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Full text of "The Cooke Report"

WHAT ARE THESE DOCUMENTS? 

On August 14, 1944, Italian Private Guglielmo Olivotto was lynched at the U.S. Army's Fort Lawton in 
Seattle. 

Within weeks, an experienced Army lawyer named Leon Jaworski (later of Watergate fame) was 
assigned to investigate the murder and a companion riot between U.S. troops and members of an Italian 
Service Unit. 

At the same time, the War Department's Inspector General's Office ordered U.S. Army Brig. Gen. Elliot 
D. Cooke to prepare a report about the lynching and riot. Gen. Cooke's mission was not to prosecute; 
that was Col. Jaworski's job. Cooke's assignment was to determine what had gone wrong at Fort Lawton, 
and to recommend discipline, if any, for those not charged with crimes by Jaworski. 

Between September 10, 1944 and October 5, 1944, Gen. Cooke and his assistants, Lt Col Curtis Williams 
and Capt. S.K. Tyson, conducted more than 200 interviews, interrogating officers, civilians and enlisted 
men, including both American soldiers and Italian prisoners of war. Those interviews were all 
transcribed, and span 1,512 pages. 

Gen. Cooke sent two preliminary reports to the Pentagon, dated October 5, 1944 and October 14, 1944. 
Cooke's final report was dated October 28, 1944. 

Cooke's three reports, plus the 1,512 pages of interviews, are collectively known as "The Cooke Report." 
The report was initially classified; it was declassified by the National Archives and Records 
Administration at the request of journalists Jack Hamann and Leslie Hamann. 

While Leon Jaworski conducted his own independent investigation, he sometimes sat in on Cooke's 
interrogations. No defense attorneys were ever present. Jaworski eventually charged 43 U.S. soldiers- 
all of them African American— with rioting. Three of those defendants were also charged with the first 
degree murder of Pvt. Guglielmo Olivotto. 

The transcript of the court-martial is part of the Internet Archives Jack and Leslie Hamann Collection. A 
careful comparison of the Cooke Report and the court-martial transcript shows several instances of 
inconsistent or contradictory sworn testimony. Although Jaworski had access to these often-damning 
contradictions, he fought vigorously— and successfully— to withhold the Cooke Report from the two 
Army lawyers (William Beeks and Howard Noyd) assigned to defend the 43 American soldiers. 28 
soldiers were eventually convicted of rioting; two of those were found guilty of Olivotto's death. 

After the publication of On American Soil, a 2005 book by Jack & Leslie Hamann, the Army Board for 
Correction of Military Records agreed to review the 1944 Fort Lawton court-martial at the urging of 
members of Congress, led by Rep. Jim McDermott (D-WA). In October, 2007, the Army Board 
unanimously ruled that Leon Jaworski had committed "egregious error" in refusing to turn over the 
Cooke Report to the defense, as required by 1944 rules of Military Procedure. The Board overturned the 
convictions of all 28 soldiers who had been found guilty, reinstated honorable discharges, and offered to 
pay defendants, or their survivors, back pay for their time of incarceration. 

Jacks Leslie Hamann 
December 14, 2010 



INDEX: 1944 COOKE REPORT 

Transcripts of Pre-trial Interviews and Interrogations for the US Army Inspector General 

September 2, 1 944-October 5, 1944 

Interviewer 



pages | date | Interviewee 



unit 



1-13 09.02 Sgt. Grant Noel Farr 
14-24 09.02 T/5 Edward S. Haskell 



25-32 09.03 Sgt. Augusto Todde 
33-39 09.03 S/Sgt. Fred J. Perata 

40-47 09.04 Pfc. Harold Mason Gould 



Lt Col Curtis Williams / Capt S.K. Tyson 
IG SCU 7909 
IG SCU 7909 

Lt Col Curtis Williams / Capt S.K. Tyson 
IS 28 ISU 
I SCU 7909 

Lt Col Curtis Williams / Capt S.K. Tyson 
I SCU 7909 



Lt Col Curtis Williams / Capt S.K. Tyson 
48-75 09.05 Pvt. Clyde Vernon Lomax MP MP Section 

76-89 09.05 S/Sgt. Charles M.[ack] Robinson MP MP Section 
90-97 09.05 T/5 Andrew David MP MP Section 



98-112 09.06 S/Sgt Regis A. Callahan 

113-114 09.06 Pfc. Floyd W. Powell 

115-125 09.06 Pvt. Arthur S. Duncan 

126-138 09.06 Sgt. Thurman McCray Jones 

139-142 09.06 Pfc. Joseph P. Winderl 

143-144 09.06 Cpl. William Edward Rupley 

145-151 09.06 Pfc. Gasper S. Devito 

152-163 09.06 Pfc. George E. Durel 

164-170 09.06 T/4 Carl A. Johnsen 



171-180 09.07 Cpl. John M. Biscan 

181-184 09.08 T/5 Andrew David 

185-186 09.08 S/Sgt Regis A. Callahan 

187-195 09.09 Pvt. Antonio Pisciottano 

195-199 09.09 Pvt. Nullo Beretta 

200-203 09.09 Cpl. Maj. Guiseppe Belle 

204-207 09.09 Sgt. AngeloFumarola 

208-211 09.09 Cpl. Maj. VirgilioManca 

212-215 09.09 Cpl. Mario Ciarlariello 

216-221 09.11 Cpl. Maj. Rosario Sidoti 

222-225 09.11 Sgt. Maj. Antonio Urbano 

226-228 09.11 Cpl. Maj. StelvioFederici 

229-231 09.11 Sgt. PasqualeSolombrino 

232-235 09.11 Cpl. Livio Petriccione 

236-241 09.11 Cpl. Maj. Vittorio Bellieni 



Lt Col Curtis Williams / Capt S.K. Tyson 


MP 


MP Section 


MP 


MP Section 


MP 


MP Section 


MP 


MP Section 


MP 


MP Section 


MP 


MP Section 


MP 


MP Section 


MP 


MP Section 


MP 


MP Section 



Lt Col Curtis Williams / Capt S.K. Tyson 
MP MP Section 





Lt Col Curtis Williams 


MP 


MP Section 


MP 


MP Section 


Lt Col Curtis Williams / Capt S.K. Tyson 


IS 


28 ISU 


IS 


28 ISU 


IS 


28 ISU 


IS 


28 ISU 


IS 


28 ISU 


IS 


28 ISU 


Lt Col Curtis Williams / Capt S.K. Tyson 


IS 


28 ISU 


IS 


28 ISU 


IS 


28 ISU 


IS 


28 ISU 


IS 


28 ISU 


IS 


28 ISU 



Index © 2003 Jack & Leslie Hamann 



INDEX: 1944 COOKE REPORT 

Transcripts of Pre-trial Interviews and Interrogations for the US Army Inspector General 

September 2, 1 944-October 5, 1944 



242-245 
246-247 
248-253 
302-305 
306-310 
311-313 
314-318 
319-321 



254-255 
256-257 
258-259 
260-261 
262-263 
264-265 
266-268 
269-271 
272-274 
275-276 
322 
323 
324-325 
326-328 



277-282 
283-289 
290-291 
292-295 
296-297 
298-301 



09.11 
09.11 
09.11 
09.11 
09.11 
09.11 
09.11 
09.11 



09.12 
09.12 
09.12 
09.12 
09.12 
09.12 
09.12 
09.12 
09.12 
09.12 
09.12 
09.12 
09.12 
09.12 



09.13 
09.13 
09.13 
09.13 
09.13 
09.13 



Pvt. ImoNolgi 


IS 


28ISU 


Cpl. Benedetto Marino 


IS 


28ISU 


Pvt. Gennaro lodice 


IS 


28ISU 


Sgt. Antonio Licciardelli 


IS 


28ISU 


Pvt. Nicola Corea 


IS 


28ISU 


Capt. Ernesto [John] Cellentani 


IS 


28ISU 


Cpl. Maj. RinoFerrante 


IS 


28ISU 


Pvt. Fernando Catenaro 


IS 


28ISU 


1 


Lt Col Curtis Williams / Capt S.K. Tyson 


Sgt. Maj. Ruggero Sarcina 


IS 


28ISU 


Pvt. Bortolo Bertoli 


IS 


28ISU 


Cpl. Maj. LuigiFurlanelli 


IS 


28ISU 


Pvt. Attilio Vencato 


IS 


28ISU 


Pvt. Guiseppe Mariani 


IS 


28ISU 


Pvt. Angelo Facchini 


IS 


28ISU 


Sgt. Maj. Gaetano Pagliaminuta 


IS 


28ISU 


Pvt. Guiseppe Magnasco 


IS 


28ISU 


Cpl. Elso Regondi 


IS 


28ISU 


Cpl. Maj. Osvaldo Grossi 


IS 


28ISU 


Cpl. Maj. Stelvio Federici 


IS 


28ISU 


Cpl. Maj. RinoFerrante 


IS 


28ISU 


T/5 Edward S. Haskell 


IG 


SCU 7909 


Sgt. Grant Noel Farr 


IG 


SCU 7909 




Lt Col Curtis Williams / Capt S.K. Tyson 


Sgt. Guiseppe Pulvino 


IS 


28ISU 


Sgt. Mario Marcelli 


IS 


28ISU 


Pvt. Rosario Scalia 


IS 


28ISU 


Pvt. Ego Fugazzo 


IS 


28ISU 


Pvt. Nicola Corea 


IS 


28ISU 


Pvt. Prime Bernabovi 


IS 


28ISU 



329-355 09.14 
356-377 09.14 
378-393 09.14 



394-398 
399-401 
402-406 
407-409 
410-412 
413-417 
418-425 
426-442 
443-449 
450-458 
459-469 
470-476 



09.16 
09.16 
09.16 
09.16 
09.16 
09.16 
09.16 
09.16 
09.16 
09.16 
09.16 
09.16 



Pfc. John H. Pinkney 
Pfc. Roy L. Montgomery 
Pvt. RoyDaymond 



Lt Col Curtis Williams / Capt S.K. Tyson 
BS 650 PC 
D 651 PC 
BS 650 PC 



Brig Gen Elliot D. Cooke / Lt Col Curtis Williams 



Capt. Charles Majeric 
1 St Lt. Abraham Rosenberg 
2nd Lt. H. V. Sykes 
IstLt. Richard W. Peck 
2nd Lt. Delbert F. Bettencourt 
IstLt. Wilburn Fox 
S/Sgt. Joe R. Bennett 
IstSgt.WilbertE. Tanner 
T/5 Matthew J. McDaniels 
S/Sgt. Harrison A. Berriam 
Sgt. Jack D. Williams 
Cpl. Roger L. Bradley 






578 PC 





578 PC 





578 PC 


o 


578 PC 





578 PC 





Service Section 


BS 


578 PC 


BS 


578 PC 


BS 


578 PC 


BS 


578 PC 


BS 


578 PC 


BS 


Service Section 



Index © 2003 Jack & Leslie Hamann 



INDEX; 1944 COOKE REPORT 

Transcripts of Pre-trial Interviews and Interrogations for the US Army Inspector General 

September 2, 1 944-October 5, 1944 



477-483 


09.16 


484-487 


09.16 


488-491 


09.16 


492-493 


09.16 


494-496 


09.16 


497 


09.16 


498-502 


09.16 


503-513 


09.16 


514-516 


09.16 


517-521 


09.16 


522-526 


09.16 


527-533 


09.16 


534-537 


09,16 


538-548 


09.16 


549-555 


09.16 


556-565 


09.17 


566-577 


09.17 


578-581 


09.17 


582-587 


09.17 


588-591 


09.17 


592-595 


09.17 


596-615 


09.17 


616-636 


09.17 


637-649 


09.17 


655-664 


09.17 


665-674 


09.17 


678-683 


09.17 


684-688 


09.17 


650-654 


09.18 


675-677 


09.18 


689-703 


09.18 


704 


09.18 


705-719 


09.18 


720-725 


09.18 


726-728 


09.18 


729-733 


09.18 


734-739 


09.18 


740-743 


09.18 


744-747 


09.18 


748-753 


09.19 


754-771 


09.19 


772-774 


09.19 


775-779 


09.19 



T/4 Orange Lee BS 

T/4 Elmer S. McGinnis BS 

T/4 Jesse McCaa BS 

T/4 John Irving Manuel BS 

T/4 Orange Lee BS 

T/4 Elmer S. McGinnis BS 

Pvt. Esco Skaggs WS 

Capt. Alan Wayne Christensen O 

Pvt. Gavin F. Fulton WS 

Pfc. Glenn Pescatore WS 

Capt. James W. Rue! O 

Capt. Francis W. Beckman O 

Capt. Alan Wayne Christensen O 

2nd Lt. James B. Sistrunk O 

Lt. Col. Leo H. Beckley O 



578 PC 

578 PC 

578 PC 

578 PC 

578 PC 

578 PC 

Hdqr Detatchment 

Provost Marshal Office 

Service Section 

Hdqr Detatchment 

FtL Section 4 

28ISU 

Provost Marshal Office 

Troop Movement § 

FtL Staging Area 



Brig Gen Elliot D. Cooke / Lt Col Curtis Williams 



Pvt. Richard Lee Sutliff D 
T/5 William "Willie" D. Montgomery BS 

Pvt. Richard Lee Sutliff D 

Pvt. Roy Daymond BS 

Pvt. Jesse Grego MC 

2nd. Lt. Warren D. Beck O 

Capt. Milton J. Carter MP 

T/5 Addison G. George BS 

Pfc. Willie Scott BS 

Pfc. George E. Durel MP 

T/4 Carl A. Johnsen MP 

Capt Jackson O. Heine MP 

1st. Lt. Carl J. Watkins O 



650 PC 

650 PC 

650 PC 

650 PC 

Station Hospital 

FtL Staging Area, 4th§ 

MP Section 

650 PC 

650 PC 

MP Section 

MP Section 

749 MP Battalion 

FtL Staging Area 



Brig Gen 
Pfc. John H. Pinkney 
Maj. George H. McNay 
Maj. Roy Donald Hoisington 
1st. Lt. Carl J. Watkins 
Col. Harry Lee Branson 
Col. Vincent P. Hewitt 

Capt. Reino J. Panula 
Lt. Col. Leo H. Beckley 
Capt. John Hunt Walker 
Col. Alfred L. Baylies 
Maj. Jesse L. Haire 



Elliot D. Cooke / Lt Col Curtis Williams 

BS 650 PC 

O FtL 

O FtL Staging Area 

O FtL Staging Area 

O FtL Staging Area 

O 7th Army Air Force 

Base Unit 

O FtL 

O FtL Staging Area 

MC X-Ray & Pathologist 

O FtL Command Group 

O FtL Staging Area §3 



Brig Gen Elliot D. Cooke / Lt Col Curtis Williams 
Capt. Charles Oliver Sturdevant O Neuropsychiatric § 
Maj. William Walter Orem O FtL Staging Area 

Pfc. Albert A. DiGiacomo I SCU 7909 

Col. Alfred L. Baylies O FtL Command Group 



Index © 2003 Jack & Leslie Hamann 



INDEX: 1944 COOKE REPORT 

Transcripts of Pre-trial Interviews and Interrogations for the US Army Inspector General 

September 2, 1 944-October 5, 1944 



780 


09.19 


Pfc. George E. Durel 


MP 


MP Section 


781-786 


09.19 


Col. Frederick Weldon Teague 





POE 


787-795 


09.19 


Lt. Col. Henry Jay Kleinhen 





Port of Embarkation 


796-804 


09.19 


Sgt. Augusto Todde 


IS 


28ISU 


805-809 


09.19 


Lt. Col. Anthony Frank Stecher 


CM 


POE Troop Movement 


810-814 


09.19 


Capt. S. K. Tyson 





POE 


815-823 


09.19 


Maj. Irving R. Crawford 





POE Intell & Security 


824-831 


09.19 


Maj. Robert H. Manchester 


O 


POE Intell & Security 






Brig Gen Elliot D. Cooke / Lt Col Curtis Williams 


832-838 


09.20 


Brig. Gen. Eley Parker Denson 





Port of Embarkation 


839-840 


09.20 


Capt. Charles Majeric 





578 PC 


841-846 


09.20 


IstSgt.WilbertE. Tanner 


BS 


578 PC 


847-851 


09.20 


S/Sgt. Joe R. Bennett 


BS 


578 PC 


852-855 


09.20 


T/5 Matthew J. McDaniels 


BS 


578 PC 


856-873 


09.20 


T/4 John S. Brown, Sr. 


D 


578 PC 


874-882 


09.20 


T/5 Earl William Lallis 


BS 


578 PC 

Lt Col Curtis Williams 


883-928 


09.25 


T/5 Willie Ellis 


BS 


650 PC 

Lt Col Curtis Williams 


929-950 


09.26 


Pfc. John H. Pinkney 


BS 


650 PC 


951-967 


09.26 


Pvt. Alvin E. Clarke 


BS 


650 PC 


968-984 


09.26 


Pfc. John Lee Hamilton 


D 


650 PC 


985-990 


09.26 


Pfc. Roy L. Montgomery 


D 


651 PC 


991-998 


09.26 


Pfc. John Lee Hamilton 


D 


650 PC 

Lt Col Curtis Williams 


999-1014 


09.27 


Pvt. Robert Mathis 


BS 


651 PC 


1015-1020 


09.27 


Pvt. RoyDaymond 


BS 


650 PC 


1021-1039 


09.27 


Cpl. Johnnie Ceaser 


D 


650 PC 


1040-1079 


09.27 


Pvt. Thomas Battle 


BS 


651 PC 


1080-1090 


09.27 


T/5 Herman Johnson 


D 


651 PC 


1091-1092 


09.27 


Pvt. Robert Mathis 


BS 


651 PC 

Lt Col Curtis Williams 


1093-1121 


09.28 


Pvt. Jesse C. B. Sims 


BS 


650 PC 


1122-1148 


09.28 


T/5 Willie S. "Slick" Curry 


D 


651 PC 


1149-1163 


09.28 


Cpl. Joe Trice 


BS 


651 PC 


1164-1165 


09.28 


T/5 Willie S. "Slick" Curry 


D 


651 PC 


1166-1176 


09.28 


Pvt. Samuel Snow 


D 


650 PC 

Lt Col Curtis Williams 


1177-1198 


09.29 


Pvt. James C. Chandler Jr. 


D 


650 PC 


1199-1205 


09.29 


Pvt. Wallace A. Wooden 


D 


650 PC 


1206-1213 


09.29 


Pvt. George L. Johnson 


BS 


651 PC 


1214-1221 


09.29 


Pfc. Milton D. Bratton 


D 


650 PC 


1222-1248 


09.29 


Pvt. William G. Jones 


D 


650 PC 



Lt Col Curtis Williams 



Index © 2003 Jack & Leslie Hamann 



INDEX: 1944 COOKE REPORT 

Transcripts of Pre-trial Interviews and Interrogations for the US Army Inspector General 

September 2, 1 944-October 5, 1944 



1249-1257 


09.30 


T/4 John S. Brown, Sr. 


D 


578 PC 


1258-1259 


09.30 


Cpl. Maj. EnzioAntonelli 


IS 


28ISU 


1260-1262 


09.30 


Pvt. Willie C. Basden 


D 


650 PC 


1263-1276 


09.30 


T/5 Willie Prevost, Sr. 


D 


650 PC 


1277-1281 


09.30 


Pvt. Elva Shelton 


D 


650 PC 


1282-1289 


09.30 


Pvt. Booker W. Townsell 


D 


650 PC 


1290-1297 


09.30 


T/5 Addison G. George 


BS 


650 PC 


1298 


09.30 


T/5 Willie Prevost, Sr. 


D 


650 PC 


1298 


09.30 


Pvt. Wallace A. Wooden 


D 


650 PC 

Lt Col Curtis Williams 


1299-1302 


10.02 


T/5 Lee A. Dixon 


D 


650 PC 


1303-1304 


10.02 


T/4 Carl A. Johnsen 


MP 


MP Section 


1305-1313 


10.02 


T/5 Leslie T. Stewart 


D 


650 PC 


1314-1321 


10.02 


Pvt. Edward Sanders 


BS 


650 PC 


1322-1327 


10.02 


Pfc. Samuel Thomas 


BS 


650 PC 


1328-1331 


10.02 


Pfc. Arthur Williams 


D 


650 PC 


1332-1341 


10.02 


T/5 Johnnie Mack Sanders 


BS 


650 PC 


1342-1347 


10.02 


T/5 Herman Lee "Red" Redley 


BS 


651 PC 


1348-1355 


10.02 


Pvt. Herman L. Gentry 


BS 


650 PC 


1356-1364 


10.02 


Pvt. Jefferson Dean Green 


D 


650 PC 

Lt Col Curtis Williams 


1365-1368 


10.03 


Pfc. Walter Ruffen 


BS 


650 PC 


1369-1370 


10.03 


Pfc. Willie Scott 


BS 


650 PC 


1371-1377 


10.03 


Pfc. Aguinaldo Thomas 


BS 


650 PC 


1378-1384 


10.03 


Pvt. John R. Brown 


D 


651 PC 


1385 


10.03 


Pvt. Wallace A. Wooden 


D 


650 PC 


1386-1388 


10.03 


Pvt. Willis C. Collins 


BS 


650 PC 


1389-1395 


10.03 


Sgt. Fletcher Carter 


BS 


650 PC 


1396-1399 


10.03 


Sgt. Theodore T. Davis 


BS 


650 PC 


1400-1402 


10.03 


Pvt. J. D. Horton 


BS 


650 PC 


1403-1406 


10.03 


Sgt. Ellery Mitchell 


BS 


650 PC 


1407-1409 


10.03 


Cpl. L.C. Clark 


BS 


650 PC 


1410-1413 


10.03 


Cpl. Emmett Lillard 


BS 


651 PC 


1414-1422 


10.03 


T/5 Harvey Banks 


BS 


650 PC 


1423-1427 


10.03 


Pfc. Elmer Briscoe 


BS 


650 PC 


1428-1433 


10.03 


Pvt. Robert Frazier 


BS 


650 PC 


1434-1436 


10.03 


Pvt. Ernest Martin 


BS 


650 PC 


1437-1447 


10.03 


T/5 William A. Cunningham 


BS 


650 PC 


1448-1452 


10.03 


Pvt. Thorton E. Robbins 


BS 


651 PC 


1453-1455 


10.03 


Pvt. Arthanial Warren 


BS 


650 PC 


1456-1460 


10.03 


Pfc. Otis Baker 


BS 


651 PC 


1461-1464 


10.03 


Pfc. Jack Chapman 


BS 


651 PC 


1465-1472 


10.03 


T/5 Henry Jupiter 


D 


650 PC 


1473-1477 


10.03 


Pfc. Joseph Scott 


BS 


651 PC 


1478-1479 


10.03 


Pvt. Robert Mathis 


BS 


651 PC 



Index © 2003 Jack & Leslie Hamann 



INDEX: 1944 COOKE REPORT 

Transcripts of Pre-trial Interviews and Interrogations for the US Army Inspector General 

September 2, 1944-October5, 1944 



1480-1484 10.04 Pvt. Walter Jackson 

1485-1489 10.04 Pvt. Freddie Calvert 

1490-1498 10.04 Pvt. Levert Williams 

1499-1505 10.04 Pvt. William G. Jones 

1506-1507 10.05 S/Sgt Regis A. Callahan 

1508-1512 10.05 Pvt. Robert Smith 





Lt Col Curtis Williams 


D 


650 PC 


BS 


650 PC 


BS 


650 PC 


D 


650 PC 


MP 


MP Section 


BS 


650 PC 



*lnterviewee designations: 

BS US Army black soldier, not an eventual court-martial defendant 

D US Army black soldier, eventually a court-martial defendant 

I US Army soldier assigned to act as interpreter with Italian Service Unit 

IG US Army soldier assigned to guard Italian Service Unit 

IS Italian Soldier 

MC US Army soldier assigned to medical corps 

MP US Army military policeman 

US Army officer 

WS US Army w/hite soldier 



Index © 2003 Jack & Leslie Hamann 



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Authority 7?!SoI"> 
BvSTPNARA Date 0^/l2/fc^ 



ypiipni^ -~^QHk: 



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vvak okpahtmknt 



EDC:mg 



5 October 1944. 



533.9-Port Lawton, naah. (6) 



UiafORAN&lM for th« Coafwoding General, Anty Serrloe Poreaa, TliRUt Deputy 
Chief of Starr, U.S. Army 

Subj«ott iBTeatigatioB of attaok on Italian Senrioe Unit personnel 
by Aaarican Soldiers at Fort Lawton, Washington. 

1. In ooaplianee with a direotire from the Deputy Chief of Staff, 
and as part of a aajor inquiry pertaining to the use of Italian Serrioe Units 
within the United States, an inrestigation regarding the attack on Italian 
Service Unit personnel by 4aerioan soldiers at Port Lawton, nashin^ton, on 
or about 14 AUj^ust 1944, is now beint^ conducted by Lt. Colonel Curtis L. 
KilliaouB, IGD, and other inspectors general, both from this office and from 
the staff of the Coouanding Qeneral, Seattle Port of Enbarkation. Pursuant 
to an oral request of the CowHinding General, nrmy Serrice Forces, submitted 
through the Commanding General, Transportation Corps, that part of the in- "^ 
▼estigatioB at ?ort Wwton pertaining to ooomand responsibilities was super* 
Tlsed by a general officer of this office, namelyi Brigadier General Elliot 
D. Cooke. Regarding the command responsibilities in connection with the dis- 
turbance in question. General Cooke reports as follows i 

a. The InTestigation of an attack upon Italian Service Unit per- 
sanael at Fort L&wton, Washington, is still in progress and will not be fully 
completed until certain of the participants hare been returned from overseas 
for interrogation by the investigating officers. Howerer, that part of the 
iarestigation pertaining to command responsibilities has been completed. I!hile| 
the actual testimony bearing u^on these matters is omitted from this report 

in order that it may be incorporated in the final and complete report of in- 
▼estigation, the f%cts submitted herewith hare, noTertheless, been established 
beyond a reasonable doubt. These facts will be presented hereinafter in the 
order in which the events to which they pertain took place. 

b. On 14 August 1944, there were quartered in the 600 and 700 
blocks of the Fourth Section area at Fort Lawton, Washington, the 660th, 651st 
and 678th Port Companies and a Post Service Company, all colored, together 
with the 28th Italian Quartermaster Service Company. These units were quar- 
tered as shown in Tab A. The 660th and 651st Port Companies were scheduled 

to depart for an overseas destination at about 1900 on the following day, 
(15 August 1944). In the 800 block of the Fort Lawton Staging Area, at 
this time was q;jArtered Company A of the 749th MP Battalion. . 







fs^ 



•• At the end of the work day, approximately 1700, on 14 August 
i1M4, ill officers oi the foregoing organizations left the areas occupied 
by these units and proceeded to their quarters, either on the post, about 
one mile distant, or in the City of Seattle, about 7 miles away. Posted in 




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the area v&b one officer (of the pvmftnent personnel) , a Captain Alan W. 
Chrieteneen, whose duty it was to reaain in the Fourth Section area during 
the night 14«15 August. The Fourth Section area was oonprised of the 600, 
700 and 800 blocks. Captain Chriatensen's post was at headquarters of the 
Fourth Section, which was in Building 830 (See Tab A). Also on duty in the 
Fourth Section area was one MCO in eharge of quarters for eaoh company, and 
a fireguard in eaoh of the 600, 700 and 800 blocks. In addition, an MP 
patrol froa the guardhouse was scheduled to tour the area in a Jeep at hourly 
interrals. On this night (14-16 August 1944), the Conaanding General of the 
Seattle Port of Embarkation, Brigadier General Bloy P. Denaon, was in Spokane, 
Washington, on official duties not connected with the port of embarkation. 
Colonel Harry L, Branson, TC, was acting as Port Conuaander in addition to his 
duties as Coamanding Officer, Fort Lawton, Washington. 

d. At about 2150 or 2146 on 14 August, Captain Alan ^. Chris tenaen, 
duty officer for the Fourth Section, was making a tour throut,h the section for 
which he was responsible, and ascertained that PX S (Building 723), which was 
patronised by white and colored American soldiers and by members of the 28th ^ 
Italian QuartersMister Serrioe Company, was in the process of being closed for 
the night. Captain Christensen then went to the recreation hall (Building 701) 
latere he obserred seToral groups of colored soldiers playing cards. After 
making this obsenration he went to the mess hall occupied by the 578th Port 
Company, TC (Building 700). There he obserred an unauthorised party in progress, 
under the superrision of 1st Swrgeant Tanner, of the 578th Port Company. Captaia 
Christensen took no exception to this unauthorised social gathering but pro- 
ceeded to the 800 block and, after inspecting that area, entered the headquar- 
ters of the Fourth Section (Building 850) at about 2250. Captain Christensen 
testified under oath that he went to sleep in Building 830 at about 2300, and 
remained asleep for the rest of the night. The enlisted man on duty as Charge 
of Quarters la Building 850 likewise testified under oath that he had occasion 
to look for Captain Christensen at about 2400 and that Captain Christensen was 
not in the building, however, the whereabouts of Captain Christensen is not 
material to the issue, since no information was received at the headquarters 
of the Fourth Seotion regarding the disturbance in question and Captain 
Christensen did not know that suoh a disturbance had taken place until the 
fol loving morning. 

•« At about 2300, Private William D. Montgomery of the esoth Port 
Company, aocnipanied by two other eolored soldiers, walked up a road in the 
vicinity of the omss hall (Building 700), where the unauthorised party had 
been held. Private ttontgomery had attended that party for a short time and 
had been given scow beer in that building. The three oolored soldiers, while 
proceeding toward their own barracks in the 600 block, passed three Italians 
going in the opposite direotion on lAwton Road (Tab A). Private Montgomery 
shouted to the Italians to stop their noise. One of the Italians spoke to 
his ow^anions, whereupon Private Montgomery turned and ran toward them, 
holding his hand in the air as though brandishing a knife. Two of the 



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Italians ran, but one atood his ground and. when Montgoaery caae olos*, 
struck hlffl on th« Jaw and knookcd hln to the ground, unoonaolous. The 
Italian then ran, with Montgomery's two oorapanions following him and throw- 
ing rooks. When the three Italians reached their own area, the two colored 
soldiers eeased their pursuit, picked up tfontgoaery, carried him back to 
Tlrgtnia Arenoe (Tab A) and laid htm on the sidewalk in front of Building 
719, whioh building was occupied by a part of the 650th Port Company. The 
two soldiers then ran into ▼mrious buildings. Inciting other soldiers to 'f. 
Q^mm out and arsnge an assault upon one of their comrades. 

f. At about 2306, an MP patrol from the post guardhouse, con- % 
•itting of Staff Sgt. Charles M. Robinson and Prirate Clyde V. Looax, riding M 
in a jeep, arrired in the Tioinity of the intersection of Lawton Road and "^ 
▼irginia Areau* (Tab A), and saw a Urge number of colored soldiers surround- 
ing another colored soldier lying on the ground (Montgoaery). The colored 
soldiers were very excited and told the MP's that they did not need any help 

but would handle the situation in their own way. After some argument. Sgt. . 
Robinson and P^rt. Loaax were permitted to load Montgomery into the jeep for h 
the purpose of transporting him to a hospital. As these MP's departed with 
!^?^?rr^/^' "'T ***• colored soldiers tearing up a fence around the mess 
hail (Building TOO), and otherwise arming themselves with sticks, stones. 
and dubs. 

g. In taking Montgomery to a hospital. Sergeant Robinson and Private 
Lomax passed within 100 yards of the guardhouse but they did not stop nor enter 
the guardhouse for the purpose of warning the Sergeant of the Guard or anyone 
else of the seriousness of the situation in the Fourth Section area. Instead 
these two MP's not only proceeded first to a hospital, but they also chose ' 
that hospital most distant from the scene of the disturbance. Furthermore 
Sergeant Robinson and Private Lomax remained at the hospital for several min- 
utes in close proximity to a telephone, but failed to notify anyone in author- 
ity of what had taken place. It was only after these two MP's had spent some 
time in the hospital that they returned to the guardhouse and, without havinc 
Tl^V'^/*!**"'" ^^ormation than initially obtained, notified the Sergeant 
of the Guard that there was trouble in the Italian area and that some MP's 

had better be sent down there to take care of it. 

i*,. n.. ^" ^°^^y »"•** Sergeant Robinson and Private Lomax departed 
with Private Montgomery, members of the 660th and 65l8t Port Companies and 
probably some members of the 578th Port Company attacked members of the 28th 
Italian Quartermaster Service Company. Those Italians found outside of 
barracks were pelted with rooks and beaten with clubs. One of them was 
thrown bodily off of a 20 foot cliff. Many of the Italians ran and hid in 
^! dMM woods Just north of their own area. The colored soldiers also 
attacked Barracks 708 and 709, breaking all windows with rocks and clubs. 
They also forced entry into one of the barracks and assaulted the Italians 







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ttervln with rooka, olabt, knlres and other dangorous weapons. It was during 
this part of the riot that one Italian, Quglielno OliTotto, Jumped out of a 
barraeks window in an attoapt to eeoape. He was immediately seised upon by 
five colored soldiers and was last seen being dragged toward the woods. When 
the attack first started, a considerable number of Italians ran to their 
Company Orderly Rooa (Building 713) . in the belief and hope that they would 
be protected by American personnel quartered in that building. Sergeant 
Grant 9. Fairr, a white American soldier, on duty with the 28th Italian Quar- 
termaster Serrioe Company, caused the doors of the Orderly Room to be closed 
and barricaded. He then, according to his own testimony, called by telephone 
and informed the Corporal of the Guard. Corporal Andrew David, that a riot 
was la progress, and requested help. No record of incoming calls was kept 
by Corporal David, and both h© and a aerj^eant of the Guard, Staff Sergeant 
Regis A. Callaghan, are somewhat Tague as to whether or not 3ergeant j^'arr's 
message was ever received. Sergeant Parr was unable to make further calls 
on the telephone because the Orderly Rooa was soon being attacked by the 
colored soldiers. Clubs and stones were used to break in the windows and a 
heavy two-edge ax was atillsed to demolish the doors. The colored soldiers 
gained entry and immediately began clubbing and beating everyone inside the 
building. Despite the fact that Sergeant Farr tried to prevent them and 
annotmoed that he was an American soldier, he was beaten on the head, stabbed 
in the shoulder and cut across the groin with a knife and rendered unconscious. 
All of the Italians were clubbed and beaten until most of them were also un- 
conscious. Many of them were seriously injured and one of them, still un- 
eonsciottS at the time of this investigation, perhaps fatally. 

i. Hhen Sergeant Robinson and Private Lomax finally reached th« 
guardhouse and reported Irhat they had seen in the Fourth Section area. Ser- 
geant Callaghan dispatched Sergeant Therman 1. Jones and throe other MP's 
to investigate. Ho attempt was made to notify Captain Chrlstensen of the 
disturbance that appeared to be taking place in the Fourth Section area. 
Sergeant Jones and his party left the guardhouse and proceeded directly to 
the Italian area. There they observed what was taking place in and about 
the Orderly Roma (Building 713) and entered that building. As they reached 
the door one eolored soldier attempted to strike Sergeant Jones with a club 
but missed and hit one of the other MP's. At about this time. Sergeant 
Jones was joined by Prifate John H. Pinokney of the 650th Port Company. 
This colored soldier had somewhere obtained an UP arm band and a club and 
was doing his utmost to subdue the rioters and get them to return to their 
barracks. After about 10 or 15 minutes, and with Pinckney*s assistance. 
Sergeant Jones was able to prevent further violence in the Orderly Room and 
to finally disperse the rioters in that area. He then sent one man to call 
for an Aatbulanee and made other preparations for evacuating the wounded, 

j. As soon as Sergeant Callaghan had sent Sergeant Jones and 
party to the Italian area, Callaghan called the MP barracks by telephone 
and caused all available MP's therein to be alerted. Immediately thereafter, 
Callaghan received a telephone call froa Ist iiergeant Robert B. Aubry of 



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ths 650th Port Cospaay* who stated that thara waa ■erious trouble between 
the men of hl« Conpany and the Italian prisoners. Callaghan then called 
Post Headquarters in search of the Offioer of the Day, one 2nd Lieut. Jaoes 
B. Sistrunlc. Sergeant Callaghan was informed that Lieut. Sistrunk had left 
for the Officers Club, the olosing of which was his duty to superTise at 
Kidnight. I<eaTing word for the Offioer of the Day to eoae as soon as possible. 
Sergeant Callaghan, accompanied by Corporal John M. Bisoan, then went in a 
oar to the 700 Block area. Arriring on Virginia Avenue, Sergeant Callaghan 
realised at once the serious proportions to which the riot had grown and 
ordered Corpmral Bisoan to retiim to the MP barracks and bring all available 
MP's to the scene as quickly as possible. Sergeant Callaghan then walked 
directly to the Italian area where he found a group of colored soldiers still 
trying to break in the door of or^e of the barracks. Callaghan forced his way 
through these sen, placed hiaself between them and the door, drew his pistol 
and threatened to shoot the first man who moved toward him. Callaghan waa 
still guarding this barracks building when additional MP's arrived on the { iV ''-^ 
scene and began getting the situation under control. 

k. The Officer of the Day, Lieut. Sistrunk, arrived in the Italian 
area after the riot had been quelled. He found Sergeant Callahan posting 
sentries around the area and observed most of the colored soldiers returning 
to or entering their own barracks. Lieut. Sistrunk returned to the guardhouse 
and shortly after 2400 called Major Villiam T7. Orem, who was Provost Marshal 
and Security Offioer, and informed him of what had taken place. Lieut. Sistrunk 
took BO further action regarding this affair. In f&ot, Lieut. Sistrunk stated 
in testimony that he had never received any instruction in the duties of an 
Offioer of the Day and did not know of anything else he could have done re« 
garding the disturbano** 

1. The Provost Marshal, Major Orem, reached the guardhouse at 
about OOSO (IS August) and from there proceeded to the Italian area. Uajor 
Orem concerned himself principally with seeing that sentries were placed 
around the area and that the colored soldiers returned to their barracks. 
Thereafter, Major Orem inspected the barracks and had the lights turned off, 
but he did not require any bed Check made, nor attempt in any way to ascertain 
who of the soldiers had participated in the riot, or who showed evidence of 
having participated or who possessed weapons of a dangerous character. An 
effort was made, under the supervision of an Italian captain to determine 
whether or not any Italians were missing, but this check was never aatis- 
faotor4.1y conqilsted because of the number of Italians in the hospitals and 
still in hiding outside the area. At about 0130 Uajor Orem called the Post 
Conuaander, Colonel Harry L. Branson* at his quarters on the post and informed 
him that there had been a fight between the colored soldiers and the Italians, 
but Just what was said during this telephonic conversation cannot be stated 
factually. Colonel Branson testified that Major Orem did not indicate the 
extent nor aeriousness of the riot which had occurred, nor even the number 
of persons injured, but did offer assurance that everything was under control. 



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Bajor Orm, on the othar hand, adalta that h« told Colonel Branson everything 

was under oontrol, but also testified that he informed Colonel Branson of 

the nuaiber of Injured persona and, by implioation at least, of the serlouf* i 

ness of the affair. Regardless of what was said. Colonel Branson did not 

that night go to the soene of the riot, nor did he issue any orders looking 

toward the identifioatioa or the apprehension of those responsible for ths .* 

diaturbanoe. ^», 



B. At i^bout 0690 (IS August) PrlTates Loaax and Pinokney, patrol- 
ling in a jeep on a road sone SCO or 400 yards north of the Italian area, 
saw in the woods, sona 50 yards off the road, the body of Guglielno OliTotto 
suspended by l^e neok on a rope attached to the lower end of three steel 
oables stretehed aoross a deep ravine (these oables were a part of an obsteole 
oourse). lotifioation of this disoorery was oonmunioated to the Provost Marshal* 
Major Ores, who oaas at onoe to the soene of the hanging, secured the services 
of a BWdieal officer (Captain Swerdloff), caused the body to be removed and 
taken to the hospital for an autopsy. No photographs ware taken of the body 
at the soene of the hanging. However, subsequent testinony tilken by officers 
oonduotix^ this inveatlgatiiui established the followingi 

••: *' ■'■ . _: ■• '■ i 

fl) fttm where he was h«aging, Ollvotto*s feet were approzi- 
aately ^ fact a^beve ground level. 

ft) The place on the steel cable where the rope was tied was 
beyosui reach of an even taller nan than Olivotto, and oould only- have been 
secured there by soneono aho had walked out upon tlw oable. 



^1 






nor broken. 



^ Zte vertebrae in Olivotto* a neok were neither displaced 



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(4) The autopsy perforned by Captain John R. flalker estabo 
liahed the faot that Olivotto had died from strangulation. 






la the opinion of aedioal officers, aa well aa offioera conducting this iai* . 1% 
vestigation, the foregoing facts preclude the possibility of Olivette's - " ; ^ 
having ooanitted auieide. 

V 

n. The disoovet7 of Olivotto* s body, and the actions taken inmw> j< 

diately fbllowing this discovery, were otMWsnnioated to the Post Commander. 4 

Colonel Branson. Shortly thereafter. Colonel Branson proceeded to the | 
Italian area and caused to be assembled the following officers t 

w 

1. Colonel ?^ederi^ W. Teague, Chief of Staff* 
Seattle Port of Saibarkation. 

2. Lt. Col. Henry J. Kleinhen, Inspeotor General, SPB. 

3. Colonel Alfred L. Baylies, Officer in charge of the com- 
■and group, fbrt Lawton, Washington. 

4. Lt. Col. Leo H. Beokley, Director of Operations, Ft. Lawton. 

5. Major ?ta. W. Orera, Provost Marshal, Ft. Lawton. 

6. Major George H. HcNay, Post Engineer, Ft. Lawtemi. 



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To th«i» 89T«rftl officer*. Col. Br»n«on Issued ordera «iitf tiwtructions sub- 
stant tally &• follow*} 

(l) That the time of departure by train of the 650th and 
6Sl8t Port CoB^janiea (destined far the 3FPE) would be adT&aoed from ISO) ^ 
to ISOq that day. '«■■¥*-:. 

^) That a meaber of the Inspector General • a Department would 
aeofflspany these two units, and while on the train disooTcr and apprehend 
those guilty of participating in the riot of the prcTious night. 

<8) That Col. Alfred L. Baylies was appointed security officer 
of the Port Lawton Staging Area, and that Col. Baylies would insure that the 
colored troops were mored from proximity of the Italians as expeditiously as ; 
possible. 

(4) That Mr troops would utilize the obstacle course, nor 
enter the area where OliTotto's body had been found until after a thorough 
inrestigatlon of that area had been completed by criminal inveati,iatora. 

(6) That the Post Engineer would at once oause the repair of % 
damage done to berraoks of the Italian SerTioe Unit. •'"'^ ■> 

(6) That an InTestigation of the whole affair would be initi*|; 
ated by the Inspector General, Seattle Port of Ssbarkation. -' 

•• ItaUlcBMl iFMmoa'e ins true ti^oiis were acted v^on in the following 

manner I •■^^^^t: -v^ ^iP*- '-^ t'-." ^.- r:.- % 

(1) Colonel Teague returned to Headquarters, Seattle Port of "" 
Eisbarkation, and, mistrusting Colonel Branson's Judgment in wishing to speed 
the departure of the oolored troops before an investigation could be held, 
informed the War Department of what had taken place, and obtained a 72 hour 
delay in the departure of the 6S0tb and 651st Port C<MBpanies. Colonel 
Teague then called General Denson in Spokane, and apprised him of the situa- 
tion. General Denson approred the actions of Calonel Teague, and at once 
staurted for Seattle by automobile. $'i 

(2) Colonel Baylies caused the 650th, 651st and 578th Port 
Companies to be moTnd to areas as far distant from the Italians as facilities 
permitted. In the process of this move. Colonel Baylies obserred naany of 
the oolored soldiers wearing sheath knives. As a security measure. Colonel 
Baylies caused all the oolored soldiers to be searched for weapons, and their 
knlTes were taken from them. HoweTcr, no record was kept of whom the knives 
were taken from and, therefore, when one of these knives was subsequently 
found to have human blood on its blade, no one could identify the owner. 

(5) Lieut. Colonel Beekley, at officer *s call «9k the morning 





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of 15 Aogust, infornwd all offiovrs of the Oporatioas Division thftt troops 
would not utilise tho obstaolo oourso* nor enter the are* in the ricinity of 
the obetaolo oourae, until further orders. Despite this warning, troops did 
eater the area, both on the 16th and 16th of August, before investigators 
oould properly search the area for foot prints and other eridenoe which 
might have assisted la determining the persons who had participated in the 
hanging of Olirotto. 

(4) The Post Bngineer. Major MoHay^ sent 16 or 20 mea Into 
the Italian area to repair the barraoks, as directed by the Post Conanander. 
la aeecHq)lishiBg these repairs the workmen, perforce, obliterated all finger 
prints, et oetera, which might have offered conclusive evidence regarding 
•ertaia of the participants in the riot. Also, the rocks, clubs and other 
w«apons utilised by the rioters, on some of which was evidence of human blood* 
were gathered up without regard to the possibility of their being examined 
for finger prints. 

(8) The Inspeotor General, Seattle Port of Babarkation, and 

two enlisted oriminal investigators from the Provost Marshal's office, started 

inrestigatiag the riot, each investigation being oonduoted Independent of the 
other. 






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f* During the afternoon of 15 August 1944, Colonel league. Chief 
of Staff, Seattle Port of aOjarkation, in the presenoe of Colonel Branson, 
relieved Lieut, Colonel Kleinhen, lOD, from the duty of investigating the 
riot, aad assigned this duty to the Director of Intelligence and Internal 
Security, Seattle Port of Embarkation, who, at that time, was Major I.R. 
Crawford. This was done at the instigation of Major Crawford, who maintained 
that tlw investigation of the Inspeotor General was interfering with the 
eriainal investigation undertaken by his subordinates. At about 2200 on 
18 August, Oeneral Denson reaohed Seattle and resumed oeomand of the Port 
of asbarkatioB. Da 16 August, Oeneral Denson directed that Captain S.K. 
Tyson, lOD, should aot as liaison officer with the inTestigating officers. 
Subsequently, and in order to clarify the scope and responsibility of the 
lares tigators. General Denson published written orders to the effect that 
the Director of Intelligence would conduct that part of the investigation 
relating to the oriminal side of the riot, and that the Inspeotor General 
would oonduot that part of the investigation not related with criminal acts* 
Two days after these orders had been published, Lt. Colonel Curtis L. Williams, 
Iffl), from the Office of The Inspeotor General, arrived in Seattle and, und»r 
proper lar Department directives, took over the entire investigation, utilising, 
kowever, the servloes of those officers who had been conducting the Investiga- 
tion prior to his arrival. 

t^ I* I» addition to the Investigation directed by Oeneral Denson, 
'lift. Poet Commaader, Colonel Branson, appointed a board of officers to in- 
westlj^te the elroumstanoes surrounding the riot, determine the cause and 
fix J®"P°°f i?ll I ty for property damage. In a rather brief report, this board 
found the 660tk ajid «61st Port Companies responsible for the dama|e done to 




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tlw Tsrious bttildlnga, md rsoomasttdvd that the cost of rspairs \>9 ooll«ote4 |r 
froa neitbsrs of tifioso two organisations, without having daternined Just whioh 
wiabera had parti oipatad In the disturbance. 

r. When, on 15 August, authorities at the San IVaneisoo Porf; of ., .^ 
Babarkation were infbriaed of the 72 hours delay- in shipnant of the two port 
ooapaaies inrolred In the riot, an entirely new oall date of SI August 1944 
was issued. This date was subsequently changed by the War Department to 26 
August, «d the troops left Seattle on 23 August 1944. They departed orvv i, 

seas before the inrestigating officers had disoorered the names of all those r> 
who had participated in the riot, and, conse<^ently, soise of these soldiers 
are now being rirtggaed to this oountry for interrogation and probable courts .'«mc^ 
iwirtial. /■■■ -"'■«-■ ' ■.'.* 

(1) Had the post afathorities and their subordinates at !>brt 
L«wton displayed better judgment and foroe, there seems little doubt that 
the riot at ?brt Lawton oould h^re been prerented, or at least brought under 
control in tiise to forestall the hanging of Olirotto. A ecrutiny of Tab A 
will show that the 28th Italian Serviee Unit was in an area inmediately ad- 
jaomt to and, for the laost part, stirrounded by areas wherein colored troops 
were quartered, TUrthemore, beoause of t}» woods north of the Italian area, 
the Italiana had to pass through the oolored area while going to and from 
work. Since the oolored soldiers had, prior to the riot, manifested a dis- 
like for the Italians, whioh dislike was in the process of being fostered by 
■sny newspapers throughout the oountry, the placing of these two types of 
personnel so olose together clearly indicates a lack of judgment, or a 
failure to a^reciata the latent hostility with itfiioh many oirilians md 
certain of our military personnel view these Italian prisoners. 

(2) The fact that not a single officer belonging to any of 
the units inrolTed in the riot was on duty the night of 14-15 August, des- 
pite the fact that two of these organisations were leering for sn overseas 
destination the following day, certainly reflects a laxity in oommand super* 
▼ision «id ooBtrol* 

(S) The oondaot of the two MP's who first saw the riot forming, 
y*% failed to take immediate steps toward the quelling of that disturbance, 
reflects, if not cowardice, a decided lack of proper training and also a 
flagrant disregard of the Articles of War. Despite this fact, neither of 
tteMi two mm were owisored nor punished in any way. 

(4) The fact that the only officer on duty in the area where 
"^ riot ooeurred (Captain Chriatenson) was either absent from his post or 
•ilmip at the time of the disturbance, appears to have been of little oonoem 
to his iomediate superiors. His whereabouts and aotiona on the night of the 



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riot w»r« not inquired into, and he aubaequontly becwae one of three member* 
of * Board of Officers appointed to investigate the af flair and to fix ree- 
ponsibility for its ooourrenoe. 

(5) The actions of Sergeant Jones and the MP's irtio aoooapanied 
Itla to the soen* of the riot, and the quelling of that riot in and around 
the Orderly Room are deemed ooamendable. MeTertheless, none of tnose MP*s 
could or would identify a single colored soldier as having participated in 
the riot, although iiergeant Jones and his companions were in a fully lighted 
orderly roo« for from 15 to 20 minutes with a large number of the rioters. 
This failure to identify the offenders is hardly understandable, sinee Private 
Pinokney, the colored soldier who voluntarily assisted In quelling the riot, 
as well as most of the Italians who were attacked, identified many of the 
participants. Because of this, the investigating officers cannot help but 
believe that the iiP»s had, for some undetermined reason, agreed amongst theat- 
selves not to identify any of the rioters. 

(6) Failure on the part of officers first called to the scene 
of the riot to take immediate steps toward the identification of those par- 
ticipating in the disturbance rendered the subsequent detection of those in- 
dividuals more difficult, and may even result in some of the culprits es- 
oapin£ Justice. 

(7) Victors attributed to the post commander which also may 
be considered as contributing to the dirrioulty of administering Justice, aret 

(a) Hie failure to Inesediately determine the proportions 

and seriousnees of the disturbance which took place the night of 14-15 August* | 

(b) Permitting all physical evidence, such as finger print«« ^ 
foot prints, et cetera, to be obliterated, both in the area where the riot ?, ''•■■ 
occurred and in the area where the body of Qlivotto was discovered. 

(•) Hastening, or attempting to hasten, the departure of ^ 
those tt^ops involved in the riot before those persons guilty of criminal 
acts oould be found and identified. 

(d) l^llure to personally ascertain the degree to which 
sMse members of his own command were partially responsible for the extent 
to which the riot developed, with a view to initiating disciplinary action. 

(8) In Justice to Colondl Branson and his subordinates, it 
B»st be stated that their entire efforts in this affair were concentrated on 
preventing a recurrence or spreading of the emotional unrest between races 

as manifested by the riot in question. In this, those officers were successful. . 
However, their actions indicated a decided lack of appreciation regarding the 
seriousness of the offenses committed against law and order, and of the neces- 
sity of bringing to Justice those persons responsible for the acts perpetrated. 




a. RBMAMS OF THE IMSPECTOR GSIERAL. 

The foregoing report is submitted in oomplianoe with an oral re- 
jpui^st of The Conmanding Oeneral, Army Service Forces, as presented by the 
l^loe of The Ccunanding Oeneral, Trainsportation Corps. In support of this 
■emorahduai* a more detailed report of investigation* with attached testimony, 
will be prepared and submitted when interrogation of the witnesses now 
available has been ooiapleted. Since certain phases of this inve8ti{;;ation 
are still in progress, conclusions and reeommendatlons In the premises are 
not deemed propitious at this time. The full report of Investigation la 
expected to be eoi|pleted in the near future* 



«l 



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C\. ^ PHILIP E. BROW, 






C\. ^ PHILIP E. BROW, 
' Brigadier General, U. S. Ansy, 
; Deputy The Inspector General. 



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WAR DEPARTMENT 

OFFICE OF THE INSPECTOR GENERAL 
WASHINOTON 



IIDSIO 333.9-Port Lawton, Wash. (6) 

MMORASDUtt for the Deputy Chief of Staff. 
Subject 1 



14 October 1944. 






Liberalized treatment of Italian Prisoners of War, and an 
Attack upon Italian Service Unit Personnel by American Soldiers. 



V/0 

1. Pursuant to instructions of the Deputy Chief of Staff, dated 22 August 
1944 (Tab A), directing that an inquiry be carried out as requested by the 
Assistant Chief of Staff, G-l, regarding the liberalized treatment of personnel 
of Italian Serrioe Units and an attack upon Italian Service Ifeit personnel by 
American soldiers, such inquiry was conducted during the period 24 August - 
3 Oetober 1944 by Brigadier General Elliot D. Cooke, assisted by Colonel 
fia^lph e, Bing, IGD, Lieut. Colonel Curtis L. miliams, 13), and Major Willard 
A;. Woodyard, 1(H), all of this office. In addition to, and in conjunction with, 
the inquiry directed by the Deputy Chief of Stafr, a detailed investigation of 
the attack upon members of the 28th Italian quartermaster Service Unit at Fort (- 
Lawton, Washington, was undertaken upon request of The Commanding General, Army o^ 



(a 



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Service Forces. This detailed investigation has not yet been completed, but 
an interim report concerning the command responsibilities involved in that 
affair has been submitted to The Commanding General, Army Service Forces, and 
a copy furnished the Assistant Chief of Staff, G-1, The broader inquiry, as 
directed by the Deputy Chief of Staff, has been fully completed, regarding 
which General Cooke reports as follows t 

a. The directive under which this inquiry was conducted specified 
that a thorough investigation would be made, both of the general situation re- 
garding the liberalized treatment of personnel of Italian Service Units and 
of the particular incident at Fort Lawton, Washington, where American soldiers 
attacked personnel of an Italian Service Unit. This inquiry was conducted in 
order toi 

(1) Establish authoritatively the data as to the contribution 
which Italian Service Units are making to this country's war effort; 

(2) Establish the justification for a policy of liberalized 
treatment of the personnel of these units and recommend any necessary changes 
and Improvement in its execution; 

(3) To ascertain the cause for the incident at Fort Lawton, 
Washington, including the extent to which public criticism regarding the 
"pampering" and "coddling* of Italian personnel may have been responsible 
therefor; and 



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(4) To rocommend -ways and means to prevent further untoward 
incidents and OToroome any adverse public attitude. 

For the purpose of continuity and clarity, each of the foregoing requirements 
will be presented hereinafter under a separate heading. 

b. Contribution by Italian Service Units to this Country's War 
Effort. 



(1) There were, at the time of this survey, approximately 35,000 
Italian prisoners of war In Sem^ioe Units within the continental limits of the 
United States. Of these, about 10,000 were working for the Transportation Corps, 
mostly in or about ports of embarkation; 7,000 were being utilized in ordnance 
depots or arsenals; and some 18,000 were distributed amongst the nine seinrice 
commands, performing various types of duty. At the majority of installations 
where Italians are being used, civilian labor in the quantities needed is not 
available. This is particularly true at ports, depots and arsenals. However, 

it has been agreed upon between the military authorities, at these installations, 
and various labor unions that, at any time, a qualified civilian can be found 
or applies for work, he will immediately be employed in place of a prisoner 
of war or even a soldier. This policy has been strictly adhered to by the Army. 

(2) A detailed break-down of the various types of work being 
perfonned by the 10,000 Italians in service units serving with the Transporta- 
tion Corps is shown on Tab B. The degree to which these different duties may 
have contributed to the war effort might be subject to considerable debate; 
however, the officers conducting this inquiry, after observing many thousands 
of Italian prisoners of war at work and considering the type and value of work 
performed, arrived at a common method of evaluating the relationship of results 
attainpd as applied to military essentials. % this method it was determined 
that,r6f the 9,588 Italians serving with the Transportation Corps, 4,145, or 
43.35C, are perfonning duties which contribute directly to the war effort; 
4,259, or 44,4jC, are performing duties which contribute indirectly to the war 
effort; and 1,184, or l|j^, are performing duties which are for the convenience 
and comfort of military personnel at the installations where these Italians are 
serving. 

■ (3) A detailed break-down of the duties being performed by Italian 
Service Units serving with the Ordnance Department is shown in Tab C. By ap- 
plying the same method of evaluation to the 6,811 Italians working for the 
Ordnance I>epartment as was done in the case of those working for the Transporta- 
tion Corps, it was decided that 3,257, or 4^, were contributing directly to the 
war effort; 2,666, or 39^, indirectly; and 888, or 13?5, for convenience and 
comfort. 

(4) The officers conducting this siirvey did not ascertain the 
exact duties being performed by all of the remaining Italian Service Units 



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to be another ooLo^r'SrL1tI°f ro^T"""' '" '""' ^^ "'^ «» ""^^ 

Where Italian Service Units w^r-! T !^ !. "^^^ ^""^^ ** "^^^ Pl*°es 

the productivitfoTth; ^tTlIa^n;, t!:i:r' "^^^ ""^°'^ '' *^°^^^* -^-^^-S 



(a) 

[oi IZl ] rf^"'' ." ''°'"*^ ^ /°^^"'' ^'^ 1^ civilians: 
Co} ^That 1 Italian is worth 3/4 soldier or 1 civilian. 



That 1 Italian is worth 1^ soldiers or 2 civilians. 



tho only ,af, ZLa " evat^ti2"Lir i:di:id„Il'"'°"' " 'I '■'^i'-'^ that 
Italian, as aooomplUhlng marfo^Jn "Lt f ^Sf^^ '°r;'°" " *» ""=»?* *•» 
would aooooplish. Thua It i n >,r "^^ »i*''«'^ » aoldior or a cirtlian 

were to be dUba^ded or'ell-SaLd iT° ?f ^ " """ "'"'» ='"1™ """• 

-tei,. 15.630 wwre'L^tS;: :^ ^eX t \hr::rSf::t':^'"? ^^^"^'- 

stances, at nlacas wH«».o ^.w-ito n v .^ ^ effort and, in most in- 

In oonalderlSfS: IZlullZ^fZ H j:LT/tL"!/e?5'T "P^"--'" 
trlbutm, indlreotl, to the war e^ort? II IZ °d r^lJt^d^tJt ^Mle^'t^lr 



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beixig done by tSse men would Sv^ to h "^^ T " ^^^'^ *""' therefore, the work 
soldiers, or prisoned of w Z^r^l^ "TfJl '°"^"°^«' "^^*^^ civilianB, 
of the total/is beUeved ^ h« I^ ^«"^i^^°g *'306, being little more than 10?J 

activities as .ould\T?o^^^ ^ " L^ Ti^-StiyrSXe- r;!!-^^^^ 
" ^':T'Z':1^' ^''^' ^— ^ -^ th^Personne^ 

prisoners of ^) wh^have^enion "^ . '^'" Uberali'zed treatment of Italian 
several ground!' "he molt reasoilh/" '^7'°' ^'*^' °^^ ^« ^^^°«<i °^ 
offered these m;n the heater e^^^rt't^' 11?^ *^'* *^" "^°" privileges 
J the war effort of thL^o^t^ M .! ^^ ^^^ °^^^ ^^^''^ contributing to 
writing that they woSd re"e^; tS'sar?!:' .*'"' '""'^^'^^ '^^« P""''-'* i- 
are granted An>erlcan soldiers (See Tab f/ 1"'/°^ P"" privileges that 
are of the opinion that beoauae th««« ^* ^'*'** niajority of the Italians 
officers dellberaLly mlaconat^ J P^°^^««« ^^« °ot kept, their own 
they were to receive u^ne^!niLiVth'°™'' *^'" regarding the liberties 
well aware, however, S wHre not liv.^ aervica units. The officers are 
made prior to enrollment! It L not to b«^^'' ° the promises and inducements 
they are being afforded th«lihL? supposed that these men consider 
groups to see'mLeL 'works of Irt'er"'?^ ^""T. ??^^ "^^ *^^" ^^ ^^^a 
dividually, ^et thei; Z racf a^d'asso^iatfwtth '"^ "''^ '° ^° °"* ^^- 
does. In this connection about 605^0?^^ 7^^ ''°°'^°' *' ^''^ °*^«^ «°ldier 
citizens of this oou^W How«! ^^f ^^"^ °^*^ **^°°^ relationship with 
Italian standards is v^y Ubl'r^nd Lrr'"''^^ ^'^ ''°°'^ relationship under 
American people. ^ ^^ """^ *** recognized by the majority of 

Of work being fl^^T:, 'zT^::j:-^^zxj' *'^ ^°^: -^^ ^- 
::tri%eii:t-rji-:ntii^^^^^^^^ 

Francisco Port of L^"^tion "here 6^ ^r'l.^^*^'" '"^^'^ " ** *^« San 
of Italian Service Units! ^ " °*''«° " ^c^dX^^ by personnel 

the prisoners thLt?ve'8'°°?Lf f ''''°"*.'°f "'^^* '" ^°^^ ^^ *^^ "^^^i^^^e of 
drafUd into the ?Janan*Ar^v L«r ^JT}^'''^ ^^^* *^« majority of them were 
entered the war! and that^« f« ^h 1"^'^ ''^^' ^''^^^ ^^« ^^i*«<i States 
arms against tMs oou^t^ evL ?. V™^^ "^^^^^ °°"'^ ^°* ^^^^^^ *° b«ar 
since they are nL^S^ tlL^^T '^°^ '^^ *^**^^ inclination. Therefore, 
Nations, It is b^oS ^h^f . ° actively participate on the side of the United 

bellige;aits :nd1^1Ue!f''TheTf:el t°h TV T'' "°* *°^*P* *^- « - 
and, like the Free French sWd h« f ^'I '^^^ ^"^^ liberated from P^soism 
accordingly. This pro^^^ T^^^^^::- ^^^rl^Z^^^ 



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4,595,000 American citizens of Italian descent who are not only quite ea<rer 
wouJ^ar I'tw!'!^ '"'^^i"^^ *"' '*""^'^ ^^ *^« "'^^i-^ ServiJe Units, but who 
rt^e^i^itedlatlor ''^^'' ^'"^^ °°^*'^ ^^""^^^^^ ^«^ --P*«^ " - ^^^^ 

Italians wonirf^J- -^*J*^ assistance in justifying the treatment of these 
+h! f .T ^f/^^°r<i«d If our own people were better educated regarding 
the Prijileges allowed all prisoners of war under provisions of the Snev^ 

IZlo'^'lL fritlnT «r-J^«? P-^riotio organiLtions and oiulensTe 
aware of the fact thati not only Italiap, but German prisoners of war as well 
are allowed radios chapels, newspapers, libraries, K supplies, etc.! Zl 
that, were such privileges denied them, it would immediately reLlt ii re- 

!aotS«7«"TH'^"' ''"'"^ T^'"" '^ *^" prisoner-of-war camps'^here our o^^ 
n^ff.f n°^^"" ^""^ confined. Much of the unfavorable comment regardiS. 
-coddling- and "pampering- has sprung from ignorance of such matter!! l?^ 

Z TT ?: H .f""!** ''T'''* '^ *^" ^"^"^*^°" °^ *^" P"^l«" if the people of 

.ui. Of the ^os^^:^r^:'^idTi^^s^ - -r 

sonnel, and this hostility constantly seeks an opportunity to expressTtself 

Sjl^irr- *^" ^°f '"'"^ °^ resentment is an Sotiona/one, Sp^nt^d "^d* 
inflamed by propaganda and cannot be eliminated by the presentation of factual 
data or information. Actually, the American people wouL prefer to fee Til 
Axxs prisoners punished or ill-treated since it is the common belief that all 

ZTI^LT ^**^if^ ^^ question are. by and large, regarded as enemies and 
any other conception of general public opinion would be erroneous. 

(6) To summarize, it must be stated that it is the belief of 
of responsible officers associated with the Italian Service Unit 

in spite of all factual data which can be set forth in iustifi- 
^i f/fi^r.^ treatment afforded men who are all too eager to work 
the United Nations, such data may silence but will never change 

attitude of the large bulk of American people who refuse to 
one-time enemies in any other status but that of prisoners of 



the majority 
problem that, 
cation of the 
on behalf of 
the emotional 
accept these 
war. 



^' The Cause f or the Incident at Fort Lawton, Washington . 

of n-«i^« ^^^ Public criticism regarding the "pampering" and "coddline" 

on Jh« T^ if'"°T^ '^^ ^^" "^ ^ ^*°*°^ i^ *^« ***^ '"^de by colored sSdiers 
on the Italian prisoners of war at Fort Lawton than was the question of racia! 
resentment. A sample of the type of emotional literature directed at Itllil^ 
prisoners of war by the Negro Press is shown in Tab G. iT^aiian 



\ 



(2) Of the many colored soldiers questioned 



on this subject, the 




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fact that they are priaonera of *;^' ^J*^^;^^^ and restaurants, that are off 
Lr are allowed iu ^-il^i^f^'^^^^J^rians are ent^tained in the homes of 
limits to the colored; that the ^^^^^^J'^'^^^o^ted; that American white 

all situation, to preclude denial. 

(3) The riot which occurred at ^^f^^^^f ^y.^.^tdTLlhtr'of 

developed hecaisi of words -°>--S«^,^::^rirs ught to ftriS or stab the 
an Italian Service Unit, /he colored soldxe^ s^u^ht^ ^conscious. Retaliatory 
Italian but himself was struck on ^f J^^^^^3^ited in a general attack upon 
:aeasures adopted ^y°*^-°f/^f,/Siit! culminating in the lynching of one 
all members of the Italian Service unl^. ^^^^^^ ^ complete and 

Italian and serious i^J-^/^f.f f/.^f^';*:' cSoted^during the course of, and 
detailed investigation of f ^^^^^^^^^^^ ^rim report of this investigation 
in conjunction with, this ^^fl'J^;^,^'^JfZZ^^^- ^^^^^^ ^^^^^' "^ ^^'i *° 
(TO3IG 333.9-Fort Lawton) ^%^^f^f t^^^^^ tn 5 October 1944. k more de- 

ZZTltlf^ II rclX hre^fur^^^er details of the riot. 

e 1^ , M,l T^ ,..^.nt further untc^rd incidents an d 

S.r.ome any adv ^^r.. nubiic aLLxludJ/ 

;- T'^'^' (,, ..ere is one main -f-^^-.r^S-e^J T^.' 

incidents regarding ^^^^^^^P^^^Xb^fhl^ during the course of this inquiry 
supervision. It was definitely ^^^^^^^^f^^e of potential disorders, were. 
th^t forceful commanders while ^PP^f «J«^^^ to handle the situation, prp- 
nevertheless, »«l^-°^^^«^^^ '^.f;^ ts^Jft to them. On the other hand, 
vided the responsibility ^^^ doing so was .^^^^^^^d less forceful 
one or two commanders who might be said ^o n .3^3 because, by such 
abUity were eager to receive ^^f ^^^^^J^^'^f liS from their shoulders, 
fcceptance. the responsibility of decisions^s lifte^ ^^^^^^,,^^ ,^ obviating 

It is not believed that any ^^^^^f/'^^ °°^^ E^ch area where Italians are 
public resentment and i^P^^^^f^^^^^^^^'^th different reactions and different 
^tili.ed has a definite type °^ P°P^^*°/^Xg the treatment of Italians which 
attitudes. Therefor*, '"'ffrtoenf orcein one area might well lead to in- 
would be satisfactory or safe to «^^°'^;®^^''^ " . _f course, announce broad 
Tifents elsewhere. A central f -^^^f^^^.^^^f/^elll^d ;ember8 of Italian 
policies and prescribe the maximum liberties to 




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Service Units, but local commanders should be authorized to limit such 
liberties according to their own best judgment. 

(2) Another way to avoid untoward incidents is to^^ouse these 
Italians in areas where their activities are not observed by American soldier*, 
and where their routes from barracks to work and to other activities do not 
bring them more than casually under the observance of American personnel. Also, 
visitors, since many of them are women, when going to see Italians should be 
required to do their visiting as unobtrusively as possible. Roads and areas 
which are least frequented by soldiers should be used. Many of those visitors 
arrive in oars loaded with girls, drinks, wine and food, and unless the result- 
ing picnics are held in unfrequented areas away from the post proper, serious 
trouble is likely to result. The sight of American women fraternizing with 
Italian prisoners of war is inciting to nearly all American soldiers and even 
to civilians. 

(3) Further precautions should be taken to'4nsure that the 
Italians are not placed on duty where they come in close contact with women 
workers. Many of the Italians are young and good looking, also eager to be 
friendly. There is already one case, at least, where American parents have 
requested that an Italian prisoner be permitted or required to marry their 
daughter. In this respect, it is of interest to note the reaction of the 
British-people, as shown in the New York Herald Tribune, 8 September 1944 
(See Tab H), the heading being "Britons Demand 'Save our Girls from Italian 
Prisoners of War'.* - 

(4) Another danger which could be avoided is that of ^rivalry or 
competition between American soldiers or civilians aai Italians. In the matter 
of work assignments, the Italians should be kept separate from American labor. 
Where Italians have worked with American labor or American soldiers, they at 
first accomplished more, which antagonized the Americans who either persuaded ' 
them, by setting an example or threatened them until their output was reduced 
to the level of all. Such a procedure is not conducive to good feeline on 
either side. • .. ° ° 



(5) To overcome adverse public attitude will require a com- 
prehensive program of education. A large proportion of our people still 
believe the atrocity stories they have read and the horror films they have 
seen. They think that large numbers of our own soldiers are undergoing hard- 
ships and abuse in foreign prison camps. Until this is disproved to their own 
satisfaction they will never view favorably the privileges afforded prisoners 
m this country, .^rthermore, they place all blame for such leniency upon the 
military establishment. 

f. DISCUSSION. 

(1) In general, it may be said' that the majority of commanders, 
utilizing the services of Italian prisoners,' are warm in their praise of the 
work accomplished by this type of personnel. Most of these commanders stated 




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that they could not get along without their Itsdian Service Units unless the 
Italians were replaced by soldier or civilian labor. Nevertheless, the presence 
of these Italians is the cause of considerable apprehension to everyone con- 
nected with their employment. If the oonnnanders were assured of proper re- 
placements, or if the work load imposed upon them were reduced, they would 
gladly dispense with the seirvioes of these foreigners. 

(2) It will be recalled that, at the time these Italian Service 
Units were first being organized, international negotiations regarding their 
use were in progress between Oeneral Eisenhower and General Badoglio. There- 
fore, no publicity was given to the type of work about to be performed by 
Italian prisoners of war in this country. Consequently, the American public 
was unprepared for the appearance of these men in American uniforms at public 
places and military installations. Many soldiers and civilians, including some 
newspaper columnists, felt that the military establishment was atteii^)ting some- 
thing unprecedented, and adopting a policy which was unmindful of the sacrifices 
made by our soldiers in North Africa and Italy. >/This attitude, to a great ex- 
tent, still exists, ard will be difficult, if not impossible, to change or 
placate. In other words, the American people as a whole are not yet in a mood ^/ 
to accept the Italians either as co-belligerents, allies or friends. 

(3) American soldiers, on the whole, harbor similar feelings. 
There exists in the minds of our enlisted men a bitter, although restrained, 
resentment a£,ain3t some of the privileges afforded the Italian prisoners, such 
as access to Post Exchanges, reserve sections in theaters, and particularly in 
the wearing of American uniforms. This last, in the minds of many, is a con- 

' donation of Italy's entry and participation in the war, as well as the killing 
of our own soldiers. 

(4) The Italians themselves are a confused and unhappy lot. 
Many of them have been in captivity from two to four years. Also,^ a large 
portion were captured by the British and subsequently transferred to American 
custody. The bulk of these prisoners are poorly educated, if not actually 
illiterate. Scarcely any of them have heard from their families since coming 
to this country. Also, while well aware that they are not being accorded the 
privileges promised them, "Chey realize there is nothing that they can do to 
alter that situation. Nevertheless, confused as is their present status, they 
much prefer the conditions under which they now find themselves to confinement 
in a prisoner-of-war inclosure. 

(5) There appear to be four possible courses open to the War 
Department, looking toward the solution of this problem regarding Italian 
personnel. These aret 

(a) To disband the Italian Service Units and return all 
Italian prisoners of war to Italy; 

(b) To continue the Italian Service Units as at present. 




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imposing upon the oommanderB to whom such units 
are assigned the responsibility of i Deciding 
Triiat liberties will be afforded them within 
authorized limits; preventing untoward incidents; 
and the acceptance of their presence by local 
civilians. 

(c) To disband all Italian Servio© Units and return 
the personnel of those units to a definite prisoner 
of war status. 

(d) To continue the Italian Service Units, accord them 
the privileges originally promised, while at the 
same time instigating strenuoxxs publicity cam- 
paigns in an attempt to convince the American 
people that this is the proper course to pursue 

in the treatment of Italian prisoners of war. 

In the opinion of the officers conducting this survey, as well as that of ^ 
many responsible officials interviewed on this subject, the four courses of 
action cited above are presented in the order of their desirabxlxty. 



S- 



CONCLUSIONS. 



(1) That the Italian Service Units are definitely contribut- 
ing to the war effort of tnis country. 

(2) That the liberalized treatment of tne Italians can be ^ 
justified by factual data, but that such justification will not materially 
alter the emotions of our people who resent them anyhow. 

(3) That much of the adverse criticism directed at the lib- 
eralized treatment of Italian prisoners is due to the public's ignorance / 
of the provisions of the Geneva Convention regarding those privileges whioh 
are accorded all prisoners of war. 

(4) That, because of racial segregation, as practiced in some 
parts of this country, the placing of Italian Service Units and colored troops 
in close proximity to each other is conducive to disturbance. 

(5) That the fraternization of American women with Italian 
prisoners is resented by all American males, and, therefore, should be 

curtailed as much as possible. 

< •' .. (6) That a centralized War Department agency should announce 
the maximum liberties whioh could be afforded personnel of the Italian Ser- 
vice Units, but that such announcements should not prevent local commanders 
from using their own judgment regarding the extent to whioh such liberties 
are permitted within authorized limitations. 



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Ti>, Italian S-"%"-'^*,rtTt Wd ^ ^^^^''^iVT^CZ b:^^" 
going presentation of rt«» «^y_^ ^^^^^ ^^,3 "^"^v!;". standpoint, icoord- 
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2UX^ — 



PHILIP/ 



BROWN, 
/■"'''" rllLra.! . U. S. Amy, 
Brigadier Gef^^^tl.i! r.«neral. 
Deputy The 



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ector General. 



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SSi>.9-Fort Uwton, 5faah, (6) 28 October 1944. 



MSttORAJSDUM to The Coasauindinfe Qenentl, Am^ Serried ?orce«. 
TBRUi Th« Deputy Chief of Staff, 0. S. Army. 

Subject! InT»«tig*tlon of attack on Italian Servioe Unit peraonoel by 
Anerioaa soldiers at Port Lawtou, tTashin^iton. 

I. Itoder date of S October 1944, an interim report regarding ths attack 
on Italian Serriee ttilt personnel by Aaericau soldiers at Fort Lawton, Waah- 
ington, Has submitted by Brit,ftdler Qensral Elliot D. Cooke, pursuant to re- 
quest of The CoaH»adliife General, Aray Servioe Forces. In that report it was 
stated that> i;^on oonpletion of the detailed inrestigation by Lieut, Colonel 
Curtis L. WllliaMS, lOD, a complete report then would be subiaitted. Ihe 
defcaileri InYeatigatioa has now been coc^leted, and General Cooke reports 
as follow* t 

£. a. On the night of 14-16 August 1944. a riot of serious proportions 
took place at Fort Lawtoa, Washington, In the course of which iiombers of the 
SoOth, 65lBt and 578th Port Companies, all Segro ^xnits commanded by white 
of floors, attaeked personnel of the 2Stb Italian Quarteraaa tar Service Conpany, 
During this disturbance one nwrnber of the Italian Serrice Unit T»a8 hanged and 
aaay were seriously injured. At this tixae Fort Lawton was utilized as a 
staging area for the Seattle i*ort of Embarkation, and was oomnanded by Colonel 
Harry L. Branson (0-6198), TC. The Port of Smbarkation was connaanded by Brig. 
General Bley P. Denson (0-2619). 

b. On the night of the riot, all troops inrolred were quartered 
In the ISOO arai 700 blooks of the 4th Section Area at Fort Lawton (See Ex- 
hibit A), also, the 660th and 6olst Port Coapanies were scheduled to depart 
for the San i^Haoisoo Port of Embarkation at atiout 1900 on the fol lowing day 
(le Aujsuat 1&44). At the end of the work day, ap proximately 1700, on 14 
August 1944, all officers of the foregoing organisations left the areas 
occupied by these units and proceeded to their <iuarters, either on the post 
,4|4iout COS taile distant, or in the City cf Seattle about 7 miles away. Re- 
'iostlning in the area was only one officer. Captain Alan K. Christensen 
(0-243971), of the permanent personnel, who was assigned as "duty oiTioer" 
for the 4th Section area. T})e 4th Section Area was cixiprised of the 600, 
700 and 800 blocks. Captain Chris tensen's post, when he was not inspecting 
the area, was at headquarters of the 4th Section, in building 830 (Bee Ex- 
hibit A) . Also on duty in the 4th Section Area was one noncoamissioned 
officer in charge of quarters for eaoh cop.paay, &ad a fire guard in eaok 
of the three numbered blooks. In addition, an M? patrol from the post 
guardhouse was scheduled to tour the areas in a jeep at hourly intervals. 



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uu w^5«- T*— -»Hi--^ --.-)» 'flWii** .I)«ii.»n i»(r in SpolWBJ.^Wngtoa. 
dtt off t*Iil dttttei ^^«*iMB6-lo-«lO i*«wittinft» htvtirxg Colon«l Brwisoa « 
4tltt^ fort CWBUindar, In addition to hi«4un««««€o««wid^ ©fflcr. 




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e. f»r»Tltm» to th« dl«%tir%aii««, and at about ZiSO or ^146 on 14 
jLttKU*ti eM«in Chrl«t«n»on, duty «rfl«W for tha 4th S^Jtlon. wa. aaJclng a 
^ thi«iitfi tt« ••otloa for *lil8fc l»;i«« wapowlblo. awl ^•••'•^•ff •*^**^' 

lo^o WioL aoldior., and by wm^rM ot th. 28th Italian Sorrloo tolt. 
•«r to tho toro*»#fc of boiag otow* tvr tM^M^i^ ; flattaln Qiriatonaoa , 

tLm^nt iTth. roci^tlon hall, btt^Miag TOl, whor* ho obaonr^I «rr«ral 
^o>ap« of io^ ioldioro ^Uylii* •*«!•. €a|,taltt <2*«^*«?f!^'ST***'*!S!v *^ 
W iSo aoio 1»U «6«*tt?lM by %li« CTOth «*rt Coa|Mqr» IC (bnilding 700) .;*. 
Dhoro ho obowwi an i«pro«i?t*i pari^ in prograoo, undor the Buperrloloi of . 
Srat SWfiiiUtt IfHw^ ». ^Smmm Amb»W\). of tho 678«i Port Coapany^^ 
%otalii ^IttfWito^ ^«iJ»Jt Ito oitW^ii^ thia unauthorl«od aooial g^thorlng, 
but aroooodod'W «bo tR» hltwk, «« »f tor Inopaeting that ar^, T^^ *^ 
hkaiiartero ttf -^ itl» flootloil (biiitdiiifi «80>, «t ^a»ut 2230. C»P*^ J ' 
(^taStOtttoii i;««tlTi«d undor Ofcth tHiaU ho 'OWt to aloop In building 850 at 
iftOttt 2800'/ »M rtealood aoloop for tho root of tha ntght. tha^onllated nan 
li£ duty i» oliarto of qua^or* in btfildlng 850 IMcewlao tootlflod undar oath 
that ho had oooaolon to look for Captain Chrlotanson at about 2400, and that 
Captaift 0ih'lot»h*ito ir*o hot laii «* ItalWtag fiowovor, t&o whoraabouta of 
Captain 'chrl»t«iaoa;^iiMt«^p«oitfo««blo in itsolf, ha« no dlroot b«»aring 
^n tho riot whloh iibo#|i*ntly took plaoo, alwo «» lnfor»atlan^*aa ro- 
wWod at ^So«a^ti«^*** t»f th» 4tli SotttloB raglirdia^ tha dUordor In quoatlon, 
mm! tjaptaln ChflrtOttoOn did not know that luoh dlattirbanea had takan plaoo 
until tho following nornlng. 

di tte tha night of 14 A«gtt«t 1944, aany «f the maabara of tha 650th. 
eeiit and 5t8th l^t Oowpanloo had baan drinking baor to Poat Ixohango Jtumbar 
^'^W and aoio of tho aon had booomO Intoxlcatod. Asoac thoao who drank too 
»1|J^ *l» t/^miaiiii »* «art|oa**y {M»T84»8)» of tho eSOth Port Coapwiy. At 
'm»m «860i«Ml*iwio*y» fc«eo«pa»lod t^y t/6 Addlooa fioorjo (5884686B), and Cpl. 
•tehor Urfciirf8«imW>ii **l *rtho oaaa ooaq»anyi» woro to butldto* 700* 
*^S«rfc'«feo^aitt*!fy&rtWr ^irtJfci«o in pro|^ and, aftarv loarl:* that building, 
valLkod tm iMrtoa Road In a oouthorly dlraetlon. tha thrao Kogro aoldlera, 
^ilo oroitodli* Wwaird tha 060 l»l«ate» Mt throo Itollan aoldiara who woro 
going to tho oppoalto dlrootlon ow Lawtoa toad* Maotgowry ohoutod to tha 
Italian* a» follow* » ''Shut op tiAt Ood da*i nolaa*. Ona «rf tho Itallaaa 
gpoks i* hla' oo#ani^M» to hla own l»agu*eo, wharoupott-MontgoBiory twnod.and 
ran toward thwm. holding hi a hand to th» air aa thoitgh ^'^^^•5i«f,*,'°*^*" 
t*b of tho Itallana nm, btff iCorporal Ma^r Rowari» Sldoti <IB9045U), otood 
Mo gtted; ind ^lam llontfe<»*ry attoi^tod to atrlfce hto, Sldotl |»rrlod tho 



blow with hl» rlgWt hand, ^MmmkU left hand attmok Montgoaary on tho jaw 




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and knocked him to the ground, unconscioua. The Italian then ran, with 
:iontt;oraery' s two companions following him and -tiirowing stones at him. The 
two Negro soldiers then picked up Montgomery, carried hiiu back to Virginia 
Avenue and laid him on the sidewalk in front of building 719, which building 
was occupied by part of the 650th Port Comp»ai^. Larkin went into the upper 
story of the barracks, asjcinc members of the 650th Port Company for a whistle 
Other members of the 650th Port Company, just previously forewarned by L&rkin 
ran into various buildings, incitin^; more soldiers to conie out and avenj^e an 
assault that had been made by the Italians upon one of their comrades. 

e. At about 2305 an MP patrol from the post guardhouse, consisting 
of s/Sgt. Charles ]i. Robinson (38366553), and ?vt. Clyde V. Lomai (34153538), 
both white, arrived in the vicinity of the intersection of Lawton Road and 
Virginia Avenue, in a jeep. They saw a large number of Negro soldiers sur- 
rounding another soldier (Montgomery) lying on tho ground in front of build- 
ing 719. Ihe soldiers were vory excited and told the siP's that they, the 
Hegro soldiers, did not need any help but would handle the situation in their 
own way. After some argument, Robinson and Lam».x were permitted to load 
Montgomery into the jeep for the purpose of transporting, him to the hospital. 
As these JiP's were departing with Montgomery, they saw the Negroes tearing 
down a fenoe around the mess hall (building 700), and otherwise arraing them- 
selves with sticks, stones and clubs. 

f . In taking Uontgomery to a hospital, Sgt. Robinson and Pvt. Loma 
passed within 100 yards of the guardhouse, but they did not stop nor enter th 
guardhouse for tne ptirpose of warning the Sergeant of the Quard, or anyone 
else, of the seriousness of the situation in the 4th Section Area. Instead, 
these two MP's not only proceeded first to the hospital, but they also chose 
to take Montgomery to that hospital most dist&nt from the scene of the dis- 
turbance. Furthermore, Sgt. Robinson and Pvt. L<xn&x remained at the hospit«.l 
for several minutes in close proximity to a telephone, but failed to notify 
any responsible authority of what had taken place, or what w<>.s most obviously 
about to take place in the 700 block area. Only after these two 'i&P^B had 
spent seme time in the hospital did they return to the guardhouse and, withou 
having secured any further information than they initially }»d obtained, noti 
f led the Sergeant of the Guard that there was trouble in the Italian Area, an 
that some KP's had better be sent down there to take eare of it. 

g. Shortly after Sgt. Robinson and Pvt. Lomax departed with Mont- 
gomary for tae hospital, Cpl. Larkin, having secured a whistle, summoned a 
crowd of soldiers and stated, "We are going down and beat the hell out of 
those Dagoes". Two members of the crowd ran across Lawton Road in the di- 
rection of buildings 666 and 667 and wamwd other joembers of the 650th and 
651st Port Coj^anies that a fight was going on between the Italians and the 
Megro soldiers. Sgt. Arthur J. Hurks (38547466), df the 650th Port Company, 
came out of barracks 666 and directed that members df the 650th and 651st 
Port Companies follow him. These men proceeded to the vicinity of building 
700, where they joined the group of soldiers who had previously ^.athered 



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th««. tgt. »irk. Md Cpl. l*i*lm then l«i « malljroup j' ***;*;^,«.«r, 

l^rSl#«2Pdi>it th»^^»illi mnd through th. window. 6t ^^^^^^^^^^'^^^-^ 

lili^iA ST t^Uii ai^*. ind; as the riot spread, were. WMtaiitly being ^ 
iiiti^o**««'«y 6tlrtir^llegr6 •oldier*. 

v!i .:u h. The principal attack made by the K«ert>8oldier« wa« Bore or 

lilr 6^fcre..lYe In He 6ota«se. going fro. linliding *° J^^i'^J^f '°^ •?^* 
iSrtlng *t the orderly room of the Italian Senrlc. Unit (balding 713), 
SJielent widinie ooild not be bbtaltiW tto etttbllih defl^tely exaot 
ili* Meittte-^Hatning to each phaee of the rlot,;but there ha» been ee- 
tSlihed lihai^ccurr^d at each of th* bttildlng. aSd, i^i»?rjl* outelde 
5^e biilldtnge. ?or elarlty of t«deretandlng^;*^t;^ : 

iilll^ll Wn^inaftei* be deeei*tbed a«parately. 

mU»t i^'-l. Building 708, waa the'flrtt barraofcs attacked. The itallana 
fitlM|iitt% •-building at onoa t<iJmed out the I Ighte An^ barr loaded the doore. 
Si33i*n»ifti-«ir*- a^|j#iiillt*^Abbtit enterlt^ or'atteaptin* to entef anv^^ 
i3i^rti#'bttllding and, thefefbr«. obntiaUid theAeelTwe with breaking 
J53#«^«n* throwing rookethrC«4b thbeetrIna»Hikto the building. ,^ , 
«fci» -B^Wa 'tto to attaok baiiati| T09. lAtef , howerer, fiaving, eeoured flai 
tUfcts and axes the aoldieri returned to 708, broke in the doof and a party 
S^iiM.aried with clabe and oth»t* weapons entered the building. Tbi» group. 
lid liy tj4 lttt««^dhn«on (iteSlHB), called upon the Jtaliana hidden withi»j 
t&it bulldihg to ooaie out from hiding alnoe they. ^ohni6n and party, were^^ 
#«i. thi*. Of '*»«*'••• *»» aa**«ly * «^« »»* *• •*<* Italian diecloeed 
hijiaelf k -taa iMBiidlaliely itta^feed "by Johnaon and hla oompanlona. Many of 
th6«e italiima wert fouM^ After the T lot, to hare been aerlously wounde^.,j^^ 

j. Whett^the^^ift lofitirl #riYid at building 709 they found^ 
i^ ti*ht« had been extlngailhed and the doors barf loaded, ^hey attacked ^^j 
tfi* **terlor o# thla building in the same laanner a« 708, but a^rer gained 
•fifcry* A^ the height of the atta«t, ftowwrer, an ttaiifctt, on* Pvt. auslielm»| 
01ivk««<^(Ifi»OT870), beoaae liore alaraed thah hla .ooJapanlona and in a panio 
rati^to aHrtodo^ of the borricekf ind leaped outi Be was iflmediately aeited 
tf^OB bt i?i^ IBwgro •oldlere and wae laat aeen being dragged tcrward the wooda 
«eat of the Italian area. It wat.thl* Italian who. on the following aorning 



k. the next phase of the attack wai made againat a pyramidal 
t»*t (&h^ «y, which waa used fox- tha^ )?ur^oi«e Of housing A^rioaij enlisted 



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,fwM»l W ^Hty with til. muma^rttomunit. Ot^HhiWJ^rtMmbi^ 

tti***Wff*»r« •rrlT«d. SJw ll^tt»«' i»H«« >«?>«» tlwM liwW* tM t«nt to 
m 'iMit» Qould prot««t«d thAt he w»» an A««rlwai «oldl«r but was bidden 
mam «a* MJlioiik^ !»««»*• ^i«*ily#M !• ll««M ito«dl*t»ly«^fce**«i With 

r^Skijaa ••««»•* .further m|«rf s*% iliii*4*ti» bJFr^uimlas *=*• *^«*^«^^y 

^^fy»mA to «»• cmt, wi»«w«f!Oii#*lMk9rt«l»«»»i«o«a^ « Joop .fo^d plurkwd 
n thTWe* •04 aiUiwd tJukt ii^klel* t* »itt«4ii*« nA b»tt«r dowi-^i 1»nt. 
^M «t«l|o «f tho t«t U»Uy «oll«p««d. b«t«AlliiSjIt»¥ift<i raMlnodrundw^^ 

'"' * ' •■ ._".' .^ .",,,". ■, ., , .-.,, ■ ., ..-■.-<■ .,r ■,'-. ..a ^j,^!'??--'* >' 7"...,-. ■.."...■.' 

S^S!M^S*r«» ^rlo«mi*Mto -^ 
luarSlii^rSamoo unit. oa«.od tho. ^•,''1*^ ^t^^^:::^"*.^**^^'* 

Mtiaota. i*ll«t'*j tol#|»hoiai »nd tiifon»d tho corporaJi oXgtho K'flW^* - 

SI^^«^iou.ly. Xhey .«oooo#pkbr«Lkinft through *l« banriimdyl 
r^'SMaJiy attaoked Lr#.m^l>f^^ to the. buUditiE. Sone of 
xSSm ^vM»rioaa .oldlor* who iw^ o.oapod without lnj^« 

thoio w^jW»<» tl^^'o^fi^ the wlndowi were atoned end clubbed on ttte 
oatelde. 3/s^i!!Z^A. 4^^m^^ imim^h i^^^^ite.^rloatt eomerjjho h»Ml. 

S«rie*«t. Aug««*o S******* (ia90SS73)» ♦tteu^ted (to g«l». ]^rotee1j*«» for hipeelf 
*S.^a>y Anfor-lms the He groe. that all ineide the °?;^f ^.^J^;*"* 

^^k^S^ *ro».*h# Imlldiii^ dtirl»K the^lfii^ oniy^f«r** ^«rti»»r ^a;^»^ 



SS?y'5^b2K.^io^ely -ticked. ^J-"; J^^Ho^Se SfnT 
rlot.-«uWiuaded by riotere who were pr«P^ini *«> ••* ^*-f«,*° J^f^S^i ^^ 
Howerer, ,^tt other Meeroee.wltl^fl»»*^ltghta •«* •»'»J ^'^^^Jj*^ .^ ^ 
^imexw AWu^ii^lariUdiaft ni deeieted froai their atte»pt»,^|s«»l%^dof!l1*« 
latter aaiioined thoee who had entered bulldint 708. 




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buliai««. ««y w.r. .1.0 J^^^:f J^r'iJ'ii'SJSiiru^t hi. barrack. J» 

■ -; ^rTrtj-^ B-u^i, "iM^': ■.', UiJSJ»*U:' '■■"•■■"3:^^: ^. ' ';■ "j.^.^, t«i«« finally 

«rt««r«<»**««rtU ^*»*2 SL'iL^^S.itirti Si» point. A.S,»... 

tefJSJrfi^o^S ITc^l^^J^^^ (86590724). -wentln^a oar to 

lJSrtI?0l* Bl.*a« %o.«»t«ni>to the MP barraoka^a-dteUg all a^Jabl. 







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ttoin iialMlt4|«i»tJy.io.,th« ;Italifca,,,ftr«*,>^ fbu»ti,f^_ group ot riote'ra,:., 

s^Jlll tr/ioc to lbr««k liatopne oi^ the b&rraoka. Call«hiMi forotod his vajr . 
tk^rough, th« erovti «nd, pl&olng: hi»s*lf between ihea asi^th* 4oor. drow kU 
p^lliol •a^t1»^'<**^ra*4r:^ 'i^oot^^ vho mo-^ed toward him. .CalXahan 

iffMI «tm cWz4jU4i^*^<<^^^*V *^*°'^^<^^'^^<)^^ MP*s arrired on the seene* 
iit jf|,fUBNid^%..|^^rt^M h« bad,^.)»e«a iitandijo^ and prob«ed«d 

tt^,«j»t««»tlo»liy,j«rr»ag«:.ot|j«r,.8entriei» ,!a»,-i»ij My,fic^o^o»6ff,,th« Xtallij|^^ 
(^ifj^fff raaslwr, are*.' of .the riotara. 

tw an auW«*l» OlTfiow of 4h« Day. Lieut, SU trunk, arrived in the , .,^ 
a^ita aracairtsr tho rloi h»dvb«eh fiutUM. He fovnft^Sgt. Callahan poftlBK 
•pi^tiiJLea arovnd-lih* area* and oh ■erred aoet o£ the Hfgro soldiers returning 
t%,fir^enterlJis>-^^.<3im. barracks*. Meut. Sistrunk. returned, to the. £;uardf ^^ 
||fiM.e|» «ii)d^ii^^ William >, Orfm {o:^82j»ll« ifha , 

ii|%'l^oir»i|~liarlihaX;a^ Seourity..9i'f4.oer,..and' infonaedL ihat/o^fioer^^p^.Tliai: 
)M|# Hk9ii'pi#^« JUeut.. ^Utrualctoeic no' forttoraotion regarding ^^ afiiir. 



r , fh$r. Prearos t , Har«h«l ».,|lfc Jor, Orem^ reaohed the guardhoua o at ^j^ ^ 
BJt^fiVil^iOOi^ ti-JJ^^AjiilifU probeeded to the Italian area. Uajor 

brea eonoenwd hiaaelf prinoipally'vith seeing that sentries irere plaoed 
around the areai^iind tha,t^ the ^Ifffdj^aoldiora returned to their barr&o]ca«,. ^ 
fl^rami^^^UM^ryQrvm^XiMJiffto^i ihe barracks, and directed the lights to^ 
he(.'.Jbi«|Ta«!^i^fc»y |jk^AJ.<IL...nDt»ir0OW0Ter,. require any. bed; obeok .to be made, nor 
did he atteiipt 1b azqf «ay to aseertain the soldiers irho had parti oipa ted in 
tke rlo«« or shovvd ofidenoo ojC |ia,Tlng« partioipated, p^..poasMiied veapons^,- 
<^ja ifiUff/ia^ftm etaaraeter. An effort nas made under the superrlsion of an 
ilMilian Ottptala to determine whether or not any Italians were missing, but 
IMe ■wmM never aiitisfaotoriljr oonplete^^^ beoause of the. , aumber of ^ Jtallaac 
im^ th».; ^pfp j|ib|fjj,» aod' still in. 'hiding outside. ttM area.' ' ' -^ ^ 

Aflieri.9M^ had; been evaoua ted from the area and taten to hospitals* At tnis ^ 
l4w»;j^p^piroqcisiateliy^^ 01S0» Major Orem returned to the guardhouse and called 
the Post Coonander, Colonel Branson* at his quarters on the post, and In- 
fomed him ^jaatr, there had beeik a fight between the Kegroe* and the Italians. 
SaAOj^tWhKb; wftsi said in the. oourao of this telephoaio, oonrersation cannot 
b9>«tii,lMid;,£^tuall/> , OoL. graasoii testified that JUajor. Orem did not Indi- , 
Q^^-tiis extent jQor seriousness of the riot which had ooourred, nor eren the 
aanber of persons injured, but did offer assurance to Col. Branson that 
everythlag wms Hinder ooatrol..,llajor Orem, on the other hand, statea that 
he did tell CeW Branson that everything was under dontrol, Wt he further 
testified that hm informed Col. Branson of the number of injured persons 
and, by implloatian at least^ of, the eerlousness of .the af fa,ir . Regardless 
of what etas said^Col^ Branson did not that night go to the scene of the 
riot, nor did he issue any orders looking toward the identification or appr»» 
hensioa of, t|ipau|.Tespoxuible for, or of Idtose who had participated in« tlxe 
riot. ;.u- ••,«;>, i^ork ■ 



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.«..^k A.UI «»«'k of «)M It&llMi «r«K« Looklns In th» woodi soaw 60 yaa-d« off 
?2l!oSj^S#>jL^ SJJ^^ili»^^<^^^ (IWWWTO), iu.|,*ndjd by 
tto UMk to a rop« attaolwd %• ti» lowwir of throo Bteel o»ble« Btrotohftd 
••ro«« « lte«^^^viM< (*h«»# wl6i*i %w« i p»rt of in obBtiol* odur«»). 
iotif ibitil** ^fthli dlBooTory i»« eoaawmioatod to tho Proroat MarBhal, 
Itaior Or«. who omw at onoa to tba icano of tha hanging. Major Oram i««M»- 
«tat«ir»**^«»« «!>• ••«^^** *f 4 «i»«tcal of fiear (Captain Harold Uwrdloff. 
0S92fi»»'18), and oau«ad tho body to b« roaoTod and talwn to tha hospital 
for an a«fcopBy. Ko photograph* «ara takan of tha body whilo it «»^"*l^^i 
lMiflag» aal aa 4ff*rt •*# i*«» t* «*«»^«^ ^J^g**** pri^^*** Ite^or Of*m did 
a|t»a'«>'pii^*or"^al'db«ard tftrar %»e f obt prints fonirf trhara the bddy waa 
^^^Wm« mm iWr# ttWa af th«al ^riat« and ihay Iit<Sr ^ra oblitar- 
atad# A photograph of thi pUea «h»ra Ollrotto was hangad was aubaoquantly 
UkM (ui. ny^UvA «ilB» to(5i«ia# with taatiatoay saborad during th« ooaJ%* 
#f 'Wfl^^l&i«iifisAVtoa» aitabltahad thfli fd^ 

ma^nf / '^ ■■■• """ ' ■■ 

(15 From whore ho wa« hanging, OllTotto'a faat wora approxi- 
Hataly H faat wora groaind laral* 

j!*i:„.': : -.'vwwv r^ ■'TpRa'"plao*' dta''''iaBi ataal oabla whara tha "ropa wa*--tfM'"iia« 
Wiybll4^*to» *f iiNifn tailor aon thMi Ollrotto, and oould only haira baan sa- 
aorad thara by soaaom walking out along tha oabla (Bzh. D). 



(»> TRwTNfHs^bria 



tJift^tf^*^ taifk ««j^ nalthar diiplioat 



■#».■ 
i^'WalMn. 

J 4) Tha autopsy parforaad by Captain John H. Ifalkor f0422T00) 
tho fiiot that OllTottdT-liaTliad from stranguiatian (Saa B*Ii. B). 

Itt tha opinion of aadloal offiears, a» wall a« of tho offioar conducting this 
invaatigation, tim i^orwgoing faots praeluda thi* poaaibillty of OllYOtto hsT- 
l!i|^<!bm4ittad «tft6ld*. ■ ■■■■'-'''■ ^ ^ ■''■■- ■ '■'"'■ 

u. Tha dise«j«^ry of OlfiNmd^s body, ami tha actions tiikan iaiBi 
dlataly following this disoorary, wara oomRmioatod to tha Post CoBoaandar, 
iSalonal Braasoa. Shortly ttiaraaftor. Col, Branson proooadad to tho Italian 
araa» and oausai %a ba atsaablad tha follbwlBg offloarst , " 

55lap^.r ■ -•■': " '. '■.v:'\, ■■'■■ ■ ' . '' * 

tit* iearonW Pra^WdkWi faitwi (04««Toe). Chief of Staff /flaattla ^^^ 

jr*-- r-a ■•:p^^ <^ --Babikwest ion . " ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ 

- Lt, 'tibti lianry J. Eloinhon (0119738), InSpaotor -(3*B«ral, Saattlo^ 

PoH-"of ■•»abar*ation. .a. .1*:^ ^.iiv« -^^p- 

Cal. Alfrad L. Bayliaa (0>S7«}» Offioar In Charga of tha Conmand 
Oroi^, Fort Lawton,^iy 



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M follow., ^^- »~«-on i,.«ed .^.^ la.truction. . 

for *,rti««t<i^L.^"^^ •*»»«« i. Jh-lt.. _ 



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«»• .eourlty »«otion. "«»Va«««<1 by orlaiMH liivog%|. 

d»«4jo 4oM,^^^J^^ *^ Po.t Sagineor wmld .i^H^ 




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/»!. • V i v^^-^^h .^y^*** o«u««d the 650th. 651«t and 678th Port 

lSr^*th?%T:^*'''^ ^^^''i*^'^ ^** I* th*tr ,o«r.«lon taic«x f rom ?Sem! X- 
St *V ? ^ r* - '•«oo';d wa,.l«Ps>tx^ pw»on» -froa whom tho jcniroa wf. 

fB^r S ^ ^^*' inoliidiiig oa«-irtiich ima .tsLined with human blood 

*WM«r^f^l^ all 6mB«H^6r^ BlrlalortSttroo" would ~ 

Sf^r^r's'of^ ss^^ this w«5:f^i^ ifd'Kf 

aaai^^in datanaiklng tJ^^^iiTwh.. had |«r^^ ^ 

th. Italilm a^^!'!^**^?^*'*^ »«^^rMI<iay. '^^.t^l^ 6r 20 nen iuto 
•wi« itaiifcp arta to repair th« barraokg aa direoted bv th« Po.t e«»n,.«A« 

fi^fr.priat. et oet«rai K!iiAfri«||ht j«^ offer.* aoioluaire eTldoJiiVgC 

^^r^d ?.^fv* ?; ^*^-^**^***«f «»**l*hot,t: regard to the |>oasibiUty6f 
|?«^.lf»^d ^or thsB^ being exahined for flugw.. printer , . ^ -li-ivy or 

*-,i *-^ /^ ^, fti»I«ft»«ytf Oetiwi-al, saattla i'oct, of aibarkation ' and ttao 
•aliated lttT*.^l3^tor. fro« the Provoet Marahal.a offioarsSrtad invoBti! 
othi?f ^i-^r *tttttiter.atisation being conducted inde;endenUy ort^a 

Jstaff Sea«i?p|!t^?tif*t:^ I944..CoU . league, '"^fer of 

^^duty to Major Irvm, ft. <^.*f o^' ftl^JlJ^^JJ:^*^ Jlf ^^^^ ^ 

te»^d;?i^erB*l ^purity. 1*18 wae done at the l*i«titatli» of Maior r^w^nif 

'lr5i^S^S\Sf?^^'''^?r^**'f ^'^"^^ ^y Crawford's a^J 

S.S^«L«^^ r! ^^ °" le August. General Denaon r«it>hed Seattle Sdi 
v.^Wa^ ooBBBand^ of this Port of ilQbar!oatit>tt^ r ato'4e AwciMt ulnaral h«L«« 
a 4ireet,4^that captain S.K. ?^on (O-amea). I^, ahS i^vH na^son 

.2far?S IS*^^*^''^"*^'^**^^ ^^^^^«- iib.eq:e^^^.:S\n%rder ?o 
,a^rii>,-the aoopii and r«apon.iblHty trt^ the la^eeti^fira, Qe^aSl Lnson 



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. «<<i« jMod.m.t^t"'';;^*' th. «tfMt that t- „ 

0» troo».Tj''''»^"»«r«wii^ "" ''•*• of »iT!^ ."' **• «"o port 

:4 



***'*«ti •^l^frj^f^^ 1944. Ti*i?"^^o par. ' 



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0*1. Jtarortkl to f^liarLo^LIJif Jt^!! 'f^'^dlnc opportunity to 

golttg to aed fro. work anrf wk * o«<»upi»d by Bogro aoldior. whilo 

Italian, ,ith .^i roadine« aS^^ « T "^^ *° ^**^ Ajwrioan. and 

riot, thor. had boon .iaor alS^Jio2 f!^il intoxioatod. Previou. to th« 
and Italian., and ^.n ^if ^1;" i^d^i^*! ff*'**^' ^**«*« '•E^'^- 
po.t authority, oould .oarooly W. ^.!^? *Wf A«jrioaa aoldiora. The 
'•Sarding th« Italian. booT^Ii it«. !J ^^f '^^^ °^ *^« gwral f^oiw 
.i.aionad and .nlJ.t:; p'^^;i^Mf:^!?!'"f i-*«"o«ation. both o^f 

Italian prLonor. of wa?. Zh aZif^J^ tLr^?"^* **""^ '''^'- *^ 
l«nt prior to 14 AuKu.t. DoaBit. «,f! ' therefore. »u«t haro been pre^- 
taken to prerent t^^i;^!^^^?*^^!:' !: P-«°-utionary ».a.ure. had be^r 
dieturbanoe a. took pU^ U AuLT rf f,"^*'.^'' T* «"*'^ *S*ia.t such a 
not a .iasi. offioer^beloagint rL If H ^ ?! "fs^^^^^*"*. •!". that 

> on duty the night of 14-l^Wu.? ^IthfJ^ /"^"^ involr^l in the riot *a. 

:^ .ohedmed to lea^ for an or^Zll SLti^i .^"^ J'^Tf '''^'^^"tion. war. 
cation of the result, of .uirjI^Uy i. .^!i:\*^>i°"°^^6 "^^^^ ^° ^i' 
of U Aug«.t. Juet prior to the Uoidint ^^.^J u^/*°* *"**' °^ *^» ^^S^t 
■ «P« the three Italian., .^-l-g^f foJ^il^rji; :rtr:'^- "•**• '" ''""^^ 

^*f going into tiie itaMan ar«.. iTorder '?! ^ f prorooation. talk«I 

C?.fe^; . ;^ ' ^•'' ^'^ **^ ■«»• ^«a with the Italian.*. 

[•I«m. When Cpi^'LtterilSJL^S m'^I^**" ^''' Projudice. extant wa. 
if intoxicated Montgomery to bSlIfn; 7^9 Jh^""!! T'^*** **** ^"'J'^-«<* 
^ giw aid to Montgomery b«t iMWd rTf 11' *?"** ** ^" °°* '''"^in *nd 
the aoidier. the^in by J^fomi^^^ 'f*! the adjaoent buildings, inoiting 

Jured by the Italian.. ""anT^SoXrSlpre.irr*'^ ^'^ ^'^^ -'•^^^^y ^- 
iMult which the Italian, had peroetraJ-r f v. ** *'*"^ °"* *»** *^^» *»»• 
in ord»r to a..e»ble a.^^ aoIIHrrlt ^f^ "^^ ••°'«'«^ » ''^-tlo 

not. i^ ..king the. to Ho the mit:/:;:i'i:: .? ?^:° ^-^*-* ^^«« to 

x«ixian area and "Beat the hell out of 



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'*' '^ conduct of th9 tm tfp«« «»* » v# 
who first «aw tho riot forming, y»t JalT^d L ^.f*^; ^'»^*°"'^ *'^<i ^' Lomax. 
quolUng of that <li.turbaBc.°^;.mo^ If UtT ^'^''''' •*«''» *°^rd th. 
proper trainins and a cUar ^oUtlon ;f thi 9«frrJJ°r' * ^'""^"'"^ ^*°^ <>' 

t.e.. .ot.. .it..r Of t..o «n^::ot:rof^:--:j-pir::i 1^:^^^ 

quarfr. of J'ith'^roUoVih.Tthrrlo? ,^,^^^«^— -" "l.ep la head- 
ab..nt. a. th. NCO in ohi^ga 0^,!^:*,'. to«tifLl' " Jj ^»tlfi,d. or waa 
bayond thea. tw oonflictinc atat^Intr *"*^^^''*' «°^l<i °ot be established 
-•rloaa riot took plaoo wi?hln tJ! ! . S^^^**"* the fact remaina that a 
r..ponalble. and wi^W^apl^ircH^LwV.'''' "'''^''' Chrl^tenaen waa 
aasiat in quelling the diatSbance wMorJLJ I appearing on the aoeno to 
of the charge of quartera el.t- !' '^i°\f*o*» together with the teatimony 
Chriatenaen'a .taJi^e^rj^gar^jL Z tT''^ T ?' oorreotne.a of Captain^ 
Howerer. hia whereab^uta and action. trir^tK^ '* *^' *'"" °' the'riot. 
hi* superior, and he .ub..ol«*iiT °^^^* '^'*° °°* inquired into by 

Of offfcr. appoL5:d':o"r2::.\\^,L'%':: rWMf r/^-* '-•-^•" «^ ^^ '"-^ . 

ooourrenoe. m the report aubaiUed bv%M. b / "" re.ponsibility for ita 
the action of an^ of tL^Jia^nt 1^. ? ?!!'''*• °° ^"^^ **« ^"'"^^ with 
«v ox «» p^naanent poraonnel the night of 14-15 Au^uat. 

W- to th. .o.L'^f'tL^ior'a^ It 'T.: "^^ '^* ^'^ -^ aoco«pani.d 

the orderly roo»;ar:i.:^:^o'o^end:br ''L^rthe'r ''°' ^^ ^^^^^^^ 
oould or would identify a aln*l. lllllll ""J*'^*^'!"** none or the.. MP'. 
although Sgt. Jouea aaJ hir^moantf^! ! T^"^ partioipafd in the riot, 
for fro. 15 to 20 alnS.a wiS Tur^^ Tl ^° i "^^^^ ^^^^^^^ ^'•^•'■ly ^<>i- 
to identify ti.e olf.nde" I. ^c^roely u^^'lLl k?* ^^^*'"* ^^^' ^'^l-« 
the one Negro .oldl.r who rol^trrlly « s i "edif o % Tf°* "^^ ^"^"y* 
a. -oat of th. Italian, who were Itt^ok^d idfntJfJ^J ""^ *!!' ''°*- *« '-^^ 
Because of thi.. the inre.tigating oJme;/?!!*^!^!^"*^ °^ *^« participant., 
white MP- a had. for .na. und.temL«H ^ ! * ^'^P ^"* believe that the 

to Identify a^y of tt^TtiXrl, °''' *^"'"' '^°°^«*- themselvea not 

^ riot had ciiL";td'b::re:^:^/:i::,^- -r^-2 "^°%*^' -^^ '^*- 

p^l^^^''^.^L^l^ hlae- E^^^^^^^^ a-pTeld^\r.T' 
ln.t.ad. both were content :ith ^^l^^^ T2 iL'iT^'ilZl 






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io the b&rraolu sxtlrmiishad i^4- #.-*i 

«ifht r-.o«*bly be .TeoSd a.^Lf^.";;: ^ T^ "^^^"-tion,, which 

the final deteotioa of the nTrS^r* i ^^ r«prehen«lble because it render.*! 
tribute d to aoa- o? 1 g^iUrprrC^^r/''''''^'^ ^^ oertainl/:;^^^ 
t^ • •ctioa in infor»i^, colonll B^Tt'i;? -^^"!!m '^-then^o^e. Major 
trol". when from 20 to «0 peraon. lav^r? ^ .B^rything waa under con- 
with not a alnele on. of tSI" ^JtaJJeJ. aitLj f ■°»\°ri««»ny) injured. 
oonatituted .uoh an inooapl.te prMentTJi^-^ .^P^'"'*''"'**** *»*• identified, 
decided lack of di.o.ra«eJt f!r In 0?^!.° iW"" ^'** *^ reflected .uih » 
faille to appreciate hi. dutii/^nd ^e.^Llbm.r"'."'' -"'^ * «°-Pl«^* 

»«Jf *' ••.*** "'•• ^"••♦io^ « tf hi. SiJJ"!^" "?*•'• **»• oirou«,tanoe.. 
preaent aeaigmaent. qu^liflcatloaa for hla grade and 

•ntire ajf^ir ifl ^:c:S^Too1.t^td"l.^r:° ^^^ '•^•^^^ *° ^-^• 
I^^kT'^^"**** 1th an «arsency. Wrdle« %°fw! »«»P«*«°* oo«niander 
Which took plaoe orer the telepW b^Slf V ,**' **" •^°* oonversation 
on the night of the riot, it Ubeui!!! !k ^°^°°*^ ^''*'>^ »^ Major Orea 
immediately detennined t^^e proJorMi^rL^l ?°'°°'' ^'-'-^^ •^^oulTha^r 
•Mch had been reported to him^ Mor^^vlr f^ "^T" "^ **» disturbance 
Colonel Branson «a. «ade aware of t^! I I' f ' *' "*•''"* ®'^«" testified. 
yet failed to inatigate an^2.^ tlx« extent and aeriouaneaa of the riot 

hcnslble. particularly ao in rlew ^f !k ° ^^^^ ^' ^•^•^ extremely reore- 

or the aituatlon confrontinic him in «^« """^w to appreoiate the ^raritr 
JlBCipline and the *d«ini.Sation of ™n tr'^*" "^^ **»* "i^^nanoe of p^oer 
Branson,. ,,,,^. ,^ *.oa;^atn';:rson; "JS ir^'^V ^-*^«-°re, CoL^T 
of hia own ooMand were reaponaible ?!r Jk! ^''•' *" "^"^ •««• »«abers 



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Jim S l^l:""^ ^'^^ »6«. A,,i,i, ,^ ^^^ ^^ only by aUo2SV;tirS 
form In their pr»s«noa without attaaptinit to nrsTant it >>„<-«!. ^ ^ - 
im.dUt.ly informing th.lr .up.rlS o^'wh^t^^Skl^ Juo^! ' ""* 

«>iUty to coaaand. * ""**' ** *° '^•^ ^"••*ioa « to hl« 

**• H«;OiiiiEKm.TIOH. 

•*• VIBW8 OF THE IH8PBCY0R OMIBAL. -• 



10 Inols. 
Exhibits A to 4, '2(^ 




PHUP B. BSOTO, 
flrlgadiar Qenaral, U. S. Army, 
^ ^ Deputy The Inapootor Oonoral. 



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».- --Sat-iiu i^ ;