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Full text of "The cook and housekeeper's complete and universal dictionary; including a system of modern cookery, in all its various branches, adapted to the use of private families: also a variety of original and valuable information, relative to baking, brewing, carving ... and every other subject connected with domestic economy"

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The Gastronomy Collection 
of George Holl 


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Nothing is more obvious, than that experience 
purchased by the sacrifice of independence is bought 
at too dear a rate. Yet this is the only consolation 
which remains to many females, while sitting on the 
ashes of a ruined fortune, and piercing themselves 
with the recollection of the numerous imprudencies 
into which they have been led, simply for the want 
of better information. Not because there is any want 
of valuable pubHcations, for in the present age they 
abound ; but rather because they contain such a va- 
riety of superfluous articles, and are too indiscrimi- 
nate to become generally useful. A young female, 
just returned from the hymeneal altar, is ready to 
exclaim on the first perusal, as the philosopher did 
who visited the metropoUs, ' How many things are 
here which I do not want !' The volume when pur- 
chased is often found to contain what is only or 
chiefly adapted to those who live in " king's houses," 
or " who fare sumptuously every day."" 

Indeed, it has been the failing of most works of 
this nature, that they have either been too contraqt- 


Plan of the Work. 

ed, or too diffuse ; detailed what was unnecessary, or 
treated superficially what was in fact of most conse- 
quence to the great bulk of mankind. If it be ob- 
iected to the present work, that it exhibits nothing 
new ; that the experiments are founded upon the 
simplest rules of nature ; that most of the things have 
been rehearsed in various forms ; it is not necessary 
to deny or to conceal the fact, every other consider- 
ation having been subordinated to one leading ob- 
ject, and that is general utility. It is but jus- 
tice however to add, that many of the articles are 
perfectly original, having been extracted from a 
variety of unpublished manuscripts, obligingly and 
expressly furnished in aid of the present undertaking. 
A great number of outlandish articles are intention- 
ally omitted, as well as a farrago of French trifles 
and French nonsense, in order to render the work 
truly worthy of the patronage of the genuine English 

It may also fairly be presumed, that the superior 
advantages of the present work will immediately be 
recognized, not only as comprehending at once the 
whole theory of Domestic Management, but in a 
form never before attempted, and which of all others 
is best adapted to facilitate the acquisition of useful 
knowledge. The alphabetical arrangement present- 
ed in the following sheets, pointing out at once the 
article necessary to be consulted, prevents the drud- 


Importance of Domestic Habits, and Acquirements. 

gery of going through several pages in order to find 
it, and suppUes by its convenience and universal 
adaptation, the desideratum so long needed in this 
species of composition. 

Importance of Domestic Habits and Acquirements. 

Though domestic occupations do not stand so 
high in the general esteem as they formerly did, there 
are none of greater importance in social life, and 
none when neglected that produce a larger portion 
of human misery. There was a time when ladies 
knew nothing beyond their own family concerns ; 
but in the present day there are many who know 
nothing about them. If a young person has been 
sent to a fashionable boarding-school, it is ten to one, 
when she returns home, whether she can mend her 
own stockings, or boil a piece of meat, or do any 
thing more than preside over the flippant ceremonies 
of the tea-table. Each extreme ought to be avoid- 
ed, and care taken to unite in the female character, 
the cultivation of talents and habits of usefulness. 
In every department those are entitled to the greatest 
praise, who best acquit themselves of the duties which 
their station requires, and this it is that gives true 
dignity to character. Happily indeed there are still 
great numbers in every situation, whose example 


Importance of Domestic Habits and Acquirements. 

combines in a high degree the ornamental with the 
useful. Instances may be found of ladies in the 
higher walks of life, who condescend to examine the 
accounts of their servants and housekeepers ; and by 
overseeing and wisely directing the expenditure of 
that part of their husband's income which falls under 
their own inspection, avoid the inconveniences of 
embarrassed circumstances. How much more ne- 
cessary then is domestic knowledge in those whose 
limited fortunes press on their attention considera- 
tions of the strictest economy. There ought to be a 
material difference in the degree of care which a per- 
son of a large and independent estate bestows on 
money concerns, and that of one in inferior circum- 
stances : yet both may very commendably employ 
some portion of their time and thoughts on this sub- 
ject. The custom of the times tends in some mea- 
sure to aboKsh the distinctions in rank, the education 
given to young people being nearly the same in all. 
But though the leisure of the higher sort may very 
well be devoted to different accompHshments, the 
pursuits of those in a middle sphere, if less orna- 
mental, would better secure their own happiness, and 
that of others connected with them. We sometimes 
bring up children in a manner calculated rather* to 
fit them for the station we wish, than that which it is 
likely they will actually possess ; and it is in all cases 
worth the while of parents to consider whether the 


Importance of Domestic Habits and Acquirements. 

expectation or hope of raising their offspring above 
their own situation be well founded. There is no op- 
portunity of attaining a knowledge of family manage- 
ment at school, certainly ; and during vacations, all 
subjects that might interfere with amusement are 
avoided. The consequence is, when a girl in the 
higher ranks returns home after completing her edu- 
cation, her introduction to the gay world, and a con- 
tinued course of pleasures, persuade her at once that 
she was born to be the ornament of fashionable cir- 
cles, rather than descend to the management of fa- 
mily concerns, though by that means she might in 
various ways increase the comfort and satisfaction 
of her parents. On the other hand, persons of an 
inferior sphere, and especially in the lower order of 
middling life, are almost always anxious to give their 
children such advantages of education as they them- 
selves did not possess. Whether their indulgence be 
productive of the happiness so kindly aimed at, must 
be judged by the effects, which are not very favour- 
able if what has been taught has not produced humi- 
lity in herself, and increased gratitude and respect 
to her parents. Were a young woman brought to 
relish home society, and the calm deUghts of an easy 
and agreeable occupation, before she entered into 
the delusive scenes of pleasure, presented by the 
theatre and other dissipations, it is probable she 

would soon make a comparison much in favour of 
(No. 22.) b 


Domestic Expenditure. 

the fornier, especially if restraint did not give to the 
latter an additional relish. 

If our observations were extended to the marriage 
state, we should find a life of employment to be the 
source of unnumbered pleasures. To attend to the 
nursing, and at least the early instruction of children, 
and rear a healthy progeny in the ways of piety and 
usefulness ; to preside over the family, and regulate 
the income allotted to its maintenance; to make home 
the agreeable retreat of a husband, fatigued by in- 
tercourse with a bustling world ; to be his enlightened 
companion, and the chosen friend of his heart ; these, 
these are woman's duties, and her highest honour. 
And when it is thus evident that high intellectual at- 
tainments may find room for their exercise in the multi- 
farious occupations of thq daughter, the wife, the 
mother, the mistress of the house ; no one can rea- 
sonably urge that the female mind is contracted by 
domestic employ. It is however a great comfort 
that the duties of life are within the reach of humbler 
abilities, and that she whose chief aim it is to fulfil 
them, will very rarely fail to acquit herself well. . ^ 

Domestic Expenditure. 

The mistress of a family should always remember, 
that the welfare and good management of the house 


Domestic Expenditure. 

depend on the eye of the superior ; and consequent- 
ly that nothing is too trifling for her notice, whereby 
waste may be avoided. If a lady has never been ac- 
customed while single to think of family manage-^ 
ment, let her not on that account fear that she can- 
not attain it. She may consult others who are 
experienced, and acquaint herself with the necessary 
'juantities of the several articles of family expendi- 
ture, in proportion to the number it consists of, to- 
gether with the value of the articles it may be neces- 
sary to procure. A minute account of the annual 
income, and the times of payment, should be taken 
in writing ; likewise an estimate of the supposed 
amount of each item of expense. Those who are 
early accustomed to calculations of this kind, will 
acquire so accurate a knowledge of what their estab- 
lishment demands, as will suggest the happy medium 
between prodigaUty and parsimony, without in the 
least subjecting themselves to the charge of mean- 

Few branches of female education are so useful as 
great readiness at figures, though nothing is more 
commonly neglected. Accounts should be regularly 
kept, and not the smallest item be omitted to be en- 
tered. If balanced every week, or month at longest, 
the income and outgoings will easily be ascertained, 
and their proportions to each other be duly observ- 
ed. Some people fix on stated sums to be appro- 


Domestic Expenditure. 

priated to each different article, and keep the money 
separate for that purpose ; as house, clothes, pocket, 
education of children, &c. Whichever way accounts 
be entered, a certain mode should be adopted, and 
strictly adhered to. Many women are unfortunately 
ignorant of the state of their husband's income ; and 
jthers are only made acquainted with it when some spe- 
culative project, or profitable transaction, leads them 
to make a false estimate of what can be afforded. It 
too often happens also that both parties, far from 
consulting each other, squander money in ways that 
they would even wish to forget : whereas marriage 
should be a state of mutual and perfect confidence, 
with a similarity of pursuits, which would secure that 
happiness it was intended to bestow. 

There are so many valuable women who excel as 
wives, that it is fair to infer there would be few ex- 
travagant ones, if they were consulted by their hus- 
bands on subjects that concern the mutual interest 
of both parties. Many families have been reduced 
to poverty by the want of openness in the man, on 
the subject of his affairs ; and though on these occa- 
sions the women are generally blamed, it has after- 
wards appeared that they never were allowed to make 
particular enquiries, nor suffered to reason upon what 
sometimes appeared to them imprudent. Many fa- 
milies have fully as much been indebted to the pro- 
priety of female management, for the degree of 


Domestic Expenditure. 

prosperity they have enjoyed, as to the knowledge 
and activity of the husband and the father. 

Ready money should be paid for all such things 
as come not into weekly bills, and even for them some 
sort of check is necessary. The best places for pur- 
chasing goods should also be attended to. On some 
articles a discount of five per cent is allowed in Lon- 
don and other large cities, and those who thus pay 
are usually best served. Under an idea of buying 
cheap, many go to new shops ; but it is safest to deal 
with people of established credit, who do not dispose 
of goods by uniderselHng. To make tradesmen wait 
for their money is very injurious, besides that a higher 
price must be paid : and in long bills, articles never 
bought are often charged. If goods are purchased 
at ready-money price, and regularly entered, the ex- 
act state of the expenditure will be known with ease ; 
for it is delay of payment that occasions so much 
confusion. A common-place book should always be 
at hand, in which to enter such hints of useful know- 
ledge, and other observations, as are given by sensi- 
ble experienced people. Want of attention to what 
is advised, or supposing things to be too minute to 
be worth regarding, are the causes why so much ig- 
norance prevails on necessary subjects, among those 
who are not backward in frivolous ones. 

It is very necessary for the mistress of a family to 
be informed of the price and quality of all articles in 


Domestic Expenditure. 

common use, and of the best times and places for 
purchasing them. She should also be acquainted 
with the comparative prices of provisions, in order 
that she may be able to substitute those that are most 
reasonable, when they will answer as well, for others 
of the same kind, but which are more costly. A false 
notion of economy leads many to purchase as bar- 
gains, what is not wanted, and sometims never is 
used. Were this error avoided, more money would 
remain of course for other purposes. It is not un- 
usual among lower dealers to put off a larger quan- 
tity of goods, by assurances that they are advancing 
in price ; and many who supply fancy articles are so 
successful in persuasion, that purchasers not unfre- 
quently go beyond their original intention, and suffer 
inconvenience by it. Some things are certainly bet- 
ter for keeping, and should be laid in accordingly ; 
but this appUes only to articles in constant consump- 
tion. Unvarying rules cannot be given, for people 
ought to form their conduct on their circumstances. 
Some ladies charge their account with giving out to 
a superintending servant such quantities of household 
articles, as by observation and calculation they know 
to be sufficient, reserving for their own. key the large 
stock of things usually laid in for extensive families 
in the country. Should there be more visitors than 
usual, they can easily account for an increased con- 
sumption, and vice versa. Such a degree of judg- 


Domestic Expenditure. 

ment will be respectable even in the eye of domes- 
tics, if not interested in the ignorance of their em- 
ployers ; and if they are, their services will not com- 
pensate the want of honesty. 

A bill of parcels and receipt should be required, 
even if the money be paid at the time of purchase ; 
and to avoid mistakes, let the goods be compared 
with these when brought home. Though it is very 
disagreeable to suspect any one's honesty, and per- 
haps mistakes are often unintentional ; yet it is pro- 
per to weigh meat and grocery articles when brought 
in, and compare them with the charge. The butcher 
should be ordered to send the weight with the meat, 
and the checks regularly filed and examined. A 
ticket should be exchanged for every loaf of bread, 
which when returned will shew the number to be paid 
for, as talUes may be altered, unless one is kept by 
each party. Those who are served with brewer's 
beer, or any other articles not paid for weekly or on 
delivery, should keep a book for entering the dates : 
which will not only serve to prevent overcharges, but 
will show the whole year's consumption at one view. 
* Poole's complete Housekeeper's Account book,' is 
very well adapted to this purpose. 

An inventory of furniture, linen, and china, should 
be kept, and the things examined by it twice a year, 
or oftener if there be a change of servants ; into each 
of whose care the articles are to be entrusted, with a 


Choice and Treatment of Servants. 

list, the same as is done with plate. Tickets of parch- 
ment with the family name, numbered, and specify- 
ing what bed it belongs to, should be sewed on each 
feather bed, bolster, pillow, and blanket. Knives, 
forks, and house cloths are often deficient : these ac- 
cidents might be obviated, if an article at the head 
of every Kst required the former to be produced 
whole or broken, and the marked part of the linen, 
though all the others should be worn out. Glass is 
another article that requires care, though a tolerable 
price is given for broken flint-glass. Trifle dishes, 
butter stands, &c. may be had at a lower price than 
cut glass, made in moulds, of which there is a great 
variety that look extremely well, if not placed near 
the more beautiful articles. 

Choice and Treatment of Servants, 

The regularity and good management of a family 
will very much depend on the character of the ser- 
vants who are employed in it, and frequently one of 
base and dishonest principles will corrupt and ruin 
all the rest. No orders, however wise or prudent, 
will be duly carried into effect, unless those who are 
to execute them are to be depended on. It behoves 
every mistress therefore to be extremely careful whom 
she takes into her service ; to be very minute in 


Choice and Treatment of Servants. 

investigating character, and equally cautious and 
scrupulously just in giving recommendations of 
others. Were this attended to, many bad people 
would be incapacitated for doing mischief, by abus- 
ing the trust reposed in them. It may fairly be as- 
serted that the robbery, or waste, which is only a 
milder term for the unfaithfulness of a servant, will 
be laid to the charge of that master or mistress, who 
knowing or having well-founded suspicions of such 
faults, is prevailed upon by false pity, or entreaty, to 
slide such servant into another place. There are 
however some who are unfortunately capricious, and 
often refuse to give a character because they are dis- 
pleased with the servant leaving ; but this is an un- 
pardonable violation of the right of a servant, who 
having no inheritance, is dependant on her fair name 
for employment. To refuse countenance to the evil, 
arid to encourage the good servant, are equally due 
to society at large ; and such as are honest, frugal, 
and attentive to their duties, should be liberally re- 
warded, which would encourage merit, and stimulate 
servants to acquit themselves with propriety. The 
contrary conduct is often visited with a kind of retri- 
butive justice in the course of a few years. The ex- 
travagant and idle in servitude are ill prepared for 
the industry and sobriety on which their own ftiture 
welfare so essentially depends. Their faults, and the 
attendant punishment come home, when they have 


Choice and Treatment of Servants. 

Good wages however are not all that a faithful ser- 
vant requires ; kind treatment is of far greater con- 
sequence. Human nature is the same in all stations. 
If you can convince your servants that you have a 
generous and considerate regard for their health and 
comfort, there is no reason to imagine that they will 
be insensible to the good they receive. Be careful 
therefore to impose no commands but what are rea- 
sonable, nor reprove but with justice and temper ; 
the best way to ensure which is, not to lecture them 
till at least one day after the offence has been com- 
mitted. If they have any particular hardship to en- 
dure in service, let them see that you are concerned 
for the necessity of imposing it. Servants are more 
likely to be praised into good conduct, than scolded 
out of bad behaviour. Always commend them when 
they do right ; and to cherish in them the desire of 
pleasing, it is proper to show them that you are 
pleased. By such conduct ordinary servants will 
often be converted into good ones, and there are few 
so hardened as not to feel gratified when they are 
kindly and liberally treated. At the same time avoid 
all approaches to familiarity, which to a proverb is 
accompanied with contempt, and soon destroys the 
principle of obedience. 

When servants are sick, you are to remember that 
you are their patron, as well as their master or mis- 
tress ; not only remit their labour, but give them all 


Choice and Treatment of Servants. 

the assistance of food and physic, and every comfort 
in your power. Tender assiduity about an invalid is 
half a cure ; it is a balsam to the mind, which has 
the most powerful effect on the body; it soothes thQ ''^ 
sharpest pains, and strengthens beyond the richest 
cordial. The practice of some persons in sending 
home poor servants to a miserable cottage, or to a 
workhouse, in time of illness, hoping for their ser- 
vices if they should happen to recover, while they 
contribute nothing towards it, is contrary to every 
principle of justice and humanity. Particular atten- 
tion ought to be paid to the health of the cook, not 
only for her own sake, but also because healthiness 
and cleanliness are essential to the duties of her office, 
and to the wholesomeness of the dishes prepared by 
her hand. Besides the deleterious vapours of the 
charcoal, which soon undermine the health of the 
heartiest person, the cook has to endure the glare of 
a scorching fire, and the smoke, so baneful to the 
complexion and the eyes ; so that she is continually 
surrounded with inevitable dangers, while her most 
commendable achievements pass not only without 
•reward, but frequently without even thanks. The 
most consummate cook is seldom noticed by the mas- 
ter, or heard of by the guests, who, while they eagerly 
devour his dainties, and drink his wine, care very lit- 
tle who dressed the one or sent the other. The same 
observations apply to the kitchen maid or second 


Choice and Treatment of Servants. 

cook, who have in large families the hardest place, 
and are worse paid, verifying the old proverb, ' the 
more work the less wages/ If there be any thing 
right, the cook has the praise, when any praise is 
given : if any thing be wrong, the kitchen maid has 
the blame. For this humble domestic is expected 
by the cook to take the entire management of all 
roasts and boils, fish and vegetables, which together 
constitute the principal part of an Englishman's din- 
ner. The master or mistress who wishes to.enjoy the 
rare luxury of a table well served in the best stile, 
should treat the cook as a friend ; should watch over 
her health with peculiar care, and be sure that her 
taste does not suffer, by her stomach being deranged 
by bilious attacks. A small proportion of that at- 
tention usually bestowed on a favourite horse, or even 
a dog, would suffice to regulate her animal system. 
Cleanliness, and a proper ventilation to carry off 
smoke and steam, should be particularly attended to 
in the construction of a kitchen. The grand scene 
of action, the fire-place, should be placed where it 
may receive plenty of light. Too often the contrary 
practice has prevailed, and the poor cook is continu- 
ally basted with her own perspiration ; but a good 
state of health can never be preserved under such 


Necessity of Order and Regularity. 

' ' Necessity of Order and Regularity, 

No family can be properly managed, where the 
strictest order and regularity is not observed. ' A 
house divided against itself cannot stand ;' and if the 
direction of its affairs be left to accident or chance, 
it will be equally fatal to its comfort and prosperity .^^ 
It is the part of a prudent manager to see all that is 
doing, and to foresee and direct all that should be 
done. The weakest capacity can perceive what is 
wrong after it has occurred ; but discernment and 
discretion are necessary to anticipate and prevent 
confusion and disorder, by a well-regulated system 
of prompt and vigorous management. If time be 
wisely economised, and the useful affairs transacted 
before amusements are allowed, and a regular plan 
of employment be daily laid down, a great deal may 
be done without hurry or fatigue. The retrospect 
would also be most pleasant at the end of the year, 
to be able to enumerate all the valuable acquirements 
made, and the just and benevolent actions perform- 
ed, under the active and energetic management of 
the mistress of a family. As highly conducive to this 
end, early and regular hours should be kept in the 
evening, and an early hour especially for breakfast 
in the morning. There will then be more time to ex- 
ecute the orders that may be given, which in general 


Bad habit of keeping Spare Rooms. 

should comprise the business of the day ; and ser- 
vants, by doing their work with ease, will be more 
equal to it, and fewer of them will be necessary. It 
is worthy of notice, that the general expense will be 
reduced, and much time saved, if every thing be kept 
in its proper place, applied to its proper use, and 
mended, when the nature of the accident will allow, 
as soon as broken or out of repair. A proper quan- 
tity of household articles should always be ready, and 
more bought in oefore the others are consumed, to 
prevent inconvenience, especially in the country. 
Much trouble and irregularity would be prevented 
when there is company to dinner, if the servants were 
required to prepare the table and sideboard in similar 
order daily. As some preparation is necessary for 
accidental visitors, care should be taken to have con- 
stantly in readiness a few articles suited to such occa- 
sions, which if properly managed will be attended 
with little expense, and much convenience. 

Bad habit of keeping Spare Rooms, 

Though persons of large fortune may support an 
expensive establishment without inconvenience, it ill 
becomes those in the middle rank to imitate such an 
example. Nothing can be more ludicrous than the 
contrast exhibited between two families of this 


Bad habit of keeping Spare Rooms. 

description ; the one living in the dignified splen- 
dour, and with the liberal hospitality, that wealth can 
command ; the other in a stile of tinsel show, with- 
out the real appropriate distinctions belonging to 
rank and fortune. They are lavish, but not Hberal, 
often sacrificing independence to support dissipation, 
and betraying the dearest interests of society for the 
sake of personal vanity, and gratifying what is signi- 
ficantly termed ' the pride of life/ 

The great point for comfort and respectability is, 
that all the household economy should be uniform, 
not displaying a parade of show in one thing, and a 
total want of comfort in another. Besides the con- 
temptible appearance that this must have to every 
person of good sense, it is often productive of fatal 
consequences. How common it is, in large towns es- 
pecially, that for the vanity of having a showy draw- 
ing-room to receive company, the family are confined 
to a close back room, where they have scarcely air 
or light, the want of which is essentially injurious to 
health. To keep rooms for show belongs to the 
higher classes, where the house is suflSciently commo- 
dious for the family, and to admit of this also : but 
in private dwellings, to shut up perhaps the only room 
that is fit to live in, is to be guilty of a kind of self- 
destruction ; and yet how frequently this considera- 
tion escapes persons who are disposed to render their 
family every comfort, but they have a grate, a carpet, 


Bad habit of keeping Spare Rooms. 

and chairs too fine for every day's use. What a re- 
flection, when nursing a sick child, to think that it 
may be the victim of a bright grate, and a fine car- 
pet ! Or, what is equally afflicting, to see all the chil- 
dren perhaps rickety and diseased from the same 
cause ! Keeping a spare bed for ornament, rather 
than for use, is often attended with similar conse- 
quences. A stranger or a friend is allowed to occu- 
py it once in so many months, and he does it at the 
peril of his health, and even of his life. 

Another bad effect of keeping spare rooms is the 
seeing more company, and in a more expensive man- 
ner, than is compatible with the general convenience 
of the family, introducing with it an expense in dress, 
and a dissipation of time, from which it suffers in va- 
rious ways. Not the least of these is the neglect of 
parental instruction, which it is attempted to supply 
by sending the children at an improper age to school; 
the girls where they had better never go, and the boys 
where they get but little good, and perhaps are all 
the worse for mending. Social intercourse is not im- 
proved by parade, but quite the contrary ; real 
friends, and the pleasantest kind of acquaintance, 
those who like to be social, are repulsed by jt./ Tlje 
failure therefore is general, involving the loss of nearly 
all that is valuable in society, by an abortive attempt 
to oecome fashionable. 


Setting out a Table. 

Settms: out a Table. 


The direction of a Table is no inconsiderable part 
of a lady's concern, as it involves judgment in expen- 
diture, respectability of appearance, the comfort of 
her husband, and those who partake of their hospi- 
tahty. It is true that the mode of covering a table, 
and providing for the guests, is merely a matter of 
taste, materially different in a variety of instances ; 
yet nothing can be more ruinous of real comfort than 
the too common custom of making a profusion and 
a parade, unsuited not only to the circumstances of 
the host, but to the number of the guests ; or more 
fatal to true hospitaUty than the multipHcity of dishes 
which luxury has made fashionable at the tables of 
the great, the wealthy, and the ostentatious, who are 
often neither great, nor wealthy, nor wise. Such ex- 
cessive preparation, instead of being a compliment 
to the party invited, is nothing better than an indi- 
rect offence, conveying a tacit insinuation that it is 
absolutely necessary to provide such delicacies to 
bribe the depravity of their palates, when we desire 
the pleasure of their company, and that society must 
be purchased on dishonourable terms before it can 
be enjoyed. When twice as much cooking is under- 
taken as there are servan^^, or conveniences in the 
kitchen to do it properly, dishes must be dressed 


Setting out a Table. 

long before the dinner honr, and stand by spoiling ; 
and why prepare for eight or ten more than is suf- 
ficient for twenty or thirty visitors ? ' Enough is as 
good as a feast \ and a prudent provider, avoiding 
what is extravagant and superfluous, may entertain 
her friends three times as often, and ten times as well. 

Perhaps there are few incidents in which the re- 
spectability of a man is more immediately felt, thai 
the style of dinner to which he may accidentally bring 
home a visitor. And here, it is not the multipKcity 
of articles, but the choice, the dressing, and the neat 
appearance of the whole that is principally regarded. 
Every one is to live as he can afford, and the meal 
of the tradesman ought not to emulate the entertain- 
ments of the higher classes ; but if two or three dishes 
are well served, with the usual sauces, the table linen 
clean, the small sideboard neatly laid, and all that is 
necessary be at hand, the expectation of the husband 
and the friend will be gratified, because no irregula- 
rity of domestic arrangement will disturb the social 
intercourse. The same observation holds good on a 
larger scale. In all situations of Hfe the entertain- 
ment should be no less suited to the station than to 
the fortune of the entertainer, and to the number and 
rank of those invited. 

The manner of Carving is not only a very neces- 
sary branch of information, to enable a lady to do 
the honours of the table, but makes a considerable 


Setting* out a Table. 

difference in the consumption of a family ; and 
though in large parties she is so much assisted as to 
render this knowledge apparently of less consequence, 
yet she must at times feel the deficiency ; and should 
not fail to acquaint herself with an attainment, 
the advantage of which is evident every day. Some 
people haggle meat so much, as not to be able to 
help half a dozen persons decently from a large 
tongue, or a sirloin of beef ; and the dish goes away 
with the appearance of having been gnawed by dogs. 
Habit alone can make good carvers ; but some use- 
ful directions on this subject will be found in the fol- 
lowing pages, under the article Carving. 

Half the trouble of waiting at table may be saved, 
by giving each guest two plates, two knives and 
forks, two pieces of bread, a spoon, a wine glass, and 
a tumbler ; and by placing the wines and sauces in 
the centre of the table, one visitor may help another. 
If the party is large, the founders of the feast should 
sit about the middle of the table, instead of at each 
end. They will then enjoy the pleasure of attending 
equally to all their friends ; and being in some degree 
relieved from the occupation of carving, will have an 
opportunity of administering all those little atten- 
tions which contribute so much to the comfort of 
their guests. Dinner tables are seldom sufficiently 
lighted, or attended ; an active waiter will have 
enough to do to attend upon half a dozen persons. 


Quality of Provisions to be regarded. 

There should be half as many candles as there are 
guests, and their flame should not be more than eigh- 
teen inches above the table. The modern candelabras 
answer no other purpose than that of giving an ap- 
pearance of pomp and magnificence, and seem in- 
tended to illuminate the ceiling, rather than to shed 
light upon the plates. 

Quality tf Provisions to he regarded. 

The leading consideration about food ought always 
to be its wholesomeness. Cookery may produce sa- 
voury and elegant looking dishes, without their pos- 
sessingany of the real qualities of food. It isat thesame 
time both a serious and a ludicrous reflection, that it 
should be thought to do honour to our friends and to 
ourselves to set out a table where indigestion with all 
its train of evils, such as fever, rheumatism, gout, and 
the whole catalogue of human diseases, lie lurking in 
almost every dish. Yet this is both done, and taken 
as a compUment. The practice of flavouring cus- 
tards, for example, with laurel leaves, and adding fruit 
kernels to the poison of spirituous liquors, though far 
too common, is attended with imminent danger : for 
let it be remembered, that the flavour given by laurel 
essence is the most fatal kind of poison. Children, 
and delicate grown-up persons, have often died 


Quality of Provisions to be regarded. 

suddenly from this cause, even where the quantity of 
the deleterious mixture was but small. 

How infinitely preferable is a dinner of far less 
show, where nobody need to be afraid of what they 
are eating ; and such a one will always be genteel and 
respectable. If a person can give his friend only a 
leg of mutton, there is nothing of which to be ashamed, 
provided it is good and well dressed. Nothing can be 
of greater importance to the mistress of a family, than 
the preservation of its health ; but there is no way of 
securing this desirable object with any degree of cer- 
tainty, except her eye watches over every part of the 
culinary process. The subject of cookery is too ge- 
nerally neglected by mistresses, as something beneath 
their notice ; or if engaged in, it is to contrive a va- 
riety of mischievous compositions, both savoury and 
sweet, to recommend their own ingenuity. Yet it is 
quite evident that every good housewife ought to be 
well acquainted with this important branch of do- 
mestic management, and to take upon herself at least 
its entire direction and controul. This is a duty 
which her husband, children, and domestics, have a 
right to expect at her hands ; and which a solicitude 
for their health and comfort will induce her to dis- 
charge with fidelity. If cookery has been worth stu- 
dying as a sensual gratification, it is much more so 
as the means of securing the greatest of human bless- 



Quality of Provisions to be regarded. 

A house fitted up with clean good furniture, the 
kitchen provided with clean wholesome-looking cook- 
ing utensils, good fires, in grates that give no anxiety 
lest a good fire should spoil them, clean good table- 
linen, the furniture of the table and sideboard good 
of the kind without ostentation, and a well-dressed 
plain dinner, bespeak a sound judgment and correct 
taste in a private family, that place it on a footing of 
respectability with the first characters in the country. 
It is only conforming to our sphere, not vainly attempt- 
ing to be above it, that can command true respect. 

1. Haunch. 

Explanation of the Plate. 

1 2. Neck. I 3. Shoulder. 

4. Breast. 

Hind Quarter. 

Edge Bone. 
Mouse Buttock. 
Veiny Piece. 


7. Thick Flank. 

8. Thin Flank. 

9. Leg. 

10. Fore Rib ; five Ribs. 

Fore Quarter. 

11. Middle Rib; four Ribs. 

12. Chuck ; three Ribs. 

13. Shoulder or Leg 
of Mutton Piece. 

14. Brisket 

15. Clod. 

16. Neck or Sticking 


17. Shin. 

18. Cheek. 

1. Loin, be^ End. 

2. Loin, Chump End. 

3. Fillet. 

4. Hind Knuckle. 

5. Fore Knuckle. 


6. Neck, best End. 

7. Neck, Scrag End. 

8. Blade Bone. 

9. Breast, best End. 
10. Breast, Brisket End, 

1. Sparerib. 

2. Hand. 

3. Belly or Spring. 


4. Fore Loin. 

5. Hind Loin. 

6. Ltg. 


1. Leg. I 4. Neck, best End. | 7. Breast. 

2. Loin, best End. | 5. Neck, Scrag End. | A Chine is two Loins. 

3. Loin, Chump End. | 6. Shoulder. 1 A Saddle is two Necks, 







Acid, lemon: a good substitute 
for this expensive article, suitable for 
soups, fish sauces, and many other 
purposes, may be made of a dram of 
lump sugar pounded, and six drops 
of lemon essence, to three ounces of 
crystal vinegar. The flavour of the 
lemon may also be communicated to 
the vinegar, by an infusion of lemon 

ACIDS, to remove stains caused 
by acids. See Stains. 

mischief frequently arises from the 
want of a little presence of mind on 
such occasions, when it is well known 
that a small quantity of water speedi- 
ly and properly applied, would ob- 
viate great danger. The moment an 
alarm of fire is given in a house, 
some blankets should be wetted in 
a tub of water, and spread on the 
floor of the room where the fire is, 
and the flames beaten out with a wet 
blanket. Two or three pails of water 
thus applied, will be more effectual 
than a larger quantity poured on in 
the usual way, and at a later period. 
If a chimney be on fire, the readiest 
way is to cover the whole front of 
the fire-place with a wet blanket, or 
thrust it into the throat of the chim- 
ney, or make a complete inclosure 
with the chimney-board. By what- 
ever means the current of air can be 
stopped below, the burning soot will 
be put out as rapidly as a candle is 
by an extinguisher, and upon the 

same principle. A quantity of salt 
thrown into water will increase its 
power in quenching the flames, and 
muddy water is better for this pur- 
pose than clear water. Children, 
and especially females, should be in- 
formed, that as flame tends upward, 
it is extremely improper for them 
to stand upright, in case their clothes 
take fire ; and as the accident ge- 
nerally begins with the lower part of 
the dress, the flames meeting ad- 
ditional jftiel as they rise, become 
more fatal, and the upper part of 
the body necessarily sustains the 
greatest injury. If there be no as- 
sistance at hand in a case of this 
kind, the sufl'erer should instantly 
throw herself down, and roll or lie 
upon her clothes. A carpet, hearth 
rug, or green baize table cloth, 
quickly wrapped round the head and 
body, will be an efl'ectual preserva- 
tive ; but where these are notat hand, 
the other method may easily be adopt- 
ed. The most obvious means of pre- 
venting the female dress from catch- 
ing fire, is that of wire fenders of 
sufliicient height to hinder the coals 
and sparks from flying into the room ; 
and nurseries in particular should ne- 
ver be without them. Destructive fires 
often happen from the thoughtless- 
ness of persons leaving a poker in the 
grate, which afterward falls out and 
rolls on the floor or carpet. This evil 
may in a great measure be prevented 
by having a small cross of iron weld- 
E ' 1 


A I R 

ed on the poker, immediately above 
the square part, about an inch and 
a half each way. Then if the poker 
slip out of the fire, it will probably 
catch at the edge of the fender ; or 
if not, it cannot endanger the floor, 
as the hot end of the poker will be 
kept from it by resting on the cross. 
In cases of extreme danger, where the 
fire is raging in the lower part of the 
house, a Fire Escape is of great im- 
portance. But where this article is 
too expensive, or happens not to be 
provided, a strong rope should be 
fastened to something in an upper 
apartment, having knots or resting 
places for the hands and feet, that in 
case of alarm it may be thrown out 
of the window ; or if children and 
infirm persons were secured by a 
noose at the end of it, they might 
be lowered down in safety. No fa- 
mily occupying lofty houses in con- 
fined situations ought to be without 
some contrivance of this sort, and 
which may be provided at a very 
trifling expense. Horses are often so 
intimidated by fire, that they have pe- 
rished before they could be removed 
from the spot ; but if a bridle or 
a halter be put upon them, they 
might be led out of the stable as 
easily as on common occasions. Or 
if the harness be thrown over a 
draught horse, or the saddle placed 
on the back of a saddle horse, the 
same object may be accomplished. 

bread may be detected,* by mixing 
it with lemon juice or strong vinegar : 
if the bread contains chalk, whiting, 
or any other alkali, it will immedi- 
ately produce a fermentation. If 
ashes, alum, bones, or jalap be sus- 
pected, slice the crumb of a loaf 
very thin, set it over the fire with 
water, and let it boil gently a long 
time. Take it off", pour the water 
into a vessel, and let it stand till 
nearly cold ; then pour it gently out, 
and in the sediment will be seen the 
ingredients which have been mixed. 
The alum will l>e dissolved in the 

water, and may be extracted from 
it. If jalap has been used, it will 
form a thick film on the top, and the 
heavy ingredients will sink to the 
bottom. See Beer, Flour, Spi- 
rits, Wine. 

AGUE. Persons afflicted with the 
ague ought in the first instance to 
take an emetic, and a little opening 
medicine. During the shaking fits, 
drink plenty of warm gruel, and af- 
terwards take some powder of bark 
steeped in red wint. Or mix thirty 
grains of snake root, forty of worm- 
wood, and half an ounce of Jesuit's 
bark powdered, in half a pint of port 
wine : put the whole into a bottle, 
and shake it well together Take one 
fourth part first in the morning, and 
another at bed time, when the fit is 
over, and let the dose be often re- 
peated, to prevent a return of the 
complaint. If this should not suc- 
ceed, mix a quarter of an ounce 
each of finely powdered Peruvian 
bark, grains of paradise, and long 
pepper, in a quarter of a pound of 
treacle. Take a third part of it 
as soon as the cold fit begins, and 
wash it down with a glass of bran- 
dy. As the cold fit goes off', and 
the fever approaches, take a se- 
cond third part, with the like quan- 
tity of brandy ; and on the follow- 
ing morning fasting, swallow the re- 
mainder, with the same quantity of 
brandy as before. Three doses of 
this excellent electuary have cured 
hundreds of persons, and seldom 
been known to fail. To children un- 
der nine years of age, only half the 
above quantity must be given. Try 
also the following experiment. When 
the cold fit is on, take an tt^g beaten 
up in a glass of brandy, and go to 
bed directly. This very simple re- 
cipe has proved successful in a num- 
ber of instances, where more cele-. 
brated preparations have failed. 

AIR. Few persons are sufficient-* 
ly aware, that an unwholesome air 
is the common cause of disease. 
They generally pay some attention 


A I R 

|o what they eat and drink, but sel- 
dom regard what goes into the lungs, 
though the latter often proves more 
fatal than the former. Air vitiated 
by the different processes of respi- 
ration, combustion, and putrefaction, 
or which is suffered to stagnate, is 
highly injurious to health, and pro- 
ductive of contagious disorders. 
Whatever greatly alters its degree 
of heat or cold, also renders it un- 
wholesome. If too hot, it produces 
bilious and inflammatory affections : 
if too cold, it obstructs perspiration, 
and occasions rheumatism, coughs, 
and colds, and other diseases of the 
throat and breast. A damp air dis- 
poses the body to agues, intermitting 
fevers, and dropsies, and should be 
studiously avoided. Some careful 
housewives, for the sake of bright 
and polished stoves, frequently ex- 
pose the health of the family in an 
improper manner ; but fires should 
always be made, if in the height of 
summer, when the weather is wet or 
cold, to render the air wholesome ; 
and let the fire-irons take care of 
themselves. No house can be whole- 
some, unless the air has a free pas- 
sage through it : dwellings ought 
therefore to be daily ventilated, by 
opening the windows and admitting 
a current of fresh air into every room. 
Instead of making up beds as soon 
as people rise out of them, a prac- 
tice much too common, they ought 
to be turned down, and exposed to 
dry fresh air from the open windows. 
This would expel any noxious va- 
pours, and promote the health of the 
family. Houses surrounded with 
high walls, trees, or plantations, are 
rendered unwholesome. Wood, not 
only obstructs the free current of 
air, but sends forth exhalations, 
which render it damp and unhealthy. 
Houses situated on low ground, or 
near lakes and ponds of stagnant 
water, are the same : the air is 
charged with putrid exhalations, 
which produce the most malignant 
effects. Persons oblisjcd to occupy 

such situations should live well, and 
pay the strictest regard to cleanli- 
ness. The effluvia arising from 
church-yards and other burying 
grounds is very infectious ; and pa- 
rish churches, in which many corpses 
are interred, become tainted with an 
atmosphere so corrupt, especially in 
the spring, when the ground begins 
to grow warm, that it is one of the 
principal sources of putrid fevers, 
which so often prevail at that season 
of the year. Such places ought to be 
kept perfectly clean, and frequently 
ventilated, by opening opposite doors 
and windows ; and no human dwell- 
ing should be allowed in the imme- 
diate vicinity of a burying ground.— 
The air of large towns and cities is 
greatly contaminated, by being re- 
peatedly respired ; by the vapours 
arising from dirty streets, the smoke 
of chimneys, and the innumerable 
putrid substances occasioned by the 
crowd of inhabitants. Persons of 
a delicate habit should avoid cities 
as they would the plague ; or if this 
be impracticable, they should go 
abroad as much as possible, fre- 
quently admit fresh air into their 
rooms, and be careful to keep them 
very clean. If they can sleep in the 
country, so much the better, as 
breathing free air in the night will 
in some degree make up for the want 
of it in the day time. Air which 
stagnates in mines, wells, and cellars, 
is extremely noxious ; it kills nearly 
as quick as lightning, and ought 
therefore to be carefully avoided. 
Accidents occasioned by foul air 
might often be prevented, by only 
letting down into such places a light- 
- ed candle, and forbearing to enter 
when it is perceived to go out. The 
foul air may be expelled by leaving 
the place open a suflicient time, or 
pouring into it a quantity of boiling 
water. Introducing fresh air into 
confined rooms and places, by means 
of ventilators, is one of the most im- 
portant of modern improvements.— 
Dvcrs, gilders, plumbers, refiners 




of metals, and artisaus employed 
over or near a charcoal fire, are ex- 
posed to great danger from the viti- 
ated state of the air. To avert the 
injury to which their lungs arei;hus 
exposed, it would be proper to place 
near them a flat open vessel filled 
with lime water, and to renew it as 
often as a variegated film appears on 
the surface. This powerfully at- 
tracts and absorbs the noxious ef- 
fluvia emitted by the burning char- 
coal. — But if fresh air be necessary 
for those in health, much more so 
for the sick, who often lose their 
lives for want of it. The notion that 
sick people require to be kept hot is 
very common, but no less dangerous, 
for no medicine is so beneficial to 
them as fresh air, in ordinary cases, 
especially if administered with pru- 
dence. Doors and windows are not 
to be opened at random ; but the air 
should be admitted gradually, and 
chiefly by opening the windows of 
some other apartment which com- 
municates with the sick room. The 
air may likewise be purified by wet- 
ting a cloth in water impregnated 
with quick lime, then hanging it in 
the room till it becomes dry, and re- 
moving it as often as it appears ne- 
cessary. In chronic diseases, espe- 
cially those of the lungs, where there 
is no inflammation, a change of air 
is much to be recommended. In- 
dependently of any other circum- 
stance, it has often proved highly 
beneficial; and such patients have 
breathed more freely, even though 
removed to a damp and confined si- 
tuation. In short, fresh air contains 
the vitals of health, and must be 
sought for in every situation, as the 
only medium of human existence. 

ALABASTER. The proper way 
of cleaning elegant chimney pieces, 
or other articles made of alabaster, 
is to reduce some pumice stone to 
a very fine powder, and mix it up 
with verjuice. Let it stand two hours, 
then dip into it a sponge, and rub 
the alabaster with it : wash it with 

fresh water and a linen cloth, and 
dry it with clean linen rags. 

piece of thick flank of a fine heifer 
or ox. Cut some fat bacon into long 
slices nearly an inch thick, but quite 
free from yellow. Dip them into vine- 
gar, and then into a seasoning ready 
prepared, of salt, black pepper, all- 
spice, and a clove, all in fine powder, 
with parsley, chives, thyme, savoury, 
and knotted marjoram,^ shred as 
small as possible, and well mixed. 
With a sharp knife make holes deep 
enough to let in the larding ; then 
rub the beef over with the seasoning, 
and bind it up tight with a tape. Set 
it in a well tinned pot over a fire, or 
rather a stove ; three or four onions 
must be fried brown and put to the 
beef, with two or three carrots, one 
turnip, a head or two of celery, and 
a small quantity of water. Let it 
simmer gently ten or twelve hours, 
or till extremely tender, turning the 
meat twice. Put the gravy into a 
pan, remove the fat, keep the beef 
covered, then put them together, and 
add a glass of port wine. Take off 
the tape, and serve with vegetables ; 
or strain them off, and cut them into 
dice for garnish. Onions roasted, 
and then stewed with the gravy, are 
a great improvement. A tea-cupful 
of vinegar should be stewed with the 
beef. — Another way is to take about 
eleven pounds of the mouse-buttock, 
or clod of beef, or a blade bone, or 
the sticking piece, and cut it into 
pieces of three or four ounces each. 
Put two or three ounces of beef drip- 
pings, and two large onions, into a 
large deep stewpan ; as soon as it 
is quite hot, flour the meat, put it into 
the stewpan, and keep stirring it 
with a wooden spoon. When it has 
been on about ten minutes, dredge 
it with flour, and keep doing so till 
you have stirred in as much as will 
thicken it. Then cover it with about 
a gallon of boiling water, adding it 
by degrees, and stirrmg it together. 
Skira it when it boils, and then put 



in a dram of ground black pepper, 
and two drams of allspice. Set the 
pan by the side of the fire, or at a 
distance over it, and let it stew very 
slowly for about three hours. When 
the meat is sufficiently tender, put 
it into a tureen, and send it to table 
with a nice sallad. 

ALE, allowing eight bushels of 
malt to the hogshead, should be 
brewed in the beginning of March. 
Pour on at once the whole quantity 
of hot water, not boiling, and let it 
infuse three hours close covered. 
Mash it in the first half hour, and 
let it stand the remainder of the 
time. Run it on the hops, half a 
pound to the bushel, previously in- 
fused in water, and boil them with 
the wort two hours. Cool a pailful 
after it has boiled, add to it two 
quarts of yeast, which will prepare 
it for putting to the rest when ready, 
the same night or the next day. 
When tunned, and the beer has done 
working, cover the bung-hole with 
paper. If the working requires to 
be stopped, dry a pound and a half 
of hops before the fire, put them in- 
to the bung-hole, and fasten it up. 
Ale should stand twelve months in 
casks, and twelve in bottles, before 
it be drank ; and if well brewed, it 
will keep and be very fine for eight 
or ten years. It will however be 
ready for use in three or four months ; 
and if the vent-peg be never removed , 
it will have strength and spirit to the 
very last. But if bottled, great care 
must be taken to have the bottles 
perfectly sweet and clean, and the 
corks of the best quality. If the ale 
requires to be refined, put two ounces 
of isinglass shavings to soak in a 
quart of the liquor, and beat it with 
a whisk every day till dissolved. 
Draw off a third part of the cask, 
and mix the above with it : likewise 
a quarter of an ounce of pearl ashes, 
one ounce of salt of tartar calcined, 
and one ounce of burnt alum pow- 
dered. Stir it well, then return the 
liquor into the cask, and stir it with 

a clean stick. Stop it up, and in a 
few days it will be fine. See Beer, 

ALE POSSET. Beat up the yolks 
of ten eggs, and the whites of four ; 
then put them into a quart of cream, 
mixed with a pint of ale. Grate 
some nutmeg into it, sweeten it with 
sugar, set it on the fire, and keep it 
stirring. When it is thick, and be- 
fore it boils, take it off, and pour it 
into a china bason. This is called 
King William's Posset. A very good 
one may however be made by warm- 
ing a pint of milk, with a bit of white 
bread in it, and then warming a pint 
of ale with a little sugar and nutmeg. 
When the milk boils, pour it upon 
the ale ; let it stand a few minutes 
to clear, and it will make a fine cor- 

ALEGAR. Take some good sweet 
wort before it is hopped, put it into 
a jar, and a little yeast when it be- 
comes lukewarm, and cover it over. 
In three or four days it will have 
done fermenting ; set it in the sun, 
and it will be fit for use in three or 
four months, or much sooner, if fer- 
mented with sour yeast, and mixed 
with an equal quantity of sour ale. 

ALLSPICE, used as an essence, is 
made of a dram of the oil of pimen- 
to, apothecaries' measure, mixed by 
degrees with two ounces of strong 
spirits of wine. The tincture, which 
has a finer flavour than the essence, 
is made of three ounces of bruised 
allspice, steeped in a quart of bran- 
dy. Shake it occasionally for a fort- 
night, and then pour off the clear 
liquor. A few drops of either will 
be a grateful addition to a pint of 
gravy, or mulled wine, or in any case 
where allspice is used. 

a quarter of a pound of sweet al- 
monds, and pound them fine in a 
mortar, sprinkling them from time 
to time with a little fine sugar. Then 
beat them a quarter of an hour with 
an ounce of flour, the yolks of three 
eggs, and four ounces of fine sugar, 




adding afterward the whites of four 
eggs whipped to a froth. Prepare 
some paper moulds like boxes, about 
the length of two fingers square ; but- 
ter them within, and put in the bis- 
cuits, throwing over them equal 
quantities of flour and powdered 
sugar. Bake them in a cool oven ; 
and when of a good colour, take 
them out of the papers. Bitter 
almond biscuits are made in the same 
manner, except with this difference ; 
that to every two ounces of bitter 
almonds must be added an ounce 
of sweet almonds. 

Blanch and pound four ounces of al- 
monds, and a few bitter ones, with a 
spoonful of water. Add four ounces of 
pounded sugar, a spoonful of cream, 
and the whites of two eggs well beat- 
en. Mix all as quick as possible, put it 
into very small pattipans, and bake 
in a tolerable warm oven, under 
twenty minutes. Or blanch and 
pound four ounces of almonds, with 
a little orange-flower or rose-water ; 
then stir in the yolks of six and the 
whites of three eggs well beaten, five 
ounces of butter warmed, the peel of 
a lemon grated, and a little of the 
juice, sweetened with fine moist 
sugar. When well mixed, bake in 
a delicate paste, in small pans. Ano- 
ther way is, to press the whey from 
as much curd as will make two dozen 
t^ small cheesecakes. Then put the 
curd on the back of a sieve, and with 
half an ounce of butter rub it through 
with the back of a spoon ; put to it 
six yolks and three whites of eggs, 
and a few bitter almonds pounded, 
with as much sugar as will sweeten 
the curd. Mix with it the grated 
rind of a lemon, and a glass of bran- 
dy ; put a puff-paste into the pans, 
and ten minutes will bake them. 

iVLMOND CREAM. Beat in a 
mortar four ounces of sweet almonds, 
and a few bitter ones, with a tea- 
spoonful of water to prevent oiling, 
both having first been blanched. 
Put the paste to a quart of cream, 

and add the juice of three lemons 
sweetened ; beat it with a whisk to 
a froth, which take off on the shal- 
low part of a sieve, and fill the glass- 
es with some of the liquor and the 

and beat four ounces of almonds fine, 
with a spoonful of water. Beat a 
pint of cream with two spoonfuls of 
rose-water, put them to the yolks of 
four eggs, and as much sugar as will 
make it tolerably sweet. Then add 
the almonds, stir it all over a slow 
fire till of a proper thickness, with- 
out boiling, and pour it into cups. 

a pound of butter into a pound; of 
fiour, with half a pound of loaf sugar 
powdered, a quarter of a pound of 
almonds beat fine with rose-water, 
the yolks of two eggs, and two spoon- 
fuls of cream. Make them all into 
a paste, roll it into any shape, and 
bake on tins. Ice them with a mix- 
ture of fine sugar, rose-water, and 
the white of an egg, beat up toge- 
ther, and lay the icing on with a fea- 
ther, before the jumbles are put into 
the oven. 

half a pound of sweet and a few bit- 
ter almonds with a spoonful of water ; 
then mix four ounces of butter, four 
eggs, two spoonfuls of cream, warm 
with the butter, one of brandy, a 
little nutmeg and sugar to taste. But- 
ter some cups, half fill them, and 
bake the puddings. Serve with but- 
ter, wine, and sugar. — For baked 
almond puddings, beat a quarter of 
a pound of sweet and a few bitter 
almonds with a little wine, the yolks 
of six eggs, the peel of two lemons 
grated, six ounces of butter, nearly 
a quart of cream, and the juice of 
one lemon. When well mixed, bake 
it half an hour, with paste round the 
dish, and serve it with pudding sauce. 
Small almond puddings are made of 
eight ounces of almonds, and a few 
bitter ones, pounded with a spoonful 
of water. Then mix four ounces of 



butter warmed, four yolks and two 
whites of eggs, sugar to taste, two 
spoonfuls of cream, and one of bran- 
dy. Mix it together well, and bake 
in little cups buttered. 

quarters of a pound of loaf sugar to 
a pound of almonds, picked and 
cleaned, and a few spoonfuls of wa- 
ter. Set them on the fire, keep them 
stirring till the sugar is candied, and 
they are done. 

iceing similar to that for twelfth-night 
cakes, with fine sifted loaf sugar, 
orange-flower water, and whisked 
white of eggs. Having blanched the 
almonds, roll them well in this iceing, 
and dry them in a cool oven. 

AMBER PUDDING. Put a pound 
of butter into a saucepan, with three 
quarteis of a pound of loaf sugar 
finely powdered. Melt the butter, 
and mix well with it ; then add the 
yolks of fifteen eggs well beaten, and 
as much fresh candied orange as will 
add colour and flavour to it, being 
first beaten to a fine paste. Line 
the dish with paste for turning out ; 
and when filled with the above, lay 
a crust over as you would a pie, and 
bake it in a slow oven. This makes 
a fine pudding as good cold as hot. 

AMERICAN CAKES, though but 
little known in this country, form an 
article of some importance in do- 
mestic economy: they are cheap, 
easily made, and very nutritious. 
Mix a quarter of a pound of butter 
with a pound of flour ; then, having 
dissolved and well stirred a quarter 
of a pound of sugar in half a pint of 
milk, and made a solution of about 
half a tea-spoonful of crystal of soda, 
salt of tartar, or any other purified 
potash, in half a tea-cupful of cold 
water, pour them also among the 
flour ; work up the paste to a good 
consistence, roll it out, and form it 
into cakes or biscuits. The light- 
ness of these cakes depending much 
on the expedition with which they 

are baked, they should be set m a 
brisk oven. 

spring of the year, this valuable ex- 
tract is obtained from the young 
shoots and tops of the pine or fir 
trees; and in autumn, from their 
cones. These are merely boiled in 
water, to the consistence of honey 
or molasses. The bark and softer part 
of the tops and young shoots, being 
easily dissolved, make the finest es- 
sence; while the cones and bark 
of larger branches, undergoing only 
a partial so-lution, form an inferior 
article, after being strained from the 
dregs. Both sorts, when decanted » 
clear off, are put up in casks or bot- 
tles, and preserved for making spruce 

ANCHOVIES. These delicate 
fish are preserved in barrels with 
bay salt, and no other of the finny 
tribe has so fine a flavour. Choose 
those which look red and mellow, 
and the bones moist and oily. They 
should be high-flavoured, and have 
a fine smell ; but beware of their 
being mixed with red paint, to im- 
prove their colour and appearance. 
When the liquor dries, pour on them 
some beef brine, and keep the jar 
close tied down with paper and lea- 
ther. Sprats are sometimes sold for 
anchovies, but by washing them the 
imposition may be detected. See 

two dozen of anchovies, without ^^ 
bone, add some of their own liqJror 
strained, and sixteen large spoon- 
fuls of water. Boil them gently till 
dissolved, which will be in a few 
minutes ; and when cold, strain and 
bottle the liquor. The essence can 
generally be bought cheaper than you 
can make it. 

ANCHOVY PASTE. Pound them 
in a mortar, rub the pulp through a 
fine sieve, pot it, cover it with clari- 
fied butter, and keep it in a cool 
place. The paste may also be made 




by rubbing- the essence with as much 
flour as will make a paste ; but this 
is only intended for immediate use, 
and will not keep. This is sometimes 
made stiffer and hotter, by the ad- 
dition of a little flour of mustard, a 
pickled walnut, spice, or cayenne. 

the fish in a mortar, rub them through 
a sieve, make them into a paste with 
dried flour, roll it into thin cakes, 
and dry them in a Dutch oven before 
a slow fire. To this may be added 
a small portion of cayenne, grated 
lemon peel, and citric acid. Pounded 
to a fine powder, and put into a well- 
stopped bottle, it will keep for 
years. It is a very savoury relish, 
sprinkled on bread and butter for a 

or two anchovies without washing, 
put them into a saucepan with flour 
and butter, and a spoonful of water. 
Stir it over the fire till it boils once 
or twice. When the anchovies are 
good, they will soon be dissolved, and 
distinguished both by their colour 
and fragrance. 

skin six or eight anchovies, pound 
them to a mass with an ounce of fine 
butter till the colour is equal, and 
then spread it on toast or rusks. Or, 
cut thin slices of bread, and fry them 
in clarified butter. Wash three an- 
chovies split, pound them in a mor- 
tar with a little fresh butter, rub them 
tlm)ugh a hair sieve, and spread on 
t!rc toast when cold. Garnish with 
parsley or pickles. 

equal quantity of apples and angelica, 
pare and peel them, and cut them 
separately into small pieces. Boil 
the apples gently in a little water, with 
fine sugar and lemon peel, till they 
become a thin syrup : then boil the 
angelica about ten minutes. Put some 
paste at the bottom of the pattipans, 
with alternate layers of apples and 
angelica : pour in some of the svrup, 

put on the lid, and bake them care- 

ing rods should be oiled and dried in 
the sun, to prevent their being worm 
eaten, and render them tough ; and 
if the joints get swelled and set fast, 
turn the part over the flame of a can-' 
die, and it will soon be set at liberty. 
Silk or hemp lines dyed in a decoc- 
tion of oak bark, will render them 
more durable and capable of resisting 
the wet; and after they have been 
used they should be well dried be- 
fore they are wound up, or they will 
be liable to rot. To make a cork 
float, take a good new cork, and pass 
a small red-hot iron through the 
centre of it lengthways ; then round 
one end of it with a sharp knife, and 
reduce the other to a point, resem- 
bling a small peg top. The quill 
which is to pass through it may be 
secured at the bottom by putting in 
a little cotton wool and sealing wax, 
and the upper end is to be fitted with 
a piece of hazel like a plug, cemented 
like the other, with a piece of wire 
on the top formed into an eye, and 
two small hoops cut from another 
quill to regulate the line which passes 
through the float. To render it the 
more visible, the cork may be colour- 
ed with red wax. For fly fishing, 
either natural or artificial flies may 
be used, especially such as are found 
under hollow stones by the river's 
side, on the trunk of an oak or ash, 
on hawthorns, and on ant hills. In 
clear water the angler may use small 
flies with slender wings, but in mud- 
dy water a large fly is better : in a 
clear day the fly should be light co- 
loured, and in dark water the fly 
should be dark. The rod and line 
require to be long ; the fly when fas- 
tened to the hook should be allowed 
to float gently on the surface of the 
water, keeping the line from touching 
it, and the angler should stand as far 
as may be from the water s edge with 
the sun at his back, having a watchful 



eye and a quick hand. Fish may be 
intoxicated "and taken in the follow- 
, ing manner. Take an equal quantity 
of cocculus indicus, coriander, fenu- 
greek, and cummin seeds, and reduce 
them to a powder. INIake it into a 
paste with rice flour and water, roll 
it up into pills as large as peas, and 
throw them into ponds or rivers 
which abound with fish. After eat- 
ing the paste, the fish will rise to the 
surface of the w^ater almost motion- 
less, and may be taken out by the 

ANTIDOTE to opium or lauda- 
num. The deleterious effects of opi- 
um, which are so often experienced 
in the form of laudanum, may in great 
measure be counteracted by taking 
a proper quantity of lemon juice im- 
mediately afterwards. Four grains 
of opium, or a hundred drops of 
laudanum, are often sufficient for a 
fatal dose ; but if an ounce of pure 
lemon juice, or twice that quantity of 
good vinegar be added to every grain 
of opium, or every twenty-five drops 
of laudanum, it will relieve both the 
head and the bowels ; and the use of 
vegetable acids cannot be too strong- 
ly recommended to those who are 
under the necessity of taking con- 
siderable doses of opiates. 

ANTS. Though it does not be- 
come us to be prodigal of life in any 
form, nor wantonly to seek its extinc- 
tion, yet where any species of ani- 
mals are found to be really noxious 
or annoying, the good of man re- 
quires that they should be destroyed. 
Houses are sometimes so infested 
with ants, that they are not to be 
endured. In this case, sprinkle the 
places they frequent with a strong 
decoction of walnut-tree leaves ; or 
f , take half a pound of sulphur, and a 
quarter of a pound of potash, and 
dissolve them together over the fire. 
Afterwards beat them to a powder, 
add some water to it; and when 
sprinkled, the ants will either die or 
leave the place. When they are found 
to traversegarden walls orhot-houses, 

and to injure the fruit, several holes 
should be drilled in the ground with 
an iron crow, close to the side of the 
wall, and as deep as the soil wilj ad- 
mit. The earth being stirred, the 
insects w ill begin to move about : the 
sides of the holes are then to be made 
smooth, so that the ants may fall ir 
as soon as they approach, and thej 
will be unable to climb upwards. 
Water being then poured on them, 
great numbers may easily be destroy- 
ed. The same end may be answered 
by strewing a mixture of quick lime 
and soot along such places as are 
much frequented by the ants ; or by 
adding water to it, and pouring it at 
the roots of trees infested by them. 
To prevent their descending from a 
tree which they visit, it is only ne- 
cessary to mark with a piece of com- 
mon chalk a circle round its trunk, 
an inch or two broad, and about two 
feet from the ground. This experi- 
ment should be performed in dry 
weather, and the ring must be re- 
newed : as soon as the ants arrive at 
it, not one of them will attempt to 
cross over. — Ant hills are very in* 
jurious in dry pastures, not only by 
wasting the soil, but yielding a per- 
nicious kind of grass, and impeding 
the operation of the scythe. The 
turf of the ant hill should be pared 
off, the core taken out and scattered 
at a distance ; and when the turf is 
laid down again, the place should be 
left lower than the ground around it, 
that when the wet settles into it, the 
ants may be prevented from return- 
ing to their haunt. The nests may 
more effectually be destroyed by 
putting quick lime into them, and 
pouring on some water ; or by put- 
ting in some night soil, and closing 
it up. 

APPLE TREES may be preserved 
from the innumerable insects with 
which they are annoyed, by painting 
the stems and branches with a thick 
wash of lime and water, as soon as 
the sap begins to rise. This will be 
found, in the course of the ensuing 






summer to have removed all the moss 
and insects, and given to the bark ^ 
fresh and green appearance. Other 
fruit trees may be treated in the same 
manner, and they will soon become 
more healthy and vigorous. Trees 
exposed to cattle, hares and rabbits, 
may be preserved from these depre- 
dators, without the expense of fence 
or rails, by any of the following ex- 
periments. Wash the stems of the 
trees or plants to a proper height 
with tanner's liquor, or such as they 
use for dressing hides. If this does 
not succeed, make a mixture of night 
soil, lime and water, and brush it on 
^e stems and branches, two or three 
times in a year : this will effectually 
preserve the trees from being barked. 
A mixture of fresh cow dung and 
urine has been found to answer the 
same purpose, and also to destroy 
the canker, which is so fatal to the 
growth of trees. 

APPLES are best preserved from 
frost, by throwing over them a linen 
cloth before the approach of hard, 
weather: woollen will not answer 
the purpose. In this manner they 
are kept in Germany and in America, 
during the severest winters ; and it 
is probable that potatoes might be 
preserved in the same way. Apples 
may also be kept till the following 
summer by j)utting them into a dry 
jar, with a few pebbles at the bot- 
tom to imbibe the moisture which 
would otherwise destroy the fruit, 
and then closing up the jar carefully 
with a lid, and a little fresh water 
round the edge. 

APPLES DRIED. Put them in 
a cool oven six or seven times ; and 
when soft enough to bear it, let them 
be gently flattened by degrees. If 
the oven be too warm they will waste ; 
and at first it should be very cool. 
The biffin, the minshul crab, or any 
tart apples, are the best for drying. 


slice some apples, line a bason with 

a thin paste, till it with the fruit, and 

close the paste over. Tie a cloth 


tight over, and boil the dumpling till 
the fruit is done. Currant and dam- 
son puddings are prepared in the 
same way. 

APPLE FOOL. Stew some ap- 
ples in a stone jar on a stove, or in a 
saucepan of water over the fire : if 
the former, a large spoonful of water 
should be added to the fruit. When 
reduced to a pulp, peel and press 
them through a cullendar ; boil a 
sufficient quantity of new milk, and 
a tea-cupful of raw cream, or an egg 
instead ( f the latter, and leave the 
liquor to cool. Then mix it gradu- 
ally with the pulp, and sweeten the 
whole w ith fine moist sugar. 

apples, and cut them into thin slices ; 
put a spoonful of light batter into a 
frying-pan, then a layer of apples, 
and another spoonful of batter. Fry 
them to a light brown, and serve with 
grated sugar over them. 

APPLE JELLY. Prepare twenty 
golden pippins, boil them quite ten- 
der in a pint and a half of spring 
water, and strain the pulp through 
a cullendar. To every pint add a 
a pound of fine sugar, with grated 
orange or lemon peel, and then boil 
the whole to a jelly. Or, having 
prepared the apples by boiling and 
straining them through a coarse sieve, 
get ready an ounce of isinglass boiled 
to a jelly in half a pint of water, and 
mix it with the apple pulp. Add 
some sugar, a little lemon juice and 
peel ; boil all together, take out the 
peel, and put the jelly into a dish, 
to serve at table. — When apple jelly 
is required for preserving apricots, 
or any sort of sweetmeats, a differ- 
ent process is observed. Apples are 
to be pared, quartered and cored, 
and put into a stewpan, with as 
much water as will cover them. Boil 
them to a mash as quick as possible, 
and add a quantity of water ; then 
boil half an hour more, and run it 
through a jelly bag. If in summer, 
codlins are best : in autumn, golden 
rennets or winter pippins. — Re(/ 



apples in jelly are a different pre- 
paration. These must be pared and 
cored, and thrown into water ; then 
put them in a preserving pan, and 
let them coddle with as little water 
as will only half cover them. Ob- 
serve that they do not lie too close 
when first put in ; and when the 
under side is done, turn them. Mix 
some pounded cochineal with the 
water, and boil with the fruit. When 
sufficiently done, take them out on 
the dish they are to be served in, 
the stalk downwards. Make a rich 
jelly of the water with loaf sugar, 
boiling them with the thin rind and 
juice of a lemon. When cold, spread 
the jelly over the apples ; cut the 
lemon peel into narrow strips, and 
put them across the eye of the ap- 
ple. The colour should be kept 
fine from the first, or the fruit will 
not afterwards gain it ; and use as 
little of the cochineal as will serve, 
lest the syrup taste bitter. 

some apples till they come to a pulp ; 
then take an equal weight of sugar 
in large lumps, just dip them in wa- 
ter, and boil the sugar till it can be 
well skimmed, and is reduced to a 
thick syrup. Put it to the pulp, 
and simmer it on a quick fire a quar- 
ter of an hour. Grate a little lemon 
peel before boiling, but if too much 
it will be bitter. 

APPLE PASTY. Make a hot 
crust of lard or dripping, roll it out 
warm, cover it with apples pared 
and sliced, and a little lemon peel 
and moist sugar. Wet the edges of 
the crust, close it up well, make a 
few holes in the top, and bake it in a 
moderate oven. Gooseberries may 
be done in the same way. 

APPLE PIE. Pare and core the 
fruit, after being wiped clean ; then 
boil the cores and parings in a little 
water, till it tastes well. Strain the 
liquor, add a little sugar, with a bit 
of bruised cinnamon, and simmer 
again. Meantime place the apples 
in a dish, a paste being put round 

the edge ; when one layer is in, 
sprinkle half the sugar, and shred 
lemon peel ; squeeze in some of the 
juice, or a glass of cider, if the ap- 
ples have lost their spirit. Put in 
the rest of the apples, the sugar, and 
the liquor which has been boiled. 
If the pie be eaten hot, put some 
butter into it, quince marmalade, 
orange paste or cloves, to give it a 

lins, or any other sour apples, but 
without burning them ; pulp them 
through a sieve into a bowl, and beat 
them for four hours. Sweeten the 
fruit with honey, and beat it fotir 
hours more ; the longer it is beaten 
the better. Pour a thin layer of the 
mixture on a cloth spread over a 
tray, and bake it in a slow oven, 
with bits of wood placed under the 
tray. If not baked enough on one 
side, set it again in the oven ; and 
when quite done, turn it. Pour on it a 
fresh lay er of the mixture,andpi'oceed 
with it in liko manner, till the whole 
is properly baked. Apple postilla 
is also made by peeling the apples 
and taking out the cores after they 
are baked, sweetening with sugar, 
and beating it up with a wooden 
spoon till it is all of a froth. Then 
put it on two trays, and bake it for 
two hours in an oven moderately hot. 
After this another layer of the beaten 
apples is added, and pounded loaf 
sugar spread over. Sometimes a 
still finer sort is made, by beating 
yolks of eggs to a froth, and then 
mixing it with the apple juice. 

baking dish, put in the batter, and 
the apples whole, without being cut 
or pared, and bake in a quick oven. 
If the apples be pared, they will 
mix with the batter while in the 
oven, and make the pudding soft. 
Serve it up with sugar and butter. 
For a superior pudding, grate a 
pound of pared apples, work it up 
with six ounces of butter, four eggs, 
grated lemon peel, a little sugar and 



brandy. Line the dish with good 
paste, strew over it bits of candied 
peel, put in the pudding, and bake 
it half an hour. A little lemon juice 
may be added, a spoonful of bread 
crumbs, or two or three Naples bis- 
cuits. Another way is, to pare and 
quarter four large apples, boil them 
tender, with the rind of a lemon, in 
so little water that it may be exhaust- 
ed in the boiling. Beat the apples 
line in a mortar, add the crumb of 
a small roll, four ounces of melted 
butter, the yolks of five and the 
whites of three eggs, the juice of 
half a lemon, and sugar to taste. 
Beat all together, and lay it in a dish 
with paste to turn out, after baking. 

APPLE PUFFS. Pare the fruit, 
and either stew them in a stone jar 
on a hot hearth, or bake them. 
When cold, mix the pulp of the ap- 
ple with sugar and lemon peel shred 
fine, taking as little as possible of 
the apple juice. Bake them in thin 
paste, in a quick oven : if small, a 
quarter of an hour will be sufficient. 
Orange or quince marmalade is 
a great improvement ; cinnamon 
pounded, or orange flower-water, 
will make an agreeable change. 

APPLE SAUCE. Pare, core, and 
slice some apples ; put them in a 
stone jar, into a saucepan of water, 
or on a hot hearth. If the latter, 
put in a spoonful or two of water, to 
prevent burning. When done, mash 
them up, put in a piece of butter the 
size of a nutmeg, and a little brown 
sugar. Serve it in a sauce tureen, 
for goose and roast pork. 

APPLE TRIFLE. Scald some 
apples, pass them through a sieve, 
and make a layer of the pulp at the 
bottom of a dish ; mix the rind of 
half a lemon grated, and sweeten 
with sugar. Or mix half a pint of 
milk, half a pint of cream, and the 
yolk of an egg. Scald it over the 
fire, and stir it all the time without 
boiling ; lay it over the apple pulp 
with a spoon, and put on it a whip 
prepared the day before. 

APPLE WATER. Cut two large 
apples in slices, and pour a quart of 
boiling water on them, or on roasted 
apples. Strain it well, and sweeten 
it lightly. When cold, it is an agree- 
able drink in a fever. 

APPLE WINE. To every gallon 
of apple juice, immediately as it 
comes from the press, add two pounds 
of lump sugar ; boil it as long as 
any scum rises, then strain it through 
a sieve, and let it cool. Add some 
yeast, and stir it well ; let it work in 
the tub for two or three weeks, or 
till the head begins to flatten ; then 
skim off^ the head, draAv ofl* the liquor 
clear, and tun it. When made a 
year, rack it ofl", and fine it with 
isinglass. To every eight gallons 
add half a pint of the best rectified 
spirits of wine, or a pint of brandy. 

and halve four pounds of apricots, 
put them in a dish, and strew among 
them three pounds of fine loaf-sugar 
powdered. When the sugar melts, 
set the fruit over a stove to do very 
gently ; as each piece becomes ten- 
der, take it out, and put it into a 
china bowl. When all are done, and 
the boiling heat a little abated, pour 
the syrup over them. In a day or 
two remove the syrup, leaving only 
a little in each half. In a clay or 
two more turn them, and so con- 
tinue daily till quite dry, in the sun 
or in a warm place. Keep the apri- 
cots in boxes, with layers of fine 

are various ways of doing this : one 
is by steeping them in brandy. Wipe, 
weigh, and pick the fruit, and have 
ready a quarter of the weight of loaf 
sugar in fine powder. Put the fruit 
into an ice-pot that shuts very close, 
throw the sugar over it, and then 
cover the fruit with brandy. Be- 
tween the top and cover of the pot, 
fit in a piece of thick writing paper. 
Set the pot into a saucepan of water, 
and heat it without boiling, till the 
brandy be as hot as vou can bear 



your finger in it. Put the fruit into 
ajar, and pour the brandy on it. 
When cold, put a bladder over, and 
tie it down tight. — Apricots may al- 
so be preserved in jelly. Pare the 
fruit very thin, and stone it ; weigh 
an equal quantity of sugar in tine 
powder, and strew over it. Next 
day boil very gently till they are 
clear, remove them into a bowl, and 
pour in the liquor. The follow- 
ing day, mix it with a quart of 
codlin liquor, made by boiling and 
straining, and a pound of fine sugar. 
Let it boil quickly till it comes to a 
jelly ; put the fruit into it, give it 
one boil, skim it well, and distribute 
into small pots. — A beautiful pre- 
serve may also be made in the fol- 
lowing manner. Having selected 
the finest ripe apricots, pare them 
as thin as possible, and weigh them. 
Lay them in halves on dishes, with 
the hollow part upwards. Prepare 
an equal weight of loaf sugar finely 
pounded, and strew it over them; 
in the mean time break the stones, 
and blanch the kernels. When the 
fruit has lain twelve hours, put it 
into a preserving pan, with the sugar 
and juice, and also the kernels. Let 
it simmer very gently till it becomes 
clear ; then take out the pieces of 
apricot singly as they are done, put 
them into small pots, and pour the 
syrup and kernels over them. The 
scum must be taken off as it rises, 
and the pots covered with brandy 
paper. — Green apricots are pre- 
served in a different way. Lay vine 
or apricot leaves at the bottom of 
the pan, then fruit and leaves alter- 
nately till full, the upper layer being 
thick with leaves. Then fill the pan 
with spring w ater, and cover it down, 
that no steam may escape. Set the 
pan at a distance from the fire, that 
in four or five hours the fruit may 
be soft, but not cracked. Make a 
thin syrup of some of the water, and 
drain the fruit. When both are cold, 
put the fruit into the pan, and the 
s^rup to it ; keep the pan at a pro- 

per distance from the fire till the 
apricots green, but on no account 
boil or crack them. Remove the 
fruit very carefully into a pan with 
the syrup for two or three days, 
then pour off as much of it as 
will be necessary, boil with more 
sugar to make a rich syrup, and add 
a little sliced ginger to it. When 
cold, and the thin syrup has all been 
drained from the fruit, pour the 
thick over it. The former will serve 
to sweeten pies. 

equal quantity of pared fruit and 
sugar, wet the latter a very little, 
and let it boil quickly, or the colour 
will be spoiled. Blanch the kernels 
and add them to it : twenty or thirty 
minutes will boil it. Put it in small 
pots or cups half filled. 

APRICOT JAM. When the fruit 
is nearly ripe, pare and cut some in 
halves ; break the stones, blanch the 
kernels, and put them to the fruit. 
Boil the parings in a little water, and 
strain it: to a pound of fruit add 
three quarters of a pound of fine 
sifted sugar, and a glass of the water 
in which the parings were boiled. 
Stir it over a brisk fire till it becomes 
rather stiff: when cold, put apple 
jelly over the jam, and tie it down 
with brandy paper. 

twelve large apricots, and scald them 
till they are soft. Meanwhile pour 
on the grated crumbs of a penny 
loaf a pint of boiling cream ; when 
half cold, add four ounces of sugar, 
the yolks of four beaten eggs, and a 
glass of white wine. Pound the 
apricots in a mortar, with some or 
all of the kernels ; then mix the fruit 
and other ingredients together, put 
a paste round a dish, and bake the 
pudding in half an hour. 

with common vinegar a quantity of 
powdered chalk or whiting, sufficient 
to destroy the acidity ; and when 
the white sediment is formed, pour 
off the insipid liquor. The powder 



is then to be dried, and some oil of 
vitriol poured upon it, as long as 
white acid fumes continue to as- 
cend. This substance forms the 
essential ingredient, the fumes of 
which are particularly useful in pu- 
rifying rooms and places where any 
contagion is suspected. 

ARROW ROOT. This valuable 
article has often been counterfeited : 
the American is the best, and may 
generally be known by its colour 
and solidity. If genuine, the arrow 
root is very nourishing, especially 
for weak bowels. Put into a sauce- 
pan half a pint of water, a glass of 
sherry, or a spoonful of brandy, 
grated nutmeg, and fine sugar. Boil 
it up once, then mix it by degrees 
into a dessert-spoonful of arrow root, 
previously rubbed smooth with two 
spoonfuls of cold water. Return the 
whole into the saucepan, stir and 
boil it three minutes. 

ARSENIC. The fatal effects of 
mineral poisons are too often ex- 
perienced, and for want of timely 
assistance but seldom counteracted. 
Arsenic and other baleful ingredi- 
ents, if used for the destruction of 
vermin, should never be kept with 
common articles, or laid in the way 
of children. But if, unfortunately, 
this deadly poison should by some 
m^istake be taken inwardly, the most 
effectual remedy will be a table- 
spoonful of powdered charcoal, mix- 
ed with honey, butter, or treacle, 
and swallowed immediately. Two. 
hours afterwards, take an emetic or 
an opening draught, to cleanse away 
the whole from the stomach and 
bowels. The baneful effects of ver- 
digris, from the use of copper boilers 
and saucepans, may be counteracted 
by the same means, if resorted to 
in time, and no remedy is so likely 
to become effectual. 

ARTICHOKES. Soak them in 
cold water, wash them well, and boil 
them gently in plenty of water. If 
young, they will be ready in half an 
hour • if otherwise, they will not be 

done in twice that time. The surest 
way to know when they are boiled 
enough is to draw out a leaf, and 
see whether they be tender ; but 
they cannot be properly boiled with- 
out much water, which tends also 
to preserve their colour. Trim and 
drain them on a sieve, serve with 
melted butter, pepper and salt, and 
small cups. 

ed, must be well soaked, and stewed 
in weak gravy. Or they may be 
boiled in milk, and served with cream 
sauce, or added to ragouts, French 
pies, Szc. If intended to keep in 
the winter, the bottoms must be 
slowly dried, and put into paper 

ASPARAGUS. Having carefully 
scraped the stalks till they appear 
white, and thrown them into cold 
water, tie them up in small bundles 
with tape, and cut the stalks of an 
equal length. Put them into a stew- 
pan of boiling water a little salted, 
and take them up as soon as they 
begin to be tender, or they will lose 
both their taste and colour. Mean- 
while make toasts well browned for 
the bottom of the dish, moisten them 
in the asparagus liquor, place them 
regularly, and pour on some melted 
butter. Then lay the asparagus on 
the toasts round the dish, with the 
heads united at the centre, but pour 
no butter over them. Serve with 
melted butter in a sauce tureen, and 
separate cups, that the company may 
season with salt and pepper to their 
taste. — As this vegetable is one of 
the greatest delicacies which the gar- 
den affords, no person should be un- 
acquainted with the means of pro- 
ducing it in constant succession. 
Toward the end of July, the stalks 
of the asparagus are to be cut down, 
and the beds forked up and raked 
smooth. If the weather be dry, they 
should be watered with the drain of 
a dunghill, and left rather hollow in 
the middle to retain the moisture. 
In about a fortnight the stalks will 



begin to appear, and the watering 
should be continued once a week if 
the weather be dry. Asparagus may 
thus be cut till nea^ the end of Sep- 
tember, and then by making five or 
six hot-beds during the winter, a 
regular succession may be provided 
^ for almost every month in the year. 
To obviate the objection of cutting 
the same beds twice a year, two or 
three others may be left uncut in the 
spring, and additional beds made for 
the purpose. The seed is cheap, 
and in most places the dung may be 
easily procured. There is no need 
to continue the old beds when they 
begin to fail ; it is better to make 
new ones, and to force the old roots 
by applying some rotten dung on the 
tops of the beds, and to sow seed 
every year for new plants. 

ASSES' MILK, so beneficial in 
consumptive cases, should be milked 
into a glass that is kept warm, by 
being placed in a bason of hot water. 
The fixed air that it contains some- 
times occasions pain in the stomach ; 
at first therefore a tea-spoonful of 
rum may be taken with it, but should 
only be put in the moment it is to 
be swallowed. The genuine milk 
far surpasses any imitation of it that 
can be made ; but a substitute may 
be found in the following compo- 
sition. Boil a quart of water with 
a quart of new milk, an ounce of 
white sugar-candy, half an ounce of 
eringo-root, and half an ounce of 
conserve of roses, till the quantity 
be half wasted. As this is an astrin- 
gent, the doses must be proportioned 
accordingly, and the mixture is 
wholesome only while it remains 
sweet. — Another way. Mix two 
spoonfuls of boiling water, two of 
milk, and an egg well beaten. Sweet- 
en with white sugar-candy pounded : 
J this may be taken twice or thrice a 
I <lay. Or, boil two ounces of harts- 
Jiom-shavings, two ounces of pearl 

barley, two ounces of candied eringo- 
root, and one dozen of snails that 
have been bruised, in two quarts 
of water till reduced to one. Mix 
with an equal quantity of new milk, 
when taken, twice a day. 

ASTHMA. As this complaint 
generally attacks aged people, the 
best mode of relief will be to attend 
carefully to diet and exercise, which 
should be light and easy, and to 
avoid as much as possible an expo- 
sure to cold and frosty air. The 
temperature of the apartment should 
be equalised to moderate summer's 
heat by flues and stoves, and fre- 
quently ventilated. A dish of the 
best coffee, newly ground and made 
very strong, and taken frequently 
without milk or sugar, has been found 
highly beneficial. An excellent diet 
drink may be made of toast and 
water, with the addition of a little 
vinegar, or a few grains of nitre. 
Tar water is strongly recommended, 
and also the smoking of the dried 
leaves of stramonium, commonly 
called the thorn-apple. 

to be taken in female complaints, 
arising from excessive evacuations. 
Fifteen grains of powdered alum, 
and five grains of gum kino, made 
into a bolus with a little syrup, and 
given every four or five hours till 
the discharge abates. 

case of dysentery, may be made of 
three ounces of cinnamon water, 
mixed with as much common water, 
an ounce and a half of spirituous 
cinnamon-water, and half an ounce 
of japonic confection. A spoonful 
or two of this mixture may be taken 
every four hours, after the necessary 
evacuations have been allowed, and 
where the dysentery has not been 
of long standing, interposing every 
second or third day a dose of rhu- 





Bacon, though intended to be a 
cheap article of housekeeping, is 
often, through mismanagement, ren- 
dered one of the most expensive. 
Generally twice as much is dressed 
as need be, and of course there is a 
deal of waste. When sent to table 
as an accompaniment to boiled poul- 
try or veal, a pound and a half is 
plenty for a dozen people. Bacon 
will boil better, and swell more free- 
ly, if the rind is taken off before it 

^ is dressed ; and when excessively 
salt, it should be soaked an hour or 

. ' two in warm water. If the bacon 
be dried, pare off the rusty and 
smoked part, trim it neatly on the 
under side, and scrape the rind as 
clean as possible. Or take it up 
when sufficiently boiled, scrape the 
under side, and cut off the rind : 
grate a crust of bread over it, and 
place it a few minutes before the fire 
to brown. Two pounds will require 
to be boiled gently about an hour 
and a half, according to its thick- 
ness : the hock or gammon being 
very thick, will take more. See 
Dried Bacon. 

BAKING. This mode of pre- 
paring a dinner is undoubtedly one 
of the cheapest and most convenient, 
especially for a small family ; and 
the oven is almost the only kitchen 
which the poor man possesses. 
Much however depends on the care 
• and ability of the baker: in the 
country especially, where the baking 
of dinners is not always considered 
as a regular article of business, it 
is rather a hazardous experiment to 
send a valuable joint to the oven ; 
and more is often wasted and spoiled 
by the heedless conduct of the parish 
cook, than would have paid for the 
boiling or roasting at home. But 
supposing the oven to be managed 
with care and judgment, there are 
many joints which may be baked to 
great advantage, and will be found 

but little inferior to roasting. Par*- 
ticidarly, legs and loins of pork, legs 
of mutton, fillets of veal, and other 
joints, if the meat be fat and good, 
will be eaten with great satisfac- 
tion, when they come from the 
oven. A sucking pig is also well 
adapted to the purpose, and is equal 
to a roasted one, if properly managed. 
When sent to the baker, it should 
have its ears and tail covered with 
buttered paper fastened on, and a 
bit of butter tied up in a piece of 
linen to baste the back with, other- 
wise it will be apt to blister. A goose 
should be prepared the same as for 
roasting, placing it on a stand, and 
taking care to turn it when it is half 
done. A duck the same. If a but- 
tock of beef is to be baked, it should 
be well washed, after it has been in 
salt about a week, and put into a 
brown earthen pan with a pint of 
water. Cover the pan tight over 
with two or three thicknesses of 
writing paper, and give it four or five 
hours in a moderate oven. Brown 
paper should never be used with 
baked dishes ; the pitch and tar 
which it contains wiil give the meat 
a smoky bad taste. Previously to 
baking a ham, soak it in water an 
hour, take it out and wipe it, and 
make a crust sutBcient to cover it 
all over ; and if done in a moderate 
oven, it will cut fuller of gravy, and 
be of a finer flavour, than a boiled 
one. Small cod-fish, haddock, and 
mackarel will bake well, with a dust 
of flour and some bits of butter put 
on them. Large eels should be stuff- 
ed. Herrings and sprats are to be 
baked in a brown pan, with vinegar 
and a little spice, and tied over with 
paper. These and various other ar- 
ticles may be baked so as to give 
full satisfaction, if the oven be under 
judicious management. 

BAKED CARP. Clean a large 
carp, put in a Portuguese stuffing, 



and sow it up. Brush it all over 
with the yolk of an eg^, throw on 
plenty of crumbs, and drop on oiled 
butter to baste with. Place the carp 
in a deep earthen dish, with a pint 
of stock, a few sliced onions, some 
bay leaves, a bunch of herbs, such 
as basil, thyme, parsley, and both 
sorts of marjoram ; half a pint of 
port wine, and six anchovies. Cover 
over the pan, and bake it an hour. 
Let it be done before it is wanted. 
Pour the liquor from it, and keep 
the fish hot while you heat up the 
liquor with a good piece of butter 
rolled in flour, a tea-spoonful of mus- 
tard, a little cayenne, and a spoonful 
of soy. Serve it on the dish, gar- 
nished with lemon and parsley, and 
horse-radish, and put the gravy into 
the sauce tureen. 

BAKED CUSTARD. Boil a pint 
of cream and half a pint of milk with 
a little mace, cinnamon and lemon 
peel. When cold, mix the yolks of 
three eggs, and sweeten the custard. 
Make the cups or paste nearly full, 
and bake them ten minutes. 

drain, without wiping them ; and 
when drawn, they should not be 
opened. Season with allspice in 
fine powder, salt, and a few whole 
cloves. Lay them in a pan with 
plenty of black pepper, an onion, 
and a few bay leaves. Add half 
vinegar and half small beer, enough 
to cover them. Put paper over the 
pan, and bake in a slow oven. If 
it be wished to make them look red, 
throw a little saltpetre over them the 
night before, 

BAKED MILK. A very useful 
article may be made for weakly and 
consumptive persons in the following 
manner. Put a gallon of milk into 
a jar, tie white paper over it, and 
let it stand all night in the oven when 
baking is over. Next morning it will 
be as thick as cream, and may be 
drank two or three times a day. 

BAKED PEARS. Those least tit 
to eat raw, are often the best for 

baking. Do not pare them, but 
wipe and lay them on tin plates, and 
bake them in a slow oven. When 
done enough to bear it, flatten them 
with a silver spoon ; and when done 
through, put them on a dish. They 
should be baked three or four times, 
and very gently. 

BAKED PIKE. Scale and open 
it as near the throat as possible, and 
then put in the following stufliing. 
Grated bread, herbs, anchovies, 
oysters, suet, salt, pepper, mace, 
half a pint of cream, four yolks of 
eggs; mix all over the fire till it 
thickens, and then sow it up in the 
fish. Little bits of butter should be 
scattered over it, before it is sent to 
the oven. Serve it with gravy sauce, 
butter and anchovy. In carving a 
pike, if the back and belly be slit 
up, and each slice drawn gently 
downwards, fewer bones will be given 
at table. 

BAKED SOUP. A cheap and 
plentiful dish for poor families, or 
to give away, may be made of a pound 
of any kind of meat cut in slices, 
with two onions, two carrots sliced, 
two ounces of rice, a pint of split 
peas, or whole ones if previously 
soaked, seasoned with pepper and 
salt. Put the whole into an earthen 
jug or pan, adding a gallon of water : 
cover it very close, and bake it. 

BALM WINE. Boil three pounds 
of lump sugar in a gallon of water ; 
skim it clean, put in a handful of 
balm, and boil it ten minutes. Strain 
it oflf, cool it, put in some yeast, and 
let it stand two days. Add the rind 
and juice of a lemon, and let it stand 
in the cask six months. 

the best remedies for wounds or 
bruises is the balsan^ic or anti-putrid 
vinegar, which is made in the follow- 
ing manner. Take a handful of 
sage leaves and flowers, the same of 
lavender, hyssop, thyme, and sa- 
vory ; two heads of garlic, and a 
handful of salt. These are to be 
infiised in some of the best white- 

D 17 



wine vinegar ; and after standing a 
fortnight or three weeks, it will be 
fit for use. 

pound of butter into a pound of 
white-bread dough, the same as for 
puff paste ; roll it out very thin, 
and cut it into bits of an even iorm, 
the size intended for the cakes. 
Moisten some powder sugar with a 
little brandy, mix in some clean cur- 
rants, put a little of it on each bit 
of paste, close them up, and bake 
them on a tin. When they are taken 
out, sift some fine sugar over them. 

BARBERRIES, when preserved 
for tarts, must be picked clean from 
the stalks, choosing such as are free 
from stones. To every pound of 
fruit, weigh three quarters of a pound 
of lump sugar ; put the fruit into a 
stone jar, and either set it on a hot 
hearth, or in a saucepan of water, 
and let them simmer very slowly till 
soft. Then put them and the sugar 
into a preserving-pan, and boil them 
gently fifteen minutes. — ^To preserve 
barberries in bunches, prepare some 
fleaks of white wool, three inches 
long, and a quarter of an inch wide. 
Tie the stalks of the fruit on the 
stick, from within an inch of one end 
to beyond the other, so as to make 
them look handsome. Simmer them 
in some syrup two successive days, 
covering them each time with it when 
cold. When they look clear, they 
are simmered enough. The third 
day, they should be treated like 
other candied fruit. See Candied. 

the black tops, and roast the fruit 
before the fire, till it is soft enough 
to pulp with a silver spoon through 
a sieve into a china bason. Then 
set the bason in a saucepan of water, 
the top of which will just fit it, or 
on a hot hearth, and stir it till it 
grows thick.~ When cold, put to 
every pint a pound and a half of 
double refined sugar, pounded and 
sifted through a lawn sieve, which 
must be covered with a fine linen« 

to prevent waste while sifting. Beat 
the sugar and juice together three 
hours and a half if a large quantity, 
but two and a half for less. Then 
drop it on sheets of white thick pa- 
per, the size of drops sold in the 
shops. Some fruit is not so sour, 
and then less sugar is necessary. To 
know when there is enough, mix till 
well incorporated, and then drop. 
If it run, there is not enough sugar ; 
and if there be too much, it will be 
rough. A dry room will suftice to 
dry them. No metal must touch 
the juice but the point of a knife, 
just to take the drop off* the end of 
the wooden spoon, and then as little 
as possible. 

BARLEY BROTH. Wash three 
quarters of a pound of Scotch bar- 
ley in a little cold water, put it in a 
soup pot with a shin or leg of beef, 
or a knuckle of veal of about ten 
pounds weight, sawn into four 
pieces. Cover it with cold water, 
and set it on the fire ; when it boils 
skim it very clean, and put in two 
onions. Set it by the side of the fire 
to simmer very gently about two 
hours ; then skim off all the fat, put 
in two heads of celery, and a large 
turnip cut into small squares. Season 
it with salt, let it boil an hour and 
a half longer, and it is done. Take 
out the meat carefully with a slice, 
cover it up and keep it warm by the 
fire, and skim the broth well before 
it is put into the tureen. This dish 
is much admired in Scotland, where 
it is regarded, not only as highly 
nutricious, but as a necessary article 
of domestic economy : for besides 
the excellent soup thus obtained, 
the meat also becomes an agreeable 
dish, served up with sauce in the 
following manner. Reserve a quart 
of the soup, put about an ounce of 
flour into a stewpan, pour the liquor 
to it by degrees, stirring it well to- 
gether till it boils. Add a glass of 
port wine or mushroom ketchup, and 
let it gently boil up ; strain the sauce 
through a sieve over the meat, and 



add to it some capers, minced gher- 
kins, or walnuts. The flavour may 
be varied or improved, by the ad- 
dition of a little curry powder, ra- 
gout, or any other store sauces. 

BARLEY GRUEL. Wash four 
ounces of pearl barley, boil it in two 
quarts of water and a stick of cin- 
namon, till reduced to a quart. Strain 
and return it into the saucepan with 
some sugar, and three quarters of a 
pint of port wine. It may be warmed 
up, and used as wanted. 

BARLEY SUGAR. This well 
known article of confectionaiy is 
made in the following manner. Put 
some common or clarified syrup in- 
to a saucepan with a spout, such as 
for melting butter, if little is wanted 
to be made, and boil it till it comes 
to what is called carimel, carefully 
taking oflT whatever scum may arise ; 
and having prepared a marble stone, 
either with butter or sweet oil, just 
sufficiently to prevent sticking, pour 
the syrup gently along the marble, 
in long sticks of whatever thickness 
may be desired. While hot, twist 
it at each end ; and let it remain till 
cold, when it will be fit for imme- 
diate use. The rasped rind of lemon, 
boiled up in the syrup, gives a very 
agreeable flavour to barley sugar; 
and indeed the best is commonly so 

BARLEY WATER. Wash a hand- 
ful of common barley, then simmer 
it gently in three pints of water, with 
a bit of lemon peel. Or boil an 
ounce of pearl barley a few minutes 
to cleanse it, and then put on it a 
quart of water. Simmer it an hour : 
when half done, put into it a piece 
of fresh lemon peel, and one bit of 
sugar. If likely to be thick, add a 
quarter of a pint of water, and a lit- 
tle lemon juice, if approved. This 
makes a very pleasant drink for a 
sick person ; but the former is less 
apt to nauseate. 

BASIL VINEGAR. Sweet basil 
is in full perfection about the middle 
of August, when the fresh green 

leaves should be gathered, and put 
into a wide-mouthed bottle. Cover 
the leaves with vinegar, and let them 
steep for ten days. If it be wished 
to have the infusion very strong, 
strain out the liquor, put in some 
fresh leaves, and let them steep for 
ten days more. This is a very agree- 
able addition to sauces and soups, 
and to the mixture usually made for 

BASILICON. Yellow basilicon is 
made of equal quantities of bees- 
wax, white rosin, and frankincense. 
Melt them together over a slow fire, 
add the same weight of fresh lard, 
and strain it off" while it is warm. 
This ointment is used for cleansing 
and healing wounds and ulcers. 

BASKET SALT. This fine and 
delicate article is chiefly made from 
the salt springs in Cheshire, and dif- 
fers from the common brine salt, 
usually called sea salt, not only in 
its whiteness and purity, but in the 
fineness of its grain. Some families 
entertain prejudices against basket 
salt, notwithstanding its superior 
delicacy, from an idea, which does 
not appear warranted, that perni- 
cious articles are used in its prepa- 
ration ; it may therefore be proper 
to mention, that by dissolving com- 
mon salt, again evaporating into dry- 
ness, and then reducing it to powder 
in a mortar, a salt nearly equal to 
basket salt may be obtained, fine 
and of a good colour, and well adapt- 
ed to the use of the table. 

BATH BUNS. Rub half a pound 
of butter into a pound of fine flour, 
with five eggs, and three spoonfuls 
of thick yeast. Set it before the fire 
to rise ; then add a quarter of a pound 
of powdered sugar, and an ounce of 
carraway seeds. Mix them well in, 
roll it out in little cakes, strew on 
carraway comfits, and bake on tins. 

degrees three spoonfuls of fine flour 
extremely smooth, into a pint of 
milk. Simmer till it thickens, stir 
it in two ounces of butter, set it to 



cool, and then add the yolks of three 
eggs. Flour a wet cloth, or butter 
a bason, and put the batter into it. 
Tie it tight, and plunge it into boil- 
ing water, the bottom upwards. 
Boil it an hour and a half, and serve 
with plain butter. If a little ginger, 
nutmeg, and lemon peel be added, 
serve with sweet sauce. 

BEAN BREAD. Blanch half a 
pound of almonds, and put them in- 
to water to preserve their colour. 
Cut the almonds edgeways, wipe 
them dry, and sprinkle over them 
half a pound of fine loaf sugar pound- 
ed and sifted. Beat up the white 
of an egg with two spoonfuls of 
orange-flower water, moisten the al- 
monds with the froth, lay them light- 
ly on wafer paper, and bake them on 

blanch some old green-beans, beat 
them in a mortar, with very little 
pepper and salt, some cream, and 
the yolk of an egg. A little spinach- 
juice will give a finer colour, but it 
is as good without. Boil it an hour, 
in a bason that will just hold it; 
pour parsley and butter over, and 
serve it up with bacon. 

BEE HIVES. Common bee hives 
made of straw are generally prefer- 
red, because they are not likely to 
be overheated by the rays of the 
sun ; they will also keep out the cold 
better than wood, and are cheaper 
than any other material. As clean- 
liness however is of great conse- 
quence in the culture of these deli- 
cate and industrious insects, the 
bottom or floor of the hive should be 
covered with gypsum or plaster of 
Paris, of which they are very fond ; 
and the outside of their habitation 
should be overspread with a cement 
made of two-thirds of cow-dung, and 
one-third of ashes. This coating 
will exclude noxious insects, which 
would otherwise perforate and lodge 
in the straw ; it will also secure the 
bees from cold and wet, while it ex- 
hales an odour which to them is vc- 

ry grateful. The inner part of the 
hive should be furnished with two 
thin pieces of oak, or peeled branch- 
es of lime tree, placed across each 
other at right angles, which will 
greatly facilitate the construction 
of the combs, and support them when 
filled with honey. A good bee-hive 
ought to be so planned as to be ca- 
pable of enlargement or contraction, 
according to the number of the 
swarm ; to admit of being opened 
without disturbing the bees, either 
for the purpose of cleaning it, of 
freeing it from noxious insects, or 
for the admission of a stock of pro- 
vision for the winter. It should also 
admit of the produce being removed 
without injury to the bees, and be 
internally clean, smooth, and free 
from flaws. A hive of this descrip- 
tion may easily be made of three or 
four open square boxes, fastened to 
each other with buttons or wooden 
pegs, and the joints closed M'ith ce- 
ment. The whole may be covered 
with a moveable roof, projecting 
over the boxes to carry off the rain> 
and kept firm on the top by a stone 
being laid upon it. If the swarm be 
not very numerous, two or three 
boxes will be suflScient. They should 
be made of wood an inch thick, that 
the bees and wax may be less aflect- 
ed by the changes of the atmosphere. 
This hive is so easily constructed, 
that it is only necessary to join four 
boards together in the simplest man- 
ner ; and a little cement will cover 
all defects. Within the upper part 
of the boxes, two bars should be 
fixed across from one corner to ano- 
ther, to support the combs. At the 
lower end of each box in front, there 
must be an aperture, or door, about 
an inch and an half wide, and as high 
as is necessary for the bees to pass 
without obstruction. The lowest is 
to be left open as a passage for the 
bees, and the others are to be closed 
by a piece of wood fitted to the 
aperture. A hive thus constructed 
may be enlarged or diminished, ac- 



cording to the number of boxes ; and 
a communication ^ith the internal 
part can readily be effected by re- 
moving the cover. 

BEE HOUSE. An apiary or bee 
house should front the south, in a 
situation between the extremes of 
heat and cold. It should stand in 
a valley, that the bees may with 
greater ease descend loaded on their 
return to the hive ; and near a dwel- 
ling-house, but at a distance from 
noise and offensive smells ; surround- 
ed with a low wall, and in the vici- 
nity of shallow water. If there be 
no running stream at hand, they 
ought to be supplied with water in 
troughs or pans, with small stones 
laid at the bottom, that the bees 
may alight upon them and drink. 
They cannot produce either combs, 
honey, or food for their maggots, 
without water ; but the neighbour- 
hood of rivers or ponds with high 
banks ought to be avoided, or the 
bees will be blown into the water 
with high winds, and be drowned. 
Care should also be taken to place 
the hives in a neighbourhood which 
abounds with such plants as will 
supply the bees with food ; such as 
the oak, the pine, the willow, fruit 
trees, furze, broom, mustard, clover, 
heath, and thyme, particularly bo- 
rage, which produces an abundance 
of farina. The garden in which the 
bee house stands, should be well 
furnished with scented plants and 
flowers, and branchy shrubs, that 
it may be easy to hive the swarms 
which may settle on them. See 
Bees, Hiving, &c. 

BEEF. In every sort of provisions, 
the best of the kind goes the farthest ; 
it cuts out with most advantage, and 
affords most nourishment. The best 
way to obtain a good article is to 
deal with shops of established credit. 
You may perhaps pay a little more 
than by purchasing of those who 
pretend to sell cheap, but you will 
be more than in proportion better 
served. To prevent imposition more 

effectually, however, it is necessary 
to form our own judgment of the 
quality and value of the articles to 
be purchased. If the flesh of ox- 
beef is young, it will show a fine 
smooth open grain, be of a good red, 
and feel tender. The fat should 
look white rather than yellow, for 
when that is of a deep colour, the 
meat is seldom good. Beef fed with 
oil cakes is generally so, and the 
flesh is loose and flabby. The grain 
of cow-beef is closer, and the fat 
whiter, than that of ox-beef ; but the 
lean is not so bright a red. The 
grain of bull-beef is closer still, the 
fat hard and skinny, the lean of a 
deep red, and a stronger scent. Ox- 
beef is the reverse; it is also the 
richest and the largest ; but in small 
families, and to some tastes, heifer- 
beef as better still, if finely fed. In 
old meat there is a horny streak in 
the ribs of beef : the harder that is, 
the older : and the flesh is not finely 

BEEF BOUILLI. A term given 
to boiled beef, which, according to 
the French fashion, is simmered over 
a slow fire, for the purpose of ex- 
tracting a rich soup, while at the 
same time the meat makes its ap- 
pearance at table, in possession of 
a full portion of nutricious succu- 
lence. This requires nothing more 
than to stew the meat very slowly, 
instead of keeping the pot quickly 
boiling, and taking up the beef as 
soon as it is done enough. Meat 
cooked in this manner, aflords much 
more nourishment than when dressed 
in the common way, and i« easy of 
digestion in proportion to its tender- 
ness. The leg or shin, or the mid- 
dle of a brisket of beef, weighing 
seven or eight pounds, is best adapt- 
ed for this purpose. Put it into a 
soup pot or deep stewpan with cold 
water enough to cover it, and a 
quart over. Set it on a quick fire 
to get the scum up, which remove 
as it rises ; then put in two carrots, 
two turnips, two leeks, or two large 



onions, two heads of celery, two or 
three cloves, and a faggot of parsley 
and sweet herbs. Set the pot by 
the side of the fire to simmer very 
gently, till the meat is just tender 
enough to eat : this will require four 
or five hours. When the beef is 
done, take it up carefully with a 
slice, cover it up, and keep it warm 
by the fire. Thicken a pint and a 
half of the beef liquor with three 
table spoonfuls of flour, season it 
with pepper, a glass of port wine or 
mushroom ketchup, or both, and 
pour it over the beef. Strain the 
soup through a hair sieve into a clean 
stewpan, take off the fat, cut the 
vegetables into small squares, and 
add them to the soup, the flavour of 
which may be heightened, by adding 
a table-spoonful of ketchup. 

BEEF BROTH. If intended for 
sick persons, it is better to add other 
kinds of meat, which render it more 
nourishing and better flavoured. 
Take then two pounds of lean beef, 
one pound of scrag of veal, one 
pound of scrag of mutton, some sweet 
herbs, and ten pepper corns, and 
put the whole into a nice tin sauce- 
pan, with five quarts of water. 
Simmer it to three quarts, clear it 
from the fat when cold, and add an 
onion if approved. If there be still 
any fat remaining, lay a piece of 
clean blotting or writing paper on 
the broth when in the bason, and it 
will take up every particle of the fat. 

BEEF CAKES, chiefly intended 
for a side-dish of dressed meat. 
Pound some beef that is under done, 
with a little fat bacon or ham. Sea- 
son with pepper, salt, a little shalot 
or garlick ; mix them well, and make 
the whole into small cakes three 
inches long, and half as wide and 
thick. Fry them to a light brown, 
and serve them in good thick 

BEEF CECILS. Mince some beef 

with crumbs of bread, a quantity of 

onions, some anchovies, lemon peel, 

salt, nutmeg, chopped parsley, pep- 


per, and a bit of warmed butter. 
Mix these over the fire a few minutes : 
when cool enough, make them into 
balls of the size and shape of a tur- 
key's egg, with an egg. Sprinkle 
them with fine crumbs, fry them of 
a yellow brown, and serve with 
gravy, as for Beef Olives. 

BEEF COLLOPS. Cutthm slices 
of beef from the rump, or any other 
tender part, and divide them into 
pieces three inches long : beat them 
with the blade of a knife, and flour 
them. Fry the collops quick in but- 
ter two minutes ; then lay them into 
a small stewpan, and cover theni^ 
with a pint of gravy. Add a bit of 
butter rubbed in flour, pepper and 
salt, a little bit of shalot shred very 
fine, with half a walnut, four small 
pickled cucumbers, and a tea-spoon- 
ful of capers cut small. Be careful 
that the stew does not boil, and 
serve in a hot covered dish. 

thin slices of cold roast beef, shred 
a handful of parsley very small, cut 
an onion into quarters, and put tliem 
all together into a stewpan, with a 
piece of butter, and some strong 
broth. Season with salt and pepper, 
and simmer very gently for a quarter 
of an hour. Mix into it the yolks 
of two eggs, a glass of port win^^ 
and a spoonful of vinegar: stir it 
quick, rub the dish with shalot, and 
turn the fricassee into it. 

BEEF GRAVY. Cover the bot- 
tom of a stewpan, clean and well- 
tinned, with a slice of good ham or 
lean bacon, four or five pounds of 
gravy beef cut in pieces, an onion, 
a carrot, two cloves, and a head of 
celery. Add a pint of broth or wa- 
ter, cover it close, and simmer it till 
the liquor is nearly all exhausted. 
Turn it about, and let it brown slight- 
ly and equally all over, but do not 
suffer it to burn or stick to the pan, 
for that would spoil the gravy. Then 
put in three quarts of boiling water ; 
and when it boils up, skim it care- 
fully, and wipe off with a clean cloth 



what sticks round the ei\ge and in- 
side of the stewpan, that the gravy 
may be delicately clean and clear. 
Let it stew gently by the side of the 
fire for about four hours, till reduced 
to two quarts of good gravy. Take 
care to skim it well, strain it through 
silk or muslin, and set it in a cold 

BEEF HAMS. Cut the leg of 
beef like a ham ; and for fourteen 
pounds weight, mix a pound of salt, 
a pound of brown sugar, an ounce 
of saltpetre, and an ounce of bay 
^It. Put it into the meat, turn and 
ioaste it every day, and let it lie a 
month in the pickle. Then take it 
out, roll it in bran, and smoke it. 
Afterwards hang it in a dry place, 
and cut off pieces to boil^u* broil 
it with poached eggs. ^ 

BEEF HASH. Cut some thin 
slices of beef that is underdone, with 
some of the fat ; put it into a small 
stewpan, with a little onion or sha- 
lot, a little water, pepper and salt. 
Add some of the gravy, a spoonful 
of vinegar, and of walnut ketchup : 
if shalot vinegar be used, there will 
be no need of the onion nor the raw 
shalot. The hash is only to be sim- 
mered till it is hot through, but not 
boiled : it is owing to the boiling of 
hashes and stews that they get hard. 
When the hash is well warmed up, 
pour it upon sippets of bread pre- 
viously prepared, and laid in a warm 

BEEF HEART. Wash it care- 
fully, stuff it as a hare, and serve 
with rich gravy and currant-jelly 
sauce. Hash it with the same, and 
add a little port wine. 

BEEF OLIVES. Take some cold 
beef that has not been done enough, 
and cut slices half an inch thick, 
and four inches square. Lay on 
them a forcemeat of crumbs of bread, 
shalot, a little suet or fat, pepper 
and salt. Roll and fasten them with 
a small skewer, put them into a stew- 
pan with some gravy ^ade of the 
beef bones, or the gravy of the meat, 

and a spoonful or two of water, and 
stew them till tender. Beef olives 
may also be made of fresh meat. 

BEEF PALATES. Smimerthem 
in water several hours, till they will 
peel. Then cut the palates into 
slices, or leave them whole, and stew 
them in a rich gravy till they become 
as tender as possible. Season with 
cayenne, salt and ketchup : if the 
gravy was drawn clear, add also 
some butter and flour. If the pa- 
lates are to be dressed white, boil 
them in milk, and stew them in a 
fricasee sauce ; adding cream, but- 
ter, flour, mushroom powder, and a 
little pounded mace. 

BEEF PASTY. Bone a small 
rump or part of a sirloin of beef, 
after hanging several days. Beat it 
well with a rolling pin ; then rub ten 
pounds of meat with four ounces of 
sugar, and pour over it a glass of 
port, and the same of vinegar. Let 
it lie five days and nights ; wash 
and wipe the meat very dry, and 
season it high with pepper and salt, 
nutmeg and Jamaica pepper. Lay 
it in a dish, and to ten pounds add 
nearly one pound of butter, spread- 
ing it over the meat. Put a crust 
round the edges, and cover with a 
thick one, or it will be overdone be- 
fore the meat is soaked : it must be 
baked in a slow oven. Set the bones 
in a pan in the oven, with no more 
water than will cover them, and one 
glass of port, a little pepper and 
salt, in order to provide a little rich 
gravy to add to the pasty when 
drawn. It will be found that sugar 
gives more shortness and a better 
flavour to meat than salt, too great 
a quantity of which hardens ; and 
sugar is quite as good a preserva- 

BEEF PATTIES. Shred some 
dressed beef under done, with a little 
fat; season with salt and pepper, 
and a little shalot or onion. Make 
a plain paste, roll it thin, and cut it 
in shape like an apple puff. Fill it 
with mince, pinch the edges, and fry 



them of a nice brown. The paste 
should be made with a small quan- 
tity of butter, egg and milk. 

BEEF PIE. Season some cut- 
tings of beef with pepper and salt, 
put some puff paste round the in- 
side of the dish, and lay in the meat. 
Add some small potatoes, if ap- 
proved, fill up the dish with water, 
and cover it with the paste. 

BEEF PUDDING. Roll some 
fine steaks with fat between, and a 
very little shred onion. Lay a paste 
of suet in a bason, put in the rolled 
steaks, cover the bason with a paste, 
and pinch the edges to keep in the 
gravy. Cover with a cloth tied close, 
and let the pudding boil slowly a 
considerable time. — If for baking, 
make a batter of milk, two eggs and 
flour, or, which is much better, pota- 
toes boiled, and mashed through a 
cullender. Lay a little of it at the 
bottom of the dish, then put in the 
steaks prepared as above, and very 
well seasoned. Pour the remainder 
of the batter over them, and bake it. 

BEEF SANDERS. Mince some 
beef small, with onion, pepper and 
salt, and add a little gravy. Put it 
into scallop shells or saucers, mak- 
ing them three parts full, and fill 
them up with potatoes, mashed with 
a little cream. Put a bit of butter 
on the top, and brown them in an 
oven, or before the fire, or with a 
salamander. Mutton may be made 
into Sanders in the same way. 

BEEF SCALLOPS. Mince some 
beef fine, with onion, pepper and 
salt, and add a little gravy. Put the 
mince into scallop shells or saucers 
three parts full, and fill them up 
with potatoes, mashed with a little 
cream. Lay a bit of butter on the 
tops, and brown them in an oven, 
or before the fire. 

BEEF STEAKS. To have them 
fine, they should be cut from a rump 
that has hung a few days. Broil 
them over a very clear or charcoal 
fire ; put into the dish a little minced 
shalot, a table-spoonful of ketchup. 

The steak should be turned often, 
that the gravy may not be drawn 
out on either side. This dish re- 
quires to be eaten so hot and fresh 
done, that it is not in perfection if 
served with any thing else. Pepper 
and salt should be added when tak- 
ing it off the fire, and a bit of butter 
rubbed on at the moment of serving. 
If accompanied with oyster sauce, 
strain off* the liquor from the oysters, 
and throw them into cold water to 
take off the grit, while you simmer 
the liquor with a bit of mace and 
lemon peel. Then put in the oysters, 
stew them a few minutes, add a little 
cream, and some butter rubbed in 
a bit of flour. Let them boil up 
once, and throw the sauce over the 
steaks at the moment of sending the 
dish tolpible, 

BEEF STEW. Cut into small 
pieces four or five pounds of beef, 
with some hard fat. Put these into 
a stewpan, with three pints of water, 
a little salt and pepper, a sprig of 
sweet herbs, and three cloves. Cover 
the pan very close, and let it stew 
four hours over a slow fire. Throw 
in some carrots and turnips, cut intOj^i 
square pieces ; the white part of a ; 
leek, with two heads of celery chop- J 
ped fine ; a crust of bread, and two 
spoonfuls of vinegar. When done, 
put it into a deep dish, set it over 
hot water, and cover it close. Skim 
the gravy, and put in a few pickled 
mushrooms ; thicken it with flour 
and butter, make it hot, and pour it 
over the beef. 

BEEF TEA. Cut a pound of 
fleshy beef into thin slices ; simmer 
it with a quart of water twenty mi- 
nutes, after it has once boiled, and 
been skimmed. Season it, if ap- 
proved ; but a little salt only is suf- ' 

BEEF VINGRETTE. Cut a slice 
of under-done boiled beef three inch- 
es thick, and a little fat. Stew it in 
half a pint of water, a glass of white 
wine, a bunch of sweet herbs, an 
onion, andva bay leaf. Season it 


B K K 

yith three cloves pounded, and pep- 
per, till the liquor is nearly wasted 
away, turning it once. Serve it up 
cold. Strain off the gravy, and mix 
it with a little vinegar for sauce. 

BEER. During the present ruin- 
ous system of taxation, it is extreme- 
ly ditticult, though highly desirable, 
to procure a cheap and wholesome 
beverage, especially for the labour- 
ing part of the community, to whom 
it is as needful as their daily food. 
Beer that is brewed and drunk at 
home, is more pure and nutricious 
than what is generally purchased at 
an alehouse ; an<l those who cannot 
afford a better ail vie, may perhaps 
find it convenient to adopt the fol- 
lowing method for obtaining some 
cheap driuk for small families. — To 
half a bushel of malt, add four 
pounds of treacle, and three quar- 
ters of a pound of hops. This will 
make twenty-five gallons of whole- 
some beer, which will be fit for use 
in a fortnight ; but it is not calcu- 
lated for keeping, especially in warm 
weather. Beer brewed in this way 
will not cost one halfpenny a pint. 
An agreeable table beer may be 
made ready for drinking in three or 
four days, consisting of treacle and 
water, fermented with a little yeast. 
Boil six or seven gallons of water, 
pour it on the same quantity of cold 
water in a cask, and a gallon of trea- 
cle. Stir them well together ; and 
when the fermentation is abated, 
close the bung-hole in the usual way. 
A little of the outer rind of an orange 
peel infused into the beer, and taken 
out as soon as it has imparted a suf- 
ficient degree of bitterness, will give 
it an agreeable flavour, and assist 
in keeping the beer from turning 
sour. A little gentian root boiled 
in the water, either with or without 
the orange peel, will give a whole- 
some and pleasant bitter to this beer. 
A small quantity, by way of experi- 
ment, may be made thus. To eight 
quarts of boiling water, put one 
ounce of treacle, a quarter of an 
(No. 2.:) 

ounce of ginger, and two bay leaves. 
Let the whole boil a quarter of an 
hour ; then cool and work it with 
yeast, the same as other beer. Ano- 
ther way to make a cheap malt 
liquor is to take a bushel of malt, 
with as much water and hops as if 
two bushels of malt were allowed 
in the common way, and put seven 
pounds of the coarsest brown sugar 
into the boiling wort. This makes 
a very pleasant liquor; is as strong, 
and will keep as long without turn- 
ing sour or flat, as if two bushels 
had been employed. Twenty gal- 
lons of good beer may be made from 
a bushel of malt, and three quarters 
of a pound of hops, if care be taken 
to extract all their goodness. For 
this purpose boil twenty -four gallons 
of water, and steep the malt in it for 
three hours: then tie up the hops 
in a hair cloth, and boil malt, hops, 
and wort, all together for three quar- 
ters of an hour, which will reduce it 
to about twenty gallons. Strain it 
off, and set it to work when luke- 
warm. See Brewing. — As how- 
ever it does not suit some persons to 
brew, in any way whatever, it may 
be necessary to add a few brief re- 
marks on the distinguishing qualities 
of sound beer, that persons may 
know what it is they purchase, and 
how far their health may be affected 
by it. Wholesome beer then ought 
to be of a bright colour, and per- 
fectly transparent, neither too high 
nor too pale. It should have a plea- 
sant and mellow taste, sharp and 
agreeably bitter, without being hard 
or sour. It should leave no pungent 
sensation on the tongue ; and if 
drank in any tolerable quantity, it 
must neither produce speedy intox- 
ication, nor any of the usual effects 
of sleep, nausea, headache, or lan- 
guor ; nor should it be retained too 
long after drinking it, or Jye too 
quickly discharged. If beer pur- 
chased at the alehouse be suspected 
of having been adulterated with the 
infusion of \Htriol, for the purpose of 



adding to its strength, it may be de- 
tected by putting in a few nut galls, 
which will immediately turn it black, 
if it have been so adulterated ; and 
the beer ought by all means to be 
rejected, as highly injurious to the 
constitution, and may be fatal even 
to life itself. 

BEES. A hive of bees may be 
considered as a populous city, con- 
taining thirty thousand inhabitants. 
This community is in itself a mo- 
narchy, composed of a qveen, of 
males which are the drones, and of 
working bees called neuters. The 
combs being composed of pure wax, 
serve as a magazine for their stores, 
and a nursery for their young. Be- 
tween the combs there is a space 
sufficient for two bees to march 
abreast, and there are also trans- 
verse defiles bv which they can more 
t^asily pass from one comb to ano- 
ther. — The queen bee is distinguish- 
able from the rest by the form of 
her body. She is much longer, un- 
wieldy, and of a brighter colour, 
and seldom leaves the jmrent hive ; 
but when she goes to settle a new 
colony, all the bees attend her to the 
place of destination. A hive of bees 
cannot subsist without a queen, as 
she produces their numerous pro- 
geny ; and hence their attachment 
to her is unalterable. When a queen 
dies, the bees immediately cease 
working, consume their honey, fly 
about at unusual times, and eventu- 
ally pine away, if not supplied with 
another sovereign. The death of 
the queen is proclaimed by a clear 
and uninterrupted humming, which 
should be a warning to the owner to 
provide the bees if possible with 
another queen, whose presence will 
restore vigour and exertion ; of such 
importance is a sovereig?i to the ex- 
istence and prosperity of this coau- 
munity. It is computed that a preg- 
nant queen bee contains about five 
thousand eggs, and that she pro- 
duces from ten to twelve thousand 
bees in the space of two months. — 

Drones are smaller than the queen, 
but larger than the working bees, 
and when on the wing they make a 
greater noise. Their ofiice is to im- 
pregnate the eggs of the queen after 
they are deposited in the cells ; but 
when this is effected, as they become - 
useless to the hive, they are destroy- 
ed by the working bees and thrown 
out ; and having no sting, they are 
without the power of resistance. 
After the season of the encrease of 
the bees is past, and when they at- 
tend to the collection of winter stores, 
every vestige of the drones is de- 
stroyed to make room for the honey. 
When drones are observed in a hive 
late in autumn, it is usually a sign 
that the stock is poor. — Working 
bees compose the most numerous 
body of the state. They have the 
care of the hive, collect the wax an d 
honey, fabricate the wax into combs, 
feed the young, keep the hive clean, 
expel all strangers, and employ 
themselves in promoting the general 
prosperity. The working bee has 
two sfeomachs, one to contain the 
honey, and another for the crude 
wax. Among the different kinds of 
working bees, those are to be pre- 
ferred which are small, smooth, and 
shining, and of a gentle disposition. 
— Considering the rich productions 
of these little insects, and the valu- 
able purposes to which they may be 
applied, it is truly astonishing that 
so important an object in rural eco- 
nomy has been so little attended to 
by the inhabitants of this country. 
In Egypt, the cultivation of bees 
forms a leading object, and their pro- 
ductions constitute a part of its J| 
'riches. About the end of October, 
when sustenance cannot be provided 
for them at home, the inhabitants of 
Lower Egypt embark their bees on 
the Nile, and convey them to the dis- 
tant regions of Upper Egypt, when 
the inundation is withdrawn, and the 
flowers are beginning to bud. These 
insects are thus conflucted through 
the whole extent of that fertile coun- 



try ; and after havinaj gathered all 
the rich produce of the banks of 
the Nile, are re-conducted home 
about the beginning of February. 
In France also, floating bee-hives are 
very common. One barge contains 
from sixty to a hundred hives, which 
are well defended from the incle- 
mency of the weather. Thus the 
owners float them gently down the 
stream, while they gather the honey 
from the flowers along its banks, 
and a little bee-house yields the pro- 
prietors a considerable income. At 
other times they convey bees by 
land, to places where honey and 
wax may be collected. The hives 
are fastened to each other by laths 
placed on a thin packcloth, which 
is drawn up on each side and tied 
with packthread several times round 
their tops. Forty or lifty hives are 
then laid in a cart, and the owner 
takes them to distant places where 
the bees may feed and work. But 
without this labour the industrious 
bee might be cultivated to great ad- 
vantage, and thousands of pounds 
weight of wax and honey collected, 
which now are suffered to be wasted 
on the desert air, or perish unheeded 
amidst the floAvers of the held. — 
Those whose attention may be di- 
rected to the subject by these re- 
marks, and who intend to erect an 
apiary, should purchase the stocks 
towards the close of the year, when 
bees are cheapest; and such only 
as are full of combs, and well fur- 
nished with bees. To ascertain the 
age of the hives it should be remark- 
ed, that the combs of the last year 
are white, w hile those of the former 
year acquire a darkish yellow. 
Where the combs are black, the hive 
should be rejected as too old, and 
liable to the inroads of vermin. In 
order to obtain the greatest possible 
advantage from the cultivation of 
bees, it is necessary to supply them 
with every convenience for the sup- 
port of themselves and their young. 
And though it may be too much 

trouble to transport them to distauit 
places, in order to provide them with 
the richest food, and to increase 
their abundant stores ; yet in some 
instances this plan might in part be 
adopted with considerable success. 
It has been seen in Germany, as 
well as in other parts of the conti- 
nent, that forty large bee hives have 
been tilled with honey, to the amount 
of seventy pounds each, in one fort- 
night, by their being placed near a 
large field of buck wheat in flower; 
and as this and various other plants 
adapted to enrich the hive are to be 
found in many parts of England, 
there is no reason why a similar ad- 
vantage might not be derived from 
such an experiment. — Besides pro- , 
viding for them the richest food in 
summer, in order to facilitate their 
labours, it is equally necessary to 
attend to their preservation in the 
winter. To guard against the eflfects 
of cold, the bees should be examined 
during the winter ; and if instead of t^ 
being clustered between the combsj* • 
they are found in numbers at the bot- 
tom of the hive, they should be car- 
ried to a warmer place, where they 
will soon recover. In very severe 
seasons, lay on the bottom of an old 
cask the depth of half a foot of fine 
earth pressed down hard ; place the 
stool on this with the hive, and cut 
a hole in the cask opposite to the 
entrance of the hive, in which fix a 
piece of reed or hollow elder, and ^ 
then cover the whole with dry earth. 
This will preserve a communication 
with the external air, and at the same 
time keep out the cold. The bees 
remaining in a torpid state during 
the winter, they require but little ^ 
food ; but as every sunny day revives ^ 
and prompts them to exercise, a 
small supply is necessary on these 
occasions. Many hives of bees 
which are supposed to have died of 
cold, have in reality perished by 
famine, especially when a rainy sum- 
mer prevented them from collecting * 
a sufficient store of provision. Hence 




the hives should be carefully ex- 
amined in autumn, and ought then 
to weigh at least eighteen pounds 
each. When bees require to be fed, 
the honey should be diluted with 
water, and put into an empty comb, 
split reeds, or upon clear wood, 
which the bees will suck perfectly 
dry. But it is a much better way 
to replenish the weak hives in Sep- 
tember, with such a portion of combs 
filled with honey taken from other 
hives as may be deemed a sufficient 
supply. This is done by turning up 
the weak hive, cutting out the empty 
combs, and placing full ones in their 
stead, so secure as not to fall down 
when the hive is replaced. If this 
be too troublesome, a plate of honey 
may be set under the hive, and straws 
laid across the plate, covered with 
paper perforated with small holes, 
through which the bees will suck 
the honey without difficulty. — These 
valuable insects are liable to various 
disorders, both from the food they 
eat, from foreign enemies, and from 
one another. If they have fed gree- 
dily on the blossoms of the milk this- 
tle or the elm, it will render them in- 
capable of working, and the hive will 
be stained with filth. The best cure 
in this case is pounded pomegranate 
seed, moistened with sweet wine ; 
or raisins mixed with wine or mead, 
and the infusion of rosemary. When 
they are infested with vermin, the 
hive must be cleansed, and perfumed 
with a branch of pomegranate or the 
wild fig-tree, which will effectually 
destroy them. Butterflies some- 
times conceal themselves in the 
hives, and annoy the bees ; but these 
intruders may easily be exterminated 
by placing lighted candles in deep 
tin pots between the hives, as they 
will be attracted by the flame, and 
so perish. In order to extirpate 
wasps and hornets preying upon the 
honey, it is only necessary to expose 
shallow vessels near the hive with 
a little water, to which those depre- 
dators eagerlv repair to quench their 
IS ^ 

thirst, and thus easily drown theirf- 
selves. To prevent bees of one so- 
ciety from attacking or destroying 
those of another, which is frequent- 
ly the case, the following method 
may be tried. Let a board about 
an inch thick be laid on the bee 
bench, and set the hive upon it with 
its mouth exactly on the edge. The 
mouth of the hive should also be 
contracted to about an inch in length, 
and a semicircular hole made in the 
board immediately under the mouth 
of the hive. By this simple method, 
the bees which come to make the 
attack will be foiled, and constrain- 
ed to act with great disadvantage. 
If this do not succeed^ remove the 
hive to a distant part of the garden, 
and to a more easterly or colder as- 
pect, which will frequently end the 
contest. — When bees are to be taken 
up for the purpose of obtaining the 
wax and honey, great care should 
be taken not to destroy the insects ; 
and for this end the following me- 
thod is recommended. The upper 
box on the hive, which principally 
contains the honey, is first to be 
taken off. The joint should be 
loosened, the cement scraped off, 
and then a piece of iron wire to be 
drawn through the comb so as to 
divide it. When the upper box is 
thus separated, its cover is to be 
taken off and immediately placed on 
the second box, which is now the 
highest. Having ta-ken out the con- 
tents of the box which has been se- 
parated, it is to be placed again on 
the stand, under the lower box, and 
its door only is to be left open. If 
any bees remain in the box when 
taken away, a little smoke will drive 
them out, and they will quickly re- 
turn to their own hive. In this man- 
ner a second or a third box of honey 
may be removed in succession, when 
the lower part of the hive appears 
to be full ; but care must be taken 
not to deprive the bees entirely of 
the stock which they have collected 
for the winter. In taking up a com- 



mon straw hive of bees, the best way 
is to remove it into a darkened room, 
that it may appear to the bees as if 
it were late in the evening. Then 
gently turning the hive bottom up- 
wards, and supporting it in that po- 
sition, cover it with an empty hive 
a little raised towards the window, 
to give the bees sufficient light to 
guide their ascent. Keep the empty 
hive steadily supported on the edge 
of the full hive, and strike the hand 
round the full hive to frighten the 
bees, till they have nearly all ascend- 
ed into the other. The new hive 
containing the bees must be placed 
on the stand of the apiary, to receive 
the absent bees as they return from 
the fields. 

BEET ROOT. This cooling and 
wholesome vegetable is good boiled, 
and sliced with a small quantity of 
onion, or stewed with whole onions 
in the following manner. Boil the 
beet tender with the skin on, slice it 
into a stewpan with a little broth and 
a spoonful of vinegar. Simmer it 
till the gravy is tinged with the co- 
lour ; then put it into a small dish, 
and make a round of button onions, 
first boiled tender. Take off the kin 
just before serving, and let them be 
quite hot and clear. Or roast three 
large onions, and peel off the outer 
skins till they look clear ; and serve 
round them the stewed beet root. 
The root must not be broken before 
it is dressed, or it will lose its co- 
lour, and look ill. — To preserve beet- 
root for winter use, they should not 
be cleared from the earth, but kept 
in layers of dry sand. 

BEETLES. ' When these insects 
become troublesome in the house, 
put some small lumps of quick lime 
into the chinks or holes of the wall 
from whence they issue, or scatter it 
on the ground. Or at night, lay a 
spoonful of treacle on a piece of 
wood, and float it in a pan of water : 
beetles are so fond of syrup, that 
they will be drowned in attempting 
to get at it. The common black 

beetle may also be extirpated b^ 
placing a hedgehog in the room, du- 
ring the summer nights ; or by laying 
a bundle of pea straw near their 
holes, and afterwards burning it 
when the beetles have crept into it. 

BENTON CAKES. Mix a paste 
of flour, a little bit of butter, and 
milk. Roll it as thin as possible, 
and bake on a backstone over the 
lire, or on a hot hearth. Another 
sort of Benton tea-cakes are made 
like biscuits, by rubbing into a pound 
of flour six ounces of butter, and 
three large spoonfuls of yeast. Work 
up the paste with a sufficient quan- 
tity of new milk, make it into bis- 
cuits, and prick them with a clean 
fork. Or melt six or seven (Minces 
of butter, with a sufficient quantity 
of new milk warmed to make seven 
pounds of flour into a stiff* paste. 
Roll it thin, and make it into bis- 

BENTON SAUCE. Grate some 
horse-radish, or scrape it very flne. 
Add to it a little made mustard, some 
pounded white sugar, and four large 
spoonfuls of vinegar. Serve it up 
in a saucer : this is good with hot 
or cold roast beef. 

BILLS OF FARE, or list of va- 
rious articles in season in different 

January. Poultry. Game, 

pheasants, partridges, hares, rab- 
bits, woodcocks, snipes, turkeys, 
capons, pullets, fowls, chickens, 
tame pigeons. — Fish. Carp, tench, 
perch, eels, lampreys, crayfish, cod, 
soles, flounders, plaice, turbot, skate, 
thornback, sturgeon, smelts, whit- 
ings, crabs, lobsters, prawns, oys- 
ters. — Vegetables. Cabbage, savoys, 
coleworts, sprouts, brocoli, leeks, 
onions, beet, sorrel, chervil, endive, 
spinach, celery, garlic, potatoes, 
parsnips, turnips, shalots, lettuces, 
cresses, mustard, rape, salsafy, herbs 
dry and green. — Fruit. Apples, 
pears,nuts, walnuts, medlars, grapes. 

February, March.. Meat, 

fowls and game, as in January, with 



the addition of ducklings and chick- 
ens. — Fish. As the last two months, 
except that cod is not thought so 
good, from February to July. — F^ 
getahles. The same as the former 
mouths, with the addition of kidney 
bean^. — Frvii, Apples, pears, for- 
ced .strawberries. 

April, May, June. Meat. 

Beef, mutton, veal, lamb, venison in 

June. Poultry. Pullets, fowls, 

chickens, ducklings, pigeons, rab- 
bits, leverets. — Fish. Carp, tench, 
soles, smelts, eels, trout, turbot, lob- 
sters, chub, salmon, herrings, cray- 
fish, mackarel, crabs, prawns, 
shiimps.— Vegetables. As before, 
and in May, early potatoes, peas, 
radishes, kidney beans, carrots, tur- 
nips, early cabbages, cauliflowers, 
asparagus, artichokes, all sorts of 
forced sallads. — Frvit. In June, 
strawberries, cherries, melons, green 
apricots, gooseberries and currants 
for tarts. In July, cherries, straw- 
berries, pears, melons, gooseberries, 
currants, apricots, grapes, necta- 
rines, peaches ; but most of these 
are forced. 

July, August, September. — 
Meat as before. — Poultry. Pullets, 
fowls, chickens, rabbits, pigeons, 
green geese, leverets, turkey poults, 
plovers, wheatears, and geese in 
September.— Fish. Cod, haddock, 
flounders, plaice, skate, thornback, 
mullets, pike, carp, eels, shellfish, 
except oysters ; mackarel the first 
two months, but are not good in 
August. — Vegetables. Beans, peas, 
French beans, and various others. — ■ 
Fruit. In July, strawberries, goose- 
berries, pineapples, plums, cherries, 
apricots, raspberries, melons, cur- 
rants, damsons. In August and 
September, peaches, plums, filberts, 
figs, mulberries, cherries, apples, 
peiyrs, nectarines, grapes, pines, me- 
lon's, strawberries, medlars, quinces, 
morella cherries, damsons, and va- 
rious plums. 

October. — Meat as before, and 

doe- venison. Poultry. Game, 


pheasants, fowls, partridges, larks, 
hares, dotterels, wild ducks, teal, 
snipes, widgeon, grouse. — Fish. Do- 
iies. ^melts, pike, perch, hoi bets, 
b.ills, carp, salmon trout, barbel, 
gudgeons, tench, shelltish. — Vege- 
tables. ^As in January, French beans, 

runners, Windsor beans. Fruit. 

Peaches, pears, figs, buUace, grapes, 
apples, medlars, damsons, filberts, 
nuts, walnuts, quinces, services. 

November.— Y>/ea/. Beef, mut- 
ton, veal, pork, house lamb, doe ve- 
nison, poultry and game. Fish as 
the last month. — Vegetables. Car- 
rots, turnips, parsnips, potatoes, 
skirrets, onions, leeks, shalots, cab- 
bage, savoys, colewort, spinach, car- 
doons, cresses, endive, celery, lettu- 
ces, salad, herbs. — Fruit. Pears, 
apples, nuts, walnuts, bullace, ches- 
nuts, medlars, grapes. 

December. — Meat. Beef, mut- 
ton, veal, house lamb, pork and ve- 
nison. — Poultry. Game, turkeys, 
geese, pullets, pigeons, capons, 
fowls, chickens, rabbits, hares, 
snipes, woodcocks, larks, pheasants, 
partridges, sea-fowls, guinea-fowls, 
wild ducks, teal, widgeon, dotterels, 
dunbirds, grouse. — Fish. Turbot, 
cod, bolibets, soles, gurnets, stur- 
geon, carp, gudgeons, codlings, eels, 
dorieg, shellfish. — Vegetables. As 
in the last month ; asparagus forced. 
— Fruit. As the last, except bul- 

BIRCH WINE. The season for 
obtaining the liquor from birch trees, 
is in the latter end of February or 
the beginning of March, before the 
leaves shoot out, and as the sap be- 
gins to rise. If the time be delayed, 
the juice will grow too thick to be 
drawn out. It should be as thin ^nd 
clear as possible. The method of 
procuring the juice is by boring holes 
in the trunk of the tree, and fixing 
in facets made of elder ; but care 
should be taken not to tap it in too 
many places at once, for fear of in- 
juring the tree. If the tree is large, 
it may be bored in five or six places 



lit once, and bottles are to be placed 
under the apertures to receive the 
sap. When tour or five gallons have 
been extracted from diHerent trees, 
cork the bottles very close, and wax 
them till the wine is to be made, 
which should be as soon as possible 
after the sap has been obtained. 
Boil the sap, and put four pounds of 
loaf sugar to every gallon, also the 
rind of a lemon cut thin ; then boil 
it again for nearly an hour, skimming 
it well all the time. Into a cask that 
will contain it, put a lighted brim- 
stone match, stop it up till the match 
is burnt out, and then pour the li- 
quor into it as quickly as possible. 
When nearly cold, work it with a 
toast spread with yeast, and let it 
stand five or six days, stirring it two 
or three times a-day. Put the bung 
lightly in till it has done working ; 
then close it down, and let it stand 
two or three months. The wine may 
then be bottled, and will be tit for 
use in about a week. It makes a 
rich and salutary cordial, and its 
virtues are much relied on in con- 
sumptive and scorbutic cases. 

BISCUIT CAKE. One pound of 
flour, five eggs well beaten and 
strained, eight ounces of sugar, a 
little rose or orange flower water. 
Beat the whole thori^ughly, and bake 
it one hour. 

BISCUITS. To make hard bis- 
cuits, warm two ounces of butter in 
as much skimmed milk as will make 
a pound of flour into a very stift' 
paste. Beat it with a rolling pin, 
and work it very smooth. Roll it 
thin, and cut it into round biscuits. 
Prick them full of holes with a fork, 
and about six minutes will bake 
them. — For plain and very crisp bis- 
cuits, make a pound of flour, the 
yolk of an f^gg, and some milk, into 
a very stift" paste. Beat it well, and 
knead it quite smooth ; roll the paste 
very thin, and cut it into biscuits. 
Bake theni in a slow oven till quite 
dry and crisp. — To preserve biscuits 
for a long time sweet and good, no 

other art is necessary than packing 
them up in casks well caulked, and 
carefully lined with tin, so as to ex- 
clude the air. The biscuits should 
be laid as close as possible ; and 
when it is necessary to open the cask^ 
it must be speedily closed again with 
care. Sea bread may also be pre- 
served on a long voyage, by being 
put into a bag which has been pre- 
viously soaked in a quantity of liquid 
nitre, and dried. This has been 
found to preserve the biscuits from 
the fatal eflects of the wevil, and 
other injurious insects, which are 
destructive to this necessary article 
of human sustenance. 

BITTERS. Bruise an ounce of 
gentian root, and two drams of car- 
damom seeds together : add an 
ounce of lemon peel, and three drams 
of Seville orange peel. Pour on the 
ingredients a pint and half of boil- 
ing water, and let it stand an hour 
closely coyered : then pour oft' the 
clear liquor, and a glass of it taken 
two or three times a day will be 
found an excellent bitter for the sto- 
mach. — Or slice an ounce of gentian 
root, and add half a dram of snakes* 
root bruised, half a dram of saftVon, 
three quarters of a dram of carda- 
mom seeds, and the same of cochi- 
neal bruised together, and the peel 
of three Seville oranges. Sleep the 
ingredients in a pint of brandy four- 
teen days, shaking them together 
frequently ; then strain the tincture 
through apiece of muslin, and a tea- 
spoonful in a glass of wine may be 
taken two or three times a dav. 

BLACK BUTTER. Boil a pound 
of moist sugar with three pounds of 
gooseberries, currants, raspberries, 
and cherries, till reduced to half the 
quantity. Put it into pots covered 
with brandy paper, and it will be 
found a pleasant sweetmeat. 

BLACK CAPS. Divide and core 
some fine large apples, put them in 
a shallow pan, strew white sugar 
over, and bake them. Boil a glass 
of wine, the same of water, and 



srweeten it for sauce. Or, take off a 
slice from the stalk end of some ap- 
ples, and core without paring them. 
Mix with grated lemon, and a few 
cloves in fine powder, as much sugar 
as will sweeten them. Stuff the holes 
as close as possible with this, and 
turn the flat end down on a stewpan ; 
set them on a very slow fire, with 
some raisin wine and water. Cover 
them close, and now and then baste 
them with the liquor: when done 
enough, black the tops with a sala- 

B1.ACK INK. Infuse in a gallon 
of rain or soft water, a pound of blue 
galls bruised, and keep it stirring for 
three weeks. Then add four ounces 
of green copperas, four ounces of 
logwood chips, six ounces of gum 
arabac, and a glass of brandy. — To 
make ink of a superior quality, and 
fit for immediate use, prepare the 
following ingredients. Four ounces 
of blue galls, two ounces of chipped 
logwo d, two of sulphate of iron, 
one ounce and a half of gum arabac, 
half an ounce of sulphate of copper, 
and half an ounce of brown sugar. 
Boil the galls and logwood in six 
pints of spring or distilled water, 
until nearly three pints of water are 
evaporated, then strain it through a 
piece of flannel. Powder the salts 
in a mortar, dissolve the gum in a 
little warm water, then mix the whole 
together, and shake itfrequently for 
tw^o or three days ; during which 
time expose it to the air, and it will 
become blacker. Decant the liquor 
into stone bottles well corked, and 
it will be fit for use directly. Those 
who wish to avoid the trouble of such 
a process, will find an excellent sub- 
stitute in Walkden's Ink Powder rea- 
dy prepared, with directions how to 
use it. If a cup of sweet wort be 
added to two papers of the powder, 
it will give it the brightness of japan 

BLACK LEAD. The best prepa- 
ration for cleaning cast-iron stoves 
is made of black lead, mixed with a 

little common gin, or the dregs of 
port wine, and laid on the stove with 
a piece of linen rag. ^ Then with a 
clean brush, not too hard, and dip- 
ped in some dried black lead pow- 
der, rub the stove till it comes to a 
beautiful brightness. This will pro- 
duce a much finer black varnish ( n 
the cast-iron, than either boiling the 
black lead with small beer and soap, 
or mixing it with white of egg, as is 
commonly practised. 

BLACK PAPER, for drawing pat- 
terns, may easily be made in the fol- 
lowing manner. Mix and smooth 
some lamp-black and sweet oil, with 
a piece of flannel. Cover a sheet or 
two of large writing paper with this 
mixture, then dab the paper dry with 
a rag of fine linen, and prepare it for 
future use by putting the black side 
on another sheet of paper, and fasten- 
ing the corners together with a small 
pin. When wanted to draw, lay the 
pattern on the back of the black pa- 
per, and go over it with the point of 
a steel pencil. The black paper will 
then leave the impression of the pat- 
tern on the under sheet, on which 
you must now draw it with ink. If 
you draw patterns on cloth or mus- 
lin, do it with a pen dipped in a bit 
of stone blue, a bit of sugar, and a 
little water, mixed smooth in a tea 
cup, in which it will be always ready 
for use. 

blood must be stirred with a little 
salt till it is cold. Put a full quart 
of it to a quart of whole grits, and 
let it stand all night. Soak the 
crumb of a quartern loaf in rather 
more than two quarts of new milk 
made hot. In the meantime prepare 
the guts by washing, turning and 
scraping, with salt and water, and 
changing the water several times. 
Chop fine a little winter savoury and 
thyme, a good quantity of pennyroy- 
al, pepper and salt, a few cloves,some 
allspice, ginger and nutmeg. Mix 
these all together, with three pounds 
of beef suet, and six eggs w ell beat- 



en and strained. Have ready some 
hog's fat cut into large bits ; and as 
the skins are filling with the pudding, 
put in the fat at intervals. Tie up 
in links only half tilled, and boil in a 

' large kettle, pricking them as they 
swell, or they will burst. When 
boiled, lay them between clean cloths 
till cold, and hang them up in the 
kitchen. When to be used, scald 
them a few minutes in water ; wipe, 
and put them into a Dutch oven. If 
there be not skins enough, put the 
stuffing into basins, and boil it co- 
vered with floured cloths. Slice 
and fry it when used. — Another way 
is, to soak all night a quart of bruis- 
ed grits in as much boiling-hot milk 
as will swell them, and leave half a 
pint of liquid. Chop a quantity of 
pennyroyal, savoury and thyme ; add 
salt and pepper, and allspice finely 
powdered. Mix the above with a 
quart of the blood, prepared as be- 
fore directed ; clean the skins tho- 
roughly, half fill them with the stuf- 
fing, put in as much of the leaf fat 
of the pig as will make it pretty rich, 
and boil as before directed. A small 
quantity of leeks finely shred and 
well mixed, is a great improvement. 
— A superior article may be made as 
follows : boil a quart of half-grits in 
as much milk as will swell them to 
the utmost, drain them and add a 
quart of blood, a pint of rich cream, 
a pound of suet, some mace, nutmeg, 
allspice, and four cloves, all in fine 
powder. And two pounds of hog's 
leaf cut into dice, two leeks, a hand- 
ful of parsley, ten leaves of sage, a 
large handful of pennyroyal, and a 
sprig of thyme and knotted marjo- 
ram, all finely minced ; eight eggs 
well beaten, half a pound of bread 

. cmmbs scalded in a pint of milk, 
with pepper and salt. Soak and 
clean the skins in several waters, 
last of all in rose-water, and half 
fill them with the stuffing. Tie the 
skins in links, boil and prick them 
with a clean fork, to prevent their 

breaking, and cover them with a 
clean cloth till cold. 

red, but not ripe, blackberries into 
a jar, and cover it up closely. Set 
the jar in a kettle or deep stewpan 
of water over the fire, as a water 
bath ; and when it has simmered 
five or six hours, force the juice 
through a sieve. To every pint of 
juice, add two pounds of powdered 
loaf-sugar, boiling and scumming it 
in the same manner as for any other 
jam or jelly. This simple article is 
said to aflford eft'ectual relief in cases 
of stone or gravel : a tea-spoonful 
to be taken every night, and repeat- 
ed in the morning, if necessary. A 
good jam may also be made of ripe 
blackberries, in a similar manner ; 
and both, like other jams, should be 
kept in jars, closely tied over with 
brandy paper. 

clean a quantity of ripe blackber- 
ries ; to every quart of fruit, add a 
quart of cold water which has first 
been boiled. Bruise them well, and 
let the whole stand twenty-four 
hours, stirring it occasionally during 
that time. Express all the juice and 
run it through a sieve or jelly bag, 
on a pound and a half of sugar to 
each gallon of liquid. Stir it till 
thoroughly dissolved, put it in a well 
seasoned barrel, add a little dissolv- 
ed isinglass, and let it remain open 
till the next day ; then bung it up. 
This makes a pleasant wine, which 
may be bottled off in about two 

BLACKING for shoes is made of 
four ounces of ivory black, three 
ounces of the coarsest sugar, a table- 
spoonful of sweet oil, and a pint of 
small beer, gradually mixed together 

shoe-blacking, in the form of cakes 
or balls, is made in the following 
manner. Take four ounces of mut- 
ton suet, one ounce of bees-wax, one 

F 33 

BL A • 


o( sweet oil, and a dram each of 
powdered sugar-candy and gum-ara- 
bac. Melt them well together over 
a slow firci add a spoonful of tur- 
pentine, and lamp-black sufficient to 
give it a good black colour. While 
hot enough to run, make the compo- 
sition into a ball, by pouring it into 
a tin mould ; or let it stand till nearly 
cold, and then it may be moulded 
into any form bv the hand. 

it from the bacon-hog, with a small 
quantity of meat upon it, and lay it 
on the gridiron. When nearly done 
pepper and salt it. Add a piece of 
butter, and a tea-spoonful of mus- 
tard ; and serve it up quickly. This 
dish is much admired in Somerset- 
shire. A blade-bone of mutton may 
be dressed in the same way. 

BLAMANGE. Boil two ounces 
of isinglass half an hour, in a pint 
and half of water, and strain off the 
cream. Sweeten it, and add some 
peach water, or a few bitter almonds ; 
let it boil up once, and put it into 
what forms you please. Be sure to 
let the blamange settle before you 
turn it into the forms, or the blacks 
will remain at the bottom of them, 
and be on the top of the blamange 
when taken out of the moulds. If 
not to be very stiff, a little less isin- 
glass will do. — For Yellow Bla- 
mange, pour a pint of boiling water 
upon an ounce of isinglass, and the 
peel of one lemon. When cold, 
sweeten with two ounces of fine su- 
gar : add a quarter of a pint of 
white wine, the yolks of four eggs, 
and the juice of one lemon. Stir 
all together, and let it boil five mi- 
nutes : strain through a bag, and 
put into cups. 

BLANKETS, if not in constant 
use, are liable to be moth-eaten. 
To prevent this, they should be fold- 
ed and laid under feather beds that 
are in use, and occasionally shaken. 
Wheu soiled, they should be washed, 
not scoured : and w^ll dried before 

they are laid by, or they will breed 

is generally done by the fumes ot 
sulphur, in a place enclosed for that 
purpose : but to render the straw 
very white, and encrease its flexibi- 
lity in platting, it should be dipped 
in a solution of oxygenated muriatic 
acid, saturated with potash. Oxy- 
genated muriate of lime will also 
answer the purpose. To repair straw 
bonnets, they must be carefully rip- 
ped to pieces ; the plat should be 
bleached with the above solution, 
and made up afresh. 

BLUE INK. Dissolve an ounce 
of finely powdered verdigris, and 
half an ounce of cream of tartar, in 
three ounces of water. This will 
make a fine blue writing ink, which 
has the singular property of giving 
to an iron nail, immersed in it for 
twenty -four hours, a beautiful green 

serve a beautiful appearance, if treat- 
ed in the following manner. After 
washing them very clean with soda 
and warm water, and a brush, wash 
them with a large sponge and clean 
water, observing that no spot be left 
untouched. Be careful to clean 
straight up and down, not crossing 
from board to board : then dry with 
clean cloths, rubbing hard up and 
down the same way. The floors 
should not be often wetted, but very 
thoroughly when done ; and once a 
week dry-rubbed with hot sand, and 
a heavy brush, the right way of the 
boards. If oil or grease have stained 
the floor, make a strong lye of pearl- 
ashes and soft water, and add as 
much unslaked lime as it will take 
up. Stii u together, and then let it 
settle a few minutes ; bottle it, and 
stop it close. When used, lower it 
with a little Mater, and scour the 
part with it. If the liquor lie long 
on the boards, it will extract their 
colour ; it must therefore be done 



with care and expedition. Stone 
work may be freed from stains in 
the same way. 

BOOKINGS. Mix three ounces 
of buck-wheat flour with a tea-cup- 
ful of warm milk, and a spoonful of 
yeast. Let it rise before the fire 
about an hour ; then mix four eggs 
well beaten, and as much milk as 
will make the batter the usual thick- 
ness for pancakes, and fry them in 
the same manner. 

BOILING. Cleanliness here is of 
great consequence ; and for this 
purpose all culinary vessels should 
be made of iron, or of other metals 
well tinned. The pernicious effects 
of copper or brass may be perceived 
by rubbing the hand round the inside 
of a pot or kettle made of either of 
those metals, and which has been 
scoured clean and fit for use ; for 
though it may not discolour the hand, 
yet it will cause an ofl'ensive smell, 
and must in some degree affect every 
article which is put into it. If cop- 
per or brass be used, they should 
be well cleaned, and nothing suffer- 
ed to remain in the vessels longer 
than is necessary for the purposes 
of cooking. In small families how- 
ever, block-tin saucepans and boilers 
are much to be preferred, as lightest 
and safest. If proper care be taken 
of them, and they are well dried af- 
ter being cleaned, they are also by 
far the cheapest ; the purchase of a 
new tin saucepan being little more 
than the expense of tinning a copper 
one. Care should be taken to have 
the covers of boiling pots fit close, 
not only to prevent an unnecessary 
evaporation of the water, but that 
the smoke may not insinuate itself 
under the edge of the lid, and give 
the meat a bad taste. A trl *^t or fish 
drainer placed in the be er to lay 
the meat on, and to raise it an inch 
and a half from the bottom, will pre- 
vent that side of it which comes next 
the bottom from being done too 
ipuch, and the lower part of the 
meat will be as delicately done as 

any other. Instead of a trivet, four 
skewers stuck into the meat trans- 
versely will answer the purpose, or 
a soup plate whelmed the wrong side 
upwards. With good management 
it will take less fire for boiling than 
for roasting, but it should be kept 
to a regular pitch, so as to keep the 
pot gently boiling all the time. If 
it boils too fast, it will harden the 
meat, by extracting too much of the 
gravy ; but if it be allowed to sim- 
mer only, or to boil gently, it will 
become rich and tender. The scum 
must be carefully taken off as soon 
as the water boils, or it will sink and 
discolour the meat. The oftener it 
is scummed, and the cleaner the top 
of the water is kept, the cleaner will 
be the meat ; and if a little cold wa- 
ter be occasionally thrown in, it will 
bring up the remainder of the scum 
to the surface. Neither mixing milk 
with the water nor wrapping up the 
meat in a cloth are necessary, if the 
scum be attentively removed ; and 
the meat will have a more delicate 
colour, and a finer flavour, if boiled 
in clear water only. The general 
rule for boiling is to allow a quarter 
of an hour to a pound of meat ; but 
if it be boiled gently or simmered 
only, which is by far the superior 
way, twenty minutes to the pound 
will scarcely be found too much. 
At the same time care must be taken 
to keep the pot constantly boiling, 
and not to sufl'er the meat to remain 
in after it is done enough, or it will 
become sodden, and lose its flavour. 
The quantity of water is regulated 
by the size of the meat ; sufficient 
to cover it, but not to drown it ; and 
the less water, the more savoury will 
the meat be, and the better the broth. 
It is usual to put all kinds of fresh 
meat into hot water, and salt meat 
into cold water ; but if the meat has 
been salted only a short time it is 
better to put it in when the water 
boils, or it will draw out too much 
of the gravy. Lamb, veal, and pork 
require rather more boiling than 



other meat, to make them whole- 
some. The hind quarters of most 
animals require longer time to dress 
than the fore quarters, and all kinds 
of provision require more time in 
frosty weather than in summer. 
Large joints of beef and mutton are 
better a little underdone ; they make 
the richer hash ; but meat that is 
fresh slain will remain tough and 
hard, in whatever way it may be 
cooked. All meat should be washed 
clean before it is put into the boiler, 
but salt meat especially. A ham of 
twenty pounds will take four hours 
and a half in boiling, and others in 
proportion. A dried tongue, after 
being soaked, will take four hours 
boiling : a tongue out of pickle, from 
two hours an^ a half to three hours, 
or more if very large : it must be 
judged by its feeling quite tender. 
Boiling is in general the most econo- 
mical mode of cooking, if care be 
taken to preserve the broth, and ap- 
ply it to useful purposes. 

BOILED BACON. Soak it, and 
take off the rind before boiling. A 
pound of bacon boiled without the 
skin will weigh an ounce heavier than 
a pound boiled with it. Fat bacon 
should be put into hot water, and 
lean into cold water, when it is to be 
dressed. Young bacon will boil in 
about three quarters of an hour. 
Grate some toasted bread over it, 
and set it near the fire to brown it 
a little, before it is sent to table. 

BOILED BEEF. When the wa- 
ter boils put in the meat, whether 
beef or mutton, and take off the scum 
as it rises. If the scum be suffered 
to sink, it will stick to the meat, and 
spoil its colour. Turnips, greens, 
potatoes, or carrots with the beef, 
and caper sauce with the mutton. 

of cream over a slow fire, adding two 
ounces of sugar, and the rind of a 
lemon. Take it off the firetis soon 
as it begins to simmer ; as the cream 
cools, add by degrees the yolks of 
ei^ht eggs well beaten, with a ppoo'*- 

ful of orange water. Stir it care- 
fully over a slow fire till it almost 
boils, and strain it quickly through 
a piece of thin muslin. Put it into 
cups, and serve it up cold. 

BOILED DUCK. Choose a fine 
fat duck, salt it two days, and boil 
it slowly in a cloth. Serve it with 
onion sauce, but melt the butter with 
milk instead of water. 

BOILED EELS. The small ones 
are best, provided they are bright, 
and of a good colour. After they 
are skinned, boil them in a small 
quantity of water, with a quantity of 
parsley, which with the liquor should 
be sent to table with them. Serve 
chopped parsley and butter for 

BOILED FOWL. For boiling, 
choose those that are not black- 
legged. Pick them nicely, singe, 
wash, and truss them. Flour them, 
and put them into boiling water: 
half an hour will be sufhcient for 
one of middling size. Serve with 
parsley and butter; oyster, lemon, 
liver, or celery sauce. If for dinner, 
ham, tongue or bacon is usually 
served with them, and also greens. 
— When cooked with rice, stew the 
fowl very slowly in some clear mut- 
ton broth well skimmed, and sea- 
soned with onion, mace, pepper and 
salt. About half an hour before 
it is ready, put in a quarter of a pint 
of rice well washed and soaked. 
Simmer it till it is quite tender, 
strain it from the broth, and put the 
rice on a sieve before the fire. Keep 
the fowl hot, lay it in the middle of 
the dish, and the rice round it with- 
out the broth. The broth will be 
nice by itself, but the less liquor the 
fowl is done with the better. Gravy, 
or parsley and butter, for sauce. 

BOILED HAM. Soak the ham 
in cold water the night before it is 
to be dressed, scrape it clean, and 
put it into the boiler with cold wa- 
ter. Skim the liquor while boiling ; 
let it not boil fast, but simmer only, 
and add a little cold water occasion- 



ally for this purpose. When the 
liam is done, take it up, pull off the 
skin carefully, and grate a crust of 
bread over it so as to cover it tolera- 
bly thick. Set it before the fire, or 
put it into the oven till the bread is 
crisp ; garnish it with carrots, or any 
thing that is in season. A ham of 
twenty pounds will require five hours 
boiling, and others in proportion. 

it eight or ten days ; and when it is 
to be dressed, weigh it. Let it lie 
half an hour in cold water to make 
it white : allow a quarter of an hour 
for every pound, and half an hour 
over, from the time it boils up. Skim 
it as soon as it boils, and frequently 
after. Allow plenty of water, and 
save some of it for peas-soup. The 
leg should be small, and of a fine 
grain ; and if boiled in a floured 
cloth, it will improve the colour and 
appearance. Serve it with peas- 
pudding and turnips. 

carefully, boil it gently, and take it 
out of the water as soon as done. 
Let the water be warm, if the fish 
be split : if underdone, it is very un- 
wholesome. Serve with shrimp or 
anchovy sauce. 

BOILED TURBOT. The turbot 
kettle must be of a proper size, and 
in good order. Set the fish in cold 
water sufficient to cover it complete- 
ly, throw a handful of salt and a 
glass of vinegar into it, and let it 
gradually boil. Be very careful that 
no blacks fall into it ; but skim it 
well, and preserve the beautiful co- 
lour of the fish. Serve it garnished 
with a complete fringe of curled 
parsley, lemon and horse-radish. 
The sauce must be the finest lobster, 
anchovy and butter, and plain but- 
ter, served plentifully in separate 
tureens. — If necessary, turbot will 
keep two or three days, and be in as 
high perfection as at first, if lightly 
rubbed over with salt, and carefully 
hung in a cold place. 
' BOILED TURKEY. A turkey 

will neither boil white nor eat tender, 
unless it has been killed three or 
four days. Pick it clean, draw it at 
the rump, cut off the legs, stick the 
end of the thighs into the body, and 
tie them fast. Flour the turkey, put 
it into the water while cold, let it 
boil gently half an hour or more, 
take off the scum, and cover the 
kettle close. Make the stuffing of 
grated bread and lemon peel, four 
ounces of shred suet, a few chopped 
oysters, two eggs, and a little cream. 
Fill the craw with stuffing, and make 
the rest into balls, which are to be 
boiled and laid round the dish. The 
stuffing may be made without oys- 
ters ; or force-meat or sausage may 
be used, mixed with crumbs of bread 
and yolks of eggs. Celery sauce or 
white sauce is very proper. 

BOILED VEAL. Dredge it with 
flour, tie it up in a cloth, and put it 
in when the water boils. A knuckle 
requires more boiling in proportion 
to its weight, than any other joint, 
to render the gristle soft and tender. 
Parsley and butter,bacon and greens, 
are commonly eaten with it. 

BOILERS. Copper boilers and 
saucepans are apt to become leaky, 
when they have been joined or mend- 
ed, or from bruises, which some- 
times render them unfit for use. In 
this case a cement of pounded quick- 
lime, mixed with ox's blood, applied 
fresh to the injured part, will be of 
great advantage, and very durable. 
A valuable cement for such purposes 
may also be made of equal parts of 
vinegar and milk mixed together so 
as to produce a curd : the whey is 
then put to the whites of four or five 
eggs after they have been well beat- 
en, and the whole reduced to a thick 
paste by the addition of some quick- 
lime finely sifted. This composion 
applied to cracks or fissures of any 
kind, and properly dried, will resist 
the effects of fire and water. 

into small pieces four pounds of 
lean beef, and add to it a pound of 



diced suet, with the same quantity 
of diced bacon. Season with all- 
spice, pepper, bay salt, saltpetre, 
and a little powder of bay leaves. 
Mix the whole together, tie the meat 
up in skins about the thickness of 
the wrist, dry the sausages in the 
same manner as tongues, and eat 
them without boiling. 

BOLOGNA SOUP. Bind close 
with packthread, fifteen pounds of 
brisket of beef, and put it into a 
pot with water suthcient to cover it. 
Then add three large carrots, some 
good turnips, four onions, a bunch 
of sweet herbs, and half a white 
cabbage sliced and fried in butter. 
The pot must be well scummed be- 
fore the herbs are put in. It must 
boil very slow ly for five or six hours ; 
and when half boiled, prepare three 
or four pounds of loin of nmtton, 
with all the fat taken off, and put it 
into the pot. Flavour the soup with 
whole pepper, and a head of celery ; 
and to make it of a good colour, 
draw the gravy from a pound of lean 
beef over a slow fire, and add a la^ 
dle-ful to the soup, first carefully 
taking off all the fat. Having cut 
and dried the crust of a French roll, 
lay it in a stewpan with a little soup ; 
and after stewing it over a slow fire, 
place it with a slice in the soup tu- 
reen. The beef must be untied, and 
served up with chopped parsley 
strewed over it ; accompanied also 
with gravy sauce, a few capers, and 
some chopped carrots, thickened 
with the yolk of an egg. Add a lit' 
tie seasoning to the soup. 

BOOTS. Persons who travei 
much, or are often exposed to the 
weather, must be sensible of the im- 
portance of being provided with 
boots that will resist the wet. The 
following is a composition for pre- 
serving leather, the good effects of 
which vire sufficiently ascertained. 
One pint of drying oil, two ounces 
of yellow wax, two ounces of spirit 
of turpentine, and half an ounce of 
Burgundy pitch, should be carefully 

melted together over a slow fir^. 
With this mixture, new shoes and 
boots are to be rubbed in the sun, 
or at some distance from the fire, 
with a sponge or brush. The ope- 
ration is to be repeated as often as 
they become dry, and until they are 
fully saturated. In this manner the 
leather becomes impervious to the 
wet : the boots or shoes last much 
longer than those of common leather, 
acquire «uch softness and pliability 
that tl.ry ne^er shrivel or grow hard, 
and in that state are the most effec- 
tual preservation against wet and 
cold. It is necessary to observe, 
however, that boots or shoes thus 
prepared ought not to be worn till 
they become perfectly dry and flex- 
ible : otherwise the leather will be 
too soft, and the boots unservice- 

BOOT TOPS. Many of the com- 
positions sold for the purpose of 
cleaning and restoring the colour of 
boot tops, are not found to answer, 
and are often injurious to the leather. 
A safe and easy preparation is made 
of a quart of boiled milk, which, 
when cold, is to be mixed with an 
ounce of the oil of vitriol, and an 
ounce of the spirit of salts, shaken 
well together. An ounce of red la- 
vender is then to be added, and the 
liquid applied to the leather with a 
sponge. Or, mix a dram of oxy- 
muriate of potash with two ounces of 
distilled water ; and when the salt 
is dissolved, add two ounces of mu- 
riatic acid. Shake together in anor 
ther vial, three ounces of rectified 
spirits of wine, with half an ounce of 
the essential oil of lemon, and unite 
the contents of the two vials, keeping 
the liquid closely corked for use. It 
is to be applied with a clean sponge, 
and dried gently ; after which the 
tops may be polished with a proper 
brush, so as to appear like new lea- 
ther. This mixture will readily take 
out grease, or any kind of spots, from 
leather or parchment. ^ 

BOTTLES. The common prac- 



tice of cleaning glass bottles with 
shot is highly improper; for if 
through inattention any of it should 
remain, when the bottles are again 
filled with wine or cider, the lead 
will be dissolved, and the liquor im- 
pregnated with its pernicious quali- 
ties. A few ounces of potash dis- 
solved in water will answer the pur- 
pose much better, and clean a great 
number of bottles. If any impurity 
adhere to the sides, a few pieces of 
blotting paper put into the bottle, 
and shaken with the water, will very 
soon remove it. Another way is to 
roll up some pieces of blotting pa- 
per, steep them in soap and water, 
then put them into bottles or decan- 
ters with a little warm water, and 
shake them well for a few minutes : 
after this they will only require to 
be rinsed and dried. 

the first thing to be attended to is, 
to see that the bottles be perfectly 
clean and dry ; if wet, they will spoil 
the liquor, and make it turn mouldy. 
Then, though the bottles should be 
clean and dry, yet if the corks be 
not new and sound, the liquor will 
be damaged ; for if the air can by 
any means penetrate, the liquor will 
grow flat, and never rise. As soon 
as a cask of liquor begins to grow 
vapid, and to lose its briskness, while 
it is on the tap, it should be drawn 
off immediately into bottles ; and in 
order to quicken it, put a piece of 
loaf sugar into every bottle, about 
the size of a walnut. To forward 
the ripening, wrap the bottles in hay, 
and set them in a warm place ; straw 
will not answer the purpose. When 
ale is to be bottled, it will be an 
improvement to add a little rice, a 
few raisins, or a tea-spoonful of 
moist sugar to each bottle. In the 
summer time, if table beer is bottled 
as soon as it has done working, it 
wdll soon become brisk, and make a 
very pleasant and refreshing drink. 


that the bottles be perfectly clean 
and dry, and let the fruit be gather- 
ed quite ripe, and when the weather 
is dry. The currants should be cut 
from the large stalks, with the small 
est bit of stalk to each, and care 
taken not to wound the fruit, that 
none of the moisture may escape. 
It would be best indeed to cut them 
under the trees, and let them drop 
gently into the bottles. Stop up the 
bottles with cork and rosin, and 
trench them in the garden with the 
neck downwards : sticks should be 
placed opposite to where each sort 
of fVuit begins. Cherries and dam- 
sons may be kept in the same way. 

Pick some smooth gooseberries be- 
fore they are quite full grown, put 
them into gooseberry bottles lightly 
corked, and set them up to their necks 
in a copper of cold water. Put a 
little hay round the bottles to prevent 
their breaking, make a fire under 
them, and let the heat increase gra- 
dually ; let them simmer ten minutes, 
but not boil. Take out the fire, and 
let them remain in the copper till 
cold. Then take them out, dry the 
bottles, rosin down the corks close, 
and set them in dry saw-dust with 
their necks downward. 

BRAISING. To braise any kind 
of meat, put it into a stewpan, and 
cover it with fat bacon. Then add 
six or eight onions, a bundle of 
herbs, carrots, celery, any bones or 
trimmings of meat or fowls, and some 
stock. The bacon must be covered 
with white paper, and the lid of the 
pan must be kept close. Set it on 
a slow stove ; and according to what 
the meat is, it will require tv o or 
three hours. The meat is th«;a lo 
be taken out, the gravy nicely skim- 
med, and set on to boil very <?uick 
till it is thick. The meat is to he Kept 
hot ; and if larded, put into the oven 
for a few minutes. Then put the 
jelly over it, which is called glazing, 
and is used for ham, tongue, and 



various made-dishes. White wine 
is added to some glazing. The 
glaze should be of beautiful clear 
yellow brown, and it is best put on 
with a nice brush. 

them, and fill them with forcemeat. 
Lay the bones and any other poultry 
trimmings into a stewpan, and the 
chickens on them. Put to them a 
few onions, a handful of herbs, three 
blades of mace, a pint of stock, and 
a glass or two of sherry. Cover the 
chickens with slices of bacon, and 
then white paper ; cover the whole 
close, and put them on a slow stove 
for two hours. Then take them up, 
strain the braise, and skim off the 
fat carefully : set it on to boil very 
quick to a glaze, and lay it over the 
chicken with a brush. Before glaz- 
ing, put the chicken into an oven 
for a few minutes, to give it a colour. 
Serve with a brown fricassee of 

the chump end of a loin of mutton, 
cover it with buttered paper, and 
then with paste, as for venison. 
Roast it two hours, but let it not be 
browned. Have ready some French 
beans boiled, and drained on a sieve ; 
and while you are glazing the mut- 
ton, give the beans one heat-up in 
gravy, and lay them on the dish with 
the meat over them. 
. BRAISED VEAL. Lard the best 
end of a neck of veal with bacon 
rolled in chopped parsley, salt, per- 
per and nutmeg. Put it into a tosser, 
and cover it with water. Add the 
scrag end of the neck, a little lean 
bacon or ham, an onion, two carrots, 
two heads of celery, and a glass of 
Madeira. Stew it quickly for two 
hours, or till it is tender, but not 
too much. Strain off the liquor : 
mix a little flour and butter in a 
stewpan till brown, and lay the veal 
in this, the upperside to the bottom 
of the pan. Let it be over the fire 
till it gets coloured : then lay it into 

the dish, stir some of the liquor ift 
and boil it up, skim it nicely, and 
squeeze orange and lemon juice 
into it. 

dozen of blanched almonds, and 
pounded bitter almonds, in a little 
milk. When cold, add to it the 
yolks of five eggs beating well in 
cream ; sweeten, and put to it two 
glasses of good brandy. After it is 
well mixed, pour to it a quart of 
thin cream ; set it over the fire, but 
not to boil. Stir it one way till it 
thickens, then pour into cups or low 
glasses, and when cold it will be 
ready. A ratafia drop may be added 
to each cup ; and if intended to 
keep, the cream must be previously 

^r* PI III (^f\ 

mould with jar-raisins stoned, or 
dried cherries, then with thin slices 
of French roll ; next to which put 
ratafias, or macaroons ; then the 
fruit, rolls and cakes in succession, 
till the mould is full, sprinkling in 
at times two glasses of brandy. 
Beat four eggs, add a pint of milk 
or cream lightly sweetened, half a 
nutmeg, and the rind of half a le- 
mon finely grated. Let the liquid 
sink into (he solid part ; then flour 
a cloth, tie it ti^ht over, and boil 
one hour ; keep the mould the right 
side up. Serve with pudding sauce. 

BRASS. Culinary vessels made 
of this me(al, are constantly in dan- 
ger of contracting verdigris. To 
prevent this, instead of wiping them 
dry in the usual manner, let them be 
frequently immersed in water, and 
they will be preserved safe and 

BRAWN. Young brawn is to be 
preferred, the horny part of which 
will feel moderately tender, and the 
flavour will be better ; the rind of 
old brawn will be hard. For Mock 
Brawn, boil a pair of neat's feet very 
tender ; take the meat off, and have 
ready a belly-piece of salt pork. 



which has been in pickle for a week. 
Boil this almost enough, take out 
the bones if there be any, and roll 
the feet and the pork together. 
Bind it tigh| together with a strong 
clotli and coarse tape, boil it quite 
tender, and hang it up in the cloth 
till cold. Keep it afterwards in 
souse till it is wanted. 

BREAD. Two very important 
reasons urge the j)ropriety ami ne- 
cessity of using home-baked bread, 
in preference to baker's bread, 
wherever it can be done with tolera- 
ble convenience ; these are, its supe- 
rior quality, and its cheapness. A 
bushel of wheat, weighing sixty 
pounds, will make sixty-five pounds 
of household bread, after the bran 
has been taken out ; and if the pol- 
lard be separated also, to make a 
liner article, a bushel of ground 
wheat will then make tifty-eight 
pounds of fine white bread, free from 
any foreign mixture, leaving from 
ten to fifteen pounds of bran and 
pollard, which may be applied to 
useful purposes. The calculation 
then will be easy, and the difference 
between purchasing and making 
bread will be seen at once. A bushel 
of ground wheat weighing sixty 
pounds ; will produce thirteen quar- 
tern loaves and a half of fine bread, 
after the bran and pollard have been 
taken out ; add to the price of the 
wheat, nine-pence a bushel for grind- 
ing, three-pence for yeast, four- 
pence for salt and the expence of 
baking ; and from this deduct six- 
pence at least for the value of the 
bran and pollard, and it gives the 
price of the quartern loaves made 
and baked at home. In general it 
will be found that there is a saving 
of one third of the expense, if the 
business be properly conducted. 
Then the wholesome and nutricious 
quality of the bread is incompara- 
bly superior ; there is no addition 
of alurti, ground potatoes, whiting, 
or any other ingredient to give weight 

or colour to the bread, as is too of- 
ten the case with baker's bread ; 
but all is nutricious, sound, and good. 
But supposing their bread to be 
equal in quality, there is still a con- 
siderable saving in the course of a 
year, especially in a large family ; 
and if household bread be made in- 
stead of fine bread, every bushel of 
good heavy wheat will produce near- 
ly fifteen quartern loaves. Besides 
this, rye, and even a little barley 
mixed with the wheat, will make 
very good bread, and render it 
cheaper still. Rye will add a sweet- 
ness to the bread, and make it cut 
firmer, so as to prevent the waste of 
crumbs, and is unquestionably an 
article of good economy. The ad- 
dition of potatoes is by no means to 
be approved, though so often re- 
commended ; any of the grains al- 
ready mentioned have in them ten 
times the nutrition of potatoes, and 
in the end will be found to be much 
cheaper. Making bread with skim 
milk, instead of water, where it can 
be done, is highly advantageous, 
and will produce a much better ar- 
tle than can be purchased at a ba- 
ker's shop. — On the subject of mak- 
ing bread, little need be said, as 
every common maid-servant is or 
ought to be well acquainted with 
this necessary part of household 
work, or she is good for nothing. 
To make good bread however, the 
flour should be kept four or five 
weeks before it is baked. Then put 
half a bushel of it into a kneading 
trough, mix with it between four 
and five quarts of warm water or skim 
milk, and a pint and a half of good 
yeast, and stir it well together with 
the hand till it become tough. Let 
it rise before the fire, about an hour 
and a half, or less if it rise fast; 
then, before it falls, add four quarts 
more of warm water, and half a 
pound of salt. Work it well, and 
cover it with a cloth. Put the fire 
into the oven ; and by the time it is 

G " n 



heated, the dough \vill be ready. 
Make the loaves about five pounds 
each, sweep out the oven very clean 
and quick, and put in the bread ; 
shut it up close, and two hours and 
a half will bake it. In summer the 
water should be milk warm, in win- 
ter a little more, and in frosty wea- 
ther as hot as the hand will bear, 
but not scalding, or the whole will 
be spoiled. Bread is better baked 
without tins, which gives to the crust 
an unnatural degree of hardness. — 
Those who are under the necessity 
of purchasing baker's bread, for 
want of other convenience, may de- 
tect the adulteration of alum by ma- 
cerating a small piece of the crumb 
of new-baked bread in cold water, 
sufficient to dissolve it ; and the 
taste of the alum, if it has been used, 
will acquire a sweet astringency. Or 
a heated knife may be thrust into a 
loaf before it has grown cold ; and if 
it be free from that ingredient, 
scarcely any alteration will be visi- 
ble on the blade ; but, in the con- 
trary case, its surface, after being 
allowed to cool, will appear slightly 
covered with an aluminous incrus- 

BREAD CAKE. To make a com- 
mon bread cake, separate from the 
dough, when making white bread, 
as much as is sufficient for a quar- 
tern loaf, and knead well into it two 
ounces of butter, two of Lisbon su- 
gar, and eight of currants. Warm 
the butter in a tea-cupful of good 
milk. By adding another ounce of 
butter or sugar, or an egg or two, 
the cake may be improved, especi- 
ally by putting in a tea-cupful of 
raw cream. It is best to bake it in 
a pan, rather than as a loaf, the 
outside being less hard. 

a penny white loaf as thin as possi- 
ble, pour over it a pint of boiling 
cream, and let it stand two hours. 
Beat up eight eggs, half a pound of 
butter, and a grated nutmeg. Put 

in half a pound of currants, well 
washed and dried, and a spoonful 
of brandy or white wine. Bake 
them in pattipans, or raised crusts. 

BREAD PUDDING. Grate some 
white bread, pour over some boiling 
milk, and cover it close- When 
soaked an hour or two, beat it fine, 
and mix with it two or three eggs 
well beaten. Put it into a bason 
that will just hold it, tie a floured 
cloth over it, and put it into boiling 
water. Send it up with melted but- 
ter poured over : it may be eaten 
with salt or sugar. Prunes, or French 
plums, make a fine pudding instead 
of raisins, either with suet or bread 
pudding. — Another and richer. Pour 
half a pint of scalding milk, on half 
a pint of bread crumbs, and cover 
it up for an hour. Beat up four eggs. 
and when strained, add to the bread, 
with a tea-spoonful of flour, an 
ounce of butter, two ounces of sugar, 
half a pound of currants, an ounce 
of almonds beaten with orange- 
flower water, half an ounce of orange, 
of lemon, and of citron. Butter a 
bason that will exactly hold it, flour 
the cloth, tie it tight over, and boil 
the pudding an hour. 

BREAD SAUCE. Boil a large 
onion quartered, with some black 
pepper and milk, till the onion is 
quite a pap. Pour the milk on white 
stale-bread grated, and cover it. In 
an hour put it into a saucepan, with 
a good piece of butter mixed with a 
little flour ; boil the whole up toge- 
ther, and serve with it. 

BREAD SOUP. Boil some pieces 
of bread crust in a quart of water, 
with a small piece of butter. Beat 
it with a spoon, and keep it boiling 
till the bread and water be well 
mixed : then season it with a little 

DING. Spread some butter on slices 
of bread, and lay them in a dish, 
with currants between each layer. 
To make it rich, add some sliced 








A rill- Jfjiihinr triuh' / with the Cover mifed. 
Ji JLnmt>tf Fhf/ttiue. 

C iyii/iilrirol Boiler to l^phuvti on B, with its Cayer D . 
E Krimrtitiif fH-rforatiui rvlinihr to itc />torrt/ nit/ii/i V 
F CtHtre tor t/itto. 
f >.Cr CiHtlvnr. one to pack lyittnti tiie other. 



citron, orange, or lemon. Pour over 
an unboflecl custard of milk, two or 
three eggs, a few corns of pimento, 
dnd a very little ratifia, two hours at 
least before it is to be baked, and 
lade it over to soak the bread. A 
paste round the edge makes all pud- 
dings look better, but it is not ne- 

Boil a quarter of a pound of rice in 
some milk till it is quite soft, put it 
into a bason, and let it stand till 
the next day. Soak some sliced 
bread in cold milk, drain it off, mash 
it line, and mix it with the rice. 
Beat up two eggs with it, add a little 
salt, and boil it an hour. 

pound and a half of flour, four ounces 
of butter, a spoonful of yeast, and 
half a pint of warm milk. Rub the 
butter into the flour, and mix the 
eggs, yeast, and milk together. Put 
the liquid into the middle of the 
flour, and let it stand to rise for two 
hours. Make it into cakes, let them 
stand to rise again, and wash them 
over with skimmed milk before they 
are put into the oven. 

the chine-bone from the breast, and 
set it on to stew with a pint of gra- 
vy. When the bones would draw 
out, put it on the gridiron to grill ; 
and then lay it in a dish on cucum- 
bers nicely stewed. 

off the superfluous fat, and roast and 
serve the meat with stewed cucum- 
bers ; or to eat cold, covered with 
chopped parsley. Or half-boil, and 
then grill it before the fire : cover it 
with bread crumbs and herbs, and 
serve with caper sauce. Or if boned, 
take away a good deal of the fat, 
and cover it with bread, herbs, and 
seasoning. Thfen roll and boil it ; 
serve with chopped walnuts, or ca- 
pers and butter. 

roasting it, take off the two ends to 
fry and t^tew, if the joint be large. 

or roast the whole together, and pour 
butter over it. If any be left, cut it 
into regular pieces, put them into a 
stewpan, and pour some broth over 
it. If no broth, a little water will 
do : add a bunch of herbs, a blade 
or two of mace, some pepper, and 
an anchovy. Stew till ihe meat be 
tender, thicken with flour and butter, 
and add a little ketchup. Serve the 
sweetbread whole upon it, which 
may either be stewed or parboiled, 
and then covered with crumbs, herbs, 
pepper and salt, and browned in a 
Dutch oven. The whole breast may 
be stewed in the same way, after 
cutting off the two ends. A boiled 
breast of veal, smothered with onion 
sauce, is also an excellent dish, if 
not old nor too fat. 

two pounds of flour, a little salt, 
two ounces of sifted sugar, four 
ounces of butter, and two eggs beat- 
en with two spoonfuls of yeast, and 
about a pint of milk. Knead the 
dough well, and set it to rise before 
the fire. Make twelve rolls, butter 
tin plates, and set them before the 
fire to rise, till they become of a 
proper size, and bake them half an 

BREWING. The practice of 
brewing malt liquor is but seldom 
adopted by private families in large 
towns and cities, owing probably to 
a want of conveniences for the pur- 
pose, and an aversion to the labour 
and trouble which it might occasion. 
But if the disagreeable filthiness at- 
tending the process in large public 
breweries were duly considered, to- 
gether with the generally pernicious 
quality of the beer oft'ered to sale, 
as well as the additional expense 
incurred by this mode of procuring 
it, no one who regards economy, or 
the health and comfort of his family, 
would be without home-brewed beer, 
so long as there were any means left 
of obtaining it. Beer as strong of 
malt and hops, when all the foreign 
ingredients are extracted, may be 



manufactured at home at less than 
one third of what it could cost at 
a public brewery, besides the satis- 
faction of drinking, what is known 
to be wholesome, and free from any 
deleterious mixture. Twelve shil- 
lings for malt and hops will provide 
a kilderkin of beer far superior to 
one that could be purchased under 
license for a pound, while the yeast 
and the grains are sufficient to re- 
pay all the labour and expense of 
brewing. On every account, there- 
fore, it is desirable that the practice 
of domestic brewing were universally 
adopted. The health and comfort 
of the community would be increas- 
ed ; and by a larger consumption of 
malt, the growth of barley would be 
extended, and agriculture propor- 
tionably benefited. In order to this 
however, the enormous duty upon 
malt requires to be diminished or 
repealed. The farmer, unable to 
make three shillings a bushel of his 
barley, is suffering severely under 
this grinding taxation, as well as the 
consumer, who is compelled to pay 
a duty of four shillings and six-pence 
for every bushel that is converted 
into malt. — The best seasons of the 
year for brewing are March and Oc- 
tober, the weather in those months 
being generally free from the ex- 
tremes of heat and cold, which are 
alike injurious to the process of fer- 
mentation. If this is not in all cases 
practicable, means should be used to 
cool the place where the liquor is 
set for working in the summer, and 
of warming it in the winter : other- 
wise the beer will be likely to turn 
sour or muddy. The beer which is 
brewed in March should not be tap- 
ped till October, nor that brewed in 
October till the following March ; 
taking this precaution, that families 
of an equal number all the year 
round, will drink at least a third 
more in summer than in winter. — 
The most suitable water for brewing 
is soft river water, which having had 
the rays of the sun and the influence 

of the air upon it, will more easily 
penetrate and extract the virtues of 
the malt. Hard water possesses an 
astringent quality, which prevents 
the goodness of the malt from being 
freely communicated to the liquor. 
If two parcels of beer be brewed in 
all respects the same, except in the 
quality of the water, it will be found 
that the beer brewed with soft river 
water will exceed the other in 
strength above five degrees, in the 
course of twelve months' keeping. 
Where water is naturally of a hard 
quality, it may in some measure be 
softened by exposing it to the action 
of the sun and air, and infusing in it 
some pieces of soft chalk. Throwing 
into it a quantity of bran while it is 
boiling, and before it is poured on 
the malt, will likewise have a good 
effect. — Previous to commencing the 
process of brewing, it will be neces- 
sary to ascertain the quantity of 
malt and hops, which of course will 
be regulated by the demands of the 
family, the convenience of cellerage, 
and other circumstances. Suppos- 
ing two or three sorts of liquor be 
required, six bushels of malt, and 
about three quarters of a pound of 
hops to each bushel, will make half 
a hogshead of ale, half a hogshead 
of table beer, and the same of small 
beer ; or about nine gallons of each 
to the bushel. But if in a smaller 
brewing, only two sorts are required, 
or the whole be blended info one, 
then eighteen gallons of wholesome 
beverage may be produced at some- 
thing less than three farthings a pint. 
— Having thus adjusted the propor- 
tion of malt and hops to the quan- 
tity of beer to be brewed, the next 
thing will be to heat water sufficient 
for the purpose. Meanwhile see 
that the brewing utensils be properly 
cleaned and scalded, and the pen- 
staff in the mash tub well fixed. 
Then put a quantity of boiling water 
into the mash-tub, in which it must 
stand till the greater part of the 
steam is gone off, or you can see 



your own shadow in it. It will then 
be necessary that one person should 
pour the malt gently in, while ano- 
ther is carefully stirring it. A little 
malt should be reserved to strew 
over the mash in order to prevent 
evaporation, and then the tub may 
be covered over with sacks. If it 
be not sufficient to contain the whole 
at once, the mashing must be re- 
peated, observing that the larger the 
quantity that is mashed at once, the 
longer it will require to stand before 
it is drawn off. The mash of ale 
must be allowed to steep three hours, 
table beer one hour, and small beer 
half an hour afterwards. By this 
mode of proceeding, the boilings 
will regularly succeed each other, 
which will greatly expedite the busi- 
ness. In the course of mashing, be 
careful to stir it thoroughly from the 
bottom, especially round the basket, 
that there may be no adhesion, in 
any part of the mash. Previous to 
running it off, be prepared with a 
pail to catch the first flush, as that 
is generally thick, and return it to 
the mash two or three times, till it 
run clear and fine. By this time the 
copper should be boiling, and a con- 
venient tub placed close to the mash- 
tub. Put into it half the quantity 
of boiling water intended for draw- 
ing off the best wort ; after which 
ihe copper must be filled up again, 
and proper attention paid to the fire. 
Meanwhile, keep slopping and wet- 
ting the mash with the hot water out 
of the tub, in moderate quantities, 
every eight or ten minutes, till all 
the water is added to the mash. 
Then let off the remaining quantity, 
which will be boiling hot, and this 
will finish the process for strong 
beer. Boil up the copper as quick 
as possible for the second mash, 
whether intended for strong or small 
beer. Empty the boiling water into 
the tub by the side of the mash, as 
in the former instance, and renew 
the process. Great care is required 
in boiling the wort after it is drawn 

off, and the hops must be put in 
with the first boiling. In filling the 
copper with the wort, leave suffici- 
ent room for boiling, that there may 
be no waste in boiling over, and 
make a good fire under it. Quick 
boiling is a part of the business that 
requires particular attention, and 
great caution must be observed when 
the liquor begins to swell in waves 
in the copper. The furnace door 
must be opened, and the fire damp- 
ed or regulated to suit the boiling of 
the wort. In order to ascertain the 
proper time for boiling the liquor, 
lade out some of it ; and if a work- 
ing be discovered, and the hops are 
sinking, the wort is boiled enough. 
Long and slow boiling injures and 
wastes the liquor. As soon as it is 
sufficiently boiled, run the liquor 
through a cloth or fine sieve into 
some coolers, to free it from the 
hops, and to get a proper quantity 
cooled immediately to set it to work. 
If the brewhouse be not sufficiently 
airy to cool a quantity soon, the li- 
quor must be emptied into shallow 
tubs, and placed in a passage where 
there is a thorough draught of air, 
but where it is not exposed to rain 
or wet. The remainder in the cop- 
per may then be let into the first 
cooler, taking care to attend to the 
hops, and to make a clear passage 
through the strainer. The hops 
must be returned into the copper, 
after having run off four or five pail- 
fuls of the liquor for the first cool- 
ing, and then it must be set to work 
in the following manner. Take four 
quarts of yeast, and divide half of 
it into small wooden bowls or basons, 
adding to it an equal quantity of 
wort nearly cold. As soon as it fer- 
ments to the top of the basons, put 
it into two pails ; and when that 
works to the top, distribute it into 
two wide open tubs. Fill them half 
full with cool wort, and cover them 
over, till it comes to a fine white 
head. This will be accomplished in 
about three hours, and then both 



quantities may be put to^etherr into 
the working tub, with the addition 
or as much wort as is sufficiently 
cooled. If the weather be mild and 
open, it cannot be worked too cold. 
If the brewing be performed in fros- 
ty weather, the brewhouse must be 
kept warm ; but hot wort must ne- 
ver be added to keep the liquor to a 
blood heat. Attention also must be 
paid to the quality of the yeast, or it 
may spoil all the beer. If it has 
been taken from foxed beer, or such 
as has been heated by ill manage- 
ment in the working, it will be^likely 
to communicate the same bad qua- 
lity. If the yeast be flat, and that 
which is fresh and lively cannot be 
procured, put to it a pint of warm 
sweetwort of the first letting off, 
when it is about half the degree of 
mi Ik- warm. Shake the vessel that 
contains it, and it will soon gather 
strength, and be fit for use. — Tun- 
ning is the last and most simple ope- 
ration in the business of brewing. 
The casks being well prepared, per- 
fectly sweet and dry, and placed on 
the stand ready to receive the liquor, 
first skim off the top yeast, then fill 
the casks quite full, bung them down, 
and leave an aperture for the yeast 
to work through. If the casks stand 
on one end, the better way is to 
make a hole with a tap-borer near 
the summit of the stave, at the same 
distance from the top as the lower 
tap-hole is from the bottom. This 
prevents the slovenliness of working 
the beer over the head of the barrel ; 
and the opening being much smaller 
than the bung-hole, the beer by be- 
ing confined will sooner set itself 
into a convulsive motion, and work 
itself fine, provided proper atten- 
tion be paid to filling up the casks 

five or six times a day. Another 

method of brewing, rather more 
simple but not more excellent than 
the above, may be adopted by those 
whose conveniences are more li- 
mited. For table beer, allow three 
bushels of malt to thirty-nine gal- 

Ions of water, and a pound and a 
half of hops. Pour a third part of 
the hot water upon the malt, cover 
it up warm half an hour, then 
stir up the mash, and let it stand 
two hours and a half more. Set it 
to drain off gently ; when dry, add 
half the remaining water, mash, and 
let it stand half an hour. Run that 
into another tub, and pour the rest 
of the water on the malt ; stir it well, 
cover it up, and let it infuse a full 
hour. Run that off and mix all to- 
gether. Put the hops into a little 
hot water to open tlie pores, then 
put the hops and water into the tub, 
run the wort upon them, and boil 
them together for an hour. Strain 
the liquor through a coarse sieve, 
and set it to cool. If the whole be 
not cool enough that day to add to it 
the yeast, a pail or two of wort may 
be prepared, and a quart of yeast 
added to it over night. Before tun-r 
ning, all the wort should be put to-i" 
gether, and thoroughly mixed. When 
it has done working, paste a piece 
of paper on the bung-hole, and aftegti 
three days it may be fastened clos^.* 
In less than a month the beer will 
be fit for use. See Ale, Malt, 


most desirable object in the process 
of brewing is the fixing of the cop- 
per, so as to make the fire come di^ 
rectly under the bottom of it. Many 
coppers are injured, and rendered 
unserviceable, for want of proper 
attention to this particular. The 
method adopted by the most expe- 
rienced bricklayers is to divide the 
heat of the fire by a stop ; and if 
the door and the draft be in a direct 
line, the stop must be erected from 
the middle of each outline of the grat- 
ing, and parallel with the centre sides 
of the copper. The stop is nothing 
more than a thin wall in the centre 
of the right and left sides of the cop- 
per, ascending half way to the top 
of it; on the top of which must be 
left a small cavity, four or five inches 



square, for a draft of that half part 
of the fire which is next to the cop- 
per door, to pass through, and then 
the building must close all round to 
the finishing at the top. By this 
method of fixing the copper, the heat 
will communicate from the outward 
part of the fire round the outward 
half of the copper through the ca- 
vity ; as also will the furthest part 
of the fire, which contracts a con- 
junction of the whole, and causes the 
flame to slide gently and equally all 
round the, bottom of the copper. 
Considerable advantages result from 
this position of the copper. If the 
draught under it were suffered at 
once to ascend, without being thus 
divided, the hops would be scorched 
in the boiling, and liable to stick to 
the sides, which would considerably 
injure the flavour of the liquor, un- 
less kept continually stirring. It 
will also save the consumption of 
fuel, and preserve the copper much 
longer than any other method, as 
there will be no difl^iculty in boiling 
half a copper full at a time without 
doing it any injury. — The next arti- 
cle of consideration in this case is 
the Mash-tub. This should be pro- 
portioned to the size of the ^-opper, 
and the quantity of beer intended to 
be brewed. The grains should not 
be kept in the tub any longer than 
the day after brewing, as in hot wea- 
ther especially the grains begin to 
turn sour as soon as they are cold ; 
and if there be any sour scent in the 
brewhouse at the time the liquor is 
tunned, it will be apt to injure the 
flavour of the beer. — Tubs and Cool- 
ers require to be kept perfectly sweet 
and clean, and should not be used 
for any other purpose. In small 
houses, where many vessels are cum- 
bersome and inconvenient, it is too 
common to use the same tubs for 
both washing and brewing ; but this 
ought not to be done where it can be 
avoided ; and where it is unavoida- 
ble, the utmost care is necessary to 
give them a double washing, scour- 

ing, and scalding. Coolers also re* 
quire considerable care, or by th§ 
slightest taint they will soon con* 
tract a disagreeable flavour. TU\$ 
often proceeds from wet having in- 
fused itself into the wood, it being 
apt to lodge in the crevices of old 
vessels, and even infect them to such 
a degree, that it cannot be removed, 
even after several washings and 
scaldings. One cause incidental to 
this evil is, using the brewhouse for 
the purposes oT washing, which 
ought never to be permitted, where 
any other convenience can be had ; 
for nothing can be more injurious 
than the remains of dirty suds, left 
in vessels intended for brewing only. 
Nor should water be suffered to 
stand too long in the coolers, as it 
will soak into them, and soon turn 
putrid, when the stench will enter 
the wood, and render them almost 
incurable. More beer is spoiled for 
want of attention to these niceties 
than can well be imagined, and the 
real cause is seldom known or sus- 
pected ; but in some families, after 
all the care that is taken in the ma- 
nufacture of the article, the beer is 
never palatable or wholesome.- — 
Barrels should be well cleaned with 
boiling water ; and if the bung-hole 
will admit, they should be scrubbed 
inside with a hard brush. If they 
have acquired a musty scent, take 
out the heads, and let them be well 
scrubbed with sand and fuller's earth. 
Then put in the head again, and 
scald it well ; throw in a piece of 
unslaked lime, and close up the bung. 
When the cask has stood some time, 
rinse it well with cold water, and it 
will then be fit for use. New casks 
likewise require attention, for they 
are apt to give the liquor a bad 
taste, if they be not well scalded and 
seasoned several days successively 
before they are used ; and old casks 
are apt to grow musty, if they stand 
any time out of use. To prevent 
this, a cork should be put into every 
one of them as soon as the cock or 



fosset is taken out ; the vent and the 
bung-hole must also be well closed. 
The best way to season new casks 
is to boil two pecks of bran or malt 
dust in a copper of water, and pour 
it in hot ; then stop it up close, and 
let it stand two days. When the 
cask is washed and dried, it will be 
fit for use. 

a family usually consume ten gal- 
lons of beer, or upwards, in a week, 
there is a Brewing Machine lately 
invented, which will be found singu- 
larly convenient and advantageous, 
and comparatively of little expense. 
The use of it in brewing curtails the 
labour, shortens the time in which 
the operation may be performed, 
greatly diminishes the quantity of 
fuel, and may be placed within very 
narrow limits, in the house of any 
tradesman in the most crowded city. 
Eighteen gallons of good beer may 
be brewed with this machine in the 
course of six hours, or a larger quan- 
tity with a machine of proportionate 
dimensions, in the same space of 
time. The process is so simple, 
that it may be comprehended by 
any person of ordinary capacity, 
and once seeing the operation per- 
formed will be sufficient. In the 
common mode of brewing, the prin- 
cipal difficulty consists in ascertain- 
ing the degrees of heat necessary to 
the production of good beer, with- 
out the use of a thermometer ; but 
in the use of this machine, this diffi- 
culty is completely obviated. — The 
machine complete is represented by 
figure A ; and B, C, D, E, F, repre- 
sent its several parts. B is the 
bottom, made of strong sheet-iron, 
standing upon three legs. The hol- 
low part of it contains the fire, put 
in at a door, the latch of which ap- 
pears in front. The tube which 
projects upwards, is a stove pipe to 
carry off the smoke ; and the cir- 
cular pan that is seen between the 
legs, is a receptacle for the ashes or 
cinders that fall down through the 

grate above. C is a sheet-iron ves- 
sel, tinned on the inside, the bottom 
of which fits into the top of B ; and 
the cock in C is to let off the wort, 
as will be seen hereafter. D is the 
lid of this vessel. E is made of 
sheet-iron, tinned inside and out, 
and full of holes to act as a strainer. 
It is to hold the malt first, and the 
hops afterwards ; it goes into C, as 
may be seen in figure A. In the 
middle of E is a round space, F, 
made of the same metal, and rising 
up from the bottom, having itself 
no bottom. It has holes in it all 
the way up, like the outer surface of 
E. — In preparing for brewing, the 
machine is put together as in A, ex- 
cept placing on the lid. The first 
thing is to put the malt, coarsely 
ground, into E, and no part into F, 
or into the circular space between 
C and E ; otherwise E cannot act as 
a strainer, when the liquor is drawn 
off; and in this consists its princi- 
pal use. Having put in the malt, 
then add the water which of course 
flows into any part of the vessel C. 
Stir the malt well with a stick, or 
with something that will separate it 
completely, so that no adhesion may 
be formed by the flour of the malt. 
This is very apt to be the case in 
the common mode of brewing, wheii' 
water is poured hot upon the malt ; 
but here the water is applied in a cold 
state, so that there is little trouble 
in separating the malt completely in 
the water. If the small machine be 
used, which is adapted to a bushel 
of malt, and the beer is to be fully 
equal in strength to London porter, 
then eighteen gallons to the bushel 
may be considered as the general 
estimate ; and for this purpose the 
first mash is to receive twelve gal- 
lons of cold soft water, which will 
produce nine gallons of wort. Hav- 
ing stirred the malt very carefully, 
light the fire under it, and get the 
liquor quickly to 170 or 180 degrees 
of heat. This may be ascertained 
by lifting off" the lid, and dipping 



the thermometer from tune to time 
into the centre F, and keeping it 
there a minute to give the quicksil- 
ver time to rise. While the mash is 
coming to this heat, stir the malt 
well three or four times. When the 
liquor has acquired its proper heat, 
put out the fire, and cover the whole 
of the machine with sacks, or some- 
thing that will exclude the external 
air. In this state the mash remains 
for two hours : the cock is then 
turned, and nine gallons of wort will 
be drained off. Put the wort into 
a tub of some sort, and keep it warm. 
Then put into the machine twelve 
gallons more of water, rekindle the 
fire, and bring the heat to 170 de- 
grees as soon as possible ; when 
this is done, extinguish the fire, and 
let the mash now stand an hour. 
Draw off the second wort ; and if 
only one sort of beer is wanted, add 
it to the first quantity. Now take 
out the grains, lift out E, clean it 
well, and also the inside of C. Re- 
place E, put the hops into it, and 
the whole of the wort into the ma- 
chine. Cover it with the lid, light 
the fire a third time, and bring the 
liquor to a boil as soon as possible. 
Let it boil a full hour with the lid 
off, and boil briskly all the time. 
The use of the centre F will now 
appear ; for the machine being near- 
ly full to the brim, the bubbling 
takes place in the centre F only, 
where there are no hops. There is a 
great boiling over in this centre, but 
the liquor sent up falls into E, and 
so there is no boiling over of C. 
When the full hour of brisk boiling 
has expired, put out the fire, draw 
off the liquor, leaving the hops of 
course in E. The Hquor is now to 
go into shallow coolers ; and when 
the heat is reduced to 70 degrees, 
lake out about a gallon of the liquor, 
and mix it with half a pint of good 
yeast. Distribute it equally among 
the different parcels of wort, after- 
wards mix the whole together, and 
(No. 3.) 

leave the liquor till it comes down to 
about sixty degrees of heat. The 
next removal is into the tun-tub, in 
which capacity C, without the addi- 
tion of E, will serve very well. 
While the liquor is cooling, remove 
the spent hops from E, the stove 
pipe from B, the ash-receiver from 
the bottom. The machine remain- 
ing now as a tun-tub, draw off the 
liquor as soon as it is down to 60 
degrees ; or take it out of the cool- 
ers, pour it into the tun-tub, and put 
on the lid. If the weather be very 
cold, or the tun-tub be in a cold 
place, cover it with something to 
keep it warm. Here the fermenta- 
tion takes place, sometimes sooner 
and sometimes later ; but it gene- 
rally shows itself by a head begin- 
ning to rise in about eight or ten 
hours ; and at the end of eight and 
forty hours the head assumes a 
brownish appearance, and is cover- 
ed with yeast instead of froth. The 
beer is then to be tunned into well- 
seasoned casks, sweet and sound, or 
all the expense and labour will be 
lost. The cask being fixed on the 
stand in the cellar, and the beer 
ready, skim off the yeast, and keep 
it in a deep earthen vessel. Draw 
off the beer into a pail, and with the 
help of a wooden funnel fill the cask 
quite full. The beer will now begin to 
ferment again, and must be allowed 
to discharge itself from the bung- 
hole. When the working has ceas- 
ed, the cask is again filled up with 
the surplus beer ; and a handful of 
fresh hops being added, the bung is 
finally closed down. If the whole 
process has been properly attended 
to, such a cask of beer will be clear 
in a week ; and as soon as clear it 
may be tapped. Small beer may 
be tapped in less time. On a larger 
scale, or with casks of a smaller 
size, two sorts may be made, ale 
and small beer, taking the first wort 
for the former, and the second for 
the latter. — The advantages attend- 
H 49 



ing the Patent Machine are very 
obvious ; for though the process 
appears to be minute, it is easily 
conducted, g,nd but little time is 
required for the purpose. In the 
common method of brewing, the 
water must be carried from the cop- 
per to the mash-tub, while the ma- 
chine serves for both purposes at 
once. Witli the common utensils 
the process is necessarily much 
slower, and the fuel consumed is 
nearly ten times as much ; but the 
great convenience of all is the little 
room required and the place of 
brewing. In the common way there 
is wanted a copper fixed in brick- 
work, and for a family of any consi- 
derable size a brewhouse is indis- 
pensable. On the contrary, the 
machine is set up opposite any fire 
place, and the pipe enters the chim- 
ney, or is put into the fire place. 
There is no boiling over, no slopping 
about ; and the operation may be 
performed upon a boarded floor, as 
well as upon a brick or stone floor. 
If there be no fire place in the room, 
the pipe can be projected through 
an opening in the window, or through 
flrthe outside of any sort of building, 
not liable to suffer from the heat of 
the pipe. Even a garden walk, a 
court, or open field will answer the 
purpose, provided there be no rain, 
and the mash-tub be kept suffici- 
ently warm. When the brewing is 
finished, the machine should be well 
scalded, rubbed dry, and kept in a 
dry place. The two coolers, G G, 
placed on different casks, have no 
necessary connection with the ma- 
chine. They are made of wood or 
cast-iron, of a size to fit one within 
another to save room. The Patent 
Machine is sold by Messrs. Need- 
ham and Co. 202, Piccadilly, Lon- 
don. The price of one for brewing a 
bushel of malt is £8, for tw*o bush- 
els £13, for three £18, for four £24, 
for five £30, and for six £33. If 
the article be thought expensive, a 

few neighbouring families might 
unite in the purchase, and the mo- 
ney would very soon be more than 
saved in the economy of brewing. 

BRIDE CAKE. Mix together a 
pound of dried flour, two drams of 
powdered mace, and a quarter of a 
pound of powdered loaf sugar. Add 
a quarter of a pint of cream, and 
half a pound of melted butter ; a 
quarter of a pint of yeast, five eggs, 
with half of the whites beaten up 
with the yolks, and a gill of rose 
water. Having warmed the butter 
and cream, mix them together, and 
set the whole to rise before the fire. 
Pick and clean half a pound of cur- 
rants, put them in warm and well 

BRIGHT BARS of polished stoves, 
may be restored to their proper lus- 
tre, by rubbing them well with some 
of the following mixture on a piece 
of broad-cloth. Boil slowly one 
pound of soft soap in two quarts of 
water, till reduced to one. Of this 
jelly take three or four spoonfuls, 
and mix it to a consistence with the 
addition of emery. When the black 
is removed, wipe them clean, and 
polish with glass, not sand-paper. 

BRISKET OF BEEF, if intended 
to be stewed, should have that part 
of it put into a stewpot which has 
the hard fat upon it, with a small 
quantity of water. Let it boil up, 
and skim it well ; then add carrots, 
turnips, onions, celery, and a few 
pepper corns. Stew it till it is quite 
tender ; then take out the fat bones, 
and remove all the fat from the soup. 
Either serve that and the meat in 
a tureen, or the soup alone, and the 
meat on a dish, garnished with ve- 
getables. The following sauce with 
the beef, will be found to be very 
excellent. — Take half a pint of the 
soup, and mix it with a spoonful of 
ketchup, a glass of port wine, a tea- 
spoonful of made mustard, a little 
flour and salt, and a bit of butter. 
Boil all together a few minutes, and 



pour it round the meat. Chop ca-^ 
pers, walnuts, red cabbage, pickled 
cucumbers, and chives or parsley, 
small, and place them in separate 
heaps over it. 

BROAD BEANS. Boil them ten- 
der, with a bunch of parsley, which 
must afterwards be chopped and 
put into melted butter, to serve with 
them. Bacon or pickled pork is 
usually boiled with the beans, but 
the meat will be of a better colour, if 
boiled separately. 

BROCOLI. To dress brocoli, 
cut the heads with short stalks, and 
pare off the tough skin. Tie the 
small shoots into bunches, and boil 
them a shorter time than the heads. 
A little salt should be put into the 
water. Serve them up with or with- 
out toast. 

BROILING. Cleanliness is ex- 
tremely necessary in this mode of 
cookery ; and for this purpose the 
gridiron, which is too frequently 
neglected, ought to be carefully at- 
tended to, keeping it perfectly clean 
between the bars, and bright on the 
top. When hot, wipe it well with a 
linen cloth ; and before using it, rub 
the bars with mutton suet, to pre- 
vent the meat being marked by the 
gridiron. The bars should be made 
with a small gutter in them to carry 
off the gravy into a trough in front, 
to prevent the fat from dropping into 
the fire and making a smoke, which 
will spoil the flavour of the meat. 
Upright gridirons are therefore the 
best, as they can be set before the 
fire, without fear of smoke, and the 
gravy is preserved in the trough un- 
der them. A brisk and clear fire is 
also indispensabb, that the bars of 
the gridiron may all be hot through 
before any thing be laid upon them, 
yet not so as to burn the meat, but 
to give it that colour and flavour 
which constitute the perfection of 
this mode of cooking. Never hasten 
any thing that is broiling, lest it be 
smoked and spoiled ; but the mo- 

ment it is done, send it up as hot as 

BROILED COD. Cut the fish in 
thick slices, dry and flour it well ; 
rub the gridiron with chalk, set it on 
a clear fire, and lay on the slices of 
cod. Keep them high from the fire, 
turn them often, till they are quite 
done, and of a fine brown. Take 
them up carefully without breaking, 
and serve with lobster or shrimp 

BROILED EELS. Skin and clean 
a large eel, cut it in pieces and broil 
it slowly over a good fire. Dust it 
well with dried parsley, and serve 
it up with melted butter. 

BROILED FOWL. Cut a large 
fowl into four quarters, put them on 
a bird-spit, and tie that on another 
spit, and half roast. Or half roast 
the whole fowl, and finish it on the 
gridiron, which will make it less dry 
than if wholly broiled. Another 
way is to split the fowl down the 
back, pepper, salt, and broil it, and 
serve with mushroom sauce. 

them first, broil them of a good co- 
lour, and serve with plain butter for 

cleaning, split the backs, pepper 
and salt them, and broil them very 
nicely. Pour over t'hem either stew- 
ed or pickled mushroom's in melted 
butter, and serve them up as hot as 

an inch thick, and season with pep- 
per and salt. Lay each slice in half 
a sheet of white paper, well butter- 
ed ; twist the ends of the paper, and 
broil the slices over a slow fire six 
or eight minutes. Serve them in the 
paper, with anchovy sauce. 

BROKEN CHINA. To repair 
any article of this description, beat 
some lime into the finest powder, 
and sift it through muslin. Tie sqme 
of it into a thin muslin, put on the 
edges of the broken china some 



white of an ego;, and dust on a little 
lime as quickly as possible ; but be 
careful to unite the broken parts 
very exactly. 

BROTH. A very nourishing kind 
of broth for weakly persons may be 
made as follows. Boil two pounds 
of loin of mutton, with a large hand- 
ful of chervil, in two quarts of water, 
till reduced to one. Any other herb 
or roots may be added. Remove 
part of the fat, and take half a pint 
three or four times a day. If a broth 
is wanted to be made quickly, take 
a bone or two of a neck or loin of 
mutton, pare off the fat and the skin, 
set it on the fire in a small tin sauce- 
pan that has a cover, with three 
quarters of a pint of water, the meat 
being first beaten, and cut in thin 
bits. Put in a bit of thyme and 
parsley, and if approved, a slice of 
onion. Let it boil very quick, skim 
it nicely ; take off the cover, if likely 
to be too weak ; otherwise keep it 
covered. Half an hour is sufficient 
for the whole process. 

BROWN GRAVY. Cover the 
bottom of a stewpan with lean veal 
an inch thick, overlay it with slices 
ctf undressed gammon, two or three 
onions, two or three bay leaves, some 
sweet herbs, two blades of mace, 
and three cloves. Cover the stew- 
pan, and set it over a slow fire ; but 
when the juices come out, let the 
fire be a little quicker. When the 
meat is of a fine brown, fill the pan 
with good beef-broth, boil and skim 
it, then simmer it an hour. Add a 
little water, thickened with flour ; 
boil it half an hour, and strain it. 
Gravy thus made will keep a week. 

some brown bread as fine as possi- 
ble, soak a small proportion in cream 
two or three hours, sweeten and ice 


Half a pound of stale brown bread 

grated, half a pound of currants, 

ditto of shred suet, sugar and nut- 


meg. Mix it up with four eggs, a 
spoonful of brandy, and twice as 
much cream. Boil it in a cloth or 
bason of proper size three or four 

BROWNING. Powder four oun- 
ces of double-refined sugar, put it 
into a very nice iron fryingpan, with 
one ounce of fresh butter. Mix it 
well over a clear fire ; and when it 
begins to frotb, hold it up higher : 
when of a very fine dark brown, 
pour in a small quantity of a pint of 
port, and the whole by very slow 
degrees, stirring it all the time. Put 
to the above half an ounce of Jamai- 
ca, and the same of black pepper, 
six cloves of shalots peeled, three 
blades of mace bruised, three spoon- 
fuls of mushroom and the same of 
walnut ketchup, some salt, and the 
finely-pared rind of a lemon. Boil 
gently fifteen minutes, pour it into 
a bason till cold, take off the scum, 
and bottle it for use. This article 
is intended to colour and flavour 
made-up dishes. 

BRUISES. When the contusion 
is slight, fomentations of warm vi- 
negar and water, frequently applied, 
will generally relieve it. Cataplasms 
of fresh cow-dung applied to bruises, 
occasioned by violent blows or falls, 
will seldom fail to have a good ef- 
fect. Nothing however is more cer- 
tainly efficacious than a porter plas-, 
ter immediately applied to the part 
affected. Boil some porter in an 
earthen vessel over a slow fire till 
it'be well thickened ; and when cold 
spread it on a piece of leather to 
form the intended plaster. 

chop and fry some cabbage, with a 
little butter, pepper and salt. Lay 
on it slices of underdone beef, light- 
ly fried. 

BUGS. Dip a sponge or brush 
into a strong solution of vitriol, and 
rub it on the bedstead, or in the 
places where these vermin harbour, 
and it will destroy both them and 



their nits. If the bugs appear af- 
ter once using it, the application 
must be repeated, and some of the 
liquid poured into the joints and 
holes of the bedstead and head- 
board. Beds that have much wood- 
work require to be taken down and 
well examined, before they can be 
thoroughly cleared of these vermin, 
and the mixture should be rubbed 
into all the joints and crevices with 
a painter's brush. It should also 
be applied to the walls of the room 
to insure success ; and if mixed with 
a little lime, it will produce a lively 
yellow. The boiling of any kind of 
woodwork or household furniture in 
an iron cauldron, with a solution of 
vitriol, will prevent the breeding of 
bugs, and preserve it from rotten- 
ness and decay. Sulphur made into 
a paste, or arsenic dissolved in wa- 
ter, and applied in the same man- 
ner, will also be found an effectual 
remedy for the bugs. But if these 
do not completely succeed, take half 
a pint of the highest rectified spirits 
of wine, and half a pint of spirits of 
turpentine ; dissolve in this mixture 
half an ounce of camphor, and 
shake them well together. Dust the 
bed or the furniture, dip a sponge 
or brush into the mixture, wet them 
all over, and pour some of the liquid 
into the holes and crevices. If any 
should afterwards appear, wet the 
lacings of the bed, the foldings of 
the curtains near the rings, and other 
parts where it is at all likely the 
bugs may nestle and breed, and it 
will not fail to destroy them. The 
smell of this mixture is not unwhole- 
some, and may be applied to the 
finest damask bed without any fear 
of soiling it. It should be well shak- 
ed together, but never used by can- 
dle-light, for fear of its taking fire. 
quart of full ripe bullace, add a 
quarter of a pound of loaf sugar 
finely powdered. Put them into a 
pot, and bake them in a moderate 
oven till they are soft. Rub thorn 

through a hair sieve ; to every pound 
of pulp add half a pound of loaf su- 
gar powdered, and in the meantime 
keep it stirring. Pour the pulp into 
preserving pots, tie brandy paper 
over ; and keep them in a dry place. 
When it has stood a few months, it 
will cut out very bright and fine. 

BUNS. To make a good plain 
bun, that may be eaten with or with- 
out toasting and butter, rub four 
ounces of butter into two pounds of 
flour, four ounces of sugar, a nut- 
meg, a few Jamaica peppers, and a 
dessert-spoonful of caraways. Put 
a spoonful or two of cream into a 
cup of yeast, and as much good milk 
as will make the above into a light 
paste. Set it to rise by the fire till 
the oven be ready, and bake the buns 
quickly on tins. — To make some of 
a richer sort, mix one pound and a 
half of dried flour with half a pound 
of sugar. Melt eighteen ounces of 
butter in a little warm water, add 
six spoonfuls of rose-water, and 
knead the above into a light dough, 
with half a pint of yeast. Then mix 
in five ounces of caraway comfits, 
and put some on them. 

BURNS. In slight cases, the 
juice of onions, a little ink or brandy 
rubbed immediately on the part af- 
fected, will prevent blisters. The 
juice of burdock, mixed with an 
equal quantity of olive oil, will make 
a good ointment for the purpose, 
and the fresh leaves of that plant 
may also be applied as a kind of 
plaster. Housleek used by itself, 
or mixed with cream, will affbrd 
quick relief in external inflamma- 
tions. \ little spirit of turpentine, 
or linseed oil, mixed with lime wa- 
ter, if kept constantly to the part 
will remove the pain. But warm 
vinegar and water, frequently ap- 
plied with a woollen cloth, is most 
to be depended on in these cases. 

BURNT CREAM. Boil a pint 

of cream with a stick of cinnamon, 

and some lemon peel. Take it off 

the fire, and pour it very slowlv into 




the yolks of four eggs, stirring it tiil 
half cold. Sweeten it, take out the 
spice, and pour it into a dish. When 
cold, strew over it some white 
pounded sugar, and brown it with 
a salamander. Or, make a rich cus- 
tard without sugar, and boil in it 
some lemon peel. When cold, sift 
over it plenty of white sugar, and 
brown the top with a salamander. 

BUTTER. No one article of 
family consumption is of greater 
consequence than butter of a supe- 
rior quality, and no one requires 
more care and management. It 
possesses various degrees of good- 
ness, according to the food on which 
the cows are pastured, and the man- 
ner in which the dairy is conducted ; 
but its sweetness is not affected by 
the cream being turned, of which it 
is made. When cows are in turnips, 
or eat cabbages, the taste is strong 
and disagreeable ; and to remedy 
this, the following methods have 
been tried with advantage. When 
the milk is strained into the pans, 
put to every six gallons one gallon 
of boiling water. Or dissolve one 
ounce of nitre in a pint of spring 
water, and put a quarter of a pint 
to every fifteen gallons of milk. Or, 
in churning, keep back a quarter of 
a pint of sour cream, and put it into 
a well-scalded pot, into which the 
next cream is to be gathered. Stir 
that well, and do so with every fresh 
addition. — ^To make Butter, skim 
the milk in the summer, when the 
sun has not heated the dairy. At 
that season it should stand for but- 
ter twenty-four hours without skim- 
ming, and forty-eight in winter. 
Deposit the cream-pot in a very cold 
cellar, unless the dairy itself is suf- 
ficiently cold. If you cannot churn 
daily, shift the cream into scalded 
fresh pots ; but never omit churning 
twice a week. If possible, place 
the churn in a thorough air ; and if 
not a barrel one, set it in a tub of 
water two feet deep, which will give 
firmness to the butter. When the 

butter is come, pour off the butter-^ 
milk, and put the butter into a fresh 
scalded pan, or tubs, which have 
afterwards been in cold water. Pour 
water on it, and let it lie to acquire 
some hardness before it is worked ; 
then change the water, and beat it 
with flat boards so perfectly, that 
not the least taste of buttermilk re- 
main, and that the water which 
must be often changed, shall be 
quite clear. Then work some salt 
into it, weigh, and make it into 
forms ; throw them into cold water, 
in an earthen pan with a cover 
Nice cool butter will then be had in 
the hottest weather. It requires 
more working in hot than in cola 
weather ; but care should be takcL 
at all times not to leave a particle of 
buttermilk, or a sour taste, as is too 
often done. — To preserve But- 
ter, take two parts of the best 
common salt, one part of fine loaf- 
sugar, and one of saltpetre ; beat 
them well together. To sixteen 
ounces of butter, thoroughly cleans- 
ed from the milk, add one ounce of 
this mixture : work it well, and pot 
down the butter when it becomes 
firm and cold. Butter thus preserv- 
ed is the better for keeping, and 
should not be used under a month. 
This article should be kept from the 
air, and is best in pots of well-glazed 
ware, that will hold from ten to four- 
teen pounds each. Put some salt 
on the top ; and when that is turned 
to brine, if not enough to cover the 
butter entirely, add some strong salt 
and water. It then requires only to 
be covered from the dust, and will 
be good for winter use. — In pur- 
chasing Butter at market, re- 
collect that if fresh, it ought to smell 
like a nosegay, and be of an equal 
colour throughout. If sour in smell, 
it has not been sufficiently washed : 
if veiny and open, it is probably 
mixed with stale butter, or some of 
an inferior quality. To ascertain 
the quality of salt butter, put a knife 
into it, and smell it when drawn out : 



if there is any thing rancid or un- 
pleasant, the butter is bad. Salt 
butter being made at different times, 
the layers in casks will greatly vary ; 
and it is not easy to ascertain its 
quality, except by unhooping the 
cask, and trying it between the 

BUTTER DISH. Roll butter in 
different forms, like a cake or a pine, 
and mark it with a tea-spoon. Or 
roll it in crimping rollers, work it 
through a cullender, or scoop it with 
a tea-spoon ; mix it with grated 
beef, tongue, or anchovies. Gar- 
nish with a wreath of curled pars- 
ley, and it will serve as a little dish. 

'BUTTERMILK, if made of sweet 
cream, is a delicious and very whole- 
some article of food. Those who 
can relish sour buttermilk, will find 
it still more light, and it is reckoned 
very beneficial in consumptive cases. 
If not very sour, it is also £ft good 
as cream to eat with fruit ; but it 
should be sweetened with white su- 
gar, and mixed with a very little 
milk. It does equally well for cakes 
and rice puddings, and of course it 
is economical to churn before the 
cream is too stale for any thing but 
to feed pigs. — ^The celebrated Dr. 
Boerhaave recommended the fre- 
quent use of sweet buttermilk in all 
consumptive cases, and that it should 
form the whole of the patient's drink, 
while biscuits and rusks, with ripe 
and dried fruits of various kinds, 
should chiefly be depended on as 
articles of food. For this purpose 
take the milk from the cow into a 
small churn ; in about ten minutes 
begin churning, and continue till 
the flakes of butter swim about pret- 
ty thick, and the milk is discharged 
of all the oily particles, and appears 
thin and blue. Strain it through a 
sieve, and let the patient drink it as 
frequently as possible. 

Warm three quarts of new milk, turn 
it with a quart of buttermilk, and 
drain the curd through a sieve. 

When dry pound in a marble mor- 
tar, with nearly half a pound of su- 
gar, a lemon boiled tender, the 
crumb of a roll grated, a nutmeg 
grated, six bitter almonds, four oun- 
ces of warm butter, a tea-cupful of 
good cream, the yolks of five and 
whites of three eggs, a glass of sweet 
wine and a glass of brandy. When 
well incorporated, bake in small 
cups or bowls well buttered. If the 
bottom be not brown, use a sala- 
mander ; but serve as quick as pos- 
sible, and with pudding sauce. 

the inside when boiled, beat it up in 
a little gravy, with wine, pepper, 
salt, nutmeg, a few crumbs of bread, 
a piece of butter rolled in a little 
flour, and some vinegar or lemon 
juice. Serve it up hot. 

or five eggs, yolk and white toge- 
ther ; put a quarter of a pound of 
butter in a bason, and then put that 
into boiling water. Stir it till melt- 
ed, then put that butter and the 
eggs into a saucepan ; keep a ba- 
son in your hand, just hold the 
saucepan in the other over a slow 
part of the fire, shaking it one way, 
as it begins to warm. Pour it into 
the bason and back again, then hold 
it over the fire, stirring it constantly 
in the saucepan, and pouring it into 
the bason, more perfectly to mix the 
egg and butter, until they shall be 
hot without boiling. Serve on toast- 
ed bread, or in a bason, to eat with 
salt fish or red herrings. 

BUTTERED LOAF. Take three 
quarts of new milk, and add as much 
runnet as is sufficient to turn it; 
then break the eurd, and drain off 
all the whey through a clean cloth. 
Pound it in a stone mortar, add the 
white of one and the yolks of six 
eggs, a good handful of grated bread, 
half as much of fine flour, and a lit- 
tle salt. Mix them well together 
with the hand, divide the whole into 
four round loaves, and place them 
upon white paper. After they are 



well buttered, varnish them all over 
with a feather, dipped in the yolk of 
an egg stirred up with a little beer. 
Set the loaves in a quick oven three 
quarters of an hour ; while baking, 
take half a pound of new butter, 
add to it four spoonfuls of water, 
half a nutmeg grated, and sugar 
sufficient to sweeten it. Stir them 
together over the fire till they boil ; 
when sufficiently thickened, draw 
the loaves from the oven, open their 
tops, pour in the butter and sugar, 
and send them up with sugar strew- 
ed over them. 

out the meat, cut and warm it, with 
a little weak brown gravy, nutmeg, 
salt, pepper, butter, and a little 
flour. If done white, a little white 
gravy and cream. 

off a little of the outside rind of four 
Seville oranges, and cut a round hole 
at the blunt end opposite the stalk, 
large enough to take out the pulp 
and seeds and juice. Then pick the 
seeds and skin from the pulp, rub 
the oranges with a little salt, and 
lay them in water for a short time. 
The bits cut out are to be saved. 
Boil the fruit in fresh water till they 
are tender, shifting the water to take 
out the bitterness. In the meantime 
make a thin syrup with fine sugar, 
put the oranges into it, and boil them 
up. As the quantity of syrup need 
not be enough to cover them, turn 
them round, that each part may par- 
take of the syrup, and let them re- 
main in it hot till they are wanted. 
About half an hour before serving, 
put some sugar to the pulp, and set 

it over the fire ; mix it well, and let 
it boil. Then add a spoonful of 
white wine for every orange, give it 
a boil, put in a bit of fresh butter, 
and stir it over the fire to thicken. 
Fill the oranges with it, and serve 
them with some of the syrup in the 
dish, with the bits on the top. 

Mix the juice of seven Seville oran- 
ges with four spoonfuls of rose-wa- 
ter, and add the yolks of eight and 
the whites of four eggs well beaten. 
Strain the liquor on half a pound of 
sugar pounded, stir it over a gentle 
fire ; and when it begins to thicken, 
add a piece of butter the size of a 
small walnut. Keep it over the fire 
a few minutes longer, then pour it 
into a flat dish, and serve it to eat 
cold. If no silver saucepan for the 
purpose, do it in a china bason in a 
saucepan of boiling water, the top 
of which will just receive the bason. 

them out of the husk ; warm them 
with a little good gravy, a bit of but- 
ter and flour, a taste of nutmeg, 
pepper and salt. Simmer them to- 
gether a minute or two, and serve 
with sippets ; or with cream sauce, 
instead of brown. Shrimps are done 
in the same manner. 

pick some rice, drain, and set it on 
the fire, with new milk sufficient to 
make it swell. When tender, pour 
off the milk, and add a bit of butter, 
a little sugar and pounded cinna- 
mon. Shake and keep it from burn- 
ing on the fire, and serve it up as a 
sweet dish. 



Cabbage. Wash and pick it care- 
fully, and if very large, quarter it. 
Put it into a saucepan with plenty 
of boiling- water, and a large spoon- 
ful of salt ; if any scum rises, take 
it off, and boil it till the stalk is ten- 
der. Keep the vegetable well co- 
vered with water all the time of boil- 
ing, and see that no smoke or dirt 
arises from stirring the fire. With 
carefui management the cabbage 
will look as beautiful when dressed, 
as it did when growing. The flavour 
of an old cabbage may be much im- 
proved, by taking it up when half 
done, and putting it directly into 
another saucepan of fresh boiling 
water. When taken up, drain it in 
a cullender. It may be chopped and 
warmed with a piece of butter, pep- 
per and salt, or sent to table whole 
with melted butter. Savoys and 
greens in general are dressed in the 
same way. 

CAKES. In making and baking 
cakes the following particulars should 
be attended to. The currants should 
be nicely picked and washed, dried 
in a cloth, and set before the fire. If 
damp, they will make cakes or pud- 
dings heavy. Before they are added, 
a dust of dry flour should be scat- 
tered among them, and then shaken 
together, which will make the cake 
or pudding lighter. Eggs should be 
beaten a long time, whites and yolks 
apart, and always strained. Sugar 
should be rubbed to a powder on a 
clean board, and sifted through a 
fine hair or lawn sieve. Lemon peel 
requires to be pared very thin, and 
with a little sugar beaten to a paste 
in a marble mortar. It should then 
be mixed with a little wine or cream, 
so as to divide easily among the 
other ingredients. After all the ar- 
ticles are put into the pan, they 
should be long and thoroughly beat- 
en, as the lightness of the cake de- 
l^ends much on their being well in- 

corporated. Both black and white 
plumb cakes, being made with yeast, 
require less butter and eggs, and 
eat equally light and rich. If the 
leaven be only of flour, milk and wa- 
ter, and yeast, it becomes more 
tough, and is less easily divided, than 
if the butter be first put with those 
ingredients, and the dough after- 
wards set to rise by the fire. The 
heat of the oven is of great import- 
ance for cakes, especially large ones. 
If not pretty quick, the batter will 
not rise ; and if too quick, put some 
white paper over the cake to pre- 
vent its being burnt. If not long 
enough lighted to have a body of 
heat, or it is become slack, the cake 
will be heavy. To know when it is 
soaked, take a broad-bladed knife 
that is very bright, and thrust it 
into the centre ; draw it out instant- 
ly, and if the paste in any degree 
adheres, return the cake to the oven, 
and close it up. If the heat is suf- 
ficient to raise but not to soak the 
baking, a little fresh fuel should be 
introduced, after taking out the 
cakes and keeping them hot, and 
then returning them to the oven as 
quickly as possible. Particular care 
however should be taken to prevent 
this inconvenience, when large cakes 
are to be baked. 

CAKE TRIFLE. Bake a rice cake 
in a mould ; and when cold, cut it 
round with a sharp knife, about two 
inches from the edge, taking care 
not to perforate the bottom. Put in 
a thick custard, and some spoonfuls 
of raspberry jam ; and then put on 
a high whip. 

two feet in three quarts of water till 
reduced to half the quantity ; strain 
it, and set it by. When to be used, 
take of the fat, put a large tea-cup- 
ful of the jelly into a saucepan, with 
half a glass of sweet wine, a little 
sugar and nutmeg, and heat it up 

I 57 


G A L 

till it be ready to boil. Then take a 
little of it, and beat it by degrees to 
the yolk of an egg, adding a bit of 
butter the size of a nutmeg ; stir it 
all together, but do not let it boil. 
Grate a little fresh lemon peel into 
it. — Another way is to boil two 
calves' feet with two ounces of veal, 
and two of beef, the bottom of a 
penny loaf, two or three blades of 
mace, half a nutmeg, and a little 
salt, in three quarts of water, till 
reduced to half the quantity. Then 
strain it, and take off the fat. 

feet, well cleaned, in five pints of 
water |;ill they are broken, and the 
water half wasted. Strain it, take 
off the fat when cold, and remove 
the jelly from the sediment. Put it 
into a saucepan, with sugar, raisin 
wine, lemon juice and lemon peel. 
When the flavour is rich, add the 
whites of five eggs well beaten, and 
their shells broken. Set the sauce- 
pan on the fire, but do not stir the 
jelly after it begins to warm. Let it 
boil twenty minutes after it rises to 
a head, then pour it through a flan- 
nel bag, first dipping the j^lly bag 
in hot water to prevent waste, and 
squeezing it quite dry. Run the 
jelly repeatedly through the bag, 
until it is quite clear, and then put 
it into glasses or forms. The fol- 
lowing method will greatly facilitate 
the clearing of the jelly. When the 
mixture has boiled twenty minutes, 
throw in a tea-cupful of cold water ; 
let it boil five minutes longer, then 
take the saucepan oft' the fire covered 
close, and keep it half an hour. It 
will afterwards be so clear as to need 
only once running through the bag, 
and much waste will be prevented. 
— Another way to make jelly is to 
take three calf's feet, or two cow- 
heels, that have been only scalded, 
and boil them in four quarts of wa- 
ter, till it be half wasted. Remove 
the jelly from the fat and sediment, 
mix with it the juice of a Seville 
orange and twelve lemons, the peels 

of three ditto, the whites and shells 
of twelve eggs, brown sugar to taste, 
nearly a pint of raisin wine, one 
ounce of coriander seed, a quarter 
of an ounce of allspice, a bit of cin- 
namon, and six cloves, all bruised 
and previously mixed together. The 
jelly should boil fifteen minutes with- 
out stirring, and then be cleared 
through a flannel bag. Take a lit- 
tle of f he jelly while running, mix it 
with a tea-cupful of water in which 
a piece of beet root has been boiled, 
and run it through the bag when all 
the rest is run out. The other jelly 
being cooled on a plate, this will 
serve to garnish it. Jelly made in 
this way will have a fine high colour 
and flavour. But in all cases, to 
produce good jelly, the feet should 
only be scalded to take oft' the hair. 
Those who sell them ready prepared 
generally boil them too long, and 
they become in consequence less 
nutricious. If scalded only, the li- 
quor will require greater care in re- 
moving the fat ; but the jelly will be 
far stronger, and of course allow 
more water. Jelly is equally good 
if made of cow-heels nicely cleaned, 
and will be much stronger than what 
is made from calf's feet. 

four feet quite tender, pick off the 
meat, and chop it fine. Add some 
grated bread, a pound of chopped 
suet, half a pint of milk, six eggs, a 
pound of currants, four ounces of ci- 
tron, two ounces of candied peel, a 
grated nutmeg, and a glass of bran- 
dy. Butter the cloth and flour it, 
tie it close, and boil it three hours. 

it carefully and soak it in water, that 
it may look very nice, and take out 
the brains for sauce. Wash them 
well, tie them up in a cloth, with 
a little sage and parsley ; put them 
into the pot at the same time with 
the head, and scum the water while 
boiling. A large head will take two 
hours, and when the part which 
joined the neck becomes tender it is 



done. Take up the brains and chop 
them with the sage and parsley, and 
an egg boiled hard. Put them into 
a saucepan with a bit of butter, pep- 
per and salt, and warm them up. 
Peel the tongue, lay it in the middle 
of the dish, with the brain sauce 
round it. Strew over the head some 
grated bread and chopped parsley, 
and brown it by the ifire in a sepa- 
rate dish, adding bacon, pickled 
pork, and greens. 

Scald the skin off a fine head, clean 
it nicely, and take out the brains. 
Boil it tender enough to remove the 
bones, and season it high with mace, 
nutmeg, salt, and white pepper. 
Put a layer of chopped parsley, then 
a quantity of thick slices of fine ham, 
or a beautiful coloured tongue skin- 
ned, and then the yolks of six nice 
yellow eggs stuck here and there 
about. Roll the head quite close, 
and tie it up tight, placing a cloth 
under the tape, as for other collars. 
Boil it, and then lay a weight upon 

Clean and half-boil part of a head ; 
cut the meat into small bits, and put 
it into a tosser, with a little gravy 
made of the bones, some of the w a- 
ter it was boiled in, a bunch of sweet 
herbs, an onion, and a blade of 
mace. The cockscombs of young 
cockrels may be boiled tender, and 
then blanched, or a sweetbread will 
do as well. Season the gravy with 
a little pepper, nutmeg, and salt. 
Rub down some flour and butter, 
and give all a boil together. Then 
take out herbs and onion, and add 
a small cup of cream, but do not 
boil it in. Serve with small bits of 
bacon rolled up and forcemeat balls. 

half boiled, cut off the meat in slices, 
half an inch thick, and two or three 
inches long. Brown some butter, 
flour, and slici^ onion ; and throw 
in the slices with some good gravy, 
truffles and morels. Give it one boil, 

skim it well and set it in a moderate 
heat to simmer till very tender. 
Season at first with pepper, salt, 
and cayenne ; and ten minutes be- 
fore serving, throw in some shred 
parsley, and a very small bit of ta- 
ragon and knotted marjoram cut as 
fine as possible. Send it up with 
forcemeat balls, and bits of bacon 
rolled round, adding the squeeze of 
a lemon. — Another way is to boil 
the head almost enough, and take 
the meat of the best side neatly off 
the bone with a sharp knife. Lay 
this into a small dish, wash it over 
with the yolks of two eggs, and co- 
ver it with crumbs, a few herbs nice- 
ly shred, a little pepper, salt, and 
grated nutmejr all mixed together 
first. Set the dish before the fire, 
and turn it now and then, that all 
parts of the head may be equally 
brown. In the mean time slice the 
remainder of the head, peel the 
tongue and slice it. Put a pint of 
good gravy into a pan with an onion, 
and a small bunch of herbs, consist- 
ing of parsley, basil, savoury, tara- 
gon, knotted marjoram, and a little 
thyme. Add a small quantity of 
salt and cayenne, a few trufilles and 
morels, and two spoonfuls of ketch- 
up. Then beat up half the brains, 
put it to the rest with a little butter 
and flour, and simmer the whole to- 
gether. Beat the other part of the 
brains with shred lemon peel, a lit- 
tle nutmeg and mace, some shred 
parsley and an egg. Then fry it in 
small cakes of a beautiful yellow 
brown. Dip some oysters into the 
yolk of an egg, and do the same ; 
and also some relishing forcemeat 
balls, made as for mock turtle. Gar- 
nish with -these, and small bits of 
bacon just made hot before the fire. 
knuckle of veal till fit for eating, 
with two onions, a few isinglass 
shavings, a bunch of herbs, a blade 
of mace, £,nd a few peppercorns, in 
three pints of water. Keep the 
broth for the pie. Take oft' a bit of 



the meat for the balls, and let the 
other be eaten ; but simmer the bones 
in the broth till it is very good. Half 
boil the head, and cut it into square 
bits ; put a layer of ham at the bot- 
tom, then some head, first fat and 
then lean, with balls and hard eggs 
cut in half, and so on till the dish 
be full ; but great care must be ta- 
ken not to place the pieces close, or 
the pie will be too solid, and there 
will be no space for the jelly. The 
meat must be first seasoned pretty 
well with pepper and salt, and a 
scrape or two of nutmeg. Put a 
little water and gravy into the dish, 
cover it with a tolerably thick crust, 
and bake it in a slow oven. When 
done, fill it up with gravy, and 
do not cut it till quite cold. Use a 
very sharp knife for this purpose, 
first cutting out a large piece, and 
going down to the' bottom of the 
dish : thinner slices may afterwards 
be cut. The different colours, and 
the clear jelly, will have a beautiful 
marbled appearance. A small pie 
may be made to eat hot, and will 
have a good appearance, if seasoned 
high with oysters, mushrooms, truf- 
fles and morels. The cold pie will 
Jceep several days, and slices of it 
will make a handsome side-dish. If 
the isinglass jelly be not found stiff 
enough, a calf's foot or a cow heel 
may be used instead. To vary the 
colour, pickled tongue may be cut 
in, instead of ham. 

the head perfectly clean, stew it with 
oysters, tie it together and spit it, 
baste it well with butter and flour 
rubbed smooth. Stew together some 
of the oyster liquor, gravy, butter 
and salt, with a few sprigs of mar- 
joram and savoury, adding a little 
claret, and pour the sauce over the 

CALF'S HEAD SOUP. After the 
head has been thoroughly cleaned, 
put it into a stewpan with a proper 
quantity of water, an onion, some 
sweet herbs, mace and cloves, and 

a little pearl barley. Boil it quite 
tender, put in some stewed celery, 
and season it with pepper. Pour 
the soup into a dish, place the head 
in the middle, and send it hot to 

and soak it for an hour, bone it, take 
out the brains, the tongue and the 
eyes. Make a forcemeat with two 
pounds of beef suet, as much lean 
veal, two anchovies boned and wash- 
ed, the peel of a lemon, some grated 
nutmeg, and a little thyme. Chop 
them up together with some grated 
bread, and mix in the yolks of four 
eggs. Make part of this forcemeat 
into fifteen or twenty balls ; boil five 
eggs hard, some oysters washed 
clean, and half a pint of fresh mush- 
rooms, and mix with the rest of the 
forcemeat. Stuff that part of the 
head where the bones were taken out, 
tie it up carefully with packthread, 
put it into two quarts of gravy or 
good broth, with a blade of mace, 
cover it close, and stew it very slowly 
for two hours. While the head is 
doing, beat up the brains with some 
lemon-thyme and parsley chopped 
very fine, some grated nutmeg, and 
the yolk of an egg mixed with it. 
Fry half the brains in dripping, in 
little cakes, and fry the balls. When 
the head is done, keep it warm with 
the brain-cakes and balls ; strain 
off the liquor in which the head was 
stewed, add to it some stewed truf- 
fles and morels, and a few pickled 
mushrooms. Put in the other half 
of the brains chopped, boil them up 
together, and let them simmer a few 
minutes. Lay the head into a hot 
dish, pour the liquor over it, and 
place the balls and the brain-cakes 
round it. For a small family, half 
the head will be sufficient. A lamb's 
head may be done in the same way. 

CALF'S HEART. Chop fine 
some suet, parsley, sweet marjoram 
and a boiled egg. Add some grated 
bread, lemon peel, pepper, salt and 
mustard. Mix them together in a 



paste, and stuff the heart with it, 
after it has been well washed and 
cleaned. If done carefully, it is 
better baked than roasted. Serve 
it up quite hot, with gravy and melt- 
ed butter. 

CALF'S KIDNEY. Chop veal 
kidney, and some of the fat ; like- 
wise a little leek or onion, pepper, 
and salt. Roll the kidney up with 
an egg into balls, and fry it. — A 
calf's heart should be stuffed and 
roasted as a beef's heart ; or sliced 
and made into a pudding, the same 
as for a steak or kidney pudding. 

CALF'S LIVER, there are se- 
veral ways of making this into a 
good dish. One is to broil it, after 
it has been seasoned with pepper 
and salt. Then rub a bit of cold 
butter over, and serve it up hot and 
hot. — If the liver is to be roasted, 
first wash and wipe it, then cut a long 
hole in it, and stuff it with crumbs 
of bread, chopped anchovy, herbs, 
fat bacon, onion, salt, pepper, a bit 
of butter, and an egg. Sew up the 
liver, lard or wrap it in a veal caul, 
and put it to the fire. Serve it with 
good brown gravy, and currant jelly. 
— If the liver and lights are to be 
dressed together, half boil an equal 
quantity of each ; then cut them in 
a middling-sized mince, adda spoon- 
ful or two of the water that boiled it, 
a bit of butter, flour, salt and pep- 
per. Simmer them together ten mi- 
nutes, and serve the dish up hot. 

should behalf boiled, and then stew- 
ed in white gravy. Add cream, 
flour, butter, nutmeg, salt, and white 
pepper. Or do them in brown sauce 
seasoned. Or parboil, and then co- 
ver them with crumbs, herbs, and 
seasoning, and brown them in a 
Dutch oven. Serve with butter, and 
mushroom ketchup, or gravy. 

CALVES. The general method 
of rearing calves consumes so much 
of the milk of ^ dairy, that it is 
highly necessary to adopt other 
means, or the calves must be sold 

to the butcher while they are young. 
A composition called linseed milk, 
made of linseed oil-cake powdered, 
and gradually mixed with skim-milk 
sweetened with treacle, has been 
tried with considerable effect. It 
must be made nearly as warm as new 
milk when taken from the cow. Hay 
tea mixed with linseed and boiled to 
a jelly, has likewise been tried with 
success. A species of water gruel, 
made in the following manner, is 
strongly recommended. Put a hand- 
ful or two of oatmeal into some boil- 
ing water, and after it has thickened 
a little, leave it to cool till it is luke- 
warm ; mix with it two or three pints 
of skim-milk, and give it to the calf 
to drink. At first it may be neces- 
sary to make the calf drink by pre- 
senting the fingers to it ; but it will 
soon learn to drink of itself, and will 
grow much faster than by any other 
method. According to the old cus- 
tom, a calf intended to be reared is 
allowed to suck for six or eight 
weeks ; and if the cow give only a 
moderate quantity of milk, the va- 
lue of it will amount to the price of 
the calf in half that time. By the 
method now recommended, only a 
little oatmeal or ground barley is 
consumed, and a small quantity of 
skim-milk. The calf is also more 
healthy and strong, and less subject 
to disease. Small whisps of hay 
should be placed round them on 
cleft sticks, to induce the calves to 
eat ; and when they are weaned, 
they should be turned into short 
sweet grass ; for if hay and water 
only are used, they are liable to 
swellings and the rot. The fatting 
of calves being an object of great 
importance, a greater variety of food 
is now provided for this purpose than 
formerly, and great improvements 
have been made in this part of rural 
economy. Grains, potatoes, malt 
dust, pollard, and turnips now con- 
stitute their common aliment. But 
in order to make them fine and fat, 
they must be kept as clean as pos- 


C A N 

sible, with fresh litter every day. 
Bleeding them twice before they are 
slaughtered, improves the beauty and 
whiteness of the flesh, but it may be 
doubted whether the meat is equal- 
ly good and nutricious. If calves 
be taken with the scouring, which 
often happens in a few days after 
being cast, make a medicine of pow- 
dered chalk and wheat meal, wrought 
into a ball with some gin ; and it 
will aflford relief. The shoote is an- 
other distemper to which they are 
liable, and is attended with a violent 
cholic and the loathing of food. The 
general remedy in this case is milk, 
well mulled with eggs ; or eggs and 
flour mixed with oil, melted butter, 
linseed or anniseed. To prevent the 
sickness which commonly attends 
calves about Michaelmas time, take 
newly-churned butter, without salt, 
and form it into a cup the size of an 
egg ; into this cup put three or four 
cloves of bruised garlic, and till it 
up with tar. Having put the cup 
down the calf's throat, pour into its 
nostrils half a spoonful of the spirit 
of turpentine, rub a little tar upon 
its nose, and keep it within doors 
for an hour. Calves ought to be 
housed a night before this medicine 
is given. 

curtains or bed furniture of this de- 
scription are to be taken down f ^r 
the summer, shake oft* the b-osedu^f, 
and lightly brush them with a small 
long-haired furniture brush. Wip»' 
them afterwards very closely with 
clean flannels, and rub thtm with 
dry bread. If properU d«»iie, the 
curtains will look nearly a«» well as 
at first , and if the colour be not 
very light, they will not require 
washing for years. Fold them up 
in large parcels, and put them by 
carefully. While the furniture re- 
mains up, it should be preserved as 
much as possible from the sun and 
air, which injure delicate colours ; 
and the dust may be blown oflf with 
bellows. Curtains may thus be kept 

clean, even to use with the linings 
after they have been washed or new- 
ly dipped. 

CAMP VINEGAR. Slice a large 
head of garlic, and put it into a 
wide-mouthed bottle, with half an 
ounce of cayenne, two tea-spoonfuls 
of soy, two of walnut ketchup, four 
anchovies chopped, a pint of vine- 
gar, and enough cochineal to give it 
the colour of lavender drops. Let 
it stand six weeks; then strain it off 
quite clear, and keep it in small bot- 
tles sealed up. 

CAMPHOR JULEP. Dissolve a 
quarter of an ounce of camphor in 
half a pint of brandy. It may thus 
be kept fit for use ; and a tea-spoon- 
fid taken in a wine glass of cold 
water will be fojind an agreeable 
dose. — Another way. To a quarter 
of an ounce of camphor, add a quart 
of boiling water, and a quart of cold. 
Let it stand six hours, and strain it 
ort' for use. 

half an ounce of camphor into an 
ounce of the oil of almonds, mixed 
with an ounce of spermaceti. Scrape 
fine into it half an ounce of white 
wax, and melt it over some hot wa- 

ounce ofxamf)hor in a mortar, with 
two ounces of Florence oi*), till the 
camphor is entirely dissolved. This 
liniment is highly useful in rheuma- 
tism, spasms, and other cases of 
extreme pain. 

CANARIES. Those who wish to 
breed this species of birds, should 
provide them a large cage, with two 
boxes to build in. Early in April 
put a cock and hen together ; and 
whilst they are pairing, foed them 
with soft meat, or a little grated 
bread, scalded rapeseed and an egg 
mixed together. At the same time 
a small net of fine hay, wool, cot- 
ton, and hair should be suspended 
in one corner olMfte cage, so that 
the birds may pull it out as they 
want it to build with. Tame cana- 



ries will sometimes breed three or 
four limes in a year, and produce 
their young about a fortnight after 
tliey begin to sit. When hatched, 
they should be left to the care of 
the old ones, to nurse them up till 
they can fly and feed themselves ; 
during which time they should be 
supplied with fresh victuals every 
day, accompanied now and then 
with cabbage, lettuce, and chick- 
Aveed with seeds upon it. When the 
young canaries can feed themselves, 
they should be taken from the old 
ones, and put into another cage. 
Boil a little rapeseed, bruise and 
mix it with as much grated bread, 
mace seed, and the yolk of an egg- 
boiled hard ; and supply them with 
a small quantity every day, that it 
may not become stale or sour. Be- 
sides this, give them a little scalded 
rapeseed, and a little rape and ca- 
nary seed by itself. This diet may 
be continued till they have done 
moulting, or renewed at any time 
when they appear unhealthy, and 
afterwards they may be fed in the 
usual manner. 

CANCER. It is asserted by a 
French practitioner, that this cruel 
disoFrder may be cured in three days, 
by the following simple application, 
without any surgical operanon what- 
ever. Knead a piece of dough about 
the size of a pullet's egg, with the 
same quantity of hog's lard, the old- 
er the better ; and when they are 
thorougly blended, so as to form a 
kind of salve, spread it on a piece 
of white leather, and apply it to the 
part affected. This, if it do no good, 
is perfectly harmless. — A plaster for 
an eating cancer may be made as 
follows. File up some old brass, 
and mix a spoonful of it wdth mut- 
ton suet. Lay the plaster on the 
I cancer, and let it remain till the cure 
is effected. Several persons have 
derived great ^lefit from this ap- 
fpiias seldom been 

plication, and 
known to fail. 



angelica into pieces three inches 
long, boil it tender, peel and boil it 
again till it is green ; dry it in a cloth, 
and add its weight in sugar. Sift 
some fine sugar over, and let thenj 
remain in a pan two days ; then boi 
the stalks clear and green, and let 
them drain in a cullender. Beat 
another pound of sugar and strew 
over them, lay them on plates, and 
dry them well in an oven. 

preserve out of the syrup, lay it into 
a new sieve, and dip it suddenly 
into hot water, to take off the syrup 
that hangs about it. Put it on a 
napkin before the fire to drain, and 
then do another layer in the sieve. 
Sift the fruit all over with double re- 
fined sugar previously prepared, till 
it is quite white. Set it on the shal- 
low end of sieves in a lightly-warm 
oven, and turn it two or three times : 
it must not be cold till dry. NVatch 
it carefully, and it will be beautiful. 

CANDIED PEEL. Take out the 
pulps of lemons or oranges, soak 
the rinds six days in salt and water, 
and afterwards boil them tender in 
spring water. Drain them on a sieve, 
make a thin syrup of loaf sugar and 
water, and boil the peels in it till the 
syrup begins to candy about them. 
Then take out the peels, grate fine 
sugar over them, drain them on a 
sieve, and dry them before the fire. 

CANDLES. Those made in cold 
weather are best ; and if put in a 
cool place, they will improve by 
keeping ; but when they begin to 
sweat and turn rancid, the tallow 
loses its strength, and the candles 
are spoiled. A stock for winter use 
should be provided in autumn, and 
for summer, early in the spiing. 
The best candle-wicks are made of 
fine cotton ; the coarser yarn con- 
sumes faster, and burns less steady. 
Mould candles burn the clearest, 
but dips afford the best light, their 
wicks being proportionably larger. 

CAPER SAUCE. Ad^ a table- 
spoonful of capers to twice the quan- 


C A^ 

tity of vinegar, mince one third of 
the capers very fine, and divide the 
others in half. Put them into a 
quarter of a pint of melted butter, 
or good thickened gravy, and stir 
them the same way as the melted 
butter, to prevent their oiling. The 
juice of half a Seville orange or le-; 
mon may be added. An excellent 
substitute for capers may be made 
of pickled green peas, nastursions, 
or gherkins, chopped into a similar 
size, and boiled with melted butter. 
When capers are kept for use, they 
should be covered with fresh scalded 
vinegar, tied down close to exclude 
the air, and to make them soft. 

CAPILLAIRE. Take fourteen 
pounds of good moist sugar, three 
of coarse sugar, and six eggs beaten 
in well with the shells, boil them to- 
gether in three quarts of water, and 
skim it carefully. Then add a quar- 
ter of a pint of orange-flower water, 
strain it off", and put it into bottles. 
When cold, mix a spoonful or two 
of this syrup in a little warm or cold 

CARACHEE. Mix with a pint of 
vinegar, two table-s-poonfuls of In- 
dian soy, two of walnut pickle, two 
cloves of garlic, one tea-spoonful of 
cayenne, one of lemon pickle, and 
two of sauce royal. 

eight ounces of double refined sugar 
in three or four spoonfuls of water, 
and as many drops of lemon juice. 
Put it into a copper skillet ; when it 
begins to thicken, dip the handle of 
a spoon in it, and put that into a 
pint bason of water. Squeeze the 
sugar from the spoon into it, and so 
on till all the sugar is extracted. 
Take a bit out of the water, and if 
it snaps and is brittle when cold, it 
is done enough. But let it be only 
three parts cold, then pour the wa- 
ter from the sugar, and having a 
copper form oiled well, run the su- 
gar on it, in the manner of a maze, 
and when cold it may be put on the 
dish it is intended to cover. If on 

trial the sugar is not brittle, pour off 
the water, return it into the skillet, 
and boil it again. It should look 
thick like treacle, but of a light gold 
colour. This makes an elegant co- 
ver for sweetmeats. 

CARP. This excellent fish will 
live some time out of water, and may 
therefore get wasted : it is best to 
kill them as soon as caught, to pre- 
vent this. Carp should either be 
boiled or stewed. Scale and draw 
it, and save the blood. Set on wa- 
ter in a stewpan, with a little Chili 
vinegar, salt, and horse-radish. 
When it boils, put in the carp, and 
boil it gently for twenty minutes, 
according to the thickness of the 
fish. Stew the blood with half a 
pint of port wine, some good gravy, 
a sliced onion, a little whole pep- 
per, a blade of mace, and a nutmeg 
grated. Thicken the sauce with 
butter rolled in flour, season it with 
pepper and salt, essence of anchovy, 
and mushroom ketchup. Serve up 
the fish with the sauce poured over 
it, adding a little lemon juice. Carp 
are also very nice plain boiled, with 
common fish sauce. 

CARPETS. In order to keep them 
clean, they should not frequently be 
swept witj^ a wisk brush, as it wears 
them fast ; not more than once a 
week, and at other times with sprink- 
led tea-leaves, and a hair brush. 
Fine carpets should be done gently 
on the knees, with a soft clothes* 
brush. When a carpet requires more 
cleaning, take it up and beat it well, 
then lay it down and brush it on 
both sides with a hand-brush. Turn 
it the right side upwards, and scour 
it clean with ox-gall and soap and 
water, and dry it with linen cloths. 
Lay it on the grass, or hang it up to 
dry thoroughlv. 

pounds of good flour, add ten spoon- 
fuls of yeast, and Jkelve of cream. 
Wash the salt oi^of a pound of 
butter, and rub it into the flour ; 
beat up eight eggs with half the • 



UU'e-l'C/Ut (// kjtt'J: 










whites, and mix it with the compo- 
sition aheady prepared. Work it 
into a light paste, set it before the 
fire to rise, incorporate a pound of 
carraway comfits, and an hour will 
bake it. 

shalots fine, and boil them up with 
a gill of gravy, a spoonful of vinegar, 
some pepper and salt. This is used 
for mutton, and served in a boat. 

pick some rice quite clean, boil it 
tiv2 minutes in water, strain and put 
it nto a stewpan, with a bit of but- 
te.% a good slice of ham, and an 
cnion. Stew it over a very gentle 
ire till tender ; have ready a mould 
lined with very thin slices of bacon, 
mix the yolks of two or three eggs 
with the rice, and then line the ba- 
con with it about half an inch thick. 
Put into it a ragout of chicken, rab- 
bit, veal, or of any thing else. Fill 
up the mould, and cover it close 
with rice. Bake it in a quick oven 
an hour, turn it over, and. send it to 
table in a good gravy, or curry sauce. 

CARROTS. This root requires a 
good deal of boiling. When young, 
wipe off the skin after they are boil- 
ed ; when old, scrape them first, and 
boil them with salt meat. Carrots 
and parsnips should be kept in lay- 
ers of dry sand for winter use, and 
not be wholly cleared from the earth. 
They should be placed separately, 
with their necks upward, and be 
drawn out regularly as they stand, 
without disturbing the middle or the 

large carrot tender ; then bruise it 
in a marble mortar, and mix with it 
a spoonful of biscuit powder, or 
three or four little sweet biscuits 
without seeds, four yolks and two 
whites of eggs, a pint of cream either 
raw or scalded, a little ratifia, a large 
spoonful of orange or rose-water, a 
quarter of a nutmeg, and two ounces 
of sugar. Bake it in a shallow dish 

lined with paste ; turn it out, and 
dust a little fine sugar over it. 

CARROT SOUP. Put some beef 
bones into a saucepan, with four 
quarts of the liquor in which a leg 
of mutton or beef has been boiled, 
two large onions, a turnip, pep- er 
and salt, and boil them togetherfor 
three hours. Have ready six large 
carrots scraped and sliced ; strain 
the soup on them, and stew them 
till soft enough to pulp through a 
hair sieve or coarse cloth, with a 
wooden spoon ; but pulp only the 
red part of the carrot, and not the 
yellow. The soup should be made 
the day before, and afterwards boil- 
ed with the pulp, to the thickness 
of peas-soup, with the addition of 
a little cayenne. 

CARVING. In nothing does ce- 
remony more frequently triumph 
over comfort, than in the adminis- 
tration of ' the honours of the table.' 
Every one is sufficiently aware that 
a dinner, to be eaten in perfection, 
should be taken the very moment it 
is sent hot to table ; yet few persons 
seem to understand, that he is the 
best carver who fills the plates of 
the greatest numbers of guests in the 
least portion of time, provided it be 
done with ease and elegance. In a 
mere family circle, where all cannot 
and ought not to be choosers, it is 
far better to fill the plates and send 
them round, rather than ask each 
individual what particular part they 
would prefer ; and if in a larger com- 
pany a similar plan were introduced, 
it would be attended with many ad- 
vantages. A dexterous carver, would 
help half a dozen people in less time 
than is often wasted in making civil 
faces to a single guest. He will also 
cut fair, and observe an equitable 
distribution of the dainties he is 
serving out. It would ^ave much 
time, if poultry, especially large tur- 
keys and geese, y^ere sent to table 
seady cut up. When a lady pre- 
rides, the carving knife should be 
K 05 



light, of a middling size, and of a 
line edge. Strength is less required 
than address, in the manner of using, 
it ; and to facilitate this, the but- 
cher should be ordered to divide the 
joints of the bones, especially of the 
neck, breast, and loin of mutton, 
lamb, and veal ; which may then be 
easily cut into thin slices attached 
to the adjoining bones. If the whole 
of the meat belonging to each bone 
should be too thick, a small slice 
may be taken off between every two 
bones. The more fleshy joints, as 
fillet of veal, leg or saddle of mut- 
ton and beef, are to be helped in 
thin slices, neatly cut and smooth ; 
observing to let the knife pass down 
to the bone in the mutton and beef 
joints. The dish should not be too 
far off the carver, as it gives an 
awkward appearance, and makes 
the task more difficult. In helping 
fish, take care not to break the flakes ; 
which in cod and very fresh salmon 
are large, and contribute much to 
the beauty of its appearance. A 
fish knife, not being sharp, divides 
it best on this account. Help a part 
of the roe, milt or liver, to each per- 
son. The heads of carp, part of 
those of cod and salmon, sounds of 
cod, and fins of turbot, are likewise 
esteemed niceties, and are to be at- 
tended to accordingly. In cutting 
up any wild fowl, duck, goose, or 
turkey, for a large party, if you cut 
the slices down from pinion to pi- 
nion, without making wings, there 
will be more prime pieces. But that 
the reader may derive the full ad- 
vantage of these remarks, we shall 
descend to particulars, and illustrate 
the subject with a variety of inter- 
esting Plates, which will show at the 
same time the manner in which game 
and poultry should be trussed and 

dished. Cod's head. Fish in 

general requires very little carving, 
llie fleshy parts being those princi- 
pally esteemed. A cod's head and 
shoulders, when in season, and pro - 

perly boiled, is a very genteel and 
handsome dish. When cut, it should 
be done with a fish trowel, and the 
parts about the backbone on the 
shoulders are the firmest and the 
best. Take off" a piece quite down 
to the bone, in the direction cr, 6, c, 
d, putting in the spoon at a, c, and 
with each slice of fish give a piece 
of the sound, which lies underneath 
the backbone and lines it, the meat 
of which is thin, and a little darker 
coloured than the body of the fish 
itself. This may be got by pass ng 
a knife or spoon underneath, in ihe 
direction of rf,y. About the head 
are many delicate parts, and a grea*: 
deal of the jelly kind. The jelly 
part lies about the jaw, bones, and 
the firm parts within the head. Some 
are fond of the palate, and others 
the tongue, which likewise may be 
got by putting a spoon into the 
mouth. — — Edge bone of Beef. 
Cut off^ a slice an inch thick all the 
length from a to 6, in the figure op- 
posite, and then help. The soft fat 
which resembles marrow, lies at the 
back of the bone, below c ; the firm 
fat must be cut in horizontal slices 
at the edge of the meat d. It is 
proper to ask which is preferred, as 
tastes diflfer. The skewer that keeps 
the meat properly together when 
boiling is here shewn at a. This 
should be drawn out before it is 
served up ; or, if it is necessary to 
leave the skewer in, put a silver one. 
Sirloin of Beef may be be- 
gun either at the end, or by cutting 
into the middle. It is usual to en- 
quire whether the outside or the in- 
side is preferred. For the outside, 
the slice should be cut down to the 
bones ; and the same with every fol- 
lowing helping. Slice the inside 
likewise, and give with each piece 
some of the soft fat. The inside 
done as follows eats excellently. 
Have ready some shalot vinegar 
boiling hot : mince the meat large, 
and a good deal of the fat ; spriYikle 



it with salt, and pour the slialot 
vinegar and the gravy on it. Help 
with a spoon, as quickly as possi- 
ble, on hot plates. Round or 

BUTTOCK OF Beef is cut in the 
same way as fillet of veal, in the 
next article. It should be kept even 
all over. When helping the fat, ob- 
serve not to hack it, but cut it 
smooth. A deep slice should be cut 
oft' the beef before you begin to help, 
as directed above for the edge-bone. 

Fillet of Veal. In an ox, 

this part is round of beef. Ask whe- 
ther the brown outside be liked, 
otherwise help the next slice. The 
bone is taken out, and the meat tied 
close, before dressing, which makes 
the fillet very solid. It should be 
cut thin, and very smooth. A stuf- 
fing is put into the flap, which com- 
pletely covers it ; you must cut deep 
into this, and help a thin slice; as 
likewise of fat. From carelessness 
in not covering the latter with paper, 
it is sometimes dried up, to the great 

disappointment of the carver. 

Breast of Veal. One part, called 
the brisket, is thick and gristly ; put 
the knife about four inches from the 
edge of this, and cut through it, 
which will separate the ribs from the 

brisket. Calf's Head has a 

great deal of meat upon it, if pro- 
perly managed. Cut slices from a 
to b, letting the knife go close to the 
bone. In the fleshy part, at the neck 
end c, there lies the throat sweet- 
bread, which you should help a slice 
of from c to d with the other part. 
Many like the eye, which must be 
cut out with the point of a knife, 
and divided in two. If the jaw-bone 
be taken off^, there will be found 
some fine lean. Under the head is 
the palate, which is reckoned a ni- 
cety ; the lady of the house should 
be acquainted with all things that 
are thought so, that she may distri- 
bute them among her guests. 

Shoulder of Mutton. This is 
a very good joint, and by many pre- 
ferred to the leg; it being very full 

of gravy, if properly roasted, and 
produces many nice bits. The fi- 
gure represents it as laid in the dish 
with its back uppermost. When it 
is first cut, it should be in the hol- 
low part of it, in the direction of a, 
6, and the knife should be passed 
deep to the bone. The prime part 
of the fat lies on the outer edge, and 
is to be cut out in thin slices in the 
direction e. If many are at table, 
and the hollow part cut in the line 
a, b, is eaten, some very good and 
delicate slices may be cut out on 
each side the ridge of the blade- 
bone, in the direction c, d. The line 
between these two dotted lines, is 
that in the direction of which the 
edge or ridge of the blade-bone lies, 

and cannot be cut across. Leg 

OF Mutton. -A leg of wether mut- 
ton, which is the best flavoured, may 
be known by a round lump of fat at 
the edge of the broadest part, as at 
a. The best part is in the midway, 
at '6, between the knuckle and fur- 
ther end. Begin to help there, by 
cutting thin deep slices to c. If the 
outside is not fat enough, help some 
from the side of the broad end in 
slices from e to/. This part is most 
juicy ; but many prefer the knuckle, 
which in fine mutton will be very 
tender though dry. There are very 
fine slices on the back of the leg : 
turn it up, and cut the broad end, 
not in the direction you did the other 
side, but longways. To cut out the 
cramp bone\ take hold of the shank 
with your left hand, and cut down 
to the thigh bone at d ; then pass 
the knife under the cramp bone in 
the direction, d, g. Fo.fiE quar- 
ter of Lamb. Separate the should- 
er from the scoven, which is the 
breast and ribs, by passing the knife 
under in the direction of a, b, c, d ; 
keeping it towards you horizontally, 
to prevent cutting the meat too much 
off^ the bones. If grass lamb, the 
shoulder being large, put it into ano- 
ther dish. Squeeze the juice of half 
a Seville orange or lemon on the 



other part, and sprinkle a little salt 
and pepper. Then separate the 
gristly part from the ribs in the line 
e, c ; and help either from that or 

from the ribs, as may be chosen. 

Haunch of Venison. Cut down 
to the bone in the line a, 6, c, to let 
out the gravy. Then turn the broad 
end of the haunch toward you, put 
in the knife at 6, and cut as deep as 
you can to the end of the haunch d; 
then help in thin slices, observing to 
give some fat to each person. There 
is more fat, which is a favourite 
part, on the left side of c and d than 
on the other : and those who help 
must take care to proportion it, as 
likewise the gravy, according to the 
number of the company. — Haunch 
OF Mutton is the leg and part of 
the loin, cut so as to resemble a 
haunch of venison, and is to behelp- 

ed at table in the same manner. 

Saddle of Mutton. Cut long 
thin slices from the tail to the end, 
beginning close to the back bone. 
If a large joint, the slice may be di- 
vided. Cut some fat from the sides. 

Ham may be cut three ways. 

The common method is, to begin in 
the middle, by long slices from a to 
6, from the centre through the thick 
fat. This brings to the prime at 
first, which is likewise accomplished 
by cutting a small round hole on the 
top of the ham, as at c, and with a 
sharp knife enlarging that by cutting 
successive thin circles : this pre- 
serves the gravy, and keeps the meat 
moist. The last and most saving 
way is, to begin at the hock end, 
which many are most fond of, and 
proceed onwards. Ham that is used 
for pies, &c. should be cut from the 
under side, first taking off a thick 

slice. Sucking Pig. The cook 

usually divides the body before it is 
sent to table, and garnishes the dish 
with the jaws and ears. The first 
thing is, to separate a shoulder from 
the carcase on one side, and then 
the leg, according to the direction 
given by the dotted line a, b, c. The 

ribs are then to be divided into 
about two helpings, and an ear or 
jaw presented with them, and plenty 
of sauce. The joints may either be 
divided into two each, or pieces may 
be cut from them. The ribs are 
reckoned the finest part, but some 
people prefer the neck end, between 

the shoulders. Goose. Cut off 

the apron in the circular line a, by c, 
and pour into the body a glass of 
port wine, and a large tea-spoonful 
of mustard, first mixed at the side- 
board. Turn the neck end of the 
goose towards you, and cut the 
whole breast in long slices from one 
wing to another ; but only remove 
them as you help each person, un- 
less the company is so large as to 
require the legs likewise. This way 
gives more prime bits than by mak- 
ing wings. Take off the leg, by 
putting the fork into the small end 
of the bone, pressing it to the body ; 
and having passed the knife at d, 
turn the leg back, and if a young 
bird, it will easily separate. To 
take off the wing, put your fork into 
the small end of the pinion, and 
press it close to the body ; then put 
in the knife at rf, and divide the 
joint, taking it down in the direc- 
tion dy e. Nothing but practice 
will enable people to hit the joint 
dexterously. When the leg and 
wing of one side are done, go on to 
the other ; but it is not often neces- 
sary to cut up the whole goose, un- 
less the company be very large. 
There are two side bones by the 
wing, which may be cut off; as like- 
wise the back and lower side bones : 
but the best pieces are the breast 
and the thighs, after being divided 

from the drum-sticks. Hare. 

The best way of cutting it up is, to 
put the point of the knife under the 
shoulder at a, and so cut all the way 
down to the rump, on one side ot 
the back-bone, in the line «, b. Do 
the same on the other side, so that 
the whole hare will be divided into 
three parts. Cut the back into four. 



which with the legs is the part most 
esteemed. The shoulder must be 
cut off in a circular line, as c, cf, a. 
Lay the pieces neatly on the dish as 
you cut them; and then help the 
company, giving some pudding and 
gravy to every person. This way 
can only be practised when the hare 
is young. If old, do not divide it 
down, which will require a strong 
arm : but put the knife between the 
leg and back, and give it a little turn 
inwards at the joint; which you 
must endeavour to hit, and not to 
break by force. When both legs are 
taken off, there is a fine coUop on 
each side the back ; then divide the 
back into as many pieces as you 
please, and take of the shoulders, 
which are by many preferred, and 
are called the sportman's pieces. 
When every one is helped, cut off 
the head ; put your knife between 
the upper and lower jaw, and di- 
vide them, which will enable you to 
lay the upper one flat on your plate ; 
then put the point of the knife into 
the centre, and cut the head into 
two. The ears and brains may be 
helped then to those who like them. 
•—Carve Rabbits as directed the 
latter way for hare ; cutting the back 
into two pieces, which with the legs 

are the prime. A Fowl. The 

legs of a boiled fowl are bent in- 
wards, and tucked into the belly ; 
but before it is served, the skewers 
are to be removed. Lay the fowl on 
your plate ; and place the joints, as 
cut off, on the dish. Take the wing 
off in the direction of a to 6, in the 
annexed engraving, only dividing 
the joint with your knife ; and then 
with your fork lift up the pinion, 
and draw the wing towards the legs, 
and the muscles will separate in a 
more complete form than if cut. 
Slip the knife between the leg and 
body, and cut to the bone ; then 
with the fork turn the leg back, and 
the joint will give way if the bird is 
not old. When the four quarters 
are thus removed, take off the merry- 

thought from a, and the neck bones ; 
these last by putting in the knife at 
c, and pressing it under the long 
broad part of the bone in the line c, 
h. Then lift it up, and break it off 
from the part that sticks to the 
breast. The next thing is, to divide 
the breast from the carcase, by cut- 
ting through the tender ribs close 
to the breast, quite down to the tail. 
Then lay the back upwards, put 
your knife into the bone half-way 
from the neck to the rump, and on 
raising the lower end it will separate 
readily. Turn the rump from you, 
and very neatly take off the two 
sidebones, and the whole will be 
done. As each part is taken off', it 
should be turned neatly on the dish, 
and care should be taken that what 
is left goes properly from table. 
The breast and wings are looked 
upon as the best parts, but the legs 
are most juicy in young fowls. After 
all, more advantage will be gained 
by observing those who carve well, 
and a little practice, than by any 

written directions whatever. A 

Pheasant. The bird in the an- 
nexed engraving is as trussed for the 
spit, with its head under one of its 
wings. When the skewers are taken 
out, and the bird served, the follow- 
ing is the way to carve it. Fix a 
fork in the centre of the breast ; 
slice it down in the line a, 6; take 
off the leg on one side in the dotted 
line 6, d ; then cut off the wing on 
the same side in the line c, d. Se- 
parate the leg and wing on the other 
side, and then cut off the slices of 
breast you divided before. Be care- 
ful how you take off the wings ; for 
if you should cut too near the neck, 
as at g, you will hit on the neck- 
bone, from which the wing must be 
separated. Cut off the merrythought 
in the line/, ^, by p'assing the knife 
under it towards the neck. Cut the 
other parts as in a fowl. The breast, 
wings, and merrythought, are the 
most esteemed ; but the leg has a 
higher flavour. — Partridge. The 



partridge is here represented as just 
taken from the spit ; but before it is 
served up, the skewers must be 
withdrawn. It is cut up in the 
same manner as a fowl. The wings 
must be taken off in the line a, b, 
and the merrythought in the line c, 
d. The prime parts of a partridge 
are the wings, breast, and merry- 
thought ; but the bird being small, 
the two latter are not often divided. 
The wing is considered as the best, 
and the tip of it reckoned the most 

delicate morsel of the whole. 

Pigeons. Cut them in half, either 
from top to bottom or across. The 
lower part is generally thought the 
best ; but the fairest way is to cut 
from the neck to a, rather than from 
c to b, by a, which is the most fa- 
shionable. The figure represents 
the back of the pigeon ; and the 
direction of the knife is in the line 
c, b, by a, if done the last way. 

CASKS. New casks are apt to 
give beer a bad taste, if not well 
scalded and seasoned before they are 
used. Boil therefore two pecks of 
brain or malt dust in a copper of wa- 
ter, pour it hot into the cask, stop 
it close, and let it stand two days. 
Then wash it clean, and dry it fit for 
use. Old casks are apt to grow 
musty, if allowed to stand by neg- 
lected ; they should therefore be 
closely stopped as soon as emptied. 
When tainted, put in some lime, fill 
up with water, and let them stand a 
day or two. If this be not sufficient, 
the head must be taken out, the in- 
side well scoured, and the head re- 

CATERPILLARS. These noxious 
insects, sustained by leaves and fruit, 
have been known in all ages and 
nations for their depredations on the 
vegetable world. In August and 
September they destroy cabbages 
and turnips in great abundance, and 
commit their ravages in fields and 
gardens whenever the easterly winds 
prevail. Various means have been 
devised for their destruction, and 

any of the following which may hap- 
pen to be the most convenient, may 
be employed with very good efl^ect. 
Mix and heat three quarts of water 
and one quart of vinegar, put in a 
full pound of soot, and stir it with a 
whisk till the whole is incorporated. 
Sprinkle the plants with this prepa- 
ration, every morning and evening, 
by dipping in a brush and shedding 
it over them; and in a few days all 
the cankers will disappear. Or sow 
with hemp all the borders where 
cabbages are planted, so as to en- 
close them, and not one of these 
vermin will approach. When goose- 
berry or currant bushes are attack- 
ed, a very simple expedient will suf- 
fice. Put pieces of woollen rags in 
every bush, the caterpillars will take 
refuge in them during the night, and 
in the morning quantities of them 
may thus be taken and destroyed. 
If this do not succeed, dissolve an 
ounce of alum in a quart of tobacco 
liquor ; and as soon as the leaves of 
the plants or bushes appear in the 
least corroded, sprinkle on the mix- 
ture with a brush. If any eggs be 
deposited, they never come forward 
after this application ; and if chang- 
ed into worms they will sicken and 
die, and fall off. Nothing is more 
effectual than to dust the leaves of 
plants with sulphur put into a piece 
of muslin, or thrown upon them with 
a dredging box : this not only de- 
stroys the insects, but materially 
promotes the health of the plants. 
When caterpillars attack fruit trees, 
they may be destroyed by a strong 
decoction of equal quantities of rue, 
wormwood, and tobacco, sprinkled 
on the leaves and branches while the 
fruit is ripening. Or take a chafing- 
dish of burning charcoal, place it 
under the branches of the bush or 
tree, and throw on it a little brim- 
stone. The vapour of the sulphur, 
and thesuffbcating fume arising from 
the charcoal, will not only destroy 
all the insects, but prevent the plants 
from being infested with them any 



more that season. Black cankers, 
which commit great devastation 
among turnips, are best destroyed 
by turning a quantity of ducks into 
the held infested by them. Every 
fourth year these cankers become 
flies, when they deposit their eggs 
on the ground, and thus produce 
maggots. The flies on their first 
appearance settle on the trees, es- 
pecially the oak, elm, and maple : 
in this state they should be shaken 
down on packsheets, and destroyed. 
If this were done before they begin 
to deposit their eggs on the ground, 
the ravages of the canker would in 
a great measure be prevented. 

CAUDLE. Make a fine smooth 
gruel of half grits, strain it after be- 
ing well boiled, and stir it at times 
till quite cold. When to be used, 
add sugar, wine, lemon peel and 
nutmeg. A spoonful of brandy may 
be added, and a little lemon juice if 
approved. Another way is to boil 
up half a pint of fine gruel, with a 
bit of butter the size of a large nut- 
meg, a spoonful of brandy, the same 
of white wine, one of capillaire, a 
bit of lemon peel and nutmeg. — 
Another. Beat up the yolk of an egg 
with sugar, mix it with a large spoon- 
ful of cold water, a glass of wine, 
and nutmeg. Mix it by degrees with 
a pint of fine gruel, not thick, but 
while it is boiling hot. This caudle 
is very agreeable and nourishing. 
Some add a glass of beer and sugar, 
or a tea-spoonful of brandy. — A 
caudle for the sick and lying-in is 
made as follows. Set three quarts 
of water on the fire, mix smooth as 
much oatmeal as will thicken the 
whole, with a pint of cold water ; 
and when the water boils pour in 
the thickening, and add twenty pep- 
percorns in fine powder. Boil it up 
to a tolerable thickness ; then add 
sugar, half a pint of good table beer, 
and a glass of gin, all heated up to- 

CAULIFLOWERS. Choose those 
that are close and white, cut off the 

green leaves, and see that there be 
no caterpillars about the stalk. Soak 
them an hour in cold water, then 
boil them in milk and water, and 
take care to skim the saucepan, that 
not the least foulness may fall on 
the flower. The vegetable should be 
served very white, and not boiled too 
much. — Cauhflower dressed iii white 
sauce should be half boiled, and cut 
into handsome pieces. Then lay 
them in a stewpan with a little broth, 
a bit of mace, a little salt, and a 
dust of white pepper. Simmer them 
together half an hour ; then add a 
little cream, butter, and flour. Sim- 
mer a few minutes longer, and serve 
them up. — To dress a cauliflower 
with parmesan, boil the vegetable, 
drain it on a sieve, and cut the stalk 
so that the flower will stand upright 
about two inches above the dish. 
Put it into a stewpan with a little 
white sauce, and in a few minutes it 
will be done enough. Then dish it 
with the sauce round, put parmesan 
grated over it, and brown it with a 

and wash the cauliflowers very clean, 
stew them in brown gravy till they 
are tender, and season with pepper 
and salt. Put them in a dish, pour 
gravy on them, boil some sprigs of 
cauliflower white, and lay round. 

CAYENNE. Those who are fond 
of this spice had better make it 
themselves of English capsicums or 
chillies, for there is no other way of 
being sure that it is genuine. Pep- 
per of a much finer flavour may be 
obtained in this way, without half 
the heat of the foreign article, which 
is frequently adulterated and colour- 
ed with red lead. Capsicums and 
chillies are ripe and in good condi- 
tion, during the months of Septem- 
ber and October. The flavour of 
the chillies is superior to that of 
the capsicums, and will be good in 
proportion as they are dried as soon 
as possible, taken care that they be 
not burnt. Take away the stalks, 


C H A 

put the pods into a cullender, and 
set them twelve hours before the fire 
to dry. Then put them into a mor- 
tar, with one fourth their weight of 
salt ; pound and rub them till they 
are as fine as possible, and put the 
powder into a well-stopped bottle. 
A hundred large chillies will pro- 
duce about two ounces of cayenne. 
When foreign cayenne is pounded, 
it is mixed with a considerable por- 
tion of salt, to prevent its injuring 
the eyes : but English chillies may 
be pounded in a deep mortar with- 
out any danger, and afterwards 
passed through a fine sieve. 

CELERY SAUCE. Cut small half 
a dozen heads of clean white celery, 
with two sliced onions. Put them 
into a stewpan, with a small piece 
of butter, and sweat them over a 
slow fire till quite tender. Add two 
spoonfuls of flour, half a pint of 
broth, salt and pepper, and a little 
cream or milk. Boil it a quarter of 
an hour, and pass it through a fine 
hair sieve with the back of a spoon. 
When celery is not in season, a quar- 
ter of a dram of celery seed, or a 
little of the essence, will impregnate 
half a pint of sauce with all the fla- 
vour of the vegetable. This sauce 
is intended for boiled turkey, veal, 
tor fowls. 

CELERY SOUP. Split half a 
dozen heads of celery into slips 
about two inches long, wash them 
well, drain them on a hair sieve, and 
put them into a soup pot, with three 
quarts of clear gravy. Stew it very 
gently by the side of the fire, about 
an hour, till the celery is tender. If 
any scum arise, take it off, and sea- 
son with a little salt. When celery 
cannot be procured, half a dram of 
the seed, pounded fine, will give a 
flavour to the soup, if put in a quar- 
ter of an hour before it is done. A 
little of the essence of the celery will 
answer the same purpose. 

CELLARS. Beer and ale that 
have been well brewed, are often in- 
jured or spoiled in the keeping, for 

want of paying proper attention to 
the state of the cellar. It is neces- 
sary however to exclude as much as 
possible all external air from these 
depositaries, as the state of the sur- 
rounding atmosphere has a most 
material influence upon the liquor, 
even after it has been made a con- 
siderable time. If the cellar is lia- 
ble to damps in the winter, it will 
tend to chill the liquor, and make it 
turn flat ; or if exposed to the heat 
of summer, it will be sure to turn 
sour. The great object therefore is 
to have a cellar that is both cool and 
dry. Dorchester beer, generally in 
high esteem, owes much of its fine- 
ness to this circumstance. The soil 
in that county being very chalky, of 
a close texture and free from damps, 
the cellars are always cool and dry, 
and the liquors are found to keep in 
the best possible manner. The 
Nottingham ale derives much of its 
celebrity also from the peculiar con- 
struction of the cellars, which are 
generally excavated out of a rock of 
sand-stone to a considerable depth, 
of a circular or conical form, with 
benches formed all round in the 
same way, and on these the barrels 
are placed in regular succession. 

CERATE. Half a pound of white 
wax, half a pound of calumine stone 
finely powdered, and a pint and a 
half of olive oil, will make an excel- 
lent cerate. Let the calumine be 
rubbed smooth with some of the oil, 
and added to the rest of the oil and 
wax, which should be previously 
melted together. Stir them toge- 
ther till they are quite cold. 

CHARDOONS. To dress char- 
doons, cut them into pieces of six 
inches long, and tie them in a bunch. 
Boil them tender, then flour and 
fry them with a piece of butter, and 
when brown serve them up. Or tie 
them in bundles, and serve them on 
toast as boiled asparagus, with but- 
ter poured over. Another way is 
to boil them, and then heat them up 
in fricassee sauce. Or boil in salt 



and water, dry them, dip them into 
butter, fry, and serve them up with 
melted butter. Or having boiled, 
stew, and toss them up with white 
or brown gravy. Add a little cay- 
<-nne, ketchup, and salt, and thicken 
with a bit of butter and flour. 

CHARLOTTE. Rub a baking- 
dish thick with butter, and line the 
bottom and sides with very thin slices 
of white bread. Put in layers of 
apples thinly sliced, strewing sugar 
between, and bits of butter, till the 
dish is full. In the mean time, soak 
in warm milk as many thin slices of 
bread as will cover the whole ; over 
which lay a plate, and a weight to 
keep the bread close on the apples. 
To a middling sized dish use half a 
pound of butter in the whole, and 
hake slowly for three hours. 

CHEAP SOUP. Much nutricious 
food might be provided for the poor 
and necessitous, at a very trifling 
expence, by only adopting a plan of 
frugality, and gathering up the frag- 
ments, that nothing be lost. Save 
the liquor in which every piece of 
meat, ham, or tongue has been boil- 
ed, however salt ; for it is easy to 
use only a part of it, and to add a 
little fresh water. Then, by the ad- 
dition of more vegetables, the bones 
of meat used in the family, the pieces 
of meat that come from table on the 
plates, and rice, Scotch barley, or 
oatmeal, there will be some gallons 
of useful soup saved. The bits of 
meat should only be warmed in the 
soup, and remain whole ; the bones 
and sinewy parts should be boiled 
till they yield their nourishment. 
If the fragments are ready to put 
into the boiler as soon as the meat 
is served, it will save lighting the 
fire, and a second cooking. Take 
turnips, carrots, leeks, potatoes, 
leaves of lettuce, or any sort of ve- 
getable that is at hand ; cut them 
small, and throw in with the thick 
part of peas, after they have been 
pulped for soup, and grits, or coarse 
oatmeal, which have been used for 
(No. 4.) 

gruef. Should the soup be poor of 
meat, the long boiling of the bones, 
and different vegetables, will aff'ord 
better nourishment than the labori- 
ous poor can generally obtain ; es- 
pecially as they are rarely tolerable 
cooks, and have not fuel to do jus- 
tice to what they buy. In almost 
every family there is some superflu- 
ity ; and if it be prepared with clean- 
liness and care, the benefit will be 
very great to the receiver, and the 
satisfaction no less to the giver. 
The cook or servant should never be 
allowed to wash away as useless, 
the peas or grits of which soup or 
gruel have been made, broken pota- 
toes, the green heads of celery, the 
neclts and feet of fowls, and parti- 
cularly the shanks of mutton ; all of 
which are capable of adding flavour , 
and richness to the soup. The 
bones, heads, and fins of fish, con- 
taining a portion of isinglass, may 
also be very usefully applied, by 
stewing them in the water in which 
the fish is boiled, and adding it to 
the soup, with the gravy that is left 
in the dish. If strained, it consi- 
derably improves the meat soup, 
particularly for the sick ; and when 
such are to be supplied, the milder 
parts of the spare bones and meat 
should be used, with very little of 
the liquor of the salt meats. If a 
soup be wanted for the weakly and 
infirm, put two cow heels and a 
breast of mutton into a large pan, M 
with four ounces of rice, one onion, " 
twenty corns of Jamaica pepper, 
and twenty black, a turnip, and car- 
rot, and four gallons of water. Co- 
ver it with white paper, and bake it 
six hours. 

CHEESE. This well-known arti- 
cle of domestic consumption, is pre- 
pared from curdled milk, cleared 
from the whey. It differs very much 
in quality and flavour, according to 
the pasture in which the cows feed, 
and the manner in which the article 
itself is made. The same land rarely 
produces very fine butter, and r«- 

L 73 


C H E 

markably fine cheese ; yet with pro- 
per management, it may give one 
pretty good, where the other excels 
in quality. Cheese made on the same 
land, from new milk, skimmed or 
mixed milk, will differ greatly, not 
only in richness, but also in taste. 
Valuable cheese may be made from 
a tolerable pasture, by taking the 
whole of two meals of milk, and 
proportioning the thickness of the 
vat to the quantity, rather than hav- 
ing a wide and flat one, as the for- 
mer will produce the mellowest 
cheese. Th|^ addition of a pound 
of fresh-made butter of a good qua- 
lity, will cause the cheese made on 
poor land to be of a very different 
quality from that usually produced 
by it. A few qheeses thus made, when 
the weather js not extremely hot, 
and when the cows are in full feed, 
are well adapted to the use of the 
parlour. Cheese for common family 
use may very well be produced by 
two meals of skim, and one of new 
milk ; or on good land, by the skim 
milk only. The principal ingredi- 
ent in making cheese is the rennet, 
maw, or inner part of a calf's sto- 
mach, which is cleaned, salted, and 
hung up in paper bags to dry. The 
night before it is used, it is washed 
and soaked in a little water. When 
the milk is ready, being put into a 
large tub, warm a part of it to the 
degree of new milk ; but if made too 
hot, the cheese will be tough. Pour 
in as much rennet as will curdle the 
milk, and then cover it over. Let it 
stand till completely turned ; then 
strike the curd down several times 
with the skimming dish, and let it 
separate, still keeping it covered. 
There are two modes of breaking the 
curd, and there will be a difference 
in the taste of the cheese, according 
as either is observed. One is to ga- 
ther it with the hands vt^y gently 
towards the side of the tub, letting 
the whey pass through the fingers 
till it. is cleared ; and lading it off 
as it collects. The other is, to get 

the whey from it by early breaking 
the curd. The last method deprives 
it of many of its oily particles, and 
is therefore less proper. In pursu- 
ing the process, put the vat on a 
ladder over the tub, and .fill it with 
curd by means of the skimmer. 
Press the curd close with the hand, 
add more as it sinks, and finally 
leave it two inches above the edge. 
Before the vat is filled, the cheese- 
cloth must be laid at the bottom ; 
and when full, drawn smooth over 
on all sides. In salting the cheese, 
two modes may be adopted ; either 
by mixing it in the curd while in the 
tub, after the whey is out, or by 
putting it in the vat, and crumbling 
the curd all to pieces with it, after 
the first squeezing with the hand 
has dried it. These different me- 
thods prevail in the difl'erent parts 
of the country. Put a board under 
and over the vat, and place it in the 
press : in two hours turn it out, and 
put in a fresh cheesecloth. Press 
it again for eight or nine hours, salt 
it all over, and turn it again in the 
vat. Let it stand in the press four- 
teen or sixteen hours, observing to 
put the cheeses last made under- 
most. Before putting them the last 
time into the vat, pare the edges if 
they do not look smooth. The vat 
should have holes at the sides, and 
at the bottom, to let all the whey 
pass through. Put on clean boards, 
and change and scald them. When 
cheese is made, care must be taken 
to preserve it sound and good. For 
this purpose wash it occasionally in 
warm whey, wipe it once a month, 
and keep it on a rack. If wanted 
to ripen soon, a damp cellar will 
bring it forward. When a whole 
cheese is cut, the inside of the larger 
quantity should be spread with but- 
ter, and the outside wiped, to pre- 
serve it. To keep those in daily use 
moist, let a clean cloth be wrung 
out from cold water, and wrapt 
round them when carried from the 
table. Dry cheese may be used to 


ClI E 

advantage to grate for serving with 
macaroni or eating without ; and 
any thing tending to prevent waste, 
is of some consequence in a system 
of domestic economy. To preserve 
cheeses from decay, lay them in an 
airy situation, and cover them with 
dried leaves of the yellow star of 
Bethlehem. The tender branches 
of the common birch, will prevent 
the ravages of mites. If cheese get 
hard, and lose its flavour, pour some 
sweet wine over four ounces of 
pearlash, till the liquor ceases to 
ferment. Filter the solution, dip 
into it some clean linen cloths, cover 
the cheese with them, and put in a 
eool dry place. Turn the cheese 
every day, repeat the application 
for some weeks, and the cheese will 
recover its former flavour and good- 

CHEESECAKES. Strain the whey 
from the curd of two quarts of milk ; 
when rather dry, crumble it through 
a coarse sieve. With six ounces of 
fresh butter, mix one ounce of 
blanched almonds pounded, a little 
orange-flower water, half a glass of 
raisin wine, a grated biscuit, four 
ounces of currants, some nutmeg and 
cinnamon in fine powder. Beat 
them up together with three eggs, 
and half a pint of cream, till quite 
light : then fill the pattipans three 
parts full. — To make a plainer sort 
of cJieesecakes, turn three quarts of 
milk to curd ; break it and drain off 
the whey. When quite dry, break 
it in a pan, with two ounces of but- 
ter, till perfectly smooth. Add a 
pint and a half of thin cream or good 
milk, a little sugar, cinnamon and 
nutmeg, and three ounces of cur- 
rants. — Another way is to mix the 
curd of three quarts of milk, a pound 
of currants, twelve ounces of Lisbon 
sugar, a quarter of an ounce of cin- 
namon, the same of nutmeg, the peel 
of one lemon chopped as fine as pos- 
sible, the yolks of eight and the 
whites of six eggs, a pint of scalded 
cream and a glass of brandy. Put 

a light thin puff paste in the patti- 
pans, and three parts fill them. 

CHEESE PUFFS. Strain some 
cheese curd from the whey, and beat 
half a pint of it fine in a mortar, 
with a spoonful and a half of flour, 
three eggs, but only one white. Add 
a spoonful of orange-flower water, a 
quarter of a nutmeg, and sugar to 
make it pretty sweet. Lay a little 
of this paste, in small round cakes, 
on a tin plate. If the oven be hot, 
a quarter of an hour will bake them. 
Serve the pufts with pudding sauce. 

CHERRY BRANDi. Stone ten 
pounds of black cherrie?^ bruise the 
stones in a mortar, and put them to 
a gallon of the best brandy Let it 
stand a month close covered, pour 
it clear from the sedimeyt, and bot- 
tle it. Morella cherries managed in 
this way will make^ a fine rich cor- 

CHERRY JAM. To twelve pounds 
of ripe fruit, Kentish or duke cher- 
ries, weigh one pound of sugar. 
Break the stones of part, and blancli 
them ; then put them to the fruit 
and sugar, and boil all gently till the 
jam comes clear from the pan. Pour 
it into china plates to come up dry 
to the table, and keep it in boxes 
with white paper between. 

CHERRY PIE. This should have 
a mixture of other fruit ; currants 
or raspberries, or both. Currant 
pie is also best with raspberries. 

CHERRY WINE. Mash some 
ripe cherries, and press them through 
a hair sieve. Allow three pounds of 
lump sugar to two quarts of juice, 
stir them together till the sugar is 
dissolved, and fill a small barrel 
with the liquor. Add a little brandy, 
close down the bung when it has 
done hissing, let it stand six months 
and bottle it ofi^". 

some fine morellas, cut off" half the 
stalk, prick them with a new needle, 
and drop them into a jar or wide- 
mouth bottle. Pound three quarters 
of the weight of sugar or white candy, 


CH 1 

and strew over; fill the bottle up 
with brandy, and tie a bladder over. 

CHERVIL SAUCE. The flavour 
of this fine herb, so long a favourite 
with the French cook, is a strong 
concentration of the combined taste 
of parsley and fennel, but more aro- 
matic and agreeable than either, and 
makes an excellent sauce for boiled 
poultry or fish. Wash the chervil, 
and pick it very clean ; put a tea- 
spoonful of salt into half a pint of 
boiling water, boil the chervil about 
ten minutes, drain it on a sieve, and 
mince it very fine. Put it into a 
sauce boat, mix with it by degrees 
some good melted butter, and send 
it up in the boat. 

paring this article, the evening's 
milk is not touched till the next 
morning, when the cream is taken 
off and warmed in a pan, heated with 
boiling water ; one third part of the 
milk is heated in a similar manner. 
The cows being milked early in the 
morning, the new milk, and that of 
the preceding night thus prepared, 
are poured into a large tub along with 
the cream. A piece of rennet kept 
in lukewarm water since the preced- 
ing evening, is put into the tub in 
order to curdle the milk, and the 
curd is coloured by an infusion of 
marigolds or carrots being rubbed 
into it. It is then stirred together, 
covered up warm, and allowed to 
stand about half an hour till it is 
coagulated ; when it is first turned 
over with a bowl to separate the 
whey from the curds, and broken 
soon after into small pieces. When 
it has stood some time, the whey is 
taken out, and a weight laid at the 
bottom of the tub to press out the 
remainder. As soon as it becomes 
more solid, it is cut into slices, and 
turned over several times to extract 
all the whey, and again pressed with 
weights. Being taken out of the 
tub, it is broken very small, salted, 
and put into a cheese vat. It is then 
strongly pressed and weighted, and 

wooden skewers are placed round the 
cheese, which are frequently drawn 
out. It is then shifted out of the vat 
with a cloth placed at the bottom ; 
and being turned it is put into the vat 
again. The upper part is next broken 
by the hand down to the middle, salt- 
ed, pressed, weighted, and skewered 
as before, till all the whey is extract- 
ed. The cheese is then reversed into 
another vat, likewise warmed with a 
cloth under it, and a tin hoop put 
round the upper part of the cheese. 
These operations take up the greater 
part of the forenoon ; the pressing 
of the cheese requires about eight 
hours more, as it must be twice turn- 
ed in the vat, round which thin wire 
skewers are passed, and shifted oc- 
casionally. The next morning it 
ought to be turned and pressed 
again ; and on the following day 
the outside is salted, and a cloth 
binder tied round it. The outsides 
are sometimes rubbed with butter, in 
order to give them a coat ; and be- 
ing turned and cleaned every day, 
they are left to dry two or three 

CHICKENS. Fowls are chiefly 
considered as an article of luxury, 
and are generally sold at a high 
price ; yet the rearing of them is 
seldom productive of much pecuni- 
ary advantage. They are liable to 
innumerable accidents in their ear- 
ly stages, which require incessant 
watchfulness and care ; and if the 
grain on which they feed is to be 
purchased, the labour and expence 
are scarcely requited by the price 
they bear in the market. The Irish 
peasantry are in the habit of rearing 
a great number of fowls, by substi- 
tuting the oiFal of potatoes instead 
of grain ; but the flesh is neither so 
firm nor so good as that of chickens 
raised in England. It is much to be 
desired therefore, that encoorrage- 
ment could be given to the cottagers 
of this counta'y for rearing a larger 
quantity of poultry, by means less 
expensive than the present^ in order 


Cii I 

that the market might be siijipiied on 
better terms with an article of food 
so tine and delicate, and in such ge- 
neral respect. Various artificial 
means have been used for brooding 
chickens, in order to increase their 
number, and to bring them forward 
at an earlier season, but none of them 
have been found to answer, though 
in Egypt immense quantities are 
raised every year by the heat of 
ovens, bringing the eggs to a state 
of maturity. A well-fed hen is sup- 
posed to lay about two hundred eggs 
in a year ; but as she does not sit 
more than once or tw ice in that time, 
it is but a small quantity of chickens 
that can be hatched in the usual way, 
and it would be highly desirable if 
some other expedient could be de- 
vised. — The most expeditious way of 
fattening chickens is to mix a quan- 
tity of rice flour sufficient for pre- 
sent use, Avith milk and a little 
coarse sugar, and stir it over the fire 
till it comes to a thick paste. Feed 
the chickens with it while it is warm 
by putting as much into their coops 
as they can eat ; and if a little beer 
be given them to drink, it will fatten 
them very soon. A mixture of oat- 
meal and treacle made into crumbs 
is also good food for chickens ; and 
they are so fond of it, that they will 
grow and fatten much faster than 
in the common way. Poultry in ge- 
neral should be fed in coops, and 
kept very clean. Their common 
food is barley meal mixed with wa- 
ter : this should not be put in troughs, 
but laid upon a board, which should 
be washed clean every time fresh 
food is put upon it. The common 
complaint of fowls, called the pip, is 
chiefly occasioned by foul and heat- 
ed water being given them. No 
water should be allowed, more than 
is mixed up with their food ; but 
they should often be provided with 
some clean gravel in their coop. — 
The method of fattening poultry for 
the London market, is liable to great 
objection. They are put into a dark 

};Ucc, and crammed with a paste 
made of barley meal, mutton suet, 
treacle or coarse sugar, mixed with 
milk, which makes them ripe in about 
a fortnight ; but if kept longer, the 
fever that is iuduced by this conti- 
nual state of repletion, renders them 
red and unsaleable, and frequently 
kills them. Air and exercise are as 
indispensable to the health of poul- 
try as to other animals ; and without 
it, the fat will be all accumulated in 
the cellular membrane, instead of 
being dispersed throughout the sys- 
tem. A barn-door fowl is prefera- 
ble to any other, only that it cannot 
be fatted in so short a time. 

CHICKEN BROTH. Having boil- 
ed a chicken for panada, take off 
the skin and the rump, and put it 
into the water it was boiled in. Add 
one blade of mace, a slice of onion, 
and ten corns of white pepper. Sim- 
mer it till the broth be of a pleasant 
flavour, adding a little water if ne- 
cessary. Beat a quarter of an ounce 
of sweet almonds with a tea-spoon- 
ful of w ater till it is quite fine, boil 
it in the broth, and strain it. When 
cold, remove the fat. ^ 

CHICKEN CURRIE. Cut up the ^ 
chicken raw, slice onions, and fry 
both in butter with great care, of a 
fine light brown ; or if chickens that 
have been dressed are used, fry only 
the onions. Having cut the joints 
into two or three pieces each, lay 
them in a stewpan, with veal or mut- 
ton gravy, and a clove or two of 
garlic. Simmer till the chicken is 
quite tender. Half an hour before 
serving it up, rub smooth a spoonful 
or two of currie powder, a spoonful 
of flour, and an ounce of butter; 
and add this to the stew, with four 
large spoonfuls of cream, and a little 
salt. Squeeae in a small lemon, 
when the dish is going to table. — 
A more easy way to make currie is 
to cut up a chicken or young rabbit ; 
if chicken, take off the skin. Roll 
each piece in a mixture of a large 
spoonful of flour, and half an ounce 



of currie powder. Slice two or three 
onions, and fry them in butter, of a 
light brown ; then add the meat, 
and fry all together till the meat be- 
gin to brown. Put all into a stew- 
pan, cover it with boiling water, and 
simmer very gently two or three 
hours. If too thick, add more water 
half an hour before serving. If the 
meat has been dressed before, a 
little broth will be better than water, 
but the currie is richer when made 
of fresh meat. Slices of underdone 
veal, turkey, or rabbit, will make 
excellent currie. A dish of rice 
boiled dry should be served with it. 
chicken in a quart of water, till about 
three parts ready. Take off the 
skin, cut off the white meat when 
cold, and pound it to a paste in a 
marble mortar, with a little of the 
liquor it was boiled in. Season it 
with a little salt, a grate of nutmeg, 
and the least bit of lemon peel. Boil 
it gently for a few minutes till it be 
tolerably thick, but so it may be 
drank. The flesh of a chicken thus 
reduced to a small compass, will be 
*% found very nourishing. 

CHICKEN PIE. Cut up two 
young fowls, season them with white 
pepper, salt, a little mace, nutmeg, 
and cayenne, all finely powdered. Put 
alternately in layers the chicken, sli- 
ces of ham, or fresh gammon of ba- 
con, forcemeat balls, and eggs boiled 
hard. If baked in a dish, add a little 
water, but none if in a raised crust. 
Prepare some veal gravy from the 
knuckle or scrag, with some shank- 
bones of mutton, seasoned with herbs, 
onions, mace, and white pepper, to 
be poured into the pie when it re- 
turns from the oven. If it is to be 
eaten hot, truffles, morels, and mush- 
rooms may be added ; but not if it 
is to be eaten cold. If baked in a 
raised crust, the gravy must be nice- 
ly strained, and then put in cold as 
jelly. To make the jelly clear, give 
it a boil with the whites of two eggs, 
after taking awav the meat, and then 

run it through a fine lawn sieve. — 
Rabbits, if young and fleshy, will 
make as good a pie. Their legs 
should be cut short, and their breast- 
bones must not go in, but will help 
to make the gravv. 

CHICKEN SAUCE. An anchovy 
or two boned and chopped, some 
parsley and onion chopped, and 
mixed together, with pepper, oil, vi- 
negar, mustard, walnut or mushroom 
ketchup, will make a good sauce for 
cold chicken, veal, or partridge. 

CHILI VINEGAR. Slice fifty 
English chilies, fresh and of a good 
colour, and infuse them in a pint of 
the best vinegar. In a fortnight, 
this will give a much finer flavour 
than can be obtained from foreign 
cayenne, and impart an agreeable 
relish to fish sauce. 

the fronts of stone chimney-pieces, 
mix oil varnish with lamp black that 
has been sifted, and a little spirit of 
turpentine to thin it to the consist- 
ence of paint. Wash the stone very 
clean with soap and water, and 
sponge it with clear water. When 
perfectly dry, brush it over twice 
with this colour, leaving it to dry 
between the times, and it will look 
extremely well. 

CHINA. Broken china may be 
repaired with cement, made of equal 
parts of glue, the white of an e^g, 
and white-lead mixed together. The 
juice of garlic, bruised in a stone 
mortar, is also a fine cement for bro- 
ken glass or china ; and if carefully 
applied, will leave no mark behind 
it. Isinglass glue, mixed with a lit- 
tle finely sifted chalk, will answer 
the same purpose, if the articles be 
not required to endure heat or mois- 

CHINA CHILO. Mince a pint- 
basonful of undressed neck or leg of 
mutton, with some of the fat. Put 
into a stewpan closely covered, two 
onions, a lettuce, a pint of green 
peas, a tea-spoonful of salt, the same 
quantity of pepper, four spoonfuls 



of water, and two or three ounces 
of clarified butter. Simmer them 
together two hours, add a little cay- 
enne if approved, and serve in the 
middle of a dish of boiled dry rice. 

has been salted and dried requires 
to be soaked several hours in cold 
water, and scraped clean. Then 
take a handful of beech, half as 
much parsley, a few sprigs of thyme, 
and a little sage, finely chopped to- 
gether. Make some holes in the 
chine with the point of a knife, fill 
them with the herbs, skewer the 
meat up in a cloth, and boil it slowly 
about three hours. A dried pig's 
face is cooked in the same manner, 
adding a little salt, pepper, and 
bread crumbs to the stuffing. 

CHOCOLATE. Those who use 
much of this article, will find the 
following mode of preparing it both 
useful and economical. Cut a cake 
of chocolate into very small pieces, 
and put a pint of water into the pot ; 
when it boils, put in the chocolate. 
Mill it off the fire till quite melted, 
then on a gentle fire till it boil ; pour 
it into a bason, and it will keep in a 
cool place eight or ten days or more. 
When wanted, put a spoonful or two 
into some milk ; boil it with sugar, 
and mill it well. If not made too 
thick, this will form a very good 
breakfast or supper. 

into one quart of thick cream, an 
ounce of the best chocolate, and a 
quarter of a pound of sugar. Boil 
and mill it : when quite smooth, take 
it off the fire, and leave it to be cold. 
Then add the whites of nine eggs ; 
whisk it, and take up the froth on 
sieves, as other creams are done. 
Serve up the froth in glasses, to rise 
above some of the cream. 

CHOLIC. Young children are 
often afflicted with griping pains in 
the bowels ; and if attended with 
costiveness, it will be necessary to 
give them very small doses of manna 
and rhubarb every half hour, till 

they produce the desired effect. 
When the stools are green, a few 
drams of magnesia, with one or two 
of rhubarb, according to the age of 
the patient, may be given with ad- 
vantage ; but the greatest benefit 
will be derived from clysters made 
of milk, oil and sugar, or a solution 
of white soap and water. A poultice 
of bread, milk and oil, may likewise 
be applied to the lower part of the 
belly, and frequently renewed with 
a little warm milk to give it a proper 
consistence. The cholic in adults 
arises from a variety of causes, not 
easily distinguished except by pro- 
fessional persons ; and therefore it 
is absolutely necessary to abstain 
from all violent remedies, or it may 
be attended with fatal consequences. 
Nothing can be applied with safety 
but emollient clysters and fomen- 
tations, and to drink copiously of 
camomile tea, or any other diluting 
liquor, till the spasms be relieved, 
and the nature of the disease more 
clearly understood. Persons who 
are subject to the bilious cholic in 
particular,should abstain from acrid, 
watery and oily food, especially but- |p 
ter, fat meat, and hot liquors : *nd 
pursue a calm and temperate course 
of life. 

common water, and then in rose wa- 
ter, a quarter of a pound of hog's 
lard not salted ; mix with it the 
yolks of two new- laid eggs, and a 
large spoonful of honey. Add as 
much fine oatmeal, or almond paste, 
as will work it into a paste ; and by 
frequently rubbing it on the hands, 
it will keep them smooth, and pre- 
vent their being chopped. 

CHOPPED LIPS. Put into a new 
tin saucepan, a quarter of an ounce 
of benjamin, storax, and spermaceti, 
two pennyworth of alkanet root, a 
large juicy apple chopped, a bunch 
of black grapes bruised, a quarter 
of a pound of unsalted butter, and 
two ounces of bees wax. Simmer 
them together till all be dissolved, 



and strain it through a linen. When 
cold melt it again, and pour it into 
small pots or boxes, or make it into 
cakes on the bottoms of tea-cups. 

CHUMP OF VEAL. To dress 
it d-la-daube, cut off the chump end 
of the loin, take out the edge bone, 
stuff the hollow with good forcemeat, 
tie it up tight, and lay it in a stew- 
pan with the bone that was taken 
out, a little faggot of herbs, an an- 
chovy, two blades of mace, a few 
white peppercorns, and a pint of 
good veal broth. Cover the veal 
with slices of fat bacon, and lay a 
sheet of white paper over it. Cover 
the pan close, simmer it two hours, 
then take out the bacon, and glaze 
the veal. Serve it on mushrooms, 
with sorrel sauce, or any other that 
may be preferred. 

CHURNING. In order to pre- 
pare for this important operation, 
the milk when drawn from the cow, 
and carefully strained through a 
cloth or hair sieve, should be put 
into flat wooden trays about three 
inches deep, and perfectly clean and 
cool. The trays are then to be 
placed on shelves, till the cream be 
c{«apletely separated ; when it is to 
be nicely taken off with a skimming 
dish, without lifting or stirring the 
milk. The cream is then deposited 
in a separate vessel, till a proper 
quantity is collected for churning. 
In hot weather, the milk should stand 
only twenty-four hours, and be skim- 
med early in the morning before the 
dairy becomes warm, or in the even- 
ing after sun-set. In winter the 
milk may remain unskimmed for six 
and thirty or even eight and forty 
hours. The cream should be pre- 
served in a deep pan during the sum- 
mer, and placed in the coolest part 
of the dairy, or in a cellar where 
free air is admitted. The cream 
which rises first to the surface is 
richer in quality, and larger in quan- 
tity, than what rises afterwards. 
Thick milk produces a smaller pro- 
portion of cream than that u hich is 

thinner, though the former is of a 
richer quality : if therefore the thick 
milk be diluted with water, it will 
afford more cream, but its quality 
will be inferior. Milk carried about 
in pails, and partly cooled before it 
be strained and poured into the 
trays, never throws up such good 
and plentiful cream, as if it had been 
put into proper vessels immediately 
after it came from the cow. Those 
who have not an opportunity of 
churning every other day, should 
shift the cream daily into clean pans, 
in order to keep it cool ; but the 
churning should take place regular- 
ly twice a week in hot weather, and 
in the morning before sun-rise, tak- 
ing care to iix the churn in a free 
circulation of air. In the winter 
time, the churn must not be set so 
near the fire as to heat the wood, 
as by this means the butter will ac- 
quire a strong rancid flavour. Clean- 
liness being of the utmost import- 
ance, the common plunge-churn is 
preferable to any other ; but if a 
barrel-churn be requisite in a large 
dairy, it must be kept thoroughly 
clean with salt and water. If a 
plunge-churn be used, it may be set 
in a tub of cold water during the 
time of churning, which will harden 
the butter in a considerable degree. 
The motion of the churn should be 
regular, and performed by one per- 
son, or the butter will in winter go 
back ; and if the agitation be violent 
and irregular, the butter will ferment 
in summer, and acquire a disagree- 
able flaveur. The operation of 
churning may be much facilitated by 
adding a table-spoonful or two of 
distilled vinegar to a gallon of cream, 
but not till after the latter has un- 
dergone considerable agitation. In 
many parts of England, butter is ar- 
tificially coloured in winter, though 
it adds nothing to its goodness. The 
juice of carrots is expressed through 
a sieve, and mixed with the cream 
when it enters the churn, to give it 
the appearance of May butter. Very 



little salt is used in the best Eppiiig 
butter ; but a certain proportion of 
acid, either natural or artificial, 
must be used in the cream, in order 
to secure a successful churning. 
Some keep a small quantity of the 
old cream for that purpose ; some 
use a little rennet, and others a few 
tea-spoonfuls of lemon juice. It has 
been ascertained however, by a va- 
riety of experiments, that it is more 
profitable to churn the cream, than 
to churn the whole milk, as is prac- 
tised in some parts of the country. 
Cream butter is also the richest of 
the two, though it will not keep 
sweet so long. 

CIDER. Particular caution is re- 
quisite in bottling this useful bever- 
age, in order to its being well pre- 
served. To secure the bottles from 
bursting, the liquor must be tho- 
roughly fine before it be racked off. 
If one bottle break, it will be neces- 
sary to open the remainder, and cork 
them up again. Weak cider is more 
apt to burst the bottles, than that of 
a better quality. Good corks, soak- 
ed in hot water, will be more safe and 
pliant ; and by laying the bottles so 
that the liquor may always keep the 
corks wet and swelled, will tend 
much to its preservation. For this 
purpose the ground is preferable to 
a frame, and a layer of sawdust bet- 
ter than the bare floor ; but the most 
proper situation would be a stream 
of running water. In order to ripen 
bottled liquors, they are sometimes 
exposed to moderate warmth, or the 
rays of the sun, which in ^ few days 
will bring them to maturity. 

CIDER CUP. To make a cooling 
drink, mix together a quart of cider, 
a glass of white wine, one of brandy, 
one of capillaire, the juice of a le- 
mon, a bit of the peel pared thin, a 
sprig of borage or bifeim, a piece of 
toasted bread, and nutmeg grated 
on the top. 

together in a pan six eggs, and two 
table-spoonfuls of rose water. Add 

a pound of fine sugar sifted, a de- 
sert-spoonful of pounded cinnamon, 
and flour sufficient to make it into 
a paste. Roll it out, cut it into 
cakes, and bake them on writing 

Windsor beans quite soft, take off 
the skins, and beat a quarter of a 
pound of them into a paste. Then 
add as much butter, four eggs well 
beaten, with some sugar and brandy. 
Put a puff-paste in the dish, lay somp 
slices of citron on it, pour in the 
pudding, garnish with bits of citron 
round the edge of the dish, and bake 
it in a moderate oven. 

or gravy into a clean stewpan, break 
the white and shell of an egg, beat 
them together and add them to 
the broth. Stir it with a whisk ; and 
when it has boiled a {ew minutes, 
strain it through a tammis or a nap- 

clarified butter for potted things, 
put some butter into a sauceboat, 
and set it over the fire in a stewpan 
that has a little water in it. When 
the butter is dissolved, the milky 
parts will sink to the bottom, and 
care must be taken not to pour them 
over things to be potted. 

ton fat taken from the meat before 
it is roasted, or any kind of dripping, 
may be sliced and boiled a few mi- 
nutes ; and when it is cold, it will 
come off in a cake. This will make 
good crust for any sort of meat pie, 
and may be made finer by boiling it 
three or four times. 

large lumps as much loaf sugar as 
is required, and dissolve it in a bowl, 
allowing a pound of sugar to half a 
pint of water. Set it over the fire, 
and add the white of an egg well 
whipt. Let it boil up ; and when 
ready to run over, pour in a little 
cold water to give it a check. But 
when it rises the second time, take 

M 81 



it off the fire, and set it by in a pan 
a quarter of an hour. The fouhiess 
will sink to the bottom, and leave a 
black scum on the top, which must 
be taken off gently with a skimmer. 
Then pour the syrup very quickly 
tVqm the sediment, and set it by for 

pounds of double-refined sugar, and 
put it into a stewpan that is well 
tinned, with a pint of cold spring 
water. When the sugar is dissolved, 
set it over a moderate fire. Beat up 
half the white of an egg, put it to 
the sugar before it gets warm, and 
stir it well together. As soon as it 
boils take off the scum, and keep it 
boiling till it is perfectly clear. Run 
it through a clean napkin, put it 
into a close stopped bottle, and it 
will keep for months, as an elegant 
article en the sideboard for sweet- 

CLARY WINE. Boil fifteen gal- 
lons of water, with forty-five pounds 
of sugar, and skim it clean. When 
cool put a little to a quarter of a 
pint of yeast, and so by degrees add 
a little more. In the course of an 
hour put the smaller to the larger 
quantity, pour the liquor on clary 
flowers, picked in the dry : the quan- 
tity for the above is twelve quarts. 
If there be not a sufficient quantity 
ready to put in at once, more may 
be added by degress, keeping an 
account of each quart. When the 
liquor ceases to hiss, and the flowers 
are all in, stop it up for four months. 
Rack it off', empty the barrel of the 
dregs, and add a gallon of the best 
brandy. Return the liquor to the 
cask, close it up for six or eight 
weeks, and then bottle it off. 

CLEANLINESS. Nothing is more 
conducive to health than cleanliness, 
and the want of it is a fault which 
admits of no excuse. It is so agree- 
able to our nature, that we cannot 
help approving it in others, even if 
we do not practise it ourselves. It 
is an ornament to the highest as 


Avell as to the lowest station, and 
cannot be dispensed with in either : 
it ought to be cultivated everywhere, 
especially in populous towns and 
cities. Frequent washing, not only 
improves the appearance, but pro- 
motes perspiration, by removing 
every impediment on the skin, while 
at the same time it braces the body, 
and enlivens the spirits. Washing 
the feet and legs in lukewarm water, 
after being exposed to cold and wet, 
would prevent the ill effects which 
proceed from these causes, and 
greatly contribute to health. Dis- 
eases of the skin, a very numerous 
class, are chiefly owing to the want 
of cleanliness, as well as the various 
kinds of vermin which infest the hu- 
man body ; and all these might be 
prevented by a due regard to our 
own persons. One common cause 
of putrid and malignant fevers is 
the want of cleanliness. They usu- 
ally begin among the inhabitants of 
close and dirty houses, who breathe 
unwholesome air, take little exer- 
cise, and wear dirty clothes. There 
the infection is generally hatched, 
and spreads its desolation far and 
wide. If dirty people cannot be re- 
moved as a common nuisance, they 
ought at least to be avoided as in- 
fectious, and all who regard their 
own health should keep at a distance 
from their habitations. Infectious 
diseases are often communicated by 
tainted air : every thing therefore 
which gives a noxious exhalation, or 
tends to spread infection, should be 
carefully ^voided. In great towns 
no filth of any kind should be suffer- 
ed to remain in the streets, and great 
pains should be taken to keep every 
dwelling clean both within and with- 
out. No dunghills or filth of any 
kind should be allowed to remain 
near them. When an infection breaks 
out, cleanliness is the most likely 
means to prevent its spreading to 
other places, or its returning again 
afterwards. It will lodge a long time 
in dirty clothes, and be liable to 



break out again ; and therefore the 
bedding and clothing of the sick 
ought to be carefully washed, and 
fumigated with brimstone. Infec- 
tious diseases are not only prevented, 
but even cured by cleanliness ; while 
the slightest disorders, where it is 
neglected, are often changed into 
the most malignant. Yet it has so 
happened, that the same mistaken 
care which prevents the least admis- 
sion of fresh air to the sick, has in- 
troduced the idea also of keeping 
them dirty ; than which nothing can 
be more injurious to the afflicted, or 
more repugnant to common sense. 
In a room too, where cleanliness is 
neglected, a person in perfect health 
has a greater chance to become sick, 
than a sick person has to get well. 
It is also of great consequence, that 
cleanliness should be strictly re- 
garded by those especially who are 
employed in preparing food ; such 
as butchers, bakers, brewers, dairy 
maids, and cooks ; as negligence in 
any of these may prove injurious to 
the public health. Good house- 
keepers will keep a careful eye on 
these things, and every person of re- 
flection will see the necessity of cul- 
tivating general cleanliness as of 
great importance to the wellbeing 
of society. 

CLEAR BROTH. To make a 
broth that will keep long, put the 
mouse round of beef into a deep pan, 
with a knuckle bone of veal, and a 
few shanks of mutton. Cover it close 
with a dish or coarse crust, and bake 
with as much water as will cover it, 
till the beef is done enough for eat- 
ing. When cold, cover it close, and 
keep it in a cool place. When to 
be used, give it any flavour most 

CLEAR GRAVY. Slice some 
beef thin, broil a part of it over a 
very clear quick fire, just enough to 
give a colour to the gravy, but not 
to dress it. Put that and the raw 
beef into a very nicely tinned stew- 
pan, with two onions, a clove or two. 

whole black pepper, berries of all- 
spice, and a bunch of sweet herbs. 
Cover it with hot water, give it one 
boil, and skim it well two or three 
times. Then cover it, and simmer 
till it be quite strong. 

CLOTHING. Those who regard 
their health should be careful to 
adapt their clothing to the state of 
the climate, and the season of the 
year. Whatever be the influence of 
custom, there is no reason why our 
clothing should be such as would 
suit an inhabitant of the torrid or 
the frigid zones, but of the state of 
the air around us, and of the coun- 
try in which we live. Apparel may 
be warm enough for one season of 
the year, which is by no means suf- 
ficient for another ; we ought there- 
fore neither to put oft' our winter 
garments too soon, nor wear our 
summer ones too long. Every change 
of this sort requires to be made cau- 
tiously, and by degrees. In general, 
all clothes should be light and easy, 
and in no instance ought health and 
comfort to be sacrificed to pride 
and vanity. In the early part of life 
it is not necessary to wear many 
clothes : but in the decline of life, 
when many diseases proceed from a 
defect of perspiration, plenty of 
warm clothing is required. Atten- 
tion should also be paid to the con- 
stitution, in this as well as in other 
cases. Some persons can endure 
either cold or heat better than others, 
and may therefore be less mindful of 
their clothing : the great object is 
to wear just so many garments as is 
suflicient to keep the body warm, 
ai^jd no more. Shoes in particular 
should be easy to the foot, and all 
tight bandages on every part of the 
body carefully avoided. 

CLOUTED CREAM. String four 
blades of mace on a thread, put 
them to a gill of new milk, and six 
spoonfuls of rose water. Simmer a 
few minutes, then by degrees strain 
the liquor to the yolks of two eggs 
Avell beaten. Sti? the whole into a 

CO c 


quart of rich cream, and set it over 
the fire ; keep it stirring till hot, but 
not boiling ; pour it into a deep dish, 
and let it stand twenty-four hours. 
Serve it in a cream dish, to eat with 
fruits. Some prefer it without any 
flavour but that of cream ; in which 
case use a quart of new milk and 
the cream, or do it as the Devon- 
shire scalded cream. When done 
enough, a round mark will appear 
on the surface of the cream, the size 
of the bottom of the pan, which is 
called the ring ; and wften that is 
seen, remove the pan from the fire. 

CLYSTER. A common clyster is 
made of plain gruel strained, and a 
table-spoonful of oil or salt. A pint 
is sufficient for a grown person. 

COCK CHAFFERS. This species 
of the beetle, sometimes called the 
May bug, is a formidable enemy to 
the husbandman, and has been found 
to swarm in such numbers, as to 
devour every kind of vegetable pro- 
duction. The insect is first gene- 
rated in the earth, from the eggs 
deposited by the fly in its perfect 
state. In about three months, the 
insects contained in these eggs break 
the shell, and crawl forth in the 
shape of a grub or maggot, which 
feeds upon the roots of vegetables, 
and continues in this state of secret 
annoyance for more than three years, 
gradually growing to the siiie of an 
acorn. It is the thick white maggot 
with a red head, so frequently found 
in turning up the soil. At the end 
of the fourth year, they emerge from 
the earth, and may be seen in great 
numbers in the mild evenings of 
May. The willow seems to be their 
favourite food ; on this they hang in 
clusters, and seldom quit it till they 
have completely devoured its foli- 
age. The most effectual way to de- 
stroy them, is to beat them off with 
poles, and then to collect and burn 
them. The smoke of burning heath, 
fern, or other weeds, will prevent 
their incursions in gardens, or expel 
them if they have entered. 
' 84 

COCK ROACHES. These in- 
sects, consisting of various species, 
penetrate into chests and drawers, 
and do considerable injury to linen, 
books, and other articles. They sel- 
dom appear till night, when they in- 
fest beds, and bite very severely, 
leaving an unpleasant smell. The 
best remedy is to fill an earthen dish 
with small beer, sweetened with 
coarse sugar, and set in the place 
infested. Lay a board against the 
pan, to form a kind of ladder, and 
the insects will ascend and fall into 
the liquor. 

cockles, scald them in their own 
liquor, and add a little water, if 
there be not enough ; but it is better 
to have a sufficient quantity of coc-/ 
kles, than to dilute it with water. 
Strain the liquor through a cloth, 
and season it with savoury spices. 
If for brown sauce, add port, ancho- 
vies, and garlic : a bit of burnt su- 
gar will heighten the colouring. If 
for white sauce, omit these, and put 
in a glass of sherry, some lemon 
juice and peel, mace, nutmeg, and 
white pepper. 

COD FISH. In season from the 
beginning of December till the end 
of April. To be quite good, the 
fish should be thick at the neck, the 
flesh white and firm, the gills very 
red, and the eyes bright and fresh. 
When flabby, they are not good. 
The cod is generally boiled whole ; 
but a large head and shoulders con- 
tain all that is relishing, the thinner 
parts being overdone and tasteless 
before the thick are ready. But the 
whole fish may often be purchased 
more reasonably ; and the lower 
half, if sprinkled and hung up, will 
be in high perfection one or two 
days. Or it may be made salter, 
and served with egg sauce, potatoes, 
and parsnips. Small cod is usually 
very cheap. If boiled fresh, it is 
watery ; but eats well if salted and 
hung up for a day, to give it firm- 
ness. Then it should be stuficd 



and boiledy or it is equally good 

COD'S HEAD. The head and 
shoulders of the cod will eat much 
finer by having a little salt rubbed 
down the bone, and along- the thick 
part, even if eaten the same day. 
Tie it up, put it on the fire in cold 
water sufficient to cover it, and throw 
a handful of salt into it. Great care 
must be taken to serve it up without 
the smallest speck of black, or scum. 
Garnish with plenty of double pars- 
ley, lemon, horse radish, and the 
milt, roe and liver, and fried smelts, 
if approved. If with smelts, no wa- 
ter must be suffered to hang about 
the fish, or the beauty and flavour 
of the smelts will be lost. Serve 
with plenty of oyster or shrimp 
sauce, anchovy and butter. 

COD PIE. Take a piece of the 
middle of a small cod, and salt it 
well one night. Wasjb it the next 
day, season with pepper and salt, 
mixed with a very little nutmeg. Lay 
the meat in a dish, with the addition 
of a little good broth of any kind, 
and some bits of butter on it. Cover 
the dish with a crust, and bake it. 
When done, make a sauce of a spoon- 
ful of broth, a quarter of a pint of 
cream, a little flour and butter, and 
a dust of grated lemon and nutmeg. 
Give it one boil, and pour it into 
the pie. Oysters may be added, 
but parsley will do instead. Mac- 
karel may be done in the same way, 
but must not be salted till they are 

them in warm water half an hour, 
then scrape and clean them. If to 
be dressed white, boil them in milk 
and water. When tender, serve them 
up in a napkin, with egg sauce. The 
salt must not be much soaked out, 
unless for fricassee. 

them in hot water, rub well with salt, 
pull off the dirty skin, and simmer 
them till tender. Then take them 

out, flour, and broil them. While 
this is doing, season a little brown 
gravy with pepper, salt, a tea-spoon- 
ful of soy, and a little mustard. 
Give it a boil with a little flour and 
butter, and pour it over th« sounds. 

ing scalded, cleaned, and rubbed 
them well with salt, stew them in 
white gravy seasoned. Before they . 
are served, add a little cream, but- 
ter and flour, gently boiling up. A 
bit of lemon peel, nutmeg, and the 
least pounded mace, will give it a 
good flavour. 

ENS. Carefully wash three large 
sounds, boil them in milk and water, 
but not too tender. When cold, put 
a forcemeat of chopped oysters, 
crumbs of bread, a bit of butter, 
nutmeg, pepper, salt, and the yolks 
of two eggs. Spread it thin over 
the sounds, roll up each in the form 
of a chicken, and skewer it. Then 
lard them as chickens, dust a little 
flour over, and roast them slowly in 
a tin oven. When done enough, pour 
over them a fine oyster sauce, and *.. 
place them on the table as a side or 
corner dish. 

CODLINS. This fruit may be 
kept for several months, if gathered 
of a middling size at midsummer, 
and treated in the following manner. 
Put them into an earthen pan, pour 
boiling water over them, and cover 
the pan with cabbage leaves. Keep 
them by the fire till ready ro peel, 
but do not peel them ; then pour off 
the water, and leave them cold. 
Place the codlins in a stone jar with 
a smallish mouth, and pour on the 
water that scalded them. Cover 
the pot with bladder wetted and tied ^< 
very close, and then over it coarse 
paper tie^ again. The fruit is besfe 
kept in small jars, such as will be 
used at once when opened. 

CODLIN CREAM. Pare and core 
twenty good codlins ; beat them in 
a mortar with a pint of cream, and 



strain it into a dish. Put to it sugar, 
bread crumbs, and a glass of wine ; 
and stir it well. 

CODLIN TART. Scald the fruit, 
and take off the skin. Put a little 
of the liquor on the bottom of a dish, 
lay in the apples whole, and strew 
them over with Lisbon or fine sugar. 
When cold, put a paste round the 
edges, and over the fruit. Moisten 
the crust with the white of an egg, 
and strew some fine sugar over it ; 
or cut the lid in quarters, without 
touching the paste on the edge of 
the dish. Remove the lid when cold, 
pour in a good custard, and sift it 
over with sugar. Another way is to 
line the bottom of a shallow dish 
with paste, lay in the scalded fruit, 
sweeten it, and lay little twists of 
paste over in bars. 

COFFEE. Put two ounces of 
fresh-ground coffee, of the best 
quality, into a coffee pot, and pour 
eight coffee cups of boiling water 
on it. Let it boil six minutes, and 
return it ; then put in two or three 
chips of isinglass, and pour on it 
one large spoonful of boiling water. 
Boil it five minutes more, and set 
the pot by the fire for ten minutes 
to keep it hot : the coffee will then 
be of a beautiful clearness. Fine 
cream should always be served with 
coffee, and either pounded sugar- 
candy, or fine Lisbon sugar. If for 
foreigners, or those who like it very 
strong, make only eight dishes from 
three ounces. If not fresh roasted, 
lay it before the fire until perfectly 
hot and dry ; or put the smallest bit 
of fresh butter into a preserving pan, 
and when hot, throw the coffee into 
it, and toss it about until it be fresh- 
ened, but let it be quite cold before 
it is ground. — But as coffee pos- 
sesses a raw and astringent quality, 
which often disagrees with weak 
stomachs, and by being drank too 
warm is as frequently rendered un- 
wholesome, the following is recom- 
mended as an improved method of 

preparing it. To an ounce of coffee, 
add a tea-spoonful of the best flour 
of mustard, to correct its acidity, 
and improve its fragrance ; and in 
order to render it truly fine and 
wholesome, it should be made the 
evening before it is wanted. Let 
an ounce of fresh-ground coffee be 
put into a clean coftee pot well tin- 
ned, pour upon it a full pint of boil- 
ing water, set it on the fire, and af- 
ter it has well boiled, let it stand by 
to settle. Next morning pour off 
the clear liquor, add to it a pint of 
new milk, warm it over the fire, and 
sweeten it to taste. Coffee made in 
this way, will be found particularly 
suitable to persons of a weak and 
delicate habit. — A substitute for fo- 
reign coffee may be prepared from 
the acorns of the oak. by shelling 
and dividing the kernels, drying and 
roasting them gradually in a close 
vessel, and keeping them constantly 
stirring. Grind it like other coffee, 
and either use it alone, or mix with 
it a small quantity of foreign coffee. 
The seeds of the flower de luce, or 
common waterflag, being roasted in 
the^same manner as coffee, very 
much resembles it in colour and fla- 
vour. Coffee made of these seeds 
is extremely wholesome, in the pro- 
portion of an ounce to a pint of 
boiling water. 

COFFEE CAKES. Melt some 
fresh butter in a pint of thin cream, 
and work up with it four pounds of 
dried flour. Add a pound of sugar, 
a pint of yeast, and half an ounce 
of carraways. Stir them all toge- 
ther, set it before the fire to rise, 
roll the paste out thin, cut it into 
small cakes, and bake them on but- 
tered paper. 

COFFEE CREAM. Boil a calf's 
foot in water till reduced to a pint 
of jelly, clear of sediment and fat. 
Make a tea-cupful of strong fresh 
coffee, clear it perfectly bright with 
isinglass, and pour it to the jel- 
ly. Add a pint of very good cream. 



sweeten it with fine Lisbon sugar, 
boil it up once, and pour it into the 
dish. This article is much admired, 
but the jelly must not be stiff, and 
the coffee must be fresh. 

COFFEE MILK. Boil a dessert- 
spoonful of ground coffee, in nearly 
a pint of milk, a quarter of an hour. 
Then put in a shaving or two of isin- 
glass to clear it ; let it boil a few 
minutes, and set it on the side of 
the fire to grow fine. This makes a 
very fine breakfast ; it should be 
sweetened with real Lisbon sugar of 
a good quality. 

COLD CAUDLE. Boil a quart 
of spring water ; when cold, add the 
yolk of an egg, the juice of a small 
lemon, six spoonfuls of sweet wine, 
sugar to taste, and syrup of lemons 
one ounce. 

COLD FISH. Soles, cod, whit- 
ings, or smelts may be cut into bits, 
and put into scallop shells, with cold 
oyster, lobster, or shrimp sauce. 
Having added some bread crumbs, 
they may be put into a Dutch oven, 
and browned like scalloped oysters. 

COLD MEAT. If it be a little 
underdone, the best way to waripri it 
up is to sprinkle over a little salt, 
and put it into a Dutch oven at some 
distance before a gentle fire, that it 
may warm gradually. Watch it care- 
fully, and keep turning it till it is 
quite hot and brown, and serve it up 
with gravy. This is preferable to 
hashing, as it will retain more of its 
original flavour. Roast beef or mut- 
ton, of course, are best for this pur- 

COLD SALLAD. Boil an egg 
quite hard, put the yolk into a sallad 
dish, mash it with a spoonful of wa- 
ter, then add a little of the best sal- 
lad oil or melted butter, a tea-spoon- 
ful of ready-made mustard, and some 
vinegar. Cut the sallad small and 
mix it together, adding celery, ra- 
dishes, or other sallad herbs with it. 
Onions may be served in a saucer, 
rather than mixed in the bowl. An 
anchovy may be washed, cut small, 

and mixed with it ; also a bit of beet 
root, and the white of an egg. Celery 
may be prepared in the same way. 

COLDS. For a bad cold take a 
large tea-cupful of linseed, two pen- 
nyworth of stick liquorice, and a 
quarter of a pound of sun raisins. 
Put them into two quarts of water, 
and let it simmer over a slow fire 
till reduced one half. Then add a 
quarter of a pound of sugar-candy 
pounded, a table- spoonful of rum, 
and the same of lemon juice or vi- 
negar. The rum and lemon juice 
are better added when the mixture 
is taken, or they are apt to grow 
flat. Take half a pint just warm at 
bed time. 

COLLARED BEEF. Choose the 
thin end of the flank of fine mellow 
beef, but not too fat : lay it into a 
dish with salt and saltpetre, turn 
and rub it every day for a week, 
and keep it cool. Then take out 
every bone and gristle, remove the 
skin of the inside part, and cover it 
thick with the following seasoning 
cut small ; a large handful of pars- 
ley, the same of sage, some thyme, 
marjoram and pennyroyal, pepper, 
salt, and allspice. Roll the meat up 
as tight as possible, and bind it 
rcund with a cloth and tape ; then 
boil it gently for seven or eight hours. 
Put the beef under a good weight 
while hot, without undoing it : the 
shape will them be oval. Part of 
a breast of veal rolled in with the 
beef, looks and eats very well. 

COLLARED EEL. Bone a large 
eel, but do not skin it. Mix up pep- 
per, salt, mace, allspice, and a clove 
or two, in the finest powder, and rub 
over the whole inside : roll it tight, 
and bind it with a coarse tape. Boil 
it in salt and water till done enough, 
then add vinegar, and when cold 
keep the collar in pickle. Serve it 
either whole or in slices. Chopped 
parsley, sage, a little thyme, knot- 
ted marjoram, and savoury, mixed 
with the spices, greatly improve the 




them the same as eels, omitting the 

out the bones and gristle of a breast 
of mutton, lay the meat flat, and rub 
it over with egg. Mix some grated 
bread, pounded cloves and mace, 
pepper, salt, and lemon peel, and 
strew over it. Two or three ancho- 
vies, washed and boned, may be 
added. Roll the meat up hard, bind 
it with tape and boil it ; or if skew- 
ered, it may either be roasted or 

breast of pork, and season it with 
thyme, parsley and sage. Roll it 
hard, tie it up in a cloth, and boil it. 
Press it well, take it out of the cloth 
when cold, and keep it in the liquor 
it was boiled in. 

Clean it well, take out the brains, 
rub it with a handful of salt, and 
two ounces of saltpetre. Let it lie 
a fortnight in brine, then wash it, 
and boil it till the bones will easily 
come out. Lay it in a dish, take off 
the skin carefully, take out the bones, 
and peel the tongue. Mix a handful 
of sage, a little thyme, and four sha- 
lots chopped fine. Put the meat to 
it, and chop it into pieces about an 
inch square. Put a thin cloth tnto 
an earthen pot, lay in the meat, co- 
ver the cloth over, and press it down. 
Set the pot in the liquor again, boil 
it nearly an hour longer, then take 
it out, place a weight on the cover 
within side, and let it remain all 
night. Take it out, strip off the 
cloth, and eat the collar with mus- 
tard and vinegar. 

such part of the fish as may be suf- 
ficient to make a handsome roll, 
wash and wipe it ; and having mix- 
ed salt, white pepper, pounded 
mace, and Jamaica pepper, in quan- 
tity to season it very high, rub it in- 
side and out well. Then roll it tight 
and bandage it, put as much water 

and one third vinegar as will cover 
it, adding bay leaves, salt, and both 
sorts of pepper. Cover it close, and 
simmer till it is done enough. Drain 
and boil the liquor, put it on when 
cold, and serve with fennel. It is an 
elegant dish, and extremely good. 

breast and beat it, rub it with egg, 
and strew over it a seasoning of 
pounded mace, nutmeg, pepper and 
salt, minced parsley, sweet marjo- 
ram, lemon peel, crumbs of bread, 
and an anchovy. Roll it up tight in 
a cloth, and boil it two hours and a 
half in salt and water. Hang it up, 
or press it : make a pickle for it of 
the liquor it was boiled in, and half 
the quantity of vinegar. 

the crumb of a two-penny loaf, shred 
eight ounces of suet, and mix with 
eight ounces of currants, one of ci- 
tron mixed fine, one of orange, a 
handful of sugar, half a nutmeg, 
three eggs beaten, yolk and white 
separately. Mix and make into the 
size and shape of a goose-egg. Put 
half a pound of butter into a frying- 
pan ; and when melted and quite 
hot, stew them gently in it over a 
stove ; turn them two or three times, 
till they are of a fine light brown. 
Mix a glass of brandy with the bat- 
ter, and serve with pudding sauce. 

For a beautiful Red, take fifteen 
grains of cochineal in the finest 
powder, and a dram and a half of 
cream of tartar. Boil them in half 
a pint of water very slowly for half 
an hour, adding a bit of alum the 
size of a pea ; or use beet root sliced, 
and some liquor poured over. For 
White, use cream ; or almonds fine- 
ly powdered, with a spoonful of wa- 
ter. For Yellow, yolks of eggs, or 
a little saffron steeped in the liquor 
and squeezed. For Green, spinach 
or beet leaves bruised and pressed, 
and the juice boiled to take off the 
rawness. Any of these will do to 
stain jellies, ices, or cakes. 




four ounces of lump sugar, a gill of 
water, and half an ounce of fine but- 
ter into a small tosser, and set it 
over a gentle fire. Stir it with a 
wooden spoon, till of a light brown. 
Then add half a pint of water ; let 
it boil and skim it well. When cold, 
bottle and cork it close. Add to 
either soup or gravy as much of this 
as will give it a proper colour. 

COMMON CAKE. Mix three 
quarters of a pound of flour with 
half a pound of butter, four ounces 
of sugar, four eggs, half an ounce of 
carraways, and a glass of raisin 
wine. Beat it well, and bake it in 
a quick oven. — A better sort of com- 
mon cake may be made of half a 
pound of butter, rubbed into two 
pounds of dried flour ; then add 
three spoonfuls of yeast that is not 
bitter, and work it to a paste. Let 
it rise ^n hour and a half; then mix 
in the yolks and whites of four eggs 
beaten separately, a pound of Lis- 
bon sugar, about a pint of milk to 
make it of a proper thickness, a glass 
of sweet wine, the rind of a lemon, 
and a tea-spoonful of powdered gin- 
ger. A pound of currants, or some 
carraways may be added, and let 
the whole be well beaten together. 

tues of a great number of ordinary 
plants and weeds being but little 
understood, they are generally deem- 
ed useless ; but they have properties 
nevertheless which might be render- 
ed useful, if carefully and judicious- 
ly applied. The young shoots and 
leaves of chick-weed, for example, 
may be boiled and eaten like spinach, 
are equally wholesome, and can 
scarcely be distinguished from it. 
The juice expressed from the stem 
and leaves of goose-grass, taken to 
the amount of four ounces, night 
and morning for several weeks, is 
very efficacious in scorbutic com- 
plaints, and other cutaneous erup- 
tions. The smell of garlic is an in- 
fallible remedy against the vapours. 

faintings, and other hysterwJ affec- 
tions. The common poppy is an 
antidote to the stings of venomous 
insects, and a remedy for inflamma- 
tion of the eyes : it also cures the 
pleurisy, and spitting of blood. Sage 
taken in any form tends to cleanse 
and enrich the blood : it makes a 
good cordial, and is highly useful in 
cases of nervous debility. It is often 
given in fevers with a view to pro- 
mote perspiration, and with the ad- 
dition of a little lemon juice it makes 
a grateful and cooling beverage. 

COOL TANKARD. Put into a 
quart of mild ale a glass of white 
wine, one of brandy, one of capil- 
laire, the juice of a lemon, and a 
little piece of the rind. Add a sprig 
of borage or balm, a bit of toasted 
bread, and nutmeg grated on the top. 

COPPER. Many serious acci- 
dents have been occasioned by the ^ 
use of copper in kitchen requisites. 
The eating of fruit especially that 
has been prepared in a copper stew- 
pan, where some of the oxide was 
insensibly imbibed, has been known, 
to produce death ; or if coflfee 
grounds are suff'ered to remain long 
in a copper coffee-pot, and after- 
wards mixed with fresh coff*ee, for 
the sake of economy, the eff*ects will 
be highly injurious, if not fataL 
The best antidote in such cases, 
when they unhappily occur, is to 
take immediately a large spoonful of 
powdered charcoal, mixed with ho- 
ney, butter, or treacle ; and within 
two hours afterwards, an emetic or 
a cathartic to expel the poison. 

COPPERS. In domestic economy, 
the necessity of keeping copper ves- 
sels always clean, is generally ac- 
knowledged ; but it may not perhaps 
be so generally known, that fat and 
oily substances, and vegetable acids, 
do not attack copper while hot ; and 
therefore, that if no liquor were suf- 
fered to remain and grow cold in 
copper vessels, they might be used 
for every culinary purpose with per- 
fect safety. The object is to clean 

N 89 



and dry the vessels wdl before they 
turn cold. 

a little sugar in the ink, and write 
with it as usual. When a copy is 
required, moisten a piece of unsized 
paper lightly with a sponge, and 
apply it to the writing ; then smooth 
the wet paper over with a warm iron, 
such as is used in a laundry, and 
the copy is immediately produced 
without the use of a machine. 

piece of paper with a solution of soap 
and alum, lay it on the print or pic- 
ture, and pass it under a rolling 
press. Another method is to have 
a small frame in the form of a basin 
stand, enclosing a square of glass on 
the pot, on which the print is laid 
with the paper upon it ; and then 
placing a' candle under the glass, 
the print may be traced with a pen- 
cil, or pen and ink. Impressions 
may also be transferred by mixing a 
little Vermillion with linseed oil so as 
to make it fluid ; then with a pen 
dipped in it, trace every line of the 
print accurately. Turn the print 
with its face downwards on a sheet 
of white paper, wet the back of the 
print, lay another sheet upon it, and 
press it till the red lines are com- 
pletely transferred. 

CORKS. Economy in corks is 
very unwise : in order to save a 
mere trifle in the purchase, there is 
a danger of losing some valuable 
article which it is intended to pre- 
serve. None but velvet taper corks 
should be used for liquors that are 
to be kept for any length of time ; 
and when a bottle of ketchup or of 
anchovy is opened, the cork should 
be thrown away, and a new one put 
in that will fit it very tight. If a 
cork is forced down even with the 
mouth of the bottle, it is too small, 
and should be drawn, that a larger 
one may be put in. 

CORK CEMENT. Liquors and 
preserves, intended to be kept a long 
time, are often spoiled by the clumsy 

and inefl'ectual manner in which they 
are fastened down. Bottles there- 
fore should be secured with the fol- 
lowing cement, spread upon the cork 
after it is cut level with the top of 
the bottle. Melt in an earthen or 
iron pot half a pound of black rosin, 
half a pound of sealing wax, and a 
quarter of a pound of bees wax. 
When it froths up, and before all is 
melted and likely to boil over, stir it 
with a tallow candle, which will set- 
tle the froth till all is melted and fit 
for use. 

CORNS. Apply to warts and 
corns, a piece of soft brown paper 
moistened with saliva, and a few 
dressings will remove them. A con- 
venient plaster may also be made of 
an ounce of pitch, half an ounce of 
galbanum dissolved in vinegar, one 
scruple of ammoniac, and a dram 
and a half of diachylon mixed to- 

COSTIVENESS. From whatever 
cause it may arise, frequent exercise 
in the open air, and abstinence from 
heating liquors, will be found very 
beneficial. To those who are afliict- 
ed with this complaint, it is particu- 
larly recommended that they should 
visit the customary retreat every 
morning at a stated hour, that na- 
ture may in this respect, by perse- 
verance, acquire a habit of regula- 
rity. In obstinate cases, three drams 
of carbon may be taken two or three 
times a day, mixed with three ounces 
of lenitive electuary, and two drams 
of carbonate of soda, as circumstan- 
ces may require. Half an ounce of 
Epsom salts, dissolved in a tumbler 
or two of cold water, and drank at 
intervals, will have a very salutary 

this is so much noted for its supe- 
rior flavour and delicacy, it does not 
appea* to be owing to any particu- 
lar management of the dairy, but 
rather to the fragrance of the herb- 
age on which the cows feed in that 
part of the country. 



COUGHS. The extract of malt 
will be found an excellent remedy 
for coughs or colds. Pour as much 
hot water over half a bushel of pale 
ground malt as will just cover it ; 
the water must not be boiling. In 
forty-eight hours drain off the liquor 
entirely, but without squeezing the 
grains. Put the former into a large 
sweetmeat pan, or saucepan, that 
there may be room to boil as quick 
as possible, without boiling over. 
When it begins to thicken, stir it 
constantly, till it becomes as thick 
as treacle. Take a dessert-spoonful 
of it three times a day. — Another 
remedy for a bad cough may be pre- 
pared as follows. Mix together a 
pint of simple mint water, two ta- 
ble-spoonfuls of sallad oil, two tea- 
spoonfuls of hartshorns, sweetened 
with sugar, and take two large 
spoonfuls of the mixture two or 
three times a day. 

half an ounce of isinglass in an ounce 
of water, and boil it till the water is 
nearly all consumed ; then add gra- 
dually a dram of Friar's balsam, 
and stir them well together. Dip a 
brush in the hot mixture, and spread 
it on a piece of clean silk. 

COWS. In the management of 
cows intended for the dairy, a warm 
stable or cowhouse i§ of great im- 
portance. Cows kept at pasture will 
require from one to two acres of 
land each to keep them during the 
summer months ; but if housed, the 
produce of one fourth part will be 
sufficient. Their dung, which would 
otherwise be wasted on the ground 
by the action of the sun and weather, 
is hereby easily preserved, and given 
to the soil where it is most wanted, 
and in the best condition. The 
treading on the grass and pasture, 
which diminishes its value, is pre- 
vented ; the expence of division- 
fences is avoided, and the time and 
trouble of driving them about is all 
saved. They are also kept more 
cool, are less tormented by flies than 

if pastured, acquire good coats and 
full flesh, though they consume a 
much smaller quantity of food. 
They are in all respects more profit- 
ably kept in the house, than out of 
doors ; but they must be regularly 
and gradually trained to it, or' they 
will not thrive. Cows should always 
be kept clean, laid dry, and have 
plenty of good water to drink. They 
should never be suff(ered to drink at 
stagnant pools, or where there are 
frogs, spawn, or filth of any kind ; 
or from common sewers or ponds 
that receive the drainings of stables, 
or such kind of places ; all which 
are exceedingly improper. One of 
the most eff'ectual means of render- 
ing their milk sweet and wholesome, 
as well as increasing its quantity, is 
to let them drink freely of water in 
which the most fragrant kind of clo- 
ver or lucern has been steeped : and 
if they are curried in the same man- 
ner as horses, they will not only re- 
ceive pleasure from it, but give their 
milk more freely. In Holland, where 
the greatest attention is paid to all 
kinds of domestic animals, the haun- 
ches of dairy cows are washed morn- 
ing and evening with warm water 
previous to milking, and after calv- 
ing are clothed with sacking. The 
floors of their cowhouses are paved 
with brick, with a descent in the 
middle, where a gutter carries off" the 
drain, and the place is kept perfect- 
ly clean with a broom and pails of 
water. The filthy state in which, 
cows are confined in the vicinity of 
London, and other large cities, and 
the manner in which they are lite- 
rally crammed, not with wholesome 
food, but with such things as are 
calculated to produce an abundance 
of milk, cannot be too severely re- 
probated as injurious to the public 
health. It is also notorious, that 
vessels of hot and cold water are 
always kept in these cowhouses for 
the accomodation of mercenary re- 
tailers, who purchase a quantity of 
milk at a low price, and then mix it 



with such a proportion of water as 
they think necessary to reduce it to 
a proper standard ; when it is hawk- 
ed about at an exorbitant price. The 
milk is not pure in its original state, 
and being afterwards adulterated, it 
is scarcely fit for any purpose in a 
family. The first object in the ar- 
ticle of food, is wholesomeness ; and 
grass growing spontaneously on good 
meadow-land is in general deemed 
most proper for cows intended to 
supply the dairy. The quantity of 
milk produced by those which feed 
on sainfoin is however nearly double 
to that of any other provender : it is 
also richer in quality, and will yield 
a larger quantity of cream : of course 
the butter will be better coloured 
and flavoured than any other. Tur- 
nips and carrots form an excellent 
article, and cannot be too strongly 
recommended, especially as a winter 
food ; but they should be cleaned 
aud cut ; and parsnips, with the tops 
taken off will produce abundance of 
milk, of a superior quality ; and 
cows will eat them freely though 
they are improper for horses. Of 
all vegetable productions, perhaps 
the cabbage is the most exuberant 
for this purpose, and ought by all 
means to be encouraged. The drum- 
headed cabbage, and the hardy va- 
riety of a deep green colour with 
purple veins, and of the same size 
with the drum-head, are particularly 
useful in the feeding of cows, and 
afford an increase of milk far supe- 
rior to that produced by turnips. 
They are also excellent for the fat- 
tening of cattle, which they will do 
six weeks sooner than any other ve- 
getables, though the cabbage plant 
is generally supposed to impart a 
disagreeable flavour to butter and 
cheese made from the milk of cows 
fed upon it, yet this may easily be 
prevented by putting a gallon of boil- 
ing water to six gallons of milk, 
when it is standing in the trays ; 
or by dissolving an ounce of saltpe- 
tre in a quart of spring water, and 

mixing about a quarter of a pint 
of it with ten or twelve gallons of 
milk as it comes from the cow. By 
breaking off the loose leaves, and 
giving only the sound part to the 
cows, this disagreeable quality may 
also be avoided, as other cattle will 
eat the leaves without injury. When 
a cow has been milked for several 
years, and begins to grow old, the 
most advantageous way is to make 
her dry. To effect this, bruise six 
ounces of white rosin, and dissolve 
it in a quart of water. The cow 
having been housed, should then 
be bled and milked ; and after the 
mixture has been administered, she 
should be turned into good grass. 
She is no longer to be milked, but 
fattened on rich vegetables. Cows 
intended for breeding, should be 
carefully selected from those which 
give plenty of milk. During three 
months previously to calving, if in 
the spring, they should be turned 
into sweet grass ; or if it happen in 
the winter, they ought to be well fed 
with the best hay. The day and 
night after they have calved, they 
should be kept in the house, and 
lukewarm water only allowed for 
their drink. They may be turned 
out the next day, if the weather be 
warm, but regularly taken in for 
three or four successive nights ; or 
if the weather be damp and cold, 
it is better to girt them round with 
sacking, or keep them wholly with- 
in. Cows thus housed should be 
kept in every night, till the morning 
cold is dissipated, and a draught of 
warm water given them previously 
to their going to the field. If the 
udder of a milking cow becomes hard 
and painful, it should be fomented 
with warm water and rubbed with a 
gentle hand. Or if the teats are 
sore, they should be soaked in warm 
water twice a day ; and either be 
dressed with soft ointment, or done 
with spirits and water. If the for- 
mer, great cleanliness is necessary : 
the milk at these times is best given 



lo the pigs. Or if a cow be injured 
by a blow or wound, the part affect- 
ed should be suppled several times 
a day with fresh butter ; or a salve 
prepared of one ounce of Castile 
soap dissolved in a pint and a half of 
fresh milk over a slow fire, stirring 
it constantly, to form a complete 
mixture. But if the wound should 
turn to an obstinate ulcer, take Cas- 
tile soap, gum ammoniac, gum galba- 
num, and extract of hemlock, each 
one ounce ; form them into eight 
boluses, and administer one of them 
every morning and evening. To 
prevent cows from sucking their own 
milk, as some of them are apt to do, 
rub the teats frequently with strong 
rancid cheese, which will prove an 
effectual remedy. 

COW HEELS. These are very 
nutricious, and may be variously 
dressed. The common way is to 
boil, and serve them in a napkin, 
with melted butter, mustard, and a 
large spoonful of vinegar. Or broil 
them very tender, and serve them as 
a brown fricassee. The liquor will 
do to make jelly sweet or relishing 
and likewise to give richness to soups 
or gravies. Another way is to cut 
them into four parts, to dip them 
into an egg, and then dredge and fry 
them. They may be garnished with 
fried onions, aud served with sauce 
as above. Or they may be baked 
as for mock turtle. 

COWSLIP MEAD. Put thirty 
pounds of honey into fifteen gallons 
of water, and boil till one gallon is 
wasted ; skim it, and take it off the 
fire. Have a dozen and a half of 
lemons ready quartered, pour a gal- 
lon of the liquor boiling hot upon 
them, and the remainder into a tub, 
with seven pecks of cowslip pips. 
Let them remain there all night ; 
then put the liquor and the lemons 
to eight spoonfuls of new yeast, and 
a handful of sweet-briar. Stir all 
well together, and let it work for 
three or four days ; then strain and 

tun it into a cask* Let it stand six 
months, and bottle it for keeping. 

COWSLIP WINE. To every gal- 
lon of water, weigh three pounds of 
lump sugar; boil them together half 
an hour, and take off the scum as it 
rises. When sufficiently cool, put 
to it a crust of toasted bread dipped 
in thick yeast, and let the liquor 
ferment in the tub thirty six hours. 
Then put into the cask intended for 
keeping it, the peel of two and the 
rind of one lemon, for every gallon 
of liquor ; also the peel and the rind 
of one Seville orange, and one gallon 
of cowslip pips. Pour the liquor 
upon them, stir it carefully every day 
for a week, and for every five gal- 
lons put in a bottle of brandy. Let 
the cask be close stopped, and stand 
only six weeks before it be bottled off. 

CRABS. The heaviest are best, 
and those of a middling size the 
sweetest. If light they are watery : 
when in perfection the joints of the 
legs are stiff, and the body has a 
very agreeable smell. The eyes look 
dead and loose when stale. The fe- 
male crab is generally preferred : 
the colour is much brighter, the 
claws are shorter, and the apron in 
front is much broader. To dress a 
hot crab, pick out the meat, and 
clear the shell from the head. Put 
the meat into the shell again, with a 
little nutmeg, salt, pepper, a bit of 
butter, crumbs of bread, and three 
spoonfuls of vinegar. Then set the 
crab before the fire, or brown the 
meat with a salamander. It should 
be served on a dry toast. — To dress 
a cold crab, empty the shell, mix 
the flesh with a small quantity of 
oil, vinegar, salt, white pepper and 
cayenne. Return the mixture, and 
serve it up in the shell. 

CRACKNELS. Mix with a quart 
of flour, half a nutmeg grated, the 
yolks of four eggs beaten, and four 
spoonfuls of rose water. Make the 
whole into a stift* paste, with cold 
water. Then roll in a pound of but- 



ler, and make the paste into the 
shape of cracknels. 3oil them in a 
kettle of water till they swim, and 
then put them into cold water. When 
hardened, lay them out to dry, and 
bake them on tin plates. 

CRACKNUTS. Mix eight ounces 
of fine flour, with eight ounces of 
sugar, and melt four ounces of but- 
ter in two spoonfuls of raisin wine. 
With four eggs beaten and strained, 
make the whole into a paste, and 
add carraway seed. Roll the paste 
out as thin as paper, cut it into 
shapes with the top of a glass, wash 

them with the white of an eog:, and 
II • • ~~' 

dust them over with fine sugar. 

CRAMP. Persons subject to this 
complaint, being generally attacked 
in the night, should have a board 
fixed at the bottom of the bed, 
against which the foot should be 
strongly pressed when the pain com- 
mences. This will seldom fail to 
afford relief. When it is more ob- 
stinate, a brick should be heated, 
wrapped in a flannel bag at the bot- 
tom of the bed, and the foot placed 
against it. The brick will continue 
warm, and prevent a return of the 
complaint. No remedy however is 
more safe or more certain than that 
of rubbing the affected part, to re- 
store a free circulation. If the cramp 
attack the stomach or bowels, it is 
attended with considerable danger : 
medicine may relieve but cannot 
cure. All hot and stimulating li- 
quors must be carefully avoided, 
and a tea-cupful of lukewarm gruel 
or camomile tea should be frequent- 
ly given, with ten or fifteen drops of 
deliquidated salt of tartar in each. 

CRANBERRIES. If for puddings 
and pies, they require a good deal 
of sugar. If stewed in a jar, it is 
the same : but in this way they eat 
well with bread, and are very whole- 
some. If pressed and strained, af- 
ter being stewed, they yield a fine 
juice, which makes an excellent 
drink in a fever. 

tea-cupful of cranberries in a cup 
of water, and boil a large spoonful 
of oatmeal in two quarts of water. 
Then put in the jam, with a little 
sugar and lemon peel ; boil it half 
an hour, and strain it off. Add a 
glass of brandy or sweet wine. 

very strong isinglass jelly. When 
cold, mix it with a double quantity 
of cranberry juice, pressed and 
strained. Sweeten it with fine loaf 
sugar, boil it up, and strain it into 
a shape. — To make cranberry and 
rice jelly, boil and press the fruit, 
strain the juice, and by degrees mix 
it into as much ground rice as will, 
when boiled, thicken to a jelly. Boil 
it gently, keep it stirring, and sweet- 
en it. Put it in a bason or form, and 
serve it up with milk or cream. 

CRAY FISH. Make a savoury 
fish-jelly, and put some into the bot- 
tom of a deep small dish. When 
cold, lay the cray-fish with their 
back downwards, and pour more 
jelly over them. Turn them out 
when cold, and it will make a beau- 
tiful dish. Prawns may be done in 
the same way. 

CREAM. Rich cream for tea or 
coffee is prepared in the following 
manner. Put some new milk into 
an earthen pan, he-at it over the fire, 
and set it by till the next day. In 
order to preserve it a day or two 
longer, it must be scalded, sweeten- 
ed with lump sugar, and set in a 
cool place. If half a pint of fresh 
cream be boiled in an earthen pot 
with half a pound of sugar, and 
corked up close in phials when cold, 
it will keep for several weeks, and 
be fit for the tea-table. 

CREAM FOR PIES. Boil a pint 
of new milk ten minutes, with a bit 
of lemon peel, a laurel leaf, four 
cloves, and a little sugar. Mix the 
yolks of six eggs and half a tea- 
spoonful of flour, strain the milk to 
them, and set it over a slow fire. 



Stir it to a consistence, but do not 

I let it curdle : when cold it may be 

i spread over any kind of fruit pies. 


Set the whey one day and night, and 

skim it till a sufficient quantity is 

obtained. Then boil it, and pour it 

into a pan or two of cold water. As 

the cream rises, skim it till no more 

comes, and then churn it. Where 

new-milk cheese is made daily, whey 

butter for common and present use 

may be made to advantage. 

CREAM CHEESE. To make this 
article, put into a pan five quarts of 
strippings, that is, the last of the 
milk, with two spoonfuls of rennet. 
When the curd is come, strike it 
down two or three times with the 
skimming dish just to break it. Let 
it stand two hours, then spread a 
cheese cloth on a sieve, lay the curd 
on it, and let the whey drain. Break 
the curd a little with the hand, and 
put it into a vat with a two-pound 
weight upon it. Let it stand twelve 
hours, take it out, and bind a fillet 
, round. Tarn it every day till dry, 
from one board to another ; cover 
them with nettles or clean dock- 
leaves, and lay them between two 
pewter plates to ripen. If the wea- 
ther be warm, the cheese will be 
ready in three weeks. — Another way. 
Prepare a kettle of boiling water, 
put five quarts of new milk into a 
pan, five pints of cold water, and 
five of hot. When of a proper heat, 
put in as much rennet as will bring 
it in twenty minutes, likewise a bit 
of sugar. When the curd is come, 
strike the skimmer three or four 
times down, and leave it on the curd. 
In an hour or two lade it into the vat 
without touching it ; put a two- 
pound weight on it when the whey 
has run from it, and the vat is full. 
— To make another sort of cream 
^ cheese, put as much salt to three 
^ pints of raw cream as will season it. 
'^- Stir it well, lay a cheese cloth seve- 
ral times folded at the bottom of a 
sieve, and pour the curd upon it. 

When it hardens, cover it with net- 
tles on a pewter plate. — What is 
called Rush Cream Cheese is made 
as follows. To a quart of fresh 
cream put a pint of new milk, warm 
enough to give the cream a proper 
degree of warmth ; then add a little 
sugar and rennet. Set it near the 
fire till the curd comes ; fill a vat 
made in the form of a brick, of wheat 
straw or rushes sewed together. 
Have ready a square of straw or 
rushes sewed flat, to rest the vat on, 
and another to cover it ; the vat be- 
ing open at top and bottom. Next 
day take it out, change it often in 
order to ripen, and lay a half pound 
weight upon it. — Another way. Take 
a pint of very thick sour cream from 
the top of the pan for gathering but- 
ter, lay a napkin on two plates, and 
pour half into each. Let them stand 
twelve hours, then put them on a 
fresh wet napkin in one plate, and 
cover with the same. Repeat this 
every twelve hours, till the cheese 
begins to look dry. Then ripen it 
with nut leaves, and it will be i"eady 
in ten days. Fresh nettles, or two 
pewter plates, will ripen cream 
cheese very well. 

crumb of a penny loaf into a quart 
of cream, scald it over the fire, and 
break it with a spoon. Add to it 
six eggs, with three of the whites 
only, half a pound of fine raisins, a 
quarter of a pound of sugar, a little 
rose water and nutmeg. Beat it all 
up together, stir in a little marrow 
if approved, and bake it in a dish 
with paste. 

CREAMS. To make an excellent 
crearft, boil half a pint of cream and 
half a pint of milk with two bay 
leaves, a bit of lemon peel, a few 
almonds beaten to paste, with a drop 
of water, a little sugar, orange flower 
water, and a tea-spoonful of flour 
rubbed down with a little cold milk. 
When the cream is cold, add a little 
lemon juice, and serve it up in cups 
or lemonade glasses. — For a superior 



article, whip up three quarters of a 
pint of very rich cream to a strong 
froth, with some finely-scraped le^ 
mon peel, a squeeze of the juice, 
half a glass of sweet wine, and su- 
gar to make it pleasant, but not too 
sweet. Lay it on a sieve or in a form, 
next day put it on a dish, and orna- 
ment it with very light puff paste 
biscuits, made in tin shapes the 
length of a finger, and about two 
thick. Fine sugar may be sifted 
over, or it may be glazed with a lit- 
tle isinglass. Macaroons may be 
used to line the edges of the dish. 

pound half an ounce of the seed of 
garden cresses, pour upon it a quart 
of the best vinegar, and let it steep 
ten days, shaking it up every day. 
Being strongly flavoured with the 
cresses, it is suitable for salads and 
cold meat. Celery vinegar is made 
in the same manner. 

CRICKETS. The fume of char- 
coal will drive them away : or a lit- 
tle white arsenic mixed with a roast- 
ed apple, and put into the holes and 
cracks where the crickets are, will 
effectually destroy them. Scotch 
snuff* dusted upon the holes where 
they come out, will also have the 
same effect. 

CRIMP COD. Boil a handful of 
salt in a gallon of pump water, and 
skim it clean. Cut a fresh cod into 
slices an inch thick, and boil it brisk- 
ly in the brine a few minutes ; take 
the slices out very carefully, and lay 
them on a fish plate to drain. Dry 
and flour them, and lay them at a 
distance upon a clear fire to broil. 
Serve with lobster or shrimp sauce. 
salmon is scaled and cleaned, take 
off" the head and tail, and cut the 
body through into large slices. 
Throw them into a pan of pump wa- 
ter, sprinkle on a handful of bay 
salt, stir it about, and then take out 
the fish. Set on a deep stewpan, 
boil the head and tail whole, put in 
some salt, but no vinegar. When 

they have boiled ten minutes, skim 
the water clean, and put in the slices. 
When boiled enough, lay the head 
and tail in the dish, and the slices 
round ; or either part may be dress- 
ed separately. 

CRISP PARSLEY. Pick and wash 
some young parsley, shake it in a 
dry cloth to drain the water from it, 
spread it on a sheet of white paper, 
in a Dutch oven before the fire, and 
turn it frequently until it is quite 
crisp. This is a much better way 
of preparing it than by frying, which 
is seldom well done ; and it will 
serve as a neat garnish for fish or 
lamb chops. 

CROSS BUNS. Warm before the 
fire two pounds and a half of fine 
flour; add half a pound of sifted 
loaf sugar, some coriander seeds, 
cinnamon and mace finely pounded. 
Melt h'^lf a pound of butter in half 
a pint of milk ; after it has cooled, 
stir in three table-spoonfuls of thick 
yeast, and a little salt. Work the 
whole into a paste, make it into buns, 
and cut a cross on the top. Put 
them on a tin to rise before the fire, 
brush them over with warm milk, 
and bake in a moderate oven. 

CROWS. These birds are ex- 
tremely useful to the farmer, in de- 
vouring multitudes of locusts, cater- 
pillars, and other insects, which are 
highly injurious to the crops ; but 
at certain seasons they have become 
so numerous, and committed such 
depredations on the corn fields, that 
an act of parliament has been pass- 
ed for their destruction. The most 
successful method is to prepare a 
kind of table between the branches 
of a large tree, with some carrion 
and other meat, till the crows are 
accustomed to resort to the place 
for food. Afterwards the meat may 
be poisoned ; and the birds still 
feeding on it, will be destroyed. The 
drug called nux vomica is best adapt- 
ed to the purpose. 

CRUMPETS. Warm before the 
fire two pounds of fine flour, with a 



little salt, and mix it with warm milk 
and water till it becomes stiff. Work 
up three eggs with three spoonfuls 
of thick yeast, and a cupful of warm 
milk and water ; put it to the bat- 
ter, and beat them well together in 
a large bowl, with as much milk and 
water as will make the batter thick. 
Set it before the fire to rise, and 
cover it close. Set on the frying- 
pan, rub it over with a bit of butter 
tied up in muslin, and pour in as 
much batter at a time as is suffici- 
ent for one crumpet. Let it bake 
slowly till it comes to a pale yellow ; 
and when cold, the crumpets may 
be toasted and buttered. 

CUCUMBERS. The best way of 
cultivating this delicious vegetable 
is as follows. When the plants have 
been raised on a moderate hot bed, 
without forcing them too much, they 
should be set in the open ground 
against a south wall in the latter end 
of May, and trained upon the wall 
like a fruit tree. When they have 
run up about five feet, they will send 
forth blossoms, and the fruit will 
soon appear. Cucumbers of the 
slender prickly sort are to be pre- 
ferred, and they should not be wa- 
tered too much while growing, as it 
will injure the fruit. The flesh of 
cucumbers raised in this way, will 
be thicker and firmer, and the fla- 
vour more delicious, than those 
planted in the usual manner, where 
the runners are suffered to trail upon 
the ground. Melons may also be 
treated in the same manner, and the 
quality of both will be greatly im- 
proved. — When cucumbers are to 
be prepared for the table, pare and 
score them in several rows, that 
they may appear as if slightly chop- 
ped. Add some young onions, pep- 
per and salt, a glass of white wine, 
the juice of a lemon, and some vi- 
negar. Or cut them in thin slices, 
with pepper, salt, vinegar, and sliced 
onions. Or send them to table whole, 
with a sliced onion in a saucer. 
(No. 5.) 

some large old cucumbers, cut them 
in slices, and mash them ; add some 
salt, and let them stand till the next 
day. Drain off the liquor, boil it 
with lemon peel, mace, cloves, 
horse-radish, shalots, wihite pepper, 
and ginger. Strain it ; and when 
cold put it into bottles, with the 
mace, cloves and peppercorns, but 
not the rest. A little of this ketchup 
will give an agreeable taste to al- 
most any kind of gravy sauce. 

and slice fifteen large cucumbers, 
and put them into a stone jar, with 
three pints of vinegar, four large 
onions sliced, two or three shalots, 
a little garlic, two large spoonfuls 
of salt, three tea-spoonfuls of pep- 
per, and half a tea-spoonful of cay- 
enne. Keep the vinegar in small 
bottles, to add to sallad, or to eat 
with meat. 

CULLIS. To make cuUis for ra- 
gouts, cut in pieces two pounds of 
lean veal, and two ounces of ham. 
Add two cloves, a little nutmeg and 
mace, some parsley roots, two car- 
rots sliced, some shalots, and two 
bay leaves. Put them into an earth- 
en jar on a hot hearth, or in a» ket- 
tle of boiling water. Cover them 
close, let them simmer for half an 
hour, observing that they do not 
burn ; then put in beef broth, stew 
it, and strain it off. 

make what is called the Duke of 
Cumberland's pudding, mix six oun- 
ces of grated bread, the same quan- 
tity of currants well cleaned and 
picked, the same of beef suet finely 
shred, the same of chopped apples, 
and also of lump sugar. Add six 
eggs, half a grated nutmeg, a dust 
of salt, and the rind of a lemon 
minced as fine as possible ; also a 
large spoonful each of citron, orange, 
and lemon cut thin. Mix them tho- 
roughly together, put the whole into 
a basin, cover it close with a floured 

o 97 

1CU R 


cloth, and boil it three hours. Serve 
it with pudding sauce, add the juice 
of half a lemon, boiled together. 

CURD PUDDING. Rub the curd 
of two gallons of milk well drained 
through a sieve. Mix it with six 
eggs, a littlQ cream, two spoonfuls 
of orange-flower water, half a nut- 
meg, flour and crumbs of bread each 
three spoonfuls, currants and raisins 
half a pound of each. Boil the pud- 
ding an hour in a thick well-floured 

CURD PUFFS. Turn two quarts 
of milk to curd, press the whey from 
it, rub it through a sieve, and mix 
four ounces of butter, the crumb of 
a penny loaf, two spoonfuls of cream, 
half a nutmeg, a little sugar, and two 
spoonfuls of white wine. Butter 
some small cups or pattipans, and 
fill them three parts . Orange- flower 
water is an improvement. Bake the 
puff's with care, and serve with sweet 
sauce in a boat. 

CURD STAR. Set on the fire a 
quart of new milk, with two or three 
blades of mace ; and when ready to 
boil, put to it the yolks and whites 
of nine eggs well beaten, and as 
much salt as will lie upon a six- 
pence. Let it boil till the whey is 
clear ; then drain it in a thin cloth, 
or hair sieve. Season it with sugar, 
and a little cinnamon, rose water, 
orange-flower water, or white wine. 
Put it into a star form, and let it 
stand some hours before it be turned 
into a dish : then pour round it some 
thick cream or custard. 

three or four pints of milk into a pan 
a little warm, and then add rennet 
or gallina. When the curd is come, 
lade it with a saucer into an earthen 
shape perforated, of any form you 
please. Fill it up as the whey drains 
off, without breaking or pressing the 
curd. If turned only two hours be- 
fore wanted, it is very light ; but 
those who like it harder may have 
it so, by making it earlier, and 

squeezing it. Cream, milk, or a whip 
of cream, sugar, wine, and lemon, 
may be put into the dish, or into a 
glass bowl, to serve with the curd. 
— Another way is to warm four 
quarts of new milk, and add a pint 
or more of buttermilk strained, ac- 
acording to its sourness. Keep the 
pan covered till the curd be suffici- 
ently firm to cut, three or four times 
across with a saucer, as the whey 
leaves it. Put it into a shape, and 
fill up until it be solid enough to take 
the form. Serve with plain cream, 
or mixed with sugar, wine and le- 

ing to the Italian method, a more 
delicate and tender curd is made 
without the use of common rennet. 
Take a number of the rough coats 
that line the gizards of turkeys and 
fowls, clean them from the pebbles 
they contain, rub them well with 
salt, and hang them up to dry. 
When to be used, break off some 
bits of the skin, and pour on some 
boiling water. In eight or nine hours 
the liquor may be used as other 

CURING BUTTER. It is well 
known, that butter as it is generally 
cured, does not keep for any length 
of time, without spoiling or becom- 
ing rancid. The butter with which 
London is supplied, may be seen at 
every cheesemonger's in the greatest 
variety of colour and quality ; and 
it is too often the case, that even the 
worst butter is compounded with 
better sorts, in order to procure a 
sale. These practices ought to be 
discountenanced, and no butter per- 
mitted to be sold but such as is oi 
the best quality when fresh, and well 
cured when salted, as there is hardly 
any article more capable of exciting 
disgust than bad butter. To reme- 
dy this evil, the following process is 
recommended, in preparing butter 
for the firkin. Reduce separately 
to fine powder in a dry mortar, twt 



pounds of the whitest common salt, 
one pound of saltpetre, and one 
pound of lump sugar. Sift these 
ingredients one upon another, on 
two sheets of paper joined together, 
and then mix them well with the 
hands, or with a spatula. Preserve 
the whole in a covered jar, placed 
in a dry situation. When required 
to be used, one ounce of this com- 
position is to be proportioned to 
every pound of butter, and the whole 
is to be well worked into the mass. 
The butter may then be put into pots 
or casks in the usual way. The 
above method is practised in many 
parts of Scotland, and is found to 
preserve the butter much better than 
by using common salt alone. Any 
housekeeper can make the experi- 
ment, by proportioning the ingredi- 
ents to the quantity of butter ; and 
the difference between the two will 
readily be perceived. Butter cured 
with this mixture appears of a rich 
marrowy consistency and fine co- 
lour, and never acquires a brittle 
hardness, nor tastes salt, as the 
other is apt to do. It should be 
allowed to stand three weeks or a 
month before it is used, and will 
keep for two or three years, without 
sustaining the slightest injury. But- 
ter made in vessels or troughs lined 
with lead, or in glazed earthenware 
pans, which glaze is principally 
composed of lead, is too apt to be 
contaminated by particles of that 
deleterious metal. It is better there- 
fore to use tinned vessels for mixing 
the preservative with the butter, and 
to pack it either in wooden casks, 
or in jars of the Vauxhall ware, 
which being vitrified throughout, re- 
quire no inside glazing. 

CURING HAMS. When hams 
are to be cured, they should hang 
a day or two ; then sprinkle them 
with a little salt, and drain them 
another day. Pound an ounce and 
a half of saltpetre, the same quantity 
of bay salt, half an ounce of sal- 
prunelle, and a pound of the coarsest 

sugar. Mix these well, and rub them 
into each ham every day for four 
days, and turn it. If a small one, 
turn it every day for three weeks : 
if a large one, a week longer, but it 
should not be rubbed after four 
days. Before it is dried, drain and 
cover it with bran, and smoke it ten 
days. — Or choose the leg of a hog 
that is fat and well fed, and hang it 
up a day or two. If large, put to 
it a pound of bay salt, four oun- 
ces of saltpetre, a pound of the 
coarsest sugar, and a handful of 
common salt, all in fine powder, 
and rub the mixture well into the 
ham. Lay the rind downwards, and 
cover the fleshy part with the salts. 
Baste it frequently with the pickle, 
and turn it every day for a month.. 
Drain and throw bran over it, then 
hang it in a chimney where wood is 
burnt, and turn it now and then for 
ten days. — Another way is, to hang- 
up the ham, and sprinkle it with salt, 
and then to rub it daily with the fol- 
lowing mixture. Half a pound of 
common salt, the same of bay salt, 
two ounces of saltpetre, and two oun- 
ces of black pepper, incorporated 
with a pound and a half of treacle. 
Turn it twice a day in the pickle for 
three weeks ; then lay it into a pail 
of water for one night, wipe it quite 
dry, and smoke it two or three 
weeks. — To give hams a high fla- 
vour, let them hang three days, when 
the weather will permit. Mix an 
ounce of saltpetre with a quarter of 
a pound of bay salt, the same quan- 
tity of common salt, and also of 
coarse sugar, and a quart of strong 
beer. Boil them together, pour the 
liquor immediately upon the ham, 
and turn it twice a day in the pic- 
kle for three weeks. An ounce of 
black pepper, and the same quantity 
of allspice, in fine powder, added to 
the above will give a still higher fla- 
vour. Wipe and cover it with bran, 
smoke it three or four weeks ; and 
if there be a strong fire, it should be 
sewed up in a coarse wrapper. — To 



give a ham a still higher flavour, 
sprinkle it with salt, after it has 
hung two or three days, and let it 
drain. Make a pickle of a quart of 
strong beer, half a pound of treacle, 
an ounce of coriander seed, two 
ounces of juniper berries, an ounce 
of pepper, the same quantity of all- 
spice, an ounce of saltpetre, half an 
ounce of sal-prunelle, a handful of 
common salt, and a head of shalot, 
all pounded or cut fine. Boil these 
together for a few minutes, and pour 
them over the ham. This quantity 
is sufficient for a ham of ten pounds. 
Rub and turn it every day for a fort- 
night ; then sew it up in a thin linen 
bag, and smoke it three weeks. 
Drain it from the pickle, and rub it 
in bran, before drying. In all cases 
it is best to lay on a sufficient quan- 
tity of salt at first, than to add 
more afterwards, for this will make 
the ham salt and hard. When it 
has lain in pickle a few days, it 
would be advantageous to boil and 
skim the brine, and pour it on again 
when cold. Bacon, pig's face, and 
other articles may be treated in the 
same manner. 

bruise some ripe currants, strain 
them through a fine sieve, and sweet- 
en the juice with refined sugar. Beat 
up equal quantities of juice and 
cream, and as the froth rises put it 
into glasses. 

half a pint of ale with flour, and add 
some currants. Beat it up. quick, 
make the lard boil in the frying-pan, 
and put in a large spoonful of the 
batter at a time, which is sufficient 
for one fritter. 

pint of water gruel, strain and boil 
it with a table-spoonful of clean cur- 
rants till they are quite plump. Add 
a little nutmeg and sugar, and a 
glass of sweet wine. This gruel is 
proper for children, or persons of a 
costive habit. 

CURRANT JAM. Whether it be 

made of black, red, or white cur- 
rants, let the fruit be very ripe. Pick 
it clean from the stalks, and bruise 
it. To every pound put three quar- 
ters of a pound of loaf sugar, stir it 
well, and boil it half an hour. 

fruit, whether red or black, and put 
them into a stone jar, to boil on a 
hot hearth, or over the fire in a 
saucepan of water. Strain off' the 
liquor, and to every pint add a pound 
of loaf sugar in large lumps. Put 
the whole into a china or stone jar, 
till nearly dissolved ; then put it into 
a preserving pan, and skim it while 
simmering on the fire. When it will 
turn to jelly on a plate, keep it in 
small jars or glasses. 

CURRANT PIE. Put a paste 
round the dish, fill it with fruit and 
good moist sugar, add a little water, 
and cover it with paste. Place a 
tea-cup in the dish, bottom upwards, 
to prevent the juice from boiling 
over. Baked currants are better 
mixed with raspberries or damsons. 

the old sauce for venison, boil an 
ounce of dried currants in half a 
pint of water a few minutes. Then 
add a small tea-cupful of bread 
crumbs, six cloves, a glass of port 
wine, and a bit of butter. Stir it 
till the whole is smooth. 

CURRANT SHRUB. Strip some 
white currants, and prepare them in 
a jar as for jelly. Strain the juice, 
of which put two quarts to one gal- 
lon of rum, and two pounds of lump 
sugar. Strain the whole through a 
jelly bag. 

three pints of fruit, carefully picked 
and bruised, add one quart of wa- 
ter. In twenty -four hours strain the 
liquor, and, put to every quart a 
pound of good Lisbon sugar. If for 
white currants use lump sugar. It is 
best to put the whole into a large 
pan ; and when in three or four days 
the scum rises, take that oft" before 
the liquor be put into the barreL 



Those who make from their own 
gardens, may not have fruit suffici- 
ent to till the barrel at once ; but 
the wine will not be hurt by being 
made in the pan at diflerent times, 
invthe above proportions, and added 
as the fruit ripens ; but it must be 
gathered in dry weather, and an ac- 
count taken of what is put in each 
time. — Another way . Put five quarts 
of currants, and a pint of raspber- 
ries, to every two gallons of water. 
Let them soak all night, then squeeze 
and break them well. Next day riib 
them well on a fine wire sieve, till 
all the juice is obtained, and wash 
the skins again with some of the 
liquor. To every gallon put four 
pounds of good Lisbon sugar, tun it 
immediately, lay the bung lightly on, 
and leave it to ferment itself. In 
two or three days put a bottle of 
brandy to every four gallons, bung 
it close, but leave the vent peg out 
a few days. Keep it three years 
in the cask, and it will be a fine 
agreeable wine ; four years would 
make it still better. — Black Currant 
Wine is made as follows. To every 
three quarts of juice add the same 
quantity of water, and to every three 
quarts of the liquor put three pounds 
of good moist sugar. Tun it into a 
cask, reserving a little for filling up. 
Set the cask in a warm dry room, 
and the liquor will ferment of itself. 
When the fermentation is over, take 
off the scum, and fill up with the 
reserved liquor, allowing three bot- 
tles of brandy to forty quarts of wine. 
Bung it close for nine months, then 
bottle it ; drain the thick part through 
a jelly bag, till that also be clear and 
fit for bottling. The wine should 
then be kept ten or twelve months. 
CURRIES. Cut fowls or rabbits 
into joints ; veal, lamb or sweet- 
breads into small pieces. Put four 
ounces of butter into a stewpan ; 
when melted, put in the meat, and 
two sliced onions. Stew them to a 
nice brown, add half a pint of broth, 
and let it simmer twenty minutes. 

Mix smooth in a basin one taWe- 
spoonful of currie powder, one of 
flour, and a tea-spoonful of salt, 
with a little cold water. Put the 
paste into the stewpan, shake it well 
about till it boils, and let it simmer 
twenty minutes longer. Just before 
it is dished up, squeeze in the juice 
of half a lemon, and add a good ta- 
ble-spoonful of melted butter. 

CURRIE BALLS. Take some 
bread crumbs, the yolk of an egg 
boiled hard, and a bit of fresh but- 
ter about half the size ; beat them 
together in a mortar, season with a 
little currie powder, roll the paste 
into small balls, and boil them two 
OF three minutes. These will serve 
for mock turtle, veal, poultry, and 
made dishes. 

CURRIE OF COD. This should 
be made of sliced cod, that has ei- 
ther been crimped, or sprinkled with 
salt for a day, to make it firm. Fry 
it of a fine brown with onions, and 
stew it with a good white gravy, a 
little currie powder, a bit of butter 
and flour, three or four spoonfuls of 
rich cream, salt, and cayenne, if the 
powder be not hot enough. 

them from the shells, lay them into 
a pan with a small piece of mace, 
three or four spoonfuls of veal gravy, 
and four of cream. Rub smooth one 
or two tea-spoonfuls of currie pow-. 
der, a tea-spoonful of flour, and an 
ounce of butter. Simmer them to- 
gether an hour, ' squeeze in half a 
lemon, and add a little salt. Cur- 
rie of prawns is made in the same 

reduce the following articles to a 
fine powder. Three ounces of co- 
riander seed, three ounces of turme- 
ric, one ounce of black pepper, and 
one of ginger ; half an ounce of 
lesser cardamoms, and a quarter of 
an ounce each of cinnamon, cummin 
seed, and cayenne. Thoroughly 
pound and mix them together, and 
keep it in a well-stopped bottle. 

c us 


CURRIE SAUCE. Stir a small 
quantity of currie powder in some 
g:ravy, melted butter, or onion sauce. 
This must be done by degrees, ac- 
cording to the taste, taking care not 
to put in too much of the currie 

CURRIE SOUP. Cut four pounds 
of a breast of veal into small pieces, 
put the trimmings into a stewpan 
with two quarts of water, twelve 
peppercorns, and the same of all- 
spice. When it boils, skim it clean ; 
and after boiling an hour and a half, 
strain it off. While it is boiling, fry 
the bits of veal in butter, with four 
onions. When they are done, add 
the broth to them, and put it on the 
fire. Let it simmer half an hour, 
then mix two spoonfuls of currie 
powder, and the same of flour, with 
a little cold water and a tea-spoon- 
ful of salt, and add these to the 
soup. Simmer it gently till the veal 
is quite tender, and it is ready. Or 
bone a couple of fowls or rabbits, 
and stew them in the same manner. 
Instead of black pepper and allspice, 
a bruised shalot may be added, with 
some mace and stinger. 

CUSTARDS.^ To make a cheap 
and excellent custard, boil three 
pints of new milk with a bit of lemon 
peel, a bit of cinnamon, two or three 
bay leaves, and sweeten it. Mean- 
while rub down smooth a large spoon- 
ful of rice flour in a cup of cold 
milk, and mix with it the yolks of 
two eggs well beaten. Take a ba- 
sin of the boiling milk and mix with 
the cold, then pour it to the boiling, 
stirring it one way till it begin to 
thicken, and is just going to boil 
up ; then pour it into a pan, stir it 
some time, add a large spoonful of 
peach water, two spoonfuls of bran- 
dy, or a little ratafia. Marbles boiled 
in custard, or any thing likely to 
burn, will prevent it from catching 
if shaked about in the saucepan. — 
To make a richer custard, boil a pint 
of milk with lemon peel and cinna- 
mon. Mix a pint of cream, and the 

yolks of five eggs well beaten. When 
the milk tastes of the seasoning, 
sweeten it enough for the whole ; 
pour into the cream, stirring it well; 
then give the custard a simmer, till 
it come to a proper thickness. Stir 
it wholly one way, season it as above, 
but do not let it boil. If the custard 
is to be very rich, add a quart of 
cream to the eggs instead of milk. 

CUSTARD PASTE. Six ounces 
of butter, three spoonfuls of cream, 
the yolks of two eggs, and half a 
pound of flour, are to be mixed well 
together. Let it stand a quarter of 
an hour, work it well, and roll it out 

degrees a pint of good milk with a 
large spoonful of flour, the yolks of 
five eggs, some orange-flower water, 
and a little pounded cinnamon. But- 
ter a bason that will just hold it, 
pour in the batter, and tie a floured 
cloth over. Put it in When the wa- 
ter boils, turn it about a few minutes 
to prevent the egg settling on one 
side, and half an hour will boil it. 
Put currant jelly over the pudding, 
and serve it with sweet sauce. 

slices of veal three quarters of an 
inch thick, beat them with a rjplling- 
pin, and wet them on both sides with 
egg. Dip them into a seasoning of 
bread crumbs, parsley, thyme, knot- 
ted marjarom, pepper, salt, and a 
little grated nutmeg. Then put them 
into white papers folded over, and 
broil them. Have ready some melted 
butter in a boat, with a little mush- 
room ketchup. — Another way is to 
fry the cutlets, after they have been 
prepared as above. Dredge a little 
flour into the pan, and add a piece 
of butter ; brown it, pour in a little 
boiling water, and boil it quick. 
Season with pepper, salt, and ketch- 
up, and pour over them. — Or, pre- 
pare as before, and dress the cut- 
lets in a Dutch oven. Pour over 
them melted butter and mushrooms. 
Neck steaks especially are good 

D A 1 


broiled, after being seasoned with 
pepper and salt ; and in this way 
they do not require any herbs. 

CUTTING GLASS. If glass be 
held in one hand under water, and 
a pair of scissars in the other, it 
may be cut like brown paper ; or if 
a red hot tobacco pipe be brought 
in contact with the edge of the glass, 
and afterwards traced on any part 
of it, the crack will follow the edge 
of the pipe. 

care is required in feeding young 
children during the time of teething. 
They often cry as if disgusted with 
food, when it is chiefly owing to the 
pain occasioned by the edge of a 

silver or metal spoon pressing oil 
their tender gums. The spoon ought 
to be of ivory, bone, or wood, with 
the edges round and smooth, and 
care should be taken to keep it sweet 
and clean. At this period a mode- 
rate looseness, and a copious flow 
of saliva, are favourable symptoms. 
With a view to promote the latter, 
the child should be suffered to gnaw 
such substances as tend to mollify 
the gums, and by their pressure to 
facilitate the appearance of the teeth. 
A piece of liquorice or marshmallow 
root will be serviceable, or the gums 
may be softened and relaxed by 
rubbing them with honey or sweet 


Dairy, in a publication intend- 
ed for general usefulness, the ma- 
nagement of the dairy, the source of 
so many comforts, demands some 
attention, in addition to the informa- 
tion conveyed under various other 
articles, connected with this inter- 
esting part of female economy. A 
dairy house then ought to be so situ- 
ated that the windows or lattices 
may front the north, and it should 
at all times be kept perfectly cool 
and clean. Lattices are preferable 
to glazed lights, as they admit a free 
circulation of air ; and if too much 
wind draws in, oiled paper may be 
pasted over the lattice, or a frame 
constructed so as to slide backwards 
and forwards at pleasure. Dairies 
cannot be kept too cool in the sum- 
mer : they ought therefore to be 
erected, if possible, near a spring of 
running water. If a pump can be 
fixed in the place, or a stream of 
water conveyed through it, it will 
tend to preserve a continual fresh- 
ness and purity of the air. The floor 
should be neatly paved with red 
brick, or smooth stone, and laid with 

a proper descent, so that no water 
may stagnate : it should be well 
washed every day, and all the uten- 
sils kept with the strictest regard to 
cleanliness. Neither the cheese, ren- 
net, or cheesepress, must be suff'er- ^ 
ed to contract any taint ; nor should 
the churns be scalded in the dairy, 
as the steam arising from the hot 
water tends greatly to injure the 
milk. The utensils of the dairy 
should all be made of wood : lead, 
copper, and brass are poisonous, 
and cast iron gives a disagreeable 
taste to the productions of the dairy. 
Milk leads in particular should be 
utterly abolished, and well-glazed 
earthen pans used in their stead. 
Sour milk has a corroding tendency, 
and the well known effects of the 
poison of lead are, bodily debility, 
palsy, and death. The best of all 
milk vessels are flat wooden trays 
about three inches deep, and wide 
enough to contain a full gallon of 
milk. These may be kept perfectly 
clean with good care, and washing 
and scalding them well w ith salt and 
water. As soon as the operation of 



churn iagf is performed, the butter 
should be washed immediately in se- 
Teral waters, till thoroughly cleansed 
from the milk, which should be forc- 
ed out with a flat wooden ladle, or 
skimming dish, provided with a short 
handle. This should be quickly per- 
formed, with as little working of the 
butter as possible ; for if it be too 
much beaten and turned, it will be- 
come tough and gluey, which greatly 
debases its quality. To beat it up 
with the hand is an indelicate prac- 
tice, as the butter cannot fail to im- 
bibe the animal efl3uvia: a warm 
hand especially will soften it, and 
make it appear greasy. If the heat 
of the weather should render it too 
soft to receive the impression of the 
mould, it may be put into small ves- 
sels, and allowed to swim in a trough 
of cold water, provided the butter 
do not come in contact with the wa- 
ter, which would diminish some of 
its best qualities. A little common 
salt must be worked up m the but- 
ter at the time of making it, and 
care must be taken not to handle it 
too much. Meat hung in a dairy 
will taint the air, and spoil the milk. 
— See Butter, Cheese, Churn- 
ing, &c. 

DAMP BEDS. Of all other means 
of taking cold, damp beds are the 
most dangerous, and persons who 
keep them in their houses are guilty 
of a species of murder, though it un- 
fortunately happens that no house- 
wife is willing to acknowledge that 
her beds were ever damp. There is 
however no other eft'ectual way of 
preventing the dreadful effects so 
often experienced in this way, than 
by keeping the beds in constant use, 
or causing them frequently to be 
slept in till they are wanted by a 
stranger. In inns, where the beds 
are used almost every night, nothing 
more is necessary than to keep the 
rooms well aired, and the linen quite 
dry. If a bed be suspected of damp- 
ness, introduce a glass goblet be- 
tween the sheets with its bottom up- 

wards, immediately after the warm- 
ing pan is taken out. After a few 
minutes, if any moisture adheres to 
the inside of the glass, it is a certain 
sign that the bed is damp : but if 
only a slight steam appears, all is 
safe. If a goblet be not at hand, a 
looking glass will answer the pur- 
pose. The safest way in all such 
cases is to take off the sheets, and 
sleep between the blankets. 

DAMP HOUSES. Nothing is 
more common than for persons to 
hazard their lives by inhabiting a 
dwelling almost as soon as the plas- 
terer or the painter has performed 
his work, and yet this ought to be 
guarded against with the utmost 
care. The custom of sitting in a 
room lately washed, and before it is 
thoroughly dried, is also highly in- 
jurious to health. Colds occasioned 
by these means often bring on asth- 
mas and incurable consumptions. 

DAMP WALLS. When a house 
has undergone repairs, the walls are 
apt to become damp, as well as when 
it has been new built. To prevent 
the ill effects, powder some glass 
fine, mix it with slacked lime, dry 
the mixture well in an iron pot, and 
pass it through a flour sieve. Then 
boil some tar with a little grease 
for a quarter of an hour, and make 
a cement of the whole together. Care 
must be taken to prevent any mois- 
ture from mixing with the cement, 
which must be used as soon as made. 
Lay it on the damp part of the wall 
like common plaster about a foot 
square at a time, or it will quickly 
become too hard for use : if the wall 
be very wet, a second coating will be 
required. Common hair mortar may 
then be laid on, with the addition of 
a little Paris plaster, which will pre- 
vent the walls in future from becom- 
ing damp. 

damsons clean, bake them slowly, 
till they may be rubbed through a 
cullender, leaving nothing but the 
skins and stones. Boil the pulp and 



juice three hours over a slow fire, 
with some moist sugar, and keep it 
stirring to prevent burning. Blanch 
the kernels, and mix them with the 
jam a few minutes before it be taken 
off the fire. Put it into cups, tie it 
down with writing paper dipped in 
brandy, and the cheese will keep 
several years, if kept in a dry place. 

bason with tolerably thin paste, fill 
with the fruit, and cover the paste 
over it. Tie a cloth tight over, and 
boil till the fruit is done enough. 

DAMSON WINE. Take a con- 
siderable quantity of damsons and 
common plums inclining to ripeness ; 
slit them in halves, so that the stones 
may be taken out, then mash them 
gently, and add a little water and 
honey. Add to every gallon of the 
pulp a gallon of spring water, with 
a few bay leaves and cloves : boil 
the mixture, and add as much sugar 
as will sweeten it, skim oflr" the froth, 
and let it cool. Now press the fruit, 
squeezing out the liquid part ; strain 
all through a fine cloth, and put the 
water and juice together in a cask. 
, Having allowed the whole to stand 
;and ferment for three or four days, 
fine it with white sugar, flour, and 
whites of eggs. Draw it oft* into 
bottles, then cork it well : in twelve 
days it will be ripe, and will taste 
, like V. ea*k port, having a flavour of 

keep damsons for winter pies, put 
them ia small stone jars, or wide- 
mouthed bottles ; set them up to their 
necks in a boiler of cold water, and 
scald them. Next day, when per- 
fectly cold, fill up the bottles with 
spring water, and close them down. 
— Another way is to boil one third 
as much sugar as fruit over a slow 
fire, till the juice adheres to the 
fruit, and forms a jam. Keep it in 
small jars in a dry place. If too 
sweet, mix with it some of the fruit 
done without sugar. — Or choose 
, some pots of equal size top and bot- 

tom, sutHcient to hold eight or nine 
pounds each. Put in the fruit about 
a quarter up, strew in a quarter of 
the sugar, then another quantity of 
fruit, and so on till ail of both are 
in. The proportion of sugar is to 
be three pounds to nine pounds of 
fruit. Set the jars in the oven, and 
bake the fruit quite through. When 
cold, put a piece of clean-scrape(^ 
stick into the middle of the jar, and 
let the upper part stand above the 
top. Cover the fruit with writing 
paper, and pour melted mutton-suet 
over, full half an inch thick. Keep 
the jars in a cool dry place, and use 
the suet as a cover, which may be 
drawn up by the stick, if a forked 
branch be left to prevent its slipping 

up young fowls for a night. Take 
the liver, hearts, and tenderest parts 
of the gizzards, and shred them 
small, with half a handful of young- 
clary, an anchovy to each fowl, an 
Onion, and the yolks of four eggs 
boiled hard, seasoning the whole 
with pepper, salt, and mace. Stuft* 
the fowls with this mixture, and sew 
up the vents and necks quite close, 
that the water may not get in. Boil 
them in salt and ,water till almost 
done ; then drain them, and put them 
into a stewpan with butter enough 
to brown them. Serve them with 
fine melted butter, and a spoonful of 
ketchup of either sort, in the dish. 

DEBILITY. A general relaxation 
of the nervous system is the source 
of numerous disorders, and requires 
a treatment as various as the causes 
on which it depends. In general, 
gentle heat possesses both stimulat- 
ing and strengthening properties, 
and this is best communicated by a 
warm bath, which instead of relax- 
ing will invigorate the whole frame. 
Diet must also be attended to ; and 
weakly persons should be careful to 
eat light and nourishing food, and 
plenty of nutricious vegetables. New 
laid eggs, soup, strong meat-broth, 
p 105 


and shell-fish are also very nourish- 
ing. Clothing should be accommo- 
dated to the climate and changes of 
weather, so as to preserve as much 
as possible a middle temperature 
between cold and heat. Invalids of 
this description require longer and 
less disturbed rest than persons in 
perfect health and vigour; labour 
and exercise adapted to their habits 
and strength, a clean but not too soft 
bed, an airy and capacious apart- 
ment, and particularly a calm and 
composed mind, which last possesses 
a most powerful influence in preserv- 
ing health and life, for without tran- 
quility, all other means will be in- 

four ounces of butter into four pounds 
of flour, add four eggs well beaten, 
a pint of milk, and a large spoonful 
of yeast. Mix them into a paste, 
make it into rolls, and let them stand 
half an hour to rise before the fire. 
Put them into the oven, dip them in 
milk the next day, and then let them 
stand by the fire in a Dutch oven 
about twenty minutes. The rolls 
will then be very good, and keep a 

warm milk into a bowl, and turn it 
with rennet. Then without breaking 
the curd, put on the top some scald- 
ed cream, sugar and cinnamon. 

DIET BREAD. Beat nine eggs, 
and add their weight in sifted sugar, 
and half as much flour. Mix them 
well together, grate in the rind of a 
lemon, and bake it in a hoop. 

DIET DRINK. Infuse in five 
gallons of small beer, twelve ounces 
of red dock-roots, the pith taken out ; 
three ounces of chicary roots, two 
handfuls of sage, balm, brooklime, 
and dandelion ; two ounces of senna, 
two of rhubard, f* ur ounces of red 
saunders, and a few parsley and car- 
raway seeds. Or boil a pound of 
the fine raspings of guaiacum, with 
six gallons of sweetwort, till reduced 
to five ; and when it is set to work, 


put in the above ingredients. If a 
little salt of wormwood be taken with 
it, this diet drink will act as a diure- 
tic, as well as a purgative. 

DINNERS. The first course 
for large dinner parties, generally 
consists of various soups, fish dressed 
many ways, turtle, mock turtle, boil- 
ed meats and stewed : tongue, ham, 
bacon, chawls of bacon, boiled tur- 
key and fowls : rump, sirloin, and 
ribs of beef roasted : leg, saddle, 
and other roast mutton : roast fillet, 
loin, neck, breast, and shoulder of 
veal : leg of lamb, loin, fore-quarter, 
chine, lamb's head and mince : mut- 
ton stuflfed and roasted, steaks va- 
riously prepared, ragouts and fricas- 
sees : meat pies raised, and in dish- 
es : patties of meat, fish, and fowl : 
stewed pigeons, venison, leg of pork, 
chine, loin, spare-rib, rabbits, hare, 
puddings, boiled and baked : vege- 
tables, boiled and stewed : calf's 
head diflferent ways, pig's feet and 
ears different ways. — Dishes for the 
SECOND COURSE, birds, and game 
of all sorts : shell-fish, cold and pot- 
ted : collared and potted fish, pick- 
led ditto, potted birds, ribs of lamb 
roasted, brawn, vegetables, stewed 
or in sauce : French beans, peas, 
asparagus, cauliflower, fricassee, 
pickled oysters, spinach, and arti- 
choke bottoms : stewed celery, sea 
kale, fruit tarts, preserved-fruit tarts, 
pippins stewed, cheesecakes, various 
sorts : a collection of sweet dishes, 
creams, jellies, mince pies, and all 
the finer sorts of puddings : omlet, 
macaroni, oysters in scallops, stew- 
ed or pickled. — For remove s of soup 
and fish, one or two joints of meat 
or fowl are served ; and for one 
small course, the article suited to 
the second must make a part. Where 
vegetables, fowls, or any other meat 
are twice dressed, they add to the 
appearance of the table the first time ; 
and three sweet articles may form 
the second appearance, without 
greater expence. In some houses, 
one dish at a time is sent up with 



the vegetables, or sauces proper to 
it, and this in succession hot and 
hot. In others, a course of soups 
and fish : then meats and boiled 
fowls, turkey, &c. Made dishes 
and game follow ; and lastly, sweet 
dishes ; but these are not the com- 
mon modes. It ought also to be re- 
marked, that cooks in general do not 
think of sending up such articles as 
are in the house, unless ordered ; 
though by so doing, the addition of 
something collared or pickled, some 
fritters, fried patties, or quick-made 
dumplings, would be useful when 
there happen to be accidental visit- 
ors : and at all times it is proper to 
improve the appearance of the table 
rather than let things spoil below, 
by which an unnecessary expence 
is incurred. — Any of the following 
articles may be served as a relish, 
with the cheese, after dinner. Baked 
or pickled fish done high, Dutch 
pickled herrings : sardinias, which 
eat like anchovy, but are larger : 
anchovies, potted char, ditto lam- 
preys : potted birds made high, ca- 
viare and sippets of toast : salad, 
radishes, French pie, cold butter, 
potted cheese, anchovy toast. 

days of general complaint and gene- 
ral distress, when so many families 
and individuals are suffering from 
the extortions of tax-gatherers, and 
the severity of landlords, it is pro- 
per that householders and occupiers 
of land should be furnished with a 
little information on the subject of 
their legal rights and liabilities, in 
order to guard against injustice, or 
the fatal consequences of illegal pro- 
ceedings. It must therefore be ob- 
served, that rent is recoverable by 
action of debt at common law ; but 
the general remedy is distress, by 
taking the goods and chattels out of 
the possession of the tenant, to pro- 
cure satisfaction for rent. A dis- 
tress for rent therefore must be made 
for nonpayment, or rent in arrears, 
and cannot be made on the day in 

which the rent becomes due. Nei- 
ther can distress be made after the 
rent has been tendered; or if it be 
tendered while the distress is making, 
the landlord must deliver up the dis- 
tress. Any goods or effects that arc 
damaged by the proceedings of the 
landlord, must be made good by 
him. — When distress is levied, it 
should be for the whole of the rent 
in arrears ; not a part at one time 
and the remainder at another, if there 
was at first a sufficiency ; but if the 
landlord should mistake the value of 
the things, he may make a second 
distress to supply the deficiency. He 
must be careful to demand neither . 
more nor less than is due ; he must 
also shew the certainty of the rent, 
and when it was due; otherwise the 
demand will not be good, nor can he 
obtain a remedy. — A landlord may 
distrain whatever he finds on the 
premises, whether it be the property 
of his tenant or not, except such 
things as are for the maintenance 
and benefit of trade; such as work- 
ing tools and implements, sacks of 
corn, or meal in a mill. Neither fix- 
tures in a house nor provisions can 
be distrained, nor any other article 
which cannot be restored in as good 
a state as when it was taken ; but 
wearing apparel may be distramed 
when they are not in use. Money 
out of a bag cannot be distrained, 
because it cannot be known again ; 
but money sealed up in a bag may. 
A horse in a cart cannot be distrain- 
ed, without also taking the cart ; and 
if a man be in the cart, these cannot 
be taken. A horse bringing goods 
to market, goods brought to market 
to be sold, goods for exportation on 
fi wharf or in a warehouse, goods in 
the hands of a factor, goods deliver- 
ed to a carrier to be conveyed for 
hire, wool in a neighbour's barn, are ' 
all considered as goods in the hands 
of a third person, and cannot there- 
fore be distrained by a landlord for 
rent. But goods left at an inn or 
other place of conveyance, a chaise 



or horse standing in a stable, though 
the property of a third person, may 
be distrained for rent. A distress 
must not be made after dark, nor on 
the Sabbath day. — Where a landlord 
means to distrain for rent, it is not 
necessary to demand his rent first, 
unless the tenant is on the premises 
on the day of paymen-t, and ready to 
pay it. But if goods are distrained, 
and no cause given for so doing, the 
owner may rescue them, if not im- 
pounded. , Distraining part of the 
goods for rent in arrear, in the name 
of the whole goods, will be deemed 
a lawful seizure. But if distress and 
sale be made for rent when it can be 
proved that no rent is due or in ar- 
rear, the person so injured may re- 
cover double the value of such goods 
distrained, with full costs of suit. If 
goods be impounded, though they 
have been distrained without a cause, 
a tenant cannot touch them, because 
they are then in the hands of the 
law ; but if not impounded or taken 
away, he is at liberty to rescue tkem. 
— If distress be made for rent, and 
the goods are not replevied within 
five days after the distress is made, 
and notice left on the premises stat- 
ing the cause of such distress, the 
person distraining may have the 
goods appraised by two persons, 
sworn by the constable of the place 
for that purpose, and may after such ' 
appraisement sell them to the best 
advantage. Jhe rent may then be 
taken, including all expences, and 
the overplus left in the hands of the 
constable for the owner's use. If a 
landlord commit aa unlawful act or 
any other irregularity, in making dis- 
tress for rent which is justly due, 
the distress itself will not on that 
account be deemed unlawful ; but 
full damages may be demanded by 
the injured party, with full costs ol 
suit ; either in an action of trespass, 
or on the case. But if full recom- 
pense be tendered to the tenant for 
sueh trespass before the action is 
commenced, he is bound to acceot it.. 

or the action will be discharged. — If 
a tenant clandestinely remove his 
goods, to prevent the landlord from 
distraining them for rent,he may seize 
the goods within thirty days, where- 
ver they shall be found ; and if not ac- 
tually sold previous to the seizure, he 
may dispose of them in order to recov- 
er his rent. Any tenant or assistant 
removing goods to prevent a distress, 
is liable to double the value of the 
goods, which the landlord may re- 
cover by action at law. If under the 
value of fifty pounds, complaint may 
be made in writing to two neigh- 
bouring magistrates, who will en- 
force the payment by distress, or 
commit the offenders to the house of 
correction for six months. If any 
person after the distress is made, 
shall presume to remove the goods 
distrained, or take them avay from, 
the person distraining, the party 
aggrieved may sue for the injury, 
and recover treble costs and damages 
against the offender. — A landlord 
may not break a lock, nor open a 
gate ; but if the outer door of the 
house be open he may enter, and 
break open the inner doors. But 
where goods are fraudulently remov- 
ed, and locked up to prevent their be- ' 
ing seized, the landlord may break 
open every place where they are and 
seize them. If in a dwelling house, 
an oath must first be made before a 
magistrate, that is was suspected the 
goods were lodged there. The most 
eligible way is to remove the goods 
immediately, and to give the tenant 
notice where they are removed to ; 
but it is usual to leave them under 
the protection of a person on the 
premises for five whole days, after 
which it is lawful to sell them. In 
making the distress, it is necessary 
to give the bailiff" a written order for 
that purpose, which the landlord 
may do himself without any stamp, 
only specifying the person's name, 
place of abode, and rent in arrears 
for which the goods and chattels are 
to be seized. After this an inventory 



is to be made of the articles, a copy 
of which is to be given to the tenant, 
accompanied with a notice that un- 
less the arrears of rent and charges 
of distress be paid, or the goods re- 
plevied at the expiration of five days 
from the day of distress, the said 
goods will be appraised and sold ac- 
cording to law. If the landlord 
chooses to indulge the tenant with 
a longer time to raise the money, a 
memorandum must be taken of the 
tenant, stating that possession is 
lengthened at his request, or the 
landlord will be liable to an action 
for exceeding the time of his origi- 
nal notice. — See TENA^TS. 

DOUBLE RENT. If a tenant has 
received a written notice, and he re- 
fuse to quit, after such notice has 
been regularly served, and will not 
give possession at the time required, 
he is liable to pay at the rate of 
double the annual value of the land 
or tenement so detained, for so long 
time as the same are detained in his 
possession, and the payment may be 
recovered by action of debt. Or if 
the tenant shall give notice of his 
intention to quit the premises, and 
do not deliver up possession accord- 
ing to such notice, he is liable to the 
payment of double rent, as in the 
other case. — The following is the 
form of a notice to a tenant to quit, 
or to pay double rent. * Mr. A. B. 
I hereby give you notice to deliver 
up possession and quit, on or before 
next Michaelmas day, the house and 
premises which you now hold of me, 
situate in the parish of in the 

county of : and in default of 

your compliance therewith, I do and 
will insist on your paying me for the 
same, the yearly rent of 
being double the annual rent, for 
such time as you shall detain the key, 
and keep possession, over the said 
notice. Witness my hand this 
day of 182 . C. D. Land- 

lord of the said premises. 

Witness E. F.'— 
If, after not'ce of double rent be ex- 

pired, a single rent is accepted, such 
acceptance will prevent the penalty, 
until notice is again given, and the 
time expired. 

DOWN. This valuable part of 
goose coating, which contributes so 
much to the comfort and even the 
luxury of life, comes to maturity when 
it begins to fall off of itself; and if 
removed too soon, it is liable to be 
attacked by worms. Lean geese fur- 
nish more than those that are fat, and 
the down is more valuable. Neither 
the feathers nor the down of geese 
which have been dead some time are 
fit for use : they generally smell bad, 
and become matted. None but what 
is plucked from living geese, or which 
have just been killed, ought to be 
exhibited for sale ; and in this case 
the down should be plucked soon, 
or before the geese are entirely cold. 
Beat a fresh-laid egg, and mix it 
with a quarter of a pint of new milk 
warmed, but do not heat it after the 
egg is put in. Add a large spoonful 
of capillaire, the same of rose water, 
and a little nutmeg scraped. Take 
it the first and last thing, and it will 
be found a fine soft draught for those 
who are weakly, or have a cold. — 
Another remedy. Take a handful 
of horehound, a handful of rue, a 
handful of hyssop, and the same 
quantity of ground ivy and of tor- 
mentil, with a small quantity of long 
plantain, pennyroyal, and five fin- 
ger. Boil them in four quarts of 
water till reduced to two quarts. 
Strain it off, then add two pounds 
of loaf sugar ; simmer it a little, add 
a quart of brandy and bottle it for 
use. A wine glassful of this to be 
taken occasionally. 

DRIED BACON. When two 
flitches are to be cured, divide the 
hog, cut off the hams, and take out 
the chine. It is common to remove 
the spare-ribs, but the bacon will be 
preserved better from being rusty, if 
they are left in. Salt the bacon six 
days, then drain it from that first 



pickle : mix a proper quantity of salt 
with half a pound of bay-salt, three 
ounces of saltpetre, and a pound of 
coarse sugar, to each hog. Rub the 
salts well in, and turn it every day 
for a month. Drain and smoke it 
for a few days, or dry it with bran 
or flour, and hang it in the kitchen, 
or on a rack suspended from the 
ceiling. — Good bacon may be known, 
if you are going to purchase it, by 
the rind being thin, the fat firm, and 
of a red tinge, the lean tender, of a 
good colour, and adhering to the 
bone. If there are yellow streaks in 
it, it is going, if not already rusty. 

pounds of Kentish cherries, and put 
them into a preserving pan with two 
pounds of loaf sugar pounded and 
strewed among them. Simmer them 
till they begin to shrivel, then strain 
them from the juice, iay them on a 
hot hearth or in an oven, when either 
is cool enough to dry without baking 
them. The same syrup will do 
another six pounds of fruit. — To dry 
cherries without sugar, stone, and 
set them over the fire in a preserving 
pan. Simmer them in their own li- 
quor, and shake them in the pan. 
Put them by in common china dish- 
es: next day give them another scald, 
and when cold put them on sieves to 
dry, in an oven moderately warm. 
Twice heating, an hour each time, 
*• will be sufficient. Place them in a 
box, with a paper between each lay- 
er. — A superior way of preserving 
cherries is to allow one pound of 
double-refined sugar to every five 
pounds of fruit, after they are 
stoned ; then to put both into a pre- 
serving pan with very little water, 
till they are scalding hot. Take the 
fruit out immediately and dry them ; 
return them into the pan again, 
strewing the sugar between each lay- 
er of cherries. Let it stand to melt, 
then set the pan on the fire, and make 
it scalding hot as before ; take it off, 
and repeat this thrice with the sugar. 
Drain them from the svrup? and lav 

them singly to dry on dishes, in the 
sun or on a stove. When dry, pu.t 
them into a sieve, dip it into a pan 
of cold water, and draw it instantly 
out again, and pour them on a fine 
soft cloth ; dry them, and set them 
once more in the sun, or on a stove. 
Keep them in a box, with layers of 
white paper, in a dry place. This is 
the best way to give plumpness to 
the fruit, as well as colour and fla- 

them of two or three pounds weight ; 
take out the gills, eyes, and entrails, 
and remove the blood from the back- 
bone. Wipe them dry, and put some 
salt into the bodies and sockets. Lay 
them on a board for a night, then 
hang them up in a dry place, and 
after three or four days they will be 
fit to eat. Skin and rub them with 
egg, and strew crumbs over them. 
Lay them before the fire, baste with 
butter till they are quite brown, and 
serve with egg sauce. — Whitings, if 
large, are' excellent in this way ; and 
where there is no regular supply of 
fish, it will be found a great conve- 

DRIED SALMON. Cut the fish 
down, take out the inside and roe. 
After scaling it, rub it with common 
salt, and let it hang twenty-four 
hours to drain. Pound three or four 
ounces of saltpetre, according to the 
size of the fish, two ounces of bay 
salt, and two ounces of coarse sugar. 
Mix them well, rub it into the sal- 
mon, and lay it on a large dish for 
two days ; then rub it with common 
salt, wipe it well after draining, and 
in twenty-four hours more it will be 
fit to dry. Hang it either in a wood 
chimney, or in a dry place, keeping 
it open with two small sticks. — Dri- 
ed salmon is broiled in paper, and 
only just warmed through. Egg 
sauce and mashed potatoes may be 
eaten with it ; or it may be boiled, 
especially the part next the head. 
An excellent dish of dried salmon 
may also be made in the follovving 



manner. Prepare some eggs boiled 
hard and chopped large, pull off 
some flakes of the fish, and put them 
both into half a pint of thin cream, 
with two or three ounces of butter 
rubbed in a tea-spoonful of flour. 
Skim and stir it till boiling hot, make 
a wall of mashed potatoes round the 
inner edge of a dish, and pour the 
above into it. 

a table-spoonful of capillaire, and 
the same of good vinegar, into a tum- 
bler of fresh cold water. Tamarinds, 
currants, fresh or in jelly, scalded 
currants or cranberries, make excel- 
lent drinks ; with a little sugar or 
not, as most agreeable. Or put a 
tea-cupful of cranberries into a cup 
of water, and mash them. In the 
meantime boil two quarts of water 
with one large spoonful ef oatmeal, 
and a bit of lemon peel ; then add 
the cranberries, and as much fine 
Lisbon sugar as shall leave a smart 
flavour of the fruit. Add a quarter 
of a pint of sherry, or less, as may 
be proper : boil all together for half 
an hour, and strain off the drink. 

DRIPPING, if carefully preserv- 
ed, will baste every thing as well as 
butter, except fowls and game ; and 
for kitchen pies nothing else should 
be used. The fat of a neck or loin 
of mutton makes a far lighter pud- 
ding than suet. 

pound of clarified dripping iato three 
pounds of fine flour, and mak^it into 
a paste with cold water. Or make 
a hot crust with the same quantity, 
by melting the dripping in water, 
and mixing it hot with the flour. 

DROP CAKES. Rub half a pound 
of butter into a pound of fine flour ; 
mix it with half a pound of sugar, 
and the same of currants. Mix it 
into a paste, with two eggs, a large 
spoonful oi' rose water, brandy, and 
sweet wine ; and put it on plates 
ready floured. 

DROPSY. Gentle exercise and 
rubbing the parts aff'ected, are high- 

ly proper in this complaint, and the 
tepid bath has often procured con- 
siderable relief. The patient ought 
to live in a warm dry place, not ex- 
pose himself to cold or damp air, 
and wear flannel next the skin. Ve- 
getable acids, such as vinegar, the 
juice of lemons and oranges, diluted 
with water, should be drank in pre- 
ference to wine or spirits, either of 
which are generally hurtful. The 
diet should be light and nourishing, 
easy of digestion, and taken in mo- 
deration. Horseradish, onions and 
garlic, may be used instead of fo- 
reign spices ; but tea, coffee, and 
punch, are alike improper. 

DROWNING. If a person un- 
fortunately fall into the water, and 
is supposed to be drowned, he should 
be carefully undressed as soon as he 
is taken out ; then laid on a bed or 
mattrass in a warm apartment, with 
the head and upper part a little rais- 
ed, and the nostrils cleaned with a 
feather dipped in oil. Let the body 
be gently rubbed with common salt, 
or with flannels dipped in spirits ; 
the pit of the stomach fomented with 
hot brandy, the temples stimulated 
with spirits of hartshorn, and blad- 
ders of lukewarm water applied to 
different parts of the body, or a 
warming-pan wrapped in flannel 
gently moved along the back. A 
warm bath, gradually increased to 
seventy-five degrees, would be high- 
ly proper ; or the body may be car- 
ried to a brewhouse, and covered up 
with warm grains for an hour or two. 
An attempt should be made to inflate 
the lungs, either by the help of a pair 
of bellows, or a person's blowing 
with his mouth through the nostril, 
which in the first instance is much 
better. If the patient be very young, 
or^the animation do not appear al- 
together suspended, he may be plac- 
ed in bed between two persons to 
promote natural warmth, or covered 
with blankets or warm flannels. Sti- 
mulating clysters of warm water and 
salt, or six ounces of brandy, should 



be speedily administered. The means 
should be persevered in for several 
hours, as there are instances of per- 
sons recovering after all hope was 
given up, and they had been aban- 
doned by their attendants. As soon 
as the first symptoms of life are dis- 
cernible, care must be taken to che- 
rish the vital action by the most 
gentle and soothing means. Fomen- 
tations of aromatic plants may then 
be applied to the pit of the stomach, 
bladders of warm water placed to 
the left side, the soles of the feet 
rubbed with salt, and a little white 
wine dropped on the tongue. The 
patient should then be left in a quiet 
state till able to drink a little warm 
wine, or tea mixed with a few drops 
of vinegar. The absurd practice of 
rolling persons on casks, lifting the 
feet over the shoulders, and suft'er- 
mg the head to remain downwards, 
in order to discharge the water, has 
occasioned the loss of many lives, 
as it is now fully and clearly estab- 
lished, that the respiration being 
impeded is in this case the sole cause 
of the suspension of life ; and which 
being restored, the vital functions 
soon recover their tone. No attempt 
must be made to introduce liquor of 
any kind into the mouth, till there 
are strong signs of recovery. 

DUCKS. In rearing this species 
of pouftry, they should be accustom- 
ed to feed and rest in one place, to 
prevent their straggling too far to 
lay. Places near the water to lay 
in are advantageous, and these might 
consist of small wooden houses, with 
a partitjoii in the middle, and a door 
at each end. They generally begin 
to lay in the month of February. 
Their eggs should be daily taken 
away except one, till they seem in- 
clined to set, and then they should 
be left with a sufficient quantity of 
eggs under them. They require no 
attention while setting, except to give 
them food at the time they come out 
to seek it ; and water should be 
placed at a convenient distance, that 

their eggs may not be spoiled by 
their long absence in seeking it. 
Twelve or thirteen eggs will be suf- 
ficient. In an early season it is best 
to place them under a hen, that the 
ducks may have less time for setting, 
for in cold weather they cannot so 
well be kept from the water, and 
would scarcely have strength to bear 
it. They should be placed under 
cover, especially in a wet season ; 
for though water is the natural ele- 
ment of ducks, yet they are apt to 
be killed by the cramp before they 
are covered with feathers to defend 
them. Ducks will eat any thing ; 
and when to be fatted, they should 
have plenty of food, however coarse 
it may be, and in three weeks they 
will be ready. 

DUCK PIE. Bone a full-grown 
young duck and a fowl. Wash and 
season them with pepper and salt, 
and a small proportion of mace and 
allspice in the finest powder. Put 
the fowl within the duck, and in the 
former a calf's tongue, boiled very 
tender and peeled. Press the whole 
close, and draw the legs inwards, 
that the body of the fowl may be 
quite smooth. The space between 
the sides of the crust may be filled 
with fine forcemeat, the same as for 
savoury pies. Bake it in a slow 
oven, either in a raised crust or pie 
dish, with a thick ornamented crust. 
Large Staffordshire pies are made 
as above, but with a goose outwards, 
then a turkey, a duck next, then a 
fowl; and either tongue, small birds, 
or forcemeat in the middle. 

DUCK SAUCE. Put a rich gravy 
into the dish, and slice the breast. 
Cut a lemon, put on it some pepper 
and salt, squeeze it on the breast, 
and pour a spoonful of gravy over 
the meat, before it is sent round. — 
See Roast Duck. 

DUN BIRDS. Roast and baste 
them with butter, and sprinkle a little 
salt before they are taken up. Pour 
a good gravy over them, and serve 
with shalot sauce in a boat. 



few small mushrooms in their own 
liquor and a bit of butter, a quarter 
of an hour. Mince them fine, and 
put them with their liquor to some 
cold minced veal. Add a little pep- 
per and salt, some cream, and a bit of 
butter rubbed in less than half a tea- 
spoonful of flour. Simmer the mince 
three or four minutes, and serve it 
on thin sippets of bread. Cold fowl 
may be treated in the same manner. 

DUTCH BEEF. Take a lean 
piece of beef, rub it well with treacle 
or brown sugar, and let it be turned 
often. In three days wipe it, and 
salt it with common salt and salt- 
petre beaten fine : rub these well in, 
and turn it every day for a fortnight. 
Roll it tight in a coarse cloth, and 
press it under a large weight : hang 
it to dry in a wood smoke, but turn 
it upside down every day. Boil it 
in pump water, and press it : it will 
then grate or cut into shivers, like 
Dutch beef. 

ounces of isinglass in a pint and half 
of water very gently half an hour ; 
add a pint of white wine, the juice 
of three lemons, and the thin rind of 
one. Rub a few lumps of sugar on 
another lemon to obtain the essence, 
and add with them a sufficient quan- 
tity of sugar to sweeten. Beat up 
the yolks of seven eggs, mix it with 
the above, and give them together 
one scald. Keep the flummery stir- 
ring all the time, pour it into a ba- 
son, stir it till half cold, let it settle, 
and then put it into a melon shape. 

pound of butter in half a pint of 
milk ; mix it into two pounds of flour, 
eight eggs, and four spoonfuls of 
yeast. Add a pound of currants, 
and a quarter of a pound of sugar 
beaten and sifted, and bake it an 
hour in a quick oven. This is a 
very good pudding hot, and equally 
so as a cake when cold. If for the 
latter, carraways must be used in- 
stead of currants. 

four ounces of rice in warm water 
half an hour ; drain away the water, 
put the rice into a stewpan, with 
half a pint of milk, and half a stick 
of cinnamon, and simmer it till ten- 
der. When cold, add four eggs well 
beaten, two ounces of butter melted 
in a tea-cupful of cream ; and add 
three ounces of sugar, a quarter of 
a nutmeg, and a good piece of le- 
mon peel. Put a light pufl^paste into 
a mould or dish, or grated tops and 
bottoms, and bake in a quick oven. 

DUTCH WAFFLES. These form 
a delicious article in the shape of 
puff cakes, which are instantly pre- 
pared and exhibited for sale in stalls 
or tents, in the fairs of Holland, 
where they are eaten hot as they 
come from the plate or baking pan, 
with fine sugar strewed over them. 
Mix together three pounds of fine 
flour, a dozen eggs, a pound of melt- 
ed butter, half a pint of ale, some 
milk, and a little yeast. £eat it 
well, till it forms a thick paste, and 
let it stand three or four hours be- 
fore the fire to rise. Lay it in small 
pieces on a hot iron or fryingpan, 
with a pair of buttered tongs, till 
it is lightly browned. Eat the waf- 
fles with fine sugar sifted over, or a 
little sack and melted butter. 

DYEING. Nankeen dye is made 
of equal parts of arnetto and com- 
mon potash, dissolved in boiling wa- 
ter. To dye cotton, silk, woollen, 
or linen of a beautiful yellow, the 
plant called weld, or dyer's weed, 
is used for that purpose. Blue cloths 
dipped in a decoction of it will be- 
come green. The yellow colour of 
the Dutch pink is obtained from the 
juice of the stones and branches of 
the weld. Black dye is obtained 
from a strong decoction of logwood, 
copperas, and gum arable. Oak 
saw-dust, or the excrescences on the 
roots of young oaks, may be used 
as a substitute for galls, both in 
making ink and black dye. 

Q 118 

t: A u 

T. (x G 


Earthenware. An ounce of 

dry lean cheese grated fine, and an 
equal quantity of quicklime mixed 
well together in three ounces of skim 
milk, will form a good cement for 
any articles of broken earthenware, 
when the rendering of the joint visi- 
ble is reckoned of no consequence. 
A cement of the same nature may be 
made of quicklime tempered with 
the curd of milk, but the curd should 
either be made of whey or butter- 
milk. This cement, like the former, 
requires to be applied immediately 
after it is made, and it will effectu- 
ally join any kind of earthenware or 

EARWIGS. These insects are 
often destructive in gardens, especi- 
ally where carnations, nuts, or fil- 
berts, pears and apples are reared. 
Their depredations on the flowers 
may be prevented by putting the 
bowl of a tobacco-pipe on the sticks 
which support them, into which they 
will creep in the day time, and may 
be destroyed. Green leaves of elder 
laid near fruit trees, or flower roots, 
will prevent their approach. Large 
quantities may be taken by placing 
short cuts of reed, bean or wheat 
straw, among the branches of fruit 
trees, and laying some on the ground 
near the root. Having committed 
their depredations in the night, they 
take refuge in these in the day time ; 
the reed or straw may be taken away 
and burnt, and more put in its stead. 
— If unfortunately one of these dis- 
agreeable insects have crept into the 
ear, from their running so frequently 
about our garments, let the afflicted 
person lay his head upon a table, 
while some friend carefully drop into 
the ear a little sweet oil, or oil of 
almonds. A drop or two will be 
sufficient to destroy the insect, and 
remove the pain. An earwig may 
be extracted by applying a piece of 
apple to the ear, which will entice 
the insect to come out. 

it up tight, and tie a broad fillet 
round it, to keep the skewers in their 
places. Put it in with plenty of cold 
water, and carefully catch the scum 
as it rises. When all the scum is 
removed, place the boiler on one 
side of the fire, to keep simmering 
slowly till it is done. A piece weigh- 
ing ten pounds will take two hours, 
and larger in proportion. The slower 
it boils the better it will look, and 
the tenderer it will be : if allowed to 
boil quick at first, no art can make 
it tender afterwards. Dress plenty 
of carrots, as cold carrots are a ge- 
neral favourite with cold beef. 

EEL BROTH. Clean half a pound 
of small eels, and set them on the 
fire with three pints of water, some 
parsley, a slice of onion, and a few 
peppercorns. Let them simmer till 
the eels are broken, and the broth 
good. Add salt, and strain it off. 
The above should make three half 
pints of broth, nourishing and good 
for weakly persons. 

EEL PIE. Cut the eels in length* 
of two or three inches, season with 
pepper and salt, and place them in 
a dish with some bits of butter, and 
a little water. Cover the dish with 
a paste, and bake it. 

EEL SOUP. Put three pounds 
of small eels to two quarts of water, 
a crust of bread, three blades of 
mace, some whole pepper, an onion, 
and a bunch of sweet herbs. Cover 
them close, stew till the fish is quite 
broken, and then strain it oft'. Toast 
some bread, cut it into dice, and 
pour the soup on it boiling hot. 
Part of a carrot may be put in at 
first. This soup will be as rich as 
if made of meat. A quarter of a 
pint of rich cream, with a tea-spoon- 
ful of flour rubbed smooth in it, is 
a great improvement. 

EGGS. In new-laid eggs there 
is a small division of the skin at the 
end of the shell, which is filled with 



air, and is perceptible to the eye. 
On looking through them against the 
sun or a candle, they will be tolera- 
bly clear; but if they shake in the 
shell, they are not fresh. Another 
way to distinguish fresh eggs, is to 
put the large end to the tongue ; if 
it feels warm, it is new and good. 
Eggs may be bought cheapest in the 
spring, when the hens first begin to 
lay, before they set : in Lent and at 
Easter they become dear. They may 
be preserved fresh for. some time by 
dipping them in boiling water, and 
instantly taking them out, or by oil- 
ing the shell, either of whrch will 
prevent the air from passing through. 
They may also be kept on shelves 
with small holes to receive one in 
each, and be turned every other day ; 
or close packed in a keg, and cover- 
ed with strong lime water. A still 
better way of preserving eggs in a 
fresh state is to dip them in a solu- 
tion of gum-arabic in water, and 
then imbed them in powdered char- 
coal. The gum-arabic answers the 
purpose of a varnish for the eggs, 
much better than any resinous gum, 
as it can easily be removed by wash- 
ing them in water, and is a much 
cheaper preparation than any other. 
If eggs are greased the oily matter 
becomes rancid, and infallibly hast- 
ens the putrefaction of the eggs. 
But being varnished with gum wa- 
ter, and imbedded in charcoal, they 
will keep for many years, and may 
be removed from one climate to an- 

slices of fine streaked bacon in a 
clean dish, and toast them before the 
fire in a cheese-toaster, turning them 
when the upper side is browned ; or 
if it be wished to have them mellow 
and soft, rather than curled and crisp, 
parboil the slices before they are 
toasted and do them lightly. Clear 
dripping or lard is to be preferred 
to butter for frying the eggs, and be 
sure that the fryingpan is quite clean 
before it is put in. When the fat is 

hot, break two or three eggs into it. 
Do not turn them ; but while they 
are frying, keep pouring some of the 
fat over them with a spoon. When 
the yolk just begins to look white, 
which it will in about two minutes, 
they are enough, and the white must 
not be suffered to lose its transpa- 
rency. Take up the eggs with a 
tin sHce, drain the fat from them, 
trim them neatly, and send them up 
with the bacon round them. 

eggs hard, take out the yolks whole, 
and cut the whites in slices. Fry 
some onions and mushrooms, put in 
the whites, and keep them turning. 
Pour off the fat, flour the onions, 
and add a little gravy. Boil them 
up, then put in the yolks, with a lit- 
tle pepper and salt. Simmer the 
whole about a minute, and serve it 

couple of eggs for twelve minutes, 
and put them into a bason of cold 
water, to render the yolks firm and 
hard. Rub them through a sieve lia; 
with a wooden spoon, and mix them 
with a spoonful of water, or fine 
double cream, and add two table- 
spoonfuls of oil or melted butter. 
When these are well mixed, add 
by degrees a tea-spoonful of salt, 
or powdered lump sugar, and the 
same of made mustard. Add very 
gradually three table-spoonfuls of 
vinegar, rub it with the other ingre- 
dients till thoroughly incorporated, 
and cut up the white of the e^g to 
garnish the top of the sallad. Let 
the sauce remain at the bottom of 
the bowl, and do not stir up the sal- 
lad till it is to be eaten. This sauce 
is equally good with cold meat, cold 
fish, or for cucumbers, celery, and 

very little boiled or poached, when 
taken in small quantities, convey 
much nourishment. The yolk only, 
when dressed, should be eaten by 
invalids. An egg divided, and the 



yolk and white beaten separately, 
then mixed with a glass of wine, will 
afford two very wholesome draughts, 
and prove lighter than when taken 
together. An egg broken into a cup 
of tea, or beaten and mixed with a 
bason of milk, makes a breakfast 
more supporting than tea only. 

a mortar three yolks of eggs that 
have been boiled hard. Make it into 
a paste with the yolk of a raw one, 
roll it into small balls, and throw 
them into boiling water for two mi- 
nutes to harden. 

EGG BALLS. Boil the eggs hard, 
and put them in cold water. Take 
out the yolks, and pound them fine 
in a mortar, wetting them with raw 
yolks, about one to three. Season 
them with salt and white pepper, 
dry them with flour, and roll them 
into small balls, as they swell very 
much in boiling. When dressed, 
boil them in gravy for a minute. 

EGG PIE. Boil twelve eggs hard, 
and chop them with one pound of 
marrow, or beef suet. Season with 
a little cinnamon and nutmeg finely 
beaten, adding one pound of currants 
clean washed and picked, two or 
three spoonfuls of cream, a little 
sweet wine, and rose water. Mix 
all together, and fill the pie : when 
it is baked, stir in half a pound of 
fresh butter, and the juice of a le- 

eggs hard, shred them small, and 
double the quantity of shred suet. 
Then add a pound of currants wash- 
ed and picked, or more if the eggs 
were large ; the peel of one lemon 
shred very fine, and the juice ; six 
spoonfuls of sweet wine, mace, nut- 
meg, sugar, a very little salt ; orange, 
lemon, and citron, candied. Cover 
the pies with a light paste. ' 

EGG SAUCE. Boil the eggs 
hard, chop them fine, and put them 
into melted butter. If thrown into 
cold water after being boiled, the 
yolks will become firmer, will be 

easier to cut, and the surface be pre- 
vented from turning black. Egg 
sauce will be found an agreeable ac- 
companiment to roast fowl, or salt 

EGG WINE. Beat up an egg, 
and mix it with a spoonful of cold 
water. Set on the fire a glass of 
white w^ine, half a glass of water, 
with sugar and nutmeg. When it 
boils, pour a little of it to the egg 
by degrees, till the whole is mixed, 
and stir it well. Then return the 
whole into the saucepan, put it on a 
gentle fire, stir it one way for about 
a minute. If it boil, or the egg be 
stale, it will curdle. The wine may 
be made without warming the egg ; 
it is then lighter on the stomach, 
though not so pleasant to the taste. 
Serve it with toast. 

ELDER. The foetid smell of the 
common elder is such, especially of 
the dwarf elder, that if the leaves 
and branches be strewed among 
cabbage and cauliflower plants, or 
turnips, it will secure them from the 
ravages of flies and caterpillars ; 
and if hung on the branches of trees, 
it will protect them from the effects 
of blight. Or if put into the sub- 
terraneous paths of the moles, it 
will drive them from the garden. An 
infusion of the leaves in water, and 
sprinkled over rose-buds and other 
flowers, will preserve them from the 
depredations of the caterpillar. 

ELDER ROB. Clear some ripe 
elder-berries from the staFks, bake 
them in covered jars for two hours, 
and squeeze the juice through a 
strainer. To four quarts of juice 
put one pound of sugar, and stir it 
over the fire till reduced to one 
quart. When cold, tie it down with 
a bladder, and keep it in a dry 
place. It is very good for sore 
throats and fevers. 

ELDER SYRUP. Pick off the 
elder berries when fully ripe, bake 
them in a stone jar, strain them 
through a coarse sieve, and put the 
juice into a clean kettle. To every 



quart of juice add a pound of fine 
soft sugar, boil and skim it well : 
when it is clear, pour it into a jar, 
cool it, and cover it down. Half a 
pint of this syrup added to a gallon 
of new made wine, will give it a very 
rich flavour, or it may be used for 
other purposes. 

ELDER WINE. Pick the berries 
from the stalk, and to every quart 
allow two quarts of water. Boil 
them half an hour, run the liquor 
and break the fruit through a hair 
sieve, and to every quart of juice put 
three quarters of a pound of moist 
sugar. Boil the whole a quarter of 
an hour, with some peppercorns, 
ginger, and a few cloves. Pour it 
into a tub, and when of a proper 
warmth, into the barrel, with toast 
and yeast to work, which there is 
more difficulty to make it do than 
most other liquors. When it ceases 
to hiss, put a quart of brandy to 
eight gallons, and stop it up. Bot- 
tle it in the spring, or at Christmas. 
— To make white elder wine, very 
much like Frontiniac, boil eighteen 
pounds of white powder sugar with 
six gallons of water, and two whites 
of eggs well beaten. Skim it clean, 
and but in a quarter of a peck of 
elder flowers from the tree that bears 
white berries, but do not keep them 
on the fire. Stir it when nearly cold, 
and put in six spoonfuls of lemon 
juice, four or five spoonfuls of yeast, 
and beat it well into the liquor. Stir 
it every day, put into the cask six 
pounds of the best raisins stoned, 
and tun the wine. Stop it close, 
and bottle it in six months. When 
well kept, this wine will pass for 

six gallons of spring water put six 
pounds of sun raisins cut small, and 
a dozen pounds of fine sugar : boil 
the whole together for about an hour 
and a half. When the liquor is cold, 
put in half a peck of ripe elder 
flowers, with about a gill of lemon 
juice, and half the quantity of ale 

yeast. Cover it up, and after stand- 
ing three days, strain it off. Pour 
it into a cask that is quite clean, 
and that will hold it with ease. When 
this is done, add a quart of Rhenish 
wine to every gallon of liquor, and 
let the bung be lightly put in for 
twelve or fourteen days. Then stop 
it down fast, and put it in a cool dry 
place for four or five months, till it 
is quite settled and fine : then bot- 
tle It off. 

the middle of May, cut some large 
young shoots of elder ; strip off the 
outward peel, and soak them all 
night in some strong salt and water. 
Dry them separately in a cloth, and 
have in readiness the following pic- 
kle. To a quart of vinegar put an 
ounce of white pepper, an ounce of 
sliced ginger, a little mace and pi- 
mento, all boiled together. Put the 
elder shoots into a stone jar, pour 
on the liquor boiling hot, stop it up 
close, and set it by the fire two hours, 
turning the jar often to keep it hot. 
If not green when cold, strain off ^ 
the liquor, pour it on boiling again, 
and keep it hot as before. — Or if it 
be intended to make Indian pickle, 
the addition of these shoots will be 
found to be a great improvement. 
In this case it will only be necessary 
to pour boiling vinegar and mustard 
seed on them, and to keep them till 
the jar of pickles shall be ready to 
receive them. The cluster of elder 
flowers before it opens, makes a de- 
licious pickle to eat with boiled mut- 
ton. It is prepared by only pour- 
ing vinegar over the flowers. 

or British brandy may be made in 
smaller quantities, according to the 
following proportions. To sixty gal- 
lons of clear rectified spirits, put 
one pound of sweet spirit of nitre, 
one pound, of cassia buds ground, 
one pound of bitter almond meal, 
(the cassia and almond meal to be 
mixed together before they are put 
to the spirits) two ounces of sliced 



orris root, and about thirty or forty 
prune stones pounded. Shake the 
whole well together, two or three 
times a day, for three days or more. 
Let them settle, then pour in one 
gallon of the best wine vinegar ; and 
add to every four gallons, one gallon 
of foreign brandy. 

Take gooseberries before they are 
rip€, crush them with a mallet in 
a wooden bowl ; and to every gallon 
of fruit, put a gallon of water. Let 
it stand two days, stirring it well. 
Squeeze the mixture with the hands 
through a hop sieve, then measure 
the liquor, and to every gallon put 
three pounds and a half of loaf su- 
gar. Mix it well in the tub, and let 
it stand one day. Put a bottle of 
the best brandy into the cask, which 
leave open five or six weeks, taking 
off the scum as it rises. Then stop 
it up, and let it stand one year in 
the barrel before it is bottled. 

ENGLISH SHERRY. Boil thirty 
pounds of lump sugar in ten gallons 

H of water, and clear it of the scum. 
When cold, put a quart of new ale- 
wort to every gallon of liquor, and 
let it work in the tub a day or two. 
Then put it into a cask with a pound 
of sugar candy, six pounds of fine 
raisins, a pint of brandy, and two 
ounces of isinglass. When the fer- 
mentation is over, stop it close : let 
it stand eight months, rack it off*, 
and add a little more brandy. Re- 
turn it to the cask again, and let it 
stand four months before it is bot- 

ENGLISH WINES. During the 
high price of foreign wine, home- 
made wines will be found particular- 
ly useful ; and though sugar is dear, 
they may be prepared at a quarter 
of the expence. If carefully made, 
and kept three or four years, a pro- 
portionable strength being given, 
they would answer the purpose of 

^ foreign wines for health, and cause 
W' a very considerable reduction in the 
expenditure. Sugar and water are 

the principal basis of home-made 
wine ; and when these require to be 
boiled, it is proper to beat up the 
whites of eggs to a froth, and mix 
them with the water when cold, in 
the proportion of one egg to a gal- 
lon. When the sugar and water are 
boiled, the liquor should be cooled 
quickly ; and if not for wines that 
require fermenting, it may be put 
into the cask when cold. If the 
wine is to be fermented, the yeast 
should be put into it when it is milk- 
warm ; but must not be left more 
than two nights to ferment, before 
it is put into the cask. Particular 
care should be taken to have the 
cask sweet and dry, and washed in- 
side with a little brandy, before the 
wine is tunned, but it should not be 
bunged up close till it has done fer- 
menting. After standing three or 
four months, it will be necessary to 
taste the wine, to know whether it be 
fit to draw off. If not sweet enough, 
some sugar should be added, or draw 
it off into another cask, and put in 
some sugar-candy ; but if too sweet, 
let it stand a little longer. When 
the wine is racked, the dregs may 
be drained through a flannel bag ; 
and the wine, if not clear enough 
for the table, may be used for sauce. 

a dram of the oil of pimento, and 
mix it by degrees with two ounces 
of strong spirit of wine. A few drops 
will give the flavour of allspice to a 
pint of gravv, or mulled wine. 

into a marble mortar ten or twelve 
fine mellow anchovies, that have 
been well pickled, and pound them 
to a pulp. Put this into a clean 
well-tinned saucepan, then put a ta- 
ble-spoonful of cold water into the 
mortar, shake it round, and pour it 
to the pounded anchovies. Set them 
by the side of a slow fire, frequently 
stirring them together till they are 
melted, which they will be in the 
course of five minutes. Now stir io 
a quarter of a dram of good cayenne. 



and let it remain by the fire a few 
minutes longer. Rub it through a 
hair sieve with the back of a wooden 
spoon, and keep it stopped very 
closely : if the air gets to it, it is 
spoiled directly. Essence of ancho- 
vy is made sometimes with sherry, 
or madeira, instead of water, or with 
the addition of mushroom ketchup. 

half an ounce of cayenne pepper 
into half a pint of wine or brandy, 
let it steep a fortnight, and then 
pour off the clear liquor. This ar- 
ticle is very convenient for the ex- 
tempore seasoning and finishing of 
soups and sauces, its tlavour being 
instantly and equally diffused. 

in a quarter of a pint of brandy, or 
proof spirit, half an ounce of celery 
seed bruised, and let it stand a fort- 
night. A few drops will immediately 
flavour a pint of broth, and are an 
excellent addition to pease, and 
other soups. 

together two ounces of the strongest 
spirit of wine, and a dram of the oil 
of cloves. Nutmeg, cinnamon, and 
mace are prepared in the same man- 

lect a quantity of the petals of any 
flowers which have an agreeable 
fragrance, lay them in an earthen 
vessel, and sprinkle a little fine salt 
upon them. Then dip some cotton 
into the best Florence oil, and lay it 
thin upon the flowers ; continue a 
layer of petals, and a layer of cot- 
ton, till the vessel is full. It is then 
to be closed down with a bladder, 
and exposed to the heat of the sun. 
In about a fortnight a fragrant oil 
may be squeezed away from the 
whole mass, which will yield a rich 

three ounces of ginger, and an ounce 
of thin lemon peel, into a quart of 
brandy, or proof spirit, and let it 
stand for ten days, shaking it up 

each day. If ginger is taken to pro- 
duce an immediate effect, to warm 
the stomach, or dispel flatulence, 
this will be found the best prepara- 

Take the blossoms from the stalks 
in warm weather, and spread them 
in the shade for twenty-four hours 
on a linen cloth ; then bruise and 
put them into warm water, and leave 
them closely covered in a still for 
four or five hours near the fire. Af- 
ter this the bl6ssoms may be dis- 
tilled in the usual way. 

Wash and brush clean the lemons, 
and let them get perfectly dry. Take 
a lump of fine sugar, and rub them 
till all the yellow rind is taken up 
by the sugar ; scrape off the surfiice 
of the sugar into a preserving pot, 
and press it hard down. Cover it 
very close, and it will keep for some 
time. By this process is obtained 
the whole of the fine essential oil, 
which contains the flavour. 

This delicate relish is made by 
sprinkling a little salt over some 
mushrooms, and mashing them three 
hours after. Next day strain off the 
liquor, put it into a stewpan, and 
boil it till reduced one half. It will 
not keep long, but is preferable to 
any of the ketchups. An artificial 
bed of mushrooms would supply this 
article all the year round. 

fine fresh Milton oysters, wash them 
in their own liquor, skim it, and 
pound them in a marble mortar. To 
a pint of oysters add a pint of sherry, 
boil them up, and add an ounce of 
salt, two drams of pounded mace, 
and one of cayenne. Let it just boil 
up again, skim it, and rub it through 
a sieve. When cold, bottle and cork 
it well, and seal it down. This com- 
position very agreeably heightens 
the flavour of white sauces, and 
white made-dishes. If a glass of 
brandv be added to the essence, it 



will keep a considerable time longer 
than oysters are out of season. 

mince, and pound in a mortar, three 
ounces of shalots, and infuse them in 
a pint of sherry for three days. Then 
pour ofl' the clear liquor on three 
ounces more of shalots, and let the 
wine remain on them ten days longer. 
An ounce of scraped horseradish 
may be added to the above, and a 
little thin lemon peel. This will im*- 
part a fine flavour to soups, sauces, 
hashes, and various other dishes. 

ing or shaving, the essence of soap 
is very superior to what is commonly 
used for these purposes, and a very 
small quantity will make an excel- 
lent lather. Mix two ounces of salt 
of tartar with half a pound of soap 
finely sliced, put them into a quart 
of spirits of wine, in a bottle that 
will contain twicethe quantity. Tie 
it down with a bladder, prick a pin 
through it for the air to escape, set 
it to digest in a gentle heat, and 
shake up the contents. When the 
soap is dissolved, filter the liquor 
through some paper to free it from 
impurities, and scent it with burga- 
mot or essence of lemon. 

together one wine-glassful of the 
essence of anchovy, one and a half 
of shalot wine, four wine-glassfuls 
of Basil wine, two ditto of mushroom 
ketchup, one dram of lemon acid, 
three quarters of an ounce of lemon 
peel very thinly pared, and a quar- 
ter of an ounce of curry powder, and 
let them steep together for a week. 
The essence thus obtained will be 
found convenient to flavour soup, 
sauce, potted meats, savoury patties, 
and various other articles. 

EVACUATIONS. Few things are 
more conducive to health than keep- 
ing the body regular, and paying 
attention to the common evacuations. 
A proper medium between costive- 
ness and laxness is highly desirable, 
and can only be obtained by regula- 

rity in diet, sleep, and exercise. Ir- 
regularity in eating and drinking dis- 
turbs every part of the animal eco- 
nomy, and never fails to produce 
diseases. Too much or too little 
food will have this eftect : the for- 
mer generally occasions looseness, 
and the latter costiveness ; and both 
have a tendency to injure health. 
Persons who have frequent recourse 
to medicine for preventing costive- 
ness, seldom fail to ruin their con- 
stitution. They ought rather to re- 
move the evil by diet than by drugs, 
by avoiding every thing of a hot or 
binding nature, by going thinly 
clothed,- walking in the open air, and 
acquiring the habit of a regular dis- 
charge by a stated visit to the place 
of retreat. Habitual looseness is of- 
ten owing to an obstructed perspi- 
ration : persons thus afflicted should 
keep their feet warm, and wear 
flannel next the skin. Their diet 
also should be of an astringent qua- 
lity, and such as tends to strength- 
en the bowels. For this purpose, 
fine bread, cheese, eggs, rice milk, 
red wine, or brandy and water would 
be proper. — Insensible perspiration 
is one of the principal discharges 
from the human body, and is of such 
importance to health, that few dis- 
eases attack us while it goes on pro- 
perly ; but when obstructed, the 
whole frame is soon disordered, and 
danger meets us in every form. The 
common cause of obstructed per- 
spiration, or taking cold, is the sud- 
den changes of the weather ; and 
the best means of fortifying the body 
is to be abroad every day, and breathe 
freely in the open air. Much dan- 
ger arises from wet feet and wet 
clothes, and persons who are much 
abroad are exposed to these things. 
The best way is to change wet clothes 
as soon as possible, or to keep in 
motion till they be dry, but by no 
means to sit or lie down. Early ha- 
bits may indeed inure people to wet 
clothes and wet feet without any 
danger, but persons of a delicate 



constitution cannot be too careful. 
Perspiration is often obstructed by 
other means, but it is in all cases at- 
tended with considerable danger. 
Sudden transitions from heat to cold, 
drinking freely of cold water after 
being heated with violent exercise, 
sitting near an open window when 
the room is hot, plunging into cold 
watter in a state of perspiration, or 
going into the cold air immediately 
after sitting in a warm room, are 
among the various means by which 
the health of thousands is constantly 
ruined ; and more die of colds than 
are killed by plagues, or slain in 

EVE'S PUDDING. Grate three 
quarters of a pound of bread ; mix 
it with the same quantity of shred 
suet, the same of apples, and also 
of currants. Mix with these the 
whole of four eggs, and the rind of 
half a lemon shred fine. Put it into 
a shape, and boil it three hours. 
Serve with pudding sauce, the juice 
of half a lemon, and a little nutmeg. 

EXERCISE. Whether man were 
originally intended for labour or not, 
it is evident from the human struc- 
ture, that exercise is not less neces- 
sary than food, for the preservation 
of health. It is generally seen 
among the labouring part of the 
community, that industry places 
them above want, and activity serves 
them instead of physic. It seems to 
be the established law of the animal 
creation, that without exercise no 
creature should enjoy health, or be 
able to find subsistence. Every 
creature, except man, takes as much 
of it as is necessary : he alone devi- 
ates from this original law, and suf- 
fers accordingly. Weak nerves, and 
glandular obstructions, which are 
now so common, are the constant 
companions of inactivity. We sel- 
dom hear the active or laborious 
complain of nervous diseases : in- 
deed many have been cured of them 
by being reduced to the necessity of 
(No. 6.) 

labouring for their own support; 
This shews the source from which 
such disorders flow, and the means 
by which they may be prevented. 
It is evident that health cannot be 
enjoyed where the perspiration is 
not duly carried on ; but that can 
never be the case where exercise is 
neglected. Hence it is that the in- 
active are continually complaining 
of pains of the stomach, flatulencies, 
and various other disorders which 
cannot be removed by medicine, but 
might be eflfectually cured by a course 
of vigorous exercise. But to render 
this in the highest degree beneficial, 
it should always be taken in the open 
air, especially in the morning, while 
the stomach is empty, and the body 
refreshed with sleep. The morning 
air braces and strengthens the nerves, 
and in some measure answers . the 
purpose of a cold bath. Every thing 
that induces people to sit still, ex- 
cept it be some necessary employ- 
ment, ought to be avoided ; and if 
exercise cannot be had in the open 
air, it should be attended to as far 
as possible within doors. Violent . 
exertions however are no more to be 
recommended than inactivity ; for 
whatever fatigues the body, prevents 
the benefit of exercise, and tends to 
weaken rather than strengthen it. 
Fast walking, immediately before or 
after meals, is highly pernidous, 
and necessarily accelerates the cir- 
culation of the blood, which is at- 
tended with imminent danger to the 
head or brain. On the other hand, 
indolence not only occasions dis- 
eases, and renders men useless to 
society, but it is the parent of vice. 
The mind, if not engaged in some 
useful pursuit, is constantly in search 
of ideal pleasures, or impressed with 
the apprehension of some imaginary 
evil; and from these sources pro- 
ceed most of the miseries of man- 
kind. An active life is the best 
guardian of virtue, and the greatest 
preservative of health. 

R 121 


F A W 


FaC similes. To produce a fac- 
simile of any writing, the pen should 
be made of glass enamel, the point 
being small and finely polished, so 
that the part above the point may 
be large enough to hold as much or 
more ink than a common writing 
pen. A mixture of equal parts of 
Frankfort black, and fresh butter, is 
now to be smeared over sheets of 
paper, and is to be rubbed off after 
a certain time. The paper thus 
smeared is to be pressed for some 
hours, taking care to have sheets of 
blotting paper between each of the 
sheets of black paper. When fit for 
use, writing paper is put between 
sheets of blackened paper, and the 
upper sheet is to be written on, with 
common ink, by the glass or enamel 
pen. By this method, not only the 
copy is obtained on which the pen 
writes, but also two or more, made 
bv means of the blackened paper. 

^ FAMILY PIES. To make a plain 
trust for pies to be eaten hot, or for 
fruit puddings, cut some thin slices 
of beef suet, lay them in some flour, 
mix it with cold water, and roll it 
till it is quite soft. Or make a paste 
of half a pound of butter or lard, 
and a pound and a half of flour. 
Mix it with water, work it up, roll 
it out twice,and cover the dish with it. 
FAMILY WINE. An excellent 
compound wine, suited to family 
use, may be made of equal parts of 
red, white, and black currants, ripe 
cherries and raspberries, well bruis- 
ed, and mixed with soft water, in 
the proportion of four pounds of 
fruit to one gallon of water. When 
strained and pressed, three pounds 
of moist sugar are to be added to 
each gallon of liquid. After stand- 
ing open for three days, during 
which it is to be stirred frequently, 
it is to be put into a barrel, and left 
for a fortnight to work, when a ninth 
part of brandy is to be added, and 

the whole bunged down. In a few 
months it will be a most excellent 

or fowls may be fatted in four or 
five days, by setting some rice over 
the fire with skimmed milk, as much 
as will serve for one day. Let it 
boil till the rice is quite swelled, and 
add a tea-spoonful of sugar. Feed 
them three times a day, in common 
pans, giving them only as much as 
will quite fill them at once. Before 
they are fed again, set the pans in 
water, that no sourness may be con- 
veyed to the fowls, as that would 
prevent their fattening. Let them 
drink clean water, or the milk of the 
rice ; but when rice is given them, 
after being peerfectly soakd, let as 
much of the moisture as possible be 
drawn from it. By this method 
the flesh will have a clean whiteness, 
which no other food gives ; and 
when it is considered how far a 
pound of rice will go, and how much 
time is saved by this mode, it will 
be found nearly as cheap as any 
other food, especially if it is to be 
purchased. The chicken pen should 
be cleaned every day, and no food 
given for sixteen hours before poul- 
try is to be killed. 

FAWN. A fawn, like a sucking 
pig, should be dressed almost as 
soon as it is killed. When very 
young, it is trussed, stufl'ed, and 
spitted the same as a hare. But 
they are better eating when of the 
size of a house lamb, and then roast- 
ed in quarters : the hind quarter is 
most esteemed. The meat must be 
put down to a very quick fire, and 
either basted all the time it is roast- 
ing, or be covered with sheets of fat 
bacon. When done, baste it with 
butter, and dredge it with a little 
salt and flour, till a nice froth is set 
upon it. Serve it up with venison 
sauce. If a fawn be half roasted as 



soon as received, and afterwards 
made into a hash, it will be very 

FEAR. Sudden fear, or an un- 
expected fright, often produces epi- 
leptic fits, and other dangerous dis- 
orders. Many young people have 
lost their lives or their senses by the 
foolish attempts of producing vio- 
lent alarm, and the mind has been 
thrown into such disorders as never 
again to act with regularity. A set- 
tled dread and anxiety not only dis- 
pose the body to diseases, but often 
render those diseases fatal, which a 
cheerful mind would overcome ; and 
the constant dread of some future 
evil, has been known to bring on the 
very evil itself. A mild and sympa- 
thizing behaviour towards the af- 
flicted will do them more good than 
medicine, and he is the best phy- 
sician and the best friend who ad- 
ministers the consolation of hope. 

FEATHERS. Where poultry is 
usually sold ready picked, the fea- 
thers which occasionally come in 
small quantities are neglected ; but 
care should be taken to put them 
into a clean tub, and as they dry to 
change them into paper bags, in 
small quantities. They should hah g 
in a dry kitchen to season ; fresh 
ones must not be added to those in 
part dried, or they will occasion a 
musty smell, but they should go 
through the same process. In a few 
months they will be fit to add to 
beds, or to make pillows, without 
the usual mode of drying them in a 
cool oven, which may be pursued if 
they are wanted before five or six 

der to clear feathers from animal 
oil, dissolve a pound of quick lime 
in a gallon of clear water ; and pour 
off the clear lime-water for use, at 
the time it is wanted. Put the fea- 
thers to be cleaned in a tub, and 
add to them a sufficient quantity of 
the clear lime-water, so as to cover 
them about three inches. The fea- 

thers, when thoroughly moistened, 
will sink down, and should remain 
in the lime-water for three or four 
days; after which, the foul liquor 
should be separated from them by 
laying them on a sieve. They are 
afterwards to be washed in clean 
water, and dried on nets, the meshes 
being about the same fineness as 
those of cabbage nets. They must 
be shaken from time to time on the 
nets ; as they dry, they will fall 
through the meshes, and are to be 
collected for use. The admission of 
air will be serviceable in the drying, 
and the whole process may be com- 
pleted in about three weeks. The 
feathers, after being thus prepared, 
want nothing farther than beating, 
to be used either for beds, bolsters, 
pillows, or cushions. 

FEET. To prevent corns from 
growing on the feet, wear easy shoes, 
and bathe the feet often in lukewarm 
water, with a little salt and potash 
dissolved in it. The corn itself may 
be completely destroyed by rubbing 
it daily with a little caustic solution 
of potash, till a soft and flexible 
skin is formed. For chilblains, soak 
the feet in warm bran and water and 
rub them well with flour of mustard. 
This should be done before the chil- 
blains begin to break. 

FENNEL SAUCE. Boil fennel 
and parsley, tied together in a bunch ^^ 
chop it small, and stir it up with 
melted butter. This sauce is gene- 
rally eaten with mackarel. 

FEVER DRINK. To make a re- 
freshing drink in a fever, put into a 
stone jug a little tea sage, two sprigs 
of balm, and a small quantity of 
wood sorrel, having first washed and 
dried them. Peel thin a small lemon, 
and clear from the white ; slice it, 
and put in a bit of the peel. Then 
pour in three pints of boiling water, 
sweeten, and cover it close. — Ano- 
ther drink. Wash extremely well 
an ounce of pearl barley ; shift it 
twice, then put to it three pints of 
water, an ounce of sweet almonds 



beaten fine, and a bit of lemon peel. 
Boil the liquor smooth, put in a lit- 
tle syrup of lemons, and capillaire. 
— Another way is to boil three pints 
of water with an ounce and a half of 
tamarinds, three ounces of currants, 
and two ounces of stoned raisins, 
till nearly a third is consumed. 
Strain it on a bit of lemon peel, 
which should be removed in the 
course of an hour, or it will infuse a 

FILLET OF VEAL. Stuff it well 
under the udder, at the bone, and 
quite through to the shank. Put it 
into the oven, with a pint of water 
under it, till it comes to a fine brown. 
Then put it in a stewpan with three 
pints of gravy, and stew it quite 
tender. Add a tea-spoonful of lemon 
pickle, a large spoonful of brown- 
ing, one of ketchup, and a little cay- 
enne ; thicken it with a bit of but- 
ter rolled, in flour. Put the veal in 
a dish, strain the gravy over it, and 
lay rouqd it forcemeat balls. Gar- 
nish with pickle and lemon. 

FINE CAKE. To make an excel- 
lent cake, rub two pounds of fine 
dry flour with oni^ of butter, washed 
' in plain and then in rose water. 
Mix with it three spoonfuls of yeast, 
in a little warm milk and water. 
Set it to rise an hour and a half be- 
fore the fire, and then beat into it 
two pounds of currants, carefully 
washed and picked, and one pound 
of sifted sugar. Add four ounces 
of almonds, six ounces of stoned 
raisins chopped fine, half a nutmeg, 
cinnamon, allspice, and a few cloves, 
the peel of a lemon shred very fine, 
a glass of wine, one of brandy, 
twelve yolks and whites of eggs beat 
separately, with orange, citron, and 
lenioii. Beat them up well together, 
butter the pan, and bake in a quick 
oven. — To make a still finer cake, 
wash two pounds and a half of fresh 
butter in water first, and then in 
rose water, and beat the butter to a 
cream. Beat up twenty eggs, yolks 
find whites, separately, half an hour 

each. Have ready two pounds and 
a half of the finest flour well dried 
and kept hot, likewise a pound and 
a half of loaf sugar pounded and 
sifted, an ounce of spice in very fine 
powder, three pounds of currants 
nicely cleaned and dry, half a pound 
of almonds blanched, and three 
quarters of a pound of sweetmeats 
cut small. Let all be kept by the 
fire, and mix the dry ingredients. 
Pour the eggs strained to the butter, 
mix half a glass of sweet wine with 
a full glass of brandy, and pour it 
to the butter and eggs, mixing them 
well together. Add the dry ingre- 
dients by degrees, and beat them 
together thoroughly for a great length 
of time. Having prepared and stoned 
half a pound of jar raisins, chopped 
as fine as possible, mix them care- 
fully, so that there shall be no 
lumps, and add a tea-cupful of 
orange flower water. Beat the isj- 
gredients together a full hour at 
least. Have a hoop well buttered, 
or a tin or copper cake-pan ; take 
a white paper, doubled and butter- 
ed, and put in the pan round the 
edge, if the cake batter fill it more 
than three parts, for space should 
be allowed for rising. Bake it in a 
quick oven : three hours will be re- 

FINE CRUST. For orange 
cheesecakes, or sweetmeats, when 
intended to be particularly nice, the 
following fine crust may be prepared. 
Dry a pound of the finest flour and 
mix with it three ounces of refined 
sugar. Work up half a pound of 
butter with the hand till it comes to 
a froth, put the flour into it by de- 
grees, adding the yolks of three and 
the whites of two eggs, weli beaten 
and strained. If too thin, add a 
little flour and sugar to make it fit 
to roll. Line some pattipans, and 
fill them : a little more than fifteen 
minutes will bake them. Beat up 
some refined sugar with the white 
of an egg, as thick as possible, and 
ice the articles all over as soon as 



they are baked. Then return them 
to the oven to harden, and serve 
them up cold, "with fresh butter. 
Salt butter will make a very fine 
flaky crust, but if for mince pies, or 
any sweet things, it should first be 

FIRE ARMS. The danger of 
improperly loading fire arms chiefly 
arises from not ramming the wad- 
ding close to the powder ; and then 
when a fowling-piece is discharged, 
it is very likely to burst in pieces. 
This circumstance, though well 
known, is often neglected, and va- 
rious accidents are occasioned by 
it. Hence when a screw barrel pis- 
tol is to be loaded, care should be 
taken that the cavity for the powder 
be entirely filled with it, so as to 
leave no space between the powder 
and the ball. For the same reason, 
if the bottom of a large tree is to be 
shivered with gunpowder, a space 
ftiust be left between the charge and 
the wadding, and the powder will 
tear it asunder. But considering 
the numerous accidents that are con- 
stantly occurring, from the incau- 
tious use of fire arms, the utmost 
care should be taken not to place 
them within the reach of children 
or of servants, and in no instance to 
lay them up without previously 
drawing the charge. 

FIRE IRONS. To preserve them 
from rust, when not in use, they 
should be wrapped up in baize, and 
kept in a dry place. Or to preserve 
them more eff"ectually, let them be 
smeared over with fresh mutton 
suet, and dusted with unslaked lime, 
pounded and tied up in muslin. 
Irons so prepared will keep many 
months. Use no oil for them at any 
time, except a little salad oil, there 
being water in all other, which would 
soon produce rust. 

FIRMITY. To make Somerset- 
shire firmity, boil a quart of fine 
wheat, and add by degrees two 
quarts of new milk. Pick and wash 
four ounces of currants, stir them in 

the jelly, and boil them together till 
all is done. Beat the yolks of three 
eggs, and a little nutmeg, with two 
or three spoonfuls of milk, and add 
to the boiling. Sweeten the whole, 
and serve it in a deep dish, either 
warm or cold. 

FISH. In dressing fish of any 
kind for the table, great care is ne- 
cessary in cleaning it. It is a com- 
mon error to wash it too much, and 
by this means the flavour is dimin- 
ished. If the fisli is to be boiled, 
after it is cleaned, a little salt and 
vinegar should be put into the water, 
to give it firmness. Codfish, whit- 
ing, and haddock, are far better if 
a little salted, and kept a day ; and 
if the weather be not very hot, they 
will be good two days. When fish 
is cheap and plentiful, and a larger 
quantity is purchased than is imme- 
diately wanted, it would be proper 
to pot or pickle such as will bear 
it, or salt and hang it up, or fry it a 
little, that it may serve for stewing 
the next day. Fresh water fish hav- 
ing frequently a muddy smell and 
taste, should be soaked in strong 
salt and water, after it has been well 
cleaned. If of a suflScient size, it 
may be scalded in salt and water, 
and afterwards dried and dressed. 
Fish should be put into cold water, 
and set on the fire to do very gently, 
or the outside will break before the 
inner part is done. Crimp fish is 
to be put into boiling water ; and 
when it boils up, pour in a little cold 
water to check extreme heat, and 
simmer it a few minutes. The fish 
plate on which it is done, may be 
drawn up, to see if it be ready, 
which may be known by its easily 
separating from the bone. It should 
then be immediately taken out of the 
water, or it will become woolly. 
The fish plate should be set cross- 
ways over the kettle, to keep hot for 
serving ; and a clean cloth over the 
fish, to prevent its losing its colour. 
Small fish nicely fried, covered with 
egg and crumbs, make a dish far 



more elegant than if served plain. 
Great attention is required in gar- 
nishing fish, by using plenty of horse- 
radish, parsley, and lemon. When 
well done, and with very good sauce, 
fish is more attended to than almost 
any other dish. The liver and roe 
should be placed on the dish in or- 
der that they may be distributed in 
the course of serving. — If fish is to 
be fried or broiled, it must be dried 
in a nice soft cloth, after it is well 
cleaned and washed. If for frying, 
smear it over with egg, and sprinkle 
on it some fine crumbs of bread. If 
done a second time with the e^g and 
bread, the fish will look so much the 
better. Put on the fire a stout fry- 
ingpan, with a large quantity of lard 
or dripping boiling hot, plunge the 
fish into it, and let it fry tolerably 
quick, till the colour is of a fine 
brown yellow. If it be done enough 
before it has obtained a proper de- 
gree of colour, the pan must be 
drawn to the side of the fire. Take 
it up carefully, and either place it 
on a large sieve turned upwards, and 
to be kept for that purpose only, or 
on the under side of a dish to drain. 
If required to be very nice, a sheet 
of writing paper must be placed to 
receive the fish, that it may be free 
from all grease ; it must also be 
of a beautiful colour, and all the 
crumbs appear distinct. The same 
dripping, adding a little that is fresh, 
will serve a second time. Butter 
gives a bad colour, oil is the best, 
if the expense be no objection. Gar- 
nish with a fringe of fresh curled 
parsley. If fried parsley be used, 
it must be washed and picked, and 
thrown into fresh water ; when the 
lard or dripping boils, throw the 
parsley into it immediately from the 
water, and instantly it will be green 
and crisp, and must be taken up 
with a slice. — If fish is to be broil- 
ed, it must be seasoned, floured, and 
laid on a very clean gridiron, which 
when hot, should be rubbed with a 
bit of suet, to prevent the fish from 

sticking. It must be broiled over 
a very clear fire, that it may not 
taste smoky ; and not too near, that 
it may not be scorched. 

FISH GRAVY. Skin two or 
three eels, or some flounders ; gut 
and wash them very clean, cut them 
into small pieces, and put them into 
a saucepan. Cover them with wa- 
ter, and add a little crust of toasted 
bread, two blades of mace, some 
whole pepper, sweet herbs, a piece 
of lemon peel, an anchovy or two, 
and a tea-spoonful of horse-radish. 
Cover the saucepan close, and let it 
simmer ; then add a little butter and 
flour, and boil with the above. 

FISH PIE. To make a fine fish 
pie, boil two pounds of small eels. 
Cut the fins quite close, pick off" the 
flesh, and return the bones into the 
liquor, with a little mace, pepper, 
salt, and a slice of onion. Then 
boil it till it is quite rich, and strain 
it. Make forcemeat of the flesh, 
with an anchovy, a little parsley, 
lemon peel, salt, pepper,and crumbs, 
and four ounces of butter warmed. 
Lay it at the bottom of the dish : 
then take the flesh of soles, small 
cod, or dressed turbot, and rub it 
with salt and pepper. Lay this on 
the forcemeat, pour on the gravy, 
and bake it. If cod or soles are 
used, the skin and fins must be ta- 
ken oflf. 

FISH SAUCE. Put into a very 
nice tin saucepan a pint of port 
wine, a gill of mountain, half a pint 
of fine walnut ketchup, twelve an- 
chovies with the liquor that belongs 
to them, a gill of walnut pickle, the 
rind and juice of a large lemon, four 
or five shalots, a flavour of cayenne, 
three ounces of scraped horse- 
radish, three blades of mace, and 
two tea-spoonfuls of made mustard. 
Boil it all gently, till the rawne'ss 
goes ofl^, and put it into small bot- 
tles for use. Cork them very close 
and seal the top. — Or chop two 
dozen of anchovies not washed, and 
ten shalots, and scrape three spoon- 



fbls of horseradisli. Then add ten 
blades of mace, twelve cloves, tvvfo 
sliced lemons, half a pint of anchovy 
liquor, a quart of hock or Rhenish 
wine, and a pint of water. Boil it 
down to a quart, and strain it off. 
When cold, add three large spoon- 
fuls of walnut ketchup, and put the 
sauce into small bottles well corked. 
— To make fish sauce without but- 
ter, simmer very gently a quarter of 
a pint of vinegar, and half a pint of 
soft water, with an onion. Add four 
cloves, and two blades of mace, 
slightly bruised, and half a tea- 
spoonful of black pepper. When 
the onion is quite tender, chop it 
small with two anchovies, and set 
the whole on the fire to boil for a 
few minutes, with a spoonful of 
ketchup. Prepare in the mean time 
the yolks of three fresh eggs, well 
beaten and strained, and mix the 
liquor with them by degrees. When 
all are well mixed, set the saucepan 
over a gentle fire, keeping a bason 
in one hand, to toss the sauce to and 
fro in, and shake the saucepan over 
the fire, that the eggs may not cur- 
dle. Do not let it boil, only make 
the sauce hot enough to give it the 
thickness of melted butter. — Fish 
sauce h la Craster, is made in the 
following manner. Thicken a quar- 
ter of a pound of butter with flour, 
and brown it. Add a pound of the 
best anchovies cut small, six blades 
of pounded mace, ten cloves, forty 
corns of black pepper and allspice, 
a few small onions, a faggot of sweet 
herbs, consisting of savoury, thyme, 
basil, and knotted marjoram, also 
a little parsley, and sliced horse- 
radish. On these pour half a pint 
of the best sherry, and a pint and 
a half of strong gravy. Simmer all 
gently for twenty minutes, then through a sieve, and bottle 
it for use. .The way of using it is, 
to boil some of it in the butter while 

FLANNELS. In order to make 
flannels keep their colour and not 

shrink, put them into a pail, and 
pour on boiling water. Let them lie 
till cold, before they are washed. 

FLAT BEER. Much loss is fre- 
quently sustained from beer grow- 
ing flat, during the time of drawing. 
To prevent this, suspend a pint or 
more of ground malt in it, tied up in 
a large bag, and keep the bung well 
closed. The beer will not then be- 
come vapid, but rather improve the 
whole time it is in use. 

FLAT CAKES. Mix two pounds 
of flour, one pound of sugar, and 
one ounce of carraways, with four 
or five eggs, and a few spoonfuls of 
water. Make all into a stiff" paste, 
roll it out thin, cut it into any shape, 
and bake on tins lightly floured. 
While baking, boil to a thin syrup a 
pound of sugar in a pint of water. 
When both are hot, dip each cake 
into the syrup, and place them on 
tins to dry in the oven for a short 
time. When the oven is a little 
cooler, return them into it, and let 
them remain there four or five hours. 
Cakes made in this way will keep 
good for a long time. 

FLAT FISH. Flounders, plaice, 
soles, and other kinds of flat fish, 
are good boiled. Cut oflf the fins, 
draw and clean them well, dry them 
with a cloth, and boil them in salt 
and water. When the fins draw out 
easily, they are done enough. Serve 
them with shrimp, cockle, or mus- 
tard sauce, and garnish with red 

FLATULENCY. Wind in the 
stomach, accompanied with pain, is 
frequently occasioned by eating fla- 
tulent vegetables, or fat meat, with 
large draughts of beverage immedi 
ately afterwards, which turn ranciv. 
on the stomach ; and of course, 
these ought to be avoided. Hot tea, 
turbid beer, and feculent liquors 
will have the same eff"ect. A phleg- 
matic constitution, or costiveness, 
will render the complaint more fre- 
quent and painful. Gentle laxatives 
and a careful diet are the best 



remedy ; but hot aromatics and spi- 
rituous liquors should be avoided. 

FLEAS. Want of cleanliness re- 
markably contributes to the produc- 
tion of these offensive insects. The 
females of this tribe deposit their 
eggs in damp and filthy places, with- 
in the crevices of boards, and on 
rubbish, when they emerge in the 
form of fleas in about a month. 
Cleanliness, and frequent sprinkling 
of the room with a simple decoction 
of wormwood, will soon exterminate 
the whole breed of these disagree- 
able vermin ; and the best remedy 
to expel them from bed clothes is a 
bag filled with dry moss, the odour 
of which is to them extremely of- 
fensive. Fumigation with brimstone, 
or the fresh leaves of pennyroyal 
sewed in a bag, and laid in the bed, 
will also have the desired effect. 
Dogs and cats may be effectually 
secured from the persecutions of 
these vermin, by occasionally anoint- 
ing their skin with sweet oil, or oil 
of turpentine; or by rubbing into 
their coats some Scotch snuff. But 
if they be at all mangy, or their skin 
broken, the latter would be very 
painful and improper. 

FLIES. If a room be swarming 
with these noisome insects, the most 
ready way of expelling them is to 
fumigate the apartment with the 
dried leaves of the gourd. If the 
window be opened, the smoke will 
instantly drive them out : or if the 
room be close, it will suft'ocate them. 
But in the latter case, no person 
should remain within doors, as the 
fume is apt to occasion the head- 
ache. Another way is to dissolve 
two drams of the extract of quassia 
in half a pint of boiling water ; and, 
adding a little sugar or syrup, pour 
the mixture upon plates. The flies 
are extremely partial to this en- 
ticing food, and it never fails to de- 
stroy them. Camphor placed near 
any kind of provision will protect it 
from the flies. 

FLIP. To make a quart of flip, 

put the ale on the fire to warm, and 
beat up three or four eggs, with 
four ounces of moist sugar. Add a 
tea-spoonful of grated nutmeg or 
ginger, and a quartern of good old 
rum or brandy. When the ale is 
nearly boiling, put it into one pit- 
cher, and the rum and eggs into 
another : turn it from one pitcher 
to another, till it is as smooth as 
cream. ^ 

half pints of thin cream with a quar- 
ter of a pint of raisin wine, a little 
lemon juice, orange flower water, 
and sugar. Put it into a dish for 
the middle of the table, and lay on 
with a spoon the following froth 
ready prepared. Sweeten half a 
pound of raspberry or currant jel- 
ly, add to it the whites of four eggs 
beaten, and beat up the jelly to a 
froth, until it will take any form you 
please. It should be raised high, 
to represent a castle or a rock. — 
Another way. Scald a codlin be- 
fore it be ripe, or any other sharp 
apple, and pulp it through a sieve. 
Beat the whites of two eggs with 
sugar, and a spoonful of orange flow- 
er water ; mix in the pulp by de- 
grees, and beat all together till it 
produces a large quantity of froth. 
Serve it on a raspberry cream, or 
colour the? froth with beet root, rasp- 
berry, or currant jelly, and set it on 
a white cream, which has already 
been flavoured with lemon, sugar, 
and raisin wine. The froth may also 
be laid on a custard. 

FLOOR CLOTHS. The best are 
such as are painted on a fine cloth, 
well covered with colour, and where 
the flowers do not rise much above 
the ground, as they wear out first. 
The durability of the cloth will de- 
pend much on these two particulars, 
but more especially on the time it has 
been painted, and the goodness of the 
colours. If they have not been al- 
lowed sufllicient space for becoming 
thoroughly hardened, a very little use 
will injure them : and as they aye very 



expensive articles, care is necessary 
in preserving them. It answers to 
keep them some time before they 
are used, either hung- up in a dry 
airy place, or laid down in a spare 
room. When taken up for the win- 
ter, they should be rolled round a 
carpet roller, and care taken not to 
crack the paint by turning in the 
edges too suddenly. Old carpets 
answer quite well, painted and sea- 
soned some months before they are 
laid down. If intended for pas- 
sages, the width must be directed 
when they are sent to the manufac- 
tory, as they are cut before painting. 

Sweep them first, then wipe them 
with a flannel ; and when the dust 
and spots are removed, rub with a 
wax flannel, and dry them with a 
plain one. Use but little w£w, and 
rub only with the latter to give a 
iittle smoothness, or it will make 
the floor cloth slippery, and endan- 
ger falling. Washing now and then 
^ith milk, after the above sweeping 
and dry rubbing, will give as good 
an appearance, and render the floor 
cloths less slippery. 

FLOUNDERS. These are both 
sea and river fish : the Thames pro- 
duces the best. They are in season 
from January to March, and from 
July to September. Their fles-h 
should be thick and firm, and their 
eyes bright : they very soon become 
flabby and bad. Before they are 
dressed, they should be rubbed with 
salt inside and out, and lie two hours 
to acquire firmness. Then dip them 
in eggs, cover with grated bread, and 
fry them. 

FLOUR. Good wheat flour may 
be known by the quantity of gluti- 
nous matter it contains, and which 
will appear when kneaded into 
dough. For this purpose take four 
ounces of fine flour, mix it with wa- 
ter, and work it together till it forms 
a thick paste. The paste is then 
to be well washed and kneaded with 
the hands under the water, and the 

water to be renewed till it ceases to 
become white by the operation. If 
the flour be sound, the paste which 
remains will be glutinous and elas- 
tic, and brittle after it has been 
baked. — Adulterated meal and flour 
are generally whiter and heavier 
than the good, and may be detected 
in a way similar to that already 
mentioned, under the article Adul- 
terations. Or pour boiling wa- 
ter on some slices of bread, and 
drop on it some spirits of vitriol. 
Put them in the flour ; and if it con- 
tain any quantity of whiting, chalk, 
or lime, a fermentation will ensue. 
Vitriol alone, dropped on adulterated 
bread or flour, will produce a similar 
effect. — American flour requires 
nearly twice as much water to make 
it into bread as is used for English 
flour, and therefore it is more pro- 
fitable. Fourteen pounds of Ame- 
rican flour will make twenty-one 
pounds and a half of bread, while 
the best sort of English flour pro- 
duces only eighteen pounds and a 

FLOUR CAUDLE. Into five 
large spoonfuls of pure water, rub 
smooth one dessert-spoonful of fine 
flour. Set over the fire five spoon- 
fuls of new milk, and put into it two 
pieces of sugar. The moment it 
boils, pour into it the flour and wa- 
ter, and stir it over a slow fireiwenty 
minutes. It is a nourishing and 
gently astringent food, and excel- 
lent for children who have weak 

sures of the garden are ever various, 
ever new ; and in every month of 
the year some attention is demand- 
ed, either in rearing the tender 
plant, in preparing the soil for its 
reception, or protecting the parent 
root from the severity of the win- 
ter's blast. Ranunculuses, anemo- 
nes, tulips, and other bulbous roots, 
if not taken up, will be in great 
danger from the frost, and their 
shoots in the spring will either be 

s 129 



impaired, or totally destroyed. 

January. Cover the flower beds 
with wheat straw, to protect them 
from the cold ; but where the shoots 
begin to appear, place behind them 
a reed edge, sloping three feet for- 
ward. A mat is to be let down from 
the top in severe weather, and taken 
up when it is mild. This will pre- 
serve them, without making them 
weak or sickly. The beds and boxes 
of seedling flowers should also be 
covered, and the fence removed 
when the weather is mild. Clean 
the auricula plants, pick off" dead 
leaves, and scrape away the surface 
of the mould. Replenish them with 
some that is fine and fresh, set the 
pots up to the brim in the mould of 
a dry bed, and place behind them a 
reed edging. Cover carnation plants 
from wet, and defend them from 

juice and sparrows. February. 

Make hotbeds for annual flowers, 
of the dung reserved for that pur- 
pose, and sow them upon a good 
thickness of mould, laid regularly 
over the dung. Transplant peren- 
nial flowers, and hardy shrubs, Can- 
terbury bells, lilacs, and the like. 
Break up and new lay the gravel 
walks. Weed, rake, and clean the 
borders ; and where the box of the 
edging is decayed, make it up with 
a fresh plantation. Sow auricula 
and polyanthus seeds in boxes, made 
of rcttigh boards six inches deep, 
with holes at the bottom to run oft' 
the water. Fill the boxes with light 
mould, scatter the seeds thinly over 
the surface, sift some more mould 
over them about a quarter of an inch 
thick, and place them where they 
may enjoy the morning sun. Plant 
out carnations into pots for flower- 
ing. March. Watch the beds 

of tender flowers, and throw mats 
over them, supported by hoops, in 
hard weather. Continue transplant- 
ing all the perennial fibrous rooted 
flowers, such as golden-rods, and 
sweet-williams. Dig up the earth 
with a shovel about tliose which 

were planted in autumn, and cleaH 
the ground between them. All the 
pots of flowering plants must now 
be dressed. Pick oft' dead leaves, 
remove the earth at the top, and put 
fresh instead; then give them a 
gentle watering, and set them in 
their places for flowering. Be care-»" 
ful that the roots are not wounded^ 
and repeat the watering once in 
three days. The third week in March 
is the time to sow sweet peas, pop- 
pies, catchflies, and all the hardy 
annual plants. The last week is 
proper for transplanting evergreens, 
and a showery day should be chosen 
for the purpose. Hotbeds should 
now be made, to receive the seed- 
lings of annual flowers raised in the 

former bed. April. Tie up 

to sticks the stalks of tall flowers, 
cut tlue sticks about two feet long, 
thrust them eight inches into the 
ground, and hide them among the 
leaves. Clean and rake the ground 
between them. Take off" the slips 
of auriculas, and plant them out 
carefully for an increase. Trans- 
plant perennial flowers and ever- 
greens, as in the former months ; 
take up the roots of colchichams, 
and other autumnal bulbous plants. 
Sow French honeysuckles, wall- 
flowers, and other hardy plants, up- 
on the natural ground, and the more 
tender sorts on hotbeds. Trans- 
plant those sown last month, into 
the second hotbed. Sow carnations 
and pinks on the natural ground, and 
on open borders. — — May. When 
the leaves of sowbreads are decay- 
ed, take up the roots, and lay them 
by carefully till the time of planting. 
Take up the hyacinth roots which 
have done flowering, and lay them 
sideways in abed of dry rich mould, 
leaving the stems and leaves to die 
away : this will greatly strengthen 
the roots. Roll the gravel walks 
carefully and frequentlyj and keep 
the grass clean mowed. Clean all 
the borders from weeds, take off the 
straggling branches from .^e., large 



flowering plants, and train them up 
in a handsome shape. Plant out 
French and Affican marigolds from 
the hotbeds, with other autumnals, 
the last week of this month, choos- 
ing a cloudy warm day. Tie up the 
stalks of carnations, pot the tender 
annuals, such as balsams and ama- 
ranths, and set them in a hotbed 
frame, till summer is more advanced 
for planting them in the open ground . 

June. Choose the evening of 

a mild showery day, and plant out 
into the open ground, the tender an- 
nuals hitherto kept in pots in the 
hotbed frame. They must be care- 
fully loosened from the sides of the 
pot, and taken out with all the mould 
about them ; a large hole must be 
opened for each, to set them up- 
right in it ; and when settled in the 
ground by gentle watering, they 
must be tied up to sticks. Let 
pinks, carnations, and sweet-wil- 
liams, be laid this month for an in- 
crease. Let the layers be covered 
lightly, and gently watered every 
other day. Spring flowers being 
now over, and their leaves faded, 
the roots must be taken up, and laid 
by for planting again at a proper 
season. Snow-drops, winter-aconite, 
and such sorts, are to be thus ma- 
naged. The hyacinth roots, laid 
flat in the ground, must now be 
taken up, and the dead leaves clip- 
ped off*; and when cleared from the 
mould, they must be spread upon a 
mat in an airy room to dry, and laid 
by for future planting. Tulip roots 
also must now be taken up, as the 
leaves decay : anemones and ranun- 
culuses are treated in the same man- 
ner. Cut in three or four places, 
the cups or poles of the carnations 
that are near blowing, that they 
may show regularly. At the same 
time inoculate some of the fine kind 
of roses. July. Clip box edg- 
ings, cut and trim hedges, look over 
all the borders, clear them from 
weeds, and stir up the mould be- 
tween the plants. Roll the gravel 

frequently, and mow the grass plats. 
Inoculate roses and jasmines that 
require this kind of propagation, 
and any of the other flowering 
shrubs. Gather the seeds of flowers 
intended to be propagated, and lay 
them upon a shelf in an airy room 
in the pods. When they are well 
hardened, tie them up in paper 
bags, but do not take them out of 
the pods till they are wanted. Lay 
pinks and sweet-williams in the earth 
as formerly, cut down the stalks of 
those plants which have done flow- 
ering, and which are not kept for 
seed. Tie up with sticks such as 
are coming into flower, as for the 
earlier kinds. Sow lupins, lark- 
spurs, and similar sorts, on dry 
warm borders, to stand the winter, 
and flower early next year. — ' — 
August. Dig up a mellow border, 
and draw lines at five inches dis- 
tance, lengthways and across. In 
the centre of these squares, plant 
the seedling polyanthuses, one in 
each square. In the same manner 
plant out the seedling auriculas. 
Shade them till they have taken 
root, and water them once a day. 
See whether the layers of sweet- 
williams, carnations, and such like, 
have taken root ; transplant such 
as are rooted, and give frequent 
gentle waterings to the others in or- 
der to promote it. Cut down the 
stalks of plants that have done flow- 
ering, saving the seed that may be 
wanted, as it ripens, and water the 
tender annuals every evening. Sow 
anemones and ranunculuses, tulip, 
and narcissus seed. Dig up a bor- 
der for early tulip roots, and others 
for hyacinths, anemones, and ranun- 
culuses. Sow annuals to stand 
through the winter, and shift au- 
riculas into fresh pots. Septem- 
ber. During this month, prepara- 
tion should be made for the next 
season. Tear up the annuals that 
have done flowering, and cut down 
such perennials as are past their 
beauty. Bring in other perennials 



from the nursery beds, and plant 
them with care at regular distances. 
Take up the box edgings where they 
have outgrown their proper size, 
and part and plant them afresh. 
Plant tulip and other flower roots, 
slip polyanthuses, and place them 
in rich shady borders. Sow the 
seeds of flower de luce and crown 
imperial, as also of auriculas and po- 
lyanthuses, according to the method 
before recommended. Part oft' the 
roots of flower de luce, piony, and 
others of a similar kind. In the 
last week transplant hardy flower- 
ing shrubs, and they will be strong 

the next summer. October. 

Let all the bulbous roots for spring 
flowering be put into the ground ; 
narcissus, maragon, tulips, and such 
ranunculuses and anemones as were 
not planted soon«r. Transplant 
columbines, monkshood, and all 
kinds of fibrous rooted perennials. 
Place under shelter the auriculas 
and carnations that are in pots. Dig 
up a dry border, and if not dry 
enough, dig in some sand, and set 
in the pots up to the brim. Place 
the reed fence sloping behind them, 
and fasten a mat to its top, that 
may be let down in bad weather. 
Take oflf the dead leaves of the au- 
riculas, before they are thus planted. 
Bring into the garden some fresh 
flowering shrubs, wherever they may 
be wanted, and at the end of the 
month prune some of the hardier 

kind. >JovEMBER. Prepare a 

good heap of pasture ground, with 
the turf among it, to rot into mould 
for the borders. Transplant honey- 
suckles and spireas, with other 
hardy flowering shrubs. Rake over 
the beds of seedling flowers, and 
strew some peas straw over to keep 
out the frost. Cut down the stems 
of perennials which have done flow- 
ering, pull up annuals that are spent, 
and rake and clear the ground. 
Place hoops over the beds of ranun- 
culuses and anemones, and lay mats 
or cloths in readiness to draw over 

them, in case of hard rains or frost. 
Clean up the borders in all parts of 
the garden, and take care to destroy 
not only the weeds, but all kinds of 
moss. Look over the seeds of those 
flowei^ which were gathered in sum- 
mer, to see that they are dry and 
sweet ; and prepare a border or two 
for the hardier kind, by digging and 

cleaning. December. During 

frost or cold rain, draw the mats 
and cloths over the ranunculuses; 
give the anemones a little air in the 
middle of every tolerable day ; and 
as soon as possible, uncover them 
all day, but draw on the mats at 
night. Throw up the earth where 
flowering shrubs are to be planted 
in the spring, and turn it once a 
fortnight. Dig up the borders that 
are to receive flower roots in the 
spring, and give them the advantage 
of a fallow, by throwing up the 
ground in a ridge. Scatter over it 
a very little rotten dung from a 
melon bed, and afterwards turn it 
twice during the winter. Examine 
the flowering shrubs, and prune 
them. Cut away all the dead wood, 
shorten luxuriant branches, and if 
any cross each other, take away 
one. Leave them so that the ais 
may have a free passage between 
them. Sift a quarter of an inch of 
good fresh mould over the roots 
of perennial flowers, whose stalks 
have been cut down, and then i-ake 
over the borders. This will give 
the whole an air of culture and good 
management, which is always pleas- 

FLOWER POTS. As flowers 
and plants should enjoy a free cir- 
culation of air to make them grow 
well, sitting rooms are not very well 
adapted to the purpose, unless they 
could be frequently ventilated by 
opening the doors and windows. 
In every severe frost or damp wea- 
ther, moderate fires should be made 
in the rooms where the plants are 
placed, and the shutters closed at 
night. Placing saucers under th« 



pots, and pouring water continually 
into them, is highly improper: it 
should be poured on the mould, that 
it may filter through it, and thereby 
refresh the fibres of the plant. Many 
kinds of annuals, sown in March 
and the beginning of April, may be 
transplanted into pots about the end 
of May, and should be frequently 
watered till they have taken root. 
If transplanted in the summer sea- 
son, the evening is the proper time, 
and care must be taken not to break 
the fibres of the root. When the 
plants are attacked by any kind of 
crawling insects, the evil may be 
prevented by keeping the saucers 
full of water, so as to form a river 
round the pot, and rubbing some 
oil round the side. Oil is fatal to 
most kinds of insects, and but few 
of them can endure it, 

seeds begin to ripen they should be 
supported with sticks, to prevent 
their being scattered by the wind ; 
and in wet weather they should be 
removed to a dry place, and rubbed 
out when convenient. August is in 
general the proper time for gather- 
ing flower seeds, but many kinds 
will ripen much sooner. To ascer- 
tain whether the seed be fully ripe, 
put a little of it into water : if it be 
come to maturity, it will sink to the 
bottom, and if not it will swim upon 
the surface. To preserve them for 
vegetation, it is only necessary to 
wrap the seed up in cartridge paper, 
pasted down and varnished over 
with gum, or the white of an egg. 
Some kinds of seeds are best en- 
closed in sealing wax. 

FLUMMERY. Steep in cold wa- 
ter, for a day and a night, three large 
handfuls of very fine white oatmeal. 
Pour it off clear, add as much more 
water, and let it stand the same 
time. Strain it through a fine hair 
sieve, and boil it till it is as thick 
as hasty pudding, stirring it well all 
the time. When first strained, put 
to it one large spoonful of white 

sugar, and two of orange flower \f a- 
ter. Pour it into shallow dishes, 
and serve it wp with wine, cider, 
and milk ; or it will be very good 
with cream and sugar. 

ounces each of camomile flowers, 
and the tops of wormwood, in two 
quarts of water. Pour oflf the liquor, 
put it on the fire again, dip in a 
piece of flannel, and apply it to the 
part as hot as the patient can bear 
it. When it grows cold, heat it up 
again, dip in another piece of flan- 
nel, apply it as the first, and con- 
tinue changing them as often as they 
get cool, taking care not to let the 
air get to the part aff'ected when 
the flannel is changed. — To relieve 
the toothache, pain in the face, or 
any other acute pain, the following 
anodyne fomentation may be ap- 
plied. Take two ounces of white 
poppy heads, and half an ounce of 
elder flowers, and boil them in three 
pints of water, till it is reduced one 
third. Strain oflf the liquor, and 
foment the part aflfectedr 

FOOD. In the early ages of the 
world, mankind were chiefly sup- 
ported by berries, roots, and such 
other vegetables as the earth pro- 
duced of itself, according to the 
original grant of the great Proprietor 
of all things. In later ages, espe- 
cially after the flood, this grant was 
enlarged ; and man had recourse to 
animals, as well as to vegetables 
artificially raised for their support, 
while the art of preparing food has 
been brought to the highest degree 
of perfection. Vegetables are how- 
ever, with a few exceptions, more 
difiicult of digestion than animal 
food ; but a due proportion of both, 
with the addition of acids, is the 
most conducive to health, as well 
as agreeable to the palate. Animal 
as well as vegetable food may be 
rendered unwholesome by being 
kept too long ; and when oflfens^ive 
to the senses, they become alike in- 
jurious to health. Diseased animals, 



and such as die of themselves, ought 
never to be eaten. Such as are fed 
grossly, stalled cattle and pigs, 
without any exercise, do not afford 
food so nourishing or wholesome as 
others. Salt meat is not so easily 
digested as fresh provisions, and 
has a tendency to produce putrid 
diseases, especially the scurvy. If 
vegetables and milk were more used, 
there would be less scurvy, and 
fewer inflammatory fevers. Our 
food ought neither to be too moist, 
nor too dry. Liquid food relaxes 
and renders the body feeble : hence 
those who live much on tea, and 
other watery diet, generally become 
weak, and unable to digest solid 
food.. They are also liable to hys- 
terics* with a train of other nervous 
affections. But if the food be too 
dry, it disposes the body to inflam- 
matory disorders, and is equally to 
be avoided. Families would do 
well to prepare their own diet and 
drink, as much as possible, in order 
to render it good and wholesome. 
Bread in particular is so necessary 
a part of daily food, that too much 
care cannot be taken to see that it 
be made of sound grain duly pre- 
pared, and kept from all unwhole- 
some ingredients. Those who make 
bread for sale, seek rather to please 
the eye than to promote health. 
The best bread is that which is nei- 
ther too coarse nor too fine, well 
fermented, and made of wheat flour, 
or wheat and rye mixed together. 
Good fermented liquors, neither too 
weak nor too strong, are to be pre- 
ferred. If too weak, they require 
to be drunk soon, and then they 
produce wind and flatulencies in the 
stomach. If kept too long, they 
turn sour, and then become unwhole- 
some. On the other hand, strong 
liquor, by hurting the digestion, 
tends to weaken and relax : it also 
keeps up a constant fever, which 
exhausts the spirits, inflames the 
blood, and disposes the body to 
numberless diseases Beer, cider, 

and other family liquors, should be 
of such strength as to keep till they 
are ripe, and then they should be 
used. Persons of a weak and re- 
laxed habit should avoid every thing 
hard of digestion : their diet re- 
quires to be light and nourishing, 
and they should take suflicient ex- 
ercise in the open air. Those wha 
abound with blood, should abstain 
from rich wines and highly nourish- 
ing food, and live chiefly on vege- 
tables. Corpulent persons ought 
frequently to use radish, garlic, or 
such things as promote perspiration. 
Their drink should be tea, coffee, 
or the like ; they ought also to take 
much exercise, and but little sleep. 
Those who are of a thin habit, should 
follow the opposite course. Such 
as are troubled with sour risings in 
the stomach, should live chiefly o» 
animal food ; and those who are af- 
flicted with hot risings and heart- 
burn, should have a diet of acid 
vegetables. Persons of low spirits, 
and subject to nervous disorders, 
should avoid all flatulent food, what- 
ever is hard of digestion, or apt to 
turn sour on the stomach. Their 
diet should be light, cool, and of an 
opening nature ; not only suited to 
the age and constitution, but also to 
the manner of life. A sedentary 
person should live more sparingly 
than one who labours hard without 
doors, and those who are aflSicted 
with any particular disease ought to 
avoid such aliment as has a tendency 
to increase it. Those aflHicted with 
the gravel ought to avoid every thing 
astringent ; and the scorbutic of 
every description, salted or smoked 
provisions. In the first period of 
life, the food should be light, but 
nourishing, and frequently taken. 
For infants in particular, it ought 
to be adapted to their age, and the 
strength of their digestive powers. 
No food whatever that has been pre- 
pared for many hours should be 
given them, especially after being 
warmed up ; for it creates flatulence^ 



heartburn, and a variety of other 
disorders. Sudden changes from 
liquid to solid food should be avoid- 
ed, as well as a multiplicity of dif- 
ferent kinds ; and all stimulating 
dishes and heating liquors, prepared 
for adults, should be carefully with- 
held from children. The common 
but indecent practice of introducing 
chewed victuals into their mouth, 
is equally disgusting and unwhole- 
some. Solid food is most proper 
for the state of manhood, but it 
ought not to be too uniform. Nature 
has provided a great variety for the 
use of man, and given him an appe- 
tite suited to that variety : the con- 
stant use of one kind of food there- 
fore is not good for the constitution, 
though any great or sudden change 
in diet ought as well to be avoided. 
The change should be gradual, as 
any sudden transition from a low to 
a rich and luxurious mode of living, 
may endanger health, and even life 
itself. The diet suited to the last 
period of life, when nature is on the 
decline, approaches nearly to that 
of the first : it should be light and 
nourishing, and more frequently 
taken than in vigorous age. Old 
people are generally afflicted with 
wind, giddiness, and headachs, 
which are frequently occasioned by 
fasting too long, and even many 
sudden deaths arise from the same 
cause. The stomach therefore 
should never be allowed in any case 
to be too long empty, but especially 
in the decline of life. Proper atten- 
tion to diet is of the utmost im- 
portance, not only to the preserva- 
tion of health, but in the cure of 
many diseases, which may be effect- 
ed by diet only. Its effects indeed 
are not always so quick as those of 
medicine, but they are generally 
more lasting, and are obtained with 
greater ease and certainty. Tem- 
perance and exercise are the two 
best physicians in the world ; and 
if they were duly regarded, there 
would be little occasion for any other. 

FOOD FOR BIRDS. An excel- 
lent food for linnets, canaries, and 
other singing birds, may be prepared 
in the following manner. Knead 
together one pound of split peas 
ground to flour, half a pound each 
of coarse sugar .and fine grated 
bread, two ounces of unsalted but- 
ter, and the yolks of two eggs. 
Brown the paste gently in a frying- 
pan, and when cold mix with it two 
ounces of mace seed, and two pounds 
of bruised hemp seed, separated 
from the husk. This paste given to 
birds in small quantities will pre- 
serve them in health, and prompt 
them to sing every month in the year. 

FORCEMEAT. This article, 
whether in the form of stuffing balls, 
or for patties, makes a considerable 
part of good cooking, by the flavour 
it imparts to whatsoever dish it may 
be added. Yet at many tables, 
where every thing else is well done, 
it is common to find very bad stuf- 
fing. Exact rules for the quantity 
cannot easily be given ; but the fol- 
lowing observations may be useful, 
and habit will soon give knowledge 
in mixing it to the taste. The selec- 
tion of ingredients should of course 
be made, according to what they . 
are wanted for, observing that of 
the most pungent, the smallest quan- 
tity should be used. No one flavour 
should greatly preponderate; yet 
if several dishes be served the same 
day, there should be a marked va- 
riety in the taste of the forcemeat, 
as well as of the gravies. It should | 
be consistent enough to cut with a 
knife, but neither dry nor heavy. 
The following are the articles of 
which forcemeat may be made, 
without giving it any striking fla- 
vour. Cold fowl or veal, scrapM 
ham, fat bacon, beef suet, crumbs 
of bread, salt, white pepper, pars- 
ley, nutmeg, yolk and white of eggs 
well beaten to bind the mixture. To 
these, any of the following may be 
added, to vary the taste, and give it 
a higher relish. Oysters, anchovv, 



taragon, savoury, pennyroyal, knot- 
ted, marjoram, thyme, basil, yolks 
of hard eggs, cayenne, garlic, shalot, 
chives, Jamaica pepper in fine pow- 
der, or two or three cloves. 

fine forcement balls for fish soups, 
or stewed fish, beat together the 
flesh and soft parts of a lobster, half 
an anchovy, a large piece of boiled 
celery, the yolk of a hard egg, a lit- 
tle cayenne, mace, salt, and white 
pepper. Add two table-spoonfuls 
of bread crumbs, one of oyster 
liquor, two ounces of warmed but- 
ter, and two eggs well beaten. Make 
the whole into balls, and fry them 
in butter, of a fine brown. 

Shred a little ham or gammon, some 
cold veal or fowl, beef suet, parsley, 
a small quantity of onion, and a 
very little lemon peel. Add salt, 
nutmeg, or pounded mace, bread 
crumbs, and either white pepper or 
cayenne. Pound it all together in 
a mortar, and bind it with one or 
two eggs beaten and strained. The 
same stufting will do for meat, or 
for patties. For fowls, it is usually 
put between the skin and the flesh. 
Chop very fine about two ounces of 
onion, and an ounce of green sage. 
Add four ounces of bread crumbs, 
the yolk and white of an egg, a little 
pepper and salt ; and if approved, 
a minced apple. This will do for 
either goose or duck stuflSng. 

Chop up the liver, with an anchovy, 
some fat bacon, a little suet, some 
sweet herbs, and an onion. Add 
salt, pepper, nutmeg, crumbs of 
bread, and an egg to bind all toge- 

PIES. The same as for fowls, only 
substituting fat or bacon, instead of 
suet. If the pie be of rabbit or 
fowls, the livers mixed with fat and 
lean pork, instead of bacon, will 
make an excellent stuffing. The 

seasoning is to be the same as for 
fowls or meat. 

The same stuflSng will do for boiled 
or roast turkey as for veal, or to 
make it more relishing, add a little 
grated ham or tongue, an anchovy, 
or the soft part of a dozen oysters. 
Pork sausage meat is sometimes 
used to stuff" turkies or fowls, or 
fried, and sent up as garnish. 

A pound of fine fresh suet, one ounce 
of cold veal or chicken, chopped 
fine ; crumbs of bread, a little sha- 
lot or onion, white pepper, salt, nut- 
meg, mace, pennyroyal, parsley, and 
lemon thyme, finely shred. Beat 
as many fresh eggs, yolks and whites 
separately, as will make the above in- 
gredients into a moist paste. Roll it 
into small balls, and boil them in 
fresh lard, putting them in just as 
it boils up. When of a light brown 
take them out, and drain them be- 
fore the fire. If the suet be moist 
or stale, a great many more eggs 
will be necessary. Balls made in 
this way are remarkably light ; but 
being greasy, some people prefer 
them with less suet and eggs. 

Scrape two ounces of undressed lean 
veal, free from skin and sinews ; two 
ounces of beef or veal suet, and 
two of bread crumbs. Chop fine 
two drams of parsley, one of lemon 
peel, one of sweet herbs, one of 
onion, and add half a dram of mace 
or allspice reduced to a fine pow- 
der. Pound all together in a mor- 
tar, break into it the yolk and white 
of an egg, rub it all up well toge- , 
ther, and season it with a little pep- 
per and salt. This may be made 
more savoury, by the addition of 
cold boiled tongue, anchovy, shalot, 
cavenne, or curry powder. 

out the bone, sprinkle the inside 
with salt, pepper, and dried sage. 
Roll the pork tight, and tie it up ; 
warm a little butter to baste it, and 



then flour it. Roast it by a hanging 
jack, and about two hours will do it. 
Roast it either whole, or in separate 
parts. If left to be cold, chopped 
parsley should be sprinkled over it. 
The neck and breast together are 
called a scoven. 

FOWLS. In purchasing fowls 
for dressing, it is necessary to see 
that they are fresh and good. If a 
cock bird is young, his spurs will 
be short ; but be careful to observe 
that they have not been cut or pared, 
which is a trick too often practised. 
If fresh, the vent will be close and 
dark. Pullets are best just before 
they begin to lay, and yet are full 
of egg. If hens are old, their combs 
and legs will be rough : if young, 
they will be smooth. A good ca- 
pon has a thick belly and a large 
rump : there is a particular fat at 
his breast, and the comb is very 
pale. Black-legged fowls being 
moist, are best for roasting. 

FRECKLES. The cosmetics ge- 
nerally recommended for improving 
the skin and bloom of the face are 
highly pernicious, and ought by no 
means to be employed. Temperance 
in diet and exercise, with frequent 
washing and bathing, are the best 
means of preserving a healthful 
countenance. But those who desire 
to soften and improve the skin, may 
use an infusion of horseradish in 
milk, or the expressed juice of house- 
leek mixed with cream, which will 
be useful and inoffensive. Freckles 
on the face, or small discolourations 
on other parts of the skin, are con- 
stitutional in some cases ; and in 
others, they are occasioned by the 
action of the sun upon the part, and 
frequent exposures to the morning 
air. For dispersing them, take four 
ounces of lemon juice, one dram of 
powdered borax, and two drams of 
sugar: mix them together, and let 
them stand a few days in a glass 
bottle till the liquid is fit for Use, 
and then rub it on the face. But 

for chaps and flaws in the skin, oc'> 
casioned by cold, rub on a little 
plain unscented pomatum at bed- 
time, and let it remain till morning. 
Or, which is much better, anoint the 
face with honey water, made to the 
consistence of cream, which will 
form a kind of varnish on the skin, 
and protect it from the effects of 

FRENCH BEANS. String, and 
cut them into four parts ; if smaller, 
they look so much the better. Lay 
them in salt and water ; and when 
the water boils, put them in with 
some salt. As soon as they are 
done, serve them immediately, to 
preserve their colour. Or when 
half done, drain off the water, and 
add two spoonfuls of broth strained* 
In finishing them, put in a little 
cream, with flour and butter. 

FRENCH BREAD. With a quar- 
ter of a peck of fine flour, mix the 
yolks of three and the whites of two 
eggs, beaten and strained ; a little 
salt, half a pint of good yeast that 
is not bitter, and as much lukewarm 
milk as will work it into a thin light 
dough. Stir it about, but do not 
knead it. Divide the dough into 
three parts, put them into wooden 
dishes, set them to rise, then turn 
them out into the oven, which must 
be quick, and rasp the bread when 

a penny loaf,* add half a pound of cur- 
rants, three quarters of a pound of 
beef suet finely shred, and half a 
grated nutmeg. Beat up the yolks 
of three eggs with three spoonfuls 
of cream, as much white wine, and 
a little sugar. Mix all together, 
work it up into a paste, make it into 
dumplings of a convenient size, and 
tie them up in cloths. Put them into 
boiling water, and let them boil 
three quarters of an hour. 

FRENCH PIE. Lay a puff paste 
round the edge of the dish, and put 
in either slices of veal, rabbits or 
chickens jointed ; with forcemeat 

T 137 



balls, sweetbreads cut in pieces, ar- 
tichoke bottoms, and a few truffles. 

gether some oatmeal and water, and 
pour off the latter. Put fresh in, 
stir it well, and let it stand till the 
next day. Strain it through a fine 
sieve, and boil the water, which 
must be small in quantity, adding 
some milk while it is doing. With 
the addition of toast, this is much 
in request abroad, for the breakfast 
of weakly persons. 

ounces of brown bread, and shred 
half a pound of suet. Add four 
eggs well beaten, half a pound of 
currants picked and washed, a quar- 
ter of a pound of sugar, and a little 
nutmeg. Mix all together, tie the 
pudding up close in a cloth, and 
boil it two hours. Serve it up with 
a sauce of melted butter, a little 
sugar and sweet wine. 

ounce of butter into a pound of 
flour ; mix one egg beaten, a little 
yeast that is not bitter, and as much 
milk as will make the dough tolera- 
bly stiff". Beat it well, but do not 
knead it : let it rise, and bake it on 

three anchovies, a shalot, and some 
parsley. Put them into a bowl with 
two table-spoonfuls of vinegar, one 
of oil, and a little salt and mustard. 
When well mixed, add by de'grees 
some cold roast or boiled meat in 
very thin slices : put in a few at a 
time, not exceeding two or three 
inches long. Shake them in the 
seasoning, and then put more : co- 
ver the bowl close, and let the salad 
be prepared three hours before it is 
to be eaten. Garnish with parsley, 
and a few slices of the fat. 

a nice piece of lean beef; lard it 
with bacon seasoned with pepper, 
salt, cloves, mace, and allspice. Put 
it into a stewpan with a pint of broth, 
a glass of white wine, a bundle of 

parsley, all sorts of sweet herbs, a 
clove of garlic, a shalot or two, four 
cloves, pepper and salt. When the 
meat is become tender, cover it 
close. Skim the sauce well, strain 
it, set it on the fire, and let it boil 
till reduced to a glaze. Glaze the 
larded side with this, and serve the 
meat on sorrel sauce. 

a large piece from the fat side of the 
leg, about nine inches long and half 
as thick and broad. Beat it with 
the rolling pin, take off" the skin, and 
trim the rough edges. Lard the top 
and sides, cover it with fat bacon, 
and then with white paper. Lay it 
into a stewpan with any pieces of 
undressed veal or mutton, four 
onions, a sliced carrot, a faggot of 
sweet herbs, four blades of mace, 
four bay leaves, a pint of good veal 
or mutton broth, and four or five 
ounces of lean ham or gammon. 
Cover the pan close, and let it stew 
slowly for three hours ; then take 
up the meat, remove all the fat from 
the gravy, and boil it quick to a 
glaze. Keep the fricandeau quite 
hot, and then glaze it. Serve it 
with the remainder of the glaze in 
the dish, and sorrel sauce in a tu- 
reen. — The following is a cheaper 
way of making a good fricandeau of 
veal. With a sharp knife cut the 
lean part of a large neck from the 
best end, scooping it from the bones 
a hand's length, and prepare it in 
the manner above directed. Three 
or four bones only will be necessary, 
and they will make the gravy ; but 
if the prime part of the leg is cut 
off*, it spoils the whole. — Another 
way is to take two large round 
sweetbreads, and prepare them like 
veal. Make a rich gravy with truf- 
fles, morels, mushrooms, and arti- 
choke bottoms, and serve it round. 
Boil rather more than half, in a small 
quantity of water, and let them cool. 
Cut them up, simmer in a little gra- 
vy made of the liquor they were 



boiled in, adding a bit of veal or 
mutton, onion, mace, lemon peel, 
white pepper, and a bunch of sweet 
herbs. When quite tender, keep 
them hot, while the following sauce 
is prepared. Strain off the liquor, 
return it into the saucepan with a 
little salt, a scrape of nutmeg, and 
a little flour and butter. Give it 
one boil, and when ready to serve, 
beat up the yolk of an egg, add half 
a pint of cream, and stir them over 
the tire, but do not let it boil. It 
. will be quite as good however with- 
out the egg. Without the addition 
of any other meat, the gravy may 
be made of the trimmings of the 
fowls, such as the necks, feet, small 
wing bones, 2;izzards, and livers. 

them, cut them in pieces, soak in 
warm water, and clean them. Then 
stew them in a little fresh water, 
with a bit of lemon peel, a little 
white wine, an anchovy, an onion, 
two cloves, and a sprig of sweet 
herbs. When tender take them out, 
strain off the liquor, put a very little 
of it into a quarter of a pint of* thick 
cream, with a piece of butter, and 
a little flour. Keep it constantly 
stirring till the butter is melted ; 
then put in the rabbit, with a little 
grated lemon peel, mace, and lemon 
juice. Shake all together over the 
fire, and make it quite hot. If more 
agreeable, pickled mushrooms may 
be used instead of lemon. — To make 
a brown fricassee, prepare the rab- 
bits as above, and fry them in but- 
ter to a nice brown. Put some 
gravy or beef broth into the pan, 
shake in some flour, and keep it 
stirring over the fire. Add some 
ketchup, a very little shalot chop- 
ped, salt, cayenne, and lemon juice, 
or pickled mushrooms. Boil it up, 
put in the rabbit, and shake it round 
till it is quite hot. 

FRYING. This is often a very 
convenient' and expeditious mode 
of cooVmg ; but though one of the 
most common, it is as commonly 

performed in a very imperfect man- 
ner, and meets with less attention 
than the comfort of a good meal re- 
quires. A fryingpan should be about 
four inches deep, with a perfectly 
flat and thick bottom, and perpen- 
dicular sides. When used it should 
be half filled with fat, for good fry- 
ing is in fact, boiling in fat. To 
make sure that the pan is quite clean, 
rub a little fat over it, then make it 
warm, and wipe it out with a clean 
cloth. Great care must be taken 
in frying, never to use any oil, butter, 
lard, or drippings, but what is quite 
clean, fresh, and free from salt. 
Any thing dirty spoils the appear- 
ance, any thing bad tasted or stale 
spoils the flavour, and salt prevents 
its browning. Fine olive oil is the 
most delicate for frying, but it is 
very expensive, and bad oil spoils 
every thing that is dressed with it. 
For general purposes, and especially 
for fish, clean fresh lard is not near 
so expensive as oil or clarified but- 
ter, and does almost as well, except 
for coUops and cutlets. Butter of- 
ten burns before any one is aware, 
and what is fried with it will get a 
dark and dirty appearance. Drip- 
ping, if nicely clean and fresh, is 
almost as good as any thing : if not 
clean, it may easily be clarified. 
Whatever fat be used, let it remain 
in the pan a few minutes after fry- 
ing, and then pour it through a sieve 
into a clean bason. If not burnt, it 
will be found much better than it 
was at first ; but the fat in which 
fish has been fried, will not serve 
any other purpose. To fry fish, 
parsley, potatoes, or any thing that 
is watery, the fire must be very clear, 
and the fat quite hot, which will be 
the case when it has done hissing. 
Fish will neither be firm nor crisp, 
nor of a good colour, unless the fat 
be of a proper heat. To determine 
this, throw a little bit of bread into 
the pan : if it fries crisp, the fat is 
ready : if it burns the bread, it is 
too hot. Whatever is fried before 



the fat is hot enough, will be pale 
and sodden, and offend the palate 
and the stomach, as well as the eye. 
The fat also must be thoroughly 
drained from the fry, especially from 
such things as are dressed in bread 
crumbs, or the flavour will be im- 
paired. The dryness of fish de- 
pends much upon its having been 
fried in fat of a due degree of heat, 
they are then crisp and dry in a few 
minutes after being taken out of the 
pan : when they are not, lay them 
on a soft cloth before the fire, and 
turn them till they are dry. 

FRIED CARP. Scale, draw, and 
wash them clean ; dry them in flour, 
and fry them in hog's lard to a light 
brown. Fry some toast, cut three- 
corner ways, with the roes ; lay the 
fish on a coarse cloth to drain, and 
serve them up with butter, anchovy 
sauce, and the juice of a lemon. 
Garnish with the bread, roe, and 

FRIED EELS. There is a greater 
diff'erence in the goodness of eels 
than of any other fish. The true 
silver-eel, so called from the bright 
colour of the belly, is caught in the 
Thames. The Dutch eels sold at 
Billingsgate are very bad ; those 
taken in great floods are generally 
good, but in ponds they have usually 
a strong rank flavour. Except the 
middle of summer, they are always 
in season. If small, they should 
be curled round and fried, being 
first dipped into eggs and crumbs of 

FRIED EGGS. Boil six eggs 
for three minutes, put them in cold 
water, and take off the shells, with- 
out breaking the whites. Wrap the 
eggs up in a puff paste, smear them 
over with egg, and grate some bread 
over them. Put into a stewpan a 
suflicient quantity of lard or butter 
to swim the eggs ; and when the 
lard is hot, put in the eggs, and fry 
them of a good colour. Lay them 
on a cloth to drain. 

FRIED HERBS. Clean and drain 

a good quantity of spinach leaves, 
two large handfuls of parsley, and 
a handful of green onions. Chop 
the parsley and onions, and sprinkle 
them among the spinach. Stew 
them together with a little salt, and 
a bit of butter the size of a walnut. 
Shake the pan when it begins to 
grow warm, and let it ; e closely 
covered over a slow stove till done 
enough. It is served with slices of 
broiled calves' liver, small rashers 
of bacon, and fried eggs. The lat- 
ter on the herbs, and the other in a 
separate dish. This is the mode of 
dressing herbs in Staffordshire. 

fish with grated bread, minced pars- 
ley and lemon peel, pepper and salt, 
nutmeg, and the yolk of an tgg, all 
mixed together. Serve with an- 
chovy and fennel sauce. Or split 
the fish open, cut off their heads, 
season and hang them up four op 
five hours, and then broil them. 
Make the sauce of fennel and pars- 
ley chopped fine, and mixed with 
melted butter. 

FRIED OYSTERS. To prepare 
a garnish for boiled fish, make a 
batter of flour, milk, and eggs. Sea- 
son it a very little, dip the oysters 
into the batter, and fry them of a 
fine yellow brown. A little nutmeg 
should be put into the seasoning, 
and a few crumbs of bread into the 

young parsley very clean, and put it 
into a fryiogpau with a bit of butter. 
Stir it with a knife till it becomes 
crisp, and use it for garnishing. Or 
rub the picked parsley in a cloth 
to clean it, and set it before the fire 
in a Dutch oven till it is crisp. This 
is better than fried parsley, and may 
be rubbed on steaks, calf's liver, or 
any other dish of the kind. 

FRIED PATTIES. Mince a bit 
of cold veal, and six oysters ; mix 
them with a few crumbs of bread, 
salt, pepper, and nutmeg, and a 
very small bit of lemon peel. Add 



. the liquor of the oysters, warm all 
together in a tosser, but it must not 
boil, and then let it grow cold. Pre- 
pare a good puff-paste, roll it thin, 
and cut it into round or square 
pieces. Put some of the mixture 
between two of them, twist the 
edges to keep in the gravy, and fry 
them of a fine brown. If baked, it 
becomes a fashionable dish. All 
patties should be washed over with 
egg before they are baked. 

thin, and fry them in butter till 
they are brown ; then lay them in a 
dish, and pour melted butter over 
them. Potatoes may likewise be 
fried in butter, and served up with 
powder sugar strewed over them. 
Any kind of fruit may be fried in the 
same manner, and all batter should 
be fried in hog's lard. 

FRIED RABBIT. Cut it into 
joints, and fry it in butter of a nice 
brown. Send it to table with fried 
or dried parsley, and gravy or liver 

, FRIED SMELTS. Wipe them 
clean, take away the gills, rub them 
over with a feather dipped in egg, 
and strew on some grated bread. 
Fry them in hog's lard over a clear 
fire, and put them in when the fat 
is boiling hot. When they are of a 
fine brown, take them out and drain 
off the fat. Garnish with fried 
parsley and lemon. 

FRIED SOLES. Divide two or 
three soles from the backbone, and 
take off the head, lins, and tail. 
Sprinkle the inside with salt, roll 
them up tight from the tail and up- 
wards,and fasten with small skewers. 
Small fish do not answer, but if large 
or of a tolerable size, put half a fish 
in each roll. Dip them into yolks 
of eggs, and cover them with crumbs. 
Egg them over again, and then put 
more crumbs. Fry them of a beau- 
tiful colour in lard, or in clarified 
butter. Or dip the soles in egg, 
&qd cover them with fine crumbs of 

bread. Set on a fryingpan of the 
proper size, and put into it a good 
quantity of fresh lard or dripping. 
Let it boil, and immediately put the 
fish into it, and do them of a fine 
brown. Soles that have been fried, 
eat good cold with oil, vinegar, salt 
and mustard. 

FRIED TENCH. Scale and clean 
the fish well, dry and lay them be- 
fore the fire, dust them with flour, 
and fry them in dripping or hog's 
lard. Serve with crisped parsley, 
and plain butter. Percjfi, trout, and 
grayling may be done the same. 

FRIED TURBOT. Cut a small 
turbot across in ribs, dry and flour 
it, put it into a fryingpan, and cover 
it with boiling lard. Fry it brown, 
and drain it. Clean the pan, put in 
a little wine, an anchovy, salt, nut- 
meg, and a little ginger. Put in the 
fish, and stew it till the liquor is 
half wasted. Then take it out, put 
in some butter rolled in flour, with 
a minced lemon, and simmer them 
to a proper thickness. Rub a hot 
dish with a piece of shalot, lay the 
turbot in the dish, and pour the 
sauce over it. 

FRIED VENISON. Cut the meat 
into slices, fry it of a bright brown, 
and keep it hot before the fire. 
Make gravy of the bones, add a \iU 
tie butter rolled in flour, stir it in 
the pan till it is thick and brown, 
and put in some port and lemon 
juice. Warm the venison in^it, put 
in the dish, and pour the sauce over 
it. Send up currant jelly in a glass, 

FRITTERS, Make them of pan- 
cake batter, dropped in small quan- 
tities into the pan : or put apple 
into batter, pared and sliced, and 
fry some of it with each slice. Cur- 
rants, or very thinly-sliced lemon, 
make an agreeable change. Frit- 
ters for company should be served 
on a folded napkin in the dish. Any 
sort of sweetmeat, or ripe fruit, may 
be made into fritters. 

FRONTINIAC. Boil twelve 



pounds of loaf sugar, and six pounds 
j of raisins cut small, in six gallons 

I of water. When the liquor is almost 

cold, put in half a peck of elder 
flowers ; and the next day six spoon- 
fuls of the syrup of lemons, and four 
of yeast. Let it stand two days, 
put it into a barrel that will just 
hold it, and bottle it after it has 
stood about two months. 

a fruit tree is in full blossom, the 
best way to preserve it from frost 
and blights is to twine a rope upon 
its branches, and bring the end of 
it into a pail of water. If a light 
> frost happen in the night, the tree 

^ill not be affected by it ; but an 
ice will be formed on the surface of 
the water, in which the end of the 
rope is immersed. This experiment 
may easily be tried on wall fruit, 
and has been found to answer. If 
trees be infected with an easterly 
blight, the best way is to fumigate 
them with brimstone strewed on 
burning charcoal : this will effectu- 
ally destroy thelnsects, and preserve 
the fruit. Afterwards it will be pro- 
per to dash them with water, or 
wash the branches with a woollen 
cloth, and clear them of all gluti- 
nous matter and excrescences of 
every kind, which would harbour the 
insects ; but the washing should be 
performed in the early part of a 
warm day, that the moisture may be 
exhaled before the cold of the even- 
% ing approaches. 

soaked three hours in cold water, 
before they are to be prepared as 
food, changing the water every hour, 
these valuable roots will recover 
their salubrious quality and flavour. 
While in cold water, they must stand 
where a sufficiency of artificial heat 
may prevent freezing. If much 
frozen, allow a quarter of an ounce 
of saltpetre to every peck of pota- 
toes, and dissolve it in the water. 
^^^ut if so much penetrated by the 

^Hr 142 

frost as to render them unfit for cu- 
linary purposes, they may be made 
into starch, and will yield a large 
quantity of flour for that purpose. 

en half a pound of the pulp of dam- 
sons, or any other scalded fruit. 
Put to it the whites of four eggs 
beaten, and beat up the pulp with 
them till it will stand up, and take 
any form. It should be rough, to 
imitate a rock, or the billows of the 
ocean. This froth looks and eats 
well, and may be laid on cream, cus- 
tard, or trifle, with a spoon. 

FRUIT. The method of preserv- 
ing any kind of fruit all the year, is 
to put them carefully into a wide- 
mouthed glass vessel, closed down 
with oiled paper. The glasses are 
to be placed in a box filled with a 
mixture of four pounds of dry sand, 
two pounds of bole-armeniac, and 
one pound of saltpetre, so that the 
fruit may be completely covered. 
The fruit should be gathered by the 
hand before it be thoroughly ripe, 
and the box kept in a dry place. 

FRUIT BISCUITS. To the pulp 
of any scalded fruit, put an equal 
weight of sugar sifted, and bea^ it 
two hours. Then make it into little 
white-f^per forms, dry them in a 
cool oven, and turn them the next 
day. They may be put into boxes 
in the course of two or three days. 

prepare fruit for children, far more 
wholesome than in puddings or pies, 
put some sliced apples, plums or 
gooseberries, into a stone jar, and 
sprinkle among them a sufficient 
quantity of fine moist sugar. Set 
the jar on a hot hearth, or in a sauce- 
pan of boiling water, and let it re- 
main till the fruit is well done. 
Slices of bread, or boiled rice, may 
either be stewed with the fruit, or 
added when eaten. 

FRUIT PASTE. Put any kind 
of fruit into a preserving pan, stir 
it till it will mash quite soft, and 



strain it. To one pint of juice, add 
a pound and a half of fine sugar; 
dissolve the sugar in water, and boil 
it till the water is dried up. . Then 
mix it with the juice, boil it once, 
pour it into plates, and dry it in a 
stove. When wanted for use, cut it 
in strips, and make paste knots for 

a thick batter of milk and eggs, with 
a little flour and salt; put in any 
kind of fruit, and either bake or 
boil it. Apples should be pared 
and quartered, gooseberries and 
currants should be picked and clean- 
ed, before they are put into the bat- 
ter. Or make a thick paste, roll it 
out, and line sa bason with it, after 
it has been rubbed with a little but- 
ter. Then fill it with fruit, put on 
a lid, tie it up close in a cloth, and 
boil it for two hours. The pudding 
will be lighter, if only made in a 
bason, then turned out into a pud- 
ding cloth, and boiled in plenty of 

FRUIT STAINS. If stains of 
fruit or wine have been long in the 
linen, rub the part on each side with 
yellow soap. Then lay on a thick 
mixture of starch in cold water, rub 
it well in, and expose the linen to 
the sun and air till the stain comes 
«ut. If not removed in three or 
four days, rub oflf the mixture, and 
renew the process. When dry, it 
may be sprinkled with a little water. 
— Many other stains may be taken 
out by only dipping the linen into 
sour buttermilk, and drying it in a 
hot sun. Then wash it in cold wa- 
ter and dry it, two or three times a 

serve fruit for family desserts, whe- 
ther cherries, plums, or apples, 
gather them when ripe, and put 
them in small jars that will hold 
about a pound. Strew over each 
jar six ounces of fine pounded sugar, 
and cover each with two bladders, 
separately tied down. Set the jars 

in a large stewpan of water up to 
the neck, and let it boil three hours 
gently. Keep these and all other 
sorts of fruit free from damp. 

FRUIT TREES. When they have 
the appearance of being old or worn 
out, and are covered with moss and 
insects, they may be revived and 
made fruitful by dressing them well 
with a brush, dipped in a solution 
of strong fresh lime. The outer 
rind, with all its incumbrance, will 
then fall off ; a new and clean one 
will be formed, and the trees put on 
a healthy appearance. 

a pint of calf's foot jelly into a 
bowl ; when stiff, lay in three peach- 
es, and a bunch of grapes with the 
stalk upwards. Cover over with 
vine leaves, and fill up the bowl with 
jelly. Let it stand till the next day, 
and then set it to the brim in hot 
water. When it gives way from the 
bowl, turn the jelly out carefully, 
and send it to table. Any kind of 
fruit may be treated in the same 

FUEL. Coals constitute a prin- 
cipal article of domestic conveni- 
ence, especially during the severity 
of winter. At that season they of- 
ten become very scarce, and are sold 
at an extravagant price. To remedy 
this evil in some measure, take two- 
thirds of soft clay, free from stones, 
and work it into three or four bushels 
of small coals previously sifted : 
form this composition into balls or 
cakes, about three or four inches 
thick, and let them be thoroughly 
dried. When the fire burns clear, 
place four or five of these cakes in 
the front of the grate, where they 
will soon become red, and yield a 
clear and strong heat till they are 
totally consumed. The expense of 
a ton of this composition is but tri- 
fling, when compared with that of a 
chaldron of coals, as it may be pre- 
pared at one-fourth of the cost, and 
will be of greater service than a chal- 
dron and a half of the latter. Coal 



dust worked up with horse dung, 
cow dung, saw dust, tanner's waste, 
or any other combustible matter 
that is not too expensive, will also 
be found a saving ii the article of 
fuel. Nearly a third of the coals 
consumed in large towns and cities 
might be saved, if the coal ashes 
were preserved, instead of being 
thrown into the dust bins, and after- 
wards mixed with an equal quantity 
of staallcoal, moistened with water. 
This mixture thrown behind the fire, 
with a few round coals in front, 
would save the trouble of sifting the 
ashes, and make a cheerful and 
pleasant fire. The Best Mode 

OP LIGHTING A FiRE. — Fill the 

grate with fresh coals quite up to 
the upper bar but one ; then lay on 
the wood in the usual manner, ra- 
ther collected in a mass than scat- 
tered. Over the wood place the 
cinders of the preceding day, piled 
up as high as the grate will admit, 
and placed loosely in rather large 
fragments, in order that the draft 
may be free : a bit or two of fresh 
coal may be added to the cinders 
when once they are lighted, but no 
small coal must be thrown on at 
first. When all is prepared, light 
the wood, when the cinders in a 
short time being thoroughly ignited, 
the gas rising from the coals below, 
which will now be affected by the 
heat, will take fire as it passes 
through them, leaving a very small 
portion of smoke to go up the chim- 
ney. One of the advantages of this 
mode of lighting a fire is, that 
small coal is better suited to the 
purpose than large, except a few 
pieces in front to keep the small 
from falling out of the grate. A fire 
lighted in this way will burn all day, 
without any thing being done to it. 
When apparently quite out, on be- 
ing stirred, you have in a few mi- 
nutes a glowing fire. When the up- 
per part begins to cake, it must be 
stirred, but the lower must not be 


FUMIGATION. To prevent in- 
fection from fever, take a handful 
each of rue, sage, mint, rosemary, 
and lavender, all fresh gathered. 
Cut them small, put them into a 
stone jar, pour on a pint of the best 
white-wine vinegar, cover the jar 
close, and let it stand eight days 
in the sun, or near the fire. Then 
strain it off, and dissolve in it an 
ounce of camphor. This liquid 
sprinkled about the chamber, of 
fumigated, will much revive the pa^ 
tient, and prevent the attendants 
from receiving the infection. Or 
mix a spoonful of salt in a cup, 
with a little powdered magnesia : 
pour on the mixture at different 
times a spoonful of strong vitriolic 
acid, and the vapour arising from it 
will destroy the putrid eflluvia. 

articles require to be first washed, 
and afterwards dyed of a different 
colour, in order to change and im- 
prove their appearance. — For a 
Buff or salmon colour, according 
to the depth of the hue, rub down 
on a pewter plate two pennyworth 
of Spanish arnatto, and then boil it 
in a pail of water a quarter of an 
hour. Put into it two ounces of 
potash, stir it round, and instantly 
put in the lining. Stir it all the 
time it is boiling, which must be 
five or six minutes ; then put it into 
cold spring water, and hang the ar- 
ticles up singly without wringing. 
When almost dry, fold the lining, 
and mangle it. — For Pink, the calico 
must be washed extremely clean, 
and thoroughly dried. Then boil it 
in two gallons of soft water, and 
four ounces of alum ; take it out, 
and dry it in the air. Meanwhile 
boil in the alum water two handfuls 
of wheat bran till quite slippery, 
and then strain it. Take two scru- 
ples of cochineal, and two ounces of 
argall finely pounded and sifted, and 
mix it with the liquor a little at a 
time. Put the calico into the liquor, 
keep it stirring and boiling, till the 



liquor is nearly wasted. Then take 
out the calico, wash it first in cham- 
ber lye, and afterwards in cold wa- 
ter. Rinse it in water-starch strain- 
ed, dry it quick without hanging it 
in folds, and let it be well mangled. 
It would be better still to have it 
callendered. — Blue. The calico must 
be washed clean and dried. Then 
mix some of Scott's liquid blue in 
as much water as will be sufficient 
to cover the things to be dyed, and 
add some starch to give it a light 
stiffness. Dry a small piece of the 

lining to see whether the colour is 
deep enough ; and if approved, put 
it in and wash it in the dye. Dry 
the articles singly, and mangle or 
callender them. 

FURS. To preserve them from 
the moth, comb them occasionally 
while in use. When not wanted, 
mix among them bitter apples from 
the druggists, in small muslin bags, 
sewing them in several folds of linen, 
carefully turned in at the edges. 
Keep the furs in a cool place, free 
from damp. 


Gad fly. 'Cows and oxen are 
often so distressed by the darts of 
the gad fly, that they rush into the 
water for refuge till night approach- 
es. The only remedy is to wash the 
backs of the cattle in the spring 
with strong tobacco-water, which 
would greatly prevent the generating 
of these vermin. When sheep are 
struck with the fly, the way is to 
clip oflf the wool, to rub the parts 
affected with powdered lime or wood 
ashes, and afterwards to anoint them 
with currier's oil, which will heal 
the wounds, and secure the animals 
from future attack. Or dissolve 
half an ounce of corrosive sublimate 
in two quarts of soft water, and add 
a quarter of a pint of spirits of tur- 
pentine. Cut off the wool as far as 
it is infected, pour a few drops of 
the mixture in a circle round the 
maggots produced by the flies, and 
afterwards rub a little of it among 
them, and the maggots will imme- 
diately be destroyed. 

GAME. Game ought not to be 
thrown away even after it has been 
kept a long time, for when it seems 
to be spoiled it may often be made 
fit for eating, by carefully cleaning 
and washing it with vinegar and 
(No. 7.) 

water. If there is danger of birds 
not keeping, the best way is to crop 
and draw them. Pick them clean, 
wash them in two or three waters, 
and rub them with salt. Plunge 
them into a kettle of boiling water 
one by one, and draw them up and 
down by the legs, that the water 
may pass through them- Let them 
remain in the water five or six mi- 
nutes, and then hang them up in a 
cool place. When drained, season 
the insides well wit-h pepper and 
salt, and wash them before they are 
roasted. The most delicate birds, 
even grouse, may thus be preserved. 
Those that live by suction cannot 
be done this way, as they are never 
drawn ; and perhaps the heat might 
make them worse, as the water could 
not pass through them ; but they 
will bear a high flavour. Lumps 
of charcoal put about birds and 
meat will preserve them from taint, 
and restore what is spoiling. 

GAME SAUCE. Wash and pare 
a head of celery, cut it into thin 
slices, boil it gently till it becomes 
tender ; then add a little beaten 
mace, pepper, salt, and nutmeg. 
Thicken it with flour and butter, 
boil it up, pour some of it in the 

u 115 



dish, and some in a boat. I^mon 
pickle or lemon juice may be added 
to it. 

GAMMON. Take off the rind 
of the ham and gammon, and soak 
it in water ; cover the fat part with 
writing paper, roast, and baste it 
with canary. When done, sprinkle 
it over with crumbs of bread and 
parsley. Serve it with brown gravy, 
after it is well browned, and gar- 
nish it with raspings of bread. 

trained hawthorn fence is the strong- 
est, but as it is apt to get thin and 
full of gaps at the bottom, the bar- 
berry is to be preferred, especially 
on high banks with a light soil. It, 
may be raised from the berries as 
easily as hawthorn, and will grow 
faster, if the suckers be planted 
early. The barberry puts up nu- 
merous suckers from the roots ; it 
will therefore always grow close at 
the bottom, and make an impene- 
trable fence. In trimming any kind 
of close hedge, care should be taken 
to slope the sides, and make it point- 
ed at the top : otherwise, the bot- 
tom being shaded by the upper part, 
will make it grow thin and full of 
gaps. The sides of a young hedge 
may be trimmed, to make it bush the 
better ; but it should not be topped 
till it has arrived at a full yard in 
height, though a few of the points 
may be taken off. The bottom of 
hawthorn hedges may be conveni- 
ently thickened, by putting in some 
plants of common sweet briar, or 

tivate the common garden rhubarb, 
it should not only have a depth of 
good soil, but it should be watered 
in dry weather, and well covered 
with straw or dung in the winter 
season. It will then become solid 
when taken out of the ground ; and 
if cut into large slices, and hung up 
in a warm kitchen, it will soon be fit 
for use. The plants may be taken 
up when the leaves are decayed, 

either in spring or in autumn, while 
the weather is dry ; and when the 
roots are cleared from dirt, without 
washing, they should be dried in 
the sun for a few days before they 
are hung up. The better way would 
be to wrap them up separately in 
whited brown paper, and dry them 
on the hob of a common stove. 
Lemon and orange peel will dry re- 
markably well in the same manner. 
GARGLES. Common gargles may 
be made of figs boiled in milk and 
water, with a little sal-ammoniac ; 
or sage-tea, with honey and vinegar 
mixed together. A sore throat may 
be gargled with it two or three 
times a day. 

geese! The rearing of this 
species of poultry incurs but little 
expense, as they chiefly support 
themselves on commons or in lanes, 
where they can get at water. The 
largest are esteemed the best, as 
also are the white and the grey : the 
pied and dark coloured are not so 
good. Thirty days are generally 
the time that the goose sets, but in 
warm weather she will sometimes 
hatch sooner. Give them plenty of 
food, such as scalded bran and light 
oats. As soon as the goslings are 
hatched, keep them housed for eight 
or ten days, and feed them with bar- 
ley meal, bran, and curds. Green 
geese should begin to fatten at six 
or seven weeks old, and be fed as 
above. - Stubble geese require no 
fattening, if they have the run of 
good fields and pasture. — If geese 
are bought at market, for the pur- 
pose of cooking, be careful to see 
that they are fresh and young. If 
fresh, the feet will be pliable : if 
stale, dry and stiff. The bill and 
feet of a young one will be yellow, 
and there will be but few hairs up- 
on them : if old, they will be red. 
Green geese, not more than three 
or four months old, should be scald- 
ed : a stubble goose should be pick- 
ed dry. 




ry tender a handful of whole rice iu 
a small quantity of milk, with a 
large piece of lemon peel. Let it 
drain ; then mix with it a dozen ap- 
ples, boiled to a pulp as dry as pos- 
sible. Add a glass of white wine, 
the yolks of five eggs, two ounces 
of orange and citron cut thin, and 
sweeten it with sugar. Line a mould 
or bason with a very good paste, 
beat the five whites of the eggs to 
a very strong froth, and mix it with 
the other ingredients. Fill the mould, 
and bake it of a fine brown colour. 
Serve it bottom upwards with the 
following sauce : two glasses of 
wine, a spoonful of sugar, the yolks 
of two eggs, and a piece of sugar 
the size of a walnut. Simmer with- 
out boiling, and pour to and from 
the saucepan till the sauce is of a 
proper thickness, and then put it 
in the dish. 

three ounces of butter in a pint of 
cream, and let it stand till nearly 
cold. Then mix two ounces of fine 
flour, and two ounces of sugar, four 
yolks and two whites of eggs, and 
a little rose or orange flower water. 
Bake in little buttered cups half an 
hour. They should be served the 
moment they are done, and only 
when going to be eaten, or they will 
not be light. Turn the puffs out of 
the cups, and serve with white wine 
and sugar. 

GERMAN PUFFS. Mix together 
two ounces of blanched almonds 
well beaten, a spoonful of rose wa- 
ter, one white and two yolks of eggs, 
a spoonful of flour, half a pint of 
cream, two ounces of butter, and 
sugar to taste. Butter some cups, 
half fill them, and put them in the 
oven. Serve with white wine sauce, 
butter, and sugar. This is esteemed 
a good middle dish for dinner or 

GIBLETS. Let the giblets be 
picked clean and washed, the feet 
skinned, the bill cut off, the head 
split in two, the pinion bones bro- 

ken, the liver and gizzard cut in 
four, and the neck in two pieces. 
Put them into a pint of water, with 
pepper and salt, an onion, and sweet 
herbs. Cover the saucepan close, 
and stew them on a slow fire till 
they are quite tender. Take out 
the oniott and herbs, and put them 
into a dish with the liquor. 

GIBLET PIE. Clean and skin 
the giblets very carefully, stew them 
with a small quantity of water, 
onion, black pepper, and a bunch 
of sweet herbs, till nearly done. 
Let them grow cold : and if not 
enough to fill the dish, lay at the 
bottom two or three slices of veal, 
beef, or mutton. Add the liquor of 
the stew ; and when the pie is baked, 
pour into it a large teacupful of 
cream. Sliced apples added to the 
pie are a great improvement. Duck 
giblets will do ; but goose giblets 
are much to be preferred. 

GIBLET SOUP. Scald and clean 
three or four sets of goose or duck 
giblets, and stew them slowly with 
a pound or two of gravy beef, scrag 
of mutton, or the bone of a knuckle 
of veal, an ox tail, or some shanks 
of mutton. Add a large bunch of 
sweet herbs, a tea-spoonful of white 
pepper, a large spoonful of salt, 
and three onions. Put in five pints 
of water, cut each of the gizzards 
into four pieces, and simmer till 
they become quite tender. Skin 
the $tew carefully, add a quarter of 
a pint of cream, two tea-spoonfu!s 
of mushroom powder, and an ounce 
of butter mixed with a dessert- 
spoonful of flour. Let it boil a few 
minutes, then put it into a tureen, 
add a little salt, and serve up the 
soup with the giblets. Instead of 
cream, it may be seasoned with a 
large spoonful of ketchup, some 
cayenne, and two glasses of sherry. 

luable articles cannot be preserved 
from fly stains, without covering 
them with strips of paper, and siif- 
fering them to remain till the flics 



are gone. Previous to this, the 
light dust should be blown from the 
gilding, and a feather or a clean 
brush lightly passed over it. Linen 
takes off the gilding, and deadens 
its brightness ; it should therefore 
never be used for wiping it. Some 
means should be used to destroy the 
flies, as they injure furniture of 
every kind, and the paper likewise. 
Bottles hung about with sugar and 
vinegar, or beer, will attract them ^ 
or fly water, put into little shells 
placed about the room, but out of 
the reach of children. ' 

gallons of water put six pounds of 
the best raw sugar ; boil the sugar 
and water together for the space of 
half an hoar, and keep skimming it 
as the scum rises. Let it stand to 
cool, beat up three ounces of syrup 
of betony with a large spoonful of 
ale yeast, and put it into the liquor. 
Prepare a peck of gilliflowers, cut 
from the stalks, and put them in to 
infuse and work together for three 
days, the whole being covered with 
a cloth. Strain it, and put it into 
a cask ; let it settle for three or 
four weeks, and then bottle it. 

GINGER BEER. To every gal- 
lon of spring water a'dd one ounce 
of sliced white ginger, one pound 
of lump sugar, and two ounces of 
lemon juice. B©il the mixture near- 
ly an hour, and take off" the scum ; 
then run it through a hair sieve into 
a tub, and when cool, add yeast in 
the proportion of half a pint to nine 
gallons. Keep it in a temperate 
situation two days, during which it 
may be stirred six or eight times. 
Then put it into a cask, which must 
be kept full, and the yeast taken 
off* at the bunghole with a spoon. 
In a fortnight, add half a pint of 
fining to nine gallons of the liquor, 
which will clear it by ascent, if it 
has been properly fermented. The 
cask must still be kept full, and the 
rising particles taken ofi^" at the bung- 
hole. When fine, which may be 

expected in twenty-four hours, bot- 
tle and cork it well ; and in summer 
it will be ripe and fit to drink in a 

ounces of fresh candied orange in 
a mortar, with a little sugar, till 
reduced to a paste. Then mix an 
ounce of the powder of white gin- 
ger, with a pound of loaf sugar. 
Wet the sugar with a little water, 
and boil all together to a candy, 
and drop it on white paper the size 
of mint drops. These make an ex- 
cellent stomachic. 

GINGER WINE. To seven gal- 
lons of water put nineteen pounds 
of moist sugar, and boil it for half 
an hour, taking off* the scum as it 
rises. Then take a small quantity 
of the liquor, and add to it nine 
ounces of the best ginger bruised. 
Put it all together, and when nearly 
cold, chop nine pounds of raisins 
very small, and put them into a nine 
gallon cask, with one ounce of 
isinglass. Slice four lemons into 
the cask, taking out all the seeds, 
and pour the liquor over them, with 
half a pint of fresh yeast. Leave 
it unstopped for three weeks, and 
in about three months it will be fit 
for bottling. There will be one gal- 
lon of the sugar and water more 
than the cask will hold at first : 
this must be kept to fill up as the 
liquor works oft", as it is necessary 
that the cask should be kept full, 
tili it has done working. The rai- 
sins should be two thirds Malaga, 
and one third Muscadel. Spring 
and autumn are the best seasons for 
making this wine. — Another. Boil 
nine quarts of water with six pounds 
of lump sugar, the rinds of two or 
three lemons very thinly pared, and 
two ounces of bruised white ginger. 
Let it boil half an hour', and skim 
it well. Put three quarters of a 
pound of raisins into the cask; and 
when the liquor is lukewarm, turn 
it, adding the juice of two lemons 
strained, with a spoonful and a half 



of yeast. Stir it daily, then put in 
half a pint of brandy, and half an 
ounce of isinglass shavings. Stop 
it up, and bottle it in six or seven 
weeks. The lemon peel is not to 
be put into the barrel. 

GINGERBREAD. Mix with two 
pounds of flour, h|^f a pound of 
treacle, and half a pound of butter, 
adding an ounce of ginger finely 
powdered and sifted, and three quar- 
ters of an ounce of caraway seeds. 
Having worked it very much, set it 
to rise before the fire. Then roll 
out the paste, cut it into any shape, 
and bake it on tins. If to be made 
into sweetmeats, add some candid 
orange-peel, shred into small pieces. 
— Another sort. To three quarters 
of a pound of treacle, put one egg 
beaten and strained. Mix together 
four ounces of brown sugar, half an 
oimce of sifted ginger, and a quar- 
ter of an ounce each of cloves, 
mace, allspice, and nutmeg, beaten 
as fine as possible ; also a quarter 
of an ounce of coriander and cara- 
way seeds. Melt a pound of butter, 
and mix with the above, adding as 
much flour as will knead it into a 
pretty stiff paste. Roll it out, cut 
it into cakes, bake them on tin 
plates in a quick oven, and a little 
time will do them. Gingerbread 
buttons or drops may be made of 
a part of the paste. — A plain sort 
of gingerbread may be prepared as 
follows. Mix three pounds of flour 
with half a pound of butteri four 
ounces of brown sugar, and half an 
ounce of pounded ginger. Make it 
into a paste, with a pound and a 
quarter of warm treacle. Or make 
the gingerbread without butter, by 
mixing two pounds of treacle with 
the following ingredients. Four 
ounces each of orange, lemon, citron, 
and candied ginger, all thinly sliced ; 
one ounce each of coriander seeds, 
caraways, and pounded ginger, ad- 
ding as much flour as will make it 
into a soft paste. Lay it in cakes 

on tin plates, and bake it in a quick 
oven.* Keep it dry in a covered 
earthen vessel, and the gingerbread 
will be good for some months. If 
cakes or biscuits be kept in paper, 
or a drawer, the taste will be dis- 
agreeable. A tureen, or a pan and 
cover, will preserve them long and 
moist ; or if intended to be crisp, 
laying them before the fire, or keep- 
ing them in a dry canister, will 
make them^so. * 

fully melt half a pound of butter, 
and stir it up in two pounds of trea- 
cle. Add an ounce of pounded 
ginger^ two ounces of preserved le- 
mon and orange peel, two ounces 
of preserved angelica cut small, one 
of coriander seed pounded, and the 
same of caraway whole. Mix them 
together, with two eggs, and as 
much flour as will bring it to a fine 
paste. Make it into nuts, put them 
on a tin plate, and bake them in a 
quick oven. 

GLASS. Broken glass may be 
mended with the same cement as 
china, or if it be only cracked, it 
will be suflicient to moisten the part -^u 
with the white of an egg, strewing jf^ 
it over with a little powdered lime, 
and instantly applying a piece of 
fine linen. Another cement for 
glass is prepared from two parts of 
litharge, one of quick lime, and one 
of flint glass, each separately and 
finely powdered, and the whole 
worked up into a paste with drying , 
oil. This compound is very durable, 
and acquires a greater degree of 
hardness when immersed in water. 

GLASSES. These frail and ex- 
pensive articles may be rendered 
less brittle, and better able to bear 
sudden changes of temperature, by 
first plunging them into cold water, 
then gradually heating the water till 
it boils, and suff'ering it to cool in 
the open air. Glasses of every de- 
scription, used for the table, will 
afterwards bear boiling water sud- 



deiily poured into them, without 
breaking. When they have been 
tarnished by age or accident, their 
lustre may be restored by strewing 
on them some fuller's earth, care- 
fully powdered and cleared of sand 
and dirt, and then rubbing them 
gently with a linen cloth, or a little 

GLOVES. Leather gloves may 
be repaired, cleaned, and dyed of a 
fine yellow, by steeping a little 
saffron in boiling water for about 
twelve hours ; and having lightly 
sewed up the tops of the gloves, to 
prevent the dye from staining the 
insides, wet them over with a sponge 
or soft brush dipped in the liquid. 
A teacupful will be sufficient for a 
single pair. 

article is made of milk immediately 
from the cow ; and if it be too hot 
in the summer, a little skim milk or 
water is added to it, before the ren- 
net is put in. As soon as the curd 
is come it is broken small, and clear- 
ed of the whey. The curd is set in 
the press for about a quarter of an 
hour, in order to extract the re- 
_jj^> mainder of the liquid. It is then 
put into the cheese tub again, 
broken small, and scalded with wa- 
ter mixed with a little whey. When 
the curd is settled, the liquor is 
poured off ; the curd is put into a 
vat, and worked up with a little salt 
when about half full. The vat is 
then filled up, and the whole is turn- 
ed two or three times in it, the edges 
being pared, and the middle round- 
ed up at each turning. At length, 
the curd being put into a cloth, it is 
placed in the press, then laid on the 
shelves, and turned every day till 
it becomes sufficiently firm to bear 

rice, sago, pearl barley, hartshorn 
shavings, and eringo root, each one 
ounce. Simmer with three pints of 
water till reduced to one, and then 

strain it. When cold it will be a 
jelly ; of which give, dissolved in 
wine, milk, or broth, in change with 
other nourishment. 

GNATS. The stings of these 
troublesome insects are generally 
attended with a painful swelling. 
One of the most effectual remedies 
consists of an equal mixture of tur- 
pentine and sweet oil, which should 
immediately be applied to the wound- 
ed part, and it will afford relief in 
a little time. Olive oil alone, un- 
salted butter, or fresh lard, if rub- 
bed on without delay, will also be 
found to answer the same purpose. 
They may be destroyed by fumiga- 
tion, the same as for flies. 

GOLD. To clean gold, and re- 
store its lustre, dissolve a little sal 
ammoniac in common wine. Boil 
the gold in it, and it will soon re- 
cover its brilliance. To clean gold 
or silver lace, sew it up in a linen 
cloth, and boil it with two ounces 
of soap in a pint of water: after- 
wards wash the lace in clear water. 
When the lace happens to be tar- 
nished, the best liquor for restoring 
its lustre is spirits of wine, which 
should be warmed before it is ap- 
plied. This application will also 
preserve the colour of silk or em- 

GOLD RINGS. If a ring sticks 
tight on the finger, and cannot easi- 
ly be removed, touch it with mer- 
cury, and it will become so brittle 
that* slight blow will break it. 

ing deemed particularly valuable, 
the birds in some counties are pluck- 
ed four or five times in a year. The 
first operation is performed in the 
spring for feathers and quills, and 
is repeated for feathers only, be- 
tween that period and Michaelmas. 
Though the plucking of geese ap- 
pears to be a barbarous custom, yet 
experience has proved, that if care- 
fully done, the birds thrive better, 
and are more healthy, when strip- 



ped of their feathers, than if they 
were left to drop them by moulting. 
Giaese intended for breeding in farm 
yards, and which are called old 
geese, may be plucked three times 
a year, at an interval of seven weeks, 
but not oftener. Every one should 
be thirteen or fourteen weeks old 
before they are subject to this ope- 
ration, or they are liable to perish 
in cold summers ; and if intended 
for the table, they would become 
poor and lose their quality, were 
they stripped of their feathers at an 
earlier period. 

GOOSE PIE. Quarter a goose, 
season it well, put it in a baking 
dish, and lay pieces of butter over 
it. Put on a raised crust, and bake 
it in a moderate oven. To make a 
richer pie, forcemeat may be added, 
and slices of tongue. Duck pie is 
made in the same manner. 

GOOSE SAUCE. Put into melt- 
ed butter a spoonful of sorrel juice, 
a little sugar, and some scalded 
gooseberries. Pour it into boats, 
and send it hot to table. 

fruit into a stone jar, with some 
good Lisbon sugar. Set the jar on 
a stove, or in a saucepan of water 
over the fire : if the former, a large 
spoonful of water should be added 
to the fruit. When it is done enough 
to pulp, press it through a cullender. 
Have ready a sufficient quantity of 
new milk, and a tea-cupful of raw 
cream, boiled together, or ai^egg 
instead of the latter. When cold, 
sweeten it pretty well with fine Lis- 
bon sugar, and mix the pulp with it 
by degrees. 

the largest green gooseberries of the 
walnut kind, and slit the tops into 
four quarters, leaving the stalk end 
whole. Pick out the seeds, and 
with a strong needle and thread fas- 
ten five or six together, by running 
the thread through the bottoms, till 
they are of the size of a hop. Lay 
vine leaves at the bottom of a tin 

preserving-pan, cover them with the 
hops, then a layer of leaves, and so 
on : lay a good many on the top, 
and fill the pan with water. Stop 
it down so close that no steam can 
escape, set it by a slow fire till scald- 
ing hot, and then take it off to cool* 
Repeat the operation till the goose- 
berries, on being opened, are found 
to be of a good green. Then drain 
them on sieves, and make a thin 
syrup of a pound of sugar to a pint 
of water, well boiled and skimmed. 
When the syrup is half cold, put in 
the fruit ; give it a boil up, and re- 
peat it thrice. Gooseberry hops 
look well and eat best dried, and iu, 
this case they may be set to dry IH^ 
a week. But if to be kept moist, 
make a syrup in the above propor- 
tions, adding a slice of ginger in the 
boiling. When skimmed and clear, 
give the gooseberries one boil, and 
pour the syrup cold over them. If * 
found too sour, a little sugar may 
be added, before the hops thaf are 
for drying receive their last boil. 
The extra syrup will serve for pies, 
or go towards other sweetmeats. 

some ripe gooseberries, of the clear 
white or green sort, pick them clean 
and weigh them. Allow three quar- 
ters of a pound of lump sugar to a 
pound of fruit, and half a pint of 
water. Boil and skim the sugar and 
water, then put in the fruit, and boil 
it gently till it is quite clear. Break 
the gooseberries into jam, and put 
into small pots. — Another. Gather ^ 
some ripe gooseberries in dry wea- 
ther, of the red hairy sort, and pick 
off the heads and tails. Put twelve 
pounds of them into a preserving 
pan, with a pint of currant juice, 
drawn as for jelly. Boil them pretty 
quick, and beat them with a spoon ; 
when they begin to break, add six 
pounds of white Lisbon sugar, and 
simmer them slowly to a jam. They 
require long boiling, or they will not 
keep; but they make an excellent 
jam for tarts and puffs. When the 



jam is put into jars, examine it after 
two or three days ; and if the syrup 
and fruit separate, tiie whole must 
be boiled again. In making white 
gooseberry jam, clarified sugar 
should be used ; and in all cases 
great care must be taken to prevent 
the fruit from burning to the bottom 
of the pan. 

some gooseberries in a jar over a 
hot hearth, or in a saucepan of wa- 
ter, till reduced to a pulp. Take a 
pint of the juice pressed through a 
coarse sieve, and mix it with three 
eggs beaten and strained. Add an 
^unce and a half of butter, sweeten 
'u well, put a crust round the dish, 
and bake it. A few crumbs of roll 
should be mixed with the above to 
give it a little consistence, or four 
ounces of Naples biscuits. 

as much fruit as when pulped through 
a sieve, will cover the bottom of a 
dish intended to be used. Mix with 
it the rind of half a lemon grated 
line, sweetened with sugar. Put 
any quantity of common custard 
over it, and a whip on the top, as 
for other trifles. 

some spring water ; and when cold, 
put to every three quarts, a quart 
of bruised gooseberries in a large 
tub. Let them remain two or three 
days, stirring often ; then strain 
through a hair bag, and to each gal- 
Ion of liquor add a pound of the 
coarsest sugar. Put it into a barrel, 
with yeast spread upon a toast, and 
cover the bung hole with a piece of 
slate. The greater the quantity of 
sugar and fruit, the stronger the 

the weather is dry, gather goose- 
berries about the time they are half 
ripe. Pick them clean as much as 
a peck into a convenient vessel, and 
bruise them with a piece of wood, 
taking as much care as possible to 
keep the seeds whole. Now having 
1 52 

put the pulp into a canvas bag, press 
out all the juice ; and to every gal- 
lon of the gooseberries, add about 
three pounds offine loaf sugar. Mix 
the whole together by stirring it 
with a stick, and as soon as the su- 
gar is quite dissolved, pour it into 
a cask which will exactly hold it. 
If the quantity be about eight or 
nine gallons, let it stand a fortnight : 
if twenty gallons, forty days, and so 
on in proportion. Set it in a cool 
place ; and after standing the pro- 
per time, draw it off from the lees. 
Put it into another clean vessel of 
equal size, or into the same, after 
pouring out the lees and making it 
clean. Let a cask of ten or twelve 
gallons stand for about three months, 
and twenty gallons for five months, 
after which it will be fit for bottling 

Gather some dry gooseberries of 
the hairy sort, before the seeds be- 
come large, and take care not to 
cut them in taking off the stalks and 
buds. If gathered in the damp, or 
the gooseberry skins are the least 
broken in the preparation, the fruit 
■will mould. Fill some jars or wide- 
mouthed bottles, put the corks 
loosely in, and set the bottles up 
to the neck in a kettle of water. 
When the fruit looks scalded, take 
them out ; and when perfectly cold, 
cork them down close, and rosin 
the top. Dig a trench sufficiently 
deep to receive all the bottles, and 
cover them with the earth a foot and 
a half. When a frost comes on, a 
little fresh litter from the stable will 
prevent the ground from hardening, 
so that the fruit may more easily be 
dug up. — Green gooseberries may 
also be preserved for winter use, 
without bedding them in the earth. 
Scald them as above, and when 
cold, fill the bottles up with cold 
water. Cork and rosin them down, 
and keep them in a dry place. — 
Another way. Having prepared the 
gooseberries as above, prepare a 


^ GR A 

kettle of boiling water, and put into 
it as much roche alum as will har- 
den the water, or give it a little 
roughness when dissolved : but if 
there be too much it will spoil the 
fruit. Cover the bottom of a large 
sieve with gooseberries, without lay- 
ing one upon another ; and hold the 
sieve in the water till the fruit be- 
gins to look scalded on the outside. 
Turn them gently out of the sieve 
on a cloth on the dresser, cover them 
with another cloth, putting some 
more to be scalded, till the whole 
are finished. Observe not to put 
one quantity upon another, or they 
will become too soft. The next day 
pick out any bad or broken ones, 
bottle the rest, and fill up the bot- 
tles with the alum water in which 
they were scalded. If the water be 
left in the kettle, or in a glazed pan, 
it will spoil ; it must therefore be 
quickly put into the bottles. Goose- 
berries prepared in this way, and 
stopped down close, will make as 
fine tarts as when fresh from the 
trees. — Another way. In dry wea- 
ther pick some full grown but un- 
ripe gooseberries, top arid tail them, 
and put them into wide-mouthed 
bottles. Stop them lightly with 
n€w velvet corks, put them into the 
oven after the bread is drawn, and 
let them stand till they are shrunk 
one fourth. Take them out of the 
oven, fasten the corks in tight, cut 
oft' the tops, and rosin them down 
close. Set them in a dry place ; 
and if well secured from the air, 
they will keep the year round. Cur- 
rants and damsons may be preserved 
in the same way. 

Melt some hog's lard, add as much 
clivers or goosegrass as the lard will 
moisten, and boil them together over 
a slow fire. Keep the mixture stir- 
ring till it becomes a little brown, 
and then strain it through a cloth. 
When cold, take the ointment from 
the water, and put it up in galli- 

GOUT. Gouty patients are re- 
quired to abstain from all fermented 
and spirituous liquors, and to use 
wine very moderately ; carefully 
to avoid all fat, rancid, and salted 
provisions, and high seasoned dishes 
of every description. The constant 
use of barley bread is recommended, 
with large doses of powdered gin- 
ger boiled in milk for breakfast. 
Absorbent powders of two scruples 
of magnesia, and three or four grains 
each of rhubarb and purified kali, 
should be taken during the inter- 
vals of gouty fits, and repeated 
every other morning for several 
weeks. The feet should be kept 
warm, sinapisms frequently applied 
to them, and the part affected should 
be covered with fiannel. 

GOUT CORDIAL. Take four 
pounds of sun raisins sliced and 
stoned, two ounces of senna, one 
ounce of fennel seed, one of cori- 
ander, half an ounce of cochineal, 
half an ounce of saff'ron, half an 
ounce of stick liquorice, and half a 
pound of rhubarb ; infuse them all 
in two gallons of brandy, and let it 
stand for ten days. Stir it occa- 
sionally, then strain it off, and bottle 
it. Take a small wine-glass full, 
when the gout is in the head or 
stomach ; and if the pain be not 
removed, take two large spoonfuls 
more. — Or take six drams of opium, 
half an ounce of soap of tartar, half 
an ounce of castile soap, one dram 
of grated nutmeg, three drams of 
camphor, two scruples of saffron, 
and nine ounces of sweet spirit of 
sal-ammoniac. Put them all into a 
wine flask in a sand-heat for ten 
days, shaking it occasionally till the 
last day or two : then pour it off 
clear, and keep it stopped up close 
for use. Take thirty or forty drops 
in a glass of peppermint two hours 
after eating ; it may also be taken 
two or three times in the day or 
night if required. 

GRANARIES. These deposita- 
ries are very liable to be infested 
X 133 

G R A • 

G R A 

with weasels, and various kinds of 
insects. To prevent their depreda- 
tions, the floors of granaries should 
be laid with poplars of Lombardy. 

GRAPES. To preserve this va- 
luable fruit, prepare a cask or bar- 
rel, by carefully closing up its cre- 
vices to prevent access of the ex- 
ternal air. Place a layer of bran, 
which has been well dried in an 
oven ; upon this place a layer of 
bunches of grapes, well cleaned, 
and gathered in the afternoon of a 
dry day, before they are perfectly 
ripe. Proceed then with alternate 
layers of bran and grapes till the 
barrel is full, taking care that the 
bunches of grapes do not touch each 
other, and to let the last layer be of 
bran ; then close the barrel so that 
the air may not be able to penetrate. 
Grapes thus packed will keep for 
a twelvemonth. To restore their 
freshness, cut the end of each bunch, 
and put that of white grapes into 
white wine, and that of black grapes 
into red wine, as flowers are put in- 
to water to keep them fresh. It is 
customary in France to pack grapes 
for the London market in saw dust, 
but it must be carefully dried with 
a gentle heat, or the turpentine and 
other odours of the wood will not 
fail to injure the fruit. Oak saw 
dust will answer the purpose best. 

GRAPE WINE. To every gal- 
lon of ripe grapes put a gallon of 
soft water, bruise the grapes, let 
them stand a week without stirring, 
and draw the liquor oft' fine. To 
every gallon of liquor allow three 
pounds of lump sugar, put the whole 
into a vessel', but do not stop it till 
it has done hissing ; then stop it 
close, and in six months it will be 
fit for bottling. — A better wine, 
though smaller in quantity, will be 
made by leaving out the water, and 
diminishing the quantity of sugar. 
Water is necessary only where the 
juice is so scanty, or so thick, as in 
cjj^wslip, balm, or black currant wine, 
that it could Tiot be used without it. 

GRAVEL. The gout or rheuma- 
tism has a tendency to produce this 
disorder ; it is also promoted by the 
use of sour liquor, indigestible food, 
especially cheese, and by a sedenta- 
ry life. Perspiration should be as- 
sisted by gentle means, particularly 
by rubbing with a warm flannel ; 
the diet regulated by the strictest 
temperance, and moderate exercise 
is not to be neglected. For medi- 
cine, take the juice of a horseradish, 
made into a thin syrup by mixing it 
with sugar ; a spoonful or two to be 
taken every three or four hours. 

GRAVEL WALKS. To preserve 
garden walks from moss and weeds, 
water them frequently with brine, 
or salt and water, both in the spring 
and in autumn. Worms may be 
destroyed by an infusion of walnut- 
tree leaves, or by pouring into the 
holes a ley made of wood ashes and 
lime. If fruit trees are sprinkled 
with it, the ravages of insects will 
be greatly prevented. 

GRAVIES. A few general ob-. 
servations are necessary on the sub-*J 
ject of soups and gravies. When 
there is any fear of gravy meat being 
spoiled before it be wanted, it should 
be well seasoned, and lightly fried, 
in order to its keeping a day or two 
longer ; but the gravy is best when 
the juices are fresh. When soups 
or gr.avies are to be put by, let them 
be changed every day into fresh 
scalded pans. Whatever liquor has 
vegetables boiled in it, is apt to 
turn sour much sooner than the 
juices of meat, and gravy should 
never be kept in any kind of metal. 
When fat remains on any soup, a 
tea-cupful of flour and water mixed 
quite smooth, and boiled in, will 
take it ofi^. If richness or greater 
consistence be required, a good 
lump of butter mixed with flour, 
and boiled in the soup or gravy, will 
impart either of these qualities. 
Long boiling is necessary to obtain 
the full flavour ; and gravies and 
soups are best made the day before 



they are wanted. They are also 
much better when the meat is laid 
in the bottom of the pan, and stew- 
ed with herbs, roots, and butter, 
than when water is put to the meat 
at first; and the gravy that is drawn 
from the meat, should almost be 
dried up before the water is added. 
The sediment of gravies that have 
stood to be cold, should not be used 
in cooking. When onions are strong, 
boil a turnip with them, if for sauce ; 
and this will make them mild and 
pleasant. If soups or gravies are 
too weak, do not cover them in boil- 
ing, that the watery particles may 
evaporate. A clear jelly of cow 
heels is very useful to keep in the 
house, being a great improvement 
to soups and gravies. Truffles and 
morels thicken soups and sauces, 
and give them a fine flavour. The 
way is to wash half an ounce of 
each carefully, then simmer them 
a few minutes in water, and add 
them with the liquor to boil in the 
sauce till quite tender. As to the 
materials of which gravy is to be 
made, beef skirts will make as good 
as any other meat. Beef kidney, or 
milt, cut into small pieces, will an- 
swer the*purpose very well ; and so 
will the shank end of mutton that 
has been dressed, if much be want- 
ed. The shank bones of mutton, 
if well soaked and cleaned, are a 
great improvement to the richness 
of the gravy. Taragon gives the 
flavour of French cookery, and in 
high gravies it is a great improve- 
ment ; but it should be added only 
a short time before serving. To draw 
gravy that will keep for a week, cut 
some lean beef thin, put it into a 
fryingpan without any butter, cover 
it up, and set it on the fire, taking 
care that it does not burn. Keep 
it OH the fire till all the gravy that 
comes out of the meat is absorbed, 
then add as much water as will 
cover the meat, and keep it stewing. 
Put in some herbs, onions, spice, 
aad a piece of lean ham. Let it 

simmer till it is quite rich, and keej> 
it in a cool place ; but do not re- 
move the fat till the gravy is to be 

there is no meat to make gravy of, 
wash the feet of the fowl nicely, and 
cut them and the neck small. Sim- 
mer them with a little bread brown- 
ed, a slice of onion, a sprig of pars- 
ley and thyme, some salt and pep- 
per, and the liver and gizzard, in a 
quarter of a pint of water, till half 
wasted. Take out the liver, bruise 
it, and strain the liquor to it. Then 
thicken it with flour and butter, and 
a tea-spoonful of mushroom ketchup 
will make the gravy very good. 

Set on a saucepan with half a pint 
of veal gravy, adding half a dozeft 
leaves of basil, a small onion, and 
a roll of orange or lemon peel. Let 
it boil up for a few minutes, and 
strain it off". Put to the clear gravy 
the juice of a Seville orange, Haifa 
teaspoonful of salt, the same of pep- 
per, and a glass of red wine. Shalot 
and cayenne may be added. This 
is an excellent sauce for all kinds of 
wild water-fowl, and should be s«nt 
.up hot in a boat, as some persons 
like wild fowl very little done, and 
without any sauce. The common 
way of gashing the breast, and 
squeezing in a lemon, cools and har- 
dens the flesh, and compels every 
one to eat it that way, whether they 
approve of it or not. 

make mutton taste like venison, 
provide for it the following gravy. 
Pick a very stale woodcock or snipe, 
and cut it to pieces, after having 
removed the bag from the entrails. 
Simmer it in some meat gravy, with- 
out seasoning; then strain it, and 
serve it with the mutton. 

GRAVY SOUP. Wash and soak 
a leg of beef ; break the bone, and 
set it on the fire with a gallon of 
water, a large bunch of sweet herb*, 
two large onions sliced and fried 



to a fiue brown, but not burnt ; add 
two blades of mace, three cloves, 
twenty berries of allspice, and forty 
black peppers. Stew the soup till 
it is rich, and then take out the 
meat, which may be eaten at the 
kitchen table, with a little of the 
i^ravy. Next day take off the fat, 
.vhich will serve for basting, or for 
common pie crust. Slice some car- 
ilots, turnips, and celery, and sim- 
mer them till tender. If not ap- 
jroved, they can be taken out before 
the soup is sent to table, but the 
flavour will be a considerable ad- 
dition. Boil vermicelli a quarter 
of an hour,, and add to it a large 
spoonful of soy, and one of mush- 
room ketchup. A French roll 
should be made hot, then soaked in 
the soup, and served in the tureen. 

Put into a bason a glass of small 
beer, a glass of water, some pepper 
and salt, grated lemon peel, a bruised 
clove or two, and a spoonful of wal- 
nut pickle, or mushroom ketchup. 
Slice an onion, flour and fry it in a 
piece of butter till it is brown. Then 
turn all the above into a small tosser, 
with the onion, and simmer it cover- 
ed for twenty minutes. Strain it 
oflf for use, and when cold take oflf 
the fat. 

GRAYLINE. Having scaled and 
washed the fish, then dry them. 
Dust them over with flour, and lay 
them separately on a board before 
*he fire. Fry them of a fine colour 
with fresh dripping ; serve them 
with crimp parsley, and plain butter. 
Perch and tench may be done the 
same Way. 

ashes of burnt bones finely powder- 
ed, or calcined hartshorn, heated 
over the fire in a clean vessel, and 
laid on each side of the grease spot, 
if on books or paper, with a weight 
laid upon it to assist the effect, will 
completely remove it ; or the pow- 
der may be wrapped in thin muslin, 
and applied in the same manner. 

When prints get foul and dirty, they 
may readily be cleaned in the same 
manner as linen is bleached, by be- 
ing exposed to the sun and air, and 
frequently wetted with clean water. 
If this do not fully succeed, the print 
may be soaked in hot water ; and if 
pasted on canvas, it should first be 
taken off" by dipping it in boiling 
water, which will loosen it from the 
canvas. The dirt occasioned by 
flies, may be gently taken off" with 
a wet sponge, after the print has 
been well soaked. Spots of white- 
wash may be removed by spirit of 
sea salt diluted with water. — If 
grease spots appear in leather, a 
diflferent process must be pursued. 
A paste made of mealy potatoes, 
dry mustard, and spirits of turpen- 
tine, mixed together, and applied to 
the spot, will extract the grease 
from leather, if rubbed oflf after it 
has been allowed sufficient time to 
dry. A little vinegar may be ad- 
ded, to render the application more 

A fTjp p f I] n I 

GREEN FRUIT. Green peach- 
es, plums, or other fruit, should be 
put into a preserving pan of spring 
water, covered with vine leaves, and 
set over a clear fire. When they 
begin to simmer take them off", and 
take the fruit out carefully with a 
slice. Peel and preserve them as 
other fruit. 

GREEN GAGES. In order to 
preserve them for pies and tarts, 
choose the largest when they begin 
to soften. Split them without paring ; 
and having weighed an equal quan- 
tity of sugar, strew a part of it over 
the fruit. Blanch the kernels with 
a small sharp knife. Next day pour 
the syrup from the fruit, and boil 
it gently six or eight minutes with 
the other sugar ; skim it, and add 
the plums and kernels. Simmer it 
till clear, taking off* any scum that 
rises ; put the fruit singly into small 
pots, and pour the syrup and ker- 
nels to it. If the fruit is to be can- 
died, the syrup must not be added : 


a 111 


for the sake of variety, it may be 
proper to do some each way. 

two young green geese, of a gooci 
size ; but first take away every plug, 
and singe them nicely. Wash them 
clean, and season them well with 
salt, pepper, mace, and allspice. 
Put one Jnside the other, and press 
them quite close, drawing the legs 
inward. Put a good deal of butter 
over them, and bake them either 
with or without a crust : if the lat- 
ter, a cover to the dish must fit close 
to keep in the steam. 

GREEN PEAS. Peas should not 
be shelled till they are wanted, nor 
boiled in much water. Put them in 
when the water boils, with a little 
salt, and a lump of sugar. When 
they begin to dent in the middle, 
<hey are done enough. Strain them 
through a cullender, put a piece of 
butter in the dish, and stir them \i\\ 
it is melted. Garnish with boiled 

If it be wished to keep them for 
winter use, shell the peas, and put 
them into a kettle of water when it 
boils. Warm them well, without 
boiling, and pour them into a cul- 
lender. When the water drains off, 
turn them out on a dresser covered 
with a cloth, and put over another 
cloth to dry them perfectly. De- 
posit them in wide-mouth bottles, 
leaving only room to pour clarified 
mutton suet upon them an inch 
thick, and also for the cork. Rosin 
it down, and keep it in the cellar or 
in the earth, the same as other green 
fruit. When the peas are to be 
used, boil them tender, with a piece 
of butter, a spoonful of sugar, and 
a little mint. — Another way. Shell 
the peas, scald and dry them as 
above. Put them on tins or earthen 
dishes in a cool oven once or twice 
to harden, and keep them in paper 
bags hung up in the kitchen. When 
they are to be used, let them be an 
hour in water; then set them on 

with cold water, a piece of butter, 
and a sprig of dried mint, and boil 

ing the peas, divide the old from 
the young. Stew the old ones to a 
pulp, with an ounce of butter, a 
pint of water, a leaf or two of let- 
tuce, two onions, pepper and salt. 
Put to the liquor that stewed them 
some more water, the hearts and 
tender stalks of the lettuces, the 
young peas, a handful of spinach 
cut small, salt and pepper to relish, 
and boil them till quite soft. If the 
soup be too thin, or not rich enough, 
add an ounce or two of butter, mix- 
ed with a spoonful of rice or flour, 
and boil it half an hour longer. 
Before serving, boil in the soup 
some green mint shred fine. When 
the peas first come in, or are very 
young, the stock may ))e made of 
the shells washed and boiled, till 
they are capable of being pulped. 
More thickening; will then be wanted. 

into a stewpan a quart of peas, a 
lettuce and an onion both sliced, 
and no more water than hangs about 
the lettuce from washing. Add a 
piece of butter, a little pepper and 
salt, and stew them very gently for 
two hours. When to be served, 
beat up an egg, and stir it into them, 
or a bit of flour and butter. Chop 
a little mint, and stew in them. 
Gravy may be added, or a tea- 
spoonful of white powdered sugar ; 
but the flavouj- of the peas them- 
selves is much better. 

GREEN SAUCE. Mix a quar- 
ter of a pint of sorrel juice, a glass 
of white wine, and some scalded 
gooseberries. Add sugar, and a 
bit of butter, and boil them up, to 
serve with green geese or ducklings. 

GRIDIRON. The bars of a grid- 
iron should be made concave, and 
terminate in a trough to catch the 
gravy, and keep the fat from drop- 
ping into the fire and making a 
smoke, which will spoil the broiling. 



Upright gridirons are the best, as 
they can be used at any fire, with- 
out fear of smoke, and the gravy is 
preserved in the trough under them. 
The business. of the gridiron may 
be done by a Dutch oven, when oc- 
casion requires. 

GRIEF. In considering what is 
conducive to health or otherwise, it 
aS impossible to overlook this de- 
structive passion, which like envy 
is * the rottenness of the bones.' 
Anger and fear are more violent, 
but this is more fixed : it sinks deep 
into the mind, and often proves 
fatal. It may generally be con- 
quered at the beginning of any ca- 
lamity ; but when it has gained 
strength, all attempts to remove it 
are ineffectual. Life may be drag- 
ged out for a few years, but it is 
impossible that any one should en- 
joy health, whose mind is bowed 
down with grief and trouble. In 
this case some betake themselves 
to drinking, but here the remedy 
only aggravates the disease. The 
best relief, besides what the conso- 
lations of religion may afford, is to 
associate Avith the kind and cheer- 
ful, to shift the scene as much as 
possible, to keep up a succession 
of new ideas, apply to the study of 
some art or science, and to read and 
write on such subjects as deeply 
engage the attention. These will 
sooner expel grief than the most 
sprightly amusements, which only 
aggravate instead of relieving the 
anguish of a wounded heart. 

GRILL SAUCE. To half a pint 
of gravy add an ounce of fresh but- 
ter, and a table-spoonful of flour, 
previously well rubbed together ; 
the same of mushroom or walnut 
ketchup, two tea-spoonfuls of lemon 
juice, one of made mustard, ^one of 
caper, half a one of black pepper, 
a little lemon peel grated fine, a 
tea-spoonful of essence of ancho- 
vies, a very small piece of minced 
shalot, and a little chili vinegar, or 
a few grains of cayenne. Simmer 

them all together for a few minutes, 
pour a little of it over the grill, and 
send up the rest in a sance tureen. 

breast of mutton into diamonds, rub 
it over with egg, and strew on some 
crumbs of bread and chopped pars- 
ley. Broil it in a Dutch oven, baste 
it with butter, and pour caper sauce 
or gravy into the dish. 

one spoonful of ground rice, rub- 
bed down smooth, with three half 
pints of milk, a little cinnamon, le- 
mon peel, and nutmeg. Sweeten it 
when nearly done. 

Boil a large spoonful of ground rice 
in a pint of new milk, with lemon 
peei and cinnamon. When cold, 
add sugar, nutmeg, and two eggs 
well beaten. Bake it with a crust 
round the dish. A pudding of Rus- 
sian seed is made in the same man- 

GROUSE. Twist the head un- 
der the wing, and roast them like 
fowls, but they must not be over- 
done. Serve with a rich gravy in 
the dish, and bread sauce. The 
sauce recommended for wild fowl, 
may be used instead of gravy. 

GRUBS. Various kinds of grubs 
or maggots, hatched from beetles, 
are destructive of vegetation, and 
require to be exterminated. In 
a garden they may be taken and 
destroyed by cutting a turf, and lay- 
ing it near the plant which is at- 
tacked, with the grass side down- 
wards. But the most effectual way 
is to visit these depredators at mid- 
night, when they may be easily 
found and destroyed. 

GUDGEONS. These delicate 
fish are taken in running streams, 
where the water is clear. They 
come in about midsummer, and are 
to be had for five or six months. 
They require to be dressed much 
the same as smelts, being consi- 
dered as a species of fresh-water 



GUINEA FOWL. Pea and gui- 
nea fowl eat much like pheasants, 
and require to be dressed in the 
same way. 

GUINEA HENS. These birds 
lay a great number of eggs ; and if 
their nest can be discovered, it is 
best to put them under common 
hens, which are better nurses. They 
require great warmth, quiet, and 
careful feeding with rice swelled in 
milk, or bread soaked in it. Put 
two peppercorns down their throat 
when first hatched. 

GUNPOWDER. Reduce to pow- 
der separately, five drams of nitrate 
of potass, one dram of sulphur, and 
one of new-burnt charcoal. Mix 
them together in a mortar with a 
little water, so as to make the com- 
pound into a dough, which roll out 

into round pieces of the thickness 
of a pin, upon a slab. This must 
be done by moving a board back- 
wards and forwards until the dough 
.is of a proper siie. When three or 
four of these strings or pieces are 
ready, put them together, and with 
a knife cut the whole off in small 
grains. Place these grains on a 
sheet of paper in a warm place, 
and they will soon dry. During 
granulation, the dough must be pre- 
vented from sticking, by using a 
little of the dry compound powder. 
This mode of granulation, though 
tedious, is the only one to be used 
for so small a quantity, for the sake 
of experiment. In a large way, gun- 
powder is granulated by passing the 
composition through sieves. 


Haddocks. These fish may be 
had the greater part of the year, 
but are most in season during the 
first three months. In choosing, 
see that the flesh is firm, the eyes 
bright, and the gills fresh and red. 
Clean them well, dry them in a 
cloth, and rub them with vinegar to 
prevent the skin from breaking. 
Dredge them with flour, rub the 
gridiron with suet, and let it be hot 
when the fish is laid on. Turn them 
while broiling, and serve them up 
with melted butter, or shrimp sauce. 
HAIR. Frequent cutting of the 
hair is highly beneficial to the whole 
body; and if the head be daily 
washed with cold water, rubbed 
dry, and exposed to the air, it will 
be found an excellent preventive 
of periodical headachs. Pomatums 
and general perfumery are very in- 
jurious ; but a mixture of olive oil 
and spirits of rosemary, with a few 
drops of oij of nutmeg, may be used 
with safety. If a lead comb be 

sometimes passed through the hair, 
it will assume a darker colour, but 
for health it cannot be recommended. 

HAIR POWDER. To know whe- 
ther this article be adulterated with 
lime, as is too frequently the case, 
put a little of the powder of sal- 
ammoniac into it, and stir it up 
with warm wateV. If the hair pow- 
der has been adulterated with lime, 
a strong smell of alkali will arise 
from the mixture. 

HAIR WATER. To thicken the 
hair, and prevent its falling oflF, an 
excellent water may be prepared in 
the following manner. Put four 
pounds of pure honey into a still, 
with twelve handfuls of the tendrils 
of vines, and the same quantity of 
rosemary tops. Distil as cool and 
as slowly as possible, and the liquor 
may be allowed to drop till it begins ' 
to taste sour. 

HAMS. When a ham is to be 
dressed, put it into water all night, 
if it has hung long ; and let it lie 



either in a hole dug in the earth, or 
on damp stones sprinkled with wa- 
ter, two or three days, to mellow it. 
Wash it well, a d put it into a boiler 
with plenty of w'ater ; let it simmer 
four, five, or six hours, according 
to the size. When done enough, if 
before the time of serving, cover it 
with a clean cloth doubled, and keep 
the dish hot over some boiling wa- 
ter. Take off the skin, and rasp 
some bread over the ham. Preserve 
the skin as whole as possible, to 
cover the ham when cold, in order 
to prevent its drying. Garnish the 
dish with carrot when sent to table. 
If a dried ham is to be purchased, 
judge of its goodness by sticking a 
sharp knife under the bone. If it 
comes out*with a pleasant smell, 
the ham is good : but if the knife 
be daubed, and has a bad scent, do 
not buy it. Hams short in the hock 
are best, and long-legged pigs are 
not fit to be pickled. 

HAM SAUCE. When a ham is 
almost done with, pick all the meat 
clean from the bone, leaving out 
any rusty part. Beat the meat and 
the bone to a mash, put it into a 
saucepan with three spoonfuls of 
gravy, set it over a slow fire, and 
stir it all the time, or it will stick to 
the bottom. When it has been on 
some time, put to it a small bundle 
of sweet herbs, some pepper, and 
half a pint of beef gravy. Cover it 
up, and let it stew over a gentle fire. 
When it has a good flavour of the 
herbs, strain off" the gravy. A little 
of this sauce will be found an im- 
provement to all gravies. 

HANDS. When the hands or 
feet are severely aff*ected with the 
cold, they should not immediately 
be exposed to the fire, but restored 
to their usual tone and feeling, by 
immersing them in cold water, and 
afterwards applying warmth in the 
most careful and gradual manner. 
Persons subject to chopped hands 
in the winter time, should be care- 
ful to rub them quite dry after every 

washing ; and to prevent their be- 
M:g injured by the weather, rub 
them with a mixture of fresh lard, 
honey, and the yolks of eggs ; or a 
little goose fat will answer the pur- 

paste of flour and water, with a lit- 
tle salt, and roll it into balls. Dust 
them with flour, and boil them near- 
ly an hour. They are best boiled 
with a good piece of meat, and for 
variety, a few currants may be 

HARES. If hung up in a dry 
cool place, they will keep a great 
time ; and when imagined to be past 
eating, they are often in the highest 
perfection. They are never good 
if eaten when fresh killed. A hare 
will keep longer and eat better, if 
not opened for four or five days, or 
according to the state of the wea- 
ther. If paunched when it comes 
from the field, it should be wiped 
quite dry, the heart and liver taken 
out, and the liver scalded to keep 
for stufling. Repeat this wiping 
every day, rub a mixture of pepper 
and ginger on the inside, and put a 
large piece of charcoal into it. If 
the spice be applied early, it will 
prevent that musty taste which long 
keeping in the damp occasions, and 
which also aff"ects the stuflfing. If 
an old hare is to be roasted, it should 
be kept as long as possible, and 
well soaked. This may be judged 
of, in the following manner. If the 
claws are blunt and rugged, the ears 
dry and tofigh, and the haunch 
thick, it is old. But if the claws 
are smooth and sharp, the ears easi- 
ly tear, and the cleft in the lip is 
not much spread, it is young. If 
fresh and newly killed, the body 
will be stiff', and the flesh pale. To 
know a real leveret, it is necessary 
to look for a knob or small boncnear 
the foot on its fore leg : if there be 
none, it is a hare. 

HARE PIE. Cut up the hare, 
and season it ; bake it with eggs 



and forcemeat, in a dish or raised 
crust. When cold take off the lid, 
and cover the meat with Savoury 
Jelly : see the article. 

HARE SAUCE. This usually 
consists of currant jelly warmed up; 
or it may be made of half a pint of 
port, and a quarter of a pound of 
sugar, simmered together over a 
clear fire for about five minutes. It 
may also be made of half a pint of 
vinegar, and a quarter of a pound 
of sugar, reduced to a syrup. 

HARE SOUP. Take an old hare 
unfit for other purposes, cut it 
into pieces, and put it into a jar ; 
add a pound and a half of lean beef, 
two or three shank bones of mutton 
well cleaned, a slice of lean bacon 
or ham, an onion, and a bunch of 
sweet herbs. Pour on two quarts 
of boiling water, cover the jar close 
with bladder and paper, and set it 
in a kettle of water. Simmer till 
the hare is stewed to pieces, strain 
off the liquor, boil it up once, with 
a choppe'd anchovy, and add a 
spoonful of soy, a little cayenne, 
and salt. A few fine forcemeat balls, 
fried of a good brown, should be 
served in the tureen. 

move some of the fat, and cut the 
middle or best end of the neck into 
rather thin steaks. Flour and fry 
them in their own fat, of a fine light 
brown, but not enough for eating. 
Then put them into a dish while 
you fry the carrots, turnips, and 
onions ; the carrots and turnips in 
dice, the onions sliced... They must 
only be warmed, and not browned. 
Then lay the steaks at the bottom 
of a stewpan, the vegetables over 
them, and pour on as much boiling 
water as will just cover them. Give 
them one boil, skim them well, and 
then set the pan on the side of the 
fire to simmer gently till all is ten- 
der. In three or four hours skim 
them ; add pepper and salt, and a 
spoonful of ketchup. 

best end of a small neck, cut the 
bones short, but leave it whole. 
Then put it into a stewpan, just 
covered with brown gravy ; and 
when it is nearly done, have ready 
a pint of boiled peas, six cucumbers 
pared and sliced, and two cabbage- 
lettuces cut into quarters, all stewed 
in a little good broth. Add them 
to the veal, and let them simmer ten 
minutes. When the veal is in the 
dish, pour the sauce and vegetables 
over it, and lay the lettuce with 
forcemeat balls round it. 

eight ounces of hartshorn shavings 
with two quarts of water, till re- 
duced to one. Strain and boil it 
with the rinds of four China oranges, 
and two lemons pared thin. When 
cool, add the juice of both, half a 
pound of sugar, and the whites of 
six eggs beaten to a froth. Let the 
jelly have three or four boils with- 
out stirring, and strain it through a 
jelly bag. 

HASHED BEEF. Put into a 
stewpan, a pint and a half of broth 
or water, a large table-spoonful of 
mushroom ketchup, with the gravy 
saved from the beef. Add a quar- 
ter of an ounce of onion sliced very 
fine, and boil it about ten minutes. 
Put a large table-spoonful of flour 
into a basin, just wet it with a little 
water, mix it well together, then 
stir it into the broth, and boil it five 
or ten minutes. Rub it through a 
sieve, return it to the stewpan, put 
in the hash, and let it stand by the 
side of the fire till the meat is warm. 
A tea-spoonful of parsley chopped 
very fine, and put in five minutes 
before it is served up, will be an 
agreeable addition ; or to give a 
higher relish, a glass of port wine, 
and a spoonful of currant jelly. 
Hashes and meats dressed a second 
time, should only simmer gently, till 
just warmed through. 

HASHED DUCK. Cut a cold 

Y 161 



duck into Joints, and warm it in 
gravy, without boiling, and add a 
glass of port wine. 

HASHED HARE. Season the 
legs and wings first, and then broil 
them, which will greatly improve 
the flavour. Rub them with cold 
butter and serve them quite hot. 
The other parts, warmed with gravy, 
and a little stuffing, may be served 

slices of dressed mutton, fat and 
lean, and flour them. Have ready 
a little onion boiled in two or three 
spoonfuls of water ; add to it a little 
gravy, season the meat, and make it 
hot, but not to boil. Serve up the 
hash in a covered dish. Instead of 
onion, a clove, a spoonful of cur- 
rant jelly, and half a glass of port 
wine, will give an agreeable venison 
flavour, if the meat be fine. For a 
change, the hash miy be warmed up 
with pickled cucumber or walnut 
cut small. 

with its own gravy, or some of it 
without seasoning ; but it should 
only be warmed tlirough, and not 
boiled. If no fat be left, cut some 
slices of mutton fat, set it on the fire 
with a little port wine and sugar, 
and simmer it dry. Then put it to 
the hash, and it will eat as well as 
the fat of venison. ''• 

up six eggs, pour them into a sauce- 
pan, hold it over the fire till they 
begin to thicken, and keep stirring 
from the bottom all the time. Then 
add a piece of butter the size of a 
walnut, stir it about till the eggs 
and water are thoroughly mixed, 
and the eggs quite dry. Put it on 
a plate, and serve it hot. 

butter in a saucepan, put in half a 
pint of good ale, and stir a little 
flour into it by degrees. Add a few 
currants, or chopped apples ; beat 
them up quick, and drop a large 
spoonfal at a time into the pan, till 

the bottom is nearly covered. Keep 
them separate, turn them with a 
slice ; and when of a fine brown, 
serve them up hot, with grated su- 
gar over them. 

milk over a clear fire, and take it 
off". Keep putting in flour with one 
hand, and stirring it with the other, 
till it becomes quite thick. Boil it 
a few minutes, pour it into a dish, 
and garnish with pieces of butter. 
To make a better pudding, beat up 
an e^^ and flour into a stifle paste, 
and mince it fine. Put the mince 
into a quart of boiling milk, with a 
little butter and salt, cinnamon and 
sugar, and stir them carefully toge- 
ther. When sufficiently thickened, 
pour it into a dish, and stick bits 
of butter on the top. Or shred 
some suet, add grated bread, a few 
currants, the yolks of four eggs and 
the whites of two, with some grated 
lemon peel and ginger. Mix the 
whole together, and make it into 
balls the size and shape of an egg, 
with a little flour. Throw them in- 
to a skillet of boiling water, and 
boil them twenty minutes ; but when 
sufficiently done, they will rise to 
the top. Serve with cold butter, or 
pudding sauce. 

HATS. Gentlemen's hats are 
often damaged by a shower of rain, 
which takes off* the gloss, and leaves 
them spotted. To prevent this, 
shake out the wet as much as pos- 
sible, wipe the hat carefully with a 
clean handkerchief, observing to 
lay the beaver smooth. Then fix 
the hat in its original shape, and 
hang it to dry at a distance from 
the fire. Next morning, brush it 
several times with a soft brush in 
the proper direction, and the hat 
will have sustained but little injury. 
A flat iron moderately heated, and 
passed two or three times gently 
over the hat, will raise the gloss, 
and give the hat its former good ap- 




it as long as it can be preserved 
sweet, and wash it with warm milk 
and water, or vinegar if necessary. 
When to be dressed especially, ob- 
serve to wash it well, lest the out- 
side should contract a bad flavour 
from keeping. Lay a paste of coarse 
flour on strong paper, and fold the 
haunch in it ; set it a great distance 
from the firt, and allow propor- 
tionate time for the paste. Do not 
remove it till nearly forty minutes 
before serving, and then baste it 
continually. Bring the haunch nearer 
the fire before the paste is taken oflf, 
and froth it up the same as venison. 
A gravy must be made of a pound 
and a half of a loin of old mutton, 
simmered in a pint of water to half 
the quantity, and no seasoning but 
salt. Brown it with a little burnt 
sugar, and send it up in the dish. 
Care should be taken to retain a 
good deal of gravy in the meat, for 
though long at the fire, the distance 
and covering will prevent its roast- 
ing out. Serve with currant-jelly 

be the haunch of a buck, it will 
take full three hours and a half 
roasting ; if a «doe, about half an 
hour less. Veaison should be ra- 
ther under than overdone. Sprinkle 
some salt on a sheet of white paper, 
spread it over with butter, and co- 
ver the fat with it. Then lay a 
coarse paste on strong white paper, 
and cover the haunch ; tie it with 
fine packthread, and set it at a dis- 
tance from a good fire. Baste it 
often : ten minutes before serving 
take ofi^ the paste, draw the meat 
nearer the fire, and baste it with 
butter and a good deal of flour, to 
make it froth up well. Gravy for 
it should be put into a boat, and 
not into the dish, unless there is 
none in the venison. To make the 
gravy, cut oft' the fat from two or 
three pounds of a loin of old mut- 
ton, and set it in steaks on a grid- 
iron for a few minutes just to brown 

one side. Put them into a sauce- 
pan with a quart of water, keep it 
closely covered for an hour, and 
simmer it gently. Then uncover it, 
stew it till the gravy is reduced to 
a pint, and season it with salt only. 
Currant-jelly sauce must be served 
in a boat. Beat up the jelly with 
a spoonful or two of port wine, and 
melt it over the fire. Where jelly 
runs short, a little more wine must 
be added, and a few lumps of Sugar. 
Serve with French beans. If the 
old bread sauce be still preferred, 
grate some white bread, and boil it 
with port wine and water, and a 
large stick of cinnamon. When 
quite smooth, take out the cinna- 
mon, and add some sugar. 

HAY STACKS. In making stacks 
of new hay, care should be taken to 
prevent its heating and taking fire, 
by forming a tunnel completely 
through the centre. This may be 
done by stufling a sack full of straw, 
and tying up the mouth with a cord ; 
then make the rick round the sack, 
drawing it up as the rick advances, 
and taking it out when finished. 

HEAD ACHE. This disorder ge- 
nerally arises from some internal 
cause, and is the symptom of a dis- 
ease which requires first to be at- 
tended to ; but where it is a local 
affection only, it may be relieved 
by bathing the part aff'ected with 
spirits of hartshorn, or applying a 
poultice of elder flowers. In some 
cases the most obstinate pain is re- 
moved by the use of vervain, both 
internally in the form of a decoc- 
tion, and also by suspending the 
herb round the neck. Persons af- 
flicted with headache should beware 
of costiveness : their drink should 
be diluting, and their feet and legs 
kept warm. It is very obvious, that 
as many disorders arise from taking 
cold in the head, children should be 
inured to a light and loose covering 
in their infancy, by which means 
violent headaches might be prevent- 
ed in mature age : and the maxim 



of keeping the feet warm and the 
head cool, should be strictly attend- 
ed to. 

of lamb or mutton, wash the head 
clean, take the black part from the 
eyes, and the gall from the liver. 
Lay the head in warm water; boil 
the lights, heart, and part of the 
liver ; chop them small, and add a 
little flour. Put it into a saucepan 
with some gravy, or a little of the 
liquor it was boiled in, a spoonful 
of ketchup, a small quantity of le- 
mon juice, cream, pepper, and salt. 
Boil the head very white and tender, 
lay it in the middle of the dish, and 
the mince meat round it. Fry the 
other part of the liver with some 
small bits of bacon, lay them on the 
mince meat, boil the brains the same 
as for a calf's head, beat up an e^g 
and mix with them, fry them in 
small cakes, and lay them on the 
rim of the dish. Garnish with le- 
mon and parsley. 

HEART BURN. Persons sub- 
ject to this disorder, ought to drink 
no stale liquors, and to abstain from 
flatulent food. Take an infusion of 
bark, or any other stomachic bitter ; 
or a tea-spoonful of the powder of 
gum arabic dissolved in a little wa- 
ter, or chew a few sweet almonds 
blanched. An infusion of anise 
seeds, or ginger, have sometimes 
produced the desired eff'ect. 

HEDGE HOG. Make a cake of 
any description, and bake it in a 
mould the shape of a hedge hog. 
Turn it out of the mould, and let it 
stand a day or two. Prick it with 
a fork, and let it remain all night in 
a dish full of sweet wine. Slit some 
blanched almonds, and stick about 
it, and pour boiled custard in the 
dish round it. 

HERB PIE. Pick two handfub 
of parsley from the stems, half the 
quantity of spinach, two lettuces, 
some mustard and cresses, a few 
leaves of borage, and white beet 
leaves. Wash and boil them a lit- 

tie, drain and press out the water, 
cut them small ; mix a batter of 
flour, two eggs well beaten, a pint 
of cream, and half a pint of milk, 
and pour it on the herbs. Cover 
with a good crust, and bake it. 

HERB TEA. If betony be ga- 
thered and dried before it begins to 
flower, it will be found to have the 
taste of tea, and all its good quali- 
ties, without any of its bad ones : it 
is also considered as a remedy for 
the headache. Hawthorn leaves 
dried, and one third of balm and 
sage, mixed together, will make a 
wholesome and strengthening drink. 
An infusion of ground ivy, mixed 
with a few flowers of lavender, and 
flavoured with a drop of lemon 
juice, will make an agreeable sub- 
stitute for common tea. Various 
other vegetables might also be em- 
ployed for this purpose ; such as 
sage, balm, peppermint, and similar 
spicy plants ; the flowers of the 
sweet wood roof, those of the bur- 
net, or pimpernel rose ; the leaves 
of peach and almond trees, the 
young and tender leaves of bilberry, 
and common raspberry ; and the 
blossoms of the blackthorn, or sloe 
tree. Most of these when carefully 
gathered and dried in the shade, 
especially if they be managed like 
Indian tea-leaves, bear a great re- 
semblance to the foreign teas, and 
are at the same time of superior fla- 
vour and salubrity. 

any sort of sweet herbs, with three 
times the quantity of parsley, aud 
dry them in the air, without ex- 
posing them to the sun. When quite 
dry, rub them through a hair sieve, 
put them in canisters or bottles, and 
keep them in a dry place : they will 
be useful for seasoning in the win- 
ter. Mint, sage, thyme, and such 
kind of herbs, may be tied in small 
bimches, and dried in the air : then 
put each sort separately into a bag, 
and hang it up in the kitchen. Pars- 
ley should be picked from the stalkg 



as soon as gathered, and dried in 
the shade to preserve the colour. 
Cowslips and marigolds should be 
gathered dry, picked clean, dried 
in a cloth, and kept in paper bags. 

HESSIAN SOUP. Clean the 
root of a neat's tongue very nicely, 
and half an ox's head, with salt and 
water, and soak them afterwards in 
water only. Then stew them in five 
or six quarts of water, till tolerably 
tender. Let the soup stand to be 
cold, take off the fat, which will do 
for basting, or to make good paste 
for hot meat pies. Put to the soup 
a pint of split peas, or a quart of 
whole ones, twelve carrots, six tur- 
nips, six potatoes, six large onions, 
a bunch of sweet herbs, and two 
heads of celery. Sirtihier them with- 
out the meat, till the vegetables are 
done enough to pulp with the peas 
through a sieve ; and the soup will 
then be about the thickness of cream. 
Season it with pepper, salt, mace, 
allspice, a clove or two, and a little 
cayenne, all in fine powder. If the 
peas are bad, and the soup not thick 
enough, boil in it a slice of roll, and 
pass it through the cullender ; or 
add a little rice flour, mixing it by 
degrees. — To make a ragout with the 
above, cut the nicest part of the 
head, the kernels, and part of the 
fat from the root of the tongue, into 
small thick pieces. Rub these with 
some of the above seasoning, put- 
ting them into a quart of the liquor 
reserved for that purpose before the 
vegetables were added ; floUr them 
well, and simmer till they are nicely 
tender. Then add a little mush- 
room and walnut ketchup, a little 
soy, a glass of port wine, and a tea- 
spoonful of made mustard, and boil 
all up together. Serve with small 
eggs and forcemeat balls. This 
furnishes an excellent soup and a 
ragout at a small expense. 

HICCOUGH. A few small 
draughts of water in quick succes- 
sion, or a tea-spoonful of vinegar, 
will often afford immediate relief. 

Peppermint water mixed with a few 
drops of vitriolic acid may be taken ; 
and sometimes sneezing, or tbe 
stench of an extinguished tallow 
candle, has been found siitticient 

Boil the leg in a floured cloth an 
hour and a quarter; cut the loin 
into chops, fry them, lay them round 
the leg, with a bit of parsley on 
each, and serve it up with spinach 
or brocoli. 

dress this joint lamb fashion, take 
oflfthe skin, roast it, and serve it up 
with mint sauce. A leg <;f lamb 
stufl'ed like a leg of pork, and roast- 
ed, with drawn gravy, is very good. 
A loin of mutton also, stufted like a 
hare, and basted with milk. Put 
gravy in the dish, served with cur- 
rant jelly, or any other sauce. 

HIVING OF BEES. When it is 
intended to introduce a swarm of 
bees into a new hive, it must be tho- 
roughly cleaned, and the inside 
rubbed with virgin wax. A piece 
of nice honeycomb, made of very 
white wax, and about nine inches 
long, should be hung on the cross 
bars near the top of the hive, to form 
a kind of nest for the bees, and ex- 
cite them to continue their work. 
The new hive being thus prepared, 
is then to be placed under an old 
one, before the bees begin to swarm, 
in such a manner as to be quite close, 
and to leave the bees no passage ex- 
cept into the new hive. As these 
insects generally work downwards, 
they will soon get into their new 
habitation; and when it is occu- 
pied by one half of the swarm, some 
holes must be made in the top of 
the old hive, and kept covered till 
the proper time of making use t>f Mjjt 
them. Preparation being thus made, ^ 
take the opportunity of a fine morn- 
ing, about eight or nine o'clock, at 
which time most of the bees are out, 
gathering their harvest. The comb 
is to be cut through by means of a 
piece of iron wire, and the old hive 



separated from the new one. An 
assistant must immediately place 
the cover, which should be previ- 
ously fitted, upon the top of the 
new one. The old hive is then to 
be taken to the distance of twenty 
or thirty yards, and placed firm 
upon a bench or table, but so as to 
leave a free space both above and 
below. The holes at the top being 
opened, one of the new boxes is to 
be placed on the top of the old hive, 
having the cover loosely fastened 
on it ; and is to be done in such a 
manner, by closing the intervals be- 
tween them with linen cloths, that 
the bees on going out by the holes 
on the top of the old hive can only 
go into the new one. But in order 
to drive the bees into the new hive, 
some live coals must be placed un- 
der the old one, upon which some 
linen may be thrown, to produce a 
volume of smoke ; and the bees feel- 
ing the annoyance, will ascend to 
the top of the old hive, and at length 
will go through the holes into the 
new one. When they have nearly 
all entered, it is to be removed 
gently from the old hive, and placed 
under the box already mentioned, 
the top or cover having been taken 
off. If it should appear the next 
morning that the two boxes, of 
which the new hive is now com- 
posed, do not afford sufliicient room 
for the bees, a third or fourth box 
may be added, under the others, as 
their work goes on, changing them 
from time to time so long as the sea- 
son permits the bees to gather wax 
and honey. When a new swarm is 
to be hived, the boxes prepared as 
above and proportioned to the size 
of the swarm, are to be brought 
near the place where the bees have 
settled. The upper box with the 
cover upon it, must be taken from 
the others. The cross bars at the 
top should be smeared >yith honey 
and water, the doors must be closed, 
the box turned upside down, and 
held under the swarm, which is then 

to be shaken into it as into a com- 
mon hive. When the whole swarm 
is in the box, it is to be carried to 
the other boxes, previously placed 
in their destined situation, and care- 
fully put upon them. The inter- 
stices are to be closed with cement, 
and all the little doors closed, ex- 
cept the lowest, through which the 
bees are to pass. The hive should 
be shaded from the sun for a few 
days, that the bees may not be 
tempted to leave their new habita- 
tion. It is more advantageous how- 
ever to form artificial swarms, than 
to collect those which abandon their 
native hives ; and the hive here re- 
commended is more particularly 
adapted to that purpose. By this 
mode of treatment, we not only 
avoid the inconveniences which at- 
tend the procuring of swarms in the 
common way, but obtain the ad- 
vantage of having the hives always 
well stocked, which is of greater 
consequence than merely to increase 
their number ; for it has been ob- 
served, that if a hive of four thou- 
sand bees give six pounds of honey> 
one of eight thousand will give twen- 
ty-four pounds. On this principle 
it is proper to unite two or more 
hives, when they happen to be thick- 
ly stocked. This may be done by 
scattering a few handfuls of bahn 
in those hives which are to be united, 
which by giving them the same 
smell, they will be unable to distin- 
guish one another. After this pre- 
paration, the hives are to be joined 
by placing them one upon the other, 
in the evening when they are at rest, 
and taking away those boxes which 
arc nearly empty. All the little doors 
must be closed, except the lowest. 

If bees are kept in single straw 

hives in the usual way, the manner 
of hiving them is somewhat different. 
They are first allowed to swarm, and 
having settled, they are then taken 
to the hive. If they fix on the lower 
branch of a tree, it may be cut off 
and laid on a cloth, and the hive 



placed over it, so as to leave room 
for the bees to ascend into it. If 
the queen can be found, and put 
into the hive, the rest will soon fol- 
low. But if it be difficult to reach 
them, let them remain where they 
have settled till the evening, when 
there will be less danger of escaping. 
After this the hive is to be placed 
in the apiary, cemented round the 
bottom, and covered from the wet 
at top. The usual method of uniting 
swarms, is by spreading a cloth at 
night upon the ground close to the 
hive, in which the hive with the new 
swarm is to be placed. By giving 
a smart stroke on the top of the 
hive, all the bees will drop into a 
cluster upon the cloth. Then take 
another hive from the beehouse, 
and place it over the bees, when 
they will ascend into it, and mix 
with those already there. Another 
Way is to invert the hive in which 
the united swarms are to live, and 
strike the bees of the other hive in- 
to it as before. One of the queens 
is generally slain on this occasion, 
together with a considerable num- 
ber of the working bees. To prevent 
this destruction, one of the queens 
should be sought for and taken, 
when the bees are beaten out of the 
hive upon the cloth, before the union 
is effected. Bees never swarm till 
the hive is too much crowded by 
the young brood, which happens in 
May or June,according to the warmth 
of the season. A good swarm should 
weigh five or six pounds ; those that 
are under four pounds weight, 
should be strengthened by a small 
additional swarm. The size of the 
hive ought to be proportionate to 
the number of the bees, and should 
be rather too small than too large, 
as they require to be kept dry and 
warm in winter. In performing these 
several operations, it will be neces- 
sary to defend the hands and face 
from the sting of the bees. The 
best way of doing this is to cover 
the whole head and neck with a 

coarse cloth or canvas, which may 
be brought down and fastened round 
the waist. Through this cloth the 
motion of the bees may be observed, 
without fearing their stings; and 
the hands may be protected by a 
thick pair of gloves. 

HODGE PODGE. Boil some 
slices of coarse beef in three quarts 
of water, and one of small beer. 
Skim it well, put in onions, carrots, 
turnips, celery, pepper and salt. 
When the meat is tender, take it out, 
strain off the soup, put a little but- 
ter and flour into the saucepan, and 
stir it well, to prevent burning. Take 
off the fat, put the soup into a stew- 
pan, and stew the beef in it till it is 
quite tender. Serve up the soup 
with turnips and carrots, spinage 
or celery. A leg of beef cut in 
pieces, and stewed five or six hours, 
will make good soup ; and any kind 
of roots or spices may be added or 
omitted at pleasure. Or stew some 
peas, lettuce, and onions, in a very 
little water, with a bone of beef or 
ham. While these are doing, sea- 
son some mutton or lamb steaks, 
and fry them of a nice brown. Three 
quarters of an hour before serving, 
put the steaks into a stewpan, and 
the vegetables over them. Stew 
them, and serve all together in a 
tureen. Another way of making 
a good hodge podge, is to stew a 
knuckle of veal and a scrag of mut- 
ton, with some vegetables, adding 
a bit of butter rolled in flour. 

HOG'S CHEEKS. If to be dried 
as usual, cut out the snout, remove 
the brains, and split the head, tak- 
ing off the upper bone to make the 
chawl a good shape. Rub it well 
with salt, and next day take away 
the brine. On the following day 
cover the head with half an ounce 
of saltpetre, two ounces of bay salt, 
a little common salt, and four ounces 
ot coarse sugar. Let the head be 
often turned, and after ten days 
smoke it for a week like bacon. 




two pair of ears, Ojf take some that 
have been soused. Make a force- 
i§£Sit of an anchovy, some sage and 
parsley, a quarter of a pound of 
chopped suet, bread crumbs, and 
only a little salt. Mix all these 
with the yolks of two eggs, raise 
the skin of the upper side of the 
ears, and stuff them with the mix- 
ture. Fry the ears in fresh butter, 
of a fine colour ; then pour away 
the fat, and drain them. Prepare 
half a pint of rich gravy, with a 
glass of fine sherry, three tea-spoon- 
fuls of made mustard, a little butter 
gfltd flour, a small onion whole, and 
a little pepper or cayenne. Put 
this with the ears into a stewpan, 
and cover it close ; stew it gently 
for half an hour, shaking the pan 
often. When done enough, take out 
the onion, place the ears carefully 
in a dish, and pour the sauce over 
them. If a larger dish is wanted, 
the meat from two feet may be added 
to the above. 

HOG'S HEAD. To make some 
excellent meat of a hog's head, split 
it, take out the brains, cut off the 
ears, and sprinkle it with salt for 
^ day. Then drain it, salt it again 
with common salt and saltpetre for 
three days, and afterwards lay the 
whole in a small quantity of water 
for two days. Wash it, and boil it 
till all the bones will come out. 
Skin the tongue, and take the skin 
carefully off the head, to put under 
and over. Chop the head as quick 
as possible, season it with pepper 
and salt, and a little mace or all- 
spice berries. Put the skin into a 
small pan, with the chopped head 
between, and press it down. When 
cold it will turn out, and make a 
kind of brawn. If too fat, a few 
bits of lean pork may be prepared 
in the same way, and added to it. 
Add salt and vinegar, and boil these 
with some of the liquor for a pickle 
to keep it. 

HOG'S LARD. This should be 
carefully melted in a jar placed in 

a kettle of water, and boiled with a 
sprig of rosemary. After it has 
been prepared, run it into bladders 
that have been extremely well clean- 
ed. The smaller they are, the bet- 
ter the lard will keep : if the air 
reaches it, it becomes rank. Lard 
being a most useful article for fry- 
ing fish, it should be prepared with 
care. Mixed with butter, it makes 
fine crust. 

pound and a quarter of butter with 
three pounds and a half of flour, 
adding a pint of warm water. Cut 
out the paste with a wine glass, or 
a small tin, and set them in a brisk 
oven, after the white bread is drawn, 

HONES. For joining them to- 
gether, or cementing them to their 
frames, melt a little common glue 
without water, with half its weight 
of rosin, and a small quantity of red 

HONEY. The honey produced 
by young bees, and which flows 
spontaneously, is purer than that 
expressed from the comb ; and hence 
it is called virgin honey. The best 
sort is of a thick consistence, and 
of a whitish colour, inclining to yel- 
low : it possesses an agreeable smell, 
and a pleasant taste. When the 
combs are removed from the hive, 
they are taken by the hand into a 
sieve, and left to drain into a ves- 
sel sufficiently wide for the purpose. 
After it has stood a proper time to 
settle, the pure honey is poured in- 
to earthen jars, tied down close to 
exclude the air. 

ney is extracted from the combs, by 
means of pressure, take the whole 
mass, break and separate it, and in- 
to each tub or vessel put one part 
of combs, and two of water. Set 
them in the sun, or in a warm place, 
and cover them with cloths. Fer- 
mentation takes place in a few days, 
and continues from eight to twelve 
days, according to the temperature 
of the situati( n in which the opera- 



fion is carried on. During the fer- 
mentation, stir the matter from time 
to time, and press it down with the 
hand, that it may be perfectly soak- 
ed. When the fermentation is over, 
put the matter to drain on sieves or 
strainers. At the bottom of the 
vessels will be found a yellow liquor, 
which must be thrown away, be- 
cause it would soon contract a dis- 
agreeable smell, which it would 
communicate to the vinegar. Then 
wash the tubs, put into them the 
water separated from the other mat- 
ter, and it will immediately begin 
to turn sour. The tubs must then 
be covered again with cloths, and 
kept moderately warm. A pellicle 
or skin is formed on the surface, be- 
neath which the vinegar acquires 
strength. In a month's time it be- 
gins to be sharp, but must be suf- 
fered to stand a little longer, and 
then put into a cask, of which the 
bunghole is to be left open. It may 
then be used like any other vinegar. 
All kinds of vinegar may be strength- 
ened by suffering it to be repeatedly 
frozen, and then separating the up- 
per cake of ice or water from it. 

order generally attacks children, to 
whom it often proves fatal for want 
of proper management. Those who 
breathe an impure air, live upon 
poor sustenance, drink much warm 
tea, and do not take sufficient ex- 
ercise, are most subject to this con- 
vulsive cough. In the beginning of 
the disorder, the child should be 
removed to a change of air, and the 
juice of onions or horseradish ap- 
plied to the soles of the feet. The 
diet light and nourishing, and taken 
in small quantities ; the drink must 
be lukewarm, consisting chiefly of 
toast and water, mixed with a little 
white wine. If the cough be at- 
tended with feverish symptoms, a 
gentle emetic must be taken, of ca- 
momile flowers, and afterwards the 
foir^wiuig liniment applied to the pit 
(No. 8.) 

of the stomach. Dissolve one scruple 
of tartar emetic in two ounces of 
spring water, and add half an ounce 
of the tincture of cantharides : rub 
a tea-spoonful of it every hour on 
the lower region of the stomach 
with a warm piece of flannel, and 
let the wetted part be kept warm 
with flannel. This will be found to 
be the best remedy for the hooping 

HOPS. The quality of this arti- 
cle is generally determined by the 
price ; yet hops may be strong, and 
not good. They should be bright, 
of a pleasant flavour, and have no 
foreign leaves or bits of branches 
among them. The hop is the husk 
or seed pod of the hop vine, as the 
cone is that of the fir tree ; and the 
seeds themselves are deposited, like 
those of the fir, round a little soft 
stalk, enveloped by the several folds 
of this pod or cone. If in the ga- 
thering, leaves or tendrils of the 
vine are mixed with the hops, they 
may help to increase the weight, 
but will give a bad taste to the beer ; 
and if they abound, they will spoil 
it. Great attention therefore must 
be paid to see that they are free 
from any foreign mixture. There are 
also numerous sorts of hops, varying 
in size, in form, and quality. Those 
that are best for brewing are gene- 
rally known by the absence of a 
brown colour, which indicates pe- 
rished hops ; a colour between green 
and yellow, a great quantity of the 
yellow farina, seeds not too large 
or hard, a clamminess when rubbed 
between the fingers, and a lively 
pleasant smell, are the general indi- 
cations of good hops. At almost 
any age they retain the power of 
preserving beer, but not of impart- 
ing a pleasant flavour ; and there- 
fore new hops are to be preferred. 
Supposing them to be of a good qua- 
lity, a pound of hops may be allow- 
ed to a bushel of malt, when the 
beer is strong, or brewed in warm 

z 169 


H O T 

weather ; but under other circum- 
stances, half the quantity will be 

HOP-TOP SOUP. Take a quan- 
tity of hop-tops when they are in 
the greatest perfection, tie them in 
small bunches, soak them in water, 
and put them to some thin peas- 
soup. Boil them up, add three 
spoonfuls of onion juice, with salt 
and pepper. When done enough, 
serve them up in a tureen, with sip- 
pets of toasted bread at the bottom. 

November or December, slice some 
horseradish the thickness of a shil- 
ling, and lay it to dry very gradually 
in a Dutch oven, for a strong heat 
would very soon evaporate its fla- 
vour. When quite dry, pound it 
fine, and bottle it. 

Pour a quart of the best vinegar on 
three ounces of scraped horseradish, 
an ounce of minced shalot, and a 
dram of cayenne. Let it stand a 
week, and it will give an excellent 
relish to cold beef, or other articles. 
A little black pepper and mustard, 
celery or cress seed, may be added 
to the above. 

HOUSE DRAINS. The smell of 
house drains is oftentimes exceed- 
ingly offensive, but may be com- 
pletely prevented by pouring down 
them a mixture of lime water, and 
the ley of wood ashes, or suds that 
have been used in washing. An 
article known by the name of a sink 
trap may be had at the ironmongers, 
which is a cheap and simple appa- 
ratus, for carrying off the waste wa- 
ter and other offensive matter from 
sinks and drains. But as the dif- 
fusion of any collection of filth 
tends to produce disease and mor- 
tality, it should not be suffered to 
settle and stagnate near our dwell- 
ings, and every possible care should 
be taken to render them sweet and 

HOUSE TAX. As the present 

system of taxation involves so im- 
portant a part of the annual expen- 
diture, and is in many instances at- 
tended with so much vexation and 
trouble, it concerns every house- 
keeper to be acquainted with the 
extent of his own liability, and of 
course to regulate his conveniences 
accordingly. It appears then, that 
every inhabited dwellinghouse, con- 
taining not more than six windows or 
lights, is subject to the yearly sum of 
six shillings and six-pence, if under 
the value of five pounds a year. 
But every dwellinghouse worth five 
pounds and under twenty pounds rent 
by the year,pay s the yearly sum of one 
shilling and six-pence in the pound ; 
every house worth twenty pounds 
and under forty pounds a year, two 
shillings and three-pence in the 
pound ; and for every house worth 
forty pounds and upwards, the year- 
ly sum of two shillings and ten-pence 
in the pound. These rents however 
are to be taken from the rates in 
which they are charged, and not 
from the rents which are actually 

ounces of salt are dissolved in three 
quarts of water, and mixed with a 
pint of yeast. This mixture is pour- 
ed into a cavity made in a peck of 
second flour, placed in a large pan 
or trough. When properly kneaded 
and fermented, it is divided into 
pieces of a certain weight, and 
baked. Sometimes, in farm houses, 
a portion of rice flour, boiled pota- 
toes, or rye meal, is mixed with the 
flour,previous to kneading the dough. 
The rye and rice serve to bind the 
bread, but the potatoes render it 
light and spongy. — Or, for a larger 
quantity, put a bushel of flour into 
a trough, two thirds wheat and one 
of rye. Mix a quart of yeast with 
nine quarts of warm water, and 
work it into the flour till it becomes 
tough. Leave it to rise about an 
hour : and as soon as it rises, add 



a pound of salt, and as much warm 
water as before. Work it well, and 
cover it with flannel. Make the 
loaves a quarter of an hour before 
the oven is ready ; and if they weigh 
tive pounds each, they will require 
to be baked two hours and a half. 

HUNG BEEF. Make a strong 
brine with bay salt, common salt, 
and saltpetre, and put in ribs of 
beef for nine days. Then dry it, or 
smoke it in a chimney. Or rub the 
meat with salt and saltpetre, and 
repeat it for a fortnight, and dry it 
in wood smoke. 

pint of highly rectified spirits of wine, 
put an ounce of the oil of rosemary, 
and two drams of the essence of am- 
bergris. Shake the bottle well se- 
veral times, and let the cork remain 
out twenty-four hours. Shake it 
daily for a whole month, and then 
put the water into small bottles for 

HUNTER'S BEEF. To a round 
of beef that weighs twenty-five 
pounds, allow three ounces of salt- 
petre, three ounces of the coarsest 
sugar, an ounce of cloves, half an 
ounce of allspice, a nutmeg, and 
three handfuls of common salt, all 
in the finest powder. The beef should 
hang two or three days ; then rub 
the above mixture well into it, and 
turn and rub it every day for two or 
three weeks. The bone must be 
taken out first. When to be dress- 
ed, dip it into cold water, to take 
off" the loose spice ; bind it up tight 
with tape, and put it into a pan with 
a tea-cupful of water at the bottom. 
Cover the top of the meat with shred 
suet, and the pan with a brown crust 
and paper, and bake it five or six 
hours. When cold, take off* the 

paste and tape. The gravy is very 
fine, and a little of it is a great im- 
provement to any kind of hash or 
soup. Both the gravy and the meat 
will keep some time. The meat 
should be cut with a very sharp 
knife, and quite smooth, to pi event 

gether a pound of suet, a pound of 
flour, a pound of currants, and a 
pound of raisins stoned and cut. 
Add the rind of half a lemon finely 
shred, six peppercorns in tine pow- 
der, four eggs, a glass of brandy, a 
little- salt, and as much milk as will 
make it of a proper consistence. 
Boil it in a floured cloth, or a melon 
mould, eight or nine hours. A spoon- 
ful of peach water may sometimes 
be added to change the flavour. 
This pudding will keep six months 
after it is boiled, if tied up in the 
same cloth when cold, and hung up, 
folded in writing paper to* preserve 
it from the dust. When to be eaten, 
it must be boiled a full hour, and 
served with sweet sauce. 

HYSTERICS. The sudden ef- 
fusion of water on the face and hands, 
while the fit is on, and especially 
immersing the feet in cold water, 
will aff'ord relief. Fetid smells are 
also proper ; such as the burning of 
feathers, leather, or the smoke of 
sulphur, and the application of 
strong volatile alkali, or other pun- 
gent matters to the nostrils. To 
efi'ect a radical cure, the cold bath, 
mineral waters, and other tonics are 
necessary. In Germany however, 
they cure hysteric aff'ections by eat- 
ing carraway seeds finely powdered, 
with a little ginger and salt, spread 
on bread and butter every morning, 





Ice for ICEING. To prepare 
artificial ice for articles of confec- 
tionary, procure a few pounds of 
real ice, reduce it nearly to powder, 
and throw a large handful or more 
of salt amongst it. This should be 
done in as cool a place as possible. 
The ice and salt being put into a 
pail, pour some cream into an ice 
pot, and cover it down. Then im- 
merse it in the ice, and draw that 
round the pot, so as to enclose every 
part of it. In a few minutes stir it 
well with a spoon or spatula, re- 
moving to the centre those parts 
which have iced round the edges. 
If thp ice cream or water be in a 
a form, shut the bottom close, and 
move the whole in the ice, as a spoon 
cannot be used for that purpose 
without danger of waste. There 
should be holes in the pail, to let 
off the ice as it thaws. When any 
fluid tends towards cold, moving it 
quickly will encrease that tendency ; 
and likewise, when any fluid is tend- 
ing to heat, stirring it will facilitate 
its boiling. 

ICE CREAMS. Mix the juice 
of the fruits with as much sugar as 
will be wanted, before the cream is 
added, and let the cream be of a 
middling richness* 

ICE WATERS. Rub some fine 
sugar on lemon or orange, to give 
the colour and flavour ; then squeeze 
the juice of either on its respective 
peel. Add water and sugar to make 
a fine sherbet, and strain it before 
it be put into the ice-pot. If orange, 
the greater proportion should be of 
the china juice, and only a little of 
Seville, and a small bit of the peel 
grated by the sugar. The juice of 
currants or raspberries, or any other 
sort of fruit, being squeezed out, 
sweetened, and mixed with water, 
may be prepared for iceing in the 
same way. 

sift half a pound of fine sugar, put 
it into a mortar with four spoonfuls 
of rose water, and the whites of two 
eggs beaten and strained. Whisk 
it well, and when the cake is almost 
cold, dip a feather in the iceing, and 
cover the cake well. Set it in the 
oven to harden, but suffer it not to 
remain to be discoloured, and then 
keep it in a dry place. — For a very 
large cake, beat up the whites of 
twenty fresh eggs, and reduce to 
powder a pound of double refined 
sugar, sifted through a lawn sieve. 
Mix these well in a deep earthea 
pan, add orange flower water, bare- 
ly suflScient to give it a flavour, and 
a piece of fresh lemon peel. Whisk 
it for three hours till the mixture is 
thick and white, then with a thin 
broad piece of board spread it all 
over the top and sides, and set it in 
a cool oven, and an hour will har- 
den it. 

well together the yolk of an e^g and 
some melted butter, smear the tarts 
with a feather, and sift sugar over 
them as they are put into the oven. 
Or beat up the white of an egg, 
wash the paste with it, and sift over 
some white sugar. 

ILIAC PASSION. This danger- 
ous malady, in which the motion of 
the bowels is totally impeded or in- 
verted, arises from spasms, violent 
exertions of the body, eating of un- 
ripe fruit, drinking of sour liquors, 
worms, obstinate costiveness, and 
various other causes, which produce 
the most excruciating pain in the 
region of the abdomen. Large 
blisters applied to the most painful 
part, emollient clysters, fomenta- 
tions, and the warm bath, are 
amongst the most likely means ; but 
in many instances, this dfsorder is 
not to be controuled by medicine^ 



No reniedy however can be applied 
with greater safety or advantage, 
than frequent doses of castor oil : 
and if this fail, quicksilver in a na- 
tural state is the only medicine on 
which any reliance can be placed. 

IMPERIAL. Put into a stone 
jar two ounces of cream of tartar, 
and the juice and paring of two le- 
mons. Pour on them seven quarts 
of boiling water, stir it well, and 
cover it close. When cold, sweeten 
it with loaf sugar; strain, bottle, 
and cork it tight. This makes a very 
pleasant and wholesome liquor ; but 
if drunk too freely, it becomes in- 
jurious. In bottling it off, add half 
a pint of rum to the whole quan- 

quart of cream with the thin rind of 
a lemon, and stir it till nearly cold. 
Have ready in a dish or bowl, in 
which it is to be served, the juice 
of three lemons strained, mixed 
with as much sugar as will sweeten 
the cream. Pour this into the dish 
from a large tea-pot, holding it 
high, and moving it about to mix 
with the juice. It should be made 
at least six hours before it is used ; 
and if the day before, it would be 
still better. 

an earthen pan, four ounces of su- 
gar, and the rind of three lemons. 
Boil an ounce of cream of tartar in 
three quarts of water, and pour it 
on the sugar and lemon. Let it stand 
all night, clear it through a bag, 
and bottle it. 

INCENSE. Compound in a mar- 
ble mortar, a large quantity of lig- 
num rhoditrtn, and anise, with a 
little powder of dried orange peel, 
and gum benzoin. Add some gum 
dragon dissolved in rose water, and 
a little civet. Beat the whole to- 
gether, form the mixture into small 
cakes, and place them on paper to 
dry. One of these cakes being 
burnt, will diffuse an agreeable 

odour throughout the largest apart- 

INDELIBLE INK. Gum arabic 
dissolved in water, and well mixed 
with fine ivory black, will make 
writing indelible. If the writing be 
afterwards varnished over with the 
white of an egg clarified, it will pre- 
serve it to any length of time. 

INDIAN PICKLE. Lay a pound 
of white ginger in water one night ; 
then scrape, slice, and lay it in salt 
in a pan, till the other ingredients 
are prepared. Peel and slice a 
pound of garlic, lay it in salt three 
days, and afterwards dry it in the 
sun. Salt and dry some long pep- 
per in the same way : then prepare 
various sorts of vegetables in the 
following manner. Quarter some 
small white cabbages, salt them 
three days, then squeeze and lay 
them in the sun to dry. Cut some 
cauliflowers into branches, take off 
the green part of radishes, cut ce- 
lery into lengths of about three 
inches, put in young French beans 
whole, and the shoots of elder, 
which will look like bamboo. Choose 
apples and cucumbers of a sort the 
least seedy, quarter them, or cut 
them in slices. All must be salted, 
drained, and dried in the sun, ex- 
cept the latter, over which some 
boiling vinegar must be poured. In 
twelve hours drain them, but use 
no salt. Put the spice into a large 
stone jar, adding the garlic, a quar- 
ter of a pound of mustard seed, an 
ounce of turmeric, and vinegar suf- 
ficient for the quantity of pickle. 
When the vegetables are dried and 
ready, the following directions must 
be observed. Put some of them in- 
to a half-gallon stone jar, and pour 
over them a quart of boiling vinegar. 
Next day take out those vegetables ; 
and when drained, put them into a 
large stock jar. Boil the vinegar, 
pour it over some more of the vege- 
tables, let them lie all night, and 
complete the operation as before. 



Thus proceed till each set is cleansed 
from the dust they may have con- 
tracted. Then to every gallon of 
vinegar, put two ounces of flour of 
mustard, gradually mixing in a little 
of it boiling hot, and stop the jar 
tight. The whole of the vinegar 
should be previously scalded, and set 
to cool before it is put to the spice. 
This pickle will not be ready for a 
year, but a small quantity may be 
got ready for eating in a fortnight, 
by only giving the cauHflower one 
scald in water, after salting and 
drying as above, but without the 
preparative vipcgar : then pour the 
vinegar, which has the spice and 
garlic, boiling hot over it. If at 
any time it be found that the ve- 
getables have not swelled properly, 
boiling the pickle, and pouring it 
hot over them,will make them plump. 
— Another way. Cut the heads of 
some good cauliflowers into pieces, 
and add some slices of the inside 
of the stalk. Put to them a white 
cabbage cut in pieces, with inside 
slices of carrot, turnips, and onions. 
Boil a strong brine of salt and water, 
simmer the vegetables in it one mi- 
nute, drain them, and dry them on 
tins over an oven till they are 
shriveled up ; then put them into a 
jar, and prepare the following pickle. 
To two quarts of good vinegar, put 
an ounce of the flour of mustard, 
one of ginger, one of long pepper, 
four of cloves, a few shalots, and a 
little horseradish. Boil the vinegar, 
put the vegetables into a jar, and 
pour it hot over them. When cold, 
tiethem down, and add more vine- 
gar afterwards, if necessary. In 
the course of a week or two, the 
pickle will be fit for use. 

INDIGESTION. Persons of 
weak delicate habits, particularly 
the sedentary and studious, are fre- 
quently subject to indigestion. The 
liberal use of cold water alone, in 
drinking, washing, and bathing, is 
often suflicient to effect a cure. 

Drinking of sea water, gentle pur- 
gatives, with bark and bitters, light 
and nourishing food, early rising, 
and gentle exercise in the open air, 
are also of great importance. 

INFECTION. During the pre- 
valence of any infectious disease, 
every thing requires to be kept per- 
fectly clean, and the sick room to 
be freely ventilated. The door or 
window should generally be open, 
the bed curtains only drawn to shade 
the light, clothes frequently changed 
and washed in cold water, all dis- 
charges from the patient instantly 
removed, and the floor near the bed 
rubbed every day with a wet cloth. 
Take also a hot brick, lay it in an 
earthen pan, and pour pickle vine- 
gar upon it. This will refresh the 
patient, as well as purify the sur- 
rounding atmosphere. Those who 
are obliged to attend the patients, 
should not approach them fasting, 
nor inhale their breath ; and while 
in their apartment, should avoid eat- 
ing and drinking, and swallowing 
their own saliva. It will also be of 
considerable service to smell vine- 
gar and camphor, to fumigate the 
room with tobacco, and to chew 
myrrh and cinnamon, which pro- 
mote a plentiful discharge from the 
mouth. As soon as a person has 
returned from visiting an infected 
patient, he ought immediately to 
wash his mouth and hands with 
vin^ear, to change his clothes, and 
expose them to the fresh air ; and 
to drink an infusion of sage, or 
other aromatic herbs. After the dis- 
order has subsided, the walls of the 
room should be washed with hot lime, 
which will render it perfectly sweet. 

nal inflammations, attended with 
heat and swelling of the part af- 
fected, cooling applications and a 
little opening medicine are the best 
adapted ; and in some cases, cata- 
plasms of warm emollient hgrbs may 
be nised with advantage. 



EYES. In this case leeches should 
be applied to the temples ; and af- 
ter the bleeding has ceased, a small 
blister may be tried, with a little 
opening medicine. Much benefit 
has been derived from shaving the 
head, cutting the hair, and bathing 
the feet in warm water. If the in- 
flammation has arisen from particles 
of iron or steel falling into the eyes, 
the offending matter is best extract- 
ed by the application of the load- 
stone. If eyes are blood-shotten, the 
necessary rules are, an exclusion 
from light, cold fomentations, and 
abstinence from animal food and 
stimulating liquors. For a bruise 
in the eye, occasioned by any acci- 
dent, the best remedy is a rotten 
apple, and some conserve of roses. 
Fold them in a piece of thin cam- 
bric, apply it to the part affected, 
and it will take out the bruise. 

BOWELS. This is a complaint that 
requires great care. If the belly be 
swelled, and painful to the touch, 
apply flannels to it, dipped in hot 
water and wrung out, or use a warm 
bath. A blister should be employed 
as soon as possible, and mild emol- 
lient injections of gruel or barley 
water, till stools be obtained. The 
patient should be placed between 
blankets, and supplied with light 
gruel ; and when the violence of the 
disorder is somewhat abated, the 
pain may be removed by opiate 
clysters. A common bread and milk 
poultice, applied as warm as possi- 
ble to the part affected, has also 
been attended with great success : 
but as this disorder is very danger- 
ous, it would be proper to call in 
medical assistance without delay. 

INK. To make an excellent writ- 
ing ink, take a pound of the best 
Aleppo g^Us, half a pound of cop- 
peras, a quarter of a pound of gum 
arable, and a quarter of a pound of 
white sugar candy. Bruise the galls 
and beat the other ingredients fine, 

and infuse them together in three 
quarts of rain water. Let the mix- 
ture stand by the fire three or four 
days, and then boil it gently over a 
slow fire ; or if infused in cold wa- 
ter, and afterwards well strained, 
it will nearly answer the same pur- 
pose. Care must be taken to ob- 
tain good materials, and to mix 
them in due proportion. To pre- 
serve the ink from mouldiness, it 
should be put into a large glass bot- 
tle with a ground stopper, and fre- 
quently shaked ; but if a crust be 
formed, it should be carefully taken 
out, and not mixed with the ink. 
A little more gum and sugar can- 
dy may be added, to render the 
ink more black and glossy; but 
too much will make it sticky, and 
unfit for use. — Another method 
is to bruise a pound of good galls, 
black and heavy, and put them into 
a stone jar. Then pour on a gallon 
of rain water, nearly of a boiling 
heat, and let it stand by the fire 
about a fortnight. Afterwards add 
four ounces of green copperas or 
sulphate of iron, four ounces of log- 
wood shavings, one ounce of alum, 
one of sugar candy, and four of gum 
arable. Let the whole remain about 
two days longer in a moderate heat, 
stir the ingredients together once or 
twice a day, and keep the jar slightly 
covered. The ink is then to be 
strained through a flanneH put into 
a bottle with a little brandy at the 
top, well corked, and set by for use 
in a temperate place. A few cloves 
bruised with gum arable, and put 
into the bottle, will prevent the ink 
from getting mouldy ; and if some 
of superior quality be required, 
white wine or vinegar must be used 
instead of water. 

INK POWDER. For the con- 
venience of travellers by sea or by 
land, ink powders have been invent- 
ed, which consist of nothing else 
than the substances employed in the 
composition of common ink, pound- 
ed and pulverized, so that it be in- 



stantaneousl^i converted into ink by 
mixing it up with a little water. 
Walkden's ink powder is by far the 

INK STAINS. The stains of 
ink, on cloth, paper, or wood, may 
be removed by almost all acids ; 
but those acids are to be preferred, 
which are least likely to injure the 
texture of the stained substance. 
The muriatic acid, diluted with five 
or six times its weight of water, 
may be applied to the spot; and 
after a minute or two, may be wash- 
ed off, repeating the application as 
often as it is found necessary. But 
the vegetable acids are attended 
with less risk, and are equally ef- 
fectual. A solution of lemon or tar- 
tareous acid, in water, may be ap- 
plied to the most delicate fabrics, 
without any danger of in juring them : 
and the same solution will discharge 
writing, but not printing ink. Hence 
they may be employed in cleaning 
books which have Ijeen defaced by 
writing on the margin, without im- 
pairing the text. Lemon juice and 
the juice of sorrel will also remove 
ink stains, but not so easily as the 
concrete acid of lemons, or citric 
acid. On some occasions it will be 
found sufficient, only to dip the 
spotted part in the fine melted tal- 
low of a mould candle, and after- 
wards wash it in the usual way. 

INSECTS. The most effectual 
remedy against the whole tribe of 
insects, which prey upon plants and 
vegetables, is the frequent use of 
sulphur, which should be dusted 
upon the leaves through a muslin 
rag or dredging box, or fumed on a 
chaffing dish of burning charcoal. 
This application will also improve 
the healthiness of plants, as well as 
destroy their numerous enemies. 
Another way is to boil together an 
equal quantity of rue, wormwood, 
and tobacco, in common water, so 
as to make the liquor strong, and 
then to sprinkle it on the leaves 
every morning and evening. By 

pouring boiling water on some to- 
bacco and the tender shoots of el- 
der, a strong decoction may also 
be made for this purpose, and shed 
upon fruit trees with a brush : the 
quantity, about an ounce of tobacco 
and two handfuls of elder to a gal- 
lon of water. Elder water sprinkled 
on honeysuckles and roses, will pre- 
vent insects from lodging on them. 
If a quantity of wool happen to be 
infected with insects, it may be 
cleansed in the following manner. 
Dissolve a pound of alum, and as 
much cream of tartar, in a quart of 
boiling water, and add two full gal- 
lons of cold water to it. The wool 
is then to be soaked in it for several 
days, and afterwards to be washed 
and dried. 

out all the meat and a little fat, of 
the inside of a cold sirloin of beef, 
and divide it into pieces of a finger's 
size and length. Dredge the meat 
with flour, and fry it in butter, of 
a nice brown. Drain the butter 
from the meat, and toss it up in a 
rich gravy, seasoned with pepper, 
salt, anchovy, and shalot. It must 
not be suft'ered to boil ; and before 
serving, add two spoonfuls of vine- 
gar. Garnish with crimped parslev. 

INVISIBLE INK. Boil half an 
ounce of gold litharge well pounded, 
with a little vinegar in a brass ves- 
sel for half an hour. Filter the 
liquid through paper, and preserve 
it in a bottle closely corked. This 
ink is to be used with a clean pen, 
and the writing when dry will be- 
come invisible. But if at any time 
it be washed over with the following 
mixture, it will instantly become 
black and legible. Put some quick- 
lime and red orpiracnt in water, 
place some warm ashes under it for 
a whole day, filter the liquor, and 
cork it down. Whenever applied 
in the slightest degree, it will ren- 
der the writing visible. 

IRISH BEEF. To twenty pounds 
of beef, put -one ounce of allspice, 



a quarter of an ounce of mace, cin- 
itamon, and nutraeg, and half an 
ounce each of pepper and saltpetre. 
Mix all together, and add some com- 
mon salt. Put the meat into a salt- 
ing pan, turn it every day, and rub 
it with the seasoning. After a month 
take out the bone, and boil the meat 
in the liquor it was pickled in, with 
a proper quantity of water. It 
may be stuffed with herbs, and eaten 

yolks and four whites of eggs, strain 
them into a pint of cream, sweeten 
with sugar, and add a grated nut- 
meg. Stir three ounces of butter 
over the lire, and as it melts pour it 
to the cream, which should be warm 
when the eggjs are put to it. Mix 
it smooth with nearly half a pint of 
flour, and fry the pancakes very thin ; 
the first with a bit of butter, but not 
the others. Serve up several at a 
time, one upon another. 

IRISH STEW. Take five thick 
mutton chops, or two pounds ofi^ 
the neck or loin ; four* pounds of 
potatoes, peeled and divided ; and 
half a pound of onions, peeled and 
sliced. Put a layer of potatoes at 
the bottom of a stewpan, then a 
couple of chops, and some of the 
onions, and so on till the pan is 
quite full. Add a small spoonful of 
white pepper, about one and a half 
of salt, and three quarters of a pint 
of broth or gravy. Cover all close 
down, so as to prevent the escape of 
steam, and let them stew two hours 
on a very slow fire. It must not be 
suffered to burn, nor be done too 
fast : a small slice of ham will be an 
agreeable addition. 

IRON MOULDS. Wet the in- 
jured part, rub on a little of the 
essential salt of lemons, and lay it 
on a hot Avaterplate. If the linen 
becomes dry, wet it and renew 
the process, observing that the plate 
is kept boiling hot. Much of the 
powder sold under the name of salt 
of lemons is a spurious preparation, 

and therefore it is necessary to dip 
the linen in a good deal of water, 
and to wash it as soon as the stain 
is removed, in order to prevent the 
part from being worn into holes by 
the acid. 

IRON POTS. To cure cracks or 
fissures in iron pots or pans, mix 
some finely sifted lime with whites 
of eggs well beaten, till reduced to 
a paste. Add some iron file dust, 
and apply the composition to the in- 
jured part, and it will soon becdme 
hard and fit for use. 

kinds of polished articles, in iron 
and steel, are in danger of being 
rusted and spoiled, by an exposure 
to air and moisture. A mixture of 
nearly equal quantities of fat, oil 
varnish, jand the rectified spirits of 
turpentine, applied with a sponge, 
will give a varnish to those articles, 
which prevents their contracting any 
spots of rust, and preserves their 
brilliancy, even though exposed to 
air and water. Common articles of 
steel or iron may be preserved from 
injury by a composition of one 
pound of fresh lard, an ounce of 
camphor, two drams of black lead 
powder, and two drams of dragon's 
blood in fine powder, melted over 
a slow fire, and rubbed on with a 
brush or sponge, after it has been 
left to cool. 

ounce of isinglass in a quart of wa- 
ter, with a few cloves, lemon peel, 
or wine, till it is reduced to half the 
quantity. Then strain it, and add a 
little sugar and lemon juice. 

ing blisters, in order to keep them 
open, make an ointment of half an 
ounce of Spanish flies finely pow- 
dered, mixed with six ounces of yel- 
low basilicon ointment. 

a fine large steak from a ru4np that 
has been well kept, or from any ten- 
der part. Beat it, and season with 
pepper, salt, and onion. Lay it in 

A a 177 



an iron stewpaii that has a cover to 
fit it quite close, and set it by the 
side of the fire without water. It 
must have a strong heat, but care 
must be taken that it does not burn : 
in two or three hours it will be quite 
tender, and then serve with its own 

ITCH. Rub the parts affected 
with the ointment of sulphur, and 
keep the body gently open by tak- 
ing every day a small dose of sul- 
phur and treacle. When the cure 
is effected, let the clothes be care- 
fully fumigated with sulphur, or the 
contagion will again be communi- 

cated. The dry itch requires a ve- 
getable diet, and the liberal use of 
anti-scorbutics : the parts affected 
may be rubbed with a strong decoc- 
tion of tobacco. 

IVORY. Bones and ivory may 
be turned to almost any use, by being 
softened in the following manner. 
Boil some sage in strong vinegar, 
strain the liquor through a piece of 
cloth, and put in the articles. In 
proportion to the time they are 
steeped in the liquor, ivory or bones 
will be capable of receiving any new 


Japan blacking. Take three 
ounces of ivory black, two ounces 
of coarse sugar, one ounce of sul- 
phuric acid, one ounce of muriatic 
acid, a lemon, a table-spoonful of 
sweet oil, and a pint of vinegar. 
First mix the ivory black and sweet 
oil together, then the lemon and 
sugar, with a little vinegar to qualify 
the blacking ; then add both the 
acids, and mix them all well toge- 
ther. The sugar, oil, and vinegar 
prevent the acids from injuring the 
leather, and add to the lustre of the 
blacking.-- A cheap method is to take 
two ounces of ivory black, an ounce 
and a half of brown sugar, and half 
a table-spoonful of sweet oil. Mix 
them well, and then gradually add 
Jialf a pint of small beer. — Or take 
a quarter of a pound of ivory black, 
a quarter of a pound of moist sugar, 
a table-spoonful of flour, a piece of 
tallow about the size of a walnut, 
and a small piece of gum arable. 
Make a paste of the flour, and whilst 
hot, put in the tallow, then the su- 
gar, and afterwards mix the whole 
well together in a quart of water. 

be preserved in a fine state, in the 

following manner. Pare them very 
thin, simmer in a thin syrup, and 
let them lie a day or two. Make 
the syrup richer, and simmer them 
again. Repeat this till they are 
clear ; then drain, and dry them in 
the sun or a cool oven a very little 
time. They may also be kept in 
syrup, and dried as wanted, which 
makes them more moist and rich. 

JAUNDICE. The diet of persons 
affected with the jaundice ought to 
be light and cooling, consisting 
chiefly of ripe fruits, and mild ve- 
getables. Many have been effectu- 
ally cured, by living for several days 
on raw eggs. Buttermilk whey 
sweetened with honey, or an infu- 
sion of marshmallow roots, ought 
to constitute the whole of the pa- 
tient's drink. Honey, anti-scorbu- 
tics, bitters, and blisters applied to 
the region of the liver, have all been 
found serviceable in the cure of the 

a maid, and put it into three quarts 
of water, with a calf's foot, or cow 
heel. Add a stick of horseradish, 
an onion, three blades of mace, 
some white pepper, a piece of lemon 

^ ♦ 



peel, and a good slice of lean gam- 
mon. Stew it to a jelly, and strain 
it off. When cold, remove every 
particle of fat, take it up from the 
sediment, and boil it vi'ith a glass of 
sherry, the whites of /our or five 
eggs, and a piece of lemon. Boil 
without stirring ; after a few mi- 
nutes set it by to stand half an hour, 
and strain it through a bag or sieve, 
with a cloth in it. Cover the fish 
with it when cold. 

These must be taken up the moment 
they are boiled enough, or they will 
be too soft. They may be served 
plain, or with fricassee sauce. 

JUGGED HARE. After clean- 
ing and skinning an old hare, cut it 
up, and season it with pepper, salt, 
allspice, pounded mace, and a little 
nutmeg. Put it into ajar with an 
onion, a clove or two, a bunch of 
sweet herbs, a piece of coarse beef, 
and the carcase bones over all. Tie 
the jar down with a bladder and 
strong paper, and put it into a sauce- 
pan of water up to the neck, but no 
higher. Keep the water boiling five 
hours. When it is to be served, 
boil up the gravy with flour and but- 

ter ; and if the meat get cold, warm 
it up in the gravy, but do not boil it. 
JUGGED VEAL. Cut some 
slices of veal, and put them into an 
earthen jug, with a blade of mace, 
a little pepper, salt, and nutmeg. 
Add a sprig of sweet herbs, and a 
bit of lemon peel. Cover the jug 
close, that the steam may not es- 
cape ; set it in a pot of boiling wa- 
ter, and about three hours will do it. 
Half an hour before it is done, put 
in a piece of butter rolled in flour, 
and a little lemon juice, or lemon 
pickle. Turn it out of the jug into 
a dish, take out the herbs and lemon 
peel, and send it to table garnished 
with lemon. 

JUMBLES. Powder and sift half 
a pound of fine lump sugar, and 
mix it with half a pound of dried 
flour. Beat up two eggs in a table- 
spoonful of orange or rose water, 
shred the peel of half a lemon very 
fine, mix the whole together, and 
make it into a paste. Cut the paste 
into fancy shapes, bake them slight- 
ly on tins, and take them out of the 
oven as soon as the edges begin to 


Ketchup. The liquor obtained 
from mushrooms, approaches tlie 
nearest to meat gravy, in flavour 
and quality, of any other vegetable 
juice, and is the best substitute for 
it, in any of those savoury dishes 
intended to please the palate. But 
in order to have it wholesome and 
good, it must be made at home, the 
mushrooms employed in preparing 
ketchup for sale being generally in 
a state of putrefaction ; and in a few 
days after the mushrooms are gather- 
ed, they become the habitation of 
myriads of insects. In order to pro- 
cure and preserve the flavour of the 

vegetable for any considerable time, 
the mushrooms should be sought 
from the beginning of September, and 
care taken tp select only the right 
sort, and suqh as are fresh gathered. 
Full grown flaps are the best for 
ketchup. Place a layer of these 
at the bottom of a deep earthen 
pan, and sprinkle them with salt; 
then another layer of mushrooms, 
and some more salt on them, and so 
on alternately. Let them remain 
two or jthree hours, by which time 
the salt will have penetrated the 
mushrooms, and rendered them easy 
to break. Then pound them in a 
179 ^ 



mortar, or mash them with the hand, 
and let them remain two days longer, 
stirring them up, and mashing them 
well each day. Then pour them in- 
to a stone jar, and to each quart 
add an ounce of whole black pepper. 
Stop the jar very close, set it in a 
stewpan of boiling water, and keep 
it boiling at least for two hours. 
Take out the jar, pour the juice clear 
from the settlings through a hair 
sieve into a clean stewpan, and let 
it boil very gently for half an hour. 
If intended to be exquisitely fine, it 
may be boiled till reduced to half 
the quantity. It will keep much 
better in this concentrated state, 
and only half the quantity be re- 
quired. Skim it well in boiling, 
and pour it into a clean dry jar ; 
cover it close, let it stewid in a cool 
place till the next day, and then 
pour it off as gently as possible, so 
as not to disturb the settlings. If 
a table-spoonful of brandy be added 
to each pint of ketchup, after stand- 
ing a while, a fresh sediment will 
be deposited, from which the liquor 
is quietly to be poured off, and bot- 
tled into half pints, as it is best pre- 
served in small quantities, which are 
soon used. It must be closely cork- 
ed and sealed down, or dipped in 
bottle cement, that the air may be 
entirely excluded. If kept in a cool 
dry place, it may be preserved for 
a long time ; but if it be badly cork- 
ed, and kept in a damp place, it 
will soon spoil. Examine it from 
time to time, by placing a strong 
light behind the neck of the bottle ; 
and if any pellicle appears about it, 
it must be boiled up again with a 
few peppercorns. No more spice 
is required than what is necessary 
to feed the ketchup, and keep it from 
fermenting. Brandy is the best pre- 
servative to all preparations of this 


articles of food are procured, the 

next thing to be considered is, how 

they may be best preserv'ed, in or- 


der to their being dressed. More 
waste is oftentimes occasioned by 
the want of judgment or of neces- 
sary care in this particular, than by 
any other means ; and what was 
procured with expense and difficulty 
is rendered unwholesome, or given 
to the dogs. Very few houses have 
a proper place to keep provisions 
in ; the best substitute is a hanging- 
safe, suspended in an airy situation. 
A well-ventilated larder, dry and 
shady, would be better for meat and 
poultry, which require to be kept a 
proper time to be ripe and tender. 
The most consummate skill in culi- 
nary matters, will not compensate 
the want of attention to this par- 
ticular. Though animal food should 
be hung up in the open air, till its 
fibres have lost some degree of their 
toughness ; yet if kept till it loses 
its natural sweetness, it is as detri- 
mental to health as it is disagreeable 
to the taste and smell. As soon 
therefore as you can detect the 
slightest trace of putrescence, it has 
reached its highest degree of ten- 
derness, and should be dressed im- 
mediately. Much of course will de- 
pend on the state of the atmosphere : 
if it be warm and humid, care must 
be taken to dry the meat with a 
cloth, night and morning, to keep it 
from damp and mustiness. During 
the sultry months of summer, it is 
difficult to procure meat that is not 
either tough or tainted. It should 
therefore be well examined when 
it comes in ; and if flies have touch- 
ed it, the part must be cut off, and 
then well washed. Meat that is to 
be salted should lie an hour in cold 
water, rubbing well any part likely 
to have been fly-blown. When taken 
out of the water, wipe it quite dry, 
then rub it thoroughly with salt, and 
throw a handful over it besides. 
Turn it every day, and rub in the 
pickle, which will make it ready for 
the table in three or four days. If 
to be very much corned, wrap it in a 
well-floured cloth, after rubbing it 



with salt. This last method will corn 
fresh beef fit for the table the day 
it comes in, but it must be put into 
the pot when the water boils. If the 
weather permit, meat eats much 
better for hanging two or three days 
before it is salted. In very cold 
weather, meat and vegetables touch- 
ed by the frost should be brought 
into the kitchen early in the morn- 
ing, and soaked in cold water. Put- 
ting them into hot water, or near the 
lire, till thawed, makes it impossible 
for any heat to dress them properly 
afterwards. In loins of meat, the 
long pipe that runs by the bone 
should be taken out, as it is apt to 
taint ; as also the kernels of beef. 
Rumps and edgebones of beef when 
bruised, should not be purchased. 
To preserve venison, wash it well 
with milk and water, then dry it 
with clean cloths till not the least 
damp remains, and dust it all over 
with pounded ginger, which will 
protect it against the fly. By thus 
managing and watching, it will hang 
a fortnight. When to be used, wash it 
with a little lukewarm water, and dry 
it. Pepper is likewise good to keep it. 

soak the kidney, and season it. 
Make a paste of suet, flour, and 
milk ; roll it, and line a bason with 
some of it. Put in the kidney, cover 
the paste over, and pinch it round 
the edge. Tie up the bason in a cloth, 
and boil it a considerable time. A 
steak pudding is made in the same 

articles thrown away, or suff'ered to 
be wasted in the kitchen, might by 
proper management be turned to a 
good account. The shank bones of 
mutton, so little esteemed in general, 
would be found to give richness to 
soups or gravies, if well soaked and 
brushed, before they are added to 
the boiling. They are also particu- 
larly nourishing for sick persons. 
Roast beef-bones, or shank bones of 
ham, make fine peas-soup ; and 

should be boiled with the peas the 
day before the soup is to be eaten, 
that the fat may be taken ofi*. The 
liquor in which meat has been boiled 
makes an excellent soup for the 
poor, by adding to it vegetables, oat- 
meal, or peas. When whites of eggs 
are used for jelly, or other purposes, 
a pudding or a custard should be 
made to employ the yolks. If not 
immediately wanted, they should 
be beat up with a little water, and 
put in a cool place, or they will soon 
harden, and become useless. It is 
a great mistake to imagine that the 
whites of eggs make cakes and pud- 
dings heavy : on the contrary, if 
beaten long and separately, they 
contribute greatly to give lightness. 
They are also an advantage to paste, 
and make a pretty dish beaten with 
fruit, to set in cream. All things 
likely to be wanted should be in 
readiness ; sugars of diff"erent sorts, 
currants washed, picked, and per- 
fectly dry ; spices pounded, and 
kept in very small bottles closely 
corked, but not more than are likely 
to be used in the course of a month. 
Much waste may be prevented by 
keeping every article in the place 
best suited to it. Vegetables will 
keep best on a stone floor, if the 
air be excluded. Meat in a cold 
dry place. Salt, sugar, and sweet- 
meats require to be kept dry ; can- 
dles cold, but not damp. Dried 
meats and hams the same. Rice, 
and all sorts of seeds for puddings 
and saloops, should be close covered 
to preserve from insects ; but that 
will not prevent it, if long kept. 

little attention will be requisite every 
month in the year, as no garden can 
be long neglected, w ithout producing 
weeds which exhaust the soil, as 
well as give a very slovenly appear- 
ance. — January. Throw up a heap 
of new dung to heat, that it may be 
ready to make hotbeds for early cu- 
cumbers, and raising of annuals for 
the flower garden. Dig up the 



ground that is to be sown with the 
spring crops, that it may lie and 
mellow. Nurse the cauliflower plants 
kept under glasses, carefully shut 
out the frost, but in the middle of 
milder days let in a little air. Pick 
up the dead leaves, and gather up 
the mould about the stalks. Make 
a slight hotbed in the open ground 
for young sallads, and place hoops 
over it, that it may be covered m 
very cold weather. Sow a few beans 
and peas, and seek and destroy 
snails and other vermin. — Febru- 
ary. Dig and level beds for sow- 
ing radishes, onions, carrots, par- 
snips, and Dutch lettuce. Leeks 
and spinage should also be sown in 
this month, likewise beets, celery, 
sorrel, and marigolds, with any other 
of the hardy kinds. The best way 
with beans and peas, is to sow a 
new crop every fortnight, that if one 
succeeds and another fails, as will 
often be the case, there still may be 
a constant supply of these useful 
articles for the table. Plant kidney 
beans upon a hotbed for an early 
crop ; the dwarf, the white and 
Battersea beans, are the best sorts. 
They must have air in the middle of 
mild days when they are up, and 
once in two days they should be 
gently watered. Transplant cab- 
bages, plant out Silesia and Cos let- 
tuce from the beds where they grew 
in winter, and plant potatoes and Je- 
rusalem artichokes. — March. Sow 
more carrots, and also some large 
peas, rouncevals and gray. In bet- 
ter ground sow cabbages, savoys, 
and parsnips for a second crop ; 
and towards the end of the month, 
put in a larger quantity of peas and 
beans. Sow parsley, and plant mint. 
Sow Cos and imperial lettuce, and 
transplant the finer kinds. In the 
beginning of the month, sow Dutch 
parsley for the roots. The last week 
take advantage of the time, or the 
dry days, to make beds for aspara- 
gus. Clear up the artichoke roots, 
slip off the weakest, and plant them 

out for a new crop, leaving four on 
each good root to bear, and on such 
as are weaker two. Dig up a warm 
border, and sow some French beans; 
let them have a dry soil, and ive 
them no water till they appear above 
ground. — April. On a dry warm 
border, plant a large crop of French 
beans. Plant cuttings of sage, and 
other aromatics. Sow marrowfat 
peas, and plant some beans for a 
late crop. Sow thyme, sweet mar- 
joram, and savoury. Sow young 
sallads once in ten days, and some 
Cos and Silesia lettuces. The seeds 
of all kinds being now in the ground, 
look to the growing crops, clear 
away the weeds every where among 
them, dig up the earth between the 
rows of beans, peas, and all other 
kinds that are distantly planted. 
This gives them a strong growth, 
and brings them much sooner to 
perfection than can be done in any 
other way. Draw up the mould to 
the stalks of the cabbage and cauli- 
flower plants, and in cold nights 
cover the glasses over the early cu- 
cumbers and melons. — May. Once 
in two days water the peas, beans, 
and other large growing plants. De- 
stroy the weeds in all parts of the 
ground, dig up the earth between 
the rows, and about the stems of all 
large kinds. Sow small sallads once 
in two days, as in the fomier mouth : 
at the same time choose a warm 
border, and sow some purslain. Sow 
also some endive, plant peas and 
beans for a large crop, and French 
beans to succeed the others. The 
principal object with these kinds of 
vegetables, is to have them fresh 
and young throughout the season. 
Choose a moist day, and an hour 
before sunset plant out some savoys, 
cabbages, and red cabbages. Draw 
the earth carefully up to their stems, 
and give them a few gentle waterings. 
— June. Transplant the cauliflow- 
ers sown in May, give them a rich 
^ed, and frequent waterings. Plant 
out thyme, and other savoury herbs 



sown before, and in the same manner 
shade and water them. Take ad- 
vantage of cloudy weather to sow 
turnips ; and if there be no showers, 
water the ground once in two days. 
Sow brocoli upon a rich warm bor- 
der, and plant out celery, for blanch- 
ing. This must be planted in trench- 
es a foot and a half deep, and the 
plants must be set half a foot asun- 
der in the rows. Endive should also 
be planted out for blanching, but 
the plants should be set fifteen 
inches asunder, and at the same 
time some endive seed should be 
sown for a second crop. Pick up 
snails, and in the damp evenings 
kill the naked slugs. — July. Sow a 
crop of French beans to come in 
late, when they will be very accept- 
able. Clear all the ground from 
weeds, dig between the rows of beans 
and peas, hoe the ground about 
the artichokes, and every thing of 
the cabbage kind. Water the crops 
in dry weather, and the cucumbers 
more freely. Watch the melons as 
they ripen, but give them very little 
water. Clear away the stalks of 
beans and peas that have done bear- 
ing. Spinach seed will now be 
ready for gathering, as also that of 
the Welch onion, and some others : 
take them carefully off, and dry 
them in the shade. Take up large 
onions, and spread them upon mats 
to dry for the winter. — August. 
Spinach and onions should be sowed 
on rich borders, prepared for that 
purpose. These two crops will live 
through the winter, unless very se- 
vere, and be valuable in the spring. 
The second week in this month sow 
cabbage seed of the early kind, and 
in the third week sow cauliflower 
seed. This will provide plants to 
be nursed up under bell glasses in 
the winter. Some of these may also 
be planted in the open ground in a 
well defended situation. The last 
week of this month sow another 
crop, to supply the place of these in 
case of accidents ; for if the season 

be very severe, they may be lost ; 
and if very mild, they will run to 
seed in the spring. These last crops 
must be defended by a hotbed frame, 
and they will stand ouf and sdpply 
deficiencies. Sow cabbage lettuces, 
and the brown Dutch kinds, in a 
warm and well sheltered border. 
Take up garlic, and spread it on a 
mat to harden. In the same manner 
take up onions and rocambole, and 
shalots at the latter end of the 
month. — September. Sow vari- 
ous kinds of lettuces, Silesia, Cos, 
and Dutch, and when they come up, 
shelter them carefully. The com- 
mon practice is to keep them under 
hand-glasses, but they will thrive 
better under a reed fence, placed 
sloping over them. Make up fresh 
warm beds with the dung that has 
lain a month in the heap. Plant 
the spaAvn in these beds, Upon pas- 
ture mould, and raise the top of the 
bed to a ridge, to throw off the wet. 
Look to the turnip beds and thin 
them, leaving the plants six inches 
apart from each other. Weed the 
spinach, onions, and other new- sown 
plants. Earth up the celery, and 
sow young sallads upon warm and 
well- sheltered bordei;^. Clean as- 
paragus beds, cut down the stalks, 
pare off the earth from the surfa^ 
of the alleys, throw it upon the beds 
half an inch thick, and sprinkle o/er 
it a little dung from an old mebn 
bed. Dig up the ground where 
summer crops have ripened, and lay 
it in ridges for the winter. The ridges 
should be disposed east and west, 
and turned once in two months, td^ 
give them the advantage of a fallow. 
Sow some beans and peas on warm 
and well-sheltered borders, to stand 
out the winter. — October. Set 
out cauliflower plants, where they 
can be sheltered ; and if glasses 
are used, put two under each, for 
fear of one failing. Sow another 
crop of peas, and plant more beans ; 
choose a dry spot for them, where 
they can be sheltered from the 

K 1 T 

K I 'I' 

winter's cold. Transplant the let- 
tuces sown last month, where they 
can be defended by a reed fence, or 
under a wall. Transplant cabbage 
plants and coleworts, where they 
are to remain. Take great care of 
the cauliflower plants sown early in 
summer ; and as they now begin to 
show their heads, break in the leaves 
upon them to keep off" the sun and 
rain ; it will both harden and whiten 
them. — November. Weed the 
crops of spinach, and others that 
were sown late, or the wild growth 
will smother and starve the crop. 
Dig up a border under a warm wall, 
and sow some carrots for spring ; 
sow radishes in a similar situation, 
and let the ground be dug deep for 
both. Turn the mould that was 
trenched and laid up for fallowing; 
this will destroy the weeds, and en- 
rich the soil by exposing it to the 
air. Prepare some hotbeds for sa- 
lading, cover them five inches with 
mould, and sow them with lettuces, 
mustard, rape, cresses, and radish. 
Plant another crop of beans, and sow 
more peas for a succession. Trench 
the ground between the artichokes, 
and throw a thick ridge of earth 
over the roots : this will preserve 
them from the frost, and prevent 
their shooting at an improper time. 
Make a hotbed for asparagus. Take 
up carrots and parsnips, and put 
them in sand to be ready for use. 
Give air occasionally to the plants 
under hand-glasses and on hotbeds, 
or they will suffer as much for want 
of it, as they would have done by 
gH^an exposure to the cold. — Decem- 
ber. Plant cabbages and savoys 
for seed : this requires to be done 
carefully. Dig up a dry border, 
and break the mould well ; then take > 
up some of the stoutest cabbage and 
savoy plants, hang them up by the 
stalks four or five days, and after- 
wards plant them half way up the 
stalks into the ground. Draw up 
a good quantity of mould about the 
stalk that is above ground, make it 

into a kind of hill round each, and 
leave them to nature. Sow another 
crop of peas, and plant some more 
beans, to take their chance for suc- 
ceeding the other. Make another 
hotbed for asparagus, to yield a 
supply when the former is exhaust- 
ed. Continue to earth up celery, 
and cover some endive with a good 
quantity of peas straw, as it is grow- 
ing, that it may be taken up when 
wanted, and be preserved from the 
winter's frost. 

finest powder, one ounce of ginger, 
half an ounce each of cinnamon, 
black pepper, nutmeg, and Jamaica 
pepper ; ten cloves, and six ounces 
of salt. Keep it in a bottle, and it 
will be found an agreeable addition 
to any brown sauces or soups. Spice 
in powder, kept in small bottles 
close stopped, goes much farther 
than when used whole. It must be 
dried before it is pounded, and 
should be done in quantities that 
may be used in three or four months. 
Nutmeg need not be done, but the 
others should be kept in separate 
bottles, with a label on each. 

nual attention must be paid to the 
condition of the boilers, saucepans, 
stewpans, and other kitchen requi- 
sites, which ought to be examined 
every time they are used. Their 
covers also must be kept perfectly 
clean, and well tinned. Stewpans 
in particular should be cleaned, not 
only on the inside, but about a cou- 
ple of inches on the outside, or the 
broths and soups will look green and 
dirty, and taste bitter and poisonous. 
Not only health but even life de- 
pends on the perfectly clean and 
wholesome state of culinary .uten- 
sils. If the tinning of a pan hap 
pens to be scorched or blistered, it 
is best to send it directly to be re- 
paired, to prevent any possible dan- 
ger arising from the solution of 'the 
metal. Stewpans and soup pots 
should be made with thick round 



bottoms, similar to those of copper 
saucepans; they will then wear 
twice as long, and may be cleaned 
with half the trouble. The covers 
should be made to fit as close as 
possible, that the broth or soup may 
not waste by evaporation. They 
are good for nothing, unless they fit 
tight enough to keep the steam in, 
and the smoke out. Stewpans and 
saucepans should always be bright 
on the upper rim, where the fire does 
not burn them ; but it is not neces- 
sary to scour them all over, which 
would wear out the vessels. Soup 
pots and kettles should be washed 
immediately after being used, and 
carefully dried by the fire, before 
they are put by. They must also 
be kept in a dry place, or damp and 
rust will soon destroy them. Cop- 
per utensils should never be used in 
the kitchen ; or if they be, the ut- 
most care should be taken not to 
let the tin be rubbed off, and to have 
them fresh done when the least de- 
fect appears. Neither soup nor 
gravy should at any time be suffered 
to remain in them longer than is ab- 
solutely necessary for the purposes 
of cookery, as the fat and acid em- 
ployed in the operation, are capable 
of dissolving the metal, and so of 
poisoning what is intended to be 
eaten. Stone and earthen vessels 
should be provided for soups and 
gravies intended to be set by, as 
likewise plenty of common dishes, 
that the table-set may not be used 
for such purposes. Vegetables soon 
turn sour, and corrode metals and 
glazed red ware, by which a strong 
poison is produced. Vinegar, by 
its acidity, does the same, the glazing 
being of lead or arsenic. Care 
should be taken of sieves, jelly bags, 
and tapes for collared articles, to 
have them well scalded and kept 
dry, or they will impart an unplea- 
sant flavour when next used. Stew- 
pans especially, should never be 
used without first washing them out 
with boiling water, and rubbing them 

well with a dry cloth and a little 
bran, to clean them from grease and 
sand, or any bad smell they may 
have contracted since they were 
last used. In short, cleanlinesa is 
the cardinal virtue of the kitchen ; 
and next to this, economy. 

KNIFE BOARD. Common knife 
boards with brick dust,-soon wear 
out the knives that are sharpened 
upon them. To avoid this, cover 
the board with thick buff leather, 
and spread over it a thin paste of 
crocus martis, with a little emery 
finely powdered, and mixed up with 
lard or sweet oil. This will give a 
superior edge and polish to the knives, 
and make them wear much longer 
than in the usual way of cleaning 

persons are fond of boiled veal, it 
may be well to cut the knuckle small, 
and take ofi' some cutlets or collops 
before it is dressed ; but as the 
knuckle will keep longer than the 
fillet, it is best not to cut off the 
slices till wanted. Break the bones 
to make it take less room, wash the 
joint well, and put it into a sauce- 
pan with three onions, ao^^blade or 
two of mace, and a few pepper- 
corns. Cover it with water, and 
simmer it till quite done. In the 
mean time some macaroni should be 
boiled with it if approved, or rice, 
or a little rice flour, to give it a 
small degree of thickness ; but avoid 
putting in too much. Before it is 
served, add half a pint of milk and 
cream, and let it go to table either 
with or without the meat. — A knuckle 
of veal may also be fried with sliced 
onion and butter, to a good brown. 
Prepare some peas, lettuce, onion, 
and a cucumber or two, stewed in a 
small quantity of water for an hour. 
Add these to the veal, and stew it 
till the meat is tender enough to eat, 
but not overdone. Put in pepper, 
salt, and a little shred mint, and 
serve all together. 





Lamb, in purchasing this meat, 
observe particularly the neck of a 
fore-quarter. If the vein is bluish, 
it is fresh : if it has a green or yel- 
low cast, it is stale. In the hind- 
quarter, if there is a faint smell un- 
der the kidney, and the knuckle is 
limp, the meat is stale. If the eyes 
are sunk, the head is not fresh. 
Grass lamb comes into season in 
April or May, and continues till 
August. House lamb may be had 
in large towns almost all the year, 
but it is in highest perfection in De- 
cember and January. 

LAMB CHOPS. Cut up a neck 
or loin, rub the chops with egg, and 
sprinkle them over with grated bread, 
mixed with a little parsley, thyme, 
marjoram, and lemon peel, chopped 
fine. Fry them in butter till they 
are of a light brown, put them in a 
warm dish, garnished with crisped 
parsley. Or make a gravy in the 
pan with a little water, and butter 
roiled in flour, and pour it over 

steaks from the loin, and fry them. 
Stew some spinach, put it into a dish, 
and lay the cutlets round it. 

LAMB'S FRY. Serve it fried of 
a beautiful colour, and with a good 
deal of dried or fried parsley over it. 

LAMB'S HEAD. A house-lamb's 
head is the best ; but any other may 
be made white by soaking it in cold 
water. Boil the head separately 
till it is very tender. Have ready 
the liver and lights three parts boil- 
ed and cut small : stew them in a 
little of the water in which they 
were boiled, season and thicken 
with flour and butter, and serve the 
mince round the head. 

LAMB PIE. Make it of the loin, 
neck, or breast ; the breast of house- 
lamb especially, is very delicate and 
fine. It should be lightly seasoned 

with pepper and salt, the bone taken 
out, but not the gristle. A small 
quantity of jelly gravy is to be put 
in hot, but the pie should not be cut 
till cold. Put in two spoonfuls of 
water before baking. Grass lamb 
makes an excellent pie, and should 
only be seasoned with pepper and 
salt. Put in two spoonfuls of water 
before baking, and as much gravy 
when it comes from the oven. It 
may generally be remarked, that 
meat pies being fat, it is best to let 
out the gravy on one side, and put 
it in again by a funnel, at the cen- 
tre, when a little may be added. 

LAMB STEAKS. Quarter some 
cucumbers, and lay them into a deep 
dish ; sprinkle them with calt, and 
pour vinegar over them. Fry the 
steaks of a fine brown, and put them 
into a stewpan ; drain the cucum- 
bers, and put them over the steaks. 
Add some sliced onions, pepper and 
salt ; pour hot water or weak broth 
on them, and stew and skim them 

son some house-lamb steaks with 
pepper, salt, nutmeg, grated lemon 
peel, and chopped parsley : but dip 
them first into egg, and fry them 
quick. Thicken some good gravy 
with a little flour and butter, and 
add to it a spoonful of port wine, 
and some oysters. Boil up the li- 
quor, put in the steaks warm, and 
serve them up hot. Palates, balls, 
or eggs, may be added, if approved. 

of house-lamb should be stewed in 
milk and water till very tender, with 
a bit of lemon peel, a little salt, 
mace, and pepper. Have ready some 
veal gravy, and put the steaks into 
it ; mix some mushroom powder, a 
cup of cream, and a dust of flour ; 
shake the steaks in this liquor, stir 
it, and make it quite hot. Just l)e- 



fore taking up the steaks, put in a 
few white mushrooms. When poul- 
try is very dear, this dish will be 
found a good substitute. 

Blanch them, and put them a little 
while into cold water. Stew them 
with a ladleful of broth, some pep- 
per and salt, a few small onions, and 
a blade of mace. Stir in a bit of 
butter and flour, and stew them half 
an hour. Prepare two or three eggs 
well beaten in cream, with a little 
minced parsley, and a dust of grated 
nutmeg. Add a few tops of boiled 
asparagus, stir it well over the lire, 
but let it not boil after the cream is 
in, and take great care that it does 
not curdle. Young French beans or 
peas may be added, but should first 
be boiled of a beautiful colour. 

Skin and wash, dry and flour them ; 
then fry them of a beautiful brown 
in hog's lard. Lay them on a sieve 
before the fire, till the following 
sauce is prepared. Thicken nearly 
half a pint of veal gravy with flour 
and butter, and then add to it a 
slice of lemon, a large spoonful of 
mushroom ketchup, a tea-spoonful 
of lemon pickle, a taste of nutmeg, 
and the yolk of an eg^ well beaten 
in two large spoonfuls of thick 
cream. Put this over the fire, stir 
it well till it is hot, and looks white ; 
but do not let it boil, or it will cur- 
dle. Then put in the fry, shake it 
about near the fire for a minute or 
two, and serve it in a very hot dish 
and cover. — A fricassee of lamb- 
stones and sweetbreads may be pre- 
pared another way. Have ready 
some lambstones blanched, parboil- 
ed, and sliced. Flour two or three 
sweetbreads : if very thick, cut them 
in two. Fry all together, with a 
few large oysters, of a fine yellow 
brown. Pour off the butter, add a 
pint of good gravy, some asparagus 
tops about an inch long, a little 
nutmeg, pepper, and salt, two sha- 
lots shred fine, and a glass of white 

wine. Simmer them ten minutes, 
put a little of the gravy to the yolks 
of three eggs well beaten, and mix 
the whole together by degrees. 
Turn the gravy back into the pan, 
stir it till of a fine thickness without 
boiling, and garnish with lemon. 

LAMENESS. Much lameness, 
as well as deformity, might certainly 
be prevented, if stricter attention 
were paid to the early treatment of 
children. Weakness of the hips, 
accompanied with a lameness of 
both sides of the body, is frequently 
occasioned by inducing them to 
walk without any assistance, before 
they have strength suflicient to sup- 
port themselves. Such debility may 
in some measure be counteracted, 
by tying a girdle round the waist, 
and bracing up the hips ; but it re- 
quires to be attended to at an early 
period, or the infirmity will con- 
tinue for life. It will also be ad- 
visable to bathe such weak limbs in 
cold water, or astringent decoc- 
tions, for several months. If the 
lameness arise from contraction,, 
rather than from weakness, the best 
means will be frequent rubbing of 
the part affected. If this be not 
sufiicient, beat up the yolk of a new 
laid egg, mix it well with three 
ounces of water, and rub it gently 
on the part. Perseverance in the 
use of this simple remedy, has been 
snccessful in a great number of in- 

LAMPREY. To stew lamprey 
as at Worcester, clean the fish care- 
fully, and remove the cartilage which 
runs down the back. Season with 
a small quantity of cloves, mace, 
nutmeg, pepper, and allspice. Put 
it into a small stewpot, with beef 
gravy, port, and sherry. Cover it 
close, stew it till tender, take out 
the lamprey, and keep it hot. Boil 
up the liquor with two or three an- 
chovies chopped, and some butter 
rolled in flour. Strain the gravy 
through a sieve, add some lemon 
juice, and ready-made mustard. 



Serve with sippets of bread and 
horseradish. When there is spawn, 
itniii3t be fried and laid round. 
Eels done the same way, are a good 
deal like the lamprey. 

LARKS. To dress larks and 
other small birds, draw and spit 
them on a bird spit. Tie this on 
another spit, and roast them. Baste 
gently with butter, and strew bread 
crumbs upon them till half done. 
Brown them in dressing, and serve 
with bread crumbs round. 

of highly rectified spirits of wine, 
add an ounce of the essential oil of 
lavender, and two drams of the es- 
sence of ambergris. Put the whole 
into a quart bottle, shake it fre- 
quently, and decant it into small 
bottles for use. 

LAVER. This is a plant that 
grows on the rocks near the sea in 
the west of England, and is sent in 
pots prepared for eating. Place 
some of it on a dish over the lamp, 
with a bit of butter, and the squeeze 
of a Seville orange. Stir it till it is 
hot. It is eaten with roast meat, 
and tends to sweeten the blood. It 
is seldom liked at first, but habit 
renders it highly agreeable. 

impressions of leaves and plants, 
oil a sheet of fine paper, dry it in 
the sun, and rub oflfthe superfluous 
moisture with another piece of pa- 
per. After the oil is pretty well 
dried in, black the sheet by passing 
it over a lighted lamp or candle. 
Lay the leaf or plant on the black 
surface, with a small piece of paper 
over it, and rub it carefully till the 
leaf is thoroughly coloured. Then 
take it up undisturbed, lay it on the 
book or paper which is to receive 
the impression, cover it with a piece 
of blotting paper, and rub it on the 
back a short time with the finger as 
before. Impressions of the minutest 
veins and fibres of a plant may be 
taken in this way, superior to any 
engraving, atid whioJi may afterwards 

be coloured according to nature- 
A printer's ball laid upou a leaf, 
which is afterwards pressed on wet 
paper, will also pr<;duce a fine im- 
pression ; or if the leaf be touched 
with printing ink, and pressed with 
a rolling pin, nearly the same effect 
will be produced. 

LEATHER. To discharge grease 
from articles made of leather, ap- 
ply the white of an eg;g ; let it dry 
in the sun, and then rub it off. A 
paste made of dry mustard, potatoe 
meal, and two spoonfuls of the -spi- 
rits of turpentine, applied to the 
spot and rubbed off dry, will also 
be found to answer the purpose. If 
not, cleanse it with a little vinegar. 
Tanned leather is best cleaned with 
nitrous acid and salts of lemon di- 
luted with water, and afterwards 
mixed with skimmed milk. The 
surface of the leather should first 
be cleaned with a brush and soft 
water, adding a little free sand, and 
then repeatedly scoured with a brush 
dipped in the nitrous mixture. It 
is afterwards to be cleaned with a 
sponge and water, and left to dry. 

pounds of dough from the last bak- 
ing, and keep it in flour. Put the 
dough or leaven into a peck of flour 
the night before it is baked, and 
work them well together in warm 
water. Cover it up warm in a wood- 
en vessel, and the next morning it 
will be suflSciently fermented to mix 
with two or three bushels of flour : 
then work it up with warm water, 
and a pound of salt to each bushel. 
Cover it with flannel till it rises, 
knead it well, work it into broad 
flat loaves or bricks, and bake them 
as other bread. 

LEEK MILK. Wash a large 
handful of leeks, cut them small, 
and boil them in a gallon of milk 
till it become as thick as cream. 
Then strain it, and drink a small 
bason full twice a day. This is good 
for the jaundice. 

LEEK SOUP. Chop a quantity 



of leeks into some mutton broth or 
liquor, with a seasoning of salt and 
pepper. Simmer them an hour in 
a saucepan ; mix some oatmeal with 
a little cold water quite smooth, and 
pour it into the soup. Simmer it 
gently over a slow fire, and take care 
that it does not burn to the bottom. 
This is a Scotch dish. 

LEG OF LAMB. To make it 
look as white as possible, it should 
be boiled in a cloth. At the same 
time the loin should be fried in 
steaks, and served with it, garnished 
with dried or fried parsley. Spinach 
to eat with it. The leg may be 
roasted, or dressed separately. 

LEG OF MUTTON. If roast- 
ed, serve it up with onion or currant- 
jelly sauce. If boiled, with caper 
sauce and vep^etables. 

LEG OF PORK. Salt it, and 
let it lie six or seven days in the 
pickle, turn and rub it with the brine 
every day. Put it into boiling wa- 
ter, if not too salt ; use a good quan- 
tity of water, and let it boil all the 
time it is on the tire. Send it to 
table with peas pudding, melted but- 
ter, turnips, carrots, or greens. If 
it is wanted to be dressed sooner, it 
may be hastened by putting a little 
fresh salt on it every day. It will 
then be ready in half the time, but 
it will not be quite so tender. — To 
dress a leg of pork like goose, first 
parboil it, then take off the skin, 
and roast it. Baste it with butter, 
and make a savoury powder of fine- 
ly minced or dried and powdered 
sage, ground black pepper, and 
bread crumbs rubbed together 
through a cullender ; to which may 
be added an onion, very finely 
minced. Sprinkle the joint with 
this mixture when it is almost roast- 
ed, put half a pint of made gravy 
into the dish, and goose stuffing un- 
der the knuckle skin, or garnish with 
balls of it, either fried or boiled. 

LEG OF VEAL. Let the fillet 
be cut large or small, as best suits 

the size of the company. Takeout, 
the bone, fill the space with a fine 
stuffing, skewer it quite round, and 
send it to table with the large side 
uppermost. When half roasted, or 
before, put a paper over the fat, 
and take care to allow sufficient 
time : as the meat is very solid, 
place it at a good distance from the 
fire, that it may be gradually heated 
through. Serve it up with melted 
butter poured over it. Some of it 
would be good for potting. 

dozen of lemons, and steep the peels 
in a gal'lon of brandy. Squeeze the 
lemons on two pounds of fine sugar, 
and add six quarts of water. The 
next day put the ingredients toge- 
ther, pour on three pints of boiling 
milk, let it stand two days, and 
strain it off. 

LEMON CAKE. Beat up the 
whites often eggs, with three spoon- 
fuls of orange flower water ; put in 
a pound of sifted sugar, and the 
rind of a lemon grated. When it is 
well mixed, add the juice of half a 
lemon, and the yolks of ten eggs 
beaten smooth. Stir in three quar- 
ters of a pound of flour, put the cake 
into a buttered pan, and bake it an 
hour carefully. 

four ounces of fine sifted sugar 
and four ounces of butter, and melt 
it gently. Then add the yolks of 
two and the white of one egg, the 
rind of three lemons shred fine, and 
thejuiceof one and a half ; also one 
sasoy biscuit, some blanched al- 
monds pounded, and three spoon- 
fuls of brandy. Mix them well to- 
gether, and put in the following 
paste. Eight ounces of flour, six 
ounces of butter, two thirds of which 
must first be mixed with the flour; 
then wet it with six spoonfuls of wa- 
ter, and roll in the remainder.— 
Another way. Boil two large le- 
mons, or three small ones, and after 
squeezing, pound them well toge- 


L E M 

^therin a mortar, with fo«r ounces of 
loaf sugar, the yolks of six eggs, and 
eight ounces of fresh butter. Fill 
the patti«pans half full. Orange 
cheesecakes are done in the same 
way, only the peel must be boiled 
in two or three waters to take out 
the bitterness : or make them of 
orange marmalade well beaten in a 

LEMON CREAM. Put to a pint 
of thick cream, the yolks of two 
eggs well beaten, four ounces of fine 
sugar, and the thin rind of a lemon. 
Boil it up, and stir it till nearly cold. 
Put the juice of a lemon into a bowl, 
and pour the cream upon it, stirring 
it till quite cold. White lemon cream 
is made in the same way, only put 
the whites of the eggs instead of the 
yolks, whisking it extremely well to 
a froth. 

yolks of eight eggs till they are as 
white as milk ; then put to them a 
pint of boiling water, the rinds of 
two lemons grated, and the juice 
sweetened to taste. Stir it on the 
fire till it thickens ; then add a large 
glass of rich wine, and half a glass 
of brandy. Give the whole one 
scald, and put it in cups to be eaten 

LEMON DROPS. Grate three 
large lemons, with a large piece of 
double-refined sugar. Then scrape 
the sugar into a plate, add half a 
tea-spoonful of flour, mix well, and 
beat it into a light paste with the 
white of an egg. Drop it upon white 
paper, and put the drops into a lAo- 
derate oven on a tin plate. 

en the juice of a lemon to your taste, 
and put it in the dish that you in- 
tend to serve it in. Mix the white 
of an egg well beaten, with a pint 
of rich cream, and a little sugar. 
Whisk it; and as the froth rises, 
put it on the lemon juice. Prepare 
it the day before it is to be used. 

LEMON JUICE. In order to 

keep this article ready for use, the 
best way is to buy the fruit when it 
is cheap, and lay it two or three 
days in a cool place. If too unripe 
to squeeze immediately, cut the peel 
off some of them, and roll them un- 
der the hand, to make them part 
with the juice more freely. Others 
may be left unpared for grating, 
when the pulp is taken out, and they 
are dried. Squeeze the juice into 
a china bason, and strain it through 
some muslin which will not permit 
any of the pulp to pass. Having 
prepared some small phials, per- 
fectly dry, fill them with the juice 
so near the top as only to admit half 
a tea-spoonful of sweet oil into each. 
Cork the bottles tight, and set them 
upright in a cool place. When the 
lemon juice is wanted, open only 
such a sized bottle as will be used 
in two or three days. Wind some 
clean cotton round a skewer, and 
dipping it in, the oil will be attract- 
ed ; and when all of it is removed, 
the juice will be as fine as when first 
bottled. Hang the peels up to dry, 
and keep them from the dust. 

a large lemon, boil the outside till 
tender enough to beat to a mash. 
Add to it three large apples chop- 
ped, four ounces of suet, half a 
pound of washed currants, and four 
ounces of sugar. Put in the juice 
of a lemon, and candied fruit, as 
for other pies. Make a short crust, 
and fill the pattipans as usual. 

LEMON PICKLE. Wipe six le- 
mons, and cut each into eight pieces. 
Put on them a pound of salt, six large 
cloves of garlic, two ounces of horse- 
radish sliced thin ; likewise of cloves, 
mace, nutmeg, and cayenne, a quar- 
ter of an ounce of each, and two 
ounces of flour of mustard. To 
these add two quarts of vinegar, 
and boil it a quarter of an hour in a 
well-tinned saucepan ; or, which is 
better, do it in a jar, placed in a 
kettle of boiling water, or set the 


L E M 

jar on a hot hearth till done. Then 
set the jar by closely covered, stir- 
ring it daily for six weeks, and after- 
wards put the pickle into small bot- 

yolks of four eggs ; add four ounces 
of white sugar, the rind of a lemon 
being rubbed with some lumps of it 
to take the essence. Then peel and 
beat it into a paste, with the juice 
of a large lemon, and mix all toge- 
ther with four or five ounces of warm- 
ed butter. Put a crust into a shal- 
low dish, nick the edges, and put 
the above into it. When sent to 
table, turn the pudding out of the 

LEMON PUFFS. Beat and sift 
a pound and a quarter of double- 
refined sugar ; grate the rind of two 
large lemons, and mix it well with 
the sugar. Then beat the whites of 
three new-laid eggs a great while ; 
add them to the sugar and peel, and 
beat it together for an hour. Make 
it up into any shape, put it on paper 
laid on tin plates, and bake in a mo- 
derate oven. Oiling the paper will 
make it come off with ease, but it 
should not be removed till quite 

LEMON SAUCE. Cut thin slices 
of lemon into very small dice, and 
put them into melted butter. Give 
it one boil, and pour it over boiled 

Pare off as thin as possible the rind 
of a lemon, or of a Seville orange, 
so as not to cut off any of the white 
with it. Then peel off all the white, 
and cut the lemon into slices, about 
as thick as two half crowns. Pick 
out the peps, and divide the slices 
into small squares. Prepare the 
liver as for Liver and Parsley Sauce, 
and add to it the slices of lemon, 
and a little of the peel finely minced. 
Warm up the sauce in melted butter, 
but do not let it boil. 

LEMON SYRUP. Put a pint of 
fresh lemon juice to a pound and 

three quarters of lump sugar. Dis-W 
solve it by a gentle heat, skim it till 
the surface is quite clear, and add 
an ounce of lemon peel cut very t'hin. 
Let them simmer very gently for a 
few minutes, and run the syrup 
through a flannel. When cold, bot- 
tle and cork it closely, and keep it 
in a cool place. 

LEMON WATER. A delightful 
drink may be made of two slices of 
lemon, thinly pared into a teapot, 
with a little sugar, or a large spoon- 
ful of capillaire. Pour in a pint of 
boiling water, and stop it close two 

LEMON WHEY. Pour into boil- 
ing milk as much lemon juice as 
will make a small quantity quite 
clear ; dilute it with hot water to an 
agreeable smart acid, and add a bit 
or two of sugar. This is less heat- 
ing than if made of wine ; and if in- 
tended only to excite perspiration, 
will answer the purpose as well. 
Vinegar whey is made in the same 
manner, by using vinegar only, in- 
stead of lemon juice. 

the peel of a small lemon very thin, 
and put it into a pint of sweet rich 
cream, with a sprig of lemon thyme, 
and ten white peppercorns. Sim- 
mer gently till it tastes well of the 
lemon, then strain and thicken it 
with a quarter of a pound of butter, 
and a dessert-spoonful of flour rub- 
bed in it. Boil it up, stir it well, 
and pour the juice of the lemon 
strained into it. Dish up the chick- 
ens, and mix with the cream a little 
white gravy quite hot, but do not 
boil them together : add a little salt 
to flavour. 

keep oranges or lemons for pud- 
dings, squeeze out the pulp, and put 
the outsides into water for a fort- 
night. Then boil them in the same 
water till they are quite tender, strain 
the liquor from them, and when they 
are tolerably dry, put them into any 
jar of candy that happens to be left 



» from old sweetmeats. Or boil a 
small quantity of syrup of lump su- 
gar and water, and put over them. 
In a week or ten days boil them 
gently in it till they look clear, and 
cover them with it in the jar. If 
the fruit be cut in halves, they will 
occupy less space. 

LEMONADE. To prepare le- 
monade a day before it is wanted 
for use, pare two dozen lemons as 
thin as possible. Put eight of the 
rinds into three quarts of hot water, 
not boiling, and cover it over for 
three or four hours. Rub some fine 
loaf sugar on the lemons to attract 
the essence, and put it into a china 
bowl, in1;o which the juice of the 
lemons is to be squeezed. Add a 
pound and a half of fine sugar, then 
put the water to the above, and three 
quarts of boiling milk. Pour the 
mixture through a jelly bag, till it 
is perfectly clear. — Another way. 
Pare a quantity of lemons, and pour 
some hot water on the peels. While 
infusing, boil some sugar and water 
to a good syrup, with the white of 
an egg whipt up. When it boils, 
pour a little cold water into it. Set 
it on again, and when it boils take 
off the pan, and let it stand by to 
settle. If there be any scum, take 
it off, and pour it clear from the se- 
diment, to the water in which the 
peels were infused, and the lemon 
juice. Stir and taste it, and add 
as much more water as shall be ne- 
cessary to make a very rich lemon- 
ade. Wet a jelly bag, and squeeze 
it dry ; then strain the liquor, and 
it will be very fine. — To make a le- 
monade which has the appearance 
of jelly, pare two Seville oranges 
and six lemons very thin, and steep 
them four hours in a quart of hot 
water. Boil a pound and a quarter 
of loaf sugar in three pints of water, 
and skim it clean. Add the two 
liquors to the juice of six China 
oranges, and twelve lemons ; stir 
the whole well, and run it through a 
jelly bag till it is ouite clear. Then 

add a little orange water, if ap- 
proved, and more sugar if necessary. 
Let it be well corked, and it will 
keep.- -Lemonade may be prepared 
in a minute, bj pounding a quarter 
of an ounce of citric or crystalised 
lemon acid, with a few drops of 
quintessence of lemon peel, and 
mixing it by degrees with a pint of 
clarified syrup or capillaire. 

LENT POTATOES. Beat three 
or four ounces of almonds, and three 
or four bitter ones when blanched, 
putting a little orange flower water 
to prevent oiling. Add eight ounces 
of butter, four eggs well beaten and 
strained, half a glass of raisin wine, 
and sugar to taste. Beat all toge- 
ther till quite smooth, and grate in 
three Savoy biscuits. Make balls 
of the above with a little flour, the 
size of a chesnut ; throw them into 
a stewpan of boiling lard, and boil 
them of a beautiful yellow brown. 
Drain them on a sieve, and serve 
with sweet sauce in a boat. 

LETHARGY. This species of 
apoplexy discovers itself by an in- 
vincible drowsiness, or inclination 
to sleep ; and is frequently attended 
with a degree of fever, and coldness 
of the extremities. Blisters and 
emetics have often procured relief. 
The affusion of cold water upon the 
head, and the burning of feathers or 
other fetid substances, held near the 
nostrils, are also attended with ad-* 
vantage. " 

LICE. Want of cleanliness, im- 
moderate warmth, violent perspira- 
tion, and a corrupted state of the 
fluids, tend to promote the genera- 
tion of this kind of vermin. The 
most simple remedy is the seed of 
parsley, reduced to a fine powder 
and rubbed to the roots of the hair, 
or to rub the parts affected with 
garlic and mustard. To clean the 
heads of children, take half an ounce 
of honey, half an ounce of sulphur, 
an ounce of vinegar, and two ounces 
of sweet oil. Mix the whole into a 
liniment, and rub a little of it on the 



head repeatedly. Lice which infest 
clothes, may be destroyed by fumi- 
gating the articles of dress with the 
vapour of sulphur. Garden lice 
may be treated in the same way as 
for destroying insects. 

LIGHT CAKE. Mix a pound 
of flour, half a pound of currants, 
and a Kttle nutmeg, sugar, and salt. 
Melt a quarter of a pound of butter 
in a quarter of a pint of milk, and 
strain into it two spoonfuls of yeast 
and two eggs. Stir it well together, 
set it before the fire to rise, and 
bake it in a quick oven. 

LIGHT PASTE. For tarts and 
cheesecakes, beat up the white of 
an e^g to a strong froth, and mix it 
with as much water as will make 
three quarters of a pound of fine 
flour into a very stifl" paste. Roll 
it out thin, lay two or three ounces 
of butter upon it in little bits, dredge 
it with a little flour, and roll it up 
tight. Roll it out again, and add 
the same proportion of butter, and 
so proceed till the whole is worked up. 

LIGHT PUFFS. Mix two spoon- 
fuls of flour, a little grated lemon 
peel, some nutmeg, half a spoonful 
of brandy, a little loaf-sugar, and 
one egg. Fry it enough, but not 
brown ; beat it in a mortar with 
five eggs, whites and yolks. Put 
a quantity of lard in a fryingpan ; 
and when quite hot, drop a dessert- 
spoonful of batter at a time, and 
turn them as they brown. Send 
the puflfs to table quickly, with sweet 

LIME WATER. Pour two gal- 
loiis of water upon a pound of fresh- 
burnt lime ; and when the ebullition 
ceases, stir it wp well, and let it 
stand till the lime is settled. Filter 
the liquor through paper, and keep 
it for use closely stopped. It is 
chiefly used for the gravel, in which 
case a pint or more may be drunk 
daily. For the itch, or other dis- 
ea8e8 of the skin, it is to be applied 

LINEN, Lineu in every form is 
(No. 9.) 

liable to all the accidents of mildew, 
iron moulds, ink spots, and various 
other stains, which prove highly in- 
jurious, if not speedily removed. In 
case of mildew, rub the part well 
with soap, then scrape and rub on 
some fine chalk, and lay the linen 
out to bleach. Wet it a little now 
and then, and repeat the operation 
if necessary. Ink spots and iron 
moulds may be removed, by rubbing 
them with the salt of sorrel, or weak 
muriatic acid, and laying the part 
over a teapot or kettle of boiling 
water, so that it may be afl'ected by 
the steam. Or some crystals of 
tartar powdered, and half the quan- 
tity of alum, applied in the same 
manner, will be found to extract the 
spots. The spirits of salts diluted 
with water, will remove iron moulds 
from linen ; and sal ammoniac with 
lime, will take out the stains of wine. 
Fruit stains may generally be re- 
moved by wetting the part with 
water, and exposing it to the fumes 
of brimstone. When ink has been 
suddenly spilled on linen, wet the 
place immediately with the juice of 
sorrel or lemon, or with vinegar, 
and rub it with hard white soap. 
Or add to the juice a little salts, 
steam the linen over boiling water, 
and wash it afterwards in ley. If 
ink be spilled on a green tablecloth 
or carpet, the readiest way is to 
take it up immediately with a spoon, 
and by pouring on fresh water, while 
the spoon is constantly applied, the 
stains will soon be removed . Scorch- 
ed linen may be restored by means 
of the following application. Boil 
two ounces of fuller's earth, an ounce 
of hen's dung, half an ounce of soap, 
and the juice of two onions, in half 
a pint of vinegar, till reduced to a 
good consistency. Spread the com- 
position over the damaged part, let 
it dry on, and then wash it well 
once or twice. If the threads be 
not actually consumed by the scorch, 
the linen will soon be restored to ita 
former whiteness. 

cc 193 



LIP SALVE. Put into a small 
jar two ounces of white wax, half 
an ounce of spermaceti, and a quar- 
ter of a pint of oil of sweet almonds. 
Tie it down close, and put the jar 
into a small saucepan, with as much 
water as will nearly reach the top 
of the jar, but not so as to boil over 
it, and let it simmer till the wax is 
melted. Then put in a pennyworth 
of alkanet root tied up in a rag, with 
the jar closed, and boil it till it be- 
comes red. Take out the alkanet 
root, and put in two pennyworth of 
essence of lemon, and a few drops 
of bergamot. Pour some into small 
boxes for present use, and the re- 
mainder into a gallipot tied down 
with a bladder.— Another. An ounce 
of white wax and ox marrow, with 
three ounces of white pomatum, 
melted together over a slow fire, 
will make an agreeable lip salve, 
which may be coloured with a dram 
of alkanet, and stirred till it becomes 
a fine red. 

Steep the crumb of a penny loaf 
grated, in about a pint of warm 
milk. When sufficiently soaked, 
beat up six eggs, whites and yolks, 
and mix with the bread. Add two 
ounces of warmed butter, some su- 
gar, orange flower water, a spoonful 
of brandy, a little nutmeg, and a 
tea-cupful of cream. Beat all well 
together, bake in buttered teacups, 
and serve with pudding sauce. A 
quarter of a pound of currants may 
be added, but the puddings are good 
without. Orange or lemon will be 
an agreeable addition. 

and drain a good quantity of spinach, 
two large handfuls of parsley, and 
a handful of green onions. Chop the 
parsley and onions, and sprinkle 
them among the spinach. Stew them 
together with a little salt and butter, 
shake the pan when it begins to 
grow warm, and cover it close till 
done enough over a slow fire. Lay 
on slices of liver, fried of a nice 

browr, and slices of bacon just 
warmed at the fire. On the outside 
part of the herbs lay some eggs 
nicely fried, and trimmed round. 
Or the eggs may be served on the 
herbs, and the liver garnished with 
the bacon separately. 

LIVER SAUCE. Chop some li- 
ver of rabbits or fowls, and do it 
the same as for lemon sauce, with 
a very little pepper and salt, and 
some parsley. 

Wash the fresh liver of a fowl or 
rabbit, and boil it five minutes in a 
quarter of a pint of water. Chop 
it fine, or pound or bruise it in a 
little of the liquor it was boiled in, 
and rub it through a sieve. Wash 
about one third the bulk of parsley 
leaves, put them into boiling water, 
with a tea-spoonful of salt, and let 
them boil. Then lay the parsley 
on a hair sieve, mince it very fine, 
and mix it with the liver. Warm 
up the sauce in a quarter of a pint 
of melted butter, but do not let it 

LOBSTERS. If they have not 
been long taken, the claws will have 
a strong motion, when the finger is 
pressed upon the eyes. The hea- 
viest are the best, and it is prefer- 
able to boil them at home. If pur- 
chased ready boiled, try whether 
their tails are stiffs, and pull up with 
a spring ; otherwise that part will 
be flabby. The male lobster is 
known by the narrow back part of 
his tail, and the two uppermost fins 
within it are stiff" and hard : those 
of the hen are soft, and the tail 
broader. The male, though generally 
smaller, has the highest flavour, the 
flesh is firmer, and the colour when 
boiled is a deeper red. 

made as oyster patties, gently stew- 
ed and seasoned, and put into paste 
baked in pattipans, with the addi- 
tion of a little cream, and a very 
small piece of butter. 

LOBSTER PIE. Boil two or 



three small lobsters, take out the 
tails, and cut them in two. Take 
out the gut, cut each into four pieces, 
and lay them in a small dish. Put 
in the meat of the claws, and that 
picked out of the body ; pick off 
the furry parts of the latter, and 
take out the lady ; beat the spawn 
in a mortar, and likewise all the 
shells. Stew them with some wa- 
ter, two or three spoonfuls of vine- 
gar, pepper, salt, and some pounded 
mace. A large piece of butter rolled 
in flour must be added, when the 
goodness of the shells is obtained. 
Give it a boil or two, and pour it 
into a dish strained ; strew some 
crumbs, and put a paste over all. 
Bake it slowly, and only till the 
paste is done. 

salad, cut some of the red part of 
the lobster, and add to it. This 
will form a pleasing contrast to the 
white and green of the vegetables. 
Be careful not to put in too much 
oil, as shell-fish absorbs the sharp- 
ness of the vinegar. Serve it up in 
a dish, not in a bowl. 

spawn with two anchovies, pour on 
two spoonfuls of gravy, and strain 
all into some melted butter. Then 
put in the meat of the lobster, give 
it all one boil, and add the squeeze 
of a lemon. Or leave out the an- 
chovies and gravy, and do it as 
above, either with or without salt 
and ketchup, as may be most ap- 
proved. Many persons prefer the 
flavour of the lobster and salt only. 

meat from the claws, bodies, and 
tails, of six small lobsters. Remove 
the brown fur, and the bag in the 
head ; beat the fins in a mortar, 
the chine, and the small claws. Boil 
it very gently in two quarts of wa- 
ter, with the crumb of a French roll, 
some white pepper, salt, two an- 
chovies, a large onion, sweet herbs, 
and a bit of lemon peel, till all the 
goodness is extracted, and then strain 

it off". Beat the spawn in a. mortar 
with a bit of butter, a quarter of a 
nutmeg, and a tea-spoonful of flour, 
and then mix it with a quart of 
cream. Cut the tails into piece*, 
and give them a boil up with the 
cream and soup. Serve with force- 
meat balls made of the remainder 
of the lobster, mace, pepper, salt, 
a few crumbs, and an egg or two. 
Let the balls be made up with a lit- 
tle flour, and heated in the soup. 

LODGINGS. The tenure on 
which the generality of houses are 
held, does not warrant a tenant to 
let, or a lodger to take apartments 
by the year. To do this, the tenant 
ought himself to be the proprietor 
of the premises, or to hold posses- 
sion by lease for an unexpired term 
of several years, which would invest 
him with the right of a landlord to 
give or receive half a year's notice, 
or proceed as in other cases of land- 
lord and tenant. Unfurnished lodg- 
ings are generally let by the week, 
inonth, or quarter; and if ever they 
be let by the year, it is a deviation 
from a general custom, and attended 
with inconvenience. If a lodger 
should contend that he agreed for 
a whole year, he must produce some 
evidence of the fact; such as a 
written agreement, or the annual 
payment of rent ; otherwise he must 
submit to the general usage of being 
denominated a quarterly lodger. In 
the case of weekly tenants, the rent 
must be paid weekly ; for if once 
allowed to go to a quarter, and the 
landlord accept it as a quarter's 
rent, he breaks the agreement ; the 
inmate then becomes a quarterly 
lodger, and must receive a quarter's 
notice to quit. More care however 
is still required in letting lodgings 
that are ready furnished, as the law 
does not regard them in the same 
light as other tenements. Such 
apartments are generally let by the 
week, on payment of a certain sum, 
part of which is for the room, and 
part for the use of the furniture^ 



which is attended with some diHi- 
culty. Properly considered, the 
payment is not rent, nor are the 
same remedies lawful as in unfur- 
nished lodgings. The best way to 
let furnished lodgings is to have a 
written agreement, with a catalogue 
of all the goods, and to let the 
apartments and the furniture for 
separate sums : in which case, if 
the rent be not paid, distress may 
be made for it, though not for the 
furniture. Persons renting furnish- 
ed apartments frequently absent 
themselves, without apprising the 
housekeeper, and as often leave the 
rent in arrear. In such a case, the 
housekeeper should send for a con- 
stable, after the expiration of the 
first week, and in his presence enter 
the apartment, take out the lodger's 
property and secure it, until a re- 
quest be made for it. If after four- 
teen days' public notice in the ga- 
zette, the lodger do not come and 
pay the arrears, the housekeeper 
may sell the property for the sum 
due. When a housekeeper is trou- 
bled with a disagreeable character, 
the best way to recover possession 
of the apartment is to deliver a 
written notice by a person that can 
be witness, stating that if thfe lodger 
did not quit that day week, the land- 
lord would insist on his paying an 
advance of so much per week ; and 
if he did not quit after such notice, 
he would make the same advance 
after every following week. In the 
city of London, payment may be 
procured by summoning to the Court 
,^f Requests at Guildhall, for any 
sum not exceeding five pounds. In 
other parts of the kingdom there 
are similar Courts of Conscience, 
where payment may be enforced to 
the amount of forty shillings. 

LOIN OF MUTTON. If roast- 
ed, it is better to cut it lengthways 
as a saddle ; or if for steaks, pies, 
or broth. If there be more fat on 
the loin than is agreeable, take off 
a part of it before it is dressed ; it 

will make an excellent suet pudding, 
or crust for a meat pie, if cut V€;ry 

LONDON BREAD. According 
to the method practised by the Lon- 
don bakers, a sack of flour is sifted 
into the kneading trough, to mak^;^ 
it lie loose. Six pounds of salt, 
and two pounds of alum, are sepa- 
rately dissolved in hot water ; and 
the whole being cooled to about 
ninety degrees, is mixed with two 
quarts of yeast. When this mix- 
ture has been well stirred, it is 
strained through a cloth or sieve, 
and is then poured into a cavity 
made in the flour. The whole is 
now mixed up into a dough, and a 
small quantity of flour being sprink- 
led over it, it is covered up with 
cloths, and the lid of the trough is 
shut down, the better to retain the 
heat. The fermentation now goes 
on, and the mass becomes enlarged 
in bulk. In the course of two or 
three hours, another pailful of warm 
water is well mixed with the sponge, 
and it is again covered up for about 
four hours. At the end of this time, 
it is to be kneaded for more than 
an hour, with three pailfuls of 
warm water. It is now returned to 
the trough in pieces, sprinkled with 
dry flour, aud at the end of four 
hours more, it is again kneaded for 
half an hour, and divided into quar- 
tern and half-quartern loaves. The 
weight of a quartern loaf, before 
baking, should be four pounds fif- 
teen ounces ; after baking, four 
pounds six ounces, avoirdupois. 
When the dough has received its 
proper shape for loaves, it is put 
into the oven, at a heat that will 
scorch flour without burning, where 
it is baked two hours and a half, or 
three hours. 

writer has given considerable infor- 
niation respecting the brewing of 
porter. His intention being to ex- 
hibit the advantages derived from 
domestic brewing, he has annexed 




the pike of each article of the com- 
position, though it will be seen that 
the expense on some of the princi- 
pal articles has been considerably 
reduced since that estimate was 

£ s. d. 
One quarter of malt .220 
8lb. of hops ... 12 
Ql^ of treacle ... 2 
8lb of liquorice root bruis- 
ed 8 

8lb of essentia bina .048 
8lb of- colouring ..048 
Capsicum half an ounce 2 
Spanish liquorice two 

ounces .... 2 
India berries one ounce 2 
Salt of tartar two drams 1 
Heading a quarter of an 

onnce .... 1 
Ginger three ounces .003 
Lime four ounces ..001 
Linseed one ounce ..001 
Cinnamon bark two drams 2 


3 14 

Total expense £ 3 17 7 

This will produce ninety gallons 
of good porter, and fifty gallons of 
table beer ; the cost of the porter 
at the large breweries being £7 10s. 
and that of the beer £1 Is. leaves 
a profit of £5 to the brewer. — The 

* essentia bina' is composed of eight 
pounds of moist sugar, boiled in an 
iron vessel, for no copp^ one could 
withstand the heat sufficiently, till 
it becomes of a thick syrupy con- 
sistence, perfectly black, and ex- 
tremely bitter. The * colouring' is 
composed of eight pounds of moist 
sugar, boiled till it attains a middle 
state, between bitter and sweet. It 
gives that fine mellow colour usu- 
ally so much admired in good porter. 
These ingredients are added to the 
first wort, and boiled with it. The 

* heading' is a mixture of half alum, 
and^ftlf copperas, ground to a fine 

powder. It is so called, from its 
giving to porter that beautiful head 
or froth, which constitutes one of 
the peculiar properties of porter, 
and which publicans are so anxious 
to raise to gratify their customers. 
The linseed, ginger, limewater, cin- 
namon, and several other small ar- 
ticles, are added or withheld ac- 
cording to the taste or practice of 
the brewer, which accounts for the 
diff'erent flavours so observable in 
London porter. Of the articles here 
enumerated, it is sufficient to ob- 
serve, that however much they may 
surprise, however pernicious or dis- 
agreeable they may appear, they 
have always been deemed necessary 
in the brewing of porter. They must 
invariably be used by those who 
wish to continue the taste, the fla- 
vour and appearance, to which they 
have been accustomed. — Omitting 
however those ingredients which are 
deemed pernicious, it will be seen 
by the following estimate how much 
more advantageous it is to provide 
even a small quantity of home- 
brewed porter^ where this kind of 
liquor is preferred. 

Ingredients necessary for brewing 
five gallons of porter. 

s. d. 
One peck of malt ... 2 6 
Quarter of a pound of liquorice 

bruised 3 

Spanish liquorice .... 6 

Essentia 2 

Colour 2 

Treacle 2 

Hops G 

Capsicum and ginger ..01 
Coals 10 

Total expense 

4 8 

This will produce five gallons 
of good porter, which if 
bought of the brewer would 
cost 8 4 

But being brewed at home, for 4 8 

Leaves a clear gain of . 3 8 
♦ 197 



Ihis saving is quite enough to pay 
for time and trouble, besides the 
advantage of having a wholesome 
liquor, free from all poisonous in- 
gredients. Porter thus brewed will 
be fit for use in a week, and may 
be drunk with pleasure. To do 
ample justice to the subject how- 
ever, it may be proper briefly to no- 
tice the specific properties of the 
various ingredients which enter into 
the composition of London porter. 
It is evident that some porter is more 
heady than others, and this arises 
from the greater or less quantity of 
stupefying ingredients intermixed 
with it. Malt itself, to produce in- 
toxication, must be used in such 
large quantities as would very much 
diminish the brewer's profit. Of the 
wholesomeness of malt there can be 
no doubt ; pale malt especially is 
highly nutritive, containing more 
balsamic qualities than the brown 
malt, which being subject to a 
greater degree of fire in the kiln, is 
sometimes so crusted and burnt, 
that the mealy part loses some of its 
best qualities. Amber malt is that 
which is dried in a middling degree, 
between pale and brown, and is now 
much in use, being the most plea- 
sant, and free from either extreme. 
Hops are an aromatic grateful bit- 
ter, very wholesome, and undoubt- 
edly efl[icacious in giving both fla- 
vour and strength to the beer. Yeast 
is necessary to give the liquor that 
portion of elastic air, of which the 
boiling deprives it. Without fer- 
mentation, or working, no worts, 
however rich, can inebriate. Liquo- 
rice root is pleasant, wholesome, and 
aperient; and opposes the astrin- 
gent qualities of some of the other 
ingredients; it ought therefore to 
be used, as should Spanish liquo- 
rice, which possesses the same pro- 
perties. Capsicum disperses wind, 
and when properly used, cannot be 
unwholesome : it leaves a glow of 
warmth on the stomach, which is 
perceptible in drinking some beers. 
1D8 ♦ 

Ginger has the same eff*ect as cap- 
sicum, and it also cleanses and fla- 
tours the beer. But capsicum be- 
ing cheaper is more used, and by 
its tasteless though extremely hot 
quality, cannot be so readily dis- 
covered in beer as ginger. Treacle 
partakes of many of the properties 
of liquorice ; and by promoting the 
natural secretions, it renders porter 
and beer in general* very wholesome. 
Treacle also is a cheaper article 
than sugar, and answers the purpose 
of colour, where the beer is intended 
for immediate consumption ; but in 
summer, when a body is required to 
withstand the temperature of the 
air, and the draught is not quick, 
sugar alone can give body to porter. 
Treacle therefore is a discretionary 
article. Coriander seed, used prin- 
cipally in ale, is warm and stomach- 
ic ; but when used in great quan- 
tity, it is pernicious. Coculus Indi- 
cus, the India berry, is poisonous 
and stupefying, when taken in any 
considerable quantity. When ground 
into fine powder it is undiscoverable 
in the liquor, and is but too much 
used to the prejudice of the public 
health. What is called heading, 
should be made of the salt of steel ; 
but a mixture of alum and coppera 
being much cheaper, is more fre- 
quently used. Alum is a great drier, 
and causes that thirst which some 
beer occasions ; so that the more 
you drink of it, the more you want. 
Alum likewiite gives a taste of age 
to the beer, and is penetrating to 
the palate. Copperas is well known 
to be poisonous, and may be seen 
in the blackness which some beer 
discovers. Salt is highly useful in 
all beers ; it gives a pleasing relish, 
and also fines the liquor. — ^These re- 
marks are sufiicient to show the 
propriety of manufacturing at home 
a good wholesome article for family 
use, instead of resorting to a public 
house for every pint of beer which 
nature demands, and which when 
procured is both expensive -and 



pernicious. And lest any objec- 
tion should be made, as to the diffi- 
culty and inconvenience of brewing, 
a few additional observations will 
here be given, in order to facilitate 
this very important part of domes- 
tic economy. Be careful then to 
procure malt and hops of the very 
best quality, and let the brewing 
vessels be closely inspected ; the 
least taint may spoil a whole brew- 
ing of beer. The mash tub should 
be particularly attended to, and a 
\\hisp of clean hay or straw is to be 
spread over the bottom of the vessel 
in the inside, to prevent the flour 
of the malt running off with the 
liquor. The malt being emptied in- 
to the mash tub, and the water 
brought to boil, dash the boiling 
water in the copper with cold wa- 
ter sufficient to stop the boiling, 
and leave it just hot enough to scald 
the finger, always remembering to 
draw off the second mash somewhat 
hotter than the first. The water 
being thus brought to a proper tem- 
perature by the addition of cold 
water, lade it out of the copper over 
the malt till it becomes thoroughly 
wet, stirring it well to prevent the 
malt from clotting. When the wa- 
ter is poured on too hot, it sets the 
malt, and closes the body of the 
grain, instead of opening it so as to 
dissolve in the liquor. Cover up the 
mash tub close to compress the 
steam, and prevent the liquid from 
evaporating. Let the wort stand 
an hour and a half or two hours af- 
ter mashing, and then let the liquor 
run off into a vessel prepared to re- 
ceive it. If at first it runs thick 
and discoloured, draw off a pailful 
or two, and pour it back again into 
the mash tub till it runs clear. In 
summer it will be necessary to put 
a few hops into the vessel which re- 
ceives the liquor out of the mash 
tub, to prevent its turning sour, 
which the heat of the weather will 
sometimes endanger. Let the se- 
con^mash run out as before, and 

let the liquor stand an hour and a 
half, but never let the malt be dry : 
keep lading fresh liquor over it till 
the quantity of wort to be obtained 
is extracted, always allowing for 
waste in the boiling. The next con- 
sideration is boiling the wort when 
obtained. The first copperful must 
be boiled an hour ; and whilst boil- 
ing, add the ingredients specified 
above, in the second estimate. The 
hops are now to be boiled in the 
wort, but are to be carefully strain- 
ed from the first wort, in order to be 
boiled again in the second. Eight 
pounds is the common proportion 
to a quarter of malt ; but in summer 
the quantity must be varied from 
eight to twelve pounds, according 
to the heat of the atmosphere. Af- 
ter the wort has boiled an hour, 
lade it out of the copper and cool 
it. In summer it should be quite 
cold before it is set to work ; in 
winter it should be kept till a slight 
degree of warmth is perceptible by 
the finger. When properly cooled 
set it to work, by adding yeast in 
proportion to the quantity. If con- 
siderable, and if wanted to work 
quick, add from one to two gallons. 
Porter requires to be brought for- 
ward quicker than other malt liquor : 
let it work till it comes to a good 
deep head, then cleanse it by adding 
the ginger. The liquor is now fit 
for tunning : fill the barrels full, and 
let the yeast work out, adding fresh 
liquor to fill them up till they have 
done working. Now bung the bar- 
rels, but keep a watchful eye upon 
them for some time, lest the beer 
should suddenly ferment again and 
burst them, which is no uncommon 
accident where due care is not 
taken. The heat of summer, or a 
sudden change of weather, will oc- 
casion the same misfortune, if the 
barrels are not watched, and eased 
when they require it, by drawing the 
peg. The only part which remains 
to complete the brewing, is fining 
the beer. To understand this, it is 



necessary to remark, that London 
porter is composed of three different 
sorts of malt ; pale, brown, and 
amber. The reason for using these 
three sorts, is to attain a peculiar 
flavour and colour. Amber is the 
most wholesome, and for home brew- 
ing it is recommended to use none 
else. In consequence of the subtle- 
ness of the essentia, which keeps 
continually swimming in the beer, 
porter requires a considerable body 
of finings ; but should any one 
choose to brew without the essentia, 
with amber malt, and with colour 
only, the porter will soon refine of 
itself. The finings however are com- 
posed of isinglass dissolved in stale 
beer, till the whole becomes of a 
thin gluey consistence like size. One 
pint is the usual proportion to a bar- 
rel, but sometimes two, and even 
three are found necessary. Particu- 
lar care must be taken that the beer 
in which the isinglass is dissolved, 
be perfectly clear, and thoroughly 
stale. — By attending to these di- 
rections, any person may brew as 
good, if not better porter, than they 
can be supplied with from the pub- 
lic houses. Many notions have been 
artfully raised, that porter requires 
to be brewed in large quantities, 
and to be long stored, to render it 
sound and strong ; but experience 
will prove the falsehood of these 
prejudices, which have their origin 
with the ignorant, and are cherished 
by the interested. One brewing 
under another will afford ample 
time for porter to refine for nse, and 
every person can best judge of the 
extent of his own consumption. 
Porter is not the better for being 
brewed in large quantities, except 
that the same trouble which brews 
a^peck, will brew a bushel. This 
mode of practice will be found sim- 
ple und easy in its operation, and 
extremely moderate in point of trou- 
ble and expense. 


pint and a half of port or white wine 
into a bowl, nutmeg grated, and a 
good deal of sugar. Then milk into 
it near two quarts of milk, frothed 
up. If the wine be rather sharp, it 
will require more for this quantity 
of milk. In Devonshire, clouted 
cream is put on the top, with pound- 
ed cinnamon and su^ar. 

der to clean them from the spots of 
flies and other stains, rub them over 
with a fine damp cloth. Then polish 
with a soft woollen cloth, and pow- 
der blue. 

LOVE. As health is materially 
affected by the passions, it is of some 
consequence to observe their sepa- 
rate influence, in order to obviate 
some of their ill effects. Love is un- 
questionably the most powerful, and 
is less under the controul of the un- 
derstanding than any of the rest. It 
has a kind of omnipotence ascribed 
to it, which belongs not to any other. 
* Love is strong as death ; many 
waters cannot quench it, neither can 
the floods drown it.' Other passions 
are necessary for the preservation 
of the individual, but this is neces- 
sary for the continuation of the spe- 
cies : it was proper therefore that 
it should be deeply rooted in the 
human breast. There is no trifling 
with this passion : when love has 
risen to a certain height, it admits 
of no other cure but the possession 
of its object, which in this case 
ought always if possible to be obtain- 
ed. The ruinous consequences arising 
from disappointment, which happen 
almost every day, are dreadful to 
relate ; and no punishment can be 
too great for those whose wilful con- 
duct becomes the occasion of such 
catastrophes. Parents are deeply 
laden with guilt, who by this means 
plunge their children into irretriev- 
able ruin ; and lovers are deserving 
of no forgiveness, whose treacherous 
conduct annihilates the hopes and 
even the existence of their friends. 




Macaroni. The usual way of 
preparing macaroni is to boil it in 
milk, or weak veal broth, flavoured 
with salt. When tender, put it into 
a dish without the liquor. Add to 
it some bits of butter and grated 
cheese ; over the top grate more, 
and add a little more butter. Set 
the dish into a Dutch oven a quar- 
ter of an hour, but do not let the 
top become hard. — Another way. 
Wash it well, and simmer in half 
milk and half broth, of veal or mut- 
ton, till it is tender. To a spoonful 
of this liquor, put the yolk of an egg 
beaten in a spoonful of cream ; just 
make it hot to thicj^en, but not to 
boil. Spread it on the macaroni, 
and then grate fine old cheese all 
over, with bits of butter. Brown 
the whole with a salamander. — 
Another. Wash the macaroni, then 
simmer it in a little broth, with a 
little salt and pounded mace. When 
quite tender, take it out of the li- 
quor, lay it in a dish, grate a good 
deal of cheese over, and cover it 
with fine grated bread. Warm some 
butter without oiling, and pour it 
from a boat through a small earthen 
cullender all over the crumbs ; then 
put the dish into a Dutch oven to 
roast the cheese, and brown the 
bread of a fine colour. The bread 
should be in separate crumbs, and 
look light. 

mer in a pint of milk, an ounce or 
two of the pipe sort of macaroni, 
and a bit of lemon and cinnamon. 
When quite tender, put it into a 
dish with milk, two or three eggs, 
but only one white. Add some su- 
gar, nutmeg, a spoonful of peach 
water, and the same of raisin wine. 
Bake with a paste round the edges. 
A layer of orange marmalade, or 
raspberry jam, in a macaroni pud- 
ding, is a great improvement. In 
this case omit the almond water, or 

ratifia, which Would otherwise bd 
wanted to give it a flavour. 

MACARONI SOUP. Boil a pound 
of the best macaroni in a quart of 
good stock, till it is quite tender. 
Then take out half, and put it into 
another stewpot. Add some more 
stock to the remainder, and boil it 
till all the macaroni will pulp through 
a fine sieve. Then add together the 
two liquors, a pint or more of boil- 
ing cream, [the macaroni that was 
first taken out, and half a pound of 
grated parmesan cheese. Make it 
hot, but do not let it boil. Serve it 
with the crust of a French roll, cut 
into the size of a shilling. 

MACAROONS. Blanch four 
ounces of almonds, and pound them 
with four spoonfuls of orange water. 
Whisk the whites of four eggs to a 
froth, mix it with the almonds, and 
a pound of sifted sugar, till re- 
duced to a paste. Lay a sheet of 
wafer paper on a tin, and put on the 
paste in little cakes, the shape of 

MACKAREL. Their season is 
generally May, June, and July ; 
but may sometimes be had at an 
earlier period. When green goose- 
berries are ready, their appearance 
may at all times be expected. They 
are so tender a fish that they carry 
and keep worse than any other : 
choose those that are firm and bright, 
and sweet scented. After gutting 
and cleaning, boil them gently, and 
serve with butter and fennel, or 
gooseberry sauce. To broil them, 
split and sprinkle with herbs, pep- 
per and salt ; or stuff with the samCj 
adding crumbs and chopped fennel. 

Though very indifferent when eaten 
raw, this fruit makes an excellent 
sweetmeat, or is fine in the form 
of tarts. Prick them with a needle 
to prevent bursting, simmer them 
very gently in a thin syrup, put them 
D d 201 



in a china bowl, and when cold pour 
the syrup over. Let them lie three 
days, then make a syrup of three 
pounds of sugar to live pounds of 
fruit, with no more water than hangs 
to large lumps of the sugar dipped 
quickly, and instantly brought out. 
Boil the plums in this fresh syrup, 
after draining the first from them. 
Do them very gently till they are 
clear, and the syrup adheres to 
them. Put them one by one into 
small pots, and pour the liquor over. 
Reserve a little syrup in the pan for 
those intended to be dried, warm up 
the fruit in it, drain them out, and 
put them on plates to dry in a cool 
oven. These plums are apt to fer- 
ment, if not boiled in two syrups ; 
the former will sweeten pies, but 
will have too much acid to keep. 
A part may be reserved, with the 
addition of a little sugar, to do those 
that are dry, for they will not re- 
quire to be so sweet as if kept wet, 
and will eat very nicely if boiled 
like the rest. One parcel may be 
done after another, and save much 
sugar, but care must be taken not 
to break the fruit. 

MAHOGANY. To give a fine co- 
lour to mahogany, let the furniture 
be washed perfectly clean with vine- 
gar, having first taken out any ink 
stains there may be, with spirits of 
salt, taking the greatest care to touch 
the stained part very slightly, and 
then the spirits must be instantly 
washed ofi^. Use the following li- 
quid. Put into a pint of cold-drawn 
linseed oil, four pennyworth of al- 
kanet root, and two pennyworth of 
rose pink. Let it remain all night 
in an earthen vessel, then stirring it 
well, rub some of it all over the ma- 
hogany with a linen rag ; and when 
it has lain some time, rub it bright 
with linen cloths. Dining tables 
should be covered with mat, oil 
cloth, or baize, to prevent staining ; 
and should be instantly rubbed when 
the dishes are removed, while the 
board is still warm. 
202 , . 

MAIDS. This kind of fish, as 
well as skate, requires to be hung 
up a day before it is dressed, to 
prevent its eating tough. Maids 
may either be broiled or fried ; or 
if a tolerable size, the middle part 
may be boiled, and the fins fried. 
They should be dipped in egg, and 
covered with crumbs. 

MALT. This article varies very 
much in value, according to the qua- 
lity of the barley, and the mode of 
manufacture. When good it is full 
of flour, and in biting a grain asun- 
der it will easily separate ; the shell 
will appear thin, and well filled up 
with flour. If it bite hard and steely, 
the malt is bad. The diff'erence of 
pale, and brown malt arises merely 
from the different degrees of heat 
employed in the drying : the main 
object is the quantity of flour. If 
the barley was light and thin, whe- 
ther from unripeness, blight, or any 
other cause, it will not malt so well ; 
but instead of sending out its roots 
in due time, a part of it will still be 
barley. This will appear by putting 
a handful of unground malt in cold 
water, and stirring it about till every 
grain is wetted ; the good will swim, 
and the unmalted barley sink to the 
bottom. But if the barley be well 
malted, there is still a variety in the 
quality : for a bushel of malt from 
fine, plump, heavy barley, will be 
better than the same quantity from 
thin and light barley. Weight there- 
fore here is the criterion of quality ; 
and a bushel of malt weighing forty- 
five pounds is cheaper than any 
other at almost any price, supposing 
it to be free from unmalted barley, for 
the barley itself is heavier than the 
malt. The practice of mixing bar- 
ley with the malt on a principle of 
economy, is not to be approved ; for 
though it may add a little to the 
strength of* the wort, it makes the 
beer flat and insipid, and of course 

MARBLE. Chimney pieces, or 
marble slabs, may be cleaned with 



muriatic acid, either diluted or in a 
pure state. If too strong, it will 
deprive the marble of its polish, 
hut may be restored by using a piece 
of felt and a little putty powdered, 
rubbing it on with clean water. 
Another method is, making a paste 
of a bullock's gall, a gill of soap 
lees, half a gill of turpentine, and 
a little pipe clay. The paste is then 
applied to the marble, and suffered 
to remain a day or two. It is after- 
wards rubbed off, and applied a se- 
cond or third time, to render the 
marble perfectly clean, and give it 
the finest polish. 

accident, marble or alabaster hap- 
pen to be broken, it may be strongly 
cemented together in the following 
manner. Melt two pounds of bees' 
wax, and one pound of rosin. Take 
about the same quantity of marble 
or other stones that require to be 
joined, and reduce it to a powder ; 
stir it well together with the melted 
mixture, and knead the mass in wa- 
ter, till the powder is thoroughly in- 
corporated with the wax and rosin. 
The parts to be joined must be heat- 
ed and made quite dry, and the 
cement applied quite hot. Melted 
sulphur, laid on fragments of stone 
previously heated, will make a firm 
and durable cement. Little defi- 
ciencies in stones or corners that 
have been stripped or broken off, 
may be supplied with some of the 
stone powdered and mixed with 
melted sulphur : but care must be 
taken to have both parts properly 

MARBLE PAPER. For marbling 
books or paper, dissolve four ounces 
of gum arabac in two quarts of wa- 
ter, and pour it into a broad vessel. 
Mix several colours with water in 
separate shells : with small brushes 
peculiar to each colour, sprinkle 
and intermix them on the surface of 
the gum water, and curl them with 
a stick so as to form a variety of 
streaks. The edges of a book 

pressed close may then be slightly 
dipped in the colours on the surface 
of the water, and they will take the 
impression of the mixture. The 
edges may then be glazed with the 
white of an egg, and the colours 
will remain. A sheet of paper may 
be marbled in the same way. 

stains out of marble, make a tolera- 
bly thick mixture of unslaked lime 
finely powdered, with some strong 
soap-l^y. Spread it instantly over 
the marble with a painter's brush, 
and in two month's time wash it off 
perfectly clean. Prepare a fine 
thick lather of soft soap, boiled in 
soft water ; dip a brush in it, and 
scour the marble well with powder. 
Clear off the soap, and finish with 
a smooth hard brush till the stains 
are all removed. After a very good 
rubbing, the 'marble will acquire a 
beautiful polish. If the marble has 
been injured by iron stains, take an 
equal quantity of fresh spirits of 
vitriol and lemon juice. Mix them 
in a bottle, shake it well, and wet the 
spots. Rub with a soft linen cloth, 
and in a few minutes they will dis- 

MARBLE VEAL. The meat is 
prepared in the same way as potted 
beef or veal. Then beat up a boiled 
tongue, or slices of ham, with but- 
ter, white pepper, and pounded 
mace. Put a layer of veal in the 
pot, then stick in pieces of tongue 
or ham, fill up the spaces with veal, 
and pour clarified butter over it. 

MARKING INK. Mix two drams 
of the tincture of galls with one dram 
of lunar caustic, and for marking of 
linen, use it with a pen as common 
ink. The cloth must first be wetted 
in a strong solution of salt of tartar, 
and afterwards dried, before any 
attempt be made to write upon it. 
A beautiful red ink may also be pre- 
pared for this purpose by mixing- 
half an ounce of vermillion, and a 
dram of the salt of steel, with as 
much linseed oil as Mf*ll make it o^ 

U 2oa 



a proper consistency, either to use 
with a pen or a hair pencil. Other 
colours may be made in the same 
way, by substituting the proper in- 
gredients instead of vermiUion. 

MANGOES. Cut off the tops of 
some large green cucumbers, take 
out the seeds, and wipe them dry. 
Fill them with mustard-seed, horse- 
radish, sliced onion, ginger, and 
whole pepper. Sow on the tops, 
put the mangoes into ajar, cover 
them with boiling vinegar, and do 
them the same as any other pickle. 
Melons are done in the same way. 

MARIGOLD WINE. Boil three 
pounds and a half of lump sugar in 
a gallon of water, put in a gallon of 
marigold flowers, gathered dry and 
picked from the stalks, and then 
make it as for cowslip wine. If the 
flowers be gathered only a few at a 
time, measure them when they are 
picked, and turn and dry them in 
the shade. When a sufficient quan- 
tity is prepared, put them into a 
barrel, and pour the sugar and wa- 
ter upon them. Put a little brandy 
into the bottles, when the wine is 
drawn off. 

MARMALADE. For a cough or 
cold, take six ounces of Malaga 
raisins, and beat them to a fine 
paste, with the same quantity of 
sugarcandy. Add an ounce of the 
conserve of roses, twenty-five drops 
of oil of vitriol, and twenty drops of 
oil of sulphur. Mix them well to- 
gether, und take a small tea-spoonful 
night and morning. 

MARROW BONES. Cover the 
top of them with a floured cloth, 
boil and serve them with dry toast. 

Take half a pound of marshmallow 
roots, three ounces of linseed, and 
three ounces of fenugreek seed ; 
bruise and boil them gently half an 
hour in a quart of water, and then 
add two quarts of sweet oil. Boil 
them together till the water is all 
evaporated*, and strain off the oil. 
Add a pound of bees' wax, half a 

pound of yellow rosin, and two 
ounces of common turpentine. Melt 
them together over a slow fire, and 
keep stirring till the ointment is 

roots tender, after they have been 
wiped clean. Scrape them, and 
mash them in a stewpan with a little 
cream, a good piece of butter, pep- 
ViPi* Rno sf^lf 

potatoes, peel them, and reduce 
them to paste. Add a quarter of a 
pint of milk to two pounds weight, 
a little salt, and two ounces of but- 
ter, and stir it all well together over 
the tire. They may either be served 
up in this state, or in scallops, or 
put on the dish in a form, and th^ 
top browned with a salamander. « 

MATTRASSES. Cushions, mat-' 
trasses, and bed clothes stuffed with 
wool, are particularly liable to be 
impregnated with what is offensive 
and injurious, from persons who 
have experienced putrid and inflam- 
matory fevers, and cannot therefore 
be too carefully cleaned, carded, 
and washed. It would also be pro- 
per frequently to fumigate them with 
vinegar or muriatic gas. If these 
articles be infested with insects, dis- 
solve a pound and a half of alum, 
and as much cream of tartar, in 
three pints of boiling water. Mix 
this solution in three gallons of cold 
water, immerse the wool in it for 
several days, and then let it be 
washed and dried. This operatiou 
will prevent the insects from attack- 
ing it in future. 

MEAD. Dissolve thirty pounds 
of honey in thirteen gallons of wa- 
ter; boil and skim it well. Then 
add of rosemary, thyme, bay leaves, 
and sweetbriar, about a handful al- 
together. Boil the whole for an 
hour, and put it into a tub, with two 
or three handfuls of ground malt. 
Stir it till it is about blood warm, 
then strain it through a cloth, and 
return it into the tub. Cut a toast, 



spread it over with good ale yeast, 
and put it into the tub. When the 
liquor has sufficiently fermented, 
put it into a cask. Take an ounce 
and a half each of cloves, mace, 
and nutmegs, and an ounce of sliced 
ginger. Bruise the spices ; tie them 
up in a cloth, and hang it in the ves- 
sel, which must be stopped up close 
for use. — Another way. Put four 
or five pounds of honey into a gal- 
lon of boiling water, and let it con- 
tinue to boil an hour and a half. 
Skim it quite clean, put in the rinds 
of three or four lemons, and two 
ounces of hops sewed up in a bag. 
When cold, put the liquor into a 
cask, stop it up close, and let it 
stand eight or nine months. 

MEASLES. In general, all that 
is needful in the treatment of this 
complaint is to keep the body open 
t)y means of tamarinds, manna, or 
other gentle laxatives ; and to sup- 
ply the patient frequently with bar- 
ley water, or linseed tea sweetened 
with honey. Bathe the feet in warm 
water ; and if there be a disposition 
to vomit, it ought to be promoted 
by drinking a little camomile tea. 
If the disorder appear to strike in- 
ward, the danger may be averted by 
applying blisters to the arms and 
legs, and briskly rubbing the whole 
body with warm flannels. 

MEAT. In all sorts of provisions, 
the best of the kind goes the far- 
thest ; it cuts out with most ad- 
vantage, and affords most nourish- 
ment. Round of beef, fillet of veal, 
and leg of mutton, are joints that 
bear a higher price; but as they 
have more solid meat, they deserve 
the preference. Those joints how- 
ever which are inferior, may be 
dressed as palatably ; and being 
cheaper, they should be bought in 
turn ; for when weighed with the 
prime pieces, it makes the price of 
these come lower. In loins of meat, 
the long pipe that runs by the bone 
should be taken out, as it is apt to 

taint ; as also the kernels of beef. 
Bumps and edgebones of beef are 
often bruised by the blows which the 
drovers give the beasts, and the part 
that has been struck always taints ; 
these joints therefore when bruised 
should not be purchased. And as 
great loss is often sustained by the 
spoiling of meat, after it is pur- 
chased, the best way to prevent 
this is to examine it well, wipe it 
every day, and put some pieces of 
charcoal over it. If meat is brought 
from a distance in warm weather, 
the butcher should be desired to 
cover it close, and bring it early in 
the morning, to prevent its being fly- 
blown. — All meat should be washed 
before it is dressed. If for boiling, 
the colour will be better for the 
soaking ; but if for roasting, it 
should afterwards be dried. Par- 
ticular care must be taken that the 
pot be well skimmed the moment it 
boils, otherwise the foulness will be 
dispersed over the meat. The more 
soups or broth are skimmed, the bet- 
ter and cleaner they will be. Boiled 
meat should first be well floured, 
and then put in while the water is 
cold. Meat boiled quick is sure to 
be hard ; but care must be taken, 
that in boiling slow it does, not stop, 
or the meat will be underdone. If 
the steam be kept in, the water will 
not be much reduced ; but if this 
be desirable, the cover must be re- 
moved. As to the length of time 
required for roasting and boiling, 
the size of the joint must direct, as 
also the strength of the fire, and the 
nearness of the meat to it. In boil- 
ing, attention must be paid to the 
progress it makes, which should be 
regular and slow. For every pound 
of meat, a quarter of an hour or 
twenty minutes is generally allowed, 
according as persons choose to have 
it well or underdone. In preparing 
a joint for roasting, care must be 
taken not to run the spit through the 
best parts of the meat, and that no 



black stains appear upon it at the 
time of serving. 

MEAT SAUCE. Put to a clean 
anchovy, a glass of port wine, a lit- 
tle strong broth, a sliced shalot, 
some nutmeg, and the juice of a Se- 
ville orange. Stew them together, 
and mix it with the gravy that runs 
from the meat. 

MEAT SCREEN. This is a great 
saver of coals, and should be suffi- 
ciently large to guard what is roast- 
ing from currents of air. It should 
be placed on wheels, have a flat top, 
and not be less than about three 
feet and a half wide, with shelves 
in it, about one foot deep. It will 
then answer all the purposes of a 
large Dutch oven, a plate warmer, 
and a hot hearth. Some are made 
with a door behind, which is conve- 
nient ; but the great heat to which 
they are exposed soon shrinks the 
materials, and the currents of air 
through the cracks cannot be pre- 
vented. Those without a door are 
therefore best. 

MEDLEY PIE. Cut into small 
pieces some fat pork, or other meat 
underdone, and season it with salt 
and pepper. Cover the sides of the 
dish with common crust, put in a 
layer of sliced apples with a little 
sugar, then a layer of meat, and a 
layer of sliced onions, till the dish 
is full. Put a thick crust over it, 
and bake it in a slow oven. Cur- 
rants or scalded gooseberries may 
be used instead of apples, and the 
onions omitted. 

plenty of bitter almonds into some 
stifi^" flummery, and make it of a 
pale green with spinach juice. When 
it becomes as thick as cream, wet 
the melon mould, and put the flum- 
mery into it. Put a pint of calf's 
foot jelly into a bason, and let it 
stand till the next day : then turn 
out the melon, and lay it in the midst 
of the bason of j^lly. Fill up the 
bason with jelly beginning to set, 

and let it stand all night. Turn it 
out the next day, the same as for 
fruit in jelly : make a garland of 
flowers, and place it on the jelly. 

MELON MANGOES, there is 
a particular sort for preserving, 
which must be carefully distinguish- 
ed. Cut a square small piece out 
of one side, and through that take 
out the seeds, and mix with them 
mustard-seed and shred garlic. 
Stufl" the melon as full as the space 
will allow, replace the square piece, 
and bind it up with fine packthread, 
boil a good quantity of vinegar, to 
allow for wasting, with peppercorns, 
salt, and ginger. Pour the liquor 
boiling hot over the mangoes four 
successive days ; and on the last 
day put flour of mustard, and scraped 
horseradish into the vinegar just as 
it boils up. Observe that there is 
plenty of vinegar before it is stop- 
ped down, for pickles are soon 
spoiled if not well covered. Also 
the greater number of times that 
boiling vinegar is poured over them, 
the sooner they will be ready for 
eating. Mangoes should be pickled 
soon after they are gathered. Large 
cucumbers, called green turley, pre- 
pared as mangoes, are very excel- 
lent, and come sooner to table. 

very essential article for the table, 
it is seldom well prepared. Mix on 
a trencher, in the proportion of a 
tea-spoonful of flour to four ounces 
of the best butter. Put it into a 
saucepan, and two or three table- 
spoonfuls of hot water ; boil it quick 
for a minute, and shake it all the 
time. Milk used instead of water, 
requires rather less butter, and looks 

MICE. The poisonous substances 
generally prepared for the destruc- 
tion of mice are attended with dan- 
ger, and the use of them should by 
all means be avoided. Besides the 
common traps, baited with cheese, 
the following remedy will be found 



both safe and efficacious. Take a 
few handfuls of wheat flour, or raalt 
meal, and knead it into a dough. 
Let it grow sour in a warm place, 
mix with it some fine iron filings, 
form the mass into small balls, and 
put them into the holes frequented 
by the mice. On eating this pre- 
paration, they are inevitably killed. 
Cats, owls, or hedgehogs, would be 
highly serviceable in places infested 
with mice. An effectual mousetrap 
may be made in the following man- 
ner. Take a plain four square 
trencher, and put into the two con- 
trary corners of it a large pin, or 
piece of knitting needle. Then take 
two sticks about a yard long, and 
lay them on the dresser, with a notch 
cut at each end of the sticks, placing 
the two pins on the notches, so 
that one corner of the trencher may 
lie about an inch on the dresser or 
shelf that the mice come to. The 
opposite corner must be baited with 
some butter and oatmeal plastered 
on the trencher ; and when the mice 
run towards the butter, it will tip 
them into a glazed earthen vessel 
full of water, which should be placed 
underneath for that purpose. To 
prevent the trencher from tipping 
over so as to lose its balance, it may 
be fastened to the shelf or dresser 
with a thread and a little sealing 
wax, to restore it to its proper po- 
sition. To prevent their devasta- 
tions in barns, care should be taken 
to lay beneath the floor a stratum of 
sharp flints, fragments of glass mix- 
ed with sand, or broken cinders. If 
the floors were raised on piers of 
brick, about fifteen inches above the 
ground, so that dogs or cats might 
have a free passage beneath the 
building, it would prevent the ver- 
min from harbouring there, and tend 
greatly to preserve the grain. Field 
mice are also very destructive in the 
fields and gardens, burrowing un- 
der the ground, and digging up the 
earth when newly sown. Their ha- 
bitations may be discovered by the 

small mounds of earth that are raised 
near the entrance, or by the pas- 
sages leading to their nests ; and by 
following these, the vermin may 
easily be destroyed. To prevent 
early peas being eaten by the mice, 
soak the seed a day or two in train 
oil before it is sown, which will pro- 
mote its vegetation, and render the 
peas so obnoxious to the mice, that 
they will not eat them. The tops of 
furze, chopped and thrown into the 
drills, when the peas are s6wn, will 
be an effectual preventive. Sea 
sand strewed thick on the surface 
of the ground, round the plants liable 
to be attacked by the mice, will have 
the same eff'ect. 

MILDEW. To remove stains in 
linen occasioned by mildew, mix 
some soft soap and powdered starch, 
half as much salt, and the juice of a 
lemon. Lay it on the part on both 
sides with a painter's brush, and let 
it lie on the grass day and night till 
the stain disappears. 

MILK BUTTER. This article is 
principally made in Cheshire, where 
the whole of the milk is churned 
without being skimmed. In the sum- 
mer time, immediately after milk- 
ing, the meal is put to cool in earthen 
jars till it become sufficiently co- 
agulated, and has acquired a slight 
degree of acidity, enough to under- 
go the operation of churning. During 
the summer, this is usually perform- 
ed in the course of one or two days. 
In order to forward the coagulation 
in the winter, the milk is placed near 
the fire ; but in summer, if it has 
not been sufficiently cooled before 
it is added to the former meal, or if 
it has been kept too close, and be 
not churned shortly after it has ac- 
quired the necessary degree of con- 
sistence, a fermentation will ensue ; 
in which case the butter becomes 
rancid, and the milk does not yield 
that quantity which it would, if 
churned in proper time. This also 
7s the case in winter, when the jars 
have been placed too near the fire^ 



and the milk nitis entirely to whey. 
MiXk butter is in other respects made 
like the common butter. 

weather, when it is difficult to pre- 
serve milk from becoming sour, and 
spoiling the cream, it may be kept 
perfcfCtly sweet by scalding the new 
milk very gently, without boiling, 
and setting it by in the earthen dish 
or pan that it is done in. This me- 
thod is pursued in Devonshire, for 
making of butter, and for eating ; 
and it would answer equally well in 
small quantities for the use of the 
tea table. Cream already skimmed 
may be kept twenty-four hours if 
scalded, without sugar ; and by add- 
ing as much pounded lump sugar as 
shall make it pretty sweet, it will 
be good two days, by keeping it in 
a cool place. 

MILK PORRIDGE. Make a fine 
gruel of half grits well boiled, strain 
it off, add warm or cold milk, and 
serve with toasted bread. 

MILK PUNCH. Pare six oranges 
and six lemons as thin as possible, 
and grate them afterwards with su- 
gar to extract the flavour. Steep 
the peels in a bottle of rum or bran- 
dy, stopped close twenty-four hours. 
Squeeze the fruit on two pounds of 
sugar, add to it four quarts of wa- 
ter, and one of new milk boiling hot. 
Stir the rum into the above, and run 
it through a jelly bag till perfectly 
clear. Bottle and cork it close im- 

MILK OF ROSES. Mix an ounce 
of oil of almonds with a pint of rose 
water, and then add ten drops of the 
oil of tartar. 

MILK SOUP. Boil a pint of 
milk with a little salt, cinnamon, 
and sugar. Lay thin slices of bread 
in a dish, pour over them a little of 
the milk, and keep them hot over a 
stove without burning. When the 
soup is ready, beat up the yolks of 
five or six eggs, and add them to the 
milk. Stir it over the fire till it 
thickens, take it off before it curdles, 

and pour it upon the breads in the 

MILKING. Cows should be 
milked three times a day in the sum- 
mer, if duly fed, and twice in the 
winter. Great care should be taken 
to drain the milk completely from 
the udder ; for if any be suffered to, 
remain, the cow will give less every 
meal, till at length she becomes dry 
before her proper time, and the next 
season she will scarcely give a suf- 
ficient quantity of milk to pay the 
expences of her keeping. The first 
milk drawn from a cow is also thin- 
ner, and of an inferior quality to 
that which is afterwards obtained : 
and this richness increases progres- 
sively, to the very last drop that can 
be drawn from the udder. If a cow's 
teats be scratched or wounded, her 
milk will be foul, and should not 
be mixed with that of other cows, 
but given to the pigs. In warm wea- 
ther, the milk should remain in the 
pail till nearly cold, before it is 
strained ; but in frosty weather this 
should be done immediately, and a 
small quantity of boiling water mix- 
ed with it. This will produce plenty 
of cream, especially in trays of a 
large surface. As cows a^re some- 
times troublesome to milk, and in 
danger of contracting bad habits, 
they always require to be treated 
with great gentleness, especially 
when young, or while their teats are 
tender. In this case the udder ought 
to be fomented with warm water be- 
fore milking, and the cow soothed 
with mild treatment ; otherwise she 
will be apt to become stubborn and 
unruly, and retain her milk ever af- 
ter. A cow will never let down her 
milk freely to the person she dreads 
or dislikes. 

spoonfuls of the seed, put it into a 
dish with a crust round the edge, 
pour over it as much new milk as 
will nearly fill the dish, two ounces 
of butter warmed with it, sugar, 
shred lemon peel, and a dust of 



ginger and nutmeg. As you put it 
in the oven, stir in two beaten eggs, 
and a spoonful of shred suet. 

MINCE PIES. Of scraped beef, 
free from skin and strings, weigh 
two pounds, of suet picked and 
chopped four pounds, and of cur- 
rants nicely cleaned and perfectly 
dry, six pounds. Then add three 
pounds of chopped apples, the peel 
and juice of two lemons, a pint of 
sweet wine, a nutmeg, a quarter of 
an ounce of cloves, the same of mace, 
and pimento, in the finest powder. 
Mix the whole well together, press 
it into a deep pan, and keep it co- 
vered in a dry cool place. A little 
citron, orange, and lemon peel, 
should be put into each pie when 
made. The above quantity of mince 
meat may of course be reduced, in 
equal proportions, for small families. 
— Mince pies without meat, are 
made in the following manner. Pare, 
core, and mince six pounds of ap- 
ples ; shred three pounds of fresh 
suet, and stone three pounds of rai- 
sins minced. Add to these, a quar- 
ter of an ounce each of mace and 
cinnamon, and eight cloves, all finely 
powdered. Then three pounds of 
the finest powder sugar, three quar- 
ters of an ounce of salt, the rinds of 
four and the juice of two lemons, 
half a pint of port, and half a pint 
of brandy. Mix well together, and 
put the ingredients into a deep pan. 
Prepare four pounds of Currants, 
well washed and dried, and add them 
when the pies are made, with some 
candied fruit. 

MINCED BEEF. Shred fine the 
underdone part, with some of the 
fat. Put it into a small stewpan 
with some onion, or a very small 
t quantity of shalot, a little water, 
pepper and salt. Boil it till the 
onion is quite soft ; then put some 
of the gravy of the meat to it, and 
the mince, but do not let it boil. 
Prepare a small hot dish with sip- 
pets of bread, mix a large spoonful 
of vinegar with the mince, and pour 

it into the dish. If shalot vinegar 
is used, the raw onion and shalot 
may be dispensed with. 

mince some beef very small, and sea- 
son it with pepper and salt. Put it, 
in its raw state, into small jars, and 
pour on the top some clarified but- 
ter. When to be used, put the cla- 
rified butter into a fryingpan, and 
fry some sliced onions. Add a lit- 
tle water to it, put in the minced 
meat, and it will be done in a few 
minutes. This is a favourite Scotch 
dish, and few families are without it. 
It keeps well, and is always ready 
for an extra dish. 

MINCED VEAL. Cut some cold 
veal as fine as possible, but do not 
chop it. Put to it a very little le- 
mon-peel shred, two grates of nut- 
meg, some salt, and four or five 
spoonfuls either of weak broth, milk, 
or water. Simmer these gently with 
the meat, adding a bit of butter rub- 
bed in flour, but take care not to let 
it boil. Put sippets of thin toasted 
bread, cut into a three-cornered 
shape, round the dish. 

MINT SAUCE. Pick and wash 
the mint clean, and chop it fine. 
Put it into a small bason, and mix 
it with sugar and vinegar. 

MINT VINEGAR. As fresh mint 
is not at all times to be had, a wel- 
come substitute will be found in the 
preparation of mint vinegar. Dry 
and pound half an ounce of mint 
seed, pour upon it a quart of the 
best vinegar, let it steep ten days, 
and shake it up every day. This 
will be useful in the early season of 
house lamb. 

MITES. Though they princip^ 
affect cheese, there are several spe- 
cies of this insect which breed in 
flour and other eatables, and do 
considerable injury. The most ef- 
fectual method of expelling them is 
to place a few nutmegs in the sack 
or bin containing the flour, the odour 
of which is insupportable to mites ; 
and they will quickly be removed, 

Le 209 



without the meal acquhing any un- 
pleasant flavour. Thick branches 
of the lilac, or the elder tree, peeled 
and put into the flour, will hare the 
same eff'ect. Quantities of the 
largest sized ants, scattered about 
cheese-rooms and granaries, would 
presently devour all the mites, with- 
out doing any injury. 

MIXED WINE. Take an equal 
quantity of white, red, and black 
currants, cherries, and raspberries ; 
mash them, and press the juice 
through a strainer. Boil three pounds 
of moist sugar in three quarts of wa- 
ter, and skim it clean. When cold, 
mix a quart of juice with it, and put 
it into a barrel that will just hold it. 
Put in the bung, and after it has 
stood a week, close it up, and let it 
stand three or four months. When 
the wine is put into the barrel, add 
a little brandy to it. 

MOCK BRAWN. Boil two pair 
of neat's feet quite tender, and pick 
all the flesh off the bone. Boil the 
belly piece of a porker nearly enough, 
and bone it. Roll the meat of the 
feet up in the pork, tie it up in a 
cloth with tape round it, and boil 
it till it becomes very tender. Hang 
it up in the cloth till it is quite cold, 
put it into some souse, and keep it 
for use. 

MOCK TURTLE. Divide a calf's 
head with the skin on, and clean it 
well. Half boil it, take all the meat 
off in square pieces, break the bones 
of the head, and boil them in some 
veal and beef broth, to add to the 
richness. Fry some shalot in butter, 
and dredge in flower ^nough to 
thicken the gravy ; stir this into the 
browning, and give it one or two 
boils. Skim it carefully, and then 
put in the head ; add a pint of Ma- 
deira, and simmer till the meat is 
quite tender. About ten minutes 
before serving, put in some basil, 
tarragon, chives, parsley, cayenne 
pepper, and salt; also two spoon- 
fuls of mushroom ketchup, and one 
of soy. Squeeze the juice of a lemon 

into the tureen, and pour the soup 
upon it. Serve with forcemeat balls, 
and small eggs. — A cheaper way. 
Prepare half a calf's head as above, 
but without the skin. When the 
meat is cut off, break the bones, and 
put them into a saucepan with some 
gravy made of beef and veal bones, 
and seasoned with fried onions, 
herbs, mace, and pepper. Have 
ready prepared two or three ox- 
palates boiled so tender as to blanch, 
and cut into small pieces ; to which 
a cow heel, likewise cut into pieces, 
is a great improvement. Brown 
some butter, flour, and onion, and 
pour the gravy to it ; then add the 
meats as above, and stew them to- 
gether. Add half a pint of sherry, 
an anchovy, two spoonfuls of walnut 
ketchup, the same of mushroom 
ketchup, and some chopped herbs 
as before. The same sauce as be- 
fore. — Another way. Put into a pan 
a knuckle of veal, two fine cow heels, 
two onions, a few cloves, pepper- 
corns, berries of allspice, mace, and 
sweet herbs. Cover them with wa * 
ter, tie a thick paper over the pan, 
and set it in an oven for three hours^ 
When cold, take off the fat very 
nicely, cut the meat and feet into 
bits an inch and a half square, re- 
move the bones and coarse parts, 
and then put the rest on to warm, 
with a large spoonful of walnut and 
one of mushroom ketchup, half a 
pint of sherry or Madeira, a little 
mushroom powder, and the jelly of 
the meat. If it want any more sea- 
soning, add some when hot, and 
serve with hard eggs, forcemeat 
balls, a squeeze of lemon, and a 
spoonful of soy. Thfs is a very easy 
way of making an excellent dish of 
mock turtle. — Another. Stew a 
pound and a half of scrag of mut- 
ton, with three pints of water till 
reduced to a quart. Set on the broth, 
with a calf's foot and a cow heel ; 
cover the stewpan tight, and let it 
simmer till the meat can be separated 
from the bones in proper pieces. 



Set it on again with the broth, add- 
ing a quarter of a pint of sherry or 
Madeira, a large onion, half a tea- 
spoonful of cayenne, a bit of lemon 
peel, two anchovies, some sweet 
herbs, eighteen oysters chopped fine, 
a tea-spoonful of salt, a little nutmeg, 
and the liquor of the oysters. Cover 
it close, and simmer it three quar- 
ters of an hour. Serve with force- 
meat balls, and hard eggs in the 
tureen . — An excellent and very cheap 
mock turtle may be made of two or 
three cow heels, baked with two 
pounds and a half of gravy beef, 
herbs, and other ingredients as 
above. * 

MOLES. As these little animals 
live entirely on worms and insects, 
of which they consume incalculable 
numbers, they may be considered 
as harmless, and even useful, rather 
than otherwise ; and it has been 
observed in fields and gardens where 
the moles had been caught, that they 
afterwards abounded with vermin 
and insects. But when the moles 
become too numerous, they are hurt- 
ful to vegetation, and require to be 
destroyed. Besides the common 
method of setting traps in their sub- 
terraneous passages, many might be 
dug out of the earth by carefully 
watching their situation and motions 
before the rising of the sun, and 
striking in a spade behind them to 
cut off their retreat. The smell of 
garlic is so offensive to them, that 
if a few heads of that plant were 
thrust into their runs, it would expel 
them fi'ora the place. 

into a baking dish a layer of very 
thin bread and butter, strewed over 
with currants and sweetmeats, and 
so on till the dish is full. Mix to- 
gether a pint and a half of cream, 
the yolks of six eggs, half a grated 
nutmeg, and some sugar. Pour the 
mixture on the top of the pudding, 
and bake it three quarters of an 

MOOR FO\VL. To dress moor 

fowl with red cabbage, truss the 
game as for boiling. Set them on 
the fire with a little soup, and let 
them stew for half an hour. Cut a 
red cabbage into quarters, add it to 
the moor if'owl, season with salt and 
white pepper, and a little piece of 
butter rolled in flour. A glass of 
port may be added, if approved. 
Lift out the cabbage, and place it 
neatly in the dish, with the moor 
fowl on it. Pour the sauce over 
them, and garnish with small slices 
of fried bacon. 

the fruit is quite ripe, take off the 
stalks, prick them with a pin, and 
allow a pound and a half of lump 
sugar to every pound of cherries. 
Reduce part of the sugar to pow- 
der, and strew it over them. Next 
day dissolve the remainder in half 
a pint of currant juice, set it over a 
slow fire, put in the cherries with 
the sugar, and give them a gentle' 
boil. Take out the cherries care- 
fully, boil the syrup till it is thick, 
pour it upon the cherries, and tie 
them down. — Any other kind of 
fruit may be treated in the same 
way, only using such kind of juice 
to boil in the syrup as is most suit- 
able to the fruit to be preserved. It, 
is proper to put apple jelly over 
jam or preserved fruit, or to sift 
sugar over the tops of the jars ; and 
when cold, cover them with brandy 
paper. If the air be admitted, they 
will not keep. 

MORELLA WINE. Cleanse from 
the stalks sixty pounds of raorella 
cherries, and bruise them as to break 
the stones. Press out the juice, 
mix it with six gallons of sherry 
wine, and four gallons of warm wa- 
ter. Powder separately an ounce of 
nutmeg, cinnamon, and mace, and 
hang them separately in small bags, 
in the cask containing the liquor. 
Bung it down ; and in a few weeks 
it will become a deliciously fla- 
voured Avine. 

MORELS. In their green state 

M U F 


they have a very rich, high flavour, 
and are delicious additions to some 
dishes, or sent up as a stew by them- 
selves, when they are fresh and fine. 
When dried they are of very little 
use, and serve only to soak up good 
gravy, from which they take more 
ilavour than they give. 

MOSS. To destroy moss on 
trees, remove it with a hard brush 
early in the spring of the year, and 
wash the trees afterwards with urine 
or soap suds, and plaster them with 
cow dung. When a sort of white 
down appears on apple trees, clear 
off the red stain underneath it, and 
anoint the infected parts with a mix- 
ture of train oil and Scotch snuff, 
which will effectually cure the dis- 

MOTHS. One of the most speedy 
remedies for their complete extir- 
pation, is the smell of turpentine, 
whether it be by sprinkling it on 
woollen stuffs, or placing sheets of 
paper moistened with it between 
pieces of cloth. It is remarkable 
that moths are never known to in- 
fest wool unwashed, or in its natural 
state, but always abandon the place 
where such raw material is kept. 
Those persons therefore to whom 
the smell of turpentine is offensive, 
may avail themselves of this circum- 
stance, and place layers of undress- 
ed wool between pieces of cloth, or 
put small quantities in the corners 
of shelves and drawers containing 
drapery of that description. This, 
or shavings of the cedar, small slips 
of Russia leather, or bits of cam- 
phor, laid in boxes or drawers where 
furs or woollen clothes are kept, 
will effectually preserve them from 
the ravages of the moth and other 

MUFFINS. Stir together a pint 
of yeast with a pint and half of 
warm milk and water, and a little 
salt. Strain it into a quarter of a 
peck of fine flour, knead it well, and 
set it an hour to rise. Pull it into 
email pieces, roll it into balls with 

the hand, and keep them covered 
up warm. Then spread them into 
raufiins, lay them on tins, and bake 
them ; and as the bottoms begin to 
change colour, turn them on the 
other side. A better sort may be 
made by adding two eggs, and two 
ounces of butter melted in half a 
pint of milk. Muffins should not 
be cut, but pulled open. 

mulberries into a kettle of water, 
and simmer them over the fire till 
the juice runs from them. Squeeze 
out the juice, and add twice the 
weight of sugar. Set it over a slow 
fire, skim it clean, and simmer it 
till the sugar is quite dissolved. 

mulberries on a dry day, when they 
are just changed from redness to a 
shining black. Spread them thinly 
on a fine cloth, or on a floor or 
table, for twenty-four hours, and 
then press them. Boil a gallon of 
water with each gallon of Juice, 
putting to every gallon of water an 
ounce of cinnamon bark, and six 
ounces of sugarcandy finely pow- 
dered. Skim and strain the water 
when it is taken off and settled, and 
put it to the mulberry juice. Now 
add to every gallon of the mixture, 
a pint of white or Rhenish wine. 
Let the whole stand in a cask to fer- 
ment, for five or six days. When 
settled draw it off into bottles, and 
keep it cool. 

MULLED ALE. Boil a pint of 
good sound ale with a little grated 
nutmeg and sugar, beat up three 
eggs, and mix them with a little cold 
ale. Then pour the hot ale to it, 
and return it several times to pre- 
vent its curdling. Warm and stir it 
till it is thickened, add a piece of 
butter or a glass of brandy, and 
serve it up with dry toast. 

MULLED WINE. Boil some 
spice in a little water till the flavour 
is gained, then add an equal quan- 
tity of port, with sugar and nutmeg. 
Boil all together, and serve with 



toast. — Another way. Boil a blade 
of cinnamon and some grated nut- 
meg a few minutes, in a large tea- 
cupful of water. Pour to it a pint 
of port wine, add a little sugar, beat 
it up, and it will be ready. Good 
home-made wine may be substituted 
instead of port. 

hare, but not too much ; take off the 
flesh, and shred it very fine. Add 
a little salt, nutmeg, lemon peel, 
and the juice of a lemon. Put it in- 
to a stewpan with a dozen eggs, 
and a pound of butter, and keep it 

Weigh six pounds of the fruit, bake 
it in a stone jar, remove the stones, 
and put in the kernels after they are 
broken and picked. Pour half the 
juice on two pounds and a half of 
Lisbon sugar ; when melted and 
simmered a few minutes, skim it, 
and add the fruit. Keep it doing 
very gently till the juice is much re- 
duced, but take care to stir it con- 
stantly, to prevent its burning. Pour 
it into small moulds, pattipans, or 
saucers. The remaining juice may 
serve to colour creams, or be added 
to a pie. 

MUSHROOMS. Before these 
are prepared for eating, great care 
must be taken to ascertain that they 
are genuine, as death in many in- 
stances has been occasioned by 
using a poisonous kind of fungus, 
resembling mushrooms. The eat- 
able mushrooms first appear very 
small, of a round form, and on a lit- 
tle stalk. They grow very fast, and 
both the stalk and the upper part 
are white. As the size increases, 
the under part gradually opens, and 
shows a kind of fringed fur, of a 
very fine salmon colour ; which con- 
tinues more or less till the mush- 
room has gained some size, and 
then it turns to a dark brown. These 
marks should be attended to, and 
likewise whether the skin can be 
easily parted from the edges and 

middle. Those that have a white or. 
yellow fur should be carefully avoid- 
ed, though many of them have a 
similar smell, but not so strong and 
fragrant, as the genuine mushroom. 
Great numbers of these may be pro- 
duced, by strewing on an old hot- 
bed the broken pieces of mushrooms ; 
or if the water in which they have 
been washed be poured on the bed, 
it will nearly answer the same pur- 

them clean, take out the brown part 
of the large ones, and peel off the 
skin. Lay them on paper to dry in 
a cool oven, and keep them in paper 
bags in a dry place. When used^ 
simmer them in the gravy, and they 
will swell to nearly their former 
size. Or before they are made into 
powder, it is a good way to simmer 
them in their own liquor till it dry 
up into them, shaking the pan all 
the time, and afterwards drying 
them on tin plates. Spice may be 
added or not. Tie the mushrooms 
down close in a bottle, and keep it 
in a dry place. 

the largest broad mushrooms, break 
them into an earthen pan, strew salt 
over, and stir them occasionally for 
three days. Then let them stand 
twelve days, till there is a thick 
scum over. Strain and boil the li 
quor with Jamaica and black pep- 
pers, mace, ginger, a clove or two, 
and some mustard seed. When cold, 
bottle it, and tie a bladder over the 
cork. In three months boil it again 
with fresh spice, and it will then 
keep a twelvemonth. — Another way. 
Fill a stewpan with large flap mush- 
rooms, that are not worm-eaten, 
and the skins and fringe of such 
as have been pickled. ThKow a 
handful of salt among them, and set 
them by a slow fire. They will pro- 
duce a great deal of liquor, which 
must be strained ; then add four 
ounces of shalots, two cloves of gar- 
lic, a good deal of whole pepper, 

M t^ 


ginger, mace, cloves, and a few bay 
h avcs. Boil and skim it well, and 
when cold, cork it up close. In two 
months boil it up again with a little 
fresh spice, and a stick of horse- 
radish. It will then keep a year, 
which mushroom ketchup rarely 
does, if not boiled a second time. 

half a peck of large mushrooms 
while quite fresh, and free them 
from grit and dirt with flannel. 
Scrape out the black part clean, and 
do not use any that are worm-eaten. 
Put them into a stewpan over the 
fire without any water, with two 
large onions, some cloves, a quarter 
of an ounce of mace, and two spoon- 
fuls of white pepper, all in powder. 
Simmer and shake them till all the 
liquor be dried up, but be careful 
they do not burn. Lay them on 
tins or sieves in a slow oven till they 
are dry enough to beat to powder; 
then put the powder into s-mall bot- 
tles, corked, and tied closely, and 
kept in a dry place. A tea-spoonful 
of this powder will give a very fine 
flavour to any soup or gravy, or any 
sauce ; and it is to be added just 
before serving, and one boil given to 
it after it is put in. 

some butter with flour, in a little 
milk or cream. Put in some mush- 
rooms, a little salt and nutmeg, and 
boil it up together in a saucepan. 
Or put the mushrooms into melted 
butter, with veal gravy, salt, and 

to copy muslin patterns, the draw- 
ing is to be placed on a sheet of 
white paper, and the outline prick- 
ed through with a pin. The white 
sheet may then be laid on a second 
clear one, and a muslin bag of pow- 
dered charcoal sifted or rubbed over 
it. The pierced paper being re- 
moved, a perfect copy may be traced 
on the other ; and in this way, pat- 
terns may be multiplied very expe- 

MUSTARD. Mix by degrees, 
the best Durham flour of mustard 
with boiling water, rubbing it per- 
fectly smooth, till it comes to a pro- 
per thickness. Add a little salt, 
keep it in a small jar close covered, 
and put only as much into the glass 
as will be used soon. The glass 
should be wiped daily round the 
edges. If for immediate use, mix 
tJie mustard with new milk by de- 
grees, till it is quite smooth, and a 
little raw cream. It is much softer 
this way, does not taste bitter, and 
will keep well. A tea-spoonful of 
sugar, to half a pint of mustard, is 
a great improvement, and tends 
much to soften it. Patent mustard 
is nearly as cheap as any other, and 
is generally preferred. 

MUSTY FLOUR. When flour 
has acquired ^ musty smell and 
taste, from dampness and other 
causes, it may be recovered by the 
simple use of magnesia, allowing 
thirty grains of the carbonate to one 
pound of flour. It is to be leavened 
and baked in the usual way of mak- 
ing bread. The loaves will be found 
to rise well in the oven, to be more 
light and spongy, and also whiter 
than bread in the common way. It 
will likewise have an excellent taste, 
and will keep well. The use of mag- 
nesia in bread making is well worthy 
of attention, for if it improves musty 
flour, and renders it palatable, it 
would much more improve bread 
in general, and be the interest of 
families to adopt it. The use of 
magnesia in bread, independent of 
its improving qualities, is as much 
superior to that of alum as cne sub- 
stance can be to another. 

MUTTON. In cutting up mut- 
ton, in order to its being dressed, 
attention should be paid to the dif- 
ferent joints. The pipe that runs 
along the bone of the inside of a 
chine must be removed, and if the 
meat is to be kept some time, the 
part close round the tail should be 
rubbed with salt, after first cutting 



out the kernel. A leg is apt to be 
first tainted in the fat on the thick 
part, where the kernel is lodged, 
and this therefore should be re- 
moved, or the meat cannot be ex- 
pected to keep well. The chine and 
rib bones should be wiped every 
day, and the bloody part of the neck 
be cut off to preserve it. The brisket 
changes first in the breast ; and if 
it is to be kept, it is best to rub it 
with a little salt, should the weather 
be hot. Every kernel should be 
taken out of all sorts of meat as 
soon as it is brought in, and then 
wiped dry. For roasting, it should 
hang as long as it will keep, the 
hind quarter especially, but not so 
long as to taint ; for whatever may 
be authorised by the prevailing 
fashion, putrid juices certainly 
ought not to be taken into the sto- 
mach. Great care should be taken 
to preserve by paper the fat of what 
is roasted. Mutton for boiling will 
not look of a good colour, if it has 
hung long. — In purchasing this meat, 
choose it by the fineness of the grain, 
the goodness of its colour, and see 
that the fat be firm and white. It is 
not the better for being young : if it 
be wether mutton, of a good breed 
and well fed, it is best for age. The 
flesh of ewe mutton is paler, and the 
texture finer. Ram mutton is very 
strong flavoured, the flesh is of a 
deep red, and the fat is spongy : 
wether mutton is the best. 

MUTTON BROTH. Soak a neck 
of mutton in water for an hour, cut 
off" the scrag, and put it into a stew- 
pot, with two quarts of water. As 
soon as it boils, skim it well, and 
simmer it an hour and a half. Cut 
the best end of the mutton into 
pieces, two bones in each, and take 
off* some of the fat. Prepare four 
or five carrots, as many turnips, and 
three onions, aU sliced, but not cut 
small. Put them soon enough to 
get quite tender, and add four large 
spoonfuls of Scotch barley, first wet- 

ted with cold water. Twenty minutes 
before serving, put in some chopped 
parsley, add a little salt, and send 
up all together. This is a Scotch 
dish, and esteemed very excellent in 
the winter. 

from the loin or neck, broil them on 
a clear fire, and turn them often, or 
the fat dropping into the fire will 
smoke them. When done, put them 
into a warm dish, rub them with 
butter, slice a shalot in a spoonful 
of boiling water, with a little salt 
and ketchup, and pour it over the 
chops. The ketchup may be omit- 
ted, and plain butter used instead. 

GUISE. Prepare a seasoning of 
chopped parsley and thyme, grated 
bread, pepper and salt. Stoear the 
chops over with egg, strew the sea- 
soning on them, and roll each in but- 
tered paper. Close the ends, put 
them in a Dutch oven or fryingpan, 
and let them broil slowly. When 
done, send them to table in the pa- 
per, with gravy in a boat. 

loin of mutton that has been well 
kept, cut some thin coUops nearest 
to the leg. Take out the sineu^s, 
season the collops with salt, pepper, 
and mace ; and strew over them 
shred parsley, thyme, and two or 
three shalots. Fry them in butter 
till half done ; add half a pint of 
gravy, a little lemon juice, an^ a 
pieceof butter rubbed in flour. Sim- 
mer them together very gently for 
five minutes, and let the collops be 
served up immediately, or they will 
become hard. 

them in the Portuguese way, half 
fry the chops with sliced shalot or 
onion, chopped parsley, and two 
bay leaves. Season with pepper 
and salt ; then lay a forcemeat on 
a piece of white paper, put the chop 
on it, and twist the paper up, leav- 
ing a hole for the eifcd of the bones 

M U T 


to go through. Broil the cutlets oa 
a gentle fire, serve them with a little 
gravy, or with sauce Robart. 

MUTTON HAM. Choose a fine- 
grained leg of wether mutton, of 
twelve or fourteen pounds weight; 
cut it ham shape, and let it hang 
two days. Then put into a stewpan 
half a pound of bay salt, the same 
of common salt, two ounces of salt- 
petre, and half a pound of coarse 
sugar, all in powder. Mix, and 
make it quite hot ; then rub it well 
into the ham. Let it be turned in 
the liquor every day ; at the end of 
four days add two ounces more of* 
common salt ; in twelve days take 
it out, dry it, and hang it up a week 
in wood smoke. It is to be used in 
slices, with stewed cabbage, mashed 
potatoes, or eggs. 

slices of dressed mutton, fat and 
lean, and flour them. Boil the bones 
with a little onion, season the meat, 
and warm it up with the gravy, but 
it should not boil. Instead of onion, 
a clove, a spoonful of currant jelly, 
and a glass of port wine, will make 
it taste like venison. 

all the fat out ot a loin of mutton, 
and that on the outside also if too 
fat, and remove the skin. Joint it 
at every bone, mix a small nutmeg 
grated with a little salt and pepper, 
crumbs of bread, and herbs. Dip 
the steaks into the yolks of three 
eggs, and sprinkle the above mixture 
all over them. Then place the steaks 
together as they were before they 
were cut asunder, tie and fasten 
them on a small spit. Roast them 
before a quick fire ; set a dish un- 
der, and baste them with a good 
piece of butter, and the liquor that 
comes from the meat, but throw 
some more of the above seasoning 
over. When done enough, lay the 
meat in a dish. Prepare an addi- 
tional half pint of good gravy, put 
into it two spoonfuls of ketchup, 

and rub down a tea-spoonful of flour 
with it. Give it a boil, skim off all 
the fat, and pour it over the mutton. 
Be careful to keep the meat hot, till 
the gravy is quite ready. 

MUTTON PIE. Cut steaks from 
a loin or neck of mutton that has 
hung some time ; beat them, and 
remove some of the fat. Season 
with salt, pepper, and a little onion. 
Put a little water at the bottom of 
the dish, and a little paste on the 
edge ; then cover it with a tolerably 
thick paste. Or raise small pies, 
breaking each bone in two to shorten 
it ; cover it over, and pinch the 
edges together. When the pies 
come from the oven, pour into each 
a spoonful of good mutton gravy. 

some chops with salt and pepper, and 
a taste of onion. Place a layer of 
meat at the bottom of the dish, pour 
over them a batter of potatoes boiled 
and pressed through a cullender, and 
mixed with an e^^ and milk. Put in 
the rest of the chops, and the batter, 
and bake it. Batter made of flour 
eats very well, but requires more 
egg, and is not so good as potatoe. 
Another way is to cut slices off a 
leg that has been underdone, and 
put them into a bason lined with a 
fine suet crust. Season with pep- 
per and salt, and finely shred onion 
or shalot. 

NEYS. Stew six rumps in some 
good mutton gravy half an hour ; 
then take them up, and let them 
stand to cool. Clear the gravy from 
the fat, and put into it four ounces 
of boiled rice, an onion stuck with 
cloves, and a blade of mace. Boil 
them till the rice is thick. Wash 
the rumps with yolks of eggs well 
beaten, and strew over them crumbs 
of bread, a little pepper and salt, 
chopped parsley and thyme, and 
grated lemon peel, fried in butter, 
of a fine brown. While the rumps 
are stewing, lard the kidneys^ and 



set them to roast in a Dutch oven. 
When the rumps are ready,the grease 
must be drained from them before 
they are put in the dish ; the pan 
being cleared likewise from the fat, 
warm up the rice in it. Lay the 
latter on the dish, place the rumps 
round upon the rice, the narrow ends 
towards the middle, and the kidneys 
between. Garnish with hard eggs 
cut in halves, tue white being left 
on, or with different coloured pickles. 

MUTTON SAUCE. Two spoon- 
fuls of the liquor in which the mut- 
ton is boiled, the same quantity of 
vinegar, two or three shalots finely 
shred, with a little salt, put into a 
saucepan with a bit of butter rolled 
in flo'jr, stirred together and boiled 
once, will make good sauce for boil- 
ed mutton. 

a pound of the rawest part of a leg 
of mutton that has been either roast- 
ed or boiled ; chop it quite small, 
and season it with pepper, salt, mace, 
and nutmeg. Add to it six ounces 
of beef suet, some sweet herbs, two 

anchovies, and a pint of oysters, all 
chopped very small ; a quarter of a 
pound of grated bread, some of the 
anchovy liquor, and two eggs well 
beaten. When well mixed together, 
put it into a small pot ; and use it 
by rolling it into balls or sausages, 
and fry them. If approved, a little 
shalot may be added, or garlick, 
which is a great improvement. 

should be cut from a loin or neck 
that has been well kept ; if a neck, 
the bones should not be long. Broil 
them on a clear fire, season them 
when half done, and let them be of- 
ten turned. Take them up into a 
very hot dish, rub a bit of butter on 
each, and serve them up hot and 
hot the moment they are done. — To 
do them Maintenon, half* fry them 
first, then stew them while hot, with 
herbs, crumbs, and seasoning. Rub 
a bit of butter on some writing pa- 
per, to prevent its catching the fire, 
wrap the steaks in it, and finish them 
on the gridiron. 


Nankeen dye. The article ge- 
nerally sold under this title, and 
which produces a fine buff colour so 
much in use, is made of equal parts 
of arnetto and common potash, dis- 
solved and boiled in water. The 
yellow colour called Dutch Pink, is 
made from a decoction of weld or 
dyer's weed ; and if blue cloths be 
dipped in this liquid, they will take 
the colour of a fine green. 

NAST URTIONS, if intended for 
capers, should be kept a few days 
after they are gathered. Then pour 
boiling vinegar over them, and cover 
them close when cold. They will 
not be fit to eat for some months ; 
but are then finely flavoured, and by 
many arc preferred to capers. 

(No. 10.) 

NEAT'S TONGUE. If intended 
to be stewed, it should be simmered 
for two hours, and peeled. Then 
return it to the same liquor, with 
pepper, salt, mace, and cloves, tied 
up in a piece of cloth. Add a few 
chopped capers, carrots and turnips 
sliced, half a pint of beef gravy, a 
little white wine, and sweet herbs. 
Stew it gently till it is tender, take 
out the herbs and spices, and thick- 
en the gravy with butter rolled in 

NECK OF MUTTON. Thfs joint 
is particularly useful, because so 
many dishes may be made of it ; 
but it is not esteemed advantageous 
for a family. The bones should be 
cut short, which the butchers will 

Ff til7 

N E*W 

N O K 


nut do unless particularly desired. 
The best end of the neck may be 
boiled, and served with turnips ; or 
roasted, or dressed in steaks, in 
pies, or harrico. The scrags may 
be stewed in broth ; or with a small 
quantity of water, some small onions, 
a few peppercorns, and a little rice, 
and served together. When a boiled 
neck is to look particularly nice, 
saw down the chine bone, strip the 
ribs halfway down, and chop off the 
ends of the bones about four inches. 
The skin should not be taken off till 
boiled, and then the fat will look 
the whiter. When there is more 
fat than is agreeable, it makes a very 
good suet pudding, or crust for a 
meat pie if cut very fine. 

NECK OF PORK. A loin or 
neck of pork should be roasted. Cut 
the skin across with a sharp pen- 
knife, at distances of half an inch. 
Serve with vegetables and apple 

NECK OF VEAL. Cut off the 
scrag to boil, and cover it with onion 
sauce. It should be boiled, in milk 
and water. Parsley and butter may 
be served with it, instead of onion 
sauce. Or it may be stewed with 
whole rice, small onions, and pep- 
percorns, with a very little water. 
It may also be boiled and eaten with 
bacon and greens. The best end of 
^he neck may either be roasted, 
<>roiled as steaks, or made into a pie. 

with salt, and let it lie four or five 
days. Flour it, and boil it in a 
cloth, allowing to every pound a 
quarter of an hour. Cauliflower, 
turnips, and cabbages, are eaten 
with it, and melted butter. Garnish 
the dish with some of the vegetables. 

a Dutch oven six small cakes, called 
Nelson balls or rice cakes, made in 
small teacups. When quite hot, 
pour over them boiling melted but- 
ter, white wine, and susjar. 

NEW CASKS. If not properly 
repared before they are used, new 

casks are apt to give beer and other 
liquor a bad taste. They must there- 
fore be well scalded and seasoned 
several days successively before they 
are used, and frequently filled with 
fresh water. The best way however 
is to boil two pecks of bran or malt 
dust in a copper of water, and pour 
it hot into the cask ; then stop it 
up close, let it stand two days, wash 
it out clean, and let the cask be well 

ter a half melon mould or quart basin, 
stick it all round with dried cherries 
or fine raisins, and fill it up with 
custard and layers of thin bread 
and butter. Boil or steam it an 
hour and a half. 

on to boil a pint of good milk, with 
half a lemon peel, a little cinnamon, 
and a bay leaf. Boil it gently for 
five or ten minutes, sweeten with 
loaf sugar, break the yolks of five 
and the whites of three eggs into a 
basin, beat them well, and add the 
milk. Beat it all up well together, 
and strain it through a tammis, or 
fine hair sieve. Prepare some bread 
and butter cut thin, place a layer of 
it in a pie dish, and then a layer of 
currants, and so on till the dish is 
nearly full. Pour the custard over 
it, and bake it half an hour. 

a thick batter with half a pint of 
milk and flour, two eggs, and a little 
salt. Take a spoonful of the batter, 
and drop it gently into boiling wa- 
ter ; and if the water boil fast, they 
will be ready in a few minutes. Take 
them out with a wooden spoon, and 
put them into a dish with a piece of 
butter. These are often called drop 
dumplins, or spoon dumplins. ' 

a relishing liquor that will keep many 
years, and improve by age, put the 
peels of thirty lemons and thirty 
oranges into twenty quarts €f French 
brandy. The fruit must be pared 
so thin and carefully, that not the 


If OT 

Iteast'of the white is left. Let it in- 
fuse twelve hours. Prepare thirty 
quarts of cold water that has been 
boiled, put to it fifteen pounds of 
double-refined sugar, and when well 
incorporated, pour it upon the bran- 
dy and peels, adding the juice of 
the oranges and of twenty-four le- 
mons. Mix them well, strain the 
liquor through a fine hair sieve, into 
a very clean cask, that has held 
spirits, and add two quarts of new 
milk. Stir the liq*uor, then bung it 
down close, and let it stand six 
weeks in a warm cellar. Bottle off 
the liquor, but take care that the 
bottles be perfectly clean and dry, 
the corks of the best quality, and 
well put in. Of course a smaller 
quantity of this punch may be made, 
by observing only the above pro- 
portions. — Another way. Pare six 
lemons and three Seville oranges 
very thin, squeeze the juice into a 
large teapot, put to it three quarts 
of brandy, one of white wine, one 
of milk, and a pound and a quarter 
of lump sugar. Let it be well mix- 
ed, and then covered for twenty- 
four hours. Strain it through a jel- 
ly bag till quite clear, and then bot- 
tle it off. 

DING. Make a hasty pudding with 
a pint of milk and flour, put it in- 
to a bason, and let it stand till the 
next day. Then mash it with a spoon, 
add a quarter of a pound of clarified 
butter, as many currants picked and 
washed, two ounces of candied peel 
cut small, and a little sugar and 
brandy. Bake it in teacups, turn 
them out on a dish, and pour wine 
sauce over them. 

bleeding at the nose may sometimes 
be prevented by applying lint dip- 
ped in vinegar, or a strong solution 
of white vitriol, with fomentations 
of the temples and forehead made 
of nitre dissolved in water. But as 
juleeding at the nose is often bene- 

ficial, it j>hould not be stidHScnly 

NOTICE TO QUIT. The usual 
mode of letting houses is by the year, 
at a certain annual rent to be paid 
quarterly : therefore unless a writ- 
ten agreement can be produced, to 
show that the premises were en- 
gaged for a shorter period, the law 
considers the tenant as entered for 
one whole year, provided the rent 
exceeds forty shillings per annum, 
and this consideration must govern 
the notice to quit. Every tenant 
who holds from year to year, which 
is presumed to be the case in every 
instance where proof is not given to 
the contrary, is entitled to half a 
year's notice, which must be given 
in such a manner that the tenant 
must quit the premises at the same 
quarter day on which he took pos- 
session : so that if his rent com- 
menced at Michaelmas, the notice 
must be served at or before Cad^- 
day, that he may quit at Michael- 
mas. If a tenant come in after any 
of the regular quarter days, and pay 
a certain sum for the remainder of 
the quarter, he does not commence 
annual tenant until the remainder of 
the quarter is expired ; but if he 
pay rent for the whole quarter, he 
is to be considered as yearly tenant 
from the commencement of his rent, 
and his notice to quit must be re- 
gulated accordingly. Should it hap- 
pen that the landlord cannot ascer- 
tain the precise time when the te- 
nancy commenced, he may enquire 
of the tenant, who must be served 
with notice to quit at the time he 
mentions, and must obey the warn- 
ing agreeably to his own words, 
whether it^ be the true time or not. 
If he refuse to give the desired in- 
formation, the landlord, instead of 
* on or before midsummer next,' 
must give in his notice, * at the end 
and expiration of the current yea^of 
your tenancy, which shall expfre 
next after the end of one half yt ar 



from the date hereof.' If notice be 
given up to a wrong time, or a quar- 
ter instead of half a year, such warn- 
ing will be sufficient, if the party 
make no objection at the time he 
receives it. When premises are 
held by lease, the expiration of the 
term is sufficient notice to quit, 
without giving any other warning for 
that purpose. The following is the 
form of a landlord's notice to his te- 
nant : — * I do hereby give you notice 
to quit the house and premises you 
hold of me, situate in the parish of 

in the county of 
on or before midsummer next. Dated 
the day of in the 

year R. C— The fol- 

lowing is a tenant's notice to his 
landlord : — * Sir, I hereby give you 
warning of my intention to quit your 
house in the parish of on 

or before Michaelmas next. Dated 
the day of in the year 

C. R.' — ^These forms will 
also serve for housekeepers and 
lodgers, if * apartment' be added in- 

stead of * house or premises.' Care 
however must be taken to give the 
address correctly : * R. C. landlord 
of the said premises, to C. R. the 
tenant thereof.' Or, * To Mr. R. C. 
the landlord of the said premises.' 
six large apples, take out the core 
with the point of a small knife or 
an apple scoop, but the fruit must 
be left whole. Fill up the centre 
with sugar, place the fruit in a pie 
dish, and pour over a nice light bat- 
ter, prepared as for batter pudding, 
and bake it an hour in a moderate 

made with a trough, and sold by the 
ironmongers, are by far the best, 
especially for grating fine and fast. 

NUTS. Hazel nuts may be pre- 
served in great perfection for several 
months, by burying them in earthen 
pots well closed, a foot or two in the 
ground, especially in a dry or sandy 


Oat cakes. Tliese may be made 
the same as muffins, only using fine 
Yorkshire oatmeal instead of flour. 
Anothci- sort is made of fine oatmeal, 
warm water, yeast and salt, beat to 
a thick batter, and set to rise in a 
warm place. Pour some of the bat- 
ter on a baking stone, to any size 
you please, about as thick as a pan- 
cake. Pull them open to butter 
them, and set them before the fire. 
If muffins or oat cakes get stale, dip 
them in cold water, and crisp them 
in a Dutch oven. 

OATMEAL. This article has un 
dergone a very considerable im- 
provement, since the introduction 
^f what are termed Embden Groats, 
VMtnufactured in England it is true, 
^ 220 

out of Dutch oats, but of a quality 
superior to any thing before known 
in this country under the name of 
oatmeal, and which may now be 
had of almost all retailers at a mo- 
derate price. 

three large handfuls of fine oatmeal 
into two quarts of spring water, and 
let it steep a day and a night. Pour 
off the clear water, put in the same 
quantity of fresh water, and* strain 
the oatmeal through a fine sieve. 
Boil it till it is as thick as hasty 
pudding, keep it stirring all the time, 
that it may be smooth and fine. 
When first strained, a spoonful of 
sugar should be added, two spoon- 
fuls of orange flower-water two ox 



three spoonfuls of cream, a blade of 
mace, and a bit of lemon peel. 
When boiled enough, pour the flum- 
mery into a shallow dish, and serve 
it up. 

quart of boiling milk over a pint of 
the best oatmeal, and let it soak all 
night. Next day beat two eggs, 
and mix a little salt. Butter a ba- 
son that will just hold it, cover it 
tight with a floured cloth, and boil 
it an hour and a half. Eat it with 
cold butter and salt. When cold, 
slice and toast it, and eat it as oat- 
cake, buttered. 

deeds or writings are so much de- 
faced that they can scarcely be de- 
ciphered, bruise and boil a few nut 
galls in white wine ; or if it be a 
cold infusion, expose it to the sun 
for two or three da^s. Then dip a 
sponge into the infusion, pass it 
over the writing that is sunk, and it 
will instantly be revived, if the in- 
fusion be strong enough of the galls. 
Vitriolic or nitrous acid a little di- 
luted with water, will also render 
the writing legible ; but care must 
be taken that the solution be not 
too strong, or it will destroy the 
paper or the parchment which con- 
tains the writing. 

OINTMENTS. An excellent oint- 
ment for burns, scalds, chilblains, 
and dressing blisters, may be made 
in the following manner. Take eight 
ounces of hog's lard quite fresh, 
one ounce of bees' wax, and one of 
honey. Put them into a kettle over 
the fire, and stir it together till it is 
all melted. Pour it into a jar for 
keeping, add a large spoonful of 
rose water, and keep stirring it till 
it is cold. — Bad scalds and burns 
should first have a poultice of grated 
potatoes applied to them for several 
hours, and then a plaster of the 
ointment, which must be renewed 
morning and evening. — For blisters, 
a plaster of this should be spread 
rather longer than the blister, and 

put on over the blister plaster wheff 
it has been on twenty-four hours, 
or sooner if it feel uneasy. By this 
means the blister plaster will slip 
off* when it has done drawing, with- 
out any pain or trouble. — For chil- 
blains, it has never been known to 
fail of a cure, if the feet have been 
kept clean, dry, and warm. — An 
emollient ointment, for anointing 
any external inflammations, may be 
made as follows. Take two pounds 
of palm oil, a pint and a half of 
olive oil, half a pound of yellow wax, 
and a quarter of a pound of Venice 
turpentine. Melt the wax in the 
oil over the fire, mix in the turpen- 
tine, and strain oflf the ointment. 

Scrape two ounces of bees' wax into 
half a pint of sallad oil, and let it 
simmer gently over the fire till the 
whole is incorporated. Take it off" 
thje fire, beat up the yolks of three 
eggs with a spoonful of oil, and stir 
up all together till it is quite cold. 

This is made of four ounces of fresh 
lard, two drams of white wax, and 
one ounce of prepared tutty. Melt 
the wax with the lard over a gentle 
fire, and sprinkle in the tutty, con- 
tinually stirring them till the oint- 
ment is cold. 

should consist of half a pint of olive 
oil, two ounces of white we^x, and 
three drams of the sugar of lead fine- 
ly powdered. Rub the sugar of lead 
with some of the oil, add to it the 
other ingredients, which should be 
previously melted together, and stir 
them till the ointment is quite cold. 
This cooling ointment may be used 
in all cases where the intention is to 
dry and skin over the wound, as in 
burns and scalds. 

LOWS. Take half a pound of 
marshmallow roots, three ounces of 
linseed, and three ounces of fennu- 
greek seed. Bruise and boil them 
gently half an hour in a quart of 



water, and then add two quarts of 
sweet oil. Boil them together till 
the water is all evaporated : then 
strain off the oil, and add to it a 
pound of bees' wax, half a pound of 
yellow rosin, and two ounces of 
conimon turpentine. Melt them to- 
gether over a slow fire, and keep 
stirring till the ointment is cold. 

This is the safest and best applica- 
tion for the itch, and will have no 
disagreeable smell, if made in the 
following manner. Take four ounces 
of fresh iard, an ounce and a half 
of flour of sulphur, two drams of 
crude sal-ammoniac, and ten or a 
dozen drops of lemon essence. 
When made into an ointment, rub 
it on the parts affected. 

OLIVES. This foreign article, 
sent over in a state of preservation, 
requires only to be kept from the 
air. Olives are of three kinds, Ita- 
lian, Spanish, and French, of dif- 
ferent sizes and flavour. Each 
should be firm, though some are 
most fleshy. 

OMLET. Make a batter of eggs 
and milk, and a very little flour. 
Add chopped parsley, green onions, 
or chives, or a very small quantity ' 
of shalot, a little pepper and salt, 
and a scrape or two of nutmeg. Boil 
some butter in a small frying-pan, 
and pour the above batter into it. 
When one side is of a fine yellow 
brown, turn it and do the other : 
double it when served. Some lean 
ham scraped, or grated tongue, put 
in at first, is a very pleasant addi- 
tion. Four eggs will make a pretty 
omlet, but some will use eight or 
ten, and only a small proportion of 
flour, but a good deal of parsley. 
If the taste be approved, a little 
tarragon will give a fine flavour. 
Ramakins and omlet, though usu- 
ally served in the course, would be 
much better if they were sent up 
after, that they might be eaten as 
hot as possible. 

. ONION GRAVY. Peel and slice 

some onions into a small stewpan, 
with an ounce of butter, adding cu- 
cumber or celery if approved. Set 
it on a slow fire, and turn the onion 
about till it is lightly browned ; then 
stir in half an ounce of flour, a little 
broth, a little pepper and salt, and 
boil it up for a few minutes. Add 
a table-spoonful of port wine, the 
same of mushroom ketchup, and 
rub it through a fine sieve. It may 
be sharpened with a little lemon 
juice or vinegar. The flavour of this 
sauce may be varied by adding tar- 
ragon, or burnt vinegar. 

ONION SAUCE. Peel the onions 
and boil them tender. Squeeze the 
water from them, chop and add 
them to butter that has been melted 
rich and smooth, with a little good 
milk instead of water. Boil it up 
once, and serve it for boiled rabbits, 
partridges, scrag or knuckle of veal 
or roast mutton. A turnip boiled 
with the onions* makes them milder. 

ONION SOUP. Put some car- 
rots, turnips, and a shank bone, in- 
to the liquor in which a leg or neck 
of mutton has been boiled, and sim- 
mer them together two hours. Strain 
it on six onions, sliced and fried of 
a light brown ; simmer the soup 
three hours, and skim it carefully. 
Put a small roll into it, or fried 
bread, and serve it up hot. 

ONIONS. In order to obtain a 
good crop of onions, it is proper to 
sow at different seasons. On light 
soils sow in August, January, or early 
in February : on heavy wet soils in 
March, or early in April. Onions 
however should not be sown so soon 
as January, unless the ground be in 
a dry state, which is not often the 
case at that time of the year : other- 
wise, advantage should be taken of 
it. As this valuable root is known 
frequently to fail by the common 
method of culture, the best way is 
to sow the seed successively, that 
advantage may be taken of the sea- 
sons as they happen. 




whole Seville oranges in two or three 
waters, till most of the bitterness is 
gone. Cut them, and take out the 
pulp and juice; then beat the out- 
side very fine in a mortar, and put 
to it an equal weight of double-re- 
fined sugar beaten and sifted. When 
extremely well mixed to a paste, 
spread it thin on china dishes, and 
set them in the sun, or before the 
fire. When half dry, cut it into 
what form you please, and turn the 
other side up to dry. Keep the 
biscuits in a box, with layers of pa- 
per. They are intended for desserts, 
and are also useful as a stomachic, 
to carry in the pocket on journeys, 
and for gouty stomachs. 

peels of twenty Seville oranges in 
three quarts of brandy, and let it 
stand a fortnight in a stone bottle. 
Boil two quarts of water with a 
pouiid and a half of loaf sugar nearly 
an hour, clarify ,it with the white 
of an egg, strain it, and boil it till 
reduced nearly one half. When cold, 
strain the brandy into the syrup. 

ORANGE BUTT^. Boil six 
hard eggs, beat theiti in a mortar 
with two ounces of fine sugar, three 
ounces of butter, and two ounces of 
blanched almonds beaten to a paste. 
Moisten with orange-flower water ; 
and when all is mixed, rub it through 
a cullender on a dish, and serve 
with sweet biscuits between. 

Blanch half a pound of almonds, 
beat them very fine, with orange- 
flower water, half a pound of fine 
sugar beaten and sifted, a pound 
of butter that has been melted care- 
fully without oiling, and which must 
be nearly cold before it is used. 
Then beat the yolks of ten and the 
whites of four eggs. Pound in a 
mortar two candied oranges, and a 
fresh one with the bitterness boiled 
out, till they are as tender as mar- 
malade, without any lumps. Beat 
the whole together, and put it into 

ORANGE CHIPS. Cut oranges 
in halves, squeeze the juice through 
a sieve, and soak the peels in water. 
Next day boil them in the same till 
tender; then drain and slice the 
peels, add them to the juice, weigh 
as much sugar, and put all together 
into a broad earthen dish. Place 
the dish at a moderate distance from 
the fire, often stirring till the chips 
candy, and then set them in a cool 
room to dry, which commonly re- 
quires about three weeks. 

rind of a Seville orange very tender, 
and beat it fine in a mortar. Add 
to it a spoonful of the best brandy, 
the juice of a Seville orange, four 
ounces of loaf sugar, and the yolks 
of four eggs. Beat them all toge- 
ther for ten minutes ; then by gen- 
tle degrees, pour in a pint of boil- 
ing cream, and beat it up till cold. 
Set sorne custard cups into a deep 
dish of boiling water, pour the cream 
into the cups, and let it stand again 
till cold. Put at the top some small 
strips of orange paring cut thin, or 
some preserved chips. 

Soak four ounces of the leaves of * 
the flowers in cold water for an hour ; 
drain, and put them between nap- 
kins, and roll with a rolling-pin till 
they are bruised. Have ready boiled 
a pound of sugar to add to it in a 
thick syrup, give them a simmer 
until the syrup adheres to the sides 
of the pan, drop it in little cakes on 
a plate, and dry them in a cool room. 

ORANGE FOOL. Mix the juice 
of three Seville oranges, three eggs 
well beaten, a pint of cream, a little 
nutmeg and cinnamon, and sweeten 
it to taste. Set the whole over a 
slow fire, and stir it till it becomes 
as thick as good melted butter, but 
it must not be boiled. Then pour 
it into a dish for eating cold. 

ORANGE JAM. Lay half a 

dozen oranges in water four or five 

days, changing the water once or 

twice every day. Take out the 


O R A 

O R A 

oranges, and wipe them dry. Tie 
I them up in separate cloths, and boil 

them four hours in a large kettle, 
changing the water once or twice. 
Peel oft the rinds and pound them 
well in a marble mortar, with two 
pounds of hne sugar to one pound 
of orange. Then beat all together, 
and cover the jam down in a pot. 

ORANGE JELLY. Grate the 
rind of two Seville and two China 
* oranges, and two lemons. Squeeze 

the juice of three of each, and strain 
it ; add a quarter of a pound of 
lump sugar dissolved in a quarter of 
a pint of water, and boil it till it 
nearly candies. Prepare a quart of 
jelly, made of two ounces of isin- 
glass ; add to it the syrup, and boil 
it once up. Strain oft" the jelly, 
and let it stand to settle before it 
is put into the mould. 

fresh juice cannot be procured, a 
very useful article for fevers may be 
made in the following manner. 
Squeeze from the finest fruit, a pint 
of juice strained through fine mus- 
, lin. Simmer it gently with three 
quarters of a pound of double-re- 
fined sugar twenty minutes, and 
when cold put it into small bottles. 

the oranges, cut out the pulp, then 
boil the rinds very tender, and beat 
them fine in a marble mortar. Boil 
three pounds of loaf sugar in a pint 
of water, skim it, and add a pound 
of the rind ; boil it fast till the sy- 
rup is very thick, but stir it careful- 
ly. Then add a pint of the pulp 
and juice, the seeds having been re- 
moved, and a pint of apple liquor; 
boil it all gently about half an hour, 
until it is well jellied, and put it 
into small pots. Lemon marmalade 
may be made in the same way, and 
both of them are very good and ele- 
gant sweetmeats. 

ORANGE PEEL. Scrape out 
all the pulp, soak the peels in wa- 
ter, and stir them every day. In a 
week's time put them in fresh water, 
:>24 ; 

and repeat it till all the bitterness 
is extracted. Boil the peels in fresh 
water over a slow fire till they are 
quite tender, and reduce the liquor 
to a quantity sufticient to boil it to 
a thick syrup. Put the peels into 
the syrup, simmer them gently, take 
them out of the syrup, and let them 
cool. Lay them to dry in the sun, 
and the peel will be nicely candied. 
the rind of a Seville orange, put to 
it six ounces of fresh butter, and six 
or eight ounces of lump sugar pound- 
ed. Beat them all in a marble mor- 
tar, and add at the same time the 
whole of eight eggs well beaten and 
strained. Scrape a raw apple, and 
mix it with the rest. Put a paste 
round the bottom and sides of the 
dish, and over the orange mixture 
lay cross bars of paste. Half an 
hour will bake it. — Another. Mix 
two full spoonfuls of orange paste 
with six eggs, four ounces of fine 
sugar, and four ounces of warm but- 
ter. Put the whole into a shallow 
dish, with a paste lining, and bake 
it twenty miiyites. — Another. Ra- 
ther more than two table-spoonfuls 
of the orange paste, mixed with six 
eggs, four ounces of sugar, and four 
ounces of butter melted, will make 
a good pudding, with a paste at the 
bottom of the dish. Twenty minutes 
will bake it. — Or, boil the rind of a 
Seville orange very soft, and beat 
it up with the juice. Then add half 
a pound of butter, a quarter of a 
pound of sugar, two grated biscuits, 
and the yolks of six eggs. Mix all 
together, lay a pufi^ paste round the 
edge of the dish, and bake it half 
an hour. 

ORANGE TART. Squeeze, pulp, 
and boil two Seville oranges quite 
tender. Weigh them, add double 
the quantity of sugar, and beat them 
together to a paste. Add the juice 
and pulp of the fruit, and a little 
bit of fresh butter the size of a wal- 
nut, and beat all together. Choose 
a very shallo\y dish, line it with a 



light puff-crust, lay the orange paste 
in it, and ice it o\ r. Or line a tart 
pan with a thin puff-paste, and put 
into it orange marmalade made with 
apple jelly. Lay bars of paste, or 
a croquant cover over, and bake it 
in a moderate oven. — Another. 
Squeeze some Seville oranges into 
a dish, grate off the outside rind, 
throw the peel into water, and change 
it often for two days. Boil a sauce- 
pan of water, put in the oranges, 
and change the water three or four 
times to take out the bitterness : 
when they are quite tender, dry and 
beat them fine in a mortar. Take 
their weight in double refined sugar, 
boil it to a syrup, and skim it clean : 
then put in the pulp, and boil it till 
it is quite clear. Put it cold into 
the tarts, and the juice which was 
squeezed out, and bake them in a 
quick oven. Lemon tarts are made 
in the same way. 

ORANGE WINE. To six gal- 
lons of water put fifteen pounds of 
soft sugar : before it boils, add the 
whites of six eggs well beaten, and 
take off the scum as it^rises. When 
cold, add the juice of fifty oranges, 
and two thirds of the peels cut very 
thin ; and immerse a toast covered 
with yeast. In a month after it has 
been in the cask, add a pint of bran- 
dy, and two quarts of Rhenish wine. 
It will be fit to bottle in three or 
four months, but it should remain in 
bottles for twelve months before it 
is drunk: 

ORANGES. If intended to be 

kept for future use, the best way is 

to dry and bake some clean sand ; 

and when it is cold, put it into a 

vessel. Place on it a layer of oranges 

i or lemons with the stalk end down- 

I wards, so that they do not touch 

I- : each other, and cover them with 

the sand two inches deep. This 

will keep them in a good state of 

preservation for several months. 

Another way is to freeze the fruit, 

and keep them in an ice-house. 

When used they are to be thawed in 

cold water, and will be good at any 
time of the year. If oranges or 
lemons are designed to be used for 
juice, they should first be pared to 
preserve the peel dry. Some should 
be halved, and when squeezed, the 
pulp cut out, and the outsides dried 
for grating. If for boiling in any 
liquid, the first way is the best. 

penknife cut on the rind? "xny shape 
you please, then cut off a piece near 
and round the stalk, and take all the 
pulp out carefully with an apple 
scoop. Put the rinds into salt and 
water two days, and change the wa- 
ter daily. Boil them an hour or 
more in fresh salt and water, and 
drain them quite dry. Let them 
stand a night in plain water, and 
then another night in a thin syrup, 
in which boil them the next day a 
few minutes. This must be repeated 
four days successively. Then let 
them stand six or seven weeks, ob- 
serving often whether they keep well ; 
otherwise the syrup must be boiled 
again. Then make a rich syrup for 
the orana^es. 

hole in the stalk part, the size of a 
shilling, and with a blunt knife 
scrape out the pulp quite clear with- 
out cutting the rind. Tie each part 
separately in muslin, and lay them 
in spring water twojda^s, changin^^ 
^he"water tWicFaTday . In the last 
/water boil them over a slow fire till 
they are quite tender. Observe that 
there is enough at first to allow for 
wastirfg, as they must be kept co- 
vered till the last. To every pound 
of fruit, allow two pounds of double- 
refined augar, and one pint of wa- 
ter. Boil the two latter, with the 
juice of the orange, till reduced to 
a syrup. Clarify it, skim it well, 
and let it stand to be cold. Then 
boil the fruit in the syrup half an 
hour ; and if not clear, repeat it 
daily till they are done. — Lemons 
are preserved in a similar way. Pare 
and core some green pippins, and 
G g 225 



boiftfffet:^!^ waiter till it is strongly 
favoured with them. The fruit 
should not be broken, only gently 
pressed with the back of a spoon, 
and the water strained through a 
jelly bag till it is quite clear. To 
every pint of liquor put a pound of 
double-retined sugar, the peel and 
juice of a lemon, and boil the whole 
to a strong syrup. Drain off the 
syrup from the fruit, and turning 
each lemon with the hole upwards 
in the jar, pour the apple jelly over 
it. The bits cut out must undergo 
the same process with the fruit, 
and the whole covered down with 
brandy paper. 

fill preserved oranges for a corner 
dish, take a pound of Naples bis- 
cuits, some blanched almonds, the 
yolks of four eggs beaten, four 
ounces of butter warmed, and sugar 
to taste. Grate the biscuits, mix 
them with the above, and some 
orange-flower water. Fill the pre- 
served oranges, and bake them in a 
very slow oven. If to be frosted, 
sift some fine sugar over them, as 
soon as they are filled ; otherwise 
they should be wiped. Or they may 
be filled with custard, and then the 
fruit need not be baked, but the 
cu«tard should be put in cold. 

ORANGEADE. Squeeze out the 
juice of an orange, pour boiling wa- 
ter on a little of the peel, and cover 
it close. Boil water and sugar to 
a thin syrup, and skim it. When 
all are cold, mix the juice, the in- 
fusion, and the syrup, with as much 
more water as will make a rich sher- 
bet. Strain the whole through a 
jelly bag ; or squeeze the jtlice and 
strain it, and water and capillaire. 

ORCHARD. Fruit trees, whe- 
ther in orchards, or espaliers, or 
against walls, require attention, in 
planting, pruning, or other manage- 
ment, almost every month in the 
year, to render them productive, 
and to preserve the fruit in a good 
state. — ^January. Cut out dead 

wdod aftd irriegular branches, clean 
the stumps and boughs from the 
moss with a hollow iron. Repair 
espaliers by fastening the stakes and 
poles with nails and wire, and tying 
the shoots down with twigs of osier. 
Put down some stakes by all the 
new-planted trees. Cut grafts to be 
ready, and lay them in the earth 
under a warm wall. February. 
Most kinds of trees may be pruned 
this month, though it is generally 
better to do it in autumn ; but what- 
ever was omitted at that season, 
should be done now. The hardiest 
kinds are to be pruned first ; and 
isuch as are more tender, at the lat- 
ter end of the month, when there 
Mill be less danger of their suffering 
in the wounded part from the frost. 
Transplant fruit trees to places 
wiliere they are wanted. Open a 
large hole, set the earth carefully 
about the roots, and nail them at 
once to the wall, or fasten them to 
strong stakes. Sow the kernels of 
apples and pears, and the stones of 
plums for stocks. Endeavour to 
keep off the birds that eat the bud ; 
of fruit trees at this season of the 
year. — March. The grafts which 
were cut off early and laid in the 
ground, are now to be brought into 
use ; the earliest kinds first, and 
the apples last of all. When this 
is done, take off the heads of the 
stocks that were inoculated the pre- 
ceding year. A hand's breadth of 
the head should be left, for tying 
the bud securely to it, and that the 
sap may rise more freely for its nou- 
rishment. The fruit trees that were 
planted in October should also b^ 
headed, and cut down to about four 
eyes, that the sap may flow more 
freely. — April. Examine the fruit 
trees against the walls and espaliers, 
take off all the shoots that project 
in front, and train such as rise kind- 
ly. Thin apricots upon the trees, 
for there arc usually more than can 
ripen ; and the sooner this is done, 
the better will the rest succeed. 



Water new-planted trees, plant the 
vine cuttings, and inspect the grown 
ones. Nip oft' improper shoots ; 
and when two rise from the same eye, 
take oft' the weakest of them. Weed 
strawberry beds, cut off" the strings, 
stir the earth between them, and 
water them once in two or three 
days. Dig up the borders near the 
fruit trees, and never plant any large 
kind of flowers or vegetables npon 
them. Any thing planted or sown 
near the trees, has a tendency to 
impoverish the fruit. — May. If any 
fresh shoots have sprouted upon the 
fruit trees, in espaliers, or against 
walls, take them oft". Train the 
proper ones to the walls or poles, 
at due distances, and in a regular 
manner. Look over vines, and stop 
every shoot that has fruit upon it, 
to three eyes beyond the fruit. Then 
train the branches regularly to the 
wall, and let such as are designed 
for the next year's fruiting grow 
some time longer, as their leaves 
will aflford a suitable shade to the 
fruit. Water the trees newly plant- 
ed, keep the borders about the old 
ones clear, and pick oft" the snails 
and other vermin. — June. Renew 
the operation of removing from wall 
trees and espaliers, all the shoots 
that project in front. Train proper 
branches to their situations, where 
they are wanted. Once more thin 
the wall fruit : leave the nectarines 
four inches apart, and the peaches 
five, but none nearer: the fruit will 
be finer, and the next year the tree 
will be stronger, if this precaution 
be adopted. Inoculate the apricots, 
and choose for this purpose a cloudy 
evening. Water trees lately plant- 
ed, and pick up snails and vermin. 
— ^JuLT. Inoculate peaches and 
nectarines, and take oft' all project- 
ing shoots in espaliers and wall fruit- 
trees. Hang phials of honey and wa- 
ter upon fruit-trees, to protect them 
from the depredations of insects, 
and look carefully for snails, which 
also will destroy the fruit. Keep the 

borders clear from weeds, and stir 
the earth about the roots of the trees ; 
this will hasten the ripening of the 
fruit. Examine the fruit trees that 
were grafted and budded the last 
season, to see that there are no 
shoots from the stocks. Whenever 
they rise, take them off", or they 
will deprive the intended growth of 
its nourishment. Attend to the 
trees lately planted, and water them 
often ; and whatever good shoots 
they make, fasten them to the wall 
or espalier. Repeat the care of the 
vines, take oft" improper or irregular 
shoots, and nail up the loose branch- 
es. Let no weeds rise in the ground 
about them, for they will exhaust 
the nourishment, and impoverish 
the fruit. — August. Watch the 
fruit on the wall trees, and keep oflT 
the devourers, of which there will 
be numberless kinds swarming about 
them during this month. Send away 
the birds, pick up snails, and hang 
bottles of sweet water for flies and 
wasps. Fasten loose branches, and 
gather the fruit carefully as it ripens. 
Examine the vines all round, and 
remove those trailing branches which 
are produced so luxuriantly at this 
season of the year. Suff'er not the 
fruit to be shaded by loose and un- 
profitable branches, and keep the 
ground clear of weeds, which other- 
wise will impoverish the fruit. — 
September. The fruit must now 
be gathered carefully every day, and 
the best t^me for this purpose is an 
hour after sun-rise : such as is ga- 
thered in the middle of the day is 
always flabby and inferior. The 
fruit should afterwards be laid iii a 
cool place till wanted. Grapes as 
they begin to ripen will be in continu- 
al danger from the birds, if not pro- 
perly watched and guarded. Trans- 
plant gooseberries and currants, and 
plant strawberries and raspberries : 
they will then be rooted before win- 
ter, and flourish the succeeding sea- 
son. — October. It is a useful 
practice to prime the peach and 
'227 . 

O 11 G 

O X 

nectarine trees, and also the vines, 
as it invigorates the buds in the 
spring of the year. Cut grapes for 
preserving, with a joint of the vine 
to each bunch. For winter keep- 
ing, gather fruits as they ripen. 
Transplant all garden trees for 
flowering, prune currant bushes, and 
preserve the stones of the fruit for 
sowing. — November. Stake up 
all trees planted for standards, or 
the winds will rock them at the 
bottom, and the frost will be let in 
and destroy them. Throw a good 
quantity of peas straw about them, 
and lay on it some brick bats or 
pebbles to keep it fast : this will 
mellow the ground, and keep the 
frost from the roots. Continue to 
prune wall fruit-trees, and prune 
also at this time the apple and pear 
kinds. Pull off the late fruit of 
figs, orit will decay the branches. — 
December. Pre])are for planting 
trees where they will be wanted in. 
the spring, by digging the ground 
deep and turning it well, in the place 
intended for planting. Scatter over 
the borders some fresh mould and 
rotted dung, and in a mild day dig 
it in with a three-pronged fork. 
Look over the orchard trees, and 
cut away superfluous wood and dead 
branches. Let the boughs and shoots 
stand clear of each other, that the 
air may pass between, and the fruit 
will be better flavoured. This ma- 
nagement is required for old trees : 
those that are newly planted are to 
be preserved by covering the ground 
about their roots. 

.ORGEAT. Boil a quart of new 
milk with a stick of cinnamon, sweet- 
en it to taste, and let it cool. Then 
pour it gradually over three ounces 
of almonds, and twenty bitter al- 
monds that have been blanched and 
beaten to a paste, with a little wa- 
ter to prevent oiling. Boil all to- 
gether, and stir it till cold, then 
add half a glass of brandy. — Ano- 
ther way. Blanch and pound three 
quarters of a pound of almonds, and 

thirty bitter ones, with a spoonful 
of water. Stir in by degrees two 
pints of water, and three pints of 
milk, and strain the whole through 
a cloth. Dissolve half a pound of 
fine sugar in a pint of water, boil 
and skim it well ; mix it with the 
other, adding two spoonfuls of 
orange-flower water, and a teacup- 
ful of the best brandy. 

two ounces of almonds with a tea- 
spoonful of orange-flower water, 
and a bitter almond or two ; then 
pour a quart of milk and water to 
the paste. Sweeten with sugar, 
or capillaire. This is a fine drink 
for those who feel a weakness in the 
chest. In the gout also it is highly 
useful, and with the addition of half 
an ounce of gum arabic, it has been 
found to allay the painfulness of the 
attendant heat. Half a glass of 
brandy may be added, if thought 
too cooling in the latter complaint, 
and the glass of orgeat may be put 
into a basin of warm water. 

ORTOLANS. Pick and singe, 
but do not draw them. Tie them 
on a bird spit, and roast them. 
Some persons like slices of bacon 
tied between them, but the taste of 
it spoils the flavour of the ortolan. 
Cover them with crumbs of bread. 

OX CHEEK. Soak half a head 
three hours, and clean it in plenty 
of water. Take oft' all the meat, 
and put it into a stewpan with an 
onion, a sprig of sweet herbs, pep- 
per, salt, and allspice. Lay the 
bones on the top, pour on two or 
three quarts of water, and close it 
down. Let it stand eight or ten 
hours in a slow oven, or simmer it 
on a hot hearth. When tender skim 
off the fat, and put in celery, or any 
other vegetable. Slices of fried 
onion may be put into it a little be- 
fore it is taken from the fire. 

OX CHEEK SOUP. Break the 
bones of the cheek, wash it clean, 
put it into a stewpan, with a piece 
of butter at the bottom. Add half 


O \ 8 

a pouiui of lean ham sliced, one 
parsnip, two carrots, three onions, 
four heads of celery, cut small, and 
three blades of mace. Set it over 
a slow fire for a quarter of an hour, 
then add a gallon of water, and sim- 
mer it gently till reduced to half the 
quantity. If intended as soup only, 
strain it off, and put in a head of 
sliced celery, with a little browning, 
to give it a fine colour. Warm two 
ouiices of vermicelli and put into it ; 
boil it ten minutes, and pour it into 
a tureen, with the crust of a French 
roll. If to be used as stew, take 
up the cheek as whole as possible ; 
put in a boiled carrot cut in small 
pieces, a slice of toasted bread, and 
some cayenne pepper. Strain the 
soup through a hair sieve upon the 
meat, and serve it up. 

OX FEET. These are very nu- 
tricious, in whatever way they are 
dressed. If to be eaten warm, boil 
them, and serve them up in a nap- 
kin. Melted butter for sauce, with 
mustard, and a large spoonful of 
vinegar. Or broil them very tender, 
and serve them as a brown fricassee. 
The liquor will do to make jelly 
sweet or relishing, and likewise to 
give richness to soups or gravies. 
They may also be fried, after being 
cut into four parts, dipped in^egg, 
and properly floured. Fried onions 
may be served round the dish,' with 
sauce as above. Or they may be 
baked for mock turtle. If to be 
eaten cold, they only require mus- 
tard, pepper, and vinegar. — Ano- 
ther way. Extract the bones from 
the feet, and boil the meat quite 
tender; then put it into a frying- 
pan with a little butter. After a 
few minutes, add some chopped 
mint and parsley, the yolks of two 
eggs beat up fine, half a pint of 
gravy, the juice of a lemon, and a 
little salt and nutmeg. Put the 
meat into a dish, and pour the sauce 
over it. 

OX FEET JELLW Take a heel 
that has been onlv scalded, not 

boiled, slit it in two, and remove 
the fat from between the claws. 
Simmer it gently for eight hours in 
a quart of water, till reduced to a 
pint and half, and skim it clean 
while it is doing. This strong jelly 
is useful in making calves' feet jelly, 
or may be added to mock turtle, 
and other soups. 

OX PALATES. Boil them ten- 
der, blanch and scrape them. Rub 
them with pepper, salt, and bread, 
and fry them brown on both sides. 
Pour off the fat, put beef or mut- 
ton gravy into the stewpan for sauce, 
with an anchovy, a little lemon 
juice, grated nutmegand salt. Thick- 
en it with butter rolled in flour: 
when these have simmered a quar- 
ter of an hour, dish them up, and 
garnish with slices of lemon. 

gether two ounces of grated bread, 
four ounces of currants, the same of 
shred suet, a bit of lump sugar, a 
little powdered pimento, and plenty 
of grated lemon peel. Add two eggs 
and a little milk ; then divide the 
whole into five dumplins, and fry 
them of a fine yellow brown. Made 
with half the quantity of flour, in- 
stead of bread, they are very excel- 
lent. Serve them up with sweet 

a pound and a half of pork, and the 
same of veal, cleared of skin and 
sinews. Add three quarters of a 
pound of beef suet, mince and mix 
them together. Steep the crumb 
of a penny loaf in water, and mix it 
with the meat; add also a little 
dried sage, pepper and salt. 

quart of fresh oysters, wash and^ 
stew them in their own liquor, with 
two anchovies, a bunch of sweet 
herbs, a blade of mace, and a bit of 
lemon peel. Drain off" the liquor, ^ 
boil up a quarter of a pound of but- 
ter till it turns brown ; add half a 
spoonful of flour, and boil it up 
again. Put in some pf the oyster 

22%; ^ 


O Y S 

liquor, with a little gravy, white 
wine, mace, nutmeg, a few cloves, 
and a small piece of shalot. Stew 
all together till it becomes as thick 
as cream ; then put in the oysters, 
and stew them a few minutes. Fry 
some bread crumbs in butter or 
sweet dripping till they are crisp 
and brown, drain them well, put in 
the oysters, and dish them up. — 
Another. Open the oysters, and 
save the liquor ; wash them in it, 
and strain it through a sieve. Put 
a little of the liquor into a tosser, 
with a bit of butter and flour, white 
pepper, a scrape of nutmeg, and a 
little cream. Stew the oysters in 
the liquor, cut them into dice, and 
then put them into rolls sold for the 

puff-crust into small pattipans, and 
cover with paste, with a bit of bread 
in each. While they are baking, 
take oft' the beard of the oysters, 
cut the oysters small, put them in a 
small tosser, with a dust of grated 
nutmeg, white pepper and salt, a 
taste of lemon peel, shred as fine as 
possible, a spoonful of cream, and 
a little of the oyster liquor. Simmer 
them together a few minutes, and 
fill the pattipans as soon as they 
are baked, first taking out the bread. 
A bread crust should be put into all 
patties, to keep them hollow while 

OYSTER PIE. Open the oys- 
ters, take off* the beards, parboil 
the oysters, and strain off" the liquor. 
Parboil some sweetbreads, cut them 
in slices, place them in layers with 
the oysters, and season very lightly 
with salt, pepper and mace. Then 
jadd half a teacup of liquor, and the 
same of gravy. Bake in a slow oven ; 
and before the pie is sent to table, 
put in a teacup of cream, a little 
more oyster liquor, and a cup of 
white gravy, all warmed together, 
but not boiled. 

OYSTER SAUCE. Save the li- 
quor in opening the oysters, boi' it 

with the beards, a bit of mace and 
lemon peel. In the mean time, 
throw the oysters into cold water, 
and drain it off*. Strain the liquor, 
put it into a saucepan with the oys- 
ters, and as much butter, mixed 
with a little milk, as will make sauce 
enough; but first rub a little flour 
with it. Set them over the fire, and 
keep stirring all the time. When 
the butter has boiled once or twice, 
take them off^, and keep the sauce- 
pan near the fire, but not on it ; for 
if done too much, the oysters will 
be hard. Squeeze in a little lemon 
juice, and serve it up. If for com- 
pany, a little cream is a great im- 
provement. * Observe, the oysters 
will thin the sauce, and therefore 
allow butter accordingly. 

OYSTER SOUP. Beat the yolks 
of ten hard eggs, and the hard part 
of two quarts of oysters, in a mor- 
tar, and put them to two quarts of 
fish stock. Simmer all together for 
half an hour, and strain it off". Hav- 
ing cleared the oysters of the beards, 
and washed them well, put them in- 
to the soup, and let it simmer five 
minutes." Beat up the yolks of six 
raw eggs, and add them to the soup. 
Stir it all well together one way, by 
the side of the fire, till it is thick and 
smooth, but do not let it boil. Serve 
up all together. 

a rich mutton broth, with two large 
onions, three blades of mace, and a 
little black pepper. When strained, 
pour it on a hundred and fifty oys- 
ters, without the beards, and a bit 
of butter rolled in flour. Simmer it 
gently a quarter of an hour, and 
serve up the soup. 

OYSTERS. Of the several kinds 
of oysters, the Pyfleet, Colchester, 
and Milford, are much the best. 
The native Milton are fine, being 
white and fleshy ; but others may 
be made to possess both these qua- 
lities in some degree, by proper 
feeding. Colchester oysters come 
to market early in August, the 

P A I 


Milton in October, and are in the 
highest perfection about Christmas, 
but continue in season till the mid- 
dle of May. When alive and good, 
the shell closes on the knife ; but if 
an oyster opens its mouth, it will 
soon be good for nothing. Oysters 
should be eaten the minute they are 
opened, with their own liquor in the 
under shell, or the delicious flavour 
will be lost. The rock oyster is the 
largest, but if eaten raw it tastes 
coarse and brackish, but may be im- 
proved by feeding. In order to this, 
cover the oysters with clean water, 
and allow a pint of salt to about two 
gallons ; this will cleanse them from 
the mud and sand contracted in the 
bed. After they have lain twelve 
hours, change it for fresh salt and 
water ; and in twelve hours more 
they will be fit to eat, and will con- 

tinue in a good state for two or ^hree 
days. At the time of high water in 
the place from whence they were 
taken, they will open their shells, in 
expectation of receiving their usual, 
food. The real Colchester or Py- 
fleet barrelled oysters, that are pack- 
ed at the beds, are better without 
being put into water; they are care- 
fully and tightly packed, and must 
not be disturbed till wanted for the 
table. In temperate weather these 
will keep good for a week or ten 
days. To preserve barrelled oysters 
however, the best way is to remove 
the upper hoop, so that the head 
may fall down upon the oysters, and 
then to place a weight upon it. This 
will compress the oysters, keep in 
the liquor, and preserve them for 
several days. 

Pain in the ear. This com- 
plaint is sometimes so prevalent as 
to resemble an epidemic, particular- 
ly amongst children. The most ef- 
fectual remedy yet discovered has 
been a clove of garlic, steeped for 
a few minutes in warm sallad oil, 
and put into the ear, rolled up in 
muslin or fine linen. When the gar- 
lic has accomplished its object, and 
is removed from the ear, it should 
be replaced with cotton, to prevent 
the patient taking cold. 

PAINT. Painted doors and win- 
dows may be made to look well for 
a considerable time, if properly clean- 
ed. A cloth should never be used, 
for it leaves some lint behind ; but 
take oflT the dust with a painter's 
brush, or a pair of bellows. When 
the painting is soiled or stained, dip 
a sponge or a bit of flannel in soda 
water, wash it off quickly, and dry 
it immediately, or the strength of 
the soda will eat ofl' the colour. 

When wainscot requires scouring, it 
should be done from the top down- 
wards, and the soda be prevented 
from running on the uncleaned part 
as much as possible, or marks will 
appear after the whole is finished. 
One person should dry the board 
with old linen, as fast as the other 
has scoured off the dirt, and washed 
away the soda. 

serving palisadoes and other kinds 
of iron work exposed to the weather, 
heat some common litharge in a 
shovel over the fire. Then scatter 
over it a small quantity of sulphur, 
and grind it in oil. This lead will 
reduce it to a good lead colour, which 
will dry very quickly, get remark- 
ably hard, and resist the weather 
better than any other common paint. 

PAINTINGS. Oil paintings fre- 
quently become smoked or dirty, 
and in order to their being properly 
cleaned, require to be treated with 


'^ A N 

the greatest care. Dissolve a little 
common salt in some stale urine, 
dip a woollen cloth in the liquid, and 
rub the paintings over with it till 
the^r are quite clean. Then wash 
them with a sponge and clean water, 
dry them gradually, and rub them 
over with a clean cloth. 

following cheap and valuable com- 
position will preserve all sorts of 
wood work exposed to the vicissi- 
tudes of the weather. Take some 
well-burnt lime, and expose it to the 
air till it falls to powder, without 
putting any water to it, and mix with 
it two thirds of wood ashes, and one 
third of fine sand. Sift the whole 
through a fine sieve, and work it up 
with linseed oil to the consistence 
of common paint, taking care to 
grind it fine, and mix it well toge- 
ther. The composition may be im- 
proved by the addition of an equal 
quantity of coal tar with the linseed 
oil ; and two coats of it laid on any 
kind of weather boards, will be found 
superior to any kind of paint used 
for that purpose. 

Persons of a full habit may find re- 
lief in bleeding ; but where it is ac- 
companied with nervou-s affections, 
as is generally the case, bleeding 
must by all means be avoided. Fre- 
quent bathing the feet in warm wa- 
ter, a stimulating plaster applied to 
the left side, and gentle exercise, 
are the most proper. 

PALSY. The luxurious, the se- 
dentary, and those who have suffered 
great anxiety and distress of mind, 
are the most subject to this disorder, 
which generally attacks the left 
side, and is attended with numbness 
and drowsiness. The parts affected 
ought to be frequently rubbed with 
a flesh brush, or with the hand. 
Blisters, warm plasters, volatile lini- 
ments, and electricity should like- 
wise be employed. The following 
electuary is also recommended. Mix 
an ounce of flour of mustard, and 

an ounce of the conserve of roses, 
in some syrup of ginger ; and take 
a tea-spoonful of it three or four 
times a day. 

PANADA. To make panada in 
five minutes, set a little water on the 
fire with a glass of white wine, some 
sugar, and a scrape of nutmeg and 
lemon peel, grating meanwhile some 
crumbs of bread. The moment the 
mixture boils up, keeping it still on 
the fire, put in the crumbs, and let 
it boil as fast as it can. When of a 
proper thickness just to drink, take 
it ofl'. — Another way. Make the 
panada as above, but instead of a 
glass of wine, put in a tea-spoonful 
of rum, a little butter and sugar. 
This makes a very pleasant article 
for the sick. — Another. Put into 
the water a bit of lemon peel, and 
mix in the crumbs : when nearly 
boiled enough, add some lemon or 
orange syrup. Observe to boil all 
the ingredients ; for if any be added 
after, the panada will break, and 
not turn to jelly. 

PANCAKES. Make a light bat- 
ter of eggs, flour, and milk. Fry it 
in a small pan, in hot dripping or 
lard. Salt, nutmeg, or ginger, may 
be added. Sugar and lemon should 
be served, to eat with them. When 
eggs are very scarce, the batter may 
be made of flour and small beer, 
with the addition of a little ginger ; 
or clean snow, with flour, and a very 
little milk, will serve instead of egg. 
Fine pancakes, fried without butter 
or lard, are made as follows. Beat 
six fresh eggs extremely well, strain 
and mix them with a pint of cream, 
four ounces of sugar, a glass of 
wine, half a nutmeg grated, and as 
much flour as will make it almost 
as thick as ordinary pancake batter, 
but not quite. Heat the fryingpan 
tolerably hot, wipe it with a clean 
cloth, and pour in the batter so as 
to make the pancakes thin. — New 
England pancakes are made of a 
pint of cream, mixed with five spoon- 
fuls of fine flour, seven yolks and 


four whites of eggs, and a very little 
salt. They are then fried very thin 
in fresh butter, and sent to table 
six or eight at once, with sugar and 
cinnamon strewed between them. — • 
Another way to make cream pan- 
cakes. Stir a pint of cream gradu- 
ally into three spoonfuls of flour, 
and beat them very smooth. Add 
to this six eggs, half a pound of 
melted butter, and a little sugar. 
These pancakes will fry from their 
own richness, without either butter 
or lard. Run the batter over the 
pan as thin as possible, and when 
the pancakes are just coloured they 
are ilone enough. 

PAP BREAD. To prepare a light 
nourishing food for young children, 
pour scalding water on some thin 
slices of good white bread, and let 
it stand uncovered till it cools. 
Then drain off the water, bruise the 
bread tine, and mix it with as much 
new milk as will make a pap of a 
moderate thickness. It will be warm 
enough for use, without setting it 
on the fire. It is common to add 
sugar, but the pap is better without 
it, as is almost all food intended for 
children ; and the taste will not re- 
quire it, till habit makes it familiar. 

PAPER. All sorts of paper im- 
prove by keeping, if laid in a dry 
place, and preserved from mould 
and damp. It is bought much 
cheaper by the ream, than by the 
quire. The expense of this article 
is chiefly occasioned by the enor- 
mous duty laid upon it, and the ne- 
cessity of importing foreign rags to 
supply the consumption. If more 
care were taken in families gene- 
rally, to preserve the rags and cut- 
tings of linen from being wasted, 
there would be less need of foreign 
imports, and paper might be manu- 
factured a little cheaper. 

these properly, first blow ofi" the 
dust with the bellows, and then 
wipe the paper downwards in the 
slightest manner with the crumb of 



a stale white loaf. Do not cross the 
paper, nor go upwards, but begin at 
the top, and the dirt of the paper 
and the crumbs will fall together. 
Observe not to wipe more than half - 
a yard at a stroke, and after doing 
all the upper part, go round again, 
beginning a little above where you 
left off'. If it be not done very light- 
ly, the dirt will adhere to the paper; 
but if properly attended to, the pa- 
per will look fresh and new. 

PAPER PASTE. To make a 
strong paste for paper, take two 
large spoonfuls of fine flour, and as 
much pounded rosin as will lie upon 
a shilling. Mix them up with as 
much strong beer as will make the 
paste of a due consistence, and boil 
it half an hour. It is best used 

PARSLEY. To preserve parsley 
through the winter, gather some fine 
fresh sprigs in May, June, or July. 
Pick and wash them clean, set on a 
stewpan half full of water, put a lit- 
tle salt in it, boil and scum it clean. 
Then add the parsley, let it boil for 
two minutes, and take it out and lay 
it on a sieve before the fire, that it 
may be dried as quick as possible. 
Put it by in a tin box, and keep it 
in a dry place. WiketTwanted, lay 
it in a basin„ and" cover it with waim 
water for a few minutes before you 
use it. 

some parsley very clean, and pick 
it carefully leaf by leaf. Put a tea- ^ 
spoonful of salt into half a pint of 
boiling water, boil the parsley in it 
about ten minutes, drain it on a 
sieve, mince it quite fine, and then 
bruise it to a pulp. Put it into a 
sauce boat, and mix with it by de 
grees about half a pint of good 
melted butter, only do not put so 
much flour to it, as the parsley will 
be sure to add to its thickness. 
Parsley and butter should not be 
poured over boiled dishes, but be 
sent up in a boat. The delicacy of 
this elegant and innocent relish, 

H h 233 


the paRl< 

depends upon the parsley being 
minced very fine. With the addition 
of a slice of lemon cut into dice, a 
little allspice and vinegar, it is made 
•^6to Dutch sauce. 

PARSLEY PIE. Lay a fowl, or 
a few bones of the scrag of veal, 
seasoned, into a dish. Scald a cul- 
lenderful of picked parsley in milk ; 
season it, and add it to the fowl or 
meat, with a tea-cupful of any sort 
of good broth or gravy. When baked, 
pour into it a quarter of a pint of 
cream scalded, with a little bit of 
butter and flour. Shake it rouud, 
and mix it with the gravy in the dish. 
Lettuces, white mustard leaves, or 
spinach, well scalded, may be added 
to the parsley. 

parsley leaves are to be had, tie up 
a little parsley seed in a piece of 
clean muslin, and boil it in water 
ten ininutes. I >e this water to melt 
the butter, and throw into it a little 
boiled spinach minced, to look like 

PARSNIPS. Carrots and parsnips, 
when laid up for the winter, should 
have the tops cut off close, be clear- 
ed of the rough earth, and kept in a 
dry place. Lay a bed of dry sand 
on the floor, two or three inches 
thick, put- the roots upon it close 
together, with the top of one to the 
bottom of the next, and so on. Cover 
the first layer with sand two inches 
thick, and then place another layer 

"l of roots, and go on thus till the whole 
store are laid up. Cover the heap 
with dry straw, laid on tolerably 
thick. Beet roots, salsify, Ham- 
burgh parsley roots, horseradish, 
aud turnips, should all be laid up in 
the same manner, as a supply against 
frostyiireather, when they cannot be 
got out of the e^round. 


? quire to be done very tender, and 
may be served whole with melted 
butter, or beaten smooth in a bowl, 
warmed up with a little cream, but- 
ter, flour, and salt. Parsnips are 

F A K 

highly nutricious, and make an agree- 
able sauce to salt fish. 

them in milk till they are soft. Then 
cut them lengthways into bits, two 
or three inches long, and simmer 
them in a white sauce, made of two 
spoonfuls of broth. Add a bit of 
mace, half a cupful of cream, a little 
flour and butter, pepper and salt. 

PARSNIP WINE. To twelve 
pounds of sliced parsnips, add four 
gallons of water, and boil them till 
they become soft. Squeeze the li- 
quor well out of them, run it through 
a sieve, and add to every gallon three 
pounds of lump sugar. Boil the 
whole three quarters of an hour, and 
when it is nearly cold, add a Httle 
yeast. Let it stand in a tub for ten 
days, stirring it from the bottom 
every day, and then put it into a 
cask for twelve months. As it wt)rks 
over, fill it up everv day. 

species of game is in season in the 
autumn. If the birds be young, the 
bill is of a dark colour, and the legs 
inclined to yellow. When fresh and 
good, the vent will be firm ; but when 
stale, this part will look greenish. 
Boiled partridges require to be 
trussed the same as chickens : from 
twenty to twenty-five minutes will 
do them sufticiently. Serve them 
up with either white or brown mush- 
room sauce, or with rice stewed in 
gravy, made pretty thick, and sea- 
soned with pepper and salt. Pour 
the sauce over them, or serve them 
up with celery sauce. A boiled 
pheasant is dressed in the same man- 
ner, allowing three quarters of an 
hour for the cooking. 

singe four partridges, cut off the legs 
at the knee, season with pepper, salt, 
chopped parsley, thyme, and mush- 
rooms. Lay a veal steak and a slice 
of ham at the bottom of the dish, 
put in the partridge, and half a pint 
of good broth. Lay puft' paste on 
the edge of the dish, and cover with 



the same; brush it over with egg, 
and bake it an hour. 

old partridges, and cut them into 
pieces, with three or four slices of 
ham, a stick of celery, and three 
large onions sliced. Fry them all 
in butter till brown, but take care 
not to burn them. Then put them 
into a stewpan, with five pints of 
boiling water, a few.peppercorns, a 
shank or two of mutton, and a little 
salt. Stew it gently two hours, 
strain it through a sieve, and put it 
again into a stewpan, with some 
stewed celery and fried bread. When 
it is near boiling, skim it, pour it 
into a tureen, and send it up hot. 

paste of butter and flour, roll it out 
thin, and spread any kind of jam, 
or currants over it, with some suet 
chopped fine. Roll it up together, 
close the paste at both ends, and 
boil it in a cloth. 

PASTRY. An adept in pastry 
never leaves any part of it adhering 
to the board or dish, used in making 
it. It is best when rolled on mar- 
ble, or a very large slate. In very 
hot weather, the butter should be 
put into cold water to make it as 
firm as possible ; and if made early 
in the morning, and preserved from 
the air until it is to be baked, the 
pastry will be found much better. 
An expert hand will use much less 
butter and produce lighter crust 
than others. Good salt butter well 
washed, will make a fine flaky crust. 
When preserved fruits are used in 
pastry, they should not be baked 
long ; and those that have been done 
with their full proportion of sugar, 
require no baking at all. The crust 
should be baked in a tin shape, and 
the fruit be added afterwards ; or it 
may be put into a small dish or tart 
pans, and the covers be baked on a 
tin cut out into any form. 

PATTIES. Slice some chicken, 
turkey, or veal, with dressed ham. 

or sirloin of beef. Add some pars- 
ley, thyme, and lemon peel, chopped 
very fine. Pound all together in a 
mortar, and season with salt and 
white pepper. Line the pattipans 
with puff" paste, fill them with meat, 
lay on the paste, close the edges, 
cut the paste round, brush it over 
with egg, and bake the patties twenty 

PAVEMENTS. For cleaning 
stone stairs, and hall pavements, 
boil together half a pint each of size 
and stone-blue water, with two ta- 
ble-spoonfuls of whiting, and two 
cakes of pipe-clay, in about two 
quarts of water. — Wash the stone ^ 
over with a flannel slightly wetted 
in this mixture; and when dry, rub 
them with a flannel and brush. 

due for tenements let from year to 
year, is commonly paid on the four 
quarter days ; and when the pay- 
ments are regularly made at the 
quarter, the tenant cannot be de- 
prived of possession at any other 
time than at the end of a complete 
year from the commencement of his 
tenancy. If therefore he took pos- 
session at Midsummer, he must quit 
at Midsummer, and notice thereof 
must be sent at or before the pre- 
ceding Christmas. A similar no- 
tice is also required from the tenant 
to the landlord, when it is intended 
to leave the premises. — Every quar- 
ter's rent is deemed a separate debt, 
for which the landlord can bring a 
separate action, or distress for non- 
payment. The landlord himself is 
the proper person to demand rent: 
if he employs another person, he 
must be duly authorised by power oi' 
attorney, clearly specifying the per- 
son from whom, and the premises 
for which the rent is due : or the 
demand will be insuflicient, if the 
tenant should be inclined to evade 
payment. The following is the form 
of a receipt for rent : — * Received of 
R. C. February 13, 1823, the sum 



of ten pounds twelve shillings for a 
quarter's rent, due at Christmas last.' 

* £10 12 J. W. M.' 

PEA FOWL. These require to 
be fed the same as turkeys. They 
are generally so shy, that they are 
seldom to be found for some days af- 
iev hatching ; and it is very wrong 
to pursue them, as many ignorant 
people do, under the idea of bring- 
ing them home. It only causes the 
hen to carry the young ones through 
dangerous places, and by hurrying 
she is apt to tread upon them. The 
cock bird kills all the young chick- 
ens he can get at, by one blow on 
the centre of the head with his bill, 
and he does the same by his own 
brood, before the feathers of the 
crown come out. Nature therefore 
directs the hen to hide and keep 
them out of his way, till the feathers 

PEA POWDER. Pound toge- 
ther in a marble mortar half an ounce 
each of dried mint and sage, a dram 
of celery seed, and a quarter of a 
dram of cayenne, and rub them 
through a fine sieve. This gives a 
very savoury relish to pea soup, 
and to water gruel. A dram of all- 
spice, or black pepper, may be 
pounded with the above, as an ad- 
dition, or instead of the cayenne. 

PEACH WINE. Take peaches, 
apricots, and nectarines, when they 
are full of juice, pare them, and 
take out the stones. Then slice 
them thin, pour over them from one 
to two gallons of water, and a quart 
of white wine. Simmer the whole 
gently for a considerable time, till 
the sliced fruit becomes soft. Pour 
off the liquid part into another ves- 
sel, containing more peaches that 
have been sliced but not heated ; 
let them stand for twelve hours, 
then pour out the liquid part, and 
press what remains through a line 
hair bag. Let the whole be now 
put into a cask to ferment, and add 
a pound and a half of loaf sugar to 

each gallon. Boil an ounce of 
beaten cloves in a quart of white 
wine, and put it into the cask ; the 
morella wine will have a delicious 
flavour. Wine may be made of 
apricots by only bruising, and pour- 
ing the hot water upon them : this 
wine does not require so much 
sweetening. To give it a curious 
flavour, boil an ounce of mace, and 
half an ounce of nutmegs, in a quart 
of white wine ; and when the wine 
is fermenting, pour the liquid in 
hot. In about twenty days or a 
month, these wines will be fit for 

Cleanse a pound of pearl barley, 
and put to it three quarts of milk, 
half a pound of sugar, and a grated 
nutmeg. Bake it in a deep pan, 
take it out of the oven, and beat up 
six eggs with it. Then butter a 
dish, pour in the pudding, and bake 
it again an hour. 

PEARLS. To make artificial 
pearls, take the blay or bleak fish, 
which is very common in the rivers 
near London, and scrape off the fine 
silvery scales from the belly. Wash 
and rub them in water ; let the wa- 
ter settle, and a sediment will be 
found of an oily consistence. A lit- 
tle of this is to be dropped into a 
hollow glass bead of a bluish tint, 
and shaken about, so as to cover all 
the internal surface. After this the 
bead is filled up with melted white 
wax, to give it weight and solidity. 

PEARS. Large ones, when in- 
tended to be kept, should be tied 
and hung up by the stalk. 

PEAS. Young green peas, well 
dressed, are one of the greatest de- 
licacies of the vegetable kingdom. 
They must be quite young ; it is 
equally indispensable that they be 
fresh gathered, and cooked as soon 
as they are shelled, for they soon 
lose both their colour and sweet- 
ness. Of course they should never 
be purchased ready shelled. To 

V E A 

1> K A 

have them in perfection, tiiey must 
be gathered the same day that they 
are dressed, and be put on to boil 
within half" an hour after they are 
shelled. As large and small peas 
cannot be boiled together, the small 
ones should be separated from the 
rest, by being passed trough a riddle 
or coarse sieve. For a peck of young- 
peas, which will not be more than 
sufficient for two or three persons, 
after they are shelled, set on a 
saucepan with a gallon of water. 
When it boils, put in the peas with 
a table-spoonfiil of salt. Skim it 
well, keep them quickly boiling from 
twenty to thirty minutes, according 
to their age and size. To judge 
whether they are done enough, take 
some out with a spoon and taste them, 
but be careful not to boil them be- 
yond the point of perfection. When 
slightly indented, and done enough, 
drain them on a hair sieve. Put 
them into a pie dish, and lay some 
small bits of butter on the peas ; put 
another dish over them, and turn 
them over and over, in order to dif- 
fuse the butter equally among them. 
Or send them to table plain from the 
saucepan, with melted butter in a 
sauce tureen. Garnish the dish with 
a few sprigs of mint, boiled by them- 

piece of nice streaked bacon, lay it 
in water to take out some of the salt, 
aud boil it with some dried peas, in 
» little water. Add two carrots or 
parsnips, two onions, and a bunch 
of sweet herbs. When the peas are 
done enough, pulp them through a 
culllender or sieve, and serve them 
over the bacon. 

of sowing peas in straight rows, they 
should be formed into circles of three 
or four feet diameter, with a space 
of two feet between each circle. By 
this means they will blossom nearer 
the ground, than when enclosed in 
long rows, and will ripen much soon- 
er. Or if set in straight rows, a bed 

of ten or twelve ieet wide should be 
left between, for onions and carrots, 
or any crops which do not grow tall. 
The peas will not be drawn up so 
much, but will grow stronger, and 
be more productive. Scarlet beans 
should be treated in the same man- 

PEAS AND PORK. Two pounds 
of the belly part of pickled pork will 
make very good broth for peas soup, 
if the pork be not too salt. If it has 
been in salt several days, it must be 
laid in water the night before it is 
used. Put on three quarts of soft 
water, or liquor in which meat has 
been boiled, with a quart of peas, 
and let it boil gently for two hours. 
Then put in the pork, and let it sim- 
mer for an hour or more, till it is 
quite tender. When done, wash the 
pork clean in hot water, send it up 
in a dish, or cut into small pieces 
and put with the soup into the tu- 

peas, and pulp them through a cul- 
lender. Heat them up in a saucepan 
with some butter, chopped parsley 
and chives, and season with pepper 
and salt. 

peas an hour or two before they are 
boiled ; and when nearly done, beat 
them up with salt and pepper, an 
eg§, and a bit of butter. Tie it up 
in a cloth, and boil it half an hour. 

PEAS SOUP. Save the liquor 
of boiled pork or beef : if too salt, 
dilute it with water, or use fresh wa- 
ter only, adding the bones of roast 
beef, a ham or gammon bone, or 
an anchovy or two. Simmer these 
with some good whole or split peas ; 
the smaller the quantity of water at 
first the better. Continue to sim- 
mer till the peas will pulp through 
a cullender ; then set on the pulp to 
stew, with more of the liquor that 
boiled the peas, two carrots, a tur- 
nip, a leek, and a stick of chopped 
celery, till all is quite tender. The 
last requires less time, an hour will 



do it. When ready, put into a tu- 
reen some fried bread cut into dice, 
dried mint rubbed fine, pepper and 
salt if needed, and pour in the soup. 
When there is plenty of vegetables, 
no meat is necessary ; but if meat 
be preferred, a pig's foot or ham 
bone may be boiled with the peas, 
which is called the stock. More 
butter than is above mentioned will 
be necessary, if the soup is required 
to be very rich. 

vent chalk or pencil drawings from 
rubbing out, it is only necessary to 
lay them oh the surface of some 
skim milk, free from cream and 
grease ; and then taking off the 
drawing expeditiously, and hanging 
it up by one corner to dry. A thin 
wash of isinglass will also answer 
the same purpose. 

PEPPER POT. To three quarts 
of water, put any approved vegeta- 
bles ; in summer, peas, lettuce, 
spinach, and two or three onions ; 
in winter, carrot, turnip, onions, and 
celery. Cut them very small, and 
stew them with two pounds of neck 
of mutton, and a pound of pickled 
pork. Half an hour before serving, 
clear a lobster or crab from the 
shell, and put it into the stew, add- 
ing a little salt and cayenne. Some 
people choose very small suet dump- 
lings, boiled in the above, or fowl 
may be used instead of mutton. 
A pepper pot may indeed be made 
of various things, and is understood 
to consist of a proper mixture of 
fish, flesh, fowl, vegetables, and 
pulse. A small quantity of rice 
should be boiled with the whole. 

and sift four ounces of double-re- 
fined sugar, and beat it with the 
whites of two eggs till perfectly 
smooth. Then add sixty drops of 
oil of peppermint ; beat it well, 
drop it on white paper, and dry it 
at a distance from the fire. 

PERCH. When of a good size, 
as iu Holland, they arc a rcmark- 

ably fine fresh-water fish, though 
not so delicate as carp or tench. 
Clean them carefully, and if to be 
boiled, put them into a fish-kettle, 
with as much cold spring water as 
will cover them, and add a handful 
of salt. Set them on a quick fire 
till they boil, and then place them 
on one side to boil gently for about 
ten minutes, according to their size. 
If to be fried, wipe them on a dry 
cloth, after they have been well 
cleaned and washed, and flour them 
lightly all over. Fry them about ten 
minutes in hot lard or dripping, lay 
them on a hair sieve to drain, and 
send them up on a hot dish. Gar- 
nish with sprigs of green parsley, 
and serve them with anchovy sauce. 

PERFUMERY. Oil of lavender 
and other essences are frequently 
adulterated with a mixture of the 
oil of turpentine, which may be dis- 
covered by dipping a piece of pa- 
per or rag into the oil to be tried, 
and holding it to the fire. The fine 
scented oil will quickly evaporate, 
and leave the smell of the turpen- 
tine distinguishable, if the essence 
has been adulterated with this in- 

ful article for marking linen is com- 
posed of nitrate of silver, or lunar 
caustic, and the tincture or infusion 
of galls ; in the proportion of one 
dram of the former in a dry state, 
to two drams of the latter. The 
linen, cotton, or other fabric, must 
be first wetted with the following 
liquid ; namely, an ounce of the 
salt of tartar, dissolved in an ounce 
and a half of water ; and must be 
perfectly dry before any attempt is 
made to write upon it. 

PETTITOES. Boil them very 
gently in a small quantity of water, 
along with the liver and the heart. 
Then cut the meat fine, split the 
feet, and simmer them till they are 
quite tender. Thicken with a bit 
of butter, a little flour, a spoonfed 
of cream, and a little pepper and 



salt. Give it a boil up, pour the li- 
quor over a sippets of bread, and 
place the feet on the mince. 

vers and pewter requisites should be 
wiped dry immediately after being 
used, and kept free from steam or 
damp, which would prevent much of 
the trouble in cleaning them. Where 
the polish is gone off, let the articles 
be first rubbed on the outside with a 
little sweet oil laid on a piece of soft 
linen cloth. Then clear it off with 
pure whitening on linen cloths, which 
will restore the polish. 

PHEASANTS. The cock bird is 
reckoned the best, except when the 
hen is with eg^. If young, its spurs 
are short and blunt ; but if old, they 
are long and sharp. A large phea- 
sant will require three quarters of an 
hour to boil ; if small, half an hour. 
If for roasting, it should be done the 
same as a turkey. Serve it up with 
a fine gravy, including a very smaii 
piece of garlic, and bread sauce or 
fried bread crumbs instead. When 
cold the meat may be made into ex- 
cellent patties, but its flavour should 
not be overpowered with lemon. For 
the manner of trussing a pheasant or 
partridge, see Plate. 

TLE. Two thirds of calcined oyster 
shells, and one third of sulphur, put 
into a hot crucible for an hour, and 
afterwards exposed to the air for half 
an hour, become phosphorus. This 
is put into a bottle, and when used 
to procure a light, a very small quan- 
tity is taken out on the point of a 
common match, and rubbed upon a 
cork, which produces an immediate 
flame. If a small piece of phosphorus 
be put into a vial, and a little boiling 
oil poured upon it, a luminous bottle 
will be formed ; for on taking out the 
cork, to adniit the atmospheric air, 
the empty space in the vial will be- 
come luminous ; and if the bottle be 
well closed, it will preserve its illu- 
minative power for several months. 

PICKLE. For hams, lo»inrnes, or 

beef, a pickle may be made that will 
keep for years, if boiled and skim- 
med as often as it is used. Provide 
a deep earthen glazed pan that will 
hold four gallons, having a cover that 
will fit close. Put into it two gallons 
of spring water, two pounds of coarse 
sugar, two pounds of bay salt, two 
pounds and a half of common salt, 
and half a pound of salt petre. Keep 
the beef or hams as long as they will 
bear, before they are put into the 
pickle ; sprinkle them with coarse 
sugar in a pan, and let them drain. 
Then rub them well with the pickle, 
and pack them in close, putting as 
much as the pan Mill hold, so that the 
pickle may cover them. The pickle 
is not to be boiled at first. A small 
ham may be fourteen days, a large 
one three weeks, a tongue twelve 
days, and beef in proportion to its 
size. They will eat well out of the 
pickle without drying. When they 
are to be dried, let each be drained 
over the pan ; and when it will drop no 
longer, take a clean sponge and dry 
It thoroughly. Six or eight hours 
will smoke them, and there should 
be only a little saw-dust and wet 
straw used for this purpose ; but if 
put into a baker's chimney, they 
should be sown up in a coarse cloth, 
and hang a week. 

PICKLES. The free or frequent 
use of pickles is by no means to be 
recommended, where any regard is 
paid to health In general they are 
the mere vehicles for taking a certain 
portion of vinegar and spice, and in 
the crisp state in which they are most 
admired are often indigestible, and 
of course penicious. The pickle 
made to preserve cucumbers and 
mangoes, is generally so strongly im- 
pregnated with garlic, mustard, and 
spice, that the original flavour of the 
vegetable, is quite overpowered, and 
the vegetable itself becomes the mere 
absorbent of these foreign ingredi- 
ents. But if pickles must still be 
rega,rded for the sake of the palate, 
whntever becomes of the stomach. 

PI c 


it will be necessary to watch care- 
fully the proper season for gather- 
ing and preparing the various arti- 
cles intended to be preserved. Fre- 
quently it, happens, after the first 
rveek that walnuts come in season, 
that they become hard and shelled, 
especially if the weather be hot and 
dry ; it is therefore necessary to 
purchase them as soon as they first 
appear at market ; or in the course 
of a few months after being pickled, 
the nuts may be found incased in 
an impenetrable shell. The middle 
of July is generally the proper time 
to look for green walnuts. Nastur- 
tiums are to be had about the same. 
Garlic and shalots, from Midsum- 
mer to Michaelmas. Onions of va- 
rious kinds for pickling, are in sea- 
son by the middle of July, and for 
a month after. Gherkins, cucum- 
bers, melons, and mangoes, are to 
be had by the middle of July, and 
for a month after. Green, red, and 
yellow capsicums, the end of July, 
and following month. Chilies, to- 
matas, cauliflowers, and artichokes, 
towards the end ofjuly, and through- 
out Au<;ust. Jerusalem artichokes 
for pickling, July and August, and 
for three months after. French 
beans and radish pods, in July. 
Mushrooms, for pickling and for 
ketchup, in September. Red cab- 
bage, and samphire, in August. 
White cabbage, in September and 
October. Horseradish, November 
and December. — Pickles, when put 
down, require to be kept with great 
care, closely covered. When want- 
ed for use they should be taken out 
of the* jar with a wooden spoon, 
pierced with holes, the use of metal 
in this case being highly improper. 
Pickles should be well kept from 
the air, and seldom opened. Small 
jars should be kept for those more 
frequently in use, that what is not 
eaten may be returned into the jar, 
and the top [kept closely covered. 
In preparing vinegar for pic||^f s, it 
should not be boiled in metal sauee- 

pans, but in a stone jar, on a hot 
hearth, as the acid will dissolve or 
corrode the metal, and infuse into 
the pickle an unwholesome ingre- 
dient. For the same reason pickles 
should never be put into glazed 
jars, as salt and vinegar will pene- 
trate the glaze, and render it poison- 

some asparagus, and lay it in an 
earthen pot. Make a brine of salt 
and water, strong enough to bear an 
egg ; pour it hot on the asparagus, 
and let it be closely covered. When 
it is to be used, lay it for two hours 
in cold water ; boil and serve it up 
on a toast, with melted butter over 
it. If to be used as a pickle, boil 
it as it comes out of the brine, and 
lay it in vinegar. 

tolerable flitches, dry a stone of salt 
over the fire, till it is scalding hot. 
Beat fine two ounces of saltpetre, 
and two pounds of bay salt well 
dried, and mix them with some of 
the heated salt. Rub the bacon 
first with that, and then with the 
rest ; put it into a tub, and keep it 
close from the air. 

the roots till three parts done, or 
set them into a cool oven till they 
are softened. Cut them into slices 
of an inch thick, cover them with 
vinegar, adding some allspice, a few 
cloves, a little mace, black pepper, 
horseradish sliced, some onions, 
shalots, a little pounded ginger, and 
some salt. Boil these ingredients 
together twenty minutes, and when 
cold, add to them a little bruised 
cochineal. Put the slices of beet 
into jars, pour the pickle upon 
them, and tie the jars down close. 

hard red cabbage into a cullen- 
der, and sprinkle each layer with 
salt. Let it drain two days, then 
put it into ajar, cover it with boil- 
ing vinegar, and add a few slices 
of red beet-root. The purple red 



cabbage makes the finest colour. 
Those who like the flavour of spice, 
will boil some with the vinegar. 
Cauliflower cut in branches, and 
thrown in after being salted, will 
look of a beautiful red. 

some middle sized yellowish carrots, 
cut them into any shape, and let 
them cool. Take as much vinegar 
as will cover them, boil it with a 
little salt, and a pennyworth of 
saffron tied in a piece of muslin. 
Put the carrots into a jar ; when the 
pickle is cold, pour it upon them, 
and cover the jar close. Let it 
stand all night, then pour off the 
pickle, and boil it with Jamaica pep- 
per, mace, cloves, and a little salt. 
When cold, pour it upon the car- 
rots, and tie them up for use. 

them into thick slices, and sprinkle 
salt over them. Next day drain 
them for five or six hours, then put 
them into a stone jar, pour boiling 
vinegar over them, and keep them in 
a warm place. Repeat the boiling 
vinegar, and stop them up again in- 
stantly, and so on till quite green. 
Then add peppercorns and ginger, 
and keep them in small stone jars. 
Cucumbers are best pickled with 
sliced onions. 

some sound young cucumbers,5pread 
them on dishes, salt and let them lie 
a week. Drain and put them in a 
jar, pouring boiling vinegar over 
them. Set them near the fire, co- 
vered with plenty of vine leaves. 
If they do not come to a tolerably 
good green, pour the vinegar into 
another jar, set it on a hot hearth, 
and when the vinegar boils, pour 
it over them again, and cover them 
with fresh leaves. Repeat this 
operation as often as is necessary, 
to bring the pickle to a good colour. 
Too many persons have made pickles 
of a very fine green, by using brass 
or bellmetal kettles ; but as this is 
(No. 11.) 

highly poisonous, the practice ought 
never to be attempted. 

PICKLED HAxM. After it haa^ 
been a week in the pickle, boil a 
pint of vinegar, with two ounces of 
bay salt. Pour it hot on the ham, 
and baste it every day ; it may then 
remain in the brine two or three 

them as fresh as possible, split them 
open, take off the heads, and trim 
off all the thin parts. Put them into 
salt and water for one hour, drain 
and wipe the fish, and put them into 
jars, with the following preparation, 
which is enough for six dozen her- 
rings. Take salt and bay salt one 
pound each, saltpetre and lump su- 
gar two ounces each, and powdei 
and mix the whole together. Put a 
layer of the mixture at the bottom 
of the jar, then a layer of fish with 
the skin side downwards ; so con- 
tinue alternately till the jar is full. 
Press it down, and cover it close: 
in two or three months they will be 
fit for use. 

should be small, and with thiek rinds. 
Rub them with a piece of flannel, 
and slit them half down in four quar- 
ters, but not through to the pulp. 
Fill the openings with salt hard 
pressed in, set them upright in a 
pan for four or five days, until the 
salt melts, and turn them thrice a 
day in their own liquor till quite 
tender. Make enough pickle to 
cover them, of rape vinegar, the 
brine of the lemons, peppercorns, 
and ginger. Boil and skim it ; when 
cold put it to the lemons, with two 
ounces of mustard seed, and two 
cloves of garlic to six lemons. When 
the lemons are to be used, the pickle 
will be useful in fish or other sauces. 

and divide the fish, and cut each 
side into three ; or leave them un- 
divided, and cut each side into five 
or six pieces. To six large mackarel, 

I i 241 



take nearly an ounce of pepper, two 
nutmegs, a little mace, four cloves, 
and a handful of salt, all finely pow- 
dered. Mix them together, make 
holes in each bit of fish, put the sea- 
soning into them, and rub some of it 
over each piece. Fry them brown in 
oil, and when cold put them into a 
stone jar, and cover them with vine- 
gar. Thus prepared, they will keep 
for months ; and if to be kept longer, 
pour oil on the top. Mackarel pre- 
served this way are called Caveach. 
A more common way is to boil the 
mackarel after they are cleaned, and 
then to boil up some of the liquor 
with a few peppercorns, bay leaves, 
and a little vinegar ; and when the 
fish is cold, the liquor is poured over 
them. Collared mackarel are pre- 
pared the same way as collared eel. 

melons, cut a slice out of them, and 
scrape out the seeds and pulp quite 
clean. Put them into a tin stewpan 
with as much water as will cover 
them ; add a small handful of salt, 
^ and boil them over a quick fire. 
When they boil take them off the fire, 
put them into an earthen pan with 
the water, and let them stana till the 
next day. The melons must then be 
taken out and wiped dry, both with- 
in and without. Put two small cloves 
of garlic into each, a little bit of gin- 
ger, and bruised mustard seed, enough 
to fill them. Replace the slice that 
was cut out, and tie it on with a 
thread. Boil some cloves, mace, 
ginger, pepper, and mustard seed, all 
bruised, and s^e garlic, in as much 
vinegar as will cover them. After a 
little boiling, pour the whole, boiling- 
hot, upon the melons. They must 
be quite covered with the pickle, and 
tied down close, when cold, with a 
bladder and leather. They will not 
be fit for use in less than three or 
four months, and will keep two or 
three years. 

the buttons with apiece of flannel, and 
■^ 242 

salt. Take out the red inside of the 
larger ones, and when old and black 
they will do for pickling. Throw 
some salt over, and put them into a 
stewpan with mace and pepper. As 
the liquor comes out, shake them- 
well, and keep them over a gentle 
fire till all of it be dried into them 
again. Then put as much vinegar 
into the pan as will cover them, give 
it one warm, and turn all into a glass 
or stone jar. Mushrooms pickled in 
this way will preserve their flavour, 
and keep for two years. 

Take the buds fresh oft' the plants 
when they are pretty large, but be- 
fore they grow hard, and put them 
into some of the best white wine vine- 
gar, boiled up with such spices as 
are most agreeable. Keep them in 
a bottie closely stopped, and they 
will be fit for use in a week or ten 

month of September, choose the 
small white round onions, take off* 
the brown skin, have ready a very 
nice tin stewpan of boiling water, 
and throw in as many onions as will 
cover the top. As soon as they look 
clear on the outside, take them up 
with a slice as quick as possible, and 
lay* them on a clean cloth. Cover 
them close with another cloth, and 
scald some more, and so on. Let' 
them lie to be cold, then put them in 
a jar or wide-mouthed glass bottles, 
and pour over them the best white- 
wine vinegar, just hot, but not boil- 
ing, and cover them when cold. They 
must look quite clear; and if the 
outer skin be shriveled, peel it off". 

four dozen large oysters, wash them 
in their own liquor, wipe them di*y, 
and strain off" the liquor. Add a des- 
sert-spoonful of pepper, two blades 
of- mace, a table-spoonful of salt, if 
the liquor require it ; then add three 
spoonfuls of white wine, and four of 
vinegar. Simmer the oysters a few 



minutes in the liquor, then put them 
into small* jars, boil up the pickle, 
and skim it. When cold, pour the 
liquor over the oysters, and cover 
them close. — Another way. Open 
the oysters, put them into a sauce- 
pan with their own liquor for ten 
minutes, and simmer them very gent- 
ly. Put them into a jar one by one, 
that none of the grit may stick to 
them ; and when cold, cover them 
with the pickle thus made. Boil the 
liquor with abitof mace, lemon peel, 
and black peppers ; and to every 
hundred of these corns, put two 
spoonfuls of the best undistilled vi- 
negar. The pickle should be kept 
in small jars, and tied close with 
bladder, for the air will spoil them. 
them, turn the inside out, and lard 
it. Season with a little salt and all- 
spice in fine powder ; then turn them 
again, and tie the neck and rump 
with thread. Put them into boiling 
water; when they have boiled a 
minute or two to make them plump, 
take them out and dry them well. 
Then put them boiling hot into the 
pickle, which must be made of equal 
quantities of white wine and white- 
wine vinegar, with white pepper and 
allspice, sliced ginger and nutmeg, 
and two or three bay leaves. When 
it boils up, put in the pigeons. If 
they are small, a quarter of an hour 
will do them ; if large, twenty mi- 
nutes. Then take them out, wipe 
them, and let them cool. When 
the pickle is cold, take the fat from 
it, and put them in again. Keep 
them in a stone jar, tied down with 
a bladder to keep out the air. In- 
stead of larding, put into some a 
stuffing made of yolks of eggs boiled 
hard, and marrow in equal quan- 
tities, with sweet herbs, pepper, 
salt, and mace, 

and shoulders being cut off, take for 
pickling the quantities proportioned 
to the middlings of a pretty large 
hog. Mix and pound fine, four oun- 

ces of salt petre, a pound of coarse 
sugar, an ounce of salprunel, and 
a little common salt. Sprinkle the 
pork with salt, drain it twenty four 
hours, and then rub it with the above 
mixture. Pack the pieces tight in 
a small deep tub, filling up the spaces 
with common salt. Place large peb- 
bles on the pork, to prevent it from 
swimming in the pickle which the 
salt will produce. If kept from the 
air it will continue very fine for two 

peckrof damask rose buds, pick oflf 
the green part, and strew in the 
bottom of a jar a handful of large 
bay salt. Put in half the roses, and 
strew a little more bay salt upon 
them. Strip from the stalk a hand- 
ful of knotted marjoram, a handful 
of lemon thyme, and as rnuch com-^ 
mon thyme. Take six pennyworth 
of benjamin, as much of storax, six 
orris roots, and a little suet ; be;at 
and bruise them all together, and 
mix them with the stripped herbs. 
Add twenty cloves, a grated nut- 
meg, the peel of two Seville oranges 
pared thin, and of one lemon shred 
fine. Mix them with the herbs and 
spices, strew all on the roses, and 
stir them once in two days till the 
jar is full. More sweets need not 
be added, but only roses, orange 
flawers, or single pinks. 

scaling and cleaning, split the sal- 
mon, and divide it into convenient 
pieces. Lay it in the kettle to fill 
the bottom, and astmuch water as 
will cover it. To three quarts add 
a pint of vinegar, a handful of salt, 
twelve bay-leaves, six blades of 
mace, and a quarter of an ounce of 
black pepper. When the salmon 
is boiled enough, drain and lay it 
on a clean cloth; then put more 
salmon into thje kettle, and pour the 
liquor upon it, and so on^till all is 
done. After this, if the pickle be 
not smartly flavoured with the vine- 
gar and salt, add more, and boil it 



quick three quarters of an hour. 
When all is cold, pack the dish in a 
deep pot, well covered with the pic- 
kle,, and kept from the air. The li- 
quor must be drained from the fish, 
and occasionally boiled and skim- 

the branches of the samphire from the 
dead leaves, and lay them into a large 
jar, or small cask. Make a strong 
brine of white or bay salt, skim it 
clean while it is boiling, and when 
done let it cool. Take th^ sam- 
phire out of the water, and put it into 
a bottle with a broad mouth. Add 
some strong white-wine vinegar, and 
keep it well covered down. 

following is an excellent imitation of 
pickled sturgeon. Take a fine large 
^ turkey, but not old ; pick it very nice- 
ly, singe, and make it extremely clean. 
Bdne and wash it, and tie it across 
and across with a piece of mat string 
washed clean. Put into a very nice 
tin saucepan a quart of water, a quart 
1^ of vinegar, a quart of white wine, not 
sweet, and a large handful of salt. 
Boil and skim it well, and then boil 
the turkey. When done enough, 
tighten the strings, and lay upon it 
a dish with a weight of two pounds 
over it. Boil the liquoriialf anJiour; 
and when both are cold, put the tur- 
key into it. This will keep some 
months, and eats more delicately 
than sturgeon. Vinegar, oil, and su- 
gar, are usually eaten with it. If 
more vinegar or salt should be want- 
ed, add them when cold. Garnish 
with fennel. 

pare neats' tongues for boiling, cut 
off the roots, but leave a little of the 
kernel and fat. Sprinkle some salt, 
and let it drain from the slime till 
next day. Then for each tongue mix 
a large spoonful of common salt, the 
same of coarse sugar and about half 
as much of salt petre ; rub it in well, 
and do so every day. In a week add 
another spoonful of salt. If rubbed 

every day, a tongue will be ready in 
a fortnight ; but if only turned in the 
pickle daily, it will keep four or five 
weeks without being too salt. When 
tongues are to be dried, write the 
date on a parchment, and tie it ©n. 
Tongues may either be smoked, or 
dried plain. When a tongue is to be 
dressed, boil it five hours till it is 
quite tender. If done sooner, it is 
easily kept hot for the table. The 
longer it is kept after drying, the 
higher it will be ; and i£ hard, it may 
require soaking three or four hours.— 
Another way. Clean and prepare as 
above ; and for two tongues allow an 
ounce of salt petre, and an ounce of 
salprunella, and rub them in well. 
In two days after well rubbing, cover 
them with common salt, turn them 
every day for three weeks, then dev 
them, rub bran over, and smoke them. 
Keep them in a cool dry place, and 
in ten days they will be fit to eat. 

they will bear a pin to go into them, 
boil a brine of salt and water, strong 
enough to swim an egg, and skim it 
well. When the brine is quite cold, 
pour it on the walnuts, and let them 
soak for six days. Change the brine, 
and let them stand six more ; then 
drain and put them into a jar, pour- 
ing over them a sufiicient quantity of 
the best vinegar. Add plenty of 
black pepper, pimento, ginger, mace, 
cloves, mustard seed, and horsera- 
dish, all boiled together, li^ut put on 
cold. To every hundred of walnuts 
put six spoonfuls of mustard seed, 
and two or three heads of garlic or, 
shalot, but the latter is the mildest. 
The walnuts will be fit for use in ^ 
about six months ; but if closely co- 
vered, they will be good for several 
years : the air will soften them. The 
pickle ^11 be equal to ketchup, when 
the walnuts are used. — Another way. 
Put the walnuts into ajar, cover them 
with the best vinegar cold, and let 
them stand four months. Then, 
piour off the pickle, and boil as much 
fresh vinegar as will cover the >vai. 



nuts, adding to every three quarts 
of vinegar a quarter of a pound of 
the best mustard, a stick of horse- 
radish sliced, half an ounce of black 
pepper, half an ounce of allspice, 
and a good handful of salt. Pour 
the whole boiling hot upon the wal- 
nuts, and cover them close : they 
will be fit for use in three or four 
months. Two ounces of garhc or 
shalot may be added, but must not 
be boiled in the vinegar. The pickle 
in which the walnuts stood the first 
four months, may be used as ketchup. 

PICTURES. The following sim- 
ple method of preventing flies from 
sitting on pictures, or any other fur- 
niture, is well experienced, and if 
generally adopted, would prevent 
much trouble and damage. Soak a 
large bunch of leeks five or six days 
in a pail of water, and wash the pic- 
tures with it, or any other piece of 
furniture. The flies will never come 
near any thing that is so washed. 

PIE SAUCE. Mix some gravy 
with an anchovy, a sprig of sweet 
herbs, an onion, and a little mush- 
room liquor. Boil and thicken it 
with butter rolled in flour, add a 
little red wine, and pour the sauce 
into the pie. This serves for mut- 
ton, lamb, veal, or beef pies, when 
such an addition is required. 

PIES AND TARtS. Attention 
should be paid to the heat of the 
oven for all kinds of pies and tarts. 
Light paste should be put into a 
moderate oven : if too hot the crust 
will not rise, but burn : if too slack, 
the paste will be heavy, and not of 
a good colour. Raised paste should 
have a quick oven, and well closed. 
Iced tarts should be done in a slack 
oven, or the iceing will become 
brown before the tarts are baked. 

PIGEONS. In order to breed 
pigeons, it is best to take two young 
ones at a time ; and if well looked 
after, and plentifully fed, they will 
breed every month. They should 
be kept very clean, and the bottom 
of the dovp-cotyC be strewed with 

sand once a month or oftener. Tares 
and white peas are their proper 
food, and they should be provided 
with plenty of fresh water. Star- 
lings and other birds are apt to 
come among them, and suck the 
eggs. Vermin likewise are their 
enemies, and frequently destroy 
them. If the brood should be too 
small, put among them a few tame 
pigeons of their own colour. Ob- 
serve not to have too large a propor- 
tion of cock birds, for they are quar- 
relsome, and will soon thin the dove- 
cote. Pigeons are fond of salt, and 
it keeps them in health. Lay a large 
piece of clay near their dwelling, 
and pour upon it any of the salt 
brine that may be useless in the 
family. Bay salt and cummin seeds 
mixed together, is a universal reme- 
dy for the diseases of pigeons. The 
backs and breasts are sometimes 
scabby, but may be cured in the fol- 
lowing manner. Take a quarter of 
a pound of bay salt, and as much 
common salt; a pound of fennel 
seed, a pound of dill seed, as much 
cummin seed, and an ounce of assa- 
foetida ; mix all with a little wheat 
flour, and some fine wrought clay. 
When all are well beaten together, 
put it into two earthen pots, and 
bake them in the oven. When the 
pots are cold, put them on the table 
in the dove-cote ; the pigeons will 
eat the mixture and get well. 

birds are particularly useful, as they 
may be dressed in so many ways. 
The good flavour of them depends 
very much on their being cropped 
and drawn as soon as killed. No 
other bird requires so much wash- 
ing. Pigeons left from dinner the 
day before may be stewed, or made 
into a pie. In either case, care must 
be taken not to overdo them, which 
will make them stringy. They need 
only be heated up in gravy- ready 
prepared ; and forcemeat balls may 
be fried and added, instead of put- 
ting a stuffing into them. If for a 



pie, let beef steaks be stewed in 
a little water, and put cold" under 
them. Cover each pigeon with a 
piece of fat bacon to keep them 
moist, season as usual, and put in 
some eggs. — In purchasing pigeons, 
be careful to see that they are quite 
fresh : if they look flabby about the 
vent, and that part is discoloured, 
they are stale. The feet should be 
supple : if old the feet are harsh. 
The tame ones are larger than the 
wild, and by some they are thought 
to be the best. They should be fat 
and tender ; but many are deceived 
in their size, because a full crop is as 
large as the whole body of a small 
pigeon. The wood -pigeon is large, 
and the flesh dark coloured : if pro- 
perly kept, and not over roasted, the 
flavour is equal to teal. 

the pigeons, take out the craw very 
carefully, wash them clean, cut off 
the pinions, and turn their legs under 
their wings. Season them with pep- 
per and salt, roll each pigeon in a 
puff paste, close them well, tie them 
in separate cloths, and boil them an 
hour and a half. When they are un- 
tied be careful they do not break ; put 
them in a dish, atid pour a little good 
gravy over them. 

four young pigeons, as for boiling, 
and season them with pepper, salt, 
and mace. Put into the belly of each 
a small piece of butter, lay them in 
a pie dish, and pour batter over them, 
made of three eggs, two spoonfuls of 
flour, and half a pint of milk. Bake 
them in a moderate oven, and send 
them to table in the same dish. 

some of the liquor in which a knuckle 
of veal has been boiled, or boil a 
calf's or a neat's foot ; put the broth 
into a pan with a blade of mace, a 
bunch of sweet herbs, some white 
peppep^emon peel, a slice of lean ba- 
con, and the pigeons. Bake them, and 
let them stand to be cold ; but season 
them before baking. When done, 

take them out of the liquor, cover 
them close to preserve the colour, 
and clear the jelly by boiling it with 
the whites of two eggs. Strain it 
through a thick cloth dipped in boil- 
ing water, and put into a sieve. The 
fat must be all removed, before it be 
cleared. Put the jelly roughly over 
and round the pigeons. — A beautiful 
dish may be made in the following 
manner. Pick two very nice pigeons, 
and make them look as well as pos- 
sible by singeing, washing, and clean- 
ing the heads well. Leave the heads 
and the feet on, but the nails must 
be clipped close to the claws. Roast 
them of a very nice brown ; and when 
done, put a small sprig of myrtle into 
the bill of each. Prepare a savoury 
jelly,' and with it half fill a bowl of 
such a size as shall be proper to turn 
down on the dish intended for serving 
in. When the jelly and the birds are 
cold, see that no gravy hangs to the 
birds, and then lay them upside down 
in the jelly. Before the rest of it 
begins to set, pour it over the birds, 
so as to be three inches above the 
feet. This should be done full twen- 
ty four hours before serving. The 
dish thus prepared will have a very 
handsome appearance in the mid 
range of a second coarse ; or when 
served with the jelly roughed large, 
it makes a side or corner dish, being 
then of a smaller size. The head 
of the pigeons should be kept up, as 
if alive, by tying the neck with some 
thread, and the legs bent as if the 
birds sat upon them. 

PIGEON PIE. Rub the pigeons 
with pepper and salt, inside and out. 
Put in a bit of butter, and if appro- 
ved, some parsley chopped with the 
livers, and a little of the same season- 
ing. Lay a beef steak at the bottom 
of the dish, and the birds on it ; be- 
tween every two, a hard egg. Put 
a cup of water in the dish ; and if a 
thin slice or two of ham be added, 
it will greatly improve the flavour. 
When ham is cut for gravy or pies, 
the under part should be taken, 


Fl U 

rather than the prime. Season the 
gizzards, and two joints of the 
wings, and place them in the centre 
of the pie. Over them, in a hole 
made in the crust, put three of the 
feet nicely cleaned, to show what 
pie it is. 

PIG'S CHEEK. To prepare a 
pig's cheek for boiling, cut off the 
snout, and clean the head. Divide 
it, take out the eyes and the brains, 
sprinkle the head with salt, and let 
it drain twenty-four hours. Salt it 
with common salt and saltpetre; 
and if to be dressed without being 
stewed with peas, let it lie eight or 
ten days, but less if to be dress- 
ed with peas. It must first be wash- 
ed, and then simmered till all is 

them carefully, soak them some 
hours, and boil them quite tender. 
Then take them out, and boil a little 
salt and vinegar with some of the 
liquor, and pour it over them when 
cold. When to be dressed, dry 
them, cut the feet in two, and slice 
the ears. Fry them, and serve with 
butter, mustard, and vinegar. They 
may be either done in batter, or only 

CASSEED. If to be dressed with 
cream, put no vinegar into the pic- 
kle. Cut the feet and ears into neat 
bits, and boil them in a little milk. 
Pour the liquor from them, and 
simmer in a little veal broth, with a 
bit of onion, mace, and lemon peel. 
Before the dish is served up, add a 
little cream, flour, butter, and salt. 

PIG'S FEET JELLY. Clean the 
feet and ears very carefully, and 
soak them some hours. Then boil 
them in a very small quantity of 
water, till every bone can be taken 
out. Throw in half a handful of 
chopped sage, the same of parsley, 
and a seasoning of pepper, salt, and 
mace in fine powder. Simmer till 
the herbs are scalded, and then pour 
the whole into a melon form. 

PIG'S HARSLET. Wash and 
dry some liver, sweetbreads, and fat 
and lean bits of pork, beating the 
latter with a rolling-pin to make it 
tender. Season with pepper, salt, 
sage, and a little onion shred fine. 
When mixed, put all into a cawl, 
and fasten it up tight with a needle 
and thread. Roast it on a hanging 
jack, or by a string. Serve with a 
sauce of port wine and water, and 
mustard, just boiled up, and put in- 
to the dish. Or serve it in slices 
with parsliey for a fry. 

Scour the head and ears nicely, take 
off the hair and snout, and remove 
the eyes and the brain. Lay the 
head into water one night, then 
drain it, salt it extremely well with 
common salt and saltpetre, and let 
it lie five days. Boil it enough to 
take out the bones, then lay it on a 
dresser, turning the thick end of one 
side of the head towards the thin 
end of the other, to make the roll 
of equal size. Sprinkle it well with 
salt and white pepper, and roll it 
with the ears. The pig's feet may 
also be placed round the outside 
when boned, or the thin parts of two 
cow heels, if approved. Put it in a 
cloth, bind it with a broad tape, and 
boil it till quite tender. Place a 
good weight upon it, and do not 
remove the covering till the meat is 
cold. If the collar is to be more 
like brawn, salt it longer, add a 
larger proportion of saltpetre, and 
put in also some pieces of lean pork. 
Then cover it with cow heel to make 
it look like the horn. This may be 
kept in a pickle of* boiled salt and 
water, or out of pickle with vinegar : 
it will be found a very convenient 
article to have in the house. If likely 
to spoil, slice and fry it, either with 
or without batter. 

PIO SAUCE. Take a tea-spoon- 
ful of white gravy, a small piece of 
anchovy, with the gravy from the 
roasting of the pig, and mix the 
brains with it when chopped. Add 



a quarter of a pound of butter, a lit- 
tle flour to thicken it, a slice of le- 
mon, and a little salt. Shake it over 
the fire, and put it hot into the dish. 
Good sauce may also be made by 
putting some of the bread and sage, 
which has been roasted in the pig, 
into good beef gravy, and adding 
the brains to it. 

PILAU. Stew a pound of rice 
in white gravy till it is tender. Half 
boil a well grown fowl, then lay it 
into a baking dish with some pepper 
and salt strewed over it. Lay truf- 
fles, morels, mushrooms, hard eggs, 
or forcemeat balls, any or all of 
them round it at pleasure ; put a 
little gravy into the dish, and spread 
the rice over the whole like a paste. 
Bake it gently, till the fowl is done 
enough. If it seem dry, cut a hole 
carefully at the top, and pour in 
some white gravy, made pretty warm, 
before it is sent to table. Partridges 
or pheasants are very nice, dressed 
the same way. 

PILCHARD PIE. Soak two or 
three salted pilchards for some 
hours, the day before they are to be 
dressed. Clean and skin the white 
part of some large leeks, scald them 
in milk and water, and put them in 
layers into a dish, with the pilchards. 
Cover the whole with a good plain 
crust. When the pie is taken out 
of the oven, lift up the side crust 
with a knife, and empty out all the 
liquor : then pour in half a pint of 
scalded cream. 

green shoots of elder early in the 
spring, clear away the bark, and 
put two good handfuls into a quart 
of thick cream. Boil it till it comes 
to an ointment, and as it rises take 
it off^ with a spoon, and be careful 
to prevent its burning. Strain the 
ointment through a fine cloth, and 
keep it for use. 

PILE$. If this complaint be oc- 
casioned by costiveness, proper at- 
tention must be paid to that circum- 
stance; but if it originate flbih 

weakness, strong purgatives must 
be avoided. The part affected should 
be bathed twice a day with a sponge 
dipped in cold water, and the bowels 
regulated by the mildest laxatives. 
An electuary, consisting of one ounce 
of sulphur, and half an ounce of 
cream of tartar, mixed with a suf- 
ficient quantity of treacle, may be 
taken three or four times a day. 
The patient would also find relief by 
sitting over the steam of warm wa- 
ter. A useful liniment for this dis- 
order may be made of two ounces 
of emollient ointment, and half an 
ounce of laudanum. Mix them with 
the yolk of an egg, and work them 
well together. 
PILLS. Opening pills may be made 
'>f two drams of Castile soap, and two 
drams of succotrine aloes, mixed 
with a sufficient quantity of com- 
mon syrup. Or when aloes will not 
agree with the patient, take two 
drams of the extract of jalap, two 
drams of vitrioiated tartar, and as 
much syrup of ginger as will form 
them of a proper consistence for 
pills. Four or five of these pills 
will generally prove a sufficient 
purge ; and for keeping the body 
gently open, one may be taken night 
and morning. — Composing pills may 
consist of ten grains of purified 
opium, and half a dram of Castile 
soap, beaten together, and formed 
into twenty parts. When a quiet- 
ing draught will not sit upon the 
stomach, one or two of these pills 
may be taken to great advantage. — 
Pills for the jaundice may be made 
of one dram each of Castile soap, 
succotrine aloes, and rhubarb, mix- 
ed up with a sufficient quantity of 
syrup. Five or six of these pills 
taken twice a day, more or less, to 
keep the body open, with the assist- 
ance of a proper diet, will often 
effect a cure. 

PIPERS. Boil or bake them with^ 
a pudding well seasoned. If baked,* 
put a large cup of rich bwjtb into 
the dish ; and when done, b6il up 

together for sauce, the broth, some 
essence of anchovy, and a squeeze of 

pippins in vine leaves covered with 
water, very gently, that the inside 
may be done without breaking the 
skins. When soft, take off the skin, 
and with a tea-spoon take the pulp 
from the core. Press it through a 
cullender, add two spoonfuls of 
orange-flower water, three eggs bea- 
ten, a glass of raisin wine, a pint of 
scalding cream, sugar and nutmeg to 
taste. Lay a thin puff paste at the 
bottom and sides of the dish ; shred 
some very thin lemon peel as fine as 
possible, and put it into the dish ; 
likewise lemon, orange, and citron, 
in small slices, but not so thin as to 
dissolve in the baking. 

PIPPIN TARTS. Pare two Se- 
ville or china oranges quite thin, boil 
the peel tender and shred it fine. 
Pare and core twenty pippins, put 
them in a stewpan, with as little wa- 
ter as possible. When half done, add 
half a pound of sugar, the orange peel 
and juice, and boil all together till it 
is pretty thick. When cold, put it 
in a shallow dish, or pattipans lined 
with paste, to turn out, and be eaten 

four ounces of pistachio nuts, beat 
them fine with a little rose-water, and 
add the paste to a pint of cream. 
Sweeten it, let it just boil, and then 
put it into glasses. 

peel half a pound of pistachio nuts, 
beat them very fine in a marble 
mortar, and work into them a piece 
of fresh butter. Add to this a quar- 
ter of a pint of cream, or of the juice 
of beet leaves, extracted hy pounding 
them in a marble mortar, and then 
draining off the juice through apiece 
of muslin. Grate in two macarones, 
add the yolks of two eggs, a little 
salt, and sugar to the taste. Bake 
it lightly with a puff crust under it, 
and some little ornaments on the top. 

Sift some fine sugar over, before it is 
sent to table. 

PLAICE. The following is an ex- 
cellent way of dressing a large plaice, 
especially if there be a roe. Sprinkle 
it with salt, and keep it twenty four 
hours. Then wash, and wipe it dry, 
smear it over with egg, and cover it 
with crums of bread. Boil up some 
lard or fine dripping, with two large 
spoonfuls of vinegar ; lay in the fish, 
and fry it of a fine colour. Drain off 
the fat, serve it with fried parsley laid 
round, and anchovy sauce. The fish 
may be dipped in vinegar, instead of 
putting vinegar in the pan* 

Prepare five ounces of bread crumbs, 
put them in a basin, pour three quar- 
ters of a pint of boiling milk over 
them, put a plate over the top to keep 
in the steam, and let it stand twenty 
minutes. Then beat it up quite 
smooth, with two ounces of sugar, 
and a little nutmeg. Break four eggs 
on a plate, leaving out one white, beat 
them well, and add them to the pud- 
ding. Stir it all well together, put it 
into a mould that has been well but- 
tered and floured, tie a cloth tight 
over it, and boil it an hour. 

quarters of a pound of cheese curd, 
and a quarter of a pound of butter, 
beat together in a mortar. Add a 
quarter of a pound of fine bread 
soaked in milk, three eggs, six oun- 
ces of currants well washed and pick- 
ed, sugar to the taste, a little candied 
orange peel, and a little sack. Bake 
them in a puff crust in a quick oven. 

PLAIN FRITTERS. Grate a fine 
penny loaf into a pint of milk, beat it 
smooth, add the yolks of five eggs, 
three ounces of fine sugar, and a lit- 
tle nutmeg. Fry them in hog's lard, 
and serve them up with melted but- 
ter and sugar. 

ceipts too generally given for peas 
are so much crowded with ingredi- 
ents, that they entirely overpower the 
flavour of the peas. Nothinp; more is 

2 K 241) 



necessary to plain good soup, tban 
a quart of split peas, two heads of 
celery, and an onion. Boil all to- 
gether in three quarts of broth or 
soft water ; let them simmer gently 
on a trivet over a slow fire for three 
hours, and keep them stirring, to 
prevent burning at the bottom of 
the kettle. If the water boils away, 
and the soup gets too thick, add 
some boiling water to it. When 
the peas are well softened, work 
them through a coarse sieve, and 
then through a tammis. Wash out 
the stewpan, return the soup into it, 
and give it a boil up ; take off any 
scum that rises, and the soup is 
ready. Prepare some fried bread 
and dried mint, and send them up 
with it on two side dishes. This is 
an excellent family soup, produced 
with very little trouble or expense, 
the two quarts not exceeding the 
charge of one shilling. Half a dram 
of bruised celery seed, and a little 
sugar, added just before finishing 
the soup, will give it as much flavour 
as two heads of the fresh vegetable. 
and pick some rice, scatter among 
it some pimento finely powdered, 
but not too much. Tie up the rice 
in a cloth, and leave plenty of room 
for it to swell. Boil it in a good 
quantity of water for an hour or 
two, and serve it with butter and 
sugar, or milk. Lemon peel may 
be added to the pudding, but it is 
very good without spice, and may 
be eaten with butter and salt. 

PLANTING. In rendering 
swampy ground useful, nothing is 
so well adapted as planting it with 
birch or alder, which grows spon- 
taneously on bogs and swamps, a 
kind of soil which otherwise would 
produce nothing but weeds and 
rushes. The wood of the alder is 
particularly useful for all kinds of 
machinery, for pipes, drains, and 
pump trees, as it possesses the 
peculiar quality of resisting injury 
from wet and weather. The bark 

is also highly valuable to black 
dyers, who purchase it at a good 
price ; and it is much to be lament- 
ed that the properties of this useful 
tree are not duly appreciated, 

PLANTATIONS. Young planta- 
tions are liable to great injury, by 
being barked in the winter season. 
To prevent this, take a quantity of 
grease, scent it with a little tar, and 
mix them well together. Brush it 
round the stems of young trees, as 
high at least as hares and rabbits 
can reach, and it will effectually 
prevent their being barked by these 
animals. Tar must not be used 
alone, for when exposed to the sun 
and air, it becomes hard and bind- 
ing, and hinders the growth of the 
plantation. Grease will not have this 
effect, and the scent of the tar is high- 
ly obnoxious to hares and rabbits. 

PLASTERS. Common plaster is 
made of six pints of olive oil, and 
two pounds and a half of litharge 
finely powdered. A smaller quan- 
tity may of course be made of equal 
proportions. Boil them together 
over* a gentle fire, in about a gal- 
lon of water, and keep the ingre- 
dients constantly stirring. After 
they have boiled about three hours, 
a little of the salve may be taken 
out, and put into cold water. When 
of a proper consistence, the whole 
may be suffered to cool, and the 
water pressed out of it with the 
hands. This will serve as a basis 
for other plasters, and is generally 
applied in slight wounds and exco- 
riations of the skin. It keeps the 
part warm and supple, and defends 
it from the air, tvhich is all that is 
necessary in such cases. — Adhesive 
plaster, which is principally used 
for keeping on other dressings, con- 
sists of half a pound of common 
plaster, and a quarter of a pound of 
Burgundy pitch melted together. — 
Anodyne plaster is as follows. Melt 
an ounce of the adhesive, and when 
cooling, mix with it a dram of pow- 
dered opium, and the same of cam- 



phor, previously rubbing with a little 
oil. This plaster generally gives ease 
in acute pains, especially of the 
nervous kind. — Blistering plaster is 
made in a variety of ways, but seldom 
of a proper consistence. When com- 
pounded of oils, and other greasy 
substances, its effects are lessened, 
and it is apt to run, while pitch and 
rosin render it hard and inconvenient. 
The following will be found the best 
method. Take six ounces of venice 
turpentine, two ounces of yellow wax, 
three ounces of Spanish flies finely 
powdered, and one ounce of the flour 
of mustard. Melt the wax, and while 
it is warm, add the turpentine to it, 
taking care not to evaporate it by too 
much heat. After the turpentine and 
wax are sufficiently incorporated, 
sprinkle in the powders, and stir the 
mass till it is cold. When the blis- 
tering plaster is not at hand, mix with 
any soft ointment a sufficient quanti- 
ty of powdered flies, or form them 
into a plaster with flour and vinegar. 

PLATE. The best way to clean 
plate, is to boil an ounce of prepared 
hartshorn powder in a quart of wa- 
ter; and while on the fire, put in as 
much plate as the vessel will hold. 
Let it boil a little, then take it out, 
drain it over the saucepan, and dry 
it before the fire. Put in more, and 
serve it the same, till all is done. 
Then soak some clean rags in the 
water, and when dry they will serve 
to clean the plate. Cloths thus sa- 
turated with hartshorn powder, are 
also the best things for cleaning brass 
locks, and the finger plates of doors. 
When the plate is quite dry, it must 
be rubbed bright with soft leather. 
In many plate powders there is a 
mixture of^ quicksilver, which is very 
injurious; and among other disad- 
vantages, it makes silver so brittle 
that it will break with a fall. In 
coaimon cases, whitening, properly 
purified from sand, applied wet, and 
rubbed till dry, is one of the cheap- 
est and best of all plate powders. 


P L U 

some mercury on a tin foil, smootly 
laid on a flat table, and rub it gently 
with a hare's foot. It soon unites 
itself to the tin, which then becomes 
very splendid, or is what they call 
quickened. A plate of glass is then 
cautiously, passed upon the tin leaf, 
in such a manner as to sweep off the 
redundant mercury, which is not in- 
corporated with the tin. Leaden 
weights are then to be placed on the 
glass ; and in a little time the quick- 
silvered tin foil adheres, so firmly to 
the glass, that the weights may be re- 
moved without any danger of its fal- 
ling off. The glass thus coated is a 
common looking-glass. About two 
ounces of mercury are sufficient for 
covering three square feet of glass. 

PLOVERS. In purchasing plo- 
vers, choose those that feel hard at 
the vent, which shows t^^y are fat. 
In other respects, choose them by 
the same marks as other fowl. When 
stale, the feet are harsh and dry. 
They will keep a long time. There 
are three sorts of these birds, the 
grey, the green, and the bastard plo- 
ver, or lapwing. Green plovers are 
roasted in the same way as snipes 
and woodcocks, without drawing, 
and are served on toast. The grey 
ones may be roasted, or stewed with 
gravy, herbs, and spice. 

PLOVERS' EGGS. Boil them 
ten minutes, and serve them either 
hot or cold on a napkin. These make 
a nice and fashionable dish. 

PLUM CAKE. This is such a 
favourite article in most families, and 
is made in so many different ways, 
that it will be necessary to give a 
variety of receipts, in order that a 
selection may be made agreeably to 
the taste of the reader, or the quali- 
ty of the article to be preferred. — 
For a good common plum cake, mix 
five ounces of butter in three pounds 
of fine dry flour, and five ounces of 
the best moist sugar. Ac^^fgix oun- 
ces of currants, washed atid dried, 
and some pimento finely powdered. 
Put three spoonfuls of yeast into a 



pint of new milk warmed, and mix it 
with the above into a light dough. — 
A cake of a better sort. Mix tho- 
roughly a quarter of a peck of fine 
flour well dried, with a pound of 
dry and sifted loaf sugar, three 
pounds of currants washed and very 
dry, half a pound of raisins stoned 
and chopped, a quarter of an ounce 
of mace and cloves, twenty, pepper- 
corns, a grated nutmeg, the peel of 
a lemon cut as fine as possible, and 
half a pound of almonds blanched 
and beaten with orange-flower water. 
Melt two pounds of butter in a pint 
and a quarter of cream, but not too 
hot ; add a pint of sweet wine, a 
glass of brandy, the whites and yolks 
of twelve eggs beaten apart, and 
half a pint of good yeast. Strain 
this liquid by degrees into the dry 
ingredients, beating them together 
a full hour ; then butter the hoop 
or pan, and bake it. When the bat- 
ter is put into the pan, throw in 
plenty of citron, lemon, and orange 
candy. If the cake is to be iced, 
take half a pound of double refined 
sugar sifted, and put a little with 
the white of an egg ; beat it well, 
and by degrees pour in the re- 
mainder. It must be whisked nearly 
an hour, with the addition of a little 
orange-flower water, but not too 
much. When the cake is done, 
pour the iceing over it, and return it 
to the oven for fifteen minutes. But 
if the oven be quite warm, keep it 
near the mouth, and the door open, 
lest the colour be spoiled. — Another. 
Dried flour, currants washed and 
picked, four pounds ; sugar pounded 
and sifted, a pound and a half ; six 
orange, lemon, and citron peels, cut 
in slices. These are to be mixed 
together. Beat ten eggs, yolks and 
whites separately. Melt a pound 
and a half of butter in a pint of 
cream ; when cold, put to it half a 
pint of yeast, near half a pint of 
sweet wine, and the eggs. Then 
strain the liquid to the dry ingre- 
dients, beat them well, and add of 

cloves, mace, cinnamon, and nut- 
meg, half an ounce each. Butter 
the pan, and put it into a quick 
oven. Three hours will bake it. — 
Another. Mix with a pound of well- 
dried flour, a pound of loaf sugar, 
and the eighth of an ounce of mace, 
well beaten. Beat up five eggs 
with half the whites, a gill of rose 
water, and a quarter of a pint of 
yeast, and strain them. Melt hal 
a pound of butter in a quarter of a 
pint of cream, and when cool, mix 
all together. Beat up the batter 
with a light hand, and set it to rise 
half an hour. Before it is put into 
the oven, mix in a pound and a half 
of currants, well washed and dried, 
and bake it an hour and a quarter. 
— For a rich cake, take three pounds 
of well-dried flour, three pounds of 
fresh butter, a pound and a half of 
fine sugar dried and sifted, five 
pounds of currants carefully cleaned 
and dried, twenty-four eggs, three 
grated nutmegs, a little pounded 
mace and cloves, half a pound of 
almonds, a glass of sack, and a 
pound of citron or orange peel. 
Pound the almonds in rose water, 
work up the butter to a thin cream, 
put in the sugar, and work it well ; 
then the yolks of the eggs, the spices, 
the almonds, and orange peel. Beat 
the whites of the eggs to a froth, 
and put them into the batter as it 
rises. Keep working it with the 
hand till the oven is ready, and the 
scorching subsided ; put it into a 
hoop, but not full, and two hours 
will bake it. The almonds should 
be blanched in cold water. This 
will make a large rich plum cake. — 
A small common cake may be made 
of a pound of dough, a quarter of a 
pouad of butter, two eggs, a quarter 
of a pound of lump sugar, a quarter 
of a pound of currants, and a little 
nutmeg. — Another. Take a pound 
and a half of fine white dough, roll 
into it a pound of butter, as for pie 
crust, and set it by the fire. Beat 
up the \olks of four eggs, with half 



a pound of fine powdered sugar; 
pour it upon the mass, and work it 
well by the fire. Add half a pound 
of currants, well picked and wash- 
ed, and send it to the oven. Half 
the quantity of sugar, eggs, and but- 
ter, will make a very pleasant cake. 
— Another. A pound and a half of 
well-dried flour, a pound of butter, 
a pound of sugar, and a pound of 
currants, picked and washed. Beat 
up eight eggs, warm the butter, 
mix all together, and beat it up for 
an hour.— For little plum cakes, in- 
tended to keep for some time, dry 
a pound of fine flour, and mix it 
with six ounces of finely pounded 
sugar. Beat six ounces of butter 
to a cream, and add to three eggs 
well beaten, half a pound of cur- 
rants nicely washed and dried, to- 
gether with the sugar and flour. 
Beat all for some time, then dredge 
some flour on tin plates, and drop 
the batter on them the size of a 
walnut. If properly mixed, it will be 
a stiff* paste. Bake in a brisk oven. 
To make a rich plum cake, take four 
pounds of flour well dried, mix with 
it a pound and a half of fine sugar 
powdered, a grated nutmeg, and 
an ounce of mace pounded fine. 
When they are well mixed, make a 
hole in the middle, and pour in fif- 
teen eggs, but seven whites, well 
beaten, with a pint of good yeast, 
half a quarter of a pint of orange- 
flower water, and the same quan- 
tity of sack, or any other rich sweet 
wine. Then melt two pounds and 
a half of butter in a pint and a half 
of cream ; and when it is about 
the warmth of new milk, pour it in- 
to the middle of the batter. Throw 
a little of the flour over the liquids, 
but do not mix the whole together 
till it is ready to go into the oven. 
Let it stand before the fire an hour 
to rise, laying a cloth over it ; then 
have ready six pounds of currants 
well washed, picked, and dried; a 
pound of citron and a pound of 
orange peel sliced, with a pound of 

blanched almonds, half cut in slices 
lengthways, and half finely pounded. 
Mix all well together, buttfer the tin 
well, and bake it two hours and a 
half. This will make a large cake. 
— Another, not quite so rich. Three 
pounds of flour well dried, half a 
pound of sugar, and half an ounce 
of spice, nutmeg, mace, and cin- 
namon, well pounded. Add ten 
eggs, but only half the whites, 
beaten with a pint of good yeast. 
Melt a pound of butter in a pint of 
cream, add it to the yeast, and let 
it stand an hour to rise before the 
fire. Then add three pounds of 
currants well washed, picked and 
dried. Butter the tin, and bake it 
an hour. — A common plum cake is 
made of three pounds and a half of 
flour, half a pound of sugar, a grated 
nutmeg, eight eggs, a glass of bran- 
dy, half a pint of yeast, a pound of 
butter melted in a pint and half of 
milk, put lukewarm to the other in- 
gredients. Let it rise an hour before 
the fire, then mix it well together, 
add two pounds of currants carefully 
cleaned, butter the tin, and bake it. 

PLUM JAM. Cut some ripe 
plums to pieces, put them into a 
preserving pan, bruise them with a 
spoon, warm them over the fire till 
they are soft, and press them through 
a cullender. Boil the jam an hour, 
stir it well, add six ounces of fine 
powdered sugar to every pound of 
jam, and take it ofl" the fire to mix 
it. Then heat it ten minutes, put 
it into jars, and sift some fine sugar 
over it. 

ounces of suet chopped fine, six oun- 
ces of malaga raisins stoned, eight 
ounces of currants nicely washed and 
picked, three ounces of bread crumbs, 
three ounces of flour, and three eggs. 
Add the sixth part of a grated nut- 
meg, a small blade of mace, the same 
quantity of cinnamon, pounded as 
fine as possible ; half a tea-sppionful 
of salt, nearly half a pint of milk, 
four ounces of sugar, an ounce of 



candied lemon, and half an ounce of 
citron. Beat the eggs and spice well 
together, mix the milk with them by 
degrees, and then the rest of the in- 
gredients. Dip a fine close linen 
cloth into boiling water, and put it 
in a hair sieve, flour it a little, and 
tie the pudding up close. Put it into 
a saucepan containing six quarts of 
boihng water ; keep a kettle of boiling 
water near it, to fill up the pot as it 
wastes, and keep it boiling six hours. 
If the water ceases to boil, the pud- 
ding will become heavy, and be 
spoiled. Plum puddings are best 
when mixed an hour or two before 
they are boiled, as the various ingre- 
dients by that means incorporate, and 
the whole becomes richer and fuller 
of flavour, especially if the various 
ingredients be thoroughly well stirred 
together. A table-spoonful of trea- 
cle will give the pudding a rich brown 
colour. — Another. Beat up the 
yolks and whites of three eggs, 
strain them through a sieve, gradu- 
ally add to them a quarter of a pint of 
milk, and stir it well together. Rub 
in a mortar two ounces of moist su- 
gar, with as much grated nutmeg as 
will lie on a six-pence, and stir these 
into the eggs and milk. Then put in 
four ounces of flour, and beat it into 
a smooth batter ; by degrees stir into 
it seven ounces of suet, minced as fine 
as possible, and three ounces of bread 
crumbs. Mix all thoroughly toge- 
ther, at least half an hour before the 
pudding is put into the pot. Put it 
into an earthenware pudding mould, 
well buttered, tie a pudding cloth 
tight over it, put it into boiling water, 
and boil it three hours. Haifa pound 
of raisins cut in halves, and added to 
the above, will make a most admira- 
ble plum pudding. This pudding 
may also be baked, or put under 
roast meat, like a Yorkshire pudding. 
In the latter case, half a pint more 
milk must be added, and the batter 
should be an inch and a quarter in 
♦ thickness. It will take full two hours, 
^ and require careful watching ; for if 

the top get burned, an unpleasant 
flavour will pervade the whole pud- 
ding. Or butter some saucers, and 
fill them with batter ; in a dutch oven 
they will bake in about an hour. — 
Another. To three quarters of a 
pound of flour, add the same weight 
of stoned raisins, half a pound of 
suet or marrow, cut small, a pint of 
milk, two eggs, three spoonfuls of 
moist sugar, and a little salt. Boil 
the pudding five hours. — To make a 
small rich plum pudding, take three 
quarters of a pound of suet finely 
shred, half a pound of stoned raisins 
a little chopped, three spoonfuls of 
flour, three spoonfuls of moist su- 
gar, a little salt and nutmeg, three 
yolks of eggs, and two whites. Boil 
the pudding four hours in a basin 
of tin mould, well buttered. Serve 
it up with melted butter, white wine 
and sugar, poured over it. — For a 
large rich pudding, take three pounds 
of suet chopped small, a pound and a 
half of raisins stoned and chopped, a 
pound and a half of currants, three 
pounds of flour, sixteen eggs, and a 
quart of milk. Boil it in a cloth seven 
hours. If for baking, put in only a 
pint of milk, with two additional 
eggs, and an hour and a half will 
bake it. — A plum pudding without 
eggs may be? made of three quarters 
of a pound of flour, three quarters 
of a pound of suet chopped fine, 
three quarters of a pound of stoned 
raisins, three quarters of a pound of 
currants well washed and dried, a 
tea- spoonful of ground ginger, and 
rather more of salt. Stir all well to- 
gether, and add as little milk as will 
just mix it up quite stiff". Boil the 
pudding four hours in a buttered ba- 
sin. — Another. The same propor- 
tions of flour and suet, and half the 
quantity of fruit, with spice, lemon, 
a glass of white wine, an egg and 
milk, will make an excellent pudding, 
but it must be well boiled. 

POACHED EGGS. Set a stew- 
pan of water on the fire ; when boil- 
ing, slip an eggy previously broken 


P U L 

into a cup, into the water. When 
the white looks done enough, slide 
an egg-slice under the egg, and lay 
it on toast and butter, or boiled 
spinach. As soon as done enough, 
serve them up hot. If the eggs be 
not fresh laid, they will not poach 
well, nor without breaking. Trim 
the ragged parts of the whites, and 
make them look round. 

POISON. Whenever a quantity 
of arsenic has been swallowed, by 
design or mistake, its effects may 
be counteracted by immediately 
drinking plenty of milk. The pa- 
tient should afterwards take a dram 
of the liver of sulphur, in a pint of 
warm water, a little at a time as he 
can bear it ; or he may substitute 
some soap water, a quantity of com- 
mon ink, or any other acid, if other 
things cannot be readily procured. — 
To obviate the ill effects of opium, 
taken either in a liquid or solid form, 
emetics should be given as speedily 
as possible. These should consist 
of an ounce each of oxymel squills 
and spearmint water, and half a 
scruple of ipecacuanha, accompa- 
nied with frequent draughts of water 
gruel to assist the operation. — Those 
poisons which may be called culina- 
ry, are generally the most destruc- 
tive, because the least suspected ; 
no vessels therefore made of copper 
or brass should be used in cooking. 
In cases where the poison of rirdi- 
gris has been recently swallowed, 
emetics should first be given, and 
then the patient should drink abun- 
dance of cold water. — If any one 
has eaten of the deadly nightshade, 
he should take an emetic as soon as 
possible, and drink a pint of vinegar 
or lemon juice in an equal quantity 
of water, a little at a time ; afad as 
sleep would prove fatal, he should 
keep walking about to prevent it. — 
For the bite of the mad dog, or other 
venomous animals, nothing is to be de- 
pended on for a cure but immediate- 
ly cutting out the bitten part with a 
lancet, or burning it out with a red- 

hot iron. — To prevent the baneful 
effects of burning charcoal, set an 
open vessel of boiling water upon 
the pan containing the charcoal, and 
keep it boiling. The steam arising 
from the water will counteract the 
effects of the charcoal. Painters, 
glaziers, and other artificers, should 
be careful to avoid the poisonous 
effects of lead, by washing their 
hands and face clean before meals, 
and by never eating in the place 
where they work, nor suffering any 
food or drink to remain exposed to 
the fumes or dust of the metal. 
Every business of this sort should 
be performed as far as possible with 
gloves on the hands, to prevent the 
metal from working into the pores 
of the skin, which is highly injuri- 
ous, and lead should never be touch- 
ed when it is hot. 

skins of twelve shalots, chop them 
small, mix with them a table-spoon- 
ful of veal gravy, a gill and a half 
of vinegar, half an anchovy pressed 
through a fine sieve, and a little salt 
and cayenne. If it is to be eaten 
with hot game, serve it up boiling : 
if with cold, the sauce is to be cold 
likewise. — Another way. Put a 
piece of butter the size of half an 
egg into a saucepan, with two or Jr 
three shced onions, some of the red 
outward part, of carrots, and of the 
part answering to it of parsnip, a 
clove of garlic, two shalots, two 
cloves, a bay leaf, with basil and 
thyme. Shake the whole over the 
fire till it begins to colour, then add 
a good pinch of flour, a glass of 
red wine, a glass of water, and a 
spoonful of vinegar. Boil it half 
an hour, take off the fat, pass the 
sauce through a tammis, add some 
salt and pepper, and use it with any 
thing that requires a relishing sauce. 

polished stoves may be well cleaned 
in a few minutes, by using a piece 
of fine-corned emery stone, and af- 
terwards polishing with flour of 



emery or rottenstone. If stoves or 
fire irons have acquired any rust, 
pound some glass to line powder; 
and having nailed some strong wool- 
len cloth upon a board, lay upon it 
a thick coat of gum water, and sift 
the powdered glass upon it, and let 
it dry. This may be repeated as 
often as is necessary to form a sharp 
surface, and with this the rust may 
easily be rubbed off; but care must 
be taken to have the glass finely 
powdered, and the gum well dried, 
or the polish on the irons will be in- 
jured. Fire arms, or similar articles, 
may be kept clean for several months, 
if rubbed with a mixture consisting 
of one ounce of camphor dissolved in 
two pounds of hog's lard, boiled and 
skimmed, and coloured with a little 
black lead. The mixture should be 
left on twenty four hours to dry, and 
then rubbed off with a linen cloth. 

pound and a half of beef marrow from 
the strings and bone, put it into an 
earthen pan of fresh water from the 
spring, and change the water night 
and morning for ten days. Then 
steep it in rose watier twenty four 
hours, and drain it in a cloth till quite 
dry. Take an ounce of each of the 

•following articles, namely, storax, 
gum benjamin, odoriferous cypress 
powder, or of florence ; half an ounce 
of cinnamon, two drams of cloves, 
and two drams of nutmeg, all finely 
powdered. Mix them with the mar- 
row above prepared, and put all the 
ingredients into a pewter pot that 
holds three quarts. Make a paste 
of flour and the white of an egg, and 
lay itikpon a piece of rag. Over that 
must be another piece of linen, to 
W cover the top of the pot very close, 
that none of the steam may evapo- 
rate. Set the pot into a large copper 
pot of water, observing to keep it 
steady, that it may not reaeh to the 
covering of the pot iiat holds the 
marrtiw. As the water shrinks add 
more, boiling hot, for it must boil 
incessantly for four hours. Strain 

the ointment through a linen cioth 
into small pots, and cover them when 
cold. Do not touch it with any thing 
but silver, and it will keep many 
years. A fine pomatum may also 
be made by putting half a pound of 
fresh marrow prepared as above, and 
two ounces of fresh hog's lard, on the 
ingredients ; and then observing the 
same process as above. 

POMATUM. To make soft po- 
matum, beat half a pound of unsalt- 
ed fresh lard in common water, then 
soak and beat in two different rose- 
waters. Drain it, and beat it, with 
two spoonfuls of brandy. Let it 
drain from this, then add some es- 
sence of lemon, and keep it in small 
pots. Or soak half a pound of clear 
beef marrow, and a pound of unsalt- 
ed fresh lard, in water two or three 
days, changing and beating it every 
day. Put it into a sieve ; and when 
dry, into a jar, and the jar, into a 
saucepan of water. When melted, 
pour it into a bason, and beat it with 
two spoonfuls of brandy. Drain oft' 
the brandy, and add essence of lemon, 
bergamot, or any other scent that is 
preferred. — For hard pomatum, pre- 
pare as before equal quantities of 
beef marrow and mutton suet, using 
the brandy to preserve it, and adding 
the scent. Then pour it into moulds, 
or phials, of the size intended for the 
rolls. When cold break the bottles, 
clear away the glass carefully, and 
put paper round the balls, 

PONDS. Stagnant or running 
water is often infected with weeds, 
which become troublesome and in- 
jurious to the occupier, but which 
might easily be prevented by suffer- 
ing geese, or particularly swans, to 
feed upon the surface. These water 
fowls, by nibbling the young shoots 
as fast as they arise, will prevent 
their growth and appearance on the 
surface of the water, and all the ex- 
pense which might otherwise be in- 
curred in clearing them awav. 

handful of parsley leaves from the 

P O R 


stalks, mince them very fine, and 
strew over a little salt. Shred fine 
half a dozen young green onions, 
add these to the parsley, and put 
them into a sauce boat, with three 
table-spoonfuls of oil, and five of 
vinegar. Add some ground black 
pepper and salt, stir them together, 
and it is ready. Pickled French 
beans or gherkins cut fine, may be 
added, or a little grated horseradish. 
This sauce is much esteemed in 
France, where people of taste, weary 
of rich dishes, occasionally order 
the fare of the peasant. 

PORK. This is a strong fat 
meat, and unless very nicely fed, it 
is fit only for hard working people. 
Young pigs, like lamb and veal, 
are fat and luscious, but afford very 
little nutriment. Pork fed by but- 
chers, or at distilleries, is vei-y in- 
ferior, and scarcely wholesome ; it 
is fat and spongy, and utterly un- 
fit for curing. Dairy fed pork is 
the best. To judge of pork, pinch 
the lean ; and if young and good, 
it will easily part. If the rind is 
tough, thick, and cannot easily be 
impressed with the finger, it is old. 
A thin rind denotes a good quality 
in general. When fresh, the meat 
will be smooth and cool : if clam- 
my, it is tainted. What is called in 
some places measly pork, is very 
unwholesome ; and may be known 
by the fat being full of kernels, 
which in good pork is never the case. 
Bacon hogs and porkers are dif- 
ferently cut up. Hogs are kept to 
a larger size ; the chine or back- 
bone is cut down on each side, the 
whole length, and is a prime part 
either boiled or roasted. The sides 
of the hog are made into bacon, and 
the inside is cut out with very little 
meat to the bone On each side 
there is a large sparerib, which is 
usually divided into two, a sweet 
bone and a blade bone. The bacon 
is the whole outside, and contains a 
fore leg and a ham ; the last of these 
is the hind leg, but if left with the 

bacon it is called a gammon. Hog^s 
lard is the inner fat of the bacon 
hog, melted down. Pickled pork is 
made of the flesh of the hog, but 
more frequently of smaller and 
younger meat. Porkers are not so 
large as hogs, and are generally di- 
vided into four quarters. The fore 
quarter has the spring or fore leg, 
the fore loin or neck, the sparerib, 
and the griskin. The hind quarter 
has the leg and the loin. Pig's feet 
and ears make various good dishes, 
and should be cut off before the legs 
and cheeks are cured. The bacon 
hog is sometimes scalded, to take 
oft' the hair, and sometimes singed. 
The porker is always scalded. 

PORK CHOPS. Cut the chops 
nearly half an inch thick, trim them 
neatly, and beat them flat. Put a 
piece of butter into the fryingpan ; 
as soon as it is hot, put in the chops, 
turn them often, and they will be 
nicely browned in fifteen minutes. 
Take one upon a plate and try it ; 
if done, season it with a little finely 
minced onion, powdered sage, pep- 
per and salt. Or prepare some 
sweet herbs, sage and onion chop- 
ped fine, and put them into a stew- 
pan with a bit of butter. Give them 
one fry, beat two eggs on a plate 
with a little salt, and the minced 
herbs, and mix it all well together. 
Dip the chops in one at a time, 
then cover them with bread crumbs, 
and fry them in hot lard or drip- 
pings, till they are of a light brown. 
Veal, lamb, or mutton chops, are 
very good dressed in the same man- 
ner. ^ 

PORK GRISKIN. As fhis joint 
is usually very hard, the best way 
is to cover it with cold water, and 
let it boil up. Then take it out, 
rub it over with butter, and set it 
before the fire in a Dutch oven ; a 
few minut^will do it. 

PORK Jelly. Tak© a leg of 
well-fed pork, just as cut upr, beat it, 
and break the bone. Set it over a 
gentle fire, with three gallons of 

I. 1 257 



! water, and simmer it down to one. 

Stew with it half an ounce of mace, 
and half an ounce of nutmegs, and 
strain it through a fine sieve. When 
cold, take off* the fat, and flavour it 
with salt. Th