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^.y i THE 

COOK'S ORACLE; 

CONTAINING 

RECEIPTS FOR PLAIN COOKERY 

ON THE 

MOST ECONOMICAL PLAN FOR PRIVATE FAMILIES 

ALSO 

THE ART OF COMPOSING THE MOST SIMPLE, AND 

MOST HIGHLY FINISHED 

iBrotfis, CSftabies, Soups, gbaiues, Sbtore fauces, 

AND FLAVOURING ESSENCES: 
The Quantity of each Article is 
ACCURATELY STATED BY WEIGHT AND MEASURE; 
THE WHOLE BEING THE RESULT OF 

virtual €}:pmmmt^ 

INSTITUTED IN 

THE KITCHEN OF A PHYSICIAN. 



Miscuit Utile dulci/' 



Sfie iF^urtS Litton, 

TO WHICH ARE ADDED, 

ONE HUNDRED AND THIRTY NEW RECEIPTS, 

FOR 

PASTRY, PRESERVES, PUDDINGS, 

AND 

An Easy, Certain, and Econotnical Process for preparmg 

PICKLES, 

By which they will be ready in a Fortnight, and remain good for Years. 



THE WHOLE REVISED BY THE AUTHOR OF 

THE ART OF INVIGORATING LIFE BY FOOD, &c. 



LONDON : 
PRINTED FOR A. CONSTABLE & Co. EDINBURGH; 

AND HURST, ROBINSON, & Co. CHEAPSIDE. 
And sold also by all Booksellers in Town and Country, 

1822. 



THE NEW 


YORK 


puBir- M- 


RARY 


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AND 


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. .GNS. 



LONDON: 
PRINTED BY J. MOYt>i, CREVILLE STREET. 



CONTENTS. 

Page 

Preface •• * v 

Introduction «-...^ .... ....-*. i 

Culinary Curiosities • • 33 

Invitations to Dinner 38 

Carving • • • • • • 49 

Friendly Advice to Cooks • • - 54 

Table of Weights, &c. • - 83 

RUDIMENTS OF COOKERY. 

Chapter 1. Boiling .-...•. 85 

Baking 92 

2. Roasting 95 

3. Frying • • * 104 

4. Broiling 107 

5. Vegetables • 109 

6. Fish 113 

7. Broths and Soup 117 

8. Gravies and Sauces* 133 

9. Made Dishes 141 

Receipts 143 

Marketing Tables • 463 

APPENDIX. 

Pastry, Confectionary, Preserves, &c.' . . -- * 469 

Bread, &c. 508 

Observations on Puddings and Pies oil 

Pickles ►. . . - 520 

Index 527 



THE ART 

OF INVIGORATING AND PROLONGING 

LIFE, 

BY 

FOOD, CLOTHES, AIR, EXERCISE, WINE, SLEEP, &t. 

AND 

PEPTIC PRECEPTS, 

POINTING OUT 

AGREEABLE AND EFFECTUAL METHODS 

TO PREVENT AND RELIEVE 

INDIGESTION, 

AND TO 

REGULATE AND STRENGTHEN THE ACTION 

OP THE 

STOMACH AND BOWELS. 

Suaviter in modo, fortiter in re. 

TO WHICH IS ADDED, 

THE PLEASURE OF MAKING A WILL. 

Finis coronat opae. 



BY 

THE AUTHOR OF '' THE COOK'S ORACLE, 

4-C. 4;C. 4-C. 
THIRD EDITION, ENLARGED. 



LONDON : 

PRINTED rOR HURST, ROBINSON, AND CO. 

AND A. CONSTABLE AND CO. EDINBURGU. 

1822. 



PREFACE 



TO 



THE THIRD EDITION. 



Among the multitude of causes which concur to 
impair Health, and produce Disease, the most 
general is the improper quality of our Food : 
this, most frequently, arises from the injudicious 
manner in which it is prepared; — yet, strange, 
" passing strange," this, is the only one, for which 
a remedy has not been sought; — and few persons 
bestow half so much attention on the preservation 
of their own Health, — as they daily devote to 
that of their Dogs and Horses. 

The observations of the Guardians of Health 
respecting Regimen, &c. have formed no more 
than a Catalogue of those articles of Food, which 
they have considered most proper for particular 
Constitutions. 

Some Medical writers, have " in good set terms" 
warned us against the pernicious effects of im- 
a3 



VI PREFACE. 

proper Diet; but — not One, has been so kind, 
as to take the trouble to direct us how to pre- 
pare Food properly. 

The Editor, has endeavoured to write the fol- 
lowing Receipts so plainly, that they may be as 
easily understood in the Kitchen as He trusts they 
will be relished in the Dining Room — and has 
been more ambitious to present to the Public, a 
Work which will contribute to the daily Comfort 
of All — than to seem elaborately Scientific. 

The practical part of the philosophy of the 
Kitchen, is certainly not the most agreeable ; — 
Gastrology has to contend witli its full share of 
those great impediments to all great improve- 
ments in scientific pursuits, — the prejudices of 
the Ignorant, — and the misrepresentations of 
the Envious 

The Sagacity to comprehend and estimate the 
importance of uncontemplated improvement — is 
confined to the very few, on whom Nature has 
bestowed a sufficient degree of perfection of the 
Sense which is to measure it; — the candour to 
make a fair report of it is still more uncommon, — 
and the kindness to encourage it — cannot often be 
expected from those, whose most vital interest it 
is, to prevent the developement of that, by which. 



PREFACE. VU 



their own importance — perhaps their only means 
of Existence — maybe forever eclipsed — so as 
Pope says — 

" All fear, — None aid you,— and Few understand." 

Improvements in Agriculture and the Breed of 
Cattle have been encouraged by Premiums ; — 
(see Note under (No. 19.) and under (No. 59.) 
Those who have obtained them, have been hailed 
as benefactors to Society, — but the Art q/' making 
use of these means of ameliorating Life, and 
supporting a healthy Existence — Cookery, has 
been neglected. 

While the cultivators of the raw materials are 
distinguished and rewarded, — the attempt to 
improve the processes, without which, neither 
Vegetable nor Animal substances are fit for the 
food of Man (astonishing to say), has been 
ridiculed, — as unworthy the attention of arational 
Being ! ! ! 

This most useful* Art, — which the Editor has 
chosen to endeavour to illustrate, because nobody 
else has — and because he knew not how he could 
employ some leisure hours more beneficially 

* " The only test of the utility of Knowledge, is its promoting the 
happiness of mankind." — Dr. Stark on Diet, p. 90. 



Vlll PREFACE. 

for Mankind, — than to teach them to combine the 
" ntiW with the *' duke/' and to increase their 
pleasures, without impairing their Health or im- 
poverishing their Fortune — has been for many 
Years his favorite employment, and *' The Art 

OF INVIGORATING AND PROLONGING LiFE* BY 

DiET AND Regimen,"&c. and this Work, — have 
insensibly become repositories, for whatever Ob- 
servations he has made, which he thought would 
make us — Live happy, and Live long. 

The Editor has considered the Art of 
Cookery, not merely as a mechanical operation, 
fit only for working Cooks — but as the Analeptic 
part of the Art of Phi/sic, 

" How best the fickle fabric to support 
" Of mortal man, — in healthful body how 
*' A healthful mind, the longest to maintain,'"" 

Armstrong. 

is an Occupation — neither unbecoming nor un- 
worthy. Philosophers of the highest class : — such 
only, can comprehend its Importance, — which 
amounts to no less, than not only the enjoyment 
of the present moment, but the more precious 



* A new Edition of this Is just published, by Hurst, Robinson, 
and Co. Cheapside, and A. Constable and Co. Edinburgh. 



PREFACE. IX 

advantage, of improving and preserving Health, 
and prolonging Life — which depend on duly 
replenishing the daily waste of the human frame 
with materials which are pregnant with Nutri- 
ment, and easy of Digestion. 

If Medicine be ranked among those Arts which 
dignify their Professors — Cookery may lay claim 
to an equal, if not a superior distinction ; — to 
prevent Diseases, — is surely a more advantageous 
Art to Mankind, than to cure them. " Physi- 
cians should be good Cooks, at least in Theory." — 
Dr. Mandeville on Hypochondriasis, p. 316. 

The learned Dr. Arbuthnot observes in page 3 
of the preface to his Essay on ylliment, that *' the 
choice and measure of the materials of which our 
Body is composed, and what we take daily by 
Pounds, is at least of as much importance, as 
what we take seldom, and only by grains and 
spoonsful." 

Those in whom the Organ of Taste is obtuse, — 
or who have been brought up in the happy habit 
of being content with humble fare, — whose Health 
is so firm, that it needs no artificial adjustment ; 
who with the appetite of a Cormorant, have the 
digestion of an Ostrich, — and eagerly devour 
whatever is set before them, without asking any 



X PREFACE. 

questions about what it is, or how it has been 
prepared — may perhaps imagine that the Editor 
has sometimes been rather overmuch refining the 
business of the Kitchen. 

" Where Ignorance is bliss, — 'tis Folly to be wise." 

But, few are «o fortunate, as to be trained up to 
understand how well it is worth their while to 
cultivate sutli habits of Spartan forbearance, — we 
cannot perform our duty in registering wholesome 
precepts, in a higher degree — than by disarming 
Luxury of its sting — and making the refinements 
of Modern Cookery, minister not merely to sen- 
sual gratification, — but at the same time suppoit 
the substantial excitement of '* mens sana, in 
corpore sano." 

The Delicate and the Nervous, who have un- 
fortunately a sensitive palate, and have been 
accustomed to a luxurious variety of savoury 
Sauces, and highly seasoned Viands — Those 
who from the infirmity of age are become inca- 
pable of correcting habits, created by absurd 
indulgence in Youth, are entitled to some con- 
sideration — and for their sake, — the Elements 
of Opsology are explained in the most intelligible 
manner. 



PREFACE. XI 

By reducing Culinary operations to something 
like a certainty, an Invalid will be less indebted 
to chance, or the caprice of careless attendants, 
&c. whether he shall recover — and Live long, 
and comfortably — or speedily — Die of Starva- 
tion in the midst of Plenty. 

These Rules and orders for the regulation of the 
business of the Kitchen, have been extremely be- 
neficial to the Editor's own Health and Comfort. — 
He hopes they will be equally so to others, — 
they will help those who enjoy Health, to preserve 
it — teach those who have delicate and irritable 
Stomachs, how to keep them in good temper — 
and with a little discretion enable them to indulge 
occasionally, not only with impunity, but with 
advantage, in all those alimentary pleasures which 
a rational Epicure* can desire. 

There is no Question more frequently asked — 
or which a Medical man finds more difficulty in 
answering to the satisfaction of himself and his 
Patient, than — If hat do you wish me to eat ? 

The most judicious choice of Aliment will avail 
nothing, unless the Culinary preparation of it be 



* For the Editor's definition of this terra, see the note in page 5 
of the following Introduction. 



XU PREFAdE. 

equally judicious. — How often is the skill of a 
pains-taking Physician counteracted by want of 
corresponding attention to the preparation of 
Food — and the poor Patient, instead of deriving 
Nourishment — is distressed by Indigestion. 

Parmentier, in his Code Pharmaceutique, has 
given a chapter on the preparation of Food — 
some of the following Receipts, are offered as an 
humble attempt to form a sort of Appendix 
TO THE Pharmacopceia — like pharmaceutic 
pre.scriptions they are precisely adjusted by weight 
and measure, — and in future, by ordering such 
Receipts of the Cook's Oracle as appearadapted 
to the case — the recovery of the patient and the 
credit of the Physician, as far as relates to the 
administration of Aliment, — need no longer — 
depend on the discretion of the Cook. — For in- 
stance : Mutton Broth, (No. 490 or 564) ; Toast and 
Water, (No. 463) ; Water Grml, (No. 572) ; Beef 
Tea, (No. 563) ; and Portable Soup, (No. 252). 
This concentrated Essence of Meat — will be found 
a great acquisition to the comfort of the Army — 
the Navy — the Traveller — and the Invalid — by 
dissolving half an ounce of it in half a pint of 
hot water, you have in a few minutes, half a Pint 
of good Broth for three halfpence. 



PREFACE. XIU 

He has also circumstantially detailed, the 
easiest, least expensive, and most salubrious 
methods of preparing those highly finished Soups 
—Sauces — Ragouts — and piquante relishes, which 
the most ingenious " Officers of the Mouth," 
have invented for the amusement of thorough 
bred " Grands Gourmands'' 

It has been his Aim, — to render Food accept- 
able to the Palate, v^^ithout being expensive to the 
P.urse, or. offensive to the Stomach — nourishing 
without being inflammatory, and savoury without 
being surfeiting, — constantly endeavouring to 
hold the balance even, between the agreeable and 
the wholesome — the Epicure and the Economist. 

In this Third Edition, which is almost entirely 
re-written, — He has not printed one Receipt — that 
has not been proved in His own Kitchen — which 
has not been approved by several of the most 
accomplished Cooks in this Kingdom — and has 
moreover, been eaten with unanimous applause 
by a Committee of Taste, composed of some of the 
most illustrious Gastropholists of this luxurious 
Metropolis. 

The Editor h^^ beeo materially assisted ly 
Mr. Henry Osborj^e, the excellent Cook to 
the late Sir Joseph Banks: — that woithy 



XIV PREFACE. 

President of the Royal Society, was so sensible 
of the importance of the subject the Editor was 
investigating — that He sent his Cook to assist 
him in his arduous task — and many of the 
Receipts in this Third Edition, are much improved 
by his suggestions and corrections. See (No. 
560.) 

This is the only English Cookery Book which 
has been written from the Real Experiments of 
a Housekeeper, for the benefit of House- 
keepers, — which the reader will soon perceive, 
by the minute attention that has been employed 
to elucidate and improve the Art of Plain 
Cookery, — detailing many particulars and pre- 
cautions, which may at first appear frivolous — 
but which experience will prove to be essential — 
to teach a common Cook how to provide, and to 
prepare common Food — so frugally, and so per- 
fectly, that the plain Family Fare of the most 
Economical Housekeeper, may with scarcely 
any additional trouble — be a satisfactory Enter- 
tainment for an Epicure or an Invalid. 

To facilitate which. He has at the end of his 
work given Marketing Tables, showing the 
tine of the year, when the several kinds of Fish 
' — Poultry — and Vegetables — are Cheapest. 



PREFACE. XV 

By an attentive consideration of " the 
Rudiments of Cookery," and the respective 
Receipts — the vaost ignorant Novice in the business 
of the Kitchen — may work with the utmost 
facility and certainty of success, — and soon 
become a Good Cook. 

Will all the other Books of Cookery that ever 
were printed do this ? — To give his readers an 
opportunity of applying the test of comparison, 
he has given a list of upwards of Two Hundred 
Cookery Books, (see page 24) — which he pa- 
tiently pioneered through, before he set about re- 
cording these results of his own Experiments ! ! ! 

Store Sauces and many articles of Domestic 
Comfort, which are extravagantly expensive to 
purchase, and can very seldom be procured 
genuine — He has given plain directions how to 
prepare at Home — of infinitely finer flavour, and 
considerably cheaper than they can be obtained 
ready-made : — for example. 

Mushroom Catsup, (No. 439.) 
Essence of Celery, (No. 409.) 

Anchovy, (No. 433.) 

■ Sweet Herbs, (No. 417.) 

-~ Lemon Peel, (No. 408.) 



XVI PREFACE. 

Essence of Savoury Spice, (No. 421, and 457, 
4:39, 460.) 

Ginger, (No. 411.) 

Cayenne Pepper, (No. 404.) 
Curry Powder, (No. 456.) 
EsHALLOT Wine, (No. 402.) 
Portable Soup, (No. 252.) 
Pickles, &c., &c., &c., and see page 119. 

Thus, the table of the most economical Family 
may, by the help of this Book — be served with 
as much delicacy and salubrity, as that of a 
Sovereign Prince. 



PREFACE 



TO 



THE FOURTH EDITION. 



lo this Fourth Edition are added One Hun- 
dred and Thirty New Receipts, which will greatly 
improve the Comfort and Economy of all, es- 
pecially of Catholic Families; — being the 
best methods of making: 

Omelettes, 

Puddings, 

Maigre and Savoury Pasties, 

Maigre and Savoury Patties, 

Preserves, 

Tarts, 

Cakes, 

and the general business of 

The Pastry Cook and the Baker. 
Also an easy and economical Process for preparing 

Pickles ; 
by which they will be ready in a fortnight, and 
remain good for Years. 



XVllI PREFACE. 

The Editor hopes that in these New Receipts, 
the quantities of the various articles, and the 
processes for compounding them, are described 
so accurately and so plainly, — that the most 
inexperienced person may work from them : but 
he does not vouch for all those new Receipts, — 
as some of them have not yet been proved in his 
own kitchen. 



INTRODUCTION, 



The following Receipts are not a mere marrowless 
collection of shreds, and patches, and cuttings, and 
pastings ; — but a boftdfide register of Practical Facts, — 
accumulated by a perseverance not to be subdued, or 
evaporated, by the igniferous terrors of a Roasting 
Fire in the Dog-days, — in defiance of the odoriferous 
and califacient repellents, of Roasting, — Boiling, — 
Frying, — and Broiling: — moreover, the author has 
submitted to a labour no preceding Cookery-Book- 
maker, perhaps, ever attempted to encounter — having 
eaten each Receipt, before he set it down in his book. 

They have all been heartily welcomed by a suffi- 
ciently well educated Palate, and a rather fastidious 
Stomach ; — perhaps this certificate of the reception of 
the respective preparations — will partly apologize for 
the Book containing a smaller number of them, than 
preceding writers on this gratifying subject, have 
transcribed, — for the amusement of " every man's 
Master," the STOMACH*. 



* " The Stomach is the Grand Organ of the human system, upon the 
state of whi<'h, all the powers and feelings of the Individual depend." — See 
Hunter's Culina, p. 13. 

" The faculty the Stomach has of communicating the impressions made 

by the various substances that are put into it, is such, that it seems more 

like a nervous expansion from Ihe Brain, than a mere receptacle for Food." — 

Dr. WATEiiHoi;st's Lecture on Health, p. 4. 

B 



2 INTRODUCTION. 

Numerous as are the Receipts in former Books, they 
vary little from each other, except in the name given 
to them ; the processes of Cookery are very few, — I 
have endeavoured to describe each, in so plain and 
circumstantial a manner, as I hope will be easily un- 
derstood, even by the Amateur, who is unacquainted 
with the practical part of Culinary concerns. 

Old Housekeepers may think 1 have been tediously 
minute on many points, which may appear trifling ; — 
ray Predecessors seem to have considered the Rudi- 
ments OF Cookery quite unworthy of attention. 
These little delicate distinctions, constitute all the 
difference between a common and an elegant Table, 
and are not trifles to the Young Housekeeper, who 
must learn them either from the communication of 
ethers, — or blunder on till his own slowly-accumulating 
and dear-bought experience teaches him. 

A wish to save Time, Trouble, and Money, to inex- 
perienced Housekeepers and Cooks, — and to bring the 
enjoyments and indulgencies of the Opulent within 
reach of the middle Ranks of Society, — were my motives 
for publishing this book; — I could accomplish it, only 
by supposing the Reader, (when he first opens it,) to 
be as ignorant of Cookery, — as I was when I first 
thought of writing on the subject*. 

* " De toutes les Connaissancesuecessaires ^rhumanite souffrante; la plus 
agreable, la plus importante a la conservation dcs hommes, et a la perpetuite 
de mutes Ics jouissances de la nature, c'est la parfaite connalssance des 
alimens destines a former notre constitution, a fortifier tous nos membres, a 
ranimer ces organes destines k la perfection des sens, et a 6tre les mediateurs 
des talens, de I'esprjt, du genie, &c. &c. 

" C'est du sue exprime de nos flnides alimentaires, qu'est forme le tissu do 
uotre frele machine; c'est au chyle qui en provient, que notre sang, noa 
chairs, nos nerfs, nos organes, et tous nos seni, doivent leur existence et leur 
seusibilite." 



INTRODUCTION. 6 

I have done my best to contribute to the comfort of 
my fellow-creatures: — by a careful attention to the 
directions herein given, the most ignorant may easily 
learn to prepare Food — not only in an agreeable 
and wholesome, — but in an elegant and economical 
manner. 

This task, seems to have been left for me, and I 
have endeavoured to collect and communicate in the 
clearest and most intelligible manner, the whole 
of the heretofore abstruse Mysteries of the Culinary 
Art; which are herein, 1 hope, so plainly developed, 
that the most inexperienced student in the occult Art of 
Cookery, f?2ai/ work from my Receipts, with the utmost 
JhciUty . 

I am perfectly aware of the extreme difficulty, of 
teaching those who are entirely unacquainted with the 
subject, and of explaining my ideas effectually by mere 
Receipts, to those who never shook hands with a 
Stew-pan. 

In my anxiety to be readily understood, — I have 
perhaps been under the necessity of occasionally re- 
peating the same directions, in different parts of the 
book : but I would rather be censured for repetition, 
than for obscurity, — and hope I shall not be accused 
of Affectation, while my intention is Perspicuity. 

Our neighbours in France, are so justly famous for 
their skill in the affairs of the Kitchen, that the adage 
says, " As many French?jien, as many Cooks ;" surrounded 
as they are by a profusion of the most deUcious Wines, 
and seducing Liqueurs offering every temptation to 
render drunkenness delightful, yet a tippling French- 
man is a " rara avis." 

b2 



4 INTRODUCTION. 

They know how so easily to keep Life in sufficient 
repair by good eating, that they require httle or no 
screwing up with hquid Stimuh. — This accounts for 
that ** toujours gai," and happy equihbrium of the ani- 
nial spirits, which they enjoy with more regularity than 
any people: — their elastic Stomachs, unimpaired by 
Spirituous Liquors, digest vigorously, the food they 
sagaciously prepare and render easily assimilable, by 
cooking it sufficiently, — wisely contriving to get half 
the work of the Stomach done by Fire and Water, 
till-^ 

" The tender morsels on the palate melt, 
" And all the force of Cookery is felt." 

See Nos. 5 and 238, &c. 

The cardinal virtues of Cookery, " cleanliness, 

FRUGALITY, NOURISHMENT, AND PA LATEABLENESS," 

preside over each preparation ; for I have not presumed 
to insert a single composition, without previously 
obtaining the " imprimatur" of an enlightened and in- 
defatigable " COMMITTEE OF TASTE," {composed 
of thorough-bred grands gourmands of the first 
magnitude,) whose cordial co-operation 1 cannot too 
highly praise ; and here do I most gratefully record 
the unremitting zeal they manifested during their 
arduous progress of proving the respective Recipes, — 
they were so truly philosophically and disinterestedly 
regardless of the wear and tear of teeth and stomach, 
that their Labour — appeared a Pleasure to them. — 
Their laudable perseverance, — which has enabled me 
to give the inexperienced Amateur an unerring and 
economical Guide, how to excite as much pleasure as 
possible on the Palate, and occasion as little trouble as 



INTRODUCTION. O 

possible to the Principal Viscera, has hardly been 
exceeded by those determined spirits who lately in the 
Polar expedition braved the other extreme of tempera- 
ture, &c. in spite of Whales, Bears, Icebergs, and 
Starvation. 

Every attention has been paid in directing* the 
proportions of the following Compositions, not merely 
to make them inviting to the Appetite, but agree- 
able and useful to the Stomach ; — nourishing without 
being inflammatory, and savoury without being sur- 
feiting. 

I have written for those who make Nourishment 
the chief end of Eating*, and do not desire to provoke 



* I wish most heartily that the restorative process was performed by us 
poor mortals, in as easy and simple a manner, as it is in " the Cooking 
Animals i?i the Moon," who " lose no time ai their meals; but open their 
left side, and place the whole quantity at once in their stomachs, then shut it, 
till tlie same day in the next month, for they never indnlge themselves with 
food more than twelve times in a year."-^.5tc Baron Munchausen's 
Travels, p. 188. 

Pleasing the Palaie is the main end in most books of Cookery, but it is my 
aim to hlend the toothsome ivith the uholesome ; for, after all, however the 
hale Gourmand may at first differ from me iu opinion, the latter, is the chief 
concern ; since if he be even so entirely devoted to the pleasure of eating, as 
to think of no other, still the care of his Health becomes part of that; — ^jf he 
is Sick, he cannot relish his Food. 

'• The term Gourmand or Epicuke, has been strangely perverted; it has 
been conceived synonymous with a Glutton, " Tie. pour la digestion," who 
will eat as long as he can sit, and drink longer than he can stand, nor leave 
his cup while he can lift it: or like the great eater of Kent whom Fuller 
places among his Worthies, and tells us that he did eat with ease, thirty 
dozens of Pidgeons at one meal, — at another, four score Rabbits, and 
eighteen Yards of Black-Pudding, I^ndon Measure ! ! ! — or a fastidious 
Appetite, only to be excited by fantastic Dainties, as the brains of Peacocks, 
or Parrots, the tongues of Thrushes or Nightingales, or the teats of a 
lactiferous Sow. 

" In the acceptation which I give to the term Epicure, it mems only the 
person who has good sense and good taste enough, to wish to have his food 
cooked according to scientific principles; that is to say, so prepared, that the 



b INTRODUCTION^. 

Appetite, beyond the powers and necessities of Na- 
ture; — proceeding however on the purest Epicurean 
principles of indulging the Palate, as far as it can 
be done without injury or offence to the Stomach — 
and forbidding* nothing, but what is absolutely un- 
friendly to Health. 

This is by no means so difficult a task, as some 
gloomy philosophers (uninitiated in culinary science) 
have tried to make the world believe — who seem to 



p.ilate be not offendtd — thai it be reutiered easy of solution in tlio Stoinacli, 
and ultimately contribute to Health; exciting him as an animal, to the 
vigorous cnjoynicnt of those recreations and duties, physical and intellectual, 
which constitute the happiness and dignity of his nature." For this illustra- 
tion I am indebted to my scientific friend Apicius Calius, Jan., wiih whose 
erudite observations several pages of this work are enriched, to which I Iwve 
affixed the signature A. C. Jun. 

* " Although air is more immediately necessary to life than food, the 
knowledge of the latter seems of more importance ; it ailmits certainly of 
great variety, and a choice is more frequently in our power. A very spare 
and simple diet has commonly been recommended as most conducive to 
Health; but it would be more beneficial to mankind if we could show them 
that a pleasant and vaiied diet, was equally consistent witii health, as the 
very strict regimen of Arnard, or the Miller of Essex. These and other 
abstemious people, who, having experienced the greatest extremities of bad 
health, were driven to temperance as their last resource, may run out in 
praises of a simple diet ; but the probability is, that nothing but the dread of 
former sufl'erings could have given them the resolution to persevere in so 
strict a course of abstinence ; which, persons who are in health, and have no 
such apprehension, could not be induced to undertake, or, if they did, would 
not long continue. 

" In all cases, great allowance must be made for the weakness of human 
nature; the desires and appetites of mankind, must to a certain degree be 
gratified, and the Man who wishes to be most useful, will imitate the 
indulgent Parent, who whilst he endeavours to promote the tine interests of 
his children, allows them the full enjoyment of all those innocent pleasures 
which they take delight in. If it could be pointed out to mankind, that some 
articles used as food were hurtful, while others were in their nature innocent, 
and that the latter were numerous, various, and pleasant, they might, perhaps, 
be induced to forego those which were hurtful, and confine themselves to 
those which were innocent."— See Dr. Stark's Experiments on Diet. p. 89 
and 90. 



INTRODUCTION. / 

have delighted in persuading you, that every thing that 
is nice must be noxious ; and that every thing that is 
nasty, is wholesome. 

But as worthy Wilham Shakespeare declared he 
never found a philosopher who could endure the 
Tooth-ach patiently, — the Editor protests that he has 
not yet overtaken one, w^ho did not love a Feast. 

Those Cynical Slaves, —who are so silly, — as to sup- 
pose it unbecoming a wise man, to indulge in the 
common comforts of Life — should be answered in the 
words of the French philosopher. *' Hey — What — do 
you Philosophers eat dainties?" said a gay Marquess. 
" Do you think,'' replied Descartes, " that God made 
good things only for Fools?'' 

Every individual, who is not perfectly imbecile and 
void of understanding, is an Epicure in his own way — 
ttie Epicures in boiling of Potatoes are innumerable — 
the perfection of all enjoyment, depends on the perfec- 
tion of the faculties of the Mind and Body — the 
Temperate man, is the greatest Epicure, — and the only 
true Voluptuary. 

The Pleasures of the Table, have been highly 
appreciated, and carefully cultivated in all Countries — 
and in all Ages*, — and in spite of all the Stoics, — every 
one will allow they are the first and the last we enjoy, — 
and those we taste the oftenest, — above a Thousand 
times in a Year, exery Year of our Lives II! 

The Stomach, is the mainspring of our System, — if 
it be not sufficiently wound up to warm the Heart, and 

• See a curious account in CouRs Gastronomiqce, p. 145, aud in 
Anacharsis' Travels, Robinson — 1796. — Vol. ii. p. 58, and Obs, and note 
under No. 493. 



8 INTRODUCTION. 

support the Circulation, — the whole business of Life, 
will in proportion be ineffectively performed, — we can 
neither 7'hink with precision, — Sleep with tranquillity, — 
IValk with vigour, — or sit doivn with comfort. 

There would be no difficulty in provinr;, that it 
influences (much more than people in general imagine) 
all our actions : — the destiny of Nations has often 
depended upon the more or less laborious digestion of 
a Prime IVTinister* — see a very curious A/iecdute in the 
Memoirs of Count Zin den dorff in Dodsley's Annual 
Register for 1762. 3d Edition, p. 32. 

The philosopher Pythagoras, seems to have been 
extremely nice in eating, — among his absolute injunc- 
tions to his disciples, he conunands them, to " abstain 
from Beans." 

This ancient Sage, has ])een imitated by the learned 
who have discoursed on this subject since — who are 
liberal of their negative — and niggardly of their posi- 
tive precepts — in the ratio, that it is easier to tell you 
not to do this, than to teach you how to do that. 

Our great English moralist Dr. S. Johnson, his 
biographer Boswell tells us, " was a man of very nice 
discernment in the science of Cookery," and talked of 
good eating, with uncommon satisfaction. " Some 
people^" said he, " have a foolish way of not minding, 
or pretending not to mind what they eat : for my part, 
I mind my Belly very studiously and very carefully, 
and 1 look upon it, that he who does not mind his 
Belly, will hardly mind any thing" else." 

The Dr. might have said, cannot mind any thing 

• See Ihe 2d, 3d, and 4tb pages of Sir Wji. Templb's Essay on the Cure 
of the Gout by Moxa. 



INTRODUCTION. >J 

else — the energy of our Bratns is sadly dependent on 
the behaviour of our Bowels* — those who say His no 
matter what we eat or what we drink, — may as well say, 
'Tis no matter whether we eat, or whether we drink. 

The following Anecdote I copy from Boswell's 
Life of JoHNSOx. 

Johnson. — " I could write a better Book of Cookery 
than has ever yet been written; — it should be a book 
on philosophical principles — I would tell what is the 
best Butcher's Meat — the proper seasons of different 
Vegetables — and then, how to roast, and boil, and to 
compound.'' 

DUly. — " Mrs. Glasse's Cookery^ which is the best, 
was written by Dr. Hill," 

Johnson. — " Well, Sir — this shows how much better 
the subject of Cookery t may be treated by a Philoso- 
pher| ; — but you shall see what a book of Cookery I 



♦ " He that would have a clear Head, must have 2l. clean Stomach." — 
Dr. Cheyne on Health, 8vo. 1724, p. 3!. 

" It is sntficiently manifest how much nncomt'ortable feelings of the Bowels 
affect the Nervous System, and how immediately and completely the general 
disorder is relieved by an alvine evacuation." — p. 53. 

" We cannot reasonably expect tranquillity of the Nervous System, 
whilst there is disorder of the digestive organs. As we can perceive no per- 
manent source of strength, but from the digestion of our food, it becomes 
important on this account, that we should attend to its quantity, quality, and 
the periods of taking it, with a view to ensure its proper digestion." — 
A&iiRNET-HY's Sur. Obs. 8vo. 1817, p. &5. 

t " If Science can really coctiibute to the happiness of mankind, it must be 
in this department; the real comfort of the majority of men in this country- 
is sought for at their own fire-side; how desirable does it then become 
to give every inducement to be at home, by directing all the means of 
Philosophy to increase Domestic Happiness!" — Sylvester's Philosofhy 
of Domestic Economy, 4to. 1819, p. IT- 

X The best Books of Cookery have been written by Physicians: — Sir 
Kenelme Digby — Sir Theodore May erne — Professor Bradley — 
Dr. Hill — Dr. Le Cointe — Dr. Hunter, &c. 

B 5 



10 INTRODUCTION. 

shall make, and shall agree with Mr. Dilly for the 
Copyright." 

Miss Seward. — '' That would be Hercules with the 
distaff indeed!" — 

Jolmson. — '' No, Madam ; Women can spin very 
well, — but they cannot make a good book of Cookery." 
See vol. iii. p. 311. 

Mr. B. adds, *' I never knew a man who relished 
good eating more than he did : when at Table, he was 
totally absorbed in the business of the moment: nor 
would he, unless in very high company, say one word. 



"To understand the Theory of Cookery, wc must attend to the 
action of heat upon the various constituents of alimentary substances as 
applied directly and iiidirectlj through the medium of some fluid, in the former 
way as exemplified." In the processesof Roasting and roiLiNu,the chief 
constituents of animal substances undergo the following changes— the Fibrine 
is corrugated, ilie Albumen coagulated, the Gt7a</Hf and Osmazonie rendered 
more soluble in water, the Fat liquefied, and the Water evaporated. 

" If the heat exceed a certain degree, the surface becomes fust brown, and 
then scorched. In consequence of these changes, the muscular fibre becomes 
opaque, shorter, lirmer, and drier; thetendons less opaque, softer, and gluey ; 
the fat is either melted out, or rendered semi-tianspareut. Animal !liu(ij 
become more transparent; the albumen is coagulated and separated, and they 
dissolve gelatine and osmazome. 

" Lastly, and what is the most important change, and the immediate object 
of all Cookery, the meat loses the vapid nanseous smell and taste peculiar to 
its raw state, and it becomes savoury and grateful. 

" Heat applied through the intervention uf boiling oil, or melted fat, as in 
Frying, produces nearly the same changes; as the heat is sutiicient to 
evaporate the water, and to induce a dei^rce of scorching. 

" But when water is the medium throue.h which heat is applied— as io 
Boiling, Stewing, and Baking, the eficcts are somewhat ditterent, as the 
heat never exceeds 21 C", which is not snllicieDt to commence the process of 
browuiug or decomposition, and the soluble constituents are removed, 
by being dissolved in the water, forming soup or broth ; or, if the direct 
contact of the water be prevented, they are dissolved in the juices of the 
meat, and separate in the form of Gravy." 

Vide Supplement to Encyclop. Brit. Edm. vol. iv. p. 344, the Article 
" Food," to which we refer our reader as the most scientific paper on the 
gubject that we have seen. 



INTRODUCTION. 11 

or even pay the least attention to what was said by 
others, till he had satisfied his Appetite." 

The peculiarities of his constitution were as great 
as those of his character : Luxury and Intemperance 
are relative terms — depending on other circumstances 
than mere quantity and quality. — Nature gave him an 
excellent Palate, and a craving appetite, — and his 
intense application rendered large supplies of nourish- 
ment absolutely necessary to recruit his exhausted 
spirits. 

The fact is, — this great Man had found out, that 
Animal, and Intellectual Vigour*, are much more entirely 
dependent upon each other, — than is commonly under- 
stood; — especially, in those constitutions, whose diges- 
tive and chylopoetic organs are capricious and easily 
put out of tune, or absorb the " pabulum vita:" indolently 
and imperfectly, — with such, it is only now and then, 
that the " sensorium commune'^ vibrates with the full 
tone of accurately considerative, or creative energy. 

Thus does the Health always, — and very often the 
Life of Invalids, and those who have weak and infirm 
Stomachs, depend upon the care and skill of the 
Cook. — Our Forefathers were so sensible of this, — that 
in days of Yore, — no man of consequence thought of 
making a day's journey without taking his " Magister 
Coquorum" with him. 

The rarity of this talent, in a high degree — is so well 



* " Health, Beauty, Strength and Spirits, and I might add all the faculties 
of the Mind, depend upon tlie Organs of the Body ; when these are in good 
order, the thinking part is most alert and active, the contrary when they are 
disturbed or diseased." — Dr. Cauogan on Nursing Children, 8vo. 1757, 
p. 5. 



12 IJ^TRODUCTION. 

understood, that besides very considerable pecuniary 
compensation, his Majesty's first and second Cooks*' 
are now Esquires by their office ; — we have every 
reason to suppose they were persons of equal dignity 
heretofore. 

In Dr. Pegge's *' Forme of Cur y," Svo. London, 1780, 
we read, that when Cardinal Otto, the Pope's Legate, 
was at Oxford, A.D. 1248, his brother officiated as 
" Magister Coquin^e." 

This important post, has always been held as a situa- 
tion of high trust and confidence; and the " Magnus 
CoQULS," Anglic^, the Master Kitchener, has, time 
immemorial, been an Officer of considerable dignity, 
in the palaces of Princes. 

The Cook in Plautus (Pseudol) is called " Homi- 
num serxatoiem,*' the preserver of mankind; and by 
Mercier " un Medeciii qui guerit radicaUnicnt deux 
fnaladie-s mortelles ; la Faim ct la Soif." 

The Norman Conqueror William bestowed several 
portions of Land on thtse highly favoured domestics, the 
'• CoQuoRUM Propositus," and " Coquus Regius," 
— a Manor was bestowed on Robert Argyllon the 
" Grani> Queux" to be held by the following service. 
See that venerable Record, the Doomsday Book. 
" Addington — Co. Surrey. 

" Robert Argyllon holdeth one carucate of Land in 
Addington in the County of Surrey, by the service of 



• " We have some good families in England of the name of Cook or Coke. 
I know not what they may think; but we may depend upon it, they all 
originally sprang from real and professional Cooks ; and they need not be 
ashamed of their extraction, any more than the Butlers, Parkers, 8c,c." — 
Pegge, Forme ofCury, p. l62. 



INTRODUCTION. 13 

making one mess in an earthen pot in the kitchen of our 
Lord the King, on the day of his coronation, called De 
la Groute," i. e. a kind of Plum porridge, or Watergruel 
with Plums in it. This dish is still served up at the 
Royal Table, at Coronations, by the Lord of the said 
Manor of Addington. 

At the Coronation of King George IV., Court of 
Claims, July 12, 18-20. 

" The petition of the Archbishop of Canterbury, 
which was presented by Sir G. Nayler, claiming to 
perform the service of presenting a dish of De la 
Groute to the King at the banquet, was considered 
by the Court, and decided to be allowed."' 

A good Dinner is one of the greatest enjoyments of 
human life; — ^ and as the practice of Cookery is at- 
tended with so many discouraging difficulties *, so many 
disgusting and disagreeable circumstances, and even 
dangers, we ought to have some regard for those who 
encounter them, to procure us pleasure, and to reward 
their attention, by rendering their situation every way 
as comfortable and agreeable as we can. JMere money 
is a very inadequate compensation to a complete 
Cook ; — he who has preached Integrity to those in the 



* It is said, there are seven chances against even the most siirvple dish 
being presented to the Mouth in absolute perfection ; for instance a Leu 
OF Mutton. 

lit. — I he Mutton must be good, 

2d. — Must have been kept a good time,. 

3d. — Must be roasted at ^ good fire, 

4lh. — By a good Cook, 

5th. — Who must be hv good temper, 

6th. — With all this felicitous combination you must hn\e good luck, and 

7th. — Good Appetite. — The Meat, and the mouths which are to eat it, 
must be ready for each other, at the same moment. 



14 INTRODUCTION. 

Kitchen, — (see " Advice to Cooks") may be permitted to 
recommend LiberaUti/ to those in the Parlour ; — they 
are indeed the sources of each other. 

Depend upon it, " True Self- Love and Social — are the 
same;' " Do as you uould he done by ;" give those you 
are obUged to trust, every inducement to be honest, — 
and no temptation to play tricks. 

When you consider that a good servant eats* no 
more than a bad one, — how much waste is occasioned 
by provisions being dressed in a slovenly and unskilful 
manner — and how much a good Cook (to whom the 
conduct of the Kitchen is confided) can save you by 
careful management — no Housekeeper will hardly 
deem it an unwise speculation, — it is certainly an ami- 
able experiment, — to invite the Honesty and Industry of 
domestics, by setting them an example of Liberality ^ — 
at least, show them, that " according to their Pains, 
will be their Gains." But trust not your servants with 
the secret of their own strength; — Importance of any 
kind, being what human frailty is hast able to hear. 

Avoid all approaches towards Familiarity, which to 



• To guard against " la gourmandise," of the second table, " provide 
cicli of your servants with a hiri^e pair of spectacles of the liiglKs-t magnifying 
power, and never permit them to sit down to any meal without weariog 
them; they are as necessary, and as useful in a Kitchen as Pols and 
Kettles: they will make a Lark look as large as a Fowl, a Goose as big as 
a Swan, a Leg of Mutton as large as a Hind Quarter of Beef ; a twopeuny 
loaf as large as a quartern ;" and as Philosophers assure you that Pain 
even is only imaginary, we may justly believe the same of llaoger. 
Tlins, if a servant who eats no more than one pound of food, imagines, by 
the aid of these glasses, that he has eaten tliree pounds, his hunger will 
be as fully satisfied — and the Addition to your Optician's Account, will 
soon be overpaid by the Subtraction from your Batcher's and Baker's. — Life 
of Col. Hanger, vol. ii. p. 153. 



INTRODUCTION. 15 

a proverb is accompanied by Contempt, and soon 
breaks the neck of obedience. 

Servants are more likely to be praised into good con- 
duct — than scolded out of bad — always commend 
them when they do right — to cherish the desire of 
pleasing in them, you must show them that you are 
pleased : — 

•' Be to their Faults a little blind, 
" And to their Virtues very kind." 

By such conduct, — ordinary Servants, will often 
be converted into Good ones ; — few so hardened, as 
not to feel gratified when they are kindly and liberally 
treated. 

It is a good Maxim to select .Servants not younger 
than THIRTY, — before that age, hov/ever comfortable 
you may endeavour to make them, their want of expe- 
rience, and the Hope of something still better — prevents 
their being satisfied with their present state. — ^fter, 
they have had the benefit of experience, if they are 
tolerably comfortable, they will endeavour to deserve 
the smiles of even a moderately kind master, for Fear 
they may change for the worse. 

Life may indeed be very fairly divided into the sea- 
sons of Hope and Fear. In Youth, we hope every 
thing may be right ; — in Age, we fear exery thing will be 
wrong. 

Do not discharge a good servant for a slight 
offence — 

" Bear and forbear, thus preached the stoic eages. 
And in two v/ords, include the sense of pages." — Pope. 

Human nature, is the same in all stations; 



16 INTRODUCTION. 

— if you can convince your Servants, that yon have a 
generous and considerate regard for then* Health and 
Comfort — why should You imagine that They will be 
insensible to the good they receive ? 

A Benevolent old Gentlewoman told ns that on 
Wednesdays and Saturdays she allowed her servants 
(three in number) half a Crown to purchase any thing 
they pleased for Supper — that she was sure, that she 
saved much more than double that sum by the general 
Economy which this provision for their comfort induced 
her domestics to observe. 

Impose no commands but what are reasonable, — nor 
reprove but with justice and temper — the best way to 
ensure which, is — neier to Lccfinc thfin, till at hast one 
dai/f after they haie offended you. 

If they have any particular hardship to endure in 
your service, — let them see that you are concerned for 
the necessity of imposing it. 

J f they are Sick, — remember you are their Patron as 
well as their Master, — not only remit their labour, 
but give them all the assistance of Food, Physic, 
and every comfort in your power. — Tender assiduity 
about an Invalid is half a Cure, — it is a balsam to 
the Mind, which has a most powerful effect on the 
Body, — sooths the sharpest Pains, and strengtlKins 
beyond the richest Cordial. 

The following estimate of the Expenses of a 
Female Servant — was sent to us by an experienced 
Housekeeper — 

They are often expected to find their own Tea 
and Sugar, — which with sober servants is the 



INTRODL'CTION. 17 

most comfortable meal they have — • and will re- 
quire 

Half a pound of Tea, per month ^ f 

Ditto Ditto Snz^v,perueek \ per annum 3.10 

4 pair of Shoes, per annum 18 

2 pair of black worsted Stockings 4 

2 pair of white Cotton Do. 5 

2 Gowns 1 10 

6 Aprons — 4 check, 2 white 10 6 

6 Caps 10 6 

A Bonnet, a Shawl or Cloak, Pattens, &c. Ribands, Haudker- 
ciiiefs, Pins, Needles, Threads, Thimbles, Scisfars, and other 

woikiiig tools, — Stays, Siay-tape, and Buckram, &c. &c 2 

£9:8:0 

Besides these, She has to make a shift and buy pet- 
ticoats, pockets, and many other articles. 

We appeal to the neatest managing and most economical 
Housewife, to inform us how this can be done — and 
how much a poor Girl will have remaining to place to 
her account in the Saving Bank, — for help in Sickness, 

— when Out of Place, — and for her support in Old Age. 

— Here, — is the source, — of the swarms of distressed 
Females which we daily meet in our streets. 

Ye, who think that to protect and encourage Virtue, — 
is the best preventive frofn Vice, — give your Female Ser- 
vants liberal zvages. 

" Charity should begin at home," — '* Prevention 
is preferable to Cure," but I have no objection to see 
your names ornamenting the Lists of Subscribers to 
Foundling Hospitals, and Female Penitentiaries*. 



* Much real reformation might be effected, and most grateful services 
obtained, if Families which consist wholly of females, would take servants 
recommended from the Magdalen — Penitentiary — or Guardian — 
who seek to be restored to virtuous society. 

'•' Female ser rants who pursue an honest course — have to travel in their 
peculiar orbit, through a more powerfully resisting medium than perhaps any 



18 INTRODUCTION. 

" To say nothing of the deleterious vapours and 
pestilential exhalations of the charcoal, which soon 
undermine the health of the heartiest, the glare of a 
scorching fire, and the smoke so baneful to the eyes 
and the complexion, are continual and inevitable 
dangers; — and a Cook must live in the midst of them, 
as a Soldier on the field of battle, surrounded by 
bullets, and bombs, and Congreve's rockets; — with 
this only difference, that for the first, every day is a 
fighting day, that her warfare is almost always without 
glory, and most praisewortliy achievements pass not 
only without reward, but frequently without even 
Thanks; — for the most consummate Cook is, alas! 
seldom noticed by the master, or heard of by the 
guests; who, while they are eagerly devouring his 
Turtle, and drinking his Wine, — care very little who 
dressed the one, or sent the other." — Ahnanach iks 
Govrmands. 

This observation applies especially to the Second 
Cook, oy Jirst Kitchai Maid, in large families, who 
have by far the hardest place in the house, and are 



other class of people in civilized Life, — they should be treated with some- 
thing like Christian kindness — for want of this — a fault which might at the 
time have been easily amended — has become the source of interminable 
sorrow." 

" By the clemency and benevolent interference of two mistresses known 
to the writer, two servants have become happy wives, who, had they been in 
some situations, would have been litirally Outcast?." 

A most laudable Society for the Encouragement of Female 
Servants, by a gratuitous Registry, and by Rewards, was instituted 
in 1813. 

Plans of which may be had gratis at the Society's House, Is'o. 10, Ilatton 
Garden. The above, is an extract from the Rev. II. G. Watkins's 
Hints to Heads of ramilies — a work well deserving their attentive con- 
sideration. 



INTRODUCTION. 19 

worse paid, and truly verify the old adage, *' the more 
work, the less wages.'' — If there is any thing right, the 
Cook has the praise — when there is any thing wrong, 
as surely the Kiicken maid has the blame. — Be it 
known, then, to honest John Bull, that this humble 
domestic, is expected by the Cook to take the entire 
management of all Roasts and Boils, Fish and Vege- 
tables — i. e. the principal part of an Englishman s 
dinner. 

The Master, who wishes, to enjoy the rare luxury, 
of a table regularly well served in the best style, must 
treat his Cook as his friend, — watch over her Health* 



* The greatest care should be taken by the man of fashion, that his Cook's 
health be preserved: —one hundredth part of the attention usually bestowed 
on his dog, or his horse, will suffice to regulate her animal system. 

" Cleanliness, and a proper ventilation to carry off smoke and steam, 
should be particularly attended to in the construction of a kitchen; — the 
grand scene of action, the fire-place, should be placed where it may receive 
plenty of light : — hitherto the contrary has prevailed, and the poor Cook is 
continually basted with her own perspiration." — A. C. Jun. 

" The most experienced artists in Cookery cannot be certain of their 
work, without Tasting: —they must be incessantly Tasting. — The Spoon of a 
good Cook, is continually passing from the Stewpan to his Tongue ; — nothing, 
but frequent Tasting his Sauces, Ilagouts, &c., can discover to him what 
progress they have made, or enable him to season A Soup with any 
certainty of success:— his Palate, therefore, must be in the highest state of 
excitability, that the least fault may be perceived in an instant. 

" But, alas! the constant empyreumatic fumes of the stoves, the necessity 
of frequent drinking, and often of bad beer, to moisten a parched throat ; — 
in short, every thing around him conspires quickly to vitiate the organs of 
taste; the palate becomes blunted, its quickness of feeling and delicacy, on 
which the sensibility of the organs of taste depends, grows daily more obtuse, 
and in a short time the gustatory nerves become quite unexcitable. 

"If you find your Cook neglect his business,— that his i?«g'(m?* 
are too highly spiced or salted, and his cookery has too much of the " haut 
goiit," — you may be sure that his Index of Taste wants regulating,— his 
Palate has lost its sensibility,— and it is high time to call in the assistance of 
the Apothecary. 

" ' Purger souvent' is the grand Maxim in all Kitchens where le Mattre 
d' Hotel has any regard for the reputation of his table. Les Boniies Ilommes 



20 INTRODUCTION. 

with the tenderest care, and especially, be sure, her 
Taste does not suffer from her Stomach being deranged 
by Bilious Attacks. 

Besides understanding the management of the 
Spit, — the Stewpan, — and the RoUivig Pin, a Com- 
plete Cook must know how to go to Market, write 
legibly, and keep Accounts accurately. In well re- 
gulated Private Families, the most convenient custom 
seems to be, that the Cook keep a house-book, con- 
taining an account of the miscellaneous articles she 
purchases — and the Butcher's, — Baker's, — Butter- 
man's, — Green-grocer's, Fishmonger's, — Milkman's — 
and Washing Bills are brought in every Monday ; 
these it is the duty of the Cook to examine, before she 
presents them to her employer every Tuesday morning 
to be discharged. 

The advantage of paying such bills weekly, is incal- 
culable ; among others — the constant check it affords 
against any excess beyond the sum allotted for defray- 



de Bouche — submit to the operation, without a murmnr ; — to bind otiicrs, it 
shocild be ma.le the first condition in hiring them. Those who refuse, — 
prove they were not born to become Masters of their Art ; — and their indif- 
ference to Fame, will rank them, as they deserve, among those stupid 
Slaves, who pass their lives as in much obscurity as their own stewpans." 

To tlie precedLig observations from the " Almanack des Gourmands," 
we may add, that the MouthJcian will have a still better chance of success, if 
he can prevail on his master to observe the same regime which he orders for 
his Cook, — or, instead of endeavouring to awaken an idle Appetite, by 
reading the Index to a Cookery Book, or an additional use of the Pepj>er-Box 
and Salt-Cellar — rather seek it from Abstinence, or Exercise — the philoso- 
phical Gourmand will consider that the edge of our Appetite is generally 
keen, in proportion to the activity of our other habits — let him attentively 
peruse our " Peptic Precepts," &c., which briefly explain the Art of 
refreshing the Gustatory Nerves — and of Invigorating the whole System. — See 
in the following Chapter on Invitations to Dinner — A Recipe ta 
make Forty Peristaltic Persuaders. 



INTRODUCnON. 21 

ing them, and the opportunity it gives of correcting 
increase of expense in one week by a prudent retrench- 
ment in the next. '* If you would hve tien with the 
world, calculate your expenses at /lalf your Income — if 
you would grow rick, at one-third." — See Bacon's 
Essays. 

See " Ten Minutts' Advice on the Management of 
Income, Hatchard, Piccadilly, 1810;" Dr. Truster's 
" Domestic Management, or the Art of managing a 
Family ;" and by the same author, another v/ork well 
worth the purchase of Young Housekeepers, called, 
" The Honours of the Table, or the Art of Caning:" the 
latter has been copied in a mutilated state into almost 
every Cookery Book that has been made during the 
kst thirty years. 

The most complete Housekeeper's Account 
Book is Poole's, published at No. 48, Fetter Lane. 
It is an excellent plan to have a table of rules for 
regulating the ordinary expenses of the Family, in 
oi'der to check any innovation or excess v/hich other- 
wise might be introduced unawares, and derange the 
proposed distribution of the annual revenue. 

it is almost impossible for a Cook to attend to the 
business of the Kitchen with any certainty of perfection 
if employed in other household concerns. — It is a 
service of such importance^ and so difficult to perform 
even tolerably well, that it is sufficient to engross the 
entire attention of one person. 

This is a Maxim which is neither understood nor 
admired in some families, where the Cook is expected 
to be a house servant also, and Coals are meted out to 
her by the Quart, and Butter by the Ounce, &c. — 



22 INTRODUCTION. 

Nevertheless, these ignorant and unreasonable masters 
and mistresses, are surprised, if most of their Ragouts, 
and Sauces, &c. are spoiled ; and the Roasts either 
burnt up, or not half done; but how can it be other- 
-vvise, — if the Cook is obliged to be the slave of the 
Bell*, &c. as well as of the Spit? 

" If we take a review of the Qualifications that are 
indispensable in that highly estimable domestic, a com- 
plete Good Cook, we shall find that very few deserve 
that namef." 



♦ At Merlin's Mechanical MuseuiiUherG was a contrivance by the Beil, 
which moved an Index to a corresponding word in the Kitchen. Tor 
inBtauce — 

Lay the Cloth. 

Coals. 

Candies. 

Dinner. 

Tea. 

Hot Water. 

Snpper. 

Housemaid. 

Cook, &c. 

Before you rim; the Bell set this Index to what yon want — the Servant will 

then know what yon wish for — and tlius much time and trouble will be saved 

to both Master and Servant. 

t " She must be quick and strong of sight ; her hearing most acute, that she 
may be sensible when the contents of her vessels bubble, although they be 
closely covered, and that she may be alarmed before the pot boils over: her 
auditory nerve ought to discriminate (when several saucepans are in operation 
at the same time) the simmering of one, the ebullition of another, and the full 
toned wabbling of a third. 

" It is imperiously requisite that her organ of smell be highly susceptible of 
the various effluvia, that her nose may distinguish the perfection of aromatic 
ingredients, and that in animal substances it shall evince a suspicious accuracy 
between tenderness and putrefaction : above all, her olfactories should be 
tremblingly alive to mustiness and empyrciraa. 

" It is from the exquisite sensibility of her palate, that we admire and judge 
of the Cook ; from the alliance between the olfactory and sapid organs it will 
be seen, that their perfection is in iispensable." — A. C. Jun. 



INTRODUCTION. 23 

" The majority of those who set up for Professors of 
this Art, are of mean ability, selfish, and pilfering 
every thing they can : others are indolent and insolent. 
Those who really understand their Business, (which 
are by far the smallest number,) are too often, either 
ridiculously saucy, — or insatiably thirsty : — m a word, 
a good subject of this class, is a rara avis indeed !" 

" God sends Meat," — who sends Cooks*? the pro- 
verb has long saved us the trouble of guessing. Vide 
Almanack des Gourmands ^ p. 83. 

Of what value then is not this Book? — which will 
render every person of common sense — a good Cook, 
in as little time as they can read it through atten- 
tively. 

If the Masters and Mistresses of Families will 
sometimes condescend to make an amusement of this 
Art, they will escape a number of disappointments, &c. 
which those who will not, must suffer, to the detriment 
of both their Health and their Fortune. 

The author wishes he had more time to devote to the 
subject. An ingenious Chemist, and an intelligent 
Cook, might form a very complete work, by taking 
for their text Dr. George Pearson's admirably 
arranged catalogues of Food, Drink, and Seasoning: 
this most comprehensive abstract of this subject we 
have ever seen, was printed for his Lectures on Thera- 
peutics, &c. which the author attended in 1801. 

I did not presume to offer any observations of my 



* A facetious Gourmand suggests that the old story of " lighting a Candle 
to the Devil" probably arose from this adage — and was an offering presented 
to his Infernal Majesty, by some Epicure who was in want of a Cook. 



24 INTRODUCTION. 

own, till I had read all that I could find written on the 
subject, and submitted (with no small pains,) to a patient 
and attentive consideration of every preceding work, re- 
lating to culinary concerns, that I could meet with. 

These Books vary very little from each other, — 
except in the preface, they are 

" Like in all else as or.e Fgs; to another:" 

** ah uno, disce omnes,'' cutting and pasting seem to 
have been much oftener employed than the Pen and 
Ink : any one who has occasion to refer to two or three 
of them, will find the Receipts almost always '' i*trbatim 
€t literatim ;'' equally unintelligible to those who are 
ignorant, — and useless to those who are acquainted 
with tlie business of the Kitchen. 

Tlie following works are in my own Library; others 
ray friends have favoured me with the perusal of, 
amounting in all to not less than 250 Volumes. 

Apicins Caliiis <le Arte Coqiii- A BodUc of Cookiyc, gathered 

narin — cum notis. I\I. Lister, b) J. W 1591 

M.D. F.R.S. ' Siindrie N'ew Remedies againste 

The Boke of Kervynge, b. 1. i Famine, by II. Piatt, Esq. .. 1590 

4IO. by \\ynkyn de Worde.. 1513 , F-pulario — or the Italian lian- 

The Bookeof Carvyi.gc, b. 1. — qiict, b. 1 139^ 

no djric. I Butte's Dyets Dry Dinner .... ISpy 

Sir Thomas Elyot, Cookerie.. 1539 Bread for the Boor l608 

Ehasmiis' Ipicure, b. 1 1545 Dawson's Good Huswife's Jewel, 

The Good Husive's Handmaid 1550 • and rare Conceits in Cookery l6lO 

Cnrtius de Prandii et Coenaj \ The Booke of Carving and 

Modo — Aldus 156c I Serving, b. 1 l(5l.3 

V/illicJiii de Arte Magirica hoc i Api^s Dinees par A. Balinghem l6l5 

efit Coqniiiaria 1563 ' A Closet of Delights for Ladica l630 

A proper, new Booke of Cookery 1575 I Murrell's Cookerie and Manner 

'J he Ilusbandly C)rdring and of making Kickshawes, &c. l030 

Governniente of Poultrie, ! The Philosopher's Banquet. . .. :633 

practised by the Karnedsie JA Bookeof Cookery 16.34 

and such as have bene knowne | Vcnner, on Diet l638 

skilfullest in that art, b. 1. .. 1581 j Bartolomeo Scappi del Cuoco 1643 

The Honseholder's Philosophic, j Wisdom's Call to Temperance l65t> 

■ito. b. I 1588 I The Schoolmaster, or Jeacher 

Partridge's Treasury of Con- | of Table Philosophy, small 

cietes, and Closet of Provision 1580 4to l652 

The Good Housewife's Closet | The Ladies' Companion l653 

of Provision 1590 ' Lord Ruthven's Cabin«;t, Ibmo. l654 



INTRODUCTION. 



25 



Nature uiiembowelled, or 1720 

Receipts 1655 

Archimagirus's Receipts in 
Cookery, by Sir Theodore 
Mayerne, Physician to Chas. 

II 1658 

Lovell's Cookery l66l 

The Complete Cook l662 

The Court and Kitchen of Eliza- 
beth Cromwell 1664 

May's Accomplished Cook. . . . l665 
The Office of Clerk of the 

Market 1665 

Sir Kenelm Digby's Cookery.. l669 
Countesse of Kera's Choice Se- 
crets, &c 1671 

The True Gentlewoman's De- 
light 1671 

Cookery Dissected, by William 

Rabisha l673 

Kitchen Physic l675 

The Gentlewoman's Cabinet 

Unlocked, 7ih edition, l2mo. 1675 
Rose's Sciiool for the Officers 

of the Mouth l682 

Hartman's Cookery, and De- 
scription of aa Engine to 
Cook without Wood, Coals, 

Candle, or Oil 1682 

Markham's iMiglish Housewife, 

. -Ito 1683 

Hannah Woi. ley's Rare Receipts l684 
The Accomplished Ladies' De- 
light 1686 

Marnitte's Perfect English Cook 1686 

The Kitchen 1 hysician I688 

The Cupboard Door Opened . . 1689 
Tillinghasi's Young Cook's Mo- 
nitor 1690 

The Complete Servant Maid .. i6gi 

Tryon on Liquid Food 169I 

'Iryon's Good Huswife made a 

Doctor 1692 

Thomas Tryon's Seventy five 

Noble Dishes 1606 

The way to save Wealth 1697 

Evylyn's Discourse on the 

Thirty.fi ve Sallets I699 

The plain dealing Poulterer, or 

Poulterer's Shop Opened, Bvo. I699 
England's ILippiuess Improved 

— no date. 
The Compleat Cook's Guide . . 1701 
The Accomplished Female In- 
structor 1704 

The Cook's Vade Mecura .... 1705 

The Queen's Cookery 1709 

Dr. Salmon's Cookery 1710 

Incomparable Secrets in Cook- 
ery 1710 

The Compleat Cook 1710 



The Whole Duty of Woman, and 

Guide from 16 to 60 1712 

The Court and Country Cook. . 1712 
Le vrai Cuisinier Francois, et 
Maitre d'Hotel, par le Sieur 

de la Varenne 1712 

Hall's Royal Cookery I719 

Cookery and Pastry Cards.... 1720 

Lamb's Royal Cookery 1726 

Howard's Cookery 1726 

Carte, 's System of Cookery . . 1730 

Mrs. Eales' Receipts 1733 

Middleton's 500 Receipts in 

Cookery 1734 

Smith's Cookery 1734 

The Young Lady's Companion 1734 
Three Hundred Receipts in 

Cookery 1734 

Bailey's Cookery 1736 

Dr. King's Art of Cookery, in 

verse 1740 

Arnaud's Alarm to all Persons 
touching their Health and 

Lives 1740 

Directions for Housekeeping 

and Cookery 1741 

The Family Piece 1741 

The Ladies' Companion 1743 

A Present to a Servant Maid, 
or the sure IVIeans of gaining 

Love and Esteem 1743 

Adam's Luxury and Eve's 

Cookery 1744 

The Accomplis-hed Housewife 1745 
Cocchi on Vegetable Diet .... 1745 

Brownrigg on Salt 1748 

Kidder's tieceipts for the use 

of his Scholars 1750 

Lemery on Food, Bvo 1750 

Ha lison's Family Cook 1750 

The Country Housewife, by R. 
Bradley, F.R.S. and Pro- 
fessor of Botany at Cam- 
bridge 1753 

La Chapelle's Modern Cook .. 1754 
Miirtha Bradley's British House- 
wife 1755 

Sarah Jackson's Cook Director 1755 
Essay on Diet, Nursing, &c. .. 1757 
Mrs. Glassi.'s Art of Cookery. . 1757 
Dr. Moifett on Foods, — cor- 
rected by C. Bennet, M.D. 

and R.James, M.D 1757 

The Cook's Cookery, and Com- 
ments on Mrs. Glasse 1758 

Mrs. Phillips' Cookery 1758 

Ur. ^Markham on the Ten Ingre- 
dients used in the Adultera- 
tion uf Bread 1758 

Jackson on Bread 1758 

Verral's Cookery ,, 1759 



26 



INTRODUCTION. 



E. Cleland's new and easy 

Method of Cookery 1759 

Dr. Mauning's Art of niakitig 

Bread I759 

Primitive Cookery 176" 

Virtues of a Crust of Bread .... 1767 

Jeuk's Complete Cook 17(38. 

Considerations relative to Bread 1768 

E. Taylor, Art of Cookery — 

Berwick, 8vo I769 

The isorthnmberland House- 
hold Book iu 1512 1770 

Mary Smith's Complete House- 
keeper, 8vo 1772 

Sayer on I-ood, Exercise, and 
Sleep 1772 

The Use and Abuse of the 

Steward's 1 able 1772 

Essay on Bread 1773 

'Ihe great Advantagtr of eating 

pai e Bread I773 

The most proper Bread for ge- 
neral Use 1773 

Easy \\:ty to prolong Life by 
attention to%Nliat we Eat and 
Drink 1775 

C lermuni's Cookery ,,.. I77C 

Adair on Diet. 

Sarah 1 Unison's Housekeeper's 

Pocket Book I777 

Observations on Uiet and Regi- 
men, by Wni. Falconer, M.D., 
F.R.S 1788 

Pegge's Forme of Ciiry, com- 
piled by the Master Cooks, 
A.D. ir'AjO 1780 

Mason's Cookery 1780 

Dr. Graham on Regimen. 

Keilet's Cookery 1780 

Borella's Housekeeper's Guide 1780 

Dalryniple's Cookery 17HI 

Montague's Cookery I78I 

Essay on Culinary Poisons, 8vo. 178I 

Parmenlier on N utritive Vege- 
table« 1783 

Mrs. Fisher's Prudent House- 
wife 17K8 

Dr. Stark's Dietelical Experi- 
ments, 4to 1788 

Mrs. Maciver's Cookery, &c. 

12nv 1789 

The Complete Housewife .... 1790 

Effects of Hard Drinking, J. 
Lettsom, M D., F.R.S 1790 

Moxon's Cookery I79O 

Royal Household Book, from 
King Edward UI. to William 
and Mary 1790 

Henderson's Cookery 17yo 

Warner's Antiquitates Culina- 
riae, 4to 1791 



Briggs's Cookery 1791 

Frazer's Cookery 1791 

Coles' Cookc' y 1701 

The Frei.ch tamily Cook (a 
1 ranslation of La Cuisiniire 

Bourgeoi^e) 1793 

Martin's English Housekeeper 1795 
The Seaman's Guide, by ihe 

Hon. J. Cochrane 1797 

Sandlord on the Ettects of Wine 

and Spirits I799 

Modern Method of Regulating 

the Table with Bills of Fare, 

&c. folio. 

Skeat's Art of Cookery ,&c.4to. 

Collingwood and Williams' 

Cookery 1801 

Arrai ged Catalogues of Food, 
Drink, &c. by G. Pearson, 

M.D., F.R.S., &c 1801 

Practical Economy, by a Phy- 
sician 1801 

Millington's Cookery 1805 

Rattald's Cookery I8O6 

Culina I'amulati ix Mcdirina;, by 

A. Hunter, M.D., F.R.S., &c. 1807 

MoUard's Cookery 18t;6 

The Lincolnshire Family Jewel 

— Lincoln, l-2mo 1808 

.Macdonald's Family Cook.... 1808 

Nutt's Koyal Cook I8O9 

Melroe's Cookery 1810 

Smith's Female Economist.... 1810 

Domestic Receipts 1810 

Mrs. Carter's Frugal Housewife 1810 
Hints to Butchers, Bakers, and 

Fi^hmongeis 1810 

Family Receipts 1810 

The Bath Cookery Book 1810 

Frugal Housewife lUll 

Farley's Cookery 1811 

Mrs. Powel's Art of Cookery.. 1811 

Newton on \'egetable Regimeu 1811 

Simpson's System ofCookery., 1813 

Domestic Cookery 1813 

Honistoii's Housekecjai 's As- 
sistant, 12mo 1813 

Ude's French Cook 18)3 

Domestic Management 1813 

Mrs. Price's Mew book of 

Cookery 1813 

The Scliotd of Good Living.... 1814 

Reynold's Piofes^ed Cook.... 1815 

Catharine Brook's linglishCook 1815 

Young's Kpicure ., 1815 

The Epicure's Almanack 1815 

The HiHisekee pet's Receipt 

15<)ok, 8vo 1815 

Dallaway's Servant's Monitor 1815 

Burford's Complete Instructor 18lfi 

Haslehursi's Family Friend .. I8I6 



INTRODUCTION. 27 



Moubray on Breeding and Fat- 
tening Poultry 1816 

Hammond's Modern Domestic 
Cookery 18l6 

Complete Housewife's Best 



Fran9ois ••.. 1752 

La Science da Maitre d'Hotel 1776 

La Cnisini^re Gasconne 1790 

Les Dons de Comus, 3 toms... 1775 
Nouvelle Chimie du Gout, 2 



Companion — Derby 1817! toms I8I9 



House's Family Cookery I8I9 

The Banquet I8J9 

Tlie Dessert I8I9 

Sylvester's Philosophy of Do- 
mestic Economy, 4to. ...... I8I9 

Chamber's Ladies' best Com- 
panion 1820 

Accum on Adulteration of Foods 

and Drinks, 2d Edit 1820 

Do. on Brewing and Baking.. 1820 
Le Menage des Champs et de la 
Ville, ou Nouveau Cuisinier 



La Cuisini^re Bourgeoise .... 1798 

Le Parfait Cuisinier 1811 

Le Nouveau Cuisinier ........ 1812 

Le Cours Gastronomique .... 180g 

Manuel des Amphitryons .... 1808 

Almanach des Gourmands, &c. 

8 toms * 1808 

Le Cuisinier imperial, par A. 

Viar, homme de bouche .... 1812 
L'Art du Cuisinier, par Beauvil- 

liers 1814 



During the Herculean labour of my tedious progress 
through these books — many of which did not afford the 
germ of a single idea — I have often wished that the 
authors of them had been satisfied with giving us 
the results of their own practice and experience — 
instead of idly perpetuating the errors, prejudices, and 
plagiarisms, of their predecessors, — the strange, un- 
accountable, and uselessly extravagant farragos, and 
heterogeneous compositions, which fill their pages, are 
combinations no rational being would ever think of 
either dressing or eating, and without ascertaining the 
practicability of preparing the receipts, and their 
fitness for food when done, they should never have 
ventured to recommend them to others ; — the reader 
of them will often put the same qucere, as Jeremy, in 
Congreve's comedy of " Lot: e for Love," when Valentine 
observes, '* There's a page doubled down in Epictetus, 
that is a feast for an Emperor." — Jer. Was Epictetus 
a real Cook, — or did he only write Receipts ? 

Half of these books are made up with pages cut 
out of obsolete works, such as the " Choice Manual of 
Secrets," the " True Gentlewoman's Delight," &c. of as 
c2 



28 INTRODUCTION. 

much use, in this Age of refinement, as the following 
curious passage from *' The Accomplished Ladys Rich 
Closet of Rarities, or Ingenious Gentleivomans Delightful 
Companion,'' 12mo. London, 1653, chapter 7, page 42; 
which I have inserted in a note * to give the reader 
a notion of the barbarous manners of the \Qth century, 
with the addition of the Arts of the Confectioner, — 
the Brewer, — the Baker, — the Distiller, — the Gardener, 
— the Clearstarcher, — and the Perfumer, — and how 
to make Pickles — Puff Paste — Butter and Blacking, 
(SlTC. — together with all my Lady Bountiful's sovereign 
remedies for an inward Bruise, — and other ever- 
failing Nostrums — Dr. Killemquick's wonder-working 
Essence, and fallible Elixir which cures all manner 
of incurable maladies directly minute — Mrs. Notable's 
instructions how to make soft Pomatum — that will 
soon make more hair grow upon thy Head, — *' than 
Dobbin, thy thill horse, hath upon his tail" — and many 



• " A GenUewoinan bein^ at table, abroad or at home, must observe to Ijcep 
her body straight, and lean not by a.;y means with her elbows, nor by 
ravenous gesture discover a voracious appetite; talk not when you hare 
meat in your mouth; and do not smack like a Pig, nor venture to eat 
Spoonmeat so hot that the tears stand in your Lyes, which is as unseemly as 
the Gentlewoman who pretended to have as little a Stomach as she had a 
Month, and therefore would not swallow her Peas by spoonsful; but took 
them one by one, and cut ihcm in two bclbre she would eat them. It is very 
nncoraely to drink so large a draught that your Breath is almost gone — and 
are forced to blow strongly to recover yourself — throwing down your liqiior 
as into a Funnel is an action fitter lor .t Juggler than a Gcntletvoman ; thui 
much for your Observations in general ; if t am defective as to particulars, 
your own prudence, discretion, and curious observations will supply. 

" In Cakving at your own Table, distribute the best pieces first, and it 
will appear very comely and decent to use a Fork ; so touch no piece of 
Meat without it." 

" Mem. The English are indebted to ToM Coryat for introducing the 
Fork, for which they called him Furci/er." — See his Crudities, vol. i. 
p. 106. — Edit. lT7G,8vo. 



INTRODUCTION. 29 

Others equally invaluable ! ! ! — the proper appellation 
for which, would be " a dangerous budget of vulgar 
errors," concluding with a bundle of extracts from 
" the Gardener's Calendar" and " the Publican's Daily 
Companion." 

Thomas Carter, in the preface to his " City and 
Country Cook," London, 1738, says, " What I have 
published, is almost the only book, one or two excepted, 
which of late years has come into the world, that has 
been the result of the author's own practice and expe- 
rience ; for though very few eminent practical Cooks 
have ever cared to publish what they knew of the 
art, yet they have been prevailed on, for a small 
premium from a Bookseller, to lend their names to 
performances in this art, unworthy their owning." 

Robert May, in the introduction to his " Accomplished 
Cook," 1665, says, " To all honest and well-intending 
persons of my profession., and others, this hook cannot but he 
acceptable, as it plainly and profitably discovers the mystery 
of the whole art ; for which, though I may be envied by 
some, that only value their private interests above 
posterity and the public good ; yet, (he adds,) God 
and my own conscience would not permit me to bury 
these, my experiences, with my silver hairs in the 
grave." 

Those high and mighty Masters and Mistresses of 
the Alimentary Art, who are commonly called " Pro- 
fess" Cooks — are said to be very jealous and myste- 
rious beings : — and that if in a long life of laborious 
Stove work, they have found out a few useful secrets — 
they seldom impart to the public the fruits of their 
experience, but sooner than divulge their discoveries for 



30 INTRODUCTION. 

the benefit and comfort of their fellow-creatures — often 
run the risk of a reprimand from their employers, — 
and will sooner spoil a good Dinner, — than suffer their 
fellow-servants to see how they dress it ! ! ! 

The silly selfishness of short-sighted mortals, is never 
more extremely absurd — than in their unprofitable 
parsimony, — of what is of no use to them, —but would 
be of actual value to others, — who in return would 
willingly repay them tenfold : — however, I hope 1 may 
be permitted to quote in defence of these culinary 
Professors — a couple of lines of a favourite old song: 

" If yon search the world round, each profession, you'll find, 
Hath some snug little secrets, which the Mystery • they call." 

My Receipts are the results of experiments care- 
fully made, and accurately and circumstantially re- 
lated : 



• " Almost all Arts and Sciences are more or less encumbered with vulgar 
errors and prejudices, which avarice and ignorance have unfortunately 
sufficient influence to preserve, by help (or hinderance) of mysterious, unde- 
finable, and not seldom unintelligible, technical terms — Anglicd, nicknames 
— which, instead of enlightening the subject it is professedly pretended they 
were invented to illuminate, serve but to shroud it in almost impenetrable 
obscurity; and, in general, so extravagantly fond are the professors of an art 
of keeping up all the pomp, circumstance, and mystery of it, and of preserving 
the accumulated prejudices of agus past undiminished, that one mitlit fairly 
suppose those who have had the courage and perseverance to overcome 
these obstacles, and penetrate the veil of science, were delighted with placing 
difficulties in the way of those who may attempt to follow them, on purpose 
to deter them from Uie pursuit, and that they cannot bear others should 
climb the hill of knowledge by a readier road than they themselves did : and 
such is Vesprit du corps, that as their predecessors supported themselves by 
serving it out gradatim et stillatim, and retailing with a sparing hand the 
information they so hardly obtained, they find it convenient to follow their 
example : and, willing to do as they have been done by, leave and bequeath 
the inheritance undiminished to those who may succeed them." — See page 7 
of Dr. KiTCHiNBR's Observations on Telescopes, 3d Edit. 



INTRODUCTION. 31 

The Time requisite for dressing being stated. 

The Quantities of the various articles contained 
in each composition being carefully set down in 
Number, Weight, and Measure. 

The Weights are Avoirdupois; the Measure, 
Lynes graduated Glass, i. e. a Wine pint divided into 
sixteen ounces, and the Ounce into eight Drachms : — ■ 
by a Wine-glass, is to be understood two ounces liquid 
measure ; — by a large or table Spoonful^ half an ounce : 
— by a small or Tea Spoonful^ a drachm, or half a 
quarter of an ounce, i. e. nearly equal to two drachms 
avoirdupois. 

At Price's glass warehouse, near Exeter 'Change, 
in the Strand, you may get measures divided into Tea 
and Table Spoons. — No Cook should be without one, 
who wishes to be regular in her business. 

This precision has never before been attempted in 
Cookery books, but I found it indispensable, from the 
impossibility of guessing the quantities intended by 
such obscure expressions as have been usually em- 
ployed for this purpose in former works. 

For instance : a little bit of this — a handful of that — 
a nip or pinch of t'other, — do 'em over with an Egg — 
and a sprinkling of salt, — a dust of flour, — a shake of 
pepper, — a squeeze of lemon, — or a dash of vinegar, 
&c. are the constant phrases; season it to your Palate, 
(meaning the Cook's,) is another form of speech: 
now, if she has any, — it is very unlikely that it is in 
unison with that of her employers, — by continually 
sipping piquante relishes, it becomes blunted and 
insensible, and soon loses the faculty of appreciating 



32 INTRODUCTION. 

delicate flavours, — so that every thing is done at 
random. 

These Culinary technicals* are so very differently 
understood by the learned who write them, — and the 
unlearned who read them, — and their "■ rule ofT/iumb" 
is so extremely indefinite, — that if the same dish be 
dressed by different persons, it will generally be so 
different, that nobody would imagine they had worked 
from the same directions, which will assist a person 
who has not served a regular apprenticeship in the 
Kitchen, no more than reading " Robinson Crusoe," 
would enable a Sailor to steer safely from England to 
India. 

It is astonishing how cheap Cookery Books are held 
by practical Cooks : when I applied to an experienced 
artist to recommend me some books that would give 
me a notion of the first principles and rudiments of 
Cookery, he replied with a smile — " You may read 
Don Quixote, or Peregrine Fick/e, they arc both very 
good books." 

Careless expressions in Cookery are the more sur- 
prising, as the Confectioner is regularly attentive, in 
the description of his preparations, to give the exact 
quantities, though his business, compared to Cookery, 



• " In the present language of Cookery, there has been a woeful departure 
from the simplicity of our Ancestors, such a farrago of unappropriale and 
unmeaning terms, many corrupted from the French, others disguised from 
the Italian, some mis;ipplied from the German, while many are a disgrace to 
the English. What can any person suppose to be the meaning of a Shoulder 
of Lamb in eyigram, unless it were a poor dish, for a Tennyless Poet f 
Aspect of Jish, would appear calculated for an Astrologer; and shoulder 
of mutton surprised, designed for a Sheep stealer." — A. C. Jun. 



INTRODUCTION. 



33 



is as unimportant, as the Ornamental is inferior to the 
Useful. 

The maker of Blanc-mange, Custards, &c., and the 
endless and useless collection of pretty playthings for 
the Palate, (of first and second childhood, for the 
vigour of manhood seeketh not to be sucking Sugar- 
candy, or sipping Turtle,) is scrupulously exact, even 
to a grain, in his ingredients ; whilst Cooks are unin- 
telligibly indefinite, although they are intrusted with 
the administration of our food, upon the proper quality 
and preparation of zvJiich, all our poxiers of Body and 
Mind depend; — their Energy, being invariably^ in the 
ratio, of the performance of the restorative process, i. e. 
the quantity, quality, and perfect digestion of what v^e 
eat and drink ; and a sufficient portion of sound 
Sleep, '' the balm of hurt minds, chief nourisher in life's 
feast, gTeat Nature's second course/' 

Unless the Stomach be in good humour, every part 
of the machinery of life must vibrate with languor ; — 
can we then be too attentive to its adjustment! ! ! 



CULINARY CURIOSITIES. 

The fallowing specimen of the unaccountably whimsical Harlequinade of 
Foreign Kitchens is from " La Chapelle" Nouveau Cuisinier, Paris, 17^8. 

" A Turkey," in the shape of " a Football," or " a Hedge-Hog." — " A 
Shoulder of Mutton," in the shape of a " Bee-Hive." — " Entree of Pigeons," 
" in the form of a Spider" or .S/<«-Fashion, or " in the form of a Frog," or, 
in " the form of the Moon." — Or, " to make a Pig taste like a Wild Boar;" 
Take a living Pig, and let him swallow the following drink, viz. boil together 
in vinegar and water, some rosemary, thyme, sweet basil, bay-leaves, and 
sage ; when you have let him swallow this, immediately uhip him to Death, 
and roast him forthwith. How " to still a Cocke for a weake bodie that k 
consumed," " take a red Cocke that is not too olde, and beate him tw 
death." — See the Eooke of Cookrye, very necessary for all such 

C.5 



34 INTRODUCTION. 

as delit^ht therein. — Gathered by A. W. 159I, 12mo. p. 12. How to Roast a 
pound o/" Butter, curiously and well; and lo farce (the culinary technical 
for to stuff J a boiled kg of Lamb with Red Herrings and Garlick; with 
maDy other receipts of as high a relish, and of as easy digestion as the Devil's 
Venison, \. e. a roasted Tiger stufied with tenpenny >.'ails, or the " Bonne 
Bouchc," the Rareskin Rowskiinowmowsky, oflfered to Baron Munchausen 
"a fricasee of Pistols, with Gunpowder and Alcohol sauce," — see the 
Adventures 0/ Baron Munchausen, icmo. 1792, p. 2O0: — and the hor- 
riblc hut authentic account of AaoKsoiF in Moubray's Treatise on 
Poultry, 8vo. I8I6, p. 18. 

But the most extraordinary of all the Culinary Receipts that have been 
under my eye, is the following diabolically cruel directions of jMizald's. 
" Hoiv to roast and eat a Goose alive." — "Take a GOOSE, or a DUCK, or 
some such lively creature, (but a Goose is best of all for this purpose,) pull 
off all her feathers, only the head and neck must be spared: then make a fire 
round about her, not too close to her, that the smoke do not choke her, and 
that the fire may not burn her too soon; nor too far oft", that she may not 
escape free : within the circle of the fire let there be set small cups and pots 
full of water, wherein salt and hone}' are mingled; and let there be set also 
chargers full of sodden Apples, cut into small pieces in the dish. The Goose 
must be all larded, and basted over with butter, to make her the more fit to be 
eaten, and may roast the belter : put then fire about her, but do not make too 
much haste, when as you see her liegin to roast ; for by walking about, and 
flying here and there, being cooped in by the fire that stops her way out, the 
unwearied Goose is kept in; she will fall to drink the water to quench her 
thirst and cool her heart, and all her body, and the Apple Sauce will make 
her dung, and cleanse and empty her. And when she roastcth, and consumes 
inwardly, always wet her head and heart with a wet sponge ; and when you 
see her giddy with running, and begin to stumble, her heart wants moisture, 
and she is roasted enough. Take her up, set her before your guests, and she 
will cry as you cut off any part from her, and will be almost eaten up before 
she be dead : it is mighty pleasant to behold! !!" — See Weckkr's Secrets of 
Xature, in folio, London, 166O, pp. 148, 309 •. 

" We suppose IMr. Mizald stole this receipt from the kitchen of his Infernal 
Majesty : probably it might have been one of the dishes the devil ordered 
when he invited Nero and Caligula to a feast." — A. C. Jun. 

This is also related in Baptista Porta's Natural Magicke, fol. l658, 
p. 321. This very curious (but not scarce) Book contains among other strange 
tricks and fancies of " the Olden Time," directions, " how to Roast a«d 
Boil afoul, at the same time, so that one-half shall be Roasted — and 
the other Boiled;" — and " if you have a lacke of Cooks — How toper, 
suade a Goose — to roast himselfe .' ! .'" 

Many articles were in vogue in the 14th Century which are now obsolete — 



♦ See Isote to (No. 59,) how to plump the liver of a Goose. 



INTRODUCTION. 35 

ve add the following Specimens of the Culinaey Affairs of Days op 
Yore. ~ 

Sauce for a Goose, A.D. 1381. 

" Take a faire panne, and set hit under the Goose whill she rostes;— and 
kepe clene the grese that droppes thereof, and put therto a godele (good deal) 
of Wyn, and a litel vynegnr, and verjus, and onyonsmynced, or garlek; then 
take the gottes (gut) of the Goose and slitte horn, and scrape horn clene in 
watur and salt, and so wash horn, and hack horn small, then do all this 
togedur in a piffenent (pipkin) and do thereto raisinges of corance, and 
poudei- of pepur and of ginger and of canell, and hole clowes and maces, and 
let hit boyle and serve hit forthe." 

" That unweiidy marine animal the PORPUS was dressed in a variety of 
modes, salted, roasted, stewed, &c. Our ancestors were not singular in their 
partiality to it ; I find, from an ingenious friend of mine, that it is even nowj 
A. D. 1790, sold in the markets of most towns in Portugal — the flesh of it is 
intolerably hard and rancid." — Warner's Ant'iq. Cul. 4to. p. 15. 

" The Swan* was also a dish of state, and in high fashion when the elegance 
of the Feast was estimated by the magnitude of the articles of which it was 
composed ; the number consumed at the Earl of Northumberland's table, A. D. 
1512, amounted to twenty." — Northumberland Household Book, p. 108. 

" The Crane, whs a darling dainty in William the Conqueror's time, and 
so partial was that monarch to it, that when his prime favourite William Fitz 
Osborne, the steward of the household, served him with a Crane scarcely half 
roasted, the King was so highly exasperated, that he lifted up his fist, and 
would have strucken him, had not Eudo (appointed Dapifer immediately 
after) warded oflF the blow." — Warner's Antiq. Cul. p. 12. 

Seals, Curlews, Herons, Bitterns, and the Peacock— that noble 
bird " the food of Lovers and the meat of Lords" — were also at this time in high 
fashion — when the Baronial Entertainments were characterized by a grandeur 
and pompous ceremonial, approaching nearly to the magnificence of Royalty : 
there was scarcely any Royal or Noble feast without Pecokkes, which were 
stuffed with Spices and Sweetherbs, roasted and served up whole, and covered 
after dressing with the skin and feathers — the beak and comb gilt and the tall 
spread — and some, instead of the feathers, covered it with leaf-gold: — it was a 
common dish on grand occasions — and continued to adorn the English table 
till the beginning of the 17th Century. 

In Massinger's Play of " the City Madam," Holdfast exclaiming against 
city luxury says, " three fat wethers bruised, to make sauce for a single 
Peacock." 

This Bird Is one of those luxuries which were often sought, because they 
were seldom found : its scarcity and external appearance are its only recom- 
mendation — the meat of it is tough and tasteless. 



• " It isa curions illustration of the de gustibus non est disputandum, that 
the ancients considered the Swan as a high delicacy, and abstained from the 
flesh of the Goose as impure and indigestible."— Mou bray om Poultry, p.36» 



36 INTRODUCTIOX. 

Another favoorile Dish at the tables of onr Forefathers was a Pie of 
tto^eDdons magnitude, out i.>f which, on its being opened, a flock of li>ing 
birds flew forth, to the no small surpiiie and amnsensent of the gnests. 

*' Four-and-twenty Blackbirds bak'd in a Tie ; 

" When the Pie was opeuM the birds began to sing — 

" Oh : what a dainty dish — 'lis fit for any King." 

This was a common Joke at au old English Feast. These animated Pies 
were often introduced " to set on," as Hamlet sajs, " a quantity of barren 
•pectators to Ungh," — there is an instance of a Dwarf undergoing such au 
incrustation. — About the year l630. King Charles ai}d his Queen were 
entertained by the Doke and Dutchess of Buckingham, at Burleigh ou the 
Hill, on %\hich occasion Jeffery Hidsox, the DuarJ, was served op in a 
cold Pie.— Sec NValpolk's Anecdotes of Painting, vol. ii. p. H. 

The Baron of Beef was another favorite anil substantial support of Old 
English Hospitality. 

AmoBg the most polished nations of the 15th aud l6th Centuries the 
foudcred (salted) Hone secuis to have been a dish iu some esteem : 
Grimalkin herself could not e5ca|>e the andistiugnishing fury of the Cook. 
Don Anthony of Guevera, the Chronicler to Charles V., gives the following 
account of a Feast at which he was present. " I will tell you no he, 1 sawe 
soch kiudes of mcates eaten, as are wont tj be sene, but not eaien — os a 
Horse roasted — a Cat in gdy — Lyzakds in hot broihe, Frocges 
fried," &:c. 

While we are thus considering the carious diihcs of olden limes, \ve will 
cursorily mention the singular diet of two or three n.uiou6 of antiquity 
noted by Herodotus, L. 4. " Ihe Androphagi (the cannibals of ilie ancient 
world) greedily devoured the carcasses of their fellow creatares; while the 
iDofl°ensive L'abri (a Scythian tribe) found both food aud drink in the 
agreeable nut of the Pontic Tree. The Lotophagi lived entirely on the fmit 
of the Lotus Tree. The savage Troglodyte esteemed a living serpent the 
inost delicate of all morsels; while the capricious palile of the ZyguJitini 
preferred the Ape to every thing." — Vide War.ner's Antiq. Cut. p. 135. 

" The Romans, in the luxurious period of their empire, took five meals a 
day ; a Breakfast (jentaculumj; a Dinner, which was a light meal without any 
formal preparation (prandiumj; a kind of Tea, as we should call it, between 
dinner and s-.ipper {merendaj ; a Supj>er (canaj, which was their great 
meal, aud commonly consisted oftt\o courses; the first of meats — the second, 
what wc call a Dessert; — and a Pusse:, or something delicivus after supper, 
(co»«/»«J«/M)>"— Adam's Rom. Antiq. p. 454 and 447- 

The Romans usually began their enteMainmeuls wiih eggs, aud ended with 
fruits; hence Ab ovo csque AD mala, from the beg;iuDing to the end of 
snpper, llorat. Sat. i. 3. 6.; Cic.Fam. is. £0. 

The dishes (edulia) held in the highest estimation by the Romans are 
enumerated, Cell. vii. 10. Macrob. Sat. ii. 0. Martial, v. 7;\ ix. 48. xi. 53. 
tec. a Peacock, (pavo, v. us} Horat.Sat. ii. £. C3. Juvenal, i. 143. first used 
by Hortensias ,the orator .at a snpper, which he gave when adnmted into the 



INTEOUUCTIOX. 6/ 

tollege of priests, (aditiali cana sacerdotii), Plin. x. £0. s. 23. a pheasant, 
;'PHASIANA, cx Thasi Colchidisjluiio ) Martial, iii. 58. siii. "2. Seuec. ad 
Helv. 9. Petron. "0. Manil. v. 372. a bird called Attagen vel -iJia, from louia 
or Phryaia, Horat. Epod. ii. 54. Martial, xiii. 61. a gaiuea hea, {aih Afra, 
Horat. ibid. Gallina Xumidica vel A/ricana, Javenal, si. 142. :Maitial. 
xiii. 73.) a ilelian crane; an A:ubracian kid; nightingales, lu&cinia ; 
thrushes, titrdi i ducks, geese, &c. Tomaculcm, (a TEjOcva;), ifZIsicicM, 
fab iriscco), sausages or paddings, Juvenal, x. 355. Martial, i. 42. 9. 
Petron. Zl.—See Adam's Roman Antiquities, 2d Edition, 8vo. 17U2, p. 447. 
That the English reader may be enabled to form some idea of the 
heteroseneous messes vith wh'ch the Roman Palate was delighted, I 
introduce the following Receipt from Apicius. 

" Thick Sacce for a Boiled Chicken." — Put the followi.^g ingredients 
into a Mortar;— Aniseed; dried Mint, and Lazer Root, (fimilar to Asa- 
fcptija.) cover them with vinegar. — Aud dales; pour in Liquameji, Oil, and 
a small quantity of Mustard Seeds— redcoe all io a proper thickness wi;h Port 
Wine wanned; aud ihen por.r this same over your Chicken, which should 
previously be boiled in Anise-seed water." 

Liquamcn aud Carum wove synonymons terms for the sjme thing; 
the former adopted in the loom of the la'ter — about the age of Aurelian. It 
was a Liquid, and thus prepared: — The Guts of large Fish and a variety of 
small Fish, were put into a vessel and well salted, and then exposed to the 
Sun till they became putrid. A liquor was produced in a short time, which 
being strained ofi', v. as the Liquamen. — Vide Lister in Apicinm, p. 16, notes. 
Essence of Anchory, as it is usually made for sale, wheaitbas beenopenetl 
about 10 days, is not much unlike the Roman Liquamen. See No. 433. — Some 
suppose it was the same thing as the Rus-iau Caviar, which is prepared from 
the Roe of the Sturgeon. 

The Black Br.OTH of Lacedcrmon wiil long coutinue to excite the 
wonder of the Philosopher, and tee disgust of the Epicure. Y*'h.u the 
ingredients of this sable composition were, v,e cannot exactly ascertain. 
Jul. Pollux says, the Lacedemonian Elack Broth was blood, thickened in a 
certain way: Dr. Li£TER {in Apicium) supposes it to h&se'bee-a ho^'s blood ; 
if so, this celebrated Spartan dish bore no very dbtant resemblance to the 
black-puddings of our days, it could not be a very alluring mess, since a 
citizen of Sybaris having tasted it, declared, it was no longer a matter of 
astonishment with him, ^\hy the Spartans were so fearless of death, since 
any one in his senses would much rather die, than exist on such execrable 
foo,i. Tide Athen-aum, L. iv. c. 3. When Dionysius the Tyrant had tasted 
the Black Broth, he exclaimed against it as miserable stuff; the Cook 
replied, — " It was no wonder, for the sauce was wanting." " What sauce ?" says 
Dionysius. The answer was, — " Labour and exercise, hunger and thirst, 
these are the sauces ue Lacedemonians use," and they make the coarsest 
fare agreeable.— CxcEF.o, 3 Tnscul. 



INVITATIONS TO DINNER. 



In '' the AJfairs of the Mouth" the strictest punctuality 
is indispensable; — the Gastronomer ought to be 
as accurate an observer of Time, as the Astronomer. 
The least delay produces fatal and irreparable Mis- 
fortunes. 

Almost all other Ceremonies and Civil Duties may 
be put off for several hours without much incon- 
venience, and all, may be postponed without absolute 
Danger. — A little Delay, may try the patience of those 
who are waiting; but the act itself will be equally 
perfect and equally valid. — Procrastination sometimes 
is rather advantageous than prejudicial. It gives 
time for Reflection — and may prevent our taking a 
step which would have made us miserable for Life ; the 
delay of a Courier has prevented the conclusion of a 
Convention, the signing of which might have occasioned 
the niin of a Nation. 

If from Affairs the most important, we descend to 
our Pleasures and Amusements, we shall find new 
arguments in support of our assertions. The putting 
off of a Rendezvous, or a Ball, &c. will make them the 
more delightful. To hope, is to enjoy. 

" Man never is, but always to be blest." 

The anticipation of Pleasure warms our imagination, 



INVITATIONS TO DINNER. 39 

and keeps those feelings alive, which Possession too 
often extinguishes. 

" 'Tis Expectation only makes ns blest; 
" Enjoyment disappoints us at the best." 

Dr. Johnson has most sagaciously said : " Such is 
the state of Life, that none are Happy, hut by the antici- 
pation of Change : the Change itself is nothing; when 
we have made it, the next Wish, is immediately to 
change again." 

However singular our assertions may have at first 
appeared to those who have not considered the subject, 
we hope by this time v/e have made converts of our 
readers, and convinced the " Ajnateurs de Bonne Chere' 
of the truth and importance of our remarks ; and that 
they will remember, that Dinner is the only act of the 
day which cannot he put off with Impunity, for even five 

MINUTES. 

In a well regulated family, all the Clocks and Watches 
should agree ; on this depends the fate of the Dinner ; 
•what would be agreeable to the Stomach, and restorative to 
the System, if served at five o'clock, — will be uneatable 
and indigestible at a quarter past. 

The Dining room should be furnished with a good 
going Clock; — the space over the Kitchen fire-place 
with another, vibrating in unison with the former, so 
placed, that the Cook may keep one Eye on the Clock, 
and the other on the Spit, &c. She will calculate to a 
minute the time required to roast a large Capon or a 
little Lark, — and is equally attentive to the degree of 
heat of her Stove, and the time her Sauce remains on 



40 INVITATIONS TO DINNER. 

it — when to withdraw the Bakings from the oven, the 
Roast from the spit, and the Stew from the pan. 

With all our Love of punctuahty, the first considera- 
tion must still be, that the Dinner " he u-ell dune, uhcn 
'ris done.'' 

It is a common fault with Cooks uho are uver'aniious 
about Time — to overdress txcry thing — the Guests had 
better wait than the Dinner — a little delay will improve 
their Appetite*; — but if the Dinner waits for the 
Guests, it will be deteriorated every minute : — there- 
fore the Host who wishes to entertain his friends with 
food perfectly well dressed, must, while he most 
earnestly endeavours to impress on their minds the 
importance of being punctual to the appointed hour, — 
will still allow his Cook — her quarter of an hour's 
grace. 

The old Adage that " the Eye is often bigger than 
the Belly," is often verified by the ridiculous vanity of 
those, who wish to make an appearance above their 
fortune — nothing can be more ruinous of real comfort 



• " II y a trois sortes d'appeliis; celui que Ton eprouve :i jeun ; sensation 
imptricuse qui nc chicane point sur le met', et qui vous fait vciiir I'eau a la 
bouclie a I'aspect d'un bon ragout. Je le compare au dtsir impclueux (i'uii 
jeuuc homme qui voit sourirc la beante qu'il aime. — Le second appttii est 
celui que I'on ressent lorsquc, s'etant mis a table sans faim, on a deja goiite 
rt'un plat succulent, et qui a consacre Ic proverbe, I'apfctit lient en mangeant. 
Je rassimile ii IViat d'un inari dont le ccEur ticde s'eclnuffe aux premieres 
caresses de sa fenime. — Le troisicme appetit est celui qu'excile nn iiicls 
delicieux qui paraU a la fin d'un repas, lorsqne, I'estomac satisfait, I'liommc 
sobrc allait quiltcr la table sans regret. Celui-la trouve son cmbl^me dans 
Ics feux da libertinagc, qui quoique illusoires, font naitre cependaut quL-lques 
plaisirs reels. La connoissance de cette metaphysique de I'appetit doit 
guider le Cuisinier habile dans la composition du premier, du second, et du 
troisiime service."— C't>«r4 Gastrono7nique, p. 64. 



INVITATIONS TO DINNER. 41 

than the too common custom of setting out a table, 
with a parade and a profusion, unsuited not only to 
the circumstances of the Host, but to the number of the 
Guests : — or more fatal to true Hospitality, than the 
multiplicity of dishes which luxury has made fashion- 
able at the tables of the Great, the Wealthy — and 
the Ostentatious, — who are often, neither great nor 
wealthy. 

Such excessive preparation, instead of being a com- 
pliment to our Guests, is nothing better than an 
indirect offence; it is a tacit insinuation, that it is 
absolutely necessary to provide such delicacies — to 
bribe the depravity of their palates, when we desire the 
pleasure of their company — and that Society in Eng- 
land, ':iow, must be purchased, at the same price 
Swift told Pope, he was obliged to pay for it in 
Ireland — "I should hardly prevail to find one Visitor, 
if I were not able to hire him with a bottle of Wine." — 
Vide Swift's Letters !o Pope, July \Oth, 1732. 

When twice as much cooking is undertaken as there 
are Servants, or conveniencies in the Kitchen to do it 
properly — dishes must be dressed long before the 
dinner hour, and stand by spoiUng — the poor Cook 
loses her credit, and the poor guests get Indigestions — 
Why prepare for eight or ten Friends, more than 
sufficient for twenty or thirty Visitors ? '* Enough is as 
good as a Feast," and a prudent provider, who takes 
measure of the Appetites, instead of the Eyes of his 
Guests, may entertain his Friends, — three times as 
often, and ten times as well. 

It is vour SECOND COURSES — ridiculous variety of 



42 INVITATIONS TO DINNER. 

Wines, Liqueurs, Ices*, Desserts, Sec. — which are 
served up to feed the Eye — that overcome the Stomachy 
and paralyze Digestion, and seduce *' children of a 
larger Growth" to sacrifice the health and comfort of 
several days, — for the Baby-pleasure of tickling; their 
tongue for a few minutes, with Trifles and Custards!!! 
&c. &c. 

" Indigestion will sometimes overtake the most 
experienced Epicure ; — when the gustatory nerves are 
in good humour, Hunger and Savoury Viands will 
sometimes seduce the Tongue of a " Grand Gourmand^ 
to betray the interests of his Stomach, in spite of his 
Brains. 

*' On such an unfortunate occasion, when the Stomach 
sends forth eructantf signals of distress, for help, the 
Peristaltic Persuaders are as agreeable and effectual 
assistance as can be offered ; and for delicate Consti- 
tutions, and those that are impaired by Age or Intem- 
perance, are a valuable Panacea. 

** They derive, and deserve this name, from the 
peculiar mildness of their operation. One or two very 
gently increase the action of the principal viscera, help 
them to do their work a little faster, and enable the 
Stomach to serve with an ejectment whatever offends 
it, and move it into the Bowels. 



• Swilling cold Soda Water immediately after rating a hearty diuner, is 
another very unwholesome custom. 

t The Strong Peppermint, or Ginger Lozenges, made by Smith, Fell 
Street, Wood Street, Cheapside, are an excellent help for that flatulence with 
which some aged and Dyspeptic people are afflicted three or four hours after 
Dinner. 



INVITATIONS TO DINNER. 43 

*' Thus Indigestion is easily and speedily removed, — 
^;);?e^?7e restored, —(the mouths of the absorbing vessels 
being cleansed) Nutrition is facilitated, — and Strength 
of Body, and Energy of Mind, are the happy results." — 
See " Peptic Precepts," from which we extract the 
following prescription — 

To make Forty Peristaltic Persuaders, 
Take 

Turkey Rhubarb, finely pulverized, — two drachms. 
Syrup, (by weight) one drachm. 
Oil of Cairaway, ten drops (minims.) 
Made into Pills, each of which will contain Three 
Grains of Rhubarb. 

" The Dose of the Persuaders must be adapted 
to the constitutional pecuharity of the Patient — when 
you wish to accelerate or augment the Alvine Exonera- 
tion — take two — three — or more, according to the 
eflPect you desire to produce — Tzco Pills will do as 
much for one person, as Jiie or six will for another ; 
they will generally very regularly perform what you 
wish to-day, — without interfering with what you hope 
will happen to-morrow ; — and are therefore as con- 
venient an argument against Constipation as any we 
are acquainted with. 

*' The most convenient opportunity to introduce them to 
the Stomach, — is early in the morning, when it is unoc- 
cupied, and has no particular business of Digestion, 
&c. to attend to — i. e. at least half an hour before 
breakfast. Physic must never interrupt the Stomach, 
when it is engaged in digesting Food. 

" From two to four Persuaders, will generally produce 
one additional motion, within twelve hours. They 
may be taken at any time by the most delicate 



44 INVITATIONS TO DINNER. 

Females, whose constitutions are so often distressed 
by constipation — and destroyed by the drastic purga- 
tives they take to reheve it.'' 

The Cloth* should be laid in the Parlour, and all the 
paraphernalia of the dinner table completely arranged, 
at least an hour before dinner time. 

The Cook's labour will be lost, if the Parlour table 
be not ready for action, — and the Caters ready for the 
Eatables — which the least delay will irreparably 
injure: — therefore, the Gouumand will be punctual 
for the sake of gratifying bis ruling passion; — the 
Invalid, to avoid the danger of encountering an 
Indigestion from eating ill-dressed food ; and the 
Rational Ep'cure, who happily attends the Banquet 
with " mens sana in corpore sano," will keep the time not 
only for these strong reasons, but that he may not lose 
the advantage of being introduced to the other Guests. 
He considers not only what is on the Table, — but 
Who are around it; — his principal inducement to- 
leave his own Fire-side, is the charm of agreeable and 
instructive Society, and the opportunity of making 
connexions, which may augment the interest and enjoy- 
ment of existence. 

It is the most pleasing part of the Duty of the Master of 
the Feast, (especially when the Guests are not very 



• Le Grand Sommelier, or Chief Bltler, in former times was expected 
10 be especially accomplished in the Art of folding Table Linen— so as to 
lay his napkins in different forms every day — these transformations are 
particularly described in Rose's Instructions for the Otlicers of the Mouth, 
l682, p. Ill, &c. " To pleat a napkin in the form of a CockleShell Double." 
— " In the form of^Hen and Chickens" — " shape of two capons in a Pye"— 
or " like a Dog with a Collar about his Keck" — aud many others equally 
wliimsical. 



INVITATIONS TO DINNER. 46 

numerous,*) to take advantage of these moments to 
introduce them to one another, — naming them indivi- 
dually in an audible voice, — and adroitly laying hold 
of those ties of acquaintanceship or profession which 
may exist between them. 

This will much augment the pleasures of the Festive 
Board, — to which it is indeed as indispensable a 
Prelude, as an Overture to an Opera: and the Host 
will thus acquire an additional claim to the gratitude 
of his Guests. — We urge this point more strongly, 
because, from want of attention to it, — we have seen 
more than once, — persons whom many kindred ties 
would have drawn closely together, pass an entire day 
without opening their lips to each other, because they 
were mutually ignorant of each other's names, profes- 
sions, and pursuits. 

To put an end at once to all Ceremony as to the 
order in which the Guests are to sit, it will save much 
time and trouble if the Master of the House adopts the 
simple and elegant method of placing the name of each 
Guest in the plate which is intended for him. — This 
proceeding, will be of course the result of consideration, 
and the Host will place those together who he thinks 
will harmonize best. 

Le Journal des Dames informs us, that in several 
fashionable houses in Paris, a new arrangement has 
been introduced in placing the company at a Dinner 
table. 

'' The Ladies first take their places, leaving intervals 



• " Depuis long-temps le nonibre des Gi ices ou celni des Muses a regie les 
diners airaables; passe ce dernier nombre il n'y a plus ni intimite, ni conver- 
sation generale."— Co?<r* Gostronomique, p. 311. 



46 INVITATIONS TO DINNER. 

for the Gentlemen ; after being seated, each is desired 
to call on a gentleman to sit beside her; and thus the 
Lady of the House is relieved from all embarrassment 
of etiquette, as to rank and pretensions/' &c. 

But without doubt, says the Journalist, this method 
has its inconveniences. 

" It may happen that a bashful Beauty dare not name 
the object of her secret wishes, and an acute observer 
may determine, from a single glance, — that the elected, 
is not always the chosen." 

If the Party is large, the Founders of the Feast 
shoald sit in the middle of the Table, instead of at 
each end, — thus they will enjoy the pleasure of 
attending equally to all their Friends — and being in 
some degree relieved from the occupation of Carving — 
will have an opportunity of administering all those 
little attentions which contribute so much to the 
comfort of their Guests. 

If the GuRSTS have any respect for their Host, — or 
prefer a well-dressed dinner to one that is spoiled, — 
instead of coming ha/fan hour after, they will take care 
to make their appearance a quarter of an hour before the 
time appointed. 

The operations of the Cook are governed by the 
Clock, — the moment the Roasts, S^c. are ready, they 
must go to table, if they are to be eaten in perfection. 

An invitation to come at Five o'clock, seems to be 
generally understood to mean Six', Five precisely, 
half past Fixe; and not later than Five, (so that 
Dinner may be on the table within ten minutes after, 
•llowing this for the variation of watches,) Five 
o'clock exactly. 



INVITATIONS TO DINNER. 47 

Be it known to all Loyal Subjects of the Empire of 
Goodlking, that the Committee of Taste have 
unanimously resolved, " an Invitation to ETA. BETA. 
PI. 7nust he in Writing, and sent at least ten days before 
tlie Banquet — and must be answered in Writing, {as soon 
as possible after it is received) — within Twenty four hours 
at latest" — especially if it be not accepted — then, in 
addition to the usual complimentary expressions of 
thanks, &c. the best possible reasons must be assigned 
for the non-acceptance, as a particular pre-engagement, 
or severe indisposition, &c. 

Nothing can be more disobhging than a refusal 
which is not grounded on some very strong and un- 
avoidable cause, — except not coming at the appointed 
hour; — " according to the Laws of Conviviality, a cer- 
" tificate from a Sheriff's Officer, a Doctor, or an 
*' Undertaker, are the only Pleas which are admissible. 
" The duties which Invitation imposes, do not fall only 
" on the Persons invited, but like all other Social 
" duties, are reciprocal. 

•'As he who has accepted an Invitation cannot 
" disengage himself from it; the Master of the Feast 
" cannot put oft' the entertainment on any pretence 
" whatever. — Urgent Business,— Sickness, — not even 
" Death itself can dispense with the obligation which he 
" is under of giving the Entertainment for which he has 
" sent out invitations, which have been accepted; — for 
" in the extreme cases of compulsory Absence, or 
*' Death, his pkce may be filled by his Friend or 
" Executor." — Vide le Manuel des Amphitryons, 8vo. 
Paris, 1808, f/ Corns Gastronomique, 1809; — to which 
the reader is referred for further Instructions. 



48 INVITATIONS TO DINNER. 

It is the hast Punishment that a blundering Ill-Bred 
Booby can receive^ txho comes half an hour after the time he 
•ii;<is bidden, to Jind the Soup removed, and the Fish cold: 
moreover, for such an Oftence, let him also be mulcted 
in a pecuniary Penalty, to be applied to the fund for 
THE BENEFIT OF DECAYED COOKS. This is the least 
punishment that can be inflicted on one whose silence, 
or violation of an engag:ement, tends to paralyze an 
entertainment, and to draw his friend into useless 
expense. 

Box LEA u, the French satirist, has a shrewd obser- 
vation on this subject. " 1 have always been punctual 
" at the hour of Dinner," says the Bard, " for 1 knew, 
" that all those whom I kept waiting at that provoking 
" interval, would employ those unpleasant moments, 
" to sum up all my faults. — Boileau is indeed a man 
*< of Genius — a very honest man; — but that dilatory 
" and procrastinating way he has got into, would mar 
" the virtues of an Angel." 

There are some, who seldom keep an appointment; 
— we can assure tbem they as seldom " 'scape without 
whipping" — and exciting those murmurs which inevit- 
ably proceed from t'le best regulated Stomachs, — when 
they are empty and impatient to be filled. 

The most amiable Animals, when hungry, become 
Ill-tempered, — our best Fiiends employ the time they 
are kept waiting, in recollecting and repeating any real 
faults we have, — and attributing to us a thousand 
imaginary ones. 

Ill-Bred Beings, who indulge their own caprice, 
regardless how they wound the feelings of others, 
if they possess brilliant and useful talents, — may 



CARVING. 



49 



occasionally be endured as convenient Tools; — 
but deceive themselves sadly, if they possess all the 
Wisdom, and all the Wit in the World, — they fancy 
they can ever be esteemed as Friends. 

Manners make the Man. 

Good Manners have often made the Fortune of 
many, who have had nothing else to recommend them : 

III Manners have as often marred the hopes, of 
those who have had every thing else to advance them. 

These regulations may appear a little rigorous to 
those phlegmatic philosophers, 



I, past all pleasures, damn the joys of sense, 
1 rev'rend dulness, and grave impotence;" 



" Who. . 

" With rev'rend 



and are incapable of comprehending the Importance 
(especially when many are invited) of a truly hospitable 
Entertainment: but Genuine Connoisseurs in the Science 
of Good Cheer, will vote us Thanks for our endeavours 
to initiate well-disposed Amateurs, 

CARVING. 

Ceremony, does not in any thing, more commonly, 
and completely triumph over Comfort, than in the 
administration of " the Honours of the Table." 

Those who serve out the Loaves and Fishes, seldom 
seem to understand, that he is the best Carver — who 
fills the plates of the greatest number of Guests, in 
the least portion of time. 

To effect this,^// the Plates and send them round — 



50 CAR^I^■G. 

instead of asking' each Individual if they choose Soiij) 

— Fish, &c. or what particular part tliey prefer — for 
as they cannot all be Choosers — you will thus escape 
making any invidious distinctions. 

A dexterous Carver*, (especially if he be possessed 
with that determined enemy to Ceremony and Sauce, a 
keen appetite,) will help half a dozen people in half the 
time, one of your would be thought polite folks wastes 
in making civil faces, <&rc. to a single Guest. 

Jt uoitld save a great deal of Time, <^c. if Poultry, 
especially large Turkeys and Geese — were sent to 
table ready cut up. (No. 530*.) 

Fish that is fried, should !)e previously divided into 
such portions as are fit to liclp at table — see (No. 145.) 

A prudent Carver will cut fairt ; and observe an 
equitable distribution of the Dainties he is serving out 

— and regulate his helps, by the proportion which his 
dish bears to the number he has to divide it amongst, 

— taking into this reckoning, the quantum of Appetite 

— the several guests are presumed to possess. 

• In Days of Yore " I.e Grand Ecuyer Tranthant," or the Master 
Cah vtn, wastlie next Officer of the Mouth in rank tothe " Militred'Hutel," 
^nd the technical terms of his Art, were as singular as any of those >vliicli 
ornament " Grose's Classical Slang Dictionary," or" Ihe Gipsies Ciliberi^Ii :" 
the only one of these old phrases now in common u?c is, " cut up the 
TiKKET," — we are no longer desired to " disfigure a Peacock" — " unbrace 
a DncR" — " unlace a Conev" — " tame a Crab" — " tire an Euc" — and 
" spoil the Hen," &c. —See Instructions/or the Officers of the Mouth, by 
Rose, i68C. 

+ Those in the Parlour, should recollect the importance of setting a good 
example to their friends at the second table. — Tf they cut Bread, — Meat — 
Cheese— &c. fairly — it will go twice as far as if they hack and mangle it— 
a* if they had not half so much consideration for those in the Kitchen, as a 
■^)od Sportsman has for Lis Dogs. 



CARVING. Ol 

" Study their Genius, caprices, Gout — 

" They, in return, may haply study you : 

'* Some wish a Piuioo, some prefer a Leg, 

" Some for a IMerry-thought, or Sidesbone beg : — 

" The wings of Fowls, then slices of the round, — 

" The triiil of Woodcock, of Codfish the sound. 

" Let strict impartiality preside — 

" Nor freak, nor favour, nor affection guide." 

From the Banquet. 

The Guest who wislies to ensure a hearty welcome, 
and frequent invitation to the board of hospitaUty, 
may calculate that the '' easier he is pleased, the 
oftener he will be invited ;" instead of unblushingly de- 
manding of the fair Hostess that the prime " tit bit" of 
every dish be put on his plate — must receive, (if not 
with pleasure — or even content) with the liveliest ex- 
pressions of thankfulness whatever is presented to him, 

— and let him not forget to praise the Cook, and the 
same shall be reckoned unto him even as the praise of 
the Mistress, 

The Invalid or the EpicurCj when he dines out, to 
save trouble to his friends, may carry with him a port- 
able Magazine of Taste, (See No. 463.) 

" If he does not like his fare, he may console 
himself with the reflexion, that he need not expose his 
Mouth to the like mortification again ; — Mercy to the 
feelings of the Mistress of the Mansion, will forbid his 
then appearing otherwise than absolutely delighted with 
it, — notwithstanding it may be his extreme antipathy." 

" If he likes it ever so little, he will find occasion to 
congratulate himself on the advantage his digestive 
organs will derive from his making a moderate dinner, 

— and consolation from contemplating the double 
relish he is creating for the following meal, and antici- 

d2 



62 CARVING. 

pating the (to him) rare and delicious zest of (that best 
sauce) good appetite, and an unrestrained indulgence 
of his gormandizing fancies at the Chop-house he 
frequents." 

** Never intrust a Cook-Teaser with the important 
office of Carver, — or place him within reach of a 
Sauce-boat. These Chop-house Cormorants, who 

" Critique yonr wine, and analyze your meat, 
Yet on plain piulding deign at home to eat," 

are, generally, tremendously officious in serving out 
the loaves and fishes of other people, — for, under the 
notion of appearing exquisitely amiable — and killingly 
agreeable to the Guests — they are ever on the watch to 
distribute themselves — the dainties — which it is the 
peculiar part of the Master and Mistress to serve out, 
and is to them the most pleasant part of the business 
of the Banquet, — the pleasure of helping their friends 
is the gratification, which is their reward for the trouble 
Ihey have had in preparing the Feast: such Gentry are 
the terror of all good Housewives; — to obtain their 
favourite Cut — they will so unmercifully mangle your 
Joints, — that a dainty dog would hardly get a meal 
from them after, — which managed by the considerative 
hands of an old Housekeeper, would furnish a decent 
Dinner for a large Family." — Vide '■^Almanack cies 
Gourmands!' 

I once heard a gentle hint on this subject, given to a 
Blue-mould fancier, who by looking too long at a 
Stilton cheese, was at last completely overcome by his 
Eye exciting his Appetite, till it became quite un- 
governable and unconscious of every thing but the mity 



CARVING. 53 

object of his contemplation ; he began to pick out in 
no small portions, the primest parts his Eye could 
select from the centre of the Cheese. 

The good-natured Founder of the Feast, highly 
amused at the Ecstacies each morsel created in its 
passage over the palate of the enraptured Gourmand, 
thus encouraged the perseverance of his Guest — " Cut 
away, my dear sir, cut away, use no Ceremony, I pray : 
— I hope you will pick out all the best of my Cheese — 
THE RIND and the rotten will do very well for my Wife 
and Family ! /" 

Half the trouble o/" waiting at table may be sated, 
by giving each guest, two plates, two knives and forks, 
two pieces of bread, a spoon, a wine glass, and a tum- 
bler, and placing the Wines and Sauces, and the 
Magazine of Taste, 463, &c. as a Dormant, in the 
centre of the table ; one neighbour may then help 
another. 

Dinner tables are seldom sufficiently lighted, or 
attended — an active waiter will have enough to do, 
to attend upon half a dozen active Eaters — there should 
be half as many Candles as there are Guests — and 
their flame be about 18 inches above the table — our 
foolish modern pompous Candelabras, seem intended 
to illuminate the Ceiling, rather than to give light on 
the Plates, &c. 



FRIENDLY ADVICE TO COOKS*, 



AND OTUrR 

SERVANTS. 



\.B. Read Die pncodiiig Preface, &c. and " the Rj'dimevts oi 
COOKERY," before the following Addres?. 



On your first coining into a family, lose no time in 
immediately getting into the good oraces of vour 
fellow-servants, — that you may learn from them the 
customs of the Kitchen, and the various rules and 
orders of the House. 

Take care, to be on good terms with the servant who 
waits at table; — you may make use of him as your 
Sentinel to inform you how your work has pleased in 
the parlour, and by his report you may be enabled in 
some measure to rectify any mistake; — but re(|uest the 
favour of an interview with your Master or Mistress, — 
depend as little as possible, on seeond-hand opinions — judge 
of your Employers, from your own observations, and 
f/ieir behaviour to you, — not from any idle reports from 
tlie other Servants, who, if your Master or Mistress 
inadvertently drop a word in your praise — will innne- 



• A Chapter of Advice to Cooks, will, we hope, be found as useful as it is 
original : all we have on this subject in the works of our predccessurs, is ilii- 
following : " I shall strongly recommend to all Cooks of lither sex, tu keep 
their htomachs free from strong liquors till after Dinner, and their Noses 
irom snutt." — Fide Clermont's Professed Cook, p. 30, 8vo. London, 1776. 



FRIENDLY ADVICE TO COOKS. 55 

diately take alarm, and fearing your being more in 
favour than themselves, will seldom stick at trifles to 
prevent it, by pretending to take a prodigious liking 
to you, and poisoning your mind in such a manner as 
to destroy all your confidence, &c. in your Employers, 
and if they do not immediately succeed in worrying 
you away — will take care that you have no comfort 
while you stay. 

If you are a good Cook, — and have tolerably 
fair play, — you will soon become a favourite domestic 
— if your Master is a Man of Taste — but never boast 
of his approbation, for in proportion as they think you 
rise in his estimation — you will excite all the tricks, 
that Envy, Hatred, and Malice, and all Uncharitable- 
ness, can suggest to your fellow-servants; — every one 
of whom — if less diligent, — or less favoured than 
yourself — will be your Enemy. 

While we warn you against making others your 
Enemy — we must caution you also to take care that 
you do not Yourself become your own and greatest 
Enemy. — '•' Favourites are never in greater danger of 
falling, than when in the greatest favour" — which often 
begets a careless inattention to the commands of their 
employers, and insolent overbearance to their equals — 
a gradual neglect of duty — and a corresponding for- 
feiture of that regard — which can only be preserved 
by the means which created it. 

Jf your Employers are so pleased with your conduct 
as-to treat you as a friend rather than a servant — do 
not let their kindness excite your self-conceit, so as to 
make you for a moment forget you are one. Con- 



56 FRIENDLY ADVICE TO COOKS. 

descension even to a proverb produces Contempt — in 
inconsiderate minds — and to such the very means 
which Benevolence takes to cherish attention to duty, 
becomes the cause of the evil you wished to prevent. 

To be an agreeable Companion in the Kitchen, — 
without compromising your duty to your Patrons in the 
Parlour, — requires no small portion of good sense and 
good nature — in a word, you must *' do as you would he 
done by." 

Act for, — and speak of every body as if 
they were present. 

We hope the Culinary Student who peruses these 
pages, will be above adopting, the common, mean and 
base, and ever unsuccessful way of " holding with the 
Hare, and running with the Hounds," — of currying 
favour with fellow-servants — by flattering them, and 
ridiculing the Mistress when in the Kitchen, — and then 
prancing into the Parlour — and purring about her, 
and making opportunities, to display all the little 
faults you can find {or invent) that will tell well 
against those in the Kitchen — assuring them, on your 
return, — that they were praised^ — for whatever you 
heard them blamed, — and so, excite them to run more 
extremely into any little error — which you think will 
be most displeasing to their Employers — watching an 
opportunity to pour your poisonous lies into their 
unsuspecting ears, when there is no third person to 
bear witness of your Iniquity — making your Victims 
believe, it is all out of your sincere regard for them — 
assuring them (as Betty says in the Man of the World.) 
" That indeed you are no busybody that loves fending 



FRIENDLY ADVICE TO COOKS. 57 

Dor proving, but hate all tittling and tattling — and 
gossiping and back-biting," &c. &c. 

Depend upon it, if you hear your fellow-servants 
speak disrespectfully of a Master or Mistress with 
whom they have lived some time — it is a sure sign 
that they have some sinister scheme against yourself — 
if they have not been well treated, why have they 
stayed? 

" There is nothing more detestable than defamation, 
— I have no scruple to rank a Slanderer, with a 
Murderer or an Assassin. — Those who assault the 
reputation of their Benefactors — and ' rob you of 
that which nought enriches them' — would destroy 
your Life, if they could do it with equal impunity." 

*' If you hope to gain the respect and esteem of 
others, and the approbation of your own Heart — be 
respectful and faithful to your Superiors ; obhging and 
good natured to your fellow-servants — and charitable 
to all." 

*' Let your character be remarkable for Industry, 
and Moderation — your Manners and Deportment, for 
modesty and humility ; and your Dress distinguished 
for simplicity, frugality, and neatness, — if you outshine 
your companions in finery, you will most inevitably 
excite tiieir Envy, and make them your Enemies." 

" Do every thing at the proper time." 
'* Keep every thing in its proper place." 
" Use every thing for its proper purpose." 

*' Never think any part of your business too trifling 
to be well done." 

d5 



58 FRIENDLY ADVICE TO COOKS. 

" Ea2:erly embrace every opportunity, oflearning- any 
thing which may be useful to yourself— or of doing any 
thing which may benefit others." — Dallaway's 
SenanCs Monitor, 1815, p. 165, &zc. a work well wortii 
the perusal of Young Housekeepers. 

Do not throw yourself out of a good place for a slight 
affront. *' Come when you are called, and do what 
you are bid." 

Place yourself in your Master's situation, and then, 
consider, what you would expect from him, if he were 
in yours. 

Although there may be "■ more places than parish 
churches," it is not very easy to find many more good 
ones. — 

" A rolling stone never gathers moss.'' 

** Honesty is the best Policy." 

** A still tongue, makes a wise head." 

*' Saucy answers are highly aggravating— and answer 
no good purpose." 

Let your Master or Mistress scold ever so much, or 
])e ever so unreasonable; — as " a soft answer turneth 
away wrath" — " so will silence, or a mild answer, be 
the best a servant can make." 

" If your Employers are hasty, and have scolded 
without reason — bear it patiently — thev will soon s^ee 
their error, and be happy to make you amends — 
muttering on leaving the room — or slamming the 
<loor after you, is as bad as an impertinent reply — it is, 
in fact, showing that you would be impertinent if you 
dared" 



FRIENDLY ADVICE TO COOKS. 59 

** A faithful Servant, will not only never ^peak 
disrespectfully to her Employers — but will not hear 
disrespectful words said of them." — Trus leu's Do- 
inestic Management ^ p. 12, 17, &c. 

Apply direct to your Employers^ and beg of them to 
explain to you, as fully as possible, how they like their 
Victuals dressed, — whether much — or little done*. 

Of what complexion they wish the Roasts, of a gold 
colour, or well browned, and if they like them frothed ? 

Do they like Soups and Sauces, thick or thin, 
or white or brown, clean or full in the mouth? What 
accompaniments they are partial to? 

What Flavours they fancy? especially of Spice and 
Herbs. 

" Namqne coquns doraini debet habere gulam." — Martial. 

It is impossible that the most Accomplished Cook 
can please their palates, till she has learned their 
particular taste — this, it will hardly be expected, she 
can hit exactly the first time — however, the hints we 
have here given, and in the 7th and 8th Chapter of the 
Rudiments of Cookery, will very much facilitate the 
ascertainment of this Main Chance of getting into their/ 
favour. 

Be extremely cautious of Seasoning High, — leave it to 
the Eaters, to add the piquante condiments, according 
to their own palate and fancy : for this purpose, 
" The MAGAZi'isrE of Taste," or " Sauce-box'','' (No. 
463.) will be found an invaluable acquisition — its 



* Meat that is not to be cut till it is Cold, mist be thorouglily done, 
especially ia summer. 



60 FRIENDLY ADVICE TO COOKS. 

contents will, instantaneously, produce any flavour that 
may be desired. 

" De gustibus non est disputandnin." 

Tastes are as different as Faces, — and without a 
most attentive observation of the directions g:iven by her 
Employers, the most experienced Cook will never be 
esteemed a sagacious Palatician. 

It will not go far to pacify the rage of a ravenous 
Gourmand^ who likes his Chops broiled brown (and 
done enough, so that they can appear at table decently, 
and not blush when they are cut,) to be told that some 
of the Customers at Dolly's Chop house choose to have 
them only half-done, and that this is the best way of 
eating them. 

We all think that is the best "way^ which JVe relish 
best, and which agrees best with our Stomach : — in 
this. Reason and Fashion — all powerful as they are 
on most occasions, — yield, to the imperative caprice of 
the Palate. 

Chacun a son Gout. 

" The Irishman loves Usquebaugh, the Scot loves Ale cali'd Blue-Cap,— 
" The Welchman, he loves Toasted Cheese, and makes liis mouih like a 
Monsc-trap." 

Our Italian neighbours regale themselves with 
Macaroni and Parmesan, and eat some things, which 
we call Carrion. — Vide Ray's Travels, p. 362 and 406. 

Whilst the Englishman boasts of his Roast Beef, 
Plum Pudding and Porter — 

The Frenchman feeds on his favourite Frog and 
Soupemaigre — 



FRIENDLY ADVICE TO COOKS. 61 

The Tartar feasts on Horse-Jlesh — 

The Chinaman on Dogs — 

The Greenlander preys on Garbage and Train 
Oil — and each " blesses his Stars and thinks it 
Luxury." — What at one time or place, is considered as 
beautiful, fragrant, and savoury, at another — is 
regarded as deformed and disgustful*. 

*' Ask a Toad what is Beauty, the supremely 
beautiful, the TO KALON ! He will tell you, it is my 
Wifcy — with two large eyes projecting out of her little 
head, a broad and flat neck, yellow belly, and dark 
brown Back. — With a Guinea Negro, it is a greasy 
black skin, hollow eyes and a flat nose. — Put the 
question to the Devil, and he will tell you, that 
Beauty is a pair of -Horns, four Claws, and a Tail." — 
Voltaire's Fliilos. Diet. 8vo. p. 32. 

Assafxtida was called by the Ancients, " Food for 
the Gods." The Persians, Indians, and other 
Eastern people, now eat it in Sauces, and call it by 
that name: — the Germans call ic " Dexil's Dung" — 
Vide PoMET on Drugs. 

Garlick, and Clove, or Allspice, combined in certain 
proportions, produce a flavour very similar to Assa- 
foetida. 

The organ of Taste is more rarely found in perfec- 
tion, and is sooner spoiled by the operations of Time, 
excessive use, &c. than either of our other senses. 

There are as various degrees of sensibility of Palate, 
as there are of gradations of perfection in the Eyes and 



* See Chapter xv. " Chaque Pays, chaqiie Coutiime."~Cours Castrono- 
mique, 8vo. I8O9, p. l62. 



62 FRIENDLY ADVICE TO COOKS. 

Ears of Painters and Musicians: — after all the pains 
which the Editor has taken to explain the Harmony ol 
subtle relishes, — without nature has given the Orgart of 
Taste in a due degree, this book will, alas ! no more make 
an OsBORN * — than it can a Reynolds — or an Arne. 

Where nature has been most bountiful of this 
faculty, its sensibility is so easily blunted, — by a 
variety of unavoidable circumstances, — that the 
Tong-ue, is very seldom, in the highest condition for 
appreciating delicate flavours, or accurately estimating, 
the relative force, of the various materials, the Cook 
employs in the composition of an harmonious relish; — 
Cooks express this refinement of Combination by 
saying, a well finished Ragout *' tastes of every thing, 
and tastes of nothing:" (this is " kitchen gibberish," for 
a Sauce in whicli the component parts arc,' well 
proportioned). 

However delicately sensitive nature may have 
formed the or;jans of Taste, — it is only during those 
few happy moments, — that they are perfectly awake, 
nnd in p-rfect good humour — (alas! how very seldom 
they are) that the most accomplished and experienced 
Cook, lias a chance, of working with any degree of 
certainty, witp.out the auxiliary tests of the balance 
and the measure : — by the help of these, when you are 
once right, it is your own fault if yow arc ever 
otherwise. 

The sense of Taste, depends much on the health of 
the Individual, and is hardly ever for a single hour, in 



• Coek to Sir Jusepu Banks, Bart., late Prcsi(K'n! of ilie liojal Society. 



FRIENDLY ADVICE TO COOKS. 63 

the same state, — - such is the extremely intimate 
sympathy, between the Stomach and the TongMie, that 
in proportion as the former is Empty*, the latter is 
acute and sensitive : — this is the cause that " good 
Appetite is the best Sauce" — and that the dish we find 
relishing and savoury at Luncheon, — is insipid at 
Dinner, — and at Supper quite tasteless. 

To taste any thing in perfection, the Tongue must be 
moistened, or the substance applied to it contain 
moisture — the nervous papilla which constitute this 
sense are roused to still more lively sensibility by Salt 
— Sugar — Aromatics, &c. 

If the Palate becomes dull by repeated tasting, one 
of the best ways of refreshing it — is to masticate an 
Apple, or to wash your mouth well with JMilk. See 
p. 19. 

The incessant Exercise of Tasting, which a Cook is 
obliged to submit to during the Education of her 
Tongue, — frequently impairs the very faculty she is 
trying to improve. " 'Tis true —'tis pity — and pity 
'tis," (says a grand Gourmand,) " 'tis true, — her too 
anxious perseverance to penetrate the mysteries of 
Palatics, may diminish the tact, exhaust the power and 
destroy the Index Vvithout which all her labour is in 
vain." 

* " Son Diner sera tonjours une pi^ce en trois actes, ou la gradation des 
saveuis suivra celle qu' Aristote present pour I'interet I lientral. 

" II faut preparer avec art les jonissances du gourmand; Le Premier 
service doit ttre doiix et feu epici ; c'est I'acte d'exposition : T.e Second — 
plus iiiteressant, plus releve : Le Troisieme, appeler ensuite a son secours le 
Sucre et I'atnbrosie, s'armer des brulaiis aroniates, des spiritueux volaliles, ft 
<emp^rer de tpmps en temps leur energie par la fraicliPur des fniiti 
savouienx." — Court Gastronomique, p. 67 and 312. 



64 FRIENDLY ADVICE TO COOKS. 

Therefore, a sagacious Cook, instead of idly and 
wantonly wasting the excitability of her Palate — on 
the sensibility of which, her reputation and fortune 
depends, when she lias ascertained the relative 
strength of the flavour of the various ingredients she 
employs, will call in the Balance and the Measure, to 
do the ordinary business, and endeavour to preserve 
her Organ of Taste, with the utmost care, that it may 
be a faithful Oracle, to refer to, on Grand occasions, 
and new Compositions*, — of these an ingenious Cook 
may form as endless a variety, as a Musician with his 
seven notes, or a Painter with his colours: — read 
chapters 7 and 8 of the Rudiments of Cookery. 



• " The diversities of Tasti- are so many arn' so considerable, that it seeraeth 
strange to see the matter treated of, both by Philosophers and I'hysicians with 
so much scantiness and delect: for the tubject is not barren, but yieldeth 
mnch a';d pleasant variety, and doth also appear to be^ of great importance." 
— Fiom Dr. Crew's Anatomy of Plants, fol. 1682, p. 286. The Dr. 
enumerates sixteen ^ilnple tastes: however, it is ditficult to define more than 
fix. — Is-t. Bitter as Wormwood. 2d. Sweet as Sugar. 3d. Sour as Vinegar. 
4th. Salt as Brine. 5th. Cold as Ice. 6th. Hot as Brandy. Compound 
lastcs, inuuiiierable, may be foimed by the conibiaatioD of these simple tastes 
— as words are of letters." 

" Si I'association de certaiiies couleors plaisent ^ I'oeil, tandis que d'autres 
choqueiit la vue, <le meme ceitaiues saveurs mariees ensemble flatlent le goGt, 
tandis que d'autres repugnent au palais : ainsi le jaune et le violet, le vert 
avec le rose font un elfet agreable; le bleu perd sa nuance quand il est mis 
sur du vert: ainsi le sucre s'aliie ires-bien avec Ics alimens doux, acides on 
amers; mais il ne peut s'ascocier avec les substances salees : on doit done 
etudier ces convenances. Je vais plus loin ; il faut savoir que dans la bonche, 
les organes du gout, disiribues sur diHerens points, ne sont pas tous afl'ecies 
par les meuies saveurs. Le pimeut, par exemple, piq te principalement les 
bords lateraux de la langue ; la canelle slitnule specialement le bout de ce 
meme muscle; le poivre fait sentir son ardeur sur le milieu, les amers dans 
Je fond de la bouche, les spiritueux au palais, et sur les joues ; il est meme 
des substances qui ne sont sapides que dans le gosier, et d'autres d::ns 
I'esloinar." — Cours Gastronomique, p. Q5. 



FRIENDLY ADVICE TO COOKS. 65 

Receive as the highest testimonies of your Employer's 
regard, whatever observations they may make on your 
work — such admonitions are the most vnequiiocal 
proofs, of their desire to make you thoroughly under- 
stand their taste — and their wish to retain you in 
their service — or they would not take the trouble to 
teach you. 

Enter into all their plans of Economy*, and endeavour 
to make the most of every thing, as well for your own 
honour as your master's profit — take care that the 
Meat which is to make its appearance again in the 
Parlour, is handsomely cut with a sharp knife — and 
put on a clean dish — take care of the Gravy, see 
(No. 326,) which is left, it will save many pounds of 
Meat in making sauce for Hashes, Poult ry, and many 
little dishes. 

Many things may be re-dressed, in a different form, 
from that in which they were first served, and improve 
the appearance of the table without increasing the 
expense of it. 

Cold Fish,— Soles— Cod— Whitings— Smelts, &c. 
may be cut into bits, and put into Escallop Shells — 
with cold Oyster, Lobster, or Shrimp Sauce, and 
bread crumbled and put into \ Dutch Oven, and 
browned like scalloped Oysters. (No. 182.) 

The best way To warm cold Meat is to sprinkle 
the joint over with a little salt, put in a Dutch Oven, 
at some distance before a gentle fire, that it may warm 



» "I am persuaded that no Servant ever saved her Master sixpence, but she 
found it in the end in her own pocket." — Tkusler's Domestic Manage- 
ment, p. 11. 



66 FRIENDLY ADVICE TO COOKS. 

gradually — watch it carefully, and keep turning it till 
it is quite hot and brown ; it will take from twenty 
minutes to three quarters of an hour, according to its 
thickness— serve it up with Gravy; — this is much better 
than Hashing it, and by doing it nicely, a Cook will get 
great credit. Poultry, (No. 530*.); Fried Fish, 
(See No. 145.) &c. may be re dressed in this way. 

Take care of the Liquor you have boiled Poultry or 
Meat in : in five minutes you make it into excellent 
So IP — see Ohs. to (No. 555.) and 229, No. 5, and the 
7th chapter of the Rudiments of Cookery. 

No good Housewife has any pretensions to Rational 
Economy who boils Animal food without converting 
the Broth into some sort of Soup. 

However highly the uninitiated in the Mystery of Soup 
making — may elevate the external appendage of his 
Olfactory Organ at the mention of " Pot Liquor," if 
he tastes (No. 5, or 218, 555, &c.), he will be as well 
pleased with it, as a Frenchman is with " I'otage a la 
Camerani," of which it is said " a single spoonful will 
lap the Palate in Elysium, — and while a drop of it 
remains on the Tongue, each other sense is eclipsed 
by the voluptuous thrilling of the Lingual nerves ! !" 

Broth of Fragments. — When you dress a large 
Dinner, you may make good Broth, or Portable Soup, 
(No. 252.) at vert/ amall cost, by taking care of all the 
trimmings and parings of the meat, game, and poultry 
you are going to use ; wash them well, and put them 
into a stewpari, with as much cold water as will cover 
them ; set your stewpan on a hot fire ; when it boils, 
take "off all the scum, and set it on ag:ain to simmer 



FRIENDLY ADVICE TO COOKS. 67 

gently; put in two carrots, two turnips, a large onion, 
three blades of pounded mace, and a head of celery ; 
some mushroom parings will be a great addition. Let 
it continue to simmer gently four or five hours, strain 
it through a sieve into a clean basin. This will save a 
great deal of expense in buying Gravy Meat. 

Have the Dust, &c. removed regularly once in a 
fortnight, — and have your Kitchen Chimney swept 
once a month ; — many good Dinners have been 
spoiled and many houses burnt down by the soot 
falling — the best security against this, is for the Cook 
to have a long birch broom, and every morning brush 
down all the soot within reach of it. — Give notice to 
your employers when the contents of your Coal 
Cellar are diininished to a chaldron. 

It will be to little purpose to procure good Provi- 
vions, — v/ithout you have proper Utensils* to prepare 
them in : the most expert Artist cannot perform his 
work in a perfect manner without proper instruments ; 
— you cannot have neat work — without nice tools, nor 
can you dress Victuals well — without an apparatus 
appropriate to the work required. See 1st page of 
Chapter Vil. of the Rudiments of Cookery. 

In those houses where the Cook enjoys the confi- 
dence of her employer so much as to be intrusted with 
the care of the store-room, which is not very common^ 
she unli keep an exact account of every thing as it comes in, 
and insist upon the weight and price being fixed to every 



* " A Surgeon may as well attempt to make an incision with a pair of 
Sheers, or open a vein with an Oyster-Knife, as a Cook pretend to dress a 
Dinner wiihotit proper Tools." — Verrall's Cookery, 8vo. 1759, p. vi. 



68 FRIExNDLY ADVICE TO COOKS. 

article she purchases — and occasionally — will (and it 
may not be amiss, to jocosely drop a hint to those who 
supply them — that she does) re^ueigh them, for her 
own satisfaction, as well as that of her employer, and 
will not trust the key of this room to any one ; she will 
also keep an account of every thing she takes from it, 
and manage with as much consideration and frugality 
as if it was her own property she was using, endea- 
vouring to disprove the adage, that " plenty makes 
Waste," and remembering that '• wilful waste makes 
woefal want." 

The honesty of a Cook must be above all suspicion : 
she must obtain, and, {in spite of the nujubcrkss Tempta- 
tions, S^'C. that daily ofer to bend her from it,) preserve 
a character of spotless Integrity, and useful Industry*, 
remembering that it is the fair price of In depen de:n ce, 
which all wish for, but none without it can hope for; 
onli/ a Fool or a Madman will be so silly or so crazy, as to 
expect to reap, where he has been too idle to sow. 



• Many Cooks miss excellent opportui.itics of making ihemselves inde- 
pendent, — by their Idlene?s,— in lefiising any place, however profitable, &c. 
if there is not a Kitchen Maid kept to wait upon ihem. 

There are maiiy Invaliils wlio require a good Cook, and as (after reading 
tliis Book they will understand how much) their comfort and effective 
existence depends on their food being properly prepared, will willingly pay 
handsome wages — (who would not rather pay the Cook than the Doctor?) — 
bat have so little work in the Kitchen — that one person may do it all with 
the utmost ease, wiihout injury t<» their health, — which is not the case in a 
large family, where the poor Cook is roasting and stewing all day — and is 
often deprived of her rest at night. No artists have greater need to " make 
Hay while the Sun shines," and timely provide for the infirmities of Age. 

It is melancholy to fm^l, that according to the authority of a certain gicat 
French author — " Cooks, half stewed, and half roasted, when unable to work 
any longer, generally retire to some unknown corner, and die in forlornness 
and want." — Blackwood's Edhib. Mag. vol. vii. p. 668. 



FRIENDLY ADVICE TO COOKS. 69 

Very few modern built Town houses have a proper 
place to preserve provisions in — the best substitute, is 
a Hanging-safe, which you may contrive to suspend 
in an airy situation, and when you order Meat, 
Poultry, or Fish, tell the Tradesman when you intend 
to dress it, — he will then have it in his power to serve 
you with provision that will do him credit, which the 
finest Meat, &c. in the world, will never do, unless it 
has been kept a proper time to be ripe and tender. 

If you have a well-ventiiated Larder, in a shady, 
dry situation, you may make still surer, by ordering in 
your Meat and Poultry, such a time before you want 
it as will render it tender, which the finest meat cannot 
be, unless hung a proper time ; (see 2d Chapter of the 
Rudiments of Cookery ;) according to the season, and 
nature of the meat, &c., but always as " les bons 
hommes de bouche de France,'' say, till it is '* assez 
mortifiee." 

Permitting this process to proceed to a certain 
degree, renders Meat much more easy of solution in 
the Stomach, and /or those whose digestive faculties are 
delicate, it is of the ufniost importance, that it be attended to 
with the greatest nicety, — for the most consummate skill 
in the Culinary preparation of it, will not compensate 
the want of attention to this. Read Obs. to No. 68. 
Meat that is thoroughly Roasted, or Boiled, eats much 
shorter and tenderer, and is in proportion more 
digestible, than that which is under done. 

You will be enabled to manage much better, if your 
Employers will make out a Bill of Fare for the 



70 FRIENDLY ADVICE TO COOK1?. 

AVeek, oa the Saturday before — for example for a 
Family of half a dozen — 

Sundai/ Roast Beef (No. ig.)* and My Pudding (No. 551.) 

Mondinj ....Fowl (Nos. l6, 58.) Do. boiled. 

Tuesday ....Calf Head (No. 10.) Apple Pic. 

Wed ncsda I/.. Leg of Mutton (No. 1.), oi (No. 23.) 

Thursday ..Do. broiled or hashed (No. 487.), or (No. 484.), Pan Cakus. 

Friday Fish (No. 145.). Pudding (No. 554.) 

Saturday ..Fish, or Eggs and Bacon (No. 545.) 

It is an excellent plan to have certain things on certain 
days — When your Butcher or Poulterer knows v.'hat you 
will want, he has a better chance of doing his best for 
you: and never think of ordering Beef for Roasting 
— except for Sunday. 

H'hen the IVcather or Season* is lery unj'axourahle for 
keeping Meat, SfC. — give him the choice of sending that 
which is in the best order for dressing — i. e. either Ribs 
or Sir-Loin of Beef — or Leg — Loin — or Neck of 
Mutton, &c. 

Meat in which you can detect the slightest trace of 
putrcscency, has reached its highest degree of tender- 
ness, and should be dressed without delay ; but before 



• " The Season of the year has considerable influence on the quality of 
£utchcr meat — depending upon the more or less plentiful supply of Food, 
upon the periodical change whicli takes place in the body of the Animal, and 
upon temperature. The flesh of most full grown Quadrupeds is in highest 
seaaoii during the first months of Winter, after having enjoyed (he advantage 
of the abundance of fresh summer food. lis flavour then begins to be injured 
by the turnips, &c. given as winter food, and in Spring it gets lean fioni 
deficiency of food. Although Beef and Mutton are never absolutely out of 
seiison, or not fit for the table, they are best in November, December, and 
.l.muary. Pork is absolutely bad, except during the Winter." — Sufpler.ient 
to the Edinburgh Ency. Brit. p. 3C8. 



FRIENDLY ADVICE TO COOKS. 71 

this period, which in some kinds of meat is offensive, 
the due degree of inteneration may be ascertained, by 
its yielding readily to the pressure of the finger, and by 
its opposing little resistance to an attempt to bind the 
joint. 

Although we strongly recommend that Animal Food 
should be hung up in the open air, till its fibres have 
lost some degree of their toughness — yet, let us be 
clearly understood, also to warn you — that if kept till 
it loses its natural sweetness — it is as detrimental to 
Health, as it is disagreeable to the Smell and Taste. 

In very cold weather — bring your Meat, 
Poultry, &c. into the kitchen, early in the mornino- — 
if you roast — boil — or stew it ever so gently and 
ever so long — if it he frozen — it will continue touo-h 
and unchewable. 

Without very watchful attention to this, the most 
skilful Cook in the world will get no credit, be she ever 
so careful in the management of her Spit or her 
Stewpan. 

The time Meat should hang to be tender — depends on 
the heat and humidity of the air : if it is not kept 
long enough, it is hard and tough ; — if too long, it 
loses its flavour : — it should be hung where it will 
have a thorough air, and be dried with a cloth night 
and morning, to keep it from damp and raustiness. 

Before you dress it, wash it well, — if it is roasting 
Beef, pare off the outside. 

If you fear Meat% &c. will not keep till the time it 



Larbers, Pantries and Safes— must be sheltered from the Suu, and 



72 FRIENDLY ADVICE TO COOKS. 

is wanted, — par-ro:ist or par-ho'i\ it, — it will then keep 
a couple of days longer, when it may be dressed in 
the usual way, only it will be done in rather less. 
time. 

The Cook and the Butcher as often lose their 
credit, by Meat being dressed too fresh, as the Fish- 
monger does by fish that has been kept too long. 

Dr. Franklin in his philosophical experiments tells 
us, that if Game or Poultry be killed by Electricity 
it will become tender in the twinkling of an eye, and if 
it be dressed immediately, will be delicately tender. 

During the su/try summer months, it is almost 
impossible to procure meat that is not either tough — 
or tainted — the former, is as improper as the latter for 
the unbraced stomachs of relaxed Valetudinarians — 
for whom, at this season. Poultry — Stews, &c., and 
Vegetable Soups, are the most suitable food — when 
the digestive organs are debilitated by the extreme 
heat — and profuse perspiration requires an increase 
of liquid to restore equilibrium in the constitution. 

I have taken much nturc pains than aity of my predeces- 
sors, to teach the young Cook how to perform, in the best 
manner, the common business of her profession; — being 
well grounded in the RUDIMENTS of COOKERY, 

olhtrwise removed from the heat, be dry, and if possible have a current of 
dry, cool air continually passing through them. 

"The freezing temperature, i. e. 32 degrees of Fahrenheit, is a perfect 
preservative from putrefaction — warm moist muggy weather is the worst for 
keeping meat. — The south \^ind is especially unfavourable, and lightning 
is quickly destructive; but the greatest Enemy you have to encounter, 
is the IKsh-lly, which becomes troublesome about the month of May, and 
continues so till towards Michaelmas." — For further Obs. on this subject* 
See " The Experienced Butcher," p. l6(). 



FRIENDLY ADVICE TO COOKS. 73 

she will be able to execute the orders that are given 
her, with ease to herself, and satisfaction to her 
Employers, and send up a delicious dinner, with half 
the usual Expense and Trouble. 

I have endeavoured to lessen the labour, of those 
who wish to be thoroughly acquainted with their 
profession ; and an attentive perusal of the following 
pages, will save them much of the irksome drudgery, 
attending an apprenticeship at the Stove; — an ordeal 
so severe, that few pass it without irreparable injury 
to their Health*; and many lose their lives, before 
they learn their business. 

To encourage the best performance of the machinery 
of Mastication, the Cook must take care that her 
Dinner is not only well cooked — but that each dish 
be sent to table, with its proper accompaniments — in 
the neatest, and most elegant manner. 

Remember, to excite the good opinion of the Eye, 
is the first step towards awakening the Appetite. 

Decoration is much more rationally employed, in 
rendering a plain wholesome nutritious dish inviting, 
than in the elaborate embellishments which are 
crowded about Trifles and Custards. 

Endeavour to avoid orer-dressing Roasts and Boils, 
&c. and orer-seasoning Soups and Sauces with Salt, 
Pepper, &c. — it is a fault which cannot be mended. 

* " Bny it with health, strength, and reiolution. 
And pay for it, a robust constitutiou." 

Preface to the Ctwk's Cookery, 1758, 
See the preface to " The Cook's Cookery," page 9. This work, which is very 
scarce, was, we believe, written to develope the mistakes in what He calls 
" the Thousand Errors," L e. " The Lady's Cookery," i. e. Mrs. Glasse's, i. e. 
Sir John Hill's. 



/4 FRIENDLY ADVICE TO COOKS. 

If your Roasts, &c. are a little tnider-done; with the 
assistance of the Stevvpan, — the Gridiron, — or the 
Dutch Oven, you may soon rectify the mistake made, 
— with the Spit or the Pot. 

If oiTr-done, the best juices of the Meat are evapo- 
rated, — it will serve merely to distend the Stomach, 
and if the sensation of Huufrer be removed, it is at the 
price of an Indigestion. 

The chief business of Cookery, is to render food 
easy of Digestion — and to facilitate Nutrition. This 
is most completely accomplished by Plain Cookery in 
perfection— i. e. neither over nor vnder-ilione. 

With all your care, you will not get much credit by 
Cooking to perfection, if more than One Dish goes to 
table at a time. 

To l)e eaten in perfection, the interval between Meat 
being taken out of the Stevvpan, and its being put into 
the Mouth, must be as short as possible : — but Cere- 
mony, that most formidable enemy to good Cheer, too 
often decrees it otherwise, and the Guests seldom get 
a bit of an " Entrcmtt' till it is half cold. (See 
No. 485.) 

So much time is often lost in placing every thing in 
Apple-pie order, — that long before Dinner is an- 
nounced, all becomes lukewarm, — and to complete 
the mortification of the grand Gourmand, his meat is 
put on a sheet of Ice in the shape of a Plate, which 
instantly converts the Gravy into Jelly, and the Fat 
into a something which puzzles his teeth and the roof 
of his mouth as much as if he had Birdlime to masti- 
cate : — a complete Meat Skreen will answer the pur- 
pose of a Hot closet Plate uarmer, &c, — r See Index. 



FRIENDLY ADVICE TO COOKS. 75 

It will save you infinite trouble and anxiety, if you 
can prevail on your employers to use the '* sauce-eox," 
No. 463, hereinafter described in the chapter of Sauces. 
With the help of this " Magazine of Taste/' every 
one in company may flavour their Soup and Sauce, and 
adjust the vibrations of their Palate, exactly to their 
own fancy : — but if the Cook give a decidedly predo- 
minant, and pi(jiianie gout to a dish, to tickle the 
Tongue of two or three visitors, whose taste she knows, 
— she may thereby make the Dinner disgusting to all 
the other guests. 

Never i/nderfake more work than you are quite cer- 
tain you can do uell ; — if you are ordered to pre- 
pare a larger Dinner than you think you can send 
up with ease and neatness, — or to dress any dish 
that you are not acquainted with, rather than run any 
risk of spoiling any thing — (by one fault. You may 
perhaps lose all your credit) — request your em- 
ployers to let you have some help. — They may acquit 
you for pleading guilty of inability — but if you 
make an attempt, and fail, will vote it a capital 
<3fFence. 

Do not trust any part of your work to others "without 
carefully overlooking them ; whatever faults they com- 
mit, You will be censured for — if you have forgotten 
any article which is indispensable for the day's dinner, 
request your employers to send one of the other 
servants for it. — The Cook must never quit her Post, 
till her work is entirely finished. 

It requires the utmost skill and contrivance to have 
all things done as they should be, and all done to- 
E 2 



76 FRIENDLY ADVICE TO COOKS. 

gether — at that critical momoit when the Dinner Bell 
sounds — " to the Banquet." 

" A feast must be without a fault ; 
And if, 'tis uot all ritrlit, 'tis naueht." 

But 

" Good natare will some failings overlook, 
Forgive mischance, not errors of the Cook; 
As, if no salt is thrown about the tlisii, 
Or nice crisp'd parsley scattei-'d on the fish ; 
Shall we in Passion from our Dinner fly. 
And hopes of pardon to the Cook deny, 
For things which Mrs. Glasse herself might oversee. 
And all mankind commit as well as she?" 

\'ide King's Art of Cooker v- 

Such is the endless variety of Culinary preparations, 
it would be as vain and fruitless a search, as that for 
the Philosopher's Stone, to expect to find a Cook who 
is quite perfect in all the operations of the Spit, — the 
Stevvpan, — and the Rolling Pin; — you will as soon 
find a Watchmaker who can make, put together, and 
regulate every part of a Watch. 

" The universe cannot produce that Cook who 
knows how to do every branch of Cookery well, be his 
Genius as great as possible." — Vide the Cook's Cooker]/, 
8vo. page 40. 

The best rule for marketing, is to pa?/ ready 
MONEY for every thing, and to deal uith the moat 
respectable Tradesmen in your neighbourhood. 

If you leave it to their integrity to supply you with 
a good article, at the fair market price, — I have, from 
my own experience, — every reason to believe, you wiW 
be supplied with better Provisions, and at as reasonable 
a rate, as those Bar gain- Hunters, who trot " around 
around around about " a market till they are trapped to 



1?R1ENDLY ADVICE TO COOKS. 77 

buy some vnchewahte old Poultry — tough Tup-Mutton — - 
stringy Cow-Beef — or stale unseasonable Fish* — at a 
very little less than the price of prime and proper 
food: — with savings like these, they toddle home in 
triumph, cackling; all the way, like a Goose, that has 
got ankle deep into good luck. 

All the skill of the most accomplished Cook will 
avail nothino-, unless she is furnished with prime 
PROVISIONS. The best way to procure these is to deal 
with shops of established character; — you may pay, 
perhaps. Ten per Cent more than you would were you 
to deal with those who pretend to sell cheap — but you 
will be more than in proportion better served. 

Every Trade has its tricks and deceptions, — those 
who follow them can deceive you if they please, — and 
they are too apt to do so, if you provoke the exercise 
of their over-reaching talent f. 

Challenge them to a game at " Catch who Can,^' by 
entirely relying on your own judgment: and you will 
soon find nothing but very long experience can make 
you equal to the combat of marketing to the utmost 
advantage. 

• See the Marketing Tables at the end of the Work. 

t " He who will not be cheated a little, — must be content to he abused 
a great deal; the first lesson in the art of comfortable Economy, is to learn 
to submit cheerfully to small impositions,— if you do not, you will continually 
be in hot water. 

" If you think a tradesman has imposed upon you, never use a second word, 
if the first will not do— nor drop the least hint of an imposition :— the only 
method to induce him to make an abatement, is the hope of future favours, — 
pay the demand — and deal with the Gentleman no more; — but do not let him 
see that you are displeased, or as soon as you are out of sight, — your Repji- 
tation will suffer as much as your Pocket has."— Trusler's Way to be Rich, 
Svo. 1776. p. 85. 



78 FRIENDLY ADVICE TO COOKS, 

Before you go to Market, look over your Larder, and 
consider well what things are wanting — especially on 
a Saturday. No well-regulated family can suffer a 
disorderly Caterer, to be jumping in and out to the 
Chandler's Shop on a Sunday morning. 

Give your directions to your assistants, and begin 
your Business early in the Morning, or it will be 
impossible to have the Dinner ready at the time it is 
ordered. 

To be half an hour after the time, is such a frequent 
fault, that there is the more merit in being ready at the 
appointed hour. This is a difficult task, and in the 
best regulated family you can only be sure of your 
time by proper arrangements. 

With all our love of punctuality, we must not forget 
that the first consideration must still be, that the 
Dinner '* be well done when 'tis done." — If any accident 
occurs, which is likely to prevent your sending the 
Soup, &c. to table at the moment it is expected, send 
up a message to your employers, stating the circum- 
stance, and bespeak their patience for as many minutes 
as you think you shall want to be ready. — This is 
better than either keeping the Company waiting 
without an apology ; or dishing your Dinner before it 
is done enough, and so disgusting the Stomachs of the 
guests at the first appearance of it. 

Those who desire regularity in the service of th'^ir 
table, should have a DIAL of about twelve inches 
diameter, placed over the Kitchen fire-place, carefully 
regulated, to keep time exactly with the clock in the 
Hall or dining Parlour; — with a frame on one side. 



FRIENDLY ADVICE TO COOKS. /9 

containing a taste table, of the peculiarities of the 
master's palate, and the particular rules and orders of 
his Kitchen ; — and on the other side, of the rewards 
given to those who attend to them, and for long and 
faithful service. 

Ill S77iaU Fatnilies where a Dinner is seldom given — 
a great deal of preparation is required, and the pre- 
ceding day must be devoted to the business of the 
Kitchen. 

On these occasions a Chair-woman is often employed 
to do the dirty work ; but we rather advise you to hire 
a Cook to help to dress the Dinner — this would be 
very little more expense — and the work got through 
much better. 

When you have a very large Entertainment 
to prepare, get your Soups and Sauces, Force- 
meats, &c. ready the day before — and read the 7th 
Chapter of our Rudiments of Cookery: — many Made 
Dishes may also be prepared the day before they are 
to go to table — but do not do them quite enough the 
first day — that they may not be overdone by warming 
up again. 

Prepare every thing you can, the day before the 
Dinner, and order every thing else to be sent in early 
in the Morning — if the Tradesmen forget it — it will 
allow you time to send for it. 

The Pastry, — Jellies, &c. you may prepare while 
the Broths are doing : then truss your Game and Poul- 
try,— and shape your Collops, Cutlets, &c., — and trim 
them neatly — cut away all Flaps and Gristles^ S^c. — No- 
thing should go to Table but what has indisputable preten- 
sions to be eaten ! 



80 FRIENDLY ADVH E TO COOKS. 

Put your MADE Dishes in plates, and arrange them 
upon the dresser in regular order : — next see that your 
Roasts and Boils are all nicely trimmed, trussed, &c. 
and quite ready for the Spit or the Pot. 

Have your Vegetables neatly cut, pared, picked, 
and clean washed in the cullender : — provide a tin dish 
with partitions to hold your fine herbs ; Onions and 
Shallots —Parsley — Thyme — Tarragon— Chervil — and 
Burnet — minced xery jine^ and Lemon peel grated, 
or cut thin, and chopped very small, — Pepper and 
Salt ready mixed, — and your Spice-box and Salt-cellar 
always ready for action, — that every thing you want 
may be at hand for your Stove-work, — and not be scam- 
pering about the kitchen in a whirlpool of confusion, 
hunting after these trifles, while the Dinner is waiting. 

In one drawer under your Spice-Box, keep ready 
ground, in well stopped Bottles, the several spices 
separate ; and also that mixture of them which is 
called " Ragout Powder:" (No. 457.), or (No. 460.)— 
in another, keep your dried and powdered, Sweet, — 
Savoury, — and Soup-herbs, &:c., and a set of weights 
and scales : — you may have a third drawer, containing 
Flavouring Essences, &c., an invaluable auxiliary 
in finishing soups and sauces : (see the account of 
the " Magazine of Taste," or " Sauce-Box," 
(No. 463.) 

Have also ready, some thickening, made of the 
best white flour sifted, mixed with soft water with a 
wooden spoon till it is the consistence of thick batter, — 
a bottle of plain Browning (No. 322.), some strained 
Lemon-juice, and some good Glaze, or Portable 
Soup, (No. 252.) 



FRIENDLY ADVICE TO COOKS. 81 

Nothing can be done in perfection^ that must be done in 
a hurry ; — therefore, if you wish the dinner to be sent 
up to please your Master and Mistress, and do credit 
to yourself, set a high value on your character for 
punctuality : this shows the establishment is orderly, 
is extremely gratifying to the Master and his Guests, 
— and is most praiseworthy in the Attendants. 

But, remember, you cannot obtain this desirable 
reputation, without good management in every respect; 
—if you wish to ensure Ease and Independence in the 
latter part of your life, you must not be unwilling to 
pay the price for which only they can be obtained, 
and earn them by a diligent and faithful* performance 
of the duties of your station in your young days, 
which, if you steadily persevere in, you may depend 
upon ultimately receiving the reward your services 
deserve. 

All Duties are reciprocal; and if you hope to receive 
favour, — endeavour to deserve it — by showing yourself 
fond of obliging, and grateful when obliged — such 
Behaviour will win regard and maintain it, enforce 
what is right, and excuse what is wrong. 

Quiet steady Perseverance, is the only sure spring 

* N. B. " If You will take half the pains, to deserve the regard of yon r 
master, by being a good and faithful servant, you take to be considered 
a good fellow-servaut, so many of you would not, in the decline of life, be 
left destitute of those comforts which age requires, nor have occasion to quote 
the saying that, " Service is no inheritance," unless your own misconduct 
makes it so. 

"The idea of being called a Tell-tale, has occasioned many good servants 
to shut their Eyes against the frauds of fellow-servants. — In the eye of the 
Jaw, persons standing by and seeing a felony committed, which they conld 
have prevented, are held equally guilty v/ith those committing it." — Dr. Trus- 
LER's Domestic Management, p. 12, and Instructions to Servants, 

e5 



82 FRIENDLY ADVICE TO COOKS. 

which you can safely depend upon to infallibly pro- 
mote your progress on the road to Independence. 

If your employers do not immediately appear to be 
sensible of your endeavours to contribute your utmost 
to their comfort and interest, be not easily dis- 
couraged ; — Persciere, and do all in your power to 

MAKE YOURSELF tJSEFUL. 

Endeavour to promote the Comfort of every Indivi- 
dual in the Family — let it be manifest, that you are 
desirous, to do rather more than is required of you, 
than less than your duty — they merit little who perform 
merely what would be exacted — if you are desired to 
help in any business which may not strictly belong to 
your department — undertake it Cheerfully, Patiently, 
and Conscientiouslv. 



TABLE OF WEIGHTS AND MEASURES, 



To reduce our Culinary Operations to as exact a 
certainty, as the nature of the processes would admit 
of;— we have, wherever it \7as needful, given the Quan- 
tities of each article. 

The Weights, are Avoirdupois. 

The Measure, — the graduated glass of the Apo- 
thecaries; this appeared the most accurate and con- 
venient; — the Pint being divided into sixteen ounces, 
the Ounce into eight drachms. A middling size Tea- 
spoon will contain about a Drachm; — four such Tea- 
spoons are equal to a middling size Tablespoon, or halt 
an Ounce; — four Tablespoons to a common sized 
IVinei^lass, 

The specific gravities of the various substances, being 
so extremely different, we cannot offer any auxiliary 
standards* for the Weights, which we earnestly re- 
commend the Cook to employ, if she wishes to gain 
credit for accuracy and uniformity in her business : these 
she w^ill find it necessary to have as small as the 
quarter of a drachm Avoirdupois, which is equal to 
nearly seven grains Troy. 

Glass jMeasures, (divided into Tea, and Table- 
spoons,) containing from Half an Ounce — to Half a 
Pint, — may be had at Price's, near Exeter 'Change, 
Strand; where also may be had, — the double 
headed pepfer and spice-boxes, with caps over 
the gratings. The superiority of these, by preserving 
the contents from the action of the air, must be suffi- 
ciently obvious to every one : the fine aromatic flavour of 
Pepper is soon lost, from the bottles it is usually kept in not 

• A large tablespnonful of Flour weighs about half an Onnce. 



84 TABLE OF WEIGHTS AND MEASURES. 

bchig xvelt stopped. Peppers are seldom ground or 
pounded sufficiently fine. (See N.B. to 369.) 

N.B, The Trough Nutmeg Graters, made by 
Brooks, Ironmonjier in Piccadilly, (near Bond Street), 
are by far the best we have seen, especially for those 
who wish to grate tine, and fast. 

Lloyd, furnishincr Ironmonger, Strand, near Norfolk 
Street, sells Springs which weigh from an ounce to 
20 pounds, for £\ Is. 

Lloyd's Balance, which weighs from \ of a 
drachm to 20 pounds, is a very accurate and con- 
venient machine for weighing. 



RUDIMENTS OF COOKERY. 



CHAPTER I. 

BOILING. 



This most simple of Culinary processes is not often 
performed in perfection, — it does not require quite so 
much nicety and attendance, as Roasting, — to skim 
your pot well, and keep it really boiling (the slower the 
better) all the while, — to know how long is required 
for doing the joint, &c., and to take it up, at the 
critical monjent when it is done enough, — comprehends 
almost the whole art and mystery. This, however, 
demands a patient and perpetual vigilance, of which 
few persons are capable. 

The Cook must take especial care that the water really 
boils all the zvhile she is Cooking, or she will be deceived in 
the time ; and make up a sufficient fire (a frugal Cook 
will manage with much less fire for Boiling than she 
uses for roasting) at first, to last all the time, without 
much mending or stirring. 

JVhe?i the Pot is coming to a boil, there will always, 
from the cleanest Meat and clearest Water, rise a 
Scum to the top of it : proceeding partly from the 
foulness of the meat, and partly from the Water, — this 
must be carefully taken off as soon as it rises. 

On this, depends the good appearance of all boiled 
things. 

When you have scummed well, put in some cold 
water, which will throw up the rest of the scum. 

The oftener it is scummed, and the cleaner the top 
of the Water is kept, the cleaner will be the Meat. 



86 BOILING. 

If let alone, it soon boils down and sticks to the 
Meat'; which, instead of looking- delicately white and 
nice, — will have that coarse and filthy appearance we 
have too often to complain of, and the Butcher and 
Poulterer be blamed for the carelessness of the Cook 
in not scumming her pot. 

Many put in Mi/k, to make what they boil look 
white; but this does more harm than g-ood : — others 
wrap it up in a cloth; — but these are needless pre- 
cautions, if the scum be attentively removed, Meat will 
have a much more delicate colour and finer flavour 
than it has when muffled up. This may give rather 
more trouble — but These u/io -wish to excel w their Art 
must only consider how the processes of it can he most 
perfectly peifurmeci ; — a Cook who has a proper pride 
and pleasure in her business, will iv.ake this her maxim 
on all occasions. 

Put your Meat into colJi water, — in the proportion 
of about a quart of Water to a pound of Meat : — it 
should be covered with water during the whole of the 
process of Boiling — but not drowned in it — the less 
water, provided the meat be covered with it, — the more 
Savoury will be the Meat, and the better will be the 
Broth. 

The Jl'ater should he healed gradually ~ according to 
the thickness, &c. of the article boiled — for instance, a 
Leg of Mutton of 10 pounds weight, (No. 1.), should 
be placed over a moderate fire, which will gradually 
make the uater hot, uithout causing it to hoii for ahout 
forty minutes — if the water boils much sooner, the 
meat will be hardened, and shrink up as if it was 
scorched — by keeping the water a certain time heating 
without boiling, its tibres are dilated, and it yields a 

♦ If, unfortuna'.ely, this should happen, the Cook must carefully take it off 
^hen she dishes up, either with a cleHD Sponge or a Paste-brusli. 

t Cooks, however, as will as Ucctors, disagree; for some ssy, that ** ail 
sorts of fresh meat should be put m when the water boils." 1 prefer the 
above method, for the reason given — ger.tle slewii g renders Meat, &c. It-Jider, 
and ttill leave* it sapid and nutritive. 



BOILING. 87 

quantity of scum, which must be taken off as soon as 
it rises. 

" 104. If a vessel containing water be placed over a 
steady Fire, the Water will grow continually hotter till it 
reaches the limit of boiling, after which the regular ac- 
cessions of heat, are wholly spent in converting it into 
Steam — the Water remains at the same pitch of tem- 
perature, however fiercely it boils. The only differ- 
ence is, that with a strong fire it sooner comes to boil, 
and more quickly boils away, and is converted into 
Steam." — Buchanan on the Economi/ of Fuel, 1810. 

The Editor placed a Thermometer in water in that 
state which Cooks call gentle simmtring, — the heat 
was 212^ — i. e. the same degree as the strongest boiling. 
Two Mutton Chops were covered with cold water, 

— and one boiled a gallop — and the other .simmered 
gently for three quarters of an hour — the Flavour of the 
Chop which was simmered was decidedly superior 
to that which was boiled — the Liquor which boiled 
fast, was in like proportion more savoury, and, when 
cold, had much more fat on its surface : — this ex- 
plains why quick boiling renders meat hard, &c. — be- 
cause its juices are extracted in a greater degree. 

Reckon the Time /ro/« its Jirst coming to a boil. 

The old rule of 15 minutes to a pound of meat, we 
think rather too little; — the slower it boils, the ten- 
derer, — the plumper, — and whiter it will be. 

For those who choose their Food thoroughly cooked 

— which all will who have any regard for their Stomachs 

— Twenty minutes to a Pound will not be found 
too much for gentle sinnnering by the side of the fire ; — 
allowing more or less time, according to the thickness 
of the Joint, and the coldness of the Weather, — always 
remembering, the slower it boils the better. 

Without some practice it is difficult to teach any 
art; and Cooks seem to suppose, they must be right, 
if they put meat into a pot, and set it over the fire for 



88 BOILING. 

a certain time, — making no allowance, whether it 
simmers witliout a bubble, or boils a gallop. 

Fresh- killed Meat will take much longer time boiling 
than that which has been kept till it is what the 
butchers call ripe, — and longer in cold than in 7iarm 
weather; — if it he frvzcn, it must be thawed before 
boiling as before roasting; — if it be fresh killed, it will 
be tough and hard, if you .st&w it ever so long, and erer 
so gently. — In cold weather, the night before the day 
you dress it, bring it into a place of which the tempe- 
rature is not less than 45 degrees of Fahrenheit's 
thermometer. 

'J'he Size of the Boiling Pots should be adapted to 
what they are to contain : — the larger the Saucepan — 
the more room it takes up on the fire, and a larger 
quantity of Water requires a proportionate increase of 
Fire to boil it. 

In Small Families, we recommend BLOCK TIN 
saucepans, &c. as lightest, and safest; — if proper care 
is taken of them, and they are w^ell dried after they are 
cleaned, tlu-y are by far the cheapest; — the purchase 
of a ne^v Tin saucepan being little more than the ex- 
pense of tinning a Copper one. 

Take care that the Covers of your boiling pots fit 
close, not only to prevent unnecessary evaporation of 
the water, but that the smoke may not insinuate itself 
under the edge of the lid, and give the meat a bad taste. 

If you let meat or poultry remain in the water 
after it is done enough, it will become sodden, and 
lose its flavour. 

Beef and IMuttox a little under-done (especially 
very large joints, which will make the better Hash or 
Broil), is not a great fault — by some people it is pre- 
ferred; — but Lawb, — /'orA, — and Feal, are uneatable 
if not thoroughly boiled — but do not otf;--do them. 

A Trivet, or Fish drainer put on the bottom of the 
boiling Pot, raising the contents about an inch and a 



BOILING. 89 

half from the bottom, will prevent that side of the 
meat which comes next the bottom from being done 
too much, — and the lower part of the meat will be as 
delicately done as the other part ; and this will enable 
you to take out the contents of the Pot without sticking 
a fork, &c. into it. If you have not a trivet, use four 
Skewers, or a Soup-plate laid the wrong side upwards. 

Take care of the Liquor you have boiled Poultry or 
Meat in ; in Five Minutes you may make it into excel- 
lent Soup, see Obs. to (No. 555.) and (No. 229.) 

The GOOD Housewife never boils a Joint without 
converting the Broth into some sort of Soup, (Read 
No. 5, and chapter 7, and see page 66). — If the 1 iquor 
be too salt, only use half the quantity, and the rest 
water; — wash salted Meat well with cold water be- 
fore you put it into the boiler. 



An Estimation of the Loss of Weight which takes place 
in Cooking Animal Food. — From Mr. Tilloch's 
Philosophical Magazine. 

" It is well known that, in whatever way the flesh of 
animals is prepared for food, a considerable diminution 
takes place in its weight. We do not recollect, how- 
ever, to have seen any where a statement of the loss 
which meat sustains in the various culinary processes, 
although it is pretty obvious that a series of experi- 
ments on this subject would not be without their use 
in domestic economy. 

" We shall here give the result of a series of experi- 
ments which were actually made on this subject in a 
public establishment; premising that, as they were not 
undertaken from mere curiosity, but, on the contrary, 
to serve a purpose of practical utility, absolute accu- 
racy was not attended to. Considering, however, the 
large quantities of provisions which were actually ex- 
amined, it is presumed that the results may be safely 
depended upon for any practical purpose. It would 



90 BOILING. 

no doubt have been desirable to have known not only 
the whole diminution of weight, but also the parts which 
were separated from the nieat in the form of aqueous 
vapour, jelly, fat, &c. ; but the determination of these 
did not fall within the scope of the inquiry. 

lli.t. or.t. 

28 pieces of beef weighing 280 

Lost in boiling • 73 14 

*' Hence the weight lost by beef in boiling was in 
this case about 262lbs. in lOOlbs. 

lbs. ozt. 

19 pieces of beef weighing 190 

Lost in roasting 61 2 

" The weight lost by beef in roasting appears to be 
32 per cent. 

lbs. f):t. 

9 pieces of beef weighing 90 

Lost in baking 27 

" Weight lost by beef in baking, 30 per cent. 

lbs. ozf. 

27 legs of mutton weighing 260 

Lost in boiling, and by having ) ^^ 4 
the shank-bone taken ofV« • J 

" The shank-bones were estimated at^ 
4 oimces each ; therefore the loss by , 55 8 
boiling was J 

" The loss of weight in legs of mutton, in boiling, is 
21 \ per cent. 

lbs. ozs. 

35 shoulders of mutton weighing • • 350 
Lost in roasting 109 10 

" The loss of weight in shoulders of mutton, by 
roasting, is about 31^ per cent. 

lbs. ozs. 

16 loins of mutton weighing 141 

Lost in roasting 49 14 

't Hence loins of mutton lose, by roasting, about 35^ 
per cent. 



BOILING. 91 

Ihs, ozs. 

10 necks of mutton weighing 100 

Lost in roasting • • • 32 6 

" The loss in necks of mutton, by roasting, is about 
32 i per cent. 

" We shall only draw two practical inferences from 
the foregoing statement. — 1st. In respect of economy, 
it is more profitable to boil meat than to roast it. 
2dly. Whether we roast or boil meat, it loses, by 
being cooked, from one-fifth to one-third of its whole 
weight." 

The loss of Roasting arises from the melting out 
of the Fat, and evaporating the water; but the nutri- 
tious matters remain condensed in the cooked solid. 

In Boiling, the loss arises partly from the fat 
melted out, but chiefly from Gelatine and Osmazome 
being extracted and dissolved by the water in which 
the meat is boiled ; there is, therefore, a real loss of 
nourishment unless the Broth be used; — when this 
mode of cooking becomes the most economical. 

The Sauces usually sent to Table with Boiled 
Meat, ^c. 

These are to be sent up in Boats, and never poured 
over the Meat, &c.* 

Gravy for boiled Meat (No. 3C7.) 

Parsley and Butter (No. 26l.) 

Mock Ditto (No. 262.) 

Che.vil (No. C64.) 

Caper (No. 274.) 

Oyster (No. 278.) 

Liver and Parsley (No. 287.) 

Celery (No. 289-) 

Onion (No. CQii, &c.) 

Shallot (No. 295.) 

Wow Wow CNo. 328.) 

C^irry (^o. 318.) 



* The diminution of weight, by Boiling and Roarting, is not all lost — the 
Fat Skimmings and the Drippings nicely clarified, v,M well supily the 
place of Lard and for Frying. See (No. 83.) and the Receipt for Cheap 
Soup, (No. 229.) 



92 



BAKING. 



BAKING. 



The following Observations were written expressly 
for this work by Mr. Turner, English and French 
Bread and Biscuit Baker, the Corner of London 
Street and Fitzroy Street, Fitzroy Square. 

Baring is one of the cheapest, and most convenient 
ways of dressincc a Dinner in small families; and i may 
say that the Oven is often the only Kitchen a poor man 
has, if he wishes to enjoy a joint of Meat at home with 
his family. 

I don't mean to deny the superior excellence of 
Roasting to Baking; but some joints, when Baked, so 
nearly approach to the same wiien Roasted, that I 
have known them to be carried to the Table, and 
eaten as such with great satisfaction. 

Legs, and Loins of Pork ; — Legs of Mutton; — 
Fillets of Veal; — and many other joints, will Bake 
to great advantage if the meat be good ; I mean well 
fed, rather inclined to be fat; — if the meat be poor, 
no Baker can give satisfaction. 

When baking a joint of poor meat, before it has 
been half baked, I have seen it start from the bone, 
and shrivel up scarcely to be believed. 

Besides those Joints above mentioned, I shall enu- 
merate a few Baked dishes, which I can particularly 
recommend. 

A Pig, when sent to the Baker prepared for Baking, 
should have its Ears and Tail covered with buttered 
paper properly fastened on, and a bit of Butter tied up 
in a piece of linen to baste the back with, otherwise it 
will be apt to blister : with a proper share of attention 
from the Baker, I consider this way equal to a roasted 
one. 



BAKING. 93 

A Goose prepared the same as for roasting, taking- 
care to have it on a stand, and when half done, to tura 
the other side upwards. A Duck the same. 

A Buttocli of Beef the following way is particularly 
fine. After it has been in salt about a week, to be 
well washed and put into a brown earthen pan, with a 
pint of water; cover the pan tight over with two or 
three thicknesses of cap or foolscap Paper — never 
cover any thing that is to be baked with Brown paper, 
the pitch and tar that is in brown paper will give the 
meat a smoky bad taste — give it four or five hours in 
a moderate heated oven. 

A Ham (if not too old) put in soak for an hour, 
taken out and wiped, a crust made sufiicient to cover 
it all over, and baked in a moderate heated oven; cuts 
fuller of gravy, and of a finer flavour than a boiled one. 
I have been in the habit of baking small Cod-fish, — 
Haddock, — and Mackarel, with a dust of flour, and 
some bits of butter put on them. Eels, when large 
and stuffed. Herrings and Sprats, in a brown pan, 
with vinegar and a little spice, and tied over with 
paper. A FIare, prepared the same as for Roasting, 
with a few pieces of Butter, and a little drop of Milk 
put into the dish, and Basted several times, will be 
found nearly equal to roasting ; or cut it up, season it 
properly, put it into a jar or pan, and cover it over 
and bake it in a moderate oven for about three hours. — 
In the same manner, 1 have been in the habit of baking 
Legs and Shins of Beef, — Ox Cheeks, &c. prepared 
with a seasoning of Onions, Turnips, &c. : they will 
take about four hours : let them stand till cold to skim 
off the fat; then warm it up all together, or part, 
as you may want it. 

All these I have been in the habit of baking for 
the first families. 

The time each of the above articles should take, 
depends much upon the state of the Oven, and I 



94 BAKING. 

do consider the Baker a sufficient judge ; — if they are 
sent to him in time, he n)ust be very neglectful, if they 
are not ready at the time they are ordered. 



For Receipts for making 

Bread, 

French Rolls, 

Mui TINS, 

Crumpets, 
Sally Lunn, &:c. 
See the Appendix. 



RUDIMENTS OF COOKERY. 



CHAPTER II. 

ROASTING. 

In all studies, it is the best practice, to begin with the 
plainest and easiest parts ; and so on, by degrees, to 
such as are more difficult: we, therefore, treated of 
plain Boiling, and we now proceed to Roasting: — we 
shall then gradually unravel, to our Culinary students, 
the Art, (and mystery, until developed in this work) of 
making, with the least trouble and expense, the most 
highly finished Made-dishes. 

Let the young Cook never forget, that Cleanli- 
ness is the chief Cardinal Virtue of the Kitchen; — 
the first preparation for Roasting is to take care that 
the Spit be properly cleaned with sand and water: 
nothing else. — When it has been well scoured with 
this, dry it with a clean cloth. If Spits are wiped 
elean, as boon as the meat is drawn from them, and whiter 
they are hot, a very little cleaning will be reqnired. The 
less the Spit is passed through the meat, the better*, 
and before you spit it, joint it properly — especially 
necks and loins — that the Carver may separate them 
easily and neatly, and take especial care it be evenly 
balanced on the spit, that its motion may be regular, 
and the fire operate equally on each part of it; — 
therefore, be provided with Balancing Skewers, and 
Cookholds, and see it is properly Jointed. 

• Small families have not always the convenience of roasting with a Spit, 
— a remarJi uijon roasting by a string is necessary. — Let the Cook, 
before she puts her meat down to the fire, pass a strong skewer through each 
end of the joint: by this means, when it is about half done, she can with 
ease turn ttie bottom upwards; the gravy will then flow to the part which ha« 
been uppermost, and the whole joint be deliciously gravy-full. 

A Bottle-Jack, as it is termed by the furnishing ironmongers, is a valu- 
able instrument for roasting. 

A Dutch Oven, is another very convenient utensil, for roasting fight 
joints, or warming them up. 



96 ROASTING. 

Roasting should be done by the radiant heat, 
of a clear glowing Fire, — otherwise it is in fact 
Baked — the Machines the Economical Grate-makers 
call ROASTERS, are in plain English, Ovens. 

Count lUmiford was certainly an exact economist of 
Fuel, when he contrived these things, — and those Phi- 
losophers who try all questions " According to Cocker" 
may vote for Baked Victuals; — but the rational Epi- 
cure, who has been accustomed to enjoy Beef well 
RoASTKD, will soon be convinced, that the Poet who 
wrote our national Ballad at the end of this Chapter, 
was not inspired by Sir Benjamin Thompson's Cookery. 

All your attention in Roasting, will be thrown away, 
it you do not take cart that your Meat, especial/}/ Beef^ 
(which can seldom be bought ready for the spit except on a 
Saturday,) has been kept long enough to be Tender. See 
" Advice to Cooks," — and Obs. to (No. 68.) 

Make up the Fire in time; let it be proportioned 
to the dinner to be dressed, and about three or four 
inches longer, at each end, than the thing to be roasted 
— or the ends of the meat cannot be done nice and 
brown. 

A Cook must be as j articular to proportion her Fire * 
to the business f>he has to do., as a Chtmiit — the degree 
of Heat most desirable for dressing the dijjerent sorts 
of food ought to be attended to with the utmost pre- 
cision. 



* " T^ s viandes en e'neral nr doivcnt pas etre saisies par nn feu vif si 
dies out nn certain volume, parce que 1'ex.lt-rieiii fcorait lissole el brule avant 
que I'intericnr fiit ciiit : d'un autre cote il ne faut pas exposer trop long- 
temps un roti a uiie chaleur modci ee, parce qne cette chaleur, qui suffit pour 
evaporer tons les priiicipes iiqnides, et coa^uler I'albumiuee, rapprocheraitles 
fibres miiscolairtb et Ui (iesst ciiei ait : il faut observer encore que la saveur 
dcs viandes rbties ou uirillees depend ou dn goiit propre a la viande, on d'one 
decomposition p.irtielie rie la pean, des muscles, et de la graisse. II se forme 
par Taction seule du leu des substances sapides, qui n'existaieut pas dans la 
viande crue. 

" Les?nbstancessont I'acide prussique, I'acide zoonique, un peu d' huile 
empyreumatlque ; il s'y developpe au^si dn stl murln. Tons ces corp« 
sont stimulans, legereiiient acres; ils irritent Ics houppes nerveuses de notre 
palais, appellent le sue salivaire, et reveillent uotre appeiit." 

CouRs GasTROnomiqdes. — Paris, I8I9, p. 292. 



ROASTING. 97 

The Fire, that is but just sufficient to receive the 
noble Sirloin, (No. 19.) will parch up a lighter joint. 

From half an Hour, to an Hour, before you begin to 
Roast, prepare the Fire, — by putting a few coals on, 
which will be sufficiently lighted by the time you wish 
to make use of your fire; — between the bars, and on 
the top, put small or large Coals, according to the 
bulk of the Joint, and the time the fire is required to 
be strong ; — after which, throw the Cinders (wetted) at 
the back. 

Never put Meat down to a burnt up fire, if you can 
possibly avoid it; — but should the fire become fierce, — 
place the Spit at a considerable distance, and allow 
a little more time. 

Preserve the fat% by covering it with paper, for 
this purpose, called " Kitchen Paper," and tie it on with 
fine twine; — pins and skewers can by no means be 
allowed, they are so many taps, to let out the Gravy: 
— besides, the paper often starts from them and catches 
fire, to the great injury of the meat. 

If the thing to be roasted be thin and tender, the fire 
should be little and brisk; — when you have a large 
joint to roast, make np a sound, strong fire, equally 
good, in every part of the grate — or your meat cannot 
be equally roasted, nor have that uniform colour which 
constitutes tlie beauty of good roasting. 

Give the Fire a good stirring before you lay the joint 
down -.—examine it from time to time, while the spit is 
going round; — keep it clear at the bottom, and take 
care there are no smoky coals in the front, which will 
spoil the look and taste of the meat, and hinder it from 
roasting evenly. 

When the joint to be roasted, is thicker at one end 
than the other, place the spit slanting, with the 
thickest part nearest the fire. 

Do not put Meat too near the fire at first; — the 

• If there is more Fat than you think will be eaten uiih the lean — trim it off, 
it will make an excellent Pudding. (No. 551, or o5^.) Or clarify it. {So. 83.] 
F 



98: ROASTING. 

larger the joint, the farther it must be kept from the Fire : 
— if once it gets scorched, the outside will become 
hard, and acquire a disagreeable empyreumatic taste ; 
and the fire being prevented from penetrating into it, 
the meat will appear done, before it is little more than 
half done, besides losing the pale brown colour, which 
it is the Beauty of Roasted meat to have. 

From 14 to 10 inches is the usual distance at which 
meat is put from the grate, when first put down: — it is 
extremely difficult to ofter any thing like an accurate 
general rule for this, — it depends so much upon the 
size of the fire, and of that of the thing to be roasted. 

Till some Culinary Philosopher shall invent a Ther- 
mometer to ascertain the heat of the Fire, — and a gra- 
duated ^pit-Rack to regulate the distance from it,^the 
process of Roasting is attended by so many ever- 
varying circumstances, that it must remain among 
those which can only be performed well, — by frequent 
practice and attentive observation. 

" Mr. Watt, for his Steam Engines where Wood fuel 
is employed, allows three times the weight of Wood, that 
he does of Newcastle Coals — -and a bushel of Newcastle 
Coals, which weighs | of a Cwt. is reckoned to produce 
as much heat as a Cwt. of Scottish or Glasgow Coal." 

— Buchanan on Economy of Fuel. 1810. p. 82. 

If you wish your Jack to go well, keep it as clean as 
possible, oil it, and then wipe it; if the oil is not wiped 
off again, it will gather dust ; to prevent this, as soon 
as you have done roasting, cover it up. — Never 
leave the winders on whilst the Jack is going round, 
unless you do it, as Swift says, " that it may fly oflf, 
and knock those troublesome servants on the head 
who will be crowding round your Kitchen fire." 

Be very careful to place the Dripping-Pan at such 
a distance from the fire, as just to catch the drippings : 

— if it is too near, the ashes will fall into it, and spoil 
the Drippings* (which we shall hereafter show, will 

* Iliis the Good Housewife will take op occasionally, and pass througli » 



ROASTING. 99 

occasionally be found an excellent substitute for Butter 
or Lard; — to clarify Drippings, see No. 83, and Pease 
and Dripping Soup, (No. 229,) {savoury and salubrious 
for only a I'enny per Quart). If it is too far from 
the fire to catch them, you will not only lose your 
drippings, but the Meat will be blackened, and spoiled 
by the foetid smoke, which will arise when the fat falls 
on the live cinders. 

A large Dripping Pan is convenient for several pur- 
poses — it should not be less than 28 inches long-, and 
20 inches wide — and have a covered well on the side 
from the Fire to collect the Drippings — this will pre- 
serve them in the most delicate state — in a frying pan 
of the above size you may set fried fish, and various 
dishes to keep hot. 

This is one of Lloyd's contrivances. 

The time Meat vjill take Roasting, will vary according 
to the time it has been kept, and the temperature of 
the weather : — the same weight* will be twenty minutes, 
or half an hour longer in Cold Weather^, than it will be 
in warm — and if fresh killed, than if it has been kept 
till it is tender. 

A good Meat Screen, is a great saver of Coals. 
It should be on wheels, have a flat top, and not be less 
than about three feet and a half wide, and with shelves 
in it, about one foot deep — it will then answer all the 
purposes of a large Dutch oven, — Plate Warmer, — Hot 
Hearth, &c. Some are made with a Door behind — 
this is convenient — but the great heat they are exposed 
to soon shrinks the materials, and the currents of air 
through the cracks cannot be prevented — so they are 



sieve into a stone pan: — by leaving it ail in the Dripping-pan, until tlie Meat 
is taken up, it not only becomes very strong, but, \vl3en the meat is rich and 
yields much of it, it is apt to be spilt in Basting. — To clarify Drippings, 
see iS'o. 83. 

♦ Insist upon the Butcher fixing a Ticket of the Weight to each Joi?it. 

t If THE Meat is frozen, the usunl practice is to put it into Cold Water 
till it is thawed, then dry ard roast it as usual : — but we recommend jou to 
bring it into the kitchen the night before, or early iu the morning of '.he day 
you want to roast it, and the warm air will thaw it much better. 

r2 



100 ROASTING. 

better without the Door. We saw one at Mr. Lloyd's, 
furnishing Ironmonger, near Norfolk Street, Strand, 
■which had on the top of it — a very convenient Hot 
Closet — which is a great acquisition in Kitchens, where 
the Dinner waits after it is dressed. 

Every body knows the advantage of Slovi Boiling — 
Slow Roasting is equally important. 

It is difficult to give any specific Rule ior Time; 

— but if your Fire is made as before directed, — your 
Meat Skreen sufficiently large to guard what you are 
dressing from currents of Air, — and the meat is not 
FuosTHD, — you cannot do better, than follow the old 
general rule of allowing rather 7norc than a Quarter of 
an hdvi tu the Pound ; — a little more or less, according 
to the temperature of the weather, — and in proportion 
as the piece is thick or thin, — the strength of the Fire, 

— the nearness of the Meat to it, — and the frequency 
with which you baste it; the more it is basted; the 
less time it will take, as it keeps the Meat soft and 
mellow on the outside, and the Fire acts with more 
force upon it. 

Rechon the Time, not to the hour when Dinner is or- 
dered—but to the moment the Roasts will be wanted — 
supposing there are a dozen people to sip Soup, and 
eat Fish first, you may allow them ten or fifteen mi- 
nutes for the former, and about as long for the latter, 
more or less, according to the temptations the " Bon 
Gout" of these preceding courses has to attract their 
attention. 

ly/ien the Joint is halj done, — remove the Spit and 
Dripping Pan back, and stir up your fire thoroughly, 
that it may burn clear and bright for tlie Browning: — 
when the steam from the Meat draws towards the fire*, 
it is a sign of its being done enough; — but you will be 
the best judge of that, from the time it has been down, 

• When the St am begins to arise, it is a pro f that the >vhole joint is tho- 
roughly sa'nratffl with heat; any unnecessary evaporation, is a waste uf the 
Lie.ot uouribi.inviii of ihc rue.it. 



ROASTING. 



101 



the strength of the Fire you have used, and the dis- 
tance your Spit has been from it. 

Half an hour before your meat is done, make some 
Gravy, {nee Receipt^ No. 326,) and just before you take 
it up, put it nearer the fire to brown it. — If you 
wish to FROTH it, — baste it, and dredge it with flour 
carefully, you cannot do this delicately 7iicc, without a 
Dery good light ; — the common fault seems to be using' 
too much Flour ; — the Meat should have a fine light 
varnish of Froth, — not the appearance of being covered 
with a paste ; — ihose u-ho are particular about the Froth, 
use Butter instead of Dripping; {see Receipt to Roast a 
Turkey^ No. 57;) 

'* ApA send up what you Roast, with relish-giving Froth," 

says Dr. King, and present such an agreeable appear- 
ance to the Eye, that the Palate may be prepossessed 
in its favour at first sight. 

A Good Cook, is as anxiously attentive to the ap- 
pearance and Colour of her Roasts, as a Court Beauty 
is to her Complexion at a Birthday Ball. 

Though roasting is one of the most common, and is 
generally <?onsidered one of the most easy and simple 
processes of Cookery, — it requires more unremitting 
attention to perform it perfectly well, than it does to 
make most JIade dishes. 

That Made-dislies are the most difficult preparations, 
deserves to be reckoned among the Culinary Vulgar 
Eriors ; — in Plain PvOasting and Boiling, it is not easy 
to repair a mistake once made ; — and all the discretion 
and attention of a steady careful Cook, must be unre- 
mittingly upon the alert*. 

* A celebrated Fieiich wiiter has given us the following observations on 
Roasting: — 

"• Iha Art of IIoHsting victuals to the precise degree, is one of the most 
ditficult in this wo; Id, and you may find half a thousand good Cooks sooner 
than one perj'ict Roaster: (See " Almanach des GourmandSy" vol. i. 
p. 37j. In the mansions of the opulent they have, besides tlie Master 
Ritchtuer, — a Roaster, (perfectly independent of the former) who is exclu- 
eively devoted to ihe Spit. 

*' AH erudite Gourmands know that these two important functions cannot 



102 



ROASTING. 



A diligent attention to time, — the distance of the 
Meat from, — and judicious management of the Fire, aad 
frequent Bastings*, — are all the general rules we can 
prescribe, — we shall deliver particular rules for parti- 
cular things, as the several articles occur, and do our 
utmost endeavours to instruct our reader as completely 
as words can describe the process, and teach 

" The inauagoincnt of cominoii iliiii^? so well, 

" That what was thought the iiieaiitst shall excel: 

" That Cook 's to British palates most complete, 

" Whose sav'ry skill gives zcit to common meat: 

" For what arc your soops,— your mgouts, — ami your sauce, 

" Comparetl to the fare of old Knglanu, 

" And OLD IL.vGLisH Roast JitEF!" 

%• Take Notice, that the Time given in the J'ul- 
hwing Receipts, — is calculated fur tho^e, xvhu like Meat 
thoroughli/ Roasted. (See N. B. preceding No. 19.) 

Some good Housewives order very large joints to be 
rather under done — as they then make a better Hash or 
Broil. 

be performed by one artist ; it is quite impossible, at the same time, to super- 
intend the operations of llic Spit, and ihc Stewpai.." — lurther on, the same 
author observes: "No certain rules can be given for Roasting, the perfection 
ol it depending on many circumstances which arc continually changing; the 
age, and size, (especially ilic thicki.ess) of the pieces, the quality of the coals, 
the temperature of the atmosphere, the currents of air in the kitchen, the 
m^re or less attention of the roaster; and, lastly, the time of serving. — Sup- 
posing the Dinner ordered to be on table at a certain time, if the Fi-h and Soup 
are much liked, and detained longer than the roaster has calculated; or, on 
the contrary, if they are despatched sooner than is expected, the roasts will in 
one case be burnt up, in the other not tlone enough — two misfortunes equally 
ip be deplored. The first, liowcver, is without a remedy ; _;^t'C minutes oi> 
the Spit, more or less, decides the goqdness of this mode cj' Cookery ; — it is 
almost impossible to seize the precise instant when it ought to be eaten ; 
^'hich Epicures in roasts express, by sajiog, ' It is done to a turn,' So thai 
there is no exac;geration in saying, the perfect Roaster, is even more rate, 
Uian the professed Cook. 

" In small families, where the Cook — is also the Roaster, — it is almost im- 
possible the roasts should be well done; — the Spit claims exclusive attention, 
and is an imperious Mistress, who demands the ei;tire devotion of her slave. 
Eut how can this be? When the Cook is obliged, at the same time, to attend 
her Fish and Soup kettles, and watch her Stewpans and all their accompani- 
ments; — it is morally and physically im;)Ossible, if she gives that delicate and 
constant attention to the Roasts, which is indispensably requisite, the rest of 
the Dinner iiiust often be spoilt ; and most Cooks would rather lose their cha- 
racter as a Roaster, than neglect the made-dishes and ' entremets,' bcc. where 
they think they can display their Culinary Science ,—X\\nn sacrifice these to 
the Roasts, the perfection of which, will only prove their steady Vigilance 
and Patienoe." 

• Our Ancestors were very particular in their Bastings andDredgings, 
as will be seen by the following qootation from May's Accomplished 



ROASTING. 103 

To make GRAVY for Roasts, see (No. 326.) 

N. B. ROASTS, must not be put on, — till the Soup 
and Fish are taken off the Table. 



Cook." London, l665, p. 136. — " The rarest ways of dressing of all manner 
of roast meats, either flesh or fowl, by sea or land, and divers ways of bread- 
ing or dredging meats to prevent the gravy from too much evaporating." 

Dredgings. 

1. Flour mixed with grated bread. 

2. Sweet herbs dried and powdered, and tnixed with grated bread. 

3. Lemon peel dried and pounded, or orange peel mixed with flour. 

4. Sugar finely powdered, and mixed with pounded cinnamon, and flour, or 
grated bread. 

5. Fennel seeds, corianders, cinnamon, and sugar, finely beaten, and mixed 
with grated bread or flour. 

6. For young pigs, grated bread or flour mixed with beaten nutmeg, ginger, 
pepper, sugar, and yolks of eggs. 

f. Sugar, bread, and salt mixed. 

Bastings. 

1. Fresh butter. 

2. Clarified suet. 

3. Minced sweet herbs, butter and claret, especially for mutton and lamb. 

4. ^V ater and salt. 

5. Cream and melted butter, especially for a flayed pig. 

6. Yolks of eggs, grated biscuit, and juice of oranges. 



RUDIMENTS OF COOKERY. 



CHAPTER III. 



FRYING. 

Fryixg is often a convenient mode of Cookery, — it 
may be performed by a fire which will not do for Roast- 
ing or Broilinq:; — and by the introduction of the Pan 
between the Meat and the Fire, things get more equally 
dressed. 

The Dutch Oven or Bonnet is another very con- 
venient utensil for small things, and a very useful sub- 
stitute for the Jack, — the Gridiron, — or Fryingpan. 

A Fryingpan should be about four inches deep, 
with a pcrfatli/Jlat and thick bottom, 12 inches long, and 
9 broad — with perpendicular sides, and must be half 
filled with Fat — Good Frying is in fact — Boiling 
in Fat, To make sure that the Pan is quite clean^ rub a 
little Fat over it — and then make it warm and wipe it 
out with a clean cloth. 

Be very particular in Frying, never to use any Oil, — 
Butter, — l.ard, — or Drippings, — but what is quite 
clean, fresh, and free from salt. Any thing dirty spoils 
the look ; — any thing bad tasted or stale spoils the 
flavour ; — and salt prevents its Browning. 

Fine Olive Oil, is the most delicate for frying; — but 
to have the best oil is very expensive, and bad oil 
spoils every thing that is dressed with it. 

For general purposes, and especially for Fish, clean 

fresh Lard, is not near so expensive as oil or clarified 

Butter, and does almost as well, except for Cutlets and 

Collops. — Butler often burns before you are aware of 



FRYING. 105 

it, and what you fry will get a dark and dirty ap- 
pearance. 

Cooks in large kitchens, where there is a great deal 
of frying, commonly use Mutton or Beef Suet, clarified, 
(see No. 84); (if from the kidney, all the better). 

Dripping, if nicely clean and fresh, is almost as good 
as any thing-, — if not clean, it may be easily clarified ; 
see (No. 83). Whatever Fat you use — after you have 
done frying, let it remain in the Pan for a few mi- 
nutes, and then pour it through a sieve into a clean 
basin — it will do three or four times as well as it did atjirsty 
i. e. if it has not burned — but Mem. — the Fat you have 
fried Fish in must not be used for any other purpose. 

To know when the Fat is of a proper heat, accord- 
ing to what you are to fry, is the great secret in frying. 

To fry Fish, — Parsley, — Potatoes, or any thing 
that is watery, your Fire must be xery clear, and the Fat 
quite hot, — which you may be pretty sure of, when it 
has done hissing, and is still. — We cannot insist too 
strongly on this point : — if the Fat is not very hot, you 
cannot fry Fish either to a good colour, or firm uiul crisp. 

To be quite certain, — throw a little bit of Bread into 
the pan ; if it fries crisp, the Fat is ready : if it burns 
the bread, it is too hot. 

The Fire under the pan must le clear and sharp, other- 
wise the fat is so long before it becomes ready, and de- 
mands such attendance to prevent the a,ccident of its 
catching fire*, the patience of cooks is exhausted, and 
they frequently, from ignorance, or impatience, throw 
in what they are going to fry, before the fat is half hot 
enough. — Whatever is so fried, will be pale and sodden, 
and offend the Palate and Stomach, not less than 
the Eye. 



* If this unfortunately liappeus, be not in the least alarmed, — but immedi- 
ately wet a basket of Ashes and throw them down the Chimney, and wet a 
Blanket, and hold it close all round the Fire-place, — as soon as the curient 
of air is stopped, — the tire will be extinguished: with a charcoal 
sTov K there is no danger, as the diameter of the Pan exceeds that of the flte, 

f 5 



106 FRYING. 

Have a good light to fry by, — that you may see wheiir 
you have got the right colour : — a Lmnp fixed on a 
stem with a loaded foot, which has an arm that will 
lengthen out, and slide up and down like a reading 
candlestick, is a mo^sf useful appendage to Kitchen Fire- 
places, which are very seldom light enough for the 
nicer operations of Cookery. 

After all, if you do not thoroughiy drain the fat from 
what you hait fried, — especially from those things that 
are full dressed in Bread-crumbs *, or Binuit Poudcr, &c. 
— your Cooking will do you no credit. 

The Dryness of Fish depends much upon its having 
been fried in fat of a due degree of heat, it is then 
crisp and dry in a few minutes after it is taken out 
of the Pan — when it is not, lay it on a soft cloth 
before the fire, turning it occasionally, till it is ; — 
this will sometimes take 15 minutes: — therefore always 
fry Fish as long as this before you want them — for 
fear you may find this necessary. 

To FRY Fisii, see Receipt to fry Soles, (No. 145.) 
which is the only circumstantial account of the process 
that has yet been priuted. — If the Cook will study it 
with a little attention, she must soon become an ac- 
complished Frier. 

Frying, though one of the most common of culi- 
nary operations, — is one that is least commonly per- 
formed perfectly well. 

• When yon want a great many BRE.v»>-CRi.Mns, divide your Loaf (wliicit 
should be two days old,) into three equal parts — take the middle or cramb 
piece, ihe top and bottom will do for table — in the usual uay of cuttm^, 
the crust is uasted. 

Oatmeal is a very satisfactory, and an extremely economical 'Jubstitute for 
Bread Crumbs. See (No. 145) 



RUDIMENTS OF COOKERY. 



CHAPTER IV. 



BROILING. 

Clean'liness is extremely essential in this mode of 
cookery. 

Keep your Gridiron quite clean between the bars, 
and bright on the top; — when it is hot, — wipe it well 
with a linen cloth ; just before you use it, rub the bars 
with clean mutton suet, to prevent the Meat from 
being marked by the gridiron. 

Take care to prepare your Fire in time, so that it 
may burn quite clear; a brisk and dear fire is indis- 
pensable; — or you cannot give your meat that browning 
which constitutes the perfection of this mode of cookery, 
and gives a relish to food it cannot receive any other 
way. 

Be very attentive to watch the moment any thing is 
done ; — never hasten any thing that is broiling, lest 
you make smoke and spoil it. 

Let the bars of the Gridiron be all hot through, but 
yet not burning hot upon the surface; — this is the per- 
fect and fine condition of the Gridiron. 

As the Bars keep away as much heat as their breadth 
covers, it is absolutely necessary they should be 
thoroughly hot before the thing to be cooked be laid 
on them. 

The Bars of Gridirons should be made concave, and 
terminate in a trough to catch the Gravy and keep the 
Fat from dropping into the fire and making a smoke, 
which will spoil the Broil. 



108 BROILING. 

Upright Gridirons are the best, as they can 
be used ut any fire, without fear of smoke ; and the 
gravy is preserved in the trough under them. 

N.B. Broils must be brought to table as Hut as 
possible : set a Dish to heat, when you put your Chops 
on the Gridiron — from whence to the Mouth their 
progress must be as quick as possible. 

jr/ien the Fire is not clear — \\\c business of the 
Gridiron may be done by the Dutch Oxtn or Bonnit. 



RUDIMENTS OF COOKERY 



CHAPTER V. 



VEGETABLES. 



The Marketing Tables at the end of this Work, 
show the Seasons of V^egttabhs, and point out the time 
when they are Best and Cheapest. 

There is nothing in which the difference bttwctn an 
Elegant and an Ordinary table is more seen^ than in the 
dressing of I'egetables, more especially of Greens : — 
they may be equally as fine at first, at one place as at 
another; — but their look and taste are afterwards 
very different, entirely from the careless way in which 
they have been cooked. 

They are in greatest Perfection, iihtn in greatest Phnti/y 
i. €. when in full season. 

By Season, — I do not mean those early days, that 
luxury in the buyers^ and avarice in the sellers about 
London, force the various vegetables : but that time of 
the year in which by nature and common culture, and 
the mere operation of the Sun and Climate, they are 
in most plenty and perfection. 

Potatoes and Peas — are seldom worth eating before 
Midsummer. — Unripe Vegetables, are as insipid and 
unwholesome as Unripe Fruits. 

As to the quality of Vegetables, the middle size are 
preferred to the largest, or the smallest; — they are 
more tender, juicy, and full of flavour, just before they 
are quite full grown : Freshness is their chief value 
and excellence, and I should as soon think of roasting 
an Animal alive, — as of boiling a Vegetable after it is 
dead. 



110 VEGETABLES. 

The Eye easily discovers if they have been kept too 
long; — they soon lose their Beauty in all respects. 

Roots, Greens, Salads, &c., and the various pro- 
ductions of the Garden, when first gathered, are 
plump and firm, and have a fragrant freshness no art 
can give them again, when they have lost it by long 
keeping ; — though it will refresh them a little to put 
them into cold spring water for some time before they 
are dressed. 

To boil them in soft xvater will preserve the colour 
l>est of such as are Green ; if you have only hard water, 
put to it a teaspoonful of Carbonate of Putaih. 

Take care to uash and cleanse them thoroughly from 
dust, dirt, and insects : -^ Mi^ requires great attention: 
— pick oft all the outside leaves, trim them nicely, and 
if not quite fresh gathered and have become flaccid — it 
is absolutely necessary to restore their crispness before 
cooking them, or they will be tough and unpleasant — 
lay them in a pan of clean water, witii a handful of 
salt in it, for an hour before you dress them. 

" Most Vegetables being more or less succulent, 
their full proportion of fluids is necessary for their re- 
taining that state of crispness and plumpness which 
they have when growing. — On being cut or gathered, 
the exhalation from their surface continues, while, 
from the open vessels of the cut surface, there is often 
great exudation or evaporation, and thus their natural 
moisture is diminished, the tender leaves become flac- 
cid, and the thicker masses or roots lose their plump- 
ness. — This is not only less pleasant to the Eye, but 
is a real injur\' to the nutritious powers of the vege- 
table : for in this flaccid and shrivelled state its fibres 
are less easily divided in chewing, and the water which 
exists in vegetable substances, in the form of their 
respective natural juices, is directly nutritious. The 
first care in the preservation of succulent vegetables, 
therefore, is to prevent them from losing their natural 
moisture." — Sup. to Edinb. Enci/clop. vol. iv. p. 335. 



VEGETABLES. Ill 

They should always be boiled in a saucepan by 
themselves, and have plenty of water : if Meat is 
boiled with them in the same pot, they will spoil the 
look and taste of each other. 

If you wish to have Vegetables delicately clean, put 
on your Pot, make it boil, put a little salt in it — and 
skim it perfectly clean before you put in the Greens, 
&c. — which should not be put in till the water boils 
briskly : tlie quicker they boil, the greener they will 
be: — when the Vegetables sink, they are generally 
done enough, if the water has been kept constantly 
boiling. Take them up immtdintely^ or they mil lose 
their colour and goodness. Drain the water from them 
thoroughly before you send them to table. 

This branch of Cookery, requires the most vigilant 
attention. 

If Vegetables are a minute or two too long over the 
Fire, — they lose all their Beauty and Flavour. 

If not thoroughly boiled te?ider, they are tremendously 
Indigestible, and much more troublesome during their 
residence in the Stomach, than underdone Meats*. 

To preserve, or give colour in Cookery, many good 
dishes are spoiled ; but the rational Epicure, who makes 
nourishment the main end of eating, will be content 
to sacrifice the shadow, to enjoy the substance. Vide 
Obs. to (No. 322.) 

Once for all, take care your vegetables are fresh; — 
for as -the Fishmonger often suffers for the sins of the 
Cook, so the Cook often gets undeservedly blamed 
instead of the Green-grocer. 

Vegetables in this metropolis, are often kept so long, 
that no art can make them either look or eat well. 



• " Cauliflowers and other Vegetables are often boiled only crisp, to 
preserve their Beauty. For the look alone they had better not be boiled at 
all, and almost as well for the use, as ii; this crude state they arc scarcely di- 
gestible by the strongest stomach. On the other hand, when over-boiled, 
they become vapid, and in a state similar to decay, in which they afford no 
sweet purifying Juices to the body, but load it with a mass of mere feculent 
matter." — Domestic Management, 12mo. 1813, p. 69. 



11*2 VEGETABLES. 

" Succulent Vegetables are best preserved in a cool 
shady and damp place. Potatoes, — Turnips,— Carrots, 
and similar Roots intended to be stored up, should 
never be cleaned from the earth adhering to them — 
and must be protected from the action of the air, and 
frost, by layiuLi: them in heaps, burying them in 
sand or earth, die. or covering them with straw or 
mats. 

" The action of Frost destroys the life of the Vege- 
table, and it speedily rots." — Sup. to Edinb. E/uycluptdia, 
vol. iv. p. 335. 

N.B. When Greens, 6:c. are quite fnsh gathered, 
they will not require so much boiling, by at least a third 
of the time they take, when tliey have been gathered 
the usual time those are that are brought to public 
markets. 

Mr. Appert has published his simple and unex- 
pensive process of preserving fresh, both animal and 
vegetable foods, from the season of produce, throu^ih the 
season of scarcity, in their full Havour and excellence, 
merely by a[)plying heat in a due degree to the several 
substances, after having deprived them of all contact 
with the external air. 

There is not a Mistress of a Family who is ricli 
enough to lay by a stock of these Articles, and not too 
rich to despise Economy, who will not be benefited by 
the perusal of Mr. Appert's Book, 12:no. 1812, or pur- 
chase La CiiiMiE Du Gout, 2 tom. Paris, 1819. 



HUDIMENTS OF COOKERY. 



CHAPTER VI. 



FISH. 

The Marketing Tables at the end of this Work 
show when each kind of Fish is Best and Cheapest. 

This department of the business of the Kitchen 
requires considerable experience, and depends more 
upon practice than any other; — a very Jhv momentSy 
more or less, will thoroughly spoil Fish*; which, to be 
eaten in perfection, — must never be put on the Table, 
till the Soup is taken off. 

So many circumstances operate on this occasion, it 
is almost impossible to write general rules. 

There are decidedly different opinions, whether Fish 
should be put into cold, — tepid, — or boiling water. 



• Whea the Cook has large dinners to prepare, aud the time of serving un- 
certain, she will get more credit by FRiEn, (see No. 145.) or stewed, (see No. 
164.) than by boiled Fish. It is also cheaper, and much sooner carved, 
(see No. 14.5.) 

Mr. Uae, pa^e 238 of his Cookery — advises, " Tf you are obiiged to wait 
after the Fish is done, do not let it remain in the water, but keep the water 
boiling — and put the fish over it, and cover it with a damp clotli — when the 
dinner is called for, dip the fish agnin in the water — and serve it up." 

The only circumstantial instructions yet printed for Frying Fish, the 
Reader will find in (No. 145.): if this be carefully and nicely aiteiided to, 
you will have delicious food, and let the Fish-Eater remember the Epitaph 
of the Musician at Marseilles — 



m 



X2: 



-& 



which being read according to the French gamut and pronuncialion ■ 
— Sole — La — Mis — La. 



is La 



114 FISH. 

We believe for some of the fame the Dutch Cooks 
have acquired, they are a little indebted to their situa- 
tion, affording them a plentiful supply of Fresh Fish 
for little more than the trouble of catching it : — and 
that the superior excellence of tlie fish in Holland, 
is because none are used, unless they are brought 
alive into the Kitchen, (Mackerel excepted, which die 
the moment tiiey are taken out of the water.) The 
Dutch are as nice about this, as Seneca says, the Ro- 
mans* were ; who, complaining of the luxury of the 
times, says, " they are come to that daintiness, that 
they will not eat a Fish, unless upon the same day that 
it is taken, that it may taste of the sea, as they ex- 
press it." 

On the Dutch flat coast, the Fish are taken with 
nets ; — on our rocky coast, they are mostly caught by 
bait and hook, which instantly kills them. — Fish are 
brought alive by land, to the Dutch markets, in water- 
casks with air-holes in the top. — Salmon, and other 
fish, are thus preserved in rivers, in a well hole, in the 
fishing-boat. 

Fish of every kind are best some time before 
they begin to spawn — and are unfit for food for some 
time after they have spawned. 

7/ie mofit convenient Utensil to boil Fish in, is a 
TuREOT Kettle, — this should be 24 inches long, 
22 wide, and 9 deep. — It is an excellent vessel to boil 
a Ham in, &-c. &c. 

Tlie good folks of this Metropolis are so often dis- 
appointed, by having Fish which have been kept too 
long, — that they are apt to run into the other extreme, 



• They had Salt Water preserves for feeding diflferent kinds of Sea fish ; 
those in ilie ponds of Lucullus, at his death, sold for 25,()00/. sterling. The 
prolific po^^e^ of Fish is woiiderful: — the followiug calculations aie from 
Petit, Bloch, and Leuwenhuek : — 

Eggs. 
A Salmon of CO pounds weight contained........ 27,850 

A middling sized Tike 148,000 

A Mackerel., 546,681 

A Cod , , , 9,344,000 

See Cours Gastronomiques , )8mo. 1806, p. 241. 



risH. 11^ 

and suppose that Fish will not dress well, unless it is 
absolutely alive. This is true of Lobsters, &c. (No. 
1 76.) and may be of Fresh-water fish, but certainly not 
of some Sea fish. 

Several respectable Fishmongers and experienced 
Cooks have assured the Editor, that they are often in 
danger of losing their credit, by fish too fresh, and 
especially Turbot and Cod, which, like Meat, require a 
certain time before they are in the best condition to be 
dressed: — they recommend them to be put into Cold 
Water, Salted in proportion of about a quarter of a 
pound of salt to a gallon of water, — Sea IVater is best 
to boil Sea fish in, — and let them boil slowly till done ; 
the sign of which is, that the skin of the fish rises up, 
and the Eyes turn white. 

It is the business of the Fishmonger to clean them, 
&c. but the careful Cook will always wash them 
again. 

Garnish, with slices of Lemoriy — finely scraped 
Horseradish, — fried Oysters, (No. 183.) — Smelts, (No. 
173.) — or Whitings, (No. 153.) or Strips of Soles as 
directed in No. 145. 

The Liver, — Roc, — and Chitterlings, — should be 
placed so that the Carver may observe them and 
invite the Guests to partake of them. 

N.B. Fish, like Meat, requires more cooking in cold 
than in warm weather ; — if it becomes frozen*, it must 
be thawed by the means we have directed for Meat, 
in the 6th page of the 2d Chapter of the Rudiments of 
Cookery. To go to Market for fish, see Observa- 
tions, after (No. 182.) and the Marketing Tables, at the 
end of this Work. 

FISH SAUCES. 

The MELTED Butter (No. 256.) for Fish, should he 
thick enough to adhere to the Fish, and, therefore, 

* Fish is very frequently sent home frozen by the Fishmonger, to whom an 
Ice-house is now as i;ecessary an appendage (tc preserve Fish)— as it is to a 
Confectioner. 



116 Tisn. 

must be of the thickness of light Batter, as it is to be 
diluted with — Fssence of Anchovy. (No. 433.) 

Soy, (No. 436.) Mushroom Catnup, (No. 439.) 
Cayenne, (No. 404.) or Chilli Vinegar, (No. 405 ) 
Lemons or Lemon Juice, or Artijicial Ltmoa Juicc^ 
see (No. 407*.) &c. which are expected at all well 
served Tables. 

Cooks, who are jealous of the reputation of their 
Taste, and Housekeepers uho laluc their Uealtli, ui/l 
prepare thae articles at home; — there are quite as many 
reasons why they should, as there are for the preference 
usually given to Hume baked Bread and Home-breued 
Beer*, &c. see Accum on Adulterations of Bread, 
Beer, Wine, Tea, Coffee, Vinegar, Mustard, 
Pepper, &c. " Indeed it would be difficult to men- 
tion a single article of food which is not to be met 
with in an adulterated state; and there are some 
which are scarcely ever to be procured genuine." 
12mo. 1820, page *3, '2nd Ldition. 

N.B. The Jjiirr of the Fish, pounded and mixed 
with Parsley and Butter, with a little Lemon Juice, 
&c. is an elegant and inoffensive relisli to Fish. See 
(No. 288.) Mushroom Sauce E.itempure, (No. 307), 
the Soup of Mock Turtle, (No. 247 , will make an 
excellent Fish Sauce. 

On the comparatively nutritive qualities of Fish, 
see N.B. to (No. 181.) 



• See Accum o.n Brewing — ICino. 1820 — and " Ilojiii Brewld Ale," 
by a Housekeeper, Robinson, 1804, in page 18: our Uoiisikeeper tells us, 
that " a poor widow in his uei'^hbxui hood, has filled up a Brewery for the 
sum of eighteenpence sterling! A bntiei-tub (price nine-pence) is her masb- 

tub: three half tubs of smaller size, (at threepence each) are her coolers 

with these she brews half a buihcl of malt at a time, and declares Ihat she finds 
her Home Brewed Ale " very coinj'ortahle indeed." — See also Rawlinso.n 
on Brewi.vg Malt LiQUOR_/br Domestic use — printed for Johnson, InU 
Edition, 18u7, price is. 



RUDIMENTS OF COOKERY. 



CHAPTER VII. 

BROTHS AND SOUPS. 

The Cook must pay continual attention to the condi- 
tion of her Stewpans * and Soup-kettles, &c. — which 
should be examined every time they are used. Tlie pru- 
dent Huvsewife uill carefuUij examine the condition of them 
herself at least once a month. Their covers also must be 
kept perfectly clean and well tinned, — and the Stewpans 
not only on the inside, but about a couple of inches on 
the outside : — many mischiefs arise from their g:etting 
out of repair, — and if not kept nicely tinned^ all your 
good work xiill be in tain ; the Broths and Soups will 
look ^reen and dirty, — taste bitter and poisonous, — 
and will be spoiled both for the Eye and Palate, and 
your credit will be lost. 

The Health, and even Life of the family, depends 
upon this, and the Cook may be sure, her Employers 
had rather pay the Tinman's bill than the Doctor's ; — 
therefore, attention to this cannot fail to engage the 
regard of the Mistress, between whom and the Cook, 
— it will be my utmost endeavour to promote perfect 
Harmony. 

If a serxant has the 7ni fortune to scorch or blister the 
tinning of her Pan-f, which will happen sometimes to the 
most careful Cook, — 1 advise her, by all means, imme- 
diately to acquaint her employers, who will thank her 



• V\*e prefer the form of a Stewpan, to the Soup-Pot,— the former is more 
eonvenient to skim; the most useful size is 12 inches diameier by 6 inches 
deep: this we would have of Silver, — or Iron, — or Copper lined (not plated) 
with Silver. 

+ This may be always avoided by Browning your meat in the Frying- 
pan — it is the browning of the meat that destroys the Stew pan. 



118 BROTHS AND SOUPS. 

for candidly mentioning such an accident; and cen- 
sure her deservc'Jly if she conceal it. 

Take care to be properly provided with Sieves and 
Tammy cloths, — Spoons, and Ladles, — make it a 
rule -without an exception, never to use them till they are 
well cleaned and thoroughly dried, — nor any Stew- 
pans, &c., without first washing them out with boiling 
water, and rubbing them well with a dry cloth and a 
little bran, to clean them from grease, sand, &c. or any 
bad smell they may have got since they were last 
used : never neglect this. 

Though we do not suppose our Cook to be such a 
naughty Slut, as to wilfully neglect her Buoth Pots, 
&c. yet we may recommend her to wash them imme- 
diately, and take care they are thoroughly dried before 
the fire, before they are put by, and to keep them in a 
dry place, for damp will rust and destroy them very 
soon : — attend to this the first moment you can spare 
after the dinner is sent up. 

Never put by any Soup, Gravy, &c., in a metal 
utensil ; in which, never keep any thing longer than is 
absolutely necessary for the purposes of Cookery, — 
the acid, vegetables, and fat, &c. employed in making 
them — are capable of dissolving them; therefore stone 
or earthen vessels should be used for this purpose. 

Stewpans and Soup-pots, with thick and round 
bottoms, (such as saucepans are made with) will wear 
twice as long, and are cleaned with half the trouble, as 
those whose sides are soldered to the bottom, of which 
Sand and Grease get into the joined part, and it is next to 
an impossibility, to dislodge it. The Editor claims the 
credit of having first suggested the importance of this 
construction of these utensils. 

Take care that the Lids fit as close as possible, that 
the Broth, Soup, and Sauces, &c. may not waste by 
evaporation*. They are good for nothing, unless they 

• " Fil-on jamais de bon bouillon — dans une marmite decouvcrtel Quelle 



BROTHS AND SOUPS. 119 

lit tight enough to keep the Steam in, and the Smoke 
out. 

Stewpans and saucepans should be always bright on 
the upper rim, where the fire does not burn them : but 
to scower them all over, is not only giving the Cook- 
needless trouble, but wearing out the vessels. 

Cultivate habits of regularity and cleanliness, &c. in 
all your business, — which you will then get through 
easily and comfortably. — I do not mean the restless 
spirit of Mulidusta, " the Tidy One" who is always 
frisking about, in a v/hirlpool of bustle and confusion ; 
and is always dirty, — under pretence of being always: 
cleaning. 

Lean juicy Beef, — Mutton, — or Veal, — form the 
basis of Broth : — procure those pieces which afford 
the most and the richest succulence, and as fresh 
killed as possible*. See The Marketing Tables at 
the end of this work. 

Stale Meat will make your broth grouty and bad 
tasted, and Fat meat is only wasted. This only ap- 
plies to those Broths which are required to be perfectly 
clear: we shall show hereafter, in (No. 229.) that Fat 
ajid Clarified Drippings may be so combined with 
Vegetable Mucilage, as to aflord, at the small cost of 
ONE Penny per Quart, a nourishing, and palatable 
Soup, fully adequate to satisfy Appetite, and support 
strength : — this will open a new source to those bene- 

difference de gout, d'odeur, et de substance entre irne tranche de Boeuf cuite a 
fea lent, dans uu valsseau fcrme, ou un morceau de Bceuf cuit ^gros bouillons, 
dans une marmite enti^rement onverte! L'avantage en est si consequent, que 
j'ai souvent reussi h faire de meilleur bouillon, en quantite egale, avec moi- 
ti^ moins de viande, dans une marmite bien fermee, qu'avec le double dans 
un vaisseau oiivert. D'oii provient done cette difference etonnante? C'esl 
que dans un vaisseau decouvert, la plus grande partie du sue des viandes et dn 
boaillon se dissipent en vapeurs, tandis que dans un vaisseau ferme, ces exha- 
lations nutritives, toujours ccndensees, sont dans nue distillation {)erpetuellej 
qui, relorabant dans le vase comme la rosee, concentre la totalite de icur 
sacs, et conserve toutes leurs substances nourici^res." 

• In general, it has been considered the best Economy to use the cheapest 
and most inferior meats for Soup, &c. and to boil it down till it is entirely- 
destroyed, and hardly worth pnttinginto the Ilog-tub. This is a false Frugality: 
buy good fieces o/ Meat, and only steiv them till they are d&ne enough 
to be eaten. 



120 



BPOTIIS AN D SOUPS. 



volent housekeepers, who are disposed to relieve the 
Poor, — and will show the industrious classes how 
much they have it in their power to assist themselves, 
and rescue them from being; objects of Charity depend- 
ent on tlie precarious bounty of others, — by teaching 
them how they may obtain a cheap, abundant, salu- 
brious, and agreeable ahment for themselves and 
families. 

This Soup lias the advantag:e of bcinp: very easily 
and very soon made, with no more fuel than is neces- 
sary to warm a room — those who have not tasted it, 
cannot imao;ine what a salubriojjs, savoury and satisfy- 
iniT iMtal is produced by the judicious comljination of 
cheap homely in^^redients. 

Scotch B.vRLi.Y Broth, (No. 204) will furnish a 
G(m(l I)tn/,ii i.i Soup and Mcat for Five jkiicp p^r Hrod, 
Peask Soup (No.2'21), will cost only Sixpence per ilitart^ 
Ox Tail Si)LP(\o. 240) or the same Portable Soup, 
(No. 252) for liie-pence per Quart, and (No. 224) an 
excellent Guavy So up for Four-pence halfpenny per 
Quar/. Di'CK GiBLET Soup, (No. 244) for Three-pence 
per Qurirt, and Fowls' Head Soup in the same manner 
Jar i(i/i /ess. (No. 239) will give you a good and 
PLENTIFUL Dinner for Six people for Two Shillings 
and Tuo pence. See also Shin of Beff stew: d, (No. 
493; and Ala mode Beef (.No. 502j. 



BUOTH HERBS, SOUP ROOTS, AND SEASONINGS. 



Scotch barley, (No. 204.) 

Pearl barley, 

Flour, 

Oatmeal, (No. 572.) 

Bread, 

Raspings, 

Pea.s, 



Bt-ans, 

Rice, 

Vermicelli, 

Maccaroni, 

Isinglass, 

Potatoe mucilage, (448.) 

Mushrooms*, (No. 439.) 



• iMubHRooM Catsup, made as (No. 4.^9,) or (No. 440,) will answrrafl 
tl«e purpose o( .MnslirooiuB iu soup or sauce, and no siore-room ibuuid be 
Milhout a siuck uf it. 



BROTHS AND SOUPS. 



121 



Champignons, 

Parsnips, (No. 213.) 

Carrots, (No. 212.) 

Beet roots, 

Turnips, (No. 208.) 

Garlick, 

Shallots, see (No. 402.) 

Onions*, 

Leeks, 

Cucumberf, 

Celery, (No. 214.) 

Celery seedt, 

Cress seed, see (No. 397. 1|) 

Parsleyll, see N. B. to (No. 

261.) 
Common Thyme ||, 
Lemon Thyme ||, 



Orange Thyme 1|, 
Knotted Marjoram 1|, (No. 

417.) 
Sage 11, 

Mint, (No. 398.) 
Winter Savoury H, 
Sweet Basil 11, (No. 397.) 
Bay leaves, 
Tomatoe, 

Tarragon, (No. 396.) 
Chervil, 

Burnet, (No. 399.) 
Allspice §, (No. 412.) 
Cinnamon^, (No. 416.*) 
Ginger§, (No. 411.) 
Nutmeg^, 
Clove, (No. 414.) 



• All Cooks agree in this opinion, 
No savoury dish withoict an Omon. 

Sliced Onionx fried, see (No. £99,) and note iiuder (No. 517,) vvitli some 
butter and flour, liil they are browned, (<uid rubbed through h sieve,) are ex- 
cellent to heighten the colour and flavour of brown soups and sauces, and 
form the basis of most of the Relishes furnished by the *' Restaurateurs" — 
as we 51 rss from the odour which ascends from their Kitchens, and salutes 
our olfactory nerves '' en passant " 

The older and drier the Onion, the stronger its flavour, and the Cook will 
regulate the quantity she uses accurdingly. 

t Burnet has exactly the same flavour as Cucumber, — sac Burnet Vinegar, 
(No. 399.) 

1 The concentration of flavour in Celery and Cress Seed is such, that 
half a drachm of it, {finely pou?ided) or double the quantity if not ground or 
pounded, costing only one third of a Farthing, wWi impregnate half a gallon 
of soup with almost as much relish as two or three heads of the fresh vegetable, 
weighing seven ounces, and costing Two-pence. Ihis valuible acquisition to 
the .Soup-pot deserves to be univers.dly known. See also (No. 409,) l^ssence 
of Celery. Ihis is the most frugal Kelish we have to introduce to the Eco- 
nomist — but that our judgment in Palatics may not be called in q'lestion by 
our fellow mortals, who, as the Craniologists say, happen to have the Organ 
of Taste stronger than the Organ of Accumulutiie>>ess, we must confess, 
that, with the flavour, it docs not impart the delicate sweetness, &c. of the 
fresh Vegetable: and when used, a bit of .Sugar should accompany it. 

(I S(?e (No. 410) and (xVo. 4C0) and (No. 459.) Fiesli green Basil is seldom 
to be procured. When dried, much of its fine flavour is lost, which is fully 
extracted by pouring wine on the fiesh leaves, (see 397-) 

To procure and preserve the flavour of sweet and savodry H£RBs, 
celery, &c. these must be dried, &c. at home, (see No. 417* and 46l.) 

$ See (No. 421) and (No. 457.) 

G 



122 BR0TH3 AND SOUPS. 

Mace, Lemon-juice*, 

Black pepper, I Seville orange juice f, 

Lemon-peel, (No. 407 and Kssence of Anchovy, see 

408.) (No. 433.) 
White pepper, 

'1 he above Materials — Wine and Mushroom Catsup, 
(No. 439), combined in various ])roportions, — will nmke 
an endless variety t of excellent Broths and Soups, quite 
as pleasant to the Palate, and as useful and agreeable 
to the Stomach, as consuming Pheasants and Par- 
tridges, and the long list of inflammatory, piquante, and 
rare and costly articles, recommended by former 
Cookery-book makers, — whose elaborately com- 
pounded Soups, are like their Made Dishes ; — iii 
which, though variety is aimed at, every thing has the 
same Taste, — and nothing its uun. 

The general fault ojuur English Soups, seems to 



• If yon have not fresh orange or Lemon Juice, or Coxwell's crystalllKed 
Ixinou Acid, the artificial Lttnun Juice (No. 407) i» a good lubstilute 
for it. 

t The juice of the Seville Oh4NOE is to be preferred to that of the 
Lemon,— the Flavonr is finer and the Acid milder. 

I The erudite editor of the " Almanack des Gourmands," voL il. p. 30, 
tells 119, that ten fulio volumes would not contain the Receipts of all the Soups 
that have been invented in that Grand School of Good Ealing,— the Parisian 
Kitchen. 

We add the following Directions for SouP-MAKlNO from the celebrated 
French Chemist, Parme.ntier: — 

Rigles giniraUs pour la Preparation des Bouillons Alimentaires. 

1. viande saine, et convenablenient sai{;n^e. 

2. Vaisseaux de tii re, de preference a ceux de m^tal, parce que les premiers 
sont moins condutteurs de la chaleur, et qu'une fois echautles, un peu de 
cendre chaude entrtticnt IVbullition Ug^re que Ton desire. 

3. Eau en qnaniitr double dn poids a celle de la viande employee. 

4. Sutlisaiitu quaulile de »el commun pour faciliter la separation de I'albu- 
miiie, ain?i que sa coagulation sous forme d'tcnme. 

5. Temptrature capable de porter le melange a rebollitiou pendant tout k 
temps que I'l cume se rassemblera ii la surlace du liquide, et qu'on aura sola 
d'l-n separer exactemtnt. 

6. Temptrature plus basse aprds I'op^-raiion precedente, et toujonrs cou- 
stante, afin que le liquide ne tasse que fremir legerement, pour doiwier le 
temps aux substances nutritives, colorantes et extractives, contenues dans la 
viande, de s'uiiir el de se combiner avec I'eau, dans I'ordic qui convieiil a i«ui 
jolubilite.— I'AR JiE.\ri£R, Code Pharmaceutiqut, 1811, p. 444. 



BROTHS AND SOUPS. '123 

be the employment of an excess of SpicE; and too small a 
proportion o/" Roots and Herbs*. 

Besides the Ingredients I have enumerated, many 
Culinary scribes indiscriminately cram into almost 
every Dish (in such inordinate Quantities — one would 
suppose they were working for the Asbestos palate 
of an Indian Fire-Eater) Anchovies, — Garlickf? — Bay 
leaves, and that hot fiery spice CayenneX pepper; this 
v/hich the French call (not undeservedly) Piment enrage^ 
(No. 404,) has somehow or other — unaccountably 
— acquired a character for being xery wholesome^ — 
whilst the milder Peppers and Spices, are cried down, 
as destroying the sensibility of the Palate, and Stomach, 
&c., and being the source of a thousand mischiefs. — 
We should just as soon recommend Alcohol as being 
less intoxicating than IVine. 

The best thing that has been said in praise of 
Peppeus is, '* that with all kinds of Vegetables, as 
" also with Soups (especially vegetable soups) and 
*' Fish, either Black or Cayenne tcpper may be taken 
" freely : they are the most useful stimulants to Old 
" Stomachs, and often supersede the cravings for 
" strong drinks; or diminish the quantity otherwise 
" required." See Sir A. Carlisle on Old Age^ 



• " Point de Legumes, point de Cuiiiiiiere" is a favourite culinary 
adage of the French kitchen; and deserves to be so : a better soup may be 
tna<le with a couple of pounds of Meat and plenty of Vegetables, than our 
common Cooks will n)ake you with four times that quantity of meat; all for 
want of knowing the uses of Soup roots, and Sv/eet and Savoury herbs. 

t Many a i^ood dish is spoiled, by the cook not knowing the proper use 
of this, which is to give a flavour, and not to be predominant over the other 
ingredients : a morsel mashed with the point of a knife, and stirred in, is 
enough. See (Mo. 4OC.) 

X Foreigners have strange notions of English Taste, on which one of their 
Culinary Professors has made the following comment: " J he organ of Taste 
in these I&landkrs is very ditferent from our Delicate Palates — and saTice 
that would excoriate the palate of a Frenchman, would be hardly piquante 
enough to make any impression on that of an i.nglishrnan ; — thus, they 
prefer Port to Claret," &c. As far as concerns our Drinking, we wish there 
was not quite so much truth in Monsieur's remarks: but the < haracicristic 
«>f the French and English kitchen is, Sauce without Substance — and 
Substance witliout Sauce. 

To make Cayenne of English Chillies, of infinitely finer flavour than the 
Indian, see (No. 404.) 

G 2 



124 BROTHS AND SOUPS. 

London, 1817. A certain portion of Condiment is 
occasionally serviceable to excite and keep up the 
languid action of feeble and advanced Life; — we must 
increase the stimulus of our aliment as the inirritability 
of our system increases. — We leave those tcho hie these 
thifigs, to use them as they like ; their flavours can be 
very extemporaneously produced by Chilly-juice, or 
essence of Cayenne (\o. 40.5), Eshallot wine (No. 40^), 
and Essence of Anchovy (No. 433). 

There is no French Dinner without Soup, which is re- 
garded as an indispensable Oicrture ; - it is commonly 
followed by " le Coup d'Apris^' a Glass of pure Wine, 
which they consider so wholesome after Soup, that their 
Proverb says, the Physician thereby loses a Fee; — 
whether the glass of Wine be so much more advan- 
tageous for the Patient than it is for his Doctor, we 
know not, but believe it an excellent plan to begin the 
Banquet with a basin of good Soup — which, by mode- 
rating the Appetite for solid Animal food — is certainly 
a salutifcrous custom. — Between the Roasts and the 
Entremets — they introduce " /e Coup du Milieu'' — or 
a small glass of Jamaica Rum, or Essence of' Punch, 
see (No. 471); or Cuuac^ao (No. 474). 

The introduction of Liqueurs is by no means a 
modern custom ; our ancestors were very fond of a 
highly s^:;;ccd stimulus of this sort, commonly called 
Ipocrasse, which generally made a part of the last 
course — or was taken immediately after dinner. 

The Crafte to make Ypocras. 

" Take a quarte of red wyne, an ounce of syTiamon, 
and halfe an unce of gynger ; a quarter of an ounce of 
greyne-s (probably of paradise) and long peper. and 
halfe a pounde of sugar; and brose {bruise) all this 
{not too small), and then put them in a bage {bag) of 
wullen clothe, made therefore, with the Wyne ; and 
lete it hange over a vessel, till the wynee be run 
thorowe." — An extract from Arnold's Chronicle. 



BROTHS AND SOUPS. 125 

It is a Custom which almost universally prevails in 
the Northern parts of Europe, to present a Dram or 
glass of Liqueur, before sitting down to Dinner: — this 
answers the double purpose of a whet to the Appetite, 
and an announcement that Dinner is on the point of 
being served up. — Along with the Dram, is presented 
on a waiter, little square pieces of Cheese, slices of 
cold Tongue, and dried Tongue, and dried Toast ac- 
companied with fresh Caiiar. 

We again caution the Cook to avoid Over- Seasoning, 
especially with predominant flavours, which, however 
agreeable they may be to some, are more extremely 
disagreeable to others, see page 59. 

Zest (No. 255), Soy (No. 436), — Cavice — Coratch 

— Anchovy (No. 433), — Curry powder (No. 455), 

— Savory Ragout Powder (No. 457), — Soup Herb 
Powder — (No. 459) — and (460), — Browning (No. 
322), — Catsups (No. 432), — Pickle liquor — Beer — 
Wine, and Sweet Herbs, and Savory Spice (No. 460), 
are very convenient auxiliaries to finish Soups, &c. 

The proportion of Wixe (formerly Sack, — then 
Claret, — now Madeira or Port) should not exceed a 
large W' ine-glassful to a Quart of Soup : — this is as 
much as can be admitted, without the vinous flavour 
becoming remarkably predominant ; — though not only 
much larger quantities of Wine, (of which Claret is in- 
comparably the best, because it contains less spirit and 
more flavour, and English palates are least acquainted 
with it); but even veritable Eau de Vie is ordered in 
many books, and used by many (especially Tavern 
Cooks) — so much are their Soups overloaded with relish, 
that if you will eat enough of them they will certainly 
make you Drunk, if they don't make you Sick — all 
this, frequently arises from an old Cook measuring the 
excitability of the Eaters' palates by his own, — which 
may be so blunted by incessant Tasting, that to awaken 
it, — requires Wine instead of water, and Cayenne and 
Garlick, for Black pepper and Onion. 



126 BROTHS AND SOUPS. 

Old Cooks are as fond of Spice — as Children are 
of Sugar, and season SOUP, which is intended to 
constitute a principal part of a Meal, — as highly 
as SAUCE, of which only a spoonful may be Relish 
enough for a plate of insipid Viands. See Obs. to 
(No. 355.) — However, we fancy these large quan- 
tities of Wine, &c. are oftener ordered in Cookery 
Books than used in the Kitchen: — practical Cooks 
have the Health of their employers too much at heart, 
— and love " Same a la Langae'' too well, to overwine 
their Soup, &c. 

Truffles and Morels* are also set down as a 
part of most receipts. — These, in their Green state, 
have a very rich, high flavour, and are delicious addi- 
tions to some dishes, or sent up as a stew by them- 
selves, when they are fresh and Hne ; but in this state 
they are not served up half a dozen times in a year, at 
the first tables in the kingdom : — when dried, they be- 
come mere " chip.s vi pottage,'^ and serve only to soak up 
good Gravy, — from which, they take more Taste — 
than they give. 

The Art 0/ composing a rich Soup, is so to proportion 
the several ingredients one to another, that no parti- 
cular Taste be stronger than the rest ; — but lo produce 
such a fine harmonious relish, that the whole is de- 
lightful ; — this requires that judicious combination of 
the materials which constitutes the " Jief-d'ainre'" oi 
Culinary Science. 

In the first place, take care that the Roots and Herbs 
be perfectly well cleaned ; — proportion the Water to 
the quantity of Meat, and other ingredients, — gene- 
rally a pound of meat to a quart of water, for Soups ; 
and"^ double that quantity for Gravies. If they Stt-iv 
gently, little more water need be put in at first, than is 
expected at the end ; — for when the Pot is covered 
quite close and tiie fire gentle, very little is wasted. 

• We tried to ni^ke Catsup of these by treating them like Musbr>.oru» 
(No. 439), but did iiol succeed. 



BROTHS AND SOUPS. 127 

Gentle Stev/ing is incomparably the best, — the 
Meat is more tender, and the Soup better flavoured. 

It is of the first importance, that the Cover of a Soup 
Kettle should fit very close, — or the broth will evaporate 
^"before you are aware of it. The most essential parts 
are soon evaporated by Quick Boiling — without any 
benefit, except to fatten the fortunate Cook who inhales 
them. — An evident proof that these Exhalations* 
possess the most restorative qualities, is, that the Cook 
— who is in general the least Eater — is, as generally, 
the Fattest person in the Family — from, continually 
being surrounded by the Quintessence of all the food 
she dresses, — whereof, she sends to her Master only 
the fibres and calcinations — who is consequently Thin 

— Gouty — and the Victim of Diseases arising from 
insufficient nourishment. 

It is not only \\iejihrts of the meat which nourish us 

— but the Juices they contain — and these are not only 
extracted but exhaled, if it be boiled fast in an open 
vessel — a succulent soup can never be made but in a 
well closed vessel, which preserves the nutritive parts by 
preventing their dissipation. — This is a fact of which 
every intelligent person will soon perceive the im- 
portance. 

Place your Soup-pot over a moderate jire, Zihich mil 
make the water hut, without causing it to boil — for at (east 
ha/fan Hour ; — if the water boils immediately, —it will 
not penetrate the meat, and cleanse it from the clotted 
blood, and other matters which ought to go off in 
skura ; the meat will be hardened all over by violent 

* "A poor man beine v.ry hu. gry, staid so lon^ in a Cook's shop, -who 
was difhing up meat, that hi? stomach was satisfied with only the smell thereof. 
The Chi.ieiic Cook demanded of him to pay for his breakfast: the poor man 
<ienie(i having had any, asid the controversy was referred to the deciding 
of tlie i.est man that should pass by, who chanced to be the most notorious 
Idiot in the whole city: he, oa the relation of the matter, determined that 
the poor man's money should be put betwixt two empty dishes, and the cook 
should be recompensed with the jinglii.g of the poor man's money, as he 
was satistied with the smell uf the Cook's m.iat." This is affirmed by credible 
•writers as no fable, but an undoubted truth. —Fcller's Holy State, lib. iii. 
c. \<i. p. 2u. 



128 BROTHS AND SOUPS. 

Heat, — will shrink up as if it was scorched — and 
give hardly any Gravy; — on the contrary, — by keep- 
ing tlie Water a certain time heating without boil'ng — 
the Meat swells — becomes tender — its fibres are di- 
lated — and it yields a quantity of Skuniy which must 
be taken off as soon as it appears. 

It is not till after a good Half Hour's hot infusion, 
that we may mend the Fire, and make the Pot boil — 
still continue to remove t/ic Skum, and when no more 
appears, put in the Vegetables, &c. and a little salt. 
These will cause more Skum to rise — which must be 
taken ofl' immediately — then cover the pot very closely, 
and place it at a proper distance from the fire, where it 
will boil very gently and equally, and by no means fast. 

By quick and strong Boiling, the volatile and finest 
parts of the ingredients are evaporated, and fly off with 
the steam, and the coarser parts are rendered soluble; 

— so you lose the good, and get the bad. 
Soups will generally take T/irce to Six hours. 
Prepare your Broths and Soups the Evening before 

you uant t/iem. This will give you more time to at- 
tend to the rest of your Dinner the next day; — and 
when the Soup is cold, the Fat may be much more 
easily and completely removed from the surface of it; 

— when you decant it, take care not to disturb the 
settlings at the bottom of the vessel, which are so fine, 
that they will escape through a Sieve, or even through 
a Tammis, which is the best strainer, — the Soups ap- 
pear smoother and finer — and it is much easier cleaned 
than any sieve. If you strain it while it is Hot, pass it 
through a clean Tammis or Napkin previously soaked 
in cold water ; the coldness of this will coagulate the 
Fat, and only suffer the pure Broth to pass through. 

The full flavour of the Ingredients can only be ex- 
tracted by very long and slow simmering ; — - during 
which, take care to prevent Evaporation by covering the 
Pot as close as possible : — the best Stewpot is a 
Digester. 



BROTHS AND SOUPS. 129 

Clear Soups, must be perfectly transparent, — Thick- 
ened Soups, about the consistence of rich Cream, — 
and remember that Thickened Soups require nearly double 
the quantity of Seasoning. — The Piquance of Spice, &c. is 
as much blunted by the Flour and Butter, — as the Spirit 
of Rum is by the addition of Sugar and Acid — so they 
are less salubrious, without being more savoury — from 
the additional quantity of Spice, &c. that is smuggled 
into the Stomach. 

To THICKEN AND GIVE BoDY TO SoU PS AND 

Sauces, th^ follovvinp; materials are used- — they must 
be gradually mixed with the Soup, till thoroughly incor- 
porated with it; and it should have, at least, half an 
hour's gentle simmering after : if it is at all lumpy, pass 
it through a Tammis or a fine Sieve. — Bread raspings, 
— Bread, — Isinglass, — Potatoe mucilage, (No. 448) 
fat skimmings and Flour, see (No. 248) — or Flour and 
Butter — or Flour ; Barley, see (No. 204), Rice, or Oat- 
meal and water rubbed well together, see (No. 257), in 
which this subject is fully explained. 

To give that Glutinous quality so much admired in 
Mock Turtle, see (No. 198), and^^ote under (No. 247), 
(No. 252), and N. B. to (No. 48 1 .) 

To their very rich Gravies, &c. the French add the 
white meat of Pr.rtridges, Pigeons, or Fowls, pounded 
to a pulp, and rubbed through a sieve ; — a piece of 
Beef, which has been boiled to make Broth, pounded 
in the like manner, v/ith a bit of butter and flour, (see 
Obs. to (No. 485*) and (No. 503), and gradually incor- 
porated with the Gravy or Soup, will be found a satis- 
factory substitute for tliese more expensive articles. 

Meat from which Broth has been made, (No. 185*) and 
(No. 252), and all its juice has been extracted, is then 
excellently well prepared for potting, see (No. 503), 
— and is quite as good, or better than that which has 
been baked till it is dry* ; indeed if it be pounded, and 

• If the Gravy be not completely drained from it, the article potted wiH 
very soon turn sour. 

G 5 



130 



BROTTIS AND SOTPS. 



seasoned in the usual manner, it will be an elegant and 
savoury lAinchcon — or Supper, — and costs notlting- 
but the trouble of preparing it, which is very little, and 
a Relish is procured, for Sandwiches, &c., (No. 504) 
— of what heretofore has been, by the poorest House- 
keeper, considered the perquisite nf the Cat. 

Keep SU771C spare Bridh, lest your Soup liquor waste 
in boiling, and get too thick, and for Gravy for your 
Made Dishes — various Sauces, &c. for many of 
which it is a much better basis than Melted Butter. 

The Soup of Mock Turtle, and the other thickened 
Soups (No. 247), will supply you with a thick Gravy 
Sauce for Poultry— Fish — kasiouts, &c. ; and by a little 
management of this sort, you may generally contrive 
to have plenty of Ciood Gravies and Good Sauces with 
very little trouble or expense. See also Portable 
Soup, (No. 252.) 

Ij' Soup is to'j thin or too ucak, — take off the cover 
of your soup-pot, and let it boil till some of the watery 
part of it has evaporated, — or else, add some of the 
Thickening materials we have before mentioned ; and 
have at hand some plain Browning: see (No. 322;, 
and the Obs. thereon. — This simple preparation is much 
better than any of the compounds bearing that name, 
as it colours Sauce or Soup, without much interfering 
with its flavour, and is a much better way of Colouring 
them than burning the surface of the Meat. 

When Soups and Gravies are kept from day to day, 
in Hot -weather, they should be wanned up every day, 
and put into fresh scalded tureens, or pans, and placed 
in a cool cellar; — in Temperate xceather, every other day 
may be enough. 

We hope we have now put the common Cook into pos- 
session of the whole arcana of Soupmaking, — without 
much trouble to herself, or expense to her employers ; 
— and that it will not be said, in future, — that an 
Englishman only knows how to make Soup in his Sto- 
mach; — by swilling down a large quantity of Ale, or 



BROTHS AND SOUPS. 131 

Porter, to quench the thirst occasioned by the Meat 
he eats : — John Bull may now make his Soup " se- 
cundum artem'* and save his principal viscera a great 
deal of trouble. 

%* In the following Pieceipts we hare directed the 
Spices* and Flavouring to be added at the usual time ; — 
but it would greatly diminish the expense^ and improve the 
Soups f if the Agents employed to give them a Zest, were not 
put in above fifteen minutes before the finish, — and half the 
quantity of spice, SfC. would do. — A strong Heat soon dis- 
sipates the spirit of the Wine, and evaporates the aroma and 
flavour of the Spices and Herbs, — which are volatile in the 
heat of Boiling water. 

In ordering the proportions of meat, — butter, — 
WINE, &c. — the proper quantity is set down, and less will 
not do : — we have carried Economy quite as far as pos- 
sible without " spoiling the Broth for a halfpenny worth 
ofSaltr 

I conclude these remarks, with observing, that some 
persons imagine that Soup tends to relax the Stomach 
— so far from being prejudicial, we consider the mo- 
derate use of such liquid nourishment, to be highly 
salutary. — Does not our food and drink, even though 
cold, become in a few minutes a kind of warm Soup in 
the stomach ; — and, therefore, Soup, if not eaten too 
hot, or in too great a quantity, and of proper quality, 
is attended with great advantages, especially to those 
who drink but little. 

Warm Fluids in the form of Soup, unite with our 
juices much sooner, and better, than those that are 
coid and raw — on this account. Restorative Soup is 
the best Food for those who are enfeebled by Disease 
or Dissipation, and for old people, whose Teeth and 
Digestive organs are impaired. 

" Half subtiliz'd to Chyle— the liquid food 
P^eadiest obeys th' assimilating powers." 

• These Economijts recommend to be pounded ; they certainly go farther, 
as they call it; — but we think they go too far, — for they go through ttiC 
sieve, and make the soup grouty. 



132 



BROTHS AND SOUPS. 



After catching Cold, — in Nervous headachs, — Cliolics, 
Indigestions, and dirt'crent kinds of Cramp and Spasms 
in the Stomach, — warm Broth is of excellent service. 

After intemperate feasting-, to give the Stomach a 
holiday, for a day or two, by a diet on Mutton Broth, 
(No. 564) or (No. 572), or Vegetable Soup, (No. 218), 
&c. is the best way to restore its Tone. See Peptic Pre- 
cepts. *' The stretching any power to its utmost ex- 
tent, weakens it. If the Stomach be every day obliged 
to do as much as it can, it will every day be able to do 
less. A wise traveller will never force his horse to 
perform as much as he can, in one day, upon a long 
journey." — I'aihcr Feyjoo's llulcs, p. 85. 

To WARM Soups, &c. (No. 485.) 

N.B. With the port.aiilf, J^oup, (No. 252), a pint 
of Broth mav be made in five minutes for Three Pence. 



RUDIMENTS OF COOKERY. 



CHAPTER VIII. 

GRAVIES AND SAUCES. 



" The Spirit of each dish, and Zest of all, 
Is -what ingenious Cooks the liel'isfi call ; 
For though the market sencis in loads of food, 
They all are tasteless, till that makes them good." 

King's Art oj'Cookerij. 



*' Ex pariis, componere magna" 

It is of as much importance that the Cook should know 
how to make a boat of good Gravy for her Poultry, &c. 
as that it should be sent up of proper complexion, and 
nicely frothed. 

In this Chapter we shall endeavour to introduce to 
her all the Materials* vv'hich give flavour in Sauce, 
v^'hich is the Essence of Soup, and intended to contain 
more relish in a Tcaspoonful, than the former does in a 
Tablespoonjul. And we hope to deserve as much 
praise from the Economist, — as v/e do from the Bon 
Vivar.t ; — as we have taken great pains to introduce to 
him — the methods, of making Substitutes for those 
ingredients, which are always expensive, and often not 
to be had at all. These, those who have large families, 
and limited incomes, will no doubt be glad to avail 
themselves of. 



* See in pages IIQ — 20 — and 21, a Catalogue of the Ingredient? 
now used in Soups, Sauces, &cc. 



134 GRAVIES AND SAUCES. 

The reader may rest assured, that whether he con- 
sults this Book to diminish the expense, or increase 
the pleasures of Hospitality, — he will find all the in- 
formation that was to be obtained up to 1821, com- 
municated in the most unreserved and intelligible 
manner. 

A great deal of the Elegance of Cookery, — depends 
upon the Accompaniments to each dish being appro- 
priate, and well adapted to it. 

We can assure our readers, no attention has been 
wanting on our part to render this department of the 
work worthy their perusal: — each Receipt, — is the 
faithful narrative of actual and repeated experiments, — 
and has received the most deliberate consideration 
before it was here presented to them. — It is given in 
the most circumstantial manner, and not in the tech- 
nical, and mysterious language former writers on these 
subjects seem to have preferred: — by v.hich their 
directions are useless and unintelligible to all who have 
not regularly served an apprenticeship at the Stove. 

Thus, instead of accurately enumerating the Quan- 
tities, and explaining the process of each Composition, 

— they order a ladleful of Stock, — a pint of Conwnmif, 

— and a spoonful of Cul/is ; — as if a Private Family 
Cook had always at hand a soup-kettle full of Stuck, a 
store of Consomme, and the larder o{ Albion House— and 
the Spoons and Vcmiyuortha were the same in all ages. 

It will be to very little purpose I have taken so much 
pains to teach how to manage Roasts and Boils,— if a 
Cook cannot, or will not make the several Sauces that 
are usually sent up with them. 

The most homely fare may be made relishing, and 
the most excellent and independent, improved by a 
well made Sauce*, — as the most perfect Picture may 
bv being well varnished. 



• " It is the doty of a good Sance," says the editor of the Almanack des 
Caurmaiids, (vol. v. page 6,) " to insinuate itself, all roand and about the 



GRAVIES AND SAUCES. 135 

We have, therefore, endeavoured to give the plainest 
directions — how to produce v^ith the least trouble and 
expense* possible, — all the various compositions the 
English kitchen affords for the amusenvent of honest 
John Bull, — and hope to present not only a whole- 
some, but palatable variety to suit all tastes, and all 
pockets : so that a Cook may give satisfaction in all 
families : the more combinations of this sort she is 
acquainted with, the better she will comprehend the 
management of every one of them. 

We have rejected some Outlandish Farragoes — from a 
conviction they were by no means adapted to an English 
palate, — if they have been received into some English 
books, for the sake of swelling the volumef, we believe 
they will never be received by an Englishman's sto- 
mach, unless for the reason they were admitted into 
the Cookery book ; i. e. because he has nothing else 
to put into it. 



" maxillary glands, and impetjceptibly awaken iiito activity each ramitica- 
" tion of the Organs of Taste: if not sutficiently savoury, it cannot produce 
" this effect, and if too piquante, it will paralyze, instead of exciting, tlxse 
" delicious tiiillations of tongue, and vibrations of Palate, that only the 
" raost accomplished Philosophers of the Mouth can produce on the highly 
" educated palates of thrice happy <Jrands Goiirmands." 

* To save Time and Trouble is the most valuable frugaliiy; — rfiul if the 
mistress of a family will cou lescend to devote a little time to the prolitable 
and pleasant employment of preparing some of the Store Sauces, espr- 
cially Nos. 322, 402, 404, 413, 429, 433, 439, 454 ; these, both Epicures ami 
Economists will avail themselves of the advantage now given them, of 
preparing at home. 

By the hdlp of these, many Dishes may be dressed in half the usual Time, 
— and with half the J'ronble and Expense, — and flavoured and finished with 
much more certainty, than by the common methods. 

A small poition of the lime which young Ladies sacrifice to tortoring the 
strings of their Piano-Forte , employed in obtaining Domestic Accomplish- 
ments — might not make them worse wives, or less agreeable Compaiiiuiis to 
their Husbands. This was the opinion 200 years ago. 

" To speak then of the Knowledges which belong unto our British House- 
wife — 1 hold the most principal, to be a perfect skill in Cookeey : Shce 
that is utterly ignorant therein, may not by the Lawes of strict Justice, 
challenge the freedom of Marriage — becavne indeede Shee can perform but 
half her vow — Shee may love and obey, but she cannot cherish and keepe 
her Husband." — G. Markh\m's English Houseicife, 4to. l637, p. 62. 

We hope our fair Readers will forgive us, for telling them, that Economy in 
a Wife, — is the most certain Charm to ensure the Affection and Industry 
of a Husband. 

t Were these Books reduced to their Quintessence, many a bulky author 
would make his appearance in a Penny Paper , — Set Spectator, No. 124. 
Obs, on the Art of Book-making, &c. 



136 GRAVIES AND SAUCES. 

However " ks pompeuses Bagatelles de la Cuisine Mas- 
(juce' may tickle the fancy of dejni-connoi^setirs, who, 
leaving; the substance, to pursue the shadow, — prefer 
■wonderful and whimsical metamorphoses, and things 
extravagantly expensive to those which are intrin- 
sically excellent, — in whose mouth — Mutto.v can 
hardly hope for a welconie, unless accompanied by 
Venison Sance— or a Rabbit any chance for a race down 
the Red Lane, without assuming the form of a Frog 
or a Spider ; — or Pouk , without being either '* Goosijied" 
or " Lnmhijied'' (see No. 51), and Game and Poultry 
in the shape of Craxvfish or Hedgehogs. 

These Travesties rather show the patience than the 
science of the Cook, — and the bad taste of those who 
prefer such Baby tricks* to old English nourishing and 
substantial plain Cookery. 

We could have made this the bifrf^ost Pookf with 
half the trouble it has taken me to make it the best ; — 
Concentration and Perspicuity have been my aim. 

As much pains have been taken in describing, in the 
most intelligible manner, how to make in the easiest, 
most agreeable, and economical way, those Common 
Sauces that dai/jj conlribiitt to the comfort of the Middle 
ranks of Societv ; — as, in directing the preparation. 
of those extravagant and elaborate double relishes, 
the most ingenious and accomplished '* Oficers of the 
Mouth" have invented for the amusement of profound 
Palaticians, and thorough bred Grands Gourmands of 
the first magnitude: — these we have so reduced the 
trouble and expense of making, as to bring them within 
the reach of moderate fortunes ; still preserving all that 
is valuable of their taste and qualities; so ordering 
them, that tiiey may delight the Talatc, without dis- 

• " More for Shou- atid Sport than for Bellt-Timeer, and abont which 
ibc Good IIus?ri/e never tronbles her head." — See Joan Cromwell's 
Kitchen, ]6mo. i664, p. 3?. 

+ I intend here to otter to all such as please to peruse it, " a plain EoOK, 
which i3 ail and every part of it Book, and nothing but solid book from 
beginning to end." — Vide Trefacc to Dr. Fuller's " Introductio ad 
Prudentiam," Loudon, 12mo. 1721. 



GRAVIES AND SAUCES. 137 

ordering the Stomach; by leaving out those inflam- 
matory ingredients which are only fit for an " iron 
throat, and adamantine bowels/' and those costly ma- 
terials, which no rational being would destroy, for the 
wanton purpose of merely giving a fine name to the 
compositions they enter into, to whose excellence they 
contribute nothing else ; — for instance, consuming Txoo 
Partridges to make sauce for One; — half a pint of 
Game Gravy, (No. 329) will be infinitely more accept- 
able to the unsophisticated appetite of Englishmen, for 
whose proper and rational recreation we sat down to 
compose these Receipts : — whose approbation, we have 
done our utmost to deserve, by devoting much time to 
the business of the Kitchen; and by repeating the 
various processes that we thought admitted of the 
smallest improvement. 

We shall be fully gratified : if our Book is not bought 
up with quite so much avidity by those high bred Epi- 
cures, who are unhappily — so much more nice than 
wise, — that they cannot eat any thing dressed by an 
English Cook, — and vote it barbarously unrefined and 
intolerably ungenteel, to endure the sight of the best 
bill of fare that can be contrived, if written hi the Vul- 
gar tongue of Old England*. 

Let your Sauces each display a decided character ; 
send up your plain Sauces {Oyster^ Lobster, 8fC.) as 
pure as possible; — they should only taste of t lie materiah 
from "which they take their name. 

The imagination of most Cooks, is so incessantly on 
the hunt for a Relish, — that they seem to think, they 
can not make sauce sufficiently savoury, without put- 



• Though some of these people seem at last to lia%'e found out, — that an 
Englishman's head may be as full of gravy as a Frenchtaau's, — and willing 
to give the preference to native talent, retain an English man or woman as 
prime minister of their kitchen ; still they seem ashamed to confess it, and 
commonly insist as a " sine quel iion," ihai their English domestics should 
understand the " parlezvous ;" and notwithstanding ihey are perfectly 
initiated in all the minutiae of the Philosophy of the mouth, con?i;ier them 
ineligible, if they cannot scribble a hill of/are in pretty good bad i'reTic/i. 



138 GRAVIES AND SAUCES. 

ting into it, every thing that ever was eaten; — and 
supposing every addition must be an improvement, 
they frequently overpower the natural flavour of their 
PLAIN SAUCES, by Overloading them with salt and 
spices, &c.: — but, remember, these will be deterio- 
rated by any addition, save only just salt enough to 
awaken the Palate — the Lover of" Piquance' and Com- 
pound Flavours, may have recourse to " the Magazine 
of Taste," {^0.463.) 

On the contrary, of Compound Sauces --the ingre- 
dients should be so nicely proportioned, that no one be 
predominant; — so that, from the equal union of the 
combined flavours, such a fine mellow mixture is pro- 
duced, whose very novelty cannot fail of being accept- 
able to the persevering Gourmand, if it has not pre- 
tensions to a permanent place at his table. 

An ingenious Cook will form as endless a variety of 
these compositions as a Musician with his seven* notes, 
• — or a Painter with his colours ; — no part of her 
business offers so fair and frequent an opportunity to 
display her abilities, — Spices, Herbs, &c. are often 
very absurdly and injudiciously jumbled together. 

Why have Clove and Allspice, — or Mace and Nut- 
meg in the same sauce, — or Marjorum, — Tliynie, — 
and Savory; — or Onions, — Leeks, — Eshallots — and 
Garlick: — one will very w^ll supply the place of the 
other, — and the frii!2:al Cook may save something 
considerable by attending to this, to the advantage of 
her employers, and her own time and trouble. — You 
might as well, to make Soup, order one quart of water 
from the Thames, another from the New River, a third 
from Ilampslead, and a fourth from Chelsea, with a cer- 
tain portion of Spring and P\.'iin Water. 

In many of our Receipts, we have fallen in with the 



• The principal Agents now employed to flavour Soups and Sauci s, arc 
Mlshruoms (No. 139), Onions (No. 420), Anchovy (No. -133), Lemon 
Juice and Pekl, or Vinegar, Wine, (especially good Claret), Sweet 
Herbs, and Savoury Spice? — Nos. 420, 21, 22, and 457, 59, 60. 



GRAVIES AND SAUCES, 43& 

fashion of ordering a mixture of Spices, &c. which the 
above hint will enable the culinary student to correct. 

'* Pharmacy is now much more simple, — Cookery 
may be made so too. A Prescription which is now 
compounded with five ingredients, had formerly fifty in 
it — and people begin to understand, that the Materia 
Medica is little more than a collection of Evacuants, 
and Stimuli." — BosweWs Life of Johnson. 

The Ragouts of the last Cejitury had infinitely more 
ingredients than we use now — the praise given to 
Will. Rabisha for his Cookery, 12mo. 1673, is 

" To fry and fricasee, his way's most neat. 
For he compounds a thousaad sorts ot meat." 

To become a perfect Mistress of the art of cleverly 
extracting and combining Flavours*, besides the gift 
of a good Taste, requires all the experience and skill 
of the most accomplished Professor, and especiallv, — 
an intimate acquaintance with the Palate she is work- 
ing for. 

Send your Sauces to table as Hot as possible. 

Nothing need be more unsightly, than the Surface 
of a Sauce in a frozen state, or garnished with grease 
on the top; — the best way to get rid of this, is to pass 
it through a Tammis or Napkin previously soaked in 
cold water, the coldness of the napkin will coagulate 
the Fat, and only suffer the pure gravy to pass through; 
— if any particles of Fat remain, take them off by ap- 
plying filtering paper, as blotting paper is applied to 
Ink. 

Let your Sauces boil up after you put in Wine, 
Anchovy, or Thickening, that their flavours may be 
well blended with the other ingredients f ; and keep in 
mind, that the " chej-doeuvre' of Cookehy, — is to 
entertain the Mouth without offending the Stomach. 

* If your palate becomes dull by repeatedly tasting, the best way to refresh 
it, is to wash your mouth well with milk. 

t Before you put Eggs or Cream into a Sauce, hcve all your other 
ingredients well boiled, and tiie sauce or eonp of proper thickness, — because 



140 GRAVIES AND SAUCES. 

N.B. Although I have endeavoured to give the par- 
ticular quantity of each ingredient used in the following 
Sauces, as they are generally made, — still the Cook's 
judgment must direct her to lessen or increase either 
of the ingredients, — according to the taste of those 
she works tor, and will always be on the alert to 
ascertain what are the favourite Accompaniments desired 
with each dish. See Adxice to Cooks, page 59. 

When you open a bottle of Catsup, (No. 439), 
Essence of Anchoxy, (No. 433), Szc. throw away the 
old cork, and stop it closely with a new cork that 
will fit it very tight. Use only the best superfine Vel- 
vet taper corks. 

Economy in Corks is very unwise, — in order to save 
a mere trifle, in the price of the cork, you run the risk 
of losing the valuable article it is intended to preserve. 
— It is a J'ulgar Error, that a bottle must be well 
stopped, when the cork is forced down even with the 
mouth of it, — this is a sure sign that the Cork is too 
small, and it should be re-drawn and a lars:er one 
put in. 

TO MAKE BOTTJ.E CEMENT. 

Half a pound of black rosin, same quantity of red 
sealing wax, quarter oz. bees wax, melted in an earthen 
or iron pot; when it froths up, before all is melted and 
likely to boil over, stir it with a tallow candle, which 
will settle the froth till all is melted and fit for use. 
Red wax, lOd. per lb. may be bought at Mr. Dew's, 
Blackmore Street, C lare Market. 

N.B. 'I'his cement is of very great use in preserving 
things that you wish to keep a long time, which without 
its help would soon spoil, from the clumsy and in- 
effectual manner the Bottles are corked. 



neither eggs nor cream will contribute to thicken it. — After you have put 
them in,~(lo not set the sitwpan on the siove Hgain, — but hold it over the 
fire, and shake it round one way till the sauce is ready. 



RUDIMENTS OF COOKERY. 



CHAPTER IX. 

MADE DISHES. 



Undeu this general head we range our Receipts for 
Hashes, — Stews,-— and Ragouts*, &c.; of these 
there are a great multitude, affording the ingenious 
Cook an inexhaustible store of variety : — in the French 
kitchen they count upwards of 600, and are daily 
inventing new ones. 

We have very few general observations to make, 
after what we have already said in the two preceding 
Chapters on — Sauces, — Soups, &c., which apply to 
the present chapter, as they form the principal part 
of tlie accompaniment of most of these dishes. In fact, 
Made Dishes are nothing more than Meat, — Poultry 
(No. 530), or Fish (No. 146, 158, or 164), stewed very 
gently till they are tender, with a thickened Sauce 
poured over them. 

Be careful to trim of all the Skin, — Gristle, SfC. that will 
not be eaten, and shape handsomely and of even thickness, 
the "curious articles which compose your Made Dishes, — 
this is sadly neglected by common Cooks, — only Stew 
them till they are just tender, and not do them to rags. — 
I'herefore, what you prepare the Day before it is to be 
eaten, do not do quite enough the first day. 



• Sauce for Kagouts, &c., slioiikl be tliickened till it is of the consistence 
of good rich Cream, that it may adhere to whatever it is poured over. 
When you have a large dinner to dress, keep ready mixed some fine sifted 
Flour and water well rubbed together till quite smooth, and about as thick as 
Butter. See (Xo. 2570 



142 MADE DISHES. 

We have given Receipts for the most easy and simple 
way to make Hashes, &c. Those who are well skilled 
in Culinary arts, can dress up things in this wav, 
so as to be as agreeable as they were the first time 
they were cooked; — but Hashing is a very bad mode 
of Cuokeri/y — if Meat is done enough the first time it 
is dressed, — a second dressing will divest it of all its 
nutritive juices, — and if it can be smuggled into the 
stomach by bribing:: the Palate with pifjua/ite Sauce, — it 
is at the hazard of an Indigestion, &c. 

I promise those who do me the lionour to put my 
Receipts into practice, that they will find that the most 
nutritious and tnily elegant dishes, are neither the most 
ditficult to dress, — the most expensive, — or the most 
iudigestible ; — in those compositions, Experience will 
go far to diminish Expense; -- M tat that is too old or 
too tough for Roasting, SfC, muy by gentle sttuing be 
rendered saioury and digestible — if some of our Receipts 
do differ a little from those in former Cookery Books, 
let it be remembered we have advanced nothing in this 
work that has not been tried, and experience has proved 
correct. 

N.B. See (No. 483) an Ingenious and Economical 
System of Fui:nch Cookery, written at the request 
of the Kditor by a very accomplished English Lady, 
which will teach you how to supply your Table with 
elegant little Made Dishes, &c. at a's little expense as 
Plain Cookery. 



THE 

COOK'S ORACLE. 



N.B. Read the Marketing Tables at the end of the Volume., 



BOILING. 

READ THE FIRST CHAPTER OF THE RUDIMENTS 0? 
COOKERY. 

Leg of Mutton.^^0. 1.) 

Cur oft' the Shank Bone, and trim the Knuckle, — put it 
into lukewarm water for ten minutes, wash it clean, 
cover it with cold water, and let it simmer -very gently, 
and skim it carefully. — A Leg of nine pounds will take 
two and a lialf or three hours, if you like it thoroughly 
done, especially in very Cold weather. 

For the Accompaniments see the following- Receipt. 

N. B. The Tit Bits with an Epicure, are the 
" Knuckle" the kernel, called the " Pope's Eye," and 
the " Gentlcmans" or " Crawp Bonc.y'' or as it is called 
in Kent, the " Caw Caw," — four of these, and a 
Bounder — furnish the little Masters and Mistresses of 
Kent with the most favourite set of playthings. 

A Leg of Mutton stewed very slowly, as we have 
directed the Beef to be, (No. 493,) will be as agreeable 
to an English palate as the famous " Gigot ^ de sept 
heures" of the French Kitchen. 



* The Gigoi is the leg with part of ihe luia. 



144 BOILING. 

When Mutton is very large, you may divide 
it, and roast the Fillet, i. e. the large end, — and boil the 
Knuckle end, — and you may also cut some fine Cutlets 
off the thick end of the Leg, — and so have Two or Three 
good Hot Dinners. 

The Liguur the Mutton is boiled in you may convert 
into Good Sour in Fiie Minutes, see N. B. No. 218, 
and Scotch Barley Broth, No. 204. — Tiius managed, a 
Leg of Mutton is a most Kconomical Joint. 

Neck of Mutton.— (No. 2.) 

Put four or five pounds of the best end of a Neck, 
(that has been kept a few days) into as much cold soj't 
water as will cover it, and about two inches over, let it 
simmer xrry slowly for two hours ; — it will look most 
delicate if you do not take oti' the Skin till it has been 
boiled. 

For Sauce, that elegant and innocent relish, Parsley 
and Butter (No. 261), or Eshallot (No. 294 or 5), 
or Caper sauce (No. 274,) Mock Caper sauce (No. 275,) 
and Onion Sauce (No. 298), Turnips (No. 130), or 
Spinage (No. 121), arc the usual Accompaniments to 
Boiled Mutton. 

Lamb. — (No. 3.) 

A Leg of five pounds should simmer very gently 
for about Two Hours, from the time it is put on, in cold 
water. — After the general rules for boiling, in the 
first chapter of the Rudiments of Cookery, we have 
nothing to add, only to send up with it, Spinage, 
(No. 122), Rrocoli (No. 126), Cauliflower (No. 125), 
&c., and for Sauce (No. 261). 

Veal.— (No. 4.) 

This is expected to come to table looking very deJi- 
cately clean, — it is so easily discoloured, you must be 
careful to have clean water, — a clean vessel, — and 
constantly catch the scum as soon and as long as it 



BOILING. 145 

rises, and attend to the directions before given in the 
first Chapter of the Rudiments of Cookery. Send 
up Bacon (No. 13), Fried Sausages (No. 87), or 
pickled Pork, Greens, (No. 118, and following Nos.) and 
Parsley and Butter (No. 261), Onion Sauce (No. 298). 
N. B. For Receipts to Cook Veal, see from 
(No. 512) to (No. 521). 

Beef Bouilli, — {^o. 5), 

In plain i\nglish, is understood to mean Boiled Beef; 
— but its culinary acceptation, in the French kitchen, is 
fresh beef dressed without boiling, and only very gently 
simmered by a slow fire. 

English Cooks have seldom any notion, that good 
Soup can be made without destroying a great deal of 
Meat* : — however, by a judicious regulation of the Fire, 
and a vigilant attendance on the Soup kettle, this may 
be accomplished — and you shall have a tureen of 
such Sonp as will satisfy the most fastidious Palate, 

— and the Meat make its appearance at table, at the 
same time, in possession of a full portion of nutritious 
succulence. 

This requires nothing more than to Stew the meat 
rery slowly, (instead of keeping the pot boiling a gallop, as 
common Cooks too commonly do) — and to take it up as soon 
as it is done enough. See '* Soup and Bouilh^" (No. 238,) 

* *' Ce n'est pas la qiiantite de viande qui fait seule le bon bouillon, 
mais la maniere doiit le potanfeu e.<t conduit. Ou'.est-ce que le bouillon? 
Une dLCoction de viande couteuaut de I'extractif aniniai qui la colore, (cet 
extractif, nomme par le cel^bre Ihenaid osmazome, coiitient aussi toute la 
partie savoureuse I'e la viande), du sel, mais surtout de la gelatine. Pour 
que la viande cede a, I'eau ces priucipes il faut que celled la penetrc avec 
une Itmperatiire graduee, dilate les fibres musculaires, et dissolve la gelatine 
qui y est iulerposee : mais dans cesraenies muscles il y a aussi de I'aldumine 
(malieie analogue au blanc d'ceuf, et qui forme I'^cume du pot). Ceft'e 
albumine se coagule, et se durcit a la temperature de quatre vingt degres. 
Si done vous poussez rapidemcnt votre pot-au feu au point de la faire bouillir 
avant que la viande soit dilutee et penetree par I'eau, qu'arrive-t -il? L'albu- 
mine se coagule dans la viande raeme, et empeche la gelatine d'en sortir ; — 
vous avez un Bouillon faible, et un Bouilli <lur; mais, au contraire, si vous 
avez menage le feu de manidre que la viande ait eu le temps d'etre penetree, 
Valbumine s'eleve en ecume, la gilat'me se dissout, le Bouillon est savou- 
reux, nourrissant, et le Bouilli tendre. — Voila toute la theorie du pot-au-feu." 

— Cours Gastrononuque, 1809, P- 291. 

U 



146 BOILING. 

" Shin of Beef Steu-ed^'i^o. 493,)'' Scotch Barley Broth;' 
(No. 204,) and page 119. 

Meat cooked in this manner, affords much more 
nourishment than it does dressed in the common 
way, — is easy of di<restion in proportion as it is tender, 
— and an invigorating- substantial diet, especially valu- 
able to the Poor, whose laborious employments require 
support. 

If they could get good Eating put within their reach, 
they would often go to the Butcher's shop, when they 
now run to the Public house. 

Among tlie variety of Schemes that have been suggested 

for BETTERING THE CONDITION OE OUR F.NGLISH 

Poor, a more useful or extensive Charity cannot be 
devised, than that of instructing them in Economical 
and Comforta/dt Cookery. 

" The Poor in Scotland, and on the Continent, 
manage much better. Oatmeal Porridge (No 205 and 
572) and Milk constitute the Breakfast and Supper 
of those patterns of Industry, Frugality, and Tem- 
perance, the Scottish Peasantry. 

" When they can afford Meat, they form with it 
a large quantity of Barley Broth (No. 204) with a 
variety of Vegetables, by boiling the whole a long 
time, enough to serve the Fajuily for several days. 

" When they cannot afford .Meat, they make Broth 
of Barley and other Vegetables, with a lump of Butter, 
(see No. 229), all of which they boil for many hours, 
and this with Oat Cakes forms their dinner. — The 
Hon. John Cochrane's Seaman s Guide ^ p. 34. 

The Cheapest method of fnaking a Nourishing 
Soup — is least known to those who have most need 
of it — it will enable those who have small Incomes and 
large Families — to make the most of whatever they 
possess, without pinching their Children of that whole- 
some nourishment which is necessary, for the purpose 
of rearing them up to maturity in Health and Strength. ^ 

l^ie Labouring Classes seldom purchase what are 



BOILING. 



147 



called the coarser pieces of Meat, because they do not 
know how to dress them, but lay out their money in 
pieces for Roasting, &c., of which the Bones, &c. 
enhance the price of the actual Meat to nearly a 
shilling per pound, — and the Diminution of weight 
by roasting amounts to 32 per cent. — This, for the sake 
of saving time, trouble, and fire, is generally sent 
to an oven to be Baked, — the nourishing parts are 
evaporated and dried up, — its Weight is dinmiished 
nearly one-third, — and all that a poor man can afford 
to purchase with his Week's earnings, perhaps does 
not half satisfy the appetites of himself and family 
for a couple of Days. 

If a hard-working Man cannot get a comfortable 
meal at home, he soon finds the way to the Public 
house, — the poor Woman contents herself with Tea 
and Bread and Butter, — and the Children are little 
better than starved. 

Our neighbours the French are so justly famous for 
their skill in the affairs of the Kitchen, that the adage 
says, " as many Frenchmen as many Cooks;" sur- 
rounded as they are by a profusion of the most 
delicious Wines and most seducing Liqueurs, offering 
every temptation and facility to render drunkenness 
delightful, yet a tippling Frenchman is a " Rara Avis ;" 
— they know how so easily and completely to keep 
Life in repair by good Eating, that they require little 
or no adjustment from Drinking. 

This accounts for that " toujours Gai," and happy 
equilibrium of spirits, which they enjoy with more 
regularity than any people: — '1 heir Stomachs being 
unimpaired by spirituous liquors, embrace and digest 
vigorously the food they sagaciously prepare for it, and 
render easily assimilable by cooking it sufficiently^ — 
wisely contriving to get the difficult part of the work 
of the Stomach done by Fire and Water, 
h2 



148 BOILING 



To SALT Meat.— (No. 6.) 

In the Sunmier Season especially. Meat is frequently 
spoiled by the Cook forgetting to take out the Kernels': 
one in the udder of a round of Beef, — in the fat in the 
middle of the Round, — those about the thick end of 
the Flank, &c. ; if these are not taken out, all the Salt 
in the \vorld will not keep the Meat. 

The Art or Salting Meat, is to rub in the Salt 
thoroughly and evenly into every part, and to fill all 
the holes full of Salt where the kernels were taken out, 
— and where the Butcher's skewers were. 

A Round of Beef of 25 pounds will take a pound 
and a half of Salt to be rubbed in all at first, and 
requires to be turned and rubbed every day with the 
Brine: it will be ready for dressing in four or five 
days*, if you do not wish it very salt. 

In Summer, the sooner Meat is salted after it is 
killed the better, and care must be taken to defend 
it from the tlies. 

In IVinter, it will eat the shorter and tenderer, if 
kept a few days (according to the temperature of the 
weather) before it is salted. 

In Frosty ueut/ier, take care the Meat is not frozen, 
and warm the Salt in a Frying-pan. The extremes of 
Heatf and Cold are equally unfavourable for the pro- 
cess of Salting — in the former the meat changes before 
the salt can affect it,— in the latter it is so hardened, 
and its juices are so congealed, that the salt cannot 
penetrate it. 

If you uuh it Red, rub it first with Saltpetre, in the 
proportion of half an ounce and the like quantity of 



• Ij'not to he cut till Cold, two days longer salting will not only improve 
its flavour, but the Meat will keep belter. 

tin the West Indies they can scarcely cure Beef with pickle, but easily 
preserve it by cutting it into thin slic« s and dipping them in Sea Water, 
and then drying them quickly in the Sun ; to which they give the name of. 
Jerked £ef/.— BROWNRHic on Salt, 8vo. p. 762.J 



BOILING. 149 

moist sugar to a pound of common Salt, see Savoury 
Salt Beef (No. 496.) 

You may impregnate Meat with a very agreeable 
Vegetable Flavour, by pounding some Sweet Herbs 
(No. 459) and an Onion with the Salt: you may make it 
still more relishing by adding a little Zest (No. 255), 
or Savoury Spice j (No. 457.) 



To Pickle Meat, 

" Six pounds of Salt, one pound of Sugar, and four 
ounces of Saltpetre, boiled with four gallons of water 
skimmed, and allowed to cool, forms a very strong 
pickle, which will preserve any Meat completely im- 
mersed in it. To effect this, which is essential, either 
a heavy board or a flat stone must be laid upon the 
meat. The same pickle may be used repeatedly, pro- 
vided it be boiled up occasionally with additional salt 
to restore its strength, diminished by the combination 
of part of the salt with the meat, and by the dilution 
of the pickle by the juices of the meat extracted. By 
boiling, the Albumeii which would cause the pickle to 
spoil, is coagulated and rises in the form of scum, which 
must be carefully removed." — See Supplement to En- 
cyclop, Britan. vol. iv. p. 340. 

An H-bone of 10 or 12 pounds weight will require 
about three quarters of a pound of Salt and an ounce 
of Moist Sugar to be well rubbed into it; — it will be 
ready in four or five days, if turned and rubbed every 
day. 

The Time Meat requires Salting, depends upon the 
Weight of it, — how much Salt is used, — if it be rubbed 
in with a heavy hand, it will be ready much sooner 
than if only lightly rubbed. 

N. B. Dry the Salt and rub it with the Sugar in a 
mortar. 

Pork requires a longer time to cure (in proportion 



150 BOILING. 

to its weight) than Beef: a Leg of Pork shou]d he in 
salt eight or ten days; turn it and rub it every day. 

Salt meat should be ucll ivashed before it is Boiled, — 
especially if it has been in salt long, — that the Liquor 
in which the meat is boiled, may not be too salt to 
make Soup of, (No. 218, &c.) and (No. 555.) 

If it has been in salt a long time, and you think it 
will be too salt, wash it well in cold water, and soak 
it in lukewarm water for a couple of hours: — if it is 
rery Salt, lay it in water the night before you intend to 
dress it. 

A Round of Suited Beef— (No. 7.) 

As this is too large for a moderate family, we shall 
write directions for the dressing half a round : get the 
Tongue side. 

Skewer it up tight and round, and tie a fillet of broad 
tape lound it, to keep the skewers in their places. 

Put it into plenty of cold water, and carefully catch 
the scum as soon as it rises; — let it boil till all the 
scum is removed, and then put the boiler on one side 
of the fire, to keep simmering slowly till it is done. 

Half a round of lolbs. will take about three hours 
— if it weighs more, give it more time. 

When you take it up, if any stray scum, &c. sticks 
to it, that has escaped the vigilance of your skimmer, 
wash it olf with a Paste Brush — garnish the dishes with 
Carrots and Turnips: — send up Carrots, (No. 129), 
Turnips, (No. 1 30), and Parsnips, or Greens, (No. 1 1 B)» 
&c. on separate dishes. Pease pudding, (No. 555,) 
and Mv Pudding, (No. 551), are all very proper 
Accompaniments. 

N. B. The Outside Slices, which are generally too 
much salted and too much boiled, will make a very 
good relish as J 'ut ted Beef, (No. 503.) For using up 
the remains of a Joint of Boiled Beef, see also Bubble 
and Squeak, (No. 505.) 



BOILING. 151 

H-Bo?ieofBeef,(No, 8), 

Is to be managed in exactly the same manner as the 
Round, but will be sooner boiled, as it is not so solid : 
an H-bone of 201bs. will be enough in about three 
hours and a half, — of lOIbs. in two hours. Be sure the 
boiler is big enough to allow it plenty of water-room ; 
let it be well covered with water, set the pot on one 
side of the fire to boil gently ; if it boils quick at first, 
no art can make it tender after ; the slower it boils, the 
better it will look, and the tenderer it will be. The same 
accompanying vegetables, as in the preceding Receipt. 
Dress plenty of Carrots, as cold Carrots are a general 
favourite v/ith cold Beef. 

Mem. — The Epicures say that the soft Fat like mar- 
row, which lies on the back, is delicious when Hot, 
and the hard Fat about the upper corner is best when 
Cold. 

To make perfectly good Pease Soup in Ten 
Minutes, of the Liquor in which the Beef has been boiled, 
see N.B. to(No. 218.) 

Obs. — In " Mrs. Mason's Ladies' Assistant" this joint 
IS called Haunch-bone ; in ■' Henderson's Cookery," jEt/ge- 
bone ; in '* Domestic Management," Aitch-bone; in 
'' Reynolds' Cookery," Ischebone ; m " Mrs. Lydia 
Fisher's Prudent Housewife," A c h-bone ; in '* Mrs. 
M^Iver's Cookery, Hook-bone. We have also seen it 
spelt Each-hone, and Ridge-horvQ, and we have also 
heard it called Natch-Bone. 

N. B. Read the note under (No. 7), and to make 
perfectly good Pease Soup of the Pot-Liquor, in 
Ten Minutes, see Obs, to (No. 218), (No. 229), and 
(No. 555.) 

Ribs of Beef salted and rolled— (No. 9.) 

Briskets, and the various other pieces, are dressed 
in the same way. " JFoxv Wow' sauce, (No. 328), is an 
agreeable Companion. 



152 



BOILING. 



Haifa Calfs Head.— (No. 10.) 



Cut it in two, and take out the Brains; — wash the 
liead well in several waters, and soak it in warm water 
for ten minutes before you dress it. Put the Head into 
a Saucepan with plenty of cold water : when it is 
comin<5 to a boil, and the scum rises, carefully remove 
it. Half a Calf's-Head {xi'iihout the .skin) will take 
from an hour and a quarter to two hours, according to 
its size: uith the Skin on about an hour longer: — it 
must be .steucd ten/ gcntii/ till it is tender ; it is then 
extremely nutritive, and easy of digestion. 

Put eight or ten Sage leaves (some Cooks use 
Parsley instead, or equal parts of each,) into a small 
saucepan, — boil them tender (about half an hour\ then 
<'hop them very fine, and set them ready on a plate. 

\\ ash the Brains well in two waters, put them into 
a large Basin of cold water, with a little salt in it, and 
let them soak for an hour>— then pour away the cold, 
and cover them with hot water, and when you have 
cleaned and skinned tliem, put them into a Stewpan 
with plenty of cold water, — when it boils, take the 
scum oft" very carefully— and boil gently for 10 or 15 
minutes, — now chop them, (not very fine), put them into 
a saucepan with the Sage leaves and a couple of table- 
spoonsful of thin melted butter and a little salt, (to this 
some Cooks add a little Lemon juice, Mushroom catsup, 
and Cayenne), stir them well together, and as soon as 
they are well warmed (take care they don't burn) skin 
the Tongue — trim off the roots, and put it in the 
middle of a dish, and the Brains round it. Or, chop the 
Brains with a Shallot, a little Parsley, and four hard 
boiled Eggs, and put them into a quarter of a pint of 
Bechamel, or White Sauce, (No. 2 of 364). A Calf's 
Cheek is usually attended by a Pig's cheek, a knuckle 
of Ham or Bacon, (No. 13), or (No. 526), or pickled 
Pork, (No. 11), and Greens, Brocoli, Cauliflowers^ or 



BOILING. 163 

Peas, and always by Parsley and Butter, see (No. 261), 
or (No. 311), or (No. 343.) 

If you like it full dressed, score it superficially, 
— beat up the yolk of an Egg, and rub it over the 
head witb a feather; — powder it with a seasoning- of 
finely minced (or dried and powdered) winter Savory or 
Lemon-thyme, (or sage), Parsley, Pepper, and Salt, and 
bread crumbs, and give it a brown with a salamander, 
or in a tin Dutch oven : when it begins to dry, sprinkle 
a little melted butter over it with a paste brush. You 
may Garnish the Dish with Broiled Rashers of Bacon, 
(No. 526, or 527.) 

Ohs. — Calfs head is one of the most delicate and 
favourite dishes in the list of boiled meats ; — but no- 
thing is more insipid v/hen cold : and nothing makes 
so nice a Hash ; therefore, don't forget to save a quart 
of the Liquor it was boiled in, to make Sauce, &c. for 
the Hash, see also (No. 520.) Cut the head and 
tongue into slices, and slice some of the Bacon that 
was dressed to eat with the head, and lay them ready 
on a plate. 

Take the bones and the trimmings of the Head, a 
bundle of Sweet Herbs, an Onion, a roll of Lemon 
Peel, and a blade of bruised Mace: put these into 
a saucepan, v/ith the quart of liquor you have saved, 
and let it boil gently for an hour, pour it through a 
sieve into a basin — washout yourstewpan — add a table- 
spoonful of flour to the Brains, and Parsley and Butter 
you have left, and pour it to the gravy you have made 
with the bones and trim.mings; let it boil up for ten 
minutes, and then strain it through a hair sieve: sea- 
son it with a tablespoonful of white Wine, or of Catsup, 
(No. 439), or Sauce superlative, (No. 429) : give it a 
boil up, skim it, and then put in the Brains and the 
slices of Head and Bacon; as soon as they are tho- 
roughly warm, {it must not boil), the hash is ready. 
Some Cooks — Egg bread crumb and fry the finest 
pieces of the head— and lay them round the hash. 

N. B. You may garnish the edges of the dish with 
H 5 



154 TiOlLlNG. 

slires of Bacon toasted in a Dutch oven, see (Nos(. 
5'2(} and .'V27 ., slices of Lemon, and Fried Bread. 
To make Gravy for Hashes, &c. see (No. 360.) 

PicklrdPork—i'So. 11), 

Rcqiilrcs more time than any meat. When you 
cook a Le^jj, wash and scrape it as clean as possible ; 
wh»?n dtlicateiy dressed, it is a favourite dish with al- 
most every body; take rare it dacs not Boil fast ; if it 
does, the Knuckle will break to j)ieces, before the thick 
part of the meat is warm through: a LKG of seven 
pounds takes nearly three hours very S/oxv simwcring. 
Skim your pot very carefully, and when you take the 
meat out of the Boiler — scrape it clean. 

Some sa;:;acious Cooks (who remember, to how many 
more nature has given Kyes. than she has given Tongues 
and Ihuins), when Pork is boiled, score it in Diamonds, 
and take out every other square — and thus, present a 
retainer to the Eye to plead for them to the palate — a 
kg of nice Pork, nicely salted, and nicely boiled, 
is as favourite a cold relish as cold Ham — especially 
if, instead of cutting into the middle when hot, and 
so letting out its juices — you cut it at the Knuckle — 
slices broiled, as (No. 487), are a good Luncheon, 
or Supper. — To make Pease Pudding, and Pease 
?;oup EXTEMPORE, SCO N. B. to (Nos. 218 and 555.) 

If not done enough, nothing is more disagreeable; 
— if too much — it not only loses its colour and Havour, 
^ut its substance becomes soft, like a jelly. 

It must never appear at table without a good Pease 
Fudding, (see No. 555), and if you please, Parsnips, 
(No. 128), or Carrots, (No. 129), Turnips and Greens, 
or Mashed Potatoes, &c. (No. 106.) 

OLs. Remember not to forget the Mustard Pot, 
(No. 369, No. 370, and No. 427). 

Pctit-Tues, or Sucking Pigs Fa7.— (No. 12.) 

Put a thin slice of Bacon at the bottom of a stewpan 
with some broth, a blade of mace, a few peppercorns, 



BOILING. 155 

and a bit of thyme : — boil the feet till they are quite 
tender: this will take full twenty minutes : — but the 
heart, liver, and lights, will be done enough in ten, 
when they are to be taken out, and minced fine. 

Put them all together into a Stewpan with some 
Gravy, thicken it with a little butter rolled in flour, 
season it with a little pepper and salt, and set it over 
a gentle fire, to simmer for five minutes, frequently 
shaking them about. 

While this is doing, have a thin slice of Bread 
toasted very lightly, divide it into Sippets, and lay 
them round the dish : pour the mince and sauce 
into the middle of it, and split the feet and lay them 
round it. 

N. B. Pettitoes are sometimes boiled and dipped in 
batter, and fried a light brown. 

Obs. — If you have no Gravy in the water you stew 
the pettitoes in, put an Onion, a sprig of Lemon thyme, 
or sweet Marjoram, with a blade of bruised Mace, 
a few black Peppers, and a large teaspoonful of Mush- 
room catsup, (No. 439), and you will have a very 
tolerable substitute for Gravy. A bit of (No. 252) will 
be a very great improvement to it. 

Bacon. — {^0. 13.) 

Cover a pound of nice streaked Bacon (as the 
Hampshire housewives say — that " has been starved 
one day and fed another,") with cold water, — let 
it boil gently for three quarters of an hour; take it up, 
scrape the underside well, and cut off the rind: grate 
a crust of bread not only on the top but all over it, 
as directed for the Ham in the following receipt, and 
put it before the fire for a few minutes ; it must not be 
there too long, or it will dry it and spoil it. 

Ttco pounds will require about an hour and a half; ac- 
cording to its thickness, — the hock or gammon being 
very thick, will take more. 

Obs. See (Nos. 526 and 527): when onli/ a little 
Bacon is ivantcd, these are the best ways of dressing it. 



156 BOILING, 

The boiling of Bacon, is a very J^implc subject to 
comment upon, but our main object is to teach com- 
mon Cooks the art of dressing- common food, in the 
best manner: Bacon is son'.etimes as salt as salt can 
make it; therefore, before it is boiled, it must be soaked 
in warm water for an hour or two, changing the water 
once; then pare off the rusty and smoked part, trim it 
nicely on the underside, and scrape the rind as clean 
as possible. 

Mem. Bacon' is an extravagant article in Ilaiisc- 
lieejiing, — there is often tWice as much dressed as 
need be,-- when it is sent to table tis an accompani- 
ment to boiled Poultry or Veal, a pound and a half is 
plenty for a dozen people. A good Oeiman Sausage 
is a very economical substitute for Bacon, — or fried 
Vork Sumages, (No. 87.) 

///3w, — (No. 14), 

Though of the Bacon kind, has been so altered and 
hardened in the particular way of curing, that it 
requires still more care. 

Ham is generally i40t half soaked,— as salt as Brine, 
— and hard as Flint: and it would puzzle the Stomach 
of an Ostrich to digest it. 

Meji. The Salt, Seasoning, and Smoke, which pre- 
serve it before it is eaten, prevent its solution after — 
and unless it be very long, and very gently stewed, 
the strongest Stomacli will have a tough Job to ex- 
tract any nourishment from it. If it is a lery dry 
Wcdphaiia Ham, it nnist be soaked, according to its 
age and thickness, from 12 to 24 hours;— for a Green 
Yorkshire or Westmoreland Ham, from 4 to 8 hours 
will be sufficient. Luke warm water will soften it 
much sooner than cold — when sufficiently soaked, 
trim it nicely on the under side — and pare oft" all the 
rusty and smoked parts till it looks delicately clean. 

Give it plenty of water room, and put it in while the 
water is cold, — let it be well scummed, and keep it sim- 
mering gently : a middling sized ham of fifteen pounds- 



BOILING. 157 

will be enough in about four or five hours, according to 
its thickness. If not to he cut till Cold, it will cut the 
shorter and tenderer for being boiled still longer. 

Pull oft^ the Skin carefully, and preserve it as whole 
as possible, it will form an excellent covering to keep 
the Ham moist : — when you have removed the skin, rub 
some Bread Raspings through a Hair-sieve, or grate a 
crust of Bread, put it into the perforated cover of the 
Dredging box, and shake it over it, or glaze it; trim 
the Knuckle with a fringe of cut writing paper. You 
may garnish with Spinage, or Turnips, &c. 

Obs. — To Pot Ham (No. 509), is a much more use- 
ful and economical way of disposing of the remains 
of the joint, than makino; Essence of it, (No. 352). 
To make Soup of the Liquor it is boiled in, see N.B. to 
(No. 555). 

Tongue. — (No. 15.) 

A Tongue is so hard, whether prepared by drying 
or pickling, that it requires much more cooking than a 
Ham: — nothing, of its weight, takes so long to dress 
it properly. 

A tongue that has been salted and dried, should be 
put to soak {if it is Old and very hard, 24 hours before 
it is wanted,) in plenty of water; — a Green one fresh 
from the pickle requires soaking only a few hours; 
— put your Tongue into plenty of Cold water, let 
it be an hour gradually warming, and give it from 
three and a half, to four hours very slow sinunering, 
according to the size, &c. 

Obs. — When you choose a Tongue, endeavour to 
learn hov7 long it has been dried or pickled, — pick 
out the plumpest, and that which has the smoothest 
skin, which denotes its being young, and of course it is 
more likely to be tender. 

The Roots, &c. make an excellent Relish potted, 
like (No. 509.) — or Pease Soup (No. 218.) 

N. B. Our correspondent, who wished us in this 



158 BOILING. 

Edition to give a receipt to Roast a Tongue, will find 
an answer in (No. 82.) 

Turkeys J Fowls, SjC. — (Xo. 16), 

Are all Boiled exactly in the same manner, only 
allowing time, according to their size. For the 67m//- 
ing, &c. (Nos. 374, 375, and 377,) some of it made 
into Balls, and boiled or tried, make a nice garnish, and 
are handy to help — and you can then reserve some of 
the inside stuffing to eat with the Cold fowl, or enrich 
the Hash, (Nos. 530 and 533.) 

A Chicken will take about 20 minutes. 

A Fowl 40 

A fine large Five-toed Fowl or Capon about an 
hour. 

A small Turkey, an hour and a half. 

A large one two hours or more. 

Chickens or Fowls should be killed at least one or 
two days before they are to be dressed. Turkeys (espe- 
cially large ones) should not be dressed till they have 
been killed three or four days at least—/// Cu/d ITcat/ier 
six or eight, — or they will neither be White, nor 
Tender*. 

Turkeys, and hrge Fowls, should have the strings 
or sinews of the thighs drawn out. 

Truss them tcith the legs outuarJs — ihej/ are much 
€a$ier caned. 

Fouls for Boiling should be chosen as white as pos- 
sible : if their complexion is not so fair as you wish — 
veil them in (No. 2 of No. 361); those which have 
black legs should be roasted. The best use of the 
Liver is to make Sauce, (No. 287.) 

Poultry must be well washed in warm water — i/ienj 
dirty from the singeing, &c. rub them with a little 



• Baker in his Chronicle tells os the Turkey did not reach England lill 
A. D. 15C4, about the 15th of Hcury the 8th : ht says, 

" Jurkies, carps, hoppes, piccaiell, and beere. 
Came into England all iu one year," 



BOILING. 159 

white Soap — thoroughly rinse it off — then dredge 
them well with flour. 

Make a good and clear fire ; set on a clean pot, 
with pure and clean water, enough to well cover the 
Turkey, &c. ; the slower it boils, the whiter and plumper 
it will be. — When there rises any scum, remove it ; the 
common method (of some who are more nice than 
wise) is to wrap them up in a cloth, to prevent the 
scum attaching to them; which, if it does, by your 
neglecting to skim the pot, there is no getting it ofF 
afterwards, and the Poulterer is blamed for the fault 
of the Cook. 

If there be Water enough, and it is attentively 
scummed, the Fowl will both look and eat much better 
this way, than when it has been covered up in the 
cleanest cloth; and the colour and flavour of your 
Poultry will be preserved in the most delicate per- 
fection, 

Obs. — Turkey deserves to be accompanied by 
Tongue, (No. 15), or Ham, (No. 14); if these are not 
come-at-able, don't forget Pickled Pork, (No. J 1), or 
Bacu?i and greens, (Nos. 83, 526, and 527), or Pork 
Sausages, (No. 87), Parsley and Butter, (No. 261); 
don't pour it over, but send it up in a boat; Liver, 
(No. 287), Egg, (No. 267,) or Oyster sauce, (No. 278.) 
To warm cold Turkey, &c. (No. 533), and following. 

To Grill the Gizzard and Rump, see (No. 538). Save 
a quart of the liquor the Turkey was boiled in — this, 
with the bones and trimmings, &c. will make good 
Broth for a Hash, &c. 

Rabbits.— {^0. 17.) 

Truss your Rabbits short, lay them in a Basin of 
warm water for ten minutes, — then put them into 
plenty of water, and boil them about half an hour; 
if Large ones, three quarters ; if very Old, an hour : 
smother them with plenty of White Onion sauce, (No. 



160 BOILING. 

298), mince the Liver, and lay it round the dish, or 
make Liver sauce (No. 287), and send it up in a boat. 

0/;.y. — Ask those you are going to make Liver sauce 
for, if they hke pkiin Liver sauce, or I^iver and Pars- 
ley, or Liver and Lemon sauce, see (Nos. 287 and 
288.) 

N. B. It will save much trouble to the Carver, if the 
Rabbits be cut up in the Kitchen — into pieces fit to help 
at table, and the Head divided — and one half laid at 
each end — and slices of Lemon — and the Liver chop- 
ped very finely, laid on the sides of the Dish. 

Tripe*. — {1^0. 18.) 

Take care to have j)cs/i Tripe, cleanse it well from 
the fat, and cut it into pieces about two inches broad 
and four long ; put it into a stewpan and cover it with 
milk and water, and let it boil gently till it is tender. 

If the I'ripe has been prepared as it usually is at the 
Tripe shops, it will be enough in about an hour; (this 
depends upon how long it has been previously boiled 
at the Tripe shop); ifcntirclij ///?r//Ti-.vt7/ — it will require 
two or three hours — this also depends much on the 
Age and Quality of it. 

Make some Omox sauci: in the same manner as 
you do for Rabbits, (No. 298), or boil (slowly by them^ 
selves) some Spanish, or the whitest common Onions 
you can get ; — peel them before you boil them ; when 
they are tender, which a middling sized Onion will be 
in about three quarters of an hour, drain them in a hair 
sieve, take off the top skins till they look nice and 
white, and put them with the '1 ripe into a tureen or 
soup-dish, and take off the fat if any floats on the 
surface. 

Ohs. — Rashers of Bacon, (Nos. 526 and 527), or 



• " IloMERE rapporte, que dans un regal inagiiifiqne prtparti poiir /IcIiiUe, 
on seivit des tripes do bceuf, et que cela s'ttait toujours observe anx \Vevk% 
DKs HLRU5," — (Jottrs Gas(roitomiqu€,p. 155. 



BOILING. 161 

Fried Sausages, (No. 87), are a very good accompani- 
ment to boiled Tripe, Cow heels, (No. 198), or Calfs 
feet, see Mr. Kelly's Sauce, (No. 311*'), or Parsley 
and Butter, (No. 261), or Caper Sauce, (No. 274), with 
a little Vinegar and Mustard added to them — or Salad 
Mixture, (No. 372 or 453.) 

CoivHeel. — {^o, l8*.) 

This, in the hands of a skilful Cook — will furnish 
several good ivleals — when boiled tender, see (No. 
198), cut it into handsome pieces, Egg and Bread 
crumb them, and Fry them a light brown — and lay 
them round a dish, and put in the middle of it sliced 
Onions fried, or the accompaniments ordered for Tripe. 
The Liquor they were boiled in v.ill make Soups, (No. 
229), (No. 240*), or (No. 555.) 

N. B. We give no Receipts to boil Venison, Geese, 
Ducks, Pheasants, Woodcocks, and Peacocks, 
&c. — as our aim has been to make a useful Book — not 
a Big one, see (No. 82.) 



THE 

COOK^S ORACLE. 



ROASTING. 



\.B. If the Time we have allowed for Roasting, appears rather longer 
than what is stattd informer works, we can only saif, ive have written 
from actual Ixptritnents, — and that the difference may be accounted for, 
l>lt common Coo.ks generally being fond of too fierce aftre, putting things 
too near to it. 

Our calculations arc made for a Temperature of about 50 degrees of 
Fahrenheit. 

Slow Ko\ stint, is as advantageous as Slow Boiling, of which every 
budv uiidtrstaiids thr imiinrt.tncc. 

The IVuriiier the weather, and the staler killed the Meat is — the less 
time it it ill require /.■ roust it. 

Alt at that is very J at — rcijnires more time than we have stated. 

B£KF is ill j'roper siasvn throughout the uhnlc year ; but as Butchers 
generally calculate uj>on its benig a Smulay's Dinner, you can seldom 
depend upon its being tei.dcr on any other day. 



Sir-Loin of Beef. — (No. 19.) 

The Noble Sir-Loin* of about fifteen pounds, (if much 
thicker, the outside will be done too much before the 
inside is enoug;h,) will require to be before the fire 
about three and a half or four hours : take care to spit 



• This Joint is said to owe its name to King Charles the Second, who 
dining upon :i Loin of Beef, and being particularly pleased with it, asked the 
name of the Joint; said for its merit it should be knighted, and henceforth 
called Sir-Loin. 

" Oui second Charles of fame facele. 
On loin of Beef did dine; 
l!e held his sword, pleas'd, o'er the meat. 
Arise, thou lam'd Sir-Loin." 

Ballad of the New Sir John Barleycorn, 
The ballad of " The dates of Calais" calls it 

'• Kenown'd 6ir-Loin, oft limes decreed 
The theme of English Ballad; 
On thee our kings oft deign to feed, 

Unknown to Frenchman's palate; 
Then how much doth thy taste exceed 
Soup-meagre, frogs, and salad 1" 



ROASTING. 163 

it evenly, that it may not be heavier on one side than 
the other; — put a little clean Dripping into the 
dripping pan, (tie a sheet of paper over it to presei-ve 
the Fat*,) baste it well as soon as it is put down, and 
every quarter of an hour all the time it is roasting, till 
the last half hour ; then take off the paper, and make 
some Gravy for it, (No. 326), stir the fire and make it 
clear : to Brown and Froth it, sprinkle a little salt over 
it, baste it with butter, and dredge it with flour ; let it 
go a few minutes longer, till the froth rises, take it up, 
put it on the dish, &c. 

Garnish it with Hillocks of horseradish scraped as 
Jine as -possible with a very sharp knife, see (Nos. 458 
and 399*). A Yorkshire pudding, is an excellent 
accompaniment, (No. 595), or (No. 554.) 

Obs. — The Inside of the Sir-Loin must never be cutf 
Hot, but reserved entire for the hash, or a mock 



* " In the ^reizni fashion of fatting Cattle, it is more desirable to roast 
a-vay the Fat, than to preserve it. If the honourable Societies of Agricul- 
tarists at the time they c jusuited a learned Professor about the composition of 
Manures, had consulted some competent authority, on the nature of Animal 
substances, the Public might have escaped the over-grown corpulency of the 
Animal flesh, vvhich every where fills the markets." — Domestic Manage- 
ment, 12mo. 1813, p. 182. 

" Game and other wild animals proper for food, are of very superior qua- 
lities to the tame — from the total contrast of the circumstances attending them. 
They have a free range of exercise in the open air, and choose their own food, 
the good effects of which are very evident in a short delicate texture of flesh, 
found only in them. Their juices and flavour are more pure, and their Fat, 
when it is in any degree, as in Venison, and some other instances, differs as 
much from that of our fatted Animals, as Silver and Gold from the grosser 
metals. The superiority of Welch Mutton and Scotch Beef is owing 
to a similar cause." — Ibid. p. 150. 

If there is more Fat than you think will be eaten with the Meat, cut it off, 
it will make an excellent Pudding, (No. 554); or clarify it, see (No. 84), and 
use it for Frying : — for those who like their meat djne thoroughly, and use a 
moderate fire for roasting, the Fat need not be covered with paper. 

If your Beef is large, and your family small, — cut off the thin end and 
salt it, — and cut out and dress the fillet, (i. e. commonly called the inside) 
next day as Mock Hare, (No. 67*) : thus you get Three good hot Dinners. 
See also the Appendix to Chapter 9 — on Made Dishes. For Sa.vce for Cold 
Beef, see (No. 359), and Cucumber Vinegar, (No. 399), Horseradish Vinegar, 
(Nos. 399* and 458.) 

t " This joint is often spoilt for the next day's use, by an injudicious mode 
of Carving. If you object to the outside, take the brown off, and help the 
next— by the cutting it only on one side, yon preserve the Gravy in the meat, 
aad the goodly appearance also — by cutting it, on the contrary, down the 



164 ROASTING. 

HARE (No. 67*.) (For the Receipt to Hash or Broil 
Beef J, (No. 484), and (Nos. 486 and 487); and for 
other ways of employing the remains of a joint of cold 
Beef, see (Nos. 503,'4, 5, 6.) 

Ribs of Beef. — (No. 20.) 

The Three first Ribs, of fifteen or twenty pounds, 
will take three hours, or three and a half: the fourth 
AND FIFTH RiBs will take as long, managed in the 
same way as the Sir- Loin. — Paper the Fat, and the 
thin part, or it will be done too much, before the thick 
part is done enough. 

N.B. A Pig-tron placed before it on the bars of the 
grate answers every purpose of keeping the thin part 
from being too much done. 

Obs. — Many persons prefer the Ribs to the Sir- 
Loin. 

Ribs of Beef boned and rolled. — (No. 2 1 .) 

When you have kept two or three ribs of beef till 
quite tender, — take out the bones, and skewer it as 
round as possible, (like a fillet of veal): — before they 
roll it, some Cooks Egg it, and sprinkle it with Veal 
stuffing, (No. 374.) As the meat is more in a solid 
mass, it will require more time at the fire than in the 
preceding receipt ; — a piece of ten or twelve pounds 
weight, will not be well and thoroughly roasted in less 
than four and a half or five hours. 

For the first half hour, it should not be less than 12 
inches from the fire, that it may get gradually warm to 
the centre : — the last half hour before it will be finished, 
sprinkle a little salt over it; and if you wish to froth it, 
flour it, &c. 



middle of this joint, all the Gravy runs out, it becomes diy, and exhibiu a 
most noseemly aspect when brought to table a second limt." — From Udk's 
Cookery, \i\Q. 181B. )>. lOO. 



ROASTING. 



165 



iifC/rrOA"*, — (No. 23.) 

As Beef requires a large sound fire, Mutton must 
have a brisk and sliarp one : — tf you wish to have 
Mutton Under^ it should be hung as long as it will 
keept •• and then good eight-tooth, i. e. four years old 
Mutton, is as good eating as Venison, if it is accom- 
panied by (Nos. 329 and 346 ) 

The Leg, Haunch, and Saddle will be the better for 
being hung up in a cool airy place for four or five days 
at least; in Temperate Vv-eatlier, a week; — in Cold 
weather, ten days. 

If you think your Mutton will not be tender enough 
to do honour to the Spit, dress it as a " Gigot de sept 
heures," see N.B. to (No. 1), and (No. 493.) 

A Lfg — (No. 24) 
Of eight pounds will take about Two hours : — let it 
be well basted, and frothed in the same manner as 
directed in (No. 19). To Hash Mutton, (No. 484). 
To Broil it, (No. 487), &c. 



• Dew Swift's Receipt to Roast Mutton. 
To Geminiani's beautiful air — " Gently touch the warbling Lyre. 

" Gently stir and blow the fire, 
Lay the mutton dowu to roast, 

Dress it quickly, I desire, 
In the dripping put a toast. 

That I hunger may remove — 

IMutton is the meat 1 love. 

" On the dresser see it lie; 
Oh! the charming while and red; 

Finer meat ne'er met the eye. 
On the sweetest grass it fed: 

Let the jack go swiftly round, 

Let me have it nicely brown'd. 

" On the table spread the cloth, 
Let the knives be sharp and clean, 

I'ickles get and salad both, 
Let them each be fresh and green. 

With small beer, good ale, and wine, 

O ye gods! how 1 shall dine!" 

t See the chapter of Advice to Cooks. 



166 ROASTING. 

A Chine or Saddle, — (No. 26), 

(i. e. the two Loins,) of ten or eleven pounds, — two 
hours and a half: it is the business of the Butcher to 
take off the skin and skewer it on again — to defend the 
meat from extreme heat, and preserve its succulence — 
if this is neglected tie a sheet of paper over it: (baste 
the strins^s you tie it on witli directly, or they will 
burn:) about a quarter of an hour before you think it 
will be done, take off the skin or paper, that it may get 
a pale brown colour — and then baste it and flour it 
lightly to froth it. We like (No. 346) for sauce. 

N.B. Desire the Butcher to cut off the Flaps and 
the tail and chump end, and trim away every part — 
that has nut indif-pntaldc pretensions to be eaten. This 
will reduce a Saddle of eleven pounds weight to about 
six or seven pounds. 

A Shou/der—i^o. 27) 

Of seven pounds, — an hour and a half; put the spit 
in close to the shank bone, and run it along the blade 
bone. 

N.B. The BLADE liONE is a favourite Luncheon or 
Supper relish, scored, peppered and salted, and broiled, 
or done in a Dutch Oven. 

J Lain*— (So. 28) 

Of Mutton, from an hour and a half, to an hour 
and three quarters. — The most elegant uay of carving 
this, is to cut it lengthwise, as you do a Saddle, read 
(No. 26.) 

N.B. Spit it on a skewer or lark spit, and tie that 
on the common spit, and do not spoil the meat by 
running the spit through the prime part of it. 

• Common Cooks very scbdom bronti the ends of Necks and Lowj ; to 
have this done nicely, let the fire be a few inches longer at each end, than 
the joint that is roasting, and occasionally place the spit slanting, so that 
each end may get sulficient fire; — otherwise, after the meat is done, you 
iinut take it up, and put the ends before the fire. 



ROASTING. 167 

A Neck, — 0^0. 29), 

About the same time as a Loin. It must be care- 
fully jointed, or it is very difficult to carve. The Neck 
and Breast are in small families commonly roasted 
together — the Cook will then crack the bones across 
the middle before they are put down to roast — if this 
is. not done carefully, they are very troublesome to 
carve. 

Obs. — If there is more Fat than you think will be 
eaten with the lean, cut it otF, and it will make an 
excellent Suet Pudding, (No. o51), or (No. 554.) 

N.B. The best way to Spit this, is to run iron 
skewers across it — and put the spit between them. 

A Breast, — (No. 30), 
An hour and a quarter. 
To Grill a Breast of Mutton, see Obs. to (No. 38). 

A Haunch, — (No. 31), 

(i. e. the leg and part of the loin) of Mutton; send 
up two sauce boats with it ; one of rich drawn Mutton 
Gravy, made without Spice or Herbs, (No. 347), and 
the other of Sv/eet Sauce, (No. 346.) It generally 
weighs about 15 pounds, and requires about three 
hours and a half to roast it. 

Mutton, Venison fashion. — (No. 32.) 

Take a neck of good four or five year old south- 
down wether Mutton cut long in the bones; let it 
hang (in temperate weather) at least a week : two days 
before you dress it, take allspice and black pepper 
ground and pounded fine, a quarter of an ounce each, 
rub them together, and then rub your mutton well with 
this mixture twice a day : — when you dress it, wash 
off the spice with warm water, and roast it in paste, as 
we have ordered the haunch of venison : — No. 63.) 

Obs. — Persevering and Ingenious Epicures, have 



168 ROASTING. 

invented many methods to give Mutton the flavour of 
Venison — some say that Mutton prepared as above, 
may be mistaken for Venison, — others that it is full as 
good; — the refined palate of a Grand Gourmand, (in 
spite of the Spice and Wine the meat has been fuddled 
and rubbed with) will perhaps still protest against 
•' JVeis/i Venison' — and indeed we do not understand 
by w'hat conjuration Allspice and Claret can communi- 
cate the Havour of Vtmson to Mutton — we confess 
our fears that the flavour of Venison (especially of its 
Fat) is inimitable — but believe you can procure Prime 
eight-tooth Wether MuTiox, keep it the proper time, 
and send it to tabic with the accompaniments (No. 346 
and 347, Sec.) usually given to Venison. — A Rational 
Epicure will eat it witli as much satisfaction, as he 
would " feed on the King's Fallow Deer." 

VEAL. — (No. 33.) 

Veal requires particular care to roast it a nice 
Brown. Let the fire be the same as for Beef; a sound 
large fire for a large joint, and a brisker for a smaller : 
— put it at some distance from the fire to soak tho- 
roughly, and then draw it near to finish it brown. 

When first laid down, it is to be basted; — baste 
it again occasionally. When the Veal is on the dish 
pour over it half a pint of melted Butter, (No. 256): 
if you have a little brown Gravy by you, add that to 
the Butter, see (No. 326.) JVith those joints uhich arc 
not Stujf'ed, send up Forcemeat, (No. 374), or (No. 375), 
in Balls, or rolled into Sausages as garnish to the dish^ 
or fried Pork Sausages, (No. 87), Bacon, (No. 13, or 
526, or 527), and greens, are also always expected 
with Veal. 

Fillet of Veal, — (No. 34), 

Of from twelve to sixteen pounds, will require from 
four to five hours at a good fire; make some Stuffing 
or Forcemeat, (No. 374 or 5), and put it in under the 



ROASTING. 169 

Hap, that there may be some left to eat cold, or to 
season a Hash*: brown it, and pour good melted 
butter (No. 266) over it, as directed in (No. 33.) 

Garnish with thin slices of lemon, and Cakes or Balls 
of Stuffing, or (No. 374), or (No. 375), or Duck 
stuffing:, (^0- 61), or fried pork Sausages, see 
(No. 87), Curry sauce, (No. 348), Bacon, (No. 13), 
and Greens, &c. 

N.B. Potted Veal, (No. 533.) 

Obs. — A bit of the Brown outside is a favourite 
with the Epicure in Roasts. — The Kidney cut out — 
sliced and broiled, see (No. 538), is a high relish 
which some Bons Viiants are fond of. 

A Loin — (No. 35.) 

Is the best part of the Calf, and will take about three 
hours roasting. Paper the kidney fat, and the back : 
some Cooks send it up on a Toast, which is eaten with 
the Kidney and the fat of this part, which is more 
delicate than any marrow, &c. If there is more of it 
than you think will be eaten with the Veal — before 
you roast it cut it out, it will make an excellent suet 
pudding : — takt care to have j/oiir fire long enough to 
brown the tn(h — same accompaniments as (No. 34.) 

A Shoulder, — {^o. 36.) 

From three hours to three hours and a half, — stuff it 
with the forcemeat ordered for the fillet of veal, in the 
underside, or Balls made of (No. 374.) 

Neck, best end, — (No. 37.) 

Will take two hours; — same accompaniments as 
(No. 34.) The Scrag part is best made into a pye, or 
broth. 



• To Mince or IfASH Veal, see (No. 511, or 511*), and to make 
IlAGOUT of cold Veal, (No. 5I2.) 

I 



170 BOASTING. 

Breast, — (iio, 38.) 

From an hour and a half to two hours. Let the 
caul remain till it is almost done, then take it off', to 
brown it ; baste, flour, and froth it. 

Ohs. — This makes a savoury relish for a Luncheon 
or Supper: — if, when boiled enough, you put it in a 
cloth between two pewter dishes with a weight on the 
upper one — and let it remain so till cold, then pare 
and trim it — egg and crumb it, and broil, or warm it 
in a Dutch oven; serve with it Capers, (No. 274), or 
Wow Wow sauce, (No. 3*28.) Breast of Mutton dressed 
the same tcay. 

Veal Sneet bread, — (^0. 39.) 

Trim a fine Sweetbread, (it cannot be too fresh,) 
parboil it for five minutes, and throw it into a basin of 
cold water. Roast it plain — or 

Beat up the yolk of an Egg, and prepare some fine 
Bread crumbs. When the Sweetbread is cold, dry it 
thoroughly in a cloth, run a lark spit or a skewer 
through it, and tie it on the ordinary spit : e^^ it with 
a paste brush, powder it well with bread crumbs, — 
and roast it. 

For Sauce, fried Bread Crumbs round it, and melted 
butter with a little Mushroom Catsup (No. 439), and 
Lemon Juice (Nos. 307, or 354, or 356), or serve them 
on buttered Toast garnished with Egg Sauce (No. 267), 
or with Gravy (No. 329.) 

Obs. — Instead of spitting them, you may put them 
into a tin Dutch oven, or Fry them, (Nos. 88, or 89, 
or 513.) 

L.-^MB — (No. 40.) 

Is a delicate, and commonly considered Tender meat 
— but those who talk of tender Lamb — while they are 
thinking of the Age of the Animal, — forget, that even a 
Clikken must be kept a proper time after it has been 
killed, or it will be tough picking. 



ROASTING. 171 

Woeful experience has warned us to beware of 
accepting an invitation to Dinner on Easter Sunday, — 
and unless commanded by a thorough bred Gourmand 
— our Incisores, Molares, and Principal Viscera, have 
protested against the Imprudence of encountering 
Young tough stringy Mutton — under the misnomen of 
Grass Lamb. 

To the usual accompaniments of Roasted Meat, Green 
Mint Sauce (No. 303), a Salad (Nos. 372 and 138*), 
is commonly added ; and some Cooks, about five 
minutes before it is done, sprinkle it with a little minced 
Parsley, or (No. 318.) 

Grass Lamb is in season from Easter to Michael- 
mas. 

House Lamb from Christmas to Lady-Day. 

S/ia7}i-Lamh, see Obs. to following Receipt. 

N.B. When green mint cannot be got. Mint Vinegar 
(No. 398), is an acceptable substitute for it. 

Hind-Quarter, — (No. 41.) 

Of eight pounds, will take from an Hour and three 
quarters to two Hours: — baste and froth it in the 
same way as directed in (No. 19.) 

Obs. — A Quarter of a Porkliiig is sometimes 
skinned, cut, and dressed Lamb-fashion, and sent up 
as a substitute for it. The Leg and the Loin of Lamb 
should always be roasted together, — the former being 
very lean — the latter very fat, — and the Gravy is 
better preserved. 

Fore- Quarter, — (No. 42.) 

Of ten pounds, — about two hours. 

N.B. It is a pretty general custom, when you take 
off the Shoulder from the Ribs, to squeeze a Seville 
orange over them, and sprinkle them with a little 
Pepper and Salt. 

Obs. — This may as well be done by the Cook before 
it comes to Table. 

I 2 



172 ROASTING. 

Ifo-, — (No. 43.) 

Of five pounds, — from an iiour to an hour and a 
half. 

S/ioul(Icr,— {No.4A.) 
With a quick fire, an liour. 
See Ol>s. to (No. 27.) 

Ribs, — (No. 45.) 

About an hour to an hour and a quarter — joint it 
nicely — crack the ribs across, and bend them up to 
make it easy to carve. 

Loin, — (No. 46.) 
All hour and a quarter. 

AVd, — (No. 47.) 
An hour. 

r.reait, — (So.4S.) 
lliree quarters of an hour. 

PO/{A'. — (No. 49.) 

The prime season for Pork, is from Michaelmas to 
March. 

Take jjarticiilar care it he DONi: enough: other 
meats underdone are unpleasant, but Pork is abso- 
lutely umalahle, — the very sight of it is enough to 
appal the keenest Appetite. 

For Saucks, (No. 300), (No. 304), and (No. 342.) 

Obs. — Pease pudding (No. 555), is as good an 
accompaniment to roasted, as it is to boiled pork; and 
most palates are pleased with the Savoury Powder set 
down in (No. 51), or bread crumbs mixed with Sage 
and Onion minced very fine, or ZEST (No. 255) 
sprinkled over it. 

N.B. *' The western Pigs, from Berks, Oxford, and 
Bucks, possess a decided superiority over the eastern, 



BOASTING. 173 

of Essex, Sussex, and Norfolk; not to forget another 
qualification of the former, at which some readers may 
smile, — a thickness of the skin, whence the Crackling 
of the roasted Pork is a fine gelatinous substance, 
which may be easily masticated, whilst the crackling 
of the thin skinned breeds, is roasted into good block 
Tin, the reduction of which would almost require 
Teeth of Iron." — MouBRAY on Poultjy, 1816, p. 242. 
There is a second Edition of this book, which seems to 
be the best work on the subject we have seen. 

A Leg, — (No. 50.) 

Of eight pounds, will require about three hours: score 
the skin across in narrow stripes, (some score it in 
diamonds) about a quarter of an inch apart; — stuff 
the knuckle with sage and onion minced fine, and a 
little grated bread seasoned with pepper, salt, and the 
yolk of an Egg; see Duck Stuffing (No. 61.) 

Rub a little sweet Oil on the skin with a paste 
brush, or a goose feather: this makes the Crackling 
crisper and browner than basting it with dripping; 
and it will be a better colour than all the art of 
Cookery can make it in any other way. And this is 
the best way of preventing the skin from blistering — 
which is principally occasioned by its being put too 
near the fire. 

Leg of Pork roasted ivithoiit the Skin, commonly called 
Mock Goose*. — (No. 51.) 

Parboil it, take off the skin, and then put it down 
to roast; baste it with butter, and make a Savovry 
Poxoder of finely minced, or dried and powdered Sage, 
ground black pepper, salt, and some bread crumbs, 
rubbed together through a cullender : you may add to 

* Priscllla Uaslehurst, in her Housekeeper's Instructor, 8vo. SlielTieJd, 
18i6, page 19, gives us a receipt " to Goosify a Shoulder of Lamb." ". Le 
«;rand Cuisuiier," who gave nic the Receipt to dress Turtle (No. 250), informs 
nie, that " t) Lnmbify" the leg of a Poi kling is a favourite MetamorplioMs in 
the French kitchen, when House Lamb is very dear. 



174 ROASTING. 

this a little very finely minced Onion ; sprinkle it witli 
this when it is almost roasted; put half a pint of 
made gravy into the dish, and Goose stuffing 
(No. 378) under the knuckle skin, or garnish the Dish 
■with Balls of it fried or boiled. 

The Grishiu, — (No. 52.) 
Of seven or eio:ht pounds, may be dressed in the same 
manner: — it will take an hour and a half roasting. 

A Bacon Spare-Rib — (No. 53.) 

Usually weighs about eight or nine pounds, and will 
take from two to three hours to roast it thoroughly, — 
not exactly according to its weight, — but the thickness 
of the meat upon it, which varies very much : — lay 
the thick end nearest to the Fire. 

A proper rald Spare-Rib of eight pounds weight, 
(so called because almost all the Meat is pared off,) 
with a steady tire, will be done in an hour and a 
quarter: — there is so little meat on a bald Spare-Rib, 
that if you have a large fierce tire, it will be burnt 
before it is warm through; joint it nicely, and crack 
the Ribs across as yon do Ribs of Lamb. 

When you put it down to roast, dust on some flour, 
and baste it with a little butter; dry a dozen Sage 
leaves, and rub them through a hair sieve, and put 
them into the top of a pepper box, and about a 
quarter of an hour before the meat is done, baste it 
with butter, dust the pulverized Sage, or ihesavowy 
jjowder in (No. 51), or sprinkle with Duck Stuffing, 
(No. 61.) 

Obs, —Make it a general rule, never to pour gravy 
over any thing that is roasted; by so doing, the 
dredging, &c. is washed off, and it eats insipid. 

Some people carve a Spart-rib by cutting out in 
slices the thick part at the bottom of the bones : when 
this meat is cut away, the bones may be easily sepa- 
rated, and are esteemed very sweet picking. 



ROASTING. 175 

Apple sauce (No. 304), Mashed Potatoes (No. 106), 
and good Mustard (No. 370), are indispensable. 

Loin, — (No. 54.) 

Of five pounds, must be kept at a good distance 
from the fire on account of the Cracklings and will 
take about two hours — if very fat, half an hour longer. 

Stuff it with Duck Stuffing (No. 378.) Score the 
skin in stripes, about a quarter of an inch apart, and 
rub it with Salad Oil, as directed in (No. 50.) You 
may sprinkle over it, some of the Savour]/ poxvder 
recommended for the Mock Goose, (No. 51.) 

A Chine, — (^o. 55.) 

If parted down the back-bone, so as to have but one 
side, — a good fire will roast it in two hours; if not 
parted, three hours. 

N.B. Chines are generally salted and boiled. 

A Slicking Pig* — (No. 56.) 

Is in prime order for the spit, when about three 
weeks old. 

It loses part of its goodness every hour after it is 
killed ; — if not quite fresh, no art can make the 
Crackling crisp. 

To be in perfection, it should be killed in the morning, 
to be eaten at dinner ; — it requires very careful roasting. 
— A sucking Pig, like a young Child, must not be left 
for an instant. 

The ends, must have much more fire than the 
middle; — for this purpose, is contrived an Iron to 
hang before the middle part, called a Pig iron. If you 
have not this, use a common flat Iron, or keep the fire 
fiercest, at the two ends. 

For the Stuffing, take of the crumb of a stale loaf 
about five ounces ; rub it through a cullender ; mince 



♦ Mons. Grimod designates this '' Animal modeste,ennemidufaste, et 
le Rot des Animaux immondes." 



176 ROASTING. 

fine a handful of sap:e, {i. c. about two ounces,) ami a 
large onion, (about an ounce and a half*); mix these 
together with an cgtc:, some pepper and salt, and a bit 
of butter as big as an egg; fill the belly of the pig 
with this, and sew it up; lay it to the fire, and baste 
it with Salad Oil till it is quite done; — do not leave it 
a moment; it requires the most vigilant attendance. 

Roast it at a clear brisk fire, at some distance. To 
gain the praise of Epicurean Pig-Eaters, the Cuack- 
LiNG must be nictlj/ crisped and delicately Ifgfith/ 
browned, without being either blistered or burnt. 

A small three-weeks old Pig will be enough f in 
about an hour and a half. 

Before you take it from the Fire, cut off the head, 
and part that and the body down the middle ; chop 
the Brains very fine with some boiled Sage leaves, 
and mix them with good Veal gravy, made as directed 
in (No. 192), or Beef Gravy, (No .".29), or what runs 
from the Pig when you cut its head off. Send up a 
tureenful of Gravy, (No. .329), besides. — Currant Sauce 
is still a favourite with some of the Old School. 

Lay your Pig back to back in the dish, with one half 
of the head on each side, and the Ears, one at each 
end, which you must take care to make nice and crisps 
or you will get scolded, as the good man was, who 
bought his wife a pig with only one ear. 

AVhen you cut oft" the Pettitoes, leave the skin long 
round the ends of the legs When you first lay the 
Pig before the fire, rub it all over with Fresh Butter or 
Salad Oil, ten minutes after, and the skin cooks dry — 
dredge it well with flour all over — let it remain on an 
hour — then rub it off with a soft cloth. 

• Some dellcatety sensitive r.dates dtsire the Cook to farboil the Sage 
;>n(l Onions, (before tliey are cut,) to soften and take off tlie rawness of their 
t1:tvonr ; the older and drier the Onion, the stronger wiU be its flavour; and 
ilie learned Etylvn orders these to be edulcorated, \>y nenlic niaccraiiou. 

t All ancient culinary Sa^e says - " When you see a Pig's l^yes drop out — 
you may be satisfied — he has had enough of the lire!" J his i« no cri- 
terion that the body of the Pig is done enough — but arises merely from 
the briskness of the Fire before the head of it. 



ROASTING. 177 

X.B. A Pig is a very troublesome subject to Roast, 
— most persons have them Baked ; send a quarter of 
a pound of butter, and beg the baker to baste it well. 

Turkey, Turkey Poults, and other Poultry, 
(No. 57.) 

A Fowl, and a Turkey, require the same manage- 
ment at the fire, only the latter will take longer time. 

Many a Christmas dinner has been spoiled, by the 
Tiirkey having been hung up in a cold larder, be- 
coniing thoroughly frozen ; — Jack Frost has ruined the 
reputation of many a Turkey Roaster : — therefore, in 
itTj/ cold JVeather, remember the Note in the 5Lh page 
of ti^ie 2d chapter of the PcUdimexts of Cookery. 

Let them be carefully picked, &c. and break the 
breastbone (to make them look plump), twist up a 
sheet of clean writing- paper, light it, and thoroughly 
singe the Turkey all over, turning it about over the 
flange. 

Turkeys, Fowls, and Capons, have a much better 
appearance, if, instead of trussing them with the Legs 
close together, and the feet cut off, the Legs are 
extended on each side of the bird, and the toes only 
cut off, with a skewer through each foot, to keep them 
at a proper distance. 

Be careful, when you draw it, to preserve the Liver, 
and not to break the Gall-bag, — as no washing will 
take off the bitter taste it gives, where it once touches. 

Prepare a nice clear brisk fire for it. 

Make Stuffixg according to (No. 374, or 376), — ■ 
stuff it under the breast, vrhere the craw was taken 
out, and make some into Balls — and boil or fry them, 
and lay them round the dish ; — they are handy to 
help, and you can then reserve some of the inside 
stuffing to eat with the cold Turkey — or to enrich a 
Hash, (No. 533.) 

Score the Gizzard — dip it into the Yolk of an Ego; 
or melted butter — and sprinkle it with salt and a few 
I 5 



178 



tlOASTtNG. 



grains of Cayenne — put it under one Pinion, and the 
Liver under the other, — cover the Liver with buttered 
Paper, to prevent it from getting; liardened or burnt. 

Wlicn you first put a Turkey down to roast, dredge 
it with Flour, then put about an ounce of Butter 
into a basting ladle, and as it melts baste the bird 
there wi til. 

Keep it at a distance from the fire for the first half 
hour, tliat it may warm gradually, then put it nearer, 
and when it is plumped up, and the steam draws in 
towanl the fire, it is nearly enough, then dredge it 
lightly with flour, and put a bit of butter into your 
bastini:^ ladle, and as it melts, baste the turkey with it; 
this will raise a A/ur Fruf/i than can be produced by 
using the fat out of the pan. 

.7 itTj/ lar^e Turkey, will require about three hours, 
to roast it thoroughly; a middling sized one, of eight 
or ten pounds (which is far nicer eating than the very 
large one), about two hours ; a Small one may be done 
in an hour and a half. Tirkey Poults are of variotis 
sizes, and will take about an hour and a half — they 
should be trussed with their legs twisted tinder like a 
Duck, and the head under the wing like a Pheasant. 

Fried Pouk Sausages (Xo. 87) are a very savoury, 
and favourite accompaniment to either roasted, or 
boiled Poultry. A Turkey, thus garnished, is called 
•* an Alderman in Chains." 

Sausage meat is sometimes used as stuffing, instead 
of the ordinary Forcemeat (No. 376), &c. 

Mem. If you uish a Turkey, especially a very large 
one, to be tender, never dress it till at least four or five 
days (in cold weather, eight or ten) after it has been 
killed. *' No man who understands good living, will 
say on such a day I will eat that Turkey— but will 
hang it up by four of the large tail feathers, and when, 
on paying his morning visit to the Larder, he finds it 
lying upon a cloth, prepared to receive it when it falls, 
that day let it be cooked." 



ROASTING. 179 

Hen Turkeys, are preferable to Cocks for whiteness 
and tenderness, and the small fleshy ones with black 
legs, are most esteemed. 

Send up with them, Oyster (No. 278), Egg (No. 
267;, Bread (No. 221), and plenty of Gravy Sauce, 
(No. 329.) To HASH Turkey, (No. 533.) 

Mem. Some Epicures are very fond of the Gizzard 
and Rump peppered and salted, and broiled — see 
(No. 538), " how to dress a Devil with veritable Sauce 
d'Enferir 

Capons or Fowls — (No. 58.) 

Must be killed a couple of days in moderate, and 
more in cold weather, before they are dressed, or they 
will eat tough : — a good criterion of the ripeness of 
Poultry for the spit, is the ease with v/hich you can 
then pull out the feathers — and when a Fowl is plucked, 
leave a few to help you to ascertain this. 

They are managed exactly in the same manner, and 
sent up with the same sauces as a Turkey, only they 
require proportionably less time at the fire : — • 

A FULL-GROWN FivE-TOED FowL, about an hour 
and a quarter ; 

A MODERATE SIZED onc, an hour; — and 

A Chicken from thirty to forty minutes. 

Here also. Pork Sausages fried (No. 87), are in general 
a favourite accompaniment, or Turkey Stuffing; see 
Forcemeats, (Nos. 374, 5, 6, and 7) ; put in plenty of 
it, so as to plump out the fowl, which must be tied 
closely (both at the neck and rump), to keep in the 
stuffing. 

Some cooks put the Liver of the Fowl into this force- 
meat, and others rub it up with flour and butter, to 
thicken, and give flavour to the Gravy; see (No. 287.) 

When the Bird is stufFed and trussed, score the 
Gizzard nicely — dip it into melted butter, — let it drain, 
and then season it with Cayenne and Salt — put it 
under one pinion, and the Liver under the other — to 



180 ROASTING. 

prevent it getting hcirdcncd or scorched, cover it with 
double paper buttered. 

Take care that your R'lastrd poultry be well brouncd ; 
it is as indispensable, that roasCcd \to\\\i\'s should have 
a rich Bro:r/i complexion, as hoilc</ poultry should have 
a delicate Jf'/iitc one. 

Ol)s. " 77r Jrf of ftttlcning PouUn/ for the London 
Market, is a considerable branch of rural Economy in 
some convenient situatio!is — and consists in supplying- 
them with plenty of healthy food, and confining them — 
and Ducks and Geese must be prevented from going 
into water, which prevents them from becoming fat — 
and they aUo thereby acquire a rancid fishy taste.- - 
They are put into a dark place, and erammcd with a 
paste made of Barley Meal, mutton suet, and some 
treacle or coarse Sugar mixed with milk, and are found 
to be completely ripe in a fortnight. If kept longer, 
the fever that is induced by this continued state of 
repletion, renders them red and unsaleable, and ivG- 
(jucntlv kills them."— But Exercise is as indispensable 
to health of Poultry — as other creatures, — without 
it, the Fat will be all accumulated in the cellular mem- 
brane, instead of being dispersed through its system. — 
Sec MoiBRAY, on Breeding and Fattening Douicstie 
Pou/fri/, I'2mo. 1819. 

Fowls which are fattened artificially, are by some 
Epicures preferred to those called Barn Door Fowls — 
whom we have heard say, that they should as soon think 
of ordering a Barn-Door Jor Dinner — as a Barn-Door 
Fowl. 

'1 he AgQ of Poultry, makes all the difference: — 
nothing is tenderer than a young Chicken, — few things 
are tougher than an old Cock or Hen, which is only fit 
to make Broth. The meridian of perfection of I'oultry, 
is just before they have come to their full growth — 
before they have begun to harden. 

For Sauces (No. 305), or Liver and Parsley, (No. 
287), and those ordered in the last receipt. To hash 
it, (No. 533.) 



ROASTING 



181 



Goose. — (No. .59.) 

When a Goose is well picked, singed, and cleaned, 
make the Stuffing with about two ounces of Onion*, 
^nd half as much Green Sage, chop them very fine, 
adding four ounces, i. e. about a large breakfast-cup- 
ful of stale Bread crimibs, and a very little Pepper 
and Salt, (to this some Cooks add half the Liverf, 
parboiling it first,) the yolk of an e^g or two, and 
incorporating the whole well together, stuff the Goose ; 
do not quite fill it, but leave a little room for the 
stuffing to swell. Spit it, tie it on the spit «t both 
ends, to prevent its swinging round, and to keep the 
stuffing from coming out. From an hour and a half 
to two hours will roast a fine full-L;rown Goose. 



• If you think the flavour of raw Onions too strong, cut tliem in slices, and 
lay tliem in cold water tor a couple of hours, or add as much Apple or Potatoe 
as you l?ave of onion. 

t Although the whole i> rather too luscious for the lingual nerves of the 
good folks of Great Britain, the Liveis of Poultry are considered a very 
high relish by our Continental neighbours; and the following directions how- 
to procure them in perfection, we copy from the Recipe of " tin Fieil 
Amateur dc Bonne Che re. 

" The Liver of a Duck, or a Goose, who has submitted to the rules and 
orders that men of taste have invented for the amusement of his sebaceous 
glands, is a superlative exqiusite to the palate of a Parisian Epicure — but, 
alas ! the poor goose, to produce this darling dainty, must endure sad torments, 
lie must be crammed with meat, deprived of drink, and kept constantly 
before a hot fire — a miserable itiartyrdom indeed — and would be truly 
intolerable, if his reflexions, on the consequences of his sufferings, did not 
afford him some consolation — but the gloriors prospect of the delightful 
growth of his liver, givis him courage and support; and when he thinks, how 
speedily it will become almost as big as his Body — how high it will rank on 
the list of double relishes — and with what ecstacies it will be eaten hy the 
fanciers " aes Foies gras," he submits to his destiny without a sigh. — Ihe 
famous Strasbourg Fyes are made with Livers thus prepared, and sell for 
an enormous price." 

However incredible this ordonnance for the obesitation of a Goose's Liver 
may appear at first sight — will it not seem equally so to after ages, that in 
this enlightened counuy, in 1821, we encouraged a Folly as much greater — 
as its operation was more universal ? — Will it be believed, that it was then 
considered the ccwie of perfection in Beef and Mutton, that it should be so 
«>t/cr-fattened, that a poor man, to obtain one pound of Meat that he could 
eat, — must purchase another which he could not, unless converted into a 
Suet Pudding — moreover, that the highest Premiums were annually awarded 
to those who produced Sheep and Oxen in the most extreme state of 
morbid Obeiity ! ! ! 

" expensive plans 

For deluging of Dripping pans." 



182 ROASTING. 

Send up Graw, and Apple sauce with it, see 
(No3. 300, 304, 329, and 341.) To hash it, see 
(No. 530.) 

For another Stuffing; for Geese, see (No. 378.) 

Ohs. " Croosc-ferdin(r\n the vicinity of the metropolis 
is so larp;c a concern, that one person annually feeds 
for market upwards of oOOO." " A Goose on a farm 
in Scotland two years since, of the clearly ascertained 
ap:c of S<) years, healthy and vigorous, was killed by a 
Sow while siitino; over her Kj^s^s ; it was supposed she 
might have lived many years, and her fecundity ap- 
peared to be permanent. Other Geese have been 
proved to rtach the age of 70 years." — MoiniiAY on 
Poultry, p. 40. 

It appears in Dr. Stark's Experiments on Diet, 
p. 110, that "when he fed upon Roasted Goosii — 
he was more vi<5orous both in Body and Mind, than 
with any other diet." 

The Goose at Michatlnms, is as famous, in the mouths 
of the million, as the Minced Pie ^i Christmas ; but, 
for those who eat with delicacy, it is by that time too 
full n^rown. The true ])eriod, when the Goose is in its 
hio^hr^t j)orfcction, is when it has just acquired its full 
growth, and not begun to harden. If the Midsummer 
goose is insipid, the Michaelmas goose is rank; the 
fine time, is between both ; from the first week in 
Julv, to the second in September. See Mock Goose, 
(No. 51.) 

Green Goose. — (No. 60.) 

Geese are called Green, till they are about four 
months old. 

The only difference between roasting these, and a 
full grown Goose, consists in seasoning it with pepper 
and salt instead of sage and onion, and roasting it for 
forty or fifty minutes only. 

Obs. This is one of the least desirable of those 
insipid premature productions — which are esteemed 
dainties. 



ROASTING. 183 

Duck.-— {No. 61.) 

Mind your duck is well cleaned, and wiped out with 
a clean cloth ; for the Stuffing take an ounce of 
Onion, and half an ounce of green Sage, chop them 
very fine, and mix them with two ounces, i. e. about a 
breakfast- cupful of Bread crumbs, a very little black 
pepper and salt, (some obtuse palates will require 
warming with a little Cayenne, No. 404), and the yolk 
of an ego: to bind it; mix these thoroughly together, 
and put into the Duck. For another Stuffing, see 
(No. 378.) From half to three quarters of an hour, 
will be enough to roast it, according to the size : con- 
trive to have the Feet delicately crisp, as some people are 
very fond of them: — to do this nicely, you must have 
a sharp fire. For Sauce, Green Pease (No. 134), 
Bonne Boucht (No. 341), Gravy Sauce (No. 329), and 
Sage and Onion Sauce (No. 300.) 

To Hash or Stew Ducks, see (No. 530.) 

N. B. If you think the raw Onion will make too 
strong an impression upon your Palate, parboil it. — 
Read Obs. to (No. 59.) 

When Ducks begin to grow old, to ensure their 
being tender — in moderate weather, kill them a few 
days — before you dress them. 

(No. 6-2.) 

For the following observations, I am indebted to 
Major Hawker's entertaining and informing work, 
" Instructions for Young .S'/7or^>swe/t," London, 1816. 

*' Old Pheasants may be distinguished by the length 
and sharpness of their spurs, which in the younger ones 
are short and blunt. 

" Old Partridges are known during the early part of 
the season, by their legs being of a pale blue, instead 
of a yellowish brown : so that when a Londoner re- 
ceives his brace of blue-legged birds in September, he 
should immediately snap their legs and draw out the 
sinews, by means of pulling off the feet, instead of 



184 ROASTING. 

leaving: them to torment him, like so many strings, 
when he would be wishing to enjoy his repast. This 
remedy to make the legs tender, removes the objection 
to old birds, provided the weather will admit of tlieir 
being sufficiently kept; and indeed they are tlien often 
preferable, from havins^ a higher flavour. 

" If Birds are oicr-krpf, their legs will be dry, their 
eyes much sunk, and the vent will become soft, and 
somewhat discoloured. The first place to ascertain if 
they are beginning to be high, is the inside of their 
bills, where it is not amiss to put some hether straw, 
or spice, if you want to keep them for anv length of 
time. Birds that have falkn into the water, or have 
not had time to get cold, sliould not be packed like 
others, but sent openly, and dressed as soon as 
possil)le." 

Sportsmen are often heartily ab\iscd by their ac- 
quaintance, (1 cannot yet bring myself to hackney the 
word friends quite so fluently a.^ I ought to do;, for 
sending them ' tough and good-for nothing game,' 
while probably the blame should, in many instances, 
rest with themselves, or their })udding-headeu cook, 
who, may be, dresses an old pheasant or hare the verv 
day after it was killed! or perhaps, while engrossed 
in a story or argument, leaves it to roast away, till 
there remains neither juice nor ftuvour. /ill game 
should be kept till properly tender. The following sauce 
for v.'ild fowl has l^een preferred to about fifty others ; 
and, at one time, was not to be o-ct v.ithout tlie fee of 



a guinea: — 



Recipe Jur Sauce tu Jlild t\ 



Oli'ld. 



Fori \\ irie, or Claret 1 glass. 

Sauce a la Russe*, (the older the belter) 1 t;tblespcoiifui. 

C'-aisop 1 ditto. 

Leuiiai Jnice 1 ditto. 

J.emonlecl 1 ^lice. 

!:halot, (a large) 1 .sliced. 

Cayenne Teiiper, (xhe darkest j, i;ot thai like } „_.;„. 

brick dust 5 ^ 

:viace 1 or 2 blade?. 

• Sold by Avelinj: and Hi!', corner of Albemarle Street, liccadilly, — and 
a very good sauce it is. 



ROASTING. 185 

To be scalded, strained, and added to the mere 
gravy which comes from the bird in roasting. To com- 
plete this, the fowl should be cut up in a silver dish 
vv'hich has a lamp under it, v/hile the sauce is simmer- 
ing with it. 

Haunch of Venison. — (J<>o. 63.) 

To preserve the Fat, make a paste of flour and 
water, as much as. will cover the haunch, wipe it vv^ith a 
dry cloth in every part, rub a large sheet of paper all 
over with butter, and cover the Venison vvith it, then 
roll out the paste about three quarters of an inch thick, 
lay this all over the fat side, and cover it well, with 
three or four sheets of strong white paper, and tie it 
securely on with packthread ; have a strong close fire, 
and baste your venison as soon as you lay it down to 
roast, (to prevent the paper and string from burning) ; 
it must be well basted all the time. 

A Buck Haunch generally weighs from 20 to 25 
pounds, v;ill take about four hours and a half roasting, 
in warm, and longer in CoW weather, — a Haunch of from 
12 to 18 pounds v/ill be done in about three or three 
and a half. A quarter of an hour before it is done, 
the string must be cut, and the paste carefully taken 
off; now baste it with butter, dredge it lightly with 
flour, and when the froth rises, and it has got a fine 
light brown colour, garnish the knuckle-bone, with a 
ruflfle of cut writing paper, and send it up, with good 
stroDg(but unseasoned) Gravy (No. 347), in one boat, and 
Currant-Jelly Sauce in the other, or Currant-Jelly in a 
side plate (not melted) : see, for Sauces, (Nos. 344, 
o, 6, and 7.) Mem. " The Alderman's Walk" is the 
I favourite part. 

1 Obs. Buck Venison is in greatest perfection from 
: Midsummer to Michaelmas; and Doe, from November 
to January. 

Keck and Shoulder of Venison — (No. 64.) 
Are to be managed in the same way as the haunch; 



•186 ROASTING. 

only they do not require the coat or paste, and will not 
require so much time. 

The best way to spit a neck, is to put three skewers 
through, and put the spit between the skewers and the 
bones. 

A jPaiyn,— (No. 0)5) 

Like a sucking; Pig, should be dressed, almost as 
soon as killed. When very young, is trussed, stuffed, 
and spitted the same way as a Hare. But they are 
better eating when of the size of a House Lamb ; and 
are then roasted in quarters ; the hind quarter is most 
esteemed. 

They must be put down to a very quick fire, and 
either basted all the time they are roasting, or be 
covered with sheets of fat bacon : when done, baste it 
with butter, and dredge it with a little salt and flour, 
till you make a nice froth on it. 

N. B. We advise our friends to half roast a Fawn as 
soon as they receive it — and then make a Hash of it 
like (No. 528.) 

Send up Venison sauce with it. See the preceding 
Receipt, or (No. 344), &c. 

A Ki,l.~(So. 65 \) 

A young sucking Kid is very good eating; to have it 
in prime condition, the Dam should be kept up, and 
well fed, &c. 

Roast it like a Fawn or Hare. 

//are. — (No. 66.) 

" Inter qiiadruiedes gloria prima lepus." — MARTiiL. 

The first points of consideration are. How old is the 
Hare? and how long has it been killed? When 
young, it is easy of digestion, and very nourishing; — 
when old, the contrary in every respect. 

To ascertain the age, examine the first joint of 
the fore foot ; you will find a small knob, if it is a 



ROASTING. 187 

Leveret, which disappears as it grows older; then 
examine the ears ; if they tear easily, it will eat tender ; 
if they are tough, so will be the Hare, which we 
advise you to make into Soup, (No. 241), or stew ; or 
JUG it, see (No. 523.) 

When newly killed, the body is stiff; as it grows 
stale, it becomes limp. 

As soon as you receive^a Hare, take out the Liver, 
parboil it, and keep it for the stuffing; some are very 
fond of it : — do not use it, if it be not quite fresh and 
good. Some mince it, and send it up as a garnish in 
little hillocks round the dish. Wipe the hare quite 
dry, rub the inside with pepper, and hang it up in a 
dry cool place. 

Paunch and skin* your Hare, wash it, and lay it in a 
large pan of cold water four or five hours, changing 
the water two or three times; lay it in a clean cloth, 
and dry it well ; then truss it. 

To make the Stuffing, see (No. 379): do not 
make it too thin ; it should be of cohesive consistence; 
if it is not sufficiently stiff, it is good for nothing: put 
this into the belly, sew it up tight, cut the neck skin to 
let the blood out, or it will never appear to be done 
enough, spit it, and baste it with drippings t, (or the 
juices of the Back will be dried up before the upper 
joints of the Legs are half done,) till you think it 
is nearly done, which a middling sized Hare v»'ill be in 
about an hour and a quarter. When it is almost 
roasted enough, put a little bit of butter into your 
basting-ladle, and baste it with this, and flour it, and 
froth it nicely. 

Serve it with good Gravy, (No. 329), or (No. 347), 

* This, in cuiiiiaiy lecliruc.ils, is called casing it— upon the sh ue principle 
— that " eatiiii;, drinking, and sleeping," are termed rMn-naturulf. 

t Mr«. Ciiarlotte Ma^on, in lier " Complete Sy.'.tem uf Cookery," page 
2.53, says stic has " tried all the different things recommended to baste a hare 
'.vith, and never fouiid any thin'^ so good as small beer f' others order milk; 
Dripping we believe is belter than any thing. 

Instead of washing, a " grand Culsinier" says, it is much b-tler to wipe 
the Hare v. ith a thin and dry cioih, as so much washing, or indeed waihing 
at all, takes away the flavour so much admired in Hares. 



188 ROASTING. 

and Currant-jelly. For another Stufftxg, see re- 
ceipt (No. 379.) Some Cooks cut off the head and 
divide it, and lay one lialf on each side the Hare. 

Cold roast Hare will make excellent Sorr, (No. 241), 
chopped to pieces, and stewed in three quarts of water 
for a cou})le of hours : the Sti/ffing will be a very agree- 
able substitute for Sweet herbs and seasoning. See 
receipt for Harf. Soup (No. 241), Hashed Hauf 
(No. 529), and Mock Ha he, next Receipt. 

Mock 7A;rr. — (No. 66\) 

Cut out the Fillet (?. e. the inside lean) of a Sirloin of 
Beef; leaving: the Fat, to roast with the joint. Prepare 
some nice stuffing, as directed for a hare, in (No. 66, 
or 379); put this on the beef, and roll it up with tape, 
put a skewer through it, and tic that on a spit. 

Ohs. — If the Beef is of prime quality, — has been 
ke^it till thoroughly tender,— and you serve with it the 
accompaniments that usually attend roast hare, (No. 
.329 — 344, &c.) the most fastidio\js palate will have 
no reason to regret that the Game Season is over. To 
make this into Hare Soup, see (No. 241.) 

Rabbit. — {"So. 67.) 

If your fire is clear and sharp, thirty minutes will 
recast a young, and forty a full grown Rabbit. 

When you lay it down, baste it with butter, and 
dredge it lightly and carefully with flour, that you may 
have it frothy, and of a fine light brown. While the 
rabbit is roasting, boil its Liver* with some Parsley; 
when tender, chop them together, and put half the 
mixture into some melted butter, reserving the other 
half for Garnish, divided into little hillocks. Cut ofi' 
the head, and lay half on each side of the dish. 

Obs. — A large, well grov/n, (but young) warren- 
rabbit, kept some time after it has been killed, and 

* Liver Sauce, Ko. 287 and C88. 



ROASTING. 189 

roasted with a stuffing in its belly, eats very like a 
Hare, to the nature of which it approaches; — it is 
nice nourishing food when young, but hard and 
unwholesome when old. For Sauces, (Nos. 298, 287, 
and 329.) 

Pheasant -(^0. 68.) 

Requires a smart fire, but not a fierce one. Thirty 
minutes will roast a young bird ; and forty or fifty a 
full grown Pheasant. Pick and draw it, cut a slit in 
the back of the neck, and take out the craw, but don't 
cut the head off; wipe the inside of the bird with a 
clean cloth, twist the legs close to the body, leave the 
feet on, but cut the toes off, don't turn the head under 
the wing, but truss it like a fowl, — it is much easier to 
carve : baste it, butter and froth it, and prepare sauc^e 
for it, (Nos. 321 and 329): see the instructions in re- 
ceipts to roast fowls and turkeys, (No. 57 and 58.) 

Obs. — y/e believe that the rarity of this bird is its 
best recommendation ; and the character given it by an 
ingenious French author, is just as good as it deserves. 
*' Its flesh is naturally tough, and owes all its tender- 
ness and succulence to the long time it is kept, before 
it is cooked ;" until it is " bien mortijUe," it is uneatable*. 
Therefore, instead of'- sus per col," suspend it by one of 
the long tail-feathers, and the Pheasant's falling from 
it, is the criterion of its ripeness and readiness for the 
spit. 

Our President of the Committee of Taste, (who is 
indefatigable in his endeavours to improve the Health, 



• " They are oiily fit to be eaten wUeu the Blood runs from the Bill, which is 
commonly about 6 or 7 days after they have been killed ; otherwise, it will have 
no more savour '.han a common fowl.'' — Udt Cookery, 8vo. I8I9, page 2l6. 

" Gastronomers, who have any sort of aversion to a peculiar taste in GanM; 
properly kept, had better abstain from this bird,— since it is worse than a 
common fowl, if not waited f. r till it acquires \hG fumet it ought to have. 
Whole republics of Matrgois have often been found rioting under the wings of 
Pheasarits; but being r«(/ica^/i/ dispersed, and the birds properly washed with 
Vinegar, every tbiiig went right, and every guest, unconscious of the culinary 
ablutions, enjoyed the excellent llaviur of the Phasian birds." 

Tabella Cibaria, p. 55. 



190 ROASTING. 

as well as promote the Enjoyment of his fellow Students 
in the School of Good Livinpr, and to whom the Epicure, 
the Economist, and the Valetudinarian, are equally in- 
debted for his careful revision of this work, and espe- 
cially for iritroducing that salutary maxim into the 
Kitchen, — that " the Salubrious is ever a superior 
consideration to the Savoury," and indeed, that the 
Rafiova! Epicure only relishes the latter, when entirely 
subordinate to the former,) has sug:gested to us, that 
the detachment of the Feather cannot take place until 
the body of the Bird has advanced more than one 
degree beyond the state of wholesome /laut-gout, and 
become " frop mortijit'e ;" and that to enjoy this Game 
in perfection, you must have a brace of birds killed the 
same day; these are to be put in suspense, as above 
directed, — and when one of them dropsj — the hour is 
come that the spit should be introduced to his com- 
panion : — 

" Ultra citraque ncqiiit consistere rectum.'* 

N.B. Sportsmen will find the following rule of 
very great advantage to themselves and their Cooks, 
— to order their gamekeepers (and observe the same 
themselves) to cut off a Claw of each Bird they kill, 



denoting the day of the week, thus 



and the Cook should be particular in keeping each 
week's killing separate. The claws should not be cut 
off when the Bird is dressed for Table, as they serve to 
show the Company when it was killed, and consequently 
how long it has been kept. 

Mock Fheamnt. — (No. 69.) 
If you have only one pheasant, and wish for a com- 




ROASTING. 191 

panion for it, get a fine young fowl, of as near as may 
be the sanie size as the bird to be matched, and make 
game of it by trussing it like the pheasant, and dressing 
it according to the above directions. Few persons 
will discover the pheasant from the fowl, especially if 
the latter has been kept four or five days. 

The peculiar flavour of the Pheasant (like that of 
other game) is principally acquired by long keeping. 

Guinea and Pea Fowls — (No. 69*.) 
Are dressed in the same way as Pheasants. 

Partridges — (No. 70.) 

Are cleaned and trussed in the same manner as a 
pheasant, (but the ridiculous custom of tucking the legs 
into each other, makes them very troublesome to carve); 
the breast is so plump, it will require almost as much 
roasting: send up with them rice sauce (No. 321*), or 
bread sauce (No. 321), and good gravy (No. 329.) 

*** ^f y^^ "^^^^ ^0 preserve them longer than you think 
they will keep good undressed, half roast them, they will 
keep two or three days longer, or 7nake a Pie of them. 

Black Cock (No. 71), Moor Game (No. 72), and Grouse, 
(No. 73,) 

Are all to be dressed like partridges; the Black 
Cock will take as much time as a pheasant, and Moor 
game and Grouse, as the partridge. Send up with 
them Currant-jelly and fried Bread crumbs (No. 320.) 

mid Ducks. — (No. 74.) 
For roasting a Wild Duck, you must have a clear 
brisk fire, and a hot spit ; it must be browned upon the 
outside, without being sodden within. To have it well 
frothed, and full of gravy, is the nicety. Prepare the 
fire, by stirring and raking it just before the bird is laid 
down, and fifteen or twenty minutes will do it in the 
fashionable way ; but if you like it a little more done, 



192 . ROASTING. 

allow it a few minutes longer: if it is too much, it will 
lose its flavour. 

For the sauce, see (No. 338) and (No. 62.) 

Widgeons and Teal — (No. 75.) 

Are dressed exactly as the wild duck ; only that less 
time is requisite for a Widgeon, and still less for a Teal. 

Woodcock. — (No. 76.) 

Woodcocks should not be drawn, as the trail is by the 
Lovers of" huut-gout" considered a " Bonuc Bouc/ie ;" 
truss their legs close to the Body, and run an Iron skewer 
through each thigh close to the Body, and tie them 
on a small bird spit, put them to roast at a clear fire; 
cut as many slicis of bread as you have birds, toast or 
fry them a delicate brown, and lay them in the dripping 
pan under the birds, to catch the Trail*; baste them 
with butter, and froth them with flour; lay the toast 
on a hot dish, and the birds on the toast; pour some 
good beef gravy into the dish, and send some up in a 
boat, see Obs. to (\o. 5"29) : twenty or thirty minutes 
will roast them. Garnish with slices of lemon. 

Obs. — Some Epicures like this bird very much under- 
done, and direct, that — a W^oodcock should be just 
introduced to the Cook, for her to show it the Fire, 
and then send it up to Tabic. 

Snipes ~(^o. 11.) 
Differ little from Woodcocks, unless in size ; they 



• " Ibis bird has soinsinaated itself into the favour of refined gourma fids, 
that I hey pay it the same iionoius as the grand Lama, making a Ragout of its 
ILxcremeiits, and dcv.'urint; tliem ^\ilh ecstacy." — Ude Almanach dts 
Gourmands, vol. i. page ^. 

'Ihat Exercise prcdiiccs strength and firmnefs of fibre, is excellently ^vtll 
exemplified in the Woodcock and the Partridge. — The former iHcs most — 
the latter walks — the wing ot the Woodcock is always very tough, — of the 
Partiiflge, very tender ; hence the old doggrel distich, — 

" If the Partridge had but the IVoodcock's thigh, 
" He'd be the best Kird that e'er doth Ily." 

'l\\< Breait of all Birds is (he most jnicy and nutritious part. 



ROASTING. 193 

are to be dressed in the same way, but require about 
five minutes less time to roast them. 
For Sauce, see (No. 340.) 

Pigeons. — (Ko. 78.) 

When the pigeons are ready for roasting, if you 
are desired to stuff them, chop some green parsley 
very fine, the liver, and a bit of butter together, 
with a little pepper and salt, or with the stuffing or- 
dered for a fillet of veal (No. 374), or (No. 375), and 
fill the belly of each bird with it. They will be enough 
in about twenty or thirty minutes : send up Parsley and 
butter (No. 261), in the dish under them, and some in 
a boat, and garnish with crisp parsley, (No. 318), 
or Fried Bread Crumbs, (No. 320), or Bread Sauce, 
(No. 321), or Gravy, (No. 329.) 

Obs. — When Pigeons are fresh, they have their full 
relish ; but it goes entirely off with a very little keeping ; 
nor is it any way so v.'ell preserved, as by Roasting 
them, — when they are put into a Pie, they are gene- 
rally baked to rags, and taste more of pepper and salt 
than any thing else. 

A little melted butter may be put into the dish with 
them, and the gravy that runs from them will mix v/ith 
it into fine sauce. Pigeons are in the greatest perfection 
from Midsummer to Michaelmas, there is then the most 
plentiful and best food for them; and their finest 
growth, is just when they are full feathered. When 
they are in the pen-feathers, they are flabby; when 
they are full grown, and have flown some time, they 
are tough. Game and Foultry are best when they hare just 
done growing, i. e. as soon as Nature has perfected her 
work. 

This was the secret ot Solomon, the famous Pigeon- 
feeder of Turnham Green, who is celebrated by the poet 
Gay, when he says, 

" That Turnham Green, which dainty pigeons fed. 
But feeds no more, for Solomon is dead." 



194 ROASTING. 

Larks, and other small Birds. — (No. 80.) 

These delicate little birds are in high season in 
Xuiemher. When they are picked, gutted, and cleaned, 
truss them ; brush them with tlie yolk of an egg, and 
then roil them in bread crumbs ; spit them on a lark spit, 
<\m\ tie that on to a larger spit, ten or fifteen minutes 
at a quick fire will be enough ; baste them with fresh 
butter while they are roasting, and sprinkle them with 
bread crumbs till they are well covered with them. 

For the Sauce, fry some grated bread in clarified 
butter, see (No '2.59), and set it to drain before the 
fire, that it may harden : serve the crumbs under the 
l.arks when you dish them, and garnish them with 
slices of Lemon. 

Il'/icat Ears — {"So. 81.) 
Are dressed in the same way as Larks. 

Lohitrr. — {^o. 82.) 

See Ixeceipt for boiling, (No. 176.) 
We give no Receipt for roasting Lobster, Tongue, <fe(\ 
being of oi)inion with Dr. King, who says, 

" P._\ floMbtihw, ihiii wlikli I iir fiiitfiill er8 Biiled, 
Ai'iJ boiling wlial ility luas-ied, iiiucli ifc spi<ik'il." 



THE 

COOICS ORACLE, 



FRYING. 

To clarify Drippings. — (No. 83.) 

Put your dripping into a clean saucepan over a stove 
or slow fire : when it is just going to boil, skim it well, 
let it boil, and then let it stand till it is a little cooled, 
then pour it through a sieve into a pan. 
Obs.SN eWcXe^iXisedi Drippings* J and the fat Skimmings^ 

* Mrs. Melroe, in her Economical Cookery, page 7, tells \is, she has 
ascertained from actual experiments, that " the Drippi?tgs of Roast Meat, 
combined with Wheat, Flour, Oatmeal, Barley, Pease, or Potatoe Starch, will 
make delicious Soup, agreeable and savoury to the Palate, and nutritive and 
serviceable to the Stomach, and that while a joint is roasting, good Soup may 
be made from the drippings of the Fat, which is the Essence of Meat, as 
»eed8 are of Vegetables, and impregnates Soup uith the identical taste of 
Meat." 

" Writers on Cookery give strict directions to carefully skirn off the Fat, 
and in the next sentence order Butter (a much more expensive article) to 
be added,— instead of this, when any Fat appears at the top of your Soup 
or Stew, do not skim it oflf, but unite it with the broth by means of the 
vegetable mucilages, Flonr, Oatmeal, Ground Barley, or Potatoe-Starch ; when 
suspended, the Soup is equally agreeable to the palate, and nutritive to the 
Stomach," &c. 

" Coolts bestow a great deal of pains to make Gravies ; they stew and boij 
Jean meat for hours, and after all their Cookery tastes more of Pepper and 
Salt than any thing else : — If they would add the bulk of a chesnut of solid 
Fat to a common sized sance-boatfnl of Gravy, it will give it more sapidity 
than twenty hours stewing lean meat would, unless- a larger quantity was used 
than is warranted by the rules of frugality." See (%os. 205 and 229.) 

" The experiments of Dr. Stark on the noui isliing powers of ditterent sub- 
stances, go very far to prove that three ounces of the Fat of Boiled Beef are 
equal to a pound of the Lean. Dr. Pages, the traveller, confii ms this opinion. 
* Being obliged,' says he, * during the journey from >.orth to South America 
by land, to live solely on Animal food, I expenenced the truth of what is 
observed by Hunters, who live solely on Animal Food, viz. that besides their 
receiving little nourishment from the leaner parts cf it, it soon becomes 
pffensive to the Tas!e, whereas the Fat is both nuie nutritive, and continues 
to be agreeable to the Palate, lo many Stomachs Fat is unpleasant and indi- 
gestible, especially when converted into oil by heat: this may be easily 
prevented by the simple process of combining the Fat completely with water, 
by the intervention of vegetable mucilage, as in melting Bniter, by means of 
flour, the Tutter and water are united into a homogeneous fluid.'" — From 
Practical Econofny, by a Physician. Callow, 1801. 

t See ISote at foot of (No. 201.) 

K 2 



196 FRYING. 

of tlie Broth pot, ^vben fresh and sweet, will baste every 
thing: as well as Butter, except i^ame and poultry, and 
should supply the place of butter for common fries, &c. 
for which they are equal to lard, especially if you repeat 
the clarifying twice over. 

N. B. If you keep it in a cool place, you may preserve 
it a fortnight in summer, and longer in winter. When 
you have done Fryin<x, let the dripping stand a few 
minutes to settle, and then pour it tlirough a sieve into 
a clean Basin or stone Pan ; and it will do a second 
and a third time as well as it did the first, — only the 
Fat you have fried Fish in must not be used for any 
other purpose. 

To darifij Sucf, to fry nit L — (So. 84) 

Cut Beef or Mutton suet into thin slices, pick out all 
the veins and skins, &c. put it into a thick and well 
tinned saucepan, and set it over a xery .slow .stove, or in 
an oven, till it is melted; you must not hurry it, — if 
not done very slowly it will acquire a burnt taste, 
which you cannot get rid of; — then strain it through 
a hair sieve into a clean brown pan. — When quite cold, 
tie a paper over it and keep it for use. Hog's-lard is 
prepared in the same way. 

Obs. — The waste occasioned by the present absurd 
fashion of over-feeding Cattle — till the Fat is nearly 
equal to the Lean, — may, by good management, be in 
some measure prevented, — by cutting off the superfluous 
part, and preparing it as above, or by making it into 
Puddings, see (Nos. 551 and 554), or Soup (No. 229.) 

Steaks. — {:so. 85.) 

Cut the steaks rather thinner than for broiling. Put 
some Butter or (No. 83) into an iron frying-pan, and 
when it is hot, lay in the steaks, and keep turning them 
till they are done enough. For Sauce, see (No. 356), 
and for the accompaniments (No. 94.) 

Obs. — Unless the Fire be prepared on purpose, we 



FRYING. 197 

like this way of cooking them ; the gravy is preserved ; 
and the meat is more equally dressed, and more evenly 
browned ; which makes it more rehshing, and invites 
the eye to encourage the Appetite. 

Beefsteaks andOnions. — (No. 86.) See also 
(No. 501.) 

Fry the steaks according to the directions given in 
the preceding receipt ; and have ready for them some 
Onions, prepared as directed in (No. 299.) 

For Stewed Rump Steaks, see (Nos. 500 and 501.) 

Sausages — (No. 87.) 

Are best when quite fresh made. — Put a bit of Butter, 
or Dripping (No. 83), into a clean Frying-Pan; as soon 
as it is melted (before it gets hot) put in the Sausages, 
and shake the pan for a minute, and keep turning them, 
(be careful not to break or prick them in so doing), fry 
them over a very slow fire, till they are nicely browned 
on all sides, — when they are done, lay thera on a hair 
sieve, placed before the fire for a couple of minutes to 
drain the fat from them. T/ie secret of frying Sausages, 
is to let them get hot very gradually — they then will 
not burst, if they are not stale. 

The common practice to prevent them bursting, is to 
prick them with a fork, but this lets all their Gravy 
out. 

You msiy froth tliem by rubbing them with cold fresh 
butter, — and lightly dredge them with flour, and put 
them in a cheese toaster or Dutch oven for a minute. 

Some oxer-economical Cooks, insist that no butter or 
lard, &c. is required ; their own fat being sufficient to 
fry them ; — we have tried it, — the Sausages were par- 
tially scorched, and had thdit pije- bald appearance, that 
fried things have when sufficient fat is not allowed. 

Obs. — Poached Eggs, (No. 548), Pease-Pudding, 
(No. 555), and mashed Potatoes, (No. 106), are agree- 
able accompaniments to Sausages, and Sausages are as 



198 



FRYING. 



welcome with Boiled or Roasted Poultry or Veal ; — 
or Boiled Tripe, (No. 18); so are ready dressed 
German Sausages, See Mem. to (No. 13), and a 
convenient, easily digestible, and invigorating- food for 
the aged, and those whose teeth are defective, as is 
also (No. 503.) For Sauce (No. 356), to make Mus- 
tard (Nos. 369 and 70.) 

N. B. Sausages, when finely chopped, are a deli- 
cate " Bunne Bouchc ;" and require very little assist- 
ance from the Teeth, to render them quite ready for 
the Stomach. 

Su-cct breads full dressed.— (^o. 88.) 

Parboil them and let them get cold, — then cut them 
in pieces, about three quarters of an inch thick, — dip 
them in the yolk of an I'^g^, then in fine bread crumbs, 
(some add Spice, Lemon peel, and Sweet herbs); put 
some clean dripping (No. 83), into a fryingpan ; when 
it boils, put in the Sweetbreads, and fry them a fine 
brown. For Garnish, crisp Parsley; and for Sauce, 
Mushroom catsup and melted butter, or Anchovy sauce, 
or (No. 356), (No. 343), or (No. 343'), or Bacon or 
Ham as (No. 526) and (No. 527.) 

Sweetbreads plain. — (No. 89.) 

Parboil and slice them as before, dry them on a clean 
cloth, — flour them, and fry them a delicate brown; 
take care to drain the fat well from them, and garnish 
them with slices of lemon, and sprigs of chervil or 
Parsley, or crisp Parsley, (No. 318). For sauce 
(No. 356), or (No. 307), and Slices of Ham or Bacon as 
(No. 526) or (No. 527.) 

*^* Take eare to have afresh Sweetbread; — it spoils 
sooner than almost any things therefore should he parboiled 
as soon as it comes in. This is called blanching, or setting 
it : Mutton kidneys (No. 95) are sometimes broiled and 
sent tip with Sweetbreads, 



FRYING. 199 

Veal Cutlets. — Qso, 90), and (No. .521.) 

Let your cutlets be about half an inch thick, trim 
them, and flatten them with a cleaver; you may fry 
them in fresh butter, or good drippings (No. 83); when 
brown on one side, turn them and do the other; if the 
fire is very fierce, they must change sides oftener. — 
The time they will take, depends on the tliickness of 
the Cutlet and the heat of the fire: — half an inch thick 
will take about fifteen minutes. Make some Gravy, 
by putting the trimmings into a stewpan with a little 
soft water, an onion, a roll of lemon peel, a blade of 
mace, a sprig of thyme and parsley, and a bay leaf; 
stew over a slow fire an hour, then strain it; put an 
ounce of butter into a stewpan ; as soon as it is melted, 
mix with it as much flour as will dry it up, stir it ovtr 
the fire for a few minutes, then add the gravy by de- 
grees till it is all mixed, boil it for five minutes, and 
strain it through a tammis sieve, and put it to the 
cutlets : you may add some Browning (No. 322), 
Mushroom (No. 439), or walnut Catsup, or Lemon 
pickle, &c. ; see also Sauces (No. 343), and (No. 348.) 

Cut the Veal into pieces about as big as a crown 
piece, beat them with a cleaver, dip them in e^g beat 
up with a little salt, and then in fine bread crumbs; 
fry tliem a light brown in boiling lard ; serve under them 
some good Gravy or Mushroom Sauce (No. 307), which 
may be made in five minutes. Garnish with Slices of 
Ham or Rashers of Bacon, (Nos. 526 and 527), or Pork 
Sausages, (No. 87.) 

Obs. — Veal forcemeat or stuflSng, (Nos. 374 
and 5), Pork Sausages, (No. 87), Rashers of Bacon, 
(No. 526 and 527), are very relishing accompaniment?, 
fried and sent up in the form of Balls or Cakes, and 
laid round as a Garnish. 

Lamb or Mutton Chops — (No. 92.) 
Are dressed in the same way, and garnished with 
crisp parsley (No. 318), and slices of lemon. 



200 FRYIxNG. 

If they are bread-crumbed and covered with but- 
tered writing paper, and then broiled, they are called 
■* Maintdion Cutlets!' 

Pork C/iops.— (No. 93.) 
Cut the Chops about half an inch thick ; Tri/u them 
neatly ; (few Cooks have any idea how much credit they 
get by this), put a frying-pan ou the fire, with a bit of 
butter; as soon as it is hot, put in your chops, turning 
tiieni often till brown all over, they will be enough in 
about fifteen minutes : take one upon a plate and try 
it; if done, season it with a little finely minced onion, 
powdered Sage, and pepper and salt. Fur Gra\ii and 
Sauce, see (Nos. 300, 304, 341, and 356.) 

Oba. — A little powdered Sage, &c., strewed over 
them, will give them a nice relish, or the Savoury 
Powder in (No. 51), or Forcemeat Sausages like 
(No. 378.) 

Do not have them cut too thick,— about three Chops 
to an inch and a quarter, — trim them neatly, beat them 
fiat, have ready some sweet herbs, or Sage and Onion 
clio[)j)ed fine, put them in a stewpan with a bit of 
Butter about as big as a walnut, — let them have one 
fry, beat two L'ggs on a plate with a little salt, add to 
them the herbs, mix it all well together, dip the chops 
in one at a time all over, and then with bread-crumbs, 
fry them in hot lard or drippings till they are a light 
brown. 

Obs. — Veal, Lamb, or Mutton Chops, are very good 
dressed in like manner. 

To fry Fish, see (No. 145.) 

N. B. To Fry Eggs and Omelettes, and other 
thingSy see the Index. 



THE 

COOK^S ORACLE. 



BROILING. 



Chops or Steaks'". — (No. 94.) 
To Stew them, see (No. 500), — ditto with Onions, 
(No. 501.) 

Those who are nice about Steaks, never attempt to 
have them, except in weather which permits the meat to be 
hung till it is tender — and give the Butcher some days' 
notice of their wish for them. 

The best Steaks are those cut from the middle of 
a Rump, that has been killed at least four days in 
moderate weather, — much longer in cold weather — 
when they can be cut about six inches long, four 
inches wide, and half an inch thick — do not beat 
them, unless you suspect they will not be tender. 
Desire the Butcher to cut them of even thickness — 
if he does not — divide the thicker from the thinner 
pieces — and give them time accordingly. 

Take care to have a very clear brisk fire, throw a 
little salt on it, make the Gridiron hot, and set it 
slanting, to prevent the fat from dropping into the fire, 
and making a smoke. It requires more practice and 
care than is generally supposed to do Steaks to a nicety ; 
and for want of these little attentions, this very common 

• The season for these is from the 29th of September to the Coth of March ; 
to eusure their beiug teuder wheu out of season, stew th£.m as iu Receipt 
(No. 500.) 

TO WARM CP COLD RUMP STEAKS. 

Lay them in a stewpan, with one large Union cut in quarters, six berries 
of Allspice, the same of Black Pepper, cover ihe Sltaks with boiling water, 
let them stew gently one hour, thicken the liquor wiih Flour and Butler 
rubbed together on a plate; if a pint of gravy, about one ounce of Flour 
and the like weight of Butter will do ; put it into the Stewpan, shake it well 
over the fire for five minutes, and it is ready ; lay the Steaks and Onion on a 
dish, and pour the Gravy through a sieve over them. 
K 5 



202 BROILING. 

dish, which every body is supposed capable of dressing; 
seldom comes to table in perfection. 

Ask those you Cook for, if they like it under, or 
thoroughly done; and what acconipaniments they like 
best; — it is usual to put a tablespoonful of Catsup 
(No. 439)— or '' Balls' Cavice," and a little minced 
Shallot or (No. 402) into a dish before the fire; while 
you are broiling — turn the Steak, d-c. with a pair of 
Steak tong^s — it will bi- done in about ten or fifteen 
minutes; rub a bit of butter over it, and send it up 
garnislied with Pickles and finely scraped Horseradish. 
(Nos. 135, 278, 299, 255, 402,423,439, and 356,) are 
the Sauces usually composed for Chops and Steaks. 

N. B. Macbetii's Receipt for Beef Steaks is the 
best. — 

" tihen 'tis done, 'tirere well 

" 1/ 'twere done quickly." 

Ohs.— " Le f't'ritah/e Bifteck, rowme il se fart en 
Jng/eterrc," as Mons. Beauvillicrs calls (in his I' /Irt du 
Cui.sinicr, torn. i. 8vo. Paris, 1814, page 122,) what Hi: 
says, — We call " Romcdeck,'' — is as highly esteemed 
by our French neighbours, as their " Ragouts" are by 
our Countrymen, who 

" post to Paris go, 

" Merely to ta«te their Soups, and Mnshrx»oms know." 

KiNc's Art oj Cookery, p. 19- 

Thcse lines were written, before the establishment of 
Albion Housr, Aldersgate-Street, where every Luxury 
that Nature and Art produce, is served of the primest 
quality, and in the most scientific manner — in a style 
of princely magnificence and perfect comfort — tl.e 
Wines, Liqueurs, &c. are superlative — and every de- 
partment of the business of the Banquet is conducted 
in the most liberal manner. 

The French author whom we have before so often 
quoted, assures les Amateurs de Bonne C/idre on the other 
side of the Water, it is well worth their while to cross 
the Channel to taste this favourite English dish, wiiich 
when " jnortifiee d son point" 2ind well dressed, he says, 



BROILING. 



203 



is superior to most of the subtle Relishes of the Parisian 
kitchen. — Almanack des Gourmands, vol. i. p. 27, 

Beef is justly accounted the most nutritious animal 
Food— the celebrated Trainers, Sir Thomas Parkyns, 
&c. greatly preferred Beef-eaters— to S/teep-Biters — 
as they called those who ate Mutton. When Humphrits 
the pugilist was trained by Ripsham, the keeper of 
Ipswich Jail, he was at first fed on BeeJ, but got so 
much flesh — it was changed for Mutton — roasted, or 
Iroikd, — when boiled, great part of the nutritive juices 
of the meat is extracted. 

The principles upon which trainixg* is conducted, 
resolve themselves into Temperance without abstemious- 
ness, and Exercise without fatigue. 

Kidneys. — (No. 95.) 

Cut them through the long way, — score them, 
sprinkle a little pepper and salt on them, and run a 
wire skewer through them to keep them from curling 
on the Gridiron— so that they may be evenly broiled. 

Broil them over a very clear fire, turning them often 
till they are done ; they will take about ten or twelve 
minutes, if the fire is brisk : or Fry them in Butter, and 
make gravy for tliem in the pan (after you have taken 
out the kidneys), by putting in a teaspoonful of flour ; 
as soon as it looks brown, put in as much water as will 
make gravy ; they will take five minutes more to fry 
than to broil. For Sauce, (Nos. 318, 355, and 356.) 

Obs. — Some Cooks chop a few Parsley leaves very 
fine, and mix them with a bit of fresh butter and a 
little Pepper and Salt — and put a little of this mixture 
on each Kidney. 

A Fowl or Rabbit, SfC. — (No. 97.) 

We can only recommend this method of dressing, 
when the Fire is not good enough for roasting. 

•See "The Art of Invigorating and Prolonging Life, — b/ 

the Editor of " the Cook's Oracle." 



204 BROILING. 

Pick and truss it the same as for boiling', cut it open 
down the back, wipe the inside clean with a cloth, 
season it with a little pepper and salt, have a clear 
fire, and set the gridiron at a good distance over it, 
lay the chicken on with the inside towards the fire; 
(you may e^g it and strew some grated bread over it) 
and broil it till it is a fine brown — take care the fleshy 
side is not burnt. Lay it on a hot dish, pickled Mush- 
rooms, or Mushroom Sauce (No. 305), thrown over it, 
or Parsley and ' Butter (No. 261), or melted Butter 
flavoured with Mushroom Catsup (No. 307.) 

Garnish it with slices of Lemon, and the Liver and 
Gizzard, slit and notched, and seasoned with pepper 
and salt, and broiled nicely brown, and some slices of 
lemon. For Grill sauce, see (No. 355.) 

N. B. " It was a great mode, and taken up by the 
court party in Oliver Cromwell's time, to roast /lalf 
Capons — pretending they had a more exquisite taste 
and nutriment than when dressed whole." — Sec Joan 
Cromwell's Kite /ten, London, 1664, page 39. 

Pigeons, — {IS^o. 98.) 

To be worth the trouble of picking, must be well 
^own, and well fed. 

Clean them well, and pepper and salt them; broil 
them over a clear slow fire ; turn them often, and put 
a little butter on them : when they are done, pour over 
them, either stewed (No. 305) or pickled Mushrooms, 
or Catsup and melted Butter (No. 307) — or (Nos. 348 
or 355.) 

Garnish with fried bread Crumbs or Sippets (No. 
319) ; OR, when the Pigeons are trussed as for boiling, 
fiat them with a cleaver, taking care not to break the 
skin of the backs, or breasts ; season them with pepper 
and salt, a little bit of butter, and a teaspoonful of 
water, and tie them close at both ends ; so when they 
are brought to Table, they bring their Sauce with them. 
Egg and dredge them well with grated bread (mixed 



BROILING. 205 

with Spice and Sweet herbs, if you please), then lay 
them on the gridiron, and turn them frequently: if 
your fire is not very clear, lay them on a sheet of paper 
well buttered, to keep them from getting smoked. 
They are much better broiled whole. 

The same Sauce as in the preceding receipt, or 
(Nos. 343, or 348.) 

Veal Cutlets (No. 521), and (No. 91.) 

Pork Chops (No. 93 ) 



THE 

COOK'S ORACLE, 



VEGETABLES. 



Sixteen Ways of dressing Potatoes*. 
(No. 102.) 

The Vegetable Kingdom affords no Food more whole- 
some, more easily procured, easily prepared, or less 
expensive than the Potatoe ; yet althouiT^h this most 
useful vegetable is dressed almost every day, in almost 
every family, — for One plate of Potatoes that comes to 
table as it should, Ten are spoiled. 

Be careful in your choice of Potatoes ; no vegetable 
varies so much in colour, size, shape, consistence, and 
flavour. 

The reddi.^h coloured are better than the white, but 
the yellowish looking ones are the best. Choose those 
of a moderate si/e, free from blemishes, and fresh, and 
buy them in the Mould ; they must nut be netted till they 
are cleaned to be cooked. Protect them from the Air 
and Frost — by laying them in heaps in a cellar, 
covering them with mats, or burying them in sand or 
in earth. The action of Frost — is most destructive — 
if it be considerable, the life of the vegetable is de- 
stroyed, and the Potatoe speedily rots. 

Wash them, but do not pare or cut them unless they 
are very large, — fill a saucepan half full of Potatoes of 

• " Next to Bread, there is no vegetable article, the preparation of wliich, 
as food, deserves to be more attended to, tlian the Potatoe." — Sir Juuw 
Sinclair's Code of Health, \o\.\.^. 354. 

" By the Analysis of Potatoe, it appears tliat l6 ounces contained llj 
oances of water— and the \\ ounces of solid paru reiiiaii)ing attbrded scarce 
a drachm of earth." — Parme.vtikr's Ubs. on Nutritive ^ egetaUtet, 8vo. 
1783, p. 1«. . 



Vegetables. 207 

equal size*, (or make them so by dividing the larger 
ones) — put to them as much cold water as will cover 
them about an inch : they are sooner boiled, and more 
savoury than when drowned in water — most boiled 
things are spoiled by having too little water, but 
Potatoes are often spoiled by too much : they must 
merely be covered, and a little allowed for waste in 
boiling, so that they may be just covered at the finish. 

Set them on a moderate fire till they boil, then take 
them off, and set them by the side of the fire to simmer 
slowly till they are soft enough to admit a fork, — 
(place no dependence on the usual test of their skin 
cracking, which, if they are boiled fast, will happen to 
some Potatoes when they are not half done, and the 
inside is quite hard,) — then pour the water off, (if you 
let the Potatoes remain in the water a moment after 
they are done enough — they will become waxy and 
watery,) uncover the saucepan, and set it at such a 
distance from the fire as will secure it from burning; 
their superfluous moisture will evaporate, and the 
Potatoes will be perfectly dry and mealy. 

You may afterwards place a napkin, folded up to 
the size of the saucepan's diameter, over the Potatoes, 
to keep thenj hot and mealy till wanted. 

Obs. — This method of managing Potatoes is in every 
respect equal to steaming them; and they are dressed 
in half the time. 

There is such an infinite variety of sorts and sizes of 
Potatoes, that it is impossible to say how long they 
will take doing ; the best way is to try them with a 
fork. Moderate sized Potatoes will generally be 
enough in fifteen or twenty minutes. See Obs. to 
(No. lOS.) 

Cold Potatoes Fried. — (^o. 102*.) 

Put a bit of cleaa Dripping into a frying-pan ; when 



• Or the SMALL o.nks will be done to pieces before the large onbs are 
fcoiied enougti. 



208 VEGETABLES. 

it is melted, slice in your Potatoes with a little pepper 
and salt, put tliem on the tire, keep stirring- them ; — 
when they are quite hot, they are ready. 

Obs. — '1 his is a very good way of re-dressing Pota- 
toes — or see (No. lOG.) 

Putatoe.s hoilul and broiled. — (No. 103.) 

Dress your Potatoes as before directed, and put 
them on a e;ridiron over a very clear and brisk fire ; 
turn them till they are brown all over, and send them 
up dry, with melted butter in a cup. 

Potatoes fried in Slices or S/iaii/igs. — (No. 104.) 

Peel large Potatoes, slice them about a quarter of 
an inch thick, or cut them in shavings round and round 
as you would peel a lemon ; dry them well in a clean 
cloth, and fry them in lard or dripping. Take care 
that your fat and frying-pan are quite clean ; put it on 
a quick fire, watch it, and as soon as the lard boils, 
and is still, put in the slices of potatoe, and keep 
moving them till they are crisp ; take them up and lay 
them to drain on a sieve ; send them up with a very 
little salt sprinkled over them. 

Potatoes fried w/iole. — (No. 1 05.) 

When nearly boiled enough, as directed in (No. 102), 
put them into a stewpan with a bit of butter, or some 
nice clean beef drippings ; shake them about often (for 
fear of burning them), till they are brown and crisp ; 
drain them from the fat. 

Obs. — It will be an elegant improvement to the 
three last receipts, previous to frying or broiling the 
Potatoes, to flour them and dip them in the yolk of an 
egg, and then roll them in fine sifted bread crumbs ; 
they will then deserve to be called potatoes full 

DRESSED. 

Potatoes ?naslied. — (No. 106.) See also (No. 112.) 
When your Potatoes are thoroughly boiled, drain 



VEGETABLES. 209 

dry, pick out every speck, &c. and while hot, rub 
them through a cullender into a clean stew pan : to 
a pound of Potatoes put about half an ounce of butter, 
and a tablespoonful of milk : do not make them too 
moist ; mix them well together. 

Obs. — -iff^r Lady-daji, when the Potatoes are get- 
ting old and specky, and in frosty "weather, this is the 
best way of dressing them. You may put them into 
shapes, egg them with yolk of Egg, and brown them 
very slightly before a slow fire. 

Potatoes mashed uith Onions. — (No. 107.) 

Prepare some boiled onions, by putting them through 
a sieve, and mix them with Potatoes. In proportioning 
the Onions to the Potatoes, you will be guided by your 
wish to have more or less of their flavour. 

Obs. — See note under (No. 555.) 

Potatoes Escanoped. — (No. 108.) 

Mash Potatoes as directed in (No. 1 06) ; then butter 
some nice clean scollop shells, or patty pans, put in 
your Potatoes, make them smooth at the top, cross a 
knife over them, strew a few fine bread crumbs on 
them, sprinkle them with a paste brush with a few 
drops of melted butter, and then set them in a Dutch 
oven ; — when they are browned on the top, take them 
carefully out of the shells, and brown the other side. 

Colcannon.~(No. 108*.) 

Boil Potatoes and Greens, or Spinage — sepa- 
rately — Mash the Potatoes — squeeze the Greens dry, 
chop them quite fine, and mix them with the Potatoes 
with a little butter, pepper and salt — put it into a 
mould, greasing it well first ; let it stand in a hot oven 
for ten minutes. 

Potatoes Roasted. —(No. 109.) 
Wash and dry your Potatoes {all of a size), and put 



210 



VEGETABLES. 



them in a tin Dutcli oven, or cheese toaster; — take 
care not to put them too near the fire, or they will get 
burnt on the outside before they are warmed through. 

Large Potatoes will require two hours to roast them. 

N. B. To save time and trouble, some Cooks half 
boil them first. 

This is one of the best opportunities the Baker has 
to rival the Cook. 

Potatoes Roasted under Meat.- (No. 110.) 

Half boil large Potatoes, — draiti the water from 
them, and put them into an earthen dish, or small tin 
pan, under Meat that is roasting, and baste them with 
some of the dripping; — when they are browned on 
oi)e side, turn them and brown the other, — send them 
up round the meat, or in a small dish. 

Pofatoc Balls. — (So. 111.) 

Mix mashed Potatoes with the yolk of an e^^y roll 
them into balls, flour them, or egg and bread-crumb 
them, and fry them in clean drippings, — or brown 
them in a Dutch oven. 

Pofafoe Balls Ragout — (So. 112.) 
Are made by adding to a pound of Potatoes a 
quarter of a pound of grated ham, or some sweet 
herbs, or chopped parsley, and onion or shallot, salt, 
pepper, and a little grated nutmeg, or other spice, with 
the yolk of a couple of eggs ; they are then to be 
dressed as (No. 111.) 

Obs. — An agreeable vegetable relish, and a good 
supper dish. 

Potatoe Snoic. — (No. 114.) 

The Potatoes must be free from spots, and the 
whitest you can pick out; put them on in cold water; 
when they begin to crack, strain the water from them, 



VEGETABLES. 



211 



and put them into a clean stewpan by the side of the 
fire till they are quite dry and fall to pieces ; rub them 
through a wire sieve on the dish they are to be sent up 
in, and do not disturb them afterwards. 

Pofaifoe Pie. — (No. 115.) 

Peel and slice your Potatoes very thin, into a pie 
dish; between each layer of Potatoes put a little 
chopped onion, (three quarters of an ounce of onion is 
sufficient for a pound of Potatoes) ; between each 
layer sprinkle a little pepper and salt, put in a little 
water, and cut about two ounces of fresh butter into 
little bits, and lay them on the top : cover it close with 
puff paste. It will take about an hour and a half to 
bake it. 

N. B. The Yolks of four Eggs (boiled hard) may be 
added; and when baked, a tablespoonful of good 
Mushroom Catsup poured in through a funnel. 

Obs. — Cauliflowers divided into mouthsful, and 
Button Onions, seasoned with Curry Powder, &c., 
make a favourite Vegetable Pie. 

New Potatoes. — (No. 116.) 
The best way to clean New Potatoes, is to rub them 
with a coarse cloth or a flannel, or scrubbing brush J 
and proceed as in (No. 192.) 

N. B. New Potatoes are poor, watery, and insipid, 
till they are full two inches diameter — they are hardly 
worth the trouble of boiling before Midsummer Day. 

Obs. — Some Cooks prepare Sauces to pour over 
Potatoes, made with butter, salt, and pepper, — or 
gravy, or melted butter and catsup, — or stew the 
Potatoes in ale, or water seasoned with pepper and 
salt; — or bake them with herrings, or sprats, mixed 
with layers of potatoes, seasoned with pepper, salt, 
sweet herbs, vinegar, and water; — or cut mutton or 
beef into slices, and lay them in a stewpan, and on 
them potatoes and spices, then another layer of the 



212 VEGETABLES. 

meat alternately, pouring in a little water, covering it 
up very close, and stewing slowly. 

Potatoe Mucilage (a good substitute for Arrow Root), 
(No. 448.) 

Jerusalem Artichokes — (No. 117.) 

Are boiled and dressed in the various ways we have 
just before directed for potatoes. 

N.B. They should be covered with thick melted 
butter, or a nice White or Brown Sauce. 

Cabbage. — {^0. 118.) 

Pick Cabbages very clean, and wash them tho- 
roughly, then look them over carefully again ; quarter 
them it" they are very large. Put them into a saucepan 
with -plenty of builing water; if any scum rises, take it 
oft', put a large spoonful of salt into the saucepan, and 
boil them till the stalks feel tender. A Young Cabbage 
will take about twenty minutes, or half an hour — when 
Full Grunn, near an hour; see that they are well covered 
with water all the time, and that no smoke or dirt 
arises from stirring the fire. With careful management, 
they will look as beautiful when dressed, as they did 
when growing. 

Obs. — Some Cooks say, that it will much ameliorate 
the flavour of .'>trung Old Cabbages to boil them in two 
waters; i.e. when they are half done, to take them 
out, and put them directly into another saucepan of 
boiling water, instead of continuing them in the water 
into which they were first put. 

Boiled Cabbage fried. — (No. 119.) 

See Receipt for Bubble and Squeak. 

Savoys — O^o. 120.) 

Are boiled in the same manner ; quarter them when 
you send them to table. 



VEGETABLES. 213 

Sprouts and Young Greens. — (No. 121.) 

The Receipt we have written for Cabbages will 
answer as well for Sprouts, only they will be boiled 
enough in fifteen or twenty minutes. 

Spinage,—{^o, 122.) 

Spinage should be picked a leaf at a time, and 
washed in three or four waters ; when perfectly clean, 
lay it on a sieve, or cullender, to drain the water 
from it. 

Put a saucepan on the fire, three parts filled with 
water, and large enough for the Spinage to float in it; 
put a small handful of salt in it, let it boil, skim it, 
and then put in the Spinage, make it boil as quick as 
possible, till quite tender, pressing the Spinage down 
frequently, that it may be done equally ; it will be 
enough in about ten minutes, if boiled in plenty of 
water; if the Spinage is a little old, give it a few 
minutes longer. When done, strain it on the back of 
a sieve, squeeze it dry with a plate, or between two 
trenchers, chop it fine, and put it into a stewpan with 
a bit of butter and a little salt; a little cream is a 
great improvement, or, instead of either, some rich 
Gravy. Spread it in a dish, and score it into squares 
of proper size to help at table. 

Ohs. — Grated nutmeg, or mace, and a little lemon 
juice, is a favourite addition with some cooks, and is 
added when you stir it up in the stewpan with the 
butter garnished. Spinage is frequently served with 
Poached Eggs with fried bread. 

Asparagus. — (No. 123.) " 
Set a stewpan with plenty of water in it on the fire ; 
sprinkle a handful of salt in it, let it boil, and skim it ; 
then put in your Asparagus, prepared thus : — Scrape 
all the stalks till they are perfectly clean, throw them 
into a pan of cold water as you scrape them ; when 



214 VEGETABLES. 

they are all done, tie them up in little bundles, of 
about a quarter hundred each, with bass, if you can 
get it, or tape; string cuts them to pieces: cut off the 
stalks at the bottom, that they may be all of a length, 
leaving only just enough to serve as a handle for the 
green part ; when they are tender at the stalk, which 
will be in from twenty to thirty minutes, they are done 
enough. Great care must be taken to uatch the exact 
time of their becoming tender ; take them up just at that 
instant, and they will have their true flavour and 
colour; — a minute or two more boiling destroys both. 

While the Asparagus is boiling, toast a round of a 
quartern loaf, about half an inch thick, brown it deli- 
cately on both sides, dip it lightly in the liquor the 
Asparagus was boiled in, and lay it in the middle of a 
dish : melt some butter (No. 256), then lay in the 
Asparagus upon the Toait, which must project beyond 
the Asparagus, that the company may see there is a 
Toast. 

Pour no butter over them, but send some up in a 
boat, or White Sauce (No. 364), (No. 2.) 

Sea Kale — {"So. 124.) 

Is tied up in bundles, and dressed in the same way 
as Asparagus. 

Caulifio-u:er.—(So. 125.) 

Choose those that are close and white, and of the 
middle size, trim off the outside leaves, cut the stalk 
off flat at the bottom, let them lie in salt and water an 
hour before you boil them. 

Put them into boiling water with a handful of salt in 
it, skim it well, and let it boil slowly till done, which a 
small one will be in fifteen, a large one in about twenty 
minutes, take it up the nwment it i,s enovgh, a minute or 
two longer boiling will spoil it. 

N. H. Cold Caulrfiuuers, and French Beans, Carrots and 
Turnips, boiled so as to eat rather crisp, are sometimes 
dressed as a Salad, (No. 372 or 453.) 



VEGETABLES. 215 

Brocoli.—{No. 126.) 

Set a pan of clean cold water on the table, — and a 
saucepan on the fire with plenty of water, and a hand- 
ful of salt in it. 

Brocoli is prepared by stpipping off all the side 
shoots, leaving the top ; peel off the skin of the stalk 
with a knife, cut it close off at the bottom, and put it 
into the pan of cold water. 

When the water in the stewpan boils, and the Brocoli 

is ready, put it in, let it boil briskly till the stalks feel 

^tender, from ten to twenty minutes ; — take it up with 

a slice, that you may not break it; — let it drain, and 

serve up. 

If some of the heads of Brocoli are much bisrsrer than 
the others, put them on to boil first, so that they may 
get all done together. 

Obs. — It makes a nice supper dish served upon a 
toast, like Asparagus. It is a very delicate vegetable, 
and you must take it up the moment it is done, and 
send it to table /luL 

Red But Roots — CNo. 127.) 

Are not so much used as they deserve ; they are 
dressed in the same way as Parsnips, only neither 
scraped nor cut till after they are boiled : they will take 
from an hour and a half to three hours in boiling, 
according to their size, — to be sent to table with Salt 
Fish, Boiled Beef, &c. When young, large, and juicy, 
it is a very good variety, — an excellent garnish, — 
and easily converted into a very cheap and pleasant 
pickle. 

Parsnips — (No. 128.) 

Are to be cooked just in the same manner as Carrots ; 
they require more or less time according to their size, 
therefore match ihem in size, and you must try them, 
by thrusting a fork into them as they are in the water; 



216 VEGETABLES. 

when that goes easily tlirougli, they are done enough; 
boil them from an hour to two hours, according to their 
size and freshness. 

Obs. — Parsnips are sometimes sent up mashiStt in 
the same way as Turnips, and some Cooks quarter 
them before they boil them. 

Carrots. — {So. 129.) 

Let them be well washed and brushed, not scraped ; 
an hour is enough for young spring carrots; grown 
carrots must be cut in half, and will take from an hour 
and a half to two ho\n-s and a half. When done, rub" 
off the peels with a clean coarse cloth, and slice them 
in two or four, according to their size. The best way 
to try if they are done enough, is to pierce them with 
a fork. 

0/m. — .Many people are fond of cold Carrot with 
cold Beef. 

Turnqis. — (No. 130.) 

Peel off half an inch of the stringy outside ; full- 
grown turnips will take about an hour and a half 
gentle boiling; if you slice them, which most people 
do, they will be done sooner ; try them with a fork, — 
when tender, take them up, and lay them on a sieve till 
the water is thoroughly drained from them: send them 
up whole; do not slice them. 

N.B. To veiy young Turnips leave about two inches 
of the Green Top. See (No. 132.) 

To Mash Turnips. -(No. 131 ) 

When they are boiled quite tender, squeeze them as 
(Irij as possible between two trenchers, put them into a 
saucepan, mash them with a wooden spoon, and rub 
them through a cullender, add a little bit of butter, 
keep stirring them till the butter is melted and well 
mixed with them, and they are ready for table. 



VEGETABLES. 217 

Turnip Toj?*-- (No. 132.) 

Are the shoots which grow out (in the spring) of 
the old turnip roots. Put them into cold water an hour 
before they are dressed; the more water they are 
boiled in, the better they will look ; — if boiled in a 
small quantity of water, they will taste bitter ; — when 
the water boils, put in a small handful of salt, and 
then your vegetables ; if fresh and young, they will be 
done in about twenty minutes ; drain them on the back 
of a sieve. 

French Beans. —(No. 133.) 

Cut off the stalk end first, and then turn to the point 
and strip off the strings: — If not quite fresh, have a 
bowl of spring water, with a little salt dissolved in it, 
standing before you, and as the beans are cleaned and 
stringed, throw them in: — when all are done, put 
them on the fire, in boiling water, with some salt in it ; 
when they have boiled fifteen or twenty minutes, take 
one out and taste it; as soon as they are tender, take 
them up, throw them into a cullender or sieve to drain. 
To send up the beans whole is much the best method 
when they are thus young, and their delicate flavour 
and colour are much better preserved. When a little 
more grown, they must be cut across in two, after 
stringing; and for common tables, they are split, and 
divided across ; but those who are nice, never have 
them at such a growth as to require splitting. When 
they are large, they look verv pretty cut into Lozenges. 
Obs. — See N.B. to (No. 125.) 

Green Pease. * — (No. 134.) 
Young Green Pease, well dressed, are one of the 
most delicious delicacies of the vegetable kingdom. 
They must be young ; it is equally indispensable that 

« These and all other fruits ar.d vegetables, &c. by Mr. Appert's plan, it 
is said, may be preserved in full flavour tor tvelve iiionlhs. — See Appert's 
Book, 12ino. 1812. We have eaten of several specimens of preserved Fease, 
— which looked pretty enough, — but Jiatcur ihe^ iiad none at all. 
-L 



218 VEGETABLES. 

they be fresh gathered, and cooked as soon as they are 
shelled, for they soon lose both their colour and 
sweetness. 

If you uish lo feast upon Pease in perfection, you 
must have them gathered the same day they are 
dressed, and put on to boil within half an hour after 
they are shelled. 

Pass them through a riddle^ i. e. a coarse sieve, which 
is made for the purpose of separating them. This 
precaution is necessary, for large and small pease 
cannot be boiled together, as the former will take more 
time than the latter. 

For a peck of pease, set on a saucepan with a gallon 
of water in it ; when it boils, put in your pease with a 
tablespoonful of salt, — skim it well, keep them boiling 
quick from twenty to thirty minutes, according to their 
age and size : the best way to judge of their being 
done enough, and indeed the only way to make sure of 
cooking them to, and not beyond, the point of per- 
fection, or, as Pea-eaters say, of " boiling them to a 
bubble,'' is to take them out with a spoon and taste 
them. 

When they are enough, drain tuem on a hair sieve. 
If you like them buttered, put them into a pie dish, 
divide some butter into small bits, and lay them on the 
pease ; put another dish over them, and turn them over 
and over; this vnW melt the butter through them; but 
as all people do not like buttered pease, you had better 
send them to table plain, as they come out of the 
Saucepan, with melted butter (No. 256), in a sance 
tureen. It is usual to boil some Mint with the Pease ; 
but if you wish to garnish the Pease with Mint, boil a 
few sprigs in a saucepan by themselves. See Sage and 
Onion Sauce (No. 300), and Pea Powder (No. 458.) 
To boil Bacon (No. 13), Slices of Ham and Bacon 
(No. 526), and Relishing Rashers of Bacon (No. 527.) 

N. B. A Peck of young Pease will not yield more 
ttan enough for a couple of hearty Pea-Eaters, — whea 
the pods are full, it may serve for three. 



VEGETABLES. 219 

Mem. — Never think of purchasing Pease ready-shelled, 
for the cogent reasons assigned in the first part of this 
Receipt. 

Cucumber Stewed. — (No. 135.) 

Peel and cut cucumbers in quarters, take out the 
seeds, and lay them on a cloth to drain off the water : 
when they are dry, flour and fry them in fresh butter ; 
let the butter be quite hot before you put in the cucum- 
bers ; fry them till they are brown, then take them out 
with an egg slice, and lay them on a sieve to drain the 
fat from them : (some Cooks fry sliced Onions or some 
small Button Onions with them till they are a delicate 
light brown colour, drain them from the fat, and) then 
put them into a ste-A^an, with as much Gra^-y as will 
cover them ; stew slowly till they are tender ; take out 
the cucumbers with a slice, thicken the gravy Vt^ith 
flour and butter, give it a boil up, season it \\\\h pepper 
and salt, and put in the Cucumbers ; as soon as they 
are warm, they are ready. 

The above rubbed through a Tammis or fine sieve, 
will be entitled to be called " Cucumber Sauce." 
See (No. 399), Cucumber Vinegar. This is a very 
favourite sauce with lamb or mutton cutlets, stewed 
rump steaks, &c. &c. ; when made for the latter, a third 
part of sliced onion is sometimes fried with the cucum- 
ber. 

Artichokes. — (No. 136.) 

Soak them in cold water, wash them well, then put 
them into plenty of boiling water, with a handful of 
salt, and let them boil gently till they are tender, which 
will take an hour and a half, or two hours ; the surest 
way to know when they are done enough, is to draw 
out a leaf; trim them and drain them on a sieve; and 
send up melted butter with them, which some put into 
small cups, so that each guest may have one. 

Stewed Onions. — (No. 137.) 
The large Portugal Onions are the best; take off the 
l3 



220 VEGETABLES. 

top-coats of half a dozen of these, (taking care not to 
cut off the tops or tails too near, or the onions will go 
to pieces); and put them into a stewpan broad enough 
to hold them without laying them atop of one another, 
and just cover them with good broth. 

Put them over a slow fire, and let them simmer about 
two hours ; when you dish them, turn them upside 
down, and pour the sauce over. 

Young Onions stewed, see (No. 296.) 

Salads. — (^o. 138*), also (No. 372.) 

Tliose who desire to see this subject elaborately 
iUustrated, we refer to " Evylyn's /lataria," a dis- 
course of Sallets, a 12mo. of 240 pages. London, 
1699. 

Mr. E. gives us '' an account of seventy-two herbs 
proper and fit to make Sallet with," — and a table of 
Thirtif-Fiie, telhng their seasons and proportions. " In 
the composure of a Sallet, every plant should come in 
to bear its part, like the notes in Music : thus the 
comical Master Cook introduced by Danioxc?ius, when 
asked, * what Harnionj/ there was in McaLs?' — ' the very 
same,' says he, ' as the 3d, 5th, and 8th have to one 
another in music — the main skill hes in this, not to 
mingle (' .sapores minimc consenticntes) — ' Tastes not 
well joined — inelegant,' as our Paradisian Bard directs 
Ere when dressing a sallet for her Angtlical Guest.'" — 
Milton's Paradise Lo.st. 

He gives the following Receipt for the Oxoleon : — 

" Take of clear and perfectly good Ch/l-Olive three 
parts — of sharpest Vinegar, {sweetest of all Condiment s^ 
for it incites appetite, and causes Hunger, which is the 
best sauce,) Limon, or juice of Orange, one part — and 
therein let steep some slices of Horseradish, with a little 
Salt : some, in a separate Vinegar, gently bruise a pod 
of Ginny Pepper, and strain it to the other — then add 
as much Mustard as will lie upon a half-crown piece. 
Beat and mingle these well together with the yolk of 



VEGETABLES. 221 

two new-laid Eg^s boiled hard, and pour it over your 
Sailet, stirring it well together. The 5z/jt;er-curious 
insist that the knife with which Sailet herb is cut must 
be of Silver — and some who are husbands of their Oyl 
pour at first the Oyl alone, as more apt to communicate 
and diffuse its slipperiness, than when it is mingled 
and beaten with the Acids — which they pour on last 
of all ; and it is incredible how small a quantity of Oyl 
thus applied is sufficient to imbue a very plentiful 
assembly of Sailet Herbs." 

Obs. — Our own Directions to prepare and dress 
Salads will be found under (No. 372.) 



THE 

COOICS ORACLE. 



FISH. 

Turbotto Bo^7. — (No. 140.) 

This excellent Fish is in season the greatest part of 
the Summer, — when good, it is at once firm and 
tender, and abounds with rich gelatinous nutriment. 

Being drawn, and washed clean, if it be quite fresh, 
by rubbing it lightly with salt, and keeping it in a cold 
place, you may in moderate weather preserve it for a 
couple of days *. 

An Hour or tivo before you dress it, soak it in spring 
water with some salt in it, — then score the skin across 
the thickest part of the back; (this is to prevent it 
breaking on the Breast, which will happen from the 
fish swelling, and cracking the skin, if this precaution 
be not used.) Put a large handful of salt into a fish 



* " I have ascertained, by many years' observation, that a Turbot kept 
two or three days is much better eating than a very fresh one." — Ude's 
Cookery, p. 238, 

" TuRBOTS. The finest brought to the London market, are caught off the 
Dutch coast, or German ocean, and are brought in well-boats alive. The 
commencement of the season is generally about March and April, aud con- 
tinues all the summer. Turbots, like other fish, do not spawn all at the same 
time ; therefore.there is always good and bad nearly all the year round. For 
tills year or two past, there has been an immense quantity brought to London, 
from all parts, and of all qualities : a great many from a new fishery off 
Hartlepool, which are a very handsome looking turbot, but by no means 
equal to what are caught off the Dutch coast. Many excellent Turbots are 
caught off Dover and Dungeness; and a large quantity brought from Scotland, 
packed in ice, which are of a very inferior quality, and are generally to be 
bought for about one fourth the price of good turbots. 

" Brills are generally caught at the same place as turbots, and are generally 
of the same quality as the tijrbot, from the different parts." 



risH. 



223 



kettle with cold water, lay your fish on a fish strainer, 
put it in, and when it is coming to a boil, skim it well ; 
then set the kettle on the side of the fire, to boil as 
gently as possible for about fifteen or twenty minutes ; 
(if it boils fast, the fish will break to pieces) ; sup- 
posing it a middling size Turbot, and to weigh eight or 
nine pounds. 

Rub a httle of tl-e inside Red Coral spawn of the 
Lobster through a hair sieve, without butter; and 
when the Turbot is dished, sprinkle the spawn over it. 
Garnish the dish with sprigs of curled Parsley, sliced 
Lemon, and finely scraped Horseradish. 

If you like to send it to table in Full Dress, surround 
it with nicely Fried Smelts (No. 173), laying the largest 
opposite the broadest part of the Turbot; so that they 
may form a well proportioned fringe for it, — or Oysters 
(No. 183*), or cut a Sole in strips, crossways, about 
the size of a Smelt; fry them as directed in (No. 145), 
and lay them round. Send up Lobster sauce (No. 284), 
two boats of it, if it is for a larp;e party. 

N. B. Cold Turbot with (IVo. 372) for Sauce— or 
take off the Fillets that are left — as soon as the Turbot 
returns from Table — and they will make a side dish for 
your next dinner, warmed in (No. 364), (No. 2.) 

Ohs. — The thickest part is the favourite, and the 
Carver of this Fish must remember to ask his friends if 
they are Fin-Fanciers. It will save a troublesome Job to 
the Carver, if the Cook, when the Fish is boiled, cuts 
the spine-bone across the middle. 

A Briil-(So. 143.) 
Is dressed the same way as a Turbot. 

Soles to EozX— (No. 144.) 

A fine fresh thick Sole, is almost as good eating 
as a Turbot. 

Wash and clean it nicely ; put it into a fish-kettle 
with a handful of salt, and as much cold water as will 
cover it; set it on the side of the fire, take off the 



224 



FISH. 



scum as it rises, and let it boil frently; — about five 
minutes (according; to its size) will be long- enough, 
unless it be very larg:e. Send it up on a fish-drainer 
s:arnished with slices of Lemon and sprigs of curled 
Parslev, or nicely fried Smelts (No. 173), or Oysters 
(No. 183.) 

Ohs. — Slices of Lemon are a universally acceptable 
garnish, with either fried or broiled fish; — a few Sprii^s 
of criq) l\irslcy may be added, if you wish to make it 
look very smart; and Parsley, or Fennel and butter, 
are excellent sauces, see (No. 261), and (No. 265), or 
Chervil sauce (No. 264), Anchovy (No. 270). 

N. B. Boiled Soles are very good uarmcd up like 
Eels, Wio^gv's way (No. 164\ or covered with White 
Sauce (No. 364), (No. 2), and see (No. 158.) 

Soles, or other Fish, to Fry. — (No. 145.) 

Soles are generally to be procured good from some 
part of the coast, as some are going out of season, and 
some coming in, both at tlie same time; a great many 
are brought in well-boats, alive, that are caught otF 
Dover, and Folkstone, and some are brought from the 
same places by land carriage. The finest soles are 
caught ofi" Plymouth, near the Eddistone, and all the 
way up the Channel, and to Torbay ; and frequently 
weigh eight or ten ])ouuds per pair : they are generally 
brought by water to Portsmouth, and thence by land ; 
but the greatest quantity are caught off Yarmouth and 
the Knole,and off the Forelands 

Be sure tliey are quite f res /i, or the most expert Cook 
cannot make them either look, or eat well. 

u4n hour before yon intend to dress them, wash them 
thoroughly, and wrap them in a clean cloth, to make 
them perfectly dry, — or the Bread crumbs v/ill not 
stick to them. 

Prepare some Bread Crumbs*, by rubbing some stale 

• A large pair of Soles will take llie fourth part of a qnarlern Loaf, which 
now costs twopence halfpenny. Oatmeal is a good substitul,; for Brtaii 
Crnmbs, — and costs comparatively nothing!! 



FISH. 225 

bread through a Cullender; or, if you wish the Fish to 
appear very dehcately and highly finished, through a 
Hair sieve, or use Biscuit Powder. 

Beat the yolk and white of an Egg well together, on 
a plate, with a fork; — flour your fish to absorb any 
moisture that may remain, and wipe it off with a clean 
cloth: — dip them in the e^^ on both sides all over, 
or, what is better, egg them with a paste brush, — 
strew the Bread Crumbs all over the Fish, so that they 
cover every part, — take up the fish by the head, and 
shake off the loose crumbs. The Fish is now ready 
for the Fryingpan. 

Put a Quart or more of fresh sweet Olive Oil, or 
Clarified Butter (No. 259), Dripping (No. 83), Lard*, 
or Clarified Drippings (No. 83); be sure they are quite 
sweet and perfectly clean : ft he Fat ought to cover the 
Fish J: what we here order, is for Soles about ten inches 
long, — if larger, cut them into pieces the proper size 
to help at table ; this will save much time and trouble 
to the Carver, — when you send them to table, lay them 
in the same form they were before they were cut, and 
you may strew a little curled Parsley over them : they 
are much easier managed in the Fryingpan, and require 
less Fat ; and you can by this means only fry the thick 
part enough, without frying the tkin too much. Very 
Large Soles should be boiled (No. 144), or fried in 
Fillets (No. 147). Soles cut in pieces, crossways, about 
the size of a Smelt ^ make a very pretty garnish, for stewed 
Fish, and boiled Fish. 

Set the fryingpan over a sharp and clear fire ; watch 
it, skim it with an Egg slice, and when it boilsf, i. e. 
when it has done bubbling, and the smoke just begins 
to rise from the surface, put in the Fish: — if the Fat is 
not extremely hot, it is impossible to fry Fish of a good 

• The Fat will do Two or Three times, if strained through a hair sieve, 
r.nd put by ; if you do not find it enough, put a little fresh to it. Read (No. 83), 
and the 3d Chapter of the Rudiments of Cookery. 

t This requires a Heat of upwards of 600 degrees of FahreDheit's thermo- 
meter — FRYING is, in fact. Boiling in Fat. 
L 5 



226 risii. 

colour, or to keep them firm and crisp, (read the 3d 
Chapter of the Rudiments of Cookery). 

The best way to ascertain the heat of the Fat, is to try 
it with a bit of bread as big as a nut ; if it is quite hot 
enough, the bread will bro^^^l immediately. Put in the 
Fish, and it will be crisp and brown on the side next the 
fire, in about four or five minutes ; to turn it, stick a 
two-pronfred fork near the head, and support the tail 
with a fish-slice, and fry the other side. 

Fry One Sole at a time, except the pan is very large, 
and YOU have jilenty of fat. 

When the Fish are fried, lay them on a soft cloth 
(old table cloths are best), near enough the fire to keep 
tliem warm ; turn them eicri/ tuo or three minutes, till 
they are quite dry on both .yiV/t'5 — this, common Cooks 
commonly neglect. It will take ten or fifteen minutes*, 
if the Fat you fried them in was not hot enough ; when 
it is, they want very little drying. When Soles are friedy 
they will keep very good in a dry place for three or Jour 
days ; uarm them, by hanging them on the hooks in a Dutch 
oven, letting them heat very gradually, by putting it some 
distance from the fire for about tucnti/ ?ninufes, or in good 
Graiu, as Eels, WiJgy's way, (Nos. 164, 299, 337, 
or 356.) 

Obs. — There are several general rules in this Receipt 
which apply to all Fried Fish:— we have been very 
particular and minute in our directions; — for, althougli 
a Fried Sole is so frequent and favourite a dish, it is 
very seldom brought to table in perfection!. 



• Tf you are in lia«te, lay the Sole on a clean soft cloth, cover it with it, 
and gently press it upon the fish to suck up the fat from its surface. 

t The very indiftVrent manner in which the operation of frying fish is 
asnally pei formed, we suppose, produced the following jeu d'aprit, which 
appeared in T/ie Morning Chronicle : — 

" The Kind's Bench Reports have cook'd up an odd dish. 
An action for dama^Tes, Fry versus Fish. 
"But sure, if for damages action c^nld lie. 
It certainly must have been Fish against Fry." 
n^e author of the Cook's Cookery, 8vo. paee 116, docs not seem to think 
this fish can be too fresh ; for he commences his directions with, *' I/you can, 
get a Cod hot out of the Sea," &c. 



FISH. 227 

Soles to Stew. -(No. 146.) 
These are half fried, and then done the same as Eels, 
V/iggy's way. See (No. 164.) 

Fillets of Soles, Broun or White.— Q\o. 147.) 

Take off the Fillets very nicely — trim them neatly, 
and press them dry between a soft cloth; Egg, — 
Crumb, and Fry them, &c. as directed in (No. 145,) — 
or boil them, and serve them with (No. 364), (No. 2.) 

N. B. This is one of the best ways of dressing very 
large Soles. See also (No. 164). 

Shate.~-{^o. 148.) 
Is very good when in good season, but no fish so bad 
when it is otherwise : those persons that like it firm and 
dry, should have it crimped ; but those that like it ten- 
der, should have it plain, and eat it not earlier than the 
second day, and if cold weather, three or four days 
old it is better : it cannot be kept too long, if perfectly 
sweet. Young Skate eats very fine, crimped and fried, 
see (No. 154.) 

Cod Boiled.— (So. 149.) 
Wash and clean the fish, and rub a little salt in the 
inside of it ; (if the weather is very cold, a large cod is 
the better for being kept a day) : put plenty of water in 
your fish-kettle, so that the fish may be well covered ; 
put in a large handful of salt : and when it is dissolved, 
put in your fish ; a very small fish will require from 
fifteen to twenty minutes, after the water boils, — large 
ones about half an hour ; drain it on the fish plate ; dish 
it with a garnish of the Roe, Liver, Chitterlings, &c. ; 
or large native Oysters, fried a light brown, see (No. 
183*), or Smelts (No. 173), Whitings (No. 153), t/te 
tail* of the Cod cut in shoes, — or split it — and fry it. 
Scolloped Oysters (No. 182), Oyster Sauce (No. 278.) 



* The TAIL is so much thinner than the thick part of the body, that, if 
boiled together, the former will be boiled too much — before the latter is done 
enough — therefore it should be dressed separate, and the best way of cookiuij 
it is lo fry it in Slice* or Fillets ; see (No. 151 .) 



228 FISH. 

Mem. — The Sounds, — the jelly parts about the 
Jowl, — the Palate,— and the Tongue, are esteemed 
exquisites by piscivorous Epicures — whose long;ing i 
Eyes will keep a sharp look-out for a share of their 
favourite " Bonne Bouehe;" — the Carver's reputation 
depends much on his equitable distribution of them. 

Salt Fish Boiled— {"So. 150.) 

Salted Fish requires Suakins:, aecurdino to the time it 
has been in Salt ; — \\\dX which is hard and dri/, requires 
two nijjfhts' soakinc;, changing the water two or three 
times; the intermediate day, lay it on a stone floor; — 
for BarrelUd Cod, less time will do ; — and for the best 
Dodger Bank Split Fish, which has not been more than 
a fortnight or three weeks in salt, still less will be 
needful. 

Put it into plenty of cold water, and let it simmer 
gently till it is enough — if the water boils, the Fish will 
be tough and thready. For Egg sauce, see (No. 267). 
and to boil Red Beetroot (No. V21 ), Parsnips (No. 128), 



" Cod generally comes into good season in Octobir, when, if tlie wcither it 
cold, it tais as tine as at any lime in the jt.ar: towards tlie latter end of 
Janaaiy, and Icbruary, and pan of March, tiity arc mostly poor; but the 
latter end of March, April, and May, they are generally particularly line, 
havint; shot their spawn, lluy come in fine order. The Dogger- Hank Cod 
are the most esteemed, as they generally cut in large fine flakes; the north 
country cod, which are caught ott llie Orkney Isles, are generally very stringy, 
or what is commonly called woollcy, and sell at a very inferior price, but 
are caught in much greater abundance than the Dogger cod. Jhe cod arc all 
caught with hook, and brought alive in well-boats to the London markets. 
The cod cured on the Dogger Bank is remarkably fine, and seldom cured 
above two <.r three weeks befure brought to market; the Barrel Cod i« 
commonly cured on the coast of Scotland and Yorkshire. There is a great 
deal of inferior cured salt fish brought from Newfoundland and Iceland. 

"The Skull of a Dogger Bank cod, is a famous di.-h for an epicure, 
cither baked or boiled : and is a good meal for three or four people, and may 
be bought for about Ss., — either boil it whole, or cut it into pieces — flour and 
dry thein, and then egg and crumb, and fry them, or stew it, (No. 15J5.) 

The TAIL of a cod cut in fillets, or slice?, and fried, makc.i a good dish, and 
generally to be bought at a very reasonable rale; — if boiled, it is soft and 
watery. The ^kull and Tail of a Cod is a favouriteand excellent .Scotch dish, 
stewed, and served up with Anchovy or Oyster sauce, with the liquor it 
is boiled in, in a Tureen. 

" Ling is brought to the London market in the same manner as Cod, bi*ii 
very inferior to it, either fresh or sdlt." 



FISH. 229 

Carrots (No. 129.) Garnish Salt Fisli with the yolks 
of Eggs, cut into quarters. 

Obs. — Our favourite vegetable accompaniment is a 
dish of equal parts of Red Beetroot and Parsnips. 

N. B. Salted Fish differs in Quality — quite as much 
as it does in Price. 

Slices of Cod Boiled.— '(No. 151.) 

Half an Hour before you dress them, put them into 
cold spring water with some salt in it. 

Lay them at the bottom of a fish-kettle, with as 
much cold spring water as will cover them, and some 
salt ; set it on a quick fire, and when it boils, skim it, 
and set it on one side of the fire to boil very gently, 
for about ten minutes, according to its size and thick- 
ness. Garnish with scraped Horseradish, slices of 
Lemon, and a slice of the Liver on one side, and 
Chitterling on the other. Oyster sauce (No. 278), 
and Plain Butter. 

06*.— Slices of God (especially the Tail, split), are 
very good, fried like Soles (No. 145), or stewed in 
Gravy like Eels (No. 164), or (No. 364, x\o. 2.) 

Whitings Fried. — (So. 153.) 

Skin* them, presei-ve the Liver, see (No. 228), and 
fasten their Tails to their Mouths ; dip them in egg, 
then in bread crumbs, and fry them in hot lard, read 
(No. 145); — or split them, and fry them like fillets of 
Soles (No. 147.) 

A three quart stewpan, half full of fat, is the best 
utensil to fry Whitings. They will be done enough in 
about five minutes - but it will sometimes require a 
quarter of an hour to drain the fat from them and 
dry them, (if the fat you put them into was not hot 
enough), turning them now and then with a Fish Shce. 
Obs. — When Whitings are scarce, the Fisimiongers 
can skin and truss young Codlings, — so that you can 

* The French do not flay them— bat split thein— dip tlieni in flour, and fry 
them in hot dripping. 



230 FISH. 

hardly tell the difference, except that a Codling wears 
a Beard, and a JVhifmg does not : — this distinguishing- 
mark is sometimes cut off; however, if you turn up his 
Jowl, you may see the mark where the Beard was, and 
thus discover whether He be a Real Whiting, — or a 
Shaved Codling. 

Skate Fried.- {^o. 154.) 

After you have cleaned the fish, divide it into fillets, 
dry them on a clean cloth ; beat the yolk and white of 
an egg thoroughly together, dip the fish in this, and 
then in fine bread crumbs ; fry it in hot lard or drip- 
pings till it is of a delicate brown colour ; lay it on a 
hair sieve to drain ; garnish with Crisp Parsley (Ts^o. 318) 
— and some like Caper sauce, with an Anchovy in it. 

Plaice or Flounders Fried, or Boiled. (No. 155 ) 
Flounders are perhaps the most difficult fish to fry 
very nicely. Clean them well, flour them, and wipe 
them with a dry cloth to absorb all the water from 
them ; flour or eg^ and bread crumb them, &c. as 
directed in (No. 145.) 

To Boil Flounders. 

Wash and clean them well, cut the black side of 
them the same as you do Turbot, then put them into a 
fish-kettle, with plenty of cold water and a handful of 
salt; when they come to a boil, scum them clean and 
let them stand by the side of the fire for five minutes, 
and they are ready. 

Obs. — Eaten with plain melted butter and a little 
salt; — you have the sweet delicate flavour of the 
Flounder — which is overpowered by any sauce. 

Water -Soz/c/^j/,*— (No. 156.) 
Is made with Flounders, Whitings, Gudgeons, or 

* One of my Calinary Counsellors says, the heading of this Receipt should 
be, " How to dress a good dish of Fish iihile the Cloth is laying." If the 
articles are ready, twelve minutes will do it, wiih very little trouble or 
expense. For richer stewed I'isb, ste (No. l6i.) 



FISH. 231 

Eels. These must be quite fresh, and very nicely 
cleaned; for what they are boiled in^ is the sauce for 
them. 

Wash, gut, and trim your Fish, cut them into hand- 
some pieces, and put them into a stew-pan with just 
as much water as will cover them, with some parsley, 
or parsley roots sliced, an onion minced fine, and a 
little pepper and salt: (to this some Cooks add some 
scraped Horseradish and a Bay leaf;) skim it care- 
fully when it boils ; when your fish is done enough 
(which it will be in a few minutes), send it up in a 
deep dish, lined with bread sippets, and some slices 
of bread and butter on a plate. 

Obs. Some Cooks thicken the liquor the Fish has 
been stewing in w^ith flour and butter — and flavour it 
with white wine, Lemon juice, Essence of Anchovy, 
and Catsup— and boil down two or three Flounders, 
&c. to make a fish broth, to boil the other fish in — 
observing, that the Broth cannot be good, unless 
the Fish are boiled too much. 

Haddock Boiled.— {^0. 157.) 

Wash it well, and put it on to boil, as directed in 
(No. 149); a Haddock of three pounds w^ill take about 
ten minutes after the kettle boils. 

Haddocks salted a day or two and eaten with egg 
sauce, are a very good article. Haddocks cut in fillets, 
fried, eat very fine. Or if small, very well broiled, or 
baked, w^ith a pudding in their belly, and some good 
gravy. 

FindJiorn Haddocks.— (No. 157*.) 

Let the Fish be well cleaned and laid in Salt for 
two hours, let the water drain from them, and then 
wet them with the Pyrolygncous acid, — they may be 
split or not, — they are then to be hung in a dry 
situation for a day or two, or a week or two, if you 
please : — when broiled, they have all the flavour of 



232 FISH. 

the Findhorn Haddock, and will keep sweet for a long 
time. 

The Pyroligneoiis acid, apph"ed in the same way to 
Beef or Mutton, gives the fine smoke flavour, and may 
be kept for a considerabK^ length of time. 

Scotch -nay of dressing Haddocks. — A haddock is quite 
like a different fish in London and in Edinburgh, 
which arises chiefly from the manner in which they are 
treated ; a haddock should never appear at table with 
its head and skin on. For boiling ,they are ail the better 
for lying a night in salt; of course they do not take so 
long to boil without the skin, and require to be well 
skimmed to preserve the colour. — After lying in salt 
for a night, if you hang them up for a day or two, they 
arc very 2;ood broiled and served with cold butter. For 
frying, they should be split and boned very carefully, 
and divided into convenient pieces if too large to halve 
mcrchi ; Q^<^ and crumb them, and fry in a good deal of 
lard ; they resemble soles when dressed in this manner. 
There is another very delicate mode of dressing them; 
you split the fish, rub it well with butter, and do it be- 
fore the fire in the Dutch-oven. 

To stew Cod's Sculi Saks, Carp, Trout, Perch, Eel, 
or Flounder.— (So. 158.);— See also (So. 164.) 

When the Fish has been properly washed, lay it in a 
stewpan, with half a pint of Claret or Port wine, and a 
quart of good gravy, — a large onion, a dozen berries 
of black pepper, the same of allspice, and a few cloves, 
or a bit of mace ; cover the fish kettle close, and let it 
stew gently for ten or twenty minutes, according to the 
thickness of the fish : take the fish up, lay it on a hot 
dish, cover it up, and thicken the liquor that it was 
stewed in with a little flour, and season it with Pepper, 
Salt, F.ssence of Anchovy, Mushroom Catsup, and a 
little Chili Vinegar ; when it has boiled ten minutes, 
strain it through a tammis, and pour it over the fish ; 



FISH. 233 

if there is more sauce than the dish will hold, send the 
rest up in a boat. 

The Rive?' Trout comes into season in April, and 
continues till July ; it is a very delicious fish : those 
caught near Uxbridge come to town quite alive. 

The Eels and Perch from the same water, are very 
fine. 

Obs. — These fish are very nice plain boiled, with 
(No. 261), or (No. 264), for sauce; some Cooks dredge 
them with flour, and fry them a light brown before they 
put them on to stew, — and stuff them with (No. 374), 
or some of the stuffings following. 

To Dress them Maigre. 

Put the Fish into a stewpan, with a large Onion, 
four Cloves, fifteen berries of Allspice, and the same 
black pepper — just cover them with boiling water, set 
it where they will simmer gently for ten or twenty mi- 
nutes, according to the size of the Fish ; strain off the 
liquor in another stewpan, leaving the Fish to keep 
warm till the Sauce is ready. 

Rub together on a plate as much fiour and butter 
as will make the Sauce as thick as a double Cream. 
Each Pint of Sauce, season with a glass of Wine, half 
as much Mushroom Catsup, a teaspoonful of Essence 
of Anchovy, and a few grains of Cayenne; let it boil 
a few minutes, put the Fish on a deep dish, strain the 
Gravy over it ; garnish it with Sippets of Bread toasted 
or fried (No. 319.) 

N. B, The Editor has paid particular attention to 
the above Receipt — and also to (No. 224), which 
Catholics, and t/wse whose Religious tenets do not allow 
them to eat Meat on Maigre Days, will find a very satis- 
factory substitute for the Meat Gravy Soup (No. 200.) 

For Sauce for Maigre Dishes, see (Nos. 225, 
305, and 364, No. 2.) 

Obs. — Mushroom Catsup (No. 439), and Onions 
(No. 402), supply the place of Meat, better than any 
thing ; if you have not these, Wine — Spice (No. 457),— 



234 Fisa. 

Curry Powder (No. 455), Aromatic Roots and Herbs,— 
Anchovy and Soy, — or Oyster Catsup (No. 441,) 
variously combined, and thickened with flour and 
butter, are convenient substitutes. 

J^Jaigre Fish Pies. 

Salt Fish Pie. — The thickest part must be cposen, 
and put in cold water to soak the night before wanted ; 
then boil it well, take it up, take away the bones and 
skin, and if it is good fish it will be in fine layers ; set 
it on a fish drainer to get cold : in the mean time boil 
four eggs hard, peel and slice them very thin, the same 
quantity of onion sliced thin, line the bottom of a Pie dish 
with Fish force-meat, (No. 383), or a layer of potatoes 
sliced thin, — then a layer of onions, then cf fish, and 
of eggs, and so on till the dish is full ; season each layer 
with a little pepper, — then m.ix a teaspoonful of made 
mustard, the same of Essence of Anchovy, a little 
Mushroom Catsup in a gill of water, put it in the 
dish, then put on the top an ounce of fresh butter broke 
in bits, cover it with puff paste, and bake it one hour. 

Fresh Cod may be done in the 'ozmt way by adding 
a little salt. 

All Fish for making Pies, whether Soles, Flounders, 
Herrings, Salmon, Lobster, Eels, Trout, Tench, &c., 
should be dressed first, — this is the most Economical way 
for Catholic families, as what is boiled one day, 
will make excellent Pies, or Patties, the next; 
if you intend it for Pies, take the skin off, and the 
bones out, — lay your Salmon, Soles, Turbot, or Cod- 
fish in layers, and season each layer with equal quan- 
tities of pepper, allspice, mace, and salt, till the dish is 
full, — save a little of the liquor that the fish was 
boiled in, set it on the fire with the bones and skin of 
the fish ; boil it a quarter of an hour, then strain it 
through a sieve, let it settle, and pour it in the dish, 
cover it with puff paste, bake it about an hour and 
a quarter. Shrimps, prawns, or oysters added, will 
improve the above; if for Patties, they must be 



FISH. 235 

fcut in small pieces, and dressed in a Beshameli sauce, 
(No. 364.) 

Cod Sounds for a pie should be soaked at the least 
twenty-four hours, then well washed, and put on a cloth 
to dry, — put in a stew-pan two ounces of fresh butter, 
with four ounces of sliced onions, fry them of a nice 
brown, then-put in a small table-spoonful of flour, and add 
half a pint of boiling water; when smooth, put m about 
ten Cod-sounds, and season them with a little pepper, 
a glass of white wine, a teaspoonful of Essence of An- 
chovy, the juice of half a lemon ; stir it well together, put 
it in a pie-dish, cover it with paste, and bake it one hour. 

Perch, lloacJi, Dace, Gudgeons, SfC. Fried. — (No. 159.) 

Wash the Fish well, — wipe them on a dry cloth, — 
flour them lightly all over, and fry them ten minutes, 
see (No. 145), in hot lard or drippings ; — lay them 
on a hair sieve to drain ; — send them up on a hot 
dish, garnished v/ith sprigs of green parsley. Anchovy 
sauce (No. 270), and (No. 433.) 

Verch Boikd^-Qno. 160.) 

Clean them carefullV, and put them in a fish-kettle, 
with as much cold spring w^ater as will cover them, 
with a handful of salt ; set them on a quick fire till 
they boil; when they boil, set them on one side to boil 
gently for about ten minutes, according to their size. 

Salmon, Herrings, Sprats, Mackarel, Scc. Pickled. 
(No. 161.) 

Cut the Fish into proper pieces, do not take off the 
scales — make a brine strong enough to bear an Egg, 
in which boil the Fish — it m.ust be boiled in only 
just liquor enough to cover it — do not overboil it. 
\yhen the fish is boiled, lay it slantingly to drain off 
all the liquor — when cold, pack it close in the kits, 
and fill them up v/ith equal parts of the liquor the 
Salmon was boiled in (having first well skimmed it), 
and best Vinegar, (No. 24) ; let them rest for a day, fill 



236 



FISH. 



up again, striking the sides of the kit with a Cooper's 
Adze, until the kit will receive no more — then head 
them down as close as possible. 

Obs. — This is in the finest condition when fresh. 
Salmon is most plentiful about Midsummer; the 
season for it, is from February to September. Some 
sprigs 0^ fresh gathered young Fennel — are the accom- 
paniments. 

N. B. The three indispensable marks of the goodness 
o{ Pickled Salmon, are, 1st, — The brightness of the 
scales, and their sticking fast to the skin ; 2dly, The 
firmness of the flesh ; and thirdly, its fine pale red rose 
colour; — without these it is not fit to eat, and was 
either stale before it was pickled, or has been kept too 
long after. 

The above was given us as the actual practice of 
those who pickle it for the London market. 

N.B. Pickled Salmon, warined by steam, or in its 
pickle liquor, is a favourite dish at Newcastle. 

Salmon* Boiled. — (No. l62.) 
Put on a fish kettle, with spring water enough to well 
cover the Salmon you are going to dress, or the Salmon 



• Salmon. The earliest that conies in season to the Lonoon market, is 
brought from the Severn, and begins to come into season the beginning of 
November, but very few so early, perhaps not above one in fifty, as many of 
them will not shoot their spawn till January, or after, and then continue in 
season till October, when they begin to get very thin and poor. The prin- 
cipal supply of salmon is from different parts of Scotland, packed in ice, and 
brought by water : if the vessels have a fair wind, they will be in London in 
three days ; but it frequently happens that they are at sea perhaps a fortnight, 
when the greater part of the fish is perished, and has, for a year or two past, 
sold as low as two pence per pound, and up to as much as eighteen pence per 
pound at the same time, owing to its different degrees of goodness. This ac- 
counts for the very low prices at which the itinerant fishmongers cry their 
" delicate Salmon," " dainty fresh Salmon," and " Live Cod," " New 
Mackarel," &c. &c. 

" Salmon Gwilts, or Salmon Peel, are the small salmon which come from 
about five or six pounds to ten pounds, are very good fish, and make hand- 
some dishes of fish, sent to table crooked in the form of an S. 

" Beruick Trout are a distinct fish from the gwilts, and are caught in 
the River Tweed, and dressed in the same manner as the gwilt. 

" Calvered Salmon is the salmon caught in the Thames, and cut into slices 
alive ; and some few salmon are brought from Oxford to London alive, and 
ctit. A few slices make a handsome, genteel dish, but is generally very 
expensive : sometimes 15s. per pound." 



FISH. ' 237 

will neither look nor taste well : (boil the Liver in a 
separate saucepan.) When the water boils, put in a 
handful of salt, take off the scum as soon as it rises, 
have the fish well washed, put it in, and if it is thick, 
let it boil very gently about a quarter of an hour to a 
pound of fish ; but practice only can perfect the Cook 
in dressing Salmon ; — a quarter of a split Salmon will 
take almost as long boiling as half a one. Lobster 
Sauce (No. 284.) 

Olis. — The thinnest part of the Fish, is the fattest, 
and if vou have a " Grand Gourmand'' at table, ask him 
if he is for Thick or Thin. 

T/ie Thames Salmon is preferred in the London 
Market, and some Epicures pretend to be able to 
distinguish by the taste, in which reach of the River 
it was caught ! ! ! 

N.B. If you haie any left, put it into a pie-dish, and 
cover it with an equal portion of Vinegar and Pump- 
water, and a little salt, it will be ready in three days. 

Fresh Salmon Broiled. — (No. 163.) 
Clean the salmon well, and cut it into slices about 
an inch and a half thick ; dry it thoroughly in a clean 
cloth, rub it over with sweet oil, or thick melted butter, 
and sprinkle a little salt over it ; put your gridiron over 
a clear fire, at some distance ; when it is hot, wipe it 
clean, rub it with sweet oil or lard ; lay the salmon on, 
and when it is done on one side, turn it gently and 
broil the other. Anchovy sauce, &c. 
Obs. — An oven does them best. 

Soles or Eels"^, SfC. SfC. stewed Wiggy's way. — 
(No. 164.) 
Take two pounds of fine silverf Eels; : — the best are 

* Small Pish and the Fillets of Whiting, Turbots, Brills, &c. and slices of 
Cod, or the head or Tail of it, are excellent dressed the san'ie way. 

t The Yellotc Eels taste muddy : the Whiteness of the belly of the fish, is 
not the only mark to know the best ; the right colour of the back is a very 
bright coppery hue ; the Olive coloured are inferior ; and those tending to a 
Sreen are worse. 



238 FISH. 

those that are rather more than a half-crown piece in 
circumference, quite fresh, full of life, and as " brisk as 
an Eel •" such as have been kept out of water till they 
can scarce stir, are good for nothing. Gut them, rub 
them with salt till the slime is cleaned from them, wash 
them in several different waters, and divide them into 
pieces about four inches long. 

Some Cooks, after skinning them, dredge them with 
a little flour, wipe them dry, and then a^'^ and crumb 
them, and fry them in drippings till they are brown, 
and lay them to dry on a hair sieve. 

Have ready a quart of good Beef Gravy (No. 329); 
it must be cold when you put the Eels into it, set them 
on a slow fire to simmer very gently for about a quarter 
of an hour, according to the size of the eels; — watch 
them that they are not done too much ; — take them 
carefully out of the stewpan with a fish slice, so as not 
to tear their coats, and lay them on a dish about two 
inches deep. 

Or, if /o;- ]S[a'igre Dai/s, when you have skinned your 
Eels, throw the skins into salt and water, wash them 
well, and then put them into a stewpan with a quart of 
water, two onions, with two cloves stuck in each, and 
one blade of mace ; let it boil twenty minutes, and 
strain it through a sieve in a basin. 

Make the Sauce about as thick as cream, by mix- 
ing a little flour ^vith it; put in also two table- 
spoonsful of Port wine, and one of Mushroom Cat- 
sup, or Cavice; stir it into the sauce by degrees, 
give it a boil, and strain it to the fish through a 
sieve. 

N.B. If Mushroom sauce (Nos. 225, 305, or 333), 
or White Sauce (No. 364, No. 2), be used instead of 
Eeef Gravy, this will be one of the most relishing Maigre 
dishes we know\ 

Obs. — To kill Eels insfantlij, without the horrid tor- 
ture of cutting and skinning them alive, pierce the spinal 
marrow, close to the back part of the skull, with a sharp 



FISH. 239 

pointed skewer: if this be done in the right place, all 
motion will instantly cease. The humane Executioner 
does certain criminals the favour to hang them, before 
he breaks them on the wheel. 

To/n/Ee/^. — (No. 165.) 

Skin and gut them, and wash them well in cold 
water, cut them in pieces four inches long, season them 
with pepper and salt, beat an eg^ well on a plate, dip 
them in the egg, and then in fine bread crumbs ; fry 
them in fresh clean lard, drain them well from the fat ; 
Garnish v/ith crisp parsley ; for Sauce, plain and melted 
butter, sharpened with lemon juice, or Parsley and 
Butter. 

Spitc/icoclied Eels. — (No. 166.) 

This the French Cooks call the English way of 
dressing Eels. 

Take two middling sized silver eels, leave the skin 
on, scour them with salt, and wash them, cut off the 
heads, slit them on the belly side, and take out the 
bone and guts, and w^ash and wipe them nicely, then 
cut them into pieces about three inches long, and wipe 
them quite dry, put two ounces of butter into a stewpan 
with a little minced parsley, thyme, sage, pepper, and 
salt, and a vei-y little chopped shallot ; set the stew- 
pan over the fire ; when the butter is melted, stir the 
ingredients together, and take it off the fire, mix the 
yolks of two eggs with them, and dip the eel in, a 
piece at a time, and then roll them in bread crumbs, 
making as much stick to them as you can; then rub a 
gridiron with a bit of suet, set it high over a very clear 
fire, and broil your eels of a fine crisp brown : dish 
them with crisp parsley, and send up plain butter in a 
boat, and anchovy and butter. 

Obs.~^ye like them better with the Skin off; it is 
very apt to offend delicate stomachs. 



240 FISH. 

Mackarel Boiled, — (So. 167.) 

This Fish loses its life as soon as it leaves the Sea, 
and the fresher it is the better. 

1J\is/i and clean t/icni thornughhi, (the fishmongers 
seldom do this sufficiently), put them into cold water 
with a iiandful of salt in it; let them rather simmer, 
than boil ; a small mackarel will be enough in about a 
quarter of an hour : when the Eye starts and the Tail 
splits, — they are done; do not let them stand in the 
water a moment after; they are so delicate that the 
heat of the water will break them. 

Tliis fisii in London is rarely fresh enough to appear 
at table in perfection; and either the Mackarel is boiled 
too much, or the Rue' too little. The best way is to 
open a slit opposite the middle of the roe, you can then 
clean it properly; this will allow the water access, and 
the roc w ill then be done as soon as the fish, which it 
seldom is otherwise ; some sagacious gour/nands insist 
upon it they must be taken out and boiled separately. 
For sauce, see (Nos. 263, 265, and 266), and you may 
garnish them with pats of minced Fennel. 

N.B. The common notion is, that Mackarel are in 
best condition when fullest of Roe; — however, the Fish 
at that time is only valuable for its Roe, — the Meat of 
it has scarcely any flavour. 

Mackarel generally make their appearance off the 
Land's End about the beginning of April, and as the 
weather gets warm, they gradually come round the 
coast, and generally arrive oft' Brighton about May, 
and continue for some months, until they begin to 
shoot their spawn. 

After they have let go their Roes, they are called 
shotten mackarel, and are not worth catching, the Roe, 
which was all that was good of them, being gone. 



• The Roe of the Male fish is soft like the brains of a Calf, — that of the 
Fem&le is fuil of small eggs, and called hard Hot. 



FISH. 241 

It is in the early season, when they have least Roe, that 
the Jiesh of this Fish is in highest perfeetion. There 
is also an after-season, when a few fine large Mankarel 
are taken, {i. e. during the Herring season, about 
October), which some piscivorous Epicures are very 
partial to, — these fish having had time to fatten and 
recover their Health, are full of high flavour, and their 
flesh is firm and juicy: they are commonly called Silver 
Mackorel, from their beautiful appearance, their colour 
being almost as bright when boiled, as it was the 
moment they were caught. 

Mackorel Broiled.— -(No. 169.) 

Clean a fine large mackarel, wnpe it on a dry cloth, 
and cut a long slit down the back ; lay it on a clean 
gridiron, over a very clear slow fire; when it is done 
on one side turn it; be careful that it does not burn; 
send it up with Fennel sauce (No. 265) ; mix well 
together a little finely minced Fennel and Parsley, 
seasoned with a little Pepper and Salt, a bit of fresh 
butter, and when the Zvlackarel are ready for the table, 
put some of this into each fish. 

Mackarel Baked.— (So. 170.) 

Cut off their heads, open them, and take out the 
roes, and clean them thoroughly; rub them on the 
inside with a little pepper and salt, put the roes in 
again, season them (with a mixture of powdered allspice, 
black pepper and salt, well rubbed together), and lay 
them close in a baking pan, cover them with equal 
quantities of cold vinegar and water, tie them down 
with strong white paper doubled, and bake them for an 
hour in a slow oven. They will keep for a fortmght. 

Pickled Mackarel, Herrings, or Sprats. — (No. 171.) 

Procure them as fresh as possible, split them open, 
take off the heads, and trim off all the thin part of the 
M 



242 FISH. 

belly, put them into salt and water for one hour, drain 
and wipe your fish, and put them into jars or casks, 
with the following preparation, which is enough for 
three dozen Mackarel. Take salt and bay salt, one 
pound each, saltpetre and lump sugar, two ounces 
each ; grind and pound the salt, &c. well together, put 
the fish into jars or casks, with a layer of the preparation 
at the bottom, then a layer of mackarel with the skin 
side downwards, so continue alternately till the cask 
or jar is full; press it down and cover it close. In 
about three months they will be fit for use. 

Sprats Broi/€d. — {No. \70.*) — Fried, see (No. 173.) 

If you have not a Sprat Gridiron, get a piece of 
pointed iron wire as thick as packiiiread, and as long 
as your gridiron is broad ; run this through the heads 
of your sprats, sprinkle a little flour and salt over 
them, — put your gridiron over a clear quick fire, turn 
them in about a couple of minutes ; when the other side 
is brown, draw out the wire and send up the fish with 
melted butter in a cup. 

Oh.s. — That Sprats ar» young Herrings, is evident 
by their anatomy, in which there is no perceptible 
difference. They appear very soon after the Herrings 
are gone, and seem to be the spawn just vivified. 

Sprats Steu-ef/.—iSo. 170.**) 

Wash and dry your Sprats, and lay them as level as 
you can in a stew-pan, and between every layer of 
Sprats put three peppercorns, and as many allspice v.'ith 
a few grains of salt; barely cover thorn with vinegar, 
and stew them one hour over a slow fire ; they must not 
boil; a bay leaf is sometimes added. Herrings or 
Mackarel may be stewed the same way. 

To Fri/ Sprats, see (No. 173.) 

Herrings Broiled. —(No. 171.') 
Wash them well, then dry them with a cloth, dust 



FISH. 



243 



them with flour, and broil them over a slow fire till they 
are well done. Send up melted butter in a boat. 

Obs. — For a particular account of Herrings, see 
S'oLAS Dodd's Natural Hist, of Herrings, in 178 pages 
8vo. 1752. 

Red Herrings, a?id other Dried Fish — (No. 172.) 
" Should be cooked in the same manner now prac- 
tised by the Poor in Scotland. They soak them in 
water until they become pretty fresh ; they are then hung 
up in the Sun and Wind, on a stick through their Eyes, 
to dry ; and then boiled or broiled. In this way, they 
eat almost as well as if they were new caught." — See 
the Hon. John Cochrane's Seaman's Guide, Svo. 
1797, p. 34. 

" Scotch Haddocks should be soaked all night. You 
may boil or broil them ; if you broil, split them in two. 
'* All the different sorts of Dried Fish, except Stock 
Fish, — are salted, dried in the Sun, in prepared kilns, 
or by the smoke of wood fires ; and require to be 
softened and freshened, in proportion to their bulk, 
nature or dryness ; the very dry sort, as Cod, Whiting, 
&c. should be steeped in lukewarm water, kept as near 
as possi!)le to an equal degree of heat. The larger Fish 
should be steeped twelve hours: the smaller about 
two ; after which they should be taken out and hung 
up by the tails until they are dressed. The reason for 
hanging them up is that they soften equally as in the 
steeping, without extracting too much of the relish, 
which would render them insipid. When thus pre- 
pared, the small Fish, as Whiting, Tusk, &c. should be 
floured and laid on the gridiron ; and when a little 
hardened on one side, must be turned and basted with 
sweet oil upon a feather ; and when basted on both 
sides, and well heated through, taken up. A clear 
charcoal fire is the best for cooking them, and the Fish 
should be kept at a good distance to broil gradually. 
When they are enough they will swell a little in the 
M 2 



2.44 nsii. 

basting, and you must not let them fall again. If 
boik'l, as the larger fish generally are, they should be 
kept just simmering over an equal fire, in which way 
half an hour will do the largest fish, and five minutes 
the smallest. 

" Dried Siilnwn, though a large fish, docs not require 
more steeping than a Whiting ; and when laid on the 
gridiron should be moderately peppered. To ILrring 
and to all kinds of broiled Salt Fish, sweet oil is the 
best basting.'' 

The above is from Macdonald's I,ondon Farni/i/ 
Cook, 8vo. 1808, p. 139. 

SmcltSy Sprats, or other small Fishjrud. — (Xo. 173.) 

Clean and dry them thoroughly in a cloth, fry them 
plain, or beat an q^^ on a plate, dip them in it, and 
then in very fine bread crumbs that have been rubbed 
though a sieve; the smaller the Fish, the finer should 
be the bread crumbs, — Biscuit Powder is still better ; 
fry them in plenty of clean lard, or drippings; as soon 
as the lard boils and is still, put in the fish, — as soon 
as they arc delicately browned, they are done ; this will 
hardly take two minutes. Drain them on a hair sieve, 
placed before the fire, turning tl\em till quite dry. 
Obs.- Head (No. 145.) 

" Smelts are allowed to be caught in the Thames, 
on the first of November, and continue till May. The 
Thames smelts; are the best and sweetest for two rea- 
sons ; they are fresher and richer, than any other yon 
can get : they catch them much more plentiful and 
larger in Lancashire and Norfolk ; but not so good : a 
great many are brought to town from Norfolk, but 
barely come good, as they are a fish should always be 
eaten fresh ; indeed all river Fisii should be eaton 
fresh, except Salmon, which, unless crimped, eats better 
the second or tliird day ; but all Thames fish, particu- 
iarly, should be eaten very fresh ; no fish eats so bad 
kept."' 



FISH. 245 

Potted Praiins, Shrimps, or Craii-Jish. — (No. 175.) 
Boil them in water with plenty of Salt in it. When 
you have picked them, powder them with a little beaten 
mace, or grated nutmeg, or allspice, and pepper and 
salt ; add a little cold butter, and pound all well together 
in a marble mortar till of the consistence of paste. 
Put it into pots covered with clarified butter, and cover 
them over with wetted bladder. 

Lobster. — {^o. 176.) 

Buy these Alke, — the Lobster ^lerchants sometimes 
keep them till they are starved, before they boil them ; 
they are then watery, and have not half their flavour. 

Choose those that (as an old Cook says, are " Heaiy 
and Lirehi," and) are full of motion, which is the Index 
of their freshness. 

Those of the middle size are the best. Never fake 
them when the shell is incrusted, which is a sign they are 
old. The Male Lobster is preferred to Eat, and the 
Female (on account of the Eggs) to make Sauce of. 
The Hen Lobster is distinguished by having a broader 
Tail than the male, and less Claws. 

• Set on a pot, with water salted in the proportion of 
;a tablespoonful of salt to a quart of water : when the 
water boils put it in, and keep it boiling briskly from half 
an hour to an hour, according to its size ; v/ipe all the 
scum off it, and rub the shell v/ith a very little butter or 
sweet oil ; break off the great claws, crack them care- 
fully in each joint, so that they may not be shattered, 
and yet come to pieces easily, cut the tail dov/n the 
middle, and send up the body whole. For Sauce 
(No. 285.) To pot Lobster (No. 178.) 

\* These Fish come in about April, and continue plen- 
tiful till the Oyster season returns ; after that time they 
begin to spawn, and seldom open solid. 

Crab. — 0^0. 177.) 
The above observations apply to crabs, which should 



246 



FISH. 



neither be too small nor too lars^e. The best size are 
those which measiire about eight inches across the 
shoulders. 

*^* (Jrab.s make t/wir appearance and disappearance about 
the same time as Lobsters. T/te Cromer Crabs are most 
esteemed^ but numbers are brought from the Isle of IVight. 

Potted Lub»teror Crab.— (No. 178.) 
This must be made with fine Hen Lobsters when full 
of spawn; boil them thorougiily, see (No. 176); when 
cold, pick out all the solid meat, and pound it in a 
mortar, it is usual to add by degrees (a very little) finely 
pounded mace, black or Cayenne pepper, salt, and, while 
pouudiM;r, a little butter. When the whole is well 
mixed, and beat to the consistence of paste, press it 
down hard in a preserving-pot, pour clarified butter 
over it, and cover it with wetted bladder. 

Obs. — Some put Lobster without pounding it, and only 
cut it or ])ull it into such pieces as if it was prepared 
for sauce, and mince it with the spawn and soft parts 
and seasoning, and jDress it together as close as possible ; 
in packing it place the coral and spawn, Sec. in layers, 
so that it may look regular and handsome when cut out. 
If you intend it as store, (see N. B. to (No. 284) to 
make sauce with,) this is the best way to do it — but if 
for Sandwiches, &c. the first is the best, and will keep 
much longer. 

Dressed or Buttf.ued Lobstkrs and Crabs are 
favourite ornamental dishes w4th those who deck their 
table merely to please the Eye. Our apology for not 
giving such Receipts will be found in Obs. to (No. 322.) 

OYSTERS*.— (No. 18L) 
The common t Colchester and Feversham oysters 



• Oyster Sauce (So. 278), Preoerved Oysters (No. 280.) 
+ Those are called Com/n<m Oysters which are picked up ou the French 
coast, and laid in the Colchisier beds. 
These are uever 80 fine and fat a» the Natives, and seldom recover the 



FISH. 247 

are brought to market on the 5th of August; — the 
Milton, or as they are commonly called, the melting 
Nathes *, do not come in till the beginning of October, 
continue in season till the 12th of May, and approach 
the meridian of their perfection about Christmas. 

Some piscivorous Gourmands think that Oysters are 
not best when quite fresh from their beds, and that 
their flavour is too brackish and harsh, and is much 
ameliorated by giving them a feed. 

To FfiEDf Oysters. — Cover them with clean water, 
with a pint of salt to about two gallons ; (nothing else, 
no oatmeal, flour, nor any other trumpery); this will 
cleanse them from the mud and sand, &c. of the bed ; 
after they have lain in it twelve hours, change it for 
fresh salt and water, and in twelve hours more they 
will be in prime order for the Mouth, and remain so two 
or three days : — at the time of high water, you may see 
them open their shells, in expectation of receiving their 
usual food. This process of feeding oysters, is only 
employed when a great many come up together. 

The REAL Colchester, or Pyfleet Barrelled 
Oysters, that are packed at the beds, are better without 
being put in water ; they are carefully and tightly 
packed, and must not be disturbed till wanted for table : 
these, in moderate weather, will keep good for a week 
or ten days. 

If an Oyster opens his mouth in the barrel, he dies 
immediately. 

To preserve the lives of Barrelled Oysters, put a heavy 
v/eight on the wooden top of the barrel, which is to be 



shock their feelings receive, from being transported from their native place ; — 
delicate little Creatures, they arc as exquisi'te in their own taste, as they are to 
Ihe taste of others! ! 

• Oysters are thus called, that are born, as well as bred and fed in this 
country, and are mostly spit in the Burnham and Mersey rivers ; they do not 
come to their finest condition till they are near four years old. 

t \ViL,L Rabisha, in his Receipt to " broil oysters," (set his Cookery, 
pa^e 144), directs, that while they are undergoing this operation, they should 
ha fed with white wine and grated bread. 



248 



FISH. 



placed on the surface of the oysters. This is to be 
effected by removing the first hoop, the staves will then 
spread and stand erect, making a wide openinc; for the 
head of the barrel to fall down closely on the remaining 
fish, keeping: them close together. 

Mem. — The Oysters which are commonly sold as 
Barrelled Oysters, are merely the smallest natives, se- 
lected from the stock, and put into the Tub when 
ordered ; and instead of being of superior quality, are 
often very inferior. — To immature Animals, there' is the 
same objection, as to unripe Vegetables. 

Ohs. — Common people are indifferent ^nhowl the tnonner 
of opening Ousters, and the time of eating them after 
they are opened ; nothing, however, is more important, 
in the enlightened eyes of the experienced Oyster 
eater. 

Those who wish to enjoy this delicious restorative irr 
its utmost perfection, must eat it the moment it is opened^ 
.with its own gravy in the under shell : — if not Eaten 
•ahile Absohtehj Aine, its flavour and spirit are lost. 

The true lover of an Oyster, will have some regard 
for the feelin^-s of his little favourite, and will never 
abandon it to the mercy of a bungling operator, — but 
will open it himself, and contrive to detach the Fish 
from the shell so dexterously, that the Oyster is hardly 
conscious he has been ejected from his Lodging, till he 
feels the teeth of the piscivorous Gourmand tickling him 
to Death. 

• N. B. Fish is less nutritious than Flesh: as a proof, 
when the trainer of Newmarket wishes to uaste a Jockey, 
jie is not allowed Meat, not even Pudding, if Fish can 
be had. The white kinds of Fish, Turbots, Soles, 
Whiting, Cod, Haddock, Flounders, Smelts, &c. are 
less nutritious than the oib, fat Fish, such as Eels, 
Salmon, Herrings, Sprats, &c. ; the latter, however, are 
more difficult to digest, and often disturb weak sto- 
machs, . ,0 that they are obliged to call in the assistance 
of Cayenne, Cogniac, &c. 



FISH. 249 

-Shell Fish, have long held a high rank in the 
catalogue of easily digestible and speedily restorative 
foods ; of these, the Oyster certainly deserves the best 
character, — but, we think it has acquired not a little 
more reputation for these qualities than it deserves ; 
a well dressed Chop * or Steak, see (No. 94), will invi- 
gorate the Heart in a much higher ratio ; — to recruit 
the Animal Spirits and support strength, there is nothing 
equal to Animal food, — when kept till properly tender, 
none will give so little trouble to the Digestive organs, 
and so much substantial excitement to the Constitution. 
See note under (No. 185. *) 

We could easily say as much in praise of Mutton, as 
Mr . Ritson has against it, in his " Essay on Abstinence 
from Animal Food as a Moral Duty,'' 8vo. London, 
1802, page 102. He says, " The Pagan Priests were 
the first eaters of Animal Food; it corrupted their taste, 
and so excited them to Gluttony, that when they had 
eaten the same thing repeatedly, their htiurims Appetites 
called for Variety. — He who had devoured the Sheep 
longed to masticate the Shepherd ! ! ! 

" Nature seems to have provided other Animals for 
the food of man, from the astonishing increase of those 
which instinct points out to him as peculiarly desirable 
for that purpose. For instance ; so quick is the produce 
of Pigeons, that in the space of four years 14,760 
may come from a single pair ; and in the like period 
1,274,840 from a couple of rabbits, — this is nothing 
to the millions of eggs in the melt of a cod fish." 

Scolloped Oysters. — (No. 182.) — A good way to 

warm up any cold Fish. 
Stew the Oysters slowly in their own liquor for tvro 

• " Animal food, being composed of the most nutritious parts of tlie food 
on which the Animal lived, and having already been digested by the proper 
organs of an animal, requires only solution and mixture, whereas Vegetable 
food must be converted into a substance of an animal nature, by the proper 
action of our own Viscera, and consequently requires more labour of the 
Stomach, and other Digestive Organs." 

Burton on the Non naturals, page 213. 
M 5 



250 FISH. 

or three minutes, — take them out with a spoon, and 
beard them, and skim the Hquor, — put a bit of butter 
into a stewpan, — and when it is melted, add as much 
line bread crumbs as will dry it up, tlien put to it the 
Oyster liquor, and i^ive it a boil up, — put the Oysters 
into Scollop shells that you have buttered, and strewed 
with bread crumbs, — then a layer of Oysters, — then 
of bread crumbs, and then some more Oysters, — moisten 
it with the Oyster liquor, cover them with bread 
cruml)s, — put about half a dozen little bits of butter 
on the top of each, and brown them in a Dutch oven. 

Obs. — Essence of Anchovy, Catsup, Cayenne, unrated 
I^mon Peel, Mace, and other Spices, &c. are added by 
those who prefer jnquuncc to the j^enuine Havour of the 
Oyster. 

Cold Fish may be re-dressed the same way. 

N. B. Small Scollop shells, or Saucers that hold 
about half a dozen Oysters, are the most convenient. 

SUned Oy.stcrs.—Qso. 182 *.) 

Large Oysters will da for stewing, and by some are 
preferred ; but we love the plump, juicy natives. Stew 
a couple of dozen of these in their own liquor; — 
when they are coming to a boil, skim well, tnke them 
up and beard them ; strain the liquor through a 
tammis sieve, and lay the oysters on a dish. Put an 
ounce of butter into a stewpan, — when it is melted, put 
to it as much flour as will dry it up, the liquor of the 
Oysters, and three tablespoonsful of milk or cream, 
and a litile white pepper and salt ; to this some 
Cooks add a little Catsup or finely chopped Parsley, 
grated Lemon Peel, and juice ; let it boil up for a 
couple of minutes, till it is smooth, then take it ofF the 
fire, put in the Oysters, and let them get warm ; (they 
must not themselves be boiled, or they will become 
hard ;) line the bottom and sides of a hash-dish with 
bread sippets, and pour your ovsters and sauce into it. 
See Obs. to Receipt (No. 278.)" 



FISH. 251 

Oysters Fried. — {^o. 183.) 

The largest and finest Oysters are to be chosen for 
this purpose ; simmer them in their own liquor for a 
couple of minutes, — take them out and lay them on a 
cloth to drain, — beard them and then flour them, — 
egg and bread-crumb them, — put them into boiling 
fat, and fry them a delicate brown. 

Obs. — A tery nice garnish for Made Dishes, — Steived 
Rump Steaks, — boiled or fried Fish, S^^c. 



THE 

COOK^S ORACLE, 



BROTHS, GRAVIES, AND SOUPS. 

Btef Broth''. — {^o. 185.) 

Wash a Leg or a Shin of Beef very clean, crack the 
bone in two or three places, (this you should desire 
the Butcher to do for you,) add thereto any trimmings 
you have of Meat, Game, or Poultry, {i. e. heads, necks, 
gizzards, feet, &c.) and cover them ^vith cold water, — 
watch and stir it up well from the bottom, and t/w 
iuoment it begins to simmer , skim it carefully — your Broth 
must be perfectly clear and limpid ; — 07i this, depends 
the goodness of the Soups, Sauces, and Gravies, ofivhich 
it is the Basis : — then add some cold water, to make 
the remaining scum rise, and skim it again ; — when 
the scum has done rising, and the surface of the Broth 
is quite clear, put in one moderate-sized Carrot, a head 
of Celery, two Turnips, and two Onions, — it should 
not have any taste of sweet herbs, spice, or garlic, 
&c. — either of these flavours can easily be added im- 
mediately after, if desired, by (Nos. 420, 421, 402, 
&c.) — cover it close, — set it by the side of the fire, — 
and let it simmer very gently (so as not to waste the 
Broth) for four or five hours, or more, according to the 
v/eight of the Meat : — strain it through a sieve into a 
clean and dry stone pan, and set it in the coldest place 
you have. 

Obs. — This is the foundation for all sorts of Soups 
and Sauces, brown or white. 



• In culinary technicals, is called first stoce, or long Broth — in tkc 
French Kitchen. " Le Grand Bouillon," 



BROTHS, GRAVIES, AND SOUPS. 253 

- Stew no longer than the Meat is thoroughhj done to eat, 
•and you will obtain excellent Broth, without depriving 
the Meat of its nutritious succulence : — to boil it to 
rag's, as is the common practice, will not enrich your 
Broths, but make them thick and grouty. 

The Meat*, when gently stewed for only four or five 
hours till it is just tender, remains abundantly sapid 
and nourishing, and will afford a relishing and whole- 
some meal for half a dozen people ; — • or make Potted 
Beef, (No. 503) : — or when you have strained off the 
Broth, — cover the meat again with water, and let it 
go on boiling for four hours longer, and make what 
some Cooks call " Second Stock," — it will produce 
some very good Glaze, or Portable Soup ; see (No. 
252) and the Ohs. thereon. 

'EeefGrary\.-(^o. 186.) 

Cover the bottom of a Stewpan, that is well tinned 
and quite clean, v/ith a slice of good Ham, or lean 
Bacon, four or five pounds of Gravy Beef cut into half- 
pound pieces, a Carrot, an Onion with tvro Cloves 
stuck in it, and a head cf Celery ; put a pint of Broth 
or water to it, cover it close, and set it over a moderate 
fire till the water is reduced to as little as will just save 
ths ingredients from burning; then turn it all about, 
and let it brown shghtly and equally all over ; — then 
put in three quarts of boiling water J when it boils up, 

* A dog was fed on the richest Broth, yet could not be kept alive ; while 
another, wliich liad only the Meat boiled to a Chip, (Had water,) throve very 
well. This shows the folly of attemptii'i; to nourish Men by Concentrated 
Soups, Jellies, &c. — Sinclair, Code of Health, p. 356. 

If this experiment be accurate, what becomes of the theoretic virions of 
those who have written abuut noiiiishing Broths, &c.? — The best test cfthe 
restorative quality of Food, is a small quantity of it satisfying hun-^er, the 
strength of the pulse after it, and the length of time which elapses before 
appetite returns again. According to this rule, we give oar verdict in favour 
of VNo. 19 or 2i.) See N. B. to (No. 181.) 

This subject is fully discussed in " The Art of Invigorating and 
Prolosgixg Life, by Diet, &c." published by Hurst and Co., No. 90, 
Cheapside, London; and Constable and Co., Edinburgh, 

t Called in some Cookery Books, " Second Stock," — in the French 
Kitchen, " Jus de Bceuf," 

; A great deal of care is to be taken to watch the time of putting in the 



254 BROTHS, GRAVIES, AND SOUPS. 

skim it carefully, and wipe oft' with a clean cloth what 
sticks round the edg:e and inside of the stewpan, that 
your gravy may be delicately clean and clear. Set^it 
by the side of a fire, where it will stew gently (to keep 
it clear, and that it may not be reduced too much) for 
about four hours : — if it has not boiled too fast, there 
should be two quarts of good gravy; strain through a 
silk or tammis sieve ; take very particular care to skim 
it well, and set it in a col I place. 

Strong Savouri/ Graxy — (No. 188), — alias *' Brown 
Sauce j" alias " Grand Espagnol." 

Take a Stewpan that will hold four quarts, lay a 
slice or two of Ham or Bacon (about a quarter of an 
inch thick) at the bottom, (undressed is the best,) and 
two pounds of Beef, or Veal, a Carrot, a large Onion, 
with four Cloves stuck in it, one head of Celery, a 
bundle of Parsley, Lemon-thyme, and Savoury, about 
as big round as your httle hw^er when tied close, a 
few leaves of sweet Basil, (one Bay-leaf, and a Shallot, 
if you like it), a piece of Lemon-peel, and a dozen 
corns of Allspice*; pour on this half a pint of water, 
cover it close, and let it simmer gently on a slow fire 
for half an hour, in which time it will be almost dry ; 
watch it very carefully, and let it catch a nice brown 
colour, — turn the Meat, &c., let it brown on all sides; 
add three pints of boiling water t, and boil for a 
couple of hours. It is now rich Gravy. To convert 
it into 

Cullis, or Thickened Gravy. —(No. 189.) 

To a quart of Gravy, put a tablespoonful of Thick- 



watcr, — if it is poured in too soon, the Gravy will not have its true flavour 
and colour ; — and if it be let alone till the Meat sticks to the pan, it will get 
a burnt tastf. 

• Trutfles, Morells and Mushrooms, Catsups and Wines, &c. are added liy 
those who are for the extreme of Uatit Gout. 

t The general rule is to put in about a Piut of water to a pound of meat, 
U it only simmers very geniiy. 



BROTHS, GRAVIES, AND SOUPS. 255 

ening (No. 257), or from one to two tablespoonsful of 
Flour, according to the thickness you wish the Gravy 
to be, into a basin, with a lacUeful of the Gravy; stir 
it quick; — add the rest by degrees, till it is all well 
mixed ; then pour it back into a stewpan, and leave it 
by the side of the fire to simmer for half an hour 
longer, that the Thickening may thoroughly incor- 
porate with the Gravy, the stewpan being only half 
covered, stirring it every now and then ; — a sort of 
scum will gather on the top, which it is best not to 
take off till you are ready to strain it through a 
Tammis *. 

Take care it is neither too pale nor too dark a 
colour : if it is not Thick enough, let it stew longer, till 
it is reduced to the desired thickness ; or add a bit of 
glaze or Portable Soup to it, see (No. 252) : if it is too 
Thick, you can easily thin it with a spoonful or two of 
warm broth, or water. When your sauce is done, stir 
it in the basin you put it into once or twice, while it is 
cooling. 

Veal Broth. — (No. 191.) 

A Knuckle of Veal is best; manage it as directed 
in the receipt for Beef Broth (No. 185^), only take care 
not to let it catch any colour, as this and the following 
and richer preparation of Veal, is chiefly used for 
White Soups, Sauces, &c. 

To make White Sauce, see (No. 364*.) 

Veal Gravy. — {^o. 192.) 

About three pounds of the nut of the Leg of Veal, 
cut into half pound slices, with a quarter of a pound 
of Ham in small dice; proceed as directed for the 
Beef Gravy (No. 186), but watch the time of putting 
in the water ; if this is poured in too soon, the gravy 

• A Tammis is a worsted cloth, sold at the oil shops, made on purpose for 
straining sauces ; the best way of using it is for two people to twist it contrary 
ways : this is a much better way of straining sauce than through a Sieve, and 
r€fines it much more completely. 



256 BROTHS, GRAVIES, AND SOUPS. 

Avill not have its true flavour, — if it be let alone till the 
meat sticks too much to the pan, it will catch too brown 
a Colour. 

Knuckle o/'Veal, or Shin or Leg o/'Beef, Sou-p. 
(No. 193.) 

A Knuckle of Veal, of six pounds weight, will make 
a large tureen of excellent b^oup, and is tims easily 
prepared : — Cut half a pound of Bacon into slices 
about half an inch thick, lay it at the bottom of a soup 
kettle, or deep stewpan, and on this place the knuckle 
of veal, havinjj: first chopped the bone in two or three 
places, — furnish it willi two carrots, two turnips, a 
head of celery, tsvo large onions, with two or three 
cloves stuck in one of them, a dozen corns of Black, 
and the same of Jamaica pepper, and a good bundle 
of lemon thyme, winter savory, and parsley. — Just 
cover the meal with cold water, and set it over a quick 
fire till it boils ; having skimmed it well, remove your 
soup kettle to the side of the fire, let it stew very gently 
till it is quite tender, i. e. about four hours ; then take 
out the bacon and veal, strain the soup, and set it by 
in a cool place till you want it, when you must take off 
the fat from the surface of your liquor, and decant it 
(keeping back the settlings at the bottom) into a clean 
pan. 

If you like a Thickened Soup, put three table- 
sfHDonsful of the fat you have taken off the soup, into 
a small stewpan, and mix it with four tablespoonsful 
of flour, pour a ladlefiil of soup to it, and mix it with 
the rest by degrees, and boil it up till it is smooth. 

Cut the Meat and Gristle of the Knuckle and the 
Bacon into mouthsful, and put them into the Soup, 
and let them get warm. 

Obs. — You may make this more savoury by adding 
Catsup (No. 439), &c. Shin or Beef may be dressed 
in the same way; see Knuckle of Veal stewed with 
Rice (No. 523.) 



BROTHS, GRAVIES, AND SOUPS. 257 

Muttcm Brot/i. — (No. 194.) 

Take two pounds of Scrag of Mutton ; to take the 
biood out, put it into a Stewpan, and cover it with 
cold water; when the water becomes milk warm, pour 
it off, skim it well, then put it in again, with four or 
five pints of v/ater, a teaspoonful of salt, a tablespoonful 
of best grits, and an Onion; set it on a slow fire, and 
when you have taken all the scum off, put in two or 
three turnips, let it simmer veri/ sloxvly for two hours, 
and strain it through a clean sieve. 

This usual method of making Mutton Broth with the 
Scrag, is by no means the most Economical method of 
obtaining it ; for which see (Nos. 490 and 564.) 

Ohs. — You may thicken Broth, by boihng with 
it a little Oatmeal, — Rice, — Scotch, or Pearl Barley; 
when you make it for a Sick person, read the Obs. on 
Broths, &c. in the last page of the 7th Chapter of the 
Rudiments of Cookery ; and (No. 564.) 

Mock Mutton Broth, uitJiout Meat, in Five Minutes, 

(No. 195.) 
Boil a few leaves of Parsley with two teaspoonsful 
of Mushroom* Catsup, in three quarters of a pint of 
very thin Gruel (No. 572.) Season with a little salt. 

Obs. — This is improved by a few drops of Shallot 
Wine (No. 402), and the same of Essence of Sweet 
Herbs (No. 419.) See also Portable Soup (No. 252.) 

The Queen's morning " Bouillon de Sante.'" 

(No. 196.) 

Sir Kenelm Digby, in his " Closet of Cooker i/,'* page 

149, London, 1669, informs us, was made with " a 

brawny Hen, or young Cock, a handful of parsley, one 

sprig of thyme, three of speamiint, a little balm, half a 



* By this method, it is said, an ingenious Cook long deceived a large 
family, who were all fond of weak mutton broth. — Mushroom Gravy, or 
Catsup (No. 439), approaches the nature and flavour of Meat Gravy, mor« 
than any Vegetable Juice, and is the best substitute for it in Meagre Soup* 
and extempore Sauces, that Culinary Chemistry Las yet produoed. 



258 BROTHS, 

great onion, a little pepper and salt, and a clove, with 
as much water as will cover them; and this boiled to 
less than a Pint, for one g^ood porrengerful." 

Ox-hctlJelh/. — CSo. 198.) 
Slit thera in two, and take away the fat between the 
claws. The proportion of water to each Heel is about 
a quart; — -let it simmer gently for eight hours, (keeping 
it clean skimmed) ; it will make a pint and a half of 
strong Jelly, wiiich is frequentlv used to make Calves' 
feet Jelly (No. 481), or to add to Mock Turtle, and 
other Soups. See (No. 240 •.) This Jelly, evaporated 
as directed in (No. 252), will give about three ounces 
and a half of strong Glaze, — an unboiled Heel costs 
one shilling and three pence ; so this glaze, which is 
very inferior in flavour to No. 252, is quite as expensive 
as that is. 

N.B. To dress the Heels, see (No. 18 •.) 
Obs. — Get a Heel that has only been scalded, not 
one of those usually sold at the Tripe shops, which 
have been built d till almost all the Gelatine is extracted. 

Clkar Gravy Sours. — (No. 200.) 
Cut half a pound of Ham into slices, and lay them at 
the bottom of a large stewpan, or stockpot, with two 
or Uiree pounds of lean Beef, and as much Veal ; — 
break the bones and lay them on the meat, take off 
the outer skin of two large Onions, and two Turnips, 
wash, clean, and cut into pieces a couple of large 
Carrots, and two heads of Celery ; and put in three 
Cloves and a large blade of Mace : — cover the stewpan 
close, and set it over a smart fire ; — when the meat 
begins to stick to the bottom of the stewpan, turn it, 
and when there is a nice brown jrlaze at the bottom of 
the stewpan, cover the meat with hot water: — watch 
it, and when it is coming to a boil, put in half a pint of 
cold water, take off the scum, then put in half a pint 
more cold water, and skim it again, and continue to do so 



I 



BROTHS, GRAVIES, AND SOUPS. 259 

till no more scum rises. — Now set it on one side of the 
fire, to boil gently for about four hours, — strain it 
through a clean tammis, or napkin, (do not squeeze it, 
or the Soup will be thick), into a clean Stone pan, let 
it remain till it is cold, and then remove all the Fat; — 
when you decant it, be careful not to disturb the 
settlings at the bottom of the pan. 

The Broth should he of a fine Amber colour, and as clear 
as Rock Water ; — if it is not so brio^ht as you wish it, 
put it into a stewpan, — break two whites and shells of 
Eggs into a basin, beat them well together, put them 
into the Soup, set it on a quick fire, and stir it with a 
whisk till it boils, — then set it on one side of the fire, 
to settle for ten minutes, run it through a fine napkin 
into a basin, and it is ready. 

However, if your Broth is carefully skimmed, &c. ac- 
cording to the directions above given, it ivill be ckar 
enough without clarifying, which process impairs the 
flavour of it, — in a higher proportion than it improves 
its appearance. 

Obs. — This is the Basis of almost all Gravy Soups, 
which are called by the name of the vegetables that are 
put into them : 

Carrots, — Turnips, — Onions, — Celery, — and 
a few leaves of Chervil, make what is called Spring 
Soup, or Soup Sante ; to this a pint of Green Pease, 
or Asparagus Pease, or French Beans cut into pieces, 
or a cabbage lettuce, are an improvement. 

With Rice, — or Scotch Barley, — with Macca- 
RONi, — or Vermicelli, — or Celery, — cut into 
lengths; it will be the Soup usually called by those 
names 

Or Turnips scooped round, or young Onions, will 
give you a clear Turnip, or Onion Soup, and all these 
vegetables mixed together, Soup Cressi. 

The Gravy for all these soups may be produced 
extempore with (No. 252). 

The Roots and Vegetables you use, must be boiled 



260 BROTHS, GRAVIES, AND SOUPS. 

first, or they will impregnate the soup with too strong; 
a flavour. 

The Seasoning for all thtse Soups is the same, viz. 
Salt, and a very little Cayenne pepper. 

N. B. To make excellent Vegetable Gran/ Soup for 
4|d. a quart, see (No. 224). 

Scotch Barley Broth, — A Good and Substantial 
Dinner for 5d. per Head. — (No. 204). 
"Wash three quarters of a pound of Scotch Barley in 
a little cold water, ]nit it in a soup pot with a Shin or 
Lcj^ of Beef, or a Knuckle of Veal of about ten pounds 
weight, sawed into four pieces, (tell the Butcher to do 
this for you), cover it well with cold water, set it on the 
fire; when it Boils skim it very clean and put in two 
Onions of about three ounces weight each, set it by the 
side of the fire to simmer xeri/ gently about two hours ; 
then skim all the fat clean off, and put in two heads of 
Celery, and a large Turnip cut into small squares; 
season it with salt, and let it boil an hour and a half 
longer, and it is ready : take out the meat (carefully 
with a slice, and cover it up and set it by the fire to 
keep warm) : and scum the Broth well before you put 
it in the Tureen. 

S. (1. 

ShiD of Beef of lOft i; G 

j ponnd of lUrley , O 4i 

C Onions of about 3 •!. weight euch 0\ 

Celery 1 

A large Turnip 1 

3 1 

Thus you get Jour quarts of Good Soup, at 9|d. per 
Quart, besides another quart to make sauce for the 
Meat, in the following manner : — 

Put a quart of the Soup into a basin, — put about an 
ounce of Flour into a stewpan, and pour the Broth to 
it by degrees, stirring it well together, set it on the 
fire and stir it till it boils, — then (some put in a glass 
of Port wine or Mushroom Catsup (No. 439), let it boil 
lip, and it is ready. 



BROTHS, GRAVIES, AND SOUPS. 261 

Put the Meat in a Ragout dish, and strain the Sauce 
through a sieve over the Meat, you may put to it some 
Capers, or minced Gherkins or Walnuts, &c. 

If the Beef has been stewed with proper care in a xery 
gentle manner J and be taken up at " the critical moment 
when it is just tender," you will obtain exceUtnt and 
^atoury Meat for eight People for Five Pence, i. e. for 
only the cost of the glass of Port wine. 

If you use Veal, cover the Meat with (No. 364, 

No. 2). 

s. a. 

Soup 3 1 

Wine 5 

3 6 

Obs. — Ihis is a most Frugal, — Agreeable, — and 
Nutritive Meal, — it will neither lighten the Purse, nor 
lie heavy on the Stomach, and will furnish a plentiful 
and pleasant Soup and Meat for eight persons. So You 
may give a good Dinner for 5d. per Head. See also (No. 
229), and (No. 239). 

N. B. If you will draw your Purse-strings a little 
wider, — and allow Id. per head more, — and prepare 
a pint of young Onions as directed in (No. 29'i), and 
garnish the dish with them, or some Carrots, or Turnips 
cut into squares,— ybr 6d.per Head you will have as good 
a Ragout as " le Cuisinier Imperial de France" can give 
you for as many shillings. Read Obs. to (No. 493). 

You may vary the flavour by adding a little Curry 
Powder (No. 455), Ragout (No. 457, &c.) or any of 
the store Sauces and flavouring Essences, between 
(Nos. 396 and 463), and you may garnish the dish with 
split pickled Mangoes, Walnuts, Gherkins, Onions, &c. 
See Wow Wow Sauce (No. 328). 

If it is made the evening before the Soup is wanted, 
and suffered to stand till it is cold, much Fat^ may be 

* See " L'Art de Cuisinier," par A. Beauvillier, Paris, 1814, page 08, 
" I have learned by experience, that of all the fats that are used for frying, 
the Pot Top which is taken from the surface of the Broth and Stock-Pot is by 
far the best." 



262 BROTHS, GRAVIES, AND SOUPS. 

removed from the surface of the Soup, which is, when 
clarified (No. 83), useful for all the purposes that 
Drippings- are applied to. 

Scotch Soups. — (No. 205). 

The three Jhlluwifig Receipts are the contribution of 
a. frit /id at Edinburgh. 

Winter Notch Patch, 

Take the best end of a neck or loin of Mutton, cut it 
into neat chops, cut four carrots and as many turnips 
into slices, put on four quarts of water with half the 
carrots and turnips, and a whole one of each, with a 
pound of dried green peas, which must be put to soak 
i!ie njf^lit before, — let it boil two hours, then take out 
the whole carrot and turnip, bruise and return them, 
put in the meat and the rest of the carrot and turnip, 
some pepper and salt, and boil slowly three quarters of 
an hour; a short time before serving add an onion cut 
small and ahead of celery. 

Cocky-Leeky Soup. 
Take a scra<^ of Mutton, or shank of Veal, three 
quarts ofwater (or liquor in which meat has been boiled), 
and a good sized fowl, with two or three leeks cut in 
pieces about an inch long, pepper and salt, boil slowly 
about an hour, then put in as many more leeks, and 
give it three quarters of an hour longer: — this is very 
good, made of good beef stock, and leeks put in at 
twice. 

Lamb Stove or Lamb Ster.\ 

Take a lamb's head and lights, open the jaws of the 
head, and wash them thoroughly, put them in a pot 
with some beef stock, made with three quarts ofwater, 
and two pounds of shin of beef, strained, boil very 
slowly for an hour, wash and string two or three good 
handsful of spinach (or Spinage), put it in twenty 



BROTHS, GRAVIES, AND SOUPS. 263 

minutes before serving;, add a little parsley and one or 
two onions a short time before it comes off the fire, 
season with pepper and salt, and serve all together in a 
tureen. 

Scotch Erase.— (So. 205^) 

*' This favourite Scotch dish is generally made with 
the liquor meat has been boiled in. 

*' Put half a pint of Oatmeal into a porringer with a 
httle salt, if there be not enough in the broth, — of 
which, add as much as will mix it to the consistence of 
hasty-pudding, or a little thicker, — lastly, take a little 
of the fat that swims on the broth, and put it on the 
Crowdie, and eat it in the same way as hasty-pudding." 

Obs. — This Scotsman's dish, is easily prepared, at 
very little expense, and is pleasant tasted and nutri- 
tious. To dress a Haggies, see (No. 488*), and 
Minced Collops following it. 

N. B. For various methods of making and flavouring 
Oatmeal Gruel, see (No. 572). 

Cat-rot Soup.— (No. 212.) 

Scrape and wash half a dozen large Carrots, peel off 
the red outside (which is the only part that should be 
used for this soup); put it into a gallon stewpan, with 
one head of Celery, and Hn Onion, cut into thin pieces; 
take two quarts of Beef, Veal, or Mutton broth, or if 
you have any cold Roast Beef Bones, (or liquor, in which 
Mutton or Beef has been boiled), you may make very 
good broth for this soup : — when you have put the 
broth to the roots, cover the stewpan close, and set it 
on a slow stove for two hours and a half, when the 
Carrots will be soft enough, (some Cooks put in a Tea- 
cupful of Bread-cnuTibs,) boil for two or three minutes, 
rub it through a tammis, or hair sieve, with a wooden 
spoon, and add as much broth as will make it a proper 
thickness, z\ e. almost as thick as pease soup : put it 
into a clean stewpan, make it hot, season it with a 



264 BROTHS, GRAVIES, AND SOL PS. 

little salt, and send it up with some toasted bread, cut 
into pieces, half an inch square. Some put it into the 
soup; but the best way is to send it up on a plate, as a 
side dish. 

Obs. — This is neither expensive nor troublesome to 
prepare; — in the Kitchens of some opulent Epicures, 
to make this Soup make a little stronger impression on 
the gustatory Organs of " Grands Gourmands,^' the 
Celery and Onions are sliced, and fried in Butter of a 
light brown, the Soup is poured into the Stewpan to 
them, and all is boiled up together : — but this must be 
done ver)' carefully with Butter or very nicely clarified 
felt; and the " Grand Ciiisinicr' add spices, »S:c. " ad 
/i hi turn." 

Turnip and Parsnip Suups — (No. 213.) 

Are made in the same manner as the Carrot soup 
(No. -21 2.) 

Cc/cfi/ Suup.—{^o. 214.) 

Split half a dozen heads of Celery into slips about 
two inches long, wash them well, lay them on a hair 
sieve to drain, and put them into three quarts of 
(No. 200) in a gallon soup pot; set it by the side of 
the fire, to stew very gently till the celery is tender ; 
(this will take about an hour). If any scum rises, 
take it off, season with a little salt. 

Obs. — When Celery cannot be procured, Ila/f a 
Drachm of the Seed, pounded fine, which may be con- 
sidered as the Essence of Celery, (costs only one- 
third of a farthing, and can be had at any season,) put 
in a quarter of an hour before the soup is done, will 
give as much flavour to half a gallon of Soup, as two 
heads of Celery, weighing seven ounces and costing 2i/.; 
or add a little Essence of Celery (No. 409.) 

Green Pease Soup. — (No. 216.) 
A peck of Pease will make you a good tureen of 



BROTHS, GRAVIES, AND SOUPS. 265 

Soup, — in shelling them put the old ones in one Basin, 
and the young ones in another, — and keep out a pint 
of them, and boil them separately to put into your Soup 
%vhen it is finished ; put a large saucepan on the fire 
half full of water, — when it boils, put the Pease in, 
with a handful of salt ; let them boil till they are done 
enough, i. e. from twenty to thirty minutes, according 
to their age and size, then drain them in a cullender, 
and put them into a clean gallon stewpan, and three 
quarts of plain Veal or Mutton broth (drawn from meat 
without any Spices or Herbs, &c. which would over- 
power the flavour of the Soup), cover the stewpari close, 
and set it over a slow fire to stew gently for an hour : 
add a teacupful of bread-crumbs, and then rub it 
through a tammis into another stewpan, stir it with 
a v^ooden spoon, and if it is too thick, add a little more 
broth ; have ready boiled as for eating, a pint of young 
pease, and put tliem into the soup ; season with a little 
salt and sugar. 

N.B. Some Cooks, while this Soup is going on, slice 
a couple of Cucumbers, (as you would for eating,); take 
out the seeds, lay tliem on a cloth to drain, and then 
flour them, and fry them a light brown in a little butter ; 
put them into the soup the last thing before it goes to 
table. 

Obs. — If the Soup is not Green enough, pound a 
handful of Pea-hulls or Spinage, and squeeze the juice 
through a cloth into the soup ; some leaves of mint 
may be added if approved. 

Pkin Green Pease Soup, liit/ioiit Meat. — (No. 217.) 

Take a quart of Green Pease, (keep out half a pint 
of the youngest, boil them separately, and put them in 
the Soup when it is finished,) put them on in boiling 
water, boil them tender, and then pour off the water 
and set it by to make the soup with; put the pease 
into a mortar, and pound them to a mash. Then put 
them in two quarts of the water you boiled the pease 

N 



266 BROTHS, GRAVIES, AND SOUPS. 

in, stir all well together, let it boil up for about five 
minutes, and then rub it through a hair sieve or tammis. 
If the pease are good, it will be as thick and fine a 
vegetable soup as need be sent to Table. 

Pease Soup. — (No. 218.) 
The common way of making Pease Soup' is, — to a 
Quart of Split Pease put three quarts of cold soft water, 
not more, (or it will be what ** jack ros-bif" calls 
" Soup ,Uajgre")not\Nithstanding Mother Glasse orders 
^ gallon, (and her Ladyship's directions have been 
copied by almost every Cookery book-maker, who has 
strung receipts together since), with half a pound of 
Bacon, (not very fat), or Roast Beef bones, or four 
Anchovies: or instead of the water, three quarts of the 
Liquor in whicliBcef, Mutton, Pork, or Toultry has been 
boiled, tastinj; it first, to make sure it is not too salt.f 

Wash two l;f ad-i of Celeryt, cut it, and put it in, 
with two Onions peeled, and a sprig of Savory, or 
sweet Marjoram, or Lemon-'I hyme ; set it on the trivet, 
and let it simmer very gently over a slow fire, stirring 
it every rpjarter of an hour (to keep the pease from 
sticking,- to and burning at the bottom of the Soup-pot,) 
till the Pease are tender, which will be in about three 
hours ; — some Cooks now slice a head of Celery, and 
half an ounce of Oi. ions, and fry them in a little butter, 
and put tiiem into the Soup, till they are lightly 
browned, then work the whole through a coarse hair 
sieve, and then through a fine sieve, or (what is better) 
through a tammis, with the back of a wooden spoon; — 
put it into a clean stew pan, with half a teaspoonful of 



• To make Pease Pottaoe, doable the quantity. Those Mho often make 
Pease Sonp, »honl<l have a Mill, and grind the Pfatc, Jast before they diess 
ihem, — a lot qt.aulity will sufiice, and the Soup will be much »ooner 
made. 

t If ihe I,iqni.r is very salt, the Pc-ige will never boil tender. —Therefore, 
when ><.u make Pe.ise Soup with ihi; liquor in which salted Poik or Beef has 
been boiled, lie up the Pea2e in a cloth, and boil them first for an hoar in 
»oft Wilier. 

J Hal/ a drarhm nf Celfry Seed, pounded fine, and put into the Soup a 
q'larter of an hour before it it finished, will flavour three quarts. 



BROTHS, GRAVIES, AND SOUPS. 267 

ground Black Pepper*, let it boil again for ten minutes, 
and if any fat arises, skim it off. 

Send up on a plate. Toasted Bread cut into little 
pieces a quarter of an inch square, or cut a slice of 
Ijread (that has been baked two days) into dice not 
more than half an inch square; put half a pound of 
clean drippings or lard into an iron frying pan ; when it 
is hot, Fry the Bread, take care and turn it about 
with a slice, or by shaking of the pan as it is frying, 
that it may be on each side of a delicate light brown, 
see (No. 319); take it up with a fish-slice, and lay it 
on a sheet of paper, to drain the fat : be careful that 
this is done nictlii : send these up in one side dish, and 
dried and powdered Mint or Savory, or Sweet Mar- 
joram, &c. in another. 

Those who are for a double Relish, and are true lovers 
of " Haut Gout J' may have some Bacon cut into small 
squares like the bread, and fried till it is crisp, or some 
little lumps of boiled pickled Pork, — or put Cucumber 
fried into this soup, as you have directions in (No. 216 ) 

Obs. — The most Economical method of making pease 
SOUP, is to save the bones of a joint of Roast beef, and 
put them into the liquor in which Mutton, or Beef, or 
Pork, or Poultry has been boiled, and proceed as in the 
above receipt. A hock, or shank bone of Ham, a ham 
bone, the root of a Tongue, or a red or pickled Herring, 
are favourite additions with some Cooks ; others send 
up Rice, or Vermicelli, with Pease Soupf. 

• Some put in dried Mint rnbhed to fine powder; but as every body does 
not like Mint, it is best to send it up on a phtle, see Pea Powder (^o. 458), 
Essence of Celery {lio. 409), and (Nos. 457 and 45y.) 

t My witty predecessor, Dr. Hunter, {see Cnlina, page 97), says, " If a 
proper quan'ity of Curry powder (No. 455) be added to Pease Soup, a good 
soup miglit be made, under the litle of Lurry Pease Sovp. Ilelioi^abalus 
offered rewards for the discovery of a new dis-b, and the Biiiish Parliament 
!iave given notoriety to inveniions of much less importance than 'Curry 
Pease Soup.'" 

K. P. Celery, or Carrots, — or Turnips, — shredded or cot in squares, Cor 
Scotcli Barley, in llie hUter case the soup must be rather thinner), or cut into bits 
about an inch long, and boiled separately, and iln<nvn into the tureen when 
llie soup is going to table, will give anoilun agreeable variety, and may be 
called Celery and Tease Sodp. Read Oks. to (No. 214.) 
N 2 



268 BROTHS, GRAVIES; AND SOUPS. 

N. B. To make Pease Soup Extempore, see 
(No. 555.) 

If you wish to jiake Soup the same day you 
Boil Meat or Poultry, prepare the pease the same 
as for Pease Vuddivg (No. 555), to wjiich you may add 
an Onion and a head of Celery, when you rub the pease 
tliroujih tlie sieve, — instead of putting Eggs and 
Butter, add some of the hquor from the pot to make it a 
proper thickness, — put it on to boil for five minutes, 
and it is ready. 

Obs. — Tlus is by far the easiest, and the best rrcty of 
making Pease Soup. 

Pease Soup may be made savoury and agreeable 
to the palate, without any Meat, — by incorporating 
two ounces of fresh and nicely clarified Beef, Mutton, 
or Pork drippings, see (No. 83 \ with two ounces of 
Oatmeal, and mixing this well into the gallon of 
Soup, made as above directed, see also (No. 229.) 

Pease Soup and Pickled Pork. — (No, 220.) 

A couple of pounds of the belly part of Pickled Pork 
will make very good broth for Pease Soup, if the pork 
be not too salt, — if it has been in salt more than two 
days, it must be laid in water the night before it is 
used. 

Put on the ingredieiUs mentioned in (No. 218), in 
three quarts of water ; boil gently for two hours, then 
put in the pork, and boil very gently till it is enough 
to eat, — tins will take about an hour and a half or 
two hours longer, according to its thickness : — when 
done, wash the pork clean in hot \vater, send it up in 
a dish, or cut it into mouthfuls, and put it into the 
Soup in the tureen, with the accompaniments ordered 
in (No. 218.) 

Obs. — The Meat being boiled no longer than to be 
done enough to be eaten, — you get excellent Sou-p^ 
without any expense of Meal destroyed. 



3BROTHS, GRAVIES, AND SOUPS. 269 

Plain Pease Soup. — (No. 221.) 

To a quart of split Pease, and two heads of Celery, 
(and most Cooks would put a large Onion,) put three 
quarts of Broth or soft water ; let them simmer gently 
on a trivet over a slow fire for three hours, (stirring up 
every quarter of an hour to prevent the pease burning 
at the bottom of the soup kettle, — if the water boils 
away and the Soup gets too thick, add some boiling 
water to it) ; — when they are well softened, work 
theni through a coarse sieve, and then through a fine 
sieve or a tammis, wash out your stew-pan, and then 
return the Soup into it, and give it a boil up; take 
off any scum that comes up, and it is ready. Prepai'e 
fried Bread and dried Mint, as directed in (No. 218), 
and send them up with it on two side dishes. 

Obs. — This is an excellent Family Soup, produced 
with very little trouble or expense ; — i. e. 

s. d. 

Quart of Pease 8 

Two Heads of Celery 2 

Pepper and Salt 1 

Pried Mint 1 

1 

So the Two Quarts cost One Shilling; — half a 
drachm of bruised Celery Seed, which costs only one- 
third of a farthing, and a little Sugar, added just 
before finishing the Soup, — will give it as much fla- 
vour as Two Heads of the fresh Vegetable. 

Most of the Receipts for Pease Soup, are crowded 
with ingredients which entirely overpower the flavour 
of the Pease. See (No. 555.) 

Asparagus Soup. — (No. 222.) 

This is made with the points of Asparagus, in the 

same manner as the Green Pease Soup (No. 216 or 

17) is with pease; let half the Asparagus be rubbed 

through a sieve, and the other cut in pieces about aa 



270 BROTHS, GRAVIES, AND SOUPS. 

inch long, and boiled till done enough, and sent up in 
the soup ; to make two quarts, tiiere must be a pint of 
heads to thicken it, and half a pint cut in, — take care 
to preserve these green and a little crisp. This soup 
is sometimes made by adding the asparagus heads to 
common Pease soup. 

Obs. — Some Cooks fry half an ounce of onion in a 
little butter, and rub it through a sieve, and add it 
with the other ingredients, — the haui-goiU of the 
Onion will entirely overcome the delicate flavour of 
the Asparagus, and we protest against all such com- 
binations. 

Maigre or Vegetable Gran/ Soup.* — (No. 224.) 

Put in a gallon stewpan three ounces of Butter, set 
it over a slow fire ; while it is melting, slice four ounces 
of Onion ; cut in small pieces, one Turnip, one Carrot, 
and one head of Celery, put them in the stewpan, 
cover it close, let it fry till they are browned ; this will 
take about 25 minutes: — have ready in a saucepan a 
pint of Pease, with four quarts of water; when the 
Roots in the stewpan are quite brown, and the pease 
come to a boil, put the pease and water to them, put 
it on the fire, when it boils scum it clean, and put in a 
crust of bread about as big as the top of a two-penny 
loaf, 24 berries of Allspice, the same of Black Pepper, 
and two blades of Mace, — cover it close, — let it simmer 
gently for one hour and a half; — then set it from the 
fire for ten minutes, then pour it off very gently (so as 
not to disturb the sediment at the bottom of the stew- 
pan) into a large basin, let it stand (about two hours) 
till it is quite clear, — while this is doing, shred one 
large Turnip, the red part of a large Carrot, three 

• fht: French call this "Soup Maigre," — ihe English acc-pt.ttion of 
which i* " }>o^/r and ualery," aud does not at all accord wilh tin- French, 
•which is Soup-, &c. made with.>ut ineai — Ihng, J lrtle, tlie rii ht'st riijli 
fhat couies lo an English table (^if dressed without Meal Gravy;, ii a Maigre 
Dull, 



BROTHS, GRAVIES, AND SOUPS. 271 

ounces of Onion minced, and one large head of Celery 
cut into small bits; put the Turnips and Carrots on 
the fire in cold water, let them boil five minutes, then 
drain them on a sieve, — then pour off the Soup clear 
into a stewpan, put in the Roots, put the Soup on the 
fire, let it simmer gently till the herbs are tender, from 
thirty to forty minutes, season it with salt and a little 
Cayenne, and it is ready. 

You may add a tablespoonful of Mushroom Catsup 
(No. 439.) 

Ob.s. — You will have Three Quarts of Soup, almost 
as well coloured and as well flavoured as if made with 
Gravy JMeat, — for 1*. I^d. 

s. d. 

Carrots 1 

lurnips 1 

Celery 2 

Pease 3 

Onious U Oi 

Butter 3 

Spice, SaU,&c 3 

1 U 

N.B. To Fri/ the herbs requires 25 minutes, — to 
Boil all together, one hour and a half, — to settle, at 
the least two hours, — when clear, and put on the fire 
again, half an hour or forty minutes. 

Fish Soups. (No. 225.) 
Eel Soup. 

To make a tureenful, take a couple of middling-sized 
Onions, cut them in half, and cross your knife over 
them two or three times ; put two ounces of Butter 
into a stewpan; — when it is melted, put in the Onions, 
stir them about till they are lightly browned, — cut into 
pieces three pounds of unskinned Eels, — put them 
into your stewpan, and shake them over the fire for 
five minutes ; then add three quarts of boiling water, 
and when they come to a boil, take the scum off very 



272 BROTHS, GRAVIES, AND SOUPS. 

clean, then put in a quarter of an ounce of the green 
leaves (not dried) of winter Savory, the same of Lemon 
Thyme, and twice the quantity of Parsley, two drachms 
of Allspice, the same of Black Pepper, — cover it close, 
and let it boil gently for two hours, then strain it oft', 
and skim it very clean. To Thicken it, put three 
ounces of Butter into a clean stewpan; when it is 
melted, stir in as much flour as will make it of a stiff* 
paste, then add the liquor by degrees, let it simmer 
for ten minutes, and pass it tlirough a sieve, then put 
your Soup on in a clean stewpan, — and have ready 
some little square pieces of Fish fried of a nice light 
brown, — either Eels, Soles, Plaice, or Skate will do; 
— the fried Fish sliould be added about ten minutes 
before the Soup is served up. Forcemeat Balls (Nos. 
375, 378, &'c.) are sometimes added. 

OI)s. — ExcF.LLENT Fisii Suups may be made with 
a Cod's Skull, — or Skate, — or Flousiders, &c. boiled 
in no more water than will just cover them,— and 
the liquor thickened with Oatmeal, <SlC. 

Cheap Soups. — (No. 229.) 

Among the variety of schemes that have been 
suggested for bctteting the condition of the Poor, 
a more useful or extensive Charity cannot be devised, 
than that of instructing them in Economical Cookery:- — 
it is one of the most important objects to which the 
attention of any real well-wisher to the public interest 
can possibly be directed. 

The best and cheapest method of making a nourish- 
ing Soup — is least known to those wb.o have most 
need of it ; — it will enable those who have small in- 
comes and large families — to make the most of the little 
they possess, without pinching their children of that 
wholesome nourishment which is necessary, for the 
urpose of rearing them up to maturity in Health and 
Strength, 



^: 



BROTHS, GRAVIES, AND SOUPS. 273 

The labouring classes seldom purchase what are 
called the coarser pieces of Meat, because they do not 
know how to dress them, but lay out their money in 
pieces for Roasting, &c., of which the bones, &c. 
enhance the price of the actual meat to nearly a 
shilhng per pound, and the diminution of weight by 
Roasting amounts to 32 per cent. This, for the sake 
of saving time, trouble, and fire, is generally sent to au 
oven to be baked, the nourishing parts are evaporated 
and dried up, its weight is diminished nearly one-third, 
and all that a poor man can afford to purchase with his 
week's earnings, perhaps does not lialf satisfy the ap- 
petites of himself and family for a couple of days. 

If a hard-working man cannot get a comfortable 
meal at home, — he soon finds the way to the Public- 
house, — the poor Woman contents herself with Tea 
and Bread and Butter, — and the children are half 
starved. 

Dr. Kiichiner's Receipt to make a cheap, nutritive, 
and palatable Soup, fully adequate to satisfy Appe- 
tite, and support Strength, will open a new source to 
those benevolent Housekeepers, who are disposed to 
relieve the poor, — will show the industrious classes 
how much they have it in their power to assist them- 
selves, and rescue them from being dependent on the 
precarious bounty of others, by teaching them how 
they may obtain an abundant, salubrious, and agree- 
able aliment for themselves and families, for One 
Penny per Quart. See page 274. 

For various Economical Soups, see (Nos. 204, 239 
and 40, 224, 221), and Obs, to (No. 244), (No. 252;;, 
and (Nos. 493 and 502.) 

Obs. — Dripping intended for Soup, should be taken 
out of the Pan almost as soon as it has dropped from 
the meat ; — if it is not quite clean, clarify it. See 
receipt (No. 83.) 

Dripping thus prepared, is a very different thing 
from that which has remained in the Dripping-pan ail 
N 5 



274 BROTHS, GKAVIES, AND SOUPS. 

the time the meat has been roasting — and perhaps 
live coals have dropped into it*. 

Distributing Sour, does nut answer half so we/! an 
teaching people how to make it^ and improve their comfort 
at Home, — the time lust in waiting at the Soup House 
is seldom less than three hours ; in which time, by 
any industrious occupation, however poorly paid, they 
could earn more money than the quart of Soup is 
worth. 

Dr. Kitciiinlr's Receipt to make a Gallon of Barlet/ 
Broth for a Groat. 

Put four ounces of Scotch barley (previously washed 
in cold water), and four ounces of sliced Onions, into 
five (juarts of water; — boil gently for one hour, and 
pour it into a pan, then put nito the saucepan from 
one to two ounces of clean Beef or xMutton Drippings, 
or melted Suet: (to clarify these, see (No. 83,) or two 
or three ounces of fat Bacon minced); when melted, 
stir into it four ounces of Oatmeal, rub these together 
till you make a ])aste, (if this be properly managed, the 
whole of the fat will combine with the barley broth, 
and not a particle appear on the surface to oftend the 
most delicate stomach;, now add the Barley Broth, at 
first a spoonful at a time, then tlie rest by degrees, 
stirring it well together till it boils. — lo season it, put 



• We copied ibe following Receipt from Ihe Morning Post, January 
1820 — 

Winter Sot p. — (No. CCJ.) 
eiOlbs. ol" Beef, fore quailtrs. | I'J Buiidlosof Lo, ks. 

yOlbs. of Lei^s of Beef. | 6 I'-uutlh-s of Celei^ . 

3 Busliels of best Split Pease. i lClb.«. of Salt. 

1 Bushel of Fl'.nr. | nibs, of Blat k Pepper. 

These E<'<'d ingreili nts will make 1000 quarts of uonrisliing aii«l agreeable 
Soup, at ail expense (Establishment avoided) of little less than 2 id. per 
quart. 

Of this, C600 qiiisrts a day have been delivered during the late iiiclemerit 
weather and ihe cessation of ordinary employment, at tuo stations in the 
inrisli of Bernionds'.y, at one penny per quart, by which GoO families have 
been daily assisted, and it thankfully received. Such a nourishment and 
comfort could not have been provided by themselves separately for fourpence 
a quart, if at all, and reckoning little for their fire, nothing for their time. 



BROTHS, GRAVIES, AND SOUPS. 275 

a drachm of finely pounded Celery, or Cress Seed, (or 
half a drachm of each,) and a quarter of a drachm of 
finely pounded Cayenne (No. 404), or a drachm and a 
half of ground Black Pepper, or Allspice, into a tea- 
cup, and mix it up with a little of the soup, and then 
pour it into the rest, stir it thoroughly together, let it 
simmer gently a quarter of an hour longer, season it 
with salt, and it is ready. 

The flavour may be varied by doubling the portion 
of Onions, or adding a clove of Garlic or Eschallot, 
and leaving out the Celery Seed, see (No. 572), or put 
in shredded Roots as in (No. 224.) 

This preparation, excellent as it is, would, without 
variety, soon become less agreeable. 

Nothing tends so much to disarm poverty of its 
sting, as the means of rendering a scanty pittance 
capable of yielding a comfortable variety. 

Change of Food is absolutely necessary — not only 
as a matter of pleasure and comfort, but also of health 
— Toujour s Perdrix is a true proverb. 

It will be much improved, if, instead of water, it be 
made with the liquor Meat has been boiled in; — at 
Tripe, Cow-heel, and Cook shops, this may be had for 
little or nothing. 

This Soup has the advantage of being very soon and 
easily made, with no more fuel than is necessary to 
warm a room — those who have not tasted it, cannot 
imagine what a Savoury and Satisfying Meal is pro- 
duced by the combination of these cheap and homely 
ingredients. 

If the generally received opinion be true, that Animal 
and V^egetable foods afford nourishment in proportion 
to the quantity of Oil, Jelly, and Mucilage that can be 
extracted from them, this Soup has strong claims to 
the attention of Rational Economists. 

Crai^ Fish Soup. — (No. 235.) 

This soup is sometimes made with Beef, or Veal 
broth, — or with Fish, in the following manner. 



276 BROTHS, GRAVIES, AND SOUPS. 

Take Flounders, Eels, Gudgeons, &c. and set them 
on to boil in cold water ; when it is pretty nigh boihng, 
scum it well, and to three quarts put in a couple of 
Onions, and as many Carrots cut to pieces, some 
Parsley, a dozen berries of black and Jam-aica pepper, 
and about half a hundred Cray-fish ; take otf'the small 
claws, and shells of the tails, pound them fine, and 
boil them with the broth about an hour ; strain otf, 
and break in some crusts of bread to thicken it, and if 
you can get it, the spawn of a lobster, pound it, and 
put to the soup, let it simmer very gently for a couple 
of minutes, put in your cray-fish to get hot, and the 
soup is ready. 

Uf)s. — One of my predecessors recommends Cray- 
TISII poiindtd aiive, to sarcten the sliarpntss of the Blood . 
— Vide Clermont's Cookery, p. 5, London, 1776. 

*' Un (Its grands Homines de Bouchc de France' says : 
" Un hon Coil /is d'FA:revisses est le Paradls siir la ttrre, 
(t digue de la table des Ditux ; and of all the tribe 
of Sliell-fish, which our Industry and our Sensuahty 
bring from the bottom of the Sea, the River, or the 
Pond, the Craw-fish is incomparably the most useful 
and the most delicious." 

Lobster Soup. — (No. 237.) 

You must have three fine lively* Young Hen Lobsters, 
and boil them, see (No. 176); when cold, split the tails, 
take out the fish, crack the claws, and cut the meat 
into mouthfuls : take out the coral, and soft part of 
the body, bruise part of the coral in a mortar, pick out 
the fish from the chines, beat part of it with the coral, 
and with this make forcemeat balls, finely flavoured 
with mace or nutmeg, a little grated lemon-peel, An- 
chovy and Cayenne ; pound these with the yolk of an 

Egg. 

Have three quarts of Veal Broth; bruise the small 

• Read (No. 176.) 



BROTHS, GRAVIES, AND SOUPS. 277 

legs and the chine, and put them into it, to boil for 
twenty minutes, then strain it ; and then to thicken it, 
take the live spawn and bruise it in a mortar with a 
little Butter and Flour, rub it through a sieve, and add 
it to the soup with the meat of the lobsters, and the 
remaining coral; let it simmer very gently for ten 
minutes ; do not let it boil, or its fine red colour will 
immediately fade; turn it into a tureen, add the juice 
of a good lemon, and a little Essence of Anchovy. 

Soup and Boinlli.—{^o. 238.) — See also (No. 5.) 

The best parts for this purpose, are the Leg or Shin, 
or a piece of the middle of a Brisket of Beef, of about 
seven or eight pounds weight; lay it on a fish drainer, 
or when you take it up, put a slice under it, which will 
enable you to place it on the dish entire ; put it into a 
soup-pot or deep stewpan, witli cold water enough to 
cover it, and a quart over, set it on a quick fire to get 
the scum up, which remove as it rises ; then put in two 
carrots, two turnips, two leeks, or two large onions, 
two heads of celery, two or three cloves, and a faggot 
of parsley and sweet herbs ; set the pot by the side of 
the fire to simmer very gently, till the meat is just 
tender enough to eat; this will require about four or 
five hours. 

Put a large carrot, a turnip, a large onion, and a 
head or two of celery, into the soup whole, — take 
them out as soon as they are done enough, lay them on 
a dish till they are cold, then cut them into small 
squares : — when the Beef is done, take it out care- 
fully, — to dibh it up, see (No. 204, or 493), strain the 
Soup through a hair sieve into a clean stewpan, take 
off the Fat, and put the Vegetables that are cut into 
the Soup, the flavour of which you may heighten, by 
adding a tablespoonful of mushroom catsup. 

If a Thickened Soup is preferred, take four large 
tablespoonsful of the clear Fat from the top of the pot, 
and four spoonsful of Flour; mix it smooth together, 



278 BROTHS, GRAVIES, AND SOUPS. 

then by degrees stir it well into the soup, which simmer 
for ten minutes longer at least, — skim it well, and pass 
it through a tanimis, or fine sieve, and add the Vege- 
tables and seasoning the same as directed in the clear 
soup. 

Keep the Beef hot, and send it up (as a remove to 
the Soup) with finely chopped Parsley s[)rinklcd on the 
top, and a Sauce-boat of (No. 328.) 

Ox- Head Soup— (So. 239.) 

Should be prepared the day before it is to be eaten, 
as you cannot cut the meat off the head into neat 
mouthfuls unless it is cold -. — therefore, the day before 
you want this Soup, put half an Ox Cheek into a tub 
of cold water to soak for a couple of hours, then break 
the bones that have not been broken at the butcher's, 
and wash it very well in warm water; put it into a pot, 
and cover it with cold water; when it boils, skim it 
very clean, and then put in one head of celery, a couple 
of carrots, a turnip, two large onions, two dozen berries 
of black pepper, same of allspice, and a bundle of 
sweet herbs, sucli as marjoram, lemon-thyme, savory, 
and a handful of parsley; cover the soup-pot close, 
and set it on a slow tire; take off the scum, which will 
rise when it is coming to a boil, and set it by the fire- 
side to itcii xery gcnthj for about three hours ; take out 
the head, lay it on a dish, pour the soup through a fine 
sieve into a stone-ware pan, and set it and the head by 
in a cool place till the next day; — then, cut the meat 
into neat mouthfuls, skim and strain off the Broth, — 
put two quarts of it and the Meat into a clean stew- 
pan, — let it simmer very gently for half an hour 
longer, and it is ready. If you wish it thickened, 
(which we do not recommend, — for the reasons given 
in the 7th Chapter of the Rudiments of Cookery); — 
put two ounces of butter into a stewpan; when it is 
melted, throw in as much flour as will dry it up; when 
they are well mixed together, and browned by degrees, 



BROTHS, GRAVIES, AND SOUPS. 279 

pour to this your soup, and stir it well together, let it 
simmer for half an hour longer, strain it through a hair 
sieve into a clean stewpan, and put to it the meat of 
the head, — let it stew half an hour longer, and season 
it with Cayenne pepper, salt, and a glass of good wine, 
or a tablespoonful of brandy. See Ox-Cheek Stewed 
(No. 507.) 

Ol)s, — Those who wish this Soup still more savoury, 
&c. for the means of making it so we refer to (No. 247.) 

N. B. This is an Excellent and Economical Soup, — 

s. d. 

Half an Ox Cheek 1 6 

Celery 1 

Herbs 2 

Carrots and Turnips 3 

Onions 1 

Allspice, and Black Pe^jper and Salt ...... 1 

2 2 

and costs those who have not a garden of their own, 
only 2*. 2d. ; and is a good and plentiful dinner for half 
a dozen people ; see also (No. 204), and (No. 229.) 

If you serve it as Soup for a dozen people, thicken 
one Tureen, and send up the Meat in that, — and send 
up the other as a clear Gravy Soup, with some of the 
carrots and turnips shredded or cut into shapes. 

Ox Tail Soup.— {"So, 240.) 

Two Tails, costing about Id. each, will make a 
Tureen of Soup ; (desire the Butcher to divide them at 
the joints), lay them to soak in warm water, while you 
get ready the Vegetables. 

Put into a gallon stewpan, eight Cloves, tv/o or 
three Onions, half a drachm of Allspice, and the same 
of Black Pepper, and the Tails*; cover them with cold 
water, skim it carefully, when and as long as you see 
any scum rise; — then cover the pot as close as pos- 
sible, and set it on the side of the fire to keep gently 



* Some lovers of Haut-Goiit fry the Tails before Ihey put ihem iulo the 
Soup-pot. 



280 BROTHS, GRAVIES, AND SOUPS. 

simmering till the meat becomes tender^ and will leave 
the bones easily, because it is to be eaten with a spoon, 
without the assistance of a knife or fork ; see N. B. to 
(No. 244); this will require about two hours; mind it 
is not done tuo much: when perfectly tender, take out 
the meat (which some Cooks cut off the bones, in neat 
mouthfuls, which is the best way of serving; it), skim the 
broth, and strain it though a sieve: — if you prefer a 
Thicken ED Soup, put Hour and butter, as directed in 
the preceding ilt-ceipt, — or put two tablespoons ful of 
the Fat you have taken otf tlie Broth into a clean stew- 
pan, with as much flour as will make it into a paste ; set 
this over the fire, and stir them well together, then pour 
in the Broth by degrees, stirring it and mixing it with 
the thickening; — let it sjmmcr for another half hour, 
and when you have well skimmed it and it is quite 
smooth, then strain it through a tammis into a clean 
stewpan, put in the Meat, with a tablespoonful of 
Mushroom Catsup (No. 439), a glass of Wine, and 
season it with salt. 

For increasing the l*i<iuance of tliis Soup, read 
(No, 247.) 

0/»5,_See N. B. to (No. 244); if the Meat is cutoff 
the Bones, you must have three Tails for a Tureen, see 
N. B. to (No. 244) ; some put an Ox Check or Tails in 
an earthen pan with all the ingredients as above, and 
send them to a slow oven for five or six hours. 

N.B. This IS even more economical than the pre- 
ceding Soup: — 

*. d. 

Two Tails I 2 

Onions aud Spice u 2 

'Tiitiii.Q\:>LV.j% of ticellent Soup cost only l 4 

To Stew Ox Tails, see (No. 531.) 

Ox Heel Soup— {"So. 240.*) 

Must be made the day before it is eaten. Procure 
an Ox Heel undressed, or onlv scalded, (not orio that 



BROTHS, GRAVIES, AND SOUPS. 261 

has been already boiled, as they are at the Tripe shops, 
till almost all the gelatinous parts are extracted), and 
Two that have been boiled as they usually are at the 
Tripe shops. 

Cut the meat off the boiled heels into neat mouthfuls, 
and set it by on a plate ; put the trimmings and bones 
into a stewpan, with three quarts of water, and the un- 
boiled heel cut into quarters; — furnish a stewpan with 
two onions and two turnips pared and sliced, pare off 
the red part of a couple of large carrots, add a couple 
of eshallots cut in half, a bunch of savory, or lemon- 
thyme, and double the quantity of parsley ; set this 
over or by the side of a slow steady fire, and keep it 
closely covered and simmering very gently (or the soup- 
liquor will evaporate), for at least seven hours; during 
which, take care to remove the fat and scum that will 
rise to the surface of the soup, which must be kept as 
clean as possible. 

Now strain the liquor through a sieve, and put two 
ounces of butter into a clean stewpan ; when it is melted, 
stir into it as much flour as will make it a stiff paste, 
add to it by degrees, the soup liquor, give it a boil up, 
strain it through a sieve, and put in the peel of a lemon 
pared as thin as possible, and a couple of bay-leaves, 
and the meat of the boiled heels, — let it go on simmer- 
ing for half an hour longer, i. e. till the meat is tender. 
Put in the juice of a Lemon, a glass of Wine, and a 
tablespoonful of Mushroom Catsup, and the soup is 
ready for the tureen. 

Obs. — Those who are disposed to make this a more 
substantial dish, may introduce a couple of sets of 
Goose or Duck Giblets, or Ox tails, or a pouad of 
Veal cutlets, cut into mouthfuls. 

Hare, B,abbU, or Partridge Soup, — (No. 241.) 

An old Hare, or Birds, when so tough as to defy the 
teeth in any other form, will make very good Soup. 
Cut off the legs and shoulders, divide the body 



282 BROTHS, GRAVIES, AND SOUPS. 

crossways, and sYer;' them icn/ gentiij in three quarts ot 
water, with one carrot, about one ounce of onion, with 
four cloves, two blades of pounded mace, 24 black 
peppers, and a bundle of sweet herbs, till the Hare is 
tender, (most C ooks add to the above a couple of slices 
of Ham or Bacon, and a Bay Leaf, &c. but my Palate 
and I'ursc both plead against such extravagance, the 
Hare makes sufficiently savoury Soup without them); 
the time this will take de[)ends very much upon its 
age, and how long it has been kept before it is dressed ; 
as a general rule, about three hours; in the mean time, 
make a dozen and a half of nice forcemeat balls (as big 
as Nutmegs) of (No. 379); when the Hare is quite 
tender, take the meat oft' the Back, and the upper joint 
of the Legs, cut it into neat moulhfuls, and lay it aside ; 
cut the rest of the meat oft" the legs, shoulders, &c. 
mince it, and pound it in a mortar, with an ounce of 
butter, and two or three tablcspoonsful of flour moistened 
with a little Soup ; rub this through a hair sieve, and 
put it into the Soup to thicken it ; — let it simmer slowly 
half an hour longer, skinmiing it well, — put it through 
the Tammis, into the pan again, — and put in the meat 
with a glass of claret or Port wine, and a tablespoonful 
of Currant Jelly to each quart of Soup, — season it with 
salt, put in the forcemeat balls, and when all is well 
warmed, the Soup is ready. 

Obs. — Cold Roast Hake will make excellent 
soup. Chop it in pieces, and stew it in water (accord- 
ing to the quantity of Hare) for about an hour, and 
manage it as in the above receipt ; the stuffing:: of the 
hare will be a substitute for sweet herbs and seasoning. 

N.B. This Soup may be made with Mock Harc, 
see (No. 66*.) 

Game Soup. — (No. 242.) 

In the Game Season, it is easy for a Cook to give 
her master a very good Soup at a very little expense, 
by taking all the Meat off the Breasts of any cold 



BROTHS, GRAVIES, AND SOUPS. 283 

Birds which have been left the preceding day, and 
pounding it in a mortar, and beating to pieces the legs 
and bones, and boiling them in some broth for an 
hour. Boil six turnips, mash them, and strain them 
through a tammis cloth with the meat that has been 
pounded in a mortar, strain your broth, and put a little 
of it at a time into the tammis, to help you to strain all 
of it through. Put your soup-kettle near the fire, but 
do not let it boil ; when ready to dish your dinner, 
have six yolks of eggs mixed with half a pint of cream, 
strain through a sieve, put your soup on the fire, and 
as it is coming to a boil, put in the eggs, and stir well 
with a wooden spoon; do not let it boil, or it will 
curdle. 

Goose or Duck Gihlet Soup.* — (No. 244.) 

Scald and pick very clean a couple sets of Goose, — 
or four of Duck Gibltts, (the fresher the better), wash 
them well in warm water, in two or three waters; cut 
off the Noses and split the Heads, dkide the Gizzards 
and Necks into Mouthjuls. — If the Gizzards are not cut 
into pieces, — before they are done enough, the rest of 
the meat, &c. will be done too n^uch ; — and Knives 
and Forks have no business in a Soup plate. Crack 
the bones of the Legs, put them into a stewpan, — 
cover them with cold water: when they boil, take off 
the scum as it rises, then put in a bundle of herbs, such 
as Lemon Thyme, Winter Savory, or Marjorum, about 
three sprigs of each, — and double the quantity of 
Parsley, — twenty berries of Allspice, the same of 
black pepper, tie them all up in a muslin bag, and set 
them to stexcvery gently, till the Gizzards are tender; — 
this will take from an hour and a half, to two hours, 
according to the size and age of the Giblets : — take 
them up with a skimmer, or a spoon full of holes, put 



* Fqwls' or TcRKEYs' Heads make g>od and clieaj) Sony ij the s.imu 
laiiiier. 



284 BROTHS, GRAVIES, AND SOUPS. 

them into the tureen, and cover down close, to keep 
warm till the Soup is ready; 

To Thicken the Soup. — Melt an ounce and a half 
of butter in a clean stewpan, stir in as much Flour as 
will make it into a paste ; then pour to it by degrees 
a ladleful of the Giblet liquor, add the remainder by 
degrees, let it boil about ten minutes, stirring it all the 
while, for fear it should burn, — skim it and strain it 
through a fine sieve into a Basin, — wash out the 
stewpan, — then return the Soup into it, and season it 
with a Glass of wine, a tablespoonful of Mushroom 
Catsup, and a little salt, — let it have one boil up, — 
and then put the Giblets in to get hot, and the Soup is 
ready. 

Obs. — Thus managed, one set of Goose or two of 
DucJc Giblets, (which latter may sometimes be had for 
3d.), will make a Quart of healthful, nourishing Soup : 
if you think the Giblets alone will not make the Gravy 
savoury enough, add a pound of Beef> or Mutton, or 
bone of a knuckle of Veal, and heighten its " piquance"* 
by adding a few leaves of sweet Basil, the juice of half 
a Seville orange or lemon, and half a glass of Wine, 
and a little of (No. 343*) to each quart of Soup. 

Those who are fond of Forcemeat, may slip the 
skin off the neck, and fill it with (No. 378), tie up the 
other end tight, put it into the soup about half an hour 
before you take it up, or make some nice savoury Balls 
of tlie Duck stuffing (No. 61.) 

Obs. — Bespeak the Giblets a couple of days before 
yoFU desire to have them ; this is a favourite Soup when 
the Giblets are done till nicely tender, but yet not 
overboiled. Giblets may be had from July to January, 
— ih^frtsher they are, the better. 

N. B. This is rather a family dish than a company 
one, — the Bones cannot be \vell picked, without the 
help of Alive Pincers. 

Since Tom Cory at introduced Forks, A.D. 1 642, it has 
not been the fashion to put " pickers and stealers*' into Soup. 



BROTHS, GRAVIES, AND SOUPS. 285 

Mock Mock Turtle, — (No. 245.) as made by Eliza- 
beth Lister, (latt Cook to Dr. KitchinerJ, No. 6, 
Queen Street, Oxford Street, near the Pantheon. — Goes 
out to Dress Dinners on reasonable Terms. 

Line the bottom of a stewpan that will hold five pints, 
with an ounce of nice lean Bacon, or Ham, a pound 
and a half of lean gravy beef, a Cow Heel, the inner 
rind of a carrot, a sprig of lemon-thyme, winter savory, 
three times the quantity of parsley, a few green leaves 
of sweet basil*", and two shallots; put in a large Onion, 
with four cloves stuck in it, 18 corns of allspice, tlie 
same of black pepper; pour on these a quarter of a pint 
of cold water, cover the stewpan, and set it on a slow 
fire, to boil gently for a quarter of an hour ; then, for 
fear the meat should catch, take off the cover, and 
watch it ; and when it has got a good brown colour, 
fill up the stewpan with boiling water, and let it simmer 
very gently for two hours; — if you wish to have the 
full benefit of the meat, only stew^ it till it is just tender, 
cut it into mouthfuls, and put it into the soup. To* 
Thicken it, pour to two or three tablespoonsful of 
Flour, a ladleful of the gravy, and stir it quick till it is 
well mixed; pour it back into the stewpan where the 
gravy is, and let it simmer gently for half an hour 
longer, skim it, and then strain it through a tammis into 
the stewpan : cut the cow-heel into pieces about an inch 
square, squeeze through a sieve the juice of a lemon, 
a tablespoonful of mushroom catsup, a teaspoonful of 
salt, half a teaspoonful of ground black pepper, as 
much grated nutmeg as will He on a sixpence, and 
a glass of Madeira or sherry wine; let it all simmer 
together for five minutes longer. 



* To this fiue aromatic Ueib, Turtle Sonp Is much indebted for its spicy- 
flavour, and tlie high esteem it is held in by the good citizens of London, who, 
I believe, ar« pretty generally of the same opinion as Dr. Salmon. See his 
' Household Dictionary a7id Essay on Cookery," 8vo. London, 1710, page 
31, article • Basil.' " This comforts the heart, expels melancholy, atTd 
olearnses the lungs." See (No. 397.) 



286 BROTHS, GRAVIES, AND SOUPS. 

Forcemeat or Egg balls may be acUled if you please'; 
you will find a receipt for these (No. 380, drc.) 

*^* A pound of real Cut/cts, or the bt/h/ part of 
pickled Pork, or tike double Tripe cut into pi(ces about en 
inch S(juare, and half an inch thick, and rounded and 
trimmed neafli/ fiom all skin, gnstle, i^-f. and itciued till 
they are tender, nill be a gnat addition. 

s. d. 

One pound and a half of gravy bet/ 1 

Cow Heel '. 7 

Rin>ts and //< rbs, Jyc 3 

Hiitterandjfottr o 4 

nine 6 

Half a lemon 1 

Bacon, S^c. S^c o 4 

Tuo quarts cost only 3 1 

Mock Turtle— (No. 247.) 

Is the " Uonne Bovche"' which '* the Officers of the 
Mouth" of Old England* prepare, when they choose 
to rival " les Grands Cuisiniers de France" in a *' Ragout 
nans Partil.'' 

The following Receipt is an attempt (and the Com- 
mittee of Taste pronounced it a successful one), to 
imitate the excellent and generally approved Mock 
Turtle made by Messrs. Birch, Cornhill. 

indeavour to have the Head, and the Broth ready for 
the Soupi, the day before it is to he eaten. 

It will take Eight Hours to prepare it properly. 

hours. 

Cleaning and soaking (he head 1 

Tu parbxil it to cut up 1 

C«olii.g, nearly 1 

Making the Krolh and fiuisliing the Soup .... 5 

8 hours. 

Get a Calf's head with the skin on, (the fresher the 
better), take out the brains, wash the head several times 



* " Tout It mon<ie sail qne touB les Ragouts qui ( uitentie noni de Tobtue, 
sent d'oiigii.e Ai.glHise." — Manuel (les .imphdryotis,&\o. 1808, p. 229. 

t ihose who do not like th« trouble, &c. ot making Muck lurile, may be 
8U(^plitd \^iih it leady made, in bi<^h peileclion, at BlRCU's in Cornhill. 



BROTHS, GRAVIES, AND SOUPS. 287 

in cold water, let it soak for about an hour in spring 
water, then lay it in a stewpan ; and cover it with cold 
water, and half a gallon over ; as it becomes warm, 
a great deal of scum will rise, which must be imme- 
diately removed, — let it boil gently for one hour, take 
it up, and when almost cold, cut the head into pieces 
about an inch and a half by an inch and a quarter, and 
the tongue into mouthfuls, or rather make a side dish 
of the Tongue and Brains, as in (No. 10.) 

When the Head is taken out, put in the Stx)ck Meat*^ 
about five pounds of Knuckle of Veal, and as much 
Beef, add to the stock all the Trimmings and Bones of 
the Head, skim it well, and then cover it close, and let 
it boil five hours, (reserve a couple of quarts of this to 
make Gravy Sauces, &c. see (No. 307), then strain it 
off, and let it stand till the next morning, — then take off 
the fat, set a large stewpan on the fire with half a 
pound of good fresh butter, twelve ounces of Onions 
shced. and four ounces of green Sage, chop it a little, 
let it fry one hour, then rub in half a pound of flour, 
and by degrees add your Broth, till it is the thickness 
of Cream, season it with a quarter of an ounce of 
ground Allspice and half an ounce of Black Pepper 
ground very fine, salt to your taste, and the rind of one 
Lemon peeled very thin ; let it simmer very gently for 
one hour and a half, then strain it through a hair 
sieve, — do not rub your Soup to get it through the 
sieve, or it will make it grouty; if it does not run 
through easily, — knock your wooden spoon against 
the side of your sieye, — put it in a clean stewpan with 
the Head, and season it by adding to each gallon of 
Soup half a pint of Wine — this should be Madeira, or 
if you wish to darken the colour of your Soup, Claret, 
and two tablespoonsful of Lemon juice, see (No. 407 *), 

• The reader may have remarked, that Mock Turtle and Potted Beef 
always come into season together. 

See Obs. to (No. 503.*) This Gravy Meat will make an excellent 
savoury Potted Relish, as it will be impregnated with the flavour of the 
herbs and spice that are boiled with it. 



288 BROTHS; GRAVIES, AND SOUPS. 

let it simmer gently till the Meat is tender ; this may- 
take from half an hour to an hour ; — take care it is not 
overdone ; — stir it frequently to prevent the meat 
sticking to the bottom of the stewpan, and when the 
meat is quite tender the soup is ready. 

A Head weighing twenty pounds, and ten pounds of 
stock meat, will make Ten quarts of excellent Soup, — 
besides the two quarts of stock you have put by for 
Made Dishes, &c. 

Obs. — If there is more meat on the head than yo!i 
wish to put in the soup, prepare it for a Pie, and with 
the addition of a Calf's foot, boiled tender, it will make 
an excellent Ragout pie; season it with Zest, and a 
little minced Onion, put in half a teacupful of stock, 
cover it with puff paste, and bake it one hour : when 
the soup comes from table, if there is a deal of meat 
and no soup, put it into a pie- dish, season it a little, 
and add some thin stock to it, then cover it with paste, 
bake it one hour, and you have a good Mock Turtle 
Pie. 

This Soup was eaten by the Committee of Taste with 
unanimous applause, and they pronounced it a very 
satisfactory substitute*" for " the far fetcht and dear 
bought" 1'urtle; which itself is indebted for its Title 
of " Sovereign of Savouriness," to the rich Soup 
with which it is surrounded ; — without its paraphernalia 
of subtle Double Relishes, a '* STARRED TURTLE,'' 
has not more intrinsic sapidity than a " FA'^FTllO 
CALF." See Essence of Turtle, (No. 343 0, and 
Obs. to (No. 493). To warm this Soup, see (No. 485.) 

* •• Many Go7<r??;c^AaudGastro ogers prefer the copy to the original, — we 
confess that when none as it ought to be, the Mock Turtle is exceedingly 
interesting."— IV/^f/Za Cibaria,mZ0, p. 30. 

" Turtles often become emaciated and sickly before they reach this coutitry, 
in which case the Soup would be incomparably improved, by leaving out tlie 
Turtli?, and substituting a good Calf's Head." — Supplement to Encyc. Brit. 
Edinburgh^ vol. iv. p. 331. 

Turtle prepared in the West Indies, may be had at Morrison's Patent 
Preserved Provision Warehouse, ;No. 3, Charlotte Row, Mansion House, 
at the rate of £l. \s. for three Quarts. The Editor tasted some Beef Stock, 
and some Veal stewed in its own Jelly, which had been cooked six months, — 
it was excellent, and continued so after being opened three days. 



BROTHS, GRAVIES, AND SOUPS. 289 

The following is the Receipt given in the former 
Edition of this work. Put about two ounces of butter 
into a stock pot, and three large Onions (such as 
weigh about three ounces each) cut in half; stir these 
about till they get a little browned, then chop a Shin 
of Beef of fifteen pounds weight into pieces, and lay 
them on the onions, — and fill up the stewpan with the 
liquor in which the Calf's head was boiled; when it 
boils, and you have skimmed it well, put in two Car- 
rots, two Turnips, two heads of Celery, eight Cloves, a 
quarter of an ounce (avoirdupois weight) of Eshallots, 
cut in half, and a bundle of equal parts of Green winter 
Savory, Lemon Thyme, knotted Marjoram, and Basil, 
and twice the quantity of Parsley; put in a quarter of an 
ounce of Allspice, sam.e of whole Black Pepper, tYie 
trimmings and bones of the Calf's head; cover it close, 
and let it stew gently for about four hours, (there 
should be nine quarts of soup when it is finished) : strain 
it off, and reserve a couple of quarts of this Broth to make 
Gravy Sauces yb/- the rest of the Dinner; see (No. 
307). And save some of the thickened Soup, for 
Sauce for Fish, Ragouts, &c. ; this hint will save 
you much expense, and much time and trouble. 

Take four drachms of Lemon peel, two of Eshallot, 
six drachms of the leaves of Sage, and six of Winter 
savory, chop it together quite fine, then put it on the 
fire in half a pint of the stock, let it boil till it is quite 
tender, (about half an hour), then strain it through a 
sieve, and with the back of a spoon rub the herbs 
through, aad put it in the Soup when you have thick- 
ened it. 

To Thicken it, put about six ounces of Butter into 
a clean stewpan ; when it is melted, gradually stir in 
eight ounces of Flour, rub it up well, and moisten it with 
a ladleful of your Soup liquor, and mix all well together, 
till they are smoothly united, then add the remainder 
by degrees, stirring it all the while till thoroughly 
o 



!2f90 BROTHS, CRAVIES, AND SOUPar. 

incorporated; (if it is at all lumpy, pass it throup^h a 
sieve); let it stew half an hour longer, taking off" tlu- 
scum as it rises ; then strain it through a tammis into 
a clean stewpan, put in the Head, and let it simmer 
gently till the Meat is tender, (this inuy riquire about ati 
hour ; — take care it is not orcrdont ). 

To Season it, to each Gallon of Soup put two 
tablespoonsful of Lemon Juice, see (No. 407*), same 
of Mushroom Catsup (No. 439), and one of Essence of 
Anchovy (No. 433), half a pint of Wine, (this should 
be Madeira, or if you wish to darken the colour of your 
soup. Claret), a teaspoonful of Curry Powder (No. 455), 
or a quarter of a drachm of Cayenne, and the peel of a 
Lemon pared as thin as possible ; let it simmer five 
minutes more, take out the Lemon Peel, and the Soup 
i<i ready for the Tureen. 

\N hile the Soup is doing, prepare for each tureen, a 
dozen and a half of Mock Turtle Forcemeat Balls, (to 
make these, see (No. 375) or (No. 376), (No. 390 to 
No. 396), we prefer the stuffing ordered in (No. 61), 
and a dozen Y.^^ balls; and put them into the tureen. 
Br.aix Balls, or cakes, are a very elegant addition, 
and are made by boiling the brains for ten minutes, 
then putting them in cold water, and cutting them into 
pieces about as big as a large nutmeg; take Savoury, 
or Lemon-thyme dried and finely powdered, nutmeg 
grated, and pepper and salt, and pound them all to- 
gether; beat up an q^i^, dip the brains in it, and then 
roll them in this mixture, and make as much of it as 
possible stick to them, dip them in the egg again, and 
then in finely grated and sifted bread crumbs, fry them 
in hot fat, and send them up as a side dish. 

A VEAL SWEETBREAD, prepared as in (No. 89), not 
too much done or it will break), cut into pieces the same 
size as you cut the calf's head, and put in the soup, 
just to get warin before it goes to table, is a superb 
*' Honne Bmche ;' and Pickled Tongue, stewed till very 
tender, and cut into mouthfuls, is a favourite addition. 



BROTHS, GRAVIES, AND SOUPS. 29l 

We order the meat to be cut into INIouthfuls, that it 
may be eaten with a spoon ; the Knife and Fork ha\e no 
business in a Soup plate. 

*^* Some of our culinary cotemporaries, order the Haui- 
gout of this fas above directed, sufficiently relishing) Soup, 
to be cofnbustiblcd and be-deiilled, nith a copious addition 
of Anchovies, — Mushrooins, — Truffles, — Morells, — Curry- 
povoder, — Artichokehottoms, — Salmons heads and livers, — 
or the soft part of Oysters or Lobsters, — Soles cut in 
mouthfuls. — a bottle of Madeira, — apitit of Brandy, t^r., 
and to complete their surfeiting and burn-gullet Olio, they 
put in such a tremendous quantity of Cayenne pepper, — that 
only af re-proof palate, lined xvith Asbestos, or indurated by 
Indian Diet, can endure it. See Note under (No. 493). 

N. B. In helping' this Soup, the distributor of it 
should serve out the Meat, — Forcemeat — and Gravy, — 
in equal parts ; however trifling or needless this remark 
may appear, the writer has often suffered from the 
want of such a hint being given to the Soup-server, who 
has sometimes sent a plate of mere Gravy without 
Meat, — at others, of Meat without Gravy, and some- 
times scarcely any thing but Forcemeat Balls. 

Obs. — This is a delicious Soup, within the reach of 
those who " eat to live;" but if it had been composed 
expressly for those who only '' live to eat,'' I do not 
know how it could have been made more agreeable : 
as it is, the lover of good eating will " wish his Throat 
a mile long, and every inch of it Palate." 
English Turtle.— {"No. 248.) 

See (No. 50-2.) " Alamode Beef." 

Curry, or Mullaga-Tauny* Soup. — (No. 249.) 

• MuiUfga-Tairny—s'igmfies Pepper Water. The progress nfincxpcrienccrl 
peripatetic Palaiici;nis has lately been arrested bylhi* otiilaiuiish word beiiia: 
pasted on the window? of onr Coffeo-Honses : it has, we believe, answerrd 
the " Restaurateurs'" purpose, and often excited John Bull to walk in 
and taste;— the n ore familiar name of Curry .Sn/i>— would, perhaps, not 
have hal snlticient of the charms of novelty — to -e'diice him from his niucii- 
lovcd :Mock Tuktlk. 

It is a fashionable Sonp, and a great favonrite with our East Indian frien !>, 
and we ijiveth* best receipt we could pn cure for it. 

o 2 



292 BROTHS, GRAVIES, AND SOUPS. 

Cut 4lbs. of a Breast of Veal into pieces, about two 
inches by one ; put the trimmings into a st^wpan with 
two quarts of water, with twelve corns of Black Pepper, 
and the same of Allspice ; when it boils, skim it clean, 
■and let it boil an hour and a half, then strain it off; — 
while it is boiling, fry of a nice brown in butter the bits 
of Veal and four Onions ; when they are done, put the 
Broth to them, put it on the fire ; when it boils, skim it 
clean,- let it simmer half an hour, then mix two 
spoonsful of Curry and the same of Flour, with a little 
cold water and a teaspoonful of salt; add these to the 
soup, and simmer it gently till the Veal is quite tender, 
and it is ready; — or bone a couple of Fowls or Rabbits, 
and stew them in the manner directed above for the 
Veal, — and vou may put in a bruised Eshallot, and 
some Mace and Ginger, instead of Black Pepper and 
Allspice. 

O/M.-Read (No. 497). 

Tiirtk* .So///).— (No. 250.) 

As it u our wish that this work should be given to 
the Public at the lowest possible price — the Receipt for 
dressing a Turtle is taken out — as a professed Cook is 
always hired for the purpose of dressing it. The space 
this long receipt occupied is now filled with directions 
for making useful Pickles. See (No. 462). 



• " The usual allo'vance at a Turtle Fevst, is Six Pounds live weight 
per Head: — at Uie Spanish biimei , at the (Jity of London J avern, in August, 
18u8, 4<)t) Gue?t.« afttJiidcd, and £500 pounds of Tonle were cousuriied." See 
Bell's Weekly Messenger for August 'th, 1808. 

The Ljicure Qlin used to say, it was " not safe, to sit down to a Turtle 
Feast ai one of the Citj iialls, without a basket-hilted Knife and Fork." 

We recuinmeud our frieuds, before encounterinij such a temptation, to read 
our I'tPTic Fricepts. Nothing is more diliiculi of ditjesiion, or oftener 
requiri - the aid of Peristaltic Persuaders, (see page 4.3 of this work), than 
(he gluiiiiuus Callipash which is considered ihe " Oonne bouche" of this Soup. 

Turtle is generally spoiled by being over-dressed. If the Header has 
ary etirosMy io know huw it is prepared in the most superlative style, — it 
wi,ll he gra<iiied in the highest degree, if he paysa visit to Albion tlou:>£, iu 
AUieiS!i;ite Stree:. 



BROTHS, GRAVIES, AND SOUPS. 293 

Portable* Soup, — or Glaze. — (No. 252.) 

Desire the Butcher to break the bones of a Leg 
or a Shin of Beef, of 10 pounds weight (the fresher 
killed the better), put it into a Soup-pot (a Di- 
OESTER-j- is the best utensil for this purpose) that 
will well hold it ; just cover it with cold water, and 
set it on the fire to heat gradually till it nearly 
boils, (this should be at least an hour) ; — skim it 
attentively while any scum rises, — pour in a little 
cold water, to throw up the scum that may remain, — 
let it come to a boil again, and again skim it care- 
fully : when no more scum rises, and the broth ap- 
pears clear, (put in neither Roots nor Herbs nor Salt,) 
let it boil for eight or ten hours, and then strain it 
through a hair sieve into a brown stone pan ; set the 
Broth where it will cool quickly ; put the meat into a 
sieve, let it drain, make Potted Beef (No. 503), — or it 
will be very acceptable to many poor families. Next 
day remove every particle of Fat from the top of it, and 
pour it through a Tammis or fine sieve as quietly as 
possible into a Stewpan, taking care not to let any of 
the settlings at the bottom of the stone pan go into the 
Stewpan, which should be of thick Copper, perfectly 
well tinned ; add a quarter of an ounce of whole Black 
Pepper to it, let it boil briskly, with the stewpan 
uncovered, on a quick fire : if any scum rises, take it 
off with a skimmer ; when it begins to thicken, and is 



• " A pound of meat contains about an ounce of gelatinous matter ; it thence 
follows, that 1500 poiuids of the same meat, which is the whole weight of a 
bullock, would s;ive only Qi pounds, which might be easily contrine 1 in an 
earthen Jar." — Dr. Hui ton's Rational Recreations, vol. iv. p. iy4. 

In wjiat degree Portable or other Soup be nutritious, we know not ; but 
refer the reader to our note under (No. 185 '.) 

t This machine was invented by Dr. Denys Papin, F.R.S., about the year 
l681, as appears by his Essay on " The New Digester, or Engine /or 
Softening Bones ;" — '• by the help of which, (he says) the oldest and hardest 
Cow Beef may be made as tender and as savoury as young and choice Meat." 
Cast Iron Digesters are made at Jackson and Moser's, in Frith Street, Soho. 

Although we have not yet found that they do what Dr. Papin says, " malce 
old and tough Meat — young and tender," they are, however, excellent 
t^in^s to maJie Broths and Soups ic. 



^4 BROTHS, GRAVIES, AND SOIPS. 

reduced to about a quart, put it into a smaller stew- 
pan ; set it over a <i:entler fire, till it is reduced to the 
thickness of a very thick Syrup ; take care that it does 
not burn, — a moment's inattention nan icill lose you all 
your labour, ami the .soup xiill he spoiled: — take a little 
of it out in a spoon and let it cool ; if it sets into 
strons; Jelly, it is done enough ; — if it does not, boil it 
a little longer, till it does; — have ready some little 
pots, such as are used for Potted Meats, about an inch 
and a half deep, takinji; care that they are quite dry ; — 
we recommend it to be kept in these pots, if it is for 
home consumption — {the less it is reduced, the better 
is the Jlaiour of the Soup) — if it be sufficiently con- 
centrated to keep for six months ; — if you wish to 
preserve it lonj^er, put it into such bladders as are 
used for German Sausaj^es, — or if you prefer it in the 
form of Cakes, pour it into a dish about a quarter of 
an Inch deep ; when it is cold, turn it out and weigh 
the Cake, and divide it with a ])aste-cutter into pieces 
of half an ounce and an ounce each; place them in a 
wajin room, and turn them frequently till they are 
tht»rou^diiy dried ; — this will take a week or ten days ; 
tmn them twice a day; — when well hardened, and 
kept in a dry place, they may be preserved for several 
years in any climate. 

This extract of Meat makes excellent " Tablettes de 
Bouillon,'' for those who are obliged to endure long 
fasting. 

If the surface becomes mouldy, wipe it with a httle 
waiTTi water — the mouldy taste does not penetrate the 
mass. 

If, after several days' drying, it does not become so 
hard as vou wish, put it into a Bainmarie Stewpan, or 
a Milk-boiler, (these are made by Lloyd, Tinman, near 
Norfolk-Street, Strand), till it is evaporated to the con- 
sistence you wish — or, set the Pots in a cool Oven, or in 
a Cheese Toaster, at a considerable distance from the 
fire ; this is the only safe way of reducing it very much, 



BROTHS, GRAVIES, AND SOUPS, 



295 



Without the risk of its burning, and acquiring an ex- 
tremely disagreeable acrid flavour, &c. 

Ohs. — The uses of this concentrated Essence of Meat 
are numerous. It is equally economical and conve- 
nient for making extempore the Broths enumerated in 
the Obs, to (No. 200), Sauces and Gravies for Hashed 
or Stewed Meat, Game, or Poultry, &c. 

You may thicken it and flavour it as directed in 
(No. 329) ; — to make Gravy, Sauces, &c. take double 
the quantity ordered for Broth. 

If you have time and opportunity, as there is no 
seasoning in the Soup, either of Roots, Herbs, or 
Spice, boil an Onion vt^ith or vrithout a bit of Parsley 
and Sweet Herbs, and a few corns of Allspice, or other 
Spice, in the water you melt the Soup in, which may 
be flavoured with Mushroom Catsup (No. 439), — or 
Eshallot Wine (No. 402), — Essence of Sweet Herbs 
(No. 417), — Savoury Spice (No. 421, or 457), — Es- 
sence of Celery (No. 409), &c. or Zest (No. 255); — 
these may be combined in the proportions most agree- 
able to the palate of the Eater — and are as portable 
as Portable Soup, for a very small portion will flavour 
a Pint. 

The Editor adds nothing to the solution of this 
Soup, but a very little ground Black Pepper and some 
Salt. 

N. B. If you are a careful manager, you need not 
always purchase Meat on purpose to make this, — when 
you dress a large Dinner, you can make Glaze at very 
small cost, by taking care of the trimmings and parings 
of the meat, game, and poultry you use ; wash them 
well, put them into a Stewpan, cover them with the 
liquor you have boiled Meat in, and proceed as in the 
above Receipt; and see Obs. on (No. 185.) 

Mem. This Portable Soup is a most convenient 
article in Cookery — especially in Small Families^ where 
it will save a great deal of time and trouble. It is 
also Economical, for no more will be melted than is 
wanted — so there is no waste. 



296 BROTHS, GRAVIES, AND SOUPS. 

Nine pounds of Neck of Beef costing 2*. l^d. pro- 
duced nine ounces of very nice Soup ; the Bones, when 
boiled, weighed 10 ounces. 

Half an Ox Cheek, costing \s. 9(1. and weighing 14^ 
pounds, produced 13 ounces — but not so hrni or clear, 
a':d far inferior in flavour to that obtained from a 
Shin of Beef. 

yi Sheep s Head, costing Or/., ])roduced tluee ounces 
and a half. 

Tiio pounds of lean Meat^ from the Blade Bone of 
Beef, produced hardly an ounce. 

The addition of an ounce of Guin Arabic^ and two 
ounces of Isinglass, to four ounces of the extract from 
a Leg of Beef, considerably diminished the consistence 
of the mass, without adding to its bulk. 

It has been thoui^dit that the Portable Soup which 
is manufactured for sale — is partly made with Ox 
Heels; but the experiment (No. 198), proves this can- 
not be, as an ounce of the Jelly from Ox Heel costs 
5d. For flie cheapest method oj jmtcuring a hard Jelly, 
gee N. B. to (No. 4S1); — 19 Bones, costing ^d. pro- 
duced three ounces : — almost as cheap as Salisbury 
Glue. 

We are informed, that there is now for sate at 
Leipsig — some Tuns of Portable Soup — for Two 
shillings per pound. During the late war, there was 
a great deal imported mto this country from Russia. 

A Knuckle of Veal, weighing 4^ pounds, and costing 
Is. 4d. produced Kve ounces. 

A Shin of Beef, weighing nine pounds, and cost- 
ing 1*. I04rd. produced nine ounces of concentrated 
Soup, gufticiently reduced to keep for several months. 
After the boiling, the bones in this joint weighed two 
pounds and a quarter, and the Meat two pounds and a 
quarter. 

The result of these experiments is, that the product 
from l^gs and Shins of Beef was almost as large in 
quantity, and of much superior quality and flavour, to 
that obtained from any of the other materials ; — the 



liROTHS, GUAVIES, AND SOUPS. 297 

flavour of the product from Mutton, Veal, &c. is com- 
paratively insipid. 

As it is difficult to obtain this ready-made of good 
quality — and we could not find any proper and circum- 
stantial directions for making it, which on trial answered 
the purpose, — and it is really a great acquisition to 
the Army and Navy — to Travellers, Invalids, &c. — 
the Editor has bestowed some time, &c. in endeavouring 
to learn — and to teach how it may be prepared in the 
easiest, — most economical, and perfect manner. 

The ordinary seUing price is from lOs. to 125. — but 
you may make it according to the above Receipt for 
Zs. 6d. per Pound— f e. for 2^d. per Ounce, which will 
make you a Pint of Broth. 

yhose who do not regard the expense, and like the 
flavour, may add the lean of Ham, in the proportion of 
a pound to eight pounds of Leg of Beef. 

Jl.t may also be flavoured, by adding to it, at the 
t^me you put the Broth into the smaller Stewpan, 
Mushroom Catsup, Shallot Wine, Essences of Spice 
or Herbs, &c. ; — we prefer it quite plain — it is then 
ready .to be converted in an instant into a basin cff 
Beef Tea for an Invalid, and any flavour may be 
jn^mediately communicated to it by the Magazine of 
Taste (No. 463.) 

To Clarify Broth or Gravi/. — (^o, 252*.) 

Put on the Broth in a clean Stewpan, break the 
white and Shell of an Egg, beat them together, put 
tjiem into the Broth, stir it with a whisk ; when it has 
boiled a;few minutes, strain it through a Tammis or a 
napkin. 

^Obs. — A careful Cook will seldom have occasion to 
clarify her Broths, &c. if prepared according to the 
.•directions given in (No. 200.) 



o5 



THE 

COOK^S ORACLE. 



GRAVIES AND SAUCES. 

Melted Butter 

Is so simple and easy to prepare, it is a matter of 
general siirj)rise, that what is done so often, in every 
English kitchen, is so seldom done right, — Foreigners 
may well say, that although we have only One Saucl 
for Vegetables, Fish, Flesh, Fowl, ike. — we hardly 
ever make that good. 

It is spoiled nine times out of ten, move from Idleness y 
than from I<!;norance, and rather because the Cook won't 
than because she can't do it, — which can only be the 
rase when Housekeepers will not allow Butter to do it 
with. 

Good mi.lted Butter cannot be made with mere 
flour and water; t/iere must be a full and proper proportion 
of Butter. — As it must be alicaj/s on the Table, and 

is THE FOUNDATION OF ALMOST ALL OUR ENGLISH 

SAUCES, I have tried ever)' way of making it ; and I trust, 
at last, that I have written a receipt, which if the Cook 
will carefully observe, she will constantly succeed in 
giving satisfaction. 

In the quantities of the larious Sauces I have ordered, 
I have had in view the providing for a Family of half 
a dozen moderate people. 

Never pour Sauce over Meat, or even put it into the 
dish; — however well made, some of the Company 
may have an antipathy to it; — Tastes are as different 
as Faces; — moreover, if it is sent up separate in a 
boat, it will keep hot longer, and what is left may be 
put by for another time, or used for another purpose. 



GRAVIES AJ^D SAUCES. 299 

Lastly. — Observe, that in ordering the proportions 
of Meat, Butter, Wixe, Spice, &c. in the following 
receipts, the proper quantity is set doivn^ and that a less 
quantity will not do ; — and in some instances, those 
Palates which have been used to the extreme of Pi- 
quance, will require additional excitement*. — If we have 
erred, it has been on the right side, from an anxious 
wish to combine Economy with Elegance, and the 
Wholesome with the Toothsome. The following we 
recommend as an elegant Relish to finish Soups and 
Sauces. 



ZEST, 

For Chops, Sauces, 

AND 

Made Dishes. 
(No. 255.) 

This piquante quintessence of Ragout, imparts to whatever it 
touches the most delicious ilelisb ever imagined; — it awakens 
the Palate with delight, — refreshes Appetite, — and instantly 
excites the good humour of (every man's master) the Stomach. 

Soon made Savoury Sauce. 

stir two drachms of ZEST, into half a pint of melted butter 
(No. 256.) Let it boil up and strain it through a sieve; — or 
each Guest may add it at table like Salt, and adjust the vibration 
of his Palate to his own Fancy. 

Sold at Butleh's Herb-shop, opposite Henrietta street, Co- 
vent Garden. 

It will keep, for any time, in any Climate. 



• This may be easily accomplished by the aid of the Whip and Spur that 
Students of long standing in the School of Good Living are generally so fond 
of enlivening their palate with, i. e. Cayenne and Garlick. 

Parsley (No. 26i), Chervil (No. 264), Celery (No. 289), Cress 
(No. 397*), Tarragon (No. 396), Burnet (No. 399), Basil (No. 397), 
EsHALLOT(Nos. 295 and 403), Capek (Nos. 274 and 295,) Fennel (No. 265), 
Liver (Nos. 287 and 288), Curry (Nos. 348 and 455), Egg (No. 267), 
Mushroom (No. 403), Anchovy (Nos. 270 and 433), Ragout (Nos. 421 
and 457), Shrimp (No. 283), Bonne Bouche (N>o. 341), Superlative 
(No. 429), and various Flavouring Essences. See from (No. 396 to 463). 

(Any of the above Vegetables, &c. may be minced very finely, and sent to 
table on a little plate, and those who like their flavour may mix them with 
I^Ielted Butter, &c. This is a hint for Economists, which will save thewj 
many pounds of Butter, &c. See Mem, to (No. 2;56.) 



^00 GKAVIES AND SAVCE5. 

Melted Butter. — (No. 256.) 

Keep a pint stewpan* for this purpose only. 
Cut two ounces of butter, into little bits, that it may 
melt more easily, and mix more readily; — put it into 
the stewpan with a large teaspoonful (?'. e. about three 
drachms) of Flour, (some prefer Arron- Root or Potatoe 
Starch (No. 448), and two tablespoonsful of Milk. 

When thoroughly mixed, — add six tablespoonsful 
of water ; hold it over the fire, and shake it round every 
minute, (all the while the same way), till it just begins 
to simmer, then let it stand quietly and boil up. It 
should be of the thickness of good cream. 

N. B. Two tablespoonsful of (No. 439) instead of the 
milk, will make as good Mushroom Sauce as need be, 
and is a Superlative accompaniment to either Fish, — 
Flesh, — or Fowl. 

Obs. — This is the best wav of preparing melted 
butter; — Milk mixes with the butter much more easily 
and more intimately than water alone can be made to do. 
This is of proper thickness to be mixed at table with 
Flavourins: Fssences, Anchovy, Mushroom, or Cavice, 
&c. If made merely to pour over vegetables, add a 
little more milk to it. 

N. B. If the Burn.ii Oils, put a spoonful of cold 
water to it and stir it with a spoon, — if it is very much 
oiled, it must be poured backwards and forwards from 
the stewpan to the Sauceboat till it is right again. 

Mkm. Melted Butter made to be mixed with fla- 
vouring Essences, Catsups, &c. should be of the 
thickness of light Batter, thdt it may adhere to the 
Fish, &IC. 

Thickenmg. — (No. 257.) 
Clarified butter is best for this purpose ; but if you 
have none ready, put some Fresh Butter into a stewpan 

* A Silver Saucepan is Infinitely the best, — you mny tare one big 
enough to melt butter for a moderate family for four or five pounds. 



GRAVIES AND SAUCES. SOl 

over a slow clear fire ;— when it is melted, add fine Flour 
sufficient to make it the thickness of paste ; — stir it 
well together with a wooden spoon for fifteen or t-veoty 
minutes, till it is quite smooth, and the colour of a 
Guinea : this must be done very gradually and patiently, 
if you put it over too fierce a fire to hurry it, it will 
become bitter and empyreumatic; pour it into an 
earthen pan, and keep it for use. It will keep good a 
fortnight in Summer, and longer in Winter. 

A large spoonful will generally be enough to thicken 
a Quart of Gravy. 

0/,,y. — This in the French kitchen is called ilo^x. 
Be particularly attentive in making of it; if it gets 
any burnt smell or taste, it will spoil every thing it is 
put into, see Obs. to (No. 322). When cold, it shoukl 
be thick enough to cut out with a knife, like a solid 
paste. 

It is a very essential article in the kitchen, and is 
the basis of consistency in most made dishes, soups, 
sauces, and ragouts : — if the Gravies, &c. are too thin, 
add this Thickening, more or less, according to the 
consistence you would wish them to have. 

Mem. In making Thickening, — the less Butter, and 
the more Flour you use the better ; — they must be tho- 
roughly worked together, and the broth, or soup, &c. you 
put them to, added by degrees ; — take especial care to 
incorporate them v/ell together, or your sauces, &c. will 
taste floury, and have a disgusting, greasy appearance ; 
— therefore after you have thickened your sauce, add 
to it some broth, or warm water, in the proportion of 
two tablespoonsful to a pint, and set it by the side of 
the fire, to raise any fat, &c. that is not thoroughly in- 
corporated with the gravy, which you must carefully 
remove as it comes to the top. This is called cleass- 
ing,.or finishing the sauce. 

%* Half an ounce of Butter, and a tabkspoonful of 
Flour, are about the proportion for a pint of Same, to 
make if as thick as Cream. 



302 GRAVIES AND SAUCES. 

N. B. The Fat .S'Aiw//i///o.s offthe top of the Broth Pot 
are sometimes substituted for Butter, see (No. 240), 
— some Cooks merely thicken their Soups and Sauces 
with F/uur, as we have directed in (No. -4.5), or Po- 
tatoe Farina (No. 448.) 

Clarified Butler.— {^0. 2,59.) 
Put the Butter in a nice clean stewpan, over a very 
clear slow fire, watch it, and when it is melted carefully 
skim oft' the buttermilk, &c. which will swim on the 
top ; — let it stand a minute or two, for the impurities 
to sink to the bottom, — then pour the clear butter 
throug^h a sieve, into a clean basin, leaving the sedi- 
ment at the bottom of the stewpan. 

Ohs. — Butter thus purified, will be as sweet as 
Marrow, — a very useful covering; for Potted Meats, 
&c. and for fryini^ Fish, c(|ual to tlie finest Florence oil, 
for whicli purjtose it is commonly used by Catholics, 
and those whose religious tenets will not allow them to 
eat viands fried in animal oil. 

Bur/it lU/tttr. —(No. 260.) 

Put two ounces of fresh butter into a small fry^ingpaa, 
when it becomes a dark brown colour, add to it a 
tablespoonful and a half of good vinegar, and a little 
pepper and salt. 

Obs. — 'I his is used as sauce for boiled Fish, or 
poached Eggs. 

Oiled Butter. — (So. 260*.) 

Put two ounces of fresh Butter into a saucepan, set it 
at a distance from the fire so that it may melt gradually, 
till it comes to an Oil, — and pour it off quietly from 
the dregs. 

Obs. — This will supply the place of Olive Oil, and 
by some is preferred to it, either for Salads, or Frying. 

Parsk}/ and Butter. — (No. 261.) 
Wash some Parsley very clean, and pick it carefully 



GRAVIES AND SAUCES. "503 

leaf by leaf; put a teaspoonful of salt into half a pint 
of boiling water, boil the Parsley about ten minutes, 
drain it on a sieve, mince it quite fine, and then bruise 
it to a pulp. 

The delicacy and excellence of this elegant and 
innocent Relish, depends upon the Parsley being minced 
very fine ; put it into a sauce-boat, and mix with it 
by degrees about half a pint of good melted butter, 
(No. 256), only do not put so much flour to it, as the 
Parsley will add to its thickness, — never pour Parsley 
and Butter over boiled things, but send it up in a Boat. 

Obs. — In French Cookery Books, this is called 
'* Melted Butter, English Fashion," and, with the addi- 
tion of a slice of lemon cut into dice, a little Allspice 
and Vinegar, " Dutch Sauce." 

N. B. To PRESERVE Parsley through the winter, — 
in May, June, or July, take fine fresh gathered sprigs, 
pick and wash them clean, set on a stewpan half full 
of water, put a little salt in it, boil and skim it clean, 
and then put in the Parsley and let it boil for a couple 
of minutes, and take it out, and lay it on a sieve before 
the fire, that it may be dried as quick as possible, — 
put it by in a Tin Box, and keep it in a dry place, — 
when you want it, lay it on a Basin, and cover it with 
warm water a few minutes before you use it. 

Gooseberry Sauce.— {'No. 263.) 

Top and tail them close, with a pair of scissors, and 
scald half a pint of green Gooseberries, drain them on 
a hair sieve, and put them into half a pint of melted 
Butter (No. 256.) 

Some add grated Ginger and Lemon Peel, and the 
French, minced Fennel, — others send up the Goose- 
berries whole, or mashed, without any butter, &c. 

Chervil, — Basil, — Tarragox, — Burnet, — 

Cress, — and Butter. — (No. 264.) 
This is the first time that Chervil, which has so long 



304 GRAVIES AND SAUCES. 

been a favourite with tUe sao^acious French Cook, has 
been introduced into an Eng:Hsh book. — Its flavour is a 
&trono^ concentration of the combined taste of Parsley 
and Fennel, but more aromatic and agreeable than 
either ; and is an excellent sauce with boiled Poultry 
or Fish. Prepare it, &c. as we have directed for 
Parsley and Butter, (No. 2G1.) 

Femx'l and Butter for Mackarclj c]c. — (No. 265.) 

Is prepared in the same manner as we have just 
described in (No. 261.) 

Obs. — For Mackarel sauce, or boiled Soles, &c. — 
some people take equal parts of Fennel and Parsley ; — 
others add a sprig; of Mint, or a couple of young 
Onions minced very fine. 

Mackarel Roc Sana. — (No. 266.) 

Boil the Iloes of Mackarel, (soft roes are best,) bniise 
them with a spoon with the yolk of an Egg, beat up 
with a very little pepper and salt, and some Fennel 
and Parsley boiled and chopped very fine, mixed with 
almost half a pint of thin melted butter, see (No. 256.) 

Mushroom catsup, Walnut pickle, or Soy, may be 
added. 

Egg Sauce. — (No. 267.) 

This agreeable accompaniment to roasted Poultry, — 
or salted Fish, — is made by putting three Eggs into 
boiling water, and boiling them for about twelve minutes, 
when they will be hard, put them into cold water till you 
want them. — This will make the Yolks firmer, aud pre- 
vent their surface turning black, and you can cut them 
much neater, — use only two of the Whites; cut the 
Whites into small dice, — the Yolks, into'bits about a 
quarter of an inch square, — put them into a Sauce- 
boat, pour to them half a pint of melted Butter, and 
stir them together. 



GRAVIES AND SAUCES. 'SOS 

Obs. — The Melted Butter for Egg Sauce need not be 
made qvite so thick as (No. 256. ) 

N.B. Some Cooks garnish Salt Fish with hard boiled 
eggs cut in half. 

Plum Pudding Sauce. — {^o. 269.) 
A glass of Sherry, half a glass of Brandy, (or 
" Cherry-Bounce,") or CuraQoa (No. 474), or Essence 
of Punch (No. 471 and 479,) and two teaspoonsful of 
pounded lump sugar, (a very little grated Lemon 
Peel is sometimes added), in a quarter of a pint of 
Thick Melted butter : grate Nutmeg on the top. 
See Pudding Catsup (No. 446.) 

Anchovy Sauce, — (No. 270.) 

Pound three Anchovies in a mortar with a little bit 
of Butter, rub it through a double Hair sieve, with the 
back of a wooden spoon, and stir it into almost half a 
pint of Melted butter (No. 2o6) ; or stir in a table- 
spoonful 0^ Essence of Anchovy (No. 433.) — To the above 
many cooks add Lemon juice and Cayenne. 

06.5. — Foreigners make this sauce with good Brown 
Sauce (No. 329), or White Sauce (No. 364,) instead 
of melted Butter, — and add to it Catsup, — Soy,— 
and some of their flavoured Vinegars, as Elder or 
Tarragon, — Pepper and fine Spice, — sweet herbs, — 
Capers, — Eshallots, — &c. They serve it with most 
Roasted Meats. 

N.B. Keep your Anchovies well covered, first tie 
down your Jar with Bladder moistened with vinegar, 
and then wiped dry, tie Leather over that : when you 
open a Jar, moisten the bladder, and it will come off 
easily, — as soon as you have taken out the Fish, 
replace the coverings, the air soon rusts and spoils 
Anchovies. See (No. 433, &c.) 

Garlick Sauce. — (No. 272.) 
Pound two cloves of Garlick with a piece of fresh 



306 



GRAVIES AND SAUCES. 



Butter about as big as a Nutmeg: rub it through a 
double hair sieve, and stir it into half a pint of melted 
butter, or Beef Gravy ; or make it with Garlick Vinegar 
(No. 400), (Nos. 401 and 402.) 

Lemon Sauce. — (No. 273.) 

Pare a Lemon, and cut it into slices twice as thick 
as a half-crown piece ; divide these into Dice, and put 
them into a quarter of a pint of Melted Butter (No. 256.) 

Obs. — Some Cooks mince a bit of the Lemon Peel 
(pared very thin) very fine, and add it to the above. 

Caper Sauce. — {^o. 274.) — See also (No. 295.) 

To make a Quarter Pint, — take a tablespoonful of 
Capers, and two teaspoonsful of Vinegar. 

The present fashion of cutting Capers, — is to mince 
one third of them very fine, and divide the others in 
half; put them into a quarter of a pint of melted Butter, 
or good thickened Gravy (No. 329), — stir them the 
same way as you did the melted butter, or it will oil. 

Obs. — Some boil, and mince fine a few leaves of 
Parsley, or Chervil, or Tarragon, and add these to the 
sauce ; — others the juice of half a Seville Orange, or 
Lemon. 

Mem. — Keep the Caper bottle very closely corked, 
and do not use any of the Caper liquor ; — if the Capers 
are not well covered with it, they will immediately 
spoil, and it is an excellent ingredient in Hashes, &c. 
The Dutch use it as a Fish Sauce, mixing it with 
Melted butter. 

Mock Caper Sauce. — (No. 275 or 295.) 

Cut some pickled Green Pease, — French Beans,— 
Gherkins, — or Nasturtiums, into bits the size of Capers ; 
put them into half a pint of melted butter, with two 
teaspoonsful of Lemon juice, or nice Vinegar. 



GRAVIES AND SAUCES. 307 

Oyster Sauce. — (^o. 278.) 

Choose Plump and Juicy Natives for this purpose ; — 
dont take them out of their Shell till you put them into the 
Stewpan, see Ob.s. to (No. 181.) 

To make good Oyster Sauce for half a dozen hearty 
Fish-Eaters, you cannot have less than three or four 
dozen Oysters. — Save their liquor, strain it, and put it 
and them into a stewpan ; as soon as they boil, and the 
fish plump, take them off the Fire, and pour the contents 
of the stewpan into a sieve over a clean basin, wash the 
stewpan out with hot water, and put into it the strained 
liquor, with about an equal quantity of Milk, and about 
two ounces and a half of Butter, with which you have 
well rubbed a large tablespoonful of Flour, — give it a 
boil up, and pour it through a sieve into a basin, (that 
the Sauce may be quite smooth), and then back again 
into the saucepan, — now, shave the Oysters, and (if 
you have the honour of making sauce for '- a Committee 
of Taste,'" take away the gristly part b.Uo,) put in only 
the soft part of the Oysters, (if they are very large 
cut them in half), and set them by the side of the fire 
to keep hot, " if they boil after, they will become 
hard." 

If you have not Liquor enough, add a little Melted 
Butter, or Cream, see (No. 388), or Milk beat up with 
the yolk of an Egg, (this must not be put in till the 
sauce is done.) Some barbarous Cooks add Pepper, 
— or Mace, — the juice or peel of a Lemon, — Horse- 
radish, — Essence of Anchovy, — Cayenne, &c. ; — 
Vlain Sauces are only to taste of the Ingredient from 
which they derive their name. 

Obs. — It will very much heighten the flavour of this 
Sauce, to pound the soft part of half a dozen (unboiled) 
Oysters, rub it through a hair sieve, and then stir it 
into the sauce; — this Essence of Oyster (and for 
some palates a few grains of Cayenne) is the only 
addition we recommend. See (No. 441.) 



308 GRAVIES AND SAUCES. 

Pre&eried Oysters. — (No. 280.) 

Open the Oysters carefully, so as not to cut them 
except in dividing the gristle which attaches the shells, 
— put them into a Mortar, and when you have got 
as many as you can conveniently pound at once, add 
about two drachms of Salt to a dozen Oysters, — pound 
them and rub them, through the back of a hair sieve, 
and put them into a mortar again, with as much Flour 
(which has been previously thoroughly dried) as will 
make them into a paste, roll it out several times, and 
lastly, flour it and roll it out the thickness of a half 
crown, and divide it into pieces about an inch square, 
lay them in a Dutch oven, where they will dry so gently 
as not to get burned, — turn them every half hour, and 
when they begin to dry, crumble them, — they will take 
about four hours to dry, — then pound them fine, — sift 
them and put into bottles and seal them over. 

N. B. Three dozen Natives required 71 ounces 
of dried Flour to make them into a paste, which then 
weighed 11 ounces, — when dried and powdered, 6J 
ounces. 

To make half a pint of Sauce, put one ounce of Butter 
into a stewpan, with three drachms of Oyster powder, 
and six tablespoon sful of milk ; set it on a slow fire, 
stir it till it boils, and season it with salt. 

This Powder, if made with Plump Juicy Natives, 
will abound with the flavour of the Fish, and if closely 
corked, and kept in a dry place, will remain good for 
some time. 

Obs. — This Extract, is a welcome succedaneum 
while Oysters are out of season, and in such inland 
parts as seldom have any, is a valuable addition to the 
list of Fish sauces: it is equally good with boiled 
Fowl, or Rump Steak, — and sprinkled on bread and 
Butter makes a very good Sandwich, and is especially 
worthy the notice of Country Housekeepers — and as 
a Store Sauce for the Army and Navy. See Anchovy 
Powder (No. 435.) 



GRAVIES AND SAUCES. 809 

Shrimj) Sauce.-— (^o. 283.) 
Shell a pint of Shrimps, pick them dean, wash 
them, and put them into half a pint of good Melted 
Butter. 

Obs. — Some stew the Heads and shells of the 
Shrimps, (with or without a blade of bruised Mace), for 
a quarter of an hour, and strain off the liquor to melt 
the butter with, and add a little Lemon Juice, — 
Cayenne, — and Essence of Anchovy, — or Soy, — 
Cavice, &c. ; — but the Flavour of the Shrimp is so 
delicate, it will be overcome by any of those ad- 
ditions. 

Lobster Sauce. — (No. 284.) 
Choose a tine spawny Hen Lobster*, be sure it is 
fresh, so get a live one if y<Ji^ can, (one of my culinary 
predecessors says, '• let it be /leavu and lively,'') and boil 
it as (No. 176), pick out the Spawn and the Red Coral 
into a mortar, add to it half an ounce of Butter, pound 
it quite smooth, and rub it through a hair sieve with 
the back of a wooden spoon ; cu^t the meat of the 
Lobster into small squares, or pull it to pieces with a 
fork, put the pounded Spawn into as much melted 
Butter (No. 256) as you think will do, and stir it 
together till it is thoroughly mixed, — now put to it 
the meat of the Lobster, and warm it on the fire, take 
care it does not hoil^ uhich ivill spoil its complexion, and its 
brilliant Red colour uill immediately fade. 

The above is a very easy and excellent manner of 
making this Sauce. 

Some use strong Beef or Veal Gravy instead of 
melted Butter, adding Anchovy, Cayenne, Catsup, 
Cavice, Lemon juice or pickle, or Wine, &c. 

• Yon mast have a Hen Lobster, on account of the Live Spawn, — some 
Fishmongers have a cruel custom of tearing this from the Fish, before they 
are boiled; — lift up the tail of the Lobster, and see that it has not been robbed 
of its Eggs ; — the goodness of your Sauce depends upon its having a full 
share of the Spauii in it, to which it owes not merely its brilliant Red 
Colour, but the finest part of its Flavour. 



310 GRAVIES AND SAUCES. 

Obs. — Save a little of the inside Red Coral Spawn, 
and rub it through a sieve (without butter) : — it is a 
yery ornamental garnish to sprinkle over Fish ; and if 
the skin is broken, (which will sometimes happen to 
the most careful Cook, when there is a large dinner to 
dress, and many other things to attend to), you will 
find it a convenient and elegant Veil, to conceal your 
misfortune from the prying eyes of piscivorous Gour- 
mands. 

N.B. Various methods have been tried to preservk 
Lobsters, see (No. 178), and Lobster Spawn, for a 
Store Sauce. The Live Spawn may be kept some 
time in strong Salt and Water — or in an Ice-liouse. 

The following process might, perhaps, preserve it 
longer: — Put it into a Saucepan of boiling water, 
with a large spoonful of Salt in it, and let it boil quick 
for five minutes ; then drain it on a hair sieve, spread 
it out thin on a plate, and set it in a Dutch Oven till it 
is thoroughly dried, — grind it in a clean mill, and 
pack it closely in well-stopped Bottles. See also 
Potted Lobsters, (No. 178.) 

Sauce for Lobster, (^c— (No. 285.)— See also (No. 372.) 

Bruise the yolks of two hard boiled Eggs with the 
back of a wooden spoon, or rather pound them in a 
mortar, with a teaspoonful of water, and the soft inside 
and the spawn of the lobster, rub them quite smooth, 
with a teaspoonful of made Mustard, two tablespoonsful 
of Salad Oil, and five of Vinegar; season it with a very 
little Cayenne pepper and some salt. 

Obs. — To this, Elder or Tarragon Vinegar (No. 396), 
or Anchovy Essence (No. 433), is occasionally added. 

Liier and Parsley Sauce, — (No. 287.) — or Liver 
and Le?non Sauce. 

Wash the Liver (it must be perfectly fresh) of a Fowl 
or Rabbit, and boil it five minutes in five tablespoonsful 



ghavies and sauces. 311 

of water; — chop it fine; or pound or bruise it in a 
small quantity of the liquor it was boiled in, and rub it 
through a sieve: — wash about one-third the bulk of 
Parsley leaves, put them on to boil in a little boiling 
water,\vith a teaspoonful of salt in it ; lay it on a hair 
sieve to drain, and mince it lery fine; mix it with the 
liver, and put it into a quarter pint of melted butter, 
and warm it up ; — do not let it boil. 

Or, 

To make Lemon and Liver Sauce. 

Pare off the rind of a Lemon, or of a Seville Orange, 
as thin as possible, so as not to cut off any of the 
White with it; — now cut off a// the White, and cut 
the Lemon into slices, about as thick as a couple of 
half-crowns ; pick out the pips, and divide the slices 
into small squares ; add these, and a httle of the peel 
minced very fine, to the Liver, prepared as directed 
above, and put them into the melted Butter, and warm 
them together, — but do not let them boil. 

N.B. The Poulterers can always let you have/rci^ 
Livers — if that of the Fowl or Rabbit is not good, or 
not large enough to make as much Sauce as you wish. 

Qls. — Some Cooks, instead of pounding, — mince 
the Liver very fine (with half as much Bacon), and 
leave out the Parsley, — others add the juice of half a 
Lemon, and some of the Peel grated, — or a teaspoon- 
ful of Tarragon or Chili Vinegar, a tablespoonful of 
White Wine, or a little beaten Mace or Nutmeg, or 
Allspice : — if you wish it a little more lively on the 
palate, pound a Shallot, or a few leaves of Tarragon or 
Basil, with Anchovy or Catsup, or Cayenne. 

Liver Sauce for Fish. — (No. 288.) 

Boil the Liver of the Fish, and pound it in a mortar 
with a little flour, stir it into some Broth, or some of 
the liquor the fish was boiled m, or melted Butter, 



312 GRAVIES AND SAUCES. 

Parsley, and a few grains of Cayenne, — a little Essence 
of Anchovy (No. 433), or Soy, or Catsup (No. 439) ; — 
give it a boil up, and rub it through a sieve : — you 
may add a little Lemon Juice — or Lemon cut in dice. 

Cekri/ Sauce, White. — (No. 2S9.) 

Pick and wash two heads of nice White Celery, cut 
it into pieces about an inch long; stew it in a pint of 
water, and a teaspoonful of salt, till the Celery is 
tender* ; roll an ounce of butter with a tablespoonful 
of flour ; add this to half a pint of cream, and give it a 
boil up. 

N.B. See (No. 409.) 

Celery Sauce, Puree, for boiled Turkey, Veal, Fowls, 8fC. 
(No. 290.) 

Cut small half a dozen heads of nice White Celery 
that is quite clean, and two Onions sliced ; put in a 
two-quart Stewpan, with a small lump of Butter ; 
sweat them over a slow fire till quite tender, then put 
in two spoonsful of flour, half a pint of water (or Beef 
or Veal Broth), salt and pepper, and a little cream or 
milk ; boil it a quarter of an hour, and pass through a 
fine hair sieve with the back of a spoon. 

If you wish for Celery sauce, when Celery is not 
in season, a quarter of a drachm of Celery-seed, or a 
little Essence of Celery (No. 409), will impregnate half 
a pint of sauce with a suflScient portion of the flavour 
of the Vegetable. 

See Obs.ioi^o. 214.) 

Green, or Sorrel Sauce. — (No. 291.) 
Wash and clean a large Ponnet of Sorrel, put it 
into a Stewpan that will just hold it, with a bit of 
Butter the size of an Egg, cover it close, set it over 



* So mncli depends upon the age of the Celery, we cannot give any precise 
time r'or this. Youi g ti tsh-^athered Celery will be enough in three quarters 
of an hour; old will fomeiiines take twice as long. 



GRAVIES AND SAUCES. 313 

a slow fire for a quarter of an hour, pass the Sorrel 
with the back of a wooden spoon through a hair sieve, 
season with Pepper, Salt, and a small pinch of pow- 
dered Sugar, make it hot, and serve up under Lamb, 
Veal, Sweetbreads, &c. &c. Cayenne, Nutmeg, and 
Lemon Juice, are sometimes added. 

Tomata, or Love-apple Sauce. — (No. 292.) See also 
(No. 443.) 

Have twelve or fifteen Tomatas, ripe and red; 
take off" the stalk; cut them in half; squeeze them 
just enough to get all the water and seeds out; put 
them in a stewpan, with a Capsicum, and two or three 
tablespoonsful of Beef Gravy ; set them on a slow 
stove for an hour, or till properly melted ; then rub 
them through a taramis into a clean stewpan, with a 
little white pepper and salt, and let them simmer 
together a few minutes. 

N.B. To the above the French Cook adds an Onion 
or Eshallot, a Clove or two, or a little Tarragon 
Vinegar. 

Mock Tomata Sauce. — (No. 293.) 

The only difference between this, and genuine Love- 
apple Sauce, is the substituting the pulp of Apple for 
that of Tomata, colouring it with Turmeric, and com- 
municating an acid flavour to it by vinegar. 

S/iallot Sauce. — (No. 294.) 

Take four Shallots, and make it in the same manner 
as Garlic Sauce (No. 272.) 

Or, 

You may make this sauce more extemporaneously, 
by putting two tablespoonsful of Shallot Wine (No. 403), 
and a sprinkling of Pepper and Salt, into (almost) half 
a pint of thick m.elted Butter. 

Obs. — This is an excellent Sauce for Chops, or 



314 GRAVIES AND SAUCES. 

Steaks, — many are very fond of it with roasted or 
Boiled Meat, Poultry, &c. 

Shallot Sauce, for Boiled Mi(ifon. — (No. 295.) 

This is a very frequent and satisfactory substitute 
for " Caper Sauce J" 

Mince four Shallots very fine, and put them into a 
small saucepan, with almost half a pint of the liquor 
the Mutton was boiled in ; let them boil up for five 
minutes; — then put in a tablespoonful of Vinegar, a 
quarter teaspoonful of Pepper, a little Salt, and a bit 
of Butter (as big as a walnut) rolled in flour; shake 
together, till it boils. See (No. 402), Eshalloi H'inc. 

Obs. — We like a little Lemon Peel with Shallot ;— the 
Haut-Guut of the latter is much ameliorated by the 
delicate Aroma of the former. 

Some Cooks add a little finely chopped Parsley. 

Youn^ Onion Sauce. — (No. 296.) 

Peel a pint of Button Onions, and put them in water 
till you want to put them on to boil; put them in a 
stewpan, with a quart of cold water; let them boil till 
tender; they will take (according to their size and 
age) from half an hour to an hour. You may put them 
into half a pint of (No. 307.) See also (No. 137.) 

Onion Sauce. — (No. 297.) 

Those who like the full flavour of Onions, only cut 
oft^ the strings and tops (without peeling off" any of the 
skins), put them into salt and water, and let them lie 
an hour; then wash them, put them into a kettle with 
plenty of water, and boil them till they are tender: 
now skin them, pass them through a cullender, and 
mix a little melted Butter with them. 

N. B. Some mix the pulp of Apples, or Turnips, 
with the Onions,— others add Mustard to them. 



GRAVIES AND SAUCES. 315 

THike Onion Sauce.— {^o. 298.) 

The following is a more mild and delicate* prepara- 
tion: — Take half a dozen of the largest, and whitest 
Onions, (the Spanish are the mildest, but these can 
only be had from August to December,)— peel them, 
and cut them in half, and lay them in a pan of spring 
water for a quarter of an hour, and then boil them 
tender, which will sometimes take an hour, drain them 
well on a hair sieve, lay them on the chopping-board 
and chop and bruise them, put them into a clean 
saucepan, with some Butter and Flour, half a tea- 
spoonful of salt, and some Cream, or good milk; stir 
it till it boils ; then rub the whole through a tammy or 
sieve, adding cream or milk, to make it the consistence 
you wish. 

Obs. — This is the usual sauce for boiled Rabbits, — 
Mutton, — or Tripe. — There must be plenty of it; the 
usual expression signifies as much;, for we say, smother 
them with it. 

Brown Onion Sauce, or Onion Gravy. — (No. 299.) 
Peel and slice the Onions (some put in an equal 
quantity of Cucumber or Celery) into a quart stewpan, 
with an ounce of Butter ; set it on a slow fire, and turn 
the Onion about till it is very lightly browned ; now 
gradually stir in half an ounce of Flour ; add a 
little broth, and a little pepper and salt, boil up for a 
few minutes, add a tablespoonful of Claret, or Port 
wine, and same of Mushroom Catsup, — (you may 
sharpen it with a little Lemon Juice or Vinegar) — and 
rub it through a tammy, or fine sieve. 

Curry Powder (No. 348), will convert this into 
excellent Curry Sauce. 

N. B. If this Sauce is for Steaks, shred an ounce 
of Onions, fry them a nice brown, and put them to the 

• If you wish to have them very mild, cut them in quarters, boil them for 
five minutes in plenty of water, and then drain them, and cook them in fresh 

water. 

p2 



316 GRAVIES AND SAUCES. 

sauce you have rubbed through a tammy; — or some 
very .small round young silver Button Onions, see (No. 
296), peeled and boiled tender, and put in whole when 
your Sauce is done, will be an acceptable addition. 

Obs. — If you have no Broth, put in half a pint of 
water, and see (No. 252); — just before you give it the 
last boil up, add to it another tal)lesp()onful of Mush- 
room Catsup, or the same quantity of Port Wine or 
good Ale. 

The Havour of this Sauce may be varied by adding 
Tarragon or Burnet Vinegar, (Nos. 396 and 399.) 

Sage and Onion^ or Goose-it uffmg Sauce. — (No. 300.) 

Chop very fine an ounce of Onion and half an ounce 
of fjreen Sage leaves, put them into a stcwpan with 
tour spoonsful of water, simmer gently for ten minutes, 
full put in a tea^poonful of pepper and salt, and one 
ounce of line bread-crumbs ; mix well together ; — 
tiieh pour to it a quarter of a |)inl of (Broth, or Gravy, 
or) Melted Butter, stir well together, and simmer it a 
fcw minutes longer. 

0/m. — 1 his is a very relishing Sauce for Roast Pork, 
Geese, or Ducks; or Green Pease on Maigrt Days. 

See also Dunne Bouchc for the above, (No. 341.) 

Green Mint Sauce. — (No. 303.) 

Wash half a handful of nice young fresh-gathered 
Green Mint, (to this some add one-third the quantity 
of Parsley,) pick the leaves from the stalks, mince 
them very fine, and put them into a sauceboat, with a 
teaspoonful of moist Sugar, and four tablespoonsful of 
Vinegar. 

Obs. — This is the usual accompaniment to Hot 
Lamb ; — and an equally agreeable relish with Cold 
Lamb. 

If Green Mint cannot be procured, this sauce may 
be made with Mint Vinegar, (No. 398.) 



GRAVIES AND SAUCES. 317 

Apple Sauce. — {"^o. 304.) 

Pare and core three good sized baking Apples, put 
Ihem into a well-tinned pint saucepan, with two table- 
ispoonsful of cold water; cover the saucepan close, 
and set it on a trivet over a slow fire a couple of hom's 
before dinner, — some Apples will take a long time 
stewing, — others will be ready in a quarter of an 
hour: — when the Apples are done enough, pour off 
the water, let them stand a few minutes to get dry ; 
then beat them up with a Fork, with a bit of Butter 
about as big as a Nutmeg, and a teaspoonful of pow- 
dered Sugar. 

N. B. Some add Lemon Peel, grated, or minced 
fine, — or boil a bit with the Apples. 

Mushroom Sauce. — (No. 305.) 

Pick and peel half a pint of Mushrooms (the smaller 
the better), wash them very clean, and put them into a 
saucepan with half a pint of Veal Gravy or Milk, a 
little Pepper and Salt, and an ounce of Butter rubbed 
with a tablespoonful of Flour, stir them together, and 
set them over a gentle fire, to stew slowly till tender; 
— skim and strain it. 

Obs. — It will be a great improvement to this, and 
the two following Sauces, to add to them the juice of 
half a dozen Mushrooms, prepared the day before, by 
sprinkling them with salt, the same as when you make 
Catsup; or add a large spoonful of good Double 
Mushroom Catsup, (No. 439.) 

See Quintessence of Mushrooms, (No. 440.) 

N. B. Much as we love the flavour of Mushrooms, — 
we must enter our protest against their being eaten in 
substance, — when the morbid effects they produce too 
often prove them worthy of the appellations Seneca 
gave them, " Voluptuous Poison," " lethal luxury," 
&c. ; and we caution those who cannot refrain from 
indulging their palate with the seducing rehsh of this 
deceitful Fungus, to masticate it diligently. 



318 GRAVIES AND SAUCES. 

We du not believe that Mushrooms are nutritive, — 
every one knows they are often dangerously indi- 
gestible, — therefore the Rational Epicure will be con- 
tent with extracting the flavour from them — which is 
obtained in the utmost perfection by the process 
directed in (No. 439.) 

Mus/iruom Sauce, Broiin. — (No. 306.) 
Put the Muslirooms into half a pint of Beef Gravy 
(No. 186), or (No. 329); tliicken with Flour and But- 
ter; and proceed as above. 

Mushroom Sauce, Extempore. — (No. 307.) 

Proceed as directed in (No. 2.56), to melt Butter, — 
only, instead of two tablespoonsful of Milk, put in two 
of Mushroom Catsup (No. 439 or 40) ; — or add it to 
thickened Broth, Gravy, or iNIock Turtle Soup, &c. — 
or put in (No. 296.) 

Ohs. This is a welcome Relish with Fish — Poultry 
— or Chops and »Steaks, &c. A couple of Quarts of 
good Catsup (No. 439), will make more good Sauce 
than ten times its cost of Meat, &c. 

Walnut Catsup will give you another variety ; and 
Ball's Cavice, which is excellent, and sold at No. 
81, New Bond Street. 

Voor Mans Sauce. — {^o. 310.) 

Pick a handful of Parsley leaves from the stalks, 
mince them very fine, strew over a little salt ; shred 
fine half a dozen young green Onions, add these to the 
Parsley, and put them into a sauceboat, with three 
tablespoonsful of Oil, and five of Vinegar ; add some 
prround Black Pepper and Salt; stir together, an^l 
send it up. 

Pickled French Beans or Gherkins, cut fine, may be 
added — or a little grated Horseradish. 

06^. — This Sauce is in much esteem in France, 
where people of taste, weary of rich dishes^ to obtain 



GRAVIES AND SAUCES. 319 

the charm of variety, occasionally order the fare of the 

Peasant. 

" the Rich, tir'd with continual Feasts, 

For change become their next poor Tenant's guests ; 
Drink hearty draughts of Ale from plain brown bowls. 
And snatch the homely Rasher from the Coals." 

DuYDEN's Prologue to " All for Love." 

The Spaniard's Gar lick Gravy. — (No. 311.) — See also 
(No. 272.) 

Slice a pound and a half of Veal, or Beef, pepper 
and salt it, lay it in a stewpan v/ith a couple of Carrots 
split, and four cloves of Garlick sliced, a quarter pound 
of sliced Ham, and a large spoonful of water ; — set 
the stewpan over a gentle fire, and watch v/hen the 
meat begins to stick to the pan ; when it does, turn it, 
and let it be very well brov/ned, (but take care it is not 
at all burnt ;) then dredge it with flour, and pour in 
a quart of broth, a bunch of Sweet Herbs, a couple 
of Cloves bruised, and slice in a Lemon; set it on 
again, and let it simmer gently for an hour and a half 
longer; then take off the fat, and strain the gravy 
from the ingredients, by pouring it through a napkin, 
straining, and pressing it very hard. 

Obs. — This, it is said, was the secret of the Old 
Spaniard, who kept the House called by that name on 
Hampstead Heath. 

Those who love Garlick, will find it an extremely 
rich relish. 

Mr. Michael Kelly's* Sauce for Boiled Tripe, 
Calf-head, or Cow-heel— (No. 311*.) 

Garlick Vinegar, a tablespoonful, — of Mustard, 
Brown Sugar, and Black Pepper, a teaspoonful each ; 
stirred into half a pint of oiled melted butter. 

Mr. Kelly's Sauce Piquante. 

Pound a tablespoonful of Capers, — and one of 

* Composer and Director of the Music at the Theatre-Royal, Drury Lane, 
and the Italian Opera. 



320 GRAVIES AND SAUOES. 

minced Parsley, — as fine as possible ; then add the 
yolks of three hard Eggs, rub them well together with 
a tablespoonful of Mustard, — bone six Anchovies, 
and pound them, rub them through a hair sieve, and 
mix with two tablespoonsful of Oil, one of Vinegar, 
one of Shallot ditto, and a few grains of Cayenne 
Pepper; rub all these well together in a mortar, till 
thoroughly incorporated, then stir them into half a 
pint of good Gravy, or melted Butter, and put the 
whole through a sieve. 

Fried Parsley. — (No. 317.) 

Let it be nicely picked and washed, then put into a 
cloth, and swung backwards and forwards till it is 
perfectly dry ; — put it into a pan of hot fat, fry it 
quick, and have a slice ready to take it out the moment 
it is crisp, (in another moment it will be spoilt;) put it 
on a sieve, or coarse cloth, before the fire to drain. 

Criq) Parsley. — (No. 318.) 

Pick and wash young Parsley, shake it in a dry cloth 
to drain the water from it; spread it on a sheet of 
clean paper, in a Dutch oven before the fire, and turn 
it frequently until it is quite crisp. — This is a much 
more easy way of preparing it than Frying it, — which 
is not seldom ill done. 

Obs. — A very pretty garnish for Lamb Chops, Fish, 
&c. 

Fried Bread Sippets. —(No. 319.) 

Cut a slice of Bread about a quarter of an inch 
thick, divide it with a sharp knife into pieces two 
inches square ; —shape these into Triangles or Crosses : 
— put some very clean Fat into an iron Fryingpan ; 
when it is hot, put in the sippets, and fry them a 
delicate light brown ; take them up with a Fish-slice, 
and drain them well from Fat, turning them occasion- 
ally ; — this will take a quarter of an hour. Keep the 



GRAVIES AND SAUCES. 321 

pan at such a distance from the fire, that the fat may 
be hot enough to brown without burning ; — this is 
a requisite precaution in frying delicate thin things. 

Obs. — These are a pretfi/ ganiis/i, and very welcome 
accompaniment and improvement to the finest made 
Dishes : — they may also be sent up with Pease and 
other Soups; — but when intended for Soups, the 
Bread must be cut into bits, about half an inch square. 

N. B. If these are not done very ddkately clean and 
dry, they are uneatable. 

Fried Bread Crumbs. — (No. 320.) 

Rub Bread (which has been baked two days) through 
a wire sieve, or Cullender; — or you may rub them in 
a cloth till they are as fine as if they had been grated, 
and sifted ; put them into a stewpan with a couple 
of ounces of Butter, place it over a moderate fire, and 
stir them about with a wooden spoon till they are the 
colour of a Guinea; spread them on a sieve, and let 
them stand ten minutes to drain, turning them fre- 
quently. 

Obs. — Fried Crumbs are sent up with roasted Sweet- 
breads, — or Larks, — Pheasants, — Partridges, — - 
Woodcocks, — and Grouse, — or Moor Game, — espe- 
cially if they have been kept long enough. 

Bread Sauce.— (No. 321.) 

Put a small teacupful of Bread-Crumbs into a stew- 
pan, pour on it as much milk as it will soak up, and a 
little more; or, instead of the milk, take the Giblets, 
head, neck, and legs, &c. of the Poultry, &c. and 
stew themj and moisten the bread with this liquor; 
put it on the fire with a middling sized Onion, and a 
dozen hemes of Pepper or Allspice, or a little Mace ; 
let it boil, then stir it well, and let it simmer till it is 
quite stiff, and then put to it about two tablespoonsful 
of Cream or melted Butter, or a little good Broth; 
take out the Onion and Pepper, and it is ready. 
p5 



322 GRAVIES AND SAUCES. 

Obs. — ^ This is an excellent accompaniment to Game 
and Poultry, &c. and a good vehicle for receiving 
various flavours from the Magazine of Taste (No. 
463.) 

Rice Sauce. — (^0. 321*.) 

Steep a quarter pound of Rice in a pint of milk, 
with Onion, Pepper, &ic. as in the last receipt ; when 
the rice is quite tender (take out the spice), rub it 
through a sieve into a clean stewpan ; if too thick, put 
a little milk or cream to it. 

Oh.s. — This is a very delicate White sauce ; — and 
at elegant ^tables, is frequently served instead of Bread 
Sauce. 

Browning — (No. 322.) 

Is a convenient article to colour those Soups or 
Sauces, of v.diich it is supposed their deep brown com- 
plexion denotes the strength and savourioess of the 
composition. 

Burnt Sugar is also a favourite ingredient with the 
Brewers, who use it under the name of " Essentia 
Bina" to colour their Beer ; — it is also employed by the 
Brandy makers, in considerable quantity, to colour 
Brandy ; to which, besides enriching its complexion, 
it gives that sweetish taste, and fulness in the mouth, 
which custom has taught Brandy drinkers to admire, 
and prefer to the finest Cogniac in its genuine state. 

When employed for Culinary Purposes, this is some- 
times made with strong Gravy, or Walnut Catsup. 
Those who like a gout of Acid may add a little Walnut 
Pickle. 

It will hardly be told from what is commonly called 
*'^ genuine Japanese Soy*," (for which it is a very good 
substitute.) Burnt Treacle, or Sugar, — the Peels of 

♦ " By the best accounts T can find, Sot is a preparation from tlie seeds of a 
species of the Dotichos, prepared by a fermentation of the farina of this seed 
in a strong lixivium of common salt."--CuLLE?i's 3Iat. Med, vol. i. p. 430. 



GRAVIES AND SAUCES. 323 

Walnuts, — Cayenne pepper, — or Capsicums, — or 
Chilies, — Vinegar, — Garlick, — and pickled Her- 
rings, (especially the Dutch) — Sardinias, — or Sprats, 
— appear to be the bases of almost all the Sauces 
which now, to use the maker's phrase, — stand unri- 
valled. 

Although indefatigable research and experiment has 
put us in possession of these compositions, — it would 
not be quite fair, to enrich the Cook, at the expense 
of the Oilman, &c. — we hope we have said enough on 
these subjects, to satisfy " the Rational Epicure." 

Put half a pound of pounded Lump Sugar, and a 
tablespoonful of water, into a clean iron saucepan, set 
it over a slow fire, and keep stirring it with a wooden 
spoon till it becomes a bright brown colour, and 
begins to smoke; then add to it an ounce of salt, 
and dilute it by degrees with water, till it is the 
thickness of Soy; let it boil, take off the scum, 
and strain the liquor into bottles, which must be v/ell 
stopped : if you have not any of this by you, and you 
wish to darken the colour of your sauces, pound a 
teaspoonful of lump sugar, and put into an iron spoon, 
with as much v/ater as will dissolve it; hold it over a 
quick lire till it becomes of a very dark brov/n colour ; 
mix it with the soup, &c. while it is hot. 

Obs. — Most of the preparations under this title are 
a medley of Burnt Butter, — Spices, — Catsup, — Wine, 
&c. We recommend the Rational Epicure to be content 
with the natural colour of Soups and Sauces, which, to a 
well-educated Palate, are much more agreeable, with- 
out any of these empyreumatic additions; — however 
they may please the Eye, they plague the Stomach 
most grievously, so '' open your Mouth, and shut your 
Eyesr 

For the sake of producing a pretty colour, " Cheese,'^ 
— Cayenne (No. 404), — ^'Essence of Anchovy," (No. 433), 
&c. are frequently adulterated with a colouring matter 



324 GR.WIES AND SAUCES. 

cout^xums; Red Lend ! ! — See Accum on the Adu/iera^ 
tioii of Food, 2d Edit. l-2mo. 1820. 

A scientific " hommc dc houclie de France' observes — 
" The uenerality of Cooks calcine Bones, till they are 
as black as a Coal, and throw thein hissin^j; hot into 
the stewpan, to give a brown colour to their Broths. 
These ino:redients, under the appearante of a nourish- 
iui; Gravy, enveloj)«- our food \vitli stimulating; acid and 
corrosive Poison. 

" Roux or Thickening (No. 257), if not made very 
carefully, produces exactly the same effect; and the 
juices of Beef, or Veal, burnt over a hot fire, to g;ive a 
rich colour to 8ou|) or ^^auces, grievously offend the 
Stomach, and create the most distressing Indigestions. 

'* The judicious Cook will refuse the help of these 
incendiary articles ; which ignorance, or quackery, 
only employ, — not only at the expense of the credit 
of the cook, but the health of her employers." 

N. B. Ihe BEST BROWNING is good Home-made 
Glaze (No. 252), — Mushroom Catsup (No. 439), — or 
Claret, or Port Wine. See also (No. 257) ; — or cut 
meat into slice>, and broil them brown, and then stew 
them. 

Graivfnr Roa.st Meat. —(No. 326.) 

Most joints will afford sufficient trimmings, &:c. to 
make half a pint of plain Gravy, which you may colour 
with a few drops of (No. 322;; — fur those that do 
not, about half an hour before you think the meat will 
be done, mix a saltspoonful of Salt, with a full quarter 
pint of boiling Water; drop this by degrc<'6 on the 
brown parts of the joint; set a dish under to catch it, 
(the meat will soon brown again) ; set it by, — as it 
cools, the fat will settle on the surface ; when the 
meat is ready, remove this, and warm up the gravy, 
and pour it into the dish. 

The Common Method is, when the meat is in the 



GRAVIES AND SAUCES. 325 

dish you intend to send it up in, to mix half a tea- 
spoonful of Salt in a quarter pint of boiling water, 
and to drop some of this over the corners and under- 
side of the meat, and to pour the rest through the 
hole the spit came out of, -^ and some pierce the 
inferior parts of the joint with a sharp skewer. 

The following Receipt was given us by a very good 
Cook: — You may make good Browning for Roast 
Meat and Poultry, by saving the Brozvn Bits of Roast 
Meat or Broiled ; cut them small, put them into a basin, 
cover them with boiling water, and put them away till 
next day ; then put it into a saucepan, let it boil two or 
three minutes, strain it through a sieve into a basin, and 
put it away for use. When you want Gravy for Roast 
Meat, put two tablespoonsful into half a pint of boiling 
water with a little salt ; — if for Roasted Veal, put three 
tablespoonsful into half a pint of thin melted Butter. 

N. B. The Gravy which comes down in the dish, the 
Cook (if she is a good housewife) will preserve to enrich 
Hashes or little Made Dishes, &c. 

Obs. — Some Culinary professors, who think nothing 
can be excellent, that is not extravagant, — call this 
" Scots Gravy;" not, I believe, intending it, as it 
certainly is, a compliment to the laudable, and rational 
frugality, of that intelligent, and sober-minded People. 

N. B. '1 his gravy should be brought to table in a 
Sauce-boat ; preserve the intrinsic Gravy which flows 
from the meat, in the Argyll. 

Gravy for Boiled Meat — (No. 327.) 

May be made with Parings and Trimmings, — or 
pour from a quarter to half a pint of the liquor in 
which the Meat was boiled, into the dish with it, and 
pierce the inferior part of the joint with a sharp skewer. 

Wow Wow Sauce for Stewed or Bouilli Beef. — 
(No. 328.) 

Chop some Parsley leaves very finely, quarter two 



326 GRAVIES AND SAUCES. 

or three pickled Cucu?)ibers, or Walnuts, and divide 
them into small squares, and set them by ready ; — 
put into a saucepan a bit of Butter as big- as an e2:g ; 
when it is melted, stir to it a tablespoonful of fine 
Flour, and al>out half a pint of the Broth in which the 
Beef was boiled ; add a tablespoonful of Vineiz:ar, the 
like quantity of Mushroom Catsup, or Port Wine, or 
both, and a tcaspoonful of made Mustard ; let it 
simmer tun;cther till it is as thick as you wish it, put 
in the Parsley and Pickles to get warm, ani pour it 
over the Beef, — or rather send it ip in a Sauce- 
tureen. 

Ob.s, — If you think the above not sufficiently -piquantc, 
add to it some Capers, or a minced Shallot, or one 
or two teaspoonsful of Shal'ot Wine (No. 402), — or 
Essence of Anchovy, — or Basil (No 397), — Elder, or 
Tarragon (No. 396), or Horseradish (No. 399*), or 
Burnet Vinei^ar ; or strew over the meat, Carrots and 
Turnips cut into dice, — minced Capers, — Walnuts, — 
Red Cabbaje, — pickled Cucumbers, — or French 
Beans, &c. 

Beef Gravy Sauce, — (No. 329) — or Bro-u;n Sauce 
for Ragouts, Game, Poultry, Fi^/i, <!)c. 

If you want Gravy immediately, see (No. 307), or 
(No. 252), if you have time enough. 

Furnish a thick and well-tinned Stewpan with a tliin 
slice of fat Ham or Bacon, or an ounce of Butter, and a 
middling sized Onion ; on this, lay a pound of nice 
juicy Gravy Beet, (as the object in making Gravy is to 
extract the nutritious succulence of the Meat, it must 
be beaten to comminute the containing vessels, and 
scored to augment the surface to the action of the 
water), cover the Stewpan, and set it on a slow fire ; 
when the meat begins to brown, turn it about, and let 
it get slightly browned, (but take care it is not at alt 
buntt :) then pour in a pint and a half of boiling water, 
set the pan on the fire ; when it boils, carefully catch 



GRAVIES AND SAUCES. 327 

the scum, — and then put in a crust of Bread toasted 
brown, (don't burn it)— a sprig of winter Savory, or 
Lemon Thyme and Parsley — a roll of thin cut Lemon 
Peel, a dozen berries of Allspice, and a dozen of Black 
Pepper ; cover the stewpan close, and let it stexv verij 
gently for about two hours, then strain it through a 
sieve into a basin. Now, if you wish to thicken it, 
set a clean stewpan over a slow five, with about an 
ounce of Butter in it ; when it is melted, dredge to it 
(by degrees) as much flour as will dry it up, stirring 
them well together ; when thoroughly mixed, pour in 
a little of the Gravy, — stir it well together, and add 
the remainder by degrees ; set it over the fire, let it 
simmer gently for fifteen or twenty minutes longer, and 
skim ofi' the fat, &c. as it rises ; when it is about as 
thick as cream, squeeze it through a tammis, or fine 
sieve, — and you will have a fine rich Brown Sauce, at a 
very moderate Expense, and without much trouble. 

Obs. — If you wish to make it still more Relishing, — if 
it is for Poult ri/, you may pound the Liver with a bit of 
Butter, rub it through a sieve, and stir it into the Sauce 
when you put in the thickening. For a Ragout, or 
Game, add at the same time a tablespoonful of Mush- 
room Catsup, or (No. 343)*, or (No. 429), or a few 
drops of (No. 422), the juice of half a Lemon, and a roll 
of the rind pared thin, a tablespoonful of Port, or other 
wine, (Claret is best), and a few grains of Cayenne 
Pepper; — or use double the quantity of Meat, — or add 
a bit of Glaze, or Portable Soup (No. 252), to it. 

You may vary the flavour, by sometimes adding a 
little Basil, or Burnet Wine, (No. 397), or Tarragon 



* One of " les Bonnes homines de Boucke de Fraiice" orders the follow- 
ing addition for Game Gravy : — " For a pint, par-roast a Partridge or a 
Pigeon; cut off the meat of it, pound it in a mortar, and put it into the Stew- 
pan when yon thicken xht. Sauce." — IVe do not recommend either -Soup or 
>Saiice to be thickened,— becanse it requires (to give it the same quickness 
on the Palate it had before it was thickened) double the quantity of Piquante 
materials, — which are thus smuggled down the Red Lane, without affording 
any amusement to the Mouth, and at the risk of highly offending the Stomach^ 



328 GRAVIES AND SAUCES. 

Vinegar (No. 396), or a wine-glass of Quintessence of 
Mushrooms (No. 450). 

See the Magazine of Taste, (No. 463). 

N. B. This is an excellent Gravy ; and at a large 
Dinner, a pint of it should be placed at each end of 
the Table — it is equal to the most costly Consommt of 
the Parisian Kitchen, 

Those families who are frequently in want of Gravy, 
Sauces, c^c. (without plenty of which, no Cook can 
support the credit of her Kitchen), sliould Ixccp a stock 
of Portable Soup or Glaze, see (No. 252): this 
will make Graxy mmcdiattly. 

Game Gravy. — (No. 337.) 
See Obs. to (No. 329). 

Orange Graxy Sauce, for JViId Ducks, Ji'ido-con, and 
rcaf,\]c,~-{So. 338.) 

Set on a Saucepan with half a pint of \'eal Gravy 
(No. 192), add to it half a dozen leaves of Basil, "a 
small Onion, and a roll of Orange or Lemon Peel, and 
let it boil up for a few minutes, and strain it off. Put 
to the clear gravy the juice of a Seville Orange, or 
Lemon, half a teaspoonful of Salt, the same of Pepper, 
and a glass of Red Wine; send it up hot, Eshallot 
and Cayenne may be added. 

Obi. — This is an excellent Sauce for all kinds of 
Wild water fowl. 

The common way of gashing the breast, and squeezing 
in an Orange, cools and hardens the flesh, and compels 
every one to cat Duck that way; some people like 
wild fowl very little done, and without any Sauce. 

Gravies should always be sent up in a boat; they 
keep hot longer ; and it leaves it to the choice of the 
Company to partake it or not. 

Bonne Bouciie, for Goose, Duck, or Roast 

Pork. — (No. 341.) 
Mix a teaspoonful of made Mustard, a saltspoonful 



GRAVIES AND SAUCES. 329 

of Salt, and a few grains of Cayenne, in a large wine- 
glassful of Claretj or Port wine* ; pour it into the 
Goose by a slit in the apron, just before serving upf; 
or, as all the Company may not like it, stir it into a quarter 
of a pint of thick melted Butter, or thickened Gravy, and 
send it up in a Boat. See also Sage and Onion Sauce, 
(No. 300.) 

Or, 
A Favourite RELisiiybr Roast Pork or GeesCj d)'c, 
is, — two ounces of leaves of Green Sage, an ounce of 
fresh Lemon Peel, pared thin, same of Salt, minced 
Shallot, and half a drachm of Cayenne Pepper, ditto 
of Citric Acid, steeped for a fortnight in a pint of 
Claret; shake it up well every day ; let it stand a day 
to settle, and decant the clear liquor, — bottle it and 
cork it close, — a tablespoonful, or more, in a quarter 
pint of Gravy, or melted Butter. 

Robert Sauce for Roast Pork or Geese, &c. — (No. 342.) 
Put an ounce of Butter into a Pint Stewpan; when 
it is melted, add to it half an ounce of Onion minced 
very fine : turn it with a wooden spoon, till it takes a 
light brown colour, then stir in a tablespoonful of 
Flour, a tablespoonful of Mushroom Catsup, (with, or 
without the like quantity of Port wine,) half a pint of 
Broth, or water, and a quarter of a teaspoonful of 
Pepper, the same of Salt, give them a boil, then add 
a teaspoonful of Mustard, and the juice of half a Lemon, 
or one or two teaspoonsful of Vinegar, or Basil (No. 397), 
or Tarragon (No, 396), or Burnet Vinegar (No. 399.) 

Obs. — The French call this " Sauce Robert" (from 
the name of the cook who invented it), and are very fond 
of it with many things, which Mary Smith, in the 

• To this some add a tablespoonful of Mushroom Catsup (No. 439), and 
instead of the saltspoonful of Salt, a feaspoonfnl of Essence of Anchovy 
(No. 433.) If the above articles are rubbed together in a ruortar, and put 
into a close stopped botile, tliey will keep for some time. 

t Thus far the above is from Dr. Hunter's " CuUna," who says it is a 
eecret worth knowing: — we agree with him, and so tell it here ; with a little 
addition, which we tliiuk renders ii a still moie gratifying couiuiuuicatlon. 



330 GRAVIES AND SAUCES. 

''Complete Housekeeper^" Svo. 1772, p. 105, translates 
Rol-Boat-Sauce. See Obs. to (No. 529.) 

Turtle Sauce. — (No. 343.) 
Put into your stewpan a pint of Beef Gravy thick- 
ened (No. 329); add to this some of the following 
Essence of Turtle (No. 343'), or a wineglass of Madeira, 
the juice and peel of half a Lemon, a few leaves of 
Basil*, an Eshallot quartered, a few grains of Cayenne 
pepper, or Curry powder, and a little llsscuce of An- 
chovy ; let them simmer together for five minutes, and 
strain through a tammis ; — you may introduce a dozen 
Turtle Forcemeat Balls ; see Receipt (No. 380), &c. 

Qbs. — This is the Sauce for boiled or hashed Calfs 
head, — Stewed Veal, — or any dish you dress Turtle 
fashion. 

The far-ft'tcht and dear-bought Turtle owes its high 
rank on the list of savoury Bu/ines Bouches to the 
relishing and piquante sauce that is made for it ; — 
without, it would be as insipid as any other fish is 
without Sauce. See Obs. to (No. 493.) 

Essence of Turtle. — (No. 343*.) 

Kssence of Anchovy (No. 433), one wincglassful. 

Shaliut Wine (No. 402), one and a half ditto. 

Basil Wine (No. 397), four ditto. 

Mushroom Catsup (No. 439). two ditto. 

Concrete Lemon Acid, one drachm, or some Artifi- 
cial Lemon Juice (No. 407*.) 

Lemon Peel, rt/v/ thinli^ pared, three quarters of an 
ounce. 

Curry Powder (No. 455), a quarter of an ounce. 

Steep for a week to get the flavour of the Lemon 
Peel, &c. 

Ohs. — This is ver}' convenient, to extemporaneously 
flavour Soup, Sauce, or Potted Meats, Ragouts, Sa- 
voury Patties, Ties, &c. &c. 

• See Basil Wine, (No. 397.) 



GRAVIES AND SAUCES. 331 

JVine Sauce, for Venison or Hare. — (No. 344.) 
A quarter of a pint of Claret or Port wine, the same 
quantity of plain unflavoured Mutton Gravy (No. 347), 
and a tablespoonful of Currant Jelly ; let it just boil up, 
and send it to table in a sauce-boat. 

Sharp Sauce for Venison. — (No. 345.) 
Put into a silver, or very clean and well tinned 
saucepan, half a pint of the best white wine vinegar, 
and a quarter of a pound of loaf-sugar pounded ; set it 
over the fire, and let it simmer gently : skim it care- 
fully, pour it through a tammis or fine sieve, and send 
it up in a basin. 

Obs. — Some people like this better than the Sweet 
Wine sauces, 

Sii-eet Sauce for Venison or Hare. — (No. 346.) 
Put some Currant Jelly into a stewpan, when it is 
melted, pour it into a sauce boat. 

N. B. Many send it to table without melting. To 
make Currant Jellj/, see (No. 479*.) 

This is a more salubrious relish than either Spice or 
Salt, and when the Palate protests against animal food 
unless its flavour be masked, — Currant Jelly is a good 
accompaniment to Roasted or Hashed Meats. 

Mutton Grain/, for Venison or Hare. — (No. 347.) 
The best gravy for Venison is that made with the 
trimmings of the Joint : if this is all used, and you 
have no undressed Venison, cut a scrag of mutton in 
pieces, broil it a little brown, then put it into a clean 
stewpan, with a quart of boiling water, cover it close, 
and let it simmer gently for an hour : now uncover the 
stewpan, and let it reduce to three quarters of a pint, 
pour it through a hair sieve, take the fat off, and send 
it up in a boat. — It is only to be seasoned with a little 
salt, that it may not overpower the natural flavour of 



332 GRAVIES AND SAUCES. 

the meat. You may colour it with a very little ot 
(No. 3-22.) 

N. B. Some prefer the unseasoned Beef Gravy, 
(No. 186), which vou may make in five minutes with 
(No. 252.) 

The Queen's Gu.wy of Mlttton, as made by her 
Majesty's " Escuycr de Cuisine," Monsieur La Montagne. 
*' Roast a juicy lee: of Mutton three quarters, then gash 
it in several places, and press out the juice by a screw 
press." — From Sir Kenklm DioBv'h Cookery , 18mo. 
Lotidon, 1669. 

Cuny Sauce — (No. '-548.) 

Is made by stirring; a sufticient quantity of Curry 
stulf, see (No 4.')0), into gravy or melted butter, or 
onion sauce, (Nos. 297, 298), or onion gravy (No. 299 
or 339.) 

The compositions of Curry Powder and the Palates 
of those who eat it vary so much, that we cannot re- 
commend any specific quantity. The Cook must add 
it by degrees, tasting as she proceeds, and take care 
not to put in too much. 

Obs. — The Curry powder (No. 455,) approximates 
more nearly to the best Indian Curry stuft", and is an 
agreeable and well blended mixture of this class of 
aromatics. 

N. B. To dress Curries, see (No. 497.) 

Essence uf Ham. — (No. 351.) 

Essence of Ham and of Beef may be purchased 
at the Eating-houses which cut up those joints, — the 
former for half a crown or three shdlings a Quart : it is 
therefore a most Economical relish for Made Dishes, 
and to give piquance to Sauces, &c. 

Grill Sauce,— (So. 355.) 
To half a pint of Gravy (No. 329), add an ounce of 
fresh Butter, and a tablespoonful of Flour, previously 



GRAVIES AND SAUCES. 333^^ 

well rubbed together, the same of Mushroom, or 
Walm.it Catsup, — two teaspoonsful of Lemon juice, one 
of made Mustard, one of minced Capers, half a one of 
black Pepper, a quarter of the rind of a Lemon, grated 
very thin, a teaspoonful of Essence of Anchovies, and a 
little Shallot wine (No. 402), or a very small piece of 
minced Shallot, and a little Chili Vinegar (No. 405), or 
a few grains of Cayenne, simmer together for a few mi- 
nutes, and pour a little of it over the Grill, and send 
up the rest in a sauce tureen. For Anchovy toasts, 
(No. 573 or 538,) 

Or, 

Sauce d la Tar fare. 

Pound in a mortar three hard yolks of Eggs, put 
them into a "Basin, and add half a tablespoonful of 
made Mustard, and a little Pepper and Salt, — pour to 
it by degrees, stirring it fast all the while, about two 
wineglassesful of saiad oil, — stir it together till it 
comes to a good thickness. 

N. B. A little Tarragon or Chervil minced very finelv, 
and a little Vinegar, may be added, or some of the 
ingredients enumerated in (No. 372.) 

Ohs. — This from the French Artist who wrote the 
Receipt for dressing a Turtle. 

Obi;. — These <ire piquante relishes for Anchovy toasts 
(No. 573), or (No. 538); for Broiled Devils, &c., 
" Veritable sauce (VEnfer," see (No. 538), and a re- 
freshing excitement for those idle palates, who are as 
incessantly mumbling out '^piquante, piquante," as 
Parrots do " Pretty Foil, Fretty Foil J' 

**For palates i^rown callous almost to disease, 
Who peppers the highest is surest to please," 

Goldsmith. 

SAUCE/br Steaks, or Chops, Cutlets, S^c. — 
(No. 356.) See also (^0, 331.) 
Take your Chops out of the Frying Pan ; — for a 
pound of meat, keep a tablespoonful of the Fat in the 



3d4' GRAVIES AND SAUCES. 

Pan, or put in about an ounce of Butter, — put to it as 
much flour as will make it a paste, rub it well together 
over the fire till they are a little brown, — then add as 
much boiling water as will reduce it to the thickness of 
good Cream, and a tablespoonful of Mushroom, or 
Walnut Catsup, or Pickle, or Browning (No. 322), or 
(No. 449); — let it boil together a few minutes, and 
pour it through a sieve to the Steaks, Szc. 

Obs, — 'Jo the above is sometimes added a sliced 
Onion, or a minced Eshallot, with a tablespoonful of 
Port wine, or a little Shallot wine (Nos. 402, 423, or 
135.) Garnish with finely scraped Horseradish or 
pickled Walnuts, Gherkins, &c. Some V>vtf Eaters 
like chopped Shallots in one Saucer and Horseradish 
grated in Vinegar in another. Broiled Mushrooms are 
favourite relishes to Beef Steaks. 

Sauce Piquniitefur Cold Meaty Game, Puuliiy, Fish, ^c., 

or Salads, — {>io. 359.) See aho (No. 372), and 

Cucumber J'wes;ar (Nos. 399 and 453.) 

Pound in a mortar the yolks of two eggs that have 

been boiled hard (>^. 547), v.ith a mustard-spoonful 

of made mustard, and a little pepper and salt, add two 

tablespoonsful of salad oil, mix well, and then add 

three tablespoonsful of Vinegar, rub it up well till it is 

quite smooth, and pass it through a tarn mis or sieve. 

Obs. — To the above some add an Anchovy or a 
tablespoonful of Mushroom Catsup, or Walnut Pickle, 
some finely chopped Parsley, — grated Horseradish, — 
or young Onions minced, or Burnet (No. 399), Horse- 
radish (No. 399* or 402), — or Tarragon, or Elder 
Vinegar (No. 396),<&:c. and Cayenne or minced Pickles, 
Capers, Arc. This is a piquanfe relish for Lobsters, 
Crabs, cold fish, &c. 

Sauce for Hashes of Mutton, or Bekf. — (No. 360.) 
See also (Nos. 451, 4S5),and to make plain Hash 
(No. 486.) 
Unless you are quite sure you perfectly understand 



GRAVIES AND SAUCES. 335 

the Palate of those you are working for, — show those 
who are to eat the Hash this Receipt, and beg of them 
to direct you how they zvish it seasoned. 

Half the number of the Ingredients enumerated 
will be more than enough, — but as it is a Receipt 
so often wanted, we have given variety. See also 
(No. 486.) 

To prepare the Meat, see (No. 484.) 

Chop the bones and fragments of the joint, &c., 
and put them into a stewpan, and cover them with 
boiling water, six berries of Black pepper, the same of 
Allspice, a small bundle of Parsley, half a head of Celery 
cut in pieces, and a small sprig of Savory, or Lemon- 
thynie, or sweet Marjoram ; cover up, and let it simmer 
gently for half an hour. 

Slice half an ounce of Onion, and put it into a stewpan 
with an ounce of Butter, fry it over a sharp fire for 
about a couple of minutes, till it takes a little colour ; 
then stir in as much Flour as will make it a stiff paste, 
and by degrees mix with it the gravy you have made 
from the bones, &c. ; let it boil very gently for about 
a quarter of an hour, till it is the consistence of thick 
cream, strain it through a tammis or sieve into a basin ; 
put it back into the stewpan ; to season it, see 
(No. 451), or cut in a few pickled Onions, — or Wal- 
nuts, — or a couple of Gherkins, — and a tabiespoonful 
of Mushroom Catsup, — or Walnut or other Pickle 
Liquor, — or some Capers, and Caper Liquor, — or a 
tabiespoonful of Ale, — or a little Shallot, or Tarragon 
Vinegar; cover the bottom of the dish with Sippets of 
Bread, (that they may become savoury reservoirs of 
Gravy), which some toast and cut into triangles, — Yow 
may garnish it with fried Bread Sippets (No. 319.) 

N. B. To HASH MEAT IN PERFECTION, it should 

be laid in this Gravy only just long enough to get pro- 
perly warm through. 

Obs, — If any of the gravy that was sent up with, or 



336 GRAVIES AND SAUCES. 

ran from the joint when it was roasted, be left, it will, 
be a great improvement to the Hash. 

If you wish to make Mock Venison, — instead of 
the Onion, put in two or three Cloves, a tablespoonful 
of Currant Jelly, and the same quantity of Claret or 
Port wine, instead of the Catsup. 

You may make a Curry Hash by adding some of 
(No. 455.) 

N. B. A pint of (No. 329) is an excellent Gravy, to 
warm up either Meat or Poultry, 

Sauce for Hashed ur Minced Veal. — (No. 361.) 
See (No. 511.) 

1 ake tb.e ])ones of cold roast or boiled Veal, dredge 
them well with flour, and put them into a stewpan, 
with a jjint and a half of broth or water, a small Onion, 
a little grated or finely minced Lemon-peel, or the peel 
of a quarter of a small Lemon, pared as thin as possible, 
half a teaspoonfiil of salt, and a blade of pounded 
Mace; — to Thicken it, rub a tablespoonful of Flour 
into half an ounce of Butter; stir it into the broth, and 
set it on the fire, and let it lioil very gently for about 
half an hour, strain through a tammis or sieve, and it 
is ready to put to the veal to warm up, which is to be 
(lone by placing tlie stewpan by the side of the fire. 
Squeeze in half a lemon, and cover the bottom of the 
dish with toasted bread sippets cut into triangles, and 
garnish the disli with slices of Ham or Bacon. See 
(Nos. 526 and 527.) 

0^5.— Read (No. 484); a little Basil Wine (No. 397), 
gives an agreeable vegetable relish to Hashed Veal. 

Bechamel, by English Cooks com?nonli/ called VJ^uiTE 
Sauce. — (No. 364.) ' 
Cut in square pieces half an inch thick, two pounds 
of lean Veal, half a pound of lean Ham, melt in a 
stewpan two ounces of Butter ; when melted, let the 
whole simmer until it is ready to catch at the Bottom, 



GRAVIES AND SAUCES. 337 

(it requires great attention, as if it happen to catch at 
the bottom of the stewpan, it will spoil the look of your 
Sauce), then add to it three tablespoonsful of flour; when 
well mixed, add to it three pints of broth or water, 
pour a little at a time, that the thickening be smooth, 
stir it until it boil, put the stewpan on the corner of the 
stove to boil gently for two hours, season it with four 
cloves, one onion, twelve peppercorns, a blade of mace, 
a few mushrooms, and a fagot made of parsley, a sprig 
of thyme, and a bay-leaf. Let the Sauce reduce to a 
quart, skim the fat off, and strain it through a tammis 
cloth. 

To make a Bechamel Sauce, add to a quart of the 
above, a pint of good cream, stir it until it is reduced 
to a good thickness; a few mushrooms give a good 
flavour to that Sauce; strain it through a tammis 
cloth. 

Ohs. — The above was given us by a French Artist. 

A more Economical Method of making a Pint of White 
Sauce. — (No. 365, No. 2.) 

Put equal parts of broth and milk into a stewpan 
with an onion and a blade of mace, set on the fire to 
boil ten minutes, have ready and rub together on a 
plate an ounce of Flour and Butter, put it into the 
stewpan, stir it well till it boils up, then stand it near 
the fire or stove, stirring it every now and then till it 
becomes quite smooth, then strain it through a sieve 
into a basin, put it back into the stewpan, season it 
with salt and the juice of a small lemon, beat up the 
yolks of two Eggs well with about three tablespoonsful 
of milk, strain it through a sieve into your Sauce, stir 
it well and keep it near the fire, but be sure and do 
not let it boil, for it will curdle. 

Obs. — A convenient veil for boiled Fowls, &c. whose 
complexions are not inviting. 

Mem.—Wiih the assistance of the Magazine of Taste 
Q 



338 GRAVIES AXD SAUCES. 

(Xo. 463) you may give this Sauce a variety of 
Havours. 

Obs. — Bechamel implies a thick white Sauce, 
approaching to a batter, — and takes its name from a 
wealthy French Marquess, Jiiditrc (riwtel de Louis XIV. 
and famous for his patronage of '' Ics OfTiciers de Bouche," 
— who have immortalized him, by calling by his name 
this delicate composition. 

Most of the French Sauces take their name from the 
person whose palate thev first pleased, as 'W/ la yiaw- 
tenon ;" or from some famous Cook who invented them, 
as " Sauce Robert," " a la M()?}tizcur" &c. 

We have in the English kitchen, our " Argyll" for 
Gravy, and the little *' Sanduicii" monuments " ase 
perennius," 



All. I llins MONTTITH 



" II.u, by one vessel, sav'd his Nanif from Peatli." 

King's .Irt of Cookery. 

Puiiradc Sauce. — (No. 365.) 

Tliis, as its title tells us, is a Sauce of French ex- 
traction. The following receipt is from " La Cuisinierc 
Bourgeoise," page 408. 

" Put a bit of butter as big as an egg into a stevvpaii 
with two or three (bits of) onion, carrot, and turnip, cut 
in slices, two shallots, two cloves, a bay leaf, thyme, 
and basil, keep turning them in the pan till they get a 
little colour, — shake in some flour, and add a glass of 
red Wine, a glass of water, and a spoonful of Vinegar, 
and a little Pepper and Salt, boil half an hour, skim 
and strain it." 

Mustard i?i a Minute. — (No. 369.) 
Mix very gradually, and rub together in a mortar, 
an ounce of flour of Mustard, with three tablespoonsful 
of Milk, (cream is better), half a teaspoonful of Salt, 
and the same of sugar, rub them well together till quite 
smooth. 



GRAVIES AND SAUCES. 339 

Obs. — Mustard made in this manner, is not at all 
bitter, and is therefore instantly ready for the table. 

N.B. It has been said that Flour of Mustard is 
sometimes adulterated with common flour, &c. &c. 

The Mustard sold at Apothecaries' Hall, is 
excellent, where may also be had all sorts of Peppers, 
Spices, &c. of the best quality, and very finely pow- 
dered. 

Mustard. — (No. 370.) 

Mix (by deg^rees, by rubbing together in a mortar) 
the best Durham flour of Mustard, with cold water, in 
which scraped Horseradish has been boiled, )-ub it ivcll 
togtther till it is perftctl]/ smooth ; it will keep in a stone 
jar closely stopped, for a fortnight; — only put as much 
into the Mustard pot as will be used in a day or two. 

The Ready made Mustard, prepared at the oil 
shops, is mixed with about one-fourth part salt: this is 
done to preserve it, if it is to be kept long ; otherwise, 
by all means omit it. — The best way of eating Salt, is 
in substance. 

*** See also Recipe (No. 427.) 

Obs. — We believe Mustard is the best of all the 
stimulants that are employed to give energy to the 
Digestive OTgans. — Some opulent Epicures mix it 
with Sherry or Madeira wine, or distilled, or flavoured 
Vinegar, instead of Horseradish water. 

The French flavour their Mustard with Champ?jgne 
and other \yines, — or with Vinegar flavoured with 
Capers, — Anchovies, — Tarragon, — Elder, — Basil, 

— Burnet, — Garlick, — Shallot, — or Celery, — see 
(No, 395 to No. 402); warming it with Cayenne, or 
the various Spices; — Sweet, — Savoury, — fine Herbs, 

— Truffles, — Catsups, — &c. &c. and seem to con- 
sider Mustard, merely as a vehicle of flavours. 

N.B. In Moxs. Maille et Aclocque's catalogue 
of Persian " Bon$ Bons," there is a list of 28 differently 
flavoured Mustards. 

q2 



/ 



340 GRAVIES AND SAUCES. 

Salt. — (No. 371.) 

Is (** aliurum condimcntorum Co//r/iw<'«///w/' as Plutarch 
calls it), Sauce for Sauce. 

Common Salt, is more relishing: than Basket Salt; — it 
should be prepared for the Table, by drj-ing it in a 
Dutch oven before the fire ; then put it on a clean 
paper, and roll it with a rolling pin ; — if you pound it 
in a Mortar till it is quite fine, it will look as uell as 
Basket Salt. Malden Salt is still more piquantej — 
this is sold at Lambert's Oil-sliop, Ludgate Hil. 
•^* Select for table use the Lumps of Salt . 

Ohs. — Your Salt Box must have a close cover, and 
be kept in a dry place. 

Salad Mixture. — (No. 372.) See. also (No. 1 38*) 
and (No. 453.) 

Endeavour to have vour Salad Herbs as fresh as pos- 
sible : if you susjjcct they are not " mornino^ gathered," 
they will be much refreshed by lying an hour or two in 
spring water; tlun carefully wash and pick tiiem, and 
trim ofi'all tlie worm eaten, slimy, cankered, dry leaves, 
and after washing, let them remain a while in the cul- 
lender to drain ; lastly, swing them gently in a clean 
coarse napkin; — when properly picked and cut, arrange 
them in the Salad Dish, —mix the Sauce in a Soup 
plate, and jnit it into an Inirrcdient Bottle*, or pour 
it down the side of the Salad Dish, — and don't stir it 
up till the mouths are ready for it. 

If the Herbs be young, — fresh gathered, — trimmed 

neatly, and drained dry,— and the Sauce maker ponders 

patiently over the following directions, — he cannot 

gfail obtaining the fame of being a very accomplished 

Salad-dresser. 



• These are sold at (he Glass shops, under the name of Incorporator*, — 
we recommend the sauce to be mixed in these, and the Company can then 
take it, or leave it, as they like. 



GRAVIES AND SAUCES. 341 

Boil a couple of Eggs for twelve minutes, and put 
them in a basin of cold water for a few minutes, — the 
Yolks must be quite cold and hard, or they xvill not incor- 
porate with the ingredients. Rub them through a sieve 
with a wooden spoon, and mix them with a tablespoonful 
of Water, or fine double Cream, then add two table- 
spoonsful of Oil or melted Butter ; when these are well 
mixed, add by degrees, a teaspoonful of Salt, or 
powdered lump Sugar, and the same of made Mustard ; 
when these are smoothly united, add very gradually 
three tablespoonsful of Vinegar, rub it with the other 
ingredients till thoroughly incorporated with them ; 
cut up the white of the egg, and garnish the top of the 
salad with it. Let the Sauce remain at the bottom of 
the Bowl, and do not stir up the Salad till it is to be 
eaten ; — we recommend the eaters to be mindful of 
the duty of mastication, — without the due performance 
of which, all undressed Vegetables are troublesome 
company for the principal viscera, and some are even 
dangerously indigestible. 

Boiled Salad. 

This is best compounded of boiled or baked Onions, 
(if Portugal the better), some baked Beet root. Cauli- 
flower or Brocoli, and boileo Celery and French Beans, 
or any of these articles, with the common Salad dressing; 
added to this, to give it an enticing appearance, and to 
give some of the crispness and freshness so pleasant 
in salad, a small quantity of raw Endive, or Lettice and 
Chervil, or Burnet, strewed on the top : this is by far 
more wholesome than the Raw Salad, and is much 
eaten when put on the table. 

N.B. The above Sauce is equally good with cold 
Meat, — cold Fish, — or for Cucumbers, — Celery, — 
Radishes, &c,, (and all the other Vegetables that are 
sent to table undressed) ; to the above, a little minced 
Onion is generally an acceptable addition. 

0Z)4^. — Salad is a very compound dish with our 



342 GRAVIES AND SAUCES. 

neighbours the Frencli, who always add to the mixture 
above, Black Pepper, and sometimes Savoury Spice. 

The Italians mince the white meat of Chickens into 
this sauce. 

The Dutch, cold boiled Turbot, or Lobster; or add 
to it a spoonful of g'ratod Parmesan or old Cheshire 
cheese, or mince very fine a little Tarragon, — or Chervil, 
— Burnet, — or young Onion, — Celery, — or pickled 
Gherkins, &c. 

Joan Cromwell's Grand Salad was composed of 
equal parts of Almonds, Raisins, Capers, Pickled 
Cucumbers, Shrimps, and Boiled Turnips. 

'Ihis mixture is sometimes made with cream, oiled 
butter, see (No. 260*), or some good Jelly of meat, 
(which many prefer to the finest Florence oil), and 
riavoured wi'lh Salad IMixturc (No. 453), Basil (No. 
397), or Cress or Celery Vinegar (No. 397*), Horse- 
radish Vinegar (No. 399*), Cucumber Vinegar (No. 
399), Tarragon, or Elder Vinegar ; essence of Celery 
(No. 409), Walnut or Lemon Pickle, or a slice of 
Lemon cut into dice, essence of Anchovy (No. 433.) 

FORCEMEAT STUFFINGS. —(No. 373.) 

Forcemeat is now considered an indispensable ac- 
companiment to most Made Dishes, and when composed 
with good taste, gives additional spirit and relish to 
even that ''■ Sovereign of Savouriness," Turtle Soup. 

It is also sent up in Patties, and for stuffing of Veal, 
Game, Poultry, &c. 

The ingredients should be so proportioned, that no 
one flavour predominates ; — instead of giving the same 
stuffing for Veal, HarC; &c., with a little contrivance, 
you may make as great a variety as you have Dishes. 

I have given Receipts for some of the most favourite 
compositions, and a Table of Materials, a glance at 
which will enable the ingenious Cook to make an 
infinite variety of combinations : the first column con- 
taining the spirit, the second the substance of them. 



tJRAVIES AND SAUCES. 343 

The poignancy of Forceineat should be proportioned 
to the savouriness of the viands, to which it is intended 
to give an additional Zest. Some dishes require a very 
delicately flavoured forcemeat, — for others, it must be 
full and high seasoned. What would be piquante in a 
Turkey, — w^ould be insipid with Turtle. 

Tastes are so different, — and the praise the Cook 
receives, will depend so much on her pleasing the palate 
of those she works for, that all her sagacity must be 
on the alert, to produce the flavours to which her 
employers are partial. See pages 59 and 60. 

Most people have an acquired, and peculiar taste in 
stuffings, &c., and what exactly pleases one, seldom 
is precisely what another considers the most agreeable : 
and after all the contrivance of a pains-taking pala- 
tician, to combine her " htuf gouts'' in the most har- 
monious proportions, 

*' The very dish one likes Ihe best, 
Is acid, or insipid, to the rest." 

Custom is all in all, in matters of Taste, — it is not 
that one person is naturally fond of this or that, and 
another naturally averse to it, — but that one is used 
to it, and another is not. 

The consistency of Forcemeats is rather a difficult 
thing to manage; they are almost always either too 
light or too heavy. 

Take c^re to pound it till perfect ly smooth, and that alt 
the ingredients are thoroughly incorporated. 

Forcemeat balls must not be larger than a small 
nutmeg, — if they are for Broun Sauce, flour them and 
fry them ; — if for Tfliite, put them into boiling water, 
and boil them for three minutes ; the latter are by far 
the most delicate. 

N.B. If not of sufficient stiffness, it falls to pieces, 
and makes Soup, &c. grouty and very unsightly. 

Sweetbreads and Toxgues are the favourite ma- 
terials for forcemeat. 



344 



GRAVIES AND SAUCES. 



Materials used for Forcemeat, Stuffings, &c. 



1- ^r 



-= ^ 



a 



SubstaT%ces. 
rionr. 

Crumbs of Bread. 
Parsley. See K.B. to (No. «6l.) 
Spinach. 
Boiled Onion. 

Mashed I'otatoes (No. 106.) 
Yolks of hard Eggs (No. 574} 
Motion. 
Beef. 

Veal Suet*, or Marrow. 
Cairs Udder, or Brains. 
Parboiled Swkktbrkau. 
Veal minccii and pounded, and 
Potted Meats, &c. (No. 503.) 



Spirit. 
Common Thyme. "~\ 
Lemon Thyme. ' 

Orange Thyme. 
Sweet Marjoram. 
Summer and 
Winter Savory. 
Sage. 

Tarragon (No. 390.) 
Chervil. 

Burnet (No. 399.) 
Basil (No. 397.) 
Bay-leaf. 
Trnffle* and 
Morells. 

Mushroom Powder (No. 439.) 
Leeks. 
Onions. 

Fjhallot (No. 40?.) 
Gariick. 

Ixmon Peel, see (Nos. 407 and 4O8.) 
Shrimps (No. 175.) 
Prawns. 
Crabs. 

Lobsters (Nos, 176 aD<l 17«.) 
Oysters. 

Anchovy (No. 433.) 
Dressed Tonouk. See N. B. to 

(No. 373.) 
Ham. 
Bacou. 

Black or White Pepper. 
Allspice. 
Mace. 
Cinnamon. 
Ginger. 
Nutmegs. 
Cloves. 
Capers and Pickles, (minced or 

pounded.; 
Savoury Powder (No. 465.) 
Soup Herb I'owder (No. -iOj.) 
Curry Powder (No. 455.) 
Cayenne (No. 404.) 
Zeit (No. 253.) 

For Liquids, you have Meat Gravy, Lemon Juice, 
Syrup of Lemons (Nos. 391 and 477), Essence of An- 
chovy, see (No. 433), the various Vegetable Essences, 
see (No. 407), and Mushroom Catsup (No. 439), and 
the whites and yolks of E^rgs, — Wines, — and the 
Essence of Spices. 

» If you have no Suet, — the best substitute for it is abont one-third part 
the quantity of Butter. 



GRAVIES AND SAUCES. 345 

Stuffing for Veal, Roast Turkey, Fowl, ^-c — (No. 374.) 

Mince a quarter of a pound of Beef Suet, (Beef 
Marrow is better^, the same weight of Bread Crumbs, 
two drachms of Parsley leaves, a drachm and a half of 
sweet Marjoram (or Lemon-thyme), and the same of 
grated Lemon-peel, and Onion or Eshallot, chopped 
as fine as possible, a little grated Nutmeg, Pepper, and 
Salt: — pound thoroughly together with the yolk and 
white of two Eggs, and secure it in the Veal with a 
skewer, or sew it in with a bit of thread. 

Make some of it into Balls or Sausages, flour them, 
and boil, or fry them, and send them up as a garnish, 
or in a side dish, with roast Poultry, Veal, or Cutlets, 
&c. 

N. B. This is about the quantity for a Turkey 
PouLT ; a very large Turkey will take nearly twice as 
much. To the above may be added an ounce of 
dressed Ham, — or use equal parts of the above Stuff- 
ing, and Pork Sausage Meat (No. 87), pounded icell 
together. 

Obs. — Good Stuffing has always been considered a 
chef-d'oeuvre in Cookery; it has given immortality to 

" Poor Roger Fowler, who'd a g-eiierous mind, 
Jior would submit to have his hand confin'd. 
But aimed at all, — yet never could excel 
In any thing bat stuffing of his Veal." 

King's Art of Cookery, p. lis. 

Veal Forcemeat. — (No. 375.) 

Of undressed lean Veal, (after you have scraped it 
quite fine, and free from skin and sinews), two ounces, 
the same quantity of (Beef or Veal) Suet, and the same 
of Bread Crumbs, chop fine two drachms of Parsley, 
one of Lemon-peel, one of Sweet Herbs, one of Onion, 
and half a drachm of Mace, or Allspice, (beaten to fine 
powder); pound all together in a mortar, break into it 
the yolk and white of an Egg ; — rub it all up well 
together, and season it with a little pepper and salt. 



346 GRAVIES AND SAUCES. 

Obs. — This may be made more savoury, by the 
addition of cold boiled pickled Tongue, Anchovy, 
Eshallot, Cayenne, or Curry powder, &c. 

^^('iffingfor Boiled Turkei/. — (So. 377.) 

Take the foregoing composition for the Roast Turkey, 
— or add the soft part of a dozen Oysters to it, — an 
Anchovy, — or a little grated Ham, or Tongue, if you 
like it, is still more relishing. 

Purk Sausage Men th sometimes used to stuft'Turkeys, 
and Fowls, — or fried and sent up as a Garnish. 

Goose or Duck S/iilIing. — {So. 378.) 

Chop very fine about two ounces of Onion, — of 
green Sage leaves about an ounce, (both unboiled), 
four ounces of Bread Crumbs, the yolk and wl)ite of 
an Egg, and a little pepper and salt ; some add to 
this a minced Apple. 

For another, sec Roasted Guose and Duck (Xos. 59 
and 61), which latter we like as Forcemeat Brills for 
Mock Turtle ; then add a little Lemon-peel, and warm 
it with Cayenne. 

Stuffing for Hare.- (So. 379.) 

Two ounces of Beef Suet chopped fine, — three 
ounces of fine Bread Crumbs, — Parsley, a drachm, 
Shallot, half a drachm, — a drachm of Marjoram, Le- 
mon-Thyme, or Winter Savory, — a drachm of grated 
Lemon-peel, — half a drachm of Nutmeg, — and the 
same of Pepper and Salt; — mix these with the white 
and yolk of an Egg, — do not make it thin, — it 
must be of cohesive consistence, — if your Stuffing is 
not stift' enough, it will be good for nothing, — put it 
in the hare, and sew it up. 

*,* If the Liver is quite sound, you may parboil it, 
and mince it leryfne, and add it to the above. 



GRAVIES AND SAUCES. 347 

Forcemeat Balls for Turtle, Mock Turtle, or Made' 

Dis/ies.—(No. 380.) See also (No. 375.) 
Pound some Veal in a marble mortar, rub it through 
a sieve with as much of the udder as you have Veai, 
or about a third the quantity of Butter ; — put some 
Bread-crumbs into a stewpan, moisten them with milk, 
add a little chopped Parsley and Shallot, rub them 
well together in a mortar, till they form a smooth 
paste; put it through a sieve, and when cold, pound, 
and mix all together, with the yolks of three Eggs 
boiled hard ; season it v;ith salt, pepper, and Curry 
powder, or Cayenne, add to it the yolks of two raw 
Eggs, rub it well together, and make small balls : ten 
minutes before your Soup is ready, put them in. 

Egg Balls. — (t^o. 381.) 

Boil four Eggs for ten minutes, and put them into 
cold water, — when they are quite cold, put the yolks 
into a mortar with the yolk of a raw eg^, a teaspoonfiil 
of flour, same of chopped parsley, as much salt as will 
lie on a shilling, and a little black pepper, or Cayenne, 
rub them well together, roll them into small Balls, (as 
they swell in boiling), — boil them a couple of minutes. 

Brain Balls. 

See (No. 247), or beat up the brains of a Calf in the 
way we have above directed the Egg. 

Curri^ Balls, for Mock Turtle, Veal, Poultry, Made 
Dishes, (^c — (No. 382.) 

Are made with Bread-crumbs, the yolk of an Egg 
boiled hard, and a bit of fresh Butter about half as big, 
beaten together in a mortar, and seasoned with Curry 
powder, see (No. 455) ; make and prepare small Balls, 
as directed in (No. 381.) 

Fish Forcemeat.— (No. 383.) 

Take two ounces of either Turbot, Sole, Lobster, 



348 GRAVIES AND SAUCES. 

Shrimps, or Oysters, free from skin, put it in a mortar, 
with two ounces of fresh Butter, one ounce of Bread 
crumbs, the yolk of two Eggs boiled hard, and a 
little Eshallot, grated Lemon-peel, and Parsley, minced 
very fine ; then pound it well till it is thoroughly mixed 
and quite smooth ; season it with salt and Cayenne to 
your taste, break in the yolk and white of one Egg, rub 
it well together, and it is ready for use. Oysters par- 
boiled and minced fine, and an Anchovij, may be added. 

Zest Balls. — (No. 386.) — See (No. 25.5.) 
Prepared in the same way as (No. 381.) 

Orange or Lemon Peel, to mix with Stuffing. — (No. 387.) 

Peel a Seville Orange, or Lemon, very thin, taking 
off only the fine i/clluie rind, (without any of the white,) 
pound it in a mortar with a bit of lump sugar, rub it 
well with the peel, — by degrees add a little of the 
forcemeat it is to be mixed witli ; when it is well 
ground and blended with this, mix it with the whole : 
there is no other way of incorporating it so well. 

Forcemeats, &c. are frequently spoiled by the insuf- 
ficient mixing of the ingredients. 

Clouted or Clotted Cream. ~{^o. 388.) 

The milk which is put into the pans one morning 
stands till the next; then set the pan on a hot hearth, 
(or in a Copper Tray*, half full of water, — put this 
over a stove); in from ten to twenty minutes, according 
to the quantity of the milk and the size of the pan, it 
will be enoug-h, — the sign of w^hich is, that bladders 
rise on its surface; this denotes that it is near boiling, 
which it must by no means do; and it must be in- 
stantly removed from the fire, and placed in the dairy 
till the next morning, when the fine cream is thrown 

• A Bain-marie. See Note to (No, 485.) 



GRAVIES AND SAUCES. 349 

Up, and is ready for the table, or for Butter, into which 
it is soon converted by stirring it with the hand. 
N.B. This Receipt we have not proved. 

Raspberry Finegar. — (No. 390.) 
The best way to make this, is to pour three pints of 
the best white wine Vinegar on a pint and a half 
of fresh- gathered Red Raspberries in a stone Jar, or 
China bowl, (neither glazed earthe7iware, Jior any metaUic 
vessel, mmt be used ;) the next day strain the liquor over 
a like quantity of /resh Raspberries ; and the day fol- 
lowing do the same. Then drain off the liquor without 
pressing, and pass it through a Jelly Bag (previously 
wetted with plain Vinegar) into a stone Jar, with a 
pound of pounded lump Sugar to each pint. When 
the Sugar is dissolved, stir it up, cover down the Jar, 
and set it in a saucepan of water, and keep it boiling 
for an hour, taking off the scum ; add to each pint a 
glass of Brandy, and bottle it : mixed in about eight 
parts of water, it is a very refreshing and delightful 
Summer drink. An excellent cooling beverage to as- 
suage thirst in ardent fevers, colds, and inflammatory 
complaints, &c., and is agreeable to most palates. 
See (No. 479*.) 
N.B. We have not proved this Receipt. 

Syrup of Lemons. — (No. 391.) 

The best Season for Lemons, is from November to 
March. — Put a pint of fresh Lemon juice to a pound 
and three quarters of Lump Sugar; dissolve it by a 
gentle heat, scum it till the surface is quite clear^ — 
add an ounce of thin cut Lemon Peel ; let them simmer 
(very gently) together for a few minutes, and run 
it through a flannel. Vfheii cold, bottle and cork 
it closely, and keep it in a cool place. 

Or, 
Dissolve a quarter of an ounce (Avoirdupois) of 



350 GRAVIES AND SAUCES. 

Citric, i.e. crystallized Lemon-acid, in a pint of 
Clarified Syrup (No. 475), flavour it with the Peel, 
with (No. 408), or dissolve the acid in equal parts of 
Simple Syrup (No. 475), and Syrup of Lemon Peel, 
made as (No. 393.) 

T/ie Justice's Orange Si/nip, for 'Punch ur Puddi/ips, 
(No. 392.) 

Squeeze the Oranc:es, and strain the juice from the 
pulp into a large pot: boil it up with a pound and a 
half of fine Sugar to each pint of juice ; skim it well, 
let it stand till cold, and then bottle it, and cork it well. 

Ohs. — This makes a fine, soft, mellow-flavoured 
Punch ; and, added to melted butter, is a good relisli 
to Puddings. 

Si/rup of Orange or Lemon Peel. — (No. 393.) 
Of fresh outer rind of Seville orange or Lemon-peel, 
three ounces, apothecaries' weight ; boiling water, a pint 
and a half; infuse them for a night in a close vessel ; 
then strain tiie liquor; let it stand to settle; and hav- 
ing poured it ofl' clear from the sediment, dissolve in it 
two pounds of double refined loaf sugar, and make it 
into a syrup with a gentle heat. 

Ohs. — In making this syrup, if the sugar be dis- 
solved in the infusion with as gentle a heat as possible, 
to prevent the exhalation of the volatile parts of the Peel, 
this syrup will possess a great share of the fine fla- 
vour of the orange, or lemon-peel. 

Vinegar for Salads — (No. 395.) 
Take of Tarragon, — Savory, — Chives, — Eshallots, 
three ounces each, — a handful of the tops of Mint and 
Balm, — all dry and pounded ; put into a wide-mouthed 
Bottle, with a gallon of best Vinegar ; cork it close, 
set it in the Sun, and in a fortnight strain oft", and 
squeeze the herbs, let it stand a day to settle, and 
then strain it through a filtering Bag. — Frotn Parmex- 
tier's rjrt de Faircles Vinaigres, 8vo. 1805, p. 205. 



GRAVIES AND SAUCES. 351 

Tarragon Vinegar. — (No. 396.) 

This is a very agreeable addition to Soups, Salad 
Sauce (No. 455), and to mix Mustard (No. 370.) Fill 
a wide-mouthed bottle with fresh-gathered Tarragon 
leaves, i. e. between Midsummer and Michaelmas, 
(which should be gathered on a dry day, just before 
it flowers,) and pick the leaves off the stalks, and 
dry them a little before the fire; cover them with the 
best Vinegar, let them steep fourteen days, then strain 
through a flannel Jelly Bag till it is fine, then pour 
it into half-pint bottles; cork them carefully, and 
keep them in a dry place. 

Obs. — You may prepare Elder-fiowers and Herbs in 
the same manner ; Elder and Tarragon are those in 
most general use in this country. 

Our neighbours, the French, prepare Vinegars fla- 
voured with Celery, — Cucumbers, — Capsicums, — Gar- 
lick, — Eshallot, — Onion, — Capers, — Chervil, — Cress- 
seed, — Burnet, — Truffles, — Seville Orange Peel, — 
Ginger, &c. ; in short, they impregnate them with 
almost every Herb, — Fruit, — Flower, — and Spice 
separa,tely, and in innumerable combinations. 

Messrs. Maille et Acloque, Vinaigriers a Paris, sell 
65 sorts of variously flavoured Vixegars, and 28 dif- 
ferent sorts of Mustard. 

Basil Vinegar or JVine. — Q^o. 397.) 

Sweet Basil is in full perfection about the middle of 
August. Fill a wide-m.outhed bottle with the fresh 
green leaves of Basil, (these give much finer and more 
flavour than the dried,) and cover them with Vinegar — 
or Wine, — and let them steep for ten days ; if you wish 
a very strong Essence, strain the liquor, put it on some 
fresh leaves, and let them steep fourteen days more. 

Obs. — This is a very agreeable addition to Sauces, — 
'^oups, — and to the mixture usually made for Salads, 
see (No. 372), and (No. 453.) 



352 GRAVIES AND SAtCES. 

It is a secret the makers of Mock Turtle may 
thank us for telling; a tablespoonful put in when the 
Soup is finished, will impregnate a tureen of soup, with 
the Basil, and Acid flavours, at very small cost, when 
fresh Basil and Lemons are extravag-antly dear. 

The flavour of the other Sweet, and Savoury 
Herbs, — Celery, &c. may be procured, and pre- 
served in the same manner. See (No. 409), or (No. 
417), by infusing them in wine — or vinegar. 

Cress Vinegar.— {"So. 397*.) 

Dry and and pound half an ounce of Cress Seed, (such 
as is sown in the garden with Mustard,) pour upon it a 
quart of the best Vinegar, let it steep ten days, shaking 
it up every day. 

Obs. — This is very strongly flavoured with Cress, — 
and for Salads, and Cold Meats, &c. it is a great 
favourite with many; — the Quart of Sauce costs only a 
Half-penny more than the Vinegar. 

Celery Vinegar is made in the same manner. 

The Crystal Vinegar (No. 407*), which is, we be- 
lieve, the Pyruligneons Acid, is the best for receiving 
flavours, — having scarcely any of its own. 

Green Mint Vinegar, — (No. 398.) 

Is made precisely in the same manner, and w^th the 
same proportions, as in (No. 397.) 

Obs. — In the early season of Housed-Lamb, Green 
Mint is sometimes not to be got; the above is then a 
welcome substitute. 

Burnet or Cucumber Vinegar. — (No. 399.) 

This is made in precisely the same manner as di- 
rected in (No. 397.) The flavour of Burnet resembles 
Cucumber so exactly, that when infused in Vinegar, 
the nicest palate would pronounce it to be Cucumber. 



GRAVIES AND SAUCES. 353 

Obs. — This is a very favourite relish with Cold Meat, 
Salads, &c. 

Burnet is in best season from Midsummer to Mi- 
chaelmas. 

Horseradish Vinegar. — ^No. 399*.) 

Horseradish is in highest perfection about Novem- 
ber. 

Pour a quart of best Vinegar on three ounces of 
scraped Horseradish, an ounce of minced Eshallot, and 
one drachm of Cayenne ; let it stand a week, and 
you will have an excellent relish for Cold Beef, Salads, 
&c. costing scarcely any thing. 

N. B. A portion of Black Pepper and Mustard, 
Celery or Cress-seed, may be added to the above. 

Obs. — Horseradish Powder (No. 458.*) 

Garlick Vinegar. — (No. 400.) 

Garlick is ready for this purpose from Midsummer 
to Michaelmas. 

Peel and chop two ounces of Garlick, pour on them 
a quart of white-wine Vinegar, stop the jar close, and 
let it steep ten days, shaking it well every day ; then 
pour off the clear liquor into small bottles. 

Obs. — The Cook must be careful not to use too 
much of this: — a few drops of it will give a pint of 
Gravy a sufficient smack of the Garlick: the flavour of 
which, when shght, and well blended, is one of the 
finest we have ; — when used in excess, it is the most 
offensive. 

The best way to use Garlick, is to send up some of 
this Vinegar in a Cruet, and let the company flavour 
their own Sauce as they like. 

N. B. The most elegant preparation of the Onion 
Tribe, is the Eshallot Wine, (No. 402.) 

Eshallot Vinegar— (No. 401.) 
Is made in the same manner, and the Cook should 



354 GRAVIES Al^D SAUCES. 

never be without one of these useful auxiharics ; they 
cost scarcely any thing but the little trouble of makhig, 
— and will save a great deal of trouble in flavouring- 
Soups and Sauces with a taste of Onion. 

N.B. Eshallots are in high perfection during July, 
August, and September. 

EsiiALLOT Wine. — (No. 402.) 

Peel, mince, and pound in a mortar, three ounces of 
Eshallots, and infuse them in a pint of Sherry for ten 
•days, — then pour off the clear liquor on three ounces 
tnore Shallots, and let the wine stand on them ten days 
longer. 

Obs. — This is rather the most expensive, but itiji- 
nitelj/ the vwst elegant preparation of Esii allot, and 
imparts the Onion flavour to Soups and Sauces, for 
Chops, Steaks, or boiled Meats, Hashes, &c. more 
agreeably than any : it does not leave any unpleasant 
taste in the mouth, or to the breath, nor repeat, as 
almost all the other preparations of Garlick, Onion*, 
&c. do. 

N. B. An ounce of scraped Horseradish may be 
added to the above, and a little thin cut Lemon iPeel, 
or a few drops of (No. 408.) 

Camp Vinegar. — (No. 403.) 

Cayenne Pepper, one drachm, avoirdupois weight. 
Soy, two tablespoonsful. 
"Walnut Catsup, four ditto. 
Six Anchovies chopped. 
A small clove of Garlick, minced fine. 
Steep all for a month in a pint of best Vinegar, 
frequently shaking the bottle : strain through a tammis, 



• " If Lcekcs you like, but do their smell dis-leeke. 
Eat Onyons, and you shall not smell the Leeke; 
If you of Onyons would the scent expell, 
Eat Gnrlicke, that shall drowne the Onyons' smell." 

See page 5[) of the Philosopher's Banquet, l6rao. London, l633. 



GRAVIES AND SAUCES. 355 

and keep it in small bottles, corked as tightly as pos- 
sible. 



Cayenne Pepper. — (No. 404.) 

Mr. Acciim has informed the Public, (see his book 
on Adulterations,) that from some specimens that came 
direct to him from India, and others obtained from 
respectable Oil bhops in London, he has extracted 
Lead ! 

" Foreign Cayenne Pepper is an indiscriminate mix- 
ture of the powder of the dried pods of many species 
of Capsicums, — especially of the Bird Pepper, which is 
the hottest of all. As it comes to us from the West 
Indies, it changes the infusion of Turnsole to a beau- 
tiful Green, probably owing to the Salt v/hich is 
always added to it, and the Red Oxide of Lead, with 
which it is said to be adulterated.'' — Duncan's N'ew 
Edinburgh Dispensatory, 1819, Article, Capsicum, ip. 81. 
The Indian Cayenne is prepared in a very careless 
manner, and often looks as if the pods had lain till 
they were decayed, before they were dried ; — this ac- 
counts for the dirty brown appearance it commonly 
has. If properly dried as soon as gathered, it will be 
of a clear red colour : to give it the complexion of that 
made with good fresh-gathered Capsicums or Cliilies, 
some Arnatto, or other Vegetable Red colouring matter, 
is pounded with it ; this, Mr. A. assures us, is frequently 
adulterated with Indian Red, i. e. " Red Lead T 

When Cayenne is pounded, it is mixed with a con- 
siderable portion of Salt, to prevent its flying up and 
hurting the Eyes : this might be avoided, by grinding 
it in a Mill, which may easily be made close enough, 
especially if it be passed through a second time, and 
then sifted through a fine drum-headed sieve, to pro- 
duce as fine a powder as can be obtained by pounding ; 
however, our English Chilies may be pounded in a 
deep mortar without any danger. 



356 GRAVIES AND SAUCES. 

Capsicums and Chilies are ripe and red, and in 
finest condition during: September and October; they 
may be purchased at the Herb Shops in Covent- 
Garden, the former for about five, the latter for two 
shillings per hundred. 

The flavour of the C/iilies is very superior to that of 
the Capsicums, — and will be good in proportion as 
they are dried as soon as possible, taking care they 
are not burnt. 

Take away the stalks, and put the pods into a 
Cullender; set it before the Fire; they will take full 
twelve hours to dry ; then put them into a mortar, 
with one-fourth their weight of salt, and pound them 
and rub them till they are ///ie as possible, and put them 
into a well-stop])ed bottle. 

N.B. We a(ivise those who arc fond of Cayenne, 
not to think it too much trouble to make it of English 
Chilies, — there is no other way of being sure it is 
genuine, — and they will obtain a pepper of much 
finer flavour, without half the heat of the Foreign. 

A hundred large Chilies, costing only Two Sliillings, 
will produce you about two ounces of Cayenne, — so 
it is as cheap as the commonest Cayenne. 

Essence of Cayenne.— (No. 405.) 

Put half an ounce of Cayenne Pepper (No. 404), 
into half a pint of Brandy, or Wine ; let it steep for a 
fortnight, and then pour off the clear liquor. 

This is nearly equal to fresh Chili juice. 

Obs. — Is extremely convenient for the eitcrnpove 
seasoning, and finishing of Soup, Sauces, &c., its^a- 
Tour being instantly, and equally dijfused. Cayenne 
Pepper varies so much in strength, that it is impos- 
sible to season Soup any other way to the precise point 
of piquance. 

Chili Vinegar. — (No. 405*.) 
This is commonly made with the Foreign Bird 



GRAVIES AND SAUCES. 357 

Pepper, — but you will obtain a much finer flavour 
from infusing fifty fresh Red English Chilies (cut in 
half, or pounded,) in a pint of the best Vinegar for a 
fortnight, or a quarter ounce of Cayenne Pepper, (No. 
404.) 

Obs. — Many people cannot eat Fish without the 
addition of an Acid, and Cayenne Pepper ; to such 
palates this will be an agreeable relish. 

C/ii/i, or Cayenne Wine. — (No. 405**.) 
Pound and steep fifty fresh Red Chilies, or a quarter 
of an ounce of Cayenne Pepper, in half a pint of 
Brandy, White Whie, or Claret, for fourteen days, 

Obs. — This is a " Bonne Bouche' for the lovers of 
Cayenne, of which it takes up a larger proportion of 
its flavour, than of its fire : which being instantly dif- 
fused, it is a very useful auxiliary to warm and finish 
Soups and Sauces, &c. 

Essence uf Lemon Peel. — (No. 407.) 
Wash and brush clean the Lemons ; — let them get 
perfectly dry: — take a lump of Loaf Sugar, and rub 
them till all the yellow rind is taken up by the sugar; 
— scrape off' the surface of the sugar into a preserving 
pot, and press it hard down ; cover it very close, and 
it will keep for some time. 

In the same way you may get the essence of Seville 
Orange Peel. 

Ohs. — This method of procuring, and preserving 
the flavour of Lemon Peel, by making an Oleosaccha- 
rum, is far superior to the common practice of paring 
off* the rind, or grating it, and pounding, or mixing 
that with sugar: — by this process, you obtain the 
whole of the fine, fragrant, essential Oil, in which is 
contained the flavour. 

Artificial Lemon Juice. — (No. 407*.) 
If you add a drachm of Lump Sugar pounded, and 
six drops of (No. 408), to three ounces of (Ball's, 



358 GRAVIES AND SAUCES. 

No. 81, New Bond-Street, Crystal Finegar, which is 
the name given to the Pyrohgneous Vinegar.) you will 
have an excellent substitute for Lemon Juice — for 
Fish Sauces and Soups, and many other Cuhnary 
purposes. The flavour of the Lemon may also be 
communicated to the Vinegar — by infusing some 
Lemon Peel in it. 

N.B. Tlie Pyroligneous Vinegar is perfectly free 
from all flavour, save that of the pure Acid, — there- 
fore, it is a very valuable menstruum for receiving 
impregnations from various flavouring materials. 

The Pyro-ligis'eous Acid seems likely to produce 
.quite a revolution in the process of curing Hams, Her- 
rings, &c. &c. — See TiLLOCii's Philosophical Magazine^ 
1821, No. 173, p. 12. 

Quint-Essence of Lemon Peel. — (No. 408.) 

Best oil of Lemon*, one drachm. 

Strongest rectified spirit, two ounces, 
introduced by degrees, till the spirit kills, and com- 
pletely mixes with the oil. This elegant preparation 
possesses all the delightful fragrance and flavour of the 
freshest Lemon Peel. 

Ohs. — A few drops on the Sugar you make Punch 
with, will instantly impregnate it with as much flavour 
as the troublesome and tedious method of grating the 
rind, or rubbing the Sugar on it. 

It will be found a super lat it e substitute for fresh 
Lemon Peel, for every purpose that it is used for : 
Blanc Mange, — Jellies, — Custards, — Ice, — Negus, 
— Lemonade, — and Pies, Puddings, — Stuffings, — 
Soup.s, — Sauces, — Ragouts, &c. 

See also (No. 393.) 

Tincture of Leinon Peel. — (No. 408*.) 
A very easy, and economical way of obtaining, and 

• This, and other Essential Oils, are sold in the purest state by Stewart, 
Ko. 11, Old Broad Street, City. 



GRAVIES AND SAUCES. 359 

preserving the flavour of Lemon Peel, is to fill a wick- 
mouthed pint bottle half full of Brandy, Rum, or 
proof spirit; and when you use a Lemon, pare the 
rind off very thin, and put it into the Brandy, &c. ; — 
in a fortnight, it will impregnate the spirit with the 
flavour very strongly. 

Essence of Celery. — (No. 409.) 

Brandy, or proof spirit, a quarter of a pint. 

Celery seed bruised, half an ounce, avoirdupois 
weight. 

Let it steep for a fortnight. 

06*. — A few drops will immediately flavour a pint of 
Broth, and are an excellent addition to Pease, and 
other Soups; and the salad mixture of Oil, Vinegar, 
&c. (No. 392.) 

N.B. To make Celery Sauce, see (No. 289.) 

Essence of Gi?iger. — (No. 411.) 

Three ounces of fresh-grated* Ginger, and an ounce 
of thin cut Lemon Peel, into a quart of Brandy, or Proof 
Spirit, (apothecaries' measure;) let it stand for ten 
days, shaking it up each day. 

Obs. — The proper title for this would be ^' Tincture 
of Ginger:" however, as it has obtained the name of 
" Essence," so let it be called. 

N.B. If Ginger is taken to produce an immediate 
effect, — to warm the Stomach, or dispel flatulence, — 
this is the best preparation. 

Essence of Allspice, — (No. 412.) 

Oil of Pimento, a drachm, apothecaries' measure. 
Strong Spirit of Wine, two ounces, 
mixed by degrees : a few drops will give the flavour 



• The fragrant aroma of Ginger is so extremely volatile, that it evaporates 
almost as soon as it is poudered, — and the fine Lemon-peel gout — Hies off 
presently. 



360 GRAVIES AND SAUCES. 

of Allspice to a pint of Gravy, — or Mulled Wine, — 
or to make a Bishop. 

Tincture* of Allspice. — (No. 413.) 

Of Allspice bruised, three ounces, apothecaries' 

weig-ht. 
Brandy, a quart. 

Let it steep a fortnight, occasionally shaking it up ; 
then pour off the clear liquor : it is a most grateful 
addition in all cases where Allspice is used, for making 
a Bishop, or to Mulled Wine Extempore, or in Gra- 
vies, Arc. or to flavour and preserve Potted Meats, 
(No. 503.) 

Tincture of Nutmeg — (No. 413'.) 

Is made with the same proportions of Nutmeg and 
Brandy as ordered for Allspice. See Obs. to (No. 415.) 

Essence of Cloie and Mace. — (No. 414.) 

Strongest Spirit of \N ine, two ounces, apothecaries' 
measure. 

Oil of Nutmeg or Clove or Mace, a drachm, apo- 
thecaries' measure. 

Tincture of Clove. — (No. 415.) 

Cloves bruised, three ounces, apothecaries' weight. 

Brandy, one quart. 

Let it steep ten days : strain it through a flannel 
sieve. 

Obs. — Excellent to flavour *' Bishop" or *• Mulled 
ff'ine.'* 

Essence of Cinnamon. — (No. 416.) 

Strongest rectified Spirit of Wine, two ounces. 

Oil of Cinnamon, one drachm, apothecaries' measure. 



• TiDctures are mach finer flayoared than Eaiencei. 



i 



GRAVIES AND SAUCES. 361 

Tincture of Cinnamon. — (No. 416*.) 
'I his exhilarating Cordial is made by pouring- a 
bottle of genuine Cogniac (No. 471), on three ounces 
of bruised Cinnamon — (Cassia will not do.) 

This restorative was more in vogue formerly, than it 
is now ; — a teaspoonful of it, and a lump of Sugar, in 
a glass of good Sherry or Madeira, with the yolk of an 
Egg beat up in it, — was called '' Bahamum Vifte." 

" Cur morlatur homo, qui sumit de Cinnamomo ?" — " Cinnamoa is 
vcrie cumfortable to the Stomacke, and the principall partes of the bodie." 

" Fentriculum,Jecur,Lienem, Cerebrum, nervosque juvat et roborat.' 
— • " I reckon it a great treasure for a student to have by him, ia his closet, to 
take now and then a spoonful." — Coggan's Haven of Health, 4to. 1584. 
p. 111. 

Obs. — Two teaspoonsful in a wine glass of water — 
are a present and pleasant remedy in Nervous Lan- 
guors — and in relaxations of the Bowels; — in the 
latter case, five drops of Laudanum may be added to 
each dose. 

Essence of Marjoram. — (No. 417.) 
Strongest rectified Spirit, two ounces. 
Oil of Origanum, one drachm, apothecaries' measure. 

Vegetable Essences. — (No. 417*.) 
The flavour of the various sweet and savoury 
Herbs may be obtained, by combining their Essential 
Oils with P^ectifed Spirit of Wine, in the proportion of 
one drachm of the former to two ounces of the latter, 
by picking the leaves, and laying them for a couple of 
hours in a warm place to dry, and then filling a large- 
mouthed bottle with them, and pouring on them Wine, 
Brandy, Proof Spirit, or Vinegar, and letting them 
steep for fourteen days. 

Soup Herb* Spirit — (No. 420.) 
Of Lemon Thyme, 
Winter Savory, 



• For the season, &c. when these Herbs, &c. come in perfection, and how 
Ji) dry them, see (No. 461.) 



11 



§65 



GRAVIES AND SAUCES. 



Sweet Marjoram, 

Sweet Basil, — half an ounce of each. 

Lemon Peel grated, two drachms. 

Eshallots, the same. 

Celery Seed, a drachm, avoirdupois weight. 

Prepare them as directed in (^No. 461); and infuse 
them in a pint of Brandy, or proof Ji^pirit, for ten days ; 
thcij mmi also be iufuicd in U ine, or Jlncgar, but neither 
extract the flavour of the ingredients half so well as 
the spirit. 

Spiiif of Saxoury Spice. — - (No. 42 1 .) 

Black Pepper, an ounce, — Allspice, half an ounce, 

pounded tine. 
Nutmeg grated, a quarter of an ounce, avoirdupois 

weight. 
Infuse in a pint of Brandy, or Proof Spirit, for ten 
days : — or, infuse the ingredients enumerated in (No. 
4.57), in a quart of Brandy, cr Proof Spirit, for the like 
time. 

Souji-hcrb, and Saioury Spice Spirit. — (No. 422.) 

Mix half a pint of Soup-herb spirit with a (juarter 
pint of spirit of Savoury spice. 

Obs. — IViese preparations are xaliiabic auxiliaries to 
immediately heighten thcjlaiour, andjinish Soups, Sauces, 
Ragouts, t^c. — uill save much time and trouble to the 
Co'jk, and heep for tuenty years. 

Relish for Chops, ^-c. — (No. 423.) 

Pound fine an ounce of Black Pepper, and half an 
ounce of Allspice, with an ounce of Salt, and half an 
ounce of scraped Horseradish, and the same of Eshal- 
lots peeled and quartered ; put these ingredients into 
a pint of Mushroom Catsup, or Walnut Pickle, and 
let them steep for a fortnight, and then strain it. 



i 



GRAVIES AND SAUCES. 363 

Obs. — A teaspoonful or two of this is generally an 
acceptable addition, mixed with the Gravy usually sent 
up for Chops, and Steaks ; see (No. 356), or added to 
thick melted Butter. 

Fish 6'«Mce.— (No. 425.) 

Two wineglasses of Port, and two of Walnut pickle ; 
four of Mushroom catsup; half a dozen Anchovies 
pounded, the like number of Eshallots sliced and 
pounded ; a tablespoonful of Soy, and half a drachm 
of Cayenne pepper: let them simmer gently for ten 
minutes, strain it, and when cold, put it into bottles ; 
well corked and sealed over, it will keep for a consi- 
derable time. 

Ohs. — This is commonly called QuiiVs Sauce, and was 
given to me by a very sagacious Saucemaker. 

Keeping Mustard. — (No. 427.) 

Dissolve three ounces of Salt in a quart of boilinj^ 
water, and pour it hot upon two ounces of scraped 
Horseradish ; closely cover down the jar, and let it 
stand twenty-four hours : — strain, and mix it by degrees 
with the best Durham flour of mustard, beat well to- 
gether till quite smooth and of the proper thickness ; 
put into a wide mouthed bottle, and stop it closely. 
See also (Nos. 369 and 370.) 

SAUCE SUPERLATIVE*. — (No. 429.) 

Claret, or Port wine, and Mushroom Catsup, see 

(No. 439), a pint of each. 
Half a pint of Walnut or other Pickle liquor. 
Pounded Anchovies, four ounces. 



* We hope this title will not offend those -who may quote against it the old 
Adage, " that Good Appetite is the best Sauce." — Allowing this to be generally 
true, (which is a more candid confession than could be expected from a 
Cook), we dare say, the majority of our readers will vote witii us, that there 
are ninny good things (Fish especially; that would be rather insipid, — without 
a little Sauce of another kind. 

R 2 



364 GRAVIES AND SAUCES. 

Fresh Lemon-peel pared very thin, an ounce. 

Peeled and sliced Eshallots, the same. 

Scraped Horseradish, ditto. 

Allspice and 

Black Pepper powdered, half an ounce each. 

Cayenne, one drachm, or Curry powder, three 
drachms. 

Celery -seed bruised, a drachm. x4ll aroirdupois 
Tx tight. 
Put these into a wide mouth bottle, stop it close, shake 
it up every day tor a fortnight, and strain it, (when 
some think it improved by the addition of a quarter 
pint of Soy, or thick Browning, see (No. 322), and you 
will have a " dklicious double relish." 

•«• This composition, is one of the '' chef-d'oeuvres" 
of many experiments I have metde, for the purpose of 
enabling the good Housewives of Great Britain to prepare 
their unn !^auces: it is equally agreeable with fish, game, 
poultry, or ragouts, c^c, and as a fair lady may make it 
herself, its relish mil be not a little augmented, — by the 
certainty that all the ingredients are good and wholesome. 

Obs. — Under an intinity of circumstances, a Cook 
may be in want of the substances necessary to make 
Sauce ; the above composition of the several articles 
from which the various gravies derive their flavour, will 
be found a very admirable extemporaneous substitute. 
By mixing a large tablespoonful with a quarter pint 
of thickened melted butter, broth, or (No. 252), five 
minutes will finish a boat of very relishing sauce, nearly 
equal to drawn-gravy, and as likely to put your Lingual 
nerves into good humour as any thing I know. 

To make a boat of Sauce for Poultry, &c. put a 
piece of butter about as big as an ^^^, into a stew- 
pan, set it on the fire; when it is melted, put to it a 
tablespoonful of flour ; stir it thoroughly together, and 
add to it two tablespoonsful of Sauce, and by degrees, 
about half a pint of broth or boiling water, let it simmer 



GRAVIES AND SAUCES. 365 

gently over a slow fire for a few minutes, skim it and 
strain it through a sieve, and it is ready. 

QUINT-ESSENCE OF ANCHOVY*. —(No. 433.) 

The goodness of this preparation depends almost 
entirely on having fine mellow Fish, that have been in 
pickle long enough (i. e. about twelve months) to dis- 
solve easily, — yet are not at all rusty. 

Choose those that are in the state they come over in, 
not such as have been put into fresh pickle, mixed with 
Red Paintf, which some add to improve the complexion 
of the Fish, — it has been said, that others have a trick 
of putting Anchovy liquor on pickled Sprats t: you 
will easily discover this by washing one of them, and 
tasting the flesh of it, which in the fine Anchovy, is 
mellow, red, and high flavoured, and the bone moist 
and oily. Make only as much as will soon be used, 
the fresher it is the better. 

Put ten or twelve Anchovies into a mortar, and pound 
them to a pulp ; — put this into a very clean iron or 
silver, or very well tinned § saucepan, then put a table- 
spoonful of cold spring water into the mortar, shake it 
round, and pour it to the pounded Anchovies, set them 
by the side of a slow fire, very frequently stirring them 
together^ till they are melted, which they will be in the 



* The invention of this favourite Fish Sauce is claimed by Mr. Thos. Young, 
see " the Epicure," Harding, London, 1815, page 12. He says, " there still 
is a cabal between some of the makers of this sauce, which of them makes it 
best. Though they do not pretend to the invention, all of them denominate 
themselves the best makers. One is " the real maker ! P' aiiotlier " the 
superior! ! !" another " the improved !! !" anotlier " the original stipe- 
rityr .',!.' with cautions to guard against the " spuriotis makers." 

Burgess, Ko. 107, next the Savoy Steps, in the Strand, has long been 
famous for making this Sauce. 

t " Several samples which we examined of this Fish Sauce, have been found 
contaminated with Lead." — See AccuM on Adulteration, page 3t'8. 

t They may do very well for common palates ; but to imitate the fine 
flavour of the Gorgona fish, so as to impose upon a weIl-educatedGoMr/?/«/«/, 
still remains in the catalogue of the Sauce maker's desiderata. 

§ The best vessel for this purpose is the pint Bainmarie, sold by Lloyd, 
Ironmonger, near Norfolk Street, Strand. 



366 GRAVIES AND SAUCES. 

course of five minutes. — Now stir in a quarter of a 
drachm of good Cayenne pepper (No. 404), and let it 
remain by the side of the fire for a few minutes longer; 
then, while it is warm, rub it through a hair sieve*, 
with the back of a wooden spoon, 

A roll of thin cut Lemon-peel infused with the An- 
chovy, imparts a fine, fresh, delicate aromatic flavour, 
which is very grateful ; this is only recommended when 
you make Sauce for immediate use, — it will keep much 
better without; if you wish to acidulate it, instead of 
water make it with artificial Lemon juice (No. 407*), 
or add a little of Coxwell's concrete acid to it. 

Ohs. — The above is the proper way, to perfectly 
dissolve Anchovy f, and incor])orate it with the water; 
which, if completely saturated, will continue suspended. 

To prevent the separation of Essence of Anchory^ and 
give it the appearance of being fully saturated with 
Fish, — various other expedients have been tried, such 
as dissolving the fish in thin Water Gruel, or Barley 
Water, or thickening it with Mucilage, Flour, &c., — 
when any of these things are added, it does not keep 
half so well as it does without them, and to preserve it, 
they overload it with Cayenne Pepper. 

Mem. You cannot itiake Essence of Anchovy half so cheap 
as you can buy it. — Thirty prime Fish, weighing a pound 
and a quarter, and costing 4^. 6r/., and two table- 
spoonsful of water, made me only half a Pint of 
Essence, — you may commonly buy that quantity ready 
made for 2*., and we have seen an Advertisement 
offering it for sale as low as 2s. 6d. per Quart. 

It must be kept very closely stopped, — when you tap a 
bottle of Sauce, throw away the old perforated Cork, and 

• The Economist may take the thick remains that won't pass throngh the 
sieve, and pound itwilli some flour, and make Anchovy Paste, or Powdkk. 
See (Nos. 134 and 43j.) 

t Epicure QuiN used to say, " Of all the Banns of Marriage I ever heard, 
none gave me half such pleasure as the unioii of delicate ann-chovy with 
COOd JOH.N-DORY," 



GRAVIES AND SAUCES. 367 

put in a new taper velvet cork ; — if the air gets to it, the 
Fish takes the rust^, and it is spoiled directly. 

Essence of Anchovy is sometimes coloured f vvith 
bole Armeniac, Venice red, &c. ; but all these additions 
deteriorate the flavour of the sauce, and the Palate and 
stomach suffer for the gratification of the Eye, which, 
in culinary concerns, will never be indulged by the 
sagacious Gourmand at the expense of these two primum 
mobiles of his pursuits. 

*^* Essence of Anchovy is sometimes made with Sherry or 
Madeira wine, or good Mushroom catsup (No. 439), instead 
of water. If you like the acid flavour, add a little citric 
acid, or dissolve them in good Vinegar. 

N.B. This is infinitely the most convenient way of 
using Aachovy, as each guest may mix sauce for himself, 
and make it strong or weak, according to his own 
taste. 

It is also much more Economical, as plain melted 
Butter (No. 256) serves for other purposes at table. 

AxcHOVY Paste, or le Beurre d^Anchois. 
(No. 434.) 

Pound them in a mortar, then rub it through a fine 
sieve; pot it; cover it with clarified butter, and keep 
it in a cool place. 

N. B. If you have Essence of Anchovy, you may make 
Anchovy Paste Extempore, by rubbing the Essence with 
as much Flour as will make a paste. Mem, This is 
merely mentioned as the means of making it imme- 
diately, — it will not keep. 

Obs. — This is sometimes made stiffer and hotter by 
the addition of a little Flour of Mustard, — a pickled 

* " Rast in Anchovies, if I'm not mistaken, 

Is as bad as Rust in Steel, or Rust in Bacon." 

Young's Epictire, page 14. 
+ If you are not contented with the natural colour, break some Lobsters' 
Eggs into it, and you will not only heighten the Complexion of your Sauce, 
but improve its tlavour. This is the only Rouge we can recommend. See 
note to (No. 284.) 



368 GHAVIES AND SAUCES. 

Walnut, — Spice (No. 460), — Curry Powfler(No. 45.'>J, 
— or Cayenne, and then becomes a rival to " hi it'ritahle 
Suucc d" Rnfcr" (No. 538), — or Pate it la Dinb/t for 
Deviling Biscuits (No. 574), — Grills (No. 538), &c. 
It is an excellent p:arnish for Fish, put in pats round 
the edge of the dish, or will make Anchovy Toast 
(No. 573), — or Devil a Biscuit (No. 574), cVc.'in high 
style. 

Anchoxij Ponder. — (No. 435.) 

Pound the fish in a mortar, rub them through a sieve, 
and make them into a paste with dried Hour, roll it 
into thin cakes, and dry them in a Dutch oven before a 
slow fire ; pounded to a fine |>owdcr, and put into a 
well-stopped bottle, it will keep for years; it is a very 
savourv relish, sprinkled on bread and butter for a 
sandwich, &c. b»ee Oyster powder (No. 280.) 

Ohs. — To this may be added a small ])ortion of 
Cayenne Pepper, grated Lemon Peel, and Citric Acid. 

jral/iut Cat.sup.—(So. 438.) 

Take six half sieves of green walnut shells, put them 
into a tub, mix them up well with common salt, from 
two to three pounds, let them stand for six days, fre- 
quently beating and mashing them; by this time the 
shells become soft and pulpy, then by banking it up on 
one side of the tub, and at the same time by raising the 
tub on that side, the liquor will drain clear off to the 
other; then take that liquor out: the mashing and 
banking up may be repeated as often as liquor is found. 
The quantity will be about six quarts. When done, let 
it be simmered in an iron boiler as long as any scum 
arises ; then bruise a quarter of a pound of ginger, a 
quarter of a pound of allspice, two ounces of long 
pepper, two ounces of cloves, with the above ingredients, 
let it slowly boil for half an hour . when bottled let an 
equal quantity of the spice go into each bottle ; when 
corked, let the bottles be filled quite up: cork them 



GRAVIES AND SAUCES. 369 

tight, seal them over, and put into a cool and dry 
place for one year before it is used. 

N.B. For the above we are indebted to a respectable 
Oilman, who has many years proved the Receipt. 

MUSHROOM CATSUP. - (No. 439.^ 

If you love Good Catsup, gentle reader, make it 
yourself*, after the following directions, and you will 
have a delicious Relish for Made dishes. Ragouts, 
Soups, Sauces or Hashes. 

Mushroom gravy, approaches the nature and flavour 
of Meat gravy, more than any vegetable juice; and is 
the superlative substitute for it, in Meagre Soups, and 
Extempore Gravies, the Chemistry of the Kitchen has 
yet contrived to agreeably awaken the Palate, and 
encourage the Appetite. 

A couple of Quarts of Double Catsup, made accord- 
ing to the following Receipt, will save you some score 
pounds of Meat, besides a vast deal of time and 
ti'ouble, as it will furnish, in a few minutes, as good 
Sauce as can be made for either Fish, Flesh, or Fowl. 
See (No. 307.) 

I believe the following is the best way of extracting 
and preparing the Essence of Mushrooms, so as to 
procure, and preserve their flavour for a considerable 
length of time. 

Look out for Mushrooms from the beginning of 
September. 

Take care they are the right sort, and/re.^/? gathered. 
Full grown Flaps are to be preferred : put a layer of 
these at the bottom of a deep earthen pan, and sprinkle 
them with Salt, then another layer of Mushrooms, and 
some more salt on them, and so on alternately, salt and 
mushrooms ; — let them remain two or three hours, by 

• The Mushrooms employed for preparing readj' made Catsup, are generally 
those which are in a putrefactive state. In a few days after those Fungi 
have been gathered, they become the habitation of myriads of insects." 

AcGUM 0}i Culinary Poisons, 12mo. 1820. p. 350. 
R 5 



870 GRAVIES AND SAUCES. 

wliich time the salt will have penetrated the mushroom!*, 
and rendered them easy to break ; — then pound them 
in a mortar, or mash them well with your hands, and 
let them remain for a couple of days, not lono;er, stirriuii" 
them up, and mashing them well each day; — then 
pour them into a stone jar, and to each quart add an 
ounce of whole Black Pepper; stop the jar very close, 
and set it in a ste>v])an ofboilinn* water, and keep it 
boiling for two hours at least. — Take out the jar, and 
pour the juice clear from the settlings through a hair 
sieve (without squeezing' the nuishrooms) into a clean 
'itewpan; let it boil very gently for half an hour; those 
who are for Superlative Catsup, will continue the 
boiling till the Mushroom juice is reduced to half the 
quantity, it mav then be called Double CV/^-sup or Doo- 
sup. 

There are several advantages attending this con- 
centration ; it will keep much better, and only half the 
(piantity be recpiired; — so you can flavour Sauce, &c. 
witliout thinnine it : — neither is this an extravagant 
wav of making it, for merely the aqueous part is eva- 
porated ; skim it well, and pour it into a clean dry jar, 
or jug; cover it close, and let it stand in a cool place 
till next day, then pour it oft' as gently as possible, (so 
as not to disturb the settlings at the bottom of the jug), 
through a tammis, or thick flannel bag, till it is perfectly 
clear ; add a tablespoonful of good Brandy to each pint 
of Catsup, and let it stand as before ; — a fresh sediment 
will be deposited, from which the Catsup is to be quietly 
poured off, and bottled in pints or half pints, (which 
liave been washed with Brandy or spirit); it is best to 
kee]) it in such quantities as are soon used. 

Take especial care that it is closely corked, and 
sealed down, or dipped in Bottle Cement. 



• The Squeezings are the perquisite of the Cook, to make Sance for tho 
Second lable ; do not deprive her of it, it is the most profitable save-all yon 
can give her, and ^^ ill enable hertomakeup a noorl Family Dinner, with 
what wouUi otherwise be wasted. After the Mushrooms have been squeezed, 
dry them in the Dutch oven, and make McsHROOM Powder. 



GRAVIES AND SAUCES. 371 

If kept in a cool, dry place, it may be preserved for 
a long time ; but if it be badly corked, and kept in a 
damp place, it will soon spoil. 

Examine it from time to time, by placing a strong 
light behind the neck of the bottle, and if any pellicle 
appears about it, boil it up again with a few pepper- 
corns. 

We have ordered no more Spice, &c. than is abso- 
lutely necessary to feed the Catsup, and keep it from 
fermenting. Brandy is an excellent preservative to all 
preparations of this sort. Pickles, &c. &c. 

The compound, commonly called Catsup, is generally 
an injudicious combination of so many different tastes, 
that the flavour of the Mushroom is overpowered by a 
farrago of Garlick, Shallot, Anchovy, Mustard, Horse- 
radish, Lemon-peel, Beer, Wine, Spice, &c. 

Obs. — A tablespoonful of Double Catsup will 
impregnate half a pint of Sauce with the full flavour of 
Mushroom, in much greater perfection than either 
pickled, or powder of mushrooms. 

JFe have bought good Mushroum Catsup at Butler's 
herb and seed shop, opposite Henrietta Street, Coient- 
Garde?i. 

Quintessence of Mushrooms. — (No. 440.) 

This delicate Relish, is made by sprinkling a little 
salt over either flap or button Mushrooms ; — three 
hours after, mash them, — next day, strain off the 
liquor that will flow from them, put it into a stewpan 
and boil it till it is reduced to half. 

It will not keep long, but is preferable to any of the 
Catsups, v/hich in order to preserve them, must have 
Spice, &c. which overpowers the flavour of the Mush- 
rooms. 

An Artificial Mushroom Bed uill supply this all the year 
round. 

To make Sauce with this, see (No. 307.) 



372 GRAVIES AND SALCES. 



Ot/i,tcr Cutsuj). — (No. 44 1 .) 
Take fine fresh Milton oysters; wash them in theii 
own hcjuor, skim it, pound them in a marble mortar, 
to a pint of Oysters add a pint of Sherry, boil them up, 
and add an ounce of salt, two drachms of pounded 
mace, and one of Cayenne, — let it just boil up aj^ain, 
skim it, and rub through a sieve, and when cold, bottle 
it, and cork it well, and seal it down. 

Ohs. — See also (No. 280.) and Obs. to (No. 278.) 
N.B. It is the best way to pound the Salt and Spic€8, 
<S.c. with the Oysters. 

0/fs. — This composition very ajz;reeably heightens 
the flavour of white sauces, and white made dishes; and 
if you add a ir,-lass of brandy to it, it will keep good for 
a considerable time longer tlian Oysters are out of 
season in Engl.uid. 

Cockle and Mtticie Catsup — (No. 442.) 
May be made by treating them in the same way as 
tlie Oysters in the preceding Receipt. 

Pufldmg Catsup.— (No, 446.) 
Half u pint of Brandy, '* Es.seucc uf Puncir (No. 479), 
or " Curacua' (No. 474), or '' Xuijcau,'' a pint of 
Sherry, 
An ounce of thin pared Lemon peel. 
Half an ounce of Mace. 

Steep them for fourteen days, then strain it, and add 
a (juarter pint of CapilUiire, or (No. 47.'3.) This will 
keep for years, and, mixed with melted butter, is a 
delicious rehsh to Puddings, and Sweet dishes. See 
Puddin^: Sauce (No. 269;, and the Justice's Orange 
Syrup (No. 39-2.) 

Vutatoe* Starch. — (^o. 448.) 
Peel, and wash a pound of full grown Potatoes, grate 



* '• lotaUit.-, in v\l.attver couilicion, whether spoiled by Frost, Oerniiuatioii, 



GRAVIES A^D SAtJCES. 373 

them on a bread grater into a deep dish, containing a 
quart of clear water ; stir it well up, and then pour it 
through a hair sieve, and leave it ten minutes to settle, 
till the water is quite clear : then pour off the water, 
and put a quart of fresh water to it, stir it up, let it 
settle, and repeat this till the water is quite clear ; you 
will at last find a fine white powder at the bottom of 
the vessel. (The criterion of this process being com- 
pleted, is the purity of the water that comes from it 
after stirring it up ) Lay this on a sheet of paper in a 
hair sieve to dry, either in the sun, or before the fire, 
and it is ready for use, and in a well stopped bottle 
will keep good for many months. 

If this be well made, half an ounce {i. e. a table - 
spoonful) of it mixed with two tablespoonsful of cold 
water, and stirred into a Soup or Sauce, just before 
you take it up, will thicken a pint of it to the consist- 
ence of Cream. 

Obs. — This preparation much resembles the " I71- 
dian Arrow Rout," and is a good substitute for it; 
it gives a fulness on the palate to Gravies and 
Sauces at hardly any expense, and by some is used to 
thicken Melted butter instead of Flour. 

As it is perfectly tasteless, it v/ill not alter the flavour 
of the most delicate Broth, &c. 

Of the Flour of Potatoes. 

" A patent has been recently obtained at Paris, a 
gold medal bestowed, and other honorary distinction 
granted, for the discovery and practice on a large .scale 
of preparing from potatoes difuie flour; a sago, a flour 
equal to ground rice, and a semolina or paste, of which 
lib. is equal to l^lb. rice, l|lb. vermicelli, or, it is 
asserted, 8 lbs. of raw potatoes. 

" These preparations are found valuable to mix with 



&c., provided they are raw, eonstantly afford Starch, diflfering only in qnality, 
the round grey opes the most, a ponml producing about two ounces." 

Parmektjer on Nutritive Vegetablts, bvo. p. 31. 



374 GRAVIES AND SAUCES. 

wheaten fiour for bread, to make biscuits, pastry, pie- 
crusts, and for all soups, g:ruels, and panada. 

" Large engagements have been made for these pre- 
parations with the French marine, and military and other 
hospitals, with the approbation of the faculty. 

" An excellent bread, it is said, can be made of this 
flour, at half the cost of wheaten bread. 

" Heat having been applied in these preparations, 
the articles will keep unchanirid for vears, and on board 
ship, to China and back; rats, mice, worms, and insects 
do not infect or destroy this flour. 

'* Simply mixed with cold water, they are in ten 
minutes Ht for food, when fire and all other resource 
may be wanted ; and twelve ounces are sufficient for a 
day's sustenance, in case of necessity. 

" The Physicians and Surircons in the Hospitals, in 
case of great debihty of the stomach, have employed 
these preparations with advantage. 

" Tlie point of tliis discovery is, the cheapness of 
preparation, and the conversion of a surplus growth 
of ])(jtati)es into a keeping stock, in an elegant, portable 
and salubrious form." 

Salad, or Piquantc Sauce for Cold Meat, Fish, S^c. — 
(No. 453.) See also (No. .'372.) 
Pound together 

An ounce of scraped Horseradish, 
Half an ounce of Salt, 

A tablespoonful of made Mustard (No. 370.) 
Four drachms of minced Eshallots, see (No. 402.) 
Half a drachm of Celery Seed, see (No. 409.) 
And half ditto of Cayenne, see (No. 404.) 
Adding gradually a pint of Burnet, see (No. 399), or, 

Tarragon Vinegar (No. 396), and let it stand in a Jar a 

week, and then pass it through a sieve. 

Curry Powder. — (No. 455.) 
Dry and reduce the following Spices, &c. to a fine 
powder, in the same way as in the foregoing receipt. 



GRAVIES AND SAUCES. , 375 

Coriander Seed, three ounces. 

Turmeric, three ounces. 

Black Pepper, Mustard, and Ginger, one ounce of 
each. 

Lesser Cardamoms, half an ounce. 

Cayenne Pepper, 

Cummin seed, a quarter ounce of each. 

Thoroughly pound and mix together, and keep them 
in a well-stopped bottle. 

Those who are fond of Curry Sauces may steep three 
ounces of the powder in a quart of Vinegar or White 
Wine for ten days, and will get a liquor impregnated 
with all the flavour of the Powder. 

Obs. — This receipt, was an attempt to imitate some 
of the Best India Curry Pozvder, selected for me, by a 
friend at the India House : — the flavour approxi- 
mates to the Indian Powder so exactly, the most pro- 
found Palaticians have pronounced it a perfect copy 
of the original Curry Stujf. 

The following remark was sent to the Editor by an 
East Indian frierid. 

'* The ingredients which you have selected to form the 
Curry Powder, are the same as are used in India, with 
this difference only, that some of them are in a raw 
green state, and are mashed together, and afterwards 
dried and powdered and sifted." — For Curry Sauce ^ 
see (No. 348.) 

N.B. Chickens, — Rabbits, — Sweetbreads, — Breasts 
of Veal, — Veal Cutlets, — Mutton, — Lamb, — or Pork 
Chops, — Lobster, — Turbot, — Soles, — Eels, — Oysters, 
&c. are dressed Curry fashion, see (No. 497), or Stew 
them in (No. 329 or 348), and flavouring it with 
(No. 455.) 

N.B. The common fault of Curry Pow^der is the 
too great proportion of Cayenne, (to the milder Aromatics 
from which its agreeable flavour is derived), preventing 
a sufficient quantity of the Curry Powder being used. 



376 GRAVIES AND SAUCES. 

Saiou)y Ragout Puniltr. — (No. 457.) 

Salt, an ounce, 

Mustard, half an ounce, 

•Allspice, a quarter of an ounce, 

Black Pepper irround. and Lemon peel grated, or of 
(No. 407.), pounded and sifted tine, half an ounce 
each, 

Ginger, and 

NutmeiX grated, a quarter of an ounce each, 

Cayenne Pepper, two draclims. 

Pound them patiently, and pass them through a tine 
hair sieve ; bottle them for use. The above articles 
will pound easier, and finer, if they are dried first in a 
IXitch event before a very gentle fire, at a good dis- 
tiince froni it; — if you giic t/icm much heat ^ the fine 
Jlavour of them uill be pre.sently evaporated, and they w ill 
soon jret a strong rank, empyreumatic taste. 

N.B. Infused in a quart of \'inegar or Wine, tl>ey 
make a savoury relish for Soups, Sauces, <Jtc. 

O/y.v. — The .Sj)ices in a Ragout are indispensable to 
give it a flavour, but not a predominant one; — their 
presence should be rather supposed than perceived ; — 
Hiey are the invisible spirit of good Cookery : indeed, 
a Cook without Spice, would be as much at a loss, as 
a Confectioner without Sugar : — a happy mixture of 
theiTi, and proportion to each other, and the other 
ingredients, is the '* chef-d'ccuxrc" of a first-rate Cook. 

The art of combining Spices, &c., which may be 
tern-ted the " Ilarmuny of Flaiours" no one hitherto has 
attempted to teach : and '* the rule of Thumbs' is the 
only Guide that experienced Cooks have heretofore 

• If yon like the flavour, and do not dislikt- the expense, ii stead of Alhpice 
put in Mace and Cloves. 1 he above is very fimil:ir to the Pnudcr-Jort need 
ID Kin? Richard the Second's Kitchen, A. D. 13yo. See" Pegge lorme </ 
i.ury," p. x\x. 

+ i he back part of tlicse Ovens is so mnch hotter than that which k next 
the Cre, that to dry things equally, their situation must be frequently changed, 
or those at the back of lb* oven \sili be done too much, before those ui the 
front are done er.oueh. 



GRAVIES AND SAUCES. 



377 



given for the assistance of the Novice, — in the (till now, 
in these pages explained, and rendered, we hope, per- 
fectly intelligible to the humblest capacity,) Occult 
Art of Cookery. — This is the fir d time Receipts in 
Cooker i/ have been given accurately by weight or measure ! ! ! 
(See Obs. on '' the Education of a Cook's Tongue,'' 
pages 62 and 63.) 

PEA POWDER. —(No. 458.) 
Pound together in a marble mortar half an ounce each 
of dried Mint and Sage, — a drachm of Celery Seed, — 
and a quarter drachm of Cayenne Pepper ; rub them 
through a fine sieve. This gives a very savoury relish 
to Pea Soup, and to Watergruel, which, by its help, 
if the eater of it has not the most lively imagination, he 
may fancy he is sipping good Pease Soup. 

Obs.— A drachm of i\llspice, or Black repper,maybe 
pounded with the above, as an addition, or instead of 
the Cayenne. 

Horseradish Powder. — {"So. 458*.) 
The time to make this, is during November and 
December ; slice it the thickness of a shilling, and lay 
it to dry very gradually in a Dutch oven, (a strong li^at 
soon evaporates its flavour), when dry enough, pound 
it and bottle it. 

Ol^s, _ See Horseradish Vinegar (No. 399.*) 

Soup-herb Powder, or Vegetable P\.elish. — (No. 459.) 

Dried Parsley, 
Winter Savory, 
Sweet Marjoram, 

Lemon-thyme, of each two ounces ; 
Lemon-peel, cut very thin and dried, and 
Sweet Basil, an ounce of each. 

*^* Some add to the above. Bay-leaves and Celery Seed, 
a drachm of each. 

Dry them in a warm, but not too hot Dutch oren : 



378 GRAVIES AND SAUCES. 

when quite dried, pound them in a mortar, and pass 
them through a double hair sieve : put in a bottle 
closely stopped, they will retain their tVagrance and 
Havour for several montlis. 

N.B. These Herbs are in full perfection in July and 
August, see (No. 461.*) An infusion of the above in 
Vinegar or Wine, makes a good relishing Sauce, but 
the Havour is best when made witli fresh gathered 
herbs, as directed in (No. 397.) 

Obs. — This composition of the fine aromatic herbs, 
is an invaluable acquisition to the Cook, at those seasons 
or situations when fresh herbs cannot be had ; and \vc 
prefer it to the Ragout powder (No. 457), it impregnates 
sauce, soup, Arc. with as nnich relish, and renders it 
agreeable to the palate, and refreshes the gustatory 
nerves, without so much risk of oft'ending the Stomach, 
ikQ. 

Soup-herb and Savoury Pouder, or QuinfcjiJiCticc of 
Ragout. — (No. 460.) 

Take three parts of Soup-herb powder (No. 459), to 
one part of Savoury powder (No. 457.) 

Obs. — This agreeable combination of the aromatic 
Spices and Herbs should be kept ready prepared; it 
will save a great deal of time in cooking Ragouts, 
Stuffings, Forcemeat balls, Soups, Sauces, &c. ; kept 
dry and tightly corked down, its fragrance and strength 
may be preserved undiminished for some time. 

N.B. Three ounces of the above will impregnate a 
quart of Vinegar or Wine with a very agreeable relish. 

To Dry Sweet and Savoury Herbs. — (No. 461.) 

For the following accurate and xaluablc Information 
the Reader is indebted to Mr. Butler, Herbalist and 
Seedsman, (opposite Henrietta Street), Covent Garden 
Market, of whom the several articles may be obtained 
of the best Quality, at the fair ]Market Price. 

** It is very important to those who are not in the 



GRAVIES AND SAUCES. 379 

constant habit of attending the markets, to know when 
the various seasons commence for purchasing sweet 

HERBS. 

" All Vegetables are in the highest state of perfection, 
and fullest of juice and flavour, just before they begin 
to flower: — the first ana ast crop have neither the 
fine flavour nor the perfume of those which are gathered 
in the height of the season ; that is, when the greater 
part of the crop of each species is ripe. 

" Take care they are gathered on a dry day, by which 
means they will have a better colour when dried. 
Cleanse your herbs rvcll fro?n dirt and dust*, cut off" the 
roots, separao^e the bunches into smaller ones, and dry 
them by the heat of a stove, or in a Dutch oven before 
a common fire, in such quantities at a time, that the pro- 
cess may be speedily finished, /. e. " Kill *em quick" says 
a great Botanist; — by this means, their flavour will 
be best preserved, — there can be no doubt of the pro- 
priety of drying herbs, &c. hastily, by the aid of arti- 
ficial heat rather than by the heat of the sun. In the 
application of artificial heat, the only caution requisite 
is to avoid burning ; and of this, a sufl&cient test is af- 
forded by the preservation of the colour." — The common 
custom is, when they are perfectly dried, to put them in 
Bags, and lay them in a dry place, but the best way to 
preserve the flavour of aromatic plants, is to pick oflP 
the leaves as soon as they are dried, and to pound them 
and put them through a hair sieve, and keep them 
in well-stopped Bottles,! see (No. 459.) 

Basil is in the best state for drying from the 



* "fhis is sadly neglected by those vlio dry herbs for sale. If you buy 
them ready dried, before you pound them, cleanse them from dirt and dnst, 
by stripping the leaves from the stalks, and rub them between your hands 
over a hair sieve, — put them into the sieve, and shake them well, and the 
dust will go through. 

+ The common custom is, to put them into paper bags, and lay them on a 
?helf in the Kitchen, exposed to all the fumes, steam, aud smoke, &c. : thus 
(hey soon lose their flavour. 



380 



GRAVIES AND SALCES. 



middle of August, and three weeks after, see 

(No. 397 ) 
Knotted Marjoram, from the beginning of July, 

and during the same. 
Winter Savory, the latter end of July, and 

tliroughout August, see Obs. to (No. 397.) 
Summer Savory, the latter end of July, and 

tliroughout August. 
Thyme, 
Lemon-Thyme, 

Orange-Thyme,* during June and July. 
Mint, latter end of June, and duriui^ July, see 

(No. 398.) 
Sage, August and September. 
Tarragon, June, July, August, see (No. 396.) 
Chervil, May, June, July, see (No. 264.) 
Burnet, June', July, August, see (No. 399.) 
pARSLEv,May, June, and July, see N.B.to(No.'261.) 
Fexnel, May, June, July. 
Elder Flowers, May, June, July. 
Orange Flowers, May, June, July. 
N.B. Herbs nicely dried, are a very acceptable sub- 
stitute when f res /i ones cannot be got, — but, however 
carefully dried, th • flavour and fragance of the fresh 
herbs is incomparably finer. 

PICKLES. — (No. 462.) 

Commencing the list with Walnuts, I must take 
this opportunity of impressing the necessity of being 
strictly particular in watching the due season ; for of 
all the variety of articles in this department, to furnish 
the well-regulated store-room, nothing is so precarious, 
— for frequently after the first week that Walnuts come 

• A delicious herb, Ihat deserves to be better known. 



GRAVIES AND SAUCES. 381 

in season, they become hard and shelled, particularly 
if the season is a very hot one : therefore let the prudent 
housekeeper consider it indispensably necessary they 
should be purchased as soon as they first appear at 
market ; — should they cost a trifle more, that is nothing 
compared to the disappointment of finding six months 
hence, when you go to your pickle jar expecting a fine 
relish for your Chops, &c., to find the nuts incased in 
a shell, which defies both teeth and steel : I there- 
fore recommend you to look for Walnuts from the 
twelfth of July ; that being, I may say, the earliest pos- 
sible time. 

Nastertiums are to be had by the middle of July. 
Garlick, from Midsummer to Michaelmas. 
EsiiALLOTs, ditto. 

Onions, the various kinds for pickling, are to be 

had by the middle of July, and for a month after. 

Gherkins are to be had by the middle of July, and 

for a month after. 
Cucumbers are to be had by the middle of July, and 

for a month after. 
Melons and Mangoes are to be had by the middle 

of July, and for a month after. 
Capsicums, green, red, and yellow, the end of July, 

and following month. 
Chilies, the end of July, and following month. 

See (Nos. 404 and 405* and No. 405*^) 
Love Apples, or Tomatas, end of July, and 

throughout August. See (No. 443.) 
Cauliflower, for pickling, July and August. 
Artichokes, for pickling, July and August. 
Jerusalem Artichokes, for pickling, July and 

August, and for three months after. 
Radish Pods, for pickling, July. 
French Beans, for pickling, July. 
Mushrooms, for pickling and catsup, September. 
See (No. 439.) 



382 



GRAVIES AND SAUCES. 



Red Cabbage, August. 

WjiiTE Cabbage, September and October. 



Samphire, August. 



Horseradish, November and December. 

For Receipts lor Pickling, seethe Appendix, 



THE MAGAZINE OF TASTE. -(No. 463.) 

This is a convenient auxiliary to the Cook. — 
It may be arranged as a pyramidical Epergnc for a 
Dormant in the centre of the table, or as a Travelling 
Store Chest. 

The fi)llowing Sketch will enable any one to tit up 
an assortment of Havourin^^ materials according to 
their own fancy and palate, and we presume, will 
furnish sufficient variety for the amusement of the 
gustatory nerves of a thorough-bred Grand Gourmand 
of the first magnitude, (if Cayenne and Garlick — have 
not completely consumed the sensibility of his Palate,) 
and consists of a " Sauce Box," containing four eight- 
ounce bottles,* sixteen four ounce, and eight two-ounce- 
bottles : 



1 Pickles. 

2 Brandy. 

3 Curavoa (\o. 474.) 

4 Syrup (Yio. 175-) 

5 Salad Sauce (Noi. 372 and 453.) 

6 Pudding Catsup (No. 446.) 

7 Sauce Superlative, or double relish 

(No. 429.) 

8 Walnut pickle. 

9 Mushroom Catsup (No. 439-) 
10 Vinegar. 

n Oil. 

12 Mustard, see (Nos. 370, and 427.) 

13 Salt, see (No. 371.) 

14 Curry Powder (No. 435.) 



15 Soy (No. 436.) 

16 Lemon Juice. 

17 L.'seuce of Anchovy (No. 433.) 

18 Pepper. 

19 Cayenne (Nog. 405, or 405»*.) 

20 Soup-herb Powder (No. 459.) 
CI Ragout Powder (No. 457.) 
22 Pea Powder (No. 458.) 

£3 Zest (No. 255.) 

24 Essence of Celery (No, 409.) 

25 Sweet Herbs (No. 419.) 

26 Lemon Peel (No. 408.) 

27 Eshallot Wine (No. 402.) 
2» Powdered Mint. 



• If the bottles are square, and marked to quarter ounces as Lyne's 
graduated measures are, it will save trouble in compounding. 



GRAVIES AND SAUCES. 



383 



In a drawer under. 



Half a dozen one ounce bottles. 

"Weights and scales. 

A graduated glass measure, divided 

into tea and table spoons. 
Corkscrew. 



Nutmeg grater. 
Table and tea-spoon. 
Knite and fork. 
A steel, and a 
Small mortar. 



I 



1 


5 


1.} 


21 


6 


14 


22 













7 


15 


23 


2 












8 


16 


24 




9 


17 


25 




10 


18 


26 


— 











11 


19 


27 


i 










12 


CO 


28 



N.B. The portable Magazine of Taste alluded 
to in page 51, may be furnished with — a four-ounce 
bottle for Cogniac (No. 471),~a ditto for Curagoa 
(No. 474), an ounce bottle for Essence of Anchovy 
(No. 433), — and one of like size for Cayenne Pepper 
(No. 404, or 405.) 

Toast and Water.— {^o. 463*.) 

Cut a Crust of Bread off a stale loaf, about twice 
the thickness toast is usually cut, toast it carefully 
until it be completely browned all over, but not at all 
blackened or burnt : put this in a jug, pour upon it as 
much boiling water as you wish to make into drink, 
cover the jug, and let it stand till it is quite cold : the 
fresher it is the better. 

Obs.—A roll of thin fresh cut Lemon or dried Orange 
Peel, or some Currant Jelly (No. 475*), Apples shced 
or roasted, &c. infused with the bread, are grateful 
additions. 

N. B. This is a refreshing Su7?imer Drink ; and when 
the proportion of the fluids is destroyed by profuse 
perspiration— may be drunk plentifully. Let a large 



3^ GRAVIES AND SAUCES. 

jug be made early in the day — it will then become 
warmed by the heat of the air, and may be drunk 
witliout danger — which water, Cold as it comes from 
the well, cannot in Hot weather. 

Or, 

To make it more expeditiously, put the bread into a 
muo-, and just cover it with boiling water ; let it stand 
till cold, then fill it up with cold spring water, and 
pour it through a fine sieve. 

Obs. — The above is a pleasant and excellent beve- 
rage, grateful to the Stomach, and deserves a con- 
stant place by the Bedside. 

Cool Tankard, or llccr Cup. — (No. 464.) 

A quart of mild Ale, a glass of white Wine, one of 

Brandy, one of Capillaire, the juice of a Lemon, a roll 

of the Peel pared thin, Nutmeg grated at the top, (a 

sprig of Borrage* or Kalm,) and a bit of toasted Bread. 

Cider Cup— (So. 4G5.) 
Is the same, — only substituting Cider for Beer. 

r/ip, _ (\o. 466.) 

Keep grated Ginger and Nutmeg with a little fine 
dried Lemon Peel rubbed together in a mortar. 

To make a quart of Flip: — Put the Ale on the fire 
to warm, — and beat up three or four Eggs with four 
ounces of moist Sugar, a teaspoonful of grated Nutmeg 
or Ginger, and a quartern of good old Rum or Brandy. 



• " lioRRAGK is oue of Ihe fonr Cordial f?owers;" it coinforts the heart, 
chetrs melancholy, and revives the fHintiig «pii its, sa>s Salmon in the 45th 
page of his " IJtmuhuld Comjiatiion," London, 1710. Aiu\ Evvl\n, in 
pa^e 13 ui b\< Acetoria, say?," the sprigs, in nine, are of kno\vii viitue 
to revive the Ilypoclondriac, and cheer the hard Sludtni."— Combimd with 
the ingredients in tiie above Peceipt, we have Ireqnently observed it produce 
all the Cardiac and Exhilarating effects ascribed to it. 



GRAVIES AND SAUCES. 385 

When the Ale is near to boil, put it into one pitcher, 
and the Rum and Eggs, &c. into another ; — turn it from 
one pitcher to another till it is as smooth as Cream. 

N.B. This quantity I styled 0/ie Yard of Flannel. 

Obs. — The above is given in the words of the Pub- 
lican who gave us the Receipt. 

Tewahdiddle, — (No. 467.) 

A pint of Table Beer, (or Ale, if you intend it for a 
supplement to your ** Night-Cap,") a tablespoonful of 
Brandy, and a teaspoonful of brown Sugar, or clarified 
Syrup (No. 475;) — a little grated Nutmeg or Ginger 
may be added, and a roll of very thin cut Lemon Peel. 

Obs. — Before our readers make any remarks on this 
Composition, we beg of them to taste it; if the materials 
are good, and their palate vibrates in unison with our 
own, they will find it one of the pleasantest beverages 
they ever put to their lips, — and, as Lord Rut kt en says, 
" this is a right Gossip's Cup, that far exceeds all the 
Ale tlmt ever Mothep. Bunch made in her life-time." — 
See his Lordship's Experiments on Cookery, Syc. 18mo. 
London, 1654, page 215. 

Sir Fleetwood Shepherd's Sack Posset. 
(No. 467*.) 

" From fam'd Barbadoes on the western main 
Fetch Sugar ounces fonr— fetch Sack from Spain, 
A pint, — and from the Eastern Indian Coast 
Kutmeg, the glory of our northern toast; 
O'er flaming Coals let them together heat. 
Till the all-conquering Sack dissolve the sweet ; 
O'er such another fire, put Eggs jnst ten, 
New-born from tread ot Cock and Rump of Hen: 
Stir them with steady hand and conscience pricking 
To see the untimely end often fine Chicken ; 
From shining shelf take down the brazen skiiiet, — 
A quart of milk from gentle Cow will fill ic. 
When boil'd and cold, put milk and Sack to Eggs, 
Unite them firmly like the triple league. 
And on the fire let them together dwell 
Till Miss sing twice — you must not kiss and tell — 
Each lad and lass take up a silver spoon, 
And fall on fiercely like a starved Dragoon," 



386 GRAVIES AND SAUCES. 

To bottle Beer.—{^o. 468.) 

When the briskness and livehness of malt liquors In 
the cask fail, and they become dead and vapid, which 
they s^cnerally do soon after they are tilted, — let them 
be Bottled. 

Be careful to use clean and dried bottles ; leave them 
unstopped for twelve hours, and then cork them as 
closely as possible with good and sound new Corks ; put 
a bit of lump sugar as big as a nutmeg into each 
bottle : the Beer will be ripe, i. c. fine and sparkling, 
in about four or five weeks ; if the ueathcr is cold, to 
jnit it up, the day before it is to he drank, place it in a 
room uhcrc there is a Fire. 

Remember there is a sediment, S:c. at the bottom 
of tlie Bottles, which you must carefully avoid dis- 
turbing, — so pour it oft at once, leaving a wineglassfuj 
at the botl(;ra. 

*^' If Beer becomes Hard or Stale, a few grains of 
Carbonate (f Potash, added to it at the time it is drank, 
■will correct it, and make Draught Beer as briik as Bottled 
Ale. 

Rich Raspberry Jtlne or Brandy. — (No. 469.) 

Bruise tlie finest ripe Raspberries v.'ith the back of a 
spoon, strain them through a flannel bag into a stone 
jar, allowing a Pound of fine powdered Loaf Sugar to 
each quart of juice ; stir it well together, and cover it 
down ; let it stand for three days, stirring it up each 
day ; pour off' the clear, and put two quarts of Sherry, 
or one of Cogniac Brandy, to each quart of juice ; 
bottle it off": it will be fit for the glass in a fortnight. 

N.B. Or make it with the Jelly (No. 479.) 

Liqueurs. — (No. 47L) 

We have very little to tell from our own experience, 

and refer our Reader to " Nouvelle Chimie du 

Gout et de l'Odorat, ou CArt du Distillatevr, du 

Confi^eur, et du Parfumeur, mis (i la portee de tout le 



GRAVIES AND SAUCES. 387 

iWofw/e,"— Paris, 2 torn. 8vo. 1819;— and to Jarrik's 
Italian CGnfectioner, Lond. 1820. 

Next to teaching how to make good things at home, 
is the information where those things may be procured 
ready made, of the best quality. 

It is in rain, to attempt to imitate the best Foreign 
Liqueurs, unless we can obtain the pure vinous 
spirit with which they are made. 

JoHxsoN and Co., Foreign Liqueur and Brandy 
Merchants to his Majesty and the Royal Family ^ No. 2, 
Colonnade, Pall Mall, are justly famous for importing 
Brandy of the best quality, and selling it in a genuine 
state, and 71 varieties of Foreign Liqueurs, &c., 
and that agreeable and excellent coup-d'apres, " Es- 
sence OF Punch." 

His " WiTTE CURA90A" is a Bonne Bovche for an 
Emperor. 

Curafoa. — (No. 474.) 

Put five ounces of thin cut Seville Orange Peel, that 
has been dried and pounded, into a quart of the finest 
and cleanest Rectified Spirit, (sold by Rickards, 
Distiller, Piccadilly), — after it has been infused a 
fortnight, strain it, and add a quart of Syrup, and 
filter ; see the following Receipt : — 

To make a Quart ofCuracoa. 

To a pint of the cleanest and strongest Rectified Spirit, 

(sold by Rickards, Piccadilly), add two drachms and 

a half of the Smet Oil of Orange Peel, (sold by Stewart, 

No. 11, Old Broad Street, near the Bank), shake it up, 

— dissolve a pound of good Lump Sugar in a pint of 

cold water, make this into a Clarified Syrup (No. 475), 

which add to the Spirit, shake it up, and let it stand 

till the following day — then line a funnel with a piece 

of muslin, and that with filtering paper, and filter it 

two or three times till it is quite bright. This Liqueur 

is an admirable cordial — and a teaspoonful in a 

s2 



388 GRAVIES AND SAUCES. 

Turabkr of water, is a very refreshing Summer Drink, 
and a great improvement to Punch. 

Obs. — We do not offer this Receipt as a Rival to 
Mr. Johnson's Cura^oa — it is only proposed as an 
humble substitute for that incomparable Liqueur. 

Clarified S}/rup. — (No. 475.) 

Break into l^its two Pounds (avoirdupois) of double 
refined Lump Sugar, and put it into a clean stewpan 
(that is well tinned), with a Pint of cold spring water ; 
wlicn the Sugar is dissolved, set it over a moderate 
fire : beat ?bout half the white of an Egg, put it to the 
Sugar before it gets warm, and stir it well together. 
Watch it, and when it boils take off the scum ; keep 
it boiling till no scum rises, and it is perfectly clear, 
then run it through a clean napkin : put it into a 
close stopped bottle ; it will keep for months, and 
is an Elegant Article on the Sideboard for Sweetening. 

Obs. — The proportion of Sugar ordered in the above 
Syrup, is a quarter pound more than that directed in 
the Pharmacopaia of the London College of Physicians. 
The quantity of Sugar must be as much as the liquor 
is capable of keeping dissolved when cold, or it will 
ferment, and quickly spoil ; if kept in a temperate 
degree of heat, the above proportion of Sugar may be 
considered the basis of all Syrups. 

Capillaire.— (So. 476.) 

To a pint of Clarified Syrup add a wineglass of 
Cura^oa (No. 474), — or dissolve a drachm of Oil of 
Keroli in two ounces of Rectified Spirit, and add a few 
drops of it to Clarified Syrup. 

Lemonade in a Minute, — (No. 477.) 

Pound a quarter of an ounce (avoirdupois) of Citric, 
i. e. crystallized Lemon Acid *, with a few drops of 



• Tartaric is ouly half the price of Citric Acid — bnt is very inferior in 
flavour, &c. ; and those who prepare this Syrnp for Home Consumption, wiU 
always use the Citric. 



GRAVIES AND SAUCES. 389 

quintessence of Lemon Peel (No. 408), and mix it by 
degrees with a pint of Clarified Syrup (No. 475), or 
Capillaire. 

For Superlative S^rup of Lemons ^ see (No. 391.) 

Obs. — The proportion of Acid to the Syrup, v/as 
that selected (from several specimens) by the Com- 
mittee OF Taste. We advise those who are dis- 
posed to verify our Receipt, to mix only three-quarters 
of a pint of Syrup first, and add the other quarter if 
they find it too Acid. 

If you have none of (No. 408), flavour your Syrup 
with thin cut Lemon Peel, or use Svrup of Lemon Peel 
(No. 393.) 

A tablespoonful of this in a pint of v/ater will imme- 
diately produce a very agreeable Sherbet ; the addition 
of Rum and Brandy will convert this into 

PUXCH DIRECTLY. — (No. 478.) 

Slirub, or Essence of Punch. — (No. 479.) 

Brandy or Rum, flavoured with (No. 477), will give 
you very good Extempore " Essexce of Punch." 

Obs. — The addition of a quart of Sherry or Madeira 
makes " Punch Royal;" if, instead of wine, the 
above quantity of water be added, it will make " Fundi 
for Chambermaids f' according to Salmon's Cookery, 
Svo. London, 1710: see page 405 ; and (No. 268), in 
Nott's Cook's Dictionary, Svo. 1724. 

White, Pud, or Black — Currant, — Grape, — JRaspberri', 
4'c. Je//j/. — (No. 479*.) 

Are all made precisely in the same manner. When 
the fruit is full ripe, gather it on a dry day ; — as soon 
as it is nicely picked, put it into a Jar, and cover it 
down very close. 

Set the Jar in a Saucepan about three parts filled 
with cold water; put it on a gentle fire, and let it 
simmer for about half an hour. Take the pan from 



390 GRAVIES AND SAUCES. 

the fire, and pour the contents of the Jar into a Jelly- 
Bag: pass the juice through a second time; — (do not 
squeeze the bag.) 

To each Pint of juice add a pound and a half of 
good Lump Sugar pounded ; when it is dissolved, put 
it into a preserving pan, set it on the fire, and boil 
gently, stirring and skimming it the whole time, (about 
twenty minutes), i. c. till no more scum rises, — it will 
be then perfectly clear and fine ; pour it while warm 
into pots, — and when cold, cover them with paper 
wetted in Brandy. 

Haifa pint of this Jelly, dissolved in a pint of Brandy 
or Vinegar, will give you excellent Currant or Rasp- 
berry Brandy or Vinegar. To make Sweet Sauce, 
(No' 346.) 

Obs. — Jellies /rom other fruits are made in the 
same u^ai/, — and cannot be preserved in perfection 
without plenty of good Sugar. 

The best way is the cheapest, — Jellies made with 
too small a proportion of Sugar — require boiling so 
long — there is much more waste of juice and flavour 
by evaporation than the due quantity of Sugar costs ; 
and they neither look nor taste half so delicate, as 
when made with a proper proportion of Sugar, and 
moderate boiling. 

Mock Arrack. — (So. 480) 

Dissolve two scruples of flowers of Benjamin in a 
quart of good Rum, and it will immediately impart to 
it the inviting fragrance of " Vauxhall Nectar." 

Cakes -feet Jelli/. — (No. 481.) 

Take four Calves' Feet, (not those which are sold at 
Tripe-shops, which have been boiled till almost all the 
Gelatine is extracted,— but buy them at the Butcher's ;) 
slit them in two, take away the Fat from between 
the claws, wash them well in lukewarm water, then 
put them in a large stewpan, and cover them with 



GRAVIES AND SAUCES. 



391 



Water; when the liquor boils, skim it well, and let 
it boil gently six or seven hours, that it may be re- 
duced to about two quarts, then strain it through a 
sieve, and skim all the oily substance which is on the 
surface of the liquor. 

If you are not in a hurry, it is better to boil the 
Calves' feet the day before you make the Jelly, as 
when the liquor is cold, the oily part being at the top, 
and the other being firm, with pieces of kitchen paper 
applied to it, you may remove every particle of the 
oily substance, without wasting any of the Liquor. 

Put the Liquor in a stewpan to melt, with a pound 
of Lump Sugar, the peel of two Lemons, the juice 
of six, six whites of Eggs and shells beat together, 
and a bottle of Sherry or Madeira ; whisk the whole 
together until it is on the boil, then put it by the 
side of the stove, and let it simmer a quarter of an 
hour; strain it through a Jelly-bag; what is strained 
first must be poured into the bag again, until it is as 
bright and as clear as rock water; then put the Jelly 
in moulds, to be cold and firm ; if the weather is too 
warm, it requires some ice. 

Ohs. — VVhen it is required to be very stiff, half an 
ounce of Isinglass may be added when the Wine is 
put in. 

It may be flavoured by the juice of various Fruits, 
&c. and Spices, &c. and coloured with Saffron, — 
Cochineal, — Red Beet Juice, — Spinage Juice, — 
Claret, &c. — and it is sometimes made with Cherry 
Brandy, or Noi/eau Rouge, — or Curagoa (No. 474), 
or Essetice of Punch (No. 479), instead of Wine. 

N.B. Ten Shank Bones of Mutton, which may 
be bought for 2if/., will give as much Jelly as a Calfs 
foot, which costs a Shilling.— See the 20th and follow- 
ing lines in page 296 of this work. 



THE 

COOK^S ORACLE 



MADE DISHES, &c. 



Receipts fur Economical Made Disiiks, uritten for 
the Cook's Oh.aclk — b\/ an occowplislied Exglisii 
Lady. — (No. 483.) 

These Experiments have arisen from my aversion to 
Cold Meat, and my preference of what are termed 
French Dishes; with wliich (by a certain manas^c- 
ment) 1 think I can furnish my table at far less ex- 
pense — than is generally incurred in getting up a 
Plain Dinner. 

GuAVY OR Sour Meats I never buy, — and yet am 
seldom without a good provision of what is technically 
denominated Stock. 

"^Vhen, as it frequently happens, we have Ha^i 
dressed, if the Joint be above the weight of seven 
pounds, I have it cut in half, and prepared in the 
following manner: — First, ensure that it has been 
properly soaked, scraped, and cleaned to a nicety, — 
then, put it into an Earthen Vessel as near its own size 
as possible, with just as much water as will cover it, 
to which add four Onions, a clove of Garlick, half a 
dozen Shallots, a Bay leaf, a bunch of Sweet herbs, 
half a dozen Cloves, a few Peppercorns and Allspice : 
this should be well closed, and kept simmering about 
three hours. It is then served with Raspings or with 
Glazing, the rind having first been taken off neatly. — 



MADE DISHES, &C. 393 

The liquor is strained, and kept till Poultry of any sort, 
or Meat, is boiled, when the liquor in which they have 
been dressed should be added to it, and boiled down 
fa^t till reduced to about three pints : when cold, it 
will be a highly flavoured, well coloured Jelly*, and 
ready for Sauce for all kinds of R<igouts and Hashes, 
&c. &c. 

A Fillet of Veal, I divide into Three Parts; the 
Meat, before it is skewered, will of itself indicate where 
the partition is natural, and will pull asunder as you 
would quarter an Orange; — the Largest Piece should 
be stuffed with (No. 374, or 375), and rolled up, com- 
pactly skewered, &c. and makes a veiy pi-etty small 
Fillet — the square Jkit Piece will either €ut into Cutlets 
(No. 90, or 521), or slice for a Pie — and the Thick 
Piece must be well larded and dressed as a Fricaiukau 
— which I do in the following manner: — Put the 
larded Veal into a stev/pan just big enough to contain 
it, with as much water as will cover it; when it has 
simmered till delicately white, and so tender as to be 
cut with a Spoon, it must be taken out of the water 
and set apart, — and it will be ready to serve up 
either with Sorrel, Tomata, Mushrooms (No, 305, or 
439), or some of the above-mentioned Stock — the 
Fricandeau being previously coloured with Glazing — 
if with Mushrooms, they should be first parboiled in 
Salt and Vinegar, and water, which gives them flavour, 
and keeps them good colour. 

The Sirloin of beef / likewise divide into Three 
Parts ; I first have it nicely honed. 

The Under part, or Fillet, as the French call it, will 
dress (when cut into slices) excellently, either as plain 
Steaks (No. 94), Curry (No. 497) ; or,' it may be larded 
whole, and gently stev.'ed in two quarts of water (a Bay 
leaf, two Onions, their skins roasted brown, four Cloves, 
Allspice, &c. &c.) till tender, when it should be taken 

♦ This may bestiil longer preserved — hy the process diiecled in (No. 252.) 

s 5 



394 MADE DISHES, Sec. 

out, drained quite dry, and put away — it is then 
ready to be used at any time in the following- manner: 
— Season and dredge it well, then put it into a stew- 
pan in which a piece of Butter has been previously 
fried to a fine froth ; when the Meat is sufficiently 
brown, take it out, and throw into the pan half a dozen 
middle-sized Onions to do a fine Gold Colour; that 
accomplished, (durinj:^ which the Dredger should be in 
constant use,) add half a pint of Stock, and a tea- 
spoonful of Tarragon Vinegar (No, 396), and let the 
Onions stew gently till nearly tender; the Beef should 
then be returned to the stewpan, and the whole suffered 
to simmer till the meat is warm through: care must be 
taken that the Onions do not break, and they should 
be served round the Beef \vith as much Sauce as will 
look graceful in the dish. The Fillet is likewise very 
good without t/ie Jricd Onions; — in that case, you 
should chop and mix up together, a Shallot, some 
Parsley, a few Capers and the Yolk of a hard Egg, 
and strew them lightly over the surface of the Beef, 

Tin- Fat End of the Sirloin and Bones should be put 
to simmer in the li(|Uor, in which the Fillet was first 
stewed, and done till the Beef looks loose; it should 
then be put away into a deep vessel, and the Soup 
strained over it, which cooling with the Fat upon the 
top (thereby excluding the air), will keep as long as 
may be required; — when the Soup is to be used, the 
fat 'must be cleared from it, — a Carrot, Parsnip, a 
head of Celery, a Leek, and three Turnips, cleaned 
and .scalded, should be added to it, and the whole 
sufiered to simmer gently till the vegetables are quite 
done, when they must be strained from the liquor, and 
the Soup served up with large square thick pieces of 
toa>^tcd bread. 

Those who like a Plain Bouillt warm the Beef in the 
Soup, and serve it up with the Turnips and Carrots 
which had been strained before from the Soup. A 
White Cabbage quartered, is no bad addition to the 



MADE DISHES, 8vC. 395 

(Garnish of the Bouilli, or to the flavour of the Soup. 
If it is a Dressed Bouilli, sliced Carrots and Button 
Onions should be stewed in thickened Stock, and 
poured over the Meat 

A Neck of Muftun,honed, sprinkled with dried Sage, 
powdered fine, or (No. 378) seasoned and rolled and 
roasted, is very good. T/ie Bones and Scrag make 
excellent Gravy stewed down, and if done very gently, 
the Meat is not bad eating. The same herbs should 
be put to it, as to other Stocks, with the addition of a 
Carrot; this will make very good Mutton Broth. In 
short, wherever there are Bancs or Trinwiings to be got 
out of any Meat that is dressed in my Kitchen, they 
are made to contribute towards Soup or Gravy, or 
(No. 252.) 

Instead of roasting a Hare (which at best is but dry 
food), stew it, if Young, Plain, — if an Old one, Lard it. 
The Shoulders and Legs should be taken off, and the 
Back cut into three pieces ; these, with a Bay leaf, half 
a dozen Shallots, one Onion pierced with four Cloves, 
should be laid with as much good vinegar as will cover 
ihem, for twenty-four hours in a deep dish. In the 
mean time, the Head, Neck, Ribs, Liver, Heart, &c. &c. 
should be browned ia frothed Butter well seasoned — 
add half a pound of lean Bacon cut into small pieces, a 
large bunch of Herbs, a Carrot, and a few Allspice • — 
simmer these in a quart of water till it be reduced to 
about half the quantity, when it should be strained, 
and those parts of the Hare which have been infused 
in the vinegar, should (v.'ith the whole contents of the 
dish) be added to it, and stewed till quite done. Those 
who like Onions may brown half a dozen, stew them 
in a part of the Gravy, and dish them round the 
Hare. 

When it comes from the table, supposing some to 
be left, the Meat should be taken from the Bones, and 
with a few Forcemeat balls, the remains of the Gravy, 
and about a quarter of a pint of Red Wine aad a pro- 



396 MADE DISHES, SCC. 

portionable quantity of water, it will make a very pretty 
Soup — to those who have no objection to Catsup, 
(No. 439), a spoonful in the original Gravy is an im- 
provement, as indeed it is in every made Dish where 
the Mushroom itself is not at command. 

Every Razout, in my opinion, should be dressed the 
day before it is wanted, that any Faf which has escaped 
the skimming spoon, may with case be taken off when 
oold. 

Calf's Head. — Take the half of one, with the 
skin on, — put it into a larc^e stewpan with as much 
water as will cover it, a knuckle of Ham, and the usual 
accompaniments of Onions, Herbs, &:c. dv-c. and let it 
simmer till the flesh may be separated from the bone 
with a Spoon — do so, and while still hot cut it into as 
large a sized sijuarc as the piece will admit of; — the 
trimmings and half the liquor put by in a tureen; to 
the rcmainiii2" half add a gill of White Wine, and reduce 
the whole of that hy quick boi/ing till it is again half 
consume^, when it should be ])Oured over the large 
square piece in an Earthen Vessel surrounded ^vith 
Mushrooms, white Button Onions, small pieces of 
Pickled Pork (half an inch in breadth, and one and a 
half in length), and the Tongue in slices, and simmered 
till the whole is fit to serve up; some browned Force- 
meat balls are a pretty addition. After this comes from 
the Table, the remains should be cut into small pieces 
and mixed up with the Trimmings and licpjor, which 
(with a little more wine) properly thickened, will make 
a very frofXi Mock Turtle Soup for a future occasion. 



To Ha.^h Mutton, cSc — (No. 484.) 

Cut the Meat into handsome slices, and trim off all 
the sinews, skin and gristle, &c. — put in nothing but u-hat 
is to be eaten, lay tliem on a plate, ready ; prepare your 
Sauce as receipt (No. 360), or (No. 451), or (No. 486), 
put in the Meat, and let it simmer gently till it h 



MADE DISHES, &C. 397 

thoroughly warm ; — do not let it Boil, as that will make 
the Meat tough and hard*, and it will be, as Joax 
Cromwell t has it, a Harsh. 

Obs. — Select for your Hash, those parts of the joint 
that are least done. It is a mode of Cookery by no 
means suited to delicate stomachs ; unless the Meat, 
&c, be considerably under-done the first time — a second 
dressing must spoil it. 

To WARM Hashes t' — Q^o. 485.) 
Made Dishes, — Stews, — Ragouts,— Soups, &c. Put 
what you have left, into a deep hash dish, or tureen : 
when you w ant it, set this in a stewpan of boiling water ; 
let it s*^tand till the contents are quite warm. 

To Hash Beef, cSr. — (No. 486.) 

Put a pint and a half of Broth, — or Water, with an 
ounce of (No. 252), or a large tablespoonful of Mushroom 
Catsup into a stewpan with the Gravy you have saved 
that was left from the Beef, and put in a quarter ounce 
of onion sliced very tine, and boil it about ten minutes ; 
put a large tablespoonful of Flour into a basin, just wet 

* Hashes and r.Ieats dressel a second time, should only simmer gently, 
till just uarm through ; it is supposed they have beeu done very nearly, if 
not quite tiiougb, alreatly : select those parts of the joint that have been least 
done. 

In making a Hash from a Leg of Mutton, do not destroy the Marrow- 
bone to help the gravy of your h:ish, to 'svhich it "witl make no perceptible 
addition; but saw it in two, twist writing paper round the ends, and send it 
up on a plate as a side dish, garnished with sprr;4s of pai-sley : — if it is a 
Roast leg, preserve the end bone, atid send it up between the marrow- 
hones. This is a very preity Luncheon, or Supper dish. 

t See " the Court and AltcAc7J o/" Elizabeth, commonly called Joa7i 
Cromwell," l6mo., London, l664, page 10(j. 

i The " Bain-Marie," or Watkr-b\th, see note to QSo. 529), is the best 
utensil to warm up made dishes, and ihiiigs that have "been already sufficiently 
dreised, as it neillier coiisnir.cs the sauce, nor hardens the meat : — if you have 
iK>f a V>;Tter-Bath, a Dutch Oven will sometimes supply the place of it. 

" Bain-]\Larie" is a flat vessel contaioing boiling water; you put all your 
stewpans into the v«ater, and keep that v,'ater always very hot, but it must 
not boil ; the effect of this Eain-Marie is to keep every thing warm ■withont 
altering either the quantity or the quality, particalarly the quality. When I 
had the honour of serving a Nobleman who kept a very extensive hunting 
establishment, and the hour of dinner was consequently uncertain, I was in 
the habit of irsing Bain-Marie, as a certain means of preserving tlie flavoor 
of all my dishes. If you keep your sauce or broth or soup by the fireside, the 



398 MADE DISHES, &.C. 



it with a little water, mix it well tog;ether, and then stir 
it into the broth, and give it a boil for five or ten 
minutes, rub it through a sieve, and it is ready to receive 
the Beef, &c., let it stand by the side of the fire, till 
the Meat is warm. 

N.B. A teaspoonful of Parsley chopped as fine as 
possible, and put in five minutes before it is served up, 
is a great addition ; — others like half a wines^lass of Port 
wine, and a dessertspoonful of Currant Jelly. 

Sec also (No. 3^0), wijich will show you every variety 
of manner of making and flavouring the most highly 
finished Hash Sauce, and (Nos. 484, 485, and 506.) 

CoU Meat Broiled, uith Poached Eggs.— (So. 487.) 

The inside of a Sirloin of Beef is best for this dish, 
or a Leg of Mutton. Cut the slices of even and equal 
tliickness, and broil and brown them carefully and 
slightly over a clear smart fire, or in a Dutch oven, give 
those slices most lire that are least done ; — lay them in 
a dish before the lire to keep hot, while you poach the 
Eggs, as directed in (No. 546), and mashed Potatoes 
(No. 106.) 

0/«. — This makes a savoury Luncheon or Supper, — 
but is more relishing than nourishing, unless the Meat 
was under-done the first time it was dressed. 

No. 307 for Sauce, to which some add a few drops 
of Shallot wine or vinegar. See (No. 402), or (No. 439), 
or (No. 359), \varmed, — or Grill Sauce (No. 355.) 

Mrs. Phillips's Iri.'>h Sfc-u:. — (No. 488.) 

Take five thick Mutton Chops or two pounds off the 
neck or loin ; four pounds of Potatoes ; peel them, and 
cut them in halves ; six Onions, or half a pound of 
onions, peel and slice them also; — first put a layer of 



soap redaces and becomes too s»rong, and the sunce tliickeus as well as re- 
duces. This is the best way of wanning Turtle, or Mock Turtle Soup, — as 
the thick part is always at tlic bottom, and this method prevents it from 
hurniug, and keeps it always good." — Ude's Cookery, page 18. 



MADE DISHES, 8CC. 399 

Potatoes at the bottom of your stewpan, then a couple 
of Chops and some of the Onions ; then a^ain potatoes, 
and so on till the pan is quite full, — a small spoonful 
of white pepper, and about one and a half of salt, and 
three gills of broth or gravy ; cover all very close in, 
so as to prevent the steam from getting out, and let 
them stew two hours on a very slow fire. A small slice 
of ham is a great addition to this dish. The Cook will 
be the best judge when it is done, as a great deal 
depends on the fire you have. 

N.B. Great Care must be taken not to let it burn, 
and that it does not do too fast. 

To make an Irish Stexv, or Hunter's Pie. 

Take part of a Neck of Mutton, cut it into chops, 
season it well, put it into a stewpan, let it brase for 
half an hour, take two dozen of potatoes, boil them, 
mash them, and season them, butter your mould, and 
hne it with the potatoes, put in the Mutton, bake it for 
half an hour, then it will be done, cut a hole in the top 
and add some good gravy to it 

N.B. The above is the contribution of Mr. Morrison 
of the Leinster Hotel, Dublin. 

A good Scotch Haggles. — (No, 488*.) 
Make the haggies-bag perfectly clean ; parboil the 
draught, boil the liver very well, so as it will grate ; 
dry the meal before the fire ; mince the draught and a 
pretty large piece of beef very small ; grate about half 
of the hver ; mince plenty of the suet and some onions 
small ; mix all these materials very well together, w^ith 
a handful or two of the dried meal ; spread them on 
the table, and season them properly with salt and mixed 
spices; take any of the scraps of beef that is left from 
mincing, and some of the water that boiled the draught, 
and make a'jout a choppin {i. e. a quart) of good stock 
of it; then put all the haggies meat into the bag, and 
that broth in it; then sew up the bag; but be sure to 



400 MADE DISHES, SCC. 

put out all the wind before you sew it quite close. If 
you thiuk the bag is tliin, you may put it in a cloth. 
If it is a large haggies, it will take at least two hours 
boiling. 

N.B. The above we copied verbathn from Mrs. 
Maciver, a cdtiratcd Cukdomun Professor of the Cu- 
linary art, uho taught and published a book of Co<^kcrij at 
Edinburgh, A.D. IISI. 

Minced Collops. 

" This is a favourite Scotch dUh, — few families are 
without it, — it keeps well, and is always ready to make 
an extra dish. 

*' Take Beef, and chop and mince it very small ; to 
which add some salt and pepper. Put this, in its raw 
state, into small jars, and pour on the top some clarified 
butter. When intended for use, \m\. the clarified butter 
into a frvin^^pan, and slice some onions into tlie pan, 
and frv them. Add a little water to it, and then put 
in the minced meat. Stew it well, and in a few minutes 
it will be fit to serve up." — The Hon. Jon\ Cociirane's 
Scatnans Guide, Svo. 1797. p. 4'2. 

Harrico* Mutton, a la Moosi-Aye. — (Xo. 489.) 
Cut the best end of a Neck or Loin of Mutton that 
has been kept till tender, into Chops of equal thick- 
ness, one rib to each ; (" Ics bons homines dc bouche dc 
Paris" cut two chops to one bone, but it is more con- 
venient to help when there is only one, two at a time is 
too large a dose for John Bull,) trim off most of the Fat, 
and the lower end of the chine bone, and scrape it 
clean ; — flatten them with a cleaver, and lay them in 
a Stewpan, with an ounce of Butter and a large Onion ; 
--- set it over a amartfire : if your fire is not sharp, the 
chops will be done before they are coloured : the inten- 
tion of flying them is merely to give litem a bromiing. 

* Probably a contractioii of " Ilaut Ragoiit." 



MADE DISHES, &C. 401 

While the Chops are browning, peel and boil a couple 
of dozen of young button Onions in about three pints of 
water for about 15 or 20 minutes, set them by, — and 
pour off the liquor they were boiled in into the stewpan 
with the chops, and add as much boiling water as will 
cover them, remove the scum as it rises, and then put 
in six ounces of Carrots, and eight ounces of Turnips 
peeled and cut into shces, or shaped into balls about 
as big as a nutmeg, put in the Carrots twenty minutes 
before the Turnips, be careful they are not stewed toofiist 
or too much, — so take out one of the Chops with a fish 
slice, and try it : when they are tender, w^hich will be 
in about an hour and a half, then pass the gravy through 
a sieve into a basin, skim off the fat, and set the meat 
and vegetables by the fire to keep hot, and pour some 
boiling water over the button Onions to warm them, 
and then put them round the Dish, the last thing. 

Thicken the Gravy by putting an ounce of Butter 
into a Stewpan ; vvhen it is melted, stir in as much 
Flour as will stiffen it ; pour the gravy to it by degrees, 
stir together till it boils ; strain it through a fine sieve 
or tammis into a stewpan, and let it simmer gently 
while you dish up the Meat and Vegetables ; lay the 
chops round a dish, put the Vegetables in the middle, 
and pour the thickened gravy over. Some put in 
Capers, &c., minced Gherkins, &c. 

Obs. — Rump steaks. Veal cutlets, and Beef 
TAILS, make excellent dishes dressed in the like 
manner. 

Mutton Chops delicately Stexced, and good Mutton Broth. 
(No. 490.) 
Put the Chops into a stewpan with cold water enough 
to cover them, and an Onion, — when it is coming to a 
boil, skim it, cover the pan close, and set it over a very 
slo-iV Fire till the Chops are tender, — if they have been 
kept a proper time, they will take about three quarters 
of an hour's very gentle simmering. Send up Turnips 



402 MADE DISHES, 8CC. 

with them, (No. 130), they may be boiled with the 
chops, skim well, and then send all up in a deep dish, 
with the Broth they were stewed in. 

N.B. The Broth will make an Economist one, — and 
the Meat another whcdesome and comfortable meal. 

Shouldir of Lamb Grilled. — {^o. 491.) 

Boil it, — score it in chequers about an inch square, 
rub it over with the yolk of an c^j;, pepper and salt 
it, strew it with bread-crumbs and dried parsley, or 
sweet Herbs, or (No. 457 or 459), and Carbonado^ i. e. 
Grill, i. e. Broil it over a clear fire, or put it in a Dutch 
oven till it is a nice lijiht brown ; send up some 
gravy with it, or make a sauce for it of flour and 
water well mixed t();j;eth('r with an ounce of fresh but- 
ter, a tablespf)onful of mushroom or walnut catsup, 
and the juice of half a lemon. See also Grill Sauce 
(No. 355.) 

N.B. Breasts of Lamb are often done the same way, 
and with Musliroom or Mutton sauce (No. 307.) 

Lamb'.s Fry. — (No. 492.) 
Fry it plain, or dip it in an egg well beaten on a 
plate, and strew some fine stale bread crumbs over it ; 
garnish with crisp parsley (No. 389.) For sauce 
(No. 355;, or, (No. 356.) 

Shin of Beef ' Stewed. — (No. 493.) 

Desire the butcher to saw the bone into three or four 
pieces, put it into a stewpan, and just cover it with 
cold water, — when it simmers, skim it clean, — then 
put iu a bundle of Sweet Herbs, a lar;^e Onion, a head 
of Celery, a dozen berries of Black Pepper, and the 
same of Allspice : — stew very gently over a slow fire 

• The proveib says," Of all the Fowls of t lie Air, commeiirt me to the 
Shin of Beek,— fur there's Marrow tor the master, — Meal for the mistress, 
(iri«iie« for the Servants, and Boues for the Dogs." 



MADE DISHES, &C. 403 

till the Meat is tender, — this will take from about 
Three hours and a half, to four and a half. 

Take three Carrots, peel and cut them into small 
squares; — peel and cut ready in small squares a couple 
of Turnips, with a couple of dozen of small young round 
silver Button Onions; boil them till tender, the Turnips 
and Onions will be enough in about fifteen minutes, — - 
the Carrots will require about twice as long — drain 
them dry. 

When the Beef is quite tender, take it out carefully 
with a slice, and put it on a dish while you thicken a 
pint and a half of the Gravy : to do this, mix three 
tablespoonsful of flour with a teacupful of the beef 
liquor; to make Soup of the rest of it, see (No. 238), 
stir this thoroughly together till it boils, scum off the 
Fat, strain it through a sieve, and put your vegetables in 
to warm ; — Season with pepper, salt, and a wineglass of 
Mushroom Catsup (No. 439), or Port wine, or both, 
and pour it over the Beef. 

Send up Wow Wow sauce (No. 328), in a boat, 

N.B. Or, instead of sending up the Beef whole, cut 
the meat into handsome pieces fit to help at table, and 
lay it in the middle of the dish, with the Vegetables 
and Sauce (which, if you flavour with (No. 455), you 
may call " Beef Curry,") round it. A Leg of 
Mutton is excellent dressed the same way, — equal to 
" k Gigot de sept hcures^' so famous in the French kitchen. 

Obs. — This Stew has every claim to the attention 
of the Rational Epicure, being one of those in which 
" Frugality," " Nourishment," '• and Pala- 
TABLENESs," are most happily combined, — and you get 
half a Gallon of excellent Broth into the bargain. 

We advise the Mistress of the table, to call it " Ra- 
gout Beef ;" this vrill ensure it being eaten with una- 
nimous applause ; — the homely appellation of Shin of 
Beef stewed J is enough to give your Genteel eater a 
locked jaw. 

" Remember, when the Judgment's weak, thu Prejudice is strong," 



404 MADE DISHES, &C. 

Our Modem Epicures resemble the Ancient*, who 
thoui^ht the dearest dish must be the most delicious : 

" And think all Wisdom lies 

" In being im pertinently iike." 

Thus, they reckon Turtle and Punch, to be '* s/uTcnlif 
fohe per shent" more inviting tlian Mock Turtle and 
Good Malt Liquor, — however bad the fonner may be, 
and however <jood the latter; — we wish these folks 
could be made to understand, that the Sou[) for each, 
and all the accompaniments, are precisely the same; — 
there is this only diHerenee, the former is commonly 
made with a •' STARRED TURTLE,'' (see Notes at the 
foot of paire 288,) the latter with a " FATTED 
CALF." ^^^ (Nos. 247, ;M3, and 343\) 

Tile scarcity of tolerably good cooks, ceases to be 
surprising, when we reflect how much more astonishing 
is the ignorance of most of those who assume the 
character of Scientific couUMANDSf, so extremely 
ignorant of " the affairs of the Mouth," — they seem 
hardly to " knon a Sheep s head from a Carrot,' and their 
real pretensions to be profound Palaticians, are as 
moderate, as the wine merchant's customer, whose 
sagacity in the selection of Liquors, was only so ex- 
quisite, that — he knew that Port wine was black, and 
tiiat if he drank enough of it, it would make him 
drunk. 



• The remotest parts of the world were visited, and Earth, Air, and Occaa 
ransacked to furnish the complicated delicacies of a Roman Supper. 

" HuUlas tells us, that Pilyllus, who had a Hot tongue and a C'oW stomach, 
in order to gr;ilify the latter without ofleuding the former, — made a bhcath for 
Lis Tongue, so that he could swallow his potlii{:e scalding hot ; yea, I myself 
have known a Shropshire GentleiHanof the like quality ! I"— See Dr. Moffbt 
on Food, 4io. l655. 

" In the refined extravagance of the tables of the great, where the Culinary 
arts are pushed to excess, — Luxury becomes false to itself, and things arc 
valued, n«jt as they are nutritious, or agreeable to the appetite, but in ])ro- 
portion as they are rare, — out of season, — or costly." — Cadogan oiiGout, 
avo. 1771, page 48. 

1 " Cookery is an art, appreciated by only a very few individuals, and which 
requires, in addition to a most studious and diligent application, no sinaHsbare 
of iuiellecf, and the strictest sobriety and punctuality." — Preface to Uui's 
Cookery, page vi. 



MADE DISHES, &C. 405 

Brisket of Beef Steiced. — (No. 494.) 

This is prepared in exactly the same way as " Sovp 
and BouilU:' See (Nos. 5, 238, or 493.) 

Harrkot if Beef. — Q^o. 495.) 

A stewed brisket cut in slices, and sent up with the 
same Sauce of roots, &c., as we have directed for 
harricot of mutton (No. 489), is a most excellent dish, 
of very moderate expense. 

Savoury Salt Beef Baked. — (^o. 496.) 
The Tongue Side of a round of Beef is the best bit 
for this purpose; if it weighs fifteen pounds let it hang 
two or three days ; then take three ounces of Saltpetre, 
one ounce of coarse Sugar, a quarter of an ounce of 
Black pepper, and same of Allspice, (some add a quarter 
of an ounce of Ginger, or (No. 457), and some minced 
sweet and savoury Herbs (No. 459), and three quarters 
of a pound of common Salt; incorporate these ingre- 
dients by pounding them together in a mortar; then 
take the bone out, and rub the Meat well with the 
above mixture, turning it and rubbing it every day for 
a fortnight. 

When you dress it, put it into a pan with a quart of 
water ; cover the meat with about three pounds of 
mutton suet* shredded rather thick, and an onion or 
two minced small ; cover the whole with a flour crust 
to the top or brim of the pan, and let it be baked in a 
moderate oven for about six hours, (or, just cover it 
with water, and let it stew very gently for about five 
hours, and when you send it to table, cover the top of 
it with finely chopped Parsley.) If the Beef weighs 
more, put a proportional addition of all the ingredients. 

* This Suet is not to be wasted, — -when it comes from the oven, take *nt 
the Beef, and strain the contents of the pan through a sieve, — let it stand till 
it is cold,— then clarify the fat as directed in (No. 83), and it will do for 
Frying, &c. 



406 MADE PISHF.S, Sec. 

The Gravy you will find a strons: Consomme excclfent 
for Sauce or Soup, — or making Soy, or Browning, see 
(No. 322), and being impregnated with Salt, will keep 
several days. 

This Joint should not be cut till it is Cold, — and than 
with a sharp knife to prevent waste, and keep it even 
and comely to the eye. 

Obs. — I his is a most excellent way of preparing 
and dressing Beef (No. 503), — and a savoury dish, for 
Sandicic/ies, &c , — in moderate weather it will keep 
good for a fortnight after it is dressed: it is one of the 
most economical and elegant articles of ready dressed 
keeping provisions ; deser\ing the particular attention 
of those families who frequently have Accidental Cus- 
tomers droppinc: in at Luncheon or Supper — to whom, 
we recommend Morrison's Provisions, No. 3, Charlotte 
Row, Mansion House. See Note at foot of page 288. 

Ci'KKiF.s. — (No. 497.) see also (No. 249.) 

Cut Fowls or Rabbits into joints ; put four ounces 
of Butter into a stewpan; when it is melted, put in 
the meat, and two Onions sliced ; let them be over a 
smart fire till they are of a nice brown, then put in 
half a pint of Broth ; let it simmer twenty minutes ; 
put in a basin one tablespoonful of Curry Powder 
(No. 455), one of Flour, and a teaspoonful of Salt ; 
mix it smooth with a little cold water, put it in the 
stewpan, and shake it well about till it boils ; let it 
simmer twenty minutes longer; just before it is dished 
up, squeeze in the juice of half a Lemon, add one good 
tablespoonful of melted Butter, and it is ready. 

Obs. — Curry is made also with Sueetbreads — 
Breast of Veal — Veal Cutlets — Lamb — Mutton or Park- 
Chaps — LoUter — Turbot — Soles — Eels — Oysters, 
&c. prepared as above, or enveloped in (No. 348.) 

Ols^ — This is a very savoury, nourishing, anel eco- 
nomical dish, and a valuable variety at a moderate 
table. See Wow Wow Sauce, (No. 328.) 



MADE DISHES, Sec. 407 

Ste-xed Rwvp Steak. — (No. 500.) 

For two pounds of Steaks, if you fear they will not 
eat tender, beat them well, — line the bottom of a three 
quart Stewpan with slices of fattish Ham, or Bacon, 
and on this lay the Steaks, (which should be nicely 
trimmed and shaped ;) just cover them with water, a 
dozen corns of Allspice, the same of Black Pepper, 
the red part of a Carrot, a little bundle of Savory and 
Parsley, a large Onion with half a dozen Cloves stuck 
in it, and a head of Celery ; cover them close, and let 
them simmer gently about an hour and a half, according 
to their thickness ; if they are thin Steaks, an hour 
may be enough. ; take care the Meat does not go to rags 
by doing too f ant ^ or too much. 

When the Steaks are tender, take them up, flour 
them, and fry them, only just to brown them^ in an 
ounce of Butter; make some thickening with an ounce 
of Butter and two tablespoonsful of Flour; put it into 
your sauce ; stir it well together with a wooden spoon, 
adding thereto a tablespoonful of Claret, or Port wine, 
the same of Mushroom Catsup (No. 439), half a tea- 
spoonful of Salt, and a quarter of a teaspoonful of 
ground Black Pepper : dish your Steaks, and strain 
your Sauce to them. 

Veal Cutlets or Mutton Chops may be done 
the same way, or as Veal Olives (No. 518.) 

Obs, — This is generally a second course dish, and 
is usually made too rich, — and only fit to re-excite 
an Appetite already satiated. Our endeavour is to 
combine agreeable savouriness with substantial nou- 
rishment; those who wish to enrich our Receipt may 
easily add Mushrooms, — Wine, — Anchovy, — Cay- 
enne, — Bay leaves, &c. 

Another xcay of Stewing Rujnp Steaks, 
The Rump Steaks must be a little thicker than for 



408 MADE DISHES, Sec. 

broiling;, — but ht them be all the same thickness, or some 
will be done too little, and others too much. 

Put an ounce of Butter into a stewpan, with two 
Onions ; when the Butter is melted, lay in the Rump 
Steaks, let them stand over a slow fire for five minutes, 
then turn them, and let the other side of them fry five 
minutes longer. Have ready boiled a pint of Button 
Onions ; they will take from half an hour to an hour ; 
put the liquor they were boiled m to the Steaks; if 
there is not enoup^h of it to cover them, add broth, 
or boiling water, to make up enough for that purpose, 
with a dozen corns of Black Pepper and a little Salt, 
and let them simmer very genfli/ for about an hour and 
a half, and then strain off as much of the liquor (about 
a pint and a half) as you think will make the sauce. 

Put two ounces of Butter into a stewpan ; when it is 
melted, stir in as much Flour as will make it into a 
stift' paste, add the liquor by degrees, let it boil up for 
fifteen minutes; skim it, and strain it; serve up the 
Steaks with the Onions round the dish, and pour the 
Gravy over. 

UIjs. — Rump Steaks are in best condition from 
Michaelmas to Lady-day. To ensure their bekig tender, 
give the Butcher thne or Jour dai/s' notice of j/our ivish 
for them. 

Broiled Rump Steak \iith Onion Graxy. — (No. 501.) 
Sec also (No. 299.) 

Peel and slice two large Onions ; put them into a 
quart stewpan with two tablespoonsful of w^ater : cover 
the stewpan close, and set it on a slow fire till the 
water has boiled away, and the Onions have got a 
little browned, — then add half a pint of good Broth*, 



• If you have no Broth, — put in half a pint of water, tliickcn it as in the 
above receipt, and just before you give it liie last boil up, add to it a large 
spoonful of Mushroom Catsup, and, if you like, the same quantity of Port 



MADE DISHES, &C. 409 

•and boil the Onions till they are tender; strain the 
Broth from them, and chop them very fine; thicken 
the Broth with Flour and Butter, and season it with 
Mushro^^m Catsup, and pepper and salt; put the 
Onion i Uo it, and let it boil gently for five minutes, 
and pour it over a Broiled Rump Steak. If, instead 
of Brot ., you use good Beef Gravy, it will be super- 
lative. 

*** dtexved Cucumber (No. 135), is another agreeable 
accompo'/ment to Ruynp Steaks. 

ALAMODE BEEF, or VEAL. — (No. 502.) 
In the hundred and eighty volumes on Cookery, (see 
page 24 of this work,) we patiently pioneered through, 
before we encountered the tremendous labour and ex- 
pense Qi proving the Receipts of our predecessors, — 
and set about recording these results of our own Expe- 
riments, — we could not find one Receipt that approxi- 
mated tc my thing like an accurate description of the 
way in whioli this excellent dish is actually dressed in the 
best Alain' :.de Beef Shops ; — from whence, of course, 
it was iu'possible to obtain any information : — how- 
ever, after ail, the whole of the secret seems to be the 
thickenmg the gravy of Beef that has been very 
doxuly* ste^'^ed, and flavouring it with Bay leaves and 
Allspice. 

Take about eleven pounds of the Mouse-Buttock, — or 
Clod of Beef. — or a Blade Bone, — or the Sticking piece, 
or the like weight of the Breast of Veal ; cut it into 
pieces of three or four ounces each ; put two or three 
ounces of B'l^ef drippings, and a couple of large Onions, 
into a large deep stewpan ; as soon as it is quite hot, 



* " It mast be allowed to muse gently for several boms, inaccessible to 
tbe ambient air, and on the even and persevering heal of charcoal in the 
furnace or stovt. After having lulled itself in its own exudations, and the 
dissolution of its :.i xiliaries, it may appear at table with a powerful claim to 
approbation."— XiuELLA Cibaria, p. 47. 
T 



410 MADE DISHES, &C. 

flour the Meat, put it into the stewpan, keep stirring 
it with a wooden spoon ; when it has been on about 
ten minutes, dredge it with flour, and keep doing so 
till you have stirred in as much as you think will 
thicken it, then cover it with boiling- water, (it will 
take about a gallon,) adding it by degrees and stirring 
it together ; skim it when it boils, and then put in 
one drachm of ground Black Pepper, two of Allspice, 
and four Bay leaves ; set the pan by the side of the 
tire, or at a distance over it, and let it stew lery alowly 
for al)out three hours; when you find the meat suffi- 
ciently tender, put it into a tureen, and it is ready 
for table. 

It is customary to send up with it a nice Sala^ ; 
see (No. 372 ) 

*«• Tu the above nminj Cooks add Cn am pi onions ; 
hut as these arc almost alicays decai/cd, and ojten of dele- 
terious quality, they are better left out, — and indeed the 
Bay Lr, aves det,erve the i>ame jirohihition. 

Obs. — Here is a savoury and substantial meal, 
almost as cheap as the Egg-Broth of the Miser, — who 
fed his Valet with the water in which his Egg was 
boiled, — or as the '* Potage a la I'ierre, a la Soldat*,'* 
mentioned by Giles Rose in the 4th page of his dedi- 
cation of the *' TEllFECT SCHOOL OF INSTRUCTION 
FOR THE OFFICERS OF THE MOUTH," 1 8mO. LoudoU, 

1682. " Two Soldiers were minded to have a Soup; 
the first of them coming into a house, and asking for 
all tilings necessary for the making of one, was as soon 
told that he could have none of those things there, 
whereupon he went away ; — the other, coming in 



• '" C'lSf la Soupe,' says one of the best of proverbs, * qui fait le Soldat.' 
' It is Iht Soup that makes the SoUlier.' I.xcellciU as om troops are in the 
titid, iheie cannot be a more unqiKhtionable fact, than their immense infe- 
riority to the French in the business of Cookeiy. J I.e En^lith soirlier lay* 
his piece of ration beef at once on tiie coals, by wliicli means, the one and 
the belter half is lost, — and the other burnt to a cinder. Whereas six 
French troopers fling their messes into the same pot, and extract a delicioiii 
Isoap, ten times moie nutritious than the simple l<bti could ever be." — 
bLACKwoou's Ldinbur^h Magazine, vol. vii. p. 66a. 



MADE DISHES, &C. 411 

with a Stone in his knapsack, asked only for a Pot to 
boil his stone in, that he might make a dish of broth 
of it for his Supper, which was quickly granted him ; 
when the Stone had boiled a little while, he asked for 
a small piece of Meat or Bacon, and a few Herbs and 
Roots, &c. just merely to give it a bit of a flavour; till, 
by little and little, he got all things requisite, and so 
made an excellent Pottage of his Stone." — See 0b6. to 
(No. 493.) 

s. d. 
Onions, Pepper, Allspice, and Bay leaves. . . . 3 
11 pounds of tiiick flanlc Beef 7 4 

Made Seven Quarts .....7 7 

i. e. Thirteen Pence per Quart. 

To Pot Beef, — Veal, — Game, or Poultry, &c. 
(No. 503.) 

Take three pounds of lean Gravy Beef, rub it well 
with an ounce of Saltpetre, and then a handful of 
common Salt; let it lie in Salt about three days, 
rubbing it well each day, then put it into an earthen 
pan, or stone jar that will just hold it, cover it with 
the skin and fat that you cut off, and pour in half a 
pint of water; cover it close with paste, and set it in a 
very slow oven for about four hours ; — or prepare it as 
directed in (No. 496.) 

When it comes from the Oven, drain the gravy from 
it into a basin, pick out the gristles and the skins, 
mince it fine, moisten it with a little of the Gravy you 
poured from the Meat, which is a very strong Cunsommt 
(but rather salt), and it will make excellent Pease 
Soup, or Browning, see (No. 322), pound the meat 
patiently and thoroughly in a mortar with some fresh 
Butter*, till it is a fine paste, (to make Potted Meat 

• Tlie less Gravy or Butter, and the more beating, the hetter wiil be 
your Potted Beef, if you wish it to keep ; — if for immediate eating, you may 
put in a larger proportion of gravy or butter, as the meat will pound easier, 
3ud look and taste more mellow. 

t2 



412 MADE DlSrtES, &C. 

smooth — there is nothin<^ equal to plenty of Elbow 
grease) — seasoning it (by degrees as you are beating 
it) with a little Black Pepper and Allspice, — or Cloves 
pounded, — or Mace, — or grated Nutmeg. 

Put it in pots, press it down as close as possible, 
and cover it a quarter of an inch thick with Clarified 
Butter; to prepare which, see receipt (No. 259.) Keep 
it in a dry place. 

Ohs. — You may mince a little Ham or Bacon, — or 
an Anchovy, — Sweet or Savoury Herbs, — or a Shal- 
lot, and a little Tarra2:on, — Chervil, — or Burnet, (!vc., 
and pound them with the Meat, with a glass of Wine, 
or some Mustard, or Torcemeat (No. 37(), or 378, and 
399*, &€.) ; if you wish to have it Dcvi/ish savoury, 
add Ragout Pomlcr (No. 457), C///T// Ponder (No. 455), 
or Zest (No. 255), and moisten it with Mushroom 
Catsup (No. 439), or Essence of Anclioxy (No. 433), or 
Tincture of Allspice (No. 413), or Essence of Turtle 
(No. 343*") 

Or, — (No. 503*.) 

it is a very agreeable and economical way of using 
the remains of Game, or Poultry, or a large joint of 
fjither roasted or boiled Beef, Veal, Ham, or Tongue, 
<l'c. to mince it, with some of the Fat, (or moisten it 
with a little Butter, or (No. 439), &c.) and beat it 
in a mortar with the seasoning, &c., as in the former 
Receipt. 

When either the Teeth or Stomach are extremely 
feeble, especial care must be taken to keep Meat till it 
is tender — before it is cooked — or call in the aid of 
those excellent helps to bad teeth — the Pestle and 
Mortar.— AnA sec (Nos. 10, 18, 87, 89, 175, 178; 
from 185 to 250, 502, 542 — and especially 503.) 
Or dress in the usual w^ay whatever is best liked — 
mince it, put it into a mortar, and pound it with a little 
Broth or melted Butter, — Vegetable, — Herb, — Spice, 



MADE DISHES, &C. 413 

— Zest, (No. 255), &c., according to the taste, &c. of 
the Eater. The business of the Stomach is thus very 
materially facilitated. 

" Flesh in small quantities, bruised to a pulp^ may 
be very advantageously used in fevers attended' with 
debility." — Darwin's Zoonomia, vol. ii. p. 400. 

" Mincing or Founding Meat — saveth the grinding of 
the Teeth ; and therefore (no doubt) is more nourishing, 
especially in Age, — or to them that have weak teeth ; 
but butter is not proper for weak bodies, — and there- 
fore, moisten it in pounding with a little Claret wine, 
and a very little Cinnamon or Nutmeg." — Lord Bacon ; 
Natural History, Century I. 54. 

Obs. — Meat that has been boiled down for Gravies, 
&c. see (No. 185*), and (No. 252), (which has here- 
tofore been considered the perquisite of the Cat), and 
is completely drained of all its succulence, beat in a 
mortar with Salt, and a little ground Black Pepper 
and Allspice, as directed in the foregoing Receipt, 
and it will make as good Potted Beef, as Meat that 
has been baked till its moisture is entirely extracted, 
which it must be, or it will not keep two days. 

Mem. — Meat that has not been previously salted, 
will not keep so long as that which has. 

Sandwiches, — (No. 504.) 
Properly prepared, are an elegant and convenient 
Luncheon or Supper, — but have got out of Fashion — 
from the bad manner in which they are commonly 
made : to cut the Bread neatly with a sharp knife, 
seems to be considered the only essential, and the 
lining is composed of any ofFal odds and ends — that 
cannot be sent to table in any other form. 

Whatever is used must be carefully trimmed from 
every bit of Skin, Gristle, &c. — and nothing introduced 
but what you are absolutely certain will be acceptable 
to the Mouth. 



414 



MADE DISHES, &C. 



Materials for making Sandwichf.s. 



Cold Meal, or PoaUry. 

Potted diiio (No. 503.) 

Savoury ditto (No. 496.) 

Ditto Lobster (No. 178), or Shrimp 

(No. 175.) 
Ditto Cheese ("No. 54C.) 
Ditto, or grated Mam (No. 500.) 
Ditto, or ;;raled I oiigue. 
Anchovy (Ni^s. 434 and 435.) 



German Sansafiie. 

Cold Pork, ditto (No. 87.) 

llaid Fi;s.s p.-iindcd with a lift!? 

Butter and C hieoe 
Gratfd n,«m. or lU.t. 
\arioiis Forcemeats, &c. (No. .373., 

&c. 
Curr> Powder, Zest, Mustard, Pepper 

and S.ili, are a<ldcd occasioualiy. 



Meat Cakes. — {"So. 504*.) 

If you have any cold Meat, Game, or Poultry, (if 
under-done all the better), mince it fine, with a little 
fat bacon or ham, or an anchovy ; season it with a 
little popper and salt; mix well, and make it into small 
cakes three inches long-, half as wide, and half an inch 
thick : fry these a lip;lit brown, and serve them with 
good j^ravy ; or put it into a mould and boil or bake it. 

N.B. Bread crumbs, hard yolks of F.ggs, Onions, 
Sweet herbs. Savoury Spices, Zest, or Curry Powder, 
or any of the Forcemeats, see (No. 373 to 382.) 

Fish Cakes for Maigrc Days, may be made in like 
manner. 
Bubble and Squeak, or fried Beef and Cabbage .— (No. 505. 

" When 'mid't the frying Pan. in accents savage. 
The Beef so surly, quarrels with the Cabbage." 



D V. Minor. 




MADE DISHES, &C. 415 

For this, as for a Hash, select those parts of the 
Joint that have been least done; — it is generalU' made 
with slices of cold boiled salted Beef, sprinkled with a 
little Pepper, and just lightly browned with a bit of 
Butter in a fryingpan : if it is fried too imich it will be 
hard. 

Boil a Cabbage, squeeze it quite dry, and chop it 
small; take the Beef out of the frying-pan, and lay the 
Cabbage in it ; sprinkle a little pepper and salt over 
it ; keep the pan moving over the fire for a few minutes ; 
lay the Cabbage in the middle of a dish, and the Meat 
round it. 

For Sauce, see (No. 356), or (No. 328.) 

Hashed Beef and Roast Beef Bones Broiled. — (No. 506.) 

To hash Beef, see Receipt (Nos. 484, 5, and 6), 
<Nos. 360, 484, and 486.) 

The best part to hash is the Fillet or Inside of the 
Sirloin, and the good housewife will always endeavour 
to preserve it entire for this purpose. See Obs. to 
(No. 19), and Mock Hare (No. 67*.) 

Roast Beef Bones furnish a very relishing Luncheon, 
or Supper, prepared in the following manner, with 
Poached Eggs (No. 546), or Fried Eggs (No. 545), 
or Mashed Potatoes (No. 106), as accompaniments. 

Divide the Bones, leaving good pickings of meat 
on each ; — score them in squares, pour a little melted 
butter on them, and sprinkle them with pepper and 
salt ; put them in a dish, set them in a Dutch Oven 
for half or three quarters of an hour, according to the 
thickness of the meat, keep turning them till they are 
quite hot, and brown, or broil them on the gridiron. 
Brown them, but dont burn them black. For Sauce, 
(Nos. 355, or 356.) 

Ox-Cheek Stewed. — {^0. 507.) 
Prepare this the day before it is to be eaten, clean 
it, and put it into soft water just warm, let it lie three 



416 MADE DISHES, &.C. 

or four hours, then put it into cold water, and let it 
soak all night; — next day wipe it clean, put it into a 
stewpan, and just cover it with water; — skim it well 
when it is coming to a boil, then put two whole Onions, 
stick two or three Cloves into each, three Turnips quar- 
tered, a couple of Carrots sliced, two Bay leaves, and 
twenty-four corns of Allspice, a head of Celery, and a 
bundle of Sweet herl).s, jjcpper, and salt ; to these, 
those who are for a " Haut CoiW may add Cayenne 
and Garlick, in such proportions as the palate that 
ricjuires them may desire. 

Let it stew gently till perfectly tender, /'. e. about 
three hours; then take out the Cheek, divide it into 
handsome pieces, fit to help at table ; skim and strain 
the gravy; melt an ounce and a half of butter in a 
stewpan, stir into it as much flour as it will take up, 
mix with it by degrees, a pint and a half of the gravy, 
add to it a t iblespoonful of Basil, Tarragon, or Elder 
vinegar, or the like quantity of Mushroom, or Walnut 
catsup, or Cavice, or Port wine, and give it a boil. 

Serve up in a soup or ragout dish, or make it into 
Barley Broth (No. 204.) 

Obs. — This is a very economical, nourishing, and 
savoury meal. See Ox-Cheek Soup (No. 239), and 
CalJ'.s-luad Hashed (No. 520.) 

Ox-raiU Uttued. —(No. 508.) 

Divide them into joints, wash them, parboil them, 
set them on to stew in just water enough to cover 
ihem, — and dress them in the same manner as we 
have directed in (No. 531), Stewed Giblets, for which 
they are an excellent substitute. 

N.B. See Ox-Tail Soup (No. 240.) 

rotted Ham, or Tongue. — (No. 509.) 

Cut a pound of the lean of cold boiled Ham, or 
.Tongue, and pound it in a mortar with a quarter of a 
pound of the fat, or with fresh butter, (in the propor- 



MADE DISHES, 8CC. 417 

tion of about two ounces to a pound), till it is a fine 
paste, (some season it by degrees with a little pounded 
mace or allspice) ; put it close down in pots for that 
purpose, and cover it with Clarified Butter (No. 259), 
a quarter of an inch thick; let it stand one night in a 
cool place. Send it up in the pot, or cut out in thin 
slices. See Obs. on (No. 503.) 

Hashed VeaL — {^o. 511.) 
Prepare it as directed in (No. 484); and to make 
sauce to warm Veal, see (No. 361.) 

Hashed or Minced Veal. — (No. 511*.) 
To make a Hash*, cut the Meat into slices;— to 
prepare mi^'Ced Veal, mince it as fine as possible, 
(^do not chop it), put it into a stewpan with a few 
,spoonsful of Veal or Mutton Broth, or make some with 
the Bones and Trimmings, as ordered for Veal Cutlets, 
-■see (No. 90), or (No. 361), a little Lemon-peel minced 
fine, a spoonful of milk, or cream ; thicken with butter 
and flour, and season it with salt, a tablespoonful of 
Lemon pickle, or Basil wine (No. 397), &c. or a pinch 
of Curry powder. 

*** //'j/o// have no Cream, heat up the yolks of a couple 
ofEggs with a little Milk : line the dish, and garnish idth 
sippets of lightly toasted bread. 

Obs. — Minced Veal makes a very pretty dish, put 
into scollop shells and bread crumbed over, and 
sprinkled with a little butter, and browned in a Dutch 
Oven, or a cheese-toaster. 

To make an excellent Ragout of Cold Veal. — (No. 612.) 
Either a Neck, — Loin, — or Fillet of Veal, will fur- 
nish this, excellent Ragout, with a very little expense 



or trouble. 



Cut the Veal into handsome cutlets; put a piece 



See Receipt to Hash Mutton (Nos. 360 and 361), and (No. 484.) 



418 MADE DISHES, &C. 

of batter or clean drippiiii; into a fryingpan ; as soon 
as it is hot, flour and try the veal of a hght brown : 
take it out, and if you have no orravy ready, make 
some as directed in the note to (No. 517), or put a 
pint of boilinp^ water into the fryin2:pan, ^ive it a boil 
up for a n.lnute, and strain it into a basin while you 
make some thickening: in the following manner : — Put 
about an ounce of butter into a stewpan; as soon as it 
melts, mix with it as much flour as will dry it up; stir 
it over the fire for a few minutes, and gradually add to 
it the gravy you made in the fryingpan ; let them 
simmer together for ten minutes (till thoroughly incor- 
porated); season it with pepper, salt, a little mace, 
and a wineglass of mushroom catsup, or wine ; strain 
it through a tammis to the meat; and .stcii very trentlt; 
till the meat is thoroughly warmed. If you have any 
readv boiled Bacon, cut it in slices, and put it in to 
v.arm with the meat, or (Nos. 526, or 527.) 

Veal Cutlets, see (No. 90), &c. 

Breast of Veal Steued. — (No. 515.) 

A Breast of Veal, stewed till quite tender, and 
smothered with Onion saucf, is an excellent dish, or 
in the gravy ordered in the Note to (No. 517.) 
Breast of Veal Ragout. — {"So. 517.) 

Take off the under bone, and cut the breast in half, 
lengthways ; divide it into pieces, about four inches 
Ions:, bv two inches wide, i. e. in handsome pieces, not 
too large to help at once : — put about two ounces of 
Butter into a fryingpan, aud Iry the Veal till it is a 
light brown*, then put it into a stewpan with veal 

• Some Cooks make the Gravy, &c. in the following manner : — Slice a 
laree O ion. try it brown. (lr;iiii all fal from if, and pnt it into a stewpan 
with a bunch of Sweet Herb?, a couple of dozen berries of Allspice, same of 
Black i epper, three blades of Mace, and a pint and a half of water; cover 
down cU>s.f, and boil gently for half an hour; then strain il IhrouE^h a sieve 
over the Veal, and let it simmer gently for about three hours: about half an 
hour befo.e it i* ilone. mix two table.-po.ni'ful of Hour in a teacupful of cold 
■water, mix some of the gravy with it, and then pour it into the Mcwpan. 

N.B. Three pints of full-grown green pease are sometimes added, •when 
the Veal is put iu. 



MADE DISHES, 8cC. 419 

broth, — or as much boilhig water as will cover it, a 
bundle of sweet marjoram, common or lemon thyme, 
and parsley, with four cloves, or a couple of blades of 
pounded mace, three young onions, or one old one, a 
roll of lemon-peel, a dozen corns of allspice bruised, 
and a teaspoonful of salt ; cover it close, and let it all 
simmer very genthi till the veal is tender, i. e. for about 
an hour and a half, — if it is very thick, two hours; 
then strain off as much (about a quart) of the gravy, 
as you think you will want, into a basin ; set the 
stewpan, with the meat, &c. in it, by the fire to keep 
hot. To thicken the Gravy you have taken out, put an 
ounce and a half of butter into a clean stewpan ; when 
it is melted, stir in as much flour as it will take, add 
the gravy by degrees, season it with salt, let it boil ten 
minutes, skim it well, and season it with two table- 
spoonsful of white wine, one of mushroom catsup, and 
same of lemon juice ; give it a boil up, and it is ready : 
now put the Veal into a ragout dish, and strain the 
gravy through a fine sieve to it. 

Or, 

By keeping the Meat whule, you will better preserve 
the succulence of it. 

Put the Veal into a stewpan, with two ounces of 
butter and two whole onions, (such as weigh about 
two ounces each), put it on the fire, and fry it about 
five minutes, then cover it with boiling water; when it 
boils, skim it, then put in two small blades of mace, a 
dozen berries of allspice, the same of black pepper ; 
cover it close, and let it simmer gently for an hour and 
a half; then strain as much of the gravy as you think 
you will want into a basin, put the stewpan by the 
fire to keep hot. To thicken it, put an ounce and a 
half of butter into a clean stewpan; when it is melted, 
stir in as much flour as it will take, add the gravy by 
degrees, season it with salt, and when it boils, it is 



420 MADE DISHES, &C. 

ready. Put the Veal on a dish, and strain the gravy 
through a fine sieve over it. 

Obs. — Forcemeat Balls, see (No. 375), &rc. Truffles, 
Morclls, Mushrooms, and Curry powder, »ltc. are some- 
times added, and Rashers of Bacon or Ham (Nos. 523 
and .027), or Fried Vork Sausages (No. 83.) 

N.B. These are nice dishes in the I'easc season. 

Scotch Co//o}\s. — (No. 51 7 \) 

The Veal must be cut the same as for Cutlets, in 
pieces about as big as a crown-piece; Hour them well, 
and fry them of a lii^lit brown in fresh butter; lay them 
in a stewpan, dredge them over with flour, and then 
()iit in as mucli boiling water as will well cover the 
veal; pour this in by degrees, shaking the stewpan, 
and set it on the fire ; when it comes to a boil, take oft' 
the scum, put in one onion, a blade of mace, and let it 
simmer very gently for three (juartcrs of an hour ; lay 
them on a dish, and potir the gravy through a sieve 
over them. 

N.B. Lemon Juice — and Peel, — Wine, — Catsup, 
&c., are sometimes added; add Curry Powder, 
(No. 455), and you have Curry Col lops. 

VcalOnics.^i^o. 518.) 

Cut half a dozen slices off a Fillet of Veal, half an 
inch thick, and as long and square as you can; flat 
them with a chopper, and rub them over with an egg 
that has been beat on a plate; cut some fat bacon as 
thin as possible, the same size as the veal, lay it on 
the veal, and rub it with a little of the c^^; make a 
little veal forcemeat, see receipt (No. 375), and spread 
it very thin over the bacon; roll up the olives tight, 
rub tlicm with the e^Q, and then roll them in fine 
bread-crumbs; put them on a lark spit, and roast 
them at a brisk fire; they will take three quarters of 
an hour. 



MADE DISHES, &0. 421 

Rump Steaks are sometimes dressed this way. 
Mushroom Sauce, brown, (Nos. 305, or 306,) or 
Beef Gravy, (No. 329.) Vide chapter on Sauces, &c. 

Cold Calf's Heady Hasked.~(So. 519.) 

See Obs. to boiled Calf's head (No. 10.) 

Calfs Head Hashed, or Ragout.— (No. 520.) 
See (No. 247.) 

Wash a Calf's head, and boil it, see (No. 10) ; boil 
one half all but enough, so that it may be soon quite 
done when put into the hash to warm, — the other 
quite tender : from this half take out the bones : score 
it superficially, beat up an egg, put it over the head 
with a paste-brush, and strew over it a little grated 
Bread and Lemon Peel, and Thyme and Parsley, 
chopped very fine, or in powder, then Bread-crumbs, 
and put it in the Dutch oven to brown. 

Cut the other half-head into handsome slices, and 
put it into a stewpan with a quart of Gravy (No. 329), 
or Turtle Sauce (No. 343), with Forcemeat balls (Nos. 
376, 380), Egg balls, a wine-glass of white Wine, and 
some Catsup, &c. ; put in the meat, let it warm up 
together, and skim off the fat. 

Peel the Tongue, and send it up with Brains round 
it as a side dish, as directed in (No. 10), or beat them 
up in a basin with a spoonful of flour, two eggs, some 
grated lemon-peel, thyme, parsley, and a few leaves of 
very finely minced sage ; rub them well together in a 
mortar, with pepper, salt, and a scrape of nutmeg: fry 
them (in little cakes) a very light brown ; dish up the 
hash, with the half head you browned in the middle, 
and garnish with crisp or curled rashers of Bacon, 
fried ^Bread Sippets (No. 319), (Nos. 526, and 527), 
and the Brain Cakes. 

N. B. If you serve the Tongue and Brains as a side 
dish ; (instead of garnishing the Ragout with rashers of 
bacon,) send up a piece of Bacon as a companion for it> 



42'2 MADE DISHES, Sec. 

Veal Cutlets Bnn led plain, or Full-dressed. 

(No. 521.) 

Divide the best end of a neck of Veal into cutlets, 
one rib to each, — broil them plain, or make some fine 
bread-crumbs; — mince a little parsley, and a very 
little shallot, as small as possible, put it into a clean 
stcwpan, with two ounces of butter, and fry it for a 
minute, — then put on a plate the yolks of a couple of 
Ey:gs, mix the herbs, &c. with it, and season it with 
pej^per and salt: dip the Cutlets into this mixture, 
and then into the Bread; -lay them on a Gridiron 
over a clear slow fire till they are nicely browned on 
both sides, — they will take about an hour: send up 
with them a few slices of llam or Bacon fried, or done 
in the Dutch oven. See (Nos. 526 and 5"27), and half 
a pint of (No. 343), or (No. 356.) 

Knueklc of Veal to Ragout. — (No. 522.) 

Cut a knuckle of Veal into slices about half an inch 
thick ; pepj)er, salt, and flour them ; fry them a lii^ht 
brown; put the trimmings into a stewpan, with the 
bone broke in several places ; an onion sliced, a head 
of celery, a bunch of sweet herbs, and two blades of 
bruised Mace : pour in warm water enough to cover 
them about an inch : cover the pot close, and let it 
stew very gently for a couple of hours : strain it, and 
then thicken it with flour and butter ; put in a spoonful 
of Catsup, a glass of wine, and juice of half a lemon; 
give it a boil up, and strain into a clean stewpan : put 
in the meat, make it hot, and serve up. 

Ohs. — If Celery is not to be had, use a Carrot 
instead, or flavour it with Celery Seed, or (No. 409.) 

Knuckle of Veal stewed Kith Rice. — (No. 523.) 

As boiled knuckle of Veal cold is not a very fa- 
vourite relish with the generality, cut off some Steaks 
from it, which you may dress as in the foregoing re- 



MADE DtSHES, Scc. 423 

Ceipt, or (No. 521), and leave the Knuckle no larger 
than will be eaten the day it is dressed. Break the 
shank bone, wash it clean, and put in a large stew- 
pan with two quarts of water, an Onion, two blades of 
Mace, and a teaspoonful of Salt: set it on a quick 
fire; when it boils, take off all the scum. 

Wash and pick a quarter of a pound of Rice, put it 
into the stewpan with the meat, and let it stew very 
gently for about two hours : put the Meat, &c. in a 
deep dish, and the Rice round it. 

Send up Bacon with it, Parsnips, or Greens, and 
finely minced Parsley and Butter (No. 261.) 

Mr. Gay's Receipt to Stew a Knuckle of Veal. 
(No. 524.) 

Take a knuckle of Veal ; 
You may buy it, or steal : 
In a few pieces cut it, 
Id a stewingpan put it; 
Salt, pepper, and mace. 

Must season Uiis knuckle ; 
Then, what's joined to a place* 

With other herbs muckle ; 
That which kill'd King V. illt, 
And what never stands stilij; 
Some sprigs of that bed|| 
Where children are bred, 
Which much you will mend, if 
Both spinage and endive. 
And lettuce and beet. 
With marygold meet. 
Put no water at all. 
For it niaketh things small, 
Which lest it should happen, 
A close cover clap on : 
Put this pot of Wood's metali 
■^ In a boiling hot kettle; 

And there let it bo, 

(Mark the doctrine I teach,) 
Abont, let me see. 

Thrice as long as yon preach^. 
So skimming the fat off, 
Say grace with your hat off, 
O! then with what rapture 
Will it fill Dean and Chapter! 

• yin\%o, salary. + Supposed >yorre^. 

+ This is, by Dr. Bentley, thought to be time, or thyme. 

il Parsley. Vide Chamberlayne. 

^ Of this composition, see the works of the copper farthing dean. 

ir Which we suppose to be near four hours. 



424 MADE DISHES, Sec. 

Slices of II ant or Bacon. — (No. 526.) 

Ham, or Bacon, may be fried, or broiled on a 
gridiron over a clear fire, or toasted with a fork: — 
take care to slice it of the same thickness in every 
part. 

If you wish it curled, cut it in slices about two 
inches long, (if longer, the outside will be done too 
much, before the inside is done enough;) roll it up, 
and put a little wooden skewer through it: put it in 
a Cheese-toaster, or Dutch oven, for eight or ten 
minutes, turning it as it gets crisp. 

This is considered the handsomest way of dressing 
Bacon; — but we like it best uncurled, because it is 
crisper, and more equally done. 

Obs. — Slices of Ham or Bacon should not be more 
than half a quarter of an inch thick, and will eat much 
more mellow if soaked in hot water for a quarter of 
an hour, and then dried in a cloth before they are 
broiled, &c. 

Relishing Rashers of Bacon. — (No. 527.) 

Jf you have any Cold Bacon, you may make a very 
nice dish of it by cutting it into slices about a quarter 
of an inch thick ; grate some crust of bread, as directed 
for Ham, see (No. 14), and powder them well with it 
on both sides ; lay the rashers in a Cheese-toaster, — 
they will be browned on one side in about three 
minutes ; — turn them and do the other. 

Obs. — These are a delicious accompaniment to 
poached, or fried Eggs : — the Bacon having been 
boiled* first, is tender and mellow. — They arc an ex- 
cellent garnish round Veal Cutlets, or Sweet-breads, 
or Calfs-head Hash, or Green Pease, or Beans, &c. 

Hashed rcnison.—{^o. 528.) 
If you have enough of its own Gravy left, it is 

♦ To boil Bacon, see (Nc. 13.) 



MADE DISHES, &C* 425 

preferable to any to warm it up in : — if not, take some 
of the Mutton Gravy (No. 347), or the bones and 
trimmings of the joint, (after you have cut off all the 
handsome slices you can, to make the hash;) put these 
into some water, and stew them gently for an hour : 
then put some butter into a stewpan ; when melted, 
put to it as much flour as will dry up the butter, and 
stir it well together ; add to it, by degrees, the Gravy 
you have been making of the trimmings, and some 
Red Currant Jelly, give it a boil up, skim it, strain it 
through a sieve, and it is ready to receive the Venison : 
put it in, and let it just get warm : — if yon let it boil, it 
will make the Meat hard. 

Hashed ifa?-e.— (No. 529.) 

Cut up the Hare into pieces, fit to help at table, and 
divide the joints of the legs and shoulders, and set 
them by ready. 

Put the trimmings and gravy you have left, with 
half a pint of water, (there should be a pint of liquor,) 
and a tablespoonful of Currant Jelly, into a clean 
stewpan, and let it boil gently for a quarter of an 
hour, then strain it through a sieve into a basin, and 
pour it back into the stewpan; now flour the Hare, 
put it into the gravy, and let it simmer very gently till 
the Hare is warm (about twenty minutes), cut the 
Stuffing into slices, and put it into the hash to get 
warm, about five minutes before you serve it ; divide 
the head, and lay one half on each side the dish. 

For Hare Soup, see (No. 241), Mock Hare (No. 

Jugged Hare.—(^o. 529*.) 

Wash it very nicely, cut it up into pieces proper to 
help at table, and put them into a Jugging Pot, (these 
are made by Lloyd, No. 178, Strand,) or into a Stone 



426 MADE DISHES, SCC. 

Jar*, just sufficiently large to well hold it ; put in some 
Sweet Herbs, a roll or two of rind of a Lemon, or 
a Seville Orang^e, and a fine larg^e Onion with five 
cloves stuck in it, — and if you wish to preserve the 
flavour of the Hare, a quarter pint of water; if you 
are for a Ragouf, a quarter pint of claret, or Port 
wine, and iho juice of a Seville Oran2;e, or Lemon : 
tie the jar down closely with a bladder, so that no 
steam can escape : })ut a little hay in the bottom of o, 
saticepan, in which ]ilace the jar and pour in water till 
it reaches within four inches of the top of the jar; let 
the water boil for about three hours, according to the 
ag-e and size of the hare, (take care it is not uier-dont^ 
which is the general fault in all made dishes, especially 
this,) keeping it boiling all the time, and fill up the 
pot as it boils away. When quite tender, strain off 
the gravy clear from fat, thicken it with flour, and 
give it a boil up: — lay the Hare in a soup-dish, and 
pour the gravy to it. 

Obs. — You may make a Pudding, the same as for 
Roast Hare, see (No. 397), and boil it in a cloth ; and 
when you dish up your Hare, cut it in slices, or make 
Forcemeat Balls of it, for garnish. 

For Sauce, (No. 346.) 

Or, 

A much easier and quicker, and more certain way of 
proceeding, is the following ; — 

Prepare the Hare the same as for jugging, put it 
into a stewpan with a few Sweet Herbs, half a dozen 
Cloves, the same of Allspice and Black pepper, two 

• Jleat dressed by the heat of boiling water, withi uf bcint: immediately 
exposed to it, is a mode of cookery that deserves to be more generally 
omplojcd : it becomes delicately tender, without bein^ overdone, and the 
V hole of the nourishment and [;ravy is preserved. This, in chemical tech- 
nicals, is called Daliieum Maris, a Water I'jath ; in culinary. Bain 
Marie: which A. Chappelle, in his " Modern Cook," 8vo. page 25, 
London, 1744, translates " Mary's Haih." Sec Note lo (No. 485.) 

Mary Smith, in her "Complete Housekeeper," 1772, 8vo. pages 105 
»nd 247, translates, " Hauce Robert," Roe-Boat Sauce, — an " Omelette," 
a Hamlet, — and gives you a receipt how to xazk^" Soupe d, la Rain 1" 



MADE DISHES, &C. 427 

large Onions, and a roll of Lemon peel : cover it with 
water; when it boils, scum it clean, and let it simmer 
gently till tender (about two hours), then take it up 
with a slice, set it by the fire to keep hot while you 
thicken the gravy ; take three ounces of butter, and 
some flour, rub together, put in the gravy, stir it 
well, and let it boil about ten minutes, strain it through 
a sieve, over the Hare, and it is ready. 

Dressed Ducks, or Geese Hashed. — (No. 530.) 
Cut an Onion into small dice ; put it into a stewpan 
with a bit of Butter ; fry it, but do not let it get any 
colour : put as much boiling water into the stewpan as 
will make sauce for the hash ; thicken it with a little 
flour, cut up the duck, and put it into the sauce to 
warm ; do not let it boil ; season it with pepper and 
salt, and catsup. 

N. B. The Legs of Geese, &c. broiled, and laid on 
a bed of Apple Sauce, are sent up for Luncheon or 
Supper. 

Or, 

Divide the Duck into joints; lay it by ready: put 
the trimmings and stufling into a stewpan, v/ith a pint 
and a half of broth or water, let it boil half an hour, 
and then rub it through a sieve ; — put half an ounce 
of butter into a stewpan ; as it melts, mix a table- 
spoonful of flour with it, stir it over the fire a few 
minutes, then mix the gravy with it by degrees ; as 
soon as it boils, take off the scum, and strain through 
a sieve h)to a stewpan : put in the Duck, and let it stew 
very gently for ten or fifteen minutes, if the Duck is 
rather under-roasted ; if there is any fat, skim it off: 
line the dish you serve it up in with sippets of bread 
either fried or toasted. 

Ragouts of Poultry, Game, Pigeons, Rabbits, 

&c.— (No. 530.*) 

Half roast it, then stew it whole, or divide it into 



428 MADE DISHES, Sec. 

joints and pieces proper to help at table, and put it 
into a stewpan, with a pint and a half of broth, — or as 
much water, — with any trimmings or parings of Meat 
you have, one large Onion with cloves stuck in it, 
twelve berries of Allspice, the same of Black Pepper, 
and a roll of Lemon peel ; when it boils, scum it very 
clean, let it sinimtr icry gent/j/ for about an hour and a 
quarter, if a Djck or Fowl, — longer if a larger Bird ; 
then strain ofi'the liquor, and leave the Ducks by the 
fire to keep hot, scum the fat off; — put into a clean 
stewpan two ounces of Butter, when it is hot, stir in 
as much flour as will make it of a stiff paste, add the 
liquor by degrees, let it boil up, put in a glass of Port 
wine and a little Lemon-jul j, and simmer it ten mi- 
nutes ; put the Ducks, &c. into the dish, and strain the 
sauce through a tine sieve over them. 

Garnish with sippets of toasted, or fried Bread, 
(No. 319.) 

Obs. — If the Poultry is only half roasted, and stewed 
only till just nicely tender, this will be an acceptable 
Bo/innc Buiichc to those who are fond of Made Dishes. 
The flavour may be varied by adding Catsup, — Curry 
Powder, — or any of the flavoured Vinegars. 

This is an easy prepared side dish, especially when 
you have a large Dinner to dress; and coming to 
table readi/ carved^ saves a deal of time and trouble ; it is, 
therefore, an excellent uay of nerving Poultry, SfC. for a 
Large Varty. 

Or, 

Roast, or boil the Poultry, in the usual way ; then 
cut it up, and pour over it a sufficient quantity of 
(No. 305), or (No. 329), or (No. 364, or No. 2.) 

Steucd Giblets.— (So. 531.) 

Clean two sets of Giblets : see Receipt for Giblet 
Soup (No. 244), put them into a saucepan, just cover 
them with cold water, and set them on the fire ; when 



MADE DISHES, Scc. 429 

they boil, take off the scum, and put in an Onion, three 
Cloves, or two blades of Mace, a few berries of Black 
Pepper, the same of Allspice, and half a teaspoonful of 
Salt ; cover the stewpan close, and let it simmer very 
gently till the Giblets are quite tender ; — this will take 
from one hour and a half, to two and a half, according to 
the age of the Giblets^ — the pinions v^^ill be done first, 
and must then be taken out, and put in again to warm 
when the Gizzards are done : watch them that they do 
not get too much done : — take them out and thicken 
the sauce with Flour and Butter ; — let it boil half an 
hour, or till there is just enonghto eat with the Giblets ; 
and then strain it through a tammis into a clean stew- 
pan ; — cut the Giblets into mouthfuls, put them into 
the Sauce, with the juice of half a Lemon, a tablespoonful 
of Mushroom Catsup; — pour the whole into a soup 
dish, with sippets of Bread at the bottom. 

Obs. — Ox-Tails, prepared in the same way, are 
excellent eating. 

Hashed Poultry, Game, or Rabbit. — (No. 533.) 
Cut them into joints, put the trimming into a stewpan 
with a quart of the Broth they were boiled in, and a 
large Onion cut in four ; let it boil half an hour ; strain 
it through a sieve : then put two tablespoonsful of Flour 
in a basin, and mix it well by degrees with the hot 
Broth ; set it on the fire to boil up, then strain it 
through a fine sieve ; wash out the stewpan, lay the 
Poultry in it, and pour the gravy on it (through a 
sieve) ; set it by the side of the fire to simmer very 
gently (it must not boil) for fifteen minutes , five 
minutes before you serve it up, cut the stuffing in 
slices, and put it in to warm, then take it out, and lay 
it round the edge of the dish, and put the Poultry in the 
middle ; carefully skim the fat ofi:'the gravy, then shake 
it round well in the stewpan, and pour it to the Hash. 

N. B. You may garnish the dish with Bread Sippets 
ii2:htlv toasted. 



430 MADE DISHES, &:C. 

Pulled Turkeii, Fuiil, or C/iichcn.—(No. 534.) 

Skin a cold Chicken, Fowl, or Turkey ; take off the 
fillets from the breasts, and put them into a stewpan 
with the rest of the white meat and wings, side-bones, 
and merry-thouixht, with a pint of broth, a large blade 
of mace pounded, a shallot minced fine, the juice of 
half a lemon, and a roll of the peel, some salt, and a 
few grains of Cayenne ; thicken it with Hour and butter, 
and let it simmer for two or three minutes, till the meat 
is warm. In the meantime score the legs and rump, 
powder them with pepper and salt, broil them nicely 
brown, and lay them on, or round your pulled chicken. 

Obs. — 'I hrce table spoonsful of good cream, or the 
yolks of as many Eggs, will be a great improvement 
to it. 

To (Iras Dn&sid TurLcy^ Goosey Fon/, Duck, Pigeon, 
or Rabbit. — (No. .035.) 

Cut them in quarters, beat up an Egg or two (ac- 
cording to the quantity you dress) with a little grated 
Nutmeg, and Pepper and Salt, some Parsley minced 
fine, and a few crumbs of Bread ; mix these well to- 
gether, and cover the Fowl, «S:c. with this batter; broil 
them, or put them in a Dutch oven, or have ready 
some dripping hot in a pan, in which fry them a light 
brown colour ; thicken a little gravy with some Hour, 
put a large spoonful of Catsup to it, lay the fry in a 
dish, and pour the saure round it. You may garnish 
with slices oi Lemon and toasted Bread. See 
(No. 355.) 

Dei^V.— (No. 538.) 

The Gizzard and Rump, or Legs, &c. of a dressed 
Turkey, Capon, or Goose, or Mutton or Veal Kidney, 
scored, — Peppered , — Salted, — and Broiled, sent up 
for a relish, — being made very hot, has obtained the 
name of a " Devil." 

Obs. — This is sometimes surrounded with (No. 'd5Q), 



MADE DISHES, Scc 43l 

or a sauce of thick melted butter or gravy, flavoured 
with Catsup. (No.439), Essence of Anchovy, or(No.434), 
Shallot wine (No. 402), Curry stuff (No. 455), &c. See 
Turtle Sauce (No. 343), or Grill Sauce (No. 355), which, 
as the Palates of the present day are adjusted, will 
perhaps please the Grand Gourmand as well as " ve- 
ritable Sauce d'Enfer." — Vide School for the Officers of 
the Mouth, page 368, 18mo. London, 1682. 

" Every man must have experienced that — when he has got deep into his 
third bottle — his palate acquires a degree of torpidity, and his stomach is 
seixed with a certain craving, which seem to demand a stimulant to the 
powers of both. The provocatives used on such occasions, an ungrateful 
world has combined to term devils. 

"The diables aufeu d'cnjer, or dry devils, are usually composed of the 
broiled legs anJ gizzards of poultry, tish-bones, or biscuits, and, if pungency 
alone can justify their appellation, never was title better deserved, for they are 
usually prepared without any other attention than to malce them "hot as their 
native element ;" and any one who can swallow them without tears in his eyes 
need be under no apprehension of the pains of futurity. It is true, they answer 
the parpose of exciting thirst; but they excoriate the palate, vitiate its nicer 
powers of discrimination, and pall the relish for the high flavour of good 
wine : in short, no man should venture upon them whose throat is not paved 
with mosaic, unless they be seasoned by a cook who can poise the pepper- 
box with as even a hand as a judge should the scales of justice. 

" It would be an insult to the undei standing of our readers, to suppose them 
ignorant of the usual mode of treating common devils ; but we shall 
make no apology for giving the most minute instructions for the pre- 
paration of a gentler stimulant, which, besides, possesses this advantage — 
that it may be all done at the table, either by yourself, or at least 
under your own immediate inspection. 

" Mix equal parts of fine salt, Cayenne pepper, and curry powder, with 
double the quantity of powder of trutiies : dissect, secundum artem, a brace 
of woodcocks rathei under-roasted, split the heads, subdivide the wings, &c. 
&c., and powder the whole gently over with the mixture: crush the trail and 
brains along %\ith the yolk of a hard-boiled egg, a small portion of pounded 
mace, the grated peel of half a lemon, and half a spoonful of soy, until the 
ingredients be brought to the consistence of a tine paste : then add a table- 
spoonful of catsup, a full wine-glass of Madeira, and the juice of two Seville 
oranges : throw this sauce, along with the birds, into a silver stew-dish to be 
heated with spirits of wine — cover close up — light the lamp — and keep 
gently simmerii;g, and occasionally stirring, until the tiesh has imbibed the 
greater part of the liquid. When you have reason to suppose it is completely- 
saturated, pour in a small quantity of salad oil, stir all once more well toge- 
ther, "put out the light, and then!" — serve it round instantly; for it is 
scarcely necessary to say, that a devil should not only be hot in itself, but 
eaten hot. 

" There is, however, one precaution to be used in eating it, to which we 
must earnestly I ecommend the most particular attention, and for want of 
which more than one accident has occurred. It is not, as some people might 
suppose — to avoid eating too much of it — for that your neighbours will take 
good care to prevent; but it is this : — in order to pick the bones, you mnst 
necessarily take some portion of it with your lingers; and, as they thereby 
become impregnated with its flavour, if you afterwards chance to let them 
touch your tongue — you will infallibly lick them to the bone, if you do 
not swallow them entire." — See page 124, &c. of the entertaining " Essays o» 
CioOD Living," just published. 



432 MADE DISHES, 8CC. 

Crusts of Bread for Cheese, Wine, &c. — (No. 538*.) 

It is not uncommon to see both in private families 
and at Taverns a loaf entirely spoiled — by paring off 
the crust to cat with cheese ; — to supply this — and 
to eat with Soups, Sec. — pull lightly into small pieces, 
the crunili of a new loaf, put them on a tin plate or in 
a baking dish, set it in a tolerably brisk oven till they 
are crisp and nicely browned — or do them in a Dutch 
oven. 

Toast and Cheese. — (No. 539.) 

" Haiipy ihe man that lia? cacli fortune tried, 
io whom Fhc much hay giv'n, anil much denied; 
M ilh ab:iineuce ail delicatis he see.", 
And can regale iiim»eir ou toast and cheese." 

King's Art of Cookery. 

Cut a slice of Bread about half an inch thick, pare 
off the crust, and toast it very s/i^ht/j/ on both sides, so 
as just to brown it, without making it hard, or burning 
it. 

Cut a slice of Cheese (good fat mellow Cheshire 
cheese, or double Gloster, is better than poor, thin 
single Gloster), a quarter of an inch thick, not so big 
as the Bread by half an inch on each side ; — pare oft" 
the rind, — cut out all the specks and rotten parts*, 
and lay it on the toasted Bread in a cheese-toaster ; — 
carefully watch it, that it does not burn, and stir it with 
a spoon, to prevent a pellicle forming on the surface. 
Have ready <j:ood Mustard, Pepper and Salt. 

If you observe the directions here given, the Cheese 
will eat mellow, and will be uniformly done, and the 
Bread crisp and soft, and will well deserve its ancient 
appellation of a " Rare Bit.'' 

0/>A. — One would think nothing can be easier, than 
to prepare a JVelch Rabbit ; — yet, not only in Private 
families, but at Taverns, it is very seldom sent to table 



• Rotten Cheese toasted, is the nc plus v.ltra of Ilaut Gout, — and only 
eaiabif by the thorough-bred Courinajid, in the most inverted state of hi» 
jaded A p petit*. 



MADE DISHES, &C. 433 

in perfection. — We have attempted to account for this 
in the last paragraph of Obs. to (No. 493.) 

Toasted Cheet^e, No. 2. (No. 540.) 
We have nothing to add to the directions given for toast- 
ing the Cheese in the last receipt, except that in sending 
it up, — it icill save much Time in portioning it out at 
table, if you have half a dozen small Silver or Tin pans 
I to fit into the Cheese Toaster, and do the Cheese in 
these : each person may then be helped to a separate 
pan, and it will keep the Cheese much hotter tlian the 
usual way of eating it on a cold plate. 

Obs. — Ceremony seldom triumphs more completely 
over Comfort, than in the serving out of this dish; — 
which, to be presented to the Palate in perfection, it is 
imperatively indispensable, that it be introduced to the 
Mouth as soon as it appears on the Table. 

Buttered Toast and Cheese. — (No. 541*) 
Prepare a round of Toast ; — butter it ; — grate over 
it good Cheshire cheese about half the thickness of the 
toast, and give it a brown. 

Pounded Cheese. — (No. 542.) 
Cut a pound of good mellow Chedder, Cheshire, or 
North Wiltshire cheese into thin bits, add to it two, and 
if the Cheese is dry, three ounces of fresh Butter, pound 
and rub them well together in a mortar till it is quite 
smooth. 

Obs. — When Cheese is dry, and for those whose 
digestion is feeble, this is the best way of eating it, and 
spread on Bread, it makes an excellent Luncheon or 
Supper. 

N.B. The piquance of this is sometimes increased by 
pounding with it Curry Powder (No. 455), Ground 
Spice, Black Pepper, Cayenne, and a little made P.Ius- 
tard ; and some moisten it with a glass of Sherry. If 
pressed down hard in ajar, and covered with clarified 
Butter, it will keep for several days in cool weather, 
u 



434 MADE DISHES, &.C. 

-AI.vccA RONi. — (No. 543.) See Maccaroni Pudding for 
the Boil nig it. 

The usual mode of dressing it in this country is 
by adding: a white sauce, and Parmesan or Cheshire 
cheese, and burning it; but this makes a dish which 
is proverbially unwholesome: but its bad qualities 
arise from the oiled and burnt cheese, and the half 
dressed Hour and butter put in the white sauce. 

Maccaroni plain boiled, and some rich stock or 
portable soup added to it (|uite hot, will lie found a 
delici(Mis dish, and very wholesome. Or boil Maccaroni 
as directed in the receipt for the Pudding, and serve it 
quite hot, in a deep tureen, and let each guest add 
grated Parmesan and cold butter, or oiled butter served 
hot, and it is excellent; this is the most conunon Italian 
mode of dressing it. Maccaroni, with Cream, Sugar, 
and Cinnamon, or a little I'aricc/li added to the Cream, 
makes a ver\' nice sweet dish. 

EnuliJt wai/ of dressing Maccaroni. 

Put a quarter of a pound of Maccaroni into a stew- 
pan with a pint of Milk, or Broth, or Water; let it boil 
gently till it is tender, and then put in an ounce of 
grated Cheese, a bit of Butter about as big as a Wal- 
nut, more or less, as your Cheese is fat or poor, and a 
teaspoonful of salt, mix it well together, and put it on 
a dish — and strew over it two ounces of grated Par- 
mesan or Cheshire Cheese— and give it a light brown 
in a Dutch oven. — Or put all the Cheese into the 
Maccaroni, and put Bread crumbs over the top. 

^Paccaroni is very good put into a thick Sauce, with 
some shreds of dressed Ham, or in a Curry Sauce. 
Riband Maccaroni is best for these dishes, and should 
not be done so much. 

Maccaroni Pudding. 
One of the most elegant preparations of Maccaroni 
is the Timbalk de M ccar^ni, bimmer half a pound of 



MADE DISHES, &C. 435 

Maccaroni in plenty of water, and a tablespoonful of 
salt, till it is tender; but take care not to have it too 
soft ; though tender it should be firm, and the form en- 
tirely preserved, and no part beginning to melt, (this 
caution will serve for the preparation of all Maccaroni). 
Strain the water from it — beat up five yolks and the 
white of two eggs — take half a pint of the best cream, 
and the breast of a fowl, and some thin slices of Ham. 
Mince the breast of the fowl and the Ham — add them 
with from two to three tablespoonsful of finely grated 
Parmesan Cheese, and season with Pepper and Salt. 
Mix all these with the Maccaroni, and put into a pud- 
ding mould well buttered, and then let it steam in a 
stewpan of boiling water for about an hour, and serve 
quite hot, with rich o^ravy (as in Omelette). See (No. 
543*.) 

Obs. — This, we have been informed, is considered by 
a Grand Gourmand, in Grosvenor Square, as the most 
important recipe which was added to the collection of 
his Cook during a gastronomic tour through Europe : 
it is not an uncommon mode of preparing 31accaroni 
on the continent. 

Omelettes, and various icays of dressing Eggs. — (Xo. 543*.) 
There is no dish which in this country may be consi- 
dered as coming under the denomination of a Made 
Dish of the second order, which is so generally eaten, if 
good, as an Omelette ; and no one is so often badly 
dressed : it is a very faithful assistant in the construc- 
tion of a dinner. 

When you are taken by surprise, and wish to make 
an appearance beyond what is provided for the every 
day dinner, a little portable soup melted down, and 
some Zest (No. 255), and a few Vegetables, will make 
a good broth — a pot of the sterved veal of Morrisons, 
warmed up, — an Omelette, — and some Apple or 
Lemon Fritters, can all be got ready at ten minutes 
notice, and with the original foundation of a Leg of 
u 2 



436 MADE DISHES, &C. 

Mutton, or a piece of Reef, will make up a very good 
dinner when taken by surprise in the country. 

The great merit of an Omelette is, that it should not 
be greasy, burnt, nor too much done : if too much of the 
whites of the Eggs are left in, no art can prevent its 
being hard, if it is done : to dress the Omelette, the 
fire should not be too hot, as it is an object to have the 
whole substance heated, without nuich browning the 
outside. 

One of the great errors in the cooking an Ome- 
lette is that it is too thin, consequently instead of feel- 
ino: full and moist in the mouth, the substance presented 
is little better than a piece of fried leather: to get the 
Omelette thick is one of the great objects. With respect 
to the flavours to be introduced, these are infinite : that 
which IS most common, however, is the best, viz. finely 
chopped Parsley, and Chives or Onions, or Eshallots 
— however, one made of a mixture of Tarragon, Cher- 
vil, and Parsley, is a very delicate variety; omitting 
or addinp^ the Onion or Chives. Of the Meat flavours, 
tlie ^'eai Kidney is the most delicate, and is the most 
admired by our neiglibours the French : this should be 
cut in dice, and should be dressed (boiled) before it is 
added ; in the same manner Ham and Anchovies, shred 
small, or Tongue, will make a very delicately flavoured 
dish. 

The objection to an Omelette is that it is too rich, 
which makes it advisable to eat but a small quantity. 
An addition of some finely mashed Potatoes, about two 
tablespoonsful to an Omelette of six eggs, will much 
lighten it. 

Omelettes are often served with a rich gravy, but, 
as a general principle, no substance which has been 
fried should be served in gravy, but accompanied by 
it : — or what ought to eat dry and crisp, becomes 
soddened and flat. 

In the compounding the gravy great care should be 
taken that the flavour does not overcome that of the 



MADE DtSMES, 8ce. 437 

Omelette, a thing too little attended to ; a fine gravy, 
with a flavouring of Stjctet Herbs and Onions, we think 
the best : some add a few drops of Tarragon Vinegar ; 
but this is to be done only with great care : gravies to 
Omelettes are in general thickened ; this should never 
be done with flour: Potatoe Starch, or Arrow Root, 
is the best. 

Omelettes should be fried in a small Fryingpan 
made for that purpose, with a small quantity of Butter. 
The Omelette's great merit is to be thick, so as not 
to taste of the outside; therefore use only half the 
number of whites that you do yolks of Eggs : every 
care must be taken in frying, even at the risk of not 
having it quite set in the middle : an Omelette, which has 
so much vogue abroad, here is in general a thin 
doubled up piece of leather, and harder than soft leather 
sometimes. The fact is, that as much care must be 
bestowed on the frying, as should be taken in poach- 
ing an Egg. A Salamander is necessary to those who 
will have the top brown ; but the kitchen Shovel may 
be substituted for it. 

The following Receipt is the basis of all Omelettes, 
of which you may make an endless variety, by taking, 
instead of the Parsley and Shallot, a portion of Sweet 
Herbs, or of any of the Articles enumerated in the 
Table of Materials used for making Forcemeats, see 
(No. 373); or any of the Forcemeats between (Nos. 
373 and 386 ) 

Omelettes are called by the name of what is adjded 
to flavour them; — a Ham or Tongue Omelette, — an 
Anchovy, or a Veal Kidney Omelette, &c. : these are 
prepared exactly in the same way as in the first receipt, 
leaving out the Parsley and Shallot, and mincing the 
Ham or Kidney very fine, &c. and adding that in the 
place of them, and then pour over them all sorts of 
thickened Gravies, — Sauces, &c. 

Receipt for the common Omelette. 
Five or six Eggs will make a good sized Omelette : 



438 MADE DISHES, kC: 

break them into a Basin, and beat them well with a 
fork ; and add a saltspoonful of salt ; have ready chop- 
ped two drachms of Onion, or tliree drachms of Parsley, 
a good clove of Esliallot minced very tine; lieatit well up 
with the Egrgs; then take four ounces of fresh Butter, 
and break half of it in little bits, and put it into the 
Omelette, and the other half into a very clean fryinp^pan; 
when it is melted, ])our in t'ac Omelette, and stir it 
with a spoon till it bejjins to set, then turn it up all 
round the edges, and when it is of a nice brown it is 
done: — the safest way to take it out, is to put a plate 
on the Omelette, and turn the pan upside down ; serve 
it on a hot dish ; it should never be done till just 
wanted. If Maigrc, grated Cheese, Shrimps, or 
Oysters. — If Oysters, boil them four minutes, and 
take away the beard and gristly part : they may either 
be put in whole, or cut in bits. 

Or, 

Take Eggs ready boiled hard, and either fry them 
whole, or cut them in half; — when they are boiled, 
(they will take five minutes), let them lie in cold water 
till you want to use them ; then roll them lightly with 
your hand on a table, and they will peel without break- 
ing ; put them on a cloth to dry, and dredge them 
lightly with Flour; beat two Eggs in a basin, dip the 
Eggs in, one at a time, and then roll them in fine 
Bread-crumbs, or in Duck (No. 378), or Veal Stuffing 
(No. 374); set them away ready for frying; fry them 
in hot Oil or clarified Butter, serve thenj up with 
Mushroom Sauce, or any other thickened Sauce you 
please : crisp Parsley is a prettv garnish. 
Or, 

Do not boil the Eggs till wanted : boil them ten mi- 
nutes, peel thern as above, cut them in half, put them on 
a dish, and have ready a Sauce made of two ounces of 
Butter and Flour well rubbed together on a plate, and 
put it in a stewpan with three quarters of a pint of good 
Milk; set it on the fire, and stir it till it boils ; — if it is 



MADE DISHES, &C. 43^ 

not quite smooth, strain it through a sieve, chop some 
Parsley and a clove of Eshallot as fine as possible, and 
put it in your Sauce : season it with salt to your taste : 
a little MacG and Lemon-peel, boiled with the Sauce, 
will improve it : — if you like it still richer, you may add 
a little Cream, or the yolks of two Eggs beat up with 
two tablespoonsful of Milk, and stir it in the last thing : 
do not let it boil after : place the half Eggs on a dish 
with the yolks upward, and pour the Sauce over them. 

Or, 

Shoe very thin two Onions weighing about two 
Dunces each, put them in a stewpan with three ounces 
of Butter, keep them covered till they are just done, 
stir them every now and then, and when they are of a 
nice Brown, stir in as much Flour as will make them 
of a stiff paste, then by degrees add as much Water or 
Milk as will make it the thickness of good Cream; 
season it with Pepper and Salt to your taste; have 
ready boiled hard four or five Eggs, — you may either 
shred them or cut them in halves or quarters, — then 
put them in the Sauce : when they are hot they are 
ready : garnish them with sippets of Bread. 

Or, have ready a plain Omelette, cut into bits, and 
put them into the Sauce. 

Or, cut off a httle bit of one end of the Eggs, so that 
they may stand up ; and take out the yolks whole of 
some of them, and cut the whites in half, or in 
quarters. 

Obs. — This is called in the Parisian kitchen, " Eggs 
a la Trip ; with a Roux," 

Marrow Bones. — (No. 544.) 
Saw the Bones even, so that they will stand steady ; 
put a piece of paste into the ends ; set them upright in 
a Saucepan, and boil till they are done enough: — 
a Beef Marrow Lone will require from an hour and a 
£)alf to two hours ; serve fresh toasted Bread with them. 



440 MADE DISHES, &C. 

Eggs fried icith Bacon. — (No. 545.) 

Lay some slices of fine streaked Bacon {not more than 
a (quarter of an inch thick) in a clean dish, and toast 
them before the Hre in a Cheese-toaster, tnrning them 
when the upper side is browned — first ask those who 
are to eat the Bacon, if they wish it niuch or little 
done, i. €. curled and crisp, see (No 526), — or mellow 
and soft (No. 527); — if the latter, parboil it first. 

Well cleansed, (see No. 83), Dripping, or Lard, is 
better than Butter to fry E^^s. 

Be stire the fryin^pan is quite clean : when the fat is 
hot, break two or three Egg:s into it; do not turn them, 
btit, while they are frying, keep pouring some of the 
fat over them with a spoon : — when the Yolk just 
begins to look white, which it will in about a couple of 
minutes, they are enough ; — the White must not lose its 
transparenct/, hut the Yulk be seen hlushing through it : — 
if they are done nicely, they will look as white and 
delicate as if they had been poached, take them up 
with a tin slice, drain the Fat from them, trim them 
neatly, and send them up with the Bacon round them. 

Ragout of Eggs and Bacon. — (No. 545*.) 

Boil half a dozen Eggs for ten minutes, throw them 
into rJd water, peel them and cut them in halves; 
pound the yolks in a marble mortar, with about an 
equal quantity of the white meat of dressed Fowl, or 
Veal, a little chopped Parsley, an Anchovy, an Eshallot, 
a quarter of an ounce of Butter, a tablcspoonful of 
Mushroom Catsup, a little Cayenne, some Bread- 
crumbs, and a very little beaten Mace or Allspice ; in- 
corporate them well together, and fill the halves of the 
whites with this mixture ; do them over with the yolk 
of an Egg, and brown them in a Dutch oven, and serve 
them on relishing rashers of Bacon or Ham, see (No. 
527.) 



MADE DISHES, SCC. 441 

For Sauce, melted Butter, flavoured to the fancy of 
the Eaters, with Mushroom Catsup, Anchovy, Curry 
Powder (No. 455,) or Zest (No. 255.) 

To Poach Eggs. —(No. 546.) 

The Cook who wishes to display her skill in Poach- 
ing, must endeavour to procure Eggs that have been 
laid a couple of days, those that are quite new laid are 
so milky, that take all the care you can, your cooking 
of them will seldom procure you the praise of being a 
Prime Poacher ; — you must have fresh Eggs, or it is 
equally impossible. 

The' Beauty of a Poached Egg, is for the Yolk to be 
seen blushing through the White, — which should only 
be just sufficiently hardened, to form a transparent 
Veil for the Egg. 

Have some boiling water*, in a Tea Kettle, — pass 
as much of it through a clean cloth as will half fill a 
stewpan, break the Egg into a cup, and when the water 
boils, remove the stewpan from the stove, and gently 
slip the Egg into it ; it must stand till the white is set ; 
then put it over a very moderate fire, and as soon as the 
water boils, the Egg is ready ; take it up with a slice, 
and neatly round off the ragged edges of the white, — 
send them up on a Toastf, with or without Butter ; 
or without a Toast, garnished with streaked Bacon 
(Nos. 526 or 527), nicely fried, or as done in (No. 545), 
or slices of Broiled Beef or Mutton (No. 487), Anchovies 
(Nos. 434 and 435), Pork Sausages (No. 87), or Spinage 
(No. 122.) 

Obs. — The Bread should be a little larger than the 
Egg, and about a quarter of an inch thick : only just 
give it a yellow colour: — if you toast it brown, it will 



* straining the iiater in an indisyensahle precaution, unless you u-re 
spring water. 

t " A couple of poached Egs^s, wiiii a few fine dry fried collops of pure 
Bacon, are not bad for breakfast, or to begin a meal," says sir Kenklm: 
DiGBY, M.D., in his Closet of Cookery, Loutkjn, l6t3o, page 167. 

u 5 



442 MADE DISHES, 8CC. 

get a bitter flavour : — or moisten it by pouring a little 
hot water on it; some sprinkle it with a few drops 
of Vinegar, — or of Essence of Anchovy (No. 433). 

To boil Eggs to eat in the Shell, or for Salads. 
(Xo. .547.) 

The fresher laid the better, put them into boiling 
water; if you like the white just set*, about two minutes 
boiling is enough, a new laid e'^^ will take a little more ; 
if you wish the yolk to be set, it will take three, — and 
to boil it hard for a S a l a d, ten minutes. See (No. 372.) 
Ob.s. — A new laid Egg will require boiling longer 
than a stale one, by half a minute. 

Tin Machines fur boiling Eggs on the Breakfast Tablc^ 
are sold by the Ironmongers, which perform the process 
very regularly: — in four minutes tiie white is just set. 

N. B. ^^ Eggs mail be preserved for Twelve Months, 
in a sweet and palatable state for eating in the shell, 
or using for Salads, by boiling them for one minute; 
and when wanted for use let them be boiled in the 
usual manner: the white may be a little tougher than 
a new laid e^^, but the yolk will show no difference." 
See Hunter's Culina, page 257. 

Eggs Poached with Sauce of minced Ha?n. — {No. 648.) 

Poach the eggs as before directed, and take two or 
three slices of boiled ham, mince it fine with a gherkin, 
a morsel of onion, a little parsley and pepper and salt; 
stew all together a quarter of an hour; serve up your 
sauce about half boiling ; put the eggs in a dish, squeeze 
over the juice of half a Seville orange, or lemon, and 
pour the sauce over them. 

Fried Eggs and minced Ham or Bacon. — (Xo. .549.) 
Choose some very fine bacon, streaked with a good 

• " Ihelightest mode of preparing eggs for the table, ie to boil ihem only as 
long a'* is necessary to coagulate slightly the greater part of ihc white, wilhont 
depriving the yolk of its fluidity." — T'r. Pearson's Mat. Alim. 8vo. 1806, 
p. 3d. 



MADE DISHES, 8CC. 443 

deal of lean; cut this into very thin slices, and after- 
ivards into small square pieces ; throw them into a 
^tewpan, and set it over a gentle fire, that they may lose 
some of their fat. When as much as vrill freely come 
is thus melted from them, lay tliem on a warm dish. 
Put into a stewpan a ladleful of melted bacon or lard ; 
set it on a stove ; put in about a dozen of the small 
pieces of the bacon, then stoop the stewpan and break 
in an egg. Manage this carefully, and the egg will 
presently be done : it will be very round, and the little 
dice of bacon will stick to it all over, so that it will 
make a very pretty appearance. Take care the yolks 
do not harden: when the egg is thus done, lay it 
carefully in a warm dish, and do the others. 

*^» fhei/ reckon 685 ways of dressing Eggs in th€ 
French Kitchen ; — we hope our half dozen Receipts give 
sufficient variety for the English Kitchen. 

Tea*.— (No. .550.) 
" llie Jesuit that came from China, A. D. 1664, told 

* VARI0D3 Ways of Making Tka. 

1. 
"Tlie Japanese reduce their Tea to a fine powder by pounding it,— they 
put certain portions of tliis into a teacup, pour boiling water upon it, and stir 
it up, ami drink it as soon as it is cool enongii." 

"DuBUissoN's Manner of Making Tea. 

" Put the Tea into a kettle with cold water, — cover it close, set it on the 
fire, and make it all but boil, when you see a sort of white scum on the sm-face, 
take St from the fiie ; when the leaves sink it is ready." 
3. 

" The niaht before you wish to have Tea ready for drinking, — pour on it 
as much cold water as you wish to make Tea — next morning pour off the 
clear liquor, and when you wish to drink it, make it warm," 

The above are from " L'Art du Limonadier" de Dubuisson, Paris, 
rp. 267 and 8. Or, 

ithly, 

" A great saving may he made by making a Tincture of Tea, thus, — ponr 
boilicg water upon it, and let il stand twenty minutes, putting into each cup 
no more than is necessary to fill it about one-third full.— Fill each cup np with 
hot water from an urn or kettle, thus the Tea will be always hot and equally 
strong to the end,— and one teaspoonful will be found enough for three cups, 
for each person : according to the present mode of making it, three times the 
quantity is often used."— bee Dr. Trusler's way to be Rich and Respect- 
4ible, 8V0. 1796, p. 27. 



^444 MADE DISHES, 8CC. 

Mr. Waller, that to a drachm of tea they put a pint 6{ 
water, and frequently take the yolks of two new laid 
egg;s, and beat them up with as much fine sugar as is 
sufficient for the tea, and stir all well together. He 
al??o informed him, that we let the hot water remain 
too long soaking upon the tea, wliich makes it extract 
into itself the earthy parts of the herb ; the water must 
remain upon it no longer than while you can say the 
* 3i/.sf;T;(' psalm very leisurely; you have then only 
the spiritual part of the tea, the proportion of which to 
the water must be about a drachm to a pint." — Sir 
Kenplm Digby's Cookerij, London, 1669, p. l67. 
, Ohs. — The addition of an Egg makes the *' Chinese 
Sui/}j" a more nutritious and substantial meal for a 
Traveller. 

Coffee. 

Coffee, as used on the Continent, serves the double 
purpose of an agreeable tonic, and an exhilarating 
beverage, without the unpleasant effects of wine. 

Coffee, as drank in England, debilitates the Stomach, 
and produces a slight nausea. In Erance and in Italy 
it is made strong from the best Coffee, and is poured 
out hot and transparent. 

In England it is usually made from bad Coffee, 
served out tepid and muddy, and drowned in a deluge 
of water. 

To make Coffee fit for use, you must employ the 
German filter, — pay at least 4*. the pound for it, — 
and take at least an ounce for two breakfast cups. 

No Coffee will bear drinking with what is called 
■ milk in London. 

London people should either take their Coffee pure, 
or put a couple of teaspoonsful of cream to each cup. 

N. B. The above is a contribution from an intelligent 
Traveller who has passed some years on the Continent. 



Made dishes, &c. 445 

Suet Pudding, IViggys vcay. — (No. 551.) 

Suet, a quarter of a pound ; flour, three tablespoons^ 
ful; eggs, two; and a little grated ginger; milk, half 
a pint. Mince the suet as fine as possible, roll it with 
the rolling pin so as to mix it well with the flour ; beat 
up the eggs, mix them with the milk, and then mix all 
together ; wet your cloth well in boiling water, flour it, 
tie it loose, put into boiling water, and boil an hour and 
a quarter. 

Mrs. Glasse has it, " when You have made Your water 
boil, then put Your pudding into Your pot." 

Yorkshire Pudding under Roust Meat, the Gipsies' xvai/. 
(No. 552.) 

This pudding is an especially excellent accompani- 
ment to a Sir-loin of beef, — Loin of Veal, — or any fat 
and juicy joint. 

Six tablespoonsful of flour, three eggs, a teaspoonful 
of salt, and a pint of milk ; so as to make a middling 
stiff batter, a little stifFer than you would for pancakes ; 
beat it up well, and take care it is not lumpy ; put a 
dish under the meat, and let the drippings drop into it 
till it is quite hot and well greased ; then pour in the 
batter; — when the upper surface is brown and set, — 
turn it, that both sides may be brown alike ; if you wish 
it to cut firm, and the pudding an inch thick, it will take 
two hours at a good fire. 

N. B. The true Yorkshire Pudding is about half an 
inch thick when done ; but it is the fashion in London 
to make them full twice that thickness. 

Plu?n Pudding. ~{^o. 553.) 

Suet chopped fine, six ounces. 
Malaga raisins, stoned, six ounces. 
Currants nicely washed and picked, eight ounces. 
^ Bread crumbs, three ounces. 



446 MADE DISHES, Sec. 

Flour, three ounces. 

Eggs, three. 

Sixth of a nutmeg. 

Small blade of mace, same quantity of cinnamon 
pounded as fine as possible. 

Half a teaspoonful of salt. 

Half a pint of milk, or rather less. 

Sugar four ounces : to ^vhich may be added, 

Candied lemon, one ounce. 

Citron, half an ounce. 

Beat the eggs and spice well together, mix the milk 
with them by degrees, then the rest of the ingredients; 
dip a fine close linen cloth into boiling water, and put 
it in a hair sieve; flour it a little and tie it up close; 
put it into a saucepan containing six quarts of boiling 
water: keep a kettle of boiling water alongside of it, 
to fill up your pot as it wastes ; be sure to keep it 
boiling six hours at least. 

My Pudding. —(No. 554.) 

Beat up the yolks and whites of three Kp:gs, strain 
them througli a sieve, (to keep out the treddles), and 
gradually add to tlieni about a quarter pint of Milk, — 
stir these well together, — rub together in a mortar two 
ounces of moist Susrar, and as much grated Nutmeg as 
will lie on a sixpence, — stir these into the Eggs and 
Milk, — then put in four ounces of Flour, and beat it 
into a smooth Batter, — by degrees stir into it seven 
oimcxis of Suet {minced as Jine as possible), and three 
ounces of Bread-crumbs —mix all thoroughly together 
at least half an hour before you put the pudding into the 
pot ; — put it into an earthenware pudding mould, that 
you have well buttered, tie a pudding cloth over it very 
tight, put it into boiling water, and boil it three hours. 

Put One Good LHiim into it, and aa arch Cook says, 
you may then tell the Economist that you have made a 
GOOD Plum Pudding — without Plums : —i\i\s would 



MADE DISHES, Scc. 447 

be what School Boys call " Mile Stone Pu.ldi/ig," i. e. " a 
Mile between one Flam and another." 

N. B. Half a pound of Muscatel Raisins cut in half, 
and added to the above, will make a most admirable 
Plum Pudding: a little grated Lemon Peel may be 
added. 

Obs. — If the zcater ceases to boil, the Pudding will 
become heaiy and be spoiled ; — if properly managed, this 
and the following will be as fine Puddings of the kind 
as art can produce. 

Puddings are best, when mixed an hour or two be- 
fore they are boiled, — the various ingredients by that 
means amalgamate, and the whole becomes richer and 
fuller of flavour, especially if the various ingredients be 
THOROUGHLY Well Stirred together. 

A tablespoonful of Treacle will give it a rich brown 
colour. See Pudding Sauce (No. 269), and Pudding 
Catsup (No. 446.) 

N. B. This Pudding may be baked in an oven, or 
under Meat, the same as Yorkshire Puddinp; (No. 552), 
make it the same, only add half a pint of Milk more, it 
should be above an inch and a quarter in thickness, it 
will take full two hours, — it requires careful watching, 
for if the top gets burned, an empyreumatic flavour will 
pervade the whole of the Pudding. — Or butter some 
Saucers, and fill them with pudding, and set them in 
a Dutch oven, they will take about an hour. 

A Fat Puddixg. 

Break five Eggs in a basin, beat them up with a 
teaspoonfid of Sugar and a tablespoonful of Flour, beat 
it quite smooth, then put to it a pound of Raisins, and a 
pound of Suet, it must not be chopped very fine, butter 
a mould well, put in the pudding, tie a cloth over it 
tight, and boil it Five hours. 

N. B. This is ver\^ rich, and is commonly called a 
Marrow Pudding. 



448 MADE DISHES, &C. 

Pease Pudding. — (No. 555.) 

Put a quart of split pease into a clean cloth ; do nol 
tie them up too close, but leave a little room for then: 
to swell ; put them on to boil in cold water, slowly till 
they are tender : if they are good pease, they will bt 
boiled enough in about two hours and a half, rub them 
through a sieve into a deep dish, adding* to them an 
egg or two, an ounce of butter, and some pepper and 
salt; beat them well together for about ten minutes, 
when these ingredients are well incorporated together ; 
then flour the cloth well, put the pudding in, and tie it 
up as tight as possible, and boil it an hour longer. It 
is as good with boiled Beef as it is with boiled Pork; 
and why not with roasted Pork ? 

OIks. — This is a very good accompaniment to cold 
Pork, or cold Beef. 

N. B. Stir this Pudding into two quarts of the liquor 
Meat or Poultry has been boiled in, give it a boil up, 
and in five minutes it will make excellent Extempore 
Pease Soup, especially if the pudding has been boiled 
in the same pf)t as the Meat, see (No. 2 1 8), &c. Season 
it with Pea Powder (No. 458.) 

Plain Braid Piiddinir. — (No. 556.) 

Make five ounces of Bread-crumbs, put them m a 
basin, pour three quarters of a pint of boiling milk 
over them, put a plate over the top to keep in the steam, 
let it stand twenty minutes, then beat it up cjuite smooth 
with two ounces of sugar and a saltspoonful of nutmeg. 
Break four eggs on a plate, leaving out one white, beat 
them well, and add them to the Pudding. Stir it all 
well together, and put it in a mould that has been well 



* To increase the bulk nnd diminish the expense of this pudding, the 
economical hcusckceper who has a laif^c family to feed, mny now add two 
pounds uf pot itoes that have been boiled and well mashed. J o many, thi« 
mixture is more agreeable than pease pudding alone. See also Ko. 107. 



MADE DISHES, StC 449 

buttered and floured, tie a cloth over it, and boil 
it one hour. 

Bread and Butter Pudding. — (No. 557.) 

You must have a dish that will hold a quart, — wash 
and pick two ounces of currants, strew a few at the 
bottom of the dish, cut about four layers of very thin 
Bread and Butter, and between each layer of Bread 
and Butter strew some currants, then break four eggs, 
in a basin, leaving out one white, beat them well, and 
add four ounces of sugar and a drachm of nutmeg, stir 
it well together with a pint of new milk, pour it over 
about ten minutes before you put it in the oven, — it 
will take three quarters of an hour to bake. 

Pancakes and Fritters. — (No. 558.) 

Break three eggs in a basin, beat them up with a 
little nutmeg and salt, then put to them four ounces 
and a half of flour and a little milk, beat it of a smooth 
batter, then add by degrees as much milk as will make 
it the thickness of good cream, — the fryingpan must 
be about the size of a pudding plate, and very clean, or 
they will stick, make it hot, and to each pancake put in 
a bit of butter about as big as a walnut ; when it is 
melted, pour in the batter to cover the bottom of the 
pan, make them the thickness of half a crown, fry them 
of a light brown on both sides. 

The above will do for Apple Fritters, by adding 
one spoonful more Flour; peel your Apples, and cut 
them in thick slices ; take out the core, dip them in the 
batter and fry them in hot lard, — put them on a sieve 
to drain, — dish them neatly, and grate some loaf 
sugar over them. 

(No. 560.) 
The following Receipts are from Mr. Henry Os- 



450. MADE DISHES, SvG. 

EoiiNE, Cook to Sir Joseph Banks, the late PresU 
dcat of the Royal Society : — 

Soho Square, April 20, 1820. 

Sir,— 1 send you herewith the last part of the Cook's 
Oracle. I have attentively looked over each receipt, 
and hope they are now correct, and easy to be under- 
stood. If you think any need further explanation, Sir 
Joseph has desired me to wait on you a^ain. I also 
send the Receipts for my ten Puddings, and my method 
of using Sprin;j Fruit and Gourds. 
I am, vSiR, 

Your liumble Servant, 

Henry Osborne.* 

Boston ylpp/t V willing. 

Peel one dozen and a liulf of good Apples, take out the 
Cores, cut them small, put into a stewpan that will 
just hold them, with a little water, a little cinnamon, 
two cloves, and the peel of a lemon, stew over a slow 
fire till quite soft, then sweeten with moist sugar, and 
pass it through a hair sieve, add to it the yolks of four 
eggs and one white, a quarter of a pound of good 
butter, half a nutmeg, the peel of a lemon grated, and 
the juice of one lemon ; beat all well together, line the 
inside of a pie-dish with good puff paste, put in the 
pudding, and bake half an hour. 

Spring Fruit Pudding. 

Peel and well wash four dozen sticks of rhubarb, put 
into a stewpan with the pudding, a lemon, a little 
cinnamon, and as much moist sugar as will make it- 
quite sw^eet, set it over a fire, and reduce it to a mar-, 
malade, pass through a hair sieve, and proceed as 

• Now a Fishmonger at Brentford. . . 



MADE DISHES, 8CC. 45l 

directed for the Boston Pudding, leaving out the lemoQ 
juice, as the rhubarb will be found sufficiently acid 
of itself. 

Nottingham Pudding. 

Peel six good apples, take out the core with the point 
of a small knife, or an apple corer, if you have one, but 
be sure to leave the apples whole, fill up where you 
took the core from with sugar, place them in a pie-dish, 
and pour over them a nice light batter, prepared as for 
Batter Pudding, and bake an hour in a moderate oven. 

Batter Pudding. 

Take six ounces of fine flour, a little salt, and three 
eggs, beat up well with a little milk, added by degrees 
till the batter is quite smooth, make it the thickness of 
cream, put into a buttered pie-dish, and bake three 
quarters of an hour, or into a buttered and floured 
basin tied over tight with a cloth, boil one and a half or 
two hours. 

Newmarket Pudding. 

Put on to boil a pint of good milk, with half a lemon 
peel, a little cinnamon, and a bay-leaf, boil gently for 
five or ten minutes, sweeten with loaf sugar, break the 
yolks of five and the whites of three eggs into a basin, 
beat them well, and add the milk, beat all well together, 
and strain through a fine hair sieve, or tammis, have 
some bread and butter cut very thin, lay a layer of it 
in a pie-dish, and then a layer of currants, and so on 
till the dish is nearly full, then pour the custard over 
it, and bake half an hour. 

Newcastle or Cabinet Pudding. 

Butter a half melon mould, or quart basin, and stick 
all round with dried cherries, or fine raisins, and fill up 



452 MADE BISHES, &C. 

with bread and butter, &c. as in the above, and steam 
it an hour and a half. 

VcntiiceUi Pudding. 
Boil a pint of milk, with lemon peel and cinnamon, 
sweeten with loaf sugar, strain throuG:h a sieve, and 
add a quarter of a pound of vermicelli, boil ten minutes, 
then put in the yolks of five and the whites of three 
eggs, mix well together, and steam it one hour and a 
quarter ; the same may be baked half an hour. 

Bread Puddi/is. 

o 

Make a pint of Bread-crumbs, ]nit them in a stew- 
pan with as much milk as will cover them, the peel of 
a lemon, and a little nutmeg grated, a small piece of 
cinnamon ; boil about ten minutes ; sweeten with pow- 
dered loaf sugar ; take out the cinnamon, and put in 
four eggs ; beat all well together, and bake half an 
hour, or boil rather more than an hour. 

Custard Pudding. 

Boil a pint of Milk, and a quarter of a pint of good 
Cream ; thicken with flour and water, made perfectly 
smooth, till it is stiff enough to bear an e^g on it; 
break in the yolks of five eggs, sweeten with powdered 
loaf sugar, grate in a little nutmeg, and the peel of a 
lemon ; add half a glass of good brandy, then whip 
the whites of the five eggs till quite sliflf, and mix 
gently all together; line a pie-dish with good puff 
paste, and bake half an hour. 

N. B. Ground Rice, Potatoe Flour, Panada, and all 
Puddings made from Powders, are, or may be, pre- 
pared in the same way. 

Pjoiled Custards. 

Put a quart of new milk into a stewpan, with the 
peel of a lemon cut very thin, a little grated nutmeg, 



MADE DIST4ES, &C. 453. 

a bay or laurel leaf, a small stick of cinnamon ; set it 
over a quick fire, but be careful it does not boil over ; 
when it boils, set it beside the fire, and simmer ten 
minutes; break the yolks of eight, and the whites of 
four eg-gs into a basin, beat them well, then pour in 
the milk a httle at a time, stirring it as quick as pos- 
sible to prevent the eggs curdling; set it on the fire 
again, and stir it well with a wooden spoon ; let it have 
just one boil ; pass it through a tammis, or fine sieve ; 
when cold, add a little brandy, or white wine, as may 
be most agreeable to palate ; — serve up in glasses, or 
cups. 

Custards tor Baking are prepared as above, — 
passed through a fine sieve, put them into Cups, grate 
a little nutmeg over each, — bake them about 1 5 or 20 
minutes. 

TO DRESS SPRING FRUIT. 

Spring Fruit Soup. 

Peel and well wash four dozen sticks of Rhubarb, 
blanch it in water three or four minutes, drain it on a 
sieve, and put it into a stewpan with two Onions sliced, 
a Carrot, an ounce of lean Ham, and a good bit of 
Butter ; let it stew gently over a slow fire till tender, 
then put in two quarts of good Consomme, to which add 
two or three ounces of Bread-crumbs, boil about fifteen 
minutes, skim off all the fat, season with salt and 
Cayenne pepper, pass it through a tammis, and serve 
up with fried bread. 

Spring Fruit Pudding. 
Clean as above three or four dozen sticks of Rhubarb, 
put it in a stewpan, with the peel of a Lemon, a bit of 
Cinnamon, two Cloves, and as much moist Sugar as 
will sweeten it ; set it over a fire, and reduce it to a 
marmalade, pass it through a hair sieve, then add the 
peel of a Lemon, and half a Nutmeg grated, a quarter 



454 MA DE DISHES, &C. 

of a pound of good Butter and the yolks of four Egg! 
and one white, and mix all veil together; line a pie- 
disli (that will just contain it) with good puff paste 
put the mixture in, and bake it half an hour. 

Spring Fruit — a IMock Gooseberry Sauce fok 
Mackarel, &€. 
Make a Marmalade of three dozen sticks of Rhubarb, 
sweetened with moist Sugar, pass it through a haii 
sieve, and serve up in a sauce-boat. 

Spring Fruit Tart. 

Prepare Rhubarb as above, cut it in small pieces 
into a Tart dish, sweeten with Loaf Sugar pounded, 
cover it with a good short crust paste, sift a little 
Sugar over the top, and bake half an hour in a rather 
hot oven ; serve up cold. 

Spring Cream — or Mock Gooseberry Fool. 

Prepare a Marmalade as directed for the Pudding; 
to which add a pint of good thick Cream ; serve up in 
glasses, or in a deep dish; — if wanted in a shape, 
dissolve two ounces of isinglass in a little water, strain 
it through a tammis, and when nearly cold put it to 
the Cream, pour it into a Jelly mould, and when set, 
turn out into a dish, and serve up plain. 

Spring Fruit Sherbet. 

Boil six or eight sticks of Rhubarb (quite clean) ten 
minutes in a quart of water, strain the liquor through 
a timimis into a jug, with the peel of a Lemon cut very 
thin, and two tablespoonsful of clarified Sugar; let it 
stand five or six hours, and it is fit to drink. 

Gourds (now called Vegetable Marrow) Stewed. 

Take off all the skin of six or eight Gourds, put 
them into a stewpan, with water, Salt, Lemon juice, and 
a bit of Butter, or fat Bacon, and let them stew gently 



MADE DISHES, &C. 455 

till quite tender, and serve up with a rich Dutch sauce, 
or any other sauce you please that is jnquante. 

Gourd Soup 

Should be made of full grown Gourds, but not those 
tha.t have hard skins ; slice three or four, and put them 
in a stewpan, with two or three Onions and a good bit 
of Butter ; set them over a slow fire till quite tender, 
(be careful not to let them burn,) then add two ounces 
of crust of Bread and two quarts of good Consomme, 
season with salt and Cayenne pepper, boil ten minutes 
or a quarter of an hour, skim off all the fat, and pass 
it through a tammis, then make it quite hot, and serve 
up with fried bread. 

Fried Gourds. 

Cut five or six Gourds in quarters, take off the skin 
and pulp, stew them in the same manner as for table ; 
when done, drain them quite dry, beat up an Egg, and 
dip the Gourds in it, and cover them well over with 
Breadcrumbs; make some Hog's-lard hot, and fry 
them a nice light colour, throw a little salt and pepper 
over them, and serve up quite dry. 

Another Way. 

Take six or eight small Gourds as near of a size as 
possible, slice them with a Cucumber slice, dry them 
in a cloth, and then fry them in very hot lard ; throw 
over a little pepper and salt, and serve up on a napkin. 
Great attention is requisite to do these well, — if the 
fat is quite hot, they are done in a minute, and w^ll 
soon spoil, — if not hot enough, they will eat greasy 
and tough. 

To make Beef, Mutton, or Veal Tea. — (No. 563.) 

Cut a pound of lean gravy Meat into thin slices, 
put it into a quart and half a pint of cold water, set it 
over a very gentle fire, where it will become gradually 



456 MADE DISHES, &C. 

warm ; when the scum rises, let it continue simmering 
gently for about an hour, then strain it through a fine 
sieve, or a napkin, let it stand ten minutes to settle, 
and then pour off the clear Tea. 

N. B. An Onion, and a few grains of Black Pepper, 
are sometimes added. 

If the Meat is boiled till it is thoroughly tender, you 
may mince it and pound it as directed in (No. 503), 
and make Potted Beef. 

To make half a pint of Beef Tea in five minutes for 
three halfpence, see (No. 252.) 

Mutton Broth for the Sick, — (No. 564.) 

Have a pound and a half of a Neck or Loin of 
Mutton, take off the skin and the fat, and put it into 
a saucepan ; cover it with cold water, (it will take 
about a quart to a pound of meat,) let it simmer very 
gently, and skim it well ; cover it up, and set it over a 
moderate fire, where it may stand gtnth/ stewing for 
about an hour, then strain it off. It sliould be allowed 
to become co/r/, when all the greasy particles will float 
on the surface, and l)ecoming hard, can be easily taken 
off, and tlie settlinirs will remain at the bottom. 

See also (No. 490,) and (No. 252.) 

N. B. We direct the Meat to be done no more than 
just sufficiently to be eaten, — so a sick man may 
have plenty of good Broth for nothing, as by this 
manner of producing it the meat furnishes also a good 
family meal. 

Obi. — This is an inoffensive nourishment for sick 
persons — and the only Mutton Broth that should be 
given to convalescents, whose constitutions require 
replenishing with restorative aliment of easy digestion. 
The common way of making it with Roots — Onions — 
Sweet Herbs, &c. &c. is too strong for weak Stomachs. 
Plain Broth will agree with a delicate Stomach, when 
the least addition of other ingredients would imme- 
diately offend it. 



MADE DISHES, &C. 4&'t 

For the various ways of flavouring Broth, see (No. 
572.) 

Fevv^ know how much good may be done by such 
Broth, taken in sufficient quantity at the beginning 
and decline of bowel complaints and fevers, — half a 
pint taken at a time. See the two last pages of the 
7th Chapter of the Rudiments of Cookery. 

Barley Water. — (No. 565.) 

Take a couple of ounces of Pearl Barley, wash it 
clean with cold water, put it into half a pint of boiling 
water, and let it boil for five minutes ; pour off this 
water, and add to it two quarts of boiling water : boil 
it to two pints, and strain it. 

The above is simple Barley Water ; — to a quart of 
this is frequently added 

Two ounces of Figs, sliced ; 

The same of Raisins, stoned ; 

Half an ounce of Liquorice, sliced and bruised ; 

And a pint of water. 

Boil till it is reduced to a quart, and strain. 

Obs. — These Drinks are intended to assuage thirst 
in ardent Fevers, and inflammatory disorders, for 
which plenty of mild diluting liquor is one of the prin- 
cipal remedies; — and if not suggested by the Medical 
attendant, is frequently demanded by honest Instinct, 
in terms too plain to be misunderstood : — the Stomach 
sympathizes with every fibre of the human frame, and 
no part of it can be distressed, without in some degree 
offending the Stomach : — therefore it is of the utmost 
importance to soothe this grand Organ, by rendering 
every thing we offer to it as elegant and agreeable as 
the nature of the case will atknit of: — the Barley 
drink prepared according to the second receipt, will 
be received with pleasure by the most delicate palate. 

X 



458 MADE DISHES, &C. 



VViiEY. — (No/566.) 

Make a pint of Milk boil, — put to it a glass or two 
of white V)"\ne — put it on the fire till it just boils 
again — then set it on one side till the Curd has settled 

— pour off the clear Whey, and sweeten it as you like. 
Cyder is often substituted for Wine, or half the 

quantity of Vinegar that we have ordered Wine. 

Obs. — W^hen there is no fire in a sick room, this 
may be put hot into a bottle — and put between the 
Bed and Mattress — it will keep warm several hours. 

Tuijthachcy and Anti-rheumatic Embrocation. 
(No. 567.) 

To all People, the '1 o jtiiache is an intolerable Tor- 
ment — not even a Philosopher can endure it patiently 

— what an overcoming agony, then, must it be to a 
Grand ('ourmand ! — besides the mortification of being 
deprived of the means of enjoying that consolation 
which he looks to as the grand solace for all sublunary 
cares. 

When this affliction befalls him, we recommend the 
following specific fur it : — 

R. Sal volatile, three parts. 
Laudanum, one part. 

Mix, and rub the part aflected frequently, or if the 
Tooth which aches be hollow, drop some of this on a 
bit of cotton, and put it into the Tooth; — for a general 
Face-aclie, or sore Tliroat, moisten a bit of flannel 
with it, and put it at night to the part affected. 

Stomachic Tincture — (No. 569), — is 

Peruvian Bark, bruised, one ounce and a half. 
Orange Peel, do. one ounce. 
Brandy, or Troof Spirit, one pirkt. 



MADE DISHES, &C. 459 

Let these ingredients steep for ten days, shaking the 
bottle every day — let it remain quiet two days — and 
then decant the clear liquor. 

Dose— a Teaspoon ful in a wineglass of water, twice 
a day, when you feel languid, i. e. when the Stomach 
is empty, about an hour before Dinner, and in the 
Evening. 

This agreeable Aromatic Tonic, is an effective help 
to concoction, — and we are under personal obligations 
to it, for frequently restoring our Stomach to good 
temper, and procuring us good Appetite and good 
Digestion. 

In low nervous affections arising from a languid 
circulation — and when the Stomach is in a state of 
debility from age — intemperance, or other causes — 
this is a most acceptable restorative. 

N. B. Tea made with dried and bruised Seville 
Orange Peel, in the same way as common Tea, and 
drank with Milk and Sugar, has been taken by nervous 
and dyspeptic persons with great benefit. 

Sucking a bit of dried Orange Peel about an hour 
before dinner, when the Stomach is empty, is very 
grateful and strengthening to it. 

Paregoric Elixir. — (No. 570.) 

A drachm of purified Opium. 

Same of Flowers of Benjamin. 

Same of Oil of Aniseed. 

Camphor, two scruples. 

Steep all in a pint of Brandy, or Proof Spirit : let it 
stand ten days, occasionally shaking it up. Strain. 

A teaspoonful in half a pint of White Wine Whey 
(No. 562), or Tewahdiddle (No. 467), Gruel (No. 572), 
taken the last thing at night, is an agreeable and 
effectual medicine for Coughs and Colds. 

It is also excellent for Children who have the Hoop- 
X 2 



460 MADE DISHES, &C. 

ing Cough, in doses of from five to twenty drops in a 
little water, or on a little bit of Sugar. 



Dr. Kitcjiiner's Receipt to make Gruel (No. 572.) 

Ask those who are to eat it, if they like it Tuick or 
thin : if the latter, mix well together by degrees, iu a 
pint basin, uiic tablespoonful of Oaimeal, with three of 
cold water ; — if the former, use two spoonsful. 

Have ready in a Slewpan, a pint of boiling water or 
milk, — pour this by degrees to the Oatmeal you have 
mixed, — return it into the Stewpan, — set it on the 
fire, — and let it boil for five minutes, — stirring it all 
the time to prevent the Oatmeal from butning at the 
bottom of the Stewpan, — skim and strain it through a 
Hair Sieve. 

2(1. To convert this into Caudle, — add a little 
Ale, — Wine, — or Brandy, — with Sugar, — and if 
the Bowels are disordered, a little Nutmeg or Ginger 
grated. 

Obs. — Gruel may be made with Broth (No. 490), 
or (No. 252), or (No. 564), instead of water, — (to make 
Crowdie, see (No. 205*), — and may be flavoured with 
Sxceet Herbs, — Suiip Roots, and Saiouri/ Spices, — 
by boiling them for a few minutes in the water you are 
going to make the Gruel with, — or Zest (No. 255), — 
Pea Powder (No. 458), — or dried Mint, — Mushroom 
Catsup (No. 409), — or a few grains of Curry Powder 
(No. 455), — or Savoury Ragout Powder (No. 457), — 
or Cayenne (No. 404), — or Celery Seed bruised, — 
or Soup Herb Powder (No. 459), or an Onion minced 
very fine and bruised in with the Oatmeal, — or a little 
Eshallot Wine (No. 402), — or Essence of Celery 
(No. 409}, — or (No. 413), — (No. 417), — or (No. 
420), &c. 

Plain Gruel, such as is directed in the first part 



MADE DISHES, 8tC. 461 

of this Receipt, is one of the best Breakfasts and Suppers 
that we can recommend to the rational Epicure — is 
the most comforting soother of an irritable Stomach 
that we know— and particularly acceptable to it after 
a hard day's work of Intemperate Feasting — when the 
addition of half an ounce of butter, and a teaspoonful 
of Epsom Salt, will give it an aperient quality, which 
will assist the principal Viscera to get rid of their 
burden. 

" Water Gruel" (says Tryon in his Obs. on Health, 
16mo. 1688, p. 42,) is " the King of Spoon Meats" 
and " the Queen of Soups/' and gratifies nature beyond 
all others. 

In the "Art of Thriving," 1697, p. 8, are directions 
for preparing Fourscore Noble and Wholesome Dishes, 
upon most of which a Man may live excellent well for 
Twopence a day : the author's Obs. on Water Gruel is 
that "Essence of Oatmeal" makes "« noble and 
exhilarating Meal T 

Dr. Franklin's favourite Breakfast was a good 
basin of warm Gruel, in which there was a small 
slice of Butter with Toasted Bread and Nutmeg — 
the expense of this, he reckoned at three half-pence. 



Anchovy Toast. — (No. 573.) 

Bone and wash the anchovies, pound them in a 
mortar with a little fresh butter ; rub them through a 
sieve, and spread them on a toast, see (Nos. 434 and 
435), and (No. 355.) 

Obs. — You may add, while pounding the Anchovies, 
a little made Mustard and Curry Powder (No. 455), 
or a fev/ grains of Cayenne, or a little Mace or other 
spice. It may be made still more savoury, by frying 
the toast in clarified butter. 



462 MADE DISHES, &C. 

Devilled Biscuit — (No. 574.) 

Is the above composition, spread on a biscuit warmed 
before the fire in a Dutch oven, with a sufficient quantity 
of salt and savoury Spice (No. 457), Ze.st (No. 255), 
Curry Powder (No. 455), or Cayenne Pepper sprinkled 
over it. 

Obs. — ^This tie plus ultra of liii^h spiced relishes, and 
(No. 538), frecjuently makes its appearance at a tavern 
dinner, when the votaries of Bacchus are determined 
to vie with each other in sacrificing to the Jolly God. 



MARKETING TABLES, 

Showing the Seasons when Meat — Poultry — Fish 
fl«d^ Vegetables — are Best and Cheapest. 



MEAT. 

rhe Prices nere fixed (Jan. 1, 1817J by an eminent Butcher, nho sells 
an article of first-rate quality; and though the Price should vary, 
the relaive value will be exhibited. 



>^ 



. ?J I w.'^ ?; 



IB. OZ. 

13 

20 

U 

13 12 



9 



BEEF. 

THE HIND QUARTER. 



1 8 



1 Sir Loin 

2 Rump 

3 Edge Bone 

4 Buttock, or Round.. 

5 Mouse ditto 

6 Veiny Piece 

7 Thick Flank 

8 I bin ditto 

9 Leg 



per ft, 
9 



Roasted (No. ig.) 

{ Steak to Broil (No. 94), to 
I \ Stew (Nos. 500 and 501.) 
Boiled (No. 8.) 

(Ditto (No. 7); or Savoury 

I Salted Beef (No. 496.) 
For Alaniode Beef (No. 502.) 
Generally Baked or Salted. 

Salted. 

Ditto. 

CSoup of (No. 191), Stewed 

\ (No. 493.) 



THE FORE QUARTER. 



10 Fore Rib, 6 Ribs . 

11 Middle do. 3 do. . 

12 Clinck do. 3 do. . 

13 Shoulder, L>r Leg of 

Mutton Piece .. 



per ft. 
9 



C Rousted (No. W), Boned and 

I Rolled (No. 21.) 

Ditto. 

For making Gravy. 



14 Bii:ket. 



6 



115 Clod 





16 Neck, or Sticking" 
Piece ■ 



17 Shin 



21 



18 The Heart, 35. M. 

The Tail, Trf 

The Heels 



For Steaks or Soup. 

I Foi- Stewing (No. 49t), or 
\ Harricot (No. 495), — or 

Peef 



Salted. 
J Principally used 
1 Sausages. 

Ditto, or making Soup. 

5 Excellent Scotch Barley 
Broth {Iso. 204), and 
Stewed (No. 493.) 
J Soup of (No. 239), Stewed 
I (No. 507); -and 
Do. (No. 240) ; Do. (No. 508.) 
f Boiled (No. 18»), Jelly of 
X (No. 198), Soup (No. 210*.) 



The (Numbers) refer to the Receipts for dressing. 



464 



MARKETING TABLES. 



MEAT. 



p=~5 — srsT— ~ 


S§ 


|.S 


1 




=q^ 




V''^- 


'^ 'i 




-2^5 


■^ k 2 




|fl 




MUTTON. 


ft. oz. 


tb. oz. 


per lb. 




8 


13 


1 Le? ............ ^ 


r Boiled (No. 1), or Roasted 
) (No. 24.) 

■) Do. (No. 1), Roasted (No. 
C 28), Chops. 


2 Loin, best end .. > 8 

3 Do. chump end.. } 








r Do. (No. 2), Roasted (No. 


6 


8 


4 Neck, best end .... 7 


) 29), Irish Stew (N o. 438 , 
1 Harrico (Xo.489),Stewed 
V. (No. 490.) 






5 Do. scrag end o 5 


To make Broth (No. I94.) 


8 4 


1 


6 Shoulder o 7 


Roasted (No. 27.) 






7 Breast o 5 

Head,9rf 


Grilled, Obs. to (No. 38.) 
Broth. 






The Chine, or the -n^ 






Saddle.two Loins, / 

The Haunch is a V o 8 


C Roasted (No. 31), Venisoni- 
l tied (No. 32.) 






Leg, and part of i 






the I,oin J 








VEAL. 






per lb 






1 Loin, best end ....Oil Roasted (No. 35.) 






2 Do. chump end .... 11 


Do. Do. 
C Roasted (No. 34) ; to make 
< Veal Olives (No. 518), 
^ Scotch Collops (No. 517.) 






3 Fillet 1 1 








4 Knuckle, Hind .... 7 


^ To Ragout (No. 522), to 






The whole Leg .... 10| 


) Stew (No. 523), Soup of 
^ (No. 193.) 








9 


1 


5 Neck, best end 11 


Roasted (No. 37.) 


5 


10 


6 Do. scrag end 8 

The whole Neck ..0 Qi 


Do. Do. 






7 Blade Bone 10 


Roasted. 

( Stewed (No. 515); to Ra- 
\ gout (No. 517), to Curry 
t (No. 497.) 






8 Breast, best end.... 11 












9 Do. brisket end.... 10 


(Stewed (No. 515); to Ra- 
l gout (No. 517.) 






10 Knnckle, Fore .... 7 


Same as Hind Knuckle. 






The Head, with the Skin 


f Boiled plain (No. 10); to 
I Hash (Nos. 50 and 520.) 






on,from7-y- to 15s 






Do. skinned, 5*. 








Cutlets • 


(Fried (No. 90), Broiled 
I (No. 521.) 





MARKETING TABLES. 



465 



In the foregoing Table, we have given the proportions of Bone to Meat, — 
the former not being weighed till cooked, — by which, of course, its weight 
was considerably diminished. 

These proportions ditfer in almost every Animal, — and from the different 
manner in ^vhich tliey are cut. 

Those who pay tlie highest — do not always pay the dearest Price. In 
fact, the Best Meat is the cheapest; — and those who treat a tradesman 
liberally, have a ninch better chance of being well served — than those who 
are for ever bargaining for the Market Penny. In dividing the Joints, there 
is always an opportunity of apportioning the Bones, Fat, Flaps, &c., so as to 
make up a variation ot much nsore than a penny per pound in most pieces — 
and a Butcher will be happy to give the turn of his knife in favour of that 
Customer who cheerfully pays the fair price of the article he purchases — 
have those who are unwilling to do so any reason to complain 1 Have they 
not invited such conduct ? 

The Quality of Butcher-Meat varies quite as much as the Price of it — 
according to its age — how it has been fed — and especially how it has been 
treated the week before it has been killed. The following statements were 
sent to us by a very respectable Tradesman : — 

Beef is best and cheapest from Michaelmas to Midsummer. The Price, 
per pound, now varies from 4d. to \s. 

Veal is best from March to July. The price varies according to the 
season and the supply — and the quality differs so much — that the same 
Joints now sell fjoni 3d. to lid. per pound. 

Mutton is ^e*^ from Christmas to Midsummer — the difference in price 
between the worst and the best, now from 5d. to 9d. per pound. 

Grass Lamb is best from Easter to June — Housed Lamb from Christmas 
to June. 

The Editor has for many years purchased his Butcher-Meat of Mr. Treu- 
WAY, the corner of Titchfield and Upper Mary-le-Bone Street. 



POULTRY. 



Chickens 

Poulards v. ith eggs. 
Fowls ..ic 



POULTKY. 



Capons 

Green Geese.. 

Geese 

Turkey Poults 

Turkeys 

Ducklings .... 
Ducks 



Wild Ducks 



Widgeons .... 

Teal 

Plovers 

Larks ,.,.,»,. 
Wheat Ears . 
Wild Pigeons 
Tame ditto... 



Come into Season. 



(Spring Chickens 

I April 

March 

5 Dearest in April, 
\ May, and June. 

Largest atChristmas 

M arch 

September 

April 

September 

March 

June 



Co be had all thej 
year \ 

J ill June.... 

To be had all the] 
year \ 

Ditto 



September 



November , 

July , 

March 



Continue. 



Till September 
Till February 

Till June 

Till March.... 

rill May 

Till February 



Till ditto 



Till March 

And during August. 
Till September 



x5 



Cheapest. 



December. 

November. 

C October and 
\ November. 

Ditto. 

Ditto . 

Ditto. 

Ditto. 

Ditto. 

Ditto. 

A December, 
) but the 
y flights are 
V uncertain. 



Ditto. 
August. 



466 



MARKETING TABLES, 



Poultry. 


Come into Season. 


Continue. 


Cheapest. 






All the year 

Till February 

Ail the year 

Till September 

Till March 


November. 


Wild ditto 


June 




Leverets. ••••••••• 


March 


Hares . . 


September 


Partridges 

Pheasants 


October •.••.....• 








(Woodcock Snipes.. 


November 





Cocks'-corabs, Fat Livers, Eggs, &c. are dearest in April and May, and 
cheapest in August. 

Fowi-s' Heads may be had for three a penny, — a dozen will make a very 
good Pie, or Soup, like (No. 244.) 

Turkey Heads, about a penny each. 

Duck Giblets, about three half-pence a set, four sets will make a Tureen 
qfgood Soup for sixpence, see (No. 24L) 

Obs. — Poultry is in greatest perfection, when in greatest plenty. 

The Price of it varies as much as the size and quality of it, — and the supply 
at market, — and the demand for it. 

It is generally Dearest from March fo July, when the town is fullest, — and 
Cheapest about September, when ihe Game season commences, and the 
weather being colder, allows of its being brought from more distant parts, and 
the town becoming thin, there is less demand for it. 

The above information will, we trust, be very acceptable to Economical 
Families, — who, from hearing the very high price Poultry sometimes costs, 
are deterred from ever inquiring about it, — in the cheap seasons we have 
noted, it is sometimes as cheap as Butcher-meat. 

The Editor purchases his Poultry of Mr. Han is, Duke Street, Oxford Street. 



FISH. 

The PRICE OF Fish is as changeable as ihe position of the wind, — and 
entirely depends upon the supply. 

You may purchase as much for one shilling to-day, as to-morrow you can 
get for two or three, — and may generally buy one sort of fish much cheaper 
than another. 

For the following, and for several other observations on Fish, the Public 
are indebted to Mr. William Tucker, Fishmonger, Great Russel Street, 
Bloomsbury. 

" October 18, 18l6. 

" Sir, — Seasons of Fish frequently will vary; the spawning time being 
governed, in some degree, by the heat or coldnss of the season ; and there 
may be a good Cod in the midst of summer, — or a good Turbot in the midst 
of winter, — Attention to the proper Seasons of Fish, is, however, very- 
important, for many are absolutely poisonous when out of season— especially 
Barbel — Salmon — Skate, &c,, and occasion most frightful vomitings 
and purging, &c. 

"There is no a. tide so fluctuating in price as fish, the London market 
being suppli d principally by water carriage from all parts of the coast ; the 
wind canr.ot be fair for all ; the consequence then is, frequently a great 
abundance of son;e sosts, and none, or little, of many others. 

*• Persons send their servants to market, to get, perhaps a Turbot, or Cod's 
head and shoulders ; — it very likely happens those articles are scaice and 
extravagant : — the servants have no other order, or perhaps will not take 
the trouble to get other orders, but order a turbot at ^60s. or -^Qs., whereas 



MARKETING TABLES. 



467 



they might have as good a dish of any other sort for half the money. In this 
case the tradesman is frequently condemned as an extravagant fellow, when 
perhaps he gets nothing by selling it. It is people's own fault that they 
have fish at such an extravagant price: — if masters or mistresses were to go 
to market themselves, — if one soit was dear, they could have another; or, 
if not convenient to go themselves, desire the Jishmonger to send a hand- 
some dish, the 7nost seasonable and reasonable, for so many persons." 



VEGETABLES. 

The Public residing in London, and other large Towns, are frequently, from 
want of regular information when the proper seasons arrive for Vegetables, put 
to much inconvenience in attending the Mai kets, making nniHcessary inquiries, &c. 

The foUowir.g List, it is presumed, will afford ujuch useful informati.>a to 
the Reader : — 



Names of Vegetables^ 



Earliest time 
I for Forced. 



Artichokes (No. 136) 

Do. Jerusalem (No. 117.) ••• 

Angelica stalks (for?! 
preserving), i 

A r.^ .„„ \ I Beginning ot 

Asparagus (No. 123.).. i f^,,,,J^ „ 

Beans, French o\\ Early in Te 
Kidneys. i I bruary 

Scarlet ditto \ 

Windsor beans, long 7 ■ 
pods, & early kinds, \ , * " 

Beet Red (No. 127.).. | 

White, the leaves, ; 

Borcole or Scotch 7 i 

Cale, or Kale .... j 

Brocoli (No. 128.) • • • • i 

Cabbage (No. 118.)....; 

Ditto, red 

Ditto white • ' 

Cardoons ; 



Isaturall'Lvth. ' When cheapest . 



July on to October. September. 

f Nov. Dec. and 
From Sept. to June.'< following 
|(_ months. 
May 



iai 



June. 



Middle of 
nd whole of June. 

Ei.d..t; Jnne or be- 1 |A„g„t 

ginumg of July.... i | * 
July 



7une 

All she year 
fuly 

November . . 



Ca'rrots (No. 129.) ....]• 
Cauliauwers (No. 125. )!• 

Celerv(No. 289.) !• 

Chervil '■ 

Corn salad 



Chervil (No. 264.) ., 
Cucumbers (No. 135. 
Endive 



Le«k3 

Lettuce, Coss ..... 
Ditto, Cabbage 

Onions for keepiiig. 



September. 
July andAngust 
Dec. .and Jan. 



Dec. and Jan. 

^eb. and March, 
July. 
August. 
October. 

December. 



October , 

May and June , 

July and August ... 

October , 

fNov. aiid 3 fol 
1 lowing months. 

May .'.; August. 

Beginning of June ... .jJuly and August 

Ditto September .iNovember. 

April jJune. 

May June. 

5 Mar. and through \ \r 

I the year ^ i^'^'^^' 

Beginning of July j-^ug. and Sept. 

(June, and through 7 September and 

\ the year j October. 

C September, and six November and 

\ months after December. 

Apiil ( June.July.and 

Ditto \ August. 

Aug. Sept. and fol- Octi.ber and 



lowing months .. , 



November. 



468 



MARKETING TABLES. 



Name of Vegetables] f^^'^ZVed"' 



Parsley (No. 26l.) ..., 
Parsnips (No. 128.).... 
Pease (No. 134.) 



Potatoes (No. 102, &c.) 
I Radishes 



Do. Turnip, red and ) 
white 3 

Do. Black Spanish .... 

Small Salad (No. 372.) 

Salsify 

Scoizonera 

Sea Kale (No. 124.) 

Shallots for keeping > 
(No. 402.) 5 

Savory Cabbage 

Sorrel 



Spinach, Spring 
Do. Winter .... 
Turnips. 



Do. Tops (No. 122.) 



Ditto for Salad. 
I Ditto, Welch... 



f Beginning or 
< middle of 
i May... 

March ..... 



Beginning of 
March.. 



Dec. and Jan. 



Earliest 
Natural Groioth. 



f Feb. and ihiough) 

i the year j 

V October, and con- > 
i tinue until May.. 3 
(June, July, and fol- 7 
\ lowing months., i 

f May, and through \ 

t the year J 

End of' March, and 7 
following months i 

Ditto 

f August, and fol- > 
C lowing months j 

All the year 

July, August • . . 

Ditto 

April and ]\Iay 

( August and through ^ 
\ the year , 
5 Sept. and follow 
I ing months 

All the year 

f March, April, and 7 
I following months i 
COct. Nov. and fol-> 
I lowing mouths } 
5 May, June, and 7 
X following months i 
f March, April, and 7 

1 May I 

April and May .... 7 
February J 



::} 



When cheapest. 



February and 

March. 

July. 

August and fol- 
lowing month. 

June. I 

May and June. | 

June. 

Ditto. 

September. 

May and June. 
August. 
Ditto. 
May. 

Sept.andtwofol 
lowing months. 

November. 

Tune and July. 

Ditto. 

November. 

Jnne and July. 

April and May. 

June and July. | 



The foregoing Table was written for this Work by Mr. Butler, Herbalist 
and Seedsman, opposite Henrietta Street, Covent Garden Market, to whom 
the Public are indebted for (Nos. 46l and 462.) 



The above Tables are one of the Editor's most suc- 
cessful efforts to improve the Economy of Domestic 
Comfort. 

If the Reader has found that the professions in his 
Preface have been realized in his Receipts, — the Time 
he has devoted to this Work could not have been better 
employed. 



APPENDIX: 

COMPRISING 

DIRECTIONS FOR MAKING 

PASTRY, PRESERVES, BREAD, PUDDINGS, 

PICKLES, &c. &c. 



Puf Paste. —(No. 1.) 

To a pound and a quarter of sifted Flour rub gently 
in with the hand half a pound of Fresh Butter, mix up 
with half a pint of Spring; Water; knead it well, and 
set it by for a quarter of an hour ; then roll it out thin, 
lay on it, in small pieces, three quarters of a pound 
more of Butter, throw on it a little Flour, double it up 
in folds, and roll it out thin three times, and set it by 
for about an hour i?i a cold plact. 

Paste for Meat or Savour^/ Pies. — (No. 2.) 

Sift two pounds of fine Flour to one and a half of 
good Salt Butter, break it into small pieces, and wash 
it well in cold water; rub gently together the Butter 
and Flour, and mix it up with the Yolk of three Eggs, 
beat together with a Spoon, and nearly a pint of spring 
water, roll it out, and double it in folds three times, 
and it is ready. 

Tart Paste tor Family Pies. — (No. 3.) 
Rub in with the hand half a pound of Butter into one 
pound and a quarter of Flour, mix it with half a pint of 
Water, and knead it well. 



470 PASTRY, Sec. [Appendix. 

Sxvcet, or Short and Crisp Tart Paste. —(So. 4.) 
To one pound and a quarter of fine Flour, add ten 
ounces of Fresh IJutter, the Yolks of two Eggs beat, 
and three ounces of sifted Loaf Susxar, mix up together 
with half a pint of New Milk, and knead it well. — 
See (No. 30.) 

N.B. This Crust is frequently Iced. 

Raised Pies. — (No. 5.) 
Put two pounds and a half of Flour on the Paste- 
board, — and put on the fire in a sauce])an three 
quarters of a ])int of Water, and half a pound of good 
Lard; — when the water boils, make a hole in the 
middle of tlie Hour, pour in the water and lard by 
degrees, gently mixing the flour with it with a Spoon, 
and when it is well mixed, then knead it with your 
hands till it becomes stitt'; dredge a little Flour to 
prevent it sticking to the board, or you cannot make it 
look smoDth : — do not roll it with the RoUmg-pin, -^ 
but roll it with your Hands about the thickness of 
a quart pot; cut it into six pieces, leaving a little for 
the covers, — put one hand in the middle, and keep the 
other close on ihe outside tdl you liave worked it either 
in an oval or a round shape: — have your meat ready 
cut, and seasoned with Pepper and Salt: — if Pork, 
cut it in small slices ; the Griskin is the best for pasties : 
— if you use Mutton, cut it in very neat cutlets, and 
put them in the Pies as you make them : roll out the 
covers with the Rolling-pin just the size of the pie, wet 
it round the edge, put it on the pie, and press it 
together with your thumb and finger, and then cut it 
all round with a pair of scissors quite even, and pinch 
them inside and out, and bake them an hour and 
a half. 

Paste for Boiled Puddings. — (So. 6.) 

Pick and chop very fine half a pound of Beef Suet, 
add to it one pound and a quarter of Flour and a little 
Salt; mix it with half a jpint of Milk or Water, and 



Appendix.] PASTRY, &C. 471 

beat it well with the RoUing-pin to incorporate the 
suet with the flour. 

Paste for stringing Tartlets, SfC, — (No. 7.) 

Mix with your hands a quarter of a pound of Flour, 
an ounce of fresh Butter, and a little cold Water ; rub 
it well between the board and your hand till it begins 
to string; cut it into small pieces, roll it out and draw 
it into fine strings, lay them across your Tartlets in 
any device you please, and bake them immediately. 

Paste for Croqiiants or Cut Pastry. — (No. 8.) 

To half a pound of fine Flour put a quarter of a 
pound of sifted Loaf Sugar, mix it well together with 
Yolks of Eggs till of a good stiffness. 

Venison Pasty. — (No. 9.) 

Take a Neck, Shoulder, or Breast of Venison that 
has not hung too long, bone them, and trim off all the 
skin, and cut it into pieces two inches square, and put 
them into a stewpan with three gills of Port Wine, two 
Onions, or a few Eshallots sliced, some Pepper, Salt, 
three blades of Mace, about a dozen Allspice, and 
enough Veal Broth to cover it ; put it over a slow fire, 
and let it stew till three parts done : put the trimmings 
into another saucepan, cover it with water, and set it 
on a fire. Take out the pieces you intend for the 
Pasty, and put them into a deep dish with a little of 
their Liquor, and set it by to cool, then add the re- 
mainder of the Liquor to the Bones and Trimmings, 
and boil it till the Pasty is ready, — then cover the 
Pasty v/ith paste made like (No. 5) : ornament the top, 
and bake it for two hours in a slow Oven ; and before 
it is sent to table pour in a sauce made with the gravy 
the venison was stewed in, strained and skimmed free 
from fat: some Pepper, Salt, half a gill of Port, the 
Juice of half a Lemon, and a little Flour and Butter to 
thicken it. 



472 PASTRY, &C. [Appeiidh. 

Mutton or Veal Pie, — (No. 10.) 

Cut into chops, and trim neatly, and cut away the 
greatest part of the fat of a Loin or best end of a Neck 
of Mutton, (the former the best), season them, and lay 
them in a pie- dish with a httle Water and half a gill 
of Mushroom Catsup, (chopped onion and Potatoes if ap- 
proved) ; cover it with Paste (No. '2), l)ak(' it two 
hours : when done hft up the crust from the dish with 
a knife, pour out all the gravy, let it stand, and skim 
it clean ; add, if wanted, some more seasonintr ; make 
it boil, and pour it into the Pie. 

Veal Pif. may be made of the brisket part of 
the breast; but must be parboiled first. 

Hare Pit. — (No. 1 1 .) 

Take the Hare skinned and washed, cut it into 
pieces, and parboil it for two minutes to cleanse it, 
wash it well, and put it in a stewpot with six Eshallots 
chopped, a gill of Port Wine, a small quantity of 
Thyme, Savory, sweet Marjoram, and Parsley, tied in 
a bunch, four Cloves, two blades of Mace, half a dozen 
Allspice, a slice of Ham ; cover it with Veal Broth, and 
stew it till half done ; pick out the prime pieces, such 
as the Back, Legs, &c. (leaving the remainder to stew 
till the goodness is quite extracted) ; take the parts 
preserved and fill them into a dish with some water, 
and cover it with Paste as (No. 2), bake it an hour, 
strain the gravy from the trimmings, thicken it a little, 
and throw in half a gill of Port, the Juice of half a 
Lemon, and pour it into the Pie boiling hot: — line the 
bottom of the dish with Hare Stuffing (No. 379), or 
make it into Forcemeat Balls. 

Pies of Game and Wild Fowl are made in like 
manner ; — and as the following receipt for Pigeon 
Pie. 
Savoury Pies, Pasties, and Patties. — (No. 12.) 

The piquance of Pies may be regulated ad libitum^ 
by sprinkling the articles with Zest (No. 255), Curry 



Appendix.] PASTRY, &C. 473 

Powder (No. 455), and see (No. 457 and 459), or by 
covering the bottom of the dish with any of the Force- 
meats enumerated in (Nos. 373 to 385), and making it 
into Balls ; lay one ring of these and another of hard 
boiled Eggs, cut in halves, round the top of the pie ; 
and instead of putting in water, put strong gravy. After 
the pies are baked, pour in through a funnel any of the 
various Gravies, Sauces, &c. — Truffles, Mushrooms, 
Wine, Spices, Pickles, &c. are also added. See also 
(Nos. 396 to 402.) 

Mem. — These are dishes contrived rather to excite 
Appetite, than to satisfy it. Putting Meat or Poultry 
into a Pie is certainly the very worst way of cooking 
it : — it is often baked to rags : — and very rarely 
indeed does a Savoury Pie come to table that deserves 
to be introduced to the Stomach. 

Figeon or Lark Fie. — (No. 13.) 

Truss half a dozen fine large Pigeons as for stewing, 
season them with Pepper and Salt, and fill them with 
Veal Stuffing (No. 375), or some Parsley chopped very 
line, and a little Pepper, Salt, and three ounces of 
Butter mixed together : lay at the bottom of the dish a 
Rump Steak of about a pound weight, cut into pieces 
and trimmed neatly, seasoned and beat out with a 
chopper ; on it lay the Pigeons, the Yolks of three 
Eggs boiled hard, and a gill of Broth or Water ; wet 
the edge of the dish, and cover it over with PufF-paste, 
(No. 1), or the paste as directed for seasoned Pies 
(No. 2), wash it over with Yolk of Egg, and ornament it 
with leaves of paste, and the feet of the Pigeons ; 
bake it an hour and a half in a moderate heated oven : 
before it is sent to table make an aperture in the top, 
and pour in some good Gravy quite hot. 

Gibkt Fie, — (No. 14.) 

Clean well, and half stew two or three sets of Goose 
Giblets; cut the Leg in two, — the Wing and Neck 
into three, — and the Gizzard into four pieces ; preserve 



474 PASTRY, 8CC. [Appevdii. 

the liquor, and set the giblets by till cold, othei-wise 
the heat of the giblets will spoil the paste you cover 
the pie with: — then season the whole with black 
pepper and salt, and put them into a deep dish ; cover it 
with paste as directed (No. 2), rub it over with yolk of 
Egg, ornament and bake it an hour and a half in a 
moderate oven : in tlie meantime take the hquor the 
giblets were stewed in, skim it free from fat, put it over 
a fire in a clean stewpan, thicken it a little with Flour 
and Butter, or Flour and Water, season it with Pepper 
and Salt, and the Juice of half a Lemon, add a few 
drops of browning, strain it through a fine sieve, and 
when you take the pie from the oven, pour some of this 
into it through a funnel. Some lay in the bottom of 
the dish a moderately thick Rump Steak:— if you 
have any cold Game or Poultry, cut it in pieces, and 
add it to the above. 

Rump Steak Pie. — (No. 15.) 

Cut three pounds of Rump Steak (that has been kept 
till tender) into pieces half as big as your hand, trim off 
all the skin, sinews, and every part which has not 
indisputable pretensions to be eaten, and beat them with 
a chopper. Chop very fine half a dozen Eshallots, and 
mix them with half an ounce of Pepper and Salt mixedj 
sti'ew some of the mixture at the bottom of the dish, then 
a layer of Steak, then some more of the mixture, and so 
on till the dish is full ; add half a gill of Mushroom 
Catsup, and the same quantity of Gravy, or Red Wine, 
cover it as in the preceding receipt, and bake it two 
hours. 

N.B. Large Oysters, parboiled, bearded, and laid 
alternately with the Steaks, — their liquor reduced and 
substituted instead of the Catsup and Wine, will be a 
variety. 

Chicken Pie. — (No. 16.) 

Parboil and then cut up neatly two Young Chickens 
— dry them — set them over a slow fire for a few 
minutes — have ready some Veal Stuffing or Forcemeat 



Appendix.] PASTRY, &C. 475 

(No. 374 or 375), lay it at the bottom of the dish, and 
place in the Chickens upon it, and with it some pieces 
of dressed Ham; cover it with Paste, (No. 1). Bake 
it from an hour and a half to two hours — when sent to 
table add some good Gravy, well seasoned and not too 
thick. 

Duck Pie is made in like manner, only substituting 
the Duck stuffing (No. 378), instead of the Veal. 

N.B. The above may be put into a raised French 
Crust (see No. 18), and Baked ; when done, take off the 
top, and put a ragout of Sweetbread to the Chicken. 

Rabbit Pie-— {No. 17.) 
Made in the same way, but make a Forcemeat to 
cover the bottom of the dish, by pounding a quarter 
pound of boiled Bacon with the Livers of the Rabbits ; 
some Pepper and Salt, some pounded Mace, some 
chopped Parsley, and a Shallot, thoroughly beaten 
together ; and you may lay some thin slices of ready 
dressed Ham or Bacon on the top of your Rabbits. 

Raised French Pie. — (No. 18.) 
Make about two pounds of Flour into a Paste, as 
directed (No. 5); — knead it well, and into the shape 
of a Ball, — press your thumb into the centre, and 
work it by degrees into any shape (oval or round is the 
most general,) till about five inches high, — put it on a 
sheet of paper, and fill it with coarse Flour or Bran, — 
roll out a covering for it about the same thickness as 
the sides, — cement its sides with the Yolk of Egg, — 
cut the edges quite even, and pinch it round with the 
finger and thumb, — yolk of egg it over with a Paste 
brush, and ornament it in any way as fancy may direct, 
with the same kind of paste. Bake it of a fine brown 
colour, in a slow oven, and when done, cut out the top, 
remove the Flour or Bran, brush it quite clean, and fill 
it up with a Fricassee of Chicken, Rabbit, or any other 
Entree most convenient. Send it to table with a Nap- 
kin under. 



<76 PASTRY, &<:. [Appendhc. 

Raised Ham Pie. —{No. 19.) 
Soak four or five hours a small Ham — wash and 
scrape it well — cut otl'the Knuckle, and boil it for half 
an hour — then take it up and trim it very neatly — 
take off the rind and put it into an oval stewpan, wHh 
a pint of Madeira or Sherry, and enough Veal stock to 
cover it. Let it stew for two hours, or till three part^ 
done — take it out and set it in a cold place — then 
raise a Crust as in the foregoing receipt, large enough 
to receive it — put in the Ham — and round ktho Veal 
Forcemeat — cover and ornament — it will take about 
one hour and a half to bake in a slow oven : when 
done, take off the cover — glaze the top, and pour 
round the following sauce, viz. Take the Liquor the 
!Lim was stewed in — skim it free from Fat — tliicken 
with a little Flour and Butter mixed together — a few 
drops of Browning, and some Cayenne Pepper. 

P.S. The above is, I think, a good way of dressing a 
small Ham, and has a good etiect cold for a Supper. 

Veal and Ham Pie. — (No. 20.) 

Take two pounds of Veal Cutlet — cut them in mid- 
dling sized pieces — season with pepper and a very 
little salt; likewise one of Raw or Dressed Ham cut 
in slices — lay it alternately in the dish, and put some 
Forced or Sausage Meat (No. 374 or 375) at the top, 
with some stewed Button Muslirooms, and the yolk of 
three eggs boiled hard, and a gill of water, and proceed 
as with ilump Steak Pie. 

N.B. The best end of a Neck, is a fine part for a Pie, 
cut into chops, and the Chine Bone taken away. 

Raised Pork Pie.— {No. 2L) 
Make a raised crust, of a good size, with paste, as 
directed (No. .5), about four inches high, — take the 
rind and Chine Bone from a Loin of Pork, cut it into 
chops, beat them with a chopper, season them with 
pepper and salt, and fill your Pie ; put on the top and 
close it, and pinch it round the edge, rub it over with 



Appe7idh.] PASTRY, &C. 477 

yolk of egg, and bake it two hours with a paper over 
to prevent the crust from burning. When done, pour in 
soBie good Gravy, with a Kttle ready mixed Mustard (if 
approved). 

N.B. As the above is generally eaten cold, it is an 
excellent repast for a journey, and will keep for several 
days. 

Eel Pie, — (No, 22.) 

Take Eels about half a pound each, — skin, wash, 
and trim off the fin with a pair of scissors, — cut them 
into pieces three inches long, season them with pepper 
and salt, and fill your dish, leaving out the Heads and 
Tails. Add a gill of water or Veal Broth, cover it with 
Paste (No. 2), rub it over with a Paste Brush dipped 
in yolk of egg, ornament it with some of the same paste, 
bake it an hour, and when done, make a hole in the 
centre, and pour in the following sauce through a 
funnel : — • Tlie trimmings boiled in half a phit of Veal 
Stock, seasoned with pepper and salt, a tablespoonful 
of Lemon Juice, and thickened with flour and water, 
strained through a fine sieve — add it boiling hot. 

Raised Lamb Pies. —(No. 23.) 

Bone a Loin of Lamb, cut into cutlets, trim them 
very nicely, and lay them in the bottom of a stew or 
frying pan, with an ounce of Butter, a teaspoonful of 
Lemon Juice, and some pepper and salt ; put them 
over a fire, and turn them and put them to cool ; then 
raise four or five small Pies with Paste, as (No. 6), 
about the size of a Tea-cup, put some Veal Forcemeat 
at the bottom, and the Cutlets upon it ; roll out the top 
an eighth of an inch thick, close and pinch the edges, 
bake them half an hour, and when done, take off the 
top, and pour in some Good Brown Sauce. 

Beefsteak Pudding. — (No. 24.) 

Get Rump Steaks, not too thick, beat them \vith a 



478 PASTRY, Sec. [Appendix. 

chopper, cut them into pieces about half the size of your 
hand, and trim oti all the skin, sinews, &c. ; have ready 
an Onion peeled and chopped fine, likewise some Pota- 
toes peeled and cut into slices, a quarter of an inch thick, 
rub the inside of a Basin or an oval plain mould with 
Butter, sheet it with paste as directed for Boiled Pud- 
dings (No. 7); season the Steaks with pepper, salt, 
and a little grated Nutmeg; put in a layer of Steak, 
then another of Potatoes, and so on till it is full, occa- 
sionally throwing in part of the chopj)fd Onion; — add 
to it half a gill of Mushroom Catsup, a tablespoonful of 
Lemon Pickle, and half a gill of Water or Veal Broth ; 
roll out a top, and close it well to prevent the water 
getting in ; rinse a clean cloth in hot water, sprinkle 
a little flour over it, and tie up the Pudding, have ready 
a large pot of water boiling, put it in, and boil it two 
hours and a half, take it up, remove the cloth, turn it 
downwards in a deep dish, and when wanted take 
away the basin or mould. 

Vul au J'ent. — ilso. 25.) 

Roll ofl^ Tart Paste (No. 3), till about the eighth of 
an inch thick ; then with a Tin Cutter made for that 
purpose (about the size of bottom of the dish you intend 
sending to table,) cut out the shape, and lay it on a 
baking plate with paper, rub it over with yolk of egg ; 
roll out gocd Pufl Paste (No. 1), an inch thick, stamp 
it with the same Cutter, and lay it on the Tart Paste, 
then take a Cutter two sizes smaller, and press it in 
the centre nearly through the Pufl' Paste ; — rub the 
top with yolk of eo;^, and bake it in a quick oven about 
twenty minutes, of a light brown colour: when done, 
take out the paste inside the centre mark, preserving 
the top, put it on a dish in a warm place, and when 
wanted, fill it with a White Fricassee of Chicken, 
Rabbit, Ragout of Sweetbread, or any other Entree 
you wish. 



AppemUx.1 PASTRY, 8CC. 479 

Oi/ster Patties. ~ (No. 26.) 

Roll out PufF Paste a quarter of an inch thick, cut 
it into squares with a knife, sheet eight or ten Patty 
Pans, put upon each a bit of bread the size of half a 
walnut; roll out another layer of paste of the same 
thickness, cut it as above, wet the edge of the bottom 
paste, and put on the top, pare them round to the pan, 
and notch them about a dozen times with the back of 
the knife, rub them lightly with yolk of egg, bake them 
in a hot oven about a quarter of an hour : when done, 
take a thin slice off the top, then with a small knife or 
spoon take out the bread and the inside paste, leaving 
the outside quite entire; then parboil two dozen of 
Large Oysters, strain them from their liquor, wash, 
beard, and cut them into four, put them into a stew^an 
with an ounce of Butter rolled in Flour, half a gill of 
good Cream, a little grated Lemon Peel, the Oyster 
Liquor, free from sediment, reduced by boiling to one 
half, some Cayenne Pepper, Salt, and a teaspoonful of 
Lemon Juice; stir it over a fire five minutes, and fill 
the Patties. 

Lobster Patties. — (No. 27.) 

Prepare the Patties as in the last receipt. Take a 
Hen Lobster already boiled — pick the meat from the 
Tail and Claws, and chop it fine ; put it into a stew- 
pan, with a little of the inside spawn pounded in a 
mortar till quite smooth, with an ounce of fresh Butter, 
half a gill of Cream, and half a gill of Veal Consomme, 
Cayenne Pepper, and Salt, a teaspoonful of Essence of 
Anchovy, the same of Lemon Juice, and a tablespoonful 
of Flour and water, and stew it five minutes. 

Veal and Ham Putties. — (No. 28.) 
Chop about six ounces of ready dressed lean Veal, 
and three ounces of Ham, very small, — put it into a 
stewpan with an ounce of Butter rolled in flour, half a 



480 PASTRY, 8CC. lApptndis. 

gill of Cream, half a gill of Veal Stock, a little grated 
Nutmeg and Lemon Peel, some Cayenne Pepper and 
Salt, a spoonful of Essence of Ham and Lemon Juice, 
and stir it over the fire some time, taking care it does 
not burn. 

C/iickcti and Ham Patties. — {"So. 29.) 
L'Se the White Meat from the Breast of Chickens or 
Fowls, and proceed as in the last Receipt. 

Ripe Fruit Tarts. — (No. 30.) 
Gooseberries, Damsons, Morello Cherries, Currants, 
mixed with Raspberries, Plums, Green Gages, White 
Plums, c'vc. should he quite fresh, picked, and washed. 
Lay them in the dish with the centre highest, and 
about a quarter of a pound of Moist or Loaf Sugar 
pounded to a quart of fruit (but if quite ripe they will 
not require so mucli); add a little water — rub the 
edsres of the dish with yolk of Egg — cover it with 
Tart Paste (No. 4), about half an inch thick — press 
your thumb round the rim, and close it well ; — pare 
it round with a knife, make a hole in the sides below 
the rim, — bake it in a moderate heated oven ; and ten 
minutes before it is done, take it out and ice it, and 
return it to the oven to dry. 

Icing for Fruit Tarts, Tuffs, or Pastry.— (No. 31.) 
Beat up in a half pint mug the Wliite of two Eggs 
to a solid froth; — lay some on the middle of the Pie 
with a paste brush, — sift over plenty of pounded 
Sugar, and press it down with the hand, — washout 
the brush, and splash by degrees with water till the 
Sugar is dissolved, — and put it in the oven for ten 
minutes, and serve it up cold. 

Apple Pie. — (No. 32.) 
Take eight Russetings, or Lemon Pippin Apples, — 
pare, core, and cut not smaller than quarters; place 
them as close as possible together into a pie-dish, 



Appeudix.'] PASTRY, 2vC. 481 

with four Cloves ; rub together in a mortar some Lemon 
Peel, with four ounces of good Moist Sugar, and, if 
agreeable, add some Quince Jam, — cover it with PufF 
Paste — bake it an hour and a quarter. (Generally 
eaten warm.) 

Apple Tart Creamed. — (No. 33.) 

Use green Codlings in preference to any other 
Apple, and proceed as in the last Receipt. When the 
pie is done, cut out the v/hole of the centre, leaving the 
edges ; when cold, pour on the Apple some rich Boiled 
Custard, and place round it some small leaves of puff 
paste of a light colour. 

Tartlets, such as are made at the Pastry Cooks. (No. 34.) 

Roll out Puff Paste (No. 1), of a quarter of an inch 
thick, cut it into pieces, and sheet pans about the 
size of a Crown piece, pare them round with a knife, 
and put a small quantity of Apricot, — Damson, — 
Raspberry, — Strawberry, — Apple, — Marmalade, — 
or any other kind of Jam (No. 92), in the centre : 
tgike Paste (No. 7), and string them crossways, bake 
them from six to ten minutes in a quick oven, they 
should be of a very light brown colour. 

French Tart of Preserved Fruit. — (No. 35.) 

Cover a Flat Dish or Tourte Pan with Tart Paste 
(No. 4), about an eighth of an inch thick, roll out puff 
paste (No. 1), half an inch thick, cut it out in strips 
an inch wide, wet the Tart Paste, and lay it neatly 
round the pan by way of a rim ; fill the centre with 
Jam or Marmalade of any kind, ornament it with small 
leaves of Puff Paste, bake it half an hour, and send it 
to table cold. 

N.B. The above may be filled before the Puff Paste 
is laid on, neatly strung with Paste as (No. 7), and the 
rim put over after. 

Ohs. — The most general way of sending Tourtes 

Y 



482 PASTRY, Sec. [Appendij. 

to table, is with a Croquante of Paste (No. 86), or a 
Caramel of spun Sugar (No. S5), put over after it is 
baked. 

ibwfl// Pufs of Prcserxed Fruit. — (No. 36.) 
Roll out a quarter of an inch thick, good puff Paste 
(No. 1), and cut it into pieces four inches square, lay a 
small quantity of any kind of Jam on each — double 
tliem over, and cut them into square, triangle, or with a 
tin cutter, half moons — lay them with paper on a 
baking plate — ice them as at (No. 31) — bake them 
about twenty minutes, taking care not to colour the 
icing. 

Cranberry Tart.~(No. 37.) 
Take Swedish, American, or Russian Cranberries, 
pick and wash them in several waters, put them into a 
dish, with the juice of half a Lemon, a quarter of a 
pound of Moist or pounded Loaf Sugar, to a quart of 
Cranberries. Cover it with Puff (No. l,)or Tart Paste 
(No. 4), and bake it three quarters of an hour; if Tart 
Paste is used, draw it from the oven five minutes be- 
fore it is done, and ice it as (No. 31), return it to the 
oven, and send it to table cold. 

Mutce Pies. — (No. 38.) 

Sheet with Tart Paste (No. 4,) half a dozen of tin 
pans of any size you please — fill them with Mince 
Meat (No. 39), and cover with Puft' Paste, quarter of an 
inch thick, — trim round the edges with a knife, make 
an aperture at the top with a fork, bake them in a mo- 
derate heated oven, and send them to table hot, first 
removing the tin. 

N.B. Some throw a little sifted Loaf Sugar over. 

Mince 3Itat, — (No. 39.) 

Two pounds of Beef Suet, picked and chopped fine ; 
two pounds of Apple, pared, cored, and ditto ; three 
pounds of Currants, washed and picked ; one pound of 



j^endix.'] PASTRY, &C. 48S 

Raisins, stoned and chopped fine ; one pound of good 
Moist Sugar ; half a pound of Citron, cut into thin 
sHces ; one pound of Candied Lemon and Orange Peel, 
cut as ditto ; two pounds of ready dressed Roast Beef, 
free from skin and gristle, and chopped fine ; two Nut- 
megs, grated ; one ounce of Salt ; one of ground 
Ginger ; half an ounce of Coriander Seeds ; half an 
ounce of Allspice ; half an ounce of Cloves ; all ground 
fine : the juice of six Lemons, and their rinds grated ; 
half a pint of Brandy, and a pint of sweet Wine. Mix 
the Suet, Apple, Currants, Meat, Plums, and Sweet- 
meats well together in a large pan, and strew in the 
Spice by degrees : mix the Sugar, Lemon Juice, Wine, 
and Brandy, and pour it to the other ingredients, and 
stir it well together — set it by in close covered pans 
in a cold place : when wanted, stir it up from the bottom, 
and add half a glass of Brandy to the quantity you 
want. 

N.B. The same weight of Tripe is frequently sub- 
stituted for the Meat, and sometimes the yolks of Eggs 
boiled hard. 

Obs. The lean side of a Buttock, thoroughly roasted, 
is generally chosen for Mince Meat. 

Cheesecakes. — (No. 40.) 
Put two quarts of New Milk into a stewpan, set it 
near the fire, and stir in two tablespoon sful of rennet : 
let it stand till it is set. This will take about an hour ; 
break it well with your hand, and let it remain half an 
hour longer, then pour off the whey, and put the curd 
into a cullender to drain ; when quite dry — put it in a 
mortar, and pound it quite smooth, then add four 
ounces of Sugar, pounded and sifted ; and three ounces 
of fresh Butter, oil it first by putting it in a little pot- 
ting pot, and setting it near the fire ; stir it all well toge- 
ther : beat the yolks of four Eggs in a basin, with a 
little Nutmeg grated. Lemon Peel, and a glass of 
Brandy : add this to the curd, with two ounces of Cur- 
y2 



484 PASTRY, Sec. [Appendix. 

rants, washed and picked — stir it all well together — 
have your tins ready lined with PufFPaste(No. I), about 
a quarter of an inch tliick, notch them all round the 
edge, and fill each widi the curd. Bake them twenty 
minutes. 

When you have company, and want a variety, you 
can make a Mould of Curd and Cream, by putting 
the curd in a Mould full of holes, instead of the cul- 
lender ; let it stand for six hours, then turn it out very 
carefully on a dish, and pour over it half a pint of good 
Cream, sweetened with Loaf Sugar — -and a little Nut- 
meg. What there is left, if set in a cool place, will 
make excellent cheesecakes the next day. 

Lemon Chec^ccakch. — (No. 41.) 

Grate the rind of three, and take the juice of two 
Lemons, and mix them with three Sponge Biscuits, six 
ounces of Fresh Butter, four ounces of sifted Sugar, a 
little crated Nutmeg:, and pounded Cinnamon, half a 
gill of Cream, and three Eggs well beaten, work them 
with the hand, and fill the pans, which must be sheeted 
as in the last receipt with Tuft' Paste, and lay two or 
three slices of Candied Lemon Peel, cut thin, upon 
the top. 

Orange Cheesecakes. — (No. 42.) 

To be made in the same way, omitting the Lemons, 
and using Oranges instead. 

Almond Cheesecakes. — (No. 43.) 

Blanch six ounces of Sweet and half an ounce of 
Bitter Almonds ; let them lie half an hour in a drying 
stove, or before the fire ; pound them very fine in a 
mortar, with two tablespoonsful of Rose or Orange 
Flower Water, to prevent them from oiling ; put into a 
stewpan half a pound of Fresh Butter, put it in a warm 
place, and cream it very smooth with the hand, and 
add it to the Almonds, with six ounces of sifted Loaf 



Appendix.] PASTRY, &C. 485 

Sugar, a little grated Lemon Peel, some good Cream, 
four Eggs, rub all well together with the pestle ; cover 
a patty pan with PufF Paste, fill in the mixture, orna- 
ment it with slices of Candied Lemon Peel and Almonds 
split, and bake it half an hour in a brisk oven. 

Millc FeuilleSj or a Pyramid of Paste. — (No. 44.) 

Roll out Puff Paste (No. 1,) half an inch thick, cut 
out with a cutter made for the purpose, in the shape of 
an oval, octagon, square, diamond, or any other form 
(and to be got of most tinmen), observing to let the first 
piece be as large as the bottom of the dish you intend 
sending it to table on; the second piece a size smaller, 
and so on in proportion, till the last is about the size of 
a shilling ; lay them with paper on a baking plate, yolk 
of e^^ the top, and bake them of a light brown colour; 
take them from the paper, and when cold put the largest 
size in the dish, then a layer of Apricot Jam ; then the 
next size, a layer of Raspberry Jam, and so on, varying 
the Jam between each layer of Paste to the top, on 
which place a bunch of dried fruit, and spin a Caramel 
(No. 85) of Sugar over it. 

Brunswick Toiirte. — (No. 45.) 

Make a crust as for Vol au Vent (No. 25), pare and 
core with a scoop eight or ten Golden Pippins, put 
them into a stewpan, with a gill of Sweet Wine, and 
four ounces of sifted Loaf Sugar, a bit of Lemon Peel, 
a small stick of Cinnamon, and a blade of Mace, stew 
them over a slow fire till the Apples are tender; set 
them by ; when cold, place them in the Paste, and pour 
round them some good Custard (No. 53.) 

Blancmange. — (No. 46.) 

Boil a few minutes a pint and a half of New Milk, 
with an ounce of picked Isinglass (if in summer one 
ounce and a quarter), the rind of half a Lemon peeled 
very thin, a little Cinnamon, and a blade of Mace, and 



486 PASTRY, &C. [Appendix, 

two and a half ounces of Lump Sugar ; blanch and 
pound eig:ht or fen Bitter and half an ounce of Sweet 
Almonds verv tine, with a spoonful of Rose Water, and 
mix them with the Milk, strain it through a lawn sieve 
or napkin into a basin, with half a pint of good Cream. 
Let it stand half an hour, pour it into another basin, 
leaving the sediment at the bottom, and when nearly 
cold fill it into moulds : when wanted put your finger 
round the mould, pull out the blancmange, set it in the 
centre of a dish, and garnish with slices of Orange. 

N.B. About half a gill of Noyeau may be substi- 
tuted for the Almonds. 

Orange Jelhj. — (No. 47.) 

Boil in a pint of Water one ounce and a quarter of 
picked Isinglass, the rind of an Orange cut thin, a 
stick of Cinnamon, a few Corianders, and three ounces 
of Loaf Sugar, till the Isinglass is dissolved, then 
squeeze two Seville Oranges or Lemons, and enough 
China Oranges to make a pint of juice: mix all toge- 
ther, and strain it through a tammis or lawn sieve into 
a basin ; set it in a cold place for half an hour, pour it 
into another basin free from sediment — and when it 
begins to congeal, fill your mould ; when wanted, dip 
the mould into lukewarm water, turn it out on a dish, 
and garnish with Orange or Lemon cut in slices, and 
placed round. 

N.B. A few grains of Saffron put in tlie water will 
add much to its appearance. 

Italian Cream. —(No. 48.) 
Rub on a lump of Sugar the rind of a Lemon, and 
scrape it oft' with a knife into a deep dish, or china 
bowl, and add half a gill of Brandy, two ounces and a 
half of sifted Sugar, the juice of a Lemon, and a pint 
of Double Cream, and beat it up well with a clean 
whisk — in the mean time boil an ounce of Isinglass 
in a gill of Water till quite dissolved, strain it to the 



Appendix.] PASTRY, 8CC. 4B7 

Other ingredients, beat it some time, and fill your 
mould, and when cold and set well, dish it as in the 
foregoing receipt. 

N.B. The above rnay be flavoured with any kind of 
liqueur, Raspberry, Strawberry, or other fruits, co- 
loured with prepared Cochineal, and named to corre- 
spond with the flavour given. 

Tr^^c. — (No. 49.) 

Mix in a large bowl a quarter of a pound of sifted 
Sugar, the juice of a Lemon, some of the peel grated 
fine, half a gill of Brandy, and ditto of Lisbon or Sweet 
Wine,' and a pint and a half of good Cream ; whisk the 
whole well, and take oiF the froth as it rises with a 
skimmer, and put it on a sieve, continue to whisk it till 
you have enough of the whip, set it in a cold place to 
drain three or four hours ; then lay in a deep dish six or 
eight Sponge Biscuits, a quarter of a pound of Ratafia, 
two ounces of Jordan Almonds, blanched and split, 
some grated Nutmeg and Lemon Peel, Currant Jelly 
and Raspberry Jam, half a pint of Sweet Wine, and a 
httle Brandy ; when the cakes have absorbed the liquor, 
pour over about a pint of Custard, made rather thicker 
than for Apple Pie — and, when wanted, lay on hghtly 
plenty of the whip, and throw over a few Nonpareil 
Comfits. 

Whip Syllabub. —(No. 50.) 
Make a whip as in the last receipt ; mix with a pint 
of Cream half a pint of Sweet Wine, a glass of Brandy, 
the juice of a Lemon, grated Nutmeg, six ounces of 
sifted Loaf Sugar : nearly fill the custard glasses with 
the mixture, and lay on with a spoon some of the whip. 

Chantiliy Basket. — Q^o. 5\.) 
Dip into Sugar boiled to a caramel (see No. 85), 
small Ratafias, stick them on a dish in what form you 
please, then take Ratafias one size larger, and having 



488 PASTRY, Jkc. [Appetidix. 

clipped them into the Sugar, build them together till 
about four or five inches high ; make a rim of York 
Drops or Drageas of Gum Paste, likewise a handle of 
Sugar or Ratafia, and set it over the basket ; line the 
inside with wafer paper, and a short time before it is 
wanted fill it with a mixture the same as for Trifle, and 
upon that plenty of good Whip. 

Baked Custard. — (No. 52.) 

Boil in a pint of Milk a few Coriander Seeds, a little 
Cinnamon, and Lemon Peel, sweeten with four ounces 
of Loaf Sugar, and mix with it a pint of cold Tdilk, beat 
well eight Eggs for ten minutes, and add the other 
ingredients, pour it from one pan into another six or 
eight times, strain it through a sieve, let it stand some 
time, skim off the froth from the top, fill it in ciirtheu 
cups, and bake them immediately in a hot oven to give 
them a good colour, about ten minutes will do them. 

rwilcd Custard. —(No. 53.) 
Boil in a pint of Milk, five minutes, Lemon Peel, 
Corianders, and Cinnamon, a small quantity of each, 
half a dozen of Bitter Almonds, blanched and pounded ; 
and four ounces of Loaf Sugar: mix it with a pint of 
Cream, tlie yolks often Eggs, and the whites of six 
well beaten, pass it through a hair sieve, stir it with a 
whisk over a slow fire till it begins to thicken, remove 
it from the fire, and continue to stir it till nearly cold, 
add two tablespoonsful of Brandy, fill the cups or 
glasses, and grate Nutmeg over. 

Almond Custards. — (No. 54.) 

Blanch and pound fine, with half a gill of Rose 
Water, six ounces of Sweet and half an ounce of Bitter 
Almonds, boil a pint of Milk as (No. 52), sweeten it with 
two ounces and a half of Sugar, rub the Almonds 
through a fine sieve, with a pint of Cream, strain the 
Milk to the yolk of eight Eggs, and the whites of 



Appendix.] PASTRY, &C. 489 

three well beaten, — stir it over a fire till it is of a good 
thickness, take it off the fire, and stir it till nearly cold, 
to prevent it curdling. 

N.B. The above may be baked in cups, or in a dish, 
with a rim of puff paste put round. 

Twelfth Cake.— (^0. 55.) 

Two pounds of sifted Flour, two pounds of sifted Loaf 
Sugar, two pounds of Butter, eighteen Eggs, four 
pounds of Currants, one half pound Almonds, blanched 
and chopped, one half pound Citron, one pound of 
Candied Orange and Lemon Peel, cut into thia slices, 
a large Nutmeg grated, half an ounce ground Allspice ; 
ground Cinnamon, Mace, Ginger, and Corianders, a 
quarter of an ounce of each, and a gill of Brandy. 

Put the Butter into a stewpan, in a warm place, and 
work it into a smooth cream with the hand, and mix 
it with the Sugar and Spice in a pan (or on your paste 
board), for some time; then break in the Eggs by 
degrees, and beat it at least twenty minutes ; — stir in 
the Brandy, and then the Flour, and work it a little — 
add the Fruit, Sweetmeats, and Almonds, and mix 
all together lightly, — have ready a hoop cased with 
paper, on a baking plate, — put in the mixture, smooth 
it on the top with your hand — dipped milk — put the 
plate on another, with sawdust between, to prevent the 
bottom from colouring too much, — bake it in a slow 
oven* four hours or more, and when nearly cold, ice 
it with (No. 84). . 

♦ The goodness of a Cake or Biscnit depencTs much on its being well 
Baked; great allention should be paid to the different degrees of heat of the 
oven — be sure to have it of a good sound heat at first, when, after its being 
well cleared out, may be baked such articles as require a hot oven, after 
which such as are directed to be baked in a well heated or moderate oven, 
and lastly, those in a slow soaking or cool one. With a little care the above 
degrees may soon be known. 

In making Butter Cakes, such as (Nos. 55, 57, or 6l), too much attention 

cannot be paid to have the Butter well creamed, for should it be made too 

warm, it would cause the mixture to be the same, and when put to bake, 

the Fruit, Sweetmeats, &c., would in that event fatl to the bottom. 

Y 5 



490 PASTRY, 8CC. [ Appendix. 

This mixture would make a handsome cake, full 
twelve or fourteen inches over. 

Obs. — If made in cold weather, the eggs should be 
broke into a pan, and set into another filled with hot 
water; likewise the fruit, sweetmeats, Almonds, laid 
in a warm place, otherwise it may chill the butter, and 
cause the cake to be heavy. 

Bride or Wedding Cake. — (No. 56.) 

The only difference usually made in these Cakes is, 
the addition of one pound of Raisins, stoned and mixed 
with the other fruit. 

Plain Pound Cake. — (No. 57.) 

Cream as in (No. 55), one pound of Butter, and 
work it well together with one pound of sifted Sugar, 
till quite smooth ; beat up nine Eggs, and put them 
by degrees to the butter, and beat them for twenty 
minutes ; — mix in lightly one pound of Flour — put 
the whole into a hoop, cased with paper, on a baking 
plate, and bake it about one hour in a moderate oven. 

An ounce of Carraway Seeds added to the above, 
will make what is termed a Rich Seed Cake. 

Plum Pound Cake. — (No, 58.) 

Make a Cake as (No. 57), and when you have beat 
it, mix in lightly half a pound of Currants, two ounces 



Yeast Cakes should be well proved before put into the oven, as they will 
prove but little afterwards. 

In making Biscuits and Cakes, vphere Butter is not used, the difl'erent 
utensils should be kept free from all kinds of Grease, or it is next to impos- 
sible to have good ones. 

In battering the insides of Cake moulds, the butter should be nicely clari- 
fied, and when nearly cold, laid on quite smooth, with a small brush kept 
for that purpose. 

Sugar and Flour should be quite dry, and a drum sieve is recommended 
for the Sugar, The old way of beating the yolks and whites of Eggs separate 
(except in very few cases), is not only useless, but a waste of time. They 
should be well incorporated with the other iugredieuts, and in some instances 
they cannot be beat too much. 



Appendix.] PAbTRY, &C. 491 

of Orange, and two ounces of candied Lemon Peel 
cut small, and half a Nutmeg grated. 

Common Seed Cake. — (No. 59.) 

Sift two and a half pounds of Flour, with half a 
pound of good Lisbon or Loaf Sugar, pounded into a 
pan or bowl, — make a cavity in the centre, and pour 
in half a pint of lukewarm milk, and a tablespoonful 
of thick yeast, — mix the milk and yeast with enough 
flour to make it as thick as cream (this is called setting 
a sponge), set it by in a warm place for one hour 
— in the mean time, melt to an oil half a pound of 
fresh Butter, and add it to the other ingredients, with 
one ounce of Carraway Seeds, and enough of milk to 
make it of a middling stiffness ; — line a hoop with 
paper, well rubbed over with butter — put in the 
mixture — set it some time to prove in a stove, or before 
the fire, and bake it on a plate about an hour, in 
rather a hot oven, — when done, rub the top over with 
a paste brush dipped in milk. 

Rich Yeast Cake. — (No. 60.) 

Set a sponge as in the foregoing Receipt, with the 
same proportions of Flour, Sugar, Milk, and Teast, — 
when it has lain some time, mix it with three quarters 
of a pound of Butter oiled, one pound and a quarter of 
Currants, half a pound of candied Lemon and Orange 
Peel cut fine, grated Nutmeg, ground Allspice and 
Cinnamon, a quarter of an ounce of each — case a 
hoop as stated (No. 59), bake it in a good heated oven 
one hour and an half. 

N.B. Tt may be Iced with (No. 84), and ornamented 
as a IVelfth Cake. 

Queen or Heart Cakes. — (No. 61.) 
One pound of sifted Sugar, one pound of Butter, 
eight Eggs, one pound and a quarter of Flour, two 
ouQces of Currants, and half a Nutmeg grated. 



492 PASTRY, 8CC. [Appendix. 

Cream the butter as at (No. 55), and mix it well 
with the siujar and spice, then put in half the ee;gs, 
and beat it ten minutes — add the remainder of the 
e^Ci^s, and work it ten minutes longer — stir in the 
flour lightly, and the currants aftenvards, — then take 
small tin pans of any shape (hearts the most usual), rub 
the inside of each with butter, till and bake them a few 
minutes in a hot oven, on a sheet of matted wire, or 
on a baking plate, — when done, remove tliem as early 
as possible from the pans. 

Queen s Drops. — (No. ()'2.) 

Leave out four ounces of Flour from the last Receipt, 
and add two «junces more of Currants, and two ounces 
of candied Peel, cut small — work it the same as in 
the last receipt, and when ready put the mixture into 
a Biscuit funnel*, and lay tliem out in drops about 
the size of half a crown, on white paper, — bake them 
in a hot oven, and when ncarltj cold, take them from the 
paper. 

S/ircushun/ Cakes. — (No. 63.) 

Rub well together one pound of pounded Siigai, 
one pound of fresh Butter, and one pound and a half 
of sifted Flour — mix it into a paste, with half a gill of 
milk or cream, and one c^^, — let it lie half an hour, 
roll it out thin, cut it out into small cakes with a tin 
cutter, about three inches over, and bake them on a 
clean baking plate in a moderate oven. 

Banbu/y Cakes. — (No. 64.) 
Set a sponge with two tablespoonsful of thick Yeast, 



• Take fine Brown Holland, and niake a bag in the form of a cone, aboiil 
five inches over at the top. Cut a smali hole at tlic bottom, atul tie in a 
siii.ill pipe of a tapering form, about two inches long; and the bore must be 
\ATge or smal!, according to the size of the Biscuits or Cakes to be made. 
When tlie various mixturts are put iu, lay ilie pipe close to the paper, and 
press it out into rows. 

Some use a Bollock's Bladder for the purpose. 



Appendix.1 PASTRY, SCc. 493 

a gill of warm Milk, and a pound of Flour, — when 
it has worked a little, mix with it half a pound of 
Currants, washed and picked, half a pound of candied 
Orange and Lemon Peel cut small, one ounce of Spice, 
such as ground Cinnamon, Allspice, Ginger, and 
grated Nutmeg: mix the whole together with half a 
pound of Honey, roll out Puff Paste (No. 1), a quarter 
of an inch thick, cut it into rounds with a cutter, about 
four inches over, lay on each with a spoon a small 
quantity of the mixture — close it round with the fingers 
in the form of an oval — place the join underneath — 
press it flat with the hand — sift sugar over, and bake 
them on a plate a quarter of an hour, in a moderate 
oven, and of a light colour. 

Bath Buns. — (No. 65.) 

Rub together with the hand one pound of fine Flour, 
and half a pound of Butter — beat six Eggs, and add 
them to the flour, &c. with a tablespoonful of good 
Yeast — mix them all together, with about half a tea- 
cupful of milk — set it in a warm place for an hour, 
then mix in six ounces of sifted Sugar, and a few 
Carraway Seeds — mould them into Buns with a table- 
spoon, on a clean baking plate — throw six or eight 
Carraway Comfits on each, and bake them in a hot 
oven about ten minutes. This quantity should make 
about eighteen. 

Sponge Biscuits. — (No. 66.) 

Break into a round-bottomed Preserving Pan*, nine 
good sized Eggs, with one pound of sifted Loaf Sugar, 
and some grated Lemon Peel ; — set the pan over a 
very slow fire, and whisk it till quite warm (but not too 
hot to set the Eggs), remove the pan from the fire, 

• A wide-moulhed Earthen Pan, made quite Lot in the oven, or on afire, 
•will be a good substitute. 



494 PASTRY, &C. [Appendix, 

and whisk it till cold, Avhich may be a quarter of an 
hour, then stir in the flour lightly with a spattle, 
previous to which, prepare the spoiige frame as fol- 
lows: — Wipe them well out with a clean clotli — rub 
the insides with a brush dipped in butter, which has 
been clarified, and sift louf sugar over; — fill the 
frames with the mixture, throw pounded sugar over, 
bake them five minutes in a brisk oven; when done, 
take them from the frames, and lay them on a sieve. 

Savoij Cake, or Sponge Cake in a Mould. — (No. 67.) 
Take nine Eggs, their weight of Sugar, and six of 
Flour, some grated Lemon, or a few drops of Essence 
of Lemon, and half a gill of Orange-flower Water, — 
work them as in the last receipt; — put in the orange- 
flower water when you take it from the fire ; — be very 
careful tlie mould is quite dry ; — rub it all over the 
inside with Butter, — put some pounded Sugar round 
the mould upon the butter, and shake it well to get 
it out of the crevices : ~ tie a slip of paper round the 
mould, fill it three parts full with the mixture, and 
bake it one hour in a slack oven ; — when done, let it 
stand for a few minutes, and take it from the mould, 
which may be done by shaking it a little. 

Biscuit Drops. — (No. 68.) 
Beat well together in a pan one pound of sifted 
Sugar with eight Eggs for twenty minutes ; then add 
a quarter of an ounce of Carraway Seed, and one pound 
and a quarter of Flour ; — lay wafer paper on a baking 
plate, — put the mixture into a biscuit funnel, and 
drop it out on the paper about the size of half a crown, 
sift Sugar over, and bake them in a hot oven. 

Saioy Biscuits. — (No. 69.) 
To be made as Drop Biscuits, omitting the carraways 
and quarter of a pound of flour : — put it into the 
biscuit funnel, and lay it out about the length and size 



Appendix.] PASTRY, &C. 495 

of your finger, on common shop paper ; — strew Sugar 
over, and bake them in a hot oven ; — when cold, wet 
the backs of the paper with a paste-brush and water : 
when laid some time, take them carefully off, and place 
them back to back. 

Italian Macaroons. — (No. 70.) 
Take one pound of Valentia, or Jordan Almonds, 
blanched, — pound them quite fine with the whites of 
four Eggs, add two pounds and a half of sifted Loaf 
Sugar, and rub them well together with the pestle, — 
put in by degrees about ten or eleven more whites, 
working them well as you put them in; — but the best 
criterion to go by in trying their lightness, is to bake 
one or two, and if you find them heavy, put one or two 
more whites; — put the mixture into a biscuit funnel, 
and lay them out on wafer paper, in pieces about the 
size of a small walnut, having ready about two ounces 
of blanched and dry Almonds cut into slips, — put 
three or four pieces on each, and bake them on wires, 
or a Baking Plate, in a slow oven. 

Obs. — Almonds should be blanched and dried gra- 
dually two or three days before they are used, by which 
means thev will work much better, —• and where large 
quantities are used, it is advised to grind them in a mill 
provided for that purpose. 

Ratafia Cakes.— (^o. 71.) 

To half a pound of blanched Bitter, and half a 
pound of Sweet Almonds, put the Whites of four Eggs, 
— beat them quite fine in a mortar, and stir in two 
pounds and a quarter of Loaf Sugar, pounded and 
sifted, — rub them well together, with the whites (by 
degrees) of nine Eggs ; (try their lightness as in the 
last receipt); lay them out from the biscuit funnel on 
cartridge paper, in drops about the size of a shilling, 
and bake them in a middling-heated oven, of a light 
brown colour, and take them from the papers as soon 
as cold. 



496 PASTRY, Sec. [Appendix. 

N.B, A smaller pipe must be used in the funnel than 
for otlier articles. 

Ahnuiid Sponge Cake. — (No. 72.) 

Pound in a mortar one pound of blanched Almonds 
quite fine, with the Whites of three ^^-g^s., — then put 
in one pound of sifted Loaf Su^^ar, some grated Lemon- 
peel, and the Y(jlks of fifteen Lggs, — work them well 
together; — beat up to a solid froth the Whites of 
twelve Eggs, and stir them into the other Ingredients 
with a quarter of a pound of sifted dry Flour: — pre- 
pare a mould as at (No. 67); put in the mixture, and 
bake it an hour in a slow oven : — take it carefully 
from the mould, and set it on a sieve. 

Ratafia Cake. — (No. 73.) 

To be made as above, omitting a quarter of a pound 
of sweet, and substituting a (juartcr of a pound of 
Bitter Almonds. 

Dut Bread Cake. — ( No. 74.) 

Boil, in half a pint of Water, one pound and a half of 
Lump Su'^^ar, — have ready one pint of Eggs, three 
parts Yolks, in a pan, — pour in the Sugar, and whisk 
it quick till cold, or about a quarter of an hour, — then 
stir in two pounds of sifted Flour, case the insides of 
square tins with wliite paper, fill them three parts full, 
sift a little Sugar over, and bake it in a warm oven, and 
while hot remove them from the moulds. 

Orange Gingerbread. — (No. 75.) 

Sift two pounds and a quarter of fine Flour, and add 
to it a pound and three quarters of Treacle, six ounces 
of Candied Orange-peel cut small, three quarters of a 
pound of Moist Sugar, one ounce of ground Ginger, 
and one ounce of Allspice ; — melt to an Oil three 
quarters of a pound of Butter, — mix the whole well 
together, and lay it by for tvrelve hours, — roll it out 



Appendix.} PASTRY, &C. ' 497 

with as little Flour as possible about half an inch 
thick, cut it into pieces three inches long and two wide, 
■ — mark them in the form of chequers with the back 
of a knife, put them on a baking plate about a quarter 
of an inch apart, — rub them over w^ith a Brush dipped 
into the Yolk of an Egg beat up with a teacupful of 
Milk, bake it in a cool oven about a quarter of an hour ; 
— when done, wash them slightly over again, — divide 
the pieces with a knife, (as in baking they will run 
together.) 

Gingerbread Nuts. — (No. 76.) 

To two pomids of sifted Flour, put two pounds ot 
Treacle, three quarters of a pound of Moist Sugar, half 
a pound of Candied Orange-peel cut small, one ounce 
and a half of ground Ginger, one ounce of ground 
Allspice, Carraways, and Corianders mixed, and three 
quarters of a pound of Butter oiled : — mix all well 
together, and set it by some time, — then roll it out in 
pieces about the size of a small walnut, — lay them in 
rows on a baking plate, press them flat with the hand, 
and bake them in a slow oven about ten minutes. 

Plain Buns. — (No. 77.) 

To four pounds of sifted Flour, put one pound 
of good Moist Sugar, — make a cavity in the centre, 
and stir in a gill of good Yeast, a pint of lukewarm 
Milk, with enough of the Flour to make it the thickness 
of cream, — cover it over, and let it lie two hours, — 
then melt to an oil (but not hot) one pound of Butter, 

— stir it into the other Ingredients, with enough warm 
Milk to make it a soft paste ; — throw a little Flour 
over, and let them lie an hour, — have ready a baking 
platter rubbed over with Butter, — mould with the 
hand the dough into buns about the size of a large egg^ 

— lay them in rows full three inches apart, set them 
ill a warm place for half an hour, or till they have risen 
to double their size, — bake them in a hot oven of 



498 PASTRY, Sec. [AjypendU. 

a good colour, and wash them over witli a brush 
dipped into Milk when drawn from the oven. 

Cross Buns. — (No. 78.) 

To the al)Ove mixture put one ounce and a lialf of 
p:round Allspice, Cinnamon, and Mace, mixed, — and 
when half proved press the form of a cross with a tin 
mould (made for the purpose) in the centre, and pro- 
ceed as above. 

Sea/ Buns. — (No. 79.) 

Take two pounds of plain Bun Dough (No. 77), and 
mix in one ounce of Carraway Seeds, — butter the 
insides of small tart-pans, — mould the dou2:h into 
buns, and put one in each pan, — set them to rise in a 
warm j)lace, and when sufficiently proved, ice them with 
the White of an Ep:g beat to a froth, and laid on with a 
paste-brush, some pounded Sugar upon that, and dis- 
solve it with water splashed from the brush : — bake 
them in a warm oven about ten minutes. 

Plum Buns.— (So. 80.) 

To two pounds of (No. 77) mixture, put half a pound 
of Currants, a quarter of a pound of Candied Orange- 
peel cut into small pieces, half a Nutmeg grated, half 
an ounce of mixed Spice, such as Allspice, Cinnamon, 
&c. ; — mould them into Buns, jag them round the 
edge with a knife, and proceed as with Plain Buns 
(No. 77.) 

Orgeat. — {l<io. 81.) 

Pound very fine one pound of Jordan and one ounce 
of Bitter Almonds in a marble mortar, with half a gill 
of Orange-flower Water to keep them from oiling, — 
then mix with them one pint of Rose and one pint 
of Spring water, — rub it through a tammis cloth, or 
lawn sieve, till the Almonds are quite dry, which will 
reduce the quantity to about a quart : — have ready 



Appendix.'] PASTEY, &C. 499 

three pints of Clarified Sugar, or Water, and boil it to 
a crack, (which may be known by dipping your fingers 
into the sugar, and then into cold water, and if you find 
the sugar to crack in moving your finger, it has boiled 
enough) ; put in the Almonds, boil it one minute, and 
when cold put it into small bottles close corked, a 
tablespoonful of which will be sufficient for a tumbler 
of water : — shake the bottle before using. 

Obs. — If the Orgeat is for present use, the Almonds 
may be pounded as above, and mixed with one quart 
of Water, one quart of Milk, a pint of Capillaire or 
Clarified Sugar, rubbed through a tammis or fine sieve, 
and put into decanters for use. 

Baked Pears. — (No. 82.) 

Take twelve large baking Pears, — pare and cut 
them into halves, leaving on the stem about half 
an inch long; take out the core with the point of 
a knife, and place them close together in a block 
tin saucepan, the inside of which is quite bright, 
with the cover to fit quite close, — put to them the 
rind of a lemon cut thin, with half its juice, a 
small stick of Cinnamon, and twenty grains of All- 
spice ; cover them with spring water, and allow one 
pound of loaf sugar to a pint and a half of 
water ; — cover them up close, and bake them for 
six hours in a very slow oven : — they will be 
quite tender, and of a bright colour. 

Obs. — Prepared Cochineal is generally used for 
colouring the Pears ; but if the above is strictly at- 
tended to, it will be found to answer best. 

To Dry Apples. —(No. 83.) 

Take Biffins, or Orange or Lemon Pippins, — the 

former are the best; choose the clearest rinds, and 

without any blemishes; lay them on clean straw on 

baking wire, — cover them well with more straw, 



500 PASTRY, &C. 



[Appendix. 



set them into a slow oven, — let them remain for 
four or five hours, — draw them out, and rub them 
in your hand, and press them very gently, otherwise 
you will burst the skins ; — return them into the oven 
for about an hour, press them again, — when cold, 
if they look dry, rub them over with a little clari- 
fied Sugar. 

Obs. — By being put into the oven four or five 
times, pressing them between each time, they may 
be brought as flat, and eat as well as the dried 
Biffins from Norfolk. 

Icing, for Tuelfth or Bride C«Ac. — (No. 84.) 

Take one pound of double refined Sugar, pounded 
and sifted through a lawn sieve ; — put into a pan 
quite free from grease, — break in the whites of six 
eggs, and as much powder Blue as will lie on a 
sixpence ; — beat it well with a spattle for ten mi- 
nutes, then squeeze in the juice of a Lemon, and 
beat it till it becomes thick and transparent. Set 
the cake you intend to Ice, in an oven or warm 
place, five minutes, — then spread over the top and 
sides with the mixture as smooth as possible ; — if 
for a Wedding Cake only, plain Ice it; — if for a 
Twelfth Cake, ornament it with Gum Paste, or fancy 
articles of any description. 

Obs. — A good Twelfth Cake, not baked too much, 
and kept in a cool dry place, will retain its moisture, 
and eat well, if Twelve months old. 

To Boll Sugar to Cr/rawe/. — (No. 85.) 

Break into a small copper or brass pan, one 
pound of refined Sugar, — put in a gill of Spring 
Water; — set it on a fire, and when it boils, skim 
it quite clean, and let it boil quick, till it comes 
to the degree called Crack, which may be known 



Appendix.'] PASTRY, &C. 501 

by dipping a teaspoon or skewer into the sugar, 
and let it drop to the bottom of a pan of cold 
water; and if it remains hard, it has attained that 
degree ; — squeeze in the juice of half a lemon, and 
let it remain one minute longer on the fire, then 
set the pan into another of cold water; — have 
ready moulds of any shape, — rub them over with 
sweet oil, dip a spoon or fork into the sugar, and 
throw it over the mould in fine threads, till it is 
quite covered: — make a small handle of Caramel, 
or stick on two or three small Gum Paste rings, 
by way of ornament, and place it over small pastry 
of any description. 

A Croqitante of Paste, — (No. 86.) 

Roll out Paste, as (No. 8), about the eighth of 
an inch thick, — rub over a plain mould with a 
little fresh butter: — lay on the Paste very even, 
and equally thin on both sides; — pare it round the 
rim; then, with a small penknife, cut out small 
pieces as fancy may direct ; — such as diamonds, 
stars, circles, sprigs, &c., — or use a small tin 
cutter of any shape ; let it lie to dry some time, 
and bake it a few minutes in a slack oven of a 
light colour; — remove it from the mould, and place 
it over a Tart, or any other dish of small Pastry. 

Derby or Short Cakes. — (So. 87.) 

Rub in with the hand one pound of Butter into 
two pounds of sifted Flour; — put one pound of 
Currants, one pound of good moist Sugar, and one 
egg; mix all together with half a pint of milk, — 
roll it out thin, and cut them into round Cakes 
with a Cutter; — lay them on a clean Baking Plate, 
and put them into a middling heated oven, for 
about five minutes. 



502 PASTRY, &C. \_Appendix. 

Egg and Ham Patties.— (No. 88.) 

Cut a slice of Bread two inches thick, from th€ 
most solid part of a stale quartern loaf : — have 
ready a tin round Cutter, two inches diameter, — 
cut out four or five pieces, then take a Cutter two 
sizes smaller, — press it nearly through the larger 
pieces, then remove, with a small knife, the bread 
from the inner circle ; — have ready a large stew- 
pan full of boiling Lard; — fry them of a light 
brown colour, drain them dry, with a clean cloth, and 
set them by till wanted; then take half a pound 
of lean Ham, mince it small, add to it a gill of 
good brown Sauce; — stir it over the fire a few mi- 
nutes, and put a small quantity of Cayenne Pepper 
and Lemon Juice; — fill the shapes with the mix- 
ture, and lay a poached Egg, see (No. 546), upon each. 

DamsoUf or other Plum Cheese, — (No. 89.) 
Take Damsons that have been preserved without 
sugar, — pass them through a sieve, to take out the 
skins and stones. — To every pound of Pulp of Fruit, 
put half a pound of Loaf Sugar, broke small; — 
boil them together till it becomes quite stiff; pour 
it into four common sized dinner plates, rubbed with 
a little sweet oil, — put it into a warm place to 
dry, and when quite firm, take it from the plate, 
and cut it into any shape you choose. 

N. B. Damson Cheese is generally used in Desserts. 

Barley Sugar. — (No. 90.) 

Clarify (as (No. 475), three pounds of refined Su- 
gar, — boil it to the degree of cracked, (which may 
be ascertained by dipping a spoon into the Sugar, 
and then instantly into cold water, and if it ap- 
pears brittle, it is boiled enough) ; squeeze in a 
small teaspoonful of the Juice, and four drops of 



Appendix.^ PASTRY, Scc. 503 

Essence of Lemon, and let it boil up once or twice, 
and set it by a few minutes : — have ready a 
marble slab, or smooth stone, rubbed over with 
Sweet Oil, — pour over the Sugar, cut it into long 
stripes, with a large pair of scissors, — twist it a 
little, and when cold, keep it from the air in tin 
boxes or canisters. 

N. B. A few drops of Essence of Ginger, instead 
of Lemon, will make what is called Ginger Barley 
Sugar. 

Barley Sugar Drops. — (No. 9L) 

To be made as the last Receipt. Have ready, by 
the time the Sugar is boiled sufficiently, a "large 
sheet of Paper, with a smooth layer of sifted loaf 
sugar on it; — put the boiled Sugar into a ladle 
that has a fine lip : — pour it out, in drops not 
larger than a shilling, on to the sifted sugar ; when 
cold, fold them up separately in white paper. 

N. B. Some use an oiled marble slab instead of 
the sifted Sugar. 

Raspberry Jam. — (No. 92.) 

Rub fresh gathered Raspberries, taken on a dry day, 
through a wicker sieve, — to one pint of the pulp, 
put one pound of Loaf Sugar, broke small; — put it 
into a preserving pan over a brisk fire, — when it be- 
gins to boil, skim it well, and stir it twenty mi- 
nutes ; — put it into small pots, — cut white paper 
to the size of the top of the pot, — dip them in 
Brandy, and put them over the jam when cold, with 
a double paper tied over the pot. 

Strawberry Jam to be made the same way, and 
the Scarlets are the most proper for that purpose. 

Apricot, or any Plum Jam. — (No. 93.) 
After taking away the stones from the Apricots, 



5.04 PASTRY, &C. [Appendix . 

and cutting out any blemishes they may have, — put 
them over a slow fire, in a clean stewpan, with half 
a pint of water; — when scalded, rub them through 
a hair sieve : — to every pound of pulp, put one 
pound of sifted loaf sugar, — put it into a preserv- 
ing pan over a brisk fire, and when it boils, skim it 
well, and throw in the kernels of the Apricots, and 
half an ounce of bitter Almonds, blanched ; — boil it 
a quarter of an hour fast, and stirring it all the 
time; — remove it from the fire, and fill it into Pots, 
and cover them as at (No. 92.) 

N. B. Green Gages or Plums may be done in the 
same way, omitting the Kernels or Almonds. 

Lemon Chips. — (No. 94.) 

Take large smooth-rinded Malaga Lemons ; — race 
or cut off their peel into Chips with a small knife ; 
(this will require some practice to do it properly), 
throw them into salt and water till next day, — have 
ready a pan of boiling water, throw them in and boil 
them tender. Drain them well : — after having lain 
some time in water to cool, put them into an earthen 
pan, pour over enough boiling clarified Sugar to cover 
them, and then let them lie two days; — then strain 
the Syrup, put more Sugar, and reduce it by boil- 
ing till the Syrup is quite thick, — put in the Chips, 
and simmer them a few minutes, and set them by 
for two days: — repeat it once more, let them lie 
two days longer, and they will be fit to candy, 
which must be done as follows : — take four pints 
of clarified Sugar, which will be suflBcient for six 
pounds of Chips, — boil it to the degree of blown, 
(which may be known by dipping the skimmer into 
the Sugar, and blowing strongly through the holes 
of it ; if little bladders appear, it has attained that 
degree) ; and when the Chips are thoroughly drained 



Appendix.'] PASTRY, SlC. 505 

and wiped on a clean cloth, put them into the 
Syrup, stirring them about with the skimmer till 
you see the Sugar become white; — then take them 
out with two forks, shake them Ughtly into a wire 
sieve, and set them into a stove, or in a warm 
place to dry. 

N. B. Orange Chips are done in the same way. 

Dried Cherries. — (No. 95.) 
Take large Kentish Cherries, not too ripe, — pick 
off the stalks and take out the stones with a quill, 
cut nearly as for a pen ; — to three pounds of which, 
take three pounds or pints of clarified Sugar,— (see 
No. 475), boil it to the degree of blozvji; (for which, 
see last receipt), put in the Cherries, — give them 
a boil, and set them by in an earthen pan till next 
day, when strain the Syrup,— add more Sugar, and 
boil it of a good consistence; — put the Cherries in, 
and boil them five minutes, and set them by another 
day : — repeat the boiling two more days, and when 
wanted, drain them some time, and lay them on 
wire sieves to dry in a stove, or nearly cold oven. 

Green Gages Preserved in Syrup. — (No. 96.) 

Take the Gages when nearly ripe, cut the stalks 
about half an inch from the fruit, — put them into 
, cold water with a lump of alum about the size of 
j a walnut ; — set them on a slow fire till they come 
I to simmer.— Take them from the fire, and put them 
i into cold water; — drain, and pack them close into 
; a preserving pan, pour over them enough clarified 
I Sugar to cover them, — simmer them two or three 
! minutes ; — set them by in an earthen pan till next 
i day, when drain the Gages, and boil the Syrup 
i with more Sugar till quite thick, — put in the Gages 
I and simmer them three minutes more, and repeat it 



5G6' PASTRY, &G. [Apptndix. 

for two days, — when boil clarified Sugar to a blow, 
(as at (No. 94), place the Gages into glasses, and 
pour the Syrup over, and when cold, tie over a 
bladder, and upon that a leather : and should you 
want any for drying, drain and dry them on a wire 
sieve in a stove or slow oven. 

Apricots or Egg Plums may be done in the same 
way. 

To Preserve Ginger. — (No. 97.) 

Take green Ginger, pare it neatly with a sharp 
knife, — throw it into a pan of cold water as it 
is pared, to keep it white, — when you have suffi- 
cient, boil it till tender, changing the water three 
times ; each time put it into cold water to take out the 
heat or spirit of the Ginger, — when tender, throw it into 
cold water; — for seven pounds of Ginger, clarify 
eight pounds of Refined Sugar (see (No. 475), when 
cold, drain the Ginger, and put it in an earthen pan, 
with enough of the Sugar, cold, to cover it, and 
let it stand two days, — then pour the Syrup from 
the Ginger to the remainder of the Sugar, boil it 
some time, and when cold, pour it on the Ginger 
again, and set it by three days at least. Then take 
the Syrup from the Ginger; — boil it, and put it hot 
over the Ginger; — proceed in this way till you find the 
Sugar has entered the Ginger, boiling the Syrup and 
skimming off the scum that rises each time, until the 
Syrup becomes rich as well as the Ginger. 

Obs. — If you put the Syrup on hot at first, or if 
too rich, the Ginger will shrink, and not take the 
Sugar. 

N. B. When green Ginger is not to be procured, 
take large races of Jamaica Ginger boiled several 
times in water till tender, — pared neatly, and pro- 
ceed as above. 



Appendix.'] PASTRY, 8CC. 507 

To Preserve Cucumbers, — (No. 98.) 

Take large and fresh gathered Cucumbers, — split 
them down and take out all the Seeds, lay them m 
salt and water that will bear an Egg three days; 
set them on a fire with cold water, and a small 
lump of Alum, and boil them a few minutes, or till 
tender; — drain them, and pour on them a thin Syrup ; 
— let them lie two days, boil the Syrup again, and 
put it over the Cucumbers, — repeat it twice more, ^ 
then have ready some fresh clarified Sugar, boiled 
to a blow ; (see No. 94), put in the Cucumbers, and 
simmer it five minutes; — set it by till next day; — 
boil the Syrup and Cucumbers again, and set them 
in glasses for use. 

Preserved Fruit, without Svgar. — (No. 99.) 

Take Damsons when not too ripe; — pick off the 
stalks, and put them into wide-mouthed glass bottles, 
taking care not to put in any but what are whole 
and w^ithout blemish ; — shake them well down, 
(otherwise,* the bottle will not be half full when 
done) ; — stop the bottles with new soft corks, not 
too tight ; set them into a very slow oven (nearly 
cold), four or five hours; — the slower they are done 
the better ; — when they begin to shrink in the 
bottles, it is a sure sign that the Fruit is thoroughly 
warm : — take them out, and before they are cold, 
drive in the corks quite tight; — set them in a 
bottle rack or basket with the mouth downwards, 
and they will keep good several years 

Green Gooseberries, Morello Cherries, Currants, 
Green Gages, or Bullace, may be done the same way. 

Obs. — If the Corks are good, and fit well, there 
will be no occasion for cementing them ; but should 
bungs be used, it will be necessary. 
z2 



508 [Apptndix. 



BREAD. 



Put a quartern of Flour into a larc^e Basin with two 
teaspoonsful of Salt, — make a hole in the middle, — 
then put in a Basin four tal)lespoonsful of g;ood Veast, 
stir in a pint of Milk lukewarm., put it in the hole 
of the Flour, stir it just to make it of a thin Batter, 
tlun strew a little Flour over the top, — then set it on 
one side of the fire, and cover it over ; let it stand till 
next morning, — then make it into a dough ; — add 
half a pint more of warm Milk, knead it for ten minutes, 
and then set it in a warm place by the fire for one 
hour and a half, — then knead it again, and it is ready 
either for Loav(^s or Bricks : — bake them from one 
liour and a half to two hours, according to the size. 

Frtnc/i Bread ami RolU.~{^o. 100.) 

Take a pint and a half of Milk, make it quite warm, 
Haifa pint ofSnudl Beer Yeast, add sufficient Flour to 
make it as thick as Batter, put it into a pan, cover 
it over, and keep it warm; wlien it has risen as high 
as it will, add a quarter of a pint of warm Water, and 
half an ounce of Salt, — mix them well together, — rub 
into a little Flour two ounces of Butter, then make 
your Dou^h, not quite so stiff as for your Bread, let it 
stand for three (juarters of an hour, and it will be ready 
to make into liolls, &c. : — let them stand till tliey 
have risen, and bake them in a quick oven. 

Sally Lunn — Tea Cakes. — (No. 101.) 

Take one pint of Milk quite warm, a quarter of 
a pint of thick Small Beer Yeast, put them into a pan 
with Flour suflicient to make it as thick as Batter, — 
cover it over, and let it stand till it has risen as high as 
it will, /. e. about two hours, add two ounces of 
Lump Sugar, dissolved in a quarter of a pint of warm 



Appendix.'] BREAD. 509^ 

Milk*, a quarter of a pound of Butter rubbed into your 
Flour very fine, — then make your Dough the same as 
for French Rolls, &c. ; — let it stand half an hour, 
then make up your Cakes, and put them on tins ; — 
when they have stood to rise, bake them in a quick 
oven. 

Care should be taken never to put your Yeast to 
Water or Milk too hot or too cold, as either extreme 
will destroy the fermentation. In Summer it should be 
lukewarm, — in Winter a little warmer, — and in very 
cold weather, warmer still. When it has first risen, if 
you are not prepared, it will not hurt to stand an hour. 

Miifins. — (No, 102.) 

Take one pint of Milk quite warm, and a quarter of 
a pint of thick Small Beer Yeast, — strain them into a 
pan, and add sufficient Flour to make it like a Batter, 
-— cover it over, and let it stand in a warm place until 
it has risen, — then add a quarter of a pint of warm 
Milk, and one ounce of Butter rubbed in some Flour 
quite fine, — mix them well togethei, then add sufficient 
Flour to make it into Dough, — cover it over, and let 
it stand half an hour, then work it up again, and 
break it into small pieces, roll them up quite round, 
and cover them over for a quarter of an hour; — then 
bake them. 

Crumpets. — (No. 103.) 

The same: instead of making the mixture into 
Dough, add only sufficient Flour to make a thick Bat- 
ter, and when it has stood a quarter of an hour it 
will be ready to bake. 

Muffins and Crumpets bake best on a Stove with an 
Iron Plate fixed on the top; but they will also bake in 
a Fryingpan, taking care the fire is not too fierce, and 
turning them when lightly browned. 

• If you do ni)t mind the expense, the Cake will be much lighter, if instead 
of the Milk you put four Eggs. 



510 BREAD. [Appendix. 

Yorkshire Cakes.— (So. 104.) 

Take a pint and a half of Milk quite warm, a quartei 
of a pint of thick Small Beer Yeast, mix them well 
tog;ether in a pan with sufficient Flour to make a thick 
Batter, — let it stand in a warm place covered over 
until it has risen as hi^h as it will, — rub six ounces of 
Butter into some Flour till it is quite fine, — then 
break three E^scs into your pan with the Flour and 
Butter, mix them well together, — then add sufficient 
Flour to make it into a D()uo:h, and let it stand a 
quarter of an hour, then work it up again, and break it 
into i)ieces about the size of an etr^j:, or larger, as you 
may fancy, — roll them round and smooth with your 
liand, and put tliem on tins, and let them stand covered 
over with a light piece of flannel. 

%• T/ie sir last Receipts were uritten by Mr. Turner, 
Bread and Biscuit Baker, corner of LjOndon and Fitz^ 
Toy Street, Fitzroi/ Square. 



Appendix.! 511 

OBSERVATIONS ON PUDDINGS AND PIES. 

The quality of the various Articles employed in the 
composition of Puddings and Pies varies so much, that 
two puddings, made exactly according to the same 
receipt, will be so different, one would hardly suppose 
they were made by the same person, — and certamly 
not with precisely the same quantities of the (apparently) 
same Ingredients. Flour fresh ground — pure New 
Milk — Fresh-laid Eggs — Fresh Butter — Fresh Suet, 
&c. will make a very diflPerent composition, than when 
kept till each article is half spoiled. 

Plum Puddings, when boiled, if hung up in a cool 
place in the cloth they are boiled in, will keep good 
some month: when wanted, take them out of the 
cloth, and put them into a clean cloth, and as soon as 
warmed through— they are ready. 

Mem. — In composing these Receipts, the quantities 
of Eggs, Butter, &c. are considerably less than is 
ordered in other Cookery Books ; but quite sufficient 
for the purpose of making the Puddings light and 
wholesome, — we have diminished the Expense, without 
impoverishing the preparations, and the Rational 
Epicure, will be as well pleased with them — as 
the Rational Economist. 

Milk, in its genuine state, varies considerably in the 
quantity of Cream it will throw up, — depending pro- 
bably on the material with which the Cow is fed. The 
Cow that gives the most Milk does not always produce 
the most Cream, which varies fifteen or twenty per 
cent. ; this may be immediately and accurately ascer- 
tained by the Lactometer, sold by Jones, Mathematical 
Instrument Maker, Charing Cross, price Is. 6d. 

In London, the Milk is not only subject to these 
variations ; but is generally not only skimmed^ — but 
thinned with Sky-blue (water) from the Iron-tailed CoxVf 
(the pump.) 



512 PUDDINGS AND PIES. [Appendix, 

London Cream, we are told, is sometimes adulter- 
ated with Milk, thickened with Potatoe-starch, and 
tinned with Turmeric: — this accounts for the Cock- 
neys, on making an expedition into the country, being 
.90 eifrefnc/y sur^mscd to find the thickest part of the 
Cream — at the Top ! 

Eggs vary considerably in size in the following: 
Receipts, we mean the full-sized Hen's Eg^; — if you 
have only Pullet's Eggs, use two for one. Break Eggs 
one by one into a basin, and not all into the bowl 
together, because then, if you meet with a bad one, 
tliat will spoil all the rest: — strain them through 
a sieve to take out the treddles. 

N.B. To preserve Eggs for twelve months, see N.B. 
to(No. 5A1^. Snow — and Small Bkkr — have been re- 
commended by some Economists as admirable substitutes 
for Eggs : — they will no more answer this purpose 
than as substitutes for Su^nr or Brandy. 

Flour, according to that champion against adulter- 
ation, Mr. Accum, varies in quality as much as any 
thing. 

Butter also varies much in quality. Salt Butter 
may be washed from the Salt, and then it will make 
very good Pastry. 

Lard varies extremely from the time it is kept, &c. 
Wlien vou purchase it, have the bladder cut, and ascer- 
tain that it be sweet and good. 

Suet. Beef is the best — 'then Mutton and Veal: — 
when this is used in very hot weather, while you chop 
it, dredge it lightly with a little Flour. 

Bei:f-Marrow is excellent for most of the purposes 
for which Suet is employed. 

Drippings, especially from Beef, when very clean 
and nice, are frequently used for Kitchen Crusts and 
Pies, and for such purposes are a satisfactory substitute 
for Butter, Lard, &c. To clean and preserve Drip- 
pings, see (No. 83.) 

Currants, previous to putting them into the Pud- 



Appendix.'] PUDDINGS AND PIES. 613 

ding, should be plumped ; this is done by pouring 
some boiling water upon them : — wash them well, and 
then lay them on a sieve or cloth before the fire,— 
pick them clean from the stones ; — this not only makes 
them look better, but cleanses them from all dirt. 

Raisins, Figs, Dried Cherries, Candied 
Orange and Lemon Peel, Citron, and Pre- 
serves of all kinds, — Fresh Fruits, Gooseberries, 
Currants, Plums, Damsons, &c. are added to Batter 
and Suet Puddings, or enclosed in the Crust ordered 
for Apple Dumplings, and make all the various 
Puddings called by those names. 

Batter Puddings must be quite smooth and free 
from lumps ; to insure this, first mix the Flour with a 
little Milk — add the remainder by degrees — and then 
the other ingredients. 

If it is a plain Pudding, put it through a hair sieve — 
this will take out all lumps effectually. 

Batter Puddings should be tied up tight: if 
boiled in a mould, butter it first — if baked, also butter 
the Pan. 

Be sure the water boils before you put in the Pud- 
ding — set your stewpan on a trivet over the fire, and 
keep it steadily boiling all the time — if set upon the 
fire the Pudding often burns. 

Be scrupulously careful that your Pudding Cloth is 
perfectly sweet and clean, wash it without any 
Soap — unless very greasy — then rinse it thoroughly 
in dean water after. Immediately before you use it 
dip it in Boiling Water, squeeze it dry, and dredge it 
with Flour. 

If your fire is very fierce, mind and stir the Puddings 
every now and then to keep them from sticking to the 
bottom of the saucepan ; if in a Mould this care is not 
so much required, but keep plenty of water in the 
saucepan. 

JV/ien Puddings are boiled in a cloth, it should be 
just dipped in a basin of cold water, before you untie 
E 5 



514 PUDDINGS AND PIES. [Appe»dii. 

the Pudding Cloth, as that will prevent it from stick- 
inp^; but when boiled in a Mould, if it is well buttered, 
they will turn out without. Custard or Bread Pud- 
ding^s require to stand five minutes before they are 
turned out. They should always be boiled in a Mould 
or Cups. 

Keep your Paste-board, Rollinor-pin, Cutters, and 
Tins very clean — the least dust on the Tins and Cut- 
ters, or the least hard Paste on the Rolling-pin, will 
spoil the whole of your labour. 

Thini,rs used for Pastry or Cakes should not be used 
lor any other purj)Ose : be very careful that your Flour 
is dried before the fire, before you use it, for Puff Paste 
or Cakes ; if damp, it will make it heavy. 

In usin^r Butter for PuJ' Paste, you should take the 
crreatest care to previously work it well on the Paste- 
boar<l or Slab, to tret out all the water and butter-milk, 
which very often remains in ; — when you have worked 
it well with a clean knife, dab it over with a soft cloth, 
and it is then ready to lay on your Paste : do not make 
your Paste over stiff before you put in your Butter. 

For those who do not understand making Pujf Paste, 
it is by far the best way to work the Butter in at two 
sejiarate times — divide it in half — and break the 
half in little bits, and cover your Paste all over, dredge 
it lightly with Flour — then fold it over each side and 
ends, roll it out (piite thin, and tlien put in the rest of 
the Butter— fold it, and roll it again. Remember always 
to roll Puff Paste from you. 'J'he best made Paste, 
if not properly baked, will not do the Cook any credit. 

Those who use Inm Oxeim do not always suc- 
ceed in baking Puff Paste, Fruit Pies, &c.*— Puff 
Paste is often spoiled by baking it after Fruit Pies, in 
an iron oven. This may be easily avoided by putting 
two or three bricks tliat tire quite even into the oven 
before it is first set to get hot. This will not only pre- 
vent the syrup from boiling out of the Pies — but also 
prevent a very disagreeable smell in the kitchen and 



Appendix] PUDDINGS AND PIES. 515 

house — and almost answer the same purpose as a 
brick oven. 

College Puddings. — (No. 1 05.) 
Beat four Eggs, yolks and whites together in a quart 
basin, with two ounces of Flour, half a Nutmeg, a little 
Ginger, and three ounces of Sugar — pounded Loaf 
Sugar is best. Beat it into a smooth batter ; then add 
six ounces of Suet chopped fine, six of Currants well 
washed and picked; mix it all well together — a glass 
of Brandy or White Wine will improve it. These 
Puddings are generally fried in Butter or Lard; but 
they are much nicer baked in an oven in patty pans : 
twenty minutes will bake them — if fried, fry them till 
they are of a nice light brown, and when fried, roll them 
in a little Flour. You may add one ounce of Orange 
or Citron miiiced very fine ; when you bake them, add 
one more Egg, or two spoonsful of Milk. Serve them 
up with W'hite Wine Sauce. 

Rice Puddings Baked — or Boiled. — (No. 106.) 
Wash in cold water and pick very clean six ounces of 
Rice, put it in a quart stewpan three parts filled with 
cold water, set it on the fire, let it boil five minutes — 
pour away the water, and put in one quart of Milk, a 
roll of Lemon Peel, and a bit of Cinnamon ; let it boil 
gently till the Rice is quite tender, it will take at least 
one hour and a quarter, be careful to stir it every five 
minutes, take it off the fire, and stir in an ounce and 
a half of Fresh Butter, and beat up three Eggs on a 
plate, a salt-spoonful of Nutmeg, two ounces of Sugar, 
put it into the Pudding, and stir it till it is quite smooth 
— line a pie-dish big enough to hold it with Puff Paste, 
notch it round the edge, put in your Pudding, and bake 
it three quarters of an hour : this will be a nice firm 
Pudding. 

If you like it to eat more like Custard, add one 
more Egg, and half a pint more milk ; it will be better 
a little thinner when boiled; one hour will boil it. If 



516 PUDDINGS AND PIES. [ApptndlT. 

you like it in little Puddings, butter small teacups, 
and either bake or boil them, half an hour will 
do either ; you may vary the Pudding by putting in 
Candied Lemon or Orange Peel, minced very fine — 
or dried Cherries, — or three ounces of Currants, — or 
Raisins, — or Apples minced line. 

If the Puddings are Itaked or l^oiled, serve them with 
White Wine Sauce, or Butter and Sugar. 

Ground Rice Pudding. —(No. 107.) 

Put four ounces of ground Rice into a stcwpan, and 
by degrees stir in a pint and a half of Milk, set it on 
the fire, with a roll of Lemon and a bit of Cinnamon, 
keep stirring it till it boils — beat it to a smooth Batter 
— then set it on the trivet, where it will simmer gently 
for a quarter of an hour ; — then beat three Eggs on a 
plate, stir them into the pudding with two ounces of 
Sugar, and two drams of Nutmeg — take out the Lenaon 
Peel and Cinnamon — stir it all well together, lino a 
])ie dish widi thin Puff paste (No. 1 of Receipts for 
Pastry), big enough to hold it, or Butter the Dish well, 
and bake it half an hour — if boiled, it will take one 
hour in a mould well buttered — three ounces of Cur- 
rants may be added. 

Rice Snoiv Balls.— {^o. 108.) 
Wash and pick half a pound of Rice very clean, put 
it on in a saucepan with plenty of water ; when it boils 
let it boil ten minutes, drain it on a sieve till it is quite 
dry, and then pare six apples, weighing two ounces 
and a half each. Divide the Rice into six parcels, 
in separate cloths — put one apple in each — tie it 
loose, and boil it one hour — serve it with sugar and 
butter, or wine sauce. 

llicc Blancmange. — (No. 109.) 
I'ut a teacupful of whole Rice, into the least water 
possible, till it almost bursts : then add half a pint of 



Appendix.'\ PUDDINGS AND PIES. 517 

good Milk or thin Cream, and boil till it is quite a 
mash, stirring it the whole time it is on the fire, that it 
may not burn : dip a shape in cold water, and do not 
dry it, put in the rice, and let it stand until quite cold, 
when it will come easily out of the shape. This dish 
is much approved of; it is eaten with cream or custard, 
and preserved fruits — raspberries are best. It should 
be made the day before it is wanted, that it may get 
firm. 

This Blancmange will eat much nicer, flavoured with 
Spices, Lemon Peel, &c. and sweetened with a little 
Loaf Sugar, add it with the Milk, and take out the 
Lemon Peel before you put it in the mould. 

MoosT Aye Save-all Pudding. — (No. 110.) 

Put any scraps of Bread into a clean saucepan, — to 
about a pound, put a pint of Milk ; set it on the trivet 
till it boils, beat it up quite smooth, then break in three 
Eggs, three ounces of Sugar, with a little Nutmeg, 
Ginger, or Allspice, and stir it all well together. But- 
ter a Dish big enough to hold it, put in the pudding, 
and have ready two ounces of suet chopped very fine, 
strew it over the top of the pudding, and bake it three 
quarters of an hour: four ounces of Currants will make 
it much better. 

Batter Pudding, Baked or Boiled. — (No. IIL) 
Break three Eggs in a basin with as much salt as 
will lie on a sixpence, beat them well together, and 
tlien add four ounces of Flour — beat it into a smooth 
Batter, and by degrees add half a pint of Milk : have 
your saucepan ready boiling, and butter an earthen 
mould well, put the pudding in, and tie it tight over 
with a pudding cloth, and boil it one hour and a quar- 
ter. Or, put it in a dish that you have well buttered, 
and bake it three quarters of an hour. 

Currants washed and picked clean, or P^aisins storied, 
are good in this pudding, and it is then called a Black 



518 PUDDINGS AND PIES. [Appendix, 

Cup : or, add Loaf Sii^r, and a little Nutmeg and 
Ginger without the fruit, it is very good that way, 
— serve it with Wine sauce. 

.-Ipple Pudding BoUcd.—{^o. 112.) 

Chop four ounces of Beef Suet very fine, or two 
ounces of Butter, Lard, or Dripping — but the suet 
makes the best and lii^htest crust; put it on the paste 
board, with ei;j:ht ounces of Hour, and a saltspoonful 
of salt, mix it well together with your hands, and then 
put it all of a heap, and make a hole in the middle ; 
break one ego: in it, stir it well together with your 
finger, and by degrees infuse as much water as will 
make it of a stiti' paste : — roll it out two or three times 
with the rolling-pin, and then roll it large enough to 
receive thirteen ounces of Apples. It will look neater 
if boiled in a basin, will butttred, than when boiled in a 
pudding cloth well Houred : boil it an hour and three 
quarters, — but the surest way is to stew the aj)jjles first 
in a stewpan, with a wineglassful of water, and then 
one hour will boil it. Some people like it flavoured 
witli Cloves and Lemon Peel, and sweeten it with two 
ounces of Sugar. 

Gooseberries, Currants, and Raspheuries, 
CiiERKics, Damsons, and various Plums and 
Fruits, are made into Puddings with the same Crust 
directed for Apple Puddings. 

Apple Dut}ip!i/i(rs. — (No. 113 ) 

Make paste the same as for Apple Pudding, di- 
vide it into as many pieces as you want Dumplings, 
peel the apples and core them, then roll out your paste 
large enough, and put in the apples ; close it all round, 
and tie them in pudding cloths very tight, — one hour 
will boil them — and when you take them up, just dip 
them in cold water, and put them in a cup the size of 
the dumpling while you untie them, and they will turn 
out without breaking. 



Appendix.'} PUDDINGS AND PIES. 519 

Suet Pudding or Dumplings. — (No. 114.) 

Chop six ounces of Suet very fine, — put it in a 
basin with six ounces of Flour, two ounces of Bread 
crumbs, and a teaspoonful of Salt — stir it all well 
together ; — beat two eg:o:s on a plate, add to them six 
tablespoonsful of milk, put it by degrees into the basin, 
and stir it all well together; divide it into six dumplings, 
and tie them separate, previously dredging the cloth 
lightly with flour. 

Boil them one hour. 

This is very good the next day fried. The above 
will make a good pudding, boiled in an earthenware 
mould, with the addition of one more 0:%^, a little more 
milk, and two ounces of suet. 

Boil it two hours. 

N. B. The most Economical way of 7naking Suet 
Dumplings, is to boil them without a cloth in a pot 
with Beef — or Mutton — no Eggs are then wanted, 
and the dumplings are quite as light without: Roll 
them in fiour before you put them into the pot ; add 
six ounces of Currants, washed and picked, and you 
have Currant Pudding — or divided into six parts, Cur^ 
rant Dumplings, — a little sugar will improve them. 

Cottage Potaioe Pudding. —(^o. 115.) 

Peel, boil, and mash, a couple of pounds of Potatoes : 
beat them up into a smooth batter, with about three 
quarters of a pint of Milk, two ounces of moist Sugar, 
and t\vo or three beaten Eggs. 

Bake it about three quarters of an hour. 

Three ounces of Currants or Raisins may be added. 

Leave out the Milk, and add three ounces of Butter, 
it will make a very nice Cake. 



520 [Appendix* 



PICKLES. 

We are not fond of Pickles, — these Sponges of 
Vineo:ar are often very Indigestible, especially in the 
crisp state in >vhich they are most admired; — we re- 
commend those who have any regard for their Stomach, 
yet still wish to indulge their Tongue, — instead of 
eating Pickles, which are really merely vehicles for 
taking a certain portion of Vinegar and Spice, &c., 
to use the Flaioured P inefrars, such as Burnet {No. 399), 
Horsenif/is/i (No. 399*), Tarraaon (No. 396), Mmt 
(No. 397), Cress (\os. 397*, 401, 403, 405% 453, 
457), &c. : by combinations of these, a relish may 
easily be composed, exactly in harmony with the palate 
of the eater. 

The Pickle made to preserve Cucumbers, &c. is ge- 
nerally so strongly impregnated with Garlick, Mus- 
tajd, and Spice, &c. that the original flavour of the 
Vegetables is quite overpowered; and if the eater shuts 
his Eyes, — his Lingual nerves will be puzzled to in- 
form him whether he is munching an Onion or a 
Cucumber, dc, and nothing: can be more absurd than 
to pickle I'lums, Peaches, Apricots, Currants, Grapes, 
&c. 

The strongest Vinegar must be used for Pickling : — 
it must not be boiled, (or the strength of the Vinegar 
emd Spices will be evaporated). — By parboiling the 
Pickles in brine, they will be ready in half the time 
they are when done in the usual manner, — of soaking 
them in cold salt and water for six or eight days. — When 
taken out of the hot brine, let them get cold, and quite 
dry before you put them into the Pickle. — To assist 
the preservation of Pickles, a portion of salt is added, 
and for the same purpose, and to give flavour, — Long 
Pepper, — Black Pepper, — White Pepper — Allspice, — 



Appendix."] PICKLES. 521 

Ginger, — Cloves, — Mace, — Garlick, — Mustard, — 
Horseradish, — Shallots, and Capsicum. 

The following is the best method of preparing the 
Pickle, — as cheap as any, — and requires less care than 
any other way. 

Bruise in a mortar three or four ounces of the above 
Ingredients ; — put them into a stone jar with a quart of 
the strongest Vinegar, stop the jar closely with a bung, 
' — cover that with a bladder soaked with Pickle, set it 
on a trivet by the side of the fire for three days, well 
shaking it up at least three times in the day. — Bi/ pound- 
ing the Spice, half the quantity is enough, and the Jar 
being well closed, and the infusion being made with a mild 
heat, there is no loss by evaporation. 

To enable the articles pickled to more easily and 
speedily imbibe the flavour of the Pickle they are 
immersed in, previously to pouring it on them — run a 
larding pin through them in several places. 

The Spices, &c. commonly used, are those mentioned 
in the Receipt for pickling Walnuts, which is also an 
excellent Savoury Sauce for cold meats. 

The fleivour may be varied ad infinitum, by adding 
Celery, Cress Seed, or Curry Powder, (No. 455,) or by 
taking for the Liquor any of the flavoured Vinegars, 
&c. we have enumerated above, and see the receipts 
between (Nos. 395 and 421.) 

Pickles should be kept in a dry place, in unglazed 
Earthenware, or Glass Jars which are preferable, as 
you can, without opening them, observe whether they 
want tilling up : they must be very carefully stopped 
with well fitting Bungs, and tied over as closely as pos- 
sible with a bladder wetted widi the Pickle ; and if to 
be preserved a long time, after that is dry, it must be 
dipped in Bottle Cement, see page 140. 

When the Pickles are all used, boil up the liquor 
with a little fresh spice. 

To Walnut Liquor may be added a few Anchovies 



522 PICKLES. [Appendix, 

and Eshallots: let it stand till it is quite clear, and 
bottle it : thus you may furnish your table with an 
excellent savoury keeping sauce for Hashes, Made 
Dishes, Fish, &c. at very small cost, see (No. 439.) 

Jars should not be more than three parts filled with 
the articles pickled, which should be covered with Pickle 
at least two inches above their surface ; — the liquor 
wastes, and all of tlie articles pickled, that are not 
covered, are soon spoiled. 

When they have been done about a week, open the 
Jars, and fill them uj) with Pickle. 

Tie a wooden spoon, full of holes, round each jar, 
to take them out with. 

If you wish to have Gherkins, &c. very Green, tliis 
mav be easily accomplished by keeping them in Vinegar, 
sufficiently hot, till they become so. 

If you wish Caulifhwirs, 0/iiuns, &c. to be JFhite, 
use distilled Vinegar for them 

To entirely prevent the mischief arising from the 
action of the Acid upon the metallic utensils usually 



IiOVtu tu 



prepare Pickles, the whole of the process is 
directed to be performed in unglazed Stone Jars. 

N.B. The maxim of " Open your Mouth, and shut 
your Eyes," cannot be better applied than to Pickles ; 
and the only direction we have to record for the im- 
provement of their complexion, is the joke of Dr. 
Goldsmith, — " If their colour does not please you, 
send 'em to Hammersmith,'' — " that's the way to 
Turn ham Green.'' 

Gherkins. — (No. 116.) 

Put them into (unglazed) Stone pans, cover them 
with a brine of salt and water, made wit