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Full text of "Cook's tourist's handbook to Switzerland"

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EASY AND ELEGANT BOOTS. 



N. THIERRY, 

LADIES' AND GENT'S 

BOOT & SHOE MASUFACTUME 

AT PARIS AND ST, OMER, FRANCE. 

DEFOTS: 

f70, qUABRMT, RE&EIfT STREET, W. 
™U8, GRESHAM STREET, E,C. 

MaaBhester: 2, ST. AHB'S SQUARE. 
Liverpool; 5, BOLD feTBEET. 




LADIES' TOURIST BOOT. 

263. 



OEMT'S TOURIST BOOT. 

28s. 



ALWAYS EEADT, OVER 25,000 PAlfiS OP BOOTS AND SHOES 
TU CHOOSE FEOM, all equal to best bespoke itork. Any kind of Boot 
or Shoe mada to order at 2h. jier pnir ratra, for apecial lasts. 



Please Note. 1] 
there is atioV 



ited, and marked in plaii 



NOTICE TO JRAVELLERS. 

Accidental Mtli or Iiquries of all Kinds 



INSURED AGAINST BY THE 



OCEAN, RAILWAY, & GENERAL ACCIDENT ASSURANCE 
AND GUARANTEE COMPANIES, LIIVIITED. 

HEAD OFFICES:— MANSION HOUSE BUILDINGS, LONDON. 



BI-I'PO'W'UE.ED BY BFXlOIJiJL, .A.OT OB' I»il.H.I.IA.^«E!3SrT. 



Tickets coTerin^^ the risk of travelUng by any kind of oonTeyanoe throughout 
Europe may be had at any of Thos. Cook & Son's Offices. 

£1,000 available for One Month ... Premiam 5/- 

£600 „ „ ... „ 3/- 

1/6 

10/. 

5/. 

2/6 



£1,000 available for Three Months . ... 



(general ^ccilrent ^olictea, 

£1,000 available for Twelve Months ... Premium 25/- 

Bailtijas policies for ifiliafeg in tfje ©nitelr Itinglrom. 

£1,000 available for Twelve Months ... Premium 6/- 

Throughoufc Europe ... 8/- 

Double these Premiums secure a Weekly Allowance of 10/- for every £100 assured 

in cases of Disablement. 

^[ccilientg at Sea. 

POLIOEM TO OB PBOM ANY PoBT IN THE WOBLD AT VJBBY LoW BaTES. 



GUARANTEE POLICIES ISSUED TO PERSONS IN SITUATIONS OF TRUST. 

POLICIES ISSUED AT THE OFFICES OF THE COMPANY, 

AHD BT 

THOS. COOK ft SON, LUDQATB CIRCUS ; and 445, WEST STRAND, LONDON. 



BIRMINGHAM— Stephenson Place. 
MANCHBSTER-43, Piccadilly. 
JilVEKPOOL-U, Banelagh Street. 
LEEDS— 1, Royal Exchongre. 
BRADFORD— 8, Sxchansre, Market Street. 

SHBPPIELD-CliangeAUey Corner. . . _ ^_ 

DlTRLIN-45, Dame Street. \ "S^^ XCflBfc-'W^'^f*^**^'**-'^ 

EBISBVRQK- 9, P. ince<* Street. 



GLASGOW— 165, Buchanan Street. 
PARIS -15, Place da Havre. 
COLOGNE— 40, Domhiof . 
BRUSSELS'^ Ckteie du BaV. 
GENEV A.--%^, unA ^\Qb^<%v. 



BEMEMBEB LAIOLOTTOH'S 





PYRETIC SALINE, 

AVD HATE IT UT YOUS HOUSES. 

[t is most invigoratiBg, vitalisiftg, and refreskinp. Gives instant relief in 
Headaches, Sea or Biiiens Sickness, and quickly cmres the worst form of 
EmptiTe or Skin Complaints. The various diseases arising from Climatic 
causes. Constipation, the Liver or Blood Impurities, Inocnlation, and the 
resnlt of breathing air infected with Fever, Measles, or SMALL POX, 
are frequently prevented, and these diseases cured by its nse. Any person 
who has already Small pox should take it, and be kept in a cool and 
•darkened room to prevent its lea^ng any trace on the features. 

The numerous statements and letters relating to its marvdloms effect 
as a positive cure in TYPHUS, SCARLET FEVER, SMALL POX 
and other BLOOD POISONS, are most remarkable, and are painfnlly 
soggestive of ^[seat neglect, whenever the PYRETiC SALIN£ is not 
employed in these diseases. 

-"'It fiimishes the Blood with its lost Saline oonstknenits.''— Dr. 
MORGAK, M.D., &C. 

SEA VOYAGES. — Itis4i veiw valnable accomcparament, and should 
on no account be omitted. It instantly allays the sickness. 

WORTHLESS IICIT ATIOKS are now being offered to the 
public, the only merit of which is « lalael -and wrapper, with a transposition 
of the sentences and words of mine, a colourable imitation — m fact, a 
FRAUD en m3rseflf and the public. For <he protectnon of the public against 
Fraudulent Imitations, I have applied for, and again obtained a per- 
petual injunction, with costs, against several -Chemists. 

Sold by all Ckemigis and the Haker^ in Patent glaes-stoppered 
Bottlefi at 28. 6d., 4b. 6d.y lis., «nd 81b. each. 



/ 



LAWPLOWGH'S CONCENTRATED LIME JUJCE SYRUP, 

From the Fresh F«niit, as imported (or the Hospitals, a perfect luxury ; 
ibrms wiith the addition of Lamplough's Pyretic Saline a most delicious and 
invigorating draught for the deKcate and invalid, of special service in 
Scrofula^ FeverSy and Rheumatism^ and a low or altered condition of the 
system. Most Chemists sell the above with the Pyretic Saline. 

In Patent glass-stoppered BottleSi at 28. and 48. 6d. 

H, LtAMPLtOUGH, 

^^« Holborn Hill, LONDON, E.G. 



COOK»S 
TOURIST'S HANDBOOK 



FOK 



SWITZERLAND. 



Zo-Sxv \ ^ ^'•^l 



COOK'S 
TOURIST'S HANDBOOK 

SWITZERLAND. 



~ ■ JUN IfSO . 



LONDON : 
THOMAS COOK & SON, Lodo4tb Circds, E.C.j 

SIMPKIN, MARSHALL, & Co. 
NEW YORK : THOMAS COOK Jk SON, 061, BROADWAY. 
GENEVA: THOUAS COOK ft SON, 90, RUB DU Rh5nE. 

187^. 



CONTENTS. 



Introductory. page 

Luggage, I ; Custom-house Examinations, I ; Passports, 2 ; Lan- 
guage, 2 ; Money, 2 ; Cook's Circular Notes, 2 ; Money Tables, 
3 ; Time-tables, 3 ; Postage, 3 ; Fees, 4 ; Hdtels and Hotel 
Coupons, 4 ; Routes, 4 ; Time for Visiting Switzerland, 5 ; 
Guides, 5 ; Scope of Work, 6 ; Cook's Travelling Coupons, 6 ; 
Churches, 6 ; English Churches, 6 141$ 

Switzerland. 

Area, 7 ; Surface, 7 ; Geology, 8 ; Vegetation, 8 ; Animal Life, 
8 ; Manufactures, 9 ; Language, 9 ; Religion, 9 ; Special 
Objects of Interest, Mountains, Waterfalls, Passes, Glaciers, 
Valle3rs, 9, 10 ; Goitre and Cretinism, 10 ; The Swiss People, 
Wrestling Matches, 10; History, 1 1 — 13. • , , . 7 — 13 

Basle 15 

From Basle to Schaffhausen 2t 

Neuhausen . • • • 22 

Falls of the Rhine • . 22 

Schaffhausen » . 24 

From Schaffhausen to Zurich • • 24 

From Schaffhausen to Constance, by Rail • • • • 25 

From Schaffhausen to Constance, by Boat .... 25 

Constance 26 

Lake of Constance ...•••.•. 2S 

From Constance to Coire (Chur) •«.,.. 30 

Rorschach « . 30 

Ragatz •• ^^'^ 

COIRB »...%« '^ 



^ CONTENTS. 

PAGE 

From Basle to Zurich 54 

L By Waldshut and Tuigi 54 

II. By Olten and Turgi 34 

III. By Rheinfelden, Stein, and Bragg 36 

ZOrich 37 

Environs of Zurich 41 

Uetliberg 41 

Uetliberg Railway 42 

From Zurich to Coire 43 

The Lake of ZOrich. 43 

The Lake of Wallenstadt 47 

From ZOrich to Einsiedeln, Schweiz, and Brunnen . • 48 

Einsiedeln 48 

From Zurich to Glarus 52 

Wesen to Glaras • 5^ 

Glaras to Dissentis or Trons 52 

Glarus to Ilanz or Films for Coire . • « • • • 53 

From Zi/RicH to Romanshorn -. . • « • • • 53 

From Zurich to Rorschach (by St Gallai) .... 54 

From Zurich to Lucerne, by Rail 54 

The Lake of Zug. $5 

From Zurich to Zug, by the Albis 56 

From Zurich to the Rigi and Lucerne, by Horgen and the 

Lake of Zug 57 

From Basle. TO Lucerne . .57 

Lucerne . . . . 58 

Lake of Lucerne 6j 

Filatus 69 

Rigi . • 70 

From Lucerne to Brieg or Sibrre (for Geneva), by the Fufca 

Pass . 74 

The Rhone Glacier 75 

Brieg 77 

From Lucerne to Brienz and Meiringen, by the BrOnig Pass • 78 
From Meiringen to Interlaken . . . . . .80 

Falls of the Reichenbach .81 

Rosenlaui Glacier. 81 

Great Scheideck 82 

Grindelwald 83 

TheFaulhom 84 

Wengem Alp « BS 



•• 



CONTENTS. vii 

pXge 

Lauterbrunnen 86 

From Meiringen to the Rhone Glacier, by the Grimsel . . 87 

Handeck Falls 88 

From Brienz to Berne 90 

Lake of Brienz. 90 

Falls of the Giessbach 91 

INTERLAKEN 92 

THUN 95 

Lake of Thun 94 

From Thun to Leuk and Susten, by the Gemmi Pass . .96 

From Basle TO Berne 97 

BiENNE TO Berne 97 

Berne 98 

From Berne to Lucerne, by Langnau and Escholzmatt . . 107 

From Berne to Lausanne, by Fribomg ..... 108 

Fribourg 109 

From Basle to Neuchatel, Lausanne, and Geneva. . .111 

NeuchateL 113 

Bienne, Chaux-de-Fonds, and Neuchatel . . . . .116 

FONTARLiER to Lausanne, by Vallorbes 118 

Lausanne to Martigny .119 

Bex 120 

St Maurice . • . 120 

., Vemayaz 121 

Martigny 122 

Bouyeret TO Martigny 122 

Geneva 124 

Environs of Geneva 131 

The Lake of Geneva, Northern Bank . . • • 133 

,. „ Southern Bank 142 

Lausanne 134 

Environs of Lausanne 137 

Vevey . . . . » 138 

Clarens 140 

Chillon 141 

From Geneva to Chamouny . 145 

Chamouny AND Environs 14^ 

Mont Blanc .... 151 

Tour of Mont Blanc 153 

AosTA TO Martigny, by the Great St. Bernard . . • • V^ 

From Chamouny to Martigny, by the Tete li^oVi^ . * vn 



viU CONTENTS. 

PAGX 

F&OM Chamouny to Martigny, by the Col de Balme • •159 

BfARTIGNY TO ZERMATT l6o 

St. Niklaus 160 

Zermatt 161 

The Rifielbeig and Goraer Grat 162 

The Hbmli 163 

Cimadijazi 164 

Monte Rosa 165 

Environs of Zermatt - • • 165 

From Zermatt to Vogogna, on the Simplon .... 166 

Macugnagna 168 

From Zermatt to Chatillon 169 

The Theodule Pass 169 

From Martigny over the Simplon to Arona . • .170 

Lucerne OVER THE St. GoTHARD TO CoMO . .172 

,, COIRE OVER THE SpLUGEN TO COLICO (Como) . . IJJ 

Splugen to Bellinzona, by the San Bernardino Pass. . 180 

„ CoiRE TO Andermatt, by the Oberalp i8a 

„ CoiRE TO THE Engadine, by the Julier Pass . . . 184 

„ CoiRE TO THE Engadine, by the Albula Pass . • • 185 

The Engadine 185 

Samaden 186 

Pontresina 187 

The Bemina Pass 188 

The Stelvio Pass 188 

The Italian Lakes 189 

Lago Maggiore 189 

Borromean Isles • 190 

The Lake of Como X91 

,, Lugano 193 

„ Varese . 193 

M Orta 193 

Appendix — 

Festivals^ Fetes, Fairs, etc. • • 194 

Heights of Mountains, etc 204 

Time and Cost of a Tour . 1 . . • . . . 206 

Specimens of Tours • • • • . 207 

JJsi of Hotels ••;••••••• 219 



COOK'S 



HANDBOOK FOR SWITZERLAND. 



^tdte&ndot^. 



Luggage. — As conveyance of luggage forms an important item in the expenses 
of a continental tour, this ** necessary evil *' should be condensed as much as may 
be. If possible^ the tourist should only take a small trunk or valise, that he 
can carry in his hand. To those who cannot do this, a strong leathtr portman« 
teau is recommended. It should be of simple construction, and possess a good 
lock, so that it can be opened in an instant for Customs Examination. In France, 
as a rule, each passenger Is allowed 661bs. of luggage free, in Holland and many 
parts of Germany 5olb8., but in some districts of Germany, and in Switserland, 
Belgium, and Italy, all luggage must be paid for (except that which the passenger 
carries in his hand], unless stated otherwise upon the ticket. 

Custom House Examinations are generally made at the station 
nearest the frontier. Thus, between Belgium and Germany luggage is examined 
at Venders ; but if registered through to Cologne by first-class express train, it is 
examined at Cologne. Passengers must always be present at the Custom House 
Examinations, and hand their keys to the examining officer. The Custom? 
Examination is one of the greatest drawbacks to the pleasures of foreign travel, 
but passengers vdll do well to remember that civility costs nothing, and may pur- 
chase much, and that the custom house officers are merely performing a duty^ 
perhaps as disagreeable to themselves as to the traveller. The following is a list 
of stations at which baggage is generally examined :— 



Ala 

Avricourt 
Arlon 
Belfort 


Basle 

Bellegarde 
Bodenbach 
Brussels 


Camerlata 
Como 



INTRODUCTORY. 



Domo d'OisoIa 


LiUe 


Salzbergen 


Dinan 


Lindan 


Schafthausen 


Eger 


Lugano 


Spliigen 


Elcen 


Luxemburg 


Tilburg 


Emmerich 


Modane 


Toumay 


Eydtkuhnen 


Moutcron 


ThionviUe 


Furth 


Oderberg 


Udine 


Friedrichshafen 


Pagny-sur-Motelle 


Valenciennes 


Goritz 


Paris 


Verviers 


Hazebrouck 


Passau 


Venlo 


Hendaye 


Pontarlier 


Ventimille 


Iran 


Roosendaal 


Zevenaar 


Kuistein 


Salzburg 





And the ▼ariousSea and Channel Ports. 



Passports are not at present really required by British travellers on the 
Continent (except for visiting Russia, Turkey, Spain, and Portugal), but at the 
lame time a passport is frequently useful, in order to obtain admission to certain 
Museums, to obtain letters from the Paste Restante^ and to establish identity when- 
ever required. The cost of a passport is very trifling, and may be obtained, if 
desired, through Thos. Cook and Son. 

Language. — So many thousands flock annually over most of the routes 
described in this book, that nothing save the mother-tongue is absolutely essential. 
English is spoken in all the principal hotels, and interpreters may be met with at 
the principal railway-stations. Of course, a knowledge of French and German 
\rill prove of great advantage, and those who explore remote regions will find it 
indispensable, but no one need hesitate to visit Switzerland on the score of not 
knowing anything save English. An hour or two spent in learning French 
and German numerals, and a few phrases, will enable these to combat cab* 
drivers and others who might be disposed to take them in. *^ The Tourist's 
Shilling Conversational Guide,** in English, French, German, and Italian, by 
Dr. J. F. Loth, will be found useful (Cook and Son, Ludgate Circus, or their 
agents). 

Money, if taken in large quantides, should be in circular notes, which may 
be obtained fi-om many of the London bankers. 

Cook's Circular Notes. Messrs. Cook and Son issue Circular Notes 
of the value of £$ or ^f lo sterling, which are accepted at all their continental 
agencies, and by the principal hotel keepers. The chief advantages are safety, ar 
they cannot be cashed without the holder*s endorsement, and convenience of 
exchange, at any hour, in small sums of the currency of each country at the fiill 
rates of exchange. Foreign money can also be obtained of Thos. Cook and Son. . 

English sovereigns are received almost everywhere, and in Switzerland 
may generally be exchanged without loss. Foreign currency is always puzzling^ 
and it will be well for every tourist to familiarize himself with the following 
tables :— 



TIME AND MONEY TABLES. j 

France, Bklgivm, SwrraitLAND, and Italy. 

I franc (in Italy Lira) ss about 9)d. 

5 franc piece ( „ 5 lire) == ,, 48. 
20 franc piece ( „ ao lire) = ,, 1 6s. 
10 centimes ( „ 10 centesime) = m I<U 

100 centimes = i franc; 100 centesime s i lira. 
Italian paper currency is much depreciated in value 

North Gikm any 

1% pfenninge = I silbergroschen* 

z| silbergroschen = 3d* 
10 silbergroschen == is. 
I mark = 100 pf. = is. 

3o^silbergroschen = i thaler = 38. 

6 thalers 20 silbergroschen = i English sovereign. 
20 mark piece (gold) = I English sovereign. 

South Germany and Austria. 

£1 = 11} South German florins = 10 Austrian florins. 

l6s« = 9 fl. 20 kreut. S. Germany = 8 ,, i^ 

I Austrian florin = 100 kreutzers = 2S. 

10 kreut. pieces = ^ florin. 

6 kt. ps. S, Ger. = 9 kt Austria = about 2jd, 

i| fl. S. Germany = ij fl. Austria = 3s. 

I fl. „ =85 kreut. = IS 8d. 

30 kr. „ = 50 „ = lod. 

3 » » = 4 » = ^^' 

The Austrian paper currency is much depreciated, the discount constantly 

varying. 

Holland. 
5 cents = about id, 

too „ = I florin or guilder = „ is. yd. 

I gold ducat = „ 9s. 4d. 

I gold 10 florin piece = „ i6s. 6d. 

Time-Tables. — ^The oflicial rime-tables of the railway companies should be 
consulted upon every available opportunity, as alterations are constantly taking 
place ; and though such alterations are carefully watched, it is impossible for any 
general time-table to guarantee complete accuracy. *' Cook's Continental Time- 
Tables and Tourist's Handbook '* is published at is. ; post-free, is. 2d. 

iPostage. — By the recent postal arrangements, letters can be sent to Fiance, 
Switzerland, Italy, etc., at z^d. under the half-ounce^ 



^ INTRODUCTORY. 

Fees are given by English and Americans with far too lavish a hand, and 
much annoyance is caused to other travellers, and injury done to the people in the 
countries visited, by this habit. Porters carrying luggage will generally make 
extordonate demands. Ask the hotel proprietor to pay what is a fair sum. At 
churches and galleries half a franc is quite enough for a couple of persons, as a 
rule, although this may sometimes be increased to a franc. A sw, or any small 
coin, is sufficient for the legions of beggars besetdng one's way j and probably one 
Aranc put into the box of a local society for relief of the poor would be better spent 
than two francs distributed amongst them in sws. Make a rule of never going 
out without a supply of small coins, however, but never use them lavishly. Let 
the traveller make a favour of giving a sou, aud he will be respected. Never ^ve 
SL sou to one beggar in the presence of another. 

Hotels abound, and, as a rule, are good. Unfortunately, a system prevails 
abroad of charging ^cy prices, and hotel keepers are not different from their 
brethren in other branches of business. An agreement should always be made, and 
even then it is well to have the bill eveiy other day or so, in order to see how 
things are going. Messrs. Cook and Son supply 

Hotel Coupons j and as they are available at Hotels which can be well 
recommended, every one should provide himself with them. In these pages., 
reference is only made to hotels where these Coupons are accepted. (Full par- 
ticulars as to Hotels and Hotel Arrangements by Coupons mil be found in the 
Appendix.) 

The advantages of taking Hotel Coupons may be briefly summed up as fol- 
lows:— 

I. Time, expense, annoyance in bartering, and ultimate dissatisfaction, are 
saved by going to a well-recommended Hotel. 

II. It is a great drawback to pleasure to arrive in a foreign town beset by por- 
ters, commissionaires, and rabble, a perfect stranger, and without any definite 
idea where to go. 

III. Letters fi'om home, or telegrams, may be found upon arrival at the Hotel, 
thus saving trouble or expense in sending for them to the Post Office. 

IV. The charges are all fixed, thus obviating the chance of imposition, and 
the disagreeable task of having to drive a bargain at each stopping* place. 

y. The charges being fixed at the lowest sum to insure good accommodation 
at one uniform rate, the tourist is enabled to count the cost of his tour before 
starting. 

VI. Travellers with coupons, bespeaking accommodation by letter or telegram, 
are always provided for, even in the busiest seasons, if they inform the hotel 
keeper that they have coupons. 

Routes should be carefiiUy selected, and plans well digested, before starting j 
and in order to assist in this matter, a list will be found in the Appendix which 
will supply all necessary information. It will be sufficient to mention here the 
;»rincipal routes* 



SCOPE OF WORK. 

Via Paris. 

London to Pari«, via Newhaven, Dieppe, and Rouen 
,f „ via Folkestone, Boulogne, and Amiens 

„ „ via Dover and Calais 

There are five principal routes from Paris to Switzerland, namely-^ 

Paris to Strasbourg and Basle, by Epernay, Chalons, and Nanqr 
„ to Basle, by Troyes, Chaumont, and Belfort 
„ to Neuchatel, or to Lausanne, by Tonnerr, Dijon, and Pontarlier 
„ to Geneva, by Dijon and Macon 

Via Hollamp, Bilgium, and the Rninb, 

London to Harwich, Boat to Rotterdam 
„ Harwich, „ Antwerp 

y, Queenboro* „ Flushing (Vlessmgen) 

„ Dover, „ Ostend 

Or by Boat direct from London to Rotterdam 
„ fy Antwerp 



n M 



Ostend 



The routes from either Rotterdam, Antwerp, Flushing, or Ostend are Yaxiooi^ 
Those who wish to get quickly into Smtzerland should go by the Luxembourg 
route direct to Basle or Zurich. 

For the Rhine journey the steamboat should be taken at Cologne or Bonn, 
and quitted at Bingen or Mayence. 

Travellers who wish to combine a visit to the Black Forest with the Rhine 
trip should proceed to Heidelberg, thence to Baden, and by the new Baden States 
Railway to Singen and SchafFhausen ; or continue by rail from Baden to Freiburg, 
and then on foot or by carriage through some of the most charming scenery of 
the Forest to Waldshut and Basle. 

For detailed information as to all these routes see '' Cook's Tourist^ s Handbook 
to Holland, Belgium, and the Rhine,** and <* Cook*s Tourist's Handbook to the 
Black Forest." 

Time for Visiting Switzerland.— From the beginning of May to the 
end of October. Mountain climbers will find the end of July and the month of 
August most suitable for their excursions. 

Guides. — Certificated Guides may be found at all the principal centres 
for excursions on application to the Hotel Proprietors. The fee should 
not exceed eight francs for a day, but it is necessary to make «.V»K^bxk«. 
Guides are altogether unnecessary for such ^iteWAjtateii \x«.0» *» ^^^^ '^^^ 
Stheideck, GrinMcl, etc.j but ht gUdei TOUte%^ «i eMfes.\JA. ' '""" 



5 INTRODUCTORY. 

ire invaluable. Twenty poonds' weight of baggage may be given to the guide cu 
carry ; but this is the limit, and it is best to give him as little as possible. 

Scope of ^Work.— It is not intended in this work to give precise infbr 
madon as to excuraons among the High Alps, nor to mark out minutely the 
thousand excursions that may be made to obscure and comparatively unknown 
places. For such there are special works provided. In the present volume such 
information only is given as it is thought will be found useful to the ordinary 
Tourist 

Cook's Travelling Coupons are now so well known and universally 
usedy that they need but little description. Suffice it to say, that if there are 
advantages in knowing of cheap, comfortable, and well recommended Hotels 
wherein to rest, there are a hundredfold more in having all the difficulties of travel 
made smooth. The most inexperienced may avail themselves of them without fear 
of not being able to get on, and the most experienced take them as the simples^ 
easiest, and cheapest means of travelling. 

Churches should be visited in the morning, as they are then open free, and 
can be viewed with greater pleasure on account of the light. Moreover, it is a 
great saving in expense, as later in the day a fee is demanded or expected by the 
sacristan who opens them for visitors. It will not be taken unkindly by the 
tourist to be reminded that the many attractions in Continental churches some- 
times cause him to forget that they are places of toorsbip ; and if for his own 
convenience and pleasure he visits them at times when they are frequented by 
worshippers, he should be careful to abandon the use of opera-glasses, guide-books, 
and other accessories, if they are likely to prove a hindrance to the devotions of 
others. Unfortunately, this has been disregarded so much — and notably by 
English and Americans — that it has been found necessary in some churches to 
write over the entrance, <f Honour is due to God's house.'* A word to the wise 
ia enough. 

Bnglish Churches are not mentioned specially in this work, as in every 
Hotel frequented by the English, notices are abundant in which the time and place 
of service are recorded. Changes are often made, too, both as regards the place 
and the time, according to the season of the year, but no difficulty will be found 
in obtaining accurate information. 





toit^erlank 



Area, Population. — Switzerland, or Schweiz (Germ), Suisse (Fr.), 
Svirrera (Ital.), Helvetia (Latin), includes an area of nearly 16,000 square 
miles, being about 206 miles in length, by 139 at its greatest breadth. Its bound- 
aries are, in most places, grandly defined by river, lake, or mountain. The popu- 
lation in 1877 was 2,776,035. 

Surface. — The surface of Switzerland is very varied, rising from 678 feet 
on the shore of Lago Maggiore, or 800 feet on the banks of the Rhine at 
Basle, to 15,226 feet at the summit of Monte Rosa. More than half the extent 
of Switzerland is occupied by the Alps ; between these and the Juras to the west 
is a plain, with a hilly country to the northward. 

The Alps are ranged about a central spot west of the St. Gothard Pass, where 
about a hundred square miles of rocks, etc., lie above the limits of perpetual snow, 
and the Galenstock, Gletscherhorn, Dichterhorn, and other important peaks, rise 
to the height of ten or twelve thousand feet. The waters from this elevated 
region pass by the Rhine to the .German Ocean, by the Rhone to the Mediter- 
ranean, by the Po to the Adriatic, and by the Danube to the Black Sea, 

From this mountain knot a chain extends northward towards the Lake of 
Lucerne, including the Titlis (11,406 feet), and the Urner Rothstock (10,063 
feet). Southward runs a chain of mountains averaging from 6000 to 7000 feet. 
Westward run the Bernese and Lepontine Alps, whilst the two branches of the 
Rhaetian Alps diverge to the east. 

The basin of the Upper Rhone (Canton Valais), and the Valley of the Rhone, 
|2 miles in length, are important features of the map of Switzerland. As far as 
Brieg, the Rhone Valley is about half a mile wide. Near Visp it widens, and 
several very interesting lateral valleys join it. The river finally debouches into 
Lake Leman, through about eight miles of swampy ground very little higher than 
the level of the lake. 

The Bernese Alps north of the Rhone Valley form one of the grandest fea- 
tures of Switzerland. Six hundred square miles of ice and snow and savage moun- 
tain scenery lie between the valley of Hasli and the valley of Kander. The dis- 
trict is intersected by two or three fine valleys, and abounds in numerous lofty 
peaks, splendid glaciers, mountain passes, torrents, etc., etc., of which attracdoiui • 
the more striking will be found duly noted in 8ubse<^«&X. ^^'^'^ ^"i >^a2&^«$fi05SA« 



g SWITZERLAND. 

The Pennine Alps lie west of the Simplon Pass, stretching southward to Monte 
Rosa (15,226 feet), and then westward to Mont Blanc. They include Mont 
Cervln (14,764 feet), and several other peaks of somewhat less altitude. Towards 
the east and south the ascent Is steep, and cultivation creeps up the base of lofty 
mountains $ but towards the north for many miles the elevadon is above the line 
of perpetual snow. 

The Lakes of Switzerland are another prominent natural feature. The Lake 
of Geneva, with its diversified scenery and varied associations, literary, legendary, 
and historic ; the Lake of Lucerne, surrounded by the sacred ground of Svnss 
history — at one point charming with its tranquil beauty, at another awe-inspiring 
with its rugged grandeur $ the Lakes of Zurich, Thun, and Brienz, so thoroughly 
characteristic of Switzerland j and the frontier and Italian Lakes of Lugano, 
Como, etc., which may easily be included in the tour, are amongst the prin- 
cipal. 

Geology. — In all the lofHest Alpine chains granite is found mostly in con- 
junction with gneiss and mica slate. In many parts, especially on the Great 
and Litde St. Bernard, and south of the St. Gothard, granular limestone is abun- 
dant $ and the celebrated mountain limestone appears on the Diablerets, Dent du 
Midi, etc ; and Jura limestone has become a term descriptive of a special variety. 
Particles of gold are found in the sands of several of the Smss rivers, but not in 
sufficient quantity to repay the search. In the Grisons are some abandoned lead 
and copper mines. Iron is widely diffused through the whole country. Rock- 
salt is found in Vaud ; alabaster, marble, su'phur, and gypsum are also named 
amongst Svnst productions ; and the asphalte (from the Val de Travers, etc.) has 
become of late a prominent object in the streets of London and other great cities. 
There are many mineral springs, as at Leuk, St. Moritz, etc. Coal of an 
inferior quality is found in the Cantons of Fribourg, Vaud, Basle, and Thurgau. 

Vegetation, Agriculture, etc. — Few countries present a more varied 
aspect in this respect than Switzerland. Seven distinct regions mark the differing 
circumstances under which cultivation is carried on— 

I. Up to J 700 or 1800 feet the vine flourishes. 

II. The hilly or Lower Mountain Region, up to about aSoo feet, contains 
abundance of walnut-trees and good meadows. 

III. The mountain district, up to 4100 feet, is chiefly distinguished by its 
forest timber. The pastures and fields of barley and oats are good. 

IV. The sub- Alpine region, up to 5500 feet, is characterized by pine forests 
and good grass land ; a few kitchen vegetables are grown. 

v. The lower Alpine region extends to 6500 feet, and is the region of the 
celebrated Alpine pastures. 

VI. The Alpine region, where, in proximity to glaciers, etc., only a stunted 
vegetation is found. Summer lasts about five or six weeks. 

VII. The region of perpetual snow, above 8000 feet. 

Animal JUife. — ^The homed catde of Switzerland are nearly a million in 
tiumber, a large proportion of which are milch cows. The chief game are the 



SPECIAL OBJECTS OF INTEREST. g 

chamois, hare, marmot, and partridge. Fish, espedally trout, abound in the lakes 
and rivers; the salmon is found in the Aar, the Rhine, and Lake Zurich 

Manufactures, etc. — There are manufactures of silks, ribbons, and 
cotton goods in various parts of Swdtzerland, the principal being at Zurich and 
Winterthur. Basle exports silk ribbons to a large exten^ also leather, paper, and 
tobacco. Geneva b famous for its watches and musical boxes. Watches are also 
largely manufactured in Lode and La Chaux-de-Fonds. 

Xianguage. — German dialects are spoken in about three-fourths of 
Switzerland. In Geneva, Vaud, Neuchatel, and parts of Berne, Fribourg, and 
Valais, French is the language (written and spoken] of the educated classes. In 
Ticino, and some of the southern valleys, Italian is spoken i The dialects known 
as Romansch and Ladin prevail through about half the Grisons. 

Religion. — Calvinlstic Protestantism predominates, but there is no State 
Church, and all religions are tolerated. Since 1847 the Religious Houses have 
been suppressed. 

Special Objects of Interest. — Besides the delightful character of 
the ever-varying Swiss scenery, the country has many attractions of a special 
character. 

The Mountains are an unfailing source of enjoyment. General views of 
mountain scenery can be obtained from two or three points in the city of Berne, 
from the Dole near Geneva, the Faulhorn near Grindelwald, Weissenstein, near 
Soleure, the Ri^ near Lucerne, etc., etc. Nearer views of mountain scenery are 
obtained from various points in the Mont Blanc and Monte Rosa districts, also in 
the Bernese Oberland, etc. The grand views from the Belle Alp by Brieg ; the 
Brevent byChamouny ; theEggischom by Viesch ; the Piz Languard by Pontresina j 
and the Sidelhom near the Grimsel, and many others, are within the reach of 
moderate climbers without serious difficulty. 

Waterfalls are very numerous. The Fall of the Rhine at SchafHiausen 
that of the Aare at Handeck (full, lofty, and grandly situated), the misty Staub- 
bach, Schmadribach, Reichenbach, Giessbach, and many others, will be duly noted 
at their proper places. 

The Mountain Passes are of three kinds — i. Carriage Passes, such as the 
Simplon, St Gothard, Splugen, etc. ; 2. Mule Passes, as the Col de Balme, 
Grimsel, Scheideck, Gemmi, etc. ; 3. Glacier Passes, as the Strahleck, Tschingel, 
S. Theodule, etc. Surpassingly grand are the ravines by which some of these 
passes are approached ; as, for instance, the Via Mala and the Gasterenthal. The 
sloping meadows seen at lofty elevations in crossing these lofty elevations are called 
** Alps," whence the appropriation of the name to the mountains themselves. Here 
and there are the rude structures for dairy purposes known as Chalets, where 
refreshments can generally be obtained. 

The Glaciers are perhaps the most wondertul of Alpine marvels. Around 
the loftiest peaks the snow, filing and accumulating in the adjacent ravines, 
becomes crystallized by ever-increasing pressure into solid ice, and is forced dA^nii* 
ward by constant accumulation towards the valleys. At QtVEi^t^^'iniN.^^C^tkaxstxsQX);^ 



10 SWITZERLAND. 

Zermatt, etc^ these Olacien can be inspected at the eztremitiei of the off- 
shoots thus thrust downwards towards the culdrated districts. But to realise thttr 
true wildness and grandeur, the traveller must venture to explore the Ssas or Id 
{EisTneer, Mers de Glace) from whence they spring. Of these Ice Seat the 
most remarkable are those surrounding Mont Blanc, Monte Rosa, and the Finster- 
aaihorn. The Litter is probably the largest ice-field in Europe, covering over iio 
square miles, and sending out more than a dozen branches towards the valleys 
below. By the constant pressure, alternate melting and freezing, and other causet» 
these Glaciers are kept in constant motion, disappearing to feed the rivers at their 
bases, whilst afresh supplied fix>m the regions of eternal snow at their summits. 
Down the middle or along the sides of the Glaciers are the huge accumulations of 
rubbish thrown up by the glacial motion, and known as Moraines. The deep 
fissures common in most Glaciers are called Crevasses. The Avalanchis, as 
probably most readers will already be aware, are huge masses of snow and ice, dis- 
engaged by the heat of the sun, and rolling down the mountain-side. 

The Valleys of Switzerland are exceedingly beaudful. The Haslithal, 
Simmenthal, Vale of Sarnen, and many others, will be found to afford much 
enjoyment, especially to those who prefer tranquil and yet romantic loveliness, 
without the fatigue and difficulty of ascending great heights. 

Goitre and Cretinism are physical complaints still prevalent in some 
parts of Switzerland. The former is a remarkable glandular swelling in the neclc, 
the latter a species of idiocy. These complaints are limited to certain low-4]^iig 
districts, and appear to be owing to deficient sanitary arrangements or local exhala- 
tions. 

The Swiss People, says Laing, << are the Dutch of the mountains { 
the same cold, unimaginative, money-seeking, yet vigorous, determined, energetic 
people." In the parts most frequented by tourists the Swiss are certainly notorious 
for their efforts to extort money from the travellers ; but probably other tourist- 
haunted spots nearer home might furnish instances of similar rapacity. The Swiss 
are great lovers of freedom, and at the same time display an unbounded reverence 
for antiquity ; and amongst the upper classes they are exceedingly reserved and 
exclusive in their social anangements. 

The Government of Switzerland consists of a Federal Assembly, comprising 
a Nadonal Council and a Council of States — the former containing one delegate 
for every 20,000 inhabitants, the latter having two members for each canton. This 
Assembly elects a supreme Federal Council of seven. Every adult male in Switser- 
land has the franchise at the age of twenty, and is bound for military service. 

The country consists of 22 political divisions, called Cantons, of which the 
Grisons, containing 2900 square miles, is the largest, and Zug, containing 85 square 
miles, the smallest. The Swiss population for the whole country is 165 to the 
square mile, or 244 to the square mile if Alpine Switzerland be excepted. Geneva 
is the most densely populated canton, having 847 to the square mile \ whilst Ia 
the Grisons, the least populous, there are only 33 to the square mile. 

Wrestling Matches {Sckwingfeste) between the men of various Cuitoiit 



HISTORY II 

and the Tir Federal, or general rifle-shoodng contest, held once in two years, 
and similar to our annual Volunteer gathering at Wimbledon, are interesting occat- 
fiions. The dates of some of the more important will be found in the Travellers' 
Calendar at the end of this volume. 

History. — Not in the pages of the historian, but beneath the sur^ce of her 
lakes, are found the earliest records of human existence in the country now called 
Switzerland. As we shall have occasion to show hereafter, the earliest inhabitants 
seem to have been a mysterious race, who dwelt in houses reared on [dies above 
the waters of the lakes, and who used stone where we should now use 
metal. 

But leaving this primeval race, history shows us the Rhaeti, of supposed 
Etruscan origin, retreating before the advances of the Celtic Helvetii, into the 
mountainous regions of Eastern Switzerland. Then, in the first century of our 
era, Rome comes upon the scene, brings Helvetii and Rhaeti alike into subjection, 
founds colonies, constructs roads, and spreads Latin civilization. Save only during 
the brief rebellion of a.d. 69, promptly suppressed by Cecina, the country re- 
mained subject to the Roman power till the downfall of the latter. 

And now, as in other outskirts of the Roman Empire, the native population, 
led to rely on Roman protection, and enervated by Roman luxury, became speedily 
subjected to the fierce, barbaric tribes that were swarming from the overcrowded 
regions to which Roman prowess had hitherto confined them. The Burgundians 
occupied Western Switzerland, and made Geneva their capital, the fierce Alemanni 
settled on the banks of the Rhine, and Theodoric with his Goths seized moun- 
tainous Rhaetia. 

The Franks next appear under Clovis, driving out the Alemanni in a.d. 496, 
defeating the Burgundians in a.d. 534, becoming masters of all Helvetia, and, as 
the Italo-Gothic kingdom declined, conquering Rhaetia also. These conquests 
culminated in the great Empire of Charlemagne, who introduced the feudal system. 
Meanwhile, Christianity had been disseminated amongst the Burgundians in the 
fifth century, and amongst the Alemmni by Columbus and his disciples in the 
seventh century. These monks preached the gospel, destroyed the idols, built the 
chapels at St Gall, Dlssentis, Zurich, and elsewhere, introduced the cultivation of 
the ^ne and com, and in other ways aided in the culture and enlightenment 
of the people. 

At the dissolution of the Frank Empire, Eastern Switzerland became united to 
Suabia, and Western Switzerland to the kingdom of Burgundy. Early in the 
eleventh century the Burgundian power declined, and Rudolph III., in ioi6,made 
over his kingdom to the Emperor Henry II. of Germany : for the German 
Emperors the Dukes of Zaringia acted as vicegerents } and these latter found it 
their policy to protect the towns, in order to curb the old Burgundian nobles, who 
continued troublesome. From this period, Berne, Fribourg, and other important 
places date their origin. 

But the feudal lords of the soil, in course of time, g;c«vi t&!i»«, '^^«i&^ '»s^ 
less mindful of the imperial rule j and to preserve t^idc ^&2M;t^<e&^ ^<& ^''«>a» ^x«^ 



12 SWITZERLAND. 

towns were compelled to treat with the nobles. One of the most importuit of 
these was Count Rudolph of Hapsburg, with whom Zurich and the three Cantons 
of Uri, Schwyz, and Unterwalden entered into alliance. He asristed the towns in 
maintaining their independence, and, after becoming Emperor, continued the same 
policy. 

His son Albert pursued a different line of conduct— attempted to make 
Svatzerland an integral part of the Hapsburg possessions, and sent Austrian 
baHifli to oppress the country. The Swiss rose in revolt The three forest Can- 
tons, led on by Arnold, and Furs^ and StaufFacher, confederated to protect their 
liberties in 1307 (see p. 67). To this period belong the Tell legends. 

For more than two hundred years Switzerland maintained a struggle for inde- 
pendence, defeating the Austrians at the memorable fields of Morgarten in 1307, 
Sempach in 1386, Nafels in 1388, and at the Stoss in 1405. Equally impottsnt 
were the victories over the feudal nobles at Laupen in 1339, and over Charles the 
Bold and the Burgimdian forces at Grandson and Morat in 1476. 

In 1499, having refused to aid Maximilian in his war with France, that 
Emperor struck the final blow at Swdss independence in what is known as the 
Suabian war. But 6000 Confederates defeated 15,000 Austrians at Domach, and 
henceforth the country was only nominally subject to the Emperors, and even thii 
connection was formally relinquished in 1648. 

During these long external struggles Switzerland had increased and internally 
developed. Lucerne joined the confederacy in 132X, Zurich and Glarus in 1351, 
Zug and Berne in 1352, in which year a Federal Diet was established. In 1422, 
Valais allied herself as an independent State. Soleure and Fribourg came in in 
1481, and Basleand SchaflFhausen in 1501. In 151 3 Appenzell was received, 
thus completing the thirteen Cantons which constituted Switzerland till the French 
Revolution in 1798. 

The Reformation of Religion was commenced in Switzerland by the pro- 
clamation of the new doctrine at Zurich in 1523 ; and under the teachings of 
Zwingli, and subsequentiy of Calvin and Favel, a large proportion of the popu- 
lation of the country embraced Protestantism, and in 1532 the Helvetic Confession 
of Faith was put forth. Unfortunately, for a long period. Catholics and Pro- 
testants would not agree amicably to differ, and no less than three sanguinary 
religious wars ensued, viz., in 153 1, in 1653, and in 1712, the last being ended by 
the Peace of Aarau. 

It seems that, afcer the cessation of the wars for independence, the Swiss had 
become satiated by their conquests. Swiss valour became individual rather than 
national, and her soldiers were notorious as the mercenary champions of any cause 
that could afford to pay'for their services. Swiss Guards were the last prop of the 
expiring Bourbon monarchy at the close of the eighteenth centuiy ; and by a stroke 
of bitter irony, the country of those brave hirelings became very shortly the prey 
of the very people whose rising aspirations for freedom they had been paid to sup- 
press. Vainly at Rothenthurm and Stans did Aloys Reding, and other patriots of 
the ancient stamp essay to stem the progress of the French Republicans. The 



HISTORY. 



13 



counCiy im con^Dcno, and, in reility, tanexti, though a t(M:alled HelTcdaa 
Republic wB cstabliihed. 

In 1S02, Buonaparte restored the Cinlnnal lyttem, under the protection of 
France. In 1815 the Allied SoTcrdgni acknowledged the indepeadeoce of 
Switierbnd. The Canton^ now twenty-two in number, were united under ■ 
conititution providing that a Federal EKet ihould be held alternately at Berne, 
Zurich, and Laceme. In iSjo, lerenl Cantoni Intiodiiced important cliange) in 
a democratic direcdoa. Theie chuigea, especially the ni^ii«nian of monasteriea 
and e}ecllaa of the Jesuiti, were oppoied by other Canton), who, in 1841, joined 
En the league known as the Sondetbuad. Thia oi^^ankfd appodtiou hid to lie 
put down by force in i S47. In [he following year a new Coutitution, of a more 
Liberal and Protestant chuacter. wai adopted, and Berne was made the permanent 
■eat of Government. Since that time the history of Switzerland has been a record 
of peacciiil and rapid progress. Urge development of the national reiourcei, and 
£mUtiei of intercommunifJtinn. 




BALE, BASLE, OR BASEL. 
(Hotel Trois Rois.) 

(A very fine hotel, beautifully situated, with good view of 
the Rhine and opposite bank.) 

Railway Stations. — There are two Railway Stations 
at Basle, and they are about 40 minutes' walk from each other. 
Omnibus, i franc. Carriage, i^ franc ; 2 francs, if more than 
two persons. 

^ The Central Station is on the S. side of the town, a 
mile from the Bridge and Hotel Trois Rois. Omnibus to town, 
I franc. Local Railway from one station to the other every 20 
minutes. 

Trains for the Swiss and Alsace lines start from this station. 

The Baden Station is in Klein-Basel, nearly a mile from 
the Bridge and the Hotel Trois Rois. Trains for Baden, Black 
Forest, etc., start from this station. 

Basle (population 45,000) is of Roman origin 5 its name is 
derived from Basileia, or Basilis, a *' queen " — probably on 
account of its wealth and importance, and splendid situation on 
the Rhine. The town is divided by the river into two parts — 
Great Basle on the left bank, and Little Basle on the right. 

The geographical position of Basle is very interesting 3 until 
the Franco-German war it was at the junction of Switzerland, 
France, and Germany. There was a spot near Kleinhuningen 
where it was said a man might plant his foot on all three 
countries at once. 

The inhabitants of Basle have always had the character of 
being thrifty traders, and the charge of usury has been laid at 
their door; they also earned the notoriety, in ancient times, 
which attaches to the quarrelsome ; and as late as the year 1833 
the city Basle and the country Basle were engaged in a civil war 
on so small a scale as would have rendered it ridiculous, but for 
the bloodshed and death in which it resulted. Since that time 
the belligerent canton has been divided into two parts, by order 
of the Swiss Diet. Each half canton has an independent vote, 
but only one senator is returned to the Standerath. 

Basle has been the scene of several important tcealvs& ^H. 



1 5 BASLE. 

peace j between the Prussians, Spanish, and French, in 1795, 
and in the same year between Spain and France, when the latter 
gave up the provinces south of the Pyrenees in exchange for a 
portion of the Island of St. Domingo, since lost to them. One 
or two important Councils have been held at Basle, notably 
that in 143 1, convened by Pope Martin V., to suppress the 
heresies of the Hussites. 

Among the celebrated men for whom Basle is famous may 
be mentioned : yohn and Charles Bemouilli, the mathema- 
ticians 5 Buxtorfy an eminent professor of Oriental languages j 
CEcolampadius and Grynceus, Holbein commenced his career in 
Basle ; Erasmus resided here in the house Zur Lusi, near the 
Munster 5 and Euler, the celebrated mathematician, was bom in 
Basle. 

The best starting-point for a tour of the town is the Three 
Kings Hotel, a place of historic interest, if the following 
statement may be accepted : — 

'' Basle was founded by the Romans at an early period 
(perhaps already in the second century). The Alemanni, how- 
ever, destroyed it about the beginning of the fifth century j but 
when that savage nation was itself subjugated by Clovis, Basle 
passed likewise under the sceptre of that prince, and remained 
under the dominion of the Frank monarchs till 912, when 
Rodolphus II., sovereign of the newly-established kingdom of 
Little Burgundy, offered Basle his protection against the ferocious 
Normans and Hungarians, who infested the Grerman empire at 
that time. Notwithstanding this promised support, the town 
was entirely devastated and burnt down by the Hungarians. 

" In the year 1004 the rebuilt city was restored to the Ger- 
man empire by Rodolphus III., who bequeathed his kingdom 
of Little Burgundy to the Emperor Henry If., and gave the 
town of Basle as a pledge of his promise. In 1024, Henry's 
successor, Conrad II., and the son of this monarch, Henry III. 
(already elected as German Emperor) had an interview with 
Rodolphus III., King of Burgundy, in a field near Muttenz, in 
the neighbourhood of Basle 5 after which deliberation the three 
sovereigns entered the town together, and are said to have 
alighted and signed their agreement at the old inn, which stood 
on the spot where this house now stands, and which, from this 
circumstance, took the name of * Hotel of the Three Kings,* ** 

Maximilian Misson, who visited Basle in 1690, says, in his 
" Instructions to Travellers," — " At Basle, lodge at the * Three 
Kings,' where you will be well entertained." 



BASLE. ^y 

Close by the Hotel is the Wooden Bridge (280 yards), 
which connects Gross-Basel with Klein-Basel. This is a very 
favourite resort is summer evenings 5 the views up and down 
the river are good. The tourist will watch with interest the 
rafts coming down the river, and note the dexterity with which 
they are shot under the bridge. No boat can force its way 
against the mighty current here save one, and that is ingeniously 
contrived to propel itself by the current. It is a curious but 
simple contrivance, and is worth the price of the fare just to 
cross and recross. 

The Miinster, one of the finest Protestant churches in 
the world, is but a short distance from the bridge 5 its two tall 
towers (220 feet high) are conspicuous. It was built by the 
Emperor Henry II. (loio — 10 19), and has several times since 
been rebuilt or restored. The west front presents a very striking 
appearance. On either side are statues of St. Greorge (left) 
and St. Martin (right). By the doorway, representations of the 
Emperor Henry, who founded the church, and Helena, his 
wife. Above, the Virgin and Child. 

The northern entrance is graced with a curious representation 
of the parable of the wise and foolish virgins. 

The interior, thoroughly restored and re-decorated in 
1855, contains some objects of interest. Open free, Tuesdays 
and Thursdays, 2 till 4. Oiher times a small fee. The organ 
(performance once or twice a week in the summer, between 
6 and 7, one franc), was built in i8j8,and is a very fine instru- 
ment. It is supported by the old rood loft of 138 1. Stone 
pulpit, date 1324. Font, 1465. Monument to Eras- 
mus, the learned editor of the New Testament, and one of 
the harbingers of the Reformation. Choir. Tomb of 
Empress Anne, wife of Rudolph of Hapsburg. Stained -glass 
windows by Swiss artists. A stairway leads from the choir to 
the Concilium Saal (Council Hall). It was the scene of 
the councils held between 143 1 and 1445, ^^^ remains now 
exactly as it was then. It contains, among other curiosities, 
the fragments of the Dance of Death, commemorating the 
plague. The frescoes were not painted by Holbein, as was 
formerly supposed. Beneath the Council Hall, in the chapel 
of S. Nicholas, b the Lallenkonig, a curious head which 
formerly stood on the bridge, and every time the clock struck 
it protruded its tongue, in derision of the inhabitants of Klein. 
Basel, with whom the people of Gross-Basel were on uaxixveoL^ic^ 
terms. The cloisters are extensive, an.d.N(re!ce -vvsR^^^a-^soKv^^- 



jg BASLE. 

place for many centuries. Close by is the Pfalz, a pleasant 
promenade^ planted with chestnut trees 5 it is between 70 and 
80 ft. above the Rbine^ and commands fine views of the hills 
of the Black Forest. 

Between the bridge and the Miinster is the Museum. (Open 
free, Sundays 10 — 12, Wednesdays 2 — ^4. Other times i franc.) 
Its chief attraction is a collection of paintings and drawings by 
the younger Holbein. There are other works of value and 
interest. Notice especially in the Molbein Room — 

13. Portrait of Boniface Amberbach, a friend of the painter, 

who formed this collection of his works. 

14. Erasmus. 

20. Holbein's wife and children. 

21. Lais Corinthiaca. (Madame von Off enburg). 
23. Venus with Cupid. „ 

26. The Passion of Christ. (Eight compartments.) 
34. Froben, the printer. 

In the collection of modern Swiss artists, notice — 
146. A Mountain Festival .... Stuckelherg^ 

/^oT Watering the Cattle .... F, Roller , 

In the Birmann collection — 

2t66. Nativity Annihale Caracci, 

291. Smoker ...••... Tenters, 

Modern German school — 
351. Macbeth and the Witches .... y. Koch. 

^61. The death of Joseph .... Overheck. 

The collection of drawings is very good. 

In addition to the picture gallery, there is a good collection 
of antiquities, found, for the most part, at Augst, the site 
of an old Roman colony — Augusta Rauracorum, six miles from 
Basle — and other curiosities. 

In the same building is the Public Library, with nearly 
100,000 volumes, and a collection of MSS., including writings 
of the Reformers. The University, close by, was founded 
in T460. Bemouilli and Euler were professors here. 

In the market-place is the Rathhaus (Town Hall). 
Built 1508, restored 1826. The arms of the canton Basle 
adorn the fagade, and in front of the inner court is a statue of 
Munatius Plancus, the supposed founder of Basle and Augst. 

Near here, in the Freien-Strasse, is the Post Office, a 
very old building restored, and in the immediate vicinity are 
several buildings dating from about the sixteenth century. 

The Arsenal (Zeughaus), contains a collection of armour, 



BASLE. 10 

Burgundian cannon, etc. The principal curiosity is a suit o£ 
chain armour worn by Charles the Bold at the Baitle of Nancys 

A short distance from the Arsenal is a very beautiful 
Fountain, the Spahlenbrunnen, representing a bag-piper> 
designed, probably, by Albert Diirer. The Spahlenthor, c^ 
Gate of St. Paul, built in the fourteenth century, is very fine. 

The churches of Basle are — 

The Barfiisser Church, fourteenth century. (Not 
used now as a place of worship.) 

The Church of S. Elizabeth, the most magnificent 
modem building in Basle. It is in the Grothic style, and is the 
gift of one Christopher Mirian, a merchant of Basle, who leffc 
an enormous sum (nearly a quarter of a million) for its erection 
Good stained-glass windows. 

Church of St. Martin, where CEcolampadius preached 
the doctrines of the Reformation. The English Church Service 
is performed here. 

Basle has long been celebrated for its philanthropists, and 
there are at the present time, in admirable working order, as* 
number of good institutions for the social, moral, and religioue 
welfare of the people. Among them are the Protestant 
Missionary and Bible Society, Missionary School, Society for the 
Promotion of the Public Welfare, besides asylums, and other 
' benevolent institutions. • 

The Central Railway Station, on the S. side of the 
town, is handsome. On the exterior, reliefs of Newton, Humboldt, 
Laplace, and Euler. It will be observed that there are also two 
clocks, which differ by twenty-two minutes. One shows the 
Paris time, the other the time of Basle. Much interest attaches 
to the time in Basle, as the following will show : — 

"Everybody knows how, until the end of the last century, 
it was a part of the religion of the people of Basle to keep their 
clocks an hour in advance of those of the rest of the world. It 
is somewhat remarkable, however, that the origin of so singular 
a practice should not be more clearly traced. One theory 
accounts for it, by the supposition that the people of Basle 
were an hour lazier than other people, and required this notable 
device in order to keep them up to the mark. Another, is that 
the town dock having been struck by lightning, and the hand 
forced an hour forward, the superstition of the people- prevented 
them from mterfering with what they considered to be the ^sfC 
of heaven. A third is, that the attempt of atv ewexcv-^ \.o ^\«^\vsfe 
the town at a certain appointed hour, was deiea\.^^>o^ ^'^ \.^h*'«^ 



20 



ENVIRONS OF BASLE. 



dock^ which was to have given the signal, striking an hour in 
advance, and thus deceiving them into the belief that they were 
too late ; in grateful commemoration of which this tribute of 
respect was paid to bad clock-making — like that of the Romans 
to the geese, which saved the Capitol. A fourth theory — and 
that which finds favour in the eyes of the respectable traveller, 
Coxe — is, that it is owing to the fact of the choir of the cathe- 
dral being built at a little deviation from the due east, which 
consequently produced a corresponding variation upon the sun- 
dial which was affixed to it. Whatever the origin of the 
practice might be, it was considered by the people of Basle as 
an integral part of their constitution; and every proposition 
made in the council to alter it, met with a signal defeat.*' In 
1799 they were put right, however, and Basle now keeps 
" railway time." 

Basle is rapidly rising in the estimation of tourists, and a day 
or two may be spent here with pleasure. There are good 
Swimming Baths, a Reading Club, and a handsome new 
Theatre. The Zoological Gardens, which are planned on an 
extensive scale, will prove a great attraction. 

In the environs of Basle are some charming walks and 
drives. About three-quarters of a mile from the town is the 

Battle Field of St- Jacob, where, in 1444, 1300 Swiss 
withstood an army of 40,000 French, under the command of the 
Dauphin of France, at that time a confederate of the Austrians. 
The latter army perished, only ten escaping alive, and the battle 
of St. Jacob is still referred to as the Thermopylae of Swiss 
history. The vineyards near here produce a red wine called 
Schweitzer Blut (Swiss Blood). It was not till 1872 that a 
monument was erected to their memory. It is a very fine 
one by F, Schloth, and bears the inscription, "Our souls to 
God, our bodies to the enemy.*' Well worth seeing. 

Augst, six miles. A few Roman remains. 

Arleslieim, six miles. Formerly summer residence of 
Bishops of Basle. Fine English park surrounding the ruined 
castle of Birseck. 

Benedictine Convent of Manastein, six miles. 

Very picturesque. 

Htiningen, three miles. A great establishment for 
pisciculture. 



RHEINFELDEN. 21 

BASLE TO 8CHAFFHAU8EN. 

Station of the Baden Railway in Klein-Basel (p. 15). Time, 
3 hours. 

Grenzack, — A verjr good wine grown here. Whylen, 

Rheinfelden, on the left bank of the Rhine, is a little 
walled town, thoroughly Swiss j it is partly built with the ruins 
of the old Roman settlement, Augusta Rauracorum, founded 
by Munatius Plancus (p. 18). Basel Augst (p. 18) is 
about 3 miles from here. Rheinfelden was one of the border 
forts of the Holy Roman Empire : many battles were fought 
around it during the Thirty Years* War j it sustained numerous 
sieges, imtil, in 1 744, it was taken by the French; and all its 
fortifications levelled. It has formed part of Switzerland since 
1 801. The Covered Bridge, the Upper Gate, and the Stork's 
Nest Tower, are curious and interesting. There are some 
famous salt-works in the vicinity of the town, and baths. The 
Rhine here narrows, and rushes in a foaming torrent, forming 
the Hollenhaken, 

Sdckingen (Hotel Schutzen). — A fine old Abbey Church, 

Klein- Lauffenhurg, — A covered bridge connects it with 

LaulTenburg (from Lauffen, cataracts). — An ancient 
Castle here. The Rhine is here very picturesque, passing 
through a rocky channel, where it forms a series of cataracts, 
impossible for loaded boats to pass. Good salmon fishing. 

Waldshut (Hotel Kiihner, near the Station) is a walled 
to\^^, and a railway jimction (pop. 1000). It is on the margin 
of the Black Forest. 

Hochenschwand, the highest village in the Forest, and 
commanding a magnificent view of the Alps (see Cook's 
** Handbook to Black Forest *'), is about 10 miles from 
here. Waldshut is an uninteresting town, and has not a vestige 
of holiday attraction about it. Entering by a gate, there is 
before the traveller one long street, terminated by another gate, 
and this is the whole of Waldshut. Some of the houses are 
old, with large, projecting gables and cranes. The shutters to 
all the windows throughout the town are green. The church 
is whitewashed inside, and contains nothing worthy of remark. 
The walks in the neighbourhood of Waldshut are pretty. 

Waldshut to Ziirich (p. 34). 

Erzingen is the last station in the Baden territoiy* 
Wilschingen, the first in the Canton of Scha£Ehausea« 



22 BASLE TO SCHAFFHAUSEN. 

NEUHAU8EN 

(Hotel Schweizerhof, immediately facing the Falls, and with 

fine view of the Alps.) 

This is the best station for alighting to visit the Falls of 
the Rhine. 

The Rhine, above the Falls, is about 300 feet wide j the 
height of the Falls is about 60 feet on one side, 45 feet on the 
other, and the water rushes in three leaps, with a volume of 
about 80,000 cubic feet per second, and then falls into a large 
basin. Descend, through the beautiful grounds belonging to the 
Schweizerhof Hotel, to the Schlosschen Worth, where there is 
a fine view. Here also is a camera obscura, a restaurant, and 
a stall of fancy goods. Then take a boat (3 francs for i to 3 
persons), and row in the midst of the turbulent waters to the 
middle rock in the Falls. The boat will rock violently, and the 
spray may fall heavily, but there is no danger — in fact, an acci- 
dent has never been known. You will alight just at the foot of 
the great volume of water, and will find it hard to make your- 
self heard in conversation without an effort. Ascend to a 
pavilion (** the Umbrella," as it is called in the neighbourhood), 
and a view of unspeakable grandeur will be witnessed. 

If the traveller is nervous, and does not care to visit the 
rock, go by ferry direct to Schloss Laufen (30c). 

Schloss Laufen is beautifully situated immediately above the 
Falls. Admission to the grounds, i franc. Although the 
general effect of the Falls is grand from any point of view, it is 
impossible to fully realize their true beauty and grandeur except 
from the Schloss Laufen. 

Passing through the rooms, in which will be found a good 
collection of Swiss carvings, photographs, water-colour draw- 
ings, and curiosities, the traveller enters the enclosed grounds, 
and sees first a pavilion from which a good general view is 
obtained (with or without stained glasses). Descending by a 
pleasant path, he then enters a small tunnel in the rock, against 
which the waters are booming, and it seems as if the rocks shook. 
This leads to the Kanzli, a wooden platform beside the Falls. 
There descend again, and enter through a doorway to the 
Fischetz, an iron platform, overhanging the troubled sea of 
waters. (Here waterproofs are kept, and are often needed, as 
the spray continually dashes over.) The most imposing view 
^nd the finest effects are to be seen here. 

A description by John Ruskin will be read here with 

Measure : — 



FALLS OF THE RHINE. 23 

** Stand for an hour beside the Falls of Schaifhausen^ on 
the north side, where the rapids are long, and watch how the 
vault of water first bends unbroken in pure poliShed velocity 
over the arching rocks at the brow of the cataract, covering 
them with a dome of crystal twenty feet thick, so swift that its 
motion is unseen except when a foam-globe from above darts 
over it like a falling star ; and how the trees are lighted above 
it xinder all their leaves at the instant that it breaks into foam 5 
and how all the hollows of that foam burn with green fire, like 
so much shattering chrysoprasi 5 and how, ever and anon start- 
ling you with its white flash, a jet of spray leaps hissing out of 
the fall, like a rocket bursting in the wind and driven away in 
dust, filling the air with light 5 and how, through the curdling 
wreaths of the restless, crashing abyss below, the blue of the 
water, paled by the foam in its body, shows purer than the sky 
through white rain cloud 5 while the shuddering iris stoops in 
tremulous stillness over all, fading and flushing alternately 
through the choking spray and shattered sunshine, hiding itself 
at last among the thick golden leaves which toss to and fro in 
sympathy with the wild waters, their dripping masses lifted at 
intervals, like sheaves of loaded corn, by some stronger gush 
from the cataract, and bowed again upon the mossy rocks as its 
roar dies away." 

The tourist should now return to the Castle, and after pass- 
ing out into the road, turn to the left, and descend by a path 
to the Railway Bridge. This he will cross by a footway, 
and will notice the river bed, the gathering waters rushing to 
the Fall, and the unequal arches of the bridge. Then through 
vineyards on the left, and back, past the village, to the hotel. 
The Falls should be seen in the early morning, when the rain- 
bows are around them; by the light of the sunset; and, if 
fancy so dictates, illuminated with magnesium and Bengal 
lights. The best time in the year for witnessing a mighty rush 
of waters is in June or July, when the snow of the Alps is 
melting, but the Falls are always grand. On a moonlight night 
the effects are exquisite. 

Dr. Forbes thus describes the scene : — "We walked out on 
the terrace in front of the hotel to enjoy the view of the Falls 
by moonlight. The evening was as lovely as the day had been 
— warm, cloudless, and without a breath of wind. The huge 
white mass of tumbling foam lay straight before us, the oidy 
bright spot in the dinaly-lighted landscape, and attractltv^'asA 
fixing the eye exclusively on itself. No ^ovmi^ ^^s» X^^-^^^soS^- 



H 



SCHAFFHAUSEK. 



the one continuous roar of the water, softened by the distance, 
and seemine to fill the whole air like the moonshine itself. 
There was something both wild and delightful in the hour and 
its accompaniments. The mind yielded passively to the im- 
pressions made on the senses. A host of half- formed, 
vague, and visionary thoughts crowded into it at the same 
time, giving rise to feelings at once tender and melancholy, 
accompanied with a sort of objectless sympathy or yearning 
after something unknown. The ideas and emotions moht 
definite and constant were those of power and perpetuity, 
wonder and awe. What was now impressing the senses and 
the mind seemed a part of something infinite, which they could 
neither comprehend nor shake off -, the same mass, the same 
roar, the same rush day and night, year after year, age after age, 
now and for ever ! '* 

SchafThausen is the capital of the same named Canton. 
The name Schaff hausen is derived from the '* skiff-houses," 
which were once ranged here along the river bank when it was 
a mere landing-place for goods, and was principally peopled by 
boatmen. It is a remarkably picturesque town, and retains 
some good specimens of the Suabian style of the sixteenth 
century. Notice the frescoes on some of the houses, especially 
the House Zum Ritter, opposite the Krone Hotel. Tlie 
Cathedral, founded 1052, was once an Abbey Church 5 the 
style is Romanesque, very massive. The inscription on the 
great bell (cast in 1468) gave the suggestion to Schiller for his 
exquisite ** Lied von der Glocke." It runs as follows : — '* Vivos 
voco, mortuos plango, fulgura frango.*' The Castle of 
Munoth, with a thick, bomb-proof wjill and a round tower, was 
built 1564 ; visitors may inspect it, enjoy the view, and en- 
ter the subterranean passages for a trifling fee. The Library 
is only celebrated for the works of Johann von MftUer, the Swiss 
historian. On the Promenade (Vesenstaub) is Miiller's 
monument. A good swimming-bath in the river. The Im- 
thurneum (named after its founder, M. Imthurn, a native, 
who presented it to the town) contains a good Theatre, Concert 
and Ball Room, etc. 

FROM 8GHAFFHAU8EN TO ZURICH 

(Time, 2 hours.) 

A long tunnel is entered, then the great bridge over the 
Rhine is crossed, and another tunnel, passing under the Castle 



SCHAFFHAUSEN TO CONSTANCE. 25 

of Laufen, on emerging from which a glance at the Falls may 
be obtained. The scenery is very beautiful in the neighbour- 
hood of Dachsen, after which there is little to call for special 
attention until Winterthur (p. 53) is reached. The stations 
after Dachsen are Marthalen, Andelfingen, Henggart, Hetlingen, 
Winterthur. 

Winterthur to Zurich, p. ^^. 

SCHAFFHAUSEN TO CONSTANCE, BY RAIL. 

(Time li hours.) The first station of any importance is Singen, 
a junction for Donaueschingen. Near Singen is the fortress of 
Hohentwiel, celebrated in the history of the Thirty Years* 
War, partly destroyed by the French in 1800, Magnificent 
view from the tower. 

Radolpliszell, a walled town, with a fine Gothic Church 
(1436). A good view of the Lower Lake is obtained here, in 
the centre of which is the Island of Reichenau. (See below.) 

The journey from this point is on the margin of the Lake, 
past stations Marke/Jingen, Allenslach, Reichenau, The Rhine 
is then crossed by a handsome bridge thrown across that part 
of ihe lake, which is here contracted to a river. 

Schaffliausen to Constance. By boat (Time, 4 to 5 
hours ; reverse journey Constance to Schaffhausen, 3 hours). 
Para dies, formerly a nunnery. The Austrian army, under the 
Archduke Charles, crossed the Rhine here 1799. Diessen- 
hLOfen, where the French army in 1800 effected a passage 
before the Battle of Hohenlinden. Stein, a fine old town. 
Abbey of St. George. Ruined Castle of Hohenklingen, with a 
good view. 

Soon after leaving Stein the river widens, and the Unter- 
see (Lower Lake) is entered. The Castle of Freudenfels is 
seen on the right, and below it the village of Eschenz. To the left, 
Olerstaad, near which are the Quarries of Oehningen, remark- 
able for fossils 5 on the right, Steckborn and Feldbach, nunnery. 
At Berlingen the Island of Reiclienau is seen to advantage. 
It is 3 miles long, and i^ miles broad. In the Church of the 
Benedictine Abbey, Charles the Fat, great-grandson of Charle- 
magne, is buried. To the right of Berlingen is the Castle of 
Eugensberg, built by Eugene Beauhamais ; the Castle of Salen- 
stem ; Arenenberg, where Queen Hortense died, and now 
the occasional residence of the Ex- Empress of the French. 
Soon alter leaving Ermatingen, the narrow ^^iS^'^l'^ coosjkfts^'' 
ing the Untersee with the Lake ol CoxisVasLCfc \& «o&rx^^ 



26 CONSTANCE 

On the right is the castellated Monastery of Gottlleben, 
where John Huss and Jerome of Prague were imprisoned by 
order of the Emperor Sigisraund and Pope John XXII. It 
was a curious coincidence that Pope John XXII. should have 
himself been confined in this very castle a few years later, by 
order of the Council of Constance (p. 27). The remainder of 
the journey is somewhat uninteresting. 

COMSTANCE (BADEN). 

(Hotel Hecht.) 

The population of Constance was once over 40,000 5 it is 
now about 11,000. The town is on the Swiss bank of the 
Rhine, but was, by the Treaty of Pressburg (i8oj) ceded to 
Baden. 

There is not much in Constance for the mere sightseer 5 it 
is rich, however, in historical associations. As Geneva is the 
city of Calvin, and Ziirich the city of Zwingli, so Constance is 
the city of Huss. 

Ttie House of Huss, in the St. Paulsstrasse, is adorned 
with his effigy. The Dominican Monastery of Gottlieben, 
where he was imprisoned, is on an island near the town (see 
above). The place where he stood to receive the sentence of 
death is pointed out in the MUnster. The Kaufhaus, in 
which the Council met who condemned him, may be visited 5 
and the field at Briihl, where the last act in the tragedy was 
performed, is still to be seen ; and' here the visitor, as he stands 
on the very spot where the stake was planted, will be asked to 
bny an image of the Reformer, made from clay taken from the 
place above which the flames crackled. 

It is not necessary here to tell the story of Huss again ; but 
as the visitor looks at his prison at Gottlieben, it may not be 
uninteresting to recall one of his dreams, as related by D'Au- 
bign6 in his '' History of the Reformation'* : — 

'^ One night the holy martyr saw in imagination, from the 
depths of his dungeon, the pictures of Christ that he had had 
painted on the walls of his oratory, effaced by the Pope and his 
bishops. This vision distressed him 5 but on the next day he 
saw many painters occupied in restoring these figures in greater 
number and in brighter colours. As soon as their task was 
ended, the painters, who were surrounded by an immense 
crowd, exclaimed, * Now let the popes and bishops come ! They 
shall never efface them more ! * ' And many people rejoiced in 



CONSTANCE. 



«7 



Bethlehem, and I with them/ adds John Huss. • Busy your- 
self with your defence rather than with your dreams/ said his 
faithful friend, the Knight of Chlum, to whom he had com- 
municated this vision. * I am no dreamer/ replied Huss ; ' but 
I maintain this for certain, that the image of Christ will never 
be effaced. They have wished to deface it, but it shall be 
painted afresh in all hearts by much better preachers than my- 
self. The nation that loves Christ will rejoice at this ; and I, 
awaking from among the dead, and rising, so to speak, from 
my grave, shall leap with great joy.'* 

Nor can the visitor walk out to the suburb of Bnihl, on 
the Zurich road, where he was burnt at the stake, without 
thinking of the remarkable pun and prophecy he made as he 
was entering the flames in allusion to his own name, which 
signified in the Bohemian tongue a goose. He said, " Are you 
going to burn a goose ? In one century you will have a swan 
you can neither roast nor boil." And in one century came forth 
Luther, who had a swan for his arms. 

The Munster, or Cathedral, was founded 1052, but did not 
assume its present form till the beginning of the sixteenth cen- 
tury. The Gothic tower at the west end was erected during the 
years 1850-57. From the platforms round the open-work spire 
a magnificent view is obtained of the town, the lake, the 
valley of the Rhine, and the mountains of the Tyrol. The 
oak doors of the chief entrance are decorated with reliefs by 
Simon Haider (1470), in twenty sections, representing scenes 
in the life of our Lord. 

In the interior observe the sixteen monolith pillars which 
support the nave ; the choir-stalls, with old carvings ; the 
Tomb of Robert Hallam, Bishop of Salisbury, made of 
English brass. In the nave is a light-coloured stone, marking 
the spot where John Huss stood when the cruel sentence 
of death was delivered, July 6, 1415, and where he knelt before 
his accusers, and cried, '* Lord Jesus, forgive my enemies ! ** 
It is affirmed that this stone always remains dry when those 
surrounding it are damp. The sacristy contains some curious 
missals, miniatures, plate, and other relics. A good collection 
of stained glass, by Vincent^ may be seen in the Chapter- 
room. The Crypt below the church is very old, and contains 
a representation in stone of the Holy Sepulchre. The Clois- 
ters, though now much dilapidated, exhibit some excellent 
workmanship. 

The Hall of the Kauf haus Is -wViet^ ^'fe C,o\xaK\ ^ 



28 LAKE OF CONSTANCE. 

Constance held its sittings, and condemned Huss and Jerome 
of Prague. Many memorials of the former are preserved here 
in a kind of museum, admission one franc. 

In the Wessenberg-Haus may be seen a good collec- 
tion of engravings and pictures. On the Town Hallf Stadt" 
Kanzlei, are frescoes illustrating passages in the history of 
Constance. 

The walks in the neighbourhood of Constance, and the 
promenades surrounding the town, are pretty. The pier is 
attractive, on account of the good views it commands. There 
is also a good Swimming Bath. 

In the environs of Constance are several very interesting 
places 5 among them the Abbey of Kreuzlingen— or, 
rather^ the building which once bore that name, for it is now 
an agricultural school. The present structure has been erected 
since the Thirty Years' War, as the former one was destroyed 
during that time. In one of the chapels is a marvellous piece of 
wood-carving, adorned with many hundreds of miniature figures, 
the work of a Tyrolesej also an embroidery, adorned with 
pearls, presented by Pope John XXII. on his journeying to 
Constance in 14 14. 

Mainau, the beautiful seat of the Grand Duke of Baden, 
is situated on a small island, about four miles from Constance. 
The island is connected with the mainland by a bridge. Nc 
pleasanter day's excursion than this can be undertaken in the 
vicinity of Constance. 

The Field of Briihl is outside the town, on the road to 
Ztirich, and possesses the melancholy interest of being the 
place where Huss was burnt in 14 15, and Jerome of Prague 
a year after. The spot is marked by a rough monument of 
stones, upon which is an inscription. 



THE LAKE OF CONSTANCE. 

(Latin, Lacus Bri^aniinus, German, Boden See.) 

This spacious reservoir of the Rhine is over forty miles in 
length, and eight in width ; it is a glorious sheet of water in 
fine weather, but rather turbulent in storm, being elevated about 
1,300 feet, and not protected by lofty mountain embankaients j 
it is by no means an uncommon thing for tourists to suffer 
from sea-sickness when being rocked on its bosom. There are 



BREGENZ. 20 

some fine views from it, especially of the Appenzell Alps, 
including the snow-clad Sentis and the Vorarlberg Alps. Lake 
Constance would probably be considered very beautiful, were it 
not in Switzerland; but being there, it suffers from odious 
comparisons with its fairer neighbours. 

The position held by the lake is curious, as it forms the 
boundary of ^ye different states, viz., Baden, Wiirttemberg, 
Bavaria, Austria, and Switzerland, to each of which states a 
portion of the coast belongs. 

For Steamers to all parts of the lake, see local time-tables. 

Friedrichshafen, nearly opposite Constance, is the prin- 
cipal bathing place on the lake, and the views from here are 
among the finest in the neighbourhood. It is a pleasant town^ 
with about 3000 inhabitants. The Schloss is the summer 
residence of the King of Wurtemberg. Friedrichshafen is the 
terminus of the Stuttgart Railway. 

Llndau, a pretty town at the £. end of the lake, is the 
terminus of the Bavarian Railway. 

Bregenz, in the Vorarlberg, is a good starting-point for 
the Tyrol. It is thus sketched by Adelaide Proctor : — 

** Girt round with rugged mountains. 

The lair Lake Constance lies ; 
In her blue heart reflected, 

Shine back the starry slues ; 
And, watching each white cloudlet 

Float silently and slow, 
You think a piece of heaven 

Lies on our earth below ! 

Midnight is there ; and silence. 

Enthroned in heaven, looks down 
Upon her own calm mirror. 

Upon a sleeping town ; 
For Bregenz, diat quaint city 

Upon the Tyrol shore, 
Has stood above Lake Constance 

A thousand years and more. 

Her battlements and towers. 

From off their rocky steep. 
Have cast their trembling shadows 

For ages on the deep j 
Mountain, and lake, and valley, 

A sacred legend know. 
Of how the town was saved one night, 

Three hundred years a%o *' — cXc ^ cXc* 



30 



RORSCHACH. 



CONSTANCE TO COIRE (CHUR). 



The journey may be made by boat to Rorschach, and thence 
by rail, or the whole route by rail^ the line skirting the bank of 
the Lake as far as to Rorschach. In either case the principal 
places passed will be Kreuzlingen (p. 28), Miinsterlingen, 
(with a large lunatic asylum, formerly a monastery)^ AltnaUj 
Guttingen, Kessweil, Uttweil, Romanshorn (a steamboat- 
station, eight miles from Friedrichshafen, and a junction with 
line to Winterthur), Egnach, Arbon (once the Roman Arbor 
Felix), Horn (with its good bath)^ and then Rorschach, 

RORSCHACH. 

(Hotel Seehof.) 

Behind the town, which has a population of 3492, is a hill 
called the Rorschacher Berg, commanding a view of the 
entire length of Constance and the Alps of the Orisons. There 
are some old castles dotted about on hills, some good baths not 
far off from the town, and very pretty walks and drives, and the 
air is said to be very beneficial to invalids. It is not, however, 
a place to choose for a lengthened stay. 

A large traffic passes through here or by the coast steamers 
from Romanshorn, across the lake to Lindau, where it is 
transhipped from steamer to railway for Bavaria, Austria, etc. 

It was a busy place during the late war, as it was the route 
selected for traffic from the eastern line from France. 

The trip to Bregenz can be made from this town by 
steamer (p. 29). 

Leaving Rorschach, the lake is skirted and the valley of 
the Rhine is entered. Rheineck is a pleasant village, situated 
in a bend in the river, and surrounded with vineyards 5 travellers 
who are seeking the Molken-kar, or Whey-cur© (made of 
goat's milk) alight here for Heiden, said to be one of the 
cleanest and healthiest towns in Switzerland. Diligence twice 
daily, i^ hour. From Heiden a diligence runs to St. Gallen 

(P-54). 

Altstatten has a population of nearly 8000. Beautiful 

neighbourhood. Good roads from here to Appenzell, St. Gall, 

and a pleasant footpath to Heiden. The manufacture in this 

neighbourhood is a muslin fabric known as St. Gallen muslin^ 

the handiwork of all the women of the villages round about. 

From Altstatten to Coire the scenery is extremely picturesque. 



RAGATZ. qi 

Oberried, a ruined castle (Blatten) is seed to the right, 
and below it is a defile known as the Hirschsprung (stag's leap.) 

Ruthi. A pathway from here leads to Weissbad, by the 
Kamor Pass, the views from which are magnificent. Sennwald, 
at the foot of the Kanzel, or pulpit, is near here. 

Haag. Railway from here to Feldkirch, for the Tyrol. 
At Buchs is a castle, once the residence of the Counts of 
Werdenberg. . . 

At Sevelen is the ruined castle of Wartau, and on the 
opposite bank of the Rhine, Vaduz, to which place a coach 
runs from Triibbach. 

Sargans. Inquire here if a change of carriage must be 
made. Sargans is the junction with the railways from Wallen- 
stadt and Zurich. In this neighbourhood are the mountains 
Falknis and Scesaplana. 

RAQATZ 

(Hotels Qaellenhof and Hof Ragatz.) 

On the Tamina, is annually crowded with thousands of visitors, 
sometimes as many as 50,000 in a season, on account of 
the Baths, the mineral water which supplies them being 
conveyed from Pfaffers by tubes or wooden pipes made of 
hollow pine trees, and reaching a distance of 12,500 ft. 
Ragatz has some fine hotels, a Ciirsaal, and charming environs. 
Bad- Pfaffers, up the gorge of the Tamina, should on no ac- 
count be missed. It is an easy walk of 2^ miles from Ragatz. 
The old Baths are between frowning rocks above the torrent of the 
Tamina. The Gorge is traversed by a wooden pathway above 
the torrent, and with gloomy walls of rock overhanging. In 
many respects it resembles the Gorge duTrient (p. 121), although, 
probably, that remarkable spot is more than equalled by the 
savage grandeur of Pfaffers. In one part of the Gorge (the 
Schlucht or abyss) the rocks are not more than 20 feet apart. 
The journey from Ragatz may be made with perfect safety either 
by carriage or on foot, and, although a very timid person might 
fear to walk upon a mere shelf of planks, with a brawling river 
below and threatening rocks above, it is nevertheless perfectly 
safe. A charge of one franc is made to each person for 
admittance, and a guide invariably accompanies the visitors. 
The journey may be made in from two to three hours, but those 
who have time at their disposal will do well to visit also the 
Village of Pfaffers, which has a fine Benedictiue ^V^^^« 
now used as a Lunatic Asylum. The ToaAitoTa.>3cvfcN^'a^^» 



«2 CONSTANCE TO COIRE. 

Ragatz is exceedingly picturesque, and passes the ruined castle 
of Wartenstein. Innumerable pleasant excursions may be made 
in this neighbourhood. 

Resuming the railway, the Rhine is crossed, and the 
traveller, leaving the Canton of St. Gall, passes into the Grisons. 

Mayenfeld. — Fine views. An old Tower of the fourfh 
century, built, it is said, by the Emperor Constantius, is seen 
here ; and also the Convent of Pfaffers. 

Landquart. — Diligences run from here to the Engadine 
(p. i8i). 

COIRE. 

(German, Chur; Komansch, Cuera,) 
(Hotel Steinbock.) 

Coire (pop. 8000) is the chief city of the Canton of the 
Grisons (firaulunden), whose history is quite as eventful as 
that of the Forest cantons, and equally as interesting. Some 
of the principal inhabitants of the country called Canton Grisons 
met together in a forest near the village of Trons, to form a 
league and concert measures by which they might thxow off the 
oppressive tyranny of the petty lords and barons who had so 
long held them in subjection. In May, 1424, they met at the 
village of Trons, and there established " The Grey League " 
(jGrauhund), so called from their being dressed in grey. Two 
similar leagues were formed : one called *' The League of God's 
House," and the other "The League of the Ten Jurisdictions." 
These three leagues, known as the Grison Confederacy, warred 
agamst the barons to such good purpose, that, had not the 
Episcopal lords directed their movements, it is likely that their 
oppressors would have been forced to flee the land. As it was, 
however, they contented themselves witli forming their country 
into a number of small republics, each with a perfectly inde- 
pendent government and machinery. The result of this was an 
endless storm of petty feuds and quarrels between the citizens, 
which did not really end until, in 18 14, they became a canton 
of the Swiss Confederation. Since then a new set of laws con- 
cerning the administration of the canton has been put in opera- 
tion, by which all the old landmarks connected with the earlier 
form of government have been obliterated, and it is now settled 
down to the ordinary peace and prosperity of the rest of the 
Swiss cantons. 

The language of the Grisons is Romansch, divided into 
three different dialects 3 the inhabitants^ however, can nearly 



COIRE. 23 

always supplement their own tongue with German or Italian. 
The tourist will be interested in perusing a newspaper published 
in Coire, in the Romansch, entitled " Amity del Pievel," the 
" Friend of the People." 

The canton is very large, occupying about one-sixth of the 
whole of the Swiss territory, and has a population which, in 
1870, numbered 91,782. The scenery is very beautiful through- 
out the canton, consisting of barren mountains end fertile val- 
leys, and every charm that variety can give. 

There are several places of interest for the fleeting tourist to 
note as he passes by, although the town of Coire does not hold 
out sufficient inducement for any lengthened stay. The situa- 
tion of the town is extremely picturesque 5 the streets are 
narrow and irregular, but abounding with good views. The 
Plessur, a river flowing into the Rhine, passes through it. Part 
of the town is surrounded with walls. The Cathedral, or 
Church of St. Lucius, is the most remarkable building in Coire 5 
it dates from the eighth century, and is a good specimen of the 
early pointed Gothic. St. Lucius is of doubtful origin 5 but the 
legends say he was a King of Scotland, who came as an evan- 
gelist to Switzerland, and suffered martyrdom. Observe the 
portal of the entrance courts representing Christ as the Lion of 
the tribe of J udah. In the iuterior are many objects of in- 
terest — 

Tomb of Bishop Ortlieb de Brandis. 

Madonna Stumm (pupil of Rubens), 

High Altar, with fine carved work . . Jacob Roesch, 
Christ bearing the Cross .... Albert Dilrer, 

In the Treasury are many valuable curiosities, including a 
miniature on lapis lazuli, by Carlo Dolce, 

The Episcopal Palace, not far from the church, is also 
very ancient ; and it is said that the chapel is one of the earliest 
Christian edifices extant. It is in an old Roman tower, called 
Marsdl, in which tower, says tradition, St. Lucius was mur- 
dered in the year 1 76. Above the Cathedral is a very fine walk, 
commanding extensive views of the Visl Mala and the Spliigen. 

The Chapel of St. Lucius, beautifully situated at the 
foot of the Mittenberg, commands a fine view, as also does the 
Rosenhiigel, a promenade a short distance from the town, on 
the Julier Road. The tourist may, perchance, hear the watch- 
man perambulating the town at night, and if so, h.t, vs\^ <:jd\5^ 
a couplet of the following ancient chant ; — 



l^ BASLE TO ZORICH. 

*' Hear, ye ChrKriani, let me tell foa 
Our clock hai itruck eight, 
Our clock has struck nine, etc. 
EigAt^-on\y eight in Noah*s time 
Were saved firom punishment Kgiit 
Hint digests no thanking : 
Man, think of thy duty ! Nint! 
Ten commandments God enjoined I 
Let us be to Him obedient. Ten I 
Only Eleven disciples were faithful t 
Grant, Lord, that there be no filing off. EJeviu / 
Tivehe is the hour that limits time : 
Man, think upon eternity ! Twelve I 
One, — O man, only one thing is needful i 
Man, tliink upon thy death I One! 

From Coire over the Spliigen Pass (p. 177). 
„ Coire to St. Moritz (p. J 84). 
„ Coire to Andermatt by the Oberalp (p. i8a). 

A diligence runs between Coire and Andermatt, from whence 
another diligence runs to Brieg and Leuk ; and hence the rail- 
way may be taken to Geneva (p. 124). 

BASLE TO ZURICH. 

There are three ways by which the journey may be made. 
I. Waldshut and Turgi. 2. By Olten and Turgi. 3.. By 
Rheinfelden, Stein, and Brugg. 

(i) From Basle to Waldshut (see p. 21). At Waldshut the 
Swiss Junction Railway crosses the Rhine a short distance 
from Coblenz, and traverses the right bank of the river Aare 
(which joins the Rhine at Coblenz — Confluentia) to Turgi. 
A short but interesting journey brings the traveller to Turgi, 
from which place the journey to Zurich is continued, as m 
Route 3. (See below.) 

(2) Basle to Olten, Turgi, and Ziirich. Soon after 
leaving the station, the battle-field of St. Jacob (p. 20) is 
passed, where 1600 Swiss withstood for ten hours a French 
army ten times more numerous, commanded by the Dauphin. 
The whole of the journey from Basle to Olten is through 
very charming country. As soon as the Rhine valley is left, 
the valley of the Ergolz, in the Jura, is entered. Liestal, 
the capital of the half-canton. Basle-Champagne (p. 15), re- 
minds the traveller of the animosity existing between it and 
Basle-ville. It is a poor town, possessing nothing of great in- 



BASLE TO ZURICH. 25 

terest except the cup of Charles the Bold found at Nancy. 
Stations, Lausen, Sissack, Sommerau, and Ldufelfingen, 

Soon after passing the latter station, the great Hauenstein 
Tunnel is entered. It is one and a half miles long. A terrible 
accident occurred here in May, 1857, when fifty-two workmen 
perished by a fall of the earth. The Hauenstein commands a 
magnificent view of the Alps, which is not seen from the rail- 
way. Many tourists, therefore, leave the train at Laufelfingen, 
ascend the mountain (time, one and a half hours), and descend 
to Olten, where the journey can be continued. 

Olten, junction for Lucerne, Berne, Gteneva, etc. Inquire 
if carriages have to be changed here. The town is pleasantly 
situated on the Aare, in a valley of the Jura. There is nothing 
in Olten except its situation to interest the traveller. 

Leaving Olten, the journey continues still through pleasant 
scenery, with the Aare and the Jura mountains in sight. 
Stations, Ddnikon, Schonenwertk, with a ruined castle. 

Aarau (Hotel de la Cigogne), the capital of the Canton 
Aargau, is on the Aare, and under the Jura. Henry Zschokke, 
the historian, lived here. The Baths of Schinznach can be 
reached from here by way of the Gyslifluh, 2539 feet. A plea- 
sant excursion, commanding good views. 

Stations : Ruppersweil, Wildegg, near to the Baths of Bres- 
tenberg 5 Schinznach, celebrated for its baths j visited chiefly by 
the French. The Castle of Habsburg is close by here, once the 
seat of the Imperial house of Austria, but now a ruin. 

B ru gg, a pleasant and pretty place, once belonging to the 
House of Habsburg^ its old towers are very quaint and 
curious. Near here, the Aare, the Reuss, and the Linmiat, 
three of the principal rivers of the country, join and travel in 
company under the name of the Aare, until they reach Coblenz, 
near Waldshut. A mile to the south-east of Brugg stands the 
Abbey of Konigsfelden, " founded by the Empress Eliza- 
beth and Agnes of Hungary, on the spot where the Emperor 
Albert, husband of the one and father of the other, was assassi- 
nated two years before. How much religion went in those days 
to the building of an abbey we may judge by the ferocious 
revenge which Agnes, unable to lay hands on the conspirators 
themselves, took upon their families and friends, when, on occa- 
sion of the butchery of sixty- three guiltless victims before her 
at one time, she exclaimed, • Now I bathe in May -dew ! ' The. 
actual murderers succeeded in making thelt e!sca.\fc, ^Ni^ 'Oofc 
exception of Wart, who was undoubl^^ ^tesfcuX, ^ow^ "^oas* 



^5 BASLE TO zORICH. 

share in the deed is disputed. He was sentenced to be broken 
alive upon the wheel ; but the usual * stroke of mercy ' was 
denied^ and he lingered for two days and two nights before 
death relieved him from his sufferings. I know few stories more 
affecting than that of the devotion of Wart's wife in the hours 
>of his long agony. During the day she concealed herself in the 
neighbourhood, and as soon as it was dark, eluding the guards, 
she contrived to climb up to the scaffold, and kneeling by his 
side through the slow and terrible night, wiped away the sweat 
of anguish from his brow, and whispered into his ear the con- 
solation of faith and love. Before the morning broke she has- 
tened away to hide herself near the spot, and to pray that when 
she came back again she might find him dead. There came in 
the morning a gay troop of knights to see the sight, and bit- 
terly spoke one when he looked upon the unmutilated face. 
' Are there no crows in your country ? ' was his stem demand. 
It was the cruel Agnes in disguise. Strange indeed it is that 
two such passions should have a common origin of woman's 
affection — that the same source should send forth such sweet 
waters and such bitter ! " 

Brugg was the birthplace of Zimmerman, the author of the 
well-known book on '* Solitude." 

Turgi, junction, with branch line to Waldshut. 

Baden ( Hotel Hinterhof ) is the oldest of the watering- 
places of Switzerland j its ancient name was Aquce Helvetica. It 
was visited by fashionable Romans, and now fashionable cosmo- 
politans visit it to the number of i j,ooo annually. Its springs 
are good for rheumatism, catarrhs, and almost everything else. 
A curious fact connected with this place is, that it was nn 
ancestor of Baden-Baden ; that is to say, it was once a " hell " 
of the Romans, if all accounts be true j for it is said the tVurfel 
JFiese^ or Dice Meadow, is so named on account of the dice 
found in it. 

The season at Baden is May to September, and the pnncipal 
frequenters are Swiss and French. 

Stations, Killwangen, Dietikon, Schlieren, Altstetten junction 
with branch line to Lucerne (p. 54). As the traveller draws near 
to Zurich, he will be struck with the picturesque nature of the 
scenery in its immediate neighbourhood, and with the view of 
the great range of Alps seen on the right hand. 

Crossing the river Sihl, the train arrives at Zurich (p. 37). 

(3) By Rheinfelden, Stein, and Brugg. This is the most 
direct route from Basle to Ziirich^ and is not less interesting 



zOrich. g- 

than either of the other two. There is a good service of trains, 
namely, from seven to ten daily each way. The railway passes 
through Rheinfelden (p. 21), and the picturesque surround- 
ings of this quaint and interesting town are therefore much 
better seen than from the railway — Basle to Waldshut and 
Turgi — where the line is on the other side of the river. Before 
reaching Stein, the next station of any importance on the 
route, the line turns southward, thus — as may be seen in the 
map — saving the long distance to Waldshut on the one hand, 
or to Olten on the other. Then comes Brugg (p. s^), and the 
remainder of the journey is the same as in the other routes. 

ZURICH. 

(Hotel Belle Vue, on the shore of the Lake j commands the 
best view of the Alps and the Lake.) 

Population, 60,000, chiefly Protestant. 

Ziirich is the centre of Swiss intelligence and industry ; its 
staple trade is the manufacture of silk and cotton. Its Uni- 
versity is noted for the proficient medical men it sends forth, 
for its liberality in the matter of lady students, and for the 
advanced thought and ultra-democratic views entertained there. 
Every new idea is grasped with ardour and agitated with vigour. 
While the University is the nucleus of enlightened views, 
ethical, religious, and political, the town preserves the severely 
Calvinistic character that made it a stronghold of the Reforma- 
tion. Police regulations exist with regard to keeping Sunday, 
that sound strangely arbitrary and somewhat incongruous to 
English ears. The spirit of clique largely animates its society 5 
the merchant does not visit with the learned bodies, nor the 
students with the bourgeoisie. The people are brusque in man- 
ner and speech. *' Grossier comme un Zurichois " has become a 
proverb. 

Ziirich's history is ancient, rough, and not always honour- 
able. Long before the ubiquitous Romans founded the colony 
of Turicum, it was a Keltic community, as remains amply 
prove. Excavations. in the neighbourhood have furnished rich 
yields of antiquities, Keltic, Etruscan, and Roman. Zurich 
early ruled itself, and knew the horrors of civil war, dissension, 
and treachery. The Zurichers appear fond of fighting ; their 
records abound in narratives of attacks and quarrels. Nor were 
they good Swiss 5 oftentimes they made secret alUatvcfts»W>5&i. 
the Austrians against their neighbontm^co\iTi\xyKvWN.,^\RX^^s^ 



jg zCrich. 

they weaned of the Austrian yoke, and joined the forest cantons 
in liieir revolt against the Habsburgs. When, early in the four- 
teenth century, Duke Albert besieged Ziirich, the women 
donned armour, and aided the men in routing the enemy 
They drove him across the frontier to his ancestral castle of 
Habsburg 3 and near here> while he was baiting to admire the 
exquisite view the valley of the Reuss presents, he was treacher 
ously murderv d by his own nephew. From this date Ziirich 
grew in importance, acquiring much land by conquest and by 
purchase. It was in the van of the Reformation ^ the Protes- 
tants banished under Queen Mary found a sure asylum here 3 the 
first English Bible printed issued from its press. It was in 
Zurich Cathedral that Zwingli thundered forth the new doc- 
trines he had recently embraced. His eloquence converted the 
whole congregation, and the church has ever since been Pro- 
testant. 

Ziirich boasts of many distinguished names. Conrad Gess- 
ner, the celebrated naturalist, was bom here, March 26, 15 16. 
Among his multifarious labours, he designed and painted over 
I joo plants, and left five volumes consisting entirely of figures. 
He was buried in the cloister of the great Church in Zurich, 
1565. Solomon Gessner, the poet and painter, was bom here 
in 1730. He was the author of "The Death of Abel." He 
died in Ziirich, and his monument may still be seen. And 
Lavater, the thoughtful, amiable Lavater, was born and lived 
here. Zimmerman dwelt for some time near here on the lake, 
and wrote in one of his letters : " I can never recall these sub- 
lime and tranquil scenes which I have enjoyed in the company 
of Lavater without the most intense emotion.'' Lavater naet 
his death in Ziirich when the town was entered by the French 
army in 1799. There are several versions of the story of 
his death, but the most credible is that which says he was 
shot by a French soldier while dressing the wounds of his 
dying comrade. The perpetrator of the crime had but a few 
hours before received the hospitality of the man he thus cruelly 
slew. Although Lavater knew who it was that had shot him, 
he refused to divulge the information, notwithstanding a large 
reward had been offered by the French commander, Massena, 
for the discovery of the murderer. Lavater lingered for more 
than a year, much of which time was spent in extreme bodilj' 
torture consequent upon his wound. 

It would take long even to name the famous men of Ziirich. 
Pesta]ozzij, the children's friend, Orelli, Bodmer, Homer, Meyer, 



ZtjRICH. 29 

the friend of Goethe, not to speak of exiles innnmerahle, past 
and present — for the gates of Zurich have always been open to 
the politically oppressed. 

Ziirich is divided, by the rapid river Limmat, into two parts 5 
the Grosse-stadt (right) and the Kleine-stadt (left). The 
Lake, at the north end of which the town lies, is 26 miles 
long and 3 wide, and is one of the chief glories of Ziirich, and 
the greatest attraction to strangers. Steamers traverse its length 
and breadth, stopping at the various villages, remarkable for 
little but their industry. An excursion round the lake is an 
afternoon well spent 5 but halting at each station to explore the 
neighbourhood repays the longei time it demands (For Lake 
of Ziirich, see p. 43.) 

The principal things to be seen in Zurich will not detain 
the visitor long. 

The Gross-Mlinster, built in the Romanesque style of 
the eleventh century. It was in this church that Zwingli uttered 
his protests against the sins of his day. It is a massive pile, 
that rises precipitously above the town, approached by a steep 
flight of steps ', an object that would have been imposing, had 
the eighteenth century not crowned it with towers modelled 
after the fashion of bridecake erections. Below them, on one 
side, is niched an ancient equestrian figure of Charlemagne, in 
his time a benefactor to the foundation. Here he sits, grey, 
impassive, wooden, clutching his sword and sceptre, while 
pigeons nestle at his feet, and swallows build in his golden 
crown. He has witnessed a good slice of history from his ele- 
vated post. Full in view spreads the lovely lake, closed in by 
the snowy, peaks of the Sentis, Todi, and Glarnisch^ close to 
the shore lies a tiny islet, one green mass of chestnuts, amid 
which a solitary poplar rears its slender head. This is the sole 
remains of the fortifications, that once defended the city ; they 
are now levelled, and turned into pleasure gardens. A bridge 
spans the Limmat, closed in on either side by two churches. 
Half of the one actually rose from the water, whence it gained 
its name of Wasserkirche (Water Church). The cloisters, 
dating from the thirteenth century, deserve careful attention j 
the fantastic ornamentation of their fan-shaped capitals, and 
the grotesque heads peering between the vaulting of their 
arches, present architectural beauties such as the cathedral can- 
not boast. It is a tall, Romanesque, white-washed building, 
Protestant au bout des angles. 

The Town Library (admission i ftaac^, ^l^i^oaroKt A 



^.0 zOrich. 

the Munster Bridge, is in the building which was formerly the 
Wasserkirche, or Water Church, founded, it is said, by Charle- 
magne. It was much enlarged in 1 860, and contains about 50,000 
works. Among the MSS. are valuable autograph letters of the 
early Reformers, and Zwingli's Greek Bible, with his own 
annotations in Hebrew ; letters of Lady Jane Grey, Frederick 
the Great, etc. There is also a very fine Model, in relief, 
of Switzerland, well worthy of careful attention. A Collec- 
tion of Antiquities will be viewed with much interest by 
those who are acquainted with Professor Keller*s work, as they 
are relics of the Swiss lake dwellings and dwellers, those 

^'Unknown, mysterious dead ! 
Whose relics Science from the shelly marl 
Has gathered, and with vague conjecture based 
On fact, esi^ays to read, like some weird scroll, 
Or dark enigma by Cadmean Sphinx 
Propounded.*' • 

" The objects which have been recovered reveal the habits, 
arts, conditions of life, and much of the internal history of those 
who formed and used them. About the events of their external 
history, though much of this can be pretty well imagined, of 
course they are silent. Nor have they anything to tell us in 
reply to the questions of who the people were, whence they 
came, or what became of them ? The information they give us 
begins with the time when men in Central Europe had not 
attained to a knowledge of metals, and were using implements 
of bone and stone for war, hunting, and domestic purposes. 
Abundance of their stone tools have been found, and also of 
specimens of the work done with them. For instance, some of 
the series of piles upon which the dwellings were placed — and 
these piles are found by the hundred — we see were hacked to 
the point, which was to fit them for driving, with stone chisels 
and hatchets. And then, in other series of piles, we pass on to 
the era when stone had been superseded by bronze and iron 
tools. It is very interesting to have thus before us the actual 
tools and the actual work done with them, together with ocular 
demonstration of the way in which, by the superiority of their 
work, the first metal tools superseded their perfected predeces- 
sors of stone." — Zincke, 

The Hohe Promenade, under a fine avenue of trees, 
conmiands a beautiful view of the Lake. Lavater is buried in 

^ • "The Lake Dwellings of Switzerland." By Rev. F. H. Wood, B.A. 



ENVIRONS OF zCRICH. ^1 

tbe churchyard of St. Ann, close at hand. The Arsenal 
(Zeughaus) contains the battle-axe used by Zwingli at the fatal 
engagement at Cappel, together with his sword and helmet. 
There is also a display of ancient armour, and the crossbow 
with which it is alleged William Tell shot the apple from his 
son's head. 

In the Augustine Church there are two good pictures by 
Deschwanden, The Botanical Gardens contain some fine 
specimens of Alpine plants^ and a high n;iound^ called the Katz> 
from which there is a splendid view. 

The Polytechnic is a handsome building, and was founded 
for the purpose of a large national school. It embraces in its 
curriculum all branches of national industry. It has an endow- 
ment of 25,000 fr. per annum from the State. It is built upon 
a commanding terrace-like piece of ground, from which a very 
fine view may be enjoyed. In this same building is the Uni- 
versity, which has been so deservedly noted for the home 
which it afforded to many eminent men who were obliged to 
fly their fatherland for either political or religious opinions. 

In the Environs of Zurich the most interesting excursion 
is to the 

UETLIBERG, 

one of the Albis range. It is only 2864 feet, but com. 
mands a magnificent view. A railway with sharp gradient, 
similar to the Rigi line, pulls the idle up to its summit in 
less than an hour (see p. 42). The wise Romans erected a 
specula on this site, whose plateau commands the entire lake 
which lies outstretched below, a blue, narrow crescent, encircled 
by its fruitful hills. In the far distance, the Stockhorn, the 
Jungfrau, Rigi, and Pilatus uprear their splendid heads j on 
clear days the Vosges and the Black Forest are also plainly 
distinguishable. The Uetliberg is a favourite afternoon 
excursion, and no wonder ; for to see the sun cast its last loving 
evening rays upon these beauties is a sight not soon forgotten. 
It is customary for the school-children of the neighbourhood 
to make an excursion up the Uetliberg on Ascension day, and 
many of the masters let their flocks plant nurseries of pines on 
these occasions. Little forests of various ages thus mark the 
flight of time, for the youth of Ziirich link their lives with the 
mountain that overshadows their city. It becomes identified 
with their home, their childhood, and youth 5 and iaold^i^^i^CDss^ 
can seek the shelter of self -planted trees. It \s a ^Qe>L\es!N. ^-kbc^ > 



4* 



Em'lRONS OF ZtJRICH. 



and deserves imitation. In this manner, the past and presexit 
are joined hand to hand ; the KeUic tumulus^ Roman watch- 
tower^ and modem forest all forming portions of one chain of 
human brotherhood, while the lake flows calmly on, beautiful 
then, now, and for ever. 

The Uetliberg Railway.— Early in 1872 a conmiittee 
of the inhabitants of Zurich was appointed to take steps to form 
a line up the Uetliberg. Messrs. Culmann and Pestalozzi, and 
Mr. J. Tobies, chief engineer, were consulted on the subject. 

A special difficulty presented itself in the formation of the 
ground. The incline from the town to the foot of the mountain 
itself was so slight as to need only the ordinary adhesion 
principle. But a special system was indispensable for the 
ascent of the steep mountain. Thus it would be necessary 
either to proceed to the foot of the mountain with an ordinary 
locomotive and continue the journey up with one adapted to 
incline travelling, or to continue the journey from the incline 
to the town with an incline locomotive. It was finally decided 
to use the ordinary locomotive under special precautions. 

The incline is at its steepest in the last 810 metres before 
the station of Uetliberg. 

In order that in the descent journey the driver may have 
full control over the speed, the locomotive is provided with an 
air break, such as is used on the Rigi line, and which can be 
made available instantaneously. Additional breaks are used for 
stopping the train at stations. The break machine is always at 
the lowest part of the train, to prevent accidents by breaking of 
couplings, etc. 

The trial journeys were from Wiedikon to Uetliberg, a 
distance of eight kilometres. In the first journey, which was 
accomplished in 21 minutes 26 seconds, the total weight of 
train (consisting of one passenger-carriage, containing 30 
persons at 70 kilpg. each, and one truck containing 28 rails of 
1 75 kilog. each) amounted to over 1 7 tons. The second journey, 
with an additional weight of eight tons (nearly), performed the 
journey in 22 minutes 3 1 seconds. 

It was concluded, from these attempts, that the locomotives 
would amply fulfil the appointed conditions, which has proved 
to be the case. 

In good weather — in bad the line is less frequented— 
three passenger-carriages, containing forty persons, can be 
forwarded without any danger. These would weigh, together 
with the breaks, driver, and stoker, 26 tons, a weight reached 



zQrich to coire. 



43 



in the second descent journey It is hoped that as a lighter • 
model of passenger-carriages is contemplated, the weight of the 
train will be reduced and risk lessened. Later trials which the 
company have sanctioned, promise important results, in con- 
nection with this railway, to scientific knowledge. These at 
present show that the theory (of using ordinary locomotives) 
has asserted its right against cavillings of all sorts. The ascent 
of the steepest railway inclines is practicable with the ordinary 
adhesive locomotives without any danger. 

(For fares and times of starting, see local time-tables.) 

ZURICH TO COIRE. 

The whole journey may be made (i) by railway 3 but the 
pleasantest route is (2) by steamer to Rapperschwyl, and thence 
by rail to Coire. 

1. Crossing the Sihl, the road curves, and then crosses the 
rapid Limmat by an iron bridge. After passing Oerlikon, and 
crossing the Glatt, Wallisellen (p. 53) is reached. The traveller 
is now in the Lancashire of Switzerland j cotton-mills are con- 
tinually met with, especially in the neighbourhood of Uster, 
The church in this town has an elegant pointed spire, and the 
picturesque Castle, utilized as a Court of Justice, Gaol, and 
Inn, is a conspicuous feature in the landscape. Four stations, 
Aathal, Wetzikon (see below), Bubikon, the highest part of 
the line near the Bachtel, with an inn on the summit ; fine 
views. Ruti ; diligence from here to the foot of the Bachtel. 

Rapperschwyl, at the extremity of the Lake of Zurich 

(P- 45)- 

2. By steamboat on 

THE LAKE OF ZURICH. 

The Lake is twenty-six miles long, and three miles wide. 
It is the Windermere of Switzerland, beautiful and picturesque, 
but not grand. There are many pretty villages on the banks, 
and the background formed by the Alps of Glanis and Uri is 
remarkably fine. 

The steamboat journey to Rapperschwyl is very interesting, 
and should not be omitted, unless the traveller has an important 
object in view in taking the train. 

On the left bank the first station of interest is Meilen. 
HLere, in the winter of 1853, when the water was uauswaJA?} 
low, were first discovered those remarkable \ae>]is\xm^\>\ic\^v^^^ 



44 



ZtRICH TO COIRE. 



that puzzle ethnologists? Who were these lake-dwellers? 
Whence came they ? For what purpose did they isolate them- 
selves from the mainland ? Arrows, beads, hammers, spindles, 
grain, bones of tame animals, bread, plaited straw, seeds, and 
many other evidences of civilization, were exhumed on this spot, 
and can now be seen in the Zurich Museum (p. 40). For the 
water once more covers the piles at Meilen — they are, indeed, 
132 feet from the shore — and to see remains of such pile-build- 
ings it is needful to go farther inland to Wetzikon, where a 
former lake has become a peat-moor. Imbedded herein are the 
remains of such dwellings. It certainly needs some imagination 
to reconstruct them ; but the owner, an enthusiastic ethnologist, 
has assisted fancy by a little model, that shows a structure built 
somewhat after the manner of a Swiss ch&Iet, standing on an 
elevated platform, and connected with the shore by a rude 
bridge. It was in one of these lake communities that Sir 
Arthur Helps laid the scene of ** Realmah." 

Meilen produces a fairly good wine j indeed, most of the 
low hills round the Lake of Zurich are planted with vineyards, 
but the wine produced is only average. 

Nearly opposite Meilen is Horgen, a good place for strik- 
ing off for Zug and the Rigi. 

The next station of interest is Mannedorf, known for an 
establishment where maniacs may be healed by prayer. The 
house is always full, and cures are said to be effected — chiefly, 
however, it appears, upon hysterical and hypochondriacal 
patients. The Swiss are in the minority of those who seek its 
founder's aid, while Grermans predominate. Lately the Govern- 
ment has taken the place under its jurisdiction, the villagers, 
who are not favourable to the establislunent, having complained 
of the abuses practised. 

Stafa is the richest and one of the largest of the lake villages. 
It was here that Goethe lived for a while, and wrote his little play, 
*' Jery and Baetely,*' inspired by Swiss scenery. Nearly oppo- 
site lies the islet of Ufenau, amid whose greenery a ruined 
church uprears its walls. In this retired spot, the property of 
the Convent of Einsiedeln, Ulrich von Hutten found an asylum 
and a grave. When striving to regain health at the Baths of 
PfatFers, he was pursued, and would have fallen into the hands 
of his enemies, had not Zwingli shielded him, and, commend- 
ing him to the care of the Ufenau pastor, directed him thither. 
He died in his protector's arms, who laid the restless spirit to 
rest at the early age of thirty-six. No stone marks the dod 



J 



LAKE OF Zt}RlCH. ^^ 

that covers the remains of Luther's friend, as trasty a cham- 
pion of truth as ever enlisted in her service. His pen, some 
letters, and an edition of his minor works, with MS. notes, 
were his sole possession on his death. They are preserved at 
Zurich. Ufenau, it appears, was a favourite burial-place long 
before Christian times; its earth has yielded some curious 
relics — skeletons, ornaments, and pottery, dating from the very 
earliest times. 

Wadenschwyl is quite a considerable place, owning a 
castle, elegant villas, crape and silk manufactories, tanneries, 
and dye-houses ; indeed, it is the chief industrial town on the 
lake. From here a diligence starts daily for Einsiedeln, reaching 
the village in less than two hours (p. 48). 

Richterschwyl, built round a sheltering bay, is another 
favourite starting-point for Einsiedeln pilgrims. Its green slopes 
are remarkable for the scarlet pocket-handkerchiefs, printed 
with Black Madonnas, or views of Einsiedeln, that appear to 
grow on them perennially. They are spread out to dry, and a 
pretty bright touch they give to the landscape. Zimmermann 
lived here for many years ; he lauds the attractions of Richter- 
schwyl as a home for philosophers in his famous book on 
'•Solitude." ^ 

The thriving, picturesque town of Rapperschwyl closes 
the extreme eastern point of the lake, a conspicuous object long 
before the steamer touches below the knoll on which stand its 
dark old houses, snugly grouped together, overtopped by a 
monastery, and a venerable castle, built for a Crusader lord on 
his return from Palestine. The paved terrace commands a fine 
vista of the lake, a very gentle view of water and cultivated 
slopes ; the hills fall back here, while the Alps are behind the 
spectator. Rapperschwyl Rathliaus (Town-hall) deserves a 
visit, if only on accoimt of its carved Gothic portal and sculp- 
tured wooden roof, not to mention a stove of colossal height, 
decorated with allegorical, scenic, and architectural bas-reliefs, 
executed in a manner that stamps them contemporary with 
Holbein, and not unworthy that master. The artistic beauty 
of its ancient stoves is a characteristic of Switzerland. They 
are generally made of porcelain tiles ; this, and another preserved 
in the barracks at Zurich, are the only known specimens in 
iron. 

Rapperschwyl has played a large part in Swiss history 5 its 
site made it important, and it has had to endure several sie^&« 
It was here thiB conspirators met in ijjOjVifeiox^xSQaTCkassaKKfe 



46 



ZC?vICIl TO COIRE. 



at Zurich; while as for Zurich, their feads with that town 
appear to have been chronic. 

Opposite Rapperschwyl, on a narrow tongue of land jatting 
far out into the lake, lies Hurden. A wooden bridge of 
the most primitive kind connects the two spots. While three- 
quarters of a mile in length, its breadth is restricted to twelve 
feet, and consists from end to end of loose planks, laid (not 
nailed) on wooden piers. It boasts no railing, so that in a strong 
gale it is difficult, sometimes impossible, to traverse ; the meet- 
ing of two waggons is never without danger. Only invalids (but 
never very nervous ones) or very lazy people will care to drive 
across ; it is quite sufficiently unpleasant to meet horses walk- 
ing, lest they turn shy. Fortunately the traffic is not consider- 
able. The bridge dates from 1358, and has always been repaired 
after the primitive style of its first construction. It is held to 
be an indubitable testimony for a man's sobriety if he can cross 
safely after a convivial evening. On the great pilgrimage days 
to Einsiedeln this bridge is one mass of pedestrians ^ and a 
strange sight they present, men, women, and children, all clad 
in their best, clasping a rosary, and muttering Aves and Litanies 
as they walk. On these festival days the stream has been 
known to extend in one unbroken line from Rapperschwyl to 
Einsiedeln itself. 

This bridge ends the Lake of Zurich proper ; the sheet of 
water beyond is called the Ober See* It is a shallower basin, 
dotted with some pretty villages, little visited except by fisher- 
men, and in the winter, when it regularly freezes over, and be- 
comes the skating rink of the whole neighbourhood. The 
larger lake rarely freezes entirely 5 it did so last in 1830, when 
practised skaters flew from Zurich to Rapperschwyl in less than 
two hours, a distance of twenty-four miles. At the end of the 
Ober See the Linth Canal flows into the Lake of Ziirich 
(see below). 

Resuming the journey to Coire, the r ilway passes along the 
edge of the lake as far as Schmerikon, From Uznach. diligences 
run to Brunnen, Lachen, Einsiedeln, Schwyz. Numerous 
towns and villages noted for their manufacturing industry are 
passed. 

Near Schanis, where the French and Austrians met in arms 
in 1799, the Linth Canal is approached. This canal owes 
its existence to a noble-hearted Swiss, Conrad Escher. Before 



LAKE OF VVALLEN'STADT. 



47 



its formation, the wide plain that extends from Rapperschwyl 
to Wallenstadt was a pestilential morass ; the water meandered 
over the fields, carrying ague in its train ; the track became 
depopulated year by year. To obviate this, Escher proposed to 
lead the water into a navigable canal, that should connect the 
lakes usefully. He gave a large sum of money towards the 
undertaking, demandmg help in return from the Cantons. In 
1822, thanks to his resistless energy, the canal was completed, 
the land redeemed, and rendered wholesome. Since that time, 
the Escher family are permitted to bear the name *' Von der 
Linth,** the nearest approach to a title possible in the Swiss 
Republic. 

At Wesen passengers for Glarus (p. 52) change carriages. 
A fine excursion is made from Wesen to' the Speer, 4600 feet 
above the lake, commanding a magnificent view. Wesen is 
situated at the western extremity of 



THE LAKE OF WALLENSTADT, 

next to Lucerne, probably the grandest lake in Switzerland j it 
is only twelve miles long, and three broad. The northern shore, 
with precipitous cliffs, crags, and precipices, is rugged and almost 
savage in its character, while on the southern shore the scenery 
is fertile and pretty. On the top of the northern precipices is 
• the village of Amden, with 3000 inhabitants. 

Leaving Wesen, the train passes along the southern side of 
the lake, through a series of tunnels, two of which are pierced 
with apertures on the side nearest the lake. The views on 
emerging from the tunnels are magnificent, especially after the 
first two — the Bayerbach Waterfall, the village of Amden, the 
Falls of the Serenbach. At Muhlehom excursions may be 
made to Mollis, in the valley of Glarus, or boat journeys to the 
waterfalls, or to Wesen. At Murg the traveller may be 
tempted to lose a train, in order to enjoy the wonderful com- 
bination of mountain, lake, and valley, which here forms a gn nd 
and imposing spectacle. Near Wallenstadt, which is an 
uninteresting place in itself, a view may be obtained of the entire 
length of the lake. 

Sargans (p. 31), the junction of the railway to Rorschach, 
Romanshorn, and Constance 5 the valley of the Rhine is reached, 
and from this point the route to Coire is the same as that 
described on pp. 31, 32. 



49 ZURICH TO EINSIEDELN. 

FROM ZURICH TO EINSIEDELN, 8CHWYZ, 

AND BRUNNEN. 

From Zurich to Waedenschweil by boat or by rail (p. 45), 
Or to Richterswyl by the new railway recently opened from 
Ziirich to Glarus. From thence by railway to Einsiedeln in 
I hour. 

The carriage road winds uphill all the way. It leads for 
some time past rich meadow-lands bordered by fruit-trees, until 
ascending higher, the vegetation grows scantier; blue-eyed 
gentians and other mountain flowers peep out from the grass, 
while alongside the -road rushes the Sihl, its cold grey colour 
betraying its recent glacier origin. The scenery loses its 
softer character, and grows Alpine and desolate ; and by the 
time Biberbruck, the half-way station, is reached, the grand 
dark chains of the Glamer Alps, with their glacier-crowned 
summits, come full in view. The road still winds upwards, 
till the destination is reached. 

Stretched before the wanderer's eye lies a wide green table- 
land enclosed by an amphitheatre of pine-clad hills^ dotted with 
patches of snow ; beyond which three isolated peaks, almost 
dolomitic in their quaint outline, uprear their majestic heads. 
In the midst is Einsiedeln (Hotel du Paon), a clump of bar- 
rack-like houses, of which there are over seven hundred, five 
hundred being inns. No wonder they thrive ; even out of the 
pilgrimage season the place is full of devout worshippers, and 
at these periods people are glad to sleep under the shade of an 
awning in their carts and carriages. On a single elevation, so 
as to be in full view, stands the Monastery- Gliurch of Ein- 
siedeln, the raison (Tetre of the place, so strangely placed in a 
wide, desolate, barren moorland, distant from civilization and 
communication. No doubt, it is to these causes it owes its 
continued popularity 5 and it depends on the idiosyncrasy of the 
casual visitor whether his first thought on arriving is, this is 
the home of the miraculous Madonna, or, this is the birth-place 
of Paracelsus. A keener air blows here than by the lake, that 
is very healthful for a late autumn linger or an early spring 
outing. 

Einsiedeln 's fame rests upon the. miracles worked by its 
Black Madonna. The foundation of the monastery dates back 
to Charlemagne. Meinrad, a count of Hohenzollem, and also 
a Benedictine monk^ feeling a great craving fur solitude, retired 



EINSIEDELN. . .g 

to a spot Dear Biberbruck to pursue his devotions unmolested. 
Thither he brought his image of the Virgin, presented to him 
by the Abbess of Zurich, and here, by the help of another 
pious lady, he built a chapel to contain it. In vain did Meinrad 
try to live alone 5 people flocked from far and near to seek his 
advice. In despair, he retreated still farther into the wilds, 
pitching his tent in the present village of Einsiedeln, as the most 
inaccessible and unfrequented spot he could find. Food being 
scanty, two ravens daily supplied him with the necessaries of 
life 5 and so he lived for some time in lonely peace, till robbers, 
finally, foully attacked and murdered him, fancying he owned 
hidden treasures. The murder was discovered by means of 
the ravens, who followed the men to Zurich, shrieking around 
their heads, and, by their strange demeanour, attracting atten- 
tion. A chapel was built over Meinrad's grave : pious men 
loved to dwell in its precincts; thus, by degrees, a stately 
monastery and church sprang into being. In Sie year 94C the 
whole stood ready for consecration ; and the Bishop of Con- 
stance was invited to perform the act. Rising at midnight to 
say his orisons, he fancied he heard sweet sounds of music 
proceeding from the church, accompanied by all the offices 
customary at consecration. Next day, when about to begin the 
ceremony himself, a voice cried three times through the church, 
" Brother, desist, God himself has consecrated this building.** 
This was on September 14th, and since that date the festival of 
the Angelic Consecration has been the grand ferial of Einsiedeln. 
A papal bull acknowledged the miracle, and promised special 
indulgences to pilgrims. Einsiedeln rose in importance, until it 
became the richest and most influential monastery in Switzer- 
land ; its abbots were held by the Habsburgs as peers of the 
realm, and to this day they are known in the Catholic cantons 
as Princes of Einsiedeln. Their arrogance grew so great that, 
even in the twelfth century, some of the neighbouring com- 
munities revolted against their pretensions. Arnold of Brescia, 
then preaching at Zurich against the abuses of the clergy, found 
willing listeners. But the priests, backed by royalty, obtained 
the upper hand, and the leaders of revolt had to sue for pardon 
on their knees. From ijij to 15 19 Zwingli was an inmate of 
Einsiedeln, and it was on the feast of the Angelic Consecration 
that he denounced the Romish errors with such vigour that all 
the monks left their cells, and the monastery stood empty for 
some time. The French revolutionists plundered the church, and 
thought to rob the sacred image, but that had been cait^eA. os^^ 



^o zOrich to einsiedeln. 

into Tyrol for safety before their approach. The year after its 
retorn 260,000 pilgrims came to visit it. The church has 
many filials as well as landed possessions, vineyards, orchards, 
and farms, and the brothers have considerable property in 
America. 

The present pile of buildings is the sixth or seventh erected 
since the foundation, Fire has been busy in its attempts at de- 
struction, but it has always spared the sacred image. The 
present monastery flanks ^e church on either side, forming a 
square, around it, which contains all the conventual requisites. 
The church is in very bad taste, a roccoco aberration of the 
very worst type conceivable, gaudy with colour, overladen with 
gold, jewels, and marble ; an eyesore to a cultivated eye, a very 
vision of paradise to the ignorant peasant. It is a large bailding, 
consisting of nave and aisles in which side-chapels are niched ; 
each of these is sacred to a local saint, whose skeleton lies 
beneath the altar. Ntarthe chief entrance is the Madonna's 
Chapel, a structure of black marble standing quite isolated in 
the nave, a church within a church. The priests performing 
the offices enter it by gilt doors, and are enclosed like sheep 
in a fold, while without kneel the worshippers. Waxen ex 
votos, arms, legs, cows, bulls, horses, dogs, etc., are hung on 
its railings $ votive candles, varying from little tapers to sturdy 
candles, are affixed to its spikes, injuring the marble by their 
constant drippings. 

It is not possible to see the Madonna closely, since none but 
priests may enter the railed enclosure of this chapel ; but seen 
at a distance, the colour is a rich bronze, not black, and there 
is something quaint and benign about the figure that lends it a 
curious grace. Of course it, too, is overladen with jewels and 
fine clodiing; but the faces of the Virgin and Child are far 
from unattractive, despite their gaudy envelopments. 

Outside the church, a little below the broad flight of steps 
that leads to it, is erected a semicircle of booths, entirely devoted 
to the sale of rosaries, images, trinkets, devotional prints, and 
prayer-books. These rosaries are strung along the walls by the 
hundred, and one wonders how the dealers can sell enough to 
render the trade lucrative. Rosaries bought at Einsiedeln are, 
however^ in great demand, and no pilgrim leaves without buying 
at least one for himself and every member of his family and 
friends as a memento. They are of every colour, shape, size, 
and variety, and a booth hung round with them from ceiling to 
floor presents quite a kaleidoscopic scene. 



EINSIEDELN TO SCHWYZ. ^1 

All Einsiedeln is devoted to the manufactory and sale of 
articles of this kind, and to the printing of devotional works. 

A little below the booths stands a handsome Marble 
Fountain, shaped like an open-worked crown, which shelters 
a statue of the Virgin. The water trickles from fourteen spouts. 
Tradition says the Saviour drank from one on an occasion not 
further particularized, and left his blessing on the waters evermore. 
It is the custom for pilgrims to put their mouths to each of these 
openings, so as to be certain that their lips have touched the 
right one. It is a most strange spectacle to see them, men and 
women, going from one to the other spout, and drinking a little 
of the water from each. 

From Einsiedeln a diligence runs twice daily tO 
Sohwyz, or the journey may be made on foot by the Hacken, 
a pass commanding fine views from the summit. , On the 
diligence road the village of Rothenthurm — so named from a 
red tower of defence there standing — is passed. Between two 
and three miles from here, on the W., is the Lake of Egeri, . 
and on the borders of the lake is Morgarten, where, in 13 15, 
a fierce encounter took place between the Swiss and Austrians, 
under Duke Leopold. The Swiss only mustered 1300, while 
the Austrians had a force of 20,000. The battle did not last 
two hours, but the Austrians were cut to pieces. 

"It was on a clear winter morning that Duke Leopold 
atid his army rode through this mountain pass towards the lake. 
The sun glinted on the bright spears and helmets of the men, 
who rode along jauntily, apprehending no danger, when suddenly 
die rocks seemed to become alive and precipitate themselves 
down in massive blocks upon their heads; it literally rained 
stones and rude missiles. The Swiss had got wind of the 
Austrian intentions, and hearing the Duke*s boast that he would 
* tread these peasants under foot,' determined to be beforehand 
with him, and hiding themselves in their rocky fastnesses, 
thus surprised and utterly routed their enemies, for escape was 
impossible. Many gallant knights met their death in this 
ignominious manner, or were drowned in the lake into which 
their frightened horses dashed full speed. Thus was won 
the famous day of Morgarten, of great importance in Swiss 
annals, as from that time forward the power of the Austrian was 
broken. A chapel on the southern shore of the lake marks the 
burial place of the fallen, to whose memory an annual service is 
still held every i6th of November. The altar-piece \s ^^\cN»x^ 
of the battle." 



5a ZURICH TO OLARUS. 

Schwyz (Hotel Rossli), with a population of 6,000, is the 
capital of the canton. It is pleasantly situated at the foot of 
the two-homed My then. Switzerland takes its name from 
this little out-of-the-way town (p. 66). 

Three miles from Schwyz is Brunnen (p. 66), on the 
Lake of Lucerne. 

Diligence from Schwyz to Zurich, Lucerne^ Arth, or the 
Muottathal. 

FROM ZORICH to QLARU8* 

A new line of railway has been opened from Ziirich to 
Glarus. It continues by the Lake of Ziirich to Richterswyl 
(pp. 43 — 47). Then past stations Pfqffikon, Lachen, Siebnen, 
The Linth Canal (p. 46) is then approached. After station Bilten, 
the line turns abruptly southward, omitting Wesen, and joins 
the Wesen and Glarus line at Nafels (see below). 

Glarus (see below). 

FROM WESEN TO GLARUS. 

The journey occupies only half- an -hour. The only Roman 
Catholic town in the Canton of Glarus is Nafels, which is 
passed in the railway. Glarus, the capital of the canton, is 
m the midst of innumerable manufactories, the canton being 
famous for its various industries. It is situated at the foot of 
the Glamisch, ^Viggis, and Schilt. In 1861 it was almost 
entirely destroyed by fire. A fine view of the town and 
neighbourhood is obtained from the Burghiigel. Zwingli 
officiated at the church from 1506 to i J46. Curiously enough, 
this church is used by Roman Catholics and Protestants in 
common. 

Glarus is celebrated for the number of pleasant places for 
excursions within an easy distance. Among them, i. the Baths 
of Stachelberg, unrivalled for the beauty of their situation^ 
and held in great repute for a strong sulphurous alkaline water 
which dribbles from a spring about two miles off. 2. The 
Pragel Pass, by the Muottathal to Schwyz. 3. To Linththal, 
where the scenery is magnificent, the valley being enclosed 
with snow mountains, the finest of which is the Todi. 

GLARUS TO DISSENTI8 OR TR0N8. 

This route passes Mitlodi in a picturesque valley, and 
SchwandeD, where the Sernf Thai and Linth Thai diverge. 



Zt}RICH TO ROMANSHORN. ^^ 

Proceeding up the Linth Thai, Leukelbach, with its waterfall, 
Luchsingen, Hazingen, Diesbach (with fine waterfalls), are suc- 
cessively passed. 

Near Riiti are the Baths of Stachelberg, with a 
powerful mineral spring, but of very limited supply. The 
views in the vicinity of the Selbsanft, Kammerstock, and other 
peaks, are very good. Excursions to the Todi mountain can be 
arranged from here. 

Linthtlial has numerous factories in the neighbourhood. 
Hence to Dissentis, in the Vorder Rhein Valley, is an arduous 
iwelve hours* journey by the Sand Grat Pass (9138 feet). Mag- 
nificent views are obtained of the Piz Russein (11,887 f<^t), 
and other summits of the Todi group. The path joins the high 
road near the wonderful bridge over the Russeiner Tobel from 
which either Dissentis or Trons is readily reached. 

GLARUS TO ILANZ OR FLIMS, FOR GOIRE. 

Glarus to Elm by the Sernf Thai. (See p. 52,) 
From Elm to Ilanz is by the Panixer Pass (7907 feet). A 
guide is necessary, and the expedition requires thirteen hours' 
fatiguing toil. By this route the Russians retreated in 1799. 

From Elm to Flims is by the Segnes Pass (8612 feet), 
under the Tschingel Spitz (10,230 feet). The path crosses the 
glacier, and passes the Martinsloch, the hole through which the 
sun shines twice in the year. A guide is needed. This route 
is shorter but more difficult than the Panixer. 

FROM ZURICH TO ROMANSHORN. 

Time, 3 hours. Stations, Oerlikon, Wallisellen, where 
the line to Coire, diverges (p. 43), Bietlikon, Bffretikon, 
Kemp thai. 

Winterthur, Junction with line to Schaffhausen, St. 
fallen, and Rorschach. Population 7000. This town was 
once free, but gave up its freedom and became subject to 
Austria. For the last 400 years it has belonged to Zurich. 
Stations, Wlesendcmgen^ Islikon. Frauenfeld, a large manu- 
facturing town on the Murg. The capital of the Canton of 
Thurgau. Stations, FelweUy Miilhdm, Mdrstetten, IFemfelden, 
Biirglen, Sullen, Erlen, AmristuyL Romanshorn, p. 30. 

Romanshom to Friedrichshafen (p. 29), to SchatfhauseSb. 
and Basle (p. 21), to Rorschach and Colte (,^. ^o)* 



^^ ZORICH to RORSCHACH. 

FROM ZURICH TO RORSCHACH (BY 8T. 

GALLEN). 

Zarich to Winterthur, (p. 53). St2Lt\(mSf RSterschen^ Elgg^ 
AadorJ, Eschlikon, Sirnach, Wyl, where a view of the Sentis 
is obtained. A long lattice bridge over the Thur, then Schwar- 
zenbach, Utzwyl, Flavryl, a large manufacturing village. 
After crossing the river Glatt> stations, Gossan, Winkeln, and 
Bruggen, where there is a remarkable bridge over the 
valley of the Setter. 

St. Gall (Hotel de St. Gall). This town, situated at a great 
height, is the capital of the Canton St. Gallen. It has con- 
siderable cotton manufactories, and is sometimes called the 
Manchester of Switzerland. The Abbey, founded by St.' 
Gallus, an Irish monk, early in the 7th century, was at one 
time (8th century) the most celebrated seat of learning in 
Europe. The cliurcll> rebuilt 1760, possesses some very an- 
cient relics. In the town are a Museum, Town Library, and 
Reading Room. The favourite excursion from St. Gall is to 
Appenzell and Weissbad, by way of Trogen and Gais by 
diligence. Whey cure establishments abound in all this neigh- 
bourhood. Innumerable excursions can be made from Weiss- 
bad, notably the Wildkircllli, a hermitage dedicated to St. 
Michael, where Mass is held on St. Michael's Day. Close by 
here is a stalactite cavern. The ascent of the Sentis, the 
highest mountain in Appenzell, can be made from Weissbad 
in about four hours. 

From St. Gallen to Rorschach, a distance of 9 miles. 
Stations St, Fiden, Morschwyl, are passed, frequent views of the 
Lake of Constance are obtained j and soon after the train has 
passed the stone bridge over the Goldach, a very fertile region 
IS entered, and continues to Rorschacli (p. 30). 

ZURICH TO LUCERNE BY RAIL. 

[For Zurich to Lucerne by way of Lake of Zurich, Horgen, 

and Zug, p. 57.] 

By railway the journey occupies about two hours. Stations, 
Altstetten (views of the Uetilberg), Urdorf, Blrmensdorf, 
Bonstetten, Hedingen, Jffoliern^ Meimensteiten, Knonau, Zug. 
Zug, population between 4000 and 4500, of whom only a few 
are Protestants. The town, which is the capital of Zug, the 



zOrich to lucerne. j5 

smallest canton of the Confederation, contains yarious objects of 
interest. 

Among them, is the Arsenal, wherein is to be found the 
ancient standard, stained by the blood of its gallant but un- 
fortunate bearer, Pierre Collin, who perished at the brittle of 
Arbedo, in 1422, when 3000 Swiss valiantly, but fruitlessly, 
strove to maintain the field against 24,000 Milanese. 

In the church of the Capuchins is an Entombment by 
Flamingo, In St. Michael's church is a bone-house, where 
hundreds of skulls, labelled and inscribed with the name, age, 
and place of residence of the deceased, are piled up. 

THE LAKE OF ZUG 

is 9 miles long and 3 broad, and is 1370 feet above the level 
of the sea. 

The lake is most beautiful, and possesses many points of 
interest. The adjacent country is highly picturesque j the richly 
wooded banks, with the distant hills, and to the south, the 
stately Rigi, forming a very picturesque background. Small 
steamers are continually plying in various directions across the 
lake, affording tourists every facility for visiting the more interest- 
ing portions of the surrounding shores. See local time tables. 

A short distance from Zug, on the steamboat journey, 
Pilatus, the Ross-Stock, and the Frohnalp are seen. Immensee 
is a charming little place, and those who have left the railway 
and intend to ascend the Rigi on foot, had better do so from this 
place. Arthj at the Southern extremity of the lake, is between 
the Rigi and the Rossberg. Train or omnibus from here to 
Goldau, where, in 1806, a large portion of the Rossberg, pene- 
trated by the heavy rains, was precipitated from a height of 
3*000 feet into the valley below, swallowing up four villages, 
with upwards of five hundred of their inhabitants, together 
with several visitors. The traces of the disaster are still to be 
seen at Goldau and Lowerz. 

Railway from Arth to the summit of the Rigi (see p. 71). 

A diligence runs twice a day from Arth to Brunnen, (p. 66). 

Omnibus from Immensee to Kiissnacht (p. 64). 

Zug to Lucerne by rail. The bank of the Lake of Zug 
is skirted. Stations, Chajn (look out for a charming view of 
Zug here), Rothkreuz, where the valley of the Reuss is entered, 
Gisikon, Ebikon. Then the line unites with the Swiss Central 
Railway, and Lucerne is reached. 

Lucerne (p. 58). 



j6 zOrich to zuo. 

ZORICH to ZUG, by the ALBI8. 

The Albis road skirts the west bank of the Lake of Zurich 
as far as to Wollishofen 3 then in a southerly direction to 
Adlischwyl, where a wooden bridge crosses the Sihl. The 
ascent then commences to Ober Albis, the highest part of 
the road. Near here is the Hochwacht, and the traveller is 
recommended to ascend to the pavilion on the suamiit» where 
a magnificent view is to be obtained. Then descend past the 
Tiirler See, a miniature lake, to Hausen, a pleasant village, with 
villas and a homcsopathic establishment. Then continue to 
Kappel, a place memorable in the history of the Reformation. 
When the Roman Catholic Cantons of Lucerne, Zug, Schwyz, 
Uri, and Unterwalden had declared war against Zurich and 
Berne, their troops advanced to Kappel, where a battle was 
fought, October 11, 153 1. And here Zwingli fell. "When 
the first ranks had fallen and the rest fled, Zwingli, with a 
halbert in his hand, which he stretched across their course, in 
vain attempted to restrain their flight, calling out to them * not 
to fear, for that they were in a good cause } to commend them- 
selves to God, and stand their ground.' He appears to have 
been first beaten to the ground by a stone, and afterwards, on 
rising, or attempting to rise, to have been repeatedly thrown 
down, and trodden upon by the crowd. At length he received 
a wound in the throat from a spear, which he supposed to be 
mortal -, when, sinking down on his knees, he exclaimed, ' Is 
this to be esteemed a calamity ? They can kill the body, but 
the soul they cannot touch.* When the soldiers came to strip 
the slain, he was found yet alive, lying on his back, with his 
hands clasped together, and his eyes lifted up to heaven. He 
was asked if he wished a confessor to be sent for j then if he 
would invoke the Virgin j and on his declining both, he was 
immediately despatched. When the body was discovered to be 
that of Zwingli, it was condemned by a military tribunal to be 
cut in quarters, and then burned to ashes ; which barbarous 
but impotent sentence, with other indignities, was accordingly 
carried into execution." 

The spot where the body of Zwingli was found is indicated 
by a metal plate in the rock, with a Latin and German inscription. 

In the old Gothic Church at Kappel may be seen some good 
stained glass. Continuing from Kappel, the traveller will next 
reach Baar (p. 57), where the road from Horgen to Zug is joined. 

Baar to Zug, two miles. 



BASLE TO LUCERNE. 



57 



ZURICH TO THE RIGI AND LUCERNE, BY 
HORGEN AND THE LAKE OF ZUQ. 

There is not a pleasanter journey from Zurich to Lucerne 
than by this route, although it takes a much longer time than 
by rail. 

The traveller will take steamboat from Zurich to Horgen 
(p. 44), and then proceed on foot, by carriage, or by omnibus to 
Zug. The road ascends as far as to Hirzel, and then descends 
to the valley of the Sihl. From the covered Sihl Bridge to 
Baar the views are very beautiful. Baar (p. 56) is celebrated 
for its charnel-house, where may be seen the skulls of many 
generations of the inhabitants piled up in a pyramid. Zag is a 
little more than two miles from Baar. 

For the Rigi the traveller will proceed as far as to Arth 
(p. 55) by steamboat on the Lake of Zug, where he will disem- 
bark, and ascend the mountain either on foot or by rail (p. 71). 

For Lucerne, take the steamboat to Immensee, where 
omnibus can be taken to Kussnacht (p. 64)^ and from Kiiss- 
nacht by steamboat to Lucerne (p. j8). 

For this trip, as it is most desirable to arrange it so that 
steamboats and omnibuses may be found in correspondence, the 
traveller is recommended to start from Zurich by the first boat 
in the morning, and consult local time-tables for the rest. 

FROM BASLE TO LUCERNE. 

From Basle to Olten (p. 34). 

The short journey from Olten to Lucerne (thirty-three miles) 
is through delightful country ; and as many travellers approach 
Switzerland by this route, it is a memorable one with them, as 
they get their first glimpses of the glories of the Bernese 
Oberland. Take a seat on the left of the carriage. 

Aarburg is the first station after leaving Olten. The old 
castle (1660) was once the residence of the governors, then a 
State prison, and it is now a gaol and arsenal. Aarburg was 
destroyed by fire in 1840. Zoflngen, celebrated, amongst 
other things, for two good ball-rooms, built on the branches of 
some old trees^ close by the Schiitzenhaus, and for remains of a 
Roman bath, and other ancient relics. Reiden; the large 
house on the hill near the station was once a Lodge of the 
Knights of Malta. Stations, Dagmersellan^ Nebikon, IVcuiwyl 
(here the first view of the Monch, Eiger, J\M\^ic2L\x> «l\3A ^>ioet 



58 LUCERNE. 

mountains^ is obtained). Sursee, a pleasant old town, with 
some quaint architecture. The double eagle of the House of 
Habsburg is still upon its gates. A little beyond Nottwyl the 
Lake of Sempach is skirted. The lake is small — six and a half 
miles by two and a half, and not beautiful. The neighbourhood 
all around Sompacll is, however, very interesting, on account 
of its being the scene of one of the most thrillinsc chapters in 
Swiss history. The Austrians for the third time invaded 
Switzerland. Only 1400 Swiss met their overwhelming army, 
under the command of Duke Leopold. The battle would have 
been fatal to the Swiss, but for the heroism of Arnold von 
Winkelried, who threw himself upon the Austrian spears. 

^ Sdll on the terried files he pressed, 
He broke their ranks and died.'* 

Inspired with a new courage^ the Swiss, rushing over 
Winkelried's dead body, slew 2600 of the enemy, and signally 
defeated the Austrians. The battle took place July 9, 1386; 
four stone crosses mark the site of the engagement. 

Between Sempach and Rothenburg, good views of the Rigi 
and Pilatus. Emmenhrucke^ by the side of the Reuss (left)^ then 
through a tunnel^ and Lucerne is reached. 

LUCERNE (Germ., Luzern). 

[Hotel du Cygne (Swan), conducted by Mr. H. Haefeli. This 
Hotel is delightfully situated (reconstructed in Renaissance 
style in 1878) close to the steamboat stations on the lake, 
and commands magnificent views. Circular Tickets and 
Hotel Coupons of Messrs. Thos. Cook and Son may be 
obtained here.] 

The Railway Station is on the left bank of the lake. 
The New Bridge crosses the Reuss between the station and the 
town. 

The Post Office is also on the left bank, near the Church 
of the Jesuits. There is a branch office on the Schwanen- 
platz. 

Steamboats (which touch at the Railway Station) run at 
intervals throughout the day to Fliielen and back (p. 6^). See 
local time bills. 

Rowing Boats (not recommended). See fixed tariff. 

Diligence O flice, at the Branch Post-ofiSce, Schwanenplatz. 



LUCERNE. ^Q 

Lucerne^ one of the most populous towns in Switzerland 
(16,000 inhabitants) is situate on the western extremity of its 
lake, by the River Reuss. Its walls and watch-towers date from 
the 14th century^ and in ancient days the town of Lucerne 
occupied a far more important position among Swiss towns than 
now. It has always been a residence of the Papal Nuncios, and 
at the present day nine- tenths of its inhabitants are Roman 
Catholics. 

Lucerne contains numerous old buildings. Its lake is the 
finest in Switzerland, and in its immediate neighbourhood are 
t«70 of the most celebrated Swiss mountains^ Rigi and Pilatus— 
famous, not for their height^ but because from them most can 
be seen. 

As the traveller leaves the Railway Station, he will be 
charmed with his first view. In front is the lak^, which^ in 
other parts rugged and sublime, wears at this point a fair and 
smiling aspect. To the right is Pilatus; far away in the 
distance, seeming to rise from lake to sky, are the mountains of 
the Bernese Oberland ; opposite is the Rigi, with the villages 
nestling at its feet; and to the left is the town, with its 
churches, its towers, its queer old streets, and its four bridges. 
Of these bridges, two are modem, but the other two number 
with the special sights of Lucerne. They are not thrown 
straight across the river, and are roofed over. 

The oldest is the Kappelbriicke (Chapelbridge), dating 
from the beginning of the 14th century. It is decorated with 
154 curious paintings, so suspended, that anyone crossing 
from the north side beholds in succession seventy-seven scenes 
from the lives of the joint patron saints of the town, SS. Mau- 
rice and Leger ; but coming in the opposite direction, the pic- 
tures seen are commemorative of events in the history of the 
Swiss Confederation. This structure, however, is likely to be 
replaced by one that will be passable for vehicles -, and then, at 
the behest of modem convenience, will a truly historical land- 
mark disappear. Near the north end of the bridge is a 
Chapel, dedicated to St. Peter, and containing four good paint- 
ings by Deschwanden, Hard by stands the Wasserthurm, 
rising from the middle of the river. It is now used as a de- 
pository for the archives of the town. It was originally a Roman 
lighthouse (Laoema),from which the town probably derived its 
name. 

The other covered bridge, near the Basle Gate, is called the 
Muhlenbriicke (Mill-bridge). It was erected ewVqV\^^ 



6o LUCERNE. 

15th century. It is decorated with thirty-four *' strange pic- 
tures, with strange inscriptions," representing "The Dance of 
Death." Our readers may remember the conversation between 
Prince Henry and Elsie in Longfellow's " Golden Legend " — 

" The dance of Death. 
All that go to and fro must look upon it, 
Mindful of what they shall be ; while beneath. 
Among the wooden piles, the turbulent river 
Rushes Impetuous as the river of Li^.** 

The Stiftskirche, or Hofkirche, dedicated to S. Leger, 
stands at the eastern end of the town. The body of the 
church is in the Italian 17th century style j the two slender 
towers are older, and date from the beginning of the i6th 
century. It has two side-altars, with carved wood reliefs, and 
finely -carved stalls and painted glass windows ', also an excellent 
organ, upon which there are daily performances, for the benefit 
of those willing to invest one franc for the privilege of hearing 
it. The peal of bells is fine, and the ancient mode of ringing 
is still adhered to. On the largest bell is the inscription, '* Vivos 
voco, mortuos plango, f algura frango '* ('* I call the living, be- 
wail the dead, disperse the storms *'). Round three sides of the 
churchyard are arcades j the southern one affords beautiful views 
of the lake and the mountains. In these cloisters are some fine 
frescoes (two by Deschwanden), and numerous monuments in 
good preservation. The old tombstones are very curious j on 
some of them are carved the insignia of the guild or trade to 
which the deceased belonged in his lifetime ; as, for instance, a 
hammer and tongs for a blacksmith, a fish for a fishmonger, etc. 

The GhurcSl of the Jesuits, with its handsome interior, 
is a good example of the characteristic style of that order. 
Notice the altar-piece and relics in the second chapel on the 
right. 

The Scliweizerliof Quai, with its fine avenue of trees, 
which is the promenade of Lucerne, stands on ground reclaimed 
from the lake, over which there was at this part formerly a very 
long bridge, stretching as far as the Stiftskirche. On the 
parapet will be seen an index to the chain of the Alps. The 
view from hence comprises a fine semicircle of mountains, from 
the Rigi to Pilatus. The Rigi Kulm, the Rossberg, Vitznauer 
Stock, Ross Stock, Biirgenstock, Buochser Horn, the Titlis, 
Stanserhorn, etc., etc., will be readily distinguished by means of 
the indicator referred to. 

J"\ the Town Hall are some fine carvings, done in 16051 



LUCERNE. 6 1 

by a native of Breslau. There is also an old fresco, representing 
the death of Gundolfingen, who led the men of Lucerne at the 
battle of Sempach. 

The Arsenal (fee demanded) is full of objects of interest 
to the antiquary. The reputed sword of Tell is shown here; 
also a number of halberds^ battle-axes, and suits of armour 
from native battle fields, especially from that of Sempach. 
Two flags captured at sea in the memorable battle of Le- 
panto, when the maritime power of the Turks in Europe was 
finally broken. These were presented by a Knight of Malta^ 
who was a native of Lucerne. 

The famous Lion of Lucerne, near the Stiftskirche, 
is the greatest curiosity of the place. It is a large lion hewn 
out of the solid sandstone rock, in memory of the Swiss Guards 
who died in defending the royal family of France, in August 
and September, 1792. It is truly a magnificent work of art, 
'* admirable in conception and execution, and touching forcibly 
both the imagination and the feelings.*' This colossal piece of 
sculpture, 28i feet long and 18 feet high, represents a dying 
lion, with his side transfixed by a broken spear, and protecting 
the shield of the Bourbons even in the agonies of death. It is 
surrounded with ivy and other creeping plants, and from the 
rock beside it a mountain stream leaps down to a pool below 
in which the lion is reflected. This exquisite monument was 
originally suggested by General Pfyffer, one of the surviving 
Swiss. The model (still to be seen in a building hard by) 
was finished by Thorwaldsen, and from this design (with some 
slight alterations) the actual monument was sculptured by 
Ahom, of Constance. Near the lion is a chapel where, on 
August loth, a special solemn mass is celebrated in memory of 
the slain. The altar-cloth is the work of the Duchess d'Angou- 
16me, daughter of Louis XV L, the last survivor of the terrible 
scene annually commemorated. 

Close at hand is StaufFer's Alpine Museum, which is 

well worthy the attention of any tourist with a taste for natural 
history. There are numerous groups of Alpine animals and 
birds, and extensive collections of butterflies and botanical 
specimens. All the specimens in the Museum are the work of 
Stauffer, the proprietor, an intelligent man, who is always ready 
to give information as to the natural history of the Alps. 
Duplicates of his specimens are on sale. He is proposing to 
establish a collection of living specimens of Alpine birds and 
animals. 



62 LUCERNE. 

In the same immediate neighbourhood is the celebrated 
Glacier Garden (Gletscher-garten). Here> in the so-called 
" Giants' Pots," and other phenomena, the student of nature 
may see the still existent results of the mighty forces that were 
at work in that marvellous undated epoch, when enormous 
glaciers, to which any now known are mere bagatelles, covered 
the whole of Europe. Besides the sixteen excavations illus« 
trative of glacial action, there are other attractions for visitors 
to this garden, es|)ecially a collection of objects found in the 
'Make dwellings" discovered atBaldegg, 12 miles from Lucerne, 
in 1 87 1. These objects are of great interest; they consist of 
66 instruments made of bone, 6 of wood, and 140 of stone; 
besides about 100 fragments of pottery, various specimens of 
fruit and leather, and a number of teeth, bones, antlers, and 
horns of animals. Amongst the bone implements we may 
specially note a drinking-vessel, very elegantly wrought 5 a spade 
of stag's horn ; a stag's horn with two stone chisels 5 a weaving 
or knitting instrument ; various pointed and cutting instru- 
ments ; a knitting-needle made of a boar's tooth ; a well-pre- 
served bone knife in shape of a dagger. Amongst the wooden 
instruments, a little oval plate, with a small hole in each focal 
point, is the most noticeable. Amongst the stone implements 
are many hatchets — one made of flinty slate, very well wrought; 
another of greenstone, with an edge as sharp as a knife ; also 
many chisels, hammers, knives, spear-heads, and grinding- 
stones. The pottery includes conical weights for flshing-nets, 
and fragments of various clay vessels, some prettily ornamented. 
On one is the crust of something cooked, and partly burnt ! The 
vegetable collection consists of hazel-nuts, an acom^ some 
carbonized wheat, carbonized pieces of apple, etc. The animal 
specimens are two small pieces of untanned thick leather, and 
the teeth, horns, claws, bones, of the boar, stag, roebuck, bear, 
badger, beaver, ox, sheep, goat, horse, and dog. 

It is not so much for any special attractions in the town 
itself, as for its beautiful situation and surroundings, 
that Lucerne is justly celebrated. From the windows of the 
Swan Hotel you may gaze upon the lovely lake, and count 
upwards of a score of mountain peaks in the encircling pro- 
spect ; or you may stroll through groves of trees, and along 
pleasant promenades close at hand, and enjoy magnificent 
scenery with but little exertion. Short walks to the Drei 
Linden, AUenwinden, or Little Rigi, in the vicinity, will afford 
varied and more extensive prospects. 



LAKE OF LUCERNE. go 

Of somewhat longer expeditions in the neighbourhood there 
are plenty for which visitors can arrange to walk or ride, as 
suits their strength or convenience. There is the fine view 
from the chapel in Herrgottswald (God*s Wood), reached by 
following the carriage road for 4^ miles, and then tracking the 
forest paths for an hour, and finally by ascending a prodigious 
number of wooden steps. This jaunt may be extended to the 
beautiful valley known as the Eigenthal. 

The pretty village of Adligenschwyl (4J miles) is a favourite 
drive 5 the route can be varied, and pedestrians can take a plea- 
sant footpath from the Kiissnacht road. 

Lovers of the rod and line will find good sport at Rothsee, 
I i mile along the Zurich road. 

For the view from the Giitsch, at the back of the Hospital 
Church, in the Basle road, it is well worth taking the trouble of 
the ascent. 

An interesting drive of about 10 miles is to take the Berne 
road for nearly 4 miles, then turning off by the Gorge of 
the Renkloch, at the foot of Pilatus, and returning by Krienz 
to Lucerne. 

But these short trips are all on terra Jirma^ whereas it is by 
crossing the bosom of the lovely lake that the places of chief 
interest are reached, and the fairest charms of the district dis- 
closed. 

THE LAKE OF LUCERNE. 

There is not to be found in Europe a lake more complete 
and perfect in the grandeur of its mountain scenery, the quiet 
beauty of its banks, the poetry of its legendary associations, and 
the endless variety of its charms, than the Lake of Lucerne, 
otherwise known as the Vierwaldstfttter See, or Lake of the 
Four Forest Cantons. It is between twenty-five and twenty- 
six miles long, and varies from one to four miles in breadtti. In 
shape it is nearly cruciform. A thousand objects will interest 
the traveller on every hand. " So clear is the lake, that you 
can in some deep places see to the bottom 5 it does not look 
like water, but a sheet of blue glass spread over deep caverns ; 
and the fish look as if they were floating in air, and the weeds 

like uncultivated gardens Enchantment gilds the scene ; 

now a castle on a hill, now a shrine with a richly decorated 
image of the Virgin reared upon some isolated piece of rocVL\ 
now an arm of the lake, disclosing a wocld oi NvoTA^^ts^^c^sax^^ 



6^ LUCERNE. 

never dreamt were there.** These are some of the things for 
iivhich the eyes must be kept open. 

The steamers for the Lake Tour start from the station 
immediately facing the Swan Hotel. There are six or eight 
boats a day, some of which are express. Tickets are issued for 
the tour of the lake, in which case the journey may only be 
broken at Fliielen. It must be noted that different steamers 
stop at different places, and proper inquiries must therefore be 
made before embarking. Tourists who have not much time at 
their disposal will probably be content with the trip to Fliielen 
and back (which will give them a general survey of the lake), 
and of course an ascent of the Rigi (see p. 70). 

Soon after leaving Lucerne by the steamer, a splendid view 
of the town and its environs is obtained. After passing the 
bold promontory of the Meggenhom,. and the little island of 
Altstad, the Bernese Alps lift their snowy summits into view. 
So far, the adjacent shores have been low hills, sprinkled with 
villas ; we now see the two bays of Alpnach and Kussnacht 
stretching away to west and east respectively. 

The former bay affords a picturesque trip to Alpnach 
(Hotel Pilatus) by steamer in i\ hour, or by rowing boat in 
3 hours. The landing-places are Hergiswyl (for the ascent of 
Pilatus, p. 69) 'y Stanzstad, with its bridge across the lake to 
Acheregg, its old fourteenth century tower by the waterside j 
and the majestic Titlis, rising to the height of 11,000 feet, in 
the backgroimd. The Castle of Rotzberg, on the east side of 
the lake, has its romantic legend^ telling how, when Switzerland 
was expelling the Austrians in 1308, Jagelli, a young Swiss 
soldier, was admitted to the castle by Annelli, a diamsel within 
it, and then managed to introduce a band of his companions, 
who speedily made themselves masters of the stronghold. 

The next stopping-place is Rotzloch, and at the extremity 
of the lake is Alpnach- Gestad. Here was situated the noted 
** slide,*' an immense wooden trough down the slopes and across 
the ravines, down which timber hewn on Mount Pilatus rushed 
eight miles in six minutes, for transmission by the Reuss and 
Rhine to Holland. Napoleon L was the chief customer for his 
dockyards, till his retirement to Elba. The church is built of 
wood that came down by this slide. 

The western bay (that of Kussnacht) has on its northern 
bank the ruins of an Austrian fort, New Habsburg, destroyed 
in 1352 by the Swiss. The town of Kussnacht stands at the 
extremity of the bay. 



LAKE OF LUCERNE. 65 

A capital and very enjoyable excursion can be made by 
leaving the steamer at Kussnacht, and taking the omnibus to 
Immensee (p.5j), thence proceeding by steamer to Arth, and 
on by diligence to Schwyz and Brunnen (p. 66). From thence 
Lucerne is reached by steamer. The whole round would 
occupy between nine or ten hours, exclusive of stoppages. 

We will now pursue the central route across the lake to 
Fliielen, first pausing to notice the two giant forms that tower 
so conspicuously on either hand — Pilate on the right, grim and 
formidable^ frowning in rugged grandeur j the Rigi on the left, 
beautifully clothed with forest, and field, and orchard, smiling 
as if storm and tempest were things undreamt of. 

Passing the promontory of Tanzenberg, and the ruined 
Castle of Hertenstein, we reach Weggis, the best landing- 
place for those who mean to walk up the Rigi. It is a tranquil 
little village, whose inhabitants subsist chiefly by selling fruit 
to the people of Lucerne ; and if any traveller wishes to linger 
by the lake, free from anything like town distractions, he cannot 
do better than seek the calm stillness of Weggis. Vitznau 
is the next place reached, wearing more of an air of bustling im- 
portance as it is the terminus of the Rigi railway (p. 7 1) . Behind 
the village is the high, precipitous Rothenfluh, containing the 
stalactite grotto, 400 yards long, known as the Waldisbalm, 
little visited, however, as it is difficult of access. At Vitznau it 
appears as if the end of the lake was reached ; for a promontory 
from the Rigi on the left, and another from the Biirgenstock on 
the right, somewhat overlap each other. But between these 
two points, called the Nasen (Noses), the steamer pursues its 
course, and a new scene bursts upon us in the broad and beau- 
tiful gulf of Buochs, with the Stanzer Horn (6000 feet), and 
the Buochser Horn {5600 feet), watching over it. Near the 
foot of the latter mountain stands Buochs, sacked by the French 
in 1798. A little farther on, on the same shore is Bekenried, 
a picturesque little village, and a justly popular watering-place, 
with ample facilities for excursions to Stanz, Meiringen, Seelis- 
berg, etc. 

On the opposite side of the lake is the pretty little village of 
Gersau, well sheltered from wind and storm and with a climate 
so mild, that it affords a capital resting-place for invalids in the 
colder months of the year. Gersau has a notable history. In 
the year 1390 it bought its freedom from the Lords of Moos, 
and remained a well-administered, independent republic till its 
conquest by the French in 1798. It was annexed to 1^^ C^s^'^t^l 



56 LUCERNE. 

of Schwyz in 1817. East of Gersau is the Kindlimord Chapel, 
"which derives its name from the tragic act of a poor fiddler, 
who returning from a marriage festival, murdered his starvinf 
child, at the place indicated by the black cross on the rocks. 
Excursions may be made from Gersau to the Rigi-Scheideck 
and the Hochfiuh. 

Proceeding from Gersau, we see the My then, or Mitre Peaks 
(5900 feet), and at their base Schwyz, the capital of the Canton 
of the same name. From Treib, at which the steamer next 
calls, Seelisberg is visited, and also the picturesque and well- 
sheltered retreats for invalids near the chapel of Maria-Sonnen- 
berg. 

Opposite Treib is Brunnen (Hotel Adler), once a town 
of considerable commercial importance. There are some 
^ood hotels and pensions. The air is pure and cool, even 
in the summer months, and the surrounding scenery very fine 
On the Sust are two legendary paintings, one representing a 
contest for the baptism of the land between two of the old 
Swedish invaders, on which occasion, as the inscription testifies, 
" Swyter besiegt Swen und griindet Schwyz" (Swyter conquered 
Swen, and founded Schwyz) ; the other picture represents the 
three confederates of Griitli. It was at Brunnen that Aloys 
Reding roused his compatriots to resist the French in 1798. 

From Brunnen a number of pleasant trips may be readily 
undertaken. To ascend the Stoss (4000 feet) will take two and 
a half hours ; the Frohnalp will require two hours longer. 

Schwyz can be reached in half an hour's drive. It is a 
town of nearly 6000 inhabitants, and of some historical im- 
portance. The Canton gave its name to Switzerland, as its 
sons were the most distinguished in the celebrated defeat of the 
Austrians at Morgarten in 13 15. At Schwyz may be seen an 
historical model of the Muotta and the retreat of the Rus- 
sians before the French in 1799, when, in a fearful struggle, lasting 
for eighteen days and nights, Suwarrow was beaten from point 
to point, losing 6000 men, and most of his horses and artillery, 
and only returning to Russia himself to die within sixteen days. 
Of other places easily reached from Brunnen, we may just 
mention the much-frequented Curhaus Axenstein, on the 
Brandli (three miles), to which an omnibus runs twice daily; 
Morschach 5 the Frohnalpstock -, Lake of Lowerz ; Fall of the 
Grestubtach j the Gross Mythen, etc. 

Brunnen to Schwyz, Einsiedeln, and Zurich, p. 48. 

Bnmnen by Arth to Zug, p. 55. 



LAKE OF LUCERNE. gy 

On leaving Brunnen, we enter that portion of the lake of 
which the shores are sacred ground in the legendary lore of 
Switzerland. This is the Bay of Uri. The scenery is here 
much bolder than in other parts of the lake 5 in many places 
bare, perpendicular cliffs rising in romantic ruggedness. At the 
entrance to the bay, close to Treib, is the Mytenstein, with its 
inscription in huge gilt letters, executed in 1859. It commemo- 
rates the gratitude of Uri, Schw}'z, and Unterwalden to the 
German poet Schiller, for the drama in which he has embodied 
the legend of Tell. At Griitli, which is simply a green plain, 650 
feet above the water, with a few unpretending dwellings spread 
on its fertile surface, was held the meeting of the Swiss con- 
federates (one of whom was the father-in-law of the celebrated 
William Tell), who determined to maintain their independence 
against the tyranny of Austria. It was on November 8, 1307, 
that Arnold of Unterwalden, Fiirst of Uri, and Stauffacher of 
Schwyz, and thirty others, bound themselves together, " for the 
good of their brethren, and the evil of no man," and solemnly 
swore to drive out the Austriaus, without taking revenge for 
their oppression. So well did they carry out their resolution, 
that, after a series of wars, lasting one hundred and fifty years, 
their descendants succeeded in establishing their independence, 
which they have ever since retained. At Griitli are still pointed 
out the three springs which are said to have made their miracu- 
lous appearance when the confederates joined hand in hand in 
solemn covenant. 

** For the father-sDJl which they trod. 

For freedom and hearth, they stood. 
While they vowed to the mightiest God 

To cast out the tyrant brood. 
Thus our hearts, with thy spirit still glowing, 

O Grutli, thy name shall retain, 
So long as our Rhine shall be flowing, 

So long as our Alps shall remain." 

The Swiss Practical Guide states that '* the owner of the 
Grutli wa3 about to build an hotel there in 1858. The children 
of Switzerland undertook a subscription to prevent this dese- 
cration J they limited each offering to ten cents (one penny), 
and the result was double the amount required." 

Tell's Platte is a small rocky shelf, on which it is said 
that the Swiss patriot leaped from the boat of Gressler. Above 
the ledge of rock is a little chapel called " TelV^ CiVva^^i^ 
which was erected about thirty years aitex >u!aft ^^?i>Cci o\ '^^^ % 



gg LUC£RN£. 

it contains some pictures and rough frescoes illustrating the 
hero's history. On the Friday after Ascension Day, this little 
chapel is the scene of a national demonstration, mass being 
performed, and a patriotic sermon delivered, in presence of large 
numbers of people assembled for the occasion from all parts of 
the Swiss Republic. 

Above Teirs Chapel is the fine new Axenstrasse, 
with its tunnel a little further on through the cliffs of the 
Axenberg, from the openings in which exquisite panoramic 
views are obtained. This wonderful road, from Gersau and 
Brunnen to Fliielen, is a fine specimen of engineering. Till 
1865 the east shore of the Bay of Uri was impassable, except 
by a very difficult mountain path, leading by Morschach and 
Sisikon. 

The terminus of the lake journey is at Fluelen (Hotel Croix 
Blanche et Poste). At a distance of two miles (omnibus, half- 
franc) is Altdorf, at an elevation of 1500 ft. Here are a colossal 
plaster statue of Tell, and a fountain — the former marking the 
position of the father, and the latter that of the child, in the 
celebrated trial of skill directed by the tyrant Gessler. The tall 
tower is of earlier date, the frescoes having been added since. 
It will be remembered that, according to the legend (now gene- 
rally received as mythic), (ressler had elevated his hat in the 
market-place, and ordered all passers-by to make obeisance. 
For refusing. Tell was ordered to show his famed skill in archery 
by shooting an apple off his son's head. He was successful, but 
Gessler saw a second arrow, which Tell had secreted. On being 
questioned, the bold archer said it was for Gessler's heart, had 
the child been harmed. Tell was then, for his audacity, taken 
prisoner, and hurried away in G«ssler's boat towards his castle 
It KUssnacht. A tempest arose 5 none but Tell could steer ; 
he seized the opportunity, sprang ashore at what is now known 
as Tell's Platte, intercepted Cressler at KUssnacht, and killed 
nim. At Biirglen (one and a half miles from Altdorf), a chapel 
laarking Tell's birthplace, and a bridge where Tell died in try- 
ing to save a drowning child, are shown. 

Of late years the William Tell legends have been gradually 
passing from the domain of history into that of fiction. The 
first book which dared to broach so startling a heresy was pub- 
licly burnt at Altdorf by the hangman. But in spite of this 
spirited protest, the idea has gained ground. Contemporary 
chroniclers make no allusion to the alleged events of his career 
and Dot for a century or two do we find any trace of the tradi 



PILATUS. 6g 

tions in their present form. The establishment of the chapels^ 
and the widespread belief in the legends are almost the only 
arguments in their favour. Those most qualified to judge, 
whilst conceding that there probably was a William Tell amongst 
the confederates, assert that the events linked with his name by 
imaginative patriots rest upon no more solid basis of fact than 
. do the stories of Sir Lancelot of the Lake, or the Lily Maid of 
Ashtolat, in the fascinating pages of the Laureate. 
For route over the St. Gothard Pass, see p. 172. 

PILATUS 

may be ascended either from Hergiswyl (p. 64), or Alpnach 
(p. 64), to which places steamers ply three times daily, the 
journey to Hergiswyl occupying thirty-five minutes, and to 
Alpnach one hour and a quarter. On either side there is a good 
hotel — that of theKlimsenhomonthe Hergiswyl side and Bellevue 
on the Alpnach side. The route which gives the greatest variety 
of scenery is to ascend by way of Hergiswyl and descend to 
Alpnach, The ascent occupies three and the descent four hours. 
In ascending this mountain we shall be treading in the footsteps 
of royalty, inasmuch as Her Majesty Queen Victoria, with the 
Princess Louise and Prince Arthur, ascended it from Alpnach, 
on August 31, 1868. 

It is one of the most interesting mountains in these parts ; 
being easy of access from Lucerne, and not diflficult of ascent, 
except just toward the summit. The name of the mountain has 
been the subject of much dispute, some alleging that it is merely 
a corruption of the Latin '^pileatus,** capped, in allusion to the 
clouds which generally surround its summit. It has been, and 
is to this day, the weather guide to all this part, and the popular 
saying runs thus : — 

" If Pllatus wears his cap, serene will be the day ; 
If his collar he puts on, then mount the rugged way ; 
But if his sword he wields, then stay at home, I say." 

Others aver that the name is derived from Pontius Pilate, the 
governor of Judea, who, when he had committed the terrible sin 
which makes his name a reproach, filled with remorse, fled from 
Judea, and took refuge in the fastnesses of this melancholy 
mountain ; there the wild crags and dark precipices were his 
lonely resorts 5 upon these gloomy scenes his mind dNR^\^ ^^^ 
many years, until at last, unable to bear \is xecao^se, «xA ^^«^ 



yO LUCERNE. 

with despair^ he committed suicide in a lake near the snnmiit of 
the mountain. But his spirit continued to haunt the place, and 
when travellers have gone up those dismal heights, they have 
seen him come up from the waters, and slowly and solemnly 
go through the ceremony of washing his hands. Then the 
tempest howled, the lake heaved^ dark clouds and heavy mists 
gathered round the mountain's head, and a storm or a hurricane • 
always followed. And so, as the spirit showed such evident 
dislike to being disturbed, severe penalties were inflicted by the 
magistrates of Lucerne upon any one who might dare to visit 
the haunted place. 

For an interesting account of the mountain and its traditions, 
see Sir W. Scott's *' Anne of Geierstein." 

The original name of the mountain was Fracmont, from 
monsfractus — broken mountain. Many other traditions appear 
to have sprung up as occasion required ; such as its being the 
abode of other evil spirits — the TUrst and the Bergmannlein 5 
of dragons, of a colossal statue carved without hands in the black 
rock of a cavern, and so on. Put these tales of horror and 
wonder have died out, and the tourist of weakest nerves need not 
fear an encounter with infernal spirits, as he wanders over the 
green pastures or the rugged wastes of the mountain, and beholds 
a glorious panorama, superior, say some, to that from the Rigi. 

The path to the summit of the mountain leads from Hergiswyl 
past Brunni, the Gschwdnd Alp^ the Frakmiind ChMets, and 
other resting-places, to the Hotel Klimsenhom, whence the jour- 
ney must be made on foot. From the hotel the path leads to the 
Krisiloch, which is a hole cut upwards through the rock, where 
a ladder is placed for the convenience of travellers. On eraeig- 
ing from the funnel-shaped cutting, the whole of the Bernese 
Alps lie disclosed to view. From here to the Hotel Bellevue is 
the next stage, and hence to the Esel. The path then leads 
down to Alpnach. 

It may be mentioned that carriages may be taken to Her- 
giswyl, at the east base of Pilatus 5 and the remainder of the 
journey performed, except the last steep ascent, by mule. 

THE RIGI. 

Rigi-Kulm — Hotel du Rigi-Kulm, Hotel Schreiber. 
Rigi-Staffel— Hotel Rigi-Staffel. 

Whether the ascent of Pilatus be made or not, the traveller 
should not omit to ascend the Rigi. It would be like going to 



THE RlGI. 71 

Rome and not seeing the Coliseum, or going to Naples and not 
seeing Pompeii. 

It is so easy to ascend, that the poorest mountain climber 
need not fear his abilities ; or if he does, there are half-a-do^en 
ways by which he may avoid the toil. It can be walked from 
Weggis in three hours and a half. There is now a railway 
from Vitznau (both Weggis and Vitznau are a short and 
pleasant steamboat journey from Lucerne), or from Arth 
(p- S5) ; or. if this is not desired, there are horses, or chaises 
(sedan chairs). 

The Rigi Railway (si miles in length) first demands 
consideration, as it is one of the most novel features in moun- 
tain climbing. It was completed in July, 1873. After pass- 
ing through a tunnel 230 feet long, it crosses a bridge 262 
feet in length. On one side are fine ^iews of the lake, on 
the other is a precipice a thousand feet in height. The stations 
are Freiberger, Kaltlad, Siqffelhohe, Romiti, Staffel, and Rigi^ 
Kiilm, The trains run in correspondence with the steamers 
from Lucerne 5 and as a limited number only can be taken, 
each passenger has a " numbered and reserved seat." The 
carriages are two stories high, carrying eighty persons each trip. 
The rate of travelling is slow, not exceeding three miles an hour, 
and it is well it is so, as the gradient '* over about one-third of 
the line is one in four, i.e., for every four feet of length, the line 
rises one foot.** The tourist should notice the toothed wheel 
working between the rails by which the train ascends, the 
breaks by which each carriage can be held fast to the rack-rail, 
and the various other appliances for insuring safety. The 
engine " has little resemblance to an ordinary locomotive, the 
boiler being upright ; and, with a view to give it a vertical 
position when on the steep gradient, it slopes considerably when 
standing at the station, which has a very odd appearance." No 
one should miss inspecting the railway, and making a journey, 
either ascending or descending by it. At Staffel there is a 
junction with a still newer railway, which starts from Arth, and 
passes through the village of Goldau, and then near the 
convent of Maria zum Schnee, to join the line from Vitznau. 

But it is a delightful walk if time permits, and the points of 
interest to note on the way are worth seeing. Starting from 
Weggis by a path which it is impossible to mistake, we pass a 
spot where, in • 795, a thick bed of mud descended like a stream 
of lava, and swept away everything before it 5 but as it took, 
fourteen days to slide down, the inhabitants ^ec^ ^iJ^^ V^ ^v^^ 



72 LUCERNE. 

themselves and much of their property. Then we reach a 
curious little chapel, the Heiligkreuz (Chapel of the Holy Cross), 
where the shepherds come to pray, and where travellers can 
obtain refreshments. Soon after we pass through the Hochstein, 
or Felsenthor, a natural archway of rocks fallen from the heights. 
Then on to 

Kaltbad, where there is a very beneficial mineral spring, 
and a spacious hotel, etc. A festival is held here on Aug. lo. 

From Kaltbad there is a railway to the Rigi Scheideck. 

From Kaltbad to Staffel there are two paths. The less 
direct leads by the Schwesterborn (Fountain of the Sisters), 
so named from three maidens, said to have been protected by 
angels from Austrian license, " in the time of Tell." Thence 
proceed to the plateau known as the Kanzli, and observe the 
charming view of Lucerne, etc., and then on to StafFel. 

At StafFel all the different routes meet ; and then the summit 
is soon reached. All along the way the views are interesting and 
beautiful. The ascent to this point can also be made from 
Kiissnacht, past Tell's chapel (commemorating the death of 
Gessler), and the Seeboden Alp and Chalet. 

On account of the great number of visitors to the Rigi 
Kulm, it is necessary for those wishing for accommodation 
for the night, to send a telegram to the proprietor, notifying 
their wish, or it may not infrequently happen that it will be 
impossible for them to remain at the Kulm. 

If it is determined not to stay the night at the Rigi, there 
is ample time to get down the mountain in the twilight. 

The Rigi Kulm is 5,905 feet high. It is the highest and 
most northerly point of the range, and is grass-grown to the 
top. The name is said by some to be derived from Regina 
Montium, the Queen of Mountains j and by others from Mons 
Rigidus, the firm or compact mountain, in opposition to Mons 
Fractus (Pilatus), the broken mountain. The view from the 
summit is absolutely indescribable. We will just enumerate 
the chief features. 

Standing on the Belvedere at the hotel, we see on the left 
the Rossberg close at hand, sloping down towards the Lowerz 
See. Traces of the terrible fall in 1806 are plainly visible. 
Beyond this, in the background, is the Sentis, in the Canton of 
Appenzell. Almost due east rise the white summits of the 
Glarnischer Alps. Then, following the sky line, the Todi group 
are conspicuous. Just facing us are the Windgelle and the 
Bristenstock. The Blackenstock and Urizothstock are nearly 



THE RIGI. 73 

due south ; and then the precipitous, rugged Titlis comes into 
view. The mountains of the Bernese Oberland stand next in 
order, presenting a magnificent appearance, with their mantles 
of eternal snow. The conspicuous summits of this group are 
the Finsteraarhorn, the Shreckhorn, the Wetterhom, the Monch, 
the Eiger, and the Jungfrau. The chain ends with the crags of 
Pilatus on the extreme right. We have mentioned the promi- 
nent objects bounding the scene. In this area are included a 
vast number of nearer and lower summits — as the Englestock, 
the Fluhbrig, the double-headed My then, with the town of 
Schwyz at its base. Then the mountains encircling the Muotta 
Thai, the Hohfluh, Scheideck, and Dossen, in the imme- 
diate foreground 5 the Axenberg, just beyond the Scheideck j 
with the Buochserhom, Stanzerhorn, and Burgenstock, more 
to the right. Ten lakes can also be counted from the Lowerz 
See, under Rossberg, to the Bay of Alpnach, under Pilatus. 

On the other side of the Rigi Kulm, the vie at comprises the 
whole of Lake Zag, the town of Lucerne, and most of the 
canton, with the rivers Emme and Reuss, the bay of Kiissnacht, 
part of Lake Egeri (on the banks of which Morgarten was 
fought), part of the town of Zurich, Lake Sempach, the Jura 
mountains, and the Black Forest. 

The Rigi is more than a thousand feet higher than Ben 
Nevis, but the ascent has become almost a matter of course with 
Swiss tourists. Many others deem the whole affair so hackneyed 
as to be beneath their notice. In fine weather the roads up and 
down are alive with visitors, and the various hotels thronged. 
The evening view is very fine, and by some preferred to that in 
the morning. It is, however, the sunrise that constitutes the 
great attraction of the Rigi. Half an hour before that time a 
horn is blown to arouse the visitors from their slumbers, and all 
turn out, in every variety of greatcoats, rugs, and wrappers, to 
witness the scene. Note that there is a penalty for using the 
hotel blankets. Soon the stars begin to fade 5 a streak of dawn 
gradually brightens to a golden line on the horizon's verge, the 
mountain peaks blush rosy red, the shadows melt away, and 
the varied charms of the landscape gradually reveal themselves, 
till the sun bursts forth in all his glory, and the full splendour 
of the vast panorama is displayed. 

In certain atmospheric conditions, a phenomenon called the 
Spectre of the Rigi is witnessed, which is also observable on 
other lofty mountains. The figures of persons stand mg on the 
Rigi are occasionally reflected, and surrounded by a ^^vsccisftx^ 



74 LUCERNE TO BRIEG. 

balo, on a bank of mist rising from the valley below, without 
enveloping the mountain itself. 

Besides the two hotels at the Rigi Kulm (summit), there 
are other hotels and numerous pensions on the lower slopes of 
the mountains, where, amidst delightful scenery, and amongst 
pleasant society, travellers from all parts of the world sojourn 
for longer or shorter periods j some to recruit exhausted nature 
with the now fashionable Swiss air- cure. 

The neighbouring height of the Rigi Scheideck (jooo feet) is 
reached by railway from Kaltbad, or by a two hours* walk from 
Gersau. 

LUCERNE TO BRIEG OR 8IERRE (FOR 
GENEVA) BY THE FURCA PASS. 

Lucerne to Fliielen by steamer (p. 64) 

Fliielen to Hospenthal (St. Gothard route, p. 172). 

There is a daily communication by diligence between 
Andermatt or Hospenthal and Brieg, along the new Furca 
road. The entire journey occupies about 12 hours j a stoppage 
for dinner being made at the Rhone Glacier Hotel. 

Leaving the St. Gothard route at Hospenthal, we proceed 
by a level road along the Urseren Thai — a valley of rich pasture 
land, through which flows the Reuss — and arrive at Realp. 
This is a poor little village, celebrated for its pancakes, where 
Father Hugo, a Capuchin monk, entertains travellers. 

From Realp, an ascent of about 9 miles, through somewhat 
monotonous scenery, treeless and barren, brings us to the sum- 
mit of the Furca. 

The Furca, or Fork, so named from its two peaks, be- 
tween which the Pass lies, is 81 jo feet above the sea, and the 
road descends on each side so abruptly, that no one can fail to 
be conscious of being on the summit of the Pass. It is a rare 
thing to find the Furca entirely free from snow. 

There is a very good inn here, at which Queen Victoria 
stayed three days in August, 1868. The views are very fine j 
giant peaks are visible in abundance. The Furca-hom may be 
reached in an hour, and is worth visiting for the fine panorama^ 
The higher Furcahom (9,934 feet) will take 2^ hours, and a 
guide is advisable. The .Galenstock (11,900 feet) is recom- 
mended to those accustomed to mountaih expeditions. From 
the Furca (with a guide) a path may be taken across the Rhone 
Glacier to the Grimsd in about 4 hours. 



THE FURCA PASS. y^ 

The descent from the Furca is by a series of zigzags, very 
abrupt, and giving the unnecessarily nervous traveller the im- 
pression that he is going to the bottom with a bound. There 
are seven zigzags, which are marvels of engineering skill. This 
road, costing 5^20,000, only dates from 1867. The views 
obtained in the descent more than compensate for the poverty 
of those in the ascent. Nowhere can finer views be had of 
those grim giants of the Oberland, the Schreckhorn, and the 
Finsteraarhom, or of the glorious Alpine chain from Monte 
Leone to the Weisshorn. Beside all this, the marvels of 
the 

Rhone Glacier are seen 5 one of the finest sights in 
Switzerland. Every minute during the descent some fresh im- 
pression of the magnitude of its frozen billows and its yawning 
crevasses is obtained. 

At the foot of the glacier the traveller will be struck with its 
wonderful appearance, which now assumes a fresh form. Above 
it stand the Gelmerhorn and the Galenstock, and from between 
them is the great sea of ice, "resembling a gigantic frozen 
waterfall," extending for i j miles. This is the source of the 
river Rhone, which flows onward to the sea at Marseilles, 500 
miles away. It has been said to issue *'from the Gates of 
Eternal Night, at the foot of the Pillar of the Sun ;" and really 
any poetry is excusable in sight of a scene of such unparalleled 
grandeur. The Hotel du Glacier du Rhone is a good place to 
dine. The Ice Cavern should be inspected before the journey 
is resumed. 

The diligence takes about 5 hours to perform the journey 
from the Rhone Glacier to Brieg (31 miles). Walking will 
not be found worth while. 

The road, after crossing the deep ravine along which the 
Rhone rushes, winds down to Oberwald, the highest village 
of the Upper Valais (4,316 feet), surrounded by far-reaching 
pastures. 

The next town is Obergestelen, burnt down in Septem- 
ber, 1868. It is an important depot for the exportation of 
cheese. In the graveyard will be seen the large grave of eighty- 
four victims of an avalanche in 1720. 

Ulrichen, Munstery Reckingen, Niederwald, are successively 
passed, and numerous other places sighted in this populous dis- 
trict. Upper Valais is German in speech and manners, and was 
never conquered by the legions of Rome. 

Soon after passing Niederwald, the to\i\j& t«^\^^ ^tesRfc\A& 



J6 LUCERNE TO BRIEG. 

to a lower level of the great Rhone valley, and arrives at 
Viesch. 

Viesch is a flourishing little place, splendidly situated undei 
the Viescher Horner, whose highest peak (Grosse Wannehorn) 
rises to the altitude of over 12,000 feet. From Viesch a glorious 
excursion can be made to the Eggischom (9649 feet). The 
ascent will require four and a half hours, the return about an 
hour less. A horse can be ridden nearly to the summit. At 
the height of 7153 feet is the Hotel Jungfrau. The student of 
botany will be delighted with the flora of the vicinity. At the 
hotel a guide should be hired, and then, proceeding to the ter- 
mination of the bridle-path, an arduous climb over rocks and 
stones brings the traveller to the wooden cross marking the 
summit. 

The view is superb. The most prominent object is the 
great Aletsch Glacier, nearly twenty miles in length, and 
varying in breadth from one to four miles. This glacier, the 
largest of the great ice-streams of Switzerland, has its source at 
the foot of the Jungfrau, Monch, etc. Its course is direct and 
uniform for about a dozen miles, till the Eggischborn turns it 

. aside, when it becomes steeper and narrower, and it is seen 
'disappearing, a few miles to the south-west, into the gorge of 

' the Massa. The Viescher Glacier, which, compared with the 
broad, smooth expanse of the Aletsch, more nearly resembled & 
torrent of ice, is also in front. Just below him, the visitor sees 
the Marjelen See, a mountain lake, hemmed in on one side by 
the ice-clifFs of the Aletsch. From these ice-cliffs huge por- 
tions break off. The encircling panorama comprises a great 
number of mountain peaks. The Olmenhom and Dreieck- 
horn are seen to the north-west, encircled by the two prin- 
cipal arms of the Aletsch Glacier ; whilst beyond these rise the 
Aletschhom (left), and the Jungfrau (right). More to the 
right are the Monch, Eiger, and companion peaks. Due north 
rise the ViescherhOrner, and then the Finsteraarhorn, Rothhom, 
Oberaarhorn, Wasenhom, and Galenstock, Mutthom, etc., 
bring us to the east. Due east is the Blinnenhom, and due 
south Monte Leone. Between these two latter, amongst others, 
we see the Ofenhorn, Mittelberg, Kelsenhorn, etc. Continuing 
the circle from Monte Leone, the Weissmies, Fletschhorn, 
Monte Rosa, Mischabelhomer, Matterhom, Weisshorn, Mont 
Blanc, Sparenhom, Sattelhorn, complete the panorama. 

Numerous mountain and glacier expeditions may be made 
/iroin the E^gischorn. A grand but easy mountain and glacier 



BR] EG* mm 

walk leads to the splendidly situated Belle Alp hotel, built on 
a cliff, around which curves the great Aletsch Glacier. The 
views are magnificent. 

Resuming the route from Viesch, we pass on to Lax, still 
tracking the downward course of the Rhone along its romantic 
and rugged ravine. By devious windings we reach, at the 
Bridge of Grengiols, a lower level of the Rhone Valley. Morel 
is next passed. Hard by notice the Hochfluhkirche, on a pro- 
minent rock; also the junction of the Massa, bringing the 
watery tribute of the Aletsch Glacier to swell the Rhone. No 
other Alpine giacier stream equals the Massa in magnitude. 

Passing orchard-encircled Naters, with its two ruined 
Castles of Weingarten and Auf der Fliih, we next arrive at 
Brieg. 

BRIEG, OR BRIGUE, 

(Hotel de la Poste.) 

is a small town at the junction of the Rhone and Saltine, and 
the temunus of the Simplon railway. Notice the Stockalper 
Chateau, with its tin-capped turrets. The Hotel Belle Alp (see 
above) can be reached by bridle-path in about five hours ; the 
summit of the Sparrenhom in less than three more. At Blatten, 
on the way to Belle Alp, a footpath leads to the source of the 
Massa, amongst the ice-grottoes of the Aletsch Glacier. 

Brieg to Domo d'Ossola, by the Simplon Pass (see p. 171). 

The next station is Yisp, or Yispach, at the mouth of the 
Visper Thai, once containing so many noble families, that the 
lower of the two churches was appropriated solely to their use. 
The nobles have disappeared, and the town is peopled by 
poverty-stricken inhabitants, in continual danger of destruction 
from floods, which are only kept ofif by constantly renewed 
dykes. All the houses but seven were made uninhabitable by 
an earthquake in 1855. In 1868 a flood occasioned great des* 
traction. 

Visp to Zermatt (see p. 160). 

From Visp the road conducts us to Tourtemagne, from 
whence a beautiful excursion can be made to the Tourtemagne 
Valley, with its waterfall, glacier, etc. The next station of any 
importance is Susten, on the left bank of the Rhone. Leuk is 
on the opposite side of the river, at the confluence of the Rhone 
aid Ddla. 



78 



LUCERNE TO BRIENZ. 



To the Baths of Leuk and Gemmi Pass (see p. 97). 

Between Susten and Sierre, Pfyn is passed, marking the 
boundary between the French and German-speaking districts. 
The route lies amongst pine-clad hills, once the resort of brigands, 
and then reaches Sierre. 

Sierre, p. 170. 

FROM LUCERNE TO BRIENZ AND MEIRINGEN 

(Over the Brijnig Pass). 

Take the steamer to Alpnach (p. 64), from which place th^ 
diligence, or one of the (preferable) supplementary carriages, 
will convey the tourist to Brienz. Places must be booked at 
Lucerne, or on board the steamer. If the tourist cares to ride 
only to Lungem, and then walk the remaining distance, it is 
well worth the extra exertion. 

The road from Alpnach leads along the bank of the river 
Aa, through park-like scenery, with a background of glorious 
mountains, to the Lake of Sarnen. 

SARNEN 

(Briinig Hotel and Hotel de TOberwald) 

is the chief town of Obwalden, in the Canton of Unterwalden, 
and is the seat of government. 4000 inhabitants. There is a 
monastery, a nunnery, and a conspicuous church on a hill. 
The green hill called the Landenberg, with the Arsenal 
upon it, was once crowned by the castle of the cruel 
bailiff, Beringar, who put out the eyes of the aged father of 
Arnold von Melchthal, for resisting his tyranny. The castle 
was destroyed by the Swiss a few weeks after the Vow at 
Griitli. Since 1646, the terrace where the castle once stood has 
been the place of assembly, whereon the citizens of the canton 
have met for consultation, the choice of magistrates, etc. ' In 
the Rathhaus are portraits of the Obwalden magistrates for 
nearly five centuries, and also a painting representing the cele- 
brated St. Nikolaus von der Fliie. The visitor to Sarnen will 
scarcely fail to notice the peculiar head-dress of the Unter- 
walden peasant women — the plaited hair, interlaced with white 
ribbon, and fastened up with a spoon- shaped buckle of silver. 
East of Sarnen lies the romantic mountain-girdled valley of the 
Melchthal, fifteen miles long. Here dwelt Arnold von Melch- 
thal and his aged father (see above) 3 and here also lived the 
venerated St. Nikolaus von der Fliie, who, with timely words of 
peace, jwevented the break-up of the Swiss Confederacy in 148 1. 



THE BRUNIG PASS. yn 

At the Lake of Sarnen pedestrians will save a good step 
by taking a boat for a couple of francs to the other end, four 
and a half miles. 

On the east of the lake stands Sachseln. In the church 
are the bones of St. Nikolaus (locally known as Bruder Klaus), 
with a jewelled cross under the ribs where the heart throbbed 
in life. Numerous relics and votive tablets are to be seen. 

The next village is Giswyl, which in 1629 was partially 
destroyed by an inundation of the Lanibach. The ascent of 
the Kaiserstuhl now begins, and at Biirglen, at an altitude of 2283 
feet, the Lake of Luilgem is reached. This was once one of 
the loveliest spots in Switzerland ; but the draining of half its 
waters into the Sarner See by a subterranean canal, in 1836, has 
much detracted from its beauty. Still, the surrounding scenery 
is very fine, and we must solace our regrets for the lake's de- 
parted charms by remembering that five hundred acres of 
good land have been redeemed and brought under cultivation. 
Passing along the steep cliffs east of the lake, we see the 
three peaks of the Wetterhorn to the south. The lake is two 
miles in length 5 and near its south end, as it were in a basin of 
the mountains, stands the wood-built village of Lungern, at the 
foot of the Briinig. 

From Lungern (Hotels Lion d'Or, Briinig, and Ober- 
wald), a well -constructed and costly zigzag road winds through 
the woods up to the summit of the Briinig Pass. The oc- 
casional views looking back through the trees are very fine. 
At the culminating point (3648 feet) the northern view shows 
the Valley of Sarnen and Lake of Lungern., and Pilatus in the 
background j a few steps in the opposite direction reveal the 
Eiger and Wetterhorn, and other snowy summits of the Bernese 
Alps, with the gorge of Grimsel on the left, and the Brienzer 
See on the right. 

The descent of the Briinig is romantically interesting, afford- 
ing fine and varied views of the surrounding Alpine scenery. 
Soon after passing the splendidly situated hotel, the road divides, 
that on the right leading past the Brienzwyler Bridge to 
the beautifully situated village of Brienz (p. 90), where 
admirers of wood-carving may see that pursuit most industri- 
ously and artistically carried on. The left hand road leads to 
Meiringen, under the wooded ridge surmounted by craggy 
peaks tiiat bounds this portion of the Aare valley. 

Meiringen (p. 80). 



8o MEIRINGEN. 

MEIfJNGEN TO INTERLAKEN. 

(By the Scheideck, Grindelwald, Wengem Alps, and Lauter- 

bninnen.) 

The charming district now under notice is one of those 
portions of Switzerland in which the tourist who can rely on 
his own powers of locomotion may see the most and realize the 
greatest enjoyment. He may, however, if so inclined, hire a 
horse with advantage in some parts of the excursion. 

Of course, the time occupied in this detour must entirely 
depend on the traveller's convenience. He may spend a week 
or more, and find many points of interest to visit beyond those 
alluded to in the following brief epitome. But at least two days 
should be devoted to the trip. 

From Meiringen to Rosenlaui is a 3 hours' walk; from 
Rosenlaui to Scheideck, 2 § hours 5 from the Scheideck down 
to Grindelwald, 2 hours. Allowing 2 hours for stoppages at 
various points of interest, this will make a good day's work for 
most. On the following day, from Grindelwald to the Little 
Scheideck will take 3 J hours 3 thence to the Wengern Alp, 
half an hour ; and to Lauterbrunnen, 2 hours more. Here a 
horse or a carriage can be hired to Interlaken : or, if the pedes- 
trian be still fresh, he may walk on the remaining yi miles. In 
taking this beaten track no aid from guides is requisite. 

The peasantry of this lovely district have become keenly 
alive to the desirability of preying on the traveller. No native 
of the Isle of Thanet itself could be more ready in inventing 
schemes for drawing coins from the traveller's pocket. At 
every echoing cliff, waterfall, or glacier, somebody is at hand to 
distract his attention with obtrusive services. Singing-girls, 
horn- blowers, and itinerant vendors of all sorts of trifles dog 
his footsteps everywhere. Let patience be cultivated, and a 
supply of centimes kept in the pocket, for chary distribution in 
unavoic'able circumstances, remembering that the Government 
advice is to pay nothing, except for pre-engaged services. At any 
rate, care should be taken to avoid the lavish bestowal of largesse 
affected by some rich tourists, which has chiefly contributed to 
develop the system complained of, and sap the sturdy inde- 
pendence and native nobility of the Swiss peasant. 

Meiringen (Hotel Sauvage) is a charming Alpine village 
of 2800 inhabitants, with fine views of snow-clad mountains 
2>dted with luxuriant woods, where they bound the long valh y 



ROSENLAUI GLACIER. g X 

that runs eastward from the Lake of Brienz. Along the valley 
flows the river Aare ; and at the village of Meiringen various 
important Alpine routes converge — ^viz., to Brienz (p. 79) j 
to Grindelwald over the Scheideck ; to Lucerne, by the Briinig 
(p. 78) ; to the Grimsel, past the Fall of the Handeck (p. 88)5 
to Engelberg by the Joch Pass 5 and to Wasen by the Susten Pass 

(P- 91)' . , . . . . 

If the interest of the visitor is chiefly centred in art, archi- 
tecture, or exhibitions, he will find little to please him in 
Meiringen. He may, if he has an hour or two to spare, look 
into the shops and buy some wood carvings, or sit on the l^al- 
cony of the hotel and listen to the tinkle of distant cattle- 
bells, or the strange, weird cry of the peasants calling the cattle 
home, or stroll to one of the three brooks that leap down into 
the valley at the back of the village. The Falls of the* Alpbach 
are best seen in the morning. 

The inhabitants of Hasli-Thal — of which Meiringen is the 
capital — are an active, wiry race, descended from old Swedish 
conquerors of the soil. Their prowess at the wrestling-matches 
with the men of surrounding districts at the beginning of 
August is well established. The women are considered better- 
looking than is the case with their compatriots generally j and 
their personal appearance is well set off by the graceful local 
costume worn on holiday occasions. There is an English church 
in the village. 

The Falls of the Reichenbach are only a short walk 
from Meiringen. The stream comes rushing and tumbling 
down 2000 feet to the valley below, leap after leap, the three 
lowest forming the jcelebrated Falls. Hoardings or huts have 
been erected, at which fees are demanded at the best points of 
view. The Lower Fall, behind the Reichenbach Hotel, is 
illuminated every evening in the season for the benefit of per* 
sons staying at that establishment. 

From the Falls to Rosenlaui the path gradually rises along 
the side of the Reichenbach Valley, beloved of artists. During 
the journey the eye is charmed with ever-varying combinations 
of rock and grassy slope, woodland and waterfall, with the 
snowy peaks of the Wellborn and Wetterhorn piercing the blue 
sky in front. The latter mountain, as seen from this valley, has 
been compared to a colossal snow model of the Great Pyramid 
of Egypt. 

At the foot of the Wellborn, and between it and the En^V- 

Umxex, is the Rosenlaui Glacier. Tba ^2Ak\.o VJoe \sio\. ^^ 



82 MEIRINGEN TO INTERLAKEN. 

the glacier crosses a little bridge over the Weisbach. This is 
the stream flowing from the glacier to join with others in form- 
ing the Reichenbach. It rushes along a deep chasm in the 
slaty rocks, 200 feet below the bridge. The glacier is small 
and gradually decreasing, but it is exquisitely beautiful in colour, 
hemmed in by rocks not friable enough to furnish the usual 
dirty moraines, and is very easy of access. Any who shrink 
from more formidable glacier expeditions should at least see the 
Rosenlaui. The best point of view is from a rock that projects 
out into the glacier, about 30 minutes' walk from its foot. 

The Baths of Rosenlaui, in great repute with invalids 
for the mineral waters, are charmingly situated amongst wood 
and mountain scenery. An upward walk of 2j hours, partly 
through a dense pine wood, conducts to the highest point (6480 
feet), where the narrow ridge of rock, about 3 miles in length, 
known as the Great Sheideck, is crossed. The view from 
this point comprises the lofty and barren crags of the Wetter- 
horn, the smiling valley of Grindelwald, bounded by the well- 
wooded Little Scheideck 5 the Schwarzwald Glacier, and several 
of the Bernese Oberland peaks. Here is an inn at which a 
horse can be hired to make the ascent of the Faulhom in 4 or j 
hours (p. 83). If not inclined to do the Faulhorn, the visitor 
should walk as far on the road to it as the Grindelalp (where 
fine views of mountains and glaciers will reward the extra 
exertion), and then descend to Grindelwald by a path as short 
as the direct course from the Great Scheideck. 

Grindelwald (Hotel de TAigle Noir) is a romantic 
village, inhabited chiefly by those whose vocation it is to tend 
the thousands of cattle in the adjacent pastures. It is situated 
in a valley some 12 miles by 4, at a height of 4000 feet above 
the sea level, and guarded by giant mountains, the Eiger 
(13,045 ft.), the Mettenberg (10,443 ft.), forming the base of 
the Schreckhom, and the Wetterhom (12,165 ^^O- ^^ *s chiefly 
celebrated for its two glaciers, whose " stiffened billows " are 
far grander and wilder than the Rosenlaui. 

These two glaciers descend one on each side the Metten- 
berg, and supply by their melting the muddy waters of the 
Black Lutschine. They are the lowest projecting portions of 
the vast icefield of the Bernese Alps. The Lower Glacier 
affords a capital opportunity of witnessing glacier sceneiy at a 
comparatively small expenditure of time and labour. It ap- 
proaches the valley by a gorge between the Schlossberg (base of 
JSigei) and the Mettenberg. The ravine^ it is said, was once 



GRINDELWALD. g^ 

extremely narrow, and was the only outlet for an immense 
mountain lake. This narrow opening was often blocked up, 
and devastating floods were the frequent result. To remedy 
this state of things, St. Martin came to the rescue. He pressed 
his back against the Mettenberg, and pushed the Eiger with his 
staff, and lo ! at one effort the ravine reached its present width. 
The impression made by the giant's back (Martinsdruck), 
and the hole in the Eiger made by his staff (Martinsloch), 
are pointed out to this day. Through the Martinsloch the sun 
shines only on February 13th, casting a bright spot of light on 
the shadow of the mountain below. 

In a walk of about three-quarters of an hour from Grindel- 
wald the foot of the glacier can be reached, but little can be 
seen at this point beyond the moraines or accumulated heaps of 
rock and other detritus brought down by the glacial action. It 
is desirable to walk two hours further to the Baregg chalet. 
(5412 ft.)» where are facilities for getting on to the glacier, and 
examining the beautiful forest of spires, called '* ice needles," 
formed by the melting of the ice. If inclined for further ex- 
ploration, the visitor may (with a guide) cross the Eismeer 
(sea of ice), from which the glacier descends, to Zasenberg 
(6076 ft.), where the highest habitation of the Bernese Alps 
is found. It is a simple stone chalet amidst pastures for 
goats. The views from the Eismeer are indescribable. Ice 
and snow of vast extent and in stupendous masses, and a grand 
amphitheatre of mountain peaks, compose the scene. From 
the chalet to Grindelwald the descent may be accomplished in 
3 hours. 

The Upper Glacier, which is much smaller than the 
other, can be sufficiently seen in coming from the Scheideck to 
Grindelwald. The ice, especially as seen from the artificial 
cave cut in it, is much purer than that of the Lower Glacier, 
and the crevasses are more beautiful. 

The adventurous traveller with plenty of time at his disposal 
will find Grindelwald a suitable head-quarters from which to 
indulge in mountain climbing. Many of the mountains named 
in the last few pages can be ascended, with proper precautions 
and good guides. And there are also some less lofty heights, 
which will amply repay the tourist for the slight detention 
necessary for their ascent 3 such, for instance, as the Faulhom, 
which is easily accessible to those who have neither nerve nor 
opportunity for grander exploits. 

Th^ Faullxorn (8803 feet) can be ascenAe^ltoxcL^fvcA^* 



$A MEIRINGEN TO INTERLAKEN. 

wald in five hours, the return occupying considerably less time. 
Horses can be made use of for the entire route, or chairs and 
porters can be engaged at Grindelwald for those preferring that 
mode of conveyance. There is an inn on the summit, but 
previous notice should be sent if accommodation for the night 
is desired. The path leads up, by woods and meadows 
and chalets, to the hotel on the Ross Alp 3 then passing the 
waterfall of Muhlibach, and the chalets of the Bachalp, where 
cheeses weighing over 150 lbs. are manufactured, we reach the 
rock -en circled lake known as the Bachalpsee, around which 
frown the Rothihorn (9060 feet), Simelihorn (9040 feet), and 
the Ritzligratli (8281 feet). Presently the path to or from the 
Great Scheideck is joined, and then the way winds on amongst 
the debris continually descending from the crumbling Rothihorn, 
till the cone of the Faulhorn is reached. 

The view from the top is very fine. On one side we see 
the whole or parts of the Lakes of Brienz, Thun, Lucerne, 
Zug, Morat, and Neuchatel, with their adjacent mountains. 
Turning southward, we see in the foreground the Wildgerst and 
Schwarzhorn, with the glacier between, the Rothihorn, the 
Simelihorn, and the Bussalp 3 whilst on or near the sky-line we 
behold the lofty peaks of the Bernese Alps, the most prominent 
(from east to west) being the Sustenhorn, Wellhorn, Wetter- 
hom (i 1,^12 feet), Berglistock, Schreckhorn (12,570 feet), 
Finsteraarhorn (13,230 feet), Eiger, Monch, Jungfrau, Breit- 
hom, Blumlisalp, etc. 

On returning from the summit, the traveller may from the 
Bachalp ascend the isolated Rothihorn (9052 feet), and get 
a better view than from the Faulhorn as far as the Grindelwald 
mountains are concerned. 

From Grindelwald to Interlaken the easiest route is 
by the carriage road, along the valley of the Black Liitschine to 
Zweilutschinen, and so to Interlacken (12 miles). But good 
pedestrians will much prefer the route about to be described. 
It may be accomplished on horseback, if the rider be willing to 
dismount at one or two steep, rugged places. 

Leaving Grindelwald, the traveller gradually ascends, cross- 
ing the rounded spurs at the base of the Eiger, and passing 
numerous cottages and chalets. Some fine views of the Grin- 
delwald Valley are obtained by occasionally casting a backward 
£^Iance in that direction. At a height of over 5000 feet above 
the sea-level, a whey- cure establisbment \s ^ass^. At length 
yegetatioa becomes coarse and scanty, and tes^eoX. ^icxA& ^i 



WENGERN ALP. 85 

the prevalence of avalanches and landslips are witnessed. In 
about three and a half hours the pass of the 

Little Scheideck (6768 feet) is reached. Here there is 
an inn, the Hotel Belle Vue. The view is superb at any time 5 
and towards sunset, when the Monch, the Jungfrau, the Eiger, 
and the Schreckhom are tinted with a thousand hues, nothing 
can exceed the glories of the scene. The Oberland peaks are 
well seen to the south j northward lies the Grindelwald Voiley, 
with its mountain boundaries. 

From the Little Scheideck the traveller may, if so inclined, 
return to Grindelwald by the Lauberhorn (8120 feet), and 
Mannlichen (7694 feet), both peaks of the ridge running north- 
ward from the Scheideck j or he may proceed to the Hotel 
Jungfrau, on the Wengem Alp, by the Lauberhorn, in about 
two hours. But the direct path descends in about thirty 
minutes to the sloping pasture known as the Wengern Alp. 
Far below lies the valley of Lauterbrunnen, with the Staubbach 
like a thread of silver winding from the upper to the lower fall. 
The Hotel de la Jungfrau is, towards noon, a resting-place for 
visitors from various directions, when quite an international 
gathering takes place during the season. Opposite the hotel are 
the Silberhorn (12,156 feet) on the right, and the Schneehorn 
(11,204 feet) on the left j and between them, upspringing from 
a world of glaciers, rises the colossal Jungfrau (13,671 feet), 
in robes of dazzling whiteness, but not revealing her loftiest 
peak from this point of view. The ascent of this mountain is 
not considered immensely difficult, but is very fatiguing, and 
requires good guides. Ladies have on several occasions visited 
the summit. 

From the Wengem Alp the traveller will not only hear the 
avalanches, but also see them, as they break away from the 
glaciers on the brow of Jungfrau, dash into fragments, and 
plunge into the ravine called theTriimlethenthal. The sight at 
this distance is insignificant, but the sound is marvellous as echo 
after echo takes up the thunders with manifold reverberation. 
If the traveller wishes for a nearer view of these wonderful 
phenomena, he must go with a guide and a rope (only needed 
at one or two points of the journey) down into the Triimlethen- 
thal, cross the branch of the Liitschine at the bottom, anb 
ascend to the side of a deep channel. Here, in cQ\xv^\siy^ 
security, he may watch the avalancYies \3cv2X \v^n^ A\^^^ ^^'^^ 
cended 2000 feet from the gUciets, da^ ^o^}^cv ^^t "asvoKfegJt 
thousand feet along this channel, to teaiciVi VJaa ^.c.oxss^v:^'^^^^^^ ^ 



86 MEIRINGEN TO INTERLAKEN. 

snow and ice below. The expedition will occupy about three 
hours going and returning, exclusive of the time spent in watch- 
ing the avalanches. Particulars as to how best to accomplish 
the journey should be ascertained at the hotel. 

A descending walk of about three hours* length brings the 
traveller from the Wengern Alp to Lauterbrunnen. The 
course lies at first over grassy slopes, thickly populated by small 
cattle with their tinkling bells. The immediate descent into 
Lauterbrunnen valley is by a steep zigzag path down the cliffs. 
The views en route are very beautiful and varied. 



LAUTERBRUNNEN 

(Hotel du Capricorne) 

is a village of chalets, where 1400 inhabitants are so secluded 
amidst rocks and mountains, that although dwelling nearly 2500 
feet above the sea level, the sun cannot visit them till seven a.m. 
in summer, nor till noon in winter. Lauterbrunnen signifies 
" nothing but springs 5" some twenty or thirty streamlets come 
down from the surrounding cliffs and mountains. 

Of these the finest is the world-renowned Staubbach. It 
is quite possible that the visitor may consider this fall has been 
over-praised. Its beauty depends, however, very much on the 
amount of water falling. It is often very small 5 and as it leaps 
down over 900 feet — thus taking rank as the highest European 
waterfall — the water is dissipated into spray before reaching the 
bottom. Hence the name Staubbach — '* Dust- stream.'* It has 
been compared to an undulating lace veil, to a bird of Paradise, 
to the descent of a shower of rockets, etc., etc. Byron com- 
pares it to the tail of 



'< The giant steed to be bestrode by Death, 
As told ia the Apoca'ypse 5*' 

Wordsworth calls it a *' sky-bom waterfall 3" Goethe and several 
other poets have also sung its praises. 

Theie are no lack of walks and excursions for the tourist 

who can aflxjrd time to linger at Lauterbrunnen. It is a pleasant 

evening walk to the Falls of the Trumlenbach, where 

the glacier-fed torrent from the foot of the Jungfrau leaps down. 

To view the grand, wild scenery round Miirren, half a day 

must be allowed. The road lies throngja. lYva iot^^t above the 

Staubbach Falls, and the moantam panotama seen ou «£otet^vxi^ 



MEIRINGEN TO THE RHONE GLACIER. ^j 

from the forest is beyond description. Miirren itself is glori- 
ously situated, and the view of glaciers, and rocks, and ravines, 
untrodden save by the daring chamois hunter, is magnificent. 
From Miirren the Schilthorn (9000 feet) is ascended. The 
view of mountain-tops from its summit is unrivalled, including 
the Juras, the Niesen, the peaks of the Bernese Oberland, the 
Titlis, the Rigi, and many others. 

The exploration of the Upper Valley of Laaterbrunnen 
is well worth the trouble. To Stechelberg and Trachsell- 
auinen requires no guide, and can be managed with horses. 
Beyond that to the Falls of the Schmadribach the path is 
obscure. The falls are 200 feet in height, aud the arch of vapour 
formed by them is very remarkable. 

From Lauterbrunnen to Interlaken is seven and a 
half miles. The road leads along the valley, whose rocky walls 
rise to the height of 1000 feet, and past the lowering rock 
called the Kunnenfluh to Zweilutsckinen. This town is situated 
near the junction of the Black Lutschine from Grindelwald 
with the White Lutschine from Lauterbrunnen. A little 
further on, the road enters a narrow ravine, with the precipices 
of the Rothenfluh rising on the left. The Bosenstein, with its 
inscription marking the spot where a fratricide was committed 
by a local baron, was removed in blasting the rocks to improve 
the road 3 but the gloomy spot is still pointed out. Passing on 
by g6itre-haunted Muhlinen, IVilderswyl, and Matten, we soon 
arrive at Interlaken. Between Wilderswyl and Matten we pass 
the ruins of the Castle of Unspunnen, said to have been 
in Byron's thoughts as the stronghold of Manfred — the won- 
drous tale, of which the scenery is mostly laid in the Wengern 
Alp and neighbourhood. 

Interlaken, p. 92. 

MEIRINGEN TO THE RHONE GLACIER, BY 

THE GRIM8EL. 

(For the St. Gothard Route, or for the Rhone Valley.) 

This cross route takes about eleven hours. From Meiringen 
to the Handeck Falls, and to return by the same route, takes 
about as long. A carriage road has been formed a little beyond 
Imhof, after which there is a bridle path only. 

•Leaving Meiringen, the Aare is sooiicros%e^(s?^Y^Qk^^^^^^«^^^ 
is repeated many times during the xoute) , «lTv^ ^^^a %\ixwxi^. A 
ihendge of limestone, strewn with gtamle \AocVs, >B.xia^^^^ 



gg MEIRINGEN TO THE RHONE GLACIER. 

the Kirchet, or Kirchen, is reached. This ridge, 2782 feet in 
height, forms the division between the Upper and Lower Hasli- 
thal. From the summit there is a lovely view down into the 
verdant valley of Imgrund. 

By paying a small fee at the Inn, a short detour can be made 
through a woodland path to the Finsteraar Schlucllt. 
This is a romantic ravine, cut clean through the Kirchet ridge 
by the Aare, which foams along three hundred feet below. 

As the road winds down the side of the Kirchet, the pedes- 
trian will easily see how to make several short cuts. The first 
village of any importance in the valley is Imhof, near to which 
diverge the routes leading to the Susten and Joch passes re- 
spectively. From Imhof a fine excursion may be made to the 
magnificent Urbachtlial, with the immense Gauli Glacier at 
the head of it. The experienced miountaineer may visit many 
glaciers, etc., from this locality. 

Passing on from Imhof, the road leads through a romantic 
defile, over which towers the Mahrenhom (9593 feet). Re- 
freshments can be obtained at various chalets. After crossing 
the Aare a time or two, and also various mountain torrents, 
Guttanen is reached. This wretched-looking place, the 
highest village of the Haslithal, has been four times destroyed 
in the present century— twice by fire, and twice by flood. 

From Guttanen the visitor passes through fine rock and 
forest scenery, crossing the Aare at the Tschingelbriicke. Here 
and there the ravages of avalanche and wintry torrent are evident. 
On the right, the foot of the Weiss Glacier is seen, and mountain- 
tops patched with snow come into view. After crossing the 
Aare by the Schwarzbrunnenbriicke, and passing a small cascade, 
the end of the valley is reached, formed by a rocky height, sur- 
mounted by a grove of pines. Up this ridge the path leads 
amongst rocks where former glacial action is plainly visible. 

At Handeck are the celebrated Falls, where the Aare 
leaps down 250 feet at a bound. The falls should be viewed 
from below, and again from the bridge above. Half way down, 
the river Erlenbach., entering at right angles, joins its. falling 
waters with those of the Aare, and the mingling cascades de- 
scend into a basin, over which rainbows are seen in the spray 
between ten and one. This is the third largest, 'and by many 
considered the finest, waterfall in Switzerland. 

Up to this point rich forest scenery has softened the boldaess 

of the landscape, hut now a wild and barren region of desolation 

's gradually catered. The pine dlsappeaxs-, W-^es., xcio^%^ acid 



THE GRIMSEL. 



89 



pprass form the vegetation, and that not in abundance. Hahle 
Platte is crossed, being the polished granite bed of an ancient 
glacier. Agassiz studied glacial action here as elsewhere, and 
has left his name carved on the rock. Opposite, the picturesque 
waterfall of the (Jelmerbach descends from the Gelmer See. 

Again the valley narrows, and the savage wildness of the 
scene increases in intensity. The Aare is crossed again and 
again ; and the Raterisboden, where is the only chMet be' 
tween Handeck and Grimsel, is soon reached. This hollow 
basin was given by the French to the innkeeper of Guttanen, who 
aided them in their attack on the Austrians at the Grimsel in 
1799. But the Swiss Government speedily revoked the grant. 
Between the rocky walls of a mountain glen the traveller still 
mounts, and, after a time, arrives at the Grimsel Hospice. 

The Grimsel Hospice, formerly a monastic refuge, and 
now an inn, was destroyed by an avalanche in 1838, and burnt 
down in 1852. At the present building, of massive stone, 6148 
feet above the sea-level, fifty beds are made up in the season, 
and a couple of hundred persons are often entertained at the 
seven p.m. table d'hdte. The hospice stands in the basin called 
the Grimselgrund. Around are rocks and snow, and a black 
lake destitute of fish. Beyond the lake is the scanty pasturage 
of the cows of the establishment. 

From this point an easy ascent of the Sidelhorn may be 
made 5 the panorama of the Grimsel is very fine. From 
the rocky height near the hospice, called the Nollen, the Fin- 
Steraarhorn is visible. This mountain presents a capital 
expedition for experienced mountaineers with able guides 5 and, 
indeed, for travellers of this class, many fine ascents may be 
arranged from the Grimsel. The Finsteraar and Lau- 
teraar Glaciers can be visited with comparative ease. The 
former is twenty-one miles in length, the latter eighteen. On 
these glaciers Agassiz and others have performed a serfes of 
experiments on glacial action. It has been proved that this 
glacier moves at the rate of eight inches a day, or eighty- five 
yards a year. 

A steep path, which takes about an hour to traverse, leids 
from the Hospice to the summit of the pass (7103 feet) called 
Hauseck. Here, in 1799, French and Austrians closed in 
deadly struggle, and the dead were interred in the adjacent lake^ 
henceforward known as the Todtensee. TYie\>M^, ^T«xv\\fc ^sox- 
rounding of this lake are sombre enough, \>\xl \Jcvft Sv&\.«qX. 'h\«« 
cf the Weiashom and Mischabel is more \ave\7. 



go BRIENZ TO BERNE. 

From Hauscck the descent can be made by one path to 
Obergestelen (p. 75), for the Rhone Valley. 

The other path leads by the flowery Maienwand, with 
splendid views of the Rhone Glacier, Furca, Galenstock, etc., 
down to the Rhone Glacier Hotel, where there is a table d'h6te 
at one, after which a diligence runs to Brieg, in the Rhone 
Valley (see p. 77). 

Rhone Glacier to Hospenthal and St. Gothard route (see 

P- 74). 

BRIENZTO BERNE. 

(At Brienz, Hotel de la Croix Blanche. At Giessbach, Hotel 

Giessbach.) 

There is not much in Brienz to detain the visitor. It is a 
picturesque village of wooden houses, nestling at the foot of the 
Brienzer Grat ; the inhabitants are chiefly occupied in wood- 
carving, and carry on a considerable trade j and in the Repository 
a good collection of articles may be seen, and, if so minded, 
purchases can be made. From the Churchyard excellent 
views may be obtained of the lake and surrounding mountains. 

The Lake of Brienz is celebrated for the magnificence 
of its mountain scenery. Except towards the south-west, it is 
entirely surrounded by high mountains j the Faulhom, on the 
south side of the lake, forms a splendid object in the panorama. 
The lake is 8 miles long, and 2 broad in its widest part. Near 
the mouth of the Giessbach the depth is 500 feet, but it varies 
in other parts considerably. It is 10 feet higher than the Lake 
of Thun, and 850 feet above the level of the sea j it abounds in 
fish, and the " Brienz- ling,*' which is salted for the supply of 
the neighbouring districts, is found in abundance, and is a good 
fish. 

Steamers ply upon the lake between Brienz and Inter- 
laken ; and in the season there are special night boats for the 
illumination of the Falls of the Giessbach (see p. 91). 

The journey from Brienz to Interlaken occupies about an 
hour J from Brienz to Giessbach, about 10 minutes. 

Rowing-boats on the lake may be obtained at Brienz or 
Interlaken. A bargain should always be made with the 
rowers. 

Leaving Brienz by steamer, the lake is crossed, and Giess- 

bach is reached. It must be bottie Va imrvdvlhat from the lake 

the Falls cannot be. seen, or the beauty ol xSaa «i^\\&t^ ^v^twssA^ 



GIESSB ACH FALLS. g ^ 

ing them. Continuing towards Interlaken, there are seen on 
the right hand (north bank) the villages of Oberried andNeider- 
ried, backed by the Augstmatthorn. Further on, the ruined 
Castle of Ringgenberg ; and further still, the town of Golds wyl. 
On the left hand (south bank), the charming little village of 
Iseltwald. Approaching Interlaken the lake narrows j the 
village of BOnigen is reached ; the Aare, as the water is called 
whidi connects the Lake of Brienz with that of Thun is entered j 
and the steamer sets down its passengers at Bonigen pier, where 
a railway takes them in a few minutes to Interlaken (p. 92). 

THE FALLS OF THE GIE88BACH. 

(Hotel Giessbach. Telegraph for rooms.) 

A railway (Drahtseilbahn) will be opened in 1879 from the 
shore to the Hotel. 

The Falls are brilliantly illuminated with Bengal lights every 
evening, from the middle of June till the end of September — 
before that time, on Mondays and Saturdays only. Fee^ i^ franc. 

In the following account by an American of a visit to the 
Falls the traveller will find all the information he will need : — 

*' As the twilight began to gather we landed at Giessbach, 
and wended our way up a steep declivity to the very fine hotel. 
After engaging rooms for the night, and partaking of a good 
supper, we were prepared to see Giessbach Falls illuminated. 
The hotel is situated on a high bluff of land, which juts out into 
the lake, and from this er unence you have a fine view of the 
lakes and mountains, looking towards Interlaken — which place 
Is seen quite distinctly — ^with a portion of Lake Thun. 

" The great attractions, however, at Giessbach, are the cas- 
cades, which extend 1300 feet from the mountain top into the 
lake below. These waterfalls are supplied by two lakes in the 
mountains, uamed Hagel and Hexen. 

•* Issuing from the hotel into the well-lighted, gravelled 
walks, fringed with flowers and shrubbery, we arrived at an 
eminence directly opposite the Falls, where seats are provided 
for the spectators. At a given signal the lights of the garden 
are all put out, leaving us in almost total darkness, made doubly 
dark by the shadow of the mountain facing us. Anon, a rocket 
was sent into the air -, then, darker still and murky the inter- 
val. Then another rocket whizzed close by \3ls \ ^^'ajvxv, ^^^^« 
darkness aiid deeper mystery, by contcast". vy\\ew — ^t^sIo^ 
cbai^ ! I-^^ach fall, to the number oi twelve, \>eeatafc s^n^^^s.^ 



Q2 BRIENZ TO BERNE. 

with intense light ! — silvered for a distance of 800 feet up the 
mountain side. 

" The mountain firs and other foliage, lit up with the sudden 
glare, were wonderfully verdant j with an immediate gloss on 
it that seemed fairy-like, and with a filmy sheen playing around 
the outer edges. At the bottom of each fall the foam seemed 
frosted into so much virgin silver, and bubbled away to sparkle 
again below 5 while the water-spray, like silver dust receiving 
light from the moon's rays, floated away into the deep, moun- 
tain shadows. Up, up, up the gorge of the cascades we gaze 
with much delight, viewing the sparkling little rustic bridges 
which span with their quaint forms the glistening chasms, at given 
spaces, to the top. Down came the water in frolicsome curves 
and splashes, seemingly much pleased with its beautiful glow. 

*' Lo, and behold again ! are we in Fairyland ? One of the 
longest falls turns, or laints, into a liquid purple ; another, into 
a lovely sea-green j and, at the base, the largest fall of all, has 
dissolved into a stream of liquid ruby, molten and spreading, 
tinting with a roseate hue the dark stones, and starting by the 
sight the most prosaic into wonder and delight. Verily, one 
would think that I had exerted an over-vivid imagination in 
trying to describe this beautiful exhibition j but, the truth is, 
our language cannot depict the gorgeous effect of an intense 
effulgence of light over a large body of water — especially if that 
water is dancing, foaming, and meandering over a mountain 
side 800 feet high, garnished with a dense, varied foliage, hid 
in the gloom, then breaking into blaze, gilding or silvering every 
web-like twig, illumining every lichen-covered rock, piercing 
with light every nestling nook of the deep shade, exposing the 
tangled network of vine and tree-branch, and rousing beetle and 
bird. We saw the same Falls on the next morning looking 
innocent of the last night's varied glow — as lovely and limpid 
in the natural light of a fine day as would satisfy the most 
veracious poet or painter seeking for the truly picturesque. So 
beautiful seemed the scene after the night's theatric debauch, 
so tender seemed the daylight, that the tampering with Nature's 
slumber appeared, after all, but profanation." — ^W. J. 

INTERLAKEN, 

/Hotel Victoria and Hotel Ritchard. These hotels command fine 
v/eivs of the /ungfrau and other Alps of the Bernese Oberland.) 

The lakes of Brienz and TYivm. axe >av3L\. «k. ^ott ^\^\aaf:» 



INTERLAKEN. go 

apart^ and, as its name implies, Interlaken lies between them. 
It is thought that formerly the two lakes were joined together, 
until separated by deposits brought down by streams flowing 
into them. 

Interlaken has been described as the Leamington, or Chel- 
tenham, or Harrogate of Switzerland. It was once a truly 
Swiss town J it is gradually becoming a little Paris or Brussels. 
Fashion and gaiety find their homes here, and the pleasure- 
seeker will vote the town to be one of the most charming in 
Switzerland. Many of the houses are built in the most perfect 
and accomplished Swiss style. Interlaken consists of a prin- 
cipal one-sided street, beside which are the hotels, pensions, and 
boarding-houses. With the exception of the hotels, nearly all 
the houses are of wood, with overhanging eaves, galleries, 
shingle-roofs, and ornamented with quaint carvings and inscrip- 
tions. Some of these houses bear date 250 years ago, and yet 
look as sound as ever, though they are never painted. 

From the door of the hotel, in the quiet of the eventide, 
may often be heard the peculiar sound produced by an avalanche 
from one of the neighbouring mountains. For in the vicinity 
of Interlaken there are ''giant mountains, massive glaciers, 
rushing cataracts, picturesque villages, green oases, and the ever 
changeful combinations of Alpine nature in her most lavish 
mood.*' 

At Interlaken there are many temptations to spend money 
in articles of Swiss manufacture, from the most minute figure 
in wood, or the horns of the chamois, to good-sized drawing- 
room tables, and other large articles of household furniture. 
The whey-cure is one of the institutions of Interlaken. 

The principal avenue of communication in Interlaken is 
the Hoheweg, one of the finest promenades in Switzerland, 
with splendid views of the Jungfrau. Here stands the Gur- 
saal, with its Reading Room, Restaurant, Billiard Room, and 
its constantly recurring Balls, Concerts, and other amusements. 
At a short distance is the Monastery, an ancient pile sur- 
rounded by beautiful walnut trees. In the more modem part, 
called the Schloss, dating from 17 jo, the Government offices 
are located. The best view of the town is from the Hohbiihl 
across the bridge. 

Opinions differ as to the enjoyment of a lengthened stay in 
Interlaken. While one traveller of a merry, social^ ia^ovss^- 
loTing turn of mind will revel in its proIrleIl2Ae%,\i^^v«!t^-'^^^'^^^ 
and concert-balls, and such like, the diow^^iX-ixA, iSL^i^xXaJixs^ ^cbks^ 



g^ BRIENZ TO BERNE. 

will turn aside^ glad to find a more secluded spot elsewhere. It 
is uridoubtedly a capital place as a centre for excursions j and 
the tourist may branch off here to visit the Wengern Alps, 
Grindelwald, and other places of the Bernese Oberland, de- 
scribed fully at p. 80. 

Whether the whole of this detour be undertaken or not, no 
one should miss the delightful drive from Interlaken to Lauter- 
brunnen, and the Falls of the Staubbach. It is a charming 
valley, and a description of it will be found on p. 86. 

Excursions may also be accomplished in a day, or less, to 
(i) Kleine Rugen, and Heimweh Fluh, returning by the Un- 
spunnenj Hohbiihl, Vogtsruhe,Untere Bleicki, Goldei, Lustbuhl, 
Zwerglocher, Eck, etc. (2) The Thurmberg and small lake 
of Golzwyl. (3) To the Beatenhohle. 

Longer excursions, (i) Schynige Platte, 6180 feet high, 
with a fine view of the Snow Mountains. (2) To Lauter- 
brunnen, Staubbach Falls, thence by mule up to Miirren, and 
back to Interlaken; or over the Wengern Alp from Lauter- 
brunnen to Grindelwald, and back to Interlaken. (3) To 
Grindelwald, thence over the great Scheideck to the Baths of 
Rosenlaui and Rosenlaui Glacier, thence to Interlaken by 
Brienz and the Giessbach Falls. 

LAKE OF THUN. 

From Interlaken by railway to Darligen, and then by steam- 
boat, on the Lake of Thun, to Thun (the former station of the 
steamers of this lake was Neuhaus, a walk or omnibus drive of 
two miles through a long grove of poplars). 

On both sides of the lake is a constant succession of rustic 
villages, and dotted here and there, on the hill sides, are chalets, 
villas, and gardens, backed by the snowy giants of the Oberland. 
On the southern shore are two isolated mountains named the 
Niesen (7,700 feet), and the Stockhom (7,200 feet), *' striking," 
says Dr. Forbes, " from their sharp and peculiar outline j the 
former rising up like a vast symmetrical broad-based pyramid, 
the other shooting out diagonally into the western sky its huge 
terminal horn.'* At a greater distance, the loftier Jungfrau, 
Monch and Eiger tower on high. 

The lake is ten miles and a half long, and two miles broad, 
and IS nearly 1800 feet above the sea level. As we steam on, 
we notice on the right a perpend\cw\ax cWfE, lotrakL^ the base of 
tlie Beatenberg. Here is the cavem ol ^\.,'&^a\.\is^^\!ka^^^% 



THUN, Q^ 

tradition, was the first to introduce Christianity into these parts 5 
of course, no old-fashioned saint could have made his abode in 
the side of such a cliiF, situate in such a place, with a cascade 
issuing from it, without having some strange legends also 
attached to it. It is reported that a dragon originally occupied 
the cave, but was turned out much in the same way as St. Saba 
ousted the lion. St. Beatus had also accomplished the art of 
navigating the lake on his cloak, without any other external 
assistance. 

After passing the little perpendicular headland known as the 
Nase, we soon afterwards see on the opposite (left) bank the 
castle of the descendants of Erlach, the hero of Laupen. 

In about an hour after starting, we reach the mouth of the 
Aare, at which point we have a beautiful view of the Niesen and 
BlUmlisalp chains of mountains, the latter in their garb of 
never- melting snow. 

THUN. 

(Hotel Belle Vue and Grand Hotel deThoune). 

If the tourist wishes to proceed direct to Berne without 
stopping at Thun, he will alight at 

Scfierzligen, the landing-place being close to the railway 
station. 

Thun has above 5,000 inhabitants 5 it is traversed by the 
river Aare; and its principal street is its principal curiosity. 
** There is a sort of terrace some ten or twelve feet high, on the 
flat roof of which are the shops, while the carriage-way is 
bounded by the cellars, of which the terrace is the roof.** The 
sights of Thun are few, and therefore it is best to ascend to 
tfie cliurcll by a covered way cf 218 steps, where a mag- 
nificent view is obtained ; one of the most striking objects from 
here is the Stockhorn. whose bell-shaped summit differs from 
everything else within range of our view. The late Emperor 
Napoleon III. was a resident in Thun for eight years, when a 
Captain in the Swiss Artillery, the house he occupied is now 
known as the Cafe Maulbeerbaum. 

Near the church is seen the tower of the Castle of 
Kyburg, where the old Counts of Thun once dwelt. The 
square tower, with its high pointed roof, known as the Berne 
Grate^ is a remnant of the ancient fortifications. T\\& ¥ ^^^"^^iX 
Military College at Thun is the SaneiYiXtt^X. ol '^^^Xx.ieevsis^^ 
Kevj^ws In coDDection with this estaVA\sYvmetL\. ^x^'WAvo.'^^ 



gS THUN TO LEUK. 

neighbourhood in the summer. Some curious old Gothic 
windows distinguish the Beguinage, near the Town 
House. The Jacobishiibeli, or Pavilion of St. John, is a short 
distance from the town. The view excels that from the church- 
yard in beauty and extent. The majestic Jungfrau forms a 
prominent feature in the scene. 

Charmingly situated at the junction of the river Aare with the 
lake is the modem erection known as the Schloss Schadau, 
with extensive and well-ordered gardens, to which, on Sunday 
evenings, the public are admitted. 

Thun is extremely picturesque, but is not regarded by all 
travellers as the best halting-place on the journey. Those so 
minded can speedily proceed by Central Swiss Railway to Berne, 
the journey of about three quarters of an hour is short, but 
delightful, with views that require incessant watchfulness from 
both sides of the carriage. 

Berne, p. 98. 

THUN TO LEUK AND SU8TEN, BY THE 

GEMMI PASS. 

Carriage road to Kandersteg 22 J miles 5 thence over the pass 
to the Baths of Leuk, a bridle-path ji hours. From thence to 
Susten (8 miles), there is a good road. 

To Kandersteg it is a charming drive through pasture lands 
and orchards, crossing the Kander, and passing Moos, Miih- 
lenen, Reichenbach, and Frutigen. At the latter place 
the road ascends the Kander valley, and passes the azure waters 
of the picturesque Blaue See, and the Felsenburg Tower, 
near Mittelholz, to Kandersteg. 

At Kandersteg the panorama of the Birrenhorn, Bliim- 
lisalp, Doldenhorn, Gellihorn, and other mountains, is superb. 

Soon after leaving Kandersteg, the road ascends at the 
base of the Gellihorn, and in about three hours the Inn of 
Scliwarenbach is reached. 

Hence the path leads by the dirty waters of the Daubensee 
to the summit of the pass (7553 feet) known as the Daube 
or Gemmi, at the base of towering limestone rocks forming 
the Daubenhorn (9449 feet). From an eminence close by the 
pass, the view is very grand. The Baths of Leuk are seen far 
below, and around is a iine mountain panorama, comprising 
the MIscbabelhorneTj WeissTdom, Biuneckhom, Matterhom, 
jDent Blanche^ etc. 



BASLE TO BERNE. qm 

Descending amidst grand scenery, by a skilfully constructed 
path on the side of the almost perpendicular rock, 1800 feet in 
height, the Baths of Leukare reached (Hotels des Alpes and 
Belle Vue). There are twenty- two mineral springs here. The 
bath house is a unique sight. Male and female patients sit up 
to their necks in one conmion bath, attired in fanciful flannel 
dresses. There are small floating tables, at which the patients 
sip coffee or read the newspapers for hours together, amidst a 
lively din of conversation in all languages. Visitors are allowed 
to view this curious scene. 

The road to Leuk and Susten crosses the D ala and passes 
Inden. The route is very attractive, and presents fine views of 
the Dala ravine and opposite mountains, and of the Rhone 
Valley as far as Martigny. 

At Leuk, where tjie culture of the vine conmiences, there 
is a fine old castle on an eminence. Susten, on the other 
side of the Rhone^ is on the high road from Sierre to Brieg 
(see p. 77). 

BASLE TO BERNE. 

From Basle to Aarburg (p. 57). 

At Aarburg the line to Lucerne diverges to the south-east. 
Stations, JSiedertvyl, Morgenthal^ Roggwyl^Langenthal,But%herg, 
At Herzogenbuchsee (which is a junction with the line to 
Solothurn, Bienne, Neuch^tel) inquire whether carriages must 
be changed. The train generally waits from ten to fifteen 
minutes at this station. Then stations Riedwyl, fVynigeny 
Burgdorf, or Berthoud, where Pestalozzi introduced his edu- 
cational system in 1798. The town is pleasantly situated, and 
carries on a good trade in cheese. It commands fine views of 
the Bernese Oberland. A diligence runs from Burgdorf to Lang- 
nau (p. 107). Stations, Lyssach, Hindelhank, Schonbiihl, Zolli* 
kqfen, junction, with branch line to Bienne (p. 113). Between 
Zollikofen and Berne is the most interesting part of the railway 
journey, the chain of the Oberland being seen from end to end. 
The approach to Berne by way of the Bridge across the Aare is 
very striking. 

BIENNE TO BERNE. 

This journey is performed in about an hour and a quart<e.T« . 
.• At Brugg CTOSs the Zihl, and at B\ISSrsNrs[\ cxosa ^^ K353»> 
by a bridge 800 feet in length. TYie succee^vci^ ^XaJassos* ^^^ 
Z^/> (Aarberg, four miles south, Vith 2LiiCveoX ca^^ oV^cd^ 



gg BASLE TO BERNE. 

Counts of Aarberg, etc.), Schiipfen, Miinchenhuchsee, and ZollU 
kofen, 

Zollikofen is the junction with the Central Railway from 
Olten. At a short distance are the Felienberg educational insti- 
tutions at Hofwyl. Passing the lofty, three-arched Bridge of 
Tiefenau, and the Castle of Reichenbach, where the hero of 
Laupen, Rudolph von Erlach, was murdered by his son-in-law, 
the railway next reaches the Drilling Ground, passes the new 
workmen's quarter, and crosses the Aare by a curious, two 
storied bridge into Berne. 

BERNE. 
(Hotel Belle Vue.) 

. Post and Telegraph Office, near the railway station, 
west part of town. Branch Office iu the Kramgasse. 

Omnibuses run from the station to the principal hotels. 
Fare, 50 c. ; extra charge for luggage. 

Cabs for one or two persons to drive in the town, 60 c. ; 
three or four persons, i fr. 30 c. 5 whole day, two persons, 
12 frs. 

The English Church is in the Chapel of the Brge r 
Spital. 

PRINCIPAL SIGHTS, AND TIMES FOR SEEING 

THEM. 

Arsenal. — p. 105. 

Bear-pit. — p. 106. 

Biirger-Spital (City Hospital). — p. 105. 

Cathedral.— Interior, 30 c. 5 tower, 50 c. See tariff at entrance. 

Casino, with Reading-room, etc. — Near the Federal Council 
Hall. 

Clock Tower (12 o'clock best time). — p. 100. 

Federal Council Hall (Bundes Rathhaus), — i franc. Sessions 
of " the House," open to the public. The Kunsisaal, Pic- 
ture Gallery (see below). 

Fountains in various places. — p. 10 1. 

Museum. — Free, Tuesday and Thursday, 3 to 5, and Sunday, 
10 to 12. At other times, i franc for two or three per- 
sons, p. 105. 
Picture Gallery (Kunsisaal). — Federal Council Hall, Upper Floor. 
Free from g to 4, except Satuxdo^s. From Sept. 15 to 
Oct. i^, trifling fee j p. loa. 



BERNE. gg 

Schanzli. — p. io6. 

Terraces. — Cathedral Terrace, p. 102. 

Terrace at back of Federal Council Hall (finest view 

of Alps from here), p. 104. 
Zeughaus (Arsenal). — p. 10 j. 

Berthold, Duke of Zahringen, having occasion to overawe 
his refractory nobility, built a castle, around which a town sprang 
up 5 and this is said to have been the origin of Berne, deriving 
its name, its coat-of-arms, and the ubiquitous bear in its public 
places, from the fact of its founder having slain one of that 
species in the neighbourhood. The town was about a century 
old when Frederick II. made it an imperial city. Consumed 
by fire in 1405, it arose from its ashes on a grander scale. Berne 
united itself with the Swiss Confederacy in 1352, and in 1849 
became the Federal Capital. 

Berne occupies an elevated position a hundred feet above the 
river Aar, which nearly surrounds the city. This river is itself 
1500 feet above the sea-level at this point. The city is one of 
the most ancient in Europe, and at every turn the visitor is re- 
minded of past ages. The main street, nearly a mile in length, ex- 
tends from the Ny deck Bridge to the Porte de Morat 5 the smaller 
streets are mostly parallel to the main street, and connected by 
transverse streets and places, so that the town has a very regular 
appearance. The streets, being mostly built in one direction — 
from east to west — have the two sides respectively distinguished 
as the Cote du Soleil, and the Cote de TOmbre. The whole 
town slopes towards the Nydeck Bridge, the part below the 
Clock Tower being called the Lower Town, whilst above that 
structure lies the Upper Town. A stream from the upper end 
of the town runs through channels in the centre of the chief 
streets, only partially covered in. The fountains are numerous, 
and many of them beautiful 5 they form a striking ornament of 
the city. The houses are mostly of grey sandstone, with iron 
balconies, containing seats, usually covered with cushions of 
crimson, or some other bright colour. The houses, moreover, 
are generally so constructed, as to form an arcade over the foot- 
way. In cold, snowy weather this has its advantages ; but as 
was found to be the case in the Regent Street Quadrant, the 
shops are rendered dull and gloomy. This leads to the dkc^ssi^ 
universal practice in Berne of exposing tYie ^00^^ ovsJesAa^ ^^oa 
shop 5 so that if 70U step in to purchase an at\AcX'ei, \\. v^'ViViSj:^ 
probable tbatyoa will have to step outside \jo ^ec^\^* 



IQQ BERNE. 

Some handsome promenades, affording grand prospects of 
the surrounding country, have been formed on the site of the 
ancient fortifications of Berne. 

On Market-days (Saturday and Tuesday) the streets of 
Beme are thronged with townspeople and peasantry. On 
Tuesday especially the scene is very lively. Pleasure as well as 
business is made a matter of importance. Few better oppor- 
tunities could be found for studyingthemanners, costumes, etc., 
of the Swiss peasantry. Long drays, drawn by ponderous bul- 
locks, and laden with farm produce, are passing continually. 
The stalls are innumerable ; very conspicuous are those for the 
sale of cattle-bells j for here all the sheep, goats, and cattle 
wear bells. Meanwhile, provisions of all kinds are being sold — 
eggs, poultry, game, vegetables — going at prices that would 
delight the soul of an English housekeeper 3 and the whole 
scene is one of busy interest and enjoyment. 

The visitor will of course be struck with the shaggy animal 
which the good city of Beme so delights to honour. Bears 
figure prominently on the city arms — on the gates, and foun- 
tains, and other monuments — modelled in clay, or more expeu' 
sive materials, they abound in the shops ; and besides all this, a 
few favoured specimens in the fiesh are kept in a municipal 
bear-pit. 

The principal street in Beme extends the whole length of 
the town, from east to west. It is known as the GerecMig- 
keitsgasse in its eastern portion, and subsequently as the 
Kramgasse, Marktgasse, and Spitalgasse. The curi- 
ous arcaded shops, and the fountains, towers, etc., combine to 
render this street very interesting. On market-days (see above) 
it is the centre of Bernese life and enjoyment. At the extreme 
western end of the street stands the Ober Thor, or Moral 
Gate, with its two colossal bears in granite- standing like sen- 
tinels on either side. Between the Spitalgasse and Marktgasse 
stands the Kaflgthurm, or Bird-cage Tower, now used as a 
prison. Between the Marktgasse and the Kramgasse, in the very 
centre of the city, stands the noted Clock Tower. When 
the founder of the city reared this tower, it guarded the outer 
wall. » ^ 

The following curious exhibition takes plaA whenever the 
clock strikes : — At three minutes before the how a cock crows 
and flaps his wings ; presently some bears mar(£ in procession 
round an old man, and the cock crows again. Then a fool 
strikes the hour on a bell with a hammer, whilst the old man 



BERNE, jQj 

checks off the strokes with his sceptre, and turns his hour- 
glass. A bear nods approval, and a final bout of cock-crowing 
ends the performance. 

At the other end of the Kramgasse is the Barenbrunnen. 
It displays a bear holding a pennant, and fully equipped for 
battle, with sword, and shield, and helm, and breastplate. 

The Fountains of Beme are very numerous. The 
Sdliitzen-Brunnen represents a Swiss archer and a young 
bear. But perhaps the most curious of these erections is the 
Kindlifresser-Brunnen, near the Komhaus. It repre- 
sents a monstrous Ogre encircled by bears placidly devouring 
a baby, with a number of little ones at his girdle and in his 
pockets, waiting their turn. 

The Protestant Cathedlral, or Miinster, of Beme is a 
handsome Gothic structure, dating from 1421, and constructed 
in part by Matthias von Steinhach, son of the builder of Stras- 
burg Cathedral. The varied parts of the delicately-traced para- 
pet of the roof are the most striking of the exterior beauties of 
the edifice. The sculpture on the west portal represents the 
Last Judgment ; also a number of prophets and apostles. 
Opposite the entrance is a fine bronze statue of Rudolph 
von Erlach, with the inevitable bears at the corners of the 
pedestal. 

The Tower of the Cathedral, still unfinished, is 213 ft. in 
height, and commands a good view from the gallery, reached 
by 223 steps. The entrance to the tower is by a door on the 
west of the chief portal. 

On entering the Cathedral, the tariff of charges is seen, 
clearly written in German, French, and English. The Interior 
is grand and striking in its plain simplicity. In the choir 
windows are fifteenth-century stained glass pictures, represent- 
ing the Doctrine of the Eucharist and a Scene from our Saviour's 
Life J and there are some beautiful carvings of prophets and 
apostles on the choir stalls. 

The Organ is one of the finest in Europe, and should, by 
all means, be heard, if possible. It is played daily at 6.30 p.m., 
I franc being charged for admission. 

There are two monuments of historical interest in the 
Cathedral — one to the founder of the city, the Duke of Zahrin- 
gen y and another to Friedrich von Steiger, and those who fell 
with him fighting the French at Grauholz, in 1798. The 
exquisite marble group representing the Entombment of 
Christ has under it the inscription : " To all thosit ^wsNRSfc^Xssk 



102 BERNE. 

fell in the battle of 1798 for God and Fatherland, this statue of 
the Greatest of all Sacrifices is devoted as an everlasting me- 
morial." On the adjacent walls are tablets with the names of 
the 18 officers and 683 soldiers who perished on that occasion. 

The Munster PlatZ, or Cathedral Terrace, covered with 
shady chestnut groves, is a deservedly favourite promenade with 
both residents and visitors. On one side if is supported by a 
stone wall, rising almost perpendicularly from the bank of the 
Aare, 108 feet below. An inscription on the parapet sets forth 
how, in i6j4, a horse ridden by a young student was frightened 
by some children, and dashed over the precipice. The horse 
was killed, the rider only damaged ; he recovered, and became 
pastor of Kerzerz. A bronze statue of Berthold von Zahringen 
stands on the terrace. The view of the Oberland scenery from 
this terrace bafHes description. On all who behold it it seems 
to make a lasting impression. The Wetterhom, Schreckhorn, 
Jungfrau, Doldenhom, Stockhorn, and other peaks, are con- 
spicuous features of the scene. From the West Pavilion the 
visitor looks right across to the Finsteraarhorn, Eiger, Monch, 
and Jungfrau. Especially wondrous is the prospect when lit 
up with the alpgluhen — that marvellous glow which rests on 
the mountains just after stlnset — as if the reflection of a huge 
conflagration shone on them. 

There is a Roman Catholic Churcll in Berne, but the 
interior is uninteresting, and there are iron gates to prevent 
the visitor from walking round to inspect what little there is 
to see. 

The finest building in Berne is the Bundes Ratllliaus, or 
Federal Council Hall. In this magnificent edifice, 874 ft. long 
by 170 broad, are located the Public Offices and the various 
Departments of State. Here also are the halls in which the 
Swiss Diet or Parliament assembles. Two deputies from each 
of the twenty-two cantons form the Upper House, or Senate ; 
whilst the House of Representatives is much larger, its mem- 
bers being returned by the cantons in proportion to their popu- 
lation. Thei debates, which usually take place in July, are open 
to the public. 

On the upper floor of the building is the KunstsaAl, or 
Saloon of Art, open, free, from Monday to Friday inclusive, 
except from September i jth to October 15 th. The works here 
exhibited are chiefly by native artists. 

Tlie positions of the pictures ate soccie^raas altered, but 
^e numbers are retained. The objets £ art we Tv\iTcfe«cfe^\\aai 



BERNE. 



163 

X to 197 5 and these numbers include sculptures, etc.^ as well 
as pointings. The following is a list of the principal : — 



Room I. 

1. The Flight into Egypt 

2. Madonna and Child . 

3. Dutch Landscape 

4. The Alchemist . 

5. The Walpurgis Night 
8—12. Portraits 

22. A Sketch . . . ., 

24. Flight into Egypt 

29. The Triumph of Mars 

S^, The Last Judgment . 

37. Allegorical Tableau . 

39. Justice Crowning Virtue and Con- 
demning Vice . . . 

43. Battle of Morgarten (p. 51). 

46. Judith with Head of Holofernes 

^S. Hohenweg at Interlaken (p. 92) 

,54. The Reichenbach (p. 81) . 

56. Landscape .... 

59. Battle of Morat . 

61. Swiss Ambassador before Louis XIV. 

62. Portrait of Rod. d'Effinger . 
67. David with Head of Goliath 
70. Monument of Madame Langhaus at 

Hindelbank (p. 97) . 
73. Infant Sleeping . 



. Alhano. 

. Barl'ierim 

• Both. 

. Brekelenkamp. 

. P. Breughel, 

. Duntz, 

. y, yordeans. 

Parmeggiamno (?) 

. Rubens, 

. Ibid, 

. Werner. 

Ibid. 

Folmar, 

Fioris. 

Konig. 

G. Fblmar, 

fVust. 

K. Rieter, 



Dieller. 
Imhof. 

Sonnenschdn. 
Ibid. 



Room II. 

88. Collection of Swiss Costumes • . Reinhardt. 

94. Mont Cervin . . . •. . y. Meyer. 

95. The Scheidegg 

96. Jungfrau and Valley of Lauterbrunnen . G. Lory. 
102. Portal of Berne Cathedral . . . Lohrer. 
107. Group of Cats . . . . . G. Mind. 
117. Arch of Constantiiie, Rome . . Sonnenschein* 
120. Statuette. The FouDdation oi the W\^<& 

Coafederation (p. 6jy i • • Doret* 



104 



BERNE. 

Room III. 



121. The Last Day of the Ancient Republic 
of Berne ...••. 
124.. The Cascades at Terni . • 

129. Falls of the Giessbach (p. 91) 

130. Infant asleep 

133. John Huss bidding adieu to his Friends 
135. Episode in the Battle of Morat . 
139. View near Beme . . . • 

143. Lake of Brienz. A Spring Morning . 

150. Hagar and Ishmael • . • . 

151. Moses 

152. Ruth 



JValthard* 

Bonstetten, 

R. Volmarm 

Dubufe. 

Pixis. 

GirardeU 

Dalton, 

Feillon. 

Imhqf, 

Ibid. 

Ibid, 



Room IV. 

154. Falls of Schmadribach (p. 87) • 

155. Elijah in the Desert . 

161. Valley of Lauterbrunnen (p. 85) . 

162. Chalet in the Bernese Oberland . 

164. The Dying Husband . • 

165. Scene from '* Faust" . . , 

167. View near the Han deck (p. 88) . 

168. Cascade near Meiringen 

172. Mountain Scene. Canton of Glarus 

179. Landscape near Geneva 

180. Villa Pamfili, Rome . 

181. The School Examination 

182. The Little Friend 

185. Maternal Solicitude 

186. Saying Grace 

187. View in Rotterdam 
196. Rebecca 



• Snell, 
. Geyer, 
. Didai/, 
. Ibid, 

• Meuron, 

• Walthincu 

• CalcLtne* 

• Ibid. 

. Steffun, 

• George. 
. Meyer. 
, Anker. 
. Ibid. 

m Schimon. 

• Vauder, 
, Ulrich. 
. Imhoj. 



Before leaving the Federal Palace, the visitor should not 
omit to ascend to the roof. Of all the many sublime views of 
the Bernese Oberland, seen from various parts of the city, the 
panorama beheld from this vantage point is the grandest and 
most extensive. 

In front of the building a Fountain will be noticed^ with a 
statue representing Beme. 

At the back of the Bundes-Rathhaus isa terracei affording 
a tnountain view even finer than t\ve ptos^cl ixoxaXSck^ Master 



BERNE* lO^k 

Platz. The highest mountain (to the eye) on the left, is the 
Wetterhom. Standing alone, a little more to the right, is the 
Schreckhom. Still further to the right, at the end of a group, 
sharp and rugged, is the Finsteraarhom. Then follow the 
stupendous mass of the Eiger, Monch, and Jungfrau. 

Near the Bundes-Rathhaus is the Museum. This build- 
ing is open free from 3 to 6 p.m., on Tuesdays, Thursdays, 
and Saturdays ; and on Sundays from 10 a.m. to 12 noon. At 
other times a fee of one franc is required. 

The front of the building is adorned with statues of Swiss 
celebrities. The zoological department abounds in stufied 
bears of all sizes and ages, and also contains many other ani- 
mals, including specimens of the rare lynx and steinbok, a 
gigantic wild boar, chamois with three horns, etc. Very inte- 
resting is the noted Barry, the dog that saved fifteen lives 
during his career at St. Bernard. In the ornithological de- 
partment, the lammergeier (king of Swiss birds), is especially 
noticeable. . There is a very complete exhibition of Swiss geo- 
logical specimens, fossils, etc., with plans in relief. Some 
Roman and mediaeval antiquities of interest, form another collec- 
tion, in which the spoils from Grandson, and Morat,. are striking. 

The University, founded in 1834, is on the S. side of the 
Museum. On the otiier side is the Town Library, con- 
taining 40,000 volumes, amongst which Histories of Switzerland 
abound. The Butter Market occupies the space below 
the building. 

Close to the Bemerhof there is in course of construction an 
Academy of Arts, for painting and sculpture. It is erected 
in memory of Rudolph von Effinger, a native of Berne. 

At the end of the street leading northward from the Clock 
Tower is the Zeughaus, or Arsenal. Many of its chief 
curiosities were taken away by the French, but sufficient remain 
to make a visit interesting.' Some may find it pleasing to 
contemplate the axes, warranted to have cut off a hundred heads 
each. Here also are the halters prepared for the Swiss by Charles 
the Bold^ and many ancient specimens of arms and armour. 

There are many charitable institutions in Berne, of which 
the administration and efficacy are well spoken of. The BUrger 
Spital, or city hospital, near the Railway Station, bears the 
inscription, " Christo in pauperibus '* (To Christ in his poor). 
The Waisenhaus, or orphan asylum, is neat tha V^sj^^^xs^* 
Anew Maternal Hospital, near t]be 0\i^T^^VQrj,\%xiR»^ 
ready to be opened. 



I06 BERNE. 

The Rornhaus is a fine building near the Arsenal, used 
till 1830 as a storehouse in case of famine. An immense shield 
is conspicuous on the wall, supported (of course) by bears. 

The immense Zucthhaus (Prison and Penitentiary), and 
the Post Office, are a little to the north of the Railway Station. 

There are four bridges across the Aare, and in order to 
accommodate the new quarter of the town of Berne, which is 
rapidly rising into importance, it is proposed to build a new one 
nearly in a line with the Belle Vue Hotel and the Mint. The 
Nydeck Bridge is at the extreme eastern end of the main 
street of the town. From this bridge the town is seen spreading 
out like a fan or the tail of a bird, as far as the gates of Morat 
and Aarberg. The structure, 900 feet in length, consists of 
three arches, crossing the river Aare at an altitude of 100 feet. 

After crossing the bridge, we come upon the Baren- 
graben, or Bear Pits, opposite to the old road leading to the 
Tower and Bridge of the Porte d'en Bas. In these pits a 
few bears are kept at the expense of the State — shuffling about 
after the manner of bears in captivity, and swallowing the 
donations of visitors, all unconscious of their heraldic dignity. 
About twelve or fourteen years ago an English officer fell into 
one of the pits, whilst attempting to cross the wall between, 
and was killed before he could be rescued. 

Not far from the Bear Pits is the Rose Garden, a 
pleasant spot to visit if time allows. After leaving the bridge 
and the bears* den, the turning to the left leads to the new 
Cavalry Barracks and Military School. From 150 
to 200 horses are always kept here. Visitors can always get 
leave to inspect the stables. 

These, then, are the chief points of interest in the city of 
Beme, claiming such n6tice from the passing visitor as his time 
permits. If able to sojourn awhile in the town, so much the 
better. Its local attractions and glorious surroundings can then 
be more fully appreciated and enjoyed. The inmiediate 
environs are truly delightful, excursions to many renowned 
localities can be readily made, and it is en route to everywhere. 

Crossing the magnificent railway bridge, we find the slopes 
of the Aare charmingly utilized as Botanical Gardens. 
About half a mile further on is Schanzli, a favourite place of 
resort where refreshments can be obtained, and musical enter- 
tammenis attended. The view is magnificent, including the 
roofs and spires of Beme, and the fai-s^reading glories of the 
Oberland and Stockhom Alps. 



BERNE TO LUCEKNE. jqj 

A quarter of an hour's walk northward from the Railway 
Station^ through the Aarberg Gate, conducts to the Enge, a 
high rocky peninsula, forming a pleasant promenade and a good 
point of view. Continuing by a charming forest path through 
the Engewald, we reach the Castle of Rerchenbach. Here 
dwelt Rudolph von Erlach, who led the Bernese to victory over 
the Burgundians at Laupen, in 1399. Here also the same 
' hero was murdered by his daughter's husband, whose debts he 
had refused to pay. 

Another noted position from whence to obtain fine views, 
is the long hill to the south of the town, called the Gurten, on 
the summit of which is an inn. The panorama visible from 
this point is a hundred miles in extent, including portions of 
the Oberland, Stockhorn, Freiburg, and Jura mountains, and 
portions of the Lake of Neuchatel. 

A glance at the map will show that from the position of 
Berne, and the facilities for railway travelling in several 
directions, it is very easy for sojourners in the town to make 
excursions to a great number of places. These will be 
mentioned in connection with the routes to or from Berne. It 
will only be necessary for the visitor to find Morat, Laupen, 
Hindelbands:, Fribourg, or whatever place he wishes, in the 
index, and its connection with Berne, and its local attractions 
will be readily seen. 

Berne to Thun and Interlaken (p. 94). 

Berne by Herzogenbuchsee and Olten to Basle (p. 97). 

Berne to Bienne, Neuchatel, etc. (p. 97). 

Berne to Fribourg and Lausanne, etc. (p. 108). 

Berne to Leuk, by the Genuni Pass (p. 96). 

BERNE TO LANGNAU, ESOHOLZMATT, AND 

LUCERNE. 

(By railway 3 J hours.) 

Berne to Gumlingen junction, on the Berne and Thun RaiN 
way (see p. 96). 

From Gumlingen the rail passes, with good views of the Stock- 
horn chain on the right, to the thriving industrial town of ^Vorb, 
with its old castle, and thence by stations Tdgertschi and Konol" 
fingen, and round the base of the Homberg, to Zaziwyl, a pros- 
perous place. At Signau there is a niltiftd c^&Ni\a ^^n^ *^^ 
pleasing village. Vassxng Emmenmatty aad ccossva.^ ^^ ^\ssss>» 
and the I£is, Limgnau 1% reached. 



I08 BERNE TO LAUSANNE. 

Langnau is the chief town in the Emmenthal, an indus- 
trious and prosperous valley, some thirty miles by twelve in 
dimensions, and famous for its widely-exported cheese, its lovely 
green pastures, its picturesque wooden houses, and its fine 
cattle. 

Langnau was, until very recently, the terminus of the rail- 
way from Berne, and the remainder of the journey had to be 
accomplished by diligence in eight to ten hours. Now the 
railway is continued to Lucerne, and it is one of the most im- 
portant of the new lines lately opened in that enterprising 
country. A glance at the Railway Map will show how greatly 
it facilitates the connection between Zurich, Lucerne, Berne, 
Lausanne, and Greneva. The route is almost the same as that 
traversed by the diligence, namely, the Emmenthal and the 
Vale of Entlebuch. 

After leaving Langnau, the next important station is Es- 
cholzmatt, a rambling little town, the first in the Entlebuch. 
Schiipflieim, the chief village of the valley, was destroyed by 
fire in 1829, and since rebuilt. Many pleasant excursions may 
be made from here. The villagers in the neighbourhood are 
celebrated for their strength and skill in the national wrestling 
matches. So also are tiie people of Entlebuch, a village 
charmingly situated at the foot of the Bramegg, and having on 
the west the Napf, from the summit of which splendid views 
are obtained. Here the two torrents, the Emme and the 
Entle, unite, and add much to the picturesqueness of the place. 

Beyond Wohlhusen, or Wohlhausen, the line takes a sharp 
curve round the base of the Bramegg to Mailers, after leaving 
which station a short run brings the traveller to Lucerne, 
p. 58. 

BERNE TO LAUSANNE (BY FRIBOURG). 

(Railway, 30 miles — about 4 hours.) 

The journey is made through a fine open country, abound- 
ing with charming landscapes. Passing Bumplitz and Thdris- 
hausy and crossing the Sense river, we arrive at Flamatt. 

From Flamatt a diligence runs to Laupen (5 miles), where 
the Burgundians and their allies were defeated by the Swiss, 
under Erlach, in 1399. The commemorative tower was erected 
in i8js. 

Then stations Schmitten and Guin-Balliswyt, where the 
arice is crossed on a cast-iron viaduct, 160 l«,eX. ^t^^ '^^ 



FRIBOURG. lOQ 

water, and 1094 feet from one abutment to the other. Fribourg 
comes into view. 

The station for Fribourg is at some distance from the town. 
Omnibuses await the arrival of passengers. On approaching 
by the Suspension Bridge the view is exceedingly picturesque. 
The town, with its romantic medley of quaint houses, and 
towers, and battlements, and gateways, is finely situated on a 
steep eminence above the Sarine Valley, and forms a more 
imposing spectacle when viewed from a little distance than when 
closely explored. 

FRIBOURG. 

(Hotel, Grand Hotel Zaehringen.) 

This town is the capital of the canton of the same name, 
containing a population of 11,000, of whom 1200 are Protes- 
tants. It was founded by Duke Berthold von Zahringen in 
1 175. It is a curious town, outwardly and inwardly. Goto 
the upper part of the town, and everybody and everything is 
German 5 to the lower part of the town, and everybody and 
everything is French. It is a very hilly town 3 the streets are 
steep, and built one above the other j so that in one part the 
upper street is carried on arches of stone over the roofs of the 
houses in the street below. 

There are three things which miLst be seen in Fribourg, and 
many more which may if time permit. First, an old lime- 
tree, fourteen feet in circumference, its branches supported on 
stone pillars. It faces the Town Hall and Council Hall ; and 
as the old tree is fruitful in bearing a good story, sit down 
beside it and read the following : — 

*' When the memorable battle of Morat was being fought, 
the townspeople of Fribourg stood in the square anxiously 
waiting for tidings of how the day sped. There was one young 
fellow in the battle who remembered that the hearts of many 
of his friends and fellow-citizen^ were beating painfully in that 
time of suspense -, and as soon as the contest was over, he.i3 
from the field of blood, jaded and fatigued though he 
bear to them the joyful news that the Swiss had been vie 
Away he sped over liill and dale, and, sliding down ^ij^y 
slope, he grasped a ttvig which would nottiie^ his weiglCCVut 
came out by the roots. Rising from tkl^^jjgM, on and (m he 
sped, till he reached the square of Fr\boutg,^mifct«{^^^'KN^^^ 
and maidens, mvalids and \voraen» -were- ^?L\iWL^4^ ^^%\. 
&ces and clasped hands, waiting Ta\s ai^ipto^iXi. "te^^"^^®^ ^^^ 



HQ BERNE TO LAUSANNE. 

exhausted, the blood flowing from the wounds he had received 
on the field of battle, he could only raise his voice to shout out 
the word * Victory ! ' and fell dead in their midst. The twig, 
which he still clutched in his hand, was planted on the spot 
where he fell j and now that fine old lime-tree stands there as a 
beautiful memento of the love and courage of that gallant young 
soldier and the victory of Morat.'* This happened in 148 c. 

Then the Cathedral, a Gothic building, dating frcm 
1285 — 1500, with a fine tower 280 feet in height. The visitor 
will be struck with the remarkable bas-relief over the entrance, 
"The Last Judgment ** — an angel weighing mankind in batches, 
devils carting otf the condemned, etc., etc. The organ is one 
of the finest in the world ; there are two performances upon it 
each day, and a pleasant hour may be spent here in listening to 
its strange and marvellous music. Some wonderful wind and 
storm efiects are introduced by the organist. The bust under 
the instrument is that of j^loys Mooser^ the builder. The organ 
has 67 stops, and 7800 pipes, some of them being no less than 
32 feet in height. 

Third, the Suspension Bridge thrown across the Sarine, 
a small river, which runs through, or rather below, the city ; 
for the principal streets are 200 and 300 feet above it. This 
Suspension Bridge, the longest in Europe, has a span of 964 
feet 5 and as you stand in the centre of it, looking down into 
the wild, rocky ravine, you have one of the most striking views 
that can be seen. This bridge was complete'd in 1834, at a cost 
of nearly ^24,000. It is light and elegant, and yet amazingly 
strong. 

Across the Gotteron ravine is another bridge, 746 feet long, 
and 305 feet above the water 5 it is fastened into the solid rock, 
but looks, from its slight and delicate make, like a mere chain 
thrown from one side to the other of the gorge. 

Amongst the other objects of interest in Fribourg, we may 
enumerate the Cantonal School, which, previously to 1848, 
was a Pensionnat for 400 pupils, taught by the Jesuit fraternity. 
The Jesuit Convent, suppressed in 1847, was founded by 
Father Canisius in 1584. The Rathhaus, with its curious 
clock-tower j the statue of the Monk Gerard 3 the very perfect 
remains of ancient fortifications 3 and the general construction 
and architecture of the city. 

Leaving Fribourg by the railway, we see Mont Moleson on 
the left across the Sarine. Then stations, Matran, Neyruz, 
CotienSj Chenens, FillaZ'St.'Pierre, and Romont. The town 



BASLE TO GENEVA. J 1 1 

(population, 1600) is 2230 feet above the level of the sea. 
There is an old castle here, dating from the loth century, in- 
cluding in its construction an adapted Round Tower, similar to 
those seen in Ireland. Another Round Tower stands isolated 
outside the town. The Church was erected in 13th century. 

At Romont is the junction for Bulle (45 miles), the chief 
town of the Gruyfere cheese district. The village of Gruyer©j 
with its 9th century castle, is about two miles from Bulle. 

The next station after passing Romont — and, if the day be 
fine, catching a glimpse of the head of Mont Blanc — is Sivi- 
riez. Then Vauderens, Oron, Pal^zieux, and Chexbres. 
Hence an omnibus conveys passengers to Vevay, in about an 
hour's time (fare, i franc). Leaving Chexbres, the train darts 
through a tunnel, after which a splendid view is obtained of the 
Lake of Geneva . Grandvaux and La Conversion (for Lutry) 
are next passed ; and then, passing on to the line from Geneva, 
the train enters Lausanne (see p. 134). 

Lausanne to Greneva (p. 133). Lausanne to Villeneuve (p. 

^33)' 

BASLE TO NEUCHATEL, LAUSANNE, AND 

GENEVA. 

The new direct route, via Delemont, abounds in picturesque 
scenery. It follows the course of the Birse and Diese rivers, and 
pierces the chain of the Jura with numerous tunnels. Another 
route is via Herzogenbuchsee and Soleure. 

From Basle to Olten and Herzogenbuchsee (see p. 97). 

Herzogenbuchsee, the junction for Berne. Inquire whether 
it is necessary to change carriages. Stations at Inkwyl, SubU 
gen, and Derendingen, then, as Soleure is approached, the Hotel 
on the Weissenstein becomes conspicuous. 

Soleure (pop. 7000), in German, Solothurn, is a bright, 
clean town, the capital of the canton. It is a quaintly interest- 
ing place, of Roman origin ; for, under its name of Salodurum, 
it was a flourishing colony in very early days. It was once a 
strong fortress ; its ramparts (turned into boulevards) form an 
agreeable promenade. Fountains and statues abound. The 
Catliedral, or St. Ursus Munster, dates from 1762, when it 
replaced an earlier erection of the eleventh century. Gideon 
wringing out the Fleece, and Moses striking the Rock, form 
two striking fountains on either side of the flight of steps, lead- 
ing to the facade. St. Ursus was one of the Theban Legion. 
The Arsenal> near at hand, contains a good s\\q^ q'I ^t^:cL^^ 



112 BASLE TO GENEVA. 

Austrian, and Burgundian standards, and armour. It is the 
best collection of the kind in Switzerland. The most ancient 
building in Soleure is the Clock Tower, a rough pile of 
masonry, bearing an inscription assigning its erection to the 
fifth century b.c. It is, however, believed to be of Burgundian 
origin. At the striking of the clock there is a performance of 
automatic figures similar to that of Berne. Amongst the other 
sights of Soleure we may note the Jesuits' Church, with a 
Crucifixion by Holbein (155a), the Roman antiquities in the 
Hotel de Ville and in the Public Library, the splendid 
collection of fossils (15,000 from the Jura) and minerals, etc., 
at the Museum ; and the Franciscan Church, which possesses 
a picture by Raphael. At No. 5 in the Bieler Strasse is the 
house where the Polish patriot Koscziusko died in exile, in 181 1 . 

Among other charming walks in the vicinity of Soleure 
we may note that to the Hermitage of St. Verena, a 
pious maiden, who accompanied the Theban Legion. The 
path lies through the pretty ravine known as the St. Verenathal. 
Near the village of S. Nicholas is the Hermitage where the 
saint resisted the devil, a la St. Dunstan, on one occasion only 
escaping being carried off by clinging tightly to the rock. The 
marks of her finger-nails are still shown. In the vicinity is the 
Wengenstein, one of those immense granite boulders fre- 
quently seen on the Jura slopes, a memorial of the glacial epoch. 

But the chief attraction of Soleure to most is the Weissen- 
Stein, which rises to the height of 4213 ft., 8 miles to the north 
of Soleure. The view is more extensive than from the Rigi. 
The town of Soleure, the valley of the Aare, and the lakes of 
Neuchatel, Bienne, and Morat, and a vast assemblage of moun- 
tains, including Mont Blanc and the Jungfrau, the Schreckhorn, 
the Wetterhom, the Titlis, and the Rigi are comprised in the 
scene. The ascent of the Weissenstein is perfectly easy either 
by the long winding road or by a steep path through the woods. 
Carriages pass to and fro several times a day 5 for, as the pension 
at the summit is town property, every facility is afforded for 
reaching it. At this pension the Swiss air-cure and whey-cure 
are to be experienced in perfection, and all around are ample 
opportunities for pleasure walks and rides. The Rothe 
(4587 ft.) and the Hasenmiatt (4754 ft.), in the vicinity, afford 
even more extensive views than the Weissenstein. 

Leaving Soleure, the railway runs between the river Aare and 
tlie Jura mountains, and passes the stalionsoi Stbsachy Grencken, 
andPie^erlen to Bienne (Germ., Biel). 



NEUCHATEL. Uj 

Bienne was a free and independent town from 1250 to 
1798. Ao interesting collection of Lacustrine antiquities 
belonging to Colonel Schwab can be seen by visitors. Leav- 
ing the town to the S.£. some beautiful avenues are passed, 
and the Lake of Bienne (Germ., Bielen See) is reached* 
This is a miniature affair in comparison with the more 
celebrated Swiss lakes, being only about 10 miles in length by 
2 in breadth. From Neuveville (Germ., Neuenstadt), or, 
indeed, from any village on its banks, a boat can be hired to the 
small island of St. Pierre. Hither, in misanthropic mood, 
came J. J. Rousseau, in 1765, after being ejected from Paris and 
stoned by the street boys of Motiers. Of the peace and tran- 
quillity of this island home he has written enthusiastically. 
The room occupied by him in the little inn is still preserved as 
he left it, except that tourists innumerable have scrawled their 
names all over it. 

[From Bienne, Basle may be reached by a romantic journey 
through the defiles of the Val Moutier (Grerm., Munster Thal)J\ 

The train to Neuchatel runs along the N.W. coast of the lake, 
stopping at Twann (Fr., Douanne) and Neuvemlle. From the 
latter station, on the right, is seen the Chasseral, rising in three 
terraces to the height of 5800 ft. The view from the summit 
embraces a considerable extent of Switzerland, the Black Forest, 
the Vosges, and the Alps. 

The stations of Landeron, Cressier, ComaiLx^ and S. Blaise 
are successively passed, and then the Lake of Neuchatel comes 
into view. This lake is 24 miles in length by 5 in breadth. 

NEUCHATEL. 

(Grand Hotel du Loc aad Hotel Bellevue.) 

Neuchatel is the capital of the small canton of the same 
name, which chiefly consists of six or seven valleys amongst 
the ridges of the Jura. From being a Burgundian province in 
the eleventh century, this province has since had many masters. 
Grerman, Prussian, French, or petty local potentates have . at 
various times ruled its destinies before its final settlement as a 
canton of the Swiss Republic. 

The town of Neuchatel is pleasantly situated on the Jura 
slopes, rising from the lake, at its base, in the form of an 
amphitheatre. The general aspect of iVie '^Wa \s ^"^^aoic^'a:^ 
inviting, the streets being open and adiDAt^Vj ^^^^^^^"^^ 
pnacipal buildings substantial in ap^^eatance, ^ens^as"^^^,^^' 



114 



BASLE TO GENEVA. 



tutions of the first class abound, both in the city and in the 
surrounding localities, and it is scarcely possible to walk abroad 
without recognizing by eye and ear groups of English pupils. 

Neuch^tel is renowned for its wine and its watches. Of 
the former, both in red and white varieties^ large quantities are 
exported j the latter are produced in vast abundance, and, it 
seems, can be produced at a smaller cost here than at 
Geneva. 

The town is built at the mouth of the Seyon, which has 
been diverted from its former course, and made to pass by a 
tunnel through the rocks to the lake. On a bank of debris 
brought down from the old channel, a fine terrace skirting the 
lake, and known as the Promenade du Gymnase, has been 
constructed. This is adorned with rows of lime, chestnut, and 
other trees, in luxuriant growth. One remarkable clump of 
trees, probably 90 to 100 feet high, is to be seen near the Belle- 
vue 5 and skirting a» basin of the lake, is a magnificent grove ot 
trees, all of gigantic dimensions, under which are placed seats 
overlooking the water. On the terrace first-named is an in- 
genious contrivance for distinguishing the various mountains in 
the vicinity. A brass plate, forming half a circle, has the names 
engraved on its outer margin, and a style, fixed by a pivot, 
works from one end of the half -circle to the other 5 when the 
side of the style coincides with a line on the brass plate oppo- 
site — we will say Mont Blanc — spectator looks along the style 
and over a '' sight " something like that on a rifle, and, if the 
weather is clear, it distinctly marks the mountain we have men- 
tioned. The panorama of the lake, the Jura mountains, and the 
more distant summits of the Oberland Alps> white with snow, 
is very pleasing. 

The ScMoss, on the hill, formerly the residence af the 
princes of the province, is now used for the Government 
offices. 

The Temple, or Church, is a Gotluc building dating 
from the twelfth century. In the choir is a remarkable monu- 
ment, erected in 1372, by one of the Counts of Neuchatel» 
- comprising fifteen life-sized figures. Farel the reformer, who 
was buried on the terrace outside, and Greneral Zastrow, one of 
the Prussian Governors of the town, have also monuments in 
this building. 

The Gymnasium is the large new educational building in 
connection with which Proiessot A.gas!^YZi \i?kS Xseevi ^» tamest a 
worker^ It comprises a Museum oi 'Satoa^X. K\^ssrj^\iaK»ar, 



NEUCHATEL. I ^ r 

trine relics, etc. Open free on Sundays and Thursdays^ from 
II to 12 o'clock. At other times i franc is charged. 

In the same building is the Public Library, containing 
30,000 volumes, and a vast number of autograph letters of 
J. J. Rousseau, dating between 1760 and 1770. 

In front of the Gymnase is a statue of David Pury, originally 
a poor boy, who in the course of his life amassed a fortune of 
over four million francs, the whole of which he left to his native 
town. The cantonal Hospital was built from the fund thus 
created. 

The Pourtal6s hospital owes its origin to the munificence 
of' a private citizen. It is open to applicants of any religion 
or nationality. 

The Observatory is a recent erection for the benefit of the 
watchmakers of the town. 

Picture Gallery. In the Hotel Dupeyron, formerly 
the Palais Rougemont, is a very good collection of modern 
Swiss pictures. Admission, i franc. Sundays from i to 4, 
free. 

In the Entrance Hall is a collection of casts. 

Rooms f and 2 contain, among others — 
8. A Young Savoyard .... Bertkout. 

12. Rosenlaui Glacier (p. 81) . . . Calame, 

13. Monte Rosa (p. 164) .... Calame. 
16. A Huguenot Family surprised by 

Soldiers Girardet. 

18. Cromwell and Mrs. Clay pole • • Girardet, 

19. A Father's Blessing', . . • • Girardet. 

32. The Ne'er-do-Well Girardet. 

24. The Vintage of 1834 • • • • Grosclaude. 

32. View of Rome Meuron, 

^^. Lake of Wallenstadt (p. 47) . . Jecklin. 

37. View between Isentwald and the Faul- 

horn Meuron. 

40. Henry II. of Longueville in the Castle 

of Colombier Moritz, 

50. St. Paolo fuori le Mura, after the fire 

of 1823 Robert. 

57. A Flemish Bridal Procession in the 17th 

century Tsckoj^^ssK^^ 

In the 3rd Room are portraits, aaA. m ^^ A{(5ft. ^wKft^ 

sketches and water colours. .^^^ 

Amongst the excursions froia ISevx^cAxA^ ^^^ ^^ ^ 



21 5 BASLE TO GENEVA. 



Chaumont, — a spur of the Jura chain— is the best. There 
is a fine view of the Lakes of Neuchatel, Bienne, and Morat, 
and the towns of Soleure^ Berne> and Fribourg^ and the fertile 
country between. 

The Pierre k Bot (toadstone), is an immense mass of 
granite^ above 14,000 cubic feet, in a wood above the town, 
probably deposited by a melting iceberg, when the condition of 
things in this part of the world was very different from the 
present. 

Visits to the Grorge of the Seyon, Chan^laz with its Hydro- 
pathic establishment 5 or longer expeditions to the Creux du 
Vent or Chasseral can be undertaken by those protracting their 
stay at NeuchHtel. Steamboat expeditions to Yverdon oi 
Morat can also be made. 

bienne-chaux-de-fondsandneuohAtel 

The traveller wishing to vary the above route and make a 
visit to La Chaux-de-Fonds, may do so by taking a train thence 
from Bienne, and after visiting Le Locle, proceed to Neuchatel. 

Or the visit to Chaux-de-Fonds may be made (as is more 
frequently the case), from Neuchatel to Le Locle, either by 
railway 2i hours, or by diligence, 4 hours. The best excursion 
is, rail to Chaux-de-Fonds and Le Locle, and diligence from 
thence by Les Fonts to Neuchatel. 

The views from the railway between Neuchatel and 
Hants Greneveys are magnificent. 

Stations, Corcelles, Chamhrelien^ Cqffrane. 

Hauls Geneveys. The views from here are the finest 
on the line, and Mont Blanc is seen to perfection. Passing 
through a long tunnel, Convers is reached, and the next station 
is La Ghaux-de-Fonds (Hotel de la Fleur de Lis), which 
is a large scattered town, resembling an assemblage of villages, 
in a bleak bare valley, over 3000 feet above the sea, and very 
imperfectly supplied with water. The inhabitants (about 
18,000), are almost exclusively engaged in the manufacture of 
watches and clocks, which is carried on in the dwellings of the 
workpeople, each of whom devotes himself to the manufacture 
of one particular piece of the machinery. 

There are always to be found commercial travellers in the 
hotels, a brisk trade being done here. Sometimes as many as 
200,000 watches are manufactured here in the course of the year. 

There is not much beyond the inspection of the industries 
d the people to detain the tourist 



NEUCHATEL TO LAUSANNE. 



117 

An uninteresting run past Eplatures^ and the traveller 
arrives at 

Locle (Hotel Jura), another town almost as populous 
a& La Chaux-de-Fonds, virhere nearly all the men are watchmakers, 
and the majority of the women are employed in the manufacture 
of lace. A tunnel through the limestone rock forms a channel 
for the Bied, which in former days inundated the plain, and 
worked much havoc. The Bied, below its exit from the tunnel, 
leaps down a chasm 100 feet deep, and joins the Doubs, the 
water of the fait being utilised for turning the mills. 

The Saut du Doubs is quite a curiosity in its way, and 
should be visited by the tourist with leisure, as the scenery 
around is very beautiful, and the fall itself is picturesque. 

From Locle by diligence, via Les Fonts, Montmollm, Cor* 
celles, and Peseux, to Neuckdtel, 

FROM NEUOHATEL TO LAUSANNE 

the railway crosses the river Seyon, and then enters a tunnel. 
On emerging, be careful to notice the charming prospect of 
lake and mountain. Near the Castle of Beauregard, a lofty 
viaduct spans the ravine of Serri^res, and we rapidly reach 
Auvernier, Here the Pontarlier railway diverges, and after 
passing Colomhier (noted for its white wine), we arrive at 
Boudry, the birthplace of Marat, at some distance from its 
station. 

Boudry is the place for the ascent of the Creux dn Vent, 
where a strange phenomenon is to bo seen. There is a basin 
like a crater at the top of the mountain, and when the weather 
changes, clouds of vapour roll within it, but do not quit the 
hollow. A gunshot produces a rattling echo like a volley of 
musketry. An idea of the phenomenon in miniature is pro- 
duced by filling a tumbler with smoke from a cigar, and 
witnessing the action of the atmosphere upon it, causing it to 
surge and roll like the sea. 

At Bevcdx we again reach the lake, and follow its banks to 
Yverdon. At the next station, Gorgier St. Auhin, we see the 
small town of Estavayer on the opposite bank of the lake. 
Passing Vauxmarctis on the right, with castle, and chUteaa 
of La Lance, formerly a monastery, on the same side, we 
reach Concise, and then Grandson, At Grandson there is a 
picturesque old castle, overgrown with ivy. The town is 
memorable for its siege, by Charles the Bold, in iW^^ '^W:^ 



Il8 PONTARLIER TO LAUSANNE, BY VALLORBES. 

the populace were cruelly massacred after being induced to 
surrender by promises of safety. Roused by this atrocity, the 
Swiss collected their forces, rushed on the Burgundians^ and 
totally routed them. A collection of antiquities is kept at the 
old castle. 

Skirting the S.W. end of the lake, we have fine views of 
the Jura mountains, and crossing the river Thiele, speedily reach 
Yverdon. At Yverdon, Pestalozzi lived from i8oj to 1825, 
and elaborated his practical methods of teaching " the young 
idea how to shoot. The ancient castle was the scene of his 
labours. It now contains a Museum, with Lacustrine curiosities, 
Roman antiquities, a Town Library, and Public Schools. 

There is much picturesque scenery in the neighbourhood, 
affording many delightful walks, or drives, or longer excursions. 
The Chasseron may be visited by way of the town of St. Croix, 
which annually produces 50,000 musical boxes; also the 
Aiguille de Beaulmes^ or Mont Suchet, both over 5000 feet. 

Yverdon is a very good place to stay at for those who wish 
to explore the scenery of the Val d* Orbe. This excursion can 
be effected by taking the train to Chavomay (15 minutes), and 
then taking the diligence to the old Burgundian city of Orbe, 
or by going on to Chavomay and then taking the branch line by 
La Sarraz to the Val Orbe district. 

From Yverdon the railway passes along the Thiele Valley, 
with fine views of the Jura, and other mountain scenery. The 
stations, of Ependes, Chavornay, and EcUpens la Sarraz are 
passed, and then Cossonay, on its wood-embowered hill. Near 
Bussigny is a branch line to Morges and Geneva (p. 133), 
that to the left leading to Lausanne (p. 134). 

Lausanne to Geneva (p. 13 3). 

PONTARLIER TO LAUSANNE, BY VALLORBES. 

Travellers between Paris, Dijon and Switzerland, or vice versa, 
will find the New line of Railway from Pontarlier to Lau- 
sanne of great convenience. Formerly the tourist had to travel 
to Neuch^tel, and thence to Lausanne, the journey being two sides 
of a triangle. The new line is the base of the triangle, and it 
is an easy problem to solve how great a sating is thus effected. 

The line is a continuation of that from Cossonay (see above) 
to Vallorbes, and will no doubt be one of the most popular of 
the many new Swiss railways. 

Leaving Pontarlier^ a Frendi town on the Doubs, where 



LAUSANNE TO MARTIGNY. 



119 



passengers' luggage is examined^ the line for a short distance 
runs in the same course as that 'o Neuch^tel. It then 
diverges southward^ and continues^ tlirough pleasant scenery, 
to Jougne. 

Vallorbes, the former terminus of the line, is a consider- 
able village, and its inhabitants are nearly all watchmakers. 
Romainmotier has an old Abbey Church, dating from 750. 
Margaret of Austria was married here to Philibert, Duke of 
Savoy (1501). 

lla Sarraz, a well-to-do village, with a fine old castle, is 
the last station on the line, which soon after joins that from 
Neuchsltel to Lausanne, and proceeds to Cossonay (p. 11 8), and 
thence to Lausanne. 

LAUSANNE TO MARTIGNY. 

From Lausanne the railway runs through the Lavaux vine- 
yards, and past the coal-mine at Pully to Yevey, and then 
past the stations of Clarens, Vernex-Montreux, Veytaux- 
Ckillon (for Chillon) to Villeneuve. For further details of 
this enchanting district, see the Tour of the Lake of Greneva, 

p. ^33- 

At Villeneuve the route enters the valley of the Rhone, 

about four miles wide, with grand scenery on either side^ 
which can, however, be much better appreciated from the road 
than from the railway. Through a large tract of alluvial soil 
the Rhone pours its yellow waters to the lake — ^singularly differ- 
ent in hue from the river that leaves the lake at Greneva. This 
alluvial land has gradually encroached on the lake ; so that the 
Roman station of Port Valais, once on the shore/ is now a mile 
and a half from it. 

The first station after Villeneuve is Roche, The top of 
Mount Yvome was thrown down by an earthquake in 1J845 a 
white wine of good repute is produced on the scene of the 
catastrophe. 

Aigle (Rom., Aguila — Hotel Victoria), is built of black 
marble from the neighbouring quarries of St. Triphon. From 
this spot a fine excursion can be made to the beautiful scenenr 
of the Val des Ormonts. Another trip is to Yillard, a small 
village, with several pensions, at a height of over 4000 feet, 
and with splendid views of the Valley of the Rhone. 

Near Ollon S, Triphon station will be noted a RomatL 
Beacon-tower, 60 feet high, on a small wooded YuiW* 



120 LAUSANNE TO MARTIGNY. 

BEX 

(Hotel des Bains), 

on the Avengon, is an interesting place> with plenty of accom- 
modation in the way of hotels, pensions, and baths. It is a 
noted place for the milk and grape cures, and also for bathing in 
salt water from the mines. The pension-studded environs are 
charming. The most popular excursion is to Devens and 
B^vieux, to inspect the salt magazines, evaporating houses, etc., 
and also to explore the excavations from which the rock-salt is 
obtained. One of these is a gallery cut into the mountain, 
nearly 7000 feet in length, 7 feet high and j feet broad. 

From Bex the railway nears the Rhone, and crosses it by a ' 
wooden bridge, to unite with the line from Bouveret. There is 
a fine view of St. Maurice before dashing into the tunnel that 
conducts to the station just beyond the town. 

ST. MAURICE 

(Roman, A^aunum) stands hard by where the Dent de Morcles 
on the east, and the Dent du Midi on the west, closely approach, 
leaving a gorge only just wide enough for the road and river 
to pass. At this spot is a bridge of the 15th century, reach- 
ing from the base of one mountain to the base of the other, 
with a single arch of seventy feet. The view from the bridge is 
really superb, but is missed unless the visitor arrives by road 
from Bex. The old town, which was fortified previous to the 
Sonderbund War, stands beside the Rhone, with dark cliffs 
lowering behind. 

The ancient Abbey is one of the oldest religious houses in 
Switzerland. Its treasury contains many elaborate specimens 
of ecclesiastical art in gold, silver, and precious stones. Queen 
Bertha's famous chalice, and a celebrated episcopal staff of gold, 
elaborately carved with small figures, and a noted Saracenic 
vase, presented by Charlemagne, are amongst the most striking. 
There are also a curious MS. of the Gospels, the gift of the 
same prince, and various other curiosities. 

The Chapel of Yerolliaz, covered with rough frescoes, 
is supposed to mark the site of the martyrdom of the cele- 
brated Theban Legion, and their leader St. Maurice, whose 
name the town now bears. This legion consisted of 6000 
men, who had become Christians. In a.d. 302, with the rest 
0/ the Roman army^ the Theban Legion, one of the most cou- 



VERNAYAZ, 12 1 

rageous in the world, crossed the Alps. On arrival at this spot, 
Maximian commanded the whole army to offer sacritice to 
Jupiter. The Theban Legion refused to take part. For so 
doing, every tenth man was mercilessly slain. A second com- 
mand^ and consequent refusal was followed by a second deci- 
mation. Again and again the terrible ordeal was repeated, till 
the whole legion^ except a few who escaped, and became her- 
mits, had perished, rather than prove false to the faith of their 
Redeemer. 

Not far from this traditional spot, the visitor may get a 
splendid view by toiling up over four hundred steps to the her- 
mitage of Notre Dame de Sax. 

The Baths of Lavey (hot sulphurous springs) are on the 
opposite bank of the Rhone. 

The Grotte aux Fees is a stalactite cavern of immense 
length, containing a lake and waterfall^ a short walk from the 
station. 

The next station after leaving St. Maurice is Evionnaz. The 
village marks the site of Epaunum, destroyed by a torrent of 
mud in ^6^. Near the same locality a similar stream of mud 
descended to the valley in 1835, bringing down numerous 
blocks of limestone, etc. As it crept slowly down like a lava- 
stream, no lives were lost, but much property was destroyed. 

Near La Barma village are the Falls known as the Pisse- 
vache, about 280 feet in height, and formed by the descent of 
the Sallenche from the Glaciers of the Dent du Midi. Above 
the fall, a fine view is obtained of the Glacier of Mont Velan 
(12,350 feet), connected with the Great St. Bernard. 

VERNAYAZ 

(Hotel des Gorges de Trient) is the station for visiting the 
Pissevache (li miles), and also the Gorge du Trient (J mile 
beyond Vernayaz). A visit to this imposing ravine, with its 
rocky precipices, recesses never penetrated by the sun, foaming 
torrent, waterfall, and wonderful echoes, is strongly recom- 
mended (entrance fee, i franc). 

[From Vernayaz Chamouny may be reached by the Valley 
of the Trient. The path zigzags up through chestnut woods to 
Salvan (3035 feet). Close by is the Cascade du DalUy, 
which is worth visiting, but with proper vq&^cXvscl ^\ >Xs» ^jox^ 
roundin^5, will add two or three hours to \!laft ex.^^^vC\cJc^. ^^ooi. 
SaJrsn the ivute forward leads by tlie ¥d\s oi ^'SinLt^^^^^^^^ 



122 BOUVERET TO MARTIGNY. 

on through the Grorge of the Triquent, with the steep slopes 
thickly clothed with pines. Passing Triquent (3261 feet), and 
Finhaut (4058 feet), the path then descends to Chatelard, 
on the T^e Noire route (see p. 158). This cross route will 
occupy about four hours, exclusive of time spent at the Cascade 
du Dailly.] 

Leaving Vemayaz, the Castle of La Bathiaz is passed. It 
was built by Peter of Savoy in 1260, and was long a fortress of 
the Bishops of Sion 3 but the Round Tower is of much earlier 
and unknown date. The Dranse is crossed, and Martigny is 
reached. 

MARTIGNY. 

(Hotel Clerc.) 

Martigny is an uninteresting town in itself^ though its situa- 
tion as to surrounding scenery is fine. It is an important and 
busy tourist centre, from its position at the junction of the 
routes from Chamouny (see p. 157), and the Great St. Bernard 
(see p. I j6), with the routes from Geneva to the Simplon, etc. 
(see p. 170) Martigny has been twice nearly destroyed by inun- 
dations from the Dranse, the last occasion being in 18 18. Of 
the latter calamity, evidences on the walls of some of the build- 
ings are still apparent. The bridge is one of the specimens of 
the roofed wooden bridges of Switzerland ; the monastery sends 
its inmates in their turns to keep guard at the Hospice of St. 
Bernard. 

From Martigny, or from Saxon les Bains, the Pierre k 
Voir ridge (8124 feet) maybe ascended in five hours ; descent, 
three hours. The descent to Saxon by sledges is performed in 
less than half an hour. The panorama of the Alps, from the 
summit is very fine, including the Jungfrau (E.), the Great 
Moveron (N.), the Dent du Midi, the Aiguilles Rouges (W.), 
the Aiguille du Tour, the Great St. Bernard, Mount Velan, the 
Great Combin (S.), and many other intervening heights. 

Visitors not intending to go from Martigny to Chamouny 
should, if time allows, make an excursion at least to the Forclaz 
(see p. 159). 

BOUVERET TO MARTIGNY. 

From Bouveret (see p. 142) the railway passes over ground 
formed since the time of the Romans, lo Port 7al<us, once a 
resJ port on the shore of the lake. Porte du Sex \s -ossfX. 



BOUVERET TO MARTIGNY. , 23 

reached, a narrow gap between the mpuntain and the river, 
formerly the fortified gate of the Canton of Valais. 

Youvry stands where the unfinished Stockalper Canal, 
commenced in 1740* joins the Rhone. In passing Evionnaz, 
notice the view of Yvome, the Diablerets, and Oldenhorn, on 
the opposite side of the Rhone Valley. Monthey is at the mouth 
of the Yal d'lUiez. Up this delightful valley, well stocked 
with rare plants, for the delectation of botanists, a fine excursion 
can be made to Champ^ry. Hence the Dent du Midi can be 
ascended. 

Near Monthey are some huge boulders, in a chestnut wood, 
evidently deposited by a glacier. Among them is the celebrated 
rocking-stone^ the Pierre Adzo. 

After leaving Monthey, the mountains converge towards the 
river, and the rail from Villeneuve is joined before entering the 
tunnel leading to St. Maurice. 

St. Maurice to Martigny (see p. I2i), 



PMk «^ 






^eirek^ 



German^ Genf. French^ Geneve. lialian, Ginevra. 

Hotels. — Hotel de la Metropole; Grand Hotel de Russie et 
Anglo- Americaine (with magnificent views) ; Hotel du 
Lac. (These Hotels are admirably situated in the best 
part of Geneva.) Cook's Tourist Office, po, Rue du 
Rhone^ adjoins the Hotel du Lac. 

Theatres.— Ancien Theitre, Place Neuf 3 Theatre des Vari6- 
t6s. Rue Levrier. 

The Post Office is on the Quai de la Coulouvrenifere 
(7 a.m. to 8 p.m.). The Telegraph Office is on the first 
floor (7 a.m. to 9 p.m.). 

The Passport Office, Hotel de Ville, No. 28 (9 a.m. to 
^ p.m. 3 Sundays, 9 a.m. to i p.m.). 

The English Consul's Office is at the General Post 
Office 5 that of the United States Consul, 2, Rue de la 
Paquise. 

Carriages wait on the various Places. The coachmen 
must give a printed card, with number, name, and address, and 
the local taritF. 

Omnibuses run to Carouge, S. Julien, Momix Fernay, 
and^ in the season^ to the Voirons. 

A Tramcar runs to Carouge, starting from the Place 
Neuve, and another to Chene, from the Cours de Rive. 

Steamboats start for the northern and southern banks 
of the Lake from the pier beside the Jardin Anglais. The 
express boats from the pier close by the Hotel de Russie. Ex- 
cellent provisions on all the boats. 

Diligences from the Grand Quai, Place du Rhone, and 
Zeon (/'Or. To Chamouny, once daily. To Sixt, once a-day. 
To Thonon, twice daily. 



GENEVA. 



125 



PRINCIPAL SIGHTS, AND TIMES FOR SEEING 

THEM. 

Academical Museum. — Sundays, 1 1 a.m. to i p.m. 5 Thursdays, 

I to 3 p.m. 5 p. 130. 
Arsenal. — By permission from Military Office, Hotel de Ville j 

p. 129. 
Ath^n^ (near Rue Beauregard). — Exhibition cf Pictures. 
Biblioth^que Publique. — 11 a.m. to 4 p.m. 5 p. 129. 
Birthplace of Rousseau. — p. 129. 
Botanic Garden. — Free all day; p. 129. 
Bridge of Mont Blanc. — p. 127. 
Cathedral. — ^ franc to concierge ; p. 128. 
Hotel de Ville. — ^p. 129. 
House of Calvin. — p. 128. 

English Garden, and other Promenades, Quays, etc. — p. 127. 
Observatoire. — First Thursday in month, 4 to 5 p.m. 5 p. 128. 
Rath Museum. — Free on Thursdays, from 11 a.m. to 3 p.m. 

At other times a gratuity to the guardian ; p. 129. 
Relief of Mont Blanc. — Daily, from 11 a.m. to 3 p.m. A 

small contribution required, except on Sundays and 

Thursdays; p. 127. 
Zoological Museum of the Alps. — Daily, 7 a.m. to 6 p.m. 
New Opera-house constructed on the same plan as the one at Paris. 
Geneva is the most thickly populated town in Switzerland, 
although it is only the capital of the smallest of the cantons ; 
population, 62,600. The river Rhone separates the town into 
two parts, and this natural division has almost as naturally sepa- 
rated the inhabitants into two classes, the Quartier St. Gervais 
being chiefly occupied by folk of the poorer sort. The city, like 
many others on the Continent, is being rapidly transformed 5 
progress and improvement are noticeable everywhere, both in 
and around the place. The railways which concentrate here 
have wrought great changes ; for all around acres of fortifica- 
tions have been cleared away to make room for beautiful pri- 
vate residences, and public buildings, and institutions. The 
chief manufacture of the town is watches, of which about 
100,000 are turned out every year. In the production of these 
an amazing quantity of gold, silver, and piecVoMS ^\.cpCL'iVw'5»'av"^^^ 
use of. The visitor will find splendid as>sot\ss\'et^ cJv ^"^^^^ 
and jewellery in some of the shops oi Geuev^i* 



1 26 GENEVA. 

Geneva and its lake have an interesting and eventful history, 
of which, of course, .only the most pronjiinent details can be 
briefly glanced at here. Passing over the ages when the mas- 
todon and his compeers were evidently lords of the rich tropical 
luxuriance which then characterized this district, we find the 
mysterioiis tribes of the Age of Stone dwelling on the shores of 
the lake, and leaving memorials of their existence in the piles 
and stakes that supported their rude huts. Then, as history 
dawns, come the Helvetians and Allobroges, who have left 
weapons, and chariots, and Druidical monuments in evidence. 
For a time mighty Rome asserted her sway in these regions ; 
then, as Rome decayed, Teutonic tribes conquered or assimi- 
lated the Gallo Roman element, which, however, has always 
been prominent in this part of Switzerland to the present time. 
How Burgundians and Franks occasionally wrested these fair 
regions from each other we cannot stay to tell. In 1033 the 
Burgundian Empire broke up, and these States became absorbed 
into the German Empire. And now Greneva and Lausanne 
slowly ripened for free institutions and Protestantism, whilst 
the country districts of Vjaud were still intensely feudal and 
Romanist. 

Greneva became a town of the German Empire, governed 
by a Prince Bishop. By continuous struggling, the Genevese 
contrived to reduce the episcopal power to a minimum, and to 
a large extent governed themselves. Meanwhile, another dan- 
ger threatened ; the neighbouring Dukes of Savoy managed to 
draw Vaud from its allegiance to the Empire, and longed to 
obtain Gtenev^ also. They got scions of their own house 
appointed by the Pope to the Grenevese bishopric, and much 
oppression, and strife, and discord resulted for some two hun- 
dred and fifty years. At length, to throw off the yoke that was 
growing intolerable, the burghers of Geneva allied themselves, 
in 1530* with Berne and Fribourg. It was about this time that 
the patriot Bonnivard was seized by the Duke of Savoy, and im- 
prisoned in the dungeons of Chillon for six years (p. 141). Fierce 
war now raged between the Duke and the gallant burghers. 
In 1536, by the aid of Berne, Geneva was freed, Chillon taken, 
and Bonnivard and his companions released. In 1580 the 
struggle was renewed, and raged till 1602. In that year the 
event known as ^ Hie Escalade," a final attehipt to take Greneva, 
failed. Savoy now accepted the situation, and left Geneva to 
Itself, growing and prospering, and bacVLfid \v^ Vxy ^ ^^® ^®" 
formed Countries ot Europe. 



GENEVA. J 27 

The Reformed Countries might well be interested in Geneva, 
for here Calvin had taught from 1543 till 1564, and made the 
town memorable for ever in the history of religion. The tour- 
ist, as he stands by that small square stone in the cemetery 
bearing the initials, "J. C./* will think of the mighty forces 
that have been put in motion through that man*s work, and of 
the fruit of seed sown in troublous times in the good town of 
Geneva. 

In 1 7 12 Jean Jacques Rousseau was bom at (Jeneva, and 
has stamped the impression of his genius on much of the 
surrounding scenery. 

Geneva was made a province of France in 1798, under the 
name of Leman; it again, however, became free in 18 14, and 
joined the Swiss Confederation. In 1846 the aristocratic 
Government gave place to a democratic one, and since then 
affairs have gone smoothly. 

The sights of Geneva can be readily seen in a single 
day. Passing from the Place in front of the Railway Sta- 
tion (where the large Hospice des Orphelins is a con- 
spicuous object), along the Rue des AJpes, and turning up the 
Rue Levrier, we reach the English Church, a small but 
elegant building, consecrated by the Bishop of Winchester in 
1853. Thence the Rue du Mont Blanc will bring us to the 
Pontdu Mont Blanc, completed in 1863. There the visi- 
tor obtains a good general view of the city, with its broad quays 
along the banks of the blue and rushing Rhone. But the dis- 
tant view is very striking, as from this bridge is obtained one of 
the best possible views of the Mont Blanc chain, in some re- 
spects eclipsing that from Chamouny . Between this bridge and 
the next, the Pont des Bergues, is a small island, called the lie 
de J. J. Rousseau. It contains a statue of that writer by 
Pradier, At the other end of the Pont du Mont Blanc (left 
bank) is an open place, where stands the National Monu- 
ment, a bronze group by Dorer of Helvetia and Geneva. It 
commemorates the union of Geneva with the Swiss Republic. 

Close at hand is the Jardin Anglais, a pleasant and 
attractive promenade. Concerts and f^tes take place here during 
the summer months. In a small building in the garden is a 
Relief of Mont Blanc, the finest model in Switzerland ol 
this celebrated group. On Sundays and T\\\«^^V5^ \\. V5» ^sf^Rsa. 
free from 11 to 3 $ at other times tVie ad\mssvoTv.\&^V^ ^^^^^^ 
Jibe model is carved in lime-wood, tYie arXisX., Seu^ , Vwv^^^«!^ 



128 GENEVA. 

ten years engaged upon it. From this garden may be seen, 
standing just above the waters of the lake, the Pierres du Niton, 
said to have been used as Roman altars for the worship of Nep- 
tune. By some they are considered to be portions of a harder 
rock than the bed of the lake, from which surrounding softer 
materials have been washed away ; others assign them a glacial 
origin. 

The Quai de Rive will conduct us to the Church of 
S. Joseph and the Hall of the Reformation. The latter 
was erected by public subscription in memory of Calvin, its 
chief use being for lectures, etc. 

The Boulevard Helvetique stretches across the more modem 
part of the town. In the vicinity are the School Of Gym- 
nastics, the Observatory, and the Greek Church. The 
latter is an edifice in the Russian style, with a gilded dome 3 it 
is noted for its exquisite music. 

North of the Rue de la Fontane, is the court of the Cathe- 
dral. This edifice, dedicated to S. Pierre, dates from a.d. i i 24, 
and is a fine example of the Romanesque style. The Corinthian 
Porch, added by AJfieri at the commencement of the present cen- 
tury, is an incongruous blemish. The interior displays some 
fine wood carving in the stalls, and some stained glass windows, 
and several monuments of interest. That of the Duke de 
Rohan and bis wife, Margaret de Sully, and their son Tancred, 
is worthy of notice. Rohan was leader of the Protestants in the 
reign of Louis XIII., and was killed at Rheinfelden in 1638. 
On two sculptured lions rests a black marble sarcophagus, above 
which is a statue of the Duke in plaster, the original one of 
marble having been destroyed in the time of the French Revo- 
lution of 1798. The grave of Jean de Brognier, once Presi- 
dent of the Council of Constance, is marked by a black tomb- 
stone in the nave. The monument to Agrippa d'Aubigne, 
erected by the town in grateful remembrance of his services 
whilst in exile at Geneva, will be noticed in one of the aisles. 
He was a favourite of Henri Quatre, and grandfather of Madame 
de Maintenon. But perhaps to many, more interesting than 
any of these pretentious monuments, as a memorial of the illus- 
trious dead, will be the Canopy of the Pulpit. It is the same 
which hung over Calvin when the Genevese burghers crowded 
the Cathedral, and drank in the Truth of Grod from bi^ im- 
passiontd lips. 

Close by the Cathedral, at No. ii,B:vie des Chanoines, is 

d!ie house where Calvin lived lot TivaftVeeri ^^?Lt^,«A 



GENEVA. 126 

where, in 1J64, he died in the arms of the devoted Beza. 
Turning from thence up the Rue de S. Pierre, we come shortly 
to the Arsenal. Here are preserved many specimens of 
mediaeval arms and accoutrements of the Swiss. The Duke of 
Rohan's armour is shown -, also some scaling ladders, and other 
memorials of the Duke of Savoy's abortive "Escalade" in 
1602. At the end of the Rue de S. Pierre is the Hotel de 
Yille, a good-sized, heavy building in the Florentine style, the 
square tower dating from the 15th century. In this building an 
inclined plane takes the place of a staircase, so that it was pos- 
sible to enter the Council Chamber on horseback. In the Salle 
de la Reine are some fine pictures. It will be remembered that 
this edifice is associated with the history of our own time ; for 
here in 1872 sat the Arbitration Commissioners on the Alabama 
Claims. In front of the Hotel de Ville, in 1762, the Emile of 
Rousseau was burnt by the common hangman. Now the city 
counts his fame and glory as her own. 

In the Grand Rue, at No. 40, is the house in which 
Rousseau was born. The house formerly shown as his 
birthplace, at No. 27, Rue Rousseau, was the abode of his 
grandfather. 

In or near the Place Neuve are two or three objects of 
interest. The Musee Rath owes its foundation to the 
Russian General Rath, who was a citizen of Geneva. It 
contains some good paintings, i.e., some landscapes by Salvator 
Rosa, some pictures by the Swiss artists Diday and Calame, 
and the Death of Calvin, by Homung, There are also some 
beautiful plaster casts by Pradier, and a collection of enamels. 
The adjacent Conservatoire de Musique was founded 
through the liberality of a Genevese, M. Bartholony. Close by 
is the Botanic Garden, founded by the celebrated De 
Candolle in 18 16, and memorable for the horrible scenes enacted 
here by the Republicans in 1 794. 

Opposite the Botanical Gardens is the Acadbmie, a fine 
building, erected in 1871. It contains the Bibliotheque 
Publique, which owes its origin to Bonnivard, whose library 
formed the nucleus of the present collection (p. 129). It con- 
tains more than 73,000 volumes, and an immense number of 
MSS. Amongst these are autograph letters of Calvin, Beza, 
Luther, Rousseau, S. Vincent de Paul, etc., documents of the 
Council of BMe, a MS. volume of tlve 'W2XAfexiiva».^> ^* "^v^^^ 
Lecon^'* aad many other unique c\it\os\Uei&» 'l^i^'et^ vs* ''^'^^ "^ 
coIJectJon of precious miniatures* In tVi\s \tLS>C\X\x\\o^ ^^ "^^^ 



IjO GENEVA. 

see, amongst .the portraits one picture which is a sad reminder 
of the intolerance so often mixed with earnest belief. It is a 
picture of Servetus, the Spanish Unitarian, condemned by Cal- 
vin. It bears the label, " Burnt at Geneva, to the honour and 
glory of God.*' In the same building is the Academical 
Museum, containing the geological collection of De Saus- 
sure and the zoological collections of Boissier and Neckar, 
etc. There is also a collection of medals and antiquities. 

The Eglise de la Madeleine, in the Place of the same 
name, is the oldest religious edifice in the city, dating from the 
loth century. The doctrines of the Reformation were first 
taught in this church in i J34. One of the favourite Protestant 
places of worship in Geneva is the Temple St. Gervais, in 
the Rue du Corps Saint, where, on Sundays, the most popular 

greachers may be heard. It contains the tomb of the seventeen 
eroes of the Escalade. The Roman Catholic Church of 
Notre Dame, in the Place Comavin, was commenced in iSji, 
and dedicated to the Immaculate Virgin in 1859. Pope Pius IX. 
presented the statue of the Virgin Mary, by ForzanL The 
windows are from designs by Claudius Lavergne, 

We have enumerated the chief objects in which the tourist 
is likely to be interested. There are, of course, other churches, 
municipal buildings, fountains, etc., the nature of which will 
readily be ascertained by the inquiring visitor. 

With a few exceptions, the streets of Geneva are neither 
imposing nor picturesque. The quays, however, are broad and 
handsome, and afford pleasant and much-frequented prome- 
nades. The terrace near the Town Hfall, known as La 
Treille, affords a splendid prospect; and parallel with the 
Botanic Gardens is a pleasant walk under a fine avenue of trees, 
called Les Bastions. The Plaine de Plainpalais is the 
Champ de Mars of Geneva ; it is pleasantly surrounded with 
trees and houses. The Corraterie was anciently the rampart 
where the "Escalade" of 1602 was tried, and failed. A fountain 
in the Rue des AUemands commemorates this efvent. In the 
Cemetery of Plainpalais will be found the supposed grave of 
Calvin, already alluded to, and also the graves of Sir Himiphrey 
Davy and the great botanist, De CandoUe. 



GENEVA. 



ENVIRONS OF GENEVA. 



131 



In addition to excursions on the lake (to be mentioned pre- 
sently), several pleasant walks and drives can be enjoyed in the 
neighbourhood of Geneva. Amongst places most visited is the 
Confluence of the Rhone and Arve, a little below the 
island where the eagles (heraldic emblem of the canton) are 
kept in a cage. It is very curious to watch the two rivers as 
they meet at the junction, but do not blend for a considerable 
distance ; the Rhone, a deep blue, which gives you the idea that 
anything white steeped in it must come out dyed 5 and the 
Arve, a thick, dirty white, struggling side-by^side, until at 
length they merge into a mottled mass of waters. Voltaire's 
villa, Les Delices, can be viewed on the way to the Confluence. 

Greneva abounds in beautiful suburbs and environs, and 
no difficulty will be experienced in reaching them by those 
having time at their disposal. Travellers with limited time 
should secure one of the open carriages on the quays, and drive 
round to the niost picturesque spots. The coachmen are accus- 
tomed to such drives, and can be trusted to make the selection 
according to the time the visitor can spare. 

We will just enumerate a few of the chief points of interest: 
Secheron, with villa of Sir Robert Peel. Varemb6, where the 
Empress Josephine, and subsequently Lola Montez, resided. 
Pr6gny, with fine villa of M. Rothschild j open by cards 
from the hotels, on Sundays and Thursdays, from 12 to 3. 
the Petit Sacconnex, with the finest cedars in Europe, about 
100 feet in height, and a dozen feet in circumference. The 
Grand Sacconnex, from which splendid views of Mont 
Blanc, etc., are obtained. 

On the Savoy side : the Campagne Diodati, residence 
of Byron in i8i6j the promenades of the Bois de Fron- 
tinex ; the Genevese holiday-makers* resort at Montalegre. 
A special excursion on the Savoy side should be made, if 
possible, to Mont Saleve (4527 ft.), from which a grand 
panorama of the lake and adjacent cantons of Geneva and 
V^ud is beheld. Half a day must be allowed. Cost for 
two-horse vehicle and driver to the Little and Great SaBve, 
28 francs. 

Fernex, in France^ is distant only 5 miles from Geneva* 
Here Voltaire lived, and built the cbxiici^ Vi>i3a. ^^ vq&w.^<ns«^» 
** Deo erexit VoJtaine." Here is tbe gM^eti ^\vet^ V'^ ^^ *^ 
compose; also. Us bed, arm-chait, etc. •, «sA ^^ xaacoa^^ssossi^ 



132 GENEVA. 

which was intended by the Marchioness de Villette to contain 
his heart. 

The Perte du Rhone, where the river dives beneath 
the rocks (10 minutes from Bellegarde station) ; the immense 
French fortifications, known as the Fort de I'Ecluse (half 
an hour from Collonge station 5 the splendid Suspension 
. Bridge of La Caille, over a gorge 700 ft. in depth, which 
can be visited by the diligence which runs along the road to 
Annecy, are within excursion distance from Greneva. 

Les Voirons, a charming excursion, can be reached by 
omnibus (p. 124). 

THE LAKE OF GENEVA. 

(Locus Lemanus of the Romans.) 

The Lake of Geneva is the largest in Switzerland, being on 
the north shore 56 miles long, and on the south 44 j it is in 
shape like a crescent $ its surface is 1230 ft. above the sea level, 
and its depth from 300 to 600 ft. The widest part is near 
Lausanne, where it is 8 miles across 5 and the extreme beauty 
of its scenery is between Villeneuve and Ouchy. The colour 
of the water is blue 5 that of other Swiss lakes being green. 
It has been sung about, written about, preached about 5 and to 
select what has been said and sung would fill a large volume. 
Byron is always quoted, and deservedly, as he is, par excellence, 
the poet of the lake. Everybody knows the lines — 

^ Clear, placid Leman ! thy contrasted lake, 
With the wild world I dwelt in, is a thing 
Which warns me, with, its stillness, to forsake 
£arth*8 troubled waters for a purer spring. 
This quiet sail is as a noiseless wing 
To yrak me firom distraction." 

And the lines — 

** Lake Leman woos me with its crystal face. 
The mirror where the stars and mountains view 
The stillness of their aspect in each trace 
Its clear depth yields of their far height and hue.* 

A delightful hour or two in the evening may be spent in 

rowing on the lake in a good English boat (to be hired for 2 or 

3 francs an hour on the Quai du Mont Blanc), or to take a 

place in the steamer for a short trip, and, if so inclined, select 

one that has a company of Swiss singi&ts on board, to give a 

promenade concert 



LAKE OF GENEVA. j^^ 

NORTHERN BANK. 

We will now make the circuit of the lake describing all 
that is of importance, and leave the tourist to visit for himself 
whatever opportunity and inclination may render desirable^ or 
if unable to do more, survey them as well as possible from the 
steacper deck, or the window of the railway carriage. 

The railw^ay from Geneva along the Northern shore of 
the lake, has stations at Chaml^, GenihocUBellevue, Fersoix, 
Coppet, Celigny, Nyon, Gland, Rolle, Auhonne, St, Prex, Morges, 
RenenSf Lausanne^ Lutry, Cully, Vevey, La Tour de Peilz, Burier, 
Clarens, Fernex-Montreux, Feytaux-Chillon, Filleneuve, Some 
of these places are small, but are well known to many English 
visitors, from having children or friends at the schools which 
abound all through the district. There are also numerous 
houses and chS.lets which belong to or are occupied by English 
gentlemen. Many exquisite views of the lake are obtained on 
this route. 

The steamboat journey, which is performed between 
Geneva and Villeneuve in about four hours, is far preferable to 
the rail, presenting a thousand charms which cannot be seen 
and leisurely contemplated from a railway carriage. The 
steamer keeps near the Swiss or Northern side, passing in front of 
S6cheron, Pr^gny (p. 131), Chambesy, Bellerive, Grenthod (where 
the two Grenevese scholars, De Saussure and Bonnet dwelt), 
and Versoix. This town .was vainly attempted to be nursed 
into a rival of Geneva by Choiseul, the minister of Louis XV. 
Looking southward, we have a grand view of Mont Blanc; 
the peaks surrounding it are the Sal^ve, the Savoy Alps, the 
Dole and the Voirons. Northward, the long blue line of the 
Jura forms the background of the Swiss shore. Above 
Versoix, is the pass of La Foncile, one of the few carriage roads 
across the Jura 3 it passes under the Reculet, the highest sum- 
mit of the range, and affords magnificent views. 

At Versoix we leave the Genevese territory and enter the 
Canton of Vaud. Soon we reach Goppet, where there is a 
chllteau belonging to the Due de Broglie, where Necker, the 
Finance Minister of Louis, retreated to end his days, and 
where also his daughter, Madame de Stael, spent the long years 
of her exile, when banished by NapoleotL 1. T\s& x^^^^ ^'s^- 
spicuous on the green hills by Copi^el^ ^x^ '^-^^^ «Ck.^ '\.««&«?« 
The next landing place is by CfeligXiL-^ , ^\i\c)Ci S>clom^ ^xveis^"^ 



1 3^ LAUSANNE. 

by Vaud, is Genevese territory. Close by, the pretty village 
of Crans is noticeable. 

The nei^t stopping place is at Nyon, an ancient Roman 
colony, founded by Julius Caesar. From this place the 
ascent of the Dole is most readily accomplished. The pro- 
montory of Promcnthoux here juts out, opposite to that of 
Yvoire in Savoy, and passing these, the lake expands to a much 
greater width. Above the point of Promenthoux, is the 
Chateau de Prangins, formerly belonging to Joseph Buona- 
parte. Prince Napoleon's villa. La Bergerie, is very near. 

Passing Dulit, Bursinel, Bursins, and other villages, and 
numerous pleasant villas, we arrive at Rolle, from which to 
Thonon on the opposite shore the greatest width of the lake is 
measured. This is an agreeable little town with a small island 
in the harbour, laid out as a promenade, and adorned - with a 
monument to Greneral La Harpe, a native of the place. We 
next come in sight of Perroy and Allaman, passing the cele- 
brated vineyard of La Cote, nine miles in length. Between 
Rolle and Aubonne, on the height above, the Signal de Bouchy 
should be noticed. One of the most extensive views in Swit- 
zerland is obtained from it. 

Passin|^ close to the point of S. Prex, and in sight of in- 
numerable villas, and the towering ruins of the Chateau de 
Wufflens, attributed to good Queen Bertha in the loth cen- 
tury, we arrive at Morges. (Hotel des Alpes. Pop. 2800), 
with its arsenal and cannon foundry close by the lake. Here 
Mont Blanc is again beheld 3 a splendid view, one of the finest on 
the lake. It is, however, quickly lost as we pass on. Morges 
is a delightful place for a lengthened visit. The picturesquely 
situated village of S. Sulpice is soon left behind, and the next 
landing place is Ouchy. 

Ouchy (Hotel d'Angleterre). At the Hotel Ancre, 
Byron and Shelley had to stay two days through stress of 
weather after boating across from Diodati, and here "The 
Prisoner of Chillon ** was written. Omnibuses run from 
Ouchy in half an hour, for half a franc, to Lausanne. 

LAUSANNE. 

(Hotel Gibbon, an excellent house, in the best situation) . In 
the garden-house of the Hotel Gibbon, Gibbon completed his 
^'Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire." 

• Laasaane is the capital of the Catvtoti oi Na>i^,\j^«»JC\l\3».l 



LAKE OF GENEVA. jJS 

situate on hills and intervening valleys. It enjoys the advantage 
of a salubrious climate, and a moderate temperature in winter 5 
but its streets are badly paved and unpleasant for promenading, 
and conveyances here are dear and unsatisfactory. 

From the steamboat or railway, the town is entered by the 
Rue de Grand Chene, which conducts to the Place S. Fran- 
co! s^ the chief place of public resort, containing the Post and 
Telegraph Offices, etc , and also the Hotel Gibbon, in the 
garden of which the great historian completed his history of 
Rome. To the left is the Grand Pont, a fine structure with 
a double row of arches, spanning one of the intersecting valleys, 
and affording a good central view of the city. 

The fine old Cathedral, whosre (Jothic towers were seen 
standing high and dark against the sky, before landing ^t 
Ouchy, is the chief sight of the town, and indeed the only one 
which need detain the tourist desirous of making rapid transit. 
The most direct approach is by 164 mean-looking steps, ascending 
from the market place. Like most Protestant places of wor- 
ship, the Cathedral is not generally open to the public j Thurs- 
day only being the day on which it can be seen without 
application to the sacristan. No. j in the little square north of the 
Cathedral. The simple and massive edifice is one of the hand- 
somest Gothic churches in Switzerland. It is associated with the 
stirring events of the Reformation, for here in i j.36, Calvin, 
Farel, and Viret met in disputation ; from which came about 
the separation of Vaud from the Romish Church, and the 
transfer of its allegiance from Savoy to Berne. The Cathe- 
dral, originally founded about 1000 a.d., was completed in its 
present form in 1275, and consecrated in the presence of 
Rudolph of Hapsburgh, by Pope Gregory X. It is 333 feet in 
length and 61 in height. It has a central spire and two towers 
to the west, of which only one is really completed. The beau- 
tifully sculptured West Portal (of recent date) and the South 
Portal, or Porch of the Apostle, claim special notice. The pro 
minent features of the interior are — 

Columns " (over a thousand) ** 

The Rose Window. 

Moniunent of Otho of Grandson. 

Tomb of Victor Amadeus VIII. (who was successively 
duke, bishop, pope (Felix V.), and finally monk. 

Monuments of — 

Bishop of Menthonex. 
Russian Princess Orlow. 



J 2$ LAUSANNE. 

Duchess of Courland. 

Harriet, first wife of Lord Stratford de RedclifFe, by 

Bartolini. 
Robert Ellison. 
Countess Wallmoden. 
There is a fine view from the Terrace surrounding the 
Cathedral 3 but if the visitor likes to ascend the clock tower (162 
feet)^ a much finer prospect will be obtained. 

The visitor who has time to make the round of the town, 
will find a few other objects of interest. In the Rue Montee 
de S. Laurence is the Musee Arlaud, containing some good 
ancient and modem works of art, open free on Sundays, Wed- 
nesdays, and Saturdays, from 1 1 a.m. to 3 p.m. Near the 
Cathedral is the old cMteau, erected in the 13th century, but 
since subjected to many alterations. It is in form a heavy 
square tower, with turrets, and from once being the Episcopi 
Palace, it has now become the Council Hall. The Barracks are 
adjacent, and at a short distance are the Academy and College 
(founded in 1587). In the Museum, which is worth a visit, 
will be found — 

Collection of Minerals, given by Emperor Alexander to 

Greneral La Harpe. 
Zoological and Botanical Collections. 
Antiquities from Herculaneum, Pon^eii, etc. 
Relief of the Bernese Oberland. 
Antiquities from Aventicum. 
Objects from the Swiss Lake Dwellings. 
Natural History Collection. 
The schools of Lausanne are in very high repute, and pupils 
from Great Britain are found in them in large numbers. Pro- 
fessors of music, drawing, etc., abound. The Public Schools 
of Design .maintain a high standard of excellence. There is 
an Asylum for the Blind, admirably conducted, which owes its 
origin to Mr. Haldimand, an Englishman, who, when 
resident here, took great interest in works of philanthropy and 
benevolence. 

In the Rue de Bourg, which is the central and chief busi- 
ness street, containing most of the principal hotels, there is an 
English Reading-room and Circulating Library, where, for 
an admission fee of half a franc, the traveller can peruse the 
Times, Punchy Illustrated London News, or other favourite 
Journals from home. The English Chapel is on the road between 
L,ausanne and Ouchy. 



LAKE OF GENEVA. joy 

THE ENVIRONS OF LAUSANNE 

are exceedingly beautiful ; an abundance of tasteful country 
villas enliven the scene. Those fond of a quiet, healthy town, 
with plenty of opportunity for charming walks in the vicinity, 
will find their tastes well provided for. One of the most fre- 
quented spots is the Montbenon, a fine open promenade on 
the Greneva road, commanding a lovely prospect of the lake and 
its surroundings. The Signal is on a hill 2000 feet high, north 
of the town. The finest view in the neighbourhood is obtained 
here, the greater part of Lake Leman being visible, and a vast 
horizon, crowded with mountain peaks. The adjacent forest of 
Sauvabellin is traditionally linked with the worship of Bel by 
the Druids. Les Grandes Roches are about a mile and a 
half on the road to Yverdon, affording a fine view across the 
lake, including Mont Blanc, which is not visible from the Sig- 
nal. The Blumer Institution for Delicate Children, at the 
Chateau de Venues, on the Berne road, is worthy of attention. 
The view is grand. The English Cemetery, two miles along 
the Berne road, contains the remains of John Philip Kemble, 
the tragedian. At a short distance is the garden he delighted to 
cultivate, and the house where he died (Feb. 26, 1823). 

Several excursions can be made from Lausanne by rail, 
amongst others, vi^ Cassonsay, to the magnificent scenery of the 
Val Orbe 5 or to all parts of the lake, from Ouchy. 

• 

Leaving Ouchy, the route becomes surpassingly beautiful, 
the steamer passes Pally and Lutry, and we find ourselves in 
front of the celebrated vineyards of Lavaux, which extend for 
ten miles along the lake. An immense amount of labour has 
been expended in rearing the innumerable low walls which 
sustain the crumbling soil. Near Cully, which stands in the 
midst of these vineyards, is the monument to Major Davel, 
killed during the long struggle between Vaud and Berne. On 
a terrace of rocks, near S. Saphorin, stands the old castle of 
Gl^rolles ; and hard by a picturesque waterfall is formed by the 
torrent of the Forestay. Above, on the height, is the Tour de 
GrOUl^se, the remains of a stronghold, dating from the loth 
century — once a refuge for the neighbouring villagers in times 
of chronic strife and disturbance. The traveller will be 
struck with the amount of skill and industry tVsal \ssa.^\5aN^ 
been necessary to construct a carnage T02A «cA T'?ii\^'»5 va.^^iSi 
narrow limits between the mountains 2Lnd V3!aa\?i5Rft« Ora.Vs®^^'^*^ 



138 I-AKE OF GENEVA. 

Gl^rolles^ and catching sight of Vevey, the slopes are more 
gradual, the valley wider, and the whole landscape softer and 
more cultivated. 

VEVEY 

(Grand Hotel Vevey), 

(Pop. 7800), the representative of the old *Roman Fibiscum, is 
the second town of the Canton Vaud ; clean, picturesque, and 
with a climate free from extremes, either in summer or winter. 
The town is situated at the end of a narrow valley, down which 
the Veveyse rushes to the lake. Its exquisite views and plea- ^ 
sant walks in the neighbourhood attract a large number of 
visitors. v 

From Vevey may be seen Chillon, Clarens, Villeneuve, and 
the mouth of the Rhone ; in the distance the Alps of the Valois, 
with the Dent du Midi and Mont Catogne -, whilst on the oppo- 
site shore of the lake are seen the rocks of Meillerie, with the 
Dent d'Oche. The best point of view in the town is the Quai 
Sina ; but some spots outside the town afford more extensive 
prospects. 

On the left of the landing-place is the chateau of M. Cou- 
vreu, with its beautiful tropical garden, open free from 10 a.m. 
to 12, on Thursdays, Fridays, and Sundays. At other times the 
gardener expects a franc. 

In the Ghurcli of St. Martin (15th century), amongst 
the vineyards above the town, are the graves of Ludlow and 
Broughton, two of the judges of Charles 1. 5 — it was Broughton 
who read the sentence of death. In vain Charles II. demanded 
their extradition j in this quiet town they ended their days. An 
*' Indicateur des Montagues *' will be found here. 

The English Church service takes place at St. Claire on 
Sundays, at 1 1 a.m., and 3.30 p.m. 

Rousseau's favourite inn, the •' Clef," has been transformed 
into a cafe, with the same name. 

Vevey is the centre of the Swiss wine-growing district 3 the 
wine called Lavaux being its speciality. An ancient guild 
known as '' L'Abbaye des Vignerons,'* exists here, whose func- 
tion it is to promote the interests of the wine-growers, and ex- 
cite competition by presenting prizes to the most successful. 
After an extraordinary wine season, a grand festival is held, 
known as La F6te des Vignerons. It last took place in l86j. 

^^The Vintners* Ftte at Vevey,'* says a recent writer in ** All 
the World Over^' ''is famous evety\«rYi«e,atAV)aavx^%\j\VvcL 



VEVEY. IjQ 

vogue, is a genuine relic of the old worship of Bacchus — a 
deity long revered in this, a vine country par excellence, 

'*The continuance of this f6te is characteristic of the con- 
servative and mirth-loving Vaudois. It comes off every twelve 
or fifteen years in the market-place of Vevey. A large plat- 
form is raised, the square is gay with flags and triumphal arches, 
and thronged with spectators — artisans, little peasant pro- 
prietors by hundreds, and strangers from all quarters. The 
music strikes up, and gives the signal for the grand allegorical 
procession of the Four Seasons. But first comes a corps of 
Swiss halberdiers in motley costume, the vintner guilds of Vevey 
and la Pans, and their abbe carrying a gilt crosier. He opens 
the proceedings with a speech, and the coronation of the two 
most successful vintners. 

" This little ceremony over, the procession begins. First 
enters Spring, a young girl in the character of Pales, reclining 
in a triumphal car. Children and shepherdesses dance around 
her, haymakers, labourers, and Alpine cowherds sing their 
Ranz des Vaches. Summer follows — a lady of riper years, im- 
personating Ceres — in a car drawn by two large oxen, accom- 
panied by children carrying beehives and other appropriate 
fixtures. With Autumn comes the climax of excitement, as 
Bacchus, the god of the vine, appears in a chariot drawn by 
horses covered with tiger skins. This is the signal for wild 
dances and wilder music, after the fashion of the ancients. He 
is accompanied by his train, among which Silenus, mounted on 
his ass, figures conspicuously. Winter ends the cortege, which 
thus forms a complete series of illustrations of rural life. In 
this, the cold season, the peasant's work is ended, and he returns 
to his cottage hearth. So winter stands in their minds for 
things domestic, and is pictured accordingly. The aged parents 
lead the way, then come the young couple, bride and bride- 
groom. Rustic dances by woodmen and huntsmen follow, and 
the whole concludes with a grand patriotic hymn. The tenacity 
of life shown by this remarkable f^te arises, no doubt, from its 
being more than a mere recreation and show. It still breathes 
the true spirit of the people, of whose labours and joys it is a 
faithful picture." * 

The environs of Vevey are replete with interest. Haute- 
Ville, a mile and a half from the town, is an imposing struc- 
ture, and afibrds beyond doubt the finest ^tos^cX m>5oifcXJkRNsg5J«* 

♦ ''An tbt World Over." (T. Cook «c ^on:^ \a5i^> ^^^l V 



140 



LAKE OF GENEVA. 



bourbood. Blonay, at a somewhat greater distance from the 
town, is a romantic castle, which for eight centuries was the 
residence of the most powerful and distinguished of the old 
Vaudois families. History and tradition join in confirmation of 
the spotless honour and renowned valour of the house of De 
Blonay. When the aristocracy were swept away at the close of 
the last century, the family was still held in local reverence. It 
exists in the neighbouring French province of Chablais at this 
day. The Pleiades (4000 feet) is visited for the view from 
its summit, and also for the Sulphur Baths of L'Alliaz at the 
base. La Tour de Peilz is a little village west of Vevey, with 
an old castle built in 1239 by Amadeus IV., Duke of Savoy j 
but its two round towers are of very uncertain and possibly far 
earlier origin. Peilz means skin, and is said to refer to a certain 
Crusading proprietor, who returned to find his chateau roofless, 
and made for it a temporary roof of skins. 

Most of the objects mentioned in the preceding paragraph 
are visible from the steamer as we resume our course on the 
lake. The vineyards again reappear, and become a conspicuous 
feature of the landscape. In about a quarter of an hour we 
arrive at Clarens. 

Clarens is all poetry, and little else, and Byron must again 
describe it to us, in the place which none would feel as if they 
had visited, did they not read it here — 

" Clarens ! sweet Clarens, birthplace of deep LiOve ! 
Thine air is the young breath of passionate thought ; 
Thy trees take root in Love ; the snows above 
The very glaciers have his colours caught, 
And sunset into rose-hues sees them wrought 
By rays which sleep there lovingly : the rocks, 
The permanent crags, tell here of Love, who sought 
In them a refuge from the worldly shocks 
Which sdr and sting the soul with hope that woos, then mocks. 

^ *Twas not for fiction chose Rousseau this spot, 
Peopling it with affections ; but he found 
It was the scene which passion must allot 
To the mind*s purified beings ; 'twas the ground 
Where early Love his Psyche's zone unbound^ 
And hallowed it virith loveliness ; *tis lone. 
And wonderful, and deep, and hath a sound, 
And sense, and sight of sweetness ; here the Rhone 
Hath spread himself a couch, the Alps have rear'd a throne.*' 



guet 



Notice the clump of trees to the left known as the '* Bos- 
de Julie/' the favourite resort ol " l.a'SlJ^oxw^Viafe^lQise." 



CHILLON. J.J 

Montreux (Langbien's Hotel Beau-Sejour au Lac), 
the warm winter refuge of the invalid, Glion, Yernex, 
and Yeytaux, embosomed in walnuts, successively appear in 
sight, and near the latter is the renowned Castle of Ghillon. 

This Castle, washed by the waters of the lake, which at this 
point is over 300 feet in depth, was built in a.d. 830, and forti- 
fied by the Dukes of Savoy about four centuries afterwards. 
Apart from its historic interest, it is impressive from its solid 
walls and towers, and its strangely isolated situation on a rock 
connected with the bank by a wooden bridge. Over the entrance 
is the inscription, " God bless all who come in and go out.*' 
It well repays a visit to its feudal hall, bedrooms, etc., and the 
rock-hewn dungeons beneath, in one of which thousands of 
J^ws are said to have been sentenced to death, and forthwith 
drowned in the lake. The beam where criminals were hung, 
the torture-chamber, the oubliette, and other horrors, are shown. 
But the dungeon rendered memorable by Lord Byron's " Pri- 
soner of Chillon " is, of course, the chief point of interest. 

<< Chillon ! thy prison is a holy place, 

And thy sad floor an altar— for 'twas trod, 
Until his very steps have left a trace 
Worn, as if thy cold pavement were a sod. 
By Bonnivard ! May none those marks efiace^ 
For they appeal from tyranny to God.*' 

The tourist, when he treads the pavement worn down by 
the feet of the prisoner, or touches the iron ring in the dungeon 
by which he was bound to one of the pillars, must remember 
that the subject of Lord Byron's poem is not to be received as 
a record of the historical Bonnivard. A few facts may not be 
uninteresting, nor need they necessarily spoil the charm of the 
fiction. 

Francois de Bonnivard was bom in 1496 at Seyssel. He 
was educated at Turin, and at the age of sixteen received from 
his uncle the rich Priory of St. Victor, and the lands attached 
thereto. In 15 19 the Duke of Savoy attacked Geneva, and 
Bonnivard, who was of liberal opinions, and opposed to feudal 
oppression, sided with the Republic. He was captured, and 
confined by the tyrannical Duke for two years in the Castle at 
Grolee. No sooner was he released, than he again made a 
strenuous effort to advance the principles of the Republic. 
Again, in 1530, he fell into the hands of the Dukftoi ^^a^^* 
and was confined for six years m flie C2LSkV\"fc dl ^StS^^Tw. ^xa- 
ing this time the Cantons of Berne axxd^f^w5X%^«»vo\^^'S^^ 



{ 



JA2 LAKE OF GENEVA. 

with the Republic of Greneva j and when at length the Bernese 
took possession of the Canton of Vaud, they lost no time in 
throwing open the doors of the Chllteau de Chillon, and releas- 
ing Bonnivard. He returned to (reneva, fought bravely in the 
cause of the Republic, and died in 1570 at tie age of seventy- 
five. His £ne collection of books formed the foundation of the 
public Library (p. 129). 

" On the fact of Bonnivard's imprisonment here, and cer- 
tain traditions of the residents in the vicinity. Lord Byron 
founded his short narrative poem of ' The Prisoner of Chillpn.' 
The additional circumstance of two of the brothers of Bonni- 
vard having been imprisoned with him has no foundation, ex- 
cept in the imagination of the poet. The description of their 
sufferings and death, which forms the most affecting part of the 
narrative, was probably suggested by Dante's Count Ugolino and 
his two sons." 

The earliest recorded prisoner was a dangerous Bishop of 
Corbie, shut up here by Louis le Debonnair. 

Near the Castle of Chillon a part of the plot of Rousseau's 
celebrated " Nouvelle Heloise " is laid. 

We DOW speedily arrive at Villeneuve, the ancient little 
town at the head of the lake. Some of the steamers go on to 
Bouveret. 

SOUTHERN BANK. 

Between Geneva and Bouveret diligences run to and fro daily 
along the southern or Savoy side of the lake. Steamers run 
twice daily to Bouveret in five and a half hours 5 four times 
daily to Evian-les-Eaux, crossing thence to Ouchy (see local 
time-tables). 

Two miles from (Geneva is Cologny, between which and 
the lake stands the Villa Diodati, where Lord Byron resided in 
1 816, and composed the third canton of Childe Harolde and 
Manfred. The hamlets of La Belotte (stat.), Bessinges, Vese- 
nar, CoUonge, Bellerive (stat.), Anieres (stat.), and Hermance 
(stat.), are in Genevan territory. Entering Chablais, a district 
of Savoy, we pass the Savoyard Castles of Beauregard and De 
Boigne, and the little village of Nernier, on the edge of the 
water. From the point of Yvoire a deep bay recedes, on which 
stands Tlionoil (nine miles by road from Geneva), the ancient 
seat of the Dukes of Savoy. 

Evian, or Evian-les-Eaux, \s a iashionable French 
watering-place; iht mineral waters W\e a\iv^ ifc\Ki\«^AQsa \^ 



SOUTHERN BANK. I^o 

gout> and various other complaints. A company, "under 
English direction/* is engaged in develojping the attractions of 
this charming neighbourhood. Several short excursions can be 
made 5 for instance, to the fine ruined Castle of Allinges, 
where S. Francis de Sales dwelt many years j to Laninge, or 
to the Valley of the Dranse. The torrent of the Dranse widens 
as it reaches the lake, and is crossed by a curious bridge of 
twenty-four arches. Near the mouth of the river is the pretty 
village of Amphion, with ferruginous waters. 

Another pleasant expedition is to the old Castle of La 
Ripaille, famous for its connection with the eccentric Victor 
Amadeus VIII. of Savoy, successively duke, pope, and friar. 
This ruin is seen from the steamer soon after passing Thonon. 
To this monastery he withdrew for several years with six 
companions, and founded the order of the Knight-errants of 
St. Maurice. According to one tradition, they passed their 
time in carousing, and thus gave rise to the French expression, 
'^faire ripaille" or to make merry, very merry. According to 
another, they led an exemplary life of abstinence, and the name 
of the convent was derived simply from its situation on the 
shore, or ripa. 

It is now a farm, the church is a hayloft, the cemetery a 
cultivated field. The park of oaks which Amadeus had laid out 
in the form of a star was allowed to run wild. The vegetation 
here is extremely rich. An enormous walnut-tree overshadows 
the ruins ; its origin, according to folk-lore, was supernatural 
indeed. The tree sprang from a walnut containing a diamond 
brought hither by the Prince of Darkness himself, from the 
shades below, and buried in the ground. At certain intervals it 
was said to bear a crop of diamonds, but of late years the tree 
appears to have given up this good habit. In the numerous 
superstitions of Chablais and Vaud, hidden jewels and buried 
gold and silver play a prominent part. The nobles, constantly 
at war with Berne and Geneva, alternately conquered and con- 
quering, would often find it a measure of prudence in such 
precarious times to conceal their treasure. Valuables dug up 
here from time to time prove this to have been their habit. At 
Evian no landed property is ever sold without some special 
stipulation as to reserved rights on possible treasure trove ; and 
when, in building, excavations have to be made, a watch is 
always set on the workmen. 

The views across the lake from Ev\aa ate ncc^ i«ife« . 

Passing on we see La Tour "RoTiAe^^ti!^^^'^^^^'^''^ 



lAA LAKE OF GENEVA, 

of La Meillerie, famous for their supposed resemblance to 
the Leucadian rock. They afford excellent stone for building 
At one time they ran down straight to the sea^ and Evian and 
S. Gingolph could only communicate by water. The rocks 
were blasted by Napoleon, to get material for the Simplon 
Road. 

It is in this portion of the lake, where the waters are least 
disturbed, that the fisheries are chiefly carried on. From hence 
come those fascinating little boats with double sails, like wings, 
that strike every traveller who sees them poised like butterflies 
on the surface. Here, in Rousseau's story, the lover of H^loise 
lodged, to be in sight of her dwelling-place on the opposite 
shore. 

Six miles further on is St. Gingolph, the border village 
between Valais and Chablais, situated on both sides of a 
ravine that separates the two countries. For long, the only 
place of worship was on the Chablais side, so that people were 
in Switzerland at home, and in Savoy when they ^went to 
church. 

Excursions from St. Gingolph are made to the Dent 
d' Oclie (8000 feet), in four hours 5 up the Gorge of the 
Morge, the frontier ravine just alluded to ; or by boat to the 
Grotto of Viviers. Boats can be hired to cross the lake for ten 
francs to Clarens, Montreux, Chillon, or Villeneuve, or for six 
francs to Vevey. Three miles beyond St. Gingolph is Bou- 
veret, at the head of the lake. 

Besides the swift Rhone, cleaving "his way between 
heights which appear as lovers who have parted,*' Lake Leman 
receives about forty rivers and streams. The depth of the lake 
varies from about 950 feet near the rocks of Meillerie, to 30 or 
40 feet in the neighbourhood of Geneva. It covers an extent 
of about ninety square miles. 

The marvellous beauty of this delightful lake has won 
encomiums from a host of writers. Mr. Laing says, *'The 
snowy peak, the waterfall, the glacier, are but the wonders of 
Switzerland J her beauty is in her lakes — ^the blue eyes of this 
Alpine land. The most beautiful passage of scenery in Switzer- 
land is, to my mind, the upper end of the Lake of Geneva, 
from Vevey, or from Lausanne to Villeneuve." Again, " the 
zaargin of the lake is carved out, and built up into terrace above 
terrace of vineyards and Indian cotn i^\o\& \ \»\v\tLd this narrow 
beft, grain crops, orchards, grass &e\ds, aai dy&^\.xi\sX.\x«e&Vas^ 



GENEVA TO CHAMOUNY. I^^ 

their zone ; higher still upon the bill side, pasture grass and 
forest trees occupy the ground -, above rises a dense mass of 
pine forest, broken by peaks of bare rocks shooting up, weather- 
worn and white, through this dark-green mantle ; and, last of 
all, the eternal snow piled up high against the deep blue sky 5 
and all this glory of Nature, this varied majesty of mountain- 
land, within one glance ! *' '* It is not surprising that this 
water of Geneva has seen upon its banks," he adds, " the most 
powerful minds of each succeeding generation, Calvin, Knox, 
Voltaire, Gibbon, Rousseau, Madame de Stael, Byron, John 
Kemble, have, with all their essential diversities and degrees of 
intellectual powers, been united here in one common feeling of 
the magnificence of the scenery round it. This land of alp and 
lake is indeed a mountain-temple, reared for the human mind 
on the dull unvaried plains of Europe.*' 

It is from Geneva and the lake — especially that celebrated 
view near Morges — ^that the traveller realizes the supremacy 
of Mont Blanc, more than he can do even at Chamouny, 
when in its immediate presence. No one should be content 
with the scenery at the Geneva end of the lake, which is com- 
paratively uninteresting. Its grandeur is only fully perceived 
from Morges or Ouchy. 

GENEVA TO CHAMOUNY. 

(To Sallanches, 32 miles j to Chamouny, 50 miles.) 

The journey from Geneva to Chamouny is along a good 
carriage-road. The diligences take 10 hours. From Sallanches 
(reached in 61 hours) the remainder of the journey may be 
performed oa foot easily and pleasantly by good walkers. 

Early application at the office is desirable to ensure seats. 
The diligences of the Messageries Imperiales are arranged for 
affording the best views of the country, the after-part being open j 
and there are also two seats in front. When places are taken, 
they must be described and entered in the register of the office, 
and on the pay-bills of the conductor. This prevents all 
grumbling and confusion, as parties can only take their allotted 
places. Diligences start from Greneva three or four times daily j 
the exact time must be previously ascertained at the Hotel or 
Diligence Office (p. 124). 

A pleasant suburban road from tlae l^e^ QiwMXet c^ Qf^oss^*^ 
leads to the large village of Cliene. On ^e fv^X.^^l^Q^'^ %^^fe«^> 



1^6 GENEVA TO CHAMOUNY. 

the Castle of Momex^ and the Jufa mountains are seen ; and on 
tiie left the Voirons, • At the fiver Foron, the French (formerlir 
Sayo7ard).territor)r is reached, the first village in which is Anne- 
masse (Custom House)* The high conical mountain called the 
Mdle (6128 ft.), here comes fairly into view, and forms a promi- 
nent'object for miles. The Castle ^of Etrambiere is passed on 
die right, at the foot of the Petit Saldve. The road follows the 
valley of ihc Arve. This stream, as the banks abundantly 
testify, IS sometimes a broad and furious torrent. The Menoge 
livec is crossed by. a broad lofty bridge.' After paissing Naiigy, 
the Ch&teau de Pierre, the property of an Englishman, is seen 
on a sn^all fir-clad eminence. Contamines is passed on the 
left, and the two ruined towers of the ancient castle of Faucigny 
stand out conspicuously. The bold mountain scenery bound- 
ing the Arve valley, now becomes very enjoyable. 

Bonneville is one of the most considerable towns on the 
road, though its population has much declined oflateyears. (From 
this place there is a good road — 17 miles-^— traversed by diligence in 
4 hours to Annecy, where the rail can be taken to Aix-les-Eaux.) 
At the foot of the town, the Arve is crossed by a stone bridge -, 
and on the river side, close bf, is a monument over ninety feet 
in height, erected in honour of Rex Carolus Felix of Sardinia, 
as an expression of gratitude for favours conferred on the town 
by the execution of works to prevent inundations of the Arve. 
To the summit of the Brezon or the Mole is a four hours* 
excursion from Bonneville^ 

Through a fertile district between the M61e and Brezon, we 
pass on to Yougy, wh^re the Giffre, from the Sixt Valley, 
joins the Arve, and then to Sclonzier, by which lies the 
romantic Reposoir Valley. 

The village of CluseS) newly built since the fire of 1844, 

is chiefly inhabited by watchmakers. Near this town, the 

Brezon precipices seem almost to overshadow the route, and the 

fertile valley seems to be closed in by the mountain. But the 

road is continued through a narrow gorge. Beyond La Balme, 

two small cannons are .planted, for the purpose of awakening 

the echoes. The entrance to a grotto is seen on the side of the 

rock to the left, which penetrates into the heart of the mountain 

to the extent of 1800 feet. Mules wait here to take visitors to 

the cavern. A couple of hours will be occupied if the visit is 

undertaken. Passing Magland and on to St. Martin, 

several dne cascades and waterfalls atttac\.2L\XeD?L\otLaii\!afe\s&-^ 

^e JSnest of these ^is the graceWl 'NanX. ^ Kx^tiaa.^ ^^^.^&xJ^^ 



GENEVA TO CHAMOUNY. 



H7 



1>es6tj however^ with specimen dealers^ cannon firers, and various 

sorts of beggars. The rocks on the same side of. the road are 

« exceedingly fine^ and the low £at'on the right show signs of the 

.effects of the overflow of the Arve, to which the country is 

-subject. At Sallanches, the diligence used' to terftiinate its 

course^ and passengers were transferred to sm^ll carriages^ 

-beoaus&of the hilly and stony roads before them. Now there 

is a new good road all the way^ but it is not so mtjsrestni^ a^ 

vthe old« The diligence used to come into Sallanches () mile) 

to -allow the passengers to dine and return to St. Martin to 

pursue the journey. From the bridge between the two' towns> 

fine views of Mont Blanc are obtained. A well-known writer 

has thus described the scene : — 

** Mont Blanc, ai^d his. army of white-robed brethren^ rose 
before us i|i the di^tance> glorious as the four-and-twenty elders 
around the great white throne. The wonderful gradations of 
colouring in Alpine landscape are not among the least of its 
charms. How can I describe it? Imagine yourself standing 
with me on' this projecting rock, overlooking a deep pin^ gor'ge, 
through which flow the brawling waters of the Arve. On tne 
other side of. this rise mountains whose heaving swells of 
velvet-green cliffs and dark pines are fully made out and 
coloured ^ behind this mountain rises another^ whose tints are 
softened and shaded, and seem to be seen through a purplish 
veil ; behind that rises another^ of a decided cloud-like purple ^ 
and in the next still the purple tint changes to rosy lilac ^ while 
above all^ like another world up in the sky^ mingling its tints 
with the passing clouds, sometimes obscured by them, and then 
breaking out. between them, lie the glacier regions. These 
glaciers, in the setting sun, look like rivers of light pouring down 
from the clouds. Such was the scene, which I remember with 
perfect distinctness as enchanting my attention on one point of 
the road." 

Sallanches, like most of the towns on the route now under 
notice, has had its conflagration. It was on Good Friday, 1840, 
when everybody was at church, that the fire broke out. 

The road from Sallanches and St. Martin, still recommended 
to pedestrians, continues along the picturesque banks of the 
Arve. Gh6de is passed, near which is a fine waterfall. The 
road then crosses a plain, which was a lake till choked u^ V^^ 
mud and stones in 1837, and ServO2i\STieiA.x«aL0ckR.^» \^ej^ 
Ouches is the first village in the vaWey ol C\i?LTE^w\xsi . 

The new road is on the leit banVi ol \^ife M^e -^ \\. ct^^'siaa. 



1^ GENEVA TO CHAMOUNY. 

the Bon-Nant, and passes the Baths of St. Gervaix (5 
miles). They are situated in the lovely Bon-Nant ravine, and 
seem efficacious for numerous disorders of the stomach, nerves, 
skin, etc. The village of St. Gervaix is a mile from the baths. 
Excursions to the eastern part of Mont Blanc, or the ascent of 
the great mountain itself, can be arranged from this place. 
There is a cross route, 5 hours' walk, by the Col de Voza, with 
grand views of Mont Blanc, etc., to Chamouny. 

The T^te Noire (not the T^te Noire leading to Martigny) 
is then skirted, and, after passing the Tunnel of ChUtelard and 
Le Lac^ the old road is reached at the Hotel des Montets. 

CHAMOUNY 

(Hotel de TAngleterre and Hotel Royal) 

is situated in a valley, about 28 miles in length from the 
Col de Balme in the N.E., to the Col de Voza in the S.W. 
Its north-western boundary is formed by the Aiguilles Rouges 
and the Br^vent j whilst on the south-eastern side, Mont Blanc, 
with seven glaciers streaming down towards the valley, fonn its 
crowning glory. Along the entire length of the valley flows 
the Arve, with a multitude of mountain-bom rivulets flowing 
into it. 

Chamouny is 3446 ft. above the sea. Its permanent popu- 
lation is small, but in the season it is a crowded resort of 
tourists, for whom the district offers attractions and excursions 
innumerable. Chamouny was long an almost imknown spot. 
The monks of St. Benedict came and settled here in the eleventh 
century, and its occasional notice or inspection by Bishops and 
Counts of Greneva is historically proved; but it was not till 
Pococke and Wyndham visited the valley in 1741, and reported 
on it to the Royal Society of London, that the locality began to 
be generally known. From that time the fame of the valley 
has spread, and the tide of eager sightseers has increased, till 
now in every land Chamouny is justly celebrated for its glorious 
prospect of the ** Monarch of Mountains " and its surroundings, 
and for the absorbing interest of the excursions that may be 
undertaken in the neighbourhood. 

Applications for the services of any of the 200 intelligent 
and efficient guides of Chamouny must be made at the office 
of the Guide en Chef. There is an official tariff and a code of 

ra/es as to the engagement ol gmdes, laxxks, etc,^ which must 

de strictly carried out. 



CHAMOUNY. jAQ 

There is an English Church at Chamouny, where 
services are celebrated during the season. 

Loppe's collection of Alpine Pictures is worth seeing. 
The collection is at the back of the Royal fjotel. 

The following itinerary may be useful to the traveller : — 

To visit Montanvert, the Mer de Glace, the Chapeau, and 
the source of the Arveiron, is an excursion of at least 6 or 7 
hours } or a day may be well spent over it. 

To the Brevent and back, 7 to 8 hours. 

To the Glacier des Bossons and back, about 4 hours. 

To the Flegere and back, 5 hours. 

To the Jardin and back, 10 to 12 hours. A good day's 
work. 

We will note a few of the principal excursions, and the 
tourist must combine or select from these according to the time, 
at his disposal. 

Montanvert (6302 ft. above the sea level, or 2858 ft. 
above Chamouny) needs no guide 3 anybody will point out the 
path J and when once found, nobody need lose it. The ascent 
can easily be done in two hours. On the way, a pine forest, 
debris of avalanches, and other scenes usual in mountain paths, 
will be passed, and by-and-by you will stand face to face with 
the 

Mer de Glace. "Imagine the ocean to have overflowed 
the mountains in front of you, and to have descended, boiling, 
foaming, dashing, bubbling, into the valley, thousands of feet 
below. Imagine the waters in the height of their wild and 
furious descent to have been miraculously stopped by the Divine 
fiat, ' Be still,' and you see before you thousands of sharp and 
tapering billows, mountain waves arisen and petrified before 
they burst, snow-crested heights and chasms of the deep. Such 
is the Mer de Glace. And then imagine the surroundings. 
To your right, as you look up, are green, precipitous banks, 
covered with shrubs and plants, and beyond rises Mont Blanc, 
approached by walls of barren rock, where the snow can find 
no settling-place. In front and to your left rises a barrier of 
rocks, and mountains, and peaks that make you cold and dizzy 
to gaze upon. There is the Aiguille du Dru, shooting up alone 
like an arrow, 6000 feet above the spot on which you stand. 
There are the dark, awful masses of vertical granite, on which 
no blade of grass will grow, no bird will rest, no snow will 
cleave, standing like evil spirits broo<5Ati% oN^t ^^ \Na»ssNs» ^ 
death, Tbea 'magine the sounds wVvvcVi. ^\Nfe X^^c^a \.o ""^s^^^ft- 



j-0 CHAMOUNy. 

scenes. There is a crash and a tumble, and thunder is echoing 
all around, and a thousand weird voices seem chuckling at some 
sad disaster. It is an avalanche that has fallen in the distance ! 
Listen again. You hear the moan and the strain of glaciers 
grinding each other to powder in a deadly strife. Again, and 
you hear the war and tumult of cataracts and torrents rushing 
madly into the hollow vaults, and delighting to startle their 
awful stillness ! " 

Nearly 300 feet above the edge of this sea of ice is an inn, 
where the night can be spent by those wishing to go forward 
from this pomt in the morning. A rude hut once stood here, 
where Forbes and Tyndal studied glacial phenomena. The 
" Pierre des Anglais," commemorating the visit of Pococke and 
Wyndham, is close by. 

Everybody should cross the Mer de Glace 5 it is easy for 
ladies, or even children, but should not be attempted without a 
guide, as the steps cut in the ice may easily be missed, and the 
traveller would as easily get astray and nervous. If intending to 
return direct from Montanvert to Chamouny, the visitor should 
first take a walk b}' the side of the glacier for some distance^ 
and so get a better idea of the wondrous scene. 

The descent from Montanvert, after crossing the Mer de 
Glace, is by the Mauvais Pas, cut in the side of the rocks, 
which once was a formidable journey, but is now bereft of its 
horrors from having an iron rail along it, to which the traveller 
can hold, instead of having to take his chance upon the bare 
rock -ledge. The green mound called the 

Chapeau^ where some glorious views are obtained over 
the Glacier des Bois, is next reached. Here there is a grotto 
and an inn. Descending by the moraine, the visitor soon reaches 

The Source of the Arvelron. The stream issues 
from the Glacier des Bois, and passes through an arch of ice. 
Sometimes this spot is very beautiful, and at others it has little 
or no interest, and does not repay the trouble of leaving the 
direct path to view it. In any case it is dangerous to stand 
^mder the ice arch, and instances are recorded in which fatal 
results have happened. 

N.B. — Whatever else the traveller may omit, the round just 

described, occupying about 7 hours, ought to be taken. Either 

the Chapeau or the Source of the Arveiron, or both, may, of 

course, be visited direct from Chamouny, without crossing the 

Mer de Glace, if wished. 

To visit The Jardin is a good do^'a ^otVltowLCJoa.- 



MONT BIi,ANC. 



151 



mouny, evea by taking a mule to and from Mpntanvert. 
From the inn at this place^ w&ere it is best to pass the previous 
night, it is a seven hours' expedition, and the descent to Cha- 
mouny may be effected in less than two hours more. This is 
a very fine glacier excursion. Guides are required, but ladies 
may readily undertake this expedition, and an idea will be 
obtained of the glorious rock and glacier solitudes of Mont 
£lanc, which no shorter excursion will afford. The Jardin 
itself is an island of about seven acres, a grassy, flower-sprinkled 
oasis of beauty in the midst of eternal snows and aiguilles. 

The Flegdre, a plateau on the side of the Aiguilles Rouge, 
(6500 ft.) is ascended for its fine view of Mont Blanc. This 
excursion can be entirely accomplished on mules, about five 
hours being reqqired for going and returning. There is a 
chalet where refreshment, or, if required, beds can be obtained. 

The Br6vent (8000 ft.) presents an almost identical 
view towards the south-east with that from the Fleg^re. It 
takes about four hours to walk up and somewhat less to 
descend. Many visitors only go up as far as the inn at Plan 
Praz (3 miles) which can be reached with mules. Here there 
is a terrace 6772 feet above the sea, connected by a mountain 
path (3 miles) with the F16gere. An hour's walking brings 
you to the fpot of La Cheminie, where some fifty feet of nearly 
vertical climbing must be done. There is a longer way round 
for ladies. The view from the summit (8283 ft.) is a glorious 
panorama of the Mont Blanc chain, and the hamlet-studded 
valley of Chamouny from the Col de Balme to the Col de 
Voza. 

The Cascade du Dard, the Glacier des Bossons, 
the Pavilion de Pierre Pointue, and many other attrac- 
tions, can be visited by those who can make a lengthened sojourn 
at Chamouny. Those not intending to return by Martigny 
should, if possible, spend a day in exploring the Col de 
Balme and Tete Noire; a mule path connects the two 
(P* ^ jS)« Those wishing to get a slight notion of the ascent 
of Mont Blanc, without encountering the dangerous portions, 
may ascend to the Grand Mulets, and spend a night at the 
inn. 

MONT BLANC. 

To realize in some degree the height of this "woivdsw^sJL 
mountain^ compare the following h.e\^x^ ol ^:^i\2l\\i\svQKiSi^wa 
in Europe* 



152 



CHAMOUNY. 




Malvern Hills • . • . 


1,444 ft- 


Skiddaw 


3*022 „ 


Macgillicuddy Reeks • • 


3*404 » 


Snowdon 


3.57^ >> 


Vesuvius 


3»73i « 


Caimgoriu 


4*050 » 


Ben Nevis 


4 380 „ 


Grand St. Bernard (Convent) 


8,040 „ 


Peak of Teneriffe 


12,358 „ 


Jungfrau 


13,725 « 


Monte Rosa • . • • 


i5»54o „ 


Mont Blanc • . • • 


1578 1 „ 



It is curious how much higher Mont Blanc appears from 
the Fl^g^re than it does from the valley of Chamouny, but 
even there the actual peak of Mont Blanc does not so impress 
the spectator with the glory and majesty of nature, as do the 
marvellous peaks around it, varying from 12,000 to 13,000 
feet. 

The group of mountains known as Mont Blanc is an im- 
mense mass of rock, stretching about 13 miles from S.W. to N.E., 
and about 5 or 6 miles in breadth. The enclosing valleys vary 
from 3000 to 4000 feet above the sea level. The whole of this 
mountain mass rises to at least a thousand feet above the line 
of perpetual snow. Innumerable aiguilles or peaks shoot up 
from this vast basis^ of varying heights, surrounding the mighty 
monarch himself, who towers to a height of more than 12,000 
feet above the level of Chamouny. 

The scenery of Mont Blanc is a wonderful combination of 
Alpine glories on the grandest scale. Lofty peaks, for ever 
robed in untrodden snow, wide seas of ice, huge crevasses, 
bright green glaciers, savage rocks, and pine forests (skirting 
the borders of civilization) make up a tout ensemble truly mar- 
vellous and impressive. 

Dr. Paccard and the guide, James Balmat, were the first to 
scale Mont Blanc in August, 1786. The celebrated philosopher, 
Saussure made the ascent in the following year with several 
assistants, and numerous scientific observations were made on 
the summit. Since that date, the ascent has become increas- 
ingly frequent 3 and guides and all necessary appliances are to 
be found either at Chamouny or St. Gervais, for those who 
>fee/ physically qualified for t\ie "andetUVvci^, ?xA ?c5ft willing to 
XDeer the somewhat expensive outlay ttc^mte.^. 



TOUR OF MONT BLANC. I jj 

The Ascent of Mont Blanc occupies from 17 to 22 hours, 
and the descent about 8 hours. This does not include 
stoppages. About forty times a year the ascent is accom- 
plished 5 favourable weather is necessary, and the advice of the 
guides must be strictly adhered to. . It is usual to go on mules 
to the Chalet de la Pierre Pointue, and then forward to 
the Grands Mulcts (10,007 ft.) to spend the night j the 
ascent to the summit (15,781 ft.) and return to the Grands 
Mulcts occupies the second day, and the return to Chamouny 
the third. The Grands Mulcts route unites on the Grand 
Plateau with the route from St. Gervais. Visitors coming 
from the latter place spend the night at a hut on the Aiguille 
du Gouter. The view from the summit is far reaching but 
indistinct. 

The chief peaks of importance in the Mont Blanc group, 
after the summit are the Grandes Jorasses, 13,800 5 Aiguille 
Verte, 13,5405 Aiguille de Bionnassay, 13,3243 Les Droites, 
13,3225 Aiguille de Tr^latete, 12,9005 Aiguille d'Argentiere, 
12,7995 Mont Dolent, 12,566. 

TOUR OF MONT BLANC. 

(By Chamouny, Courmayeur, Aosta, and the Great St. 

Bernard.) 

Martigny to Chamouny (see p. 157). 

Leaving Chamouny by the road, and passing the Glacier 
des Bossons on the left, the traveller reaches the small, pret- 
tily situated village of Les Ouches. Here the mule path is 
taken leading to the Pavilion de Belle Vue above the Col 
de Voza- The views of the Chamouny valley from this 
point are very fine. Hence the path may be taken by Bionnassay 
to the high road at Bionnay, but it is nearer to keep by Champel, 
joining the high road at La Villette. This part of the route is 
very charming, as the valley of Bionnassay is beautifully wooded, 
and surrounded by mountains of every form and colour. Two 
miles along the high road from La Villette brings the traveller 
to Les Contamines, 18 miles from Chamouny. Here the 
night is usually spent. 

From Contamines, Mont Joli can be ascended in four or 
five hours, and affords good views. Leaving the village to 
resume the route, the visitor reaches tive '^\\%\\\xv-N\i^'d^^2c»x^^ 
of Notre Dame de la Gorge. Here lYie io«A Vet\s\\TiaL\ss>^^sA'^c>fc 
path leads through a rocky, pme-Aa^ ^'dsXe, «cA ct^^s*^ "^^ 



154- 



TOUR OF MONT BLANC 



mountain torrent near the waterfall^ emerging on an eleyated 
plaiii. Nant Borrant (4560 ft.) is next reached^ and then 
the Chalet de la Balme (an inn). Crossing the Plalne 
des DameSi where a conical heap of stones is said to be the 
memorial of a lady who perished here in a snowstorm, the path 
winds up to the Col du Bonhomme. 

Hence the traveller may descend by the Col des Fours 
to Mottet, or to the Alpine village of Chapiu. 

From Chapiu, the visitor may proceed to Pre St. Didier by 
the Little St. Bernard. In bad or doubtful weather this should 
be preferred to going forward by the Col de la Seigne. 

At Chapiu {^6 miles from Greneva) the night is usually 
passed. The route to the Col de la Seigne is through 
Mottet. From the summit of the Col de la Seigne are obtained 
glorious views of the Mont Blanc precipices towering over 
11,000 feet above the grandly elevated valley known as the 
A116e Blanche. 

From the Col to Courmayeur is a six hours' walk, a mingling 
of snow and rock and pasture land. The Lac de Combal, the 
Glacier de Miage, the majestic Glacier de Brenva with its huge 
Moraine, the Chapelle du Glacier (with its hermit), and the 
Baths of La Saxe are passed on the way. 

[With guides from Contamines, Courmayeur may be reached 
in one day by ascending direct from the former place to the 
Pavilion of Trelat^te, traversing for some distance the Glacier 
of Trelat^te (don't omit the rope, even if guides smile at 
it), and then crossing the Col du Bonhomme (9204 ft.), 
higher up than previously indicated. The Glacier de Lancettes 
must then be crossed, and thus the Col de la Seigne reached 
without passing through Chapiu and Mottet.] 

Cournaayeur (56 miles from Chamouny), at an altitude 
of 42 1 1 ft. above the sea, is in the summer a well visited little 
Piedmontese watering place. Excursions can be made to the 
Glacier de Brenva, to the Glacier de Miage, or to the 
Cramont (9081 ft. above the sea), with fine scenery on the 
route, and glorious views of Mont Blanc from the summit. 
From the Mont de Saxe (7329 ft.) some good views are 
obtained. 

From Courmayeur tne traveller may reach Martigny by 

the Col de Ferret, 38 miles, or to Aosta, 27 miles 5 and from 

thence to Martigny by the Great St. Bernard, 47 miles. There 

is also a less interesting route by tVve Co\ dfe\aL%ex^\\^(;i^89 ft.) 

to St. Remy and the Great St. Betuaxd. 



TOUR OF MONT BLANC. fme 

The first of these routes, viz., Courmaveur to Martiguy by 
the Col de Ferret, will take nearly fifteen hours' walking. 
The Val de Ferret is a prolongation of the Allee Blanche 3 nume- 
rous glaciers and huge mountain masses bound the valley. The 
Col is 8176 ft., and forms the boundary between France, Italy, 
and Switzerland) the view of Mont Peteret and other mighty 
buttresses of Mont Blanc is very grand. The descent is by the 
ch^ets of La Foliaz, Orsi^res, dnd Sembrancher to Martigny. 

From Courmayeur to Aosta is a very attractive and interest- 
ing journey. It can be traversed by diligence in five hours. 
The first village of importance is Pvh St. Didier, on the 
Doire. 

From Pre St. Didier the traveller may visit the Little St. 
Bernard, where is a column indicating the boundary between 
France and Italy. Here there are very imposing views of the 
Mont Blanc chain. Hence, passing a hospice similar to the 
Great St. Bernard, a gradual descent brings to the Bourg St. 
Maurice, from whence there is a diligence to Chamousset 
on the Mont Cenis Railway. 

The route to Aosta, after leaving Pr6 St. Didier, is by 
Morgex, where the Col de la Serena route to the Great St. Ber- 
nard branches off. The ruined castle of Chatelard and village 
of La Salle are passed. Along a steep road above the foaming 
waters of the Doire, the route lies by Avise, with its old tower, 
and Liverogne, to Arvier, noted for its good wine, and possess- 
ing a thirteenth century castle. Villetieuve is next reached, 
the ihost picturesque portion of the valley, with the ruined 
Chateau d* Argent overlooking the village. After passing one or 
two chateaux, the Castle of Aosta is seen at the mouth of the 
Val de Cogne. 

Aosta, with a population of about 8000, is a beautifully 
situated town of importance. The valley produces various 
metals from its mines, marble from its quarries, and timber in 
abundance from its vast pine forests. The town was anciently 
named Augusta Praetoria Salassorum, after Augustus, who gar- 
risoned it with 3000 Praetorian Guards. Amongst the Roman 
remains still left are the town walls and towers, a fine 
triumphal arch, the ruins of a basilica, a gateway, etc. The 
cathedral has a curious portal, and some frescoes, mosaic work, 
etc. 

From Aosta to Ivrea (where the rail can be taken for Turia'^ 
is 42 miles, traversed by diligence in xime\io\a^^'^^&i\:«^^^^^i^s2^^ 
tillon. Bard (with the fortress tViat tieaiVj ««^^\. ^^^^^^'^^'^ 
grand march in 1800), Douna,St. MaTXm,?^!^^^'^'^'^^^^^'*''^^^^ 



156 



AOSTA TO MARTIGNY. 



A08TA TO MARTIGNY BY THE GREAT ST, 

BERNARD. 

This route is amongst picturesque and fertile scenery, by 
Signaye to the defile of Gignod. Here the southern aspect of the 
scenery diminishes. After passing ^troubles and St. Oyen, 
cultivation begins to get very scarce, and St. Remy is reached, 
the last Italian village. From St. Remy, about a two hours' walk 
will bring the visitor to the noted Hospice of St. Bernard, 
passing a small lake that is frozen nine months of the year^ and 
a column marking the boundary between Italy and Switzerland. 
The celebrated hospice is a stone edifice on the crest of the 
pass, the highest winter habitation in Europe. The mean 
temperature for. the summer is 48 deg. ; for the winter, 15 deg. 
The institution is said to owe its origin to St. Bernard of Men- 
thon in 962. Across the pass armies have several times marched. 
It was used by the Romans a hundred years before the Christian 
era ; and in the fearful struggles that closed last century several 
hundred thousand soldiers, French and Austrian^ passed through 
these sterile scenes. 

The approach to St. Bernard suggested Longfellow's noble 
poem " Excelsior." We welcome another pen to describe the 
scenery here. "What a bewildering, what a sudden change! 
Nothing but savage^ awful precipices of naked granite, snowy 
fields, and verdureless wastes ! In every other place of the Alps 
we have looked upon the snow in the remote distance, to be 
dazzled with its shining effulgence — ourselves, meanwhile, in 
the region of verdure and warmth. Here we march through a 
horrid desert — not a leaf, not a blade of grass — over the deep 
drifts of snow. And this is the road that Hannibal trod, and 
Charlemagne, and Napoleon ! They were fit conquerors of 
Rome, who could vanquish the sterner despotism of eternal 
winter." 

It is usual to stay the night in the hospice (813 1 ft.) j no 
charge is made, but of course no one would avail himself of the 
accommodation without contributing liberally to the institution. 
Everybody has heard of the noble work accomplished by the 
devoted monks and their faithful dogs in rescuing from death 
in the snow those who would otherwise perish. A piano in 
the room set apart for visitors was presented by the Prince of 
fVaJes. 

The Morgue will be seen V\ic)cv mVex^^X. \i^ \kose who 
indulge In visiting chambers oi lioitoxs. (C^Yv\sV\^^^^^^\«iX^ 



CHAMOUNY TO MARTIGNY. 1 C7 

the world-famed hospice is deemed sufficient, as the Brethren 
on the Mount take an interest in giving all particulars of the 
place.) • 

From the Great St. Bernard to Martigny is through the 
desolate Vall6e des Morts, and across the Dranse, and past the 
old Morgue, to the elevated pasture called the Plan de Proz. 
Here the traveller reaches the carriage road at the solitary inn 
known as the Cantine de Proz. 

Mont Velan (12,057 ft), seen to the east of St. Bernard, can 
be ascended from this point. 

From the Cantine the new rock-hewn road leads, through 
defile and forest, to Bourg St. Pierre, where there is an old 
nth century church. Lid des, Orsieres, with its ancient 
tower, Sembrancher, with its ruined castles, and some other 
small places, are passed, and then Martigny is reached. From 
the hospice, 29 miles. A coach runs between Martigny and 
Bourg St. Pierre. 

CHAMOUNY TO MARTIGNY BY THE T^TE 

NOIRE. 

(23 miles. Time, about 9 hours.) 

There are three routes connecting the Rhone Valley with 
the Valley of Chamouny — i. Martigny to Chamouny by the 
T^te Noire ; 2. Vernayaz to Chamouny by Triquent, Salvan, 
etc. (see p. 121) ; 3. Martigny to Chamouny by the Col de 
Balme. 

Except for its one grand, incomparable view of Mont Blanc 
and the Valley of Chamouny (see p. ij9), the Col de Balme 
route is unequal to the other two in general interest. 

Leaving Chamouny for the Tete Noire route, the Arve is 
soon crossed near the village of Les Praz. The source of the 
Arveiron (see p. ijo), in the Glacier des Bois, is left on the right, 
and then, passing over by Les Tines, Lavancher, La Joux (on 
the opposite bank), Les lies, and Grasonet, Argentifere is 
reached, 2i miles from Chamouny. 

At Argenti^re the grand glacier of the same name is seen 
stretching down towards the valley, with the Aiguille du Char- 
donnet, 12,500 feet high, on one side, and the Aiguille Verte, a 
thousand feet higher still, on the other. 

Here the route by Tour and t\\e Co\ dfe'^^taa ^«xn^& ^» 
the right (p. ijp.) 



I^ CHAMOUNY TO MARTIONY. 

The path to the left passes through the savage gfen ai Les 
MontetSy and by the village of Trelechamp to uie Cd des 
MontetSy at a height of 4819 feet. A cross shows the highest 
point. From the Col the path leads on amidst frequent tiraces 
of glacier and avalanche^ and varied combination^ of rook aiid 
anoWf and wood and water, past Poyaz, with its romanttc Water- 
fall (i franc), and then besicte the £au Noire to ValorCine.' 

This village of ch&Iets, with a popolatioo tmdef^oo^ lalbe 
largest in the vallej. It has walls tp-keep o^iia ^^nattaral 
enemies*' the avalanches. 

From Valorcine, past the fine water&ll- of the Barb6tine 
(i franc), near its junction with the £^u Nodre, and amoiigst 
so^iery increasingly grand, the Hotel Barberine is reached, and 
soon afterwards the Hotel Royal du Chatekrd. •■* 

Here the route by Triqvient and Salvan to Vemayaz diverges 
(see p. 122). 

Discarding the old Mauvais Pas on the left, the roate tt> 
Martigny leads through the rocks of the Tfete Noire. The 
highest point of the T^te Noire is some, distance to the south of 
the pass, being 6600 feet above th6 sea l^vel. The Hotel near 
the pass is over 4000 feet above the sea leveL The Bel-Oiseau, 
Dent de Hordes, and Grand Moveran, are conspicuous peaks 
in the vicinity. There is a path from the hotel by which the 
grand view from the Col de Balme may be combined with the 
journey by the T^te Noire route. 

The general character of the scenery in this portion of the 
excursion is well described in the following extract from*'' Swiss 
Pictures :" — 

•' Mountains lofty and precipitous, black, jagged rocks, roar- 
ing torrents, dark, gloomy ravines, solemn pine-woods, between 
whose columnar trunks the path winds as through the aisles of 
a vast cathedral ; yet, withal, an exhaustless abundance of ex- 
quisitely-tinted flowers, delicate ferns, slopes on which the wild 
strawberry blushes, and hides beneath the rich green leaves, and 
on all sides a profusion of verdure, which softens down the 
ruggedness of tiie mountain forms, yet leaves their grandeur 

undiminished Here are vast heights above, and vast depths 

below, villages hanging to the mountain sides, green pasturages, 
winding paths, chalets dotting the slopes, lovely meadows 
enamelled with flowers, dark, immeasurable ravines, colossal, 
overhanging walls and bastions of rock, snow-peaks rising into 
the heavens over all," 

Leaving the Hotel de la Tfete l^ovte, ^<e ^oteaX. dl "WnssoxV^ 



CHAMOUNY TO MARTIGNY. I rA 

entered^ with the river of the^i^^en^^ dfishing onward below 
to join the Eati Noire. * At fiie yillage of Trient (Hotel du 
Glaciei; de Trient) the Col de Balme route is reached. 

From Trient the road ascends to the Col de la.FOrclaz. 
or Col de Trient (5020 feet}. In descending tOwafds Mar- 
tigny, the Valley of the Rhone as far as Sion is seen'spftad Otit 
like a beautiful picture* The scene is described by on^ tiiaveller 
as '' one of those flat Swiss valfeys, green as a velvet carpet> 
studded with buildings and villages that look like dots in die 
distance, and embraced on all sides by magnificent mounifains, 
of which those nearest in the prospect were distinctly madeout^ 
with their rocks, pine-trees^ and foliage. The next in the re- 
ceding distance were fainter^ and of a purplish green;' the 
next of a vivid purple ; the next lilac ; while far in the fading 
view the crystal summits and glaciers of the Oberland Alps 
rose like an exhalation. ••...The Simplon road could be seen 
dividing the valley like an arrow." 

. Still descending amongst forests and pastures, ^nd orchards 
rich with fruity the traveller soon reaches Martigny-le-boutg, and 
then Martigny (see p. 122). 



FROM CHAMOUNY TO MARTIGNY BY THE 

COL DE BALME. 

As far as Argentiere, and from Trient forward^ this route is 
identical with the last (p. i J7)*: At Argentiere leave the T^te 
Noire route, and proceed to La Tour (Hotel du Rivage), where 
the carriage-road terminates. Leaving Tour, and its beautiful 
glacier, and passing the landmark known as the Homme de 
Pierre, and still ascending beside the rushing Arve, the inn is 
reach^ on the Col de Balme. Hence there is a grand pro- 
spect of the Mont £lanc range, with aiguilles, glaciers, etc. 
Opposite to them are seen the Aiguilles Rouges, Br^vent, etc. 
Turning in the direction of Martigny are seen the mountains of 
Valais and the Bernese Oberland. 

From the Col the path leads over sloping pastures, thea 
through the Forest of Magnin, much injured by avalanches, and 
then through more meadows to Trient, where the T^te Noire 
route is again joined. 

There is a fine mountain footpath connecting t3\& Cc^^. ^ 
Balme with the T^te Noire, which afEotda a AfiX\^\Sxii ^"5^5^ >»- 
dear weath&c (p, ij8). 



|60 MARTIGNY TO ZERMATT. 

MARTIGNY TO ZERMATT 

By railway to Sierre. Diligence thence to Visp (p. 77). 

At Visp horses can be hired for the first nine miles up the 
Visp Thai to St. Niklaus. From that place there is a carriage- 
road (13 miles) to Zermatt. 

The whole distance can be easily managed in ten to twelve 
hours by those who can shoulder their knapsacks^ and march on, 
independent of all conveyances. 

The route lies now on one side and now on the other of the 
river Visp, rushing along a richly-wooded mountain gorge. All 
the way to Zermatt, peaks and glaciers, rocks, and torrents^ and 
waterfalls, in varying combinations, make the journey a very 
attractive one. It is year by year becoming increasingly popu- 
lar. The inhabitants of this lovely valley are, however, a 
poverty-stricken and dirty race, very much afflicted with goitre. 

The path leads at first along the right bank of the Visp, 
between hills clad with flowers, and shrubs, and trellised vines. 
At Neubriicke the river is crossed, and the left bank pursued 
to Stalden (5 miles). Fine views abound here. The town 
is prettily situated at the junction of the Gorner Visp and Saaser 
Visp, both being streams from the glaciers of Monte Rosa. 
The bold dividing ridge between the two valleys consists of the 
Mischabelhorn, Balferinhom, etc. 

Leaving the Saas Thai on the left, the right bank of the 
Corner Visp is followed into the Nicolai Thai. The Weiss- 
horn comes into view, and the Jungbach, Riedbach, and other 
waterfalls, are passed. A forest path conducts to another bridge 
across the Visp, and shortly afterwards St. Niklaus is reached. 
St- Niklaus (Grand Hotel), charmingly situated on a gentle 
slope, 3819 feet above the sea level, is a good half-way resting- 
place for those who wish to break the journey. A night's rest 
here is more likely to be healthful and refreshing than at Vis- 
pach or elsewhere in the malarious Rhone Valley. Numerous 
excursions and expeditions can be arranged from St. Niklaus by 
those who can spare time. There is in the village a church 
whose metallic steeple is seen for miles shining like silver. 
The Grand Hotel is commodious and comfortable. 

Leaving St. Niklaus by the carriage-road which begins here, 

the valley again narrows, and its mountain boundaries increase 

in size. Frequent waterfalls dash down from the western preci- 

pices / the road crosses the V\sp, i^^iSiSe^ Vi^ V«\%e reminders of 

^he i8jj earthquake^ amongst woodYaiv^swL^^^^xa^&A^'^^ay^ii^ 



ZERMATT. l6i 

Before reaching this spot> the Little Mont Cervin and fireithom 
come into sight. 

Randa is nearly 5000 feet above the sea level. On the 
opposite side of the valley the Biesgletscher, an offshoot of 
the Weisshomgletscher, protrudes through a mountain gap; 
and from its precipitous mass a tributary torrent rushes to the 
Visp. Parts of ihis glacier have occasionally broken off, spread- 
ing terror and destruction around. An immense portion fell in 
1 8 19, when 118 buildings in Randa were destroyed, and the 
snow and broken ice lay in some parts of the village several feet 
in depth. 

East of Randa is the Grabengletscher, under the Graben- 
hom, which is the highest peak of the Mischabelhorner^ being 
nearly 15,000 feet. 

In about an hour from leaving Randa, Tasch is reached. 
The route is still upward, till, on crossing a rocky ridge, the 
first view of the Matterhorn is obtained, stupendous and 
overwhelming in its isolated majesty. By the Spiessbrucke, and 
one or two other bridges, the road crosses and recrosses, till at 
length the defile opens^ and the rich pastoral valley of Zermatt 
lies full in view. 

The quaint little village of Zermatt (pop., 450), overtopped 
by its hotels, is situated in the midst of woods and pastures, in 
a mountain-girdled valley, nearly 5500 feet above the level of 
the sea. The valley and adjacent heights are rich in beautiful 
and varied wild flowers, interesting mineral specimens, butter- 
flies, insects, etc. Three glaciers feed the torrent of the Visp 
as it rushes past the village 5 these are the Gomer from Monte 
Rosa, the Findelen from the Strahlhorn, and the Z'mutt from 
the Matterhorn. In the surrounding scenery the artist will find 
abundant subjects for his pencil. 

In the churchyard of Zermatt are the graves of Mr. Hadow, 
the Rev. Charles Hudson, and the guide, Michael Croz, who 
perished on the Matterhorn, in 1855. The body of Lord 
Francis Douglas who fell with them, was never found. Its 
whereabouts remains an awful secret of that mysterious moun- 
tain. 

The neighbourhood of Zermatt contains so much that is of 
absorbing interest, that a visit of a day or two only suffices for 
a glimpse at a few of the chief attractions. 



w 



1 52 ZERMATT. 

THE RIFFELBERQ AND QORNER QRAT. 

This is undertaken by most visitors to Zennatt even if time 
allows of nothing else being attempted. The route is by the 
first bridge across the Visp beyond the village, past the little 
church of Winkelmatten, and then up a steep path through the 
pine woods. From the openings between the trees the toot of 
the Gromer Glacier is seen, and the fine waterfall of the Visp 
rushing out from its icy cradle. Passing the chilet oil the 
Augstkummenmatt, the pine woods are left behind^ some bare 
slopes of short. grass are crossed, and two hours of good walk- 
ing from Zermatt brings the visitqr to the broad terrace of the 
mountain upon which stands the Riffel Hotel (8000 ft) 
This is truly a glorious spot. In front, separated only by the 
deep valley in which lie the Gorner and Furggen glacier, rises 
the majestic Matterhom, a silent, solitary pinnacle of bare rock, 
5,000 feet from base to summit, enthroned upon a pedestal of 
snow and ice, which is itself 10,000 feet above the ocean level, 
standing aloof and seeming to frown defiance on its fellows 
which lie grouped on every side. It is well to behold this 
scene, if possible, when the rosy glow of sunrise pervades it 
with an intense liquid light, revealing its furrowed sides, its 
seams of snow, its overhanging brow, its ice-bound feet, its 
treacherous chasms, and its awful precipices, and yet softening 
its asperity into a loveliness that holds the gazer spell-bound. 

Two hours* ascent from the Riffel Hotel, brings the visitor 
two thousand feet higher to the Corner Grat. This is one 
of the very few spots in the Alps where one can obtain an eleva- 
tion of over 10,000 feet without the slightest semblance of a 
difficulty. The path is good and well-defined the whole way, 
and the panorama quite unsurpassed. It is remarkable from 
the fact that there is an unbroken range of magnificent snow 
peaks on every side. There is not a single break in the chain. 
It is an isolated, rocky peak that seems formed by nature to 
enable one to survey at leisure the marvellous scene around. 
The huge Gomer Glacier winds round its base at a dizzy depth 
below ; beyond are the snows of that glorious range beginning 
with Monte Rosa (which seems within a stone's throw) and 
ending with the Matterhorn. Then the central range of the 
Pennine Alps with the stupendous summits of the Dent 
Blanche, the Gabelhom, the Rothhom, and the Weisshom all 
Jinked together in one vast cYiaitv ol stvo^ ^\A Krr.. Next, far 
awajr beyond the Rhone VaWey, some ^v^xasiV^eiiJs&^V^Jiaa^^- 



THE HORNLI, 163 

nese Oberland ; and again to the right, the group of the Mis- 
chabelhorner, the Alphubel, the Strahlhorn, and the Stockhorn, 
which last brings us round again to the snows of the Cima 
di Jazi, and the Weisthor Pass, which flanks Monte Rosa on 
the east. Between these mighty peaks h'e innumerable glaciers, 
notably the vast sea of ice formed of the Gromer, the Theodule, 
and the Furggen glaciers which lies like a map below 3 its 
moraines, its snow slopes, and its countless crevasses revealed 
at a single glance. 

F. B. Zincke, in his *^ Month in Switzerland/' thus describes 
the scene from the Gomer Grat — 

" Here you have what is said to be the finest Alpine view in 
Europe. You are standing on a central eminence of rock in, 
as far as you can see, a surrounding world of ice and snow. 
On the left is the Cima di Jazi, which you are told commands 
a good view into Italy. Just before you, as you look across 
the glacier, which lies in a deep, broad ravine at your feet, rise 
the jagged summits of Monte Rosa with, at this season, much 
of the black rock shining through their caps and robes of snow. 
Next the Lyskamm, somewhat in the background 5 then Cas- 
tor and Pollux, immaculate snow without protruding rock 3 
next the Breithom, then the naked gneiss of the Matterhom, 
a prince among peaks, too precipitous for snow to rest on in 
the late summer, looking like a Titanic Lycian tomb (such as 
you may see in the plates of * Fellowe's Asia Minor*), placed on 
the top of a Titanic rectangular shaft of rock, ^ve thousand 
feet high. Beyond, and completing the circle of the panorama, 
come the Dent Blanche, the Gabelhorn, the Rothhorn, the 
Weisshorn, over the valley of Zermatt, the Ober Rothhorn, and 
the Allaleinhom, which brings your eye round again to the 
Cima di Jazi.*' 

From the Gomer Grat the visitor may return by the 
Guggli, an eminence with a fine view, but less striking than 
that just described. Hence a path leading beside the Finde- 
len Glacier may be followed back to Zermatt. Or another path 
may be taken from the Guggli to the Riffel Hotel, and thence 
a descent effected to the foot of the Grorner Glacier, an inte- 
resting and charming spot where the glacial encroachment is 
very evident. 

THE HORNLI 

is the first great step in the ascent oi ^^ ^^^XXri^w^** ''?^^ 
should be visited by ail who desire a \ieatet nSstw <:S^ '^^ ^^^^ 



1 54 ZERMATT. 

moantain without attempting to scale it. The route is to the 
right of the Gromer Glacier, and along the base of the Matter- 
horn to the mountain lake called the Schwarz-See, where there is 
a fine view of the Zermatt Valley and its surroundings. Horses 
can be ridden to this point. Another hour's upward climb 
brings the traveller to the Homli (9492 ft.). 

The /iew of the Matterhom from this point is amazingly 
grand. The whole eastern face is close in front, and the trea- 
cherous northern face is also in view. Down those awful 
precipices the unfortunate victims of the first ascent fell a dis- 
tance of 4000 feet to the glacier which lies on the right. From 
one's very feet stretches away the wonderful plateau of ice 
and snow constituting the Furggen and Theodule glaciers. 
The ridge on which one stands is a mere arete in parts, perpen- 
dicular on one side, and falling abruptly on the other, many 
thousand feet to the Zermatt Glacier and the pine woods at its 
foot. Over the ridge the wind sweeps with icy breath, and a 
scene of desolation is around. Rain, and sun, and frost have 
bared, and bleached, and riven the barren crags upon which one 
stands. One glance takes in the green pastures of Zermatt, 
5000 feet below 5 turning, the visitor sees the topmost pinnacle 
of the Matterhorn, jooo feet above. The ridge of Homli 
affords a wild and wondrous scene of mingled awe and loveli- 
ness, which should be seen by all visitors to Zermatt possessing 
tolerably stout legs and lungs, but having no ambition to 
measure their strength with the High Alps. 

The return to Zermatt can be varied by descending to the 
foot of the Zermatt Glacier, and passing along the Zermatt 
Valley. Beautiful and interesting scenery will reward the 
extra exertion. 

THE CIMA Dl JAZL 

This is a mountain of 1.3,000 ft. in height, which can be 
reached without danger or difficulty, in about 5 hours, from the 
Riffelberg. The view is very grand, including the Itr.lian lakes, 
the Tyrol, the Pennine and Bernese Alps, etc. 

MONTE ROSA. 

The ascent of this mountain is arduous and difficult. It 

was first accomplished by Taugwald, in 1849. "-^^ ^^^7 vast- 

ness, or rather its concentrated massiveness, unbroken by peaks 

of proportionate size, makes it seeni\ess\o1tj ^tiaax\\.x«!!!5q v^-.^ 



ENVIRONS OF ZERMATT. j5^ 

and its immediate union on either side with a range of sharper 
snowy summits approaching its own elevation tends still further 
to prevent a just appreciation of its true character at the first 
glance." 

The five highest peaks of Monte Rosa are arrayed in a 
connected ridge some 2 miles in length, in north to south. This 
ridge is crossed at the centre by a ridge of lower summits run- 
ning east and west. At the point of union is the Signalkuppe^ 
14,964 ft., the most conspicuous of the peaks from the Italian 
side. North of this is the Zumsteinspitze, 15,004 ft. A little 
further north, and connected by a ridge frowning over one of the 
deepest and most awful of Alpine abysses, is the Hochste- 
spitze 3 the true Monte Rosa, presenting from its summit a 
wondrous view of mountain peaks. The Hochstespitze, or 
Gornerhom, is *'a sharp, rocky obelisk," 15,217 ft. in height. 
Still further north is the Nordende, 15,132 ft. 

South of the central point is the Parrotspitze, I4,577 ^^'^ 
and four other peaks, ranging from 13,800 to 14,200 ft. 

The 

EXCURSIONS AND EXPEDITIONS 

that can be made from Zermatt are too numerous to be fully 
detailed. Tourists who shrink from danger in any form, and 
even wish to avoid difficulty or over-exertion, will find no lack 
of charming and interesting walks to occupy a prolonged 
stay. For those possessing mountaineering ambition and the 
requisite physical qualifications, there are no end of peaks and 
passes. Many of these require more than ordinary experience 
and skill in Alpine adventure 3 and none will, of course, be 
undertaken without making proper inquiries and procuring 
good guides. We simply enumerate a few of these expe- 
ditions : — 

The Matterhorn, 14,889 ft., was first scaled, in 1865, by 
Mr. Whymper, the guide Taugwald, Lord Francis Douglas^ 
Mr. Hadow, Rev. Chas. Hudson, and the guide Croz. The 
four latter lost their lives in commencing the descent. 

The Breithorn, 13,685 ft., is reached by crossing the 
snow from the Col on the S. Theodule route (p. 169). 

The TriftjochL Pass, 11,614 ft-* a gap between the (xabel- 
horn and the Trifthom, leading to the Val d'Annivlets, 

The Col de la Dent BlancVie, ?i xstt^cfc^/s^-^^A^^^^ 
above the sea level} also a route to tJieNsX ^ KxixivnsJ^* 
The Weissthor Pass^ 10,000 ix.., xo ^^ca^^'^^* 



jgg ZERMATT TO VOGOONA. 

The Mettelhorn, ii,i88 ft., with good guides, is <me of 
the less difficult ascents. No similar scene of ice and pre- 
cipitous mountain can be witnessed with equal ease on anj 
known mountain. 

The Lyskamm, 14)889 ft., was once considered the sum- 
mit of Monte Rosa. 

The Gabelhorn, i3»3^3 ^t- 

The Weisshorn, 141804 ft. 

The Mischabelhorn, 14,935 ft-> the highest mountun 
entirely in Switzerland. 

The Adler Pass, 12,461 ft., and other passes to the Saas 
Vclley. 

The Silber Pass, 14,040 ft. (passing nine of the Monte 
Rosa peaks), and other passes into Italy. 

In the inns of Zermatt will be seen the regular tariff of 
charges for guides, for the various excur^ons and expeditions 
in the vicinity. 

ZERMATT TO VOGOGNA ON THE SIMPLON. 

To effect this route without attempting any of the more 
difficult passes above-mentioned, the tourist must reti ace his 
steps to Stalden. From thence the path leads along the beau- 
tiful defile known as the Saas Thai. Glaciers look down from 
the gaps on the western side, and many a wayside cross tells of 
the avalanche that has brought death and desolation into the 
lovely valley. The tourist should turn from time to time to see 
the prospect down the valley, with the Bietschhom closing the 
view. In four hours Saas is reached, the chief place in the 
valley — a good place to sojourn at, and becoming increasingly 
frequented. It stands on a beautiful green plain, with moun- 
tains all round. 

" The contrast between Saas and Zermatt," says Zincke, in 
his *' Month in Switzerland,** ** is very great. At Zermatt the 
valley ends with great emphasis in a grand amphitheatre of 
mountains and snowy peaks. At Saas it seems suddenly brought 
to a close, without any object of interest to look upon. With 
the mind full of Zermatt, Saas appears but a lame and impo- 
tent conclusion. The village, however, is very far indeed from 
being at the head of the valley. That is to be found at the 
Monte Moro, 5 hours farther on ; and as it includes the Allnlein 
Glacier, the grand scenery oi UtA MaUrci2LxVL^fee.«ckALQlthfi Monte 
Moro Itself, it has enougli to satisiy eNeii ^t^^\. e^k^^^rXaJLvsose— 
such as one has, of course, coimtig itonx Ti^xYaaxxr 



ZERMATT TO VOGOGNA. 



167 



From Saas many mountain and glacier expeditions can be 
undertaken. Those whose time is limited may make a very 
enjoyable trip of about 3 hours to F6e, a charming little village, 
in a lovely green hollow, headed by a vast glacier. By allowing 
half a day, the Gletscher Alp, beyond F^e, may be reached. 
This is a beautiful spot, bright with rich grass and flowers, 
almost encircled by the sea of ice. 

At Saas a guide for Macugnagna should be engaged. Post- 
chaises can be procured for ladies. Horses can only be taken 
to Thaliboden, about half an hour from the summit of the 
pas^. 

Leaving Saas, the road passes the waterfall from the Roth- 
platt Glacier, and under the well- wooded Mittaghorn to Almagel. 
Meigeren is next reached, and then the bridle-path winds 
among rocks and stones, with the remarkable AUalein 
Glacier apparently closing the valley in front. To pass this 
glacier; the path zigzags up the mountain side, and then skirts 
the Mattmark See. Here there is an inn (3 hours from 
Saas), where those should pass the night who wish to enjoy 
the early morning view from Monte Moro. The Schwarzen- 
berg Glacier is close by. 

Still ascending from Mattmark, the chalets of Distel are 
reached in half an hour, where the usual light refreshments 
can be obtained. The Seewinen Glacier is just opposite. 

The summit of the pass of Monte Moro is reached in an 
hour from Distel. The name (like Allalein, Mattmark, and 
some other names in the neighbourhood) is of Moorish origin, 
and carries us back some eight centuries, when with the Great 
St. Bernard and the Engadine it was one of the three great 
passes into Italy, and was held by the Moors, who levied black 
mail on all comers. Fragments of ancient pavement are seen 
near the summit. The immediate approach from the Swiss side 
is very sterile and desolate, past the icy basin, into which the 
Thaliboden Glacier descends from the Joderhorn. 

By ascending the rocks near the cross on the summit, a 
really sublime prospect of Monte Rosa is beheld to the south, 
whilst turning to the north the Saas Valley is seen, with its 
picturesque surroundings. A more extensive view is obtained 
Irom the adjacent Joderlxom, including some of the Southern 
Alps and the Italian plains. 

The descent to Macugnagna will take about four hours. 
The route is very steep 5 first over a swonn^<^^» ^'scl ^ss^cs^^si^ 
lones and rocks, and then over s\oigiva^ ^xeeo. ^^%\s»^'s»,^>5^ 



1 68 ZERMATT TO VOGOGNA. 

glorious views of the Macugnagna Valley and Monte Rosa 
beyond. 

Mules can sometimes be procured at Macugnagna for the 
remainder of the journey to Vogogna 5 or they may have to be 
sent for from Ponte Grande, imless the traveller inclines to walk 
on. 

Macugnagna is situated between its glacier and thegreea 
pastures, 4400 feet above the sea levels and is girded by majestic 
mountains. In exploring the glacier, and enjoying the incom- 
parable views of Monte Rosa, whose five principal peaks (p. 
165) are all in sights a day may be well spent. At any rate, the 
pine-clad eminence, known as the Belvedere — an ancient 
moraine, should be visited without fail. There is no grander 
view in the locality. If possible, proceed also, with a guide, for 
a considerable distance on to the glacier, to where a cascade 
leaps down into an icy abyss. The surrounding scene from 
this point is strangely grand and impressive. From the margin 
of the sea of ice the rocks of the central chain of Monte Rosa 
tower proudly up to the height of 7000 or 8000 feet, with 
connecting ridges to the Cima del Pizzo and Pizzo Bianco on 
one side, and to the Cima di Jazi and Monte Moro on the 
other. 

Fillar, under the old Weissthor Pass, to the north of the 
glacier } and PedriolO, to the south of the glacier, where 
immense blocks (one specimen being joo feet in girth) have 
come down from Pizzo Bianco, may be included in a day's round 
with the previously mentioned points of view. 

From Macugnagna, the route to the Simplon conducts by 
Borca, Pestarena (with its mines of gold, silver, and copper), and 
Campiole, to the rocky barrier of the Morgen, through a narrow 
gorge in which the Anza forces its way. Here the Val Macug- 
nagna is left, and with it, for the most part, the German lan- 
guage 3 henceforward Italian. 

The traveller now enters the lovely Val Anzasca, com- 
bining in its scenery both Swiss and Italian characteristics. At 
Ceppo Morelli, the carriage toad commences. Notice the 
women hereabouts doing men's work, in men*s unmention- 
ables. Fanzone is next passed — a good stopping- place for those 
who can spare time for leisurely enjoyment of this delightful 
valley. The same remark applies to the next town, Ponte 
Grande, which is the principal place in the Val Anzasca, with 
£ood hotel accommodation and travelling facilities. Cdstigilione 
is next reached ^ and then Pie di Mulera. "^^t^^^nx^^ w^ 



ZERMATT TO CHATILLON. 169 

the richly-fertile and well-wooded valley, with Monte Rosa 
closing the scene, is very fine 5 there is also a grand prospect of 
the Val d*Ossola below in the other direction. The road now 
runs direct to the Simplon, near Vogogna (p. 170). 

ZB RMATT TO CHATILLON. 

(By the S. Theodule Pass.) 

This is the most frequented of Alpine Glacier Passes ; it is 
accomplished by many ladies with tolerable ease. The distance 
is 29 miles, requiring from 12 to 14 hours' walking; or horses 
may be taken to the foot of the glacier, and again forward from 
the Fourneaux, in descending the southern side. It is necessary 
to start at dawn in order to reach the two hours' passage across 
the snow at the summit before it has softened under tiie influ- 
ence of the sun's rays. 

From Zermatt the route lies by Zmutt and along the side 
of the Gorner Glacier ; from the Riff el (rather shorter), the path 
is across the glacier just named. In about a couple of hours, 
vegetation is left behind, and a pathless, rocky tract is crossed to 
the foot of the glacier, where those who have ridden so far must 
dismount. 

The Glacier has few crevasses 5 but still the neglect of 
the rope, in such expeditions, is foolhardy, and has led to fatal 
accidents. 

The summit of the Theodule Pass is nearly 11,000 feet 
above the sea level. The scene is a very striking one. Close 
around is the broad expanse of ice. Outside this, the scene 
comprises the wondrous Matterhom, or Mont Cervin, the 
Piedmontese mountains, Monte Rosa, the valley of S. Niklaus, 
with the Bernese Alps beyond 5 and in the eastern foreground, 
the Theodulhom (11,391 feet), the Breithorn (13,685 feet), and 
the Petit Mont Cervin (12,749 feet). 

On this Col, Saussure spent three days in scientific experi- 
ments. There is a small hut, where light refreshments can be 
obtained ; it is the loftiest inhabited spot in Europe. 

Descending towards the Val d'Aosta, a walk of about three- 
quarters of an hour across the glacier, brings the traveller to 
the Fourneaux, a rugged tract of rocks and d6bris. Here 
horses can be often met with, waiting the chance of an engage- 
ment. Green meadows are again TeacYied,axA«LVQs\aaskKCk.^\i^sK. 

Le Breuil, is a good inn, witJi horses^ etc. 



170 



MARTIGNY TO ARONA. 



From the plain of Breuil, the descent is by a fine moontain 
gorge^ with a torrent rushing through it. No graide is needed 
tor the remainder of the route. From Fal Toumanche^ the de- 
scending valley is very delightful, from the charming combins- 
tion of rocks and precipices, rushing vtrater^ and plentiful 6)liage. 
Some interesting remains of a Roman aoueduct are visible at 
intervals, especially the arches, by the cliff near Antey, Oo 
reaching Gh^tillon, the tourist is on the high road traversed 
by daily diligence between Ivrea and Aosta. From Ivrea, the 
railway can be taken for Turin or Milan ; and from Aosta (see 
p. I j j) the St. Bernard and Martigny, or Chamouny and MoDt 
Blanc may be reached. 

FROM MARTIGNY OVER THE 8IMPLON, TO 

ARONA. 

The Baths Of Saxon are near station Gottfrey. They are 
noted for the cure of skin diseases, and for gambling. Passing 
Ardon, with its ironworks, we soon near Sion. The traveller is 
now in a region of ancient castles. Every eminence seems to 
have had, at one time or other, its own particular fortress. At 
Sfion there are three of these edifices, adding much to the pic- 
turesque appearance of the place as it is approached. Here the 
shale mountains are beautifully terraced like those of the Rhine. 

Sion contains, besides its three castles (of which the 
highest, the Tourbillon, may be visited for the extensive view, 
an old cathedral, of some interest for frescoes 3 a Jesuit con- 
vent, with a local natural history collection 3 an old prison. La 
Tour de Force 3 and a hospital. The town has had its great 
conflagration, and some thirty sieges. 

[From Sion there is a good four days' ride, by Evolena, St. 
Luc, Griiben, and St. Niklaus, to Zermatt, which, if desired, 
can be taken in preference to the Rhone Valley and Visp Thai 
route (see p. 160).] 

The railway passes 5"/. Leonard station, and by more ruined 
castles, mulberry plantations, etc., on to Sierre. 

Sierre (Hotel Belle Vue) is picturesquely situated on an 
eminence in the centre of a good wine district, and has many 
fine but decaying mediaeval buildings, and also some interesting 
ruins in the vicinity. 

Excursions from Sierre can be attan^^ \.o \>afc ^^^^&s^ ^ 



THE SIMPLON. I71 

Leuk (see p. 96) by omnibus $ into the lovely Val d*AnnivierSj 
etc. 

Crossing the Rhone, the road lies past hills formerly the 
resort of brigands, past Alpine villages, glistening church 
towers, waterfalls, castles, rocks, valleys, snow-mountains, alter- 
nations of sterility and fertility, past Leuk ; Susten; 
Tourtemagne ; Viege, or Yispacli (whence numerous 
tours may be made to the glacier region of Zermatt) ; and then 
on to Brigue (Brieg, Hotel de la Poste), where the railway 
terminates, and the work of ascent refally commences.* The dili- 
gence leaves Brigue daily for the Simplon route, and takes about 17 
hours to accomplish the journey to Arona. Here we bid farewell 
to the romantic valley of the Rhone, and enter upon the land which 
Mr. Laing quaintly epitomizes as one of " avalanches, snows, 
glaciers, winding roads, with cataracts and precipices below, and 
clouds and blue sky above, and all the other romance furniture 
of Alpine scenery.* The road now pursued by us was con- 
structed by Napoleon, after the famous battle of Marengo. The 
scenery becomes wilder and grander at every turn. Bridge 
after bridge is crossed, gallery after gallery gone through, houses 
of refuge passed by, and then comes the stupendous panorama 
of the Alps, the real grandeur of which is. beyond the power of 
words to paint, and which forms a sight well worth the whole 
cost of the journey from England. '* In the distance is an eagle 
soaring majestically through the air 3 below us is heard the 
distant Alpine horn, or the shepherd's melodious pipe, its notes 
commingling with the tinkling of numerous sheep bells. 
Higher and higher we rise, from the very roots of the moun* 
tains, the picture varying in beauty at every turn ; now the dizzy 
precipices below, now the craggy heights above, until the 
summit of the pass, 6600 ft. above the level of the sea, is 
reached. Further on is the hospice, capable of giving suitable 
refuge to three hundred, managed by pious Augustine monks. 
The little village of Simplon is situated about 1400 ft. below 
the summit. Through a black and craggy rending asunder of 
the granite Alps, the descent into Italy is commenced, a foam- 
ing torrent below, and straight up, above the gloomy precipices, 
the lowering clouds of heaven. Marvellous are the winding 
tunnels which commence after passing the famous GrOrge of 
Gondo, said to be the wildest and grandest in the Alps. 
These gigantic tunnels are hewn out ot* ?l s^oVA xaasa <:^ x<is^6.» 

♦ For farther particulan of the above-named vUc«&» ^e 'WaoxAN^'Ci x^njss. 
(P- 77)' 



IJ2 LUCERNE TO COMO. 

which seemed to impede the further progress of the road, and 
took eighteen months to excavate — loo men, in gangs of 
eight, working in turns day and night. On emerging from 
the tunnel, a scene of stupendous majesty meets the eye. 
Hissing and roaring, the boiling waters of the Fressinone 
dash over the rocks above into the tremendous gorge below. 
On either side rise rocks more than 2000 ft. in height, the 
whole forming a picture of almost terrific sublimity. More 
cascades, more fearful ravines, more lofty crags, and then 
GondO, the last Swiss village. Soon Iselle, die frontier 
town of Switzerland and Italy, is reached. Crevola, with 
its rock gallery, gorge, and bridge, passed, a completely 
new scene unfolds. '* Now the scenery softens," says another 
writer ; " the Yal d'Ossola expands, a charming relief and 
contrast to past horrors. Luxuriant verdure, plants, vines, 
insect voices, mellowing tints, the very air ' breathing of the 
sweet south,' yes, this is Italy indeed ! " There is little to detain 
us at Domo d'Ossola (Hotel de la Ville). More and more 
delightiully Italian becomes the journey. Nothing can exceed 
its highly picturesque character, especially as FariolO is ap- 
proached. After passing numerous granite quarries, and the 
famous quarry " out of which man's skill has disinterred the 
whole of Milan cathedral," a perfect maze of vineyards, olive 
groves, corn-fields, and chestnut plantations arrests the gaze. 
Here, too, the beautiful LagO Maggiore suddenly bursts 
into view, heightening inconceivably the rich glories of the 
landscape 3 and in the distance is seen Isola Madre, one of 
the charming islands which stud the lake. Reaching Baveno 
(where many travellers stay in order to visit the Borromean 
Isles), the diligence journey is continued over a road almost 
wholly supported by granite pillars, by the side of the famous 
lake, and passing numerous villas and gardens, it rattles at full 
speed through the streets of Arona. 

LUCERNE OVER THE ST. GOTHARD TO 

COMO (Camerlata). 

(By steamer to Fliielen 2i hours; thence dIRgence to 
Biasca 5 railway to Bellinzona, and diligence to Lugano. In 
summer time there are two diligences daily.) 

The St. GrOthard Railway is in course of construction, 
but will not be completed for Ita^c Omom^ \tota. lissjcetne to 
Como for some years. There ate a\te.?Ld^ ^ Yko^e^et ^ orofc i^jt \:«^ 



ST. GOTHARD PASS. 



173 



portions of the line open, namely, from Biasca to Bellinzona 
and Locarno, and from Lugano to Chiasso (p. 177). 

Leaving FlUelen, Altdorf is soon reached 5 the capital of 
the Canton of Uri, with a colossal statue of William Tell, mark- 
ing, it is said, the spot where the Swiss hero stood when he 
aimed at the apple on his son's head. 

A little further on is Burglen, at the entrance to the 
Schachtenthal, the birthplace and home of Tell, with a chapel 
painted over with scenes from his life and supposed to mark 
the site of his house. Through the Schachtenthal there is a 
path to the Baths of Stachelberg. 

Crossing the Schachenbach (in the waters of which the hero 
perished while struggling to save a child) and skirting the 
meadow forming the popular meeting-place of the canton, 
IIlus is reached. Near Silenen there is a fine view of the 
pyramidal Bristenstock (io,o8j) 5 a castle attributed to Gressler, 
and the chapel of the " Fourteen saints who help the needy." 
Several minor places are passed in rapid succession, the road 
rising gradually, and the scenery everywhere being of the most 
romantic description imaginable. After leaving Amsteg the 
road crosses the Reuss, which here dashes madly along, foam- 
ing and leaping over its rocky bed. 

The ascent of the St. Gothard is here commenced ; it is 
not, as many suppose, a single peak or eminence, but a moun- 
tainous group presenting many peculiar features. The region 
now traversed has occupied a prominent position in modem 
continental history. In the valley of the Reuss and the sur- 
rounding neighbourhood, several of the deadliest struggles, 
occasioned by the outbreak of war between France, Germany, 
and Russia, in 1 799 took place 5 the French, after their defeat 
of the Russian geneial, occupying the road as far as the Hos- 
pice of St. Gothard, the building of which was used by them 
as fuel. Crossing and recrossing the Reuss several times, and 
passing Wasen, Wattingen, and Gk)schenen, with its 
glacier landscape and its wonderful works in connection with 
the St. Gothard Tunnel, the awe-inspiring defile of the 
Schollenen is entered, and continues for three miles. In it, 
amid wild and savage desolation, is the famous Devil's 
Brid.^e: — 

*^ Winding *neath rocks Impending, and o*er steeps 
Dread in their awfiil altitude, the road 
Leads through a pass whose ^jcandcMt \& ^\caii 
Upon the aMre-strock mindi die mVi'^«v3S&v««s^ 



jy^ LUCERNE TO COMO. 

From precipice to chum, where it keepe 

Boiling and fretting till it throws abrosui 

Milt doads : then, chafed and flying from iti goaly 

Like fiery steed, o*er crag and crerice leaps. 

The thunder rolls among the mountain peaki $ 

The echoes seem gigantic in their home, 

(Now answering deep as voice Promethean speaki ;) 

Towering aloft where the fleet chamois roam, 

IVIid pines and cottages the church oh seeks 

To buUd its shrine where prayerful Switzen come.** 

Here a tremendous battle was fought in lygg, between the 
French and Austrians, numbers of whom perished in the 
abyss beneath. The bridge is a modem structure; the old 
bridge (the ruins of which, covered with creeping plants, are 
yet visible) was blown up by the Austrians while being forced 
by the French, during the conflict. 

From the " Paradise Lost " of Milton, to the " Satan " of 
Montgomery, the certain gentleman who haunts mysterious 
places, has been the burden of poets' song. The following 
well-known lines are very graphic: — 

•< Called the DeviVs Bridge : 
With a single arch, from ridge to ridgey 
It leaps across the terrible chasm 
Yawning beneath us black and deep. 
As if, in some convulsive spasm, 
The summits of the hills had cracked. 
And made a road for the cataract. 
That raves and rages down the steep ! 
Never any bridge but this 
Could stand across the wild abyss ; 
All the rest, of wood or stone. 
By the Devil's hand were overthrown. 
He toppled crags from the precipice^ 
And whatsoe'er was built by day 
In the night was swept away ; 
None could stand but this alone.*' 

Away, through the granite tunnel of Urner Loclx, across the 
peaceful Valley of Uri, where winter reigns during eight 
months out of twelve, to Andermatt. As Andermatt is 
only one mile from the Devil's Bridge, it is a convenient and 
good place to break the journey at. It is considered to be 
the chief village of the valley. The Churcll has a very 
remarkable skull-adorned charnel house. From the Marla- 
trilf Chapel there is a ftne View, ^xi vntec^stln^ Exhibi- 
tJon of SU Gothard MiliieTals o^^o€v\fc >i>afc >aa\sfiw*>a. 



ST. GOTHARD PASS. lyr 

worthy of notice. Hospenthal (Hotel Meyerhof), about a 
mile and a half further on, is also a good stopping place. From 
Hospenthal where the road to the Furca diverges (see p. 74), 
the road becomes steeper, ascending by numerous windings. 
The route becomes more and more impressive as we reach the 
summit of the pass, and the tourist's sketch-book is frequently 
in active requisition. Near the AlbergO del St. Gottardo, 
6joo feet about the level of the sea, is the famous Hospice, 
where superior Newfoundland dogs may be purchased, at some- 
what high rates, by those fond of canine companions. A pause 
is made at the post house for some time while the travellers 
dine. 

It is in the St. Gothard that the Rhine, Rhone, and Reuss 
have their source. (See p. 7). • 

Hepworth Dixon, in " The Switzers," says, speaking of the 
St. Gothard :— 

" Her cardinal peak is Galen-stock — ^the peak now towering 
on our right, — a fount of light and beauty in this sombre realm, 
which ancient shepherds, coming up the valleys of the Rhone 
and Reuss in search of fortune, called the ' Pillar of the Sun.' 
He is the Saul of the St. Gothard group, — above the tallest of his 
brethren : Gerstenhorn, Lucendro, Mutt-horn, Spitzberg, Six 
Madun, — though all these mountains are of Anak breed. 
Three glaciers hang about his hoary neck, and shiver down his 
sturdy sides j the Tiefen glacier on his northern flank, the 
Siedeln glacier on his southern flank, and the Rhone glacier 
(which has many feeders) on his western flank. These glaciers 
drip by different ravines, and descend to different seas. Above 
his summit floats a canopy of cloud, from under which at times 
leap fire, and wind, and hail — those rival demons of this upper 
air, which shake and daze the earth in their plutonic and mag- 
netic strife. About his feet, low down among the ruts and 
wrecks of ice, lie caves of wondrous beauty and uncounted 
wealth. Three years ago a cave was entered by this Tiefen 
glacier, when the noblest crystals in the world were found. 
The rock was topaz. Fragments lay about in heaps, each 
broken piece a hundred to two hundred pounds in weight. 
Some fifteen tons of topaz were removed from this great 
hiding-place of nature in a single year. What sage can count 
the marvels yet in lurking near this Pillar of the Sun ? " 

Crossing the Ticino, we approach the s^^t ^Vssxfc ^fea. 
Russian Greneral Suwarrow, seeing \i\s ^e"oa.^vet% ^^as'st nse^^s. 
the fearful £re of the French, causedi a ^as^ X.o\» ^^^%* ^^*2s»t- 



1^5 LUCERNE TO COMO. 

ing he would be buried at the place where, for the first time, 
his soldiers had retreated. The effect was electrical. With a 
loud cry they furiously charged the French, driving them back 
to Lucerne ; the Devil's Bridge, destroyed a second time by 
the French, being crossed by means of planks suspended from 
the soldiers' scarves. Descending the Val Tremola, a wild 
and dismal valley in which avalanches are not uncommon, we 
reach Airolo (Hotel de la Poste) where is an ancient tower 
more than a thousand years old, and where the sound of the 
Italian language reminds us that we are almost in another 
country. ITie route now becomes exceedingly beautiful j pic- 
turesque ravines, mouldering ruins, foaming cataracts, huge 
masses of rock, and other romantic features imparting fresh 
charms to the landscape. ■ The ravine just beyond, Dazio 
Grande, is one of the grandest pieces of the whole route. 
Passing Faido, the scenery becomes more Italian in appear- 
ance. The masses of snow which encumbered the roadside 
have completely disappeared. The rich sunshine sparkles on 
the roofs of the numerous church towers, cascades leap in a 
thousand fantastic forms over the time-beaten cliffs, while 
here and there the mulberry, the fig, and the vine lend fresh 
attractions to the view. Then in swift succession the towns 
of Giornico, where 15,000 Austrians were ingloriously routed 
by 600 Swiss in 1478, Bodio, and Poleggio are passed. 
At Biasca (Hotel de Biasca) the St. Gothard railway can be 
taken to Bellinzona and Locarno. A further portion of the 
line is also open (1876) between Lugano and Chiasso. Re- 
suming the diligence route from Biasca, we reach Osogna, 
situated at the base of a rocky peak. Two or three small 
villages follow, then, the junction with the Bernardino route 
(see p. 181), the Moesa is crossed, and the road, passing 
Arbedo, where in 1422, 3000 Swiss were defeated by 24,000 
Milanese, brings to view the frowning walls and lofty turrets 
of Bellinzona. (Hotel de la Ville and Hotel TAnge.) 
Omnibuses may be taken from here to Magadino (p. 189). 
The position of the fortress- wall was formerly one of great 
strength. Nothing can surpass the superb character of the 
landscape at this point. To reproduce it in full beauty is 
utterly beyond the skill of the artist, even were he possessed 
of the genius of a Turner. Near Cadenazzo emerging 
from the charming valley of the Ticino, through which 
the traveller has so long been p\e«ksaTL^\^ V>\iTass^\\v^, -aadi 
Bfter passing through a rich che^nxA ^00^^ ^xi^ \s^ n%cv^x^% 



COIRE TO COLICO. I77 

mountains, and villages, he arrives at Lugano. (Hotel du 
Pare.) Passing by tiie east side of the Lake of Lugano, 
M elide is reached, where the lake is crossed by means of a 
stone dam, erected some years since at a cost of 700,000 francs. 
At Mendrisio is seen Monte Generoso, " The Rigi of 
Italian Switzerland." Good hotels abound here. At Mendri- 
sio, Hotel Mendrisio j at Monte (renerosa, Hotel de Monteroso 5 
and at Rovio, the Hotel Rovio. At Ghiasso is the custom 
house, and here the tourist takes leave of Switzerland, and in a 
brief period of time finds himself at Como. 



COIRE, OVER THE SPLUGEN, TO COLICO 

(COMO). 

Coire (Hotel Steinbock). In the summer-time there are 
three diligences daily. The journey to Colico is about seventy- 
six miles, and performed in about seventeen hours. 

For six miles the road is level, and excepting the barracks, 
esplanade, and agricultural school, there is little to see. Passing 
through the little village of Ems, and crossing the Rhine by a 
covered bridge (252 ft. long), Reichenau is reached at the con- 
fluence of the Vorder-Rhein and Hinter-Rhein. In the chateau, 
Louis Philippe, then Dae de Chambres, seeking refuge from the 
fury of the French Revolution, resided from October 1793 to July 
1794, under the assumed name of Chabot. The road increases 
in interest as the journey progresses. Small towns and villages 
are passed, and on the summits of rocky and barren crags in 
this romantic region, houses and churches are seen perched 
like doves on the roofs of high buildings. Dark-brown goats 
are also browsing on the cliffs ; vegetation is rich, and the sides 
of the roat! are starred with flowers. 

Bonaduz, with its ancient frescoes in the chapel of St. 
George ; RhaznUs, with the handsome residence of the Vieli 
family, overlooking the Rhine 5 Katzis ; and many castles, 
chSiteaux, etc., are successively passed. Near Katzis, the Piz 
Curver, Piz St. Michael, and other majestic snow-clad moun- 
tains, are prominent features of the prospect. On approaching 
Thusis, the castle of Tagstein is seen overlooking the slopes by 
the pretty village of Massein. 

Thusis (Hotel Via Mala) \s 21! t\\^ fioxiSL\5fi»R& ^ *^^ 
NoUa with the Rhine, a pretty vVWa^e oti 2, s^nm o\^^>^^'^«=>^'**^'^"' 



i 



, yg COIRE TO COLICa 

I 

berg, in the midst of fme scenery. It was bamt down in 1845; 
apd has been much improved in the re-building. Prom- the 
Nolla, a very remarkable view is obtained. The valley is en- 
circled by a guardian chain of lofty mountains } on tiie right 
hand are the ruins of the castle of Hohen-Rhaetien> or Hochr 
Realty found, it is said, by Raetus, chief of-the-Etru^canSi b:c;- 
587. If so, it is the oldest castle in Switzerland. 

The Via Mala is. now entered. It is a remarkable fissure^ 
three to four miles long,, a few feet wide, with precipices of ijoo 
feet. As seen in Middleton Dale, in Derbyshire, and some 
other similar ravines, the two sides correspond with each other, 
suggesting that some vast natural convulsion produced this 
enormous fissure. From 200 to 500 feet above the stream 
below, a carriage-road has been hewn out of the solid rock, and 
protected by strong masonry. At the Ferlorenes Loch^ or Lost 
Gulf, at Via Mala, where the once impassable rocks are tunnelled 
for over 200 ft., it is as though the grandeur of nature had been 
concentrated on this wild spot. The view looking back towards 
Thusis is probably one of the finest, in all the Alpine passes. 
The traveller will not fail to notice the* great skill exercised in 
engineering this wonderful piece of road. The river is crossed 
three times, and at the second bridge the view either way is 
grand in the extreme. 

Leaving the Via Mala, the valley of Schams (Latin, Sexam- 
niensis — " six streams '*) is entered. Here the green meadows 
and neat cottages form a graceful relief, after the gloomy 
terrors of the awful chasms from which the traveller has just 
smerged. The peaks of the Hirli are seen to the south. 

Passing Zillis, with its ancient church, and Donat, a village, 
with the castle of La Turr (where dwelt the Austrian bailifE 
whose head Johann Calder plunged into the boiling broth, as 
recorded in Swiss history), and crossing the glacier stream that 
comes down from the Piz Curver, Andeer is reached. Here are 
a ruined castle, fine views, and capital opportunities for excur- 
sions to some of the adjacent valleys. Passing the ruins of the 
Barenburg, a kind of minor Via Mala is entered, known as the 
Roffna Ravine, a wild gorge three miles long, through which 
the bright waters of the Rhine precipitate themselves in a 
remarkable series of cascades and falls. Leaving the gorge 
behind, the spacious snow-fields of the Einshom reveal &em- 
5eJves; while further on the noble Alpine landscape of the 
Rheinwald Thai bursts into view. TVi<&Y\li^'&V<)\"ai%^cS.%'^\xiL%^ 



THE SPLt)GEN. lyg 

(Hotel de la Posfe) is .4800 feet above the level oi the sea. 
Here travellers by .diligence stop for refreshitient^. Oh tEbe 
Spliigen, as on t^e, Julier slopes, numbers of Bergamasqiie 
shepherds with their flocks are encountered during the season*] 
An excursion to the source of the Hinter-Rhein can be arranged' 
from this place. 

Spliigen to Bellinzona, by the Bernardino Pass .(see p. 180). .. 

Leaving Spliigen^ the diligence crosses the Khine through 
a long gallery or tynnel, anc) then^ by ipea^s' of numerous 
zig-zags, mounts to the summit of the l^pliigen Pass. 

Crossing the frontier, the descent into Italy is commenced, 
" I have crossed by Mont Cenis Pass, the St. Gothard, and the 
Simplon," says a recent traveller, " and though each has its own 
peculiar attraction, yet the Spliigen Pass is truly the most 
magnificent road over the Alps. No one can go over this road 
aiid enter into the spirit of it, without feeling that the mind 
has been enlarg:ed hy this communion with Nature in her 
noble grandeur." 

This opinion is held by many who have become acquainted 
with the characteristics of the difFerent routes. The Spliigen 
Pass was known to the Romans. The present road was con* 
structed by the Austrian Government in 1821. 

Passing the Dogana, or Italian Custom House,, and two 
or three adjacent houses, whose first-floor windows are often 
on a level with the surrounding snow, the traveller proceeds by 
endless zig-zag paths, through numerous galleries, past the 
waterfall formed by the Madesimo (800 ft. in height), till a halt 
is made at the tiny village of Campo Dolcino, with its 
church and cemetery. Then through the Liro valley, or 
Valle S. Giacomo, the rugged aspect of which is somewhat 
softened by the rich luxuriance of the vast chestnut forests 
below. Rapidly the features of the landscape begin to change 
their aspect. The region of flrs and pines, of overhanging 
precipices and romantic waterfalls, of frowning rocks and 
yawning chasms, are left for a land of beautiful vineyards, 
stately olive groves, and golden comflelds. 

Chiavenna (Hotel Conradi), is a capital resting-place. 
Very charming is the locale of the town. It is situated on the 
Maira, at the entrance to the Val Bregaglia. Thet^ 'as^ ^ji^\s!t& 
ruins of an ancient castle of the De ^aWs ^2lyjv\'^ > ^\!Lv2QL\sa^^ ^ 
troublous history in the old days. l?xoni Y^e c^^'Cl^ ^\^«^^Ck^ 



iPo splUgen to bellinzona. 

views are very fine. The church of S. Lorenzo has a beautiful 
campanile springing up from an arcaded enclosure, which was 
formerly the cemetery, or Campo Santo. Those interested in 
such things may inspect the neatly-arranged skulls and bones in 
the adjacent charnel houses. There is a very antique sculptured 
font in the Baptistery. 

From Chiavenna, the character of the scenery again changes 
and all around there are mountains hemming in the valleys^ and 
wild ravines forming singular contrasts to the quieter scenes. 
The falls of the Maira near here form a perfect picture. 
Crossing swift rushing rivers^ and leaving the realms of eternal 
snow behind, cornfields, vineyards, and mulberry groves are 
passed. Riva is the last village on the road. The Lake 
of Riva is skirted, and the rums of the castle of Fuentes — 
owing its origin to the Spaniards in 1603, and its destruction 
to the French in 1796, — are passed on the right. The 
diligence stops at Colico, where the steamboat is waiting to 
convey the tourist across the silvery waters of the beautiful 
lake, whose distant sails 

** For floating birds we take, 
Bathing in azure waves their plumes of snow. 
Wherein shore, tower, and town their mirror make." 

8PLUGEN TO BELLINZONA, BY THE SAN 

BERNARDINO PASS. 

(By diligence in eight hours.) 

Spliigen (see p. 178). 

The road passes Medels and Nufenen to Hinterrhein, 
the highest village of the Upper Rheinwaldthal. 

[From Hinterrhein a fatiguing expedition of four hours can 
be undertaken to the source of the Hinterrhein, issuing from an 
opening in the Rheinwald or Zapport Glacier, at an altitude of 
7270 ft. above the sea level. From the adjacent Zapportalp 
the glacier can be ascended, and good views obtained of the 
Rheinwald mountains^ varying from nine to eleven thousand 
feet in height.] 

After crossing the stream by a three-arched bridge, and 
wending up the mountain side, the road forward from Hinter* 
rheln conducts through a sterWe Tavme lo \\i^ ^. Bernardinc 
JPass {6tjo ft.) This pass, wVAcYi 'W2&V\iowci vo S>Rfc^^\Ea!Q& 



SAN BERNARDINO PASS. l8i 

received its present name from the chapel erected in the time 
of St. Bernardino of Siena. The inn (Casa di Rifugio), stands 
by the Lago Moesola, whose shores are an attractive place for 
the Alpine botanist. A fine waterfall in the river Moesa is 
passed, and the bridge, named after Victor Emmanuel, is crossed. 
To the monarch just named, the construction of this Alpine 
carriage route is chiefly due. Passing for some distance under 
a well-buttressed roof, to guard against avalanches, the road 
then descends the precipitous face of the mountain by windings 
so cleverly constructed that a quick trot can be kept up all 
the way. 

S. Bernardino is the highest village in the Val Mesol- 
cina. The baths at this place, supplied from the mineral springs 
are in good repute, and well frequented in summer. 

Passing the Fall of the Moesa, Giacomo, and Celbia, and 
commanding many beautiful views, especially from the bridge 
of S. Giacomo, the road proceeds to Mesocco, from which 
this delightfully Italian and rigidly Roman Catholic valley de- 
rives its name. Maize, vines, mulberry and walnut trees, in 
luxuriant abundance, clothe the valley, into which numerous 
waterfalls leap down from the enclosing mountains. The 
snake- haunted ruins of the castle of Misox add charmingly to 
the interest of the view in passing Mesocco. 

The road in proceeding passes abundant evidences of the 
fearful ravages of the storm and floods of 1868, when over 250 
dwellings and many bridges were destroyed. The beautiful 
Waterfall of BuflTalora is seen soon after passing Soazza. 
Cabbiola, with its waterfalls, Lostallo with its vineyards, Cama, 
Leggia, and Grono, with the strongly-built tower of Florentina 
and a frescoed chapel, are successively passed. 

At Grono is the entrance to the Val Calanca, extending 
18 miles northward to the Adula mountains, and studded with 
numerous towns and villages. 

At Roveredo, the chief town of the lower valley (pop. 
1 100), are the ruins of the castle of the Trivulzio family. At this 
town the good St. Charles Borromeo, in i J38, burnt eleven old 
women and the prior of Roveredo for witchcraft. After passing 
8. Fiiiore, the last village of the Grisons, and Lumino, the 
first of Canton Ticino, the St. Gothard route is reached, near 
the bridge over the Moesa (p. 176). 

Hence by the battle-field of Arbedo to Belliazoua. <3»^ 
p. 176). 



1 82 COIRE TO ANDERMATT. 



COIRE TO ANDERMATT BY THE OBERALP. 

(By diligence in I3i hours.) 

The route is by one of the most picturesque valleys in 
Switzerland, the Vorder Rheinthal, with castles on the heights 
along the river as numerous as in Rhenish Prussia itself. 

At Reichenau (p. 25), 6 miles from Coire, two routes offer 
themselves as far as Ilanz. The shortest is on the lefl bank of 
the river, by Versam, with its lofty bridge, (260 feet above the 
waters of the Rabiusa,) Carrera, Vallendas, and cretinous Kas- 
tbris. to Ilanz. The other and far more picturesque route is by 
tl e high road on the right bank, through numerous villages, 
and with plenty of fine views of mountain's, waterfalls, ruined 
castles, etc. Tamlns, Trins, and Films are the chief places 
passed. 

Ilanz, on both sides the Rhine, was once an important 
place, as many fine old houses with armorial bearings testify. 
The language of the place is Romansch, which is more or less 
prevalent throughout the valley. Grand views are obtained in 
this vicinity, especially from some of the neighbouring heights — 
the Piz Mundaun (6775 feet), and others. Excursions to 
the Lugnetz Valley, or the Vrinthal, are of great inte- 
rest. 

The road forward crosses the Rhone at Tavanasa, and at 
Rinkenberg, proceeding through delightful and ever-varying 
scenery to Trons. 

At Trons the diligence stops to allow the passengers to 
dine. There are several attractions to inspect. The Hall of 
the Statthalterei of the Abbey of Dissentis, is adorned 
with armorial bearings of the magistrates of many genera- 
tions. The fragment of the sycamore-tree near the village, 
over 700 years old, marks the spot where the celebrated Grey 
League was formed, in 1424, to resist the tyranny of the 
feudal lords (p. 32). The adjacent Chapel Of St. Anna 
has curious frescoes and iiiutti.es illustrating the history of the 
League. The view from the Church of S. Maria, above the 
village, is very fine. 

Radius is next passed, and then picturesque Somvix on its 
jbllL The Val Somvix is well worth exploring. There is a 
bridle-path through it, and by iVve Gtdti2L'^^s&\ftO\\Natkfc»QRLc.\L'- 
Pying abo^''* *'"elve hours. 



THE OBERALP PASS. :ig3 

. Nearing Dissendsr the hc^ly-constrncted road crosses the 
grand Russeiner Tobel, by a wooden bridge over 200 feet in 
length, at a height of 160 feet above the stream below. 

Dissentis was famous for its Benedictine Abbey, founded 
in the 7th century by fellow-missionaries of St. Gall, and long 
the head-quarters of religion and civilization in these remote 
regions. It is finely situated, 4000 feet above the sea level, 
having been rebuilt after a fire in 1846, and is now used as a 
Cantonal School. 

At Dissentis, the Mittel-Rhein, or Medelser, joins the 
Vorder Rhein. The Medelser Glacier is well seen from the 
Chapel of St. Acletta, half a mile west of Dissentis. The 
Piz Muraun (95 n feet) can be ascended in five hours; 
ladies have accomplished it. The Medelser Thai, Lukmanier 
Pass, Val Piora, etc., to the south, and the Val Russein, Sand- 
alp Pass, in the Todi Mountains, etc., to the north, afford 
good opportunities for explorations, of too protracted and 
fatiguing a character, however, for the general tourist. 

From Dissentis there is a route to Biasca on the St. Gothard 
route (p. 176)5 nine hours by a bridle-path across the Lukmanier 
Pass (6298 feet) to Olivone ; thence by diligence to Biasca in 
three hours. Some portions of this route are similar to the 
Via Mala. 

Leaving Dissentis, the Vorder Rhein is seen, reduced to a 
mountain torrent, up the left bank of which the road ascends, 
affording splendid views of the valley behind, and the snow-clad 
mountains in front. 

Passing Sedriin, chief village in the Tavetsch Valley, 
Ruerasy S. Giacomo, and other villages, and the ruins of the 
Castle of Pultmenga on a rocky hill, Tschamut is reached, 
at a height of 5380 feet above the sea level — the highest place 
in Europe where corn is successfully grown. 

Winding up the Val Surpalix, the road reaches the boundary 
between the Grisons and Uri, at the summit of the Oberalp 
Pass (6733 feet). The Oberalp See, abounding in trout, 
was the scene of a fierce struggle between French and Austrians 
in 1799. The road crosses the Oberalp, and soon brings the 
traveller in sight of the Vale of Urseren, with the Furca Inn 
in the backgrounds By a number of long windings, Ander- 
inatt, on the St. Gothard route, is reached (p. 174). 



l84 COIRE TO THE ENGADINE. 

COIRE TO THE ENGADINE BY THE JULIER 

PASS. 

(By diligence to Samaden in 14 hours.) 

This route leads through very fine scenery to the increasingly 
popular district known as the Engadine. 

At Ghurwalden the whey cure is usually in full opera- 
tion. From Parpan the Statzerhorn or Piz Raschill, 845a 
feet, can be ascended without a guide. There is a splendid 
panorama of the adjacent valleys and mountain chains. 

At a height of jo88 feet, the Pass of Valbella is crossed. 
The descending road then leads by the Lake of Vatz^ and some 
smaller lakes, on to Lenz. Thence, still descending, the rapid 
Albula is reached by Tiefenkasten. This village is finely 
situated in a basin-like valley. 

Hence by Burvein^ Coniers, Schweiningen, Tlnzen, and 
other picturesque villages, and amongst much remarkable hill 
and valley scenery, rendered still more interesting by occa- 
sional waterfalls, churches, castles, etc., the route conducts to 
Molins (Muhlen.) Here the diligence usually halts for dinner. 

The scenery is now increasingly fine; grand rocks and 
dense woods mingle their attractions. Leaving Molins, the 
road winds through a wild gorge, with fir and larch-coverei' 
cliffs rising on either side. As the road rises, the wildness of 
the scenery increases, and vegetation becomes poorer, till at 
Stalla, or Bivio (5827 feet), even potatoes can seldom be suc- 
cessfully grown. 

From Stalla there is an ancient route, now little frequented, 
over the Septimer pass to Casaccia. It was often trodden by 
Roman and German armies. 

In about two hours from Stalla the summit of the Julier 
Pass is reached (7J03 feet). Here are two round colunms, said 
by some to be Augustan milestones, by others described as 
Celtic altars to the sun. On the adjacent lofty pastures im- 
mense fiocks of sheep are fed in summer. 

The short descent from the pass into the high valley of the 
Engadine is very striking. Between the lofty precipices of the 
Piz Julier and Piz d'Albana on the left, and the Piz Pulaschin 
on the right, the road descends. The view of Silva plana and 
its lake, with the snowy peaks of the Bernina mountains in the 
background, is exceedingly fine. S\Vva^\3iTv3L^^efe^.\ft6'\ is reached 
in about an hour from the pass, and then ^2Lm^d^n V>^ ^, V^t^^, 



THE ENGADINE. 



185 



COIRE TO THE ENGADINE BY THE ALBULA 

PASS. 

(By diligence to Ponte in 1 1 hours.) 

Coire to Lenz> see p. 184. 

From Lenz a fine new road passes Brienz, and then winds 
down into the Albula Thai to Bad Alveneu, with its 
mineral springs. The scenery is very beautiful. The ruins 
of the Greifenstein frown from a rock above the town of 
Filisur. 

The Berguner Stein is a thickly-wooded, deep mountain 
gorge. High up on one side a rock-blasted road runs 650 feet 
above the Albula flowing below. Bergun lies in a grassy 
basin, surrounded by snowy peaks. It has an old church anid a 
fine prison-tower. 

From Bergun the road winds and curves by various chalets, 
and several fine waterfalls, formed by the Albula river, up to 
the rock-strewn valley known as the Teufelsthal. Thence the 
summit of the Albula Pass is reached, 7589 feet above the 
sea level, closed in by the granite and limestone peaks of the 
Albulastock. The pass itself is a mass of rocks and debris in 
chaotic confusion. . 

"Winding down from the Pass towards Ponte, fine views of 
the valley are obtained, with the Piz Languard on the right, and 
the distant Piz del Diavel (10,259 feet). 

THE ENGADINE, 

or Upper Valley of the Inn, extends along the river Inn for about 
fifty-seven miles, and is generally about a mile broad. At its 
north-east extremity, near Martinsbruck, it is over 3000 feet 
above the sea level, and rises to nearly 6000 feet at Sils on the 
south-west. The valley produces in abundance grass and wild 
flowers. Vbila tout ! Its dry, clear atmosphere and intensely 
blue skies are proverbial, and it is hemmed in by majestic moun- 
tains and glacial scenery. For sketchers, botanists, butterfly- 
collectors, Alpine climbers, and others, the Engadine is a very 
paradise. The most interesting part of the valley is the Upper 
Engadine, south-west of Samaden. 



186 SAMADEN. 

THE UPPER ENQADINE. 

(The Maloja to Samaden, i j miles.) 

The Maloja is an elevated table-land (5941 feet), separat- 
ing the Engadine from the Val Bregaglia. In the vicinity are 
the sequestered, mountain-girdled CavlOCCiO Lake^ the ele- 
gant Monte d'Oro (10,544 feet), the Ordlegna Waterfall, 
the snowy Muretto Pass (8389 feet), leading to Chiesa. 

From the Maloja we will briefly describe the prominent fea- 
tures of the Engadine Valley to its termination. Passing bj 
the light green Lake Of Sils (4i miles in lenrth), commanded 
by the Piz della Margna (10,354 feet), and its frowning glacier, 
the town of Sils is reached, with some capital mountam and 
glacier expeditions in the vicinity. 

The Lake of Silvaplana is next skirted, and then the 
town of the same name is reached, pleasantly surrounded by 
green pastures. Every season this delightful town and neigh- 
bourhood is receiving an increasing number of visitors 3 and its 
beauties are so unique, that they justify the glowing colonrs in 
which they have been painted. (Hotel Kivalta.) 

From Silvaplaua a capital excursion can be arranged to 
Pontresina (p. 187) by the Pass called the Fuorda da Surlcj 
(9042 feet). 

Silvaplana to Coire by the Julier Pass (see p. 184). 

Campf^r is li miles from Silvaplana, Piz Langoard, tower- 
ing to the south-east. 

St. Moritz (6100 feet) is the next place in the valley, the 
highest village in the Engadine. The Baths of St. MoritZ 
are on a grassy plain, one mile from the village. They were highly 
praised by Paracelsus in 1539. Two hundred and fifty patients 
can be accommodated at the Curhaus. Variations of temperap 
ture must be provided against here, as elsewhere in the Enga- 
dine, for snow in August is not infrequent. Many beautiful 
walks, carriage-drives, and excursions are afforded in the varied 
and interesting neighbourhood of St. Moritz. 

Some other small places, only interesting as supplying start- 
ing places for further explorations of the district, are next 
passed^ and then 

SAMADEN 

(Hotel Bernina), 

IS reached. This is the c\i\ei ip\2LCft Vjx ^^ Xiv^'t ^^jl^^vksc 
(pop., SJo) ; it has several Y\anAsora^\vo^'&^^«^^^'^^^^^ ^^Asst 



THE LOWER EI^GADINE 1 87 

reside the great Planta famiiT, who have been a considerable 
power in the country for nearly a thousand years. The grave- 
stones of the Plantas, and other great families now extinct, 
lie thick in the old Church of St. Peter near the village. 

From Samaden the Muottas (8464 feet) may be visited, 
with fine views of the Bernina Glaciers, the Lakes of the 
Upper Engadine, etc. Another excursion is to the Piz Ot 
(10,660 feet). The flora of all this district is very fine. 

From Samaden, Pontresina (see below) is often visited by 
those not intending to take the Bernina Pass. The Piz Bernina 
(13,294 feet), and other peaks of the grand Bernina chain, are 
accessible from this place. The beautiful and interesting glaciers 
of this district, covering about 3 jo square miles^ are now fre- 
quently inspected. 

PONTRESINA. 

Pontresina is only a village of about 300 inhabitants, at. an 
altitude of nearly 6000 feet. Flowers are abundant. It is a 
first-rate head-quarters for glacial expeditions. (Hotel Krone.) 

Amongst the attractions of Pontresina, the chief is perhaps 
the ascent of the Piz Languard, through rhododendron 
fringed forests, and across bright green pastures. From the 
smnmit (10,715 feet, or nearly 5000 above Pontresina) the view 
is bounded by Monte Rosa and Mont Blanc in the south-west, 
and north-west by the Todi^ and includes all East Switzerland 
and a portion of the Tyrol. On the sides of this mountain the 
botanist may fiud a rich harvest of rare specimens. 

The Morteratsch Glacier is a " frozen cataract," six 
miles in length, li hours south of Pontresina. 

The Roseg Glacier, like the previous, needs no guide 5 it 
is about 2i hours from Pontresina. There are several other 
excursions, as to the Diavolezza, etc., for experienced moun- 
taineers only. 

THE LOWER ENGADINE. 

Samaden to Niauders, 1 1 hours by diligence — not worth while 
io walk. 

Leaving Samaden, a fine view of the lower valley, with the 
snowy mountains and bright glaciers that encompass it, is ob- 
tained. 

Passing Bevers, under Crasta Mora (9636 feet), Ponte is 
reached, with its old castle. 

Ponte to Coire, by the AlbulaPas^ (jaee ^. 'i^^^' . __ 

Passing Madulein, and its ravne^ liJcvvcl^eRSv^ cecsssr^ 



1 88 BERNINA AND STELVIO PASSES. 

castle of Guardavall, and Zuz, with its andent tower, a milder 
and better cultivated portion of the valley is reached. ScaufSf 
Zernetz (fine old church and ancient castle), Lavin, burnt 
down in 1869, Ardelz, Scfuils, Baths ot TSLVSiSp, Fulpera, 
Remiis, Martinshruck, and then Nauders, are the chief re- 
maining places in the valley. The diligence ride is interesting 
and attractive throughout ; and at many points the traveller who 
has time at his disposal may well be tempted to alight and 
sojourn at one of the village inns, to make explorations on 
either side of this beautiful and remarkable valley. 

THE BERNINA PASS. 

(Samaden to Tirano, by diligence, 8| hours.) 

From Samaden to Pontresina by the Flatzbach. From 
Pontresina the route lies by the Morteratsch Glacier (see 
p. 187), and the Bernina Houses (6735 feet). Four milesfur- 
ther on, after leaving the region of trees, and passing the Lago 
Minore and Lago Nero, Ospizio Bernina is reached, plea- 
santly situated on the Lago Bianco, two miles long, and 
affording plenty of fish. The Cambrena Glacier is just oppo- 
site. To this point excursions are often made from Pontresina 
and St. Moritz. ThePiz Campaccio and Piz Lagalp are acces- 
sible peaks in the neighbourhood. At a short distance east is 
the highest point of the Bernina Pass. 

Through rock-hewn galleries and by winding curves, the road 
descends, and fine views are obtained of the Poschiavino Valley, 
the bottom of which is reached at Pisdadella. 

Poschiavo, the delightful watering-place of Le Prese, Brusio^ 
Campo Cologno, and Madonna di Tirano, are successively reached, 
and then Tirano, with its ancient palaces of the Pallavicini, 
Visconti, and other noble families. From Tirano, there is a 
route, 45 miles, through the Valtellina to Colico, by diligence, 
in 8 hours, passing Sondrio and Morbegno, and joining the 
Spliigen route a little before reaching Colico. 

THE STELVIO PASS, 

Nauders (see above). 

From Nauders the road leads by S, Valentin auf der Hdde, 

where Maximilian was defeated in 1499 ^7 ^ Orisons army half 

the number of his own j then by Mals, with Knollers picture 

of the ''Death of Joseph," vn tVie cYivxiOck. ^Jckwxvdaxice of fine 

mountain scentry and many tvutied c2kS!0L^s, 2ccA o'Ccisx ^>^x^&^ 



THE ITALIAN LAKES. 1 89 

Interest, are passed, and also the towns of Prod, Trafoi, and 
Frinzenshohe, 

Eight miles from Franzenshohe, the summit of the StelviO 
Pass is reached, 9045 feet above the sea level. A grand view 
of the Ortler Spitz, 1 2,900 feet, is obtained from an adjacent 
eminence. This road is the highest in Europe. It is annually 
much damaged hj the spring avalanches, etc. ; but is quite safe 
from June to September, though it is well to postpone crossing 
the Pass just after a heavy fall of snow. Through grand and 
varied scenery the route descends to S, Maria and ^e celebrated 
Baths of Bormio, with their chalybeate springs and beautiful 
pleasure grounds 5 and then on by 5o//ac^/"e to Tirano (p. 188). 

THE ITALIAN LAKES. 

(For fuller particulars of the Italian Lakes, see ^'Cook's Hand- 
book to Northern Italy.") 

A visit to these charming lakes can readily be united with a 
Swiss tour. 

A tour of the lakes may be made thus : — Visit Lago 
Maggiore, and terminate the journey at Luino (see below) 
Take diMgence, or carriage, to Lugano. Make the tour of the 
lake, and terminate the journey at Porlezza. Hence take 
omnibus or carriage to Menaggio, on the lake of Como, and if 
Lago d'Iseo and Lago di Garda are to be visited, terminate the 
Como journey at Lecco, and take train vik Bergamo. 

LAGO MAGGIORE 

is about forty miles long, of varying breadth, and unequal 
scenery. The northern part is finer than the southern, the glory 
of the lake culminates in the neighbourhood of Baveno and Stresa. 

Three steamboats daily run from Magadino to Arona in six 
hours for five francs. 

The chief places on the lake are Magadino, unpleasant 
and unhealthy ; Locarno, a busy place ; pilgrimage church of 
Madonna del Sasso 5 Ascona, with its ruined castle -, Bris- 
sago (by Mont Limidario, 6550 feet), abounding in orchards 
of orange, lemon, fig, etc. ; Canobbio ; in the church are 
frescoes by Gaudenzio Ferrari ; Maccagno 5 Luino, from 
whence the drive to Lugano is one of the sweetest imaginable j 
Cannero, with the two castled islands o^^osx^^ ^\sr2«. "xo^. 
the 15th century, the Mazzarda btoOaets \\n^^ ^ \^^ ^ ^^^^^^^la, 



1^ THE ITALIAN LAKES. 

beautiful mountain II Sasso del Ferro, from whose sammit a 
charming prospect, stretching from Milan to Monte Rosa, is 
seen; the silk- winding town of Intra, Pallanza (Oi^d 
Hotel, Pallanza), Baveno, from either of wluch theBcmt)- 
mean Isles can be readily visited. From Pallanza also there 13 a 
pleasant omnibus route to Lago d'Orta, and from Baveno the 
Simplon route can be joined (p. 172). 

Between Laveno and Intra, and between Pallanza and the 
idands, glorious glimpses of the Monte Rosa, Strahlhorn, 
Simplon, and other mountain scenery are obtained. 

THE BORROMEAN ISLANDS 

are four in number, Jsola S. Giovanni, Isola Bella, and Isola 
Madre (belonging to the Borromeo family), and Isola Superior^ 
or Dei Pescatori (the fishermen's island). 

Isola Bella is a planted and terraced pleasure-ground, on 
a once bare rock ; very fine, but somewhat formal and artifi- 
cial. The views of tbe lake and its surroundings are splendid.' 
Admission to the Gardens is one franco to the GliateaUi 
with some good pictures, and room where Napoleon slept the 
night before Marengo, also one franc. 

Isola Madre (one fraoc) is a charming terraced island,- 
with many rare tropical plants. 

Isola del Pescatori is a compact fishermen's village. 

Isola S. Giovanni is of no particular interest. 

After leaving the Borromean isles, at the principal of which, 
Isola Bella, the steamer stops without extra charge for landing 
or embarking, Stresa is next reached. 

Stresa (Hotel des lies Borrom^es, a magnificent hotel* 
commanding some of tbe finest views on the lake) is a pleasant 
place, surrounded with fine scenery both by land and water. 
From here the Monte Motterone may be ascended : it is 4174 
feet above the lake, and the view equals, if it does not rival, that 
from the Rigi ; the plain of Lombardy and Piedmont, with the 
Cathedral of Milan, in clear view 5 six of the Italian lakes, with 
their picturesque islands and surroundings 5 the rivers Sesia 
and Ticino meandering in streams of silver ; and on the other 
hand, the great mountains from Monte Rosa to Ortler in the 
Tyrol. 

Belgil^te is the next town passed, and the tour of the lake 
comes to an end at Arona. 

AronsL contains a Gliurcb. ol S. lilL«LT\aL,^\CcL ^^a&^iwfci. 



THE ITALIAN LAKES. igi 

romeo Chapel ; a Holy Family, by Gaudenuo Fmcij and some 
other pictures. The colossal statue of St. Charles Borromeo 
is hear the town, sixty-six feet high, on a forty feet -pedestal.- 
Facilities exist for the adventurous to mount the {Mestal;' enter 
the saint's body, and climb up into his head. 

From Arona diligences run to Bellinzona, forihe 'St. Gothafd * 
or Bernardino Pass, to Lucerne, or Coire. See local time' tables. ' 

(For the Railway to Genoa and Turin, and the Railwayto 
Milan, see *' Cook's Guide to Nbrthfem Italy.") '■ '' ' 

THE LAKE OF COMO 

is the grandest and most beautiful of the Italian lakes. It is 
thirty-eight miles long, and varies from one to three miles in 
breadth. It reminds sometimes of the Rhine, and sometimes of 
Lake Lucerne, yet differs from both. A perfect efflorescence of 
loveliness is this fairy lake. In whatever direction you cast 
your eyes whilst traversing its waters, the scenic effects are un- 
rivalled. Embosomed amongst lofty mountains towering 
proudly above the silvery surface j verdant slopes and vine-qlad 
hills, with villas on the margin and on jutting peninsulas 5 pic- 
turesque and charmingly-situated villages 5 the eye never wearies 
in its search for the beautiful. Castles, with turreted towers, 
ever and anon keep peeping out, as the boat proceeds, from the 
sylvan woods which hide them, a sort of stolen glance. The 
glowing Italian sky, the azure of which is almost unknown to 
those who are accustomed to the unkind climate of England 5 
the water of an indescribable blue, the delicious purity of the 
atmosphere, and the silver streaks of sunlight cast upon the lake 
heighten the beauty of the scene. The finest prospects are near 
Bellaggio. 

The tour of the lake can be made either from Colico or Como. 

Colico is simply a station for diligences. They run twice 
daily to Chiavenna for the Splugen route; also to Sondrio and 
Bormio. Steamers from Como twice daily. 

Menaggio (Hotel Victoria) is a popular halting-place. 
The scenery is exquisite. It also contains the Villa Vigoni, 
near the town, with some modem works of art of great beauty j 
reliefs by Thorwaldsen ; monument to the son of the late pro- 
prietor, by Marchesij and a family group, by Argend, The 
large silkworm manufactory is of great interest. 

. From Menaggio to Lugano, by omTAW*& «xA ^\aKccket» >s» -^si. 
easy and pieasant journey. 



19 2 



THE ITALIAN LAKES. 



The tour of the three principal lakes maj be made thus :^ 
Menaggio to Lugano, Lake of Lugano, Lugano to Luino, Lago 
Maggiore. For this tour a special circular ticket Is provided by 
Tbos. Cook and Son. 

Bella ggio (Hotel Grand Bretagne, with the Dependence 
Hotel Pension, Villa Serbelloni. The hotel is one of the finest 
in the Italian Lake districts ; the Pension is the gem of the 
neighbourhood.) 

Bellaggio is charmingly situated where the lake divides into 
two arms. The magnificent park and gardens of the Villa 
Serbelloni form one of the finest attractions of the place. Ad- 
mission one franc to those not staying at the Hotel. At the 
Villa Melzi arc many works of art by Canova^ Thorwaldsen, 
Marched, etc. 

From Bellaggio to Lecco a steamer runs daily. 

Cadenabbia (Grand Hotel Belle Vue) is justly popular 
with invalids and others. The Villa Carlotta contains some 
wonderful works by Thorwaldsen, and Canova, Monte C re- 
done can be ascended in about eight hours. 

Several places of more or less interest and beauty are passed. 
Between Moltrasio and Cernobbio is the Villa d'Este» 
now the Hotel Regina d'Inghilterra, where Queen Caroline,wife 
of George IV., resided. This is a capital centre for excursions j 
the grounds are very fine. (Cook's coupons accepted). 

Como (Hotel Regina d'Inghilterra, see above) — popula 
tion, 21,000 — lies at the extreme end of this arm of the lake, and 
is backed by fine hills and mountains. It is celebrated as being 
the birthplace of Pliny the Elder and the Younger. The latter 
had several villas in the neighbourhood. Volta, the electrician, 
and Pazzi, the astronomer, were also bom here. 

The Cathedral, built in 1396, is entirely of marble, and 
is a remarkably handsome church. The fagade is very rich. 
Statues of the two Pliny s by the principal entrance. 

In the interior the principal paintings are — 

The Marriage of the Virgin • . • . G. Ferrari. 

The Flight into Egypt Ibid. 

Adoration of Magi B. Luino. 

Virgin and Child, with saints .... Hid. 

There are some fine altarpieces in the church j the one with 
St. Joseph and the young Saviour is the last work of Marched, 
and one of his best. 

The Town Hall (BroVe^td) ^i^^om^ ^^ ^Na^- \V\%>wS54l 



THE ITALIAN LAKES. 153 

of black and white stone, in alternate layers. The Theatre is 
on the other side of the church. 

The churches S, Fedele, loth century 5 Del Crocifisso, with, 
miraculous crucifix 3 and S. Abondio, nth century, on outskirts 
of town, are worth visiting. 

Notice a massive ruined building, the Porta del Tozze. It is 
five stories high^ and is passed in leaving the town to go towards 
Camerlata. 

From Como to Camerlata is a little more than a mile 
and a half. Omnibuses run to meet each train. 

THE LAKE OF LUGANO 

is sixteen miles by about two ; the scenery is varied and beau- 
tiful. It can be reached from Menaggio on Lake of Como^ or 
Magadino or Luino, on the Lago Maggiore. 

Steamers run from Porlezza to Lugano (Hotel du Pare). 
Behind the latter town is Monte San Salvatore, scalable 
in two hours. The view is superb. 

Monte Generoso, called the Rigi of Italy, is best ascended 
from Mendrisio, on the road to Como. The view of the Italian 
lakes and the Alpine chain beyond is unrivalled. 

THE LAKE OF VARE8E, 

reached either from Laveno (Lago Maggiore) or from Como, is 
about six miles by five. Varese (Hotel Varese) is the prin- 
cipal place, from which the chief excursion is to the pilgrimage 
church of La Madonna del Monte. 

THE LAKE OF ORTA 

is best reached by omnibus or diligence from Pallanza, Gravellonay 
or Arona. It is exceedingly pretty, eight miles long by nearly 
two broad. 

The principal thing to see at the quaint town of Orta is the 
Sacro Monte, sacred to S. Francis d'Assisi, with its twenty 
frescoed chapels, passed during the ascent. The island of 
S. Giuliois a delicious little spot 

LAGO DM8E0 AND LAGO Dl GARDA 

are both within easy reach by diligence from Brescia. Both are 
very beautiful. Iseo is sixteen miles by two\ ^Jafc^&^^^^^asasKk 
are Sarnico^ Iseo (named from a lemp\boi\iY^>«sAVKr5i«^^> 



194 



THE ITALIAN LAKES. 



8o enthusiastically described by Lady Maiy Wortley Montagu. 
Lago di Garda is thirty-eight miles by six or seven, and appal- 
lingly deep, 1900 English feet having been fathomed in some 
places, and it may be found to be deeper yet. It is often assailed 
by. storms, and is then as rough as the Mediterranean. 

Omnibuses run to the lake from Peschiera and Desenzano. 
Many very popular and charming places are located on its shore. 



(For fuller information as to the Italian Lakes, see ''Cook's 
Tourist's Handbook for Northern Italy.") 




APPENDIX. 



FESTIVALS, FETES, FAIRS, ETC. 

[Some time since, a good article in MacmillarCs Magazine called 
attention to the want of a Traveller's Calendar, which should 
indicate the principal Festivals, etc., on the Continent of Europe. 
The present list is founded upon the data given in that article, 
and it is hoped it will be useful to the traveller. The Editor 
will feel much indebted to those of his friends who will kindly 
favour him with information of other events of interest to add to 
the list.] 

Place. Date. Description. 

Adelsberg Whit-Monday... Peasants' Ball in the Caverns. Ulumi- 

nated. 

Aiz - la- Cha - July 10-24 Exhibition of Relics m Cathedral every 

pelle 7 years. Next Exhibition, 1881. 

Whitsun-week . The ** Niederrheinische Musikfest" 
Amsterdam ... 2nd Monday in Festivities of the Kermesse commence><. 

Sept and continue for a fortnight 

Anneoy (Savoy) Jan. 29. Festival of St. Francis de Sales. 

Antwerp Sunday follow- Kermesse, Procession of Giant in 

ing Aug. 15... Rubens' Car. 

Carnival lor three days preceding Ash- 
Wednesday. 

Assisi Aug. I and 2 ... Grand Festivals. 

Oct 14 Festival of St Francis. 

Augsburg April 10 Commencement of Fair, which con* 

tinues for a fortnight. 

Avellino Whit-Sunday . . . Pilgrimage to Monte Vei^ne. Popuktf 

Fetes. At Mercogliano, dances oi 
peasants. (5 days.) 

Bari (S. Ita?j j... liliy.... S, Nicholas, Pilgrimage to shrinew 

Miraculous m^ima exuded. 
ffasle Attg. 2 5 Commemoration of b»X^^ ^^ ^fi^ 

BatersalpfSnit^ Jii]y25thorSun- 'Wits^iiks^UA.vSb!^ 
zerlsBd) , my folL iVuig. 



196 APPENDIX. 

Place. ^ Date. Description. 

Beaucaire (on July Great Fair. (Beaucaire is near Tans- 
Rhone) con.) 

Bergamo Middle Aug. to Fair. 

middle Sept 
Black Forest. End Aug., be- "Raft Parties "at V^dbad and else* 

ginning Sept where^ 

Bologna Dec. 3 St. Francis Xavier. Fete at Sta. Lucia. 

Bra Sept 8 Pilgrimage to Sanctuaxy of Madonna 

dei Fiore. 

Bremen Nov. 6 Festival 

Bruges- ist Sun. in Lent Great day of the CamivaL 

1st Sun. in May Festival 

Brussels Jan. 8 Ste, GuduU. Festival at Ste. Gudule. 

July 13 or Sim- Procession of miraculous wafers in Ste; 
day following. Gudule. 

Sept 23 Requiem Mass in Ste. Gudule. FStes 

de Septembre from 23 — 26. 

Canoello (S. July 26 Annual Festival in honour of S. Pan- 

Italy) linus, who invented church beDs. 

Games, processions, etc. 

Catania (Sicily) Feb. 3-5 Festival of Sta. Agata. 

Aug. 18-21 „ ^ „ 

Colre (Chur) ... Ascension Day . Popular Fetes. 

Cologne Carnival for three days before 'Ash* 

Wednesday. 
Whitsun-week . The " Neiderrheinische Musikfest" 
Courtrai (Bd- Carnival for three days before Ai^« 

gium) Wednesday. 

Binsiedeln Jan. 21 Festival of St Meinrad. 

(Switzerland) 

Sept 14 Festival of the Engjel Weihe. Mass out 

of doors. Illuminations. 
Bngstlenalp July 26th or Sun- 

(nr. Meiringen) day following. Wrestling Matches. 
Bnnetegg (in Lt. Sun. in Aug., 
the EntTebuch) istSun.inSep. Wrestling Match. 

]|florence Easter Eve Fireworks in Piazza del Duomo. "Lo 

scoppio del Carro." 

March 25 Annunciation, Festival at Annunziata 

Church. 

June 23 Eve of St. John, Races and Firewoiks. 

„ 24 St. John Baptist, High Mass in 

Duomo. Races. Illuminations. 

Aug. 10 St. Lorenzo. Festival in all Churches in 

Italy bearing his name. 
„ 15 Assumption of Virgin. Musical Ser- 
vices. Decorations. 

Sept 8 Nativity of Virgin. * * Rificplone," and 

d^coxaUoti of street altars. 
CanaN«\ vttc«^>3a% VkoSu 



FESTIVALS, FETES/ FAIRS, ETC igy 

Place. Date. Description; 

Genazz&no April 26 Pilgrimages. 

(Sabine Hills) 

Genoa Jiuie24 St, yohn BafHst, Relics carried in 

procession m Cathedral 

Gtonzano . (near Corpus Christi • Floral Festival — ^very picturesque. 

Albano) 

Ghent 2nd Sunday in FestiyaL Kermesse. 

July. 

Grrats Aug. 12 Pilgrimage to MariazelL- - • - - 

Gravina(S. Italy) April 20 Great Fair. 

Hal (Belgium)... A^t-Monday... Pilgrimages. 

IieipsiO Jan. I Fair commences. 

' Sept 29 Fair. 

2nd Simday after Great Fair b^^ins. Lasts three weekfc 
Easter. 

Idege Feb. 10 Musical Festival commemorating bittt 

of Gr6tiy. 

lK>Oamo Sept 8 Nativity of Virgin.^ Fair. 

IiOreto v.. Dec 10 Great Festival at the " Holy House." 

IiOUyain Feb. 9 St, Apollonia* Festival 

• May 26 Pilgrimages. 

2nd Simday in Festival 
July. 

XiUOeme..' Sunday after Festival at Tell's Chapel Crowds in 

Ascension. boats. 

Thursday before Quaint and curious procession. 
Ash- Wed. 

Iitigo (near Ra- Sept 1-19 Fair. 

venna) 

•MalineB •• July Festival of the Guilds every five years. 

Next in 1879. 
1st Sun. in July St, JRombauld. Festival 

Manfredonia May 8 Pilgrimage to Church of St Michael 

(nearFoggia) ^. ..^ 

IH ftTitTift Aug. 15 Assumption of Virgin. Pilgrimage to 

Sta. Maria deUe Grazie. 
^KarseiUes June 16 ........ Festival of Sacred Heart, commemo- 
rating the staying of the plague* 

172a 

Aug. 15 Assumption of the Virgini Procession 

r ' . of the silver statue. 

Mesaina J^^ne 3 Festival of the Madonna della Lettera. 

Aug. 15 Assumption of Virgin. Festival of "La 

Vara." 

Meiringen ist Sunday in Wrestling matches at the Stadtalp, and 

August on Aug. 10 at the Tannalp. 

ynan May 3 Invention of the Cross. Procession 

f"' through the city. • ■ ^ 

Not* 4 San Carlo JBorYomco* ^t»S!^"^>^»* 



Ij8 APPENDIX. 

Place. Date. Description. 

Monoalieii Oct 29. Nov. Cattle Fair. 

(near Turin) 14. 

Mnnioh. Monday before The "Metzersprung** — a curious paw 

Ash- Wed. formance. 

Good Friday. Pergolesi's Stabat Mater at Jesuit^ 

Church. 
Corpus Christi . Procession of Guilds, Open-air s^- 

vices. 

TXsipl&B 1st Sun. in May Liquefaction of Blood of St Januarius. 

Sept 19 to 26 . „ „ Great Festival 

Dec. 16 „ Feast of his ** Patrocinio" 

1st Sun. in June Festival of the Constitution. Fireworks 

at Villa Nazionale. 

Aug. 15 Assumption of Virgin, Festival at 

Capodimonte. 

M „ Pilgrimi^ 

to Massa Lubrense^ near Sorrento. 
Ascension Day . Fetes at Scarfati and Carditello. 
Corpus Christi . Festival at Sta. Chiara. Parade of 

troops. 

Jan. 17 Festeai St Antonio Abate. Blessing 

of domestic animals. 

Sept 8 Nativity of Virgin, Festival of the 

Vergine de Piedegrotta.. A variety 
of curious entertainments, induding 
the Tarantella dance. 

Dec. 24 "Presepe" (i.ft, manger) in all churches 

and houses. 
Whit-Sunday... Festival at Avellino. 
Whit-Monday... „ Shrine of Madonna dell' AroQi. 
Easter Sunday . Pilgrimage to Antignano. 

J^epoxnulc May 16 Pilgrimage to birthplace of St John 

Nepomuk (between Prague and Nu- 
remberg). 
Vivello(BeIgium) Whit-Monday... Procession. 

Ober-Axnmer- ist Sunday in And each succeeding Sunday till end of 
gau June September. Passion Play. Every 10 

years. Next representation, iS8a 

Ostond Corpus Christi . Blessing the sea. 

Padua Jan. 17 St, Anthony, Festival 

Palermo Julyii-15 Festival of Sta. Rosalia. Cathedral 

illuminated on last day of festival. 

Sept. 4 Pilgrimage to Monte Pellegrino. 

Paris Jan. I Circumcision, General holiday. Dis- 
play of iStrennes. 

Nov. 2 AllSouU. Crowds visit P^re la Cluuse. 

.Pesth Aug. 20 Festival of St Stephen of Hunmy. 

JRiffS ..« June 16 Festival of "Xa Luminara." Oroefil 

three years. 



FESTIVALS, FETES, FAIRS, ETC viog 

Place. Date. Description. 

Prague May 16-24 Sf. ^hn Nepomuk, Grand Festival 

Pilgrimages. Mass on great bridge. 

Sept 28 Festival of St Wenceslaus. 

BapallO (near July 2-4 Festival of Madonna dell' Orto. II- 

Genoa) lumination of the coast 

Sigi July 22 Pilgrimage to church on Rigu Wrest- 
ling Matches. 

Aug. 5 Pilgrimage to Chapel Maria Zum 

Schnee, KlosterlL 

Sept 6 „ „ ,', 

Aug. 10 Wrestling Matches at Kaltbad. 

Bono [Note. — Many of the festivals have been altered, aban- 
doned, or become irr^ular, since Rome has become 
the capital of Italy. Those marked with an asterisk 
are still observed with great pomp.] 
Jan. I CtV«<»KTyip«. "Papal Chapel" (t.^., ser- 
vice at which the Pope is present) at 
the Sistine. Curious ceremony at 
Sta. Maria in Campitelli — drawing 
for patron saints. 

f, 5 Fair of the Befano. St Eustachia 

,, 6 Epiphany, Ara Coeli Church; pro- 
cession. Benediction with the Sante 
Bambino from top of steps. Services in 
various churches throughout octave. 

„ 17 St, Anthony s Day, Blessing the beas^ 

„ 18 Chair of St Peter. Procession wiA 

Pope, in St. Peter's. 

^,20 St, Sebastian. Festival at Sant' Andrea 

della Valle. 

„ 21 *St, Agnes, Blessing the lambs, at Sta. 

Agnese fiiori Mura. 

,,25 ^Conversionof St, Paul. Exhibition of 

his chains at San Paolo. 
Feb, I *St, Ignatius, The interesting subter- 
ranean Church of San Clemente 
illuminated. 

„ 2 Purification, Procession with candles 

in St Peter's. 

March 9 Sta, Francesca Rotnana, Fete at the 

Tor de* SpecchL 

„ 12 St, Gregory, Festival at S. Gregoria 

„ 19 St, Joseph, Festival of S. Giuseppe. 

„ 25 * Annunciation, Papal ChapeL JPro- 

cession of white mule. Sta. MEuria 
sopra Minerva. 

April 23 St, George, Exhibition of relics S. 

Giorgio in Velabro. 
„ 25 •5f. Mark. '^xowsBtfSii^x^ax'Siu^JKSe'*' 



aoO APPENDIX, 

pLAci. Date. Dbsoliption. 

QQIII0 April 30 ^/. CaM«rM^. Festival at the MinennL 

May 3 ^Invention of the Cross, Exhibition of 

relics at Sante Crooe. 

„ 26 *St. FUippoNeru Papal Chappl» Chiesa 

Nuova. (The rooms occupied by the 
saint are open on this day.) 

June 24 * St. John Baptist, Papal Chapel at the 

I^teran. Fine musical service, and 
oh previous evening. 

„ 28 Eve of St. Feter. Papal Chapel, St 

Peter's. Dome illuminated. 

M 29 *St, Peter, The Pope performs H^ 

Mass in St Peter's. At Lat&ran 
exhibition of relics. Fireworks on 
Monte Pincio, etc. 
Throughout the octave the Mamertine 
Prisons are illuminated. 

June 31 St, Ignatius Loyola. Festival at the 

Gesi^. 

Aug. I *St. Peter's Chains. Festival at S. 

Pietro in VinculL 

„ 4 St. Dominic, Fdte at the Minerva. 

«9 5 Sta. Maria ad Nives. Cardinal's Chapel 

{ue.^ service at which the Cardinal 
is present) at Sta. Maria Maggiore. 
During the function white flowers are 
showered from the roof of the Bor- 
ghese Chapel. 

«, 15 * Assumption of the Virgin, Sta. Maria 

Maggiore. High Mass, in presence of 
( the Pope. Benediction from balcony. 

Sept 8 * Nativity of Virgin, Papal Chapel at 

Sta. Maria del Popolo. 
1st Sunday in Rosary Sunday. Procession from the 
October. Minerva. Fdtes, etc., throughout the 

month on Sundays and Thursdays at 
Monte Testaccio. 

Nov. I *All Saints, Feast at S. Lorenza 

Curious scenes in the cemeteries 
throughout the octave. 

«, 4 * San Carlo Borromeo, Papal Chapel at 

San Carlo in Corso. 

„ 22 ^Sta. Cecilia, Festival at Sta. Cecilia. 

Illumination of Cs^tacomb .of St 
Calixtus, where St Cecilia was 
buried. 

g, 23 *St, Clemente, Festival and illumioa- 

tions, Subterranean Church of S> 

Dec 3 £<• Francis XcEuier. ^^^\3a&Gesd, 



FESTIVALS, FETES, FAIRS, ETC 201 

Place. Date. Description, 

20X110 ••> ' Dec. 4 Military Mass at Sta. Maria Ttuopoitp 

tina. . Fete of artillerymen. 

„ 8 Immaculate Conceptum, Papal Chapel 

in the Sistine. 

„ 24 Christmas Eve. Procession of Holy 

crib in Sta. Maria Maggiore. Night 
services at Sistine, Vatican, etc 

y, 25 Christmas Day. Pope performs High 

Mass at St. Peter's. Festival of the 
"Presepe" at the Ara CceK. Ser- 
mons by boys for ten subsequent 
days. 

„ 26 St. Stephen. Fete, San Stefano Ro- 

tondo. " Te Deum " at the Gesu. 
Pope and Cardinals present. 

„ 27 St. John the Evangelist, St John 

Lateran. 

„ 31 St. Sylvester. At his church, and "Te 

Deum " at the Gesu. 

Holy Week ... Noble ladies wash the feet of pilgrims 
1 each evening at the Trinita dei Pelle- 

grinu 

Wednesday. The " Tenebrae" — an in- 
teresting service, at which the lights 
are gradually extinguished while the 
story of the Passion is rehearsed. 

** Miserere* sung in the Sistine ChapeL 
Pope present. 

Thursday. Sistine Chapel, High Mass. 
Procession of the Pope to the Pauline 
Chapel, which is illuminated. St 
Peters — ^the Pope blesses the peoplb 
from the balcony : washes the feet 
of thirteen priests ; serves thirteen 
priests at table. "Tenebrae" and 
' * Miserere ** in Sistine. Illuminatiop 
of the various chapels. 

Good Friday. ** Tenebrae" and "Mise- 
rere." Adoration of relics in St 
Peter's by the Pope. 

Saturday. Jews baptized in baptistery 
of Constantine. In the evening, ser- 
vice at St. Peter's. 

Etster Sunday. Pope borne to St Peter's, where. he 

celebrates Mass. Blowing of the 
silver trumpets. Benediction fron 



202 APPENDIX. 

Place. ^ Date. DEsciaPTio^ it 

BoniO Easter Monday. Fetes, fireworks, etc. 

Carnival Begins Saturday- week before Ash Wed* 

nesday, and continues till Shro?e 
Tuesoay. Masquerades and liorse> 
racing daily. On the last ereningi 
lighting and blowing out tapers. 

Ash Wednesday Ashes are sprinkled on the heads of the 

Cardinals in St Peter's. HighMus; 

3rd Sunday in Exhibition of relics at San Lorenza 
Lent 

4th Monday in Feast of the Santa Quattro IncoroDati 
Lent at their Basilica. 

Palm Sunday ... The Pope carried round St Petei^Si 

Consecration of Palms. 

Rogation Days . Processions. 

Ascension Day . Papal Chapel at Lateran. Benediction 

by the Pope from the balcony. 

[The Great National Festas, celebrated with musics 
illuminations, etc, etc., are — 

1st Sunday in Celebration of the Constitution. 
June. 

Sept 20 Anniversary of the Liberation of Rome. 

Processions, etc. 
Oct 2 Anniversary of the Plebiscite. 

Etc, etc, etc 

[Every visitor should consult the Calendar, and also local authorities, as 
there is scarcely a day when there is not some ecclesiastical celebra^ 
tion of interest going forward somewhere in Rome]. 

SftOhseln July 26 Wrestling Matches. (Sachseln isnetf 

Sandeuy on the Brunig, Switzerland.) 

Sohopfheim June 29 Wrestling Matches. 

(Switzerland) 

Sept 29 „ „ 

1st Sunday in 
Oct „ „ 

Beealp (near July 6 Or Sunday following that date. Wiest- 

Appenzel) ling Matches. 

Sempaoh (near „ 8 Commemoration of victory on battte* 

Lucerne) field. 

Siena April 30 St, Catherine, Festival. 

July 2 & Aug. 16 Horse Races (II Palio). 

Sinigaglia October Great Fair. 

(S. ItiUy) 

Borrento Aug. 15 Fete at S. Maria a Castella Hlmnini- 

tion of Positano. 

BpeSlB tt Assumption of Virgiiu Festival at tlie 

C\xaiO[L ol ^^tlAAdotma di Soviore. 



FESTIVALS, FETES, FAIRS, ETC 20$ 

tiALZ Date. Description. 

St. Moritz Sept 21 nimninations. 

(Switzerland) 

„ 22 Festival and High Mass at AT)bey off 

St Moritz. 
Stadtalp (near ist Sunday in Wrestling Match. 
Meiringen) Aug. 

Stuttgart Sept 28 Volksfest at Cannstadt 

Tannalp (near Ai^. 10 Wrestling Match. 

Meiringen) 

Tivoli May8 S, Michde. Festival. 

Trent (Trento) June 26 Festival of S. Vigilius. 

Trieste Corpus Christ! Processions. Festivals. 

Turin SeptS NaiwUy of Virgin. Festival on the 

Supeiga. 
TJetliborg (Zii- Ascension Day Children's Fete, 
rich) ■ 

Var8&lo(Lakeof Aug. 15 Assumption of Virgin. Pilgrimage to 

Orta) the Sacro Monte. 

Venice April 25.... StrMarJis, Grand Festival 

[Festivals on all the Saints* Days, and 
a- variety of Fetes of local interest] 

Vienna May i Popular Fete in the Au^arten. 

June 28 Pilgrims leave for Manazell (reached 

from Bru'ck on the Semmering Rail- 
way). 

July 6 ^ Pilgrims return from Mariazell. 

Sept 4 .,.. Sta, Rosalia. Pilgrimage to Rosalien 

Chapel. 
,, 8 ......... Public Holiday at Mariabrunn, a short 

distance from Vienna. 
Good Friday ... H6ly Sepulchre in all the Churches. 
Easter Eve Great Procession of the Court in Im- 
perial Palace. 
Easter Monday. Pilgrimage to Antignano. 
Corpus Christi . Processions, Festivals, etc. 

Vire (Normandy) Aug. 10 Fete des Drapiers. 

Vlsardingen June 14 Prayers for successofthe herring fishery. 

(Holland) 

.,, 15 General Holiday. Fleet of herring 

boats set saiL 
Wengem Alp ist Sunday in Wrestling Match. 

Aug. 
Ypres (Belgium) ist Sunday in Festival. 

Aug. ■ 



204 



APPSNDiaC. 



SWISS ELEVATIONS. 

The following is a comparative account of the height (in feet 
above the sea level) of some of the well-known places in 
Switzerland -referred to in the present work : — 



Piz Languard 

Gomdr Grat 

Faulhom ..: 

Riffel Hotel 

Lauberhom 

Furca 

Grimsel ' ... 

Rothhom ... 

Niesen 

Bemina Pass 

Albula Pass 

Julier Pass ... 

Spliigen Pass 

St Gothard Pass 

Bellevue HotdySVengem Alp 

Engadine ... 

Rigi 

Rhone Glacier (lower) 

Miirren 

Zermatt 

Rosenlaui Glacier 

Andermatt... 

Maderaner Thai 

Comballaz ... 

Rosenlaui ... 

T6te Noire Hotel 

Crrindelwald 



••• 



••• 



... 



••• 



••• 



••• 



••• 



••• 



.•• 



Chamouny ... 
Briinig Pass 
Engelberg ... 
Lauterbfunnen 
Meiringen ... 
Interlaken ... 
Lucerne 
Geneva 



••• 



••• 



••• 



•0* 



• •• 


• * . 


10,715 


• •• .... 
• •• 


... 
• . * 

• •• 


10,290 
8,803 
. 8428 


wtrt 


... 


8,I2Q 


*** 


• •• 


7,992 
7,936 


• *. 

• •* 

• *. 


• •• 

• •« 

• •• 

• •• 


7,917 
7,763 
7,658 

7,589 


• •• 


• «• 


7,503 


<•• 


• •• 


6,945 


... 
) 


• •• 

• •• 


6,936 
6,788 


*•• 


• •• 


6,100 


• *• 


• •* 


5,905 


• •• 


• •* 


5,742 


• •• 


... 


5,347 


• •• 


• •« 


5,315 


• •» 


... 


5,027 


• •. 


... 


4,900 


• •• 

•*• 


• •• 

• •* 


4,500 
4,416 


• •• 


• •* 


4,397 


. «• 


• •• 


4,oo3v 


• ••. 


• a. 


3,773 


• •• 


... 


3,445 


• «* 


• . • 


3,379 


• •• 


• * . 


3,291 


• *. 


*•• 


2,730 


• •• 

• •• 


... 

... 


2,224 
1,837 


• •• 


• •• 


1,437 


••• 


• •• 


1,230 



IMPORTANT NOTICE. 



Thomas Cook and Son's tickets are available for 
one or more passengers to travel by any train any day, and 
do not compel the holders to travel in parties. 



^ropmme of |[oiites. 



TIME AND COST OF A TOUR. 

IN order to help the Tourist to arrange a route, to show how 
time may be economized, and, above all, to give him some 
notion as to the approximate cost of a tour to Switzerland, 
we append a few examples. It must be borne in mind, however, 
that the costs of travelling are liable to constant change, and 
therefore the Tourist will do well to consult the last number of 
" Cook's Excursionist " (published monthly, price 2d.) ; or, if 
he cannot from that source obtain the exact information re- 
quired, if the precise itinerary of the tour contemplated be for- 
warded to Messrs. CoOK & Son, Chief Office, Ludgate Circus, 
E.C., with stamped directed envelope for a reply, a special 
quotation will be sent by first post. 

In CALCULATING EXPENSES, nothing will be said here about 
hotel accommodation, or about the luxuries of travel Of 
course, it depends entirely on the taste of the individual, and 
his habits, as to whether expenses in this respect be great or 
small What we wish to denote is the actual travelling expense 
and the actual expenditure of time, necessary for a tour in 
Switzerland. A tour may be a very expensive matter as regards 
time and money, if the traveller thinks well to make it so ; but 
this is by no means a necessity. A fortnight, three weeks, or 
a, month, will suffice, as regards time ; and the travelling 
expenses will be within the tnaaxis oi ^Sl otdlnary Tourists. 
Full particulars as to hotel accoTSMaod^^LvyDL\^\ifc Sksvscc^ks^ 



SPECIMENS OF TOURS. 



207 



Whenever in the foUowmg illustrations guides or carriages 
are mentioned, the expense is not included in the estimate 
given, except in the case of the T^te Noire or Col de Balme. 

Route No. I. A Fourteen Days' Tour. 
Allowing time to visit Geneva, Chamouny, Mont Blanc 

1st day.^'LoxAon to Paris, via Calais, 11 hours. 

2nd day, — Paris to Geneva, 13J hours. 

y^dday.^^Aa Geneva. 

4/^ day, — Trip on the Lake. 

^th i/iijy,— Geneva to Chamouny by diligence. 

6th day, — Chamouny. Ascend to Montanvert ; cross the Mer 
de Glace to the Chapeau ; descend to source of the Arveiron. 
(Guide over Mer de Glace ; trifling fee.) 

Jth day, — At Chamouny. 

Zih d?<jy.— Chamouny to Martigny, by the T6te Noire or Col 
de Balme.* 

9/^ day, — Visit Gorge du Trient j rail to Lausanne. 

loih day, — Lausanne and environs. 

nth ^^. —Lausanne to Berne, breaking the journey in order 
to spend a few hours at Fribourg. 

i2th day.—BtxTiQ to Neuchitel, 3J hours, 

13/A day,—\^t\xchk\jd to Paris. 

i^ih day. — Paris to London. 

Approximate cost: First class throughout, ;£ 11 los. ; second 
class, £^, 



Route No. IL A Fortnight's Tour. 

Allowing time to visit the finest scenery of the Bernese 

Oberland. 

1st day. — Leave London for Paris by morning train, 11 
hours, via Calais. 



* In going to Martigny from Chamouny the T6te Noire is the prefet«.U& 
route. From Martigny to Chamouny the CoV 6ft '^a2afift\& t^R»ts^(&s:Qi&s^ 



ao8 APPENDIX. 

2nd day.-^Taxis to Basle by Troyes and Mulhous^ 12} 
hours. 

3rd day.^^Explore Basle in early morning ; then Basle to 
Lucerne, 3J hours. 

4M day, — In Lucerne (ascend Rigi or Pilatus). 

5M dajy, — Tour of the Lake of Lucerne. 

6/ih day, — Lucerne to Meiringen, over the Briinig Pass. 

7M daj^, — On foot to Falls of the Reichenbach, Rosenlaui 
Glacier, Great Scheideck, Grindelwald, Little Scheideck. 

StA day. — ^Wengem Alp, Lauterbrunnen and Staubbach 
Falls ; carriage from thence to Interlaken. 

gtA day. — Spend morning in Interlaken; return ticket to 
Brienz, to visit Falls of the Giessbach. 

\oth day. — Interlaken to Darligen by train ; Darligen to 
Thun by boat ; Thun to Berne by rail. 

wth day. — In Berne. 

\7.th day. — Berne to Geneva, breaking journey at Fribourg 
or Lausanne, 5 hours. 

i^th day. — In Geneva. 

\\th day. — To Paris. 

\^th day. — Paris to London. 

Approximate cost : First class throughout, about £,\l\ 
second class, £,% los. 

No provision is made in this estimate for mule, or other means tA ooa* 
veyance from Meiringen to Interlaken. 



Route No. III. A Fortnight's Tour. 

1st day, — London to Paris (via Dieppe). 

7.nd day. — Paris to Basle. 

3rd day, — Basle to Schaffhausen, 3J hotu^; Falls of the 
Rhine. 

i^h day. — Schaffhausen to Constance, 2 hours ; Lake of 
Constance. 

S^A day^ — To Ziirich, choice of routes. 
. 6tk day, — ^At Zurich. 



SPECIMENS OF TOURS. 



209 



^1h day, — Zurich to Lucerne, 2 hours ; at Lucerne. 

Zth /&_y.— Trip on Lake of Lucerne to Fliielen and back. 

9M day, — Lucerne to Brienz ; over the Briinig Pass ; stay at 
Falls of the Giessbach. 

\oth day, — Interlaken. 

I \tk day. — Rail to Darligen : steamboat on Lake of Thun ; 
rail to Berne. 

\2th day, — In Berne. 

I'^thday, — Rail to Paris by Neuchitel, Pontarlier, and 
Dijon. 

14M day, — In Paris. 

15M day. — ^To London. 

Cost: First class throughout, ;^ii 7s. ; second class, £7 15s. 



Route No. IV. A Three Weeks* Tour, 

Visiting Falls of the Rhine, Bernese Oberland, Chamouny, 

and Mont Blanc. 

1st and 2nd days, — London to Basle (via Dieppe and Paris). 

y^d day. — Basle to Schaff hausen. 

4/// day, — Schaffhausen to Ziidch. 

Ith day, — Ziirich to Lucerne. 

6th day, — Ascend Rigi. 

jth day, — Trip on Lake to Fliielen and back. 

%th day. — From Lucerne to Meiringen, by the Briinig Pass. 

9M day. — On foot to Falls of Reichenbach,Rosenlaui Glacier, 
Great Scheideck, Grindelwald, and Little Scheideck. 

lotk day, — Wengem Alp, Lauterbrunnen (see Staubbach 
Falls) : carriage from thence to Interlaken. 

I ith day, — In Interlaken. Falls of Giessbach. 

12th day,--K3A\ to Darligen; boat to Thun; rail to Berne. 

13M day, — To Lausanne, visiting Fribourg, en route, 

i4tA day, — Trip on Lake to visit Vevey ; Chillon ; thence to 
Bouveret for Martigny; s^op^^ route to visit Gorge du Trient. 

15/A day, — Martigny to Chamouny by Col da li^isKkfc^^x'^^^ 
Noire. 



210 APPENDIX. 

16/A day.'^Kx. Chamouny. 

1 7M ^j'.— Diligence to Geneva. 

\%tk day. — Geneva. 

19M day, — Geneva. 

20th day, — ^To Paris. 

^istday^—lo London. 

Cost : First class throughout, ;f 12 19s. ; second class, 
£^\o 8s. 



RoxTTE No. V. A Three Weeks' Tour, 
Visiting Belgium, the Rhine, and Switzerland. 

Leave London for Antwerp by evening train ; arrive there in 
early morning of 

\st day, --Pa Antwerp. 

2nd day, — To Brussels, 2 hours. Brussels. 

yd day,— Trip to Waterloo, etc. 

4M day, — Brussels to Cologne, 7 hours. 

5M day» — ^Up the Rhine to Bingen or Mayence, 

6th day,-— To Heidelberg. 

yfk day, — Baden-Baden. 

8M day, — To Strassburg ; visit Cathedral, etc.. and then pro- 
ceed to Basle. 

gfk day .—At B2Lsle. 

loth day, — Basle to Lucerne, 3 J hours. Lucerne. 

nth day,— "Lyxctm^ ; trip on Lake to Fliielen and back. 

I2tk day. — Lucerne ; ascend Rigi or Pilatus, etc. 

i^th day.—Yrova Alpnach to Brienz by diligence ; steamer 
from Brienz to Giessbach ; stay night there, and see the Falls 
illuminated. 

14/A ^j'.— Steamer to Interlaken. 

15/A day.PLi Interlaken ; trip to Grindelwald, etc. 

i6th <il^.' Interlaken to Berne. 

17 tk day.—Bem^ to Lausanne. 

j8//f day. — Ouchy to Geneva by boat. 
X9/5I ^a^.— Geneva. 



SPECIMENS OF TOURS. ^if 

2Gth day.^To Paris. 

2ist' day, — To London, via Calais. 

Cost : First class throughout, £i/^ ; second dass, ;f li 



Route No. VI. A Three Weeks* Tour, 

Visiting Belgium, the Rhine, and Switzerland. 

1st day to \oth day, — As in Route V. 
i\th ^j'.- Ascend Rigi. etc. 

\7,th //^y.— Lucerne to Fliielen by steamboat ; diligence to 
Andermatt. 

13M day,—^y the Furca Pass to Brigue ; rail to Martigny. 

i\th day,— By the Col de Balme or T6te Noire to Chamouny. 

15M day, — ^At Chamouny. 

i6tk day, — At Chamouny. 

17M day, — To Geneva, by diligence. 

18M day, — Geneva. 

igtk day. — Trip on the Lake of Geneva. 

2otA day.— To Paris. 

2ist day,— To London, via Calais. 

Approximate cost : First class, £15 ; second class, ;f 11 i8s. 



Route No. VII. A Month's Tour, 

Visiting the principal places in Switzerland leisurely. 

Same as Route No. IV. 
Cost, same as Route No IV. 



Roxtte No. VIII. A Month's Tour, 

Including a visit to the principal places in Switzerland and the 

Italian Lakes. 

1st day.^To Paris (via Calais). 
2nd day,— To Basle. 



9ia^ 



APPENDIX. 



yrd day, — To SchaHhausen. 

4M day, — Zurich. 

Ith day, — By rail to Coire. 

(dh ^j'.— Diligence to Chiavenna," over the Spliigen. 

^th day, — Chiavenna to Colico, diligence ; Colico to Bellaggio 
by steamer. 

%th day, — At Bellaggio. 

9/A day, — ^To Como. 

\oth day, — To Menaggio, boat ; and Lugano (Lake of 
Lugano), diligence. 

iithday^ — Lugano to Luino, diligence; thence to Laveno, 
Baveno, or Stresa, on the Lago Maggiore. 

i2ih and 13/A days, — Still in the same neighbourhood. 

14M and iifh ^fe^j.— From Baveno, by the Simplon Pass> to 
Brigue. 

idth //^fiy.— Rail to Martigny. 

\Tth day,^By Col de Balme to Chamouny. 

iSth day, — At Chamouny. 

igt/i day, — At Chamouny. 

20th day, — Diligence to Geneva. 

list day, — Genevi. 

22nd day, — Lake of Geneva to Lausanne. 

2y^dday,'^'YQ Berne. 

2\th day,—'L3ke of Thun to Interlaken. 

25/^ day. — Interlaken ; boat to Giessbach Falls. 

26/A day,— Over the Briinig to Lucerne. 

2'jtk day.^-ljictmt, (If there should be thirty-one days in 
the month spend two days here.) 

2Zth day,— To Basle. 

29/^ day, — To Paris, 

2,0th day, — To London. 

Cost: First class throughout, for one calendar month| 
£iZ IIS. ; second class, ;£ 1 5 los. 



SPECIMENS OF TOURS. 



«i3 



Route No. IX. A Four Weeks^ Tour, 

Visiting Holland, Belgium, the Rhine, Black Forest, and 
principal places in Switzerland. 

Leave London by evening train for Antwerp, arriving theie in 
early morning of 

1st day, — Antwerp. 

2nd day, — ^Antwerp. 

y^d day, — ^To Brussels, 2 hours. 

4/^ day.— BtmssqIs ; drive to Waterloo, or train. 

Ith day, — Brussels to Cologne, 7 hours. 

6th day, — Up the Rhine; ascend Drachenfels; stay at 
Coblenz. 

yth day.^^Vp the Rhine : to Bingen or Mayence, breaking 
journey at St. Goar. 

Stk day, — To Heidelberg, by rail. 

9M day, — Baden-Baden. 

\oih day f ^'^ ^^^^k Forest. Take Baden-States rail from 

wth davl Off^^^burg to Hausach, Villingen, Singen, and 
^ Schaflfhausen. 

I2t/i day, — Schaflfhausen. 

13/^ day. — Zurich. 

14/A day, — Zurich to Zug and Lucerne. 
. i$th day, — Lucerne. Ascend to Rigi or Pilatus. 

i6tk day, — Lake of Lucerne to Alpnacht. Diligence to 
Brienz and steamer to Giessbach. 

lytk day, — Giessbach to Interlaken and Berne. 

iStA day, — Berne to Martigny. 

igth day.— Over the Col de Balme to Chamouny, 

20tA //(fj/.— Chamouny. 

2ist ^<!iy.— ^Chamouny, 

22«^^/<^y.— Diligence to Geneva. 

2^rd day. — Geneva. 

24/A <^;^.— Trip on Lake of Geneva. 



214 APPENDIX 

25M day, — Geneva to Neuch&teL 

26M day, — To Paris. 

^^th day, — In Paris. 

28/A day, — 1 

29ilA day, — > To London. 

yythday, — J 

Fares : First class, £iz IQS- ; second dass, {^w 14s. 



Having now shown how to plan a tour for a given time, it 
may assist the intending tourist to show a few other specimens 
taken at random from a great number of combinations provided 
by the tickets of Thomas Cook and Son. It should be clearly 
understood that these are but specimens, and are in nowise 
arbitrary arrangements, as the traveller can be supplied with 
tickets throughout, for any other route he may have decided to 
follow. 

It is the more necessary to point this out as, formerly, a book 
of tickets issued by Thomas Cook and Son necessitated a 
continuous journey in the order of issue. This is not now the 
case. Take, for example, a point connected with the Bernese 
Oberland. Formerly they bad no tickets which would har- 
moniously combine the Rhone Valley with the lines leading to 
Interlaken, Lauterbrunnen, and Grindelwald. They are now 
able to supply tickets from various points — Geneva, Berne, or 
Basle to Interlaken ; from thence travellers may make their own 
way over the range of the Alps by the Baths of Leuk, or any 
other Alpine route which they desire to take to the Rhone 
Valley, where the tickets again come into operation, taking them 
up the valley of the Rhone to the Furca or Simplon Pass, or to 
Martigny, St. Bernard, and the Chamouny district. The great 
advantage of this system is that there need be no unused cou- 
pons, and that the selection may be made in accordance with 
the wishes of the traveller ; and, in the event of a coupon not 
being required, it will be taken back subject to the conditions on 
which unused tickets are accepted. It may be well just to men- 
tion that their list of tickets for Switzerland, including railways, 
steamboats on the lakes, and diYL^exic.^ otl the Alpine roads 



SPECIMENS OF TOURS. ^1^ 

leading into Italy, amounts to the number of about threescore 
and ten, and these can be combined for the selection and choice 
of travellers, on certain conditions as to the number of coupons 
which they will be required to take. 



Paris and Switzerland. 

A. — London to Paris, Dijon, Macon, Culoz, Geneva, and 
back. Available for one month. Going and returning via 
Dieppe: ist class, £S 19s.; 2nd class, £6 12s. Going and 
returning via Calais : ist class, ;^io 19s. ; 2nd class, £7 18s. 

B.— London to Paris, Dijon, Pontarlier, Neuch&tel, Bemei 
Fribourg, Lausanne, Geneva, Culoz, Dijon, Paris, and London^ 
or vice versa. Available for one month. Via Dieppe : 1st class, 
£y i6s. ; 2nd class, £$ 15s. Via Calais: ist class, £g i6s. 
2nd class, £y iis. 

C— London to Paris, Dijon, Pontarlier, Neuchitel, Berne, 
Lausanne, Vevey, Martigny, T^te Noire or Col de Balme to 
Chamouny (one mule or one guide), thence diligence via Sal- 
lanches to Geneva, rail to Culoz, Dijon, Paris, London, or vice 
versa. Available for one month. Via Dieppe : ist class, £g ys. ; 
2nd class, £7 4s. Via Calais: ist class, ;^ii 7s.; 2nd class, 

£9- 

D.— London to Paris, Fontainebleau, Dijon, Macon, Culoz, 
Geneva, Lausanne, Fribourg, Berne, Thun, Interlaken, Brienz, 
Briinig, Alpnach, Lucerne, Olten, Bienne Neuchitel, Pontarlier, 
Dijon, Paris, London, or vice versa. Available for one month. 
Via Dieppe : ist class, £<) 6s. ; 2nd class, £(i 17s. Via Calais: 
1st class, ;^ii IS. ; 2nd class, £% 13s. 

£. — London to Paris, Belfort, Basle, Lucerne, Alpn^h, 
Briinig, Brienz, Giessbach, Interlaken, Thun, Berne, Lausanne, 
Geneva, Culoz, Dijon, Paris, London, or vice versa. Available 
for one month. Via Dieppe: ist class, £% 17s.; 2nd class^ 
£(> 14s. Via Calais : ist ckss, £10 i6s.\ •rcA^^sa^ f>^^ 



1 



2i6 APPENDIX. 

F.— London to Paris, Belfort, Basle, Lucerne, Alpnach, 
Briinig, Brienz, Giessbach, Interlaken, Thun, Berne, Lausanne, 
Vevey, Martigny, T6te Noire or Col de Balme, Chamouny, 
Geneva, Culoz, Dijon, Paris, London, or vice versa. Available 
for one month. Via Dieppe : ist class. ;^io 8s. ; 2nd class, 
;^8 3s. 6d. Via Calais : ist class, £\2 8s. ; 2nd class, £j^ 19s. 6d« 

G. — London to Paris, Belfort, Basle, Lucerne, Fliielen, Hos- 
penthal, Furca Pass, Brigue, Visp, Sierre, Martigny, T6te Noire 
or Col de Balme, Chamouny, Geneva, Culoz, Dijon, Paris, 
London, or vice versa. Available for one month. Via Dieppe: 
1st class, £\i i6s. 6d. ; 2nd class, ;^9 9s. 6d. Via Calais : ist 
class, ;£i3 i6s. 6d. ; 2nd class, J^w 5s. 6d. 

H.— London, Paris, Dijon, Pontarlier, Neuchitel, Berne, 
Thun, Interlaken, Brienz, Briinig, Alpnach, Lucerne, Fliielen, 
Hospenthal, Furca, Brigue, Visp, Sierre, Martigny, T^te Noire 
or Col de Balme, Chamouny, Geneva, Culoz, Dijon, Paris, 
London, or vice versa. Available for one month. Via Dieppe : 
1st class, J^w IIS.; 2nd class, ;£9 8s. Via Calais: 1st class, 
;^I3 los. ; 2nd class, £^\\ 4s. 



The Rhine, Black Forest, and Switzerland. 

L — London, Harwich, Antwerp, Brussels, Cologne, Rhine 
steamer to Mayence, Worms, Heidelberg, Baden-Baden, Offen- 
burg, Hausach, Villingen, Singen, Schaffhausen, Ziirich, Zug, 
Lucerne, Alpnach, Brienz, Interlaken, Thun, Berne, Fribourg, 
Lausanne, Geneva, Paris, Rouen, Dieppe, London, or vice versa, 
1st class, ;^ii 19s. 6d.; 2nd class, ;^8 i8s. 9d. i 

Same route between Brussels and Paris, but going and 
returning via Calais: ist class. £\\ los. 6d. ; 2nd class, 
£1 1 OS. 9d. 

Going via General Steam Navigation Company's roate to' 
Antwerp : ist dass, £1 1 8s. 9d. •, 2iid c\as^, fo o^. ^d. 



SPECIMENS OF TOURS. 217 

Paris, the Black Forest, Switzerland, and the 

Jura. 

K.— London, Newhaven, Dieppe, Paris, Nanqr, Strassburg, 
Kehl, Offenburg, Villingen, Singen, Constance, Rorschach, St. 
Gall, Winterthur, Zurich, Zug, Lucerne, Bernese Oberland, 
Berne, Bienne, Chaux de Fonds, Neuch&tel, Pontarlier, Dijon, 
Paris, Rouen, Dieppe, London, or vice versa. Available for two 
months, ist class, ;^ii los. ; 2nd class, ;^8 2s. 

Same route beyond Paris, but going and returning via Dover 
and Calais : ist class, £ii^ 5s. ; 2nd class, ;£io 15s. 

Luxemburg, Black Forest. Switzerland, and Paris. 

L. — London, Harwich, Antwerp, Brussels, Luxemburg, Metz, 
Strassburg, Kehl, Offenburg, Villingen, Singen, Schaffhausen, 
Winterthur, Zurich, Zug, Lucerne, Alpnach, Brienz, Interlaken, 
Thun, Berne, Fribourg, Lausanne. Geneva, Culoz, Macon, Dijon, 
Paris, Rouen, Dieppe, Newhaven, London, or vice versa, ist 
class, ;£ii 13s.; 2nd class, ;^8 12s. 

Going to Brussels via Calais ; returning from Paris via Calais 
and Dover; same route between Brussels and Paris, ist class, 
;£i3 19s. 6d. ; 2nd class, ;^io 13s. 6d. 

Many " Circular Tours " are issued in combination with 
those quoted above. Take Tour B for example. It only takes 
the traveller within sight of Mont Blanc. But by combining 
with that tour " Circular ticket Geneva to Lausanne,'* the tourist 
can go by diligence to Chamouny ; be provided with a guide or 
mule (one of each is best if there are two in a party, or two 
mules and one guide if there are three) over T^te Noire or Col 
de Balme to Martigny. Rail to St. Maurice and Bouveret; 
thence by steamer on the Lake of Geneva to Ouchy, or by rail- 
way through to Lausanne, whence the journey may be continued 
by the tickets in Route B. For a delightful addition to the tour, 
such as is given in this circular tour, the additional co^t \& ^^''^ 
£^i IIS., first class throughout, or £1 9s. s^coxvi^ cNaw^^s^. 



HOTEL ACCOMMODATION COUPONS, 

ORIGINATED AND ISSUED BY 

THOMAS COOK AND SON. 



The Hotel Coupon business, which wu commenced as a friendly 
arrangement of mutual interest to ourselves, to Hotel Proprietors, and 
Tourists, has far exceeded our most sanguine anticipations; and as its 
benefits become better known, they will be more highly appreciated by all 
who are interested in the success of the scheme. 

The European Hotel Coupons are issued at the uniform rate of 8s. per 
day, and are arranged as follows : — ist Coupon (yellow). — Breakfast ^ 
specifying of what it shall consist. 2nd Coupon (red). — Dinner at Table 
a*H6te, with or without Wine, according to the custom of the Hotels. 3ni 
Coupon (blue). — Bed *com including lights and attendance. 

These are the ordinary features of Continental Hotel life, all else beine 
regarded as extras, and as such they are left to be paid for by Supplement^ 
Coupons or cash. 

The coupons are accepted at full value at one principal Hotel in 
each of the chief cities, towns, and places of Tourist resort, in Switzerland, 
Italy, on the banks of the Rhine, and at a great many places in France, Ger- 
many, Holland, Belgium, Austria, etc. ; dso for meals on board the Great 
Eastern Channel Steamers and the Rhine Steamers. 

SUPPLEMENTAL AND EXCEPTIONAL ARRANGEMENTS. 

In London Tourists may be accommodated en route to or from the Con* 
tinent at Cook's British Museum Boarding House, 59, Great Russell Street, 
Bloomsbury, at 6s. per day, for Bed, Breakfast, and Tea with meats. 
(Hotel Coupons accepted at their full value in payment.) 

Hotel Coupons are also accepted at the London and Paris Hotel and 
Refreshment Rooms, Newhaven Wharf, Coupons are accepted for 
meals on board the Great Eastern Channel Steamers, and on the 
Rhine Steamers. 

Special Coupons are issued for Vienna, available at the Hotel 
d'Union, and Hotel Metropole at 13s. per day. 

For Paris, Hotel Coupons at special rates are issued for the Grand 
Hotel and for the Hotel Bedford. 

In Paris, the other Hotels in Messrs. Cook and Son's connection are 
not equal in appearance and style to those of the Continent generally ; but 
the proprietors having long evinced a kindly vcAett&X. 'ydl \Jt«3«!kKi«!B^ "^o^ 
comfort and convenience of Excursiomste ooA. TQwf\&\s^ ^^ C^ns^-os^ 



22C 

allowed to be accepted at the London and New York Hotel, Place do 
Havre; Hotel St. Petersboui^, 35, Rue Caumartin; at the Hotel Beretta 
(late Londres), 8, Rue St. Hyacinthe, Rue St. Honorc. For these Hotels 
iccommodation cards are also issued at the rate of 8s. per day, mdnding 
meat for Breakfast. Special Coupons are issued on the Grand Hotel, 
at 1 6s. to 28s. per day, and on the Hotel Bedford at 12s per day. 

At Rouen, Mrs. Daniells, widow of the late Interpreter at the Station, 
who keeps a small Hotel, the Victoria, near the Station, wishes to accept 
Coupons from parties breaking their journey there. 

Additional Charges are made on the Coupons as follows : 

At Baden-Baden, at the time of the Races, 2 francs per day. 

At Rome, from the 1st of December to the end of April, fix)m I firanc 
to 3 francs per day, according to the class of rooms, are now agreed to as 
extra charges ; but new arrangements may have to be made in consequence 
of Rome being now the capital of Italy. Whatever change is made, 
notice will be given thereof. 

For Rome, an additional series of Hotel Coupons can be had, pro- 
viding for three meals per day, and other accommodation, at ^e Hotd 
d'Allemagne, at an extra charge of 2s. per day. 

At the RiGi KuLM Hotels, I franc extra is required on the Bedroom 
Coupon All these extras can be paid by Supplemental Coupons or Cash. 
Travellers wishing to spend the night at this Hotel must give at least one 
day's notice by letter or telegram to the Manager, stating that they hold 
*' Cook's Coupons,** and wish rooms reserved. 

GiESSBACH. — The Dinner Coupons can only be accepted at this Hotd 
when the passengers remain for the night. 

Conditions and terms of Repayment for unused Coupons are printed 
in the Coupon Books. 

Any Complaints which parties have to make as to the use of the 
Coupons, or the conduct of Hotel Proprietors or Servants, to be addressed, 
in writing, to Messrs. Thomas Cook & Son, Ludgate Circus, Fleet 
Street, London. 

Coupons can be obtained at the offices of Messrs. Thomas Cook & 
Son, Ludgate Circus, and 445, West Strand, London; ii, Ranelagh 
Street, Liverpool; 43, Piccadilly, Manchester; St€j>henson Place, New 
Street, Birmingham ; I, Royal Exchange, Leeds ; 8, Exchange, Market 
Street, Bradford ; Change Alley Comer, Sheffield ; 15, Place du Havre, 
Paris ; 22, Galerie du Koi, Brussels ; 40, Domhof, Cologne ; 90, Rue dn 
Rhdne, Geneva; IB, Piazza di Spagna, Rome; and also at the Hotds 
Swan, Lucerne ; Trois Rois, Bale ; Trombetta, Turin ; Victoria, Venice. 

Repayments for unused Hotel Coupons, less 10 per cent, can 
only be made at the Chief Office, Ludgate Circus, Fleet Street, Loudens 
and no agents are authorised to repay for any not used. 

Hotels in the East. — A special Series of Coupons is provided for 
the East Levant, and we append List of Hotels. 

For Scotland and Ireland also a special series is providedy as per 
Programme. 



EUROPEAN AND EASTERN HOTELS 

Where Cook^s Coupons for Hotel Accommodation will 

be ctccepted. 



HOTELS IN FBANCE AND FBENCH SAVOY. 



Aix tes Bains — Hotel de la Paix. 

Allevard les Bains— Gnnd Hotel des 
Bains. 

Amiens — Hotel de TUnivers. 

Amphion (L«ake of Geneva)— Grand 
Hotel des Bains. 

Angavleme—Grand Hotel du Palais. 

Annecy—Hoi^ d'Angleterre. 

Avignon — Hotel de r£urope. 

Bagneres de Bigorre — Hold de France. 

Bagneres de Luchon — Grand Hotel des 
Bains. 

Biarritz— Gnnd Hotel Garderes. 

Bordeavx— Hotel de France. 

Bifulogne— Grand Hotel ChristoL 

Calais — Hotel Desiin. 

Cannes — Hotel Beau Site. 

C-Atfiw^O'— Hotel de T.Europe. 

fHotel de Londres, and 
Hotel d'Angleterre. 

Chamouny—^ Hotels Royal, Imperial, 

Union, Couronne & 
Palius de Cristal. 

Ckei^ourg-Ghjid Hotel de 1* Univers. 

Cintra (Portugal)— Hotel Victor, 

r^^uj. i Hotel Qu6en Victoria. 

^^*^^— \ Grand Hotel des Etrangers. 

/^>bif— Hotel Jura. 

Fontainehleau—Ho\A de Londres. 

Gorges du /V>r— Ch&let Hotel. 

Grenob/e — Hotel Monnet. 

Havre — Grand Hotel de la Banque. 

Hendaye^ Gnnd Hotel Cbapny. 



n 



Hyeres — Hotel des lies d'Or. 
Lisbon (Portugal)— Hotel Braganza. 
Z.^<7»j— Hotel de T Europe. 
Macon — Hotel de rEuro[)e. 
Marseilles — Hotel du Louvre et de la 
Paix. 

i Hotel Grande Bretagne. 
Mentone — < Hotel de Menton. 

\ Hotel de Turin. 
n/r^^^^s C Grand Hotel Intema- 
Moaane-- | station Buffet. [tionaL 
Nice — Grand Hotel. 
Pontarlier — Hotel de la Poste. 

Grand Hotel (Special Cou- 
pons). 
Bedford Hotel (Special 

Coupons). 
Londres et New York, 

Place du Havre. 
St. Petershourg, 35, Rue 

Caumartin. 
Londres, 8, Rue St. Hya^ 
cinthe. 

Pau — Grand Hotel Gassion. 
Perpignan—Gt2Jid Hotel de Per- 

pignan. 
/?^««j— Smith's Albion Hotel. 
Semnoz Alps—QhaXtX Hotel de Sem- 

noz. 
Toulon—Gi^xad Hotel. 
Tours — Grand Hotel de Bordeaux. 
Vichy— Gizxid Hotel des Bains. 



Paris'-"^ 



ALGESIA AND TUNIS. 



Atgiersr- 

AiMa— Hotel de Paris. 
BUdah—H^^i d'Orient. 
Bona-^HtXiA d'Orient 
ComstanHm^HoUli d'Orient 



Guelma — Hotel Auriel. 
Oran — Hotel de 1* Univers. 
Soukahras — Hotel Thai^isaSfc, 
T/emcen— \lo\A ^t '^x^njru 



aaa 



APPENDIX. 



HOTELS XH SICILY, etc. 



Caiania—Onnd Hotd. 
Malta — Dunsford's Hotel* 
Messima'-^Hotel Victoria. 



I Palermo—Hotel de Franoo. 
Syracuse^Hotei Victoria. 
TaormiMa—HxAA Timeo. 



SWITZERLAND AND THE ALPINE DIST&IOTS. 



Aarau—HoXtl de la Cigogne. 
AigU—YioXjA Victoria. 
^i>»/i?— Hotel de la Poste. 
A Ipnachi— Hotel Pilatus. 
Altdorf—Hoitl Furka. 
AndermaU—See Hospenthal. 
Axenfels (Brunner) — Grand Hotel 

Axenfels 
Baden (Switzerland)— Hinterhof. 
^ai^— Hotel Trois Rois, and Central 

Station Buffet. 
Bel /1/A— Hotel Bel Alp. 
Bergun — Hotel Pir Dela. 
^^ni«— Hotel Belle Vue. 
Bellintona—HoXA de I'Ange, and 

Hotel de U Ville. 
^er— Hotel des Bains. 
Biasca — Hotel de Biasca. 
Brienz—Ho\.€i de la Croix Blanche. 
Brigue—Ho^x^ de la Poste, and Stdr 

tion Buffet. 
^r«»«tf»— Hotel Adler. 
Chamouny (Savoy)— See under "Hotels 

in France.'* 
Chaux de Fonds—HoXiA de la Fleur de 

Lis. 
Constance (Baden) ^Hotel Hecht 
G?f«— Hotel Steinbock. 
ry Dt J i Hotel Kuranstalt. 
Davos Platz- \ ^^^^^ Belvedere. 

/>«*«/w— Disentis Hof. 
Einsiedeln — Hotel du Paon. 
Engeibf.rg— Hotel Sonnenberg. 
Falls of the Rhine (Neuhausen) — 

Schweizerhot 
Fluelen — Hotel Croix Blanche ct 

Foste. 
Prihourg — Hotel Zsehringen. 
Fruti^en — Hotel Bellevue. 
Furka—HoteL Furka. 

i Hotel de la Metropole. 
Geneva — < Hotel du Lac 

( Hotel de Russie. 
Giessiach — Hotel Giessbach. 
Grofr^es (Soleure) — Hotel du Lion. 



Grindelwald—HotfSL de 1' Aigle Noir. 
/ft?/^!*/^/— Meyerhof. 

Tmf0^jnrh0^ S notel Victoria. 
/nterlacien-^ Hotel Ritschard. 

ITandersteg—Hotel Gemmi. 
La r^rr— Hotel du Rivage. 
£mc Noir (Fnbouig) — Hotel des Bains 

du Lac Noir. 

( Hotel Gibbon. 
Lansanni—l Hotel d'Angleterre, 

I Ouchy. 
Laulerbrunnen-^Hotel du Caprfooroe. 
Leuherdad— Hotels des Alpes and BeUe 

Vue. 
Locarno— GtzsA Hotel, Hotel dela 

Couronne. 
LocU—HoXiel Jura. 
Loeche leS'Batns — Hotel des Alpes. 
Lucerne— Hotel du Cygne (Swan) 
Lu^ano^Hotjel du Pare and StatioB 

Buffet. 

( Hotel du Lion d'Or. 
Lungem — < Hotel Brunig. 

i Hotel rOberwald. 
Martigny — Hotel Qerc. 
Af^mnt^ii— Hotel du Sauvage. 
Mendrtsio — Hotel Mendrisio. 
Monte Generoso — Hotel de lionle- 

roso. 
J/iTff/fviiu:— Langbein's Hotel Bean* 

S^jour au Lac 
Morges— Hotel des Alpes. 
Morschach (Lake Lucerne) — Hotel 

Frohnap. 

Pit^iMt^ i Hotel Klimsenhom. 
i-uatus J jj^^^j BeUevue. 

Ponlresina—HotA Kxone. 

Ri^i-Siajfc^-Hotel Rigi-StaffU. 
Rcrschachr-^<(A^^M£KJL 



\ 



APPENDIX. 



MS 



J?Af»i/0#/— Hotel RosenlauL 
JPtfVfb— Hotel Rovio. 
Salvan^HoieX des Gorges dn Tri^fe. 
Samaden^Hot^i Bemina. 
San MoritM— Hotel Engadine. 
c^«^^ S Bnmig Hotel. 
Saruen^ I Hotel de rObcrwald. 
ScAaJ%ausen-~See Falls of the Rhine. 
Sckon/els (Zug)— Hotel Schonfels. 
SchuU—noxjA de la Poste. 
SchweiM—HoXfA Rossli 
5/. GaU— 

St. Nicholas— QmiiA HoteL 
iSf^yrv— Hotel Belle Vue. 
Silvaplana — Hotel Rivalta. 
Sitm — Hotel and Pension Silas. 
Spiez — Hotel Spiezerhof. 
i^ir^tfjf— Hotel de la Poste. 
StaHSsiad^lioX€i Buigenstock. 



SusUn (near Leuk)— Hotel de la 

Souste. 
TerriteUMontreux—HoXtX des Alpes. 

{Hotel BeUe Vue. 
Grand Hold de 
Thoune. 
Thusis—Uoi^i Via Mala. 
7'm»/--Hotel du Glacier de Trient. 
r<fvi?y— Grand Hotel Vevey. 
Vemayaz—lio\€i des Gorges de 

Trient. 
Viach (£ggischomV--Hotel des Alpes. 
Vtlleneuve—HoXxH Byron. 
F(jr/— Hotel de la Poste, and Station 

Bu£fet. 
Vissoie—HoUSi d'Anniviers. 
Zermatt — Hotel du Montendn. 
Zurich— Hovel Belle Vue. 



HOTELS IN BLACK FOBEST. 



Albruek-HoifSL AlbthaL 

Btrmmii (Station)— Hotel Werrathal. 

Belchen (High Mountain Station)— 

Rasthaus Belchen. 
Donaueichingen — Hotel Schutzen. 
Feldhtrg (High Mountain Station)— 

Hotel Feldbergerhof. 
Furtwangen— Angel HoteL 
Gimsback — Bath Hotel. 
Hodien Schwand^-Hotel Maier. 
HolsUig (HoUenthal)— Golden ^tar 

Hotel 
Hamberg ^HoXxX Baren. 
i^rro^A— Hirsch HoteL 
LMzkirch—HtAel Poste. 
Muihcim— Hotel Kittler. 
AWtfto^— Hotel Poste. 
Ottenhc/em— 'Hotel Pflug. 
Oderhirch— Hotel Lind. 



Schluchsee^Hottl Star. 
Sackingen — Hotel Schutzen. 
Sehonau — Hotel Sonne. 
ScAop/hciffi^Hotel Three Kings. 
St, Georgen (Black Forest)— Hotel 

Hirsche. 
St. Blasien— Hotel St. Blasien. 

7W/»<z«— Hotel Ochsen. 

Triderg (Town)— Lion Hotel. 

Triberg (Cascade)— Black Forest 
HoteL 

Vohrcnbach — Hotel Kreoz. 

F*7^i»^«i— Hotel Blume (Poste). 

Waldkirch—Hotel Poste. 

Waldshut—HotfSi Kuhner. 

Wehr (Werrathal)— Hotel Krone. 

Wildbad,-^ 

Wolfach—Hot€i Krone. 



BELGIUM, HOLLAND, THE BHINE, GEBMANT, AND 

AX78TBIA. 



AdiUhtrg — Grand HoteL 
AiA^a-ChapelU — Dubigk's Grand 

HoteL Hotel du Drs^on d'Or. 
AmsUrdam—OlA Bible HoteL 

Antwerp" ^ ^^^^ ^ r Europe, 

^ntAMf— Grand Hotel du SoleO. 
^i^^vijf- Hotel de Baviere. 
Badm^Badtn—HiM de HoUande. 



/Markgrafs Hotel de 

B€rlin^< Hote?B£rtickow. 

VTopfer's HoteL 
Bingen— Hotel Victoria. 
Bonn—GmTid. Hotel RoyaL 
^^anf— Hotel du Rhin. 



2^14 



APPENDDC 



Brtdor^Hottl Swan. 
Bremen — Hotel de I'Europe. 
Brixen — Elephant Hot^ 
BmgeS'^lioicX de Flandre. 
n^„^/._ ( Hotel de la Poste. 
ifrusseu—^ Hotel du Grand Miroir. 

r^^F^^h^— i Hotel «um Erbprinz. 
Carlsruhe-^ Hotel Germania. 

Corj//— Ho'el Royal. 

CobUnce — Hotel du Geant 

Cologne — Hotel Hollande. 

Constance— VioitiX Hecht. 

Creutnach — Riedel's Hotel. 

Darmstadt — Hotel Traube. 

rw^.^.. i Grand Union HoteL 
Dresden- -j j^^^^j ^^ g^^^ 

Eisenach— \AoX!t\ Halben Nf ond. 

Ems — Hotel Darmstadt. 

Field of Waterloo — Museum Hotel. 

Frankfort — Hotel Swan. 

Freiburg (Baden)— Hotel Trescher 

sum Pfauen. 
GA«i/— Hotel de Vienne. 
Gmvnden—^oi€i. Belle Vue. 
Goerli/z— Hotel Herbst. 
Namdurg— Hotel Streit 
Hanover^-'Bri^iAi Hotel. 
Heidelberg^ Hotel de TEurope. 
Innsbruck — Hotel Tyrol. 
Ischyl-HoVA Kreuz. 
AV^/— Hotel Germania. 
Aw««^(f»— Hotel Victoria. 
Leipsic—Hot€L de Baviere. 
Marburg— Hotel Ritter. 
Mayence — Hotel de Hollande. 
Meiningen — Hotel de Saxe. 
w--. C Hotel de Paris. 
meiz— ^ Qrande Hotel de Metr. 
Munich— Hot€L Belle Vue. 



yv<ifffirr— Hotel HoIIaiMle. 
A^MfiM^^^Moravian HoteL 
OberlahnsUin — Hotel Lahneck. 

(Stracke's Hotel d' AHe- 
Ostend—\ magne. 

( Hotel de Gand et d' Albion. 
/Vuitfir— Hotel Bayrischen Hof. 
Prague — Hotel d'Angleterre. 
Regensburg— Hotel Three Helmets. 
Rendibur^Hotel Bergman. 
Riva (Lalce Garda)— Hotel SoleiL 
Rochefort — Hotel Biron. 
Rotterdam— "Sew Bath HoteL 
Rudol/stadt— Hotel rum Ritter. 
5a/«^tfr^— Hotel Erzherzog CaiL 
Schandau ^Hotel Bahr. 
Schwalbach— Hotel Metropole. 
Schwarzburg— Hotel Weissen Hirsch.. 
Spa — Hotel de T Europe. 
Stettin — Hotel du Nord. 
Strasburg — Hotel Maison Rouge. 
Stuttgardt — Marquardi's Hotel. " 

The Hague — Hotel du Vieux Doelen. 

Trient (Tryol)-- Hotel Trento. 

Treves^ Hotel le Treves. 

7W«/tf— Hotel de la Ville. 
Ueberlingen (Lake of Constance) — 
Hotd des Bains. 

,, i Station Buffet. 

Vervters—^ Hotel du Chemin de fer. 
/ Union HoteL Special 

... ) Hotel Ccnipons. 

*^^?*~'S Hotel Metropole. Special 
V Hotel Coupons. 

Weimar— Hotel fum Erbprinzen. 

Wiesbaden— Grdctid. Hotel du Rhin. 

Worms— Hotel de I'Europe. 

(f^irn^tf/^—Hotel Kronprinz. 



SWEDEN, N0BWA7, AND DENICABK. 



Aarhuus — Hotel Royal. 
-^^''^^'l-rHotel Bergen. 
Christiania-'-GrvLvA Hotel. 
Copenhagen — Hotel d'Angleterre. 
Gothenburg — Hotel Christiania. 
/felsingborg— Hotel Molberg. 



/^<wi//&j— Gladvett's Hotel. 

Jonkoping— Hotel Jonkof^ng. 

e^ 11 » i Grand Hotel. 
Stockholm- <j j^Q^^^i Rydberg. 

7v^^A<v<» i ^°'«^ Angleterre. 
Trondhjemr- 1 ,^^^^ Victoria. 



HOTELS IN ITALY. 



Alassio— Hotel de Rome. 

Alessandria — Hotel de I'Europe. 

^ft^ana — Hotel della Pace. 
Anma^Hotei de I'ltalie. 
^awjfo^Hotd BeViQ Vue. 



Bellagio — Hotel Grande Bretagne. 
Bolognar^Hottl Brun. 
Bofdighera-r-HtAti d'Angletene; 
. Bormio — Nouveaux-fBains de Bonnia 



APPENDIX. 



MS 



Cadtmahhia (Lake of Como)— Grand 

Hotd Bdle Vue. 
Capri — Hotels da Louvre, et de 

Tlberio. 
GiJ«r/«— Hotel Victoria. 
CasUllamart — Hotel RoyaL 
Ctmobbio (Lake of Como) — Grand 

Hotel Villa d' Este. 
Cowu> (on Lake)— Hotel de la Reine 

d'Angletene (Villa d'Este). 
Corfu (Greece)— Hotel St. George. 
Comigliano — Grand Hotel Villa 

RadieL 
Chiavenna — Hotel Conradi. 
Chiasso—Hoxtl Chiasso. 
Damo lyOssola—HoteX de la Ville. 
"Hotel New York. 
Hotel de 1' Europe. 
Hotel de Russie. 
Florence^-^ English and American 
Boarding House, Pa- 
lazzo d'Elci, 28, Via 
L Maggio. 
Otftfo— Hotels de la Ville and Trom- 

betta Feder. 
Jschia (Casamicciola) — Hotel Belle 

Vue. 
La 7<7«r— Hotel de I'Ours. 
Lecco — Hotel deux Tours. 
Leghorn — Hotel du Nord. 
Lucca-— -I^kAxSl de TUnivers. 
Z,iff'ff<7— Hotel Simplon. 



Mantua — Hotel de I'Ecu de Fhmoe. 
Menaggio — Hotel ^^ctoria. 

( Grand Hotel de Milan. 
Milan;^< Hotel de I'Eoiope. 

( Station Buffet 
KT ^r \ Hotel Royal des Etranger& 
NapUs-- \ Hotel Metropole. 
OrvUto-~Qt9Xid Hotel Delle Belle Arti 
Padua'~GT^XiA Hotel Fanti. 
Pallanza — Grand Hotel Pallanza. 
Parma — 

f*^r»^tf— Hotel de Perugi^. 
Pisa— Hotel de Londres. 
/Vm/ftt'— Hotel Diomede. 
P<7£nM?/^— Hotel Grande Bretagne. 
„ C Hotel d*Allemacn:ie. 

Komt— J jjQ^gj Anglo.Americain.| 

SaUmo — Hotel Victoria. 

San Remo — Hotel Victoria. 

5iMi»a'— Grand Hotel. 

Sondrio (Valtelina)— Hotel de la 

Poste. 
Sorrento— 'YioVA Tramontano. 
Spezia—YioVsX de la Croix de Malte. 
5/rtfj<z— Hotel des Isles Borromees. 
t 7«ryVf— Hotel Trombetta and Hotel 
d'Angleterre. 

Varenna — Hotel Royal. 

Varese— Grand Hotel Varese. 
+ yenice—Hotei Victoria. 

,. ( Hotel de Londres. 

Verona— ^ station Buffet. 



At the Hotels marked thiu f Cook*« Tickets naay be had. 

EASTERN HOTELS (SPEGIAL COUPONS). 



Alexandria — Hotel de I'Europe. 
Cairo — Shepheard's Hotel and the 

New HoteL 
iSir£B— Suez Hotel. 
Port Said—Hot^ des Pays-Bas. 
^..^^r^/iM. i Mediterranean Hotel. 
jtruioum'^ t Hotel de I'Europe. 



7a^— Hardegg's Hotel Jerusalem. 
Beyrout'^^oxA Bellevue. 
DamascuS'^\yimxX'n& Hotel. 
Constantinople— Hovtl d'Angleterre. 
AtAens—HoX^i des Etrangers and 
d'Angleterre. 



\«v 



226 



ToukiST orncES. 



TOURIST OFFICES OF THOS. COOK AND $0N. 





/Ludgate Circus, Fleet 


Stree t (Chief Office) $ 


London 


j West-end Agenqr, 445, 


We$t Strand (opposite 


j Charing Cro^ Sution and Hotel) ; and . 




^ Front of Midland SUtion* St. JPancras. 


Liverpool . 


II, Ranelagh Street 


1 


Iflanchestcr 


43, Piccadilly. 


J 


Biimingfaam 


Stephenson Place 


' 


Leeds • 


ti. Royal Exchange. 




Bradford 


8, Exchange, Market Street. 


Sheffield . 


Change Alley Comer. 




Leicester '. 


Temperance Hotely Granby Street 


Edinburgh • 


9, Princes Street. 




Glasgow 


165, Buchanan Street 




Dublin 


45, Dame Street. 




Paris . 


!$» Place dti Havre. 


• 


Cologne • 


40^ Domhot 




Brussels 


22, Galerie du Roi. 


.- 


Geneva 


90^ Rue du Rhone. 


4 


Rome 






Cairo . 


book's Tourist Pavilion* Shqpheard's HoteL 


Alexandria . 


Hotel de I'Etirope. 




Ja£b, Palestine 


Haidegg's "Jerusalem HoteL" 



AMERICAN OFFICES OF THOS. COOK & SON. 
261, BROADWAY, NEW YORK. 



ynth Branch Offices at Boston, Washington, PhiladdphU, Chicago^ 
Ne«r Orleans, Fittsbuq;, San Francisco, and Toronto. 



\ > 



i: t 






!i. 



it .. 



( I 



■ ; } f • • 



I 



I : 



.^.f. 



Aa 

Aadorf • 
Aarau • 
Aarberg. 
Aarburg 
Aare, Tne 
Aare, Glaciers, The 
Aathal . 
AcherqK 
Adlerras 
Adligeoschwyl 
Adlischwyl . 
Affoltem . 
Aigle • 
Aiguille de Beaulmes 
Aiguilles Rouges 
Airolo • 
Aix-les-Eaux . 
Allaman 
AUee Blanche 
Alliaz \\ baths 
Albis, The 
AlbnlaThal . 
,,. Pass . 
Aletsch Glacier 
Allalein Glacier 
AUensbach . 
AUenwinden . 
Allinges, Castle 
Amagel 
Alpach» The . 
Alpnach, Gestad 
Alpnach, Bay. 
Alstad • 
Altdorf • 
AltaaQ • 
Altorf • 



35.88- 



PA6B 
78 

54 
35 
97 

57 

if etc 

88 
43 

166 
6 

54 

\\t 

148 
176 
146 

X34 

154 
140 

56 

4 

167 

62 

143 
167 

81 

64 

64 

64 

68,173 

. ao 
68,173 



Altstattei^ 
Altstetten 
Amben • 
Amphion 
AmHswyt 
Amsteg . 
Andeer ,[ 
Andelfingen 
Andermatt 
Ani^res .. 
Annecy • 
Annemasse 
Anniviers, Val d' 
Antey . 
Anza, The 
Anzasca, Val 
Aosta ;.. 

„ Castle 
Appenzell 
Arcjedo . 
Arbon . 
Ardetz . 
Ardon . 
Arenebere 
Argent, Chateau d' 
Aigenti^ 

„ Aiguille 
„ Glacier 
Arlesheim 
Arona • 
Arpenaz, Nant d' 
Arve • • 
Arve and Rhone, Confluence 
Aryeiron, Source 
Arvier • • . 
Ascona , . 
Aubonnt % 



132) 



PAOB 

47 

143 

53 

178 

a5 
174 

,146 
146 

»7i 

170 

168 
158 
155 
155 

176 

lis 
170 

»s 
155 

157 

»53 

157 

20 

17a, 190 



146 
146 
131 

IJO 






a28 



INDEX. 



Auf der Flub, Castle 
Angst, Basel • 
Angstkummenmatt, The 
Aogstmatthom, The 
Auyemier . 
Avencon, The. 
Avise 

Axenstein, The 
Azenstrasse, The 



Baar 

Bachalp, The. 
Bachalp, Lake 
Bachtel, The . 
Bad-Alvenea . 
Baden (Aargau) 
Bad-Pfaffers . 
Balferinhom • 
Balme, Col de 
Balme, La 

„ Chalet de la 
Barberine, The 
Bard 

Basle . 

Basel Augst ... 20, 
Bathiaz, h, Castle 
Baveno .... 172 
Bayerbach, The 
Beatenberg, The 
Beatenhohle, The 
Beaulmes, Aig. de 
Beauregard (Neuchatel) Castle 

„ (Chabalis) Castle 
Beckenried 
Belgirate 
Bellagio 
Belle Alp 
Bellegarde 
Bellerive 

Bellevue, PavUlon de 
Bellinzona 
Bel-Oiseau, The 
Belotte, La . 
Belvedere, The 
Bergerie, La . 
Bergun . 
Beij^'ner Stein 
Berfingen 

Beroard, St, Great 
„ Little 



PAGE 

. 77 
20, 21 
162 

91 
117 
120 

155 
66 

68 



ff 



Streets 



84 

43 
185 

36 

31 
160 

159 
146 

154 
158 

155 

15 

, 21 

122 
190 

47 

94 

94 
118 

117 
142 

65 
190 

192 

77 
132 

133 

153 
176 

158 

142 

168 

134 
185 
185 

.11 

100 



\ 



Berne (continued) 

Cathedral . 

Bund Rathaus 

Kunstsaal . 

Museum • 

Gardens, etc. 
Bernardino Pass, San 
Bernese Oberland 
Bemina Glaciers 

,, Pass . 
Berthoud 
Bessinges • 
Bevaix • • 
Bevers . • 
Bevieux • • 
Bex . . . 
Bianca Pizzo . 
Biasca . 
Biberbruck . 
Bied, The 
Bieler See 
Bienne . 

„ Lake . 
Bie^letscher . 
Bietschhom, The 
Bionnassay . 

Aiguille de 
Glacier de 
Bionnay 
Bilten . 
Birmensdorf • 
Bivio . • 
Blaise, St • 
Blanc, Mont • 
Blatten . • 
Blaue See • 
Blonay . • 
Bliimlisalp . 
Bodio . 
Bois, Glacier des 
Bolladore 
Bonaduz 

Bon-homme, Col du 
Bbnigen 
Bon-Nant, The 
Bonneville • 
Bonstetten • 
BoFca • • 
Bormio, Baths of 
Borromean Islands 
'Gfoaexi&Xsain. 



80. 



ft 



PAGB 

lOI 
IQ2 
103 

100 
180 

eta 
187 
188 

97 
142 

117 
187 
120 

t20 
167 
176 
48 
117 

"3 

"3 

"3 
161 

166 

153 
153 
153 
153 

52 

.1: 

"3 
151 

96 

140 

95 
176 

189 
177 

154 

91 

148 

146 

54 
168 

189 

Tr 









PACE 1 


Bonchy. Sfgua . . .134 


Boodiy. . . 




117 


Booig, SL Hanrice 




155 


„ SLPiene 




>57 


BovTcret 




143 


Brem^g, The 






lU 


BwidCThe- 






66 


^^^Tb^ 






•n 


Breon, UUdd de 






■54 








35 


Breni],Le . 






1S9 


Brfrent, ITie . 






'SI 


BreMn,Tbe. 






146 


Bti«g . . 






77 


Btiau . . 




J 


9.90 


,. Lake . 






90 


BrienEW7kr . 






79 


Br£^ . 






.g 








'73 


Bnwg . . 






35 


Sen' ■ 






97 


a^^wldrf 






^ 


BrJDig,Pui. 






79 


Bnmnen 






J, 66 


Branni . . 






,1; 


Brusio . . 






Bnbikon. . 






43 


Bochi . . 






:?: 


BDffiOtH., Falli 






Bnlle . . 








Btimplitz 
Bomiud 






108 
134 


Boisino 






>34 


Batzbeig 






97 


Boochs . . 






6S 


„ Lake . 






4 


BuochierHom,Th 






4 


Burgdorf 






97 


BurgenstocJc , 






6S 


Burghugel, The 






5* 


B5i£len (Obwalden 






79 


„ (Thurgcn) 






53 


„ (Uri). 




6 


«.73 


Bniid . 






i§ 


Boiveia 












97 



Cambrcna GLader , 
Ounpioles 
Ounpten 
Cunpo Cologno 
Campo Doldno 



Canobbjo 



Castlgtione 
Cattle, Mont 
Cavloccio, Lake 
Cebbk . 
Cfligny . . 
Ceppo Morelli 
Cernobbio 
Cervin, Monl 
„ Petit . 
ChabUis 
Cham . 
Cbunb£iy 
Chambesy 
Chambrelien . 
Chamounjr 
Chamousset , 
Champel 



Chapeau (M. Blanc) 

Chapelle du Glader . 

ChanloDnet, Aigi du 
Chasseral, The 
Cbaaseron, The 
Clutelaid, Le 

Casde 
„ Tunnel 

Chitillon 
CbaumoDt 
Chaui-de-Fondi, t* 
CbxroniAy . 
Ch&le . 
Cheminie, La 
Chfne . 



ajo 



XNDKX. 





TAGS 




PAGS 


Chillon, Castle 


. 141 


banl)ensee. The • 


• •». 96 


Chnr • . • < 


• 5* 


Dazio Grande 


. ♦ 176 


Churwalden . 
Cima del Pizzo • 


. 183 
. 167 


De Boicne, Castle . 
Tent Blanche, Col de 


* 142 

la . • 165 

. -.158 


Cima di Jazi . 


. 164 


Dent de Morcles . 


Clarens • • ll< 


). flAO 


Dent da Midi 


» '• 123 


Closes . • • . 


• 146 


Derendingen • . 


... ..Ill 


Coblens . 


. . 35 


Devil's Bridge, The 


. J- 173 


Coffirane 


. . 116 


Devens . , . 


. . lao 


Copie, Val de 

Coiie • . • . 


. . 155 


Diablerets • • 


• - ^123 


. 32 


Diavolezza . • 


. * i«7 


Colico . 


. 191 


Didier, Fr6 St. . 


. . ^55 


CoUonge 
Cologny 


• 132 


Diessenhofen • 


• : .25 


. 142 


Dietikon 


• ^ 36 


Colombier . • 


. . 117 


Dietlikon 


• 53 


Combalf Lac de . 


. . 154 


Diodati Campagne 


1 ! iS 


Como 


. 192 


Dissentis 


M Lalce of 


. 191 


Pistel . 


% . 167 


Concise . 


. 117 


Doire^The . 


* 155 


Constanoe 


. . 26 


Dole, The . 


* 134 


: „ Lake 


. . 26 


Dolent, Mont 


• . . 153 
... 178 


Cotitamines, Les . 


. 146. »53 


Donat . 


Convers . • 


. . 116 


Dossen, The . • . 


. * 73 


Conversion, La 


. Ill 


Douanne • • . 


. 113 


Coppet . 


. .133 


Doubs^The . 


i . 117 


Corcelles 


• 116 


Douna . 


.'55 


Cornaux 


. . 113 


Dranse (Chablais) . 


. X43 


Cossonay 


. 118 


„ (Valais) . 


. 122,157 


Cdte, La 


. 134 


Dreieckhom . 


. * 76 


Cottens . 


. no 


Drei Linden . • . 


. . 62 


Conrmayeur . 


• '5^ 


Droites, Les . • . 


. 153 


Centers . • 


. 184 


Dalit . . . ;; 


.Vii .'-..* .134 


Crgmont • .. 


. 154 


1 




Cnins . • . 


. .134 


Eaa Noire . 


. r .158 


Cressier 


. 113 


Ebikon . . 


• • 55 


Creux dn Vent» The 


. . 117 


Eck . . . 


* 94 


Crevola. . . 


. .170 


Ecl^pens 


. 118 


CroiXf St • • 


.118 


Ecluse, Fort de 1' . 


* 132 


Cuera • • • . 


. 32 


Effretikon . . . 


J .53 


Cully • . . . 


133.137 


Egeri . 


. ,51 






„ Lake . 


. . 51 


Dachsen . • 


• 25 


Eggischorn* The . 


• . 76 


Dap;mersellan 


. 57 


Egnach . ; 


• 30 


DaiUy, Cascade da 


. 121 


E^thal, The 


... 63 


Dala, Tlie . 


77, 97 


Eiger . 


.^ . 8i 


pames, Plaine des 


• 154 


Einsiedeln . • . 


■ .) . 48 


I)anikon . . . . 


• 35 


Elgg . 


. . 54 


pard, Cascade du . 


.149 


Emme, The . 


. ..107 


VAigent, Cliateaa 


• 155 


Emmenbrucke, The . 


• '..,. 58 


^ligcn . . . , 


• 94 


i YAnmemna^The • 


. * K» 


j^f^be. The . . . . 


. . 


\ 'EnaneciScaX^'t^ « 


« \ to8 


Paubenboxn . 


fc^ ' • i' ¥> 


\"S*» 


, % tJLJ* \^ 



INDEX. 



Engadine^The 

i. Upper 

„ Lower 
Enge, The« near Berne 
Englestockf The 
EnUe, The . 
Entlebnch 

» Vale 
Ependes 
Eplatnres 
E%oli, Valley 
ErUich 
Erlen . 
Erlenbach, The 
Ermatigen • 
Erzmgen • 
Eschenz • 
Eschlikon • 
Escholzmatt . 
Esel, The . 
Estavayer 
Etrambieres, Castle 
^troubles 

cu^ensbeig • 
Evian les Eaiu 
Evionnas 
Evolena 



PAGE 



ux 



Faido . 
Falknis, The . 
Fariolo . 
Faucigny, Castle 
Faulhom, The 
Fee . 
Feldbach 
Feldkirch 
Felsenburg, The 
Felsenthor, The 
Felwen . 
Femex . 
Ferret, Col de 
„ Val de 
Fiden, St . 
Filisnr . 
FiUar . 
Findelen, The 

,, Glacier 
Finhaut . 
Finster-Aar Glacier. 
Finster-Aarhom 
Finster-Aar Schlnct 
Fischeti, The. 



187 
107 

.3 

108 
108 
118 
117 
34 
95 

11 

^5 
21 

as 

>fi 

70 

"7 
i46 

156 

^5 
142 

121 

170 

1? 

.170 
146 

f^ 

167 
as 

96 
72 

S3 
131 
15s 
»S5 

54 

168 
161 
163 
122 
89 

H 

22 



Flamatt . • 
Flawyl . 
Fleg^, The . 
Flims . 
Fluelen . 
Fluhbrig, The 
Foliaz, La 
Fondle, La . 
Forclaz, Col de la 
Forestay, The 
Foron, The . 
Foomeaux, The 
Fours, Col des 
Frakmiind 
Franzenshbhe . 
Frauenfeld . 
Freiberger 
Fressinone, The 
Freudenfels . 
Friboure 
Friedri<£shafen 
Frohnalp 
Frohnalpstock 
Frontinex, Bois de 
Frutigen 

Fuorda de Surlej 
Furca . 
Furcahom 
Furggen Glacier 

Gabelhom, The 
Gals 

Galenstock, The 
Gall, St. 

Gauli Glacier, The 
Gellihom, The 
Gelmerbach, The 
Gelmerhom, The 
Gelmersee, The 
Gemmi, llie . 
Generoso, Monte 

Geneva • 

Histoiy 
Cathedral . 
Lake . • 
N. Bank . 
S. Bank . 

Genthod Bellevue 

Gersau . 

Gervaix, St. . 
„ Bath& 



231 

PAGS 
108 

54 

182 
68 

73 
^SS 
133 
159 

137 
140 

169 
154 

^n 

53 

71 
172 

as 
109 

29 
66 

66 

74 
164 

166 

54 
74 

II 

96 
193 

I2| 

128 
13a 

133 

142 

133 
148 



G>«»mo . . . 


i8i 


GrinuelHoqrfce 






GieadMch 


90 


Grindelalp . 






..Falls . . 


91 








Giflre, The . . . 


I4fi 


Giisoos . 






Gignod. . . . 


»S6 


Grono . 






Cingolph, St . . 


144 


Grotle sxa Fm* 






Giomen. . . . 


169 


Griiben. . 






Giomico. . . . 


176 


Grfitli . . 






Giiikon. . . . 
GUwyl .... 


79 


Gniyere. 
GsSwandAlp 

Guardavall, CtuUe 






Gkod .... 


"S 






Gluner Alps . 


Gu^U . . 






Gliimisch 


S« 






Glanis .... 


Sa 


GSmlfficn . 






Glatt,Tbe . 


43 


Gwt^,The . 






GUroUes . . . 


137 


Giitsch, The . 








167 


Guttanea 






Glion .... 


'41 


GQItingen . 






Goldach. The. . 


54 
55 


Gyslifluh . 






Goldd, The . . . 


.94 


Hwg . . 






Gqld5wyl 
Golzwyl, Lake 


9> 
94 


Haie Pfilte . 






Gondo .... 


170 


Handeck, Falls 






Gondo, Gorge of , 
Goigier Sl Aubyn , 


170 


Hesennmtt, Hie 






117 


HasliThal . 






Gomei Grat . 


162 


Hanenslon . 






Gomer GUcier 


162 


Tunnel 






Gomer Horn, The. 


16S 


Hauseck 






Goschenen 


'73 


Hansen . 






Gosssu .... 


54 


HanteviUe . 






Gothaid, St., Railway . 


172 


Hauls Generevi 






Hospice . 


'75 


HedtHKen . 






Pass. 


"75 


Heiden . 






Tunnel . 


'74 


HeligkreiB, The 






Golleron, Bridge . 










„ VflUe7 . . 




Henggait 






Gottfrev . . . 
Cotllieben . . . 


170 


Hergiswyl . 






26 








Gouise, Tourde . 


137 


Hermance 






Gouter. Aiguille du 




Hertenstein . 






Giabengletscher . 
Giabenhom . 


HettlinEcn . 






Grandson . . , 


117 


Hindelbank . 






Grandvaux « . . 




HinteiThein . 






Grasonet 


ii 


Hirzel . . 






Greifenstein , 


I behenschwand 






GreinaPass . 


18^ 


Hoehiluh, The 






C/enchen 




HQchfluhkirche, Tlie 




Grengiols . 


•n 


HocWein, The 
1 HodaVcST^tcTHc 




^renttcb . . . 


21 




ramse/gnwd. 


. 89 


\ mcti^wVl.Tta 







'i 



INDEX. 



433 





PAGE 


: 


PAGE 


Hofwyl • • • • i 


98 


Kammerstock, The • 


P 


Hohbiihl . . . . 


' 94 


Itander, The . • • • 


Hohenklingen . • . 


2J 


Kandersteg . . . • 


96 


Hohen Rhoetian, Castle • , 


178 


Kanzli (Neuhausen) • 


23 


Hohentwiel . . . , 


25 


» (Rifi) . . . . 
Kappel (iUbio) 


72 


HoUenhaken, The . 


21 


M. 


Homme de Pierre • . . 


159 


Kastris 


HoFgen 


, 44 


Katzis . • • • « 


iTt 


Horn • • • • I 


30 


Kempthal, The • • . 


53 


H*6mberc,The 

Hbmli, TTie . . . , 


107 


Kessweil . . • « 


. 30 


163 


Killwangen . . • , 


• 36 


Hospenthal . • • < 


. 175 


Kindlimord, Chapel • 1 


66 


Humgen . • . . 


. 20 


Kirchen, The . . . , 


, 88 


Hmmenfluh . • • . 


. 87 


Kirchet, The . . • . 


88 


Harden . • • • . 


. 46 


Klem Basel ... I 


5»« 






Klein Lauffenburg . 


. 21 


Ilanz . • • • , 


. 182 


Kleine Rugen 


. 94 


Tlfis 


. 107 


Klimsenhom . . • . 


. 70 


imez,Vald' . . . , 


. 123 


Kills • . . . « 


► «73 


Im Grand . . . . 


. 88 


Knonau • • . . . 


> 54 


Im Hof 


. 88 


Koblenz. . . . . 


- 35 


Immensee . • . . 


- 55 


Konigsfelden, Abbey • 


. 35 


Inkwyl 


. Ill 


Konolfingen . 


.107 


Interlaken . . . . 


. 92 


Kreuzlingen, Abbey. • 2 


8,30 


Intra 


. 190 


Krienz .... 


. 63 


Iselle 


. 170 


Krisiloch . . • 


. 70 


Isdtwald . . . . , 


. 91 


Kiissnacht . . • 


. 64 


Isles, Les . . . , 


• 157 


Kiissnacht Bay 
Kyburg, Castle 


. 64 


Tslikon 


• 53 


. 95 


Isola Bella . • . . 








„ Madre . • 




L'AUiaz, Baths . 


. 140 


„ Dei Pescatori . 




LaBalme . . . . 


. 146 


„ S. Giovanni . 




La Bathiaz . 


. 122 


Ivrea , . . ,155 


f 170 


LaBelotte . 


. 142 






La Bergerie . 

La CaiUe, Bridge . 


. 134 


^ acob, St . • • 


. 20 


. 132 


] acol^ubeli . . • 


• 95 


La Conversion • 


. Ill 


' ardin (M. Blanc) . • 


. 150 


La Cote 


. 134 


] azi, Cima di . 


» 164 


LaFoliaz 


«55 


^ oderhom . • • 


. 167 


La Fondle . • 


. 133 


' bli, Mont . • • 


' 153 


LaToux 
La Lance 


. 157 


brasses, Grandes » 


• 153 


. 117 


] bugne .... 


. "9 


La Meillerie . 


. 144 


' bux, La > • • 


. 157 


La Salle 


. 155 


' vdie, Bosquet de • 


. 140 


La Sarraz 


. 119 


] ulier Pass 


. 184 


LaSaxe, Baths 


• 154 


] ungbach, The • 


. 160 


La Tour 


. 178 


Jungfiraa 


:.fl 


La Turr, Castle . 


, bra- • r •> • 


LaVillette . 


>^^ 

^ 




\ liBA>\A 


KuserstuM, Xbe • 


• 70 \ 1ax^«cl . • • • 


' ^ 


Kaltbad. ... 




\ Vag^'fiA»»»c) « 


» * 



»34 



INDEX. 







PAGE 


LaeoDi Gaida 


• • • 


193 
188 


. yy Minore . 




„ Moesola 


•" • • • 


181 


. „ Nero . 




188 


Lakes, Italian 


. ■ • t 


. 189 


l«ak0 of Como 


191 


. „ . Lugano 


• • • 


> 193 


„ Orta . 


• • « 


193 


Pf . Riva . 


• • ■ 


180 


ft . SUs . 


f • • 


186 


„ . Varese 


• • « 


193 


:» , Vatz . 


• • • 


184 


Lance, La 


• • • 


"7 


Lancettes, Glacier de 


'54 


Jjandpaherg, The 




78 


Landeron 




"3 


Landquart 




32 


La^g^thal 




97 


L^ngnan 
Lanibach, The 




107 
79 


Laninge 




143 


I^berhora . 




85 


iiufielfingen . 
Lliufen, Schloss 




35 

22 


LfUiffenburg . 




21 


Laupen . 




108 


Iiaupaxme . 




134 


,, Cathedral . 


135 


Lausen . 


• • • 


ii 


Laut^r-Aar Glacier 


Laaterbmnnen 


• « • 


86 


„ Upper Valley . 


87 


L^Ta^cher 


• • • 


157 


Layaux . 


. .119 


► 137 


Laveno . 




189 


jjiyej. Baths 




121 


La? , . 




77 


Lf^a . 




181 


I^nz 




184 


I>eon^, St. 




170 


LeBjed 




"7 


Le Breuil 




169 


LeL^c . 




148 


L^ Lode 




117 


Le. R-ese 




188 


Leslies 




157 


Les Montets . 




158 


Zeg Fonts 




• "7 


ZesPraz 




• iS7 


fes Tines 


• 


77»79 



I 



I 



ll 



Leuk, Baths . 
liddes . 
liestal . 
Limmat, The . 
Lindau . 
Linth Canal, The 
Linththal 
Liro Valley . 
Liverogne 
Locarno 
Locle, Le 
Lostallo 
Liovere . 
Lower Engadine 
Lower Glacier (Grindelwal^) 
Lowerz 
. „ Lake . 
Lac, St 

lauoerne 

Bridges 
; StiftScirche 
rLion . 
j Glacier Garden . 

Lucerne, Lake of 

Lugano . 

„ Lake • . 177, 

I^up[netz Valley 
Loino . 
Lukmannier Pass 
Lumino . 
Lungem 
Lnneem, Lake 
Lustbuhl 
Lutry . . . . Ill, 
Latschine, Black 
Whitje 
Lyskamm 
Lyss 
Lyssach . • . 



Maccagno 
Macugnagna . 

Val de 
Madre, Isola . 
Madonna di Tirano 
M&dulein 
Magadino 

Maggiore* Lago 

Magland 



PAGE 

97 

157 

34 

35 

^ 

4fi 

53 

179 

155 

181 






82 

55 
66 

170 
58 

59 
60 

61 

62 

63 
177 

m 
189 

181. 

79 

79 

94 

133 
82 

?7 
166 

97 
97 

189 

\u 

172 

187 

189 
172 

146 



ibJns The . 

KMMli, Iiland 

iStiter*. 



_ , . , nSchoee 
MirieleDSee. 
Markdfii^en 
mintetlcn . 
Mutbalen . 

U&rtigny- le-bou rg 
Martin, St. (Chabia 

(Aosta) 
HarlmsbrDck . 
Martinsdruch 
Hartiiuloch (Flims) 

„ (Grindclwald) 

Husa, The . 
jg Bsa, Gorge. 

Uatten (iDteriaken) 
HattcthorD, "nie 
Hattmark 
MattntarkSee 
■annex, Sl . 
Hain^ Tu <H. Blanc) 
MaRDfUd 
Hcdels . 
Ucdcker, The 
„ Pass 
Mde«ren 
Hdhn . 
Ueillerie, U. 

Hd^^ ! 
UaUde . 



Umage, The 
Her£Ghu«(M. 

ICctmeDatetten 
Mcttelhom, The 



Stii^ 



Misot, Castle 
Hitlodi . 
Mitlufaoni, The 
MitleUioli 
Hittel RheiD . 
Uoesa, The 
„ Falls 
MBle, The . 
Mol^son, The 
Molins . 
Mollis . 
Mottrasio 
Hontalegre . 

Montanvert . 
Motitbenon 
Mont Blanc . 
Monte Generoso 
Montets, Col des . 



»S5 

PACE 



Montm^Un . 

Morb^no 
More, MoDte . 
Morel . 
MoTgaiten 
HoTge, Goi^ of . 
Horgen, The . 
MorgeDlhal . . 
Moines . 
Morgei. 
Momex, Castle 
Morschach 
Morschwjl 
Morteratsch Glacier 
Morts,, Valine des 
Mottet . 
Moulier Val . 
Hoveran, Grand 
Miihlehom 
Miihien . 
Muhtenen 
Muhlibach 
Mtdets, Glands 
Miilheim 
Miilinen 

Miinchen-Buchsce . 
Tklunoth, Castle 
Miioster (Valais) 
Milnslett.ha,\ . 

Mvko«as,&e . 



-^. 



236 



INDEX. 







] 


P^GE 




PAGE 


Muig (Wallenstadt) • . 47 


Oerlikon • • • 4 


3> 53 


Miirren . . • , 




86 


Oggebio . . . . 
OUvone 




Myes . . < 






133 


\ 182 


Mythen . . . 






66 


Ollon, St Triphon . 


. 119 


Mythenstein . 






67 


Olmenhom • • • , 
Olten 


. 76 


Nafels . 






52 


Orbe 


Nangy . . » . 






146 


„ Vald' . 


. 118 


Nant Borrant . 






154 


Ordleg;no Falls 


, 186 


Nant d'Arpenaz 






146 


Ormonto, Val des • 


119 


Napf, The . 






108 


Oron . . • • , 


, III 


Nase, The . 






95 


Orta 


193 


Nasen, The . 






65 


Orsieres . . . 155 


» '57 


Naters . 






77 


Ortler Spitz . . . . 


189 


Nauders • 






188 


Ossola,Vald' 


172 


Nebikon 






57 


Ossola, Domo d' • . , 


172 


Nemier . 






142 


Ouches, Les . • . , 


146 


Neubrucke 






160 


Ouchy 


1^ 


Neuchatel 






"3 


Oyen, St • . . . 


„ Lake of . 






"3 






Neuenstadt . 






"3 


Palezieuz • • • . 


III 


Neuhaus ■ 






94 


Pallanza. • ... 


190 


Neuhausen 






22 


Panixer Pass . . • , 


53 


Neuveville 






"3 


Paradies 


25 


Neyruz . 






no 


Parpan 


184 


Nicholas, St . 
Nicolai Thai . 






112 

160 


Parrotspitze, The . 
Pedriola . . • . 


\U 


Niederried 






91 


Peilz, La Tour de • 


140 


Niederwald . 






75 


Perroy 


134 


Niederwyl 






97 


Peseux 


117 


Niesen . 






94 


Pestarena • . • . 


168 


Niklaus, St . 






160 


Peteret, Mont. 


155 


Nolla, The . 






177 


Pfaflfers, Abbey . 


31 


Nollen, The (Grimsel) . 




89 


„ Bath 


31 


Notre Dame de la Gorge. 




146 


Village . 


• 31 


Notre Dame de Saxe 




121 


Pfaffikon . . . , 


> 52 


Nottwyl 




.^ 


Pfyn 


► 78 


Nufenen. 




Pie di Mulera 


. 168 


Nyon . . . , 




133 


Pierre, Chateau 

Pierre a Bot . . . , 


.146 
. 116 


Ober-Albis, The . 




, 56 


Pierre Adzo . . • . 


. 123 


Oberalp Pass . 




. 183 


Pierre a voir . • • . 


. 122 


y, oce • • 




. 183 


Pierre, St, Island . 


. 113 


Obergestelen . 




. 75 


Pierre Pointue, Pavilion de 


. 151 


Oberried (Brienz) . 




• 91 


Pierre, Homme de . 


• IS2 


Oberried (Rhine Valley) . 




. 31 


Puciadella . • • . 


. 188 


Ober See 




, 116 


Pieterlen 


» 112 


02>erstaad 




. 25 


Pilatus • . • 


. ^ 


Oberwald 




. 15 


, Pissevache Falls - • • 


. 121 


Obwalden . . . • 7^ \ 't^'BerDma. • 


. Ig 


Oche, Dent d' • • 1A4 \ «« C»m\»«^ 


«^Sk 


OebnigeB 






• a? 


A «Oan« . * * 


*v^ 



INDEX. 



m 



PAGE 



Pizd'Albana. 


. 184 


,, del Diavel • • 


. 185 


„ Julier 


. 184 


y, Languard • • 


• '?§ 


„ Lugalp . . . 


. 188 


„ Mundaun. • 


. 182 


. „ Otl . 


. 187 


„ Pulaschin. 


. 184 


„ Raschill . 


. 184 


„ S. MicheL 


. 177 


Pizzo Bianco . 


. 167 


,y Cimadel 


. 167 


Plateau Grand (M. Blanc 


. 153 


Pleiades, The. 


. 140 


Poleggio 


. 176 


Pontarlier 


. 118 


Ponte . . . < 


. 185 
.. .168 


Ponte Grande. • 


Pontresina 


. 187 


Ponts, Les . 


. 117 


Porlezza 


. 193 


PortValais . 


119,. 122 


Porte du Sexe. 


. 122 


Porto . 


. 189 


Poschiavino Valley. 


. 188 


Poyaz . 


. 158 
. 189 


Prad 


Pragel Pass . 


. . 52 


Prangins, Chateau . 


. 134 


Praz, Les 


. 157 


Pre St Didier 


. 155 


Pregny . 


. 131 


Prex, St 


. 133 


Promonthoux . 


. 134 


Proz, Plan de 


. 157 


„ Cantine de . 


. 157 


PuUy . 


. "9, 137 


Radolphzell • 


. . 25 


Ragatz . 


. 31 


Randa . 


. 160 


Rapperschwyl. 


- . 45 


„ Bridge 


. . 46 


Katerisboden • 


. .. 89 


Raterschen • 


. 54 


Realp . 


. 74 


Reckingen • 


. . 75 


Reculet . 


• 133 


Reichenau 


. 25 


„ Island . 


. 25 


Reichenbadi . 


. . 96 


„ Castle. 


. . 9» 



Reichenbach, River 
„ Valley 

„ Falls. 

Reiden . 
Remy, St 
Renens . 
Renkloch, Gorge 
Reposoir Valley 
Reuss, The . . 35, 55 
Rheineck 

Rheinfelden .... 
Rhine . . i5f 24, 189 

„ Falls . . . , 
Rhone, The . . .119 

„ Glacier 

„ Perte du 
Rhone and Arve, Confluence 
Richterschwyl. 
Riedbach, The 
Riedwyl. 
Riffelberg 

Rigi 

Railway. 

Kulm 
„ Scheideck 
„ Little 

Ringgenberg, Castle 
Ripaille, La . 
RiUligratli . 
Roche . 

Roches, Les Grandes 
Roggwyl 
RoUe . ^ . 
Romainmotier 
Romanshom . . • 30, 
Romiti . 
Romont . 
Rorschach 
Rosa, Monte . 
Rosenlaui, Baths 

,, Glacier 

Rossalp, The . 
Rossberg, The 
Rbthe, The . 
Rothenburg . 
Rothenfluh (Vitznau) 

„ (Lauterbrunnen) 
Rothenthurm . • 
Rbthihom • « 



9i 



PAG& 

8t 
81 
81 

156 
133 

140 

etc 

30 
21 

etc. 
22 

etc. 

75 
132 
131 

i6a 
162 



70 

71 

72 

74 
62 

91 

84 
119 

»37 

97 

134 
119 

► 53 

71 
no 

30 
164 

82 

81 

84 

55 
112 

58 

^S 
87 



«38 

RgU»M;,Cutla 



SauThiil 
StcontT, Gnnd . 
„ Petit 

Siickiiilin) 
St MuU 
SL MoiiU . 

St ValenCioe . 
SaUre . 

Sdte, La 

SaUendie, Tlie 

Snldne, Its . 

Silvan . 

S>lv*tore, Monte Son 

Sunaden 

Su Benuudioo Pass 

S«n Giulio, Istand . 

S«aVittore . 

Sand Grat Pass 

Sjiphorin, St . 

Sl^e, The . 



SanaZi La 
SanvabeUin . 
Saxe, La, Baths 
„ Mont de 
„ Noire Dame de 
Saion, Billis of 
Scanf . 
Scesiplana, The 
S^hachenbach, The 
Schichentha!. The . 
Schadau, Schloss . 
Scbaffbtusea . 
Schatns, VaJlej of . 



:» 



Sdimlwen 
SchatThe 



SchreckhDin, The . 
Sdml* . 
Sdiupien 
Sdi^iQiNni . 
Sdiwanden 
Schwareobach 
Schwarrbninnenbriicke , 
Schwanenbach 
Schwanenberg, Glacier . 
Sdiwatihom, The . 
Schwan See, The . 
Schwanwald, Glader 



Schwesteri^oni 

SchwTi . 

SchTnige Plaits The 



Secheron 
Sedriin . 
Seeboden Alp. 
Seetisberg 
Seewinen, Glaci<:r . 
Segues Pass . 
Scigne, Col de la . 
Selbsanft, The 
Selzach . 
Sembiancher . 
Sempoch 

„ Lake of . 
Sense, The . 
Sentis, The . 
Septimer Pass. 
Serena, Col de la . 
SeieTiWV, Falls . 
Sei[aST\iA . 









IND 


EX. 






a39 


PiWB 


PABB 


S«TO. .... .147 


Suehet Mont . . . .118 


Settetno ViUMe 






<5S 


SilEen . . . 




S3 


Setter, The . 






54 


Sulpice, St . 






"U 


Sercten. . 






3' 


Su^ . . 






iSSiSx 






ilfi 
89 


Stoten . . 






n 


Siebenen 






S' 


T^^ertsOii . 






•07 


Sieire . 






ip> 


Tamina, The. 






.6 








12; 


Taminl . 












Tannav . 






1 

■6| 








107 








m^ '. 






IS* 

43 


T^p.Bath..f 












J 


TataiwM 






181 








TaTClKh Valley 






(83 


somen . . 






;ii 


Tell's Chapel , 








SO*, Lake of . 






Tell's Plane 






i^; 


SilnpUoft . 
StmeEhom, TU 






186 
84 


Tite Noire (St. Gervaii) 
(Marligny) . 




SlmploA Pass . 






171 


ThitilKiden Glacier 




Sngen 






as 


Tbeodule Gladet . 




t^ 


Sion 






170 


„ Pass 






169 


SimKh. . 






it 


Theodulhom. The 






169 


SUkra . . 






Thiele.The . 






ii§ 


SiKWh . . 






35 


Thonon . 






I4> 








no 








tU 


Silt VaUer ■ 






146 


Thna 






95 


SOMI. . . 






tSl „ Lake . 






94 


SoUure . . 






iir ; Thur, The . 






54 


Solothurn 












94 








35 


Thuai . . 






177 








77 


Tidio, The . 






;ji 








I6i 


Tiefenan. Bridge 






isasui*. 






178 
5) 


Tines, Les . 
Tinien . 








stiih . . 






44 


Tiiano . . 






StaSel . . 






71 


Tithij . . 






S4 








71 


Todi . 






it 


Sulden . . 






160 


Todten»ee . 






Sulla . . 






184 


Tonr, La 






'59 


Stanur Horn, The 






65 


Toonuuiche Val 






170 


Stanntad 






1^ 


TowRondcLa 






■43 


Sl«Ata*,The 






Tonitenugne. 






77 


StM^berg . 






8? 


7^ Vttlle 


■ 




U 


StM^bom 






35 


Tnehtellauineo 






Stein . . 




a 


'•.« 


TwJW . . 






1F9 


StelvioPais . 






-nefenkMten. 






■u 








113 


Twib . . 






StMkho>n,The 
S«»,lS . 






ti 

190 


TtOattle, J^uille de 
„ Glader de 




IS3 

'54 


&AJp». . 






III 


Tt(kd>»^ . 






.^ 



240 



INDEX. 



Tremola, VaL 
Trient . 

„ Col de . 

I, Forest of 

„ Gorge du 
Trieve, Falls . 
Triftjoch Pass 
Trins . 
Triphon, St., Ollon 
Triquent, Gorge 
Trogen • 
Trons , 
Trfibbach . 
Trumlenbach, Falls 
Trlimletenthal 
Tschamut 
TschingelbriOce, The 
Tschingel Spitz 
Turgi . 

Turr, La, Castle of. 
Turter See . 
Twann . . 



Uetliberg, The 

„ Railway 
Ufnau, Island 
Ulrichen 

Unspunnen, Castle 
Untere-Bleicki 
Untersee, The 
Upper Engadine 
Upper Glacier (Grindelwald) 
Urbachthal, The 
Urdorf . , 
Uri, Lake 
„ Valley of 
Umer Loch . 
Urseren, Valley . . 74 
Uster . 
Uttweil . 
Uznach . • 
Uzwyl • • 

Vaduz . • 

Val Bregaglia 

Val Calanca • 

Vald'Illicz . 

Vald*Orhe .. 
Val Moutier , 
Val des O mons 
Val Meso'ciasL 



PACK 
176 

«59 

121 
I2I 

16S 
189 

U9 

121 

182 

1^ 

178 

"3 



41 

42 
44 
75 
87 
94 

25 

186 

83 
88 

54 
67 

174 
a74 

183 

43 

30 
46 

54 

31 

179 

181 
123 

115 

i\9 
» 1^1 



Val Piora . 
Val Somyix • 
Val Surpalix . 
Valbella, Pass of 
Valle S. Giacomo 
Valhndas 
Vallorbes • 
Valorcine • 
ValtelUna . 
Vanzone • 
Varembe • 
Varese • • 
Vaud 
Vauderens 
Vauxmarcus, Castle 
Velan, Mont 
Verena, St., Hermitage 
Verlorenes Loch 
Vemayaz 
Vemex-Montreux 
Verolliar, Chapel 
Versam . • 
Versoix . 
Verte Aiguille 
Vesenaz. 
Vevey , 
Veveyse, The 
Veylaux-Chillon 
Via Mala 

Vierwaldst'atter See 
Viesch . *• . 
Viescher- Homer 
Viescher Glacier 
Villard . 
Villaz, St Pierre 
Villeneuve (Leman) 

„ (Aosta) 
Villette, La 
Visp 

Visp, Gomer 
Visp, Saaser 
Vispach 
Visp Thai 
Vitznau . 
Viviers, Grotto 
Vogtsruhe 
Voirons, Les 
Vrinthal 
Vougy • 
Vouvry • 



\ 



121. 



PAGS 
. 182 
. 182 
. 183 
. 184 

. 182 
. 119 

. x68 

. «3i 

• «93 
. «33 

. XXI 

. "7 

'57 
X12 

178 

X2I 

"9, i33> W 
. 120 

. x82 

• «33 
153. «57 

• '^ 
i33»»38 

. 131 

'33. '4| 
. 178 

. "9 
. no 

133. I4« 
. 15s 

77,160 

• t6o 
. 160 

77,160 
. 160 
. 65 
. m 

• 94 

• 132 

• 183 

.146 

. 12$ 



"9 

"9. 



"9, 



INDEX 



Wadensdiwyl. • 
Waldisbalm, Grotto 
Waldshut 
Wallenstadt . 

,f Lake 

Wallisellen . 
Wannehom, Grosse 
Warton, Castle 
Wartenstein, Ruins. 
Wasen . 
Wattineen 
Wauw]^. 
Weggis . 
Wemfelden 
Weingarten, Castle. 
Weissbach, The 
Weissbad 
Weissenstein . 
Weiss Glacier 
Weisshom, The 
Weisshomgletscher . 
Weissthor Pass 
Wengenstein 
Wengem Alp 
Wesen . 
Wetterhom 
Wetzikon 
Whilen . 
Wiesendangen 
Wiggis, The 
Wi^hingen 
Wildegg. 
Wilderswyl 
Wildgerst, The 
WUdkirchli, The 



V: 



45 

6$ 
ai 

47 

47 

43, S3 
76 

31 
32 
173 
173 
57 
65 
53 

2 

54 
112 

88 

160 

161 

165 

112 

85 

82 

43 
21 

53 

5a 
21 

k 

54 



l^^nkeln. 
Winkehnatten. 
Winterthur . 
Wohlhausen • 
Wohlhusen . 
WoUishofen • 
Worb . 
Wufflens Chateau 
Wyl . 
Wyningen • 

Yverdon. 
Yvoire . 
Yvome, Mount 

Zapport Glacier 
Zasenberg 
2^iswyl. 
Zermatt . 

„ Glacier 
Zemetz • 
Zihl, The 
Zillis . 
Z'mutt . 
Zofingen 
Zollikofen 
Zug 

,, Lake ^ • 
Zumsteinspitze 
Zurich . 

„ The Munster 

„ Lake • 
Zweilutschinen 
Zweigl'ocher • • 



241 

25.53 
. 108 



108 

56 
107 

134 

54 
97 



. 118 

134. 14a 
. "9 

. 180 
. «3 

. 161 

. 178 
. 161 

. 57 

54,184 

• 1^ 

. 165 

• 37 

• 39 

:S 

• 94 



iS^ 



TOURIST'S MEMORANDA: 



4Ka»si«t'ft jitmrttttmtg. 



Votttist's 0itU\BXElibtU 



MtnxtiBf% ^ttiiioraiiftA* 






1 ■ '0ittiuicwibiu 



Sottilff^' ^ifimmiiiliM* 



T ^* • f 



Vmtciaf s fhrnotanheu 



ADVEBTIBMMENm. 1 

SAMUEL BROTHERS, 

MBBOB&BT TAXLOBa Un BOTB- OVTFITTBSB, 

SYDEHHAM HOPaE, 66 k 87, LnPOtTE HIIL, LOSBOH, E.C. 

:bo-vs' sttxo^s, 

"WSAB-RBaisTiya rABBics" {»■?<).), 
FOR GENTLEMEN'S, YOUTHS', & BOYS' CLOTHING. 

SUIT FOB A BOT ate. 8m. in beiglit-C CLASS, 37s- ; D OLASS, 91s. 
PucaB TiKima Iccordiis to She. 
Guide to 8tlf lleat wnment, lUv atraUd Priai Litl ami Paftemi, Fort Jt-gg. 
^"SCHRBORO"' ""jltM T»R" "HIGHLAND" "ETON" 




X> B P.A.XC7IVKEIN ^TS. 

1. OenUemtti'iClotlilnKMade'toDrdet. i. DnUonns and Uvsrlw, 

3. Gtntlamsa't OIoUHhk Bsady for Im- D. IaiIIbb' Hablta, CoitusiM, Ulttcn, 

mediate Vm. Hautlee, etc 

a. Bor«' uid TontlM' Olotbliigr RMOy- t. etarU, H&ta, Hodeiy, Bug*, Port- 

>Ade or to lleMnre. T. Boott and SIumb. 



if TOUXISTS and T£jr»£L£US ii partlcTilul; InTit^ to On, 
>»"> ^n tuwd, oompiuing matflrialA tnitable for all cHuuteii. 
■"■' ' ■ ' ' " " 8 prioe and olan towUdt 



STDElffiAJI HOUSE, 65 AND 87, LtTUakTS. ^SiS^^^a. 

SAMJ]EL m-OT^^e^ 



ADVEBTISEMENTB. 




NBGRETTI & ZAMBRA, 

TOURIST'S SCIENTIFIC REQUISITES 

©gtitfjans and ^ctwiiolofliital Jnsirum^nt Itafeera 

Zb aSB MAJESTY TBS QUBSN and tJu Oovtmnunii Deparimnti, 

HOLBORN VIADUCT; 
Also at 46, CORNHILL ; 123, BEGFENT ST.; and CRYSTAL 
PALACE. SYDENHAM. 



* Pocket Buomater, to ftretell Weather 

* Ditto, with Soole of Altitudes for correctly aaoertainiii^ 

the Height of HoontaiaH £5 5b. Od, and 

* Tourist's Binoonlar Olaues £S 3s. Od. (ud 

* Negretti and ZuDbn's New BioDcnlar — 

FricBB in Bronse, with Leather Sling Oase 

Ditto, in Al - nminiiiTii . , . 



■troBg in Frame, and c 
IB of high power 
kod aohromutic, : 



r Military Sorrioe. Il it 
_. . . ^ . ;h (me haiul ; (tetdolly, it 

a lai^ Geld of view, abandiuce of light; peifeot asfinilion ; 
mj Colour or Flag can be recogniied at long diatanoes. 



A. GIsBH, ta be really ueefu). ahoald poaaese mecfaanioal itrengtii, optdoal perfec- 
Jon, and be handy either on <i>ot or in the ■addle; these qoalil^ are Dre-eminentlT 
united in the NEW BINOCUIAE. 

* Tonhst'e Telescopes, 16 to 20 miles' range £4 4s. Od. to 6 6 

* Fedometeia, for Hfeasnmg 'VGii\lDik% TJujtuLoea 3 3 

■* .?5fa*r dwv io 6«oilai»eA at TEOS. COOKS; SOFSOiPo»,I*a,«U 0™». 



ADTEBTISEMENTS. 

IMPORTANT CAUTION. 



The MAC4SSAB0IIi for the hair, ODONTO for the Teeth, 
and EALYDOR for the Face, msjinfac tared by A, BOWIiAND 

& SONS, of 20, Hattos Oardea, Loadon. foi the last 80 years, and 
bearing their aignatore in red ink on the wrapper, ore the only 
lienuine articles sold mider theae or any 5IM1LAE names : therefore, 
do not be peranaded to bay worthless imitations of Bowi.A>ni'B 
KiCABSAB Ou., Kalidob Or Odohto, however cheap. 




ROWLAND'S MACASSAR OIL 

Freventa the hair falling oS, and eradicates scurf and daudriS. Sizes 
3s. Gd., Tb., 10s. 6d. (family bottles, equal to foor small), aad 2l3. 

ROWLAND'S EUKONIA 

Is a new and fragrant ToOet Fovder, specially recommended to ladies. 
Size 38. per hox; or double that size with Fuff, 5b. 

ROWLAND'S ODONTO 

Whitens the Teeth and prevents and arrests their decay. 2s. 9d. 
per boi:. 

ROWLAND'S KALYDOR 

Eradicates Freckles, Tan, Sanbarn, and Cutnneoua Eruptions, and 



ABVBBTISEMENTS. 




WHELFTON'S VEGETABLE PURIFTING FILLS. 

A Direct Purifier of the Blood, by 
which Many Thousands of Cures have 
been effected; numbers of which cases 
had been pronounced Incurable. During 
more than Forty Years the numeronti 
well-authenticslied Testimonials in dis- 
orders of the HEAD, CHEST, BOWELS, 
MVER, and KIDNEYS ; also in EHEU- 
_ MATISM, ULOEaS, SOSES, andaUSK IN 

BBOTTLD Bl IN lYSKT HOUSBHOLB. DISEASES, Bxe Sufficient to proTe the 
gxeat Tslue of this most vbuitl fakilt i»Dici2rB,.it being 

ONE OP THE BEST MEDICINES KNOWN. 

Ifany persons have found these fills of great service, both in preventing and 
reliiBvin^ Sea Sickness r aad in warm elixnates tiiey are vexj benefloia] in all Bilious 
Complamts. 

Sold in Boxes, price 7id., Is. l^d., and 2s. 9d., by Qt. WHELPTON & SON, 
3, Crane-court, Fleet-street, London, and by all Chemists and Medicine Vendors at 
home and abroad. Sent free by post in the United Kingdom for 8, 14,.or 83 stamps. 

THOS. COOK & SON'S 

FOREIGN BANKING & MONEY EXCHANGE 

DEPARTMENT. 

Chief Offce-LUDBATE CIRClfS, LONDON, E.G. 



Foreign Monies Ezclianged at most Advantageous Bates. 
Drafts and Circular Notes Issued and Cae^ed. 



Messrs. THOS. COOK & SON have added the above Department to their 
old-established Tourist business, in order to more fully meet the requirements of 
their numerous patrons. 

WE8LEYAN METHOOrST SUNDAY SCHOOL IffllON -CENTRAL AGENCY. 

SALE AND SHOW ROOMS OPEN FROM g a.m. to 7 p.m. 

BIBLE CARTOONS— LIFE OF JESUS. 

(27 in. hy 23 in.) ; printed in 9ipia, on a Gold groand. One Shilling each : —The 
Set of 21, One Pound. Mounted. Framed, ka., fl-om Is. 8d. to ISs. ; Sets. 30s. to £13 128. 
Also, in Stained Glass, on Tiles, kc. , to Order.- {For Prices, Ac, apply to W, Mnn»,) 

Miniature Cartoons.— Set of 21, Is. 4d. ; Framed, 6d. to 2s. 8d. Sfet in box, lOs. 

ILLV8TBATED BEADINOS-LIFE OF JESUS. 

The Twent]H>ne Bible CaiAoons, with Scrrptore Beadings, printed on untearable 
cloth, on background of pale Blae (Wedgwood Blue) in place of Gold. 2s. each, 28. 8d. 
mounted ; Sets, £2 ; mounted on one roller, £2 2s. ; and mounted singly, £2 ISs. 4d. 

THE LAST SUPPER. 

A New Bible Cartoon (35 in. by 25 in.), printed in Sepia and Gold,.28. each. 

Banner and other Texts, Ulustrated Books, Illuminated Maxims, Scripture Beadings, 

Bpiritual Songs, American Oi^^s, Harmoniums, and other Appliances for Sunday School 

Mnd Mission Soom Work, General B«\igiona liVtenXTO^, Tracts, and Books. Foil Lists 

on Application, P.0.0. and Cheques pay&^U to Yl . %1lSY%. Ot^%\^ Pqi* attended to. 



ADVERTISEMENTS. 



MANUFACTURERS OF 



WATCHES 




JEWELLERY. 



GOLD 
MEDAL, 




t!=;^ 



n » K«*o % « jnaoiSrmaiivi 



PAKIS, 
1878. J 



JOSEPH GILLOTTS 

STEEL PENS. 

Sold by aU dealers throughout the IVorUL 



WORKS ON SEA-SICENESS AND NEUBALGIA. 

8EA.SICKNESS, AND HOW TO PREVENT IT: an EzplanatLon of its 
Nature, and snccessfal Treatmont, through the Agency of the Nervons 
System, by means of the Spinal loe-Bag, with an Introduction on the 
General Principles of Neuro-Therapeutics. By John Chapman, 
M.D., M.B.C.P., M.B.C.S., late Physician to the Parringdon Diapen- 
saiy, and late Assistant-Physician to tiie Metropolitan Free HospitaL 
Second Edition, in 870, price 3s. 

AUOf by the sa/me AuthoTj 
KEURALOIA, AND KINDRED DISEASES OF THE NERVOUS BTSTEM^ 

their Nature, Causes, and Treatment ; also a Series of Cases, preceded 
by an Analytical Exposition of them, exemplifying the Principles and 
Practice of Neuro-Dynami Medicdue. Svo, doth, 14s. 

London : J. & A. Churchill Paris z Ilbrairio Galigwani. 224, fine de Bivoli. 

PHRENOLOGY. 



PROFESSOR FOWLER (of New York) gives Phreno- 
logical AND Physiological Consultations Daily, at hia Rqqto5l^ 
in Cook's New Bmlding, 107, m^e^^ ^\»^^^\.,^w£l^S^ 5b..Ts..H«. 
5 p.m. 



ADVERTISEMENTS. 



SEVEN PRIZE MEDALS AWARDED. 

GOODALL'S HODSEHOLD SPECIALITIES, 

A single trial solicited from those who have not yet tried thene splendid preparations. 



GoodaH'sBakinePowde 



THE BEST IN THE WOELD. 
The cheapest hecause the best, and indispensable to every liousehold, and an inestimable 
boon to honsewives Makes delicious Puddings without eggs. Pastry without butter, and 
beautiful light Bread without yeast. fck>ld by Grocers, Oilmen, Chemists, &c., in Id. 

Prepared by 'gOODALL, BACKHOUSE, & Co., White Horse Street, Leeds. 



Yorkshire Relish 



THE MOST DELICIOUS SAUCE IN THE WOELD. 
This cheap and excellent Sauce makes the plainest viands palatable, and the daintiest 
dishes more delicious. To Chops and Steaks, Fish, &o., it is incomparable. Sold by 
Grocers, Oilmen, Chemists, &c., in Bottles, 6d., Is., and 28. each. 

Prepared by GOODALL, BACKHOUSE, & Co., Whi-e Horse Street, Leeds. 




The best, cheapest, and most agreeable tonic yet introduced. The best remedy known 
for Ind^estion, Loss of Appetite, General Debility, &c. Eestores delicate individuals to 
health and vlgrour. Sold by Chemists, Qrocers, &c., at Is., Is. lj|d., 2s., and 28. 3d. each 
Bottle. 

Prepared by GK)ODALL, BACKHOUSE, & Co., White Horse Street, Leeds. 



Goodall's CustardPowder 



For making delicious Custards without eggs^ in less time and at half the price. Qive it a 
trial. Sold by Grocers, Chemists, and Italian Warehousemen, in 6d. and Is. Boxes. 



PREPAB.111> BT 



si^mu, BAcmusi, & co.,mw^mm.'s\,,MUis. 



ABVER TI8EMENT8. 



M I D L A ND RA I LW AY. 

The Fiotnresqne Eonte between London & Manchester & Liverpool, 

through Matlock and the Peak of Derbyshire. 
XSzpress Trains in each direction at convenient hours. 

THE TOURIST AND EXCURSION' ROUTE 

BETWEEN ENGLAND AND SCOTLAND, 

Via SETTLE and CARLISLE, is now Open. 

A Morning Express Train runs between London and Edin- 
burgh and Glasgow, in each direction, with Pullman Drawing- 
room Cars attached ; and a Night Express Train runs in each 
direction, between the same places, with Pullman Sleeping Cars 
attached. First Class Passengers may avail themselves of the 
comfort and convenience of these luxurious Cars on payment of 
a small charge in addition to the Railway Fare, particulars of 
which may be ascertained at the Stations. 

PTJILMAN I)RAWI]J&-B.OOM AM SLEEPIIf& GARS 

are also run by certain Express Trains between London and Liver- 
pool, and London and Manchester. 

Tourist Tickets are issued during the Summer months from 
London and principal stations on the Midland System to all 
principal places of Tourist resort in the United Kingdom. 

The Official Time Tables of the Company, and every informa- 
tion respecting their Trains and arrangements, may be obtained at 
any of the Stations of the Line. 

Tickets from London for all parts of the Midland Railway, and Lines in con- 
nection, are issued at the Company's Office, 445, West Strand (opposite 
Charing Cross Station), and at the Office of Thos. Cook & Son, Ludgate 
Circus, as well as at the St. Pancras, Moorgate Street, Victoria, and other 
Stations. 

THE MIDLAND GRAND HOTBL 

(One of the Largest Hotels in Europe), 

Containing upwards of 400 Bed-rooms, with spacious CofFee-rocn, Reading- 
room, and numerous Drawing-rooms, has been erected by the Company at 
the ST. PANCRAS TERMINUS, and wiU be found replete with every 
accommodation. The Company are also owners of 

THE aUEEN'S HOTEL, LEEDS, 

THE MIDLAND HOTEL, DEBBY, 

And THE MIDLAND HOTEL, MOBECAMBE, 

Adjoining the Midland Railway Station in each of those Town&. 
ALL naST CLASS HOTKLA TOSL 'BkHIlA:6& KS:V^ ^2SSK^:uaSSS.. 

Derby, April, 1 879. ] A>A.1E.^ K\-\-^Q^:^ ^ Geu. Ma»va?,eY 



8 ADrBRTI8Ei£EirT8. 

LONDON, CH ATHAM, AND DO VER RAILWAY. 

LONDON' AND PARIS, 

Til. DOTSB AHD OkXiUB. 

TBKEX SPKCXAI. EXPRESS SXHTICES DAIXiT. 

ShortHt Sea PaiMce. Bo Hlnutcs. 
■ & (TEST EKD), HOtBOKN AITD LUDGATR (CITT). 





si: 'iiiE 




If 


I»LS 



LojMn TP Pl^^ 



8z:s,vios:. 



fall lud BxpNM SarrloM 



t Btdglimi, Qonxiaiiy, ft»^ tlu BUdAp 



'" ?mM°' 



AH bv Uie T.s iLm. Tnln, but Pvaebfon * 
' p^ urt dUbnoM of fu* Ir thar with » pnK 
»u?Mlloil (InoloifiDi Sunud'i Wee*) ><• Ci 



OfllMa irtwra THBOmH TtOKETS and InfomuitloiL cui be obtaliiAd :- 
CtaM w«t 111(1 om»-T«iTauA eriTina. i roiDKiw— ar j. j. nubbbe, t-t, ihimhii 

I4tr TwnLnii*— HOLaoav TUDDCT. 1 Putt— H4nbanivfrna«IWLw4Ti*lidtlM 

ClCjOmo*— LUDaATIBILLfTATIOB. _ I UbfttbAOU flGI Dovar HvUmr CqajMii 

r.Sl5»r*«Mf«Tljiiil«01Ili»,Locl«»to01niii«. »<"■ B~.i~-rf .«.. i^H-.?' *^ 

AiuHZi-irr.dlVI'ZUttl.HoiiUwudBlkOgiii. I Cdil 



TAWKUYUi 



ADVERTISEMENTS. 9- 



TO EXCURSIONISTS AND TOURISTS. 



To avoid the rush at Bailwaj Stations in procuring Tickets at the time of 
departure, Messrs. Thos. Cook <^ Son have heen appointed Passenger Agents to 
the Kailway Oompanies, and the following Tickets, for starting from London, 
can be obtained at ANY TIME at their Chief Office, LTTDGATE 
CIBCnS, LONDON:— 

Midland Railway. — All Ordinary, Excursion, and Tourist Tickets. 
Great Eastern Bailway. — All Ordioary and Tourist Tickets. 

London, Brighton, and South Coast Bailway.— All Ordinary and 

Excursion Tickets. 
Great Western Badlw^ay. — ^AU Excursion and Tourist Tickets. 

London, Chatham, and Do^er Bailway.— All Ordinary and Excursion 
Tickets. 

Qlie aboTe Tickets ean be procured at any time, and will be dated to suit the 
convenience of the passenger. 

THOS. COOK & SON 

Cblef Office— Ludgate Clrous, London. 



10 ADVEBTI8EMENT8. 



NEW SYSTEM OF TOURS, 

ARRANGED BT 

TSZOIMI-A-S OOOIEZ <Sc SOIT, 

INCLUDING ALL PRINCIPAL PLACES OF INTEREST, 

FROM BRISTOL TO THE LAND'S END; 

THE MAGNIFICENT SCENERY OF THE COASTS OF 

NORTH & SOUTH DEVON, CORNWALL, 

AND THE 

ISLANDS OF SCILLY; 

Special Travelling Arrangements 

BY 

RAILWAYS, STEAMERS, COACHES, & PRIVATE CARRIAGES 

BETWEEN 

Bristol, Weston-snper-Mare, Taontoa, Exeter, Teignmonth, Torquay, 
Dartmonth, Plymooth, Falmouth, Helston, Penzance. The Lizaid, 
Land's End, the Soilly Islands, Tavistock, Lannceston, Bnde, 
Barnstaple, Lynton, Ilfraoombe, and other places of note in 

SOMERSET, DEVON, AND CORNWALL. 



Passengers can be Booked to start from 

LONDON, BIRMINGHAM, MANCHESTER, LIVERPOOL, LEEDS, 
BRADFORD, SHEFFIELD, EDINBURGH, GLASGOW, DUBLIN, &G. 

For full Particulars, see Programme, to be obtained 
free at any of the Offices of 

THOMAS COOK & SON. 



AJDVEBTISEMENTS. 11 



COOK'S TOUR 



TO THE 



SOUTH COA ST & THE IS LE OF WIGHT. 

THOS. COOK & SON have much pleasure in calling attention to this 
popular TOUR, which they have arranged with the London, Brighton, and South 
Coast Railway Company, and the Port of Portsmouth and Ryde United Steam 
Packet Company, by which 

MONTHLY TOURIST TICKETS 

FROM LONDON may be issued on any day 

BETWEEN THE 1ST OF MAY AND THE END OF OCTOBER, 

Offering facilities for visiting 

HASTIN&S, ST. lEOU ARDS, BRI&ITOIf, PORTSMOUTH, 

THE ISLE OP WIGHT, 

And almost every intermediate Coast Town and Village. 

This splendid tour comprises nearly 300 miles of the most charming Railway 
and Steamboat travelling in the United Kingdom, and affords facilities for stop- 
ping at nearly twenty places on and adjacent to the Coast of Sussex. The 
journey may be made from LONDON BRIDGE, VICTORIA, or KENSING- 
TON, and can be taken either way, going first to Hastings, and thence by the 
South Coast Line to Portsmouth, proceeding from Portsmouth by Mail steamers 
to RYDE, and returning from Portsmouth, terminating the trip at any stopping 
station of the London, Brighton, and South Coast Railway, between Portsmouth 
and London ; or reversing the route by going first to Portsmouth, and returning 
by Brighton, St. Leonards, Hastings, etc. The tickets are prepared as neat 
little books of Coupons, and are good for completing the Tour at any time not 
exceeding a month. 

THE FARES FOR THE ROUND, 

Exclusive of trifling pier dues and omnibus charges connected with embarkation 

and landing, are, 

FIRST CLASS, 37s. ; SECOND CLASS, 27s. 

Tickets are available for all Trains. i2olb. weight of luggage allowed to each 
First Class, and i2olb. to each Second Class Passenger. Children under ii years 
of age, travelling with parents and firiends, are charged half-fares. 

In all cases, at starting from London, or any other London, Brighton, and 
South Coast Station, the tickets must be presented to be dated and stamped, and 
they can only be used for the Lines and the Companies for which they are pro- 
vided. They are good for a calendar month from the date of dei^axt^ix^. 

THOS. COOjK & SON, LUDGXI^E. C\^03'5., MS^v-^^S^ 



12 



ADVERTISEMENTS, 



RUBATTINO & GO.'S ITALIAN MAIL STEAMERS. 

THOMAS OOOK & SON, Passenger Agents. 



INDIAN LINE. 

BEOULAB MONTHLY DEFAETURES (via Suez Canal) 



From Genoa to Bombay on the 
24th, and from Naples on the 27th 
of each month. 



From Bombay to Gtenea on the 
Ist, and from Aden on the 8th of 
each month. 



The steamers employed by the Company on this line are, as it is 
well known, all first rate English-built vessels, of 1»400 tons register, 
or about 2,500 tons burden, affording every comfort and convenience 
to passengers. Each vessel carries a qualified surgeon. 

The average passage from Naples to Bombay is performed in about 
18 to 19 days. 

Besides the regular monthly Indian Line the E. EUBATTINO'S 
Steam Navigation Company have many other important mail services, 
under contract with the Italian Government, as follows : — 

MEDITERRANEAN LINES. 

ALEXANDRIA (Ugypt), STRIA, and CYPRUS, to ITALY. 



Alexandria to Genoa every Friday 

at 9 a.m. 
(Calling at Messi. Napl. & Legh.) 
From Naples to Genoa every 

Wednesday at 10 p.m. 
Arr. at Genoa every Friday at 

10 p.m. 



Genoa to Alexandria every Mon- 
day at 9 p.m 

(CalUng at Legh. Napl. & Mess.) 

From Naples to Alexandria every 
Thursday at 6.30 p.m. 

Arr. at Alexandria every Tuesday 
at 11 a.m. 



Eeoulab Depabtubbs from Genoa to Tunis, Genoa to Cagliari, 
Naples to Cagliari, Genoa to Poitotorres, Genoa, Bastia, Madilena, 
Portotorres, Civita Yecchia to Madalena and Fortotorres, Piombino to 
Portoferraio. 

The Company, in order to be agreeable to Passengers, will take 
charge in G«noa of their luggage if they desire to have it forwarded 
direct to England, France, or Germany. 

The Company also undertake to forward goods and any oilier 
article at any Port touched at by their Vessels, and from those Ports 
to any commercial Place in Europe, at through rates, addressing for 
information E. ETJBATTINO and Co., TransU Office, Genoa. 

JjiBUTSbiiGe on Cargo shipped on hoard their Vessels can be efteoted at 
moderate terms according to tke CoiitcaAt stipulated with French 
Inaarance Companies, whoB©iidoTmait\ouTa»i3\ift\is^^*0sACiompany*a 
A-genciea, 



ABVEBTISEMENTS. IS 



UNDER CONTRACT WITH H.M. POSTMASTER-GENERAL. 



THE 

PENINSULAR AND ORIENTAL 

Despatch their Steamers, FROM SOUTHAMPTON,, vid the 
Suez Canal, with H.M. Mails, as follows : — 

EVERY THURSDAY 

For GIBRALTAR, MALTA^ PORT SAID, SUEZ, 
ADEN and BOMBAY. 

EVERY ALTERNATE THURSDAY 

For CEYLON vGalle), MADRAS, CALCUTTA, 
THE STRAITS, CHINA and JAPAN. 

EVERY FOURTH THURSDAY 

For AUSTRALIA and NEW ZEALAND. 

The Company also book Passengers through to Queensland, via" 
Singapore and Torres Straits. 

CcHTesponding Steamers are despatched from VENICE 
every FRIDAY, and from BRINDISI every MONDAY to 
ALEXANDRIA with the Overland portion of the Mails and Pas* 
sengers. 

INDIAN PARCEL POST. 

Th« Compuiy are ftuthorised by the Direotor-General of the Post Office of lodift to 
reoeive Faroels for Delivery at any Post Town or District throaghoat India and British 
Barmahy at a oniform rate of Is. per lb. or fraction of a poond weight, and Booka at a 
rednoed weight of 6d. per lb. 

Parcels mnst not exceed 60 ponnds in weight, and 2ft. by 1ft. by 1ft. in measure- 
ment, nor be more than £20 in value, and if containing Jewellery, Gold and Silver 
Ware, Watches, or Precious Stones, an additional rate wUl be charged. 

This charge covers tne conveyance from London- to the address in India, etc. (but 
does not include du^), and may either be prepaid or paid on delivery. 

The Parcel Post arrangements are now extended to Aden and Oeyion at the rate of 
Is. per lb. or fraction of a lb. The service to Oeyion is, however, fortnightly only ; in 
other respects the conditions are the same as for India. 



For Rates of Passage Money and Freight^ and all other infor^ 
motion^ apply at the Company s Offices^ 

122, LEADEN HALL STREET, E,0. 

Passengers can be booked at any oi tiie Ottisi^^ oITtao^. Cqh&^^'^^s^- 



14 ADVERTISEMENTS. 



Genera/ Steam Navigation Co., 71, Lombard Street, E,C,, and ^7, Regent 

Circus, Piccadilly, London, W. 

For Bank Holiday Arrangemonta, see Special Bills and AdyertiBementB. 

GENERAL STEAM NAVIGATION COMPANY. 

When the Comimny'B VesBelB cannot come alongside the Irongate and St. 

Katharine's Wharf, Passengers and their Lnggage are conveyed hy 

Steam Tender to and firom the Ships FKBE of CHARGE. 

I.OMBON AHD BOULOGNE. 

The Dolphin, Rhine, Co\og^^, Moselle, or Concordia. 
Prom Etondon— Daily. From Bonlosne — Daily 

FABES (includisg Steward s Fee).— London to Boulogne, 12b. and Ss. 6d. ; Betnm 
Tickets, ISs. 6d. and ISs. Ijondon to Paris, available for three days, 27s. 6(1. ; 
23b.; 198. 6d. ; * 16s. 6d. Betum Tickets to Paris, available for fourteen 
days, 52s. 6d. ; 40s. ; 35b. ; and 26s. 

IiONDON AND BATRS. 

Pilot. — From Irongate and St. Katharine's Steam Wharf. 
From liOndon— Every Thorsday. From Havre — Every Sunday. 
Fares (Steward's Fee included).— Chief Oabin, 13s.; Fore Cabin, 98. Betum 
Tickets, 20s. 6d. and 14s 

LOMDON & 08TEHD, THE aBIllE, A SWITSKERI. AHD. 

The Swift and Swallow.— From and to Irongate and St. Katharine's ¥^harf. 
From liondon— Wednesday & Saturday From Ostend— Tuesday & Friday. 
FABES (Steward's Fee included) .—Chief Cabin, 18s.; Fore Cabin, 14b, Betum 
Tickets, 27s. 6d. and 21s. 

LOMDOH A ANTWERP, THE RHINE, A 8WITSKSaX.AND. 

The Hawk, Orion, Falcon, Earl of Aberdeen.— Ftom and to Irongate and 

St. Katharine's Wharf. 
From liOndAn— Every Tuesday, Thursday, and Saturday. 
From Antwerp— Every Tuesday, Friday, and Sunday. 

FABES (Steward's Fee included).— Chief Cabin, 24s. ; Fore Cabin, 16B. Betum 
Tickets, 37s. and 24s. 6d. 

LONDON AND BAMBITRO. 
Libra, Osprey, Granton, Penguin, Iris, Rainbow, Martin, Nautilus, or Alford. 
From JLondon— Every Tuesday, Thursday, and Saturday. 
From Hamburff— Every Tuesday, Thursday, and Satmrday. FABES (including 
Steward's Fee) .— <3hief Cabin, 45s ; Fore Cabin, 29s. Betum Tickets, 68b. and 41s. 
1.0ND0N TO OFORTO, PORTUGAIi, AND SPAIN, 
The Petrel.— From and to Irongate and St. Katharine's Wharf. 
Departures from each end every fortnight. For dates see daily papers. 
FABES (No Steward's Fees).— Chief Cabin, 84fi. 
LONDON AND BORDEAUX . BOVTB OF FRANCE, AND 



Tbe Bittern, Kestrel, or Lapwing. —From Irongate and St. Katharine's Wharf. 
From liOndon — Avery Thursday. From Bordeaux.— Every Friday. 

FABES vNo Steward's Fees).— Chief Cabin, 60s.; Fore Cabin, 408. Betum 
Tickets, 100s. and 66s 8d. 

LONDON AND EDINBURGH (Oranton Pier). 
The Virgo and Widgeon. —From and to the Irongate and St. Katharine's Wharf. 
From fondon —Every Wednesday aud Saturday. 
From Edinburgh (Granton Pier).— Every Wednesday and Saturday. 
FABES (Steward's Fee included).— Chief Cabin, 22s. ; Fore Cabin, 16s. Betum, 
348. and 24s. 6d. ; Deck (Soldiers and Sailors only), lUs. 

LONDON AND BULL. 
The Heron, Ostrich, and Hamburg.— From and to the Custom House Quay, 
Lower Thames Street. 

From JLondon— Every Wednesday and Saturday at 8 mom. 
From Hull— Every Wednesday and Saturday. FABES (Steward's Fee included 
•"Saloon, 9s. 6d. : Fore Cabin, 68. 6d. Betum Tickets, 15s. and 10s 

LONDON AND YARMOUTH. 
During the winter months tbere is a r^ular weekly steamer le».Vj(ng ijondon ou 
Hiursday morning and Tarmouth oh Sunday. During the summer there is a 
special dadly service. FABES.— Saloon, ^. *, "SoTe Oabin, 78. 

Tbe above arrangements are subjeot to such. sltatsA&ou Ixoxa \&xi\a \a ^o&a «a^QQR'UV&ttQAQBB vaaj 
think neoemaary or desirable. See Adverttaemente tn. ^sX^ -Bwg«n. 



ABVERTiaBMENTS. 15 

ILLUSTRAT ED BOOKS O F TRAVEL. 

Imperial Svo, Ss. each, elegantly bound, gilt edges, 

1. French Pictures, drawn with Pen and Pencil. 

By the Bbt Samuxl G. Gainr, B.B. With upwards of 150 fine Eaflrravin^s. 
*' One of the most sumptuous of Gift Books. The perfection of Wood Engraving 
and descriptive Letter-press." — Qowt Journal. 

2. English Pictures, drawn with Pen and Pencil. 

By the Bev. Samuei. Mavkivg, LL.D., and the Bev. S. G. GBxnr, B.D. With 

Coloured Frontii^iece and numerous Wood Engravings. 
" Next to' seeing the heautif ul places of the earth comes the delight of reading 
of them, and many a one who is doomed to begin and end his days within a ' cribb'd, 
cabined, and confined ' circle, can roam guided by such a book, at the will of fane 
through sunny glades, by babbling streama or over the breezy moorlands." 

3. American Pictures, drawn with Pen and Pencil. 

By the Bev. Samuel Makkiitq, LL.B. Profusely Hhistrated in the best style 
of Wood Engraving by eminent English and Foreign Artists. 

*' These American Pictures are a credit to all concerned in th^r production." 

PaU Mali Gazette, 

** A very interesting and entertaining volume." — SfpecioAor. 

** C!opiously and cleverly illustrated and pleasantly written." — Daily News, 

4. Swiss Pictures, drawn with Pen and Pencil. 

By the Bev. Sakxtbl MANiriHe, LL.B. With numerous Illustrations by 
Whymper and others. 
** In th^ third edition there are so many additions and improvements that this 
beautiful volume is still more attractive and beautiful than ever." — Standard. 

5. "Those Holy Fields." 

Palestine Illustrated bt Pev akd Pencil. By the Bev. Sakuel Mavnuto, 

LL.D. With numerous sux>erior engravings. 
" The work is executed with great ability — but the great charm of the book is 
the Illustrations. Very simple, but executed with extreme fidelity, and a thoroughly 
artistic feeling." — Ghraj^ie. 

6. The Land of the Pharaohs. 

Eqtpt and Sinai. Illustrated bt Pen and Pencil. By the Bev. Samuel 
Manning, LL.B. Profusely Illustrated with fine Engravings. 
** Dr. Manning wields a lively and graceful pen. The volume is full of spirited 
and highly-finished engravings on wo<^." — Standard. 

" Written in a pleasing, readable fashion. . . The woodcuts are capital." 

Athenaeum, 

7. Italian Pictures, drawn with Pen and Pencil. 

By the Bev. Samuel Manning, LL.D. Profusely Illustrated 

** The more we turn over the pag^s of this book, the more we like it. Italy is the 
tbeme of a great deal of fine writing and fine painting, but the plain descriptions 
and accurate drawings here really tml us more about it than a library of inspired 
puems and a gallery of ideal paintings." — Timee. 

8. Spanish Pictures, drawn with Pen and Pencil. 

By the Bev. Samuel Manning, LL.D. With Illustrations by Gustavo Bor^ 

and other eminent artists. 
"A volume that does credit to the writer and artists epiployed." — Pall Mall GFaaetta. 
"The letter-press is pleasant reading, and many of the sketches are of the 
highest excellence."— T?M Time*. 



THE RELIGIOUS TRACT SOCIETY, 
London : 56, Pateknostbb Bow-, 65, St. Paxtl^a QiK\j^BA-B.^icKCk \ msa^'^assr.kssvs^s*- 

lUustrated OotologuM/ree ou oijy^'VMoXMfK. 



16 ADVBBTI8B2£BNTFf. 



GUI DE BO O K S. 

The following Books can be obtained at any of the Offices of 
THOS. COOK &* SONy or sent by Post to any part of the United 
Kingdom : — 

Cook's Tourists' Guide to Holland, Belgium, and 

the Rhine. Price 3s. 6d. With Maps. 

Cook's Tourists' Guide to Switzerland, showing all 

Routes to Paris, with descriptions of the places of interest 
Price 3s. 6d. With Maps. 

Cook's Tourists' Guide to the Black Forest. Price 

3s. 6d. With Map. 

New Guide to Ancient and Modern Rome. By 

SHAKSPERE WOOD. Price 6s. With Map. This work 
contains full Particulars of the recent Excavations in Rome. 
"This is extremely well done. The information is clear and brief, given 
with judgment and good taste, and apparently exhaustive. It is 
hardly possible to conceive a more useful book for its especial pur- 
pose — that of guiding the hasty tourist to see as much as may be- 
with the least expenditure of time." — Guardian. 

Cook's Tourists' Guide to Northern Italy. Price 4s. 

With Maps. 
"Cook's 'Northern Italy' will tell the traveller nearly all he wants to 
know of the chief cities of the North, including Florence, the 
approaches through the mountain passes from France, Switzerland, 
and Austria.*' — Graphic, 

Cook's Tourists' Guide to Southern Italy. Price 4s. 

With Maps. 
"Cook's 'Tourist Handbook to Southern Italy* is another of those 
plain, unpretending guides, which, like Cook's Coupons, are perhaps 
best suited for the mexperienced traveller, but to him will prove of 
more real service than the more voluminous and exhaustive manuals. 
It is as good a handbook as tourists can desire." — Graphic, 

Cook's Handbook to Venice. Price is. With Planv 
Cook's Handbook to Florence. Price is. With Plan. 

** Cook's Handbooks to Florence and Venice form two handy little 
volumes full of reliable information." — yohn Bull, 

Cook's Handbook to the Health Resorts of the 

South of France and the Mediterranean. Price is. WidiMap. 

Cook's Handbook for Egypt, the Nile, and the 

Oesert. Price 6s. With Five Maps. 

Cook's Handbook for Palestine and Syria. Price 
jTu 6d. With Four Maps. 

A Few Words of Advice on Travelling and its 

JRagu/rements. Addressed to "La^i^^. "^'"^V^cabulary in 
French and German and olthet >3fi^bA\TiQrcBa5aaT^. ^tv^w 



ADVERTISEMENTS, 17 

GUIDE BOOKS, Ac—oonHnued, 

Cook's Guide to Paris. With Plan of Paris. Price is- 
Cook's Handbook for London. Full particulars of all 

places of interest, Railways, Omnibuses, Tramways, Steamers, 
Cab Fares, Churches, Chapels, Public Buildings, National 
Institutions, Museums, Picture Galleries, Law Courts, Theatres, 
Clubs and Club Houses, Banks and Bankers in London, Short 
Excursions in the Suburbs, Hotels, &c., &c. With Two Maps. 
Price 6d. ; cloth gilt, lod. By post, yd. and is. 

Up the Nile by Steam. To the First and Second Cata- 
racts. With Maps. Price 6d. 

Programmes of Personally-Conducted and Inde- 
pendent Palestine Tours with extensions to Egypt and 
the Nile. With Maps. Price 6d. 

Cook's Excursionist and Tourist Advertiser. Pub- 
lished at short intervals during the Season, in London, New 
York, and Brussels ; and contains Programmes and Lists to 
the number of looo Specimen Tours ; tickets for which are 
issued by Thos. Cook & Son, with Fares by every Route. 
Price 2d., or by Post 3d. 

Cook's Continental Time-Tables and Tourists' 

Handbook. Contains the Time-Tables of the principal 
Continental Railway, Steamboat, and Diligence Companies, 
and includes Eight Sectional Maps, specially engraved ; 
full directions as to Passports, Foreign Currency, etc. Com- 
piled and arranged under the personal supervision of THOMAS 
Cook & Son. Price is. 

Cook's Centennial Map of Atlantic Steamship 

Routes; and Tourists* Map of Central Europe. The 
two in cloth case. Price gd. 



London: THOS. COOK & SON, Ludoate Circus,E.C. 

WEST END AOENCT-mdlajid Railway Office, 445, West Strand 
(opposite Cliaring: Cross Station and Hotel). 

BRANCH OFFICES: 



BIR1IIIHGH4H— Stephenson Place 
MANCHESTER— 43, Piccadilly 
LIVERPOOL— 11, Ranelagh Street 
LEEDS— 1, Royal Excliazige 
BR ADFOR D -8. Exchange, MarketSt 
SHEFFIELD— Change Alley Corner 
LEICESTER— 6^, Gallowtree Gate. 
DUBLIN— 45, Dame Street 
EDINBITRGH— 9. Princes Street 



GLASGOW— 165, Buchanan Street 
PARIS— 15, Place du Havre 
COLOGNE-40. Domhof 
BRUSSELS— 22, Galerie du Roi 
GENEVA— 90, Hue du Rhone 
ROME— iB, Piazza di Spagna 
CAIRO— Cook's Tourists' Pavilion^ 
Shepheazd'fk Bs^\j^ 



CmBF AMBRIOAN OPFIOT-a«l,«B.^KB^ « ^^KSW^^'*^ 

79. 



18 ADVEBTI8UMENT8. 

COOK'S EXCITRSIONS, TOURS, 

GENERAL TE AYELLIM AR RANGEMENTS. 

THOMAS COOS AND SON, 

"piONEEBS, Inangarators, and Promoters of the principal systems of Tonrs 
-^ established in Great Britain and Ireland, and on the Continoit of 
Europe, are now giTing increased attention to Ordinary Trayelling Arrange- 
ments, with a view to rendering them as easy, practicable, and economical as 
oircnmstances will allow. Daring 88 years more than six SfUJjOKB of 
Travellers have visited near and distant places under their arrangements ; and 
their system of Tickets now provides for visiting the chief points of interest 
in the Four Quarters of the Globe. 

TourlBt Tickets by Midland Route issued by THOHAS COOK and I^OK 

to Berbyshire, Yorkshire, Lancashire* Moreoamhe Bay, Isle of Man, Sootland, 
Ireland, kc, ; also Cheap Ezotirsion Tickets to and from London. 

Cook's Englldi Lake Tours cover all points of Interest, including Win- 
dermere, Ck>niston, Ullswater, Derwentwater, Bydal, and Grasmere Lakes. Also 
Coaches and Carriage Excursions to visit all principal plaora. 

Cook's West of England Tours, combining Bailway, Coach, and Steamer 
to every point of interest between Bristol and the Land's End. The Tickets are 
prepared in Coni>on form, and can be issued in combination, to meet the requirements 
of the Tourist. Hotel Coupons are also issued for First Class Hotels in the District. 

Cook's Scotch Tours cover all points of Tourist interest in Scotland, 
Oban, StafEa, lona. Isle of Skye, Caledonian Canal, Eyles of Bute, tdie Trossachs, the 
Highlands, the Lake District, Edinburgh, etc. ; and can be used in a aiTniiay manner to 
the Irish Tours. 

Cook's Irish TounL^Thomas Cook and Son issue Tourist Tickets to and 

through all parts of Ireland, including the Giant's Causeway, Belfast, Dublin, Qalway, 
Loch Erne, the Lakes of EjUamey, etc. They can be used in connection with Tickets 
from London, or any town on the Midland Bailway. 

Cook's Tickets to Paris are available by the Shortest and Cheapest 
Boutes, and by Dover and Calais. 

Cook's Swiss Tickets are available by every Boute, and Oover every 
part of the Country. Thomas Cook and Son are the only Authorized Agents of every 
Swiss Bailway, Steamboat, and Diligence Company. Every Alpine route is included iu 
their arrangements. 

Cook's Italian Tickets provide for every Boute to and through Italy, and 
are offered at great Beductions in Fares. 

Cook's Tours to Holland, Bel«:lum, and the Shin*, are arranged upon a 
most comprehensive basis, Tickets being provided for every Boute, for single and 
return journeys, and for Circular Tours, Breaks of journey are allowed at all places of 
merest. 

Cook's PersonaUy-conducted Tooxb \ubiVQ \)C(QQme a most popular feature 
ha tbeir arraagementB. Parties ore orgaaBized.\o\Qnk^«ljO'&dLO'&.'««^£cs ^no^fi^tho season 
^or Switzerland, Qermaaj, Italy, aaid vadoua -pvEts ol ^ftCiaBL\Sa«!o^ 



ABVEBTISEMBNTS. 19 

Ooox'b Bxcubsioss avd Toubs— contintted. 

The Steam Navigation of the Kile is oommitted by the Khedive Govem- 
ment entirely to Thomas Cook and Son. The Steamers (the only ones on the Nile) 
ply between Oaixo and the First Cataract (600 miles), and the Second Cataract (810 
miles). Tickets can be had, and Berths secured, at any of Thomas Oook and SOU'S 
OfOlces. 

Tonrs to Palestine are rendered easy, safe, and economical, by the 
8ni>erior arrangements of Thomas Cook and Son, who now have their own Besident 
manager in Beyroat and JafEa. They are therefore prepared to conduct larg^ or small 
parties in the most comfortable manner through the country ; to Jerusalem, the Dead 
Sea, the Jordan, Damascus, Sinai, etc. The parties can be so fixed as to go indepen- 
f)ently or under personal management any time between October and April. Nearly 
two thousand ladies and gentlemen have visited Palestine under their arrangements. 

Turkey, Oreece^ the Levant, etc.— Thomas Cook and S<m are now pre- 
pared to issue Tickets b^ any line of Steamers, to any port toudied by the Ausl^ian 
Itloyd's, Messageries Mantimes, and Bubattino Co.'s Stewners. 

India, China, eta— Thomas Cook and Son are the Agents of the principal 
steamship Companies of the world, and are prepared to issue Tickets from Sonth- 
xmpton, Venice, Ancona, Gtenoa, Naples, and Brindisi, to Alexandria, Aden, Bombay, 
Calcutta, Singapore, Hong Kong, Shanghai, or any other innnt in India or China. 

Algerian Tonrs.— Thomas Cook and Son issne Tickets by any ronte 
to Algeria, and over the Algerian Bailways and Diligence routes. 

Norway, Sweden, and Denmark.— Thomas Cook and Son now issne 

Tourist Tickets by all pnncipal Bailways and Steamers for the most interesting parts 
of Scandinavia. 

Bound the World.— Thomas Cook and Son are prepared to issne a direct 
travelling Ticket for a journey Bound the World by Steam, available to go either West 
or East. 

Cook's Hotel Coupons, available at over fonr hundred first-class Hotels 
in various parts of the world, can be had by travellers purchasing Cook'S Tourlst 
Tickets, guaranteeing them first class accommodation at fixed and regular prices. 

Passages to America and Canada are secured by Thomas Cook and Son 
for all the chief lines of Steamers. Arrangements are made for Tours through America, 
giving a choice of more than 200 Single and Tourist Tickets . 

Thomas Cook and Son's General TravelUug Arrangements are so widely 
extended, that they can supply Tickets to almost any point that Tourists may wish u> 
visit, in many cases at reductions, many lunging from twenty-five to forty-five per cent. 
1 >elo w ordinary fares. The regular Travelling ^cket being issued in all cases printed in 
English on one side, and in the language of ihe country where it is used on the other 
and it contains all the information the traveller needs. 

Policies of Insurance against accidents of all kinds, by land and sea, 
nre effected throt^h the 0£pice of Thomas Cook and Son, as Agents of the " Ocean, 
Bailway, and General Accident Assurance Company, Limited." 

Prog^rammes can be had gratuitously, on application at the Ofi&ces of 
Thomas Cook and Son, or by post, in return for stamps covering postage. 

Cook's Excursionist and Tourist Advertiser is published at short intervals 
during the season inLondon, New York, and Brussels, at 2d., post-free, 3d., and con- 
tains programmes and lists to the number of nearly one thousand specimen Tours. 
Tickets for which are issued by Thomas Cook and Son, with fares by every Boute. 

Cook's Continental Time Tables and Tourist Handbook, with Eight 

Sectional Haps, price Is. Published monthly. 



THOMAS COOK & SON, 
Ohief Office : Ludgate Oirous, Fleet Street^ Lou<i<v^^ '^Ax 

445, West Strand (opposite Cliarlas Ototo^\»XNss^ 5jciA.^ass^ ^ 



20 ADVERTISEMENTS. 

THE MIDLAND GRAND HOTEL, LONDON. 

R. ETZENSBERGER, Manager. 

The Midland Grand Hotel, opened in May, 1873, with the adjoining 

Station constitutes the 

GRANDEST RAILWAY TERMINDS 

IN THE WORLD. 

Every modem appliance and improvement has been introduced in a 
most liberal spirit ; Erard's Pianos are at the free disposal of the occupants 
in all first-class private sitting-rooms. The Public Rooms are the finest 
and best of any Hotel in the Kingdom. Bedrooms for 500 guests, most 
luxuriously furnished with couches and easy- chairs, varying in charges from 
2/6 to 14/- per day. A free area of several hundred yards* width surrounds 
the building on every side, which contributes greatly to the privacy and 
comfort of visitors, and makes the Midland Grand Hotel an exceptionally 
healthy and most desirable residence for visitors intending to spend some 
time in London. 

GLASGOW HOTEL. 

PHILFS COCKBURN HOTEL, 

141, BATH STREET, GLASGOW. 

FIJRST CLASS. CHARGES MODERATE. 

AMERICAN NEWSPAPERS KEPT. 

JAMES PHILP (late of U.S.), Proprietor. 



ooozs:»s 

BRITISH MUSEUM BOARDING HOUSE 

69, Great Bussell Street, Bloomsbiiry, London. 

This XhstabliabmeDt ia pleasantly situated within three minutes' walk of Oxford 
Street and High Holhom, the great Ommibua xou\a \a \»Y\a City and the West End, 
with eeu^ ikdUtiea for Tisiting evexy paxt ot tVi^HU^xo^'^. 



Oi;0ntii«ntttl Hotels* 21 

ALEXANDRIA (Egypt). 

HOTEL D'EUROPB. 

This Hotel is situated in the best and healthiest port of the town, facing the 
large Consuls' Place. Gk>od caisine. Baths in the house. Omnibus at the Station. 
The Hotel boats meet every Steamer. Moderate charges. 

Cho '8 Cou/pons accepted. 
BADEN-BADEN. 

HOTEL DB HOLLANDB, 

AND DEPBNDAVCE 

AU BEAU SBJOUR. 

A. EOSSLER, Proprietor. 

This favourite and first-class Hotel, situated near the Kursaal, Promenade, and 
Theatre, commands one of the most charming views in Baden. The Hotel and 
D^pendance consists of 160 sleeping apartments, elegant sitting rooms, and garden. 
Extensive and airy dining room, and a comfortable public sitting room, with piano 
and library. It is conducted under the immediate superintendence of the Proprietor. 
English and American newspapers. The Table d'hote of this Hotel is reputed of the 
best qualitv in Baden. Fixed moderate charges for everything. Rooms from 2s. 
and upwards. Cook'* Hotel Coupons accepted. 

BELLAGIO (Lake of Como). 

HOTEL GRANDE BRETAGNE 

AND DEPEKDBVCB 

VILLA SERBBLLONI. 

Proprietors, MoBsrs. MEYER and ARRIGONI. 

First-class Hotels, situated in the most splendid position of the Italian Lakes. 
Large and beautiful Park. English Church Service. Moderate prices. 

Cook's Hotel Coupons accepted, 
BERNE. 

HOTEL BELLE VUE. 

Proprietor, F. OSSWALD. 

A magnificent Hotel, situated in an exceptional position ; splendid view over the 
Alps and the Aare. This Hotel is suited to the means of all, from its moderate 
charges, combined vrith family comforts. 

Cook's Cowpons accepted, 

BOLOGNA. 

GRAND HOTEL BRUN. 

W. WELLER and Co., Proprietors. 

First-rate accommodation for &inilies and single gentlemen ; magnificent dining 
room ; conversation room, with pianoforte ; reading room, snppliea with the Txvmh. 
andother principal papers; smoking room. Modet&te <^bBX%<e»« 'Y«sc«Rros^''^sQi:^!5c>ss^ 
tendance of the Proprietor. 

Tk4 Motel CovffionB qf Jfesirt. Tkot. Coolc «md S«a ac«*iBit«a."^^»- 



22 CONTINENTAL HOTELS. 

— I I _ ___■■_ ■ _ -- - ^ 

BONN. 

GRAND HOTEL ROYAL. 

ON THE BANKS OF THE RHINE. 

Proprietor, A. EBMEKBIL. 

Tint-class Hotd of Europeia repute : largely patronised by English and 
Amerioan families. Situation unequalled— uusing the Bbine, Seren mountains, and 
Park, near Landing Place and Railway Station. Beautiful gardens, ladies' saloons, 
reading and smoking rooms. Warm and oold baths. HigUy recommended. 

Cook*$ ComponM acc«pt«d. 
BRINDISI. 

ORIENTAL HOTEL. 

Proprietor, a. BBUBCHETTI. 

Ladies and Gentlemen travelling to or from Australia, China, India, Egypt, 
Plsleetine, or the Mediterranean Ports will find this Hotel a most desirable restlng- 
plaoe. It combines European comfort with Oriental luxury, and is most pleasantly 
situated on the Esplanade overlooking the Bay. Passengers land from the steamers 
in front of the Hotel. English spoken. 

Oook't Cov/pona received. 
BRUSSKLS. 

HOTEL DU GRAND MIROIR. 

Proprietor, Mr. JULES DOWRIN. 

A well conducted and old established Hotel, situated Rue ds la Mohtaoni, 28, 
has au exoeUent reputation for its general comfort, cleanliness, superior accommo- 
dation, and very moderate charges. The landlora speaks Ensrlish, French, Dutcn, 
and Qerman. Omnibuses meet the trains at the Northern and Midi Stations. 

The Hotel Coupone qf Mettre, Cook and Son are aeeepttd here. 



BRUSSELS. 

HOTEL DB LA POSTE. 

Proprietor, H. TILMAVB. 

This excellent establishment, situated Rue Fosse aux Loups, will be found very 
convenient to visitors who prize cleanliness and comfort. It is very substantially 
furnished, has an excellent cuisine, and displays every attention to visitors, the 
charges being moderate. It is well situated for tourists desirous of rendering 
themselves familiar with the principal objects of interest in the Belgian capital, 
and the Landlord wiU be found willing to afford every information in his power. 
Proprietor speaks English, French, German, Dutch, and Italian. Omnibus to the 
Stations. The Hotel Ootvpont qf Meeerx. Cook antt Son accepted here. 

CAIRO (Egypt). 

GRAND NEW HOTEL. 

This new and magnificent Establishment is situated in the healthiest part of the 
town, isunng the Public Ghurden and the Oi^ra Square. Good cuisine. Baths on 
€tftc& Aoor, Omnibus at every traan. 'MoCieTa.^A cS^oax^i^. 

Ooolc'8 Oou.potvs o«c«pUdi. 



CONTINENTAL HOTELS. 23 

CHAMOUNY. 

GRAND HOTELS DB LONDRBS BT 

D'ANGLBTBRRB. 

Proprietor. 0REPAVX-TAIBB4Z. 

HoiUM of the first class ; reooniinended to Families for their comfort and 
irreproachable cuisine. These Establishments are newly famished. Situated near 
to the Encash Church, the Post Office, and the Telegn.ph» Spleoidid view of Mont 
Blanc. English gardens. Various kmguages spoken. 

Cook's Coupons aeeeptsd. 

COBLENCE. 

HOTBL DU GBANT. 

Proprietors* Messrs. EI8BNHANN BROTHERS. 

This well-known and favourite first-class Hotel is delightfully situated opposite 
the Castle of Ehrenbreitstein. It is the nearest to the landing-place of the SteEuners, 
and commands a most beautiful view of the Rhine and surrounding country. This 
highly recommended Establishment combines superior accommodation with mode- 
rate prices, every attention being displayed towards Visitors, and facilities afforded 
for their visiting the various objects of interest in the neighbourhood. 
The Hotel Coupon* qfMeure. Cook and Son accepted here. 

DAVOZ PLATZ. 

CANTON DES GRISONS, SWITZERLAND. 

HOTBL AND PBNSION BBLVBDBRB. 

First-class Hotel, in the celebrated valley of Davos, 5,200 feet above the sea level, 
particularly recommended to Englii^ travellers for its excellent cuisine, comfort- 
able rooms, and sanitary arrangements, combined with most moderate charges. 
Pension, including room, from 5s. 6d. and upwards per day. The English chaplain 
resides in the Hotel, and the service is held there both in summer and winter. 

F. C. COESTER, Proprietor. 

Cook's Hotel Coupons accepted, 

f — ' — _^^^— — ^^— — ^.— 

DIEPPE. 

GRAND HOTEL DBS BTRANGBRS. 

Proprietor, JAVAULT. 

This Hotel is in a charming position, directly opposite the sea, and dose to the 
Baths. Table d'hote. Moderate prices. 

Cook's Cowpons accepted, 

DIJON. 

HOTBL DU JURA. 

DAVID and MERCIER, Proprietors. 

This first-class Hotel, near the station, is highly recommended. Table d'hote. 
English spoken. 

The EottH ConjKHU qf Xewrt, Cook a-ad. ^u QAfi«iiU^« 



24 CONTINENTAL MOTELS. 

EINSIEDELN. 

HOTEL PEACOCK. 

Proprietor, CH. aTR-TANNEB (speaks English). 

An old-establifllied and well-known Hotel and Boarding honse, opi>osite the cele- 
brated Benedictine Abbey, and beautiful church. The greatest attention is paid to 
the cooking, the service, and cleanliness. Post and telegraph in the house. 

Th* jSoM Cowpoiu <^ Meisrt. Cook and Son are taken, 

FLORENCE. 

GRAND HOTEL D'EUROPE. 

SANTA TRIiaTA SQUABE. 

This convenient Hotel, under the direct management of the Landlord, Mr. P. del 
BsLiiO, is situated in the central and finest part of the town, near St-a. Trinita 
Bridge, Post Office, the Uffizzi and the Pitti Gkdleries. Families or Gentlemen will 
find verj comfortable accommodation, with the most moderate charges. Good 
Table d'hote. f alons for Ladies and Grentlemen. Arrangements made with 
Families if desired. Foreign languages are spoken. 

The holders of Thoe. Cook and Son's Hotel C(m'p<yns toill always have a corAial tDelcom^. 

FLORENCE. 

GRAND HOTEL DE RUSSIE. 

Proprietor, PHILLIP TOMABETTI. 

First-lass, beautiful position. Piazza Manin and Lung Arno. Patronised by the 
best English and American Families. Highlj recommended for modem comforts 
and very moderate charges. Beading and smoking rooms. Baths in the Hotel. 
Omnibus to and from the Bailway Station. Under the immediate sui>erintendence 
of the Proprietor himself. 

The Hotel Coupons of Messrs. Cool and Son accepted here. 
FRANKFORT. 

SWAN HOTEL. 

Proprietor. GEORGE FAT. 

100 Apartments and Private Sitting Booms. This Hotel, well known by the 
Signature oj Peace between France and Germany, 10th of May, 1871, at the Hotel, is 
conducted under the direction of its Proprietor, Mr. Geoi^ Fay, who has had 
many years' experience in studying the comforts of English and American travellers. 
Every modem convenience, added to strictly moderate prices. Table d'hote at one 
and five o'clock. Carriages at the Hotel. Hot and cold baths, &c. No charge for 
the tMttol lights and attw dance. English and French papers. English, f rench, and 
Italian spoken. 

The Hotel Coupons of Messrs. Cook and Son accepted here. 

FREIBURG (Baden). 

HOTEL TRESCHER ZUM PFAUEN. 

Mrst-dass Hotel. The Proprietor is anxious to promote the comfort of Visitors 
Btaying in hia Hotel, and will give every information as to the points of Interest in 
the nedgbbonrbood. 

Tk€ SoM Coupont qf Metirt. Cook and Son •cc«pl«i\«T%, 



CONTINENTAL HOTELS. 25 

GENEVA. 

HOTEL DE LA METROPOLE. 

Director. PAUL MEI8TEBLIN. 

First-class Hotel, facing the Lake and the English garden. 

The Proprietor will have the greatest pleasure to assist and help in every wav all 
Ck>ok's Toorists. 

Cook's Coupons accepted, 

— , 

GENEVA. 

HOTEL DE LA COURONNE. 

Proprietor. F. RATHGEB. 

Facing the Lake, and in front of the National Monument. First-class Hotel. 

Lift of the newest construction, by E. Heurtebise, Paris, of the greatest con- 
venience to travellers. 

CooTc't Coupons accepted. 

GENOA. 

HOTEL DE LA VILLB, 

Proprietor, M. SNGEL. 

HOTEL TROMBETTA, ci-devant FEDER. 

SAJCB PBOPBIETOB. 

This large establishment, situated in the centre of the town, facing the south, 
with more than 60 front windows overlooking the sea and the picturesque environs, 
and already a most agreeable residence, has been still further embellished by the 
addition of a fine reading saloon, bath saloon, &c., and will be still more improved 
by the efforts of the new Proprietor, to render it more deserving the high i>atronage 
of the usual visitors. The Hotel C ouporu qf Mesars. Cook and Hon are accepted here. 

HEIDELBERG. 

HOTEL DE L'EUROPE. 

Proprietor, Mr. HAEFELI GUJER. 

This splendid and admirably conducted EstabHshment, in the finest situation of 
the town, near the Bailroad and Post Office, commands, by its charming position, 
the best view of the Promeuade, the Castle, and the Mountains ; and offers, by its 
sui>erior arrangements, the comfort of the apartments, and careful and civil attend- 
ance, all desirable attractions to Travellers. Ladies' sitting room and well-furnished 
reading room. Hot and cold baths, &c. The charges ore moderate, and persons 
desirous of visiting the environs will receive every attention. Omnibus meets every 
train. The Motel Coupons of Messrs. Cook and Son are accep ted here. 

HOSPENTHAL. 

HOTEL AND PENSION MEYBRHOF. 

Proprietors, FBERES METER. 

A comfortable House, and charmingly situated, with moderate charges. Tele- 
giwph and Post Office, where Diligence Tickets are issued for all routes. Carriages 
to Fluelen ; to Biasca by the St. Gotthard ; to Bhone Glacier and Brigue by the 
Fnrca: to Coire by the Oberalp. The Proprietor is Messrs. Cook's Agent tor 
8pe<aal carriage anangements for the St. Gotthax^, ^^atc».««av^'S\»^«&.« 

Cook*s HoUl CoufOKt oeeepteA. 



26 CONTINENTAL HOTELS. 

INNSBRUCK. 

HOTEL DU TYROL. 

Proprietor. CABL LANDBEE, 

Formerly Manager of the Hotel dn Pare, Lugano. 

First^olaaa Hotel, next to the Station, with all modem comforts. Beantifnl 
view over the yallej of the Inn and of the mountains. Choice kitchen. Charges 
yery reasonable. Arrangement made for protracted stay. 

P.S. — From the roof of the Hotel one enjoys the best of Tiews over the town, 
the valley of the Inn, and the mountains. Fine bird's-eye view. 
Cook's Couyona accepted. 

INTERLACKEN. 

GRAND HOTEL RITSCHARD. 

Conduoted by M. ED. RirSOSABD. 

This nplendid first-class Establishment, situated in the centre of the Kurort, 
contains 350 weU-fnmished rooms, and a beautifal dining-room for 250 persons, 
ladies' saloon, conyersation, reading, and billiard rooms, 40 balconies, with splendid 
view of the Jungfrau and Alps. A newly-erected comfortable bathing establishment, 
with douches; large shady garden. The greatest attention is paid to the cooking 
and service. 

The Hotel Cfoupone qf Meeen. Choh and Son aeeepted here. 

LECCO (Lake of Como). 

HOTEL DEUX TOURS. 

This Hotel, situated in the centre of the Town, and near the Lake, has elegant 
ai>artments, ^uwing and dining rooms, restaurant. Omnibus meets all trains and 
steamers. Excellent service of carriages and boats at fixed rates. To Tourists are 
recommended the carriage drives Lecco-Bellf^o and Lecoo-Como ; ttie road passing 
through beautiful gardens, picturesque villages, and a rich and fertile country. 
Diligences for Cohco and Como, in correspondence with the Federal Post, start 
from the Hotel. In the district of Lecco there still ^cist the House of the " Pro- 
messe Spoee," the Castle of Fluminato, and many places interesting through their 
historical associations. English spoken in the Hotel. 
Cooh'i Coupow accepted. 

LEGHORN. 

HOTEL DU NORD. 

Messrs. OADDINI and Co., Proprietors. 

Cook'e Coupone aeeepted, 
' " LUCERNE. 

HOTEL DU OYGNB (Swan). 

Conducted by Mr. H. HAEFELI. 

The Swan Hotel is delightfully situated, immediately facing the Steamboat Station, 

and commanding the best views of the Bigi, and other mountain scenery, lir. H. 

HAxnu gratefully acknowledges the extensive support he has received from English 

visitors and tourists, and b^s to intimate that, encouraged by past success, he has 

now added another large establishment, which wiU enable him to provide aooommo- 

dation tor greatly increased numbers. Tourists travelling under the arrangements 

ofMeeara. Oooe A Sov will have the best atteu.^on.,at the same rates as arechaiged 

bj- the other selected Swiss HoteiB. ^ng^\i «^'toa\^l^^^^Ks^Mnetor. Various 

cironmr Ucketa and the Hotel Ooupona ol ttsaaxa. Goo'k.^ ^"a<»s^\«i\aftAissMk. 



CONTINENTAL HOTELS. 27 

LUINO (Lago Maggiore). 

HOTEL SIMPLON, 

Adjoining the Steamboat Qa&j. Newly decorated ; with fine Garden, Beading 
and Billiard Scorns, Baths, &c. Carriages for excursions. Open all the year. 

Cook'$ HoM Coupon$ aeetpied, 
MARTIGNY. 

HOTEL CLERC. 

Conducted by M. CLBRC. 

A new and commodions Hotel, pleasantly situated, facing the Bhone YaUcy, of 
which it commands a magnificent view. Visitors here receive the most liberal 
attention, every care being taken to ensure their comfort. The accommodation is 
good and the prices reasonable. The Hotel forms a capital starting iK>int for 
excursions to the Chateau la Batia, the Fordaz, the Gietroz Glacier, the Hospice of 
the Great 8t. Bernard, and, where necessary, guides and moles can be obtained, at 
moderate (diarges. 7%e Tickett qf M.eur». Cook and Son for guid«$ and mules are 
adeepted here, aleo Meters. Cook and Son's Hotel Coupons. 

MAYKNGE. 

HOTEL DE HOLLANDE. 

Proprietor, Mr. FERDINAND BVDINGEN. 

This well-known and favourite Hotel is situated opi>osite the landing idace of the 
Bhine steamers, and near the Bcdlway Station, and is one of the best on the Rhine 
for the accommodation of Bnglish Families and Tourists. Mr. Budingpen, the Pro- 
prietor, has newly furnished the Hotel throughout, and hox>es, by unremitting attri- 
tion and moderate prices, to merit the patronage of English Travellers. The Hotel 
commands a fine view of the Rhine, and will be found very convenient for Visitors. 
The Hotel Coupon* of Messrs. Cook and Son accepted here. 

MEIRINGEN. 

HOTEL DU SAUVAGE. 

Proprietor, M. E. BAUD. 

An old established Hotel and Boarding House, situated opposite the Alpbach and 
the Reichenbach, of which there is a fine prosi>ect from the Hotel. Splendid view 
of the Glacier de Rosenlaiu, Engelshomer, Wellhom, &c. The Alpbach Falls are 
illuminated every evening throughout the season. The Hotel has been newly 
arranged, and can boast of excellent service and moderate terms. An English 
Church is situated in the large and beautiful garden of the Hotel. English, French, 
and German newspax>ers. Billiard-room; warm and cold baths. The Hotel forms 
a good head-quarters for Tourists desiroas of making short excursions in the neigh- 
bourhood. Telegraph and Post-office &cing the Hotel. 
The Hotel Coupons qf Messrs. Cook and Son accepted here. 

MENTONE. 

HOTEL DE TURIN. 

Proprietor, Uoxu. P. LUaANI. 

This Hotel is situated in the centre of the city, far from the noise of the sea, 
with a southern aspect, and surroimded by magnificent ^saxdso&s >*» Sa ^^'^^J^'!^^ 
prettiest Hotels in Mentone. It has been en^tKJVs T«na^re!w!^\i.l HJaa-ass* -^-tsssp^^fi^^-^ 

CooVs HcftA CouiMyiws OAC«fi|VA^% 



28 CONTINENTAL HOTELS. 

MILAN. 

HOTEL DE L' EUROPE. 

Proprietor, ENRICO MARCIONNI. 
COESO VITTORIO, EMANUELE, 9 to 11. 

Aparfcments overlooking the Corso and Gardens. Omnibus to the Station. Table 
d'hote at fixed price. Foreign new8pai>ers. 

Cook's Coupons accepted. 
MILAN. 

GRAND HOTEL DE MILAN. 

Proprietor, F. BPATZ. 

First-class Hotel. The onlj house at Milan which possesses a hydraulic lift* 
Near the road to the Central Station, the Scala Qrand Theatre, Victor Emanuel 
Gallery, the Cathedral, Telegraph, and the Breda Palace of Fine Arts. 

Cook's Hotel Coupons a,ccepted, 
NEUHAUSEN, SCHAFFHAUSEN, FALLS* of the RHINE. 

HOTEL SCHWETZERHOF. 

Proprietor, F. WEOENSTBIN. 

The Schweizerhof (1877 greatly enlaiged) is no wa splendid first-rate Establish- 
ment, opposite the celebrated FALLS OF THE RHINE, surrounded by a fine park 
and garden, and has long been known to English and Ainerican visitors as one of 
the best houses in Switzerland. The situation is unsurpassed, the eye ranging a 
distance of above 180 miles— a Panoramic View including the whole of the Swiss 
Alps and the " Mont filanc." Healthy climate. English Church Service. Preserved 
trout fishing. Prices moderate. Pension. Hotel omnibuses at NEUHAUSEN 
and SCHAFFHAUSEN. Cook's Coupon* accepted, 

OSTEND. 

HOTEL D'ALLEMAGNE. 

Proprietor, A. STRACKE. 

This lai^e and well-known first-class Establishment is situated 24, Rue du Qoai 
(centre of the town), close to the Carousal and the Casino. Hhs an excellent 
reputation for its comfort, liberal accommodation, and reasonable terms. Arrange- 
ments for the Winter and Summer season. 

The Kotsl Coupons of Messrs. Cook and Son accepted. 
OUCHY (near Lausanne). 

HOTEL D'ANGLETERRE. 

Proprietors, JULES PERRIN and SONS. 

Under the x>er8onal management of the Proprietors since 1874, who have newly- 

/nmiahed the Hotel throughout. The Hotel enjoys a beautiful position on the edge 

of the Lake, and ia situated opposite the landing place of the steamboats, and 

commands a magniflcent view of the Alps. Poat Office in the Hotel. Omnibus 

and carriagea tor the Railway Station. 

^^koldtri of Cook and 8on^% TloitX CotipoiM «iU aUDa«|»'KaiBe a ewriVoA. ««\eQ«A. 



CONTINENTAL HOTELS. 20 

PARIS. 

LONDON AND NEW YORK HOTEL. 

PLACE DU HAVEB. 

Proprietor, Mr. OHARDON. 

Well-known to English Visitors for bein? very centrally situated and homely 
comfortable. Arrangements made with families. Pension by the week in winter. 

CooVs HoUl Cov/pona accepted. 

PARIS. 

HOTEL St. PETERSBURG. 

Oonducted by U. MOTTE. 

This well-condnoted Hotel, situated 35, Bne Caumartin, will be fonnd very con- 
venient for visitors to the French capital. Splendidly re-famished. Near the 
Grand Opera House. 

Coole*a Couponn accepted. 

PARIS. 

Visitors to Paris will meet with comfort and moderate charges at the 

HOTEL DE LONDRES ET DE MILAN. 

BERETTA, Proprietor. 

8, Bue St. Hyacinthe — Saint Honors, near the Tuileries. 
Arrangements made with families. 

PARIS. 

HOTEL COQUILLIBRE. 

Proprietor, Mr. PUIOSAGU. 

The Proprietor of this Hotel begs to inform the English Visitors to Paris that 
they will find every comfort at his House, which is most centrally situated, midway 
between the Bank of France, Palais Boyal, General Post Office, and the Palace of 
the Louvre. Omnibuses pass every few minutes. English spoken. Moderate 
terms. 

PERPIGNAN. 

GRAND HOTEL DE PERPIGNAN. 

Proprietor, J. JONOA. 

Coofc** Coupone accented. 



30 CONTINENTAL HOTELS. 

ROME. 

HOTEL D'ALLBMAGNB. 

Proprleton, UK. LUaANI and P&SSBNZANI. 

This Hotel is sittiated in the host part of Borne, near the l*iazza di Sp&gna, and 

the Corso. 

Cook*$ Sottl Coupotu aeeepUd, 

SAN RGMO 

GRAND HOTEL VICTORIA. 

Proprleton, C. PAVICCI and P. TARANI. 0. PAHICCI. Manager. 

This oomfortable establishment, which is very pleasantly situated In the town, 
will be found deserving the patronage of Visitors proceeding over the Comiche 
Boad, one of the most picturesque imaginable, tbe Landlord being desirous of main- 
taining the reputation of the Hotel for civility and moderate charges. The building 
commands several fine views of the surrounding scenery, and x>os8e88es ampie 
accommodation for Families. The cuisine is g^ood, and the attendance efficient. 
The climate will be found very mild and pleasant, especially for invalids. 
Tk* Hotel Coupons of Meutn. Cook and Son cure aeeepted here. 

SGHONFELS (Canton of Zug, Switzerland, Mountain of Zug). 

HOTEL OF THE STAG. 

Proprietor, B. LEHZIKGEB. 

Elevation, 3000 feet above the level of the sea. Monntain air, baths and douches, 
milk and whey cures, mineral waters. Beautiful park of fir trees, containiu? 250 
trees. Splendid i>08ition in front of Mount Bigid, mild, well sheltered, and yet 
bracing air, wonderful scenery and view of the Alps and tbe surrounding Lakes. 
Very quiet residence. Direct omnibus service between the Bulway Station of 
Zug and the Hotel. Telegraph in the house. Apply, Hotel of the Stag, at Zn?. 
Detailed Prospectuses gratis of the Proprietor. Cook'n Couvonx accepted. 



SCHWALBACH. 

HOTBL METROPOLB. 

G. HERBSTER. Proprietor. 

This favourite first-class Hotel is situated in the prettiest, most airy, and 
healthiest part of Schwalbach, overlooking the New Cursaal and English Church, 
close to the Springs and Boyal Baths. The Proprietor having had long experience 
in the wants and tastes of English travellers, is weU able in every respect to larovide 
for their comfort. Laa^e and small apartments, good table d'hnte room. IS ice 
readirg room, and a beautiful winter garden. Time* taken in. Moderate terms. 
Boarding if desired. Most of the apartments with balconies. 

Cook's Rotel Coupons accepted. 

THOUNE (Thun). 

HOTEL BELLE VUB. 

Conducted by M. SCHMIDLIN. 

This Hotel is charmingly situated outside the town, in the centre of a large and 

beautiful park, delightfully adorned with gardens, and will be found very comfort- 

able by those usimp it; the charges being reasonable, and the attendance good. 

There ia an English Church in the park. The Hotel faces the Steamboat Pier, 

wJu'ch JB Bitnate at the end of the lawn ; the boats plying to and f^m Interlaken. 

Every facility ia afforded Tourists desixonB ot "nsaXams the neighbourhood, which is 

rezy pretty, and full ot attractions. 

TAe Motel Coupom qf ICeinrt. Gook and S<m veemioeiLVfrt. 



CONTINENTAL HOTELS. 31 

TRIESTE. 

HOTEL DE LA VILLE. 

Proprietor, F. PEOGLEE. 

This first-lass well-lmown Hot^, the only one on the Qnai, is weU reoommended 
for its oomfort. Baths in the Hotel. Good cooking and attendance. Moderate 
charges. Weekly or monthly arrangements can also be made. Omnibus at the 
Station. Carriages for visiting Miramar. Grand Hotel, Adelsberg, under the same 
management. Cook't Coupons aeeept§d, 

TRYBERG (Black Forest). 

BLACK FOREST HOTEL. 

Proprietor, L. BEIBINOER. 

Station, Trybeig ; situated on a charming height, 9000 feet above sea level, near 
a romantic cascade of many falls, with park-like extensive promenades, and magni- 
ficent fir-tree forests, commanding splendid views. It recommends itself by tbe 
elegance and gnreatest ix>88ible comfort of its arrangements for all visitors who seek 
refined recreation or health. English, French, and German spoken. 

Cook'$ Hotel Coupons accepted. 

VARESE (Italy). ^ 

In direct communication by rail with Milan and Lake Maggiore, Como, &c. 

HOTEL VARESE. 

D. MABINI, Manager. 

Opened 1st July, 1874. Beautiful first-class Establishment, offering all the 
comforts and requirements of the present time. It conteins 200 rooms and 
saloons. Baths on each fioor. Its situation commands the most extensive 
view of the Alps, Monte Bosa Chain, Lakes Maggiore and Yarese. An extensive 
park and grounds, with grottoes, etc., surround the Hotel. Pension the whole 
year round. Omnibus to and from the station. The house is heated in the winter 
season. Begular English Church in the Hotel. Begular diligence service, 
connecting I^es Lugano, Yarese, and Maggiore. Cook's Coupons accepted. 

VENICE. 

HOTEL VICTORIA. 

Manager, M. EMIL THOMA. 

This first-class Establishment is most centrally situated, close to the Piazzo S. 
Marco (without crossing a single bridge), the principal Theatres and Churches. 
The Hotel Yictoria, entirely rebuilt and improved, contains 180 bedrooms, lai^e 
and small apartments, furnished with every modem requisite. Beautiful pubuc 
sitting rooms, smoking and billiard rooms, table d'hote, baths, &c. Charges consi- 
derably more moderate than in any other first-rate Establishment in the city. 
Every facility afforded for excursions in gondolas to the various parts of the city. 
Gk>naolas from the Hotel meet all trains. 
The Hotel Coupon* of Mes»r$. Cook and Son are aeeepfed here. 

VERVIERS. 

HOTEL DU CHEMIN DE FER. 

Proprietor, LOUIS BENSONNET. 

This Hotel is situated opposite the Station, and the Buffet Bestaurant at the 
Station belongs to same Proprietor. It was occupied by the late Bm.\k«fi5n.'^'«?»;^s»sv^> 
on ^e 4th September, 1870. 

CooKt Hotel Oo«9<»iu oceesteai. 



32 CONTINENTAL HOTELS. 

VIEGE. 

HOTEL DE LA POST E. 

Froporieton, Messni. LAOOEE and 8TAMPFER. 

The sitnationof Yiege is completely changed by the- embankment of the Bhone 
and YiBp ; and this Hotel is only five minutes' distance from the Station, to and 
from which the Omnibus is gratis. There is a splendid view over the mountains 
and glaciers of Balf rin. 

Cook't Coupon* accepted. 



ZURICH. 

HOTEL DE BELLEVUE. 

Proprietors, MM. ERMELL and POHL. 

This splendid and admirably conducted Establishment, situated on the shore of 
the Lake, commands, by its charming position, the best view of the Lake and the 
Alps, and offers, by its superior arrangements, the comfort of the Apartments, and 
a careful and civil attendance, all desirable attractions to Travellers. Ladies' 
sitting-room, and well furnished reading-rooms. One hundred and twenty-five 
ftpartmcnts. Pension arrangements made for Families. N.B. — The Belle Vue 
Hotel is situated close to the Lake. To avoid any miutake be sure to ask for the 
*' Belle Vue au Lac." Advantages:— Stone Staircase to the top of the Hotel; 
Belvedere on the fourth floor ; nearly all the rooms of the Hotel offering a view of 
the Lake and Alps. 2£*$»rt. Cook and Son « Hotel Coupons accepted. 



All Gommunications relating to Adver- 
tisements in COOK'S TOURIST HANDBOOKS 
to be addressed to THOMAS COOK & SON 
(Advertisement Department), Tourist Offices, 
Ludgate Circus, London. ^ 




ft 



HARRONiS PORTMANTEAUS 



The Tourist's Oo-operative Store for the Manu- 

iBctOTB and Supply of P0BTMASTBAU3, TBUNKS. BiOS. DEESS B18KETS. 
and eieiy Article tor Travelling Wholesale Frlcee for Cash only, 361, HIQH 
HOLBORN (Tomporarj PreiniWB). foe the 

One Guinea Real Leather Expanding Railway 

FORTMANTEAIT. a in long, with Dutsida Sbapa. Jny article (onianled tor 
appmyal on receipt uf t.O.O., poTuble to L. HAREiDN. iniutnted Hit tree. 



HARRONS BAGS 



The "KNOCKABOUT" Bag (Registered). This 

tbe MBonfacturer.^iKnON, The TOUBISt's CO-OPEEATrVK STOBE, 2M, 

HiaH I 



HARRON'S DRESS TRUNKS 



Ladies' Dress Trunks. The " Holhorn." 30 in. 

lone, with thnwmoiable BoDDet compartmenta, p>ice lOa. 6(1 „ itrongl)' rpcom- 
inoDdedbjUiBEdiH)ro(Ilie"Qi«Bii."andflieOSBOBNEDRE38CABB,withoo.!fti- 
giUe Bomiet diiiitlDna, price lUB. 6d., are tno of the gmteatbugalnaeTeT offered. 




Second-Hand Portmanteaus, BaffB. etc. 

always beobtaJDedgimt,Pa™BiiiBatai»BJi"&'*.'™TSi^^M5fe%^^ 
eTOSE, 1-1, HIOH HOLBOBU IJg\^B Poot*'^ «H fanmAa.™^ ""■" 



DR. J. COLLIS BROWHE'S CHLORODYHE. 

THE ORIGINAL AN D ONLY GENUINE, 

A DVICE TO INVALIDS.— If you wish to obtain quiet refresliiiig 
J\. sleep free from headache, relief from pain and anguish, to calm 
and assuage Uie weary achingn of protracted disease, invigorate the 
Tii.'rvous media, and regulate the circulating systems of the body, you 
will provide vourself with that marvellous remedy discovered by Dr. J. 
(MOLLIS BROWNE (late Medical Staff), to which he gave the name of 

CHLORODYNE 

And whicli is admitted by the Profession to be the most wonderful and 

valualwe remedy ever discovered. 

GHLOKODYNE is the best remedy known for Coughs, Consump- 
tion, Bronchitis, Asthma. 

CHLOBODYiNE effectually checks and arrests those too often 
fatal diseases— Diphtheria, Fever, Croup, A^e. 

CHLORODYNE acts like a charm in Diarrhoea; and is the only 
specific in Cholera and Dysentery. 

CHLORODYNE effectually cut« short all attacks of Epilepsy, 

Hysteria, Palpitation, and Spasms. 

CHLORODYNE is the only palliative in Neuralgia^ Bheumatism, 
Oont, Cancer, Toothache, Meningitis, Ac. 

Tlie Right Hon. EABL EUSSELL hrs graciously favoured J. T. DAVEKPORT 

with the following^ — 

" Rarl Bas4ell commnnicatod to the College of Physicians that he Teoeived a 
despatch from Her Majesty's Consul at Manilla, to the effect that Cholera had been 
mKing fearfuUv jmd that the ONLY remedy of any service was CHLORODYNE.** 

— rfee Lancet, December Ist, IStil. 

FiOin W. Vr-sT^ijw Pctttgreuj, M.D. 

I linve po h<fsit ition in statin-.c that I have never met with any medioine so ^- 
OiioiouK n« au lUiti-siiaftTnodic an<\ Seiiative. I have used it in Consumption, Asthma, 
Diiirrhcea, and other diseases, and am perfectly satisfied with the results. 

'From Dr. B. J. Boultnn and Co., Homcasth. 

We have made pretty extensive use of Chlorodyne in our practice lately, and 
look upon it as an excelleut direct sedntive and anti-spasmodic. It seems to allay 
pain and i^ri^ation in whatever organ, and from whatever cause. It induces a 
feeling of comfort and quietude not obtainable bv any other remedy, and it seems 
to xH^sscss this g^reat advantage over all other sedatives, that it leaves no unpleasant 
af fc^»r effects. 

CAUTION— The extmordinary medical rei>orts on the eSLchcy of Oblorodyne 
render it of vital importance that the public should obtain the genuine, wMch 
bears the words " Dr. J. Collis Browne's Chlorodyne/* 

Vice-Chau(H'llor Wood stated that Dr. J. CoLiiis Bnowms was undoubtedly the 
Tnvcutor of CHLOBODYNfi ; that the whole story of the defendimt. Freeman, was 
doli^eratelj' untrue. 

Lord Chancellor Selbonie and Lord Justice Jnmes state 1 that the defendant had 
mad«i a delibonire inisrepresentation of the decision of Yice-Olumcellor Wood. 

Oljemists throughout the land coutirm this decision that Dr. J. C. BEOWNE 
was the Inventor of CHLOEODYNK. 

Sohl in Bottles at Is. l^cl., 2s. 9(1., and 4s. 6d., hy aU ChmrUsta, 

SOLE MANUFACTUREE, 

•'?5, Gt. Biissell St., B\ooTOaWT7,\iQ^\iC^^, 



\ 



SAMPSON & CO., 

SURPLICE SHIRT, 1 

Six for 
45s., 
51s. 



COLOURED FRENCH CAMBRIC. All New Patterns. 

SURPLICE SHIRTS. 6 for 45s. 

SARATTA GAUZE. Suitable for Travelling. 

SURPLICE SHIRTS. 6 for 45s. 

FLANNEL SHIRTS. ios. 6d. and 12s. 6d. 

PYJAMAS SLEEPING SUITS. 12s. 6d. and i6s. 6d. 

DttaiUd Prictd Omifit Lists and Stlf-Mtasurtmint Cards unt on applicatioH. 





TAILORING DEPARTMENT. 



Homespun Trousers, 16s,, 21s. 

Tweed or Angola Trousers, 25s., 30s. 
Homespun Suits, 53s., 70s. 

Diagonal Ctoth Morning Ooat and Waistcoat, 75s., QOs. 
Blue Serge Suits, 63s., 70s. 



Tebms;— All Goods Marked IN Plain Fiaunea. Cash, 5 pi 



gA MPgON & CO. , 
Hosiers, Gilaver^ i^^f'^-^i'^i y. Outfitters, 

-i3sd ^- '""■'.■■■; ' ■•'-;■■"■ ^ 

RHd 



130, 03 

NEAR I