to spread a cloth 

on the desk. 
hito ni me wo kake-ru : to look in a friendly 

manner upon another. 
hana ni kake-ru : to talk through the nose ; 

to give oneself airs. 
Comp. 

inado-kake : a curtain, [mado window]. 
mae-kake : an apron, [mae before]. 
koahi-kaki-ru : to sit, [koshi loins]. 
After the stem of a verb it often signifies 

the beginning of an action. 
dekake-ru : to go out ; start ; [de-ru to go 

out]. 
hanashi-kake-ru : to address ; accost ; [ha- 

nagul to speak]. 
yomi-kake-ru : to begin to read, [yomu to 

read]. 

kake*ru2. To run. 
Note : one sometimes hears kakette instead 

of kakete for the gerund. 
Comp. 

kake-dasu : to run out, [dasu to take out]. 
oi-kake-ru ; okkake-ru : to run after, [ou to 

pursue]. 
kake*ru3, v.i. [cogn. w. kakul v.t. to which it 

also serves as potential]. To write ; be 

able to write. 
kaki-tsukeru, [kakul to write; tsuke-ru to put 

down]. To write down ; make a note of. 



komakaku kaki-tsukete o oki nasai (B) : 

write it down in detail. 
Der. 

kaki-tsuke : a document ; bill. 
kaki-tsuke ga nakereba kane wo u-atuxan - 
nai (B) : I cannot hand you over tin- 
money without a written order, 
kakko. 

1) Shape ; form. 

san-ju kakko no Mto da (B) : he is a mini 
who looks about thirty. 

2) Moderate in price. 

kakko no nedan : a moderate price. 
kakul, v.t. {cogn. w. kake-ruZ v.i. which al<n 

serves as potential]. To write ; draw : 

paint. 
Comp. 
kaki-naoeu : to re-write (so as to correct). 

[naosu to put right] 
kaki-sokonau : to make a > m.'stake in wri - 

ting, [sokonau to fail]. 

kaki-otosu : to omit (accidentally) in wri- 
ting. 
kaki-tome : writing down ; registration : 

\tom.e-ru to stop].- 

tegami wo kaki-tome ni sum : to register -,\ 
. letter. 

kaki-tome no tegami : a registered letter. 
kaki-toru : to write from dictation, [torn 

to take]. 
kaki-tsuke-ru (q.v.).: to write down. [t>m- 

ke-ru to put down]. 

kanjo-gaki : written account, [lean jo calcu- 
lation]. 
tokoro-gaki : written address, [tokoro 

place]. 

oboe-gaki : memorandum, [oboe memoryj. . 
uwa-gaki : address written on an envcln| . 

[ue exterior]. 

kaki-dashi : a bill, [dasu to take out ,. 
e-kaki : a painter, [e3 picturel. 
hagaki q.v. 
kaku-. To scratch ; to rake away. 

atama wo kaku : to scratch the head (tis 

from shame or bec.'iuse it itches), 
kaku >. Angle ; corner. 
aan-kaku : a triangle. 
shi-kaku : a square, 
kakureru, v.i. [cogn. w. kakusu v.t.|. To 

hide oneself. 
kakusu, v.t. [cogn. w. kakure-ru \.\.\. To 

hide ; conceal. 
watashi ni kakushlte iru koto ga am dard 

(B) : there is something you are kerj>iim 

concealed from me. 
sugata (or kagc. or mi) wo L-akiisu : to con 

ceal oneself. 

Der.: kakushi : a pocket. 
kamau. To trouble oneself with : mind ; 

care ; matter ; (gen. used in neg.). 
(watakushi wa) kanKiitnasen (C) : it doesn't 

matter (to me). 



katriau 



55 



kane 



\ratakuahi wa do de mo katnaitnaaen (C) : 

any way will do for me. 
nukoahi gurainarakamaimasen (C) : I don't 

mind if it is only a little. 
kamawa-nai de kudasai (C) : please don't 

trouble yourself about me. 
ano hlto no koto wa mo kamawa-nai (B) : I 

shall no longer trouble myself about him. 
nmdo wo akvtc mo kaitiaimcmen ka ? (C) : do 

you mind if I open the window ? 
kane ni kamawa-nai de. : regardless of 

money. 
kamawa-nai ho <ja yokatta (B) : it might 

have been better not to pay any attention 

to it. 
aonna koto ni kamatte irare-nai (B) : I can 't 

trouble about it. 
ftonna koto ni kamawa-nai de ikimasti (C) : 

that shall not prevent me from going. 
kajnav- koto wa nai (B) : it isn't a thing that 

matters; 
watakushi no kamau koto de nai (B) : it is 

none of my business. 
abunakute mo kamau mono ka ' (B) : who 

cares even if it is dangerous ? 
kamawa-nai de kudasai (C) : please do not 

trouble ; leave me alone please. 
o kamai mo itasluma-scn deahita (C) : excuse 

me for not having been attentive to you. 
dozo o kawai naku (C) : don "t let me dis- 
turb you ; please do not trouble yourself, 
kamban. A sign-board. 
kamban wo dasu : to put up a sign-board ; 

to open a shop. 

katnii. Upper side; god (in which case you 
say kamt-sama) ; the government (in which 
case you say o-kami) ; your wife (o-kami- 
san q.v.) ; head ; hair of the head. 
Itashi no kami : above the bridge. . 
kami wo iu : to do up the hair. 
Comp. 
1 kaminari : tlumder, [kamil god ; ndruS to 

make a. noise j. 

kamiaori ; kamisuri : a razor, [kami hair ; 

soru, surife to shave]. 
kami2. Fajjer. 

(. orrp. 

abura-kami : oil-paper, [abura oil]. 
maki-pami : Japanese letter-paper, [maku 
to roll up ; Japanese letter-paper is in rolls]. 
xwi-tori-cjami : blotting-paper, [suu to ^V* 
(sui water, may serve as a mnemonic) ; 
torn to takej. 
kaminari, [kamil god ; nar3 to make a 

noise j. 'Ihunder. 

kaminari ga naru : the thunder rolls, 
kamisori ; kamisuri ; [kamii hair ; soru 

to shave]. A razor. 
kamu. To bite. 

( omp. 

kami-ta&ku : to bite (as an attack ), 
to bo in contact]. 



kami-korosu : to kill (by biting), [korosu to 

till]. 

kanl, [it is probably a mere coincidence that 
the souid and meaning are almost the 
same as the English ' can ' ; compare the 
English 'typhoon' which comes from the 
Arabic with the Japanese taifu ; the Eng- 
lish 'bone' and the Japanese hone or in 
its niyori'ed form bone ; the French 'ouate' 
and German 'watte', .'cotton wool' and 
the Japanese tmta ; the Spanish ' tanto ' 
'so much' and the Japanese tanto ; etc.]. 
A can ; a tin. 
. ('omp.: kanzume : tinned provisions, [<*/- 

me-ru, to put in}. 
kan-. Interval of time or space. 

itsuka-kan : during five days. 

Tokyo Yokohama kan no michi : the road 
between Tokyo and "Yokohama. 
Comp.: jikan ,- shitkan /.q.v. 
kanai. Wife ; (kanai is a humble word there- 
fore) my' wife, 
kana mono, [kane metal ; mono thing]. .An 

.article made of metal, 
kanari. Moderately ; fairly ; rather. 

kanari yoku dekita (B) : it is pretty well 
done>, 

kanari ozei : a good many people, 
kanashii. Sad ; sorrowful, 
kane, [katai hard ; nel root : metals are dug 
out from tho earth]. Metal ; money ; a 
bell. 

kane de koshiraeta mono : a thing made of 
metal. 

kane ga kalcaru : to be expensive. 

kane ni nani shigoto da (B) : it is a work in 
which money can be made. 

kane ga mokarimasu <C) : there is money in 
it. 

kane wo moke-ru : to make money, 

kane wo son 8i<ru : to lose money. . 

kane ga nai (B) : I have no money, 

kane no mochi-atvase ga arimasen (C) : 1 
have no money about me. 

kane ni komaru : to be hard up for money. 

kane wo tame-ru : to save up money. 

kane wo tsugd swrv. : to raise money. 

kane wo kake-ru : to spend money ; bet. 

kane wo kakete ie wo tatemashlta (C) : he 
built a house at a great cost. 

kane wo tv&kau : to spend money. 

kane wo yu-mizu no yd ni tsukan : to spend 

. money like water. 
Comp. 
. hane-ire : a purae, [ire-ru to put into]. 

kane-mochi : a rich man, [motttu to own]. 

kane-mochi na (or no) : rich. 

kana-mono : an article made of metal, 
[mono thing]. 

akagane : copper, [akai red]. 

Jtagane : steel, [ '! haZ edge]. 

liarigane : wire, [Itari needle]. 



kane 



56 



kara 



megane : spectacles, [me eye]. 
kang.ae, [stem of kangae-ru to think]. 

Thought ; idea ; opinion. 
anata no kangae wa do de#& ? (C) : what is 

your opinion ? 

watakushi no kangae de wa : in my opinion. 
hito ni yotte kangae ga chigau (B) : opinions 

differ. 
betsu ni kangae wa arimasen (C) : I have no 

opinion on the subject. 
kore wa nan to mo kangae ga tsuka-nai (B) : 

I cannot come to any conclusion in this 

matter. 
raigetvu Amerika e iku kangae desu (C) : I 

am thinking of going to America next 

month, 
kangae-chigal, [kangae-ru to think ; chigau to 

be mistaken]. A misunderstanding. 
sore wa anata no kangae-chigai desu (C) : it 

is a misapprehension on your part, 
kangae- ru. To think ; reflect. 

yoku kangaete kudasai (C) : please consider 

it well. 

kangaete mimasho (C) : I will think it over. 
dozo mo ichi-do kangaete kudasai (C) : please 

reconsider the matter. 

kangaeru made mo nai : self-evident, (be- 
cause it is so simple or Ijecause it is so ab- 
surd) ; utterly impossible. 
Der. and comp. 
kangae q.v.: a thought. 
kangae-chigai q.v.: a misunderstanding, 

[cfiigau to be mistaken]. 
kangae-naosu : to change one's mind, [noo- 

su to mend]. 
kangoe-tsuku : to call to mind, [tsukul to be 

in contact], 
kanjo. Reckoning ; calculation ; account ; 

bill. 
kanjo (wo) sum : to calculate ; reckon ; 

make out an account ; pay an account. 
kanjo wo shite kudaaai (C) ; go kanjo wo ne- 

gaimasu (D) : please settle the account; 

please make out your bill. 
kanjo ga chigau (B) : there is a mistake in 

the account. 
kanjo ni machigai wa arimasen ka ? (C) : 

have you not made u mistake in the ac- 
count ? 

kanjo wo shime'ru : to close an account. 
kanjo wo torn, (or morau) : to collect a bill. 
kanjo wo harau (or yarn) : to pay a bill. 
kore wo kanjo ni irete kudasai (C) : put this 

down to my account. 
kanjo ikura desu ka / (C) : what does it 

come to ? 
kono kanjo ni minna haitte ima-su ka ? (C) : 

does tlus bill include everything ' 
kono kanjo wa mada s-unde imasen (C) : this 

account is still owing. 
kirei ni kanjo wo sum : to settle definitely 

an account. 



G'omp.: kanjo-gaki : a bill, [kakitl to writ* 1 ]. 
kanshin. Admiration. 
kanshin sum : to .admire. 
kanshin na : praiseworthy. 
kao. Face ; features. 

kowai kao wo sum : to express anger in the 

face. 
nigai kao wo mm : to express displeasure in 

the face ; frown. 
kao wo ukaku sum ; kao ga akaku narn : tu 

blush. 

oki na kao wo sum : to look proudly. 
shiran kao wo sum : to pretend ignorance. 
shira-nai kao bakari da (B) : thej r are all 

strangers to me. 
kokoro wa kao ni deru (B) : his face Ix'ti-us * 

his feelings. 
kore de kao ga sorotta (B) : now we are all 

here. 
dono kao sagete ivatashi no tokoro e kita no 

da ? (A) : I don't know how you have the 

face to cnme here. 
awaseru kao ga arimasen (C) : I am to- 

much ashamed to see him. 
ano hito wa naka-naka kao ya ttrcte -irn (B) : 

he is very widely known. 
Corn p. 

kao-iro : looks, [iro colour]. 
kao-iro ga o ivami yd desu (C) : you dnn "i 

look well. 

mono-shiri-gao : a knowing look. 
karai. 

1) After a noun (or its equivalent), kara uen. 
means from, since, after. The noun usual- 
ly denotes a person, place or time. 

kono hon wa chichi kara noraunaeMta (C) : 
this book is a present from my father. 

knni kara kitategami desu (C) : it is a letter 
from home. 

halime kara : from the beginning. 

asa kara ban made : from morning till night . 

him kara : afternoon. 

nanalsu kara Tokyo ni imasu (C) : I ha\ - 
lived in Tokyo since I was seven. 

sakki kara : since some time ago. 

sore kara : after that. 

2) Kara after nouns is sometimes translated 
in other ways. 

anata kara hanashite kudasai (C) : please 

speak to him yourself. 
ano hito kara yoroshlkn (B) : he sends you 

his kind reg-irds. 
hito kara kiita no desu (C) : somebody told 

me. 

yane kara ocfiita (B) : he fell off the roof 
taiyo wa higashi kara deru (B) : the sun rises 

in the east. 
JShimbashi kara u>akaremashita (C) : 1 parted 

from him at Shimbashi. 
hikidashi kara kagi wo o dashi natii (U) : 

take the key out of tho draper. 
yakimochi kara : out of joalou>\ . 



kara 



57 



kasane'ru 



kono ana kara kazc ga kimaftu (C) : a 

draught comes through this hole. 
ushiro kara kuru hUo wa dare desii ka .' (C) : 

who is that man walking behind us ': 
nanatsu kara gakko e agarimashita ((') : I 

entered school when I was seven. 
tod ana kara said ga haitte iru tsubo wn motte 

o-iile (A) : bring me the sugar- jar which is 

in the cupboard. 
iii-yateu ichi-nichi kara : or. and after the 

1st of October. (Kara is always inclusive). 
hachi-ji kara hajimaru (B) : it commences 

<it eight o'clock. 
kore kara : lieuceforth ; now. 
itsu kara Nihon ni irasshaimastf. ka ? (D) : 

how long have you beon in Japan ? 

3) After a gerund, kara means after, since.. 
!/ohan wo tabele kara dekakemasho (C) : I 

will go out after I have had my dinner. 
Yokohama e kite kara aukoahi ijoku nari- 

mashlta (C) : since I came to Yokohama I 

feel somewhat better. 
kaette kara de mo ii (B) : it will be time 

enough when I come back. 

4) After verbs, not in the gerund, and after 
adjectives, kara means because, as, 
since. 

ante ga futtr. iru kara dekakemasen (C) : as it 

is raining I shall not go out. 
ano hUo ga kimasen deshita kara gakkari 
shimashita (C) : to my great disappoint- 
ment he did not come. 
ikaremasen, isogashii kara (C) : I can't 

go, I am busy. 

ichi-do ii-dashita kara ni rm ato e wa hlka- 
nai (B) : after I have said something I 
never go back on my words. (Note the 
exceptional use of kara which follows the 
past tense and has nevertheless the mean- 
ing of after). 

IS) In examples like the foil, kara indicates 
not the cause of the action but what 
makes the action possible. 
todana, ni sato no haitte iru tsubo ga am kara. 
motte. o-ide (A) : the sugar-jar is in the 
cupboard, bring it. 

tsukue no ue ni ichi-yen aru kara, motte 
kite o kure (A) : there is one yen an the 
desk, bring it. 

hnn-ya d" Taro San n> aimashita kara. ni-' 

chiyo ni kuru yd ni iimashita (C) : I met 

Taro at the bookseller's, so I asked him 

to come on Sunday. 

kara^ (no), (often corr. to karappo) [ 1 f. prec.i. 

Empty. 
kono bin ica kara desu (C) : this bottle is 

empty. 

tamago no kara : an empty egg-shell. 
Comp.: kara-te : empty-handed, 
kara da. B6dy. 

karada ga warm (B) : I feel ill. 
karada ni ii : good for the healtli. 



karada no tsuyoi hUo : a man of robust 

health. 

karada no kagen : the state of one's health. 
raku na karada ni naru : to Income a man 
of leisure. 

nani wo vuru ni mo karada ga ii'hibun iin 
(B) : in everything health should be the 
first consideration, 
karai. Said of tastes like salt and mustard. 

Comp.: shio-karai : salty, [shio salt]. 
kare, (sometimes abb. to kaZ q.v.), [cogn. \* . 

are that]. That person. 
kare. senso de shinda no desft (C) : he di'd 
in the war. 

kare kore shUeru uchi ni kuraku naritnaslutn 
(C) : wliile I was doing one thing and 
another it became dark. 
mo kare kore hint ni narimasho (C) : it must 

be close upon noon, 
kare-ru. To wither ; dry up. 

kof ga kare-ru : to become hoarse. 
kari, [stem of foil.]. Debt ; loan. 

anata wa u-atavhi ni go-yen kari ga am (B) : 

you are owing me five yen. 
kari wo kaesu : to pay a debt. 
kari wo taoau : not to pay one's debts. 
kari ga deki-ru : to get into debt. 
kari no : temporary. 
kari ni : temporarily ; for a time. 
katrru, v.t. [cogn. w. kasft also v.t.J. '!'<> 

boiTOw ; rent (as a house). 
te wo kari-ru : to obtain help. 
Der.: kari, q.v. 
karui, [karaZ empty]. Light : nut hem -v ; 

not serious. 

karui kara sfikoshi mesh i -ayaUc qoran i- 
(C) : just try a little (of this food), it i> 
very h'ght. 

bydki wa karui (B) : the illnesn is not 
serious. 
kuchi no karui otoko da (B) : he i* 

tongued fellow. 

kasa. Umbrella ; Japanese head- wear. 
kasa no hone : the ribs of an umbrella. 
kasa wo aasu : to open, put up an umbrella. 
oya no namae wo kaxa ni kite wagaimm,' 
suru (B) : he makes use of his father 
utation to get his own way. 
Comp. 

ama-gasa : a Japanese umbrella. [ 
hi-gaaa : a Japanese sunshade, [Art snn|. 
komori-gasa : a foreign-style umbrella, [A 

mori a bat], 
ka-san. Mother: (the honorific- (. 

pref.: o ka-sama is more polhf tlmn < 
ka-ean). 
kasanaru, v.i. [cogn. w. k.i*mu-n 

become piled or heaped up. 
shigoto ga kasanaUe <ru (B) : biiM... - 

has ac-cumulated. 
kasaneru, v.t. fco^n. w. ka*an<i,-n \ 

place one upon another : pile up : beap up- 



kasane'ru 



kawa 



kasanete konna koto wo shUe wa ike-nai (A) : 

don't do such a thing again, 
kashi. Sweetmeats ; cakes ; (the honorific o 

is gen. pref.). 

kashira. The head ; chief, 
kasu, v.t. [cogn. w. kari-ru also v.t.]. To 

lend ; rent. 

kashlte ayemaxho (C) : I will lend it to you. 
te wo kasfi : to lend a hand : help ; assist. 
mimi wo kasij : to listen to. 
Oomp. 

kashi-ma : a room to let, [mal room]. 
kashi-ya : a house to let, [yal house]. 
kata. 

1 ) Side ; direction. 

kata wo motsu : to take the side of. , 
kata wo tsuke-ru : to put in order ; settle. 
kata ga tsiiku : to be put in order, settled . 

2) Person. 

ano o kata wa Takada San desu (C) : that 

gentleman is Mi' Takada. 
Comp. 

BEFORE A NOUN one of two. 

kata-ashi : one leg, \ashi leg]. 

kata-me .-one eye, [me eye]. 

katappo q.v.: one side, [ho side]. 

kata-te : one hand, [te hand]. 

AFTER THE STEM OF A VERB way or man- 
ner of doing. 

koshirae-kata ga warui (B) : the workman- 
ship is bad. 

kono ji no yomi-kata wo oshiete kudasai (C) : 
please teach me how to read this 
character. 

sono shi-kata de wa totemp dame da (B) : it's 
not the slightest use doing it like that. 

see also shikata. 

OTHER; COMP. 

gata ; katazuke-ru; katazuku ; yugata ; 
yukata ; q.v. 
katachi. Figure ; shape ; form. 

katachi wa minikui ga kokoro wa ii (B) : she 
is not good looking but she has a good 
disposition. 

katachi ddke no koto desu (C) : it is a mere 

form, 
katai. Hard ; solid ; strict ; upright (moral- 

iy). 

kataku sMnjite imasu (C) : he believes it 
firmly. 

kataku ii-lsuke-ru : to order strictly. 
kataki. Enemy. 

kataki wo torn ; kataki wo utsu : to avenge ; 

revenge oneself. 
katana. Sword. 

Comp.: ko-gatana : a penknife, [ko\ small], 
katappo, [kata one ; ho side]. One side ; one 

of a pair. 
katappo bakari warui no ja aritnasen (C) : it 

is not the one side only that is to blame. 
katappo no kutsu, ga yabukfta (B) : one of 
my hoots has a hole in it. 



katazuke-ru, v.t. [kata side ; tsuke-ru to join : 
cogn. w. katazuku v.i.]. To put away (in 
its place) ; put in order ; settle. 

kono hon wo katazukete o kure (A) : put tin's 
book away in its place. 

ato wo katazuke-ru : to clear away things. 

kono heya wo katazukete o kure (A.) : put this 
room in order do this room. 

.thigoto wo katazuke-ru : to finish a work, 

timsume wo katazuke-ru : to marry off a 

daughter. 

katazuku, v.i. [kata side ; tsukui to be in con- 
tact : cogn. w. katazuke-ru v.t.]. To be 
put in order ; be settled. 

kirei ni katazuite imasu (C) : they are all 
nicely arranged. 

katazuite i-nai : to be in disorder. 

ano shigoto wa yoyo katazukimashUa (C) : 

that work has at last been disposed of. 
katp, [to'l class]. Lower class ; third class; 

kato na yatsu : a common fellow. 
katsu. To win ; conquer. 

senso ni katsu : to win a battle. 

kono moyo wa aka ga katte iru (B) : there is 
too much red in this pattern. 

katsu mo make.ru mo un shidai : winning or 

losing is a question of luck. 
Der.: katte q.v. 
kattarui. Tired ; weary. 

katte, [gerund of katsu to win]. Convenience ; 
one's own convenience. 

katte na koto wo suru : to act according to 
one 's fancy. 

katte ni suru : to have one 's own way. 

katte ni sase-ru : to let somebody have his 
own way. 

katte ni o shi nasai (B) : do as you like. 

hito no mono wo katte ni tsukatte wa ike-nai 
(A) : you mustn't make use of other peo- 
ple's things without leave. 

do shiyo to kimi no katte da (B) : it is for you 
to decide what to do. 

iku to mo yosu to mo watashl no katte da (B) : 
whether I go or whether I don't is no- 
body 's business but mine. 
Comp.: jibun-gatte y q.v. 
kau', [kaf.-ruS. to change]. To buy ; purchase. 

omotta yori yasuku kaimashlta (C) : I bought 
it cheaper than 1 expected. 

ikura de katte kudasaimam ka ? (D) : how 
much will you give for it ? 

kenka wo kau : to interfere and take the 
part of one of the disputants in a quarrel, 
Comp. 

kai-mono ; q.v. 

kai-tf : the buyer, 
kau-. To keep ; feed ; rear. 

inu wo kau : to keep a dog. 
kawal, [kawaru to change]. River. 

kawa no kishi : the banks of a river. 

kawa muko 'no kaji : a fire the other side or 
the river ; no concern of mine. 



kawa 



50 



ke 



Comp.: ko-gawa : a stream, [kol small]. 
kawaS. Side ; row. 

futa-kawa ni narabu : to arrange in two 
rows. 
Comp. 

ryo-gawa : both sides, [ryo~ both]. 
mukai-gawa ; muko-gawa : the opposite side 

(of the road), [mukai, muko opposite]. 
kawa3, [ ? kawa'2 side : the skin is on the out- 
side]. Skin ; leather. 
fione to kawa bakari ni narimashlta (C) : he 

is reduced to skin and bones. 
kawaii. Charming ; lovely ; darling ; (gen. 
refers only to little or childish persons or 
things). 

kawaii ko : a lovely little child. 
anata no kawaii o-jd-san : your daughter 
whom you are so fond of ; your charming 
daughter. 
Der. 
kawaigaru : to treat kindly, fondly ; pet ; 

[-garu q.v.]. 
kawairashil : same meaning as kawaii, 

[rashii q.v.]. 
kawaiso q.v. 

kawaiso, (na), [kawaii charming; -so apparent- 
ly : the meaning has somehow changed]. 
Exciting pity. 

kawaiso na hlto ! poor fellow ! 
kawaiso ni told shinimashita (C) : at last the 
poor man died. 

inu wo sonna ni ijimete wa kawaiso da (B) : 
it is cruel to tease a dog so. 
kawakasu, v.t. [cogn. w. kawaku v.i.J. To 

dry ; desiccate. 
kawaku, v.i. [cogn. w. kawakasu v.t.]. To 

become dry ; be thirsty. 
kawaiie vru : to be dry. 
mada kawaite imasen (C) : it is not diy yet. 
nodo ya kawakimasliUa (C) : I am thirsty, 
kawari, [stem of kawaru to change]. Altera- 
tion. 

o kawari wa gozaimasen ka ? (D) : is every- 
thing all right with you ? 
kawari ga nai (B) : there is no change. 
anata no kawari ni ikimasu (C) : 1 will go 

instead of you. 

rydri-nin no kawari ga mada ar imasen ka ? 

(C) : have you riot yet found anyone to 

take your cook 's place ? 

kawari wo yarimashita (C) : I sent a proxy. 

o kawari wo agemasho (P) : lot me give you 

another helping. 
sono kawari ni : (lit.) instead of that ; (fig.) 

on the other hand. 
chiisai kawari ni nedan ga yasui (B) : it is 

small but on the other hand it is cheap. 
kino futta kawari ni kyo wa o lenki (B) : 
it rained yesterday but on tlie other hand 
; it is beautiful weather today. 
C-omp.: kawari -gawari ; kawari-ban : by 
turns, [-6an3 turn]. 



kawaru. v.i. [cogn. w. kae-nt2 v.t.]. To 

change ; vary. 
ano hUo wa chitto mo kawara-nai (B) : that 

man hasn't changed a bit. 
kaze ga kawatte ame ni natta (B) : thr wind 

changed into rain. 

o teukare desho, sfikoshi kawariinashd (C) : 
you must be tired, let me take your place 
a little while. 
kawatta koto ga nai (B) : nothing unusual 

has happened. 

kyo wa nani ka kawatta kudawono MX? katt> 
o-ide (A) : buy some other kind of fruit 
today, 

Der.: kawari q.v. 

kayo ; kayo-bi ; [see yo-bi\. Tuesday. 
kazaru. To ornament ; adorn ; display. 

Der.: kazari : an ornament. 
kaze. 

1) Wind. 

kaze ga fuku ne (B) : doesn 't the wind hlovr 
kaze gademashUa (C) : the wind has bej-un 

to blow. 

kaze ga kima#u (C) : there is a draught. 
kono heya ni kaze wo yokii tdshitt o /////< 

(A) : ventilate this room well. 
doko wo kaze ga fuku to iu yosu wo xli'it' 

iru hlto : a man apparently unconcerned. 

2) A cold. 

kaze wo hifat : to catch a cold. 
Comp.: 6-kaze : a gale, [o- bigj. 
kazoeru, [kazu numlwr]. To count ; reckon. 
Comp.: kazoe-dnshi : age, [toshi year): 

311. 
kazu. Number. 

kazu no oi : numeroiis. 

kazu go- tari-nai (B) : there are some \van; - 

ing. 

, kazu ant naJca de : amoigst a gi-eat many . 
seito no kazu wa tan-zen ni cliikai (B) : the 
number of student* is close upon tlin-.- 
thousand. 

Der.: kazoe-m, q.v.: to count. 
ke. Hair : fur. 

ke ga haemaan (C) : the hair grow*. 
ke ga nukemaxu (C) : the hair falls. 
ke no fukai : hairy. 

Comp.: ke-ori no: \\oollen (of cloths)}' [orn 
to weave]. 

-ke. 

1) Added to nouns and adj. stoms, it forn 
abstract nouns gen. referring to tii 

shiake : a salty taste, [shio salt J. 
shibuke: an astringent t^ste, [Ww 
astringent]. 

2) In its nw/o/-red form, ge, it is add 
nouns or stems of verbs or adj. and UK an- 
look, appearance or probability. 

otona-ge : like an adult, [//"/ adult \. 
ureshi-ge : appearance of pleasure, | 
joyfuij. 
ari-ge : probably existing, [oru to l>ej. 



kechi 



ki 



kechi (na). Stingy ; used also to express dis- 
approval in other senses. 
kechi na Into : a stingy man ; a nasty, dis- 
agreeable man. 
kedo, contr. of kercdo which is itself a short 

form of keredomo. 
kega. Wound. 

kcga (wo) mini : to hurt oneself ; get 
wounded". 

/.fi /a u'o fnixc'tti : to hurt or injure some- 
body. 
ashi ni kegu -i';o sliimaxliita (C) : I have hurt 

my leg. 
o kega wa arimaaen ka ? (C) : did you hurt 

yourself '! 
keiko. Exercise ; practice ; lesson. 

keiko ga wakaru : to know one "s lesson. 
Nihon-i/o no keiko wo uru : to take lessons 

in Japanese. 
keisatsu. Police. 

Comp.: keisatsii-sho : police-station. 
kekko (na). Splendid ; fine ; excellent. 

sore wa kekko de#ii (C) : that's very good ; 1 

am very pleased to hear it. 
kekko desu (C) : it is splendid, delicious ; 

that will do nicely. 

karada ga jdbu de kane ga areba konna kekko 
na koto wanai (Ji) : if you have health and 
money what more can you wish for ? 
Nikko u'o mi-zu ni kekko to itte wa ike-nai : 
don't use the word 'splendid' until you 
have seen Nikko. 
kekkon. Marriage. 

kckkon (wo) suru : to marry, 
kembutsu. Sight-seeing. 

kembuteu sum : to go about sight-seeing. 
ki-tubiilsu ni iku : to go (to some place) to 

see the sights. 

Kyoto ni wa kembutsu sum lokoro ga taku- 
san gozaimasu (D) : in Kyoto there are 
many sights to see. 
Nara wo kembutsu ni ikimasu (C) : I am 

going to Nara to see the sights. 
shibaraku tomatte kembuisfi, nasai (C) : stay 

for a few days and see the sights.- 
kemono, [ke. hair ; mono thing]. A quadru- 
ped ; beaxt. 
kemu(ri). Smoke. 

lii no nai tokoro ni kemuri wa agara-nai : 

there is no smoke without fire, 
ken. A.n. for houses, buildings, etc. 
Xote : 1 ik-ken ; 3 san-gen ; 6 rok-ken ; 10 
j ik-ken ; 100 hyak-ken ; 1000 sen -yen ; 
nan-gen ? 

kenka. A quarrel ; fight. 
kenka (wo) sum : to quarrel. 
(ino hito to krnka sum : to quarrel with that 

man. 

kenka ico kait, : to interfere and take the 
part of one of the disputants in a 
quarrel. 
kodomo no krn-ka ni oya </n </<//< : 



take part in children's quarrels (and they 
always side with their own children). 
kenyaku. Economy. 

kenyaku sum : to economize, 
keredo(mo). Although ; however ; neverthe- 
less ; but : often used in elliptical sen- 
tences. 

a me ga furu keredomo iko (B) : although it 
is raining I shall go. 

tore wa so desu keredomo. . . (C) : what you 
say is true no doubt, but... (there is a 
great deal to be said against it). 

Sometimes keredo(tno) is hardly more than 
a. copulative particle. 

ano hito wa sakki kara asuko ni taJLte -int. 

keredo, nani wo mite iru no dard ? (B) : that 

man has been standing there some time, 

I wonder what he 's looking at. 

keru, (more correctly but less commonly 

kc-ru). To kick, 
kesa, [kono q.v. this ; asa morning!. This 

morning. 

keshiki. Landscape ; view ; scenery ; expres- 
sion of the face. 

kono kinjo ni keshiki no ii tokoro ga arimasfi. 
ka ? (C) : are there any fine views here ? 

okotta keshiki wa nakatta (B) : he did not 
appear to be angry. 

okori-so na keshiki wa nakatta (B) : he didn 't 

look as if he were going to get angry. 
kesshite, (foil, by neg.). Never ; by no 
means ; certainly. 

mo kesshite itashimasen (D) : I will never d<> 
it again. 

kesshite sonna koto wa iimasen (C) : I never 
said such a thing. 

kesshite machigae.masen (C) : I am sure I 
have made no mistake. 

kesshite go shimpai nasara-nai de kudanai 
(D) : you needn't have the slightest 
anxiety. 

kexshlte o tako gozaimasen (D) : I assure you 

the price is not too dear. 

kesu, v.t. [cogn. w. kie-ru v.i.]. To ex- 
tinguish ; put out ; cancel ; erase. 

kanjo ga sumimashita kara chomen wo kc- 
shite kudasai (C) : as the account is settled 
please cancel it in your books. 
Com p. 

hi-keshi : fireman, [hi'2 fire]. 

tori-kesu : to cancel, [torn to take]. 
ketto, [f. English (blan)ket]. A blanket ; rug. 

ketto wo kake-ru : to cover with a blanket ; 

put a blanket on. 

kezuru. To plane ; sharpen ; scrape. 
kil. Tree ; wood. 

ki no kawa : the bark of a tree. 

ki wo ue-ru : to plant a tree. 
k|2. Spirit ; steam. 

ki ni iru : to like. 

o ki ni irimasu ka ? (D) : do you hke it '! 
does it suit you 'I 



ki 



61 



kiku 



ki ni ira-nai hito : a man I don't like. 
ki wo tsuke'ru : to take care ; pay attention. 
ki wo tsukete /cure (A) : take care ; look out. 
hi wo ki wo tsuke nasai (A) : be careful 

about the fire. 

ki ga tsuku : to notice ; observe. 
ki ga tsukimasen deshlta (C) : I did not think 

of it ; I didn 't notice it. 
sonna ki wa nai (B) : I have no such desire. 
ki ga sum : to have a feeling ; be under th 

impression ; believe ; think. 
mo juisuka itai yo na ki ga sum (B) : I feel 

much inclined to stay two days more. 
doko ka de atta yd na ki ga sum (B) : I have 

an idea that I have met him somewhere. 
mono -wo ki ni sum : to take things to 

heart. 

ki ni naru : to be anxious, concerned. 
undo sum ki ni nare-nai (B) : I have no in- 
clination to take exercise. 
ano hlto wa ki ga hen ni narimashlta (C) : 

his mind has become unhinged. 
kari wo haratta no de ki ga raku ni natta 

(B) : I feel easy now that I have paid my 

debts. 

ki ga toku naru : to faint. 
ki ga chigau : to go mad. 
anata wa ki ga 'higatte iru (A) : you are out 

of your senses. 
ki ni sawaru : to get angry. 
ki wo mawasu : to be suspicious. 
nan da ka ki ga isoide jitto shite wa i rare -nai 

(B) : somehow I feel flurried and cannot 

remain quiet. 

ki ga au : to get on well together. 
are to wa ki ga awa-nai (B) : I don't get on 

well with him. 
ki ga tatttu : to be excited. 
ki ni kake-ru : to take to heart. 
ki ni kakaru : to cause anxiety. 
sore ga ki ni kakatte nerarcmasen (C) : it 

weighs on my mind so that 1 cannot sleep. 
ki ni kuwa-nai yateu : a disagreeable fellow. 

ki no kiita hlto : an attentive, wide-awake 
man. 

ki no kika-nai hlto : an inattentive, dull- 
witted man. 

ki no kiita ju : a smart appearance. 

nan no ki mo naku : without any special 
intention. 

ki no okii : generous. 

ki no chiisai : timid. 

ki no hayai : excitable. 

ki no mijikai : quick-tempered. 

ki no nagai : patient. 

ki no yowai : timid. 

ki no muzukashii : hard to please. 

// no kawari-yasui : changeable ; fickle. 
C'ornp. 

kichigai; kimochi ; kinodoku ; ktraku ; ki- 
sen ; klsha ; q.v. 

kidoru : to put on airs, [torn to take]. 



ki : *, noiui. Yellow. 

Comp.: ki-iro q.v.: yellow, [iro colour] 
kibi. Corr. of kimft q.v. 

kichigai, [ki2 spirit ; chigau to be wrong]. 
Madness ; a lunatic. 

kiclngai ni naru : to go out of one's mind. 
ryoko kichigai : mad on (very fond of) trav- 
elling, 
kie-ru, v.i. [cogn. w. kesu v.t.]. To go out ; 

become extinguished ; melt away. 
hi ga kiemashita (C) : the fire has gone out . 
yuki ga mada kie-nai (B) : the snow has not 

yet thawed. 
sono hydban mo shizen ni. kiemaaMta ((.') : 

that rumour died out of itself, 
kifujin, [fujin woman]. A lady. 
kigen. Temper ; feeling ; state of one 'a 

health. 

kigen no ii hito : a good-tempered man. 
keaa wa kigen ga warui (B) : he is in a bad 

temper this morning. 
kigen wo torn : to humour. 
kigen no tori-nikui hito da (B) : he is a dif- 
ficult man to get on with. < 
kigen wo ukagau : to inquire after another 's 

health. 

go kigen ikaga desu ka ? (C) : how are you * 
go kigen yd (C) : I wish you good lurk. 
itsu rnogo kigen yokute kekko dexu (C) : I am 

pleased to hear you are keeping well. 
ki-iro (na), [k$ yellow ; iro colour]. Yellow, 
ki-iroi, [f. pi-ec. by adding i and thus forminx 

atmeadj.j. Yellow. 
ki-iroi koe : a thin, high-pitched voice. 
kikai. Tool ; instrument ; apparatus. 
kikoe-ru, v.i. [cogn. w. kiku\ v.t. to which It 
also serves as potential]. _ To lie bl<> t<> 
hear ; be heard ; be audible. 
o kotoba ga kikoemasen (D) : I cannot hear 

you. 
zuibun kikoeta hlto da (B) : he is a very 

well-known man. 
sore wa hen ni kikotmasu (C) : tlmt aoundi 

strange. 

kiklll, v.t. t c g n - w - kikoe-rn v.i. \vnjfli 
serves as potential]. 

1 ) To hear ; listen. 

ano Mto ga bydkt da to kikimcuMta (C) 

heard that he was ill. 
wake wo kika-nai (B) : he will not INirn t.. 

reason. 
ikuraiUemokikiinasfn (G) : nothing I r.i 

say would move him. 
kikeba Amerika e i'ta so <la (B) : I hear thnt 

he has gone to America. 

2) To ask : inquire. 

sukoshi o kiki shltai no <l<*>i fifa...(< 
would like to ask you something. 
kiitt niimal>c> (C) : I will inquire about I 
/,/,/,; <!,- kikitniixI'Un I.'". <"' '/'' /'"'" "" 
de*& kit ' (C) : do you mean that you 
about it orsnnply that you heard it ? 



kiku 



kippari 



3) Various. 

iu koto ivo kiku : to obey. 
kuchi wo kiku : to speak. 
negai wo kiku : to grant a request. 
kikascru, (sometimes corr. to kikafi) : to 

tell. 

yonde kikase-ru : to read to another. 
Note : the potential of k'ku is kikoe-ni, 

sometimes kik<-ni or kikan-ru. 
Camp. 
kiki-awase-ru : to make inquires, [awase-ru 

to join]. 
Itilci-chiqaerru : to misunderstand, [chigae'ru 

to make different]. 
kiki-chigai : a misunderstanding, [chigau 

to be wrong]. 
sore wa anata no kiki-chigai dedid (C) : that 

is probably a misunderstanding on your 

part. 
l:iki-nare-ru : to be accustomed to hear, 

[nare-ru to get accustomed]. 
kilfi-wakfru : to tell the difference by hear- 
ing ; understand (of a child), [tvake'm to 

separate]. 
Tokyo to Kyoto no kotoba wo kiki-wakerare- 

masu ka ? (C) : can you tell the difference 

lietween the Tokyo and the Kyoto ways 

of speaking ? 
kiku-, [ '.' f. prec.]. To be efficacious. 

yoku kiku kusuri da (B) : it is a very effica- 
cious remedy. 
naka-naka yoku M go, kiku (B) : he is a very 

sharp-witted fellow. 
kono kagi wa kika-nai (B) : this key won't 

open the lock. 
te ga kiku : to be handy. 
iratashi wa hidari no te no ho ga i/oku kiki- 

masu (C) : I am left-handed. 

(in kiku : to be sharp-sighted. 
ano Mto wa naka-naka haba ga kiku (B) : he 

has irreai influence. 
'{c wa kika-nai : more than . 
is-shaku de wa kika-nai : more than one 

foot. 

kiku^. Chrysanthemum. 

kirnari. [stem of kimaru to be settled]. Set- 
tling upon ; regularity ; disposition. 
inada kimari ga tsuka-nai (B) : it is not yet 

*< \t\ed. 

kimari no ii uchi : a well-managed family. 
LiiiHiri no nai : irregular. 
kimari ga nai (B) : there is no fixed rule. 
sore wa o kimari no ii-wake da (A) : that's 

your usual pretext. 

kimari ga warui (B) : I feel confused, shy. 
kimaru, v.i. [cogn. w. kime-ru v.t.]. To be 

settled, fixed, decided. 
ninilii kiiHiirimasen (C) : I have not decided 

yet. 

*'/,( il<- kinuiUa (B) : that settles it. 
/'//to to omowareru ni ki matte iru (B) : 

peopli- arc ct'itHin to tliink I took it. 



Der.: kimari q.v. 
kime-ru, v.t. [cogn. w. kimaru v.i.]. To 

decide ; fix ; settle. 

hi wo kimemasho (C) : let us fix the day. 
ko kimete okimaeho (C) : let us decide on 
this. 

iku yd ni kimemasMta (C) : I decided to go. 
kitnil. You ; (kimi is familiar ; it corres- 
ponds to boku q.v.). 
kimi'2, [H3 yellow ; mi meat]. Yolk of an 

egg- 

kimi ; , (sometimes corr. to k-ibi). Feeling. 
kimi ga warui (B) : it makes me shudder. 
ii kimi da (A) : I am glad it happened ; it 
serves you right. 
kimo. The liver ; spirit ; courage. 

kimo wo tsubusu ; kimo ga tsubuwru : to 

be frightened out of one's wits. 
kimo no futoi yatsu : a courageous (or auda- 
cious) fellow. 

kimochi, [kiZ spirit ; niotsu to have]. Feeling. 
// kimochi : a p'.easant feeling. 
kyo wa sukoshi kimochi ga warui (B) : 1 
don'tfeel quite well today. 
kimochi wa do desii ka ? (C) : how do you 

feel? 

kimochi wo waruku sum : to hurt some- 
body 's feelings. 
kimono, [ki-rul to put on ; mono thingj. 

Clothes (especially one particular Japanese 
garment). 

kinl . Gold ; money ; (compare gin silver). 
Comp. 
azukari-kin : money received in deposit. 

[azukaru to receive in deposit]. 
bakkin : a fine, [batsu punishment]. 
kin2. A Japanese pound, (about equal to 
' 1 Vs lb.). 

Note :kin is preceded by the 1st set of 
num.: 1 ik-kin ; 3 san-gin ; 6 rok-L'i n ; 
10 jik-kin ; 100 hyak-kin ; nan-gin ? 
kinjo. Neighbourhood. 

kono kinjo : hereabouts. 
kin5. Yesterday. 

kino y a kyo no koto ja nai (B) : it is not a 

thing of recent occurence. 
kinodoku, [ki~ spirit ; no of ; doku\ poison]. 

Feeling sorrow or concern for others. 
o kinodoku sama : I am very sorry for you. 
ano hlto wa honto ni kinodoku dtsu (C) : he 

is much to be pitied. 

o kinodoku desu ga chotto te wo kashlte kuda- 
sai (C) : I am sorry to trouble you but 
would you please help me a moment ? 
o kinodoku desu ga ashUa made ni wa <li /./'- 
niasen (C) : I am sorry but I cannot pos- 
sibly let you have it by tomorrow. 
Der.: kinodokugaru : to feel sorry for, [-i/ 

q.v.]. 

kinu. Silk. 

kinyo ; kinyo-bi ; [see yo-bi]. Friday, 
kippari. Plainly ; clearly. 



kippari 



Kiru 



kippari (to) kotowaru : to flatly refuse. 
kippari mono wo iu : to speak distinctly. 
ki p pu. Ticket. 
Comp. 
oiuku-gippu : return ticket, [ofuku going 

and returning]. 
norikae-kippu : a transfer, [nori-kae-ru to 

ride in another carriage]. 
kirai. Dislike. 
kirai na : hateful. 

ano hito wa tabako ga kirai desu (C ) : that 
man dislikes tobacco. 

uso-tsuki wa dai-kirai desu (C) : I hate liars. 
ano hito wa kirai da (B) : he dislikes it : I 

dislike him. 

Note : the Japanese construction does not 

distinguish clearly between the subj. 

and the obj. of the dislike ; however if 

both the subj . and the obj . are expressed, 

the subj. gen. takes wa and the obj. ga ; 

the obj. sometimes takes wo. 

Yamada San wa Tanaka San ga kirai desu 

(C) : Mr Yamada doesn't like Mr Tanaka. 

kiraku, [ki2 spirit ; raku ease]. Ease of 

mind ; freedom. 

kiraku na hito : a man who takes life easy. 
kire, [kiru% to cut]. Cloth ; slice ; piece. 

pan no hlto-kire ; a slice of bread. 
Note : kire in the sense of slice or piece is 
used in connection with the abb. 2nd set 
of num. (276, 4). 
kirei (na). 

1) Pretty ; handsome ; beautiful. 
kirei na keshiki : a fine view. 

2) Clean. 

amari kirei de wa nai yd desu (C) : they do 

not look very clean. 
niwa wo kirei ni soji o shi nasai (A) : sweep 

and tidy the garden nicely. 

3) Completely. 

/,//(/ ni kanjo wo sum : to settle definitely 

an account. 

kirei niyaite shimatta (B) : it was complete- 
ly burnt. 
Comp.: kirei-zuki : fond of cleanliness, [suki 

like]. 

kireru, v.i. [cogn. w. kiruZ v.t. to which it 
also serves as potential]. 

1 ) To cut ; can cut. 

fcono katana wa yoku kiremasu (C) : this 

sword cuts well. 
kitte mo kire-nai naka da (B) : they are too 

fond of each other ever to be separated. 
hanashiteru uchi ni denwa ga kirete shimatta 

(B) : while I was talking the telephone 

was cut off. 

kirete i-ru : to be cut or broken. 
ito ga futatsu ni kirete iru (B) : the string is 

broken in two. 
kimono no sode ga kirete imasu (C) : the 

sleeve of your dress is torn. 

2) To terminate ; end ; exhaust. 



kore wa ima kirete imasu (C) : this article ; s 
now out of stock. 

iki ga kire-ru : to be out of breath. 
Comp. are formed with the stem of another 

verb. 

itri-kire-ru : to be sold out, [um to sell]. 
sono tsuchi wa totemo sono ana e wa hairi- 
kire-nai (B) : you will never be able to get 
all that earth into that hole. 
kazoe-kire-nai hodo takusan arimasu (C) : 

there are too many to be counted. 
kirii. Fog ; mist. 

kiri ga tatte i-ru : to be foggy. 
kirl2, [stem of kiruZ to cut]. 

1) End. 

kore ni wa kiri ga arimasen (C) : there is no 

end to this. 
baka ni wa kiri ga nai (B) : stupidity has 

no limits. 

2) Only ; except ; besides. In this sense it 
is sometimes mgori'ed ; it is often foil. l>y 
shika which re-'nforces its meaninir. Kiri 
shika is sometimes contracted to tya. 

ano hito wa te ga katappo kiri (shika) nai 

(B) : that man has only one arm. 
kono koto wa watakushi kiri (shika) dare mu 

shirimasen (C) : nobody knows about this 

except me. 
chumon shUa hambun kya kimasen (C) : only 

half the quantity I ordered has come. 
kami ga kore kiri desu ka ? (C) : is this all 

the paper there is ? 
kore kiri desu ; kore kiri arimasen (C) : tlifiv 

is only this ; this is all there is. 
mo kore kiri iwa-nai (B) : I'll tell you once 

for all. 
neko iva sore kiri miemasen (C) : after that 

the cat was seen no more. 
O Hisa ga asa deta kiri kaette ko-nai (B; : 

Hisa went out this morning (giving no 

indication of anything unusual) and has 

not returned. 
O Hisa Chan ni wa ichi-do ka ni do attti 

kiri de, yoku ahirinMsen (C) : I don't 

know Miss Hisn very well as I have only 

met her once or twice. 

jvjote : kore kiri, xore kiri, etc. are some- 
times pronounced korekkiri, sorekkiri, etc. 
kirul, v.t. [cogn. w. kiwru also v.t.]. 

put on ; wear. 

uwagi wo ki-ru : to put on a coat. 
tsumi wo ki-ru: to be charged with a rr ; mr. 
oyc no namae wo kasa ni kite wi 

shimasu (C) : he makes use of his fatlit-r'- 
reputation to get his own way. 
Comp. 

ki-kae-ru : to change one s dress, | 
to change]. 

kimono : clothes, [mono things]. 

fuyu-gi : winter clothes, [fuyu \vint.-r . 

haru-gi : spring clothos. [harul 

xfilia-gi ' underclothes, [shiUil 



kiru 



G4 



kobu 



uwa-gi : coat, [we above]. 
nemaki : night-dress, [ne-ma bedroom]. 
kiru2, v.t. [cogn. \v. kire'ru v.i. which also 

serves as potential]. To cut. 
In comp. it indicates totality. 
kai-kiru : to buy up all, [kaul to buy]. 
omoi-kiru : to cease to think about, [omou 

to think]. 
wakai-f-kitta : shire-kitta : obvious, [ivakaru 

to know ; shire'rn to lie known]. 
See also comp. of kire-ru. 
kisen, [ki2 steam ; w4 vessel], A steamer. 
kiseTU, v.t. [cogn. w. Jtrml]. To dress 

somebody, (as a little child). 
kisha, [ki- stenm ; sha carriage]. A railway 

train. 
nan-ji no kisha de dekakemasii ka ? (C) : by 

what train are you leaving ? 
Kyoto yuki no kisha : the train for Kyoto. 
kisha no hako : a railway carriage. 
kisha ni noru : to enter the train. 
kisha wo ori-m : to get off the train. 
Comp. 

kudari-kisha : down train, [kudaru to 
descend]. 

nobori-klsha : up train, [noborit to ascend]. 
ichi-ban-ktsha : the first train, [ichi-ban 
number one]. 

yo-gisha : the night-train. [yoZ night]. 
kishi. A bank ; shore. 
kisoku. A rule ; regulations. 

kisoku dori ni : according to rule. 
kisoku wo mamoru : to observe the rules. 
Icisokti wo yaburu : to break the rules. 
kita. North, 
kitanai. Dirty ; filthy. 
ij-i no kitanai : greedy. 
hara no kitanai : foul -minded, 
kitsui. Strong ; strict ; narrow. 

ano sensei wa kitsiri no desti (C) : that mas- 
ter is very strict. 
A ono kutsu wa kitsui (B) : these boots are 

too tight. 

motto kitsuku kosutte o Inire, (A) : rub harder. 
kitte. A postage stamp ; ticket. 

Iff/ami ni kitte wo haru : to stick a stamp 

on a letter. 
C'omp.: yub-in-kitte : a postage stamp, [yfibin 

post!. 
kitto. Positively ; surely. 

l.-itto so da (B) : it is surely so. 

kitto oboete o-idr (A) ; kitto wasurete wa ike- 

nai (A) : mind you don't forget. 
kizu. A wound ; damage. 
kizu ga aru : to be damaged. 
ki-n. i/a Ifi'/kii : to get damaged. 
/.''; wo tsiike-ru : to damage. 
oshii kotoni kono hana-ike ni wa /,':// i/n nri- 
masu (C) : what a pity this flower-vase is 
chipped. 

v/L> ii-o noini-mujiru no ga kizu da (B) : his 
one defect is that he is loo fond of drink. 



Comp.: kizv-ato : a scar, [ato after], 
koi. Child. 

ko wo umu : to give birth to a child. 

o ko san wa iku-nin gozaimasu ka ? (D) : 
how many children have you ? 

ko wo motte shiru oya no on : only when \vi- 
have children of our own do we under- 
stand our own parents' love. 

neko no ko : the young of a cat ; kitten. 
Note : The preceding construction may be 
used for any animal ; in this same sense 
ko may also be used as a prefix before the 
names of certain animals ; a few examples 
will be found below. 
In comp. ko means child or little. 

juta-go : twins, [futatsu two]. 

take-no-ko : bamboo sprout, [take bamboo |. 

ai-no-ko : Eurasian, [aida between]. 

ko-inu : a puppy, [inu dog]. 

ko-neko : a kitten, [neko cat], 

ko-ushi : a calf, [ushi cow], 

ko-gatana : a penknife, [katana sword], 

ko-gawa : a stream, [kawal river], 

ko-gire : a little piece of cloth, [kire clothj. 

ko-michi : lane ; path ; [michi road]. 

ko-mugi : wheat, [mugi corn]. 

ko~yubi : h'ttle finger, [yubi finger]. 

ko-zutsumi : a small parcel (gen. for llu- 
post), [tsutsumi a paj-cel]. 

ko-zutsumi de okuru : to send by parcel- 
post 

kodomo ; kogoto ; q.v. 
ko-. A,n. for various things that have no 

special a.n. as bundles, parcels, etc. 
Note: 1 ik-ko ; 6 rok-ko ; 10 jik-ko ; 100 

hyak-ko. 

ko. Thus ; in this manner. Ko gen. refers 
to something which is going to be said or 
done. Compare 61 1). 

ko skltf kudasai (C) : please do thus. 

ko suru to ii (B) : you had better do it tlni*. 

watashi wa, ko kangaemasu (C) : this is what 
I think. 

ko in : ko ni fii na : ko iu yd na : this kind 
of ; this sort of ; like this. 

ko iu (fu na) hito ga suki desti (C) : this is 
the kind of person I like. 

ko iv wake desu (C) : this is the reason, 
kobore'ru, v.i. [cogn. w. kobosu v.t.]. To 
get spilt. 

tsukue no ue ni o cha ga koborete iru (B) : 
somebody has spilt some tea on the desk. 
kobosu, v.t. [cogn. w. kobore'ru v.i.]. To 
spill ; pour out. 

mizu wo kobosa-nai yd ni nasai (B) : take 
care not to spill any water. 

namida wo kobosu : to shed tears. 

nani ka isshokcniin' / koboshite ita (B) : he 
was grumbling very much over some- 
thing or other, 
kobu. A bump ; swelling ; wen. 

me no ue no kobu : a kill-joy. 



kochi 



65 



komaru 



kochi ; kochira : (kochi is gen. pron. kotchi). 

Here ; this place. 

kochira e (C) : come here ; show him in. 
kochira e irasshai (C) : please come in. 
Yamada San wa kochira desu ka ? (C) : does 
Mr Yamada live here ? 
kotchi ga wanikatta (B) : I -was wrong, 
kodomo, [Arol child ; domo plural suf.: the 
original meaning was children]. Child ; 
children. 

kodomo wo umu : to give birth to a child. 
kodomo ga deki'ru : to give birth to a child ; 

be with child. 

kodomo wo sodate-ru : to bring up a child. 
kodomo-tachi : children, 
koe. Voice. 

oki na koe : a loud voice. 
chiisai koe : a low voice. 
futoi koe : a deep voice. 
ki-iroi koe : a thin, high-pitched voice. 
togatta koe : a shrill voice. 
koe wo age-ru : to raise the voice. 
hito no koe ga shimasu (C) : I hear some- 
body calling. 

koe ga kareta (B) : I am hoarse. 
koe wo kaketa ga kikoc-nakatta (B) : I called 

out to him but he did not hear, 
koen. Public garden ; park, 
kogasu, v.t. [cogn. w. koge-ru v.i.]. To 

scorch ; char. 
kogCTU, v.i. [cogn. w. kogasu v.t.]. To get 

scorched. 
Comp.: koge-kusai : smell or taste as if burnt. 

[see kusai}. 
kogoto, [ ? kol small ; koto(ba) word]. A 

scolding. 

kogoto wo iu : to scold. 
kogoto u-o kuu : to get a scolding, 
kohii, [corr. of Eng.]. Coffee. 
koi. Thick ; dense in consistency ; deep or 

dark in colour. 

iro ga koi (B) : the colour is dark. 
o cha ga koi (B ) : the tea is strong. 
Comp.: aburakkoi : greasy (of taste), [abura 

fat], 
koiiki. A beggar. 

kojiki wo mikka sureba yamerare-nai : if 
you beg for three days (instead of work- 
ing), you will never be able to leave it off. 
kokai. Repentance ; regret. 

kokai sum : to repent ; regret. 
kokol. This place. 

koko ga yd gozaimasu (D) : this place will do. 
koko ni imasu ka ? (C) : is he here ? 
Der.: koko-ira : hereabouts, [see -iro]. 
koko-, [kokonotsu nine]. Nine (in the 3rd 

set of num.: see 271 ; 275). 
kokoku. Advertisement. 

kokoku sum ; kokoku wo dasu : to advertise, 
kokono, [kokonotsu nine]. Nine (in the 3rd 
set of num. and also in the abb. 2nd set : 
see 271 ; 275 ; 276,4). 



kokonoka, [kokonotsu nine ; -ka q.v.]. Nine 

days ; ninth day of the month. 
kokonotsu. Nine. 
In comp. kokonotsu is abb. to kokono see 

276, 4. 

Comp.: kokonoka q.v. 
kokoro. The heart ; nu'nd. 

kokoro kara : with U1 my heart. 

kokoro aru hito : a person with common 
sense. 

ano hito wa kokoro ga kimara-nai (B) : that 
man does not know his own mind. 

kokoro ga ugoita ru> da (B) : his resolution 
was shaken. 

kokoro wo ire-kae-ru : to turn over a new leaf. 

kokoro no okii hito : a generous man. 

kokoro no chiisai hUo : a timid man. 

kokoro ni kakaru : to cause anxiety. 

kokoro ni kake-ru : to bear in mind. 

kokoro wo kiku : to inquire into the senti- 
ments of intentions of a person. 
Comp.: kokoro-mochi q.v. 
kokoro-mochi, [kokoro mind ; motsu to have]. 
Feeling. 

it kokoro-mochi : a pleasant feeling. 

nan to mo ie-nai iya na kokoro-mochi da 
(B) : I have a disagreeable feeling 1 can- 
not describe. 

kokorc-mochi ga yoku nai (B) : I don't feel 
well. 

kokoro-inochi no it : comfortable ; pleasant. 

kokoro-mochi no warui : uncomfortable ; 
unpleasant. 

kokoro-mochi nagaku (or dlciku, etc.) sum : 
to make it a shade longer (or larger, etc.). 
-koku, (used only in comp.). Country. 
Comp. 

Ei-koku : England. 

Bei-koku ; Qasshu-koku : the United States 
of America. 

gaikoku : foreign countries, 
koku ban. Black-board, 
komakai ; komaka na ; (223). Small ; fine ; 
minute. 

komaka ni kaku : to write in small letters ; 
to write out in detail. 

komakaku ki wo tsukete o kure (A) : pay 
close attention. 

komakai no ga arimaaen (C) : I have no 

small change. 

komaru. To be troubled, distressed, incon- 
venienced, perplexed, in a fix, in difficul- 
ties ; not to know what to do. 

kane ni komaru : to be hard up for money. 

by oki de komaru /to suffer from illness. 

henji ni komaru : to be at a loss for an 
answer. 

komatta mon' da (B) : how annoying ; that's 
very awkward. 

kono send ni wa minna komatte shimai- 
mashUa (C) : everybody is in great dif- 
ficulties on account of the war. 



komaru 



66 



kore 



kono ko ni wa komarimasu (C) : I don't 

know what to do with this child. 
ateukutte komarimaau (C) : I feel much dis- 
tressed by the heat. 
komban, [6on2 night ; see konoZ]. Tonight ; 

this evening. 

komban wa (C) : good evening, 
koine, [koi small ; mi fruit]. Rice (before it 

is cooked) ; (the honorific o is gen. pref.). 
kdmori. A bat. 

Comp.: komori-gasa : a European style um- 
brella or sunshade, [kasa umbrella ; the 
shape of a European umbrella resembles 
the wings of a bat]. 

kotnu. To be crowded or huddled together. 
Comp. 

hikkomu : to draw back, [hlku to pull]. 
buchi-komu : to knock in, [butsu to knock]. 
omoi-koiiiu : to be under the impression ; 

set one's heart upon ; [omou to think]. 
kangae-komu : to be absorbed in thought ; 

brood over ; [kangae - ru to tiiink]. 
shimai-komu : to put away, [shimau to put 

away]. 

tobi-komu : to jump in, \tobu to jump], 
kona, [fcol small]. Flour ; powder. 
konaida, [kono-aida q.v.]. 
kondo, [do time ; see &one>2]. This time ; next 

time ; the immediate past. 
kondo dake : this once only. 
kondo wa yoku yarimasu (C) : I will do it 

well this time. 
kondo wa nani wo shimasho ? (C) : what 

shall we do next ? 
kondo tabeta nashi wa umakatta (B) : that 

last pear I had was very nice. 
Note : kondo wa is sometimes contr. to 

konda. 
kongetsu, [getsu month ; see konoZ]. This 

month. 

konna, [contr. of kono yd no}. This kind of ; 
such as this ; like this ; so. 

1) Used attrib. immediately before a noun, 
it often has a contemptuous sense. 

konna hon nara ira-nai (B) : if this is the 

kind of book, I don 't want it. 
konna koto ni naro to wa omowa-nakatta 

(B) : I never thought tilings would come 

to such a pass. 
konna tansu tea doko de kaemasu ka ? (C) : 

where can you buy cabinets like this ? 

2) Has a sup. sense before an adj. or its der.: 
konna ni has also this sense. 

konna kirci na hana wo mita koto ga ari- 

maati ka ? (C) : have you ever seen such 

beautiful flowers as these ? 
konna satnu^a ni wa atta koto ga nai (B) : I 

have never seen such_cold weather as this. 
konna ni takusan arim-a#u (C) : look, there 

is all this ! 
konnichi, [nichi day ; see konoZ], Today ; 

this day. 



konnichi wa (C) : good day ; (sometimes 

used to call attention as when you so into 

a shop and there is no attendant), 
konol, [kokonotsu nine]. Nine (in the 3rd 

set of num.: see 271 ; 275). 
kono-, [often=fcore no]. This. 
kono gurai : about this much. 
kono hoka ni : besides this. 
kono mama (or tori) ni shite oku no kai ? 

(A) : do you mean to leave it like this ? 
kono ni-san-nichi ira taiso attakai (B) : it 

has been very warm these last two or 

three days. 

Comp. 

kono-aida ; kono-goro ; konna ; q.v. 
In the foil, words the sound and the mean- 
ing seem to point to their being derived 

from kono, but the character with which 

they are written moans 'now' and not 

'this'. Kono, however, may serve as a 

mnemonic. 
komban this evening ; kondo this time ; 

kongctsu this month ; konnichi this day, 

today ; konshu this week ; kotoshi this 

year ; all of which see. 
kono-aida, (sometimes contr. to konaida), 

[A-ono2 this ; aida interval]. Recently ; 

lately ; some days ago ; a short time ago. 
tsui kono-aida : a few days ago. 
kono-aida Nakamura San kara kikimashlta 

(C) : I heard about it lately from Mr 

Nakamura. 
kono-goro, [konoZ this ; koro time]. Now-a- 

days ; lately : recently ; (gen. refers to 

something not entirely past). 
kono-goro wa hidoku samui (B) : it has been 

very cold of late. 
kono-goro ano hlto wa nani shite imasu ka ? 

(C) : what is he doing now ? 
kono-goro Tanaka San ni o ai desu ka ? (C) : 

have you met Mr Tanaka lately ? 
konshu, [shu week ; see konoZ]. This week. 
konya. Tonight ; this evening. 
konzatsu. Confusion ; disorder. 
koppu, [Spanish, copa a tumbler]. Glass ; 

tumbler. 

korare'ru. Passive of kuru. 
kore. This one ; (refers also to the present 

moment). 
kore kiri (sometimes pron. korekkiri) ; kore 

dake : only this one. 
kore wa ike-nai (B) : this won't do. 
kore wa yoku irasshaimashlta (D) : oh ! I 

am very pleased to see you, (said to a 

visitor). 
kore de o shimai (B) : and that is all ; this 

completes it. 
kore de o wakarc itashimasii (D) : well I 

must be going. 
kore kara : from now on. 
kore kara hajiwemasu (C) : I am just going 

to begin. 



kore 



67 



koto 



kore kara nanl wo shimasu ka ? (C.) : what 

are you going to do now ? 
kore made : xuitil now. 

kore ! (often corr. to kora !) : an inter], 
(used to call attention, often as a rep- 
rimand). 

kore wa (sometimes korya) : interj. meaning 
surprise. 
kore to iu koto- wa nai (B) : not anything 

yoxi could call important. 
k5ri, [stem of koru to freere]. Ice. 

kau-a ni kori ga harimashita (C) : the river 

is frozen over. 

kori ga tokemashita (C) : the ice has melted. 
korrru. To be warned by a previous ex- 
perience ; get a good lesson. 
korimashUa (C) : this will be a lesson for me. 
koro, (often nigori 'ed to goro). Time ; about 

the time. 
hana-mi mo mo ii koro da (B) : now is the 

season for flower-viewing. 
gr>-ji goro o-ide nasai (B) : come here at 

about five o'clock. 
Comp.: chika-goro ; ima-goro ; itsu-goro; 

kono-goro ; q.v. 
korobasu, v.t. [cogn. w. korobu v.i.]. To 

knock down ; roll, 
korohu, v.i. [cogn. w. korobasu v.t.]. To 

fall down ; roll. 
nana-korobi ya-oki : (lit.) if you fall seven 
times get up eight ; get up every time you 
fall ; never say die ; if at first you don't 
succeed, try, try again. 
koronde mo tarfa wa oki-nai : he does not 
get up after having fallen, without mak- 
ing some profit. 

koroppu, [corr. of English]. Cork. 
Comp.: koroppu-mifci : a corkscrew, [nuku 

to pull out]. 
korosu, [ ? kare-ru to wither ; ? korobasu to 

knock down]. To kill ; murder. 
Comp. 
buchi-korosu ; uchi-korosu : to beat to death 

[butsu, utsu to beat]. 
kami-korosu : to kill by biting, [lamu to 

bite]. 

koru. To freeze. 
Der.: kori : ice. 
kosase*ru. Causative of kuru. 
koshi. The loins. 

bikkuri shite koshi wo nukashua (B) : he wa 

so startled he was not able to move. 
Comp.: koshi-kake-ru ; koshi wo kake-ru : t< 

sit, [kake-rul to hang]. 

koshirae-ru, (sometimes corr. to kosae-ru) 
To make ; prepare. 
nan de koshiraeta no desu ka ? (C) : what i 

it made of ? 

kane wo koshirae-ru : to make money. 
da iku ni koshiraesasemashd (C) : I will hav 

it made by a carpenter, 
koso. An emphatic particle. 



1) The ordinary use. 

anata koso iku hazu da (B) : you at least 
ought to go. 

sore koto baka na koto da (B) : well that is u 
stupid thing. 

sore dc koso Nihon-jin da (B) : that is the 
stuff the Japanese are made of. 

anata no tame wo omoeba koso iya na koto mo 
iu no desu (C) : it is just because I think 
it is for your good that I say such un- 
pleasant things. 

kore koso to omou shina mo nai (B) : there is 
not a single article I care for. 

2) A special use* of koso is when it comes 
after the stem of a verb and is foil, by the 
verb aunt. This constraction is very like 
that with wa mentioned under sum 7). 

sute koso shi-nai ga ira-nai mono da (B) : 
I didn't throw it away though it is a 
thing I don't need. 
kosu. 

1) To cross over; move; change one's 
abode. 

kawa wo kosu : to cross a river. 
ano hlto wa Hongo e koshita (B) : he has 
moved to Hongo. 

2) To be above. 

sore ni koshita koto wa arimasen (C) : there 

is nothing preferable to that. 
Comp.: hikkosu q.v. 
kosuru. To rub. 
kotchi. See kochi. 
koto. An abstract thing ; action ; fact ; (for 

difference between koto and mono see 183). 
1) Not preceded by anything, or preceded 

by an adj. or q. adj. in na or no the idea 

of 'thing' is gen. there though not always 

expressed in English. 
koto ni yoru to Yokohama e iku (B) : 

according to circumstances (according 

as things turn out), I may go to Yokohama. 
koto naki: nunda (B) : it was concluded 

without a hitch. 

baka na koto wo iu : to say silly things. 
onaji koto desu (C) : it's the same thing. 
kuwashii koto wa ato de hanashimasu (C) : 

I will tell you the details (detailed things) 

later on. 
donna koto ga atte mo: whatever may 

happen. 
tashlka na koto wa shirimasen (C) : I don t 

know for certain. 
ano koto wa do narimashUa ka f (C) 

has become of that affair ? 
sore wa kino no koto deau (C) : that took 

place yesterday. 
gohan wo tabete (kara) no koto m nasat ( 

put it off till after dinner. 
tabi-tabi no koto deu (C) : it is a thing tl 

happens frequently. 
kane no koto wo jiman suru : to boast 

one 's money. 



koto 



68 



kowasu 



anata no koto u-o hanashite imashlta (C) : he 
was talking about you. 

2) An adj. (or q. adj.) foil, by koto is some- 
times equivalent to an abstract noun. 

hayai koto : velocity, [hayai quick]. 

takai koto wa nai (B) : it is not dear, (lit.: 

there is no dearness). 
konna ureshii koto wa nai (B) : nothing 

could give me greater pleasure than this. 
omoshiroi koto wa omoshiroi ga. . . (B) : it is 

amusing as far as that goes but. . . ; (lit.: 

as for amusement it is amusing but. . .). 

3) After a verb koto may refer : a) to the 
thing acted upon by the*verb, or, b) to the 
act or fact of the verb itself. The follow- 
ing examples correspond to a). 

ano hlto no iu koto wa honto desu (C) : what 

that man says is true. 
sum koto ga takusan arimasu (C) : there 

are many tilings to be done. 
sore, tea watakushi no sum koto desu- (C) : 

that is my business. 

4) In the case of b) when koto after a verb 
refers to the act or fact of the verb 
itself, it sometimes corresponds to the 
infinitive. 

uma wo kawa-nai koto ni shimashita (or 

kimemashUa) (C) : I have decided not to 

buy a horse. 
Kobe e iku koto ni narimashita (C) : it has 

Ijecome necessary for me (or him) to go 

t<> Kobe. 
sukoshi ageta koto wa agemashitu (C) : it's 

true I did give him a trifle. 
Nagasaki ni itta koto ga arimasu ka ? (C) : 

have you ever been to Nagasaki ? 
ilta koto ga gozaimasu (D) : yes, I have been 

there. 

mita koto ga nai (B) : I have never seen it. 
See am, 5). 

5) A particular case of the above is when 
koto is followed by ga dekvru or ga deki- 
nai ; it may then be rendered by the 
potential. 

t'l-w koto ga dekiru (B) : I can go. 
kurakute yotnu koto ga dekimfuten (C) : it is 
so dark I cannot read. 

6) At the end of a sentence after a verb, an 
adj. or a q. adj. in na, koto gen. has an 
exclamatory force. 

ano ko no naku koto ! (B) : how that child 

does cry ! 

hayai koto ! oh, how quick ! what velocity ! 
kirei na koto ! how pretty ! 

7) Tlie foil, examples are worthy of study ; 
the words koto wo, or no koto may lie 
suppressed. * 

''tiso-tsuki da' nante koto iro watashi ni ieru 
liazu ga nai (B) : he had no right to call 
me a liar (or say anything like that). 

o bo -son wo onna no koto desfi kara. kono 
hunashi ico kiite yokei 



(C) : when the old woman heard what had 
happened, being a woman, she was even 
more sorry (than the old man). 
Taro no koto des'~>. kara teinei n> shimasu (C) : 
as it is Taro (who is making them, and he 
has a reputation of being such a good 
worker), of course they will l>e very care- 
fully made. 

kotoba. Language ; speech ; word. 

ano kata no kotoba wa hitotsu mo wakari- 
maaen (C) : I don't understand a single 
word he says. 

In comp. kotoba often loses its final syllable : 
see kogoto, kotozuke-ru. 

kotoshi, [toshi year ; see kono%}. This year. 

kotowaru, [koto thing ; warn to divide]. 

1) To inform beforehand. 

mae kara o kotowari sh't" arimasu (C) : I 

warned you in advance. 
mo kotowara-nai de uchi wo dete wa ikc-nai 

(A) : you mustn't go out again without 

asking permission. 

2) To refuse. 

so sum no wa kotowarimashlta (C) : I re- 
fused to do so. 

kippari kotowaru : to flatly refuse. 

kotowari no tegami wo yam : to send a letter 
of refusal. 

tegami no go sodan wa o kotowari desu (C) : 
I cannot discuss this matter by mail, (I 
must have a personal interview). 
kotozukeTU, [kotoha word ; tsuke-ru to apply]. 
To send a message ; send by somebody. 

tomodachi ni tegami wo kotozuke-ru : to 

request a friend to carry a letter. 
Der. 

kotozuke : a message. 

kotozuke wo sum : to send a message. 
kowagaru, \kowai fearful ; garu q.v.J. To 
be afraid of. 

ano ko wa taiso kaminari wo kowagarimasu 
(C) : that child is very much afraid of 
thunder. 
kowai. 

1) Fearful ; alarming; feeling fear ; causing 
fear. 

kowai no desu ka ? (C) : are you afraid '! 
fune ni noru no wa kowai (B) : I am afraid 

of travelling by boat. 
kowai kao wo sum : to frown. 
kowai hlto da (B) : he is a terrible man. 

2) Hard ; stiff. 
Der.: kowagaru q.v. 

kowarCTU, v.i. fcogn. w. kowasu v.t.]. To 

break ; be broken or ruined. 
kino kowaremashlta (C) : it broke yester- 
day. 
kor" wa kowarete imasu (C) : this one is 

broken. 

Comp.: koware-yasui : fragile, [yasui easy]. 
kowasu, v.t. [cogn. w. kou-arcTU v.i.]. To 
break ; destroy. 



kowasu 



69 



kudasaru 



Taro ga kowashita no desu (C) : Taro broke 

it. 
Comp.: buch'-kowasu : to knock to pieces, 

[butsu to knock]. 
kozo, [&ol small]. A servant boy ; errand 

boy. 

ku, (sometimes pron. kyu, 273). Nine, 
ku. See kuu. 
kubi. Neck ; head. 

kari de. kubi ga mawara-nai (B) : he is up 

to his ears in debt. 

kubi wo ageru (B) : I'll bet you anything. 
kubi ni sum : to turn somebody out (of a 

situation). 
dorobo sfnta no de kubi ni sareta (B) : as he 

was caught stealing they turned him out. 
kubi wo nagaku shite matsu : to wait with a 

craned neck ; wait eagerly. 
kubi wo torn : to behead. 
Comp. 

te-kubi : wrist, [te hand]. 
ashi-kubi : ankle, [aehi foot]. 
kuchi. 

1) Mouth ; opening. 

kuchi wo ire-ru ; kuchi wo dasu : to speak 
without being asked ; interfere in what 
doesn't concern one. 
kuchi ni au : to suit one's taste. 
kuchi wo suru : to cork. 
kuchi wo ake-ru : to uncork ; open the 
mouth. 

kuchi wo kiku : to speak. 
aimashita ga kuchi wo kikimasen deshlta 

(C) : I saw him but didn't speak to him. 
kuch I to kane-ire wa shimeru ga toku : it is 
better to keep your mouth and your purse 
closed. 
chotto kuchi ni iware-nai (B) : I can't for 

the moment think of the word. 
kuchi to kokoro to chigaimasu (C) : he is not 

sincere in what he says. 
kenka no kuchi : the beginning of a quarrel. 
kuchi de : by word of mouth. 
hito no kuchi ni to wa taterare-nai : you can- 
not close people's mouths. 
kuchi ga subette itte shimatta (B) : (lit. my 
tongue slipped and I said it) ; I carelessly 
let the cat out of the bag. 
kuchi no warui hito : a man coarse in speech. 
kuchi no karui hito : a man who talks with- 
out thinking ; a chatterbox. 
kuchi no omoi hUo : a man who weighs his 

words. 
kuchi no katai hito : a man reserved in 

his speech. 

kuchi no umai hito : a man who can talk 
people over and get round them. 

2) Situation ; employment. 

kuchi wo kake-ru ; kuchi wo tanomu : t 

apply for a situation. 
kuchi wo sagasu : to look for a situation. 

3) Article. 



eono kuchi wa ima gozaitnaeen (D) : that 
article is now out of stock. 
kono kuchi no shina wa kireta (B) : there 

are no more goods of this quality. 
Comp. 

de-guchi : exit, [de-ru to go out], 
iri-guchi : entrance, [iru2 to enter]. 
kage-guchi : backbiting, [kage shade]. 
muda-guchi : idle talk, [muda useless]. 
waru -kuchi : evil speaking, [warui bad]. 
moke-guchi : an opportunity for making 

money, [moke'ru to gain money], 
ure-kuchi : sale, [ure-ru to sell]. 
hMo-kuchi : a mouthful, [hitotsti one], 
hito -kuchi ni ieba : in a word. 
kuda. Pipe : tube, 
kudamono. Fruit. 

kudari, [stem of kudaru to descend]. Des- 
cent. 

kore kara kudari ni naru kara raku d<?sft 
(C) : as we go downhill now it will be 
easy. 
Comp. 
kudari-zaka : a road going downhill, [saka 

an inclined road]. 
kudari -Idaho, ; kudari no kisha : down train, 

i.e. from Tokyo, [kisha train]. 
kudaru, v.i. [cogn. w. kudasaru v.t.]. To 
go down ; descend. 
kawa wo kudaru : to go down a river. 
kudara-nai mono : an insignificant thing. 
Der.: kudari q.v. 
kudasai, [irreg. imperative of kudasaru q.v.]. 

1) When not following a gerund or verbal 
stem please give me. 

pan wo kudasai (C) : please give (get) me 
some bread. 

2) After a gerund or verbal stem please. 
itte kudasai (C) : please tell me. 

kudasaru, v.t. [cogn. w. kudaru v.i.]. An 
honorific verb used politely of the 2nd 
person, sometimes of the 3rd. It has a 
few irregularities : it drops the r before 
the masu terminations ; the imperative is 
kudasai (q.v.) ; the second a is often 
dropped before terminations beginning 
with tt, thus kudas'Ua for kudasatta. 
Kudasaru always refers to an action done 
directly or indirectly in favour of the let 
person. 

1) Not following a gerund or verbal stem 
to give. 

matchi wo kudaaaimasen ka ? (C) : could you 

favour me with a match ? 
sensei ga otdto ni kudasaimathUa (C) : the 

teachor gave it to my youngw brother. 

2) After a gerund or verbal stem please ; 
do the favour. 

kasa wo o kashi kudasaimaeen ka'f 
would you please lend me your umbrella T 

itte kudasaimasu ka ? (C) : will you do me 
the favour to go ? 



kudasaru 



70 



kure 



so shite kudasareba kekko desti (0) : if you 
would kindly do so, that would suit me 
very well. 

kntte kudasaimashlta (D) : he did me the 
favour of buying it for me ; he bought it 
and gave it to me ; see 110. 
Note. The construction with the stem 
cannot be used unless the stem has at 
least two syllables ; the honorific o is 
always placed L>efore the stem. 
kurru, [potential of kuu to eatj. To be 

able to eat. 
naka-naka kue-nai otoko da (B) : he is a 

very sharp fellow, (not easily taken in). 
kufu. Plan ; scheme. 

kuju sum : to arrange a plan ; take mea- 
sures. 
hitotsu kufu wo shUc wimasho (C) : I will try 

and see what (plan) I can arrange. 
domo kuju go, tsuka nai (B) : I cannot 

arrange the matter any way. 
ii kufu da (B) : it is a good scheme. 
ku-gatsu, [ku nine; gatsu month]. Septem- 
ber. 
kugi. Nail ; peg. 

kugi wo utsu : to drive a nail. 
kiiki. Air. 
kumi. A set. 
Note : kumi is used in connection with the 

abb. 2nd set of num. (276, 4). 
kumoi. A cloud. 

Der.: kutnoru : to become cloudy. 
kumo2. Spider. 

kumo no su : a spider's web. 
kumoru, [kumol cloud]. To become cloudy. 
kumu. To draw (water or othei liquid). 
kawa no mizu wo kunde o-ide (A) : go and 

get some water from the river. 
kuni. Country ; province ; one 's native 

country. 
o kuni v.-a doko desu ka ? (C) : from what 

country are you ? 

kuni kara kitn tcgami : n letter from home. 
kuni e kaeru : to return to one 's own 

country. 

kura. A godown ; storehouse ; warehouse. 
kurabt'TU. To compare. 

kyonen ni knraberu to kotoshi no ho ga atsui 

(B) : it is hot this year compared to last. 

kurabele mi-nakereba dochira ga ii ka n-aka- 

rimaimn (C) : I cannot tell which is the 

better until I see them both together. 

kurabe-mono ni nara-nai (B) : there is no 

comparison between them, 
kurail, [f. kuroi black]. Dark ; obscure. 
kuraku nara-nai ufhi ni : before it gets 

dark. 
akari ga. kurakute yome-nai (B) : the light 

is so bad I cannot read. 
Gomp.: makkurai : pitch-dark, [see maZ], 
kurai-, (very often used in its nigori 'ed form 
gurai). 



1) Approximate quantity. 
dono gurai ? how much ? 
kono gurai : about this much. 
jit-yen gurai kakarimasfi (C) : it will cost 

about ten yen. 

ni-jikan gurai : about two hours. 
A'oro made <1ono gurai arimasit ka ? (C) : 

how far is it to Nara ? 
O Shichi wa kinjo de sfiira-nai mono ga 

nai gurai no bit in deshlta (C) : Misn Shichi 

was so pretty that there was praticnlly 

nobody in the neighbourhood who hadn't 

heard of her beauty. 
2)' Degree. 
fi/ma gurai hayai : about as quick as a 

horse. 
sono gurai no koto nara watashi ni mo <le!:i- 

masu (C) : if it is no more difficult than 

that, even 1 can do it. 
sagasu. kurai nara waiashi (ni} nw dekimasu 

(C) : if it is only a question of looking for 

it, I also can do that. 
ano gurai ii hilo wa ammari nai (B) : there 

are very few such good-natured fellows as 

ha 
ayamaru gurai wa sum hazu da (A) : the 

least you can do is to apologize. 
te gurai aratte. o-ide (A) : at least wash your 

hands before you come. 
Kamakura e kite Daibutsu wo r.i-nai de 

kaeru gurai nara ko-nakercba yokatta ( B ) : 

it would have been better not to have 

come to Kamakura at all, if F have to go 

back without seeing tho Daibutsu. 
3) Small difference. 
kotchi no ho ga okii gurai (B) : this one is 

slightly bigger. 
ano fufu wa o-kami-san no ho ga sei ga 

takai gurai desu (C) : of that married 

couple, the wife is slightly the taller. 
kurasu. To pass the time ; Jive. 

raku ni kurasu : to lead an easy life ; live 

in comfort. 

asond-e kurasu : to live in idleness. 
hi wo kurasu : to spend one 's time ; pass 

the day. 
sono hi gurashi wo suru : to live from hand 

to mouth. 
do shite kurashltc iru no deshd (C) : I wonder 

how he manages to live. 
Kagoshima de fuyu wo kurashh'Mshtta (C) : 

1 spent the winter in Kagoshima. 
rippa ni kurashite iku : to live in splendid 

style. 
kure, [imperative of kure-ru q.v. to give]. 

A" ure is used only to one's inferiors; the 

honorific o is frequently prefixed and 

makes it somewhat less curt. 

1) Not following a gerund give. 

mizu wo ip-pai (o) kure (A) : give me a glass 
of water. 

2) After a gerund it is used in commands. 



kure 



71 



kuru 



hon wo motte kite (o) kure (A) : bring the 

book. 

kuruma wo yonde (o) kure (A) : call a 
' rikisha. 

kureTU. This verb is impolite when speak- 
ing of the act of the 2nd person and 
familiar when referring to the act of the 
3rd person. It is used, therefore, when 
speaking to one's inferiors or of some 
intimate friend or inferior. The im- 
perative is kure q.v. Kure-ru gen. refers to 
an act done directly or indirectly in 
favour of the 1st person.. 

1) Not following a gerund give. 

uchi no Taro ga kuremaxhlta (C) : my son 

(brother) Taro gave it to me. 
boku ni kureru no kai ? (B) : do you give it 

to me ? 
neko ni kudamono wo kurete wa ike-nai (A) : 

don 't give fruit to the cat. 
kojiki ni kure nasai (B) ; kojiki ni kurete o 

yari nasai (B) : give it to a beggar, (not 

used when referring to 1st person). 
o kun nasai (corr. of o kure nasai, not 

used) (B) : give it to me, (not used when 

referring to 3rd person). 

2) After a gerund for me. 

chichi ga kaite kuremashita (C) : my father 

wrote it for me. 
ashtta wa sukoshi hayaku okite kure-nai to 

komn.ru (A) : if you don't get up earlier 

(on my account) tomorrow morning, I 

shall bo much inconvenienced. 
kuro, n. 182, [kuroi adj. black]. Black, 
kuro. Trouble ; labour ; anxiety ; (when 

used in set polite phrases it is always pre- 
ceded by the honorific go), 
oya ni kuro wo kake-ru : to cause one's 

parents great concern. 
kuro sMia ningen de nakute wa yaku ni tola- 

nai (B) : a man is useless unless he haa 

gone through hardships. 
kore wo sagas fi no ni zuibun kuro shUa (B) : 

I took great trouble looking for this. 
haha ga byoki ni natta no de hUo-kuro desu 

(C) : my worries have increased now that 

my mother is ill. 
go-kurc sama deshita (B) : thanks for your 

trouble ; (said gen. to inferiors). 
go-kuro desu ga kore wo motte itte kudasai 

(B): L am sorry to trouble you but please 

take this with you. 
kuroi. Black. 

ano Into wa iro ga kuroi (B) : he is dark. , 
ano hlto wa hara ga kuroi (B) : he has a 

vicious heart. 
Comp. 
makkuroi : jet-black, [see wa2.]. 

kurail (q.v.) : dark. 
kuro to, [kuroi black ; hlto person : compare 

shiroto]. A skilled person ; expert ; 
adept. 



sono koto ni kakete wa ano hlto wa kurdto da 
(B) : in such matters he is quite an 
expert. 

kuru ; irreg. verb, see 28 ; o-ide (q.v.) is gen. 
used as the imperative of kuru. 

1) To come. 

dare ga kesa kimashUa ka ? (C) : who came 

this morning '! 
rtani ka watashi ni kimashUa ka ? (C) : haa 

anything come for me ? 
mata gogo ni kimasu (C) : I will call again 

this afternoon. 
watakushi ga kuru toki ni wa mada kaeri- 

masen deshUa (C) : he hadn't returned 

when I left. 
ano hlto wa kind kara kite im (B) : he has 

been here since yesterday. 
muko kara kuru densha wa Shimbashi yuki 

de#u (C) : the tram-car coming over there, 

goes to Shimbashi. 

2) When ni kuru follows the stem of a verb 
it signifies purpose or object and may be 
translated by 'come for' or 'come to'. 

tokei wo tori ni kimashlta (C) : I have come 
for the clock (to take away the clock). 

kore wo shirase ni kimashUa (C) : I ha^e 
called to let you know this. 

3) After a gerund kuru signifies motion to- 
wards the, speaker though the translation 
in English is sometimes 'go'. The ger- 
und and kuru often represent one com- 
plex action and not two separate ideas. 

aruite kimashUa (C) : I wa'ked here. 

mite kimasho (C) : 1 will go and see (and 
come back). 

haruwhite o-ide (A) : go and tell him (and 
come back). 

Koyama San ga Hakone de kaite kita r, wa, 
jitsii m yoku dekite iru (B) : the picture 
which Mr Koyama painted at H akone is 
really very well done, (he is now back 
here). 

'jibiki wo kudasai' to itte kimashUa (C) : 
he came to ask me for my dictionary, 
(kite iimasUta would seem more logical). 

motte kuru : to bring. 

totte kuru : to fetch. 

kaette kuru : to come back. 

4) The idea of coming, enclosed in kuru, is 
sometimes very indistinct; and kuru 
seems to refer moro to 'coming into 
being' than to 'coming towards the 
speaker'. 

ame ga futte kita (B) : it hns begun to rain. 

mo iya ni natte kimashUa (C) : I have grown 
tired of it. 

yatto chichi ga naotta to omottara kardo 1 
haha no byoki to kimashUa (C) : at last my 
father got better (and I thought my 
troubles were over), then my mother fell 
ill. 

5) To send word. 



kuru 



kutsu 



nan to ino itte kimasen kara, wakarimasen 
(C) : as he hasn't sent any message I 
don't know. 

to tegami de itte kimashlta (C) : a letter 
came saying 

6) Kita is added to other words used as 
excl. 

yoshi kita ! all right. 

sora kita ! here you are ! there he is ! 

dore kita ! let 's begin. 

7) To kitara ; to kite wa=to ieba. 
Doitsu-go to kitara wataslii wa maru de 

dame desu (C) : as for German, I don't 
know a single word. 

Note. The passive of kuru is korare-ru : the 
causative kosase f ru is little used, the verb 
yokosu is used instead. The neg. future 
is generally komai or kimai, but kumai 
and the regular form kurumai are some- 
times heard. The humble form of kuru 
(polite for the 1st person) is maim, oc- 
casionally agaru : the honorific forms 
(polite for the 2nd person) are irassharu, 
o-ide nasaru, o-ide ni naru, o-ide de gozaru, 
and o-ide kudasaru. The imperative of 
kuru is gen. taken from one of the honorif- 
ic forms. 
Comp.: ki-kakaru : to happen to come, [see 

kakaru]. t 

kuruma. Wheel ; carriage (esp. rikisha). 
, kuruma ni noru : to ride in a rikisha. 

kuruma wo mo ichi-dai yonde kure (A) : call 

another rikisha. 

kuruma wo hlku : to pull a rikisha. 
Jniruma ga mawara-nai (B) : the wheel 

won't turn. 
Comp. 

kuruma-ya : a rikisha-man. 
ni-guruma : a hand-cart, [ni- package]. 
kurushii, [i. kurushimu to suffer pain]. 
Agonizing ; painful. 
a kurushii / (B) : oh, how painful ! 
kurushii toki no kami-danomi : in distress 
we turn to God, [tanomu to request], 
kurushime-ru. v.t. [cogn. w. kurushimu v.i.]. 

To persecute ; torment ; worry, 
kurushimi, [f. kurushimu to suffer pain]. 

Pain ; Buffering ; ache. 
kurushimu, v.i. [cogn. w. kurushime-ru v.t.]. 

To suffer pain ; worry. 

nani wo hitori de sonna ni kurushinde iru no 
ka ? (A) : what are you worrying about all 
by yourself ? 
kusa. Grass ; weeds. 

kusa wo toru : to weed, 
kusai. Malodorous ; evil-smelling. 
kusai, kusai ! what a smell ! 
kusaku naru : to go bad (and emit an evil 

smell). 

kusai mono ni wa futa wo sum : to cover a 
stinking object ; to hide things or facts of 
which one is ashamed. 



kusai mono ni hai ga yoru : flies collect 

round evil-smelling things. 
ano otoko ga kusai yd da (B) : that man 

looks suspicious to me. 
In comp. after a noun, kusai means that one 

is reminded of the noun, generally in an 

objectionable way. 
kabi-kusai : apparently mouldy. 
koge-kusai : smell or taste as if burnt, 

[koge-ru to get scorched]. 
inaka-kusai : rustic. 
ano hlto wa mada chichi-kusai (B) : he is 

still very green. 
kusaru, [f. kusai malodorous]. To decay ; 

become rotten. 
kiisatta sakana wo tabete wa ike-nai (A) : 

you mustn't eat stale fish. 
kuse. 

1) Peculiarity of manner ; habit. 
kuse wo tsuke-ru : to form a habit. 

warui kuse wa tsuki-yasid (B) : bad habits 

are easily acquired. 
kuse wo naosu : to correct a bad habit. 
nani ka kuse no nai mono wa nai (B) : there 

is no one without some peculiarity. 
nakute nana-kuse : one has at least seven 

peculiarities. 
hito wo waruku iu no ga kuse da (B) : he has 

a habit of always speaking ill of people. 

2) No kuse ni after a noun, or kuse ni after 
a verb or adjective is gen. contemptuous. 

1 otoko no kuse ni ki ga chiisai (B) : he is 

timid though he is a man. 
.'Akodomo no kuse ni tabako wo nonde, iya na 

yatsu da (B) : what a nasty boy to be 

smoking though he is only a child. 
Comp. 

te-kuse : habit of pilfering. 
ano hito wa te-kuse ga warui (B) : he has a 

bad habit of pilfering. 
kusuri. Drug ; medicine ; something good 

for the health. 

kusuri wo nomu : to take medicine. 
kusuri ni naru : to be good for the health. 
undo wa kusuri desa (C) ; undo wa kusuri ni 

naru (B) : exercise is good for the health. 
kono kusuri wa kika-nai (B) : this medicine 

has no effect. 
sonna mono wa kusuri ni ahltakute mo nai 

(B) : it is not to be got for love or money. 
kono chichi ni wa nani ka kusuri ga haitteru 

yd da (B) : they must have put some drugs 

in this milk. 

Comp.: kusuri -ya : a chemist ; druggist, 
kutabire-ru. To become tired ; (said only of 

human beings). 

kutabiremashita (C) : I am tired. 
kutabire ga nuketa (B) : I have recovered 

from the fatigue. 
kutsu. Boots ; shoes. 

kutsu wo haku : to put on one 's boots. 
kitten wo nugu : to take off one's boots. 



kutsu 



73 



ma 



kutsu wo migaku : to clean or polish the 

boots. 
Comp,: kutsu-shita : socks (European); 

stockings, 

kuttsuke-ru, v.t. [ ? kuu to bite ; tsuke-ru to 
join : cogn. w, kuttsuku v.i.]. To stick ; 
join, 
gohan de kuttsuke nasai (B) : stick it on 

with rice, 

kuttsuku, v.i. [ ? kuu to bite ; tsukul to join : 
cogn. w. kuttsukvru v.t.]. To stick ; 
adhere. 
sumi ga kao ni kutteuite imaau (C) : your 

face is smudged with ink. 
kuu. To eat ; bite. 

shiinatte oita no de mushi ni kuwareta (B) : 
as it had been put away, it was eaten by 
moths. 
no hito wa nan de kutte iru no da ? (A) : 

what does he do for a living ? 
kuu ka kuwa-zu ni imaau (C) : he can hard- 
ly keep the wolf from the door. 
kutte iku dake no kane wa hairimasu (C) : I 
earn jxist enough to keep body and soul 
together. 

Ico-goto wo kuu : to be scolded. 
kuwa-zu girai : to dislike a thing before 

having tried it. 
sono te wa kuwa-nai (B) : you won't catch 

me with that dodge. 
ip-pai kuwasareta (B) : I was completely 

taken in. 
Comp. 

kui-tsuku : to bite (as an attack). 
inu ni kui-tsukaremashlta (C) : I was bitten 

by a dog. 

aida-gui : eating between meals. 
kuwashii. Minute ; detailed. 

kuwashlku hanashimashlta (C) : he told me 

in detail. 
ano hlto wa e no koto ni kuwashii (B) : he is 

a connoisseur in paintings. 
kuyashii. Regrettable ; irritating ; annoying. 
konna kuyashii koto wa nai (B) : I was 

never so mortified in my life. 
kya. Abb. of kiri shlka ; see kiri. 
kyaku. A visitor ; guest ; customer. 

ima kyaku ga aru kara ate de o ide nasa 
(B) : as I have company just now please 
come later on, 
o kyaku sama de gozaimasu (D) : a visitor 

has come. 

Comp.: kyaku-ma : drawing-room. 
kyo. Today. 

kyo wa nani yo-bi desu ka? (C) : what day 

of the week is it ? 
Comp.: kyo-ju : some time today, 
kyodai. Brothers and sisters. 

go kyodai wa o ikutari de gozaimasu ka 
(D) : how many brothers and sisters have 
you ? 
kyonen, [nenl year]. L&*t year. 



kyoso. Competition ; rivalry ; a race. 
kyoso SUTU : to compete ; run a race, 
kyoso ni katsu. : to win a race, 
kyfil, [occasionally said instead of ku nine, 
273], Nine. 

kyu-sen : nine sen ; nine thousand, 
kyu- (na or no). Sudden ; steep. 

saka wa kyu deed ka ? (C) : is the hill steep? 
kyu ni : suddenly. 

kyu ni dekakeru koto ni natta (B) : some- 
thing unexpected has happened which 
obliges me to go out ; something has 
hapwned which obliges me to set out 
immediately, 
Corr.p.: kyuko-refsha ; an express train, [J:o 

to go ; retsu a row ; sha carriages^. 
ma i. 

1) Interval of time or space. 
ma ni au : to be in time ; serve the purpose, 
mo ni awase-ru : to get (something) ready 

in time ; make serve the purpose. 
cholo ma ni aimasliita (C) : I was just in 

time. 
anna hlto de wa ma ni awa-nai (B) : that 

sort of man won't suit me. 
ashita made ni ma ni awasemasti (C) ; I will 

get it ready by tomorrow, 
kore de ma ni awasemasho (C) : I will make 

this do. 

ma mo naku : soon ; in a little while. 
klsha wa ma mo naku demasu (C) : the train 

will leave in a few minutes. 
wwt ga nukete vru : to appear foolish. 
hanashi no tone ga nakunatte sukoshi ma ga 
nuketa (B) : as we had exhausted the 
subjects for conversation there was an 
awkward silence. 

rusu no ma ni hikkosMta no dard ka ? (B) 
I wonder if they've moved while I was 
away, 

dorobo wa shira-nai ma ni toket wo nutund 
(B) : a thief stole my watch I don't know 
when. 

o iii-san wa iUu no ma ni ka iono hanai 
v,o kikimaahUa (C) : the old man some 
time or other heard that tale. 
2) A room. 

N ote : ma in the sense of room is \ 
in connection with the abb. 2nd i 
num. (276, 4). 
Comp. 

hima : spare time, [hil day], 
hirurna : day-time. 
tema : time spent in doing any work. 
aki-ma : an unoccupied room. 
ne-ma : a bedroom, [ne-ru to sleep]. 
i.ma : a sitting-room, [rrwl to be]. 
kashi-ma : a room to let, [kasu to rent]. 
kyaku-ma : a drawing-room. 
betsu-ma : a separate room. 
ma2. Truth. 

ma ni uke-ru .- to take as true. 



ma 



74 



made 



ano hito no hanashi wa ma ni ukeraremasen 

(C) : you cannot rely on what he says. 
In comp. it emphasizes and acts as an in- 
tensifier. 

makoto : truth. 

mannaka : the very centre, [naka inside]. 

mammarui : exactly round, [marui round]. 

masshikaku : exactly square, [shi-kaku 
square]. 

massugu : perfectly straight, [#ugu directly]. 

masshirQi : snow-white, [shiroi white]. 

makkuroi : jet-black, [kuroi black]. 

makkurai : pitch-dark, [kurail dark]. 

makkai : flaring red, [akai red]. 

maesaoi : very green, [aoi green]. 

mappadaka : stark naked, [hadaka naked]. 
ma. An interjection meaning sometimes sur- 
pris'e or admiration, and sometimes almost 
nothing. 

md odoroita ! (B fern.) : well I am surpris- 
ed ! only fancy ! dear me ! 

md akai ! (B fern.): why. you are red ! 

ma o machi kudasai (C) : just wait a mo- 
ment please. 

mabuta, [me eye ; fiita lid]. Eyelid. 
machi. A town ; street. 

machi d5, [matsuZ to wait ; toi far]. Waiting 
a long time. 

o machido sama deshita (C) : excuse me for 

keeping you waiting so long. 
machigae, [stem of machigae-ru to mistake]. 

Same meaning as machigai q.v. 
machigae*ru, v.t. [mol interval ; chigae-ru to 
mistake : cogn. w. machigau v.i.]. To 
mistake. 

gomen kudasai, machigaemaohita (D) : ex- 
cuse me I made a mistake. 

michi wo machigae-ru : to take the wrong 
road. 

A wo B to machi 'gaemashita (C) : I mistook 
A for B. 

dare ka Jibuti no to machigaete motte itta no 
desho (C) : perhaps somebody has taken 
it by mistake for his own. 
Der.: machigae. 

machigai, (sometimes machigae), [f. machigau 
to be wrong]. A mistake ; blunder ; 
accident. 

machigai ga arimashita (C) : there was a 
mistake ; there was an accident. 

watashi no machigai deshita (C) : it was my 
mistake. 

nani ka machigai desho (C) : there is some 
mistake no doubt. 

dare ni de mo machigai ga aru (B) : any- 
body can make a mistake. 

machigai no nai : correct. 

machigai naku kimasu (C) : I will not fail to 

come. 

machigau, v.i. [mal interval ; chigau to be 
different : cogn. w. machigae-ru v.t.]. To 
be different ; be mistaken ; be wrong. 



kore wa machigatte imasu (C) : this is wrong. 
shitsurei desu ga anata ga machigatte irOK- 

sharu yd denu (C) : I beg your pardon but 

I believe you are mistaken. 
Der.: machigai q.v.: a mistake. 
niada. Yet ; still ; (often dropped in the 

translation). 

mada dkiku narimasu (C) : he is still grow- 
ing. 

mada kimasen (C) : he has not yet come. 
mada desu (C) : not yet. 
mada shokuji ga deki-nai ka ? (A): isn't 

dinner ready yet ? 
mada mittsu ni natta bakkari desu (C) : he is 

only in his third year (yet). 
mada kodomo desu (C) : he is only a child. 
mada fune ni notta koto ga nai (B) : I have 

never been on board a ship. 
tvatakushi ga dekakeru toki ni wa mada kae- 

rimasen deshita (C) : he hadn't returned 

when I left. 
mada arimasu ka ? (C) : have you any 

more ? 
watashi no hey a ni mada ar imasu (C) : there 

are some more in my room. 
neko wa dai-kirai, inu nara mada ii keredo 

(B) : I hate cats, dogs are not quite so 
bad. 

made. 
1 ) Until ; till ; as far as ; to ; even. 

watakushi ga kuru made o machi nasai (B) : 
wait till I come. 

ima made : hitherto. 

ima made wakarimascn deshita (C) : I never 
understood it before. 

sore made : till that time ; in the mean- 
while. 

sore madeyaman o shi nasai (B) : be patient 
until then. 

sore made no koto ni itashimasho (D) : don't 
let us think of it any more ; let us put it 
off till the Greek Calends. 

natsu-yasumi wa ku-gatsu no toka made desu 

(C) : the summer holidays last until the 
10th of September, (school begins on the 
llth : made is always inclusive). 

shinu made : until death. 
shinu made wasuremasen (C) : I'll remem- 
ber it all my life. 
kyo made no kanjo wo shimasho (C) : I'll 

make out the account to date. 
doko made o-ide nasaimashita ka ? (D) : 

how far did you go ? 
kono basha ni wa roku-nin made wa nore- 

maau (C) : this carriage will hold as many 

as six persons. 
kimono made mo yaketa (B) : even my 

clothes were burnt. 
kodomo ni made baka ni sareru (B) : even 

children make a fool of him. 
go-ji made shimbitn wo yomimasu (C) : I 

read the newspaper until five o'clock. 



made 



75 



make'ru 



sore wa iu made mo nai (B) : that 
without saying. 

2 ) Made ni : by ; before. 

go-ji made ni shimbun wo yomimasu (C) : I 
shall have read the newspaper by five 
o 'clock. 

ashita made ni dekimasu (C) : it will be 
ready by tomorrow. 

3) Doko made mo : see doko, 3). Itsu made : 
see itsu, 7), 

ttiado, [mai interval ; tol door]. Window. 
Comp.: mado-kake : a curtain for the win- 
dow, [kake-rul to hang]. 
mae. 

1) As a q. ppn. referring to place before; 
in front of. 

mise no mae ni tatte imashUa (C) : he was 

standing before the shop. 
o taku no mae wo torimashlta (C) : I passed 

(the front of) your gate. 
fujin no mae de sonna koto wo itte iva shitu- 

rei desu (C) : it is impolite to talk like that 

in the presence of ladies. 
ano tokei-ya no mae de tomete o kure (A) : 

stop at that watch-maker's. 

2) When referring to time, the no is gen. 
dropped : it may be translated by : ago ; 
before. 

hachi-ji mae ni wa ikaremasen (C) : I can- 
not be there before eight o 'clock. 

san-ji jip-pun mae : ten minutes to three. 

san-nen mae : three years ago. 

kono mae itta toki : the last time I went. 

go-roku-nichi mae kara Tokyo ni imasu (C) : 
he has been in Tokyo for the last five or 
six days. 

3) After a verb, no is dropped : mae ni is 
used when an affirmative verb follows, 
mae wa when a negative verb follows. 

shimbun wo mi-nai (or miru) mae ni shitte 
imashita (C) : I knew it before I saw it in 
the newspaper. 

ik-u (or ika-nai) mae ^^fiirimasen deshlta 
(C) : I didn't know beW-e I went. 

4) As a q. adj. mae no means previous, front. 
mae no tori : the previous way ; the same as 

before, 
sonna ni mae no koto de wa nai (B) : it was 

not so long ago. 
ichiban mae no basho ni kakete imaau (C) : 

he is sitting in the front seat. 
mae no o kata wa boshi wo totte kudasai (C) : 

will the gentlemen in front please remove 

their hats ? 

5) As an adv. mae ni means : previously ; 
already ; before. 

kore wa mae ni (mo) kiita koto ga am (B) : I 

have already heard it. 
mae ni hanashita tori : as I said before. 

6) mae motte ; mae. kara : beforehand. 
mae motte kotowarimasltita (C) : I wa 

you beforehand. 



7) Portion ; share. 
hitor i mae : portion for one man. 
meshi go-nin mae : rice for five men. 
him no shokuji wa Mtori-mae ic.hi-yen desu 

(C) : the price of lunch is one yen each. 
Comp. 

mae-ashi : front legs. 
mae-ba : front teeth, [ha2 tooth]. 
mae-kake : an apron, [kake-rul to hang], 
kiru-mae : forenoon, [hint midday], 
magaru, v.i. [cogn. w. mage-ru v.t.]. To 

bend ; become bent. 
magatte vru : to be bent, crooked. 
ano o jii-san wa koshi ga magatte imasu (C) : 

that old man is bent with age. 
kokoro ga magarimashUa (C) : his mind be- 
came perverted. 
mageru, v.t. [cogn. w. magaru v.i.]. To 

bend ; distort ; yield. 
magete o-ide kudasai (D) : please do come, 
mago-mago. In a confused or bewildered 

way. 
mago-mago sum : to be bewildered ; to 

potter about. 
mai. A.n. used for flat things such as sheets 

of paper, boards, coats, rugs, plates, etc. 
nam-mai-me dsu ka ? (C\ : on what page 

is it ? 

Note : 3 sam-mai; 1000 aem-mai ; nam-mai f 
mai-. Every ; each ; (used only in compA 
Comp.: among others, the following : 
mai-asa : every morning. 
mai-ban : every night. 
mai-do : every time. 
mai-getsu : monthly ; every month. 
mai-nen : yearly ; every year. 
mai-nichi : daily ; every day. 
mai-shu : weekly ; every week. 
mai-to/>}>i : yearly ; every year. 
mai-tsuki : monthly ; every month, 
tnairu. To come ; go. 

o mairi ni iku : to go to pray at a temple, 
jfote. Maim is a humble verb, polite in the 
1st person. The corresponding ordinary 
verbs are kuru (q.v.) to come, and tt?< 
(q.v.) to go. 
majime (na). Serious ; earnest. 

majime de*u (C) : I am in earnest. 
makaru, v.i. [cogn. w. nuike-ru v.t, to mat 
cheaper]. To become cheaper; be ahU 
to cheapen. 
fukoshi makara-nai ka? (B) : cannot you 

make it a little cheaper ? 
makasu, v.t. [cogn. w. make-ru v.i. t< 

To defeat ; beat down, 
tnake-ru. 

1) To lose ; v.i. [cogn. w. makastl v.t.J. 
makemaahUa (C) : I have lost. 
makeru ga kachi : to stoop to conquer. 

2) To reduce the price ; v.t. [cogn. w. /> 
karu v.i.] ; (the object ot the verb is oftc 
not expressed). 



make'ru 



mata 



nedan wo make-ni : to reduce the price. 
go-sen o make moshimasho 'D) :'I will come 

do\\n five sen. 
takusan kaeba (nedan wo) makemasu ka ? 

(C) : if I buy several, will you make it 
cheaper ? 

motto o make nasai (B) : please make it 

cheaper. 

Der.: o-make ni : besides that, 
makkai ; makka na ; (223); [ma- q.v.; nkni 

red]. Flaring red. 
makkurai: makkura na ; (223); \nni- q.v.; 

kurail dark]. Pitch-dark. 
makkuroi ; makkuro na ; (223) ; [ma2 q.v.; 

kuroi black]. Jet-black, 
makoio. Truth. 

makoto no : true ; real. . 

makoto ni : truly ; in fact ; really ; (it 
sometimes has the force of a superlative). 
ano onmi wa makoto ni kirei da (B) : that 

woman is very pretty. 
makul. To roll up ; wrap round ; wind. 

tokei wo makii : to wind a clock. 
Comp.: maki-fjami : Japanese letter-paper 

(in rolls), [kamiZ paper], 
maku-. To sow ; sprinkle ; scatter. 
maka-nai tane wa hae-nai : seed which is 
not sown does not grow : one only reaps 
what one sows. 

tori e inizu wo maite kvre (A) : water the 
street. 

makura, [maku\ to roll up]. A pillow. 
makura wo takaku shite nerare-nai (B) : I 

cannot sleep in peace (from anxiety). 
mama. 

1 ) Original condition or state. 

tatta mama de i-ru : to remain standing. 

sono mama : as it is. 

sono mama ni shite oku ; ari no mama ni 

shite oku : to leave a thing as it is. 
kiito mama wo o hanashi nasai (B) : tell it 

to me just as you heard it. 
kutsu no mama de haitte mo yd gozaimusu 

(D) : you may go in just as you are, with 
your boots on. 

hako no mama de sutete o kure (A) : throw it 

away box and all. 
inu wa neta mama yonde mo ko-nai (B) : 

the dog has settled himself down to sleep 

and won't come here though I call him. 
inu wa kesa deta mama Icaette ko-nai (B) : 

the dog went out this morning and has 

not come back. 

2) Doing as one pleases. 

watashi wa ano hlto no suru mama ni nari 

mobu (C) : I am at his mercy. 
mame. Beans ; peas, 
mammarui ; mammaru na : (223) ; [maZ q.v.; 

marui round]. Perfectly round, 
mamoru. To protect ; defend. 

yakuaoku wo mamoru : to fulfil a promise, 
man. Ten thousand. 



ichi-man : ten thousand ; see ichi. 
man ichi (or man ni hltotsu) sonna koto go- 
attara taihen da (B) : it would be terrible 
if by (a 10,000 to 1} chance such a thing, 
were to happen. 
mane. Imitation ; mimicry. 

mane wo suru : to imitate ; mimic ; take oi't. 
Comp.: Mto-mane : mimicking another per- 
son, 
mannaka. [ma2 q.v.; naka inside]. The very 

middle. 

manzoku. Satisfaction. 
manzoku auru : to be satisfied. 
manzoku sase-ru : to satisfy. 
manzoku ga deici-nai (B) : I cannot consider 

it satisfactory. 
mari, [f. marui round]. A ball. 

man wo tsruku : to play at ball, 
maru, f f. marui round]. A whole ; a circle. 
maru ichi-nen : a whole year. 
maru ju-roku : sixteen years of age ; see 311. 
maru jutsvka : two full days. 
maru de : completely ; entirely. 
maru kiri ; marukkiri : completely ; en- 
tirely. 

maru de shira-nai hlto : an utter stranger. 
maru de seiyo-jin no yd ni mieru (B) : he 

looks just like a foreigner. 
marui. Round. 

inu ga maruku natte iru (B) : the dog is 

sleeping curled up like a ball. 
marui koe : a nice, agreeable voice. 
Der. : mari ; maru ; mammarui ; q.v. 
tnasaka. 

1) Used as a protest when hearing an absurd 
statement : used also to introduce an 
absurd supposition. 

masaka ! hardly ! not likely ! what non- 
sense ! 

masaka tabe-zu ni mo iraremai (B) : it is 
absurd to suppose we can live without 
eating. 

masaka to onfmt ga hontd deshita (C) : I 
thought it vewrtmUkely, but it was true. 

2) The critical time. 

masaka no toki ni ; masaka no baai ni : in 

time of need, 
massaoi ; massao na ; (223) ; [ma2 q.v.; aoi 

green]. Perfectly green. 
masshikaku na, [ma2 q.v.; shi-kaku square]. 

Exactly square, 
masshiroi ; masshiro na ; (223) ; [ma2 q.v.; 

shiroi white]. Snow-white. 
massugu na, [mo2 q.v.; sugu directly]. Per- 
fectly straight. 

massugu na ningen : an honest man. 
massugu ni hakujd shi nasai (A) : confess 

frankly ; own up. 

mata. Again ; another time ; in addition. 
mata mairimasho (D ) : I will call again. 
mata o me ni kakarimasho (D) : I will see 
you again. 



mata 



77 



me 



de wa mata. . . (B) : well, I'll see you again. 
mata irasshai (C) : please come again. 
sore wa mata do iu wake desu f (C) : what is 
the reason of that ? (Mata has here an 
excl. force, indicating surprise). 
matchi, [f. English]. Mateh. 

matchi -wo suru : to strike a match, 
matsui. Pine-tree. 
matsu2. To wait. 

sukoshi matte kudasai (C) : please wait a 

moment. 
mo matte iraremasen (C) : I cannot wait 

any longer. 
nani wo matte imasu ka ? (C) : what are you 

waiting for ? 

sukoshi o matase shite o kure (A) ; sukoshi 
matsu yd ni itte o kure (A) : tell him to wait 
a moment. 
o machi moshimasho (D) : I shall expect 

you. 

machi ni matte iru keredomo ko-nai (B) : 
I 'm waiting and waiting for him, but he 
doesn't come. 
Camp. 

machido, q.v. 

machi -kutabire-ru : to get tired of waiting. 
mattaku. Perfectly ; entirely. 

mattaku shirimasen (C) : I don't know at all. 

mattaku da (B) : quite so ; that is so. 

sore wa mattak-u no koto desu (C) : that is a 

true fact, 
tnawari, [stem of mawaru to turn round]. A 

turn ; circumference ; surroundings. 
koen wo hUo-niawari suru : to take a turn 

in the garden. 
no mawari ni : around. 
uchi no maicari ni ki ga uefe arimasii (C) : 

there are trees planted round the house, 
mawaru, v.i. [cogn. w. tnawaau v.t.]. To 

turn round. 
Nihon-ju hobo mawarimashita (C) : I have 

been all round Japan. 
me ga mawaru : to be surprised, startled : 

to faint, 
me ga mawaru hodo isogashii : busy enough 

to make one faint. 

shita ga mawaru : to be very talkative. 
te ga mawaru, : to be active ; smart in doing 

tilings. 

Der.: mawari, q.v. 
mawasu, v.t. [cogn. w. mawaru v.i.]. 

turn round. 

tegami wa hikkoshUa tokoro e mawashite 
kudasai (C) : please forward the letters to 
my new address. 

ki wo mawasu : to suspect ; be jealous. 
me wo mawasu : to be surprised, startled ; 

to faint. 
te wo mawasu : to search for ; inquire afte 

secretly. 

mazaru, v.i. [cogn. w. ma:t-rti v.t.j. 
liecome mixed. 



mazatte i-ru : to be mixed. 

kono kome ni wa suna ga mazatte imasfi (C) : 

there is sand in this rice. 

maze-mono, [>naze - ru to mix ; mono thing]. 
A mixture. 

maze-mono wo suru : to adulterate. 
kono gyunyu ni wa nani ka maze-mono ga 
shite aru ni chigai nai (B) : I feel sure this 
milk is adulterated. 

maze'ru, v.t. [cogii. w. mazaru v.i.]. To mix. 
chichi ni mizu wo mazeTu ; to put water 

into the milk. 
Comp. 
maze-awase-ru : to mi\ (as by stirring or 

grinding together). 
maze-mono, q.v. 

mazui. Of nasty, insipid, disagreeable, bad 
taste ; (in the lit. and in the artistic sense). 
me, [f. mvru to see]. Eye. 

Nihon-jin no me kara mireba : from the 

Japanese point of view. 
me de mono wo iu : to speak with the eyes. 
me wa kuchi hodo ni mono wo iu : the eye 

speaks as much as the mouth. 
me de shirase'ru : to wink at or make a sign 

with the eyes. 
me no mae ni aru : to have something right 

in front of one 's eyes. 
kiku ni wa me ga nai (B) : he is awfully 

fond of chrysant hem urns. 
o me ni kakaru : to meet (somebody) ; (a 
humble verb, used politely in the 1st 
person). 

o me ni kake-ru : to show (to somebody) 
(a humble verb, used politely in the 1st 
pers-m). 

me wo kake-ru : to treat kindly. 
hajimete o me ni kakarimasu (D) : I am 

pleased to make your acquaintance. 
mata o me ni kakarimasho (D) : I hope to 

see you again. 

me ni tsuku : to strike the eye. 
me wo tsuke-ru ; me ga tsuku : to notice. 
me ni tomaru : to attract attention. 
me ni sawaru : to try (tire) the eyes. 
hidoi me ni au : to be treated cruelK 
kurushii me ni au : to undergo great suf- 
fering. 

hidoi me ni awase-ru : to treat cruelly. 
me ga same-ru : to wake. 
me wo nemuru : to close the eyes. 
me ga tsubure-ru : to lose one's eyesigl 
me wo nusumu : to do something on the a 
me wo mawasH ; me ga mawaru : to be sur- 
prised, startled ; to faint. 
me ni tatsU : to be conspicuous. 
me wo odorokasu : to surprise people. 
me wo maruku suru : to be surprised ; tc 
stare with wide-open eyes. 
ano junsa wa yoku me ga todoku 
thing escapes the vigilance of that pol 
man. 



me 



78 



metta 



me ni kado wo tatete okoru : to get very 
angry and glare at somebody. 

e ni wa naka-naka me ga kiku (B) : he is a 
very good judge of pictures. 

sukoshi mo me wo hanasemasen (C) : I can- 
not allow him out of my sight for a 
moment. 

me kara hana e nuke-ru : to be exceedingly 
or abnormally clever. 

watashi no me no kuroi uchi wa sonna koto 
wa sase-nai (A) : while I am alive you shall 
never do such a thing. 

me kara hi ga de.ru yd ni hidoku atama wo 
utta (B) : he struck my head so hard he 
made me see stars. 

me no ue no kobu : a kill -joy. 

me ga hayai : to be observant, wide-awake. 
C'omp. 

medatsu : to be conspicuous, [tatsu to rise]. 

mekura (q.v. ): a blind person, [kurort dark]. 

rnegane (q.v.) : spectacles, [kane metal]. 

mabuta : eyelid, [fata lid]. 

hlto-me (q.v.) : attention ; glance. 

me-ue : a superior. . 

me-shlta : an inferior. 

me-. A pref. meaning female ; it sometimes 
becomes men-, (177, 1); all names of 
animals do not admit this pref. 
Comp. 

me-ushi : cow. 

me-inu : bitch. 

mendori : hen, [tori bird]. 

met ; rnusume ; yome ; q.v. 
-me. Particle used for forming ordinal num- 
bers ; see 285-288. 

sam-bam-me : the third. 

nanatsu-me : the seventh. 

roku-jikan-me : the sixth hour. 

kyd kara toka-me. ni : in ten days (on the 
tenth day) from today. 

kono bydki wa jikd no kawari-me ni okoru 
no desu (C) : this illness breaks out at the 
change of season. 

mecha-kucha (na) ; mecha media (na). In 
confusion ; in disorder. 

mecha-kucha ni sum : to break to pieces ; 
disarrange. 

mecha-kucha ni naru : to go to pieces ; get 

in disorder, 
medelai. Joyful ; happy. 

medetai koto : a happy event. 

o-medeto gozaimasu (D) : I congratulate 
you. 

o ko san ga o umare ni'natte o-medeto gozai- 
masu (D ) : I congratulate you on the birth 
of your son. 

megane, [me eye ; kane metal]. Spectacles ; 
eye-glasses. 

megane wo kake'ru : to put on spectacles. 
Comp. 

megane-goshi : looking over one's spec- 
tacles, [kosu to cross over]. 



megane-qoshi ni m'rru : to look over one's 

spectacles. 
meii, [me female : compare oi nephew]. 

Niece. 

mei-. Name ; fame : (used only in composi- 
tion). 
Comp. 
meibutsu : the famous production of a 

locality, [butsu thing]. 
meishi : a visiting-card. 
yumei : famous. 
mekata. Weight. 

kono mekata wa dono gurai desho ? (C) : how 

much does this weigh ? 
mekata de uru : to sell by weight. 
mekkaru. See mitsukaru. 
mekkeTU. See mitsuke-ru. 
mekki. Plating. 

mekura, [me eye ; Jcurail dark]. A blind per- 
son. 

sono yd na koto ni wa honto ni mekura de 
gozaimasu (D) : I am quite ignorant in 
such matters. 

mekura sen-nin me-aki sen-nin : for every 
thousand blind people there are a thou- 
sand who can see, (and therefore it isn't 
worth while troubling because one man 
criticizes, another will be sure to approve). 
Comp.: aki-mekura : a man with eyes open 

but blind ; an illiterate person. 
men do. Trouble ; bother. 

mendo wo mi-ru : to take trouble. 
kodomo no mendo wo miru no wa haha no 
kakari desu (C) : it is a mother's duty to 
look after her children. 

go mendo nagara sukoshi tet-sudatte kudasai- 
masen ka ? (C) : will you be so kind as to 
help me a moment ? 
go mendo wo kakete makoto ni sumimasen 

(D) : I am sorry to trouble you. 
mendo na : troublesome. 
sukoshi mo mendo na koto wa gozaimasen 

(D ) : it is not the least trouble. 
mendo na koto wo iu : to raise difficulties, 
mendo-kusai, [mendo trouble ; kusai q.v.]. 

Troublesome ; tiresome. 
a, mendo-kusai ! what a bore ! 
mendori, [me- female ; tori bird]. A hen. 
meshi, [stem of mean to eat]. Boiled rice ; a 

meal. 

meshi wo taku : to cook rice. 
Comp. 

asa-meshi : breakfast. 
hint -meshi : midday meal. 
yu-meshi : evening meal. 
meshi-agaru : to eat ; drink ; (an honorific 

verb, used politely of the 2nd person). 
metta (na). Rash ; reckless. 

metta ni : rarely ; seldom ; (with neg.). 
mtttani aimasen (C) : I see him but seldom. 
konna koto wa metta ni nai (B) : such a 
thing rarely happens. 



mezurashii 



79 



mtmi 



mezurashii. Rare ; strange : singular. 

inezurashii koto wa arimasen (C) : it is not 

an unusual thing. 

kore wa o mezurashiu (D) : this is indeed an 
agreeable surprise ; you are quite a 
stranger. 
mi. 

1 ) Body ; self. 

mi no tame : or one's own benefit. 

mi wo omou : to think of one 's own or some- 
body else '3 welfare. 

mi wo hiku : to withdraw oneself. 

mi wo tateTu : to establish oneself in the 
world. 

mi no hodo wo shira-nai yatsu da (B) : he is 
a fellow who doesn't know his own posi- 
tion. 

mi wo nage-ru : to throw oneself into the 
water and drown oneself. 

mi ni oboe no nai koto desu (C) : I know 
absolutely nothing about the matter. 

mi wo irete shigoto wo auru : to throw one- 
self into one's work. 

rni kara deta sabi da (A) : it is a misfortune 
you have brought on yourself ; it serves 
you right. 

mi no ue banashi wo suru : to talk of one- 
self. 

2) Meat ; flesh ; fruit. 

sakana no mi : the flesh of a fish. 

mi ga naru : to bear fruit. 

niku wo taberu ho ga mi ni naru (B) : it is 

more nutritious to eat meat. 
Comp. 

kimi : yolk of an egg, [H3 yellow]. 
shiromi : white of an egg, [shiroi white]. 
mi-, [mitsu three]. Three ; abb. 2nd set of 

num. (276, 4) ; see mitsu. 
-mi. Suffix added to the stem of adj.: it 

forms nouns that mean a tinge of a 

quality or sometimes the quality itself. 
akami : a tinge of red, [akai red]. 
amami : sweetness, [amai sweet]. 
amami ga usu gozaimasu (D) : it isn't quite 

sweet enough. 
michi. Road ; way. 

yakko e iku michi de asonde wa ike-nai (A) 

you mustn't play on your way to school 
michi ga toi (B) : it is a long way. 
iuisuka no michi desu (C) : it is a two days 

journey. 

michi wo oshie-ru : to show the way. 
michi wo mochigoe-ru : to lose one's way. 
dono michi ano hlto ni wa chikai uchi m a- 

masu (C): anyway I shall see him shortly 

michi-kusa wo kuu : to loiter about on the 

road. 
Comp. 

ko-michi : a lane. 

chika-michi : a short cut. 

tsukai-michi (q.v.) : way of using. 

fiaka-michi : a road up a hill. 



mieTU, v.i. [cogn. w. mi-ru v.t. to which it 
also serves as potential ; and w. mise-ru 
v.t..]. 

1) To be able to see ; be visible ; come ; 
appear. 

konnichi wa dare ka mieru desho (C) : some- 
body will probably come today. 

miete kuru : to come in sight ; become 
visible. 

boshi ga mie-nai (B) : I can't find my hat. 

mie-nai : invisible. 

mie-naku naru : to become invisible ; lose. 

kasa ga mie-naku narimashita (C) : I huv 
lost my umbrella. 

2) To look ; seem ; appear. 

watakushi ni wa so miemasu (C) : it seems 

so to me. 
dekita to mieru (B) : it appears to be 

finished. 

okiku miemasu (C) : it looks big. 
ano htk> wa seiyo-jin no yd ni miemasu (C) : 

that man looks like a foreigner, 
migaku. To polish : clean. 

ha wo migaku : to clean the teeth. 

kutsu wo migaku : to clean the boots. 

ude wo migaku : to endeavour to improve 

(in manual work). 
Comp.: ha-migaki : tooth-powder. 
migi. The right-hand side. 
migi no ho : on the right. 
ano senaei no migi ni deru mono wa nai (B) : 

that teacher has no superior, 
mihon, [f. mi-ru to look ; compare tehon}. \ 

sample ; model ; pattern. 
mihon no tori : according to pattern. 
mihon yori ophite i-ru : to be below sample. 
mihon-dori de aru : to be up to sample. 
mil, [mitsa three]. Three (in the 3rd set of 

num.; see 271 ; 275). 
mijikai. Short. 

ki no mijikai : quick-tempered, 
mikka, [mitsu three ; -ka q.v.l. Three days; 

tliird day of the month, 
mimi. Ear. 

chotto mimi wo kashlie kure (A) : just baton 

a moment. 

mimi wa kazari-mono ka ? (A) : are you 
deaf ? (ironically) ; (lit. are your ears 
ornaments ?). 

mimi ni mo tome-nai: to pay no att. 
mimi ni hairu ; mimi ni hasamu : to over- 
hear. 

mimi ni sawaru : to offend the ears. 
mimi ni tsuku : to arrest attention ; o 

struct sleep. 

mimi wo osae-ru : to stop the ears. 
ne-mimi ni mizu : like having water drop- 
ped into the ear when sleeping ; said 
something that happens quite unex 
pectedly. 

mimi no toi : hard of hearing. 
kire no mimi : selvage. 



rmmi 



80 



misoka 



Comp.: mhni-koauri ; mimi-uchi : whisper- 
ing in the ear. 
mina, (often pron. m-inna). All. 

mina wa wakarimasen (C) : I don't under- 
stand it all. 

>n >nna wakarimasen (C) : 1 don 't under- 
stand it at all. 
mina kaeba ikura ? (B) : how much would 

you take for the lot ? 
minna de ikura desu ka ? (C) : how much 

does it come to all together ? 
Kihon no uchi wa mina chiisai no desti ka ? 

(C) : 'are all Japanese houses small ? 
minna ake-nakereba narimasen ka ? (C) : 

must i open every one ? 
uchi no kodomo wa minna kaze wo Mkima- 

shrta (C) : every one of the children has a 

cold. 
Comp. 

mina-san : every one (persons). 
mina-san wa ikaga desu ? (C) : how are all 

your people ? 
minami. South, 
minato, [miiu the water ; no of ; Jol door]. 

Harbour ; port, 
minikui. [mi-ru to see ; nikuil hateful]. 

Ugly. 
mi-nikui, [mi-ru to see ; -nikuiZ difficult]. 

Difficult to see. 
minna. See mina. 
mi-okuru, [mi-ru to see ; okuru to see off]. 

To see off ; accompany a guest to some 

distance on his departure. 
chotto Tanaka San wo de-guchi made o mi- 

okuri shite o kure (A) : just accompany 

Mr Tanaka to the door (to show him 

out). 
mi'ru, v.t. [cogn. w. mie-nt v.i. which serves 

as potential, and with mise-ru v.t. which 

serves as quasi-causative]. 
1) To see ; look at ; ref d. 
ato de mimasho (C) : I will see it afterwards. 
kodomo wo chotto mite tie kudasai (B) : 

please see to the child a moment. 
kono kinjo de miru tokoro wa doko dettti ka ? 

(C) : what is there to be seen here ? 
miru yd na mono : a thing worth seeing. 
doko kara mite mo : from whichever side 

we look at it. 
Nihon-jin (no me) kara mireba : from a 

Japanese point of view. 
Tokyo kara mireba Kyoto wa semai (B) : 

Kyoto is small compared to Tokyo. 
mita tokoro de wa bydninra^hiku nai (B) : to 
look at him he doesn't appear an invalid. 
tansu wo mita keredomo nakatta (B) : I look- 
ed in the chest of drawers but it wasn't 

there. 
miru miru uchi ga yakete shimatta (B) : 

while I was looking on (before my very 

eyes) the house was burnt. 
shimbun wo mi-ru : to read the newspaper. 



ori wo mi'ru : to watch for an opportunity. 

isha ni mite morau : to consult a doctor. 

itte mimasho (C) : let us go and see. 

itte mitara mon ga shimatte imashlta (C) : I 
went and found the gate closed. 
2) After a gerund mi-ru generally (not al- 
ways as may be seen in the last example) 
means that an action is to be attempted ; 
there is doubt as to whether the action 
can be accomplished or whether the result 
will be satisfactory. 

yattc mi-ru : to try to do. 

hUotsu yatte mitara do de#u ? (C) : what do 
you say to having a try at it ? 

mite mimasho (C) : I'll look and see what 
there is. 

musuko wa kami wo sagasMte mimashlta ga, 
arimasen deshita (C) : the lad looked for 
the paper but he couldn't find it ; (not 
'he tried to look for' but 'he looked for 
and tried to find'). 

o to-san ni hanashlte mitara ii ja nai ka ? 

(B) : hadn't you better tell your father ? 
(perhaps he may be able to help you). 

watakushi no kangae wo itte mireba ko desti 

(C) : my opinion may be expressed in this 
way. 

mado wo akete mimasho (C) : I will try to 
open the window (which has stuck) ; I 
will open the window and we will see 
whether it is more agreeable so. 

kino Taro no gakko ni itte mimashUa (C) : 

yesterday I went and saw Taro's school. 

Note. In the imperative, the honorific verb 

goran nasaru is gen. used instead of 
mi-ru. Goran nasai may serve in most 
ordinary cases ; to an inferior goran will do. 
Der. and comp. 

mise-ru (q.v. ) : to show. 

mi-oboe : recollection of having seen. 

mi-sokonau : to overlook. 

mi-wake-ru : to tell the difference by seeing. 

mi-okuru ; minikui ; mitai ; q.v. 
mise, [mise-ru to show]. A shop ; store ; 
office. 

mise wo dasu : to open a shop. 

mie wo ham : to expose one 's goods for sale. 

mise wo shimau : to put away goods ex- 
hibited for sale ; to give up one 's business. 
miscTU, v.t. [cogn. w. mie'ru v.i.: it serves 
as quasi-causative of mi-ru to see]. To 
show ; exhibit. 

chotto misete kudasai (C) : please show it to 

me. 
Der. and comp. 

mise (q.v.) : a shop. 

mise-mono : a show ; a thing shown tor 

money. 

misoka, [rnitsU three ; to ten ; -ka day]. The 
last day of the month (whether 30th or 
31st). 
Comp.: o-misoka : the last day of the year. 



mitai 



81 



mo 



mitai (na), [mita seen : yc& as if]. Like. 

watakftshi miiar nahito : people like myself. 
mitsu, (gen. pron. mittsu). Three. 
Note : in comp. mitsu is abb. to mi- see 

276, 4. 

mitsukaru, (sometimes mekkaru), v.i. [cogn. 
v. mitsuke-ru v.t.]. To become found ; 
be found. 

na':unatta kane-ire ga mUsukarimashita 

(C) : the purse 1 had lost has been found. 

mo jochu ga mitaukarimaehita ka ? (C) : 

have you found a servant yet ? 
mitsukeTU, (sometimes mekke'ru), v.t. [mvru 
to see ; tsuke-ru q.v.: cogn. w. mitsukaru 
v.i.]. To find ; discover. 
kore wo mitsukemashita, dare no desu ka ? 

(C) : I have found this, whose is it ? 
nusunde iru tokoro wo mitsukerareta (B) : he 

was caught stealing. 

sono uchi kara ii no wo mitsukete kudasai 
(C) : please pick out the best from among 
these. 

mitsumori, [mrru to see ; teumori calcula- 
tion]. An estimate. 

mittomonai, [mitai wishing to see ; nw even; 
nai neg.]. Offensive to the sight ; im- 
proper ; shocking. 
mittsu. See mitsu. 
miya, [mi honourable ; ya\ house]. A shinto 

shrine ; (the honorific o is gen. pref.). 
miyage. A present (gen. a souvenir from 
some place) ; (the honorific o is gen. pref.). 
miyako. The capital ; city, 
mizo. [mizu water]. Ditch ; drain, 
mizu. Water (cold). 

ntizti wo kumu : to draw water. 
ueki ni mizu iro yarn . to water plants; 

(lit. give water). 

michi ni mizu wo maku : to water the 
road. 

it mi no mizu : sea-water. 
Comp. and der. 
o-mizu : a flood. 
shio-mizu : salt water. 
mizu-umi : a lake. 
mizuppoi : watery, [see -ppoi]. 
minato ; mizo ; q.v. 
mo. 

1) Also : too. 

kore mo yatte kudasai (C) : please send this 

also. 
yappari omae mo ikare-nai (.A) : you can't 

go either. 
naka ni wa ii no mo aru (B) : some of them 

are all right ; there are also some good 

ones among them. 
ashita mo Tokyo e irasshaimasu ka ? (D) : 

are you going to Tokyo again tomorrow '! 

2) Even. 

isu mo nai : not even ft chair. 
ichi-do mo mimasen (C) : I have never seen 
it (not even once). 



kimono made mo yaketa (B) : even my 

clothes were burnt. 
chitto mo kawara-nai : just the same as 

ever ; (lit. not changed even a little). 
watakushi mo dekimaaen (C) : I myself can't 

do it. 
hltottu mo gozaimosen (D) : there is not a 

single one. 
hitotsu mo nokorimagen (C) ; hitotsu mo 

nakvnarimashita (C) : there's not a single 

one left. 
kiku no mo kmvai koto da (B) : it is dreadful 

even to hear of it. 
ichi-nichi mo hayaJcu o kaeri nacai (B) : 

please come back again as soon as you 

possibly can ; don't delay a single day 

longer than you can help. 
atsukute soba e mo ike-nai (B) : it's so hot 

you can't even go near it. 
osoku mo : at the latest. 
osoku mo ju-ji ni wa kaerimashd (C) : I'll 

come back at the latest by ten o 'clock. 

3) Approximate quantity. 

ichi-nichi ni ni-ri mo arukeba takusan desti 
(C) : if you walk five miles (two ri) or so a 
day that would be enough (e.g. for your 
health). 

ni-iu-yen mo areba kaeru (B) : you could 
certainly buy it for twenty yen or so. 

4) After the gcrundial form of a verb or 
adj. even if; although. 

ame ga futte mo ikimasu (C) : I will go even 

if it rains. 
yasukute mo kaimasen (C) : I won't buy it 

even if it is cheap ; although it is cheap 

I'll not buy it. 

sore ni shite mo : even allowing that. 
itte mo kamaimasen (C) : you may go if you 

like ; Hit. even if you go it doesn 't 

matter). 
chotto aruite mo tsukaremasu (C) : even if I 

only walk a little I get tired. 
ano hito wa kane ga takusan atte mo kin no 

tokei wo motte imasen (C) : although that 

man has a lot of money, he hasn't got 

a gold watch. 
Tanaka San ni ni-do mo tegami too dashUe 

mo mada henji ga ko-nai (B) : although 

I ve written twice to Mr Tanaka, he 

hasn 't answered yet. 
sonna koto wo itte mo toatashi wa isogaahi- 

kutte shiyd ga nai (B) : I am sorry to hear 

that, but I am so busy I can't help you. 
chotto kangaete mo wakaru deshd (C) : if you 

think a moment you will understand it. 
osokute mo : at the latest. 
okute mo : at most. 
takakute mo go-yen to wa kakara-nai deshd 

(C) : at the most it ought not to cost five 

yen. 

The meaning of mo after a gerund is some- 
times vague or equivalent to wa. 



mo 



82 



mo 



omae no yd ni chiisakute mo fu-jiyu da ne 
(A) : it must be very inconvenient to be as 
small as you are. 

ammari asonde ite mo ike-nai (B) : it won't 
do to remain here too long. 

See also de 7). 

5) Mo ii after an aff. gerund means permis- 
sion, 'may'; after a neg. gerund it may 
be rendered by 'need not'. 

itte mo ii (A) : you may go. 

ika-nakute mo ii (A) : you need not go. 

asonde imasu kara,o taku e agatte utatte mo 
yoroahiu gozaimasu (D) : (not only can I 
sing in my own house but) as I have 
nothing to do I can even go and sing at 
yours (if you wish it). 

henji gurai yokoshUe mo ii no ni (B) : you 
might at least have answered my letter. 

6) Mo mo : a) in aff. sentences when mo 
follows nouns 'both and '; when mo 
follows verbs or adj. ' whether or' 
'either or'; b) in neg. sentences 
'neither nor'. 

sakana mo niku mo kaimasho (C) : I will 

buy both fish and meat. 
ano Mto wa Nihon-go mo hanasu shi, ji mo 

kakemasu (C) : that man can not only 

speak Japanese but he can write the 

characters. 
ehina mo ii shi nedan mo yasui (B) : the 

quality is good and the price cheap. 
atte mo nakute mo onaji koto desu (C) : it 

doesn't matter whether it is there or not. 
o tenki ga yokute mo warukute mo ikimasu 

(C) : I shall go whether the weather is 

good or bad. 
densha ni noru koto mo aruku koto mo deki- 

masu (C) : you can either go by tram-car 

or you can walk. 
densha ni noru koto mo aruku koto mo ari- 

masu (C) : sometimes I go by tram and 

sometimes I walk. 

pen mo empitsu mo arimaaen (C) : there is 
" neither a pen nor a pencil. 
yomu koto mo kaku koto mo dekimasen (C) : 

he can neither read nor write. 
mi mo shi-nakereba kiki mo ahi-nai (B) : I 

neither saw nor heard anything. 
ite mo i-nakute mo kamaimasen (C) : it 

doesn't matter whether he is there or not ; 

neither his presence nor his absence mat- 
ters. 

7) Various : sometimes the meaning of mo 
is vague and need not be translated. 

onna mo aro ni anna mono wo moratta (B) : 
with so many girls to choose from he went 
and married that creature. 

>//' koto mo gozaimasen (D) : it cannot be 
said that there are none ; there are certain- 
ly some. 

do sum koto mo deki-nai (B) : it can't be 
helped. 



hana-mi mo mo ii koro da (B) : now is the 
season for flower-viewing. 

waruku mo nai (B) : that's not bad. 

ari-ao mo nai hanashi da (B) : it's an im- 
probable story. 

nan no kangae mo nakukiita mama hanashi- 
mashita (C) : without thinking I said just 
what I had heard. 

naze ? naze de mo (B) : why ? I don't 
know, don't wish to say or discuss the 
reason. 

mo sukoshi : a little more. 

mo hltotsu no : the other one. 

In examples like these last two,wio is a cor- 
ruption of mo q.v. 

8) Doko mo ; dokomo ; itsu mo ; it a ft mo 
and such like expressions, see doko, itsu, 
etc. 

de mo, see de 7, 8). 

ka mo shire-nai, see ka$ 4) ; to mo see to 

20) ; moshi mo, see moshi. 
mo. 

1) When referring to nouns of quantity, 
distance or time more. 

kuruma wo mo ichi-dai yonde kure (A) : 

call one more rikisha. 
mo mittsti. shlka arimaaen (C) : there are 

only three left. 
mo is-sen mo nai (B) : I have not another 

sen left. 
kutabiremashlta kara mo arukemasen (C) : I 

can go no further, I am too tired. 
mo tamara-nai (B) : 1 can't stand it any 

longer. 

mo sukoshi : a little more. 
mo sukoshi matte kudasai (C) : wait a little 

longer. 
mo sukoshi oki na no ga hoshii (B) : I want 

one a little bigger. 
mo sukoshi de : almost ; soon ; near. 
hon wa mo sukoahi de yonde ahimaimosu 

(C) : I have almost finished the book. 
mo hlto-tsuki de go-nen ni narimasu (C) : in 

one month more it will be five years 

(since something happened). 
mo hltotsu : one more. 
mo hltotsu no : the other one. 
mo hltotsu no hako wo motte kite o kure (A) : 

bring the other box. 
mo ichi-do : once more ; again. 
mo ichi-do hanaahUe kudasai (C) : please re- 
peat what you said ; please say it once 

more. 
mo (ni-do to) shite wa ike-nai (A) : don't do 

it again. 

2) When modifying a verb mo may refer to 
the present, the past or immediate future ; 
it may be translated by : now, already, 
about to ; it sometimes is not translated 
at all. 

mo shlkata ga nai (B) : there is no help for 
it now. 



mo 



83 



mono 



mo jiki desu (C) : it is quite near now ; it is 

only a little further ; it will soon be time. 
mo dame desft (C) : there is no help for it 

now ; it is no use to try now ; it is too late 

to remedy now. 
mo sen kara shitte imasii (C) : I knew that 

long ago. 
mo kisha ga deru kara kippu wo o kai nasai 

(B) : buy your ticket as the train is about 

to start. 
mo tsuita dard (B) : he has probably arrived 

by now. 
o uch! ^va mo taitei dekita desho (C) : your 

house must be about finished now. 
mo kisha ga demashlta (C) : the train has 

already left. 
mo yoku narimasMto ka ? (C) : are you 

quite well again ? 
3) Various. 

mo takwtan (B) : that is enough. 
mo kore kiri (B) : once for all : never after 

this time ; this is all there is. 
mo ii (B) : that will do ; no more thank 

* you. 

mo o shimai (B) : that is all (the last) ; it 
is all over. 
mo sore dake naraba : if there is nothing 

else. 
mochiron. Of course ; certainly. 

sore wa mochiron no koto desu (C) : that is a 

matter of course. 

moe'ru, v.i. [cogn. w. mosu v.t.]. To burn, 
mokaru, v.i. [cogn. w. moke-ru v.t.]. To be 

earned (of money) ; be profitable. 
kane ga mdkarimasu (C) : there is money 

to be made in it. 

mokeTU, v.t. [cogn. w. mokaru v.i.]. To 
gain, earn, make money. 
ichi-nichi ni iktira mokemasu ka ? (C) : how 
much do you earn a day ? 
shield -jis-sen mokeru dard (B) : you will 

make seventy sen. 
moke-guchi ga dekita (B) : an opportunity 

for making money has presented itself, 
mokuroku. A catalogue ; list, 
mokuyo ; mokuy5-bi ; [see yd-bi]. Thurs- 
day. 

mo men. Cotton : cotton cloth. 
Comp.: momen-ito : cotton thread, 
mon. A gate. 

Comp.- ura-tnon : the back -gate. 
mon '. Abb. of mono q.v. 
mondai. The question ; matter in discussion. 
mondai ni nara-nai koto : something about 
which there is no question ; something 
out of the question. 
ikiru ka shinu ka no mondai desu (C) : it is 

a question of life and death. 
Comp.: betsu-mondai : a different question, 
mono, (sometimes abb. to mon' or no ; see 
no 12, 13). Thing ; (for difference l>etween 
mono and koto see 183). 



1) Gernerally refers to concrete and material 
things. 

mofcuM no mono wa minna heya ni motte 

itte o kure (A) : take all my things up to 

my room. 
sonna mono wa arimasen (C) : there is no 

such tiling. 

anna mono / (B) : it is a mere trifle. 
kore wa taihen benri na mono desu (C) : this 

is a very useful thing. 

2) Mono often refers to persons (impolite) 
or animals. 

anna mono no iu koto wa ate ni narimagen 
(C) : you can't rely on what that person 
says. 

3) To iu mono a (thing) called. 

yakuro to iu mono wo kaimashlta (C) : I 

bought a thing called a yakuro. 
Taro to iu mono ga kimashita (C) : a man 

called Taro came. 

4) Mono has an abstract meaning akin to 
koto in this number and all the following. 

sonna mon(o) desho (C) : that's just about 
it. 

mono ni natta (B) : there was some result. 

sono mono no ii-kata wa nan desu ka ? (A) : 
what do you mean by speaking to me like 
that ? 

mono mo ii-yd dc kado ga tatsu : much de- 
pends on how you say a thing. 

mono wa tameshi da (B) : it is worth while 
trying. 

5) Mono serves sometimes to substantivize 
verbs or adjectives. 

tenki ga tsuzuita mono da kara kau-a no mizu 

ga hetta (B) : as we've had nothing but 

fine weather lately the water in the rivers 

has diminished. 
ano ko wa ammari naku mono desu kara o 

kd-san ni butaremashUa (C) : as that child 

was crying so much, his mother beat him. 
kore wa empitsti de kaita mono dard (B) : 

this must have been written witli a 

pencil. 
Nippon mo kawareba kawaru mon 1 da (B) : 

how Japan has changed ! 
naka-naka riko na ko mo aru mono da (B) : 

well, some boys are clever, and no 

mistake. 
oshUa furd mono nara taihen da (B) : it 

would be extremely inconvenient should 

it happen to rain tomorrow. 
da mon' desu kara ; da mon' de : therefore. 
amari nedan ga tdkai mono desu kara, dare 

mo kau htto ga arimasen deshita (C) : as the 

price was so high, there was no buyer. 
md kaeshi-sana mono da (B) : he ought to 

have returned it by now. 
anna onna wa sd aru mono ia nai 

there are not many women like her. 
dekiru mono nara : if possible. 
naku mono ja nai (A) : don't cry. 



mono 



84 



morau 



6) After the first form of the present (aff. or 
neg.), mon(o) desu ka or mon(o) ka is a 
denial of, or a protest against, an absurd 
statement. 

tamani mono ka? (A) : you don't expect me 
to stand that, do you ? 

abunakute mo kamau mono desu ka ? (B) : 
who cares even if it is dangerous ? 

anata no tegami nanzo yomu mon ' desu ka ? 
(C) : I'd never dream of reading your 
letters. 

Tard wa Ei-go ga wakaru desho ne wakaru 
mon'' desu ka ? I suppose Taro can under- 
stand English what an idea, of course 
he can't understand it. 

7) After the first form of the present ; mon(o) 
da has an exclamatory force. 

okashi na hlto mo areba am mono da ! (B) : 
what a strange man ! 

hen na koto ga areba am tnon' da ! (B) : 
what singular things do happen some- 
times ! 

omou yd ni wa ikimasen mono desu (C) : 
things don't always go as one thinks they 
will. 

8) Mon(o) da is sometimes used after the 
desiderative without adding materially to 
the meaning. 

mizu ga nomitai mon' da (B) : I would like 

some water to drink. 
komban dekiru yd ni shltai mono desu (C) : J 

hope it will be ready tonight. 

9) After the first form of the neg. future, 
mono de mo nai means bare possibility. 

ameya furumai mono de mo nai (B) : it may 
rain (though I don't think it will). 

10) Mono wo is sometimes used ellipticallj; 
at the end of a sentence 

ko sureba dekiru mono wo (B) : you could do 
it in this way if you tried (but you haven 't 
tried although you ought to have done so). 

1 1 ) Mono at the end of a sentence sometimes 
resembles an interjection and signifies a 
protest or complaint : this construction 
is commoner among women. 

de mo warui no desu mono (B) : yes, but it is 

a bad one. 
ikitai (desu) mono (B) : yes, but I'd like to 

g- 

aeiyd-jin desu mono (C) : well, he's a foreign- 
er, (an explanation of his way of acting). 

12) Mono no has sometimes the meaning of 
but ; however ; nevertheless. 

kanoshiku nai to wa iu mono no yappari 
kanashii daro (B) : you say you do not 
feel sad but I think you must. 

yomi wa yonda mono no wnkari wa shimai 
(B) : he read it but I don't think he under- 
stood it. 

Comp. Mono serves to form an immense 
number of compounds : it may mean 
either person or thing ; and, with a few 



exceptions, it is always the second com- 
ponent. It is gen. added to the stems 
of verbs or adj. or to nouns. The follow- 
ing are some of the commonest com- 
pounds. 

mono-oki : a store-room. 

mono-zuki : inquisitiveness, [suki like]. 

inaka-mono : a peasant. 

Mtori-mono : a person who is not married. 

namake-mono : an idle person. 

bonyari-mono : an absent-minded person. 

hataraki-mono : an industrious person. 

kemono : a quadruped. 

uri-mono : a thing for sale. 

nui-mono : sewing (things to be sewn). 

taki-mono : fuel ; firewood. 

otoshi-mono : a thing dropped. 

maze-mono : a mixture. 

mise-mono : a thing exhibited. 

hori-mono : a carving. 

kai-mono : a purchase. 

kimono : a dress. 

morai-mono : gift received. 

nise-mono : an imitation article. 

nomi-mono ; nomu-mono : something to 
drink. 

okuri-mono ; ageru-mono : a present (to 
give to another). 

tattmono : a building. 

wasure-mono : something forgotten. 

yakimono : pottery. 

tabe-mono : food. 

azukari-mono : something received in de- 
posit. 

azuke-mono : something given in deposit. 

sentaku-rnono : things for the wash. 

fuyu-mono : winter clothes. 

kana-mono : tilings made of metal. 

takara-mono : something precious. 

yaeumono : a cheap article of inferior 
quality. 

aomono : vegetables. 

betsu-mono : a different thing. 

h on-mono : a genuine article. 
Note the difference between mono as 1st 
or 2nd component in the foil, couples. 

mono-morai : a receiver of things, i.e. a 
beggar. 

morai-mono : a thing received, i.e. a gift. 

mono-wasure : the ' forgetting of facts ; 
forgetfulness. 

wasure-mono : a thing (e.g. an umbrella) 

left behind, forgotten. 
monosashi, [mono tiling : sasu to measure]. 

A foot-rule. 

morau, is a plain verb and must not be used 
when speaking of an act done in favour 
of the 1st person by the 2nd person, 
unless the 2nd person is an inferior. 
1) To receive. 

dare ni moratta no desu ka ? (C) : whom did 
you receive it from ? who gave it to you ? 



morau 



85 



motsu 



korc u-o moraimasho (C) : I will take (buy) 

this one. 
yomt u-o morau : to marry (said of the man 

when the bride comes to his house to form 

part of his family). 
muko wo morau : to marry (said of the 

woman when the bridegroom comes to 

her house to form part of her family). 

2) Morau after a gerund shows that the 
action is performed in favour of the 1st 
person, and generally in answer to his 
request : this construction often resembles 
the passive or the causative. 

jdbu ni koshiraete moraitai (B) : I want it 

made strongly. 
nesan ni tegami wo kaite moraimashtta (C) : 

my (elder) sister wrote the letter for me. 
ano hUo ni itte moraimasho (C) : I shall 

get him to go. 
asa hayaku okoslnte moraitai (B) : 1 wish to 

be called early. 

isha ni mite morau : to consult a doctor. 
Tanaka San de san-nen hatarakasete morai- 

masu (C) : Mr Tanaka has consented to 

engage mo for three years. 
oji son ni omoshiroi hanashi wo kikasetc 

moraimashlta (C) : my uncle told me an 

interesting story. 
tabesasMte morau : to receive food from 

another. 
kono negai u-o kiite moraeru ka shira ? (B) : 

I wonder whether he will accede to my 

request. 
an ata ni tegami wo kaitc moraeru to tsugo 

ga ii (B) : if you could manage to write 

the letter for me it would suit me very 

well. 

3) In the imperative and future, whether 
after a gerund or not, morau often means 
to ask or request. 

tnizu wo ip-pai moratte o kure (A) : ask for 
a glass of water. 

dare ka ni naoshite moraimasho (C) : I will 

ask somebody to correct it for me. 
Note. The humble verb corresponding to 
morau is itadaku ; in the sense of receiv- 
ing, you may also say chodai sum. 
Comp. 

mono-morai : a beggar. 

moral-mono : a gift. 

morai-mono nara natsu de mo wata-ire : if 
it is a question of receiving a gift, one is 
glad to receive a padded garment even in 
summer. 
tnoru. To leak. 

ame ga juru to yane ga morimasu (C) : when 

it rains the roof leaks. 

moshil. Supposing ; if ; (moshi is foil, by 
a conditional or a construction equivalent 
to a conditional) 1 . 

moshi sonna koto ga areba : supposing that 
should happen. 



moshi mo ; moshi ka ; moshi ya ; are used 
when the supposition is considered highly 
improbable. 

moshi mo ame ga futtara dd shimasu ka ? 

(B) : supposing (though the weather ia 
so fine now) it were to rain, what would 
you do ? 

moshi ka shtiara komban u-a kaette kimasen 

(C) : it may happen (though very improb- 
able) that 1 shall not return tonight. 

Tasuke ni moshi mo no koto ga areba : 
supposing anything were to happen to 
Tasuke. 

moshi-, [corr. of the stem of mosu to speak]. 

Exclamation used to draw attention ; I 

say ; look here ; (often repeated moshi, 

moshi). 

moshi-wake, [mosu to speak ; wake reason). 

An excuse ; see vakf. 
mosu, v.t. [cogn. w. moe-ru v.i.]. To burn. 

/o' wo mosu : to light a fire, 
mosu. To speak ; say. 

kore wa nan to mdshimasu ka ? (C) : what is 

this thing called ? 
sakki moshita tori : as I said before. 
chichi wa Tokichi to moshimasti (D) : my 

father is called Tokichi. 
Note : mosu is a humble verb and is practic- 
ally never used in the 2nd person ; tho 
corresponding plain verb is iul or hanasul. 
Comp. 
mdshi-age-ru : same meaning as mosu, but 

still more humble. 
mdshi-wake : an excuse ; see wake. 
Mosu is also placed after o and the stems of 
certain verbs : it has the effect of making 
the verb humble ; e.g. o tanomi mdshi- 
tnasu ; o sasshi mdshimasH ; o machi md- 
shimasu ; o age mdshimasu ; o hanashi 
mdshimasu ; o make mdshimasu. 
moto. 

1 ) Origin ; basis ; foundation. 

machigai no moto : the origin of a mistake. 
moto kara no koto desu (C) : it is a thing 

which has been so from the first. 
moto no tokoro ni shimatte oite kure (A) : 

put it back in its old place. 
moto yori no koto desu (C) : of course, that's 

only natural. 

2) Capital. 

ano shdbai wa yoppodo moto ga kakaru (B) : 
that business requires a large capital 

3) Formerly. 

ano hUo tea moto wa heitai deshUa ((. 
was formerly a soldier. 
moto wa ktsha to iu mono ga nakaUa (B} 
formerly there were no such things as 
tr-uns. 
Comp.: ashi-moto : the place where one steps 

or is standing. 
motsu. 
1) To hold (in the hand) ; have. 



motsu 



86 



muki 



nan?' wo motte iru no deaho ? (C) : what has 

he got there (in liis hands) ? 
kane wo motte imasu ka ? (C): have you any 

money with you ? 
kanai wo motsu : to have a wife. 
ko wo motsu : to have a child. 
uchi wo m-otsu : to keep a house. 
mise wo motsu : to keep a shop. 
motte kuru : to bring ; take to my place. 
motte iku : to carry ; take. 
motte kaeru : to bring back ; take back. 
dare ga watakushi no hon wo motte ikima- 

shlta ka ? (C) : who has taken my book ? 
himo wo motte iwaku : to tie with a string. 
2) To last ; endure 
kono kutau u>a naka-naka nagaku jnotsu 

(B) : these boots wear very well. 
kono tenki wa nagaku mota-nai deshd (C) : I 

don't think this fine weather will last 

long. 

kore wamochiga ii (B) : this wears well. 
Comp. 

mochi-age'ru : to lift up. 
mochi-dasu : to carry away. 
mochi-mono : things carried by or on one ; 

property. 

kanemochi : a rich man. 
motto. More ; still ; comparative inflexion 

of an adj. 
motto kugi ga irimasu (C) : I want some 

more nails. 

motto takusan : still more. 
motto sukunai : still less. 
motto ii : better. 
motto benkyd shi-nakereba ikemasen (A) : 

you must be more industrious. 
motto ushiro e : further back. 
moyo. 

1) Pattern ; design. 

kono moyo wa oki-sugimasu (C) : this pat- 
tern is too big. 

2) State ; condition. 

ima no moyo de wa ame ga furi-s5 desii (C) : 

it looks like rain now. 

Comp.: sora-moyd : the appearance of the sky. 
mu-, [mutsu six]. Six ; abb. 2nd set of num. 

(276, 4) ; see mutsu. 
mfi, [mutsu six]. Six (in the 3rd set of num. 

see 271 ; 275). 

tnuchu (de or ni). Absent-mindedly ; ab- 
sorbed in anything ; full of one idea and 
unconscious of all else, 
muda (na). Useless ; unavailing. 
muda ni suru : to waste. 
jikan wo muda ni guru : to waste time. 
hone-ori ga muda ni narimashlta (C) : my 

efforts were in vain. 
itte mo muda dard (B) : even if I tell him it 

will be useless. 
Comp. 

muda-banashi ; muda-guchi : idle talk, [ha- 
nashi talk ; kuchi mouth]. 



muda-ashi ; muda-bone ; muda-zukai ; q.v. 
muda-ashi, [muda useless ; ashi legs]. 
muda-ashi wo sum : to go on a useless 

errand. 

muda- bone, [muda useless ; hone bone : com- 
pare hone-ori]. 

muda-bone wo oru : to make vain efforts. 
muda-zukai, [muda useless ; tsukau to spend]. 

Useless expenses. 
muda-zukai wo sum : to throw away one's 

money. 

mugi. Corn ; cereal. 
Comp. 

o-mugi : barley. 
ko-mugi : wheat. 
muika, [mutsu six ; -ka day]. Six dsiys ; 

sixth day of the month. 
mujaki (na). Innocent ; simple. 
mukae-ru, v.t. [ ? mukau to face]. To go out 

to meet ; welcome. 
teishaba made muko,e ni ikimashUa (C) : I 

went to the station to meet him. 
jochu wa mo O Kyo San wo mukae ni ikl- 
mashlta ka ? (C) : has the servant gone to 
fetch Miss Kyo (e.g. from school) ''. 
o isha wo mukae-ru : to send for a doctor. 
muksi, [mukau to face]. The opposite 

side. 

ginko no mukai : opposite the bank. 
Comp.: mukai-gawa : the opposite side of 

the road. 
mukashi. 

1) Ancient times ; a long time ago. 
mukashi wa klshato iu mono ga nakafta (B) : 

in olden times there were no such things 

as trains. 
mukashi kara shojiki naMtodc atta (B) : he 

always has been an honest man. 
mukashi wa mukashi, ima wa ima : things 

have changed now ; other times, other 

customs. 

2) A period of ten years ; (in this meaning it 
takes the abb. 2nd set of num. 276, 4 ; but 
is hardly ever used with any num. above 
one). 

ju-nen hito-mukashi : ten years are a very 
long time (things may have changed since 
then). 
mukau, v.i. [cogn. w. mukul v.i. and muke-rul 

v.t.]. To face ; stand opposite to. 
sono uchi ni mukatte migi no ho ni arimasfi 
(C) : it is on your right as you face that 
house. 

Der.: mukai ; mukd ; q.v. 
muke'rui. v.t. [cogn. w. mukul v.i. and mu- 
kau v.i.]. To turn. 
kao wo watakushi no ho ni mukema-slrita (C) : 

he turned his face towards mp. 
muke*ru2, v.i. [cogn. w. muku?- v.t.]. To peel 

off ; come off. 

muki, [mukul to face]. The direction or 
frontage. 



muki 



87 



n' 



kono uchi wa muki go, warui (B) : this house 

has a bad aspect. 
muki wo kae-ru : to turn (something) 

round. 
Taro to Jiro to wa futari to mo riko desu go. 

muki ga chigaimasu (C) : Taro and Jiro 

are both clever but in a different way. 
inaka muki : suitable for the country. 
omote muki : i-n appearance ; seemingly. 
muko. Son-in-law ; husband of a daughter 

of the house who has become a member of 

his wife's family and taken her name; 

compare yome. 
muko, [mukai opposite]. 

1) The other side. 

muko no ktshi : the opposite bank. 

2) The other person or party. 

muko ga iya to ieba sMkata ga nai (B) ; if the 
other party refuses, there is nothing to be 
done. 

kum yd ni to itta ga, muko de do shite mo 
korare-nai to iimasu (C) : I told him to 
come but he said it was absolutely im- 
possible for him to do so. 

3) Beyond ; yonder ; over there. 
hashi no muko ni : beyond the bridge. 
muko ni mieru uchi : the house you see over 

there. 
muko kara kuru denaha wa Shinagawa yuki 

desu (C) : the tram-car coming over there, 

goes to Shinagawa. 
jii'San nichi kara muko yokka-kan : on the 

13th and the three (not four) following 



Comp.: muko-gawa : the opposite side (as of 

a river), [kawaZ side]. 

mukul, v.i. [cogn. w. mukau v.i. and 
muke-rui v.t.]. 

1 ) To turn ; face. 

kono uchi wa umi ni muite imasu (C) : this 
house looks on the sea. 

2) To be in request ; be suitable. 

kono shina-mono wa inaka ni mukimasu 

(C) : this article is suitable for the country. 

sono yd na shigoto ni iva mukimasen (D) : 

he is not suited for such work. 
Comp.: furi-muku : to turn ; face towards, 
muku-, v.t. [cogn. w. muke-ru2 v.i.]. To 

peel. 

kawa wo muku : to skin or peel off the rind, 
inune. Breast ; chest ; mind. 

mune ga warui : to have a sickly feeling in 

the stomach. 
onna wa mune ga semai mono da (B) : 

women are weak-spirited creatures. 
mune wo kognsu : to be deeply in love, 
mura. A village. 
murasaki (no or na). Purple. 
muri. Unreasonableness ; injustice ; violence. 
muri na : unreasonable ; unjust. 
sore wa muri desu (C) : that is unreason- 
able. 



muri na koto wo shite wa ike-nai (A) : don't 
do anything unreasonable ; don't use 
force. 

sukoshi mo muri na koto wa moshimaaen 
(D) : I am not saying anything unreason- 
able. 

aonna muri na shigoto wo sum to bydki ni 
naru (B) : you will make yourself ill if you 
work like that beyond your strength. 

okotta no mo muri wa nai (B) : it is no won- 
der that he got angry. 

muri ga toreba, dori hikkomu : when vio- 
lence passes by, reason withdraws itself. 
mushi. 

1) Insect ; vermin. 

ki ni mushi ga tsuita (B) : the tree is 
infected by insects. 

2) Various. 

mushi ga ehiraseta no deshd (C) : I suppose 

it must have been a presentiment. 
mvshi wo osae-ru : to restrain one 's anger. 
mushi ga okoru : to become fretful (of a 

child). 

mushi no ii hUo : a man full of self-con- 
fidence. 

musubu. To tie ; knot ; complete. 
himo wo musunde kure (A) : tie the string. 
are wa yoyo mi wo musunda (B) : he has 

succeeded at last. 
nashi mo yoyo mi wo mtisubimashita (C) : 

the pear-tree at last is bearing fruit. 
Der. : musubime : a knot. 
musubime ga hodoketa (B) : the knot has 

come undone. 

inusuko, [fcol child]. A son ; boy. 
Comp.: hltori-musuko : an only son. 
mu some, [me- female]. A daughter ; girl. 
Comp. : httori-mustime : an only daughter. 
mutsu, (gen. pron. muttsu). Six. 
Note : in comp. mutsti is abb. to mu- ; see 

276, 4. 

muzukashii. Difficult ; hard. 
muzukashii hlto : a person hard to get on 

with. 
muzukashii kao wo ehUeru (B) : he has a 

sour face. 

ashlta no o tenki wa muzukashii yd desu (C) : 
the weather tomorrow seems doubtful to 
me. 
ano hlto no bydki wa muzukashii (B) : his 

illness is very serious. 
my 6-, (used only in comp.). Tomorrow. 
myonichi : tomorrow. 
myoasa : tomorrow morning. 
mydban : tomorrow evening. 
mydgonichi : the day after tomorrow, [go 

after]. 
myoji. Family name ; surname. 

n' 

1) Contraction of no q.v. 
nani wo suru n' deeu f (A) : what are you 
doing ? 



88 



nat 



doko e iku ' da ? (A) : where are you 

going ? 
2) Occasionally contraction of ni. 

iya n' narimashUa (B) : it has become dis- 
tasteful to me. 
nal. Name. 

so iu na no hlto tea shirimasen (C) : I don't 
know anybody of that name. 

watakushi no na de karite kudasai (C) : 
please borrow it in my name. 

Yokohama de ikura ka nano aru hlto da (B): 
he is a man of some reputation in Yoko- 
hama. 

na no ureta hUd : a well-known person. 

na wo age-ru : to become famous. 

na wo toru : to get a (good or bad) name. 

na wo teuke'ru : to name. 
Comp. 

na-ate ; ate-na : an address, [ate purpose]. 

nadakai ; namae : q.v. 
na2. 

1) A particle added to nouns to form q. adj. 
(212 et seqq.). 

2) Used to form the neg. imperative. 
aonna koto wo guru na (A) : don't do that. 

3) Used after the stem of a verb in aff. 
imperative sentences ; also, by women, 
after such words as kudasai, r.hodai, 
irasahai, naaai. 

o tube na (A) : eat it. 

kudasai na (B) : please give it to me. 

4) Used as an interj. about equivalent to ne 
q.v. 

5) Na no after a noun : a) may be a q. adj. 
foil, by no meaning 'one', or b) may 
have nothing to do with a q. adj. but 
serve merely to make the sentence less 
curt or slightly emphatic : in this latter 
sense (b) it is often foil, by de (or the 
contr. da, desu, etc.) and it may then be 
contr. to nan. 

kirei na no : a) a pretty one ; b) it is 

pretty. 

auki na no : a) the one I like ; b) I like it. 
asuko wa Ise-ya no jimen na no da (B) : 

that site over there belongs t Ise-ya. 
mezurashii yoi fima na no de, minna hoahi- 

garimashlta (C) : as it was such a very 

good horse, everybody wanted to have it. 
kore deahd ka ? a ! sore nan dealt (C) : is 

this it ? ah ! yes, that ia it. 
ano hlto no okinakoe na no ni odoroita (B) : 

I was surprised at the loudness of his 

voice. 
na. 

1) Interj. about equivalent to ne q.v. 

2) Contr. of no wa. 
nabe. A pot ; saucepan. 

nadakai, [nal name ; takai high]. Famous ; 

celebrated. 
nagai. Long (distance or time). 

anata wa nani wo ahUe mo noguku kakari- 



tnasfi (B) : you take a long time over 

everytliing you do. 
ki no nagai Mto : a patient man. 
nagaku auru : to lengthen. 
Comp. 

naga-i': staying long, [iru\ to be]. 
naga-i euru : to remain long (on a 

visit). 

nigasa : length, [see -sa\ 
naga-iki : a long life, \iki'ru to live]. 
hoso-nagai : slender, [hosoi thin]. 
nagara. 

1) After the stem of a verb, it gen. means 
that two actions are carried on simulta- 
neously : while ; during ; as. 

miae e iki nagara yomimasho (C) : I will 
read it as I go to tho office. 

2) After the stem of a verb it sometimes, 
after a noun it always, has an adversative 
sense : although : nevertheless. 

warui to ehiri nagara shlta fB) : he did it 
though he knew it was wrong. 

go mendo (or kuro) nagara sukoshi tetsudatte 
kudasaimasen ka ? (C) : I am sorry to 
trouble you, but will you be so kind as to 
help me a moment ? 

ahitsurei nagara. . . : pardon me, but. . . 

o kinodoku nagara . . . : I am very sorry for 

you, but. . . 
nagcru. To throw. 

iahi wo nage-ru : to throw a stone. 

mi wo nage-ru : to throw oneself into the 
water (so as to drown oneself). 

saji wo nageTu : to give up a case as hope- 
less ; throw up the sponge. 
nagusame'ru. To comfort. 
nai is in reality an adjective meaning 'non- 
existent' (194) ; it serves to form the neg. 
of adj. (195-197 ; 213 ; 231 ; 232 ; 235) : 
it serves also as negative to the verb aru 
to be, to have, (for conjugation, see 93 ; 
94). The following are some typical 
examples of its use. 
1) Simple negation. 

kono hon wa yoku nai (B) : this book is not 
a good one. 

hima ga nai (B) : I have no time. 

wataku-ahi ja nai (B) : not I. 

sore ja nai (B) : that ia not it. 

ad ja nai (B) : that is not the way (to do 
it) ; that is not so ; I deny it. 

ad de nai to omoimasu (C) : I doubt it. 

isu mo nai (B) : there is not even a chair. 

aukoshi mo nai (B) : there is absolutely 
none at all. 

sore, hodo waruku wa nai (B) : not so bad ns 
that. 

sore ja nai, sono tonari no deati (C) : not that 
one, the next one to it. 

aru ka, nai ka, shiritai (B) : I want to know 
whether there are any or not. 

ho^a de mo nai ga ano hlto no tame ni ikare- 



nai 



89 



nai 



nakatta no desu (C) : I should have gone 
but for him. 
iku yori fi.oka wa nai (B) : there is nothing 

for it but to go. 
ko-nai uchi ni : before he conies, (lit. during 

his not coming). 

nai lid go, ii (B) : better without it. 
nai gurai da (B) : there is hardly any. 
iu made mo nai koto da (B) : it goes without 

saying. 
nai mono wa ageraremasen (C) : I can't give 

you what I haven't got. 
watakushi u-a kesahlte anota wo shikar u no 
de wa nai (B) : I am far from blaming you. 
Double negatives are cojronon in Japanese 
and even three are sometimes met with. 
Besides the three examples given here, 
see several others under 2) and 3). 
nai koto wa nai (B) : there is some ; (lit. it 

is not a fact that there is none). 
nai nara nai de ii (B) : if there is none, 

very well. 

shi-nakereba nara-nai koto de wa nai (B) : 
it is not an obligatory thing, (lit. it is not 
a fact that it is a thing which it won't do 
not to do). 

2) The gerund serves to form several in- 
teresting idioms ; among others, a) nakute 
wa ike- nai (or nara-nai) means 'must' 
(58, 15 ; 168, 1, c) ; b) nakute mo ii 
signifies the neg. of an obligation, or 
permission not to do something (168, 4). 
kaka-nakute wa ikemasen (B) : you must 

write. 
kane ga naJ.~ute' wa ike -nai (B) : you must 

have money. 

ika-nakute mo ii (B) : you needn't go. 
nakute nw ii (B) : I can do without it. 
nakute wa shiyo ga nai (B) : I cannot do 

without it. 
nakute nana-kuse : one has at least seven 

faults. 
shigoto ga nai de komarimasu (C) : I arc 

hard up, as I have no work to do. 
shigoto wo shi-nai de ichi-nichi nete imasu 
(C) : instead of doing his work he sleeps 
all day. 
shabera-nai de hataraku hazu da (A) : you 

ought to work and not talk. 
iware-nai de mo suru hazu da (A) : you 
should do those things without having to 
be told. 

kono tegami wa kitte wo hara-nai de kima- 
shita (C) : this letter came without a 
stamp. 

3) The most important idiom of the neg. 
conditional is thai in which nakereba (or 
nai to) is foil, by ike-nai (or nara-nai) : it 
may gen. be translated by 'must' (168, 1, 
a). * Examples of tiiis and other construc- 
tions of the neg. conditional are given 
here. 



kdri ga nakereba ikemasm (B) : you must 

have some ice. 

ika-nakereba narimasen (C) : I must sjo. 
shizuka ni shi-nakereba atchi e o-'ile (A.) : 

you must either be quiet or ;_ 
mi mo shi-nakereba kiki mo shi-nai (B) : I 

neither saw nor heard anything. 
tegami wo kaku hd ga ii, de nakereba ko-nai 

(B) : you had better write or else he will 
not com. 

klsha de nakereba ikemasen (C) : it must be 
by train (that you send the got-ds ; that 
I go ; etc.). 

moshi kaze ga okikereba koko-ira wa minna 
yakete shimawa-nakereba nara-nai (B) 
if there had been a strong wind all this 
neighbourhood would certainly have been 
burnt down. 

ashita de nai to deki-nai (B) : a) I can only 
do it tomorrow (not today, not the day 
after tomorrow) ; b) I can't do it before 
tomorrow. 

nareta hito de nai to so ha;/akit dekimasen 

(C) : unless it's a man accustomed to the 
work it can't be done so soon. 

4) Some uses of the adv. form are shown in 
the following examples : 

nokori naku : without exception. 
watakushi naku shujin no tame- ni hataraita 

(B) : he served his master disinterestedly. 
kore bakari de naku sore mo irete o kure 

(A) : put in not only this but also that. 
nan no kangae mo naku kiita mama hana- 

shimashlta (C) : without thinking I said 

just what I had heard. 
ano htto wa doko to naku idhin na tokoro 

ga aru (B) : there is something refined 

about him (though I can't say what it is). 
densha de naku kuruma de iko (B) : instead 

of going by tram-car, let's go by rik'sha. 
TTio mo naku : soon ; in a little white. 
iu made mo naku sore wa watashi no mono 

da (B) : it goes without saying that this 

thing is mine. 

sore to naku : in a casual way. 
nan to naku : without any special reason ; 

not knowing why or how. 

5) Koto ga nai. 

Nagasaki ni itta koto ga nai (B) : I have 

never been to Nagasaki, 
amort mita koto ga nai (B) : I have selc 

seen any. 

6) Note the foil, construction : 
aru no de wa nai=nai. 

yomu no de wa nai=yoma-nat. 

7) De wa nai ka ? see de 4). 
ni chigai nai, see chigai. 

Der. 

nairaahii : apparently not. [see 

nosa-sd q.v. 

Note. Nai as an independent word 
gen. be replaced politely by arimasen 



nai 



90 



nam 



or still more politely by qozaimaaen. 
It cannot however be replaced in cases 
like yoma-nai, nai koto, etc. 
naifu, [corr. of English]. Knife. 
l:irc-nai naifu : a blunt knife. 
nai fit wo togu : to sharpen a knife. 
naisho. A secret. 



naisho -banashi : something said in secret ; 

whispering ; [hanasul to say]. 
naisho-banashi wo sum : to tell a secret ; 

whisper. 
naisho-goto : a private, secret matter ; 

[koto thing]. 
naisbo-goto wo shl-nai de o kure (A) : you 

mustn't do things behind my back. 
naka. 

1) The interior ; inside. 
naka ni ire-ru : to put inside. 

naka ni hairimasu ka ? (C) : are you going 

inside ? 
naka niwaii no mo am (B) : there are also 

some good ones among them. 
hako no naka wa kara da (B) : (the interior 

of) the box is empty. 

2) No naka, q. ppn.: inside ; in ; among ; 
between. 

hako no naka ni arimasu (C) : it is in the 

box. 
tansu no naka kara dashite kudasai (C) : 

please take it out of the chest of drawers. 
hayashi no naka wo totte iku : to pass 

through a wood. 

tomodachi no naka ni : among friends. 
shi-gatsu no naka goro : about the middle 

of April. 
hlto naka de : in company ; before people. 

3) Naka is sometimes qualified by an adjec- 
tive or adjectival phrase. 

isogashii naka wo kite kuretc arigato (B) : 
thanks for coming when you were so 
busy. 

zurui akindo no di naka ni ano hlto dake wa 
shojiki desu (C) : among so many trades- 
men who are cheats, he is the only one 
who acts honestly. 

4) Friendship. 

naka no ii : intimate. 

kitte mo kire-nai naka da (B) : they are too 

fond of each other ever to be separated. 
naka ga warui (B) : they are on bad terms 

with each other. 
Com p. 

mannaka ; naka-naka ; q.v. 
yo-naka : midnight. 
naka-naka, [naka inside]. Has an emphatic 

or superlative meaning. 
naka-naka muzukashii (B) : it is very dif- 

ficult, 
naka-naka kimasen (C) : he will not come 

(although I have sent for him several 

times ; although he knows I need him). 



naka-naka makemasen deslUa (C) : he 

wouldn't give in (in spite of all I said), 
naku. To cry ; sing (of a bird). 
Comp.: naki-dasu : to burst out crying; 

begin to sing ; [see dasu]. 
nakunaru, v.i. (114), [nai non-existent ; naru 
to become : cogn. w. nakusu(ru) v.t.]. 
To become lost ; die. 
nimolsu ga nakunarimashlta (C) : the parcel 

is lost. 
chichi ga nakunarimashlta (C) : my father 

is dead ; the milk is all gone. 
itami ga nakunarimashita (C) : the pain has 

disappeared. 
sold ga mo nakunatta (B) : the sugar is 

already all gone. 

nakusu(ru), v.t. [nai non-existent ; surul to 
do (160): cogn. w. nakunaru v.i.]. To 
lose. 
kodomo wo futari to mo nakuslnta (B) : I 

have lost both my children. 
nani ka nakushimashita ka ? (C) : have you 

lost anything ? 
nania no. Raw ; not cooked. 

nama no gyunyit : fresh milk, (not boiled), 
namae, [real name ; mae in front]. Name. 

o namae wa ? (C) : what is your name ? 
namake-ru. To be idle ; neglect. 
Comp.: namake-mono : an idle person, [mono 

person]. 

name-ru. To lick ; taste. 
namete mitara nigakatta (B) : 1 tasted it. 

and found it bitter. 

ano hlto wa iro-iro no kurushimi wo nanufa 
hlto desu (C) : he is a"man who has had a 
lot of disagreeable experiences. 
nami. A wave, 
namida, \naku to cry ; mizu water ; tare-ru to 

drip]. Tears. 
nan, contr. of nani q.v.: also contr. of na no., 

see no2 5). 

nana, \nanatsu seven]. Seven, (3rd set of 
num. 271 ; 275 ; also abb. 2nd set of num. 
276, 4 ; see foil.; also used occasionally 
instead of shichi, 273.). 
nanatsu. Seven. 

nana-korobi ya-oki : never say die ; try, try 

again ; get up every time you fall down. 
In comp. nanatsu is abb. to nana : see 276, 4. 
Der.: nanuka, q.v. 

nani, (often contr. to nan : always contr. 
before the ppn. de, to, ni). There are two 
principal meanings, 'what ? ' and 'how 
many ?'; numbers 1-7, 12, 13 may be 
referred to 'what ? ' and 8-11 to 'how 
many ? ' 

1 ) A noun : what ? 

kore wa nan desu ka ? (C) : what is this ? 
nan deshita ka ? (C) : what was it ? what 

happened ? tell us all about it. 
nan da ka kyd wa guai ga warui (B) : some-