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AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH SERVICE 
PLANT PEST CONTROL DIVISION 

PLANT PEST SURVEY 



The Cooperative Economic Insect Report is issued 
weekly as a service to American Agriculture. Its contents 
are compiled from information supplied by cooperating State, 
Federal, and industrial entomologists and other agricultural 
workers. In releasing this material the Division serves as 
a clearing house and does not assume responsibility for ac- 
curacy of the material. 



Reports and inquiries pertaining to this release 
should be mailed to: 

Plant Pest Survey 

Plant Pest Control Division 

Agricultural Research Service 

United States Department of Agriculture 

Washington 25, D. C. 



COOPERATIVE ECONOMIC INSECT SURVEY 



/♦" 



Volume 9 January 2, 1959 Number 1 



Highlights of Insect Conditions 

CHINCH BUG hibernation survey in Arkansas, fall - 1958. (p. 3). 

BOLL WEEVIL hibernation survey, northeast Louisiana, fall - 1958. (p. 4). 

INSECT DETECTION: A termite ( Reticulitermes hageni) found for first time in 
New Jersey, (p. 6) . 



******************************* 



Reports in this issue are for the week ending December 26, unless otherwise 
designated. 



- 2 - 
WEATHER OF THE WEEK ENDING DECEMBER 29 

Even though last week's weather was mostly mild and dry and the snow cover at 
lower elevations retreated to extreme northern areas, stormy weather with 
intermittent precipitation helped relieve California's drought, temperatures 
still averaged below normal in the South and East and heavy snow was blanketing 
the southwestern Great Plains as the period ended. Temperatures for the week 
averaged above normal west of a line joining Detroit, Michigan, and Laredo, 
Texas. Relative to normal, the week was warmest in the north central regions 
where departures ranged from 6° to over 14° with maximum temperatures in the 
50 's setting new records in Iowa on the 28th. The entire month has been 
unseasonably mild in the Far West. The Atlantic Coastal States experienced 
only a brief period of mildness during the week and temperautres averaged 
2° to 4° below normal in northern Florida to 7° below at Caribou, Maine. 
Temperatures fell below zero over much of the Northeast from the 24th to 27th. 
On the 25th, Pellston, Michigan, had a low of -23°, and New York State reported 
the coldest Christmas day in 10 years. In New England where this month promises 
to be one of the coldest Decembers since 1917, the temperature at Caribou, 
Maine, has remained continuously below freezing since late November. 

The week's moderate to heavy precipitation was limited mostly to an area south 
of a line joining Richmond, Virginia, and Laredo, Texas, and to the Pacific 
Coast north of San Francisco, California,, with totals ranging up to about 
3 inches in both areas. The southern rains, mostly from a coastal storm at 
the end of the week, helped restore soil moisture which had been below 
satisfactory levels in some sections for an extended period. Rains were 
frequent in the Pacific Northwest and thunderstorms were reported in northern 
California on the 28th. Most of the mid-continent area had little or no 
precipitation at all, and surface soil moisture is needed in many sections. 
However, snow may furnish beneficial moisture to much of the southern Great 
Plains. At Albuquerque, New Mexico, 11 inches of snow accumulated during the 
12-hour period from 5 p.m. Sunday to 5 a.m. Monday, the heaviest snowfall 
there on record. Some parts of the city measured up to 14 inches. The 
previous 24-hour record since 1895 was 6.8 inches in 1942. On the morning 
of the 30th a depth of 12 inches was reported at Guymon , Oklahoma, and 
lesser amounts over southeastern Colorado, eastern New Mexico, southern Kansas 
and northwestern Texas. (Summary supplied by U. S. Weather Bureau.) 



- 3 - 

CEREAL AND FORAGE INSECTS 

GRASSHOPPERS - ARIZONA - Generally cold weather over State on November 17 caused 
decline in adult populations. Some minor damage to grain crops noted in Tucson 
area, also hatching of several species probably due to moisture from snow and 
rain. COLORADO - Egg deposition found quite general in all of several eastern 
counties sampled. Predators did not exceed 25 percent. NEW MEXICO - Egg 
survey in vicinity of Porter, Quay County, indicated a threatening to severe 
infestation and in Curry County a severe to very threatening infestation. 
Survey in other counties indicated light infestation. A large percentage of 
egg pods found in eastern counties were Melanoplus bilituratus , which was not 
one of the three dominant species found in the adult survey, indicating a 
possible migration from nearby infested areas. UTAH - Egg surveys were 
completed in 18 counties and ratings compared very closely with the adult 
survey. (PPC , West. Reg., Nov. Rpt.). 

ALFALFA WEEVIL ( Hypera postica) - VIRGINIA - First and second-lnstar larvae 
on alfalfa in Smyth County, week of December 12, and second and third-instar 
larvae on same crop in Pittsylvania County, week of December 18. (Bishop). 

CLOVER LEAF WEEVIL ( Hypera punctata) - VIRGINIA - Present on alfalfa in Smyth 
County, week of December 12, and in Pittsylvania County December 18. (Bishop). 

PEA APHID ( Macrosiphum pisi) - CALIFORNIA - Heavy on alfalfa in local area of 
Terra Bella, Tulare County. (Cal. Coop. Rpt.). 

SPOTTED ALFALFA APHID ( Therioaphis maculata) - VIRGINIA - Present on alfalfa 
in Smyth and Franklin Counties, December 12, and in Pittsylvania County, 
December 18. (Bishop). OKLAHOMA - Situation remained unchanged. (Bieberdorf) . 
WASHINGTON - Small numbers on alfalfa at Whitstran, Benton County, due to 
mild winter temperatures. (Klostermeyer) . 

LEAFHOPPERS - UTAH - Active in alfalfa fields and raodsides in Cache Valley 
and at Brigham. (Knowlton) . 

ENGLISH GRAIN APHID ( Macrosiphum granarium) - OKLAHOMA - Averaged 4-6 per linear 
foot of row in wheat in Jackson County. (Hatfield) . 

GREENBUG ( Toxoptera graminum) - ARKANSAS - None were found on small grain 
checked in Crawford County, week ending December 13. (Boyer) . OKLAHOMA - 
Averaged less than one per linear foot in Payne County (Stiles) and population 
is very low in Kiowa County. (Hudson) . 

CHINCH BUG ( Blissus leucopterus ) - ARKANSAS - Annual survey counts taken in 
November 1958 show a larger number of bugs in hibernation in the 17-county 
area than in 1957. Samples were taken in the same general area and during 
the third week in November each year. Infestations are severe in 6 counties 
compared with 3 counties in 1957. Averages per square foot in these 6 
counties were 1,971 in Randolph, 1,825 in Poinsett, 1,125 in Jackson, 1,606 in 
Lawrence, 1,746 in Clay and 1,924 in Cross. The number of bugs in hibernation 
is larger in the northeast than in other areas of the State. (Ark. Ins. Rpt.). 



FRUIT INSECTS 

NAVEL ORANGEWORM ( Paramyelois transitella) - CALIFORNIA - Population has 
steadily increased during past 10 years when it was discovered in figs in 
Fresno district. Now present in considerable numbers in figs left on trees 
and on the ground. (Cal. Fig Inst.). 



- 4 - 

DRIED-FRUIT BEETLE ( Carpophilus hemipterus) - CALIFORNIA - Adults present in 
considerable numbers after harvest in figs on trees and on the ground. This 
pest last harvest season was more serious than in many years. (Cal. Fig Inst.). 

CITRUS BLACKFLY ( Aleurocanthus woglumi) - MEXICO - Inspections of 64,390 trees 
on 1,645 properties revealed 35 trees infested on 8 properties, all at Allende 
and Montemorelos , Nuevo Leon. No infestations were found in Sonora and 
Tamaulipas. (PPC, Mex. Reg., Nov. Rpt.). 

MEXICAN FRUIT FLY (Anastrepha ludens) - MEXICO - An additional 127 traps on 
93 properties were put into operation in Tijuana and Tecate , Baja California, 
to afford better coverage of the zones. As traps are available, more will be 
installed. Trapping activities continued at Tijuana, Tecate and Ensenada 
with 1,235 traps operated on 551 properties. A total of 4,249 trap inspections 
were made, with negative results. Reports from the Jalapa-Veracruz region 
show low infestation of oranges, considerably less than 1957. (PPC, Mex. Reg., 
Nov. Rpt.) . 



TRUCK CROP INSECTS 

POPLAR-PETIOLE GALL APHID ( Pemphigus populi-transversus) - ALABAMA - Heavy 
infestation on roots of turnips in Baldwin County. (Grimes , Bennett, Dec. 19). 

TURNIP APHID ( Rhopalosiphum pseudobrassicae) - ALABAMA - Moderate on turnips 
in Baldwin County. (Grimes, Bennett, Dec. 19). 

Vegetable Insects , Arkansas - Loxostege similalis and Hylemya cilicrura caused 
some concern to spinach growers and packers in the Arkansas River Valley. 
Spinach from one foot of row taken at each of 10 different locations 
distributed over a field was carefully examined at weekly intervals. Of 7 
fields checked, 3 were uninfested. Three fields were infested with both 
species while one field was infested with H. cilicrura only. L. similalis 
infestation ran 1-6 and H. cilicrura 1-14 per composite sample. (Kendrick, 
Dec. 16) . 



COTTON INSECTS 



Boll Weevil Hibernation Survey, Northeast Louisiana, Fall - 1958 - Collections 
of surface woods trash samples- were made from November 24 through December 4 
in the northeastern area composed of Madison, East Carroll and Tensas Parishes. 
The number of weevils per acre found was 5,326 in Madison Parish, 9,845 in 
East Carroll Parish and 2,098 in Tensas Parish. The average for the area 
was 5,756. Similar records have been made in Madison Parish for 23 years, 
beginning in the fall of 1936. In only two years, 1955 and 1957, has a larger 
number of weevils been found in the fall surface woods trash survey, than the 
5,326 per acre found in the fall of 1958. (Smith, Cleveland, Williams). 

PINK BOLLWORM ( Pectinophora gossypiella) - ARIZONA - Field inspections in the 
vicinity of Solomon, Graham County, revealed larvae in 5 of 7 fields inspected. 
One larva was found in gin trash at Willcox, Cochise County. Infestations 
were found on 106 properties comprising 7,321 acres in Maricopa County and 
10 properties and 1,800 acres in Pinal County, during November. The freeze 
on November 17 brought light trap collections to a halt. All trapping 
activities ceased at the end of the month except for one trap in Yuma County. 
NEW MEXICO - A survey November 22-24 in the more heavily infested area of 



- 5 - 

Dona Ana County showed a very high mortality of larvae in bolls on standing 
stalks. The rather sudden drop in temperature on November 18 and 19 apparently 
resulted in the destruction of nearly all larvae in green bolls and a heavy 
mortality in dry bolls on standing stalks. No live larvae were found in green 
bolls and very few in open bolls. It is estimated that more than 90 percent of 
larvae in bolls on standing stalks were killed. (PPC , West. Reg., Nov. Rpt.). 
MEXICO - In the eastern area, lint cleaner inspections were made at 37 locations 
with a total of 2,263 larvae found. From 1,600 green bolls inspected, 534 
larvae were found. Heaviest infestation of green bolls centered around Juarez, 
Chihuahua. (PPC , Mex. Reg., Nov. Rpt.). 



FOREST, ORNAMENTAL AND SHADE TREE INSECTS 

A STEM SAWFLY ( Janus bimaculatus ) - PENNSYLVANIA - Affected 60 percent of 
Viburnum prunifolium twig growth for 1958 at Pittsburg, Allegheny County, 
November 18. Det. B. D. Burks. (Udine) . 

TWO-SPOTTED SPIDER MITE ( Tetranychus telarius ) - CALIFORNIA - Heavy population 
on chrysanthemum plants at Auburn, Placer County. (Cal. Coop. Rpt.). 



INSECTS AFFECTING MAN AND ANIMALS 

CATTLE GRUBS ( Hypoderma spp.) - OKLAHOMA - H. lineatum averaged 12-20 per 
untreated yearling in Woodward County, 15-20 per yearling steer in Harper 
County, 8-12 in Canadian County and 3-5 in Kiowa County. (Hudson, Howell). 
UTAH - Common in warmer parts of Washington and San Juan Counties. (Knowlton) 
KANSAS - H. lineatum infested 35 of 45 cows examined in Riley County, with a 
total of 257 grubs found. Counts ranged 0-19 per animal and averaged 5.7 
per animal. (Knapp , Dec. 24). 

CATTLE LICE - PENNSYLVANIA - Heavy on 50 head of beef cattle at Clearfield, 
December 18. Control necessary. (Adams) . OKLAHOMA - Minor infestations in 
herds in many parts of State. (Hudson, Howell). UTAH - Several thousand 
cattle dipped or sprayed for control in Uintah Basin area. (Knowlton, 
Farnsworth) . Caused injury to unsprayed cattle in San Juan, Washington and 
Kane Counties, with many herds sprayed or dipped. Caused rubbing by beef 
cattle at Hyde Park and Lewiston. (Knowlton) . 



STORED -PRODUCT INSECTS 

KHAPRA BEETLE (Trogoderma granarium) - CALIFORNIA - Reported from Madera, 
Madera County, in stored barley, representing reinfestation of the property. 
(Cal. Coop. Rpt.). MEXICO - In the states of Baja California and Jalisco 
196 inspections were made of which 144 were initial and 52 were repeat 
inspections. A total of 131 specimens were submitted for identification. 
The reinspection of a property in Mexicali , Baja California, resulted in 
finding 6 positive specimens. (PPC, Mex. Reg., Nov. Rpt.). 

Stored-grain Situation in Alabama - Heavy infestations of Si tophi lus oryza 
were observed in shelled and unsTTucked corn in several bins in the southeastern 
part of the State and also observed in damaging numbers on sacked grain in 
Mobile County. Tribolium confusum was moderate in shelled corn and grain 
sorghum in southeastern area and damaging on sacked grain in Mobile County. 



- 6 - 

A heavy infestation of Plodia interpunctella was found in Mobile County on 
sacked grain, and damaging numbers of Attagenus piceus were observed on the 
same product in the same area. A few Sitotroga cerealella were observed in 
warehouses where grain was stored in Mobile County. Moderate infestation of 
Lasioderma serricorne was also observed in grain in the same area. (Grimes, 
Bennett, Lockhart, Seibels, Dec. 19). 



MISCELLANEOUS INSECTS 

A TERMITE ( Reticulitermes hageni) - NEW JERSEY - Found swarming in a building 
at Trenton, August 26. The most northern previous record was Washington, D. C. 
Reported from State for first time. Det. T. E. Snyder. (Cooper) . 



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PLANT PEST CONTROL DIVISION 
AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH SERVICE 

UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF 



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AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH SERVICE 
PLANT PEST CONTROL DIVISION 

PLANT PEST SURVEY 



The Cooperative Economic Insect Report is issued 
weekly as a service to American Agriculture. Its contents 
are compiled from information supplied by cooperating State, 
Federal, and industrial entomologists and other agricultural 
workers. In releasing this material the Division serves as 
a clearing house and does not assume responsibility for ac- 
curacy of the material. 



Reports and inquiries pertaining to this release 
should be mailed to: 

Plant Pest Survey 

Plant Pest Control Division 

Agricultural Research Service 

United States Department of Agriculture 

Washington 25, D. C. 



Volume 9 January 9, 1959 Number 2 



COOPERATIVE ECONOMIC INSECT REPORT 



Highlights of Insect Conditions 

CHINCH BUG survey in Kansas shows some severe and very severe infestations 
in six counties. Potential in Illinois for 1959 is lower than in 1958. 
(P. 9). 

FLORIDA RED SCALE activity highest on record for December in Florida. (p. 9) 

INSECT DETECTION: European corn borer new to two counties in Missouri, 
(p. 9). 

SUMMARY OF INSECT CONDITIONS - 1958 - COLORADO. (p. 11). 
List of COOPERATIVE SURVEY ENTOMOLOGISTS, (p. 14). 
INSECTS not known to occur in the United States. (p. 15). 



*********************** 



Reports in this issue are for the week ending January 2, unless otherwise 
designated. 



- 8 - 

WEATHER BUREAU 30 -DAY OUTLOOK 
JANUARY 19 59 

The Weather Bureau's 30-day outlook for January calls for temperatures to average 
below seasonal normals over the eastern third of the Nation and also over the 
Southern Plains and Gulf Coast States. Above normal is indicated for the 
Northern Plains and areas west of the Continental Divide. In unspecified areas 
near normal is in prospect. Precipitation, frequently in the form of snow and 
sleet , is expected to exceed normal over the southern half of the Nation lying 
east of the Continental Divide, and in the Middle Atlantic States. Subnormal 
amounts are in prospect over most of the remainder of the country. 

Weather forecast given here is based on the official 30-day "Resume and Outlook", 
published twice a month by the Weather Bureau. You can subscribe through Super- 
intendent of Documents, Washington 25, D. C. Price $4.80 a year, $2.40 a half 
year. 

WEATHER OF THE WEEK ENDING JANUARY 5, 1959 

A severe cold wave featured the weather of the week. First felt in the Northwest 
on New Year's Day as cold air over northwestern North America began flowing 
southeastward behind a deep low pressure area centered near Hudson Bay, the cold 
air covered virtually the entire Nation by the end of the week. Preceded in 
large areas by snow, sleet, glaze and gale-force winds, the cold front was 
followed by temperature drops of 20° to over 50°. On Sunday, subzero cold 
extended from the Cascades to the upper Mississippi Valley and as far south as 
the northern portions of Arkansas, Texas, New Mexico and Arizona, and tempera- 
tures were above freezing only in an area south of a line joining Norfolk, 
Virginia, and New Orleans, Louisiana, and a few small areas in the extreme 
Southwest. Extreme low temperatures ranged from -22° at Dumas, Texas, to 
-43° at Hibbing , Minnesota. Goodland, Kansas, recorded -26°, the lowest there 
during a 38-year record, and the lowest in that State since 1950. After 3 days 
of extreme cold, Wisconsin reported an ice thickness on lakes and small streams 
ranging from about 11 to 20 inches and frost penetration in the ground in the 
northern portion of 24 to 36 inches which is considered unusually deep there. 
Temperatures for the week averaged a few degrees above normal east of a line 
joining Detroit, Michigan, and Pensacola, Florida, and along the southern 
California coast, and below elsewhere. Relative to normal, the lower Great 
Plains was the coldest section. A weekly average at Amarillo, Texas, of 16° 
was 20° below normal and 26° colder than the previous week. 

The week's precipitation exceeded an inch along most of the Atlantic coast and 
west of the Cascades in Washington and northern Oregon. Over 1/2 inch fell in 
most other sections east of the Mississippi River and in a band extending from 
eastern Texas through western Missouri. Elsewhere amounts were very light, with 
only traces or none at all in portions of the northern Great Plains, most of the 
Rio Grande Valley and a large area of the Far Southwest. Snowfall spread from 
the southwestern Great Plains to the Great Lakes region during the first part of 
the week, leaving a cover ranging up to 6 or 7 inches in northern and western 
Missouri and eastern Kansas. More snow during the weekend covered much of the 
Pacific Northwest and most sections north of the Ohio River with a few inches. 
At lower elevations the snow cover generally is light, except in the upper 
Great Lakes region where greatest depths range up to 40 inches or more. 
(Summary supplied by U. S. Weather Bureau.) 



- 9 - 

CEREAL AND FORAGE INSECTS 

CHINCH BUG ( Blissus leucopterus ) - KANSAS - Annual survey conducted during 
November and December showed infestations to be severe in Butler County with 
1,479 hibernating bugs per square foot of bunch grass; Ellsworth County, with 
1,111 per square foot; McPherson County with 1,447; and Harvey County with 
1,045. Very severe infestations were found in Lyon County, with 3,194 bugs 
per square foot and Sedgwick County with 3,250 per square foot of bunch grass. 
(Gates, Peters). ILLINOIS - Fall survey shows potential for 1959 lower than 
for 1958 and only Brown County with a severe rating, having 1,338 bugs per 
square foot. (111. Ins. Rpt.). 

EUROPEAN CORN BORER ( Pyrausta nubilalis ) - MISSOURI - Fall abundance survey 
established two new county records in Ozark and Douglas Counties. All 114 coun- 
ties of the State are now infested. (Thomas) . 

PEA APHID ( Macrosiphum pisi) - ARKANSAS - Very low on small grain and alfalfa. 
Up to 4 per linear foot found on red clover. (Ark. Ins. Rpt.). 

SPOTTED ALFALFA APHID ( Therioaphis maculata ) - ARKANSAS - Numbers extremely 
low on alfalfa in northwest part of State. (Ark. Ins. Rpt.). OKLAHOMA - 
Populations lower in alfalfa fields in Tillman County. (Hatfield) . 

BROWN WHEAT MITE ( Petrobia latens ) - OKLAHOMA - Small numbers in Caddo County 
wheat fields. (Hudson) . 

ENGLISH GRAIN APHID ( Macrosiphum granarium ) - ARKANSAS - Averaged 5-10 per 
linear foot on oats in Washington County. (Ark. Ins. Rpt.). 

GREENBUG ( Toxoptera graminum ) - ARKANSAS - Found reproducing on small grain 
on Experiment Station farm in Washington County. Infestations became very 
light during cold period in mid-December, then increased as temperatures 
rose. Ranged 20-32 per linear foot on oats. Much lighter, 6 per linear foot, 
on wheat. (Ark. Ins. Rpt.). OKLAHOMA - Averaged 4-6 per linear foot in wheat 
field south of Frederick, Tillman County. (Hatfield). 



FRUIT INSECTS 

SCALE INSECTS - CALIFORNIA - Aspidiotus hederae heavy on grapes in Watsonville, 
Santa Cruz County. Aonidiella aurantii heavy on citrus in Willows, Glenn 
County and medium in Orange Cove, Fresno County. Aonidiella citrina medium 
on oranges in Orange Cove and heavy on lemons in the Exeter area of Tulare 
County. (Cal. Coop. Rpt.). 

Citrus Insect Situation, Lake Alfred, Florida, Third Week in December, 1958 - 
PURPLE SCALE activity increased. Slight upward trend expected, but level will 
remain generally low until mid-January. FLORIDA RED SCALE activity increased. 
Present level highest on record for December and will continue high during 
January. Activity of CITRUS RED MITE increased and further increase is 
expected during next few weeks. There was an increase of CITRUS RUST MITE 
on leaves and a slight decrease on fruit. Further increase expected during 
next three weeks. (Fla. Coop. Sur.). 

A WALNUT HUSK FLY ( Rhagoletis boycei) - ARIZONA - Heavy and riddled husks on 
one native walnut tree among several on ranch northeast of Payson, Gila County, 
September 22, 1958. Det. R. H. Foote. (Ashu). 



- 10 - 

TRUCK CROP INSECTS 

LIMA-BEAN POD BORER ( Etiella zinckenella) - CALIFORNIA - Heavy and damaged bean 
plantings in the Patterson area of Stanislaus County. (Cal. Coop. Rpt . ) . 

GOLDEN NEMATODE ( Heterodera rostochiensis) - NEW JERSEY - A total of 118 soil 
samples from 25 properties in Middlesex County were processed with negative 
results. MAINE - More than 3,000 samples were collected and processed at the 
temporary laboratory located at the Aroostook Experimental Farm at Presque Isle. 
All samples processed to date were negative. NEW YORK - All soil samples 
collected during spring survey in eastern Suffolk County have been processed 
with negative results. Golden nematode cysts were recovered from one previously 
uninfested field in western Suffolk County. (PPC , East. Reg., Nov. Rpt.). 

COTTON INSECTS 

PINK B0LLW0RM ( Pectinophora gossypiella) - CALIFORNIA - Light trapping in 
cottonseed oil mills discontinued for season, week ending December 30. Eleven 
traps were in service for a total of 70 trap nights, with negative results. 
(Cal. Coop. Rpt. ) . 

FOREST, ORNAMENTAL AND SHADE TREE INSECTS 

A PINE ENGRAVER ( Ips confusus ) - CALIFORNIA - Damaging and killing ponderosa 
pines in groups of 1-100 in the Santa Rosa and Lake County forest areas. Abun- 
dance is probably due to logging activities. (Spharter) . 

ELM LEAF BEETLE ( Galerucella xanthomelaena ) - KANSAS - Reported from Ford County 
in crevices in bark and also in a house. (Thompson). 

SCALE INSECTS - CALIFORNIA t Eriococcus araucariae heavy on araucaria pine in 
Cold Springs, Santa Barbara County. Aspidiotus lataniae and A. hederae medium 
on Acacia melanoxylon and Icerya pure has i medium on roadside acacia trees, all 
in Sacramento , Sacramento County. Asterolecanium arabidis heavy on Pittosporum 
tobira in Woodland and light in Davis, Yolo County. (Cal. Coop. RptTl"! 

WHITEFLIES - CALIFORNIA - Trialeurodes vaporariorum medium on lantana in Bakers- 
field, Kern County. Heavy infestations of Aleyrodes spiraeoides occurred on 
nandina and rose and Aleuroplatus berbericola on oregongrape in Davis , Yolo 
County. (Cal. Coop. Rpt . ) . 

CORRECTION 

CEIR 9(52) :1023 - SHEEP BOT FLY ( Oestrus ovis) - KANSAS - Not found in 4 lambs 
examined from Pottawatomie County. (Knapp , Peters). 



LIGHT TRAP COLLECTIONS 



Pseudaletia Agrotis Feltia Heliothis 
unipuncta ypsilon subterranea zea 



FLORIDA 

Gainesville 12/23,30 5 2 2 

Quincy 12/24 1 

SOUTH CAROLINA 

Charleston 12,29-1/4 18 7 13 



SUMMARY OF INSECT CONDITIONS - 19 58 

COLORADO 

Reported by Colo. Ins. Detection Comm. 

Rangeland: GRASSHOPPERS were a problem in all of the eastern area and consid- 
erable damage to rangeland resulted. The total acreage of rangeland in the 
State is 27,322,260, total acres infested approximately 5,700,000 and total 
acres controlled about 2,000,000. The following values were computed from 
the amount of gain by a livestock unit (one cow and calf) on 10 acres of land. 
Value of gain based on market value of $33 per hundredweight. Also, the values 
have been computed on infested land only. Total livestock gain 724,821 cwt. ; 
total value $23,919,167; total loss 152,676 cwt.; loss value $5,038,332; cost 
of control $935,846; savings $2,701,727. 

Wheat Insects : Pests that were present on wheat include: BROWN WHEAT MITE 
( Petrobia latens) , PALE WESTERN CUTWORM ( Agrotis orthogonia ) , ARMY CUTWORM 
( Chorizagrotis auxiliaris ) , HESSIAN FLY ( Phytophaga destructor ) , a WHEAT STEM 
MAGGOT ( Hylemya cerealiiT , GRASSHOPPERS ( Melanoplus spp.) and SAY STINK BUG 
(Chlorochroa sayi ) . Widespread infestations of grasshoppers were reduced by 
control measures. Many pests were local and did little damage. Much of major 
infestation built up after harvest had started. Total acreage 2,356,273; 
total yield 55,632,688 bu.; unit value $2; total value $111,265,376; total 
loss 771,613 bu. ; loss value $1,423,226; acres infested 1,448,630; acres 
controlled 583,803; acres grasshopper controlled 527,169; cost of control 
$1,431,195; savings $4,682,738. 

Alfalfa Insects : ALFALFA WEEVIL ( Hypera postica ) reduced first-cutting alfalfa 
25-50 percent in areas where early spraying was not accomplished. Second and 
third cuttings were protected by controls. Yield was reduced a small percentage 
by PEA APHID ( Macrosiphum pisi) , SPOTTED ALFALFA APHID ( Therioaphis maculata ) , 
VARIEGATED CUTWORM ( Peridroma margaritosa ) , BLISTER BEETLES (Epicauta spp.), 
ALFALFA CATERPILLAR ( Colias "philodice eurytheme ) and GRASSHOPPERS ( Melanoplus 
spp.). Pests influencing alfalfa seed production were Lygus spp., GRASSHOPPERS, 
THRIPS and CLOVER SEED CHALCID ( Bruchophagus gibbus ) . Total acreage 656,535; 
total yield 1,838,841 tons; unit value $25; total value $45,971,025; total 
loss 84,757 tons; loss value $2,118,925; acres infested 441,755; acres 
controlled 278,153; acres grasshopper controlled 161,456; cost of control 
$637,058; savings $7,058,675. 

Barley Insects : In some areas GRASSHOPPERS ( Melanoplus spp.) caused losses of 
as much as 35 percent. Other pests damaging the crop were ENGLISH GRAIN APHID 
( Macrosiphum granarium ) , ARMY CUTWORM, VARIEGATED CUTWORM and SAY STINK BUG. 
Total acreage 254,519; total yield 6,468,768 bu. ; unit value $1; total value 
$6,468,768; total loss 612,896 bu.; loss value $612,896; acres infested 165,344; 
acres controlled 65,710; acres grasshopper controlled 54,910; cost of control 
$158,875; savings $1,617,192. 

Ear Corn Insects : Losses were relatively light this season, with major portion 
of loss in the southern half of the State. Pests responsible for losses were 
CORN EARWORM ( Heliothis zea ) , FALL ARMYWORM ( Laphygma frugiperda ) , WESTERN CORN 
R00TW0RM (Diabrotica virgifera) , CORN LEAF APHID ( R~ho~palosiphum maidis) , SEED- 
CORN MAGGOT ( Hylemya cilicrura) , GRASSHOPPERS ( Melanoplus spp.)~, TWO-SPOTTED 
SPIDER MITE ( Tetranychus telarius ) , BLISTER BEETLES ( Epicauta spp.) and 
ARMY CUTWORM. Total acreage 209,957; total yield 14,268,980 bu. ; unit value 
$1.15; total value $16,409,327; total loss 432,392 bu. ; loss value $497,250; 
acres infested 131,263; acres controlled 62,523; acres grasshopper controlled 
59,900; cost of control $154,996; savings $688,630. 



- 12 - 

Silage Corn Insects : The same conditions and pests were prevalent as for ear 
corn. Total acreage 179,381; total yield 2,009,804 tons; unit value $30; total 
value $60,294,120; total loss 97,024 tons; loss value $2,910,720; acres 
infested 107,397; acres controlled 30,397; acres grasshopper controlled 59,900; 
cost of control $91,418; savings $15,737,630. 

Sweet Corn Insects : Losses were caused by CORN EARWORM , FALL ARMYWORM , CORN 
LEAF APHID, SEED-CORN MAGGOT, TWO-SPOTTED SPIDER MITE and WESTERN CORN R00TW0RM. 
Total acreage 1,759; total yield 89,810 cwt.; unit value $3; total value 
$269,430; total loss 5,766 cwt.; loss value $17,298; acres infested 1,759; 
acres controlled 1,022; acres grasshopper controlled 7 50; cost of control $2,419; 
savings $23,385. 

Dry Bean Insects : Yield was reduced by BEET LEAFHOPPER (Circulifer tenellus ) , 
MEXICAN BEAN BEETLE ( Epilachna varivestis ) , FLEA BEETLES ( Systena blanda , 
Epitrix spp.) , TWO-SPOTTED SPIDER MITE ( Tetranychus telarius ) , ONION THRIPS 
( Thrips tabaci ) and WESTERN BEAN CUTWORM ( Loxagrotis albicosta ) . Total acreage 
148,120; total yield 1,651,724 cwt.; unit value $5.75; total value $9,497,413; 
total loss 34,319 cwt.; loss value $197,334; acres infested 84,544; acres con- 
trolled 38,037; acres grasshopper controlled 15,585; cost of control $159,940; 
savings $342,194. 

Sugar Beet Insects : BEET LEAFHOPPER caused a 30-40 percent loss largely because 
of curly top, on the western slope. Loss on the eastern slope was 1-2 percent. 
Light losses were caused by GRASSHOPPERS ( Melanoplus spp.) , BEET WEBWORM 
( Loxostege sticticalis) , YELLOW WOOLLYBEAR ( Diacris'ia virginica ) and BLISTER 
BEETLES ( Epicauta spp.). Total acreage 137,321; total yield 2,262,377 tons; 
unit value $12; total value $27,148,524; total loss 57,349 tons; loss value 
$688,188; acres infested 56,056; acres controlled 31,689; acres grasshopper 
controlled 26,208; cost of control $76,482; savings $894,972. 

Potato Insects : Pests included POTATO PSYLLID (Paratrioza cockerelli ) , POTATO 
APHID ( Macrosiphum solanifolii ) , GREEN PEACH APHID ( Myzus persicaeT T FLEA 
BEETLES ( Systena blanda , Epitrix tuberis ) , LEAFHOPPERS ( Macrosteles fascrifons , 
Empoasca spp.) , FALSE CHINCH BUGS~^ Nysius spp.) and VARIEGATED CUTWORM ( Peridroma 
margaritosa ) . Total acreage 59,390; total yield 13,065,800 cwt.; unit value 
$2. 50; total value $32,634,500; total loss 182,921 cwt.; loss value $457,304; 
acres infested 52,980; acres controlled 43,117; acres grasshopper controlled 
4,390; cost of control $260,997; savings $16,332,250. 

Lettuce Insects : Light losses were caused by CABBAGE LOOPER ( Trichoplusia ni ) , 
BEET WEBWORM, SIX-SPOTTED LEAFHOPPER ( Macrosteles fascifrons ) and POTATO APHID 
( Macrosiphum solanifolii ) . Total acreage 12,250; total yield 3,450,000 cartons; 
unit value $1; total value $3,450,000; total loss 62,500 cartons; loss value 
$62,500; acres infested 10,010; acres controlled 9,500; cost of control $19,000; 
savings $1,150,000. 

Onion Insects : Damage was caused by SEED-CORN MAGGOT ( Hylemya cilicrura ) , ONION 
THRIPS and BEET WEBWORM. Major losses were due to disease rather than insects. 
Total acreage 10,970; total yield 2,921,000 cwt.; unit value $2; total value 
$5,842,000; total loss 77,984 cwt.; loss value $155,968; acres infested 9,240; 
acres controlled 9,240; acres grasshopper controlled 4,270; cost of control 
$57,57 5; savings $1,460,500. 

Cabbage Insects: Losses were produced by CABBAGE LOOPER, DIAMONDBACK MOTH 
( Plutella maculipennis) , HARLEQUIN BUG ( Murgantia histrionica ) and LYGUS BUGS 
( Lygus spp.) . The latter were responsible for most of the damage. Total 
acreage 5,325; total yield 12,162 cwt.; unit value $1.50; total value $18,243; 
total loss 373 cwt.; loss value $559; acres infested 4,624; acres controlled 
3,975; acres grasshopper controlled 1,500; cost of control $16,650; savings 
$9,121. 



- 13 - 

Tomato Insects : Losses were caused by TOMATO FRUITWORM ( Heliothis zea ) , TOMATO 
HORNWORM ( Protoparce quinquemaculata ) , TOMATO PSYLLID ( Paratrioza cockerelli) 
and BEET LEAFHOPPER . Major loss on the western slope was caused by curly top 
disease transmitted by beet leaf hopper . Total acreage 3,449; total yield 
44,501 tons; unit value $24; total value $1,068,024; total loss 8,971 tons; 
loss value $215,304; acres infested 2,106; acres controlled 1,471; acres 
grasshopper controlled 765; cost of control $6,266; savings $498,744. 

Snap Bean Insects : Major pests included BEET LEAFHOPPER, MEXICAN BEAN BEETLE, 
FLEA BEETLES ( Systena blanda, Epitrix spp.) , TWO-SPOTTED SPIDER MITE and THRIPS. 
Total acreage 2,139; total yield 7,914 tons; unit value $100; total value 
$791,400; total loss 331 tons; loss value $33,100; acres infested 1,963; acres 
controlled 1,963; acres grasshopper controlled 1,030; cost of control $12,293; 
savings $395,700. 

Apple Insects : Yield was influenced by CODLING MOTH ( Carpocapsa pomonella ) , 
TWO-SPOTTED SPIDER MITE ( Tetranychus telarius) , CLOVER MITE ( Bryobia praetiosa 
complex - ) , WOOLLY APPLE APHID ( Eriosoma lanigerum ) and APPLE APHID ( Aphis pomT T. 
Total acreage 16,020; total yield 3,312,500 bu. ; unit value $2; total value " 
$6,625,000; total loss 32,616 bu. ; loss value $65,332; acres infested 16,020; 
acres controlled 15,970; cost of control $191,640; savings $1,656,250. 

Peach Insects : Major loss was from catfacing by LYGUS BUGS ( Lygus elisus, 
L. hesperus) and light losses were sustained from CLOVER MITE ( Bryobia p"raetiosa 
complex) , PEACH SILVER MITE ( Vasates cornutus ) , PEACH TWIG BORER ( Anarsia 
lineatella ) and PEACH TREE BORER ( Sanninoidea exitiosa ) . Total acreage 7,750; 
total yield 1,433,500 bu. ; unit value $2; total value $2,867,000; total loss 
310,000 bu. ; loss value $620,000; acres infested 7,150; acres controlled 6,140; 
cost of control $36,840; savings $1,433,500. 

Pear Insects : Yield was reduced by CODLING MOTH, TWO-SPOTTED SPIDER MITE, 
PEAR LEAF BLISTER MITE ( Eriophyes pyri ) and RED-BANDED LEAF ROLLER ( Argyrotaenia 
velutinana ) . Total acreage 1,030; total yield 196,500 bu. ; unit value $2; total 
value $393,000; total loss 17,310 bu. ; loss value $34,620; acres infested 1,030; 
acres controlled 1,030; cost of control $10,300; savings $196,500. 

Estimated Insect Control, Cost of Control, Loss and Savings - 1958 

Total rangeland acres 27,322,260 

Total crop acres 3,782,869 

Total acres fruit trees 24,500 

Total acres controlled 3,972,152 

Total crop value $348,349,549 

Total loss value $ 15,100,160 

Total control cost $ 4,096,355 

Total savings $ 55,20 5,526 

Values given are estimates only for the crops included in the report. 



- 14 - 
COOPERATIVE SURVEY ENTOMOLOGISTS 



Alabama Walter H. Grimes, Entomology 

Department, Alabama Polytechnic 
Institute, Auburn 

Arizona Vacancy 

Arkansas W. P. Boyer, College of 

Agriculture, University of 
Arkansas, Fayetteville 

California Ronald M. Hawthorne, Department 
of Agriculture, Sacramento 

Colorado Leonard E. Jenkins, Department 
of Entomology, Colorado State 
University, Fort Collins 

Delaware Paul P. Burbutis, Department 
of Entomology, University of 
Delaware , Newark 

Florida Robert E. Woodruff, State 
Plant Board, Gainesville 

Georgia W. C. Johnson, Extension 

Service, University of Georgia, 
College of Agriculture, Athens 

Idaho B. A. Foote, Entomology 

Department, University of 
Idaho, Moscow 

Illinois Clarence E. White, Illinois 

Agriculture Extension Service, 

280 Natural Resources Building, 
Urbana 

Kansas Leroy L. Peters, Department 
of Entomology, Kansas State 
College, Manhattan 

Louisiana William T. Spink, Department 
of Entomology, Louisiana 
State University, Baton Rouge 3 

Maryland Wallace C. Harding, Jr., 
Department of Entomology, 
University of Maryland, 
College Park 

Minnesota Robert Flaskerd, Department of 
Agriculture, Division of Plant 
Industry, University Farm, 
301 Coffey Hall, St. Paul 1 

Missouri George W. Thomas, Department 
of Entomology, University of 
Missouri, 106 Whitten Hall, 
Columbia 



Nebraska Vacancy 

Nevada Robert C. Bechtel , 

Department of Agriculture, 
P. 0. Box 1027, Reno 

New Mexico Gerald L. Nielsen, State 

Department of Agriculture, 
Division of Plant Industry, 
Box 728, State College 

North Carolina Maurice H. Farrier, 

Department of Entomology, 
Box 5215, State College 
Station, Raleigh 



North Dakota 



Oklahoma 



Oregon 



Rhode Island 



South Dakota 



Tennessee 
Texas 



Virginia 



West Virginia 



Wisconsin 



Vance V. Goodfellow, Office 
of State Entomologist, 
State College Station , Fargo 

H. W. VanCleave, Department 
of Entomology, Oklahoma 
State University , Stillwater 

Guy A. Konnersman, Division 
of Plant Industry, Agricul- 
tural Building, Salem 

Harry L. Hansen, Department 
of Plant Pathology-Entomo- 
logy, University of Rhode 
Island, Kingston 

Gale Mast, Entomolgy-Zool- 
ogy Department, South 
Dakota State College, 
College Station 

Vacancy 

J. H. Hawkins, Department 
of Entomology, Texas A & M 
College, College Station 

Arthur P. Morris, Virginia 
Polytechnic Institute, 
Blacksburg 

William H. Gillespie, 721 
Nomi Street, Morgantown or 
Brooks Hall, West Virginia 
University , Morgantown 

Philip W. Smith, Plant 
Industry Division, Wis- 
consin Department of Agri- 
culture, 315 N. Carroll 
Street, Madison 3 



Wyoming Arlen Davison, Department of 
Entomology, University of 
Wyoming, Laramie 



- 15 - 
INSECTS NOT KNOWN TO OCCUR IN THE UNITED STATES 

BRAZILIAN COTTON BORER ( Eutinobothrus brasiliensis (Hambleton) ) 

Economic Importance : This weevil has been known as a pest in Brazil since 
190 5, but in recent years it has become a major pest of cotton in that 
country. During the 1935-36 crop season in the State of Sao Paulo, it 
caused an estimated loss of about 30,000 tons. Early planted cotton is 
attacked first, infestations sometimes reaching 95 percent during the first 
three months of the season and plant mortality being estimated at 50 percent. 
A closely related species, Eutinobothrus gossypii (Pierce) , occurs in Peru 
and Ecuador and attacks cotton in much the same manner as E. brasiliensis 
in Brazil. 

Distribution : Eastern Brazil and the Chaco of Argentina. 

Hosts : Occurs on cotton, okra, hibiscus, roselle, f loss-silktree and numer- 
ous other species of malvaceous plants. Gossypium pur pur as c ens is the 
species of cotton most severely attacked and G. trilobum the least. 




General Distribution of Eutinobothrus brasiliensis 

Life History and Habits : Adults overwinter in trash or malvaceous weeds , 
but true hibernation has not been observed and oviposition may continue 
throughout the year where conditions permit. Overwintered females appear 
in September and October in Sao Paulo and oviposit until April, females of 
subsequent generations lay eggs through the crop season and the winter. 
Each female will lay about 160 eggs. Eggs are laid singly, in small 
cavities beneath the surface of the stem or root, and occasionally in the 
boll. The lower portion of the stem is preferred. Eggs hatch in 5-18 days 
and larvae bore into the center of the stem or root, often killing the plant. 
In older plants, larvae are almost entirely confined to the area between 
the bark and woody tissue. Feeding galleries run in all directions, often 
encircling the plant and causing death. In heavily infested plants, eggs 
are laid in aerial parts and larvae feed largely in the pith. Feeding in 
green bolls is limited to the pericarp. Larvae pass through 5 molts and 
complete their development in 29 to 88 days, varying with plant and temper- 
ature conditions. Infested plants may die rapidly or their foliage may 
turn reddish-brown in hot weather. Pupation takes from 8 to 31 days. The 
adult remains in the cell 3 to 26 days before emergence. Average develop- 
ment from egg to adult during the favorable season is 74 days. Adults feed 
first on stems and tender foliage of growing plants, later on stalks near 
the soil surface. All stages may be found throughout the year. 



(Curculionidae , Coleoptera) 



No. 73 of Series 



16 - 



Description: Adult head and body dark blackish-brown, slightly brilliant. 
Antennae yellow-ferrugineous ; scape smooth, attenuate in middle, dilated on 
distal half; funicle with 7 segments, first longest and thickest, second 
narrower, longer than broad, following progressively smaller. Eyes elliptical, 
depressed, shiny black, about one-third hidden by postocular lobe of prothorax. 
Rostrum pubescent, moderately arched, roughly punctate . Prothorax densely 
punctate , appearing grooved, anterior portion shiny, lateral lobes somewhat 
prominent, scutellum small, triangular. Elytra at least 2 \ times longer than 
thorax, lateral margins subparallel , each with 6 longitudinal stripes. 
(Stripes smaller than in E. gossypii . ) Entire surface finely reticulate . 
Legs brownish-yellow; femur roughly grooved and with numerous spines or 
pale-yellow adjacent scales. All tibia strongly ungulate at extremities. 
Abdomen finely reticulate ventrally with fine punctures. Fifth abdominal 
sternite in male with extremity truncate; rounded and somewhat curved below 
in female. Total length 3.04 to 4.87 mm.; width 1.4 to 2.10 mm. Mature larva 
typically curculinoid in shape; body color varies from white to cream, some- 
times with reddish tinge; head characteristic yellowish-brown with borders 
slightly darkened. Length 5.83 to 7.04 mm.; width 2.14 to 2.54 mm. Pupa 
uniformly white at first, later turning cream colored. Length 3.90 to 5.77 mm.: 
width 1.87 to 2.61 mm. (prepared in Plant Pest Survey in cooperation with other 
ARS agencies.) CEIR 9 (2) 1-9-59. 







Larva, Pupa and Adult of E. brasiliensis 



Figures (except map): Adult from Hambleton, E. J. 1937. Rev. de 
Entomologia 7(4) : 345-350 . Larva and pupa from Hambleton, E.J. 1937. Inst. 
Biologico Arch. 8(4):47-106. 



w# 



[TED 



STATES DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE 
ikSBINGTON 2£, D. C. 
.Official -Business 





YV^ ~J 1 \ 



nalty for Private Use to Avoj 
Payment of Postage, $300;' 




r ten,, 





AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH SERVICE 
PLANT PEST CONTROL DIVISION 

PLANT PEST SURVEY 



The Cooperative Economic Insect Report is issued 
weekly as a service to American Agriculture. Its contents 
are compiled from information supplied by cooperating State, 
Federal, and industrial entomologists and other agricultural 
workers. In releasing this material the Division serves as 
a clearinghouse and does not assume responsibility for ac- 
curacy of the material. 



Reports and inquiries pertaining to this release 
should be mailed to: 

Plant Pest Survey 

Plant Pest Control Division 

Agricultural Research Service 

United States Department of Agriculture 

Washington 25, D. C. 



Volume 9 January 16, 1959 Number 3 



COOPERATIVE ECONOMIC INSECT REPORT 



Highlights of Insect Conditions 

BEET LEAFHOPPER surveys in California. Populations for 1959 in Utah may be 
lower than in 1958. (p. 20). 

Abundance of GREEN PEACH APHID on potatoes in Dade County, Florida, and on 
sugar beets in Imperial County, California, indicates that situations may 
become serious. (p. 20). 

Fall BOLL WEEVIL survey State average in Georgia lower than in 1957. (p. 21). 

INSECT DETECTION: A weevil ( Sitona californicus ) reported for first time from 
Utah. (p. 19). A black fly ( Simulium decorum ) apparently new to Florida, 
(p. 22). A zorapteron ( Zorotypus hubbardi) reported from Oklahoma for the 
first time. (p. 22) . 

SUMMARY OF INSECT CONDITIONS - 1958 - MONTANA. (p. 23). 

INSECTS not known to occur in the United States. (p. 27). 



******************* 



Reports in this issue are for the period ending January 9, unless otherwise 
indicated. 



- 18 - 

WEATHER FOR THE WEEK ENDING JANUARY 12, 1959 

Last week was one of rising temperatures in the western half of the Nation, but 
extreme cold continued to grip the East as a new surge of Arctic air late in the 
week pushed the freeze line deep into the Florida Peninsula. Temperatures for 
the week averaged above normal in the West and below in the East, with the 
dividing line joining Duluth , Minnesota, and El Paso, Texas. Average departures 
from normal ranged from 12° above in the Pacific Northwest to 15° below in the 
upper Ohio Valley. This week was warmer than the previous week by 8° at Phoenix, 
Arizona, 16° at Boise, Idaho, and 24° at Amarillo, Texas, and Denver, Colorado, 
but colder than the previous week by 10° at New Orleans, Louisiana, 12° at 
Detroit, Michigan, 19° at Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, and 14° at Jacksonville, 
Florida. By the end of the week, freezing extended into the Everglades of 
Florida, with scattered, light frost near Lake Okeechobee and heavy frost away 
from the lake. At most locations where freezing occurred, however, duration 
of critical temperatures was short and crop damage was mostly minor. 

Strong winds on several days in the Northeast made the cold more disagreeable 
and increased heating requirements. Ice in the Chesapeake Bay and its inflowing 
tributaries is now the heaviest in many years this early in the season. In 
northern areas, where extreme lows ranged from -37° at Winter, Wisconsin, to 
-17° at Newport, Vermont, ice was 16 inches thick at Greenville, Maine, 21 
inches at Minneapolis, Minnesota, and 24 inches at Bismarck, North Dakota. 
Frost penetration in the ground ranged from 2 to 3 feet in northeastern 
Connecticut, and was as much as 12 inches in parts of Kansas. Moderate to 
heavy precipitation was mainly limited to the Pacific States and parts of the 
South. Totals up to 7.5 inches were reported along the north Pacific coast, 
with moderate to heavy amounts as far south as Santa Maria, California. Heavy 
snow fell in the Cascade and Sierra Nevada Mountains, and several inches in the 
wheat areas of eastern Washington, northeastern Oregon and in the upper Sacra- 
mento Valley of California. Most snow which fell at lower elevations in the 
Far West, however, melted before the end of the week. Winds caused widespread 
damage in California on the 4th and 5th. The week's precipitation was negligible 
in most of the midcontinental area, and by the end of the week the snow cover 
east of the Rockies had retreated mostly to the Canadian Border States. (Summary 
supplied by U. S. Weather Bureau.) 



- 19 - 

CEREAL AND FORAGE INSECTS 

CHINCH BUG ( Blissus leucopterus ) - OKLAHOMA - Hibernation survey in 6 additional 
south central counties showed very severe infestations of 3,980 bugs per square 
foot in Bryan and 2,783 per square foot in Murray Counties. (VanCleave, Vick, 
Drew) . 

GREENBUG ( Toxoptera graminum ) - LOUISIANA - Very low numbers on oats in East 
Baton Rouge Parish. (Spink) . TEXAS - Of 7 panhandle counties surveyed in 
December, 1958, spotted infestations of 5-20 per foot were found in Deaf Smith, 
Castro and Parmer Counties. (Daniels). A light infestation was observed on 
oats in Falls County. (Woods). 

SPOTTED ALFALFA APHID ( Therioaphis maculata ) - OKLAHOMA - Total counts in each 
of 3 Payne County fields on January 9 were 95, 103 and 16, as compared with 
868, 1,136 and 91 on December 6, 1958. (Bieberdorf ) . Heavy infestation caused 
serious damage to a field of fall-planted alfalfa in same county. Control 
measures needed. (Henderson, Drew, VanCleave). KANSAS - Counts per 25 plants 
were 48 in Pottawatomie and 27 in Riley Counties. (Simpson). 

APHIDS - TEXAS - Light , spotted infestations of Rhopalosiphum fitchii , R. subter - 
raneum and R. maidis are present in panhandle area. (Daniels) . 

SPOTTED CUCUMBER BEETLE ( Diabrotica undecimpunctata howardi) - LOUISIANA - 
Averaged 25 per 100 sweeps on oats in East Baton Rouge Parish. (Spink). 

A WEEVIL ( Sitona californicus ) - UTAH - Specimens collected at La Verkin , 
Washington County, and Providence, Cache County, may be new state record. Det. 
V. M. Tanner. (Knowlton) . 

FRUIT INSECTS 

AVOCADO RED MITE ( Oligonychus yothersi ) - FLORIDA - All stages averaged 0-3 

per leaf in avocado groves inspected. Much less abundant than usual and probably 

less so than over a decade. (Fla. Coop. Sur., Dec. 31, 1958). 

HICKORY SHUCKWORM ( Laspeyresia caryana) - TEXAS - Caused some damage to pecans in 
Smith County. (Pryor) . 

NAVEL ORANGEWORM ( Paramyelois transitella ) - CALIFORNIA - Heavy in walnuts in 
Madera, Madera County, and light in walnuts in El Cajon and medium in oranges 
in Escondido, San Diego County. (Cal. Coop. Rpt . ) . 

SCALE INSECTS - CALIFORNIA - Coccus hesperidum medium on citrus and Lepidosaphes 
f icus light on fig trees, both in Orland, Glenn County. Aonidiella citrina heavy 
on an orange tree in Santa Paula, Ventura County. (Cal. Coop. Rpt.)" 

Citrus Insect and Mite Outlook, Lake Alfred, Florida - Infestations of FLORIDA 
RED SCALE will be high through January, and decline in February. The level will 
generally be below average from April to the end of 1959. A below average level 
of CITRUS RED MITE will occur in January and continue through the quarter. 
CITRUS RUST MITE infestations, during January, will start to decline from the 
present level but will remain above the season average through March. TEXAS 
CITRUS MITE will not exceed normal levels. SIX-SPOTTED MITE will be at a low 
level throughout 1959. (Simanton, Jan. 6). 



- 20 - 

TRUCK CROP INSECTS 

BEET LEAFHOPPER ( Circulifer tenellus ) - CALIFORNIA - Surveys the first part of 
December, 1958, showed a light population of 1-2 per sweep for a series of 10 
sweeps, with some high counts of 5-8, throughout the breeding grounds on brushy 
perennials. Toward the end of the month, drying conditions caused a movement 
onto greener perennials in canyons adjacent to Coalinga, with averages of 2-15 
per sweep. Drying of hemizonia from Los Banos Creek to Little Panoche Creek 
caused a concentration on greener plants in the swales. Should the drought 
continue and heavy concentrations persist, some spraying may be accomplished 
in these areas. A survey on 1,000 acres of saltbush near Niland, in Imperial 
Valley, showed the November population of 4 per 10 sweeps had been reduced to 
one in December. Beet leaf hoppers averaged 8 per 100 sweeps in 22 beet fields 
checked, with the highest population of 2-5 per 10 sweeps in a series of 100 
sweeps being in 2 fields east of Calipatria. Some curly-top damage was found 
in most fields, highest being 12-15 percent. Some plantings may suffer consid- 
erable additional damage unless control measures are taken. Survey of breeding 
grounds in the Otay Mesa area, San Diego County, showed that practically no 
winter vegetation had germinated and only an occasional beet leafhopper was 
found on Australian saltbush, mustard and other weed hosts. Approximately 
300 acres of California scalybroom checked in Navaho Canyon, San Luis Obispo 
County, averaged 2.5 beet leaf hoppers per sweep for a series of 10 sweeps. 
(Cal. Beet Leafhopper Prog. Rpt . 58-12). UTAH - Early indications are that 
the 1959 population will be much lower than that of 1958. (Dorst , Knowlton) . 

STRAWBERRY LEAF ROLLER ( Ancylis comptana frageriae ) - CALIFORNIA - Heavy on 
strawberry plantings in the Watsonville area, Santa Cruz County. (Cal. Coop. 
Rpt.) . 

GREEN PEACH APHID ( Myzus persicae ) - FLORIDA - Counts ranged one to hundreds per 
potato plant in Redlands area, Dade County, 6 weeks or more earlier than usual. 
Winged forms dispersing widely. Abundance such that species may become serious. 
(Fla. Coop. Sur., Dec. 31, 1958). CALIFORNIA - Heavy on sugar beets in Brawley- 
El Centro area of Imperial County. Intensity of infestation indicates it may 
become severe in February. (Dickson) . 

POPLAR PETIOLE GALL APHID ( Pemphigus populi-transversus ) - LOUISIANA - On roots 
of watercress in New Orleans area. (Spink) . 

A SERPENTINE LEAF MINER ( Liriomyza sp.) - FLORIDA - All stages averaged 2-3 per 
plant on many inspected on beans, potatoes and tomatoes in Redlands area, Dade 
County. General abundance indicates it may become serious in the area. (Fla. 
Coop. Sur., Dec. 31, 1958). 

A MAGGOT ( Hylemya sp.) - TEXAS - Larvae caused concern and reduced stands of 
onions on new land in Dimmit County. (Harding) . 

ONION THRIPS ( Thrips tabaci ) - TEXAS - Averaged 0-2 per onion plant in Dimmit 
County. Heavy in poorly treated seed beds. (Harding). 

EARWIGS - LOUISIANA - Caused considerable damage to potatoes stacked in field 
for winter consumption. (Spink). 



- 21 - 

COTTON INSECTS 

BOLL WEEVIL ( Anthonomus grandis ) - GEORGIA - Fall examinations of surface woods 
trash adjacent to old cotton fields, to determine the number of boll weevils in 
hibernation, were made in 4 regions November 25 to December 12, 1958. The aver- 
age for the State was 1,133 live weevils per acre of surface trash. This is 
lower than the 8-year average of 1,279 and of 1957 when the counts averaged 
2,081 weevils. Area averages for 1958 and 1957 were, northwest (Gordon County) 
774 and 1,113; north central (Butts, Spalding, Pike, Coweta and Meriwether 
Counties) 2,178 and 5,034; east central (Burke County) 387 and 1,791; and 
south (Tift County) 145 and 387. The averages for 1958 are lower than they 
were for 19 57 in each of the 4 areas. A total of 5 samples, or 90 square feet, 
were taken from each of 50 farms. Live weevils were found on 54 percent of 
the farms examined. The maximum number of weevils per acre found on a single 
farm was 9,196 in Coweta County. (Beckham, Morgan). 



FOREST, ORNAMENTAL AND SHADE TREE INSECTS 

A LEAF ROLLER ( Amorbia essigana ) - CALIFORNIA - Heavy on English laurel in 
Fairfield, Solano County"! (Cal. Coop. Rpt . ) . 

A GALL MIDGE ( Walshomyia juniperina ) - CALIFORNIA - Medium infestations of 
juniper berries in the Coalrnga area of Fresno County. (Cal. Coop. Rpt.). 

CURRANT BORER ( Ramosia tipulif ormis ) - CALIFORNIA - Heavy in currants in Watson- 
ville, Santa Cruz County. (Cal. Coop. Rpt.). 

A MEALYBUG ( Pseudococcus aurilanatus ) - CALIFORNIA - Heavy on araucaria in 
San Mateo, San Mateo County. (Cal . Coop. Rpt.). 

A BARK BEETLE ( Pityophthorus nitidulus ) - CALIFORNIA - Heavy on shore pine in 
the Crescent City area, Del Norte County. (Cal. Coop. Rpt.). 

SCALE INSECTS - TEXAS - Fiorinia theae medium on holly leaves in Fort Bend 
County. (Nowotuy) . CALIFORNIA - Aonidiella aurantii heavy on holly in Fresno, 
Fresno County, and Saissetia oleae medium on California sagebrush in Prunedale , 
Monterey County. (Cal. Coop. Rpt.). 

WHITEFLIES - TEXAS - Caused some damage to gardenia plants in Franklin and Hill 
Counties. (Johnson, Brown). CALIFORNIA - Aleyrodes spiraeoides heavy on bridal 
wreath in Willows, Glenn County. (Cal. Coop. Rpt.). 



INSECTS AFFECTING MAN AND ANIMALS 

CATTLE GRUBS ( Hypo derma spp.) - NORTH CAROLINA - None found in 24 cows and 31 
calves of State College beef herd. One small grub found in 20 fat calves exam- 
ined that were brought from Tyrrell County, June 30, 1958. (Jones, Farrier). 
OKLAHOMA - H. lineatum averaged 12-15 per animal in 80 yearling steers examined 
in Woodward County. Averaged 15-18 per animal in Harper County. In 100 mature 
cows, the average was 7 per animal. (Taylor, Zeve , Howell). KANSAS - None 
found in 11 untreated native yearling heifers. Averaged 0.13 per animal in 58 
treated yearling steers brought in from outside the State, with 4 animals 
infested. Of 61 untreated yearling steers from outside the State, 48 head 
were infested with an average of 16.8 grubs. Larvae averaged 11.1 per animal 
(56 head infested) in 87 animals brought into the State. All cattle examined 
were in Ellis County. (Knapp , Peters). 



- 22 - 

A BLACK FLY ( Simulium decorum ) - FLORIDA - Adults reported biting humans at 
Gretna, Gadsden County, Dec. 10, 1958. Det . A. Stone. This is apparently a 
first record of this species from the State. (Fla. Coop. Sur . ) . 

CATTLE LICE - KANSAS - Heavy on a herd in Ellis County. (Peters) . OKLAHOMA - 
None found on cattle examined in Woodward and Harper Counties. (Taylor, Zeve , 
Howell) . 

NORTHERN FOWL MITE ( Ornithonyssus sylviarum ) - KANSAS - Flock of 600 hens 
infested in Riley County. (Knapp) . 

STORED-PRODUCT INSECTS 

KHAPRA BEETLE ( Tro go derma granarium ) - CALIFORNIA - A light infestation of a 
feed lot in Thermal, Riverside County, is the fourth active infestation in the 
State at present. Inspections on 305 properties in 13 counties gave negative 
results. (Cal. Coop. Rpt . ) . 

FLAT GRAIN BEETLE ( Laemophloeus pusillus ) - TEXAS - Medium in milo in Hays 
County. (Watson) . 

RED-LEGGED HAM BEETLE ( Necrobia rufipes) - VIRGINIA - Heavily damaged stored 
hams at a home in Spotsylvania County. (Morris, Kash, Jan. 3). 

INDIAN-MEAL MOTH ( Plodia interpunctella) - NORTH CAROLINA - Infestation in corn 
in a warehouse in Robeson County"! (Owens , Rabb) . 



MISCELLANEOUS INSECTS , ' 

A SEED BEETLE ( Caryoborus serripes) - FLORIDA - Collected alive Dec. 3, 1958, 
in the seed of 2 species of palms at Miami, Dade County. Det. P. J. Spangler. 
The species has been intercepted a number of times but so far as is known 
has not become established in the United States. The seed had been imported 
from South America for oil extraction and has been destroyed by burning. 
(Fla. Coop. Sur.). 

DERMESTID BEETLES - VIRGINIA - Larvae present in 2 packages of cayenne pepper 
when opened, Blacksburg, Montgomery County. (Amos). 

A WEEVIL ( Gymnaetron tetrum ) - CALIFORNIA - Heavy on weed hosts in the Lodi area 
of San Joaquin County"! (Cal . Coop. Rpt.). 

EARWIGS - LOUISIANA - Heavy in slab homes in New Orleans area. (Spink). 

A ZORAPTERON ( Zorotypus hubbardi ) - OKLAHOMA - Specimen found in decaying saw- 
dust near Harris, McCurtain County, December 31, 1958, constitutes first record 
for the State. (VanCleave , Goin, Jan. 3). 

LIGHT TRAP COLLECTIONS 

Pseudaletia Agrotis Feltia 
unipuncta ypsilon subterranea 

FLORIDA 

Quincy 12/30/58 1 

LOUISIANA 

Baton Rouge 1/2-8 2 11 4 

Franklin 1/7 ,8 12 1 2 



- 23 - 

SUMMARY OF INSECT CONDITIONS - 1958 

MONTANA 

Reported by George Roemhild 

Highlights : Enormous flights of BEET WEBWORM ( Loxostege sticticalis ) moths 
were observed in practically all counties of the State from June 10 to 20. 
Larval damage occurred from July 1 to 30. Sugar beets, alfalfa, mustard, 
flax, rape, garden plants and ornamentals were injured. In some cases, larvae 
fed only on weeds. ENGLISH GRAIN APHID ( Macrosiphum granarium ) was common in 
wheat over wide areas in northern and western Montana during July, but little 
damage resulted. GRASSHOPPER infestations subsided substantially from the 
infested acreage in 1957. 

Cereal and Forage Insects : Numerous reports of large GRASSHOPPER hatches 
were received in the spring. However, in many cases the grasshoppers died, 
in other cases no hatches occurred in areas heavily infested in 1957. No 
consistent factor could be found to account for their disappearance. Popu- 
lations subsided in the northeastern area under extreme drought, in the central 
area with average moisture and in the southwestern area with abundant moisture. 
Conversely, populations remained high in the northwestern area under dry con- 
ditions and in the south central area after two years of heavy rains. Many 
range infestations were of mixed species. Infestations in the northwestern 
area were mostly Melanoplus bilituratus . Only one infestation of MORMON CRICKET 
(Anabrus simplex) was of consequence in 1958. About 5,000 acres in Powell 
County was infested up to 300 per square yard. No damage to range grasses 
occurred when control was" instigated. One damaging infestation of ARMY CUT- 
WORM ( Chorizagrotis auxiliaris) occurred in Liberty County. BLISTER BEETLES 
( Lytta cyanipennis and Pyrota mylabrina ) attacked alfalfa and ornamentals in 
scattered spots over State. FLEA BEETLES (Systena blanda and Phyllotreta 
pusilla ) were generally abundant, damaging alfalfa, potatoes and potato tubers. 
LYGUS BUGS were common and damaging over the State. Pastures in Lake and 
Fergus Counties, and wheat in Park County, were damaged. ALFALFA WEEVIL 
(Hypera postica) caused heavy damage in new areas of infestation in Cascade, 
Teton, Hill and Blaine Counties. ALFALFA LOOPER ( Autographa californica ) 
was more abundant than usual statewide, damaging fields in Teton, Stillwater, 
Judith Basin and Broadwater Counties. PEA APHID ( Macrosiphum pisi) damage 
occurred to some new seeding alfalfa fields. Most populations kept in check 
by predators. CLOVER ROOT CURCULIO ( Sitona hispidula) caused severe damage 
to alfalfa in a pasture seeding mix in Broadwater County. 

Light infestations of PALE WESTERN CUTWORM ( Agrotis orthogonia ) in small grains 
were noted in Fallon, Liberty and Teton Counties. WHEAT STEM SAWFLY ( Cephus 
cinctus) remains a problem in small grains in the north central and northeastern 
areas where Rescue wheat is not grown. Scattered light infestations of WHEAT 
CURL MITE (Aceria tulipae) , resulting in wheat streak mosaic, occurred in 
north central and eastern areas of State. Scattered light infestations of 
WHEAT HEAD ARMYWORM (Faronta diffusa ) were present in the triangle area 
bounded by Havre, Shelby and Great Falls. Little damage resulted. A general 
low-level population of WHITE-LINED SPHINX ( Celerio lineata) developed in the 
northwest and just east of the mountains. Very little damage resulted since 
feeding was confined mostly to weeds. One field of small grain was reported 
severely damaged by HESSIAN FLY ( Phytophaga destructor ) along the Tongue 
River. An infestation of ARMYWORM ( Pseudaletia unipuncta ) in wheat in 
Phillips County resulted in little damage. 



- 24 - 

Fruit Insects : CODLING MOTH ( Carpocapsa pomonella) was abundant in apple 
growing areas where control measures were not applied. APPLE APHID ( Aphis 
pomi) caused little damage since control measures were generally applied 
early in 1958. Heavy infestations of PEAR LEAF BLISTER MITE ( Eriophyes pyri) 
occurred where no control was applied. A great increase in numbers was 
noticed. EYE-SPOTTED BUD MOTH ( Spilonota ocellana) populations declined during 
1958. Infestations were generally centered in Ravalli County. Control for 
BLACK CHERRY FRUIT FLY ( Rhagoletis fausta) was general in commercial orchards . 
Damage to unprotected fruit was high. High populations of WESTERN CHERRY FRUIT 
FLY ( Rhagoletis cingulata indifferens ) were found in several orchards near 
Poison. BLACK CHERRY APHID ( Myzus cerasi) was abundant in most cherry growing 
areas in western part of State. Heavy late infestations of MITES ( Vasates 
f ockeui and Diptacus gigantorhynchus) developed in 1958. Apple trees were 
heavily infested by RED-HUMPED CATERPILLAR ( Schizura concinna) in the western 
part of the State. PEAR-SLUG (Caliroa cerasT ) populations were very heavy. 
Considerable damage occurred where pear-slug was not controlled. OYSTERSHELL 
SCALE ( Lepidosaphes ulmi) caused severe damage to twigs and fruit where not 
controlled. ERIOPHYID MITES were present in large areas of the State and 
caused considerable damage to apple , chokecherry, cherry and plum trees. 
A BORER, closely related to peach tree borer, infested cherry trees in Lake 
County. PLUM GOUGER ( Anthonomus scutellaris) populations were considerably 
reduced. Scattered infestations of CURRANT FRUIT FLY ( Epochra canadensis) 
were reported from most areas. Heavy populations of CURRANT APHID ( Capito - 
phorus ribis ) were scattered both east and west of the mountains. 

Truck Crop Insects : Extremely heavy populations of ONION MAGGOT (Hylemya 
antiqua ) occurred in the south and west during 1958. Usual seed treatment 
control measures failed in some cases, with heavy side dressings of insecticide 
being required. As LEAFHOPPERS were common, virus diseases transmitted by 
these insects were more prevalent. Aster yellows occurred on ornamentals, 
lettuce and flax, while curly top was more common on sugar beets. This latter 
disease infected commercial tomato plantings near Missoula, causing severe 
damage. EUROPEAN EARWIG ( Forf icula auricularia) was common in Bozeman , 
Livingston and surrounding areas, feeding heavily on sweet corn and ornamentals. 
SPINACH LEAF MINER ( Pegomya hyoscyami) damaged spinach and beets in Broadwater 
County during July. Asparagus spears were severely damaged by ASPARAGUS 
BEETLE ( Crioceris asparagi) west of the divide and in Gallatin County. Large 
populations of DIAMONDBACK MOTH ( Plutella maculipennis ) occurred in north 
central mustard and rape fields during July. Damage was general, but not severe 
in most cases. A great deal of damage was caused by SUGAR-BEET ROOT MAGGOT 
( Tetanops myopaeformis) in localized areas during the past two years, with 
fields 95 percent destroyed in some cases. Infestation was more widespread 
in 1958 than 1957, with damage in the Yellowstone and Bitterroot Valleys . 
COLORADO POTATO BEETLE ( Leptinotarsa decemlineata) populations were light to 
heavy in localized areas west of the mountains. Adult flights of IMPORTED 
CABBAGEWORM ( Pieris rapae) were heavy west of the divide, with control required 
in many cases . 

Forest, Ornamental and Shade Tree Insects : CARPENTERWORM ( Prionoxystus 
robiniael attacked ash, cottonwood, elm, boxelder and Chinese elm trees in 
eastern and northeastern parts of the State. A general statewide outbreak of 
TENT CATERPILLARS ( Malacosoma fragilis and M. disstria) occurred on various 
ornamental, fruit and shade trees. EUROPEAN FRUIT LECANIUM ( Lecanium corni 
complex) has become abundant the past two years on rose and caragana. 
MOURNING-CLOAK BUTTERFLY ( Nymphalis antiopa) populations were generally lower 
in 1958. MITES were extremely abundant on ornamentals during August and 
September. An ASH GALL MITE was common on mountain ash in south central and 
western areas and a MAPLE LEAF GALL MITE attacked maple and boxelder in central 
and western areas. ASH PLANT BUG ( Neoborus amoenus) was common statewide. 
SAN JOSE SCALE (Aspidiotus perniciosus) occurred on ash and mountain ash 



- 25 - 

in north central and western areas and a BOXELDER TWIG BORER ( Proteoterus sp.) 
damaged maples in Billings. COTTONWOOD LEAF BEETLE ( Chrysomela scripta complex) 
was very abundant in the plains area and a COTTONWOOD LEAF MINER - (ProTeucoptera 
albella) was common in the north central part of the State. POPLAR PETIOLE 
GALL APHID ( Pemphigus populi-transversus) was also abundant in the plains area. 
POPLAR VAGABOND APHID ( Mordwilkoja vagabunda) was very common on cottonwoods. 
A LEAF MINER ( Phyllocnistis populiella ) was~abundant on poplar in the southern 
mountain area. ELM LEAF APHID ( Myzocallis ulmifollii ) was common on elms over 
the State and EUROPEAN ELM SCALE~T Gossyparia spuria7 ~was scattered west of the 
divide. LILAC LEAF MINER ( Gracilaria syringella) was very abundant in western 
half of the State and POPLAR AND WILLOW BORER ( Sternochetus lapathi) was found 
in Hill County for a first record east of the divide. DRIED-FRUIT BEETLE 
( Carpophilus hemipterus) damaged rose buds in Rosebud County. Forest infestations 
of SPRUCE BUDWORM ( Choristoneura fumiferana) were apparently considerably 
reduced. About 90 percent of the 825,000 acres in the State treated for control 
of this insect developed large populations of SPRUCE SPIDER MITE (Oligonychus 
ununguis ) . There were scattered, moderate infestations of PINE NEEDLE SCALE 
( Phenaca'spis pinifoliae ) statewide. C00LEY SPRUCE GALL APHID ( Chermes cooleyi ) 
was abundant in the western half of the State and a PITCH TWIG MOTH ( Petrova sp.) 
damaged growing tips of shelterbelt pines in Hill County in June. Infestation 
of a CHOKECHERRY MIDGE was general over most of the State. 

Stored-grain Insects : In general, more stored-grain insects appeared in the 
fall of 1958 than during the past few years. Common species were RUSTY GRAIN 
BEETLE ( Laemophloeus ferrugineus ) , SAW-TOOTHED GRAIN BEETLE ( Qryzaephilus 
surinamensis ) , FLOUR BEETLES ( Tribolium confusum , T. castaneum , T. madens ) , 
GRANARY WEEVIL ( Sitophilus granarius ) , CADELLE ( Tenebroides mauritanicus ) and 
PSOCIDS. 

Insects Affecting Man and Animals : BLACK WIDOW SPIDER ( Latrodectus mac tans) 
became very common , but BED BUG ( Cimex lectularius) was generally not very 
common. Several people in Powder River County were bitten by an ASSASSIN BUG 
( Fitchia aptera) and several home and hotel infestations of SWALLOW BUG 
( Oeciacus vicarius) were reported. ROCKY MOUNTAIN WOOD TICK ( Dermacentor 
andersoni ) populations were normal. 

Household Insects : TERMITES ( Reticulitermes tibialis) cause more and more 
concern each year. Infestations of a DEATHWATCH BEETLE ( Xestobium sp.) 
occurred in houses in Powder River and Big Horn Counties, while CARPENTER ANTS 
( Camponotus sp . ) were common in older houses and cabins in the southern part of 
the State. A PINE BORER ( Callidium sp . ) emerged from lumber in a new house 
in Scobey. CLUSTER FLY ( Pollenia rudis) was abundant and annoying, while in 
the western half of the State STRAWBERRY ROOT WEEVIL ( Brachyrhinus ovatus) 
was a common nuisance. Many SUN-SPIDERS (Solpugida) were sent in for 
identification from most areas east of the divide, and JERUSALEM CRICKET 
( Stenopelmatus fuscus) was a common curiosity. DERMESTIDS were very widespread 
and abundant. CLOVER MITE ( Bryobia praetiosa complex) became more abundant 
in 1958. 



27 - 



INSECTS NOT KNOWN TO OCCUR IN THE UNITED STATES 



A NOXIOUS MUSCID FLY ( Musca sorbens Wiedemann) * 

Economic Importance : This muscid is of considerable importance to the welfare 
of man and animals in the Ethiopian and Oriental regions. It is an important 
vector in the transmission of protozoan and bacterial diseases including 
dysentery, yaws, tuberculosis, trachoma, conjunctivitis, typhoid fever, etc. 
Musca sorbens is generally considered to be one of the primary filth flies in 
Guam and some other islands in the Pacific. It is very persistent in attempts 
to feed on open sores or wounds and will often fly into the mouth, nostrils, 
eyes or ears. The healthy flesh around the wounds, in corners of eyes, mouth, 
and around the vulva of cattle and horses in Australia will sometimes appear 
eaten away, leaving cavities. Animals may become so badly affected during 
the fly season that they may have to be destroyed. In Nyasaland it was found 
that 95 percent of the flies that frequent man were M. sorbens , being especial- 
ly attracted by the odor of sweat on the unclean natives. 

Distribution : Occurs in many areas of Africa, Asia and Oceania. It has been 
recorded in Egypt, Sudan, S. Rhodesia, Nyasaland, Uganda, Morocco, Tunisia, 
Libya, Belgian Congo, Sierra Leone, Saudi Arabia, Jordan, Aden, Iraq, India, 
USSR (Azerbaijan, Tadjikistan, Turkestan), North China, Philippine Islands, 
Australia, Guam, New Hebrides, Samoa and Italy. 




General Distribution of Musca sorbens 



Hosts : Attacks man and animals. 

Life History and Habits : Life history and habits in Egypt are as follows: 
This fly is found more frequently outdoors than indoors, being fairly abundant 
in the country, in towns and open desert. Adult emergence is greatest between 
5 and 8 a.m. during the summer. Emergence continues over period of 3-4 days 
in summer and 6-8 days in winter. A single female may lay up to 80 eggs, in 
4 batches. The chief oviposition and breeding medium is human excrement and 
to a lesser extent, cow, buffalo and pig dung. (Horse dung also is preferred 
in Australia.) The species breeds year round with two peaks of season 
abundance; one in the spring and another late in the summer or in the fall. 
The fly is more abundant in districts with inadequate drainage system of sewage 
disposal. The life span at 24-30°C. averages about 21 days for the females 
and 18 days for the males . The females usually preponderate around breeding 
and feeding areas though the sex ratio is 1:1. The eggs hatch in about 6 hours 



♦Also known as the bush fly, Musca vetustissima , in Australia. No. 
(Muscidae, Diptera) 



74 of Series 



- 28 - 

under room conditions. The larvae pass through 3 instars, their duration being 
approximately 7, 14 and 40 hours at room conditions. The feeding larvae prefer 
humidities near saturation, while prepupating larvae prefer humidities with the 
range of 50-60 percent. Pupation takes place at varying depths in soil beneath 
the dung and lasts for approximately 6 days at 24°C. Humidity has no apparent 
effect on the pupa. 

Description : Adult - antennae black; lower face and cheeks black with silky- 
white sheen. Frons deep-black with somewhat yellowish-white silky shining 
margins at eye cavities. Thorax grayish, almost submetallic shining with three 
white-shining stripes, the exterior stripes very broad, median stripe somewhat 
less broad, and in other direction appearing very distinctly gray on somewhat 
paler ground. Sides of thorax with white sheen, which forms nearly 2 oblique 
fasciae. Abdomen blackish with large yellowish-silky shining tessellation. 
Wings colorless, veins yellowish at base, halteres and squamae yellowish-white. 
Legs black. Length about 5-8 mm. Muse a sorbens may be distinguished from 
M. domes tica by the presence of two broad black thoracic stripes compared with 
four narrow stripes in domestica , the lateral, oblique, abdominal bands which 
extend from the anterior to posterior margins and the curvature of vein M-l 
being greater than in domestica . Egg is pearly white, somewhat cylindrical 
with tapering anterior end. Length, 1.6 mm; width 0.4 mm. Third-instar larva 
about 11.2 mm. long, posterior spiracles with 3 sinuous slits surrounded by 
D-shaped peritreme, the latter being much thicker than in M. domestica . Pupa 
is dark brown or chestnut, about 5.9 mm. in length; width 2". 4 mm. (Prepared 
in Plant Pest Survey in cooperation with other ARS agencies.) CEIR 9(3)1-16-59 





Dorsal Surface of Thorax 
of (A) female and (B) male 
Adults of M. sorbens 




Adult of M. sorbens 



Posterior Spiracles of Mature 
Larva of (A) M. domestica 
and (B) M. sorbens 



Figures (except map) : Adult from Iyo Konchu Gaku (Medical Entomology) Vol. 2, 
pp. 1135-1136, 1943. (In Jap.) Dorsal surface of thorax from Smart, J. 1943. 
A Handbook for the Identification of Insects of Medical Importance. 269 pp. , 
London. Spiracles of mature larva from James, M. T. 1947. U. S. Dept. Agr. 
Misc. Pub. 631, 175 pp. 



# 



TED STATES DEPARTMENT OF AGR 
WASHINGTON 25, D. C. 




>Lz_/llM \ 



Penalty for Private Use to Avoid 
^te Payment of Postage, $300 



AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH SERVICE 



PLANT PEST CONTROL DIVISION 



SURVEYS DETECTION OPERATIONS 



The Cooperative Economic Insect Report is issued 
weekly as a service to American Agriculture. Its contents 
are compiled from information supplied by cooperating State, 
Federal, and industrial entomologists and other agricultural 
workers. In releasing this material the Division serves as 
a clearing house and does not assume responsibility for ac- 
curacy of the material. 



Reports and inquiries pertaining to this release 
should be mailed to: 

Survey & Detection Operations 



Plant Pest Control Division 

Agricultural Research Service 

United States Department of Agriculture 

Washington 25, D. C. 



Volume 9 January 23, 1959 Number 4 



COOPERATIVE ECONOMIC INSECT REPORT 



Highlights of Insect Conditions 

BOLL WEEVIL hibernation counts, Mississippi, Fall, 1958. (p. 31). 

FIR ENGRAVER and WESTERN PINE BEETLE increasing in areas of California, 
(p. 32). 

SUMMARY OF INSECT CONDITIONS - 1958 - TEXAS (p. 33); LOUISIANA (p. 35). 

STATE CLEARING OFFICES for Economic Insect Survey Reports. (p. 39). 

INSECTS not known to occur in the United States. (p. 43). 

GRASSHOPPER adult survey, Fall, 1958. (map). (following p. 44). 



The name Plant Pest Survey Section has been changed to Survey and Detection 
Operations. The address remains the same. 



*********************** 



Reports in this issue are for the period ending January 16, unless otherwise 
indicated. 



- 30 - 

WEATHER BUREAU 30 -DAY OUTLOOK 

MID- JANUARY TO MID-FEBRUARY 1959 

The Weather Bureau's 30-day outlook for the period mid-January to mid-February 
calls for temperatures to average below seasonal normals from the Continental 
Divide eastward to the Atlantic Seaboard, with greatest departures over the 
southern half of the country. Above normal temperatures are indicated west of 
the Divide. Precipitation is expected to exceed normal along the Gulf Coast 
and the Atlantic Seaboard, with considerable snow from Virginia northward. 
Subnormal amounts are indicated for the Missouri and upper Mississippi Valley 
areas and also the western intermountain States. In unspecified areas about 
normal precipitation is in prospect. 

Weather forecast given here is based on the official 30-day "Resume and Outlook", 
published twice a month by the Weather Bureau. You can subscribe through 
Superintendent of Documents, Washington 25, D. C. Price $4.80 a year, $2.40 a 
half year. 

WEATHER OF THE WEEK ENDING JANUARY 19 

For the second consecutive week unusually mild temperatures persisted in the Far 
West, while in the East unseasonably mild temperatures the first half of the 
period again were followed by subzero minima in north central areas and a 
weekend cold wave which pushed the freeze line to the Gulf coast and deep into 
the Florida Peninsula. Average temperatures for the week ranged from 3° to 15° 
above normal from the western Great Plains to the Pacific coast and 3° to 12° 
below normal from the Mississippi Valley to the Atlantic coast. With 4 days of 
subzero minima in north central areas and lows of -30° at International Falls 
and Bemidji, Minnesota, on the 17th (Saturday), the thickness of ice increased 
and in Minnesota ranged from 10 inches in the south to 40 inches in the north. 
An abnormal thickness of ice continued to impede water traffic in the Chesapeake 
Bay. Freeze or frost occurred in northern and central Florida on about 4 days 
and in the southern interior of the State on 2 to 3 days, but temperatures 
remained above the freezing level on the lower east coast. 

Moderate to heavy precipitation was mostly limited to areas east of the Ohio and 
lower Mississippi Valleys, and the Pacific Northwest, and most of it fell during 
the first half of the week. Rains furnished beneficial moisture to many south- 
eastern sections, but frequent rains in the Pacific Northwest caused heavy 
runoff and considerable soil erosion. Owing to mild temperatures in the Far 
West little snow fell in agricultural areas and the ground there is bare. 
Snowfall in the west central Great Plains early in the period ranged up to 10 
inches in southeastern Colorado , but much of this snow melted before the end of 
the week. Snow fell in the East on the 16th and 17th, with amounts ranging from 
2 to 3 inches in eastern Kentucky and Tennessee, the upper Ohio Valley and north- 
eastern Interior. During the weekend, 51 inches of snow was reported to have 
fallen in 48 hours at Bennetts Bridge, New York, which is located about 10 to 15 
miles east of Lake Ontario. On the 16th and 17th near Lake Michigan, 15 to 20 
inches of snow fell in southern portions of Berrien and Cass Counties, Michigan, 
and South Bend, Indiana, measured 16 inches which, drifted by strong winds, 
virtually paralyzed the city's transportation. In the Mississippi Valley and 
Great Plains, the ground was mostly bare at the end of the week, except near 
the Canadian Border where depths ranged up to 41 inches at Houghton, Michigan. 
(Summary supplied by U. S. Weather Bureau.) 



31 - 



CEREAL AND FORAGE INSECTS 

CHINCH BUG ( Blissus leucopterus ) - OKLAHOMA - Hibernation survey in 9 additional 
counties showed a severe infestation of 1,221 bugs per square foot in Jefferson 
County. (PPC, State Coop.). 

GREENBUG ( Toxoptera graminum ) - OKLAHOMA - Averaged 0-9 per linear foot in 
scattered fields of fall-seeded wheat in northwestern and panhandle areas. 
(VanCleave, Latham). TEXAS - Averaged less than one per linear foot on wheat 
in Hunt County. (Davis). NEW MEXICO - Infestations remain light on wheat. 
Present in majority of fields in Quay and Curry Counties. (N. M. Coop. Rpt . ) . 

APPLE GRAIN APHID ( Rhopalosiphum fitchii ) - OKLAHOMA - Averaged 25-400 per 
linear foot in fields of fall-seeded wheat in northwestern and panhandle areas. 
(VanCleave, Latham). 

PEA APHID ( Macrosiphum pisi ) - NEW MEXICO - Populations in alfalfa fields in 
southern counties reduced by cold weather. (N. M Coop. Rpt.). 



WINTER GRAIN MITE ( Penthaleus major ) 
oats in Hunt County"! (Davis) . 



A SCALE ( Odonaspis ruthae ) 
January 12"! (Bibby) 



TEXAS - Light to medium on wheat and 
ARIZONA - Severe on Bermuda grass lawn in Phoenix 



COTTON INSECTS 



Boll Weevi 



trash were 



Averages by Area 



1 Hibernation Counts, Mississippi, Fall, 1958 - Collections of woods 
started November 6 and completed December 9. Two square yards were 
included in each sample, with three samples being taken 
from each location. Samples were taken from either seven 
or eight locations in each area. Wherever possible, the 
samples were taken from locations that could be sampled 
again in the spring of 1959. The State was divided into 
four areas, with four counties per area, as follows: 
1 - Lower delta (Sharkey, Issaquena, Yazoo, Humphries 
Counties); 2 - Central delta (Washington, Bolivar, 
Sunflower, Leflore Counties) ; 3 - North delta 
(Coahoma, Tunica, Quitman, Panola Counties); and 
4 - Hill section (Holmes, Madison, Noxubee, Monroe 
Counties) . Ninety samples were taken from 30 loca- 
tions in each area, totaling 360 samples. The 
average number of weevils per acre in areas 1, 2, 3 
and 4 were 4,242, 4,909, 2,960 and 3,057 respectively, 
as compared with 5,243, 6,269, 11,264 and 4,087 for 
the respective areas in the fall of 1957. The average 
number of weevils per acre for the State was 3,792, 
as compared with 6,716 for 1957 and 2,091 for 1956. 
(Ent. Res., PPC, State Coop.). 




PINK BOLLWORM ( Pectinophora gossypiella ) - OKLAHOMA - Inspection of dry cotton 
bolls collected and examined from the more heavily infested area of Kiowa County, 
near Snyder, since severe freezes during December, 1958, show a very high larval 
mortality. Fifty bolls from standing stalks had 29 infested with 70 dead larvae 
and 50 bolls from on the ground had 16 infested with 16 dead larvae. No larvae 
found alive in bolls inspected. (Burke) . 



- 32 - 

FOREST, ORNAMENTAL AND SHADE TREE INSECTS 

SEQUOIA PITCH MOTH ( Vespamima sequoiae ) - CALIFORNIA - Heavy infestation of 
Monterey pine in Santa Cruz, Santa Cruz County. (Cal. Coop. Rpt . ) . 

ORANGE TORTRIX ( Argyrotaenia citrana) - CALIFORNIA - This species and Holcocera 
iceryaella medium on Atlas cedar in Monterey, Monterey County. (Cal. Coop. Rpt.). 

FIR ENGRAVER ( Scolytus ventralis ) - CALIFORNIA - Reported as increasing in grand 
fir in Humboldt County forest area. (Hofsted) . 

WESTERN PINE BEETLE ( Den droc tonus brevicomis ) - CALIFORNIA - Severely damaged 
ponderosa and Coulter pines in a 600-acre stand with 75-100 trees infested as 
compared to 7 trees infested in 1958, in the Figuroa Mountain area, San Bernar- 
dino County. (Pierce) . 

MEXICAN MEALYBUG ( Phenacoccus gossypii ) - CALIFORNIA - Heavy on poinsettias in 
Manteca, San Joaquin County. (Cal . Coop. Rpt.). 

SCALE INSECTS - CALIFORNIA - Chrysomphalus rossi heavy on araucaria in San Mateo, 
Saissetia hemisphaerica medium on Atlas cedar in Monterey and Aspidiotus perni - 
ciosus light on euonymus in Exeter. (Cal. Coop. Rpt.). 

SOUTHERN RED MITE ( Oligonychus ilicis ) - MARYLAND - Eggs abundant on Japanese 
holly at Frederick, Frederick County. (U. Md. , Ent. Dept . ) . 



INSECTS AFFECTING MAN AND ANIMALS 



CATTLE GRUBS ( Hypo derma spp.) - VIRGINIA - Appearing in backs of cattle examined 
in Washington, Albemarle and Sussex Counties. None found in cattle examined in 
King George and Charlotte Counties. (Turner, Morris). SOUTH CAROLINA - Counts 
as high as 16 per untreated animal were found in Richland County and as high as 
20 in Colleton County. (Nettles, et al . ) . UTAH - Becoming common in backs of 
young cattle in some areas of Box Elder, Weber and Utah Counties. (Knowlton) . 
NEW MEXICO - Averaged 20-30 per head in cattle checked in Union County. (N. M. 
Coop. Rpt.) . 

CATTLE LICE - VIRGINIA - Solenopotes capillatus light on cattle examined in a 
herd in King George County and one herd in Charlotte County. (Turner, Morris). 
UTAH - Common to troublesome in herds in Box Elder County. Some herds treated. 
(Knowlton) . 

TROPICAL RAT MITE ( Ornithonyssus bacoti ) - TEXAS - Annoying residents in Vernon, 
Wilbarger County. (Riley) . 

LIGHT TRAP COLLECTIONS 

Pseudaletia Agrotis Feltia 
unipuncta ypsilon subterannea 

LOUISIANA 

Baton Rouge 1/9-15 4 6 12 

Franklin 1/9-13 1 1 

SOUTH CAROLINA 

Charleston 1/5-11 4 1 2 



- 33 - 
SUMMARY OF INSECT CONDITIONS - 1958 

TEXAS 

Prepared by J. H. Hawkins 

Highlights : SORGHUM WEBWORM populations were extremely heavy on grain sorghum. 
SOUTHWESTERN CORN BORER was heavy in corn on the high plains. COTTON FLEA- 
HOPPER continued heavy migrations into cotton fields. A FALSE CHINCH BUG 
caused extensive damage in grain sorghum fields. Infestations of WALNUT 
CATERPILLAR were heaviest in 25 years. CABBAGE LOOPER and CORN EARWORM caused 
heavy damage to vegetables on the high plains. 

Cereal and Forage Insects : GREENBUG ( Toxoptera graminum ) did not develop into 
economic problems in the panhandle. A light infestation was observed on a 
clump of volunteer wheat near Amarillo in late August. Some economic damage 
was reported in the north central area. WINTER GRAIN MITE ( Penthaleus major ) 
infestations were light to heavy in the south and north central areas, especially 
in fields planted to small grains for several years. BROWN WHEAT MITE ( Petrobia 
latens ) occurred in isolated areas. CUTWORMS ( Agrotis ypsilon , Chorizagrotis 
auxiliaris and Peridroma margaritosa) and ARMYWORM ( Pseudaletia~unipunctal 
infestations in vetch and small grain were not as high as in 1957, but did 
cause economic damage. SPOTTED ALFALFA APHID ( Therioaphis maculata ) was light 
and spotted. CORN LEAF APHID ( Rhopalosiphum maidis ) i caused considerable damage 
to small grains and grain sorghum in north and south central and southwest 
areas. CORN FLEA BEETLE ( Chaetocnerna pulicaria ) caused heavy damage to young 
corn plants in north central area. SORGHUM WEBWORM ( Celama sorghiella ) infes- 
tations were extremely heavy on grain sorghum statewide. An average of 25 
larvae per head was observed in the Brazos River Valley. A heavy infestation 
of SORGHUM MIDGE ( Contarinia sorghicola ) occurred on late-planted grain sorghum 
in south central, upper coastal and eastern areas. CORN EARWORM ( Heliothis 
zea ) severely damaged grain sorghum, peanuts and corn in all sections. 
FALL ARMYWORM ( Laphygma frugiperda ) caused considerable damage to corn, grain 
sorghum, pastures and small grains. BEET ARMYWORM ( Laphygma exigua ) averaged 
2 to 5 per sweep on alfalfa in the Brazos River Valley. A WEEVIL ( Anacentrinus 
deplanatus) occurred in damaging numbers on grain sorghum in central Texas . 
THREE-CORNERED ALFALFA HOPPER ( Spissistilus festinus ) was heavy on alfalfa in 
the south central area and damaged peanuts in the Winter Garden area. RED- 
NECKED PEANUTWORM ( Stegasta basqueella ) was heavy on peanuts in southwest, 
west cross timbers, west central and central areas. LESSER CORNSTALK BORER 
( Elasmopalpus lignosellus ) was relatively light on peanuts in Winter Garden 
area, but caused some damage in west cross timbers and west central areas. 
A THRIPS ( Frankliniella sp.) was heavy on spring peanuts in the Winter Garden 
area. A FALSE CHINCH BUG ( Nysius raphanus ) was heavy and damaged grain sorghum. 
SOUTHWESTERN CORN BORER ( Zeadiatraea grandiose 11a ) infestations ran as high as 
100 percent in corn on the north' and south plains . SUGARCANE BORER (Diatraea 
saccharalis ) damaged corn and grain sorghum in upper coastal and south central 
areas with some damage to rice. GRASSHOPPERS (several species) infested over 
5 million acres in the panhandle, ranging from light to severe. PEA APHID 
( Macrosiphum pisi ) caused some damage to vetch and alfalfa. VETCH BRUCHID 
( Bruchus brachialis ) caused considerable damage to vetch in north central area 
and spread to other vetch-growing areas. RICE WATER WEEVIL ( Lissorhoptrus 
oryzophilus ) infestations in rice were not as heavy as in 1957. A light 
infestation of RICE STINK BUG ( Oebalus pugnax ) appeared in the eastern section 
of the rice belt. 



- 34 - 

Fruit Insects : PLUM CURCULIO ( Conotrachelus nenuphar ) was generally light with 
CATFACING INSECTS causing medium to heavy damage. PEACH TREE BORER ( Sanninoidea 
exitiosa ) and LESSER PEACH TREE BORER ( Synanthedon pictipes ) were generally 
light in east Texas. PEACH TWIG BORER ( Anarsia lineatella ) was not as heavy 
in central area as in 1957. WALNUT CATERPILLAR ( Datana integerrima ) was the 
heaviest in 25 years in 8 south central pecan-growing counties. One generation 
in early spring caused partial to complete defoliation of large acreages and 
another in late summer destroyed much of the new and old foliage. PECAN NUT 
CASEBEARER ( Acrobasis caryae ) was relatively light statewide. BLACK PECAN APHID 
( Melanbcallis caryaefoliae ) caused some defoliation of pecan trees in the south 
central area and HICKORY SHUCKWORM ( Laspeyresia caryana ) caused considerable 
damage . 

Truck Crop Insects : BEET LEAFHOPPER ( Circulifer tenellus ) and incidence of curly 
top were very light in the Winter Garden area, with some economic damage reported 
on the high plains. CABBAGE LOOPER ( Trichoplusia ni) damaged cabbage and 
spinach in the Winter Garden area with heavy damage to lettuce on the high 
plains. Populations in the lower Rio Grande Valley were held in check by a 
fungus disease and a polyhedral virus. A SERPENTINE LEAFMINER ( Liriomyza sp.) 
was very damaging to melons, tomatoes and peppers in this same area. CORN 
EARWORM ( Heliothis zea ) caused economic damage to corn and tomatoes statewide. 
POTATO PSYLLID ( Paratrioza cockerelli ) and POTATO APHID ( Macrosiphum solanifolii ) 
were very heavy and damaged tomatoes and potatoes in early spring in the Winter 
Garden area. Spotted local infestations of the following insects occurred in 
various parts of the State: A FALSE CABBAGE LOOPER, TOMATO PINWORM, CONCHUELA , 
BEAN LEAF BEETLE, THREE-CORNERED ALFALFA HOPPER, COLORADO POTATO BEETLE, 
WHITEFLIES, TOMATO HORNWORM, LEAFMINERS , SQUASH BUG, FLEA BEETLES, THRIPS , 
SWEETPOTATO WEEVIL, BLACK CUTWORM, MELON APHID, CUTWORMS and FALL ARMYWORM. 

Cotton Insects : A THRIPS ( Frankliniella sp.) varied over the State with rather 
heavy infestations on the high plains and in the Pecos River areas. COTTON 
FLEAHOPPER ( Psallus seriatus ) caused much concern because of heavy migrations. 
Fleahopper emergence in overwintering tests in central Texas was not as high as 
1957. COTTON APHID ( Aphis gossypii ) was spotted and generally light to medium. 
BOLL WEEVIL ( Anthonomus grandis ) hibernation studies indicated that overwintering 
populations were similar to those of 1957. Infestations built up to damaging 
numbers in many areas of the State, especially in the lower Rio Grande Valley 
in mid-July. Control was difficult with chlorinated hydrocarbon insecticides 
in McLennan, Falls, Robertson, Brazos, Burleson and Grimes Counties in the Brazos 
River bottom. BOLLWORMS ( Heliothis spp.) caused some concern in the lower Rio 
Grande Valley, south and north central areas. Spotted, heavy infestations 
developed in the south plains. CABBAGE LOOPER ( Trichoplusia ni ) was generally 
light with isolated heavy infestations in some areas. SPIDER MITES were light 
with only spotted damage occurring. COTTON LEAFWORM ( Alabama argillacea ) was 
first reported from Calhoun County on June 10. No general infestation developed. 
PINK BOLLWORM ( Pectinophora gossypiella ) began to buildup in May in the lower 
Rio Grande Valley and caused considerable damage. Populations were heavier 
in the south central area than in 1957. Unfavorable weather conditions delayed 
harvest and fall cleanup, which was similar to 1957. GRASSHOPPERS (several 
species) damaged cotton on field margins in the west cross timbers and northwest 
areas. Other insects that damaged cotton included STINK BUGS, GARDEN WEBWORM, 
LYGUS BUGS, FALSE CHINCH BUGS, CUTWORMS and COTTON SQUARE BORER. 

Forest, Ornamental and Shade Tree Insects : SOUTHERN PINE BEETLE ( Dendroctonus 
frontalis ) appeared in epidemic proportions in Hardin County. NANTUCKET PINE 
MOTH ( Rhyacionia frustrana ) infestations developed on shortleaf pines on the 
western edge of the pine belt. RED-HEADED PINE SAWFLY ( Neodiprion lecontei ) 
caused partial defoliation of young pine plantings in east Texas. TEXAS LEAF- 



- 35 - 

CUTTING ANT ( Atta texana) damaged pine seedlings throughout eastern area. 
BAGWORM ( Thyridopteryx ephemeraeformis ) damaged ornamental and shade trees 
throughout central Texas. GALL INSECTS were numerous on oak throughout south 
central area. Other insects occurring on shade trees and ornamental plants 
were MEALYBUGS, APHIDS, PSOCIDS, SPIDER MITES, WOOD BORERS, FALL WEBWORM and 
SCALE INSECTS. 

Stored-grain Insects : Grain sorghum is now a major crop in Texas and the 
stored-grain pest problem has increased. The main insect pests are RICE WEEVIL 
( Sitophilus oryza ) , ANGOUMOIS GRAIN MOTH ( Sitotroga cerealella ) , A RICE MOTH, 
INDIAN-MEAL MOTH ( Plodia interpunctella) , LESSER GRAIN BORER ( Rhyzopertha 
dominie a ) and BRAN BEETLES (including FLAT GRAIN BEETLE ( Laemophloeus pusillus ) , 
CONFUSED FLOUR BEETLE ( Tribolium confusum ) and SAW-TOOTHED GRAIN BEETLE ( Oryzae - 
philus surinamensis) ) . 

Insects Affecting Man and Animals : SCREW -WORM ( Callitroga hominivorax ) continued 
heavy throughout the State. CATTLE GRUBS ( Hypoderma spp . y caused losses state- 
wide. ASSASSIN BUGS ( Triatoma spp.) caused concern in homes in the southern and 
western areas. BROWN DOG TICK ( Rhipicephalus sanguineus ) was heavy on dogs in 
the south central area. HOUSE FLY ( Musca domestica ) was numerous. MOSQUITOES 
were extremely numerous over most of the State, due partly to the above-normal 
rainfall. Other insects such as ROACHES, SILVERFISH, TERMITES, CLOTHES MOTHS 
and FLEAS continued as pests in and around homes. 

Miscellaneous Insects : IMPORTED FIRE ANT ( Solenopsis saevissima richteri) 
situation has changed in the State. A survey in early fall failed to verify 
its presence in seven counties previously reported and two new counties were 
added earlier in 1958. Counties now infested are Orange, Jasper, Newton, 
Hardin, Jefferson, Harris and Bexar. Swarming of TEXAS LEAF-CUTTING ANT ( Atta 
texana ) was numerous during 1958. RED HARVESTER ANT ( Pogonomyrmex barbatus ) 
continued abundant throughout the State. 



SUMMARY OF INSECT CONDITIONS - 1958 

LOUISANA 

Prepared by Wm. T. Spink 

Highlights : Excessive rainfall delayed spring planting until late May, with 
some cotton fields being planted the first of June. May floods in the Red River 
and Ouachita River Valleys forced replanting of many fields, with some replanted 
three times before a stand was obtained. These weather conditions may have 
been responsible for some of the unusual insect conditions which prevailed in 
many areas of the State during 1958. HORSE FLIES and MOSQUITOES were unusually 
abundant statewide. GREENBUG damage to oats in the north necessitated plowing 
under some fields. GARDEN WEBWORM completely destroyed fields of cotton, corn 
and soybeans. RICE STINK BUG occurred in greater numbers than ever before. 
SOUTHWESTERN CORN BORER invaded several new parishes during 1958. 

Cereal and Forage Insects : GREENBUG ( Toxoptera graminum ) occurred on wheat and 
oats in low numbers in the southwest in March. In northern parishes, heavy 
infestations completely destroyed some oat fields in April. An increased 
build-up of predators and parasites was noted, with syrphid larvae averaging 
1 per sweep. ARMYWORM ( Pseudaletia unipuncta ) was not a serious threat to 
small grains, damaging numbers not appearing until wheat and oats were maturing 
in late May. RICE STALK BORER ( Chilo plejadellus ) did some damge to mature 



- 36 - 

wheat in St. Landry Parish in May. An early spring survey in Vermilion Parish 
bull grass for overwintering RICE STINK BUG ( Oebalus pugnax ) showed an average 
of 1.4 bugs per clump in May. Light infestations appeared by late June in 
Vermilion, Acadia and Jefferson Davis Parish rice fields with high percentages 
of wild grass. Their numbers increased in late July and movement began from 
wild grass to heading rice. By late August infestations in St. Landry Parish 
averaged 21.5 bugs per 10 sweeps. A statewide fall survey for hoja blanca and 
its vector ( Sogata orizicola ) was negative. RICE WATER WEEVIL ( Lissorhoptrus 
oryzophilus ) , SPOTTED CUCUMBER BEETLE ( Diabrotica undecimpunctata howardi ) and 
A STINK BUG ( Euschistus ictericus ) caused some damage to rice in July. A BLISTER 
BEETLE ( Epicauta sp.) averaged 100 per 100 sweeps in rice in Vermilion Parish 
and heavily infested alfalfa and soybeans in Tensas Parish in June and July. 
GRASSHOPPERS (mostly Conocephalus sp. and Orchelimum sp.) heavily infested rice 
in Vermilion Parish. GRASSHOPPERS were also present in large numbers in clovers, 
alfalfa and pasture grasses. Large populations of PEA APHID ( Macrosiphum pisi ) 
were present in alfalfa and clover. GARDEN WEBWORM ( Loxostege similalis ) was 
very troublesome on many crops. Light numbers appeared first on alfalfa in 
early June in Tensas Parish and heavy in Caddo Parish. At the same time, heavy 
but localized infestations occurred in corn. They continued as a serious 
problem on corn and soybeans throughout June but decreased on alfalfa. 

Light infestations of THREE-CORNERED ALFALFA HOPPER ( Spissistilus festinus) 
appeared in blooming alfalfa about mid-June and increased by mid-July. Heavy 
infestations were observed by late July, and 892 per 100 sweeps and 858 per 
25 sweeps were taken in 2 experimental plots in northern Louisiana. Some damage 
to soybeans was noted in St. Landry Parish. Heavy infestations of TARNISHED 
PLANT BUG ( Lygus lineolaris ) occurred in northern areas on alfalfa in June and 
July. Clovers were infested in early May with a complex of LEPIDOPTEROUS larvae, 
mostly Heliothis zea , with VARIEGATED CUTWORM, LOOPERS and GREEN CLOVERWORM also 
present. Disease and parasitism were observed in all infested areas. 
Populations were reduced in late May but increased in July with heavy infesta- 
tions on clover, Bahiagrass and other pasture grasses in St. Tammany Parish. 
Larvae of a HESPERIID ( Atalopedes campestris ) heavily infested a Bermuda grass 
pasture in Lafayette Parish. A WEBWORM ( Herculia psammioxantha ) heavily infested 
baled hay in a barn in Lafayette Parish in November. FALL ARMYWORM ( Laphygma 
frugiperda) was first observed on corn at Diamond in mid-May and appeared in East 
Baton Rouge Parish by the end of the month. In early June, heavy populations 
were found in northern areas in corn and light infestations were found in grain 
sorghum. Young corn was 100 percent infested by August in some areas. Popula- 
tions of CORN EARWORM ( Heliothis zea ) on corn were general statewide, with some 
infestations averaging 70 percent. Milo and grain sorghum were also infested. 
SOUTHWESTERN CORN BORER ( Zeadiatraea grandiosella ) infestations were extremely 
heavy in the northwest corner of the State but decreased in parishes further 
removed from this area. It is now present in Bossier, Caddo, Claiborne, De Soto, 
Lincoln, Morehouse, Natchitoches, Red River, Union and Webster Parishes. 
EUROPEAN CORN BORER ( Pyrausta nubilalis ) continued its rapid expansion and is 
now present in Bossier, Caddo, Concordia, East Carroll, West Carroll, Franklin, 
Madison, Morehouse, Natchitoches, Ouachita, Red River, Richland and Tensas 
Parishes. Infestations remain extremely light and of no economic importance 
on corn. SUGARCANE BORER ( Diatraea saccharalis ) was very serious on corn 
grown in conjunction with sugarcane. The borer was found for the first time 
in Grant Parish on corn. CORN LEAF APHID ( Rhopalosiphum maidis ) was present 
in fairly large numbers on corn but did not appear to be damaging. In July, 
SORGHUM WEBWORM ( Celama sorghiella ) was moderate on grain sorghum in Tensas 
and Franklin Parishes. Adults and small larvae of VELVETBEAN CATERPILLAR 
( Anticarsia gemmatalis ) first appeared on soybeans during mid-August in south- 
west Louisiana. As populations rapidly built up, controls were begun and by 
early September these pests were brought under control. COWPEA CURCULIO 
( Chalcodermus aeneus ) heavily infested cowpeas in Websier Parish in August. 



- 37 - 

Sugarcane Insects : SUGARCANE BORER ( Diatraea saccharalis ) was very severe in 
untreated sugarcane. Egg masses were first observed in April in St. Charles, 
West Baton Rouge and Terrebonne Parishes. First to third-instar larvae 
appeared in early May and pupae by mid-May. Second-generation egg masses 
appeared by mid-June and second and third generations were overlapping by the 
third week of July. In untreated fields infestations averaged 66 percent. 
Infestations of YELLOW SUGARCANE APHID ( Sipha flava ) ranged 0-15 percent in 
plants examined during April and May but apparently caused little damage. 

Fruit Insects : LESSER PEACH TREE BORER ( Synanthedon pictipes ) occurred in 
damaging numbers in several orchards in the Ruston area in March. All immature 
stages were present, adults emerging by mid-April. SAN JOSE SCALE ( Aspidiotus 
perniciosus ) was also damaging in these same orchards. EASTERN TENT CATERPILLAR 
( Malacosoma americanum ) hatched on plum and cherry in Lincoln and Claiborne 
Parishes the latter part of February. PLUM CURCULIO ( Conotrachelus nenuphar ) 
was extremely scarce on wild plum in northern areas of the State in April but 
by June was heavy in Livingston, East Baton Rouge, St. John and Sabine Parishes. 
FALL WEBWORM ( Hyphantria cunea) was a serious problem on pecans in the State 
throughout the year. PECAN LEAF CASEBEARER ( Acrobasis juglandis ) and PECAN 
NUT CASEBEARER ( Acrobasis caryae ) heavily infested pecans in the New Orleans 
area in May and June. UGLY -NEST CATERPILLAR ( Archips cerasivorana ) webbing 
completely covered pecan trees, nearby ground and buildings at Melville, where 
it was localized. Various control measures were taken. Infestations of 
WALNUT CATERPILLAR (Datana integerrima ) on pecans occurred in the greater 
New Orleans area. Light infestations of BLACK PECAN APHID ( Melanocallis 
caryaefoliae) and a SPIDER MITE ( Eotetranychus hicoriae ) occurred on the first 
of August in Caddo and Natchitoches Parishes, respectively, but by the month's 
end had spread over the State generally and populations had increased tremen- 
dously. 

Truck Crop Insects : CABBAGE LOOPER ( Trichoplusia ni) if uncontrolled, is the 
most destructive pest of cole crops in State. Untreated experimental plots at 
Diamond were 100 percent infested. IMPORTED CABBAGEWORM (Pieris rapae ) , 
DIAMONDBACK MOTH ( Plutella maculipennis ) and CROSS-STRIPED CABBAGEWORM ( Ever - 
gestis rimosalis ) where not controlled, were serious on cole crops. TOMATO 
FRUITWORM ( Heliothis zea ) caused some damage to tomatoes and severely damaged 
a five-acre field of eggplant in southern part of the State. TOMATO HORNWORM 
( Protoparce quinquemaculata ) was of no economic importance . Medium to heavy 
infestations of COLORADO POTATO BEETLE ( Leptinotarsa decemlineata ) were observed 
on potatoes and tomatoes in the southeastern area. SPOTTED CUCUMBER BEETLE 
( Diabrotica undecimpunctata howardi ) and STRIPED CUCUMBER BEETLE ( Acalymma 
vittata ) heavily infested squash, cucumber and watermelons in West Carroll, 
Grant and East Baton Rouge Parishes. GARDEN WEBWORM ( Loxostege similalis ) , 
FALL ARMYWORM ( Laphygma frugiperda) and YELLOW-STRIPED ARMYWORM ( Prodenia 
ornithogalli ) caused considerable damage in early July to sweetpotato foliage 
in St. Landry Parish. About mid-August SWEETPOTATO LEAF ROLLER ( Pilocrocis 
tripunctata ) caused widespread damage to sweetpotato foliage in Lafayette and 
St. Landry Parishes. 

Cotton Insects : BOLL WEEVIL ( Anthonomus grandis ) was the most important pest 
of cotton in 1958. Recommended treatments were used and good control was 
maintained. BOLLWORMS ( Heliothis spp. et al.) were normal throughout the State. 
SPIDER MITES ( Tetranychus spp.) appeared to be more abundant than usual, 
particularly in St. Landry Parish where some defoliation took place in July. 
THRIPS and APHIDS were generally light in the State. Seedling cotton in some 
areas, particularly the Ouachita River Valley, was heavily infested with 
GARDEN WEBWORM ( Loxostege similalis) . 



- 38 - 

Forest , Ornamental and Shade Tree Insects : EASTERN TENT CATERPILLAR 
( Malacosoma am eric an urn ) began hatching in February. Nests averaged 6-8 inches 
in diameter by April and were very abundant over all of the northern area. 
FOREST TENT CATERPILLAR ( Malacosoma disstria ) was extremely numerous in East 
Baton Rouge and Orleans Parishes. Light infestations of ELM LEAF BEETLE 
( Galerucella xanthomelaena ) occurred in Orleans Parish. Pine seedlings and pine 
trees were infested in scattered and localized areas with NANTUCKET PINE MOTH 
( Rhyaeionia frustrana ) , a SAWFLY larva ( Neodiprion sp.) , a PINE COLASPIS 
( Colaspis pini ) , RED-HEADED PINE SAWFLY TNeodiprion lecontei ) and PINE WEBWQRM 
( Tetralopha robustella) . A PHYCITID ( Euzophora ostricolorella ) seriously 
damaged some nursery magnolia stock near Covington. MAGNOLIA SCALE ( Neolecanium 
cornuparvum ) infested magnolia trees in St. Tammany Parish. SOLITARY OAK. LEAF 
MINER ( Cameraria hainadryadella) was serious on white oak in East Baton Rouge . 
West Baton Rouge and St. Landry Parishes. A CHINCH BUG ( Blissus leucopterus 
insularis ) was responsible for widespread damage to St. Augustine grass lawns 
in southern Louisiana. Some St. Augustine grass lawns in Vermilion Parish 
were infested with RHODES-GRASS SCALE (Antonina gram in is ). 

Insects Affecting Man and Animals : MOSQUITOES and HORSE FLIES ( Tabanus spp.) 
were unusually serious this year, heavy populations occurring in all areas of 
the State. HORN FLY ( Siphona irritans) was abundant in all cattle-producing 
areas. HOUSE FLIES were extremely annoying in all areas. DEER FLIES were active 
in northern areas. Anthrax and anaplasmosis epidemics occurred in the northern 
parishes. Authenticated SCREW-WORM ( Callitroga hominivorax ) reports totalled 
17 in the State. Three reports were on Texas cattle intercepted at the Slidell 
Inspection Station. The other 14 reports were infestations of cattle, sheep 
and a dog which occurred in Tensas, Caddo, Webster, Grant, Claiborne, Concordia, 
Bossier, Natchitoches and Madison Parishes. PUSS CATERPILLARS (probably 
Megalopyge opercularis ) were very abundant and several reports were received 
of severe stings to persons. One unconfirmed report claimed hospitalization 
was necessary. EARWIGS were heavily infesting slab homes in Jefferson and 
Orleans Parishes. 

Stored-grain Insects : RICE WEEVIL ( Sitophilus oryza) was the most important 
insect pest of stored-grain in 1958. A survey during the summer revealed that 
78 percent of corn ears examined were infested. A considerable quantity of this 
corn was infested when harvested. ANGOUMOIS GRAIN MOTH ( Sitotroga cerealella ) , 
SQUARE-NECKED GRAIN BEETLE ( Cathartus quadricollis ) , RED FLOUR BEETLE ( Tri - 
bolium castaneum ) and SAW-TOOTHED GRAIN BEETLE ( oTyzaephilus surinamensis ) 
followed in importance in that order. 

Miscellaneous Insects : MILLIPEDES infested yards, driveways, porches and, in 
some instances, invaded homes in East Baton Rouge Parish. A LYCTUS BEETLE 
( Lyctus brunneus ) was found at Winnsboro in furniture imported from Japan. 

New Introductions : An APHID ( Myzus hemerocallis ) was taken on day lilies in 
Baton Rouge and Lafayette, Louisiana. This aphid was previously reported 
only from Formosa and China. Det. L. M. Russell. 



- 39 - 



Alabama 



Alaska 



California 

Colorado 

Connecticut 

Delaware 

Florida 

Georgia 

Hawaii 

Idaho 

Illinois 

Indiana 

Iowa 

Kansas 

Kentucky 

Louisiana 



STATE CLEARING OFFICES 
for Economic Insect Survey Reports 

Dr. F. S. Arant, Head, Department of Zoology and Entomology, 
Alabama Polytechnic Institute, Auburn 

Dr. Richard H. Washburn, Entomology Dept . , Agricultural 
Experiment Station, Palmer 

Dr. J. N. Roney, Extension Entomologist, University of Arizona, 
1201 W. Madison St . , P. O. Box 7 51, Phoenix 

Mr. Gordon Barnes, Extension Entomologist, University of 
Arkansas , Fayetteville 

Mr. R. W. Harper, Chief, Bureau of Entomology, State Department 
of Agriculture, Sacramento 14 

Dr. Leslie B. Daniels, Head, Department of Entomology, Colorado 
State University, Ft. Collins 

Mr. J. Peter Johnson, Associate Entomologist, Agricultural 
Experiment Station, P. 0. Box 1106, New Haven 4 

Dr. Dale F. Bray, Chairman, Department of Entomology, 
University of Delaware, Newark 

Mr. W. G. Cowperthwaite , Plant Commissioner, State Plant 
Board of Florida, Gainesville 

Dr. C. R. Jordan, Jr., Extension Entomologist, University of 
Georgia, College of Agriculture, Athens 

Division of Entomology & Marketing, Board of Agriculture 
and Forestry , Honolulu 1 

Dr. H. C. Manis , Head, Department of Entomology, University 
of Idaho, Moscow 

Mr. H. B. Petty, Jr., Extension Entomologist, Illinois 
Agricultural Extension Service, 280 Natural Resources 
Building, Urbana 

Dr. John V. Osmun , Head, Department of Entomology, Purdue 
University, Lafayette 

Dr. H. M. Harris, Head, Department of Zoology and Entomology, 
Iowa State College, Ames 

Dr. Herbert Knutson , Head, Department of Entomology, Kansas 
State College, Manhattan 

Dr. Lee H. Townsend, Head, Department of Entomology, 
University of Kentucky, Lexington 29 

Dr. L. D. Newsom, Head, Entomology Research, Louisiana 
State University, Baton Rouge 3 



40 - 



Maine Dr. G. W. Simpson, Head, Department of Entomology, 

University of Maine, Orono 

Maryland Mr. T. L. Bissell, Department of Entomology, 

University of Maryland, College Park 

Massachusetts Dr. E. H. Wheeler, Extension Entomologist, University 
of Massachusetts, Amherst 

Michigan Mr. Ray Hutson , Head, Department of Entomology, 

Michigan State University, East Lansing 13 

Minnesota Mr. W. M. Anderson, Acting Director, Division of 

Plant Industry, Department of Agriculture, 
Dairy and Food, 312 Coffey Hall, University Farm, 
St. Paul 1 

Mississippi Dr. R. E. Hutchins , Head, Department of Zoology 

and Entomology, Mississippi State College, State 
College 

Missouri Mr. Stirling Kyd, Extension Entomologist, Department 

of Entomology , University of Missouri , Columbia 

Montana Dr. J. H. Pepper, Head, Department of Zoology and 

Entomology, Montana State College, Bozeman 

Nebraska Dr. Roscoe E. Hill, Chairman, Department of 

Entomology, University of Nebraska, Lincoln 3 

Nevada Mr. Lee M. Burge , Director, Division of Plant 

Industry, Department of Agriculture, P. 0. Box 1027, 
Reno 



New Hampshire Dr. J. G. Conklin, Professor of Economic Entomology, 
University of New Hampshire, Durham 

New Jersey Dr. B. B. Pepper, Department of Entomology, Rutgers 

University, New Brunswick 

New Mexico Mr. Dallas Rierson , Director, State Department of 

Agriculture, New Mexico State University, State 
College 

New York Dr. A. A. Muka, Extension Entomologist, Department 

of Entomology and Limnology, Cornell University, 
Ithaca 



North Carolina Mr. George D. Jones, Extension Entomologist, 
North Carolina State College of Agriculture, 
Raleigh 



North Dakota 



Dr. J. R. Dogger, Chairman, Department of Entomology, 
North Dakota Agricultural College, State College 
Station, Fargo 



Ohio 



Dr. C. R. Neiswander , Associate Chairman, Department 
of Zoology and Entomology, Ohio Agricultural 
Experiment Station, Wooster 



Oklahoma 



Dr. D. E. Howell, Head, Department of Entomology, 
Oklahoma State University, Stillwater 



Oregon 



Mr. G. A. Konnersman , Survey Entomologist, Division 
of Plant Industry, State Department of Agriculture, 
Salem 



Pennsylvania 



Mr. J. 0. Pepper, Extension Entomologist, Zoology 
and Entomology Department, Pennsylvania State 
University, University Park 



Puerto Rico Agricultural Experiment Station , Rio Piedras 

Rhode Island Dr. F. L. Howard, Head, Department of Plant 

Pathology and Entomology, University of Rhode Island, 
Kingston 

South Carolina Mr. W. C. Nettles, Leader, Extension Entomology and 
Plant Disease Work, Clemson Agricultural College, 
Clemson 

South Dakota Dr. G. B. Spawn, Head, Department of Entomology and 
Zoology, South Dakota State College of A & M Arts, 
College Station 



Tennessee 



Mr. R. P. Mullett, Extension Entomologist and Plant 
Pathologist, College of Agriculture, University of 
Tennessee, Knoxville 16 



Texas 



Dr. J. C. Gaines, Head, Department of Entomology, 
Texas A & M College, College Station 



Utah 



Dr. George F. Knowlton , Extension Entomologist, 
Utah State University, Logan 



Vermont 



Mr. John W. Scott, Director, Division of Plant Pest 
Control, State Department of Agriculture, Montpelier 



- 42 



Virginia Dr. J. 0. Rowell , Extension Entomologist, Virginia 

Polytechnic Institute, Blacksburg 

Washington Dr. Horace S. Telford, Chairman, Department of 

Entomology, Washington State College, Pullman 

West Virginia Mr. F. Waldo Craig, Chief, Plant Pest Control 

Division, Department of Agriculture, Charleston 5 

Wisconsin Mr. E. L. Chambers, Chief, Plant Industry Division, 

Department of Agriculture, 448 W. Washington Ave., 
Madison 3 



Wyoming 



Mr. T. R. Robb, Extension Entomologist, University 
of Wyoming, Laramie 



Released January 23, 1959 
CEIR, Volume 9, No. 4 



- 43 - 
INSECTS NOT KNOWN TO OCCUR IN THE UNITED STATES 

A BEET CURCULIONID (Lixus junci Boheman) 



Economic Importance : Lixus junci is a curculionid pest of major importance on 
sugar beets in the Meidterranean Basin. Several other species of Lixus have 
been recorded as pests of beets, but L. junci appears to be the most important. 
Damage is caused by both adults and larvae. The adults feed on the leaves and 
stems, sometimes destroying young plantings, and the larvae make galleries in 
the roots which cause diminution and decay. Losses to the sugar beet crop 
have been estimated as high as 40 percent in Morocco and 50 percent in Israel. 
Unless control measures are applied in Israel, growers in that country can 
expect a 50-60 percent loss of the crop annually. Severe injury was caused 
to beets grown for seed in northwestern France in 1946, lambsquarters being 
the source of infestation. 




General Distribution of Lixus junci 



Distribution : Generally distributed in the Mediterranean region, being recorded 
in France, Spain, Italy, Israel, USSR (Kiev), Egypt, Libya, Morocco and the 
Islands of Sicily, Malta, Sardinia and Corsica. 

Hosts : Attacks many plants; beets are the most important cultivated host. 

Life History and Habits : Overwintering adults appear in early spring in Italy 
and feed on garden plants before migrating to roots of beets where they continue 
to feed before egg laying begins. The female makes a hole in the neck of the 
plant with her snout, inserts the egg and covers the hole with feeding debris. 
Very small plants are sometimes nearly cutoff, causing death of the plant. 
Frequently ,, however , eggs are laid in the petioles and midribs. Larvae hatch 
in 4-5 days, begin feeding on the petioles or the leaves and then penetrate the 
root, making long vertical galleries. Infestations are more severe in hot 
weather when the leaves remain small and most of the development of the insect 
takes place in the root . Two or three larvae may cause the whole upper part of 
a root to rot. After 30-60 days, pupation takes place in the galleries and 
new-generation adults emerge in 2-3 weeks. There are normally two generations 
a year, but a partial third generation is reported in Morocco. In Israel, the 
second generation which is heaviest and most dangerous starts from June to August. 



(Curculionidae , Coleopetra) 



No. 7 5 of Series 



- 44 



Description : Adults are 8-13 mm. long, narrow and elongate, cylindrical, 
covered with easily removed, yellowish bloom, with white band on the sides of 
the thorax and elytra. Head and thorax rugose, snout about as long as thorax; 
elytra with rounded apex, 8 longitudinal rows of small striations ; wings 
present. Egg is ovoidal, unsculptured, yellowish, and about 1.05 mm. long 
and 0.72 mm. wide. Mature larva about 10 mm. long and 3 mm. wide. Pupa is 
about 10 mm. long; tips of wing-pads reach posterior end of fourth abdominal 
sternite. Front legs extend almost to proximal margin of first tarsal 
segment of middle pair; middle pair extend to posterior third of fourth 
abdominal sternite. Head completely hidden from above by pronotum. Rostrum 
elongated and slender. Abdomen with eight distinct tergites; seventh largest 
and eighth smallest; total sternites 9. Seventh abdominal sternite with 2 
large setae; eighth with 2 fleshy processes, each carrying 2 spines directed 
upwards. (Prepared in Survey & Detection Operations in cooperation with 
other ARS agencies.) CEIR 9 (4) 1-23-59. 





Adult , Pupa and Larva of Lixus junci 



Figures (except map) from Bremond, P. 1938. 
d'Entomol. Agr. de France 25(1): 59-73. 



Rev. de Path. Veget. et 




(SEE REVERSE SIDE) 



7 GRASSHOPPERS PER SQUARE YARD 
COLORS - RANGELAND INFESTATIONS 
'PLED COLORS- CROPLAND INFESTATIONS 

R CONTROL ON CROP OR RANGELAND WILL DEPEND 
HABITAT, SPECIES PRESENT, WEATHER, AND 
VEGETATION 



EPARED BY PPC-ARS-USDA 



STATES DEPA 
rRICULTURAL 
3 LANT PEST i 



f cooperative 
s where and 

1959. Nymp 
il warrant coi 

3n the map in 
hose lands w 
The infested 
idwestern Sta 

CR INFESTA' 

Total 
Acres 



365,000 

570,000 

6,000 



322,080 
4,523,300 
5,687,000 

564,500 



Plant Pest C. 
various State ; 



Noven 



.RTMENT OF AGRICULTURE 
. RESEARCH SERVICE 
CONTROL DIVISION 



grasshopper adult surveys made during the late summer 
how many grasshoppers infest an area, and indicate the 
>hal surveys, made each spring, provide the final index 
itrol that growing season. 

stippling, in general are slightly higher than that which 
ill be handled by the farmers with technical assistance 
! range areas, shown on the map in solid colors, total 
ites. Shaded areas are diagrammatic. Within these areas 



riONS — ACREAGE BY REGIONS, FALL 1958 





REGION 
AND 


LANDOWNERSHIP- ACRES 


— , — — — — - n 
Total 




Private 


Public 




STATE 


& State 


Domain 


Acres 




Montana 


1,285,000 


1,140,000 


2,425,000 




Nevada 


12,700 


171,840 


184,540 




New Mexico 


768,820 


62,000 


830,820 




Oregon 


10,000 


— 


10,000 




Utah 


9,000 


61,500 


70,500 




Wyoming 


799,000 


156,000 


955,000 




SOUTHERN: 








1 


Oklahoma 


2,693,182 





2,693,182 


1 


Texas 


3,460,000 


— 


3,460,000 



Dntrol Division, Agricultural Research Service in cooperation with 
agencies concerned. 

iber 20, 1958 



TO COOPERATORS: 



UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE 

AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH SERVICE 

PLANT PEST CONTROL DIVISION 



This map is based upon the results of cooperative grasshopper adult surveys made during the late summer 
and fall of 1958. The survey reveals where and how many grasshoppers infest an area, and indicate the 
potential severity of infestations for 1959. Nymphal surveys, made each spring, provide the final index 
of grasshopper populations which will warrant control that growing season. 

The infestation on croplands, shown on the map in stippling, in general are slightly higher than that which 
was indicated for 1958. Control on those lands will be handled by the farmers with technical assistance 
from Division and State personnel. The infested range areas, shown on the map in solid colors, total 
22,666,922 acres in 15 Western and Midwestern States. Shaded areas are diagrammatic. Within these areas 
infestations may be solid or spotted. 

RANGELAND GRASSHOPPER INFESTATIONS - ACREAGE BY REGIONS, FALL 1958 



REGION 

AND 
STATE 



CENTRAL: 



Kansas 
Nebraska 
So. Dakota 

WESTERN: 



Arizona 
California 
Colorado 
Idaho 



LANDOWNERSH IP -ACRES 



Private 
& State 



365,000 
570,000 



252,080 
4,523,300 
5,619,000 

284,740 



Public 
Domain 



6,000 



70,000 

68,000 
279,760 



Total 
Acres 



365,000 

570,000 

6,000 



322,080 
4,523,300 
5,687,000 

564,500 



REGION 

AND 

STATE 



Montana 

Nevada 

New Mexico 

Oregon 

Utah 

Wyoming 

SOUTHERN: 



Oklahoma 
Texas 



LANDOWNERSHIP-ACRES 



Private 
& State 



1,285,000 

12,700 

768,820 

10,000 

9,000 

799,000 



2,693,182 
3,460,000 



Public 
Domain 



1,140,000 

171,840 

62,000 

61,500 
156,000 



Total 
Acres 



2,425,000 

184,540 

830,820 

10,000 

70,500 

955,000 



2,693,182 
3,460,000 



The survey «as pianned an, pe rf „ TO d by theses, Xon.ro, Division, A g ricu,t„ra, Research Service ,„ coo era.ion with 

various State agencies concerned. 

November 20, 1958 



Penalty for Private Use to Aye 



UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF AGRISUl/rUEE , 

WASHINGTON^ 25, P. C . *** Payment of Postage, 

^fficiai^Business 




& 



AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH SERVICE 



PLANT PEST CONTROL DIVISION 



SURVEYS DETECTION OPERATIONS 



The Cooperative Economic Insect Report is issued 
weekly as a service to American Agriculture. Its contents 
are compiled from information supplied by cooperating State, 
Federal, and industrial entomologists and other agricultural 
workers. In releasing this material the Division serves as 
a clearing house and does not assume responsibility for ac- 
curacy of the material. 



Reports and inquiries pertaining to this release 
should be mailed to: 

Survey & Detection Operations 



Plant Pest Control Division 

Agricultural Research Service 

United States Department of Agriculture 

Washington 25, D. C. 



Volume 9 January 30, 19 59 Number 5 



COOPERATIVE ECONOMIC INSECT REPORT 

Highlights of Insect Conditions 

CHINCH BUG hibernation survey. (p. 47). Survey map. (p. 48). 

Status of EUROPEAN CORN BORER in 1958. (p. 53). 

INSECT DETECTION: Pink bo 11 worm reported for first time in Ouachita Parish, 
Louisiana. (p. 50). Imported fire ant found in Early County, Georgia, for 
first time. (p. 52). Giant hornet collected in Franklin County, Georgia, 
is first record for State. (p~! 52) . 



**************** 



Reports in this issue are for the week ending January 23, unless otherwise 
designated. 



- 46 - 

WEATHER OF THE WEEK ENDING JANUARY 26, 1959 

For the third consecutive week unseasonably mild temperatures, with weekly 
averages as much as 10° above normal, persisted in the Far West, as areas east 
of the Rockies were beset by a great variety of weather conditions including 
subzero cold, snow, sleet, glaze, flood-producing rains and tornadoes. The 
worst weather conditions were produced by a low pressure disturbance which 
moved from the Southwest to the Great Lakes ahead of a southeastward moving 
cold air mass on the 20th and 21st. Glaze (freezing rain) damage occurred in 
a belt extending from the lower Great Plains to Michigan, although heaviest 
damage apparently was in Indiana and Illinois. According to a special report 
from the latter State, on the 20th and 21st, 3/4 to 1 inch of ice accumulated 
on exposed surfaces in an east-west belt about 50 miles wide extending from 
Springfield eastward through Decatur and Champaign-Urbana to Danville and into 
Indiana. Tree damage was heavy, and power and communication lines were damaged 
by falling limbs. About 25 percent of the homes in the area were without elec- 
tricity or normal heat for 12 to 24 hours, and thousands were still without 
electricity 36 hours after power failures occurred. Air traffic was halted 
and surface traffic slowed. In Springfield, this was the most severe glaze 
since December, 1924, and at Champaign the worst in nearly 40 years of record 
and possibly much longer. Utility damage is expected to exceed $1 million. 
Tornadoes struck sections of both Tennessee and Kentucky on the 21st. Adams- 
ville, Tennessee, reported 3 injuries and $100 thousand damage, and 5 lives 
were lost in central Kentucky. High winds caused some damage in Mississippi. 

The storm's worst tragedy occurred in the Ohio Valley where 3 to 5 inches of 
rain, falling on a frozen surface and aided by snowmelt and ice jams, produced 
severe floods. In Ohio and western Pennsylvania thousands were forced to evacu- 
ate their homes and final property losses will total many millions of dollars. 
Snowfall during the storm was heaviest in a belt extending from the eastern 
portions of Kansas and Nebraska into the Great Lakes region , with depths gener- 
ally ranging from 4 to 12 inches, except in western Michigan near the lake where 
10 to 20 inches fell on the 22nd. Heavy drifting snow blocked roads in many 
sections. Following the storm, temperatures dropped to subzero levels as far 
south as New Mexico and Oklahoma. Hibbing, Minnesota, recorded -33° on the 
23rd. Temperatures remained below the zero mark for several days in extreme 
north central areas and bare ground now is frozen unusually deep, ice thickness 
in Wisconsin ranges from 15 to 20 inches in the south and 20 to 30 inches in the 
north, and ice is 30 inches thick in the Missouri River at Bismarck, North 
Dakota. From the Great Lakes to the Continental Divide temperatures for the 
week averaged 6° to 15° below normal. The temperature for the week at Inter- 
national Falls, Minnesota, averaged -12°. The week's precipitation, moderate 
to heavy in nearly all areas east of the Mississippi River, replenished soil 
moisture which was inadequate in many sections of the South and Southeast. 
Moderate to heavy amounts also fell in western Montana, northern Idaho, Washing- 
ton, western Oregon and northern California. (Summary supplied by U. S. 
Weather Bureau.) 



- 47 - 

CEREAL AND FORAGE INSECTS 

GRASSHOPPERS - NEVADA - Egg survey in 10 counties was completed to determine the 
status of Trimerotropis spp. during 1959. No changes in the general situation, 
which was portrayed by the adult survey, were indicated. Overwintering eggs 
were found to be especially abundant in Smokey Valley, Nye County, where adult 
survey showed heaviest populations at close of summer. (PPC, West Reg Dec 
Rpt . ) . 

PEA APHID ( Macrosiphum pisi ) - OKLAHOMA - Infestations in alfalfa fields in 
Bixby area appear to have increased slightly in past 30 days. Averaged 25-50 
per square foot. (VanCleave, Goin) . 

SPOTTED ALFALFA APHID ( Therioaphis maculata) - OKLAHOMA - Generally light in 
alfalfa fields in Bixby area, with 20-40 per square foot. (VanCleave, Goin). 
Populations in alfalfa fields in Payne County, checked regularly, are approx- 
imately equal to those found in December, 19 58, before excessively cold weather. 
Winged forms also present. (Bieberdorf ) . 

APPLE GRAIN APHID ( Rhopalosiphum fitchii ) - OKLAHOMA - Common in fields of 
fall-seeded small grains in Bixby and Warner areas. Populations light, 25-35 
per linear foot. (VanCleave, Goin). 

GREENBUG ( Toxoptera graminum ) - OKLAHOMA - Populations appear constant in Bixby 
and Warner areas despite cold weather and snow. Infestations are in scattered 
fields and averaged 0-10 per linear foot. (VanCleave, Goin). 

APHIDS - FLORIDA - Damaged oats in the Pensacola area in December. (Fla. St 
Pit. Brd.). 

HESSIAN FLY ( Phytophaga destructor ) - NORTH CAROLINA - Wheat planted near 
fly-free date with over 40 percent of plants infested. Flax-seed stage averaged 
2-6 per infested plant. (Middleton, Jones). 

CHINCH BUG ( Blissus leucopterus ) - Annual hibernation survey completed in 
OKLAHOMA week ending January 24. Infestations across State generally lower 
than 1957-58 populations. Thirty counties maintained same average rating as in 
1957-58, 39 counties dropped and 8 counties showed increase in rating. Counties 
in western half, eastern tier and southeastern area showed noneconomic popula- 
tions. Only 3 isolated counties in State had average county ratings of very 
severe. Other states with economic populations, but generally lower than 1957, 
include NEBRASKA, KANSAS, MISSOURI, ILLINOIS, INDIANA and ARKANSAS. No formal 
survey was reported from IOWA, as populations were of noneconomic importance. 
Survey of 16 southern counties in WISCONSIN showed populations to be noneconomic. 
See survey map on page 48. (PPC, States Coop.). 

A CHINCH BUG - FLORIDA - Population declined in the Sanford area of Seminole 
County, as did damage in Brevard County. Damage to St. Augustine grass lawns 
also declined in Dade County. (Fla. St. Pit. Brd., Dec. Rpt.). 

WHITE-FRINGED BEETLES ( Graphognathus spp.) - Surveys in 43 counties of 6 states 
showed 267 new acres of infestations in NORTH CAROLINA and 45 acres in SOUTH 
CAROLINA. Treatments were applied to 84 acres of nursery land in 6 states and 
to 6,910 acres of farmland and city and industrial lands in 7 states. (PPC, 
So. Reg. , Dec. Rpt.) . 

SOYBEAN CYST NEMATODE ( Heterodera glycines ) - Of 1,320 soil samples collected 
on delimiting surveys in VIRGINIA and WEST VIRGINIA, 338 were processed. Nega- 
tive results were obtained from 243 samples collected from soybean areas in 
MARYLAND and DELAWARE. (PPC, East. Reg., Dec. Rpt.). MISSOURI - Two new' 
infestations were found in 2 fields representing 57 acres in Pemiscot County, 
which is within the regulated area. (PPC, Cent. Reg., Dec. Rpt.). 



- 48 - 




- 49 - 

FRUIT INSECTS 

A CHESTNUT APHID ( Myzocallis castanicola ) - CALIFORNIA - Heavy on chestnut trees 
in Santa Monica, Los Angeles County. (Cal . Coop. Rpt.). 

MEXICAN FRUIT FLY ( Anastrepha ludens) - TEXAS - Total number of traps in oper- 
ation was reduced from 2,084 to 1,080 after the first week of the month. No 
Mexican fruit flies were trapped. (PPC, So. Reg., Dec. Rpt.). ARIZONA - Weekly 
inspections were continued at 21 locations in the Yuma-Mesa and Yuma Valley 
areas in Yuma County and 12 locations in the Nogales area of Santa Cruz County, 
with no suspicious specimens being taken. An additional 11 traps were installed 
on 3 properties in Yuma Valley. CALIFORNIA - Trapping schedules were maintained 
with negative results. (PPC, West. Reg., Dec. Rpt.). MEXICO - An additional 
151 traps were installed on 64 new properties at Ensenada and 403 traps on 201 
properties in Tijuana, both in the state of Baja California. In Tijuana, Tecate 
and Ensenada, 1,789 traps were operated on 816 properties. A total of 5,915 
inspections were made with no Mexican fruit flies caught. (PPC, Mex. Reg., 
Dec . Rpt . ) . 

CITRUS BLACKFLY ( Aleurocanthus woglumi ) - MEXICO - Of 718 orange trees inspec- 
ted, 65 were found infested in a grove of 24,500 trees located between Ciudad 
Victoria and Padilla in the state of Tamaulipas. Inspection of 85,239 citrus 
trees on 1,089 properties revealed 75 infested on 20 properties located in 
Municipios Hidalgo and Villagran in the state of Tamaulipas, in the vicinities 
of Allende and Linares, in Nuevo Leon, and at Hermosillo, in the state of 
Sonora. (PPC, Mex. Reg. Dec. Rpt.). 

MEDITERRANEAN FRUIT FLY (Ceratitis capitata ) - No suspicious specimens were 
found in traps operated in one county in ALABAMA, 45 counties in FLORIDA, 
4 LOUISIANA parishes and one TEXAS county. (PPC, So. Reg., Dec. Rpt.). 

SCALE INSECTS - FLORIDA - Lepidosaphes beckii heavily infested citrus nursery 
stock in the Ocala area. Protopulvinaria pyriformis built up in Dade County on 
avocado. Chrysomphalus aonidum continued as a problem on citrus in eastern part 
of Hillsborough County. (Fla. St. Pit. Brd. , Dec. Rpt.). CALIFORNIA - Aonidi- 
ella aurantii medium on lemon at Atherton , San Mateo County, and light on citrus 
at Calwa, Fresno County. Parlatoria oleae and Aspidiotus perniciosus heavy on 
peach tress in Chico, Butte County. (Cal . Coop"! Rpt. ) . 

SPIDER MITES - FLORIDA - Numerous in some citrus orchards in the MacClenny area. 
Heavy on citrus nursery stock, but declined in Seminole County. Appeared to be 
building up in nurseries and groves in Brevard County. (Fla. St. Pit. Brd., 
Dec. Rpt.). CALIFORNIA - Panonychus citri medium on lemons in Hillsborough, 
San Mateo County, and Eotetranychus sexmaculatus heavy on sapote in Long Beach, 
Los Angeles County. (Cal. Coop. Rpt . ) . 

BURROWING NEMATODE ( Radopholus similis ) - FLORIDA - Detection surveys were made 
on 1,239 acres of 44 groves and 38 nurseries located in 10 counties and delimi- 
ting surveys on 20 acres of 5 properties in 2 counties. New infestations were 
found on 13 acres of 8 properties in 4 counties. Treatments were made to 5 
nurseries and 2 groves for a total of about 4 acres. (PPC, So. Reg., Dec. Rpt.). 

Citrus Insect Situation, Lake Alfred, Florida, Second Week in January - PURPLE 
SCALE activity declined and is expected to remain at low level through the month. 
FLORIDA RED SCALE activity also declined, with further decline expected. How- 
ever, the current high level will remain above normal through this month. 
Activity of CITRUS RUST MITE decreased slightly, but generally will continue 
near present level through January. The downward trend of CITRUS RUST MITE 
activity is expected to continue for the next three weeks. TEXAS CITRUS MITE 
populations are decreasing. (Fla. Coop. Sur.). 



- 50 - 

TRUCK CROP INSECTS 

BANDED CUCUMBER BEETLE ( Diabrotica balteata ) - FLORIDA - Large numbers fed on 
tomatoes in Dade and Monroe Counties^ (Fla. St. Pit. Brd. , Dec. Rpt . ) . 

SWEETPOTATO WEEVIL ( Cylas formicarius elegantulus ) - Surveys revealed 68 
additional infestations in 18 counties in ALABAMA, GEORGIA, LOUISIANA, 
MISSISSIPPI and SOUTH CAROLINA, all in previously known infested counties. 
An infestation was found for the first time in wild host plant on Edisto 
Island in Charleston County, SOUTH CAROLINA. No infestations have been found 
in sweetpotatoes in the State during the crop year. (PPC , So. Reg., Dec. Rpt.). 

ONION MAGGOT ( Hylemya antiqua ) - TEXAS - Medium infestation caused general 
concern in Zavala and Dimmit Counties. (Harding). 

SEED-CORN MAGGOT ( Hylemya cilicrura ) - TEXAS - Heavy on spinach in Zavala and 
Dimmit Counties. Infesting 25 percent of plants where no treatments have been 
applied. (Harding) . 

APHIDS - ALABAMA - Pemphigus popul i -tr ansversus and Rhopalosiphum pseudo - 
brassicae continue to infest turnips in Escambia County. Brevicoryne brassicae 
heavy on collar ds and cabbage in the same area. (Blake, Jan. 17) . CALIFORNIA - 
B. brassicae heavy on cauliflower in the San Luis Rey area, San Diego County. 
TCal. Coop. Rpt . ) . 

THRIPS - TEXAS - Thrips t abaci light on onions in Dimmit and Zavala Counties, 
with 3 per plant common and up to 5 per plant reported. Frankliniella sp. 
medium on spinach in Zavala County, with up to 25 per plant. (Harding) . 

AN EARTHWORM MITE ( Fuscuropoda agitans ) - CALIFORNIA - Heavy on tomato roots in 
the Hughson area, Stanislaus County. (Cal . Coop. Rpt.). 

GOLDEN NEMATODE ( Heterodera rostochiensis ) - NEW YORK - Examinations were made 
of 6,600 samples collected from Long Island potato fields. A new infestation 
was confirmed on one 48-acre field within the area of general infestation in 
Suffolk County. NEW JERSEY - A total of 812 samples collected from 99 sites 
were processed with negative results. (PPC, East. Reg. Dec. Rpt.). NEBRASKA - 
Some 110 soil samples collected at potato grader stations were processed, with 
negative results. INDIANA - Fifty-one samples from 10 grader stations, repre- 
senting 2,505 acres in 7 counties were processed. All reports to date have been 
negative. (PPC, Cent. Reg., Dec. Rpt.). 



COTTON INSECTS 

PINK BOLLWORM ( Pectinophora gossypiella ) - LOUISIANA - Inspections were contin- 
ued in the State. Ouachita Parish was reported infested for the first time in 
late November. MISSISSIPPI - Approximately 3,230 bushels of gin trash were 
inspected, all negative. OKLAHOMA - Inspection of dry bolls from standing 
stalks and on the ground showed pink bollworm had infested an additional 2,805 
acres, making a total of 346,937 infested acres to date. TENNESSEE - Inspection 
of 49 gins in 7 counties gave negative results. TEXAS - A total of 825 inspec- 
tions in 52 counties revealed 28,688 specimens for an average of 35.99 per 
inspection. (PPC, So. Reg., Dec. Rpt.). ARIZONA - During the month, 89 new 
infestations were found within the regulated area involving 8,827 acres, as the 
result of 3,971 inspections of gin trash, lint clearrers and bolls. Outside the 
regulated area 596 inspections gave negative results. Positive specimen from 
the Avra Valley, Pima County, was first pink bollworm found in the county since 
1955. Extensive field inspection near Pichacha, Pinal County, revealed presence 
of pink bollworm. Inspections established several newly infested farms in the 



- 51 - 

regulated area. Newly infested locations in Maricopa County are Arlington, 
Cactus, Chandler Heights, West Chandler and the Harquahala Valley. In Pinal 
County a new location has been established north of Casa Grande. In the 
vicinity of Phoenix the infested area has been extended to include more acreage 
in the vicinity of Luke Air Force Base, the Deer Valley and the Cactus area. 
(PPC, West. Reg. , Dec. Rpt . ) . MEXICO - In the states of Baja California and 
Sonora, 3,587 bushels of gin trash were inspected and 139 lint cleaner inspec- 
tions were made. Results were negative. Light trap collections were discon- 
tinued in the Mexicali district. A total of 40 collections of moths were 
submitted for identification. All were negative. (PPC, Mex. Reg., Dec. Rpt.). 

FOREST, ORNAMENTAL AND SHADE TREE INSECTS 

GYPSY MOTH ( Porthetria dispar ) - MICHIGAN - Scouting of an 800-acre area in 
Clinton County resulted in the finding of 12 egg masses on 3 adjacent trees, 
within 250 yards of a trap that caught 6 male moths during the summer of 1958. 
This is the first time that egg masses have been found in the history of the 
program in this State. (PPC, Cent. Reg., Dec. Rpt.). 

A ROOT BORER ( Euzophera ostricolorella ) - LOUISIANA - Larvae reported in 
CEIR 8(51): 1008 as tunneling in roots of Magnolia grandif lora have been deter- 
mined as this species. (Spink). 

A WHITEFLY ( Aleyrodes spiraeoides ) - CALIFORNIA - Medium on fuchsia in Woodside, 
San Mateo County. (Cal. Coop. Rpt.). 

SCALE INSECTS - FLORIDA - Phenacaspis pinifoliae infested pines at DeLand in 
Volusia County. Large numbers of Saissetia hemisphaerica were reported on 
coontie in Mullis City. (Fla. St. Pit. Brd. , Dec. Rpt.) . LOUISIANA - 
Ceroplastes cirripediformis general on ornamentals in New Orleans. (Spink). 
OKLAHOMA - Saissetia oleae collected from chrysanthemums in greenhouse at 
Tulsa. (Apt, Stiles). CALIFORNIA - Aspidiotus hederae heavy on chinaberry 
trees in Santa Paula, Ventura County. (Cal . Coop. Rpt.). 

A MEALYBUG ( Pseudococcus malacearum ) - CALIFORNIA - Heavy on Epithelantha 
micromeris in University of California Botanical Gardens, Berkeley, Alameda 
County, and light on Baccharis pilularis in Woodside, San Mateo County. (Cal. 
Coop. Rpt.) . 

SPIDER MITES - FLORIDA - Reported on increase from Marianna eastward and attacked 
a variety of hosts. (Fla. St. Pit. Brd., Dec. Rpt.). 



INSECTS AFFECTING MAN AND ANIMALS 

CATTLE GRUBS ( Hypoderma spp.) - VIRGINIA - Appearing in backs of cattle in 
Washington, Montgomery, Albemarle, Sussex and Warren Counties. None were present 
in cattle examined in King George and Charlotte Counties. (Turner, Morris). 
NORTH CAROLINA - Dairy and beef cattle examined in first two weeks of January 
showed no grubs present in 90 head in Lincoln County, 263 head in Pender County 
(with few seen in 7 years) , 7 5 head in Vance County and 91 head in Wilkes County. 
Averaged 11.9 in untreated and . 4 in treated locally grown beef cattle examined 
in Alleghany County and 7.7 in untreated and 1.9 in treated beef cattle in Rowan 
County. All examined January 13-14. (Jones, et al . ) . OKLAHOMA - Counts 
averaged 4.7 per animal on 180 mature cows and 14.8 per yearling steer on 95 
examined in Woodward County. Counts in Harper County averaged 3.8 per animal 
on 130 mature cows and 12.2 per animal on 160 yearling steers. (Howell). 
UTAH - Small numbers appearing in backs of cattle in Juab County. (Knowlton) . 



- 52 - 

SHEEP SCAB MITE ( Psoroptes equi ovis ) - VIRGINIA - Found on 160 of 752 sheep 
inspected in the State during December, 1958. (Va. Livestock Health Bull.). 

MOSQUITOES - FLORIDA - Heavy populations were reported in Hillsborough and 
Manatee in Sarasota County. (Fla. St. Pit. Brd. , Dec. Rpt . ) . 



STORED-PRODUCT INSECTS 

KHAPRA BEETLE ( Trogoderma granarium ) - CONNECTICUT - Inspection of 2 grain 
establishments were negative. PENNSYLVANIA - A total of 17 inspections were 
made in Butler, Chester, Crawford, Erie and Indiana Counties. NEW YORK - 
Inspections were made in 6 establishments in western part of State and 2 in 
New York City. (PPC, East. Reg., Dec. Rpt.). A total of 38 inspections were 
made in ALABAMA, ARKANSAS, FLORIDA, SOUTH CAROLINA and TEXAS. All determina- 
tions that have been returned were negative. (PPC, So. Reg., Dec. Rpt.). 
ARIZONA - One newly infested property found in Mesa, Maricopa County. (PPC, 
West. Reg., Dec. Rpt.). MEXICO - During the month 220 inspections (130 initial 
and 90 repeat) were made in the states of Baja California, Sonora, Jalisco and 
Michoacan. No positive classifications were received for the 195 specimen 
collections submitted. (PPC, Mex. Reg., Dec. Rpt.). 

A SPIDER BEETLE (Ptinus ocellus ) - Medium in food stuffs in Santa Cruz, Santa 
Cruz County. (Cal. Coop. Rpt.) . 

A CEREAL MITE ( Glyciphagus destructor ) - CALIFORNIA - Heavy in sacked cotton- 
seed meal in Ceres, Stanislaus County. (Cal. Coop. Rpt.). 



MISCELLANEOUS INSECTS 

IMPORTED FIRE ANT ( Solenopsis saevissima richteri ) - GEORGIA - Early County was 
found infested for the first time during December. TENNESSEE - Inspection of 
42 properties along the Mississippi State line in Shelby County gave negative 
results. NORTH CAROLINA - An additional 288 infested acres were found and 
treated. SOUTH CAROLINA - Ninety-seven additional infested acres were found 
and treated. Treatments were underway in all 10 infested states with a total 
of over 65,000 acres receiving eradication treatment. (PPC, So. Reg., Dec. 
Rpt.). 

GIANT HORNET ( Vespa crabro germana ) - GEORGIA - Specimen collected December 9, 
1958, at Carnesville, Franklin County, by Don Ashworth, is first record of this 
species from the State. Det. H. 0. Lund. (Johnson). 

A TERMITE ( Reticulitermes hesperus ) - CALIFORNIA - Unusually heavy swarms 
occurred in Los Angeles County. Recent rains following long dry period appar- 
ently brought out sexual forms. (Longfellow). 



LIGHT TRAP COLLECTIONS 



Pseudaletia Agrotis Feltia 

unipuncta ypsilon subterranea 



FLORIDA 

Gainesville 1/15-21 1 2 

LOUISIANA 

Baton Rouge 1/16-22 3 10 16 

SOUTH CAROLINA 

Charleston 1/12-18 13 1 



- 53 - 
STATUS OF THE EUROPEAN CORN BORER IN 1958 



Survey Data Provided by State Agricultural Agencies 
Compiled and Summarized by Survey and Detection Operations, 
Plant Pest Control Division, 
United States Department of Agriculture 

Agricultural agencies in 25 States reported on surveys conducted in their States 
to determine the abundance and distribution of the European corn borer ( Pyrausta 
nubilalis ) in 1958. All survey data, summaries or records of field observations 
were submitted to Survey and Detection Operations, Plant Pest Control Division 
office in Washington, D. C. f for processing. This report is a compilation of the 
information submitted by the State agencies. 



Distribution 

The greatest degree of spread of the European corn borer in 1958 occurred in the 
south where 52 new counties and parishes were reported from Alabama, Arkansas, 
Georgia, Louisiana and North Carolina. In addition, there were two counties from 
Missouri and four in West Virginia for a total of 58. Twenty-nine new counties 
and parishes were found in 1957. 

Counties and parishes reported as infested for the first time in 1958 are as 
follows : 



Alabama 

Autauga 

Calhoun 

Cleburne 

Chilton 

Elmore 

Greene 

Hale 

Jefferson 

Montgomery 

Perry 

Pickens 

Randolph 

Shelby 

St. Clair 

Tallapoosa 

Arkansas 

Ashley 

Bradley 

Calhoun 

Chicot 

Cleveland 

Columbia 

Dallas 

Drew 

Faulkner 

Grant 



Arkansas (cont'd) 

Hempstead 

Howard 

Johnson 

Lafayette 

Miller 

Montgomery 

Nevada 

Perry 

Polk 

Saline 

Scott 

Sebastian 

Sharp 

Union 

Georgia 

Bartow 

Forsyth 

Fulton 

Gordon 

Haralson 

Meriwether 

Louisiana 

Bossier 

Caddo 

Ouachita 



Louisiana (cont'd) 

Natchitoches 
Red River 



Missouri 



Douglass 
Ozark 



North Carolina 

Johnston 
Scott 

West Virginia 

Boone 
Lincoln 
Logan 
Mingo 



- 54 - 

Abundance 

The 1958 corn borer abundance survey was conducted during the late summer and 
fall of the year. The survey is designed to measure the fall population of 
European corn borer larvae. The participating States were encouraged to time 
the surveys to include a high percentage of mature larvae whenever possible. 
In all cases, except for some minor differences in compiling data, the accepted 
survey methods were used. 

The survey was continued on a district basis whenever possible in 1958. A dis- 
trict is usually a group of counties within a State, in some cases being based 
on the Agricultural Marketing Service Crop Reporting Districts. However, some 
of the States are being considered as a single district in this report. The 
population levels for 1957 and 1958 are shown in Table 1. 

Population levels of the European corn borer were generally lower in the central 
States. Decreases that were most notable were in Iowa, Missouri and South Dakota 
where the number of borers per 100 plants averaged 166, 109 and 83 compared with 
419, 399 and 313 in 1957. Populations in North Dakota showed some increase, 
being 179 borers per 100 plants in 1958 compared with 93 in 1957. Populations 
in the other central States were approximately the same as they were in 1957. 

In the eastern States, populations varied somewhat, a substantial increase being 

recorded in Delaware, New Jersey and Virginia while a decrease was noted in 

Rhode Island. The average for this group of States was slightly higher than the 
counts recorded in 1957. 

Population surveys were conducted for the second year in Alabama and Arkansas 
and reported for the first time in North Carolina. In Alabama, the highest 
counts were recorded in Marshall County for the second straight year, being 402 
borers per 100 plants in 1958 compared with 276 in 1957. In Arkansas, the high- 
est counts were 184 in St. Francis County, while in North Carolina the highest 
counts were 132 in Surry County. Generally, however, counts were very low in 
North Carolina and approximately the same as in 1957 in Alabama and Arkansas. 

For the States reporting, based on comparable districts surveyed, the average 
number of borers per 100 plants decreased from 162 in 1957 to 94 in 1958. 

A summary of the 1957 and 1958 surveys is shown in Table 1 by States and Dis- 
tricts. State summaries are shown in Table 2. Accompanying maps show districts 
surveyed, approximate population levels and counties infested for the first time 
in 1958. 



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- 56 



Table 2- 



-European corn borer abundance in corn, fall 
of 1958 compared with data for 1957 





Average 


Number : 




Average 


Number 




of Borers per : 




of Borers per 




100 Plants : 




100 Plants 


State 


1957 


1958 : 


State 


1957 


1958 


Alabama 






Delaware 






(Ext. Ser.) 






(Agr. Exp. Sta.) 






Blount 


- 


23 


Kent 


39 


249 


Calhoun 


- 


5 


New Castle 


44 


193 


Cherokee 


- 


86 


Sussex 


186 


304 


Cleburne 


- 


15 








Colbert 


122 


175 


State mean 


90 


249 


Cullman 


- 


56 








De Kalb 


123 


153 


Illinois 






Etowah 


- 


102 


(Natural History 






Fayette 


- 


6 


Survey, Ext. Ser.) 






Franklin 


- 


24 








Jackson 


- 


39 


Northwest 


80 


127 


Jefferson 


- 


4 


Northeast 


70 


64 


Lamar 


- 


6 


West 


143 


146 


Lauderdale 


43 


21 


Central 


66 


102 


Lawrence 


- 


47 


East 


36 


49 


Limestone 


- 


233 


West Southwest 


129 


47 


Madison 


- 


187 


East Southeast 


12 


29 


Marion 


- 


23 


Southwest 


22 


4 


Marshall 


276 


402 


Southeast 


1 


5 


Morgan 


- 


48 








St. Clair 


- 


29 


State mean 


62 


64 


Tuscaloosa 


- 


8 








Walker 
Winston 


- 


3 
6 


Indiana 

(Exp. Sta. Ext. Ser.) 




State mean 


141 


75 


North Northwest 


95 


78 








North North Central 


41 


69 


State mean comparable 






North Northeast 


41 


44 


counties (4) 


141 


188 


Northwest 


8 


37 








North Central 


10 


61 


Arkansas 






Northeast 


18 


46 


(Ext.Sta., Exp. Ser.) 






Southwest 


10 


15 








South Central 


11 


32 


Clay 


- 


65 


Southeast 


27 


87 


Craighead 


- 


82 


South Southwest 


3 


17 


Cross 


- 


28 


South South Central 


65 


20 


Greene 


- 


52 


South Southeast 


62 


17 


Hempstead 


- 


1 








Howard 


- 


2 


State Mean 


32 


44 


Lawrence 


- 


70 








Lee 


- 


38 


Iowa 






Miller 


- 


3 


(State Dept . of Agr 


, 




Monroe 


- 


48 


Ext. Ser. Exp. Sta. 






Phillips 


- 


71 


Ent . Research USDAl 






Poinsett 


- 


88 








Randolph 


- 


110 


District I 


904 


166 


St. Francis 


- 


184 


District II 


306 


74 


Scott 


- 


1 


District III 


118 


23 


White 


- 


63 


District IV 


944 


396 








District V 


387 


93 


State mean 


28 


39 


District VI 


81 


81 


(Survey in 1957 repres 


3nted 30 


counties , 


District VII 


552 


411 



ranging 0-149 per 100 stalks) 



57 



Table 2 — (Cont'd) 





: Average 


Number : 




Average 


Number 




:of Borers per : 




of Borers per 




•100 Plants : 


State 


100 Plants 


State 


:l957 


1958 : 


1957 


1958 


Iowa (cont'd) 






Micnigan 

(Ext. Ser.) 






District VIII 


430 


151 








District IX 


195 


171 


Southwest 


8 


9 


District X 


383 


296 


Northeast 


9 


4 


District XI 


358 


146 


Southeast 


9 


7 


District XII 


367 


131 














State mean 


9 


7 


State mean 


419 


166 


Minnesota 






Kansas 






(State Dept. of Agr. 


) 




(Ins. Sur.) 


















West Central 


69 


23 


Northeast 


267 


263 


Central 


48 


10 


North Central 


20 


40 


East Central 


19 


3 


Southeast 


- 


19 


Southwest 


208 


46 


East Central 


172 


10 5 


South Central 


123 


16 


Central 


18 


~ 


Southeast 


40 


6 


State mean 


119 


107 


State mean 


83 


16 


State mean comparable 






Missouri* 






districts (2) 


143 


151 


(Ext. Ser. Ins. Sur. 


) 










District I 


685 


161 








District II 


580 


89 








District III 


318 


131 


Maryland 






District IV 


372 


137 


(Agr. Ext. Ser. , 






District V 


331 


69 


Ins . Sur . ) 






District VI 


40 


22 








District VII 


- 


32 


Allegany 


31 


26 


District IX 


95 


123 


Anne Arundel 


32 


48 








Baltimore 


39 


45 


State mean 


346 


96 


Calvert 


27 


24 








Caroline 


49 


371 


State mean comparable 






Carroll 


84 


85 


districts (5) 


399 


109 


Cecil 


30 


67 








Charles 


10 


21 








Dorchester 

Frederick 

Garrett 


105 

77 

4 


222 

16 

7 


Nebraska* 

(Agr. Exp. Sta. , Ext 
Ser. , Ins. Sur.) 






Harford 

Howard 

Kent 


45 
21 
43 


61 
66 
74 


Northeast 

East 

Southeast 


514 
298 
127 


330 
299 
276 


Montgomery 


34 


47 


North 


217 


88 


Prince Georges 


11 


23 


Central 


310 


177 


Queen Annes 


20 


129 


South 


183 


160 


St. Marys 


94 


75 


Southwest 


74 


65 


Somerset 


150 


89 


Northwest 


37 


22 


Talbot 


95 


113 









Washington 


43 


66 


State mean 


220 


177 


Wicomico 


90 


312 








Worcester 


243 


175 














* Crop Reporting Districts 




State mean 


60 


94 









- 58 



Table 2 - 


- (Cont'd) 












Average Number : 
of Borers per : 
100 Plants : 


State 


Average Number 
of Borers per 
100 Plants 


State 


1957 1958 : 


1957 1958 



New Hampshire 

(State Dept. of Agr.) 

Belknap 4 

Carroll 8 

Cheshire 7 

Grafton 7 

Hillsboro 9 

Merrimack 6 

Rockingham 16 

Strafford 7 

Sullivan 6 

State mean 8 

New Jersey 

(Dept. of Agr. and 
College of Agr.) 



Burlington 

Camden 

Cumberland 

Gloucester 

Hunterdon 

Mercer 

Middlesex 

Monmouth 

Salem 

Somerset 

Sussex 

Warren 

State mean 

New York 
(Ext.Ser.) 

Dutchess 

Erie 

Monroe 

Nassau 

Onondaga 

Orleans 

Suffolk 

Ulster 

State mean 



81 
94 
36 
53 
10 

117 
63 

408 
41 

151 
4 

8 

89 



102 



State mean comparable 
counties (5) 



12 



6 

9 
14 

4 
17 
10 
11 
16 

3 

11 



188 
128 
200 
168 

16 
186 
299 
369 
163 
293 

11 
8 

169 



4 
11 

54* 

70 

1 

133* 

21 

21 



21 



* Nassau and Suffolk Counties not 
averaged in mean total ; only 3 
samples taken in both counties. 



(Ext. Ser.) 

Brunswick 

Gates 

Hertford 

McDowell 

Scotland 

Surry 

Yadkin 

State mean 






7 

132 
20 

23 



(Total of 12 fields checked in 
State; 2 in Brunswick, McDowell, 
Scotland, Surry and Yadkin 
Counties, and one field each in 
Gates and Hertford Counties) . 



North Dakota 



(State Dept. of 


Agr 


) 




District I 




117 


188 


District II 




110 


219 


District III 




51 


129 


State mean 




93 


179 


Ohio 








(Agr. Exp. Sta. , 








Ext. Ser.) 








Northwest 




45 


38 


West Central 




27 


23 


Central 




26 


60 


Southwest 




36 


70 


Northeast 




43 


50 


State mean 




35 


43 


Pennsylvania 








(State Dept. of 


Agr 


• ) 




Northeast 




6 


- 


North 




10 


- 


Northwest 




1 


10 


West 




16 


17 


Southwest 




90 


13 


South 




54 


31 


Central 




55 


104 


Southeast 




93 


86 


East 




29 


44 


State mean 




40 


43 



State mean comparable 
districts (5) 



44 



50 



- 59 - 



Table 2 - 


- (Cont'd) 








State 


Average Number : 
of Borers per : 
100 Plants 


State 


Average Number 
of Borers per 
100 Plants 


1957 19 58 : 


1957 1958 



(Agr. Exp. Sta.) 
State mean* 

* Statewide Survey 

South Dakota 

(Agr. Exp. Sta. , 
Ext. Ser.) 

North Central 
Northeast 
Central 
East Central 
Southeast 
South Central 

State mean 



312 



172 
121 
414 
415 
571 
190 

313 



Vermont 

(State Dept. of Agr.) 

Addison 

Bennington 

Caledonia 

Chittenden 

Essex 

Franklin 

Grand Isle 

Lamoille 

Orange 

Orleans 

Rutland 

Washington 

Windham 

Windsor 

State mean 

State mean comparable 
counties (6) 

Virginia 

(Ins. Sur . ) 



Northern District 134 
Southwestern District 100 



30 



108 

49 

63 

103 

126 

51 

83 



290 
213 



West Virginia 
(Exp. Sta.) 



Berkeley 


15 


Braxton 


27 


Brooke 


70 


Clay 


8 


Greenbrier 


38 


Hampshire 


13 


Hancock 


23 


Hardy 


24 


Harrison 


_ 


Jefferson, Berkeley 


- 


Lewis 


39 


Monongalia 


36 


Monroe 


101 


Nichols 


_ 


Ohio, Brooke, Hancock 


_ 


Ohio 


23 


Pleasants 


4 


Preston 


_ 


Wirth 


7 


Wood 


8 


State mean 


40 



State mean comparable 
counties (6) 37 



Wisconsin 

(State Dept. of Agr.) 



State mean 



36 



State mean comparable 
districts (1) 59 



8 
51 



21 
124 



27 

8 

1 

Trace 



22 

7 

25 



17 



Northwest 


9 


12 


North Central 


- 


12 


West Central 


59 


10 


Central 


24 


5 


Southwest 


91 


20 


South Central 


29 


17 


Southeast 


19 


9 


East Central 


- 


28 


Northeast 


20 


20 



15 



10 



State mean 



252 



in g 
u o ■ 



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^ O 





OD 









x 


/ 
- J 


J 
-, 




4W 1 




--rS 


jiiliii, 


L 


PTT" 


: 


'I ;?<) 




1 


a 


tl 


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■% 




1 i 


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! 


.: , 


II 


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UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF AGR 
WASHINGTON 25, P. C. 
Official Business 




AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH SERVICE 



PEST CONTROL DIVISION 

■■ 

SURVEY a DETECTION OPERATIONS 



The Cooperative Economic Insect Report is issued 
weekly as a service to American Agriculture. Its contents 
are compiled from information supplied by cooperating State, 
Federal, and industrial entomologists and other agricultural 
workers. In releasing this material the Division serves as 
a clearing house and does not assume responsibility for ac- 
curacy of the material. 



Reports and inquiries pertaining to this release 
should be mailed to: 

Survey & Detection Operations 



Plant Pest Control Division 

Agricultural Research Service 

United States Department of Agriculture 

Washington 25, D. C. 



Volume 9 February 6, 1959 Number 6 



COOPERATIVE ECONOMIC INSECT REPORT 



Highlights of Insect Conditions 

WINTER GRAIN MITE damaging in areas of Texas. (p. 65). 

BOLL WEEVIL hibernation counts in Tennessee, Fall, 1958. (p. 66). Summary 
of hibernation surveys in seven states. (p. 67). 

CATTLE LICE serious in several counties in Utah. (p. 66). 

Additional KHAPRA BEETLE infestation reported in California. (p. 68). 

SUMMARY OF INSECT CONDITIONS in some countries in the Near East, South Asia 
and Africa - 1958. (Iraq p. 69, Iran p. 70, Afghanistan p. 74, Pakistan p. 75, 
Tunisia p. 77, Libya p. 78, Ethiopia p. 79). 

INSECTS not known to occur in the United States. (p. 81). 






Reports in this issue are for the week ending January 30 , unless otherwise 
designated. 



- 64 - 

WEATHER BUREAU 30 -DAY OUTLOOK 
FEBRUARY 1959 

The Weather Bureau's 30-day outlook for February calls for temperatures to 
average below seasonal normals over most of the Nation except for above normal 
east of the Appalachians and in West Coast states. Coldest weather is predicted 
for the Northern Plains. Precipitation is expected to exceed normal over the 
eastern half of the country and also in the western Plateau and Rocky Mountain 
states. Subnormal amounts are anticipated over the Northern Plains and in 
west Texas. Near normal precipitation is indicated in unspecified areas. 

Weather forecast given here is based on the official 30-day "Resume and 
Outlook", published twice a month by the Weather Bureau. You can subscribe 
through Superintendent of Documents, Washington 25, D. C. Price $4.80 a year, 
$2.40 a half year. 

WEATHER OF THE WEEK ENDING FEBRUARY 2 

Last week's temperatures, repeating the now familiar pattern of several previous 
weeks, were persistently mild in the Far West with weekly averages as much as 
7° above normal; while east of the Rockies warmer weather the first part of the 
week was followed by an inflow of cold air which brought subzero cold to north- 
ern areas and freezing to northern portions of some of the Southern States. 
Higher daytime temperatures the first part of the week, ranging in the 40 's and 
50 's from the central Great Plains through the Ohio Valley and Northeast removed 
most of the snow cover from those areas , except in northern New York and New 
England, and much of the previous week's glaze in Illinois and Indiana. The 
weekend cold east of the Rockies dropped temperatures to the lowest levels so 
far this winter at many northern points. Some of the extreme low temperatures 
were: Dunn Center, North Dakota, -46° on January 31; Bemidji, Minnesota, -40° 
on February 1; Lone Rock, Wisconsin, -36° and Newport, Vermont, -25° on 
February 2. 

Light to moderate precipitation was widespread, except in the Far Southwest 
where little or none occurred, with heavy amounts in the Pacific Northwest and 
in the Gulf and south Atlantic coastal areas. Much of the week's precipitation 
fell during the movement of a low pressure disturbance from the Pacific North- 
west to the lower Great Plains early in the week and then northeastward over 
the St. Lawrence Valley on January 30. Heaviest falls, up to 5 inches in the 
form of rain, occurred in the South, as warm, moist air overran the inflow of 
cold air from the North during the weekend. In Texas, this weekend, precipita- 
tion was a mixture of glaze, snow and rain, while mostly snow in Oklahoma and 
Kansas, with extreme falls of 8 inches or more in both states and also in 
northeastern Texas. Soil moisture in the South was improved by the moderate 
to heavy rains, although the subsoil is still dry in some southeastern areas 
due to the extended fall and early winter dry spell there. The eastern snow 
cover now extends from Oklahoma to the Great Lakes , and across northern 
portions of New York and New England. The cover is unusually deep in the 
Great Lakes region, ranging up to 50 inches along Lake Superior. The ground 
is mostly bare at lower elevations in the Far West. (Summary supplied by 
U. S. Weather Bureau). 



- 65 - 

CEREAL AND FORAGE INSECTS 

SOUTHERN CORN ROOTWORM ( Diabrotica undecimpunctata howardi ) - LOUISIANA - 

A total 132 collected in 100 sweeps on burclover in Iberville Parish. (Spink) . 

SOUTHWESTERN CORN BORER ( Zeadiatraea grandiosella ) - OKLAHOMA - Mortality counts 
of overwintering larvae in Payne County showed over 60 percent mortality in a 
field of late sorghum and only 5 percent mortality in an adjoining corn field. 
(Arbuthnot) . 

GREENBUG ( Toxoptera graminum ) - OKLAHOMA - Light infestations common in small 
grain fields in Noble and Kay Counties. Averaged 0.8-6 per linear foot. 
Averaged 16 per linear foot in one Blackwell area wheat field, with one-half 
of aphids either winged or developing wings. Infestations were scattered and 
averaged 0-4 per linear foot in Payne, Garfield, Grant, Major and Alfalfa 
Counties. All populations in north central area lower than during December, 
19 58. (VanCleave) . TEXAS - Very light to no infestation in 12 counties checked 
on upper south plains and in northwest areas. Averaged 0-3 per linear foot in 
8 south central counties checked. (Hawkins) . 

APPLE GRAIN APHID ( Rhopalosiphum fitchii) - OKLAHOMA - Counts in north central 
area small grain fields lower than in December, 1958. Averaged 0-25 per linear 
foot in most fields, with 200 per linear foot in one field in Fairview area, 
Major County. (VanCleave) . 

CORN LEAF APHID ( Rhopalosiphum maidis) - OKLAHOMA - Populations lower, 0-50 per 
linear foot, in barley fields in north central area. (VanCleave). 

PEA APHID ( Macrosiphum pisi ) - OKLAHOMA - Common in most north central alfalfa 
fields with up to 25 per square foot. Although still light, numbers increased 
during past month. (VanCleave) . 

SPOTTED ALFALFA APHID ( Therioaphis maculata ) - OKLAHOMA - Populations down in 
all north central area alfalfa fields. Present in all fields checked and aver- 
aged up to 50 per square foot. (VanCleave). KANSAS - Averaged 15 per 25 plants 
in Pottawatomie County and 20 per 25 plants in Riley County. Populations in 
Cloud County were 5 per 25 plants in each of 3 fields , and 2 and 10 per 25 
plants in 2 separate fields in Republic County. (Peters). 

BROWN WHEAT MITE ( Petrobia latens ) - OKLAHOMA - Infestations more common in small 
grain fields in north central area. Numbers increased in most fields. Averaged 
up to 200 per linear foot. (VanCleave). 

WINTER GRAIN MITE ( Penthaleus major ) - TEXAS - Caused considerable damage to oats 
in Hunt County. (Davis) . Large acreages damaged in Bell County. (Hawkins). 



FRUIT INSECTS 

A MEALYBUG ( Pseudococcus malacearum ) - CALIFORNIA - Medium on Meyer lemon in 
Redwood City, San Mateo County. TCal . Coop. Rpt.). 

SCALE INSECTS - CALIFORNIA - Lepidosaphes ficus medium on fig trees in Willows, 
Glenn County. Aspidiotus perniciosus heavy on almond trees in the same area, 
and heavy on pear trees in Riverside, Riverside County. A. hederae heavy on 
persimmon trees in Santa Paula, Ventura County. (Cal. Coop. Rpt . ) . 



- 66 - 

TRUCK CROP INSECTS 

POPLAR PETIOLE GALL APHID ( Pemphigus populi-transversus ) - CALIFORNIA - Medium 
infestation on roots of Brassica kaber in Davis, Yolo County. (Lange) . 

VEGETABLE WEEVIL ( Listroderes costirostris otaliquus ) - LOUISIANA - Heavy on 
turnips in East Baton Rouge Parish. (SpinkJT 

YELLOW -MARGINED LEAF BEETLE ( Microtheca ochroloma ) - LOUISIANA - Medium on 
turnips in East Baton Rouge Parish. (Spink) . 

COTTON INSECTS 

BOLL WEEVIL ( Anthonomus grandis) - TENNESSEE - Survey to determine the popula- 
tion of hibernating weevils in McNairy County was late in 1958 due to unfavor- 
able weather. Trash examinations indicate that there is an average of 1,214 
boll weevils per acre in 1958 compared with 2,365 in the fall of 1957. If 
counts had been made in McNairy County at an earlier time, the counts may have 
been considerably higher. The counts in this county represent the heaviest 
infested area in the State. However, counts in other southern counties should 
be only slightly lower. (Locke). 

FOREST, ORNAMENTAL AND SHADE TREE INSECTS 

SCALE INSECTS - MARYLAND - Leucaspis japonica heavy on privet , light on holly 
at Hyattsville, Prince Georges County. Saissetia hemisphaerica on maidenhair 
fern at Rockville, Montgomery County. (U. Md. , Ent. Dept . ) . CALIFORNIA - 
Eriococcus araucariae medium on pine in North Island, San Diego County. Heavy 
infestation of Aonidiella citrina on euonymus in Exeter, Tulare County. (Cal. 
Coop. Rpt . ) . 

A MEALYBUG ( Spilococcus andersoni ) - CALIFORNIA - Heavy on juniper trees in the 
Wasco area of Kern County"! (Cal . Coop. Rpt.). 

CYCLAMEN MITE ( S teneo t arsonemus pallidus ) - CALIFORNIA - Damaged cylamen plants 
in Ventura, Ventura County. CCal . Coop. Rpt.). 

INSECTS AFFECTING MAN AND ANIMALS 

CATTLE GRUBS ( Hypoderma spp.) - MARYLAND - Averaged 3 per animal in 12 hereford 
calves examined at Upper Marlboro. (U. Md. , Ent. Dept.). UTAH - Numerous in 
young cattle in Tremonton-Penrose area of Box Elder County. (Knowlton, Finch). 
General in Weber, Millard, Tooele and Salt Lake Counties. (Knowlton). 

CATTLE LICE - VIRGINIA - Heavy on cattle in a dairy herd in Bland County. 
(Mallory) . UTAH - Total of 1,100 cattle treated in Wasatch County. (Knowlton, 
Daniels). Serious in parts of Cache, Box Elder and Weber Counties. Becoming 
more conspicuous in Millard, Tooele, Salt Lake, Summit and Juab Counties. 
(Knowlton) . 

LIGHT TRAP COLLECTIONS 

Pseudaletia Agrotis Feltia 

unipuncta ypsilon subterranea 

LOUISIANA 

Baton Rouge 1/23-29 24 13 29 

SOUTH CAROLINA 

Charleston 1/19-2/1 12 10 10 



- 67 - 
SUMMARY OF BOLL WEEVIL HIBERNATION SURVEYS - FALL 1958 

Collections of surface woods trash samples have been made to date in 7 cotton 
producing States during the fall of 1958 by cooperating State and Federal agen- 
cies. The data from the collections were summarized and reported separately in 
previous issues of the Cooperative Economic Insect Report as follows: North 
Carolina, South Carolina and Virginia - Vol. 8, page 1008; Louisiana - Vol. 9, 
page 4; Georgia - Vol. 9, page 21; Mississippi - Vol. 9, page 31. 

Fall Woods Trash Examinations for Hibernating Boll Weevils 



State 



Area or District 



: Number of Live Weevils per Acre 
: 1957 : 1958 



North Carolina 
South Carolina 
Virginia 



Area 1 - South central S. C. 3,978 

Area 2 - Coastal plains (N.C. & S.C.) 11,374 

Area 3 - Piedmont (N.C. & S.C.) 6,752 

Area 4 - North central N. C. 2,205 

Area 5 - Southeastern Va. 3,335 



995 
4,625 
2,635 

968 

511 



Georgia 



Northwest 
North central 
East central 
South 



1,113 

5,034 

1,791 

387 



774 

2,178 

387 

145 



Mississippi 



Lower delta 
Central delta 
North delta 
Hill section 



5,243 

6,269 

11,264 

4,087 



4,242 
4,909 
2,960 
3,057 



Louisiana 
Tennessee 



Northeast 
McNairy County 




- 68 - 

STORED-PRODUCT INSECTS 

KHAPRA BEETLE ( Trogoderma granarium ) - CALIFORNIA - Medium infestation on a 
farm property in Thermal, Riverside County, is fifth active infestation known 
in the State at present time. (Cal . Coop. Rpt . ) . 

Stored-products Insect Situation in Texas - INDIAN-MEAL MOTH ( Plodia 
interpunctella ) .CONFUSED FLOUR BEETLE ( TFibolium confusum ) , SAW-TOOTHED 
GRAIN BEETLE ( Oryzaephilus surinamensis^ and RICE WEEVIL ( Sitophilus oryza ) 
were found in large numbers on sacks of stored grain in Parmer County. Some 
dermestids were also found. (Russell, Meekma, Hawkins). A GRAIN BEETLE 
( Ahasverus advena ) , SAW-TOOTHED GRAIN BEETLE and CONFUSED FLOUR BEETLE were 
light to medium in stored grain in Chambers County. (Turney) . 



69 - 



SUMMARY OF INSECT CONDITIONS IN SOME COUNTRIES OF THE 
NEAR EAST, SOUTH ASIA AND AFRICA 

1958 



The summaries of insect conditions that follow have been submitted in the 1958 
Annual Report of the Regional Insect Control Project with headquarters in Beirut 
Lebanon. The first attempt to present information on the more important insect 
pests of the Near East and South Asia in the Cooperative Economic Insect Report 
was made in 1955 following a request from the survey committee of the Entomo- 
logical Society of America. For the benefit of CEIR readers, it may be well to 
point out that the Regional Insect Control Project is a cooperative program 
operated by the Plant Pest Control Division, ARS , in accordance with an agree- 
ment signed on February 18, 1954, between the U. S. Department of Agriculture 
and the International Cooperation Administration. At the present time a staff 
of 8 entomologists are stationed in 7 countries working with personnel of the 
U. S. Operations Missions and Ministries of Agriculture. 

The work of these entomologists is designed to fulfill commitments to the host 
countries with respect to the evaluation of locust problems, the demonstration 
of control practices, development of insect surveys and the training of 
nationals in methods , procedures and the organization of applied entomology 
and plant quarantine work. During the last few years the Ministries of Agri- 
culture have strengthened their Plant Protection organizations. Special 
attention has been given to survey and plant quarantines. Consequently an 
increased effort has been made to collect, identify and record the insect 
species of economic importance. First-hand information on foreign pests should 
serve to familiarize the entomologist and the pesticide industry of this country 
with the major pests in the areas reported on. It should lead to better under- 
standing and mutual interest in entomological problems common to the United 
States and other nations. (E. J. Hambleton) . 



Summary of Insect Conditions in Iraq 



By W. 0. Ridgway 



Cereal and Forage Insects : DESERT LOCUST ( Schistocerca gregaria ) moved into 
the country from the vast Arabian deserts and threatened agriculture in the 
entire country. An all-out mobilized effort by the Government reduced damage 
to a minimum and prevented escapes of the new generation to neighboring coun- 
tries, which developed mainly in cultivated lands. SENN PEST ( Eurygaster 
integriceps )., an ever existing threat to small grains from its mountain hiber- 
nation areas adjacent to cultivated valleys, appeared in concentrated numbers 
in isolated areas. Locust control teams were diverted in some areas to this 
pest. The often mistaken Aelia spp. were not found in noticeable numbers but 
another PENTATOMID ( Dolycoris sp.) was quite numerous in cereals early in the 
season and caused much concern but very little damage. DURRA STALK BORER 
( Sesamia cretica ) again caused great concern in experimental sorghum plantings 
and limited broomcorn and field corn acreages. WHEAT LEAF MINER ( Syringopais 
temperatella ) caused extreme damage during the winter to wheat and barley in 
northern drought areas . ALFALFA WEEVIL ( Hypera postica ) again caused damage 
to early cuttings of alfalfa. SPOTTED ALFALFA APHID ( Therioaphis maculata ) 
and an ALFALFA CATERPILLAR (Colias sp.) reduced quality alfalfa hay and made 
hand harvesting difficult. Mixed species of native GRASSHOPPERS again caused 
much concern on summer crops . 



- 70 - 

Fruit Insects : GREEN PEACH APHID ( Myzus persicae ) was quite severe on peach, 
plum, apricot and pomegranate. WOOLLY APPLE APHID ( Eriosoma lanigerum) stimu- 
lated a government-sponsored control campaign in areas of heaviest infestation. 
CODLING MOTH ( Carpocapsa pomonella ) was again common wherever apples were grown. 
A SPIDER MITE, probably EUROPEAN RED MITE ( Panonychus ulmi ) , was very extensive 
on apples during late summer. A DATE FULGORID ( Ommatissus binotatus ) was common 
during the spring but built up to severe proportions with the second generation 
during late summer. Spring controls were limited because of the locust emer- 
gency. PHYCITID larvae ( Ephestia spp.) were common, infesting dry dates 
and figs. Citrus was again nearly free of any economic pests. 

Truck Crop Insects : The common problem of APHIDS on cabbage, melons , lettuce, 
tomatoes, turnips and sugar beets again prevailed. WHITEFLIES ( Bemisia spp.) 
stimulated needed controls on melons, peas and beans. BALUCHISTAN MELON FLY 
( Myiopardalis pardalina ) was again a major problem on melons and stimulated 
some experimental controls and studies. RED PUMPKIN BEETLE ( Raphidopalpa 
foveicollis ) was quite severe on early-planted cantaloups. A MELON BEETLE 
(Epilachna chrysomelina ) was common on melons and other vegetable crops. 
ONION THRIPS ( Thrips tabaci ) and a SEED MAGGOT ( Hylemya sp.) were common on 
onions. MOLE CRICKETS ( Gryllotalpa spp.) caused concern in vegetable and 
ornamental gardens. A CABBAGEWORM ( Pieris rapae) was common throughout the 
season. 

Cotton Insects : SPINY BOLLWORM (Earias insulana ) and a SPIDER MITE ( Tetranychus 

sp. ) teamed up again after early season treatments to become the major problem 

on cotton. Controls were started again after a month of interruption during the 
middle of the season. 

Miscellaneous : CRAB LOUSE ( Phthirus pubis ) was taken from the eyelashes of a 
six-month-old baby along with nits attached to eyelash hairs. 

Summary of Insect Conditions in Iran 

By R. Q. Gardenhire 

Cereal and Forage Insects : DESERT LOCUST ( Schistocerca gregaria ) invaded Iran 
for the first time since 1954 and was heavy throughout southwestern and southern 
areas. Lesser invasions extended into eastern, central and extreme northwestern 
areas. Crop damage was held to a minimum through intensive control efforts. 
Aggregate acreage reported treated in all areas totaled 2,765,000 acres. 
MOROCCAN LOCUST ( Dociostaurus moroccanus ) was the heaviest in several years 
in Fars Province and heavy damage to rangelands and wheat occurred, despite 
extensive control. Heavy infestations also occurred in Gorgan , Khorrasan , 
Khuzistan and Kerman Provinces. Aggregate acreage reported treated in all 
areas totaled 2,035,000 acres. Native GRASSHOPPERS ( Calliptamus sp. , Docios - 
taurus spp. and others) infested most areas. Aggregate acreage reported 
treated totaled 425,000 acres. SENN PEST ( Eurygaster integriceps ) continued at 
""low level, with no serious damage to cereals reported. PENTATOMIDS ( Aelia 
furcula and A. virgata ) were extremely heavy in several localized areas, causing 
as much as 50 percent loss of wheat in the Hamedan area. Dolycoris baccarum 
(Det. P. D. Ashlock) invaded cereal fields near Dezful in Khuzistan, with popu- 
lation densities as high as 70 per square meter reported. No important damage 
was observed. A SCARAB BEETLE ( Anisoplia sp.) was reported very numerous in 
several western areas and adults damaged maturing wheat heads. A WHITE GRUB 
(near Haplida sp.)(Det. J. G. Rosen) greatly reduced stands of young cereal 
plantings in Khuzistan during late winter. EUROPEAN CORN BORER ( Pyrausta 
nubilalis ) (Det. H. W. Capps) was moderately heavy in the limited plantings of 
field corn in the Caspian area. DURRA STALK BORER (Sesamia cretica) was the most 
important pest of corn and sugarcane throughout Iran, and in conjunction with a 
CRAMBID STALK BORER (near Chilo sp.) (Det. H. W. Capps) caused severe damage to 
sorghum in Baluchistan. 



- 71 - 

CEREAL LEAF MINER ( Syringopais temperatella ) became increasingly important on 
wheat and barley in southwestern and southern areas, particularly where cereal 
and opium crop rotation had been discontinued. Complete destruction of many 
fields occurred in late winter, with 60-90 larvae per small plant common. 
LUCERNE-FLEA ( Sminthurus viridis ) (Det. D. L. Wray) was in great abundance in 
wheat fields and common on wild alfalfa in Khuzistan Province. ENGLISH GRAIN 
APHID ( Macrosiphum granarium ) (Det. L. M. Russell) infestations were heavy on 
wheat in southern areas. GREENBUG ( Toxoptera graminum ) (Det. L. M. Russell) 
was present but not abundant on cereals in the south. CORN LEAF APHID 
( Rhopalosiphum maidis ) (Det. L. M. Russell) infested barley in Khuzistan 
Province. ARCTIID CATERPILLARS (Arctia sp. and others) (Det. H. W. Capps and 
W. D. Field) fed extensively on all species of range plants in many areas, 
frequently invading adjoining cereal fields. ALFALFA WEEVIL ( Hypera postica ) 
continued to be the most serious pest of alfalfa in all areas and generally 
destroyed first cutting and caused heavy damage to second cutting. SPOTTED 
ALFALFA APHID ( Therioaphis maculata) was of occasional economic importance 
causing honeydew and much difficulty in harvesting. SWEETCLOVER WEEVIL 
( Sitona cylindricollis ) adults were extremely abundant on alfalfa in the 
Karaj area, defoliating many plants. MIRIDS ( Deraeocoris punctulatus (Det. 
P. D. Ashlock) and Calocoris norvegicus (Det. R. I. Sailer)) were common on 
alfalfa in the vicinity of Tehran and Karaj . 

Truck Crop Insects : SPIDER MITES and APHIDS were probably the most destructive 
pests to truck crops, with no crop escaping serious damage. BEET ARMYWORM 
( Laphygma exigua ) infestations dropped to a very low level and in most areas 
no control measures were required on sugar beets. A SUGAR-BEET CROWN BORER 
( Gnorimoschema ocellatella ) was not of economic importance until late summer , 
then rapidly increased to where 100 percent infestation was common. A SUGAR- 
BEET STEM BORER ( Lixus incanescens ) was generally present but of minor impor- 
tance. SPIDER MITES ( Tetranychus spp.) were the only pests observed on 
eggplant and caused heavy dropping of foliage in many western and northwestern 
areas. They were the most important pests of sugar beets in some of the more 
arid regions, whereas BEAN APHID ( Aphis fabae ) was the major pest of this crop 
in the cooler, northern Province of Azerbaijan. SPINACH LEAF MINER ( Pegomya 
hyoscyami ) (Det. R. H. Foote) infestations on sugar beets were the heaviest in 
several years, with serious economic damage in many central localities. FLEA 
BEETLES ( Chaetocnema spp.) caused heavy damage to sugar beets in the young 
seedling stage. BALUCHISTAN MELON FLY ( Myiopardalis pardalina ) and MELON BEETLE 
( Epilachna chrysomelina ) damaged melons and cucumbers in all areas. RED PUMPKIN 
BEETLE ( Raphidopalpa foveicollis ) was of lesser importance on melons and was 
seen only in the south. CABBAGEWORMS (Pieris rapae, P. brassicae and Plutella 
maculipennis ) were common on cabbage with the most serious damage caused by 
P. rapae . CABBAGE APHID ( Brevicoryne brassicae ) was heavy on cabbage and cauli- 
flower generally. A FLEA BEETLE occurred in great abundance on cabbage through- 
out the season in all areas. Nymphs of a PENTATOMID ( Eurydema ventrale ) were 
quite abundant on cabbage during late summer in Azerbaijan Province, with some 
damage. TURNIP WEBWORM ( Hellula undalis ) (Det. H. W. Capps) damaged cabbage and 
sometimes caused serious damage to turnips. TURNIP APHID ( Rhopalosiphum pseudo - 
brassicae ) (Det. L. M. Russell) was extremely heavy on turnips during late 
winter in Khuzistan Province, and also infested wild crucifers. A CHRYSOMELID 
( Colaphellus hoef ti ) caused extensive damage to turnip foliage in Khuzistan 
Province. EUROPEAN CORN BORER (Pyrausta nubilalis ) (Det. H. W. Capps) infested 
bell peppers at Shahi on the Caspian Sea. TOMATO RUSSET MITE ( Vasates lycoper - 
sici ) caused severe russetting and dropping of tomato foliage in Khorramabad, 
resulting in severe sunscalding of tomatoes. A TOMATO FRUITWORM ( Heliothis 
armigera) generally attacked tomatoes, but no infestations exceeding five 
percent were observed. TOMATO CATERPILLAR ( Pro den i a litura ) was a major pest 
of all types of vegetable crops in Khuzistan Province. 



- 72 - 

Deciduous Fruit Insects : CODLING MOTH ( Carpocapsa pomonella ) severely infested 
apples countrywide, attacked pears to a lesser extent and caused limited damage 
to quince. ERMINE MOTHS ( Hyponomeuta sp. or spp.) completely defoliated many 
apple trees in Azerbaijan Province, caused serious leaf damage in most apple- 
growing areas and infested apricot, plum and quince. PLUM FRUIT MOTH 
( Laspeyresia funebrana ) infested 50-90 percent of the prune crop in many areas. 
Damage to plums was much less severe. A LACE BUG ( Stephanitis pyri ) occurred 
predominately on apples and also on pears in all fruit-growing areas. Damage 
was light to very severe. SPIDER MITES, particularly a BRYOBIA MITE (Bryobia 
rubrioculus (Sheuten))* heavily infested deciduous fruit trees. A prune 
orchard near Amol in the Caspian Sea area was almost completely defoliated by 
CLOVER MITE. A CERAMBYCID TWIG BORER killed many terminal branches of apricots, 
cherries and apples over a wide area of central and western Iran. Attacks were 
not confined to weakened trees. SHOT-HOLE BORERS ( Scolytus spp.) killed many 
previously weakened peach, plum, cherry and apricot trees. Several SCALE 
INSECTS, Parlatoria oleae , Lepidosaphes ulmi, Nilotaspis halli and Chionaspis 
asiatica , were important on deciduous fruit trees. Saissetia oleae killed 
many olive trees in the Rudbar area. Intensive control measures are underway. 

Citrus Insects : A complex of SCALE INSECTS and CITRUS RUST MITE represent the 
most important economic pests of Iranian citrus. These occur primarily in the 
Caspian Sea area. Frequently, heavy infestations of three or four species of 
scale insects will be found on a single tree. Extensive efforts are being 
made to reduce this damage, and, in the Caspian citrus-growing area, more than 
one and one-half million trees were treated in 1958. CITRUS RUST MITE 
( Phyllocoptruta oleivora ) was probably the most important single citrus pest 
in 1958. Unusually heavy infestations, extensive spread to additional areas 
and improper timing of control resulted in severe russetting in many groves. 
CITRUS RED MITE ( Panonychus citri ) was common, serious damage was observed on 
citrus nursery stock. TEXAS CITRUS MITE ( Eutetranychus banksi ) (Det. 
E. W. Baker) was the most common spider mite attacking citrus in southern areas . 
while DICTYOSPERMUM SCALE ( Chrysomphalus dictyospermi ) was the most widespread 
scale insect in the Caspian region. CHINESE WAX SCALE ( Ceroplastes sinensis ) 
became more widespread and was serious in some areas. PURPLE SCALE ( Lepido - 
saphes beckii) , CHAFF SCALE ( Parlatoria pergandii ) and P. ziziphus were of 
major importance on citrus along the Caspian Sea. The following SCALE INSECTS, 
Lepidosaphes gloveri , Pulvinaria f loccifera , P. aurantii , Coccus pseudomagno - 
liarum, C. hesperidum , Aonidiella citrina and A. aurantii , infested citrus in 
scattered areas of the Caspian region but were generally of limited importance. 
COTTONY-CUSHION SCALE ( Icerya purchasi ) was a problem only in those areas where 
adjoining host plants were heavily infested. ORIENTAL YELLOW SCALE ( Aonidiella 
orientalis ) was the only scale of importance on citrus in the hot and arid 
southern regions. CITRUS LEAF MINER ( Phyllocnistis citrella ) was important in 
the limited southeastern areas. 

Nut Insects : Loss of pistachios and almonds is extremely heavy each year. 
Even though almond production is high, it was not uncommon to find orchards 
where ALMOND NUT BORER ( Eurytoma amygdali ) caused practically 100 percent 
loss of nuts. Severe damage by this insect occurred in the large northwest 
almond-producing region in 1958. The pistachio insect problem is much more 
complex, with several species causing major damage in 1958. The major species 
involved are PISTACHIO LEAFHOPPER (Idiocerus stali ) (Det. J. P. Kramer) , 
PISTACHIO PSYLLID ( Agonoscena targioni ) , PISTACHIO NUT BORER ( Eurytoma plotni- 
kovi ) (Det. B. D. Burks) , a GELECHIID NUT BORER ( Recurvaria pistacicola) , a 
HAIRY CATERPILLAR ( Ocneria terebythina ) , PISTACHIO LEAF MINER ( Stigmella 
promissa) , a SCOLYTID ( Chaetoptelius vestitus ) (Det. W. H. Anderson) , a 
BUPRESTID ( Capnodis cariosa ) , a LEPIDOPTEROUS TWIG BORER, a PISTACHIO SCALE 
( Lepidosaphes pistaciae ) and a SPIDER MITE ( Tetranychus sp.). Several other 



* Van Eyndhoven, G. L. 1956. Ent. Bereich. 16:45-46. 



- 73 - 

insects caused minor damage to pistachios. Reliable sources estimate that 
50 percent of the entire 1958 crop will be lost to insects, even though several 
million trees were treated. This would represent a loss of between 4 and 5 
million dollars. An orchard near Kerman was observed where 95 percent or more 
of the pistachio crop was destroyed by a combination of insects. 

Grape Insects : VINE MOTH ( Lobesia botrana ) caused minimum damage to grapes due 
to a very effective control program in infested areas. A GRAPE MOTH ( Spargan - 
othis pilleriana ) infested grapes in the vicinities of Ghazvin and Tahkestan. 
GRAPE ERINEUM MITE ( Eriophyes vitis ) was common in Azerbaijan Province, but 
caused only minor damage. CICADAS infested grape roots in the Hamedan and 
Kermanshah areas and damage was sufficient to cause much concern. 

Cotton Insects : SPINY B0LLW0RM ( Earias insulana ) infestations were generally 
much less severe than in 1957. This probably may be attributed to more effec- 
tive control measures and climatic conditions less favorable for buildup. 
A COTTON B0LLW0RM ( Heliothis armigera) caused less damage to cotton in the 
Caspian region than in 1957. Infestations rarely exceeded 25 percent, 5-10 
percent being most common. SPIDER MITES ( Tetranychus spp.) frequently necessi- 
tated the application of control measures in southern areas. APHIDS , THRIPS 
and WHITEFLIES were common in cotton, damage being severe in scattered locali- 
ties. NOCTUIDS ( Laphygma exigua, Prodenia litura and Xanthodes graellsii ) 
(Det. H. W. Capps) attacked young cotton in Khuzistan Province, but damage 
was usually limited. 

Forest, Ornamental and Shade Tree Insects : An ERMINE MOTH ( Hyponomeuta sp.) 
completely defoliated many willow trees in early spring in the Shiraz area. 
POPLAR LEAF BEETLE ( Melasoma populi ) was generally distributed and caused 
extensive defoliation, particularly of poplar nursery trees, in western Iran. 
A POPLAR TRUNK APHID ( Phloeomyzus passerinii ) was very heavy on trunks of 
poplar trees in Borujerd. A BUPRESTID BORER ( Capnodis sp.) killed a large 
percentage of trees in poplar nurseries at Borujerd and attacked larger trees 
to a lesser degree. GYPSY MOTH ( Porthetria dispar) occurred in the deciduous 
forests of the Elburz Mountains, but no serious damage was reported or observed. 
MOROCCAN LOCUST ( Dociostaurus moroccanus ) - Adult flying locusts completely 
devastated an area of approximately ten square miles near Kazerun , stripping 
all leaves from jujube trees ( Zizyphus sp.) and shrubs. CITRUS BLACKFLY 
( Aleurocanthus woglumi ) was common on Zizyphus sp. throughout Khuzistan 
Province. COTTONY -CUSHION SCALE ( Icerya purchasi ) was extremely heavy on 
maples in Babol and very heavy on Spanish broom ( Spartium junceum ) in several 
Caspian localities. GREEDY SCALE ( Aspidiotus camelliae ) killed sections of 
euonymus and boxwood hedges in several Caspian Sea localities. BLACK SCALE 
( Saissetia oleae ) heavily infested oleander at Ramsar. 

Miscellaneous Insects : OLD WORLD DATE MITE ( Oligonychus af rasiaticus ) severely 
damaged the date crop in many widely scattered southern areas. The extent of 
damage caused by a DATE FULGORID ( Ommatissus binotatus ) was not reported, but 
control operations were greatly reduced in 1958. DATE STEM BORER ( Oryctes 
elegans ) was an important pest in Jahrom and Bam areas. DI CTYOSPERMUM SCALE 
( Chrysomphalus dictyospermi ) was generally light on tea in the Caspian region. 
However, infestations sometimes became quite heavy in densely shaded plantings. 
EUROPEAN CORN BORER ( Pyrausta nubilalis ) (Det. H. W. Capps) attacked kenaf stems 
( Hibiscus cannabinus ) ,a fiber plant grown for jute, throughout the Caspian region. 
Infestations averaged about ten percent. This borer also attacked stems of 
Abut i Ion avicenna . A SESAME POD BORER ( Antigastra catalaunalis ) (Det. H. W. 
Capps) was generally distributed in sesame-growing areas and frequently destroyed 
a high percentage of seed pods. A SESAME LEAFHOPPER (Circulifer opacipennis ) 
was considered the most important pest of sesame in Khuzistan Province, destroy- 
ing large areas and even entire fields. A LEAFHOPPER ( Orosius albicinctus ) also 
attacked sesame but was of less importance. TOBACCO APHIDS were most common 



- 74 - 

and serious on tobacco. In Azerbaijan Province extremely heavy infestations 
caused severe honeydew on tobacco. A TERMITE ( Amitermes vilis ) (Det. T. E. 
Snyder) caused heavy damage to building timbers and railroad ties in Khuzistan 
Province. Another TERMITE ( Anacanthotermes vagans septentrionalis ) (Det. T. E. 
Snyder) occurred throughout Iran, but generally did not cause extensive damage. 

Beneficial Insects : About 80 million SENN PEST PARASITES ( Microphanurus semi - 
striatus ) were again reared for field release. About 22,000 VEDALIA ( Rodolia 
cardinalis ) , either field-collected or insectary-reared, were released for 
biological control of cottony-cushion scale. COCCINELLIDS ( Brumus octosignatus , 
Chilocorus bipustulatus , Adonia variegata, Prophylaea 14-punctata and Exochomus 
f lavipes ) (Det. E. A. Chapin) were important predators of aphids and spider 
mites. BRACONID PARASITES - Phanerotoma sp. (Det. C. F. W. Muesebeck) was 
reared from sesame pod borer and great numbers of Bracon brevicomis (Det. 
C. F. W. Muesebeck) were reared from larval noctuids. Trioxys utilis and 
Praon palitans continued to affect control of spotted alfalfa aphid in all 
areas of the country. ICHNEUMONID PARASITES ( Dicaelotus sp. and Horogenes sp.) 
(Det. L. M. Walkley) were reared from Gnorimoschema ocellatella and a PTEROMALID 
PARASITE ( Dinarmus pistaciae ) (Det. B. D. Burks) was reared from pistachio 
nut borer. 



Summary of Insect Conditions in Afghanistan 

By D. D. Shallow 

Cereal and Forage Insects : SENN PEST ( Eurygaster integriceps ) was not serious 
in the Oxus River Valley. Twenty-eight fields were checked in nine locations 
and out of 9,680 sweeps, 34 adults and 99 nymphs were collected on May 19 and 
20. During 1958 the senn pest was collected in Kabul for the first time. 
Three other species of stink bugs feeding on wheat in Mimanah Province earlier 
in the season were Nezara viridula , Dolycoris baccarum and Aelia sp.) . CUTWORMS 
caused heavy damage in Khattagan, Jalalabad, Khandahar and Kabul Provinces in 
May and June. COWPEA APHID ( Aphis medicaginis ) was serious in Kabul with as 
many as 150 per tip on cowpeas and other legumes during June. This season the 
larvae of a type of LESSER CLOVER LEAF WEEVIL caused as much as 50 percent damage 
in the alfalfa fields. PEA APHIDS were again abundant during the entire growing 
season. DESERT LOCUST ( Schistocerca gregaria ) did not become a serious menace 
this season as expected. MOROCCAN LOCUST ( Dociostaurus moroccanus ) and ITALIAN 
LOCUST ( Calliptamus poss . italicus ) became epidemic in Mazari Sharif f Province 
and between 35,000 and 50,000 acres were under control. As usual there were 
many species of GRASSHOPPERS in different crops, as well as forage crops. 

Fruit Insects : APPLE APHID ( Aphis pomi ) was quite severe in orchards from 
Kabul to Shebar Pass and required controls. Two other APHIDS ( Hyalopterus pruni 
and Pterocholorus persicae ) fed in large numbers on apple trees. One of the 
worst fruit pests again in 1958 was a WEBWORM ( Malacosoma sp.). About 527,000 
trees were sprayed from Kalat in the south to Shebar Pass in central Afghanistan 
for this species and another moth. A serious pest on almond trees was a SOFT 
SCALE believed to be Lecanium kosswigi . Several thousand trees were treated 
when the crawlers were moving. CODLING MOTH ( Carpocapsa pomonella ) was rela- 
tively light in Kabul Province but reports from Khattagan Province indicate 
that up to 100 percent of the fruit was infested in many orchards. 

Citrus Insects : In the Jalalabad area citrus was subject to severe infestation 
of an unidentified WHITEFLY ( Dialeurodes sp.). During 1958, there were three 
generations and 30,000 trees were sprayed during the first-generation adult 
emergence period. A SPIDER MITE caused scattered damage from June through 
September . 



- 75 - 

Cotton Insects : In the main cotton-growing area of Khattagan where practically 
all cotton is raised, there is only COTTON APHID ( Aphis gossypii ) which was 
sporadic in area covered and severity of infestation. SPINY BOLLWORM ( Earias 
insulana ) increased from an average 10 percent square and boll infestation 
during the first week of August to a 42 percent infestation during the second 
week in September. In the southern cotton-growing area in the Helmand Valley 
the infestation increased from less than 1 percent in June to an average of 
30 percent in September. PINK BOLLWORM ( Pectinophora gossypiella ) was collec- 
ted in Jalalabad Province after 8 surveys in that area. It will be extremely 
important to keep this pest from moving into the real cotton-growing area of 
northern Afghanistan. Also present in the Helmand Valley in 1958 was A WHITE- 
FLY which thrived on the dense foliage of cotton and produced honeydew to 
support smutty black fungus. An estimated 10 percent of the fields were infes- 
ted. 

Sugarcane and Sugar Beet Insects : SUGARCANE STEM BORER ( Argyria sticticraspis ) 
infested about 10 percent of the cane in the Jalalabad area. The sugar beet 
crop in Khattagan Province was heavily attacked in the early stages by WIREWORMS 
and CUTWORMS. Many fields were replanted. 

Insects Affecting Man and Animals : MOSQUITOES were serious as usual and many 
houses in the country were sprayed. BED BUG ( Cimex lectularius ) is always present 
as well as BODY LOUSE ( Pediculus humanus humanus ) and HEAD LOUSE ( Pediculus 
hum anus capitis ) . It is estimated that at least 20 percent of the people living 
in the slum areas of Kabul are pestered with these insects and to a lesser 
extent with FLEAS. CATTLE TICKS were found on at least 50 percent of the cows 
and to a lesser extent on sheep and horses. Control was obtained by hand pick- 
ing. 



Summary of Insect Conditions in Pakistan 

By G. T. Brooks 

Cereal and Forage Crop Insects : RICE STEM BORER ( Schoenobius incertulus ) 
caused only slight damage throughout the upper Hyderabad region of West Pakis- 
tan. In East Pakistan infestations ranged from moderate to heavy, with losses 
as high as 20 percent. RICE GRASSHOPPER ( Hieroglyphus banian ) caused minor 
damage in isolated areas of West Pakistan. A light, localized infestation of 
a RICE DELPHACID ( Sogata furcifera ) occurred in Hyderabad. RICE HISPA ( Dicla - 
dispa armigera) and ARMYWORM ( Pseudaletia unipuncta ) were confined to East 
Pakistan, having a generalized distribution of serious proportions. No serious 
pest outbreaks were recorded on wheat. Localized heavy infestations of 
A PENTATOMID ( Eurygaster maurus) were reported from small areas in the^Khuzdar 
areas in the Quetta region. A TERMITE ( Microtermes obesi ) caused slight and 
scattered damage in the Punjab. MAIZE AND JAWAR BORER ( Chilo zonellus ) caused 
moderate damage to maize and jawar in the North-West Frontier Province and 
Punjab. SUGARCANE PYRILLA ( Pyrilla perpusilla ) was serious on these crops in 
the Peshawar region. ALFALFA throughout West Pakistan had only minor infesta- 
tions of ALFALFA WEEVIL ( Hypera postica ) and C0WPEA APHID ( Aphis medicaginis ) . 
BEET ARMYWORM ( Laphygma exigua ) caused moderate damage to this crop in the 
Karachi area. 

Sugarcane Insects : SUGARCANE TOP BORER ( Scirpophaga nivella ) and SUGARCANE STEM 
BORER ( Argyria sticticraspis ) were serious on sugarcane in the Punjab, and all 
of East Pakistan, with infestations ranging 10-30 percent. SUGARCANE PYRILLA 
continued to be serious in West Pakistan, being confined mainly to the Peshawar 
region; only light infestations occurred in the Punjab where previous control 



- 76 - 

measures had reduced the population. SUGARCANE WHITEFLY ( Aleurolobus barodensis ) 
was a minor pest in West and East Pakistan. SUGARCANE STEM BORER and a ROOT 
BORER ( Emmalocera depresella ) were serious and caused heavy damage to sugarcane 
in the Punjab. 

Fruit Insects : A MANGO STEM BORER ( Batocera sp.) was serious and MANGO LEAF- 
HOPPERS ( Idiocerus spp.) were light on mangoes in the Karachi area. In other 
mango-growing areas MANGO LEAFHOPPERS and MANGO MEALYBUG ( Drosicha stebbingi ) 
were serious. In the Karachi area, some trees close to guava orchards were 
lightly infested with FRUIT FLIES ( Dacus spp.). Guava trees were also lightly 
infested in this area, but for the first time there was a heavy infestation of 
an unidentified LEAF ROLLER. Throughout the guava-growing area of other parts 
of West Pakistan, fruit flies continued as major pests. In the Quetta area, 
FIG BORER ( Batocera ruf omaculata ) lightly infested figs. Apple trees in this 
region were severely infested with CODLING MOTH ( Carpocapsa pomonella ) and 
HAIRY CATERPILLAR ( Euproctis signata) . These pests extended into the Peshawar 
region but infestations were very light. Several APHIDS (Eriosoma lanigerum , 
Pterochlorus persicae and Myzus persicae ) occurred throughout the fruit-producing 
areas of the Quetta and Peshawar regions on peach, pear, plum and apple in vary- 
ing degrees from moderate to heavy. SAN JOSE SCALE ( Aspidiotus perniciosus ) on 
apple, peach and plum, OLIVE SCALE ( Parlatoria oleae ) on pears and Lecanium 
coryli on peach and plum, were distributed throughout these same areas and were 
also moderate to heavy. PEACH FRUIT FLY ( Dacus zonatus ) infestation was mild 
as result of previous control. 

Vegetable Insects : CABBAGE BUTTERFLY ( Pieris brassicae ) occurred on cruciferous 
crops throughout Pakistan but was serious only in Peshawar, in West Pakistan. 
In the Karachi area, DIAMONDBACK MOTH ( Plutella maculipennis ) was serious on 
cabbage. Melons throughout West Pakistan were seriously infested by FRUIT FLIES 
( Dacus spp.) , HADDA BEETLES ( Epilachna spp.) and RED PUMPKIN BEETLE ( Raphidopalpa 
foveicollis ) . Moderate infestations of an APHID ( Aphis sp.) were reported from 
most of the area. Serious outbreaks of BRINJAL BORER ( Leucinodes orbonalis ) and 
a BRINJAL LACE BUG ( Urentius sentis ) occurred on eggplant in the Karachi and 
Punjab areas, whereas BRINJAL LEAF ROLLER ( Eub lemma olivacea ) was a serious pest 
in East Pakistan. POTATO JASSID ( Empoasca devastans ) was the only serious pest 
of potato and appeared confined largely to the southern regions of West Pakistan. 
E. devastans was reported serious on peppers and tomatoes in the Karachi area. 
TERMITES ( Odontotermes obesus and Microtermes obesi) caused sporadic damage to 
these crops in the same locality. 

Fiber Crop Insects : COTTON STEM BORER ( Sphenoptera gossypii ) caused serious 
damage to cotton for the first time in the localized area near Rahimyar Khan, 
Multan region, and PINK BOLLWORM ( Pectinophora gossypiella ) was of major concern 
in the mountainous tracts of the Lahore region. This latter pest was of minor 
concern also in other cotton-growing areas. Severe damage was caused by SPOTTED 
BOLLWORMS ( Earias spp.) in the canal- irrigated areas of the Sind. COTTON 
WHITEFLY (Bemisia tabaci ) was serious in the Punjab area and in the Sind region. 
HOUSE CRICKET ( Acheta domestica ) infestations were light in West Pakistan, but 
serious outbreaks of GRASSHOPPERS ( Chrotogonus spp.) were reported from the 
Punjab and upper Sind areas. A LEAFHOPPER ( Empoasca sp.) was heavy throuhgout 
the cotton-growing area. Heavy sporadic infestations of TERMITES occurred 
throughout the cotton belt. There were no serious outbreaks on jute in East 
Pakistan; however, JUTE SEMI-LOOPER (Anomis bulifera) and JUTE HAIRY CATERPILLAR 
(Diacrisia obliqua) were reported as serious. 



- 77 - 
Summary of Insect Conditions in Tunisia 



By E. R. Millet 



Cereal Insects : HESSIAN FLY ( Phytophaga destructor ) causes about 20 percent 
damage to wheat in the north, but is never serious in the hotter and drier 
central region. Several species of insects, mostly COLEOPTEROUS and LEPIDOP- 
TEROUS , cause severe damage to stored grain on small farms each year. EUROPEAN 
CORN BORER ( Pyrausta nubilalis ) was found in a small corn planting near Tunis. 
DESERT LOCUST ( Schistocerca gregaria) occurred in heavy yellow invasion stages , 
coming mostly from Algeria. The largest occurrences were in the Sbietla area. 
A few pink invasion flights were observed in the north but were not heavy. 
Because of effective control, egg-laying was limited to about 3 percent and 
thus various instars were not a problem. 

Fruit Insects : The most serious damage to apples was caused by CODLING MOTH 
( Carpocapsa pomonella ) . APPLE APHID ( Aphis pomi) and WOOLLY APPLE APHID 
(Eriosoma lanigerum ) were light. MITES on apples were light, but both EUROPEAN 
RED MITE ( Panonychus ulmi ) and a BRYOBIA MITE ( Bryobia rubrioeulus *) were observed. 
MEDITERRANEAN FRUIT FLY ( Ceratitis capitata) was severe on peaches in the 
environs of Tunis, and twig damage from an OLETHREUTID MOTH ( Grapholitha sp.) 
was prominent on peaches. On almonds, MITES and APHIDS were the main pests. 
A WAX SCALE ( Ceroplastes rusci ) was quite abundant on figs around Tunis. 

Citrus Insects : Where citrus occurs in Tunisia, mostly in the Cap Bon and 
Soukra areas, SCALES were the most important insects that caused damage. These 
consisted mainly of DICTYOSPERMUM SCALE ( Chrysomphalus dictyospermi ) , CALIFORNIA 
RED SCALE ( Aonidiella aurantii ) and FLORIDA RED SCALE ( Chrysomphalus aonidum) . 
In the Cap Bon area, CITRUS BUD MITE (Aceria sheldoni ) was extremely severe on 
lemons , CITRUS RED MITE ( Panonychus citri ) was reported and damage was noted 
which was attributed to Brevipalpus sp. Considerable damage was also noted and 
believed to have been caused by CITRUS RUST MITE ( Phyllocoptruta oleivora ) . 
MEDITERRANEAN FRUIT FLY caused severe losses to citrus fruit in the Cap Bon area 
in 19 58. Other pests on citrus were COTTONY -CUSHION SCALE ( Icerya purchasi) and 

BLACK SCALE ( Saissetia oleae ) in the Cap Bon area. The predator, VEDALIA 

( Rodolia cardinalis ) was present . 

Olive Insects : The most serious insect on olives was probably a SHOT-HOLE BORER 
( Hylesinus oleiperda) which was particularly damaging to young trees. A PSYLLID 
( Euphyllura olivina )was kept in check in the Sfax area during 1958 by parasitism. 
OLIVE FLY ( Dacus oleae ) generally causes about 20 percent damage, which is not 
considered too great; this is due to high temperatures in the Sfax area, but 
there were bad reports of it in Cap Bon, Sousse and Sahel , where the temperatures 
are not as high. OLIVE SCALE ( Parlatoria oleae ) was not serious and BLACK SCALE 
( Saissetia oleae ) was reported in the Sfax area. OLIVE MOTH ( Prays oleellus ) 
was also observed as damaging olives in Tunisia. 

Truck Crop Insects : NEMATODES were bad on tomatoes in the Sahel, Chott Maria 
and Monastir areas. TOMATO RUSSET MITE ( Vasates lycopersici ) was serious in the 
Medjerda Valley and at Cap Bon and Sahel. GREEN APHIDS occurred on many truck 
crops and were abundant on potatoes. BLACK CUTWORM ( Agrotis ypsilon ) was light. 
Although COLORADO POTATO BEETLE ( Leptinotarsa decemlineata ) is not yet officially 
recorded as occurring in Tunisia, there were several reports of traces of it in 
the north. MELON BEETLE ( Epilachna chrysomelina ) was light as was damage 
from NEMATODES. A LEPIDOPTEROUS LARVA ( Lepidechidna acharnias ) was heavy on 
artichokes in the Medjerda Valley and APHIDS, which are believed to transmit a 
yet undetermined virus of artichokes, were also heavy throughout the growing 
area. 



* Van Eyndhoven, G. L. 1956. Ent. Bereich. 16:45-46. 



- 78 - 

Household and Miscellaneous Insects : HOUSE FLY ( Musca domestica ) occurred very 
heavily throughout Tunisia, particularly in the cities, towns and villages where 
no preventive or sanitation methods are followed. BED BUG ( Cimex lectularius ) 
was quite common in all the poorer sections of villages, towns and cities. 
MOSQUITOES were quite annoying in Tunis. BROWN-BANDED and AMERICAN ROACHES 
( Supella supellectilium and Periplaneta americana ) were observed in houses in 
Tunis as was SILVERFISH (Lepisma saccharina) . 



Summary of Insect Conditions in Libya 



By A. F. Kaatz 



Cereal and Forage Insects : DESERT LOCUST ( Schistocerca gregaria ) appeared in 
Libya at three different locations during 1958, but at different times. From 
January through April, small intermittent swarms came up from the south, passed 
through the Sirte Gulf coast area and disappeared into the east. Some egg- 
laying en route occurred near Nofilia. These egg bed sites were treated with 
good results and the area was clear of locusts. During late April and May a 
few small swarms overflowed into Libya from Tunisia along the border country. 
Prompt treatment reduced their number and the remainder moved south. The first 
week of October a large swarm passed through Ghat Oasis and into Algeria. 
Several GRASSHOPPERS were found in alfalfa but not in numbers large enough to 
cause severe damage. They were Anacridium aegyptium , Aiolopus strepens , 
Thisoicetrus annulosus and Sphingonotus obscuratus lameerei . DURRA STALK BORER 
(Sesamia cretica ) destroyed 50 percent of sweet corn at Wadi Kaam. Control was 
not very successful. Sorghum was heavily infested in the same area. 
A SCARABAEID (Tropinata squalida ) destroyed several barley fields near Sebha 
before being controlled. Alfalfa had several insect pests in 1958. The most 
severe was EGYPTIAN COTTONWORM ( Pro den i a litura ) . An ALFALFA CATERPILLAR in 
the coastal belt alfalfa fields caused minor damage. SPOTTED ALFALFA APHID 
( Therioaphis maculata ) occurred in many fields. Treatment by farmers gave 
control for a short time and repeat treatment was necessary. An ARMYWORM 
( Laphygma sp.) was serious in a few local areas near Tripoli. Broadbeans 
were heavily infested by COWPEA APHID ( Aphis medicaginis ) . Many fields were 
ruined and had to be replanted with other crops. A SPHINGID MOTH also caused 
some damage but spraying operations brought it under control. 

Peanut Insects : A MOLE CRICKET ( Brachytrupes megacephalus ) caused much damage 
to young peanut plants throughout the Coastal Belt. EGYPTIAN COTTONWORM 
( Pro den i a litura ) also caused severe damage in all peanut-growing areas. BEET 
ARMYWORM ( Laphygma exigua) caused serious damage in some areas. SPIDER MITES 
ruined several fields near Zanzur. 

Olive Insects : OLIVE FLY ( Dacus oleae ) appeared early in 1958. First punctured 
olive fruit was noted June 8th on the Italian varieties. Local varieties were 
not affected until after the large varieties had been harvested. A BLISTER 
BEETLE ( Zonabris olea e) usually found only in northern Cyrenaica, also caused 
damage in the Gebel area near Tigrini. Near Misurata a DIPTEROUS LARVA 
( Clinodiplosis oleisuga ) damaged most of the 2-year olive trees. SCALES, while 
present as always , were not serious , except for a few local areas where Pollinia 
pollini was serious. Saisettia oleae was found but was not serious. 

Citrus Insects : MEDITERRANEAN FRUIT FLY ( Ceratitis capitata) was present for ten 
months of 1958. Very serious on other fruits until September and then infested 
most orange groves. Only limited controls were attempted. There were many 
CITRUS MITES on lemons this season. No control was undertaken except for a few 
experiments. Two APHIDS ( Aphis gossypii and Toxoptera aurantii ) caused damage 
to growing tips of orange trees. COTTONY- CUSHION SCALE~ Tlcerya purchasi ) was on 



- 79 - 

the increase in 1958, while Parlatoria ziziphus and Chrysomphalus dictyospermi 
decreased. Many natural parasites, such as Chilocorus bipustulatus , appeared 
to keep the population down. SPIDER MITES also were found in many orange groves. 
A SNAIL ( Theba pisana) overran many small orange trees and prevented normal 
growth early in spring. 

Other Fruit Insects : MEDITERRANEAN FRUIT FLY was the serious pest of many 
fruits this season, starting with apricots, then peaches, pears, pomegranates, 
red peppers, and ending up on oranges. Figs were infested with FIG SCALE 
( Ceroplastes rusci ) and Aspidiotus zonatus . Young apple trees were infested 
by a BLACK APHID, mostly near Sidi Mesri . An ALEYRODID ( Siphoninus finitimus ) 
was serious in the Uaddan Oasis. Control gave good results. WOOLLY APPLE 
APHID (Eriosoma lanigerum ) occurred on young apple trees at Garabuli. Control 
gave good results. CODLING MOTH ( Carpocapsa pomonella ) was present in some 
apple groves. Peach trees throughout the country were attacked by PEACH TWIG 
BORER (Anarsia lineatella ) . APHIDS appeared early on peach trees but dry hot 
winds caused them to disappear. Pear trees from Collina Verdi to Sorman Oases 
were attacked by Carpocapsa spp. but treatment prevented much damage. APHIDS 
and TINGIDS ( Stephanitis spp.) occurred in local areas only. DATE SCALE 
( Parlatoria blanchardi ) , found in most all southern oases, made only moderate 
attacks. Almond trees were attacked by a Scolytus sp. BEETLE and PEACH TWIG 
BORER. Grapes were attacked by HORNWORMS near Sidi Mesri. VINE MOTH ( Lobesia 
botrana ) was present but not serious . 

Tobacco Insects : In the Gebel areas near Garian a BIBIONID FLY MAGGOT ( Bibio 
hortulanus ) caused severe damage to tobacco seedlings. TOBACCO SPLITWORM 
( Gnorimoschema operculella ) was again serious in a few plots and control was 
necessary. NEMATODES were found in many areas as well as a GRASSHOPPER 
( Anacridium aegyptium ) . 

Stored-product Insects : RICE WEEVIL, LESSER GRAIN BORER and ANGOUMOIS GRAIN MOTH 
were the most serious stored-grain pests. Some CADELLE , GRANARY WEEVIL and 
KHAPRA BEETLE were found. Bruchus pisorum was found in pea seeds and COCK- 
ROACHES in sacked wheat at Nalute. On dried figs Ephestia sp. and Myelois 
ceratoniae caused some damage. 

Insects Affecting Man and Animals : FLIES and MOSQUITOES were serious as usual 
and BED BUGS were found in all villages. SCORPIONS were very numerous and many 
persons were stung. During one 3-week period, over 25 persons were admitted to 
the hospital for sting treatment. TICKS and LICE were found in all areas on 
camels, sheep and goats, as well as several HIPPOBOSCID FLIES. 

Miscellaneous Insects : Melons were attacked by GRUBWORMS , APHIDS, MELON BEETLES 
and WHITEFLIES; tomatoes by GRASSHOPPERS and NEMATODES; eggplants by WHITEFLIES 
and Prodenia litura , seriously by both. In 19 58, for the first time, an insect 
pest was found on potatoes. BEET ARMYWORM ( Laphygma exigua ) destroyed several 
fields of potatoes before being controlled. SPIDER MITES were serious on 
snapbeans and rose bushes . 

Summary of Insect Conditions in Ethiopia 

By W. C. Kurtz 

Cereal and Forage Insects : DESERT LOCUST ( Schistocerca gregaria ) was heavy and 
widespread over the northern provinces, including Eritrea, and escapes threaten 
eastern and southern areas, besides adjacent Somali Peninsula and Kenya. Damage 
to sorghum, millet, wheat and barley was severe. Control was applied to some 
30,000 acres. Considerable undetermined acreage was also treated. 



- 80 - 

A COCCINELLID ( Chnootriba similis ) was found on barley at Debra Brehan. Severe 
damage in conjunction with native GRASSHOPPERS was done. In some fields 
replanting was necessary. A NOCTUID larva doubtfully identified as Sesamia sp. 
considerably damaged corn in the Bishoftu area. PENTATOMIDS were heavy in 
limited areas in Eritrea on sorghum and caused considerable damage to cut and 
shocked sesame at 0m Hera. Native GRASSHOPPERS were found on barley at Debra 
Brehan and were reported to have caused widespread damage in other areas. 

Peanut Insects : DESERT LOCUST ( Schistocerca gregaria ) occurred in Eritrea. 
Grasshoppers were found on young plants. Good control was maintained. Later 
damage by fledglings was not severe as plants had matured. 

Fruit and Nut Insects : MEDITERRANEAN FRUIT FLY ( Ceratitis capitata) was serious 
on guava at Shashamani . A FRUIT FLY, possibly C. capitata , occurred on 50 per- 
cent of the tangerines at Erre. Larvae of a SWALLOWTAIL ( Papilio demoleus v. 
demo doc us ) defoliated young orange trees at Bishoftu. A species of 
LASIOCAMPIDAE defoliated young orange trees at Bishoftu. Several types of 
SCALE INSECTS heavily infested citrus trees. 

Truck Crop Insects : APHIDS were prevalent on tomatoes, cabbage, lettuce and 
brussel sprouts. SOUTHERN GREEN STINK BUG ( Nezara viridula ) damage light on 
cabbage. CUTWORMS caused considerable damage on cabbage in gardens at Addis 
Ababa. LEAFHOPPERS occurred on tomatoes and lettuce in small gardens in Addis 
and on potatoes at Holetta with slight damage. ANTS did considerable damage 
to potatoes in small gardens. They are reportedly harmful to other crops and 
flowers also. FLEA BEETLES were heavy on potatoes and strawberries. Control 
was effective. A FRUIT FLY caused considerable damage to tomatoes at Shashamani 
and MITES did considerable damage to cucurbits and tomatoes in gardens in Addis 
Ababa. CABBAGEWORMS were quite common. 

Cotton Insects : THRIPS were a major pest and PINK BOLL WORM ( Pectinophora 
gossypiella ) caused some damage in the Tessenie area. SPINY B0LLW0RM ( Earias 
insulana ) also caused some damage in the same area. 

Oil Seed Insects : PENTATOMIDS were found in abundance on sesame in limited 
areas and caused considerable damage to cut and shocked sesame at 0m Hera. 
DESERT LOCUST caused practically 100 percent damage to sesame in the Tessenie 
area. 

Stored-product Insects : SAW-TOOTHED GRAIN BEETLE ( Orzyaephilus surinamensis ) 
occurred in stored flour in Addis Ababa. Other insects infesting stored 
products were prevalent and caused considerable damage. No suitable storage 
facilities exist. 

Insects Affecting Man : FLEAS , FLIES , BED BUGS , COCKROACHES and MOSQUITOES were 
abundant. Malaria is quite prevalent in many areas up to 6500 feet, and a con- 
trol program is in operation. Funds, personnel and commodities are being 
supplied by ICA. WHO and UNICEF are also assisting in the furnishing of techni- 
cal personnel and commodities, respectively. 



- 81 - 
INSECTS NOT KNOWN TO OCCUR IN THE UNITED STATES 

CABBAGE BUG ( Eurydema oleraceum L.) 

Economic Importance : This pentatomid is a very common pest of crucifers in most 
areas of Europe. Attacks have been very severe in outbreak years, hundreds of 
bugs being found on each plant at some locations. An attack can lead to the loss 
of the stand or severe stunting of the crop. Though crucifers seem to be the 
preferred hosts, damage to other crops, such as potatoes, has been recorded. 
There are numerous color varieties of this species within its general range of 
distribution, as well as several other species of Eurydema , but as far as known 
E. oleraceum appears to be the most important species in the genus in Europe. 
E. oleraceum has been intercepted several times at United States ports of entry 
in past years. 

Distribution : Occurs throughout Europe, Turkey, Turkestan and areas of Siberia. 

Hosts : A general feeder on crucifers. Also recorded on alfa-lfa, asparagus, 
beans, beets, cereals, clover, lettuce, gherkin, potatoes, Verbascum thapsus 
and ornamental plants. 




General Distribution of Eurydema oleraceum 

Life History and Habits : The insect overwinters as an adult under lumps of 
earth, dead leaves or other debris. The adult leaves hibernation in the spring 
when the weather becomes sufficiently warm. They are very agile and jerky in 
their movements. They fly easily in the sunlight for considerable distances. 
Adults puncture the plant tissue, causing small yellow spots at each puncture. 
One bug may be responsible for a number of such spots. Damage is not great on 
old plants, younger plantings suffering worst. Several days after mating, the 
females begin to oviposit. They deposit from 4 to 6 batches of eggs over a 
period of time. Each batch is symmetrically arranged in two rows of 5 or 6 eggs 
each. Oviposition takes place on the underside of leaves and petioles. Incu- 
bation requires about 30 days. The young nymphs disperse over the plant and 
feed on the foliage. They pass through 4 or 5 molts, becoming adults in around 
45 days. In France there is one generation a year. 



(Pentatomidae, Hemiptera) 



No. 76 of Series 



82 



Description : Adult 6-8 ram; head short, the lateral edges of the juga distinctly 
sinuate, edges of pronotum straight, the transverse groove lightly marked, 
color gun-metal blue. Some individuals have dark undersurf aces , some light. 
In the former, legs are black with a pale ring on the tibiae (less on the pos- 
terior except in the variety nigripes where all tibiae are black) . In the 
individuals with pale venter, femora are largely pale at the base and all of the 
tibiae have a ring of the same color. The venter is ornamented mid-ventrally 
with various-sized black spots and with black spots on each stigma and on 
external anterior angle of each segment. There are numerous varieties of this 
species. They may be grossly divided as follows: (1) corium without spots, 
(2) corium with a pale spot near apical end, (3) corium with a spot occupying 
all of the apical part. Abdomen of nymph pale yellow, tinged with brown, with 
four central black bars separated by red lines; outside these a broad vinous 
red band running all round the abdomen. Legs ochreous , tibiae with black lines, 
femora with black rings; antennae four-jointed, black; no ocelli. Eggs are 
greenish-yellow with a uniform white operculum and characteristic barrel-shape. 
(Prepared in Survey and Detection Operations in cooperation with other ARS 
agencies.) CEIR 9 (6) 2-6-59 





Dorsal 



Ventral 



Adult of Eurydema oleraceum 



Figures (except map) from Gomez-Menor, J. 1949. 
Agr. 16:31-68. 



Bol. de Patol. Veg. y Ent . 





FEBRUARY 13 ,19 



oopetative 

ECONOMIC INSECT 





IT PEST CONTROL DIVISION 
AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH SERVICE 

UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF 









AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH SERVICE 



PLANT PEST CONTROL DIVISION 



SURVEYS DETECTION OPERATIONS 



The Cooperative Economic Insect Report is issued 
weekly as a service to American Agriculture. Its contents 
are compiled from information supplied by cooperating State, 
Federal, and industrial entomologists and other agricultural 
workers. In releasing this material the Division serves as 
a clearing house and does not assume responsibility for ac- 
curacy of the material. 



Reports and inquiries pertaining to this release 
should be mailed to: 

Survey & Detection Operations 



Plant Pest Control Division 

Agricultural Research Service 

United States Department of Agriculture 

Washington 25, D. C. 



Volume 9 February 13, 1959 Number 7 

COOPERATIVE ECONOMIC INSECT REPORT 
Highlights of Insect Conditions 

SPOTTED ALFALFA APHID active as far north as Kansas and Virginia, (p. 85) . 

STRAWBERRY APHID and TWO-SPOTTED SPIDER MITE damaged strawberries in southern 
California, (p. 86) . 

WESTERN PINE BEETLE caused serious damage to pines in a 2,000-acre area in 
Madera County, California, (p. 86). 

CALIFORNIA OAKWORM severe and general in Kenwood area of Sonoma County, 
California, (p. 86). 

A NOCTUID ( Melipotis acontioides ) collected on Key Largo, Florida, (p. 86) . 

INSECT DETECTION: Pear psylla collected for first time in San Mateo County, 
California, (p. 85) . 

CORRECTION, (p. 87). ADDITIONAL NOTES, (p. 88). 

SUMMARY OF INSECT CONDITIONS - 1958 - NEW JERSEY (p. 89), MARYLAND (p. 91), 
VIRGINIA (p. 95), WEST VIRGINIA (p. 99). 

INSECTS not known to occur in the United States, (p. 101) . 



******************************* 



Reports in this issue are for the week ending February 6, unless otherwise 
designated. 



- 84 - 
WEATHER OF THE WEEK ENDING FEBRUARY 9 

The prolonged period of abnormally mild temperatures in the Far West was 
interrupted along the western slopes of the Rockies last week as a surge of 
cold air to the Mexican Border early in the period pushed the mercury below 
freezing levels on two mornings at Tucson, Arizona and a cold wave in northern 
sections during the weekend dropped minima to subzero levels in western Montana. 
Weekly averages were below normal in Arizona for the first time this year. 
Temperatures again averaged above normal in most of the remainder of the Far 
West but by only 3° or less. Abnormally cold weather continued in the raid- 
continent area, with weekly averages ranging from 9° below normal at Brownsville. 
Texas to 12° below at points near the Canadian Border, but east of the Appala- 
chians, the week was a few degrees warmer than normal in Florida and northern 
New England and about seasonal elsewhere. Subzero minima occurred in all 
extreme northern areas east of the Divide the latter part of the week, when 
some extreme lows reported were -36° at International Falls, Minnesota on the 
6th and -34° in the northern Adirondacks of New York State and at Newport, 
Vermont on the 9th. 

Precipitation for the week exceeded J inch along the Atlantic, Gulf and north 
Pacific coasts, as well as in most southeastern interior areas but was generally 
less elsewhere. From extreme eastern Texas to the Carolinas, heavy rains fell 
at the beginning and end of the week; and weekly totals of 1 to 6 inches 
relieved soil moisture deficiencies that had persisted for several months in 
some sections. On the 7th and 8th, a storm produced general precipitation 
over most of the Far West, the first general precipitation in extreme southern 
areas since last November. Moderate to heavy snows fell in the southern 
Sierras; Flagstaff, Arizona, measured 17 inches of snow, and some mountain 
stations in Arizona reported over 2 inches of moisture. As this storm moved 
across the lower Great Plains on the 9th, glaze, snow, rain and fog occurred 
from Kansas to the lower Great Lakes region, greatly hampering traffic. Some 
thunderstorms also occurred, and early on the morning of the 10th a tornado 
killed many persons, injured hundreds and caused heavy damage in St. Louis, 
Missouri. This was the third major tornado disaster in the city. The first 
was on May 27, 1896, when 306 persons were killed and property damage was 
estimated at about $13 million, and the second on September 29, 1927, when the 
death toll was 72 and damage $22 million. Only light snows occurred east of 
the Rockies during the week and snow depths in northern areas did not change 
significantly. (Summary supplied by U. S. Weather Bureau.) . 



- 85 - 

CEREAL AND FORAGE INSECTS 

ALFALFA WEEVIL ( Hypera postica ) VIRGINIA - Larvae not observed in alfalfa fields 
in Franklin, Pittsylvania or Halifax Counties, week of January 27, but were 
present December 18, 1958, in Smyth and Pittsylvania Counties. (Bishop). 

APPLE GRAIN APHID ( Rhopalosiphum fitchii ) - OKLAHOMA - Populations scattered 
and light in southwestern small grain fields. Averaged 0-3 per linear foot. 
(VanCleave, et al.). 

PEA APHID ( Macrosiphum pisi ) - NEW MEXICO - Large populations have been feeding 
in alfalfa fields in southern Dona Ana County. However, they have been almost 
completely destroyed by coccinellid larvae and adults. (N. M. Coop. Rpt.). 

SPOTTED ALFALFA APHID ( Therioaphis maculata ) - VIRGINIA - Present in a Halifax 
County alfalfa field, January 27. (Bishop) . OKLAHOMA - Averaged 10-150 per 
square foot in alfalfa fields in Tillman and Jackson Counties. (VanCleave, 
Pennington, Hatfield). Averaged 1.9 per trifoliate leaf in 300 samples from 
an alfalfa field in Payne County. (Bryan) . NEW MEXICO - Generally light in 
most alfalfa fields in Dona Ana County. Two severe infestations found near 
Hatch. (N. M. Coop. Rpt.). KANSAS - Counts per 25 plants on January 30-31 
were 1 and 18 in 2 fields in Riley County; 103 in Geary County; 25 and 52 in 
2 fields in Marion County; 315 in one Butler County field; and 834 and 205 in 
2 fields in Cowley County. (Simpson, Burkhardt) . 

GREENBUG ( Toxoptera graminum ) - OKLAHOMA - Infestations in southwestern area 
scattered and light, with 0-3 per linear foot. (VanCleave, et al . ) . Infestations 
common but very light in Payne County. Averaged less than one per linear foot 
in most fields. (Wood). 

A FALSE CHINCH BUG ( Nysius sp.) - CALIFORNIA - Heavy on alfalfa in the Blythe 
area of Riverside County. (Cal. Coop. Rpt.). 

WINTER GRAIN MITE ( Penthaleus major ) - OKLAHOMA - Infestations in scattered 
fields of small grain throughout southwest area. Ranged 4-200 per linear foot. 
(VanCleave, et al.). 

LEAFHOPPERS - OKLAHOMA - Unidentified species averaged 0-2 per linear foot in 
small grain fields in southwest area. Infestations fairly common. (VanCleave, 
et al.). CALIFORNIA - Aceratagallia obscura heavy in alfalfa fields in the 
Blythe area of Riverside County. (Cal. Coop. Rpt.). 



FRUIT INSECTS 

WESTERN PEACH TREE BORER ( Sanninoidea exitiosa graefi ) - IDAHO - Heavy in a 
peach orchard of about 2 acres near Parma. Severe in some trees, with 10-12 
in a six-inch square area at ground level. Every tree showed some evidence 
of activity. Very slight borer activity also noticed in 2 prune trees immedi- 
ately adjacent to peach orchard. (Scott) . 

PEAR PSYLLA ( Psylla pyricola ) - CALIFORNIA - Single male specimen collected 
from citrus foliage in San Mateo, San Mateo County, is first report from this 
county. (Cal. Coop. Rpt.). 

SCALE INSECTS - NORTH CAROLINA - Aspidiotus uvae severe on 20 acres of grapes 
in McDowell County. (Scott) . CALIFORNIA - Parlatoria oleae medium on peach 
trees in Willows, Glenn County, and reported from 3 orchards in Littlerock area 
of the Antelope Valley, Los Angeles County. Aspidiotus perniciosus heavy 



- 86 - 

on red currants in Watsonville area, Santa Cruz County and on flowering peach 
trees in Willows, Glenn County. A. hederae infestations heavy on persimmon 
trees in Santa Paula, Ventura County, as are populations of Coccus hesperidum 
on Carob trees in San Diego, San Diego County. (Cal. Coop. Rpt . ) . 

Citrus Insect Situation, Lake Alfred, Florida, Fourth Week in January - PURPLE 
SCALE activity declined and will remain near current low level through mid- 
February. FLORIDA RED SCALE activity decreased slightly. Downward trend of 
past month expected to level off in next 14 days with infestations still well 
above normal. Present moderate level of CITRUS RED MITE activity will continue 
until mid-February, after which it is expected to increase. There was a decrease 
in CITRUS RUST MITE activity. A below average level is predicted for February. 
(Fla. Coop. Sur.) . 

TRUCK CROP INSECTS 

SEED-CORN MAGGOT ( Hylemya cilicrura ) - CALIFORNIA - Damaged a number of young 
fields of spinach in Orange County. Adults numerous in radish fields, but 
no damage observed to date. (Campbell). 

THRIPS - NEW MEXICO - Populations building up on onions in Dona Ana County. 
Averaged 1-6 per plant, depending on field. (N. M. Coop. Rpt.). 

A WHITEFLY ( Aleyrodes spiraeoides ) - CALIFORNIA - Heavy on pepper plants in 
Ventura County. (Cal. Coop. Rpt.). 

STRAWBERRY APHID ( Pentatrichopus fragaefolii ) - CALIFORNIA - Damaging numbers 
have built up on strawberries in the southern part of the State, as a result 
of warm weather and very little rain. (Campbell). 

TWO-SPOTTED SPIDER MITE ( Tetranychus telarius ) - CALIFORNIA - Damaging numbers 
have built up on strawberries in the southern part of the State, as a result 
of warm weather and very little rain. (Campbell). 



FOREST, ORNAMENTAL AND SHADE TREE INSECTS 

WESTERN PINE BEETLE ( Dendroctonus brevicomis ) - CALIFORNIA - Causing complete 
killing of many ponderosa pines in the Bass Lake area of Madera County. 
Construction of new highway resulting in undisposed slash during a period of 
prolonged warm weather is responsible for this sudden outbreak. Serious 
damage to trees in a 2,000-acre area involved. (Whitfield). 

A NOCTUID ( Melipotis acontioides ) - FLORIDA - Adults collected at light on 
Key Largo, Monroe County, January 30. (Denmark). This species caused con- 
siderable damage to poinciana at Key West in June, 1958. See CEIR 8(27) : 593 . 

CALIFORNIA OAKWORM ( Phryganidia californica ) - CALIFORNIA - Severe, general 
infestation in Kenwood area, Sonoma County. Fall egg hatch, with larvae 
feeding all winter. Some live oaks already defoliated. This unusual con- 
dition is probably due to the warm, open winter. (Hawthorne). 

NANTUCKET PINE MOTH ( Rhyacionia frustrana ) - ALABAMA - Heavy infestation of 
pupae on 200 acres of 2-year old pines in Clarke County. Also, about 10 
percent of a large number of one-year old seedlings show damage. (Ruf fin) . 



- 87 - 

SCALE INSECTS - ALABAMA - Spotted infestations of Icerya purchasi on ornamentals 
in Mobile County. Fiorinia theae and Lepidosaphes camelliae heavy on camellias 
in the same area. (Grimes) . ARIZONA - Antonina graminis and Odonaspis ruthae 
severe on a Bermuda grass lawn in Phoenix, January 12. Det. H. Morrison. 
(Bibby) . CALIFORNIA - Parlatoria camelliae heavy on camellia plants in Oakdale 
and medium in Modesto, Stanislaus County. Varying infestations of Aspidiotus 
perniciosus occurred on roses in Willows, Glenn County. (Cal. Coop. Rpt.) . 

CITRUS MEALYBUG ( Pseudococcus citri ) - CALIFORNIA - Heavy on stephanotis in 
Ventura, Ventura County. (Cal . Coop. Rpt.). 

WHITEFLIES - ARIZONA - Tetraleurodes acaciae infested foliage of bird-of- 
paradise ornamental shrub at Phoenix, November 5, 1958. Det. L. M. Russell. 
(Bibby). CALIFORNIA - Aleyrodes spiraeoides heavy on iris in Porterville, 
Tulare County, and on rose in El Cerrito, Contra Costa County. (Cal. Coop. Rpt.). 

SPIDER MITES - ALABAMA - Moderate infestations on ornamentals in Mobile 
County. (Grimes) . 



INSECTS AFFECTING MAN AND ANIMALS 



CATTLE GRUBS ( Hypoderma spp.) - NORTH CAROLINA - Examination of dairy and beef 
cattle during last half of January showed no grubs in 88 head in Hertford 
County (Royster) ; 3 head infested out of 235 in Gaston County (Taylor) ; 
3 head infested of 172 in Mecklenburg County (Costner) ; 4 animals infested 
in 5 herds in Rutherford County (Toomey) ; of 11 animals in Jackson County all 
were infested (Gibson) ; and no grubs were found in 26 head in Hoke County 
(Williford) . OKLAHOMA - Averaged 14 per animal on 160 yearling steers and 
8 per mature cow of 210 examined in Harper County and 12 per animal on 80 
yearling steers examined in Woodward County. (Howell) . NEW MEXICO - Averaged 
15-20 per head on cattle examined in Union and Harding Counties. (N. M. 
Coop. Rpt.) . UTAH - Appearing in backs of cattle in Wayne, Sanpete and Grand 
Counties. (Knowlton) . 

AN ARGASID TICK ( Ornithodoros kelleyi ) - MARYLAND - Found in a home at 
Pikesville, January 19. (U. Md. , Ent. Dept.). 



BENEFICIAL INSECTS 

PREDATORS - OKLAHOMA - Few isolated adult Hippodamia convergens found in 
alfalfa and small grain fields in southwest area on warm days. (VanCleave, 
et al.). Numbers decreased in Payne County alfalfa fields. (Bryan). F*ew 
adult Nab is sp. active in small grain fields in southwest area on warm days. 
(VanCleave, et al.). 



CORRECTION 

CEIR 8(40) : 846 - A WEBWORM ( Nomophila noctuella ) should be substituted for 
ALFALFA WEBWORM ( Loxostege commixtalis ) . Det. H. W. Capps . 



88 



LIGHT TRAP COLLECTIONS 



Pseudaletia 
unipuncta 



Agrotis 
ypsilon 



Feltia 
subterranea 



FLORIDA 

Gainesville 1/27,2/4 

LOUISIANA 

Baton Rouge 1/30-2/4 
Franklin 1/31-2/3 



12 
3 



12 



ADDITIONAL NOTES 

TEXAS - CORN LEAF APHID averaged 15-25 per linear foot in 2 small grain fields 
in Houston County. No other insect infestations found in fields checked in 
Houston and Madison Counties. (Hawkins) . SPOTTED CUCUMBER BEETLE medium to 
heavy on spinach in Dimmit and Zavala Counties. Adults requiring treatment 
on spinach ready to harvest. (Harding). IMPORTED FIRE ANT inspections in 
Houston, Cherokee, Rusk, Panda, Shelby, San Augustine and Sabine Counties were 
negative. (Hawkins) . 



- 89 - 

SUMMARY OF INSECT CONDITIONS - 1958 

NEW JERSEY 

Prepared by Department of Entomology, 
Rutgers University 

Highlights : Ample rainfall and a generally cool season had a great effect on 
the pest problem. APHIDS of several species were numerous, including GREEN 
PEACH APHID and APPLE APHID. CABBAGE LOOPER caused usual heavy damage to cru- 
cifers in late season. CORN EARWORM caused less damage than usual. CARROT 
WEEVIL damage was heavier than for many seasons. PEPPER MAGGOT damage was 
heavy in southern and central counties. APPLE MAGGOT was more active than usual. 
APHIDS were very abundant in spring on shade trees, particularly maples. MIMOSA 
WEBWORM increased in importance. BIRCH LEAF MINER was very destructive through- 
out the State. Flights of EASTERN SUBTERRANEAN TERMITE were heavy. 

Cereal and Forage Insects : ALFALFA WEEVIL ( Hypera postica ) was serious on 
alfalfa wherever it was grown in the State. Instead of damage to alfalfa ap- 
pearing at the 10-12 inch stem height, the cool, wet spring delayed weevil 
development and attack appeared at 18-24 inch stem height. PEA APHID 
( Macrosiphum pisi ) was far less damaging than usual. MEADOW SPITTLEBUG 
( Philaenus leucophthalmus ) and POTATO LEAFHOPPER ( Empoasca fabae ) caused lighter 
damage than usual. EUROPEAN CORN BORER ( Pyrausta nubilalis ) was present in 
small numbers only during early season but second-generation populations were 
heavier, particularly in central counties. ARMYWORM ( Pseudaletia unipuncta ) 
appeared in northern areas and caused some damage to grasses in mixed hay stands 
during June. CORN EARWORM ( Heliothis zea ) was less numerous than usual. First 
damage was found to early sweet corn in whorl stage, but late season damage 
was light. CORN FLEA BEETLE ( Chaetocnema pulicaria ) was not numerous on corn. 

Fruit Insects : CODLING MOTH ( Carpocapsa pomonella ) caused less damage than 
usual. UNSPOTTED TENT I FORM LEAF MINER ( Callisto geminatella ) caused some 
damage to apple foliage in southern counties. APPLE MAGGOT ( Rhagoletis 
pomonella ) was more serious than usual, with some damage appearing in southern 
parts of the State. ORIENTAL FRUIT MOTH ( Grapholitha molesta ) caused more than 
usual damage in some northern areas. EUROPEAN RED MITE ( Panonychus ulmi ) 
caused normal amount of damage, being severe in some apple orchards. PLUM 
CURCULIO ( Conotrachelus nenuphar ) , MITES ( Tetranychus spp.) and RED-BANDED 
LEAF ROLLER ( Argyrotaenia velutinana ) were not especially damaging. APPLE APHID 
( Aphis pomi ) was more numerous and difficult to control than usual. LESSER 
PEACH TREE BORER ( Synanthedon pictipes ) was found to be more damaging than in 
recent years. 

Truck Crop Insects : CABBAGE LOOPER ( Trichoplusia ni) was abundant on crucifers 
until late season when a virus disease killed many of them. FALL ARMYWORM 
( Laphygma frugiperda ) egg masses were found from July on, but extensive preda- 
tion of egg masses by coccinellids and chrysopids seemed to reduce damage by 
larvae to a low point. ASPARAGUS BEETLES ( Crioceris asparagi and C. 
duodecimpunctata ) were not as numerous as usual. MEXICAN BEAN BEETLE ( Epilachna 
varivestis ) became more numerous in late season than for several years. PEPPER 
WEEVIL ( Anthonomus eugenii ) , which was present in 1957, did not appear in the 
infested area and presumably did not survive the winter of 1957-1958. CUCUMBER 
BEETLES ( Acalymma vittata and Diabrotica undecimpunctata howardi ) were very 
numerous and damaging on early cucurbits in southern part of the State. A 
GARDEN SPRINGTAIL (species unknown) was more numerous than usual on many vege- 
table crops and in alfalfa plantings. GREEN PEACH APHID ( Myzus persicae ) 
became very numerous on many crops including potatoes, tomatoes, spinach and 
lettuce late in the season. BEAN APHID ( Aphis fabae ) was much more numerous 



- 90 - 

than usual and caused damage to southern bean plantings. A FLEA BEETLE 
( Phyllotreta crucif erae ) appeared to be the most numerous flea beetle on 
crucifers. GREEN CLOVERWORM ( Plathypena scabra ) was numerous on beans, tomatoes 
and other crops. PEPPER MAGGOT ( Zonosemata electa ) caused more losses than 
usual. Fields which were not protected suffered severe damage. Parsley 
plantings in central and southern counties were severely stunted by activity 
of CARROT WEEVIL ( Listronotus oregonensis ) . STRAWBERRY ROOT WEEVIL ( Brachyrhinus 
ovatus ) damaged several northern strawberry plantings. 

Forest, Ornamental and Shade Tree Insects : Several species of APHIDS were very 
heavy during the early season, especially on maple. BIRCH LEAF MINER ( Fenusa 
pusilla ) was very abundant throughout the State on gray birch. Second-brood 
injury was almost as severe as that of first-brood. EASTERN TENT CATERPILLAR 
( Malacosoma americanum ) and ELM LEAF BEETLE ( Galerucella xanthome laena ) attacks 
were spotty. BAGWORM ( Thyridopteryx ephemerae formis ) Injury to arborvitae, 
willow, sycamore and maple was widespread but no more damaging than usual. 
MIMOSA WEBWORM ( Homadaula albizziae ) was of increasing importance on mimosa 
and honeylocust. Infestations ranged northward to Mercer County. LEAF GALLS 
on oak were abundant but of minor importance. SYCAMORE LACE BUG ( Corythucha 
ciliata ) , DOGWOOD BORER ( Thamnosphecia scitula) and TULIPTREE SCALE ( Toumeyella 
liriodendri ) infestations were widespread but of no greater importance than in 
previous years. Infestations of JAPANESE BEETLE ( Popillia japonica ) were heavy 
in some areas but infestations were spotty. Emergence was from 2-3 weeks later 
than normal. EUONYMUS SCALE ( Unaspis euonymi ) continued to be abundant on 
euonymus and pachysandra with crawlers present the first week of July and mid- 
August. AZALEA LACE BUG ( Stephanitis pyrioides ) was moderate with few reports 
of injury. In several areas, pachysandra was seriously attacked by a LEAF 
ROLLER ( Archips purpurana) . A minor brood of the PERIODICAL CICADA ( Magicicada 
septendecim ) was present in Union County but injury was slight. 

Insects Affecting Man and Animals : SALT-MARSH MOSQUITO ( Aedes sollicitans ) was, 
as usual, the most important pest species. Where rapid resort development is 
taking place, there are reduced numbers of mosquitoes but increased public 
reactions. NORTHERN HOUSE MOSQUITO ( Culex p. pipiens ) is becoming more important 
with the expansion of homes into suburban areas. Rainfall during 1958 emphasized 
the Culex spp. problems with greater abundance than in recent years. Aedes 
vexans and Mansonia perturbans produced severe local annoyance where control 
measures were not taken. Recent ecological studies show that there are at 
present 49 distinct mosquito species recognized in the State. No definite 
problem of insecticide resistance exists at present. Use of pre-season or 
pre-flood treatment of woodland pool and swamp areas has been particularly 
sucessful and is now a widely accepted procedure. Established control proce- 
dures based on water management continue as they have in past seasons. All 
standard methods of chemical control are in use. 

Miscellaneous Insects : HAIRY CHINCH BUG ( Blissus leucopterus hirtus ) was 
abundant and destructive to lawns primarily in the northern metropolitan 
counties. PAVEMENT ANT ( Tetramorium caespitum ) continued to be the dominant 
household ant pest. The flight of EASTERN SUBTERRANEAN TERMITE ( Reticulitermes 
f lavipes ) was heavy and extended from late March to early June. CLOVER MITE 
was abundant in April and early May. Reports of BROWN-BANDED ROACH ( Supella 
supellect ilium ) infestations are increasing and those of GERMAN COCKROACH 
(Blattella germanica are abundant. 



- 91 - 

SUMMARY OF INSECT CONDITIONS - 1958 

MARYLAND 

Compiled by W. C. Harding, Jr.* 

Highlights : Damage by ALFALFA WEEVIL to unsprayed alfalfa was heavy, even 
though weevil activity started later than in 1957. CORN EARWORM on corn, beans 
and soybeans was the lowest in 3 years. EUROPEAN CORN BORER damage to corn, 
potatoes and peppers was above normal. Fall population in cornstalks was the 
highest in 3 years. Tobacco, potatoes and cabbage suffered considerably from 
attacks of FLEA BEETLES. FALL ARMYWORM appeared earlier and caused more than 
usual damage to corn. PINE SAWFLIES defoliated approximately 327,000 acres of 
pine in the central part of the State. ROSY APPLE APHID inflicted commercial 
damage in most western orchards. ANTS, CARPET BEETLES, COCKROACHES, MILLIPEDES 
and TERMITES were the chief pests that troubled homeowners during 1958. 
EUROPEAN EARWIG was found for the first time in the State, on a single property. 
Eradication measures were taken. 

Cereal and Forage Insects : ALFALFA CATERPILLAR ( Colias philodice eurytheme) 
caused unusual damage to alfalfa during late August and early September in 
Montgomery and Washington Counties. ALFALFA WEEVIL ( Hypera postica ) damage to 
unsprayed alfalfa was moderate to heavy, although spring activity was delayed 
by cool weather. In central area, larval populations did not reach their peak 
until late May. In the west, adults and larvae did moderate damage to second- 
growth alfalfa. Garrett County remains uninfested. ARMYWORM ( Pseudaletia 
unipuncta ) was light during 1958. A few isolated infestations in small grain 
on the Eastern Shore were reported during June. CLOVER LEAF WEEVIL ( Hypera 
punctata) was about normal on alfalfa and clover during the spring. CLOVER 
ROOT CURCULIO ( Sitona hispidula) adults were moderate during the spring and 
late fall on clover and alfalfa in central portions of the State. CORN EARWORM 
( Heliothis zea ) infestations were considerably below normal. Winter tempera- 
tures were apparently unfavorable for pupae. CORN FLEA BEETLE ( Chaetocnema 
pulicaria ) populations were below normal, particularly in the spring. CORN 
LEAF APHID ( Rhopalosiphum maidis ) numbers on tassels and in whorls of sweet 
and field corn in most sections were light to heavy. In August, numbers on 
popcorn in Caroline County were heavy, requiring treatment. CORN ROOT APHID 
( Anuraphis maidi-radicis ) caused light to moderate injury to young field corn 
in Kent and Charles Counties. In early June small larvae of CORN ROOT WEBWORM 
( Crambus caliginosellus ) caused serious damage to young field corn plants in 
Harford County. Replanting of an entire large field was necessary. Other 
unidentified WEBWORMS on young corn were reported from Talbot and Montgomery 
Counties. CUTWORMS were about normal, being particularly troublesome in corn 
planted after sod. 

On the Eastern Shore, first-generation damage by EUROPEAN CORN BORER ( Pyrausta 
nubilalis ) to early corn was moderate to heavy; light in other sections. * 
Damage to mid-season and late corn on the lower Eastern Shore was above normal. 
The fall population as determined by the annual survey of standing cornstalks 
showed the State average to be 95 borers per 100 plants, the highest in 3 years. 
The greatest number of borers was on the Eastern Shore. Damage to wheat was 
generally light. FALL ARMYWORM ( Laphygma frugiperda ) appeared somewhat earlier 
than usual and damage to late sweet and field corn was above normal. Economic 
infestations were reported from all sections. GREENBUG ( Toxoptera graminum ) 
damaged orchard grass seedlings in Howard County in early November. Controls 
were applied. GREEN CL0VERW0RM ( Plathypena scabra ) infestations on soybeans 
were generally lighter than in 1956 and 1957. MEADOW SPITTLEBUG ( Philaenus 
leucophthalmus ) nymphal populations on alfalfa and clover were generally light 
to moderate, except in western counties, where some heavy infestations were 



*Cooperators were: W. E. Bickley, T. L. Bissell, L. P. Ditman, J. E. Foster, 
C. Graham, E. R. Krestensen and C. W. McComb. 



- 92 - 

noted. PALE-STRIPED FLEA BEETLE ( Systena b Ian da ) caused unusual feeding damage 
on alfalfa leaves in several Frederick County areas during June. PEA APHID 
( Macrosiphum pisi ) appeared later on alfalfa than usual, resulting in less 
damage to the first crop than in previous years. Some second-growth alfalfa 
was injured in western counties. POTATO LEAFHOPPER ( Empoasca fabae ) was gener- 
ally light on alfalfa throughout the summer. SAP BEETLES, particularly DUSKY 
SAP BEETLE ( Carpophilus lugubris ) , were troublesome in ears of sweet and field 
corn throughout the season. In the early spring SEED-CORN MAGGOT ( Hylemya 
cilicrura ) caused more than normal damage to sprouting sweet and field corn. 
SOUTHERN CORNSTALK BORER (Diatraea crambidoides ) was light to moderate in tassels 
and whorls of sweet and field corn on the Eastern Shore, during July and August. 
SPIDER MITE infestations on soybeans were the lowest in years. THRIPS caused 
light to moderate streaking of young corn and soybeans on the Eastern Shore 
during June. 

Fruit Insects : APPLE MAGGOT ( Rhagoletis pomonella ) damaged apples at three 
localities in central and western Maryland. In one orchard serious damage 
occurred. Emergence of first-brood CODLING MOTH ( Carpocapsa pomonella ) began 
later than usual and extended to mid-July. Control proved more effective than 
in 1957, although moderate damage was caused by second and third-brood larvae. 
EUROPEAN RED MITE ( Panonychus ulmi ) populations on apple were higher than in 
1957 and a more strenuous control program was required. During July, prunes in 
Washington County were damaged. ORIENTAL FRUIT MOTH ( Grapholitha molesta ) 
caused light to moderate damage to peaches in Montgomery County. PLUM CURCULIO 
( Conotrachelus nenuphar ) was extremely light on apples and peaches. RED-BANDED 
LEAF ROLLER ( Argyrotaenia velutinana ) was normal on apple. ROSY APPLE APHID 
( Anuraphis roseus ) was probably the most serious apple pest during 1958. Com- 
mercial damage to apples occurred in most orchards in the west and in some 
instances occurred before the petal-fall stage. In March, some growers reported 
infestations of SAN JOSE SCALE ( Aspidiotus perniciosus ) and FORBES SCALE 
(A. forbesi ) . TWO-SPOTTED SPIDER MITE ( Te'tranychus telarius) was less abundant 
than in 1957, damage being confined to localized areas. UNSPOTTED TENTIFORM 
LEAF MINER ( Callisto geminatella ) infestations were very light generally. 

Truck Crop Insects : ASPARAGUS BEETLE ( Crioceris asparagi ) was heavier than 
usual in most sections. BEAN LEAF BEETLE ( Cerotoma trifurcata ) was below normal. 
CABBAGE APHID ( Brevicoryne brassicae ) was heavy on cabbage and broccoli, parti- 
cularly late in the season. CABBAGE LOOPER ( Trichoplusia ni ) gave considerable 
trouble on cabbage, broccoli, tomatoes and spinach. COLORADO POTATO BEETLE 
( Leptinotarsa decemlineata ) numbers on potatoes and tomatoes were about normal . 
CORN EARWORM ( Heliothis zea ) was not as destructive to pods of late snap and 
lima beans as in 1956 and 1957. EUROPEAN CORN BORER ( Pyrausta nubilalis ) damage 
to peppers on the Eastern Shore was the heaviest on record. Well over one- 
third of the peppers grown for processing were lost. Damage to potatoes was 
also heavy. Among the FLEA BEETLES that caused damage were POTATO FLEA BEETLE 
( Epitrix cucumeris ) on potatoes , TOBACCO FLEA BEETLE ( Epitrix hirtipennis ) on 
young tomato plants and Phyllotreta spp. on cabbage and other crucifers. GREEN 
CLOVERWORM ( Plathypena scabra ) was fairly common on lima beans on the Eastern 
Shore during the summer. GREEN PEACH APHID ( Myzus persicae ) was moderate to 
heavy on peppers late in the season.' Some serious infestations on peppers 
were noted in northern Worcester County. HORNWORMS ( Protoparce spp.) were about 
normal on tomatoes and peppers on the Eastern Shore. A few heavy infestations 
were reported. IMPORTED CABBAGEWORM ( Pieris rapae ) infestations on crucifers 
were general. MEXICAN BEAN BEETLE ( Epilachna varivestis ) was about normal on 
commercial acreages of lima and snap beans. As usual, home gardeners experienced 
considerable trouble. In the fall, MORNING-GLORY LEAF MINER ( Bedellia 
somnulentella ) seriously infested the foliage of a sweetpotato field at Salis- 
bury. Populations of PEA APHID ( Macrosiphum pisi ) were not as injurious to 
peas as in 1956 and 1957, due primarily to its late occurrence. POTATO APHID 
( Macrosiphum solanifolii ) was light to moderate on potatoes and tomatoes on 



- 93 - 

the Eastern Shore. Some heavy infestations were noted on tomatoes in Dorchester 
and Caroline Counties in June. POTATO LEAFHOPPER ( Empoasca fabae ) numbers on 
beans and potatoes decreased from previous years. SPIDER MITES on beans, 
cucurbits and tomatoes were less of a problem than in 1957. STRIPED CUCUMBER 
BEETLE ( Acalymma vittata) was common and damaged young squash, cucumber and 
cantaloup plants in most sections. TOMATO FRUITWORM ( Heliothis zea) caused some 
injury locally to tomatoes on the Eastern Shore. VINEGAR FLIES were again 
abundant at tomato canneries late in the season. YELLOW -STRIPED ARMYWORM 
(Prodenia ornithogalli ) caused light injury to tomato foliage late in the summer. 

Tobacco Insects : BLACK CUTWORM ( Agrotis ypsilon ) caused serious damage to 
12 acres of newly-set tobacco plants in St. Marys County. GREEN PEACH APHID 
( Myzus persicae ) infestations were generally light to moderate. A few fields 
required treatment. Populations of both broods of HORNWORMS ( Protoparce spp.) 
were about normal. MIDGE LARVAE were abundant in tobacco beds near Waldorf, 
causing light to moderate damage by uprooting young plants. TOBACCO BUDWORM 
( Heliothis virescens ) infestations increased for the third straight year. 
TOBACCO FLEA BEETLE ( Epitrix hirtipennis ) was heavy on newly-set plants in most 
areas. In some fields of newly transplanted tobacco, counts of 20 beetles per 
plant were common. During the summer, populations were moderate to heavy and 
in some fields the middle, choice leaves showed heavy feeding. VEGETABLE 
WEEVIL ( Listroderes costirostris obliquus ) damage reports were fewer than in 
1957, although the insect did extend its range somewhat in the tobacco-growing 
area. A few heavy infestations were noted in Calvert County. 

Forest, Ornamental, and Shade Tree Insects : Various species of APHIDS gave the 
usual amount of trouble on rose, tulip poplar, Norway maple, oaks and pine. 
ASIATIC OAK WEEVIL ( Cyrtepistomus castaneus ) adults caused light to moderate 
damage to the foliage of seedling oaks in the central counties. BAGWORM 
( Thridopteryx ephemeraeformis ) seriously damaged arborvitae, cedar and occa- 
sionally other evergreens and deciduous trees in most sections. In early spring, 
tents of EASTERN TENT CATERPILLAR ( Malacosoma americanum ) were abundant in most 
sections. EUROPEAN PINE SHOOT MOTH ( Rhyacionia buoliana ) damaged red pine in 
Garrett County. A JAPANESE WEEVIL ( Pseudocneorhinus bifasciatus ) occasionally 
damaged azalea, privet and other ornamentals in Montgomery and Prince Georges 
Counties. LACE BUGS caused considerable injury on azaleas, rhododendrons, oaks 
and sycamore. LOCUST LEAF MINER ( Chalepus dorsalis ) again seriously damaged 
black locust foliage over most of the State. NANTUCKET PINE MOTH ( Rhyacionia 
f rustrana) caused serious damage to natural and planted pines in eastern Maryland 
PINE SAWFLIES - The first larvae of Neodriprion pratti pratti appeared on 
April 21 in central Maryland, and feeding continued until late May. Aerial 
surveys showed about 327,000 acres of pine defoliated, with over 12,000 acres 
classed as seriously defoliated. Another species (probably N. taedae) was 
present in large numbers on loblolly pine in St. Marys County in late July. 
Among the many species of SCALE INSECTS causing concern during 1958 were AZALEA 
BARK SCALE ( Eriococcus azaleae ) on azalea and rhododendron , EUONYMUS SCALE 
( Unaspis euonymi ) on euonymus , OBSCURE SCALE ( Chrysomphalus obscurus ) on oak , 
OYSTERSHELL SCALE ( Lepidosaphes ulmi ) on lilac, birch, chestnut and maple, PINE 
NEEDLE SCALE ( Phenacaspis pinifoliae ) on various pines, PUTNAM SCALE ( Aspidiotus 
ancylus) on dogwood, SAN JOSE SCALE (A. perniciosus ) on Japanese quince and 
others, WHITE PEACH SCALE ( Pseudaulacaspis pentagona ) on flowering cherry and 
privet. SPIDER MITES were generally below normal on most trees and ornamentals. 
In July and August VARIABLE OAK LEAF CATERPILLAR ( Heterocampa manteo ) seriously 
defoliated oaks in southeastern Cecil County. Other pests of trees and shrubs 
were ASIATIC GARDEN BEETLE ( Autoserica castanea ) , AZALEA LEAF MINER ( Gracilaria 
azaleella ) , BOXWOOD LEAF MINER ( Monarthropalpus buxi ) , BOXWOOD PSYLLID ( Psylla ~ 
buxi ) , ELM LEAF BEETLE ( Galerucella xanthomelaena ) , FOREST TENT CATERPILLAR 
( Malacosoma disstria ) on mixed hardwoods at Town Hill Mountain, HOLLY LEAF MINER 
( Phytomyza ilicis ) , MIMOSA WEBWORM ( Homadaula albizziae ) on mimosa and honey- 
locust, ORANGE-STRIPED OAKWORM ( Anisota senatorial on hardwoods and PALES 



- 94 - 

WEEVIL ( Hylobius pales ) on white pine in a Christmas tree planting in Harford 
County. During August and September, grubs of JAPANESE BEETLE ( Popillia 
japonica ) and NORTHERN MASKED CHAFER ( Cyclocephala borealis ) were destructive 
to turf in suburban areas . 

Man and Animal Insects : AMERICAN DOG TICK ( Dermancentor variabilis ) was 
abundant in most sections in early summer. During most of the season BLACK 
FLIES (particularly Simulium jenningsi ) annoyed humans throughout the Maryland 
metropolitan area of Washington and at various western localities. BLACK 
WIDOW SPIDER ( Latrodectus mactans ) again caused considerable concern to home- 
owners in suburban sections. BROWN DOG TICK ( Rhipicephalus sanguineus ) 
infestations in homes were numerous, being about the same as in 1957. CATTLE 
LICE were more abundant than usual. FLEAS were troublesome on humans, dogs 
and cats, in most sections. HORN FLY ( Siphona irritans ) was serious on dairy 
cattle in most sections. As usual, HOUSE FLY (Musca domestica ) was prevalent 
about homes and barns, particularly where sanitation was lacking. MOSQUITOES - 
Aedes spp. were not as numerous as in 1957; however, increases in Culex spp. 
and Psorophora spp. , due to the extensive wet season, were noted. Decreases 
in populations were recorded in areas where permanent control work had been 
carried out. In September, one horse died of encephalitis at Cambridge. 
Homeowners in Carroll and Washington Counties were bitten by TROPICAL RAT MITE 
( Ornithonyssus bacoti ) . 

Stored-product Insects : ANGOUMOIS GRAIN MOTH ( Sitotroga cerealella ) was moderate 
to heavy in farm stored corn and small grains in all sections during the fall. 
It appears to be the number one pest of stored corn and small grains in Maryland. 
Other stored-product pests reported were CADELLE ( Tenebroides mauritanicus ) in 
wheat and barley, CIGARETTE BEETLE ( Lasioderma serricorne ) in cereals and spices, 
GRANARY WEEVIL ( Sitophilus granarius ) in wheat, barley and oats, INDIAN-MEAL 
MOTH ( Plodia interpunctella ) in wheat and meal , MEAL MOTH ( Pyralis farinalis ) 
on ground cattle feed, RICE WEEVIL ( Sitophilus oryza ) in wheat, SAW-TOOTHED 
GRAIN BEETLE ( Oryzaephilus surinamensis ) in small grains and cereals and a 
FLOUR BEETLE ( Gnathocerus maxillosus ) in refuse oats. 

Household Insects : ANTS, particularly PAVEMENT ANT ( Tetramorium caespitum ) , 
caused homeowners in most sections considerable concern during the spring and 
summer. CARPET BEETLES, principally Attagenus piceus and Anthrenus f lavipes , 
seemed to be more abundant than usual. GERMAN COCKROACH ( Blattella germanica ) 
infestations in homes and apartments were common, particularly in Baltimore 
City. Reports of MILLIPEDES entering homes during the summer were more numerous 
than usual. Other household pests of importance during 1958 were BOXELDER BUG 
( Leptocoris trivittatus ) , BROWN-BANDED ROACH ( Supella supellectilium ) , CENTIPEDES, 
CLOVER MITE, CRICKETS, EASTERN SUBTERRANEAN TERMITE ( Reticulitermes flavipes ) , 
GROUND BEETLES , OLD -HOUSE BORER ( Hylotrupes bajulus ) , SILVERFISH ( Lepisma 
saccharina) and SPRINGTAILS. 

Miscellaneous Insects : EUROPEAN EARWIG ( Forficula auricularia ) adults were 
found for the first time on a single property at Silver Spring in September. 
They were brought in by a homeowner moving plants and furniture from an infested 
area outside the State. Eradication measures were undertaken. COWPEA CURCULIO 
( Chalcodermus aeneus ) infested blackeyed peas at Lexington Park. Large numbers 
of JAPANESE WEEVIL ( Calomycterus setarius ) were found in and about a home at 
Cockeysville during July. MITES were abundant in the litter of a poultry house 
at Salisbury. During early May, WHARF BORER ( Nacerdes melanura ) larvae damaged 
a wood boat at Cambridge. 



- 95 - 

SUMMARY OF INSECT CONDITIONS - 1958 

VIRGINIA 

Compiled by A. P. Morris 

Cereal and Forage Insects : EUROPEAN CORN BORER ( Pyrausta nubilalis ) infestation, 
in general, was one of the highest on record in the State. Larvae heavily 
damaged sweet corn and were heavy in field corn in all parts of the State. Heavy 
damage to corn occurred from mid-June through October. A fall abundance survey 
in 10 southwestern and 10 northern counties showed the average number of borers 
per 100 plants in the 2 areas to be 252 compared with 117 in 1957, and 80 percent 
of the stalks infested in the fields compared with 63 percent in 1957. Wheat 
was damaged to some extent in Southampton and Richmond Counties and sorghum was 
very heavily damaged in Westmoreland County. There were 3 generations during 
1958. ALFALFA WEEVIL ( Hypera postica ) is estimated to infest approximately 
245,000 of the total 280,000 acres of alfalfa in the State and controls were 
applied to approximately 195,000 acres during 1958. The net value of control 
was estimated to be $2,652,000. On the 50,000 acres infested, but not treated, 
the species was too light to justify control, but a part of this acreage will 
require control in 1959. Infestations were found in 4 additional counties during 
1958, leaving only 6 extreme southwestern counties uninfested. Two of these, 
Buchanan and Dickenson Counties, have very little alfalfa. CORN EARWORM 
( Heliothis zea ) caused heavy damage to field and sweet corn in all parts of the 
State during 1958 but damage to soybeans, peanuts and sorghum were much less than 
during the preceding 3 years . SOYBEAN CYST NEMATODE ( Heterodera glycines ) was 
found for the first time in the State in Nansemond County during September. 

ARMYWORM ( Pseudaletia unipuncta ) damage to field and sweet corn, small grains, 
grasses, alfalfa and sorghum was light to severe during 1958. Infestations 
were not general, but were most common in eastern and southwestern counties 
with some scattered damage in other areas. FALL ARMYWORM ( Laphygma frugiperda ) 
damaged late corn, sorghum, soybeans, peanuts, rye, alfalfa and winter pastures 
in scattered localities. Late corn and sorghum suffered heaviest damage from 
this species. MEADOW SPITTLEBUG ( Philaenus leucophthalmus ) was heavy in pastures 
throughout the State and was especially heavy in alfalfa and clover in south- 
western counties. Controls were justified in these counties, although practi- 
cally none were used, and will be needed in most alfalfa fields in this area in 
the spring of 1959. SAP BEETLES were extremely heavy on sweet and field corn 
in all parts of the State during 1958 and caused considerable loss in some areas 
as controls were not always completely sucessful. Sweet corn in many eastern 
areas was especially heavily damaged. JAPANESE BEETLE ( Popillia japonica ) 
larvae damaged roots of lawn grasses and ornamentals and adults damaged corn, 
soybeans, roses, chestnut tree foliage, shrubs, flowering plants and other host 
plants in several parts of the State. Adults on weeds in fields of small grains 
passed through thrashing machines and into the grain in some eastern areas and 
in Shenandoah County, creating a quarantine problem. Populations were approxi- 
mately the same as in 1957 although probably smaller in 2 or 3 areas. GREEN 
JUNE BEETLE ( Cotinis nitida ) larvae damaged lawns in most of the State but not 
to the extent experienced in 1957. POTATO LEAFHOPPER ( Empoasca fabae ) was a 
problem on peanuts in southeastern Virginia and on alfalfa in some scattered 
fields during 1958. PEA APHID ( Macrosiphum pisi ) populations increased until 
they posed a threat in many fields during the middle of May, but natural enemies 
built up and helped keep infestations down. VELVETBEAN CATERPILLAR ( Anticarsia 
gemmatalis) was a minor problem on soybeans in 1958. GREEN CLOVERWORM 
( Plathypena scabra ) , along with other species of caterpillars, was a problem by 
August but infestations practically disappeared and were not a problem the 
remainder of the year. YELLOW-STRIPED ARMYWORM (Prodenia ornithogalli ) and 
SALT-MARSH CATERPILLAR ( Estigmene acrea) became numerous and general on soybeans 
in eastern and southeastern Virginia counties about mid-August, but damage 



- 96 - 

was light. SPOTTED ALFALFA APHID ( Therioaphis maculata ) infestations were 
building up in southwestern counties during early October and two fields of 
heavily damaged fall-seeded alfalfa were observed in Franklin County in late 
November. BEAN LEAF BEETLE (Cerotoma trifurcata ) was present in large numbers 
on soybeans in eastern and southeastern Virginia during August but did little 
economic damage. APHIDS were heavy on small grains, sorghum and alfalfa in a 
few instances during 1958. HESSIAN FLY ( Phytophaga destructor ) damaged wheat in 
Pittsylvania, Wythe and Montgomery Counties during June. Damage by this 
species may be more widespread than suspected during recent years. 

Fruit Insects : The third brood of CODLING MOTH ( Carpocapsa pomonella ) larvae 
was the largest in several years in central orchards but no instances of heavy 
economic losses were reported. RED-BANDED LEAF ROLLER ( Argyrotaenia velutinana ) 
was expected to be severe in northern and central area apple orchards during 
1958. However, only 5 percent of the apples in northern orchards had been 
damaged by third-brood larvae when the season was over. Damage was severe in 
scattered orchards where controls were not properly applied. ROSY APPLE APHID 
( Anuraphis roseus ) was quite heavy in northern area orchards during June and 
required more than usual efforts to keep it below the injury level. This species 
accounted for one-third of the crop loss in some orchards where controls were 
not applied. JAPANESE BEETLE ( Popillia japonica ) did considerable damage to 
small plantings in home gardens and orchards. Grapevines were probably the 
heaviest damaged of the cultivated fruits. APPLE APHID ( Aphis pomi ) , WOOLLY 
APPLE APHID ( Eriosoma lanigerum ) and APPLE GRAIN APHID ( Rhopalosiphum fitchii) 
were of minor importance to apples during 1958. PLUM CURCULIO ( Conotrachelus 
nenuphar ) was only a minor problem in peach and apple orchards during 1958. 
However, one extra spray application was used in many peach orchards because 
of this pest. WALNUT CATERPILLAR (Datana integerrima ) was heavy and partially 
defoliated walnut and pecan trees in southern Charlotte County and in 
Accomack, Northampton and Amherst Counties. 

Truck Crop Insects : EUROPEAN CORN BORER ( Pyrausta nubilalis ) damaged potatoes, 
peppers and occasionally snap beans in the eastern area. Larvae heavily 
damaged potato vines in some fields in Westmoreland, Stafford, Hanover, 
Northampton, Accomack and Caroline Counties during late May and July. CABBAGE 
LOOPER ( Trichoplusia ni ) was responsible for extensive damage to some crops 
crops of kale, collards, cabbage, broccoli and tomatoes in eastern, 
southeastern and Eastern Shore counties. Regular controls failed to give 
adequate protection. Peppers, cucumbers and horseradish were damaged to a lesser 
extent. IMPORTED CABBAGEWORM ( Pieris rapae ) and DIAMONDBACK MOTH ( Plutella 
maculipennis ) larvae were responsible for losses to growers in some instances 
because of damage to cabbage, broccoli, kale, collards and several other 
cole crops in the truck-crop areas of the State. CORN EARWORM ( Heliothis zea ) 
damaged tomatoes and snap beans in truck areas of the State. Infestations 
heavily damaged tomatoes and sweet corn in eastern Virginia and on the Eastern 
Shore, where controls were not adequate. Various species of FLEA BEETLES 
damaged truck crops during 1958. POTATO FLEA BEETLE ( Epitrix cucumeris ) and 
SWEETPOTATO FLEA BEETLE ( Chaetocnema confinis ) damaged potato and sweetpotato 
plants, PALE-STRIPED FLEA BEETLE ( Systena blanda) was heavy on beans in some 
gardens and TOBACCO FLEA BEETLE ( Epitrix hirtipennis ) heavily damaged fall 
potatoes during September. Unidentified species also did heavy damage to young 
corn, cucumber plants, late cole crops, peppers and cabbage until late in 
September. COLORADO POTATO BEETLE ( Leptinotarsa decemlineata ) damage was not 
extensive in 1958 because controls were effective. CUTWORMS damaged young tomato 
plants, cabbage, bean plants, sweetpotatoes , peppers, cole crops and almost 
mature tomato fruits in the truck-crop areas and in gardens. Rigid control 
schedules were necessary to protect young cole crops and peppers during August. 
Only two species were identified and reported, BLACK CUTWORM ( Agrotis ypsilon ) 
and VARIEGATED CUTWORM ( Peridroma margaritosa ) . Black cutworm is believed 
to be the species mainly responsible for the damage during 1958. YELLOW -STRIPED 



- 97 - 

ARMYWORM ( Prodenia ornithogalli ) damaged tomatoes, some cole crops and peppers 
in the eastern area during July. Growers had to follow rigid control schedules 
to prevent heavy losses. FALL ARMYWORM ( Laphygma frugiperda ) damage occurred 
to some cole crops, almost mature tomatoes and sweet corn' in eastern areas. 
MEXICAN BEAN BEETLE ( Epilachna varivestis ) was relatively light on 
snap beans in 1958. Various species of APHIDS were of minor importance to 
truck crops during 1958. POTATO LEAFHOPPER ( Empoasca fabae ) was a very minor 
problem on potatoes in eastern Virginia. CABBAGE CURCULIO ( Ceutorhynchus rapae ) 
adults were present in all of the cabbage fields examined in southern Northampton 
County during May, damage ranged from 2 to 100 percent. 

Tobacco Insects : HORNWORMS ( Protoparce spp.) , TOBACCO FLEA BEETLE ( Epitrix 
hirtipennis ) , BUDWORMS ( Heliothis spp.) , CUTWORMS and GREEN PEACH APHID ( Myzus 
persicae ) were of minor importance on tobacco during 1958, primarily because 
of the effectiveness of controls that were used in time to prevent damaging 
infestations. 

Cotton Insects : BOLL WEEVIL ( Anthonomus grandis ) rate of survival in March for 
overwintering adults was 1.6 percent for 4 southern counties. The mean for 
the 4 county areas was 53.8 weevils per acre. Some fields had sufficient 
punctured squares to justify treatments during the first week of August. A 
fall survey in 4 counties during December revealed a mean of 511 weevils per 
acre in hibernation. COTTON APHID ( Aphis gossypii ) was generally light in 
cotton fields during 1958 and BOLLWORMS [ Heliothis spp.) were also generally 
light in most fields. 

Forest, Ornamental and Shade Tree Insects : IPS BEETLES ( Ips grandicollis , 
I. pini , I. avulsus and I. calligraphusl damaged red, white, pitch, Virginia, 
shorfleaf, loblolly and Scotch pines in scattered localities, but no serious 
infestations were reported. Damage was frequently in association with other 
insects. SOUTHERN PINE BEETLE ( Dendroctonus frontalis ) damage was light and 
scattered during 1958, no serious infestations being reported. Most frequent 
damage was to loblolly and shortleaf pines. TURPENTINE BEETLES ( Dendroctonus 
terebrans and D. valens ) killed pine forest and shade trees in widely scattered 
localities, but no serious outbreaks were reported and damage was less than in 
1957. PINE MOTH (mostly Rhyacionia frustrana ) infestations were widespread and 
heavy in some plantations, light to medium in others in eastern and southeastern 
areas. Defoliation caused by SAWFLY ( Neodiprion spp.) larvae occurred twice 
during 1958. Mostly Virginia and shortleaf pines were defoliated in the 
Piedmont Plateau area and in some eastern counties during April, May and June, 
while loblolly, Virginia and shortleaf pines were defoliated in northern, 
central, south central, eastern and other scattered areas from July through 
October. At least two species were responsible for damage during the two periods. 
WHITE-PINE WEEVIL ( Pissodes strobi) damaged terminals of pine seedlings, young 
pines and plantations of pines in various areas. The greatest part of the trees 
damaged were white pines in the western area of the State. PALES WEEVIL 
( Hylobius pales ) damaged about 50 percent of 100 acres of loblolly pines in 
Sussex County and pines in Nelson, Giles and Chesterfield Counties. Several 
species of SCALE INSECTS were of importance on forest and shade trees and 
ornamental plants during 1958. Infestations were usually scattered and affected 
individual or small groups of plants. Various species of APHIDS attack trees 
and ornamental plants in Virginia every year, but they are rarely the direct 
cause of the death of the host plants. Various species of SPIDER MITES, 
predominately Tetranychus telarius , damaged ornamental plants in most areas of 
the State to a varying degree. BAGWORM ( Thyridopteryx ephemeraeformis ) damaged 
cedars, arborvitae and evergreen shrubs and trees in all parts of the State 
from May into September. Reports of heavy infestations were received from 
several counties and cities. MIMOSA WEBWORM ( Homadaula albizziae ) damaged 
mimosa trees and in some instances locust trees in all areas of the State. 



- 98 - 

EASTERN TENT CATERPILLAR ( Malacosoma americanum ) was obvious on plum, cherry, 
apple and other host trees during late April and May. They were widespread and 
general in some areas in northern, eastern, southeastern and southwestern 
Virginia. FALL WEBWORM ( Hyphantria cunea) fed on the leaves of hardwoods in 
general in Frederick, Clarke, Warren and Shenandoah Counties, on pecans in 
southeastern and Eastern Shore counties and were conspicious on pecan, sourwood 
and persimmon trees in Pittsylvania County. ELM LEAF BEETLE ( Galerucella 
xanthome laena ) larvae fed to a varying degree upon leaves of elm trees in all 
parts of the State. GIANT HORNET ( Vespa crabro germana ) damage to lilac bushes 
was heavy during September and part of October in Lunenburg and Montgomery 
Counties. PINE SPITTLEBUG ( Aphrophora parallela ) was not as prevalent as in the 
past two years but was obvious on loblolly pines during May in several counties 
and heavy on approximately 100 pines in Montgomery County during early June. 
SYCAMORE LACE BUG ( Corythucha ciliata ) was heavy on some sycamore trees in King 
William and Southampton Counties. 

Insects Affecting Man and Animals : CATTLE GRUBS ( Hypoderma spp.) were a problem 
throughout the State again during 1958. From data collected, H. lineatum 
apparently emerges first in the State and H. bovis later, and H. bovis is the 
more common species in the mountainous area of the State. HOUSE FLY ( Muse a 
domestica ) infestations remained lighter than usual in southeastern area during 
1958. MOSQUITOES were a problem in some eastern and southeastern parts of the 
State. Different species of SAND FLIES caused discomfort and annoyance to man 
and animals in many areas, especially for short periods of time. TABANIDS were 
more numerous than usual this year and were troublesome on cattle and livestock 
in Goochland, Lunenburg and Cumberland Counties during late July and early 
August. STABLE FLY ( Stomoxys calcitrans ) did not become a serious problem in 
any area of the State. FLEAS were a problem in homes, some places. CATTLE LICE 
were a problem on animals in some herds during the winter, spring and fall of 
the year. SHEEP SCAB MITE ( Psoroptes equi ovis ) infestations occurred on 2,413 
of 9,258 sheep inspected during 1958. Infested animals were treated under the 
supervision of personnel from the office of the State Veterinarian. TICKS were 
a problem in woods and along roadways in some eastern and southeastern areas 
where they bothered workers and animals. BROWN DOG TICK ( Rhipicephalus 
sanguineus ) was heavy in several homes and on dogs in some instances. 

Stored-product Insects : HIDE BEETLE (Dermestes maculatus ) larvae and adults 
damaged home cured meat in Sussex and Brunswick Counties . LARDER BEETLE 
(D. lardarius ) damaged meat stored on a farm in Culpeper County. RED-LEGGED 
HAM BEETLE (Necrobia ruf ipes ) larvae and adults damaged meat stored on a farm 
in Sussex County and at a home in Lunenburg County. TOBACCO MOTH ( Ephestia 
elutella ) larvae were heavy on tobacco in a pack house in Lunenburg County 
during October. KHAPRA BEETLE ( Trogoderma granarium ) survey of 67 business 
establishments during January, February and March revealed no infestations. 

Beneficial Insects : LADY BEETLES were responsible for reducing or bringing 
under control infestations of aphids on alfalfa, corn, tobacco and various 
trees during 1958. SYRPHID larvae were present in large numbers and helped 
reduce populations of aphids during the spring, summer and fall. 

Miscellaneous Insects : TERMITES were the most important of the structural wood 
insects during 1958 and POWDER POST BEETLES were second to them. Several 
additional termite infestations were found. OLD-HOUSE BORER ( Hylotrupes 
bajulus ) were the most prevalent of the powder-post beetles. COCKROACHES were 
the number one household insect pest during 1958 and infestations of ORIENTAL 
COCKROACH ( Blatta orientalis ) appeared to be the most prevalent of the several 
species. Infestations of GERMAN COCKROACH ( Blattella germanica ) , BROWN-BANDED 
ROACH ( Supella supellectilium ) and AMERICAN COCKROACH ( Periplaneta americana ) 
were also reported from various localities. ANTS of various species emerged 
into and around many homes and buildings, causing concern to the owners. 



- 99 - 

SUMMARY OF INSECT CONDITIONS - 1958 

WEST VIRGINIA 

Compiled by C. K. Dorsey 

Highlights : JAPANESE BEETLE populations were lighter for the State in general. 
EUROPEAN CORN BORER was less numerous in most counties. EASTERN TENT CATERPILLAR 
defoliation was heavy in many areas. POTATO FLEA BEETLE was prevalent in many 
counties and caused appreciable damage. 

Cereal and Forage Insects : MEADOW SPITTLEBUG ( Philaenus leucophthalmus ) was not 
as numerous as in 1957, but in localized areas populations were heavy and damage 
was apparent. SPOTTED ALFALFA APHID ( Theriophis maculata ) summer and fall 
surveys were negative. ALFALFA WEEVIL ( Hypera postica ) continued its spread 
into five new counties; damage to the first cutting was heavy in untreated 
fields. PEA APHID ( Macrosiphum pisi ) infestations were light. CORN EARWORM 
( Heliothis zea ) damage was general, but light; about 5 percent of the ears 
were infested in the principal sweet corn producing region. EUROPEAN CORN BORER 
( Pyrausta nubilalis ) populations were lighter this year; in 109 fields surveyed 
in 14 counties the average was 24.86 borers per 100 stalks. 

Fruit Insects : CODLING MOTH ( Carpocapsa pomonella ) damage was evident in some 
orchards; harvest damage estimate is about 5 percent. Infestations of SPIDER 
MITES ( Panonychus ulmi and Tetranychus spp.) were lower than the anticipated 
levels. RED-BANDED LEAF ROLLER ( Argyrotaenia velutinana ) caused appreciable 
damage in some orchards . 

Truck Crop and Garden Insects : POTATO FLEA BEETLE ( Epitrix cucumeris ) infes- 
tations were widespread and heavy in many sections of the State. STRIPED FLEA 
BEETLE ( Phyllotreta striolata ) caused considerable damage to cabbage in several 
areas. There were reports from some counties of damage by COLORADO POTATO 
BEETLE ( Leptinotarsa decemlineata ) . Populations of both the STRIPED CUCUMBER 
BEETLE ( Acalymma vittata ) and SPOTTED CUCUMBER BEETLE ( Diabrotica undecimpunctata 
howardi) were below the usual level though cucurbits in at least 3 counties 
suffered rather heavy damage. CORN LEAF APHID ( Rhopalosiphum maidis) infesta- 
tions were severe in the northern panhandle. 

Tree Insects : EUROPEAN PINE SHOOT MOTH ( Rhyacionia buo liana ) and NANTUCKET 
PINE MOTH (R. f rustrana ) infestations were prevalent statewide and caused 
considerable damage particularly in Christmas tree plantations. EASTERN TENT 
CATERPILLAR ( Malacosoma americanum ) caused extensive and heavy damage statewide; 
a SARCOPHAGID ( Sarcophaga aldrichi ) was especially numerous this year in regions 
heavily infested with tent caterpillars. FOREST TENT CATERPILLAR 
( Malacosoma disstria ) was numerous in several localized areas ; in one of these 
they were the principal defoliators in about 300 acres of forest . A GEOMETRID 
( Phigalia titea ) was the main defoliator in several forest areas; one of these 
included about 2,000 acres which was from 80 to 100 percent defoliated. A 
PSYLLID ( Trioza tripunctata ) was present in moderate to heavy infestations in 
many areas and caused damage to red, Scotch and white pine. A PISSODES WEEVIL 
caused damage to young pines in a number of counties. BARK BEETLES ( Ips sp. 
and Dendroctonus spp.) caused severe damage to pines in widespread areas of the 
State. PALES WEEVIL ( Hylobius pales ) was damaging in several pine nurseries. 
PINE BARK APHID ( Pineus strobi ) infestations were common in pine nurseries and 
plantations. BLACK TURPENTINE BEETLE ( Dendroctonus terebrans ) was heavy in one 
county where it was attacking living trees. ASIATIC OAK WEEVIL 
( Cyrtepistomus castaneus ) infestations were more widespread this year and in 
some southern areas of the State they were quite numerous. JAPANESE BEETLE 
( Popillia japonica ) populations were lighter this year than last; in some areas, 
however, they were heavy and extensive damage was suffered by their host plants. 



- 100 - 

There was some spread into new areas of infested counties. MIMOSA WEBWORM 
( Homadaula albizziae ) caused some damage in several localized sections. LOCUST 
LEAF MINER ( Chalepus dorsalis ) infestations were moderate to heavy in the 
northern half of the State. There were reports and observations of the following 
insects from various counties: rose chafer, bagworm, boxwood leaf miner, 
sycamore lace bug, rose leaf beetle, birch leaf miner, European fruit lecanium, 
woolly elm aphid, scurfy scale and euonymus scale. GYPSY MOTH ( Porthetria 
dispar ) trapping results and the EUROPEAN CHAFER ( Amphimallon majalis ) survey 
results for the State were negative this season. 

Insects Affecting Man and Animals : HOUSE FLY (Musca domestica ) populations were 
below the usual level in most areas of the State. DOG and CAT FLEAS were 
numerous this year. CATTLE GRUB ( Hypoderma spp.) infestations in general were 
moderate. TICKS were moderate to heavy. SHEEP KED ( Melophagus ovinus ) infes- 
tations were moderate. Most CATTLE LICE infestations were reported as being 
of moderate intensity. In general, HORN FLY ( Siphona irritans ) populations 
were prevalent, but moderate. LICE were troublesome in localized areas on 
dogs and hogs where they were reported in medium to heavy infestations. Some 
of the other pests causing trouble in various counties were: ear mites on 
dogs, sheep bot fly, warbles in dogs and cats, horse biting lice, chicken lice 
and chiggers. 

Stored-product Insects : The 1958 stored-product insect surveys revealed the 
usual common pests; no new species were observed. SAW-TOOTHED GRAIN BEETLE 
( Oryzaephi lus surinamensis ) and the FLAT GRAIN BEETLE ( Laemophloeus pusillus ) 
were particularly numerous. 

New Insect Records : A WEEVIL ( Brachyrhinus rugosostriatus ) was collected for 
the first time in West Virginia in the Charleston area. 



- 101 - 



INSECTS NOT KNOWN TO OCCUR IN THE UNITED STATES 



PLUM BORER ( Rhynchites cupreus L . ) 



Economic Importance : This weevil causes damage to pome and stone fruits in 
many European countries and some areas of Asia. The overwintered adults feed 
on new growth, flowers and young fruit, but the greatest damage occurs from 
female oviposition punctures in young fruit and subsequent larval development. 
There seems to be a difference in host preference in different countries. In 
Germany, plums and cherries are the main hosts while in Finland the insect is 
mainly a pest of apple causing the greatest injury to the terminal shoots of 
young trees. It is also an important pest of apple in Norway and Sweden, 
injuring fruit as well as the young growth. Destruction of the shoots causes 
retardation and malformation in tree development. 



Distribution : Most of Europe, USSR and Japan. 



Hosts : Pome and stone fruits. Also reported from Sorbus spp. , hazel, birch, 
hawthorn and grape. 




General Distribution of Rhynchites cupreus 



(Curculionidae , Coleoptera) 



No. 77 of Series 



- 102 - 

Life History and Habits : Adults emerge from hibernation in early June and 
feed on new growth and young fruit. Females begin ovipositing by mid-June in 
first-year shoots and the young fruit. Oviposition takes place in cuts and 
punctures in the pedicels of the young fruit or in the tender shoots. One egg 
is deposited in each puncture and the female covers the cut with plant tissue. 
Hatching occurs in 4-11 days and the larva feeds in the tissues for 20-30 days. 
The infested fruit drops. Pupation takes place in the soil and lasts about 
45 days. The young adults feed on the leaves of hosts before entering 
hibernation. 

Description : Adult 3.5 to 4.5 mm., copper-brown in color. Larva white, 
curved, legless. (Prepared in Survey and Detection Operations in cooperation 
with other ARS agencies.) CEIR 9 (7) 2-13-59 






A - Adult of Rhynchites cupreus 
B - Adult and Larval Damage 



Figures (except map) from Diehl , F. and Weidner, 
Ed. 2. Ill pp. Hamburg. 



H. 1946. Tierische Schadlinge. 



Posited *sa3hwSfe^ MENT 0F 



Penalty -'for Private Use to 
Payment of Postage, $3~ 







EBRUARY 20 , 195 



*» \ * z3 . 



01 ? 








ECONOMIC INSEC 





55ued h 




IT PEST CONTROL 
IRICOLTURAL RESEARCH SERVICE 

UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTU 








AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH SERVICE 



PLANT PEST CONTROL DIVISION 



SURVEYS DETECTION OPERATIONS 



The Cooperative Economic Insect Report is issued 
weekly as a service to American Agriculture. Its contents 
are compiled from information supplied by cooperating State, 
Federal, and industrial entomologists and other agricultural 
workers. In releasing this material the Division serves as 
a clearing house and does not assume responsibility for ac- 
curacy of the material. 



Reports and inquiries pertaining to this release 
should be mailed to: 

Survey & Detection Operations 



Plant Pest Control Division 

Agricultural Research Service 

United States Department of Agriculture 

Washington 25, D. C. 



Volume 9 February 20, 1959 Number 8 

COOPERATIVE ECONOMIC INSECT REPORT 

Highlights of Insect Conditions 

PEA APHID damaged alfalfa in two areas of New Mexico and increased in one 
area of Arizona. (p. 105) . 

SPOTTED ALFALFA APHID increased in Maricopa County, Arizona, and several 
heavy infestations exist in New Mexico. (p. 105). 

Distribution of ALFALFA WEEVIL. (p. 106). 

SPIDER MITES heavy in citrus groves in Florida (p. 107) and on strawberries 
in Maricopa County, Arizona (p. 108). 

THRIPS caused severe damage to lettuce in the El Centro area of California, 
(p. 108) . 

A SURVEY METHOD for clover aphid. (p. 110). 

SUMMARY OF INSECT CONDITIONS - 1958 - Kansas (p. Ill), Nebraska (p. 114), 
South Dakota (p. 118), North Dakota (p. 121). 

INSECTS not known to occur in the United States. (p. 125). 



NOTE: Separates of the series "Insects not known to occur in the United 
States", numbers 36 - 72, that were issued in the Cooperative Economic Insect 
Report during 1958, have been assembled under one cover and are now available 
upon request. The preceding 36 species have already been compiled under 
one cover. PPC Division personnel will receive copies through their Regional 
Offices. 



********************************** 



Reports in this issue are for the week ending February 13, unless otherwise 
designated. 



- 104 - 

WEATHER BUREAU 30-DAY OUTLOOK 

MID-FEBRUARY TO MID-MARCH 1959 

The Weather Bureau's 30-day outlook for the period mid-February to mid-March 
calls for temperatures to average below seasonal normals over the northern third 
of the Nation east of the Continental Divide. Above normal temperatures are 
predicted over the southern third of the country and also for the entire area 
west of the Divide. In areas not specified, near normal averages with large 
temperature fluctuations are in prospect. Precipitation over the eastern two- 
thirds of the Nation is expected to be subnormal over the south and also over 
the northern tier of states. Amounts exceeding normal are expected in West 
Coast states. In unspecified areas near normal precipitation is indicated. 

Weather forecast given here is based on the official 30-day "Resume and Outlook", 
published twice a month by the Weather Bureau. You can subscribe through 
Superintendent of Documents, Washington 25, D. C. Price $4.80 a year, $2.40 a 
half year. 

WEATHER OF THE WEEK ENDING FEBRUARY 16 

The week was cooler than normal by as much as 9° in the Far West, 15° in the 
northern Great Plains, and 3° in the extreme Northeast. Elsewhere, the week 
was unseasonably mild with weekly averages as much as 15° above normal in the 
Southeast. Subzero minima, occurring in the northern Great Plains on at 
least 4 nights, extended to southern Nebraska on the 10th and over Wisconsin 
on the 11th. Minima were near or below zero over much of New York and New 
England on the 12th, where extreme lows of -31° and -23° were recorded at 
Saranac, New York, and Newport, Vermont, respectively, and again on the 16th 
in northern areas. In the Southern States, afternoon temperatures ranged in 
the 60 's and 70 's on several days, and early in the week highs in the 60 's 
were recorded as far north as Indianapolis, Indiana, Columbus, Ohio, and 
Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. 

Precipitation was both frequent and widespread, with heavy amounts in the East 
and the Pacific States. The moisture situation was much imporved in California 
by general precipitation from the 9th to 12th, and heavy precipitation was again 
falling in that State as the week ended. Unusually heavy rains fell in an area 
extending from the lower Mississippi Valley to the Great Lakes at the beginning 
of the week. Amounts of 2 to over 3 inches fell on frozen ground in Ohio and 
Indiana, causing severe floods in northwestern Ohio and in the Wabash Basin of 
Indiana. In the latter State, many factories and businesses and hundreds of 
homes were flooded. Severe glaze in southern Michigan, most of New York State 
and southern New England early in the period caused widespread damage. 

Snowfall in northern areas east of the Rockies was mostly light, although a 
few locally heavy amounts were reported. Blizzard conditions occurred in 
North Dakota on the 15th. The snow cover east of the Rockies is now limited to 
rather extreme northern areas, where it is very heavy locally. The cover in 
central and east central Wisconsin, 15 to 20 inches, is unusually deep there. 
In the Far West, snowfall early in the week covered most of the eastern agri- 
cultural areas of Washington and the cover over the wheat region now ranges 
from a few inches in the south to 8 or 10 inches in the north. In the upper 
Mississippi Valley, the ground is frozen 3 to 6 feet deep in Wisconsin, and 
generally 4g to 5j feet deep in Minnesota. Wadena, Minnesota, reported that 
the ground was frozen 7 feet deep. Frozen underground pipes in sections of 
Minnesota indicate that this frost penetration is unusually deep. (Summary 
supplied by U. S. Weather Bureau) . 



- 105 - 

CEREAL AND FORAGE INSECTS 

GREENBUG ( Toxoptera graminum ) - NEW MEXICO - Populations apparently decreased 
due to cold weather. Averaged 1-10 per linear foot on winter wheat in Curry and 
Roosevelt Counties. Heavier, 30-60 per linear foot, in grain fields near 
Artesia, Eddy County. (N. M. Coop. Rpt.) . 

APPLE GRAIN APHID ( Rhopalosiphum fitchii ) - NEW MEXICO - Light in grain fields 
in Curry, Roosevelt, Eddy, Chaves and Quay Counties. (N. M. Coop. Rpt.). 

CORN LEAF APHID ( Rhopalosiphum maidis ) - NEW MEXICO - Occasionally light on 
barley in Eddy, Lea, Roosevelt, Curry, Chaves and Quay Counties. (N. M. Coop. Rpt) 

COWPEA APHID ( Aphis medicaginis ) - ARIZONA - Populations increasing in small 
grain fields in Maricopa County. (Ariz. Coop. Sur.). 

PEA APHID ( Macrosiphum pisi ) - ARIZONA - Becoming numerous on alfalfa in 
Maricopa County . (Ariz. Coop. Sur.). NEW MEXICO - Heavy and damaging to 
seedlings and established alfalfa stands in Dexter-Hagerman area, Chaves County, 
and near Ft. Sumner, De Baca County. Few growers applying controls. 
(N. M. Coop. Rpt.) . 

SPOTTED ALFALFA APHID ( Therioaphis maculata ) - OKLAHOMA - Of populations examined 
in Stillwater area, 26 percent of aphids were on plants and 74 percent were in 
ground trash. (Ketner) . Populations in alfalfa fields decreased in same area. 
(Bryan). ARIZONA - Becoming numerous on alfalfa in Maricopa County. (Ariz. 
Coop. Sur.). NEW MEXICO - Several heavy infestations found on nonresistant 
varieties in Eddy and Lea Counties. Light to moderate in southern and south- 
eastern counties. Very few growers attempting control. (N. M. Coop. Rpt.). 
KANSAS - Counts per 25 plants on February 6 were 20 in Riley County and 5 in 
Pottawatomie County. On February 7, counts per 25 plants were and 4 in two 
fields in Republic County and in two fields and 2 in one field in Cloud 
County. (Simpson, Burkhardt) . 

A CHINCH BUG (Blissus sp.) - FLORIDA- Appears to be decreasing in Brevard 
County. Damage noted on numerous St. Augustine grass lawns in Coconut Grove 
area of Dade County. (Fla. St. Pit. Brd., Jan. Rpt.). 

PEA LEAF WEEVIL ( Sitona lineata ) - WASHINGTON - Specimens collected in August, 
1958, at Quincy, apparently first record for eastern part of the State. Det. 
U. S. N. M. (Prescott, Donier) . 

Small Grain Insect Situation in Texas - No outstanding infestations found in 
fields checked in 5 counties in the Winter Garden area. (Hawkins) . 

A SHIELDBEARER CRICKET ( Platycleis tessellata ) - CALIFORNIA - Heavy populations 
were found in the Placerville area of El Dorado County on range grass rin June 
of 1958. Det. A. B. Gurney. This species also occurs in Plymouth area of 
Amador County, Mokelumne Hill area of Calaveras County and in Placer County. 
This is an Old World species known to occur in Europe and North Africa. 
Apparently not considered of economic importance. (Cal. Coop. Rpt.). This 
species was first recorded in the United States in 1955 by H. F. Strohecker in 
the Pan -Pacific Entomologist 31 (4) :203; though the first specimens were 
collected by R. 0. Schuster on June 15, 1951, at Placerville, California. (PPC) . 






X 

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lxl 



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- 107 - 

FRUIT INSECTS 

SCALE INSECTS - FLORIDA - Aspidiotus perniciosus quite noticeable on pear trees 
in the Jacksonville and Macclenny areas. (Fla. St. Pit. Brd. , Jan. Rpt.). 
ARIZONA - Spotted infestations of Icerya purchasi on lemons and shrubs in the 
Yuma area. Minor infestations reported on grapefruit east of Mesa, Maricopa 
County. (Ariz. Coop. Sur.) . CALIFORNIA - Lepidosaphes beckii medium on citrus 
in San Diego County. Aonidiella aurantii light to heavy on lemon trees in the 
Dinuba area of Tulare County. (C~al . Coop. Rpt.). 

SPIDER MITES ( Tetranychus spp.) - FLORIDA - Heavy infestations in citrus 
groves and about 50 percent of citrus nurseries inspected in Hillsborough and 
Pinellas Counties. (Fla. St. Pit. Brd., Jan Rpt.). 



TRUCK CROP INSECTS 

BEET ARMYWORM ( Laphygma exigua ) - ARIZONA - Controls necessary in most lettuce 
fields in Maricopa County during January. Further control not necessary at 
present time. Injured cantaloups under caps in some fields in same county. 
(Ariz. Coop. Sur.) . 

CABBAGE APHID ( Brevicoryne brassicae ) - GEORGIA - Light infestations on cabbage 

in Colquitt, Thomas, Grady, Brooks and Lowndes Counties . (Johnson) . 

ARIZONA - Small numbers on cole crops in Maricopa County. (Ariz. Coop. Sur.). 

GREEN PEACH APHID ( Myzus persicae ) - ARIZONA - Present in all fields of sugar 
beets grown for seed in Salt River Valley. Becoming numerous, with controls 
already started in some fields. (Ariz. Coop. Sur.). 

AN APHID ( Macrosiphum barri ) - ARIZONA - Appeared on lettuce in Maricopa County, 
with control necessary in most areas. (Ariz. Coop. Sur.). 

SPOTTED CUCUMBER BEETLE ( Diabrotica undecimpunctata howardi) - TEXAS - Some 
damage still observed on spinach in Zavala and Dimmit Counties. Controls 
applied as preventive measure. (Harding, Hawkins). 

DARKLING BEETLES ( Metoponium spp.) - ARIZONA - Caused slight damage in 
watermelon fields in the Litchfield area, Maricopa County. (Ariz. Coop. Sur.) . 

WHITE-FRINGED BEETLES ( Graphognathus spp.) - NEW JERSEY - Surveys were 
conducted in the Vineland area throughout the 1958 growing season. Observations 
were made for larvae during spring planting and adult surveys were conducted 
during July, August and September in and around properties formerly infested. 
The area was again checked in October and sweetpotatoes were checked for damage 
as they were dug. No live beetles were encountered. Beetle fragments were 
found on 2 formerly infested properties in July and August. Although this is 
not indicative of current infestation, treatment was applied at the spots 
involved. Despite negative findings, regulatory measures remain in effect in 
the involved area and will continue pending results of future surveys. The 
last live beetle was found during survey conducted in July, August and 
September, 1957. (PPC , East. Reg.). 

SEED-CORN MAGGOT ( Hylemya cilicrura ) - TEXAS - Some damage still observed on 
spinach in Zavala and Dimmit Counties. Controls applied as preventive measure. 
(Harding, Hawkins) . 



- 108 - 

THRIPS - TEXAS - Frankliniella sp. reported in CEIR 9 (5): 50 on spinach in 
Zavala County, determined as F. occidentalis . This is the first report of this 
species attacking spinach in the State. (Harding) . CALIFORNIA - Frankliniella 
spp. caused severe damage to lettuce plantings in the El Centro area, Imperial 
County. (Peterson) . 

SPIDER MITES ( Tetranychus spp.) - ARIZONA - T. telarius and T. pacificus severe 
in some fields of strawberries in the Glendale area of Maricopa County. Good 
control being obtained. (Ariz. Coop. Sur.). 



TOBACCO INSECTS 

VEGETABLE WEEVIL ( Listroderes costirostris obliquus ) - GEORGIA - Light on 
tobacco plant beds in Tift, Colquitt, Thomas, Grady, Brooks and Lowndes 
Counties. (Johnson). 



FOREST, ORNAMENTAL AND SHADE TREE INSECTS 

A NOCTUID ( Melipotis acontioides ) - FLORIDA - Larvae caused heavy defoliation 
of Delonix regia trees at Key West, Monroe County. (Martinez) . This is the 
first report of defoliation for 1959. (Fla. Coop. Sur.)- 

A FIR ENGRAVER ( Scolytus sp. near ventralis ) - CALIFORNIA - Larvae heavy in 
maplewood bark in Modesto, Stanislaus County. (Cal. Coop. Rpt.). 

BOXWOOD LEAF MINER ( Monarthropalpus buxi ) - VIRGINIA - Damaged leaves of about 
40 American boxwood trees in Fredericksburg. (Rowell) . 

SCALE INSECTS - FLORIDA - Fiorinia theae moderate to heavy on camellias and 
hollies across the northern portion of the State. (Fla. St. Pit. Brd. , Jan. Rpt.). 
ARIZONA - Aonidiella aurantii light on ornamentals in the Yuma area. (Ariz. 
Coop. Sur.) - ! CALIFORNIA - Diaspis boisduvalii medium on orchids in the 
Carpinteria area of Santa Barbara County, as is Parlatoria camelliae on. camellia 
in Auburn, Placer County. Fiorinia f ioriniae heavy on Rhus integrifolia in 
La Jolla, San Diego County. Aspidiotus juglans-regiae heavy on California 
holly at Corona, Riverside County. (Cal . Coop. Rpt.). 

AN ERIOPHYID MITE ( Aceria mackiei ) - CALIFORNIA - Heavy on live oak in the 
Oakdale area of Stanislaus County. (Cal. Coop. Rpt.). 



INSECTS AFFECTING MAN AND ANIMALS 

MOSQUITOES - FLORIDA - Populations increased in Brevard County. Remained very 
annoying on lower east coast of Volusia County. Continue at peak population 
in Indian River area. (Fla. St. Pit. Brd., Jan. Rpt.). 

CATTLE GRUBS ( Hypoderma spp.) - ARIZONA - Many cattle killed at Phoenix packing 
plants show heavy infestations. (Ariz. Coop. Sur.). 

TROPICAL RAT MITE ( Ornithonyssus bacoti ) - OKLAHOMA - Caused dermatitis to 
some humans in some rural areas of Tillman County. (Howell) . 



- 109 - 

HOG LOUSE ( Haematopinus suis ) - KANSAS - Of 100 hogs examined in Riley and 
Pottawatomie Counties, all were infested. (Knapp) . 

HORSE SUCKING LOUSE ( Haematopinus asini) - VIRGINIA - Collected by veterinarian 
at Warrenton, Fauquier County. Det. C. F. W. Muesebeck. (Freund) . 



LIGHT TRAP COLLECTIONS 



Pseudaletia 
unipuncta 



Agrotis 
ypsilon 



Feltia 
subterranea 



FLORIDA 

Gainesville 2/5-11 
Quincy 1/20-26 



SOUTH CAROLINA 

Charleston 2/2-15 



28 



28 



54 



Additional Collection: SOUTH CAROLINA - Charleston, 2/9-15, Pro den i a 
ornithogalli 17 . 



SURVEY METHODS 



110 - 



CLOVER APHID 



The following sampling method for clover aphid ( Anuraphis bakeri ) was developed 
for work in red clover fields in Washington. 

Early in the season (up until about July 1 in the Columbia Basin of Washington) , 
the aphids will be found under the stipules; later, they will be under the 
bracts of the heads; still later, they will be throughout the heads and on the 
stems and foliage in heavy infestations. Ten-stipule or 10-head samples (de- 
pending upon seasonal development) are taken at random from 5 areas of the field, 
the 4 sides and the middle. Sometimes only the margins of the field are sampled, 
since these areas become infested first. 

With colonies of 25 aphids or less per stipule or head, actual counts are taken. 
When populations become high, the aphids are estimated in 5's or 10 r s. Such 
estimating can be done with good results if the stipules or heads are opened up 
and turned slowly while counting. Individual heavily-infested heads can be torn 
apart and the aphids counted as a check on the accuracy of estimations. 

The figures for light, medium and heavy clover aphid in red clover grown for 
seed in the State of Washington are dependent upon the time of hay cutting. 



Number of Clover Aphids per 10 Heads or Stipules 



Degree of 
Infestation 



Weeks after hay cutting 



Light 

Medium 

Heavy 



0-5 0-10 

10-25 15-50 

25+ 7.5+ 



0-15 0-50 0-150 

20-100 60-250 200-750 

200+ 500+ 1000+ 



The aphids are moving from the stipules to the heads during the fourth and 
fifth weeks after hay cutting. Starting in 1959, a treatment will be recom- 
mended in this State during the fourth and fifth week after cutting if a 
medium infestation is present. It has been found that an early treatment is 
effective and that this level of infestation causes a reduction in yield which 
will more than pay for the treatment. (Carl Johansen) 



- Ill - 

SUMMARY OF INSECT CONDITIONS - 1958 

KANSAS 

Prepared by David L. Matthew and Leroy L. Peters* 

Highlights : GRASSHOPPER populations were the highest in western counties since 
1949. Over 87,000 acres of rangeland were treated in Morton County and over 
122,000 additional acres were treated as part of a joint Federal-State-County- 
Rancher cooperative control program which included eighteen counties. Thirty- 
two other counties had organized control programs. CORN FLEA BEETLE caused 
much concern in early spring corn plantings. VARIEGATED CUTWORM infestations 
were the highest in several years in central and southern areas. SPOTTED 
ALFALFA APHID failed to establish any sizeable populations or increase to 
destructive numbers until late fall. WHITE GRUBS threatened 20,000 acres of 
rangeland in the Flint Hills area. 

Cereal and Forage Crop Insects : A maximum hatch of GRASSHOPPERS, predominantly 
Melanoplus spp. and other mixed populations of range and crop species, threatened 
several thousand acres of crops in the western half of the State, particularly 
the western one-fourth. The severe infestation in 1958, heaviest since 1949, 
resulted in part from a heavy migration into western counties the fall of 1957. 
Dominant species was MIGRATORY GRASSHOPPER ( Melanoplus bilituratus ) . Mixed 
population nymphal counts along roadsides, fence rows and weed fields ranged 
generally to highs of over 250 per square yard. One localized area had 1,200 
nymphs per square yard. Over 122,000 acres of roadsides were treated in 18 
western counties as part of a joint Federal-State-County-Rancher grasshopper 
control program. An additional 32 counties had control programs without Federal 
aid. In Morton County, over 87,000 acres of government rangeland were treated 
with excellent results. Counts of 35 per square yard were reduced to less 
than 3 per square yard. GREENBUG ( Toxoptera graminum ) was not found in any 
wheat, barley and oat fields surveyed during late winter and early spring. 
ENGLISH GRAIN APHID ( Macrosiphum granarium ) was noneconomic to light and no- 
where significant. PALE WESTERN CUTWORM ( Agrotis orthogonia ) was practically 
nonexistent in western counties where infestations had been common in 1956 and 
1957. ARMY CUTWORM ( Chorizagrotis auxiliaris ) feeding activity continued at 
a very low level, perhaps the lowest in the last five years. FALSE WIREWORMS 
( Eleodes spp.) continued to decrease in general infestation but occurred in a 
few localized areas in north central and western counties. Although HESSIAN 
FLY ( Phytophaga destructor ) populations continued at noneconomic levels, 
increases were evident in the counties bordering Missouri and Nebraska. BROWN 
WHEAT MITE (Petrobia latens ) was practically nonexistent . Late-fall infesta- 
tions of DATE MITE ( Oligonychus pratensis ) damaged wheat seedlings in Sheridan, 
Gove , Rawlins and Thomas Counties . By mid-May CHINCH BUG ( Blissus leucopterus ) 
infestations were common in wheat and barley fields in localized areas in 
central, east central and southeastern counties. A few fields of late-planted 
spring barley were seriously damaged. Stands of grain sorghum were thinned in 
a few localities in this general area of the State. By June, active nymphal 
infestations were found in several eastern areas. In two Bermuda grass 
plantings on the campus of Kansas State College during July, there were severe 
enough infestations to cause localized areas of the lawns to die. PEA APHID 
( Macrosiphum pisi ) was slow to develop on early alfalfa crops. Little damage 
occurred although aphids were found in most fields surveyed. Populations were 
noneconomic to moderate and seldom ranged over 1500 per 25 sweeps. 



*The following entomologists, and others, made contributions during the reporting 
season: R. E. Beer, J. E. Brady, C. C. Burkhardt , L. A. Calkins, L. J. DePew, 

E. L. Eshbaugh, H. D. Garwood, D. E. Gates, T. L. Harvey, F. A. Knapp, H. Knutson, 

F. A. Lawson, E. T. Jones, P. H. Marvin, R. H. Painter, S. Ratcliff, R. E. Simpson, 
W. H. Somsen, H. E. Thompson, G. D. White and D. A. Wilbur. 



- 112 - 

SWEETCLOVER WEEVIL ( Sitona cylindricollis ) caused more damage to second-year 
clover in 1958 than for the past five years. Damaged plants were particularly 
observed in north central and northeastern areas. CLOVER LEAF WEEVIL ( Hypera 
punctata ) was found in most alfalfa fields and in red clover; however, no great 
damage was observed as the larvae became diseased and feeding shortened. Counts 
ranged 1-9 per square foot in heavier infested fields. SPOTTED ALFALFA APHID 
( Therioaphis maculata ) was very slow to develop throughout 1958 and failed to 
develop high populations until late summer and fall. Aphids were not found in 
northern counties until mid-August. However, in late fall, populations reached 
the highest level ever recorded in the State that late in the season. WEBWORMS 
( Loxostege spp.) were of much less importance in 1958 than in 1957. Populations 
were erratic in development and some occurred as late as mid-August in north 
central counties. Tip-infestation ranged 10-40 percent; however, timed cuttings 
prevented significant losses. CORN FLEA BEETLE ( Chaetocnema pulicaria ) was 
heavy in many localized areas, and during May was found in nearly all corn 
fields in the eastern half of the State. Populations were the highest in several 
years and counts ranged to 19 per plant, but averaged from 2-7 per plant in 
general. EUROPEAN CORN BORER ( Pyrausta nubilalis ) continued much the same as 
in 1957 and many fields in eastern and northeastern counties averaged 70 percent 
plant infestation. FALL ARMYWORM ( Laphygma f rugiperda ) failed to develop to the 
highs of 1957; however, late infestations did develop in some fields of late 
corn. Even though late corn had whorl infestations that ranged to highs of 
40 percent, eardrop from subsequent shank feeding nowhere approached 1957 levels 
and averaged only an estimated 2 percent. VARIEGATED CUTWORM (Peridroma 
margaritosa ) was the heaviest in several years and caused extreme damage to 
many alfalfa fields and home gardens. Counts ranged to highs of 20 per square 
foot under baled alfalfa hay. Roadside sweetclover was stripped as were plants 
in some planted fields. ARMYWORM ( Pseudaletia unipuncta ) failed to cause the 
expected damage that was indicated by early summer counts. Moth flights were 
heavy but larvae failed to develop to destructive numbers and were only a 
problem in localized southeastern and north central areas, in fields of heavy 
and lodged barley. CORN EARWORM ( Heliothis zea ) was much lower than in previous 
years. Fall surveys showed fewer ears infested and much less over-all loss from 
secondary causes. SOUTHWESTERN CORN BORER ( Zeadiatraea grandiosella ) was 
higher than previous years with some fields in southern counties showing infes- 
tations as high as 80 percent. Infestations, however, were localized and not 
all fields affected. WHITE GRUBS ( Phyllophaga spp.) caused vast damage to 
bluestem range in the Flint Hill areas of Wabaunsee, Geary, Pottawatomie, Riley 
and Osage Counties. Populations ranged 7-15 grubs per square foot and dead 
spots in the range varied from 5-12 acres in size. Over 20,000 acres of range- 
land were affected. 

Fruit Insects (E. L. Eshbaugh) : APHIDS were not generally serious in orchards 
in 1958. Some damage by ROSY APPLE APHID ( Anuraphis roseus) occurred in May 
and APPLE APHID ( Aphis pomi ) was numerous enough to curl leaves of terminal 
growth in some northeast orchards. CODLING MOTH ( Carpocapsa pomonella ) adults 
first emerged in the northeast area on May 19 and first entries were found 
June 2. Unsprayed Jonathan apple test trees in a well sprayed orchard were 
75 percent "wormy" when harvested in September. Codling moth damage was 
greater in 1958 than for several years. RED-BANDED LEAF ROLLER ( Argyrotaenia 
velutinana ) caused severe damage to Wealthy apples in Doniphan County and to 
late fall varieties in all areas of the State except a few orchards in the 
Arkansas River Valley. PLUM CURCULIO ( Conotrachelus nenuphar ) was normal for 
the State. Light infestations of UNSPOTTED TENTIFORM LEAF MINER ( Callisto 
geminatella ) occurred in May and June in Doniphan County. Although populations 
of EUROPEAN RED MITE ( Panonychus ulmi ) were light, this was the most noticeable 
mite on apples in Doniphan County in July and August. No destructive populations 
of TWO-SPOTTED SPIDER MITE ( Tetranychus telarius ) were found in Doniphan County 
or the Arkansas River Valley but were severe in the Kansas River Valley at 
Manhattan and Topeka. STRAWBERRY WEEVIL ( Anthonomus signatus ) was common during 



- 113 - 

the early bloom in Doniphan County. STRAWBERRY LEAF ROLLER ( Ancylis comptana 
f ragariae ) was not serious and caused damage only where control measures were 
not applied. PEACH TREE BORER ( Sanninoidea exitiosa ) damage was severe in the 
Arkansas River Valley, especially south of Wichita. As many as 34 borers were 
removed from some trees. TARNISHED PLANT BUG ( Lygus lineolaris ) and STINK BUGS 
were plentiful during the early season on peaches. 

Ornamental and Shade Tree Insects (H. E. Thompson) : During the past two years 
CANKERWORMS, primarily SPRING CANKERWORM ( Paleacrita vernata ) , have been on the 
increase on several species of shade trees, primarily elm and hackberry , 
throughout the eastern area and a few local areas in the western part of the 
State. Feeding injury in some communities during 1958 was moderate to severe. 
Hackberry trees were also attacked by three generations of larvae of a BRUSH- 
FOOTED BUTTERFLY ( Asterocampa celtis ) in May, July and September. On elms 
in Hays and Salina, there was an infestation by larvae of a GEOMETRID, tentatively 
identified as Lycia ursaria. The main economic effect resulted from the 
droppings and descending caterpillars on the sidewalks and roadways. PSYLLIDS 
( Pachypsylla celtidis -mamma and P. celtidis-vesicula ) were severe enough to 
cause some defoliation of hackberry in July and August. On other trees the 
leaves were distorted and brown. HACKBERRY NIPPLE GALL (P. celtidis-mamma ) 
caused curling and dying of leaf foliage of economic proportions in some eastern 
areas. There were several SCALE INSECTS of economic importance. In the soft 
scale group, injury from EUROPEAN ELM SCALE ( Gossyparia spuria ) was severe in 
several western communities. In the eastern half of the State, EUROPEAN FRUIT 
LECANIUM (Lecanium corni ) killed branches on several varieties of trees, pri- 
marily elm. Infestations of OAK KERMES SCALE ( Kermes pubescens ) caused distor- 
tion and death in the terminal growth of bur and pin oaks throughout most of 
the State. Of the armored scales, there were several that were local problems 
and by far the most widespread and injurious was a CEDAR SCALE ( Cryptaspidiotus 
shastae ) . There is an infestation on the cedars in practically every cemetery 
in the State. The most severe infestations are killing the trees. In eastern 
and central Kansas, leaves on pin oaks were twisted and curled by infestations 
of a GALL MIDGE ( Parallelodiplosis f lorida ) . In cases of severe infestation, 
some premature defoliation took place. ELM LEAF BEETLE ( Galerucella 
xanthome laena ) was identified for the first time in Ford County from 2 adults 
taken in Dodge City. The number one pest on juniper, arborvitae and Norway 
spruce continues to be BAGWORM ( Thyridopteryx ephemerae formis ) . ELM LEAF APHID 
( Myzocallis ulmif olii ) caused considerable annoyance and some tree damage in 
eastern areas of the State. 

Insects Affecting Man and Animals (Stuart Ratcliff) : NORTHERN CATTLE GRUB 
( Hypoderma bovis ) was collected from local cattle in Saline, Riley and Morris 
Counties. This confirmed earlier reports of this species in the State. 
H. lineata was reported from throughout the State. SCREW-WORM ( Callitroga 
hominivorax ) was collected in Clark and Marion Counties in August and September 
and SECONDARY SCREW-WORM ( Callitroga macellaria ) was collected in Kingman County 
in April. 

Stored-grain Insects (G. D. White) : INDIAN -MEAL MOTH ( Plodia interpunctella ) 
appeared in large numbers and was a control problem over the entire State. 
LESSER GRAIN BORER ( Rhyzopertha dominica ) numbers increased in the northeast 
portion of the State, especially in CCC bin sites. ANGOUMOIS GRAIN MOTH 
( Sitotroga cerealella ) increased in numbers from southeast areas to the Kansas 
River Valley. DERMESTIDS did not increase in numbers; however, they remained 
a problem. PSOCIDS increased in numbers. 

Light Traps : Four dark-light insect traps continued in operation throughout 
the 1958 growing season. Traps were located in Finney, Ellis, Riley and 
Doniphan Counties. Abundance counts and migration patterns included armyworm, 
corn earworm, fall armyworm, European corn borer, variegated cutworm and 
army cutworm . 



- 114 - 
SUMMARY OF INSECTS CONDITIONS - 1958 

NEBRASKA 

Reported by Lloyd W. Andersen, Roscoe E. Hill, Robert E. Roselle 

Highlights : Entomological highlights for 1958 included heavy first and second 
broods of EUROPEAN CORN BORER over much of the corn-growing areas; GRASSHOPPERS 
again present in injurious numbers throughout the western two-thirds of the 
State; high larval populations of ARMYWORM in wheat in the eastern half of the 
State; the virtual disappearance of PALE WESTERN CUTWORM after five years of 
damage; continuation of the eastward spread of ALFALFA WEEVIL; an increase in 
CORN ROOTWORM populations; another late buildup of SPOTTED ALFALFA APHID in the 
southwest; large flights of BEET WEBWORM at light traps but with less than 
expected damage from the larvae in the field; and another generally heavy out- 
break of MOSQUITOES. 

Cereal and Forage Crop Insects : Legumes - ALFALFA WEEVIL ( Hypera postica ) 
surveys revealed a light local infestation in alfalfa in panhandle and south- 
western counties. Scotts Bluff, Sioux, Morrill and Cheyenne Counties had larval 
populations up to 120 per 100 sweeps. New records included Cherry, Lincoln and 
Red Willow Counties. SPOTTED ALFALFA APHID ( Therioaphis maculata ) was present 
in economic numbers in the western Republican River Valley and Frenchman Creek 
areas. It was first found during the second week in July, in Red Willow County, 
and did not buildup to economic numbers until mid-August. It was not found 
until September 13 in the central Platte Valley. By late September and early 
October the population had increased greatly, and surveys showed well over 
11,000 per 100 sweeps in the western Republican Valley region. Yellowing of 
alfalfa plants was noticeable. Surveys in December revealed aphids under snow 
cover up to 300 per alfalfa crown in Red Willow County. GREEN CL0VERW0RM 
( Plathypena scabra ) populations were very light during 1958 in alfalfa and 
soybeans in the eastern half of the State. Counts in early June through July 
ranged 9-19 per 100 sweeps in alfalfa and averaged 0.3 per 10-plant sample in 
soybeans. Moths were picked up at light traps at Lincoln, North Platte, 
Scottsbluff and Alliance throughout the summer months. Light populations of 
ALFALFA CATERPILLAR ( Colias philodice eurytheme ) occurred generally throughout 
the alfalfa-producing regions. Infestation began in early May and continued 
through mid-September. Larvae averaged 5 per 100 sweeps in early May, reached 
peak of 1 per sweep by early June, then dropped off, averaging 32 per 100 sweeps 
for the remainder of the season. ALFALFA WEBWORM ( Loxostege commixtalis ) 
produced moderate webbing in the southeast, south central and southwestern areas 
in alfalfa, beginning in early August. Larval counts ranged 10-120 per 100 
sweeps during the season. PEA APHID ( Macrosiphum pisi ) infestations first 
occurred in southeastern alfalfa and red clover in early April. Buildup was 
slow through April and May and by early June had reached 4,847 per 100 sweeps, 
despite a fungus ( Entomophora sp.) in late May. A moderate population con- 
tinued through June (1000 plus per 100 sweeps) in most areas and dropped during 
July, possibly because of predators. A buildup occurred again in mid-August 
and continued into November. Seasonal counts per 100 sweeps averaged 1000 in 
the east, 240 in the southwest and 320 in the Platte Valley. TARNISHED PLANT 
BUG ( Lygus lineolaris ) populations were moderately general to spotted heavy. 
In early April counts ranged 5-7 per 100 sweeps. A general buildup occurred 
through May in southern regions. Early- June populations averaged 362 per 
100 sweeps and continued high through the year. ALFALFA PLANT BUG ( Adelphocoris 
lineolatus ) was generally light in alfalfa throughout most of the State. 
Infestations ranged 43-174 adults and nymphs per 100 sweeps through June and 
remained somewhat static through the remainder of the year. RAPID PLANT BUG 
( Adelphocoris rapidus ) was relatively light and spotted in alfalfa in eastern 
areas. Counts averaged 20 per 100 sweeps and very little damage resulted. 



First overwintered adults of SWEETCLOVER WEEVIL ( Sitona cylindricollis ) were 
observed in sweetclover and litter in the southeast in early April. Counts 
ranged 5-7 per 10-crown sample and later 6-8. Damage to newly emerged seedlings 
was serious. LESSER CLOVER LEAF WEEVIL ( Hypera nigrirostris ) was light and 
spotted on red clover in the southeastern portion of the State. Counts ranged 
4-6 per 25 sweeps throughout the year. Very little damage occurred to blossoms 
or stems of plants. CLOVER LEAF WEEVIL ( Hypera punctata ) was light in alfalfa 
in eastern areas. Larval counts averaged 15 and adults 11 per 100 sweeps. 
There was very little damage. POTATO LEAFHOPPER ( Empoasca fabae ) infestations 
were generally light in alfalfa. The first known occurrance was May 13 in the 
southeast. Several other species of leaf hoppers were found May 5 and 6. No 
serious yellowing or "hopperburn" resulted in alfalfa. Moderate populations 
of BLISTER BEETLES ( Epicauta spp.) were found in alfalfa fields in the southwest, 
south central, southeast and northeast areas from mid-June through September. 
Counts in mid-summer ranged 14-32 per 100 sweeps and reached as high as 100 per 
100 sweeps in August. 

The GRASSHOPPER trend continued its movement to the west and populations were 
more widely scattered. The north central and eastern one-fourth of the State 
are comparatively free of damaging infestations. A general increase occurred 
in the south central and panhandle counties. The initial hatch in cropland 
began in early May in the east and that of rangeland species in early June. 
Generally the major hatch was later and more prolonged due primarily to greater 
precipitation in these areas. The dominant cropland species over the State 
was Melanoplus bivitattus , followed closely by M. dif f erentialis . The areas to 
the south and west are subject to migrations of M. bilituratus , which has 
become more widespread and abundant than at any time in the past 10 years. One 
of the larger flights of this species extended from west of Kearney, Buffalo 
County, to the western end of the State. Melanoplus f emur-rubrum never reached 
destructive proportions and the population is the lowest in many years. The 
rangeland has shown little change in populations. The chief areas of high 
populations remain in the southern sandhills, the breaks along the Platte River 
and the light sandy soils of southern Lincoln County. The dominant species on 
the range are Ageneotettix deorum , Aulocara elliotti , Phlibostroma 

quadrimaculatum , Melanoplus bilituratus , M. f oedus , M. occidentalis , Trachyrhachis 
kiowa , Amphitornus coloradus , Eritettix tricarnutus and Boopedon nubilum . Egg 
survey conducted in fall of 1958 indicated populations equivalent to those of 
the adult survey. However, large areas in the east and central portions of the 
State had an extremely high degree of parasitism within the egg pod. There are 
some areas where egg dessication is also taking place, but for the most part 
eggs have gone into the winter in good condition. Heavy fungus disease occurred 
in the southeast and central portions of the State which took a heavy toll in 
these regions. Federal control programs were carried on in Deuel and Cheyenne 
Counties in the summer where 41,369 acres of range were sprayed. A total of 
approximately 2,201,625 acres of both range and cropland were sprayed in the 
State in 1958. 

Corn and Sorghum - BLACK CUTWORM ( Agrotis ypsilon ) caused moderate to spotted 
severe damage in the eastern third of the State in heavier soils. In some areas 
as high as 21 of 25 plants were damaged. Moths were collected in light traps 
at Lincoln, North Platte, Scottsbluff , Alliance and Kearney throughout the 
growing season. CORN LEAF APHID ( Rhopalosiphum maidis ) infestations were 
generally moderate to severe in corn and grain sorghum in eastern and southern 
areas of the State during July and August. High predator populations developed 
rapidly in most areas to check the infestation. WIREW0RM ( Melanotus spp.) 
populations were moderate to spotted heavy in the more heavy soils in eastern 
areas. Damage necessitating replanting of corn occurred in several northeast 
areas. FALL ARMYWORM ( Laphygma frugiperda ) infestation was very light in Platte 
Valley corn. Moth flights began in late August at Lincoln and North Platte 
and reached their peak in mid-October. Practically no damage resulted. 



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ARMYWORM ( Pseudaletia unipuncta ) infestations were light to moderate in corn 
in eastern and central areas. Some defoliation of corn resulted. CHINCH BUG 
( Blissus leucopterus ) migrations from overwintering habitats to wheat and barley 
began in early April. Migrations from small grains began in early July. Only 
light damage occurred and it was estimated that approximately lpOO acres were 
treated this spring. The survey conducted in the fall in 35 southeastern 
counties revealed noneconomic to very severe conditions existing. Counts 
ranged upwards to 2p00 or more per square foot in some areas. CORN ROOTWORMS 
( Diabrotica undecimpunctata howardi , D. virgifera and D. longicornis ) damage 
continued to mount especially in those areas which have developed irrigation. 
CORN EARWORM ( Heliothis zea ) infestations in field and sweet corn were generally 
light to moderate throughout southeast, south central and central regions. Moth 
flights occurred in May at Lincoln, North Platte and Scottsbluff. All stages 
were present until frost. Damage to corn ears was light to moderate in nearly 
all the southeastern and south central counties where 80-95 percent infestations 
occurred in early September. Heavy moth flights occurred in mid-October at 
Lincoln and North Platte with a high weekly catch of, 1,620 at North Platte. 
TWO-SPOTTED SPIDER MITE ( Tetranychus telarius ) populations were moderate in corn 
in panhandle counties during mid-summer. Damage to lower leaves was very 
noticeable. EUROPEAN CORN BORER ( Pyrausta nubilalis) spring survival survey 
revealed a heavy winter mortality. In both northeast and Platte Valley areas 
mortality was approximately 96 percent with a 4 percent effective population. 
Populations per acre ranged from 1,328 in the southwest to 3,866 in the north- 
east. Pupation of overwintering borers began about May 20 in the southeast, 
east and central portions of the State, and by the first week in June had 
reached approximately 100 percent in all areas. Moths were collected at Lincoln 
June 3 and at North Platte June 6. Egg masses (50 per 100 plants) were found in 
the southeastern area June 10. Second-brood moths appeared during the third 
week in July and gradually reached a peak in mid-August. With the cool weather 
at that time, moths continued to fly until late September in some areas. The 
fall survey in 74 counties revealed 22-337 borers per 100 plants and infestation 
of 21.8 to 99 percent. Corn loss in 1958 was 23,102,178 bushels, valued at 
$23,102,178. 

Other Cereal and Forage Crop Insects - Light infestations of WHEAT HEAD ARMYWORM 
( Faronta diffusa ) occurred in winter wheat in southwest counties. Considerable 
injury to rye occurred in Lincoln County where counts ran 1.5 per sweep. 
ENGLISH GRAIN APHID ( Macrosiphum granarium ) was light to spotted moderate 
(averaged 12 per head in a 20-head sample) in small grains the early part of 
May through middle of June. The infested area embraced the eastern third, 
through the Platte Valley to the western part of the State. SIX-SPOTTED 
LEAFHOPPER ( Macrosteles f ascifrons ) was very light in small grains during 
1958 in comparison with 1957. WHEAT CURL MITE ( Aceria tulipae ) occurred through- 
out the panhandle and southwestern counties. Wheat streak mosaic was more 
widespread than it has been since the fall of 1953 and the spring of 1954. 
Examinations of wheat stubble taken in August from major wheat-producing counties 
indicated that infestation by HESSIAN FLY ( Phytophaga destructor ) was heavier 
than it has been since 1953. Parasitism of the flax-seed stage by either 
Merisus destructor or Eupelmus allynii was very prevalent, up to 90 percent in 
some areas. Supplemental surveys in the fall revealed a partial second brood 
which developed in early plantings of winter wheat and in volunteer wheat. 
ARMYWORM ( Pseudaletia unipuncta ) larval population was moderate to severe in 
rank and lodged wheat in the eastern third and central Platte Valley regions. 
Moth flights were extremely heavy at all light trap stations from late April 
into October. Five major moth flights were observed at light trap stations. 
A high single week catch at North Platte was 11,950 in early July. Larval 
infestations in small grains in the eastern half of the State were in accord 
with the number of moths collected at the light traps. Larval counts ranged 
8-46 per square foot in many fields. PALE WESTERN CUTWORM ( Agrotis orthogonia ) 
infestations were very light in winter wheat and barley. This is the first 



- 117 - 

time in 6 years that there were no economic losses in the panhandle area. 
Moth flights at Alliance started in late August and continued through September 
in small numbers. The highest single-day catch was 19 in early September 
compared with 103 in 1957. 

Vegetable and Truck Crop Insects : POTATO LEAFHOPPER ( Empoasca fabae ) was not 
serious on potatoes in eastern, central or western areas. First occurrance 
was May 13 on alfalfa in the southeast and the first appearance on potatoes 
was approximately June 12. POTATO PSYLLID ( Paratrioza cockerelli ) was light 
on lycium, potatoes and tomatoes in central and western areas. No serious 
yellowing occurred on western area potatoes as compared with 1957. Populations 
based on an average found at seven locations and at 100 sweeps per location 
ranged .57 on May 5 to 23.5 on June 30. MEXICAN BEAN BEETLE ( Epilachna 
varivestis ) occurred in light to spotted moderate infestations during August 
in field beans in the Scottsbluff vicinity. TUBER FLEA BEETLE ( Epitrix 
tuberis ) was normal on potatoes in central and western portions of the State. 
BEET WEBWORM ( Loxostege sticticalis ) moth flights were extremely heavy from 
North Platte on west in early June. High weekly light trap catches were 8,569 
at Scottsbluff, 15,530 at North Platte and 28,948 at Alliance. Larval popu- 
lations in beets were not in accord with the moth catches; counts averaged 
12 per 100 sweeps. Local heavy populations of WESTERN BEAN CUTWORM ( Loxagrotis 
albicosta) occurred in field beans on the lighter soils in the Scottsbluff 
vicinity. Light infestations were again found in field corn in Scotts Bluff, 
Box Butte, Morrill, Garden and Keith Counties. Moths appeared as far east as 
North Platte. 

Insects of Shade and Fruit Trees, Perennials and Ornamentals : BAGWORM 
( Thyridopteryx ephemeraef ormis ) populations were moderate to spotted heavy 
on evergreen, sycamore, pin oak and spirea in southeastern areas from early 
June and through July. WALNUT CATERPILLAR ( Datana integerrima ) was light to 
spotted moderate on walnut trees in northeast areas during mid-summer with 
some defoliation. SPRING CANKERWORM ( Paleacrita vernata) caused moderate to 
severe damage. Nearly all river valley areas were infested. Approximately 
70-85 percent of the woodland areas and windbreaks in some regions were de- 
foliated. FALL WEBWORM ( Hyphantria cunea ) populations were moderate on elm, 
poplar and roadside shrubs in the eastern third of the State. GREEN-STRIPED 
MAPLEWORM (Anisota rubicunda ) infestations were light to moderate along the 
Missouri River Valley from Richardson County to Thurston County. OYSTERSHELL 
SCALE ( Lepidosaphes ulmi) was very prevalent on lilac in south central, 
central and eastern areas. Heavy damaging infestations of EUROPEAN ELM SCALE 
( Gossyparia spuria ) continued in the eastern third, central and western portions 
of the State. NANTUCKET PINE MOTH ( Rhyacionia frustrana ) continued to be 
abundant on young ponderosa pine in established forest areas and in isolated 
plantings as far east as the Missouri River Valley. PINE NEEDLE SCALE 
( Phenacaspis pinifoliae ) was moderate to heavy on pine in the Pine Ridge area, 
Halsey Forest and in pine windbreaks in central and eastern parts of the State. 
SPIDER MITES ( Tetranychus spp.) were moderate to heavy on conifers, roses and 
garden vegetables in the eastern third and central portions of the State. 
Controls were used extensively throughout these areas. Heavy damaging popula- 
tions of a LEAF ROLLER continued along the Platte Valley and in the northeast on 
locust trees with severe defoliation in many areas. PEACH TREE BORER 
( Sanninoidea exitiosa) was very abundant in fruit tree plantings in early 
spring. Loss of trees resulted in some regions. 

Insects Affecting Man and Animals : MOSQUITOES - This summer and fall, as was 
the case the past two years, again saw one of the most serious mosquito out- 
breaks. The predominant species was Culex tarsalis . All species of Culex 
became more important after mid-July and persisted to the end of the season. 
Aedes vexans was predominant in the early part of the summer, but dropped in 
numbers in mid-summer, increased again in late August and early September. 



- 118 - 

The peak populations of A. vexans and C. tarsalis occurred in September. 
CATTLE GRUBS ( Hypoderma spp . ) - Adult activity was noticeable in late April and 
continued into June in the sandhill region. The population then developed 
into a near normal situation for the State. Approximately 140,000 head of 
cattle were treated in 1958. HORN FLY ( Siphona irritans) continued to be very 
numerous on livestock in west and north central regions. STABLE FLY ( Stomoxys 
calcitrans ) populations were much higher than in 1957. Severe problems developed 
around feed lots and farm yards in the eastern portion of the State. HOUSE 
FLY ( Musca domestica ) continued to be a constant nuisance in urban and rural 
areas until frost with populations much higher than in 1957. CATTLE LICE 
( Bovicola bovis and Hematopinus spp.) were normal on livestock in feed lots in 
eastern and central regions. Untreated cattle were heavily infested with one 
or more species in many cases. 

Stored-grain Insects : In stored wheat, live and dead insects were found in 
73.0 percent of 256 bins examined, a number of which had recently been fumigated. 
Live insects occurred in 17.2 percent of the bins. Rodent contamination was 
present in 11.7 percent and bird contamination in 0.7 percent of those examined. 
Dermestids , saw-toothed grain beetle, granary weevil, cadelle and flat grain 
beetle were the most abundant. In stored corn, live and dead insects were found 
in 25.6 percent of 51 bins examined with dermestids, saw-toothed grain beetle, 
flat grain beetle and cadelle the most abundant. Rodent contamination was found 
in 51.9 percent of the bins. 

Cooperators : The following Nebraska entomologists also contributed to the 
Cooperative Economic Insect Survey during 1958: C. Jones, R. Staples, 
C. Walstrom, D. Fitchett, J. Bell, K. Pruess , A. Hagen , G. Weekman , W. Howe, 
M. McKnight, G. Manglitz, B. Kantack and W. Rapp. 



SUMMARY OF INSECT CONDITIONS - 1958 

SOUTH DAKOTA 

Compiled by W. M. Hantsbarger and Gale Mast 

Highlights : GRASSHOPPERS increased in 1958, with large areas averaging 8 to 14 
adults per square yard during the fall abundance survey. A migratory flight 
of MIGRATORY GRASSHOPPER occurred in the southwest. CORN ROOTWORMS caused 
considerable damage in southeastern and south central areas. CRICKETS were more 
abundant than usual in the eastern part of the State. Heavy infestations of 
PEA APHID and ENGLISH GRAIN APHID appeared in late spring and early summer. 
EUROPEAN CORN BORER populations are reduced from those of 1957. 

Cereal and Forage Insects : TWO-STRIPED GRASSHOPPER ( Melanoplus bivittatus ) 
began hatching in the southeast area around the middle of May. A light hatch 
of Camnula pellucida was observed in the Keystone area a week later. Heavy 
hatches of DIFFERENTIAL GRASSHOPPER ( Melanoplus dif f erentalis ) and M. bivittatus 
were noted in many areas of the State by the first of June. By the second 
week in June RED-LEGGED GRASSHOPPER (M. f emur-rubrum ) began to hatch. Nymphal 
populations in the extreme southeastern area reached as high as 150 per square 
yard in margins and 30 per square yard in alfalfa fields. Economic infestations 
were reported the latter part of June in Lyman, Union, Yankton and Clay Counties', 
the dominant species were M. dif f erentalis and M. bivittatus . Flights of 
MIGRATORY GRASSHOPPER (M. bilituratus ) appeared in Bennett County and in an area 
extending over to the central and northern Black Hills. Many acres of winter 
wheat were treated to protect the crop. The adult survey conducted throughout 
the State in August showed many acres rated 8 to 14 or more per square yard. 



- 119 - 

Areas of heavy infestation exist in Union, Clay, Yankton, Spink, Brown, Lyman, 
Hughes, Sully, Potter, Walworth, Fall River, Perkins, Pennington and Harding 
Counties. Much of the State which was noneconomic last season now has light 
to moderate populations. This increase is largely a result of a buildup of 
M. dif ferentalis and M. bivittatus . A grasshopper egg survey held in October 
in general approximated findings of the adult survey. In some areas, parasitism 
by BOMBYLIID larvae was noticeable on the egg pods. Loss to crops from 
grasshopper activities is estimated at approximately $2,957,700. It has been 
estimated by county agents that 223,070 acres were treated for grasshopper 
control, resulting in a saving of $1,260,600. 

FALSE WIREW0RM ( Eleodes spp.) infestations averaged from one to two larvae 
per linear foot of row on winter wheat in Stanley, Haakon, Jones and Mellette 
Counties. Damage in most instances was slight. Light infestations of WIREWORMS 
( Limonius spp.) were found in spring wheat at several localities of the north 
central and northeast districts. Populations averaged one larva per linear foot 
of row. Actual damage to the wheat was slight. Populations of ARMY CUTWORM 
( Chorizagrotis auxiliaris ) were much lower than in 1957. Infestations were 
noted in scattered wheat fields of the west central district where populations 
averaged one larva per linear foot of row and in alfalfa and small grains in 
the east central and southeast districts where larvae averaged three per square 
yard. Little damage occurred in 1958. Scattered infestations of ARMYWORM 
( Pseudaletia unipuncta ) larvae appeared in eastern areas on small grains and 
alfalfa. The heaviest infestation occurred in Roberts County where approximately 
1,000 acres were treated. EUROPEAN CORN BORER ( Pyrausta nubilalis ) spring surveys 
indicated a winter survival of approximately 84 percent in the 17 eastern 
counties. Pupation was underway the third week of May in the southeast district. 
Moth emergence and egg-laying commenced the second week of June. Egg hatch and 
accompanying "shot-hole" damage appeared the latter part of June. The first- 
brood infestation averaged 45 percent with an average of 84 larvae per 100 plants. 
First-brood pupation with second-brood moth emergence took place the latter 
part of August. Second brood was light, perhaps because of the very dry weather. 
The fall survey indicated an average of 51 percent infestation with an average 
of 91 borers per 100 plants for the 6 districts and 42 counties surveyed. It is 
estimated that approximately 2,835,000 bushels of corn were lost to the borer, 
representing a monetary loss of $2,353,000. ALFALFA WEEVIL ( Hypera postica) 
was more troublesome than in 1957. Damage occurred to a number of alfalfa 
fields that were not treated. Populations in early June reached 40-60 larvae 
per 10 sweeps in untreated fields of Lawrence County. Larvae were detected for 
the first time in Ziebach County. Approximately 14,000 acres of alfalfa were 
treated. SWEETCL0VER WEEVIL (Sitona cylindricollis) adults were active and 
feeding by the first part of April. Feeding damage ranged up to 50 percent of 
the plants in older established stands. Larval damage to new seedings of 
sweetclover was comparatively light. 

LYGUS BUGS ( Lygus spp.) - Overwintering adults became active the latter part 
of April. By the middle of May newly-hatched nymphs appeared. Through*the 
months of June and July populations were heavy on alfalfa. Counts averaged 40 
per 10 sweeps with counts up to 180 per 10 sweeps noted in some areas. Many 
alfalfa seed fields had injurious infestations and were treated. ALFALFA 
PLANT BUG ( Adelphocoris lineolatus ) began to appear in economic numbers on 
alfalfa the first part of June, populations averaging 14 per 10 sweeps. Later 
in the summer populations averaged 36 per 10 sweeps on alfalfa. Injurious 
infestations were noted on many alfalfa seed crops. POTATO LEAFHOPPER ( Empoasca 
fabae) was first collected in the State May 29th on alfalfa in the southeast 
district. On June 5 it was collected in the east central district. Populations 
were light on alfalfa throughout the growing season. Some "hopperburn" damage 
appeared in potato fields of the northeast. PEA APHID ( Macrosiphum pisi ) began to 
appear in alfalfa fields around the latter part of April and the first part of May. 
The spring season was cool and conducive to reproduction of this species. By the 
first part of June, hundreds per sweep were encountered. 



- 120 - 

Many calls were received requesting information on control. In certain areas, 
alfalfa showed some damage symptoms. The hot, dry weather of mid-summer, coupled 
with an increase in predators, reduced aphid numbers so that they ceased to be 
a problem for the rest of the season. ENGLISH GRAIN APHID ( Macrosiphum granarium) 
infested small grain throughout the State during late spring and early summer. 
The weather was also conducive to rapid buildup of this pest. By early summer 
it was not unusual to see hundreds of aphids on a single small grain plant. 
Some damage occurred on small grains that were planted in light and sandy soils. 
The hot, dry weather of mid-summer reduced the populations to noneconomic levels. 
ALFALFA CATERPILLAR ( Colias philodice eurytheme ) larvae first began to appear 
in alfalfa fields around the middle of May. Populations remained light through- 
out the season; the larvae never averaged more than one per 10 sweeps.' BEAN 
LEAF BEETLE ( Ceratoma trifurcata ) infestations were noted on soybeans in Clay 
and Union Counties. Slight damage occurred to foliage and populations averaged 
one adult per linear yard of row. Adults of SOUTHERN CORN ROOTWORM 
( Diabrotica undecimpunctata howardi) appeared the first part of June in alfalfa, 
feeding on the blossoms. By August and September, adults of WESTERN CORN 
ROOTWORM (D. virgifera ) and NORTHERN CORN ROOTWORM (D. longicornis ) were also 
appearing in alfalfa fields. Populations averaged 4 per 10 sweeps. Many reports 
were received of corn rootworm damage to corn fields in the southeast and south 
central districts. Most of the damage appeared to be confined to nonrotated 
fields. Approximately 52,490 acres were treated for control this spring. ASH- 
GRAY BLISTER BEETLE ( Epicauta fabricii ) appeared in alfalfa fields the latter 
part of May. During June and July they averaged one per net sweep. BLACK 
BLISTER BEETLE ( Epicauta pennsylvanica ) was noted in some localities of the 
north central district where they averaged one per sweep in alfalfa. A FIELD 
CRICKET (Acheta sp.) was more abundant than usual during the latter part of 
the summer. Some alfalfa seed fields were treated as population counts in some 
areas reached 15 per square yard. SPOTTED ALFALFA APHID ( Therioaphis maculata ) 
was not reported in the State during 1958. 

Fruit Insects : APPLE MAGGOT ( Rhagoletis pomonella ) was the most troublesome 
and damaging insect pest of fruit in 1958. Considerable damage was reported 
from the east central and southeast districts on apple. PEAR-SLUG ( Caliroa 
cerasi ) infestations were reported from cherry trees and a pear tree in the 
south central district. EUROPEAN RED MITE ( Panonychus ulmi ) adults were observed 
by the middle of May feeding in apple trees in the east central district. Some 
leaf damage was noted by late summer. 

Truck Crop Insects : CUCUMBER BEETLES, both Diabrotica unidecimpunctata howardi 
and Acalymma vittata , were abundant on cucurbits throughout the summer. 
POTATO LEAFHOPPER ( Empoasca fabae ) was quite abundant in some localities. 
"Hopperburn" on garden potatoes was quite evident in some areas. POTATO FLEA 
BEETLE ( Epitrix cucumeris ) was abundant in eastern areas on potatoes. Untreated 
potatoes showed leaf -feeding damage. CABBAGE APHID ( Brevicornye brassicae ) 
and MELON APHID ( Aphis gossypii ) were more abundant than usual in home gardens 
throughout the State. 

Forest, Ornamental and Shade Tree Insects : PINE BARK APHID (Pineus strobi ) 
was numerous and active on white pine in the Sioux Falls vicinity by the first 
part of June. COTTONWOOD LEAF BEETLE ( Chrysomela scripta complex) infestations 
were reported from cottonwood and poplar in various parts of the State. APHIDS 
were very numerous on shade trees throughout the State. Many complaints were 
received on the excessive "honeydew" . An infestation of ELM CALLIGRAPHA 
( Calligrapha scalaris ) adults was reported from elm in Hutchinson County. Many 
FALL WEBWORM ( Hyphantria cunea) infestations were noted on cottonwoods and 
aspen throughout the State. Various reports of OYSTERSHELL SCALE ( Lepidosaphes 
ulmi ) infestations on apple and shade trees throughout the State were received. 
ELM SAWFLY ( Cimbex americana) infestations were reported on elm and willow from 



- 121 - 

various localities in the southeast and south central districts. PINE NEEDLE 
SCALE ( Phenacaspis pinifoliae ) continues to be a problem throughout the State 
on ornamental conifers. 

Insects Affecting Man and Animals : CATTLE GRUBS ( Hypoderma bovis and H. 
lineatum ) - Counts made on 103 untreated calves in Meade County in March showed 
an average of 13 grubs per head. Heel fly activity was prevalent during early 
summer. Approximately 9 percent of the cattle in the State received some 
treatment for grub control. HORN FLY ( Siphona irritans ) was abundant throughout 
the State. It is estimated that 50 percent of the cattle in the State received 
some treatment for horn fly control. CATTLE LICE ( Linognathus vituli and 
Haematopinus eurysternus) were prevalent on cattle throughout the State. 
Approximately 31 percent of the cattle received some form of treatment. POULTRY 
LICE and MITES were a problem to chicken flocks. NORTHERN FOWL MITE 
( Ornithonyssus sylviarum ) was especially troublesome. An interesting problem 
occurred in the municipality of Brookings where a small child was being bitten 
by CHICKEN MITE ( Dermanyssus gallinae ) . The infestation source was believed 
to be from pigeons which frequented the roof of the home. 

Stored-product Insects : INDIAN-MEAL MOTH ( Plodia interpunctella ) infestations 
were reported throughout the State, some of them in homes as well as granaries. 
Infestations of FLOUR BEETLES ( Tribolium spp.) were noted from many localities 
and many sources, including homes, granaries and cribs. SAW-TOOTHED GRAIN 
BEETLE ( Oryzaephilus surinamensis ) infestations were reported from several 
localities in the State, both from infestations in homes and granaries. Several 
infestations of CADELLE ( Tenebroides mauritanicus ) were reported from stored 
grain in the southern regions. 

Miscellaneous Insects : POWDER POST BEETLES ( Lyctus spp.) were reported several 
times in homes. SUBTERRANEAN TERMITES were reported from Pennington and 
Davison Counties. This was a first record for Davison County. BLACK CARPET 
BEETLE ( Attagenus piceus ) infestations were reported from homes in Minnehaha 
and Lincoln Counties. 



SUMMARY OF INSECT CONDITIONS - 1958 

NORTH DAKOTA 

Compiled by Vance V. Goodfellow 

Highlights : During 1958 approximately 778,000 acres were treated to control 
GRASSHOPPERS. Infestations, in general, were confined to western areas which 
had scattered, severe infestations. ENGLISH GRAIN APHID and CORN LEAF APHID 
populations were much above normal during June. Little injury was observed; 
however, 50,000 acres were sprayed to protect late crops of wheat, oats and 
barley. BEET WEBWORM moths were extremely abundant in all areas during the 
week of June 2. Scattered larval infestations attacked sugar beets, wheat, 
flax and saf flower, and control measures were required to protect these crops. 
Approximately 75,000 acres of cropland were treated to control beet webworm. 
This year's infestation was the heaviest since 1950. 

Cereal and Forage Insects : GRASSHOPPER infestations during 1958 were generally 
noneconomic over most of the State, although threatening to severe infestations 
did occur at scattered locations in the western area. In an area comprising 
Burke, Divide and northern Williams Counties the infestation was severe and 
widespread. The dominant species was Melanoplus bivittatus (75 percent) followed 



- 122 - 

by M. bilituratus and M. f emur-rubrum . Chemical control measures directed at 
nymphal populations gave excellent crop protection. No serious grasshopper 
problem developed on rangeland. During 1958 approximately 778,000 acres were 
sprayed to control grasshoppers. Fall surveys indicate a generally light 
infestation in 1959 except for a few localized areas. The main area for concern 
is in northwestern counties where serious drought conditions prevailed in 1958. 
No serious rangeland infestation is expected: WHEAT STEM SAWFLY ( Cephus cinctus ) 
continues to be a major pest of wheat in the northwestern area. The 19 58 
infestation, however, was the lightest in the last four years. Cool, windy 
weather during the flight period may have contributed to this lowered infestation. 
The average infestation showed 20-40 percent of the stems infested. Only a few 
fields had. infestations above 50 percent. An estimated 78 percent of the over- 
wintering EUROPEAN CORN BORER ( Pyrausta nubilalis ) larvae survived the winter 
in southeastern counties. Pupation neared completion on June 15. Cool, rainy 
weather during June and July slowed corn growth, adult moth emergence and egg- 
laying. The hatch of first-generation borers reached its peak the week of 
July 28. At the peak period, infestations in general were noneconomic. An 
average of 45 percent of the plants were infested with approximately 4 borers 
per infested plant. Egg-laying, however, continued and was spread over a long 
period. It continued until August 15 resulting in an increased number of 
infested plants. First-generation borer development was slow; only 13 percent 
of the borers pupated and emerged as compared with 50 percent in 1957. No 
second-generation infestation developed. Fall abundance survey in six south- 
eastern counties, Grand Forks, Traill, Cass, Richland, Sargent and Ransom, 
showed the highest borer population ever recorded. In this area 74 percent of 
the plants were infested with an average of 179 borers per 100 plants. The 
estimated corn loss due to corn borer injury in 1958 was 5.3 percent. 

ENGLISH GRAIN APHID ( Macrosiphum granarium ) populations were general and high 
over most of the eastern area during June. Infestations were confined mostly 
to wheat and barley. Some control work was done in a few areas; however, no 
field surveyed showed aphid injury, and populations were mostly below economic 
levels. PREDATORS increased slowly but were present in numbers high enough 
to aid control of aphids. In late July, syrphid flies were more numerous in 
eastern North Dakota than they had been in many years. Scattered infestations 
of CORN LEAF APHID ( Rhopalosiphum maidis ) were present in barley and oats . 
Populations were generally below economic levels. Some control work was done 
in late planted fields. Light to moderate infestations occurred in corn 
during late July and August. Approximately 50,000 acres of small grain were 
sprayed for English grain and corn leaf aphids. Populations of THRIPS in 
barley were light and only an occasional field had economic numbers. Approxi- 
mately 25,000 acres of late barley were treated. One of the most widespread 
infestations of BEET WEBWORM ( Loxostege sticticalis ) experienced in many years 
occurred in the State this season. Adults were observed in all areas during 
the week of June 2. Scattered severe infestations attacked sugar beets, wheat, 
flax and saf flower, and control measures were necessary to protect these crops. 
A severe infestation in a two-year-old shelterbelt near Bismarck defoliated 
the trees. Approximately 75,000 acres of cropland were treated. Pupae were 
collected in several stubble fields during the fall, especially in the western 
part of the State. Severe infestations of ARMYWORM ( Pseudaletia unipuncta ) 
were confined to a few fields of rye in the southeastern area. Larvae in a 
wide range of development could be found in most grain fields throughout the 
southern Red River Valley; however, their numbers seldom exceeded one per square 
foot. No control measures were required except in rye fields where an estimated 
9,000 acres were treated. The first collection of SIX-SPOTTED LEAFHOPPER 
( Macrosteles fascifrons ) was made from sweetclover on May 13 at Mapleton; one 
adult per 100 sweeps. By May 30, adults were easily recovered from legumes and 
cereals but their numbers were low, six adults per 100 net sweeps. This trend 
continued throughout the season. Only a trace of the aster yellows was observed 
in flax during 1958. The first POTATO LEAFHOPPER ( Empoasca fabae ) specimen of 



- 123 - 

the yekr was collected on June 6 at Fargo. Populations in legumes remained 
light all season. Heavy adult populations of SWEETCLOVER WEEVIL ( Sitona 
cylindricollis ) caused severe defoliation in some mature sweetclover stands 
during early June. Heavy populations of PEA APHID ( Macrosiphum pisi ) occurred 
in alfalfa throughout the season in most of the State. TARNISHED PLANT BUG 
( Lygus lineolaris ) infestations in alfalfa were generally higher than usual 
over the State. ALFALFA PLANT BUG ( Adelphocoris lineolatus ) populations were 
above normal this season. Heavy infestations of a FIELD CRICKET ( Acheta sp.) 
occurred in Red River Valley counties and at other scattered locations during 
August. Larvae of a THISTLE BUTTERFLY were numerous on Canada thistle. Injury 
to soybeans was reported at three locations . DIAMONDBACK MOTH ( Plutella 
maculipennis ) larvae were numerous in wild mustard in the eastern part of the 
State. No crop injury was reported from any area. WIREWORM infestations 
damaging small grains were reported in a few localities. However, control 
measures were applied to an estimated 177,800 acres. 

Fruit Insects : One of the heaviest and widespread outbreaks of PLUM CURCULIO 
( Conotrachelus nenuphar ) in recent years occurred on plum in 1958. Petal-fall 
sprays gave good control where applied. CYCLAMEN MITE ( Steneotarsonemus pallidus ) 
is becomming more numerous in everbearing strawberry plantings. 

Truck Crop Insects : ONION MAGGOT ( Hylemya antiqua ) was responsible for a 10-15 
percent yield reduction in commercial onion fields in the Fargo area. Home 
garden plantings were destroyed at many other locations. The infestation was 
the heaviest in several years. COLORADO POTATO BEETLE ( Leptinotarsa decemlineata) 
populations were extremely light in potato-growing areas. POTATO FLEA BEETLE 
( Epitrix cucumeris ) was fairly abundant the early part of the season. Some 
damage was observed in unsprayed fields. Despite favorable weather conditions, 
GREEN PEACH APHID ( Myzus persicae ) and POTATO APHID ( Macrosiphum solanifolii ) 
did not develop densities of major economic importance. Potatoes in a few fields 
in southeastern portions of the Red River Valley where aphids were not controlled 
showed symptoms of Virus Y and leaf roll. SIX-SPOTTED LEAFHOPPER ( Macrosteles 
fascifrons ) and POTATO LEAFHOPPER ( Empoasca fabae ) were not abundant in potatoes 
in 1958. Purple top incidence was about normal. POTATO PSYLLID ( Paratrioza 
cockerelli ) was present but not in economic numbers. SUGAR-BEET ROOT MAGGOT 
( Tetanops myopaef ormis ) infestations were very low. Adult flies were not 
abundant and oviposition was hampered by cold weather. Approximately 18,500 
acres of sugar beets were treated with a custom-formulated, insecticide- 
fertilizer mixture to protect the crop. BEET WEBWORM ( Loxostege sticticalis ) 
infestations were moderate to heavy in sugar beets over a prolonged period. 
First larvae were observed the week of June 16, about a month earlier than in 
1957. Substantial acreages were treated for control. The 1958 outbreak was 
the heaviest since 1950. Home garden infestations of CUTWORMS were numerous; 
however, infestations reported in field crops were very low. 

Ornamental and Shade Tree Insects : PINE NEEDLE SCALE ( Phenacaspis pinifoliae ) 
continues to increase its range over the State. Severe infestations exist in 
several communities. OYSTERSHELL SCALE ( Lepidosaphes ulmi ) , COTTONY MAPLE 
SCALE ( Pulvinaria innumerabilis ) , SCURFY SCALE ( Chionaspis furfura ) and a 
LECANIUM SCALE infestations were numerous during 1958 and a general buildup of 
all scales throughout the State is indicated. Heavy infestations of SPIDER 
MITES ( Tetranychus spp.) were present on spruce and juniper throughout 
western areas. Elsewhere, infestations were spotty. Infestations of APHIDS, 
although numerous on shade trees and ornamental shrubs, were not as heavy and 
widespread as in 1957. SNOWBALL APHID ( Anuraphis viburnicola ) caused severe 
leaf distortion where not controlled. Cinara palmerae and Cinara sp. (probably 
undescribed) collected from Black Hills spruce and Colorado spruce at Bismarck 
and Casselton, are new records for the State. Determinations by F. C. Hottes. 
WILLOW SAWFLY ( Nematus ventralis ) larvae were collected from willow in a 
shelterbelt planting in the eastern part of the State. Defoliation was severe 



- 124 - 

in 50 feet of a one-fourth mile row of trees. FALL WEBWORM ( Hyphantria cunea ) 
infestations were the lightest in a number of years. FOREST TENT CATERPILLAR 
( Malacosoma disstria ) caused heavy defoliation in native timber stands at the 
Fort Totten Indian Reservation and Sullys Hill Federal Wildlife Refuge in the 
north central area. Surveys conducted by the Forest Service indicated a 
possible increase in tree defoliation and infested area in 1959. 

Household and Stored-product Insects : CARPET BEETLE ( Anthrenus scrophulariae ) 
infestations continued numerous in all areas. BROWN-BANDED ROACH ( Supella 
supellectilium ) infestations are becoming more numerous and widespread in the 
State. Calls were numerous regarding CAMEL CRICKETS infesting home basements 
in the Fargo area. CLOVER MITE ( Bryobia praetiosa ) infestations in homes were 
numerous in the spring and fall. 

Insects Affecting Man and Animals : The eastern areas of the State suffered the 
worst MOSQUITO problem ever recorded. Single night light trap counts in rural 
areas reached 35,000 to 70,000 per trap per might and in one trap exceeded 
150,000 adults in a single night. The predominant species in light trap 
collections was Aedes vexans . Culex tarsalis populations were somewhat higher 
than normal although they constituted a lower than normal percentage of the 
total season's collections. C. tarsalis larvae were found in temporary pools 
during certain periods of the summer and were not uncommonly associated with 
A. vexans at these times. Other species, notably A. dorsalis , C. p. pipiens and 
C. restuans, were either of normal or slightly less than normal abundance. 
The unusually high populations of A. vexans stimulated interest in mosquito 
abatement in the Red River Valley area. 



- 125 - 

INSECTS NOT KNOWN TO OCCUR IN THE UNITED STATES 

SPRUCE BARK BEETLE ( Ips typographus L.) 

Economic Importance : This bark beetle is considered to be one of the most de- 
structive pests of spruce on the continent of Europe. Extensive injury to for- 
ests, resulting from wars, fires and storms, has at numerous times made possible 
the buildup of high populations of the pest which caused excessive secondary 
damage. Observations in Sweden in 1932, following storms, showed a peak abun- 
dance of 520,000 beetles per acre in spruce forests. In addition to damaged 
trees, this species also attacks healthy trees. The capacity for breeding in 
very fresh bark, coupled with the habit of continuing to feed in the bark on com- 
pletion of development, makes the insect a serious pest of spruce forests. Ips 
typographus prefers thick, succulent bark, but will adapt itself readily to bark 
of different thicknesses and generally prefers parts of the tree more than 3 
feet from the ground. A very similar Ips beetle, recorded as I_. t. japonicus 
Niij . , is known to occur in Japan, Korea and the Soviet Far East, but is 
generally regarded as a subspecies of I_. typographus . 

Distribution : Recorded in most of Continental Europe, USSR and Korea. Ips 
t. japonicus is recorded in Japan, Korea and the Soviet Far East. 




General Distribution of Ips typographus 

Hosts : Prefers spruce, but will attack pine and other conifers. 

Life History and Habits : In Germany, breeding begins in early spring, the date 
varying according to weather conditions. Eggs are laid at regular intervals in 
egg-pockets along the sides of egg-galleries. Egg-laying often requires 3 weeks 
or more, larvae from the first-laid eggs being half grown before the last eggs 
are laid. Frequently the larvae, pupae and young adults are present in the same 
brood system. Under normal conditions, parents may produce 2 successive broods 
during the same year, the first brood developing in 2 or 3 months, the second 
maturing before winter. If, however, the second brood cannot mature before win- 
ter, development is completed the next spring. The sex ratio of Ips will vary 
according to the species, the normal being 2 or 3 females per male in I_. 
typographus . The egg-galleries of Ips are fairly constant in pattern and to some 
degree may indicate the species present (see illustration). I_. typographus nor- 
mally constructs a 3-armed gallery system with egg-galleries starting from a cen- 
tral pairing chamber. The galleries extend about 5 inches, invariably directed 
to the long axis of the trunk. Larval tunnels seldom exceed l\ inches in length. 
Egg-galleries may vary from the general pattern, however, depending on popula- 
tion, and on whether attack is on felled or standing trees. 



(Scolytidae, Coleoptera) 



No. 78 of Series 



126 



Description : Adults are dark brown, 
with long yellowish hairs and small 




Galleries of I_. typographus , Showin 
Larval Tunnels (A) and Egg- pockets 
as Indicated by Pips (B) . Copulator 
Chamber Outlined. 



almost black. The front of head covered 

ranular tubercles; club of antenna flat- 
tened and almost circular, slightly 
narrower near tip. Sutures of club 
strongly arched or curved. The pro- 
thorax longer than broad, very rough 
and wrinkled in front and sides; finely 
punctured behind on each side of a 
smooth impunctate central line. Front 
and sides of prothorax thickly clothed 
with long yellow hairs; central rear 
portion without hairs. Elytra about 
one and one-half times as long as com- 
bined width. Striae on each side of 
elytra on upper portion deep and 
strongly punctured, becoming wider 
towards the apical declivity; elsewhere 
striae very shallow and regular. Front 
edge and sides of elytra with hairs, 
becoming dense along sides. Apical 
declivity strongly excavated; extending 
to about one-third of each elytron; a 
central depression along suture or 
central line, extending halfway along 
entire length. Apical declivity 
bounded on each side by raised margin 
bearing four distinct teeth, third 
tooth from top the largest. Character- 
istically dull, matt surface of silky 
luster, fine irregular punctures and 
hairless except along margins and 
narrow, upper portion. Total length 
4 to 5j mm. Mature larvae thickset, 
white, legless with light brown head 

g and mandibles. About 5 mm. in length. 
(Prepared in Survey and Detection 

y Operations in cooperation with other 
ARS agencies .) . 







Stages of Ips typographus 



Apical Declivity of Ips typographus 



Figures (except map) : Larva, pupa and adult from Tashenberg, E. P. 1884. Die 
insecten, tausendfussler und spinnen. Brehms Thierleben Allgemeine Kunde des 
Thierreichs. 2nd. Ed. Vol. 1 (Leipzig) 711 pp. Apical declivity from Balachowsky, 
A. 1949. Faune de France, Coleopteres, Scoly tides. 320 pp., Paris. Galleries 
from Boas, J. E. V. 1923. Dansk Forstzoologi . 763 pp., Copenhagen. 



MlTED STATES .DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ^Penalty fbr TriVate U: 



tfASHIHG TQ; 



N-£5, D. C. Ky^^ \ Payment of Postage, $ 





1ANT PEST CONTROL DIVISION 
AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH SERVICE 

UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE 




AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH SERVICE 



PLANT PEST CONTROL DIVISION 



PLANT PEST SURVEY 

SURVEYS DETECTION OPERATIONS 



The Cooperative Economic Insect Report is issued 
weekly as a service to American Agriculture. Its contents 
are compiled from information supplied by cooperating State, 
Federal, and industrial entomologists and other agricultural 
workers. In releasing this material the Division serves as 
a clearing house and does not assume responsibility for ac- 
curacy of the material. 



Reports and inquiries pertaining to this release 
should be mailed to: 

Survey & Detection Operations 



Plant Pest Control Division 

Agricultural Research Service 

United States Department of Agriculture 

Washington 25, D. C. 



Volume 9 February 27, 1959 Number 9 

COOPERATIVE ECONOMIC INSECT REPORT 

Highlights of Insect Conditions 
CORN LEAF APHID heavy in some Maricopa County, Arizona, barley fields (p. 129) 

PEA APHID increased in Alfalfa in areas of Arizona and injured alfalfa in 
two areas in New Mexico. (p. 129). 

Distribution of SPOTTED ALFALFA APHID. (p. 130). 

WINTER GRAIN MITE heavily damaged oats in Dallas County, Texas. (p. 129). 

New outbreak of DOUGLAS-FIR TUSSOCK MOTH, in combination with Galenara 
consimilis , damaged 1,500 acres of Douglas and white fir in New Mexico during 
December, 1958. (p. 132). 

INSECT DETECTION: Cardiocondyla nuda minutior new to California. (p. 133). 

SUMMARY OF INSECT CONDITIONS - 1958 - WASHINGTON (p. 135), IDAHO (p. 139). 

Letter from Director E. D. Burgess to entomologists and other cooperators 
regarding the strengthening of the INSECT DETECTION program. (p. 145) . 



*************** 



Reports in this issue are for the week ending February 20 , unless otherwise 
designated. 



- 128 - 

WEATHER OF THE WEEK ENDING FEBRUARY 23 

The week was colder than normal east of the Continental Divide and slightly 
warmer than normal in most sections of the Far West. Precipitation, occurring 
on 1 to 4 days, was widespread with moderate to heavy amounts in the Pacific 
States and Pacific Northwest and a few small sections along the Gulf and 
Atlantic coasts. An extensive cold air mass overspread all areas east of the 
Rockies in the course of the week. Subzero minima were general from the Great 
Lakes to the Rockies on the 18th, 19th and 20th, extending southward to southern 
Nebraska and northern portions of Missouri , Illinois and Indiana. Pukwana and 
La Delle, South Dakota, reported -33° on the 19th and Pellston, Michigan, -37° 
on the 20th. In Wisconsin, ice thickness ranges from 15 inches in the south 
to 30 and 35 inches in the north, and frost penetration in the ground ranges 
from 3 feet in the south to 6 feet in the northwest. Subzero minima also 
occurred in inland areas of the Northeast the last few days of the period, 
and Presque Isle, Maine, reported -31° on the 24th. Frozen water pipes were 
reported in northern New England where frost penetration in the ground is 
unusually deep. Freezing occurred in the Southeast over the weekend, with 
Mobile, Alabama, reporting a low of 29° on the 21st and Jacksonville, Florida, 
32° on the 22nd. Ahead of the incoming cold air, temperatures in the lower 
Great Plains rose to near record high levels for the season on the 17th, when 
highs ranged in the 80 's and 90 's in Texas and in the 80 's at a few points in 
Oklahoma. As the cold air moved across the Northeast a deep low pressure 
disturbance developed off the north Atlantic coast , causing strong winds on 
the 19th, 20th and 21st with gusts of 40 to 50 m.p.h. in New England. No 
damage was reported. 

Snow fell as far south as northeastern Texas where several stations reported 
an inch on the ground the morning of the 20th, but this cover all melted during 
the da.y. Heavier amounts fell in a belt from Kansas and Nebraska to the 
northern Greak Lakes, with about a foot reported at points in northeastern Iowa 
and central Wisconsin. Snow still covers the ground from New England to the 
Cascades, with depths ranging from 6 inches to over a foot in the Great Lakes 
region and extreme northern Great Plains. (Summary supplied by U. S. Weather 
Bureau) . 



- 129 - 

CEREAL AND FORAGE INSECTS 

GREENBUG ( Toxoptera graminum ) - OKLAHOMA - Scattered and light (less than one per 
linear foot) in small grain fields in Bryan County. (VanCleave, Vick) . Light 
(0-10 per linear foot) and scattered in barley fields in Hennessy-Enid-Tonkawa 
area. (Henderson, Thompson). TEXAS - Caused slight damage in fields in Dallas 
County. (Burriss) . Averaged 1-5 per linear foot in fields in upper south plains 
and panhandle areas. (Daniels). No economic damage observed in fields checked 
in Rains, Van Zandt , Henderson, Anderson and Freestone Counties. (Hawkins). 
KANSAS - Not found on wheat in 4 south central counties nor in 2 southeastern 
counties. (Peters). 

APPLE GRAIN APHID ( Rhopalosiphum fitchii ) - OKLAHOMA - Averaged less than 5 per 
linear foot in small grain fields in Bryan County, with one isolated field with 
several hundred per linear foot. Averaged less than 3 per linear foot in Payne 
County. (VanCleave, Vick). 

ENGLISH GRAIN APHID ( Macrosiphum granarium ) - ARKANSAS - Averaged 5-10 per linear 
foot in thick oats, 4-6 inches tall. None were found in short, thin oats. (Ark. 
Ins. Rpt.) . 

CORN LEAF APHID ( Rhopalosiphum maidis ) - ARIZONA - Heavy in some fields of barley 
in northern Maricopa County. A field of branching-stage barley north of Peoria 
averaged 50 or more per plant. Medium on some grazed barley. (Ariz. Coop. Sur.) . 

WINTER GRAIN MITE ( Penthaleus major ) - OKLAHOMA - Scattered populations averaged 
25 per linear foot in small grain fields in Bryan County. (VanCleave, Vick). 
Populations light and scattered in barley fields in the Hennessy-Enid-Tonkawa 
area. One field, however, in the Enid area averaged over 200 per linear foot. 
(Henderson, Thompson). TEXAS - Caused heavy damage to oats in Dallas County. 
(Burriss). No economic damage observed in fields checked in Rains, Van Zandt, 
Henderson, Anderson and Freestone Counties. (Hawkins). 

DATE MITE ( Oligonychus pratensis ) - KANSAS - Numerous in some wheat fields in 
Gray and Clark Counties. (DePew) . 

GRASSHOPPERS - TEXAS - Limited egg survey in 12 panhandle counties showed egg 
pods to be in good condition with predators and natural enemies few. Survey 
was limited to cropland areas and road margins. (Russell et al . ) . 

A WIREWORM ( Conoderus sp.) - OKLAHOMA - Larvae averaged 1.5 per square foot 
in a wheat field in the Tonkawa area. (Henderson, Thompson). 

ALFALFA WEEVIL ( Hypera postica ) - NORTH CAROLINA - Eggs and larvae were found 
in early December at Raleigh. (Jones) . 

CLOVER LEAF WEEVIL ( Hypera punctata ) - ARKANSAS - Larvae averaged nearly one per 
linear foot in alfalfa and crimson clover in Washington County. (Ark. Ins. Rpt.). 

A CLOVER WEEVIL ( Hypera meles ) - ALABAMA - Present for the first time this 
year in Bullock and Autauga Counties. (Grimes). 

PEA APHID ( Macrosiphum pisi ) - ARKANSAS - Averaged less than one per linear 
foot on alfalfa in Washington County. None found on crimson clover. (Ark. 
Ins. Rpt.). ARIZONA - Infestations medium and increasing on alfalfa in Maricopa 
and Pinal Counties and in the Yuma area. (Ariz. Coop. Sur.). NEW MEXICO - Heavy 
and injured alfalfa near Artesia, Eddy County, and Roswell, Chaves County. 
Some growers treating. (N. M. Coop. Rpt.) . KANSAS - Found on alfalfa in 
Hodgeman and Butler Counties. (Peters). 



- 131 - 

SPOTTED ALFALFA APHID ( Therioaphis maculata ) - OKLAHOMA - Populations light, 
75 per square foot, in alfalfa 4-5 inches high, in Bryan County. (VanCleave, 
Vick) . Averaged 504 per square foot in some alfalfa fields in Payne County. 
(Ketner) . ARIZONA - Infestation averaged less than one per trifoliate leaf in 
10 alfalfa fields sampled in Maricopa County. Control not necessary. Infes- 
tations in Yuma area increased. (Ariz. Coop. Sur.). NEW MEXICO - Additional 
heavy infestations found in Chaves, Eddy and Dona Ana Counties. Some control 
measures being undertaken. (N. M. Coop. Rpt.) . KANSAS - Light populations in 
alfalfa fields in Barton, Pawnee, Hodgeman, Cowley and Butler Counties. (Peters) 

THREE-CORNERED ALFALFA HOPPER ( Spissistilus festinus ) - ARKANSAS - Only one 
adult found on alfalfa in Washington County. (Ark. Ins. Rpt.). ARIZONA - Few 
numbers still appearing in alfalfa as they have been all winter, but there 
is no sign of a buildup. (Ariz. Coop. Sur.) . 



FRUIT INSECTS 

CODLING MOTH ( Carpocapsa pomonella ) - NEW MEXICO - Overwintering larvae abun- 
dant in cocoons under bark on trunks of apple trees of many orchards in 
Bernalillo and Sandoval Counties. (N. M. Coop. Rpt.). 

CALIFORNIA PRIONUS ( Prionus calif ornicus ) - WASHINGTON - Half-grown and mature 
larvae taken from living cherry tree roots at Clarkston, Asotin County, January 8 
(Johansen) . 

Citrus Insect Situation, Lake Alfred, Florida, Second Week in February - 
PURPLE SCALE showed a slight increase in activity and an upward trend will 
prevail through March with some districts showing a high level next month. 
Activity of FLORIDA RED SCALE is unchanged. The general level will be high 
for several weeks with considerable variation among districts. CITRUS RED MITE 
activity increased slightly, with further increase expected. A high level will 
be reached by March. There was little change in CITRUS RUST MITE activity and it 
is not expected to deviate from current normal level during remainder of 
February. (Simanton, Thompson, Johnson, Feb. 16). 



TRUCK CROP INSECTS 

VEGETABLE WEEVIL ( Listroderes costirostris obliquus ) - LOUISIANA - Heavy on 
turnips in East Baton Rouge Parish. (Spink) . NORTH CAROLINA - Attacked newly- 
set lettuce in New Hanover County, February 9. (Baggett, Rabb) . 

YELLOW -MARGINED LEAF BEETLE ( Microtheca ochroloma ) - LOUISIANA - Heavy on 
turnips in East Baton Rouge Parish. (Spink) . 

DIAMONDBACK MOTH ( Plutella maculipennis ) - ARIZONA - Light on cabbage. (Ariz. 
Coop. Sur.) . 

CABBAGE APHID ( Brevicoryne brassicae ) - GEORGIA - Light to moderate on cabbage 
in Colquitt, Brooks and Lowndes Counties. (Johnson). 

ONION THRIPS ( Thrips tabaci ) - ARIZONA - Averaged one per plant on young onions 
in northern Maricopa County. (Ariz. Coop. Sur.). 



- 132 - 

TOBACCO INSECTS 

TOBACCO FLEA BEETLE ( Epitrix hirtipenais ) - GEORGIA - Light to moderate on 
tobacco in Brooks, Lowndes, Tattnall, Candler and Emanuel Counties. (Johnson). 

VEGETABLE WEEVIL ( Listroderes costirostris obliquus ) - GEORGIA - Light on 
tobacco in Tift, Colquitt, Brooks, Lowndes, Berrien, Coffee and Emanuel 
Counties and moderate in Bacon, Appling, Tattnall, Bulloch and Candler Counties. 
(Johnson) . 

POTATO TUBERWORM ( Gnorimoschema operculella ) - FLORIDA - Burrowing in leaves 
of tobacco plants at West Palm Beach, Palm Beach County. (Long, Messec) . 

YELLOW-STRIPED ARMYWORM ( Prodenia ornithogalli ) - FLORIDA - Larvae reported 
on tobacco at West Palm Beach, Palm Beach County. (Long, Messec). 

A NOCTUID ( Agrotis sp.) - FLORIDA - Larvae on tobacco plants at West Palm 
Beach, Palm Beach County. (Long, Messec) . 



COTTON INSECTS 

PINK BOLLWORM ( Pectinophora gossypiella ) - ARIZONA - Inspection of a plowed 
infested field in the Solomon area of Graham County showed 2 live and 8 dead 
larvae from seed cotton on top of the ground which was not covered by 
plowing. (Ariz. Coop. Sur.). 



FOREST, ORNAMENTAL AND SHADE TREE INSECTS 

A FIR LOOPER ( Galenara consimilis ) - NEW MEXICO - Defoliated Douglas-fir and 
white fir on Capitan Mountain, Lincoln National Forest, during December 1958. 
Defoliation occurred on about 1,500 acres, being heavy on 600. (N. M. Coop. Rpt.) 

DOUGLAS-FIR TUSSOCK MOTH ( Hemerocampa pseudotsugata ) - NEW MEXICO - New outbreak 
found during December, 1958, on Capitan Mountain in same area damaged by a 
fir looper ( Galenara consimilis ) . Separation of damage by these two insects 
was impossible. (N. M. Coop. Rpt.). 

A BARK BEETLE ( Phloesinus cristatus ) - CALIFORNIA - Heavy on cypress trees at 
Friant Park, Fresno County"! (Cal . Coop. Rpt.). 

A GALL APHID (Chermes tsugae ) - VIRGINIA - Caused considerable damage to 
hemlocks in Richmond area, and appears to be increasing. Also found on 
Colorado blue spruce. (Freund) . 

A WHITEFLY ( Trialeurodes bellissima ) - CALIFORNIA - Light on coast live oak 
at Brentwood, Los Angeles County. (Cal. Coop. Rpt.). 

SCALE INSECTS - CALIFORNIA - Fiorinia fioriniae heavy on climbing ivy at 
La Jolla and camellia at Point Loma in San Diego County. Aspidiotus hederae 
locally heavy on acuba leaves at Hamilton City, Glenn County. Chrysomphalus 
dictyospermi collected on orange, rose and loquat at Santa Paula, Ventura 
County. This is only known locality in State where this scale persistently 
infests rose and citrus. (Cal. Coop. Rpt.). 



- 133 - 

INSECTS AFFECTING MAN AND ANIMALS 

CATTLE GRUBS ( Hypoderma spp.) - NEW MEXICO - Counts averaged 6-30 per head in 
many herds of range cattle throughout the State. Specimens collected from 
3 southern counties have been identified as H. lineatum . (N. M. Coop. Rpt.). 
UTAH - Numerous in cattle, especially younger animals, in Kane County. 
(Knowlton) . NORTH CAROLINA - None found in 228 head in 3 counties. Not a 
problem in native cattle in Iredell County and less than one percent infested 
in 298 head in Cleveland County. (Miller et al.) . No infestations found in 
several herds in Richmond County, except in recently acquired animals. (Goodman) 

CATTLE LICE - NEW MEXICO - Many moderate to heavy infestations reported on 
range cattle in southern counties. (N. M. Coop. Rpt.) . UTAH - Becoming problem 
in cattle herds in several counties. (Knowlton, Lindsey) . 

DOG FOLLICLE MITE ( Demodex canis) - NORTH CAROLINA - Seven cases reported to 
State Veterinarian in January . (Cooperrider) . 



STORED-PRODUCT INSECTS 

BROWN SPIDER BEETLE ( Ptinus clavipes ) - CALIFORNIA - Medium in stored barley 
at Anderson, Shasta County, and in stored grain at Fresno, Fresno County. 
(Cal. Coop. Rpt.) . 



BENEFICIAL INSECTS 

PREDATORS - ARKANSAS - Geocoris punctipes active February 11, a warm day, in 
alfalfa, crimson clover and oats. Averaged less than one per 2 linear feet. 
(Ark. Ins. Rpt.). ARIZONA - Eleven fields sampled in Maricopa and Pinal Counties 
showed an average of 46 percent of spotted alfalfa aphid population parasitized 
by Trioxys utilis . (Ariz. Coop. Sur.) . 



MISCELLANEOUS INSECTS 

AN ANT ( Cardiocondyla nuda minutior) - CALIFORNIA - Collected in the State for 
the first time in San Diego, San Diego County, September 8, 1958. 
Det. M. R. Smith. (Cal. Coop. Rpt.). 

EASTERN SUBTERRANEAN TERMITE ( Reticulitermes flavipes ) - NORTH CAROLINA - Swarmed 
in a church in Wake County. (Jones, Farrier). 



CORRECTION 

CEIR 9(8): 106 - Distribution of alfalfa weevil should be statewide for 
Connecticut. Remaining counties were found infested during 1957. 



134 - 



LIGHT TRAP COLLECTIONS 



FLORIDA 

Gainesville 2/11-17 
Quincy 2/3-9 

LOUISIANA 

Baton Rouge 2/6-19 
Franklin 2/5-15 



Pseudaletia 
unipuncta 



Agrotis 
ypsilon 



Feltia Prodenia 
subterranea ornithogalli 



73 

7 



41 
6 



86 
9 



53 
9 



SOUTH CAROLINA 

Charleston 2/16-22 



15 



- 135 - 

SUMMARY OF INSECT CONDITIONS - 1958 

WASHINGTON 

Prepared by C . A. Johansen* 

Highlights: The winter of 1957-58 was unusually mild, allowing greater popula- 
tions of certain insects to overwinter. WOOLLY APPLE APHID colonies survived 
on aerial growth, PEA APHID and GREEN PEACH APHID eggs were hatching in January, 
PEAR PSYLLA winter adults were active by the first part of February. Above 
normal rainfall during the spring in western Washington encouraged SLUGS. 
Unusually high temperatures of summer caused a considerable increase in 
"southern" pests, some of which are normally minor. VARIEGATED CUTWORM, 
CABBAGE LOOPER and ALFALFA LOOPER were especially abundant. CORN EARWORM 
and COLORADO POTATO BEETLE epidemics in the central part of the State were 
the most serious in many years. CODLING MOTH attained a nearly complete third 
generation in some areas. SPOTTED ALFALFA APHID and SHALLOT APHID ( Myzus 
ascalonicus ) were recorded for the first time in the State. 

Cereal and Forage Insects : The first colonies of CLOVER APHID (Anuraphis 
baker i ) were observed on red clover near Quincy in early June, up to 79 per 
10 heads were counted by July and 500 per 10 heads in mid-July. These moderate 
infestations caused up to 14.5 percent reduction in seed yields estimated at 
$10,500 in eastern Washington with an additional $2,900 being spent on controls. 
CLOVER ROOT BORER ( Hylastinus obscurus) infested up to 100 percent of the red 
clover seed fields in Lewis County; up to 5 or 6 larvae per tap root. The 
estimated loss to clover seed in the western area was $10,100. CLOVER SEED 
CHALCID ( Bruchophagus gibbus ) adult populations were up to 35 per 25 sweeps in 
red clover near Quincy by late June; 75 per 25 sweeps by mid-July. The esti- 
mated loss to clover seed in the eastern area was $12,200. CORN LEAF APHID 
( Rhopalosiphum maidis ) , though normally rare in Washington, was abundant on 
barley all season and may have been associated with the first serious cereal 
yellow dwarf epidemic in the eastern part of the State which occurred in 1958. 
This species was also collected in the western area on sorghum during the 
summer and on barley in the fall. ENGLISH GRAIN APHID ( Macrosiphum granarium ) 
populations were above normal on winter wheat in Walla Walla and Whitman 
Counties during April and May and appeared to be the primary source of cereal 
yellow dwarf epidemic in the eastern part of the State. This aphid dropped 
to low populations during the rest of the season. Many fields of barley, 
averaging several hundred acres each, were a complete loss in the eastern area 
because of cereal yellow dwarf. This disease was also very damaging to oats 
in the western part of the State as usual. 

GRASS PESTS - Severe damage to grass grown for seed in Spokane County by 

Cr ambus topiarius and Chionodes psiloptera occurred in unprotected fields 

during late August and early September. LYGUS BUGS ( Lygus elisus and 

L. hesperus ) were more abundant and generally more damaging on alfalfa than 

in previous years, apparently because of warmer weather conditions. Population 

peaks occurred in late July (154 per 25 sweeps) and early September (101 per 

25 sweeps) in untreated plots in the lower Yakima Valley. PEA APHID 

( Macrosiphum pisi ) population peaks in alfalfa raised for seed in the lower 

Yakima Valley were 392 per 25 sweeps in late July and 251 per 25 sweeps in 

mid-August. As usual, this level did not cause observable damage. The 

heaviest populations in several years, 125 per 100 tips, were on alfalfa in 

the Walla Walla area during April. SPOTTED ALFALFA APHID ( Therioaphis maculata ) 

was recorded for the first time in Washington in Yakima, Benton, Walla Walla 



* Cooperators: United States Department of Agriculture, Extension Service, 
Experiment Station personnel, Field personnel. 



- 136 - 

and Asotin Counties during September and October. Surveys showed only one field 
with injury, but no economic loss. Aphids were still living on alfalfa at the 
end of the year. TWO-SPOTTED SPIDER MITE ( Tetranychus telarius ) was moderate 
to heavy in red clover during May and June near Quincy. SWEETCLOVER WEEVIL 
(Sitona cylindricollis ) damaged sweetclover in Whitman County during May. 
Considerable acreage of sweetclover was plowed up during early June because of 
damage. Future of the crop for green manure in the eastern area of the State 
is doubtful. 

Tree Fruit Insects : APPLE APHID ( Aphis pomi ) winter eggs started hatching up to 
7 days earlier than usual, about mid-April in the Pullman area. Damaging numbers 
built up in late June in the Wenatchee area, but were successfully controlled. 
BLACK PEACH APHID ( Anuraphis persicae-niger ) damaged two-year-old peach trees in 
the Yakima Valley during late February. WOOLLY APPLE APHID (Eriosoma lanigerum ) 
adults and nymphs lived through the winter on apple limbs at Pullman. This pest 
was less damaging in the central area than it has been for several years. A 
BRYOBIA MITE ( Bryobia rubrioculus ) * appeared 1 to 2 weeks earlier, April 8, than 
previously on apples at Pullman. Hot weather kept populations down. EUROPEAN 
RED MITE ( Panonychus ulmi ) populations were moderate on stone and pome fruits 
in Yakima and Wenatchee areas during May. Infestations increased to heavy 
during hot weather of July and caused severe damage in many eastern orchards 
during August. ERIOPHYID MITES ( Vasates schlechtendali and V. fockeui ) were 
heavy on apple and cherry trees in Asotin County by late July. V. schlechtendali 
was abundant in the Wenatchee area and on nursery stock near Prosser by late 
season. PEAR LEAF BLISTER MITE ( Eriophyes pyri ) oviposition was observed in the 
Wenatchee area on March 4. Severe infestations occurred on pears in the 
Wenatchee and Chelan areas and heavy damage resulted in the Quincy area to 
young trees. Winter forms began migrating to pear buds in early July, becoming 
numerous in late August. 

CODLING MOTH ( Carpocapsa pomonella ) caused more injury to apples and pears in 
1958 than in recent years. The first-brood attack occurred before application 
of the first cover in many cases. The length of each generation was consider- 
ably shortened by hot weather and a nearly complete third generation was 
obtained in the central area. Bait traps in the Yakima Valley showed more 
moths flying during mid-summer than during the previous 12 years, twice as many 
being trapped as in 1957. A low level of resistance to DDT has developed in 
many areas and was especially noticeable this season when weather conditions 
were ideal for development. ORIENTAL FRUIT MOTH ( Grapholitha molesta ) was 
restricted to an area in the Yakima Valley north of the Yakima River between 
Parker Heights and Zillah. Damage to fruit was negligible and infestations 
were scarce. A PARASITE ( Macrocentrus ancylivorus ) was released at several 
locations where oriental fruit moth and strawberry leaf roller existed. PEACH 
TWIG BORER ( Anarsia lineatella ) larvae damaged tips of peach twigs at Wawawai 
by April 2. Damage was lighter than in 1957 in the eastern area. PEAR PSYLLA 
( Psylla pyricola ) overwintered adults were active on pears during early February, 
oviposited by early March, but the heavy spring buildup was controlled in most 
orchards. This pest was not severe during the hot summer; however, some local- 
ized populations persisted even after standard treatments in the Yakima and 
Wenatchee areas during mid-September. SAN JOSE SCALE (Aspidiotus perniciosus ) 
caused severe damage to cherry trees in the Wenatchee and Chelan areas. An 80 
percent winter survival was recorded in March. Adults of WESTERN CHERRY 
FRUIT FLY ( Rhagoletis cingulata indif ferens ) were first trapped at Prosser on 
May 16. An untreated check orchard had 33 percent "wormy" fruit at harvest, 
indicating a potentially bad year; however, controls were successful. 



* Van Eyndhoven, G. L. 1956. Ent. Bereich. 16:45-46. Also 
known as Bryobia arborea in Canada. 



- 137 - 

Small Fruit Insects : CYCLAMEN MITE ( Steneotarsonemus pallidus ) caused injury 
to strawberry plants in Puyallup area during the early spring and in Clark 
County by early June. ROSE LEAFHOPPER ( Edwardsiana rosae ) nymphs were abundant 
and damaging to blackberry in the Puyallup Valley during May. SHALLOT APHID 
( Myzus ascalonicus ) was recorded in Washington for the first time on straw- 
berries during April. Serious infestations were found in Whatcom, Skagit, 
Snohomish, Island and Lewis Counties during the spring. None were found in 
fall surveys. SLUGS ( Deroceras reticulatum and Arion ater ) heavily damaged 
strawberries in the Puyallup Valley and in the Vancouver area, seriously 
reducing yields. STRAWBERRY LEAF ROLLER ( Ancylis comptana fragariae ) damaged 
strawberries in Thurston and Cowlitz Counties during July. WEEVILS 
( Brachyrhinus ovatus , B. sulcatus and B. rugosostriatus ) were only a problem 
in brushy areas where Nemocestes incomptus is prevalent. Control of the latter 
species continues to be difficult in Whatcom and Snohomish Counties. TWO-SPOTTED 
SPIDER MITE was active on raspberry by early April in the Puyallup Valley and 
caused severe damage during August and September in the Puget Sound area. 

Truck Crop Insects : ALFALFA LOOPER ( Autographa californica ) and VARIEGATED 
CUTWORM (Peridroma margaritosa ) adults were more abundant than normal in light 
traps at Walla Walla during May and June. The worst ALFALFA LOOPER outbreak 
since 1900 occurred in the western part of the State, and together with 
VARIEGATED CUTWORM and CABBAGE LOOPER ( Trichoplusia ni ) caused severe damage 
to ornamentals and vegetables. CABBAGE LOOPER, usually rare in the southeastern 
area, developed high populations. Controls were required on peas, spinach and 
lettuce. BEET ARMYWORM ( Laphygma exigua )moth flights were very heavy from the 
south during September. Total light trap catches at Walla Walla were in the 
hundreds as compared with 1-12 per season normally; however, very little damage 
occurred in the southeastern area. CARROT RUST FLY ( Psila rosae ) resisted all 
standard controls and caused 160 acres in the Samish Valley to go out of carrot 
production. Moderate infestations of BEAN APHID ( Aphis fabae ) developed in the 
northwestern area by mid-August , but was practically nonexistent in the central 
area in contrast to their great abundance in 1957. BEET LEAFHOPPER ( Circulifer 
tenellus ) spring surveys to determine overwintered females showed a mean of 
0.27 per square foot, which was about the same as in 1957. The largest light 
trap catch of the season was in late June at Walla Walla. There was much less 
curly top than in 1957. Observed predation by Geocoris of winter females in 
February may have been helpful. COLORADO POTATO BEETLE ( Leptinotarsa 
decemlineata ) winter adults and eggs were unusually abundant in the Columbia 
Basin and the Yakima Valley. This pest became damaging by late May, severe by 
late July and completely defoliated large areas of potato fields in the Columbia 
Basin by early August. More than two broods developed. CORN EARWORM ( Heliothis 
zea ) was epidemic in the Yakima Valley. The severest damage in 12 years occurred 
by late July. Black light trap catches for 4 traps during July, August and 
September in the Toppenish area were 103,506 compared with 1955-57 average of 
6,261. Estimated losses are $300,000 to field corn, $50,000 damage and $20,000 
control cost on sweet corn, $5,000 damage and $5,000 control cost to market 
corn, $2,000 damage and $500 control cost on lima beans. Heavy damage also 
occurred to sweet corn near Quincy and in the Walla Walla area and as much as 
10 percent loss of hop yards was reported throughout the Yakima Valley. Loss 
to hops was estimated at $5,000 and control costs at $1,000. CORN EARWORM was 
also a pest of tomatoes, peppers, alfalfa and garden crops not normally attacked 
in the State. The worst EUROPEAN EARWIG ( Forf icula auricularia ) epidemic since 
1955 occurred in the Pullman area. GARDEN SYMPHYLID ( Scutigerella immaculata ) 
severely damaged corn in Pacific County in June. White River Valley and Pacific 
County are new infestation records. GREAT BASIN WIREWORM ( Ctenicera pruinina 
noxia ) was at a minimum in the Columbia Basin because fields in truck crops are 
soil treated. SUGAR-BEET WIREWORM ( Limonius californicus ) damaged several 
fields of sugar beet seedlings in the Walla Walla area during the spring. 
GREEN PEACH APHID ( Myzus persicae ) eggs started hatching about January 31 . 



- 138 - 

Moderate infestations required treatments on potatoes in Grant County by early 
July and were more abundant than usual on tomatoes near Yakima. Fall migrants 
were first observed on peach in October, 7-10 days later than normal. For the 
first time in more than 10 years, no visible GREEN PEACH APHID damage was 
observed on potatoes in the central area. A LEAFHOPPER ( Empoasca f ilamenta ) 
developed the heaviest population in several years on potatoes in Kittitas 
County; moderate damage occurred by late August. A WHITEFLY ( Aleyrodes 
spiraeoides ) was active during most of the winter in the Union Gap area. 
Moderate populations developed by late August on potatoes, red clover and 
weeds in Kittitas County and the Columbia Basin and later became extremely 
abundant on late potatoes. MILLIPEDES severely damaged potato tubers at 
Medical Lake. ONION MAGGOT ( Hylemya antiqua) emergence began during February 
and March in the Walla Walla area. Populations were lower than usual during 
May and damage to onions by July was negligible. In the Moses Lake area, 
greater damage to onions was reported. In this area, 40 acres were not 
harvested, 200 acres with 50-75 percent loss in the field and 40 acres culled 
at harvest. SEED-CORN MAGGOT ( Hylemya cilicrura ) adults were trapped in 
slightly greater numbers than in 1957. No damage was observed on onions, 
spinach, carrots or lettuce. PEA APHID ( Macrosiphum pisi ) eggs started 
hatching in late January, two weeks earlier than usual in the Walla Walla 
area. Controls were required for the first time on early peas in the Yakima 
Valley. In the Walla Walla area, the highest populations since 1954 were 
recorded on peas during June and July. Most of the processing peas were 
treated at an estimated cost of $300,000 to $350,000. Heavy populations of 
PEA WEEVIL ( Bruchus pisorum) were observed in Whitman and Yakima Counties in 
May. Controls were applied. TWO-SPOTTED SPIDER MITE ( Tetranychus telarius ) 
caused widespread and heavy damage to beans, potatoes, sweet corn and sugar 
beets in the Columbia Basin during late July, August and September, especially 
at Othello. Heavy infestations of WHITE GRUBS ( Phyllophaga spp.) were found 
in bean fields near Moses Lake during May. 

Forest, Ornamental and Shade Tree Insects : FLEA BEETLES ( Altica spp.) defoli- 
ated trees and shrubs in Lincoln, Asotin and Whitman Counties and throughout 
the northeastern area. BALSAM WOOLLY APHID ( Chermes piceae ) severely damaged 
firs, especially Pacific silver fir, in Gifford Pinchot National Forest and 
St. Helens tree farms. COTTONY MAPLE SCALE ( Pulvinaria vitis) was abundant on 
silver maple in Whitman County. ELM LEAF BEETLE ( Galerucella xanthomelaena ) 
adults severely damaged elms in many eastern localities in late June, July and 
August. FALL WEBWORM ( Hyphantria cunea ) was common on poplars and peaches in 
the Wenatchee area during raid-August and slight damage to deciduous trees 
occurred in Pierce County in August, much earlier than usual. A SPIDER MITE 
( Eo tetranychus lewisi ) was found on poinsettia in several greenhouses in the 
Puget Sound area, a new record for the State. Controls were successful, only 
about $450 damage occurred. NARCISSUS BULB FLY (Lampetia equestris ) populations 
were high in 1958. Infestations averaged 59 percent compared with 15 percent 
in 1955-57. TENT CATERPILLARS ( Malacosoma pluviale and M. disstria ) eggs began 
hatching the first of April in Puget Sound and were 5-10 times as abundant as 
in 1957 in localized areas of King County by mid-May. SLUGS ( Deroceras 
reticulatum and Arion ater) damaged lilies, delphiniums and other ornamentals 
during March in the western area. 

Insects Affecting Man and Animals : CATTLE GRUBS ( Hypoderma lineatum and 
H. bovis ) were particularly abundant in southeastern and south central areas. 
A SARC0PHAGID ( Wohlfahrtia opaca ) began parasitizing mink kits in late May and 
damage was somewhat heavier than usual on most mink ranches in the Spokane area. 
Moderate numbers of a MOSQUITO, Aedes nigromaculis , were found in Franklin and 
Benton County irrigation areas during August. Populations of another MOSQUITO, 
Culex tarsalis , were rather high in uncontrolled areas of the Columbia Basin by 
late summer. 



- 139 - 

Stored-product Insects : KHAPRA BEETLE ( Tro go derma granarium ) was found in a 
shipment of rice from Pakistan at a Tacoma dock on September 17. Successful 
eradication measurers were applied to the ship hold and a railroad shipment 
that was sent to Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada, by Plant Quarantine and 
Canadian officials, respectively. Stored-grain insects were more common than in 
the preceding storage season and damage was probably greater. Common pests were 
SAW-TOOTHED GRAIN BEETLE ( Oryzaephilus surinamensis ) , RED FLOUR BEETLE ( Tribolium 
castaneum )and RUSTY GRAIN BEETLE ( Laemophloeus f errugineus ) . The average cost 
for controlling insects in commercially stored wheat in Washington was estimated 
at $186,055. Inspections of seed establishments and feed mills showed 
Trogoderma glabrum , Attagenus piceus , Dermestes lardarius and Megatoma sp. 
apparently more abundant than in previous years. 

Beneficial Insects : PAINTED-LADY ( Vanessa cardui) adults were very abundant 
during the spring and summer in the eastern area. Larvae helped control Canada 
thistle, especially where weed killers were used. LADY BEETLES ( Stethorus 
picipes and Hippodamia convergens ) were active in apple orchards in February 
and together with SYRPHIDS were controlling apple aphids on young trees in the 
Wenatchee area during July. PREDATORS in red clover seed fields of the Columbia 
Basin attained population peaks as follows: Chrysopa spp. , early July; Nabis 
alternatus , mid-July; Geocoris pallens and Hippodamia convergens , late July; 
Orius tristicolor , early August. PREDATORS in alfalfa seed fields of the lower 
Yakima Valley reached population peaks as follows: Chrysopa spp., uniform with 
slight peak early August; Nabis alternatus , early July; Geocoris pallens and 
Hippodamia convergens , late July; Orius tristicolor , early August. A PENTATOMID 
( Perillus bioculatus ) was observed preying on Colorado potato beetle larvae at 
Othello, Adams County. PREDACEOUS MITES - Typhlodromus occidentalis became very 
abundant, feeding on two-spotted spider mite and rust mites on tree fruits in 
the Wenatchee area and T. f allacis and T. marinus were common on two-spotted 
spider mite in red clover in the Columbia Basin. T. cucumeris reached a peak 
population the second week of September in the lower Yakima Valley on alfalfa 
and Tydeus sp. peaked in mid-August. A PARASITE ( Aphelinus lapisligni ) parasi- 
tized about 25 percent of the clover aphid by late July. Unusually heavy field 
mouse populations caused up to 80 percent loss of ALKALI BEE ( Nomia melanderi ) 
larvae in Walla Walla, Benton and Yakima Counties during early spring. BUMBLE 
BEES ( Bombus spp.) were moderate in red clover seed fields in Lewis County, best 
fields having less than one-half as many as in 1957. HONEY BEE ( Apis mellifera ) 
pollination of trees, fruits and red clover seed was good. A record crop of 
5,141,000 pounds of honey was produced in 1958 which is 38 percent greater than 
the 1947-56 average. 



SUMMARY OF INSECT CONDITIONS' - 1958 

IDAHO 

Compiled by A. R. Gittins 

Highlights : ALFALFA WEEVIL damage was generally considerably below that of 
1957. Of approximately 690,781 acres of alfalfa grown for hay in 1958, it is 
estimated that some 636,778 acres were infested with a 19.5 percent loss, 
valued at $1,437,716. BEET LEAFHOPPER continued to be a major problem due to 
transmission of curly top virus to sugar beets and tomatoes. Incidence of the 
virus was the highest yet recorded in certain eastern counties. CORN EARWORM 
was considerably above average in 1958, being especially heavy in the Boise 
Valley. DOUGLAS-FIR BEETLE populations were considerably above those of 1957. 
ONION MAGGOT continued as a problem in the Boise Valley with fairly severe 
infestations in local areas. SPOTTED ALFALFA APHID was collected in the State 
in mid-October when adults were taken in alfalfa fields in Nez Perce County. 



- 140 - 

WESTERN CHERRY FRUIT FLY spread into Canyon and Gem Counties during the summer 
for the first time. 

Cereal and Forage Insects : ALFALFA WEEVIL ( Hypera postica ) egg masses first 
appeared in early April. Larval populations were generally low during April 
and May with light damage to first-cutting alfalfa and increased during late 
May, with heavy damage in some untreated fields near Grangeville. Damage was 
generally much below that of 1957. Large numbers of ALFALFA LOOPER ( Autographa 
californica ) adults appeared in Caldwell during mid-May. Larvae became gener- 
ally abundant on clovers in Latah, Clearwater, Lewis, Nez Perce and Idaho 
Counties during early June. Light damage occurred in northern Kootenai Valley 
area mint fields during early July. Adults of a CLOVER BUD CATERPILLAR 
( Grapholitha conversana ) became active by May 2 in northern areas. By early 
June, infestations had spread over a wide area bounded by Grangeville, Deary, 
Lewiston and Stites. Severe damage to over 700 acres of clover near Grangeville 
caused 90 percent reduction in seed yields. Half -grown larvae of CLOVER LEAF 
WEEVIL ( Hypera punctata ) were generally distributed in southwestern alfalfa and 
red clover fields by early April. Damage was moderate to alfalfa near Weiser 
and larval feeding damage in red clover was severe near Kendrick in late 
April. CLOVER ROOT CURCULIO (Sitona hispidula ) adults were active in most 
alfalfa from Jerome to Weiser during April, but became abundant in this area 
and in Latah and Nez Perce Counties later; however, populations declined 
rapidly. Larval feeding damage was generally moderate. 

CLOVER SEED WEEVIL ( Miccotrogus picirostris ) adults were extremely abundant 
(exceeding 50 per sweep) in clover-grass pastures near Chilco, Kootenai County, 
but averaged 5-10 per sweep elsewhere in northern counties during May. CORN 
EARWORM ( Heliothis zea ) infestations were considerably above those of 1957, 
especially in the Boise Valley. Approximately 20 percent of commercial sweet 
corn ears were infested during late summer in southwestern areas. Some home 
gardens had up to 100 percent ear infestation. CUTWORMS caused considerable 
damage to young corn in the Melba area during early June. Larval populations 
were light to heavy in southern alfalfa and clover fields. ENGLISH GRAIN APHID 
( Macrosiphum granarium ) populations were low in spring-sown grain fields of 
Bonner and Boundary Counties, apparently due to very high predator activity. 
Heavy damage occurred to some late-planted barley in Latah, Nez Perce and Lewis 
Counties. Approximately 75 per head on spring-planted wheat were counted in 
Lewis County, but this level dropped drastically by mid-July. Late barley in 
Idaho Falls was severely infested during early August. Approximately 71,580 
acres were treated for GRASSHOPPERS during 1958. Populations were generally 
below those of 1957 with less damage. Melanoplus mexicanus and M. bivittatus 
were the most important species. LYGUS BUG adults were active in most alfalfa 
during early April, but overwintering populations were very low in southern 
counties during late April. Nymphs averaged as high as 20 per sweep in northern 
Canyon County red clover during early May. Counts were also high in northern 
counties. Populations increased in alfalfa seed fields in western Franklin 
County and nymphal and adult populations remained high throughout southern 
counties during late July and August. A very large nymphal population (up to 
120 per sweep) developed in third-cutting alfalfa in Canyon County during early 
September. PEA APHID ( Macrosiphum pisi ) adults became active in alfalfa fields 
as early as March 28 in Canyon County, but populations were generally low during 
April and early May throughout the State, apparently due to predators. Coloni- 
zation began in early May in southern alfalfa fields. Populations were far 
below normal in northern alfalfa fields during May, but increased in mid-June. 
Populations again declined in late July in northern counties due to buildup of 
predators and a fungus disease. A very large population developed in an alfalfa 
seed field in Canyon County during early August with counts of 2,630-19,450 per 
sweep and another very heavy population developed as late as October 24 in an 
alfalfa field in Hagerman Valley near Gooding. SPOTTED ALFALFA APHID 
( Therioaphis maculata ) was collected during mid-October in alfalfa fields in 
Nez Perce County south and east of Lewiston. Populations were generally low. 



- 141 - 

Fruit Insects : APPLE AND THORN SKELETONIZER ( Anthophila pariana ) was very 
heavy in apple orchards in Bonner and Boundary Counties, some trees showing 
one-third of foliage skeletonized during early June. BLACK CHERRY APHID 
( Myzus cerasi ) infestations were generally low and caused little damage 
throughout the State. First record for BLACK CHERRY FRUIT FLY ( Rhagoletis 
f austa ) in the Twin Falls area was obtained during early June. CODLING MOTH 
( Carpocapsa pomonella ) was unusually heavy in the Moscow area and normal 
treatments did not prevent infestations. Little damage was reported from other 
areas in the State. Unsprayed apple trees suffered extensive terminal bud 
damage from EYE-SPOTTED BUD MOTH ( Spilonota ocellana ) in the Moscow area. A few 
infestations of FOREST TENT CATERPILLAR ( Ma'lacosoma disstria ) developed on fruit 
trees in the Sandpoint area during early June. FRUIT TREE LEAF ROLLER ( Archips 
argyrospila ) infestations were generally low throughout the State. GREEN PEACH 
APHID ( Myzus persicae ) populations greatly exceeded those of 1957 in the Idaho 
Falls area with 15-40 percent of trees infested. Elsewhere, populations were 
more normal. A heavy infestation of IMPORTED CURRANTWORM ( Nematus ribesii ) 
developed on gooseberries in gardens at Parma and caused about two-thirds 
defoliation. Severe infestations of PEAR LEAF BLISTER MITE ( Eriophyes pyri ) 
developed on pears in several areas where dormant controls were omitted. 
Infestations were generally higher throughout the State than in previous years. 
Approximately 90 percent of the leaves were infested in one orchard near 
Fruitland. SAN JOSE SCALE ( Aspidiotus perniciosus ) was relatively unimportant 
except for one heavy infestation that caused considerable damage to cherry trees 
in the Caldwell area. TWO-SPOTTED SPIDER MITE ( Tetranychus telarius ) caused 
moderate to severe damage to small fruits in southern areas. Large populations 
developed on apple in the Idaho Falls area. WALNUT APHID ( Chromaphis 
juglandicola ) populations were extremely large on black walnut in Parma and 
Payette during mid-July. WESTERN CHERRY FRUIT FLY ( Rhagoletis cingulata 
indif ferens ) was recorded for the first time from Canyon and Gem Counties, 
during 1958. Approximately 25-30 percent of cherries examined in Canyon County 
were "wormy." First adults were taken in the Weiser area May 20 and strong 
populations had developed by mid-June. Backyard trees in Nampa were generally 
infested. YELLOW-NECKED CATERPILLAR (Datana ministra ) caused moderate defolia- 
tion of apple trees in Boise, Lewiston and Moscow areas. 

Truck Crop Insects : ASPARAGUS BEETLE (Crioceris asparagi) adults appeared in 
large numbers in commercial asparagus fields during late May in Owyhee County 
and large populations developed in Twin Falls area. Damage was minor. BEET 
LEAFHOPPER ( Circulifer tenellus ) populations remained generally high throughout 
the summer. Large migration of adults reached the south central area during 
May, apparently borne by winds from southern Nevada breeding areas . Populations in 
sugar beet fields in western Twin Falls increased 100-fold May 19-23, doubled 
May 23-26 and averaged over 13 per square foot by the end of May. Adverse 
weather conditions during early June greatly reduced adult populations in 
Canyon County from 50 per plant to 3 per plant. Populations in south central 
Idaho remained stable during June but increased greatly during July as nymphs 
appeared. Incidence of curly top on sugar beets and tomatoes was highest ever 
reported from Franklin County. Summer brood matured during late July in 
south central counties. Populations remained high during August with fields 
of sugar beets in Franklin, Minidoka and Cassia Counties showing 3 percent 
incidence of curly top. Studies made in bean fields during July near Rupert, 
Burley, Twin Falls and Jerome showed virus incidence ranging 0-44 percent, 
with an over-all average of 6.6 percent. Beans planted prior to May 28 
showed higher damage than those planted later. Some bean fields in Twin Falls 
area were plowed up due to curly top. First outbreak of BEET WEBWORM ( Loxostege 
sticticalis ) occurred in Franklin County during early June and rapidly spread 
north to Rigby and west to Twin Falls. All stages were present, with adults 
predominating in the northern sector of infestation. By early July, beet 
fields near St. Anthony showed considerable feeding damage. In general, damage 
caused by first-generation larvae was considerably under that anticipated even 
though counts were far above normal. Second-generation feeding damage was 
relatively minor. CABBAGE SEEDP0D WEEVIL ( Ceutorhynchus assimilis ) overwintering 



- 142 - 

adults became active by late April in Latah and Nez Perce Counties. Damage was 
relatively minor during the summer. COLORADO POTATO BEETLE ( Leptinotarsa 
decemlineata ) adults first appeared in mid-May in the Moscow area. Activity 
was rather general throughout south central' and eastern counties during early 
June. In general, activity was above that of previous few years, but damage 
was spotted and relatively light except where controls were neglected. GREEN 
PEACH APHID ( Myzus persicae) infestations of commercial potato fields in Idaho 
Falls area began in early August with an average of one per 8 leaves. Later 
in the month light infestations developed in Butte, Caribou and Fremont Counties. 
Caribou County populations ran as high as three per leaf. Potato seed fields 
from the Grace-Ashton-Teton Basin area were infested by early September. 
SYRPHID FLY populations in the Ashton area partially controlled infestations 
later in September. 

Populations of a LEAFHOPPER ( Empoasca f ilamenta ) gradually increased as summer 
advanced with greatest numbers in commercial potato fields in the eastern area. 
Relatively few reports of severe feeding damage were received. Severe larval- 
feeding damage by IMPORTED CABBAGEWORM ( Pieris rapae ) occurred in commercial 
cabbage in Franklin County during August, with moderate damage elsewhere. 
LESSER BULB FLY ( Eumerus tuberculatus ) larvae infested overwintering onions 
as early as mid-March, but populations generally remained low. ONION MAGGOT 
( Hylemya antiqua) adults became active in southwestern areas during mid-March. 
Emergence increased, and by late April populations reached economic levels in 
certain southwestern areas. An occasional field in the southwestern area showed 
severe damage. Damage in the Twin Falls area was approximately 30 percent and 
many fields in this area were plowed up; heavy reduction of stands occurred. 
In general, however, 1958 populations were below those of 1957 with less damage 
occurring. POTATO APHID ( Macrosiphum solanifolii ) populations were generally 
higher in 1958 than in previous years, but increased activity of predators and 
parasites reduced populations by late August so that damage was relatively 
moderate. PEA APHID ( Macrosiphum pisi ) became active during late March, but 
was generally low during April and May due to moderately high predator popula- 
tions. Populations in Nez Perce and Latah Counties were far lower during early 
June than in 1957, but built up rapidly during late June and early July on peas 
and lentils and again dropped during July due to a fungus disease and predators. 
RED-BACKED CUTWORM (Euxoa ochrogaster ) caused moderate damage to sugar beets in 
eastern Jerome County, with sufficient defoliation to require control during 
mid-May. SPINACH LEAF MINER ( Pegomya hyoscyami ) became abundant in all sugar 
beet fields checked from Twin Falls eastward by late June, with extensive damage 
to lower leaves. An estimated 50 percent of eggs were viable. SPOTTED ASPARAGUS 
BEETLE ( Crioceris duodecimpunctata ) caused considerable damage to asparagus 
shoots in home gardens in Moscow and Twin Falls. SUGAR-BEET ROOT MAGGOT 
( Tetanops myopaeformis ) caused moderate damage to sugar beet fields near 
St. Anthony. TWO-SPOTTED SPIDER MITE ( Tetranychus telarius ) caused minor to 
heavy damage to potato fields near Idaho Falls and caused moderate damage to 
pole beans in Franklin County. WESTERN BLACK FLEA BEETLE ( Phyllotreta pusilla ) 
adults were severe on beets and radishes in Minidoka and Cassia Counties, with 
heavy damage in some fields during mid-May. High, above normal, populations 
continued through June in potato fields in southeastern counties. WESTERN POTATO 
FLEA BEETLE ( Epitrix subcrinita ) populations were moderate on early- planted 
potatoes in Custer, Butte, Fremont, Bingham and Lemhi Counties during June, but 
damage was not severe except in Custer County. STRAWBERRY LEAF ROLLER ( Ancylis 
comptana fragariae ) adults became common in commercial strawberry fields in 
Canyon County during mid-May and caused heavy damage to garden plantings near 
Weiser and Aberdeen. STRAWBERRY ROOT WEEVIL ( Brachyrhinus ovatus ) was extremely 
heavy in a field near Parma, affecting approximately 80 percent of the plants. 
Damage was above average in the Preston area. 



- 143 - 

Forest, Shade Tree and Ornamental Insects : ALDER FLEA BEETLE ( Altica amblens ) 
was very widely distributed throughout northern areas and caused heavy defolia- 
tion of alder and various species of willow. An ALDER SAWFLY caused heavy 
defoliation of alders from St. Maries north to the Rathdrum Prairie area during 
July and August. COTTONY MAPLE SCALE ( Pulvinaria innumerabilis ) crawlers 
appeared in Boise during late May and strong infestations developed as summer 
progressed. A very severe infestation appeared in mid-June in the Sandpoint 
area and at Twin Falls. Maples, black locust and hawthorns were attacked in 
Twin Falls. An infestation developed on grapes during early July at Moscow. 
DOUGLAS-FIR BEETLE ( Dendroctonus pseudotsugae ) numbers increased considerably 
over 1957, with a large buildup in the St. Joe River drainage above Avery. 
Damage to Douglas-fir was several times that of the past two years in the 
drainage area of the North Fork of the Payette River. A widespread infestation 
of DOUGLAS-FIR TUSSOCK MOTH ( Hemerocampa pseudotsugata ) developed during early 
June in Owyhee County. ELM LEAF BEETLE ( Galerucella xanthomelaena ) adults left 
hibernation quarters in large numbers during late April in Canyon County and 
became quite active in Payette and Washington Counties by mid-May. Hatching 
began in the Parma area during early June and larvae became extremely abundant 
by the middle of the month. Second generation appeared during mid-July in 
Parma. Heavy defoliation of new leaves by second-generation larvae occurred 
by late June in Canyon County after defoliation by first-generation larvae. 
Some elms in Parma were so severely attacked that it appeared they would not 
recover. Infestation was also extremely severe in the Twin Falls area. 
Second-generation larvae migrated from foliage during late August and early 
September in the City of Twin Falls. Severe infestations of EUROPEAN ELM SCALE 
( Gossyparia spuria ) developed on elms in the Preston area during June. FALL 
WEBWORM ( Hyphantria cunea ) caused severe defoliation of chokecherries in 
Clearwater and Lemhi Counties during July and large populations developed on 
locust, poplars and cherries near Whitebird during August. Heavy defoliation 
of wild cherries occurred throughout northern parts of the State. A widespread 
infestation of LARCH CASEBEARER ( Coleophora laricella ) developed between 
St. Maries and Sandpoint during early June, with adults emerging in mid-June in 
Benewah County. The outbreak in northern Idaho covered 100 square miles and 
spread northward. A small infestation of MAPLE BLADDER-GALL MITE ( Vasates 
guadri pedes ) was first recorded at Sandpoint on maples. MOUNTAIN PINE BEETLE 
( Dendroctonus monticolae ) caused considerable damage to western white pine in 
the Clearwater National Forest. OYSTER-SHELL SCALE ( Lepidosaphes ulmi) infesta- 
tion was severe on ash at Twin Falls and moderate on golden willow at Idaho 
Falls. PINE NEEDLE SCALE ( Phenacaspis pinifoliae ) was moderate on ponderosa 
pine in the Moscow area. ROSE LEAF BEETLE (Nodonata puncticollis ) caused 
moderate foliage skeletonization on willows and related trees in scattered 
northern areas. ROSE APHID ( Macrosiphum rosae ) colonization began on roses in 
the Twin Falls area as early as mid-April before leaf buds were open. By late 
May, roses in the city were quite heavily infested. A widespread infestation 
of a PINE SAWFLY ( Neodiprion abietis complex) developed in Douglas-fir stands 
in many areas of Owyhee County during June. An active infestation of SPRUCE 
BUDWORM ( Choristoneura fumiferana ) persisted in grand fir over an area of 
89,000 acres of State and private forestland south of Lewiston. The popula- 
tion increased sharply in 1958. WESTERN PINE BEETLE ( Dendroctonus brevicomis ) 
became quite abundant on ponderosa pine in Camp Creek area of Valley County. 

Insects Affecting Man and Animals : BLACK FLIES were fairly abundant and annoying 
in Moscow and Idaho Falls areas. DEER FLIES ( Chrysops spp.) were abundant and 
annoying near Blackf oot , Bingham County , during late June and were numerous 
during early August in localized areas of Bonneville County. HOUSE FLY ( Musca 
domes tica ) early fall populations were considerably above average in Moscow 
and other cities. COMMON CATTLE GRUB ( Hypoderma lineatum ) adults became very 
common in southeastern and southwestern areas during June. HORN FLY ( Siphona 
irritans ) was abundant during August in Franklin County, with moderate infesta- 
tions of cattle and horses. Very heavy deposition of eggs on horses by HORSE 
BOT FLY (Gasterophilus intestinalis) occurred near Parma during October . 



- 144 - 

MOSQUITOES - Late spring populations of Aedes implicatus were greatly below 
those of previous years in northern counties. Culex spp. became very abundant 
and highly annoying around Bonners Ferry and in scattered localities in Latah 
County during June and July in the Little Lost River Valley and in the eastern 
end of the Boise Valley. One moderate infestation of SHEEP BOT FLY ( Oestrus 
ovis ) in sheep occurred near Preston during early August. A heavy infestation 
of SWALLOW BUG ( Oeciacus vicarius) in a sawmill near Bovill, Latah County, 
resulted in several workers being bitten during late June. 

Stored-product Insects : FLAT GRAIN BEETLE ( Laemophloeus pusillus ) , RED FLOUR 
BEETLE ( Tribolium castaneum ) and SAW-TOOTHED GRAIN BEETLE ( Oryzaephilus 
surinamensis ) were the most abundant and widespread species in northern grain 
storages. There were no reports of KHAPRA BEETLE ( Trogoderma granarium ) 
occurrence in the State during 1958. A heavy infestation of MEAL MOTH 
( Pyralis f arinalis ) in farm-stored feed grain was reported from the Donnelly 
area during early September. A TENEBRIONID ( Alphitobius laevigatus ) was found 
in pea screenings in a seed warehouse in Twin Falls, a new State record. 

Household Insects : Infestations of DERMESTIDS ( Anthrenus spp.) were reported 
from homes in Moscow and Coeur d'Alene during April. Scattered populations of 
CLOVER MITE occurred in homes in southern Idaho during April and early May. 
EUROPEAN EARWIG ( Forf icula auricularia ) populations were about average with 
those of the past few years. There was one report of SUN SPIDERS (Solpugida) 
entering homes in Bingham and Power Counties during late September. 

Beneficial Insects : A PARASITE ( Bathyplectis curculionis ) of alfalfa weevil 
averaged 80 per 30 sweeps in alfalfa fields near Parmer during early May and 
adults were generally common to abundant in most fields sampled in southern 
counties. Populations reached 30 per sweep in some Canyon County fields, but 
dropped somewhat as summer progressed. Alfalfa weevil larvae averaged 6 per 2 
sweeps in Parma area fields. Adults of an ALKALI BEE ( Nomia melanderi ) emerged 
from nesting sites in the Homedale area during late May. Populations were 
generally more abundant than in previous years. The ALKALI BEE PARASITE ( Zodion 
obliquefasciatum ) was collected for the first time in Idaho. A BOMBYLIID 
( Heterostylum robustum ) remained the most important parasite of nesting sites. 
Populations of BIG-EYED BUGS ( Geocoris spp.) in southern clover and alfalfa 
fields ranged 2-5 per ten sweeps during late April and increased in many fields 
to 2 per sweep by late June and 3-6 by mid-August. Populations were about 
normal . A KLAMATHWEED BEETLE ( Chrysolina gemellata ) continued to successfully 
control the weed in the Salmon and Clearwater areas during 1958, but not in 
more northern counties, although adult populations during early June were very 
high in the Bonners Ferry and Moyie Springs areas. A ROOT BORER ( Agrilus 
hyperici ) - No evidence of Klamathweed reduction was observed during 1958. 
A PREDACEOUS MITE ( Typhlodromus cucumeris ) successfully controlled two-spotted 
spider mite in a few red clover fields in northern Canyon County. Other 
PREDACEOUS INSECTS varied in abundance over the State, but generally were at 
normal levels during 1958. 



- 145 - 



UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE 
Agricultural Research Service 
Plant Pest Control Division 
Washington 25, D. C. 



February 27, 1959 

To: Entomologists and Other Cooperators 
Subject: Insect Detection 

The importance of plant pest detection, especially insect detection, 
has long been recognized. In recent years biological warfare aspects 
of the problem have added to its status. 

Many of our most destructive crop and forest pests are species that 
have been introduced from foreign countries over the years. An 
example is the European corn borer. This insect caused an estimated 
loss of $158,000,000 to corn growers in 1957. An appropriation of 
that magnitude would support all cooperative State-Federal plant 
pest control programs, as currently operated, for a period of about 
eight years. This is only one example. As you know, there are many 
costly problems in our program work such as pink bollworm, gypsy 
moth, imported fire ant, Japanese beetle, white-fringed beetle, and 
others. If any of these pests had been discovered when the infesta- 
tions were incipient or local, they probably could have been eradicated 
and the costs cut or eliminated entirely. Certainly, the chances of 
eradicating such outbreaks today are far better than heretofore. This 
is possible through the availability of low-cost insecticides and 
improved methods of application. 

Success against a pest such as the Mediterranean fruit fly has led to 
optimism in plant pest control and regulatory agencies. They believe 
that if a pest can be found soon enough it can be eradicated, thereby 
saving American agriculture untold millions in losses and control 
costs . 

Detection is obviously the starting point in an eradication program. 
Recognizing this, several plant pest regulatory and other agricultural 
agencies, including the Western Plant Board, National Plant Board, and 
the National Association of State Departments of Agriculture have gone 
on record requesting increased emphasis on plant pest detection. They 
have asked for a cooperative undertaking coordinated and directed at 
the national level. The Plant Pest Control Division has recognized 
this need by establishing a position within Survey and Detection 
Operations, devoted entirely to the detection phase of survey. 
Mr. Joseph W. Gentry, Assistant to the Chief Staff Officer, will be 
in charge of the program. 



146 - 



2-Entomologists and Other Cooperators 

This work involves the initiation and operation of a specific nationwide 
program, in cooperation with the states and other appropriate organiza- 
tions, to detect any introduced insect pests not now known to occur in 
the United States as well as economically important insects not known 
to occur in certain areas of the United States. By increased utilization 
of existing survey facilities, by coordinating detection efforts now in 
operation in many entomological agencies and by increasing the general 
awareness of the importance of plant pests not known to occur in this 
country, it is felt that insect detection will become a more effective 
and useful tool in plant pest control work. To accomplish this goal 
we must include a little more detection effort in our busy daily routines. 

The combined efforts of many cooperators will insure the formation of 
a countrywide detection effort that will produce results. We urge each 
of you to participate in this important undertaking. As the plans are 
developed, you will be advised through correspondence, personal contracts. 
or other media. 




E. D. Burgess 
Director 



Sf ATES DEPART^ENT^QF AG 
~ WASHINGTON 25>rt>. C 
ficial Business 



fc^TURE Penalty for Private Use to Ave 
Payment of Postage , $300 






HJ>y 

T PEST CONTROL DIVISION 
AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH SERVICE 

UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE 







AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH SERVICE 



PLANT PEST CONTROL DIVISION 



SURVEYS DETECTION OPERATIONS 



The Cooperative Economic Insect Report is issued 
weekly as a service to American Agriculture. Its contents 
are compiled from information supplied by cooperating State, 
Federal, and industrial entomologists and other agricultural 
workers. In releasing this material the Division serves as 
a clearing house and does not assume responsibility for ac- 
curacy of the material. 



Reports and inquiries pertaining to this release 
should be mailed to: 

Survey & Detection Operations 



Plant Pest Control Division 

Agricultural Research Service 

United States Department of Agriculture 

Washington 25, D. C. 



Volume 9 March 6, 1959 Number 10 



COOPERATIVE ECONOMIC INSECT REPORT 



Highlights of Insect Conditions 

SERPENTINE LEAF MINER more abundant in Dade County, Florida, than in past three 
years. (p. 151) . 

COLUMBIAN TIMBER BEETLE damaged large stands of sawtimber in areas of Indiana, 
(p. 152). 

Distribution of JAPANESE BEETLE - 1958. (p. 153). 

CATTLE GRUBS heavy on range cattle in New Mexico. (p. 154). 

INSECT DETECTION: Soybean cyst nematode found for first time in Dunklin County, 
Missouri. (p. 150). Polia legitima reported for first time from Florida 
(p. 150) , and Ptinus clavipes for the first time from South Carolina (p. 155). 
Imported fire ant found for first time in Union Parish, Louisiana. (p. 155). 

CORRECTIONS. (p. 155). 

SUMMARY OF INSECT CONDITIONS - 1958 - RHODE ISLAND. (p. 156). 

A SURVEY METHOD for balsam gall midge damage appraisal. (p. 159). 

INSECTS not known to occur in the United States. (p. 163). 



*************** 



Reports for this issue are for the week ending February 27, unless otherwise 
indicated. 



- 148 - 

WEATHER BUREAU 30 -DAY OUTLOOK 

MARCH 1959 

The Weather Bureau's 30-day outlook for March calls for temperatures to average 
above seasonal normals along the West Coast and generally over the northwestern 
fourth of the Nation. Below normal temperatures are indicated for the West 
Gulf States and the Far Southwest , and also from the Great Lakes eastward 
through New England. In unspecified areas, near to slightly above normal 
temperatures are expected to prevail. Precipitation is expected to exceed 
normal along the Gulf Coast and over the Southeast as well as in the Pacific 
Northwest. Subnormal amounts are indicated over the Central and Southern 
Plateau States, Southern California, the Northern Plains and the Central North 
Atlantic States. In unspecified areas about normal amounts are indicated. 

Weather forecast given here is based on the official 30-day "Resume and 
Outlook", published twice a month by the Weather Bureau. You can subscribe 
through Superintendent of Documents, Washington 25, D. C. Price $4.80 per 
year, $2.40 a half year. 



WEATHER OF THE WEEK ENDING MARCH 2 

Unseasonably mild, dry, sunny weather prevailed most of the week over much«jDf 
the country. Thawing occurred in northern areas on several days, and depths 
of the snow cover which remained near the Canadian Border at lower elevations 
was reduced. No serious storms or floods were reported. Temperatures for the 
week averaged a few degrees above normal everywhere except in the Northeast , 
where averages were a few degrees below normal due to very low temperatures 
during the first half. Subzero minima were recorded at many extreme north 
central stations on the 24th and many northeastern stations on the 25th. Frost 
has penetrated the soil 40 to 60 inches in northern Connecticut and to unusual 
depths over all the Northeast. Above-normal temperatures for the past week 
covered a greater portion of the country than those for any other week since 
November 10, and some central areas reported the warmest week since that time. 

Heavy precipitation was mostly limited to the Gulf and lower Atlantic coastal 
areas and western Washington State. The heavy rains in the South occurred 
during the first half of the week, as a cold front moved slowly southward, and 
totals ranged up to 7 inches at New Orleans, Louisiana. Totals which ranged 
up to 3 inches in western Washington accumulated from intermittent light 
amounts which fell throughout the week. Up to near an inch fell in a belt 
extending from Little Rock, Arkansas, to Detroit, Michigan, but elsewhere 
totals were light, with none at all in California, Arizona, New Mexico and 
central Nebraska. More moisture is needed in the entire State of New Mexico 
and much of western Texas. Reports from nearby Oklahoma indicate that the 
accumulated precipitation deficiency for the past 5 months has been among the 
greatest on record, especially in central and southwestern portions. The snow 
cover at the end of the week had disappeared at lower elevations in the Far 
West and in the Great Plains as far north as South Dakota. In the upper 
Mississippi Valley the cover extends to northern Iowa, where 24-inch depths 
were reported at midweek. In the Northeast depths range up to 50 inches at 
Boonville, New York. (Summary supplied by U. S. Weather Bureau). 



- 149 - 

CEREAL AND FORAGE INSECTS 

GREENBUG ( Toxoptera graminum ) - TEXAS - Causing extensive damage to oats in 
Zavala and Bandera Counties. Some fields in Bandera County plowed under. 
(Tex. Coop. Rpt . ) . Infestations averaged 1-5 per linear foot in Falls, 
McLennan, Hill, Johnson, Navarro and Limestone Counties in the central area. 
One infestation of 15-25 per linear foot observed in Ellis County. The 
condition in grain has improved. (Hawkins) . KANSAS - Found on wheat in 
Labette and Cherokee Counties. Populations ranged 0-6 per linear foot of row. 
(Peters). ARKANSAS - None found in cereal crops in Jefferson, Lincoln, Desha, 
Chicot, Ashley and Poinsett Counties . (Ark. Ins. Sur . , Feb. 21). OKLAHOMA - 
Scattered populations in fields of small grains ranged 0-7 per linear foot 
in the east central area. (VanCleave) . Populations remain light in Cleveland 
and McClain Counties; counts range 0-1 per linear foot. (Pennington). Small 
numbers found in two wheat fields near Lone Wolf, Kiowa County. (Hudson). 
Populations in eastern half of Tillman County building up rapidly, some control 
started. Counts ranged 75-100 per linear foot in 2 fields. (Hatfield). 

ENGLISH GRAIN APHID ( Macrosiphum granarium ) - ARIZONA - Infestations on small 
grains in Pinal County declining. Averaged 4.5 per plant on barley beginning 
to head. (Ariz. Coop. Sur.). ARKANSAS - Small numbers, less than one per 
linear foot, in southeastern area. (Ark. Ins. Sur., Feb. 21). OKLAHOMA - Found 
in conjunction with a Toxoptera graminum infestation in field of oats near 
Wagoner. M. granarium averaged 7 per linear foot. (VanCleave). 

APPLE GRAIN APHID ( Rhopalosiphum fitchii ) - OKLAHOMA - Populations in most 
fields of small grains averaged less than 10 per linear foot in east central 
area. (VanCleave) . Counts ranged 125-300 per linear foot in 2 wheat fields 
in eastern Tillman County. (Hatfield). Numbers low at Lone Wolf, Kiowa County. 
(Hudson) . Populations remain low in small grain in Cleveland and McClain 
Counties. (Pennington). 

WINTER GRAIN MITE ( Penthaleus major ) - TEXAS - Medium to heavy infestations 
observed on volunteer grain in Falls and Bandera Counties. (Tex. Coop. Rpt.). 
Light infestations observed in McLennan , Hill and Navarro Counties while no 
damage was apparent. Causing extensive damage to volunteer grain in Johnson 
County. (Hawkins). KANSAS - Found in one field in Labette County. Populations 
averaged about 12 per linear foot of row. (Peters) . CALIFORNIA - Heavy infes- 
tation damaging wheat in the Montague area of Siskiyou County. (Cal . Coop. Rpt.). 
OKLAHOMA - Scattered infestations in some fields of small grain in east central 
area. Counts averaged less than 10 per linear foot. (VanCleave). Small 
numbers found in two wheat fields in Lone Wolf area. (Hudson) . Abundant in 
an oat field in the Moore area. (Pennington) . 

SPOTTED ALFALFA APHID ( Therioaphis maculata ) - KANSAS - Counts per 25 plants 
from February 20 to 22 were in Pottawatomie, Riley, Geary, Cloud and Republic 
Counties; 0-11 in Marion County; 19 in Butler County; and 25-173 in Cowley 
County. (Simpson, Burkhardt) . Populations ranged from to approximately 10 
per plant in eastern and southeastern areas. (Peters). OKLAHOMA - Populations 
ranged 0-150 per square foot in most alfalfa fields in Grady, Garvin and 
Cleveland Counties. One field in Lindsay area had average counts of 300 per 
square foot. (Pennington). None noted in east central area or in fields 
checked in Arkansas River bottoms in Sequoyah County. (VanCleave, Washum) . 
Counts averaged 720 per square foot of crown area in some fields of alfalfa in 
Payne County. An increase over previous week's count of 504 per square foot. 
(Ketner) . NEW MEXICO - Occasional heavy infestation in Grant County alfalfa 
fields. Young stands in Virden Valley being damaged by heavy populations. 
(N. M. Coop. Rpt.). ARIZONA - Infestation in alfalfa fields in Maricopa County 
averaged 0.21 per trifoliate leaf; a slight decline from the previous week. 
Infestations also reported very light in the Casa Grande and Yuma areas. (Ariz. 
Coop. Sur. ) . 



- 150 - 

PEA APHID ( Macrosiphum pisi ) - KANSAS - Populations ranged 0-5 per plant in 
east central, southeast and northeast counties. (Peters). ARKANSAS - Averaged 
2-3 per square foot in southeastern area. (Ark. Ins. Sur . , Feb. 21). 
OKLAHOMA - Populations continue to increase slightly in alfalfa in east central 
area. Counts ranged 10-50 per square foot. (VanCleave) . NEW MEXICO - Light 
to moderate infestations in alfalfa fields in Cliff-Gila area, Grant County. 
Coccinellid adults and larvae reduced populations considerably in alfalfa fields 
in southern counties. (N. M. Coop. Rpt.). 

CUTWORMS - NEW MEXICO - Damaging young alfalfa in Hidalgo and Luna Counties. 
(N. M. Coop. Rpt.). 

ALFALFA WEEVIL ( Hypera postica ) - NORTH CAROLINA - Larvae actively feeding in 
Richmond and Rowan Counties on alfalfa. (Jones, Thompson). SOUTH CAROLINA - 
Larvae and adults present and feeding in alfalfa in Spartanburg County 
(February 19) and larvae active in Laurens County. (Nettles, et al.). 
VIRGINIA - Larvae, one per bud, found on all alfalfa plants examined in a 
Pittsylvania County field. (Reynolds) . 

A THRIPS ( Frankliniella sp.) - NEW MEXICO - Very abundant in alfalfa fields in 
southern counties. (N. M. Coop. Rpt.). 

MORMON CRICKET ( Anabrus simplex ) - NEVADA - Recent checks of known egg-bed areas 
confirm indication that it will be necessary to bait approximately 10,000 acres 
of infestation to protect range sources involved. (PPC, West. Reg., Jan. Rpt.). 

STRIPED GARDEN CATERPILLAR (Polia legitima) - FLORIDA - Larva collected on 
goldenshower tree ( Cassia fistula ) , November 6, 1955, at Gainesville, Alachua 
County, is first record for the State. Det. H. W. Capps. (Fla. Coop. Sur.). 

SOYBEAN CYST NEMATODE ( Heterodera glycines ) - VIRGINIA - Confirmed identifica- 
tions, as of January 30, are confined to 5 properties in Nansemond County, 
representing 380 acres. NEW JERSEY - Samples from 113 properties were processed 
with negative results. (PPC, East. Reg., Jan. Rpt.). ARKANSAS - Positive speci- 
mens were found on 5 properties with a total of 177 acres in Mississippi County. 
NORTH CAROLINA - Positive specimens were found on 1 property of 75 acres in 
Currituck County. OKLAHOMA - Examination of samples on hand were negative. 
MISSISSIPPI - Surveys in 7 delta counties gave -negative results. (PPC, So. Reg., 
Jan. Rpt.). MISSOURI - Two new infestations were found during January. One 
consisted of 40 acres in Pemiscot County, within the regulated area. The other 
was found in Dunklin County, the first infestation in the county. (PPC, Cent. 
Reg. , Jan. Rpt. ) . 

FRUIT INSECTS 

SCALE INSECTS - CALIFORNIA - In Glenn County, a medium infestation of Aspidiotus 
perniciosus damaged apple trees in Hamilton City and Parlatoria oleae was heavy 
on olive trees in the Willows area. Aspidiotus hederae was medium on peach 
trees in the Hemet area, Riverside County. (Cal . Coop. Rpt.). ARIZONA - An old 
infestation of Aonidiella aurantii was observed to be spreading near the city of 
Yuma. Control measures have been taken. (Ariz. Coop. Sur.). 

A CERAMBYCID ( Oberea sp.) - TEXAS - Damaged plum trees in Coryell County by 
boring in the twigs. (Harding). 

MEXICAN FRUIT FLY ( Anastrepha ludens ) - TEXAS - Traps were operated throughout 
the month in Cameron, Dimmit, Hidalgo, Webb and Willacy Counties. The number 
of traps was increased slightly in the Winter Garden sections and at Laredo. 
No Mexican fruit flies were trapped. (PPC, So. Reg., Jan. Rpt.). ARIZONA - A 
total of 178 traps in 33 locations in Yuma and Santa Cruz Counties were inspected 
4 times during the month with negative results. CALIFORNIA - All trapping 



- 151 - 

activities were maintained on regular schedule with negative results. (PPC, 
West. Reg., Jan. Rpt.). MEXICO - In the states of Baja California and Sonora, 
2,065 traps were operated on 936 properties and 7,587 inspections gave negative 
results. (PPC, Mex. Reg., Jan. Rpt.). 

CITRUS BLACKFLY ( Aleurocanthus woglumi ) - MEXICO - Inspection of 127,608 citrus 
trees on 1,920 properties revealed 197 trees infested on 26 properties located 
in Municipio Hidalgo in the state of Tamaulipas, and in the vicinity of Allende 
and at Linares, in Nuevo Leone. The heaviest and most extensive infestation was 
at Allende. Inspections were completed at Matamoros , Tamaulipas, with negative 
results. (PPC, Mex. Reg., Jan. Rpt.). 

MEDITERRANEAN FRUIT FLY ( Ceratitis capitata ) - No suspicious specimens were 
found in examination of traps operated in ALABAMA, FLORIDA, LOUISIANA and TEXAS. 
(PPC, So. Reg., Jan. Rpt.). 

TRUCK CROP INSECTS 

DIAMONDBACK MOTH ( Plutella maculipennis ) - ARIZONA - Light on heads of cauli- 
flower in the Yuma area. (Ariz. Coop. Sur . ) . 

A FLEA BEETLE ( Phyllotreta sp. , probably pusilla ) - TEXAS - Caused serious 
damage to turnips and mustard in Winter Garden area. (Harding) . 

GREEN PEACH APHID ( Myzus persicae ) - FLORIDA - All stages reported on potatoes 
in Dade County. Appeared in abundance about two months earlier than usual, but 
are not so abundant at present and appear to be disappearing. (Wolfenbarger , 
Feb. 19). 

SERPENTINE LEAF MINER ( Liriomyza sp.) - FLORIDA - Adults on potatoes, tomatoes, 
beans and cucurbits in entire Redlands area of Dade County. More abundant than 
for possibly the past three years. (Wolfenbarger, Feb. 19). 

SWEETPOTATO WEEVIL ( Cylas formicarius elegantulus ) - Surveys in 69 counties and 
parishes revealed a total of 20 new infestations in 11 counties and parishes. 
No new areas were found to be infested. (PPC, So. Reg., Jan. Rpt.). 

ONION THRIPS (Thrips tabaci ) - ARIZONA - Infestations that averaged 6-7 per 
onion plant in some fields in the Casa Grande area of Pinal County have declined 
to less than 2 per plant. (Ariz. Coop. Sur.) 

TOBACCO INSECTS 

TOBACCO FLEA BEETLE ( Epitrix hirtipennis ) - GEORGIA - Light on tobacco in 
Bulloch, Wayne, Ware and Jeff Davis Counties and moderate in Tattnall County. 
(Johnson) . 

VEGETABLE WEEVIL ( Listroderes costirostris obliquus ) - GEORGIA - Light to 
moderate on tobacco in Bulloch, Tattnall, Wayne, Pierce, Ware and Jeff Davis 
Counties. (Johnson). 

COTTON INSECTS 

PINK BOLLWORM ( Pectinophora gossypiella ) - ARKANSAS - Larvae were found in trash 
from 6 locations representing more than 6,000 acres in Pulaski County and from 
one location exceeding 900 acres in Yell County. OKLAHOMA - Surveys indicate 
that larvae in bolls on standing stalks were killed by severe freezing weather, 
but some live larvae were found in surface debris at the same time. TEXAS - 
Infestation in material left in fields is much lighter in lower Valley counties 
than in 1958. (PPC, So. Reg., Jan. Rpt.). 



- 152 - 

ARIZONA - Thirteen new infestations found in Maricopa County in or near 
previously-infested areas and 2 found in Pinal County near previously-infested 
areas. No moths were taken in 3 light traps operated adjacent to infested 
properties in Maricopa County during January. (PPC , West. Reg., Jan. Rpt . ) . 
MEXICO - Debris inspection of 168 fields in the states of Nuevo Leone and 
Tamaulipas resulted in the finding of 82 live larvae. Inspection of 3,642 
cotton blooms in one 15-acre location in the Culiacan zone, State of Sinaloa, 
gave negative results. Inspection of 28 bushels of cracked kenaf pods in this 
same zone gave negative results. (PPC, Mex. Reg., Jan. Rpt.). 

FOREST, ORNAMENTAL AND SHADE TREE INSECTS 

SPRING CANKERWORM ( Paleacrita vernata) - KANSAS - Males and females collected on 
tree bands in Riley County. (Thompson, Poorbaugh) . 

GYPSY MOTH (Porthetria dispar ) - NEW JERSEY - Intensive scouting of 225 wood- 
land acres and 80 acres of open country around the 1958 attracting trap site 
at Hibernia was negative. PENNSYLVANIA - No egg masses found in area scouted 
around a 1957 positive trap site in Bucks County. (PPC, East. Reg. Jan. Rpt.). 

SOUTHERN PINE BEETLE ( Dendroc tonus frontalis ) - TEXAS - Active in 3 locations 
near Sour Lake in Hardin County. All stages were present in 12 brood trees at 
one location. (Texas Coop. Rpt.). 

DEODAR WEEVIL ( Pissodes nemorensis ) - PENNSYLVANIA - Infested Scotch pine in 
Wayne County during the fall of 1958. Det. U. S. N. M. (Drooz) . 

COLUMBIAN TIMBER BEETLE ( Corthylus Columbian us ) - INDIANA - Reported from soft 
maple in the southern part of the State. Extension foresters report large 
stands of sawtimber in the Wabash, White and Patoka River Basins ruined by 
this beetle. Nearly all the lumber is ruined by the tunnels and the staining 
of the fungus. (Schuder) . 

SAWFLIES - TEXAS - Overwintering cocoons heavily parasitized in northern Hardin 
County. This may indicate that very few adults will emerge and lay eggs this 
spring. (Texas Coop. Rpt.). 

AN APHID ( Rhopalosiphum ruf omaculatum ) - PENNSYLVANIA - Very heavy on chrysan- 
themums in a greenhouse in Johnstown, Cambria County, February 26. (Udine) . 

SCALE INSECTS - MARYLAND - Unaspis euonymi heavy on euonymus at Baltimore, 
February 15. (U. Md. , Ent. Dept.) . NORTH CAROLINA - U. euonymi infesting 
euonymus in Harnett County. (Scott, Farrier). Pseudaulacaspis pentagona 
infesting privet in Cumberland County. (Monroe, Farrier). CALIFORNIA - Heavy 
populations of Aspidiotus californicus occurred on Monterey pine in Stockton, 
San Joaquin County, while A. camel liae and A. hederae were light on euonymus 
plants in Golden Gate Park, San Francisco. Lepidosaphes ceanothi heavy on 
Ceanothus crassifolius in the Yucaipa area, San Bernardino County. (Cal. Coop. 
Rpt.). 

BOXWOOD LEAF MINER ( Monarthropalpus buxi) - VIRGINIA - Very heavy on boxwood 
plants (averaged 5-12 per 3-foot plant) at one location in Lynchburg, Campbell 
County. (Willey) . 

A TEPHRITID ( Eutreta pacifica ) - CALIFORNIA - Medium to heavy and caused galls 
on chrysanthemum plants in Kentfield, Marin County. This is the first record 
for this host in the State. (Cal. Coop. Rpt.). 



153 



JAPANESE BEETLE 



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- 154 - 

INSECTS AFFECTING MAN AND ANIMALS 

CATTLE GRUBS ( Hypoderma spp.) - VIRGINIA - Survey of one cattle herd in each of 
5 counties revealed that of the grubs extracted, 163 were H. lineatum and 55 
were H. bovis . No H. bovis have been extracted east of the Blue Ridge Mountains 
to date this year. (Turner, Morris, Morgan). NORTH CAROLINA - Examination of 
141 animals in Davidson County showed only one bull purchased outside the county 
to be infested, and this animal had over 50 grubs. (Bernhardt). KANSAS - 
Averaged 7.5 per head in 63 infested animals out of 92 examined in Ellis County. 
Of 8 yearlings checked in Cheyenne County, grubs averaged 2.5 per head in 5 
infested animals. (Knapp) . NEW MEXICO - Reports from most counties indicate 
heavy infestations on range cattle. (N. M. Coop. Rpt . ) . UTAH - Numerous in 
young cattle in some parts of Washington County. (Knowlton) . 

CATTLE LICE - UTAH - Numerous in some Washington and San Juan cattle herds , 
severe on livestock near Ogden , Weber County, and moderate to severe throughout 
Emery County. (Knowlton, Olson). 

SHEEP KED ( Melophagus ovinus ) - UTAH - Moderate to severe in Emery County. 
(Knowlton) . 

SHEEP SCAB MITE ( Psoroptes equi ovis) - VIRGINIA - Found on 122 of 201 sheep 
inspected in State during January. (Va. Livestock Health Bull.). 

TROPICAL RAT MITE ( Ornithonyssus bacoti ) - CALIFORNIA - Caused irritation to 
members of households in Bakersfield, Kern County, and in Carmichael , Sacramento 
County. (Cal. Coop. Rpt.). 

BROWN DOG TICK ( Rhipicephalus sanguineus ) - CALIFORNIA - Apparently more numer- 
ous this year, with reports received from San Francisco and Fresno. (Keh) . 

STORED-PRODUCT INSECTS 

KHAPRA BEETLE ( Trogoderma granarium ) - A total of 173 inspections were made in 
NEW JERSEY, NEW YORK, PENNSYLVANIA and CONNECTICUT. No positive determinations 
have been received. (PPC , East. Reg. Jan. Rpt.). ALABAMA - Five initial inspec- 
tions were made in Barbour County and 4 in Henry County, with negative results. 
A total of 77 inspections were made at possible points of entry in 23 counties. 
OKLAHOMA - Three inspections in Garfield County were negative. TENNESSEE - 
Inspections were made of 29 establishments in 8 counties, with no infestations 
found. TEXAS - Inspections were made on 259 properties in 45 counties. (PPC, 
So. Reg. , Jan. Rpt.). ARIZONA - First infestation for 1959 was found January 7 
in Mesa County. (PPC, West. Reg., Jan. Rpt.). MEXICO - A total of 303 inspec- 
tions were made in the states of Baja California, Sonora, Jalisco and Coahuila. 
No positive determinations were received during the month. (PPC, Mex . Reg. , 
Jan. Rpt . ) . 

SAW-TOOTHED GRAIN BEETLE ( Oryzaephilus surinamensis ) - UTAH - Common pest of 
granaries and many homes throughout Emery County. (Knowlton). 

BENEFICIAL INSECTS 

CONVERGENT LADY BEETLE ( Hippodamia convergens ) - KANSAS - Averaged less than one 
per square foot in a Linn County alfalfa field. (Peters) . OKLAHOMA - Popula- 
tions averaged 0.3 per square yard in some Payne County alfalfa fields. (Bryan). 
Occasional adult noted in fields of small grains and alfalfa in east central 
area (VanCleave) and in Garvin and Cleveland Counties. (Pennington). 



- 155 - 

MISCELLANEOUS INSECTS 

IMPORTED FIRE ANT ( Solenopsis saevissima richteri ) - LOUISIANA - Union Parish 
was found infested during January, bringing the total number of infested 
parishes to 45. TENNESSEE - A total of 277 sites were inspected in Fayette, 
Hardeman, Haywood, McNairy, Shelby and Tipton Counties with negative results. 
Treatment was applied to a total of 110,307 acres during January. (PPC, So. 
Reg. , Jan. Rpt.) . 

BROWN SPIDER BEETLE ( Ptinus clavipes) - SOUTH CAROLINA - Found in abundance in 
a home in Aiken, Aiken County, and apparently feeding on a wool rug. This is 
a new record for the State. Det. T. J. Spilman. (McAlister) . 

GERMAN COCKROACH ( Blattella germanica) - NORTH CAROLINA - Populations difficult 
to control in Wake County. (Smith) . 

EASTERN SUBTERRANEAN TERMITE ( Reticulitermes flavipes ) - MARYLAND - Damaged a 
newly-constructed home at Westminster, Carroll County, February 18. (U. Md. , 
Ent. Dept.). INDIANA - Has begun to swarm in homes in Tippecanoe County. 
(Osmun) . 

CORRECTIONS 

CEIR 9 (5): 52 - IMPORTED FIRE ANT - "Treatments were underway in all 10 infested 
states....", should be changed to read "Treatments were underway in all 9 infes- 
ted states. . . . ". 

CEIR 9(8):106 - Distribution of alfalfa weevil should be statewide for Connec- 
ticut. Remaining counties were found infested during 1957. 

CEIR 9(9): 135 - Under Washington summary, last sentence under highlights should 
read: "SPOTTED ALFALFA APHID was recorded for the first time in the State and 
SHALLOT APHID was recorded for the first time on strawberries." 



LIGHT TRAP COLLECTIONS 



Pseudaletia Agrotis Feltia Prodenia 
unipuncta ypsilon subterranea ornithogalli 



ARIZONA 

Mesa 2/18-24 18 

FLORIDA 

Gainesville 2/17-23 8 

Quincy 2/10-16 3 

LOUISIANA 

Baton Rouge 2/20-26 12 9 2 

Franklin 2/16-23 3 1 17 46 

SOUTH CAROLINA 

Charleston 2/23-3/1 5 4 8 3 



- 156 - 
SUMMARY OF INSECT CONDITIONS - 1958 

RHODE ISLAND 

Reported by H. L. Hansen* 

Highlights : ALFALFA WEEVIL was found for the first time in Rhode Island during 
1958. The range and size of population indicate it is probably the second 
season of establishment in the State. It is expected to reach economic propor- 
tions during 1959. EUROPEAN CORN BORER populations were lower than for five 
years. The mean figure for the statewide fall abundance survey progressed 
from 39 in 1954, to over 300 in 1957. The figure for 1958 was 30. Two serious 
local outbreaks of ARMYWORM occurred on millet and corn. During late summer 
ORANGE -STRIPED OAKWORM caused more concern among the rural and suburban public 
than any other insect. 

Cereal and Forage Insects : CORN LEAF APHID ( Rhopsalosiphum maidis ) was heavy 
on corn in the Newport area in August. EUROPEAN CORN BORER ( Pyrausta nubilalis ) 
populations were negligible as indicated by the fall abundance survey. An 
extremely prolonged cool, wet spell during the spring and early summer may have 
had an effect in reducing the population. An ARMYWORM ( Pseudaletia unipunctata ) 
outbreak reduced 10 acres of corn to stems and midribs in North Kingstown during 
August and was also heavy in a field of millet in Westerly. PEA APHID 
( Macrosiphum pisi ) increased in June to moderate populations on alfalfa. MEADOW 
SPITTLEBUG ( Philaenus leucophthalmus ) occurred in negligible numbers on alfalfa 
and red clover in South Kingstown. Moderate numbers of adult CLOVER ROOT 
CURCULIO (Sitona hispidula ) were swept from alfalfa and red clover fields in 
all areas in early August. MARGINED BLISTER BEETLE ( Epicauta pestifera ) adults 
caused light damage to alfalfa in August in North Kingstown. ALFALFA WEEVIL 
( Hypera postica ) was first collected in Rhode Island August 1. At that time 
counts were 1-3 adults per 100 sweeps in Providence, Kent and Washington 
Counties. Few larvae were present in August, but an increase was noted 
October 17, in South Kingstown. TARNISHED PLANT BUG ( Lygus lineolaris ) and 
CLOVER SEED CHALCID ( Bruchophagus gibbus ) were found in moderate numbers in red 
clover and alfalfa in South Kingstown during late July and August. 

Fruit Insects : CODLING MOTH ( Carpocapsa pomonella ) eggs were first noted on 
fruit June 17, in Kenyon . APPLE MAGGOT ( Rhagoletis pomonella ) was heavy and 
first reported ovipositing August 22. PEAR LEAF BLISTER MITE ( Eriophyes pyri. ) 
was heavy on pear foliage in Exeter in late July. PEAR -SLUG ( Caliroa cerasi ) 
skeletonized cherry leaves in Warren, Bristol and North Providence during early 
July. Old injury of PLUM CURCULIO ( Conotrachelus nenuphar ) was observed on 
fruit in South Kingstown in June. BLACK CHERRY APHID ( Myzus cerasi ) was abun- 
dant on cherry in the Smithfield area during May. PEACH TREE BORER ( Sanninoidea 
exitiosa ) larval activity was noted in Woonsocket in July. There was a heavy 
emergence of SHOT-HOLE BORER ( Scolytus rugulosus ) from apricot trees in Warwick 
in early September. RASPBERRY SAWFLY ( Monophadnoides geniculatus ) was a problem 
on raspberry in Esmond during June. Grape buds in West Warwick were attacked by 
ROSE CHAFER ( Macrodactylus subspinosus ) during June. CHAIN-SPOTTED GEOMETER 
( Cingilia catenaria ) was locally abundant during July, feeding on blueberry 
foliage on Conanicut Island. 

Truck Crop Insects : POTATO FLEA BEETLE (Epitrix cucumeris ) was heavy on sprout- 
ing potato foliage in West Kingston at the end of May. Injury was heavy on 
potato and tomato plants in South Kingstown by June 17. The new generation was 
7-10 days late in 1958 with the peak of adult activity reached in Kingston 
August 1. First egg masses of COLORADO POTATO BEETLE (Leptinotarsa decemlineata) 



* Based on data contributed by J. A. Mathewson , J E. Panone , W. N. Stoner, 
T. W. Kerr, K. E. Hyland, N. E. Caroselli , F. L. Howard, G. J. Stessel, 
A. V. Boaro, J. T. Hannah, H. W. Peabody and G. B. Tibbitts. 



- 157 - 

were noted in Newport June 10. Larvae were moderate on tomato plants in 
Providence and North Scituate July 9. The first adults of THREE-LINED POTATO 
BEETLE ( Lema trilineata ) were observed in West Kingston June 16 with slight 
damage in inadequately sprayed potato fields July 10. Asparagus was attacked 
during early summer by adults of SPOTTED ASPARAGUS BEETLE ( Crioceris 
duodecimpunctata ) and ASPARAGUS BEETLE (C. asparagi ) in all areas. CABBAGE 
MAGGOT ( Hylemya brassicae ) larvae infested radishes in North Scituate in early 
June as well as cantaloup seedlings in Kingston. Mature CABBAGE L00PER 
( Trichoplusia ni) larvae were common on cabbage by August 8. At this time, 
adults of IMPORTED CABBAGE WORM ( Pieris rapae ) were noted ovipositing in the 
Narragansett area and CABBAGE APHID ( Brevicoryne brassicae ) was moderate. 

Forest, Ornamental and Shade Tree Insects : ORANGE -STRIPED OAKWORM (Anisota 
senatoria ) was very heavy locally throughout the State. Small larvae first 
appeared in mid-August and fed until late September. Pupation was general 
about September 22. A heavier than usual population of EASTERN TENT CATERPILLAR 
( Malacosoma americanum ) occurred principally on wild cherry in most areas. 
First instar larvae were observed in Warwick April 18. First hatching of 
GYPSY MOTH ( Porthetria dispar ) occurred in Little Compton May 2. Various other 
defoliators occurred locally. IMPORTED WILLOW LEAF BEETLE ( Plagiodera 
versicolora ) damaged nursery stock in Warwick in the early summer. JAPANESE 
BEETLE ( Popillia japonica ) was first noticed July 1 in Kingston on sassafras. 
Adults were generally light throughout the State. ASIATIC GARDEN BEETLE 
( Autoserica castanea ) flights were heavy to light in Narragansett and other 
local areas in mid-summer. PAINTED-LADY ( Vanessa cardui ) larvae defoliated 
hollyhock in South Kingstown and Esmond during July. FALL WEBWORM ( Hyphantria 
cunea ) infestations were scattered and light beginning in early August. Zinnia 
and marigold plantings in the Smithfield area were damaged by STALK BORER 
(Papaipema nebris) . PEAR-SLUG (Caliroa cerasi) damaged cotoneaster in the 
Middletown area and was light on roses in South Kingstown during June and July. 
Light feeding on various oaks by PALE TUSSOCK MOTH ( Halisidota tessellaris ) and 
RED-HUMPED CATERPILLAR ( Schizura concinna ) occurred in South Kingstown late in 
the summer. BIRCH LEAF MINER (fenusa pusilla ) adults were first observed 
statewide in early May. Larvae were heavy on birch in Providence in late May 
with adults again being evident in Warwick and Johnston at the end of June. 
LOCUST LEAF MINER ( Chalepus dorsalis ) adults fed on locust in the Warwick area 
in early June . HOLLY LEAF MINER ( Phytomyza ilicis ) was observed from late May 
to June in most areas of the State. BOXWOOD LEAF MINER ( Monarthropalpus buxi ) 
mines contained pupae and some adults in late May. ROSE APHID ( Macrosiphum 
rosae ) developed heavy populations on young rose growth in South Kingstown 
during late May. BALSAM TWIG APHID ( Mindarus abietinus) was heavy on fir at 
the same time in the Smithfield area and later on balsam in Warwick. LARCH 
APHID (Cinara laricis ) was reported troublesome in East Providence. In June 
heavy infestations of a BEECH APHID ( Phyllaphis f agi ) were observed in Kingston. 
WHITE-PINE APHID ( Cinara strobi ) was locally abundant in the Coventry area. 
EASTERN SPRUCE GALL APHID~ TChermes abietis) occurred in scattered local infesta- 
tions during June and July. MULBERRY WHITEFLY ( Tetraleurodes mori ) was severe 
on linden in Providence in middle August. RHODODENDRON LACE BUG ( Stephanitis 
rhododendri ) was a problem in Barrington and Newport areas in May. Heavy 
populations of FLETCHER SCALE ( Lecanium fletcheri) on yew were evident in late 
May with new generation hatching from late June to mid-July in the Warwick and 
Middletown areas. OYSTERSHELL SCALE ( Lepidosaphes ulmi ) was troublesome on 
lilac and contoneaster with crawlers present in the North Kingstown area during 
mid- June. JUNIPER SCALE ( Diaspis carueli ) was present on arborvitae and juniper 
in North Kingstown, producing crawlers in mid-June. GOLDEN OAK SCALE 
( Asterolecanium variolosum ) was heavy on white oak in Lincoln. Dogwood in 
Johnston was infested with TERRAPIN SCALE ( Lecanium nigrof asciatum ) . PINE NEEDLE 
SCALE ( Phenacaspis pinifoliae ) was heavy on hemlock in Cranston during June with 
hatching at that time. AZALEA BARK SCALE ( Eriococcus azaleae ) infested rhodo- 
dendron in Newport and Warwick. SPRUCE BUD SCALE ( Physokermes piceae ) crawlers 
were present in the northern area of the State during mid-July. TWO-SPOTTED 
SPIDER MITE ( Tetranychus telarius) built up in late May on arborvitae in Foster. 



- 158 - 

Many inquiries were received regarding MAPLE BLADDER-GALL MITE ( Vasates 
quadripedes ) during May and June. ROSE CHAFER ( Macrodactylus subspinosus ) 
adults first appeared June 12 with complaints of feeding on garden flowers until 
July. ROSE CURCULIO ( Rhynchjtes bicolor) was troublesome on roses in Warwick in 
late June. DOGWOOD TWIG BORER ( Oberea tripunctata ) was prevalent in nursery 
stock in Westerly and DOGWOOD BORER ( Thamnospecia scitula ) occurred in the 
Pawtucket area. RHODODENDRON BORER ( Ramosia rhododendri ) damaged some plantings 
in Newport and MAPLE-PETIOLE BORER ( Caulocampus acericaulis ) was heavy on maple 
in Smithfield. Many oaks throughout the State were damaged by the TWIG PRUNER 
( Elaphidion villosum ) . Several red pines in the Scituate watershed area were 
killed by PINE ENGRAVER ( Ips pini) . Pupation of SMALLER EUROPEAN ELM BARK 
BEETLE ( Scolytus multistriatus ) was delayed beyond the time when adults usually 
appear in Kingston. It had not begun by June 10. EUROPEAN PINE SHOOT MOTH 
( Rhyacionia buo liana ) was detected in a planting in Johnston. Several weevils 
were reported locally, ARBORVITAE WEEVIL ( Phyllobius intrusus ) in Johnston, 
WHITE-PINE WEEVIL ( Pissodes strobi ) from Providence and BLACK VINE WEEVIL 
( Brachyrhinus sulcatus ) from a nursery in Warwick. 

Insects Affecting Man and Animals : Multiple stings from a WASP ( Vespula arenaria) 
were involved in the death of a 66-year-old man in East Greenwich, July 16. 
BLACK FLIES were numerous after season of heavy rainfall in most areas of the 
State during April, May and early June. The weather also seemed to favor heavy 
populations of AMERICAN DOG TICK ( Dermacentor variabilis ) in all areas, mostly 
during May, June and July. DOG and CAT FLEAS ( Ctenocephalides canis and C.felis) 
were abundant and troublesome in most areas during August. MOSQUITOES ( Aedes 
fitchii , A. abserratus , A. canadensis and A. excrucians ) were collected in the 
wooded areas of Cumberland, Lincoln and Smithfield, June 20. Larvae of a 
PHANTOM MIDGE ( Chaoboris punctipennis ) were collected in the water supply at 
Johnston, May 23. A commercial pheasant flock in East Greenwich was infested 
with SHAFT LOUSE ( Menopon gallinae ) in April. LITTLE HOUSE FLY ( Fannia 
canicularis ) built up at a poultry farm in Johnston during June. 

Household Insects : EUROPEAN EARWIG ( Forficula auricularia ) continued to be of 
concern in and about homes throughout the State. An infestation of SILVERFISH 
(Lepisma saccharina ) was reported from a library in Olneyville in April. 
ORIENTAL COCKROACH ( Blatta orientalis ) was prevalent in many homes throughout 
the State during the winter. HOUSE CENTIPEDE ( Scutigera coleoptrata ) caused 
concern in homes in Portsmouth and elsewhere during early spring. Insects 
damaging structural wood were reported from all areas. EASTERN SUBTERRANEAN 
TERMITE ( Reticulitermes f lavipes ) flights began in early March and were reported 
occasionally until early June. A heavy infestation of SOUTHERN LYCTUS BEETLE 
( Lyctus planicollis ) was found in oak flooring in Narragansett . Many complaints 
were received regarding BLACK CARPENTER ANT ( Camponotus herculeanus 
pennsylvanicus ) with swarming prevalent generally during June and early July. 
PAVEMENT ANT ( Tetramorium caespitum ) swarming was general during late May and 
June. VARIED CARPET BEETLE ( Anthrenus verbasci ) occurred in heavy infestations 
in homes at Lincoln and Narragansett. There were also reports of damage by 
BLACK CARPET BEETLE ( Attagenus piceus ) in Providence and vicinity during the 
winter. CASEMAKING CLOTHES MOTH ( Tine la pellionella ) infestations were reported 
from the same area. LARDER BEETLE ( Dermestes lardarius ) built up in the winter, 
killed beehives in the State and was reported from homes in Middletown and 
Wakefield. Some homeowners were annoyed by DRUG-STORE BEETLE ( Stegobium paniceum ) 
SAW-TOOTHED GRAIN BEETLE ( Oryzaephilus surinamensis ) , STRAWBERRY ROOT WEEVIL 
( Brachyrhinus ovatus ) , CLOVER MITE and CLUSTER FLY ( Pollenia rudis) . 

Beneficial Insects : HONEY BEE ( Apis mellifera ) swarming was common from May to 
August. Numerous complaints of vagrant swarms were reported. During the season, 
12 percent of 116 bee yards visited contained colonies infected with American 
foul brood. A VELVET ANT ( Dasymutilla occidentalis ) was received from people 
concerned about the possibility that it was a fire ant. 



Survey Methods 



Uniform Survey Procedure Approved By 
The Lake States Forest Insect Survey Committee - 1959 

BALSAM GALL MIDGE DAMAGE APPRAISAL SURVEYV 

PURPOSE : 

The balsam gall midge, Dasyneura balsamicola (Lint.) , 
seriously damages fir by stimulating proliferation of 
the needles, and causes the formation of needle galls 
(figure 1). The galls are ovoid, about one-eighth inch 
long and normally occur singly on the needle. The range 
of the gall midge closely parallels that of balsam and 
Fraser fir throughout North America. Epidemics have 
been reported periodically since the late 1800 's. During 
epidemics over 90 percent of the current needles may be 
infested, and as many as 150 needles of each current 
elongation may be deformed. Often up to 5 galls may form 
on one needle. A delayed indirect defoliation results, 
with the needles dropping in the fall of the first year, 
following larval migration. This abscission is about 
three years premature. Because needle fall is accelerated 
by bringing severely infested trees into the home, infes- 
tations frequently prohibit the harvest of trees for 
Christmas stock. 

The minute size of all stages of the gall midge would 
require an unnecessarily complex sampling technique; 
therefore, galled needles and subsequent defoliation are 
employed in the appraisal survey. Of primary interest is 
the severity of infestation and secondarily, the past history of its presence. 



> \ N 1 


WmJ 


\\J 




\3b 


yt/~s 


^*s 






fp* 


vR 


: :-W^.Jf u^,. 


Vb^ 


HlJr *i 



Figure 1. Needles damaged 
by the balsam gall midge 



INSTRUCTIONS : 

Date of Survey 

The survey may be conducted any time after June and before November. 

Stand Requirements 

The survey is restricted to balsam and Fraser fir trees between 5 and 20 feet in 
height, open growing stands in the lowland habitat and plantations and top cut-managed 
stands in any habitat. 

Procedure 

Five plots of 4 trees each are examined for each 40 acres. Smaller areas require 1 
plot per each 5 acres. Plots are distributed uniformly throughout the stand. The 
quarter method automatically selects the trees. At any given station, the observer 
visually "quarters" the area, i.e. , front left, front right, rear right and rear left. 
The closest tree in each imaginary quarter is sampled. On the whorl in the upper one 
third of the crown, select 4 branches representing the cardinal directions. For each 
branch, examine 10 apical current twigs and record the number of these that are infes- 
ted. This requires a numerical value (rather than a check) to be entered on the tally 
sheet. On the same branches, estimate the damage level of ten 2 and ten 3-year-old 



1/ This survey procedure was developed in conjunction with biological-ecological 

studies of the balsam gall midge financed by the Wisconsin Conservation Department. 
Approved for publication by the Director of the Wisconsin Agricultural Experiment 
Station. 



Survey Methods 



internodes (the 2-year-old internode immediately follows the current terminal twig 
and the 3-year-old internode is immediately behind the 2-year-old internode) . About 
one percent of the galled needles remain on the tree indefinitely; any other galled 
needles will be represented by abscission scars. Numerous abscission scars reveal a 
heavy infestation one or two years ago. The actual estimate of previous damage is 
arbitrarily made by the observer, then entered on the tally sheet. (This portion of 
the survey is optional and depends, in part, upon stand conditions and general vigor 
of the trees. In a very few instances, densely shaded, poor vigor trees drop the 
needles after one year (as opposed to the normal 4-10) . In such cases previous 
damage levels will be impossible to detect.) 

Evaluation 

The number of galled and nongalled twigs on current wood for the stand are totalled 
and the percent of twigs galled determined. 

Total twigs infested „ ,„„ . ... jj>^.j 

_ , n — r — r- 6 t — j— X 100 = percent twigs infested 

Total twigs sampled r ° 

The damage level is then derived from the damage level tables. 



Damage Level Tables 

Current Growth — 

Percent Current Twigs Infested Damage Level 

Light 

Moderate 

Heavy 

B. Previous Growth (2 and 3-year internodes only)— 

Description Damage Level 

Nearly all of old needles present, Light 

several scars, 1 or no galls 

remaining 

Between 10 and 50 percent of needles Moderate 

absent, several galls remaining 

Over 50 percent of needles absent, Heavy 

abscission scars abundant , several 
galls remaining 

If currently heavy, the survey (only the current twig portion) is repeated the follow- 
ing year. If light, 3 years may elapse before another survey is necessitated. 

The previous growth observations are summarized with the current growth data on the 
summary evaluation sheet. These data enable the observer to predict the rise and 
decline of populations under normal conditions and detect severe damage. Extreme 
heavily infested pockets are occasionally encountered. The locations of these are 
noted and observed at annual intervals; since these pockets may serve as infesta- 
tion loci, future cutting when midge populations are low should be considered. 

R. L. Giese, Research Assistant 

D. M. Benjamin, Associate Professor 

University of Wisconsin 



1 


_ 


5 


6 


- 


40 


41 


- 


100 



- 161 - 
Survey Methods 



BALSAM GALL MIDGE APPRAISAL SURVEY SUMMARY AND EVALUATION 



Stand number 



County T R S Forty Observer 

Number acres Number of plots 

Percent current twigs infested 



Damage level current twigs Light Medium Heavy 

Damage level of two-year-old internodes Light Medium Heavy 

Damage level of three-year-old internodes Light Medium Heavy 

Population trend 

Survey to be conducted again 

Marketing recommendations 



- 162 - 

BALSAM GALL MIDGE APPRAISAL SURVEY 



Survey Methods 



Stand No. _ 

County __ 

Stand Composition 



Starting Point and Course 

T R S Forty 



Date 

Observer 



Current Twigs Infested Damage Level Old Growth 

Per Ten Sampled Indicate L. M. or H. 

Two year old Internode Three jear old Ihternode 



Plot 

1 


Tree 


1 


2 


3 


l» 


i 


2 


3 


!» 


l 


2 


3 


U 


Branch 1 • 

2 ! 

3 
h 






































































































'lot 
2 


Tree 


1 


2 


3 


U 


i 


2 


3 


U 


l 


2 


3 


U 


Branch 1 
2 
3 
h 




































































































'lot 
3 


Tree 


1 


2 


3 


a 


i 


2 


3 


!t 


l 


2 


3 


U 


Branch 1 
2 
3 
h 




































































































Plot 
h 


Tree 


1 


2 


3 


u 


i 


2 


3 


U 


l 


2 


3 


u 


Branch 1 
2 
3 
h 






































































































Plot 
5 


Tree 


1 


2 


3 


u 


i 


2 


3 


h 


l 


2 


3 


h 


Branch 1 
2 
3 
h 



































































































Trend Check One 
L. M. H. 



Trend Check One 
L. M. H. 



- 163 - 

INSECTS NOT KNOWN TO OCCUR IN THE UNITED STATES 

RICE LEAF MINER ( Agromyza oryzae (Munakata)) 

Economic Importance : This leaf miner has been called the most serious pest of 
rice in Japan. Its damage is especially severe in the more northern areas where 
the growing season is shortened. Infested plants have dried leaf tips and 
reduced number of side shoots. Growth and maturity are retarded. Heavily infes- 
ted fields have a scorched appearance. About four percent of the crop is lost 
annually to this in Akita Prefecture. 




Damage to Rice Leaves 




General Distribution of Agromyza oryzae 



- 164 - 

Hosts : Cultivated and wild rice, reed and foxtail grasses. 

Distribution : Japan (north temperate) . 

Life History and Habits : In the Hokkaido region there are one to three genera- 
tions annually. The insect passes the winter in the pupal stage in the soil 
on rice stubble in the fields. Adult emergence begins about June 1. The flies 
are very active on warm, calm days. The female inserts her eggs singly in the 
epidermis of the rice leaf. An infested leaf has a speckled appearance. The 
larvae hatch in 6 days and mine downward in the leaf. This leads to formation 
of a white to brown irregular blotch. The larval period covers about 10 days; 
after which pupation occurs, usually on the upper or lower surface of the leaf 
or on the sheath. Most of the flies of the earlier generations emerge after 
7 to 18 days but some of the puparia remain in diapause. Most of the puparia 
of the later generations go into hibernation. 

Description : Adult about 2.5 mm. long, wing expanse 6 mm.; black or brownish 
with light brown or reddish eyes. Egg elongate, elliptical, white, about 1 mm. 
long. Larva white, flattish, 5 mm. long. There are two types of puparia. They 
may be distinguished as follows: the hibernating are light yellowish-white, 
changing to dark-gray to nearly black and are easily dislodged from leaves; the 
non-hibernating are light yellowish-white to pale-green to greenish-brown and 
adhere closely to the leaves. (Prepared in Survey and Detection Operations in 
cooperation with other ARS agencies.) CEIR 9(10) 3-6-59. 




Adult male of Agromyza oryzae 



Figures (except map) : Adult from Iconographia Insectorum Japonicorum. Ed. 2. , 
1954. 1736 pp., Tokyo. Damage from Kuwayama , S. 1928. Hokkaido Agr . Exp. Sta. 
Bui. No. 47. (Both publications in Japanese). 



SNT OF AGRI(|pMat^ ^Eenalty for Private Use 
25 D. C. 2*U ^ ^ Payment of Postage 







PLANT PEST CONTROL DIVISION 
AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH SERVICE 



UNITED STAT 





RTMENT OF AGRICULTURE 




■ S 



AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH SERVICE 



PLANT PEST CONTROL DIVISION 



SURVEYS DETECTION OPERATIONS 



The Cooperative Economic Insect Report is issued 
weekly as a service to American Agriculture. Its contents 
are compiled from information supplied by cooperating State, 
Federal, and industrial entomologists and other agricultural 
workers. In releasing this material the Division serves as 
a clearing house and does not assume responsibility for ac- 
curacy of the material. 



Reports and inquiries pertaining to this release 
should be mailed to: 

Survey & Detection Operations 



Plant Pest Control Division 

Agricultural Research Service 

United States Department of Agriculture 

Washington 25, D. C. 



Volume 9 March 13, 1959 Number 11 



COOPERATIVE ECONOMIC INSECT REPORT 



Highlights of Insect Conditions 

Heavy GREENBUG populations caused serious damage in some wheat fields in 
Tillman County, Oklahoma, and CORN LEAF APHID heavy in barley in Maricopa 
County, Arizona, (p. 167). 

GREEN PEACH APHID flights heaviest on record in Yuma area of Arizona. Could 
become a problem in Yuma Valley lettuce and melon fields, (p. 169). 

Outlook for BEET LEAFHOPPER in the Intermountain Regions calls for light to 
moderate movement into crop areas, (p. 169). 

APHIDS heavy in several areas on trees and ornamentals, (p. 170). 

MOSQUITOES a nuisance along the Sacramento River in California, (p. 170) . 

First KHAPRA BEETLE infestations since March 1957 found in New Mexico. First 
known POTATO TUBERWORM infestation in stored potatoes in Idaho since 1946 
found at Boise, (p. 171). 

INSECT DETECTION: Centrinaspis penicellus apparently reported for first time 
from Connecticut. (p~! 167) . Musca autumnalis collected from two localities 
in Virginia for a new State record. Tp~! 171) . 

CORRECTION, (p. 172). 

SUMMARY OF INSECT CONDITIONS - 1958 - NORTH CAROLINA (p. 173), GEORGIA (p. 177) 
ARKANSAS (p. 180) . 

Distribution of SOUTHERN GREEN STINK BUG. (p. 185). 



********************************** 



Reports in this issue are for the week ending March 6, unless otherwise 
designated. 



- 166 - 

WEATHER OF THE WEEK ENDING MARCH 9 

Dust, drifting snow, damaging winds and heavy rains were features of the weather 
of the week, as a storm moved from the Far Southwest northeastward across the 
Great Lakes into Canada during the period March 4 to 7 . Winds up to 60 mph on 
the 5th whipped up dust over the dry sections of western Nebraska, Kansas, 
Oklahoma and over most of Texas. The blowing dust damaged wheat in the plains 
area of the latter State. Snowfall ranged from 2 to 6 inches in the central 
Great Plains and up to 20 inches or more in portions of the upper Mississippi 
Valley and Great Lakes region. Drifts up to 4 feet in Kansas and up to 20 feet 
farther northeast blocked numerous highways, and thousands of cars, caught in the 
snow, were abandoned. More than 40 deaths, 20 in Iowa alone, were blamed on this 
snowstorm. Most deaths, as usual, resulted from traffic accidents, heart attacks 
and asphyxiation. This was reported to be the heaviest snowstorm in Wisconsin 
in many years. In the Northeast, heavy snowfall was limited mostly to northern 
Maine, but rains on frozen ground resulted in heavy runoff and some flooding in 
southern New England. The storm produced unusually heavy rains in a belt south 
of a line joining Cape Hatteras, North Carolina, and Pensacola, Florida, except 
in the Florida Peninsula where amounts were light. At Charleston, South 
Carolina, more than 6 inches of rain in 24 hours set a new March record. 

Precipitation totals for the week were moderate to heavy in nearly all sections 
east of the Great Plains, and wet soil continued to delay fieldwork in much of 
the South. In most of the remainder of the Nation amounts were light with little 
or none in California and Nevada and adjacent areas of nearby states. More 
precipitation is needed from the southwestern Great Plains to southern 
California. Temperatures for the week, although near normal in most of the 
country, averaged 6° above normal in northern Maine, along the California coast, 
and in parts of North Dakota and Montana, and 3° below in the Rio Grande Valley 
and Southeast. Scattered frost occurred as far south as the Everglades of 
Florida on the 3rd, but caused little or no damage. Subzero minima were recorded 
at some mountain stations in the extreme Northeast and in parts of Michigan, 
Wisconsin and Minnesota. The snow cover at the end of the week had disappeared 
at most lower levels west of the Continental Divide and the pack in the Cascades 
and Sierras had decreased considerably. The Great Plains were bare except for a 
few inches near the Canadian Border. The cover is still substantial in northern 
and southern Minnesota and most of Iowa, Wisconsin and Michigan. More than a 
foot of snow covers most of Wisconsin, and depths still exceed 40 inches in 
northern Michigan. A storm left 2 to 4 inches of snow in the northern half of 
Indiana near the end of the period and Indianapolis reported a 4-inch depth on 
the morning of the 10th. Depths decreased in the Northeast. (Weather supplied 
by U. S. Weather Bureau). 



- 167 - 

CEREAL AND FORAGE INSECTS 

GREENBUG (Toxoptera graminum ) - OKLAHOMA - Heavy populations, up to 2,000 per 
linear foot, killed plants and caused serious damage in some wheat fields in 
eastern Tillman County. Parasitic wasps active in the area. (Hatfield). 
Populations more common in northwestern counties. Found in 16 of 23 small 
grain fields checked in 5 counties, with 0.2-30 per linear foot. (VanCleave, 
Hudson, Owens). TEXAS - Found in all but 3 of 25 panhandle and 3 rolling plains 
counties surveyed, February 15 to March 2. Populations generally low (less than 
one to 10 per foot), except in Parmer, Hutchinson, Hansford and Swisher Counties, 
where counts averaged 5-20 per foot. One field in Parmer County had spotted 
populations of 5-40 per foot. Predators generally scarce. (Daniels). Light to 
medium and attacking oats and barley in Kaufman County. (Davis). 

APPLE GREEN APHID ( Rhopalosiphum fitchii) - OKLAHOMA - Found in 9 of 23 small 
grain fields checked in 5 northwest counties. Most counts averaged less than 
10 per linear foot. Averaged over 500 per linear foot in one Kingfisher area 
field. (VanCleave, Hudson, Owens). 

ENGLISH GRAIN APHID ( Macrosiphum granarium ) - OKLAHOMA - Averaged less than one 
per linear foot in two of 23 fields of small grains checked in 5 northwestern 
counties. (VanCleave, Hudson, Owens). 

CORN LEAF APHID ( Rhopalosiphum maidis ) - TEXAS - Attacked oats and barley in 
Rockwall and Kaufman Counties. (Davis) . ARIZONA - Continued heavy in most 
barley fields in Maricopa County. Averaged over 50 per plant in 10 fields 
sampled between Peoria and Mesa. (Ariz. Coop. Sur . ) . 

BROWN WHEAT MITE ( Penthaleus major ) - TEXAS - Populations found in Gray, Roberts 
and Ochiltree Counties, with 30-60 per foot in one field examined in Gray County. 
(Daniels) . 

WINTER GRAIN MITE ( Petrobia latens ) - OKLAHOMA - Found in 4 of 23 small grain 
fields checked in 5 northwestern counties. Averaged 75 per linear foot in one 
field, less than 10 per linear foot in 3 fields. (VanCleave, Hudson, Owens). 

A LEAFHOPPER ( Dikraneura carneola ) - UTAH - Generally active on winter wheat and 
roadside grasses in Box Elder County. (Knowlton) . 

CUTWORMS - TEXAS - Small numbers noted in wheat in Rockwall County. (Davis). 
Few Chorizagrotis auxiliaris found in Dallam County. (Daniels) . 

EUROPEAN CORN BORER ( Pyrausta nubilalis ) - KANSAS - Populations ranged 2-73 
borers per field in 13 fields surveyed in Jefferson County for winter mortality. 
(Burkhardt , Peters). 

SOUTHWESTERN CORN BORER ( Zeadiatraea grandiosella ) - KANSAS - One larva found in 
Jefferson County in fields sampled for European corn borer. (Burkhardt, Peters). 

CURCULINOIDS - CONNECTICUT - Centrinaspis penicellus collected on corn at 
Mt. Carmel , August 2, 1958. From all available records, this appears to be the 
first record for the State. (Johnson). FLORIDA - All stages of Hyperodes 
delumbus collected on sweet corn in Palm Beach County. Approximately 50 percent 
of all corn fields are infested and infestations are close to 100 percent of all 
plants in infested fields. Serious damage occurred to plants 1-2 feet high. 
(Harris) . 

ALFALFA WEEVIL ( Hypera postica ) - VIRGINIA - Averaged one per bud on all plants 
examined in a Pittsylvania County alfalfa field, February 18. (Reynolds) . Also 
present in alfalfa in Halifax and Henry Counties (Morris) and in Roanoke County 
(Rowell) . SOUTH CAROLINA - Larvae damaged alfalfa stands in Newberry County. 



- 168 - 

Some controls have been applied. (Nettles et al . ) • IDAHO - Adults active in 
fields near Rupert, Minidoka County. Soil temperature was 38°F. at time of 
observation. (Priest). 

SPOTTED ALFALFA APHID ( Therioaphis maculata ) - OKLAHOMA - Averaged 288 per 
square foot of crown area in some Payne County alfalfa fields, a decrease from 
the 720 per square foot reported last week. (Ketner) . None found in 2 Caddo 
County alfalfa fields checked. (Hudson) . TEXAS - Medium to heavy widespread 
infestations in Delta and Rockwall Counties. (Davis). NEW MEXICO - Many 
fields heavily infested in northern Dona Ana County. Only an occasional 
specimen found in southern areas of county. (N. M. Coop. Rpt . ) . 

PEA APHID ( Macrosiphum pisi ) - TEXAS - Small numbers observed on vetch in 
Rockwall and Kaufman Counties. (Davis). CALIFORNIA - Light on alfalfa in 
the Redding area, Shasta County. (Cal. Coop. Rpt.). NEW MEXICO - Remained 
light in Dona Ana and Sierra Counties. Moderate on 400 acres of fall-seeded 
alfalfa in De Baca County. Some growers treating. (N. M. Coop. Rpt.) . 

A SPOTTED CUCUMBER BEETLE ( Diabrotica undecimpunctata tenella ) - NEW MEXICO - 
Averaged 1-2 per square foot in alfalfa fields in northern Dona Ana County. 
(N. M. Coop. Rpt.) . 

LYGUS BUGS ( Lygus spp.) - TEXAS - Caused concern on alfalfa in Rockwall County. 
(Davis) . 

THRIPS - NEW MEXICO - Very abundant in alfalfa fields in southern counties. 
(N. M. Coop. Rpt.). 

FRUIT INSECTS 

CLIMBING CUTWORMS - UTAH - Some activity about apricot trees near Willard, Box 
Elder County. (Knowlton) . 

SCALE INSECTS - ARIZONA - Icerya pure has i observed on citrus near Mesa, Maricopa 
County. (Ariz. Coop. Sur.y! CALIFORNIA - Aonidiella citrina heavy and Coccus 
pseudomagno 1 i arum medium on citrus locally in Placer County. Aonidiella aurantii 
light on fig at Willows, Glenn County. (Cal. Coop. Rpt.). 

AN AVOCADO MITE ( Oligonychus punicae) - CALIFORNIA - Medium on avocado trees in 
Baldwin Park area of Los Angeles County. (Johnson). 

A WHITEFLY ( Trialeurodes ruborum) - CALIFORNIA - Heavy on blackberry vines in 
Wasco, Kern County. (Cal. Coop. Rpt.). 



TRUCK CROP INSECTS 

DIAMONDBACK MOTH ( Plutella maculipennis ) - GEORGIA - Light on cabbage in Colquitt 
County. (Johnson) . 

CABBAGE APHID ( Brevicoryne brassicae ) - GEORGIA - Light on cabbage in Colquitt 
County. (Johnson) . 

CUTWORMS - NEW MEXICO - Caused considerable damage to one lettuce field in Dona 
Ana County. (N. M. Coop. Rpt.). 



- 169 - 

GREEN PEACH APHID ( Myzus persicae ) - ARIZONA - Light but increasing in some 
lettuce fields in Maricopa County. In Yuma area, flights were reported to be 
heaviest on record, with aphids so numerous they were visible in the sky as they 
were blown on wind currents. As a carrier of virus diseases, they could be a 
problem in lettuce and melon fields in the Yuma Valley. (Ariz. Coop. Sur . ) . 

A SPOTTED CUCUMBER BEETLE ( Diabrotica undecimpunctata tenella ) - NEW MEXICO - 
Caused minor damage to lettuce in Dona Ana County. (N. M. Coop. Rpt . ) . 

THRIPS - NEW MEXICO - Caused some damage to outer leaves of lettuce plants 
and averaged 1-2 per onion plant in Dona Ana County. (N. M. Coop. Rpt.). 

TULIP APHID ( Anuraphis tulipae ) - ARIZONA - Present on carrots in a few fields 
in the Salt River Valley. Treatment necessary in some cases with fair control 
being obtained. (Ariz. Coop. Sur., Feb. 13). 

SEED-CORN MAGGOT ( Hylemya cilicurura ) - WASHINGTON - Adults have been flying all 
winter, with peak of brood about December 30, 1958. Many fresh gravid females 
present in February. Sticky-stake catches, per 50 stakes, in onion fields in 
Walla Walla area were 524 on December 30, 1958; 133 on January 13; 266 on 
February 10; and 144 on February 24. (Woodworth) . 

Beet Leaf hopper Conditions in Utah, Western Colorado, Southern Nevada, 
Southeastern California and Central Arizona - 1959 

The beet leafhopper spring movement from the southern desert breeding grounds to 
the cultivated districts of central Arizona and southeastern California is expec- 
ted to be light. The movement to southern Nevada and southern Utah is expected 
to be light to moderate. The movement to south central Utah is expected to be 
light to moderate. The movement to northern Utah and western Colorado is expec- 
ted to be light. The local movement from the breeding ground of northern Utah 
and western Colorado to the adjacent cultivated districts of northern Utah and 
western Colorado is expected to be light. 

This statement is based upon present conditions. The movement of the leafhopper 
into the cultivated districts of southern Nevada and southern Utah is expected 
to start by late March to early April. The movement to central Utah and western 
Colorado is expected to start by late April and will reach its peak by mid-May. 
The local movement to northern Utah and western Colorado is expected to start 
by late May and reach its peak in mid-June. The abundance of the population 
engaged in these movements will depend to some degree upon unpredictable weather 
fluctuations during the next two months. However, as a result of experience in 
previous seasons, conditions as observed in 1959 are similar to 1948 and have 
been associated with a light to moderate movement of leafhoppers to the culti- 
vated districts. A later statement will be issued on beet leafhopper conditions 
based on additional information obtained from field studies now in progress. 

The distant southern breeding ground estimated to encompass some 50,000 square 
miles was studied in mid-February, 1959, in cooperation with State and Federal 
officials. Host plants were found to be present in 10 percent of the 370 ten- 
mile sampling points in the entire southern breeding grounds in 1959 in compar- 
ison to 70 percent in 1958, 14 percent in 1957, 3 percent in 1956, 36 percent 
in 1955 , 48 percent in 1952 and 18 percent in 1948. The average leafhopper 
population in the approximately 5,000 square miles studied where plants were 
present averaged 0.0 5 per square foot of weed host as compared with 0.66 in 

1958, 0.22 in 1952 and 0.12 per square foot in 1948. Beet leafhoppers collected 
from various annual host plants in the southern breeding grounds in mid-February, 

1959, showed about 3 percent to be viruliferous or capable of transmitting the 
virus that causes curly top disease. This is in comparison with 7 percent in 
1958, 6 percent in 1957, 10 percent in 1956, 20 percent in 1955, 10 percent in 
1952 and 4 percent in 1948. The percentage of viruliferous beet leafhoppers 
that overwintered in 1959 in northern Utah has not yet been determined. 



- 170 - 

On the basis of the acreage of host plants , the beet leafhopper population and 
the percentage of the insects that are infective, it is estimated 0.2 billion 
infective leafhoppers were present in the southern breeding grounds during the 
February study. By comparison, the population in 1958 was estimated at 45.0 
billion, 1957 at 0.16 billion, 1956 at 0.004 billion, 1955 at 0.85 billion 
and 1952 at 7.2 billion. (Dorst , Knowlton) . 

TOBACCO INSECTS 

VEGETABLE WEEVIL ( Listroderes costirostris obliquus ) - GEORGIA - Light on 
tobacco plant beds in Tift, Berrien, Cook, Colquitt, Grady, Thomas and Worth 
Counties. (Johnson). 

FOREST, ORNAMENTAL AND SHADE TREE INSECTS 

NANTUCKET PINE MOTH ( Rhyacionia frustrana) - SOUTH CAROLINA - Field inspections 
February 26 showed scattered adult emergence. Most still in pupal state. 
(Nettles et al . ) . 

PINE TUBE MOTH ( Argyrotaenia pinatubana ) - DELAWARE - Pupae rather numerous on 
white pine north of Smyrna, New Castle County. (Burbutis, Conrad). 

PINE REPRODUCTION WEEVILS - SOUTH CAROLINA - No adults were discovered, but 
fresh feeding evidence was found. Field evidence shows that emergence from 
hibernation has begun. (Nettles et al . ) . 

PINE SAWFLIES ( Neodiprion spp.) - VIRGINIA - Egg survey indicates presence over 
a wider area than in 1957 and may be particularly heavy in central and south 
central counties. (Va. Pine Sawfly Cont. Comm.). 

APHIDS - SOUTH CAROLINA - Widespread, heavy population of a pine aphid in 
Clemson area, especially on shortleaf and loblolly pines. Twig mortality not 
uncommon and injury is increasing. (Nettles et al . ) . CALIFORNIA - Thoracaphis 
umbel lulariae heavy and damaged California bay trees in San Mateo, San Mateo 
County. (Cal . Coop. Rpt.). NEW MEXICO - Building up on roses, arborvitae and 
other ornamentals in southern areas. (N. M. Coop. Rpt.). 

SCALE INSECTS - NORTH CAROLINA - Pseudaulacaspis pentagona infesting mulberry in 
Halifax County. (Scott, Farrier). ARIZONA - Icerya purchasi observed on orna- 
mental pittosporum in the Yuma Valley. (Ariz. Coop. Sur . ) . CALIFORNIA - 
Aonidiella citrina heavy on privet in Penryn, Placer County. Aspidiotus 
perniciosus medium on cotoneaster in the Arvin area, Kern County"! (Cal . Coop. 
Rpt.). 

INSECTS AFFECTING MAN AND ANIMALS 

MOSQUITOES - CALIFORNIA - Great numbers coming out of hibernation after heavy 
rains followed by unseasonably warm weather and creating considerable nuisance 
to residents in cities along Sacramento River. (Cal. Coop. Rpt.). 



- 171 - 

STORED-PRODUCT INSECTS 

KHAPRA BEETLE (Trogoderma granarium ) - NEW MEXICO - Two properties at Truth or 
Consequences, Sierra County, found infested. These are first infestations in 
the State since March, 1957. (N. M. Coop. Rpt . ) . 

POTATO TUB ERWORM ( Gnorimoschema operculella ) - IDAHO - Causing heavy damage to 
potatoes in storage in Boise. All stages present. This is first known case 
of infestation in potatoes in State since eradication of an introduced infesta- 
tion in 1946. (Manis) . 

PINK SCAVENGER CATERPILLAR ( Pyroderces rileyi) - ARIZONA - Found infesting some 
grain sorghum coming into Phoenix for storage. (Ariz. Coop. Sur . ) . 

Stored-grain Insects in Texas - RICE WEEVIL ( Sitophilus oryza ) , FLAT GRAIN 
BEETLE ( Laemophloeus pusillus ) , CONFUSED FLOUR BEETLE ( Tribolium confusum ) and 
SAW-TOOTHED GRAIN BEETLE ( Oryzaephilus surinamensis ) infesting store grain 
sorghum in Karnes County. Insects appeared on top two feet of grain, being 
heaviest where grain was piled highest. Laemophloeus pusillus light in milo 
in Lubbock County. (Texas Coop. Rpt.). A FLOUR BEETLE caused concern in 
elevators in Parmer and Castro Counties. (Russell). 

BENEFICIAL INSECTS 

HONEY BEE ( Apis mellifera ) - TEXAS - Brood rearing increased greatly from early 
blooms in the Winter Garden area. Colonies came through winter in fine condi- 
tion , but have used up more stores than usual . (Harding) . 

PREDATORS - OKLAHOMA - Few active Hippodamia convergens found in a small number 
of small grain fields checked in 5 northwestern counties. Nabis sp. and lace- 
wings present in very limited numbers in same area. (VanCleave , Hudson, Owens). 
NEW MEXICO - Coccinellid adults averaged 4 per square foot in fields in southern 
Dona Ana Countv. very few larvae and pupae. In northern part of county where 
spotted alfalfa aphid infestations were heavy, very few adults were present but 
larvae averaged 2-10 per square foot in many fields. (N. M. Coop. Rpt.) 

MISCELLANEOUS INSECTS 

STINK BUGS - ARIZONA - Chlorochroa sayi and Thyanta custator increased on 
globemallow in the desert bordering cultivated areas in Maricopa County. (Ariz. 
Coop. Sur. ) . 

A MUSCID ( Musca autumnalis ) - VIRGINIA - Specimens collected from 2 localities 
in Loudoun County during December, 1958, and February, 1959. Previously not 
reported in the United States outside of the State of New York. Det. C.W. 
Sabrosky. (Morris) . 

BROWN-BANDED ROACH ( Supella supellectilium ) - WYOMING - Collected in housing at 
Laramie , Albany County. (Davison) . 

TERMITES - MARYLAND - Winged forms of Reticulitermes flavipes noted in homes at 
Cambridge , Dorchester County , and at Silver Spring, Montgomery County. (U. Md. , 
Ent. Dept.). WYOMING - Caused extensive damage to a house in Douglas, Converse 
County, and to a house in Wheatland, Platte County. (Davison). KANSAS - First 
swarm of R. flavipes of season reported at a house in Riley County. (Knutson) . 



- 172 - 

CORRECTION 

CEIR 9(9): 138 - Under Forest, Ornamental and Shade Tree Insects, COTTONY MAPLE 
SCALE ( Pulvinaria vitis ) should be changed to read COTTONY MAPLE SCALE 
(Pulvinaria innumerabilis) . 



LIGHT TRAP COLLECTIONS 



Pseud. Agrot. Prod. Perid. Feltia 
unip. yps . ornlth. marg. subt . 



ARIZONA 

Mesa 2/26-3/4 31 7 

FLORIDA 

Gainesville 2/24-3/2 1 

Key West 2/1-28 19 

Monticello 2/25-3/3 1 2 

Quincy 2/24-3/2 1 



SOUTH CAROLINA 
Charleston 3/2-8 
Clemson 2/28-3/6 



- 173 - 
SUMMARY OF INSECT CONDITIONS - 1958 

NORTH CAROLINA 

Prepared by M. H Farrier* 

Highlights : Flue-cured tobacco growers lost an average of $5.48 per acre due to 
HORNWORMS and BUDWORMS ( Heliothis spp.) in 1958. Feeding by larvae and adults of 
ALFALFA WEEVIL on ladino clover was much heavier than in past years. An adult 
of the CHINCH BUG was first taken in Wake County on April 24. During late May 
and early July, 1958, spotty infestations of CHINCH BUGS were mostly limited to 
the Coastal Plain. Blissus leucopterus insularis was taken in New Hanover Cpunty 
in August but Blissus leucopterus was identified from Craven County in June. 
This suggests the northern limit of B. 1_. insularis was between these two coastal 
counties. Injury by EUROPEAN CORN BORER was more widespread in 1958. In 
Pasquotank County, and about 50 percent of the larvae pupated by April 21 ana 
emergence was 70 percent complete May 13. At Raleigh adults first emerged May 1. 
In late May, larvae infested potato vines from northeastern coastal counties to 
Carteret County, where pupation first was noted on June 4. Inland, European 
corn borer attacked wheat, corn , peanuts and sweet corn, usually in limited 
numbers and localities, but a few corn fields in Surry County had as high as 
3-4 borers per stalk in early July. CUTWORMS were more widespread in 1958. 
Over 100 acres of corn and burley tobacco were destroyed in Cherokee and Macon 
Counties by the BLACK CUTWORM in early June and VARIEGATED CUTWORM caused a 40 
percent loss of cabbage heads in Carteret County. ARMYWORM was injurious in most 
northern Coastal Plain counties and in some Piedmont counties. Infestations of 
YELLOW -STRIPED ARMYWORM (Prodenia ornithogalli ) was limited to the Piedmont and 
Mountains. A survey including 1,988 head of cattle indicated a generally moder- 
ate to very severe infestation of CATTLE GRUBS ( Hypoderma spp.) in the western 
mountainous areas. Only local light to moderate infestations were found in the 
Piedmont and even less in the Coastal Plain. A MIRID ( Spanogonicus albof asciatus ) 
destroyed many lawns in Faison in late August. Other locally severe or unusual 
infestations were the LESPEDEZA WEBWORM on sericea lespedeza, GARDEN FLEAHOPPER 
on sweetpotato, BALSAM WOOLLY APHID ( Chermes piceae) on Fraser fir and an 
ERIOPHYID MITE ( Vasates magnolivora ) discoloring magnolia leaves. Unusually 
large numbers of MILLIPEDES invaded homes in 1958. 

New Records of Economically Important Insects : In May, a SAWFLY ( Neodiprion 
pratti prattil defoliated over 5,000 acres of pine, principally Virginia pine, in 
northern Granville, western Vance and eastern Person Counties. Spotty defolia- 
tion occurred westward to Guilford County and south into Wake County. In early 
November, adults were flying at the heaviest spring infestation site in Granville 
County; however, oviposition was not heavy on small trees previously defoliated. 
IMPORTED FIRE ANT ( Solenopsis saevissima v . richteri ) appeared in local areas in 
Onslow and Robeson Counties and eradication was immediately attempted by State 
and Federal authorities. EUROPEAN CORN BORER ( Pyrausta nubilalis ) was taken from 
corn in Johnston and Scotland Counties for the first time. ALFALFA WEEVIL 
( Hypera postica) reached the western boundary of the State with 8 newly infested 
counties. ELM SPANWORM ( Ennomos subsignarius ) defoliated a number of hardwoods 
in Cherokee County. 

Cereal and Forage Crops : The first POTATO LEAFHOPPER ( Empoasca fabae ) collection 
for the year was made in Iredell County on May 15 with other species of Empoasca . 
Feeding injury by ALFALFA WEEVIL ( Hypera postica ) was seen on alfalfa in late 
January in Wake County and larvae were half grown in Richmond and Montgomery 
Counties on March 5. Untreated alfalfa fields in severely infested areas had a 

♦Summarizing over 800 reports of more than 150 individuals, representing over 24 
Federal, State and private agencies who submitted specimens or data regarding 
276 species of the 11,000 arthropods known to be in North Carolina. The aid of 
Miss Phyllis Pake in preparation of specimens and compilation of data is grate- 
fully acknowledged. 



- 174 - 

loss of first cutting and delayed the second cutting. Two treatments were 
necessary in the southern area. Other pests of alfalfa included CLOVER ROOT 
CURCULIO ( Sitona hispidula ) , grubs of GREEN JUNE BEETLE ( Cotinis nitida ) and 
PEA APHID ( Macrosiphum pisi ) . ALFALFA WEEVIL larvae caused moderate foliage loss 
to ladino clover in Gates and Richmond Counties and adults severely damaged 
margins of fields in Iredell County when they migrated from alfalfa fields. 
Associated with ALFALFA WEEVIL on ladino clover, were CLOVER LEAF WEEVIL ( Hypera 
punctata ) and a CLOVER WEEVIL ( Hypera meles ) . Corn was replanted in some 
western counties due to injury by BLACK CUTWORM ( Agrotis ypsilon ) and in some 
southeastern fields due to SUGARCANE BEETLE ( Euetheola rugiceps ) . Injury to corn 
by SOUTHERN CORNSTALK BORER ( Diatraea crambidoides ) was limited to the Coastal 
Plain. A maximum stalk infestation of 15 percent was observed but most were 
only 1 or 2 percent. CHINCH BUG ( Blissus leucopterus ) infestations of corn were 
principally in the Coastal Plain or eastern Piedmont. BILLBUGS ( Calendra spp.) 
caused injury in the Coastal Plain in almost every corn field, though severe 
injury was more limited. CORN EARWORM ( Heliothis zea ) was more general and 
injurious in whorls of corn than the past several years, but infestations were 
usually from 1-5 percent of the plants. EUROPEAN CORN BORER ( Pyrausta nubilalis ), 
ARMYWORM ( Pseudaletia unipuncta ) and FALL ARMYWORM ( Laphygma frugiperda ) also 
attacked field corn. One hundred acres of sericea lespedeza in Hoke County were 
injured, some severely, by LESPEDEZA WEBWORM ( Tetralopha scortealis ) . Larvae of 
GREEN JUNE BEETLE ( Cotinis nitida ) completely destroyed large areas of a newly 
seeded pasture in Union County. Foliar feeders of soybeans included JAPANESE 
BEETLE ( Popillia japonica ) , MEXICAN BEAN BEETLE ( Epilachna varivestis ) , ARMYWORM, 
GREEN CLOVERWORM ( Plathypena scabra) and BEAN LEAF BEETLE ( Cerotoma trifurcata ) . 
All caused moderate or less injury in different locales. Peanuts throughout the 
Coastal Plain were moderately injured by a LEAFHOPPER ( Empoasca sp., prob. fabae ) 
in August. TOBACCO THRIPS ( Frankliniella fusca) was not the problem of past 
years. Some injury to peanuts by EUROPEAN CORN BORER and CORN EARWORM was 
reported. 

Fruit Insects : SCARABS ( Phyllophaga spp.) caused local defoliation of fruit 
trees in Cleveland and McDowell Counties. EUROPEAN RED MITE ( Panonychus ulmi ) 
was general on apples in the western area in early August. APPLE APHID ( Aphis 
pomi ) , WOOLLY APPLE APHID ( Eriosoma lanigerum ) , an APHID (prob. Anuraphis roseus ), 
SHOT -HOLE BORER ( Scolytus rugulosus ) and LEAF CRUMPLER ( Acrobasis indiginella ) 
were all reported from apple. SOFT SCALES ( Pseudococcus sp. and undet. sp. ) 
infested blueberries in the Coastal Plain. A ROUND-HEADED WOOD BORER ( Oberea 
myops ) bored in blueberry stems in Watauga County. Figs were infested by a 
SCALE ( Aspidiotus lataniae ) and a STINK BUG ( Euthyrhynchus floridanus ) . GRAPE 
FLEA BEETLE ( Altica chalybea ) was widespread on grapes in the Coastal Plain and 
injury was light to moderate. Other pests of grape included GRAPE LEAF 
SKELETONIZER ( Harrisina americana ) , a SCARAB ( Anomala nigropicta ) , GRAPE LEAF 
FOLDER ( Desmia funeralis ) , GRAPE ROOT BORER (Vitacea polistiformis ) and a MIDGE. 
PLUM CURCULIO ( Conotrachelus nenuphar ) was abundant in unsprayed peach orchards 
in the Sandhills area on May 9. The first "wormy" drops fell on May 13. Adults 
of the summer generation were emerging the week of June 27 and adults were more 
abundant in 19 58 than in the past several years. Pre-harvest sprays were 
important. Home orchards in northeastern counties were heavily infested in late 
May. WHITE PEACH SCALE ( Pseudaulacaspis pentagona ) was reported many times on 
hosts other than peach. It was particularly widespread in the southern Piedmont. 
Local pests of pecans included PECAN NUT CASEBEARER ( Acrobasis caryae ) , PECAN 
CARPENTERWORM ( Cossula magnifica ) , PECAN WEEVIL ( Curculio caryae ) , TWIG GIRDLER 
( Oncideres cingulata ) , PECAN LEAF CASEBEARER ( Acrobasis juglandis ) , a PHYLLOXERA 
( Phylloxera sp.) and a SCARAB ( Phyllophaga sp.JT 

Truck Crop Insects : Beans were not as severely attacked by MEXICAN BEAN BEETLE 
( Epilachna varivestis ) as in 1957. Highest foliage loss was only 5 percent. 
BEAN LEAF BEETLE ( Cerotoma trifurcata ) was worse in 1958 than the past five years 
in Coastal Plain counties, with leaf losses up to 10 percent in local areas. CORN 
EARWORM ( Heliothis zea ) damage caused rejection of some lots of wax beans in 
Chowan County. SPIDER MITES ( Tetranychus spp.) were more general on beans than 



- 175 - 

in 1957. Fifteen to 20 percent of experimental broccoli was a loss due to 
CABBAGE MAGGOT ( Hylemya brassicae ) in Henderson County. Late season broccoli 
plantings in Wake County were severely attacked by IMPORTED CABBAGEWORM (Pieris 
rapae) . DIAMONDBACK MOTH ( Plutella maculipennis ) was the principal pest of 
cabbage in late May in the Coastal Plain. In July, reports of CABBAGE LOOPER 
( Trichoplusia ni ) became more numerous. VARIEGATED CUTWORM ( Peridroma 
margaritosa ) caused 40 percent loss of 75 acres of cabbage in Carteret County 
in May. Ripening canteloups were injured in New Hanover County by MILLIPEDES. 
First adult HARLEQUIN BUG ( Murgantia histrionica ) appeared week of May 16 in 
Duplin County. Untreated collard plants averaged over 1 adult and numerous 
nymphs per plant in Duplin County in early September. On April 20, first 
adults of STRIPED CUCUMBER BEETLE ( Acalymma vittata) were seen in Wake County 
and by mid-May destructive numbers were present on cucumbers in Duplin County. 
SPOTTED CUCUMBER BEETLE (Diabrotica undecimpunctata howardi ) , TOOTHED FLEA 
BEETLE ( Chaetocnema denticulata ) and SWEETPOTATO FLEA BEETLE ( Chaetocnema 
conf inis ) were pests of cucumbers in Duplin County. EGGPLANT FLEA BEETLE 
( Epitrfx fuscula ) caused severe injury to some young eggplant in Duplin County. 
Injury to eggplant by TOBACCO FLEA BEETLE (Epitrix hirtipennis ) also was noted. 
ONION MAGGOT ( Hylemya antiqua ) caused up to 30 percent loss in some onion 
fields in the southern Coastal Plain. Feeding by a MIRID ( Alydus pilosus ) 
wilted tips of field peas locally in southeastern counties. 

Potato vines in coastal commercial production areas were mined by EUROPEAN CORN 
BORER ( Pyrausta nubilalis ) and STALK BORER ( Papaipema nebris) . Highest infesta- 
tions by EUROPEAN CORN BORER in potatoes approached 5 percent of the vines in 
1958. Secondary invasion by fungi was important in causing additional loss. 
Feeding of COLORADO POTATO BEETLE ( Leptinotarsa decemlineata ) was first noted 
in Duplin County during the week of April 25 and in Granville County on May 13. 
Complete destruction of 30 percent of untreated potato plants occurred at a site 
in Duplin County and remaining plants were stunted. Complete losses of home 
plantings were not uncommon in the eastern part of the State. POTATO FLEA 
BEETLE ( Epitrix cucumeris ) was numerous on potatoes in Pasquotank County. 
PICKLEWORM ( Diaphania nitidalis ) occurred locally in squash in Martin County. 
Complaints of SAP BEETLES feeding on sweet corn were more widespread than in 
past years . CORN FLEA BEETLE ( Chaetocnema pulicaria ) , EUROPEAN CORN BORER 
and a BILLBUG ( Calendra sp.) were locally severe in the Coastal Plain. JAPANESE 
BEETLE ( Popillia japonica ) fed so severely on sweet corn silks maturing in late 
August at Faison that kernel set was reduced over 5Q percent per ear. GARDEN 
FLEAHOPPER ( Halticus bracteatus ) ranged 2-6 per leaf on untreated sweetpotatoes 
in Johnston County in October. Tomatoes were plagued by TOMATO HORNWORM 
(Protoparce quinquemaculata ) , TOMATO FRUITWORM ( Heliothis zea ) , STALK BORER 
( Papaipema nebris ) and FLEA BEETLES. Local severe infestations of adults and 
larvae of a STRAWBERRY R00TW0RM (Paria sp.) and larvae of GREEN JUNE BEETLE 
( Cotinis nitida) were reported on strawberries. SOWBUGS (undet. spp.) and a SAP 
BEETLE ( Glischrochi lus quadrisignatus ) invaded ripe fruit. 

Tobacco Insects : Flue-cured tobacco growers lost an average of $5.48 per acre 
due to HORNWORMS ( Protoparce spp.) and BUDWORMS ( Heliothis spp.) in 19 58; but, 
even more important was the number of fields with little or no injury. 

Percent of samples of tobacco growers ' fields examined in North 
Carolina which had no injury by hornworms or budworms in 1958 

Portion of Number of Fields not Fields not 
plant fields injured by injured by 

examined examined hornworms budworms 



Lower 9 leaves 

(1st Brood) 121 55% 16% 

Upper 9 leaves 

(2nd Brood) 179 2 5% 34% 



- 176 - 

An average of $3.02 was the estimated loss of burley tobacco due to HORNWORMS 
and BUDWORMS . Distinct differences in losses of flue-cured tobacco caused by 
first and second-brood HORNWORMS (early and late season losses to BUDWORMS) 
indicate erroneous conclusions could be made, if these losses were totaled for 
the season. Losses caused by HORNWORMS also had wider variations than did 
losses caused by BUDWORMS. Heaviest losses were caused by second-brood 
HORNWORMS in Davidson, Iredell and Randolph Counties. Heaviest losses caused 
by BUDWORMS were in late season in Carteret, Onslow and Pamlico Counties; the 
other end of the flue-cured tobacco production area. Losses caused by 
first-brood HORNWORMS and early-season BUDWORMS were more uniform over the 
area than those of the second-brood HORNWORMS and late-season BUDWORMS. 

Injury by TOBACCO FLEA BEETLE (Epitrix hirtipennis ) was most important at the 
time of transplanting, especially if controls were not used on plant beds prior 
to transplanting. A WIREWORM ( Conoderus sp., prob. vespertinus ) injured up to 
70 percent of the plants in fields of heaviest infestation in Wake and Wilson 
Counties. Other tobacco foliage pests included JAPANESE BEETLE ( Popillia 
japonica ) , VEGETABLE WEEVIL ( Listroderes costirostris obliquus) and COLORADO 
POTATO BEETLE ( Leptinotarsa decemlineata ) larvae. 

Cotton Insects : Overwintered BOLL WEEVILS ( Anthonomus grandis ) appeared in 
cotton fields during week of May 16 in Scotland County. Few adults were present 
in early June, but by early August numbers were increasing rapidly in the south 
central area. Local severe outbreaks of BOLLWORMS ( Heliothis spp. , et al.) 
resulted in defoliation of some fields in early July. In early August, out- 
breaks did not occur in spite of much moth activity and oviposition on cotton. 
Some limited early-season injury was caused by GARDEN SPRINGTAIL ( Bourletiella 
hortensis ) , COTTON APHID ( Aphis gossypii ) , TOBACCO THRIPS ( Frankliniella fusca ) 
and other pests. 

Forest, Shade Tree and Ornamental Insects : Adults of JAPANESE BEETLE ( Popillia 
japonica ) were emerging prior to June 13 in southeastern areas. By July 18, 
adult populations were decreasing in most eastern areas and reached a peak in 
the western areas. As a group, SCARABS came to attention more often on orna- 
mentals in 1958 than in previous years. BALSAM WOOLLY APHID ( Chermes piceae ) 
caused some mortality in 1,400 acres of Fraser fir atop Mt. Mitchell. A 
SPITTLEBUG ( Tomaspis bicincta) was very abundant in 1958 and caused tips of 
holly, particularly, to wilt. In addition to the defoliation of pine by a SAWFLY 
( Neodi prion pratti pratti ) , SOUTHERN PINE BEETLE ( Dendroctonus frontalis ) caused 
spotty kills in the eastern quarter of Tyrrell County and northwest corner of 
Hyde County. 

Insects Affecting Man and Animals : No infestations of SCREW-WORM ( Callitroga 
hominivorax ) were known in the State in 1958. CATTLE GRUBS ( Hypoderma spp.) 
(see Highlights) . Larvae determined to be COMMON CATTLE GRUB ( Hypoderma 
lineatu m) were collected in Mitchell County in April. On April 22, cattle were 
first noticed running from heel flies in Ashe County. Thirty-four infestations 
of DOG FOLLICLE MITE ( Demodex canis ) were reported to the State veterinarian in 
1958 as were also 3 cases of tick paralysis of dogs. An unusual outbreak of an 
ANT ( Formica integra) occurred around a marsh in Duplin County. Hogs avoided 
usual resting places and watering sites. Neither mules nor man could stand long 
in the area adjacent to the marsh. Apparently the outbreak was caused by recent 
bulldozing of the area around the marsh, which resulted in abundant soil contact 
with piles of wood in which the ants tunneled. A MOTH FLY bit some hogs in 
Northampton County until their eyes had swollen shut. Larvae of SALT-MARSH 
MOSQUITO ( Aedes sollicitans ) first appeared in early April in Brunswick, New 
Hanover, Onslow and Pender Counties. By mid-May, severe infestations had been 
reported along the entire coast. With minor fluctuations, populations decreased 
rapidly in late June and remained low until mid-August when increases were again 
noticed in limited areas. By late September, adult biting counts were as high 
as 200 per minute. In October, they again decreased, but by late October 63-100 
adults were landing per minute at near 70-degree temperatures. Reports of 



- 177 - 

WHEEL BUG ( Arilus cristatus ) were more numerous than in past years. A severe 
outbreak of a MOSQUITO ( Aedes sticticus ) followed flooding of the Roanoke River 
in early May. Local infestations of BED BUG ( Cimex lectularius ) were reported. 

Household Pests : The usual assortment of pests in households came to attention. 
Three CARPET BEETLES were identified, Attagenus piceus , Anthrenus verbasci and 
Anthrenus flavipes . Pantry pests include INDIAN-MEAL MOTH ( Plodia 
interpunctella ) , DARK MEALWORM ( Tenebrio obscurus ) , SAW-TOOTHED GRAIN BEETLE 
( Oryzaephilus surinamensis ) and MEDITERRANEAN FLOUR MOTH ( Anagasta kuhniella ) . 
CLOTHES MOTHS include Tinea pellionella and Tineola bisselliella . GERMAN 
COCKROACH ( Blattella germanica ) , ORIENTAL COCKROACH ( Blatta~orientalis ) and 
BROWN-BANDED ROACH ( Supella supellectilium) were identified from homes. Pests 
of animals in the home were BROWN DOG TICK ( Rhipicephalus sanguineus ) and 
NORTHERN FOWL MITE ( Ornithonyssus sylviarum ) . Five species of ANTS( Crematogaster 
sp. , Acanthomyops sp. , Camponotus herculeanus pennsylvanicus , Lasius alienus 
americanus and Monomorium pharaonis) were identified from homes. Invaders were 
CLOVER MITE, MILLIPEDES, BOXELDER BUG ( Leptocoris trivittatus ) , GIANT HORNET 
( Vespa crabro germana) and a FLANNEL MOTH ( Norape cretata ) . 

Structural Pests : Earliest flight of TERMITES reported in 1958 was on February 7 
in Forsyth County. Reports were received through May, and all that were 
received for determination were EASTERN SUBTERRANEAN TERMITE ( Reticulitermes 
flavipes ) , except one, which was Reticulitermes virginicus . SOUTHERN LYCTUS 
BEETLE ( Lyctus planicollis ) was reported from hardwoods in structures and OLD 
HOUSE BORER ( Hylotrupes bajulus ) from structural pine. Adults of SOUTHERN PINE 
SAWYER ( Monochamus titillator ) emerged through sheetrock panels after being 
incorporated into houses while larvae. 

Beneficial Insects : Loss of some HONEY BEE ( Apis mellifera ) colonies in bee- 
yards occurred in western counties due to starvation last winter. 

M i s ce 1 1 aneous Pes ts : Only one infestation of an EARTHWORM MITE (Fuscuropoda 
agitans ) was reported from earthworm beds last year. 



SUMMARY OF INSECT CONDITIONS - 19 58 

GEORGIA 

Prepared by W. C. Johnson* 

Highlights : ALFALFA WEEVIL was found infesting alfalfa in Lincoln County in 
late April and in 22 northeast and northwest counties later in the season. A 
BILLBUG caused heavy damage to young corn throughout southern areas. THRIPS 
infestations were heavy on peanuts in early season. ARMYWORM was he*avy on 
coastal Bermuda and Bahia grass and millet during late August in the north. 
CORN EARWORM was moderate to heavy in corn whorls throughout southern areas . 
CABBAGE APHID was moderate to heavy on cole crops. MEXICAN BEAN BEETLE was 
serious on lima, pole and snap beans. PLUM CURCULIO was heaviest since 1947. 
PECAN BUD MOTH was locally heavy in Decatur County. FALL WEBWORM was heavy on 
pecan trees in southern areas. EUROPEAN RED MITE and TWO-SPOTTED SPIDER MITE 
were general and heavy on apples. TOBACCO BUDWORM was moderate until late 
season, then became heavy. BOLLWORM infestations were found in mid-May before 
cotton had squared. Much feeding on terminal buds occurred. Infestations were 
generally heavy. Egg counts reached a high of 212 per 100 terminals and larvae 
87 per 100 terminals. BOLL WEEVIL infestations were light to moderate until 



*With assistance from entomologists from research, teaching and Extension of the 
University of Georgia; U.S.D.A. ; Georgia Department of Entomology and other 
agencies. 



- 178 - 

about July 1. Heavy and frequent rains contributed to heavy infestations for 
the remainder of the season. ELM SPANWORM was heavy on hardwood in northern 
counties. Large numbers of moths were observed in the Athens-Gainesville area. 
NANTUCKET PINE MOTH was heavy and is now infesting slash pine as well as other 
pines. EASTERN TENT CATERPILLAR on wild cherry and persimmon in the south, 
CHINCH BUG on St. Augustine and centipedegrass and MIMOSA WEBWORM on mimosa 
trees were all heavy. SCREW -WORM infestations occurred only in Brooks and 
Camden Counties. 

Cereal and Forage Insects : ALFALFA WEEVIL ( Hypera postica ) was found in Lincoln 
County April 26. This was the first record for the State and has since been 
reported from 22 counties. The area infested ranges from Stephens to Johnson 
Counties in a north-south direction and Lincoln to Spalding Counties from east 
to west. Most fields had light to moderate infestations with some being heavily 
infested. SPOTTED ALFALFA APHID ( Therioaphis maculata ) was generally light; 
however, one field of seedling alfalfa was destroyed in Lamar County during the 
fall. LESSER CLOVER LEAF WEEVIL ( Hypera nigrirostris ) was moderate to heavy on 
crimson clover. Some farmers producing seed stopped harvest because of poor 
seed yield. A CLOVER WEEVIL ( Hypera meles ) also caused much damage to the 
crimson clover seed crop. CORN EARWORM ( Heliothis zea ) was heavy in whorls of 
corn just before tasseling. Damage to corn in the field during 1958 was 4.3 
percent compared with 3.89 percent in 1957. Infestations were moderate to 
heavy on sweet corn and light to moderate on peanuts. FALL ARMYWORM ( Laphygma 
frugiperda ) was light to moderate in the whorls of corn and light to heavy on 
grain sorghum throughout the State. A BILLBUG ( Calendra callosa ) was light to 
heavy on corn and general in southern counties. Some fields were destroyed even 
after the third planting. EUROPEAN CORN BORER ( Pyrausta nubilalis ) was reported 
for the first time in Carroll, Forsyth, Fulton, Gordon, Haralson and Meriwether 
Counties. ARMYWORM ( Pseudaletia unipuncta ) was heavy on millet, coastal Bermuda 
and Bahia grass in several northern counties. MEXICAN BEAN BEETLE ( Epilachna 
varivestis ) was light to heavy, CABBAGE LOOPER ( Trichoplusia ni ) light to moder- 
ate and VELVETBEAN CATERPILLAR ( Anticarsia gemmatalis ) moderate on soybeans. 
SORGHUM WEBWORM ( Celama sorghiella ) was light to moderate on grain sorghum. 
A SPITTLEBUG ( Tomaspis bicincta ) caused moderate damage to fields of coastal 
Bermuda grass in several southern counties. THRIPS were heavy in early season 
on peanuts. Light to moderate infestations of RED-NECKED PEANUTWORM ( Stegasta 
basqueella ) occurred over the entire peanut area. A BURROWING BUG ( Pangaeus 
sp. ) was light to medium on peanuts in several southern counties. LESSER 
CORNSTALK BORER ( Elasmopalpus lignosellus ) infestations of field peas reached 
20 percent during mid-August. There was a gradual increase of the infestation 
from one-half (0.5) percent in early June. 

Fruit and Nut Insects : PLUM CURCULIO ( Conotrachelus nenuphar ) was the heaviest 
since 1947. However, enforcement of control measures resulted in generally good 
control throughout the season. One packing shed reported a good many "wormy" 
peaches from one orchard. The hibernating-adult population in the peach belt 
in the winter of 1958-59 is heavier than that of an average year. PEACH TREE 
BORER ( Sanninoidea exitiosa ) is heavy in many orchards in the same area and much 
damage to peach trees has been caused. ORIENTAL FRUIT MOTH ( Grapholitha 
molesta ) was much more abundant than usual. An unusually late peach harvest 
contributed to a buildup in the infestation, with Sullivan's and regular Elberta 
varieties suffering most. LESSER PEACH TREE BORER ( Synanthedon pictipes ) con- 
tinued heavy in a number of orchards, especially where there are winter injured 
trees or in neglected orchards. SHOT-HOLE BORER ( Scolytus rugulosus ) is heavy 
in devitalized, weak or diseased trees and in neglected orchards. STINK BUGS 
and CATFACING INSECTS were of only average abundance. SAN JOSE SCALE 
( Aspidiotus perniciosus ) was heavier than usual. EASTERN TENT CATERPILLAR 
( Malacosoma americanum ) nests were observed in forks of limbs of wild cherry as 
early as April 16 at Fort Valley. The infestation was very heavy and some wild 
cherry trees were practically defoliated by April 29. FALL WEBWORM ( Hyphantria 
cunea) was much heavier on pecan than usual and caused considerable concern to 
growers. Larval nests with full-grown larvae were numerous by June 15. 



- 179 - 

EUROPEAN RED MITE ( Panonychus ulmi ) and other SPIDER MITES ( Tetranychus spp.) 
were heavy and general on apples. CODLING MOTH ( Carpocapsa pomonella ) infesta- 
tions were light on apples. A local heavy infestation of PECAN BUD MOTH 
( Gretchena bolliana ) occurred in Decatur County. HICKORY SHUCKWORM ( Laspeyresia 
caryana ) caused serious damage to the pecan crop. PECAN WEEVIL ( Curculio 
caryae )" infestations were light and not as important as in some years . MITES 
and APHIDS were not troublesome on pecans . 

Truck Crop Insects : TOMATO FRUITWORM ( Heliothis zea ) was light to moderate on 
tomatoes and TOBACCO HORNWORM (Protoparce sexta ) was light. VEGETABLE WEEVIL 
( Listroderes costirostris obliquus ) was light to moderate on tomato plant beds 
and heavy on some tomatoes in the field. COLORADO POTATO BEETLE ( Leptinotarsa 
decemlineata ) infestations were light to heavy on this crop. A STINK BUG which 
was a problem in 1956 and 1957 was extremely light during the past growing 
season. ONION THRIPS (Thrips tabaci ) was light to moderate on onions. MEXICAN 
BEAN BEETLE ( Epilachna varivestis ) and BEAN LEAF BEETLE ( Cerotoma trifurcata ) 
were light to heavy on lima, pole and snap beans. Heavy infestations of STRIPED 
BLISTER BEETLE (Epicauta sp.) were noted on tomatoes in Berrien County and light 
to moderate infestations of CUCUMBER BEETLES ( Acalymma vittata and Diabrotica 
undecimpunctata howardi ) on cucumbers and watermelons in several southern 
counties. HORNWORMS ( Protoparce sexta and P. quinquemaculata ) were light to 
moderate on pimiento pepper. CABBAGE APHID ( Brevicoryne brassicae ) was moderate 
to heavy on cole crops while IMPORTED CABBAGEWORM ( Pieris rapae) was light on 
cabbage. DIAMONDBACK MOTH ( Plutella maculipennis ) infestations were light to 
moderate. CABBAGE LOOPER ( Trichoplusia ni ) caused light damage to collar ds in 
localized southern areas. 

Tobacco Insects : TOBACCO FLEA BEETLE ( Epitrix hirtipennis ) was light to moder- 
ate on tobacco plant beds and mostly light in field tobacco, with some moderate 
to heavy infestations. Light to heavy infestations of VEGETABLE WEEVIL 
( Listroderes costirostris obliquus ) occurred on tobacco plant beds . A MOLE 
CRICKET was light to moderate on plant beds and on field tobacco, as was GREEN 
PEACH APHID ( Myzus persicae ) . TOBACCO BUDWORM ( Heliothis virescens ) was light 
to heavy, being mostly light until late season. Heliothis zea infestations were 
heavy in late season. SOUTHERN GREEN STINK BUG ( Nezara viridula) and BROWN 
STINK BUG ( Euschistus servus ) were very light compared with 1956 and 1957 infes- 
tations. TOBACCO HORNWORM ( Protoparce sexta ) infestations were light. CUTWORMS 
and GRASSHOPPERS were not a serious problem on tobacco. VEGETABLE WEEVIL and 
TOBACCO FLEA BEETLE were the two most important insect pests of tobacco in the 
bed. TOBACCO BUDWORM, APHIDS and TOBACCO FLEA BEETLE were the three most impor- 
tant insects of tobacco in the field. 

Cotton Insect s: BOLL WEEVIL ( Anthonomus grandis) infestations were light to 
moderate in early and mid-season or until about July 1, when heavy and frequent 
rains were general over the State. Many growers were unable to apply controls 
on recommended schedule, which undoubtedly contributed to heavy infestations in 
late season. The 1958 fall trash examinations for hibernating boll weevils 
showed an average of 1,133 live weevils per acre as compared with 2,081 in 1957 
and the 8-year averaged of 1,279 live weevils per acre. Infestations of 30LLW0RMS 
( Heliothis spp., et al) were heavy by mid-May, before cotton had squared, and 
continued through the season. Egg counts went as high as 212 per 100 terminals 
and larval counts up to 87 per 100 terminals. This was an unusually early and 
heavy infestation. PALE-STRIPED FLEA BEETLE ( Systena blanda ) and THRIPS were 
light to moderate on cotton. COTTON APHID ( Aphis gossypii ) infestations were 
light to heavy, but mostly moderate. TWO-SPOTTED SPIDER MITE ( Tetranychus 
telarius ) and DESERT SPIDER MITE (T. desertorum ) infestations were light to 
moderate. Infestations were less than those in 1956 and 1957, which were rather 
heavy. Infestations of CABBAGE LOOPER ( Trichoplusia ni ) were mostly light to 
moderate and many were beneficial since larvae began feeding on the bottom 
leaves where the cotton was mature. The three most important economic pests of 
cotton in 1958 were BOLL WEEVIL, BOLLWORMS and APHIDS. 



- 180 - 

Forest and Ornamental Insects : ELM SPANWORM ( Ennomos subsignarius ) infestations 
were heavy on northern hardwood. Large numbers of moths were observed in the 
Athens-Gainesville area. NANTUCKET PINE MOTH ( Rhyacionia frustrana ) was heavy 
and is now infesting slash pine as well as other pines. EASTERN TENT CATER- 
PILLAR ( Malacosoma americanum ) defoliated large numbers of wild cherry and 
persimmon trees. BAGWORM ( Thyridopteryx ephemeraeformis ) was heavy on 
arborvitae, MIMOSA WEBWORM ( Homadaula albizziae ) serious on mimosa throughout 
the State and a CHINCH BUG ( Blissus leucopterus insularis ) was heavy on 
St. Augustine and centipedegrass . Moderate to heavy infestations of ELM LEAF 
BEETLE ( Galerucella xanthomelaena ) were observed on elms . RED-HEADED PINE 
SAWFLY ( Neodiprion lecontei ) infestations were scattered and mostly light. 
FALL WEBWORM ( Hyphantria cunea) was heavy on pecan and hickory, with some trees 
being completely defoliated. BLACK TURPENTINE BEETLE ( Dendroctonus terebrans ) 
infestations were light to moderate, as were those of SOUTHERN PINE BEETLE 
( Dendroctonus frontalis ) . 

Insects Affecting Man and Animals : HORN FLY ( Siphona irritans ) infestations 
were moderate. COMMON CATTLE GRUB ( Hypo derma lineatum) infestations were light 
to moderate. DOG FLEA ( Ctenocephalides canis ) and CAT FLEA ( Ctenocephalides 
felis ) infestations were moderate to heavy over the State. HOUSE FLY ( Musca 
domestica ) was moderate to heavy where good sanitation and insecticidal prac- 
tices were not carried out. SCREW-WORM ( Callitroga hominivorax ) infestations 
were found only in the extremely southern counties of Brooks and Camden. 
IMPORTED FIRE ANT ( Solenopsis saevissima v. richteri ) is now infesting approx- 
imately 400,000 acres in 48 counties. All known infestations have been treated 
in 16 counties. 

Beneficial Insects : The number of HONEY BEE ( Apis mellifera ) colonies decreased 
from 217,000 in 1957 to 213,000 in 1958. Honey production per colony was 31 
pounds, the same as in 1957. Most colonies went into winter with ample stores. 
American foulbrood continues to be the number one bee disease. Few complaints 
were heard from beekeepers on the losses of colonies or production from the use 
of agricultural chemicals. 



SUMMARY OF INSECT CONDITIONS - 19 58 

ARKANSAS 

Reported by W. P. Boyer 

Highlights : The year was near average in total rainfall with some areas report- 
ing slightly above normal amounts. Seasonal fluctuations were typical, with some 
extremes. All of the State had excessive spring rains which delayed planting. 
A change in weather resulted in the bulk of spring-planted crops being planted 
in a short period of time. Northeast Arkansas suffered a six-weeks drought 
following the planting season. Summer rainfall was sufficient to excessive. 
The fall season was dry and very favorable to crop maturity and harvest. 
Temperatures were slightly below normal throughout the year. Cotton insects, 
over all, were not as serious in 1958 as they were in 1957. BOLL WEEVILS were 
much lighter, while BOLLWORMS and MITES were more serious. PINK BOLLWORM moved 
into the delta of eastern Arkansas. CORN BORERS, European and Southwestern, 
continued their advance into new areas. CHINCH BUGS in hibernation are somewhat 
higher in number than a year ago. GRASSHOPPER counts in the summer of 1958 were 
lower than in 1957. FALL ARMYWORM was much lighter in 1958 than it was in 1957. 
Soybean and alfalfa insect infestations were light. Increased problems arose 
from insect infestations in grain sorghum. Additional acreage was treated for 
IMPORTED FIRE ANT. There were no outstanding changes in forestry insects. 



- 181 - 

Cereal and Forage Insects : SPOTTED ALFALFA APHID ( Therioaphis maculata ) popu- 
lations remained low during 1958. Occasional light infestations occurred but 
none were of damaging proportions. PEA APHID ( Macrosiphum pisi ) infestations 
were comparable with those in 1957. Numbers built up in cool seasons but only 
minor damage occurred. THREE-CORNERED ALFALFA HOPPER ( Spissistilus festinus ) 
infestations were, in general, lighter than in 1957. BEAN LEAF BEETLE ( Cerotoma 
trifurcata ) infestations were rather light, with few, if any, of economic 
importance. GARDEN WEBWORM ( Loxostege similalis ) infestations on soybeans in 
early 1958 were heavier than they have been in many years. The occurrence of a 
second generation in damaging numbers was unusual . The annual CHINCH BUG 
( Blissus leucopterus ) survey showed more bugs in hibernation this winter than 
a year ago. (see table). 

Chinch Bug Infestation Classification 

Non-Economic Light Moderate" Severe Very Severe 
No. of Counties (1958) 8 2" 16 

No. of Counties (1957) 11 1 2 3 

GREENBUG (Toxoptera graminum) infestations were heavier and more widespread in 
the spring of 1958 than in many years. Some oat crops were damaged. Surveys in 
the fall of 1958 showed that greenbug successfully oversummered. Further checks 
in late December showed survival at 0°F. in the northwestern area. ARMYWORM 
( Pseudaletia unipuncta ) infestations in oats were quite common. Infestations 
required treatments in many fields in the southeastern area and were approxi- 
mately two weeks later than normal. RICE STINK BUG ( Oebalus pugnax ) was a 
minor pest of oats. GRASSHOPPERS caused very little damage in 1958. Economic 
infestations occurred in only a few isolated spots in the extreme northwestern 
area. SOUTHWESTERN CORN BORER ( Zeadiatraea grandiosella ) spread to 20 previously 
uninfested counties. All counties in the State are now infested. Early-planted 
corn was practically free of infestation whereas late corn suffered severe 
infestations. EUROPEAN CORN BORER ( Pyrausta nubilalis ) continued its advance 
southwestward across the State. Eighteen new counties became infested. The pest 
has now been found in all but 6 of the State's 75 counties. SUGARCANE BEETLE 
( Euetheola rugiceps ) was not a serious pest of corn as it was in 1956. CORN LEAF 
APHID ( Rhopalosiphum maidis ) infestations were common throughout 1958. Little 
apparent injury occurred, however. Sorghum insects continued to increase in 
importance. SORGHUM WEBWORM ( Celama sorghiella ) and SORGHUM MIDGE ( Contarinia 
sorghicola ) were the two principal pests. Of next importance were CORN EARWORM 
( Heliothis zea ) and FALL ARMYWORM ( Laphygma frugiperda ) . Economic loss was 
greatest as a result of SORGHUM MIDGE infestations though the problem was more 
localized and more severe in late-planted sorghum. 

Rice insects of most importance in the field were RICE WATER WEEVIL . 
( Lissorhoptrus oryzophilus) , GRAPE COLASPIS ( Colaspis sp.) and RICE STINK BUG. 
Control measures are well established for RICE WATER WEEVIL and little economic 
loss occurred. Larvae of GRAPE COLASPIS have become a problem, since they 
attack the roots of seedling rice and reduce stands. Lespedeza appears to be 
one of the most attractive hosts to ovipositing females in the fall of the year. 
The larvae overwinter in the ground and become active feeders in the spring prior 
to pupation. Rotation, to avoid rice following lespedeza, along with chemical 
soil and seed treatment are being practiced. RICE STINK BUG has not caused 
serious losses but is causing more concern. Limited surveys have been made for 
LEAFHOPPERS on rice to determine if Sogata orizicola is present in the State. 
These surveys were all negative in 1958. CHINCH BUG infestations in rice were 
light and caused no economic losses. Although soybean insects have not been 
serious, surveys for possible damage by various pests will be increased in the 
future due to the increased acreage and importance of the crop. The acreage of 
soybeans climbed to around 2,000,000 acres, which is approximately double the 
acreage of cotton in the State. Cotton ranks second in total row crop acreage. 



- 182 - 

Cotton 'insects : The following comments pertaining to cotton insects are based 
in part on a summary of weekly checks and reports by 69 cotton insect scouts who 
scouted close to 100,000 acres of cotton from June 10 to September 3. The data 
in the tables are all taken from scout reports. THRIPS infestations were light 
and of little significance. COTTON APHID' ( Aphis gossypii ) was heavier in early 
season, but lighter in late season, when compared with 1957 (See Table 1.). 
Beneficial insects kept aphids in check in most instances. Late season boll 
weevil and bollworm treatments reduced beneficial insects, resulting in the 
necessity for aphicides to be included in the treatments. 



Table 


1. Percentage 


of 


fields infested with aphi 
and 23 counties in 


ds in 
1957 


17 counties 


in 1958 




June 






July 






August 




Sept. 




18 25 


2 


y 


16 


23 


30 


6 


13 


20 


27 


3 


1958 
1957 


67 72 
20 17 


63 

11 


39 
12 


27 

17 


22 
13 


27 
35 


26 

47 


30 
61 


30 
59 


47 
64 


53 
59 


COTTON 
1958. 


FLEAHOPPER (Psallus seriatus) infestations 
COTTON BOLLWORMS (Heliothis spp. , et al . ) 


i were of minor importance in 
infestations were much heavier 



in 1958. Infestations occurred early and persisted throughout the season. 
Beneficial insects were very important in preventing larvae from "breaking 
through" to harmful size until treatments began (See Table 3.). BOLL WEEVIL 
( Anthonomus grandis) infestations were much lighter in the delta section of 
eastern Arkansas in 1958 (See Table 2.). In the hill sections and the upper 
Arkansas River Valley, infestations were much heavier in 1958. A fairly cold 
1957-58 winter probably reduced hibernating weevils in the delta, while winter 
survival was much greater in the hills and along the upper Arkansas River Valley 
due to more favorable hibernating areas. Late, uniform planting of the crop 
followed by a dry period resulted in wide, uniform dispersal and considerable 
mortality of emerging overwintered weevils. Resistance to the chlorinated hydro- 
carbons developed in several new areas . 

Table 2. Boll weevil infestations based on percent punctured squares in 17 
counties in 1958 and 23 counties in 1957. Rainfall in inches. 



June 



July 



August 



Sept. 



18 25 



16 



23 30 



13 



20 27 



10 



I9~5S 
Infestation - 2.2 2.7 3.7 6.5 8.7 10.8 13.9 17.4 22.4 

Rainfall* 1.47 0.66 0.84 2.55 1.17 0.87 1.5 0.44 0.57 1.10 0.57 0.29 



1957 
Infesta- 
tion 6.1 6.9 7.1 7.1 9.2 12.4 17.2 20.9 26.8 29.4 26.8 25.5 26.8 

Rainfall* 2.4 0.39 0.14 0.98 0.09 1.2 0.6 0.06 0.35 0.90 0.03 1.51 0.0 



♦Rainfall data are based on the average of 27 stations in the same area. 



- 183 - 



Table 3. 


Percentage of cotton fields infested with boll weevils and bollworms 
in 17 counties in 1958 and 23 counties in 1957 


June July August Sept. 


10 18 25 2 9 16 23 30 6 13 20 27 3 10 



1958 
1957 



1958 
1957 











Boll Weevil 












4 


5 


7 


33 


45 57 71 


78 


81 


89 


93 


94 


18 


26 


13 


59 


67 78 81 
Bollworms 


89 


93 


98 


100 


98 


37 


27 


29 


39 


35 44 60 


75 


82 


73 


66 


61 


8 


16 


19 


21 


28 37 42 


44 


60 


55 


36 


46 



SPIDER MITE infestations were much heavier in some areas in 1958 (See Table 4.). 
The percentage of fields infested was comparable to 1956 though individual infes- 
tations were heavier, more persistent and caused more concern in 1958. Infesta- 
tions were unusually heavy and persistent considering the amount of rainfall. 
This was apparently due, in part, to the early dry period in northeast Arkansas 
and to unnecessary early treatments in other areas. 



Table 4. 


Percentage of fields infested with spider mites in 17 counties in 
1958 and 23 counties in 1957 


June July August Sept, 


18 25 2 9 16 23 30 6 13 20 27 3 



1958 
1957 



0.4 1.0 


1.2 


1.1 


2.3 


8.0 


14 25 26 


0.12 








0.2 


0.2 


1.0 2.0 5 



33 



40 
15 



47 
25 



CABBAGE LOOPER ( Trichoplusia ni ) infestations were somewhat heavier in 19 58 but 
were of little, if any, economic importance. WHITEFLY ( Trialeurodes sp.) 
infestations were more common than in past years. A few infestations reached 
minor economic importance. A PLANT BUG ( Neurocolpus nubilus ) was observed in a 
few fields in 1958. Light infestations appeared to be more common in the north- 
east section of the State. A GARDEN WEBWORM ( Loxostege similalis ) outbreak on 
small cotton covered nearly all areas of east Arkansas, several thousand acres 
requiring treatments. 

Forest Insects : Through a cooperative survey program, forest insects are 
checked closely and conditions reported once per month. This is a cooperative 
project of the Department of Entomology, University of Arkansas; Extension 
Entomologist; Arkansas Forestry Commission and State, Federal and commercial 
foresters. The principal forest pests reported on are NANTUCKET PINE MOTH 
( Rhyacionia frustrana ) , SAWFLIES ( Neodiprion spp.), PINE BARK WEEVILS, BLACK 
TURPENTINE BEETLE ( Dendroctonus terebrans ) and IPS BEETLES. Checks are made 
for SOUTHERN PINE BEETLE ( Dentroctonus frontalis ) which has not been found in 
Arkansas. Activity of Nantucket pine moth, sawflies, pine bark weevils, Ips 
beetles and black turpentine beetle has been very similar to past years. Spor- 
adic infestations have appeared, but there have been no serious outbreaks. 
Local infestations of ELM LEAF BEETLE ( Galerucella xanthomelaena ) caused serious 
defoliation of Chinese elms in some areas. MIMOSA WEBWORM ( Homadaula albizziae ) 
caused severe defoliation in the southwestern area. 



- 184 - 

Livestock Pests : The annual CATTLE GRUB ( Hypoderma spp.) survey showed an 
average of 2.24 grubs per head compared with the 19 57 average which was 2.27 
and the 1956 average of 8.48 grubs per head. The survey showed zero to 
extremely low numbers in the flat delta areas of east Arkansas. 

Beneficial Insects : The role of beneficial insects is very important and is 
becoming more recognized, especially in cotton production. An early aphid out- 
break on cotton was brought under control by LADY BEETLES with the help of 
PARASITIC WASPS. Other important PREDATORS were Orius insidiosus , Geocoris 
punctipes , Chrysopa spp. and Nabis spp. 

Miscellaneous Insects : IMPORTED FIRE ANT ( Solenopsis saevissima richteri ) - 

A 5,000 acre tract in Union County was treated by air in early 1958. Individual 

mound treatments have been used for isolated mounds found in scattered areas. 

Outlook for 19 59 : BOLL WEEVIL infestations should not be as severe in 1959 
unless conditions are extremely favorable next summer. The past year was 
considered a fairly light boll weevil year, especially when compared with 1955 
and 1957, two very heavy years. Low temperatures this winter should reduce the 
hibernating weevils to a fairly low number, especially in eastern Arkansas. 
Winter sampling of trash has not been completed. Sampling to date indicates low 
hibernating numbers of weevils. GRASSHOPPERS should not be a problem except in 
localized areas. CHINCH BUG may be more numerous yet the cold winter should 
reduce numbers. No serious outbreaks are expected. Little trouble has been 
experienced with soybeans, but they will be watched carefully. Rice will con- 
tinue to be checked for pests. Special attention will be given to the possible 
presence of the vector of hoja blanca virus. More attention will be given to 
insects of sorghum. The cotton insect scouting program and the forestry insect 
survey will be continued. 



- 185 - 
SOUTHERN GREEN STINK BUG (Nezara virdula (L. )) 



Economic Importance : This stink bug is one of the more important insect pests 
in several southern States. It often becomes serious on cultivated plants, the 
nymphs and adults attacking all parts of the host plants, but preferably the 
young tender growth and fruit. Excessive injury causes loss of fruit or plant 
mortality. Attack on young fruit produces severe distortion with hard callouses 
being formed around the feeding punctures. Nezara viridula , described by 
Linnaeus in 1775, is of foreign origin and was probably introduced into the 
United States and the West Indies many years ago. 

Distribution : Occurs in southern Europe, Africa, southern Asia, Australia and 
the Pacific Islands, Central and South America, West Indies and in the southern 
United States (see map) . 

Hosts : This insect has a wide host range. Among its hosts are cucurbits, 
crucifers, legumes, Solan urn , sweetpotato, sunflower, citrus, corn, tobacco, 
cotton, rice, pecan, hackberry, mulberry, peaches and pepper. 

DISTRIBUTION OF SOUTHERN GREEN STINK BUG (NEZARA VIRIDULA) 



& 





- 186 - 

Life History and Habits : About the middle of March hibernating adults appear 
and mating begins almost immediately. Females deposit eggs about 3 to 5 weeks 
after becoming an adult. Eggs are deposited about mid-April, in regular rows 
in hexagonal clusters and are firmly glued together on the under side of the 
leaves. Hatching occurs in approximately 6 days. There are five nymphal 
instars, each with distinct color patterns and characteristics. There are 4 
generations annually. Adults from the last generation seek hibernating quarters 
in any secluded place that offers protection. However, a few may be found during 
mild periods throughout the winter. 

Description : The egg is cylindrical, rounded at the lower end and flattened on 
top, about 30 chorial processes on the cap, 1.24 mm. long and 0.85 mm. wide. 
Eggs when first deposited, cream-colored, later salmon-colored and, just before 
hatching., the crimson markings of enclosed nymphs are visible. Nymphs have 
marked variation in coloration from day to day and instar to instar, the color 
patterns and characteristics of each identify the instar. The adult is large, 
light green and shield-shaped. The average size about 12 mm. long and 8 mm. 
wide. The female is usually a little larger than the male. The antennae are 
4-segmented, legs and wings well-developed and the rostrum 4-jointed. There 
is a close similarity of N. viridula to Acrosternum hilare , the former being 
distinguished by the longer head, concolorous abdominal margins and short 
truncated osteolar canal. (Prepared in Survey and Detection Operations in 
cooperation with other ARS agencies and the U. S. National Museum) CEIR 9(11) 
3-13-59. 




Adult of Southern Green Stink Bug (Nezara viridula L.) 



USDA Photograph 



■i 



OUNITm STATES DEPARTMENT OF AG 

W ASHINGTON 25, D. C. ( 

ri7 Business .^pX' jf 1 




?S 




7\ 

MARCH 20,1959 






oopetative 

E C N 

So 




PEST CONTROL DIVISION 
ULTURAL RESEARCH SERVICI 



UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE 





W- 



AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH SERVICE 



PLANT PEST CONTROL DIVISION 



SURVEYS DETECTION OPERATIONS 



The Cooperative Economic Insect Report is issued 
weekly as a service to American Agriculture. Its contents 
are compiled from information supplied by cooperating State, 
Federal, and industrial entomologists and other agricultural 
workers. In releasing this material the Division serves as 
a clearing house and does not assume responsibility for ac- 
curacy of the material. 



Reports and inquiries pertaining to this release 
should be mailed to: 

Survey & Detection Operations 



Plant Pest Control Division 

Agricultural Research Service 

United States Department of Agriculture 

Washington 25, D. C. 



Volume 9 March 20, 1959 Number 12 

COOPERATIVE ECONOMIC INSECT SURVEY 

Highlights of Insect Conditions 

Present EUROPEAN CORN BORER spring population twice that of 1958 in Delaware and 
overwintering larval mortality in Kansas is lower than in 1958. (p. 189) . 

ALFALFA WEEVIL active in several states. (p. 189). 

Distribution of SOUTHWESTERN CORN BORER. (p. 190). 

PEA APHID damaged alfalfa in several counties in New Mexico. (p. 191) . 

SPOTTED ALFALFA APHID killed established alfalfa stands in Otero County and is 
moderate to heavy in other counties of New Mexico. (p. 191). 

BOLL WEEVIL winter survival survey in Louisiana. (p. 193) . 

GYPSY MOTH infestation in Connecticut lightest since 1952. (p. 194). 

INSECT DETECTION: Haplothrips clarisetis new to California and to the United 
States. (p. 193) . Khapra beetle found for first time in Texas at El Paso and 
in Luna and Dona Ana Counties, New Mexico. (p. 194). 

SUMMARY OF INSECT CONDITIONS - 1958 - OKLAHOMA (p. 196), MISSOURI (p. 201). 

SURVEY METHODS - Fly baits and traps. (p. 207). Addendum to balsam gall midge 
appraisal survey. (p. 208) . 

INSECTS not known to occur in the United States. (p. 209). 

**************** 



Reports in this issue are for the week ending March 13, unless otherwise 
designated. 



- 188 - 

WEATHER BUREAU 30 -DAY OUTLOOK 
MID-MARCH TO MID-APRIL 19 59 

The Weather Bureau's 30-day outlook for the period mid-March to mid-April calls 
for temperatures to average below seasonal normals from the Great Lakes east- 
ward to New England, and also along the Gulf and South Atlantic coasts. Above 
normal averages are expected over most areas west of the Continental Divide and 
also over the Central and Northern Plains. In unspecified areas, near normal 
temperatures with wide fluctuations are anticipated. Precipitation is predicted 
to exceed normal from the Midwest northeastward through New England, as well as 
in Gulf and South Atlantic States. Subnormal amounts are indicated for the 
Central and Southern Plateau, California and the Central Plains. Elsewhere, 
near normal amounts are in prospect. 

Weather forecast given here is based on the official 30-day "Resume and Outlook", 
published twice a month by the Weather Bureau. You can subscribe through 
Superintendent of Documents, Washington 25, D. C. Price $4.80 a year, $2.40 
a half year. 

WEATHER OF THE WEEK ENDING MARCH 16 

Last week's weather, typical of March, was blustery with frequent temperature 
changes and rather general moderate to heavy precipitation east of the 
Mississippi River. The weather in the eastern half of the Nation was controlled 
mainly by two low pressure disturbances which gained strong storm intensity as 
they moved northeastward. The first storm, March 11 to 13, moved in an erratic 
course from the lower Mississippi Valley to an offshore position along the north 
Atlantic. coast and finally turned northward across eastern Maine. This storm 
produced heavy rains in the South and heavy snows in the Northeast as high winds 
raked the entire east coast. Snowfalls ranged up to 10 inches in the central 
Appalachians, from 3 inches at Massena to 20 inches at Cobleskill in New York 
State, and from 5 to 15 inches in southern portions and 12 to 20 inches in 
northern portions of New England. Lightest amounts in New England, under 10 
inches, fell in southern coastal areas where scattered thunderstorms with hail 
occurred and some precipitation fell as rain or sleet. Traffic was greatly 
hampered in New England, many schools closed and eleven deaths were blamed on 
the storm. Total snow depths increased to 45 to 55 inches in northern Maine and 
30 to 40 inches in northern sections of New Hampshire and Vermont. The second 
storm, March 14 to 16, moved from the lower Great Plains across the Great Lakes, 
and was responsible for more heavy rains in the South and a band of heavy drift- 
ing snow from Nebraska to Michigan. Three to 12 inches of drifted snow closed 
most highways in J the northeastern half of Iowa, 8 to 10 inches closed roads in 
a 100-mile-wide belt from southwest to east central portions of Wisconsin and 
10 to 15 inches of new snow isolated some communities in northern Michigan. 
Similar conditions also were experienced in southeastern Minnesota and extreme 
northwestern Illinois. Tornadoes were reported in Arkansas, were suspected in 
southeastern Illinois, and high winds estimated at 80 to 100 m.p.h. at Memphis, 
Tennessee, on the 14th, caused damage of about $250,000. Damaging winds raked 
the entire State of Michigan on Sunday, the 15th. 

Winds raised dust on several days in eastern Colorado, in New Mexico on the 
14th, and in many sections of Arizona on both the 11th and 15th. In Oklahoma 
strong winds on Saturday, the 14th, caused much blowing dust and blew several 
grass and brush fires out of control. Thousands of acres were burned over in 
the State, and some cattle and property were lost. This was the second consecu- 
tive week with temperatures about normal in most of the country. Highest 
average departures from normal were 6° above in portions of North Dakota and 
Minnesota and along the southern California coast, and 6° below in the extreme 
Northeast. Freezing, however, was widespread, occurring everywhere except in 
(Weather continued on page 195) 



- 189 - 

CEREAL AND FORAGE INSECTS 

GRASSHOPPERS - ARIZONA - Few first-instar nymphs of Melanoplus bilituratus in 
alfalfa near Tempe , Maricopa County. Aulocara elliotti and M. bilituratus 
hatching in the intermountain short grass range areas in the - southeast earlier 
than usual, probably due to low rainfall and sparse growth of annual plants. 
Egg survival sampling in study areas indicates an abundance of grasshoppers in 
1959 if weather conditions are favorable for hatching. (Ariz. Coop. Sur.). 

SOUTHWESTERN CORN BORER ( Zeadiatraea grandiosella ) - MISSOURI - Brief check of 
one corn field in Jasper County revealed approximately 30 percent of larvae 
overwintered. (Kyd, Thomas) . 

EUROPEAN CORN BORER ( Pyrausta nubilalis ) - DELAWARE - The spring abundance 
survey showed an overwintering survival rate of 46 percent, which represents 
a rather high population of borers based on the fall data of 248.5 borers per 
100 plants. Furthermore, the average number of live borers per infested plant 
revealed a present spring population that is twice as high as that for the 
spring of 1958 (1.7 borers per infested stalk in 1959 compared with 0.85 in 
1958) . Indications are, that should weather conditions this season again favor 
borer development, possibly 1959 will be another record year for this species 
in the State. (Burbutis , Conrad). NORTH CAROLINA - Area of previous highest 
infestation in potato production area of Pasquotank County, with 46 forms per 
100 corn stalks and 4 of these newly pupated. (Farrier) . KANSAS - Survey of 
11 fields in Jefferson County showed mechanical mortality at harvest plus over- 
wintering mortality to be 66 percent, which is lower than the 86 percent in 
1958. (Burkhardt, Peters). 

ALFALFA WEEVIL ( Hypera postica ) - DELAWARE - Second-instar larvae common on 
young alfalfa in Sussex County. (Burbutis, Conrad). VIRGINIA - Larvae feeding 
on alfalfa in Princess Anne, Southampton and Prince George Counties (Morris) and 
in Nansemond County (Boush) . Practically all larvae are in the first instar. 
No stands of fall-seeded alfalfa have been infested to date. (Morris) . 
GEORGIA - Feeding injury occurred on 10-50 percent of plants in fields in Oconee, 
Clarke, Putnam, Oglethorpe, Wilkes, Lincoln, Hancock, Washington and Johnson 
Counties. (Johnson). NEVADA - Adults have been active and laying eggs since 
early February in Churchill, Douglas, Lyon, Pershing and Washoe Counties. Treat- 
ment completed in many fields and being applied in others. (Nev. Coop. Rpt . , 
March 6) . UTAH - Adults active in alfalfa fields in Box Elder and Weber 
Counties, on warm south slopes. (Knowlton) . 

CLOVER LEAF WEEVIL ( Hypera punctata ) - VIRGINIA - Larvae observed in Prince 
George County. (Morris) . MISSOURI - Averaged 1-4 early-instar larvae per 
alfalfa crown over west central and southwest areas. (Kyd, Thomas) . 

LESSER CLOVER LEAF WEEVIL ( Hypera nigrirostris ) - NEVADA - Adults active and in 
moderate numbers on red clover in Smith Valley, Lyon County. (Batchelder, March 6), 

MEADOW SPITTLEBUG ( Philaenus leucophthalmus ) - VIRGINIA - Nymphs hatching in 
alfalfa, clover and other forage crops. (Morris). 

COWPEA APHID ( Aphis medicaginis ) - NEW MEXICO - Moderately heavy but spotty on 
alfalfa in Dexter-Hagerman area, Chaves County. (N. M. Coop. Rpt.). 

PEA APHID ( Macrosiphum pisi ) - DELAWARE - Stem mothers and young nymphs common 
on new alfalfa growth in Sussex County. (Burbutis, Conrad). VIRGINIA - Very 
light in practically every alfalfa field surveyed in the State to date. (Morris) . 
ARKANSAS - Averaged 2 per square foot on alfalfa in Conway County. (Ark. Ins. 
Sur., March 9). OKLAHOMA - Found in 8 of 23 alfalfa fields checked in central 
area, with counts of 20-100 per square foot (VanCleave ,Ritter , Pennington) and 
averaged 2-30 per square foot in 2 fields checked in Choctaw County. (Goin) . 

(Continued on page 191) 



- 191 - 

ARIZONA - Medium but increasing slightly on alfalfa in the Salt River Valley. 
(Ariz. Coop. Sur.). NEW MEXICO - Extremely heavy infestations damaged alfalfa 
in Otero, De Baca, Chaves, Eddy and Roosevelt Counties. Lighter in other 
southern counties. Many growers have applied controls. (N. M. Coop. Rpt.). 
MISSOURI - Ranged 0-9 per alfalfa crown in west central and southwest areas. 
Few winged adults observed in southwest area. (Kyd, Thomas). 

SPOTTED ALFALFA APHID ( Therioaphis maculata ) - ARKANSAS - None found in alfalfa 
in Conway County. (Ark. Ins. Sur., March 9). OKLAHOMA - Present in 15 of 23 
alfalfa fields checked in central area. Counts ranged 10-2,000 per square foot, 
with plants in many fields becoming sticky. (VanCleave, Ritter , Pennington). 
Very scarce in 3 alfalfa fields checked in the Braggs area of Muskogee County 
(Washum) and ranged 0-1 per square foot in 2 alfalfa fields in Choctaw County 
(Goin) . Averaged 288 per square foot of crown area in fields checked in Payne 
County. (Ketner) . TEXAS - Few fields on stream bottoms have been heavily 
infested in Denton County. Controls were applied. Most other fields only 
lightly infested, but populations may build up rapidly. (Chada) . ARIZONA - 
Increased slightly on alfalfa in the Salt River Valley. (Ariz. Coop. Sur.). 
NEW MEXICO - Heavy populations killed established stands of alfalfa at Tularosa, 
Otero County. Infestations heavy on alfalfa near Bethel, Roosevelt County, and 
moderate to heavy in Chaves and Eddy Counties. Many growers treating. (N. M. 
Coop. Rpt.). KANSAS - None found in Republic, Cloud, Riley and Pottawatomie 
Counties March 6-8. (Simpson, Burkhardt) . MISSOURI - None observed in west 
central and southwest areas. (Kyd, Thomas). 

AN APHID - NEVADA - Winged and wingless forms heavy on 30 acres of red clover in 
Smith Valley, Lyon County. (Batchelder, March 6). 

LYGUS BUGS ( Lygus spp.) - DELAWARE - Some L. lineolaris adults on alfalfa in 
New Castle County. (Burbutis, Conrad). UTAH - Active in alfalfa fields and 
meadows near Brigham and Plain City. Mostly L. elisus . (Knowlton) . 

CLOVER LEAFHOPPER ( Aceratagallia sanguinolenta ) - DELAWARE - Adults on clover in 
Sussex County. (Burbutis, Conrad^T 

GREENBUG ( Toxoptera graminum ) - ARKANSAS - Averaged less than one per linear foot 
on oats in Faulkner and Conway Counties. (Ark. Ins. Sur., March 9). OKLAHOMA - 
Present in 26 of 36 small grain fields checked in central area. Counts ranged 
1-100 per linear foot with heaviest numbers in isolated fields in northern Grady, 
Canadian and southern Kingfisher Counties. (VanCleave, Ritter, Pennington). 
Ranged 0-25 per linear foot in small grain fields in Hennessey-Kingfisher area. 
Averaged 40 per linear foot in one field. (Wood). Populations of 30-1,000 per 
linear foot in small grain fields checked in Cotton, Tillman and southern Kiowa 
Counties, with dead spots in some fields. (Hatfield). Averaged 5 per linear 
foot in 2 fields checked in northern Kiowa County (Hudson) , 2 per linear foot 
in 2 wheat fields in northwestern Texas County (Owens) and none were found in 
4 fields checked in the Arkansas River bottoms (Washum). TEXAS - Light, 25 per 
foot of row, in Knox County. (Turney) . Readily found in 48 of 57 fields exam- 
ined in 16 central and southern counties. Averaged less than one per foot of 
row in 14 fields, 2-25 in 32 fields and more than 100 per foot of row in 2 
fields, with considerable damage. Heaviest infestations were in Gillespie, 
Kendall, Kerr and McLennan Counties. (Chada). MISSOURI - No specimens or 
evidence of damage observed in small grains in west central and southwest areas. 
(Kyd, Thomas). NEW MEXICO - Averaged 10-50 per linear foot of row in wheat near 
Clovis , Curry County. Lighter in dry land and irrigated wheat in other areas of 
Curry and Roosevelt Counties. (N. M. Coop. Rpt.). 

APPLE GRAIN APHID ( Rhopalosiphum fitchii ) - OKLAHOMA - Counts ranged 1-300 per 
linear foot in 23 of 36 small grain fields checked in central area. (VanCleave, 
Ritter, Pennington). Populations in one field near Grandfield, Tillman County, 
approaching 600 per linear foot. (Hatfield). Averaged 10 per linear foot in 



- 192 - 

2 wheat fields in northwestern Texas County. (Owens) . TEXAS - Light infesta- 
tions observed, especially in fields of volunteer grain. (Chada) . 

CORN LEAF APHID ( Rhopalosiphum maidis ) - ARIZONA - Continued heavy, 40-50 per 
plant, in many barley fields in Maricopa County. Averaged 5 per plant in 12 
fields sampled in Pinal County. (Ariz. Coop. Sur . } . 

ENGLISH GRAIN APHID ( Macrosiphum granarium ) - ARKANSAS - Averaged less than one 
per linear foot on oats in Faulkner and Conway Counties. (Ark. Ins. Sur., Mar. 9). 
OKLAHOMA - Present in 7 of 36 small grain fields checked in central area. Counts 
ranged 1-5 per linear foot. (VanCleave , Rltter, Pennington). TEXAS - Light 
infestations observed, especially in fields of volunteer grain. (Chada). 
MISSOURI - Averaged 0-2 per linear foot of row in wheat over west central and 
southwest areas, with an occasional winged form observed. (Kyd, Thomas). 

ARMY CUTWORM ( Chorizagrotis auxiliaris ) - KANSAS - Averaged 3-5 per linear foot 
of row in several areas in a wheat field in Ellis County. (Harvey) . Probably 
this species reported in wheat, alfalfa and barley in the south central area. 
(Marvin) . 

WINTER GRAIN MITE ( Penthaleus major ) - OKLAHOMA - Light infestations in 2 
isolated small grain fields checked in central area averaged less than one per 
linear foot. (VanCleave, Ritter, Pennington). TEXAS - Present in 14 of 57 
fields examined in 16 southern and central counties, with heaviest infestations 
in the Comfort-Kerrville-Fredericksburg and the McGregor areas. Populations 
decreasing rapidly with advent of warm weather. Some controls applied in the 
southern area. (Chada) . MISSOURI - None observed in any small grain fields in 
southwest area. Damage to orchardgrass reported in Christian County. (Kyd, 
Thomas) . 

FRUIT INSECTS 

PEAR PSYLLA ( Psylla pyricola ) - CALIFORNIA - Eggs light to heavy on pear trees 
in Newcastle area, Placer County. (Cal. Coop. Rpt.). 

CITRUS THRIPS ( Scirtothrips citri ) - ARIZONA - Increasing on Yuma Valley citrus. 
(Ariz. Coop. Sur . ) . 

CITRUS FLAT MITE ( Brevipalpus lewisi ) - ARIZONA - Increasing on citrus in the 
Yuma Valley. Controls required in some cases. (Ariz. Coop. Sur.). 

Citrus Insect Situation, Lake Alfred, Florida, First Week in March - PURPLE SCALE 
activity increased slightly but is expected to rise more rapidly during the 
remainder of March. Infestation level is currently very low for this* time of 
year. Hatching will increase during next 14 days. Little change in FLORIDA RED 
SCALE activity. Present high level will continue for next 2 weeks. Little 
change in CITRUS RED MITE activity, which will remain near present level for 
2-3 weeks. CITRUS RUST MITE activity increased slightly on leaves and decreased 
on fruit, with an overall level slightly higher than average for this time of 
year. An increase is expected during the next 14 days. TEXAS CITRUS MITE is 
increasing, but is still less prevalent than in December and January. (Simanton, 
Thompson , Johnson) . 

DARKLING BEETLES ( Blapstinus spp.) - ARIZONA - Damaged grapes in Yuma County by 
breeding in new buds in recently cultivated fields. (Ariz. Coop. Sur.). 

TWIG GIRDLER ( Oncideres cingulata ) - VIRGINIA - Damaged a number of pecan trees 
in Appomattox County by girdling many twigs. (Morris, Motley). 



- 193 - 

TRUCK CROP INSECTS 

APHIDS - OKLAHOMA - General infestations on tomato and pepper plants in green- 
houses in Logan County. (Latham) . 

BEET LEAFHOPPER ( Circulifer tenellus ) - NEVADA - Populations in southern Nevada 
breeding grounds were very light in mid-February. Only traces of host plants 
were found and over 80 percent of sampling failed to yield specimens for 
viruliferous tests. About 3 percent of specimens collected were found capable 
of transmitting curly top. (Dorst, Zoller, March 6). 

DIAMONDBACK MOTH ( Plutella maculipennis ) - GEORGIA - Light on cabbage in 
Colquitt, Brooks and Lowndes Counties. (Johnson). 

CABBAGE APHID ( Brevicoryne brassicae ) - GEORGIA - Light on cabbage in Colquitt, 
Brooks and Lowndes Counties"! (Johnson) . 

GREEN PEACH APHID ( Myzus persicae ) - ARIZONA - Averaged 10 per lettuce plant in 
some fields in Maricopa County. (Ariz. Coop. Sur.). CALIFORNIA - Medium on 
young lettuce in the Soledad area, Monterey County. (Dr. L. McLean). 

THRIPS - ARIZONA - Injury resulted in culling of a lettuce field near Yuma. 
Numerous near Queen Creek, Maricopa County. (Ariz. Coop. Sur.). 

CONCHUELA ( Chlorochroa ligata ) - TEXAS - Light infestations attacking spinach 
and mustard in Zavala County. (Harding) . 

RED-NECKED CANE BORER ( Agrilus ruficollis ) - NORTH CAROLINA - Infesting boysen- 
berry canes in Davidson County. (Bernhardt, Farrier). 

A THRIPS ( Haplothrips clarisetis ) - CALIFORNIA - A new African-Near Eastern 
species ^reported from Riverside County infesting dandelions, Russian thistle and 
mesembryanthemum. Verified by Dr. J. Faure as this species or very near. Dande- 
lions are a specialty commercial crop in the State. Economic value of thrips not 
determined. This species is new to the State and to the United States. 
(Dr. W. H. Ewart) . 

TOBACCO INSECTS 

VEGETABLE WEEVIL ( Listroderes costirostris obliquus ) - GEORGIA - Light on tobacco 
beds in Tift, Colquitt, Brooks, Lowndes, Cook, Berrien and Coffee Counties and 
moderate in Bacon, Appling, Tattnall, Evans and Bulloch Counties. (Johnson). 

TOBACCO FLEA BEETLE (Epitrix hirtipennis ) - GEORGIA - Light on tobacco beds in 
Bacon and Tattnall Counties. (Johnson) . 

GREEN PEACH APHID ( Myzus persicae ) - GEORGIA - Light on tobacco plant beds in 11 
tobacco-growing counties. (Johnson) . 

COTTON INSECTS 

Boll Weevil Winter Survival Survey : LOUISIANA - Collections of surface woods 
trash made February 24 to March 6 in the northeast area showed 3,067 weevils per 
acre in East Carroll, 3,026 in Madison and 646 in Tensas Parishes, with an 
average of 2,246 for the three parishes. Compared with the fall population of 
5,756 per acre, this gives a winter survival of 39. percent. During the 23 years 
that these records have been made in Madison Parish, the number of weevils per 
acre (3,026) found this spring, has been exceeded only once in the spring of 
1956, when 3,654 weevils per acre were found. (Smith et al . ) . 



- 194 - 

FOREST, ORNAMENTAL AND SHADE TREE INSECTS 

A PINE TIP MOTH - Adults have begun to emerge in southern areas. Numbers appear 
to be light. (Ark. For. Pest Rpt., March). 

AN ARCTIID ( Halisidota sp. , prob . argentata) - CALIFORNIA - Heavy on fir trees 
in Santa Rosa, Sonoma County. (Cal . Coop. Rpt.). 

GYPSY MOTH (Porthetria dispar) - CONNECTICUT - In 1959, 9,600 acres in 10 towns 
have been certified as in danger of infestation reaching epidemic proportions. 
The infestation is heavy enough to cause more than 50 percent defoliation on 
only approximately 700 acres in Bethany. This is the lightest infestation since 
1952. (Turner) . 

RHODODENDRON BORER ( Ramosia rhododendri ) - DELAWARE - Infesting many plants in 
New Castle County. This infestation survived a thorough treatment applied in 
1958. (Burbutis, Conrad). 

SCALE INSECTS - MARYLAND - Aspidiotus sp. , Asterolecanium puteanum and Leucaspis 
japonica infesting holly ( Ilex crenulata ) at Cabin John, Montgomery County, 
March 10. (U. Md. , Ent. Dept . ) . OKLAHOMA - Coccus hesperidum taken on chrysan- 
themums at Cushing, March 3, and Unaspis euonymi heavy on Euonymus japonica at 
Chickasha, March 9. (Apt). CALIFORNIA - Phenacaspis pinifoliae and Aspidiotus 
californicus heavy on pine in Applegate, Placer County"! (Cal . Coop. Rpt . ) . 

ELM LEAF BEETLE ( Galerucella xanthomelaena ) - OKLAHOMA - Adults active at 
Stillwater, Payne County. (*Ealy) . 

INSECTS AFFECTING MAN AND ANIMALS 

MOSQUITOES - NEVADA - Aedes campestris and A. niphadopsis third and fourth-instar 
larvae present in seepage ponds in Fallon-Hazen area, Churchill County. Aedes 
sp. first-instar larvae present in snow pools in Lake Tahoe area. (Chapman, 
March 6) . 

CATTLE LICE - OKLAHOMA - Heavy on cattle in Le Flore County. (Washum) . 

STORED-PRODUCT INSECTS 

KHAPRA BEETLE ( Trogoderma granarium) - TEXAS - Found for the first time in the 
State in a feed mill in El Paso, El Paso County, February 9. As of March 16, 
cooperative surveys have revealed an additional 13 infestations in various types 
of establishments in the same county. These are classified as one heavy, 5 
light and 7 very light. NEW MEXICO - Since report in CEIR 9(11) :171, of finds 
in Sierra County, as of March 16, one additional infestation has been found in 
that county, one in Luna and 8 in Dona Ana Counties. The latter two counties 
are reported for the first time. (PPC) . 

CONFUSED FLOUR BEETLE ( Tribolium confusum ) - TEXAS - Light infestation at bottom 
and on surface of grain in Van Zandt County. Adults medium and attacking barley 
and oats in Howard County and heavy in wheat warehouse on Texas-Oklahoma State 
line. Light in Lubbock County. (Texas Coop. Rpt.). 

CORN SAP BEETLE ( Carpophilus sp.) - ARIZONA - Infested wet grain sorghum brought 
to Phoenix for storage. (Ariz . Coop. Sur.). 

FLAT GRAIN BEETLE ( Laemophloeus pusillus ) - TEXAS - Medium in milo in Lubbock 
County. (Texas Coop. Rpt. ) . 



- 195 - 

GRAIN WEEVILS - TEXAS - Si tophi lus oryza medium to heavy and attacking stored 
grain in Uvalde and Howard Counties and infestations noted along Oklahoma -Texas 
State line. (Texas Coop. Rpt.). Light in stored milo in Haskell County. 
(Turney) . Unknown species reported in milo in Potter, Hale and Hamilton. 
Sitophilus sp. light in Van Zandt County and heavy in Lubbock County. (Texas 
Coop. Rpt.) . 

LESSER GRAIN BORER ( Rhyzopertha dominica) - TEXAS - Medium to heavy on wheat 
and milo in Potter County and around Oklahoma-Texas State line. (Texas Coop. 
Rpt.). Light in milo in Haskell County. (Turney). 

SAW-TOOTHED GRAIN BEETLE ( Oryzaephilus surinamensis ) - TEXAS - Adults attacking 
stored wheat near Oklahoma-Texas State line . (Texas Coop. Rpt.). 

BENEFICIAL INSECTS 

PARASITES - TEXAS - Parasitism by Aphidius testaceipes heavy in fields heavily 
infested by greenbug in 16 central and southern counties. Greenbugs practically 
eliminated in several fields in Gillespie and McLennan Counties. It is believed 
the parasite will keep the greenbug population down to a point where no more 
damage will occur to the crops. (Chada) . 

PREDATORS - OKLAHOMA - Hippo damia convergens becoming common in alfalfa and 
small grain fields in central area but averaged less than 0.3 per linear foot 
(VanCleave, Ritter, Pennington), and numerous adults active in Kiowa County 
fields. (Hatfield, Hudson). 

LIGHT TRAP COLLECTIONS 



Pseud, 
unip. 


Agrot. 

yps. 


Prod, 
ornith. 


Perid. 
marg. 


Feltia 
subt. 



ARIZONA 

Mesa 3/4-10 



18 



ARKANSAS 

Fayetteville 2/26-3/4 
Kelso 2/26-3/4 
Morrilton 2/26-3/4 



SOUTH CAROLINA 

Charleston 3/9-15 
Clemson 3/7-13 



20 



Weather continued from page 188 

the Gulf, south Atlantic and Pacific coastal areas and the extreme Far Southwest 
Subzero minima were limited to the upper Great Lakes region and upper portions 
of New England and New York State. No precipitation fell from western Texas to 
California and weekly totals were generally light to very light elsewhere west 
of the Continental Divide. However, the snowpack increased slightly in the 
Cascades. The snow cover melted in the northern Great Plains by the end of the 
period, although some drifts were still left. From 1 to 2 feet of snow still 
covers most of Wisconsin and the cover is still heavy in northeastern Iowa, 
eastern Minnesota and northern Michigan. The cover in the Northeast is limited 
mostly to New England and eastern and northern New York, with extreme depths 
ranging up to more than 3 feet. (Summary supplied by U. S. Weather Bureau). 



- 196 - 
SUMMARY OF INSECT CONDITIONS - 1958 

OKLAHOMA 

Reported by Horace W. VanCleave 

Highlights : GRASSHOPPER populations were heavy and general in western and pan- 
handle counties. Over 242,000 acres were treated under a cooperative Federal- 
State program, with good to excellent results. SORGHUM MIDGE caused heavy 
damage to grain sorghums in many areas. PECAN NUT CASEBEARER damage was much 
higher than in 1957. PINK BOLLWORM populations increased but mortality was 
high as a result of severe freezes in December. ELM LEAF BEETLE caused exten- 
sive damage to Siberian elms in many areas. Infestations of CATTLE LICE 
increased in 1958 in southern counties. Several species of SCALES and a 
ZORAPTERON were found for the first time in the State. 

Cereal and Forage Insects : A heavy, general GRASSHOPPER infestation occurred in 
western and panhandle counties, with light to severe damage to sorghums, legumes 
and rangeland. Populations were heavier throughout the remainder of the State 
than in 1957, but damage was generally light. An estimated 2,693,182 acres of 
western rangeland were infested. Approximately 235,000 acres of rangeland in 
Cimmaron and Texas Counties and 7,000 acres of roadsides in Texas County were 
treated under a cooperative Federal-State program. An estimated 60,000 acres of 
rangeland and 20,000 acres of cropland were treated by farmers and ranchers in 
western and panhandle areas. Results were generally good to excellent. The 
most abundant species in western counties on rangeland were Aulocara elliotti , 
Melanoplus packardii , Phlibostroma quadrimaculatum and Aeoloplides turnbulli 
and along roadsides and margins, A. turnbulli , M. bivittatus , M. packardii and 
M. bilituratus predominated. The second-generation hatch of M. bilituratus was 
heavy in the panhandle during late summer, with considerable marginal damage to 
fall-seeded small grains. The fall egg survey indicated that egg deposition in 
western and panhandle counties was generally light. 

First-generation EUROPEAN CORN BORER ( Pyrausta nubilalis ) populations were 
higher in Payne County than in 1957. None were found in limited fall surveys in 
Nowata and Tulsa Counties and only one was found in 1,200 plants inspected in 
Payne County. CORN EARWORM ( Heliothis zea ) built up in corn fields during late 
spring and by June, 10 percent of Bixby area corn showed damage. Infestations 
were common statewide in grain sorghum, alfalfa and other crops until late fall. 
Damage estimates on corn in central, east central and northeastern areas aver- 
aged 1.6 percent loss of grain, slightly less than in 1957.. VARIEGATED CUTWORM 
(Peridroma margaritosa ) became widespread in alfalfa throughout the £tate during 
May. being heaviest in the southwestern area, where larvae averaged 45 per 10 
sweeps. Slightly lower counts were reported in central and south central areas. 
Populations in margins of southwest small grain fields were light. ARMY CUTWORM 
( Chorizagrotis auxiliaris ) averaged 1-2 per linear foot of row at Ames during 
January. Populations which averaged 0.5-1 per square yard in small grain in 
Beckham and Washita Counties in late March and early April, were slightly lower 
than those of 1957. ARMYWORM ( Pseudaletia unipuncta ) populations built up 
during May in central, south central and southwestern areas. Although damage 
occurred to many small grain fields, losses were less than in 1957. FALL 
ARMYWORM ( Laphygma frugiperda ) populations in alfalfa and grain sorghums were 
lower than in 1957. Heavy populations destroyed most volunteer wheat and rye 
fields in Custer and Dewey Counties in October. Extensive marginal damage to 
fall-seeded small grain fields necessitated controls. Populations continued 
low elsewhere. SORGHUM WEBWORM ( Celama sorghiella ) caused light to moderate 
damage to seed heads in many grain sorghum fields during the summer and early 
fall, being heaviest in Wagoner and Bryan Counties with up to 20-30 per head 
in a few isolated fields. SOUTHWESTERN CORN BORER ( Zeadiatraea grandiosella ) 



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infestations occurred in east central, central and southwestern areas during 
the summer. Second-generation larvae averaged 2 per stalk in field corn in 
Payne, Caddo and Oklahoma Counties during late August. Populations showed a 
moderate increase over the 1957 infestation. 

SORGHUM MIDGE ( Contarinia sorghicola ) caused heavy losses to grain sorghum 
production in central and eastern areas. Adult swarms were reported in sorghum 
fields in the Stillwater area in late August, with 100 percent loss of seed in 
some fields. Losses of 20-50 percent were common throughout central and eastern 
areas in early fall and lighter in southern areas. Adults emerged from infes- 
ted seed heads as late as mid-October. A check made in late November of a 
Payne County infested sorghum field showed a 12.2 percent overwintering larval 
infestation. This was the most serious outbreak in the State in several years. 
FLEA BEETLES were common on a wide variety of crops from late April to October, 
statewide. Damage was severe to young corn in late spring and early summer and 
moderate to heavy to late corn and grain sorghums in the latter part of the 
summer. Damage to these crops was considerably heavier than in preceding years. 
GREENBUG ( Toxoptera graminum ) was heavier in small grains than in 1957 and 
overall damage in the Kingfisher County area was light on wheat and medium to 
severe on barley in the spring, with controls applied to some fields. Popula- 
tions were very light and noneconomic in other areas. Fall buildups were 
heaviest in northeastern areas, decreasing toward western and southwestern 
areas. Populations averaged 25-50 per linear foot in the northeast and 
decreased uniformly to 0-5 in the southwest. Numbers remained fairly constant 
during December despite subzero temperatures and snow. ENGLISH GRAIN APHID 
( Macros iphum granarium ) was light and scattered in most northwestern counties in 
early January. Light infestations were common in other areas during the spring, 
being slightly higher than in 1957 in southwestern small grains during May. By 
late May, populations declined rapidly and were not noted again until late 
December when light numbers appeared in Jackson County. APPLE GRAIN APHID 
( Rhopalosiphum f itchii ) was considerably higher than in 1957 but rarely reached 
economic levels. Light or medium infestations were common statewide in the 
spring, yith some isolated heavy infestations. Populations decreased in late 
April, with no further reports until November. Numbers increased statewide for 
the remainder of the year with averages of 50-150 per linear foot common in 
north central and northwestern areas and lighter infestations common in other 
areas. 

WINTER GRAIN MITE ( Penthaleus major ) was common in central and southwesern areas 
in the spring, but populations were lower than during the same period in 1957. 
No infestations were noted in the fall and early winter. The only verified 
reports of BROWN WHEAT MITE (Petrobia la tens ) were from scattered wheat fields 
in the panhandle and extreme northwestern areas, which had up to 10 mites per 
linear foot. CHINCH BUG ( Blissus leucopterus ) built up in eastern corn fields 
during May. Moderate to heavy damage occurred to corn and sorghums by mid-June 
and July in central and east central areas. Numbers remained high in the 
eastern half of the State the remainder of the season, exceeding those found in 
1957. The annual hibernation survey, however, showed the average county ratings 
to be generally lower. The average ratings dropped in 39 counties from those in 
1957, while 30 counties remained the same and 8 increased. Only 10 of the 77 
counties showed a potential infestation rating of severe to very severe, 
compared with 32 in the 1957-58 survey. Light populations of CORN LEAF APHID 
( Rhopalosiphum maidis ) were common in barley statewide and averaged 0-20 per 
linear foot in the spring and 50-300 in the fall. Infestations were light in 
sorghums statewide in the early summer, becoming medium to heavy later in the 
year. Populations increased to 300-1,000 per seed head in some sorghum fields 
in September and October. A WIREWORM ( Conoderus sp.) destroyed a 50-acre field 
of fall-seeded wheat in the Tonkawa area in November when the population 
averaged 0.5 larva per square foot. An APHID ( Rhopalosiphum subterraneum ) was 
light in Hennessey area small grain fields in early March, but caused no eco- 
nomic damage. ANGOUMOIS GRAIN MOTH ( Sitotroga cerealella ) larvae were heavy in 
corn fields at harvest in Nowata, Tulsa and Payne Counties and adults were 
numerous . 



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ALFALFA CATERPILLAR ( Colias philodice eurytheme ) was common in alfalfa from 
April to mid-October, but numbers remained light and did not become economic. 
SPOTTED ALFALFA APHID ( Therioaphis maculata ) remained low statewide during the 
first half of 1958, being considerably lower than during the same period in 
1957. Numbers increased rapidly in southwestern area alfalfa in July, with 
300-600 per sweep in Kiowa County, but continued low throughout other areas. 
Populations in fall-planted alfalfa became severe in central and northwestern 
areas, with heavy losses in some Enid area fields in October and continued high 
the remainder of the year despite subzero temperatures, high winds and snow 
during December. Populations continued low in other areas. PEA APHID 
( Macrosiphum pisi ) appeared in central area alfalfa in early February and was 
common and on the increase statewide by early April. These numbers remained 
medium in most areas until the first cutting in mid-May or early June, then 
declined generally. Populations were very low statewide from early July through 
mid-November, when a slight buildup occurred in eastern and northeastern fields. 
This buildup was slow, never exceeding 25 per sweep. The only serious infesta- 
tion occurred in a vetch field in McClain County in April where numbers reached 
thousands per 10 sweeps. THREE-CORNERED ALFALFA HOPPER ( Spissistilus festinus ) 
was collected in the east central area in early April, but did not buildup 
statewide until mid-July when numbers increased until late October and then 
decreased gradually until early December. WEBWORMS ( Loxostege spp.) were common 
in alfalfa statewide during the summer, but populations remained well below 
those of the preceding two years. GREEN CLOVERWORM ( Plathypena scabra ) numbers 
were common in alfalfa, but lower than those of 1957. TARNISHED PLANT BUG 
( Lygus lineolarus ) was common in alfalfa over most of the State and averaged 
5-25 nymphs and adults per 10 sweeps, which was slightly lower than in 1957. 
RED-NECKED PEANUTWORM ( Stegasta basqueella ) appeared on volunteer peanut foliage 
in early June in Caddo County. Terminal infestations in southwest and north 
central areas ranged 21-30 percent by the first generation to 60-70 by the fourth 
generation. Two Payne County fields had 32 percent of shoots and 95-100 percent 
of buds damaged in late September. Overall losses were lower than in 1957. 
LESSER CORNSTALK BORER ( Elasmopalpus lignosellus ) caused considerably less 
damage to peanuts than in 1957. VETCH BRUCHID ( Bruchus brachialis ) became fairly 
common in central and south central vetch fields during late April and May, being 
heaviest in Logan and McClain Counties where counts averaged 18-50 per 10 sweeps. 
Counts were considerably lower than in other fields. Other insects which damaged 
a variety of cereal and forage crops to a limited degree included CLOVER LEAF 
WEEVIL ( Hypera punctata ) , SOUTHERN CORN R00TW0RM ( Diabrotica undecimpunctata 
howardi) , BLISTER BEETLES ( Epicauta spp.) , SNOWY TREE CRICKET ( Oecanthus niveus ) , 
HARLEQUIN BUG (Murgantia histrionica ) , POTATO LEAFHOPPER ( Empoasca fabae ) , 
RAPID PLANT BUG ( Adelphocoris rapidus) , RED HARVESTER ANT ( Pogonomyrmex barbatus ), 
LEAF -FOOTED BUG ( Leptoglossus phyllopus ) , THRIPS and SUBTERRANEAN TERMITES. 

Fruit Insects : PECAN NUT CASEBEARER ( Acrobasis caryae ) damage was higher than in 
1957. Larval entries in nut clusters averaged up to 33 percent in some areas by 
midsummer. Damage in the Okemah-Okmulgee area was considered heavy for the year. 
EASTERN TENT CATERPILLAR ( Malacosoma americanum ) became common on native plums 
in the southern area during April and by early May was statewide, with severe 
damage in some western counties. PEACH TREE BORER ( Sanninoidea exitiosa ) caused 
less damage than in 1957. SPRING CANKERWORM (Paleacrita vernata ) was very 
abundant in late April on plum, peach, apple, elm and oak in north central, 
central and south central areas. WOOLLY APPLE APHID ( Eriosoma lanigerum ) 
infested apple trees in the north central, east central and southeastern 
areas during spring and summer. PECAN WEEVIL (Curculio caryae ) populations 
continued low but were higher than in 1957. WALNUT CATERPILLAR ( Datana 
integerrima ) caused slightly more damage than in 1957, with light to moderate 
defoliation in most areas and heavy defoliation in local areas. BLACK -MARGINED 
APHID ( Monellia costalis ) averaged 15-30 per pecan leaflet in the Payne County 
area during October and early November and counts throughout 1958 were higher 
than in 1957. A PECAN CATOCALA ( Catocala maestosa ) caused heavy to severe 
damage in one area of Okfuskee County and light damage over the State and 



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a CURCULIO ( Conotrachelus retentus ) caused severe damage to a walnut grove in 
Okfuskee County In early June. RED-NECKED CANE BORER ( Agrilus ruficollis) popu- 
lations in brambles in the Payne County area were lower than in past three years. 
HICKORY SHUCKWORM ( Laspeyresia caryana ) larvae averaged 1-4 per infested shuck 
in approximately 90 percent of pecan shucks in the Stillwater area in late 
November. Pecans were also damaged by PECAN LEAF PHYLLOXERA ( Phylloxera 
notabilis ) , an APHID ( Monellia caryae) and STINK BUGS. Minor damage was caused 
to a variety of fruit crops by CODLING MOTH ( Carpocapsa pomonella ) , PLUM 
CURCULIO ( Conotrachelus n enuphar ) , FALL ARMYWORM ( Laphygma frugiperda ) , APPLE 
LEAF TRUMPET MINER ( Tlscheria malifoliella ) , SAN JOSE SCALE~f Aspidiotus 
perniciosus ) , PUTNAM SCALE (A. ancylus ) and SPIDER MITES. 

Truck Crop Insects : SEED-CORN MAGGOT ( Hylemya cilicrura ) caused moderate damage 
to roots and stems of seedling spinach in the Bixby area during October and 
heavy populations of GREEN PEACH APHID ( Myzus persicae) occurred on some 
untreated east central area spinach fields during the spring and fall. VARIE- 
GATED CUTWORM ( Peridroma margaritosa ) damaged tomato plants at Stillwater in 
late May and a SAND WIREWORM caused some damage to young tomato plants in the 
east central area in late April and early May. TURNIP APHID ( Rhopalosiphum 
pseudobrassicae ) was heavy on turnips and mustard greens in scattered areas 
during November, while BEAN LEAF BEETLE ( Cerotoma trifurcata ) was light to 
prevalent in central and east central area bean fields in late summer. Damage 
to a variety of crops was caused by CORN EARWORM ( Heliothis zea ) , FALL ARMYWORM 
( Laphygma frugiperda ) , MELON APHID ( Aphis gossypii ) , SQUASH BUG ( Anasa tristis) 
and Lygus spp. 

Cotton Insects : COTTON LEAFWORM ( Alabama argillacea ) populations were lighter 
statewide than they had been for the past several years. BOLLWORMS ( Heliothis 
spp., et al.) caused generally light damage throughout the season. Gin stand 
and lint cleaner inspections for PINK BOLLWORM ( Pectinophora gossypiella ) during 
January and February were positive in eight Red River counties. A survey of 
stalk and surface debris in 18 eastern counties during March was negative. The 
first larva collected during the 1958 growing season was taken in early September 
in Tillman County from lint cleaner inspections. Infestations were heavier in 
the southwest and south central areas than in 1957. Gin trash and lint cleaner 
inspections were positive in 18 south central and southwestern counties by late 
September. Inspections of dry bolls taken from stalks and on the ground after 
severe freezes during December, showed a very high larval mortality. CABBAGE 
LOOPER ( Trichoplusia ni ) was generally light in central, south central and 
southwestern areas with ragging in a few isolated fields of rank cotton in late 
August and early September. Numbers were lower than for the past two years. 
BOLL WEEVIL ( Anthonomus grandis) was generally light, with only late squares 
showing severe damage, which averaged up to 70 percent in many areas. COTTON 
APHID ( Aphis gossypii ) was generally light with only localized heavy populations. 
COTTON FLEAHOPPER ( Psallus seriatus ) was light throughout the season, with 
heaviest populations of 40-50 per 100 terminals in the east central area during 
June. Numbers were considerably below those of 1957. THRIPS were of only minor 
importance. COMMON STALK BORER ( Papaipema nebris ) caused considerable damage in 
localized areas of Caddo County during June. Oviposition of TREE CRICKETS 
( Ocean thus spp.) caused alarm in certain southwest areas in July. Approximately 
3 percent damage resulted in the breaking off of stalks in fields with heaviest 
infestations. 

Forest, Ornamental and Shade Tree Insects : IPS BEETLES ( Ips . spp.) were very 
light in southeastern pine forests during late summer, being found only in 
cut-over areas and mechanically damaged trees. BLACK TURPENTINE BEETLE 
( Den droc tonus terebrans ) was light in southeastern area and largely restricted 
to stumpage and "lightning strikes." ELM LEAF BEETLE ( Galerucella xanthome laena ) 
heavily defoliated central and east central Siberian elms in the summer and early 
fall. Other varieties were attacked less severely. Controls were used in 



- 200 - 

many localities. Three generations were completed by September 6 when adults 
began invading homes . NANTUCKET PINE MOTH ( Rhyacionia frustrana ) caused heavy 
damage to central area pines and larvae fed until late September in the Still- 
water area, where pupation was nearly complete in early October and damage 
ceased. ELM CALLIGRAPHA ( Calligrapha scalaris ) was widespread in central and 
north central areas. Large numbers entered hibernation in Blaine County in 
mid-October. A BUCK MOTH ( Hemileuca nevadensis ) was heavy and active in south- 
eastern Ellis County on shinery oak during late October. During mid-October, 
ELM LEAF APHID ( Myzocallis ulmifolii ) counts of 2-7 per leaf were common on elms 
in the Stillwater area. LEAF GALLS were heavy on persimmon in the Okemah area 
in late spring and very heavy on leaves of scattered elms in the Stillwater area 
in midsummer SYCAMORE LACE BUG ( Corythucha ciliata ) damaged sycamore in 
Le Flore County in late August and HAWTHORN LACE BUG (C. cydoniae ) was abnormally 
heavy on Payne County pyracantha in early October. Several species of SCALES, 
including Coccus hesperidum and Saissetia oleae , were reported from a variety of 
plants. Scales reported for the first time from the State included Phenacoccus 
solenopsis , Rhizaspidiotus dearnessi , Apsidiotus pseudospinosus , Lepidosaphes 
beckii , Pinnaspis aspidistrae and Toumeyella sp. , probably parvicorne . Other 
insects which caused damage included BAGWORM ( Thyridopteryx ephemerae formis ) , 
SMALLER EUROPEAN ELM BARK BEETLE ( Scolytus multistriatus ) , SAWFLIES , WHITEFLIES 
and SPIDER MITES. 

Insects Affecting Man and Animals : COMMON CATTLE GRUB ( Hypoderma lineatum ) - 
Most grubs had emerged from the backs by late February. Counts were much lower 
in mature animals in Harper County in January than in yearling steers. In 
December, counts were lower in Woodward, Canadian and Kiowa Counties than in 
Harper County. HORN FLY ( Siphona irritans ) was active on cattle from April to 
November but populations were lighter than in 1957. TABANID populations were 
well below those of 1957, with heaviest counts reported from Latimer County in 
August. STABLE FLY ( Stomoxys calcitrans ) populations were slightly higher than 
in 1957 with peaks during September in the north central area. HOUSE FLY ( Musca 
domestica ) remained low most of the year, but was extremely high in sheltered 
areas of Payne and Sequoyah Counties during early October. Egg laying by HORSE 
BOT FLIES ( Gasterophilus spp.) on horses was heavy in northeastern, medium to 
heavy in central and north central and light to medium in southern areas during 
October and November. SCREW -WORM ( Callitroga hominivorax ) populations were low. 
CATTLE LICE were the heaviest in several years in southern counties during March 
and April. FLEAS were very numerous in many central area homes and yards in the 
summer and early fall. BROWN DOG TICK ( Rhipicephalus sanguineus ) was troublesome 
in homes all year, EAR TICK ( Otobius megnini ) was heavy in isolated areas in 
September and November and WINTER TICK ( Dermacentor albipictus ) averaged 4 per 
square inch on necks and heads of cattle in the southeastern area during late 
November . 

Stored-product Insects : SAW-TOOTHED GRAIN BEETLE ( Oryzaephilus surinamensis ) 
was generally light. A few severe and heavy infestations of LESSER GRAIN BORER 
( Rhyzopertha dominica ) occurred in north central, eastern and southwestern areas. 
Statewide surveys during March showed INDIAN-MEAL MOTH ( Plodia interpunctella ) 
present in 50 percent of the establishments checked, with approximately 5 percent 
rated as severe. RED FLOUR BEETLE ( Tribolium castaneum ) was scattered and light 
to heavy in approximately 20 percent of the mills, warehouses and farm-stored 
grain checked. CADELLE ( Tenebroides mauritanicus ) was light and scattered. 
DERMESTIDS were light to heavy in approximately 40 percent of the inspections 
made. A few RICE WEEVIL ( Sitophilus oryza ) infestations varied from light to 
severe. FLAT GRAIN BEETLE ( LaemophToeus pusillus ) infestations were found only 
in the eastern and northeastern areas. All surveys for KHAPRA BEETLE ( Trogoderma 
granarium ) were negative. 



- 201 - 

Beneficial Insects : CONVERGENT LADY BEETLE ( Hippo damia convergens ) was present 
in most alfalfa fields surveyed by mid-April and numbers remained high during 
the remainder of the year, and materially reduced aphid populations in some 
areas. LACEWINGS ( Chrysopa spp.) were generally abundant in most alfalfa fields 
as were NABIDS ( Nabis spp,) . BEE FLY larvae contributed substantially to grass- 
hopper egg destruction in the panhandle area in the fall and Sarcophaga kellyi 
larvae affected approximately 20 percent of the grasshopper population in the 
same area. Populations of a COCCINELLID ( 011a abdominalis ) aided in the reduc- 
tion of aphid numbers on elms in the Stillwater area in late October. 

Miscellaneous Insects : Surveys for IMPORTED FIRE ANT ( Solenopsis saevissima 
richteri ) in southeastern counties were negative. RED HARVESTER ANT 
( Pogonomyrmex barbatus ) was active statewide by April. A ZORAPTERON ( Zorotypus 
hubbardi) was found in decaying sawdust at Harris, December 31, a first record 
for the State. 



SUMMARY OF INSECT CONDITIONS - 1958 

MISSOURI 
Reported by G. W. Thomas, Stirling Kyd and R. E. Munson 

Insect Outbreak Highlights : Heavy infestations of CORN FLEA BEETLE appeared on 
southwest area seedling corn in early May and were common statewide, by midmonth. 
Counts ranged 1-8 per plant with 90-100 percent of stand showing some degree of 
damage. Adult counts reached 12-23 per plant during second half of June and 
bacterial- wilt incidence was very high over southern and central areas. ARMYWORM 
appeared 3 weeks later than for past 4 years. Small larvae, in economic numbers, 
were present in small grains in the extreme southeast area by mid-May. By late 
May and early June, damage was moderate to heavy in widely scattered central and 
northwestern area barley, wheat and fescue fields. CHINCH BUG migration from 
overwintering habitats was completed by mid-May. Moderate to heavy damage 
occurred on small corn, grain sorghums and Sudan grass through most of June in 
scattered areas of several southwestern, west central and north central counties. 
Overwintering survey in 26 counties showed ratings of severe in 6, moderate in 5, 
light in 2, noneconomic in 12. Following the alltime high overwintering larval 
populations of 1957, first-generation EUROPEAN CORN BORER egg mass counts ranged 
100 to over 400 per 100 plants of early corn. High larval infestations failed 
to develop except in a few fields and second-generation egg mass and larval 
counts declined in most areas. The State average for districts surveyed in 1958 
was 96 compared with 346 in 1957. 

GARDEN WEBW0RM was locally very severe during early June in parts of southwest, 
west central and extreme southeast areas, with alfalfa, corn and soybeans damaged 
in southwest and west central areas and soybeans, cotton and alfalfa in the 
southeast. A second severe outbreak occurred in late July in the extreme south- 
east area, damage being confined largely to late-planted soybeans, cotton and 
alfalfa. GRAPE COLASPIS caused widely scattered severe damage by June to small 
soybeans and corn in some extreme southeast fields where lespedeza had been 
plowed down. Similar damage occurred, to widely scattered central and northwest 
area corn, soybeans and grain sorghums by late June. Egg-hatch of VARIEGATED 
CUTWORM began in the southwest area by mid-May and continued well into June, and 
moderate to heavy damage occurred to new-growth alfalfa, red clover, improved 
pastures, gardens and flower beds except in the northeast area. COTTON APHID 
built up during late June, with light to moderate leaf curling common throughout 
the cotton area. A spectacular COCCINELID population developed in late June and 
by early July the aphid problem was eliminated with practically no controls 



- 202 - 

necessary. Mixed populations of SPIDER MITES increased from late June through 
August and damage increased from spot defoliation to complete defoliation over 
large areas of several counties. First and second generations of NANTUCKET PINE 
MOTH were moderate to severe over much of the southern third of the State, but 
third and fourth generations failed to develop, resulting in a lower overwinter- 
ing population than in past several years. SPRING CANKERWORM larvae caused 
scattered moderate to heavy defoliation of elms in western and central areas. 
MOSQUITO outbreaks occurred throughout the State following heavy rains and 
flooding during early and mid-July. 

New or Unusual Records : PECAN LEAFROLL MITE ( Aceria caryae) , first reported 
from pecans in 1957, heavily infested cultivated varieties in areas of southern 
Dunklin and Pemiscot Counties. WALNUT BLISTER MITE (A. erinea) was taken from 
black walnut at Columbia. PEAR LEAF BLISTER MITE ( Eriophyes pyri ) was recorded 
from nursery stock near St. Joseph, Buchanan County, the second record for the 
State since 1922. A DAGGER NEMATODE ( Xiphinema americanum ) , first reported from 
soil in the extreme southeast part of the State in 1955, was taken from cotton 
near Morley, Scott County, in 1958. EUROPEAN CORN BORER ( Pyrausta nubilalis ) 
was recorded for the first time from Douglas and Ozark Counties , making all 114 
counties of the State infested. Very light numbers of SOUTHWESTERN CORN BORER 
( Zeadiatraea grandiosella ) were recorded in Douglas, Ripley and Dunklin Counties. 
The latter county marks the easternmost advance of this pest in the State and 
establishes it in the extreme southeastern delta farmlands. 

Corn Insects : (Reported by Munson , Peters, Jackson, Kyd, Thomas). DINGY CUTWORM 
( Feltia subgothica ) and YELLOW -STRIPED ARMYWORM ( Prodenia ornithogalli ) caused 
light damage to widely scattered fields of small corn in extreme southwestern 
area the last of May. ARMYWORM ( Pseudaletia unipuncta ) caused light to moderate 
marginal damage to widely scattered fields of small corn in early June, where the 
fields adjoined heavily infested small grains or pastures. DINGY CUTWORM damage 
to a few fields of corn up to 36 inches high necessitated replanting in the 
Missouri River bottom in the central portion of the State and a very few fields 
in river bottom areas in the extreme northwest. WIREWORM (mainly Melanotus spp.) 
infestations were the lightest in the past 6 years, with no area showing more 
than a fraction of 1 percent loss. CORN FLEA BEETLE ( Chaetocnema pulicaria) . 
(see highlights) . A few widely scattered northwestern area fields had small 
spots yellowed and dwarfed by CORN ROOT APHID ( Anuraphis maidi-radicis ) with 
counts of 20-55 per infested plant. Damage to a few fields of small corn by 
GRAPE COLASPIS ( Colaspis sp.) varied from portion within fields to entire fields 
destroyed in southeast, central and northeast areas, and occurred only in fields 
where lespedeza was plowed under prior to seeding. CHINCH BUG ( Blissus 
leucopterus ) , GARDEN WEBWORM ( Loxostege similalis ) and EUROPEAN CORN BORER 
( Pyrausta nubilalis ) . (see highlights) . 

CORN LEAF APHID ( Rhopalosiphum maidis ) was light to moderately heavy on corn in 
all areas from mid-July through August, but there was no evidence of injury or 
yield reduction from any of the heavier infestations. Larval feeding by 
NORTHERN CORN R00TW0RM ( Diabrotica longicornis ) caused spotty lodging in scat- 
tered fields along creek and river bottoms in southeast and central areas, and 
adults ranged 1-18 per silking ear during late July and early August. FALL 
ARMYWORM ( Laphygma frugiperda ) was light to moderate on small corn in the 
extreme southeast area by early July and during periods of hot weather larvae 
were again observed just below the ground line, causing injury similar to cutworm 
feeding. Light to moderate infestations were common throughout the southern half 
of the State by early August, with 1-4 larvae per stalk and 20-53 percent of 
stalks infested. The first CORN EARWORM ( Heliothis zea ) record for the season 
was from a light trap at Sikeston on May 10. Damage to corn was considerably 
less than during preceding years, with 1-5 percent of stalks damaged over the 
southern half of the State. Examination of 1,500 ears in 60 counties in the 
fall revealed 91.6 percent of the ears damaged with an estimated loss of 3.25 
percent of the grain. Following entrance into stalks of the first-brood 



- 203 - 

European corn borers, CORN SAP BEETLES ( Carpophilus spp.) became very abundant 
and continued high during the season. Damage to ears by larvae and adults was 
less than previous years. Examination of girdled stalks in late April in 6 
extreme southwestern counties showed a 1 . 5 percent survival of overwintering 
SOUTHWESTERN CORN BORER ( Zeadiatraea grandiosella ) larvae. First-brood infesta- 
tion was very light and succeeding generations failed to increase their poten- 
tial. Fall survey showed percentage of girdled stalks to be less than any 
preceding year, with an average of 6.3 percent in 8 southwestern counties. 
Survey of 28 counties gave negative results in 5, and new records for Douglas, 
Ripley and Dunklin Counties. 

Grain Sorghum Insects : (Reported by Munson , Jackson, Kyd, Thomas). CHINCH BUG. 
(see highlights) . CORN LEAF APHID ( Rhopalosiphum maidis ) populations were low 
throughout much of the season , except in the extreme southeastern area where 
counts were 500-1,000 per plant in early July. Predators build up rapidly and 
there was no discoloration to leaves or crop damage. By late August, CORN 
EARWORM ( Heliothis zea ) counts ranged 0-60 per 100 heads, with heavier infesta- 
tions in southwest and south central areas where loss ranged 5-25 percent of 
grain destroyed. Populations were light or noneconomic in the remainder of the 
State. FALL ARMYW0RM ( Laphygma frugiperda ) larval counts averaged 1-6 per 100 
heads over southwest and south central areas and occurred in conjunction with 
corn earworm. SORGHUM WEBW0RM ( Celama sorghiella ) larvae averaged 0-5 per head 
in widely scattered fields throughout extreme southern counties by late August. 
Populations and infested fields gradually increased during early September, but 
most damage was noneconomic. Very few fed in tassels of late-planted corn and 
seed heads of Johnson grass. Noneconomic to low numbers of SORGHUM MIDGE 
( Contarinia sorghicola ) occurred in several extreme southeast area fields. Adults 
were reared from seed heads of Johnson grass and purple top. A few fields had 
1-4 percent of head stalks broken over by EUROPEAN CORN BORER ( Pyrausta 
nubilalis ) larval feeding and a very few third and fourth-instar larvae fed in 
heads before boring into stalks. 

Cereal Insects : (Reported by Munson, Kyd, Thomas). WINTER GRAIN MITE 
( Penthaleus major ) populations were extremely low in all southwest area small 
grain fields. ENGLISH GRAIN APHID ( Macros iphum granarium ) averaged 0-5 per 
linear foot of row in barley, rye and wheat over the southern third of the State 
by mid-April. Populations gradually increased, and when wheat began to head in 
late May counts ranged 5 to over 200 per linear foot, with the heavier infesta- 
tions in the southwest area. Populations in heads of wheat did not develop as 
expected and infested fields averaged 4-15 aphids per head in most areas. No 
infestations of GREENBUG ( Toxoptera graminum ) were observed although there were 
several reports from the southwest area, none of which were confirmed. SIX- 
SPOTTED LEAFHOPPER ( Macrosteles fascifrons ) was considerably lighter than in 
1957, with counts of 1-2 per sweep in margins of some barley fields scattered 
over southwest and south central areas. No damage was evident. For ARMYWORM 
and CHINCH BUG, see highlights. A large number of wheat fields over the western 
half of the State had 1-20 percent of the straws broken from HESSIAN FLY 
( Phytophaga destructor ) feeding immediately prior to harvest. Stubble survey 
during July and August failed to show any increase in percentage of infested 
straws or number of 'flaxseed" , and showed a State" average of 2.6 percent of 
straws infested in 58 counties. The highest county average of 17.2 percent was 
in Lafayette County. 

Legume and Pasture Insects : (Reported by Blickenstaf f , Brown, Jackson, Kyd, 
Munson, Peters, Thomas). PEA APHID ( Macrosiphum pisi ) averaged 2-15 per sweep 
on alfalfa in the southern half of the State by mid-April and gradually increased 
during May to 112 per sweep in this area and 100-500 per sweep in the northwest 
area. A fungus disease, in conjunction with parasites and predators, became 
abundant in May, when up to 95 percent of populations in many fields were 



- 204 - 

diseased. No successful overwintering of SPOTTED ALFALFA APHID ( Therioaphis 
maculata ) was observed. Adults were not found on alfalfa until August in the 
southwest, but built up to 135 per sweep in some south central and southwest 
area fields. VARIEGATED CUTWORM (Peridroma rraragitosa ) . (see highlights). 
POTATO LEAFHOPPER ( Empoasca fabae ) appeared on extreme southeastern alfalfa on 
May 6. Populations increased slowly and averaged 1-7 adults and nymphs per 
sweep by late July, with the heavier numbers in northeast and north central 
areas. Slight yellowing of leaves occurred in more heavily infested fields. 
GARDEN WEBWORM (Loxostege similalis ) . (see highlights) . THREE-CORNERED ALFALFA 
HOPPER ( Spissistilus festinus ) commonly occurred in very low numbers in south- 
west and central area alfalfa fields and in widely scattered southeast area 
fields. Girdled stems never exceeded 0.25 percent in any area and counts were 
generally less than 1 per 100 sweeps. BLISTER BEETLES (Epicauta spp.) stripped 
or severely damaged small areas within a few scattered alfalfa fields in the 
southern half of the State. During September E. pennsylvanica averaged 1-3 per 
sweep with some light damage to terminal growth and flower heads. Small spots in 
a very few soybean fields were defoliated by Epicauta sp. in the extreme south- 
east area. CLOVER LEAF WEEVIL ( Hypera punctata ) larval populations were consid- 
erably lower than in past several years, with counts of 0.5-2 larvae per crown of 
red clover and alfalfa in most areas by mid-April. A fungus disease increased 
during April and largely eliminated larval populations by May. CLOVER ROOT 
CURCULIO (Sitona hispidula ) and SWEETCLOVER WEEVIL (S. cylindricollis ) were 
considerably lower than during the past several years. Root feeding and foliage 
injury were light and confined to a few scattered 3 to 5-year-old alfalfa and red 
clover fields. Mixed populations of CLOVER APHID ( Anuraphis baker i ) and YELLOW 
CLOVER APHID ( Therioaphis trifolii ) were very light except in the northwest where 
infestations gradually increased on first-cutting red clover during June. No 
economic injury occurred because of predators and adverse weather conditions. 
Populations of LESSER CLOVER LEAF WEEVIL ( Hypera nigrirostris ) continued to 
decline throughout the State, with no more than 20 percent of stems showing larval 
damage. DINGY CUTWORM ( Feltia subgothica ) was generally lighter in pastures, 
alfalfa and red clover than in past several years. Heaviest infestations 
averaged 1-2 per square yard in a few central area red clover fields. SWEETCLOVER 
APHID ( Myzocallidium riehmi ) was commonly very light in sweetclover over the 
northern half of the State. Populations of PLANT BUGS (mainly Lygus lineolarus ) 
varied considerably over the State. By late July, L. lineolarus ranged 2-14 
adults and nymphs per sweep of northeast area alfalfa which appeared to be the 
most heavily infested area within the State. 

WHEAT STEM MAGGOT ( Meromyza americana ) destroyed 1-2 percent of bluegrass seed 
stems in the northwest area and an occasional stem of orchardgrass and wheat in 
western and northern areas. GRASSHOPPERS ( Melanoplus dif f erentialis , M. 
bivittatus , M. femur -rubr urn and M. bilituratus ) - Egg hatch occurred from early 
May through most of June. Nymphal populations were the lowest in 6 years, except 
in scattered isolated fields or farms in the western third of the State where 
counts ranged up to 35 per square yard of margin. Populations were .reduced to 
noneconomic numbers over the State by heavy rains in July except in widely 
scattered fields in west central and northwest areas. No damage occurred to 
field crops. GREEN CLOVERWORM ( Plathypena scabra ) larvae ranged 1-6 per linear 
foot of row on soybeans in the extreme southeast where considerable ragging of 
foliage occurred in some fields. Populations were lighter in all soybean- 
producing areas. Larvae ranged up to 2 per sweep in many alfalfa fields over 
the southern half of the State. THRIPS caused some silvering of soybean leaves 
in the extreme southeast and in scattered fields over the remaining soybean- 
producing areas. Initial injury was light. CORN EARWORM ( Heliothis zea ) larvae 
averaged 1-2 per yard of row in a few soybean fields scattered over the west 
central area. Damage was moderate to severe, occurring when plants were 6-11 
inches high. Most plants recovered in time to produce a normal crop. GRAPE 
COLASPIS ( Colaspis sp.). (see highlights). BEAN LEAF BEETLE ( Cerotoma 
trifurcata ) adults ranged 1-3 per linear foot of germinating soybeans and garden 
beans in the central area by late May. By August, counts decreased in the 
central area but increased to 2-4 adults per linear foot of row in the extreme 



- 205 - 

southeast and caused considerable ragging of foliage but little or no injury to 
blossoms, newly set pods or seeds. STINK BUGS ( Acrosternum hilare , Euschistus 
servus and E. variolarius ) increased greatly in soybean fields throughout the 
State in late season. Adults and nymphs of A. hilare were common on soybeans, 
while mainly adults of the other two species were found. Some species fed on 
the beans within the pods and the extent of the damage was not fully determined. 
The quality and oil content of the beans upon which they fed were probably 
reduced. The known SOYBEAN CYST NEMATODE (Heterodera glycines ) infested area 
is confined to the 3 extreme southeast counties of Stoddard, New Madrid and 
Pemiscot. Samples were taken from 7,415 fields comprising 197,085 acres of 
soybeans and lespedeza land in 70 counties. As of December 31, 112 fields are 
known to be infested, totaling 3,940 acres. 

Fruit Insects : (Reported by Enns) . Apples - APPLE APHID ( Aphis pomi ) numbers 
were few and STINK BUGS ( Euschistus spp. ) were present in scattered infestations 
in May. By mid-May a few reports of ROSY APPLE APHID ( Anuraphis roseus ) were 
received. CODLING MOTH ( Carpocapsa pomonella ) was largely in the pupal stage 
by mid-May with first adult being taken May 17, but second-brood moths appeared 
on schedule in early July. Controls were satisfactory and only very few third- 
brood moths were noted in August. By mid-May a few RED-BANDED LEAF ROLLERS 
( Argyrotaenia velutinana ) were noted. First and second-broods, although not 
overly abundant, caused considerable damage just as Jonathan picking began. 
No reports of FORBES SCALE ( Aspidiotus forbesi ) infestations were received 
during the season. Peaches - The abundant crop in the southeast and Kansas 
City areas was attacked as usual by ORIENTAL FRUIT MOTH ( Grapholitha molesta ) , 
PLUM CURCULIO ( Conotrachelus nenuphar), LYGUS BUGS and STINK BUGS. Most growers 
obtained good control and no unusual problems appeared. Grapes - The major 
problem in the Rosati area was a heavy outbreak of MEALYBUGS which became evident 
by May 20 and continued until mid-August. Most growers achieved good control and 
there was no apparent loss. Small numbers of GRAPE BERRY MOTH ( Paralobesia 
viteana ) , GRAPE LEAF FOLDER ( Desmia funeralis ) and LEAFHOPPERS were noted but 
caused no serious injury. GRAPE SCALE ( Aspidiotus uvae) continued troublesome 
near Kansas City. GRAPE ROOT BORER ( Vitacea polistiformis ) was found in grape 
roots at Rosati in mid-June. 

Cotton Insects : (Reported by Harrendorf, Hare, Thomas). The 1958 growing season 
was generally good, but there was an unprecedented drought during May and early 
June that delayed germination and necessitated some replanting in scattered areas 
of several southern counties. Rainfall was ample during the remainder of the 
season and was followed by an excellent harvesting season. MIRIDS (including 
Lygus lineolarus and Adelphocoris rapidus ) - Economic populations of the flea- 
hopper complex developed in early August, two weeks later than in 1957. There 
was no apparent difference in square set or yield in a few fields operated under 
an early season control program, when compared with surrounding untreated fields. 
Widely scattered marginal infestations of SPIDER MITES (mainly Tetranychus 
atlanticus ) began in late May and early June. By July, marginal and spot controls 
were applied in several counties. Infestations built up and spread and caused 
defoliation over much of the cotton-growing area by mid-August. Populations 
declined in all counties by early September. Controls were widely used, with 
failures reported from all chemicals recommended. BOLLWORM ( Heliothis spp. , 
et al.) infestations were low until late July when an increase began and reached 
a peak by September. Egg counts were unusually high in early September, but 
subsequent larval infestations failed to develop. Good control was obtained with 
1-3 applications in more heavily infested fields. 

No live BOLL WEEVILS ( Anthonomus grandis) were recovered from ground trash during 
the spring and very few apparently successfully overwintered, as the first field 
infestations were detected in mid-July, two weeks later than in 1957. Numbers 
slowly increased, with a peak in late September. A few fields were treated with 
only moderate success in late August and early September in Butler, Dunklin and 



- 206 - 

Stoddard Counties. Little damage resulted to the late top crop. SEED-CORN 
MAGGOT ( Hylemya cilicrura ) , CUTWORMS ( Agrotis ypsilon and Feltia subgothica ) and 
COTTON LEAFWORM ( Alabama~argillacea ) were not problems in 1958. COTTON APHID 
( Aphis gossypii ) built up to outbreak proportions over the entire cotton-growing 
area by early June and began to curl leaves when parasites and predators rapidly 
increased and eliminated the problem. STALK BORER (Papaipema nebris) marginal 
damage became apparent in widely scattered fields in Butler, Dunklin and Stoddard 
Counties during June and early July, with 0.5-6 percent of the stalks killed in 
the first 4-8 marginal rows. A heavy outbreak of GARDEN WEBWORM ( Loxostege 
similalis ) followed the aphid outbreak in June in those fields treated for aphid 
control. A second outbreak occurred in late July on cotton, soybeans and 
alfalfa. A few third-brood larvae of EUROPEAN CORN BORER ( Pyrausta nubilalis ) 
were found for the fourth consecutive year boring in main stems and bolls in 
several counties. PINK BOLLWORM ( Pectinophora gossypiella ) - Inspection of 123 
lint cleaners and 1,613 bushels of gin trash from 73 gins in 7 counties gave 
negative results for pink bollworm. 



SURVEY METHODS 



- 207 - 



FLY BAITS AND TRAPS 



Preliminary tests in Colorado during 1956 showed that fly baits sprayed on beet 
plants gave rather spectacular results on kills of adult sugar beet root maggots. 
In 1957 bait traps, using several attractants , particularly hydrolysate 
materials, were found to attract a wide variety of Diptera. Tests during 1957, 
beginning in April and continuing weekly until October, gave population data on 
sugar beet root maggot , seed-corn maggot , western wheat stem maggot and spinach 
leaf miner. This method has also proved very successful in determining emer- 
gence, broods and seasonal activity of these four pests. The study of baiting 
technique was expanded in 1958. 

Materials used in Bait Traps 
for Sugar Beet Root Maggot Adults 1957 

A. Dylox, 1 oz. , sugar 1 lb., water 2 qts. 

B. Dylox, 1 oz. , sugar 1 lb. , water 2 qts., yeast hydrolysate 1/2 oz. 

C. Dylox, 1 oz. , sugar 1 lb. , water 2 qts. , casein hydrolysate 1/2 oz. 

D. Dylox, 1 oz. , sugar 1 lb. , water 2 qts. , soy hydrolysate 1/2 oz. 

E. Dylox, 1/2 oz. , water 1 pt. , protein bait No. 2* 4 oz. 

F. Dylox, 1/2 oz. , water 1 pt. , protein bait Nck 7* 4 oz. 




Trapping Procedure and Results 

A wood cylinder 1.25 inches in diame- 
ter by 3 inches long , or a corn cob 
3 inches long, was dipped in one of 
the above baits and suspended over 
the 6-inch funnel of a Japanese 
beetle trap or a similar funnel-type 
trap. (see illustration) . Flies 
attracted to the bait dropped into 
the container under the funnel . 
All of the above baits caught adults 
of the sugar beet root maggot. Bait A 
caught the most and bait D was next 
in numbers. Bait B, containing yeast 
hydrolysate, fermented and did not 
attract many of the root maggot flies 
but did attract and kill many sarco- 
phagids and calliphorids. In 1958, 
the bait traps were modified by 
replacing the corn cob with a wick 
in a two (2) ounce salve jar. 
(L. E. Jenkins) . 



Fly Bait Trap 



* Protein bait contains amino acids. 



- 208 - 
See CEIR 9(10): 159 SURVEY METHODS 



Uniform Survey Procedure Approved By 
The Lake States Forest Insect Survey Committee - 1959 



BALSAM GALL MIDGE DAMAGE APPRAISAL SURVEY 



Addendum 

Control of the balsam gall midge through management or insecticides has not 
yet been reduced to practical levels. Recommendations concerning this insect, 
hence are directed not toward its control but toward the prevention of damaged 
trees reaching the market. The following marketing practices are recommended. 

1. Trees moderately to heavily infested 
will not be marketed. 

2. Trees lightly infested may be marketed 
if needle galling was no heavier than 
moderate the previous year. 



R. L. Giese , D. M. Benjamin 



- 209 - 

INSECTS NOT KNOWN TO OCCUR IN THE UNITED STATES 

A BRAMBLEBERRY LEAFHOPPER ( Macropsis fuscula (Zetterstedt) ) 

Economic Importance : An outbreak of this leafhopper was discovered on logan- 
berry on Lulu Island, British Columbia, in 1952. It had not been reported 
previously from North America. Heavy infestations have occurred yearly since 
1952 in the Lulu Island area causing considerable damage to various bramble- 
berries through feeding on flowers and fruit and through heavy deposits of 
honeydew. The infestations have been difficult to control. Although the 
insect has been known to cause direct plant damage for some time, it assumed 
a more important economic status when it was shown to be the vector of the 
destructive Rubus stunt virus of Europe in 1953. This virus is not known to 
occur in North America. 

Symptoms of Rubus virus on loganberry are as follows: New canes weak, short, 
thin, much more numerous than usual, giving bushy appearance. The following 
season weak canes generally fail to flower. Flowers on infected canes less 
numerous than normal and may be malformed, floral parts becoming foliar. 
Disease is progressive, plant becoming more stunted and bushy in successive 
years. On raspberry, best diagnostic characters are late development and 
shortness of laterals early in season. 




General Distribution of Macropsis fuscula 

Distribution : Europe (Italy, France, Belgium, Netherlands, Germany, England, 
Denmark, Norway, Sweden, Finland, northern USSR) and British Columbia, Canada. 

Hosts : Rubus spp. (loganberry, raspberry, thimbleberry , blackberry, et al.). 

Life History and Habits : The insect overwinters in the egg stage in canes of 
wild and cultivated Rubus spp. In British Columbia, the eggs hatch in late May, 
about the time loganberries begin to blossom. Nymphs are numerous by mid-June, 
with as many as 7 per cluster of fruit buds in some plantings. There are 5 
instars , each stage requiring about 10 days. Adults appear in mid-summer. 
Apparently there is only one generation a year. In the Netherlands, the virus 
is spread from old to new berry plantations by adults. 



(Cicadellidae , Homoptera) 



No. 80 of Series 



210 





Adult Male Genitalia 

Macropsis fuscula 



Description : According to Beirne - 
Length 4.5-5.0 mm. Dull yellowish-brown 
to light fuscous; markings of head, 
pronotum and scutallum black; veins of 
forewings fuscous or blackish. Distinc- 
tive features: black spot at base of 
hind tibiae ; rounded or comma-shaped 
spot beneath each ocellus, a smaller spot 
beneath each of these; a large, elongate 
pair lower down and the sides of the 
clypeus black. Size of black markings 
and general color of insect variable. 
Other North American species having 
black-spotted tibiae may be readily 
distinguished from fuscula by the 
absence of dark facial spots and by 
host plants. (Prepared in Survey and 
Detection Operations in cooperation 
with other ARS agencies.) CEIR 9 (12) 
3-20-59. 




Left: Stunted Right: Normal 
Norfolk Giant Raspberry 



Figures (except map) : Adult and male genitalia from Beirne, B. P. 1956. Canad. 
Ent . 88(Suppl. 2), 180 pp. Stunted and normal growth of raspberry from Prentice, 
I. W., 1951. Jour. Hort. Sci . 26(l):35-42. 



JNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Penalty for Private Use to Avoid 



WASHINGT ON 25, P. C. 

_ Business 



Payment of Postage, $300 







d Iff 

T PEST CONTROL DIVISION 
GRICULTURAL RESEARC 



m 




TMENT OF AGRICULTURI 




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AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH SERVICE 



PLANT PEST CONTROL DIVISION 



SURVEY a DETECTION OPERATIONS 



The Cooperative Economic Insect Report is issued 
weekly as a service to American Agriculture. Its contents 
are compiled from information supplied by cooperating State, 
Federal, and industrial entomologists and other agricultural 
workers. In releasing this material the Division serves as 
a clearinghouse and does not assume responsibility for ac- 
curacy of the material. 



Reports and inquiries pertaining to this release 
should be mailed to: 

Survey & Detection Operations 



Plant Pest Control Division 

Agricultural Research Service 

United States Department of Agriculture 

Washington 25, D. C. 



Volume 9 March 27, 1959 Number 13 



COOPERATIVE ECONOMIC INSECT REPORT 



Highlights of Insect Conditions 



GREENBUG variable in small grains in several states. (p. 213). 

SPOTTED ALFALFA APHID damage light to heavy in Oklahoma, Texas and 
Nevada. (p. 214). 

Survey of POTATO PSYLLID on overwintering host indicates potential outbreak 
populations this season. (p. 215) . 

BOLL WEEVIL survival survey, Mississippi, spring, 1959. (p. 216). 

Severe outbreak of BARK BEETLES developing on 1,000 acres of pine in Shasta 
County and potential outbreak possible in Napa County, California. (p. 217). 

INSECT DETECTION: First report of occurrence of Haplothrips clarisetis in 
New Mexico, with damage to lettuce in Dona Ana County. (p. 215) . IMPORTED 
FIRE ANT found for first time in Polk County, Florida. (p. 219). ARGENTINE 
ANT found in Baltimore, Maryland. Has not been reported in this locality for 
several years. (p. 219). 

CORRECTIONS and ADDITIONAL NOTES. (p. 220). 

Illustrated key for the recognition of the IMPORTED FIRE ANT and closely 
related species. (p. 221). 

SUMMARY OF INSECT CONDITIONS - 1958 - OHIO. (p. 224). 

INSECTS not known to occur in the United States. (p. 227). 



************** 



Reports in this issue are for the week ending March 20, unless otherwise 
designated. 



- 212 - 

WEATHER OF THE WEEK ENDING MARCH 23 

The week was abnormally cold in Gulf coastal sections and east of the 
Mississippi River, and unseasonably mild elsewhere. Precipitation was heavy 
in parts of the Southern States and along the north Pacific coast but mostly 
light elsewhere, with none at all in large areas of the Southwest for the 
fourth consecutive week. Both the area and depths of snow cover at lower 
elevations were reduced, with local minor flooding occurring in the upper 
Mississippi Valley. Two low pressure areas gained moderately strong to 
strong storm intensity, one crossing the southern portion of the country 
from west to east on the 19th to the 22nd and the other developing in the 
Northeast on the 21st. The storm of the 19th to the 22nd caused near 
blizzard conditions and whipped up dust in the southwestern Great Plains 
on the 20th, and triggered tornadoes and severe thunderstorms with hail in 
Texas. Drifting snow closed roads in northeastern New Mexico and the Texas 
Panhandle and forced many schools to close in eastern Colorado. Tornadoes 
in Texas destroyed some farm buildings near Trenton, damaged 2 houses and 
uprooted trees in Marshall and damaged 22 homes in Paxton. Stormy conditions 
in New England on the 21st included gale-force winds, rain, snow, sleet and 
scattered thunderstorms. Almost daily rains occurred in the Florida Penin- 
sula, and weekly totals ranged from 6 to 9 inches in central and northern 
portions and 3 to 5 inches in northwestern and extreme southern portions of 
the State. Overflowing streams and lakes inundated farmlands and closed 
some roads. In that portion of the Peninsula north of Lake Okeechobee, 
March rainfall now generally totals 8 to 12 inches, setting new March 
records at numerous points. 

Even though maxima in the 60 's reached the Northern Border States during a 
midweek warm spell in the eastern third of the country, cold snaps early and 
late in the week, with freezing temperatures to the northern portions of the 
Southern States resulted in weekly averages of 3° to 6° below normal. Owing 
to well below normal temperatures for 3 consecutive weeks in the Southeast, 
spring continued to lag there. The snow cover is now mostly limited to 
mountainous areas and portions of Minnesota, Wisconsin, Michigan, New York 
and New England. Most of Wisconsin is still covered and, even though depths 
decreased from 2 to 10 inches last week, La Crosse still has 13 inches. 
Depths range up to 45 inches in extreme northern Michigan. (Summary supplied 
by U. S. Weather Bureau). 



- 213 - 

CEREAL AND FORAGE INSECTS 

A GRASSHOPPER ( Oedaleonatus enigma ) - CALIFORNIA - First-instar nymphs averaged 
up to 12 per square yard in rangelands of Kettleman Hills, Maricopa area of Kern 
County. Scattered infestations appearing in large numbers in San Luis Obispo 
County. (Cal. Coop. Rpt.). 

EUROPEAN CORN BORER ( Pyrausta nubilalis ) - SOUTH DAKOTA - Preliminary survey in 
12 southeastern counties indicates approximately 14 percent mortality in the 
overwintering population. (Mast, March 14). 

BROWN WHEAT MITE ( Petrobia latens ) - OKLAHOMA - Found in one field in Tillman 
County out of 41 fields surveyed in 7 counties. Populations were generally 
light, but plentiful in spots. (Henderson). TEXAS - Light in most small grain 
fields examined in 9 north central counties. Populations did not exceed 25 per 
foot. (Chada) . 

WINTER GRAIN MITE ( Penthaleus major ) - OKLAHOMA - Populations ranged up to 150 
per linear foot in 5 wheat fields checked in Caddo County. (Hudson) . TEXAS - 
None observed in any of 9 north central counties surveyed. (Chada) . 

ENGLISH GRAIN APHID ( Macrosiphum granarium ) - DELAWARE - Alates and nymphs 
common on ryegrass cover crop in Sussex County. (Burbutis, Conrad). OKLAHOMA - 
Light populations of 0-10 per linear foot found fairly common in small grain 
fields surveyed in 11 counties. (VanCleave, Owens, Meharg) . Populations 
averaged less than 10 per linear foot in a few small grain fields surveyed in 
7 counties. (Henderson). TEXAS - Light in most small grain fields examined in 
9 north central counties. (Chada). NEW MEXICO - Building up in wheat fields in 
Artesia area, Eddy County, and in Roosevelt and Curry Counties. (N. M. Coop. Rpt.) 
KANSAS - Averaged less than one per linear foot in one wheat field in Labette 
County. (Peters) . 

APPLE GRAIN APHID ( Rhopalosiphum fitchii ) - OKLAHOMA - Found in approximately 
half of the small grain fields surveyed in 11 counties with populations of 
0.5-100 per linear foot. (VanCleave, Owens, Meharg). Counts ranged 100-500 per 
linear foot in 3 fields checked in Grady County (Pennington) , 25-200 per linear 
foot in 3 fields in Canadian County (Ritter) , and populations were present in 31 
of 41 small grain fields surveyed in 7 counties with counts of 0-360 per linear 
foot. (Henderson). TEXAS - Very heavy, as many as 500-1,000 or more per foot, 
in a few fields having dense growth of grain in north central area. Presence of 
numerous parasites and predators should reduce populations. (Chada). 

GREENBUG (Toxoptera graminum ) - LOUISIANA - Infestations extremely light in 
northern part of Stated (Spink) . OKLAHOMA - Survey of small grain fields in 
7 counties showed an average of 17-157 per linear foot. (Henderson). Great 
quantities of winged forms present in Tillman County. Approximately 20,000 
acres have been treated. (Hatfield) . Averaged 10-50 per linear foot in 5 small 
grain fields in Caddo County and 0-5 in 2 Custer County fields. (Hudson). Ranged 
200-1,000 per linear foot in 3 fields in Grady County (Pennington) , 50-100 per 
linear foot in 2 small grain fields in Canadian County (Ritter) , 158-777 in 5 
small grain fields in a localized area north of Guthrie, Logan County, and none 
were found in a wheat field checked in Payne County and another field in Creek 
County. (Stiles). Counts ranged 0-50 per linear foot in most fields checked in 
11 counties. One field in Pawnee County averaged several hundred per linear 
foot. (VanCleave, Owens, Meharg). TEXAS - Present in 24 of 26 small grain fields 
examined in 9 north central counties. Averaged 250 per foot, with considerable 
damage in one field near Burkburnett, Wichita County, and averaged 175 per foot 
in one field near Crowell, Foard County. Averaged less than one to 75 per foot 
in other fields. (Chada). Heavy in Knox County, with 500-700 per foot of row. 
(Turney) . Light to medium, 15-20 per foot of row, in Rockwall County. (Davis). 
NEW MEXICO - Building up in wheat fields in Artesia area, Eddy County, and in 
Roosevelt and Curry Counties. (N. M. Coop. Rpt.). 



- 214 - 

KANSAS - Found in 2 of 26 fields observed in east central and southeast areas 
and ranged 0-5 per linear foot of row. (Peters) . None found in wheat fields 
examined in Montgomery, Chautauqua, Elk, Greenwood, Lyon and Wabaunsee Counties. 
(Knutson) . 

SOUTHWESTERN CORN BORER ( Zeadiatraea grandiosella ) - ARKANSAS - Fields checked 
in Madison, Pope and Yell Counties showed an average of 22 percent winter 
survival, with range of 7-50 percent. (Whitcomb, March 14). 

FLEA BEETLES - TEXAS - Phyllotreta pusilla heavy and attacked corn roots in 
Dimmit County. Averaged 1-4 adults per 3-inch corn shoot. (Harding). ARIZONA - 
Chaetocnema ectypa heavy on sweet corn and early planted sorghum in some fields 
in Maricopa County. (Ariz. Coop. Sur.). 

AN EARWIG ( Euborellia cincticollis ) - CALIFORNIA - Taken from corn in West 
Sacramento, Yolo County. This is farthest north species is reported in State. 
(Cal. Coop. Rpt.) . 

CUTWORMS - DELAWARE - Amathes c -nigrum larvae prevalent under debris in a clover 
field in Sussex County" (Burbutis, Conrad). NEW MEXICO - Chorizagrotis 
auxiliaris infestations light and spotty in barley fields near Artesia, Eddy 
County. (N. M. Coop. Rpt.). KANSAS - Chorizagrotis auxiliaris found in one 
wheat field in Butler County and ranged 1-4 per linear foot in a damaged area 
about 40 feet in diameter within the field. (Peters) . 

CLOVER ROOT CURCULIO ( Sitona hispidula ) - MARYLAND - Some old alfalfa stands in 
Harford and Howard Counties showed considerable root damage. (U. Md. , Ent. Dept ., 
March 3) . 

ALFALFA WEEVIL ( Hypera postica ) - VIRGINIA - Larvae hatching in Rockfish Valley 
of Nelson County, March 13-14. (Swain). UTAH - Larvae active and some controls 
have been applied in Salt Lake County. (Knowlton) . 

CLOVER LEAF WEEVIL ( Hypera punctata ) - DELAWARE - Late-instar larvae common in 
some clover and alfalfa fields in Sussex County. (Burbutis, Conrad). KANSAS - 
Larvae found in one alfalfa field in Lyon County and averaged about 3 per square 
foot of crown area. (Peters) . 

SPOTTED ALFALFA APHID ( Therioaphis maculata ) - OKLAHOMA - Populations common in 
alfalfa fields in Noble, Payne, Pawnee, Lincoln, Okfuskee, Seminole, Pontotoc and 
Hughes Counties, with counts of 5-450 per square foot. Lighter and scattered in 
Tulsa, Creek and Okmulgee Counties with 0-25 per square foot. (VanCleave , Owens, 
Meharg) . Averaged 25 per square foot in an alfalfa field in Grady County 
(Pennington) and severely damaged alfalfa in a field in the same county, with 
plants very sticky from honeydew. (Henderson) . Averaged 460 per square foot of 
crown area in some Payne County alfalfa fields, an increase from the 288 reported 
last week. (Ketner) . TEXAS - Medium to heavy infestations in Rockwall County. 
(Davis). NEVADA - General in alfalfa fields at Mesquite, Clark County, with 
light to heavy damage. (Hoff) . NEW MEXICO - Remained heavy in northern Dona Ana 
County and near Tularosa, Otero County. (N. M. Coop. Rpt.). KANSAS - Fifteen 
found on 75 alfalfa plants observed on roadside embankment in Riley County, 
March 13. On March 14, one was found on 25 plants in Cloud County, none on 50 
plants in Marion County, 2 on 25 plants in Butler County and 20 on 50 plants in 
Cowley County. (Simpson, Burkhardt) . Populations in southeast area ranged 0-50 
per 10 sweeps. None were found by examination of individual plants. (Peters). 

PEA APHID ( Macrosiphum pisi ) - ALABAMA - Light to moderate on vetch in several 
areas of northeastern part of State. (Grimes) . OKLAHOMA - Counts ranged 0-100 
per linear foot in alfalfa fields in 11 counties. (VanCleave, Owens, Meharg). 
KANSAS - Present in most alfalfa fields observed in east central and southwestern 
areas and ranged 0-50 per 10 sweeps. (Peters). ARIZONA - Light on alfalfa in 
Graham County. (Ariz. Coop. Sur.). 



- 215 - 

FRUIT INSECTS 

COWPEA APHID ( Aphis medicaginis ) - ARIZONA - Heavy infestations on some dooryard 
plantings of citrus in the Phoenix area. (Ariz. Coop. Sur.). 

SAY STINK BUG ( Chlorochroa sayi ) - CALIFORNIA - Light infestation on grapefruit 
and tangerine twigs in Borrego Valley, San Diego County. Not usually associated 
with these hosts. (Cal. Coop. Rpt.). 

THRIPS ( Frankliniella sp.) - TEXAS - Medium infestation on citrus blooms in 
Zavala and Dimmit Counties with 0-6 adults per bloom. (Harding) . 

CALIFORNIA RED SCALE ( Aonidiella aurantii ) - CALIFORNIA - Light infestations on 
navel orange fruit in Centerville, Fresno County, and on fruit of an orange tree 
in Ojai, Ventura County. (Cal. Coop. Rpt.). 

WHITE PEACH SCALE ( Pseudaulacaspis pentagona ) - NORTH CAROLINA - Infesting peach 
tree in a Warren County backyard. (Jones, Farrier) . 

DRIED-FRUIT BEETLE ( Carpophilus hemipterus ) - CALIFORNIA - High daytime temper- 
atures ranging above 70 degrees have increased emergence and flight of adults. 
Large numbers taken in the Chowchilla area of Madera County bait pots. (Fig 
Inst.) . 

TRUCK CROP INSECTS 

A CUCUMBER BEETLE ( Diabrotica undecimpunctata tenella ) - NEW MEXICO - Causing 
minor damage to lettuce in several Dona Ana County fields. (N. M. Coop. Rpt.). 

GREEN PEACH APHID ( Myzus persicae) - CALIFORNIA - Light infestations on bell 
peppers in the Encanto area of San Diego County. (Cal. Coop. Rpt.). ARIZONA - 
Infestations on lettuce in Maricopa County increased slightly over last week. 
Many fields averaging 12 aphids per plant. (Ariz. Coop. Sur.). 

CUTWORMS - NEW MEXICO - Causing some damage to lettuce fields, especially along 
fence rows and ditch beds. (N. M. Coop. Rpt.). 

HARLEQUIN BUG (Murgantia histrionica ) - TEXAS - Medium on mustard, turnips and 
broad beans in Zavala and Dimmit Counties. Great numbers in field margins. 
(Harding) . 

SEED-CORN MAGGOT ( Hylemya cilicrura ) - TEXAS - Light on seedling potatoes. 
(Turney) . 

THRIPS - NEW MEXICO - Frankliniella sp. average 2 per plant on onions in Mesilla 
Valley. Haplothrips clarisetis killing young lettuce in Dona Ana County fields. 
First report of occurrence in the State. (N. M. Coop. Rpt.). TEXAS - Thrips 
tabaci light to heavy, widespread, attacking onions in Dimmit and Zavala 
Counties. Reproduction heavy. Seven to 23 adults per plant in the Winter Garden 
area. (Harding) . 

Potato Psyllid Survey on Overwintering Host 

Potato psyllid surveys were conducted March 5-10 in the southern over- 
wintering areas. Generally, the weather was favorable for the 1959 survey in 
Arizona and California, but not so in New Mexico, where high winds prevailed 
throughout the survey period. Development of lycium varied considerably between 
sections and condition of the plants was fair to excellent. An abundance of 
psyllid eggs was found in most areas surveyed in both Arizona and California, 
with a few in Texas. 



- 216 - 

Lycium was abundant and well advanced in growth in Arizona and California; 
mostly dormant in the Las Cruces area of New Mexico; generally dormant and 
droughty in Texas except in the El Paso area. Potential populations for 19 59 
are much greater than in 1958, even though lycium is not as abundant as in 
1958. Texas is the exception with populations much lower than 1958 except in 
the El Paso area. The survey indicates a potentially severe outbreak this 
season. A comparison of populations found in 1957, 1958 and 1959 spring 
surveys is shown in the table below. 

Potato Psyllid Survey on Overwintering Host 



State 



New Mexico 



Arizona 



California 



District 

Howard County 

(Big Springs) 

Terr ell -Pecos -Brewster 

(Sanderson -Marathon) 

El Paso 

Las Cruces 
(Southern) 

Phoenix-Tucson 
(Southern) 

Bly the -Bars tow 
(Southern) 



Averai 


?e 


No . per 




100 


Sweeps 




19 59 




1958 


1957 


24 




227 


516 


130 




181 


129 


42 




6 


158 


54 




7 


158 


992 




93 


95 


237 




96 


143 



Names in parenthesis are 1957 and 1958 designations of same areas. 

(PPC and Coop. States) 



A SAP BEETLE ( Lobiopa insularis ) 
into strawberry fields. (Spink) 



LOUISIANA - Moving out of hibernation areas 



COTTON INSECTS 

Boll Weevil Survival Survey - Spring 1959 

MISSISSIPPI - Collections of woods trash were begun March 3 and examinations 
completed March 17. Wherever possible, samples were taken from the same loca- 
tions that were' sampled last fall. Results of the survey are shown in the 
following table. 





Area 


Aver 


age 


No. 


Weevi 


Is 


Per 


Acre 


Per 


cent Survival 


1. 


Lower delta 








781 










17.68 


2, 


Central delta 








364 










7.73 


3. 


North delta 








284 










9.43 


4. 


Hill section 








429 










14.04 



These percentage survivals are lower than 1956 and 1957 but higher than the 
record low of 1958. (Merkl et al . ) . 



- 217 - 

BOLL WEEVIL ( Anthonomus grandis ) - MISSOURI - During late February, 60 trash 
samples were collected and run through a trash machine. Thirty-eight were from 
Campbell, Dunklin County, and 22 from Commerce, Scott County. No live weevils 
were recovered. (Harrendorf) . 

BOLLWORMS ( Heliothis spp., et al . ) - TEXAS - Light infestation of adults in cotton 
fields in Matagorda County. (Cason) . 

GARDEN WEBWORM ( Loxostege similalis ) - TEXAS - Numerous adults observed in 
Matagorda County. (Cason) . 

A MEALYBUG ( Pseudococcus eriogoni) - CALIFORNIA - Light infestation on cotton 
reported from Holtville, Imperial County. (Cal. Coop. Rpt . ) . 

FOREST, ORNAMENTAL AND SHADE TREE INSECTS 

NANTUCKET PINE MOTH ( Rhyacionia frustrana ) - ALABAMA - Emergence has begun in 
southern part of State, with peak probably between March 6-15. Emergence also 
noted in several northern areas. (Grimes). 

PINE TUBE MOTH ( Argyrotaenia pinatubana ) - WISCONSIN - Pine tubes containing 
hibernating pupae numerous in some white pine plantings in southern and north- 
eastern parts of the State. (Wis. Coop. Sur . ) . 

A PINE WEBWORM - ALABAMA - Activity increased in several areas. (Grimes). 
Damaged seedlings on several acres in Colbert and Franklin Counties. (Vickery) . 
Damaged an average of 2 seedlings per acre over a 5,000-acre plot in Baldwin 
County. (Wright) . Damaged a few two-year-old longleaf trees on experimental 
plots in Monroe County. (Downing) . 

TENT CATERPILLARS ( Malacosoma spp.) - LOUISIANA - Not as numerous in northern 
part of State as in 1957. Nests average 4-6 inches in diameter. (Spink). 
ARIZONA - M. disstria beginning to appear on cottonwood in parts of Pinal County. 
(Ariz. Coop. Sur . ) . 

BARK BEETLES ( Dendroctonus spp.) - ALABAMA - D. terebrans activity increased in 
several localized areas of the State. (Grimes'). TEXAS - D. frontalis continues 
active near Sour Lake, Hardin County. (Young). CALIFORNIA - D. brevicomis and 
Ips confusus caused considerable damage and killed ponderosa pines near experi- 
mental plantings in El Dorado County. Severe outbreak developing in 1,000 acres 
of pines in Gibson area of Shasta County and possibility of a severe outbreak 
developing in the Howell Mountain area near Angwin in Napa County. (Averella, 
Denny, Fairbanks). 

WHITE-PINE WEEVIL ( Pissodes strobi ) - VIRGINIA - Larvae damaged leaders of pines 
in a Patrick County plantation. (Morris , Reed) . 

A WEEVIL - LOUISIANA - Infesting tips of branches of pines near Homer, Claiborne 
Parish. (Spink) . 

WHITE-PINE APHID ( Cinara strobi ) - WISCONSIN - Egg deposition heavy on white pine 
plantings in Walworth and Columbia Counties. (Wis. Coop. Sur.). 

PINE SAWFLIES - VIRGINIA - Neodi prion sp. eggs averaged 3-4 per needle on 3 pine 
tips from a plantation in northern Cumberland County. (Morris, Seay) . NORTH 
CAROLINA - Few eggs of Neodiprion pratti pratti hatched prior to March 13 in 
northern Piedmont area. (Green) . ALABAMA - Caused defoliation on limited 
acreage in Shelby County. (Haynes) . Caused considerable damage in one and 
two-year-old plantations in Mobile County. (Arnold) . 



- 218 - 

BOXWOOD LEAF MINER ( Mon ar thropal pus buxi ) - MARYLAND - Severe on English boxwood 
at Annapolis, Anne Arundel County. (U. Md. , Ent. Dept., March 10). 

LEAFHOPPERS (Empoasca spp.) - ARIZONA - Damaged some bedding plants and bulbs in 
Pinal County. (Ariz. Coop. Sur.). 

AN APHID ( Thoracaphis umbel lulariae ) - CALIFORNIA - Heavy infestations damaged 
and deformed bay trees in Lafayette, Contra Costa County. (Cal. Coop. Rpt.). 

NATIVE HOLLY LEAF MINER ( Phytomyza ilicicola ) - DELAWARE - Pupae very common in 
leaves of American holly in Sussex County. Few larvae still present. (Burbutis, 
Conrad) . 

PRIVET MITE ( Brevipalpus obovatus ) - CALIFORNIA - Heavy and damaging privet in 
Escalon , San Joaquin County. (Cal . Coop . Rpt . ) . 

TWO-SPOTTED SPIDER MITE ( Tetranychus telarius) - ARIZONA - Heavy on some ever- 
greens in Coolidge and Elroy areas, Pinal County. (Ariz. Coop. Sur.). 

SCALE INSECTS - VIRGINIA - Unaspis euonymi infestations present on euonymus in 
Prince William County and Falls Church (Amos) and in Arlington County (Rowell) . 
CALIFORNIA - Aspidiotus perniciosus heavy on cotoneaster in San Leandro , Alameda 
County. (Cal. Coop. Rpt.) . IDAHO - Lepidosaphes ulmi extremely heavy on several 
blue ash trees in Twin Falls. Phenacaspis pinifoliae fairly severe on mugho 
pine, in same area. Large numbers of eggs present. (Gibson). 

A BARK BEETLE ( Monarthrum dentiger) - CALIFORNIA - Heavy on California live oak 
in O'Neil Park, Orange County. (Cal. Coop. Rpt.). 

ELM LEAF BEETLE ( Galerucella xanthomelaena ) - OKLAHOMA - Leaving hibernation in 
Cleveland County. (Pennington) . 

A SESIID ( Paranthrene robiniae ) - CALIFORNIA - Heavy on weeping willow in Ojai, 
Ventura County. (Cal. Coop. Rpt.). 

INSECTS AFFECTING MAN AND ANIMALS 

CATTLE GRUBS ( Hypoderma spp.) - VIRGINIA - Of grubs extracted during week ending 
March 20, in King George, Albemarle, Sussex, Washington and Montgomery Counties, 
most were H. bovis . (Turner) . ARKANSAS - Survey of 583 head during January and 
February revealed 2,262 grubs, with an average of 3.88 per head. (Lancaster, 
Watson, March 14). OKLAHOMA - Adults of H. lineatum active and running cattle in 
Pond Creek area of Grant County on March 13. (Owens) . NEW MEXICO - Specimens 
collected in San Miguel and Harding Counties identified as H. lineatum . (N. M. 
Coop. Rpt.). WYOMING - Averaged 5-12 per animal in 3 treated herds in Sheridan 
County in February. Check of 12 horses treated in September, 1958, showed 2 grubs 
in one and 1 grub in another. (Davison). 

SHEEP SCAB MITE ( Psoroptes equi ovis ) - VIRGINIA - Found on 62 of 334 sheep 
inspected during February. (Va. Livestock Health Bull.). 

MOSQUITOES - DELAWARE - Aedes canadensis larvae, mostly second-instar , averaged 
5 per dip in New Castle County"! (Burbutis , Conrad). CALIFORNIA - Culex tarsalis 
populations light in natural habitats over most of the State and very low in 
southern portions. (Public Health Vector Control). NEVADA - Aedes niphadopsis 
adults emerging in Fallon area, Churchill County, and northern Lyon County. 
Fourth-instar A. dorsalis larvae very abundant in western Churchill, northern 
Lyon and southern Washoe Counties. (Chapman). 



- 219 - 

STORED-PRODUCT INSECTS 

KHAPRA BEETLE ( Trogoderma granarium ) - NEW MEXICO - Eleven properties now 
infested in southern part of State and two properties have been fumigated. 
(N. M. Coop. Rpt.) . 

RICE WEEVIL ( Sitophilus oryza ) - TEXAS - Heavy surface infestation reported in 
Willacy County. Reported only in hot spots in the grain in Bexar County. Heavy 
surface and 3-foot infestation in grain sorghum in Medina County. (Texas Coop. 
Rpt.). 

LESSER GRAIN BORER ( Rhyzopertha dominica ) - TEXAS - Light in milo in Floyd 
County. (Texas Coop. Rpt.) . 

BENEFICIAL INSECTS 

PARASITES AND PREDATORS - DELAWARE - Two Iseropus coelebs and one Itoplectis 
conquisitor emerged from 10 pupae of Hemerocampa leucostigma collected in 
New Castle County in fall of 1958. (Burbutis , Conrad) . OKLAHOMA - Generally 
light in 41 small grain fields surveyed in 7 counties. (Henderson) . Light 
in alfalfa and small grain fields surveyed in 11 counties. Hippo damia 
convergens and Nabis sp. averaged 0.2 per square foot. (VanCleave, Owens, 
Meharg) . TEXAS - Coccinellid larvae and adults numerous (10-28 per linear foot) 
in all fields infested with greenbug in 9 north central counties surveyed. 
Aphidius testaceipes present in most fields and should be very effective in 
controlling populations with warmer weather. (Chada) . Coccinellids , 
Geocoris spp. and Orius sp. widespread and building up in wheat. (Turney) . 
NEW MEXICO - Praon pal i tans adults observed in alfalfa fields at Tularosa, 
Otero County. Coccinella sp. adults and larvae very abundant in alfalfa fields 
heavily infested with spotted alfalfa aphid. (N. M. Coop. Rpt.). WYOMING - 
Survey 6f several alfalfa fields in Park County revealed presence of many over- 
wintering cocoons of Bathyplectes curculionis . (Davison) . KANSAS - Averaged 
less than one per square foot in several alfalfa fields in east central and 
southeastern areas. (Peters). 

MISCELLANEOUS INSECTS 

IMPORTED FIRE ANT ( Solenopsis saevissima richteri) - FLORIDA - Collected for the 
first time in Polk County at Lake Wales, during February. (Fla. Coop. Sur.). 

ARGENTINE ANT ( Iridomyrmex humilis ) - MARYLAND - Ten workers collected in early 
February from a home in Baltimore. Det. M. R. Smith. Probably brought to 
property in, or , with , soil around young trees from out of the State in July, 1958. 
Survey of grounds and home on March 17 showed no ants present. This is not a 
new record for the State, as this ant was found in Baltimore many years ago but 
has not been reported since 1932. (U. Md. , Ent. Dept . ) . 

TERMITES - VIRGINIA - Sexual forms emerging from beneath a home in Prince William 
County. (Morris, Cox). MARYLAND - Winged forms of Reticulitermes flavipes 
observed in buildings at Baltimore and at Centerville, Queen Annes County. 
(U. Md. , Ent. Dept.). NORTH CAROLINA - Swarming from a house in Wake County. 
(Jones) . 

CLUSTER FLY ( Pollenia rudis ) - PENNSYLVANIA - Fairly common in homes in the 
northeastern part of the State and generally more abundant than usual statewide. 
(Gesell, March 4) . 



- 220 - 

CORRECTIONS 

CEIR 9(10): 152 - DEODAR WEEVIL - PENNSYLVANIA - Should read "Infested Scotch 
pine at Wayne , Delaware County , during the fall of 1958." Det. U. S. N. M. 
(Drooz) . 

CEIR 9(10): 154 - CATTLE GRUBS - VIRGINIA - Disregard statement "No H. bovis 
have been extracted east of the Blue Ridge Mountains to date this year." 
(Morris) . 



LIGHT TRAP COLLECTIONS 



Pseud. Agrot. Prod. Perid. Feltia 
unip. yps . ornith. marg. subt . 



ARIZONA 

Mesa 3/11-17 22 

FLORIDA 



Gainesville 3/9, 17 
Monticello 3/10, 18 
Quincy 3/10, 16 


1 

1 

11 


1 
14 




LOUISIANA 

Baton Rouge 3/1-20 
Franklin 2/24-3/2 


63 
7 


45 
4 


7 
3 


SOUTH CAROLINA 
Clemson 3/14-20 


1 




2 


TEXAS 

Brownsville 2/14-3/13 


67 


20 


3 



11 

19 



27 40 
6 



19 



ADDITIONAL NOTES 

GEORGIA - ALFALFA WEEVIL infesting alfalfa in Polk County. (Robertson). First 
eggs of PLUM CURCULIO under laboratory conditions found March 10, but none have 
been found in orchards to date. It has been too cold to date for adults to 
appear from hibernation in numbers. Very heavy infestation of PEACH TREE BORER 
observed in a commercial peach orchard near Reynolds, Taylor County, March 20. 
Damage heavy and tree vitality will be greatly lowered unless controls are 
applied. (Snapp) . VEGETABLE WEEVIL light on tobacco beds in 12 tobacco-growing 
counties and TOBACCO FLEA BEETLE light on tobacco in 4 counties. DlAMONDBACK 
MOTH light on cabbage in Thomas, Colquitt and Lowndes Counties. (Johnson). 



- 221 - 



AN ILLUSTRATED KEY FOR THE RECOGNITION OF THE 
IMPORTED FIRE ANT AND CLOSELY RELATED SPECIES 

Prepared by Insect Identification and Parasite Introduction 
Laboratories, Entomology Research Division 



The accompanying pictorial key is expected to help in the separation of major 
workers of the three kinds of fire ants known to occur in the area from North 
Carolina and Florida to Arkansas and Texas. The species involved are the native 
fire ants Solenopsis geminata (F.) and S_. xyloni McCook , and the imported fire 
ant S_. saevissima richteri Forel. 

Within the area under consideration ants of the genus Solenopsis may be distin- 
guished from those of other genera that build similar mounds by the extreme 
variation in the size of the individuals comprising a colony. They commonly 
range from 1/15 to 1/4 inch in length. Individual specimens of Solenopsis are 
characterized by a shiny body, a ten-segmented antenna having a prominent two- 
segmented apical club, two nodes (petiole and postpetiole) between the thorax 
and abdomen, and by the absence of paired spines on the posterior part of the 
thorax. An additional difference of no mean consequence is their ability to 
inflict painful stings. 

The largest (or major) workers offer the best taxonomic characters for the 
recognition of these species, and the key has been based on specimens of this 
caste. It must be noted that most characters vary from specimen to specimen and 
reliable use of this key requires study of a combination of characters. The key 
is not intended for use with a hand lens in the field . 

An accurate mental picture of the species can be established most readily by 
comparison of correctly identified specimens. Such specimens may be obtained by 
submitting samples to State or Federal agencies concerned with the imported fire 
ant program with a request that identified specimens be returned. Additional 
information concerning biology and general characteristics of the imported fire 
ant may be found in the publication entitled "Observations on the Biology of the 
Imported Fire Ant" prepared by the Insects Affecting Man and Animals Research 
Branch, Entomology Research Division, ARS-33-49, issued in August 1958. 

Collections of ants for which identifications are desired should be large enough 
to include about 10 or 12 major workers. Often it may be necessary to dig to 
considerable depth in the nest to secure workers. The specimens should be clean 
and undamaged. A good method of collecting is to let an ant run up a straw or 
small twig and then force it into a vial of 70 percent ethyl alcohol (formalde- 
hyde is not a satisfactory preservative). If winged specimens or the large 
pupae are found in a colony, samples of them should be preserved in order to 
obtain important data on the biology of the species. 

A label bearing complete information on locality, date, name of collector, and a 
notation regarding the habitat, i. e. , cultivated field, pasture, woodland, marsh, 
etc., should be included in each vial of preserved specimens. Such labels should 
be legibly written on good quality paper with a moderately hard lead pencil. It 
is good practice to use code numbers corresponding to numbered field notes pre- 
pared in sufficient detail so that the collector can return to, or direct another 
person to the site of the nest from which the sample was collected. 




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- 223 - 

Species of fire ants cannot be reliably distinguished by means of mound 
characteristics, as these depend largely on such factors as colony size and 
age, as well as upon the nature of the soil, and particularly on ground moisture 
conditions. Additional characters that are useful for separating xyloni and 
saevissima richteri , but which were omitted from the key because of space limi- 
tations, are as follows: 

S_. xyloni : The index number obtained by dividing the length of 
antennal scape by the distance between the eyes, ranging between 
0.68 and 0.83 (these measurements to be made with an ocular 
micrometer, not judged by eye); sculpture on mesopleuron weak 
and, as a result, mesopleuron somewhat shiny; top of node of 
petiole and postpetiole usually without distinct longitudinal, 
finger-shaped impressions . 

S_. saevissima richteri : The index number obtained by dividing 
the length of antennal scape by the distance between the eyes , 
ranging between 0.85 and 1.0; sculpture on mesopleuron more 
obvious, the mesopleuron therefore not shiny; top of node of 
petiole and postpetiole with distinct longitudinal impressions, 
which are seen best in a posterodorsal view. 



- 224 - 

SUMMARY PF INSECT CONDITIONS - 1958 

OHIO 



Submitted by C. R. Neiswander 



Cereal and Forage Crop Insects (Robert E. Treece) : MEADOW SPITTLEBUG (Philaenus 
leucophthalmus ) was the most important pest of these crops in 1958, with an 
earlier hatch than usual by April 14 at Columbus and April 15 at Wooster. 
Maximum populations at Columbus were 13.5 nymphs per stem with 98 percent of 
stems infested. Counts averaged 4.55 nymphs per stem in Lorain County, 2.66 in 
Wayne County and 10.7 in Franklin County. Adult population in September was 
lower than at the same time in 1957. However, numbers should be sufficient to 
warrant controls in 1959 except in the southeastern area and along the south- 
western shore of Lake Erie. First-cutting red clover and alfalfa loss was 
estimated at 8 percent ($6,000,000). LESSER CLOVER LEAF WEEVIL ( Hyper a 
nigrirostris ) was less than in previous years. Damage averaged 0.25-1.1 buds 
per stem and loss to first-cutting red clover was an estimated 2 percent 
($800,000). POTATO LEAFHOPPER ( Empoasca fabae ) was first collected May 11. 
Populations remained low all season with no damage to alfalfa observed. CLOVER 
ROOT BORER ( Hylastinus obscurus ) was greatly reduced by cool, wet weather in 
the spring and early summer. Damage was light and second-cutting growth of red 
clover was generally good. No damage estimate was made. SWEETCLOVER WEEVIL 
( Sitona cylindricollis ) was present in usual numbers , but no infestations of 
ALFALFA WEEVIL ( Hypera postica ) or SPOTTED ALFALFA APHID ( Therioaphis maculata ) 
were found during 1958. 

Corn Insects (C. A. Triplehorn) : EUROPEAN CORN BORER ( Pyrausta nubilalis ) popu- 
lations were slightly higher than in 1957. Larvae per 100 plants in the fall 
averaged 42.9 compared with 35.1 in 1957. Highest numbers occurred in south- 
western counties, centering around Dayton. Estimated damage was $1,802,281, 
based on a yield reduction of 2 percent per borer per plant. CORN LEAF APHID 
( Rhopalosiphum maidis ) populations were generally as high as in 1957 with severe 
infestations again in the northwestern and north central areas. Actual damage 
appeared slight, possibly because of abundant rainfall during most of the growing 
season. CORN EARW0RM ( Heliothis zea ) damage to field corn, generally, was 
slight. Earliest sweet corn in the central area was almost free of larvae. 
Infestation was low to moderately high in the mid-season crop. Damage was severe 
to extremely late corn in many areas, particularly in the south. DUSKY SAP 
BEETLE ( Carpophilus lugubris ) was locally abundant in sweet corn in early season. 

Turf Insects (J. B. Polivka) : JAPANESE BEETLE ( Popillia japonica ) grub popula- 
tion was much lower than in 1957, with no extremely high populations being 
reported in the State. NORTHERN MASKED CHAFER ( Cyclocephala borealis ) was 
generally more numerous than usual and caused considerable damage in the Wooster- 
Akron-Dover area. The average population of WHITE GRUBS ( Phyllophaga spp.) was 
about as usual but grubs were found over a wider area, with considerable damage 
in the Columbus-Chillicothe area. GREEN JUNE BEETLE ( Cotinis nitida) , CHINCH 
BUGS, CUTWORMS and WEBWORMS were again of little importance. 

Apple Insects (C. R. Cutright) : SAN JOSE SCALE ( Aspidiotus perniciosus ) was not 
serious, but traces occurred in many orchards. ROSY APPLE APHID ( Anuraphis 
roseus ) was the most severe pest of the season when controls were not applied, 
with damage equal to that of the severe infestation of 1948. APPLE APHID ( Aphis 
pomi ) occurred in all orchards but was serious in only a few. PLUM CURCULIO 
( Conotrachelus nenuphar ) was light and CODLING MOTH ( Carpocapsa pomonella ) was 
not a problem. APPLE MAGGOT ( Rhagoletis pomonella ) was serious only in poorly 
sprayed or unsprayed plantings. RED-BANDED LEAF ROLLER ( Argyrotaenia velutinana ) 
was generally light with serious damage reported from only one area near Lima. 
EUROPEAN RED MITE ( Panonychus ulmi) was severe in some orchards but TWO-SPOTTED 
SPIDER MITE ( Tetranychus telarius ) was very light. LEAFMINERS ( Callisto spp.) 



- 225 - 

were also very light. The 1958 apple crop is one of the best on record with 
respect to insect and mite control. 

Apple Losses Due to Insects and Mites : The commercial crop for 1958 was estimated 
at 4,000,000 bushels. It was further estimated that 4 percent (160,000 bushels) 
was damaged by insects. As many insect-damaged fruits can be salvaged for 
various uses, this is not a total loss. Nevertheless, actual loss will approx- 
imate $1.00 per bushel. The cost of control for 1958 is estimated at 28 cents 
per bushel, including insecticides, labor, fuel, depreciation, etc. This 
amounts to over one million dollars apportioned as follows: 

Codling moth $ 500,000 

Plum curculio 125,000 

Apple maggot 100,000 

Red-banded leaf roller 75,000 

Mites 200,000 

Others 100,000 

Total $1,100,000 

The apple crop on unsprayed trees in 1958 was almost a total loss. If controls 
had been applied , these trees should have produced approximately 5,000,000 bushels 
of fruit. 

Stone Fruit Insects (Roy W. Rings): Populations of most peach catfacing insects, 
including GREEN STINK BUG ( Acrosternum hilare ) , ONE-SPOT STINK BUG ( Euschistus 
variolarius ) , BROWN STINK BUG (E. servus ) , DUSKY STINK BUG (E. tristigmus ) , OAK 
PLANT BUGS ( Neolygus omnivagus and N. quercalbae ) and HICKORY PLANT BUG 
(N. caryae ) , were below normal. TARNISHED PLANT BUG ( Lygus lineolarus ) was as 
abundant or more so than usual on peaches. PLUM CURCULIO ( Conotrachelus nenuphar ) 
damaged peaches, plums, cherries, nectarines and blueberries although populations 
were generally below normal. ORIENTAL FRUIT MOTH ( Grapholitha molesta ) was more 
abundant on peaches and quinces than any year since 1948. Numerous reports of 
PEACH TREE BORER ( Sanninoidea exitiosa ) infestations in home-grown fruit were 
received but control was good in most commercial orchards. LESSER PEACH TREE 
BORER ( Synanthedon pictipes ) caused considerable trouble in many commercial peach 
orchards, particularly in Wayne and Ottawa Counties and EUROPEAN FRUIT LECANIUM 
( Lecanium corni complex) was abundant on peaches in Lorain and Sandusky Counties. 
RED-BANDED LEAF ROLLER ( Argyrotaenia velutinana ) was sufficiently abundant in the 
Clyde area to require emergency sprays, while some difficulty was reported in the 
control of APPLE MAGGOT ( Rhagoletis pomonella ) in Lake County. MEALY PLUM APHID 
( Hyalopterus arundinis ) was more abundant than usual on plums, with emergency 
sprays required in some areas. BLACK CHERRY APHID ( Myzus cerasi) was generally 
light throughout the northern area. TERRAPIN SCALE ( Lecanium nigrofasciatum ) , 
PEAR -SLUG (Caliroa cerasi ) , SAN JOSE SCALE ( Aspidiotus pernicibsus ) and SHOT-HOLE 
BORER ( Scolytus rugulosus ) were of minor importance in 19 58. 

Vegetable Crop Insects (J. P. Sleesman) : IMPORTED CABBAGEWORM (Pieris rapae) and 
CABBAGE LOOPER ( Trichoplusia ni ) populations were generally below normal through- 
out the State. MEXICAN BEAN BEETLE ( Epilachna varivestis ) populations were below 
normal early in the season but increased to near normal by late summer. Infesta- 
tions of TOMATO FRUITWORM ( Heliothis zea ) and Drosophila spp. were unusually 
light, especially in tomatoes grown for processing. STRIPED CUCUMBER BEETLE 
( Acalymma vittata ) , ONION THRIPS ( Thrips tabaci ) , TWO-SPOTTED SPIDER MITE 
( Tetranychus teJLarius) and ROOT MAGGOTS were far below normal and of little 
importance. POTATO LEAFHOPPER ( Empoasca fabae ) and POTATO FLEA BEETLE (Epitrix 
cucumeris ) were important pests of potatoes but populations were generally below 
normal. Potatoes in most areas were infested with POTATO APHID ( Macrosiphum 
solanifolii) and populations in most instances were above normal. 



- 226 - 

Sugar Beet Insects (C. A. Triplehorn) : SPINACH LEAF MINER ( Pegomya hyoscyami ) 
severely infested a number of sugar beet fields in the Milan area of Erie County 
by June 5. The second generation caused little injury following controls applied 
for the first generation. Home garden spinach was badly damaged in this same 
area. 

Forest, Ornamental and Shade Tree Insects (R. B. Neiswander) : Several species of 
spider mites were again the most troublesome pests in nurseries, with SPRUCE 
SPIDER MITE ( Oligonychus ununguis ) reported more often than any other pest by 
State nursery inspectors and TWO-SPOTTED SPIDER MITE ( Tetranychus telarius ) , 
TIP-DWARF MITE ( Eriophyes thujae ) and MAPLE BLADDER-GALL MITE ( Vasates 
quadripedes ) also recorded many times. EUROPEAN PINE SHOOT MOTH ( Rhyacionia 
buoliana ) , BAGWORM ( Thyridopteryx ephemeraef ormis ) , GRAPE MEALYBUG ( Pseudococcus 
maritimus ) on Taxus , JUNI PER SCALE ( Diaspis carueli ) , EASTERN SPRUCE GALL APHID 
( Chermes abietis ) and BIRCH LEAF MINER ( Fenusa pusilla ) were the most troublesome 
insects and are listed in order of relative importance. EASTERN TENT CATERPILLAR 
( Malacosoma americanum ) occurred in localized areas in relatively large numbers 
on roadside trees and landscape plantings. 

Stored-grain Insects (C. A. Triplehorn): A number of complaints were received 
concerning ANGOUMOIS GRAIN MOTH (Sitotroga cerealella ) infesting stored popcorn 
and cribbed field corn. A TENEBRIONID ( Cynaeus angustus ) was found infesting 
mats of silk and debris caused by grain-infesting Lepidoptera at Maumee , 
October 20. This is the first report of this species from the State and 
represents the easternmost record in the United States. Large numbers of a 
MYCETOPHAGID ( Mycetophagus quadriguttatus ) were found in grain residue beneath 
a corn crib at Apple Creek, Wayne County, October 29. This is the first record 
of this infrequently-encountered beetle in the State. 

Structural and Household Insects (Roy W. Rings): SUBTERRANEAN TERMITE 
( Reticulitermes flavipes ) was the most troublesome structural pest in 19 58, as 
in 1957. Requests for control information concerning BLACK CARPENTER ANT 
( Camponotus herculean us pennsylvanicus ) , PAVEMENT ANT ( Tetramorium caespitum ) 
and PHARAOH ANT ( Monomorium pharaonis ) made ants second in importance. POWDER 
POST BEETLES caused considerable damage to timbers in residences and farm build- 
ings. CLOVER MITES were less numerous than in previous years. CLUSTER FLY 
( Pollenia rudis ) , MILLIPEDES and a WEEVIL ( Brachyrhinus rugosostriatus ) caused 
considerable nuisance, entering homes in large numbers in the fall. GERMAN 
COCKROACH ( Blattella germanica ) and BROWN-BANDED ROACH ( Supella supellectilium ) 
were common household pests, as were two species of W00DR0ACH ( Parcoblatta 
pennsylvanica and Ischnoptera deropeltif ormis ) , the latter less frequently. 
Numerous larvae and adults of DERMESTIDS were submitted for determination, most 
of which were BLACK CARPET BEETLE ( Attagenus piceus ) , but included FURNITURE 
CARPET BEETLE ( Anthrenus flavipes ) , VARIED CARPET BEETLE (A. verbasci ) and LARDER 
BEETLE ( Dermestes lardarius ) . The most abundant pest of stored foods was SAW- 
TOOTHED GRAIN BEETLE ( Oryzaephilus surinamensis ) . Other pests included 
DRUG-STORE BEETLE ( Stegobium paniceum ) , INDIAN-MEAL MOTH ( Plodia interpunctella ) 
and MUSHROOM MITE ( Tyrophagus lintneri ) . FLEAS , BROWN DOG TICK and BED BUG were 
generally of minor importance. 



- 227 - 

INSECTS NOT KNOWN TO OCCUR IN THE UNITED STATES 

PERUVIAN BOLL WEEVIL (Anthonomus vestitus Boheman) 



Economic Importance : This curculinoid, which is similar in appearance to the 
boll weevil ( Anthonomus grandis) , is a major pest of cotton in Peru. Up to 
75 percent of fallen squares often show damage by this weevil. The weevil 
was first discovered in 1853 on the island of Puna in the Gulf of Guayaquil, 
but 57 years lapsed before specimens were recovered in the Department of Piura 
in northern Peru. 

Distribution : Occurs in all coastal valleys of Peru and Ecuador and in the 
districts of Huallaga and Mayo Rivers in the Province of San Martin. 

Hosts: Attacks cotton and other malvaceous plants including Althaea rosea , 
Hibiscus rosa-sinensis , Cienfuegosia heterophylla and Si da panniculata , although 
complete larval development has not been reported in the last mentioned host. 




General Distribution of Anthonomus vestitus 

Life History and Habits : The adults feed on the terminal buds and tender leaves , 
making small perforations unless feeding on pollen, then deep perforations are 
made. Deep perforations are also made by the female to lay eggs within the 
squares or buds. Damaged squares open their bracts, become yellowish, turn dry 
and generally drop to the ground, but sometimes remain on the plant. In more 
mature cotton, eggs may be deposited in older squares, thereby requiring emer- 
gence to take place from young bolls. Generally one egg is deposited in a 
square, but up to 8 may be found. Eggs hatch in 3-4 days and larvae begin 
feeding on pollen and ovaries of the square. After 4 molts and 3-4 weeks, 
pupation occurs and adults emerge in 5-12 days. The adults are long-lived, 
feeding up to 243 days without losing reproductive power. The life cycle from 
egg to adult lasts 4 to 6 weeks in good weather, but accelerates in hot, humid 
weather. During a year, 4 to 6 generations may be found, depending upon climate 
and food. In the central zone of the Peruvian coast, adults appear in October- 
November, egg-laying begins in December and maximum development occurs late in 
December and early January. December and early January is also the period of 
greatest losses since it is the period of most intense attack. Because of 
longer hours of sunlight and higher temperatures from January to March, popula- 
tions decrease, but in April and May they increase again. Damage at this time 
is very noticeable because of the scarcity of squares. Oviposition ends in June. 
Diapause occurs only in areas of greatest heat and drought. 



(Curculionidae , Coleoptera) 



No. 81 of Series 



- 228 - 



Description : The adult of A. vestitus resembles A. grandis somewhat , but it is 
a great deal smaller. Length of A. vestitus , 2. 5 to 4 mm. Adults are oblong- 
ovate, convex, blackish piceous , rather closely clothed with elongate whitish 
scales, with indistinct oblique lighter band on each elytron, the two forming a 
basal triangle. When newly emerged, adult yellowish. Probosis long. Eggs 
oval, white. Larva white, curved, legless. Pupa white. (Prepared in Survey 
and Detection Operations in cooperation with other ARS agencies and the United 
States National Museum). CEIR 9(13) 3-27-59 




Htlmmmm restUus. male. (Original.) 



Adult Maie of Anthonomus vestitus 



Figure (except map) from Pierce, W. D. 
Agriculture, Office of Secretary, Rpt. 



1915. United States Department of 
102, 16 pp. 



W VOL. 




APRf^3],1959 




oojaetatttre 

CO NO MIC INS 





55uea vu 

IfJT PEST CONTROL DIVISION 
AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH SERVIC 

UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF AGRI 





AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH SERVICE 
PLANT PEST CONTROL DIVISION 

SURVEY AND DETECTION OPERATIONS 



The Cooperative Economic Insect Report is issued 
weekly as a service to American Agriculture. Its contents 
are compiled from information supplied by cooperating State, 
Federal, and industrial entomologists and other agricultural 
workers. In releasing this material the Division serves as 
a clearing house and does not assume responsibility for ac- 
curacy of the material. 



Reports and inquiries pertaining to this release 
should be mailed to: 

Survey and Detection Operations 

Plant Pest Control Division 

Agricultural Research Service 

United States Department of Agriculture 

Washington 25, D. C. 



Volume 9 April 3, 19 59 Number 14 



COOPERATIVE ECONOMIC INSECT REPORT 



Highlights of Insect Conditions 

GREENBUG continues to damage small grains in areas of Oklahoma. Damage apparent 
in some fields in Hansford County, Texas. (p. 231). PEA APHID heavy and 
damaging in areas of some western states. ALFALFA WEEVIL larvae damaging in 
Delaware and severe in Charlotte County, Virginia. A large increase in treated 
acreage for adult control reported in Nevada. Activity reported elsewhere, 
(p. 232). 

Distribution of SPOTTED ALFALFA APHID. (p. 233). This map replaces the map in 
CEIR 9(9) :130. 

SPOTTED ALFALFA APHID medium to heavy in parts of Oklahoma, Texas and New Mexico, 
with some injury apparent. (p. 234). 

BOLL WEEVIL survival survey in Georgia. (p. 237) . 

A pine SAWFLY survey in Virginia. (p. 237). 

Numerous TERMITE flights in New Jersey. Activity reported in Delaware, Maryland, 
Oklahoma and Virginia. (p. 239) . 

Some First Reported Records of the Season : PLUM CURCULIO adults appearing from 
hibernation in Georgia. Eggs of TENT CATERPILLARS numerous on fruit trees in 
Ogden, Utah. APPLE GRAIN APHID hatching on apple trees in Delaware. APPLE APHID 
hatching in Delaware, Washington and Indiana. Eggs of PEAR PSYLLA first found 
March 13 in Washington. PINK BOLLWORM emergence begun in Arizona. 

INSECT DETECTION: Imported fire ant found for first time in Angelina County, 
Texas, during February. Tp. 239) . Raillietia auris taken from goats is a new 
State record for Massachusetts and a new record for the host. (p. 238). 

SUMMARY OF INSECT CONDITIONS - 1958 - WISCONSIN (p. 241), PENNSYLVANIA (p. 245). 

Some INTRODUCED PESTS reported since 1900. (p. 247). 

************** 



Reports in this issue are for the week ending March 27, unless otherwise 
indicated. 



- 230 - 

WEATHER OF THE WEEK ENDING MARCH 30 

The week was unseasonably mild in the extreme northern Great Plains, rather cold 
in northern New York and New England and near normal elsewhere. Precipitation 
generally was moderate to heavy in the Pacific Northwest, the central Great 
Plains and middle Mississippi Valley, and south of the Great Lakes region. 
Elsewhere precipitation was light. More moisture is now needed in the Dakotas , 
southwestern Montana, Arizona, New Mexico, southwestern Oklahoma, parts of Texas 
and northern Virginia, but wet soil delayed fieldwork in many sections of the 
South. East of the Rockies, temperatures were unusually mild at the beginning 
of the week. Maximum temperatures ranged from 7 5° to 85° in Kansas on the 23rd 
and 24th, and Minneapolis, Minnesota, and Lansing, Michigan, reported highs of 
68° and 71° respectively. The mild, sunny weather was interrupted by stormy 
weather as an area of low pressure on the 25th to the 27th moved northeastward 
from the Southwest across New Jersey. During the storm's passage heavy snow 
fell from the central Great Plains to New England. It was the heaviest snow- 
storm of the season in southeastern Wyoming, and falls ranged from 10 to 15 
inches in northeastern Colorado where near blizzard conditions prevailed on the 
25th. Two to 9 inches of snow fell in western and northwestern Kansas, 2 to 6 
inches in northwestern Iowa where snow and ice caused heavy damage to utility 
and communication lines, 4 to 6 inches across central Michigan, 8 to 10 inches 
in parts of New York, and 2 to 7 inches in New England. In the Great Plains, 
heavy drifting blocked many roads. Nearly all this snowfall soon melted, and 
at the end of the week the ground generally was bare except in upper New England 
and the upper Great Lakes region. At Houghton, Michigan, where snow was 37 
inches deep last week, only 8 inches were left on March 31. 

The storm was followed by a cold snap which reduced temperatures to freezing in 
the southwestern Great Plains and to the northern portions of Mississippi , 
Alabama and Georgia. In extreme northern areas, Grand Marais , Michigan, recorded 
-6° on the 28th and Cooperstown, New York, -3° on the 29th. Ice jams caused more 
local flooding in the upper Mississippi Valley. In Maine, the opening of the 
fishing season will be the latest on record due to the persistence of thick ice 
on lakes. In the Pacific Northwest most precipitation fell during a frontal 
passage on the 27th and 28th. Several inches of new snow fell in the central 
Sierra Nevada and Cascade Mountains. (Summary supplied by U. S. Weather Bureau). 



- 231 - 

CEREAL AND FORAGE INSECTS 

GRASSHOPPERS - TEXAS - Survey conducted March 22 in panhandle area revealed eggs 
developing rapidly in most sections. Light hatch expected within 7 days. 
(Russell). Nymphs observed on roadsides in Briscoe, Floyd, Crosby, Dickens, 
King, Stonewall and Jones Counties, March 18-19. (Boyd, Hawkins). NEVADA - 
Early types of range vegetation have developed rapidly in the southern area. It 
is anticipated that an early hatch of Trimerotropis spp. and other early appear- 
ing species may occur in the area. (PPC , West. Reg., Feb. Rpt . ) . 

MORMON CRICKET ( Anabrus simplex ) - NEVADA - First-instar nymphs found in small 
numbers during the last week of February in the Rabbit Hole area of Pershing 
County. (PPC, West. Reg.). 

EUROPEAN CORN BORER ( Pyrausta nubilalis ) - KANSAS - Survey in Jefferson County 
indicates 34 percent survival of overwintering borers, which is higher than in 
1958. (Peters) . SOUTH DAKOTA - Preliminary survey of 3 east central counties 
March 16-21, indicates approximately 24 percent average winter mortality in the 
overwintering borer population. (Mast). 

A BILLBUG (Calendra callosa ) - GEORGIA - Feeding on volunteer corn in Colquitt 
County. (Johnson) . 

CORN FLEA BEETLES ( Chaetocnema spp.) - ARIZONA - C. ectypa continued heavy on 
corn and required controls in some Maricopa County fields. Averaged 10-12 per 
plant in corn 4-6 inches high. (Ariz. Coop. Sur.). ILLINOIS - No C. pulicaria 
found during sod surveys conducted March 16-20, even though temperatures 
exceeded 60°. (White). 

SOUTHWESTERN CORN BORER ( Zeadiatraea grandiosella ) - ARKANSAS - Winter survival 
ranged 2.5-60 percent in Washington and Benton Counties, with an average of 19 
percent. (Ark. Ins. Sur.). 

DIAMONDBACK MOTH ( Plutella maculipennis ) - CALIFORNIA - Medium in wheat fields 
infested with weeds and mustard in Cuyama, Santa Barbara County. (Cal. Coop. 
Rpt.). 

GREENBUG ( Toxoptera graminum ) - OKLAHOMA - Small grain fields in Payne, Noble, 
Kay, Garfield, Blaine, Kingfisher and Logan Counties surveyed for damage. In 
the Stillwater-Tankawa-Billings area, most damage occurred in barley fields. A 
few wheat fields in area had some damage. Wheat fields with damage spots were 
abundant in Kingfisher County on highways 77 and 33. The amount of future dam- 
age will depend on weather conditions and growth of wheat. Damage will be 
greatly reduced with good growing conditions. Natural enemies not very abun- 
dant. (Henderson, Thompson) . Averaged 135 per linear foot in Noble County and 
27 in Garfield County, March 23-24. (Henderson, Wood) . Heavy damage to barley 
and rye in Noble and Payne Counties, some damage in some wheat fields. Heavy 
numbers of winged forms noted. Parasite and predator numbers low. No damage 
observed in Pawnee County fields. (VanCleave, Drew). Some damage in small 
grain fields in Payne, Noble and Kay Counties. (Bieberdorf) . No infestations 
found in Craig County small grain fields. (Campbell) . Counts ranged 10-500 per 
linear foot in southeastern Payne County and 5-25 in Tulsa County (Stiles) . 
Populations ranged 3-5 per linear foot in northern Kiowa County. (Hudson) . 
TEXAS - Infestations very spotted in Hansford County and ranged from none in 
some fields to 600 per linear foot in other fields, with damage apparent. 
(Daniels) . 

APPLE GRAIN APHID ( Rhopalosiphum fitchii ) - OKLAHOMA - Populations common and 
ranged 10-100 per linear foot in most small grain fields in Payne, Pawnee and 
Noble Counties. (VanCleave, Drew). 



- 232 - 

CORN LEAF APHID ( Rhopalosiphum raaidis) - ARIZONA - Continued heavy in some 
Maricopa County barley fields. Honeydew deposits may affect fertilization of 
some heads. Increased in barley fields in Pinal County. (Ariz. Coop. Sur.). 

ENGLISH GRAIN APHID ( Macrosiphum granarium ) - DELAWARE - Alates and nymphs 
present on winter ryegrass in Sussex and Kent Counties. (Burbutis, Conrad). 
OKLAHOMA - Populations common in most small grain fields in Payne, Pawnee and 
Noble Counties, with 5-25 per linear foot. (VanCleave, Drew). NEW MEXICO - 
Light to moderate in barley in Chaves and Eddy Counties, with minor damage. 
(N. M. Coop. Rpt.) . 

A MITE- NEVADA - Damaged winter wheat in Lovelock area of Pershing County. Die- 
out of stands due to drought and mite damage. (Schultz) . 

CUTWORMS - DELAWARE - Mature larvae of Amathes c-nigrum , Feltia ducens and 
Lacinipolia renigera common in alfalfa and clover fields in Kent and Sussex 
Counties. No noticeable injury. (Burbutis, Conrad). IDAHO - Half-grown 
larvae, possibly Chorizagrotis auxiliaris , averaged 1-4 per square foot in 
alfalfa fields near Parma. (Waters) . WYOMING - Survey indicated that C. 
auxiliaris larvae averaged less than one per linear foot of row in alfalfa, 
winter wheat and winter barley in Laramie, Goshen and Platte Counties. 
(Davison) . 

CLOVERWORM ( Plathypena scabra ) - ALABAMA - Light to moderate on clover and vetch 
in Wilcox County. (Grimes) . 

ALFALFA WEEVIL ( Hypera postica ) - DELAWARE - First-instar larvae common on clover 
in Kent County and prevalent on alfalfa in Sussex County with injury very notice- 
able. (Burbutis, Conrad). MARYLAND - Activity begun on Eastern Shore, with 
small numbers of newly-hatched larvae noted on 2 to 3-inch alfalfa in Worcester 
and Talbot Counties. Few adults taken by sweeping. (U. Md. , Ent. Dept.). 
VIRGINIA - Severe, 1-5 larvae per stem, in Charlotte County. (Barbour). SOUTH 
CAROLINA - Averaged 1.5 per terminal in untreated fields in Greenville County, 
March 19. (Nettles et al.). NEVADA - A large increase in treated acreage for 
adult control in 1959. Weather conditions were good March 1-20. (Coop. Rpt.) . 
UTAH - Active in Weber County and controls being applied. (Knowlton) . 

CLOVER LEAF WEEVIL ( Hypera punctata ) - DELAWARE - Late-instar larvae common on 
clover and alfalfa in Sussex County and on clover in Kent County. (Burbutis, 
Conrad) . MARYLAND - Light larval damage to red clover foliage at Easton, Talbot 
County. (U. Md. , Ent. Dept.). VIRGINIA - Light to medium on red and ladino clo- 
vers in southern Culpeper County. (Heltzel, March 13). IDAHO - Early-instar 
larvae averaged 1-4 per alfalfa crown examined in southwestern part of State. 
(Waters) . 

LESSER CLOVER LEAF WEEVIL ( Hypera nigrirostris ) - ALABAMA - Limited numbers on 
crimson clover in Wilcox County. (Grimes) . 

A CLOVER WEEVIL ( Hypera meles) - ALABAMA - Moderate infestations on crimson clo- 
ver in Talladega County are increasing. (Hays) . 

A SPOTTED CUCUMBER BEETLE ( Diabrotica undecimpunctata tenella ) - NEW MEXICO - 
Averaged 1-2 per square foot in alfalfa fields in Dona Ana, Luna and Grant Coun- 
ties. (N. M. Coop. Rpt.) . 

PEA APHID ( Macrosiphum pisi ) - MARYLAND - Averaged less than 5 per sweep on 2 to 
3-inch alfalfa, Worcester and Talbot Counties. (U. Md. , Ent. Dept.). OKLAHOMA - 
Common in alfalfa fields in Payne, Pawnee and Noble Counties. Counts ranged 5-50 
per square foot in most fields with 300 per square foot in one Payne County 
field. (VanCleave, Drew). Ranged 0.5-10 per sweep in 3 Choctaw County alfalfa 
(Continued on page 234) 



- 234 - 

fields. (Goin) . ARIZONA - Heavy in some Maricopa County alfalfa fields. 
(Ariz. Coop. Sur.) . NEVADA - Damaging population developing in Douglas County. 
(Roberts). NEW MEXICO - Heavy and damaged alfalfa in Eddy and Chaves Counties. 
Being controlled in connection with spotted alfalfa aphid. (N. M. Coop. Rpt.). 
ALABAMA - Prevalent on vetch in Wilcox County, but has not migrated to other 
crops . (Grimes) . 

SPOTTED ALFALFA APHID ( Therioaphis maculata ) - OKLAHOMA - Heavy in a few 
scattered alfalfa fields in the Payne-Pawnee-Noble County area, with 0-300 per 
square foot. (VanCleave, Drew). None were found in an alfalfa field near 
Jenks. (Stiles). Ranged 0.1-2 per sweep in 3 Choctaw County alfalfa fields 
(Goin) , 150-175 per square foot of crown area in a Harmon County alfalfa field 
(Hatfield) and increased to 579 per square foot of crown area in some Payne 
County alfalfa fields, 26 percent higher than previous week (Ketner, James). 
TEXAS - Infestations light and widespread in El Paso County alfalfa. (Hawkins) . 
Heavy and damaging in Wilbarger County. (Texas Coop. Rpt.) . Medium to heavy 
in all established alfalfa fields with new plantings infested heavily enough 
to be injurious in Brazos River bottom area of McLennan County. (Cowan, Davis). 
ARIZONA - Remained low over the State, with slight population decrease. (Ariz. 
Coop. Sur.) . IDAHO - None found in 5-inch high alfalfa in fields surveyed south 
and east of Lewiston. (Portman) . NEW MEXICO - Heavy in alfalfa fields in 
Chaves, Dona Ana and Eddy Counties and in the Gila-Cliff area of Grant County. 
(N. M. Coop. Rpt.) . 

COWPEA APHID ( Aphis medicaginis ) - NEW MEXICO - Occasional colony found in 
alfalfa fields in Gila-Cliff area, Grant County. (N. M. Coop. Rpt.) 

TRANISHED PLANT BUG ( Lygus lineolarus ) - DELAWARE - Present on alfalfa and clo- 
ver in Sussex County. (Burbutis, Conrad). 

CLOVER LEAFH0PPER ( Aceratagallia sanguinolenta ) - DELAWARE - Adults common on 
alfalfa in Sussex County] (Burbutis 7 Conrad) . 

CHINCH BUG ( Blissus leucopterus ) - OKLAHOMA - Adults still present in winter 
hibernation quarters (bunch grasses) in Payne County. No major winter mortality 
noted. (VanCleave, Drew). 

THRIPS - ARIZONA - Chirothrips f alsus and C. mexicanus heavy on Bermuda grass 
grown for seed in the Yuma Valley. CAriz. Coop. Sur.) . 

SOYBEAN CYST NEMATODE ( Heterodera glycines ) - VIRGINIA - Infestations have been 
confirmed on 12 properties, totaling 553 acres in Nansemond County as of 
February 28. (PPC , East. Reg.). 

FRUIT INSECTS 

PLUM CURCULI0 ( Conotrachelus nenuphar) - GEORGIA - Now appearing from hiberna- 
tion in numbers. One commercial orchard averaged 5 adults per peach tree on 
border next to woods. This is considered a very heavy infestation. (Snapp) . 

TENT CATERPILLARS - UTAH - Egg masses numerous on fruit trees in Ogden area. 
(Knowlton) . TEXAS - Malacosoma americanum causing concern to fruit growers in 
eastern area. (Texas Coop. Rpt.) 

CALIFORNIA PRIONUS ( Prionus calif ornicus ) - UTAH - Larvae numerous in roots of 
some cherry and apricot trees recently pulled up from Weber County orchards. 
(Knowlton) . 

APPLE GRAIN APHID ( Rhopalosiphum fitchii ) - DELAWARE - Young nymphs hatching on 
apple trees in northern New Castle County. Eggs prevalent. (Kelsey) . 



- 235 - 

APPLE APHID ( Aphis pomi ) - DELAWARE - Young nymphs hatching on apple trees in 
northern New Castle County. Eggs prevalent . (Kelsey) . WASHINGTON - Eggs 
beginning to hatch on pear. (Burts) . INDIANA - Began hatching March 27 and 
were readily found in bud tips in all orchards examined March 30. (Hamilton) . 

PEAR PSYLLA ( Psylla pyricola ) - WASHINGTON - First eggs found March 13. Becoming 
plentiful. Adult populations light to moderate in most orchards. (Burts). 

A MELYRID ( Listrus pardalis ) - CALIFORNIA - Heavy infestation of adults occurred 
on avocado trees in Vallejo, Solano County. (Cal. Coop. Rpt.). 

PERSIMMON BORER ( Sannina uroceriformis ) - FLORIDA - Causing severe damage to per- 
simmon trees in Orange City area. (Fla. St. Pit. Brd. , Feb. Rpt.). 

CITRUS THRIPS ( Scirtothrips citri) - ARIZONA - Increasing on citrus in Maricopa 
County. (Ariz. Coop. Sur.). 

SCALE INSECTS - FLORIDA - Ceroplastes floridensis and Lepidosaphes beckii on the 
increase in mature citrus groves in Orange County. Protopulvinaria pyriformis 
heavy on loquat trees in Daytona beach. Has been heavy on avocado and mango in 
the St. Lucie-Martin district and Central Dade district. (Fla. St. Pit. Brd. , 
Feb. Rpt.) . UTAH - Aspidiotus perniciosus very heavy on pears and prunes in 
some home orchards near Ogden. (Knowlton) . 

WHITEFLIES - FLORIDA - Heavy in citrus groves in the St. Lucie-Martin district. 
Increasing on limes in the south Dade district. (Fla. St. Pit. Brd., Feb. Rpt.). 

SPIDER MITES - FLORIDA - Some increase on citrus in Ocala and Macclenny dis- 
tricts. Very heavy on limes in the south Dade district. Moderate to heavy in 
Hillsborough County. (Fla. St. Pit. Brd., Feb. Rpt.). 

CITRUS BLACKFLY ( Aleurocanthus woglumi ) - TEXAS - Inspections began in Webb 
County on February 3. During February, 6,262 trees on 1,191 city properties 
were inspected at Laredo with negative results. Inspections began in area where 
four infestations were found in late 1955 and early 1956. (PPC , So. Reg.). 
MEXICO - Surveys were conducted in the chemical control zones in the states of 
Tamaulipas, Nuevo Leon and Sonora. A total of 77,372 citrus trees on 1,516 
properties were inspected, 47 trees being infested on 7 properties". Infested 
properties were in Tamaulipas and Nuevo Leon. (PPC, Mex. Reg., Feb. Rpt.). 

MEXICAN FRUIT FLY ( Anastrepha ludens) - ARIZONA - Trapping during February in 
Yuma and Tucson districts were negative. CALIFORNIA - Trapping and larval 
inspections in the border area were negative during February. (PPC, West. Reg.). 
TEXAS - Total of 2,296 trap inspections made during February with only one 
specimen, a male, being trapped. Traps were operated in Cameron, Dimmit, 
Hidalgo, Webb and Willacy Counties. (PPC, So. Reg.). MEXICO - Total of 2,058 
traps operated in Baja California and Sonora. All inspections during February 
negative. (PPC, Mex. Reg.) . 

TRUCK CROP INSECTS 

AN ACARID MITE ( Tyrophagus djjnidiatus)- CALIFORNIA - Causing slight damage to 
spinach plantings in Yolo County, with 2-12 per plant. (Stombler) . 

GREEN PEACH APHID ( Myzus persicae ) - CALIFORNIA - Early spinach plantings in 
Yolo County suffered heavy infestations. Now reduced to very light populations 
by a fungus disease. (Stombler) . ARIZONA - Continues to increase slowly on 
lettuce. Increase reported on potatoes in Maricopa County. (Ariz. Coop. Sur.). 
WASHINGTON - Probably this species, attacking head lettuce near Wapato. 
(Landis) . 



- 236 - 

POTATO APHID ( Macrosiphum solanif olii) - NEW MEXICO - An occasional colony, 
probably this species, found on lettuce near Las Cruces , Dona Ana County. 
(N. M. Coop. Rpt.) . 

A SPOTTED CUCUMBER BEETLE ( Diabrotica undecimpunctata tenella ) - NEW MEXICO - 
Caused minor damage to many lettuce fields in Dona Ana County. (N. M. Coop. 
Rpt.) . 

CUTWORMS - NEW MEXICO - Destroying lettuce along ditch banks in a few fields 
near Las Cruces, Dona Ana County. (N. M. Coop. Rpt.). 

THRIPS - NEW MEXICO - Haplothrips clarisetis continues to damage lettuce 
plants in Dona Ana County. Frankliniell a spp. averaged 2-3 on onion plants in 
Luna County. Appear to be building up in onion fields in Dona Ana County. 
Average 5-6 per plant in most heavily infested fields. (N. M. Coop. Rpt.). 

SOUTHERN CABBAGEWORM ( Pieris protodice ) - TEXAS - Feeding heavily on turnips 
with lighter infestations on potatoes in Dimmit County. (Harding) . 

FLEA BEETLES - NEW MEXICO - Heavy infestations destroyed radish plantings near 
Animas, Hidalgo County. Also caused considerable damage to cabbage near Deming, 
Luna County. (N. M. Coop. Rpt.). 

CABBAGE APHID ( Brevicoryne brassicae ) - ARIZONA - Increasing on cabbage in 
Maricopa County. Some control required. (Ariz. Coop. Sur.) . GEORGIA - 
Moderate to heavy on cabbage in Colquitt, Thomas, Brooks and Lowndes Counties. 
(Johnson) . 

DIAMONDBACK MOTH ( Plutella macuiipennis ) - GEORGIA - Light to moderate on cab- 
bage in Colquitt, Thomas, Brooks and Lowndes Counties. (Johnson). 

LEAFHOPPERS - ARIZONA - Erythroneura elegantula and E. variabilis increasing on 
grapes in Maricopa County. (Ariz. Coop. Sur.) . 

RED-NECKED CANE BORER ( Agrilus ruficollis ) - VIRGINIA - In red raspberries in 3 
locations in the Blacksburg arelu (Amos) . NORTH CAROLINA - Particularly severe 
in Latham variety raspberries locally in Wake County. (Gast, Farrier). 

STRAWBERRY WEEVIL ( Anthonomus signatus) - ALABAMA - Although no weevils were 
found, typical damage was observed to a limited extent on wild blackberries in 
Wilcox County. (Grimes). 

TWO-SPOTTED SPIDER MITE ( Tetranychus telarius ) - NEW JERSEY - Laying eggs on old 
strawberry leaves. (Ins. Dis. Newsl.). ARIZONA - Increasing on strawberries in 
the Litchfield Park area of Maricopa County. (Ariz. Coop. Sur.) . WASHINGTON - 
On round-leaf mallow at Union Gap. (Landis) . . 

IRIS WHITEFLY ( Aleyrodes spiraeoides ) - WASHINGTON - On round-leaf mallow at 
Union Gap. Earliest time eggs of this species seen out-of-doors. (Landis) . 

TOBACCO INSECTS 

GREEN PEACH APHID ( Myzus persicae ) - GEORGIA - Light on tobacco plant beds in 4 
counties. (Johnson)! 

TOBACCO FLEA BEETLE ( Epitrix hirtipennis ) - GEORGIA - Light to moderate on 
tobacco plant beds in 10 counties. (Johnson). 

VEGETABLE WEEVIL ( Listroderes costirostris obliquus) - GEORGIA - Light to 
moderate on tobacco plant beds in ten counties. (Johnson) . 



- 237 - 

COTTON INSECTS 

Boll Weevil Survival Survey in Georgia - Spring 1959 

Collections of woods trash were made March 9-20. The same areas were surveyed 
in 1958 and 1959. 

Area Average No. Weevils Per Acre Percent Survival 

1959 1958 1959 1958 

Northwest 

Gordon Co. 97 9 

North Central 
Spalding Co. 
Butts Co. 

Pike Co. 726 1,307 33 26 

Coweta Co. 
Meriwether Co. 

East Central 

Burke Co. 48 968 12 54 

South 

Tift Co. 145 532 100 100 



State Average 329 731 29 34 

The average percent survival for the State is lower in 1959 than in 1958. Only 
once before during the eight-year period that records have been made, has the 
number of weevils and the percentage survival been lower. (Beckham, Morgan) . 

PINK BOLLWORM ( Pectinophora gossypiella ) - ARIZONA - Tests near Tempe show that 
moth emergence has begun, with the first emergence on March 19. (Ariz. Coop. 
Sur.) . 

FOREST, ORNAMENTAL AND SHADE TREE INSECTS 

A PINE SAWFLY ( Neodiprion sp.) - VIRGINIA - During 1958, there was considerable 
spread in and around areas first noted in 1957. An egg survey was completed in 
February and March, 1959. Total of 322 stands in a 9-county area were sampled. 
Medium to heavy defoliation of pines was noted throughout the surveyed area 
being particularly heavy east of Louisa in Louisa County, along James River in 
southeastern Fluvanna, northern Cumberland, Powhatan and Goochland Counties. 
Supplemental road surveys indicate that the sawfly has extended its range some- 
what to the east, where heavy defoliation may be expected in all areas where it 
was noted in 1958. No extension of range has been noted to the west. Sawfly 
feeding will be more extensive on loblolly pine in 1959 than in 1958. Marked 
preference for shortleaf and Virginia pine is noted, but will attack loblolly 
pine and seems to prefer trees in sapling stage and smaller. The expected 
hatching date is between April 1 and April 15, depending on weather conditions. 
(Rowell, Va. Div. For., et al.). 

A TUSSOCK MOTH ( Halisidota ingens ) - NEW MEXICO - Light on about 50,000 acres 
of ponderosa and pinyon pine, Douglas-fir and white fir near Ruidosa, in the 
Lincoln National Forest. (N. M. Coop. Rpt.) . 

A PINE APHID ( Essigella californica ) - CALIFORNIA - Heavy on Monterey pine in 
Hansford, King County. (Cal. Coop. Rpt.) . 

BOXWOOD LEAF MINER ( Monarthropalpus buxi ) - MARYLAND - Infesting boxwood at 
Myersville, Frederick County. (U. Md. , Ent. Dept.). 



- 238 - 

NATIVE HOLLY LEAF MINER ( Phytomyza ilicicola ) - MARYLAND - Infesting holly at 
Takoma Park, Montgomery County. (U. Md. , Ent. Dept.). 

APHIDS - MARYLAND - Macrosiphum rosae building up on new rose foliage at 
Greenbelt, Prince Georges County"] CO. Md. , Ent. Dept.). NEW MEXICO - Cinara 
tujaf ilina populations becoming numerous on arborvitae throughout the southern 
part of the State. M. rosae building up on roses in same area. (N. M. Coop. 
Rpt.) . 

A PSYLLID ( Calophya californica ) - CALIFORNIA - Heavy and severely damaged Rhus 
ovata in Sacramento, Sacramento County. (Cal. Coop. Rpt.). 

SCALE INSECTS - DELAWARE - Diaspis carueli abundant on junipers in New Castle 
County. (Burbutis, Conrad) . MARYLAND - Phenacaspis pinif oliae noted on spruce 
needles at Baltimore. (U. Md. , Ent. DeptTJT PENNSYLVANIA - P. pinifoliae very 
heavy on Scotch pine along turnpike in Bedford County. (Udine) . OKLAHOMA - 
Unaspis euonymi very heavy on twigs and leaves of Euonymus sp. in a yard at 
Tulsa. (Apt) . NORTH CAROLINA - Pseudaulacaspis pentagona severe on privet in 
Wake County. (Jones, Farrier) . CALIFORNIA - Chrysomphalus rossi heavy on 
Araucaria bidwilli in Los Altos, San Mateo County. (Cal . Coop. Rpt.) . IDAHO - 
Few reports received concerning Lepidosaphes ulmi infestations on blue ash trees 
and lilac bushes in Twin Falls. (Peay) . UTAH - L. ulmi severe on many willows 
and poplars at Morgan, Morgan County. (Knowlton) . 

INSECTS AFFECTING MAN AND ANIMALS 

A MITE ( Raillietia auris ) - MASSACHUSETTS - Specimens collected deep in the ears 
of goats at Amherst, in December, 1958, are a new record for the State and a new 
record for the host. Det. R. W. Strandtman. (Wheeler). 

STORED -PRODUCT INSECTS 

KHAPRA BEETLE ( Trogoderma granarium ) - Inspections were made during February in 
PENNSYLVANIA, NEW JERSEY, RHODE ISLAND, MASSACHUSETTS, CONNECTICUT, and NEW YORK. 
No positive determinations have been received on specimens submitted. (PPC , 
East. Reg.). Inspections in ALABAMA, GEORGIA, MISSISSIPPI, NORTH CAROLINA, and 
TENNESSEE during February were negative. (PPC, So. Reg.). Some inspection work 
conducted in MISSOURI and MINNESOTA during February. (PPC, Cent. Reg.). 
MEXICO - Seventy-six properties were inspected in the states of Baja California, 
Sonora, Jalisco, Durango, Coahuila, Nuevo Leon and Chihuahua with a total of 259 
specimens submitted for identification. No positive determinations were 
received during February. (PPC, Mex. Reg., Feb. Rpt.). 

CONFUSED FLOUR BEETLE ( Tribolium confusum ) - OKLAHOMA - Heavy in 2 and light in 
one of 13 bins examined in Payne-Pawnee-Noble County area. Populations per quart 
of infested grain averaged 8 in barley in steel bins, one in milo and 10 in oats. 
(VanCleave, Drew). 

SAW-TOOTHED GRAIN BEETLE ( Oryzaephilus surinamensis ) - OKLAHOMA - Heavy in 3 of 
13 bins examined in Payne-Pawnee-Noble County area. Populations in infested 
bins averaged 100 per quart in barley, 75 in oats and 50 in rye. (VanCleave, 
Drew) . 

FLAT GRAIN BEETLE ( Laemophloeus pusillus ) - OKLAHOMA - Heavy in 3 and light in 2 
of 13 bins examined in Payne-Pawnee-Noble County area. Populations per quart of 
infested grain averaged 3 and 50 in barley in wooden and steel bins, respec- 
tively; 15 in oats; and 0.5 and 30 in rye. (VanCleave, Drew). TEXAS - Medium 
to heavy in stored' milo in Dickens, Garza and Lynn Counties. (Texas Coop. Rpt.). 



- 239 - 

LESSER GRAIN BORER ( Rhyzopertha dominie a ) - TEXAS - Infestations in milo medium 
to heavy in Dickens, Garza and Lynn Counties. (Texas Coop. Rpt.). 

CADELLE ( Tenebroides mauritanicus ) - OKLAHOMA - Averaged 0.4 per quart in one 
bin of rye out of 13 bins of small grains examined in Payne-Pawnee-Noble County 
area. (VanCleave, Drew). 

GRAIN MITES - TEXAS - Heavy in stored oats in Gillespie County and in milo in 
Lynn County. (Texas Coop. Rpt.). 

BENEFICIAL INSECTS 

PARASITES - OKLAHOMA - Hymenopterous species heavy in 2 of 3 small grain fields 
checked in Payne County, with 60-85 percent of aphids parasitized. None found in 
a Tulsa County field. (Stiles) . Generally light in small grain fields checked 
in Payne, Pawnee and Noble Counties, with less than 5 percent of aphids parasi- 
tized. (VanCleave) . 

PREDATORS - OKLAHOMA - Hippodamia convergens generally light in most alfalfa and 
small grain fields checked in Payne, Pawnee and Noble Counties. Larvae averaged 
up to 10 per linear foot in spots in one Noble County barley field, but probably 
not heavy enough to control aphid population present. (VanCleave). Averaged 2 
per square foot of crown area in a Harmon County alfalfa field (Hatfield) and 
0-0.3 per sweep in 3 Choctaw County alfalfa fields (Goin) . Nab is sp. ranged 
0-0.2 and Chrysopus sp. 0-0.1 per sweep in 3 Choctaw County alfalfa fields. 
(Goin) . ARIZONA - Coccinellids , primarily Hippodamia convergens , increased in 
barley and alfalfa in the Salt River Valley. Averaged 10 adults and 3 larvae per 
50 sweeps. (Ariz. Coop. Sur.) . 

MISCELLANEOUS INSECTS 

ANTS - DELAWARE - Swarming adults of Las i us claviger noted in New Castle County. 
(Burbutis, Conrad). NEW JERSEY - Flights have been observed and reported. 
(Ins. Dis. Newsl.). PENNSYLVANIA - Camponotus sp. of considerable trouble in 
trailer home and in a house. Both in Centre County. (Adams, Gesell) . 

IMPORTED FIRE ANT ( Solenopsis saevissima richteri ) - TEXAS - Reported for first 
time in Angelina County in February. Treatments of infested lands totaled 
40,812 acres during February. (PPC , So. Reg.). 

TERMITES - NEW JERSEY - Numerous flights reported. (Ins. Dis. Newsl.). 
DELAWARE - Numerous inquiries from New Castle County. (Bray) . MARYLAND - 
Workers, soldiers and winged forms noted in a building at Rockville, Montgomery 
County. (U. Md. , Ent. Dept.) . VIRGINIA - Swarming in an apartment house in 
Clifton Forge, Alleghany County, and a house in Forest, Bedford County (Rowell) , 
and from houses in Crozet, Albermarle County, and in Harrisonburg, Rockingham 
County (Amos) . OKLAHOMA - Have been observed swarming in Tulsa area since early 
March. (Price). Reticulitermes hageni damaged a home, under a dirt-filled 
porch, at Tulsa and R. tibialis caused extensive damage to a home at Ponca City. 
(Bieberdorf) . 

AN EARTHWORM MITE ( Fuscuropoda agitans) - NORTH CAROLINA - Heavy in earthworm 
culture in Rowan County. (Wilkins, Farrier). 



LIGHT TRAP COLLECTIONS 



240 - 



Pseud. Agrot. Prod. Perid. Feltia 
unip. yps. ornith. marg. subt. 



ARIZONA 

Mesa 3/18-24 11 14 

ARKANSAS 

Fayetteville 3/15-18 11 1 

Kelso 3/5-18 1 2 

Morrilton 3/5-18 2 10 

FLORIDA 

Gainesville 3/24 3 

MISSISSIPPI 

*Stoneville 3/21-27 199 43 157 

SOUTH CAROLINA 

Charleston 3/16-29 26 11 3 2 6 

Clemson 3/21-28 9 2 3 



* Four traps - Stoneville. 



- 241 - 

SUMMARY OF INSECT CONDITIONS - 19 58 

WISCONSIN 

Prepared by Wis. Ins. Survey 

Weather and Insect Activity : As late as May 22 frosts occurred as far south as 
Janesville, but heat growth units were above normal until mid-May. The weather 
pattern was cool and dry throughout southern sections until late summer but 
northern sections had more rainfall. A mild fall followed. Drought reduced 
crop quality and yield more in 1958 than insects. Outdoor insect activity was 
noticeable for brief periods as early as the third week of February, and black- 
light traps indicated that nocturnal insect activity was sporadic as late as 
mid-June. In many instances, insect activity remained low until early July, when 
large volumes of armyworm moths were caught in blacklight traps. Insects were 
active until mid-November. 

Cereal, Forage, Potato and Pea Insects : MEADOW SPITTLEBUG ( Philaenus 
leucophthalmusl eggs hatched by May 16 in southern areas. Populations averaged 
0.8 per alfalfa stem in Iowa, Grant and Lafayette Counties and represented a 
large increase for these counties. Populations remained high in eastern counties 
throughout the summer and adults were numerous in most alfalfa-growing areas of 
the State. EUROPEAN CORN BORER ( Pyrausta nubilalis ) winter survival appeared 
normal. Parasitism of borers collected in the fall of 1957 was determined to be 
19.7 percent , Lydella grisescens being the principal parasite. Perezia pyrausta , 
a protozoan parasite, infected 2.3 percent of the borers. Pupation was complete 
in southern sections by June 20, but moths were caught as early as May 30 in 
Platteville and River Falls light traps. Egg masses and first-instar larvae were 
observed on field corn in Grant and Crawford Counties June 21. Heavy local 
infestations in sweet corn were noted in Green Lake County. The 1958 fall survey 
revealed an average of 15 borers per 100 plants, the lowest since the surveys 
were begun. The major CORN EARWORM ( Heliothis zea) moth flight occurred during 
the week of August 22, and catches continued until mid-November. Prior to 
August 22, light catches were obtained from various trap locations. Damage to 
sweet corn was light, but high infestations in late field corn were observed. 
Widespread CUTWORM damage occurred by May 29. Injury to alfalfa, oats, corn, 
soybeans and truck crops was observed. Corn fields were replanted because damage 
was more extensive than in several years. Other soil insects, W I RE WORMS , SEED-CORN 
MAGGOT ( Hylemya cilicrura ) , NORTHERN CORN R00TW0RM ( Diabrotica longicornis ) and 
CORN ROOT APHID ( Anuraphis maidi-radicis ) were destructive in several areas. 
Considerable rootworm damage occurred in a Pierce County corn field, being the 
first observed in the northwest area. POTATO LEAFHOPPER ( Empoasca fabae ) was 
observed on May 21 in alfalfa in southern counties. Populations increased slowly 
and remained considerably lower than in 1957. Damaged potato vines in untreated 
garden plantings were common in some areas. A few alfalfa fields in Dane and 
Outagamie Counties showed "yellowing". PEA APHID ( Macrosiphum pisi ) counts were 
low in alfalfa fields in mid-May. The first aphids in pea fields were noticed 
May 21 in Dane and Lafayette Counties. Large populations on peas in Outagamie 
County were reported June 6 and treatment begun. Before pea harvest was 
complete considerable acreage was treated, especially in the northeastern grow- 
ing area, and in some instances two treatments were necessary. Populations were 
higher than in 1957, but can be rated as moderate. Parasites were observed. 
High fall populations in alfalfa were noted, but were not as high as in the fall 
of 1956. 

During the week of April 27, the first ARMYWORM ( Pseudaletia unipuncta) moths 
were caught in Middleton and Platteville blacklight traps. Large numbers were 
collected in all traps during early July but larvae were not troublesome. Small 
larvae were observed in several late pea fields in Columbia County, but were not 
a problem. Fifty percent parasitism was evident in the early-hatched larvae, 



- 242 - 

principally by Apanteles militaris , Winthemia quadr i pus tu lata and two unidenti- 
fied species. Moth flight did not continue in the fall as in 1957. Overwinter- 
ing TARNISHED PLANT BUG ( Lygus lineolaris ) adults were found in most southern 
alfalfa fields by May 16. MEADOW PLANT BUG ( Leptopterna dolabratus ) nymphs were 
also observed. Adults of ALFALFA PLANT BUG ( Adelphocoris lineolaris ) and RAPID 
PLANT BUG ( Adelphocoris rapidus ) occurred in Richland County alfalfa and red 
clover fields by June 10. Alfalfa and tarnished plant bug populations were high 
in fall, with large aggregations on goldenrod prior to dispersal to overwintering 
habitats. Occasional first and second-instar GRASSHOPPER nymphs were found by 
May 23, including Melanoplus bivittatus , M. bilituratus , M. viridipes and 
M. borealis . Economic numbers of M. femur-rubrum began to hatch in lighter soils 
of the central area during the week of July 18, with up to 50 nymphs per square 
yard in Waushara, Waupaca, Marquette and Adams Counties. The fall survey showed 
the greatest concentration of adults and eggs existed in the central counties. 
APHID populations at the University Hill Farms were considerably higher during 
early summer than in the same period of 1957. However, summer and late-summer 
populations did not reach the 1957 level. APPLE GRAIN APHID ( Rhopalosiphum 
f itchii ) was noticed on grains the first of April, but had not completed 
development on the winter host locally, indicating a migration from the south. 
ENGLISH GRAIN APHID ( Macrosiphum granarium ) was observed on winter grain 
April 14. Heavy spring migrations to small grains occurred the week of May 29. 
High populations occurred in many oat fields throughout the State. CORN LEAF 
APHID ( Rhopalosiphum maidis) was noted by May 23 on barley, where large colonies 
built up, and were found on corn July 25. By mid-August, most southern corn 
fields were 100 percent infested, but colony size was smaller than in 1957. 
Other species that attained high populations at the University Hill Farms were 
BEAN APHID ( Aphis fabae ) , APPLE APHID ( Aphis pomi ) , ROSE APHID ( Macrosiphum 
rosae ) , GREEN PEACH APHID ( Myzus persicae ) and other species. The incidence of 
yellow dwarf virus disease of small grain at the University Hill Farms was asso- 
ciated with the higher populations of the vector aphid species. Recovery of 
POTATO ROT NEMATODE ( Ditylenchus destructor ) was made from 15 fields on 10 farms 
that were not reported as being infested in 1957. 

Orchard Insects : The first CODLING MOTH ( Carpocapsa pomonella ) adults were 
trapped May 14 at Gays Mills and the peak catch occurred June 4. In Door County, 
the first moths were caught June 20. Light trap catches indicated that second- 
brood emergence began July 19 at Gays Mills and continued to early September. 
On July 26 in Door County, adult and larval populations were present. Occasional 
second-generation moths were caught the week of August 28. Codling moth 
continues to be one of the serious pests of apples in Door and Crawford Counties. 
APPLE MAGGOT ( Rhagoletis pomonella ) adults were trapped at Madison May 28, and 
catches continued until mid-August. Adults were observed July 18 in Door County. 
Infestations were heavy in unsprayed apples in Dane County and other portions of 
the State. PLUM CURCULI0 ( Conotrachelus nenuphar ) egg laying was observed the 
week of June 13 in Door County. Adults, eggs and first and second-instar larvae 
were observed the week of June 28. This species was one of the more important 
problems on cherries. By mid-May APPLE GRAIN APHID ( Rhopalosiphum f itchii ) was 
numerous on apple fruit stems in the Gays Mills area. APPLE APHID ( Aphis "pomi ) 
was a serious pest in Door County apple orchards. EUROPEAN RED MITE ( Panonychus 
ulmi) eggs began hatching in Door County about May 9. RED-BANDED LEAF ROLLER 
( Argyrotaenia velutinana ) adults emerged and began egg laying in late April in 
Door County. Larval development had advanced to the second instar by June 13, 
adult emergence began July 13 and all stages were present July 26. This species 
is an important problem of Door County apple orchards. In Door County, FRUIT 
TREE LEAF ROLLER (Archips argyrospila ) was in first and second instars by May 24. 
Pupation was noted the week of June 28 and emergence began by July 4. Adults 
were observed July 26 and were present until August 11. EYE-SPOTTED BUD MOTH 
( Spilonota ocellana ) larvae were in third and fourth instars by May 24 in Door 
County. Pupation started by June 28 and adults were present by July 26. The 
overwintering population was on cherry and apple leaves by August 28. This was 



- 243 - 

one of the important cherry pests in Door County. CHERRY FRUITWORM ( Grapholitha 
packardi ) adults and eggs were present by June 21. Second and third-instar 
larvae were observed the week of July 26. 

Truck Crop and Small Fruit Insects : The northward migration of SIX-SPOTTED 
LEAFHOPPER ( Macrosteles fascifrons ) was observed from southern overwintering 
areas to states west of Wisconsin. Overwintering nymphs began hatching by 
May 13. Populations were low in southeastern areas but high in the Rhinelander 
area. The incidence of "aster yellows" was considerably lower than in 1957. 
FLEA BEETLE populations were high on tomato and cabbage transplants , radishes 
and potatoes early in the growing season. After high spring populations in the 
Racine-Kenosha area, POTATO FLEA BEETLE ( Epitrix cucumeris ) numbers declined 
then increased slowly, with high populations being reached in September. Popula- 
tions were lower at Rhinelander. STRIPED FLEA BEETLE ( Phyllotreta striolata ) 
populations appeared higher than normal. CABBAGE LOOPER ( Trichoplusia ni )and 
IMPORTED CABBAGEWORM (Pieris rapae) adults were observed by May 16. By 
mid-August, in the Racine-Kenosha area, there were as many as 20 lepidopterus 
larvae per cabbage head, with 8 imported cabbageworms to each looper . In early 
September the ratio was almost reversed being five to one. Diseased loopers 
were observed in this area. CABBAGE APHID ( Brevicoryne brassicae ) populations 
were light in the Racine-Kenosha area and parasitism was observed. Control 
measures were necessary in Eau Claire County. ONION MAGGOT ( Hylemya antiqua ) 
populations were high in southeastern sections and damage was heavy on untreated 
fields and on fields treated with chlorinated hydrocarbons. The first generation 
was complete by June 20 and adults appeared by July 18 in the Racine-Kenosha 
area. This species was more of a statewide pest than in the past. STRAWBERRY 
LEAF ROLLER ( Ancylis comptana fragariae ) was moderate in Waupaca County but 
ranged light to moderate in Door County. ROOT KNOT NEMATODES were observed on 
strawberry roots in more plantings than in 1957. BLACK -HEADED FIREWORM 
( Rhopobota naevana ) infestations were light in cranberry marshes. Approximately 
10 percent of central and northwestern acreages were infested. Eggs began to 
hatch May 23 and 24. Pupation had started by June 20, and second-brood larvae 
hatched by July 11. Pupation of this brood was complete by August 15. Chemical 
treatment was carried out on a large portion of the infested acreage. Populations 
of a TIPWORM ( Dasyneura vaccinii ) were light. Eggs were observed by June 20, and 
maggots June 27. Limited acreage was treated. CRANBERRY FRUITWORM ( Acrobasis 
vaccinii ) infestations were light. 

Forest, Ornamental and Shade Tree Insects : EUROPEAN PINE SHOOT MOTH ( Rhyacionia 
buoliana ) pupation in Milwaukee County was approximately 55 percent complete by 
June 6 and 90 percent in Manitowoc County by June 27. In southeastern counties 
emergence began the week of June 13 and in Sheboygan County the week of June 20. 
SMALLER EUROPEAN ELM BARK BEETLE ( Scolytus multistriatus ) emerged in late May 
in Dane County. Emergence continued for a longer period due to cool weather and 
reached its peak in the latter half of June. There were 1,832 elm trees diag- 
nosed as having Dutch elm disease. Green, Dane and Ozaukee Counties were added 
to the list of infested counties. TWO-SPOTTED SPIDER MITE ( Tetranychus telarius) 
was numerous on many ornamental evergreens. High populations of SCALE insects 
infested ornamental, shade and fruit trees in southern areas and were the highest 
for the past decade. ROSE CHAFER ( Macrodactylus subspinosus ) adults appeared 
June 8 in Marquette County and were numerous in the light soil areas of the 
State. Other areas reported having high populations. A BEETLE ( Strigoderma 
arboricola ) was numerous in similar areas. MOURNING-CLOAK BUTTERFLY ( Nymphalis 
antiopa) larvae were numerous in elm in various localities. ELM LACE BUG 
( Corythucha ulmi ) populations were high on elm along the Mississippi River. 
Other hosts were hackberry, Sumac and black walnut. Only the early generation 
of a SAWFLY ( Neodriprion virginianus complex) was noted in Buffalo County and 
caused slight damage to a jack pine plantation. LARCH SAWFLY ( Pristiphora 
erichsonii ) populations appeared to be increasing in the northeast area where 
severe defoliation was reported from all counties. Some stands containing 



- 244 - 

marked trees have been stripped of foliage for three consecutive years. Nearly- 
all tamarack stands in northwestern counties sustained moderate to complete 
defoliation and heavy defoliation was reported in several central counties. 

A few isolated areas sustained moderate FOREST TENT CATERPILLAR ( Malacosoma 
disstria ) defoliation in the northern part of the northwest section, while in 
eastern Rusk County, northern Taylor County, southern Ashland County and most 
of Price County, the majority of the aspen stands were completely defoliated. 
Severe defoliation of aspen occurred in western Vilas and Iron Counties, and 
an area of 25 sections was completely defoliated in Langlade County. Reports 
of the presence of larvae were received from as far east as Calumet County and 
as far south as Columbia County. Pupal parasitism was as high as 95 percent 
in several areas. JACK-PINE BUDWORM ( Choristoneura pinus) populations were 
light in northwest and northeast areas. Early-instar larvae were high in some 
central jack pine stands, but survival was poor and defoliation was light or 
not evident. WHITE -PINE WEEVIL ( Pissodes strobi ) populations were noticeably 
higher in most of the northwest area. Attacks continued in Vilas, Oneida and 
Marinette Counties on white and jack pine plantings. Infestations of 15-20 
percent on red pine were observed in Vilas County where some control work was 
done. Varying degrees of infestation were found in Jackson, Monroe, Waupaca 
and Waushara Counties. Heavy infestations of PINE ROOT COLLAR WEEVIL ( Hylobius 
radicis ) were reported in Scotch pine in Shawano and Oconto Counties with damage 
to Christmas tree plantings and, in some cases, to windbreaks. Weeviled red and 
Scotch pine were found in plantations and windbreaks in the Wisconsin River 
Valley around Lone Rock in Richland and Sauk Counties. Tree mortality continued 
to appear in central counties. Plantations in Burnett and Washburn Counties 
were again attacked. The weevil has become one of the most serious threats to 
jack pine plantations and , to a lesser extent, Norway plantations in the northwest 
area. High nymphal counts of SARATOGA SPITTLEBUG ( Aphrophora saratogensis ) 
indicated a need for controls on 1,271 acres of plantations scattered over 6 
counties. RED-HEADED PINE SAWFLY ( Neodiprion lecontei ) infestations heavy in 
Marinette, Oconto, Vilas and Langlade Counties. Some young red and jack pine 
plantings required spraying to prevent serious defoliation. Windbreak trees 
averaging 8 feet in height were completely defoliated in two growing seasons. 
This pest was general throughout the northwest area on scattered open grown 
trees and in young jack and red pine plantations. Scattered colonies occurred 
in central counties where they appeared to be reduced from 1957. SADDLED 
PROMINENT ( Heterocampa guttivitta ) larvae were extremely scarce in Door County, 
where populations were high two seasons ago. Moderate defoliation of maple 
occurred in one small area in central Bayfield County. There were scattered 
reports of varying loss by WHITE GRUBS ( Phyllophaga spp.) on untreated seedlings 
in northeastern and southern counties. Infestations were severe in newly 
planted areas of Marathon and Shawano Counties, with moderate damage occurring 
in untreated fields. Severe losses occurred in a few new plantations in the 
Wisconsin River Valley. A WEBWORM ( Tetralopha asperatella ) and two LEAF ROLLERS 
( Sparganothis acerivorana and Acleris chalybeanal were collected in a survey to 
determine species that might be associated with maple blight. Preliminary 
surveys and early fall defoliation surveys showed these pests not to be in epi- 
demic proportions in 1958. 

Insects Affecting Man and Animals : AMERICAN DOG TICK ( Dermacentor variabilis ) 
was numerous in some localities, but less abundant than in 1957. The first, 
large emergence of a MIDGE ( Tendipes plumosus ) in Lake Winnebago , began the 
latter half of July, considerably later than in 1957. FLIES on cattle and in 
barns were not as numerous as in several past summers. They were not a problem 
until mid-July and in many instances only where sanitation of farm premises had 
been neglected. MOSQUITOES were not a problem in southern areas. In the 
Madison area, populations slowly increased during early August. High popula- 
tions of Aedes sticticus and Aedes trivittatus occurred in Rusk County. The 
first MAYFLY in La Crosse appeared July 12. Various blacklight traps showed 
population increases along the Mississippi River at approximately the same time. 



- 245 - 

Large numbers of BROWN SPIDER BEETLE ( Ptinus clavipes ) infested a feed warehouse 
in Calumet County. CLOVER MITES were a problem in homes in many sections of the 
State. 

Beneficial Insects : HONEY BEE ( Apis mellifera ) came through the winter with 
only about a 5 percent loss compared with a normal loss of about 20 percent. 
Unfavorable weather during May and June delayed the building up of colonies. 
The absence of heavy honey flow in May or June held swarming to a minimum. 
Unfavorable weather in the south delayed shipments of queens and packages as 
long as 4-6 weeks. By July 20, most beekeepers reported no surplus of honey, 
but strong colonies with every indication that feeding would be necessary in 
order to provide winter stores. August produced the heaviest honey flow known 
for so late in the season, resulting in the production of over 14 million pounds 
to again rank Wisconsin fourth in the United States. 

Blacklight Insect Trap Report : The use of the blacklight trap continued to 
expand during 1958 through the cooperation of Federal, State, private organiza- 
tions and individuals. While the emphasis has been on lepidopterous insects, 
traps have been used for homopterous and dipterous species and show promise for 
some species of 8 other insect orders. Their present value lies in detecting 
the first emergence and peak flights as related to timing of treatments, 
biological studies, distribution and insect collections, but their use for other 
purposes in the future appears possible . 



SUMMARY OF INSECT CONDITIONS - 19 58 

PENNSYLVANIA 

Compiled by E. J. Udine 

Highlights : The prolonged activity of ALFALFA WEEVIL which continued heavy feed- 
ing long after the first cutting. The migration of enormous numbers of EASTERN 
TENT CATERPILLAR caused considerable consternation. EUROPEAN PINE SAWFLY on 
conifers in the eastern part of the State was much more abundant than usual. 
First record of CARROT WEEVIL causing extensive damage to crops. 

Cereal and Forage Insects : ALFALFA WEEVIL ( Hypera postica ) was found in only one 
additional county, Fayette, in 1958. This makes a total of 36 counties now 
infested. Cool, wet weather during the early spring delayed weevil development; 
consequently larvae continued to feed heavily after the first cutting thus 
preventing the new growth from developing. This delayed the second cutting and 
caused some mortality of alfalfa. Many growers found it necessary to apply a 
second treatment. PEA APHID ( Macrosiphum pisi ) on alfalfa in some areas was 
abundant enough to warrant treatment. In most other areas this species was not 
a problem. Activity of a MEADOW SPITTLEBUG ( Philaenus sp.) was masked by the 
lush growth of hay crops but demonstrations on yields indicated an increase of 
about one-half ton of dry hay on sprayed plots. POTATO LEAFHOPPER ( Empoasca 
fabae ) did not appear as early as usual and did not increase rapidly. Control 
measures were not necessary in most areas. ARMYWORM ( Pseudaletia unipuncta) 
outbreaks occurred in various areas of the State, some of which warranted control 
measures to stop further damage. EUROPEAN CORN BORER ( Pyrausta nubilalis ) 
surveys showed about same number of overwintering borers as in 1957, but 
favorable growing conditions reduced damage. CORN EARWORM ( Heliothis zea ) and 
EUROPEAN CORN BORER were light and very little damage occurred on commercial 
plantings of sweet corn. 



- 246 - 

Truck Crop Insects : POTATO LEAFHOPPER ( Empoasca fabae ) .did not appear on 
potatoes as early as usual and did not increase rapidly. Very little damage 
resulted. GARDEN SYMPHYLID ( Scutigerella immaculata ) continued to cause 
considerable damage to potatoes in Lehigh, Northampton and Berks Counties. 
CARROT WEEVIL ( Listronotus oregonensis ) injured celery, parsley and parsnips 
in southeastern areas. In some instances, three-fourths of the parsley and 
parsnips were lost. PEA APHID ( Macrosiphum pisi ) was very abundant on peas 
in the northern sections and a few fields required controls. VARIEGATED CUTWORM 
( Peridroma margaritosa ) did some damage to tomato fruit. Other garden insects 
were about normal or below normal. 

Forest, Ornamental and Shade Tree Insects : A HICKORY APHID ( Longistigma caryae ) 
was numerous on oak. NORWAY -MAPLE APHID ( Periphyllus lyropictus ) , PINE BARK 
APHID ( Pineus strobi ) and Hamamelistes spinosus were numerous on white birch. 
MIMOSA WEBWORM ( Homadaula albizzae ) was quite common in the southern part of 
the State on honeylocust and mimosa. EASTERN TENT CATERPILLAR ( Malacosoma 
americanum ) was heaviest in the western section and a great many eggs were laid 
last fall. FOREST TENT CATERPILLAR ( Malacosoma disstria) defoliated groves of 
sugar maple in Somerset County. PALES WEEVIL ( Hylobius pales ) and Pissodes 
approximatus continue to be a problem in Christmas tree plantations. WHITE-PINE 
WEEVIL ( Pissodes strobi ) increased on Scotch pine. EUROPEAN PINE SAWFLY 
( Neodi prion sertifer ) , RED-HEADED PINE SAWFLY (N. lecontei ) and RED-PINE SAWFLY 
(N. nanulus ) occurred in numbers on both ornamentals and Christmas trees. PINE 
ENGRAVER ( Ips pini ) was again destructive to older trees in spotted infestations 
in plantations. PINE TORTOISE SCALE ( Toumeyella numismaticum ), and possibly 
Toumeyella pini , were very abundant in the fall and early spring but several 
species of COCCINELIDS practically wiped them out. 

Household Insects : EASTERN TENT CATERPILLAR, CLOVER MITES and BOXELDER BUG 
( Lepticoris trivittatus ) were abundant in some areas and in the southern section 
EUROPEAN EARWIG ( Forficula auricularia ) became a problem. BLACK FLIES plagued 
the northeastern resort areas for the second successive year, being most annoy- 
ing from August 10 to September 10. 



- 247 - 

SOME OF THE MORE IMPORTANT INTRODUCED INSECTS 
REPORTED SINCE 1900 

The recently increased interest in insect detection has given rise to such 
questions as "Where do our introduced pests come from?" and "Where are intro- 
duced pests first found in the country?" To answer these and similar questions, 
a list of some of the more important species has been compiled and adapted from 
the Survey and Detection files and records of cooperating agencies. It is 
believed that an abbreviated list dating from 1900 to the present will be 
adequate for this purpose . 

Of the 100 species included here, there are many of outstanding importance. 
Some of these have been eradicated. The Mediterranean fruit fly, twice found 
established in Florida (1929 and 1956) , has been eradicated in both instances. 
The 1934 citrus blackfly infestation in Key West, Florida, was eliminated. 
The Hall scale infestation in California has apparently been eradicated also. 
Other species in the list that are currently involved in cooperative 
State-Federal plant pest control programs are citrus blackfly, European chafer, 
Mexican fruit fly, white-fringed beetle, imported fire ant, khapra beetle, pink 
bollworm and Japanese beetle. 

Many additional species of prime importance have been discovered since 1900. 
European corn borer, found in 1917 and now known in 39 states, caused 
$158,000,000 loss in 1957. Alfalfa weevil and spotted alfalfa aphid are 
outstanding pests of alfalfa. Sweetclover weevil and vetch bruchid are prin- 
cipal pests of their respective hosts. Rosy apple aphid, oriental fruit moth 
and European red mite are among the more important fruit insects, while pepper 
weevil, vegetable weevil, carrot rust fly and European earwig are in the same 
category from the truck crop standpoint. Some important forest and shade tree 
insects are in the list , including spruce aphid, balsam woolly aphid, introduced 
pine sawfly, European pine shoot moth, smaller European elm bark beetle and 
European pine sawfly. 

It should be noted that only 14 percent of these new discoveries have been made 
in the last 20 years. This is especially significant when considered against 
the vast increase in traffic during this period. Such accomplishment undoubt'- 
edly reflects the increased vigilance that has been maintained at United States 
ports of entry in recent years. 

The locations of the first reported record have been plotted, by State, on the 
following map. It will be noted that most discoveries have been made in the 
States of Washington, California, Texas, Florida, Massachusetts, New Jersey and 
New York. Within Massachusetts and New York a high percentage of the reports 
have been from Boston and New York City areas. (Prepared in Survey and 
Detection Operations, Plant Pest Control Division, April 1959). 




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UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Penalty fpfeSy^Lf^^^ " 
miThD WASHINGTON 25, P. C. Payment of Postage, $300 

Official Business 




AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH SERVICE 
PLANT PEST CONTROL DIVISION 

SURVEY AND DETECTION OPERATIONS 



The Cooperative Economic Insect Report is issued 
weekly as a service to American Agriculture. Its contents 
are compiled from information supplied by cooperating State, 
Federal, and industrial entomologists and other agricultural 
workers. In releasing this material the Division serves as 
a clearing house and does not assume responsibility for ac- 
curacy of the material. 



Reports and inquiries pertaining to this release 
should be mailed to: 

Survey and Detection Operations 

Plant Pest Control Division 

Agricultural Research Service 

United States Department of Agriculture 

Washington 25, D. C. 



Volume 9 April 10, 1959 Number 15 



COOPERATIVE ECONOMIC INSECT REPORT 



Highlights of Insect Conditions 

Heavy CHINCH BUG infestations on young sorghum in Texas. GREENBUG controls 
being applied in spotted areas in Texas and in areas of Oklahoma. Populations 
building up in New Mexico. First ARMYWORM moths of season reported in Missouri 
Larvae noted in Louisiana and in Missouri. (p. 255). SPOTTED ALFALFA APHID 
very heavy in north central Texas and increasing in Payne County, Oklahoma, 
(p. 257). 

CITRUS THRIPS may be heavy on citrus in Arizona during 1959. (p. 258). 

POTATO APHID survey in New Jersey indicates that infestation potential is 
greater in 1959 than in 1957 and 1958. BEET LEAFHOPPER populations are below 
normal at Hermiston, Oregon, and low in California. No significant crop damage 
expected in California this season. (p. 259). 



BOLL WEEVIL survival surveys in South Carolina, North Carolina and Virginia, 
(p. 260). Summary of these and previous 1959 survival surveys. (p. 261). 

Distribution of HEMLOCK SAWFLY. (p. 262). 

Major outbreak of PERIODICAL CICADA (Brood 19) expected in early May in 
Tennessee. (p. 264) . 

Some First Reported Records of the Season : RED -BANDED LEAF ROLLER moths 
observed March 31 in Illinois. PECAN PHYLLOXERA hatching in Louisiana. 
EASTERN TENT CATERPILLAR hatching in Delaware; webs noted in Alabama. 

INSECT DETECTION: Olive scale reported for first time in Monterey County, 
California, (p. 263) and lesser grain borer found for first time in Tillamook 
County, Oregon. (p. 264^! 

SUMMARY OF INSECT CONDITIONS - 1958 - NEVADA (p. 266), MINNESOTA (p. 268). 

INSECTS not known to occur in the United States. (p. 275). 

CORRECTION. (p. 264). 

****************** 

Reports in this issue are for the week ending April 3, unless otherwise 
indicated. 



- 254 - 

WEATHER BUREAU 30 -DAY OUTLOOK 
APRIL 1959 



The Weather Bureau's 30-day outlook for April calls for temperatures to average 
below seasonal normals over the southeastern quarter of the Nation and also over 
the Pacific Northwest. Above normal temperatures are predicted for the Northern 
Plains, Great Lakes Region and the Far Southwest. In unspecified areas, about 
normal temperatures are in prospect. Rainfall is expected to exceed normal over 
the Southeast, the Pacific Northwest and the Central Plains. Subnormal amounts 
are anticipated over the southwestern quarter of the country as well as the 
Great Lakes Region. Elsewhere, about normal precipitation is in prospect. 

Weather forecast given here is based on the official 30-day "Resume and Outlook", 
published twice a month by the Weather Bureau. You can subscribe through 
Superintendent of Documents, Washington 25, D. C. Price $4.80 a year, $2.40 
a half year. 

WEATHER OF THE WEEK ENDING APRIL 6 

Last week was abnormally warm and precipitation was mostly moderate to heavy from 
the middle and lower Mississippi Valley eastward and in the extreme Northwest, 
with little or none elsewhere. Stormy weather occurred east of the Rockies 
April 1 to 3 as an area of low pressure, with strong storm intensity, moved 
northeastward from the lower Great Plains. The week was unseasonably warm in 
virtually the entire Nation, with weekly averages 6° to 9° above normal in 
California, the Rocky Mountain States and the Great Plains and slightly above 
normal to 3° above elsewhere. Maximum temperatures ranged in the 80 's and 90 's 
on several days in Texas, Oklahoma and the Far Southwest, and in the 70 's and 
80 's on 3 days in Kansas; Shenandoah, Iowa, on April 2 recorded 80°, and on 
April 5 Salt Lake City, Utah, had 82° which was the highest on record there for 
so early in the season; and near record highs in the 60 's and 70 's were measured 
in Montana. Rainfall, falling on 2 or 3 days, exceeded an inch in many areas of 
the East and South, keeping soil moisture plentiful to excessive. Minor to 
locally severe floods occurred in a number of streams from Iowa and northern 
Missouri eastward through the southern Great Lakes region and southern New 
England. 

Dry weather continued in the extreme upper Mississippi Valley, much of the Great 
Plains and Far Southwest. Fires burned many acres of grasslands and some homes 
in Minnesota last week, some grass fires in Kansas were blown out of control by 
high winds, and prairie fires were a constant threat in South Dakota. High winds 
whipped up dust in western Texas on April 2 and in east central and southeastern 
Colorado on March 31 and April 2. In northern areas east of the Rockies snow and 
ice melted rapidly. In New York State the only remaining snow cover is in the 
Adirondack Mountains, the cover is gone in Lower Michigan, and in Wisconsin the 
cover is limited to the northern woodlands. Ice is out of many streams in 
Wisconsin and the soil temperature is up to 40° to a depth of 40 inches at Ames, 
Iowa. On March 31, severe thunderstorms with hail up to the size of hen's eggs 
occurred in Payne and Creek Counties, Oklahoma, where a tornado destroyed half 
of Silver City, injuring 6 persons; and a tornado in southern Marshall County 
injured 13 persons and caused extensive damage. On April 2, tornadoes killed 
23 persons and caused extensive damage in northeastern Texas. On the same date, 
tornadoes in the vicinities of Dade City, Orlando and Mims , Florida, were blamed 
for at least 1 death, numerous injuries and considerable property destruction. 
High winds caused some minor damage in southeastern Wyoming on April 2, and 
thunder squalls caused scattered damage in Georgia on April 1. (Summary supplied 
by U. S. Weather Bureau). 



- 255 - 

CEREAL AND FORAGE INSECTS 

GRASSHOPPERS - WISCONSIN - Overwintering Pardalophora apiculata , Cortophaga 
viridif asciatus , Arphia sulphurea and Epitettix simplex can be found over much 
of the State, the latter species being rare. Of 15 A. sulphurea noted, 
surrounded by snow, all were in the fourth instar. "fwis. Coop. Sur.) . 

BILLBUGS - ALABAMA - Few specimens taken from burclover in Lee County. (Guy ton) . 
GEORGIA - Calendra callosa infesting volunteer corn in Brooks County. (Johnson) . 

CHINCH BUG ( Blissus leucopterus ) - TEXAS - Heavy infestations and damage reported 
on young grain sorghum in Jim Wells and Nueces Counties. (Texas Coop. Rpt.). 

GREENBUG ( Toxoptera graminum ) - TEXAS - Infestations ranging from less than one 
per foot to over 200 per foot, generally in small grains in Dallas-Ft. Worth 
area. Parasitism by Aphidius testaceipes has been very heavy and lady beetle 
populations are very large. (Chada) . Infestations decreased past 2 weeks in 
Foard and Knox Counties. Beneficial insects prevalent enough to be of real 
value. (Turney) . Infestations very spotted in fields in Potter, Oldham, Deaf 
Smith, Castro and Parmer Counties. Ranged zero to 500-600 per linear foot, with 
some controls applied. (Daniels) . Attacked oats in Brazos and Burleson 
Counties sufficiently to warrant controls. (Randolph). LOUISIANA - Very light 
on oats in Baton Rouge, Allen and St. Landry Parishes. Scarce in northern 
parishes at present. (Spink) . OKLAHOMA - Of 367 small grain fields observed 
in Payne, Noble, Kay and Garfield Counties about 20 percent showed some damage, 
mostly light, with some medium and heavy damage present. Most damage to barley. 
Of 469 fields observed in Kingfisher, Blaine and Logan Counties, about 15 per- 
cent showed damage ranging from light to heavy. Controls applied to large 
acreage in the Kingfisher-Blaine-Logan county area. (Henderson, Thompson) . 
Damage appearing in fields of winter oats and barley in Pawnee County, controls 
under way. (Garlington) . Averaged 5-100 per linear foot in 4 wheat fields in 
Mulhall area, Logan County. Severe damage to barley and oats continued in Noble 
County. Damage appeared in many wheat fields. Controls widespread throughout 
north central area. (Stiles) . Counts ranged 4-6 to 10-20 per linear foot in 
2 wheat fields checked in Davidson area, Tillman County. Very few noted in 
wheat fields checked in Comanche County. (Hatfield) . NEW MEXICO - Continued to 
build up. Often more than 100 per linear foot in wheat fields in Curry and 
Roosevelt Counties. (N. M. Coop. Rpt.). MISSOURI - Very light and widely 
scattered on barley and wheat over southwest area, with 0-2 per linear foot of 
row. (Kyd, Thomas, Munson) . 

ENGLISH GRAIN APHID ( Macrosiphum granarium ) - TEXAS - Small populations still 
present in north central area small grain fields. (Chada). Medium on small 
grain in Foard County. (Turney). MISSOURI - Light, 0.5-25 per linear foot of 
row, and common in most small grain fields in southwest area. (Kyd, Thomas, 
Munson) . 

WHEAT CURL MITE ( Aceria tulipae) - KANSAS - Light in a Doniphan County wheat 
field. (Peters) . 

WINTER GRAIN MITE ( Penthaleus major ) - MISSOURI - Counts range 0-16 per linear 
foot in southwest area small grain fields; no damage evident. (Kyd, Thomas, 
Munson) . 

AN APHID - ARIZONA - Averaged 7 per infested head of wheat in Maricopa and Pinal 
Counties; 20 percent of heads infested. (Ariz. Coop. Sur.). 

ARMYWORM ( Pseudaletia unipuncta ) - LOUISIANA - Very light on white clover and 
oats in Allen, St. Landry and Baton Rouge Parishes. (Spink) . MISSOURI - First 
moths of season observed at lights, March 30, in southwest area and April 3 
in central area. Few fourth and fifth-instar larvae present in grassy margins 



- 256 - 

of southwest area alfalfa fields. In most instances larvae feeding in alfalfa 
crowns. (Kyd, Thomas, Munson) . 

GREEN CLOVERWORM ( Plathypena scabra ) - TEXAS - Light on alfalfa in Brazos and 
Burleson Counties. (Randolph) . 

CUTWORMS - TEXAS - Peridroma margaritosa ranged none to very light on hubam 
clover and alfalfa in Brazos and Burleson Counties. (Randolph). NEW MEXICO - 
Caused some damage to alfalfa near Tucumcari , Quay County. (N. M. Coop. Rpt.). 
MISSOURI - Larvae averaged 0.5-2 per crown along grassy margins of alfalfa 
fields in Newton and Jasper Counties. Infestations practically nonexistent 
within the fields. (Kyd, Thomas, Munson). 

ALFALFA WEEVIL ( Hypera postica ) - MARYLAND - No larval activity noted in central 
sections. One adult taken by sweeping alfalfa at Ellicott City, Howard County. 
(U. Md. , Ent. Dept.) . NORTH CAROLINA - Injury appearing in untreated fields in 
Lincoln County. (Jones) . GEORGIA - Larvae ranged 1-3 per bud in alfalfa in 
Oconee County. (Johnson) . 

CLOVER LEAF WEEVIL ( Hypera punctata) - DELAWARE - Larval feeding injury to 
clover noticeably increased in Sussex County. (Burbutis , Conrad). MARYLAND - 
Larvae light on red clover at Ellicott City, Howard County. (U. Md. , Ent. 
Dept.) . ALABAMA - Larvae plentiful on burclover in Lee County. (Guyton) . 
KANSAS - Averaged 2 larvae per square foot of crown area in 3 alfalfa fields 
in Geary and Riley Counties. (Peters, Brady). MISSOURI - Small larvae averaged 
2-5 per crown of alfalfa in southwest area. Evidence of a fungus disease present 
on 33-50 percent of larvae. (Kyd, Thomas, Munson). 

LESSER CLOVER LEAF WEEVIL ( Hypera nigrirostris ) - IDAHO - Adults active in Deer 
Flat clover-growing area south of Caldwell, Canyon County. Considerable feeding 
evidence observed. (Waters) . 

CLOVER ROOT CURCULIO (Sitona hispidula ) - IDAHO - Large numbers of adults active 
in red clover and alfalfa fields in southwestern section during warmer days. 
(Waters) . 

SWEETCLOVER WEEVIL ( Sitona cylindricollis ) - KANSAS - Adults caused some damage 
to Riley County sweetclover. (Lawson) . 

FLEA BEETLES - UTAH - Active on mustards in Box Elder County. (Knowlton) . 

SOUTHERN CORN ROOTWORM ( Diabrotica undecimpunctata howardi ) - ALABAMA - Adults 
plentiful in clover and pastures in Wilcox County. (Grimes , March 27). 

COWPEA APHID ( Aphis medicaginis ) - TEXAS - Light on alfalfa and hubam clover in 
Brazos and Burleson Counties. (Randolph). 

PEA APHID ( Macrosiphum pisi ) - DELAWARE - Populations on alfalfa increased 
slightly in Sussex County. (Burbutis, Conrad). MISSOURI - Ranged 1-15 per 
alfalfa crown in fields surveyed. New growth ranged 2-5 inches over southwest 
area. (Kyd, Thomas, Munson) . KANSAS - Ranged as high as 75 nymphs and adults 
per sweep in alfalfa in Geary and Riley Counties, and up to 50 per 2-inch square 
of crown area on a roadside embankment in Geary County. (Peters, Brady). 
OKLAHOMA - Averaged 1-15 per sweep in 3 Choctaw County alfalfa fields. (Goin) . 
TEXAS - Averaged 25 per foot of row and attacked alfalfa in Dallas-Ft. Worth 
area. (Chada) . Light on alfalfa and hubam clover in Brazos and Burleson 
Counties. (Randolph). Light on vetch in Delta County. May build up if 
weather conditions permit. (Davis). ARIZONA - Heavy on alfalfa throughout 
Salt River Valley. (Ariz. Coop. Sur.). 



- 257 - 

SPOTTED ALFALFA APHID ( Therioaphis maculata ) - MISSOURI - None found in 
southwest area. (Kyd, Thomas, Munson) . KANSAS - Counts per 25 plants ranged 
0-11 in 3 areas of Riley County, 0-52 in 4 areas of Cloud County and 0-62 in 
5 areas of Jewell County, March 20, 21 and 22, respectively. (Simpson, 
Burkhardt) . None found by sweeping or field examination of individual alfalfa 
plants in fields or roadside embankments in Geary and Riley Counties. (Peters, 
Brady) . OKLAHOMA - Spot checks showed low numbers in western Okfuskee County, 
zero to two per sweep in Choctaw County and up to 5,000-7,000 per square foot 
near Lawton. (Hatfield, Goin, Meharg) . Averaged 1,089 per square foot of 
crown area in some Payne County alfalfa fields, an increase of 53 percent over 
last week. (Ketner) . TEXAS - Light to medium on alfalfa in Brazos and Burleson 
Counties. (Randolph). Very heavy in most fields in north central part of State 
and some fields severely damaged. (Chada) . NEW MEXICO - Many additional heavy 
infestations found in alfalfa fields in Otero, Chaves and Eddy Counties. (N. M. 
Coop. Rpt.) . ARIZONA - Remained light throughout most of the State, with a 
damaging infestation reported in one Graham County alfalfa field requiring 
control. (Ariz. Coop. Sur.) . OREGON - None found in fields checked in 
Hermiston area, Umatilla County, March 16-20. (Goeden) . 

SWEETCLOVER APHID ( Myzocallidium riehmi) - TEXAS - Light to medium on hubam 
clover in Brazos and Burleson Counties. (Randolph). 

LYGUS BUGS ( Lygus spp.) - MARYLAND - Three adult L. lineolaris taken in 50 
sweeps of alfalfa at Ellicott City, Howard County. (U. Md. , Ent. Dept.). 
ARIZONA - Primarily L. hesperu s , beginning to reproduce rather heavily in 
alfalfa throughout State. Averaged 15 nymphs per 50 sweeps in 10 fields in 
Maricopa and Pinal Counties. (Ariz. Coop. Sur.). OREGON - Averaged 3-4 adults 
per square foot in cultivated fields in Hermiston area, Umatilla County, 
March 16-20. (Goeden). UTAH - Common on roadside mustards in central and north- 
ern areas of the State. (Knowlton) . 

LEAFHOPPERS - UTAH - Aceratagallia spp. active in Cache County alfalfa fields. 
(Knowlton) . 

THRIPS - UTAH - Active in Salt Lake County alfalfa fields. (Knowlton). 
ARIZONA - Heavy in some Salt River Valley alfalfa fields, particularly in Pinal 
County. (Ariz. Coop. Sur.) . 

GREEN JUNE BEETLE ( Cotinus nitida ) - NORTH CAROLINA - Large numbers of larvae 
in pastures in Cherokee County. (Nave, Farrier) . 

SUGARCANE BORER (Diatraea saccharalis ) - LOUISIANA - No egg masses, feeding 
signs or deadhearts observed at 44 stations throughout sugarcane belt. One 
adult taken in light trap at Baton Rouge. (Spink) . 

FRUIT INSECTS 

APHIDS - DELAWARE - A. pomi nymphs abundant on apples in Sussex County. 
(Kelsey) . Eggs have hatched in all counties. (Late News). PENNSYLVANIA - 
Aphis pomi and Rhopalosiphum f itchii hatching on apple in southeast Pike 
County. The latter to a limited extent. (Menusan, Gesell) . ILLINOIS - 
Hatching and on apple March 28. Overwintering egg populations higher than 
normal in central and in scattered southern areas. (Meyer) . INDIANA - 
Jonathan fruit spurs are in stage 1 and aphids have begun hatching. (Marshall) . 
OREGON - Overwintering eggs abundant on apple in Klamath County in January. 
(Ventrees) . ARIZONA - Toxoptera aurantii increasing on some citrus in Maricopa 
County, especially that needing top work. (Ariz. Coop. Sur.). 



- 258 - 

PEACH TREE BORERS - UTAH - General in Utah County stone fruit orchards. 
(Barlow, Knowlton) . NEW MEXICO - Sanninoidea sp. damaging peach trees at 
Tucumcari , Quay County. (N. M. Coop. Rpt.) . 

PLUM CURCULIO ( Conotrachelus nenuphar ) - GEORGIA - Heavy in some orchards . 
Averaged 10.1 and 12.8 adults per tree on March 26-27 on outside row of one 
commercial peach orchard. Nothing found in another orchard. This indicates 
lighter infestations where they were light in 1958 or where controls were 
applied. On March 31, 13.2 adults per tree were caught on outside row of com- 
mercial peach orchard. This emergence from hibernation was caused by a 61° F. 
mean temperature over a 5-day period. Egg deposition is underway by females 
taken from peach orchards. (Snapp) . 

PLANT BUGS - ILLINOIS - Active for some time and now moving to peach trees. (Meyer) 
UTAH - Lygus spp. common in orchards in central and northern areas. (Barlow, 
Knowlton) . 

RED-BANDED LEAF ROLLER ( Argyrotaenia velutinana ) - ILLINOIS - First moth observed 
on March 31. (Meyer). 

OLIVE SCALE (Parlatoria oleae ) - CALIFORNIA - Heavy on almond and apricot trees 
in Tracy, San Joaquin County. (Cal. Coop. Rpt.). 

A TWIG PRUNER ( Elaphidion sp.) - OKLAHOMA - One percent of 300 limbs infested in 
an untreated, improved variety pecan orchard and no infestation was noted in 150 
limbs in an untreated native pecan orchard at Stillwater, Payne County. 
(Bieberdorf, VanC leave) . 

PECAN NUT CASEBEARER ( Acrobasis caryae ) - OKLAHOMA - One percent of 300 limbs 
infested in an untreated, pecan orchard of improved varieties and two percent of 
150 limbs infested in an untreated native pecan orchard at Stillwater, Payne 
County. (Bieberdorf, VanCleave) . 

PECAN PHYLLOXERA ( Phylloxera devastatrix ) - LOUISIANA - Newly hatched nymphs 
migrating to buds in large numbers on heavily infested trees of Schley variety 
pecan, Caddo and Bossier Parishes. Overwintering eggs hatching on Caspiana pecan 
but not so numerous on this variety. (Spink) . 

HICKORY SHUCKWORM ( Laspeyresia caryana ) - Larvae and pupae heavy in Lee County. 
(Guy ton) . 

SAN JOSE SCALE ( Aspidiotus perniciosus ) - Found on some grape plants at the Purdue 
experiment' station^ (Marshall) . 

THRIPS - UTAH - Active in Davis County orchards. (Barlow, Knowlton). ARIZONA - 
Scirtothrips citri heavy for this time of year on citrus in Salt River and Yuma 
Valleys. Indicate a possible damaging thrips year for citrus. (Ariz. Coop. 
Sur.) . OREGON - Taeniothrips inconsequens peak emergence reached March 22-28. 
Populations low and below economic level in observed orchards. Peak emergence 
about same as during 1958. (Jones) . 

CALIFORNIA RED SCALE ( Aonidiella aurantii ) - CALIFORNIA - Heavy on citrus in 
Sacramento, Sacramento County. (Cal. Coop. Rpt.). 

A MEALYBUG ( Pseudococcus malacearum ) - CALIFORNIA - Heavy on citrus trees in 
Soledad, Monterey County, and in Hayward, Alameda County. (Cal. Coop. Rpt.). 

Citrus Insect Situation, Lake Alfred, Florida, Third Week in March - PURPLE 
SCALE activity decreased sharply this week and some further decrease is expected 
in the next two weeks as a result of rainy weather and passing of the peak 



- 259 - 

hatching period. There was a slight rise in FLORIDA RED SCALE activity and the 
present high level of activity will carry through April. CITRUS RED MITE 
activity decreased markedly and will generally drop through April. There was 
a slight decline in CITRUS RUST MITE activity and the trend will be downward 
until mid-April. (Simanton, Thompson, Johnson, March 27). 

TRUCK CROP INSECTS 

Potato Aphid Survey, New Jersey - February-March - 1959 

POTATO APHID ( Macrosiphum solanifolii ) is a particular pest of tomato and potato 
crops in the State. Through survey, prediction of outbreaks is a possibility 
and many fields could be saved from much damage. A SWAMP ROSE ( Rosa palustris ) 
is the primary overwintering host for eggs. Most eggs again were found along 
Racoon Creek in Gloucester County. Counts in the Cumberland-Salem county area 
were about the same as previous years. Many more eggs were found in the central 
area than before. Eighteen locations in 7 counties were surveyed. The average 
per location per 100 buds or crotches was 8.78. In 1958, the average was 1.42 
and in 1957, 2.86. Overwintering eggs are more numerous this spring than in 
1958 or 1957, and the infestation potential for potato aphids is higher this 
year than in either previous year. (Coop* Sur. , N. J. Dept. Agr., Rutgers Univ.). 

BEET LEAFHOPPER ( Circulifer tenellus ) - OREGON - Early observations indicate 
populations in Hermiston area below normal. Overwintering host plants in 
surrounding desert area scarce and this may have influenced the situation. 
(Goeden) . CALIFORNIA - By March 5, populations were heavy enough in southern 
end of breeding grounds to warrant treatment. By mid-March, hatching in other 
areas made it necessary to increase spraying activity. By end of March, 6,440 
acres in Merced, Fresno, Kings and KeOrn Counties had been treated. Practically 
no rainfall was recorded during March, and if winter annuals continue to dry, 
a movement from breeding grounds should follow about mid-April. However, 
remnant populations are low and no significant amount of crop damage is expected 
this season. (Green, Harper) . 

A MAGGOT ( Hylemya sp.) - CALIFORNIA - Heavy and damaging squash seedlings in 
Watsonvllle, Santa Cruz County. (Cal. Coop. Rpt.). 

FLEA BEETLES - UTAH - Active on mustards in Box Elder County. (Knowlton) . 
LOUISIANA - Phyllotreta sp. (probably bipustulata) averaged 50 per 100 sweeps 
on turnips at LaPlace. (Spink). 



- 260 - 

DIAMONDBACK MOTH ( Plutella maculipennis ) - GEORGIA - Light to moderate on 
cabbage in 5 southern counties. (Johnson) . 

CABBAGE APHID ( Brevicoryne brassicae ) - GEORGIA - Moderate to heavy on cabbage 
in Colquitt, Grady, Thomas, Brooks and Lowndes Counties. (Johnson). 

BEAN LEAF BEETLE ( Cerotoma trifurcata) - GEORGIA - Light on beans in Grady 
County. (Johnson). 

TOBACCO INSECTS 

GREEN PEACH APHID ( Myzus persicae ) - GEORGIA - Light on tobacco beds in 4 
southern counties. (Johnson) . 

TOBACCO FLEA BEETLE ( Epitrix hirtipennis ) - GEORGIA - Light to moderate on 
tobacco beds in 10 southern counties and moderate to heavy on tobacco in the 
field in 5 of these same counties. (Johnson) . 

VEGETABLE WEEVIL ( Listroderes costirostris obliquus) - GEORGIA - Light to 
moderate on tobacco beds in 10 southern counties. (Johnson) . 

COTTON INSECTS 

CUTWORMS - TEXAS - Infestations scattered and limited throughout lower Rio 
Grande Valley. (Deer, March 30). 

APHIDS - TEXAS - Appeared in some fields in lower Rio Grande Valley; some 
controls applied. (Deer, March 30) . 

DARKLING BEETLES - TEXAS - Damage reported from eastern Willacy and Cameron 
Counties and one area northwest of Edinburg. (Deer, March 30) . 

Boll Weevil Survival Surveys in South Carolina, North Carolina and Virginia - 
Spring 1959 

Surface woods trash examinations were made during the period March 2-25 in the 
same 5 representative areas of South Carolina, North Carolina and Virginia in 
which fall examinations were made in 1958. Virginia was the lowest in percent 
survival and the south central section of South Carolina was the highest of the 
areas sampled; however, the coastal plains of South Carolina and North Carolina 
had the higher average number of weevils per acre. The 1959 survival percent- 
ages are well above the 1958, and the highest in Florence County, South Carolina, 
since the winter of 1954-55. (Ent. Res. Div., in coop, with States and PPC) . 
See Summary of Boll Weevil Survival Surveys - Spring 1959 for additional 
information. 



- 261 - 



SUMMARY OF BOLL WEEVIL SURVIVAL SURVEYS - SPRING 1959 

Collections of surface woods trash samples have been made to date in 6 cotton 
producing states during the spring of 1959 by cooperating State and Federal 
agencies. The data for the following states have been summarized in previous 
issues of Vol. 9, Cooperative Economic Insect Report as follows: Georgia - 
No. 14, page 237; Mississippi - No. 13, page 216; Louisiana - No. 12, page 193. 
Data from Virginia, North and South Carolina are summarized in this issue. 

Boll Weevil Survival - Spring 1959 



State 



Area or District 



: Average No. Weevils Per Acre:Percent Survival 



1959 



1958 



1959 



1958 



Area 1 - South Central 
South Carolina 
North Carolina Area 2 - Coastal 
South Carolina plains (N.C. & S.C.) 
Virginia Area 3 - Piedmont 
(N.C. & S.C.) 
Area 4 - North Central 
North Carolina 
Area 5 - Southeastern 
Virginia 



Georgia 



Mississippi 



Louisiana 



Northwest 
North central 
East central 
South 

Lower delta 
Central delta 
North delta 
Hill section 

Northeast 



699 



1,963 

242 

81 

27 



726 

48 

145 

781 
364 
284 
429 

2,246 



457 


70.20 


11.50 


403 


42.40 


3.50 


296 


9.20 


4.40 


53.8 


9.00 


2.40 


53.8 


5.30 


1.60 


97 


0.00 


9.00 


1,307 


33.00 


26.00 


968 


12.00 


54.00 


532 


100.00 


100.00 


418 


17.68 


8.51 


551 


7.73 


9.31 


381 


9.43 


3.44 


219 


14.04 


5.33 



1,480 



39.00 



18.00 




- 262 - 



DISTRIBUTION OF HEMLOCK SAWFLY ( Neodiprion tsugae ) 
in Western North America 




Forest Pest Leaflet 31, February 1959 



- 263 - 

FOREST, ORNAMENTAL AND SHADE TREE INSECTS 

AN ARCTIID ( Halisidota argentata) - CALIFORNIA - Widespread on Douglas-fir in 
vicinity of Lake Pillsbury and Mill Creek, Mendocino National Forest, and on 
reproduction and saplings on north slopes of Elk Creek area, Glenn County. 
Present damage not serious but may result in serious defoliation later if 
natural enemies do not control infestation. (Stevens, Kulosa) . 

NANTUCKET PINE MOTH ( Rhyacionia frustrana ) - TEXAS - Medium infestation reported 
in Kaufman County. (Davis, March 30). OKLAHOMA - Adults becoming active in 
Stillwater area. (Bieberdorf) . 

PINE TUBE MOTH ( Argyrotaenia pinatubana) - DELAWARE - No adult emergence noted 
to date on white pine in New Castle County. (Burbutis , Conrad). 

AN EUCOSMID ( Eucosma gloriola ) - PENNSYLVANIA - Attacking Scotch pine terminals. 
Det. H. W. Capps . (Drooz) . 

A SAWFLY ( Neodiprion pratti pratti) - NORTH CAROLINA - Many small larvae on short 
leaf, Virginia and loblolly pines in Granville County, March 26. Some injury to 
needles, an estimated 50 percent of oviposition punctures had produced larvae. 
Pollen of Pin us taedea had not fallen. (Green, Jones, Farrier) . 

TENT CATERPILLARS ( Malacosoma spp . ) - DELAWARE - First hatching of M. americanum 
noted in Sussex County on wild cherry. (Burbutis, Conrad). TENNESSEE - Appear- 
ing in wild cherries over the State. (Mullett) . ALABAMA - Larvae of 
M. americanum observed for first time this year in Wilcox County, week ending 
March 27. Several webs noticed on wild cherry and other trees in southeastern 
part of State, week ending April 3. (Grimes). 

APPLE APHID ( Aphis pomi ) - ALABAMA - Light to moderate and feeding on ornamental 
crab apple blooms in Lee County. (Guyton) . 

SPIREA APHID ( Aphis spiraecola) - ALABAMA - Heavy infestations on new growth of 
spirea in Lee County. (Guyton) . 

OLIVE SCALE ( Parlatoria oleae ) - CALIFORNIA - Medium infestation on a rosebush in 
Gonzales, Monterey County, is the first record for this county. Also heavy on 
Modesto ash in Coalinga, Fresno County. (Cal. Coop. Rpt.) . 

AN ARMORED SCALE ( Phenacaspis natalensis ) - FLORIDA - Apparent increase in 
economic importance indicated by samples submitted for identification. Becoming 
increasingly important on various trees and ornamentals in the State. Increases 
in severity of infestations and in general distribution over State indicated from 
sample collections. (Fla. Coop. Sur.) . 

INSECTS AFFECTING MAN AND ANIMALS 

MOSQUITOES - UTAH - Small numbers of adult Anopheles spp. , Culiseta spp. and 
Aedes spp. noted in Weber County. (Fronk, Knowlton) . 

COMMON CATTLE GRUB ( Hypoderma lineatum) - NEW MEXICO - Adults beginning to annoy 
cattle in Sierra, Torrance and De Baca Counties. (N. M. Coop. Rpt.). 

SHEEP KED ( Melophagus ovinus) - NEW MEXICO - Especially heavy on lambs in San 
Miguel County. Light to heavy on sheep in Guadalupe and Lincoln Counties. 
(N. M. Coop. Rpt.) . 

CATTLE LICE - NEW MEXICO - Light to heavy on many cattle herds in northern 
counties. (N. M. Coop. Rpt.). 



- 264 - 

AMERICAN DOG TICK ( Dermacentor variabilis) - OKLAHOMA - Appearing in annoying 
numbers in limited areas of Payne County. (Howell, Bryan). 

STORED -PRODUCT INSECTS 

KHAPRA BEETLE ( Trogoderma granarium) - CALIFORNIA - Larvae heavy in barley in old 
refrigerator on farm property and light in chicken feed on second property in 
Heber, Imperial County. (Cal. Coop. Rpt.) . 

LESSER GRAIN BORER ( Rhyzopertha dominica ) - OREGON - Found in a feed mill in 
Tillamook County. This constitutes a new record for this county. (Foster) . 

A FLOUR BEETLE ( Tribolium madens ) - NORTH DAKOTA - Infested stores of pollen 
substitute in a honey house at Dwight, October 1958. Adults were dispersed 
throughout the building. This is the first record of a severe infestation of 
this species in the State, although an occasional adult is recorded from seed 
houses and homes. Det. T. J. Spilman. (Post). 

POTATO TUBERWORM ( Gnorimoschema operculella ) - UTAH - Was rare in potatoes during 
1958 and also to date in the stored crop. (Jorgensen, Knowlton) . 



BENEFICIAL INSECTS 

PARASITES AND PREDATORS - ALABAMA - Several species of cocinellids are plentiful 
in various crops in Lee County. (Guyton) . OKLAHOMA - Hippodamia convergens 
numbers variable in several areas. (Hatfield, Goin) . Coccinellid larvae 
averaged 3 per foot in Perkins area, Payne County. Numbers exceeded 2 per foot 
in other areas. None found in many fields. (Henderson, Thompson). Chrysopa 
sp. adults and larvae ranged zero to 0.2 per sweep in 3 alfalfa fields checked 
in Choctaw County. (Goin) . ARIZONA - Trioxys utilis , Aphelinus semif lavis and 
Praon palitans recovered from parasitized spotted alfalfa aphids in Camp Verde 
area of Yavapai County. P. palitans recovered in Cottonwood area of same county 
at 4,500-foot elevation and for first time in Buckeye area of Maricopa County. 
Original colony releases were near Tempe, Litchfield Park and Florence. (Ariz. 
Coop. Sur.) . CALIFORNIA - Ceratomegilla vittigera heavy and active in alfalfa 
fields in Jonesville, Lassen County. (Cal. Coop. Rpt.). UTAH - Coccinellids 
active at Logan. (Knowlton) . 

MISCELLANEOUS INSECTS 

TERMITES - MARYLAND - Winged forms of Reticulitermes flavipes noted in and around 
homes in Baltimore and University Hills, Prince Georges County. (U. Md. , Ent. 
Dept.). PENNSYLVANIA - Swarming in homes in Centre and Union Counties and other 
areas. (Gesell et al.) . 

PERIODICAL CICADA ( Magicicada septemdecim ) - TENNESSEE - Major outbreak of 
thirteen-year-variety (Brood 19) expected to appear early in May. (Mullett) . 

CORRECTION 

CEIR 9(12) :194 - KHAPRA BEETLE ( Trogoderma granarium) - NEW MEXICO - Since 
report in CEIR 9(11): 171, of finds in Sierra County as of March 16, one 
additional collection has been found in that county, one in Luna and 8 
( 7 infested properties ) in Dona Ana Counties. The latter two counties are 
reported for the first time. (PPC) . 



- 265 - 
LIGHT TRAP COLLECTIONS 





Pseud, 
unip. 


Agrot . 
yps. 


Prod, 
ornith. 


Perid. 
marg. 


Feltia 
subt. 


ARIZONA 

Mesa 3/25-31 






5 


8 




FLORIDA 

Gainesville 3/25-4/1 
Quincy 3/25 


1 


3 






14 

1 


KANSAS 
Hays 4/1 
Manhattan 3/30 




4 

1 








LOUISIANA 

Baton Rouge 3/27-4/2 
Franklin 3/2-4/1 


6 
9 


35 

8 


61 
3 


7 


8 
18 



MISSISSIPPI 
♦Stoneville 3/28-4/3 738 137 62 

SOUTH CAROLINA 

Charleston 3/30-4/5 14 4 8 13 

Clemson 3/28-4/3 6 17 1 1 

TEXAS 

Brownsville 3/17-27 88 27 6 3 14 



* Four traps - Stoneville 



- 266 - 

SUMMARY OF INSECT CONDITIONS - 1958 

NEVADA 

Prepared by Robert C. Bechtel* 

Highlights : SMALLER EUROPEAN ELM BARK BEETLE discovered in the State for the 
first time. BEET LEAFHOPPER populations and incidence of curly top disease 
heaviest in recent years. Enormous flights of a GRASSHOPPER, Trimerotropis 
pallidipennis , and damage to various crops by the nymphs and adults occurred 
in the southern half of the State. Unusually large populations of TOBACCO 
FLEA BEETLE caused heavy foliage and light tuber damage to potatoes in two 
areas. BEET ARMYWORM was more numerous than in previous years and damaged 
alfalfa and seedling corn and cotton. SCREW -WORM infestations were above 
normal in the southern half of the State. MOSQUITOES, HORSE FLIES and DEER 
FLIES were present statewide in abnormally large numbers. 

Cereal and Forage Crop Insects : ALFALFA WEEVIL ( Hypera postica ) populations 
and damage were above the 1957 level. Adults became active and began laying 
eggs early in February. Larval populations and damage were highest in mid-May, 
with some damage continuing later than normal. SPOTTED ALFALFA APHID 
( Therioaphis maculata ) populations were below those of 1957 and varied greatly 
depending on the season and area. Generally there was an early and late 
season increase in southern counties and a late season increase in northern 
counties. Economic infestations were low, as compared with previous years. 
In southern counties, two introduced PARASITES (Praon palitans and Trioxys 
utilis) were responsible for much of this decrease. PEA APHID ( Macrosiphum 
pisi ) populations remained unusually heavy throughout most of the alfalfa- 
growing season and were heavier than in 1957. Early season damage was most 
evident in southern counties and late season damage was prevalent in northern 
counties. LYGUS BUGS ( Lygus spp.) were heavy on abundant range plants in the 
spring. As these plants dried up, large numbers moved to alfalfa. Alfalfa seed 
fields were especially hard hit. Some seed fields were treated too late and 
lost the entire first bloom. GRASSHOPPER populations remained mostly noneconomic 
although damage to crops occurred in Lincoln County where 5,800 acres were 
treated for Tr imerotropis pallidipennis in June. In northern counties 3,460 
acres were treated for CLEAR-WINGED GRASSHOPPER ( Camnula pellucida ) and approxi- 
mately 600 acres were treated for a complex of Melanoplus spp. A 
total of 37 , 500 acres was treated for MORMON CRICKET ( Anabrus simplex ) , which 
was an increase of 14,700 treated acres over 1957. First-instar nymphs were 
present in Pershing County by March 14. DESERT CORN FLEA BEETLE ( Chaetocnema 
ectypa ) caused moderate damage to seedling corn in Clark County in April. 
ENGLISH GRAIN APHID ( Macrosiphum granarium ) populations increased to highest 
levels in late June in Churchill and Pershing Counties, with approximately 1,500 
acres requiring treatment in the former county. CORN EARWORM ( Heliothis zea ) 
was the major pest of field corn in central and southern counties and is one of 
the important limiting factors in field corn production in Nevada. BEET 
ARMYWORM ( Laphygma exigua) caused moderate damage to seedling corn in Clark and 
Nye Counties in May and in Churchill County in June. Severe damage to timothy 
hay fields from heavy ARMYWORM ( Pseudaletia unipuncta ) populations occurred in 
Lyon County in September. Various CUTWORMS caused moderate to severe damage to 
alfalfa in the central, southern and western counties. CLOVER SEED CHALCID 
( Bruchophagus gibbus) was light in alfalfa seed in Nye County. STINK BUGS, 
mostly SAY STINK BUG ( Chlorochroa sayi ) , but also CONCHUELA (C. ligata) , caused 
damage to alfalfa seed crops and required treatment in various areas of the 
State. Heavy populations of BEET ARMYWORM developed on seedling alfalfa in Nye 
County in May and required treatment. 

* Cooperators include members of the Nevada State Department of Agriculture, 
other State agencies, Extension Entomologist R. W. Lauderdale, County Agents 
and pest control operators. 



- 267 - 

Fruit Insects : APHIDS were the most general pests on fruit trees during 1958, 
and included APPLE APHID ( Aphis pomi ) , BLACK CHERRY APHID ( Myzus cerasi) and 
Aphis helichrysi . SPIDER MITES ( Tetranychus spp.) were less numerous than in 
1957. CODLING MOTH ( Carpocapsa pomonella ) populations were at approximately 
the same level as in previous years, with damage of 100 percent occurring on 
unsprayed trees. PEAR -SLUG (Caliroa cerasi ) damage to cherries and pears con- 
tinued to be heavy in western and central areas with most damage occurring in 
late July from the second brood. Various species of CICADAS damaged smaller 
limbs and twigs of fruit trees by egg laying in Elko County in June. 

Truck Crop Insects : BEET LEAFHOPPER ( Circulifer tenellus ) populations over- 
wintered on abundant host plants in southern Nevada breeding grounds. Move- 
ment to tomato plants in Clark County occurred by April 4 and some curly top 
symptoms were evident at that time. By April 18, they averaged 2.5 per square 
foot of row. Damage to tomato seedlings from curly top was at least 10 percent 
in the field before shipment of the plants. The beet leaf hopper did not invade 
the sugar beet-growing area of Churchill County until late May. At this time 
they averaged 6.0 per square foot of beet row but very little damage resulted. 
TOBACCO FLEA BEETLE ( Epitrix hirtipennis ) populations on potatoes reached a 
peak in mid-August. Severe defoliation occurred in many fields in Lyon County. 
Minor surface tuber damage occurred, but was not serious enough to affect the 
grade. Light populations of POTATO PSYLLID ( Paratrizoa cockerelli ) occurred on 
potatoes in Lyon County. ONION THRIPS ( Thrips tabaci ) "caused an estimated 5 
percent loss on dry onions. Damage was confined to this amount by insecticide 
application. 

Cotton Insects : BEET ARMYWORM ( Laphygma exigua ) damaged cotton seedlings in 
Clark and southern Nye Counties in May. These infestations were controlled by 
insecticide application. Populations of a SPIDER MITE ( Tetranychus sp.) were 
lower than in 1957, with only 184 acres requiring treatment. LEAFHOPPERS caused 
defoliation of lower leaves in August in Clark County. THRIPS ( Frankliniella 
spp.) caused moderate damage to terminal buds of seedling cotton in early June 
in Nye County. Approximately 600 acres were treated. LYGUS BUGS ( Lygus spp.) 
increased in many fields in July and were present in light to heavy populations 
for the remainder of the season. Over 2,000 acres required treatment to keep 
damage at a minimum. BOLLWORM ( Heliothis zea ) was present in small numbers and 
damage was light. PINK BOLLWORM ( Pectinophora gossypiella ) and BOLL WEEVIL 
( Anthonomus grandis) surveys were negative. 

Forest , Ornamental and Shade Tree Insects : SMALLER EUROPEAN ELM BARK BEETLE 
( Scolytus multistriatus) was found in the State for the first time in Las Vegas, 
Clark County. This beetle is generally distributed throughout the Las Vegas 
area and was probably introduced in 1956 or 1957. The MOUNTAIN PINE BEETLE 
( Dendroctonus monticola ) , RED TURPENTINE BEETLE (D. valens ) and WESTERN PINE 
BEETLE (D. brevicomis ) infestation in ponderosa pine in the Crystal Bay area of 
Lake Tahoe was greatly reduced by the removal of 6,100 trees at a cost of 
$40,000. Heavy emergence of a BARK BEETLE ( Pityophthorus sp.) from dead and 
injured pinyon pine in Douglas County resulted in damage to small limbs and twigs 
of healthy trees. SHOT -HOLE BORER ( Scolytus rugulosus ) populations were heavy 
in western Washoe County, with heavy damage resulting to apple, peach and related 
trees . ELM LEAF BEETLE ( Galerucella xanthome laena) adults became active and 
began laying eggs the last week of May. First-brood pupation began the second 
week in July. Second-brood adults began egg laying about August 1. Damage to 
untreated or improperly treated trees was severe. MOURNING-CLOAK BUTTERFLY 
( Nymphalis antiopa) damaged various trees and shrubs but particularly elms in 
Clark County. 



- 268 - 

Insects Affecting Man and Animals : MOSQUITOES (mostly Aedes campestris , 
A. dorsalis > A. melanimon , A. nigromaculis and A. vexansl were the primary pests 
included under this category. An abundant water supply contributed greatly to 
the enormous populations which were present. HORSE FLIES and DEER FLIES were 
very abundant over the entire State, especially in northern and southern 
counties. DEER FLIES were most prevalent in the southern part of the State. 
CATTLE GRUBS, CATTLE LICE, HORN FLY ( Siphona irritans ) , STABLE FLY ( Stomoxys 
calcitrans ) and SHEEP KED ( Melophagus ovinus ) remained at about the same popu- 
lation levels as in previous years. SCREW-WORM ( Callitroga hominivorax) popula- 
tions were higher than in previous years with many more cases being reported, 
especially in Lincoln County. A CHLOROPID FLY ( Hippelates collusor ) populations 
were heavy in late April and May in Clark County. Usually this species does not 
reach such numbers until later in the season. Populations remained heavy from 
May through October. A TICK ( Dermacentor sp.) was reported as being present in 
large numbers on dogs and humans in Clark County in late October and early 
November. HOUSE FLY ( Musca domestica) populations were heavy, especially in and 
around dairies in Clark and Lincoln Counties. ORIENTAL COCKROACH ( Blatta 
orientalis ) was also numerous in and around dairies in southern counties. A 
SUBTERRANEAN TERMITE ( Reticulitermes sp.) was again prevalent in western and 
southern areas, being most serious in Clark County. Migrations of a FALSE 
CHINCH BUG ( Nysius sp.) into dwellings caused much concern to home owners from 
July through September. 

Beneficial Insects : Two introduced PARASITES (Praon palitans and Trioxys utilis ) 
of the spotted alfalfa aphid are established in the field in southern Nevada. 
At present, P. palitans is the more widely distributed of the two. Various aphid 
predators such as LADY BEETLES and SYRPHID FLIES remained at high population 
levels in alfalfa and assisted in holding the pea aphid and spotted alfalfa aphid 
in check. An ALKALI BEE ( Nomia melanderi ) was present in alfalfa and assisted in 
pollination in Churchill and Pershing Counties. Increased use of HONEY BEE ( Apis 
mellifera ) was made in seed crop production in 1958. In one area of Humboldt 
County, however, the use of an incorrect insecticide and improper timing 
destroyed several colonies of bees. 



SUMMARY OF INSECT CONDITIONS - 1958 

MINNESOTA 

Prepared by Minnesota Division of Plant Industry 

Cereal and Forage Crop Insects : EUROPEAN CORN BORER ( Pyrausta nubilalis ) "over- 
wintering mortality averaged 26 percent in April. A high borer population went 
into the winter but the reduction of 26 percent still left a substantial number 
of borers. Pupation began in the south May 23 and reached a peak about June -6. 
Moth emergence began the first of June and extended into the second week in 
July, with maximum numbers present about July 1. Unusually cool weather through- 
out June and early July resulted in slow growth of corn and very little egg 
laying. Low night temperatures were common in late June and restricted moth 
activity. It was evident in early July that first-generation populations would 
be low. Unusually cool weather at emergence and egg hatch apparently was 
responsible. Slow development of the first generation resulted in the second 
generation coming too late to be of any importance. Damage generally was very 
light. There were, however, some fields where populations caused injury. Fall 
density surveys showed the lowest population in many years, the State average 
being 16 borers per 100 plants as compared with 83 for 1957. GRASSHOPPERS - 
Below normal spring and early summer temperatures were responsible for late hatch 
of all species. Extended periods of heavy rains and cool weather over much of 



- 269 - 

the State caused heavy mortality of early instars of all species, especially 
Melaooplus bivittatus . Due to adverse weather, populations were very spotty and 
generally quite low. There were a few scattered fields with heavy to severe 
populations and some crop damage. M. femur-rubrum remained the dominant species 
in the State. M. bivittatus in the northwest district and M. differential is in 
the southwest and west central districts are building up. Alfalfa is the prin- 
cipal habitat, but some egg deposition was found in other legumes, roadsides, 
ditch banks and weedy soil bank fields. Adult and egg surveys in 1958 indicate 
that populations have declined over much of the State. Four small areas of 
threatening infestations are present in the southern half of the State, the 
remainder classified as light or noneconomic. No large areas of severe infesta- 
tions are indicated. Infestations are expected to be spotty. Local concentra- 
tions may develop under favorable weather conditions. BLISTER BEETLE ( Epicauta 
spp.) populations were low over much of the State and very low numbers were 
found during the grasshopper egg survey. MEADOW SPITTLEBUG ( Philaenus 
leucophthalmus ) was quite general in Houston County on alfalfa and red clover, 
the first economic infestations in recent years. PEA APHID ( Macrosiphum pisi ) 
numbers in alfalfa were moderate in May and increased gradually until mid-June 
when relatively high populations were present in all districts. Counts increased 
through July, with a slight population decrease in August when predators became 
numerous. Pea aphid was much more numerous during 1958 than in 1957. Some 
alfalfa fields were treated. A LEAF SPOT ( Pseudoplea ) on alfalfa was quite 
general during 1958 and damage was erroneously attributed to pea aphid. PLANT 
BUGS ( Adelphocoris spp. and Lygus spp.) were of concern to legume seed growers. 
Populations were generally lower in 1958. First POTATO LEAFHOPPER ( Empoasca 
fabae) adults were found in the south on May 23. Cool weather in June and early 
July contributed to a slow increase in nymphal populations. Numbers were low 
this past summer. E. fabae reached a maximum abundance of 900 per 100 sweeps 
at St. Paul during 1957, but only 88 per 100 sweeps in the same field during 
1958. SPOTTED ALFALFA APHID ( Therioaphis maculata ) - Not found in the State in 
1958. Apparently it did not migrate from southern states and probably does not 
overwinter in Minnesota. SWEETCLOVER WEEVIL ( Sitona cylindricollis ) was not as 
abundant as in past years and adults were scarce late in season. Spotty infesta- 
tions of SWEETCLOVER APHID ( Myzocallidium riehmi) appeared to build-up in June in 
the Ada and Beltrami areas but declined and were not economic the rest of the 
season. 

SIX-SPOTTED LEAFHOPPER ( Macros teles fascifrons) was low and aster yellows were 
not a problem. Light trap collections of ARMYWORM ( Pseudaletia unipuncta ) were 
generally small during June in western areas. Cool weather restricted moth 
activity. Scattered, spotty infestations occurred in the northwest and west 
central districts in early July. Lodged grain, especially barley, seemed to be 
most commonly infested. Some fields were treated. Rye was the only crop which 
sustained much damage. Heads were clipped in several fields. Further damage 
was not noted as grain crops matured and were harvested. Low numbers of 
ENGLISH GRAIN APHID ( Macrosiphum granarium ) were noted in the northwest district 
during early June and populations increased throughout western areas. Predators 
were extremely low. Cool weather continued and aphid populations built up 
throughout northwest, west central and central districts. Predators did not 
multiply enough to check the aphid buildup. There were great variations 
between fields but little evidence of injury. Late June brought indications of 
predator buildup and by the first week in July aphid populations appeared to 
decrease. As the grain crops began to mature and predators increased, aphid 
numbers declined rapidly. Most controls were in the northwest district, with 
approximately 14,000 acres of grain treated. An APHID ( Toxoptera viridi rubra ) , 
reported from wheat in Marshall County, is the first record for the State and 
the first record for the host plant. SIX-SPOTTED LEAFHOPPER ( Macros teles 
fascifrons ) was quite low in late May compared with extremely heavy populations 
present in 1957. The State did not experience heavy migrations from the south 
as in 1957. Some growers treated aster yellows susceptible truck crops. WHEAT 
MIDGE ( Sitodiplosis mosellana ) was reported in Marshall, Kittson and Roseau 
Counties on August 15, and "appeared confined to late-seeded wheat fields. 



- 270 - 

Loss estimates range 1-10 percent. BEAN LEAF BEETLE ( Cerotoma trifurcata ) 
populations were high in Blue Earth County on soybeans, with up to 80 percent 
defoliation in many fields. PAINTED-LADY ( Vanessa cardui ) larvae fed on 
thistles and cockelbur in south central, southwest and west central districts, 
with some movement to soybeans in weedy fields. A CORN R00TW0RM ( Diabrotica sp.) 
was a problem in the southern third of the State on fields in which corn had 
followed corn for several years. Severe lodging occurred in some fields. About 
70,000 acres were treated, an increase over 1957. SEED-CORN MAGGOT ( Hylemya 
cilicrura ) was more of a problem on soybeans. Spotty infestations were reported 
in late June on soybeans and some cucumbers, with moderate to severe damage. 
CORN LEAF APHID ( Rhopalosiphum maidis) was heavy on corn statewide. Predators 
were high in late summer but aphid populations continued at a high level. Most 
of the corn seed planted was treated for WIREWORMS. Approximately 20,000 acres 
received a soil treatment at seeding time. Wireworm problems were spotty as 
usual. High populations were not controlled with seed treatment. Approximately 
10,000 acres were treated for CUTWORMS. Infestations were local. BEET WEBWORM 
( Loxostege sticticalis) infestations were higher in sugar beets than in the 
past several years. Heavy moth populations occurred in northwestern beet fields 
in early July, when treatments were begun and continued into August. The entire 
Red River Valley acreage was treated. Poor control was once again experienced 
where treatment was applied to late larval instars . In the west central 
district, severe damage occurred to some soybean fields. 

Fruit Insects : Apple - Apple bloom occurred in the La Crescent area May 10-11. 
CODLING MOTH ( Carpocapsa pomonella) control was excellent in commercial orchards, 
where applications began at petal-fall. Eggs hatched June 6-14. Second- 
generation control achieved with apple maggot sprays. Dry season increased MITE 
populations in some orchards where treatments were not applied at proper times. 
APPLE MAGGOT ( Rhagoletis pomonella ) emerged July 4 in the La Crescent area and 
July 8 in the Twin City area. Fly activity continued into the wealthy harvest 
season, September 1-10. Populations were higher than in the previous 15-20 
years. Control was achieved only in commercial orchards where thorough applica- 
tions of spray were made throughout July and August. EYE-SPOTTED BUD MOTH 
( Spilonota ocellana ) occurred in one south central orchard, the first serious 
infestation reported in the State in recent years. APPLE CURCULIO 
( Tachypterellus quadrigibbus ) and PLUM CURCULIO ( Conotrachelus nenuphar ) caused 
very little damage where properly recommended treatments were used in petal-fall 
spray. Emergence in La Crescent occurred May 10-14. RED-BANDED LEAF ROLLER 
( Argyrotaenia velutinana ) adults and eggs were observed May 16 in the southeast. 
Egg hatch was nearly complete May 23. Harvest damage was known to be severe only 
in one orchard. OYSTERSHELL SCALE ( Lepidosaphes ulmi ) hatching was nearly 
complete May 29. Strawberries - SAWFLY control was achieved in commercial 
plantings. STRAWBERRY WEEVIL (Anthonomus signatus ) control recommendations were 
made at the time the first blossoms appeared. WHITE GRUBS ( Phyllophaga spp.) were 
troublesome throughout the growing season, particularly in new fields preceded by 
grass sod. CYCLAMEN MITE ( Steneotarsonemus pallidus ) was serious on susceptible 
varieties in all areas, especially in the northern half of the State and commer- 
cial plantings at Rochester and La Crescent. Some varieties which appear to be 
nonsusceptible when grown in the southern half of the State have been found 
seriously infested in the Iron Range and Duluth areas. Populations of SPIDER 
MITES were high in some areas due to dry weather conditions. Heavy localized 
infestations occurred throughout the State. LYGUS BUGS ( Lygus spp.) were present 
in some plantings. Raspberries - RASPBERRY SAWFLY ( Monophadnoides geniculatus ) 
was severe in some unsprayed fields and RASPBERRY CANE BORER ( Oberea bimaculata ) 
was severe, especially in old fields. TWO-SPOTTED SPIDER MITE ( Tetranychus 
telarius) occurred in heavy localized infestations. 



- 271 - 

Forest, Ornamental and Shade Tree Insects : FOREST TENT CATERPILLAR ( Malacoaoma 
disstrial again maintained itself in St. Louis and Carlton Counties, with the 
area of defoliation slightly larger than in 1957. Defoliation occurred 
principally on aspen over a 1,260-square-mile area, being complete on 288 square 
miles. Parasitism of collected cocoons by Sarcophaga aldrichi was 54.2 percent 
and by other species, 11.6 percent. Light traps operated at 20 northeastern 
locations showed the largest catches to be northwest of Duluth at Alborn and 
Cotton, with no significant population buildup in other areas. The average 
number of egg masses per tree was 10.7, with 10 egg masses per tree, generally 
enough to cause complete defoliation. SPRUCE BUDWORM ( Choristoneura fumiferana ) 
continued to threaten the spruce-fir type of the State, with some defoliation on 
1,342,000 acres of a total of 1,910,000 acres. It is believed that the infesta- 
tion will increase in area and intensity. An aerial survey, covering 6,900,000 
acres, was flown in July across the State. Two observers recorded the defolia- 
tion of spruce-fir type into classes of previous (obviously repeated heavy 
defoliation), heavy, moderate, light and none. Classes of defoliation and 
acreage were as follows: 

Class Acres of Defoliation 

Previous 98,000 

Heavy 541,000 

Moderate 324,000 

Light 379,000 

None 568 , 000 

Total 1,910,000 

Larval and egg-mass surveys were conducted during July to check the aerial 
survey, to obtain general information on annual population fluctuations and 
provide data by which potential budworm populations may be forecast. 

Early in June, approximately 12,000 acres of spruce-fir type on the Kabetogama 
Peninsula of Koochiching County were sprayed for spruce budworm control. The 
1957 egg-mass survey showed an average of 5.5 egg masses per 15-inch branch 
sample, indicating a very high population for 1958 season. Pre-spray larval 
sampling showed 21 larvae per 15-inch branch sample, enough for complete 
defoliation. The post-spray larval sampling showed 6.8 larvae per 15-inch 
branch sample. Cold weather probably slowed the kill and mortality may have 
continued after sampling was completed. The 1958 egg-mass survey indicated 
a count of 0.7 egg masses per 15-inch branch sample in the spray area. In the 
sprayed area, 67 percent of the new foliage was retained, compared with 26 
percent in the adjoining unsprayed area. These data indicate the spraying was 
a success and defoliation next summer will, at most, be only light. 

Ground survey and aerial observations made in connection with other aerial* 
surveys indicate no buildup of JACK-PINE BUDWORM ( Choristoneura pinus) popula- 
tions. There were a few scattered areas of very light defoliation, principally 
near Bemidji, Cass Lake and northern St. Louis County. No top killing or tree 
mortality was observed. LARCH SAWFLY ( Pristiphora erichsonii ) continued as a 
serious defoliator of tamarack. An aerial defoliation survey showed that the 
area of heavy defoliation had increased over that of 1957, chiefly in St. Louis 
County and in eastern Koochiching and Itasca Counties. Light to moderate 
defoliation occurred chiefly west and south of the area of heavy defoliation. 
INTRODUCED PINE SAWFLY ( Diprion similis ) again caused heavy defoliation on white 
pine in Crow Wing and Morrison Counties. Some spraying was done on private land. 
Biotic factors appear to keep this insect from larger and continued outbreaks. 
Trees subjected to one year of heavy defoliation appear to recover the next year. 
RED-HEADED PINE SAWFLY ( Neodiprion lecontei) was important in jack pine planta- 
tions in Aitkin, Kanabec and Sherburne Counties. Defoliation by YELLOW-HEADED 
SPRUCE SAWFLY (Pikonema alaskensis ) was very apparent in the southern part of 
St. Louis County around Independence. Some mortality will probably result in 



- 272 - 

spruce which has been defoliated repeatedly. SWAINE JACK -PINE SAWFLY 
( Neodiprion swainei ) caused light defoliation on jack pine in Cass and Crow 
Wing Counties. WHITE PINE WEEVIL (Pissodes strobi ) infestation occurred in many 
jack pine plantations throughout the State. In some areas, 3-5 percent of the 
trees showed typical injury. Heavy infestations of a LECANIUM SCALE were 
reported from several areas on elms. JACK-PINE SAWFLY ( Neodiprion pratti 
banks ianae ) was occasionally light in jack pine. PINE ROOT COLLAR WEEVIL 
( Hylobius radicis ) caused some jack pine tree mortality and was heavy on Scotch 
pine in Cass County. PINE SPITTLEBUG ( Aphrophora parallela ) was abundant in 
late June, with no apparent damage noted. PINE BARK APHID (Pineus strobi ) was 
heavy in white pine plantations near Zimmerman. PINE NEEDLE SCALE ( Phenacaspis 
pinifoliae ) was heavy around Twin Cities, especially on mugho and spruce. COOLEY 
SPRUCE GALL APHID ( Chermes cooleyi ) was occasionally heavy on spruce and fir, 
causing tree deformities, as did EASTERN SPRUCE GALL APHID ( Chermes abietis ). 
EUROPEAN FRUIT LECANIUM ( Lecanium corni complex) was unusually heavy and there 
were some heavy infestations of COTTONY MAPLE SCALE ( Pulvinaria innumerabilis ) 
around Twin Cities. VARIABLE OAK LEAF CATERPILLAR ( Heterocampa manteo ) was very 
light this year. EASTERN TENT CATERPILLAR ( Malacosoma americanum ) occurred in 
most areas where FOREST TENT CATERPILLAR was trapped. BIRCH LEAF MINER ( Fenusa 
pusilla ) was common around Twin Cities. MAPLE BLADDER -GALL MITE ( Vasates 
quadripedes ) was common on lawn trees in the same area. PAINTED MAPLE APHID 
( Drepanaphis acerifolia ) was heavy around Duluth. 

Insects Affecting Man and Animals : MOSQUITOES - Aedes stimulans , A. punctor and 
A. excrucians were found in late-larval stages the first of May. Aedes cinereus , 
A. excrucians , Culiseta inornata and C. minnesotae were reported in various 
stages the second week of May, with some adult Culiseta present. Some Aedes 
vexans larvae were found by May 26, but peak hatches in the Twin City area did 
not occur until about mid-June. A large hatch occurred about July 10 following 
a heavy rain about a week previous. In late summer and fall A. vexans and 
Mansonia perturbans were generally prominent in light trap collections and were 
also commonly taken in biting collections during this period. Generally, popula- 
tions were considerably less than the peak season of 1957. Lack of snow and 
early spring rains in many areas reduced the extent and number of breeding sites 
and consequently the numbers of early-hatching mosquitoes. In the Twin City area 
and also most other areas of the State, summer rainfall was below normal. CLOVER 
MITES were exceedingly troublesome in the Twin City area and in many locations 
throughout the State during the spring and early summer. AMERICAN DOG TICK 
( Dermacentor variabilis ) was abundant in Twin City, St. Cloud and Brainerd areas 
in May and early June . FLEAS ( Ctenocephalides felis and C . canis) were 
frequently reported from homes, yards and animal quarters during August and 
September. 

Miscellaneous Insects : Several new infestations of EASTERN SUBTERRANEAN TERMITE 
( Reticulitermes flavTpes) were reported in St. Paul, making a total of 9 proper- 
tied (3 commercial and 6 private) known to be infested. Five of the infested 
private dwellings are older houses and all are within a two-block radius. The 
infested commercial establishments are located in a warehouse section of the 
Midway district in St. Paul. 

Beneficial Insects : Bessa selecta was a common parasite of many sawflies. Up 
to 30 percent of larch sawfly and 41 percent of yellow-headed spruce sawfly 
populations were parasitized in some areas. Red-headed and Swaine jack-pine 
sawfly each received some parasitism. Sarcophaga aldrichi parasatized 54 
percent of the forest tent caterpillar. A number of PARASITES are responsible 
for reducing jack-pine budworm to a sub-economic level. 



- 273 - 



State-Federal Cooperative Surveys : The JAPANESE BEETLE ( Popillia japonic a ) 
survey was enlarged during 1958. There were 262 traps placed at points of 
entry such as airports, truck and rail terminals throughout the State. No 
Japanese beetles were found. SOYBEAN CYST NEMATODE ( Heterodera glycines ) 
surveys were conducted in 21 soybean producing counties. A total of 281 
soil samples were taken, all of which were negative. The 18 counties surveyed 
in 1957 were also negative. 



Insect Control on Croplands in Minnesota 

Canning Crop Insects : 

European Corn Borer 
First Generation 



1958 



Second Generation 
Ground Spray 
Aerial Spray 

Corn Earworm 

Ground Spray 
Aerial Spray 

Pea Aphid 

Ground Spray 
Aerial Spray 

Field Crop Insects : 1/ 



9,232 
9,882 



2,168 
7,069 



17 
33,224 



Grasshopper (All crops) 
European Corn Borer (Field Corn) 
Cutworms (Corn) 

Aphids (Barley, Oats, Wheat and Rye) 
Sweetclover Weevil (Sweetclover) 
Red Clover grown for seed (Plant Bugs, etc.) 
Alsike Clover grown for seed (Plant Bugs, etc.) 
Alfalfa grown for seed (Plant Bugs, Pea Aphid, etc.) 
Northern Corn Rootworm 
Wireworms (Corn) - Seed Treatment 
Soil Treatment 
Sugar Beets - Beet Webworm (Almost all acreage treated) 
Armyworm (Small Grain) 
Miscellaneous Insects 



Acreage Treated 
Trace 

19,114 

9,237 

33,241 



7,310 

30 , 960 

13,625 

14,380 

1,975 

2,880 

2,000 

10,325 

71,000 

66,510 

31,105 

67,000 

3,599 

3,025 



Fruit Insects : 2,000 acres commercial apple orchards - mainly in about 15 
counties in southeast part of State - treated from 7 to 14 
times each, with hydraulic or concentrate sprayers. 



1/ Incomplete figures 



- 274 - 



Truck Crops : 1/ 

Potato Insects 
Carrots 
Cabbage 
Onions 



Acreage Treated 

25,627 

430 

1,171 

1,228 



Forest Insects : 

Spruce Budworm 
Introduced Pine Sawfly 
Red-Headed Pine Sawfly 



12,000 

320 

50 



Mosquitoes : 

Metropolitan Mosquito Control District in 

Twin City area (Breeding site treatment only) 
Aerial 
Ground 



Others (Towns, villages, resorts, etc. 
Aerial 
Ground 



adult treatment) 



42,878 
56,399 



12,622 
10,000 



1/ Incomplete figures 



- 275 - 



INSECTS NOT KNOWN TO OCCUR IN THE UNITED STATES 

PUMPKIN BEETLE ( Aulacophora hilaris (Boisduval)) 

Economic Importance : This chrysomelid is a serious pest of cucurbits over a 
large area of Australia. It is probably the outstanding pest of these crops 
wherever it occurs in the country. Considerable losses occur annually in 
New South Wales, particularly in early crops, but periodically a general 
outbreak occurs and most of the young spring crops are heavily damaged or 
destroyed. Replanting of the crop becomes necessary in some instances. There 
are several species of Aulacophora in Australia and many attack cucurbits, but 
A. hilaris is probably the species of the greatest importance. In New South 
Wales , A. hilaris is more prevalent in the inland areas of lower elevations 
and milder temperatures. 

Distribution : Widely distributed in Australia, being recorded in Queensland, 
Northern Territory, South Australia, Victoria and New South Wales. 

Hosts : Prefers cucurbitaceous plants, but will attack many other crops and wild 
plants including alfalfa, apple, beans, black nightshade, Carduus , cherry, corn, 
dock, Eucalyptus , fig, gooseberrygourd, grapevine, nectarine, peach, potato, 
pricklypear and sugarcane. 




General Distribution of Aulacophora hilaris 

Life History and Habits ; Egg-laying after overwintering begins in September 
(early spring) . Females lay about 490 eggs each, depositing them singly or in 
small batches on dead leaves or on small clods of earth under the plants. Eggs 
hatch in 8 to 10 days in summer, up to 23 days in cooler weather. Young larvae 
feed on roots or tunnel stems just above the ground, or fruits in contact with 
the soil. Larval and pupal development each takes approximately 18 to 20 days. 
Pupation occurs in the soil, 1 to 6 inches below the surface, in fragile, earthen 
cells. Several generations develop annually. The average period from egg to 
adult is 50 to 53 days. The adults attack plants in all stages of growth, but 
chief damage is caused to young plants, especially those just above the ground; 
these may be destroyed by half-a-dozen beetles in a few hours. In older crops 
individual plants may be destroyed, but are usually able to outgrow the infesta- 
tion. The flowers and young fruits of pumpkins and squashes may be attacked, 
causing additional losses. The average life of the adult is 194 days for the 
female and 157 days for the male; however, they may live as long as one year. 
Normally, adults will hibernate during the winter under sheltered conditions such 
as bark of dead trees, hollow trees, etc. Overwintering does not occur in the 
larval or pupal stage. 



(Chrysomelidae, Coleoptera) 



No. 82 of Series 



- 276 - 



Description : ADULT - Elongate, broader posteriorly than anteriorly; female 
slightly larger than male. Color, bright orange with black markings. Each 
elytra marked with two prominent black patches, also sometimes slightly tipped 
with black. Terminal abdominal segment black, adjacent segment black except for 
small yellow band dorsally at each lateral margin. Eyes, tibiae and tarsi and 
ventral surface of each thoracic segment are dark-colored. Antennae dark 
except basal 5 segments in male, 2 basal in female, which are yellow. Antennae 
11-segmented; simple in female, but 3rd to 5th basal segments enlarged in male. 
Abdomen 5-segmented. Terminal abdominal segment of male and female differ as 
illustrated. Length 7-8 mm. EGG - Bright orange when laid, later becomes 
paler, then yellowish-brown before hatching. Shell delicately reticulated. 
LARVA - Newly-hatched larva slender, light-brown in color. Mature larva 
10-13 mm. long, yellowish-white to pale yellowish-brown. Head and thorax 
slightly narrower than abdomen. Head brown, antennae 3-segmented. Dorsal 
surface of prothorax shaded brown. Legs yellowish-brown, lightly bristled, 
tarsi with single claw. Anal shield of abdomen brown with numerous circular 
white pittings; four large pairs of setae on anal shield, first and third pairs 
clubbed, second and fourth aciculate; dorsoanteriorly to third pair of setae, 
pair of small papillae. Spiracles on second thoracic segment and each abdominal 
segment. PUPA - Generally resembles family characteristics. At first creamy 
white, later darkening. (Prepared in Survey and Detection Operations in cooper- 
ation with other ARS agencies) . CEIR 9(15) 4-10-59. 



1 









Stages of pumpkin beetle ( Aulacophora hilaris ) 

1. Egg. 2. Fully grown larvae. 3. Anal shield of larva, dorsal view. 

4. Pupa, lateral view. 5. Pupa, dorsal view. 6. Female, dorsal view. 

7. Male antenna. 8. Last abdominal segment of female, ventral view. 

9. Last abdominal segment of male, ventral view. 



Figures (except map) from Morgan, W. L. , 1933. Agr. Gazette 
N. S. Wales 44(2): 811-815. 



w"**- 



UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Penalty for Private Use to Avoid 
WASHINGTON 25, P. C. \ Payment of Postage, $300 




V0L^&#fe6 




AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH SERVICE 
PLANT PEST CONTROL DIVISION 

SURVEY AND DETECTION OPERATIONS 



The Cooperative Economic Insect Report is issued 
weekly as a service to American Agriculture. Its contents 
are compiled from information supplied by cooperating State, 
Federal, and industrial entomologists and other agricultural 
workers. In releasing this material the Division serves as 
a clearing house and does not assume responsibility for ac- 
curacy of the material. 



Reports and inquiries pertaining to this release 
should be mailed to: 

Survey and Detection Operations 

Plant Pest Control Division 

Agricultural Research Service 

United States Department of Agriculture 

Washington 25, D. C. 



Volume 9 April 17, 1959 Number 16 



COOPERATIVE ECONOMIC INSECT REPORT 



Highlights of Insect Conditions 

Overwintering survival of EUROPEAN CORN BORER appears high on Eastern Shore of 
Maryland, and is about 50 to 60 percent in Illinois. Winter mortality 73.6 
percent in Van Wert County, Ohio, and 18 to 30 percent in South Dakota. GREENBUG 
still damaging locally, but infestations generally reduced from previous weeks. 
Natural enemies increasing most areas. (p. 279, 289). ARMYWORM moths reported 
in Illinois and in Maryland and larval infestations in Louisiana. (p. 279) . 

ALFALFA WEEVIL adults and/or larvae becoming active many areas. Adult controls 
being applied in Colorado and South Dakota and larval controls in Virginia. 
Serious damage to untreated fields reported in South Carolina. (p. 280) . PEA 
APHID populations building up generally. Very heavy populations reported on 
alfalfa in New Mexico and Arizona. SPOTTED ALFALFA APHID damaging alfalfa in 
areas of New Mexico, Oklahoma and Texas, and increasing in Maricopa County, 
Arizona. (p. 281, 289). TARNISHED PLANT BUG is abundant in legumes in several 
areas, (p. 282, 289). 

BEET LEAFHOPPER conditions in the Southern Great Plains and adjacent areas, 1959. 
(p. 283). 

POTATO PSYLLID survey on overwintering host, 1959. Note: This table replaces 
table issued in CEIR 9 (13):216. (p. 284). 

Some First Reported Records of the Season : ARMYWORM adults in Maryland and 
Illinois. SPOTTED CUCUMBER BEETLE and IMPORTED CABBAGEWORM adults in Delaware. 
TOBACCO HORNWORM adult trapped in Florida. ELM LEAF BEETLE adults emerging in 
Utah and Oklahoma. MEADOW SPITTLEBUG hatching in West Virginia. 

INSECT DETECTION: Spotted alfalfa aphid reported for first time in Houston 
County, Alabama. (p~! 289) . 

SUMMARY OF INSECT CONDITIONS - 1958 - ALABAMA. (p. 291). 

CORRECTIONS. (p. 289). ADDITIONAL NOTES. (p. 289). 

SURVEY METHODS - A portable Field Cage for Insects. (p. 297). 

********** 

Reports in this issue are for the week ending April 10, 1959, unless otherwise 
designated. 



- 278 - 

WEATHER OF THE WEEK ENDING APRIL 13 

Last week was characterized by extreme temperature changes east of the Conti- 
nental Divide as winter returned to most of the Nation. Unseasonably warm 
weather preceded cold air from the Great Plains eastward and was followed by 
abnormal cold over the Rocky Mountains. For the week temperatures averaged 6° 
or more above normal along the middle Atlantic coast and in the Central Valley of 
California, and 9° to 15° below normal over parts of Colorado and Wyoming. Pre- 
cipitation was mostly moderate from Texas northeastward, with little or none over 
the Pacific States and the northern Great Plains. On the 7th and 8th an area of 
low pressure moved across southern Canada, with a cold front extending south- 
westward across the Plains. High winds and thunderstorms, some with hail, accom- 
panied the front in the upper Mississippi Valley. During the next 2 days cold 
air spread southeastward to cover all the country, except the extreme South- 
eastern States. Record-high temperatures were reported from Colorado and South 
Dakota on the 6th, when Kennebec, South Dakota, reported 92°. Along the east 
coast 80° readings as far north as southern New York and New England were 
reported on the 8th and 9th. Urban Baltimore recorded 92° and Washington, D. C, 
90° on the 9th, records for the date. Tatoosh Island, Washington, also had 69° 
on the 9th, a record for so early in the season. Wintry conditions rapidly fol- 
lowed the high temperatures over the Rockies and Great Plains. By the 9th 
freezing weather extended from northern Arizona and northern Arkansas to the 
central Great Lakes. Extreme cold, with many record-low temperatures, covered 
the central Rockies and northern Plains during the latter part of the week. 
Custer, South Dakota, recorded 4° on the 9th, Bemidji, Minnesota, 10°, and 
Cheyenne, Wyoming, -3° on the 10th. 

Snow persisted over the mountains as far south as New Mexico throughout most of 
the week and extended across the Plains from the Oklahoma-Texas panhandles north- 
eastward to the western Great Lakes. Heavy falls of over one foot of fresh snow 
were reported from the higher elevations in Colorado and Wyoming. The snow 
caused some traffic delays due to blocked roads. Up to 4 inches of wet snow and 
good rains provided from 1 to 2-1/2 inches of much-needed moisture in south- 
western Oklahoma, where precipitation has been under 25 percent of normal for the 
last 6 months. Over 10 inches of heavy, wet snow fell locally in extreme south- 
western Minnesota during the night of the 10th, and lighter amounts were received 
in Kansas, Nebraska and South Dakota. However, moisture remains short over much 
of the northern Plains. High winds and critically dry topsoil raised one of the 
worst duststorms since the 1930 's over the Dakotas , Minnesota and Wisconsin on 
the 6th and 7th. In Texas general rains were reported on 5 consecutive days, 
beginning on Wednesday. Heaviest amounts were reported along the upper coast 
with only light rain in the trans-Pecos and north Texas. At the end of the week 
a low-pressure disturbance moved from the Gulf of Mexico northeastward across the 
south atlantic States, leaving moderate to heavy rains (up to 1.98 inches in a 
6-hour period at Mobile, Alabama, on the 12th) from Louisiana and Alabama north- 
eastward to southern Virginia, and 1 to 6 inches of snow over West Virginia, 
Maryland and Pennsylvania on the 12th. (Summary supplied by U. S. Weather 
Bureau) . 



- 279 - 

CEREAL AND FORAGE INSECTS 

EUROPEAN CORN BORER ( Pyrausta nubilalis ) - MARYLAND - Overwintering survival 
appears high on Eastern Shore. Averaged 100 larvae per 100 partial cornstalks 
left on surface of plowed field at Cambridge and 50 per 100 cornstalks at Hebron, 
Wicomico County. Pupation underway in Wicomico County. (U. Md. , Ent. Dept . ) . 
NORTH CAROLINA - Pupation about 50 percent completed in Carteret County. 
(Farrier) . ILLINOIS - Survival about 50 percent in western and northern areas 
and about 60 percent in central area. (111. Ins. Rpt . ) . OHIO - Populations 
reduced 73.6 percent in Van Wert County as of April 2. (Triplehorn) . SOUTH 
DAKOTA - Winter mortality approximately 18 percent in northeast area. (Mast) . 

GRASSHOPPERS - NEW MEXICO - Beginning to hatch in Dona Ana, Lea, Roosevelt and 
Quay Counties. (N. M. Coop. Rpt.). CALIFORNIA - Chimarocephala pacif ica medium 
in barley and wheat in Cuyama, Santa Barbara County"! (Cal . Coop. Rpt. ) . 

CORN FLEA BEETLE ( Chaetocnema pulicaria ) - TEXAS - Caused some damage to young 
corn in Burleson County. (Hawkins) . ILLINOIS - Averaged 15 per 100 sweeps in 
west southwest section. (Ill, Ins. Rpt.). 

CHINCH BUG ( Blissus leucopterus ) - TEXAS - Survey of 13 counties in south 
central , upper coastal and coastal bend areas showed overwintering adults to 
range from none to an average of 5 per young corn and grain sorghum plant. 
Some controls being applied. (Hawkins) . KANSAS - Two found in about 1-1/2 
feet of row in 2 barley fields in Harvey County. (Esau) . 

ARMYWORM ( Pseudaletia unipuncta ) - MARYLAND - First moths of season taken at 
Fairland, Montgomery County. (U. Md. , Ent. Dept.). LOUISIANA - Very light in 
oats in East Feliciana, West Feliciana and East Baton Rouge Parishes. (Spink). 
ILLINOIS - Adults observed as far north as Champaign. (111. Ins. Rpt.). 

GREENBUG ( Toxoptera graminum ) - LOUISIANA - Very light in oats in East Feliciana, 
West Feliciana and East Baton Rouge Parishes. Predators and parasites active. 
(Spink). ARKANSAS - Low in small grains in northwest part of State. Heaviest 
infestations averaged 8-10 per linear foot. (Ark. Ins. Sur.). OKLAHOMA - Total 
of 844 small grain fields observed in Payne, Noble, Kay, Garfield, Kingfisher, 
Logan and Blaine Counties. Damage greatly reduced due to treatments or rainfall 
which caused plants in many fields to "outgrow" greenbug. Natural enemies also 
increasing rapidly in some unsprayed fields. Little additional damage expected 
in these counties this spring. (Henderson, Thompson). Populations common, but 
fluctuating, in Wood, Alfalfa and northwestern Garfield Counties. No treatments 
reported. (Owens) . Populations low in Woodward and Roger Mills Counties and 
spotty in Caddo County. (Hudson). Light in southeastern area, less than 10 per 
linear foot in most fields. (VanCleave, Pela, Goin) . KANSAS - Counts per 
1-1/2 feet of row of barley averaged 6 nymphs and 1.6 adults in Harvey County; 
15.4 nymphs and 1.4 adults in Reno County; 12 nymphs in Dickinson County; 10.5 
nymphs and 1 adult in Marion County; 30 nymphs and 2.3 adults in McPherson 
County. Counts per 1-1/2 feet of row of wheat were 3 nymphs in Dickinson County 
and 15 nymphs in Marion County. (Esau) . Two wheat fields in Labette County 
had 13 and 95 per 10 sweeps. (Peters). TEXAS - Ranged light to 2,500 per linear 
foot on wheat in Hansford and Hutchinson Counties. Predators increasing. (Daniels) 
Light in Dallas County. (Texas Coop. Rpt.). Being held in check by beneficial 
insects in Rockwall County. (Davis). NEW MEXICO - Very light to heavy on small 
grains in Quay, Curry, Roosevelt, Chaves and Eddy Counties. Averaged over 1,000 
per linear foot in large areas in several Curry County fields. (N. M. Coop. Rpt.). 

ENGLISH GRAIN APHID ( Macrosiphum granarium ) - OKLAHOMA - Dominant aphid species 
found in small grain fields in Bryan, Choctaw and McCurtain Counties. Counts 
ranged up to 50 per linear foot some fields, lower most fields. (VanCleave, 
Pela, Goin). KANSAS - Counts ranged 8-95 per 10 sweeps in 3 wheat fields in 
Labette and Cherokee Counties. Adults comprised 20-50 percent of population 
and 10-50 percent of adults winged. (Peters) . 

CORN LEAF APHID ( Rhopalosiphum maidis ) - NEW MEXICO - Moderately heavy in barley 
fields near Artesia, Eddy County"! 0*. M. Coop. Rpt.). 



- 280 - 

A LEAFHOPPER ( Dikraneura carneola ) - UTAH - Moderate on margins of winter wheat 
fields at Riverton , Salt Lake County, and in Cedar Valley, Utah County. 
(Knowlton) . 

BROWN WHEAT MITE ( Petrobia latens ) - NEW MEXICO - Light in wheat fields in Curry, 
Quay, Roosevelt and Chaves Counties. (N . M. Coop. Rpt . ) . UTAH - Light to 
moderate in West Jordan-Copperton-Riverton area of Salt Lake County and Cedar 
Valley area of Utah County. (Knowlton) . CALIFORNIA - Medium on range grasses 
in the Avenal area of Kings County. (Cal. Coop. Rpt.). 

WINTER GRAIN MITE ( Penthaleus major ) - OKLAHOMA - Heavy in spots in two wheat 
fields in Apache area, Caddo County, and causing damage in field of small grain 
in Bryan area, Alfalfa County. (Hudson, Owen). 

FALSE WIREWORMS ( Eleodes spp.) - SOUTH DAKOTA - Averaged 2 per linear foot of 
row in winter wheat in west central area. (Mast) . 

BRONZED CUTWORM ( Nephelodes emmedonia) - ILLINOIS - Averaged 42 per 100 sweeps 
in bluegrass in west southwest area. (111. Ins. Rpt.). 

ALFALFA WEEVIL ( Hypera postica ) - DELAWARE - First adults (probably overwinter- 
ing forms) found on alfalfa, Sussex County. First-instar larvae on clover in 
New Castle County. First and second-instar larvae common on clover and alfalfa, 
Kent and Sussex Counties. (Burbutis, Conrad). MARYLAND - Larval activity 
increased on Eastern Shore and in central area. Surveys of alfalfa in Carroll, 
Dorchester and Worcester Counties showed 5-50 percent of plants infested with 
larvae. Adults common in most sections. (U. Md. , Ent . Dept.). VIRGINIA - 
Larvae and adults light to severe, causing some damage. Controls begun in some 
areas. (Morris et al . ) . SOUTH CAROLINA - Serious damage observed on untreated 
alfalfa fields in Cherokee, York, Chester and Newberry Counties. Less serious 
damage in Anderson County. Extremely low populations noted in treated fields in 
above counties. (Nettles et al . ) . GEORGIA - Larvae averaged 25 per sweep on 
alfalfa in Franklin County, 22 in Oconee, 15 in Putnam, 26 in Jones, 30 in 
Johnson and 80 in Hancock Counties. (Johnson). IDAHO - Adults common in 
alfalfa fields near Whitebird, spotted near Wilder. Populations very low. 
(Foote, Portman) . SOUTH DAKOTA - Adult controls being applied in some west 
central counties. (Mast). COLORADO - Adults found on warm days in Otero, 
Crowley, Pueblo, Larimer and Weld Counties. No larvae found. (Exp. Sta.) 
Spraying underway for adult control in western area, starting March 15 in Mesa 
County and March 23 in Delta, Montrose and Garfield Counties. Adult populations 
high where control not being applied. Increase in larval damage expected due to 
farmer negligence. (Exp. Sta.). 

CLOVER LEAF WEEVIL ( Hypera punctata ) - DELAWARE - Larvae common on clover , Kent 
and Sussex Counties. Present on alfalfa in Kent County. (Burbutis, Conrad). 
VIRGINIA - Larvae present in alfalfa fields in southern Augusta County. 
(Woodside) . ILLINOIS - Larvae active in southern clover and alfalfa fields; 
highest in southwest area. (111. Ins. Rpt.). UTAH - Caused spotted injury to 
alfalfa in several areas of Salt Lake County. (Knowlton). IDAHO - Larvae quite 
common in alfalfa crowns in Whitebird area. (Foote, Portman). 

CLOVER ROOT CURCULIO (Sitona hispidula ) - DELAWARE - First adult observed on 
clover, Sussex County. (Burbutis, Conrad). MARYLAND - Light on alfalfa in 
Calvert County. (U. Md. , Ent. Dept.). VIRGINIA - Larvae damaged roots of 
alfalfa in a Botetourt County field and a field in Pulaski County, causing some 
plants to die and reducing the stand. (Rowell, Brown, McBride) . IDAHO - Light, 
spotted adult infestations in Wilder area. (Hart, Bechtolt) . 

SWEETCLOVER WEEVIL ( Sitona cylindricollis ) - ILLINOIS - Averaged 12 per square 
foot in field in southern part of State. (111. Ins. Rpt.). 



- 281 - 

ELONGATE FLEA BEETLE ( Systena elongata ) - MARYLAND - Adults averaged 1 per 
sweep on alfalfa at Huntington, Calvert County. (U. Md. , Ent. Dept.). 

PEA APHID ( Macrosiphum pisi ) - DELAWARE - Continues to build up on alfalfa in 
Sussex County. Present on clover in same general area. (Burbutis , Conrad). 
MARYLAND - Building up and averaged over 30 per sweep on alfalfa at Cambridge, 
Dorchester County. Light on alfalfa in Calvert and Worcester Counties. (U. Md. , 
Ent. Dept.). VIRGINIA - Populations vary widely in alfalfa fields in Franklin, 
Pittsylvania, Halifax, Henry and Patrick Counties. (Bishop, Crockett, Woodside) . 
ILLINOIS - Active in southern half of State. (111. Ins. Rpt.). ARKANSAS - 
Increased rapidly to average 400 per 100 sweeps in alfalfa in Conway County. 
(Ark. Ins. Sur . ) . OKLAHOMA - Building up most alfalfa and vetch fields in 
Bryan, Choctaw and McCurtain Counties. Parasites and predators medium to heavy 
most fields and should substantially decrease populations most instances. 
(VanCleave, Pela, Goin) . Heavy one field in Stillwater area (Bieberdorf) , light 
in Depew area (Stiles) and very light in Burlington area (Owens) . KANSAS - 
Reported on alfalfa in Sumner County. (Gates). TEXAS - Medium on vetch in 
Delta, Rockwall and Kaufman Counties. Beneficial insects very numerous. (Davis). 
Averaged 15 per sweep on sweetclover in Karnes County, with no apparent damage. 
(Hawkins). NEW MEXICO - This season, to date, has been the worst recorded for 
this pest in many alfalfa fields in Roosevelt, Chaves and Eddy Counties. (N. M. 
Coop. Rpt.). COLORADO - Counts 3-5 per alfalfa crown in Baca County. None 
found in Prowers, Bent, Otero, Crowley and Pueblo Counties. (Exp. Sta.). 
ARIZONA - Continuing very heavy throughout State on alfalfa. (Ariz. Coop. Sur.). 
UTAH - Present in some alfalfa fields in Utah, Salt Lake and Weber Counties, 
and damaged same crop in St. George-Hurricane area of Washington County. 
(Knowlton , Hughes). IDAHO - None found in alfalfa fields in Whitebird area. 
(Foote , Portman) . Very light in alfalfa in Wilder area. (Hart, Bechtolt) . 

SPOTTED ALFALFA APHID ( Therioaphis maculata ) - NEW MEXICO - Many untreated 
fields of nonresistant varieties of alfalfa being destroyed in Roosevelt, Lea 
and Eddy Counties. Remained high in most southern counties. Medium to heavy on 
alfalfa in the Villanueva Valley, San Miguel County. (N. M. Coop. Rpt.). 
ARIZONA - Increasing some alfalfa fields in Maricopa County. One field near 
Peoria averaged 7.33 aphids per trifoliate leaf. (Ariz. Coop. Sur.). UTAH - 
Very scarce in Washington County this spring. (Knowlton, Hughes). TEXAS - 
Very heavy, local infestation in Dallam County. Light to medium in Travis and 
Wharton Counties. (Texas Coop. Rpt.). OKLAHOMA - Populations increasing most 
alfalfa fields in Bryan, Choctaw and McCurtain Counties. Most fields light to 
moderate, few heavy. Predators common in all fields and medium to heavy in many. 
Many fields near cutting stage. (VanCleave, Pela, Goin). Populations up to 
1000 per square foot of crown area in alfalfa field in Tillman County and 600-750 
in irrigated fields in Jackson County. (Hatfield). Populations averaged 1,296 
per square foot of crown area some Payne County alfalfa fields. Some plants 
showing extreme damage. (Ketner) . Heavy some alfalfa fields in Cheyenne area. 
Treatments begun. (Hudson). KANSAS - Counts per 25 plants on 18 roadside 
embankments were up to 31 in Riley County; 47 in Jewell County; 26 in Cloud 
County; 3 in Geary County ;1 in Marion County; 83 in Cowley County and none in 
Butler County. (Simpson, Burkhardt) . COLORADO - Counts 3-5 per alfalfa crown 
at Carrizo Creek and 0-5 at Stonington in Baca County. None found in Prowers, 
Bent, Otero, Crowley and Pueblo Counties. (Exp. Sta.). IDAHO - None found in 
Lewiston area. (Foote, Portman). ILLINOIS - None found in southern half of 
State. (111. Ins. Rpt.). GEORGIA - Light on alfalfa in Johnson, Hancock, Oconee 
and Franklin Counties. (Johnson). VIRGINIA - Averaged 3 per 10 sweeps in one of 
13 fields surveyed in 6 counties. The infested field was in Patrick County. 
(Crockett, Bishop). 

COWPEA APHID ( Aphis medicaginis ) - NEW MEXICO - Large populations in alfalfa 
fields heavily infested with pea aphid. Winged forms very abundant. (N. M. 
Coop. Rpt. ) . 



- 282 - 

SPOTTED CUCUMBER BEETLE ( Diabrotica undecimpunctata howardi ) - DELAWARE - 
First adult observed on clover, Sussex County. (Burbutis , Conrad). OKLAHOMA - 
Few adults present in alfalfa and vetch in southeast. (VanCleave, Pela, Goin) . 

VETCH BRUCHID ( Bruchus brachialis ) - TEXAS - Adults building up on vetch from 
overwintering areas in Delta, Kaufman and Rockwall Counties. (Davis). 

LYGUS BUGS ( Lygus spp.) - PENNSYLVANIA - L. lineolaris very abundant in south 
central area alfalfa. (Pepper) . VIRGINIA - L. lineolaris heavy in 2 Franklin 
County alfalfa fields. Averaged 35 per 10 sweeps in 2 fields and few present 
in another field in Patrick County. (Bishop, Crockett). OKLAHOMA - 
L. lineolaris light but becoming common in alfalfa fields in southeast. 
XVanCleave, Pela, Goin). TEXAS - Large numbers in alfalfa and vetch in Kaufman, 
Delta and Rockwall Counties. Could be a problem in seed production. (Davis). 
UTAH - Present in alfalfa fields generally in Cache, Box Elder, Salt Lake, Weber 
and Davis Counties. (Knowlton) . WYOMING - Small populations, 1 per 5 square 
feet, found in several alfalfa fields in Big Horn County. (Davison). 

MEADOW SPITTLEBUG ( Philaenus leucophthalmus ) - DELAWARE - Initial field infesta- 
tion, probably this species, on clover, Sussex County. Young nymphs very common. 
(Burbutis, Conrad). MARYLAND - First nymphs noted on plantain near Hebron, 
Wicomico County. (U. Md. , Ent . Dept.). VIRGINIA - Damaged about 25 percent of 
plants in a Pittsylvania County alfalfa field and about 20 percent in a field in 
Patrick County. (Bishop, Crockett). 

SPITTLEBUGS - PENNSYLVANIA - Beginning to hatch in hay in favorable locations in 
southeastern area. (Menusan) . TENNESSEE - Appearing in upper eastern area in 
legumes. (Mullett) . 

LEAFHOPPERS - VIRGINIA - Heavy in a Franklin County alfalfa field, present in a 
Pittsylvania County field, averaged 70 per 10 sweeps in a Halifax County field 
and 45 in a Henry County field. (Bishop, Crockett). 

ARMY CUTWORM ( Chorizagrotis auxiliaris ) - UTAH - Retarding alfalfa growth in 
Enterprise area of Washington and Iron Counties. (Knowlton, Hughes). COLORADO - 
Counts 5-10 per square foot in alfalfa in Larimer and Weld Counties and less than 
one per square foot in Prowers, Bent, Otero, Baca, Crowley and Pueblo Counties. 
(Exp. Sta.). WYOMING - Counts less than 1 per 5 square feet in Washakie, Big 
Horn and Park Counties generally. (Davison) . KANSAS - Damaging fall-seeded 
alfalfa in Osborne County. (Gates). 

ALFALFA CATERPILLAR (Colias philodice eurytheme ) - ILLINOIS - Adults numerous 
and larvae occasional in southern half of State. (111. Ins. Rpt . ) . 

FRUIT INSECTS 

APHIDS - VIRGINIA - Anuraphis roseus medium on apple buds in Hampton City and 
Prince Edward, Albemarle and Nelson Counties. Eggs hatching over piedmont and 
eastern areas. (Bobb) . MARYLAND - Over 50 percent of eggs hatched on apple 
trees at Hancock, Washington County. (U. Md. , Ent. Dept.). PENNSYLVANIA - 
Rhopalosiphum f itchii and Anuraphis roseus hatching on apples in the south 
central area, with the latter species abundant. Myzus cerasi hatching on sweet 
cherry in the south central area. (Pepper) . INDIANA - Heavy on apple buds in 
the Orleans area. (Marshall). Aphis pomi continues abundant in Vincennes area. 
(Hamilton) . NEW MEXICO - Myzus persicae heavy on peach foliage in Eddy and 
Chaves Counties and heavy on peach blossoms in Bent, Otero County. (N. M. Coop. 
Rpt.) . 



- 283 - 

RED-BANDED LEAF ROLLER ( Argyrotaenia velutinana ) - INDIANA - Eggs obvious in 
apple trees in Vincennes area. (Hamilton). PENNSYLVANIA - Egg-laying commen- 
cing in the south central area on apple. (Pepper). MARYLAND - Adults appearing 
and depositing eggs on apple trees at Hancock, Washington County. (U. Md. , Ent. 
Dept.). DELAWARE - First adult of season found in Sussex County and first egg 
mass found in Kent County. (MacCreary, Kelsey) . 

SCALE INSECTS - CALIFORNIA - Aonidiella aurantii medium on lemon tree in the 
Orland district of Tehama County. New County record. A. citrina heavy on 
citrus in Dixon, Solano County. Epidiaspis piricola light on pear trees in 
Cloverdale , Sonoma County. (Cal . Coop. Rpt.^T GEORGIA - Pseudaulacaspis 
pentagona infesting scattered trees in a commercial peach orchard at Kathleen. 
(April 3, Snapp) . NEW MEXICO - Aspidiotus perniciosus moderate to heavy in many 
apple orchards in Hondo Valley, Lincoln County. (N. M. Coop. Rpt.). OKLAHOMA - 
A. perniciosus heavy in a few apple trees in a McCurtain County orchard. (Apt.). 

CATFACING INSECTS - INDIANA - In an abandoned peach orchard at Vincennes , 4 
stink bugs were jarred from 5 trees. (Hamilton). UTAH - Lygus spp. common in 
orchards in Cache, Box Elder, Salt Lake, Weber and Davis Counties. (Knowlton) . 
VIRGINIA - L. lineolaris emerging and light in peach orchards in Albemarle 
County. (Bobby! 

EASTERN TENT CATERPILLAR ( Malacosoma americanum ) - OKLAHOMA - Common on native 
plum in wooded areas of McCurtain County. (VanCleave , Pela, Goin) . MARYLAND - 
Small tents appearing in wild cherry and fruit trees in southern and central 
sections. (U. Md. , Ent. Dept.). 

PEAR THRIPS ( Taeniothrips inconsequens ) - UTAH - Active in apricot, peach and 
cherry orchards in Utah County. (Knowlton) . 

PLUM CURCULIO ( Conotrachelus nenuphar ) - INDIANA - In an abandoned peach orchard 
in the Vincennes area, 14 adults were jarred from 5 trees. (Hamilton). 
VIRGINIA - Emerging and light in peach orchards in Albemarle County. (Bobb) . 
GEORGIA - Continue to leave hibernation in numbers and deposit eggs in peaches. 
Average of 13 per tree were taken from a commercial peach orchard on an outside 
row in the Fort Valley area. (Snapp) . DELAWARE - First adult found this year 
on peach tree in Kent County. (MacCreary) . 

SPIDER MITES - CALIFORNIA - Panonychus ulmi light on pear trees in the Newcastle 
area of Placer County. (Cal. Coop. Rpt. ) . UTAH - Eriophyes pyri extremely 
numerous in unsprayed pear orchards at Orem, Utah County. (Knowlton) . 

A WEEVIL ( Brachyrhinus cribricollis ) - CALIFORNIA - Light on olive trees in 
Woodlake, Tulare County. (Cal. Coop. Rpt.). 

TRUCK CROP INSECTS 

Beet Leafhopper Conditions in the Southern Great Plains and Adjacent Areas, 1959 

In Texas, beet leaf hoppers averaged about 5 per 100 square feet in 1959, as 
compared with 21 per 100 square feet in 1958. The area in Texas covered by the 
survey was practically all the counties west of the Winter Garden area to El 
Paso and north through Abilene and the panhandle to Amarillo. Leaf hoppers 
averaged 27.5 per 100 square feet in New Mexico, compared with 35 in 1958 and 
in southeastern Colorado the average was 12.5 per 100 square feet in 1959. Host 
plants were in good condition in most areas of west Texas and were found at a 
high percentage of the stops. Host plants in New Mexico were abundant but 
scattered, and in Colorado they were very scarce and scattered. 



- 284 - 

Details of the 1959 Survey : Western Texas - During the period March 2 through 
March 19, the survey was made in 52 counties of western Texas on wild host 
plants. A total of 104 stops were made, averaging about 20 miles between stops. 
The heavy 1958 infestation in the immediate area of El Paso was much reduced. 
The heaviest concentration of leafhoppers was found in the section between 
Dryden and Sanderson and again in the Clint-Van Horn-Valentine section. The 
Dryden-Sanderson area showed an increase over 1958 as did the Imperial , 
Grandfalls and Bakersfield sections. The main center of the 1959 breeding 
area is believed to be in the vast area of bladder pod, borage, pepperweed and 
flixweed found in the triangle represented by Monahans , Clint and Dryden. No 
beet leafhoppers and very few host plants were found in the Amarillo-Pampa- 
Perryton area. This area has experienced heavy snows along with temperatures 
as low as -25° F. during the past winter. Very few green plants were observed. 
Where sufficient rainfall had been received, hosts were abundant and in good 
condition. The consistent beet leafhopper finds in the Guthrie-Aspermont-Anson 
area carries some significance since this area is considered as being the 
absolute eastern boundary of beet leafhopper. 

New Mexico - This portion of the survey took place during the period March 10 
through March 16. Stops were made at regular intervals throughout the survey 
area and weed-host plants were found to be abundant, but scattered. Host plants 
were present at 90 percent of the stops made. The predominant host plants were 
pepperweed, flixweed and town mustard. Beet leafhoppers were found at 60 
percent of the stops sampled, as compared with 49 percent in 1958. The largest 
populations were in Eddy, Lea, Roosevelt and Curry Counties in southeastern 
New Mexico. Beet leafhoppers were also present in Grant, Dona Ana, Otero, 
Lincoln and Chaves Counties. 

Colorado - This portion of the survey took place during the period March 10 
through March 16. Host plants were found at 40 percent of the stops made. 
Predominant plants were flixweed and green tansy. Beet leafhoppers were found 
at 20 percent of stops sampled. Leafhoppers were present in Otero County in 
southeastern Colorado. (PPC and Coop. States). 

Potato Psyllid Survey on Overwintering Host - 1959 

Average No. per 100 Sweeps 

State District 

Texas San Angelo 

Big Springs 
Del Rio 

Sanderson-Marathon 
El Paso 

New Mexico Las Cruces 54 7 158 

(Southern) 

Arizona Phoenix-Tucson 992 93 95 

(Southern) 

California Blythe-Barstow 237 96 143 

(Southern) 

Note: This table replaces Potato Psyllid Survey on Overwintering Host table 
in CEIR 9(13) :216. Recent information concerning the San Angelo and Del Rio 
districts has been included. Also, names in parenthesis are 1957 and 1958 
designations of same areas. 

(PPC and Coop. States) 



19 59 


1958 


1957 


29 


217 


184 


24 


227 


516 


86 


134 


17 


130 


181 


129 


42 


6 


158 



- 285 - 

COLORADO POTATO BEETLE ( Leptinotarsa decemlineata ) - GEORGIA - Light on tomatoes 
in Colquitt and Tattnall Counties. (Johnson) . 

A SPIDER MITE ( Tetranychus marianae) - TEXAS - In one tomato field south of 
Mercedes in lower Rio Grande Valley. (Deer) . 

FRUITWORMS ( Heliothis spp.) - TEXAS - Appearing in many tomato fields in the 
lower Rio Grande Valley. (Deer) . 

APHIDS - VIRGINIA - Attacking crucifers and spinach in Accomack and Northampton 
Counties. Species probably mostly Brevicoryne brassicae on cabbage and Myzus 
persicae on spinach. (Hof master) . MARYLAND - B. brassicae infesting asparagus 
in greenhouse at Dundalk. Det. L. M. Russell. New host record. (U. Md. , Ent. 
Dept.). GEORGIA - B. brassicae light to moderate on cabbage in Colquitt, Grady, 
Thomas, Brooks and Lowndes Counties. (Johnson). INDIANA - Active on straw- 
berries in the Orleans area. (Marshall) . OKLAHOMA - M. persicae heavy on 
eggplant in a Cotton County greenhouse. (Price). NEW MEXICO - Possibly 
M. persicae building up on lettuce in Artesia area, Eddy County. (N. M. Coop. 
Rpt . ) . ARIZONA - Anuraphis tulipae heavy in some Maricopa County carrot fields. 
(Ariz. Coop. Sur.). CALIFORNIA - M. persicae medium on Romain lettuce in the 
Chula Vista area, San Diego County. (Cal . Coop. Rpt.). 

IMPORTED CABBAGEWORM ( Pieris rapae ) - DELAWARE - Adults noted for first time this 
week. (Burbutis , Conrad). 

CABBAGE MAGGOT ( Hylemya brassicae ) - CALIFORNIA - Light on turnips in the 
Watsonville area of Santa Cruz County. (Cal. Coop. Rpt.). 

LYGUS BUGS ( Lygus spp.) - UTAH - Common on mustards in Cache, Box Elder, Salt 
Lake, Weber and Davis Counties. (Knowlton) . 

HARLEQUIN BUG ( Murgantia histrionica ) - TEXAS - Severe damage to turnips , 
cabbage and radishes in Dimmit, Zavala and Uvalde Counties. Migrations make 
repeated treatments necessary. (Harding). 

SQUASH BUG ( Anasa tristis) - UTAH - Active at Sunset and Pleasant Grove. 
(Knowlton) . 

STRIPED CUCUMBER BEETLE ( Acalymma vittata ) - TEXAS - Heavy and damaging squash, 
melons and cucumbers in Dimmit County. (Harding) . 

CUTWORMS - TEXAS - Pro den i a ornithogalli , Agrotis ypsilon , Peridroma margaritosa 
and A. malef ida attacking tomato, pepper and corn seedlings and transplants in 
Dimmit County. Lighter than last year. (Harding). 

MEXICAN BEAN BEETLE ( Epilachna varivestis ) - GEORGIA - Light on beans in 
Colquitt, Mitchell, Grady, Thomas, Brooks and Tattnall Counties. (Johnson). 

BEAN LEAF BEETLE ( Cerotoma trifurcata ) - GEORGIA - Light on beans in Colquitt, 
Mitchell, Grady, Thomas, Brooks and Tattnall Counties. (Johnson). 

CELERY LEAF TIER ( Udea rubigalis ) - ARIZONA - Not commonly reported in Arizona. 
On sweetpotato foliage last fall and reappeared in light numbers on sugar beets 
this spring. (Ariz. Coop. Sur.). 

A SPITTLEBUG - TENNESSEE - Appearing in strawberries in upper eastern area of 
State. (Mullett) . 

ROSE SCALE ( Aulacaspis rosae ) - CALIFORNIA - Heavy on blackberry in Hollister, 
San Benito County. (Cal . Coop. Rpt.). 



- 286 - 

TOBACCO INSECTS 

TOBACCO HORNWORM ( Protoparce sexta) - FLORIDA - First moth for season reported 
from blacklight trap at Gainesville, Alachua County. (March 30, Perry). 

TOBACCO FLEA BEETLE ( Epitrix hirtipennis ) - GEORGIA - Light on tobacco in the 
field in Bulloch County, and moderate to heavy in Tift, Colquitt, Mitchell, 
Grady, Thomas, Brooks, Lowndes, Ware, Pierce, Wayne and Tattnall Counties. 
(Johnson) . 

COTTON INSECTS 

Cotton Situation, Lower Rio Grande Valley, Texas : 

CUTWORMS and DARKLING BEETLES still causing some damage in eastern Willacy and 
Cameron Counties. FLEAHOPPERS now appearing in western half of Hidalgo County 
and SPIDER MITES are found in small numbers in scattered fields over the valley. 
APHIDS increased over last week. (Deer, April 6). 

THRIPS - GEORGIA - Frankliniella sp. light on cotton in Bulloch County. 
(Johnson) . 

FOREST, ORNAMENTAL AND SHADE TREE INSECTS 

AN ARCTIID ( Halisidota argentata) - CALIFORNIA - Defoliation and partial defoli- 
ation of Douglas-fir trees continuing in Lake Pillsbury, Mill Creek and Santa 
Rosa areas in Mendocino National Forest. (Spharler) . 

A PINK TIP MOTH - ARKANSAS - Adult emergence began about March 1 in southern 
areas and March 20 in northern parts of the State. Weather conditions have not 
favored oviposition and evidence of breeding activity has not been observed. 
(Ark. For. Pest. Rpt . , Mar. Rpt.). 

BARK BEETLES - ARKANSAS - Some increase in activity of Ips spp. and 
Dendroctonus terebrans noted in areas near Paris, Ozark and Fordyce. Remained 
static elsewhere. (Ark. For. Pest Rpt. , Mar. Rpt.). 

DOUGLAS-FIR ENGRAVER ( Scolytus unispinosus ) - CALIFORNIA - Causing complete kill 
and top fading in timber areas over Sonoma County. Condition increasing at 
present time. (Spharler). 

A PINE PITCH MIDGE - ARKANSAS - Heavier than usual infestations observed in 
Union County on a 4-year-old planting. Damage not serious. (Ark. For. Pest. 
Rpt . , Mar . Rpt . ) . 

PINE NEEDLE SCALE ( Phenacaspis pinifoliae ) - UTAH - Moderate to severe on 
Engelmann spruce at Logan . (Knowlton) . KANSAS - Reported on spruce trees in 
Rawlins County. (Peters) . 

PINE BARK APHID ( Pineus strobi) - WISCONSIN - Damaged white pine reproduction in 
Green County. Tops of small trees dying as result of suppression and this species. 
(Wis. Coop. Sur.) . 

TENT CATERPILLARS ( Malacosoma spp.) - DELAWARE - Most eggs of M. americanum on 
wild cherry have hatched throughout the State. (Burbutis , ConradT"! MARYLAND - 
Small tents appearing on wild cherry and fruit trees in southern and central 
sections. (U. Md. , Ent. Dept . ) . VIRGINIA - Very small nests of M. americanum 
present in a tree in Montgomery County. (Amos) . ILLINOIS - M. americanum 
hatching as far north as Effingham. Small nests appear more abundant than 
usual. (111. Ins. Rpt.). UTAH - Hatching in Box Elder County. Eggs numerous 



- 287 - 

on shade trees in Weber, Davis, Cache and Salt Lake Counties. Indications are 
that they may be as numerous as in 1958. (Knowlton) . 

BAGWORM ( Thyridopteryx ephemerae formis ) - VIRGINIA - Very heavy on cedar trees 
in parts of Spotsylvania County. (Kash) . 

NATIVE HOLLY LEAF MINER ( Phytomyza ilicicola ) - MARYLAND - Pupation about complete 
in central counties, on American holly. (U. Md. , Ent. Dept.). 

APHIDS - NEW MEXICO - Macrosiphum rosae becoming very heavy on roses in all but 
cooler northern counties. Cinara tujafilina moderate to very heavy on arborvitae 
in all southern counties. Periphyllus negundinis heavy on boxelder trees at 
Carlsbad, Eddy County. (N. M. Coop. Rpt.) . CALIFORNIA - Light infestations 
building up on roses in Orland, Glenn County, and in Sacramento, Sacramento 
County. Vesiculaphis carisis light on azalea plants in Altaville, Calaveras 
County. This is possibly a new State record. (Cal. Coop. Rpt.). ARIZONA - 
M. rosae increased on Graham County roses and caused deformity of buds in some 
cases. (Ariz. Coop. Sur.). 

A THRIPS - ARIZONA - Increasing infestations in some commerical rose plantings 
in Pinal County requiring control measures. (Ariz. Coop. Sur.). 



SAN JOSE SCALE ( Aspidiotus perniciosus ) - CALIFORNIA - Heavy on laurel trees in 
Benicia, Solano County. (Cal . Coop. Rpt.). 

A GRASSHOPPER ( Melanoplus sp. , probably marginatus ) - CALIFORNIA - Heavy popula- 
tions on native shrubs in the Mendota area of Fresno County and the Avenal area 
of Kings County. (Cal. Coop. Rpt.). 

ELM LEAF BEETLE ( Galerucella xanthomelaena ) - UTAH - Emerged in the Salt Lake- 
Holladay area. Survival high in the Salt Lake City area. (Knowlton) . 
OKLAHOMA - Leaving hibernating quarters in large numbers in Stillwater area. 
Adults commonly observed flying on warm days. (Bieberdorf, VanCleave) . Active 
and causing concern in Oklahoma City. (Bower) . 

INSECTS AFFECTING MAN AND ANIMALS 

MOSQUITOES - UTAH - Conspicuously annoying at Smithfield and Logan, Cache County, 
and reported from Corinne and Bear River City, Box Elder County. Controls being 
applied in several districts. (Knowlton). NORTH CAROLINA - Many fourth-instar 
larvae and pupae of Aedes canadensis in Umstead State Park, Wake County. 
A. sollicitans adults biting at 4-5 per minute and pockets of larvae found in 
Carteret County. (Ashton) . CALIFORNIA - Culex tarsalis populations higher in 
agricultural areas of central part of State than elsewhere. (Vector Control). 

COMMON CATTLE GRUB ( Hypoderma lineatum ) - NEW MEXICO - Adults pestering cattle 
over most of the State! (N. M. Coop. Rpt.). COLORADO - Averaged 3.7-18 per 
animal in 189 animals examined in 9 counties. (Ext. Ser . ) . 

TICKS - OKLAHOMA - Amblyomma americanum heavy on native cattle in southeastern 
part of State. (Goin) . SOUTH DAKOTA - Dermacentor variabilis adults active in 
northeast area. (Mast) . 



- 288 - 
STORED-PRODUCT INSECTS 

INDIAN-MEAL MOTH ( Plodia interpunctella ) - NORTH DAKOTA - Infestation reported 
from a home in Fargo. TN. D. Ins. Rpt . ) . 

FLAT GRAIN BEETLE ( Laemophloeus pusillus ) - TEXAS - Medium to heavy in milo in 
Tom Green and Cochran Counties. (Texas Coop. Rpt.). 

BENEFICIAL INSECTS 

PARASITES AND PREDATORS - NEW MEXICO - Coccinellid larvae and adults very 
abundant in fields heavily infested with pea aphid and spotted alfalfa aphid. 
(N. M. Coop. Rpt.). VIRGINIA - Nabids, lady beetles and syrphids becoming 
active in alfalfa fields in several counties. (Bishop, Crockett). OKLAHOMA - 
Hymenopterous species heavy in a barley field near Holdenville, where 50 percent 
of a heavy aphid population had been "mummified." Common in fields of small 
grain and alfalfa. Averaged one per sweep in most alfalfa fields checked in 
southeastern area. (VanCleave , Pela, Goin) . Less than 10 percent of aphid 
population "mummified" in 2 small grain fields checked in northern Payne County. 
(Stiles) . Predator populations increased and are common in small grain and 
alfalfa fields throughout southeastern part of State. Populations appear heavy 
enough to substantially reduce existing aphid numbers. (VanCleave, Pela, Goin). 
Coccinellids averaged 2 adults and 4 larvae and Chrysopa sp. 2 adults per square 
yard in some alfalfa fields checked in Payne County. (Ketner) . IDAHO - 
Chrysopa spp. adults active in alfalfa fields in Wilder area, but populations 
quite low. (Hart, Bechtolt) . Adult coccinellids active and common in Lewiston, 
Whitebird and Moscow areas. (Foote, Portman, Manis) . Adult populations light 
in Wilder area. (Hart, Bechtolt). ARIZONA - H. convergens becoming very abun- 
dant in alfalfa and barley statewide, with up to 50 adults and 110 larvae per 10 
sweeps in a Graham County alfalfa field. (Ariz. Coop. Sur.). KANSAS - Chrysopa 
sp. adults as high as 6 and Nabis sp. adults as high as 4 per 10 sweeps in 2 
wheat fields in Labette County. (Peters) . 

HONEY BEE ( Apis mellifera ) - WISCONSIN - Late honey flow during 1958 which was 
detrimental to brood rearing, plus winter conditions which prevented cleansing 
flights, contributed to an estimated 50 percent loss of this species. This 
estimated winter mortality is 45 percent higher than a year ago and about 25 
percent greater than normal. As a result, shipments of package bees into the 
State are expected to be large. (Wis. Coop. Sur.). 

A CARPENTER BEE - NORTH CAROLINA - Large numbers pollinating blueberries and 
other shrubs in eastern areas of State. (Jones, Stephen). 

MISCELLANEOUS INSECTS 

COCKROACHES - MARYLAND - Supella supellectilium heavy in a home in Baltimore. 
(U. Md. , Ent. Dept . ) . NEW MEXICO - Blatta orientalis a problem in many buildings 
at Lovington, Lea County. (N. M. Coop. Rpt . ) . UTAH - B. orientalis present in 
homes at Provo and Pleasant Grove and numerous in a home at Murray. (Knowlton) . 
SOUTH DAKOTA - S. supellectilium reported from a home in Grant County. (Mast) . 

IMPORTED FIRE ANT ( Solenopsis saevissima richteri ) - OKLAHOMA - Survey of 320 
acres of nursery land at Durant and limited check of roadsides and pastures in 
Bryan, Choctaw, McCurtain , Pushmataha and Atoka Counties gave negative results. 
(Pela, VanCleave, Goin). 

TERMITES - MARYLAND - Winged forms of Reticulitermes flavipes noted in and around 
homes in Anne Arundel and Prince Georges Counties and at Baltimore. (U. Md. , 
Ent. Dept.). GEORGIA - Numerous reports of R. flavipes throughout the State. 
(Snapp, Johnson). UTAH - Infesting homes at Pleasant Grove, Provo and Logan. 
(Knowlton) . NORTH CAROLINA - Flights observed in a home and a commercial 



- 289 - 

building in Wake and Johnston Counties. (Jones, Farrier). IDAHO - Winged and 
apterous forms of R. hesperus found in basement of a home in Twin Falls. 
(Gibson) . 

MAY BEETLES ( Phyllophaga spp.) - OKLAHOMA - Adults emerging and attracted to 
lights in increasing numbers in southeastern part of State. First adults 
observed in late March. (Pela, (Join, VanCleave) . 

A FUNGUS GNAT (Sciara sp.) - ILLINOIS - Very abundant in many parts of the State 
and has caused much concern as it has been mistaken for hessian fly. As many as 
50 per linear foot reported from wheat fields, but survey showed a range of 0-10 
with average of 4 per linear foot. Up to 50 per foot observed close to a pile 
of soybean trash in one field. (111. Ins. Rpt.). 

CORRECTIONS 

CEIR 9(2) :12 - SUMMARY OF INSECT CONDITIONS - 1958 - COLORADO - Under silage 
corn insects, unit value should read $10 , and total value should read 
$20,094,040 . 

CEIR 9(15) :255 - GRASSHOPPERS - WISCONSIN - Cortophaga viridif asciatus should 
read Chortophaga viridifasciatus and Epitettix simplex should read Eritettix 
simplex. 

CEIR 9(15) :257 - GREEN JUNE BEETLE should read (CotinijB nitida) . 

CEIR 9(15) :267 - Under Forest, Ornamental and Shade Tree Insects, MOUNTAIN PINE 
BEETLE should read (Dendroctonus monticolae) . 

ADDITIONAL NOTES 

ALABAMA - SOUTHERN CORN R00TW0RM adults plentiful on crimson clover, vetch and 
oats in central and southern areas. Hypera meles numerous on crimson clover in 
Lee County, with limited numbers on clover and vetch in southeastern section and 
moderate numbers in central section. PEA APHID extremely heavy on vetch and 
crimson clover throughout central and southern parts of the State. Light 
infestation of VETCH BRUCHID on vetch in Lee County. GREEN CLOVERWORM moderate 
on vetch and clover in Lee, Henry and Houston Counties. Limited numbers of 
THREE-CORNERED ALFALFA HOPPER observed on alfalfa in Lee and Houston Counties 
and of FULLER ROSE BEETLE on crimson clover in Lee County. GREENBUG averaged 
10-15 per 10 sweeps of oats in Henry County. TARNISHED PLANT BUG heavy on 
crimson clover and alfalfa in Henry and Houston Counties. Limited numbers of 
SPOTTED ALFALFA, APHID taken on alfalfa in Houston County for a new county record. 
Limited numbers of BROWN STINK BUG and SOUTHERN GREEN STINK BUG collected from 
clover and alfalfa in Houston and Lee Counties. CABBAGE APHID on cabbage and 
COLORADO POTATO BEETLE on potatoes both moderate in Lee County. Few HARLEQUIN 
BUG adults observed in garden plots in same county. HORN FLY heavy on cattle in 
Lee County. Large numbers of BIG-EYED BUGS observed in crimson clover, oats and 
rye in Houston, Henry and Lee Counties. Few GOLDEN-EYE LACEWING adults observed 
in crimson clover in Lee and Houston Counties. Three species of COCCINELLIDS 
continue to increase in numbers in central and southern parts of the State. 
(Grimes, Hays, Guyton , Ruff in) . 

SOUTH DAKOTA - Survey of two southeast counties indicates approximately 30 per- 
cent average mortality of overwintering EUROPEAN CORN BORER population. FALSE 
WIREWORMS averaged less than one per linear foot in winter wheat in south central 
area. (Mast) . 

WEST VIRGINIA - Large RED-BANDED LEAF ROLLER flight noted April 10 at Kearneys- 
ville. APHIDS on apple buds fewer than usual and EUROPEAN RED MITE hatching 
slowly on apple in Berkeley County. EASTERN TENT CATERPILLAR hatching, numerous 
on northern area wild cherry. MEADOW SPITTLEBUG eggs hatching on alfalfa. CATTLE 
GRUBS average 10.3 in untreated animals generally. (W. Va. Ins. Sur.). 



LIGHT TRAP COLLECTIONS 



FLORIDA 



- 290 



Pseud. Agrot. Prod. Perid. Feltia Protop. Helia 
unip. yps . ornith. marg. subt . sexta zea 



ALABAMA 
Auburn 4/10 7 1 1 

ARIZONA 
Mesa 4/1-7 2 9 60 



34 1 

1 
4 1 

13 2 

7 3 

20 



LOUISIANA 
Baton Rouge 4/3-9 27 22 3 15 10 14 

Franklin 4/2-9 10 6 16 2 5 7 

MISSISSIPPI 
*Stoneville 4/4-10 549 41 1 186 8 

NEBRASKA 
North Platte 3/22-4/2 1 

SOUTH CAROLINA 



Gainesville 3/30 
Monticello 4/7 
Quincy 4/6 






1 
4 


ARKANSAS 
Fayetteville 3/19- 
Kelso 3/19-4/1 
Morrilton 3/19-4/1 


4/1 


27 

3 

29 


20 

4 

54 


KANSAS 
Hays 4/5 
Manhattan 4/4-9 




1 


3 



Charleston 4/6-12 


25 


14 


1 


2 


Clemson 4/4-10 


14 


5 


13 


7 


TENNESSEE (Counties) 










Blount 3/31-4/6 


19 


7 


2 


9 


Cumberland 3/31-4/6 


9 


2 




6 


Greene 3/31-4/6 


4 


1 


1 


1 


Madison 3/31-4/6 


26 


5 




13 


Maury 3/31-4/6 


103 


6 


2 


15 


Monroe 3/31-4/6 


74 


5 


3 


17 


Robertson 3/31-4/6 


22 


1 


2 


6 


TEXAS 










Waco 4/4-10 


68 


4 




67 



35 28 



* Four traps - Stoneville 



- 291 - 

SUMMARY OF INSECT CONDITIONS - 1958 

ALABAMA 

Prepared by Walter Grimes* 

Highlights : Insect infestations that occurred throughout 1958 after the extreme 
weather conditions that prevailed during the early part of the year were interes- 
ting to observe. BOLLWORMS were of concern much earlier than usual and infesta- 
tions remained above normal throughout the year in most areas. BOLL WEEVIL 
was not present in damaging numbers until late July and early August in most 
areas; however, it still caused enough damage to be the number one pest in the 
State. EUROPEAN CORN BORER damage to corn was greater than in 1957 and the 
southward movement continued into 11 additional counties. CORN EARWORM and 
FALL ARMYWORM caused serious damage to early and late corn. LESSER CLOVER LEAF 
WEEVIL and Hypera meles caused considerable reduction in seed yields of crimson 
and burclover. Infestations of SCREW -WORM occurred in early September but were 
limited to three counties. SPIDER MITES caused serious damage to cotton in the 
Tennessee Valley and Sand Mountain areas. 

Cereal and Forage Insects : CLOVER LEAF WEEVIL ( Hypera punctata ) , a CLOVER 
WEEVIL (H. meles ) and LESSER CLOVER LEAF WEEVIL (H. nigrirostris ) were particu- 
larly destructive to crimson and white Dutch clovers and burclover during early 
spring. Damage was observed as early as mid-April and heavy populations remained 
in some areas until mid-June. Seed production was decreased an estimated 25-40 
percent. PEA APHID ( Macrosiphum pisi ) appeared in limited numbers on vetch and 
clover during early April and became damaging during May and June. VEGETABLE 
WEEVIL ( Listroderes costirostris obliquus ) larvae caused light damage to bur- 
clover in early April in Lee and Macon Counties. GREENBUG ( Toxoptera graminum) 
caused moderate damage to oats, wheat and vetch in central areas in early April. 
Infestations in most fields remained 10-20 per 10 sweeps throughout the early 
spring. YELLOW -STRIPED ARMYWORM ( Pro den i a ornithogalli ) caused light damage to 
crimson clover and oats in Lee and Baldwin Counties in early May. Although 
sporadic infestations were observed on various crops throughout the summer, 
estimated damage was below that of 1957. A FALSE CHINCH BUG ( Nysius sp.) caused 
light damage to vetch and burclover in Lee County in early May. Moderate damage 
to vetch by VETCH BRUCHID ( Bruchus brachialis ) occurred in central Alabama in 
late April and May. Various PLANT BUGS, predominately Lygus lineolaris , caused 
light damage to clover, vetch and other crops. STRIPED BLISTER BEETLE ( Epicauta 
sp.) caused considerable damage to alfalfa and pasture crops throughout the 
State. Infestations were more prominent during July and August. 

FALL ARMYWORM ( Laphygma frugiperda ) caused considerable damage to corn throughout 
1958. Damage was first noted in southern areas in early May and increased 
steadily until mid-June. In some areas, damage to corn was serious. Serious 
reduction to total corn harvested occurred in some Shelby County fields due to 
ear-drop. SUGARCANE BEETLE ( Euetheola rugiceps) reduced stands of early corn in 
central and southern sections. Replanting was necessary in several areas. CORN 
EARWORM (Heliothis zea ) caused considerable damage to sweet and field corn 
statewide and moderate damage to clover, vetch and alfalfa in several areas. 
Overwintering EUROPEAN CORN BORER ( Pyrausta nubilalis ) larvae pupated on Sand 
Mountain in late April. By May 18, all had pupated and by June 1, emergence was 
90 percent. Yield reduction of corn was estimated at 15.20 percent in several 
northern counties. The southward spread continued into 11 additional counties. 
Fall abundance surveys revealed only 75 borers per 100 stalks went into hiber- 
nation, compared with 141 in 1957 | however, the 1958 survey included a much 



* From data submitted by members of the Entomology Staff of Alabama Polytechnic 
Institute, Plant Pest Control Division, field workers of the State Department of 
Agriculture, county agricultural workers and others. 



- 292 - 

larger and more recently infested artea than the 1957 survey. SOUTHERN CORNSTALK 
BORER ( Diatraea crambidoides ) and STALK BORER ( Papaipema nebris ) caused light 
damage to corn in northern areas during June and July. SOUTHERN GREEN STINK BUG 
( Nezara viridula ) and BROWN STINK BUG ( Euschistus servus ) caused light to moder- 
ate damage to corn in southern areas during the summer. These species also 
caused light damage to soybeans in Baldwin, Mobile and Escambia Counties during 
the same period. SORGHUM WEBWORM ( Celama sorghiella ) was not as abundant as in 
1957, but infestations on grain sorghum occurred locally. LEAF-FOOTED BUG 
( Leptoglossus phyllopus ) was heavy on grain sorghum in early September in the 
central area and lighter infestations were sporadic throughout the summer. 
VELVETBEAN CATERPILLAR ( Anticarsia gemmatalis ) caused light to moderate damage 
to peanuts and soybeans in southeast and extreme southern sections; however, 
damage did not exceed that of 1957. MEXICAN BEAN BEETLE ( Epilachna varivestis ) 
appeared on soybeans late in the season and caused light damage. GREEN 
CLOVERWORM ( Plathypena scabra ) caused moderate damage to clover in central 
areas during June and July and damaged alfalfa in some areas. THREE-CORNERED 
ALFALFA HOPPER ( Spissistilus festinus ) caused moderate damage to alfalfa through- 
out central sections. SPOTTED ALFALFA APHID ( Therioaphis maculata ) infestations 
were much lower in most areas than in previous years. 

SOYBEAN CYST NEMATODE (Heterodera glycines ) surveys in the State during 1958 were 
negative. Since July 1, 1958, soil samples were taken from properties represen- 
ting 6,774 acres and visual surveys were made on properties representing some 
23,778 acres mostly in the southwestern commercial soybean areas. CORN LEAF 
APHID ( Rhopalosiphum maidis ) infestations increased in most areas, but little 
damage resulted. Peanuts in southeastern sections were severely damaged early 
in the season by TOBACCO THRIPS ( Frankliniella fusca ) . Several species of 
GRASSHOPPERS ( Schistocerca americana , Melanoplus dif f erentialis , M. f emur-rubrum ) 
caused considerable damage to corn, legumes and pasture crops throughout the 
summer. M. f emur-rubrum was the predominant species. There is a definite 
increase of grasshopper activity in the State in the last few years. WHITE- 
FRINGED BEETLES ( Graphognathus spp.) - Since July 1, a total of 13,515 acres of 
new infestations were found; however, none were isolated infestations. In the 
State there is a total of 261,628 acres now infested, 119,863 of which are farm- 
land. All active nursery acreage has been treated. 

Fruit Insects : PECAN NUT CASEBEARER ( Acrobasis caryae ) caused serious reduction 
in pecan yield in central Alabama, with 40-50 percent of the total crop destroyed 
during the major fruiting period. PECAN LEAF CASEBEARER ( Acrobasis juglandis ) 
caused considerable damage to pecan foliage in Baldwin County as early as April. 
Lighter infestations occurred in Escambia and Covington Counties in May. HICKORY 
SHUCKWORM ( Laspeyresia caryana ) occurred in large numbers in old pecan shucks 
during April. Heavy infestations occurred again in late December. APHIDS caused 
light damage to pecan foliage during May and June. BLACK PECAN APHID 
( Melanocallis caryaef oliae) caused light damage in August and September in most 
sections. FALL WEBWORM ( Hyphantria cunea) caused heavy damage to pecan trees 
throughout summer months and was heavier than in previous years. Larvae of a 
MAY BEETLE ( Phyllophaga sp.) defoliated small pecan trees in some areas in May 
and June. PEACH TREE BORER ( Sanninoidea exitiosa ) caused heavy damage in peach 
orchards during March and April. Light infestations occurred in southern areas 
in November and December. Damage by LESSER PEACH TREE BORER ( Synanthedon 
pictipes ) was light to moderate. Light damage to plums by PLUM CURCULIO 
( Conotrachelus nenuphar ) occurred in localized central areas. APPLE APHID ( Aphis 
pomi ) , WOOLLY APPLE APHID (Eriosoma lanigerum) and GRAPEVINE APHID ( Aphis 
illinoisensis ) caused light damage during May in several south and central coun- 
ties. SAN JOSE SCALE ( Aspidiotus perniciosus ) caused moderate damage to Lee 
County apple trees during May. WHITE PEACH SCALE ( Pseudaulacaspis pentagona ) 
caused severe damage to peach trees in southern areas in September and October. 
Lighter infestations were observed in other areas. GRAPE R00TW0RM (Fidia 
viticida ) activity was reported in one area and GRAPE FLEA BEETLE ( Altica 
chalybea ) caused only light damage. ORIENTAL FRUIT MOTH ( Grapholitha molesta ) 



- 293 - 

damage to peach trees was light to moderate statewide. MEDITERRANEAN FRUIT FLY 
( Ceratitis capitata ) traps were operated in Baldwin and Mobile Counties in the 
vicinity of fruit markets. No positive collections were made. 

Truck Crop Insects : VEGETABLE WEEVIL ( Listroderes costirostris obliquus ) caused 
moderate to heavy damage to turnips during April and May, being completely des- 
troyed in some areas. TURNIP APHID ( Rhopalosiphum pseudobrassicae ) completely 
destroyed turnips locally in Baldwin County in May. Heavy infestations of 
R. pseudobrassicae and POPLAR PETIOLE GALL APHID ( Pemphigus populi-transversus ) 
seriously damaged turnips in central and southern areas during September, October 
and November. CABBAGE APHID ( Brevicoryne brassicae ) appeared on cabbage in early 
April and increased to moderate and heavy infestations during May and June on 
untreated plants . BEAN LEAF BEETLE ( Cerotoma trifurcata ) was heavy on beans in 
April and May in Lee and Russell Counties and moderate throughout the central 
area in late June and July. MEXICAN BEAN BEETLE ( Epilachna varivestis ) inflicted 
moderate damage to beans in Baldwin County in May. Infestations were generally 
not as high as in 1957, but in some localized areas almost complete destruction 
of beans occurred. SPOTTED CUCUMBER BEETLE ( Diabrotica undecimpunctata howardi ) 
caused moderate damage to beans and cucumbers in May and in October in southern 
areas. TARNISHED PLANT BUG ( Lygus lineolaris ) slightly damaged squash in south- 
ern and central areas throughout the summer. During May and June, IMPORTED 
CABBAGEWORM ( Pieris rapae) severely damaged cabbage in Baldwin and Escambia 
Counties and STRIPED CUCUMBER BEETLE ( Acalymma vittata) caused moderate damage 
to squash and watermelon plants in Chilton and Fayette Counties. IMBRICATED 
SNOUT BEETLE ( Epicaerus imbricatus ) caused severe damage to tomatoes in Blount 
County in April and May and ASPARAGUS BEETLE ( Crioceris asparagi ) moderately 
damaged asparagus in Lee County in early May. CABBAGE LOOPER ( Trichoplusia ni) 
and DIAMONDBACK MOTH ( Plutella maculipennis ) appeared in large numbers in Lee 
County during May, the latter species was the heaviest in 10 years in this area. 
HARLEQUIN BUG (Murgantia histrionica ) caused light damage in central Alabama 
throughout the summer. Heavy infestations of COLORADO POTATO BEETLE 
( Leptinotarsa decemlineata ) were present throughout the State by mid-May. 
Complete defoliation of potatoes occurred in some areas. ONION THRIPS ( Thrips 
tabaci ) lightly damaged onions in many areas. Various species of CUTWORMS 
caused considerable damage to different crops during the year. FALL ARMYWORM 
( Laphygma frugiperda ) was destructive to garden crops and TOMATO FRUITWORM 
( Heliothis zeal caused serious damage to tomatoes in all sections. Damage was 
reported from Houston County by late May. PICKLEWORM ( Diaphania nitidalis ) and 
MELONWORM (D. hyalinata ) caused light damage late in the season in localized 
southern areas. STRAWBERRY WEEVIL ( Anthonomus signatus ) caused moderate to 
heavy damage to blackberries in Chilton and Tuscaloosa Counties in late April 
and May. SWEETPOTATO WEEVIL ( Cylas formicarius elegantulus ) infestations in 
domestic sweetpotato plantings totaled 55 as of December 31 in Covington, 
Baldwin, Escambia, Geneva, Houston and Mobile Counties. 

Forest, Ornamental and Shade Tree Insects : SOUTHERN PINE BEETLE ( Den droc tonus 
frontalis ), BLACK TURPENTINE BEETLE (P. terebrans ) and IPS BEETLES (Ips. sppTT 
were active in pine stands during 1958; however, populations were comparatively 
lower and damage was less than in 1957. This may have been, in part, the result 
of the extreme cold weather of February, 1957, which killed much of the over- 
wintering brood. Moderate to heavy infestations of NANTUCKET PINE MOTH 
( Rhyacionia frustrana ) occurred in young loblolly and shortleaf pine plantations 
throughout the State. PINE REPRODUCTION WEEVILS ( Pachylobius picivorus and 
Hylobius pales ) caused some loss of seedlings in newly established plantations 
planted too soon after cutting operations. PINE WEBWORM ( Tetralopha robustella ) 
infestations were heavier in one and two-year-old pines than in 1956 and 1957. 
Damage was not severe, but infestations ranged up to an estimated 20 percent in 
some plantations. In seedling nurseries, insect damage was generally light. 
A heavy infestation of a SPIDER MITE ( Oligonychus milleri ) damaged pine seedlings 



- 294 - 

in the nursery at Auburn during November. Larger infestations of SCALE INSECTS 
( Toumeyella spp.) were observed in one to four-year-old pines than in 1956-57. 
Scattered infestations of RED-HEADED PINE SAWFLY ( Neodi prion lecontei ) occurred 
in southwest Alabama in late December and damaged young pines in Washington 
County in July. DEODAR WEEVIL ( Pissodes nemorensis ) was fairly common on pine 
timbers in Lee and surrounding counties during early spring. Infestations were 
somewhat higher than in 1957. A PINE PITCH MIDGE ( Retinodiplosis sp.) was 
observed on pines in Lee County early in the year; up to 35 insects per function- 
ing gall. PINE NEEDLE SCALE ( Phenacaspis pinifoliae ) and a PINE PITCH MIDGE 
( Retinodiplosis resinicola ) were common on pines in late April and early May in 
south central areas. 

Moderate infestations of FOREST TENT CATERPILLAR ( Malacosoma disstria ) occurred 
in swamp-hardwood areas of Mobile, Washington, Choctaw and Baldwin Counties in 
early April and May. EASTERN TENT CATERPILLAR (M. americanum ) occurred on wild 
cherry as early as April and continued to defoliate trees for some time. More 
defoliation resulted from attacks of FALL WEBWORM ( Hyphantria cunea) in 19 58 
than in 1956 and 1957. Infestations were noted as early as June 10. PHYCITIDS 
( Dioryctria abietella and D. amatella ) damaged up to 30 percent of the cones on 
slash, longleaf and loblolly pines in some areas. ELM LEAF BEETLE ( Galerucella 
xanthomelaena ) caused severe damage to American elm in all sections , being 
especially heavy in north and central sections with almost complete defoliation 
of medium-sized and smaller trees. LOCUST TWIG BORER ( Ecdytolopha insiticiana ) 
and LOCUST LEAF MINER ( Chalepus dorsalis ) caused light to moderate damage to 
young locust in central areas early in the year. An OAK SCALE ( Lecanium 
quercifex ) and a KERMES SCALE (Kermes galliformis ) were present in rather large 
numbers on young oak twigs in central and southeastern areas in early spring. 
Kermes infestations were scarce during late summer. CAMELLIA SCALE (Lepidosaphes 
camelliae )and TEA SCALE (Fiorinia theae ) were rather light on camellias early in 
the year; however, tea scale increased considerably during late summer and early 
fall. COTTONY-CUSHION SCALE ( Icerya purchasi ) damage to ornamentals was 
generally light in southern areas the latter half of 1958. A WAX SCALE 
( Ceroplastes ceriferus ) was -prevalent in early spring but rather scarce during 
the summer. Infestations were generally equal to those of 1957. SPIREA APHID 
( Aphis spiraecola ) was unusually heavy throughout the State early in the year. 
ROSE APHID ( Macrosiphum rosae ) caused considerable damage to several species of 
roses in early spring and summer. A GALL MIDGE ( Itonida ocellaris ) caused light 
to moderate damage to red maple during April, but was rather scarce during the 
summer. AZALEA LACE BUG ( Stephanitis pyrioides ) caused moderate to heavy damage 
to azaleas in the southern part of the State. An AZALEA CATERPILLAR ( Datana 
major ) caused moderate damage to azaleas in localized southern areas. Various 
species of CUTWORMS (principally Peridroma margaritosa ) caused moderate damage 
to ornamental plants throughout the year. JAPANESE BEETLE ( Popillia japonica ) 
traps were placed at approximately 100 scattered locations over the State at 
points of likely introduction. No specimens were collected during 1958. 

Cotton Insects : Generally, cotton insects were not as abundant as in 1957. 
BOLLWORMS ( Heliothis spp. , et al . ) appeared in unusually large numbers early and 
infestations remained above normal throughout the season and were responsible for 
yield reductions in many areas. PINK BOLLWORM ( Pectinophora gossypiella ) inspec- 
tions were made in all except 4 counties in the State. All inspections were 
negative. BOLL WEEVIL ( Anthonomus grandis ) began emerging from hibernation 
during mid-May in central Alabama; however, infestations generally were low 
until late July and early August in most areas. In localized areas where 
insecticides were not applied properly, yield was reduced considerably. SPIDER 
MITES ( Tetranychus spp.) caused severe damage to cotton in the Tennessee River 
Valley and Sand Mountain areas. Damage was also observed in localized central 
areas. CABBAGE LOOPER ( Trichoplusia ni) caused minor damage in central areas 
during July and August. COTTON APHID - TAphis gossypii ) was general throughout 
the State, but not as abundant as in 1957. A WEBWORM caused light damage in 
localized central areas. THRIPS caused moderate damage to seedling cotton in 
most areas throughout the early season and WHITEFLIES were present in most 



- 295 - 

northern fields during July and August. COTTON LEAFWORM ( Alabama argillacea ) 
infestations were prevalent in Escambia and Monroe Counties in late September. 
Infestations appeared in south central portion of the State in early October. 
Little damage, except perhaps a small amount of staining, resulted from the 
attacks. BLACK CUTWORM ( Agrotis ypsilon ) caused moderate damage to seedling 
cotton in northern areas during June. SALT-MARSH CATERPILLAR (Estigmene acrea ) 
appeared in localized areas, but caused no apparent damage. FALL WEBWORM 
( Hyphantria cunea) occurred in Limestone County in July, but caused no apparent 
damage. This is the first record of this species attacking cotton in Alabama. 
WH I TE -FRINGED BEETLES ( Graphognathus spp.) caused light to moderate damage in 
Monroe County early in the season, destroying seedling plants. COTTON 
FLEAHOPPER ( Psallus seriatus ) caused very little damage but TARNISHED PLANT BUG 
( Lygus lineolaris ) was destructive in localized areas. 

Livestock Insects : CATTLE BITING LOUSE ( Bovicola bovis ) was prevalent early in 
1958 and infestations appeared again in late fall and early winter. In central 
sections, infestations were heavier than in 1957. HORN FLY (Siphona irritans ) 
populations were extremely high early in the summer in most areas. DEER FLIES 
( Chrysops spp.) were also heavy in localized central and northern areas early 
in the year. HORSE FLIES ( Tabanus spp.) were present in unusual numbers in 
June and July on cattle in central Alabama. COMMON CATTLE GRUB ( Hypo derma 
lineatum ) damage was somewhat higher in most areas late in the season than in 
1957. SCREW-WORM ( Callitroga hominivorax ) infestations were confined to Elmore, 
Autauga and Montgomery Counties. The first positive case was found September 6 
and only 96 cases were found throughout the year. Under the eradication program, 
2,441 animals were sprayed in the infested area and 66,964,250 sterile male 
flies were dropped in the eradication campaign. 

Stored-grain Insects : Stored-grain insects were of utmost importance throughout 
most of 1958. Infestations of RICE WEEVIL ( Sitophilus oryza ) were noted in many 
fields of early maturing corn in several areas. These infestations were moved 
from the field to storage areas and consequently heavy damage for 1958-59 was 
predicted. Heavy damage to corn was observed in December in the southeast and 
extreme south. ANGOUMOIS GRAIN MOTH ( Sitotroga cerealella ) damage was severe 
during March and April in grain stored over winter, but infestations were low 
during December in grain stored in the early fall. Heavy infestations of 
CIGARETTE BEETLE ( Lasioderma serricorne ) occurred in grain in warehouses in 
Mobile County in October and again in December. Stored-grain pests of lesser 
importance were MEALWORMS (Tenebrio obscurus and T. molitor ) , CADELLE 
( Tenebroides mauritanicus ) , SQUARE-NECKED GRAIN BEETLE ( Cathartus quadricollis ) , 
INDIAN-MEAL MOTH ( Plodia interpunctella ) , CARPET BEETLES ( Attagenus piceus and 
Anthrenus scrophulariae ) and SAW-TOOTHED GRAIN BEETLE ( Oryzaephilus 
surinamensis ) . KHAPRA BEETLE ( Trogo derma granarium) surveys during 19 58 were 
negative. 

Miscellaneous Insects : CASEMAKING CLOTHES MOTH ( Tinea pellionella ) was more 
prevalent locally than previously reported. EASTERN LUBBER GRASSHOPPER ( Romalea 
microptera ) occurred in the central area in June and infestations increased 
noticeably in localized areas in July and August. MINING BEES were present in 
several areas and were annoying in some places. SNAILS caused moderate damage 
to lilies in Baldwin County in May and were fairly common throughout the State. 
OLD-HOUSE BORER was collected in Auburn for the first time in several years. 
All IMPORTED FIRE ANT ( Solenopsis saevissima richteri ) infestations in Limestone, 
Morgan, Etowah, Walker, Lamar, Blount, St. Clair, Talladega, Clay, Pike and 
Calhoun Counties were treated during 1958. No infestations were found in 
Randolph, Cleburne, Cherokee, De Kalb , Marshall, Jackson, Lawrence, Winston, 
Marion, Franklin, Lauderdale and Coffee Counties. In the remainder of the 
State, an estimated 11,116,887 acres are infested or exposed to infestation and 



- 296 - 

approximately 50 percent of this acreage would have to be treated in order to 
eradicate the species. Since the beginning of the program, 285,667 acres have 
been treated in the State. 

Beneficial Insects : Beneficial insects played a very important part in insect 
control during 1958. BRACONIDS were prevalent in most cotton areas, attacking 
boll weevil. Many BRACONID parasites were also taken from cotton leaf worms . 
SYRPHID FLY larvae were present in most areas and were especially abundant on 
corn in some areas. A BIG-EYED BUG ( Geocoris punctipes ) occurred in large 
numbers in southern and southeastern areas in early April. As the season 
progressed, populations increased in other areas. CONVERGENT LADY BEETLE 
( Hippo damia convergens ) populations were above normal early and remained so 
in many areas throughout the year. Two COCCINELLIDS ( Coleomegilla fuscilabris 
and Cycloneda sanguinea ) were rather scarce during early season, but increased 
later. GOLDEN-EYE LACEWING ( Chrysopa oculata) occurred in oat, wheat and cotton 
fields during the spring and early summer. 



- 297 - 
SURVEY METHODS 

A PORTABLE FIELD CAGE FOR INSECTS 

The portable cage presented here appears to fill a gap in the cage equipment 
field. The units for this cage can be easily transported to the field and 
quickly erected over a small plant, around the stem of a tree, or in a box in 
the laboratory. Whereas permanent cages are often prohibitively heavy for one 
man to handle, the units of this one are quite light. Finally, three disas- 
sembled cages take up less space in a truck than one permanent cage. 

All parts of the portable field cage are of a standard dimension, thus simpli- 
fying cutting and machining. The units are constructed of treated lumber 2 
inches square and 36 inches long; any convenient size can be used, depending 
on immediate or anticipated problems. Framing for half of the units is machined 
with a 3/8-inch tongue along one face of each cornerpost ; a 3/8-inch groove is 
machined in one face of the remaining cornerposts . After the material is 
machined, it is joined to form the units shown in Fig. 1. 

The opening in each unit may be covered with either plastic or bronze screening; 
usually 20 x 20 mesh prevents the escape of most insects. The opening in the 
units may be modified to fit the need of various investigations: some may be 
covered with plywood, some may be covered with cloth, and some may even be 
provided with doors and windows. 

Pieces of 1/16-inch steel plate, 4 inches or more wide, should be fastened to 
the bottom of each unit along its perimeter. This plate is easily forced into 
the ground and prevents insects and other organisms from burrowing into or out 
of the assembled cage. The steel plate also provides rigidity and helps anchor 
the cage in place. 

After the units are fitted together to form a cage, a means of holding the posts 
tightly against each other is desirable. Loose pin hinges are quite handy for 
this purpose (fig. 2). 

Additional tongues and grooves in the units adapt this simple cage to an infin- 
ite variety of multiple-unit cages of many sizes and shapes. In fact, with a 
little ingenuity the units could be used to construct something as large as a 
portable insectary. (Charles F. Speers , Forest Service, U. S. D. A., S. E. For. 
Exp. Sta.) . 



298 



SURVEY METHODS 



AN ADJUSTABLE PORTABLE FIELD CAGE 



-^ 



CI 



36 




SCREWS 



~. ^~\ T 



(A) 



2x2 PIECES 



1/1 STEEL 




'16 



PLATER 



V 



If 



20x20 BRONZE 

OR PLASTIC 
SCREEN 




4 WIDE 






(B) 



<a 




3/g GROOVE 



TONGUE 



Figure I. Units of portable field cage. 



SURVEY METHODS 



- 299 



TOP OF CAGE 




2"x2" TO SET DOWN INSIDE TOP OF CAGE 



SCREENING 
PLYWOOD 3 / 8 " 



^b 




DETAIL OF 
LOOSE PIN HINGE, 
USED AS A LOCKING 
DEVICE 



STEEL PLATE PRESSED INTO 
SOIL, FOR STACKING CAGES, 
OR MOUNTING CAGES INSIDE 
A BOX. 



Figure 2. Cage assembly. 



rED STATES DEPARTMEJ 





se 

£2.5 

C71 







M i 






ECONOMIC INSECT 




AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH SERVICE 
PLANT PEST CONTROL DIVISION 

SURVEY AND DETECTION OPERATIONS 



The Cooperative Economic Insect Report is issued 
weekly as a service to American Agriculture. Its contents 
are compiled from information supplied by cooperating State, 
Federal, and industrial entomologists and other agricultural 
workers. In releasing this material the Division serves as 
a clearing house and does not assume responsibility for ac- 
curacy of the material. 



Reports and inquiries pertaining to this release 
should be mailed to: 

Survey and Detection Operations 

Plant Pest Control Division 

Agricultural Research Service 

United States Department of Agriculture 

Washington 25, D. C. 



Volume 9 April 24, 1959 Number 17 

COOPERATIVE ECONOMIC INSECT REPORT 

Highlights of Insect Conditions 

Treatments still being applied for GREENBUG control in Texas Panhandle. Popula- 
tions in Oklahoma Panhandle greater in eastern portion. Spraying decreased in 
Canadian and Pawnee Counties. Counts generally light in Kansas' and Louisiana, 
(p. 303). EUROPEAN CORN BORER pupation begun in Delaware. (p. 304). ALFALFA 
WEEVIL damage continuing in untreated alfalfa in Virginia and South Carolina and 
counts high in Georgia. Adults common at Clarkston, Washington. LESSER CLOVER 
LEAF WEEVIL larvae very numerous in clovers in southeastern Alabama and 
SWEETCLOVER WEEVIL severely damaged some sweetclover fieLds in southern Illinois, 
(p. 305). PEA APHID heavy on alfalfa in Virginia and Arizona; increasing on 
legumes in many States. (p. 306). 

MEXICAN FRUIT FLY population very low in lower Rio Grande Valley, Texas, 
(p. 309). 

Second statement on BEET LEAFHOPPER conditions in Utah, western Colorado, 
southern Nevada, central Arizona and southeastern California - 1959. (p. 310). 

BOLL WEEVIL survival high at Marianna, Arkansas, but low in McNairy County, 
Tennessee, (p. 312) . 

MOSQUITO populations developing on Eastern Shore of Delaware and Maryland and 
in Utah and Nevada. Considerable activity reported in Florida. (p. 315) . 

Some First Reported Records of the Season : MORMON CRICKET hatched April 7 in 
Tooele County, Utah. LESSER CLOVER LEAF WEEVIL emergence noted April 15 in 
Illinois; larvae collected same date in Ohio. EUROPEAN RED MITE hatching in 
Maryland and Bryobia rubrioculus hatching in Washington. PEAR PSYLLA noted 
first time this season on March 7 in New York. Meligethes nigrescens emerged 
April 3 in Oregon. CABBAGE MAGGOT observed April 13 in New Jersey and ONION 
MAGGOT emerged April 7 in Washington. TOBACCO FLEA BEETLE emerging in Maryland 
and Neodi prion pratti pratti hatching Statewide in Virginia. 

INSECT DETECTION: European chafer collected for first time in Brooklyn, New 
York. (p. 304) . Odontaleyrodes rhododendri collected for first time in Florida 
at Leesburg, Lake County. (p. 315) . 

EUROPEAN CORN BORER caused an estimated 100,699,000 bushel loss to grain corn 
in the major corn producing States surveyed in the fall of 1958. (p. 319) . 

INSECTS not known to occur in the United States. (p. 321). 



********* 



Reports in this issue are for the week ending April 17, 1959, unless otherwise 
designated. 



- 302 - 

WEATHER BUREAU 30 -DAY OUTLOOK 
MID-APRIL TO MID-MAY 1959 

The Weather Bureau's 30-day outlook for the period mid-April to mid-May calls 
for temperatures to average above seasonal normals over the eastern third of 
the Nation. Below normal temperatures are predicted for the western half of 
the country except above normal over the extreme Southwest.- In other areas 
near normal averages with large fluctuations are anticipated. Precipitation 
is expected to exceed normal over most of the country lying between the 
Continental Divide and the Appalachians. In other areas about normal rainfall 
is indicated. 

Weather forecast given here is based on the official 30-day "Resume and Outlook", 
published twice a month by the Weather Bureau. You can subscribe through 
Superintendent of Documents, Washington 25, D. C. Price $4.80 a year, $2.40 
a half year. 

WEATHER OF THE WEEK ENDING APRIL 20 

This week demonstrated the wide range of weather conditions typical of early 
spring. Alternating cold and warm temperatures, severe thunderstorms, heavy 
rains and snows were all experienced in various sections. Temperatures averaged 
above normal in the Northeast and extreme Southwest. The remainder of the Nation 
experienced unseasonably cold weather during parts of the week to bring temper- 
atures below normal for the period. The large high pressure area which had 
moved down the Great Plains during the latter part of the preceding week was 
centered over Texas on the 13th. This cool, clear air mass moved slowly east- 
ward over the Gulf States during the next 3 days, bringing freezing temperatures 
as far south as north central Louisiana, northern portions of Alabama and Georgia 
and scattered light frost to northern Florida and south central Texas as night- 
time radiation permitted rapid cooling. Freezes this late in the season average 
only 1 in 10 to 20 years in Louisiana. Cold weather moved into the northern 
Rockies and Plains early in the week. On the 14th a cold front extended from 
eastern North Dakota southwestward to Nevada. As this front moved slowly 
southeastward, areas of low pressure formed over the Mountain States and moved 
along the front, producing light to heavy precipitation on the 14th through the 
17th from south central Montana, northern Utah and Wyoming eastward to Minnesota. 
Heavy snow in Montana caused some damage to power lines. Moving southward, from 
the 16th to the 19th, the cold air encountered warm, moist air streaming north- 
ward from the Gulf of Mexico, and scattered, heavy thunderstorms were recorded 
from the Texas -Louisiana area northward to Nebraska and southern Illinois. 
Winds in the southerly flow of warm air reached 30 to 50 m.p.h. , from Texas to 
Nebraska on the 15th. Heavy hail caused some light damage in Kansas, Oklahoma, 
Texas, Arkansas and Missouri. Damaging windstorms occurred near Freeport , 
Illinois, on the 17th; Godley, Texas, and Mansfield, Louisiana, on the 13th. 

Snow and sleet again spread out of Wyoming on the 18th through the 20th, reaching 
eastward to the lower Great Lakes and southern Iowa, and southward to north- 
eastern New Mexico. Up to 9 inches of snow fell in the Black Hills of South 
Dakota and 5 to 7 inches covered central Iowa on the 19th. Pleasant weather 
(warm, clear, dry days and cool nights) prevailed over the Northeastern States 
until the weekend, when light to moderate precipitation and cooler temperatures 
covered the Middle Atlantic and New England States. General moderate to heavy 
rains occurred at the week's end over the Southeast; Precipitation was gener- 
ally below 1/2 inch west of the Continental Divide, except in northern Utah 
where rain and snow on the 18th brought amounts up to normal levels for the 
year. (Summary supplied by U. S. Weather Bureau). 



- 303 - 

CEREAL AND FORAGE INSECTS 

GRASSHOPPERS - CALIFORNIA - Heavy hatch occurring north and west of Kettleman 
Hills, Kings County, adjacent to several thousand acres of melons, potatoes and 
cotton. (Cal. Coop. Rpt.). NEW MEXICO - Nymphs present in cultivated areas of 
Luna, Hidalgo, Grant and Dona Ana Counties. Presently not numerous. (N. M. 
Coop. Rpt.) . 

MORMON CRICKET ( Anabrus simplex ) - UTAH - Hatching in Vernon-Government Creek 
area of Tooele County on April 7. (Thornley, Annand, Knowlton) . 

CUTWORMS - ALABAMA - Destroying stands of young corn in Monroe County. (Lemons) . 
LOUISIANA - Peridroma margaritosa light, 0-4 per square foot, in mixed clover 
pastures in Acadia and Vermilion Parishes. (Spink). NEBRASKA - Agrotis ypsilon 
adults taken in light traps at North Platte and Lincoln. (Roselle, Pruess) . 
IDAHO - Heavy, spotted infestations in alfalfa field in Idaho Falls area. Heavy 
infestations occurred in area several years ago. (Clark). 

GREENBUG ( Toxoptera graminum) - TEXAS - Infestations ranging from less than one 
to 2000 per linear foot in wheat in Ochiltree County. Treatments still being 
applied in Hansford and Ochiltree Counties. Lady beetles building up in most of 
panhandle. (Daniels). OKLAHOMA - Total of 1,361 small grain fields observed in 
}3 north central, northwestern and panhandle counties. Percent of fields 
showing visible damage in each county were Payne-40, Noble-19, Kay-14, Grant-2, 
Garfield-9, Major-3, Alfalfa-0, Woods-0, Woodward-0, Harper-1, Beaver-8, Texas-0 
and Cimarron-0. Populations decreased gradually from east to west in panhandle 
counties. Counts, not including spots, averaged 10 per linear foot in eastern 
panhandle to less than 1 per linear foot in western panhandle. (VanCleave, 
Wilson) . Spraying decreased in Canadian County. (Flora) . Spraying decreasing 
in Pawnee County; some untreated fields show spots. (Stiles). Ranged 8-20 per 
linear foot in Canadian, Blaine, Dewey and Woodward Counties. (Frazier, Pela) . 
Populations in northwestern area vary greatly from field to field. (Owens) . 
Ranged 75-100 per linear foot in a Harmon County wheat field. (Hatfield) . 
KANSAS - Damaging barley in Barber County. (Knutson) . Ranged 0-300 per linear 
foot in 6 south central, 5 southwestern and 2 southeastern counties. Largest 
populations were in Cowley and Sumner Counties , but were generally less than 10 
per linear foot. (Peters, Gates). ARKANSAS - Injury appearing in eastern 
Columbia County. (Warren, Apr. 11) . LOUISIANA - Remain extremely light on oats 
and wheat statewide. (Spink). ALABAMA - Populations decreased in southeastern 
area. (Grimes) . 

HESSIAN FLY ( Phytophaga destructor ) - NEBRASKA - Flaxseed stage numerous in vol- 
unteer wheat in southwestern counties and in fall- seeded and volunteer wheat most 
central and southeastern counties. Spring infestations may be moderate to severe 
if climatic conditions favor development. (Roselle). 

CHINCH BUG ( Blissus leucopterus ) - TEXAS - Continues to cause concern in coastal 
bend area on grain sorghum. General rains may help check infestations. (Texas 
Coop. Rpt.). KANSAS - Reported on field of rye in Sumner County. (Gates). 

SOUTHERN GREEN STINK BUG ( Nezara viridula) - LOUISIANA - Heavy on barley, East 
Baton Rouge Parish. (Spink) . 

A RICE DELPHACID ( Sogata orizicola) - FLORIDA - Sweepings of rice for this vector 
of hoja blanca were made in Hillsborough, Pasco, Pinellas, Manatee and Sarasota 
Counties. No specimens were found. (PPC, So. Reg., Mar. Rpt.). 

A BILLBUG (Calendra callosa) - GEORGIA - Moderate on corn in Colquitt and Mitchell 
Counties . (Johnson) . 



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CORN FLEA BEETLE ( Chaetocnema pulicaria ) - ILLINOIS - Populations on bluegrass 
in southern area varies 0-160 per 100 sweeps; average 57. In wheat and rye, 
average 19, with range 0-40. (111. Ins. Rpt.). 

ENGLISH GRAIN APHID ( Macrosiphum granarium ) - DELAWARE - Noticeably increased 
over previous weeks and very abundant on maturing winter ryegrass in Sussex 
County. (Burbutis, Conrad) . LOUISIANA - Light on barley in East Baton Rouge 
Parish. (Spink) . ILLINOIS - Counts vary 0-310 per 100 sweeps in wheat and rye 
in southern area. (111. Ins. Rpt.). KANSAS - Ranged 1-50 per 10 sweeps in 
wheat, Harvey, Reno, Stafford, Hodgeman and Seward Counties. (Peters). 
ARIZONA - Heavy in many Salt River Valley wheat fields. Infested heads averaged 
40 percent in Yuma County with high populations on many infested fields. (Ariz. 
Coop. Sur.) . 

A SAWFLY ( Pachynematus sp.) - KANSAS - Counts were 2 larvae per 10 sweeps in 
wheat in Reno County. Damage not visible in field. (Peters) . 

BROWN WHEAT MITE ( Petrobia latens ) - OKLAHOMA - Ranged up to 150 per linear foot 
in 5 of 41 small grain fields checked in panhandle area. (VanCleave, Frazier, 
Pela, Wilson) . COLORADO - None found in Baca, Prowers and Bent Counties. (Exp. 
Sta.) . 

ARMY CUTWORM ( Chorizagrotis auxiliaris ) - NEBRASKA - Light to moderate in most 
western counties. Severe damage to barley in Keith and Scotts Bluff Counties, 
counts 4-6 larvae per square foot. Damage to barley and alfalfa reported from 
York and Clay Counties. Few adults taken at North Platte light trap. (Pruess) . 
KANSAS - Damaging oats in Sumner County. (Gates) . 

LESSER CORNSTALK BORER ( Elasmopalpus lignosellus ) - ARIZONA - Building up 
rapidly on Johnson grass along roadsides and field borders in Yuma Valley. 
(Ariz. Coop. Sur.). 

EUROPEAN CORN BORER ( Pyrausta nubilalis) - DELAWARE - Pupation begun in all 
counties, being slightly more advanced in eastern Kent County. (Burbutis, 
Conrad) . NORTH DAKOTA - Overwintering mortality averages 21 percent in south- 
eastern counties. (N. D. Ins. Rpt.). 

CORN EARWORM ( Heliothis zea) - ARKANSAS - First adults trapped at Kelso March 21, 
Fayetteville April 1. (Ark. Ins. Sur.) . First larvae found were in second instar 
in Little River and Sevier Counties, April 4. (Whitcomb) . ARIZONA - Larvae 
averaged 6 per 100 sweeps in alfalfa, Yuma County. (Ariz. Coop. Sur.). 

SOUTHWESTERN CORN BORER ( Zeadiatraea grandiosella) - ARKANSAS - Overwintering 
survival averaged 16 percent in Washington County. (Whitcomb, April 11). 

ARMYWORM ( Pseudaletia unipuncta) - DELAWARE - Adults active and abundant in Kent 
County. (Bray) VIRGINIA - Larvae not found in fields surveyed in Nansemond, 
King and Queen and Essex Counties, but outbreaks expected about May 8. (Morris). 
At Painter, Accomack County, more moths taken in light traps on nights of April 
8-9 than at any time in April during 3 preceding years. (Hofmaster) . MISSOURI - 
No first-generation larvae observed in southern two-thirds of State. (Kyd, 
Thomas) . NEW MEXICO - Occasional larvae found in alfalfa fields in Luna and Dona 
Ana Counties. (N. M. Coop. Rpt.) . 

EUROPEAN CHAFER ( Amphimallon ma.jalis ) - NEW YORK - Larval specimens of this 
species were sent to the U. S. Department of Agriculture in Washington, D. C. , by 
a Brooklyn, New York, property owner and were identified by Dr. W. H. Anderson 
as Amphimallon majalis on March 27, 1959. A subsequent preliminary survey showed 
damaged turf and chafer infestations over an area 6 miles long and approximately 
1 1/2 miles wide, starting near the entrance of the Brooklyn-Battery tunnel and 
extending eastward along the south shore on both sides of the Belt Parkway. A 
delimiting survey is continuing. (PPC , East. Reg., March Rpt.). 



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ALFALFA CATERPILLAR ( Colias philodice eurytheme ) - DELAWARE - First larva col- 
lected on alfalfa at Belltown, Sussex County. (Burbutis, Conrad). 

ALFALFA WEEVIL ( Hypera postica ) - NEW JERSEY - Some activity in alfalfa at 
present time. (Ins. Dis. Newl., April 14). PENNSYLVANIA - Few adults in 
southern part of Franklin County in alfalfa. No eggs found. (Pepper) . 
DELAWARE - Adults present on alfalfa only in Sussex County. Larval injury to 
alfalfa moderate in Sussex and light in Kent Counties. (Burbutis, Conrad) . 
MARYLAND - Adults averaged 3 per 10 sweeps of alfalfa at Huntingtown, Calvert 
County. Larvae increasing on alfalfa statewide. Stem infestations ranged from 
8 percent in Montgomery to 32 percent in Dorchester Counties. (U. Md. , Ent. 
Dept.) . VIRGINIA - Heavy damage continuing in untreated alfalfa, many parts of 
State; however, reports of heavy damage not received from northern part of 
State. (Morris et al.) . SOUTH CAROLINA - Infestations in untreated alfalfa 
fields in Oconee, Pickens and Spartanburg Counties appear about as heavy as 
those in counties first infested. (Nettles et al.) . GEORGIA - Per sweep counts 
in alfalfa were 56 in Oconee County, 87 in Putnam, 60 in Johnson and 44 in 
Hancock Counties. (Johnson). COLORADO - Spraying for adult control completed 
in Mesa and near completed in Montrose Counties. (Col. Ins. Det. Comm.) . 
WYOMING - Adults active in alfalfa on warm days in Goshen and Platte Counties. 
No larvae found. (Davison) . IDAHO - Very few adults found in Aberdeen area on 
alfalfa. (Bishop) . WASHINGTON - Adults common on roadside alfalfa at 
Clarkston. First record since larvae first discovered in State at same location 
in 1955. (Telford) . 

CLOVER LEAF WEEVIL ( Hypera punctata ) - NORTH CAROLINA - Larvae numerous and 
feeding moderately on clovers in Rowan, Stokes and Lincoln Counties. (Jones, 
Young, Farrier). TENNESSEE - Causing some damage to legumes across State. 
(Mullett) . ALABAMA - Few adults in clover in Henry, Houston and Coffee Counties. 
(Grimes) . OHIO - Larvae moderate in Wayne County. Most in second instar on 
April 15. Little foliage injury evident. (Treece) . ILLINOIS - Approximately 
4 percent of clover fields in west southwest section and about 15 percent in 
southwest section need treatments. None needed in east southeast and south- 
eastern sections. (111. Ins. Rpt.). MISSOURI - Larvae, about half grown, 
averaged 0.5-4 per crown of alfalfa and red clover over central and southeast 
areas. Percentage showing fungus disease varies tremendously from field to field 
and ranges 0-35 percent. (Kyd, Thomas) . OKLAHOMA - First and second instars 
ranged 1-2 per square foot of alfalfa crown in field in Payne County. 
(Bieberdorf) . 

A CLOVER WEEVIL ( Hypera meles ) - ALABAMA - Larvae very numerous and adults common 
on crimson clover in Henry, Houston and Coffee Counties. (Grimes). 

EGYPTIAN ALFALFA WEEVIL ( Hypera brunneipennis ) - ARIZONA - Appearing in Yuma 
County alfalfa fields; averaged 1 per 25 sweeps in 4 of 11 fields sampled. 
(Ariz. Coop. Sur.) 

LESSER CLOVER LEAF WEEVIL ( Hypera nigrirostris ) - DELAWARE - First adult col- 
lected on clover in Sussex County. (Burbutis , Conrad) . VIRGINIA - Adults 
averaged 15 per 25 sweeps in an Essex County clover field. (Morris) . OHIO - 
Scarce in Wayne County. Flrst-instar larvae collected April 15. (Treece) . 
ALABAMA - Larvae very numerous and adults common on crimson clover in Henry, 
Houston and Coffee Counties. (Grimes) . ILLINOIS - Emergence first noted in 
Saline and Gallatin Counties April 15. (111. Ins. Rpt.). 

CLOVER ROOT BORER ( Hylastinus obscurus ) - OREGON - Active near Woodburn. 
(Goeden, Apr. 10) . 

SWEETCLOVER WEEVIL (Sitona cylindricollis ) - IDAHO - Adults abundant on 60 acres 
of sweetclover in Nez Perce County. Heavy to severe injury to plants occurred. 
(Kambitsch) . ILLINOIS - Severely damaged some sweetclover fields in southern 
half of State. As many as 27 adults found per square foot. (111. Ins. Rpt.) . 



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CLOVER ROOT CURCULIO ( Sitona hispidula ) - PENNSYLVANIA - Few adults swept from 
alfalfa in southern Franklin County. (Pepper) . 

YELLOW CLOVER APHID ( Therioaphis trifolii) - ILLINOIS - Counts vary 0-250 per 
100 sweeps in southwestern and southeastern sections. (111. Ins. Rpt.) . 

PEA APHID ( Macrosiphum pisi) - PENNSYLVANIA - Few swept from alfalfa in southern 
Franklin County! (Pepper) . DELAWARE - Present on alfalfa and clover in Sussex 
and Kent Counties and common on alfalfa in Sussex County. (Burbutis, Conrad). 
MARYLAND - Building up rapidly and ranged 10-200 per sweep on alfalfa in 
Dorchester County. Light to moderate on same crop in central and southern areas. 
(U. Md. , Ent. Dept.). VIRGINIA - Heavy in many alfalfa fields in State. Con- 
trols applied some instances. (Morris et al.) . SOUTH CAROLINA - Appear to be 
fairly numerous on alfalfa. (Nettles et al.) . ALABAMA - Increasing on vetch 
and clover in central and southern areas. (Grimes) . ILLINOIS - Counts vary 
0-340 per 100 sweeps in southwestern and southeastern sections. (111. Ins. 
Rpt.) . MISSOURI - Very light, 1-5 per sweep, on alfalfa in central and southeast 
areas. (Kyd, Thomas) . KANSAS - Found on alfalfa in 8 south central, 6 south- 
western and 2 southeastern counties. Averaged up to 100-200 per sweep in Reno 
and Cowley Counties, but much less than 50 per sweep over surveyed area 
generally. (Peters) . OKLAHOMA - Populations averaged 10 per sweep in 2 alfalfa 
fields in Beaver County (VanCleave, Wilson), 500-1500 per square foot of alfalfa 
crown in a Payne County field (Bieberdorf) and 2 per sweep in 2 fields in 
Kingfisher County (Frazier, Pela) . Some spraying in Harper County. (Owens) . 
TEXAS - Buildup continues in north central area. (Randolph) . ARIZONA - 
Extremely heavy on alfalfa statewide. (Ariz. Coop. Sur.) . WYOMING - Averaged 
0-2 per alfalfa crown in 20-acre field in Platte County; none found in Goshen 
County. (Davison) . UTAH - Causing some damage to alfalfa in Washington County. 
(Knowlton) . NEVADA - Controls have been applied in several alfalfa fields in 
Douglas County. (Roberts, April 10). 

SPOTTED ALFALFA APHID ( Therioaphis maculata ) - ARIZONA - Increasing in Maricopa, 
Pinal, Navajo and Graham Counties. Remains very light with no increase in Yuma 
Valley but increasing slightly in north Gila Valley, Yuma County. (Ariz. Coop. 
Sur.). NEW MEXICO - Light in alfalfa near Deming, Luna County. (N. M. Coop. 
Rpt.). NEVADA - Increasing in areas of Clark County. (Lee, April 10). Moderate 
to heavy in southern Washoe County with up to 60 per stem in some fields. 
(Lauderdale, April 10). WASHINGTON - None found in limited surveys in Yakima 
Valley and Asotin County. (Telford, Klostermeyer) . OREGON - None found in 
alfalfa fields on April 10 in Hermiston and Echo districts, Umatilla County, 
known to be heavily infested in 1958. (Every) . KANSAS - Found on alfalfa only 
in Clark and Barber Counties. Counts were up to 15 per 10 sweeps. (Peters). 
MISSOURI - None found in central or southeast areas. (Kyd, Thomas). OKLAHOMA - 
Populations averaged 25 per sweep in 2 Beaver County alfalfa fields (VanCleave, 
Wilson) , 234 per Henderson fork sample in some Payne County fields (Ketner) , 
100 per square feet of crown in one Payne County field and 1200-1500 in a Harmon 
County field. (Bieberdorf, Hatfield). GEORGIA - Per sweep counts in alfalfa 
were 25 in Oconee, 15 in Putnam, 28 in Hancock and 52 in Johnson Counties. 
(Johnson) . 

CLOVER APHID ( Anuraphis bakeri) - NEVADA - Moderate to heavy on red clover in 
Douglas County"! (Roberts , April 10). 

THREE-CORNERED ALFALFA HOPPER ( Spissistilus festinus ) - ALABAMA - Common on 
alfalfa in southeastern area. (Grimes") . 

MEADOW SPITTLEBUG ( Philaenus leucophthalmus ) - PENNSYLVANIA - Nymphs easily 
found in warm places in Franklin County. Eggs numerous in grain stubble. 
(Pepper) . MARYLAND - Small nymphs increasing on weeds in all sections. Also 
noted on Howard County alfalfa. (U. Md. , Ent. Dept.). NORTH CAROLINA - Nymphs 
becoming numerous on clover in Lincoln County. (Jones, Farrier). OHIO - Nymphs 



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first observed in Ross County April 10, Franklin County April 11 and Wayne 
County April 16. (Treece) . ILLINOIS - First nymphs observed in Clinton and 
Washington Counties April 14. (111. Ins. Rpt.) . 

SPITTLEBUGS - NEW JERSEY - Some nymphs present in clover. (Ins. Dis. Newsl. , 
April 14) . 

LYGUS BUGS ( Lygus spp.) - OKLAHOMA - Populations ranged 0.5-1 per square foot 
in alfalfa in a Payne County field and averaged 0.1 per sweep in Kingfisher 
County field. (Bieberdorf, Frazier, Pela) . WYOMING - Adults averaged 0-2 
per alfalfa crown in Platte and Goshen Counties. (Davison). COLORADO - Activity 
beginning in alfalfa in Mesa County. First noted on April 1, counts were 10-20 
per 100 sweeps in alfalfa in peach orchards on April 7. (Colo. Ins. Det. Comm.). 
ILLINOIS - L. lineolaris adults vary 0-150 per 100 sweeps in clover and alfalfa 
in southwest and southeast sections. (111. Ins. Rpt.). 

LEAFHOPPERS - DELAWARE - Aceratagallia sanguinolenta adults common on clover in 
Kent County. (Burbutis , Conrad) 7 PENNSYLVANIA - Fairly abundant in all alfalfa 
hayfields in Franklin County. (Pepper) . OKLAHOMA - Counts were 25-30 per 
linear foot in a wheat field in Harmon County and up to 5 per linear foot in 
small grain fields in panhandle area. (Hatfield, VanCleave, Wilson). 
MISSOURI - Sweeping and trapping results were negative for Empoasca fabae in 
the extreme southeast area. (Brown) . 

SPIDER MITES ( Tetranychus spp.) - MISSOURI - Heavy in field of red clover in 
St. Charles County. New growth on 20-25 percent of plants killed. (Kyd, 
Thomas) . 

WIREWORMS - OREGON - Damage, probably by Ctenicera pruinina noxia , were more severe 
in Sherman and Gilliam Counties than in several years. In Sherman County, 50 
percent of plants damaged in some fields, 20 percent destroyed. (Every). 

FALSE WIREWORMS ( Eleodes spp.) - IDAHO - General infestation, 5-10 larvae per 
square foot, in dryland winter wheat in Banida area. (Roberts). 

SOYBEAN CYST NEMATODE ( Heterodera glycines ) - VIRGINIA - Eight additional proper- 
ties found infested in Nansemond County during March. Since the initial infesta- 
tions in this county, a total of 20 properties, involving 945 acres, have been 
confirmed as infested. (PPC , East. Reg.). In Mississippi County, ARKANSAS, 
4 properties totaling 105 acres and in Gates County, NORTH CAROLINA, 1 property 
involving 15 acres found infested for first time during March. (PPC, So. Reg.). 

FRUIT INSECTS 

APHIDS - NEW YORK - Aphis pomi hatching in Ulster and Dutchess Counties. 
Rhopalosiphum fitchii hatching in Rockland County April 4. (N. Y. Wkly Rpt. , 
April 14). PENNSYLVANIA - Anuraphis roseus abundant most orchards where 
hatching underway. (Pepper, April 13) . A. pomi hatching on apple in Somerset 
County. (Udine). MARYLAND - Hatching about complete at Hancock, Washington 
County. Moderate infestation. (U. Md. , Ent. Dept.). NORTH CAROLINA - Eriosoma 
lanigerum severe on apple in Burke County. (Speas , Farrier). Hatching on 
apple in Wilkes County on April 1. (Turnipseed) . FLORIDA - Increasing on 
citrus in Lake County, abundant in Orange and Seminole Counties and heavy in 
Indian River district. A. gossypii and Toxoptera aurantii heavy on citrus in 
Volusia County. (Fla. St. Pit. Brd. , Mar. Rpt.) . MICHIGAN - A. pomi hatching 
in Berrien County at Coloma, Sodus and Watervliet, April 7. (Hutson) . INDIANA - 
A. roseus abundant on apple in Vincennes area, April 7. (Hamilton). Will 
mature and produce young this week in Orleans area. (Marshall) . NEW MEXICO - 
Eriosoma lanigerum moderately heavy 3 apple orchards along Mimbres River, Grant 
County. Myzus persicae heavy most peach trees throughout southern area. (N. M. 
Coop. Rpt.) . IDAHO - M. persicae commenced hatching on backyard peach trees in 
Aberdeen area about April 1; 1-2 most terminal buds. (Manis) . 



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SPIDER MITES - NEW YORK - Panonychus ulmi eggs rare in Rockland County, normal 
in Orleans County and numerous in Dutchess County. (N. Y. Wkly. Rpt. , April 14) . 
MASSACHUSETTS - Heavy overwintering population of eggs on apple and peach. (Crop 
Pest Cont. Mess.). MARYLAND - P. ulmi hatching on apple at Hancock, Washington 
County. (U. Md. , Ent. Dept.). NORTH CAROLINA - P. ulmi hatching in Wilkes County 
on apple, April 6. (Turnipseed) . FLORIDA - Plentiful on citrus nursery stock 
in Macclenny and Monticello districts, increasing in groves and citrus nurseries 
in Brevard County, some increase on citrus in north central Dade district and at 
low level in Seminole County. P. citri increasing in Thonotossassa and Lutz 
areas on citrus. (Fla. St. Pit. Brd. , Mar. Rpt.). INDIANA - P. ulmi eggs abun- 
dant on apple in Vincennes area, April 13. (Hamilton). Eggs heavy on apple in 
Orleans area. (Marshall). UTAH - Hatching common in Box Elder and Utah County 
orchards. (Knowlton) . WASHINGTON - Bryobia rubrioculus hatching on apple at 
Pullman, April 12. (Johansen) . CALIFORNIA - P. citri moderate on citrus in 
Colusa, Colusa County. (Cal. Coop. Rpt.). 

SPRING CANKERWORM (Paleacrita vernata) - INDIANA - Moderate in apple near 
Vincennes. (Hamilton, April 7-13) . 

FLAT-HEADED APPLE TREE BORER ( Chrysobothris femorata ) - NORTH CAROLINA - Infesta- 
tion in apple orchard in Rowan County. (Wilkins , Farrier) . 

HALL SCALE ( Nilotaspis halli ) - CALIFORNIA - Results of inspections in Johnson, 
Rath, Paradise and Bidwell Park areas during March were negative. The Johnson 
area survey was completed during March. Treatments of this area were completed 
in 1948-49 and complete survey inspections were made in 1953, 1956 and 1959, with 
no live Hall scale being found. The third and final reinspection of the Rath 
area was begun during March. (PPC, West. Reg.). 

PLUM CURCULIO ( Conotrachelus nenuphar ) - ALABAMA - Heavy damage to plums in Lee 
County. (Grimes) . DELAWARE - First of season jarred from a peach tree at 
Wyoming, April 9. (Late News). 

PEAR PSYLLA ( Psylla pyricola ) - NEW YORK - First noted on March 7 and first egg 
laying occurred about March 15 or 16 in Rockland County. An occasional adult 
seen in Niagara and Orleans Counties but no eggs as yet. (N. Y. Wkly. Rpt. , 
April 14) . 

RED-BANDED LEAF ROLLER ( Argyrotaenia velutinana ) - INDIANA - Continue heavy in 
Vincennes area orchards. (Hamilton, April 13) . DELAWARE - Collected in Sussex 
County April 7, egg masses found April 8 in Kent County. (Late News). MARYLAND - 
Egg-laying continuing on apple at Hancock, Washington County. No hatching 
observed. (U. Md. , Ent. Dept.). KANSAS - Egg mass found on apple tree in north- 
east Doniphan County. (Eshbaugh) . 

FRUIT TREE LEAF ROLLER ( Archips argyrospila ) - CALIFORNIA - Light on apricot 
fruit in Contra Costa County and Mariposa plum in Vacaville, Solano County. 
(Cal. Coop. Rpt.). 

A LEAF ROLLER ( Archips rosana ) - OREGON - Hatching began April 11. (Jones). 

A THRIPS ( Frankliniella occidentalis ) - CALIFORNIA - Heavy in pear blossoms in 
Newcastle area, Placer County. (Cal. Coop. Rpt.). 

CATFACING INSECTS - INDIANA - Three Lygus lineolaris jarred from 5 peach trees 
in an unsprayed orchard in Vincennes area. (Hamilton, April 13). Considerable 
in several orchards in the Orleans area. (Marshall). FLORIDA - Pentatomids 
active on citrus, south central Dade district. (Fla. St. Pit. Brd., Mar. Rpt.). 

ORIENTAL FRUIT MOTH ( Grapholitha molesta ) - NORTH CAROLINA - First of season 
found in Wilkes County on April 8~ (Turnipseed) . 



- 309 - 

PEACH TREE BORERS - FLORIDA - Damaging peach in Monticello district. (Fla. St. 
Pit. Brd. , Mar. Rpt . ) . 

SCALE INSECTS - FLORIDA - Protopulvinaria pyriformis heavy on avocado in Dade and 
the Palm Beach districts. Chrysomphalus aonidum severe on orange in Broward 
district. (Fla. St. Pit. Brd., Mar. Rpt.). NEW MEXICO - Aspidiotus perniciosus 
light to heavy on apple in Grant and Luna Counties. (N. M. Coop. Rpt . ) . 
CALIFORNIA - Lecanium corni complex light on apricot in the San Jose area of 
Santa Clara County. Icerya purchasi moderate on citrus in Colusa,. Colusa County. 
(Cal. Coop. Rpt.) . 

HICKORY SHUCKWORM ( Laspeyresia caryana ) - FLORIDA - First moths emerged in mass 
rearing cages on February 24. Peak emergence expected about the middle of April. 
(Fla. Coop. Sur.) . 

CASEBEARERS - FLORIDA - Acrobasis caryae , A. caryivorella and A. juglandis dama- 
ging new growth on pecan grafts in a commercial nursery in Monticello, Jefferson 
County. A. caryae larvae and pupae on bearing trees. (Fla. Coop. Sur^) . 

WHITEFLIES - FLORIDA - Increased on citrus in Ocala district and Lake and Brevard 
Counties. Abundant on citrus in Apopka area and heavy in Volusia County. (Fla. 
St. Pit. Brd., Mar. Rpt.). 

MEALYBUGS - CALIFORNIA - Pseudococcus malacearum and Phenacoccus gossypii moderate 
on Myer lemon in Gonzales , Monterey County. (Cal. Coop. Rpt. ) . 

CITRUS BLACKFLY ( Aleurocanthus woglumi ) - MEXICO - Surveys during March, in the 
chemical control zone, were conducted in the states of Tamaulipas, Nuevo Leon and 
Sonora. A total of 144,146 trees were inspected on 2,366 properties and 480 trees 
were found infested on 63 properties. Infested properties were as follows: One 
in Sabinas Hidalgo, Nuevo Leon; 5 in Linares, Nuevo Leon; 56 in Allende, Nuevo 
Leon; 1 in V. de Hidalgo, Tamaulipas. The infestation in Sabinas Hidalgo was 
discovered March 26 on one lemon tree in a residence garden and is the nearest 
known infestation to the United States, being approximately 60 miles from the 
United States border. The last previous infestation found at this place was in 
January 1958. Inspections in Western Mexico and along the Texas-Mexico border 
were negative. (PPC, Mex. Reg.). TEXAS - Survey crews inspected 23,032 trees on 
2,748 properties in Cameron, Hidalgo and Webb Counties. Most of the previously 
known infested properties were rechecked. All inspections were negative. (PPC, 
So. Reg. , Mar. Rpt.) . 

MEDITERRANEAN FRUIT FLY ( Ceratitis capitata ) - The 106 fruit fly traps at New 
Orleans, LOUISIANA, 18 in Baldwin County, ALABAMA and 45 in Dimmit, Webb and 
Cameron Counties, TEXAS, were checked during March. Results were negative. 
In FLORIDA, 8,277 combination and 421 Mexican fruit fly wet traps were in oper- 
ation, results being negative. (PPC, So. Reg., Mar. Rpt.). 

MEXICAN FRUIT FLY ( Anastrepha ludens ) - MEXICO - Trapping operations were 
conducted in states of Baja California and Sonora during March. Total of 2,050 
traps were operated on 931 properties and 8,821 trap inspections were made, with 
negative results. (PPC, Mex. Reg.). ARIZONA - Trapping continued in Yuma Valley 
and Yuma Mesa, Yuma County, and in Nogales and vicinities, Santa Cruz County. All 
trappings were negative. CALIFORNIA - Trapping activities continued, with nega- 
tive results. (PPC, West. Reg., Mar. Rpt.). TEXAS - During March, 724 traps 
were operated. A total of 11 adults were trapped; 5 in Hidalgo County, 3 in 
Willacy County, 2 in Cameron County and 1 in Webb County. This is considered a 
very low population. Along with trapping, 134 grove inspections were made, no 
larval infestations found. (PPC, So. Reg.). 



- 310 - 

TRUCK CROP INSECTS 

Second Statement of Beet Leafhopper Conditions in Utah, Western Colorado , 
Southern Nevada, Central Arizona and Southeastern California - 1959 

Additional data have substantiated the information released CEIR 9(11): 169 that 
spring dispersal of the beet leafhopper from the southern desert breeding grounds 
to the cultivated districts of southern Nevada and southern Utah will be light 
to moderate. The movements to central and northern Utah and western Colorado 
will be light. The population in western Nevada is expected to be light. This 
movement is expected to start by late April and will probably reach its peak by 
May 20. The shift in population to the cultivated districts of southeastern 
California and southern Arizona from adjacent desert areas, started in March, was 
light and probably will continue until mid-April. The dispersal of leafhoppers 
to the adjacent cultivated districts of southern Nevada and southern Utah started 
in mid-March; additional movements are expected in April and the population is 
expected to be light to moderate. The local movement from breeding grounds of 
western Nevada, northern and eastern Utah, and western Colorado to the adjacent 
sugar beet and tomato districts is expected to start in early June and to be 
light. Approximately 3 percent of the overwintering leafhoppers collected from 
southern Utah , southern Nevada, and northwestern Arizona in February were carry- 
ing the curly top virus. Additional leafhoppers of the first and second broods 
collected in March in southwestern Arizona, southern Nevada, and southern Utah 
show about 5 percent to be viruliferous. In the northern breeding grounds of 
Utah, approximately 2 percent are viruliferous and this is lower than that 
recorded for 1957. The local breeding grounds in northern and eastern Utah, 
western Colorado, and western Nevada include a potential acreage estimated at 
75 square miles. The unit overwintering leafhopper population is 0.002 per 
square foot and is lower than that observed in 1958. The host plant acreage 
is lower than in 1958. The leafhopper contribution from the southern breeding 
grounds to the overwintering population is expected to be light. The beet 
leafhopper movements to adjacent cultivated districts are expected to be light. 
(Dorst, Knowlton) . 

Beet Leafhopper Survey in Southwestern Kansas - 1959 . 

A survey was carried out April 1-3. Host plants involved were pepperweed, tansy 
mustard, flixweed and patata which were sparse and in fair condition. Nine 
counties in the southwestern area were surveyed with 22 stops, 156 samples being 
taken. One questionable nymph and one adult were found. (PPC) . 

COLORADO POTATO BEETLE ( Leptinotarsa decemlineata ) - GEORGIA - Light on tomatoes 
in Colquitt, Mitchell, Thomas and Tattnall Counties. (Johnson). NORTH CAROLINA - 
Severe on potatoes in Duplin County this year. (Reid) . 

TOBACCO FLEA BEETLE ( Epitrix hirtipennis ) - CALIFORNIA - Caused considerable 
damage to tomato seedlings in Woodland area, Yolo County. (M. Zobel) . 

POTATO PSYLLID ( Paratrioza cockerelli ) - UTAH - None taken in 10 sweeps in 
Salt Lake-Murray area. (Knowlton) . 

GOLDEN NEMATODE ( Heterodera rostochiensis ) - UTAH-NEVADA - A total of 579 soil 
samples from Utah and 133 from Nevada were washed and examined. The Nevada 
samples represented 1,233 acres of potatoes and the Utah samples represented 
6,298 acres. All nematode specimens were submitted for identification. 
NEW MEXICO - Grader soil samples from 10 properties were examined. No golden 
nematodes were found. (PPC, West. Reg., Mar. Rpt . ) . 

SPOTTED CUCUMBER BEETLE ( Diabrotica undecimpunctata howardi ) - NORTH CAROLINA - 
Abundant on cucumber this spring in Duplin County. (Reid) . 

STRIPED CUCUMBER BEETLE ( Acalymma vittata ) - GEORGIA - Moderate to heavy on 
cantaloups in Dooly County"! (Fulford) . 



- 311 - 

MEXICAN BEAN BEETLE (Epilachna varivestis ) - GEORGIA - Light to moderate infesta- 
tions on beans in Colquitt, Mitchell, Thomas, Brooks, Lowndes and Tattnall 
Counties. (Johnson). NORTH CAROLINA - Severe on beans in Duplin County. (Reid) . 

BEAN LEAF BEETLE ( Cerotoma trifurcata) - ALABAMA - Very common on beans in Henry 
County. (Grimes) . Light damage on beans in Lee County. (Guyton) . GEORGIA - 
Light to moderate on beans in Colquitt, Mitchell, Thomas, Brooks, Lowndes and 
Tattnall Counties. (Johnson). 

FLEA BEETLES - MARYLAND - Phyllotreta striolata adults common on wild mustard 
in Prince Georges County. (II. Md. , Ent. Dept . ) . VIRGINIA - Some damage to 
newly set tomatoes in truck cropping area of Accomack and Northampton Counties. 
(Hofmaster) . Killing mustard plants on emergence from ground in gardens in 
Staunton. Also damaging other cruciferous plants in area. (Woodside) . 

A NITIDULID ( Meligethes nigrescens ) - OREGON - Emerged from overwintering 
habitats April 3. Abundant in blossoms of wild mustard and other spring bloom- 
ing plants. (Crowell, Dickason) . 

CABBAGE MAGGOT ( Hylemya brassicae ) - NEW JERSEY - Observed in crucifer fields 
April 13, at Hammonton. (Ins. Dis. Newsl.). 

CABBAGE CURCULIO ( Ceutorhynchus rapae ) - VIRGINIA - Some damage to cabbage in 
truck cropping area of Accomack and Northampton Counties. (Hofmaster) . 

IMPORTED CABBAGEWORM (Pieris rapae ) - PENNSYLVANIA - Adults general in Franklin 
County. (Udine) . 

A SPOTTED CUCUMBER BEETLE ( Diabrotica undecimpunctata tenella ) - NEW MEXICO - 
Light infestations damaging lettuce in Animas Valley, Hidalgo County. (N. M. 
Coop. Rpt.) . 

TOMATO FRUITWORM ( Heliothis zea ) - NEW MEXICO - Occasional eggs found in lettuce 
in Dona Ana County"] (N. M. Coop. Rpt.). 

ONION MAGGOT ( Hylemya antiqua ) - WASHINGTON - First of spring brood emerging at 
Walla Walla, April 7. (Woodworth) . 

SEED-CORN MAGGOT ( Hylemya cilicrura) - WASHINGTON - Fall brood continued all 
winter at Walla Walla. First spring brood here March 10-24 and at Pasco, 
March 24-26 . (Woodworth) . 

STRAWBERRY WEEVIL ( Anthonomous signatus ) - NORTH CAROLINA - A number of plant- 
ings injured this year in Duplin County. (Reid) . 

SPITTLEBUGS - NEW JERSEY - Nymphs appearing in small numbers on strawberries. 
(Ins. Dis. Newsl., April 14). 

RED-BANDED LEAF ROLLER ( Argyrotaenia velutinana ) - KANSAS - A few strawberry 
leaves being rolled in northeast Doniphan County. (Eshbaugh) . 

SPIDER MITES - NEW JERSEY - Tetranychus telarius general on strawberry through- 
out south Jersey. (Ins. Dis. Newsl. , April 14) . DELAWARE - T. atlanticus and 
T. telarius in all stages in small strawberry plantings in Sussex County. 
TBurbutis, Conrad). 

CUTWORMS - NEW JERSEY - Probably Peridroma margaritosa appearing in mulched 
strawberry fields. (Ins. Dis. Newsl., April 14) . VIRGINIA - Feltia sp. 
damaging early tomato plants in Nansemond County. (Boush, Morris). 

APHIDS - NEW JERSEY - Capitophorus sp. light on strawberry where heavy" last fall. 
(Ins. Dis. Newsl., April 14) . FLORIDA - Active on early tomatoes, squash and 
cucumbers in south central Dade district. (Fla. St. Pit. Brd. , Mar. Rpt.). 



- 312 - 

ARIZONA - Anur aphis tulipae continuing heavy some Maricopa County carrot fields. 
(Ariz. Coop"! Sur . ) . DELAWARE - Aphis forbesi present in small strawberry plant- 
ings in Sussex County. (Burbutis, Conrad) . 

THRIPS -ARIZONA - Frankliniella tritici heavy on cantaloup in Yuma Valley. (Ariz. 
Coop. Sur.)- NEW MEXICO - Light on onions, southern Dona Ana Count jj and causing 
minor damage to young lettuce in Hidalgo County. (N. M. Coop. Rpt.). 
CALIFORNIA - F. occiden talis heavy locally on beans at Encanto , San Diego County. 
(Cal. Coop. Rpt. 77 

BLACK VINE WEEVIL ( Brachyrhinus sulcatus) - OREGON - Less than 5 percent have 
pupated in Siletz and Gresham areas . (Rosenstiel , April 11). 

SWEETPOTATO WEEVIL ( Cylas formic arius elegantulus ) - Four infestations were' 
found in 3 counties during March. A total of 1,228 properties in 15 counties 
and parishes were released from quarantine, 1,210 properties being in LOUISIANA. 
This leaves only 651 active properties in LOUISIANA, indicating that the infesta- 
tion at present time is very low and will probably be unusually low during coming 
season. (PPC, So. Reg., Mar. Rpt.). 



TOBACCO INSECTS 



TOBACCO BUDWORM ( Heliothis sp.) 
counties. (Johnson) . 



GEORGIA - Light on tobacco in 6 southern 



TOBACCO FLEA BEETLE (Epitrix hirtipennis ) - MARYLAND - Emerging from hibernation 
at Aquasco, Prince Georges County, April 16. (U. Md. , Ent. Dept.). VIRGINIA - 
Generally light to date in tobacco plant beds in Pittsylvania County. (Dominick) . 
GEORGIA - Moderate on tobacco in the field in 13 southern counties. (Johnson). 



GREEN JUNE BEETLE (Cotinis nitida) - VIRGINIA 
beds in Pittsylvania County"! (Dominick) . 



Moderate in several tobacco plant 



COTTON INSECTS 



Boll Weevil Survival Surveys in Tennessee and Arkansas - Spring, 1959 

TENNESSEE - Spring trash examinations in McNairy County showed average of 124 
live weevils per acre compared with 498 in 1958 and the survival was 10 percent, 
compared with 21 percent in 1958. The number of weevils per acre is relatively 
low this spring, but enough are present to cause some damage if the weather 
becomes favorable for a buildup. (Locke) . ARKANSAS - Trash examinations in 2 
locations at Marianna showed an average of 378. 5 live weevils per acre compared 
with 532.5 weevils per acre that entered hibernation at these locations during 
the fall of 1958. Winter survival was 71 percent which is very high. (Lincoln, 
Apr. 11). 

PINK BOLLWORM ( Pectinophora gossypiella ) - MEXICO - In Western Mexico bloom 
inspection was terminated at Culiacan, Sinaloa, and begun in Guasave zone. No 
pink bollworm was found. In Eastern Mexico, a total of 507 live pink bollworm 
larvae were found from debris inspections in 91 locations representing 11,770 
acres in 19 municipios in the regulated area. (PPC, Mex. Reg., Mar. Rpt.). 
TEXAS - Boll inspection of surface debris conducted in 57 counties. Average 
infestation was 11.20 percent. (PPC, So. Reg.). ARIZONA - Emergence still 
occurring in cage tests at the Cotton Research Center at Tempe. (Ariz. Coop. Sur.) 

THRIPS ( Frankliniella sp.) - GEORGIA - Light on cotton in Colquitt, Mitchell 
and Bulloch Counties. (Johnson). 



- 313 - 

COWPEA AFHID ( Aphis medicaginis ) - NEW MEXICO - Occasional winged adult found 
on seedling cotton in southern Dona Ana County. (N. M. Coop. Rpt.). 

COTTON LEAF PERFORATOR ( Bucculatrix thurberiella) - ARIZONA - Light on seedling 
cotton in the Yuma Valley. (Ariz. Coop. Sur.). 

Cotton Insects in Lower Rio Grande Valley, Texas : 

Previous to rains, SPIDER MITES had shown a significant increase and spread. 
CUTWORMS and DARKLING BEETLES continue to be reported from much of the Valley 
area. Two fields in Willacy County had infestations of FALSE CHINCH BUGS killing 
seedling cotton. Recent weather has been ideal for APHID buildup. (Deer). 



- 314 - 

FOREST, ORNAMENTAL AND SHADE TREE INSECTS 

PINE TIP MOTHS - VIRGINIA - Infesting 84 percent of loblolly pines on 2-acre 
area in Surry County. (Va. For. Pest Sur. Rpt . , March). MARYLAND - Rhyacionia 
frustrana emerged on pine at Harmons Corner, Anne Arundel County. (U. Md. , Ent. 
Dept.) . 

A CONE MOTH ( Barbara colfaxiana ) - IDAHO - Adults emerged from caged Douglas-fir 
cones April 14 in Moscow. (Clark) . 

BARK BEETLES - ALABAMA - Moderate numbers of Ips spp. found in pine forests in 
Lee County. (Pearson) . TEXAS - Controls applied to a 200-acre infested area 
near Fostoria, Montgomery County. Two known spots of Dendroctonus frontalis 
infestation in Hardin County controlled by owners. (Young). CALIFORNIA - Ips 
confusus causing complete killing of groups of ponderosa pine reproduction and 
poles in Willits area, Mendocino County. (Lowell). Ips sp. and Dendroctonus 
brevicomis active and killing overmature ponderosa pines prior to severe weather 
in forest areas of Baltic Peak and Peavine Ridge Road, El Dorado County. 
(V. Johnson) . 

PALES WEEVIL ( Hylobius pales) - VIRGINIA - Damaged 50 acres loblolly and 
Virginia pine seedlings in Spotsylvania County. Mortality high. (Va. For. Pest 
Sur. Rpt. , March) . 

PINE PITCH MIDGES ( Retinodiplosis spp.) - ALABAMA - R. resinicola common on 
young and old pines and large numbers of Retinodiplosis sp. attacking twigs of 
pines in Lee County. (Guyton, Pearson). 

PINE SAWFLIES - VIRGINIA - Neodiprion pratti pratti larvae hatching in all parts 
of State. Infestations about as expected and predicted. (Morris). See CEIR 
9(14) : 237. NORTH CAROLINA - N. pratti pratti half-grown larvae on pines at 
Bullock, Granville County. Development less advanced from east to west across 
Person County. Western edge of infestation extends into Caswell County. 
(Green) . ARKANSAS - Have made little progress to date in south central area. 
(Ark. Ins. Sur., April 11). TEXAS - Approximately 90 percent of overwintering 
cocoons in infested area of Hardin County parasitized, destroyed or removed by 
predators. Controls unnecessary in immediate future although some larvae 
feeding on loblolly needles. (Young). 

ALDER FLEA BEETLE ( Altica ambiens ) - IDAHO - Adults becoming active in Coeur 
d'Alene area where this species was extremely abundant in 1958 and severe 
defoliation of alder and willow occurred. (Stranahan) . 

LOCUST TWIG BORER ( Ecdytolopha insiticiana ) - ALABAMA - Caused moderate to heavy 
damage to locus-t in Lee County. (Pearson) . 

SPRING CANKERWORM (Palecrita vernata ) - NEBRASKA - Large numbers of female moths 
in tree bands in local eastern and central areas. (Roselle) . WISCONSIN - Males 
being caught in light traps immediately following blossoming of silver maple in 
Dane County. (Wis. Coop. Sur.) . 

GALL INSECTS - TEXAS - Causing concern on oak trees in Travis, Gonzales and 
Tarrant Counties. (Texas Coop. Rpt.) . 

TENT CATERPILLARS ( Malacosoma spp.)" - PENNSYLVANIA - M. americanum hatching on 
wild cherry and forming tents in Somerset County. (Drooz^ Udine) . Tents 
observed in Franklin County. (Pepper) . M. disstria eggs quite abundant on 
sugar maple in Somerset County. Some groves of smaller trees may be defoliated 
again this year. (Udine) . MARYLAND - M. americanum general in central and 



- 315 - 

southern sections. (U. Md. , Ent. Dept.). ALABAMA - M. americanum continued to 
increase in several sections of State and were reported defoliating roses in 
Monroeville, Monroe County. (Grimes). FLORIDA - M. americanum plentiful and 
unusually early on persimmon, pecan and wild cherry in Marianna district. (Fla. 
St. Pit. Brd. , Mar. Rpt.). LOUISIANA - Occasional infestation of M. disstria on 
oaks in East Baton Rouge Parish. (Spink) . UTAH - Hatching in Salt Lakt City. 
(Knowlton) . OREGON - Overwintering eggs of M. disstria began hatching in Willa- 
mette Valley April 11. (Goeden) . 

SCALE INSECTS - NORTH CAROLINA - Eriococcus azaleae severe on azaleas in Richmond 
County. (Jones, Farrier). Lecanium quercifex averaged 6 per inch of twig on 
oak in Nash County. (Woodward, Farrier) . ALABAMA - Toumeyella numismaticum and 
T. parvicorne common on young pines and on pine needles, respectively, and 
Phenacaspis pinifoliae moderate on young pines in Lee County. Large numbers of L. 
quercifex present on oaks in same county. (Pearson) . FLORIDA - P. pinifoliae on 
pines in the De Land area, Volusia County. Pulvinaria psidii moderate to heavy 
on Ixora coccinea in Dade County. (Fla. St. Pit. Brd., Mar. Rpt.). IDAHO - 
Lepidosaphes ulmi heavy on ash trees in Twin Falls area. (Gibson) . 

BOXWOOD LEAF MINER ( Monarthropalpus buxi ) - MARYLAND - Heavy on boxwood at Severna 
Park, Anne Arundel County. (U. Md. , Ent. Dept.) . 

HOLLY LEAF MINER ( Phytomyza ilicis) - OREGON - Present in Clatsop County, but 
heavy infestations remain within Astoria city limits. Species spreading slowly 
but not yet known in commercial plantings. (Foster). 

A WHITEFLY ( Odontaleyrodes rhododendri ) - FLORIDA - Collected on azalea in 
Leesburg, Lake County, January 20. Det. L. M. Russell. This is the first col- 
lection of this species from Florida. (Fla. Coop. Sur.) . 

SPIDER MITES - VIRGINIA - Probably Tetranychus telarius building up on arborvitae 
in Radford, Montgomery County (Rowell) , and an unidentified species is very heavy 
on hollies in Franklin, Southampton County (Bousch) . 

A CLEAR WING MOTH ( Conopia albicornis) - CALIFORNIA - Heavy and damaging on 
willow along the Sacramento River in Sacramento County. (Cal. Coop. Rpt.). 

IMPORTED WILLOW LEAF BEETLE ( Plagiodera versicolora) - WISCONSIN - Adults leaving 
hibernation in Waukesha County"! (Wis. Coop. Sur.) . 

INSECTS AFFECTING MAN AND ANIMALS 

MOSQUITOES - DELAWARE - First large brood of Aedes sollicitans of season 
developing on eastern shore of Kent County. (Burbutis , Conrad). MARYLAND - High 
adult Aedes cantator population expected at North Beach, Calvert Ccfunty, where 
larvae averaged 40 per dip in a marsh area. Pupation underway. (0. Md. , Ent. 
Dept.) . NORTH CAROLINA - Small larvae of Anopheles punctipennis and egg raft of 
Culex restuans collected April 1 in Wake County. fAshton) . FLORIDA - Plentiful 
in the Ocala, Macclenny and Marianna areas. Reported as abundant in the Forest 
City area of Orange County, and populations increased in Brevard County, as well 
as throughout Volusia County. Populations decreased in the Indian River area and 
numbers were low in the Palm Beach and Coral Gables areas and central Dade County, 
but heavy in the Hollywood-Ft. Lauderdale area and in Key Largo. Populations 
increased in Pinellas and Hillsborough Counties. (Fla. St. Pit. Brd., March 
Rpt.) . UTAH - Anopheles freeborni active in Cache County for past 14 days. 
(Knowlton) . NEVADA - Aedes dorsalis adults emerged in Soda Lake area, Churchill 
County. Aedes campestris pupae and Anopheles freeborni early-instar larvae 
present in Dayton, Lyon County. Culex erythrothorax population about 20 percent 
pupae in Fernley area, Lyon County, and Fallon area, Churchill County.' Aedes 
increpitus larvae in fourth instar in mountain areas. (Chapman, April 10) . 



- 316 - 

CATTLE GRUBS ( Hypoderma spp.) - TEXAS - Adult activity observed in west cross 
timbers area April 1. (Turney, Garner, Hawkins). 

HORN FLY ( Siphona irritans ) - SOUTH CAROLINA - First adults of season noted 
April 9 in Oconee County. (Nettles et al) . 

BLOW FLIES - WISCONSIN - Large numbers of maggots found in vicinity of Dane 
County mink farms indicate heavy early potential fly problem in these areas. 
(Wis. Coop. Sur.). NEW MEXICO - Phormia regina adults numerous around livestock 
corrals near Ft. Sumner, De Baca County. (N. M. Coop. Rpt.). 

AMERICAN DOG TICK ( Dermacentor variabilis ) - DELAWARE - First specimens of 
season collected from a dog in New Castle County. (Burbutis , Conrad). 
VIRGINIA - Seed ticks, probably D. variabilis , numerous in vicinity of Holland, 
Nansemond County. (Boush) . 

STORED-PRODUCT INSECTS 

KHAPRA BEETLE ( Trogoderma granarium ) - MEXICO - During March, surveys were 
conducted in states of Baja California, Sonora, Jalisco*, Michoacan , Mexico, 
Chihuahua and Durango. A total of 402 inspections were made, 274 initial and 
128 repeat. One positive determination was received during March of a property 
in Juarez, Chihuahua. The property involves 115,008 cubic feet and is the first 
infested property found in the state of Chihuahua and in Eastern Mexico. (PPC, 
Mex. Reg., Mar. Rpt.). During March, inspections were made in the Eastern Plant 
Pest Control Region as follows: WEST VIRGINIA - 7; PENNSYLVANIA - 19; 
CONNECTICUT - 1; NEW JERSEY - 214 (total figure for 1959 survey), NEW YORK - 23. 
(PPC, East. Reg.). One new infestation found in Maricopa County, ARIZONA. Nega- 
tive inspections were made in OREGON and COLORADO. (PPC, West. Reg., Mar. Rpt.). 
TEXAS - Infested properties totaled 16 in El Paso County as of March 31, 
involving some 2 1/2 million cubic feet. Total inspections in State totaled 
490 during March. Eleven properties in ALABAMA and one in MISSISSIPPI were 
inspected, with negative results. (PPC, So. Reg., Mar. Rpt.). 

Insects in Feed Rooms, Lee County, Alabama 

Hermetia illucens larvae and Pyralis farinalis both moderate in feed rooms. 
Larvae, pupae and adults of Tenebrio obscurus collected, few T_. molitor present. 
(Guyton) . 



BENEFICIAL INSECTS 

PARASITES AND PREDATORS - MARYLAND - Coccinellids and chrysopids abundant in 
alfalfa fields in Calvert County. (U. Md. , Ent . Dept.). SOUTH CAROLINA - 
Coccinellid adults and larvae appear to be building up in alfalfa. Principal 
adults are Coleomegilla maculata . (Nettles et al) . KANSAS - Hippodamia 
convergens counts generally low; however, larvae averaged 2-3 per foot in a 
barley field infested with greenbug in Sumner County. Low numbers of 
Chrysopa sp. and Nabis sp. adults found in a few southern area grain and 
alfalfa fields. (Peters) . OKLAHOMA - Parasitic wasps ranged up to one per 
linear foot in small grain fields with 5 percent of an aphid population 
"mummified" in one isolated field in the panhandle area. Counts were lower 
in most fields. (VanCleave, Wilson). Averaged 0.5 per sweep in a Kingfisher 
County alfalfa field. (Frazier, Pela) . Hippodamia convergens common and 



- 317 - 



active in small grain and alfalfa fields in panhandle area. (VanCleave, Wilson). 
Averaged 4-8 per square foot of crown area in an alfalfa field and 5-7 per linear 
foot in a wheat field, Harmon County. (Hatfield). Heavy in one Caddo County 
wheat field. (Hudson). Nabis sp. ranged up to 0.5 per linear foot in panhandle 
area small grain and alfalfa fields, with an occasional Chrysopa sp. adult found 
in same area and in alfalfa and wheat fields in Harmon County. (VanCleave, 
Wilson, Hatfield). UTAH - Hippodamia convergens general but not numerous in 
northern and central areas in orchards and alfalfa fields. (Knowlton) . 

MISCELLANEOUS INSECTS 

IMPORTED FIRE ANT ( Solenopsis saevissima richteri) - ARKANSAS - Few scattered 
mounds continue to be found in Union County, the only known infested county in 
the State. Only few mounds have been found in 1957 and 1958-treated areas. 
Individual mounds are being treated. (Ark. Ins. Sur., April 11). Four counties 
found infested for the first time during March were Stewart and Terrell Counties, 
GEORGIA; Polk County, FLORIDA, and Dorchester County, SOUTH CAROLINA. Treatments 
of infested lands increased to total of 128,087 acres during March. (PPC, So. 
Reg. , Mar. Rpt.) . 

POWDER POST BEETLES ( Lyctus spp. ) - NEBRASKA - Damage to hardwoods used in 
buildings more numerous than previous years. Majority of infestations in oak 
from out of the State. (Roselle) . 

A MARCH FLY ( Bibio sp.) - MISSOURI - Heavy emergence occurred in south central 
and central areas. Adult populations numerous enough to be considered a 
nuisance around homes and buildings in some instances. (Kyd, Thomas, Munson) . 

SUBTERRANEAN TERMITES ( Reticulitermes spp.) - WYOMING - Damaged at least 
2 houses, 35-40 years old, in Riverton, Fremont County. Support studdings had 
been placed on soil and many are completely hallowed out. (Davison). IDAHO - 
Winged males and females of R. hesperus emerged in Gooding area. (Koester) . 

EARWIGS - CALIFORNIA - Labi dura riparia and Euborellia cincticollis occurred 
associated with decaying wood in Needles area, San Bernardino County. Both 
species have extended their range in past few years. In 1958, L. riparia 
was active in Imperial County cultivated fields, feeding on cutworms . (Cal. 
Coop. Rpt.). IDAHO - Forf icula auricularia adults active and abundant in 
Twin Falls and Moscow areas . (Gibson , Manis) . 

A COCKROACH ( Blattella vaga ) - CALIFORNIA - Light populations in decaying wood 
in Needles area, San Bernardino County. (Cal. Coop. Rpt.). 



- 318 - 

LIGHT TRAP COLLECTIONS 

Pseud. Agrot. Prod. Perid. Feltia. Protop. Helio. 
unip. yps. ornith. marg. subt. quinq. zea 

ALABAMA 
Auburn 4/17 9 1 

ARIZONA 
Mesa 4/8-14 6 21 62 

FLORIDA 
Gainesville 4/16 1 4 

Quincy 4/13 1 2 

ILLINOIS 
Urbana 4/1-16 3 1 9 

KANSAS 
Garden City 4/8 6 1 

Hays 4/14 1 

Manhattan 4/17 2 

Wathena 4/13-15 2 2 

LOUISIANA 

Baton Rouge 4/10-16 13 25 2 3 14 5 

Curtis 4/15 3 4 1 4 

Franklin 4/10-16 6 6 20 3 6 5 

MARYLAND 
Fairland 3/31-4/13 6 2 5 

MISSISSIPPI 

♦Stoneville 4/11-17 139 6 8 35 2 

MISSOURI 
Columbia 4/15-17 8 3 7 

NEBRASKA 
North Platte 4/3-13 8 

NORTH CAROLINA 



Clayton 4/16 


2 










Faison 4/9 


1 


1 








SOUTH CAROLINA 












Charleston 4/13-19 


14 


5 




2 


7 


Clemson 4/11-17 


20 


15 


14 


3 


3 


TENNESSEE (Counties) 












Blount 4/7-13 


82 


16 


29 


83 




Cumberland 4/7-13 


9 


3 


3 


12 




Greene 4/7-13 


35 


3 


5 


10 




Johnson 4/7-13 


82 


11 


4 


15 




Madison 4/7-13 


69 


15 




18 




Maury 4/7-13 


104 


1 




25 




Monroe 4/7-13 


52 






7 




Robertson 4/7-13 


36 


1 


1 


7 




TEXAS 












Brownsville 4/4-10 


32 


119 


8 


3 


54 


Waco 4/11-17 


35 


1 


1 


15 


9 



19 
2 



WISCONSIN 
Middleton 4/10-15 



♦Four traps - Stoneville 



- 319 



Estimates of Damage by the European Corn Borer 
to Grain Corn in the United States in 19 58 



Compiled by Survey and Detection Operations, PPC , ARS 

The loss of corn grown for grain from damage attributed to the European corn 
borer ( Pyrausta nubilalis ) in 1958 is estimated to be 100,699,000 bushels. 
This loss is approximately 2.9 percent of the total national crop estimated at 
3,441,627,000 bushels. IV The value of the crop lost, based on the December 
price level 2/, is $98,434,000. These loss estimates are only for the states 
shown in Table 1 . 

Table 1 is a composite of State and Federal estimates. These estimates were 
prepared by using production data 1/ and prices received 2/ released by the 
Agricultural Marketing Service. The basis for the loss estimates was deter- 
mined by the survey of corn borer populations during the fall of 1958.3/ The 
index of 3 percent loss per borer per plant was used to compute the loss in 
bushels. 

Estimated losses caused by the European corn borer in the last ten years are 
as follows: 



1958 


100,699,000 bushels $ 98,434,000 


1957 


180,897,000 ' 


158,841,000 


1956 


97,971,000 


119,535,000 


1955 


155,355,000 


182,579,000 


1954 


191,614,000 • 


• 261,415,000 


1953 


90,000,000 


125,466,000 


1952 


53,270,000 


• 77,205,000 


1951 


35,812,000 


57,438,000 


1950 


58,765,000 


84,912,000 


1949 


313,819,000 ' 


349,635,000 



1/ Crop Production , 1958 Annual Summary Crop Reporting Board, Agricultural 
Marketing Service, December 17, 1958. 

2/ Agricultural Prices as of December 15, Crop Reporting Board, Agricultural 
Marketing Service, December 31, 1958. 

3/ Status of the European Corn Borer in 1958. Cooperative Economic Insect 
Report. Vol. 9, No. 5, pp. 53-62. 



320 



Table 1. Estimates of Damage by the European Corn Borer to Corn Grown 
for Grain in the United States in 1958. 





Districts 
Included 1/ 


Total State 
Production 




Estimated 


Data 




State 


Value 

per 
Bushel 


Value 
of \ 
Production- Loss 


of Crop 




Number 

1 


1,000 Bu. 
8,190 


Dollars 
1.25 


$1,000 


1,000 Bu 
706 


$1,000 


Delaware 


10,237 


883 


Illinois 


9 


579,738 


1.04 


602,928 


13,163 


13,690 


Indiana 


12 


267,687 


1.05 


281,071 


3,481 


3,655 


Iowa 


12 


645,830 


.97 


626,455 


41,908 


40,651 


Kansas 


4 


66 , 528 


.97 


64,532 


2,350 


2,282 


Maryland 


1 


24,552 


1.24 


30 , 444 


808 


1,001 


Michigan 


3 


88,102 


1.04 


91,626 


95 


99 


Minnesota 


6 


268,408 


.89 


238,883 


1,675 


1,490 


Missouri 


8 


171,696 


1.03 


176,847 


5,091 


5,244 


Nebraska 


8 


274,092 


.91 


249,424 


23,102 


21,023 


New Jersey 


1 


7,684 


1.25 


9,605 


367 


459 


New York 


1 


11,236 


1.24 


13,933 


19 


23 


North Dakota 


3 


9,870 


.82 


8,093 


516 


423 


Ohio 


5 


190,020 


1.03 


195,720 


2,483 


2,557 


Pennsylvania 


7 


66 , 397 


1.20 


79,676 


1,096 


1,316 


South Dakota 


6 


91,644 


.90 


82 , 480 


2,682 


2,414 


Vermont 


1 


52 


1. 50 


78 


Trace 




Virginia 


2 


35,298 


1.27 


44,828 


696 


884 


West Virginia 


1 


7,150 


1.33 


9,509 


54 


72 


Wisconsin 


9 


83,450 


1.06 


88,457 


377 


268 


Total 




2,897,624 




2,904,826 


100,699 


98,434 



1/ Status of the European Corn Borer in 1958. Cooperative Economic Insect 
Report. Vol. 9, No. 5, pp. 53-62. 



- 321 - 
INSECTS NOT KNOWN TO OCCUR IN THE UNITED STATES 

ORANGE SPINY WHITEFLY ( Aleurocanthus spinif erus (Quaintance) ) 

Economic Importance : This species has been called the most destructive aleyrodid 
attacking citrus in tropical Asia. 11; has been rated as the seventh most impor- 
tant citrus insect in Japan. An outbreak 
in the Kyushu area of that country was 
devastating until it was brought under 
control in the early 1920's by the 
parasite Prospaltella smithi . In recent 
years A. spiniferus became the most 
serious pest on the Island of Guam, but 
by 1953 introduced parasites had effec- 
tively controlled the outbreak. Trees 
heavily infested with this whitefly lose 
vitality and continued heavy infestation 
eventually leads to tree mortality. 
Injury occurs through feeding on the 
foliage and through formation of sooty 
mold which develops on the honeydew. 

Hosts : Citrus, rose, persimmon, grape, 
pear, Akebia sp. , balmtree. 

Distribution : Philippine Islands, China, 
India, Japan, Formosa, Indonesia (Sumatra, 
Java) , Malaya and Guam. 

. Life History and Habits : Eggs are laid in 
spirals on lower surface of leaves , usu- 
ally twelve or thirteen in a mass. Eggs 
are pale-yellow at first, then gradually 

darken. Incubation varies, depending on temperature, and averages 22 days in May; 

7 in July. There are four immature instars. There are four broods a year at 




Infestation on Citrus Leaf 
by A. spiniferus 




General Distribution of Aleurocanthus spiniferus 
(Aleyrodidae , Hemiptera) 



No. 83 of Series 



- 322 - 

Nagasaki, Japan. The insect passes the winter in the third larval stage, 
reaching the pupal stage about the middle of March. Adults emerge from middle 
to the end of April. Adults of the second brood emerge the latter part of June, 
the third brood the first part of August and the fourth during the latter part 
of September. Adults are active on fine days but quiet during cloudy or rainy 
weather. They prefer new leaves and may be found on the underside of these. 

Description : Female pupa is about 1.23 mm. long by 0.88 mm. wide, male pupa 
smaller than female. Black, convex, oval in outline, dorsum arched and median 
area prominent especially at the vasiform orifice. Vasiform orifice is elevated, 
subcordate , tending to circular and is almost entirely filled by the operculum. 
There is a submarginal even row of 22 spines averaging 0.22 mm. in length and 
extending beyond margin, a subdorsal row of shorter spines, and a submedian row 
of still shorter ones. Caudal margin with pair of setae and another pair is 
situated near cephalic margin of basiform orifice. Margin is strongly dentate. 
Dorsum without secretion but with a compact, short cottony fringe all around 
margin. Egg has short stalk holding egg upright on leaf. Exclusive of stalk 
egg 0.2 mm. by 0.1 mm. , yellowish, curved and marked with minute polygonal areas. 
Larva is regularly elliptical, appearing brownish to black on leaf, with short 
cottony fringe of wax all around. Size, in second stage, about 0.4 by 0.3 mm. 
Adult is orange-yellow shaded with brownish-purple and sprinkled with white waxy 
powder. Female is about 1.35 mm. long. 

The pupae of spiniferus differ from those of A. woglumi (citrus blackfly) in 
having narrower marginal teeth , and in the number , size and arrangement of the 
dorsal spines. The adults differ in the color pattern of the wings. (Prepared in 
Survey and Detection Operations in cooperation with other ARS agencies) . CEIR 
9(17) :4-24-59. 





Figures of Aleurocanthus spiniferus 
A - Adult female; B - Male genitalia; C - Pupa case 
(dorsal view) ; D - Margin of pupa case; E - Vasiform 
orifice with caudal margin; F - Lingula 



Figures (except map) from Kuwana, I. 1928. II. Aleyrodidae or White Flies 
Attacking Citrus Plants in Japan. Japan Ministry of Agr . and Forest., Dept . 
Agr. Sci. Bui. 1:41-78. 




/IT' 

MAY 1,1959 




negative 

ECONOMC fNS 





(MTT PEST 
AGRICULTURAL 



UNITED STATE 





DIVi 
SERVICE 

TMENT OF 




AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH SERVICE 
PLANT PEST CONTROL DIVISION 

SURVEY AND DETECTION OPERATIONS 



The Cooperative Economic Insect Report is issued 
weekly as a service to American Agriculture. Its contents 
are compiled from information supplied by cooperating State, 
Federal, and industrial entomologists and other agricultural 
workers. In releasing this material the Division serves as 
a clearing house and does not assume responsibility for ac- 
curacy of the material. 



Reports and inquiries pertaining to this release 
should be mailed to: 

Survey and Detection Operations 

Plant Pest Control Division 

Agricultural Research Service 

United States Department of Agriculture 

Washington 25, D. C. 



Volume 9 May 1, 1959 Number 18 



COOPERATIVE ECONOMIC INSECT REPORT 



Highlights of Insect Conditions 

GREENBUG populations increased rapidly in southwestern Missouri, light to very 
severe in Texas Panhandle, but decreasing generally in Oklahoma. Some treat- 
ments continue in northwestern and panhandle areas of Oklahoma where popula- 
tions vary greatly. CORN LEAF APHID damaging small grains in Utah and New 
Mexico and sorghum in Arizona and Texas. (p. 325). EUROPEAN CORN BORER 
pupation 20-80 percent complete in Delaware and Maryland. Oviposition in 
North Carolina. (pp. 326,333). ARMYWORM moth catches high on Eastern 
Shore of Virginia. GRASSHOPPER eggs hatching in Utah and early instar 
nymphs present in southwestern Oklahoma, Texas Panhandle and New Mexico. 
(p. 326). 

PEA APHID populations damaging legumes in areas of several states across the 
country. (pp. 327,330). SPOTTED ALFALFA APHID continues to damage alfalfa in 
areas of New Mexico, Arizona and Oklahoma, some damage occurring in southern 
Utah. (p. 329). ALFALFA WEEVIL larvae damaging alfalfa in Maryland, Virginia 
and Delaware and adults active in Idaho and Wyoming. (pp. 328,330) . MEADOW 
SPITTLEBUG spray operations underway at Wooster, Ohio. (pp. 329,330). 

APHIDS and SPIDER MITES becoming noticeable and causing some damage to apple 
trees in several areas. (p. 331). RED-BANDED LEAF ROLLER moths abundant in 
areas of Pennsylvania and New Jersey. Egg masses noted. (p. 331) . 

BEET LEAFHOPPER survey in eastern Washington. (p. 333). 

ROCKY MOUNTAIN WOOD TICK extremely heavy on sheep in Idaho and SHEEP KED 
moderate to severe on sheep in areas of New Mexico and Utah. (p. 337) . 

Some First Reported Records of the Season : ALFALFA WEEVIL larvae noted in 
Massachusetts and New York. VETCH BRUCHID emerged from hibernation in Oregon. 
Xylena thoracica trapped April 12-13 at Palmer, Alaska. ROSY APPLE APHID 
hatched in Massachusetts and New York. EUROPEAN RED MITE hatching in several 
areas. ORIENTAL FRUIT MOTH eggs hatching in Illinois. STRAWBERRY LEAF ROLLER 
observed in New Jersey. NANTUCKET PINE MOTH emerging in Virginia. 

INSECT DETECTION: Alfalfa weevil reported for first time in Forsyth County, 
Georgia. (p. 328) . Spotted cutworm collected for first time in Florida, 
(p. 334). An undescribed Phytomyza reported on holly in Delaware, (p. 336). 

CORRECTIONS. (p. 338) ADDITIONAL NOTES. (p. 330). 

List of COOPERATIVE SURVEY ENTOMOLOGISTS. (p. 340). 

Status of some IMPORTANT INSECTS in the United States. (p. 341). 

*********** 

Reports in this issue are for the week ending April 24, unless otherwise 
indicated. 



- 324 - 

WEATHER OF THE WEEK ENDING APRIL 27 

The week was unseasonably cold from the upper Great Lakes and northern Great 
Plains southeastward to the Gulf and South Atlantic States, and above-normal 
temperatures prevailed over the Northeast and from the Rocky Mountain States to 
the Pacific Coast. Precipitation was heaviest over the Eastern Gulf States and 
portions of the Atlantic Coastal states early in the week. Light to moderate 
amounts were reported over most sections from the upper Great Plains eastward to 
New England later in the week. West of the Rockies amounts were generally light, 
but widespread rains and showers spread eastward from the Pacific across the 
mountains to Montana, Utah and Arizona as the week ended. Cold air covered the 
northern two-thirds of the Nation early in the week, with freezing temperatures 
extending from Nevada and Colorado to the central Great Lakes on the morning of 
the 20th. As the cold front pushed southeastward, thundershowers with locally 
heavy rains and some hail broke out from Texas eastward across the Southern 
States. Heavy hail and strong gusty winds were reported in Alabama and South 
Carolina. In Florida, Lakeland reported one inch of rain in 8 minutes on the 
21st. By the 22nd cooler dry air covered most of the Nation, with sunshine 
and agreeable temperatures the most prominent features. Subfreezing tempera- 
tures extended into the Texas Panhandle and across a relatively narrow belt from 
Nevada eastward to the lower Great Lakes and to New England. At midweek, temper- 
atures from the Mississippi Valley eastward showed wide diurnal variations, with 
morning minima in the 30 's and 40 's and afternoon maxima from the mid 60 's to 
above 70° as the clear air permitted nighttime radiational cooling followed by 
days of bright sunshine. The 38° reading at Jackson, Mississippi, on the 23rd 
was the lowest so late in the season there. 

Another cold Canadian air mass moved into the northern Great Plains on the 22nd 
and pushed southward and eastward to northern Texas, Missouri, the lower Great 
Lakes and Middle Atlantic States by Sunday, the 26th. This cold air was accom- 
panied by showers and thunderstorms as it moved southeastward. Moderate to 
heavy rain fell over the Midwest and Ohio Valley on the 26th and 27th, with some 
amounts of over 2 inches. Warm dry air covered the southern Great Plains early 
and late in the week. Childress and Presidio, Texas, reached 102° and Altus , 
Oklahoma, 100° on the 25th. Lubbock, Texas, recorded 96° on the same day, the 
warmest so early in the season there. Warm temperatures prevailed throughout 
the week in the far Southwest. A low-pressure area entered the Pacific States 
on the 25th, and brought general light to locally heavy rains over parts of 
California, and light showers and strong winds over the Mountain States during 
the weekend. Snow flurries and showers persisted throughout the week in the 
northern Rockies but amounts were generally below 1/2 inch. Soil moisture 
remains short over most of the Southwest from western Texas through most of 
New Mexico, southwestern Colorado, Utah, Idaho and Arizona. Ranges are drying 
up in Nevada and Arizona. Conditions are serious in parts of southern and 
central California and prospects for irrigation water are poor in Nevada. In 
the upper Mississippi Valley and Northern Great Plains , many dry spots also 
remain from northwestern Wisconsin, northwestern Iowa, into areas of northern 
Nebraska and northeastern Montana. Topsoil moisture has improved locally in the 
Dakotas , but is still short in many places. General rains are still needed 
throughout the entire area for good grass and grain development. (Summary 
Supplied by U. S. Weather Bureau). 



- 325 - 

CEREAL AND FORAGE INSECTS 

GREENBUG ( Toxoptera graminum ) - OKLAHOMA - Populations in small grain in southern 
Ellis, Roger Mills, Beckham, Harmon, Tillman, Jackson, Kiowa, Washita and 
southern Custer Counties less than one per linear foot. Treated fields in east- 
ern Tillman County recovered from damage encountered during late February and 
early March. (VanCleave, Robinson, Hudson) . Populations vary greatly in north- 
western and panhandle areas. Counts up to 100 per linear foot. Some spraying 
being done. (Owens) . COLORADO - Present in Baca County. (Ext. Serv.) . 
ARKANSAS - Infestations generally very low. (Ark. Ins. Rpt., Apr. 18). TEXAS - 
Infestations light to 3000-4000 per linear foot in Hansford, Sherman, Ochiltree, 
Lipscomb and Deaf Smith Counties. Predators building up. (Daniels). KANSAS - 
Winged forms collected in traps in Finney County, April 16. (DePew) . MISSOURI - 
Populations increased rapidly in southwest area. Counts 2-150 per linear foot in 
wheat and 20-300 in barley. Damage not evident due to stage of growth. Heavy 
infestations in scattered orchardgrass fields in Lawrence and Greene Counties; 
some portions of stands killed. Controls underway in orchardgrass in more 
heavily infested counties. Parasite and predator counts very low to nonexistant 
most fields in southwest area. (Kyd, Thomas, Munson) . Winged adults average 1 
per sweep in wheat in central area. (Peters) . 

BROWN WHEAT MITE ( Petrobia latens ) - OKLAHOMA - Common most small grain fields 
in southwestern and west central areas. Populations up to 150 per linear foot 
some fields, 10-50 in most fields. (VanCleave, Robinson, Hudson). COLORADO - 
Present in Baca County. (Ext. Serv.). UTAH - Abundant in barley, Santa Clara, 
Washington County. (Knowlton) . 

DATE MITE ( Oligonychus pratensis ) - KANSAS - Reported in several wheat fields in 
Finney County. (DePew, Apr. 16) . 

A RICE DELPHACID ( Sogata orizicola ) - TEXAS - Surveys on rice seedlings in 
Brazoria and Matagorda Counties for this vector of hoja blanca were negative. 
Inspections will continue. (Hawkins). 

FALSE WIREWORMS ( Eleodes spp . ) - SOUTH DAKOTA - Larvae averaged less than 1 per 
linear foot in winter wheat in 3 Hamlin County fields. (Mast, Apr. 18) . 

LEAFHOPPERS - OKLAHOMA - Aceratagallia sp., probably uhleri , common most alfalfa 
and small grain fields in southwestern area. Counts 0.7-5 per linear foot in 
small grains and 0.5-10 in alfalfa. (VanCleave, Robinson, Hudson). UTAH - A. 
sanguinolenta moderate at Delta and Milford. Dikraneura carneola common on 
roadside grasses and margins of winter wheat fields in Tooele, Millard and Beaver 
Counties. (Knowlton). MASSACHUSETTS - Overwintering adults of A. sanguinolenta 
active April 2 in Hampshire County. (Lavigne, Shaw). TEXAS - Numerous on rice 
seedlings in Brazoria and Matagorda Counties. (Hawkins). 

FLEA BEETLES - OKLAHOMA - Common southwestern area. Counts 0.2-1 per linear foot 
in small grains and 1-5 in alfalfa fields. (VanCleave, Robinson, Hudson). 
UTAH - Damaging corn in southern areas of Washington County. (Knowlton) . TEXAS - 
Ranged 0-1 per 5 corn plants in Austin, Robertson and Falls Counties. (Hawkins). 
ARIZONA - Medium infestations of Chaetocnema ectypa on some young corn in 
Maricopa County. (Ariz. Coop. Sur.). 

CORN LEAF APHID ( Rhopalosiphum maidis) - UTAH - Damaging some barley fields and 
numerous in some wheat fields in Washington County. (Knowlton) . TEXAS - Hea"»- 
infestations on grain sorghum in Brazoria County. (Hawkins ) counties ^'fN ~M 
Moderate to heavy infestations on barley in Cbaofs^inMaricopa Countv (A • 
Coop. Rpt.). ARIZONA - Heavy soi»» - y> ^ Ariz - 

Coop. Sur.) . 



- 326 - 



Armyworm Situation, Week Ending April 24 



J »-*w. 



26 



24 



69 



62 



r 56 



60 



17 



10 



Numbers = Moths trapped 
* = Large numbers 



EUROPEAN CORN BORER ( Pyrausta nubilalis) - DELAWARE - Pupation greatly acceler- 
ated. Approximately 70 percent in Sussex County, 40 percent in Kent County and 
20 percent in New Castle County. (Burbutis, Conrad). MARYLAND - Pupation 
about 80 percent complete in northern Wicomico County. (U. Md. , Ent . Dept.). 



CORN EARWORM ( Heliothis zea) 
Sur. , Apr. 18) . 



ARKANSAS - Eggs found in all areas. (Ark. Ins. 



CHINCH BUG ( Blissus leucopterus) - TEXAS - Adults 0-6 per plant in corn and 
sorghum in 12 central, south central and upper coastal counties. Recent rains 
checked infestations some. (Hawkins) . Some damage to sorghum continues in Jim 
Wells County with control not effective some instances. (Tex. Coop. Rpt.) . 

A BILLBUG (Calendra sp.) - GEORGIA - Light infestations on corn in Lee County, 
moderate to heavy in Lowndes and Dodge Counties. (Johnson, Martin) . 

GRASSHOPPERS - OKLAHOMA - Early instars in southwest area as far north as 
northern Beckham County. Heaviest populations averaged one per square yard, 
most averaged less than 0.1 per square yard. (VanCleave, Robinson, Hudson). 
Complex composed of Aeoloplides turnbulli , Melanoplus dif f erentialis , M. 
iiHittatus , M. bilituratus , Phlibostroma quadrimaculatum , Brachystola magna and 
VndRoee r Mills^Coun^^g 6 ^ - 5 - 1 e SS P°d Per square foot in Ellis, Harper 
threatening infestations may deveUi^nmeyit clear to segmented. Light to 
Slver Washington and Kane Counties. (Knowlton, >la), UTAH - Hatching in 
Sties between Pritchett and Kim, egg pods average 0.5-pe^ in Baca, Las Animas 
KiSwa Sunty, number of egg pods not of economic importance. (Ext^r^ In 



- 327 - 

TEXAS - First-instar nymphs noted on rangeland and along field margins in Parmer, 
Roberts and Ochiltree Comities. (Russell, PPC , Apr. 18). NEW MEXICO - Infesta- 
tions in alfalfa fields light in Bernalillo and Socorro Counties; about 2 per 10 
sweeps near Albuquerque and Isleta and 3-4 per 10 sweeps near Socorro. Light 
hatches in rangeland areas in Lea, Roosevelt and Curry Counties. (N. M. Coop. 
Rpt.) . 

A WEBWORM (Crambus sp.) - OREGON - Adults flying over lawns in Benton County. 
(Lattin) . 

NORTHERN MASKED CHAFER ( Cyclocephala borealis) - MARYLAND - Grubs injuring turf 
at State nursery, Harmons Corner, Anne Arundel County. (U. Md. , Ent. Dept. , 
Apr. 17) . 

WHITE GRUBS - UTAH - Damaging some lawns in Millard and Beaver Counties. 
(Knowlton) . NEW MEXICO - Damaging lawns at Truth or Consequences, Sierra County. 
(N. M. Coop. Rpt.) . ARIZONA - Fifteen per square yard some Bermuda grass fields 
in Yuma County. (Ariz. Coop. Sur.) . 

SUGARCANE APHID ( Sipha flava ) - FLORIDA - Adults, averaging hundreds per plant, 
infesting 10-acre pangola grass pasture at Inverness, Citrus County. (Quentin, 
Medlin, Apr. 17) . 

THRIPS - UTAH - Extremely numerous in alfalfa fields in lower areas of Washington 
County. (Knowlton). ARIZONA - Heavy infestation in barley field near Buckeye. 
(Ariz. Coop. Sur.) . 

PEA APHID ( Macrosiphum pisi ) - CALIFORNIA - Heavy infestations on vetch in Bowman 
area of Placer County and in Tulelake area of Siskiyou County. (Cal. Coop. Rpt.). 
ARIZONA - Heavy on alfalfa statewide. (Ariz. Coop. Sur.). NEW MEXICO - Generally 
light in San Juan, Rio Arriba, Sandoval, Bernalillo and Socorro Counties. Popu- 
lations declining somewhat in eastern counties. (N. M. Coop. Rpt.). UTAH - 
Light to moderate in Delta, Tooele and Ogden areas. Fifty percent winged at 
Delta. Moderate and causing some damage to alfalfa in Washington County. 
(Knowlton) . WYOMING - Averaged 20-25 per sweep in alfalfa field in Goshen 
County. Other fields in area averaged 1-2 per 25 sweeps. (Davison). OKLAHOMA - 
Common most legume fields in southwest and west central areas. Counts few fields 
up to 2 per sweep. (VanCleave, Robinson, Hudson). Heavy in alfalfa in western 
Okfuskee County ; no damage apparent . (Meharg) . Counts from 8-30 per sweep 2 
alfalfa fields in Choctaw County. (Goin) . Populations down considerably in 
alfalfa fields in Payne County. (Bieberdorf) . KANSAS - Damaging alfalfa in 
Montgomery County. (Knutson) . Several damaged alfalfa fields in Riley County 
observed; populations over 500 per sweep found one field. Several fields with 
"frosted" appearance. (Knutson, Painter, Peters). MISSOURI - Buildup rapid on 
red clover and alfalfa in southwest area, 20-300 per sweep on red clover and 
5-200 on alfalfa. Counts in central and northern sections remain low, averaging 
0-5 per sweep. Some light damage evident on red clover in southwest area. 
(Kyd, Thomas, Munson) . TEXAS - Averaged 3 per 10 sweeps in alfalfa in Robertson 
and Burleson Counties, 2 per 10 sweeps in vetch in Falls County and 12 per 10 
sweeps in vetch in Robertson County with predator count high. (Hawkins) . 
ARKANSAS - Large numbers present on alfalfa all areas. Counts approximately 100- 
1000 per 10 sweeps. (Ark. Ins. Sur., Apr. 18). ILLINOIS - Averaged 26 per 100 
sweeps in clover in White County. (111. Ins. Rpt.). VIRGINIA - Populations vary 
from very light to medium in alfalfa fields in Louisa, Orange, Culpeper, Fairfax, 
Loudoun, Clarke, Frederick, Warren and Page and parts of Spotsylvania »»<*- 
Rockingham Counties. (Morris). Populations severe ~- -"* Ifa and red clover in 
Pittsylvania County (Blair) and up Sfe-s^f*^ n^r I »f nl® ^ Steeles Tavern area of 
Augusta and Rockbridge Cog^P SJ' r DELAWA RE -Common on alfalfa through- 
out State, ilur^'^M?.; F^^ K^ 6 ^ ^ ° D alfalfa in Ce * tral 
and westfw^ 



-328 - 

SPOTTED ALFALFA APHID ( Theri oaphis maculata ) - ARIZONA - Increasing gradually 
some alfalfa fields in central area. Infestations 6 per trifoliate leaf common 
many fields. (Ariz. Coop. Sur.) . NEW MEXICO - Heavy infestations damaging 
alfalfa in Guadaulupe County. Infestations in eastern counties lighter. ( N. M. 
Coop. Rpt.). TEXAS - Infestations 0-1 per sweep in alfalfa in 10 central, south 
central and upper coastal areas. Predators abundant. (Hawkins). OKLAHOMA - 
Heavy, 300 per sweep, and killing plants in alfalfa field in Hollis area. Popu- 
lations ranged 1-65 per sweep other fields in southwestern area. (VanCleave, 
Robinson) . Heavy some fields in Roger Mills County. (Burns) . Killing plants 
in alfalfa field in Shattuck area. (Smith) . Light in field in western Okfuskee 
County. (Meharg) . Counts ranged 8-30 per sweep in 2 fields in Choctaw County. 
(Goin) . Populations averaged 133 per Henderson fork sample some Payne County 
fields; reduction of over 50 percent from previous week (Ketner) . Populations 
varied from light to heavy in alfalfa fields in Payne County. (Bieberdorf) . 
UTAH - Moderate in Washington and Kane Counties; some alfalfa injury occurring. 
(Knowlton) . KANSAS - Roadside counts per 25 plants in Jewell County were 0, 13, 
2, 11 and 123 on April 19 and in Geary County counts were 1, 2 and 78 on 
April 17. (Simpson, Burkhardt) . MISSOURI - None found in southwest area. (Kyd, 
Thomas , Munson) . 

ALFALFA WEEVIL ( Hypera postica ) - MASSACHUSETTS - Larvae collected on alfalfa in 
Amherst. (Lavigne, Shaw) . NEW YORK - First adult activity noted on April 1 in 
Orange County. (N. Y. Wkly. Rpt.) . DELAWARE - Light injury noticeable to 
alfalfa in New Castle County. Infestations in Kent and Sussex Counties vary 
(3-5 larvae per plant) with feeding injury varying accordingly. (Burbutis, 
Contrad) . MARYLAND - Larvae increasing generally; 2 per sweep in Queen Annes 
County, 1 per sweep in Cecil County and 0.1-0.25 per sweep in Montgomery and 
Howard Counties. (U. Md. , Ent. Dept.). VIRGINIA - Populations generally high 
and damage medium to severe in untreated fields in central and northern part of 
State. (Morris et al . ) . GEORGIA - Counts 75 per sweep in Oconee County and 80 
in Putnam County. (Johnson). Forsyth County infested for first time. (Rucker) . 
IDAHO - Adults active in Henley Basin. Feeding damage noted. No adults found 
in Owyhee, Camas and Lincoln Counties, but eggs found in Lincoln County. 
(Portman, Foote , Apr. 17). WYOMING - Adults found in alfalfa fields in Laramie, 
Goshen and Platte Counties; no larvae found. (Davison). 



CLOVER LEAF WEEVIL ( Hypera punctata ) - IDAHO - Occasional larva found in alfalfa 
in Washington, Gem, Canyon, Owyhee, Gooding and Lincoln Counties. Feeding 
damage slight. (Portman, Foote, Apr. 17) . DELAWARE - Larvae on alfalfa and 
clover most areas of State. Populations heaviest in Kent County; feeding injury 
not serious. (Burbutis, Conrad). ILLINOIS - Larval counts per square foot were 
0.8 in Knox County, 7 in Cumberland, 4 in Edwards and 6.4 in White County. 
(111. Ins. Rpt.). KANSAS - Few larvae found in alfalfa fields in Riley County. 
(Knutson, Painter, Peters) . 

LESSER CLOVER LEAF WEEVIL ( Hypera nigrirostris) - DELAWARE - Adults present on 
clover in areas of Kent County. (Burbutis, Conrad). ILLINOIS - Averaged 0.5 
per square foot in clover in Cumberland County. (111. Ins. Rpt.). 

CLOVER ROOT CURCULIO ( Sitona hispidula ) - IDAHO - Adults fairly common in 
alfalfa crowns most fields in southwestern counties. Averaged 3-4 per crown in 
Henley Basin. (Portman, Foote, Apr. 17). ILLINOIS - Averages 27 per 100 sweeps 
in red clover in White County. (111. Ins. Rpt.) . 

SWEETCLOVER WEEVIL (Sitona. cylindricollis) - IDAHO - Adults abundant on seedling 
sweetclover in eastern Camas County and. in alfalfa fields containing sweetclover 
near Dietrich. Considerable feeding noted both areas. (Portman, Foote, Apr. 
17). 



- 329 - 

VETCH BRUCHID ( Bruchus brachialis ) - OREGON - Emerged from hibernation. Observed 
on April 18. (Every) . TEXAS - Few observed on vetch in Robertson and Falls 
Counties. (Hawkins). 

CUTWORMS - UTAH - Chorizagrotis auxiliaris severely retarded some alfalfa fields 
at Minersville. Infestations light at Delta and Milford. Larvae maturing in 
most Kane, Washington, Iron and Millard County alfalfa fields. Small larvae 
rare. (Knowlton) . SOUTH DAKOTA - None found in 3 Hamlin County fields surveyed. 
(Mast) . IDAHO - Agrotis orthogonia larvae fairly common in alfalfa near Parma. 
Considerable feeding damage noted. (Portman, Foote, Scott, Waters; April 17). 
WYOMING - C. auxiliaris averaged less than 1-2 per square foot in alfalfa fields 
in Goshen County. (Pfadt) . ALASKA - Xylena thoracica collected April 12-13 in 
light trap at Palmer. This species most numerous in the 1958 collections. 
(Washburn). ILLINOIS - Average 0.5 per square foot in clover in Edwards and 0.8 
in White Counties. (111. Ins. Rpt.) . 

SPOTTED CUTWORM ( Amathes c -nigrum ) - FLORIDA - Taken in light trap at 
Gainesville, Alachua County, May 13, 1958. Det. C. P. Kimball and J. 
Franclemont. This is a new State record for this species. (Denmark). 

ALFALFA CATERPILLAR ( Colias philodice eurytheme ) - ARKANSAS - Moths fairly numer- 
ous in alfalfa in southwestern area, larvae occasional. (Ark. Ins. Sur. , Apr. 
18). DELAWARE - Present on alfalfa in Kent and Sussex Counties. (Burbutis, 
Conrad) . 

CABBAGE L00PER ( Trichoplusia ni) - TEXAS - Averaged 2 per 10 sweeps in alfalfa in 
Robertson and Burleson Counties. (Hawkins). 

GREEN CLOVERWORM ( Plathypena scabra ) - ARKANSAS - Larvae 1-8 per 10 sweeps in 
alfalfa. (Ark. Ins. Sur., Apr. 18) . 

A LEAF ROLLER ( Platynota stultana ) - CALIFORNIA - Light infestations on alfalfa 
in Blythe area, Riverside County. (Cal. Coop. Rpt.). 

A NYMPHALID - MISSOURI - Larvae, 1-3 per crown, widely scattered in red clover 
fields in east central area. Considerable damage occurring. (Kyd, Thomas, 
Munson) . 

FALSE CHINCH BUG ( Nysius ericae) - UTAH - Moderate in alfalfa fields at Milford, 
Minersville and Delta. (Knowlton) . 

LYGUS BUGS ( Lygus spp.) - OKLAHOMA - Lygus lineolaris light in alfalfa in Payne 
and Choctaw Counties. (Goin, Bieberdorf) . COLORADO - Active on alfalfa in Mesa 
County; 1-8 per 100 sweeps where controls applied, 70-80 per 100 sweeps where no 
control applied. In Delta, Montrose and Garfield Counties little or no insect 
activity due to cold weather. (Exp. Sta.) . UTAH - Numerous in alfalfa fields at 
Minersville, 75 percent L. elisus and 25 percent L. hesperus . (Knowlton) . 
WYOMING - Counts less than 2 per 25 sweeps in Goshen and Platte Counties. 
(Davison) . TEXAS - Averaged 5 per sweep in alfalfa in Robertson and Burleson 
Counties in the Brazos River bottom. (Hawkins) . ARKANSAS - L. lineolaris counts 
3-8 per 10 sweeps in alfalfa. (Ark. Ins. Sur., Apr. 18). MASSACHUSETTS - L. 
lineolaris activity observed for several weeks in Hampshire County. (Lavigne, 
Shaw) . 

THREE-CORNERED ALFALFA HOPPER ( Spissistilus festinus ) - TEXAS - Very light infes- 
tations in alfalfa fields in Brazos River bottom. (Hawkins) . 

MEADOW SPITTLEBUG ( Philaenus leucophthalmus ) - DELAWARE - Young nymphs common on 
alfalfa and clover in Kent County. (Burbutis , Conrad). MARYLAND - Spittle 
masses generally light to moderate on red clover in central and southern sections. 
(U. Md. , Ent. Dept.) . ILLINOIS - Nymphs average 6.5 per 100 stems in clover 



- 330 - 

fields in Cumberland County and 5 per 100 stems in White County. First emergence 
at Urbana observed April 22. (111. Ins. Rpt.). OHIO - Hatch complete at 
Wooster and spray operations underway. Populations lower than in 1957 and 1958. 
(Treece) . 

SPOTTED CUCUMBER BEETLE ( Diabrotica undecimpunctata howardi ) - OKLAHOMA - Light 
in alfalfa checked in Payne and Choctaw Counties. (Goin, Bieberdorf) . 

WIREWORMS - IDAHO - Adults common in alfalfa in Henley Basin. Larvae common 
along border of alfalfa field southeast of Fairfield. (Portman, Foote , Apr. 17). 

SOYBEAN CYST NEMATODE (Heterodera glycines ) - MISSOURI - Second infestation 
found in Dunklin County. KENTUCKY - Additional infestation found in Fulton 
County. First since November 1958. SOUTH DAKOTA - Collections from seven 
eastern counties all negative. (PPC , Cent. Reg., Mar. Rpt.). 

ADDITIONAL NOTES 

NEW YORK - EUROPEAN RED MITE hatched April 24 at Poughkeepsie and April 22 in 
Rockland County. APPLE GRAIN APHID and APPLE APHID quite plentiful on unsprayed 
trees and TENT CATERPILLAR nests are more plentiful than in past 2 years in 
Rockland County. RED-BANDED LEAF ROLLER adults noted at Claverack April 22 and 
egg masses were common in a LaGrangeville orchard on April 24. All alfalfa fields 
checked in Dutchess, Orange and Ulster Counties showed some larval feeding by 
CLOVER LEAF WEEVIL and one alfalfa field in Orange County showed some ALFALFA 
WEEVIL larval damage. SPITTLEBUG nymphs found feeding on alfalfa in Orange 
County April 23. (N. Y. Wkly. Rpt.). 

PENNSYLVANIA - Small ALFALFA WEEVIL larvae feeding in most alfalfa fields in 
south central area. One field with all larval stages and serious injury. 
Beginning to cause injury in fields with southeast exposure in southeastern 
area of State. Adults active. CLOVER ROOT CURCULIO active in alfalfa in 
southeastern area. PEA APHID present but not numerous in south central 
area alfalfa. GRASS SAWFLY adults early in hay in southeastern area. 
MEADOW SPITTLEBUG eggs 50-60 percent hatched in legume hay in south central 
area. Egg masses easily seen. (Pepper, Menusan) . 



- 331 



FRUIT INSECTS 



APHIDS - MASSACHUSETTS - Aphis pomi and Anur aphis roseus hatched in all orchards 
where 3 or more leaves turned back from fruit buds"! (Crop Pest Cont. Mess.). 
NEW YORK - First instar A. roseus found at Poughkeepsie April 16. Appeared on 
buds in Rockland County April 14 and in Dutchess and Orange Counties April 15. 
Hatching in Ulster County April 15. A. pomi abundant in Rockland County, and 
found in Orange County April 6. Found in Monroe County April 17. Rhopalosiphum 
f itchii found in Orange County April 3, hatching in large numbers in Niagara 
County April 16-17 and in Wayne County hatching complete and beginning to work 
on buds. Myzus cerasi observed April 16 in Orange County. (N. Y. Wkly. Rpt.). 
DELAWARE - A. roseus light on apples in Georgetown area. A. pomi and R. 
fitchii winged forms present on apples in Sussex County. Infestations gener- 
ally light in treated orchards. (Kelsey) . MARYLAND - A. roseus curling apple 
leaves at Hancock, Washington County. (U. Md. , Ent. Dept.T! vTRGINIA - A. roseus 
populations about normal or below in northern apple orchards. R. fitchii popula- 
tions below normal but present in northern apple orchards . (HoughJ"! INDIANA - 
A. pomi and A. roseus heavy on apple in the Orleans area. (Marshall) . ILLINOIS - 
A. pomi continue to increase in the Carbondale area. (Meyer) . UTAH - Infesting 
plums at Hurricane. A. roseus curling apple leaves and Eriosoma lanigerum 
infesting injured areas in some Santa Clara orchards. (Knowlton) . IDAHO - 

A. pomi nymphs abundant on apple buds in unmaintained apple orchard near Plymouth, 
Payette County. M. cerasi light on cherry near New Plymouth. (Portman , Foote, 
Madsen) . WASHINGTON - A. pomi hatching on apple at Pullman, April 15. 
(Johansen) . NEW MEXICO - Myzus persicae light to heavy on peach trees in San 
Juan, Bernalillo, Rio Arriba and Sandoval Counties. (N. M. Coop. Rpt.). 

SPIDER MITES - PENNSYLVANIA - Eggs of Panonychus ulmi hatching on apples in 
south central area. Nymphs present on new leaves. (Pepper). MARYLAND - P. ulmi 
becoming noticeable on leaves some apple orchards in Hancock area. (U. Md. , 
Ent. Dept.). VIRGINIA - Probably P. ulmi , hatching in northern apple orchards. 
Tetranychus schoenei emerging from hibernation and active in northern apple 
orchards . (Hough) . FLORIDA - Eo tetranychus sexmaculatus heavy in a few citrus 
groves. (Fla. Coop. Sur.). ILLINOIS - Probably Tetranychus canadensis oviposi- 
ting on apple and P. ulmi about half grown in Carbondale area"! (Meyer) . 
INDIANA - P. ulmi eggs still hatching in Vincennes area, about 25 percent on 
April 20. (Hamilton). P. ulmi hatching begun in Orleans area, eggs numerous. 
(Marshall) . OHIO - P. ulmi hatched April 18, 20 percent completed by April 24. 
Eggs numerous in northeast area. Br yob i a rubrioculus hatching almost complete 
on April 24. (Cutright) . Tetranychus telarius overwintering females abundant on 
dock plants beneath peach trees. Eggs deposited began hatch at Wooster April 20. 
(Rings). NEW MEXICO - B. rubrioculus hatching in San Juan, Rio Arriba, Taos, 
Sandoval, Bernalillo and Valencia Counties. Nymphs found on apple in Sandoval, 
Rio Arriba, Bernalillo and Valencia Counties. (N. M. Coop. Rpt.) . UTAH - 

B. rubrioculus numerous some apple and peach orchards in Santa Clara-St. George 
area, Washington County. (Knowlton). IDAHO - P. ulmi eggs and nymphs heavy on 
apple and cherry trees in an unmaintained orchard near New Plymouth, Payette 
County. (Portman, Foote, Madsen). OREGON - P. ulmi hatched April 17 in Hood 
River Valley and April 15 in Medford area. (Ellertson, Gentner) . CALIFORNIA - 
P. citri medium on navel orange in Carmichael , Sacramento County. (Cal. Coop. 
RptTT 

RED-BANDED LEAF ROLLER ( Argyrotaenia velutinana ) - ILLINOIS - Hatching steadily. 
Survey of 150 egg masses showed 58 percent hatched with some oviposition continu- 
ing in Carbondale area. (Meyer) . INDIANA - Hatch in Vincennes area April 20. 
(Hamilton). MARYLAND - Oviposition continues in Hancock area, no hatching 
observed. (U. Md. , Ent. Dept.). NEW JERSEY - Adults and egg masses abundant on 
apples in Burlington County, up to 32 egg masses per tree. (Ins. Dis. Newsl.). 
VIRGINIA - Now hatching in northern apple orchards. (Hough, Hill). PENNSYLVANIA - 
Adults remain plentiful on apple in the south central part of the State. Egg 
laying in progress, but none have hatched as yet. (Pepper). 



- 332 - 

CODLING MOTH ( Carpocapsa pomonella ) - NEW YORK - First pupae found under tree 
bands at Middle Hope and New Paltz on April 17. (N. Y. Wkly. Rpt . ) . INDIANA - 
Pupation started April 9 in the Vincennes area. About 7 percent pupated by 
April 13 and 26 percent by April 20. (Hamilton). VIRGINIA - Population below 
average last fall. Spring emergence of adults expected about last of April or 
early May. (Hough) . 

TENT CATERPILLARS ( Malacosoma spp .) - PENNSYLVANIA - Many tents of M. americanum 
appearing in southwestern apple orchards. Abundant on wild and ornamental 
cherries in Indiana County. (Udine) . MARYLAND - M. americanum tents appearing 
on apples in Washington, Montgomery and Howard Counties. (U. Md. , Ent. Dept.). 
SOUTH CAROLINA - M. americanum on cherry near Clemson, Oconee County, April 14. 
Numerous larvae spread from cherry trees in woods to peach trees in Spartanburg 
County. (Nettles et al . ) . CALIFORNIA - Malacosoma sp. heavy locally on almond in 
Vacaville, Solano County. (Cal. Coop. Rpt . ) . 

CATFACING INSECTS - ILLINOIS - Lygus lineolaris and stink bugs still present on 
peaches in the Carbondale area. (Meyer) . INDIANA - L. lineolaris and stink 
bugs still active and building up on peaches in Vincennes area. (Hamilton) . 
Temperatures too low in Orleans area for heavy feeding on peach by Lygus sp. , 
mostly L. lineolaris . (Marshall) . COLORADO - Lygus sp. range to 5 per 25 
samples on fruit trees in Mesa County. (Exp. Sta. ) . 

PEAR PSYLLA ( Psylla pyricola ) - NEW YORK - Abundant in Wayne County April 17 and 
adults and eggs abundant in Orange County April 8. Eggs found in Niagara County 
April 15 and adults found in Monroe County April 14. (N. Y. Wkly. Rpt.). OREGON - 
Began egg deposition March 16 and first nymphs detected April 10 in the Hood 
River Valley pear orchards. (Ellertson) . 

PEACH TWIG BORER (Anarsia lineatella ) - UTAH - Caused above normal damage to 
peach and apricot trees this spring in Santa Clara-Hurricane area of Washington 
County. (Knowlton) . 

ORIENTAL FRUIT MOTH ( Grapholitha molesta ) - ILLINOIS - Adults still present and 
eggs hatching in Carbondale area. (Meyer) . 

PLUM CURCULIO ( Conotrachelus nenuphar ) - INDIANA - Emergence developed rapidly, 
70 adults jarred from 5 unsprayed trees on April 20 in the Vincennes area. 
(Hamilton). GEORGIA - Mature larvae found in peach drops April 20. Few began 
to enter soil April 22. Drops heavily infested some orchards. (Snapp) . 

SCALE INSECTS - IDAHO - Probably Lecanium corni , light on apple near New Plymouth, 
Payette County. (Portman, Foote, Madsen) . CALIFORNIA - Coccus hesperidum heavy 
in dooryard citrus in Suisun , Solano County. Aonidiella aurantii medium on navel 
orange in Oroville, Butte County. (Cal. Coop. Rpt.) . NEW MEXICO - Aspidiotus 
perniciosus present most orchards in northern areas, several very heavy infesta- 
tions in apple trees. (N. M. Coop. Rpt.). 

THRIPS - OREGON - Emergence of Taeniothrips inconsequens very light in sweet 
cherry surrounding The Dalles. (Ellertson). UTAH - Unusually numerous on 
foliage of apple, pear, plum and peach in Washington County. (Knowlton). 
CALIFORNIA - Scirtothrips sp. heavy on nectarine blossoms in Banning area and 
heavy on tangerines in Thermal and light on grapefruit in Indio. (Cal. Coop. 
Rpt.). ARIZONA - Scirtothrips citri heavy in some citrus groves for this time 
of year. (Ariz. Coop. Sur.). 

A MITE ( Epilohmannia sp. prob. cylindrica ) - CALIFORNIA - Heavy on grape in 
Fresno, Fresno County. (Cal. Coop.Rpt.). 

A PEEL MINER ( Mamara sp.) - ARIZONA - Heavy in grapefruit grove east of Mesa, 
Maricopa County - ! (N. M. Coop. Rpt.). 



- 333 - 

Citrus Insect Situation, Lake Alfred, Florida, Second Week in April - 

PURPLE SCALE activity increased considerably, but is expected to level off in 
May and then increase further. FLORIDA RED SCALE activity has risen further, 
but little additional increase will occur during the next two weeks. High 
population level will continue in most districts. CITRUS RED MITE had little 
change in activity. This status will prevail until early May when an upward 
trend is expected. Infestations presently below average. CITRUS RUST MITE 
activity unchanged and little change expected until May. Infestations generally 
low. (Siminton, Thompson, Johnson). 

TRUCK CROP INSECTS 

FLEA BEETLES ( Epitrix spp.) - VIRGINIA - E. cucumeris moving into tomato fields, 
control measures necessary in southeastern area. (Hofmaster) . MARYLAND - 
E. hirtipennis averaged 3 per potato plant at Bushwood, St. Marys County. (U. Md. , 
Ent. Dept.). 

COLORADO POTATO BEETLE ( Leptinotarsa decemlineata ) - GEORGIA - Light on tomatoes 
in Barrien, Lowndes, Brooks, Thomas and Grady Counties. (Johnson). 

POTATO TUBERWORM ( Gnorimoschema operculella ) - CALIFORNIA - Heavy and damaging 
eggplant in Thermal, Riverside County. (Cal. Coop. Rpt.). 

EUROPEAN CORN BORER ( Pyrausta nubilalis ) - NORTH CAROLINA - Eggs being laid on 
potatoes, dock and milkweed in Hyde County and the first two hosts in Tyrrell 
County. (Kulash) . 

Beet Leaf hopper Survey, Eastern Washington - Spring 1959 

A survey took place from March 31 to April 3. Total of 38 samples were taken at 
stations located generally within an area bounded by Goldendale and Walulla in 
the south and by Trinidad and Ephrata in the north. Estimations were obtained by 
means of the square foot sampling cage and by hand and knee counts over a 10-foot 
line. Overwintered females were found in only 5 stations located near Othello, 
Walulla and Moses Lake, giving an overall mean population of 0.02 per square 
foot. Sample means varied from none to . 5 per square foot. Overwintering host 
plants, tumble mustard, filaree and flixweed were very scant. (Dailey) . 

LYGUS BUGS ( Lygus spp.) - UTAH - Control underway in sugar beet seed fields in 
the St. George-Washington area of Washington County. (Knowlton) . 

BEET LEAFHOPPER ( Circulifer tenellus ) - UTAH - Present in sugar beet seed fields 
in St. George-Washington area, Washington County. Eleven per 25 sweeps taken on 
Russian thistle between sugar beet fields. (Knowlton). 

APHIDS - CALIFORNIA - Including Macrosiphum solanifolii , heavy on sugar beets in 
Fresno County. (Cal. Coop. Rpt.T^ 

BEAN LEAF BEETLE ( Cerotoma trifurcata ) - GEORGIA - Moderate on beans in Lowndes , 
Brooks , Thomas and Grady Counties. (Johnson) . 

MEXICAN BEAN BEETLE ( Epilachna varivestis ) - GEORGIA - Moderate on beans in 
Lowndes, Brooks, Thomas and Grady Counties. (Johnson). 

PEA APHID ( Macrosiphum pisi ) - ARIZONA - Heavy on papago peas in Maricopa County. 
(Ariz. Coop"! Sur.) . 

CABBAGE APHID ( Brevicoryne brass icae ) - VIRGINIA - Cabbage is generally infested 
in southeastern area. (Hofmaster) . 



- 334 - 

SALT-MARSH CATERPILLAR ( Estigmene acrea) - TEXAS - Heavy on turnips in Winter 
Garden area. (Harding) . 

CABBAGE MAGGOT ( Hylemya brassicae ) - NEW YORK - Adults appearing in Nassau County. 
(N. Y. Wkly. Rpt.y 1 . 

NOCTUIDS - DELAWARE - Egg masses, probably of cutworms or armyworms , found present 
on spinach at two large commercial plantings in New Castle County. (Burbutis, 
Conrad) . 

GREEN PEACH APHID ( Myzus persicae ) - VIRGINIA - Spinach and lettuce infested in 
southeastern area. (Hofmaster) . PENNSYLVANIA - Abundant on greenhouse radishes 
and tomatoes in Lancaster County (Pepper) and have been a control problem on 
greenhouse tomatoes in Mifflin County for some time (Udine) . 

TOMATO FRUITWORM ( Heliothis zea ) - CALIFORNIA - Medium on lettuce in Carlsbad, 
San Diego County. (Cal . Coop. Rpt.). 

CARROT WEEVIL ( Listronotus oregonensis ) - PENNSYLVANIA - Emerging from hiber- 
nation in Bucks County. CMenusan) . 

THRIPS - UTAH - Generally abundant on strawberries, Washington County. (Knowlton) . 
NEW MEXICO - Moderate and doing minor damage to lettuce at Artesia, Eddy County. 
(N. M. Coop. Rpt.) 

SQUASH BUG ( Anasa tristis ) - UTAH - Numerous in southern half of Washington 
County. (KnowltonTl 

SPIDER MITES - TEXAS - Tetranychus marianae infesting tomatoes along river in 
lower Rio Grande Valley" (Deer) . NEW JERSEY - T. telarius reaching damaging 
proportions in untreated strawberries. (Ins. Dis. Newsl . ) . ARIZONA - T. 
cinnabar inus heavy in many central sugar beet seed fields. (Ariz. Coop. Sur.). 
CALIFORNIA - Aplonobia myops heavy on asparagus in Rio Linda, Sacramento County. 
(Cal. Coop. Rpt. ) . 

ASPARAGUS BEETLE ( Crioceris asparagi ) - DELAWARE - Actively feeding on asparagus 
throughout State. Injury heavy around Middletown. Eggs noted all areas. 
(Burbutis, Conrad). 

A DARKLING BEETLE ( Blapstinus sp.) - CALIFORNIA - Heavy and damaging carrot 
plantings in Holtville area of Imperial County. (Cal. Coop. Rpt.). 

STRAWBERRY ROOT WEEVIL ( Brachyrhinus ovatus ) - IDAHO - Common in hops near Parma. 
Up to 10 larvae found in a few crowns"! (Portman , Foote, Scott, Waters). 

ROSE STEM GIRDLER ( Agrilus rubicola ) - UTAH - Pupation 25 percent in Salt Lake 
County raspberry canes. fKnowlton) . 

CUTWORMS - NEW JERSEY - Damage to strawberries spotty, may warrant attention in 
mulched fields. (Ins. Dis. Newsl.). MARYLAND - Moderate damage from undeter- 
mined species noted at Parsonsburg, Wicomico County. (U. Md. , Ent. Dept.). 

A NYMPHALID - MISSOURI - Averaged 1-3 larvae per square foot of strawberry bed 
in east central area, causing considerable damage. (Kyd, Munson) . 

OMNIVEROUS LEAF TIER ( Cnephasia longana ) - CALIFORNIA - Heavy on strawberries 
in Watsonville area of Santa Cruz County. (Cal. Coop. Rpt.). 

SPOTTED CUTWORM ( Amathes c-nigrum ) - DELAWARE - On small strawberry plantings in 
southwest Sussex County. Feeding heavy on newly set plants. (Burbutis, Conrad). 



- 335 - 

STRAWBERRY LEAF ROLLER ( Ancylis comptana fragariae ) - NEW JERSEY - First of 
season observed in Cumberland County April 17. (l~ns. Dis. Newsl.). 

STRAWBERRY WEEVIL ( Anthonomus signatus ) - MARYLAND - Heavy bud damage in straw- 
berry beds at Pittsville, Wicomico County. (U. Md. , Ent. Dept.). NEW JERSEY - 
Becoming active in strawberries in Hammonton April 17. (Ins. Dis. Newsl.). 

SPITTLEBUGS - INDIANA - Philaenus leucophthalmus up to 12 per strawberry plant 
in Orleans area. (Marshall) . NEW JERSEY - Increasing in strawberries but not 
abundant enough to warrant control. (Ins. Dis. Newsl.). 

COLLEMBOLA - VIRGINIA - Extensive damage in greenhouse plant beds in eastern 
area. (Hof master) . 

TOBACCO INSECTS 

GRASSHOPPERS - GEORGIA - Heavy on tobacco in Brooks County. (Johnson). 

A BUDWORM ( Heliothis sp.) - GEORGIA - Light to moderate on tobacco in Berrien, 
Lowndes, Brooks, Thomas and Grady Counties. (Johnson). 

TOBACCO FLEA BEETLE ( Epitrix hirtipennis ) - MARYLAND - Generally light on 
tobacco in beds in St. Marys County. (U. Md. , Ent. Dept.). 

COTTON INSECTS 

A WHITEFLY ( Trialeurodes abutilonea ) - ARIZONA - Medium some Maricopa County 
fields. (Ariz. Coop. Sur . ) . 

A DARKLING BEETLE ( Blapstinus sp.) - ARIZONA - Injuring cotton in Yuma County 
where cotton followed a cover crop. (Ariz. Coop. Sur.). 

COTTON APHID ( Aphis gossypii ) - ARIZONA - Light throughout State on cotton. 
(Ariz. Coop. Sur. ) . 

BOLLWORM ( Heliothis zea ) - CALIFORNIA - In cotton plantings in Calipatria area of 
Imperial County. (Cal . Coop. Rpt.). 

Cotton Insects in Lower Rio Grande Valley, Texas : 

FLEAHOPPER activity increased over valley, with heaviest populations reported 
west of Weslaco. Some found in Brownsville area. Some spread in APHID infesta- 
tions but few fields required treatment. BOLL WEEVIL found in few fields south 
of San Juan and Alamo where cotton is beginning to square. CUTWORMS still causing 
some damage in eastern part of valley. FALSE CHINCH BUGS damaged cotton in small 
areas of Willacy County. BOLLWORMS caused some terminal damage. (Deer). 

FOREST, ORNAMENTAL AND SHADE TREE INSECTS 

NANTUCKET PINE MOTH ( Rhyacionia frustrana ) - VIRGINIA - Moths emerging in State. 
(Morris) . 

DOUGLAS-FIR BEETLE ( Dendroctonus pseudotsugae ) - NEW MEXICO - Moderate on about 
200 acres of Douglas-fir on Oso Ridge south of Grants, Valencia County, and on 
about 500 acres on San Mateo Mountains south of Magdalena, Socorro County. (N. M. 
Coop. Rpt. ) . 

PINE NEEDLE MINER ( Exoteleia pinifoliella ) - DELAWARE - Probably this species , 
heavy on Virginia pine in New Castle County and present on same host in Kent 
County. (Burbutis, Conrad). 



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PINE SAWFLIES - DELAWARE - Newly hatched larvae on Virginia pines in New Castle 
County. (Burbutis, Conrad). NORTH CAROLINA - Larvae of Neodiprion pratti pratti 
about two-thirds to three-quarters grown in Granville County. (Nagel, Green, 
Jones) . VIRGINIA - Larvae of N. pratti pratti feeding on pine needles around 
home in James City County (Bryant) , medium on pines in area of Halifax County 
(Dinwiddie) and light on pines in spotted areas of Amelia County (Boozer) . 

PINE SPITTLEBUG ( Aphrophora parallela ) - DELAWARE - Young nymphs common on 
Virginia pine statewide. Also on loblolly pine in Kent County. (Burbutis, 
Conrad) . 

PINE BARK APHID (Pineus strobi) - MARYLAND - Light to moderate on large planting 
of white pine at College Park. (U. Md. , Ent. Dept.). 

A SEED CHALCID ( Megastigmus rafni ) - CALIFORNIA - Medium infestation of white fir 
seed in the Siskiyou National Forest. (Cal . Coop. Rpt.). 

BOXWOOD LEAF MINER ( Monarthropalpus buxi ) - SOUTH CAROLINA - Unusually numerous 
in a large planting in Spartanburg County. (Nettles et al . ) . MARYLAND - Infes- 
ting American boxwood at Centreville, Queen Annes County. All specimens observed 
were pupae. (U. Md. , Ent. Dept.). VIRGINIA - Medium on some boxwoods in 
Staunton, Augusta County. All have pupated. (Woodside) . 

A HOLLY LEAF MINER ( Phytomyza sp.) - DELAWARE - Pupation about complete. Most 
leaf mining injury observed to date throughout the State apparently done by this 
undescribed species. The long, linear mines reported as typical of P. ilicicola 
are very scarce and no larvae or pupae have been found in this type of mine. 
Adult emergence in these mines must have occurred in the 1958 season. Parasitism 
of the new species appears very high, based on newly reared material. (Burbutis, 
Conrad). This is the same species reported as P. ilicicola in CEIR 9(13) :218. 
(PPC) . 

A LEAF ROLLER ( Platynota stultana ) - FLORIDA - Larvae on carnations in Bradenton 
area, Manatee County. (Kelsheimer) . These larvae have been reported as being a 
serious pest of carnations. (Fla. Coop. Sur . ) . 

APHIDS - PENNSYLVANIA - Euceraphis betulae averaged about 2 per leaf on ornamental 
white birch, Blair County"! (Udine) . MARYLAND - Macrosiphum rosae building up on 
roses at Glenridge, Prince Georges County. (U. Md.