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Full text of "Cooly Tamil, as understood by labourers on tea and rubber estates;"

THE LIBRARY 

OF 

THE UNIVERSITY 

OF CALIFORNIA 

LOS ANGELES 



COOhY TAMIk 

AS UNDERSTOOD BY LABOURERS 
ON 

TEA and RUBBER ESTATES. 



SPECIALLY ARRANGED FOR PLANTERS AND 
PLANTING STUDENTS. 



By 

W. G. B. WELLS. 



Colombo: 

'•Ceylon Obskkybk'' Psssa 

1915. 



Digitized by the Internet Archive 

in 2008 with funding from 

Microsoft Corporation 



http://www.archive.org/details/coolytamilasundeOOwell - 



~Pl 

INTRODUCTION. W. 



Judging by my own experience, it seems to me a little know- 
ledge of how Tamil words are inflected and how tenses and sen- 
tences are formed will enable the planter to overcome many of the 
difficulties he meets with when learning cooly Tamil orally. I 
have ventured, therefore, to adopt a system rather different to that 
given in previous Tamil Handbooks published for the planter's 
use, my sole aim being to place in the hands of the "creeper" a 
book that will assist him to learn the *'ungrammatical" language 
of the cooly, and help him to understand, and make himself 
understood, after comparatively short study. 

In doing this I have adopted a simple method of spelling, in 
which every letter must be pronounced , so that words are kept as 
slu irt ;is possible and the use of long words, difficult to remember, 
is obviated. 

Then again, by repeating the values of the vowels on each 
page, eonimitting them to memory becomes almost mechanical, 
and accurate pronunciation should soon be acquired. 

In some words the difference in sound between 'd,' 't' and 
tt is often difficult to distinguish, so in order to obviate having 
various words spelt exactly alike and causing confusion I have 
sometimes interchanged the use of these letters ; (and kept 'th* 
always hard as in English 'the'). Also, there are instances 
where words would be precisely similar if the exact sound were 
reproduced, such as in yen — my, and ye — why; the latter really 
being also yen (it often has a slight nasal sound of jeng). 

Further, I have tried to keep the ending vowel, or syllable, 
the same in words of the same 'Part of Speech' in order to assist 
recognition in reading, even at the expense of slight variation 
from the real pronunciation, which would be hardly noticeable. 

1 should have employed a 'long* e (S) and n, 'long' i (I) 
in addition to the vowel sounds given, but I have omitted these 
in order to limit the number of vowels to be learnt. The former 
is represented by ordinary e and i together, sounded slightly apart, 
while the latter is only indicated, as 'ee' in been, shewn against 
important words in the Vocabulary, as the lengthening of i, 
in the few words where it occurs, will quickly be acquired by 
practice. 

I may point out that the discrepancies in pronunciation among 
coolies themselves is often considerable, according to what part 
of India they come from. There may be some exceptions to the 



1367135 



11 INTRODUCTION. 

rules for formation of Tenses traceable, but not sufficiently im- 
portant for special mention. 

The grammar section is short and simple, and if once read 1 
through, however roughly, a general idea of the language will be 
obtained, and, what is probably more important, the fear that the 
idea of grammar usually produces will be dispelled ! 

The Vocabularies (English-Tamil and Tamil-English) contain 
a large collection of every-day words for estate use, all of which 
I have actually heard in use. 

In the Sentences I have given reference numbers to 
paragraphs, so that words can be referred to where they are 
dealt with in detail. In the same way in the Vocabularies 
numbers refer to the Sentences where the word has been used. 
This should be useful to the beginner. 

The Postscript and Appendix contain some useful common 
form.', of speech, omitted for the sake of simplicity from the body 
of the book, but they should be understood as they can be used 
with advantage. 

I should be glad to consider suggestion for improvements 
and corrections in a new edition, through the Publishers. 

W. G. B. WELLS. 
Ratnapura. 



CONTENTS. 



PAGE. 

Grammar .. ... ... ... 1 

Sentences ... ... ... ... 47-70 

Muster ... ... ... ... 47 

Plucking ... ... ... ... 50 

Tipping ... ... ... ... 52 

Pruning ... ... _ ... 57 

Manuring ... ... ... ... 59 

Draining ... ... ... ... 60 

Planting ... ... ... ... 61 

Weeding ... ... ... ... 62 

Filling ... ... ... ... 63 

Rubber Tapping ... ... ... 64 

Recruiting ... ... ... ... 66 

Words Alike yet Dissimilar ... ... ... 71 

Coolies' Names ... ... ... ... 7-1 

Contractions and Colloquialisms ... ... 77 

Verbs: ... ... ... ... 78-88 

Rules for forming Tensos ... ., ... 78 

List of Verbs ... ... ... ... 79 

Conjugation of the Verb ... ... 84 

Do of the Auxiliary Verb ... ... sx 

English-Tamil Vocabulary ... ... ... 89 

Tamil-English Vocabulary ... ... ... LSI 

Postscript ... ... ... ... 168 

Appendix ... ... ... ... 172 



COOLtY TAMIL*. 



PRONUNCIATION. 



A. Consonants are pronounced as in English with the 
following restrictions : — 

ch is pronounced as in 'chin'. 

g is always as in l go\ 

P, PP should be rolled with the tip of the tongue, 

S as in Hhii' . 

th as in 'the', NOT as in 'both'. 

y as in 'yes'. 

ei as in 'weight', with e-i slightly separated. 

ai a3 in 'aisle', with a-i slightly separated. 

DOUBLE CONSONANTS have been avoided. Where they 
occur it is necessary to pronounce each with its own vowel 
(with the exception of 'kk' ; and 'tt' of the Past Participle 
and its derivatives). Thus : — raul-lu (mullu — fork), mu-lu 
(inulu— whole). Compare English words 'coolly' and 'cooly'. 

'n' before 'g' and 'k' is of course sounded as in Hong', 



Vowels, a is 


pronounced 


IIS 


'u' in Fun. 


a „ 


>i 


)) 


'a' ,, Father. 


e „ 


)> 


II 


'e' ,, Pen, 


i n 


n 


)) 


'i' „ Pin. 


o H 


)> 


II 


'o' ,, More 


u ,, 


>! 


II 


V ,, Rule. 


u „ 


It 


It 


•u' ,, Put (as 'e' in hun- 
dred* when final). 


* 'Hundred' as used colloquially ; 


NOT as hurt-dread. 



Vowols at the ond of words are always short unless other- 
wise indicated by a long(- mark. Final '1' before 'a' 
is often dropped in conversation. It must be remem- 
bered that in rapid speech vowels often become 
slurred and shortened (except the long ones). 

REFERENCES ARE TO PARAGRAPHS. 



COOLY TAMIL. 
KEY TO PRONUNCIATION. 



The following is a simple rule for finding the way in 
which Tamil Words (as spelt in this book) should be divided 
into Syllables, for accurate pronunciation without a tonic 
accent such as exists in the English words "present''" and 
"present" etc. 

Copy down a number of words and mark them off' as per 
rules and examples below. After very little practice it will be 
easy to read correctly at sight. There is, therefore, no need 
to be afraid of long words. 

Rule 1 • Start by looking at the end of the word. 

Rule 2, If the word ends in a vowel; (a) mark the vowel 
off with the consonant before it. Continue to do this 
through the word until you (6) come to two consonants, 
then take the next three letters; after that continue 
marking off two letters and so on. 

Ni B, — Treat two vowels together as one vowel. When 
three vowels come together isolate the last 1 and treat 
the remaining two as one. 

'ch' and 'th' = one consonant. 

Rule 3. If the word ends in a consonant, mark off the first 
three letters, then continue as in Rule 1. 

N. B. — Treat the first pair of three consonants together 

as one consonant.' 1 
Treat words coupled by an apostrophe as two words, 

imagining the dropped vowel only in the absence of 

one.* 

Examples to Rule 2- Pak/ka/ti/le, ma/ra/tuk/ku, i/ruk/ 
ru/thu, et/ta/ne, a/va/ne, a/thu, vett/nu/thu, 2 vett/nuV 
va/thuk/ku, ton/ga/li/run/tu, then/dit/iu, a/ma, am/ma, 
poi/chi, lai/a/ti/li/run/tu, ] kai/i/le, 1 ku/du/ka/na/ta/the. 

Examples to Rule 3.— El/lam, ne/ram, ve/num, ku/du/- 
kat/tum, e/du/ka/ma/ten, a/pu/ram, vftit/t'e/du/ka/the 3 
(absence of vowel), e/duk/ru'ko/lun/tu 3 (vowel not absent). 

Therefore do not say : mara£ti£ku, irukruthu, tota^'le, kudwka- 
maten, etc., but gently merge the syllables together with- 
out accent. 

EXERCISE. - 

Taken from A 3. — Nan i/ruk/ren, ni i/ruk/ru/thu, nan/ 
gal, nin/gal, a/van/gal, ye/nuk/ku, u/nuk/ku, a/van/ga/luk/ku 
(words not divided here are of course of one syllable). 

Taken from C 1 . — Nan ma/lik/ki va/ren. Ni ko/lun/tu 
e/duk/ka po. Sur/ru/ka ner/re pu/di. Kan/ga/ni, anth'al 
ro/ti/le uik/ru/thu, par, sur/ru/ka vei/lik/ki a/nu/pu. An- 
th'a/lude ka/cle a/va/luk/ku ku/duk/ru/thu. Nan/gal is/to/ 
ruk/ku po/ren, Kan/ga/nik/ki a/van pes/ruth'il/le. Ni lai/a/- 



COOLY TAMIL. 



tuk/ku po/ru/tha. Ai/ya, an/tha po/dian el/lam nal/la sak 
pii/thii ka/duk/ka kon/du po/ru/thu. Se/ri ^a/thu u/nuk/ku 
en/na. in/tha ma/lik/ki sak il/lea. 

Taken from H 1 . — Nan ip/po po'e/la/ma. Il/le ni po : e/- 
1 a/the. Na/ma pei/chi mu/dint/tu ni po'e/lam. Ver vet/ta/- 
athe kai/i/le pudink'o/nura (imagine dropped vowel '«' — pujdin[- 
Jc[d)olnum.) 

To/pal e/le vait/t'e/du/ka/the (imagine dropped vowel '«' = 
vdit/tu'e/dujka/the.) In/tha ma/ram e/dn/k'o/nu/ma (imagine 
dropped vowel i a' = e/dii/kQa)o/numa.) I/thi ven/diu/th'il/le 
(imagine dropped vowel V = venldiu/th{u)il/le.) 

Accent- There is no 'tonic' accent, every syllable having 
the same value. Only the long ( — ) mark gives value to 
vowels but not to syllables. EVERY LETTER, MUST 
BE PRONOUNCED, there being no mutes {but see l ch\ 
'tA' and 'n' above) ; 'ai' at d 'ei' are not quite dipthongs. 

A. 1. There is no Gender to be learnt at all. The 
Plural forms of all parts of speech, except' some per- 
gonal pronouns, can be ignored, as it is seldom 
necessary to use them, anyway at first, except in polite 
forms of speech. (See Appendix A). 

Inflexion. The only inflexions of the noun (apart from addi- 
tion of suflixps) are : — 

(a) Nouns ending in *m' change it into 't' before 
a suffix or a wore! beginning with a vowel. 

(b) When^a word ending in a vowel precedes one 
beginning with a vowel, the former usually drops its 
final vowel. 

(c) To form the objective case (also of pronouns) 'e' is 
added to the end of the word, or substitutes a final 
vowel, (but this is not important). 

A. 2. Pronouns. The plural forms can all be uied 
for polite speech inthe singular. 

nangal, nam 
(y)engale 
ningal 
uugale 
avangal, avargal 

(polite) 
avalgal 
avangale, avar- 

gale (polite) 
avalgale 



Ivan, ival, ithu, etc : a r e used when the pronoun rcfors to 
a person or thing near by. .(Soo Noto to C). 

Note. L— The above can all be omitted before the verb ij the 
meaning is clear. 



I 


nan 


We 


Me 


(y)eno 


Us 


You 


ill* 


You 


You (obj)... 


une 


You (obj) 


He 


avan, avar 
(polite) 


They 


She 


aval 


They(f.) 


It 


athu 


Them 


Him 


avane, avara 






(polite) 


Them (f.) 


Her 


avalo 




It (obj) .. 


athe 


* used tc 



4 COOLY TAMIL. 

A. 3. Auxiliary. There is only one verb for 'TO BE' 

and <TO HAVE— Irukka- The Present Tense (Ap. 

pt-ndix B.) is formed from the Imperative, Iru, be, by adding 
'-kren' for the first person singular and kruthu for 'all 
the rest. 

I am ... Nan irukren 

You are ... Ni irukruthu 

He, she, it is ... Avan, aval, athu irukruthu 

We, you, they are... Nanga', ningal, avangal irukruthu 

(3te Appendix B. for grammatical form of plural.) 

Yes, is translated by Ama ; No, Not, by Ille placed after 
the verb. See B 2 (Note 2). 

The verb 'to have' (po?sess) is always translated by em- 
ploying ' Irukka ' with the dative form of the pronoun. 
Thus : There is to me, it is to him, etc. This form of the 
pronoun is made by addirg -ukku.* (A 2 ; A 4.) 

* Don't pronounce this as in the English ' Cuckoo? hut wfc-ku/f" 

To me ... yenukku I have .„ yenukku irukruthu 

To you ... unukku You have ... unukku irukruthu 

To him ... avanukku He has ... avanukku irukruthu 

Tohim(po- He has (po- 

lite) ... avarukku lite) ... avarukku irukruthu 

To us ... yecgalukku (or We have ... yengalukku irukru- 
namukku) thu or namukku 

To you ... ungalukku You have (po- [irukruthu 

lite) ... ungalukku irukruthu 
To them... avangalukku They have .... avaogalukku irukru- 

[thu 

Note. 1.— THE SUBJECT OF THE VERB IS PLACED 
BEFORE THE OBJECT AND THE PRINCIPLE VERB 
COMES AT THE END OF THE SENTENCE. 

N.B. — (a) When 'Irukka' means 'to have', ivith a noun ending in 
a dative suffix -ukku, this noun precedes the object. 

(b) When Irukka means 'to be' the above may be reversed 

without altering the sense. 

(c) All other verbs folloio the rule. 

Every letter must be prouonnced. 

ti as 'u' in Rule. ei as 'ei' in Weight, 

fu ,, 'u' „ Put (as 'e' in ai „ 'ai' ,, Aiale. 

Hundred when final). 



COOLY TAMIL 5 

Except (d) Ij stress is required on the subject of the verb then the 
object may precede the subject. 

„ (e) If the subject of the verb be a pronoun understood, the 
object will appear first. 

„ (/) When asking a question the subject may be put at the 
end of the sentence. 

These r ules are not quite regularly adhered to, but the 
student should employ them to start with. They are easy 
to learn. 

EXAMPLES OI> ABOVE. 

(a) Avangalukku oru kude irukruthu— They have a basket. 
Puth'alukku oru peria katti irukruthu — The new 

cooiy has a big knife. 

(b) Oru mamati avanude kaiile irukruthu, or, avanude 

kaiile oru mamati irukruthu — There is a manioti 
in his hand. 

Palia sakuni puthu kattium bangalaukku irukruthu 
or, bangalaukku palia sakum puthu kattium iruk- 
ruthu — The old sacks and new knives are at the 
bungalow. 

(c) Muttusami Ramasami adittuthu— Muttusamy hit 

Ramasamy. 
Nan avale aditten —I hit her. 

(d) Vathu nan vettneu, or, vathu nan tan vettnen — I cut 

the branch myself. 
Nan vathu vettnen — I cut the branch (no stress) 

(e) Koluntu kondu vara sollu (i.e. Ni koluntu kondu 

vara sollu) — Tell (them) to bring the leaf. 

Ottu-pal visi podathe— Don't throw away the scrap 
rubber. 

(f) Enge nikruthu, al ? or, al enge nikruthui' — Where 

are the coolies ? 
Enna sonuthu, kangini ? or, kangani enna sonuthu — 
What did the kangany say ? 

Don't be afraid of rules, they are quite easy — make up a few 
seutences by them and speak them out in the field, after which 
the construction will come naturally. 

The objective case of nouns is rightly formedjty adding 'o' as 
pronouns (see A 1. a & c), but this can utually be ignored. 

Every letter must be pronounced. 

a aa 't>* in Fun. e as 'e' in Pen. 

a „ 'a' t , Father. i „ 'i' „ Pin. 

o as V in More. 



COOLY TAMIL. 



EXAMPLES TO A. 3. 

I am here — Nan inge irukr. n. 

She is there— Aval ange (there) irnkruthu. 

He is not there — Avail ange (there) irukruth'i ie. 

Yes I am here— Ama nan inge irukren. 

Yon are not — Ni irukrath'ille 

(The final vowel of the verb is here dropped.) 
They have a basket— Avangalukku oru kude irukruthu. 
She has no basket— Avalubku kude ille. 
('to be', and 'to have', when not auxiliary, may 

be omitted ) * y 

He has not a knife— Avanukku katti ille. 
It is not here — Athu inge ille. 
Master is not here— Dore inge ille. 
That is mine — Athu yenukku. 

Note.— 'Inge' can be pronounced with hard or soft l g\ 

NOTE,— It is better to say 'nikruthu' instead of 'irukruthu' 
when referring to persons. This is the verb 'nikka', to stand, to be 
present. 'Irukruthu' is used here as an example of the verb 



Tea 

Sack 

Weed 

Leaf (flush) 

Hand 

Field 

Road 

Drain 



Tei ele 

Sak 

Pillu 

Ko! untu 

Kai 

Male 

Rotu 

Kan 



Leaf, a 

Work 

Row, line 

Muster 

Quickly 

Siowly 

Now 



Ele 

Veile 

Nerre 

Peratu 

Surukka 

Mulla 

Ippo 



Note 2.— 'The' is not translated. A, an. is 'oru,' 'or' 
and may be omitted. 'Antha' is sometimes used for ''the' 
euphonically. 

A !u 4 - PREPOSITIONS. From, to, of, etc: These 
are suflixes to the noun. For others see Vocabulary. 

From ...-iliruntu In, on ... -He 

*To, for, at ... -ukku, -ikki Of ... -ude 

By, with (in company with) ... -odu. (Ps. 10\ 
With ... Kuda (not suffix). 

Ps. ss 'Postscript', at end of the Book. 

NOTE l.—Thc final vowel 'e', of tlie word is often omitted 
before the above ; -ikki is used only for words ending in 'e' or T. 



Every letter must be pronounced. 

u as 'n' in liule. ei as 'ei' in Weight. 

u ,, 'u' „ Pat (as 'e' in ai „ <ai' „ Aisle. 

Hundred when final). 

'Exceptions. Ingutu, to here; Angutu, to there; Kngutu, to where. 



COOLY TAMIL. 



EXAMPLES 



A boy 

A woman 

A cooly (person) 

A name 

A girl 

In the hand 

To the road 

To a woman 

In the basket 

From the field 

From there 

From here 

For master 

To the bungalow 

Of him, (his) 

Of me 

To you 

To us 

By the road 

With the row 

(lo with him 

To me, mine 



oru podian 

oru pumbale 

oru al (or'al) 

oru per 

oru kutti 

kai/ile 

rot/ubku 

oru pumbale/ikki 

kude/ile 

male/iliruntu 

ange/iruntu 

inge/iruntu 

doreikki 

bangalaukku 

avanude 

yenude (yen, my) 

unukku (un, your) 

yengalukku, or, namukku ; (our, 

lotodu [yensalude) 

nerreodu 

avan kuda po 

yenukku 



('iruntu' is also 
[correct 



Note tf.-CARE MOST BE TAKEN NOT TO PRO- 
NOUNCE -He with a double T, like 'ille', not, no. 

N- B. To follow the translation of example sentences, 
look words up in the Vocabulary at the end of book. 

Note .— ude- of, is used for the possessive (i.e. the 's in 
Eng ish) thus: — 

(a) The cooly'* basket=(the) basket of (the) cooly; (6) 
master's knife=knife of master ; (c) To the Kangany's 
line--To (the) line of (the) Kangani. 

But the order is inverted in Tamil : — 

(a J slude kude=(of cooly basket) ; (b) Dorelude katti= 
(of master knife) ; (c) kanganiude laiatukku=of kan- 
gany to (the) line. 

Dont learn this from the litteral English as shown 
above, but consider - ude* an exact rendering 
Of English 'S ; then the order of words will appear 
the same in Tamil as in English. 

Note //, — As an alternative tothis metlud 11 2. can be used 
as: al-kudt), di r-katti, pfc. 



Every letter mus< !><■ pronounced. 

as 'u' in Fun. e aa 'e' in 

„ 'a' ,. Father. i „ T ,, 

o as 'o' in More. 



Pen. 
Pin. 



COOLY TAMIL. 



B. ADJECTIVES -Big, Small, Old, etc These 
generally end in 'a', Bometiraes in 'ana' Most adjectives 
aid formed from the Past Tense, or Past Participle of verbs : 
They precede the nou n . (See B 2; D 1. Note 2.) 

EXAMPLES. 

Palakam ... experience 

Palakamana ... experienced 

Poi ... a lie 

Poiana ... false 

Peria kal ... big stone 

Sinna kude ... small lasket 

Palia sak ... old sack 

Seriana veile ... proper work 

Mutt'ele ... hard leaf 

The new cooly has a large knife — Pfith'alukku peria katti 
irukruthu. 

There is a man on the new road — Ange or'ftl puthu rotile 
nikruthu. 

In the small basket there is no leaf(flush)— Sinna kudeile 
koluntu iiukruth'ille. 

(In this type of sentence the auxiliary is usually omitted.) 

They have not any good leaf in the sacks — Avangalnkku 
peria sakile nalla koluntu ille. 

There is only hard leaf — Mutt'ele matiram irukruthu. 

The pluckers are in the field — Kolunt'al maleile nikruthu 
(kolunt'al, leaf people). 

The old knives and the new sacks are at the bungalow — 
Palia kattium puthu sakum bangalaukku irukruthu. 

('And' is translated by suffix '-um repeated after each 
word, not sentence, it joins in English, but is often omitted.) 
See D. 

NOTE 1. — Remember the final 'u' is always short, as 'e ! in 
'hundred,' unless indicated by a long (-)mark to be otherwise. 



Every letter must lte pronounced. 

Q as 'a' in Rnle. ei as 'ei' in Weight. 

U j r ^u'J „ Put (as 'e' in ai „ 'ai' „ Aisle, 
"Hundred wh«n final). 



COOLY TAMIL. 



9 



B. 1« Infinitive Of Verbs.— These are formed by 
adding— kka to the Imperative, or — a to the stem of it. 
They precede the principle verb (See " Verbs.") 

It is best to learn the iufinitive by heart and make up 
other tenses from it as per rule (See " Verbs") and not trouble 
about the formation of it. 





Imperative. 


Infinitive. 




Iru 




... be 


Irukka 


to be 


Edu 




... take 


Edukka 


to take 


Kel (keil)* 


... ask 


Kelkka (keilkka)... 


to ask 


Niru 




,.. weigh 


Nirukka 


to weigh 


Pesu 




... speak 


Pesa 


to speak 


Sollu 




... say, tell 


Solla 


to say, tell 


Sei 




... do 


Seia 


to do 


Kudu 




... give 


Kudukka 


to give 


Ta 




... give 


Tara (exception) ... 


f o give 


(Kan) 




... see 


Kankka 


to see 


va 




... come 


Vara (exception) ... 


to come 


Po 




... go 


Poa 


to go 



NOTE 1. — The principle verb comes last in the sentence. 

EXAMPLES. 

Pluck leaf — Kolunt'edu (literally, flush take). 

Ask the kangani — Kangane kel. 

Cut the tree quickly— Mara m surruka vettu. 

Speak to him — Avanukku pesu 

Tell him— Avanukku sollu, 

Come here — Inge va. 

Go there— Angepo. 

Tell him to come here— Avane inge vara sollu. (lit: him 
to come tell.) 

Tell the coolies to go and pluck— Al kohintu edukka poa 
sollu. (lit : people leaf to take to go, tell), 

Tell the boys to put the leaf into the Backs— Podian sakile 
koluntu poda sollu. (lit: boy in sack leaf to put, tell). 



Pluck in your row only — Un 
('koluntu' is here understood). 



nerreile matiram edu> 



Every letter must '»<■ pronounced, 

is 'u' in Fun. e as V in 

., 'a' .. Father, i ,, 'i' „ 

o as 'o' iu More. 
• Pronunciation is sometime* ambiguous. 



Pen 
rin. 



10 



COOLY TAMIL. 



B 2. Nouns can be used as Adjectives : by pre- 
fixing them to another n nn : — 



Manure 


u ram. 


Pluckers .. kolunt' al. 


Manure basket.. 


. uram kflde. 


Manur. rs ... urat'al(See 


Leafoacks 


. koluntu sak. 


A 1 (a.) 


Cash 


. kasi. 


Prunera ... kavat'al 


Ready cash 


. kai kasi (i.e. 


Factory coolies... istor'al 




hand cash.) 


(Istoru, store, 


Cart 


. karrete. 


factory) . 


Cart road 


. karrete rotu. 





NOTE.— The final vowel of the first word is usually dropped. 
Adjectives may be formed in this way to an unlimited extent. 

Note 1. As the plural forms of nouns and pronouns 
are not always used as plurals the word ellam all. may be 

a !ded to show a plural, for instance : — 

You (plur:) ... Ni ellam (all of you) 

Those ... Athu ellam (all of it, it all) 

These ... Ith'ellam (this all) 

Everyone ... Al ellam (person all) 

The knives ... Katti ellam (knife all) 

Note 2- In reply to a question, ' no ' and ' yes ' a-e 

more correctly implied by a repetition cf the verb instead of 
plain 'die' or 'ama,' thus : — 

Are you going ?--Ni porutha ? 

Yes— Poren (I am going). 

Did you give the letter ?- Kaitham kudututha ? 

Yes — Kuouthen (I gave). 

Will he see to it ?— Athukku paputha ? G. 

No— Papamatathe (he will not see). 

Did he say that?— Avan athe sonutha? 

No— Avan son'illo (he said not). (See Conjugation of 

Verb, page 86, Negative Form of 

Past Tense.) 



Every letter must be pronounced. 

V in Rule. ei as 'ei* 

'u' „ Put (as 'e' in ai „ 'ai' 

Hundred when final). 



in Weight. 
„ Aisle. 



COOLY TAMIL. 11 



C- This, That. ADJECTIVES: 

This (sing: and plur:), Intha; Th it, Anthi ; Which, Yentlw. 

NOTE.— Initial 4', *a', 'o'and 'y', de»o<e proximitf, distance 
and Interrogation respectively. 

Thiswoik ... Intha veile. 

That dog ,„ ... Antha nai. 

This row ... .., Intha nerre. 

This line co'y dwelling) ... Intha laiam. 

In this line ... ... Intha laiati e— see Al(«). 

Which co' ly ... ... Yenth'al.? 

That one there ... ... Anth'al ange. 

Tell those coolie3 to come to muster quickly— Anth'al 
surruka peratukku vara, sollu, (lit : those people quickly 
to muster to come tell) 

Why is that girl not at muster?— Ye antha kutti peratuk- 
ku nikruth'ille?* 

I do not know, sir— Yenukku teriathe, aiya, 

That woman and those boys are not plucking— Antha pum* 
bale, antha podian edukruth'ille (plural not employed). 

No, master, they are hzy— lie, dore, avan(gal) somara tan 
(irukruthu). (See S 2). 

Tell them to goto the lines— Avaugalo laiatakku f poa 
boIIu. (lit : them to line3 to go tell). 

C 1 • Present Tense of ALL verbs is formed from 
the IMPERA TIVE as shown in the verb ' to be' (A 3) by adding 
-fcren for the first person singular ; and kruthu for 

all the rest, EXCEPT when the infinitive has no 'k' i" its 
termination; then the tense endings will be -ren and ruthu, 

i.e. also no 'k' (See page 79, List of Verbs). 

Every letter must tie proi nerd. 

a as 'u' in Fun. o as 'e' in Pen. 

,1 „ 'a* „ Father. i „ 'i' „ Pin. 

o as 'o' in More. 

* The Verb 'to be' when meaning 4 to be present' should be trans- 
latedby 'nikka,' to stand, to be present. 

f In rapid speech this word often sounds like 'laifukku\ 



Kudu 


...give 


Kudukka. 


..to give 


Par 


...look 


Pakka . 


..to look 


Pudi 


...hold 


Pudikka . 


..to hold 


Po 


...go 


Poa 


„to go 


va 


. . . ci me 


Vara 


,.to come 



12 COOLY TAMIL. 

IMPERATIVE. INFINITIVE. PRESENT TENSE. 

Kulukren ...I give 
Pakruthu* ...He looks 
Pudikruthu... He holds 
Poren ...I go 

Varen ...I coma 

EXAMPLES 

I am coming to the field— Nan malikki varen. A 4 (note 1). 

5rTou go and pluck — Ni koluntu edukka po. 

Hurry up and take up rows— Surruka nerre pudi. 

Look, kangari, those p'uckers are stopping en the road, 

send (them) quickly to work. — Kangani, anth'al rotile 

nikruthu, par, surruka veilikki anupu. 
Ask the kangani where the road-mending coolies a-e — 

R.t'al en*e (where, nikruthu kangani kel. 
He is giving her that cooly's basket— Anth'a'ude kude 

avalukku kudukruthu. (lit : of that cooly basket to her 

[he] is giving). 
We are going to the factory— Nangal istorukku poron.f 
He is not talking to the kangani — Kangaoikki avan 

pesruth'ille. 

NOTE 1 .—A question is formed by adding long ' a ' to the 
last word of the sentence and it substitutes a final rowel. 

Are you going to the lines?— Ni laiatukku porutha? 

No, sir, I am not going to the lines, I am going to eat rice 

— Ille, aiyS, nan laiatukku poruth'iller, nan soru (cooked 

lice) tinkka (to eat) poren. 
All right, go— Seri, po. 
Sir, that boy is taking away all the good sacks to the new 

clearing— Aiya, antha podiau ellam (all) nalla sak pfttbu 

kadukku (new clearing) konduporuthu (taking away). 
All right, what is that to yon ?— Seri, athu unukku enna ? 

(Lit : that to you what). 
Are there no sacks for this field ?— Intha malikki i?ak illea ? 
Then call him — Appo(then) avane knpidu. 
Who said so, I ?— Yar sonuthu, nana ? 

Every letter must be pronounced. 

u as V in Rule. ei as 'ei' in Weight, 

u ,, c u' „ Put (as <e' in ai „ 'ai' ,, Aisle. 

Hundred when final;. 

* A mispronunciation of ' parkruthu '. 

t Correctly, nangal istorukku porom (Appendix B.) 



COOLY TAMIL. 



13 



End 

Rope 

Side (adj.) . 

Knot 

To leave 

Side (noun) . 

Stump 

Crow bar 

Bush 

Prunings 

Deep 

Name 

To strip 

To prune 

Stalk 

Hole 



tongal 

kavuru 

pakka 

mudichi 

vaikka 

pakkam 

katte 

alavanga 

chedi 

Mar 

alam 

per 

motte pudinkka 

Kavatu vetta 

kambu 

kuli 



To pull up 

High 

High 

Near 

Level 
Wide 
Half name 
Bad 
Branch 
Tea Bush 

Pork 
Pornd 
Low 
Full name 



C. 2. This, That (PRONOUNS) 



This 
That 

This (obj:) 
That (obj :) 



ithi 
athi 
ithe 
athe 

Ithi a ? 

Athia? 
Ethu ? 



This way , 
That way . 
Which way. 

... this? 
... that? 
,.. which? 



pu 'inkka 

osaram (adv.) 
osanta (adj.) 
kitta 

mattam 
agalam { 
are per 
agathe 
vathu 

kopi, (c.ffee, 
often used) 
mullu 
ratal 
pannia 
Mulu per 



ippadil 
appadi 
yeppadiP(How) 



(See Note to C. which also applies to the above) 



EJMEngPLES 

This ia his — Ithi avanukku. 

This is mine — Ithi yenukku, or, namukku. 

Give that — Athe kudu. 

Is this his ?— Ithi avanukka ?, or, Ithi avanukku tana. 

(See S 2.) 
That cran gavo mo this— Anth'al ithe yenukku kudututhu. 
En which place are you putting it? — Yentha lekkilo athe 

podruthu. 
Go this way to the fac'o-y, toll the teamaker to come here — 

lppadi istorukku po ; Timeikru inge vara sollu. 
Aro jou going to do this?— Ni ithe seia porutha ? 
Yes, master, they are going that way now— Ama, dore, 

avangal appadi ippo poruthu. 
I >>> il like this — lppadi soi. 
He spoke like that — Avan appadi pesnuthu. 



Every letter must be pronounced. 

as V in Fun. e as 'c' in 

„ V „ Father. i „ 'i' „ 

o aB 'o' in More. 



Pen, 

Pin. 



14 



COOLY TAMIL. 



D. Having- -PAST PARTICIPLE. This is used a 
great deal in Tamil instead of conjunction 'and'. Thus :^- 
(See Postscript 6.) Tell him to go to the bungalow and fetch a 
book : this would be rendered 1 totally : him to the bungalou* 
to go having told a book to fetch tell. Again: — I went to the 
factory and spoke to the teamaker and then went to the field 

and weighed up the leaf Literally: I to the factory havit g 

gone, to the teamaker having spoken, to the field having gone 
I weighed up the leaf. (See Examples page 15.) 

It will be noticed that the principle verb is kept to the 
last, Any number of Past Participles can be 
strung together. (SeeP2.) 

D. 1.— The past participle is used with the 

Imperative often when giving orders (i.e. Imperative mood). 

Go on plucking (taking leaf)— Eduttu po. Lit: this 
means, having taken (leaf from one tree) go (to the nest). 
Come on pluck— Eduttu va. 
Go on breaking the level — Mattam odittu po. 
Come along cut — Vetti va. 
Come run along — Odi va. (Appendix D.) 
Don't stand idle and stare — Suma nintu mulikatte. 

NOTE I.— This is very important and should ahoay-a 
be borne in mind as it is used more often than the simple Imperative. 

THE FOLLOWING MUST BE NOTED TOGETHER 
WITH THOSE ON PAGE 79 (LIST OF VERBS). 



been 


..iruntu 


Having done 


.seinttu 


taken 


..eduttu 


jj 


died 


.settu 


asked 


..ktittu 


>) 


given 


..kuduttu 


heird 


..keittu 


> i 


stnod 


..niutu 


cut 


..vetti 


3) 


seen 


.kardu 


spoken . 


..pesi 


>) 


planted 


. nattu 


8aid,told. 


..solli 


>) 


sent 


. anupi 


come 


vantu 


>> 


brought 


..konduvantu 


gone 


.poitlu, poi 


)> 


taken away. 


..kondu poit- 
tu, poi 



rKL 



Every letter must be pronounced. 

a as 'a' in Kule ei as 'ei' in Weight. 

a „ 'u' ,, Pat (as 'e' in ai „ 'ai' „ Aisle. 

Hundred when final). 



COOLY TAMIL. 



15 



NOTE £\— PRESENT PARTICIPLE, 'doing', 'saying', 
etc., is the same as 3rd person singular Present tense, but of con 
drops the final syllable l -uthu' or l -thu'. It is used as an 
adjective i ' the* place of a subordinate sentence beginning 
with 'who', 'which' etc : (see Gr '.I and Postscript 8.) Subord- 
inate sentences in the Past apply the Past Tense in the 
same way. They always precede the noun like an adjective. 
Examples on Page 23. 

EXAMPLES to D. 

He went to the factor? and is coming back— Avau istorukku 

poittu varuthu. 
He sp ike to the kangani and is now going quickly on the road 

— KangSnikki pesi avan ippo surruka rotodu poruthu 
1 blame I the cooly and am sending her to the lines — Nan 

31 yesi {having blamed) avale la'atukku anupren. 
Ha b ought a letter, gave it to the kangani and is telling 

him to go to M estate at once —Avan oru 

kaithatn (letter) kondu vantu, kanganikki kuduttu avane 

M totukku satne poa solruthu. 

Go to the pruners, ask the kangani for a knife and come 

back here with it in your hand— Kavat'alukku poittu, 

kangani kitta (near,* o u katti keittu, athe un kaile 

pudittu, inge tirumbi (back) va. 
Go and come back -Poittu va. (Lit : having gone come, 

return.) 



Jungle 


... kadu. 


Mound ... modu. 




Accountant 


kanakapulle. 




New clearing.. 


piithu kadu 


Mason 


mesan 


Axe 


kodali 


To the river .. 


artukkuf 


Bill hook 


vettu katti 


Bridge 


palam 


Nursery 


tavarani 


Cattle 


madu 


Path 


pathe 


River 


aru 


A hollow 


palam 


Carpenter 


odavi 


Acre 


ekru 


Short cut 


kuruka pathe 


Boundary 


vaii ( Iris 








Every letter inn 


st be pronounced. 




a as 


'u' in Fun. 


e as V in 


Pen. 


a „ 


'a' ,. Father. 


i „ V ., 


Pin. 




o as 'o 


in More. 





* Kitta, near, is always used in this sense instead ofiliruntu (from). 

t Nouns ending i» V add a 't' before ;i suilix and "hen before. 
another word. Sor(u) — rice; sortukku to the rice: ;ir(u) — river, 
a rtukku — to tho river, artu tunni — river water. 



10 



COOLY TAMIL. 



O. 2. Past Tense.— This is formed from the Past 
Participle (minus Us final vowel) by adding -en for the first 
person skgnlar and -utllU for all the rest, except when the 
Past participle ends in '[', then the tense endings will 
be -nen and nuthu 



PAST PARTICIPLE. 

Having been .. Iruul/u I was 



cnt ...Vett/i 
heard ...Keittju 
fjioken .. Pes/i 
come ...Vant/u 



PAST TENSE. 

.. Nan irunten 
He, she, it was ...Avan, aval, athu 
iruntuthu. 

I cut ...Nan vettnen 

He she, it, cut ...Avan, aval, athu 
vettnuthu. 

I heard .. Nan keiten 

He, she, it, heard. ..Avan, aval, athu 
keittutau. 

I spoke ...Nan pesnm 

He, she, it spoke... Avan, aval, atlu 
pesnuthu. 

f came ...Nan vanten 

He, she, it came. ..Avan, aval, athu 
van tuth u 



gone ...Po/i, poittjw I went 



.Nan ponen, nan 
poitten 



He, she, it went. ..Avan, aval, athu 
ponuthu, poituthu. 



EXAMPLES. 



I cut the branch — Nan vathu vettnen. 

He fave it to me — Avan athe yenukku kudutthu. 

He did not give it tome— A van athe yenukku kudututh'ille 

He was pruoirg yesterday — Neitu avan kavatu vettnuthu 

Dili he prune yesterday ? — Neitu avail kavatu vettnutha ? 

He to >k a mamoty to the field and has not brought it 
back — Oru mamati mslikki kondu poittu avan kondu 
vantuth'ille. 

I saw Pamasamy speaking to the kangani — Ramasftmi 
kanganikki pesruthu kanden. 

That man gave me tbis money— Anth'al intha kasi yenuk- 
ku kudututhn. 

Did that man give you the money — Anth' amble al kasi 
unukku kudututha? 

Did that cooly come?— Anth'al vaututha? 



Every letter must be pronouueed. 

V in Itule. ei as 'ei' in Weight. 

'u' „ Put (as 'e' in ai ,, 'ai' „ Aisle. 
Hundred when final). 



COOL? TAMIL. 



17 



No, sir, he has not corae— Ille, ftiyS, avan var'illo, or, avan 

varuv'ille. 
Have you told those cooliei to go and carry rice from the 

rice store ? — Arisi istor'iliruntu anth'al ari i tukka (to 

carry) poa sonutba? 
No, the kangani told them — Ille, avangalukku kangani 

sonuthu. 



NOTE. l.—DO NOT (Imperative) is translated by athe 
added to the Infinitive- (See also Postscript 8.) 



Chest, box 


... petti, potti 


Main stem, 




Handle 


... kai-pudi 


trunk 


... adi maram 


Saw 


... val 


To cut main 




To sharpen 


... tita 


stem 


.. adi vetta 


M ensure 




To miss 


... tappa 


(stick) 


... a ] avu kambu 


Cross branch 


.. pinal vathu 


Oil 


... enne 


Twigs 


... asambu 


To a level 


... mattatukku 


To snave off 


... siva 


To thin out 


... kallikka 


Stump 


... katte 


Carefully 


... patiram 


Above 


... raele 


Side branch 


.. pakka vathu 


Below, down 


... kile 



NOTE 2. DO, DID. u^ed with another verb in English 
are not translated into Tamil. The plain present or past 
tense is used. C 1 ; D 2. 

N. B. — The Present 'Tense is often used colloquially instead 
of the Future 



Every letter must be pronounced, 
a aa 'u' in Fun. e as 'e* it 

a „ 'a' „ Father. i „ 'i' „ 

as V in More. 

Q 



Pen. 
fin. 



18 COOLY. TAMIL. 



E. Who? Which? 

Who— yfir ? Which— ethu? 

Whom— yftre ? 

To whom — yarukku? 

Of whom, whose— yarude ? 



To which — ethukku ? 

From which— eth'(il)iruntu? 



Now — ippo. Then— appo. When — yeppo ? 

Note : See C 2. 



EXAMPLES. 

Who are you— Ni yar ? 

Who is there — Yar ange nikkruthu ? 

Whom did you see ?— Ni yare kantuthu ? 

To whom did you give it ?— Athe yarukku kudututhu. 

Who saw you? — Une yar kantuthu ? 

Whose ia this— Ithi yarukku? 

Whose is this basket— Ithi yarude kude ? or, ii.tha kude 

yarukku ? 
Which is yours — Eth'unukku ? 

Which did you tell him to take— Avanukku ethu edukka 
sonuthu ? 

I told him to take that from there now— Athe angeilicuntu 

ippo edukka sonen. 
To which are you going ? — Ethukku (ni) poruthu? 
To this— Ithukku tan. 
Tell me who is standing there and then go to the tipping — 

Yar ange nikruthu yenukku solli ni mattam odikka po.* 

* Note, 1. — (See D 1). In the vresent sentence the person is 
being told to go to do the work, therefore the Infinitive is used ; 
in D 1. the -person is doing the work and is being told to go on 
with it, hence the past participle. 



Evsry letter must be pronounced. 

as 'u' in Rule. ei as 'ei' in Weight. 

„ 'u' ,, Put (as V in at „ 'ai* „ Aisle. 
Hundred when final). 



COOLY TAMIL. 19 



F. PAST INDEFINITE. (Compound).— This is formed 
hv the use of the Past Participle w.th the addition of 
the present tense of the auxiliary 'to be.' See Page 83. 

I havfl t 'Id ... Nan soJPirukren 

He has gone ... Avan poi'irukruthu 

She has told* ... Aval soll'irukruthu 

He has come ... Avan vant'irukruthu 

I have put ... Nan pott'irukren 

I have broken ... Nan oditt'irukren 

He has held ... Avan puditt'irukruthu 

He has broken ... Avan orlitt'irukruthu 

I have drunk ... Nan ktiditt'irukren 

He has drunk ... Avan kuditt'irukruthu 

NOTE 1.— The double 't' of the Past Participle endings, 
and often the Past Tense, is pronounced like eh (see Page 7y.); 
those which are an exception to this rule are marked with an 
asterisk in that list (see Postscript 1.) 



F. 1. That Much. This Much. 

That much— avalo How much — yevalo 

This much — ivalo How many— eltane ? 

(See Note to C). 

EXAMPLES. 

How much leaf have you picked ? — Ni yevalo koluntu 

edututhu ? 
I have plucked this much — Iva'o edutt'irukren, 
How many pounds of loaf are there? — Ettane ratal 

koluntu irukruthu ? 
Ten pounds— Pattu ratal. 
Why did you make so much noise P — Ye ni avalo 6attam 

(noise) pott'irukruthu ? 
At the time he was pruning he cut his hand — Kavatu 

vetruthu nertilw (at time) avanude kfli vettnuthu. 

Every letter must he pronounced. 

a as 'u' In Fun. e as V in Pen. 

a „ 'a' „ Father. i ., V „ Pin. 

o aa 'o' in More. 

* She teas told— avalukku Boll'irukruthu. Ps. 9, 
llo wa$ druuk— avaukuditt'iriuiluUui. F 2, 



02 



COOLY TAMIL. 



He has cleaned out the drain and all stones taken out — 
Ellara (all)kal eduttu avan kan valeitt'irukrut^u. 

Is that field finished ?— Antba male mudintt'irukrutha? 

Yes, sir, it is finisbe 1— Am'aiya, mudintt'irukruthu. 

(He) has told him to take the tools to the factory— 
Istorukku aitham kondu poa avanukku soll'irukruthu. 

kuchi 

male 

mani 

pothum 

turam 

maruvadi 

kanak 

kambli 

kannu, kan- 

neire [du 



Pound 


... ratal 


Stick 


To weigh 


... nirukka 


Rain 


To finish 


... mu lia 


Hour 


Rupee 


rua 


Enough 


Cent 


sadam 


Far 


Time 


. . neram 


Again 


At the time 


... nertile 


Account 


To throw 


... visa 


Blanket 


Paper 


... kadutaei 


Plant 


Always 


... yeppothum 


Straight 




Not enough 


... pa'.tathe 



F. 2. Had. -Was ..PLUPERFECT.— This is formed in 
the same way as the Past Indefinite but the Past Tense of 
the auxiliary is used. See Page 88. 



I hal weighed 
He bad come 
They had plucked 
It was finished 
It was plucked 



Nan nirutt'irunten 
Avan vant'irurtuthu 
Avrngal edutt'iruntuthu 
Athu mudintt'iruntuthu 
Athu edutt'iruntuthu, etc. 



F- 3. Another Form of the Past Tense (Imper- 
sonal) is the use of ahi (vulg. 'aohi ) (the Past Participle of 
aha, to become) added to the Past Participle which usually 
drops the final vowel. (Postscript 9.) 



Has been taken 
Has been given 
Has been finiehed 
Has been held 



Edutt'achi t 
Kudutt'achi 
Mudintt'achi 
Puditt'achi 



Final 4 "tt' is pronounced like ( ch' in some verbs (see F, Note 1.) 



Together 
Without 
Before 
Behind 



Seitu, seindu 

Illaine, -ame 

Mindi (time), rainnu (place) 

Pindi, pinnu 



Every letter must be pronounced. 

u as 'a' in Rule. ei as 'ei' in Weight. 

u „ 'a' i, Put (as 'e' in ai „ 'ai' „ Aisle. 



Hundred when final.) 



COOLY TAMIL. 21 

EXAMPLES. 

Sir, that field has been finished before you came— Aiya, 

ningal (polit ) vantuthu mindi rual<* mudintt'achi. 
Kanakapulle, his that wo- k been finished?— Kanakapulle, 

antha veile raudintt'acha ? 
Has the leaf been weighed up ?-Koluntu nirutt'acha? 
Yes, master, it is weighed— Ama dore, nirut.'achi.* 
Give the money a'together — Kasi ellam seitu kudu. 
All go together — Ellam seindu po. 
Dont go without the kaugani— Kangani illame poathe. 
Those primers are standing withoutf doing anything — 

Antha kavat'al unmim (anything) sei'ame nikruthu. 
He has gone without taking the book— Avan postikum 

eduk'ame ponuthu. 
Pluck without taking buds— Arumbu eduk'ame edii. 
Why do you stop behind without working, come in front 

quickly— Ye veile illame pindi nikruthu ? surruka min- 

nukku va. 
Stand in front of me— Yenukku minnu Dillu. 
Those rows were plucked before— Antha nerre mindi 

odutt'achi. 

* The word 'it' is not translated here. It may be noticed 
that similarly other pronouns have been omitted elsewhere. 

t See T (Note 2.) 



Every letter must be pronounced. 

'a' in Fun. e as 'ci' in Pen. 

'a' ,, Father. i ., 'i' „ Pin. 

o as '</ in More. 



22 COOLY TAMIL. 



G. Will.. ..FUTURE TENSE— This is formed by adding 
-pen to the Imperative for the 1st person sing, and 
-puthll for all the rest : Except when the Infinitive has no 
*k* in its ending ; then the tense endings will be -ven and 
Vllthu (Imperatives ending in '-feu' drop '-&«♦' before 
l -pen\ -puthu.} 

NOTE Exceptions. 

Va-come. VSruven — I will come. 

Ta — give. Taruven— I will give 

IMPERATIVE. PRESENT. FUTURE. 

Mara— forget Marakren — I forget Marapen— I will forget 

Marakruthu — he etc. M a r a p u t h u— b e etc. 
forgets will forget 

Manni— forgive Mannikren — I forgive Mannipen -I will forgive 

Mannikrut hu — he Manniputhu — he will 
forgives forgive 

Vulu — fall Vuluren — I fall Vuluven— I will fall 

Vnluruthu — he falls Vulovuthu — he will fall 

Sfi(r) — die Saren— I die Saven — I will die 

Saruthu — he dies Savuthu — he will die 

G. 1. The Negative, WILL NOT, informed by 

adding -matathe for the 3rd person, and maten for the 
first, to the Infinitive. {See list of verbs, page 79.) 

EXAMPLES. 

I will not forget —Nan marakka/maten. 

He will not forget — Avan marakka/matatho, 

She will not go -Aval poa/matathe. 

It will not hold so much— Athu avalo pudikka/matathe. 

I will tell him to come quickly — Nan avaue surruka vara 

solluven. [saruthu. 

Sir, a cooly is dying in the lines — Aiya, laiatile or'al 
All right, I will come at once— Seri, nan satne varuven. 
I will tell him to come tomorrow — Avane naliki vara 

solluven. 
I think he will forget— Avan maraputhu nineikreo. 
Come close, I will speak to you — Kitta va, unukku pesuven. 
Who wiH go to work on Sunday for cash ? — Naitu kilamc 

kai kasikki yar veilikki povuthu. 

Every letter must be pronounced. 

u as 'a' in Rule. ei as 'ei' in Weight. 

u „ 'u' „ Put (as 'e' in ai ,, 'ai' „ Aisle. 

Hundred when final;. 



COOLY TAMIL 



23 



I will go, Sir— NSn poven, Siva. 

Cut the branch carefully or you will cut your finger— 
Vatbu patirama vettu illate, or, ni un viral vettuvuthu. 

Co slowly or you will fall— Mulla po illate ni vuluvuthu. 

He will cut above the road — Rotukku mele avan vettu- 
vuthu. A 3 (Note Id) 

Cut the upper branch— Me \athu vettu. ('Mele'— above, 
is an adverb 'Me' is the adjective). 



Root 

Top 

Insect 

Yard 

Morning 

Evening 

Earth 

Firewood 

Wire 



ver 


Pag 


. mut i 


iic hi 


Debt 


. kadan 


puchi 


Wound 


. kaiam 


vat, jat 


Heavy 


>. param 


kalame 


To sleep 


.. tunkka 


saintaratn 


To gather 


. . alia 


mannu 


To pick over . 


. porrukka 


veragu 


Ill 


.. srgam ille 


kambi 


Health 


„ sogam 



G. 2. Wh?, Which What. RELATIVE PRO- 
NOUNS. (See D i. Note 2; Ps, 8.)— These are not 

translated. The required tense of the verb, ivhich usually 
drops its tense ending '-thu'. must be used adjectivally 

The negative is similarly used. (H 1.) Thus :— (See B) 

'The man who went yesterday', must be rendered. (Liter- 
ally, The-yeiterday-wenl-man — Neitu ponuth'al. 

The coolies who came here last week. (Lit. The last-ivcelc- 
here-camc coolies) — Ponu kilame inge vant'al. 

Coolies brought baskets to-day which I will give you next 
week. (Lit. To day coolies- br ought-baskets coming-week I 
will give) — Inniki al kondu vantu'kiide unukku varu' 
kilame kudupen. 

Take the knives which I have now bought— Nan ippo 
vftnganu'katti edu. 

Take out the sticks that are in your baskets, it is too 
heavy — Un kiideile irukru'kOchi e:luttu podu, athu romba 
param irukruthu. (L : t. In-your-basket-are sticks, etc.) 

Thu coolies who cannot prune must go to another work — 
Kavatu teriath'al vere voilikki po'onum (must go.) 

Those who cannot work can go to the lines — Veile sei' 
elath'al (catinot-do-peojile) laiatukku po'elam. 

Those coolies who fetched tools go to work at once — 
Aitham vftngan'al satne veilikkl pj. 

NOTE. The verb termination can be omitted. [See D 1. Note 2.) 



Every letter must be pronounced. 

'u' in Fun e as 'e' in 

'»' ,, Father. i „ 'i' „ 

o as 'o' in More. 



Pen. 

Pin. 



24 COOLY TAMIL. 

NOTE.— When used with prepositions as : to 
whom, of whom, by which etc., the above rule does 

not apply- The Hit glish must be t ansposed thus: 

(a) I sent the man to whom you pave money : becomes, 
You gave money to a man, him I s ent. 

Or'alukku ni k&si kudututhu, avane anupunen. 

(b) I showed the man of (about) whom you spoke : 

becomes, 
You spoke of a man. to him I showed. 
Or'al pati (about) ni pesnuthu, avanukku tan nan 

kambiten. 

Coolies often transpose this negative interr- 
ogatively without requiring a reply ; 

(a) Did you not give a man money ? him I sent. 

Or'alukku ni kasi kudututh'illea ? avane tan 
anupunen. S. 

(b) Did you not speak of a man? to him I showed it. 

Or'al pati ni pesnuth'illea ? avanukku tan atbe 
kambiten. 

H. Dont, Musty Can,-- -These and the following are 
suffixes to the Infinitive which usually drops the final 
vowel. 

Must, Want ... vennm (vulg. onum.) 

Must not, Want not ... vendam (vulg. vanda*.) 

Hi 1 • Can ... -elam,f kudam. Cannot ... elathe, kudathe 

Do not ... -athe. 
Not necessary, not required ... vendiuth'ille (not suffix). 

EXAMPLES. 

He must come today — Avan innikki vara venum (vulg. 
var'onum). 

NOTE 1. 'Venum' will be written usually 'onum', but it is 
at times pronounced 'venum', especially when vsed alone and 
meaning 'to want'. 

You must send a cooly quickly— Ni or'al surruka anup' 
You should rot do th-»t — Ni attie seia vanda. [onum. 

It is not necessary to do that — Athi seia vendiuth'ille 

Every letter must be pronounced, 
u as V in Eule. _ ei as *ei' in Weight, 

u „ 'u' „ Put (aa 'e' in ai „ 'ai' ,, Aisle. 

Hundred when final). 

* See 'Contractions' page 77. 
f Sometimes pronounced elam, 



COOLY TAMIL. 25 

What do you want ? — Unukku enna venum ? 

Do you want it now ? — A the ippo venuma ? 

What else do you want ?— Vere enna venum ? 

You cannot do that — Athe seia kudathe. 

Can you do it? — Athe seia kudaraa ? 

Those who can work well — Nalla veile seia kiid'al. (See 

Ps. 8 ; G2). 
You need not go-Ni poa vendiuth'ille. 
Don't do that — Athi seiathe. 
Don't talk — Pesathe. 
He must n< t go to work today as he i3 not well — Inniki 

avan veileikki poa vanda yenendal (because) avanukku 

sogam ille. 
You can come presently — Ni poragu var'elam. 
I taid he must not touch the tar as it is not dry enough — 

Avan kil toda vanda sonen yenendal athi kaia (dry) 

pattathe. 
Can 1 go cow ?— Nan ippo po'elama? 
No yon cannot go yet — Ille, ni innam (yet) po'elathe- 
When can I go?— Yeppo (nao) po'elam ? 
When I have finished talking — Nama peichi mudinttu ni 

po'elaro. (Lit. My talk having finished). 
Do not cut the roots, you must pull them up— Ver vett'- 

'athe, kaiile (in the hand) pudink'onnm. 
Don't strip — Motte pudinkathe. (Lit. bald don't pull). 
Don't pluck leaving a fish leaf — Topal elo vaitt'edukathe. 

(Lit. Fish leaf having leff don't take). 
Must we pluck these bushes ? — Intha maram eduk'onuma ? 
No, leave (them), they are too small — Ille vudu (leave) athu 

remba sinnisi irukruthu. (athu = it, used for 'they'). 
Can you tinish that field today ? — Inniki antha male 

mudi'elama ? 
This is not wanted— Ithi vendiuth'ille. 
If you cannot go— Ni po'elathe ponal. (L3). 
Don't go — Poathe. 
Don't forget — Marakathe. 
Don't bp, won't be — Irukatbe. 



Every letter must be pronounced. 

us 'a' in Fun e as 'e' in Pen 

„ 'a' „ Father. i ,, 'i' „ Pin. 

o as 'o' in More. 



2ft COOLY TAMIL. 

J. Will have, Be. ...FUTURE PERFECT.— This is 

formed by adding the Future Tense of the Auxiliary to the 
Past Participle (See List of Verbs.) 

Marantu ... Having forgotten. 

Pottu ... Having put. 

Vantu ... Having come 

Nan marant'irupen— I will have forgotten. 
Avan maraut'iruputhu — He will have forgotten. 
Athu pott'iruputhu — It will be put. 
Nftn vant'irupen — I will have come. 
Avan vant'iruputhu — He will have come 

J. 1. Another Form. WILL HAVE, BEEN» .. -Can 
be translated impersonally by the addition of 'irukum' to 
the Past Participle, which drops its final vowel. 

EXAMPLES. 

It will have gone — Athu po'irukum. 

The field will have been finished — Male mudint'irukum, 

You do not want to call the cooly, he will have come — Ni 

Si kQpida vanda, avan vant'iruputhu. 
The line sweeper will have gone — Vasal kati poi'irukum. 
That does not matter, he will have come- Athu kariamille 

(no matter), avan vant'irukum. 
That will have been all right— Athi seria irunt'irukum. 



J. 2. Another Impersonal— is the addition of -urn 

to the stem of the Infinitive (with Infinitives in -kka the 
termination replaces the final 'ka'.) See List of Verb*, and 
Compare Pi (c). 

It will finish ... Mudium. 

It will come ... Varum. 

It will get finished ... Mudinttupoum (havingfinished 

It will be all right ... Seriiiukum. [will go). 

It will go all rightly ... Seria poum. 

He will get all right (wel 1 ) Avanukku s< gam ahum. 

It will become all right. . . Athu seri'ahurn (aha to become). 

It will take ... Edukum. 

It will hold ... Pudikum. 



Every letter must he pronounced, 

u aa V in Kule. ei as *ei' in Weight, 

u ,, 'a' „ Put (aa 'e' in ai „ 'ai' ,, Ais'e. 
Hundred when final;. 

* This is r«ally Impersonal bat is often used indiscriminately. 



COOLY TAMIL. 27 

J. 3. Each, Some, Other,— (See 6.) 

Each ... Ovoru. Another ... Inoru. 

Some ... Pathi, sila. Another (different)... Vere. 

A little, few, any ... Konjam, 

EXAMPLES. 

Each cooly must take a basket— Ovor'alukku o u kude 

eduk'onum 
Some coolies have po'es, some have r. pes ; that is not 

right, eaih cooly must have rop<i and a po'e— Pathi 

alukku kambu irukruthu, pathi alukku kavuru ; athi seri 

ille, ovor'a I ukku kavuru iruk'onura oru kambuiruk'otmm. 
Some of it will get finished — Pat'ni muHnttu poum 
Some will not get finished— Pathi mudinttu poathe. 
You must take some, and 1 ave some — Ni pathi tduk'o'iuin 

pathi vaik'onutn. 
This cooly had a knife, the other had not — Inth'alukku 

katti iruntuthu matt'alukku i'le. 
Tell another boy to come — lnoru podian vara sollu. 
Don't bring another (US*- rent) basket — Vere kiidy k-->ndu 

varathe. 
Bring all the other sacks— Matta sak ellam kondu vft. 

(Matta — other). 
All the men mu>t go to cut holes — Ell'ftmble al ku'i v tta 

po'onum. 
Only givo a little — Konjam matiram kudu. 
You must take all the lime tut of the sack — Sakiliruntu 

ollam sunambu eduk'onum. 
Don't puck another bud or I wi'l put you 'sick' — Inoru 

arumbu edukathe illate, or, une tiku poduven ('put sick' 

here means that tlie cooly' s day's pay will be stopped). 
She did goo 1 work, the other cooly bad work and she was 

put sick — Aval nallaveile seinfcuthu, matt'al agathe veilo, 

avale eiku pott'iruntuthu. 
Did you give him any ?— Avauukku konjam kudututha r 



Every letter must he pronounced. 

•u' in Fun. e aa V in Pen. 

V „ Father. i „ 'i* „ Piu. 

o as V in More. 



28 



COOLY TAMIL. 



K. May. Should, Ought. ..SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD.- 
This is formed by adding -attum to the Inflnlt V6 which 
usually drops the final vowel and consonant. 



EXAMPLES. 

He may take— A van edukattum. 

Some of the coolies can go and pluck in Govinden's held — 

Sil'al (short for sila) Govinden maleile koluntu edukka 

poattum. 
May I go now ? — Nan ippo poattuma ? 
Yes, you may go— Ami, poattum. 
You may plant that plant in that row — Antha kandu antha 

nerreile nadattum. 
I am feeling ill, master, may I go to my house? — Yenukku 

sogam ille, dore, nan vudukku poattuma r 
Ramasamy has cut his foot badly, may I send for the 

Dispenser? — Ramasami avanude kal (avan) rtmba vett- 

nuthu, Daktar vara sollattuma? 
Ye?, tell him to bring some medicine and a piece of rag — 

Aina, konjam marant-um oru tuni-tundum (rag) kond' 

ara (short for kondu vara) sollu. 
May I buy a new kambli?— Nan oru puthu kambli vang- 

attuma ? 
No, the kambli you have got is good — Ille, unukku irukru 

kambli nalla irukruthu, or, unukku irukru'kambli nalla 

tan. (S ±) 



Corner (of an 

object) 
Corner (of a road) 
To untie 

»i tie 

,, empty 

,, press down ... 

,, trample 

„ bury 

,, break 
Afterwards 
Rest (adjective)... 
Hole (in an object) 
String 



mule 

modaku 

avilkka 

katta 

kotta 

ammakka 

mithikka 

pothikka 

odikka 

apuram 

socham 

pottal 

sadambu 



u as 'u in 



Rule. 

V „ Put (aa 'e' in 

[Hundred when final). 



Dead leaves 


.. sette 


Dirt 


.. ute 


Scales 


.. terasu 


Crooked 


.. konal 


Leech 


. atte 


Wall 


. sevar 


Single 


otte 


Fear 


. paiam 


Bottle 


. votal 


Hotten 


. ittu 


Rock 


. pare 


Empty 


. virru n 


Young 


. yellan 


Useless 


. totta 


be pronounced. 




ei as 'ei' in Weight. 


ai ,, 'ai' 


,, Aisle. 



COOLY TAMIL. 



29 



L> Having Been. ..This is formed by adding kuttu* 
to the Past Participle* It is pronounced with very short Vs. 



Having given ... kuduttu 
Having taken ... eduttu 
Having spoken . . pesi 



Having been 

given ... kuduttu-kuttu 

Having been 

taken ... eduttu-kuttu 

Haviug been 

spoken ... pesi-kuttu 



NOTE. — In the following sentences remember the double 't' 
of the Past Participle is usually pronounced like 'oh.' {See List of 
Verbs and Postscript 1 (a). 



EXAMPLES. 

The rope having bien held he let go — Kavuru pudit- 

tu/kuttu avan viiiuthu. 
I ha I bten holding his band and then let go— Avaimde 

kai nan pudittu/kuttu vuduten. 
When that field is finished [i e. will have ben finished) 

you can go to the next — Antha male mudinttu/kuttu 

adatu maleikki poattum. 
Uamasamy told me a lie and then asked for money to g.» to 

the coast— Kamasami yenukku poi (ii*) solli/kuttu 

urukku poa kasi keituthu. 
Muniandy spoke all that short of rubbish and then ran 

away— Mu: iaudi antha maderi (that kind) buma peichi 

pe6i/kuttu odi ponuthu. 
Yes, kangany, I know that but tha Assistant Superinten- 
dent does not believe it — Ami, kangani, athi eliani 

terrium, sinna dora athe nambruth'ille. 



L. 1. COMPARISONS. For the Comparison 
adjectives and adverbs ATHIKUM or ATHIUM, may 
placed before the word. 



Pe ria 
Sinna 

Valantu 
Nalla 
Ketta 
Agathe 



Small 

Tall 

Good 

Bad 



Athikum peria 
Athikum sinoa 
Athium valantu 
Athium nalla 
Athium ketta 
Athium agathe 



Every letter must he pronounced. 

a as 'u' in Fun. e as 'e' in Fen. 

a „ 'a' ,. Father. i „ 1' ,, Pin. 

o as 'o' in More. 
• The ooolies' use of this is somewhat ambiguous. 



of 

ho 



Bigger 
Smaller 
Taller 
Be'ter 

Worse 



30 



COOLY TAMIL. 



EXAMPLES. 

Give me a larger knife— Yenukku athikum peria k itti kudu. 

Take the largest knife -Athium peria katti edu. 

Call that tall man — Antha valant'al kupidu. 

No, not him, the tallest — Ille, avan ille, athium valant'al. 

Tell him I do rot want the thin pig, bring the fattest— 

Elichi pandi jenukku vanda avanukku solli, athium 

kolutu pandi kondu vara sollu. 
Cut and bring me a smaller stick — Athikum einna kuchi 

vetti yenukku kudu. 

SOTE 1. — 'Ithikum' and 'ithium' can be used when speaking 
of things close to the speaker. The superlative is often rendered, 
athikum kuda pensi, (i.iggest), or, el'atukkum paiisi. (bigger than 
all). There seems to be no rule for the simple formation of com- 
parisons. 

Do not take a larger leaf — Ath kum peria e'e edukathe. 
You must go fast ( r than this- Ithikum surukka po'onum. 
This is easy, that work is easier — Ithi leisi, antha veile 

ithium leiti itukruthu. 
That work, Sir, is the most difficult -Antha veile, aiya, 

athium vanatum irukruthu. 

NOTE /. — When the noun in the sentence is understood or 
'this' and 'that' are used with 'than', some adjectives add -isi 
(or, -athu). In the latter case the construction is literally, 'to that 
this bigger', : to this that is older', etc. Thus: 

This is bigger thaa that — Athukku ithi perisi. 
1 have taken the smallest— Athium siunisi eduten. 
That is older tban this — Ithukku athi palisi. 
Tbis is better than that — Athukku ithi nallathu. 

L. 2. Very, Always, Never,* etc. : (always placed 

before the verb but not necessarily next to it). 



Very 

Always 

Never 



Micham, remba 
Yeppothum 
Yeppothum ille 



Anybody 

Nobody 

Nothing 



Yarum (seri) 
Ortrum ille 
Uonum ille 



Every letter must be pronounced. 

iu Hole ei as 'ei' in Weight. 



a m 'a 

a „ 'a' ,, Put (as 'e' in 
Hundred when final). 



■fti 



Aisle. 



Adverbs uaually precede the word they qualify. 



COOLY TAMIL R1 



EXAMPLES. 



This load is very heavy, no one can carry it— Infcha silme 
remba param irukruthu ortrum tuk'elathe. 

You must always send two coolies when the load is too 
heavy for one — Or'alukku siirae remba param iruntal 
(if is) j eppothum rend'al (two paopl >) anup'onuni. 

Sir, I never carry sacks I am not strong enough — Aiya, 
nan yeppothum eftk tukruth'ille yenukku pellam paathe, 

Who am I to eend to carry master's clothes box ?— Tureude 
udupu petti tukka yare anupren ? 

Anyone will do — Yarum seri irukum. 

Kangany, look at those boys they are doing nothing — 
Kangani, antha pod'an par, avan^al Qnnum seiruth'ille. 

What do you want? — Unukku enna venum ? 

Nothing — Unnum ille. 

Then why do you always stand there? — Appo ye ni J ep- 
pothum ange nikruthu? 

I am loafing— Nan suma nikren. 

Notody need go— Ortrum poa vendiuth'ille. 



NOTE l.—Thc word 'suma' indicates any aimless action 
or remark. 

Suma adikruthu — Hitting for no reason. 

Suma pesruthu— Talking rot. 

Suma kelkruthu — Asking for no particular reason, etc. 

L 3. If. This is translated by changing the termi- 
nation ' en* of the Past Tense into '-al' for all persons 
singular end plural. 

Note.— The 'V of 'al' is often unpronounced in common speech 

Another Form ia -aka added in the same way. 

NOTE /.—'If Not' is translated by -ate added tn the 

Infinitive folloiued by the word ' ponal V k These apply to 
both singular and plural. 

Every letter must be pronounced. 

a as 'u' in Fun. e as V in Pen. 

a ,, 'a' ,i Father. i „ V „ Pin. 

o as "o in More. 

* Vuttal (from 'vrida', to leave) can also l>e used instead of 'ponal' 
and ia better Tamil, (often pronounced ' vittftl '). Ponaka is alao 
heard : '•dukate ponaka' etc. 



32 



COOLY TAMIL. 



EXAMPLES. 

If I blame ( £ Sn y esna [ 
\ Nan yesnaka 

"I«° {S Sal 
f Nan ponal 

If I go -| Nan ponaka 

[{Past Part.: 'poV) 

It i„„, m „o f Avail vantal 
It no come 3 < . . , 

(Avan vantaka 

If I am fe n \ runt *[ 

^N&n mnitaka 

Yenukku irun- 

tal [taka 

Yenukku irun- 



Iflaonotbtae^X^ 
II I do not take { ^""j" 1 "'''' 



(Nan poa t e 
( ponal 



If I do not go 

If he does not (Avan varate 
[come \ ponal 

fNan irukate 



If I am not 



If I have not 



(Illate; ponal 
Yenukku 
irukate (il- 
late) ponal 



Note. — Ii'ukate is changed into 'illate'. 

'Op' can be translated by illate (see Sentence No. 167 ) 

l_. 4- for the Past and other tenses the auxiliary 

js used for the negative with 'ponal'. (See Page 88 and Ps. 12 . 



1 f I took 
If I went 
If I came 
If I wa s 
If I had 



Nan edutt'iruntal 
Nan po(i)'iruntal 
Nan vanl'iruntal 
Nan irunt'iruntal 



Yenukku irunt' 
[iruntal 



If I did not ( Nan edutt'illate 

take ( ponal 

If I did not [Nan po'illate 

go \ ponal 

If I did l.ot ( Nan vant'illate 

come I ponal 

fNan irunt'illato 



If I was not 
If 1 iiad not 



( ponal 
Yenukku irunt : 
illate ponal 



EXAMPLES. 



If I take this leaf the kangani says it is bad w r ork — Intha 
ele nan edutal at hi agathe veile kangani sollruthu. 

Call the Kangany, I will show him- Kangani kupidu, 

avanukku katuven. 
If you do not take these leaves I say it is not good work — 

Ni inth'ele edukate \ onal athi nalla veile ille sollren. 
Master, If I go now I cannot be back quickly — Dore, nan 

ippo ponaka sunka var'elathe. 
All right, if you do not come back in time it does not 

matter — Seri, ni neitodu varate ponal kaiiam ille. 

[A 1(a); A 4.] 

Every letter must he, pronounced. 

u as 'u' in Rule. ei as 'ei' in Weight, 

a „ 'u' ,, Put (as 'e' in ai ,, 'ai' ,, AiBle. 

Hundred when final). 



DOOLY TAMIL 33 

If he had come at once I would have given hioi the money — 
Avan satne vant'iruntal avanukku kasi kudutt'irupen. 

If I do not come to the bungalow do not wait— Nftn ban- 
galaukku varate ponal nikathe. 

If yon cannot finish the kanak (amount, task) the Con- 
duct r gave I wi 1 not put you a name— Kondak unukku 
kuiutufthu) kanak mudi'elate ponal unukku per poda- 
maten. 

If Ramasarny hai come at the time I called him the work 
would have been finished now — Nan kupidu'neram Ram- 
asami vant'iruntal veile ippo mudintt'irukum. 

If he did not come why did yon wait? — Avan vant'illate 
ponal ni ye nintutbu? 

If the head kangany rad been there yesterday— Peria 
kangani neitu ange iruntaka. 

That is all right, if I tell him to stop he must stop — Athi 
seri, nan avane nikfca sonal avan nikka tan venum (the 
word 'tan' Inserted here emphasises the 'must'). 

If she takes this leaf will it be all right ? — Aval intha ele 
edutaka seri irukuma? 

If you do as I tell you the work will get finished — Nan 
unukku sonna'maderi ni seithal veile mudinttu poura. 

If you had done as 1 told you — Nan unukku sonna'maderi 
ni seith'iruntal. 



Every letter must be pronounced. 

aa 'n' io Fun. as V in Pen. 

„ 'a' ,, Father. i „ 'i ,, Pin, 

o as *o' in More, 



m 



COOLY TAMIL. 



M- Cardinal Numbers- (Remember the ri> al *u' is 

pronounced short as V in Hundred.) 

NO r TE 1 — Dividing lines are here inserted to show the con- 
struction of the figures, they will be written as one word afterwards. 



1 . 


. Unnu, oru, 


28 .. 


. Iruwat/ettu. 


>2 


.. Rendu. 


'29 .. 


. Iruwat/oror; athu. 


3 '. 


Munu. 


30 • 


. Miipathu. 


4 . 


.. Nalu. 


40 .. 


. Napathu. 


5 . 


• Anj . 


50 .. 


Ampathu. 


6 . 


Aru. 


60 . 


Aruwathu. 


7 • 


.. Yelu. 


70 . 


Yeluwathu. 


8 • 


.. Yettu. 


80 . 


Yeropathu. 


9 


.. Ompathu. 


90 . 


. Ton/nuru. 


10 . 


.. Pattu. 


100 . 


. Num. 


11 


Patt/in/unnu. 


101 . 


Nutti/unnu. 


1 O 


( Pann/i/rendu. 
{(Vulg. : pann'endul 


1'20 • 


Nutti/iruwathu. 


1 1 


130 . 


. Nutti/mupathu. 


13 • 


. Patt/i/munu. 


190 . 


Nutti/t 'n/nuru. 


14 


.. Patt/i/nalu. 


191 . 


Nutti/ton/nutti/ 


15 . 


.. Patt/in/anji 




[unnu. 


16 


.. Patt/in/aru. 


'200 . 


Iru/nuru 


17 


Patt/in/elu. 


201 • 


- Iru/nutti/unnu. 


18 


Patt/in/ettu. 


•299 


Iru/niitti/ton/nuru. 


19 


.. Patt /ompathu. 


300 • 


Mfi/nuru. 


•jo 


Iruwathu. 


400 • 


• N a /nuru. 


•21 


Iruwat/unnu. 


500 . 


An /nuru. 


22 


Iruwat/i/rendu. 


60) . 


A/ nuru. 


23 


Iruwa'/i/munu. 


700 . 


Yelu/nuru 


2t 


Iruwat/i/nalu. 


800 • 


.. Yettu/nuru. 


25 


.. Iruwat/a- ji. 


900 . 


Tol/airam. 


'26 


Iruwat/am. 


L000 . 


Airam. 


'-'7 


.. Iruwat/elu. 


1 01 . 


.. Airat/i/unnu. 



NOTE 2. — Observe how an 'n J is inserted before number* 
beginning with a vowel from 15 to 18, and absence of an 'i' 
before numbers beginning with a vowel from 19 onwards. The 
omitted figures ars» formed regularly as the examples given. 



Every letter must he pronounced. 

n Rul<\ ei as 'ei' in Weight, 

,, Put (as 'e' in ai ,, 'ai' „ Aisle. 



'u' 
Hundred when final). 



COOLY TAMILi 



35 



NOTE 3. — Nuruj 100, always changes into nutti before 
another number, and Airara, 1000, into airati. 



1,900 
'2,000 
2,Of2 
3,000 

10,000 



Airati/iol/airano. | 20,000 
Rend/airam. | 100,000 

Rend/airati/rendu | 200,000 
Mun/airam 1,912 

Patt/aiiam. 



Iruwath/airam. 
Lecbam. 
Rendu lecbam, 
Airati t la i rati 
[pannirendu. 



9,999 



Ompath'airati'tolftirati'tonnut'om; athn. 



NOTE 4- — Before words beginning with a vowel the foregoing 
drop their final vowel. 



Oce by one 
Two by two 
Three by three 
Evey other one 
Every other two 



Un unnu, or, ov'oru. 
Rendu-rendu, or, revendu. 
Vu-miinu. 
Unnu vut'unnu. 
Rendu vfltu rendu 



EXAMPLES. 

Take up rowj one by one — Nerre un-unnu pudi. 

Take* by two's— Rev'endu pudi. 

Se id two coolies t) clean out drains — Kan valoikka 

rend : al anupu. 
Ho* many plucktrs have gone to Uovindei's He'd ? — ('lovin 

den maleikki tttane ftl.ponuthu ? 

Sir, I have sent forty and three kanea ies ; five women 
with babies will go later— Niipath'alum, raunu kangau- 
ium anupunen'anga (sir), anji pulle-kari (i.e. taby- 
females) poragu pcruthu. 

Forty coo'ies is not enough ; kangany, wh«n the Conduc- 
tor comes to this field tell him to Pond ten more — 
N&path al pattathe, Kangani, komlak intha maleikki 
vantu ne *am inoru patt'al anupa sollu. 

To each Kangany put fifteen coolies — 'Jvoru kangauikki 
pattinanji al podu 

CJiveto each of twenty two coolies one mamoty and one 
alavanga — Iruvvatirend'al ovor'fllukku c>rn inamati oru 
alavanga kudu. (Note 'oru' is "scd before a noun \, t , 
'one instead nf 'unnu). 



Every letter must he pronounced. 



a as 'u' 



Fun. 
Father. 



Pen. 

Pin. 



aa V in JJo c- 



38 



COOLY TAMIL. 



If you bring new coolies I will give you Rs. 120 on 
advance eccount, and Rs. 10 on Check Roll account— Ni 
puth'al kondu vantal ac vans kanakile nutti iruwathu rua 
taruven, Chek Rol kanakile pattu rua taruven. 

Your Check Roll pay n Kb. 41-25— Un Chek Rol samia- 
lam (pay) napati'oru rua iiuwatanji sadam irokruthu. 

Master, tell me my account separately — Dore, yen kanak 
vevere soll'anga. 

All right, your head money is Rs. 19'69, your 'peijce' money 
is hs. o'O.'l, your nam*- pay Rs. 9'25,y. ur weeding contract 
Rs 6*28, total Rs. 41*25— Seri, un peri i pensup atrompathu 
rua aruwat'ompathu sadam irukruthu, un pensu kasi aru 
rua munu sadam, mi per sampalam ompathu rua iruwat- 
anji sadam, un pillu vetta contrap aru rua jeluwatettu 
sadam, mottarn (total) napatti'oru rua iruwatanji sadam. 

Give him two knives and three bill hooks — Avanukkn 
rendu katti, munu vettu-katti kudu 

We have p'anted 1,052 plants — Nangal airati ampattirendu 
kandu natt'irukruthu. 

2,500 plants more are needed — Id nam (more, stiir* rend' 
airati anni\ru kandu vendiuth'irukruthu. 



M ( 1. Ordinal Numbers*— These are formed from 
the CARDINALS by adding -am (.except in 'the first'). The 
cardinal drops its final v&tvel. 



1st 
2nd 

3rd 
4th 
5th 



mothal. 
rend am. 
miinam. 
nalam. 
an jam. 



6th 

7th 

8th 

20th 

100th 



Siam. 

yelam. 

yettftm. 

iruwatham. 

nuram. 



Fractions.' 

1/4 ... 

1/2 .. 
1/8 ... 

3/4 
2/8 



kal. 

are. 

are-kal (A a £). 

mu-kal (3. £). 

kal. 



3/8 kal are-kal (* + 4 a i). 

4/8 ... are. 

5/8 ... are are-kal(£ + £ a J). 

6/8 ... mu-kal (3. £). 

7/8 ... mu-kal are-kal (^ + 4ai). 



NOTE 1.— Observe how each 13 made from the other. Frac- 
tions med as adjectives have -vasi added. 



Every letter must be pronounced. 



as 'a' iu Rule. 
,, 'u' „ Put (as V in 
Hundred when final.) 

* 1/3— MQndil-oru-pangu. 



ei as 'ei' in Weight, 
ai „ 'ai' ,, Aisle. 

(Ora-pangu— a portion.) 



COOLY TAMIL. 37 



EXAMPLES. 



What date is it '?— Ithu enna teidi ? 

It is the first — Ithu rnothal teidi. 

This is the third time I have told you— Ithi munSm nerara 
*unukku sonen. 

The fifth tree from hero— Ingeiliruntu arijam maram. 

Give him only one-eighth bushel of rice — Avanukku are- 
kal pusal ari6i matiram kudu. 

Why master, this is a 2/8 week, I worked six days — Ye, 
dore, ithi kal pusal kilame, nan aru nal veile seinten. 

No, in my pocket Check Roll there are only four days' 
name — Ille, namma kai Check Rolile nalu nal per mati- 
ram irukruthu, 

I will see the Conductors pocket Check Roll — Kondakude 
kai Chek Rolile {i.e. hand Check Roll) papen. 

Last week she had two-eighths so this week I issued one- 
eighth — Ponu kilame avalukku kal pusal iruntuthu, 
appo intha kilame are-kal pathintt'irukren. (Pathia - to 
issue). 

Sir, the head kangany is asking for one and a half bush* Is 
— Aiya, peria kangani unn'are pusal kelkruthu. 

Tomorrow is the 26th — Naliki iruwatiaram teidi. 

The new coolies came from the coast on the 19th — Puth'al 
simeiliruntu pattompatham teidi vantuthu. 

Give me half — Yenukku are-vasi kudu. 

You see those sacks, don't you? give me half of them — 
Antha sak kankruth'illea ? yenukku are-vasi kudu 

There is a bushel of rice at the rice store, give the Kanaka- 
pulle three-quarters of it — Arisi istorile oru pusal arisi 
irukruthu, Kanakapulleikki mu-kalvasi kudu. [thu. 

There are forty-four coolies waiting — Napattinal'al nikru- 

Send half to carry firewood, the other half to pluck — Are- 
vasi veragu tukka anupu, matt'are-vasi koluntukku. 



Every letter must be pronuuuccd. 

a as 'a' in Fun. o as 'ei' in Peu. 

a „ 'a' ,, Father. i ., 'i' „ Fin. 

o aa 'o' in More. 
* Unakkn— to you. Unnukku-to ono. (Seo A.) 



38 OOOLY TAMIL. 



N. Much, Too much. Many 

Much ... Micham. 

Many ... Micham, nrichuda 

Less ... Korre. 



Too much .. Remba. 
More ... Kuda, innam. 

Witri* ... Kuda, kuditi. 



The rest (etcettra) ... Socham, mithi. 

EXAMPLES. 

There is a lot of noise -Micham sattam irukruthu. 
There is too much noise — Rtmba sattam irukruthu 
Call ten coolies, the rest may remain there — Patt'al 

kupidu, soch'al ange nikattam. 
I told you it was Rs. 5, Rs. 6, Rs. 9, etc. — Anji rQa, Aru 

rua, ompathu rua, socham iruntuthu ii'ukku tonen 
Where are the rest of tbe coolies— Mith'al enge nikruthu. 
Why did you give too mujb — Ni ye reaiba kudututhu. 
8end fifteen children to weed, the rest can pluck — Pattin- 

anii pulle pillu vetta anupu, socham koluntukku 

po elam. 
Give a little more — Konjam kuda kudu. 
Take still more — Innam edu. 

Don't take more than th ; s — Ithiknra kuda edukathe. 
1 will not take less than Rs 8— Yettu ruaukku korre nan 

edukkamaten. 
This amount is less than that — lntha kanakukku athikum 

koire (irukruthu). 
Go with him — Avan kuda pc, or, avail kuditi po. 
Come with me — Yene kuda va, 

N. 1. In Order to. For Doing.! The gerund is 

formed by adding ukku to the third person of the 
Present Tense , This is very common form of speech ana, 
must be learnt, 

EXAMPLES. 

For doing ... Seiruthukku. 

For cutting ... Vettruthukku, ete. 

What do you want knives for? For cutting firewood — 
EnnStukkn unukku katti venum ? Veragu vettruthukku. 

Every letter must be pronounced. 

as V in Rule ei as 'ei' in Weight. 

U ,, V „ Put (as 'e' iu ai „ *ai' „ Aisle. 

Hundred when final). 

* For without see T. 

t -ukkaha ia also heard. Ssiruthukkaba, veUruthukktha, etc. 



COOLY TAMTL. 39 

What Co you want money foi ■? To give to Mm for payin: 
off a debt — Ennatukku unukku kasi venum? Avanukku 
kudukka oru kadan katruthukku. 

Why do you buy potatoes ? For eating — Ni ye kelangu 

vankruthu? Tinkruthukko. 
I advanced him money in order to retain him— Avane 

nipatruthukku tan nan advans kasi kuduten. 
Have you come to work or to play?— Ni veilikki vantutha, 

velei-adruthukku vantutha ? 

N. 2. Days of the Week.— 

Sunday ... Naitu kilame. 

Monday ... Tinkal kilame. 

Tuesday ... Seva kilame. 

Wednesday ... Puthan kilame. 

Thursday ... Vieala, Viyala kilame. 

Friday ... Velli kilame. 

Satu day ... Saini kilame. 

A day ... Oru nal. 

A week ... Oru kilame. 

Awtekday ... Oru kilame nal 

Night ... Ratiri, raval. 

Morning ... Kalambre, kalame. 

Ccck crow ... Koli kflpidu, 

EXAMPLES. 

Come on Monday — Naitu kilame ra. 

If you had come on last Tuesday it would have boon 

better — Ponu Seva kilame ni vant'iruntal tevelea (irunf 

iruputha). 
He must go at cock crow — Koli knpidu (neram) avan 

po'onum. 
He worked for one week only— Oru kilame matlram avan 

veile seintuthu (often pronounced 'sinjuthu' ). 
I will speak to you in the evening— Saintaratile [see 

A 1. («) ] unukku pesuven. 
1 heard much noise in the night— Kavile micham sattam 

keitten. 
Come in the morning — Kalambre va. 



Every letter must be pronounced. 

•u' in Fun. e as 'e' in Pen. 

'a' ,. Father. i „ *i' ,, Fin. 

o as V in Mora. 



40 



COOLY TAMIL. 



YeBterday 

Day before yesterday. 

Four days ago 

Tomorrow 

Day after tomorrow . 

Next week 

Last week 

The week before last , 



Neitu. 

Mundam nal (third day), or, mundam 

Ithukku mindi nalu nal. [nei u. 

Naliki. 

Nalandiki [ing week). 

Adatu kilame, or, varu kilame (com- 

Ponu kilame (gone week), or, mud- 

inttu kilame (finished week), 
Munam kilame. 



EXAMPLES. 

1 told him to come three weeks ago— Ithukku mindi munu 

kilame avaue varasonen. 
If I come back tomorrow I will tell him to go next day — 

Naliki nan va-jtal avane ada'u nal poa eolluven. 
The week before last you only worked four days— Milt am 

(or, mundam) kilame ni nalu nal matiram veile seintuthu 
So next week you must tome to work six days without fail 

(m'ssing)— Appo varu kilame aru nal tappame ni veileik- 

ki var'onum. 



N. 3. Months of the Year.— 



January 


... Tai 


February 


... Masi 


March 


... Panguni 


April 
May 


... Sitire 


... Veiasi 


June 


. . . Ani 


July 


... Adi 


August 


... Avani 


September 


... Peratftsi 


October 


... Appia 


November 


.- Katia 


December 


... Makali 



masam 



In January— Tai maeatile A l_(a). 
From July to December — Adi 
masatukku. 



masam vaichi* makali 



E 


very letter 


in 


list 


be 


pronounced. 






a 


Rule. 








ei 


as 'ei' 


in 


Weight. 




Put (aa 'e' 


in 






ai 


„ 'ai' 


O 


Aisle. 



Hundred when final). 
Vaichias Vdittu, having left, (hence*=from).\ [See Sentence 434. 



OOOLY TAMIL. +1 



P- Time-— 

An hour ... ... Oru uiani neram. 

In (during) an hour's time ... Oru mini nertile. 
Ago ... ... ... Ithukku mindi. 

After, Since ... Pidpadu, pinne. 

{takes dative before it) . 

EXAMPLES. 

What time 16 it ?— Ettane mani (irukruthu '?) 

It is three o'clock — Munu mani. 

It has gone four o'clock — Nalu mani achi.* (See F 3.) 

Ten past six— Aru mani pattu nimasum (minute). 

Half past ten — Patt'are mani. 

It is past twelve o'clock— Pannirendu mani achi. 

A quarter to one — Pannirendu mu-kal mani, or, oru 

manikki pattinanji nimasum. 
One o'clock — Oru mani. 
At one o'clock — Oru manikki. 
Twenty five past two — Rendu mani iruwatanji. 
Quarter past nine — Ompathu kal mani. 
It is late— Neram achi. 

It was very late — Micbain neram achi iruntuthu. 
It is too late — Romba neram achi. 
Three hours ago— Ithukku mindi raflnu mani neram. 
Two hours after this — Ithukku pidpadu rendu mani neram. 

* X"te that 'achi' ran be used alone. Ps. IS. 

P. 1. When, While. There are several ways of 
translating these words and their equivalent phrases. 

(a). Yeppo ?— When? (interrogative). 

(b). Neram, nertile — Time, at the time. Used with the 
required tense of the verb. 

(c). pothu suffixed to the impersonal future. (J 2.) 

EXAMPLES- 

\\ lien are you going ? — Ni yeppo poruthu? 

When did you finish that ?— Ni atho yeppo mudintuthu. 

When I am going to work don't come to the bungalow to 

speak to me — Nan veileikki poruthu nertile bangalaukku 

yene kitta varathe. (Note to D I.) 



Everv letter most be pronounced. 




a as 'u' in Fnn. o as *e' in 


Pen. 


a ., 'a' „ Father. i ,, 'i' . 


l'iu. 


as V in Mi re. 









42 COOLY TAMIL. 

While I was talking to him the head kangany came — 

Avanukku nan pesrn(thn) neram peria kangani vantnthn. 
"While he was going a'ong the road — Avan nedua (along) 

rotodu pornthu nerara. 
Wiile 1 am go ng to the hunga'ow I will stop at the lines 

and call a cooly — Nan bangalaukku poum-pothu laiata 

kitta nintu o.'al kupiduven. 
When 1 w as coming from the coast— Nan simei-iliruntu 

varum-pothu (this method of saying 'when', 'while,' is in 

very common use). 

P. 2. To Puli PODA. — This verb can always be used 
in the Past Participle after anoth< r verb without 
greatly altering its meaning :— 

Take this and go— Tthi tduttu pottu po, 

He sp ke <o him ike that and then went away — Avanukku 

appadi pesi potty, ponuthu. (^ee D.) 
Ihs waits washing tell him— Ithi kalu'onum avanukku 
Break this stone— Intha kal cdittu podu. [solli podu. 

The verb 'kolla/ to take to onself, obtain, may te 
used in a like manner ; and as a reflexive verb. 

Pesi konden ... I spoke myself. 

Nan eduttu konden ... I (myself; took. 

Kondu po, etc. _.. Having obtained go 

P. 3. Until. This is translated by -varikum placed 

after the Impersonal Future (see J 2.) forjthe Present, 
and alter the Past Participle for the Past Tense. 

EXAMPLES. 

Wait there until I come— Nan vaium- varikum auge nillu. 

Wait until he goes— Avan poum-varikum nillu. 

L ave the books hire until I come back — Nan tirumbi 

varura-varikum postakum i"g9 vai. 
Go to work leaving the knives here until the other coolies 

return— Matt'al tirumbi virum-varikum katti inje vaitlu 

veileikki po. 
Hold the rope until I tell you to let go — Nan vuda sollurn- 

varikum kavuru pudi. [ninten, 

I wait' d until master came — Dore vantu-varikum nan 
Did Amuratham wait until you spoke to the kangany ? — 

Kanganikki ni pesi varikum Amuratham nintutha ? 
Don't cut those small branches until the pluckers have 

taken the flush — Kolunt'al koluntu eduttu'varikum 

antha sinna vathu vettathe. 

Every letter must be pronounced. 

u as 'u' in Rule. ei as c ei' in Weight. 

u ,, 'u* „ Pat (as 'e' in a> „ 'aj' ,, Aisle. 

Hundred when final;. 



COOLY TAMIL. 43 



R. As Soon as.* Same- 'As soon as ! , is translated 
bv the addition of -udane to the Past _ Participle. 

'Same', 'kind : , 'sort', is translated 'oru maderi ' This 
word can also be used as an indication of inefficiency when 
pronounced with a very prolonged '&', as in sentences marked (*). 

EXAMPLES. 

As soon as I te'l you to go you must go — Nan tine poa 
soll'udane ni poa tan vtnura. (See 12th example, L 4.) 

As soon as he spoke like that I sent him to the lines — 
Avan appa li pes'udane avane laiatukku anupanen. 

As soon as I come back this held must be finished— N&n 
tirumbi vaut'udane intha male mudintt'iruk'onum. 

Everyone must do the same sort of work— Ell'al oru 
maderi veile eei'onum. 

The baskets are all the same — Ellam ktide oru mftderi 

tan. (S 2.) 
Is that cooly well yet ?- Antba'alukku innam sogam 

irukrutha ? 
*No, he is not quite well — Hie, avan oru maderi irukruthu 
What did the kangany say ?— Kangani etna sonuthu ? 
*He prevaricated — Avan oru maderi pesnuthu. 
*The new coolies are not up to much — Piith'al oru maderi 

irukruthu. 
"This work is fair (neither good nor bad) — Intha veile oru 

maderi irukruthu. 
If you do this sort of work I will put you all sick — Intha 
maderi veile soithal uno ollam sikti poduvou. 



Every letter must be pronounced. 

a as V in Fun. e as 'e' in Peu. 

a ,, 'h' „ Father. i „ 'i' „ Pin. 

o as V in More. 
Udaue' when not U9ed ag a ^uftix nieana 'at once , 'imraodiately' 
Udane va -Come at once. 

Go.' ;md tell bin to s-sf . >] » tliu water at ouoo — I'oittu, tanni 
udane nipat<\ sollu. 



(I COOLY TAMIL. 



S. Self, Own, Just.— Tan, Sanda, Tan. 

He himself went— Avan tan ponuthu. 

I said that myself— Athi nan tan sonen. 

She herself told me so— Aval tan yenukku sonuthu. 

Who took that row ?— Yar antha nerre pudituthu? 

I myself— Nan tan (I did.) 

Tnis is his own knife (belongs to him)- Ithi avan sanda 

kitti. 
Sevetiamma is one of his own coolies— Sevetiamma avan- 

ude sandal tar. 
Ifc Is master's own estate— Djreude sanda totum. 
(Yon) must do (it) just like that— Appadi tan sei'onura 

(A 2 Note 1 ) 
1 am just going— Nan ippo tan poren. 
That is just what I said— Athu tan sonen. 
Quite right, all right— Seri tan. 
That's just it — Athu tan, 
Whose is this mamoti? (only) his— Ithi yarude maniati ? 

Avanukku tan. 
She just must do as she is told— Avalukku sonu'niaderi 

aval seia tan venum. (See 1st Example to K.) 

S« 1. Tangal, the plural of 'tan', self, is a honor- 
ific form of speech for the Singular. 

Tangal sonar— He (master) said. (See Appendix.) 
Tangal kelk'onum — MaBter should ask. 

S. 2.— 'Tan' can be said to take the place of the 

auxiliaries, 'to have' and 'to be', thus: 

Is this his ? — Ithi avanukku tana ? 
Yes, it is his — Ami athi avanukku tan. 
Ramalingam kangany is also there— Ramalingara kaoga- 
niura (Ps, 2) ange tan. 



Every letter must be pronounced, 
a as 'a' in Rule. ei as 'ei' in Weight, 

u 'u' „ Put (at> 'e' in ai ,, 'ai' ,, Aisle, 

Hundred when final). 



UOOLY TAMIL. 45 

Has he a knife ?— Avanukku katti tana ? 

We have plenty of scrap rubber — Yecgalukku raicham 
ottu-pal tan. 

Tan is not used with a negative : 

They have not enough latex— Avangalukku pal pattathp. 
(See Example to A 3.) 

She has no weeding maniati — Avalukku kottu-mamati illo. 

NOTE 1.— Tan is also used for the sake of euphony 
or meaning 'in fact', thus : 

Did you give the money?— Ni kaei kudututhu tana? 

(Lit. : Bid you in fact give the money T) 
Are you going ?— Ni poruthu tana ? (Are you in fact going ?) 

The above are very common expressions. 



Every letter must lie pronounced. 

a as V in Fun. e as V in Pun 

ft „ 'a' ., Father. i ,, 'i' „ Pin. 

o as 'o' in More. 



46 COOLY TAMIL. 



T. For, Fop That Reason. Tlrs is translated by 

adding -aha to the dative form of the noun 
For that ... Athukkaha. 

For this ... Ithukkaha. 

It was for that (reason) that I gave mon y— Athukkaha nan 

kasi tanten. 
It was for this reason I put her 'sick '—Ithukkaha ava'e 

nan eiku poten. 

NOTE 1. Without— ; s translate l -illame ame 

added to the Infinitive (which drops its final vowel), or to 
any other word : 

You must stand without talking— Ni pes'ame nik'onum. 

Why do you stand there doing nothing ?— Ye ni unnum 
sei'ame nikiuthu ange ? 

Do those coolies always come to must.r without baskets? 
Anth'al kude-illame yeppothum peratukku varutha? 

I am not well— Nan sogam illame (irukren) (lit : I am 

without health.) 
Don't go without him— Avan'illame poathe. 

T. 1 .—The plural form of titles should be employed ; 
this is formed by adding -mar to the singular : 

Gentlemen ... Doremar 

Kanganies ... Kanganimar. 

To the masters ... Doremarubku. 

To the kanganies ... Kanganimarukku, etc. 

He saw three gentlemen on the bungalow road— Bangala 
rotile avan munu doremar kanduthu. 

If the work is not good I will put the kanganies sick— 
Veile nalla illate ponal kanganimar siku poduven. 



Every letter must be pronounced. 

as V in Role. ei as 'ei' in Weight, 
u ,, 'u' „ Put(aa'e'iu ai ,, 'ai' „ Aisle. 

Hundred when final). 

*nwre correctly illamal, which is «omethne» heard. 



COOLY TAMIL. +7 



SENTENCES. 



The following sentences, are not 'word lor word' trans- 
lations, so any difficulty in understanding words, on account of 
'fres' fcranlation, can be overcome by looking up the Tamil 
words in the Vocabulary at the end. 

The following sentences, and those appearing in previous 
pages, are such as are used ('very day on estates. 

The references are to Paragraphs in the Grammar where the 
words in italics have been dealt with. 

NOTE. — (a) P : bracketed stands for 'pronounced.' When a 
word or words have had the pronunciation shown two 
or three times it will cease to be indicated. 

(b) Remember that long 'a' at the end of a word asks 
a question, and often takes the place of the final 
vowel of that word. 

(c) Words ending in a vowel usually drop it before 
another vowel and an apostrophe substituted. 

id) 'urn' suffixed with :i hyphen means 'and', hut it will 

generally he omitted. 
Remember the pronoun may he omitted before the 

verb, 
(f) Instead of using the simple Imperative thecooly 

very frequently employs the Past Participle of the 

principle verb followed by a verb in the Imperative. 

(See Sentences Nos. HI. 102, 12';, 139, 145, 172. 207, 

246, 27D, 297, etc : and Ul and P2.) 
The English is nearly always completely transposed when 

translating into Tamil. This is usually caused by 

heme obliged to use. adjectival phrases instead of 

relative clauses, and in order to get the principle 

\ei h at the end of the sentence. 



MISTKK. 

1. Beat the tom-tom — Tappu adi. 

2. Beat the tom-tom again— Tappu ttrumb'adi. Al(b) 

8. Tell I'arasoii to hear, the torn -torn ParaSOD tappu 

adikka sollu. A3(Noije 1.) 

4. Hurry np, run — Surruk'odu. Al(b). 

5. Be quick, it is Late Surruka. neram achi. F3. 

6. It is six o'clock — Iru maai achi. A3(7th sentence.) 



l,s COOLY TAMIL. 

7. Kangani, shout for the coolies to come Kangani, al 
varathukhu sattam podu. Nl. 

8. Turasainy, go and call the coolies from Ramasamy's 
lines— Turasami, poittu, RamaBammde laiatiliruntu al kupidu. 
Al(a); A4(Note 1.) 

9. Have all the coolies come?— Ell'al vantutha? CI 
(Note 1.) 

10. Yes, sir, that is all— Im'aiya.avalo tan. A3; Al(b); S. 

11. I think there should, be more— Athihum al iruk'onum 
nineikren. LI. 

12. Shall I go and see, sir?— Nan pdttu poatingaZd. D; 
Appendix D. 

13. Yes, go and see— Ama, pox par. D; Dl(Note 1). 

14. Kangani, the coolies must come to muster earlier— Kan- 
gani, al innam vellana peratukku v£Lr' onum. 

15. Master, I stood by the bridge and called for half an hour 
— Dore, nan are mani neram pdlata kitta nintu kupiten. Al (a) 
exception. 

16. That's all right but tomorrow those who should come late 
will be put sick — Athi seri, nalikki pindi vayiVal siku j>ott'irukum. 
G2; Jl. 

17. Tell all the coolies that— Athe eH'aliikku sollu. B(Note 1). 

18. Stand properly there— Seria nillu ange. B(Note 1.) 

19. Kanakapulle, tell all the good pluckers to stand 
separately — Kanakapulle, ellam nalla kolunt'al vevere nikka 
sollu. B2. 

20. Stand two by two— Rendu-rendu nillu. M. 

21. Are these all tippers? How many boys are there? Seven. 
— Ivangal ellam mattat'ala ? Ettane podian nikruthu ? Yelu. 
Al(a) and (b) ; CI (Note 1.) 

22. They can all go to one field, can't they? — Ellam oru 
malikki po'elam Ulea? A4 ; Bl; HI. 

23. Count and tell me how many there are. Thirty. — Al enni 
pattu ettane nikruthu yenukku sollu. Mupathu. D. 

24. Look, here are 40 coolies, take them to No. 3 field — 
Antha, ndpath'al munam maleikki kondu po. M(Note 4.) 

25. Shall I go the upper road or the lower road — Nan me 
rotu ki'rotu po'onuwia? Cl(Note 1); H. 

26. Go and take up rows from the middle road — Nadu 
rotiliruntu nerre pudikka po. 

27. Stop talking there — Pesathe ange. HI. 

28. There is too much noise — Remba sattam irukruthu. N. 

29. "Why are those men talking so much — Ye anth 'amble 
al avalo pesruthu? Fl. 

30. Come here, Selvam. Yon go and stand over there — 
Inge va, Selvam. Ni ange poi n|lln. D. 



COOLY TAMIL. 49 

31. Pick out all those who can pluck well — Nalla edukka 
teriuth'iil piruttu pndu. G2; P2. (or, terintt'al). 

32. That's it, now those can go and weed in Palan's con- 
tract— Appadi, ippo anth'al Palan kontrapile pillu vetra poatxum. 

33. The others must go and pluck in Govinden's field — 
Matt'al Govinden maleile koluntukku po'o»um. A4(Note 2); 
HI (Note 1.) 

34. If that field is not finished today the kanganies get 
no name— Antha malei inniki mudiate ponal katiganimarukku per 
ille. L3; Tl; A3(7th sentence.) 

35. Take them to work quickly — Surruka veileikki kondu po. 

36. If I give 25 coolies for pruning will that be enough? 
— Kavatukku nan iruwatanji Si kudutal pothum irukumti:' M. 
L3; Jl. 

37. Sir, if there were 30 the field can be finished today — 
Aiya, mupath'al iruntal inniki male mudi'elam. L3. 

38. All right, here you are, give them all the new knives 
— Seri, intha, ellatukku puthu katti kudu. A3(Note 2); B. 

39. No. you cannot. Don't talk so much and do a little work 
— Ille, elathe. Avalo pesathe-um konjam veile sei. 

40. Give to these 15 coolies mamoties and alavangas — 
Intha pattinanji alukku mamatiimt alavangimi kudu. See Note 
(d). to "Sentences." 

41. 350 feet of drain must be cleaned by each cooly for a 
name (i.e., a day's pay) — Perukku ovor'al munutti ampath'adi 
valeik'onum. M(Note 3); Bl(Note 1). 

42. Sir, there is a lot of earth, we cannot finish so much — ■ 
Aiya, micham mannu irukruthu avalo mudi'elathe. N. 

43. Shut up ! and do what you are told — Pesathe ! unukku 
soU'irukruthu maderi sei. F; R. 

44. Are you a man or a woman — Ni ambale ala, pumbale 
ala ! A3(7th example). 

45. You can easily do 350 leet—Ni munutti ampath'adi 
leisi sei'elam. A2. 

46. Take your tools, you lazy fellow— Un aitham edu, ni 
gomara pail. Al. 

47. Kangani, drive those coolies to work at once, look, they 
are standing on the road idle — Kangani, anth'al satne veileikki 
verritu, antha par, avangal mtile xumn nikruthn. A.2 ; A.'!(Note 
2.); T/2(Note 1). 

48. Give 20 leaf sacks and 20 (wire Bhoot) runners, don't 
stand and stare — Iriiwathu koluntu Sak, iniwatlm Brule kudu 
nintu mvlikathe. B2 ; Dl. 

49. Don't cn.wd round the tool shed — Aitham kamara kitta 
kutama nikathe. B2. 

r ><). I'lit a little oil on the runners and hurrj awaj to work 
—Konjam enne uruleikki pottu surruka veilikki po, BKNote li; 
D; CX{Bxample). 



50 OOOLY TAMIL. 

51. I have no mamoty, Sir— : Yenukku mamati Wanga. A3 
(7th Example) ; Appendix C. 

52. Why? Get one — Ye? Unnu vangu. 

53. There are no more — Ange innam ille. N. 

54. All right I will see — Seri, papen. G. 

55. Kangani, give this man an alavanga if there are no 
niamoties— Kangani mamati Mate ponal intk'alukku oru alavanga 
kudu. L3(Note 1). 

56. Now you have given 21 alavangas in all, have you not? 
—Ippo mottam ni iruwati'oru alavanga kudututh' i\\ea? D2. 

57. If these coolies do not hurry and go to work they will 
have half name (i.e., half-a-day's pay)— Anth'al surruku veilikki 
poate ponal avangalukku are per irukum. A2 ; L3; Ml. 

58. Sir, I want some money. — Aiya, yenukku kasi venum. 

Ao. 

59. No, I cannot listen to that now, I am going to the field 
—Ille, athukku nan ippo helk'-elathe nan maleikki poren. HI; CI. 

bO. Come at four o'clock with the head kangani — Nalu 
manikki peria kangani kuda va. N. 

61. Without the head kangani I can do nothing— Peria kan- 
gani illume nan iinnum sei'elathe. L2; T. 

62. The kangani will not come — Kangani vuramatatlie. 01. 

63. Tell him that master says he is to come— Dore avane 
vara sollruthu sollu Al(c); CI. 

64. Then I may go? Yes, go— Appo nan poattumu? (Ami,) 
po. B2(Note 2); K; CI (Note 1). 

PLUCKING. 

65. Come here, kangani— Inge va, kangani (or) ingatu va. 
66.— Where did you take up lines from this morning— Kala me 

engeilir untu nerre pudituthu (P.- pudichuthu). A4 ; D2. 

67. From the lower road — Ki rotiliruntu, (or) pania rotili- 
runtu. B. 

68. Then this is to-day's work— Appo ithi inniki veile idnd 
S; CI (Note 1). 

69. Yes, where master is standing this morning's work— 
Ama, dore nikruthu \ekile intha kalame veile tan. DICNote 2) • 
A4(Note 2); S2. 

70. This is not good work, look— Ithi nalla veile ille, par 
B ; A3 (7th Example). * 

71. Whose is this row?— Intha nerre yarukku'! (or) itlii 
yarude nerre ? E ; A4. 

72. — This is Sellai's row — Ithi Sellai nerre. A4(Note 4). 

73. Call her— Avale kupidu. Al(c). 

74. Have you called her— Avale kilpitutha? D2; CI (Note 1). 

75. When is she coming; tell her to come quickly— Aval 
yeppo varuthu; avale surruka vara sollu. A2; A3(Note 1). 



COOLY TAMIL. 51 

7G. I cannot wait here always — Nan yeppothum inge nikk'- 
elathe. L2; HI. 

77. Sec, there she is coming — Antha par, aval varuthii. 

78. Which is your row 'l—Ethu un nerre ? E; A3(7th 
Example). 

79. Don't look about like that, all the rows are straight— 
Appadi sutti pdkathe, ellam nerre neire irukruthu. HI. 

80. When we finished the rows up to that drain we moved 
up one — Antha kanukku nerre mudinttu. nangal aduttu puditen 
(P : aduchu pudichen). D2; F(Note 1); Postscript 6. 

81. Then which is your row above that drain? — Appo ontha 
kanukku mele ethu un nerre. B. 

82. This is mine — Ithi yenukku. 

83. All right, you may go, call the cooly next to you — 
Seri, ni poattum, unukku adat'al kupidu. K; Bl(Note 1). 

84. This is your row is it z< t ? — Ithi un nerre illea '? 

85. Yes, above the drain— Ama, kanukku mele. 

80. Come and look at this tea — Vantu, intha tei'ele par. D. 

87. Is this good work? — Ithi nalla veilea? Cl(Note 1). 

88. You have plucked leaving a fish >eaf — Ni topal ele 
viiU'edututhu (P : Yaich'edututhu). A3(Note 1); F(Note 1). 

89. Look here, kangani, all fish leaf work — Inge par, kan- 
gani, ellam topal ele veile. B2. 

90. You are an old cooly, why do you pluck like this — Ni oru 
pa/t'al tan, ye ippadi edukruthu? B; S. 

91. Just playing the fool, go to the lines — Suma tele ad- 
ruthu, laiattukku po. L2(Note 1). 

92. Why can't you look after the work, kangani? — Ni, ye 
veile pak'elathe, kangani? 

93. How many coolies are there? 35. Tell them to count 
(one, two, to say tell) — Ettane al nikruthu? Mupattanji. Onnu 
rendu solla sollu. Al ; M. 

94. There are 3 kanganies, the work ought to be faultless — 
Munu kangani nikruthu veile kuttam illdme iruk'onum. H; T 
(Note 1.) 

96. Go on plucking therti — Eduttu po ange. Dl. 

96. Plnok quickly— Surruk'edu. Al(b). 

97. Don't pluck leaving a fish leaf — Topal ele vaitt'edukathe. 

98. Don't pluck leaving two leaves — Rend 'ele vaitt'edukathe. 

99. Don't take bard leaves— Mutt 'ele edukathe. 

100. Take off the stalks Kamlni kalittu podu (P : kali.liu). 
Dl; P2. 

101. Don't take Ecur leafed Btalka together NaVele kambu 
eeitu eduhathe. A 1(b). 

102. Break off the stalks while yon are plucking KoluntU 
edukra' ncrom kambu odittu poda (P : odiebu). PI; A2(Nole I.) 



52 COOLY TAMIL. 

103. If I find four leafed stalks I will put half name— NaTele 
kambu kandal nan are per poduven. L3; G. 

104. Don't stop behind there, all go together — Pindi nikathe 
ange, ellara sendu po. P8; T(Note 1). 

105. Some behind, some in front, how can one look after the 
work properly — Pathi al pindi, pathi al mindi nikruthu veile yep- 
padi seria pak'elam. F3 ; CI. 

106. Pluck slowly then you can take a large amount of leaf! 
— Mulla edu, appo peria ratal kanak eduk'eZaw I H. 

107. Pick carefully — Patiram edu. Kavanama edu. 

108. Don't strip — Motte pudinkathe. TJruathe. 

109. Don't touch side branches — Pakka vathu todathe. B. 

110. Look well in the centre of the tree — Nadu maratile nalla 
par. Al(a). 

111. Pluck clean the two leafed 'bangi' — Kend'ele vanji 
tupara edu. 

112. If there is three leafed 'bangi' break and throw away 
one, leaving one on the tree, having taken one — Mun'ele vanji 
iruntal or'ele eduttu, or'ele visi pottu, or'ele maratile vai. L3; 
A3 (Note 2) ; P2. 

113. Pick thoroughly— Narusa edu. 

114. Don't miss the leaf — Koluntu tappathe. A3(Note 1 (e).) 
115. Don't press the leaf down too much in the basket — 
Kiideile koluntu remba ammakathe. A4(Note 2.) 

110. How many rows taken by each cooly — Or'iilukku ettane 
nerre puditVirukruthu (P : pudich'irukruthu). P. 

117. One by one until those short rows are finished — On- 
unnu, antha korre nerre lmidium-v arikum. M; P3. 

118. Are these all short rows — Ithi ellam korre nerrea. Al. 

119. Yes, sir, when we get to the ridge I will give two and 
two again^ — Am'aiya, antha modukukku vantu tirumbi rev'endu 
kudupen. D ; M ; G. 

120. Conductor those 20 coolies must go to tipping — Kondaktu 
antha iruwath'al mattatukku po'onum (or) mattam odikka 
po'onum. E(Note 1). 



TIPPING. 

121. Break to a level — Mattatukku odi. Al (a). 

122. Break leaving two leaves above the fish leaf — Topal 
eleikki mele rend'cle vaitt'odi. 

123. Don't break leaving one leaf— Or'ele vaitt'odikathe. 

124. Leave the tea properly level— Tei ele seria mattatukku 
vai. 

125. Hurry up and go to the next tree, it is enough for tbib 
— Surruka adatu maratukku po, ithukku pothum. 



COOLY TAMIL. 53 

156. Look for the top branch tben break the stalk two leaves 
above fish leaf — Me vathu pattu apuram topal eleikki mele 
rend'ele vditt'odi. Dl. 

127. That's right, now break all the branches (stalks) to that 
level — Athi seri, ippo antha niattatukku ellani vathu odittu podtt. 
P2. 

128. That is all, don't touch it any more — Avalo tan innam 
todathe. Fl;N. 

129. Don't touch a single (any) side branch — Pakka vathu 
oru vathu todathe. 

130. If the side branches are left a little high it does not 
matter— Pakka vathu konjam osaram vaitt'iruntal kariam ille. L4. 

131. If you break too low you cannot put the tree right after- 
wards — Ni remba panitt 'odittal niaram apuram serikatt'elathe. 
(P : panichu odichal). L3. 

132. If it is a little high it can be broken to a level next 
week (week which is coming) — Konjam osaram iruntiil caru'kilame 
niattatukku odik'elam. G2. 

133. Next week it will be easy to see the level — Varu kilame 
mattam pakka leisi irukum. Jl. 

134. Stand below the tree to break it — Maratukku kile nintu 
odi. 

135. If you stand above you cannot see properly — Me pakkam 
nintal aeria kank'elathe. 

13(3. Before breaking take the flush off — Odikru' mindi 
koluntu edu. Dl(Note 2). 

137. Only take a leaf and a bud — Or'ele-u>n tiri-um matiram 
edu. A3(Note 2); B. 

138. If I find big leaves in the basket I will punish you— 
Kudeile peri'ele kandal une nan tandipen. Al(b); AI(c); B. 

139. Don't break the middle branches too low — Nadu vathu 
remba panittu odikathe. (P : panichu). Dl. 

140. As soon as the tree is finished it Bhould be like a table 
— Maram mudintt'iidawe mese mUderi tan iruk'omiin. (P : mu- 
dinch'udane). R; S2(Note 1.) 

141. Don't touch anything below the pruned stump— Kavatu 
katte kile iinnum todathe. L2. 

142. On the lower side of the tree, several leaveB may be left 
to a stalk — Maratukku pania pakkatile micham ele oru kambukku 
yaitt'irukattum. K; N. 

143. On the upper side only tun Me pakkafile rendu 
matiram. 

144. Don't leave two leaves all round the tree Maratukku 
Butti rend 'cli ■ vaik'athe. 

1 t.j. Go on there, break the level quickly— Mattarn odittu 
po, BUxruka (P i odiehu po). 

116. Put two hands to it — Athukku rendu kfii podu. 



54 COOLY TAMIL. 

147. Leave the small trees — Sirma maram vtittu po Dl. 

148. The tea that has not sprouted properly must be left alone 
— Seria molikathe tei ele suma vaik'onum. G2 ; L2(Note 1.) 

149. If the tree is not two feet wide you don't want to break 
it— Maram rend'adi agalam Mate ponal ni odikka vunda. L3. H. 

150. The small trees can be left to grow tall— Sinna maram 
valantu valara vaikattum. K. 

151. Later on they can be cut across level with a knife — 
Poragu katti pottu mattatukku cett'elam. A4. Bl. 

152. The small trees must be left to spread — Sinna maram 
virrikka vara vaik'onum. 

153. Kangani, I will not weigh the leaf this morning, there 
is not enough — Kangani, kalambre nan nirukkarnafe>? , koluutu 
pattathe. Gl. 

154. Look at this tree, Sinnama, is that a good level? — Intha 
maram par, Sinnama, athi nalla nattama? 

155. Don't talk nonsense, don't you know the work — Sum/It 
pesathe, veile unukku teriatha? L2(Note 1); H; CI (Note 1). 

156. Call, Annama, what is the mistake in this tree — Annama 
kupidu, intha maratile enna kuttam irukruthu? 

157. Show me, don't you know — Kambi, unukku teriatha? 

158. Put that tree right — Antha maram serikattu. 

159. Yes, that's it, you know quite well — Ama, athi tan, 
unukku nalla teriuthu. CI ; Note 2 on page 79. 

160. Why could you not do it like that before — Ye mindi ni 
appadi sei'elathe? 

161. Work well, then I will not blame you — Nalla veile, sei 
appo tine nan yesamaten Al(c); Gl. 

162. All right, go to your row and work carefully — Seri. un 
nereikki poi patirama veile sei. 

163. Hurry up you lazy donkeys — Surruka ni somara kaluthe. 

164. You are all old coolies — Ni ellam pali'al tan. S2. 

165. This sort of work is no good — Intha maderi veile nall'Me. 
E. Al(b). 

166. I will not give a name for this — Ithukku nan per kuduk- 
kamaten. 

167. You must hurry or you will not finish the task — Ni sur- 
ruka po'onum Mate kanak mudiamatathe.. L3(Note) ; Bl. 

168. If you finished the kanak I will give you full name— 
Kanak mudintt 'iruntal unukku nan mulu per kudupen. F(Note 1.) 

1G9. Kangani, tell (them) to bring the leaf to the road — Kan- 
gani, koluntu rotukku kondara sollu. A3 (Note 1.) 

170. I will weigh up now — Ippo nan koluntu nirupen. G 

171. All stand on one side — Ellam oru pakkatile nillu. 

172. Here, boy, spread out the sacking— Intha, podian, 
padangu virrittu podu (P. virriohu podu.) 



OOOLY TAMIL 55 

17:3. No, pull it to where (i.e. to the pla€c on which) I am 
standing — Hie, ufm nikruthu lekile ilhi. G2. 

174. Throw that rubbish off it — Antha kuppe eduttu visi 
podu. P2. 

175. Move those dead leaves off the road— Eotiliruntu antha 
sette tallu. 

176. Look in the baskets for hard leaf — Mutt'eleikki huddle 
par. Al. 

177. If these coolies keep talking I will send them to the 
lines — Inth'al innam pes'iruntiil laiatukku anupuven. L3. 

178. Where are the sacks? — Sak enge (irukruthu)? 

179. Come and weigh one by one — TTn-unnu nirukha va. 
E(Note 1). 

180. Don't come crowding together — Kutama varathe 

181. Don't come too close, how can I weigh without space 
— Remba kitta varathe, iddam illame nan yeppadi nirukren. F3. 
% 182. There is not enough room here, move up a bit — Inge 
iddam pattathe, konjam talli nillu. Dl. 

183. Boys come and weigh first— Podian motha nirukka va. 

184. Don't talk— Pesathe. Pesame nillu. F3 ; Tl(Note 1). 

185. Who is that laughing— Athi yar sirikruthu. E. 

186. Collect the leaf and put it in the sacks— Koluntu alii 
bukile podu. Bl(Note 1). 

187. Those coolies are not picking over their leaf — Anth'al 
kol iintu porrukrurh'ille. 

188. Look well in your baskets, there is hard leaf coming 
in — Tin kudeile nalla par.wtttt'ele varuthu. Bl ; Alfb). 

189. Four pounds is not enough, have you been sleeping — 
Naln ratal pattathe, ni tiinknutha. D2. 

190. Where have you been, you have done no work — Ni 
enge ponnthu, ni veile seintuth'ille. (P : sinjuth'ille). D2. 

191. What is your name? — Tin per enna? 

192. Aiyakaiman kangany's people Savariamah— Aiyakannan 
kangani-al Bavariama. A4(Note 4) ; B2. 

L93. What is your head kangany's name?- Un peria kan- 
gani per enna? 

I'll. Don't speak so fast, I cannot understand— Avalo sur- 
ruka pesathe, nan velunk'elathe. 

195. 8ay your name slowly— Un per mulla sollu. 

196. My name is in the first gang of people (in tin- book) 
Adpntham— Yen per morha perat'al, Adputham. 

197. Sir, .Muttan's gang is at the end (of the book)- Xiya 
Mutriin peratn kadesile irukrnthn". 

198. How many pounds did I aay?— Ettane ratal sannen? 
to 1) ; D2. 

199. Fourteen. Give your basket with (in) two hands— 
Pattmalu. Un kude rendu kaiile kudu. M(Note 1) ; A4(Note 2). 



56 COOLY TAMIL. 

200. I take off four pounds for (the weight of) the basket— 
EMeikki nalu ratal halikren. CI. 

201. When there is rain six must be taken off (must take 
off)— Malei irukru neram aru ratal kalik'onum.. PI. 

202. Those who have weighed must go to the rows — Nirut'dl 
nerreikki po'onum. G2. 

203. Don't stand on the road— Kotile nikathe. 

204. Each eooly must go to the row just left (each cooly 
to own row must go) — Anth'anth'al nerreikki po'onum. 

205. My row is finished, where shall I go?— Yen nerre 
mudintuthu, nan enge poven? F(Note 1); G. 

206. Go to the end and take up rows— Tongalukku poi 
nerre pudi. 

207. Shake up the leaf— Koluntu uthari podu. Dl. 

208. Press the leaf into the corners (of the sacks)— Miileik- 
ki koluntu ammattu podu (P : ammachi podu). 

209. Put only 50 lbs. to a sack— Oru sakukku ampathu 
ratal matiram podu. 

210. Do you want women to carry sacks? — Sak tiikka 
pu inhale al venuma? HI (Note 1). 

211. Yes, there are only 8 boys to 10 sacks— Sma, pattu 
sakukku yettu podian matiram nikruthu. 

212. Then call two women who did not carry yesterday— 
Appo neitu tukath'al rendu pumbale kupidu. G2 : Postscript 8. 

213. Be careful, don't pluck buds— Patiram, arnmbu eduk- 
athe. 

214. Only take the well-opened shoots— Nalla virruttu ko- 
luntu matiram edu. G2. 

215. Don't take a leaf below the old level— Palia mattatukku 
kile or'ele edukathe. 

216. Pick to the old level— Palia mattatukku edu. 

217. Pluck without touching low branches — Pania vathu 
foil Time edu. F3 ; Bl. 

218. You may pick leaving a big fish leaf — Peria topal ele 
vaitt'edukattum. 

219. You can pick to a small fish leaf on the high brandies 
— TJchi vathile sinna topal ele vaitt'eduk'elam. D ; Bl ; H. 

220. Then the trees will not grow high — Appo ma ram osaram 
valaramatathe. Gl. 

221. You must break the high branches, if it is high you 
cannot reach it properly — TJchi vathu odik'onum, osaram iruntal 
ni seria yett'elathe. HI (Note 1). 

222. These coolies are not breaking properly — Inth'ill seria 
odikruth'iWe. CI. 

223. There is too much stripping here, kangani — Tnge remba 
motte pudinkruthu, kangani. 

224. Where are the primers?— KavWal enge nikruthu. B2. 



COOLY TAMIL. 57 

PRUNING. 

225. They have taken up lines from the top road — Me rotil- 
iruntu nerre puditbu'irukruthu. F. 

22P). You have not done enough work — Yeile pattathe. A3 
(7th Example). 

227. It is nine thirty, and only this much finished — Om- 
path'are mani achi, ivalo matirarn mudintt 'irukruthu. P; F3. 

228. These trees are very big ; there are many knots — Intha 
maram micham perisi (irukruthu) ; remba mudichi irukruthu. 

229. Give me a knife I will try and see — Yenukku oru katti 
kudu nan thendittu papen (P : thendichu). 

230. Take all the knots out clean — Ellam mudiohi tupara 
edu. 

231. Don't leave a half knot — Are mudichi vaikathe. Ml. 

232. Cut to a level properly — Seria mattatukku vettu. 

233. Look here, Raiappan, this tree is not level — Inge par, 
Raiappan, intha maratukku mattam ille. 

234. Shorten that branch a little — Antha vathu konjam 
korreittu vettu (P : korreichu). Dl. 

235. — Cut out all the stumps — Ellam palia katte kallit>n 
porfu. P2. 

236. Don't leave any twigs— Asambu vaikathe. 

237. Cut the upper side of the tree first — Maratukku me 
pakkam motha vettu. 

238. Then you can tell the level — Appo mattam teri'elam. 

239. Don't cut too low — Remba panittu vetathe. N. 

240. Cut two inches above the old cut — Palia vettukku mele 
rendu inchi vaittu vettu. F(Note 1). 

241. Cut the high branch first — Me vathu motha vettu. 

242. Then cut all the other branches to that level — Appo 
matta vathu ellam antha mattatukku vettu. 

243. On the lower side of the tree it does not matter how high 
the branches are above the old cut — Maratukku pannia pakkatile 
palia vettukku mele vathu yevalo osaram irukruthu kariam ille. 

244. Don't shorten the side branches — Pakka vathu panni- 
kathe (pannikka, to lower). 

245. Don't clear out the new branches— Pfithu vathu kali- 
kathe. 

240. Thin out all twigs— Asambu ellam kalittu vettu. 

247. You do not wanl to pull off the leaves -Elf pudinkka 
vfinilu. H. 

248. Don't cut down to the main stem — Adi vettathe. 

249. Yon <1<> not want to prone below last year's cut- -Eonu 
V&isu vettukku kile ni vetta vanda. H. 

250. Prune carefully. Sharpen your knife— Patiram vettu. 
Un katti titu. 



58 COOLY TAMIL. 

251. His knife has got blunt — AvanwJe katti mallingu poichi 
(po'achi). A4; F3. 

252. Put a slope on the cut branch — Vettnu Vj,thukkti islopu 
podu. G2(Note 1). 

253. Don't cut out the strong branches— Pellama na vathu 
kalikathe. B. 

254. Prune round the tree (4 sides)— Nalu pakkam sutti 
vettu. 

255. You may thin out the centre branches — Nadu vathu ni 
kalik'elam. 

256. Cut below that knot — Antha mudichi kile vettu. 

257. Hold the branch while you prune, don't let it shake — 
Kavatu vettru'neram vathu pudi, aseia vudathe. G2 ; PI. 

258. You do not want to go so fast, look what you are doing 
— Avalo vehama poa vanda, ni seiruthu padi par. H; CI. 

259. Don't slash at it — Visi vettathe. Dl. 

260. You must do 250 trees each — Ovor'al irunutti ampathu 
maram sei'onum. J3 ; M(Note 3). 

261. That tree is too high, I said before cut two inches 
below the old cut — Antha maram remba osaram ; mknii!iu, mindi 
nan sonnen palia vettukku kile rend'inchi vettu. 

262. Shorten the branches near you — line kitta irukru'vathu 
koreittu podu. Al(c). 

263. That's better, now hurry up — Athi tevelea, ippo surruka 
vetti po. 

264. Take out all cross branches — Ellam pinal vathu eduttu 
podu. 

265. If there are two branches cut out the smallest — Rendu 
vathu kitta iruntal athium sinna vathu vetti edu. L3 ; LI ; B. 

266. Don't leave forked (or two and two) branches — Kavatu 
(or, rendu-rendu) vathu vaikathe. 

267. This tree has twenty levels on it, what are you doing, 
you fool — Intha maratukku iruwathu mattam irukruthu, ni enna 
seiruthu, mada pail. 

268. Kangani, what is that man doing far away over there? 
— Kangani, anth'al enna seiruthu ange turam? 

259. He is pruning from that end — Antha tongal'iruntu 
vettruthu. 

270. Why? don't let them work both ends (lit : don't fold 
cut) — Ye? madattu vetta vudathe (P : madachu vetta). F(Note 1). 

271. One cooly here, one there, how am I to look at the 
work — Inge or'al, ange or'al, nan yeppadi veile pakren. CI. 

272. Don't want to leave the knives in the sun, the handles 
will spoil — Katti veiilile vaikka vanda kiii-pudi ketia poum nellalile 
vai. A4(Note 2) ; J2. 

273. Come along, prune away — Vetti va. 

274. Where are the manuring coolies do you know? Don't 
you know ? — TJrat 'al enge nikruthu unukku teriuma. ? Unukku 
teriatha ? Al(a); Note on page 79. 



COOLY TAMIL. 5<J 

275. — They are at the other side of that corner — Antha 
liiudaku antha pakkam nikruthu. 

276. Must 1 go round the corner? — Modakukku angatu nan 
po'onuma '.' Footnote page 5; H. 

277. Are the coolies near the stump? — Antha kutta-kattc 
kitta nikruthu all A3(Note 1(/). 



MANURING. 

278. How many bags did you bring? — Ni ettane mute kundu 
vantuthul D2. 

279. Twenty bags, each cooly carried one sack — Iruwathu 
sak, ovor'al oru sak tuknuthu. J3. 

280. — Have you the tins? — Sundu irukrutha"? CI (Note 1). 

281. Don't pile the manure up in tins — Sunduile uram 
kumittu vaikathe. 

282. Fill the tins with manure and knock the top off — Sundu 
nereittu pottu tale tattu; (or tatti vudu) (P : nereichu pottu). 

283. Put one tin to every four trees — Nalu maratukku oru 
sundu podu. 

284. No, every other row — Ille, nerre iinnu vut'unnu. 
286. Give me the tin I will show — Sundu yenukku kudu, 

nan katuven. G. 

286. Having put the manure like that — TJram appadi pottu 

287. fork well on the four sides— nalu pakkatile nalla kutu. 

288. Don't leave any space without forking — Iddam mullu 
JcRt'ame vaikathe. F3; T(Note 1). 

289. Go on forking, there — Kuti po, ange. 

290. Now I have shown to all — Ippo ellatukku kambitt- 
'irukren. F. 

291. They all know the work — Ellanikum veile teriutliu 
(ellarum : everybody). 

292. Fork to the depth of the fork — Mullu alaru kutu, (or) ( 
mullu alatukku kutu. 

293. Dig a hole above each tree — Ovonl rnarahikku mele oru 
kuli vettu. 

294. All holes must be 1£ feet long and six inches wide-- 
Kuli un'are adi nilain, aru inchi agalarn inik'onuni. Ml; M. 

295. This hole is not deep enough — Intha kuli alarn pattathe. 

296. How are you going to bury the manure in that- Athilt 
ni uram yeppadi pothikruthu? C2; CI; A4. 

297. Mix the manure up with the earth -Maim-«w aihtnuttt 
kalantu podu. B. 

298. Dig deeper and wider Ithium ilam Igalam vettu, 
(or) alaro, agiklam kuda vetta. r j L ; N. 

299. Then put dead leaves in together— Apuram sctte seilu 
podu. 



W COOLY TAMIL. 

300. Fill in with earth and stamp it down well— Mannu 
lniidi pottu nalla mithu. 

301. Don't upset the manure — "Oram sintathe. 

302. Look, the manure is flying away in the wind — Antha 
par, uram katile poruthu. 

303. Stoop down and spread it carefully — Kuninchu nintu 
patiram virru. 

304. Go on forking, the ground is not hard- — Kiiti po, mannu 
varratum ille. A3(7th Example). 

305. You can easily fork here, it rained in the night — Inge 
leisi kut'elam ravile malei peintuthu (P : peinchuthu). D2. 

306. If there is not enough work finished you will not have 
full name — Mudintu veile pattathe ponal unukku mulu per iruka- 
matathe. L3 ; Gl. 

307. That work is better, kangani — Antha veile tevelea, 
kangani. 

308. If you always do like this all will be well — Ippadi ni 
yeppothum seithal seri iruhum. L2 ; L3 ; Jl. 

309. Do as I say and don't give trouble — Nan sollrumdderi 
sei karachal panname. G2 ; B. 

310. Look after the work well, kangani, I am going to the 
drainers — Kangani, veile nalla par, nan kan valeiJc'al kitta* 
poren. G2; Gl. 



DKAINING. 

311. These drains want deepening — Intha kan alama vett' 
onum. H. 

312. Have you no alavangas? — Unukku alavanga illea? 

313. Yes, Sir, there are some — Am'anga, irukruthu. Ap- 
pendix C. 

314. Then why do you not use them — Appo ye pavikruth'illc. 

315. Come here, you, what is this Btone left in the drain 
for — Inge va, ni, ennatukku intha kal kanile vaiW irukruthu. F. 

316. Get the stone taken out — Kal eduttu podu. 

317. Don't talk rot, call the coolies who did this drain — 
Suma pesathe, intha kdn-dl kupidu. L2(Note 1); B2. 

318. Dig the earth round the stone first with a mamoty — 
Mamoti eduttu kal sutti mannu motha vettu. 

319. Like that, now put the alavanga — Appadi tan, ippo 
alavanga podu. S. 

320. Put a small stone under the alavanga — Alavanga kile 
oru sakku vai. 

321. Press the alavanga down. Press ! — Alavanga kile am- 
maku. Amrnaku 1 

322. There you see, the stone is moving — Antha par, kal 
aseiruthu. 

323. With a little work put to it it will come out — Konjam 
veile athukku pottu vellia varum. J2. 

• Mispronunciation of itham : place. 



COOLY TAMIL. 61 

324. You do not try — Ni thendikruth'ille, (or),ni thendittu 
pakruth'ille. 

325. Come here, put a small stone and lift the alavanga — 
Inge vantu, oru sakku pottu, alavanga tiiku. D. 

320. Lift I that's it, now push it to one side — Tuku ! appadi, 
ippo oru pakkatukku tallu. 

327. If the drain is not deep enough don't leave it, dig it 
deeper all along— Kan alam pattathe ponal athe suma yaikathe, 
nedua alam vettu. L3. « 

328. Go on cleaning out the drains well — Nalla valeittu po 
(P : valeichu.) 

32 ( J. Don't put the prunings on the top of the tea— Mar tri- 
fle mele podathe. 

330. Take away the prunings and rubbish from above the 
drain — Kanukku mele-iliruntu mar-um kuppe-um eduttu podu. 

331. Push it all below the second row — Rendam nerreikki 
kile tallu. Ml. 

332. Don't leave the dug earth on the road — Vettnu' m&mm 
rotile vaikathe. G2. 

333. Only put it in the hollows — Pallatile matiram podu. 
Al(o). 

334. Don't leave earth on the edge — Kan oratile mannu 
vaikathe. Al(a). 

335. Take out the stones in the road — Eotile irukru'kal 
eduttu podu. 



PLANTING. 



336. I told Palaniandy to go to the nursery, has he gone? 
— Palaniandi tavaranikki poa sonnen, avan po'irukrutha. F. 

337. Shall I go by this road — Intha rotodu nan poattumaV 

338. Don't take the crooked plants — Konal kannu edukathe. 

339. Cut the plants all to one size — Ellam kandu oru kana- 
kukku vettu. 

340. You do not want to cut 6ome long and some abort — 
Pathi nit am, pdthi korre vetta vdvda. J3 ; H. 

341. You may take off the side root — Pakka ver ni vettat- 
turn. K. 

342. Prod the ground deeply — Mannu alama kufcu. 

343. Then the root will come up without breaking — Appo 
ver odikame varum. F3; J2. 

344. Wrap them up in some leaves — Konjarn ele sutti kattu. 

345. Hurry np and take them away — Athe surruka kondu po. 

846. The coolies are doing nothing up there — Ango mele 
ni fjimnm seiruth'ille. CI. 

847. They arc waiting for more— Kandu varum varikum 
fan nikfutha. P3. 



62 COOLY TIAMIL. 

348. Don't pull up the very small plants — Podi kandu pudin- 
kathe. 

349. Take the biggest first — Athium peria kannu motha 
edu. LI ; Ml. 

350. Make a wide hole — Kuli alarua vettu. 

351. Put the plant in straight — Kandu nimatu podu. 

352. Put (plant) it in to the nursery level — Tavarani matta- 
tukku podu. 

353. Look, do you see this earth on the plant, that is the 
nursery level — Intha par, kannile intha mannu kankrutha? athi 
tan tavarani rnattam. 

354. Don't plant it lower than that — Athukku kile nadathe. 

355. Put the alavanga well in — Alavanga nalla podu. 

356. Put your foot close to the plant — Un kal kandu kitta 
podu. 

357. Now pull the alavanga to it — Ippo alavanga athukku 
illu. 

358. You only want to do that on two sides — Athi rendu pak- 
katile matiram seia venum. 

359. Tramp it down well with your heel— Un kuthin kal 
pottu nalla mithu. D. 

360. Don't leave a hollow near the plant — Kandu kitta pal- 
lam vaikathe. 

361. Put in a peg — Oru kiini podu. 

362. Put it in slanting, then stones falling down will not do 
harm to the plant — Kuni sainttu podu appo kal vuluntaka kan- 
dukku mosam seiamatathe. L3; Gl ; (P. sainchu.) 

363. If there is a rock move to one side and try — Pare irun- 
tal oru pakkatukku talli thendittu par. L3. 

364. Don't forget to put the peg in— Kuni poda marakathe. 
Bl. 

355. Kangani, don't let them go on without treading the 
earth well round — Kangani, mannu sutti nalla mithikarne avan- 
gale poa vudathe. A2 ; Al ; Bl. 

366. I have told them, sir— Avangalukku nan soll'irukren. 
aiya. 

367. All right, then see that they do it — Seri, athe avangal 
seiruthu tan par. Al(c). 



WEEDING. 

368. All those weeds must be collected — Antha pillu ellam 
porrukka venum. 

369. Put them into sacks and bring them to the road — 
Sakile pottu rotukku kondu v3. 

■370. Don't pile the weeds up in the rows — Nerreile pillu 
kumittu vaikathe. 



COOLY TAMIL. 63 

371. If 3 T ou bring matches tomorrow you can burn the weed* 
— Naliki nerapu-kfichi kondn vn.)ttal pillu rdi'elam. L3; Bl. 

372. Tomorrow weeds will have got dry — Naliki pillu kanji 
po'irukum (poi-irukum.) Jl. 

373. Don't scrape so much earth— Avalo mannu surantathe. 

374. Pull up th» big weeds by hand — Peria pillu kaiile 
pudinku. 

375. These scrapers are too old — Intha karandi remba palisi 
tan. LI. [G. 

376. I will get some new scrapers — Piithu karandi vangaven, 

377. Whose contract is this? — Ithi yarude kontrap? E. 

378. Katan's contract. Then stop his rice he does not weed 
— Katan kontrap. Appo avan arisi nipatu, avan pillu vetruth'ille. 

379. There is too much seed in the ground — Pumile remba 
vethe irukruthu. 

380. Go on weeding — Pillu vetti po. 

381. Weeds should be pulled up before the flower comes — 
Pu varutliu mindi pillu pudink'onum. G2. 

382. If the contract cooly weeds a little each day it will 
be easy to keep the field clean— Ovoru naliki kontrap J/ konjom 
rettual, malei tupara vaikka leisi irukum. B2 ; .13 : L3 : Jl. 

383. In this contract the work has all got behind hand. 
DOW how difficult it will be. to clean it — lutha kontrapile veile 
ellam pindi poichi, ippo athe tupara panna yevalo varratum 
irukum. P3; Bl. 

384. How many acres is this contract? — Intha kontrap 
ettane ekru. Fl, 

385. Ten acres. Where are the boundary marks? — Paft(u) 
'ekru. Vandris maiam enge (irukruthu)? 

386. Be quick, it is going to rain — Surruka. malei varuthu. 



FILLING. 

387. Those hole-filling coolies are. not doing much — Antha 
kuli mfid'al remba seiruth'illc. B2 ; Al(b). 

388. Whose row is this, why do you leave a hollow— Tntha 
nerre. 51 ydr, ye pallam vaihruthu. E ; CI. 

38'.). Fifty times I have said you are ro pile the. earth up — 
Ampathu beram mannu kiimittv vaikka soiuien. D. 

390. This woman will not work properly, send her to the 
lines— Intha pumhale nalla veile seitimatathe, avale Kuatnkku 
anupu. 

391. She is a new cooly and docs not know the work — Aval 
puthTil tan, avalnkku veile teriathe. 8.; Note on pa^'e 79. 

392. Well, teach her then (to learn give) Appo avalukkn 
pad if hi kudu. 

393. It ia four o'clock, you may stop work- Naln mSni achi, 
ni veile vudattum. F3; K. 



64 COOLY TAMIL. 

394. Shout to those coolies to stop work — Avfh'~\\ veile vada 
sattam podu. C ; Bl 

395. Are they all coming ?— A vangal ell am vamthii? CI 
(Note 1). 

396. Don't forget what I told you— l^nukku nan sonna' 
maderi marakathe. R. 

397. You must learn all this. It is very easy— Ithi ellam 
padik'onum. Athi micham leisi tan. C2; L2. 

398. "You must not go without this book— Intha postikum 
illame ni poa vendam. F3 ; H. 

399. This is the end of the tea— Ithi tan tei'ele tongal. S. 

400. Good-bye, (come back again)— Salam, poittu va. Dl. 



EUBBER TAPPING. 

401. Tappers must come and get their buckets at five o'clock 
in the morning — Pal-al anji manikki kalambre vali edukka var' 
onum. P. 

402. Those who come after that must go without work — 
Athukku pidpadu vant'al veile illame po'onum. P. 

403. Each cooly must have a number — OvorTilukku oru 
nambar irukka venum. 

404. Each cooly must take his own knife and bucket — 
Aiith'anth'Hl antha kattiuin valiurn edukk'onum. (For 'Antha' 
see Vocabulary). 

405. Do not allow the coolies to take the buckets to the 
lines at four o'clock — Nam manikki vali laiatukku kondu poa 
vudathe. 

406. Each cooly must bring his own bucket to the tool shed — 
Anth'anth'al avanude vali aitham-kamaraMfcfcu kondu var'ouuni. 
A4. 

407. Tap carefully and do not take the bax-k oft thickly — 
Patiram vettu, patte kannam edukathe. 

408. Don't press the corner of the knife into the bark — Katti 
mule patte iilukku ammakathe. 

409. If no latex comes it does not matter— Pal vilrate ponSl 
kariam ille. E3. 

410. You do not want to cut deep until a lot of latex 
comes — Micham pal varum'varikum alama vetta vanda. J2 ; P3. 

411. Cut well so that the trunk of the tree does 'not show 
under the cut bark — Vettyiu' patteikki kile adi maram teriame 
padikki nalla vettu. Dl(Note 2); Postscript 5. 

412. Cut until you see (know) the white latex bark, then 
go no deeper — Veile pal-patte teriura yariknm vettu. apuram athi- 
kum alam poathe. 

413. Do not shave the inside white bark — Hlukku irukru' 
yeilfe patte sivathe. Dl(Note 2). 



COOLY TAMIL. 85 

414. If one can see the stem of the tree after yon have 
cut the bark that is a wound— Patte vettnuthu pidpadu adi 
maram teri>ittol, athe t'm kaiam. L3 ; S. 

•415. Don't make wounds on the tree — Afarafile kaiam panna 
kudathe. Al; HI. 

416. Look how I am doing it, then you can learn— Nan 
aeiriithu padi par, appo ni padik'elam. 

417. Don't put the knife slanting, and keep the edge of 
the knife close to the tree — Kacti sainttu podathe, katti-oram 
marate kitta vai. (P : siiinchu). Al. 

418. Before you tap remove the scrap rubber — Ni vettruthu 
mindi ottu-pal eduttn poda. P2. (ottu — past. parr, of otta — to 
stick.) 

419. Don't roll scrap up in your hands — Ottu-pal kaiile 
iirutathe. A4. 

420. Put scrap in your little basket and do not let it upset 
—Ottu pal kottu-kudeiile pottu kile sintu vudathe. D. 

421. Tap the coconut shell to get the dirt out: — Ute edukka 
serrete tattu. 

422. Put the coconut shell upright on the wire — Serrete 
kaxubikki nimatu podu. 

423. Collect the latex and put it into the buckets — Pal alii 
raffle podu. Postscript 6 ; D. 

424. Keep the lid on the bucket — Valikki mudi pottu vai. 

425. When you have emptied the shell put it upside down 
on the peg — Pal kotti pottu serrete knchikki niele kuppara podu. 

426. Now coolies may all go to the factory and weij.'ti up 
the latex— Ippo pal nirukruthaha algal (plur.) istorukku poattum, 
Mr Footnote); K. 

427. Don't try to take the scrap off the side cuts until 
it coagulates — Pal oriruthu mindi ottu pal miirapu kaniliruntn 
thendittu edukathe. (Oria — to coagulate.) 

428. If the 'down channel' is not clean cut it a little with 
the knife— Nettn kan tupara illate ponal katti pottu konjam vettu, 

429. If there is an old wound, cut (leaving a) ledge of bark 
— Palia kaiam irnntal patte olhuku vettu, (or, othuki vettu). (^ff 
vocabulary for "othuku"). 

(30. If you do not shield wounds I will ouly give you half 
your number of ounces — Ni kaiam othuki vettate ponal nan nnukkii 
arr ifins kanak matiram taren. Ml. 

431. f am paying 1 of a cent p<u- ounce for No. I (field) 
Motlial riiimbarufcku nan arc-are-kSl sadam or'aunsukku kudukren. 

432. Tor No. :i, A a cent Rffm&m nambarukku are Badam. 
133. li you come early in the morning and work well yon can 

earn a lot of money- Xingal kalambrc rellena vantu nalla veile 
Beitha] mdcham kasi poleik'elam. 

434. From today, kangani, there need not be any mUBter 
Innikki vaichi, kaugaui, peratu vaikka vtrnduttkHle. N3 ; III 

I 



66 000 LY TAMIL. 

4::"». All tappers may each go to their respective fields 
straight from the lines — Pal-al anth'anth'al anth'antha maleikki 
laiatilirunfu nedua poattum. B2. 

430. Every Saturday send all the tapping knives to the oar- 
petiter — S&ini kilame Saini kilame* ellam rabar-katti odavi kitta 
imupu. N2. Page 15 (Footnote). 

437. The carpenter will sharpen them for uexr week's work 
and return them — Adatu kilame veileikki odavi katti titi anupuvan. 



EECEUITING. 



'438. Why are you running after me? What is this? — En- 
natukku yene kitta odi varuthu? Irh'enna? 

•"•••'• 439. This is a tundu for 20 coolies, please I want master to 
take them on — Ithu uruwath'alukku oru 'tundu,' dore taivu seithu 
(please) edukka venum. 

440. How can I take these coolies on, this is a Fedora led 
tf state— Nan inth'al yeppadi edukren ithi segapu tundu totum. 

441. How much debt per head is master going to give — Ovor 
'iilukku dore yevalo kadan kuriukrar:' — Appendix B. 

442. If it is a red tundu like this I will not give more than 
B40 per head — Tntha roaderi segapu tundu iruntal ovor'ahikkn 
napathu ruaukku mele kudukkamaten. 01. 

.. 443. Tf I bring a white tundu will master give E100 per 
head V -Nan velle tundu kondu vantal dore nihil rua or 'iilukku 
I: nil u para:' Appendix B; CKNote 1). 

444.. No, you have too much debt already — llle, ippo unukku 
remba kadan irukruthu. 

445. Then master must settle my account ; give me my tundu 
and I put these new coolies on another estate — Appo dore yen 
kanak tirunttu, tundu kuduttu, nan intha puth'al vere totatukku 
eduttu vaikren. Al ; D. 

446. Why do you not try and get coolies from the coast, their 
travelling expenses will be charged to estate account — Simeiili- 
runtu al ye thendittu edukruth'ille? vali-selavu tqtum kanakile 
pott'irukum. Jl. 

447. If master gives me B50 I will go and fetch some — Dore 
yenukku ampathu rua kudutal nan poittu al kondu varuven. 

448. No, I cannot give so much. I will give ten rupees here 
then you can get BIO at the ■ Trichinopoly (Labour Commission) 
Agency for each cooly yon take and issue there — Nan avalo kuduk' 
elathe. • Inge pattu rua tiiren appo ni Tipaukku kondu vantu 
pathintt'al ovor'alukku ni pattu rua vang'elam. G2. 

* A repetition often indicates the idea of a repeated action, 
time, thought, etc. Compare: 

Masam-masaui : month by month 

ilukk'-alukku : to everyone 

Vara-vara -'■ • gradually 



COOLY TAMIL. 07 

449. All right, Sir. Here, this is the form to take and show 
at the Trichinopoli Agency— Nallath'anga. Intha, intha odru 
(adru) Trichinopoli Tipaukku kondu t poi kambikk'onum. Appdx.C. 

450. Look here, here are ten tickets I have written down 
the numbers — Intha par, pattu tagaram irukruthu Nambar 
eluthi vaitt'irukren. 

451. How long will you be away? — Ni poittu yevalo kalam 
niputku? (from 'nikka,' to stop). 

452. I will be away for one month and then return, sir- 
Nan oru masam poittu varen'anga. 

453. How many coolies can you bring, you must tell me 
before you go — Ni ettane al kondu varuvuthu? Ni poruthu mindi 
yenukku soil a tan venum. L4(12th Example). 

454. I will bring eight coolies through the Agency — Nan 
(yjctt'31 Tipaiiile pathinttu kondu varuven. 

455. You should always try and get your relations as other 
coolies perhaps will bolt — Un tai-pulle-al yeppothum pattu eduk' 
onum, ver'al sila vuele odi povuthu. 

456. What will be your address at the 'Coast' (i.e. India; 
— Simeiile unukku enna meil-vilasam irukum? Jl. 

457. p (village) T '(taluk), T (district)— Pal a - 

maneiri (Gru) Tirukadupille (taluk) Tanjur (silla). 

458. My name is P..., son of S... — Yen per Palaniandipulle, 
Sinivasagam magan. 

459. All right, now put your signature to this paper — Beri, 
ippo intha kaithatukku un kai-oppam vai. Al(a). 

460. Don't you know how to write? Yes, sir — Unukku eluts 
teriatha? Terium. B2(Note 2). 

461. I have written on that paper that you will return in 
a month and bring eight coolies as you said — Ni sonuthu padi, 
oru masam kalittu yett'al kondu varuthu, antha kaithatile elut' 
irukren. (P : Kalichu). 

462. If you do not do as you have said I will send you to 
gaol — >Ji sonu'padi seiate ponal unc mareilukku anupuven. L3, 

463. All right, sir; Good-bye (the equivalent when leant 
taking) Nallath anga ; Nan varen, salnm 

16"). Call the Head Kangani. Look here, kangani, Ramalin 
gain Kangani has sent a letter From his village- Peria kangani 
kupidu. Intha, kangani, Ramalingam kangani urilirintu oru 
kaitham anup'trufcnT?!. A4; Appendix B. 

466. Bead it and tell me what he says— Athe vasittu aran 
enna eluthi sol Iran yenukkn boILu. 

467. In it he Bays that he lias go) together six coolies, but 
they Bay they will doI come to the Agency- Athile erath'irukran, 
Bruile wr'al seittu-kuttu avangal Tipaukku varamatom eniu nik- 
rothn. L ; Postscript 7. 

468. They will not come until their village debts arc pni.l by 
R...— Bamalingara kangani avangalude urn-kadan katftutn rari- 
!,um vftramatathe. P3. 



68 (JOOLY TAMIL, 

469. How much is the debt, does he (write and) say? — 
Kadan yevalo irukruthu, avail elut 'irukra nd ? Appendix B; CI 
(Note). 

470 Yes, sir, he says he wants Es. 60 sent to him — Am'anga, 
avanukku aruwathu rua anupa venurn entu sollran. Postscript 7. 

471. What, I can't hear what yon say - .' — Enna, ni sollru 
padi nan kelk'ille. 

472. I say that it is necessary to send Es. 60 — Aruwathu rua 
anupa vendiuthu, enkren (from, Eua : to say). HI. 

473. I cannot send money to the kangani because I cannot 
trust him — Kanganikki nan kasi anup'elaf/ic, yenendal avane 
namb'elathe. H. 

474. I will write and ask the Labour Commissioner to send 
a peon to Eamalingain's village to find him, and, on showing thi? 
new coolies, the peon will pay the money and all go together t: 
the Agency — Bamalingam kangani teidi pakka padik'ti avanude 
iirukku oru pian anup'elama Tipafi Ejent doreikki <ru kuith&m 
eluthi kelkren. Kangani puth'al kambittu'udane, pian kasi ku- 
duttu, ellarum Tipaukku seindu vdruvuthu. Postscript 5; G. 

475. There is a bolted cooly at the coast, whom I want to 
catch — Nan pudikka vendiuthu odi pon'al or'al virile nikrdn. Post- 
script 8; Appendix B. 

476. All right, I will try and get you a warrant if you think 
he can be caught — A vane pudik'elam nineittdl unukku oru varantu 
vanga pakren. L3. 

477. Here you are, keep this paper carefully, show it when 
you get to the coast and I will send another like it to 
Kadpadi — Intha, intha kadatasi patiram vaittu, simeikki poittu 
kambi ; antha maderi inoru kadatasi Kadpadi Tipaukku anupren. 

478. Two coolies, a man and a woman, are coming from 
Hagama to-day, here is the telegram — Mareiliruntu inniki rend'al, 
oru ambale, oru pumbale, viiruthu, ithi tan tandi. S. 

479. You should go to the station this evening they will 
come by the night mail — Saintaram ni rail istesanukku po'onum, 
avangal raval kochile eri varuvuthu. Postscript 6. 

480. I want master to give me some money for their rice — 
Avangal sortukku dore yenukku salli kuduk-onum. Page 15 
(Footnote). 

481. Come to the office at two o'clock and I will give you 
Ee. 1 — Ni rendu manikki apisukku vantu nan oru rua kuuupen. 

482. Sir, the two new coolies have arrived, please issue them 
rice and cash — Puth'al vantuth'anga, avangalukku arisiww 
kasiiiw Ijpd'anga.. B. 

483. For their new pots ami pans I. will give Es. 3 to each 
cool j— Avanukku puthu sattiura panium ovor'alukku nan mfinu 
rua taren. B. 

484. No, I will not give the money to the kangani, call 
the coolies and I will put it into their own hands — Die, kanganikki 
Oan kasi kudukkamaten, al kupittu avanude kaile tan podren. S. 



COOLY TAMIL. G9 

485. Sir, with the money given to N kangani yesterday 

be bought and drank arrack, then kicked up a row in the lines last 

night — Aiya, neitn N kanganikki kudutu kasile (avan) sara- 

iam vangi kfidittu, intha raval laiatile sande pottan. Appendix B. 

486. In furure I will not give coolies cash who come from 
the coast, I will cause their pots and pans to be bought for them 
— Inimel simeiiliruntu vant'alukku nan kasi kudukkamaten, avan- 
ade sattium panium vdnga padren. Postscript 9. 

487. You low caste drunken fellow, why cannot you obey the 
sense I am always telling you about, drinking - ? — Ni sinna safchi 
kfidituthu pail, ni kudikru pati unukku nan yeppothuro sollru 
putti ye kelk'elathe. Dl(Note 2). 

488. If you cannot remain on my estate without boozing you 
had better go to the coast and stay there — Tennam kudikame yen 
totatile nik'elathe vuttul ni Qrnkkn poi nintal tcvelea. Page 31 
(Footnote) ; L3. 

189. You can earn aothing if you do this sort of thing as all 
\our coolies will bolt, then who is going to pay your debts- Ni in- 
tha maderi seithal Qnnuin poleik'elathe, unude al ellam odi povu- 
thu, appo un kadan yar kattruthu? 

490. If master had that toddy tavern taken away coolies 
would not drink so much — Dore antha kallu tavarn edukka pattal 
kuli-al avalo kudikkamatathe. Postscript 9. 

491. Many coolies and kanganies have said that they do not 
want the tavern — Micham alum kanyanimdruin tavarn vendiuth' 
ille ■soirirukrarkal*. B; Tl; Appendix P. and B. 

492. Master, I have been Head Kangani on this estate for 
20 years and it is on account of these new taverns close to the 
estate that so mauy of my coolies have bolted or are now always 
having rows Dore, nan iruwathu vaisu achi intha totatile peria 
kangani, totum kitta intha puthu tavarninale nam 'a] avalo al odi 
ponuthn, yenokku terram illafe sande podrnthu. Postscript 10. 

493. You must teach him (master) Tamil — Arnruhku Tamil 
padittu kudnkk'onnm. A2. 

494. How do you say this in Tamil? — Tamil peichile ithe 
yuppadi sollruthu? 

495. He wants to go to M estate, which road should 

he take? — Avar M totatukku poa vendiuthu, yentha rotodu 

po'onnm '.' 

496. Master should go as far as the Post Office and take 
th Mail Coach there — Dore, taval kanthorukku poittu ange'iruntu 
kutbere-kochi cd'anga. Appendix C. 

I'M. Where do I change coaches?- Nfin enge kochi mat 
'elatn? _ 

198. Send a cooly to the station, bll him to give this lettei 

to the stationmaster and gel him to send me a hackery to the end 
of the cart-road If must be there (have come there) by 5 o'clock 
a.m. Or'al iatesannkka annpi, intha kaitham istesan-masterukku 
kudukku solli, om madu-karrere karret'rotu tongalukkn anupa 
sollu. Atiji minikki kMame ange vaivt'irnk'onmn 

* Sometimes pronoanced irukraha. 



70 COOLY TAMIL 

499. I want four eo-lies to carry a lady in a (carrying) 

chair to M estate. They must be experienced coolies at 

the work — Doresiine na-kalile M totatukku tukka nal'al 

venum. Antha veileikki palakaman'al (irukka) venum. B. 

500. Here is a present for you. Divide it amongst yourselves 
at 25 cents each. Thank you, sir— Intha, unukku oru santosum, 
ovor'Slukku iruwat'anji sadam jnrittu kudu. Nallathu, salam 
aiya. M; Dl. 



COOLY TAMIL. 



71 



WORDS MUCH ALIKE YET DISSIMILAR. 



Adikka 


... To beat 


Kottu 


... A tin measure 


Adukka 


... To close, pack 


Ktida 


... With, more 


Alukkn 


... To cry 


Kude 


... Basket 


Alikka 


... To rub out 


Kudu 


... Envelope, cage 


Aram 


... A file 


Kudu ! 


... Give! 


Aram 


... Sixth 


Kode 


... Umbrella 


Areikka 


... To grind 


Kodi 


... A creeper 


Arikka 


... To reap 


Kiit a 


... To sweep, sting 




i 


Kuti 


... Swept 


Elam . 


... Can, able 


Kutti 


... A girl 


Ellam 


... All 


Kutam 


... A crowd 


Enna 


... What 


Kuttam 


... A fault 


Enna 


... To count 






Ena 


... To say 


Male 


...A field, hill 


(y)eni 


... A ladder 


Malei 


... Bain 


(y)ene 


... Me 


Manakka 


...To smell 


Rune 


... Oil 


Manikka 


... To forgive 






Mareikka 


... To hide 


K5(i) 


... Unripe fruit 


Marrakka 


... To forget 


Kai 


... Hand 


Mud a 


... To cover 


Kaia 


... To dry 


Mudi 


... A cover 


Kalavu 


... Theft 


Mudi 


... Covered 


Kaluva 


... To wash 


Mudia 


... T> finish 


Kaleikka 


... To disperse 


Mudi! 


.. F : r,ish ' 


Knlikka 


... To deduct 


Mule 


... A corner 


Kallakka 


... To mix 


Mulei 


... A brain 


Kal 


- Leg 


Mfili 


... Deformed 


Kal 


... A stone 


Mulu 


... Whole 


Kallu 


... Toddy 


Mulla 


... Slowly 


Katta 


... To build, tie 


Mullu 


.. A fork, thorn 


Katte 


... A stump 


Mure 


.. A bag, egg 


Katti 


... A knife 


Mutti 


.. A fist, hamm i 


Karri 


... Past Part : of 


Muttan 


... Man's name 




'katta' 


Mutt a 


. . C.'arse, hard 


Katti] 


... A bed 






Katfcu 


... A bundle 


Nadi 


.. Chin 


Kedukka 


... To spoil 


Nade 


... A tup 


Kadikka 


... To bite 


Nada 


... To plant 


Kidakka 


... To remain, be 


N'adu 


... A village 


Ketal 


... Kettle 


Nadikka 


... To walk 


Ketta 


... Bad, rotten 


Nagi 


... Jevvellery 


Ketti 


... Clever, firm 


Neham 


... A nail, (finger) 


Kitta 


... Close, at 


Nal 


... A day 


Kolla 


... To kill 


Nalu 


... Fonr 


Kollan 


... Blacksmith 


Nele 


.. A lintel 


Kolle 


... Heart 


Nellu 


... Paddy (rioe) 


Kotta 


... To empty 


Nellal 


... Shade 


Kotti 


... Emptied 


Nillu 


... Stop 


Kotte 


... Seed, nut 


Nilfi 


... Moonlight 



Every lettar must be pronounced. 



72 



COOLY TAMIL. 



Nilam 


... Blue 


Pattalam 


. The army 


Nilam 


... Long 


Pattathe 


. Not- enough 


Neire 


... Straight 


Patte 


. Bark of tree 


Nerre 


... A row, line 


Patti 


. Puttey 


Nerru 


... A bier 


Pati 


. About 


Neram 


... Time 


Pattini 


. Starving 


Nerram 


... Colour 


Pattu 


. Ten 


Netti 


... Forehead 


Patu 


. Silk 


Nettu 


... L/OUg 


Perkol 


. A proctor 






Perkul 


. Multiplication 


Pada 


... To ting 


Perkka 


. To turn over 


Pade 


... A bier 


Perukka 


. To multiply 


Padu 


... A target 


Perukka 


. To be born 


Pada 


... To cause, 


Perukku 


. For a name 


Padi 


... As, a step 


Pohkka 


. To split 


Padikki 


... So that 


Poleikka 


. To earn 


Padikka 


... To learn 


Piitu 


. A lock 


Padukka 


... To lie down 


Pfithu 


. New 


Pakka 


... To look 


Puttu mannu. 


. An ant heap 


Piiku 


... Arecanut 


Putti 


. Ser>6e 


Pakka 


... Side (adj.) 






Pakkam 


...A side 


Samathikka . 


. To agree 


PS1 


... Milk 


Sainpathikka . 


. To earn 


Pftlam 


... A bridge 


Sapatu 


. A boot 


Palam 


... Fruit 


Sapati 


. Flat 


Pallam 


... A hollow 


Sapida 


. To feed 


Pane 


... A pan 


Sadam 


. A cent 


Pani 


... Dew 


Saddam 


. A rule, law 


Panna 


... To make, do 


Sattam 


. A noise 


Pannam 


... Funds, money 


Sattiam 


. An oath 


Pannia 


... Lower, low 


Satte 


. A coat 


Pannikka 


... To lower 


Sathe 


. Human flonli 


Par! 


... Look ! see ! 


Satti 


. A pot 


Pare 


... A rock 


Sathi 


. Caste, kind 


Paru 


... A flower bed 


Seitu 


. Together, with 


Param 


... Heavy 


Settu 


. Died 


Paraiam 


... Age, youth 


Setti 


. A Chetti 


Pasam 


... Moss 


Seinttn 


. Having done 


Pasu 


... A cow 


Sudu 


. Hot 


Pasi 


... Hunger 


Sudu kadu .. 


. Cemetery 


P&sal 


... A parcel 


Suta 


. To shoot 


Pusa 


... To smear 


Sutta 


. To go round 


Puse 


... A prayer 


Sntti 


. Around 


Pusanam 


... Mildew 


Suttu 


. A drop 


Pusal 


... Bushel 






P&tham 


... Foot 


Tal 


. A sheet of paper 


Pathe 


... A path 


Taluk 


. A district(India) 


Pathi 


... Part, some 


Tali 


. Neck ornament 


Pathia 


... To issue, enter 


Talli 


. Past Part : of 


Patta 


... Dead, dried 




'talla' 


Pattam 


... Tenth 


Talla 


. To move, push 



Every letter must be pronounced. 



COOLY TAMIL. 



78 



Tallu ! 


. . . Move 1 


Vekkam 


... Shame 


Tale 


... Head 


Vairam 


... Diamond, hard 


Tappa 


... To miss 


Vairu 


... Stomach 


Tappal 


... The post (letter) 


Vaisu 


... A year 


Tappu 


... Tom-tom 


Vaitu 


... Stomach 


Tappi 


... Past Part : of 


Vai 


... A saw 




'tappa' 


Vai 


... A tail 


Teppu 


... A pond, dam 


Vali 


... A bucket, pail 


Tepu 


... A tape 


Vale 


... A net 


Tuankka 


... To begin 


Valli 


... Pain 


Tunkka 


... To sleep 


Va'ille 


... Not come 


Tukka 


... To lift, carry 


Valaku 


... A court case 


Tukkam 


... Grief 


Valakam 


... Custom 


Tukain 


... Sleep 


Valara 


... Tall 


Tuki 


... Past Part : of 


Valathu 


... Eight (side) 




'tukka' 


Velagu ! 


... Off! 


Takkam 


... Error 


Velankka 


... To understand 


Tram 


... Marmre 


Vilaku 


... A lamp 


Oram 


... An edge 


Vilatu 


... Exercise 


tftta 


... To pour otit 


Vallikka 


... To pain 


Otu 


... A spring (water) 


Valukka 


... To slip 


Otti 


... Having poured 


Valeikka 


... To encircle, 




out 




clear out 


Ote 


... Dirt 


Veiil 


... The sun 


Vai 


... Pnt, leave 


Veile 


... Work 


Vai 


... Mouth 


Veli 


... Fence 


Vaii] 


... Paddy field 


Velle 


... White 


Vaikka 


... To put, leave 


Velli 


... Silver 


Vaikal 


... Straw 


Vellia 


... Outside 


Vikkal 


... Hiccough 


Vellena 


... Early 


Vikka 


... To sell 


Vile 


... Price 


Vikaiu 


... A swelling 


Vilu 


... A copy 


Vinkka 


... To swell 


Villa 


... A rainbow 



Brers letter must be'pronounced. 



74 



COOLY TAMIL. 



COOLIES' NAMES. 

'See iKey to Pronunciation, Page 3.) 



Anandai if) 
Annamma (/) 

Amasi 

Amakannan (/) 

Aroikiam (/,m) 

Arumugan 

Alagan 

Alagamnaa (/) 

Xrulappan 

Aiasami 

Aiamma (/) 

Aiakamian 

Amuratham (f,m) 

Andi 

Andichi (/) 

Andiappan 

Arsai if) 

Anamali 

Arunasalam 

Alamel (/) 

Adikan 

Appavu 

Angamuttu 

Aiappan 

Antoni 

Antoniamma (/) 

Arasan 

Arian 

Arianachi if) 

Arakani (f) 

Irulai (f) ' 

Innasi (/) 

Kadarai (/) 

Katai if)' 

Kali if) 

Kaliamma (/) 

Kalimuttu 

Kanniamma if) 

Kamachi (/) 

Kandfin 

Kandasami 

Uatan 

Taruppan 

Karuppai if) 

Karuppaia 

Kadiraveil 

Kitnan 

Kistnan 

Kitinamma (/) 

Keluntai (/) 






Kolundaveil 
Kovindan 
Kovindamma (/) 
Koval 

Kullan 

Krdlamma if) 

Kumaran 

Kumarai (/) 

Kumrandi 

Kuppan 

Kuppacbi (/) 

Kuppasami 

Kuppamuttu 

Knppai if) 

Kuppamma 

Kengan 

Kengamina 

Kariappan 

Lechemenan 

Lechemi (/) 

Mangalam (f) 

Madati (/) 

Madasami 

Madan 

Malean 

Maleatta (/) 

Mangan 

Mangai 

Manikani 

Maran 

Marimuttu 

Mariamma 

Mariai (/) 

Masilfunani 

Mikel 

Minachi if) 

Minniamma if) 

Mukan 

Mukai if) 

Munnian 

Munniamma 

Mnniandi 

Murrugan 

Murragai if) 

Muttu 

Mutfunachi 

Muttan 

Muttamma 

Muttea 

Muttukaruppau 



(/) 



COOLY TAMIL. 



75 



Mutfcusami 

Muttuviran 

Marathamuttu 

Marathaviran 

Marappan 

Mariappan 

Marathan 

Marathai (/) 

Manuel 

Magalingam 

Mallan 

Malli (/) 

Muttukali (/) 

Nagan 

Xagamma (/) 

Nagappan 

Nagalingam 

Nagamnttu 

Naraianan 

Naraianasaiui 

Nachi (f,m) 

Nachamma (/) 

Nachamnttu 

Nallan 

Nalli (/) 

Nallamma (/) 

Nallappan 

Nallamnttu 

Nadesan 

Nathan 

Nianamuttu 

Nallathanga 

Nallatambi 

Nilandan (/) 

Pakiam (/) 

Pakianathan 

Pacha muttu 

Parhiamma (/) 

Palan 

Palani (f,m) 

Palaniai (f,m) 

Palaniamma (/) 

Palaniandi 

Palanimuttu 

Palanisami 

Palanipnlle 

Pambean 

Papai (.0 

Papamma CO 

PfipSti if) 

Papi (f) 

Para tea n 

Pavai 



(f) 



Parvathj 

Parasuraman 

Parasan 

Pattai (/) 

Pechi (/) 

Pecbai (/) 

Periakka (/) 

Periamma (/) 

Periannan 

Periakaruppan 

Periasaini 

Periatai (/) 

Periatambi 

Perumal 

Ferumai (/) 

Perumakka (/) 

Pettan 

Pettai (/) 

Pichamuttu 

Pichakaran 

Pichi 

Ponan 

Ponnamma (7) 

Potiappan 

Ponacbi (/) 

Ponusami 

Ponalagu 

Pfichi (f,m) 

Puchan 

Pfivai (/) 

Pungavanan (f) 

Raman 

Ramai (/) 

Ramasami 

Ramalingam 

Ramanathan 

Rasalingam 

RSsamma (/) 

Rasu 

Rasatti (f) 

Rakai (/) 

Raiappan 

Rengan 

Rengamma (/) 

Rengasami 

Ravei] 

Ragel (/) 

Badean 

Sn.lechi (/) 

Bandanam (f.m) 

S mi i.i ppan 

Baminathan 

Samai (/) 



76 



COOLYQTAMIL. 



in 



Sangili 

Sangapulle 

Sanasi 

Sapani 

Saithamma (/) 

Savariamma (/) 

Savariappan 

Savarimuttu 

Sevan 

Sevanai (/) 

Sevatian 

Sevatiamma 

Sevadappan 

Sevakan 

Segapai (/) 

Sevanan 

Selvam (/) 

Selembram 

Sellan 

Sellai (/) 

Sellamma (/) 

Selembai (/) 

Sellamuttu 

Sengi (/) 

Sengamma (/) 

Sennen 

Sidambram 

Sikkan 

Sikkamma (/) 

Sikkai (/) 

Sinivasagam 

Sinnakannan 

Sinnakanni (/) 

Sinnakutti (/) 

Simian 

Sinnai (/) 

Sinnaia 

Sinnappan 

Sinnamma 

Sinnasami 

Sinnatai (/) 

Sirangan 

Sinnamuttu 

Sivanadian 

Solan 

Solacbi (.0 

Solamuttu 

Sol am ale 

Sonacbi (J) 

Sokalingam 

Sundram (/) 

Suppan 

Snppamma (/) 



(/) 



Suppaia 
Supraian 
Supramanian 
Suranam (/) 
Tanam (/) 
Tangam (f) 
Tangamma (/) 
Tangamuttu 
Taia (/) 
Taiamma (/) 
Tailamma (/) 
Tanialingan 
Tandaraian 
Tevani (/) 
Tirumakka (/) 
Tirumale 
Topalan 
Totan 

Totamma (/) 
Tolasi (/) 
Vadamale 
Valli (/) 
Valliamma (/) 
Vaiti 

Vaitilingam 
Vaiavari 
Vaiapuri 
Vadiveil 
Veilan 
Veilai (/) 
Veilamma 
Veilakanni (/) 
Veilaithan 
Vellacbi (/) 
Vellasami 
Yellearnina (/) 
Vellean 
Veneattan 
Vengadaraman 
Vengadasami 
Vengadaaalam 
Vengattan 
•Vengattamma (f) 
Virai (/) 
Viramma (/) 
Viramale 
Viramuttu 
Virappan 
Viraputram 
Virasami 
Yellamma (/) 
Yelli (/) 
Yesu 



(/) 



COOLY TAMIL. 



77 



CONTRACTIONS AND COLLOQUIALISMS. 



The following are a few colloquialisms very frequently 
heard : — 



A-nuru etc. 
An-nilru etc. 
Avan (etc.) var'ille 
Edukru'kohiutu 

Edut'antuthu 

Ednt'anten 

Iruku 

lruka ? 

Iru-niiru etc. 

Iruntu 

Kana 

Konda 

Kondara 

Kond'anten etc. 

Kudichuthu 

Mudinchu poa 

N5n eduk'ille 

Nan kan'ille 

Teinchu poa 

Onum 

Pattuttu 



Pannendu 



tor ... Aru-nfiru— 600 

,, ... Anji nuru — 500 

„ ... Avan vantuth'ille — He has not come 

„ ... Edukruthu koluntu — Leaf which is 

heing taken (Present Part.) 

,, ... Eduthu vantuthu — He fetched 

,. ... E'iuttu vanten — I fetched 

,, ... Irukruthu (not frequent) — It is 

,, ... Irukrutha? (not frequent)— Is it? 

,, ... Rendu nuru — 200 

., ... -iliruntu (suffix) —From 

,, ... Kanathe, Kanan— Don't see, lost 

,, ... Konduva— Bring (Imperative) 

,, ... Kondu vara— To" bring 

,, ... Kondu vanten— 1 brought 

,, ... Kudittuthu— Drank, Drunk 

„ Mudinttu poa— To get finished 

,, ... Nan edutev'ille — I did not take 

,. ... Nankantev'ille — I did not see 

„ ... Teinttu poa— To get worn out 

,, .„ Venum — Must, want 

,, ... Pattu vuttu— Having looked, left, 
("vuttu") is often used with many 
verbs for euphony instead of their 
simple Past Participle form) 

,, ... Panuirendu— Twelve 



Past Participles ending in double "t" are often sounded 
like "ch" (see above and List of V T erbs). 

Past Tense— The "t" often sounded as ch" (see above). 

Present Participle —The tense ending is usually dropped 
(see above). 

Solittu Si Hi vuttu — (ser ' pattuttu" above) 

Vunt inini ,, ... Vant'irukum— Will have come 

Vanturchi ,, ... Vant'achi Has come (see F 3.) 

Var'al ,. ... V&ruth'Al — People who are coming 

Vant'&i ,, ..> VantntL'al— People who came 

Vanda ,, ... Vendam — Do not want 

Venum ,, . . Vendum— Want, must. 

Everj Letter must be pronounced. 



78 



VERBS. 



For the Verbs not appearing in this list the Vocabularies 
should be consulted. 



NOTE.— If the Imperative, Infinitive and Past Partible be 
learnt all the other tenses can easily be acquired by 
applying (he following simple ru'es. 

PRESENT TENSE.— Thn is formed from the Im- 
perative bv adding -kren for the first pers. n singular 
and -kruttlU for a'l the others; EXCEPT when the Infini- 
tive has no 'k' in its Tense ending, then it will be -ren 
and - ruthll (i. e. also without 'k'). 

FUTURE TENSE.— This is fumed from the Impera- 
tive by adding -pen for the first person singular and 
-puthu for all the others; EXCEPT when the Infinitive 
has no 'k' in its Tense ending, then it will be -ven and 
-VUthll. (G. Note 1.) Imperatives ending in 'ku' drop 'ku* 
before -pen, -puthu. 

PAST TENSE.— This is formed from the Past Parti- 
ciple* minus its final Vowel, by adding -en for the first 
person singular and plural, and -uthu for all the rest'" 
EXCEPT when the Past Participle ends in 'I', then 
it will be -nen and -nuthu. 

INFINITIVE— This always ends in -kka or -a, 
double 'k' being usjd so as to dibtinguifh in writing the 
Infinitive from other words. 

Compound Tenses as A. 4. 5. 6. 9. page 84 are formed 
by these same rules app'ied to Irukka after a past participle 

NOTE. — Verbs marked f take the indirect object in the 
dative, i. o., ending in -ukku. Examples : Biing him a knife — 
Av&xmkku katti kondu va. He gave me money — Avan yen- 
ukku kasi kudututliu. Send Raman a letter — H&m&uukkn ka- 
itham anuppu The double ' ttu' of the Past Participle ending, 
and the Past Tense 't' which is formed from it, is usually jwo. 

Every letter must be pronounced. 



COOLY TAMIL. 



79 



nounced like 'chu' or 'chi'. Those which keep their legitimate 
't' sound are marked with an asterisk (*) in the following 
list of verbs. 

For Note on Imperative see D 1, 





IMPERA- 


INFINI- 


PAST 


ENGLISH. 


TIVE. 


TIVE. PARTICIPLE. 




Do. 


To ao. 


Having done. 


Abuse 


Yesu 


. Yesa ...i 


Yesi 


Ache 


Valli 


. Valhkka 


Vallittu 


Add 


Seitu podu . 


. Seitu poda ... 


Seitu pottu* 


Aid 


Uthavi sei 


. Uthavi seia ... 


Uthavi seittuf 


Agree 


Samathi 


. Saraathikka ... 


Samathittu 


Allow 


Vudu 


. Vuda 


Vuttu* 


Angry, to be... 





Kovikka 


Kovittu 


Ascend 


Eru 


. Era 


Eri 


Ask 


Kel (keil) 


. Kelkka(keUkka) Keittu* 


Awaken 





. Mulikka 


Mulittu . 


Bathe 


Kali 


. Kulikka 


Kiilittu 


Be 


Iru 


. Irukka 


Iruntu 


Be, remain ... 





. Kidakka 


Kidantu 


Beat 


Adi 


.. Adikka 


Adittu 


Become, cause 


A 


.. Aha 


Ahi (achi) 


Bind 


Kattu 


.. Katta 


Katti* 


Bite 


Kadi 


Ka-iikka 


K adittu 


Blame 


Yesu 


.. Yesa 


Yesi 


Blow 


Uthu 


.. titha 


Uthi 


Boil 


Kothi 


.. Kothikka 


Kothit'u 


Boil (steam)... 


Avi 


.. Avikka 


Avittu* 


Bolt 


Odi po 


.. < 'di poa 


Odi poittu, poi 


Born, to be ... 





.. Perukka 


Peruntu 


Braak 


Odi 


.. Odikka 


Odittu 


Bring 


Kondu va 


.. Kondu vara ... 


Kondu vantu+ 


Build 


Kattu 


Katta 


Katti* 


Bury 


Pothu 


.. Pothikka 


Pothittu 


Burn 





.. Veha (veka) „. 


Ventu 


Call 


Kupidu 


.. Kupidu 


Kupittu* 


Change 


Matu 


.. Mata 


Mati 


Cheat 





.. Yeikka 


Yeittu 


Clear out .*. 


Valle 


.. Valleikka ... 


Valleittu 


Coagulate 





.. Ona 


Orintu 


Collect 


Allu 


.. Alia 


Alii 


Come 


Va 


.. Vara 


Vantu 


Conceal 


Maroi 


Mareikka 


Mureittu 


Consider 


Yo.su 


Vnsikka 


SToaittu 


Corrupt 


Kedu 


.. Cedakka 


Kedattu* 


Count 


Ennu 


.. Enna 


Enni 


Cover 


Mudu 


.. Muda 


Madi 


Crumble 





Kasankka 


Fasanttu 


Cut 


Vettu 


w Vetta 


Vetti* 



so 



COOLY TAMIL. 









Past 


English. 


Imperative. 


Infinitive. 


Participle. 




Do. 


To do. 


Having done. 


Deduct 


Kali 


... Kalikka 


, Kalittu 


Die 





... Saha 


. Settu* 


Disappear 


, Kana po 


... Kana poa 


. Kana poittu* 


Disperse 


Kalei 


... Kaleikka 


. Kaleittu 


Divide 


, Pirru 


... Pirrikka 


. Pirrittu 


Do 


Sei 


... Seia 


. 8einttu 


Drink 


Kadi 


... Kiidikka 


. Kudittu 


Drive away ... 


Verritu 


,.. Verrita 


. Verritti* 


Drop 


Sintu 


Sinta 


. Sinti 


Dry 


Kaia 


... Kaia 


. Kainttu 


Dust 


Tudei 


... Tudeikka 


Tudeittu 


Earn 


Polei 


,.. Poleikka 


. Poleittu 


Earn 


Sampathu 


... Sampathikka. 


. Sampatbittu 


Eat 


Tinou 


,'.. Tinkka 


. Tinnittu* 


Empty 


Kottu 


,.. Kotta 


, Kotti* 


Enquire 


V isari 


,.. Visarikka 


, Visarittu 


Extinguish ... 





... Aneikka 


. Aneittu 


Fall 


Vulu 


... Villus 


, Vuluntu 


Fear 





. . Paiam pad a .. 


. Paiam pattu* 


Feel 





.- Teria 


. Terinttu 


Find 


Kandu pu li 


... Kandu pudikka Kandu puditbu 


Fine 


Thendu 


... Thendikka .., 


, Thendittu 


Finish 


Mudi 


.. Mudia 


. Mudinttu 


Fold 


Mad a 


... Madakka 


Madattu 


Forget 


Mara 


... Marakka 


Marantu 


Forgive 


Manni 


>.. Mannikka 


Manninttu 


Get 


Vangu 


.. Vanga 


Vangi 


Get aside 


Othunku 


.. Othunkka 


Othunki 


Get up 


Endiri 


.. Endinkka ... 


Endirittu 


Get wet 


Nanni 


.. Nannia 


Nanninttu 


Give 


Kuda 


., Kudukka 


Kuduttu*t 


Give 


Ta 


.. Tara 


Tantuf 


Go 


Po 


. Poa 


Poittu*, poi 


Go round 


eiuttu 


.. Sutta 


Sutti* 


Grind 


Arei 


.. Areikka 


Areittu 


Grow 


Valaru 


.. Valara 


Valarantu 


Have, possess 


Iru 


.. Irukka 


Irunta 


Heap 


Kuinu 


. . Kumikka 


Kumittu 


Hear 


Kel (keil) 


.. Kelkka(keilkka) 


Keittu* 


Hide 


Olu 


.. Olikka 


Olittu 


Hide 


Marei 


.. Mareikka 


Mareittu 


Hold 


Pudi 


.. Pudikka 


Pudittu 


Hurt 


Valli 


.. Vallikka 


Vallittu 


Hurt 





.. Noa 


Nontu 



COOLY TAMIL. 



8X 









Past 


English. 


IMPERATIVE. 


Infinitive 


, Participle. 




Do. 


To do. 


Having done 


Issue, enter 








in book 


. Pathi 


Pathia 


.. Pathinttu 


Jabber 


Kathei 


Katheikka 


- Katbeittu 


Jump 


Tandu 


Tauda 


.. Tandi 


Kick 


tjthei 


Utheikka 


.. Utheittu 


Kill 


Kollu 


Kolla 


.. Kondu 


Knock 


Tartu 


Tatta 


.. Tatti* 


Know 





Teria 


.. Terinttu 


Laugh 


Siri 


Sirikka 


.. Sirittu 


Learn 


Padi 


Padikka 


.. Padittu 


Lean 





Saia 


.. Sainttu 


Leave 


Vai 


Vaikka 


.. Vaittu 


Lie down 


Padu 


Padukka 


.. Paduttu 


Lift 


Tuku 


Tukka 


.. Tuki 


Look 


Par 


Pakka 


.. Patu 


Lose 


Ilaku 


llakka 


.. Ilantu 


Lower 


Panni 


Pannikka 


,. Pannittu 


Make 


Pannu 


Panna 


.. Panni 


Make 


A 


Akka 


.. Aki 


Measure 


A!a 


Alakka 


.. Alantu 


Meet 





Sandikka 


.. Sandittu 


Mend 


Miitu 


Muta 


.. Muti 


Miss 


Tappu .,, 


Tappa 


.. Tappi 


Mix 


Kallu 


Kallakka 


.. Kallanttu 


Move 


Asei 


Aseia 


.. Asei utu 


Move (trans.).. 


Acei 


Aseikka 


.. Aseittu 


Multiply 


Peru 


Perukka 


.. Peruntu 


Opeu 


Tura 


Turakka 


.. Turantu 


Pack, close ... 


Aduku 


Adukka 


.. Aduttu 


Pain 


Valli 


Vallikka 


.. Vallittu 


Pick 


Edu 


Edukka 


.. Eduttu* 


Pick out 


Porruku 


Porrukka 


.. Porruki 


Plait 


Pinnu 


Pinna 


.. Pinni 


Plant 


Nadu 


Nadu 


.. Nattu* 


found 


I.I. 


Idikka 


.. [dittu 


Poor out 


Utu 


Uta 


.. Qti 


... 


Ammakku 


A ram akka 


.. Ammattu 


Press 


Alutu 


Aluta 


.. Aluti 


Pi'ovont 


Nipat'i 


Nipftta 


.. Nipati 


Prick 


Kutu 


Kuta 


.. Kuti 


Prove 


Yembi 


Yembikku 


.. Yembittu 


Pull 


[llu 


lllukka 


.. Illuttu* 


Pull out 


Pudinku 


Pudinkka 


.. Pudinki 



82 



COOLY TAMIL. 









Past 


EXCJLISII. 


Imperative 


Infinitive, 


Participle. 




Do. 


To do. 


Having done. 


Punish 


Tandi 


... Tandikka 


Tandittu 


Push 


Tallu 


... Talla 


Talli 


Put 


Podu 


... Poda 


Pottu* 


Put together . . 


Ser 


... Serkka(seikka) 


Sernttu (seintti 


Pain 





... Male peia 


Male peinttu 


Read 





... Vasikka 


VaBittu 


Reduce 


Korrei 


... Korreikka ... 


Koreittu 


Pemain 


Nillu 


... Nikka 


Nintu 


Peraain 





... Kidakka 


Kidattu 


Repair 


Seri kattu 


... Seri katta 


Seri katti* 


Return 


Poittu va 


... Poittu vara ■• 


Poittu vantu 


Rise 


Endiri 


... Endirikka ••• 


Endirittu- 


Roll up 


Urutu 


... Uruta 


, Urutti* 


Rub 


Teiku 


... Teikka 


Teittu 


Rub out 


Alliku 


... Allikka 


Allittu 


Ruin 


Keda 


... Kedakka 


Kedattu 


Run 


Odu 


... Oda 


Odi 


Saw 


Arriku 


... Atrikka 


Arrittu 


Say, tell 


Sollu 


... Solla 


Sollif 


Say 


En 


... Ena 


. Entuf 


Scrape 


Suruntu 


... Surunta 


. Surunti 


Search 


Sothi 


... Sothikka 


. Sothittu 


See 





... Kankka 


. Kantu 


Sell 


Viku 


... Vikka 


. Vittu* 


Send 


Anupu 


... Anupa 


. Anupif 


Settle (ana/c.) 


Tiru 


... Tirkka 


. Tirntu 


Set aside 


Othuku 


... Othukka 


Oth uki 


Sew 


Teiku 


... Teiikka 


• Teiittu 


Shake 


Asei 


... Aseikka 


. Aseittu 


Sharpen 


Titu 


... Tita 


. Titi 


Shave 


Sivu 


... Siva 


• Sivi 


Shoot 


Sutu 


_ Suta 


. Suti 


Show 


Karabi 


.„ Kambikka ... 


. Kambittu 


Show 


Katu 


... Kata 


. Kati 


Shut 


Satu 


... Sata 


. Sati 


Sift 


Salaku 


... Salakka 


. Salattu 


Sit 


Udkaru 


... Udkara 


. Udkantu 


Sltep 


Tunku 


._ Tunkka 


. Tunki 


Slip 


. Valuku 


... Valukka 


. Valuttu 


Smear 


. Pll8U 


._ PQsa 


. Pusi 


Smell 


. Mannaku 


... Manuakka .. 


. Mannattu 


Speak 


• Pesu 


... Pesa 


. Posi 


Spill 


. Sintu 


... Sinta 


. Sinti 


Split 


. Pila 


.„ Pilakka 


. Pilantu 


Sprinkle 


. Theli 


... Thelikka 


. Thelittu 


Sprout 





... Moleikka 


. Moleittu 


Spread out .. 


. Viru 


... Virikka 


. Virittu 



COOLY TAMIL. 



83 



E.NGLI8H. 



Squeeze 

Stamp 

Stare 

Stir up 

Stop 

Stop (trans.)... 

Swell 

Sweep 

Swindle 

Take 

Take away ... 

Take care 

Tear 

Temper (steel) 

Think 

Think 

Throw 

Tie 

Touch 

Tread 

Trust 

Turn off 

Turn out 

Turn round ... 



Imperative. Infinitive. 



Do. 

Pali 

Mitbu 

Mii'u 

Kindu 

Nillu 

Nipatu 

Vinku 

Kvitu 

Yeiku 

Edu 
Kondu po 

Kilu 

Tove 

Ninei 

Yosu 

Visu 

Kattu 

Todu 

Mithu 

Nambu 

Tirrupu 

Verritu 

Tirumbu 



Understand ... 

Untie ... Avilu (aviru).. 

Use ... Pavu 



To dj. 

Pulia 

Mithikka 

Mulikka 

Kinda 

Nikka 

Nipata 

Vinkka 

K uta 

Yeikka 

Edukka 

Kondu poa 

Kgvanakka 

Kilikka 

Tove a 

Nineikka 

Yosikka 

Visa 

Katta 

Toda 

Mithikka 

Namba 

Tirrupa 

Verrita 

Tirumba 

Velunkka 

Avilkka 

Pavikka 



Past 
Participle, 

Having done. 

Piilittu 

Mithittu 

Mulittu 

Kindi 

Nintu 

Nipati 

Vinki 

Kuti 

Yeittu 

Eduttu* 

Kondu poittu* 

Kavanittu 

Kilittu 

Toventu 

Nineittu 

Yosittu 

Visi 

Katti 

Totii 

Mithittu 

Nambi 

Tirnppi 

Veritti*] 

Tirumbi 

Veluuki 
Avinttu 
Pavittu 



Walk ... Nadu ... Nadakka ... Nadantu 

Weigh Niru ... Nirukka ... Niruttu* 

Wine ... Tudei ... Tudeikka ... Tudeittu 

Write ... Elutu (eluthu) Eluta (elutha) Elutti (eluth ; )*T 



NOTE. — Compound verbs, such as 'kandu pudikka' are 
conjugated like the verb 'pudikka', with 'kandu' preceding it 
unchanged throughout. 



N.B. — If the Imperative of a verb be forgotten use the 
Past Participle nrith 'podu' (put) after it. If the Future be 
forgotten make use of the Past Participle followed by poruthu 
or vftruthu, {going, coming). 



84 



COOLY TAMIL. 



THE FOLLOWING IS A BEIEF 

CONJUGATION OF THE VERB. 

{For reference only.) 



A. — Verbs with a 'U. 9 in the Infioitive. 

B. — Verbs without a 'k' in the Infinitive. 

C-— Verbs with the sound of 'ch', 'chu', in Past Tense. 

D.— Auxiliary Verb, 'to be% 'to have'. 

NOTE. — Nearly all verbs with a 'k' in the Infinitive have the 
f ch' sound of 't' in the Past Participle, while those without 
the 'k ; usually keep the legitimate 't' sound. (See List of 
Verbs, page 79). 

In the following all plural and honorific forms are omitted 
(Appendix B.) ; also the Tamil pronouns (see A 2.) as these 
are the same for all tenses and verbs. 



A. 



Infinitive. 
To give ... Kudukka. 

Imperative. 
Give ... Kudu. 

1. Present Tense (C 1.) 

2. Past Tense (D 2.) 

3. Future Tense (G.) 

4. Past Indefinite (F.) 

5. Pluperfect (F 2.) 



Past Participle. 
Having given ... Kuduttu 

Present Participle* 
Giving ... Kudukru(thu) {adj.) 

Kudukren, kudukruthu — I, 
etc., give, am giving. 

Kuduten, kudututhu — I, etc., 
gave. 

Kudupen,kuduputhu — I, etc., 
will give. 

Kudutt'irukren, kudutt'iruk- 
ruthu— I, etc., have given, 
am given. 

Kudutt'irunten, kudutt'irun- 
tuthu — I, etc., had given, 
was given. 



• D 1 (Note 1.) 



COOLY TAMIL. 



85 



6. Future Perfect (J.) 



10. 



Impersonal Future (J 2.) 

Impersonal Future Per- 
fect (J 1.) 

Impersonal Fast Tens© 
(F 3.) 

Perfect Participle (L.) .. 



11. Subjunctive (K.) 



Kudutt'irupen, kudutt'irupu- 
thu — I, etc., shall have 
given, will be given. 

Kudukum It will give. 

/ Kudutt'irukum— -It will be 
\. given, will have given. 

/ Kudutt'achi— It has been 
L given. 

Kuduttu-kuttu — Having been 
given. 

Kudukattum — May give (for 
all persons). 



NOTE. — There being only one Auxiliary verb in Tamil the 
use of this 'Irukka' to form Compound Tenses (4, 5, 6, 8) has 
an effect in some verbs of making a Passive, but as this is not 
admissable (see Postcript 9), such verbs take the pronoun in 
dative to keep them active (A 3.) 



A. Negative Form - 

Infinitive. Imperative. 

Not to give...Kudukka vendam* | Do not give ... Kudukathe. 

Present Participle.^ 
Not giving ... Kudukathe. 



1. Present Tense (C 1.) 

'1. Past Tense (Di) 

3. Future Tense (G.) 

4. Past Indefinite (F.) 

6. Futuro Perfect (J.) 

i>. Subjunctive (H 1.) 



Kudukruth'ille (for all per- 
sons)— Do not give, am not 
giving. 

Kudututh'ille (for all persons) 

— Did not give, gave not. 

(a) (Colloquially : Ruduk'ille) 
Kudukka-maten, kudukka- 

matathe — I will not givo, 

he will not give. 

Kudutt'irukrnth'ille (for all 
persons) — Have not given 
[unusual, use the Past 
Tense 2 (a) ] 

Kudutt'i n ikka- maten — mata- 
the — Will not have given. 

Kndiikka-kudathe — may not 
give. 



NOTE. — The other Tenses arc not used, the above can be 
used instead. 



See pag« 77. it D 1 (Note 1.) 



86 



COOLY TAMIL. 
B. 



Infinitive. 
To speak ... Pesa 

Imperative. 
Speak ... Pesu. 

1. Present Tense {C 1.) 

2- Past Tense (D 2.) 

3. Future Tense (G.) 

4. PaBt Indefinite (F.) 



Past Participle. 
Having Spoken ... Pesi. 

Present Participle.* 
Speaking ... Pesru(thu) (adj.) 



.. Pesren, pesrnthu— I, etc., 
speak, am speaking., 

.. Pesnen, pesnuthu — I, etc, 
spoke. 

.. Pesuven, pesuvuthu — I, etc., 
will speak. 

.. Pes'irukrtn, pes'irukruthu — 

I, etc., have spoken, is 

spoken. 

Pes'irunten, pes'iruntuthu — 

I, etc., had spoken, was 

spoken. 

.. Pes'irupen, pes'iruputhu — I, 
etc., will have spoken, will 
be spoken. 

7. Impersonal Future (J 2.) Pesum — It will speak. 

8. Impersonal Future Per- / Pes'irukum — It will have 

feet (J 1.) I spoken, be spoken. 

9. Impersonal Past Tense 

(F 3.) ... Pesi'achi— It has been spoken. 

10. Perfect Participle (L.) ... Pesi'kuttu— Ha v i ng been 

spoken. 

11. Subjunctive (K.) ... Pesattum— May speak. 



5. Pluperfect (F 2.) 

6. Future Perfect (J.) 



B. Negative Form.— 

Infinitive. [dam. I Imperative. 

Not to speak (H.) ...Pesa ven- | Do not speak ... Pesathe. 

Present Participle.* 
Not speaking ... Pesathe {adj.) 



1. Present Tense (CI.) 



2. Past Tense (D 2.) 



Pesruth'ille (for all persons) — 
I, etc., do not speak, am 
not speaking. 

Pesruth'ille (for all persons)— 
Did not speak, spoke not, 
(a) (Colloquially ; Pes'ille.) 



* D 1 (Note 1.) 



COOLY TAMIL. 



87 



3. Future Tense (G.) 

4. Tast Indefinite (F.) 

5. Future Perfect (J ) 

6. Subjunctive (H.) 



Pesa-m&ten, pesa-matathe — I 
will not speak, he, etc., will 
not speak. 

Pes'irukruth'ille (for all per- 
sons) — have not spoken 
[unusual, use the Past 
Tense 2 (a)]. 

Pes'irukka-maten pes'irukka- 
matathe — I will not have 
spoken, he will not have 
spoken, 

Pesa-kudath e — May not 
speak (for all persons). 



c. 

NOTE. — In the following where %' and 'tt' is sounded like 
'ch', 'chu', 'chi', these letters have been used, but in other i^arts of 
this book the 't's have been retained. As this altered pronuncia- 
tion only applies to Past Tenses, only these are shown. 



To hit 



Infinitive. 
... Adikka. 

Imperative, 
... Adi. 



Hit 

Past Tense (D 2 ) 
Past Indefinite (F 
Pluperfect (F 2.) 



Past Participle. 
Having hit ... Adichu 

Present Participle* 
Hitting ... Adikru(thu). 



etc., 



... Adichen, adichuthu— I, 

hit. 
... Adich'irukren, adich'irukru- 

thn — I., etc., have hit, is hit. 
... Adich'irunten, adich'iruntu- 

thu — I, etc., had hit, was 

hit. 
... Adich'irupen. adich'iruputhu 

— I, etc., will have hit, will 

be hit. 
Impersonal Future Perfect (J 1) Adieh'irukum— It will have 

hit, will be hit. 



Future Perfect (J.) 



Impersonal Past Tense (F 3 ). 
Perfect Participle (L.) 



Adich'achi — It has been hit, 
was hit. 

Ad ichi-kuttu — having been 
hit 



NOTE —'The negative is formed as in other verb* and tin: 'oh' 
>"'</"/ ('.v retained as above. 



D 1 (Note 1.) 



88 



COOLY TAMIL. 



O. 



Auxiliary Verb.— To be, To have. 



Infinitive. 
To be, have (A. Note). ..Irukka 



Be 



Imperative. 

... Iru. 



1. Present Tense (C 1 ) 

2. Past Tense (D 2.) 

3. Future Tense (G.) 



Past Participle, 
Having been, had ... lruntu. 

Present Participle. * 
Being, having ... Irukru(thu), 

Irukren, Irukruthu — I, etc., 
am, have. 

Irunten, Iruntuthu — I, etc., 
was, had. 

lrupen, fruputhu— I, etc., will 
be, will have. 



NOTE. — Other Tenses are not often used, the above may be 
used in their stead. 

4. Impersonal Future (J 2.) ... Irukum— It will be, will have. 

5. Impersonal Future Per- ( Irunt' irukum— It will have 

feet (J 1.) I been, will have had. 

6. Subjunctive (K 1.) ... Irukattum— May be, may;have 

(for all persons). 



D. Negative Form.— 

Infinitive. [dam. I Imperative. 

Not to be, have .. . Irukka ven- | Do not be .. Irukathe. 

Present Participle.* 
Not being, having ... Irukathe. 



1. Present Tense (C 1.) 

2. Past Tense (D 2.) 

3. Future Tense (G) 

4- Future Perfect (J.) 

5. Subjunctive (B 1.) 



Irukruth'ille (for all persons) 
— Am not, have not 

Iruntuth'ille (for all persons) 
— Not been, not had. {Col- 
loquially : Iruk'ille). 

Irukka-maten, Irukka-mata- 
the — I will not be, he will 
not be, have, 

Irunt'irukka-maten, -matathe 
1, etc., will not have been. 

Irukka-kudathe — May not be, 
have. 



* Dl (Note!.) 



VOCABULARY. 



ENGLISB-TAMIL. 



In order to make most use of references, after looking up 
a word in this Vocabulary, the Tamil for it should be turned up 
in the Tamil-English Vocabulary, xvhere a rejerence to its 
use in the Sentences, pp 47-71, may be found. 

The references here are to Paragraphs in the Grammar Section. 
Ps. is the Postscript ajter the Vocabularies. 



A, an A3(Note 2) 


.. Oru, or 


Abdomen 


... Vaitu, vairu 


Able, can H. 


.. Elam, kudam, etam 


About Ps. 4 


. . -pole (suffix) ; pari (concerning) 


Above 


.. Mele 


Absent 


.. Illathe neram 


* Abuse, to 


. . Yesa 


Account 


. . Kanak 


Ache, to Bl 


.. Vallikka 


Ache 


.. Valli, novu 


Acquainted with, to be ... 


.. Palakam irukka 


Acre 


.. Ekru 


Across 


.. Kurruka 


Add, to 


.. Seittu poda, kutta 


Address 


Meil vilasam 


Admit, to, confess 


.. Ottukolla 


Advance 


. . Advans 


Advance, to (money, etc.) 


.. Advans kudukka 


Advantage 


.. Savikiam, preosanam 


Advice 


.. Putti 


Adze 


. . Vachi 


Affair 


. . Kariam 


Afraid, to be 


.. Pa jam irokka 


After P. 


.. Pidpadu, pur ago 


After, a day 


.. Ora nal kallichi 


Afternoon 


. . Andiki 


Afterwards 


. . Apuram 


Again 


.. Tirumbi, maruvadi 


Agency, Cooly 


.. Tipaii (Depot) 


Age 


.. Vaisu, piraiam 


Agree, to ... . 


.. Samathikka, ottukolla 


Aj,nie 


.. Kulir kachal 


Aid, to ... . 


.. Uthavi seia 


Air 


.. Kafti 



* All Vtrbs are shown in the Infinitive so they should be turned up on 
pages 79-88. 



90 



COOLY TAMIL. 



Alas ! 


, ... Aiyo, appa ! 




Albizzia tree 


, ... Vaga maram 




Alight, to 


... Era, eranga 




Alive, to be 


... Usari irukka 




Almost Ps. 4 


, ... -pole (suffix) 




All B2. 


, ... Ella in, ora mika 




Allow, to 


, ... Vuda, pada 




Alone 


, ... Tania, tanichi 




Along 


, ... Nedua 




Aloud 


. ... Pellama 




Also Ps. 2 


. ... Kuda, seitu, -um 




Although Ps. 3 


... -alum (verbal suffix) 




Alter, to 


. ... Mata 




Altogether 


. ... Seittu, orumika 




Always L2. 


. ... Yeppothum 




Amicably 


. ... Ishtama 




Amount 


. ... Kanak 




Amulet 


. ... Kapu 




And B(Note);D. 


. ... -um -um (suffix) 




Anger 


. ... Kovum 




Angry, to be 


. ... Kovikka 




Animal 


. ... Mirugam 




Ankle 


. ... Karadu kal 




Annoy, to 


. ... Karrachal panna 




Another J3 


. ... Inoru, maru 




Answer 


. ... Vathil, marumuli 




Ant 


. ... Erumbu 




Ant (white) 


. ... Kareian 




Antlers 


. ... Man kombu 




Any J3. 


. ... (not translated), can use 
jam' — a little 


'kon 


Anyone L2. 


. ... Yarum (seri) 




Apart 


. ... Vere, vevere 




April 


. ... Sitiri masam 




Appfi, butler 


. ... Appu 




Arecanut 


. ... Pakku 




Arm 


. ... Kai 




Army 


. ... Pattalam (battalion) 




Around 


. ... Sutti 




Arrack 


. ... Saraiam 




As Ps. 4. 


. ... Padi, -pole (suffix) 




Ascend, to 


. ... Era, erangu poa 




Ashamed, to be 


. ... Vekkam irukka 




Ashes 


. ... Sambal 




Aside 


. ... Pakkatile 




Ask, to 


,. ... Kelkka, (keilkka) 




Ass 


. ... Kaluthe 




Assist. Superintendent 


. ... Rinna dore (tur) 




At A4 


. ... -ukku, -ikki (suffix), kirta 




August 


. ... Ivani masam 




Aunt 


. ... Sinn'ai 




Away 


. ... Tura 




Axe 


Kodali 





ENGLISH-TAMIL VOCABULARY. 



91 



B. 



Baby 

Bachelor 

Back 

Back (adv:) 

Backwards, to pull 

Bad LI. B. 

Bad motive 

Bag 

Balance 

Balance (of a/c) 

Bald 

Ball 

Bamboo 

Banana 

Bank (for money) 

Bank 

Baptism 

Barbecue 

Barber 

Bargain, to 

Bark (of tree) 

Bark, to (as a dog) 

Barrel 

Basket B. 2. 

Biit (animal) 

Bath, to 

Bath room B2 

Batta (daily expense) 

Be, to A3. Page 88 

Be, if it; if it is Ps.12 

Bean 

Bear 

Bear, to 

Bear child, to 

Bear, tolerate, to 

Beard 

Beat, to 

Beaten, to be 

Because 

Become, to Ps.13. 

Bed 

Bed (flower) 

Bed room 

Bee 

Beef 

Bertie 

Before F3. 

Boxcar 

TV^'in, to 

Behave, to 



Pulle 

tlndikaran 

Idupu 

Tirumbi 

Pinukku illukka 

Agathe, ketta 

Akkus 

Pai 

Terasu 

Paiki 

Motte 

Pantu, boli 

Munjie, vambu 

Vala pallam 

Vangu 

Vangi 

Nianasanam 

Kallam 

Ambattan, pariah 

Vile pes a 

Patte 

Koleikka 

Pipa 

Kiide 

Vaval 

Kulikka 

Kulikru kamara 

Vatta 

Irukka, kidakka 

Anal (from aha) 

Ponji 

Karadi 

Tankka 

Perukka 

Porrukka 

Tadi 

Adikka 

Adi nada, (suffer beating) 

Anapadia, yenendal (Ps.ll) 

Aha 

Kattil 

Par 

Padukru kamara 

Ten-i 

Mfulu erichi 

Vandu 

Mindi, minne 

TicIih. kfixan 

Tuankka 

Nadikka 



02 



OOOLY TAMIL. 



Behind F3. 

Behold, to 

Believe, to 

Belief 

Bell 

Bellows 

Below 

Belt 

Bend, to 

Bend round, encircle, to ... 

Bent 

Betel 

Better (adv :) 

Beyond A4 (Footnote) 

Channel (in tapping rubber) 

Bicycle 

Bier (with canopy) 

Big B. 

Bill 

Bill hook 

Bind, to 

Bird 

Birthday 

Biscuit (rubber) 

Bit (piece) 

Bit 

Bitch 

Bite, to 

Bite 

Bitter, to be 

Black 

Blacksmith 

Blame, to 

Blanket 

Blast, to 

Blind 

Blister 

Blood 

Blotting paper 

Blot, to 

Blow, to 

Blue 

Blunt 

Board 

Boast, to 

Boat 

Body 

Boil, to 

Bolt, to 

Bone 

Book 

Boot 

Born, to be 



... Pindi, poragu, pin pakkam 

... Pakka 

... Namba 

... Visuvasam 

... Manni 

... Turrutu 

... Kile, pannia 

... Var 

... Madakka, madaukka, 

... Valeikka 

... Eonal 

... Vett'ele 

... Tevelea 

... Angutu 

... Nettu kan 

... Vandi, baisiku 

... Pade 

... Peria, perisi 

... Kanak, situ 

... Vettu katti 

... Katta 

... Kuruvi 

... Peruntu nal 

... Boti; (edible,) iskot 

... Tundu 

... Lagam 

... Pen-nai 

... Kadikkn 

... Kadi 

... Kasapu irukka 

... Karupu 

... Kollan 

... Yesa 

... Kambli, jul 

... Kal vedi vaikka 

... Kurutu 

... Kopalan 

... Bettam 

... Mai otta tal 

... Otta 

... TTtha 

... Nilam 

... Malingu 

... Palagu 

... Vimbu pesa 

... Toni, Kappal (sea) 

... Odambu, mei 

... Avikka, kothikka, ponkka 

... Odi poa 

... Elumbu 

... Postikum 

... Sapatu 

... Perukka 



ENGLISH-TAMIL VOCABULARY. 



Borrow, to 

Both M. 

Bottle 

Bottom 

Boundary 

Box 

Box (for beef) 

Boy 

Bracelet 

Brain 

Bramble 

Branch 

Brass 

Bread 

Bread fruit 

Break, to 

BreaBt 

Breath 

Bribe 

Brick 

Bridge 

Bridegroom 

Brinjal 

Bring, to 

Broad 

Brother 

Brother (young) 

Brother-in-law 

Bruise 

Bruise, to 

Brush 

Bucket 

Buckle 

Bud 

Buffalo 

Build, to 

Bulb 

Bull 

Bundle 

Bungalow 

BurD, to 

Burn, to (as curry, etc.) 

Burial place 

Bury, to 

Bush 

Bushel 

Business 

Butcher 

Butter 

Butterfly 

Buy, to 

By A4. P..10 



... Eadanukku vftnga, cruvu vangs 

... Rend'al, rendu per 

... Votal, botal 

... Adi 

... Vandrie 

... Petti, potti 

... Erichi petti 

... Podian, paian 

... Kapu, valevu 

... Miiiei 

... Mullu chedi 

... Vathu 

... Pittale 

... Boti 

... Pla pallam 

... Odikka 

... Molle 

... Muchu 

... Lanjam 

... Sen-kal 

... Palam 

... Mapale 

... Katiri kai 

... Kondu vara 

... Agalam 

... Annan 

... Tambi 

... Machinan 

... Nasavu 

... Nasakka 

... Piirus (Eng.) 

... Vali 

... Var putu 

... Arambu, tiri 

... Erume madu 

... Katta 

... Kelangu 

... Kale madu 

... Siime, kattu 

... Bangala 

... Veha 

... Oreikka 

... Suda kadu 

... Pothikka 

... Chedi 

... Pusal 

... Soli, joli 

... Erichi karan 

... Venne 

... Papati 

... Vileikki vanga 

... -odu (suffix) 



94 



COOLY TAMIL. 



0. 



Cabbage 


... Eosa 




Cable 


... Tandi 




Cadjan (plaited and dried 






leaves of palms) 


... tJole 




Cage 


... Kudu 




Calf 


... Kandu kutti 




Call, to 


... Kiipida 




Camp (Ragama) 


... Mare 




Camp (Tuticorin) 


... Tatapare 




Can (be able) H. 


... Elam, kudam 




Candle 


... Molavu patti 




Cane 


... Perambu 




Cannot HI. 


... Elathe, kudathe 




Card 


... Situ 




Cardamom 


... Yel'arisi 




Care (noun) 


... Kave 




Care, to 


... Kavanakka 




Carefully 


... Kavannma, patirama 




Careful 


... Patiram 




Carpet 


... Samukalam, pai 




Carpenter 


... Odavi, bas 




Carriage 


... Kuthere karrete 




Carrot 


... Karatu 




Cart 


... Karrete 




Cart road B2. 


... Karrete rotu 




Carry away, to 


... Kondu poa, tuki kondu 


poa 


Cash 


... KS si, salli 




CaBh (change) 


... Sillari 




Cash (ready) 


... Ka-kasi, rokum 




Case (court) 


... Valaku 




Cask 


... Pipa 




Castor oil 


... Vilak'enne 




Caste 


... Jathi, sathi 




Cat 


... Pune 




Catch, to 


... Pudikka, apida 




Catechist, teacher 


... Upadesi 




Cattle 


... Madu 




Cattle keeper 


... Madu karan 




Cattle shed 


... Madu patti 




Cattle dung 


... Sani, inSd'uram 




Cause, to Ps.9 


... Pada 




Ceiling 


... Siil 




Cement 


... Siminti 




Cent 


... Sadam 




Cent, per cent. M 


... Nurukku 




Centre 


... Nadu 




Ceremony (religious) 


... Kalipu 




Certain 


... Nisamana 




Certificate 


... Karaktar 




Chaff (food) 


... SapB 




Change (money) 


... Sillari 





ENGLISH-TAMIL VOCABULARY. 



Change, to 

Chance 

Chain 

Chair 

Charcoal 

Charge of, to give 

Chatter 

Chatter, to 

Cheat, to 

Cheetah 

Chest 

Chick 

Chicken 

Chicken-pox 

Child 

Chill 

Chilli 

Chin 

Chisel 

Cholera 

Christian 

Christmas 

Church 

Cinchona 

Claim 

Clay 

Clean 

Clean, to 

Clean out, to 

Clearing 

Clear out drains, to 

Clear out things from a 

room, to 
Clever 
Climb, to 
Clock 

Close, near 
Close, to 

Cloth, any kind of 
Cloth, (man's) 
Cloth (woman's) 
Cloth (folded), lap 
Clothes 
Cloud 
Coach 

Coagulate, to 
Coagulated latex 
Coarse leaf 
Coast (Tri(lia) 
Cout 
Cobra 
Cock 
Cocoa 



Mata 



£U 

Sangili 

N a 'kali (4 legs) 

Kare 

Param kudukka 

Kathe 

Kathekka 

Yeikka 

Puli 

Nenji 

Koli kunchi 

Koli 

Amme vattu 

Pulle, kolante 

Tadame 

Kochi kai 

Nadi 

TJli 

A 7 eithi, peithi 

Vetha karan 

Kiristu peruntu nal 

Koil , kovil 

Eina 

Crime 

Kali mannu 

TQpara, narusa 

Tupara panna 

Valeikka 

Puthu kadu 

Kiin valeikka 

Olittu poda, olikka 

Ketti 

Era, erangu poa 

Peria orlas 

Kitta 

Adukka 

Savali 

Veiti 

Sile 

Madi 

fjdupu, tuni 

Meham 

Kochi 

Oria 

Orinttu pal 

Mutt'ele 

Siinc, uru 

Satte 

Nalla pfimbu 

Saval 

Sokolati 



90 



OOOLY TAMIL. 



Coconut 

Coconut shell 

Coconut (yaung) 

Coffee 

Cold (in head) 

Cold (after being hot) 

Cold (previously not hot) .^. 

Cold, to be 

Cold (dried up) 

Colic 

Collect, to 

Colour 

Comb 

Come, to G. 

Come down, to 

Commode 

Complain, to 

Compromise, to 

Conceal 

Concerning that 

Consequently 

Consider, to 

Continually 

Contract 

Contradict, to 

Convulsions 

Cook, to 

Cooly 

Cooly (kitchen) 

Copy 

Copper 

Cord 

Coriander seed 

Corn (Indian) 

Corner 

Corrupt, to 

Cost 

Cotton 

Cough 

Count, to 

Country 

Couple 

Court, of law 

Cousin (m) 

Cousin (/) 

Cover 

Cover, to 

Cow 

Crab 

Crack, to 

Crack open, (of shoots) to 

Crack, a 

Cradle 



... Ten-kai 

... Serrete 

... Kurumba 

... Kopi (also used for tea bush) 

... Tadame 

... Ari (adj.) 

... Pacha (adj.) 

... Kiithil irukka, kulir 

... Ari poichi 

... Vaitu valli 

... Alia, porrukka 

... Nerram 

... Sipu 

... Vara 

A .. Kile era, erangu vara 

... Kakus petti 

... Kol solla 

... Ita si panna 

... Mareikka, olikka 

... Athe pati 

... AthinaTathukaha 

... Yosikka 

... Nitham, tennam 

... Kontrap 

... Etheruthu pesa 

... Illupu 

... Akka, avikka 

... Al, kuli al 

... Kiisini meite 

... Vilu, kopil, vivaram 

... Sembu 

... Kavuru, kairu 

... Kottamali 

... Solan 

... Mul», modaku 

... Kedakka 

... Vile 

... Panchu 

... Irumal 

... Buna, enni pakka 

... Sim^, deisan 

... Jodi 

... Kortu 

... Mchinan 

... Machinachi 

... Mudi 

... Muda 

... Pasu (madu) 

... Nandu 

... Polikka 

... Vedikka 

... Kiral 

... Totil 



ENGLISH-TAMIL VOCABULARY. 



97 



Cramp 

Crazy 

Credit, to 

Credit balance 

Creeper (bramble) 

Cripple 

Crooked 

Cross 

Cross drain 

Crossed 

Crouch, to 

Crow 

Crowbar 

Crowbar (large) 

Crowd 

Crowd, to 

Crumble, to 

Crush, to 

Cry, to 

Culvert 

Culprit 

Cup 

Cure, to 

Curve, circle 

Curved, bent 

Curry 

Cut, a 

Cue, to 

Cut short, to 

Cut, short 

Custom 



Daily 

Dam 

Damage 

Damp 

Dance, to 

Dark 

Dark, to be 

Date 

Date, fixed for payment ... 

D,i ughter 

Daughter-in-law 

Dawn 

Dawn, to (the day) 

Dav N2. 

Day, ro- 

Day bofore yesterday N2 

Day of the week N2. .. 

Daytime 

Dead 

Dead (of trees) 



... Irpu 

... Paiti 

... Vara vaikka 

... Vara kasi 

... Kodi 

... Nundi 

... Konal 

... Silve 

... Marapu kan 

... Pinal 

... Kiminkka, othunkka 

... Kaka 

... Alavanga 

... Landa 

... Ktitam 

... Kutama vara 

... Kasankka 

... Nasakka, kasakka 

... Alukka 

... Voku 

... Kuttavali 

... Koppe 

... Sogam aha (akka) 

... Valeivu 

... Valeinttu poichi 

... Karri 

... Vettu 

... Vetta 

... Korreittu vetta 

... Kurrukka. pathe 

... Valakam, valame 

D. 

... Nalukku-nalukku, nitham 
... Teppu kallarn 
... Palathu, naetam 
... Irama 
... Ada 
... Irrutn 
... Trrutu poa 
... T*eidi 
... Tavane 
... Magal 
... Maru-magal 
... \ idinttu kalam 
... \idia vidinttu irnkka 
... Nil 

... Inniki, indiki 
... Mundiim nal 
... Kilame n;ll 
... Pagal 
... Settu 
... Ittu, ^>attu 
H 



COOLY TAMIL. 



Deaf ... . 

Debt ... . 

Debtor ... .> 

December ... . 

Decrease ... ., 

Deduct, to ... .. 

Deep ... . 

Deer 

Defect 

Delay ... . 

Delay, to ... ., 

Descend ... . 

Descent, steep hill ... . 

Desire ... . 

Detect, to 

Devil 

Dew ... ., 

Diarrhoea 

Die, to ... ., 

Die, to 

Difference 

Different J3. 

Diffioult 

Dig, to 

Dig round, to 

Dilapidated 

Dinner 

Directlv R. 

Dirt 

Dirty 

Disappear, to 

Discharge note (without debt).. 
Discharge certificate (shewing 

debt) 

Dismiss, to 

Disperse, to 

Distance 

Distribute, to 

District 

Disturbance 

Divide, to 

Do, to 

Do not D2(Note 1) ; H 

Doctor (native) 

Doctor 

Doer 

Dog 

Done D2. F3. 

Donkey 

Door 

Dot 

Dose 

Double ... .. 



, Sevitu 

Eadan 
, Kadan karan 
, Makali masani 

Korreittu pod a 

Kallikka 
, Alam 

Man 

Vitesam 

Sonakam 

Sonakka, sonanttu poa 

Erangu poa kile 

Yeitatile 

5.86 

Kandu pudikka 

Pesasi, pei 

PSini 

Vaitale poa 

Saha 

Irandu poa, settu pon 

Vitesam 

Vere 

Varratum 

Mannu vetta 

Parrittu vetta, parikka 

Idinttu poichi 

Tini 

TTdane 

TJte 

Aluka 

Kana poa 

Pattu situ 

Tundu 

Vellia anupa 

Kaleikka 

Turam 

Pirittu kudu 

Silla, TSluk 

Sande 

Pirikka 

8eia, panna 

-athe (suffix) 

Vaitian 

Daktar 

-karan, -kari (fern :) suffix 

Nai 

Achi 

Kaluthe 

Kadavu 

Pulli, sipher 

Alavu 

Rettu 



ENGLISH-TAMIL VOCABULARY. 



9d 



Dove 


Pura, 


Down 


Eile, pannia 


Dozen 


Pannirendu 


Drag, to 


Dlukka 


Drain 


Kan 


Drain, (cross) 


Marapu kan 


Drawer 


Lachi 


Dream 


Sepanam 


Dried up (earth) 


Irigi, kanji 


Drill holes, to 


Kuili adikka 


Drink, to 


Kudikka 


Drive, to 


Verrita 


Drop, to 


Sinta 


Drop 


Suttu 


Drum (small) 


Tol 


Drum (large) 


Matalam 


Dry 


Kaia, kanji 


Dry, to 


Kaia poda 


Duck 


Tara 


Dumb 


tTme 


Dung 


Sani 


Dust 


Tiil 


Dust, to 


Tudeikka 


Dysentry 


Vaitu kadapu 




B. 


Each J3. 


Ovoru, anthantha 


Ear 


Kathu 


Ear-ring (man's) 


Kadakan 


Early 


Vellena 


Earn, to 


Poleikka, sampathikka 


Earth 


Mannu 


Earth, ground 


PQmi 


Easy 


Leisi 


Eat, to 


Tinkka 


Eatables 


Cppu-koohi-kai 


Eclipse 


Kiranam 


Edge 


Oram 


Egg (fowl's) 


Koli mute 


Eight M. 


Yettu 


Eight by eight M. 


Yev'ettu 


Eighteen M. 


Pattinettu 


Eighth M. 


Yettam 


Eighteenth 


PattinettSra 


Eighty 


Yempathu 


Eightieth 


Yenipntham 


Elbow 


Mulan kni 


Elephant 


Ane 


Elk 


Marre 


Eleven M. 


PattinQnnu 


Else, or LSfNote) 


Ulate 


Empty 


Virrum 


Empty, to 


Kotta 



100 


COOLT TAMIL. 


End 


Tongal 


Engine 


Yentiram, mol 


Enough 


Pothum 


Enough, not 


Pattathe, patt'IUe 


Enquire, to 


Visarikka 


Enrage, to 


Kovikka 


Entangle, to 


Sikka 


Enter, to 


TJluku poa 


Enter, in a book, to 


Patbia 


Entirely 


Muluka 


Entrance 


Vasal 


Envelope 


Kudu 


Erase, to 


Allittu podu 


Error 


Pesagu 


Estate 


Totum 


Estimate 


Mathipu 


Evening 


Saintiram 


Even, level 


Mattatukku 


Event 


Kairiam 


Eventually 


Kadeisile 


Every 


Ovoru, ellam 


Everybody 


Ellarum 


Everybody, to 


Ellatukku 


Everywhere 


Engam 


Evidence 


Sachi 


Evil 


Polapu, Kolapu 


Examine, to 


Sothlkka 


Examination 


Sothene 


Except 


Pohe, tavira 


Excess 


Micham 


Excuse 


Pokku 


Excuse, to make 


Pokku solla 


Exercise 


Villatu, savari 


Exist, to 


TTsari irukka 


Expenses, food 


Selavu 


Experience B. 


Palakam 


Explanation 


Vivaram 


Explain, to 


Vivaram solla 


Explosion 


Vedi sattam 


Extend, to (the hand) 


Nita 


Exterior 


Vellia pakkam 


Extinguish, to 


Aneikka 


Eye 


Kan 




F. 


Face 


Munji 


Factory 


Istoru 


Faith 


Visuvasam 


Fair, just 


Niaiam 


Fall, to 


VQlua 


False B. 


Poiana, kalla 


Falsehood 


Poi 


Family 


Oru tai pulle, samusaram 



ENGLISH-TAMIL VOCABULAEY. 



101 



Famine 

Fan (winnowing) 

Fan (machine) 

Far 

Farrier 

Fast 

Fasting 

Fat 

Fat (adj.) B. 

Father 

Father-in-law 

Fault 

Favour 

Fear 

Fear, to 

Feather 

February N3. 

Fee 

Feed, to 

Feel, to 

Feel pulse, to 

Fell, to 

Fellow 

Female (doer) 

Female (adj) 

Fence 

Ferment (tea,) to 

Fern 

Festival 

Fever 

Few J3. 

Fie! 

Field 

Fifteen M. 

Fifth 

Fifty 

Fight 

File 

Filth 

Fill, to 

Fill in holes, to 

Final 

Find, to 

Fine 
Fine, to 
Finger 
Finish, to 
Fire 

Firewood 
Firm, to make 
First Ml. 



Panjam 

Solugu; visiri (hand) 

Katu adikka rothe 

Tiiram, yetti 

Ladakaran 

Veham, vehamane 

Viratham 

Kolupu 

Kolutu- 

Appan , tagappan 

Maman 

Kuttam, tappitham 

Ishtam 

Paiam 

Paiam pada 

Iragu 

Masi Masam 

Sampalam 

Tini kudukka 

meia (of animals) 
Teria 

Nadi pakka 
Maram vetta 
Pail 

-kari (suffix) 
Pen, pette 
Veil 

Sivantu poa 
Mina (pillu) 
Perunal 
Kachal 
Konjam 
Chi-chi ! 
Male 

Pattinanji 
Anjam 
Ampathu 
8ande 
Aram 
Pi 

Nereikka 
Kuli muda 
Kadeisi 
Kandu pndikka, 

-apida 
Thendam 
Thmdam poda 
Virral 
Mudia 
Nerapu 
Veragu, katte 

Ketti panna, pellama poda 
Mothal, motha 



102 



OOOLY TAMIL. 



Fish 

Fish leaf 

Fist 

Five M. 

Five by five M(Note 4) , 

Flag 

Flat 

Flavour 

Flea 

Flesh (human) 

Flesh 

Float, to 

Floor 

Flour 

Flower 

Flower, to 

Fly 

Fly, to 

Fold, to 

Folded leaf 

Food 

Fool 

Foot 

Foot (12 inches) 

Foot rule 

For A4. T. 

Forest 

Forehead 

Forget, to 

Forgive, to 

Forgiveness 

Fork A. 

Fork, to 

Forked (branch) 

Former 

Forty M. 

Fortieth 

Foundation 

Four M. 

Four by four M(Note 4). 

Fourth 

Fowl 

Friend 

Frog 

From A4. N3. 

Front, fore (adj.) 
Front (in) 

Fruit (ripe) 
Fruit (unripe) 
Frying pan 



... Min 

... Topal ele 

... Mutti 

... Anji 

... Av'anji 

... Kode, sunda 

... Sapati 

... Eusi 

... Sellu 

... Sathe 

... Erichi 

... Mithakka 

... Tare 

... Mau 

... PS 

... Pukka 

... I 

... Parakka 

... Madakka 

... Madatt'ele 

... Tini 

... Mada pail, madean 

... Patham, kal 

... Adi 

... Adi kambu 

... -ukku, -ikki (suffix) 

... Pacha kadu 

... Netti 

... Marakka 

marantu poa 
... Mannikka 
... Mannipu 
... Mullu 
... Mullu kuta 
... Kavutu 
... Muntina 
... Napathu 
... Napatham 
... Laisam 
... Nalu 
... Nav'alu 
... Nalilm 
... Koli 

... Hineithan, kutali 
... Tavale 
... Iruntu, -iliruntu (suffix) 

Vaichi 
... Minna 
... Minukku, minna 

min pakkatile 
... Pallam 
... Kai 
... Tachi 



ENGLISH-TAMIL VOCABULARY. 



103 



Pull, to be 

Fun 

Funds 

Funeral 

Fuse 

Future 

Future, in 



.. Nerinttu irukka 

.. Pagadi 

.. Fannam 

.. Keitham 

.. Nul, kairu 

.. Varu'neram 

.. Inimel 



G. 



G amble (cards) , to 

Game, to play 

Gaol 

Garden 

Garden cooly B2. 

Gather, to 

Gate 

Gentleman T. 

Gently 

Get, to; to fetch 

Get out of the way, to 

Get up, to 

Getting 

Getting late etc. Ps.LS 

Giddiness 

Giddy to be 

Cxlf 

Ginger 

Girl 

Girth strap 

(rive, to 

Glad 

Glass 

Glass (pane) 

Go away ! 

Go, to G. 

Goat 

Goat (he) 

God 

Gold 

Goldsmith 

Good B. 

Goods 

Goose 

Gourd 

Gradually Footnote Page 

Grain 

Gram 

Grape 

Grass 

Grass (guinea) 

Gravel 

Graze, to (of animals) 



66 



. Situ ada 

. Vele ada 

. Marriel 

. Pu totum 

. Tota karan 

. Alia 

. Getu, kadavu 

. Ture (Dore), esaman 

. Mulla, patiram 

. Vanga 

. Othunkka 

. Endirikka, elumba 

. Use poruthu. . . (poa -to go) 

. Neram poruthu, or, authu 

. Kiru-kiru 

. Tale sutta 

. Santosum 

. Inji 

. Kutti 

. Tangu var 

. Kudukka, tara 

. Santosum a 

. Vithuru 

. Kanadi 

. Po! 

. Poa 

. idu 

. Kidda 

. Rami, Swami, (kndavul) 

. Tangam, pon 

. Tattan, asari 

. Nalla 

. 8a man 

. vnre 

. Sora kai 

Vara-vara 
. Niaiani 
. Kadale 

. Kodi mintiri pallam 
. Pillu 
. Sime pillu 
. Saral 
. Meia 



104 



COOLY TAMIL. 



Great 


Peria 


Grease 


Kolupu 


Green 


Pache 


Grevillea tree 


Savuku maram 


Grief 


Tukkam 


Grind, to 


Areikka 


Grindstone 


Sane kal 


Gross weight 


Mottama param 


Ground 


Pumi, mannu 


Grow, to 


Valara 


Grub 


Puchi 


Gruel, rice water 


Kanji 


Guava 


Koiya 


Guess, to 


TJdesikka 


Guest 


Viruntadi 


Guilty 


Kuttavali 


Gun 


Toku 


Gunpowder 


Vedi marantu 




H. 


Hackery (bull cart) 


Madu karrete 


Hair 


Mairu 


Hair (top-not) 


Konde, kurumi 


Hammer 


Jmar 


Hammer (for stone) 


Mutti 


Hammer (sledge) 


Silesu 


Half Ml. 


Are 


Half name 


Are per 


Kpnd 


. ... Kai 


Handful 


Oru pudi 


Handle 


Kai-pudi 


Handkerchief 


Lenji 


do. (used as a pad 


'or 


head) 


Sumadu 


Happen, to 


Nadakka (to walk) 


Hard 


Vairam, varratam, pell am 


Hard work, difficulty 


Kastam 


Hare 


Musal 


Ha in 


Mosan, mogadi . 


Hat 


Topi 


Hatchet 


Kai-kodali 


Have, to A3; S2; Page 


88 ... Irukka (with dative) 


He A2. 


Avan, ivan, avar, ivar 


Head 


Tale 


Headache 


Tale novu 


Health 


Sogfim 


Heap 


Kumal 


Heap, to 


Kumikka 


Hear, to 


Kelkka, (keilkka) 


Hearsay 


.. .. Kelvi 


Heat 


Sudu, kange, urepu 


Heart 


Kolle 



ENGLISH-TAMIL VOCABULAEY. 



105 



Heaven 
Heavy 
Hedge 
Heel 
Hen 

Hen (broody) 
Henceforth 
Her A2. 

Here A3 (Example) 
Hiccough 
Hide, to 
High 
Hill 

Him A3. 
Hinge 

Hindu, i.e : heathen 
His A4 (Example) 
Hit, to 
Hold, to 
Hole 

Hole (in an article) 
Hole, to 
Holiday 

Holiday in January (when 
rice is specially cooked) .. 
Hollow 
Hone 
Honey 

Honoured (adj.) 
Hoof 
Hook 
Horn 

Horn (to blow) 
Horse 

Horse keeper 
Hospit;il 
Hot 

Elot (as of pepper etc.) .. 
Hour P. 
House 
How C2. 
How long 
How many PI 
How much Fl. 
Hurry 
Hushand 

Humbly, to speak 
Hunger 



... ITadavul 

... Param 

... Veli, ravun 

... Kuthin kal 

... Pette koli 

... Ade koli 

... Inimel 

... Avale, ivale, avalude (adj.) 

... Inje, ingatu 

~... Vikkal 

... Olikka, mareikka 

... Osaram, osinta, fiyarani 

... Modu, male 

... Avane, ivane, avare 

... Saranir 

... Aniani 

... Avanude, avan 

... Adikka 

... Pudikka 

... Kiili 

... Pottal 

... Kuli vetta 

... Perunal 

Tai pongal (so-called from 
ponkka to boil, bubble) 
... Palam, palatukku 
... Tita kal, enne kal 
... Ten 
... Taruma 
... Kola nihil 
... Koki 
... Kombu 
... Sangu 
... Kuthere 

... Kuthere kiiran 

... ispitiri, aspital 

... Sudu, kange 

... Orepii 

... Maui nerarn 

... Vfidu (vulg : fidn) 

... Yeppadi 

... Yevalo neram 

... Ettane 

... Yevalo 

... Avisaram 

... Pnrnshan 

... Raranam solla 

... Pasi 



I A2. 
Idle 



... Nan 

... Honiara, auma 

N 



106 



COOLY TAMIL. 



Ignorant person 

If L3; Ps.13; L3(Note 1)... 

If want 

Ill 

Illness 

Immediately 

Impertinent 

In A4. 

In order that, so that Ps.5... 

Inch 

India rubber 

Indian corn 

Indigestion 

Inexperienced 

Infant 

Information 

In future 

Injustice 

Ink 

Inquire, to 

Inquiry 

Insect 

Insolent 

Inside 

Instead of 

Instrument 

Insult to 

Interest (money) 

Interrupt, to 

Into A4; A4(Note 2). 

I. 0. U. 

Iron 

Iron wood tree 

Is A3. 

Issue , to 

It A2; J2; 82. 

Itself S. 



. Teriath'al 
. Al, nal, -aka (suffix) 
. Yenum endal 
. Sogam ille 
. Viathi, novu 
. Satne 
. Perile 
.. -ile (suffix) 
. Padikki 
.. Inchi 

.. Rabar, labar 
.. Solan 
.. Mantham 
.. Palakam illathe 
.. P-^le 
.. Samasaram 
.. Inimel 
.. Aniaiam 
.. Mai 
.. Visarikka 
.. Visarane 
.. Piichi 
.. Perumula 
.. tJllu. ulukku 
.. Alhukku vathil 
.. Aitham 
.. Nintikka 
.. Vatti (kasi) 
.. Tade panna 
.. -i (suffix), ttlukku 
.. Kadan situ 
.. Irumbu 
.. Nangili mar am 
.. Inikrutlm 
.. Pathia 
.. Athu 
.. Athu tan 



Jabber, to 

Jackal 

Jacket 

Jagged 

.7 ;ik tree 

January 

Jealousy 

Joke 

Juice 

July N3 

Jump, to 

Jumper 

June N3. 



N3. 



... Katheikka 

... Narri 

... Satte 

... Mnratu 

... Pla-(pallam)-maram 

... Tai masam 

... Errichal 

... Pagadi 

... Sar 

... Adi masam 

... Tanda, kiithikka 

... Jampar, sampar 

... Ani masam 



ENGLISH-TAMIL VOCABULARY. 



107 



Jangle 


... Kadu 


Just 


... Niaiam 


Just (adj.) S. 


... Tan 


Justly 


... Niaiama 


Jute bessian 


... Padangu 




K. 


Keep, to 


... Pudittu vaikka 


Keep aside, to (of persons) 


... Btti irukka 


Kettle 


... Ketal 


Key 


... Savi 


Kick, to 


... Dtheikka 


Kid 


... Adu kutti 


Kidnev 


... Kundi kai 


Kill, 'to 


... Kolla 


Kind, sort R. 


... Maderi 


King 


... Baza 


King peg (for lining) 


... Baza kiini 


Kiss 


... Mutam 


Kiss, to 


... Miitan kudukka 


Kitchen 


... Kusini 


Kitchen cooly 


... Kusini meite 


Kitten 


... Pune kutti 


Knave 


... Kalavani 


Knee 


... Mulan-kal 


Knife (pocket) 


... Madan katti 


Knife 


... Katti 


Knock, to 


... Tatta 


Knot 


... Mudichi 


Know, to 


... Teria (with dative' 


Know, I 


... Yenukku fcerium 


Know, do you? 


... Unukkn teriuma? 


Kuowlrcl'.'i 


... Padipu 




L. 


Labour 


... Veile 


Labourer, worker 


... Veile karan 


Ladder 


... Yeini 


Lady 


... Doresani, amms 


Lake 


... Toppu kallaiu 


Lame 


... Nundi 


Lamp 


... Lampu 


Lamp wick 


... Tiri 


Land 


... Pfinii 


Landing place (at a river) 


... Akkare 


Language 


... Peichi 


Lap 


... Madi 


Large B; LI. 


... Peria, perisi 


Last 


... l'omi, kadeisi 


Lath 


... Varrichi 


Late Ps.13 


... Neram achi 


Latex 


... Pal 



108 



COOLY TAMIL. 



Laugh, to 

Laughter 

Laundryman 

Lawn 

Lawsuit 

Lazy 

Lead 

Leaf 

Leaf (rolled) 

Leaf (dry) 

Leaf (withered) 

Leaf (sheet) 

Leak, to 

Lean, to 

Lean (adj.), thin 

Learn, to 

Leather 

Leave, to 

Leave work, to 

Ledge, narrow strip 



Leech 

Left 

Left hand 

Leg 

Leg, calf of 

Leg, thigh 

Lend, to 

Lenient, to he 

Length 

Less N. 

Let, to (allow) 

Let go, to 

Letter (Alphabet) 

Letter 

Level 

Level (spirit) 

Level, to break 

Liar 

Lid 

Lie 

Lie, to 

Lie down, to 

Life, to have 

Lift, to 

Light 

Light (weight) 

Lightening 

Like, to 

Likewise Fl. 

Lime 



Sirikka 

Siripu 

Dobi. vannan 

Pittene 

Valaku 

Somara 

Iyam 

Ele, koluntu 

TJrrut 'ele 

Sette 

Eanj'ele 

Yedu, al 

Olukka 

Saia 

Elichi 

Padikka 

Tol 

Vaikka, vuda 

Veile vuda 

Otiiuku (used in speaking of 
leaving a strip of uncut bark- 
below a wound on a tapped 
rubber tree.) 

Atte 

Idathu 

Picha kai 

Kal 

Konde kal 

Ada tode 

Eruvu kudukka 

Iddam kudukka 

Nilain, nigalam 

Korre 

Vuda 

Vuttu poda 

Elutu 

Kaitham 

Mattam 

Nir-mattam 

Mattam odikka 

Poi-karan 

Mudi 

Poi 

Poi sol la 

Padukka 

TJsari irukka 

Tukka 

Velicham 

Leisi, piirani ille 

Minna] 

Pirium pa da 

Appadi 

Sunambu 



ENGLISH-TAMIL VOCABULARY. 



109 



Lime (fruit) 

Line, row 

Line, in 

Line (cooly house) 

Lintel 

Lion 

Lip 

Listen, to 

Little LI. 

Little (adv.) J3. 

Lizard (in Ceylon), a 

Load 

Loaf 

Lock 

Lock, to 

Loft 

Log 

Long 

Long row 

Look, to 

Looking glass 

Look ! see I 

Lose, to 

Lost 

Loss 

Loud 

Louse 

Love 

Low caste 

Low (adj.) 

Low (adv.) 

Lower 

Lower, to 

Luggage 

Lump 

Lunch 



Tesi kai 

Nerre, vari 

Varisa 

Laiam 

Nele 

Singam 

Uthadu 

Kelkka (kei kka) 

Sinna, siru, podi 

Konjani 

Karretunde 

Siime, kattu 

. ... Koti 

Putu 

Putu vaikka 

Atale, me mette 

Katte 

Nettu, nilam, nitam 

Nettu nerre 

Pakka 

Kanadi 

Antha par 1 

Kana poa, ilakka 

Kana, kaname 

Nattam, nastam 

Pelama, pelakku 

Pein 

Anbu 

Sinna sathi 

Ki 

Kile 

Pannia, ki 

Pannikka 

Saman 

Katte 

"Tiffin" 



Machine 
Mad 
Magic 
Mahommedan 

Mail 

Maize 

Make, to 

Make, to; to cause to be 

Make noise, to 

Male 

Male (adj.) 

Mallet 

Man 



M. 

... Yentiram, mol 
... Paiti 
... Mantiram 
... Tulukan 
... Taval 
... Solan 
... Seia, panna 
... Undakka, akka 
... Sattain poda, vaikka 
... Karan 
... An 
... Kotupnli 

... Ambale (i.e., an-pulle). manu- 
shan 



110 



COOLY TAMIL. 



Manager 

Mango 

Manner It. 

Manure 

Manure (artificial) 

Many N. 

March (month) N3. 

Mark 

Mark, to 

Marriage 

Marry, to 

Martingale 

Mason 

Master 

Mat 

Matches 

Matter, affair 

Mattock, hoe 

May (month) N3. 

May (subjunctive mood) 

Me A2; S. 

Mean (adj.) 

Measles 

Measure 

Measure , to 

Measuring stick 

Meat 

Medicine 

Meet, to 

Melt, to 

Memory 

Mend, to 

Menstruate, to (the equiva 

lent for) 
Metal (road) 
Middle 
Mildew 
Mile 
Milk 
Milk, tq 
Mind, the 
Mind, to bear in 
Mine A2; A4. 
Minute 
Mirror 
Miss, to 
Missing 
Mistake 
Mix, to 
Monday N2. 
Monkey 
Month 



Peria dore (ture) 

Man-kai 

Maderi 

tJram 

Sime uram 

Micham 

Panguni masam 

Adieilam, maiam, nambar 

Nambar adikka 

Kalianam 

Kalianam katta, kalianam 

manna 
Matin kalar 
Mesan 

Dore (ture), esaman 
Pai 

Nerapu kuchi 
Kariam 
Mamati 
Veiasi masam 
-attum (suffix) 
Yene, nan tan 
Karami 
Sinn'amme 
Alavu 
Alakka 

Alavu kambu, kol 
Erichi 
Marantu 
Amba, sandikka 
Urrukka, elevi poa 
Nineivu 

Seri katta, palathu pakka 
Tale mula, vudukka tura iruk- 

ka, vellia 
Eotu kal 
Nadu 
Pusanam 
Katte 
Pal 

Pal edukka 
Manasu 

Manasile vaikka 
Yenude, namma 
Nimasam 
Kanadi 
Tappa 

Kana (irukruthu) 
Kuttam, mistek 
Kallakka, kalantu poda 
Tinkal kilame 
Manti, kuranga 
Masam 



ENGLISH-TAMIL VOCABULARY. 



Ill 



Month by month Page 6fi 

Money 

Money order 

Moon 

Moon (new) 

Moonlight 

More N. 

Morrow, to N2. 

Morning N2. 

Mortar 

Moss 

Mosquito 

Most LI. 

Mother 

Mother-in-law 

Mound 

Mouse 

Moustache 

Mouth 

Move, to (trans) 

Move (intrans.) 

Move out of a houssji to ... 

Much N. 

Mud 

Mulberry 

Multiply, to 

Multiplication 

Muscle 

Must H. 

Must not HI. Page 77 ... 

Muster 

Muster, to make a 

Muster, to disperse 

My A2. A4. 

Myself S. 



Nail (finger) 

Nail 

Name 

Name (full) 

Name (half) Ml. 

Navel 

Nearly, almost Ps.l. 

Near 

Necessary, to be Hi. 

Necessary, not 

Neck 

Need, occasion 

Needle 

Neither nor 



... Masam-masam 

... Kasi, salli 

... Kasi odru 

... Santaram 

... AmmavaBi 

... Nila 

... Kuda, innam, athikum 

... Naliki 

... Kalame, kale, kalambre 

... Oral 

... Pasam 

... Kosugu, kosu 

... Athium 

... Tai, amma, fii 

... Mami, atte 

... Modu 

... Siind'eli 

... Mise 

... Vai 

... Aseikka 

... Aseia 

... Olikka 

... Micham. remba 

... Ser, segadu 

... Kambli pallam 

... Perukka 

... Perkul 

... Narambu 

... Venum 

... Vanda (vendiim) 

... Peratu 

... Peratnkku vaikka 

.... Peratu kaleikka 

... Yen, yenfide 

... Nan tan 

N. 

... Nehaiii 

... Ani 

... Per 

... Muhi per 

... Are per 

... Tonal 

... -pule (suffix) 

... Kitta (see Examples T>.) 

... Vend i nth 'irukka 

... Vendiuth'ille 

... Knl.ntu 

... Akkare 

... Osi 

... -Um ille (-um suffix and 

both repeated) 



112 



COOLY TAMIL. 



Nerve 

Nest 

Net (tennis) 

Never L2. 

New LI. 

New moon 

News 

Next N2. 

Night N2. 

Nine M. 

Nineteen 

Ninety 

No A3. B2(Note 2) 

Nobody L2. 

Noise 

Nose 

Now E. 

None L2. 

Not A3. 

Note, promissory 

Note 

Note (money) 

Nothing L2. 

Nothing else 

Notice 

November N3. . 

Number 

Nurse (native) 

Nursery 

Nut (of a screw) 

Nut 



Narambu 

Kuruvi kudu 

Vale 

Yeppothum ille, oru kalam ille 

Piithu, puthisi 

Ammavasi 

Sangathe 

Adatu, varu 

Baval, Katiri 

Ompathu 

Pattompathu 

Tonnuru 

Ille 

Ortrum ille 

Sattam, sande 

Muku 

Ippo 

Onnum ille 

Ille 

Notu 

Situ 

Tal, kadutasi kasi 

TJnnum ille 

Vere fmnum ille 

Notis 

Katia masam 

Nambar 

Aia (Ayah) 

Tavarani 

Mudichi 

Kotte 



Oath 

Oath, to make 

O'clock P. 

Occasion 

Occasion, on that 

October N3. 

Odd 

Odour (bad) 

Of A4. A4(Note 3) 

Off! 

Office 

Oh! 

Oil 

Oil (castor) 

Oil (coconut) 

Old B. LI. 

Old man 

On A4. 

On the table 



0. 

... Sathiam 

... Sattiam panna 

... Mani 

... Sameitham 

... Antha sameitile • 

... Apia masam 

... Otte 

... Natam 

... -fide (suffix) 

... Po! velangu! Tal hi 

... Apis kamara 

... Aiyo ! 

... Enne 

... Vilak'enne 

... Tenk'enne 

... Palia, palisi 

... Kelavan 

... -ile (suffix), mele 

... Mese mele 



ENGLISH-TAMIL VOCABULARY. 



113 



Once 
One M. 

One by one M(Note 4). 
Onion 
Only 

Onward, ahead F3. 
Open, to 
Or L3(Note). 
Order, method 
Ornament, jewellery 
Ornaments (some used bj 
coolies) 

Other J3(9th Ex.) 

Otherwise L3. 

Ounce 

Our A4. 

Outside 

Oven 

Over 

Over the table (see "on") 

Owe, to 

Own S. 

Owner 



Oru neram ; teram 

Unnu, oru 'or 

Un-unnu, ov'onu 

Venkai 

Matiram, matam 

Minukku 
T/urakka 

Allate, allathe (or ellate) 

Pirakaram, varisa 

Nahi. nagi 

Tali, kadakan, mothiram, mn- 
kuti, koppu, miiruvu, kapu, 
val levu, meladu, piichi kudu 

Matt a, maru 

Illate (ponal) ^ 

iuns 

Namma, yengalfide 

Vellia 

Adapu 

me (after a word in dative rase) 

Meseikki mele 

Kadan kudukka vendia 

Sunda 

Siinda karan 



Pack, to 




.. Adukka 


Pad 




.. Suraadu 


Paddv 




.. Nelln 


Paddy fiVld 




.. Vail 


Padlock 




.. Putu 


Page 




.. Tedu 


Pail 




.. van 


Pain 




.. Novn, valli, vethene 


Pain, to 




.. Noa. vallikka 


Paint 




.. Tinta 


Pair 




.. Jodi 


Pan 




.. Pane 


Paper 




.. ls':i(latasi 


Pardon 




.. Mannipn 


Pardon, to G. 




.. Mannikka 


Parents 




.. Pettor 


Parr, some J.I. 




.. Pathi 


Pass, to (as time) 




.. Sella 


Passion fruit 




.. Pcronrlo pallam 


Pat, to 




.. Tatta 


Path 




.. Pathe 


Pave, to 




.. Laisan vaikka 


Pawn, to 




.. 7idu vaikka 


Pay 




.. Sampalam 


Pay, to 




.. Sampalam kudukka 


Pay off debt, to 




.. Kadan tirkka 



114 



COOLY TAMIL. 



Peg ... . 


.. Kfini 


Peg out, to 


.. Kuni adikka 


Pen ... . 


.. Pen a, istil (steel) 


Penalty 


.. Thendam 


Pencil 


.. Pensil 


Pepper 


.. Mulugu 


Perhaps ... . 


.. Sila vuele 


Person ... . 


.. 5.1, per 


Pestle 


.. Olaku 


Perspiration 


.. Verve 


Photograph 


.. Padam 


Piano 


.. Kinaram 


Pick, to (leaf) 


.. Koluntu edukka 


Pick out, to 


.. Porrukka 


Pickaxe 


.. Pikasu 


Picture 


.. Padam 


Piece 


.. Tundu 


Pig 


.. Pandi 


Pigeon 


.. Pura, 


Pile 


.. Kumal 


Pillar 


.. Tun 


Pillow 


.. Talevani 


Pineapple 


.. Anasi pallam 


Pipe (metal) 


.. Pili, vambu 


Place 


.. Idam, lekku 


Place, to 


.. "Vaikka 


Plait 


.. Sade 


Plait, to 


.. Pinna 


Plan 


.. Pilan 


Plane 


.. Siv'uli 


Plank 


.. Palagu 


Plant 


.. Kandu, kannu 


Plant, to 


.. Nada, kandu poda 


Plantation 


.. Totum 


Plantain 


.. Vala pallam 


Plate 


.. Pingan 


Play, to 


.. Vele ada 


Please 


.. Taivn seithu (do favour) 


Plenty 


.. Micham 


Pluck leaf, to 


.. Koluntu edukka 


Pluck out, to 


... Pudinkka 


Pocket 


... Sepu 


Point 


.. Kuru, mini 


Point out, to 


... Kata 


Poison 


.. Nanju, visham 


Pole 


... Kambu 


Police 


... Polis 


Pond 


... Teppu kallam 


Podnac 


... Punaku 


Poor 


... Yelli a 


Porcupine 


.. Mullam pandi 


Pork 


... Pandi erichi 


Portion Footnote page 36. 


. . . Pangu. 



ENGLISH-TAMIL VOCABULARY. 



115 



Post 

Post cooly 

Post office 

Pot 

Pot (flower) 

Potato 

Pound 

Pound rice, to 

Pound (£) 

Pound , to 

Pounder (for rice) 

Pour out, to 

Powder 

Practice 

Prayer (one who prays) 

Prayer 

Precipice 

Pregnant 

Prepare, to 

Present 

Present (adj.) 

Presently 

Press, to 

Press (print) 

Pretty 

Previous, former 

Prevent, to 

Price 

Prick, to 

Primary 

Print, to 

Prison 

Privy 

Prize 

Profit 

Proctor 

Proof 

Pro-note 

Proper B. 

Properly 

Prostitute 

Proud ("assertive) 

Prove, to 

Provisions 

Prune, ro 

Pruners 

Pruning 

Pruning knifo 

Pull, to 

Pull out, to 

Punctually 

Punish, to 

Punishment 



... Taval, tappal 

... Taval karan 

... Taval kanthor 

... Pane, chatti 

... Pu chatti 

... Urule kelangu 

... Batal 

... Arisi tita 

... Pavun 

... Idikka 

... Olaku 

... Uta, kotta 

... Till 

... Palakam 

... Pusari 

... Puse 

... Varra'kadu 

... Pulle teiittu 

... Aitarn panna 

... Santosum 

... Irukruthu 

... Poragu, peragu 

... Ammakka, alutta 

... Achu 

... Andis, nertiana 

... Muntina 

... Nipata 

... Vile 

... Kuta 

... Tai vathu 

... Achu adikka 

... Marriel 

... Eakus 

... Paudiam 

... Niaiam 

... Perkol 

... Ycmbuum 

... Notu 

... Seriana 

... Seria 

... Veisi, kuthi 

... Bangi 

... Yeinbikka 

... Selavu, uppu-kochi-kai 

... Kavatu vetta 

... Eavat'al 

... Mar 

... Kavatu katti 

... niukka 

... Pndinkka 

... Nalla oertukku 

... Tandikka 

... Tandanam 



116 



COOLY TAMIU. 



Puppy 


Nai kutti 


Purgative 


Veithi marantu 


Purge, to 


Vaitale poa 


Push, to 


Talla 


Put, to P. 


Poda, vaikka 


Put down, to (a load) 


Erakka 


Put out, to (a light) 


Aneikka 


Put a stop to, to 


Nipati poda 


Put together, to 


Seikka, serkka 


Putty 


Patti 


Putrid 


Ketta poichi (po achi) 




Q- 


Quantity 


Alavu, kanak 


Quarter Ml. 


Kal, Kalvasi 


Quarrel 


Sande 


Quarrel, to 


Sande poda 


Queen 


Bani 


Queer 


Oru maderi 


Question 


Kelvi 


Question, to 


Kelvi kelkka 


Quick, quickly 


Surruka, versa, vehama 


Quiet 


Suma, pesame 


Quietly 


Mulla 


Quinine 


, Koina, kachal marantu 


Quite 


Seria, orumika, suttama 




E. 


Eacquet 


Pant'adikka mate 


Bag 


Tuni 


Eag (in lining) 


Pu 


Eage 


Kovum 


Eain 


Malei 


Eain, to 


Malei peia 


Eailway 


Bail rotu 


Eailway train 


Bail kochi 


Eailway station 


Isteisan 


Eaise, to 


Tukka 


Eange (kitchen) 


Adapu 


Eapidly 


Versa, vehama 


Eascal 


Baskal 


Bat snake 


Sade pambu 


Eat 


Teli 


Eat trap 


Yeli parri 


Bavine 


Nettu kan 


Baw 


Pache 


Eazor 


Rivu katti 


Eead, to 


Vasikka 


Beach, to 


Yetta 


Beady 


Aitam 


Beady, to be 


Aitam irukka 


Beady money 


Eokum 



ENGLISH-TAMIL VOCABtJLAEY. 



117 



Really 

Reap, to 

Rear, to (bring up young 

Rebuild 

Receive, to P2. 

Receipt 

Recognise, to 

Recovery (money) 

Red 

Reeper 

Refund, to 

Regularly, in a row 

Relation 

Related, bow is be to y 

Religion 

Reins 

Remain (stay) 

Remain , to : to be 

Remainder 

Remember, to 

Remove, to P2. 

Rent . 

Repair, to 

Reply 

Require, to H. 

Respect, to - 

Rest bouse 

Return, to 

Hheumatism 

Rice 

Rice (cooked) Footnote 

Rick sb aw 

Ridge 

Ride horseback, to 

Right 

Right side 

Ring 

Rinse, to 

Ripen, to 

Rise, to 

Rite (sacred) 

River Footnote Page 

Road 

Road (cart) 

Road, to 

Rob, to 

Robber 

Rogue 

Bock 

Roll, to 

Roller 

Roof 

Room (space) 



Page 



15. 



... Kattaiam 

... Areikka 

... Valakka 

... Tirumbi katta 

... Eduttu kolla 

... Pattu situ, ra6it 

... Adieilam teria 

... Pudittu kasi 

... Segapu, sivapu 

... Ripe 

... Maravadi kudukka 

... Varisia 

... Tai pulle 

... Avan unukku enna venum? 

... Vetham 

... Rens 

... Nikka 

... Kidakka 

... Socham, mithi 

... Nineikka 

... Eduttu poda, othunkka 

... Vade kasi 

... Seri katta, paluthu pakka 

... Vathil 

... Venum, vendiuth'irukka 

... Kanam (ganam) panna 

... Rait aus 

... Poittu vara 

... "Vatham 

... Arisi 

15 Soru 

... Kai karrete; riksa 

... Modu, medu 

... Kuthere eri poa 

... Seri 

... Valathu pakkam 

... Mothiram 

... Arikka 

... Pallata poa 

... Endirikka 

... Kalipu 

... Aru 

... Rotu 

... Karrete rotu 

... Rotu vetta 

... Kalavu edukka 

... Kalaviini 

... Tim tn pail 

... Pare 

... Urruta, sutta 

... Rothe 

... Kfire 

... Idarn ] 



118 



COOLY TAMIL. 



Boom 

Room, to make 

Root 

Root (tap) 

Root out, to 

Rope 

Rose 

Rotten 

Rotten, to get 

Rough 

Round 

Round (adj.) (globular) 

Row (line) 

Row 

Rub, to 

Rub out, to 

Rubber 

Rubber latex 

Rubbish 

Rug 

Ruin, to 

Rule, law 

Rule (foot) 

Ruler 

Rule (a line) 

Run, to 

Run away, to 

Rupee 

Rust 



... Kamara 

... Idam kudukka 

... Ver 

... Adi ver 

... Verodu pudinkka 

... Kavuru, kairu 

... Rosa pii 

... Ittu 

... Ittu poa 

... Suri, kannam 

... Ravun 

... Tjrunde 

... Nerre, vari 

... Sande, sattam 

... Teikka 

... Allikka 

... Rabar, labar 

... Pal 

... Kuppe 

... Jul 

... Kedukka 

... Saddam 

... Rul kambu 

... Alavu adi 

... Vari 

... Oda 

... Odi poa 

... Riia 

... Kare 



R. 



Sack B2. 

Sack (small) 

Sad 

Saddle 

Saffron 

Sago 

Salary 

Salt 

Same 

Sand 

Sandal 

Saturday 

Saucer 

Saucepan 

Saw 

Saw, to 

Sawyer 

Say, to 

Scales 

Scent, smell 

School 



N2. 



Sak 

Kutti sak 

Tukkam 

Sadal, jini 

Manjal 

Sav'arisi 

Sampalam 

tTppu 

Oru maderi 

Mannal 

Serrapu 

Saini kilame 

Sasa 

Saspani 

Val 

Arrikka 

Val karan 

Solla, ena 

Terasu 

Vade 

Pali kudam 



Ps. 



ENGLISH-TAMIL VOCABULARY. 



119 



Schoolmaster 


... Vatier 


Scissors 


... Katiri kol 


Scorpion 


... Tell 


Scrap rubber 


... Ottu pal 


Scrape, to 


... Suranta 


Scraper 


... Karandi, surandi 


Scratch, to 


... Nonda, suria 


Scratch 


... Kiru 


S'rew 


... Iskrup'ani 


Screw driver 


... Iskrup'iili 


Se? 


... Samataram, kaddal 


Search, to 


... Teidi pakka, sothikka 


Second M. 


.. Eendam 


Secrnti (time) 


... Nimasam 


See. to 


.. Kana, kankka, pakka 


Seed 


.. Vethe, kotte 


Seek, to D. 


... Teidi pattu poa, teida 


Segregate, to 


... Tania pod a 


Seize, to 


... Pudikka 


Self S. 


... Tan 


Sell, to 


... Vikka 


hond, to 


. . Anupa 


Sense 


.. Putti 


Separate (adv :) 


... Vevere, tania 


September N3. 


... Peratasi masam 


Settle a/c, to 


... Kanak tirkka 


Set aside, to 


... Othukka 


Set down, to lower 


... Irakka 


Seven M. 


... Yelu 


Seven by seven M(Note 


1) ... Yev'elu 


Seventeen 


... Pattinelu 


Seventy 


... Yelawathu 


Sew. to 


... Teiikka, mfita 


Shade 


... Nellal 


Shake, to 


... Ast-ikka (trans.), Aseia (in 




trans.) 


Shake up, to 


... Kulakka, uthari poda 


Shame 


... Vekkam 


Shame, to 


... Vekkam kudukka 


Share 


... Pangu 


Sharp 


... Sonapu 


Sharpen, to 


... Tita 


Shave, to 


... Siva 


She A2. 


... Aval, ival 


Shears 


... Katiri kol 


Shelf 


... Tattu 


Shingle 


... Uodu 


Ship 


... Kappal 


Shirt 


... Kami's 


Shoe (of horse) 


... La dam 


Shoe 


... Sapatu 


Shoemaker 


... Sakilian 


Shoot, to 


... Suta 



120 



COOLY TAMIL. 



Shop (native) 

Shop keeper 

Short 

Short row 

Short cut 

Shoulder 

Shout, to 

Shovel 

Show, spectacle, play 

Show, to 

Shut, to 

Sick 

Sick, to be 

"Sick," to put J3.(13th 

Sickle 

Side 

Side adj.) 

Sieve 

Sift, to 

Signature 

Silent, to be 

Silence ! 

Silk 

Silver 

Since P. 

Sing 

Single 

Singalese 

Sir 

Sister 

Sister (young) 

Sit, to 

Site 

Six M. 

Six by six 

Sixteen 

Sixty 

Size 

Skilful 

Skin 

Skull 

Sky 

Slate 

Sleep 

Sleep, to 

Slip, to 

Slope 

Slow, slowly 

Small B. 

Small, as stumped 

Small-pox 

Smear, to 

Smell, to 



,. ... Kadde, sapu (European) 

... Kadde karan 

... Korre 

... Kprre nerre 

. ... Kuruka pathe 

. ... Tol 

. ... Sattam poda 

. ... Iskopu 

. ... Veidike 

. ... Kambikka, kata 

. ... Sata 

. ... Sogam ille 

. ... Vaiale poa 
Ex) : Siku poda 

. ... Ari'val 

. ... Pakkam 

. ... Pakka 

. ... Salade 

. ... Salakka, arikka 

. ... Kai oppam 

... Pesame irukka 

. ... Pesathe ! vai mudu ! 

. ... Pattu 

. ... Velli 

. ... Athukku pidpadu 

. ... Pada 

. ... Otte, unde 

. ... Singal-al 

. ... Aiya 

. ... Akka(l) 

. ... Tangachi 

. ... Udkara 

. ... Idam 

. ... Aru 

. ... Av'aru 

. ... Pattinarn 

. ... Aruwathu 

. ... Kanak 

. ... Ketti 

. ... Tol 

. ... Mande 

. ... Vanam 

. ... Siletu 

. ... Tukam 

. ... Tunkka, nitire seia 

. ... Valukka 

. ... Islopu 

. ... Mulla 

. ... Sinna, sirn, podi 

. ... Eottu 

. ... Peri'amme 

. ... Pusa 

, ... Mannakka 



ENGLISH-TAMIL VOCABULARY. 



121 



Smell 

Smell (good) 

Smell (bad) 

Smoke 

Smooth 

Smooth a mud wall, to 

Smooth, to 

Snake 

Snap off, to 

Snipe 

So 

So and so 

Soap 

Soft 

Soften, to 

Solder, to 

Soldering iron 

Some J3. 

Sometimes 

So much Fl. 

Son 

Song 

Son-in-law 

Sore 

Sort, species 

Sort R. 

Sorrow 

Soul 

Sound 

Sow 

Space 

Space between two things.. 

Span (from little finger to 

thumb) 
Speak, to 
Speak evil of, to 
Species 
Spectacles 
Spill, to 
Spit, to 
Spittle 
Split, to 

Split , Timb become 
Spoil, to 
Spoon 
Spoonful 
Spot Cplace) 
Sport 
Spout 

Spread our, to 
Spring (water) 
Sprinkle, to 
Sprout, to 



Vasam, vasane 

Mannam 

Natam, nasam 

Puhe 

Methuva, leisi 

Sevar oppare panna 

Moluga 

Pambu 

Nondikka, nondittu poda 

TJllan 

Padi, appadi 

In'intha, an'antha 

Savukaram 

Methuva 

Methuva panna 

Iyam piisa 

Suda kol 

Pathi, sila 

Sila vuele, sila nale 

Avalo 

Magan 

Padu 

Maru magal 

Pun 

Tinisu 

Maderi, sathi 

Tukkam 

Avisam 

Sattam 

Pen-pandi 

Idam 

Santu vai, sant'ai 

San 
Pesa 

Polapu pesa 
Tinisu 

Mi'iku kanadi 
Sinta 
Tupikka 
Vai-nir (vani) 
Pilakka 
Pilinttu poichi 
Kedukka, tolinttu poa 
Karandi 
Karandi alavu 
T^ekku 
Vei9u 
Pili 

Virikka 
fitu 

Thelikka 
. Moleikka 



122 



COOLY TAMIL. 



Spur 

Square (end of crowbar) 

Squeeze, to 

Squirrel 

Stab, to 

Stable 

Stalk 

Stalk (2 leafed without a 

bud, in tea) 
Stamp (postage) 
Stamp, to 
Stand, to 
Stand aside, to 
Stand , stop ! 
Star 

Stare, to 

Starving, starvation 
Steal, to 
Steam 
Step 
Steel 
Steep 

Stem (of tree) 
Stick 

Stick on, to 
Stiff, to get 
Still (adv.) 
Still, to be 
Sting, to 

Stir up earth , to ; dig 
Stir up, to 
Stirrup 
Stitch 
Stomach 
Stomach ache 
Stone 

Stone (small) 
Stone (food crusher) 
Stone (for crusbing on) 
Stop, to 
Stoop, to 
Story 
Store 

Storey (of building) 
Stove 
Strap 
Straw 
Straight 

Stretcb out. to (the hand) 
String 
Strip, to 

Strong (aa of drinks) 
Strong 



. Kuthin mullu, sapatu mullu 

. Ele pakkaiu 

. Pulia 

. Annil, kiri 

. Kiita 

. Kuthere patti, stal 

. Kambu 

. Vanji 

. Mutiri, tale, istampu 

. Mitbikka 

. Nikka 

. Talli nikka, othunki iiikka 

. Nillu 

. Nachataram 

. MGlikka 

. Pattini (irukruthu) 

, Kalavu edukka 

, Avi 

Padi, padi kattu 

Uraku 

Yeitam 

Adi maram 

Kambu, kuchi 

Otta 

Maratu poa 

Innam 

Suma irukka 

Kuta 

Nonda 

Kinda, uthari poda 

Likap 

Teiil 

Vaitu, vairu 

"Vaitu valli 

Kal 

Sakku 

Kolavi kal 

Ammi kal 

Nikka; nipata (trans.) 

Kuninttu nikka 

Kathe 

Istoru 

Mette 

Adapu 

Var 

Vaikal 

Neire 

Nita (T like 'ee') 

Sadambn 

Motte pudinkka, nria 

K&rum 

Pellftm 



ENGLISH-TAMIL VOCABULARY. 



128 



Stuff, cloth 
Stump 

Stumped, short 
Substitute (of persons) 
Submit, to 
Suckle, to 
Submissive, to be 
Suck, to 
Suffer, to; allow 

Suffering 

Sugar 

Sugar cane 

Sulphur 

Summit 

Sun 

Sunday N2. 

Superintendent 

do. Asst. 

Support, to 
Sure, to be 
Swear on oath, to 
Sweat 
Swamp 
Swallow, to 
Sweep, to 
Sweeper 
Swell, to 
Swelling, a 
Swim, to 
Swindle, to 



Table 

Tail 

Tailor 

Take, to 

Take away, to 

Take cure, to 

Take up rows 

Talipot 

Talk (noun) 

Talk, to 

Tall 

Tall (of persons) 

Tank 

Taproot 

Tap, to (rubber) 

Tape 

Tapper (cooly) 

Tar 

Target 

Task 



. Savali 

. Katte, kutta katte 

. Kottu 

. Vathil al 

. Adankka 

. Adanki pada 

. Pal kudukka 

. Sappa (sapruthu) 

. Pada (a verb used also to form 

passive voice) (See Ps.9.) 
. Varratum 
. Sini, sakare 
. Karumbu 
. Kentagam 
. Ochi 

. Veiil, surian 
. Naitu kilaine 
. Peria dore (ture) ("P. D.") 
. Sinna dore (ture) ("S. D.") 
. Tankka 
. Nisama teria 
. Sattiam panna 
. Verve 
. Osavul 
. Mulunkka 
. Kuta 
. Vasal kuti 
. Vinkka 
. Vikam 
. Nichal adikka 
. Yeikka 

T. 

. Mese 

. Val 

. Teiil-karan 

. Edukka 

. Kondu poa 

. Patiram irukka, kavanakka 

. Nerre pudikka 

. TalSpa 

. Peichi 

. Pesa, solla 

. Vnlantu 

. Valatu 

. Kallam 

. Adi ver, ani ver 

, Patte vetta, pal edukka 

, Teipu 

. PS1 SI 

Kiln 

Padu 

Kanak 



124 



COOLY TAMIL. 



Taste ... 

Taste, to 

Tat 

Tattoo 

Tea (liquid) 

Tea leaf 

Tea bush 

Tea plant 

Tea leaf (young, green) ... 

Tea leaf (small) 

Tea leaf (dry) 

Tea leaf (fermented) 

Tea estate 

Teach, to 

Tear, to 

Tear (of eye) 

Telegram 

Telephone 

Tell, to 

Temper steel, to 

Ten M. 

Tennis 

Tennis court 

That C2; G2. 

That's it I 

That (adj.) C. 

Thanks 

Them A2. 

Then E. 

Thence A4. 

There 

Therefore 

These B2. 

Thief 

Their A2; A4. 

Theirs, to them A4. 

Thick 

Thigh 

Thin, lean 

Thin (not thick) 

Thing (matter) 

Things (goods) 

Think, to 

Third, a (4) Ml. 

Thirst 

Thirteen M. 

Thirty 

This C2. 

This (adj.) C. 

Thorn 

Those (adj.) C. 

Those C; B2. 

Thorough 



... Bus! 

... Bfisi pakka, tinni pakka 

... Tattu 

... Pachche 

... Tei tanni 

... Tei ele, koluntu 

... Tei ele, kopi (coffee) 

... Tei ele kandu 

• ■■ Pache koluntu; pinju koluntu 

... Podi koluntu 

... Kan j 'ele 

... Segapu ele, sivant'ele 

... Tei ele totum, kadu 

... Padittu kudukka 

... Kilikka 

... Kan'nir 

... Tandi 

... Pesa tandi, kambi 

... Solla 

... Tovea 

... Pattu 

... Pant'adikka 

... Pant 1 adikka male 

... Athi 

... Athi tan 

... Antha 

... Vandanam 

... Avangal, avargal 

... Appo 

... Angeiliruntu 

... Ange, angatu 

... Athinal, athukaha 

... Ithi ellam (this all) 

... Kalavani, kalian 

... Avangalude 

... Avangalukku 

... Kannam 

... Tode 

... Elichi 

... Kannam ille, melis 

... Kariam 

... Saman 

... Nineikka, yosikka 

... Mundil-oru-pangu 

... Taham 

... Pattimunu 

... Mupathu 

... Ithi 

... Intha 

... Mullu 

... Antha 

... Athi ellam (that all) 

... Narusa 



ENGLISH-TAMIL VOCABULAKY. 



125 



Thousand M. 

Thought 

Thread 

Threaten, to 

Three M. 

Three by three Ml. 

Throat 

Throughout 

Throw, to 

Throw away 

Thunder 

Thursday N2. 

Thus C2. 

Tick 

Till, until P3. 

Tie, to 

Tiger 

Tighten ,to 

Time P. 

Time, hours P. 

Tin 

Tip 

Tip tea, to 

Tip (money) 

'Ti-vali' 

To A4 ; A4(Note 1). 

Tobacco 

Third Ml. 

To-day N2. 

Toddy 

Toe 

Together 

Tolerate, to 

Tom-tom 

To-morrow N2. 

Ton 

Tongue 

Too N. 

Toj much N. 

Tool 

Tooth 

Top 

Top-knot 

Top-knot (man's) 

Torch 

Total 

Touch, to 

Towel 

Town 

Trace, to 

Tracer (road) 

Train 



... Airam 

... Nineivu 

... Nul 

... Paiam kudukka 

... Miinu 

... MG-munu 

... Tonde 

... Yengam 

... Visa 

... Visi poda 

... Iddi 

... Vizala, viyala kilame 

... Ippadi, appadi 

... tfni 

... -varikum (suffix), niattum 

... Katta 

... Puli 

... Iluttu pudikka, irakka 

... Neram, teram, morrc 

... Mani neram 

... Sundu, tagaram (metal) 

... Nuni, tiri 

... Mattam odikka 

... Santosum 

... Ti-vali, a Hindu festival in 

November 
... -ukku, -ikki (suffix) 
... Puh'ele 
... Munam 
... Inniki, indiki 
... Kallu 
... Kal virral 
... Seitu, sendu, kuda 
... Porrukka 
... Tappu, pare 
... Nalikki 
... Tan 
... Naku 
... Seitu. kuda 
... Remba. micham 
... Aitham 
... Pal 
... TTchi 
... Konde 
... Kurumi 
... Molavu patti 
... Motram, orumika, toge 
... Toda 
... Tiivali 
... Pattanain 
... Kiini adikka 
... Eotu kanadi 
... Bail kochi 



126 



COOLY TAMIL. 



Travelling expenses 

Tray 

Tread, to 

Tree 

Trick, fraud 

Trouble 

Trousers 

Trunk (of a tree) 

TruDk (of elephant) 

Truth 

Trust, to 

Try, to 

Turf 

Tuesday N2. 

Turkey 

Turn off, to 

Turn over, to 

Turn round, to 

Turpentine 

Turtle 

Twelve M. 

Twenty 

Twenty, multiply by 5, to 

Twice 

Twins 

Twigs 

Twigs, young, with leaves 

Two M. 

Two by two Ml. 

Type 



... Vali selavu 

... Tattu 

... Mithikka 

... Maram 

... Sfithu, pitalatani 

... Karachal, kastam 

... Kal satte 

... Adi maram 

... Tumbikai 

... Nisam, nicham 

... Namba 

... Thendikka, pakka 

... Kir a pillu 

... Seva kilame 

... Van-koli 

... Tirupa 

... Perkka 

... Tirumba 

... Karpantailam 

... Sme 

... Pannirendu, pan'nendu 

... Iruwathu 

... 20 anjiile perukul seia 

... Kendu neram 

... Eettu'pulle 

... Asambu 

... Tale 

... Rendu 

... Eev'endu 

... A"chu 



U. 



Udder 

Umbrella 

Unable H. 

Unable, if Page 25, 12th Sent. 

Unaccustomed 

Unceasingly 

Uncle 

Under 

Understand, to 

Undergrowth 

Undeveloped (of leaves) 

Undo, to 

Uneven 

Unfair 

Unguilty 

Unkaowri 

Unless L3. 

Unlucky day 

Unmarried 

Unseen 



Madi 
Kode 

Elathe, kudatho 
E lathe ponal 
Palakam illathe 
Oiame 
Sittappan 
Kile; ki (adj.) 
Velankka 
Siru kadu 
Pinju (ele) 

Avilkka, avilttu poda 
Mattam illame 
Aniaiam 
Sutavali 
Teri'ame 
Illate (-ponal) 
Kudathe nal 
Ka liana mann'ame 
Kin'ame (compare with fol- 
lowing:) 



ENGLISH-TAMIL VOCABULARY. 



127 



Untrained, to be 

Until P3, 

Untrue 

Unusual 

Unwell 

Up 

Upper Page 23, 5th Sent. 

Upset, to 

Upright 

Upon 

Upside down 

Urine 

Urine, to pass 

Us A2. 

Use, to 

Useless 

Usual 



... Kan illame irukka 

... -varikum (suffix), mattam 

... Poi, nisam ille 

... Valakam ille 

... Sogam ille 

... Mele, osakka 

... Me 

... Kotta, sinta 

... Nimatu 

... Mele, melikki 

... Kuppara 

... Miitiram 

... Mutiram peia 

... Yengal, nangal 

... Pavikka 

... Totta, uthavathu 

... Valakam, valame 



Vaccinate, to 

Value 

Valley, hollow 

Varnish 

V 

Vein 

Verandah 

Verdict 

Very N. 

Vessel (ship) 

Vomit, to 

Village 

Virgin 



W. C. 

Waist 

Wait, to 

Wake up, to 

Wake up 1 

Wall 

Wall (briek) 

Wall (mud) 

Wall (wood) 

Walk, to 

\V:ilk (noun) 

Wandering, walking (n) 

Wander, to 

Want HI. Page 77. 

Want, to HI. 

Warn, to 

Warrant 

Wash, to 

Wash clothes, to 



... Amme kuta 

... Vile 

... Pallam, pallatuku 

... Vanis 

... Marra kai, kai kari 

... Narambu 

... Viranda, istopu 

... Tirpu 

... Eemba, micham 

... Kappal 

... Vaiale poa 

... tJru, nadu 

... Kumari 

W. 
... Eakus kamara 
... Idupu 
... Nikka 

... Endirikka, miilittu irukka 
... Miilittu iru 
... Sevar 
... Sen -kai sevar 
... Mannu sevar 
... Palagu adittu sevar 
... Nadakka 
... Nade, kal-nade 
... Alechal 
... Alea 

...Venum (onum) 
... Vendum, vendiuth' irukka 
... Echarikka 
... Varant 
... Ealuva 
... Velukka 



128 



COOLY TAMIL. 



Wash for gems, to 

Washerman 

Wasp 

Waste time, to 

Watch 

Watchman 

Watch, to 

Water 

Water (cold) 

Water (hot) 

Watercourse 

Watering can 

Way 

Way, this C2. 

We A2 

Weak 

Wear, to 

Wear out, to 

Wedge 

Wedding 

Wednesday N2. 

Weed 

Weed, to 

Weeding hoe 

Week N2. 

Week day N2. 

Weep, to 

Weigh, to 

Weight 

Well (water) 

Well, to get 

Well, very ! 

Well (adj.) B. 

Wet 

Wet, to get 

What 

What for 

What is that? 

Wheel 

When PI. 

When? E. 

Where? A4. 

Whereto? A4 (footnote) 

Where from? A4. 

Which? C; C2. 

Which hand? C. 

While PI. 

Whip 

Whistle, to 

Whisper, to 

White 

White ant 

Who? E. 



.. Arikka 
.. Vannan, dobi 
.. Kolavi 

.. Neram illakka, poa 
.. Orlas 

.. Kaval karan 
.. Kaval pakka 
.. Tanni, -nir 
.. Pache tanni 
.. Suda tanni 
.. Tanni kan 
.. Vali 

.. Pathe, rotu 
.. Padi, ippadi 
.. Nangal 
.. Pellam ille 
.. Katta 

.. Teia, teinttu poa 
.. Apu 
.. Kalianam 
.. PGthan kilame 
.. Pillu 
.. Pillu vetta 
.. Kottu mamati 
.. Kilame, yelu nal 
.. Kilame nal 
.. Alukka 

.. Nirukka, param pakka 
.. Param 
.. Kinara, keini 
.. Sogam aha 
.. Nallathu 
.. Nalla 

.. Nananju, irma 
.. Nannia, naninttu poa 
.. Ennil 

.. Ennatukku (aha) T. 
.. Ath'enna ? 
.. Rothe 

.. -pothu (suffix) 
.. Yeppo? 
.. Enge? 
.. Engatu? 
.. Engeiliruntu? 
.. Ethu? entha? (adj.) 
.. Entha kai? 
.. -pothu (suffix) 
.. Savuku 
.. Sike adikka 
.. Kusukusnkka 
.. Velle 
.. Karrean 
... Yar? 



ENGLTflH-TAMTL VOCABULARY. 



129 



Who is that? 

Whoever 

Whole 

Whom? E; A4; G2(Note 1) 

Worship, to 

Whose, of whom A4. ... 

Why 

Wick 

Wide 

Wife 

Will not (he) Gl. 

Will not, I Gl. 

Will not be; is not HI... 
Wind 

Window 

Winnowing fan 

Wipe, to 

Wire 

Wish 

Wish, to 

With A4. 

Withered leaves 

Within 

Withont T(Note 1). 

Witness 

Woman 

Woman (old) 

Wood 

Wooden box 

V on) 

V/oik 

Work, to 

Worn ont 

Worry 

Worms 

Worse 

Wonnd 

Wrathfully, to Hpeak 

Wrench, a 

Write, to 

Wrong 



.. Ath'ar athu; ar athu? 

.. Yarum seri 

.. Mulu, ellam 

.. Tare? 

.. KQmba 

,.. YarGde, yarukku 

... Ye (yen) 

... Tin 

... AVgalam 

... Penjathi 

... -matathe (suffix) to Inf : 

... -maten (suffix) to Inf : 

... Kidaathe (from 'kidakka') 

... Katu 

... Jannal 

... Solngn 

... Tudeikka 

... Kambi 

... Piriam, ishtam 

... Piriam irukka 

... Kiida, seitu, kuditi 

... Kanj'ele, saragu, aette 

... THukku 

... Illame, -ame, illathe 

... Sachi 

... Pumb.ili (i.e. pen-pulle), pom, 
Maimshi 

... Ttelavi 

... Maram, palagti 

... Maram potti 

... Sollu 

... Veile 

... Veile seia 

... Teinttu poichi 

... Machal, karrachal 

... Piichi 

... Athikum agathe 

... Kaiam 

... Akoram pe» 

. . Ravi 

... Elnta, elntha 

... Seri'ille 



Yard 

lawn, to 

Year 

Yellow 

}?♦, N. 

Ye B A3; B2. 

Yeatrrdny N2. 

You A2; Appendix. 

Young 



Tat 

Kotavikka 

Vaisu 

Manjal 

Tnnam 

£.m§, 

Neitn 

Ni, ningal 

Yellan, piraiam 



Am 



130 



COOLT TAMIL'. 



Young (of some animals) 
Young (of leaves, fruit, etc 
Younger sister 
Younger brother 
Your A2; A4. 
Youth, age 



Kunji, kutti 
Pinju (adj.) 
Tangachi 
Tambi 
TJn, unude 
Piraiam 



TAMIL-ENGLISH VOCABULARY. 



In order to make most use of the references, on looking up a 

word in this Vocabulary, the English equivalent should be 

turned up in the English-Tamil Vocabulary where a 

reference to the Grammar may be found. 



The figures refer to some of the sentences where the word, or its 
inflected form, will be found in the ''Sentences" section. 



-a (suffix) 9. 44. 


the Interrogative suffix 


Achi 5. 6. 


Done, become 


Achu 


Type 


Achu adikka 


To print 


Ada 


To dance 


Adankka 


To submit 


Adanki pada 


To be submissive 


Adapu 


Stove, oven 


Adatu 83. 


Next 


Ada tode 


Thigh 


Ade koli 


Sitting hen 


Adi 41. 45. 


Foot (12 inches) 


Adi 248. 


Bottom, stem 


Adi kambu 


Foot rule 


Adi maram 248. 


Stem of tree 


Adi masam N3. 


July 


Adi p;ida 


To be beaten, (suffer beating) 


Adi ver 


Tap root 


Adielam 


Mark 


Adielam fpria 


To recognise 


Adikka 1. 2. 3. 


To ln( , bpafc 


*du 


Goat 


Ad'i kn*H 


Kid 


Adukk* «o 


...To close . pack 


Adu^'i pud'.kkn (nerre) 


K " ...To take up rowi ". op 




"Tie or nioro 


AdTans 


A ' " 


Advans kudukka 


..'Jo adranct (m< 


Agnlam 20ft. 


.. ... Wide, broad 


Agathe 


Bad, not, hor n m« 


-aha (suffix: 


For in order to 


Nearly nil Verbs are 


in the Infinitive so they should be 



turned up ou pages 79-8S. 



ldd 



OOOLY TAMIL. 



Aha 

Ahum, Ik urn 

iia (ayah) 
Air am 

Aitham 46. 
Aitham illath'al 
Aitam 

A it am panna 
Aiya 37. 42. 
Aiyo I 

-aka (suffix) 362. 
Akka (aha) 
Akka(l) 
Akkare 
Akkus 

Akoram pesa 

Al 17. 37. 44. 212. 388. .., 
-al (suffix) 36. 57. 135 ... 
Al akka 

Alam 311. 327. 
Alavanga 312. 319. 325. 
Alavu 
Alea 
Alechal 
Alia 186. 
Aluka 
Alukka 
Alutta 
Allittu poda 
Allikka 

-alum (verbal suffix) Ps.3. 
Ama, am' 10. 69. 
Amar 
Amba 

Xmbnle (nn-pulle) 29. 44. 
Ambattan 
Ambattn (vulg.) 
Amba t 'tan (vulg.) 
Ame 

Ammakka 208. 116. 321 
Ammavasi 
Amme vattu 
Amme (peria) 
Amme (sinna) 
Amme kiita 
Ammi kal 
An 

Anapadia 
Anisi pallam 

Anbu . . 

Audit?* 
Andii 



... To become, to make 

... Will become, will cause to 

become 
... Nurse (native) 
... Thousand 
... Tool 

... People without tools 
... Ready 
... To prepare 
... Sir 

... Alas ! oh ! 
... If, when 
... To cook, to make 
... Elder sister 
... Need, occasion 
... Bad motive 
... Tj speak wrathfully 
... Person, cooly 
... If 

... To measure 
... Deep 
... Cnwbar 
... Measure, dose 
... Tc wander 
... Walking, wandering 
... To collect 
... Dirty 
... To cry 
... To press down 
... To rub out 
... To rub out 
... All hough 
... Yes 
... Hammer 
... To meet, find 
... Man, male 
... Barber 
... So much 
... That's all 
... Turtle 
... To press down 
... New moon 
... Chicken pox 
... Small pox 
... Measles 
... To vaccinate 
... 8tone for crushing on 
... Male (adj.) 
... Because 
... Pineapple 
. . Love 
... Afternoon 
... Pretty, nic* 



TAMIL-ENGLISH VOCABULARY. 



13a 



Ane ••• • 

Aneikka ••• • 

Ange 18. 268. 276. 346. 

Angatu 276. ... , 

Ani ••• • 

Aniver 

Ani masam N3. 

Aniani 

Anjam 

Anji 

Annan 

Annil 

Aniaiam 

Anth'antha 404. 406. 

Antha (adj.) 177.242.277.204 

Antha ! 24. 38. 322. 

Annpa 300. 498. 462 

Apida 

Apis (kamara) 481. 

Appa ! 

Appadi 160. 319. 

Appan 

Appia masam N3. 

Appo 64. 68. 314. 

Appii 

Apu 

Apuram 131. 

Ara (adj.) 

Arachi (Sinhalese) 

Aram 

Aram 

Are 231. 294. 431. 

Are per 103. 

Are mani neraui 

Are-kiil 

Are are-kal 431. 

Areikk;i 

Arikka ... . 

Arisi 878. ... ■ 

Xri ponuthu 

Arrikka 

Arrival 

Aru . • • 

Aru 

Arumbu 213. ... . 

Aruwathu 

Ase 

Aeambu 236. ... . 

Ascikkn (trans ) 

Aseia (intTMM.) 257. 322. . 

Ijpifiri ... • 

Atale 

-atha (rafix) 89.59.148.312 . 



. Elephant 

. To extinguish 

. There 

. Beyond, to there 

. Nail (iron) 

. Taproot 

. June 

. Heathen 

. Fifth 

. Five 

. Elder brother 

. Squirrel 

. Unfair, unjust 

. Each 

. That 

. Look ! there 1 

. To send 

,. Tf- catch (find) 

. Office 

,. Oh! alas! 

,. Thus, that way 

.. Father 

.. October 

.. Then 

.. 'Boy,' butler 

.. Wedge 

.. Afterwards 

.. Cold (after being hot) 

.. Headman 

.. File 

.. Sixth 

.. Half 

. . Half name 

.. Half-an-hour 

.. One-eighth 

.. Five eighth a 

. . To grind 

.. To rinse, wash for gems, sift 

Rice (raw) 
.. Got cold, dried up (as flesh) 

To saw, to reap 

Sickle 

Six 
. River 
.. Bud 
.. Sixty 
• Desire 
.. Twigs 

.. To mo"e, shake 
■ ■ Tn muff, shake 

• Hospital 

• • Loft 
Do 



134 



COOLY TAMIL. 



Ath'enna 


. What is that? 


Ath'ar athu 


. Who is that? 


Athi 127. 263. 353 


. That (pron.) 


Athi tan 159. 


. That's it, just that 


Athi urn (before a noun) 265.. 


, Much 


Athikum (before a noun) 


. More, most 


Athikum agathe, atbium agathe 


Worse 


Athu 397. 


. It 


Athukku vathil 


. Instead of 


Athukku pidpadu 


. Since, after that 


-attum (suffix) 32. 341 


. May 


Atte 


. Leech, mother-in-law 


Auns 430. 431. 


Ounce 


Aval 75. 


. She 


Avslgal 


They (f) 


Avalo 42. 258. 448 


That much, so much 


Avalo tan 128. 


, That's all 


Avangal 57. 395. 


, They (m) 


Avan 366. 


He, his 


Avane 63. 


Him (obj.) 


Avani masam N3. 


August 


Avar 485. 493. 


He, they (polite form 


Avi 


Steam 


Avikka 


To boil, cook 


Avilkka 


To unite 


Avilttu poda 


To undo, untie 


Avisani 


Soul , spirit 


Avisaram 


Hurry 


E. 
Echarikka To warn 


Edukka 46. 88. 95. 109 


To take, to get 


Eduttu poda 316.335.445. ... 


To remove 


Euuttu kolla 


To receive 


Ekru 384. 


Acre 


Elam 45. 106. 305 


Can, able 


Elathe 39. 12. 59. 


Cannot, unable 


Ele 89. 112. 247. 


1 ieaf 


Ele (karat') 


Black leaf 


Elevi pon 


To melt 


Blichi 


Thin, lean 


Ellaro 9. 38 104. 383. 397 


ill 


Ella in "i 


Everybody, all men 


Elutha 466. 469. 


To write 


Elutu 


Letter (of alphabet) 


Elnmba 


To get up 


Eua 457. 470. 472 


To say 


Endirikka 


To rise, get up 


Enge 66. 274. 


Where 


Engeiliruntu 66. 


Whence 


Engctu 


To where 


Enna, euni pikka 


To count 


Enna 191. 438. 


What 



TAMIL-ENGLISH VOCABULARY. 



135 



Enniltukku 315. 

Enne 49. 

Entha ? 

Entu Ps.7. 

Era, erangi poa 

Era kile, erangi vara 

Erakka 

Erichi 

Erichi petti 

Erichi karan 

Errichal 

Erume madu 

Erumbu 

Eruvu kudukka 

Eiuvu vanga 

Ethu 78. 

Etta 

Ettathe 

Ettane 21. 93 

Etti inikka, poa 

Evalo 



What for 

Oil 

Which (adj.) 

Having said, that 

To ascend 

kile ... To descend, alight 

To set down a load 

Meat, beef 

Beef box 

Butcher 

Jealousy 

Buffalo 

Ant 

To lend 

To borrow 

Which 

To reach 

Cannot reach 

How many 

To keep aside, move away 

(of persons) 
How much 



Idam 182. 288. 310 

Idam kudukka 

Idathu 

Idathu kai 

Idi 

Idikka 

[dinttu poichi 

Idiipu 

-ikki (suffix) 24. 35. 60. 202.. 

Ihikka 

-ile (suffix) 142. 199. 203. .. 
-iliruntu, iruntu (suffix) 8. .. 
Elame, -'ame 61. 94. 181. 

217. 184. 

Jllathe 

Ulate(ponal) 57.149.167.327. .. 

Jllathe ner;im 

Illath'avan 

Ille 51. 53. 56. 

lllukka 357. 

lllllpll 

Illiirtii pudikka 

Inrlii 294. 

Inje, ingatn 65. R9. 271 

Tnji 

Inimel 486. 

Innam 53. 128. 

Inniki, indiki 34. 68 



Fly 

Space, place, site 

To make room 

Left 

Left hand 

Thunder 

To pound 

Dilapidated 

Back, waist 

To, at, for 

To lose 

In, into, on 

From 

Without 

Without 

If not, otherwise, o. - 

Absence, when not present 

He who has not 

No, not 

To pull 

Convulsions 

To tighten 

Tncli 

Here, to here 

Ginger 

In future 

Still, yet, more 

Today 



136 



COOLY TAMTL. 



Iii'intha, an'antha 


So and so, such and sud 


Inoru 


Another 


Intha 40. 228. 222. 


This (adj.) 


Intha ! 38. 172. 


Look 1 here ! 


Ippadi 90. 


Thus, this way 


Ippo 


Now 


Iragu 


Feather, wing 


Irakka 


To set down, lower 


Irama 


Damp 


Irantu poa 


To die 


Irigi 


Dried (of earth) 


Irpu 


Cramp 


Irrutu 


Dark 


Irukka 16. 36. 37. 43. 


140. 142 To be, have 


Irul 


Be 1 be still ! stop 1 


Irukruthu 28. 335. 


Is, present, have 


Irumbu 


Iron 


Irumal 


Cough 


Iruwathu 48. 


Twenty 


Tskopu 


Shovel 


Iskrup'ani 


Screw 


Islopu 252. 


Slope 


Istal 


Stall, stable 


(Istam) ishtam 


Favour, wish 


(Istama) ishtaraa 


Amicably 


Istampu 


Stamp (postage) 


Isteisan 498. 


Station (railway) 


Istopu 


Verandah 


Istor 


Store, factory 


Ithi 70. 82. 166. 438. 


This (pron.) 


Ithi tan 


Just this 


Ittu 


Eotten 


Ittu poa 


To rot 


Ival , ivan 


She, he (here) 


Ivale, ivane 


Her, him (here) 


Iyam 


Lead 


Iyam pusa 


To solder 


Tyam tal 


Sheet of lead 


Kachal 


K. 
Fever 


Kachal marantu 


Quinine 


Kadakan 


Man's ear-ring 


Kadan 441. 


Debt 


Kadan kndnkka 


To owe 


Kadan karan 


Debtor 


Kadan situ 


I. 0. U. 


Kadan tirkka 


To settle debt 


Kadanukku vanga 


To borrow 


Kadavn 


Door 


K.".davul 


Heaven (God) 


Kadde 


Shop (native) 


Kadde kiran 


Shop keeper 



TAMIL-ENGLISH VOCABULABY. 



187 



Kadeiai 197. 

Kadeisile 

Kadi 

Eadikka 

Kadu 

Kadu vetta 

Kadutasi 

Kai 

Kai 146. 199. 

Kai kari 

Kai kasi 

Kaia 

Kaia, kaia poda 

Kai karer.e 

Kai pudi 272. 

Kaia poda 372. 

Kaiam 415. 

Kmtham 459. 461. 

Kaka 

Kakus 

Kakus kamara 

Kakns petti 

Kai 356. 

Kai (patham) 356. 

Kai 316. 322. 

Kalam 451. 

Kalame, kale, kalambre 

Kalan 

Kalavani 

Kalavu 

Kalavu edukka 

Kale madu 

Kaleikka 

Kaleittu poa 

Kalianam 

Kalians katta 

Kalichu (kalittu) 461. 

Kalichi, oru nal 

Kalikka 100. 200. 245. 

Kaluthe 163. 

Kiilvasi (adj.), kai 

Kill virral 

Kai vedi vaikka 

K&] satte 

Kalla (adj.) 

Kallakka 298. 

Kallam (teppu-) 

Kallam (peratn) 

Kalian 

Kalla 490. 

Kalntu 

Kaluva 

Kamara 



69 



246 



153 



Last 

Eventually 

Bite 

To bite 

Jungle 

To clear jungle 

Paper 

Unripe fruit 

Hand 

Vegetables 

Beady cash 

Dry 

To dry 

Kickshaw 

Handle 

To dry 

Wound 

Letter 

Crow 

Privy, secretion 

W. C. 

Commode 

Leg, quarter, J 

Foot 

Stone 

Time, period 

Morning 

Mushroom 

Thief 

Theft 

To steal 

Bull 

To disperse, put in disorder 

To get tired, disordered 

Marriage 

To marry 

After 0" : having deducted) 

After a day('s time) 

To pick off, deduct, subtract 

Donkey 

Quarter, J 

Toe 

To blast 

Trousers 

False, forged 

To mix 

Pond, dam 

Muster ground 

Thief 

Toddy 

Neck 

To wash 

Boom 



138 



COOLY TAMIL. 



Kambi ... . 

Kambili 

Kambili pallam ... . 

Kiimbikka 157. 290 

Kambu 100. 102. 142 

Kambu ... . 

Kamis ... . 

Kan 811. 815. 330 

Kan vetta ... . 

Kan ... . 

Kanadi ... . 

Kanam (ganam) ... . 
Kana(n), kiiname 

Kana poa ... . 

Kanak 167. 339. 445. • . . 

Kanakapulle 19. ... 
Kan'ame irukka 

Kandu kutti ... . 
Kandu, kannu 338. 339. 356. 

Kandu poda ... . 

Kange ... . 

Kanji ... . 

Kanji 372. ... . 
Kankka, kana 185. 

Kan-nir ... . 

Kannam 407 ... . 
Kantu pudikka 

Kappal ... . 

Kapu ... . 

Karachal 309. ... . 

Karachal kiidukka ... . 

Karadi ... . 

Karadu kal ... . 
Karaktar 

Earami ... . 
-karan (suffix) 

Tappal-kiiran 

Tota-kiiran ... . 

Karandi 375. ... . 
Karandi alavu 

Karatu ... . 
Kare (akkare) 

Kare ... . 

Kareian ... . 

Karete 498. ... . 

Karetunde ... . 
-kari 

Kari ... . 

Kiiriam ... . 

Kariam ille 130. 409 

Karum ... . 

Karumbu ... . 

Karupu ... . 



.. Wire 
.. Blanket 
.. Mulberry 
.. To show 
.. Stalk 
.. Pole 
.. Shirt 
.. Drain 
.. To drain 
•• %e 

.. Road tracer, glass 
.. Eespect 

.. Disappeared, lost 
,. To lose 

.. Account, amount, size 
. Accountant 
.. To be missing 
.. Calf 
.. Plant 
,. To plant 
,. Heat 

.. Gruel, rice water, starch 
.. Dry, hard 
... To see 

,. Tear (lit : eye water) 
. Thick 

. To discover, find 
.. Ship 
,. Amulet 
,. Trouble 
,. To trouble 
. Bear 
.. Ankle 
,. Character 
,. Mean 

. Male, man, doer 
. Tappal cooly 
.. Oardener 
.. Scraper, spoon 
,. Spoonful 
.. Carrot 

,. Landing place at a river 
,. Charcoal, coal 
„ White ant 
,. Cart 

.. A lizard (in Ceylon) 
Feminine of karan 
. Curry 

. Affair, matter 
. (It) does not matter 
,. Strong (of drinks, etc.) 
. Sugar cane 
. Black 



TAMIL-ENGLISH VOCABULARY. 



139 



Earunarn 

Eurupantailam 

Easakka 

Easankka 

Easapu 

Easi 58. 

Easi odra 

Eastam 

Eata 285. 

Eathe 

Eatheikka 

Eathu 

Katiri kol 

Katiri kai 

Katia masam 

Katta 

Eatta 

Eattaiara 

Eatte 141. 277. 

Eatti 220. 250. 272. 

Eatti 

Kattil 

Eatu 302. 

Eattu 

Kaval kilran 

Kaval pakka 

Eavanam 107. 

Eavanakka 

Eavat'al 224. 

Eavatu (veile) 

Eavatu katti 

Kavatu vetta 

Kave 

Kfmiru, kairu 

Kedukka 

Keini 

Keitbaia 

Kelangu 

Kelavan 

Kelkka (keilkka) 59. 474. 

Kelkka (kathodu) 

Kelvi 

Kelvi kelkka (keilkka) 

Kcnfagam 

Ketal ' 

Ketta 

Ketta poichi 272. 

Ketti panna 

Ketti 

Ki 25 ('i' like 'ee') 

Eidakka 

EitTaathe (see Eng. Vocab.) 

Eidda 



An act, ceremony 
... Turpentine 
...To crash 
... To crumble 
... Bitter, bitterness 
... Cash, money 
... Money order 
... Trouble, hard work 
...To show 
... Chatter, story 
... To chatter 
... Ear 

... Shears, scissors 
... Brinjal (a vegetable) 
... November 
... To tie, wear 
...To build, bind 
... Beally 

... Stump, log, post (mile) 
... Enife 

... Past part, of 'katta' 
... Bed 
... Wind, air 
... Bundle, packet 
... Watchman 
... To watch 
... Carefully 
...To take care 
... Primers 

... Pruning, (work) • 

... Pruning knife 

... To prune 

... Care, concern 

... Cord, rope 

... To ruin, corrupt 

... Well (water) 

... Funeral 

... Potato, bulb 

... Old man 

... To ask, hear 

... To listen (hear with ears) 

... Question, hearsay 

... To ask question 

... Sulphur 

... Eettle 

... Bad 

... Gone bad, spoilt 

... To make firm 

... Clever, firm 

... Low, under (adj.) 

... To be, remain 

... Will not be, is not 

... He-goat 



140 



COOLY TAMIL. 



Kilame 182. 

Kilame nal 

Kile 134. 141. ('i' like 'ee').. 

Kilikka (1st 'i' like 'ee') 

Kin a ram 

Kinda 

Kinnaru 

Kira pilln ... .. 

Kiral 

Kiru-kim 

Kitta 15. 181. 366. 436 

Kochi 496. 

Kochi-kai 

Kodali 

Kodi 

Kode 

Koia pall am 

Koil, kovil 

Koina 

Koki 

Kol 

Kol 

Kol aolla 

Kolambu 

Kolante 

Kolavi 

Kolavi kal 

Kole (?Sinhalese) 

Koleikka 

Koli 

KoUa 

Kollan , 

Kolle 

Koluntu edukka 102. 136. 

Koluntu 19. 33. 214 

Kolupu , 

Kolata , 

Konal 838. , 

Konde kal 

Konde 

Konde kuchi , 

Kondu poa 24. , 

Kondu vira 169. 369. 371. ... 

Konjam 50. 344. 182 

Kopi (often used for 'tea buBh') 

Kopil 

Koplan 

Koppe 

Korxe 118. 340. 

Korre nerre 118. 

Korreikka 284. 

Korreittu poda 262 

Kortu 



Week 

Week day 

Down, under 

To tear 

Piano 

To stir up 

Well (water) 

Turf 

A crack 

Giddiness 

Near, from (a person), to 

Coach 

Chilli 

Axe 

Creeper, bramble 

Umbrella, flag 

Guava fruit 

Church, temple 

Cinchona 

Hook 

Measuring rod 

Complaint 

To complain 

Hoof 

Child 

Wasp 

Food crusher (stone) 

Leafed twigs 

To bark (as a dog) 

Chicken 

To kill 

Blacksmith 

Heart 

To pluck 

Young leaf 

Fat, grease 

Fat (adj.) 

Crooked 

Thigh 

Top-knot (woman's) 

Hair pin 

To take away 

To bring 

Few, little (adv.), some 

Coffee 

Copy 

Blister 

Cup 

Short, less 

Short row 

To reduce 

To shorten, decrease 

Court (law) 



TAMIL-ENGLISH VOCABULARY. 



141 



Kosa 

Kosugu, kosu 

Kotiipuli 

Kotavikka 

Kotbikka 

Kotta 425. 

Kottaraah 

Kotte 

Kottu mamati 

Kottu kude 420. 

Kovikka 

Kovum 

Koya 

Kuchi 

Kuda 60. 298. 

Kudathe nal 

Kudathe 

Kude 

Kudikka 487. 488. 

Kuditi 

Kudu 

Kudukka 168. 199. 285. 443. 

Kfilakka 

Kuli 293. 350. 

Kuli (51) 

Kuli adikka 

Kuli rafida 387. 

Kuli vetta 293. 

Kulikka 

Kfdikru kamara 

Kulir 

KGlir kachal 

Kumari 

Kiirnal 

Kumba 

Kumittu pod a 370. 

Kuni 361. 362. 

KGni adikka 

KuinDchi nikka 303. 

Kundi 

Kunji 

Kfipida 8. 74. 83. 

Kuppara 

Kuppara poda 425. 

Kuppe 174. 

Kuranga 

Kure 

Kuril 

Kuruka 

Kuruka pathe 

Kunimba 

Kururni 

Kurata 



.. Cabbage 

... Mosquito 

.. Mallet 

..To yawn 

..To boil 

,.. To empty 

... Coriander 

... Seed, nut 

... Stumped, or weeding inarnoti 

,.. Small sized basket 

... To be angry 

... Anger 

... Guava 

... Stick, peg 

... With, too, more 

... Unlucky day 

... Unable, must not 

... Basket 

... To drink 

... In company with, with 

... Envelope, cage 

... To give 

... To shake up 

... Hole 

... Cooly (hired person) 

... To drill holes 

...To fill holes 

... To dig holes 

...To bathe 

... Bathroom 

... Cold, shivery 

... Ague 

... Virgin 

... Heap, pile 

... To worship 

... To heap up 

... Peg 

... To peg out 

... To stoop 

... Seat (of body) 

... The young of animals 

... To call 

... Upside down 

... To put upside down 

... Rubbish 

... Monkey 

... Roof 

... Point 

... Short, across 

... Short-cut 

... Young coconut 

... Top-knot (man's) 

... Blind 



142 



COOLY TAMIL. 



Kuruvi 


Bird 


Kusini 


Kitchen 


Kusini meite 


Kitchen cooly 


Kusukusukka 


To whisper 


Kuta 287. 288. 305. 


To fork, prick, sweep 


Kfitam 


Crowd 


KQtama 180. 


Crowding 


Kuthi 


Prostitute 


Kuthere 


Horse 


Kuthere eri poa 


To ride on horseback 


Kuthere karan 


Horse keeper 


Kuthere patti 


Stable 


Kfithil 


Cold (of body) 


Kfithil irukka 


To be cold 


Kfzthin mullu 


Spur 


Kuthin kal 359. 


Heel 


Kutta katte 277. 


Standing stump 


Kuttam 94. 156. 


Fault 


Kuttavali 


Guilty 


Kutti 


The young of some animals 


Kutti 


Girl 




L. 


Liichi 


Drawer 


Liida-karan 


Farrier 


Liidam 


Horse shoe 


La dam poda 


To shoe 


Lagam 


Bit (of bridle) 


Laiam 8. 91. 


Line (cooly dwelling) 


Laisan 


Foundation 


Laisan poda 


.... ... To pave 


Lampu 


Lamp 


Landa 


Large crowbar 


Tjanjam 


Bribe 


Lantan 


Lantern 


Leisi 45. 


Easy, light 


Lekku 173. 


Place, spot 


Lenji 


Handkerchief, head-dress 


Likap 


Stirrup 




M. 


Machal 


Worry, trouble 


Machinan 


Brother-in-law 


Machinachi 


Sister-in-law 


Mada 


Foolish 


Madakka 270. 


... ... To bend, fold 


Madangu (see 'madi') 


Folded cloth (waist 'pocket') 


Madan katti 


Pen knife 


Mada pail 267. 


Fool 


MadeiaD 


Fool 


Maderi 43. 140. 165. 


396. ... Kind, sort, same 


Madi 


Lap, folded clotb 



TAMIL-ENGLISH VOCABULAKY. 



143 



Madi 

Madu 

Madu karan 

Madu patti 

Magal 

Magan 

Mai 

Maiam 385. 

Mai otti tal 

Mairu 

Makali masam N3. 

Malei 386. 

Malei peia 305. 

Male 22. 33. 34. 

Mallingu 251. 

Mii man 

Ma mi 

Mamati 40. 

Man 

Mande 

Man korabu 

Manasu 

Manasile vaikka 

Manjal 

Mani 6. 60. 227. 393. ... 

Mini neram 15. 

Man-kai 

Manti 

Mantham 

Mannakka 

Manual 

Mannam 

Mannakka 

Maunikka 

Mannipu 

Manni 

Manni adikka 

Maimn 304. 31R. 373. ... 

Mannn sevar 

Mannu vetta 

Manuehan 

Maiitiram panna 

Mapale 

\I:i|)ii kudukka 

Mar 839. 

Mara in petti 

Mararn 112. 140. 125. 

Miirapu kan 427. 

Marantu 

Mare 478. 

Mareikka 

Marakka, marantu poa 3?4. 



... Udder 
... Cattle 
... Cattle keeper 
... Cattle shed 
... Daughter 
... Son 

... Ink, paint 
... Mark, boundary 
... Blotting paper 
... Hair 
... December 
... Bain 
... To rain 
... Field, hill 
... Blunt 
... Father-in-law 
Mother-in-law 
... Large hoe, mamaty 
... Deer 
... Skull 
... Antlers 
... The mind 
...To bear in mind 
... Yellow, saffron 
... O'clock, hour 
... An hour's time 
... Mango 
... Monkey 
... Indigestion 
...To smell 
... Sand 
... Gor.i smell 
...To smell 
...To forgive 
... Forgiveness 
... Bell 
... To ring 
... Earth 
... Mud wall 
... To dig (cut earth) 
... Man 

... To perform 'magic' 
... Bridegroom 
... To give a chance 
... Primings 
... Wooden box, chest 
... Tree, wood 
... Cross, secondary drain 
... Medicine 
... Bagama Camp 
...To hide 
...To forget 



144 



COOLY TAMIL. 



Marra kai 

Marriel 

Marre 

Mara magal 

Mara magan 

Mara 

Maravadi 

Maramuli 

Masam 

Masi masam 

Masam-rnasam 

Mata 

Matalam 

-matathe (suffix to infinitive) 

167. 306. 

-maten (suffix) 161. 166 

Mathipu 

Matiram, mattam 214 , 

Matin kalar 

Matta, mara 242. 

Mattam 21. 121. 133 

-mattum (suffix) 

Mattam illame 

Mattam odikka 120. 121. 145... 

Mau 

Me (adj.) 25. 135. 211 ... ... 

Meham ... ... 

Mei 

Meia 

Meil vilasam 456. 

Meladu 

Mele 330 

Mele vara 

Melis ... ... 

Me mette 

Mesan 

Mese 140 

Mettr 

Methuva 

Methuva panna 

Micham 42. 228 

Min (long'i' like ee') 

Min (adj :) .. 

Mina ('i' like 'ee') 

Mindi 160. 381 

Minna ; min pakkam 

Minnal 

Minnkku 

Mirugam 

Mise (V like 'ee') 

Mistek 

Mithakka 

Mithfltka 359. (Ib* '»' like 'ee') 



, Vegetables 
, Prison 

Elk 

Daughter-in-law 

Son-in-law 

Other, another 

Again 

Answer, written reply 

Mcntb 

Fehiuary 

Month by month 

Tt change 

Large drum 

He, etc : will not 

I will not 

Estimate 

Only 

Martingale 

Other 

Level 

Until, till 

Uneven 

To tip, break to a level 

Flour 

Upper, top 

Cloud 

Body 

To graze, feed 

Address 

Ear-ring (woman's) 

Up, above, on 

To come up 

Thin (not thick) 

Upper story 

Mason 

Table 

Story (of building) 

Soft, smooth 

To soften 

Much, many, verv, remainder 

Fish 

Fore, front 

Fern 

Before, previously 

In front ; front side 

Lightning 

To the front 

Animal 

Moustache 

Mistake 

To float 

To tread 



TAMIL-ENGLISH VOCABULARY. 



145 



Modakn 275. 276 

Modu 119 

Moi 

Mol 

Moleikka 148 

Molavu tiri 

Moluga 

Molle 

Morre 

Mosam 

Mosam 6eia 362 

Mothal, inotha 196 

Mothiram 

Mottam 56. 

Motte ... 

Motte pudinkka 108. 223 

M fichu 

Mflda 300. 387. 

Mudi 424. 

Mudichi 228. 256 

Mudia 34. 80. 117. 140. 167. 

Mugare (vulg :) 

Muku 

Mukn kanadi 

MQkuti 

Mulan kai 

Mulan kal 

Mulavu patti 

Mulei 

Mule 208 

Muli 

Mulikka 48 

Mulittu irukka 

Mulugu 

Mulu, mulukka lfi8. 

Mfilfinkka 

Mulu per 16R. 

Mulla 106. 

Mullu 288. 292. 

Mullum pandi 

Mullu kfita 292 

Mullu chedi 

Miinam nal 

Munam 

Mundil-oru-p.inpu 

Munji 

Miinjil 

Mil 'infirm 

Munu 

Mu|);ithn 

Mnratii 

Muruva 

MiiBal 



. . Corner (as of a road) 

... Mound, ridge 

... Swarm; ceremony at marriage 

. . Machinery, engine 

... To sprout 

... Candle 

... To smooth 

... Breast 

... Time (period) 

... Harm 

... To harm 

... First 

... Ring (for finger) 

... Total 

... Bald 

..To strip off buds etc. 

... Breath 

... To cover, fill in 

... Lid, cover 

... Knot, screw nut 
205 To finish 

... Face 

... Nose 

... Spectacles 

... Nose ornament 

... Elbow 

... Knee 

... Torch, candle 

... Braiu 

... Corner 

... Deformed (as to ears) 

... To stare 

... To wake up, be awake 

... Pepper 

... Whole, entire 

... To swallow 

... Full name 

... Slow, slowly 

... Fork, thorn 

... Porcupine 

... To fork 

... Thorn, bramble 

... Day before veeterday 

... Third 

... A third, £ 

... Face 

... Bamboo 

... Three by three, in threes 

... Three 

... Thirty 

... Jagged, uneven 

... Ear ornament 

... Hare 



146 



COOLY TAMIL. 



Muta 

Mute 278. 
Mute (koli) 
Mutiram, mol 
MQtiri 
Mutta 99 
Mutt'ele 99. 
Muttam 
Mutti 



Nachataram 

Nada 354 

Nadakka 

Nadantu poa 

Nade 

Nadi pakka 

Nadu 26 

Nadu ratiri 

Nadu 

Nahi, nagi 

Nai 

Nai kutti 

Naiam 

Naitu kilame 

Naku 

Na-kali 

Naliki 

Na] 

Xalandiki 

NO lam 

Nalla 31. 87 

Nalla nertukku 

Nallathu 449. 500. 

Nalla pambu 

NHlu 60. 101. 

Nalukku-nalukku 

Nambar 

Nambar adikka 

Namba 473. 

Namma 

Naminukki] 

Nan 

Xan tan 

Nananttu irukka 

N T andu 

NTi Ii^; B I 

1 t ft n 
Nangili maram 
Nanju 

Nania, nananttu poa 
Napathu 
Narambu 



To mend, sew up 
Sack, bag 
Egg (fowl's) 
Urine 

Postage stamp 
Hard, coarse 
Hard leaf 
Kiss 
Fist, hammer 

N. 
Star 

To plant 

To walk, behave, happen 
To go on walking (i.e. hurry up) 
Walk (noun), gait 
To feel pulse 
Middle 
Midnight 
Village 
Jewellery 
Dog 
Puppy 

Profit, justice 
Sunday 
Tongue 
Chair (4 legs) 
Tomorrow 
Day 

Day after tomorrow 
Fourth 
Good, well 
Punctually 
Very well (all right) 
Cobra 
Four 
Daily 

Number, mark 
To number 
To trust, believe 
Our, my 

To us, to me (mine) 
I 

Myself 
To be wet 
Crab 
We 

< hirselvea 
Iron wood tree 
Poison 
To get wet 
Forty 
, Muscle, vein 



TAMIL-ENGLISH VOCABULARY. 



147 



Nari 




.. Jackal 


Narfisa 113 




.. Thoroughly 


Nasakka 




.. To crush 


Nasam, natam 




.. Odour (had) 


Nasama poa 




.. To "go to the dogs" 


Nasivu 




.. Bruise 


Natam, nastam 




.. Loss, deficit 


Nav'alu 




.. Four by four, in fours 


Nedua 435. 




.. Along, straight 


Neham 




.. Finger nail 


Neire 79 




.. Straight 


Neitu 




.. Yesterday 


Nele 




.. Lintel of door 


Nellu 




.. Paddy (rice) 


Nellal 272 




.. Shade, shadow 


Nenji 




.. Chest 


Nenjile vaikka 




.. To commit to memory 


Neram 102. 38t 


... . 


.. Time 


Neram achi 5 




.. Late 


Neram illakka 




.. To lose time 


Neram poa 




.. To waste time, to get late 


Nerapu 




.. Fire 


Nerapu kuchi 




.. Match 


Nerapu petti 




.. Match box 


Nereittu irukka 




.. To be full 


Nereikka 282 




.. To fill 


Nerram 




.. Colour 


Nerre 79. 118. 


370. 388 '..'. '. 


.. Row. line 


.\e.rre pudikka 26 ... . 


.. To take up rows 


Norm 




.. Bier 


Nerti&na 




.. Pretty 


Nertile 




.. At the time 


Netti 




.. Forehead 


Nettu kan 428. 




.. Main drain 


Nettn nerre 




.. Long row 


Ni ('i' like 'ee') 


44. 315. . 


.. You 


Nianasanam 




.. Baptism 


Nichal adikka i' 


i' like 'ee') . 


.. To swim 


Nikka 20. 134. 


275. 488. . 


.. To stop, stand 


Nils 




.. Moonlight 


Nilam ('i' like ' 


ee') ... . 


.. Blue 


Nilam, nipalnin, 


nitam '294. . 


.. Long, length 


Nilm 18 




.. Stop! 


Nimasam 




.. Minute 


Niniatu 351 




. I'prigbt 


Nineikka 11. 47'*- 


To think 


Nineivn 




. Thought , memory 


x >"_--«] i i' I'kt 


'ee') 


. You fplur.1. yon tfivm ■ hnn 
orific> 


Njntikka 




.. To insult 


Nipata 378. 




.. To stop (trans :) 


Nrpiti podi 




'!> ant a atop to 


Kir mattani fY 


likp 'ee \. 


. fit lerel 



148 



COOLY TAMIL. 



Nirakka 158. 170. 183. 202. 
Nisam 

Nisama solla 

Nita ('i' like 'ee') 

Nitham 

Nitam ('i' like 'ee') 

Noa 

Nonda 

Notis 

Notu 

Novo 

Nul 

NSndi 

Nuni 

Nunittu poda 



Oda 4. 

Odambu 

Odavi 

Odikka 120. 122. 132. 139 

Odi poa 475. 489. 

Oiame 492. 

Olaku 

Olikka 

Olikka 

Olitto poda 

Olukka 

Ompathu 

Oppare panna 

Oppam 459. 

Oppam poda 

Oppikka 

Oram 884. 

Orepu (see 'urepu') 

Oria 427. 

Orinttu pal 

Orlas 

Ortram ille 

Oru, or' 

Oru kalam ille 

Ora maderi 

Orn maderi (very long a) ... 

Orumika 

Oru pndi 

Ora-tai-pulle 455. 

Orn teram, morre 

Oral 

Orutan irukka 

Ob a ram 22. 

Osavul 

Osinta (adj :) 

Oenkkn po« 



. To weigh 

. Truth 

. To tell truth 

. To stretch out (the hand) 

. Continually, daily 

. • Long 

. To pain, hurt 

. To scratch up; dig 

. Notice 

. Pro-note 

Pain, illness 
. Thread, fuse 
. Lame 
. Tip, point 
. To break off tip 

O. 

To run 

Body 

Carpenter 

To break 

To bolt, run away 

Unceasingly 

Pestle 

To clear out (of a house) 

To hide 

To remove (furniture) 

To leak 

Nine 

To make smooth (of mud walls) 

Signature 

To sign 

To hand over, prove 

Edge 

Hot (as of curry) 

To coagulate, thicken 

Coagulated latex 

Watch, clock 

Nobody 

A, an, one 

Never 

Same 

Queer, prevarication 

All, total, whole 

Handful 

One family 

Once 

Mortar 

To be alone 

High 

Swamp 

High, upper 

To go up, climb 



TAMIL-ENGLISH VOCABULARY. 



149 



Othukka 429. 


... . 


.. To set aside 


Otbuku 429. 430. 




.. (See Eng. vocab. 'ledge') 


Gthunkks 




.. To get aside, remove 


Otta 


... 


.. To blot, stick on 


Otte 


... . 


.. Single 


Otto-pal 418. 


... . 


.. Scrap rubber (i.e. Stuck-on 
rubber). 


Ottukolla 


... 


.. To agree, yield to, admit 


Ovoru 


... 


.. Each 


Ov'onnu 


... . 


.. One by one 

P. 
.. Green, cold (previously not hot) 


Pacha 




Tacha kadu 


... . 


.. Jungle 


Pach'ele 


... . 


.. Young leaf 


Pacha tanni 


... . 


.. Cold water 


Pachche 


... . 


.. Tattoo 


Pa da 


... 


.. To sing 


Pada 436. 490. 




.. To cause (used also with a verb 
in Infinitive or Passive) Ps.9. 


Padam 


... 


.. Picture 


Pade 


... . 


.. Bier 


Padi 461. 471. 


... • 


.. As 


Padi, padi kattu 


... 


.. Steps (flight of) 


Padial Ps.U. 


... 


.. Because (after verb) 


Padikki 474. Ps.ll. 




.. So that, to a step, because Ps.5. 


Padikka 416. 




.. To learn 


Padipu 


... 


.. Knowledge 


Padittu kudukka 493 


.. To teach 


PSdu 


... 


.. Target 


Padukka 




.. To lie down 


Padungn 172. 


... 


.. Jute hessian 


Pagadi 




.. Fun, joke 


Pa gal 




.. Daytime 


PSi 




.. Bag, carpet 


Paiam pada Ps.9. 




.. To cause fear, be afraid 


Paia 




.. To fear. The Past Participle. 


Paiam 




.. Fear 


Paiam kudukka 




.. To frighten 


•Paianeo kuttu 


... 


.. Having been afraid 


Paiki 




.. Balance, rest 


Pail 




.. Fellow, boy 


Paiti 




.. Mad 


PSkka 79. 92. 154 


229." 


To look, see 


Pakka (with another 


tern m 




Paet. Part.) 476. 




■To try, endeavour 


Pakka 244 




.. Side (adj :) 


Pakkam 143. 237. 243. 826. 


. Side 


Pakkatile 171. 




.. Aside, at one side 


Paku 


... 


.. Arecanut 


P&] 423. 




.. Milk, latex 



* Puanii is only form in use 



160 



COOLY TAMIL. 



Pal ... ., 

Palal (pal-al) ... ., 

Palagu ... ., 

Palakarn 499. ... ., 

Palakam irukka ... ., 

Palam 15. 

Palam 

Pal edukka 

Pal kudukka 

Paluthu pakka 

Pallam 388. 333 

Palia, palisi 90. 2G1. 375 .. 

Palli kudam 

Pambu 

Panju 

Panjarn 

Pandi ■ 

Pandiarn 

Pane 483. 

Pangu 

Panguni miisam N3 

Pani 

Pania, panittu 131. 142. 239.. 
Panittu poda, panikka 244. .. 
Panna 30!). 415. .. .. 

Pannam 

Pannirendu 

Pantu 

Pant'adikruthu 

Pant'adikka male 

Papati 

Par 13. 77. 

Param 

Param kudukka 

Paraiam 

Para kk a 

Pare 363 

Pariari 

Parittu vetta 

Paru 

Pasam 

Pasu (madu) 

Pasi 

Pntbam 

P:itbc 

Pathi 105. 

Pathi» 451 

Pati 487. 

Patiram 162. 250 

P»tt»natn 

Patta 

Pa«*!anj 

Pattam 



. Tooth 

. Eubber tappers (milk-people) 

. Plank 

. Experience 

. To know (a person) 

. Bridge 

. Ripe fruit 

. To milk, to tap rubber 

. To suckle 

. To repair 

. Hollow, valley 

. Old 

. School 

. Snake 

. Cotton 

. Famine 

• Pig 

. Prize 

. Pan 

. Portion 

. March 

. Dew 

. Low, under (adj :) 

. To lower 

To do, make 
. Funds 
. Twelve 
. Ball 
. Tennis 
. Tennis court 
. Butterfly 
. Look ! 

. Heavy, weight 
. To give charge of 
. Age, youth 
■ To fly 
. Rock 
. Barber 

. To dig round (a thing) 
. Flower bed 
. Moss 
. Cow 
. Hunger 
. Foot 
. Path 

. Home, portion 
. To issue fag rice) 

About., concerning 

Carefully 
. Town 

. Dead (of treeet 
. Army 'battalian) 
. Tenth 



TAMIL-ENGLISH VOCABULARY. 



151 



Pattathe, patt'ille 289. 226. 306. 

Patte 

Patte siva 413. 

Patti 

Pattini 

Pattinaru 

Pattinettu 

(for numbers see para : M.) 

Pattu situ 

Pattu 

Pavum 

Pavikka 314 

Pavun 

Peii 

Peichi 494. 

Pein 

Pellam 253 

Pellam ille 

Pellamana 

Pena 

Penjathi 

Pen-nai 

Pen-pandi 

Pensil 

Per 191. 41. 

Perambu 

Perantu nal 

Peratu 14. 434. 

Peratu kaleikka 

Peratasi masam 

Perende pallarn 

Peria, perisi 106. 138. 228. ... 

Peri'amme 

F<;ri;i (lore (ture) 

Peria kangani 60. 

Perile 

Perkol 

Perkka. peruta 

Perkul 

Penikka 

Perfikka 

Perumula peaa 

Perunal 

Pesa 27. 177. 1R4 

Pesagn 

Pename irnkka 

Peaathe 27. 30. 43 

Pea&ii 

P.'tfO 

Petti, petti 

Pet tor 

Pi (T like 'ee') 



Not enough 

Bark (of tree) 

To shave bark, tap 

Putty 

Starving 

Sixteen 

Eighteen 

Discharge Note (without debt) 

Ten 

Sin, error 

To use 

Pound (£) 

Demon, devil 

Language, talk 

Louse 

Strong 

Weak 

Loud, strong 

Pen 

Wife 

Bitch 

Sow 

Penoil 

Name, person 

Cane 

Birthday 

Muster 

To disperse muster 

September 

Passion fruit 

Big, large 

Smallpox 

Head Superintendent 

Head kangani 

Impertinent, unruly 

Proctor 

To turn over 

Multiplication 

To bear, give birth 

To multiply 

To speak insolently 

Holiday 

To speak 

Error, mistake 

To be silent 

Don't tu Ik 

Devil 

Female of some animals (set 

'Hen) 
Box, chest 
Parents 
Excrement 



162 



COOLY TAMIL. 



Picha kai 

Piche karan 

Pidpadu 402. 414. 

Pikasu 

Pilan 

Pilakka 

Pili (1st 'i' like 'ee') 

Pillu 368. 

Pillu vetta 378. 

Pillu arrikka 

Pin (adj.) 

Pinal 264. 

Pinchu (adj.) 

Pindi 104. 

Pingan 

Pinna 

Pinukku 

Pin pakkam 

Pipa (T like 'ee') 

Pirakaram 

Piraiam 

Pirikka 

Pirittu kudukka 500. 

Pirrium 

Pirrium irakka 

Pitalatam 

Pittale 

Pittene 

Pla, pallam 

Po ! 64. 

Poa 25. 26. 30. 57. 59. 337 



400. 



Poattum 32. 64. 

Poda 102. 112. 282. 316. 3§1 



Podi 

Podian 21. 211. 

Pohe 

Poi 449. 

Poi, poittu 400. 

Poiana (adj.) 

Poichi (po-achi) Pb. 13 

Poi karan 

Poi eolla 

Poittn vara 400. 452. 

Pokku 

Pokku solla 

Pokku 



Polapu pesa 
-pole (suffix) 
Polis 
Polikka 



Ps.4. 



(for) left hand 

Beggar 

After 

Pickaxe 

Plan 

To split, crack 

Spout, pipe 

Weed 

To weed 

To cut grass, reap 

Back, hind 

Crossed, crossing 

Young (of leaves, fruit, etc.) 

Behind, late 

Plate 

To plait 

To behind, backwards 

Behind, backside of 

Cask, barrel 

Order, method 

Age, youth 

To divide 

To distribute 

Wish 

To like, wish 

Trick 

Brass 

Lawn 

Jak fruit 

Go away ! 

To go (see English vocal). 

'getting') 
May go, let go 
To put (added to another verb 

it intensifies meaning) P2. 
Very small 
Boy 
Except 

Lie, falsehood 
Having gone 
Ealse, untrue 
Gone, done, finished 
Liar 
To lie 
To return 
Excuse 

To make excuse 
Dry (as seed that will not 

germinate) 
To speak evil 
Perhaps, about, almost, as 
Police 
To crack 



TAMIL-ENGLISH VOCABULARY. 



153 



Poleikka 489. 

Poleipu ... . 

Ponal 34. 57. 327 

Pongal (tai) ... . 

Ponji ... .. 

Ponkka ... .. 

Ponu 249. ... ., 

Ponu kilame ... . 

Poragu, peragu ... . 

I'orukka ... . 

Porrukka 187. ... . 

Postikum 398. ... . 

Pothikka 296. ... . 

-pothu (suffix) ... . 

Pothum 125. ... . 

Pothuma? ... . 

Pottal ... . 

Preosanam ... . 

Pu ... . 

Puchi ... . 

Puchi marantu ... . 

Pudikka 26. 66. 257 

Pudikka (nerre) ... . 

Pudittu kaai ... . 

Pudittu vaikka ... . 
Pudinkka 223. 374. 381 

Puhe ... . 

Puh'ele ... . 

Pukka ... . 

Puli ... . 

Pulia ... . 

Pulle kaii ... . 

Pulle ... . 

Pulle teittu ... . 

Pulli ... . 
Puinbale, pom (pen-pulle) 390. 

Pumi 379. ... . 

Pun ... . 

Punaku ... . 

Pune ... . 

Pune kutti ... . 

Pura ... . 

Purus ... . 

Puvusuan ... . 

Pusa ... . 

Pusal ... . 

Pusanam ... . 

Pusari ... . 

Fuse ... . 

ITitlm, puHiisi 38. :v.U 

Piithu kiidu ... . 

PutLan kilamo ... . 



To earn 

Earnings 

(See para. L.) 

January boiling (of rice), i.&, 
Hindu festival in Jan. 

Bean 

To boil, bubble up 

Last (adj.), gone 

Last week 

Presently, after 

To bear, tolerate 

To pick over, collect 

Book 

To bury 

While, whilst 

Enough 

Is it enough? 

Hole (in a thing) 

Advantage 

Flower 

Insect 

Santonine powder 

Td hold, catch 

To take up rows 

Recovery (money) 

To keep 

To pull, pull out 

Smoke 

Tobacco 

To blosson. flower 

Cheetah, tiger 

To squeeze 

Woman with baby 

Baby 

Pregnant 

A dot, spot- 
Woman, wife 

Ground 

Sore, nicer 

Poonac 

Car 

Kitten 

Pigeon 

Brush 

Husband 

To smear 

Bushel 

Mildew 

( >ne who prays 

Prayer 

New 
, New clearing 
, Wednesday 



154 



COOLY TAMIL. 



Putti 487. 


•>. .. 


. Sense, advice 


Puttu mannu 





. Ant-heap earth 


Piitu 


... .. 


. Lock, padlock 


Piitu vuikka 


R. 


. To lock 


Kabar 





. Rubber 


Kail isteisan 


498. 


. Station 


Rail kochi, kochi 497 


. Train, coach 


Rail roru 





. Railroad 


Rait afis 





. Resthouse 


Rangi 





. Proud, assertive 


Rani 


... .. 


Queen 


Rasi 





. Compromise 


Rasi panna 





. To come to a settlement ami 
cably 


Rasit 





. Receipt 


Raskal 


... .. 


. Rascal 


Ratiri 





. Night 


Ratal 198. 





. Pound (weight) 


Raval 485. 





. Night 


Ravuu 





. Round 


Raza 




• King 


Remba 28. 


239. 261. 387." " 


. Too, much, very 


Rendani 





. Second (adj.) 


Rendu 20. 122. 


. Two 


Rendu neram 




. Twice 


Rendu per, rend'al 


. Both 


Rettam 




. Blood 


Rettu 





. Double 


Rettu pulle 




. Twins 


Rev-endu 119. 


. Two by two, in twos 


Ripe (T like 


'ee') 


. Reeper 


Rokaru 





. Ready money 


Rosa pu 





. Rose 


Rotbe 





. Wheel 


Roti 




. Bread, biscuit (rubber) 


Rotu 25. 26. 


47. 67. 335."337" 


. Road 


Rotu kal 




. Road metal 


Rotu vetta 





. To road 


Rua 443. 





. Rupee 


Rul kambu 





. Ruler 


Rvisi 


S. 


. Taste 


Sachi 





. Witness 


Sadam 





. Cent 


Sadal 





. Saddle 


Sadambu 


... .. 


. String 


Saddair 


M« •• 


, Role, law 


gadt 


• •• »• 


. Plait 



TAMIL-ENGLISH VOCABULARY. 



155 



Sade pambu 


Rat snake 


Saha 


To die 


Sua 362 


To lean 


Saini kilame 


Saturday 


Sainton irukka 362 


To be leaning 


Saintiram 497. 


Evening 


Sak 48. 186 


Sack 


Sakare 


Sugar, jaggerie 


Sakku 320. 325 


Small stone 


Sakilian 


Sboemaker 


Salade 


Sieve 


Salakka 


To sift 


Salli 


Cash money 


Samasaram 


Information 


Samatarain 


Sea 


Saman 


Goods, property 


Samatbikka . 


To agree 


Sameitham 


Occasion 


Sameitile (with autba) 


At tbat time; on tbat occasion 


Sami kumba 


To perform religious ceremony, 




•worship 


Sami, swami 


God 


Sampal 


Ashes 


Sampalam 


Pay, wages 


Sampathikka 


To earn 


Sampar 


Jumper (steel) 


Samukalam 


Carpet 


Samusaram 


Family 


San 


Span (thumb to index finger) 


Sande 485. 


Fight, disturbance 


Sandaram 


Moon 


Sandikka 


To meet 


Sangathe 


News 


Sane kal 


Hone 


Sangili 


Chain 


Sangu 


Horn (for blowing) 


Sani 


Dung 


Santoeum 600. 


Present, gift 


Santosuma 


Happy, glad 


Santu vfii 


Space between two things 


Sapati 


Flat 


Sapatu 


Boot 


Sapida 


To eat, drink 


Saps 


Chaff (food) 


Sapu 


Shop 


Saraiam 485. 


Arrack 


S;irn<,ni 


Dead leaves 


Saral 


Grave] 


Snranir 


Hinge 


Sarnnam solla 


To speak humbly 


Sasa 


Saucer 


Saspani 


Saucepan 


Sata 


To shut - : 



156 



COOLY TAMIL. 



Sathe 

Sathi 487. 

Satne 47. 

Sattam 28. 

Sattam poda 7. 

Satte 

Sattiam panna 

Satti 483. 

Savali 

Saval 

Savari 

Sav'arisi 

Savi 

Savikiam 

Savukarani 

Savuku 

Savuku inaram 

Segadu 

Segapu, sevapu 

Seia 39. 45. 190. 268. 308. 

Seikka, serkka 

Seitu, sendu 101. 104. ... 

Seitu poda 299. 

Selavu 

Sella 

Sellu 

Sembu 

Sen-kal 

Sepu 

Seppanam 

Ser 

Seri 16. 54. 

Seri katta 158. 

Seri ille 

Seria 18. 105. 

Serrapu 

Serrete 425. 

Sette 299. 

Setti 

Settu poa 

Seva kilame 

Sevapu poa 

Sevar 

Sevitu 

Sike adikka ('i' like 'ee') ... 

Sikka 

Sikku 

Siku poda (V like 'ee') 16. 

Sila 

Silari 

Silari kadan 

Silari kadgani 

Silesu 



... Flesh (human) 

... Caste, sort, kiud 

... At once 

... Noise 

... To shout 

... Coat 

... To swear on oath 

... Pot 

... Cloth, any kind of stuff 

... Cock 

... Exercise, walk 

... Sago 

... Key, wrench 

... Advantage 

... Soap 

... Whip 

... Grevillea tree 

... Mud 

... Bed 

... To do, make 

... To put together, include 

... Together 

...To add, put together 

... Expenses, stores 

...To pass (as time) 

... Flea 

... Copper 

... Brick 

... Pocket 

... Dream 

... Mud 

... Right, all right 

...To mend, put right 

... Wrong 

... Proper, properly, straight 

... Sandal 

... Coconut shell 

... Dried leaves 

... Chetty 

... To die 

... Tuesday 

...To get red, ferment (as tea) 

... Wall 

... Deaf 

...To whistle 

...To become entangled 

... Entanglement 

...To put 'sick' (stop day's pay) 

... Some 

... Small change (money) 

... 'Outside' debt 

... Sub-kangani 

... Sledge hammer 



TAMIL-ENGLISH VOCABULARY. 



157 



Sila vuele 455. 

Siletu 

Sile (T like 'ee') 

Silla 457. 

Silve 

Sime ('i' like 'ee') 446. ... 

Siminti 

Sineithan 

Sini (1st 'i' like 'ee') 

Singam 

Singal-al 

Sinna 150. 

Sinna dore (ture) 

Sinn'ai 

Sinna kadu 

Sinn'amme 

Sinnappan 

Sinna sathi 487. 

Sinta 301. 

Sipu ('i' like 'ee') 

Siru 

Sirikka 185. 

Siripu 

Situ ('i' like 'ee') 

Situ ada ('i' like 'ee') 

Sit iri masam 

Siva (T like 'ee') 413 ... 

Sivantu poa 

Siv-uli (1st 'i' like 'ce') ... 

Socham 

Sogam 

So^am ille 

Sogam aha 

Sakolati 

Solan 

Soli 

Solla 3. 63. ( J3. 108. 366. 498. 

Sol hi 

Solugu 

Soinara 163. 

Sonakain 

Sunakka 

Sonangu poa 

Sonapu 

Sorn 480. 

Sora kai 

Sothene 

Sothikka 

Smln kiidn 

Sfidti 

Sfidu kol 

Sul fjnl) 

Suma 47. 155. 327. ... 



... Sometimes, perhaps 

... Slate 

... Woman's cloth 

... District 

... Cross 

... Country, coast 

... Cement 

... Friend 

... Sugar 

... Lion 

... Sinhalese 

... Small, little 

... Assistant Superintendent 

... Aunt 

... Undergrowth 

... Measles 

... Uncle 

... Low caste 

... To drop, spill 

... Comb 

... Small 

...To laugh 

... Laughter 

... Note, card 

...To play cards 

... April 

...To shave 

...To get red, ferment 

... Plane 

... Eest, remainder 

... Health 

... Unwell 

... To get well 

... Cocoa 

... Indian corn 

... Business 

...To say, tell 

... Word 

... Winnowing fan 

... Idle, lazy 

... Delay 

...To delay 

... To be delayed 

... Sharp 

... Rice (cooked) 

... Gourd 

... Examination 

... To examine, search 

... Burial place 

... Hot, Heat 

... Soldering iron 

... Rug 

... Idle (see para : L3) 



158 


COOLY 


TAMIL. 


Siimadu 




. Handkerchief rolled as a pad 


Sume 





. Bundle, load 


Siinambu 


.. 


. Lime 


Sund'eli 





. Mouse 


Sunda 





. Own 


Sunda karan 





. Owner 


Sundu 280. 281. 





. Tin, (noun) 


Sunta. 




• Flag 


Surandi 





. Scraper 


Suranta 373. 





. To scrape 


Suri 





. Rough 


Suria 




. To scratch (at a dog hia body) 


Surian 




. Sun 


Surrukka 4. 5. 145. 





. Quickly 


Siithu 





. Fraud, trick 


Suta 





. To shoot 


SutaviLli 


... .. 


. Unguilty 


Sutta 


... .. 


. To go round 


Butti (adv.) 254. 





. Kound, around 


Suttu 


T. 


. A drop 


Ta 




. Give 


Tachi 




. Frying pan 


Tadame 




. Cold (in head) 


Tagaram 450. 




. Tin (metal), roofiing zinc 


Tagappan 




. Father 


Taham 




. Thirst 


Tai 




. Mother 


Tai masam 




. January 


Tai Pongal 





. Hindu festival in January 


Tai pulle 465. 


... 


. Relation 


Tai vathu 




. Primary 


Tailam 





. Ointment 


Tiivu seithu 439. 




. Please 


Takkam 





. Mistake, error 


Tai 


... .. 


. Sheet (of paper) 


Talapa 





. Talipot 


Tale 




. Twigs with leavea on 


Tale 




. Head 


Tale m5lft 





. To menstruate (the equivalent 
for) 


Tale novu 


... .. 


. Headache 


Tale sutta 





. To be giddy 


Talevani 





. Pillow 


Tali 





. Neck ornament (sign of wed- 
lock) 


TaUa 182. 331 





. To push, move 


Tallu 





. Get out of the way 


Taluk 457. 


... .< 


. District (in India) 


Tambi 





. Young brother 


Tan 





. Ton 


Tan 68. 69. 164. 399. 453. .. 


. Self, only, just, (often untrans- 






lateable) 



TAMIL-ENGLISH VOCABULARY. 



159 



Tunda 

Tandanam 

Tandi 478. 

Tandikka 108. 

Tangam 

Tangachi 

Tangu var 

Tankka 

Tanni 

Tanni kan 

Tannia 

Tannia poda 

Tappitham 

Tappa 114. 

Tappal 

Tappu 1. 2. 

Tara 448. 

Tara 

Tare 

Tatta 421. 

Taruma (adj :) 

Tattapare 

Tattan, aeari 

Tattu 

Taval 

Taval kiiran 

Taval kanthor 

Tavale 

Tavane 

Tavarani 336. 353. 

Tavira 

Teia 

Tei elc 86. 329. 

Tei elc totum 

Teidi pukka 474. 

Teidi 

Teikka 

Tei I 

Teiikka 

Teiil-karan 

Teiil 

Teinttu poichi 

Ten 

Ten-i 

JVn-kai 

Tenk-enne 

Teppu kallam 

Tennam 

Tepu 

Teram 

Terasu 

Teria 31. 159. 

Teri'ime 



. To jump 

. Punishment 

. Telegram 

. To punish 

. Gold 

. Young sister 

. Girth strap 

. To bear, carry 

. Water 

. Watercourse 

. Alone, separate 

. To segregate 

. Fault, mistake 

. To miss 

. Post, tappal 

. Tom-tom 

. To give 

. Duck 

. Floor 

. To knock, tap 

. Honoured, trusted 

. Tuticorin Camp 

. Goldsmith 

. Shelf, tray, tat 

. Post, tappal 

. Post cooly 

. Post office 

. Frog 

. A fixed time for payment 

. Nursery 

. Except 

. To wear out 

. Tea, tea leaf 

. Tea estate 

. To seek 

. Date 

. To rub 

. Scorpion 

. To sew 

. Tailor 

. Stitch, sewing 

. Worn out, rubbed out 

. Honey 

. Bee 

. Coconut 

. Coconut oil 

. Pond, Dam 

. Continually 

. Tape 

. Time (period) 

. Scales 

. To know, feel 

... Unknowingly 



160 



COOLY TAMIL. 



Teriathe 155. 391. 

Teriath'al 

Terium (yenakku) 460. 

Teriuina? teriuthii? 157. 

Tesi kai 

Tevelea (adj.) 263. 488. 

Thelikka 

Thendam 

Tkendam poda 

Thendikka, thendittu pakk 

Thevan 

-ti (di), -ta (da) (suffixes) 

Tinkal kilame 

Tini (1st 'i' like 'ee') 

Tini pakka 

Tini saman 

Tinisu 

Tinkka 

Tint a 

Tipau 449. 474. 

Tnkka 445. 

Tiri 

Tirpu 

Tirumbi 

Tirumbi katta 

Tirumbi vara 

Tiruppa 

Tirutu pail 

Tita (T like 'ee') 250. 

Tita (arisi) ('i' like 'ee') 

Titu kal ('i' like V) 

Ti-vali (1st 'i' like ee') 

Toda 109. 141. 217. 

Tode 

Toge 

Toku 

Tol 

Tol 

Tonde 

Tongal 206. 399. 

Toni 

Topal 

Topal ele 88. 89. 97. 218 

Topi 

Totam 

Tota'karan 

Totil 

Totta 

Totta pail 

Tovea 

Tsbedi, (chedi) 



Do not know 

Ignorant person 

I know (to me knowledge) 

274.... Do you know, understand? 

Lime (fruit) 

Better 

To sprinkle 

Fine 

To fine 

a 324. To try 

.. Deity 

.. Terms of familiarity suffixed to 
verbs (fem. mas.) Appdx. D. 

.. Monday 

,.. Food 

.. To taste 

,.. Provisions 

,.. Species, genua 

... To eat 

... Paint 

... Depot, Cooly Agency 

... To settle a/c 

... Wick, bud 

... Verdict 

... Again, back 

... To rebuild 

... To return 

... To turn 

... Rogue 

... To sharpen 

... To pound (rice) 

... Hone 

... Hindu festival dedioitetl to the 
goddess of prosperity 

... To touch 

... Thigh 

... Total 

... Gun 

... Skin, shoulder, leather 

... Small drum 

... Throat 

... End 

... Boat 

... Navel 

... Fish leaf 

... Hat, topi 

... Estate, garden 

... Garden cooly 

... Cradle 

... Useless 

... Worthless fellow 

... To repair, temper steel 

... Bush 



TAMIL-ENGLISH VOCABULARY. 



161 



Tuale 

Tuankka 

Tudeikka 

Tukam 

Tuki kondu po» 

Tukka 210. 212. 279. 325. 

Tukkam 

Tul 

Tulukan 

Tumbikai 

Tumbu katte 

Tun 

Tundu 

Tundu 445. 

Tunkka 189. 

Tuni 

Tupara 111. 882. 

Tupara panna 

Tupikka 

Tura 

Turam 208. 

Turakka 

Ture (dore) 

Turesani (doresani) 499. 

Turrutu 

Tuvali 



Towel 
To begin 
To rub 
Sleep 

To carry away 
To lift 
Grief 
Dust 

Mohamedan 
Trunk (elephant) 
Fibre broom 
Pillar 

Piece, bit, note 

Cooly transfer certificate (show- 
ing debt) 
To sleep 
Clothes, rag 
Glean 
To clean 
To spit 
Far (adv.) 
Far, distant 
To open 

Master, gentleman 
Lady, mistress 
Bellows 
Towel 



Ochi 219. 

-ude (suffix) 7J. 251. 

■fldane (suffix) 140. 

tldesikka 

Fdkara 

Cdu (for 'vudu') 

Hdupu 

Ddupu petti 

fikku (suffix) 14. 17. 82. 43. 

Hli 

Olla n 

Olu, ullukti 408. 

■ilm (suffix) 39. 40. 

-»m -iim (suffixes) 



Ome 

Un 81. Ifi2. 191. 

!Tn,li a] 

I ' r i < 1 f i k k a 

Dnga] 

Cnni 

Unnu 93. 117 

Ummkku poa 



356. 



... Top 

... Of (possessive case) 
... As soon as 
... To guess 
... To sit 
... House 
... Clothes 
... Clothes-box 
352 To. at (dative case) 
... Chisel 
... Snipe 
... Inside, into 
... And 

... Also; neither... nor (after nega- 
tive) 
... Dumb 
... Your 

... A single person, without family 
... To make, cause to be, form 
... Your 

... Tick (insect) 
... One 

... To go to pass urine 
U 



182 



COOLY TAMIL. 



Cnnum ille 

Un-unnu 11" 

Unude 

Unukku 43. 83. 

Codu 

Cole 

Cpadesi 

Uppu 

Cppu-kochi-kai 

Craku 

Cram 281. 286. 

Crafal 274. 

Crattu pesa 

Creikka 

Crepu 

Crime 

Urruta 419. 

Urrut 'ele 

Cru 457. 465. 468. 

Crua 

Urukka 

Crukku 474. 

Crule 50. 

Crule kelangn 

Crunde 

Csari irnkka 

Csi 

Cte 421. 

Ctha 

Uthadu 

Utharipoda 207 

Cthavi seia 

Utheikka 

Ctta 

Cttu 

Cyaram 



Nothing, none 
One by one 
Of you, your 
To you 
Shingle 
Cadjan 

Catechist, teacher 
Salt 

Salt and chillies (i.e., provi- 
sions) 
Steel 
Manure 
Manurers 
To speak loudly 
To burn (as curry, etc.) 
Heat (as of curry, etc.) 
Claim 
To roll up 
Eolled leaf 
Village (in India) 
To strip off- 
To melt 
To the village 
Runner (wheel) 
Potato 

Round, globular 
To be alive 
Needle 
Dirt 

To blow 
Lip 

To shake up 
To help 
To kick 
To pour out 
Spring (water) 
High 



Vachi ... , 

Va.de 

Vide kasi 

Vaga maram 

Vai 

Vaichi 

Vaiale poa 

Vaikka, vuda 88. 112. 142. 

144. 148. 388. 450. 
Vaikal 
Vail 
Vai mudu .<. 



Adze 

Scent, smell 

Rent 

Albizzia tree 

Mouth 

From (lit. having left) 

To vomit 

To leave, put, keep 
Straw 

Paddy field 
Shut up I 



TAMIL-ENGLISH VOCABULAKY. 



163 



Vai-nir (vani) ... . 

Vairam ... ■ 

Yairu ... . 

Vaisu ... . 

Vaitale poa ... . 

Vaitian ... . 

Vaitu ... • 

Vaitu kadapu ... . 

Vaitu valli ... . 

Val ... . 

Val ... . 

Val karan ... . 

Valakka ... . 

Yalaku ... . 

Valakam, valame ... . 

Valata ... . 

Valantu 150. ... , 

Vala pallam ... . 

Valara 150. ... . 

Valathu pakkam ... . 

Vale ... , 

Valeikka (kan) 310. 328... , 

Valeivu ... , 

Vali 405. 424. ... , 

Vali 

Vali selavu 446. ... , 

Valli 

Vallikka 

Valukka 

Vambu 

Vanam 

Vanda 247. 258. 272 

Vandanam 

Vandi ... . 

Vandris 385. 

Vandu 

Vanga 52 : 376. 

Vangi 

Vanji 111. 

Vangu 

Vanis 

Van-koli 

Vannan 

Var 

Vara 7. 9. 16. 60. 62. 63 

119. 169. 
Viira-vara 
Vara kasi 
Vari 

Varisia nilln 

•varikom (suffix) 117. 468. 
Vir pfilu 



Saliva 

Hard (of wood), diamond 
Stomach 
Year, age 
To purge 
Native doctor 
Stomach 
Dysentery 
Stomach ache 
Tail 
Saw 
Sawyer 

To rear (from young) 
Case (court) 
Custom 

Tall (of persons) 
High, tall 
Banana 
To grow 
Bight side 

Net (also for tennis net) 
To clear out drains, to bend 
round 
A glass bracelet, a curve 
Bucket 
Way, path 
Travelling expenses 
Pain 

To pain, hurt 
To slip 
Bamboo 
Sky 

Don't want 
Thanks 
Bicycle 
Boundary 
Beetle 

To buy, get 
Bank 

Two leaves without a bud 
Bank (for money) 
Varnish 
Turkey 

Washerman, 'dhobi' 
Belt, strap 

To come 

Gradually, in time 

Credit balance 

Bow, rule 

Stand in a row, regularly 

Until, till 

Buckle 



164 



COOLt TAMIL. 



Varantu 476. 

Varra'kiidu 

Varrichi 

Varu 132. 

Vara neram 

Varum vaikka 

Varraturu 304. 383. 

Vasal 

Vasal kuti 

Vasani 

Vasam 

Vasane 

Vasikka 456. 

Vate 

Vatham 

VathU 

Vathu 129. 234. 252. 

Vatier 

Vatta 

Vatti kaai 

Vedikka 

Vedi sattarn 

Vedi marantu 

Veha 371. 

Vegam, vegama 258. 

Veiasi rnasam 

Veidike 

Veidu 

Veiil 272. 

Veile 57. 87. 190. 394. 

Veile-kadu 

Veile pakka 92. 

Veile seia 39. 390. 

Veile viida 394. 

Veile-karan 

Veisi 

Veithi 

Veithi marantu 

Veiti 

Vekkara 

Vekkam irukka 

Velagu 1 

Velankka 194. 

Velankrutha ? 

Velank'ille 

Vele a da 91. 

Veli 

Velicham 

VeUe 412. 

Vellia 

Vellia anupa- 

Vellana 14. 

Velli £ 



... Warrant 

... Steep place 

... Lath (wood) 

... Coming, next 

... Next time 

... To credit 

... Difficult 

... Threshold 

... Sweeper 

... Good smell 

... House 

... Smell 

... To read 

... Goose 

... Eheumatism 

... Answer 

... Branch 

... Schoolmaster 

... Batta (daily expenses) 

... Interest (money) 

... To crack, sprout up 

... Explosion 

... Blasting powder 

... To burn 

... Fast, quickly 

... May (month) 

... Show, play 

... Sport, hunt 

... Sun 

... Work 

... Working field 

... To look after work 

... To work 

... To leave work 

... Worker 

... Prostitute 

... Cholera 

... Purgative 

... Man's cloth 

... Shame 

... To be ashamed 

. . . Get away I 

... To understand 

... Do you understand? 

... Do not understand 

... To play 

... Fence 

... Light 

... White 

... Out, outside 

... To dismiss, send away 

... Early 

... Silver, 10 cents 



TAMIL-ENGLISH VOCABULARY. 



165 



Yelukka 

Vendia 434. 491. 

Vendiuth'irukka 

Vendiuthu 472. 491. 495 

Venkai 

Venne 

Venum (onuni) 25. 94. 358 

Venum endal 

Venum, avan unakku enna? 

Ver 341. 

Veragu 

Vere 

Vere unnum ille 

Verodu pudinkka 

Verrita 47. 

Verve 

Vevere 19. 

Vevere poda 

Versa 

Vetham 

Vetha'karan 

Vethe 379. 

Vethene 

Vetta 248. 254. 380. 382. 429 

Vettu 361. 

Vett'ele 

Vettu katti 

Viathi 

Vidia 

Vidinttu kalam 

Vikain ('i* like *ee') 

Vikka ('i' like 4 ee') 

Vikkal ('i' like 'ee') 

Vilaku 

Vilak'enne 

Vilatu 

Vilatu korulu poa 

Vile 

Vileikkj vanga 

Vilu ('i' like 'ee') 

Villu 

Vimbu pesa 

Yinkka ('i' like 'ee') 

Viranta 

Virantadi 

Viratham 

Virral 

Virrikka, virrittu poda 152 

172. 214. 
Yirrnm 

Visa 259. ('i' like 'ee') 
Vigarane 



To wash clothes, whiten 

To require 

To be necessary 

Wants, requires 

Onion 

Butter 

Must, want 

If want 

How iB he related to you? 

Root 

Firewood 

Different, another 

Nothing else 

To root out 

To drive away 

Perspiration 

Separate, apart 

To separate 

Bapidly 

Religion 

Christian 

Seed 

Pain 

To cut, to tap (rubber), to 

prune 
A cut 
Betel 
Bill hook 
Illness 

To dawn (day) 
Dawn 
Swelling 
To sell 
Hiccough 
Lamp 
Castor oil 
Exercise 

To take out for exercise 
Price, cost 
To buy 
Copy 
Bainbow 
To boast 
To swell 
Verandah 
Guest 
Fasting 
Finger 

To spread out 
Empty 
To throw 
Enquiry 



!66 



COOLV TAMIL. 



Visarikka ... . 

Visham ... . 
Visi poda 174. (1st 'i' like 'ee). 

Visuvasam ... . 

Vitesam ... . 

Vithuru ('i' like 'ee') ... . 

Yivararn 

Vizala, viyala kilame ... . 

Voku ... . 

Votal (botal) ... . 

Vuda 257 ; 284. 393. 488 

Vuttu poda ... . 

Vudu, udu ... . 

Volua 362. ... . 



To enquire 

Poison 

To throw away 

Belief, faith 

Defect, error, difference 

Glass (drinking) 

Explanation 

Thursday 

Culvert 

Bottle 

To leave, allow 

To let go 

House 

To fall 



(Some of these words appear elsewhere without the initial T") 



Yar 71. 377. 388. 


... Who ? 


Yare 


... 


... Whom ? 


Yarum (seri) 


... 


... Whoever, anyone 


Yat 


... 


... Yard 


Yedu 


... 


... Page 


Yeikka 


... 


... To cheat 


Yeini 


... 


... Ladder 


Yeitam 


... 


... Steep 


Yeitatile 




... Descent, down hill 


Yellan 


... 


... Young 


Yelli 


>•• 


... Eat 


Yellia 


... 


... Poor 


Yelu 


... 


... Seven 


Yeluwathu 




... Seventy 


Yembikka 


... 


... To prove 


Yembanan 


... 


... Proof 


Ye, (yen) 270. 


888. 


... Why 


Yen 61. 68. 468. 


... My 


Yene, yenei? 


... 


, ... Me, meV 


Yenendal 478. 


... 


... Because 


Yengal 




... Us 


Yengalukkn 




... To na 


Yengalude 


... 


... Of us, our 


Yentiram 


... 


... Engine 


Yeppadi 181. 296. 440 ... 


... How? 


Yeppo 76. 




... When? 


Yeppothum 76. 


455. '.'.'. 


... Always 


Yeppotbnm ille 


76. 


, ... Never 


Yera 


... 


... To climb 


Yerangu poa 


... 


... To ascend 


Yerangu kile 


... 


... To descend 


Yerichi 


... 


... Meat, beaf 


Yesa 161 


... 


... To blame 


Yethxr 


.. 


„ ... Oppoaite 



TAMIL-ENGLISH VOCABULARY'. 



167 



i'ethukkn pudikka nerre 

Yetha 78. 

Yetta 221 

Yettu 

Yevalo? 469. 

Yevalo neram? (kalam) 

Yidu vaikka 

Yoaikka 



451. 



To take op rows at oppoeite 

ends 
Which? 
To reach 
Eight 

How much? 
How long? 
To pawn 
To consider 



168 COOLY TAMIL. 



POSTSCRIPT. 



1. (<o Past Particles ending in -ttu and wards formed from 

them, as Past Tenses and Adjectives, are usually pro- 
nounced -elm or -chi. The -ttu is retained in spelling in 
order to distinguish them easily from other words as 
being verb-formations, thus assisting the student in re- 
cognising the different parts of speech when seen in print. 

(b) The tense terminations of the verbs have been spelt 
-kren and -kruthu, etc., in preference to the really correct 
-kiren, -kirathu, as the cooly does not pronounce the 
distinct T and 'a' sound. This occurs also in other 
words. In the termination -athu (uthu) will be recognised 
'athu...it; also in -an...(av)an, he; -al...(av)al, she.' 
(See Appendix.) 

Some high caste coolies, and those who can read and write, 
often pronounce more according to grammatical Tamil. The 
student can pick this up by practice. 

2. ALSO. 'This is translated by the suffix -TJM in the same 

way as for 'and' except that it is not repeated. Thus : 
I said that also,— athium nan sonen. 
This also is not correct, — ithium seri ille. 
He went also,— avanum ponan. 
Yes, there are alavangas there as well — ami, alavang'um 

irukruth'ange. 

3. ALTHOUGH. This is translated by adding -ALUM to 

the stem of the Past tense (D2). Thus : 
Although he said that you must not believe it — avan appadi 

sonalum ni athe namba viinda. 
Although he speaks thus will it be true'?— avan ippadi 

pesnalum nisam irukuma? 
Although he, blames you it does not matter, you keep quiet — 

avan une yesnalum kariam ille, ni un patile pesame iru. 
Though he will %ave said that, it is> )a lie — avan athe 

soll'iruntaluin poi tan (see S2). 

1. ABOUT, ALMOST, NEARLY. These are translated by 
-POLE suffixed to any part of speech. Thus : 
It is nearly dead — athu settuthu-pole tan. 
He is nearly dying — avan saruthu-pole tan. 
There are about fiTe mamotiea — mamati anji-pole irukruthu. 
It is almost finished — athu mudinttu-pole irukruthu. 
He is almost 70 years old — avanukku yeluwathu viiisn-pole 

irukruthu. 
The wall is about ten feet high— sevar patt'adi-pole osaram 
IT CAN AlSO MEAN 'AS' : Do as you wish— uu pirium* 
pole soi. 



POSTSCRIPT. 169 

IN ORDER THAT, SO THAT (see No. 11). This can 

be translated by 'PADPKKT preceded by the Impersonal 

Future (Jl ; J2) and is a very usual form of speech. 
After a negative it means l in order not to,' 'so as not to.' 

Thus : 
I gave the money so that he should not run away — avan odi 

poathe padikki kasi kuduten. 
I sent Ramasamy to the General Hospital so that he should 

get well— Ramasami sogam ahum padikki Peria Aspati- 

rikki anupunen. 
Cut the drain so that the water does not flow that way — 

tanni appadi odathe padikki kan vettu. 
I sent the kangani to the coast in order that he should brin» 

new coolies — puth'al kondu varum padikki kangani sime- 

ikki anupunen. 
I wrote a telegram to the Labour Commissioner in order 

that Arulappan might get money there — Arulappan ange 

kasi ednkum padikki Tipau doreikki oru tandi eluthinen. 

THE PAST PARTICIPLE is always used in Tamil with 
all tenses where the conjunction 'and' is used in English. 
Thus : 

I will go and tell— nan poittu solluven, (lit : I having gone 
will tell). 

You go and see — ni poittu par. 

He returned — avan poittu vantan, (i.e., he went and came). 

He will return— avan poittu varuvan. 

■ this way and bring a fork — oru niullu eduttu ippadi va. 

Generally when a sentence in English has several finite 
verbs (i.e., verbs not dependent on each other to make 
complete sense) they should. all be rendered in Tamil by 
thf-Past Participle, except the last one which should close 
the sentence. 

QUOTATION.— This is rendered by the addition of the 
word 'enm,' having said (Past. Part, of verb Vna.' to 
say) with the use of the 1st person. Thus : 

He said 'I will tu sonan. 

He said 'I gave it to tkki kafluten entu sonan. 

He said that he gave it to master athe doreikki kuduten 
entu sonan. 

She said that she would come to muster — peratukku varuven 
entn aval sonuthn. 

Tf ho said ho was coming — varuven entu sonal. 

HE WHO, THAT WHICH, etc.— Relative clauses are 

'1 i f s tenses) used adjectivally 

1 > I be pronoun. Thi* 

it is in everj -day cae, Thus : 

He who bae not e knifi lifferent work katti 

illath'avan rere veilikki ponuthu (lit : be-without-a-knife). 

have no tool Bhould go to plncli aitham illath'al 

koluntu cdukka poattnm. 

Wher< ho pruned tl intha maram vettn'avan 

v 



170 COOLY TAMIL. 

He who is coming along the road now is Suppaia — ippo 

rotodu varuth'avan Suppaia tan. 
Who is that who is going to the hungalow? — Bangalaukku 

poruth'avan ar? 
She who weeds this contract — intha kontrapu pillu vet- 

truth'aval. 
He who stole those things is a thief (caste cooly) — antha 

saman kalavu edutt'avan kalian (sathi al). 
Call him who is standing there — ange nikruth'avan kupidu. 
(It is) he who called me — yene kupituthu avan. 

9. PASSIVE VOICE, or, To cause to be.— This is translated 
by using the verb PAD A, to suffer, in all its tenses after 
a verb in the Infinitive, but it cannot always be employed 
for the translation of the English Passive (F. Footnote). 
Thus : 

He has been told by me — avanukku nan teria paten (J 
caused it to be known to him) 

I made him do it (I caused him to do it) — atho avanukku 
-,<•]' a paten. 

Palaniai is being blamed — Palaniai yesa padruthu. 

She is being beaten — aval adikka padruthu. 

This child is (being) afraid — pulle paiam padruthu. 

He must be told— avanukku solla pad'onum. 

Don't be afraid — paiam padathe, or, paiam pada kudathe. 

To be done — seia pada. 

He will be beaten — avan adikka paduvan. 

He will have been beaten — avan adikka patt'irupan. 

I was called — kfipida patten. 

Must be called — kfipida pad'onum. 

10. ON ACCOUNT OF, BY.— This is translated bv suffix 

-INALE. Thus : 
On account of that woman he ran away — antha pumbaliniile 

avan odi ponan. 
On account of the amount of rice issued there was a row 

in the lines — pathintt'arisi kanakinale laiatile sande 

iruntuthu. 
There were a lot of weeds in her contract, on account of that 

I put coolies on — aval kontrapile micham pillu iruntuthu 

athinale (nan) al potten. 
Because of the manure the weeds prow very fast — uratinale 

pillu micham vehama valaruthu. 
On acount of the dirt the. coolies get ill — ilteinale algal sogam 

ilia me porutlm. 
Take that up by hand — athe kaiinale cdu. 
Dig the earth by (using) a mamoti — mamatinale manna 

vettu. 
Go by the road — rotodu po (not 'rotinale' as the meaning is 

to go in 'company with' the road as it were). A4. 

11. BECAUSE OF (pertaining to an action). This can be 

translated by 'PADTKKI' aft. r any tense of the verb, 
(see No. 5). 
Because of what you are doing I stop your rice — Ni seiruthu 
padikki un arigi nipatren. 



POSTSOKIPT. 171 

I allowed him to go to the Coast because of what the kangani 
said — kangani sonuthu padikki avane urukku poa vuduten. 

I fined you because of what you did — ni seithuthu padikki 
une thendain potten. 

'Padial' can also be used in the above sentence; also with 

negative : 

Because you do not do it — athe ni seiathe padial. 

12. When the auxiliary 'IBUNT5.L,' — 'if is,' is omitted in 

Tamil, 'IF' is often translated by 'ANAL' placed after a 
noun or adverb. Thus : 
If (it is) so why does he remain on the estate — appadi 

anal ye totatile nikran? 
If the row was like that I will fine the kangani — sande 

appadi anal kangani thendam poduven. 
If (it is) all right you may do it — athu nallathu anal ni 

seiattum. 
If he is the Head Kangani you cannot do anything — avan 

peria kangani anal ni unnum sei'elathe. 

Anal can also be added to the future tense. (See L3) 

If you will take— ni eduputh'anal. 
If he will go — avan povuthu anal. 

13. BECOME, GET.— To translate these use the verb 'aha.' 

Thus : 
It is getting late — neram authu (CI.) or neram ahi po- 

ruthu. 
'ShV is pronounced as 'at' when used before another word, 

but like 'aehV otherwise. (F3). 
He has become a grown (big) man now — ippo avan peri'al 

ai vantuthu. 
The fruit will soon become ripe — kai surrukka pallat 'authu, 

or, pallat ai poruthu. 
He is getting used to the new work — puthu veileikld avan- 

ukku palakam ai poruthu. 
"He has got used to the work — veileikki avan palakam ai 

poichi (ahi poi achh. 
It has got very late mwham neram ai poichi. 
Another use of 'authu' is with numerals : 

Kend'iinthu —second. 

Mun 'authu — third, etc. 

Second (under) boy — rend'authu podian. 

The assistant clerk — rend'authu klark. 

The assistant agent— rend 'rinthu egent. Etc. 

Used as adverbs : 

Thirdly — mun 'authu . 

Fourthly — mil authu. Etc. 

Whichever— eth 'authu. - 

However — eppadiauthu. Etc. 



172 COOLY TAMIL. 

14. REPETITION often denotes continuity, thus :— 

Pull on the rope all the time as you come along — Ni vara 

vara kavuru puditt'illu. 
He will gradually go on getting more ill — Avan vara vara 

athium sogam illame povuthu. 

You must keep on pulling it — Athe ni illutV illuttu pod'onum. 
P2. 

Every week 1 go on giving a little — Kilame kilame nan 

konjam konjam kudukren. 
Go on putting (it in) little by little — Konjam konjam pottu 

pottu va. 
It is no good continually talking about it — Athe pati oiame 

pesi pesi mudiathe (lit : about it unceasingly having spoken 

won't finish). 
He continually talks about nothing and does no work — Avan 

suma pesi pesi veile seiruth'ille. 
Repetition also denotes each, every, etc: — 
Full pay each month — Mas an mdsam mulu sampalam. 
Kanganies must walk about to every row. — Kanganimar 

nerreikki nerreikki aleinttu po'onum. 



173 



APPENDIX. 



A. The plural of nouns and pronouns is formed by adding -gal 

to the singular. Thus : 
Al — person ; algal — people. 
Podiau — boy ; podiangal — boys. 
Nan — I; nangal — we. 

Ni — you (vulg. form) ; ningal — you (plural). 
Ni — you (vulg. form); ningal— you (plural), also polite for 

'you' (singular). 
Une — you (obj.); ungale— you (plur.), also polite for 'you' 
sing, (obj.) Avar — they, is also polite for 'he.' 

B. The full form of spelling of the verb is as follows. The 

terminations— en, Si. an, al, athu, oin, irkal, arkal, ar — 
are the same- for all tenses and verbs. 

Present tense of Irukka, to be. 

I am Nan irukiren 

You are Ni irukirai 

He is Avan irukirau 

She is Aval irukirai 

It is Athu irukiratha 

We are Nangal irukirom 

You are Ningal irukirirkal 

Thej arc Avangal irukirarkal * 

They are Avar irukirar (also polite f for 'he is') 

Note. I have heard all these used by coolies (with the 
exception of 'ningal irukirirkal') and also in other teuses and 
verbs. 

t In use by coolies speaking of a superior. 

* Used by coolies and often pronounced irukiraha. 

C There arc several suthxes applied tu words by coolies express- 
ing a polite or honorific form of speech to a superior. 
Some of these are as follows and should be carefully noted 
as they are rather misleading to the beginner. 

Sir anga, -ilo, -ingala? 

Yes, sir — am 'anga. 

No, sir — ill 'anga. 

Yes, there is, sir — ama, irukruth'anga. 

Do it like this, sir — ippadi Bei'anga. 

No, bit — ille'ile. 

May I put this here?— Nan ithe inge podat 'ingala. ? 

May I go? — nan poat 'ingala? 

Master — dorei 'ile. 

Don't cut that, (sir) — athe vettath'anga. 



174 APPENDIX. 

D. There are also some suffixes coolies use amongst themselves 
denoting familiarity or equality which should be avoided 
Such as : -da, -di; -angada (anga— da) ; -ra, -ri, etc. 

Poda, poangada, for po— go. 

Vada, for va — come. 

Vadi — come thou (feminine). 

Pori — go thou (feminine). 

Edura, for edu — take. 

Odura, for odu — run. 

Vangada, for va — come. 

Yenda?, for ye? — why. 

Ennada, for enna? — what? 

Compare : Odia, an admissible contraction for 'odi va (having 
run come, i.e., come running). Edutta, for eduttu va, 
or, eduttu ta — having taken come, having taken give (tara, 
to give). Etc. 



INDEX. 


About 


Ps.4. 


Always 


L.2. 


A, an 


A3 (Note 2). 


And 


B. 


Another 


J3. 


Accent 


. A. 


Adjectives 


B. 


,, Demonstrative 


0. 


,, Comparison of 


LI. 


,, Nouns used as 


B2. 


Adverbs 


LI; L2. 


Agency, Oooly 


Sentences Page 66. 


'-ska' 


L3. 


Almost 


Ps.4. 


Also 


Pa. 2. 


Although 


Pb.3. 


Antha 


A3 (Note 2). 


Appendix 


Page 173. 


As 


Pa.4. 


As soon as 


B. 


'-athe' 


D2(Note 1). 


Auxiliary Verb 


A3. 


Be, to 


A3; S2. 


Because of 


Ps.ll. 


Become 


Ps.13. 


Big 


B. 


By 


A4(Note 1); Pb. 10 


Can 


H. 


Cannot 


HI. 


Colloquialisms 


Page 77. 


Comparison of Adjectives 


LI. 


Consonants (doable) 


A. 


Contractions ... 


Page 77. 


Coolies' Names 


Page 74. 


Days, Week 


N2. 


Do not 


D2(Note 1); Hi. 


Double T 


A4(Note 2). 


Double '%' 


F(Note 1); Ps. 1. 


Draining 


Sentences Page 50 


Each 


J3; Ps.14. 


-ellam 


B2(Note 1). 


Etcetera 


N. 


English-Tamil Vocabulary 


Page 89. 



INDEX. 



Familiar Speech 


Appendix D. 


Filling 


Sentences Page 63. 


For 


T. 


Fractions 


Ml. 


From 


A4. 


Future ... 


.. G. 


Exceptions to rule 


G(Note 1). 


„ Impersonal ... 


3H; J2. 


,, Perfect 


J. 


Gender 


Al. 


Gerund 


Nl. 


Get 


Ps. 13. 


Had 


F2. 


Have, to 


A3; S2. 


Having been 


L. 


He who (relative) ... 


Ps.8. 


How many 


Fl. 


H 


L3; Ps.12. 


If not 


L3(Note). 


'-illate' 


L3(Note). 


Imperative 


Dl. 


Impersonal Future ... 


J1;J2. 


Impersonal Past Tense 


F3. 


Infinitive 


Bl. 


Initial a, e, i, y ... . 


C(Note). 


In fact 


S2(Note 1.) 


In order that 


Ps.5 


In order to 


Nl. 


Jnst 


S. 


'Kitta' 


Footnote Page 15. 


Kolla 


P2. 


'L' final 


A. 


'L,' Double 


A4(Note 2). 


Manuring 


Sentences Page 69, 


Many 


N. 


'-maten,' '-matathe' 


Gl. 


May 


X. 


Months 


N3. 


More 


N. 


Must 


,.. H. 


Muster 


Sentences Page 47. 


Much 


N. 


Karnes, Coolies' 


Page 74 


Nearly 


Ps.4. 


Necessary 


HI. 


Negative 


A3; B2(Note 2). ( 


Never ... 


.. L2. 



Gl. 



INDEX. 



Nobody 

Nouns, Inflexion of ... 

,, used as Adjectives 

,, Plural of 
Now 
Numbers 

., Ordinal 

Objective Case 

Object, Position of ... 

Of 

Old 

On account of 

'-onum' 

Ordinal numbers 

Other 

Ought 

Own 

Passive 
Past Definite 
Past Participle 

,, ,, with Imperative 

Past Tense 

Past Tense, Impersonal 
Paying Coolies 
Planting 
Plucking 
Pluperfect 
Plural 
'poda' 
-ponal 

Polite Speech 
Possessive 
Postscript 
Present Tense 
Present Participle ... 
Prepositions 
Pronouns 

,, Omission of ... 
Pronounciation 
Pruning 
Put, to 

Questions 
Quotation 

Recruiting 

Relative Clauses 

Rice (Issuing) 

Rubber 

Same 

Pelf 

Sentences 



L2. 

Al. 

B2. 

Al ; Appdx : A. 

E. 

M. 

Ml. 

Al(c). 

A3 (Note 1). 

A4. 

B. 

Ps.10. 

HI (Note). 

Ml. 

J3. 

K. 

S. 

Ps.9; F3. 

F. 

D; Ps.6. 

Dl. 

D2. 

pa 

Examp : M. 

Sentences Page 61. 

Sentences Page 50. 

F2. 

Al; Tl; Appdx. A. 

P2. 

L3<Note 1). 

Appendix B and C. 

AHXote 3). 

Page 168. 

CI; Ps.l(b); Appdx. B. 

Dl(Note 2). 

A4. 

A2; 02. 

A2(Note 1). 

A. 

Sentences Page 57. 

P2. 

CI (Note 1). 
Pe.7. 

Si i,i. mi s Page 66. 

Pb.8. 

Examples to Ml. 

Sentences Page 64. 

R. 

8. 

Pages 47-70. 



iv 


INDEX. 


Small 


B. 


Should 


E. 


So that 


Ps.5. 


Some 


J3. 


Spelling 


Ps.l(a). 


Subject, Position of ... 


A3(Note 1). 


Subjunctive Mood ... 


K. 


Suma 


L2(Note 1). 


Tamil-English Vocabulary 


131. 


'T' (double) 


F(Note 1); Ps.l. 


-'tan' 


S2. 


Tapping (rubber) 


Sentences Page 64. 


Than 


LI (Note 2). 


That, this (adj :) 


C. 


,, ,,, (Pronouns) 


C2. 


That much 


Fl. 


The 


A3(Note 2). 


Titles 


Tl. 


Time 


P. 


Tipping (tea) 


Sentences Page 52. 


To 


A4. 


Too much 


- ... N. 


'U' final 


B(Note 1). 


Until 


P3. - 


-'venum' 


HI (Note). 


Verbs 


Page 78. 


,. Conjugation of 


Page 64. 


,, Infinitive of 


Bl. 


,, Position of ... 


A3 (Note 1). 


Eeflexive 


P2. 


-ude 


A4(Note 3). 


Verb, Auxilliary 


A3. 


Very 


L2. 


Vocabularies 


... 


Eng :— Tamil ... 


Page 89. 


Tamil-Eng : 


Page 181. 


Vowels 


A. 


„ Short 


A. 


Weeding 


Sentences Page 62 


When 


P1;E. 


While 


PI. 


Who, which? 


E. 


., relative pronouns 


G2; Pb.8. 


Will 


... G. 


Will not 


Gl. 


Will have 


J. 


Without 


T(Note 1). 


With 


A4. 


Words alike 


Page 71. 


Yea 


A3; B2(Note 2). 



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